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The author of this volume contributed to the edition of Web- 
ster's Quarto Dictionary published in 1864 a " Vocabulary 
of the Names of Noted Fictitious Persons and Places ; " but 
the present work, though based on that Vocabulary, embraces 
a wider range of subjects, contains nearly seventeen hundred 
new articles, besides important modifications of many of the 
others, and is furnished with an orthoepical Introduction, and 
an Index of ihe real names of persons, places, &c., whose nick- 
names, pseudonyms, or popular appellations, are given in the 
body of the book. Notwithstanding the great pains that has- 
been taken to secure fullness and minute accuracy, there are 
undoubtedly some errors and numerous omissions ; but no more 
of either, it is hoped, than are inseparable from a work of such 
multiplicity. And although a casual examination or closer 
scrutiny may bring to light defects of both kinds, it may still be 
affirmed, that, with respect to a very large class of names, there 
can nowhere else be found in a collective form an equal amount 
and variety of information. 

The maip dftsign_o f the w ork is to explain, as far as practi- 
cable, the allusions which occur in modern standard literature 
to noted fictitious persons and places, whether mythological 
or not. For this reason, the plan is almost entirely restricted 
to proper names, or such as designate individual persons, 
places, or things. The introduction of appellative or generic 
names, such as ahhot of unreason^ lord of misrule, kohold, &c., 
as well as the explanation of celebrated customs and phrases, 
such 2iS flap-dragon, nine-merCs-morricey philosophy of the Porch^ 
to send to Coventry, to carry coals to Newcastle, &c., would open 

too Vast «* field 'of Inquiry ; and, besides, there are copious 
special treatises on these subjects already before the public, as 
those of Brand, Hone, PuUeyn, Timbs, and others. The author 
has been urged to extend his plan so as to include the titles of 
famous poems, essays, novels, and other literary works, and the 
names of celebrated statues, paintings, palaces, country-seats, 
churches, ships, streets, clubs, and the like ; inasmuch as such 
names are of very common occurrence in books and newspa- 
pers, and, for the most part, are not alphabetically entered and 
explained in Encyclopaedias, Dictionaries, or Gazetteers. That 
a dictionary which should furnish succinct information upon 
such matters would supply a want which is daily felt by readers 
of every class is not to be doubted ; but k should constitute an 
independent work. A manual of this description the author 
has for some time had in preparation ; and he hopes to publish 
it, at no distant day, as a companion to the present volume. 

The names from the Greek, Homan, Norse, and Hindu My- 
thologies that are here given, are concisely treated, mainly with 
a view to explain frequent allusions in the poets and other popu- 
lar writers, and for the benefit of mere English readers, rather 
than for that of professed scholars. From the Rabbinical and 
Mohammedan Mythologies have been taken some names, which 
are occasionally fnade the subject of reference, and concern- 
ing which information is not readily obtainable. Prominence 
has been given to the departments of Angelology, Demon- 
ology, -Fairy Mythology, and Popular Superstitions, which afford 
many of the most important names in Fiction. Parables, Al- 
legories, Proverbs, and Mediaeval Legends have also furnished 
a considerable number. Ecclesiastical History contributes the 
names of several pseudo-saints, and other imaginary personages. 
In the Drama, and in Poetry — including the various kinds, 
Epic, Romantic, Narrative, Comic, &c., — the intention has 
been to give the names of all such characters as are familiarly 
referred to by writers and speakers at the present day ; and, 
though there may be accidental omissions, it is hoped that under 
tills head the Dictionary will be found reasonably complete. 


The principal deficiency is most likely to exist in the depart- 
ment of Prose Romance ; for, though there is very little that is 
fictitious in ancient literature which is not included in ancient 
Mythology, yet the field of research continually widens as we 
come down to modern times, until it seems to be almost bound- 
less. In fixing the limits of the work, the consideration which 
has determined the admission or rejection of names has not 
been the intrinsic merit of a book, or the reputation of its writer, 
but the hold which his characters have taken upon the popuMfc* 
mind. There are many authors of acknowledged genius, and 
hundreds of clever and prolific writers, who yet have not pro- 
duced a single character that has so fallen in with the humor, or 
hit the fancy, of the time, as to have become the subject of fre- 
quent allusion. The English romancers and novelists whose 
creations are most familiarly known and most firmly established 
are Bunyan, De Foe, Swift, Eichardson, Fielding, Smollett, 
'Sterne, Goldsmith, Scott, Dickens, and Thackeray. Many of 
the portraitures of these writers may be safely presumed to be 
t)f more than temporary interest and importance. In regard to 
other and minor characters, from whatever source derived, it is 
to be borne in mind that a dictionary is chiefly designed for 
the use of the existing generation. To what extent names of 
secondary importance should be included was a question diffi- 
cult to determine. Opinions from scholars entitled to the high- 
'est consideration were about equally divided upon this point. 
Some favored a selected 4ist of the most important names only: 
others, and the greater number, recommended a much wider 
scope. A middle course is the one that has been actually fol- 
lowed. It is evident that many articles which may seem to one 
person of very questionable importance, if not wholly unworthy 
of insertion, witi be held by another to be of special value, as 
throwing light upon passages which to him would otherwise be 
perplexing or obscure. 

This Dictionary is, of course, chiefly designed to elucidate 
the works of British and American writers ; but names occur- 
ring in the literatures of other modern nations have been in- 

viii PREFACE. 

troduced whenever they have become well known to the public 
through the medium of translations, or when they seemed, for 
other reasons, to be worthy of insertion. 

In accordance with the plan of the work as indicated in the 
title, such English, French, German, and other Pseudonyms 
as are frequently met with in books and newspapers have been 
given for the benefit of the general reader. No pretense, how- 
ever, is made to completeness, or even to fullness, in this re- 
infect. The bibliographer will find here little or nothing that 
is new to him ; and he must still have recourse to his Barbier, 
Querard, Weller, and other writers of the same class. Names 
like Erasmus, Melanchthon, Mercator, (Ecolampadius, &c., as- 
sumed by learned men after the revival of classical literature, 
being, in general, merely the Latin or Greek equivalents of 
their real names, and being also the only names by which they 
are now known in history, are excluded as not pertinent to the 
work. For a similar reason, no notice is taken of such names 
as Massena, Metastasio, PMlidor, Psalmanazar, Voltaire, &c. 

Many eminent characters in political and literary history are 
often known and referred to by the surnames and sobriquets, or 
nicknames, which they have borne ; as, the Master of Sentences, 
the Scourge of God, the Stagirite, the Wizard of the North, the 
Little Corporal, &c. " Nicknames," said Napoleon, " should 
never be despised : it is by such means mankind are governed." 
The Dictionary embraces the more important of these ; but 
names like Caligula, Guercino, Tintoretto, &c., which have en- 
tirely superseded the real names of the persons designated 
by them, have not been regarded as properly coming within 
the purview of the present undertaking. Nor has it, as a rule, 
been thought advisable to admit simple epithets, such as the 
Bold, the Good, the Great, the Unready, the Courtier, &c., the 
omission of which can hardly be considered a defect, since 
their signification and the reason of their imposition are usually 
too obvious to excite inquiry. This rule, however, has not 
been itniformly observed. Here, as elsewhere in the work, 
that discretionary power has been freely exercised, to which 


every author of a dictionary or glossary is fairly entitled, and 
which he is often compelled to use. 

^ considerable space has been allotted to familiar names of 
Parties and Sects, of Laws, and of Battles ; to poetical and pop- 
ular names of Seas, Countries, States, Cities, &c. ; to ancient 
geographical names which have become interesting from their 
revival in poetry or otherwise ; and to certain long-established 
and important Personificationsrj In general, nicknames of 
Parties and Sects, such as Chouans, Ghibellines, Gueux^ Method-^ 
ists, Shakers, &c., which have been adopted by those to whom 
they were at first derisively applied, or which have passed into 
history and common use as their peculiar and appropriate 
names, and are to be found in any good Encyclopaedia or Man- 
ual of Dates, are designedly not included. Most of the his- 
torical by-names inserted, such as Day of Dupes, Evil May-day, 
Wonderful Parliament, Omnibus Bill, Western Reserve, &c., are 
those which are not, to be found under the proper heads in 
Encyclopaedias and other books of reference. Popular designa- 
tions connected with History and Geography have been freely 
given in all cases where they seemed to be well settled, and to be 
fitted to illustrate past or contemporary events or characters. 

A slight departure from the strict limits of the plan has 
been thought allowable in the case of a few quasi-historical, 
or real but obscure, persons, places, and things, such as Owle- 
glass, John C Groat, Mrs, Glasse, the Minerva Press, &c., which 
• are often referred to in literature or conversation, and of most 
of which no account can be obtained except through an amount 
of research and toil hardly possible to a majority of readers. 

Illustrative citations have been ' copiously given from no 
small variety of authors ; and, as many of •them are gems of 
thought or expression, it is believed that they will be deemed 
greatly to enhance the value and interest of the work. Some 
of them, however, have purposely been taken from newspapers 
and magazines rather than from the classics of the language, in 
order to show, by such familiar examples, the popularity of the 
characters or other creations of fiction to which they allude. 


There are also some quotations which serve no other purpose 
than that of justifying the insertion of names whose claim to 
admission might be thought doubtful, if it were not made to ap- 
pear that they are referred to by authors "known and read of 
all men." It will probably be observed that Sir Walter Scott is 
more frequently cited than any other single writer ; the reason, 
however, is not that his works have been examined with more 
care or to a greater extent than those of some other writers, but 
merely that he abounds more than most others in allusions, — 
often remote or recondite, but almost always apt and suggest- 
ive, — which his unusually tenacious memory enabled him to 
draw from the stores of a vast and most multifarious reading. 

In the explanation of names, statements borrowed in great 
part from one author have been diligently collated with other 
statements derived from independent and often widely sepa- 
rated sources ; and they have been freely enlarged, abridged, 
or otherwise modified, according to the necessity of the case, or 
as would best subserve the purpose of the work. But where 
the information required has been found already stated in the 
best way, no hesitation has been felt in making use of the exact 
language of the writer ; and, beyond this general explanation, 
no acknowledgment of indebtedness seems necessary. 

To determine the pronunciation of proper names is unques- 
tionably the most difficult requirement of orthoepy ; and little 
or no attention has hitherto been paid to the pronunciation of 
such as are peculiar to the literature of fiction. In the absence, 
not merely of a trustworthy guide, but of any printed, guide at 
all, the author may sometimes have gone astray ; but he has 
been careful to avail himself of all the information he could 
obtain. In particular, he has made a thorough examination of 
such of our vernacular poets as are esteemed classics, and has 
occasionally adduced passages from their writings to show the 
accentuation adopted by these " best judges of pronunciation," 
as Walker styles them ; or, more rarely, to show the sound they 
assign to particular letters or syllables. If the decisions or 
opinions he has given prove, in general, to be well grounded, 


the credit will not be wholly due to him, since he has often 
profited by the advice and assistance of gentlemen whose 
superior opportunities of becoming acquainted with the best 
usage both at home and abroad, and whose critical taste and fa- 
miliarity with all that pertains to the subject of orthoepy, afford 
the assurance that they " spoak scholarly and wisely." To indi- 
cate with absolute accuracy the peculiar sounds of the principal 
languages of modern Europe, including the English, would ne- 
cessarily require an extensive and elaborate system of arbitrary 
phonic signs ; and such a system would b j hard to understand, 
and still harder to remember. It has, therefore, been deemed 
important not to introduce into this work unnecessary and perr 
plexing discriminations of sounds nearly identical, or to em- 
barrass the inquirer with needless intimations of a pronunciation 
obvious or already familiar to him. Hence, diacritical piarks 
are sparingly employed, except in the case of unaccented vowels, 
— which, in our language, are often of doubtful or variable 
value, — and except also in the case of foreign sounds which 
have no equivalent in English. Although the system of nota- 
tion made use of is easy to be understood, so far as it applies to 
most English names, it has been thought desirable to prefix to 
the work observations on some points of English pronunciation 
not familiar to the generality of readers, or concerning which 
professed orthoepists differ. In regard to the sounds occurring 
in the work that are peculiar to foreign languages, an explana- 
tion is given, in the Introduction, of the mode of their organic 
formation, or of their position and relations in a scientific clas- 
sification of spoken sounds. These observations and explana- 
tions are contained in distinct paragraphs or sections, consecu- 
tively numbered, and are often referred to from the words in 
the Dictionary. 

The Index at the end of the volume forms the counterpart 
of the Dictionary proper, and will, it is hoped, prove service- 
able by enabling an inquirer to ascertain at once the distin- 
guishing epithet or epithets borne by a particular person or 
place of which only the real name may be known to him. 


In the preparation of this Dictionary, the wide field of gen- 
eral literature has been extensively and cftrefully searched. 
Moreover, use has been made of a large number of works 
specially devoted to the various branches of literary history ; 
and valuable assistance has been derived from the principal 
Reviews, and the published writings of the best essayists. Not 
a few noteworthy names and facts, incidentally mentioned in the 
body of the articles of Encyclopaedias, Biographical Dictiona- 
ries, Gazetteers, and other works of reference, but not treated 
in alphabetical ordei^ have' been carefully gleaned from such 
works, which have been systematically searched for this pur- 
pose. These sources of information are altogether too numer- 
ous to be particularized in this place, while -to specify a few and 
make no mention of others of equal importance would be as 
imjus^ as it would be unsatisfactory. 

The author would return his sincere thanks to the many 
friends who have contributed in different ways to the complete- 
ness and accuracy of his work. Some of them, whose kind 
assistance he would gladly acknowledge, he regrets that he is 
not permitted to name ; but it affords him unfeigned pleasure 
to be able to mention his great and varied obligations to Dr. 
Robley Dunglison and Dr. R. Shelton Mackenzie of Philadel- 
phia, Mr. Charles Folsom of Cambridge, Mr. Samuel Porter 
of Hartford, Mr. Arthur W. Wright of New Haven, and Mr. 
Loomis J. Campbell of Boston. 

Believing that the successful accomplishment of a task like 
the present, in its fullest extent, is hardly to be expected of 
any individual, the author, in conclusion, would ask a candid 
criticism of his labors ; and if corrections or suggestions from 
any quarter — especially suggestions of additional names, ac- 
conlpanied with explanations, references, or citations — be sent 
to him through his publishers, they will be gratefully received, 
and used in the preparation of a future edition. 

KoxjiUKY, Massachusetts, Odobcr 30, 1865. 



THOEPY, xvii 


AND LATIN WORDS, . . . . . xxi to xxiii 

Vowels, xxii 

Consonants, xxii 

Accent, xxiii 


OF CONTINENTAL EUROPE, . . . xxui to xxxii 

Vowels, . xxiii 

Diphthongs and Vowel Combinations, . . xxv 

Consonants, xxvi 

Combined Consonants, xxix 

Accent, . xxxi 



OF FICTION, ETC., . • . . 1 to 398 





A, a, long, as in Ale, fate, great, pray, range, taste. [See § 1.] 

A, a, short, as iu Add, fat, nSrrow, rftillery. 

A, &, as in Aerial, Isr&el, oliiotic, xnortmi^. 

A, a, like e, as in Air, fare, pear, prSyer, scarce. [See § 3.] 

A, a, like o, as in All, broad, liaul, walk, 

A, &, like d, as ia "W&n, sw&Uow, qu&drant. 

A, a, as in Arm, Sunt, grS^s, [Fr.] pate (p^t). [S^ § 2.] 

A, a, as in [Ger.] mann (man), [Frt^ pas (pa). 

A, 9, as in Beggar, coming, metgl, scholar. 

B, e, long, as in Eve, mete, beam, ceU, piece, people.. 

E, 6, short, as in*. End, in6t, hgad, hftifer, leopard. 

E, 6, as in ^ject, appetite, serenity, stropliS. 

E, g, like a, as in ^re, bdar, liSir, where. [See § 3.] 

& e, like f, as in Err, term, servant, defer. [See § 4-] 

;6, $, like a, as in fiight, invSigh, priy. 

E, e, as in Brier, general, robber, suffer. 

1, i, long, as in Ivy, ice, pine, child, aisle, height) tie. 

I, X, short, as in Ill, Inn, pin, lily, guilt, sieve. 

i, t, as in Idea, diurnal, triumphant. 

1, i, like e, as in Marine, pique, police, ravine. 

i, i, like e, as in irksome, fir, ^rl, yirtuous. [See § 4-1 

^, i, as in Elixir, nadir, ittpir. 

0, 6, long^ as in Old, tone, foe, snow, soul, yeoman. [See § 5.] 

6, 8, shcyrt, as in Odd, on, cot, kn6wledge, m6ral. 

6, 6, as in 6bey, borrow, [Fr.] homme (6m). [See § 5.] 

O, 6, like d, as in Orb, order, gedrgic, bought. 

O, 6, like do, as in Move, pr6ve, sh6e, soup. 

6, 6, like u, as in C6me, d6es, d6ne, bldod, t6uch. 

O, 6, as in [Ger.] b6se (bo'zi), [Fr.] jeu (zho). [See §§ 43, 46.] 

p, o, as in Author, carol, ransom, connect. 

ty, u, long, as in 'O'se, cube, tune, lute, feudal. [See § 6.] 

"0", ti, short, as in tJTs, ciib, tiin, hftrry. 

t)", ft, as in ^nit^ agfte, cftpidity, globftle. ^ 

tf, ft, like 05, as in Trfte, rftin, erftdite, virulent. [See § 6.] 


l^-, % like d6, 83 in Full, p^, pijsh, co^d. 

■&, u, as in Urn, fur, furry, incur, purple. [See § 4.] 

tj, li, as in [Ger.] griin, [Fr.] vue (vu). [See §§ 34, 61.] 

U, u, as in Sulphur, glorious. 

Y, y» iong^ as in Type, fly, style, buy, rye^ 

■£", f, sliort, as in N jhnph, Ijh^ic, mj^thic, si^bol. 

Y, y, as in Typhoon, hydraulic, l^ceum. 

Y, y, like e, as in Myrrh, myrtle, syrt. [See § 4.] 

Y, y, as in Martyr, zephyr. 

^, 88, like e, as in Cwsar (long)^ ^schylus {shprt}^ 

CE, CB, like c, as in Croesus (long), CEdipus (short), 

lETW, ew, like i«, as in . . . Ewe, dew, few, new (=u), crew (=»oo). 

OX, oi, as in Oil, foible, foist, join, loiter, poignant, 

OY, oy, as in Oyster, boy, employ, joyous, royal, 

OO, do, as in Food, noon, mood, doze. 

do, db, as in Fdbt, gdbd, stdbd, wdblly, 

6^, oil, as in Ounce, bound, house, pout, 

6 W, 6w, as in Owl, no^, tower, v6#el. 


9, 9, as in Cent, 9ity, 9yst, a9id, flac9id, 8uc9e9B. 

9, 5, as in ^age, goal, gure, flagoid, sugces^. 

9H, 9h,,as in Chaise, ghampagne, ma9hine. 

9H, gh, as in 9^asm, ghaos, character, egho. 

CH, ch, as in Chance, cheer, church, teacher. [See § 8.] 

6, g, as in Get, give, tiger, foggy. 

G, g, as in 6^em, gender, giant, elegy, 

?, h, as in [Sp.] Jorge djor^lja), hijo (ee/^io). [See § 60.} 

?:, k, as in [Ger.] ach (%), buch (boo^). [See § 71.] 

K, k, as in [Ger.] ich (ik), durch (doork). [See § 71.] 

li, i, as in [Sp.] Uano, (IS'no), [It.] gU (lee). [See § 82.] 

15-, n, as in [Fr.] r§gne (r^ii), [Sp.] nona [See §§ 62, 78.] 

»", 11, as in [Fr.] vin (va^^), [Port] vim (vee»). [See § 62.] 

in, n, like «^, as in Ink, uncle, anger, anxiety, larynx. 

iWG, ng, as in Singing, hanger, prolong, young. 

PH, ph, as in Phantom, philosophy, seraphic. 

QU, qu, as in Quantity, queen, quince, banquet. 

B, i*, as in [Fr.] mer (mgf ), [Sp.] rata (f^^t^). [See § 64.] 

S, §, like z, asm Advige, pre§ide, ro§e, di§mal, spagm. 

TE^ th, as in Father, then, this, therefore, smooth. 

"V", v,^s in [Ger.] schwan (shvan), [Sp.] cubo (koo'^o). [See 

"WH, wh, as in "When, which, while. [See § 11.] § 68.] 

^i f , like ^0, as in Example, exemplary, ujorious. 

ZH, zh, as in Azure (a'zhoor), usual (u^zhoo-al), vision (vizh'un). 


*;^* In addition to what appears in the Key, the following explanations will be 
needed for understanding the notation made use of in this Dictionary : — 

Diacritical marks have been dispensed with, in the case of English names^ 
wherever it seemed that the accentuation and the division into syllables would 
be sufficient to indicate the true pronunciation to any one familiar with the more 
general and commonly-understood principles of English orthoepy; but, in all 
exceptional, doubtful, or difficult cases, the appropriate marks are used. Most 
of the names from modem foreign languages are respelt. 

In combinations of vowels, where one letter is marked, it is to be taken as 
repfesenting the sound of the combination, and the letter or letters which are 
not marked are to be regarded as silent; as in ffrdinj deal^ seize, tie, door, group, 
Journey^ Jlow, &c. 

The combined letters ce, ci, sci, se, d, or ti, occurring before a vowel in a syl- 
lable immediately preceded by an accented syllable, are generally equivalent 
to sh; as in o'cean, sapona'ceous, coer'don, magi^cian, an'cient, gra'dous, 
omni'science, nau'seous, tran'sient, pa'^ience, vexa'ifoufe, proba'^ton, &c. But if 
the combination si, when thus situated, is at the same time preceded by a vowel, 
it has the sound represented by the digraph zh ; as in eli^sion, explo^sJon, suiFu'- 
sion, &c. Such syllables are not usually respelt, as, in general, they will naturally 
be pronounced correctly by an English speaker. 

In respelling for pronunciation, aw and ee are often used instead of a and e 

In the notation of du and ow (as in ounce, owl), the mark over the o ["^J is 
intended to suggest the first element of the diphthong, namely, a as in arm 
(marked a), and the circumflex ["] over the u and the w, to indicate the second 
element, namely, u as in true (marked u). 

The sounds represented by &, e, t, d, u, y, are essentially the same in quality 
as the proper long sounds of these vowels, but differ in quantity, being less pro- 
tracted in utterance. In respelling foreign names for pronunciation, a, e (or e), 
and 0, are generally used instead of a, e, and o, unless a full accent falls upon 
the vowel. 

The marked letters a, e, j, q, u, y^ represent the sound of " the neutral vowel," 
or u as in us, urn. They occur only in unaccented syllables. Diacritical signs 
placed above these letters are intended to indicate their normal or theoretical 
value. Thus, salad, cymbal, altar, hillock, lion, sailor, ballot, confess, would 
regularly be pronounced saMd, cym'hal, aPtar, hU'WcJc, li'dn, sail' or, hal'lot, 
cdn-fess', but in fluent, and particularly in colloquial, utterance, the unaccented 
vowel is apt to sufl'er a corruption or change of its distinctive quality, falling 
into the easier sound of the neutral vowel, so that the actual or customaiy pro- 
nunciation of the words in question is sal'ud, cym'bul, aVtur, Jdl'luck, li'un, 
sail'ur, bal'lut, cun-fess'. They may, therefore, be printed thus: — saVad, cwm'- 
Hl, aVtAr, hil'Uck, lP4n, sail'&r, balm, c6n-fess'. ' ^ 

The letter s is doubled, in the orthoepical respelling, to indicate the "sharp" 
or hissing sound of this member of the alphabet, in cases where a single 5 
would be liable to be pronounced like s; a': expense (eks-penssO- 

In a word having more than one accent, the primary or principal accent is 


denoted by a heavj^ mark ; the secondary, or subordinate, by a lighter mark ; as 
in Ad'amas'tor, In the division of words into syllables, these marks, besides 
performing their proper ofiice, supply the place of the hyphen. 

An apostrophe [ ' ] is used in the respelling of certain French words to show 
that an unaccented e is either entirely mute, or is pronounced with the briefest 
possible sound of e in her. It is also used after ^, in some cases, to denote that 
this letter is to be pronounced with its consonant sound, as in yard^ yes^ &c. 

A tie [^] placed over two or more vowels denotes that they must be pro- 
nounced without an obvious separation infB distinct syllables; as, ffauy (a'lQ'). 

The figures which follow some of the names in the Vocabulary refer to cor- 
responding sections in the following " Kemarks " and *' Rules," 



§ 1. The sound of a in ale, fate (commonly called " long fl|"), though regarded 
by many writers as a simple element, is in most cases diphthongal, beginning 
with a sound closely resembling that of the first e in there, but slightly less 
open, and ending with a brief sound of e in me. (See § 3.) This final e sound 
is usually omitted in unaccented syllables, and in the correct pronunciation of 
the common foreign equivalent of a; namely, e as in [Fr.] bete, nee, [Ger.] 
eivigj &c. (See § 31.) 

A (as in bath, dance, &c.)« 
§ 2. There is a considerable class of words (chiefly monosyllables) ending 
in off, aft, ask, asp, ass, ast, with a few ending in ance, and, and ant (as staff, 
graft, mash, rasp, glass, last, lance, command, pant), to which must be added 
castle, advantage, half, and some other words, in the pronunciation of which, 
usage, both in England and America, is far from being uniform, some speakers 
giving to the vowel the full, open sound of a in far {a), and some the abrupt, 
flat sound of a in man {a), while others, seeking for a compromise between these 
two extremes, either slightly shorten the h, or dwell upon the a. Of these 
varieties, the first and second (a and a) are much the most common. The 
drawled a was never more than a temporary and local fashion, which — ac- 
cording to Smart — has been generally laid aside in England, and which seems to 
be going out of use in America, in those parts wher|^ it has hitherto prevailed. • 
The brief ti, — improperly styled "intermediate," — though recommended by 
Worcester, Goodrich, and some other orthoepists, differs so slightly from the 
fuller form of this vowel, that the distinction attempted to be set up is practically 
a nugatory one. Words belonging to the class under consideration are in this 
Dictionary marked as having the full sound of a in far ; but the reader is, in 
every instance, referred to this section, and can decide for himself which of the 
sounds here described he will adopt in his own practice. 


A, :fc. 

§ 3. The sound of « heard in jTare, lair^ &c., and of e in therCy heir, &c., when 
these words are correctly pronounced, is a lengthened form of the e in met, or of 
the initial element in long a (a as in mate), sounds which are closely allied, and 
are, by some writers, regarded as identical. Instead of this, however, many 
speakers substitute a prolongation of the a in mat, — a mode of utterance which, 
notwithstanding its frequency and its equal gracefulness, is opposed by the ma- 
jority of cultivated speakers, including most of the orthoepists. 

§ 4. The vowel u before r, in such words as urn, fur, Jurry, incur, incurring, 
&c. (sometimes called the " neutral vowel," from its peculiarly dull and indiscrete 
character), is very conmion in English, and has a tmiform and well-known sound. 
According to the common practice, both in England and America, and according 
to most writers upon the subject, the vowels e, i, and y, and the digraph ea, when 
similarly situated, have precisely the same sound. But some speakers, particu- 
larly among the more refined and aristocratic classes of English society, give 
them a different and peculiar sound, which is best described as intermediate 
between that of u m urn, and that of e in met, being Jess guttural than the 
former, and less palatal than the latter. This " delicacy " of pronunciation, 
as it has been termed, is not observed in unaccented syllables, or in "very 
common words," even by those who are tenacious of its observance in other 
cases. In this work, all these vowels are marked in the same way (c, », S, y), 
but the reference-figure appended to words in the Dictionary in which they 
occur, will direct the reader to this section, that he may not be left in ignorance 
of the fact that there is a diversity of usage in their pronunciation. 


§ 5. The sound of o in old, note, &c. (commonly called "long o"), though by 
some writers regarded as a simple sound, is in reality diphthongal, ending in a 
slight sound of oo in food, or in foot. The initial element is the normal o, 
intermediate in quality between aw (as in saw) and 6d. The terminal oo 
sound is usually omitted in unaccented syllables. 

In some parts of America, particularly in New England, it is very common 
to shorten the sound of long o in certain monosyllables, and in the accented 
syllable of some other words, by dropping the brief final element which properly 
belongs to the vowel, and at the same time making the initial element slightly 
^more open in quality; but the practice is an unauthorized provincialism. This 
shortened form of long o % heard in the words home, stone, wholly, &c. It also 
occurs in some foreign languages. As it differs but little from the sowid of un- 
accented (in car' go, ech'o, &c.), it is, in tliis Dictionary, represented by the 
same diacritical sign (6). 


§ 6. The sound of u in unit, cube, mute, &c. (commonly called " long «"), is 
a compound sound formed of consonant y as the initial element, and the oo in 


food as the final element. The sound of consonant y is distinctly hoard wlien 
u (or any of its equivalent digraphs) makes or begins an initial syllable (as in 
unite, use) ; when it is preceded by any one of the labial or palatal sounds p, b, 
m, /*, V, k, g (as in putrid, bugle, music, fusion, view (= vu), cubic, gules) ; and when 
it is preceded by any one of the dental sounds d, t, I, n, th, provided the preced- 
ing vowel is short and under the accent (as in ed'ucate, rit'ual, sdl'utary, mon'u- 
ment, spdth'ulate). But when it is preceded, in the same syllable, by any one of 
the consonants d, t, I, n, s, th, it is difficult to introduce the sound of y, and hence 
careless speakers omit it altogether, saying dook, toob, loot, nood, soot, entkoosiasm, 
instead of duke, tube, lute, nude, suit, enthusiasm. The reason is, that, after 
forming these dental consonants, the organs are in a position to pass directly and 
easily to the labial oo ; but .to insert the palatal y before the oo, is to go back 
from a medial to a posterior position of the organs before proceeding to an 
anterior position. Although the tendency to get rid of the y, in such cases, is a 
natural and legitimate one, it is only so far yielded to by the best speakers as to 
substitute for the y the closely related element short i, made as brief as possible, 
and pronounced in the same syllable as the oo. If, in similar situations, the u is 
preceded by the sound of r, sh, or zh, it takes the simple sound of oo in food ; as, 
imle (rool), true (troo), virulent (vir''oo-lent), sure (shoor), ae,ure (a^zhoor). 
When preceded by ch or j, the practice of different speakers varies, some 
sounding the u as oo^ others as Cob. 

§ 7. The sound of h in hand, h^att, &c., is a pure aspiration produced by an 
emission of breath through whatever configuration of the vocal channel may be 
requisite for uttering a succeeding vowel or semivowel, the organs being always 
adjusted to the position of the next following sound before the h is pronounced. 
Yet h is palpably not a whisper of the following sound. If it were so, a whispered 
he would be nothing more than a prolonged whispered e, whereas the difference 
between the two elements is very marked, and is felt not only by the speaker, 
but by the hearer as well. Physiologically considered, h is formed by an expul- 
sion of unvocalized breath through the glottis, which is opened wide through its 
whole extent. In simple whispering of the vowels, on the contrary, the vocal 
chords are brought together, — approximated, though not stretched, or but 
slightly so, — and the breath, in passing through, is thus not only rendered audi- 
ble, but acquires a peculiar and distinctive quality, which approaches in a 
greater or less degree to actual sonancy, 

CH, J. 

§ 8. The digraph ch (as in church) is regarded by some writers as repre- 
senting a simple sound; but most orthoepists consider that it is compounded 
of t and sh. Neither view is quite right, nor is either wholly wrong. In forming 
ch, there is an attempt at blending t and sh in a single sound, the result of 
which is to modify the former of these elements by causing it to be produced, 
not in the ordinary way with the tip of the tongue against the gum of the 


upper front teeth, but with the flat surface of the tongue, near the tip, applied 
within the dome of the palate at the point where a slight relaxation of the 
contact, accompanied with an emission of breath, gives rise to the sound of sh. 
Considering the brevity of the two elements, and the peculiar closeness with 
which they are combined, we may regard ch as a consonant diphthong, or, as 
Midler expresses it, "only one whole consonant" consisting of "a half t and 
a half sA." 

The soimd of J — which is merely a vocal ch — is composed in like manner 
of a modified d followed by zh, 


§ 9. According to many English orthoepists, the letter r has two distinct though 
related sounds, — the one a dental or lingual consonant, formed by a contact of 
the margin of the fore part of the tongue with the inner surface of the upper 
side teeth, the tip of the tongue touching, or nearly touching, the gum of the front 
teeth with a slight quivering or tremulous motion as the stream of intonated 
breath flows over it, heard (1.) when this letter is not preceded by a vowel, as in 
rose, dream, pray, strike ; and (2.) when it is placed between two vowels of which 
the former is short, as in arid, peril, spirit, cdral, lyric, sdrry {=s6ry), fmrry 
(=hiary); the other a guttural sound, nearly resembling a vowel, formed by a 
plight vibration of the root of the tongue and the uvula, heard when the let- 
ter r occurs before any consonant, or is itself the final consonant in a word, as 
in part, verse, mirth, torn, surf, far, nor, slur. In the first case, r is sometimes 
strongly trilled or rolled by a violent emission of the vocal current; but, in 
ordinary pronunciation, the sound is peculiarly smooth and liquid, and any de- 
cided vibration of the tongue is laborious, pedantic, and altogether un-English. 

If r follows any one of the vowels a, e, I, 6, u, 6b, bu, a slight sound of the 
iieutral vowel (m in urn) is inserted before the r, forming a diphthong with the 
preceding vowel, or, in the case of I, u, and du, a triphthong. Thus, care, deary 
tvire, more, lure, boor, sour, are pronounced ca'ur, de^r, wi^r, mo^ur, lu^r, 
boo^, sou'ur. In English usage, the r is thus joined to the preceding vowel in 
all cases in which this vowel is in an accented syllable ; and if, at the same time, 
1^ vowel follows, the r has, according to some orthoepists, both it& guttural and its 
lingual sound; as in vary (var'y, or var^ry), era (eWa, or er^'ra), iory (tor^y, or 
tor-'ry), burin (bur'in, or bur'rin), houri (hour/i, or hOur^ri^ &c. In the United 
States, this mode of pronunciation is, for the most part, confined to words ending 
with r or re preceded by one of the above-mentioned vowels, and to the deriva- 
tives of such words. Thus, dearest (from dear) is pronounced dear'est, or 
dear^rest; boorish (from boo7'), boor'ish, w boor'rish ; sourer (from sour), sour'er, 
or sour'rer, &c. ; but vary is va-'ry ; era, e^ra; tory, to'ry, &c. The Scotch, on the 
contrary, preserve the vowel pure even in derivatives, saying dea^rest, boo'rish, 
Bou'rer, &c., as well as va'ry, e'ra, to'ry, &c. 

It must be observed that some very acute and eminent phonologists utterly 
deny the existence of the alleged double pronunciation of r, maintaining that 
the letter has, in English at least, one unvaried sound in all situations, produced 
between the tip of the tongue and the upper gum. Others allow that when 


r is preceded by a long or full vowel, a slight guttural vibration accompanies the 
lingual articulation ; but they do not regard this modification of the sound as 
affording sufficient ground for its discrimination into two distinct and inde- 
pendent elements. It is not improbable that the disagreement of authorities 
in regard to the precise nature of the "guttural r " is owing' in some measure, to 
actual difference of utterance. 

It is further to be observed, that, in the best style of pronunciation, r is 
never silent ; but that, when it occurs after a vowel, it is commonly suppressed 
by careless or uneducated speakers. 

W, Y. 

§ 10. The sounds signified by w and ?/, when these letters occur at the be- 
ginning of a word or syllable, as in w'oo^ ye, &c., are considered by some writers 
to be identical with the vowels oo and e respectively ; they are, however, formed 
by a closer approximation of the articulative organs, which destroys the pure 
vocality of the vowel sounds, and gives them a consonantal or semi -conso- 
nantal character. They are not, however, perfect consonants ; for it is impossible 
to prolong them, and the attempt to do so results only in the production of the 
vowels 00 and e. 


§ 11. The digraph wh is regarded by many modem orthoepists as repre- 
senting a simple elementary sound, which is the surd or whispered correspondent 
of V). Of those who take this view, some say that the sound of wh is followed 
by that of w ; as in when (wh-w-e-n): others assert that the voice is not heard 
until the following vowel is commenced, when, for example, being pronounced 
wh-e-n ; but such persons wrongly analyze their own pronunciation. The com- 
mon opinion is, that both letters of the digraph are pronounced with their usual 
sounds, only in the reverse order, — hw, — according to the original Anglo-Saxon 
orthography. But h-w does not differ from wh-w, h being an emission of un- 
vocalized breath through the position taken by the organs of speech in forming 
the next following element, as is explained in § 7. 


§ 12. The established English pronunciation of Latin words and of Latinized 
forms of Greek words is conformed to the_ general laws and tendencies of the 
English language. Hence, the proper position of the accent and the syl- 
labication having been determined, each syllable is to be pronounced according 
to the usual powers or sounds of the letters in English, except in cases specially 
provided for in the following rules. 



§ 13. (1.) Any Towel at the end of an accented syllable, and e, o, and u at the? 
end of an unaccented syllable, have the long English sound; as, Ca^to^ Ce^res^, 
Ml'das^ So'lon, Nu'ma^ Pe-lPdes^ Ho-me'rus^ Lu-ca'nus, 

§ 14. (2.) If a syllable ends with a consonant, the vowel has its short English^ 
sound; as, BaPhus^ Mem^non, Mos'chus^ Pub'lius. 

Exception. — E^ in final es, has its long sound; as in Achilles (a-kiPlez). 

§ 15. (3.) A^ ending an unaccented syllable, is sounded like a in comma; as, 
Cre-u'sa^ A-ri'cm. 

§ 16. (4.) E final is always sounded; as in He'he^ Pe-neVo-pe. 

§ 17. (5.) The diphthongs m and (b are pronounced as e would be in the same 
situation ; as, Ccesar (se'zar), (Enone (e-no^ne),* Dcedalus (ded'a-lus), (Edijms 

§ 18. (6.) /, ending a final syllable, has its long English sound; as, E-pig'o-nl, 
Ending an initial unaccented syllable, it has in some cases its long sound, as in 
JBt-a^'iior, l-U'lus ; and in some its short sound, as in Ci-lic'i-a^ 1-ta'li-a. In all 
other cases, ending an unaccented syllable, it has its short sound; as, Fd'bi-us. 

§ 19. (7.) F is pronounced as i would be in the same situation. 

§ 20. (8.) When ai, ei^ oi, and yi^ not initial, are followed by another vowel, 
and take the accent on the a, e, o, or y, the i assumes the sound of consonant y, 
and the vowel before it has its long sound; as in Maia (ma^ya), Hygeia (hi-je-'ya), 
Pompeius (pom-pe^'yus), Latvia (la-to'ya), Harpyia (har-pFya). 


§ 21. (9.) The consonants c and g have their "soft " sound, like s and j>, be- 
fore e, I, ^, CB, and m ; before a, o, and w, or a consonant, they have their 
"hard" sound; as in cot^ go. 

Exception. — When ^, having the sound of j, is preceded by another 5', the 
former of the two is suppressed, or may be said to coalesce in sound with thQ 
second; as, Ag genus (a-je'nus). 

§ 22. (10.) The combination ch is pronounced like h ; as, Charon (ka'ron). 

§ 23. (11.) Each of the three consonants c, s, and ^, when preceded im- 
mediately by the accent, or itself ending an accented syllable, and followed by 
irt, i'e, M, 10, or m, commonly has the sound of sh ; as in Por'cia (por'shi-a), 
Cly'tie (klish'i-e), Hora'tii (ho-ra^shi-i), Pho'cum (fo'shi-on), Cas'sius (kash^i- 
us). C has also the same sound, when following an accented vowel, and stand- 
. ing before eu and yo ; as, Meno&'ceus (me-ne'she-us), Si'cymi (sish'i-on). 

Exception. — When si, immediately preceded by an accented vowel, is fol- 
lowed by a vowel, the s takes the sound of 2;^; as in He'siod (he^zhi-od). 
— Though not properly an exception to the rule, it may be stated that zi similarly 
situated is pronounced in the same manner ; as in Aly'zia (a-lizh'i-a). — r, 
when preceded by another <, and commonly in the termination tion, has its 

E roper sound (heard in tcp^ mat, &c. ) ; as in Brut'ti-i, Me'ti-on : when preceded 
y s or a;, it has, according to some authorities, the same sound ; according to 
others, the sound of ch in church ; as in SaUus'tius (sal-lus'ti-us, or sal-lus'chi-us), 
Sexnius (seks^ti-us, or seks'chi-us), &;c. 

§ 24. (12.) /Sf, when final, if preceded by «, has the sound oi z; as in Per- 
icles (pSr'i-klez). 


^25. (13.) Xj ending an accented syllable, and standing before i followed by 
another vowel, has the sound of ksh ; as, Cinx'ia (singk'shi-a). 

§ 26. (14.) Combinations of initial consonants which are foreign to tlie nature 
and habits of our language, drop the sound of their first letter or digraph; 
as in Cneius (pronounced ne'yus), Ctesiphon (tes'i-fon), Gnatho (na-'tho), Mnemos- 
yne (ne-mos'i-ne), Pnytagoras (nt-tag'o-ras), ^stfche (si'ke), Ptplemy (toPe-nae), 
Phthas (thas). 

§ 27. (15.) The tenninations cms and ous are alwaya to be pronounced in 
two syllables; as, Ar chela' us^ Alcin'o-us. 

§ 28. (16.) The termination ews, in proper names which in Greek end in 
evf, as Orpheus, Prometheus, &c., should be pronounced in one syllable, the 
e« being a diphthong with the sound of " long m." 


§ 29. (17.) Words of two syllables invariably have the accent on the first 
syllable. In words of more than two syllables, if the penult is long in quantity, 
it takes the accent; but, if short, the accent is on the antepenult. When the 
penult is common, or doubtful, the accent is on the antepenult. 

4®" By quantity, m Greek and Latin, is meant the relative time occupied in 
pronouncing a syllable, when those languages were spoken tongues. A syllable 
containing a short vowel may be lengthened by accompanying consonants ; but 
the ancients seem to have felt the effect of these only when final, and to have 
made no account of initial consonants — probably because they pronounced them 
with extreme brevity — in estimating the duration of a syllable. The general 
rules in relation to quantity are as follows : — 1. Before j, x, z, or any two 
consonants excei)t a mute followed by I or r, the vowel of the penult is hmg by 
position. [This is the language of the grammarians : the vowel, in such cases, 
was probably short or stopped ; but the syllable was long, being made so by the 
following consonant or consonants.] The digraphs ch, ph, rh, and th, which rep- 
resent simple sounds,* are reckoned as single consonants. 2. A vowel before a 
mute and t or r is common ; that is, either long or short. 3. Diphthongs are long. 
4. A vowel before another vowel or h is short. In other cases, the quantity must 
be determined by etymology, metrical usage, or the orthography of the word in 
Greek; but every vowel which cannot be proved to be long, is arbitrarily 
assumed to be short. — The division of words into syllables — which depends in 
pqrt upon the position of the accent, and this, in turn, upon quantitj^ — must be 
understood before words can be correctly pronounced. The rules in regard to 
this subject may be found in any good Latin grammar. 



§ 30. (1.) In the languages of the Contment of Europe, the vowel a, when long, 
has usually the sound of the English a in far, father; when short, nearly that 


of a in fat^ manf never that of a in fate. A, in French, has a sound rescmbljng 
that of a in far, but deeper and less distinct, verging toward that of a in all : its 
peculiar quality is due to the retraction of the tongue and the soft palate. A 
briefer variety of the same sound is heard in the Fr. pas, Ger. mann. In Hun- 
garian, a is like o in rwt; a, like a in far. A, in Swedish, has a sound intermediate 
between that of a in all, and that of o in note. For the sounds of a, a, a, see 
§§ 37, 62. 

§ 31. (2.) .& generally has a sound similar to that of "long a" in fate, but 
often like that of " short e " in met, or like the latter when protracted. (See § 1.) 
E, in French, has the sound of e in then, or that of the initial element in mate 
(see § 1); e and e have the sound of the first e in there; e (unaccented) is, in 
most cases, either entirely silent, or has a very brief sound of the neutral vowel 
(m in ujj, urn). E, in Swedish, when long, has a sound somewhat like that of 
short i (in pin), but more prolonged ; when short, it is like e in met. Iii Hun- 
garian and Polish, e (unaccented) sounds like e in met; e nearly like a in mate. 
For the sounds of e, e, see § 62. 

§32. (3.) / has usually the sound of i in marine, which is the same as the 
"long e" in me, she, &c. It is often shortened in quantity, like the e in bemoan, 
but the quality of the sound remains the same, and should not be suffered to 
degenerate into that of i in ill. This latter sound, however, is heard in Dutch, 
and sometimes in German. In Hungarian, i and i differ only in length, the 
accented vowel being more protracted than the unaccented. 

§33. (4.) has, for the most part, the same, or ilearly the same, sounds 
that it has in English in the words note, not, north. (See § 5.) It some- 
times — as in the It. nolpe — has a sound intermediate between that of o in 
rwte and that of oo in food. This is called, in Italian, "o chiuso.^^ The "o 
aperto^^ of the same language is a sound intermediate between the o of note 
and that of noi^th. In Swedish and Norwegian, at the end of a syllable, o has 
the sound of 6d or of do. d, in French, has always the full sound of " long o " 
in English. In Hungarian, a is nearly like long a in English ; 6 has a fuller 
and deeper sound. In Polish, o sounds like o in note; 6, like oo in food, or 
in foot. For the sound of o, see § 46. 

§ 34. (5.) U, in most of these languages, has, when long, the sound of u 'in 
true (equivalent to the oo in food) ; when short, that of u in full (equivalent to 
the o6 in foot). In French, — arfd also in Dutch, wheh at the end of a syllable, — 
it has a sound intermediate betwj^en oo and e, formed by attempting to pronounce 
these sounds simultaneously, the lips being placed in the position for uttering oo, 
and the tongue in that for e. The sound is sometimes long and sometimes short, 
but the difference is merely one of quantity. In Dutch, u, when short or stopped, 
is sounded as in nut. U, in Swedish, is intermediate between i and 6b, but is a 
pinched and very peculiar sound, differing considerably in its effect upon the ear 
from that of the French u, the lips being rounded instead of pouted. The near- 
est equivalent in English is do. In Hungarian, u (unaccented) has the sound 
of 00 ; w, a longer and fuller sound of the same general quality. For the sound 
of M, see § 51. 

§ 35. (6.) Y, for the most part, has the same sound that i has; that is, it is 


like "long e" in English. (See § 32.) In Dutch, ithas the sound of the Eng- 
lish "long^" {i in pine)', but in the modem Dutch orthography it is replaced by 
ij. In Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, it is like the French and Dutch u, or 
the German ii. (See § 34.) 

Diphthongs and Vowel Combinations. 

§ 36. (7.) Aa^ in most languages, has the same sound as single a, — that is, 
the sound of a in far j — but is more prolonged. In Danish, it sounds nearly 
as a in all, but verges towards the sound of o in n0e. 

§ 37. (8.) Ae, or a, when long, is usually sounded like a in fate, or the first e 
in there; when short, like e in met. (See § 1.) In Dutch, it is like a in far; 
but the reformed Dutch frthography substitutes aa for ae. 

§ 38. (9.) Aeu, or du, in German, has the sound of oi in toil, but is differ- 
ently pronounced in different parts of Germany. 

§ 39. (10.) Ai and ay are generally sounded like the English adverb ay (yes); 
but in French they have nearly the' sound of a in fate, or e in there. (See § 1.) 

§40. (11.) Eau,in French, has the same sound as the French au; that is, 
of the English "long o." 

§41. (12.) Ee has a prolonged sound of the foreign e, which is nearly 
equivalent to the English a in fate. (See § 31.) 

§42. (13.) Ei and ey are generally like ay in day, when this word is pro- 
nounced with the full diphthongal sound of the vowel. In French, they have a 
more open sound, resembling that of e in met^ or that of a in mate with the ter- 
minal element of the a omitted. (See § 1.) In German and Danish, they are like 
the English adverb ay (yes) ; that is, they unite the sounds of a in far and i in 
ill, and hence nearly resemble our "long i." 

§ 43. (14.) Eu, in French and Dutch, has — with some variations of quantity, 
and some slight differences of quality — a sound similar to that of u in urn, but 
more accurately described as intermediate between the a in mate and the o in 
note, and formed by an attempt to pronounce these vowels simultaneously. (See 
§ 46.) Eu, in German and Danish, sounds like oi in toil. In Italian, Spanish, 
and Portuguese, it is equivalent to d^oo. 

§ 44. (15.) le usually sounds like e in me, but, in German, it sometimes 
makes two syllables, and, in French, before r final, forms a diphthong which 
is pronounced e^a. 

§45. (16.) Ii is equivalent to i — that is, to the English "long e," as in 
me — prolonged. 

§ 46. (17.) Oe, or 6 (in Dan. 0), in the Germanic languages, is essentially the 
same as eu in French (see § 43), though most authorities recognize a slight 
difference of quality between the two sounds, o inclining more to tlie sound 
of a, and having the lips more pursed up for its utterance, than eu. The u in 
. urn is the nearest English approximation to both. In Hungarian, '6 or 8 is 
merely a longer variety of o. 

§47. (18.) (Eu, in French, is like eu in the same language. (See § 43.) 

§48. (19.) Oi, in French, sounds, in most words, nearly like wa in was. In 
some words, it formerly had the sound now given to ai, by which it is replaced 


in the modem French spelling. Oi, in Danish, is like d in English ; 0i is 
d^, with the o short, or brief. 

§ 49. (20.) Oo, has the sound of oo in door, or o in note, somewhat prolonged, 
and without the final element of this sound in English. 

§50. (21.) Ou, in French, when long, is like oo in food; when short,* like 
00 in foot. In Dutch and Norwegian, it has the sound of ou in the English 
word oitt. In Portuguese, it is usually pronounced like the English " long o." 

§ 51. (22.) Ue, or U, in the Germanic languages, is sounded like the French ». 
(See § 34.) In Hungarian, U0t & is merely a longer variety of H, 

§ 52. (23.') Ui and uy, in Dutch, resemble d in English. 

§ 53. (24.) Uu is like oo in food^ but longer. 


§ 54. (25.) 5, in German and Danish, at the end of a word, sormds like p. 
In Spanish, between two vowels, its sound is intermediate between those of the 
English b and w, and may be described as a v made without the aid of the 
teeth, but witii the lips alone, which are pouted and brou^t flatly and feebly 
into contact. 

§ 55. t26.) C, in Italian, before eand i, sounds like ch in church; in Spanish, 
in the same position, like th in thin (though in Cataloqja and in Spanish 
America it has the sound of s). In German and Danish, before e, i, y, a, 6 (0), m, 
or a diphthong commencing with any one of these letters, and in PoUsh in all 
positions, it is pronounced like ts, C, in Polish, blends the sounds of ts and con- 
sonant y. (Compare § 74.) f, in French and Portuguese, sounds like s, before 
o, o, and u. 

§ 56. (27.) Z>, in German, Dutch, and Swedish, at the end of a word, sounds 
like t; in Spanish and Danish, when occurring between two vowels, or at the 
end of a word, like th in ihis, but it is very gently pronounced, so as some- 
times scarcely to be audible. 

§ 57. (28.) Fy in Swedish, at the end of a word or syllable, sounds as v 
does in English. 

§ 58. (29.) G is always "hard" before a,o, u, as it is in the English words 
gain, gold, gust. In Polish, it is hard in all situations | so also in Hungarian, 
unless followed by j or y. (See §§ 76, 79.) In French, Spanish, and Portuguese, 
before e, i, and y, it is like the j of these languages. (See § 60.) In Italian, in 
the same position, it is like the English J, that is, like g in gem. (See § 8.) In 
German, the standard andtbest pronunciation makes ^" hard "in every case 
when it is followed by a vowel in the same word; but when preceded and not fol- 
lowed by a vowel, it has the sound of the German ch. (See § 71.) In Dutch, g, 
in all positions, has a harsh guttural sound, which is the sonant or vocalized cor- 
respondent of the German guttural ch. (See § 71.) In Swedish, before e, i, y, a, 
and o, and when preceded by any other consonant than n, it sounds like the ' 
English consonant y; in Danish, at the end of a word, its sound is very soft, 
somewhat resembling that of h. — Gu, in French, Spanish, and Portuguese, 
before e and ^, sounds like gu in guest, guile^ the w being inserted to keep the g 
in its hard sound before these vowels. 


§59. (30.) H, in French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, is either wholly 
mute, or is very feebly aspirated. In the remaining languages of Continental 
Europe, it sounds as in English. In all of them, it is mute when it follows a vowel 
in the same syllable, its office being merely to show that the vowel has its long 
sound. In Polish, h is very harshly aspirated, resembhng Tc, or the German ' 
guttural ch. (See § 71.) 

§ 60. (31.) J, in German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Polish, and 
Hungarian, has the sound of the English y consonant. In Italian, it has rather 
the sound of " long e." In French and l^ortuguese, it has the sound orthoepically 
represented by zh ; that is, of 8 in treasure, or » in azure. In Spanish, it has a 
very peculiar sound, somewhat resembling that of a strongly aspirated A, and 
this is Substituted for it in Spanish America. "To pronounce it," says Ellis, 
"the back of the mouth must be stopped by doubling up the back of the 
tongue, and making an effort as if to hawk up phlegm, the scrape being in the 
palate, and rwt in the pharynx." It is most nearly alhed to the German palatal 
ch, but must not be confounded with it, nor with sh, h, or the guttural ch. 

§61. (32.) jL, in French, % the terminations hie, tile, pie, &c. (as in table, 
branle, simple), is colloquially whispered, but in serious or careful discourse, it 
has its usual vocal sound, and is followed by a faint sound of the neutral vowel 
(m in 1^, urn). £, in Polish, has a peculiar, thick sound, formed by placiijg the 
under side of the tip of the tongue firmly against the^back of the upper front 
teeth, or the upper gum. 

§ 62, (33.) M and n, in French and Portuguese, when final in a word or 
syllable, and also when not doubled or not followed by a vowel, have no 
sound of their own, but are mere diacritical letters, or signs, serving to show 
that the preceding vowel is nasal, that is, pronounced by opening the back 
nostrils and alloYring the voice to enter the nose simultaneously with its passage 
through the mouth. The nasal vowels in French are as follows : — 
1. 2. 3. 4. 

am,an) ^ im,in,(o)in] om, on i x^ um, un J^v^ 

em, en> aim, ain _v- aun ) emn, eun) 

eim, ein 
In pronouncing these sounds, there must be no contact of the tongue and the 
soft palate, as in forming the sound of ng in English. By some phonetists, 
the first of these nasal vowels is regarded as corresponding to the pure oral 
vowel in far; by others, to that in not; but these two sounds are closely re- 
lated, the brief open o of not (o) being intermediate between the a of far (a) and 
the of for (o, a, or aw), and hence differing but little from a shortened form of 
the open &. There is disagreement, also, as to the quality of the third nasal 
vowel, some referring it to the o in note, or to its briefer form as heard in the 
New England pronunciation of whole, only, &c. (as is done in this work); while 
others think that it corresponds to the o in form, north, &c. In Portuguese, 
the nasality of a vowel is sometimes indicated by the sign *^ (originally a 
superposed m) placed over it. The combinations representing nasal vowels are 
a, da, am, an (pron. a**); cm, en (pron. a'*); im (pron. e"); o,om,on (pron. 
0**); um, un (pron. oi/^). Nasal diphthongs are de, at, do, oe. The terminations 


aes, oes, were formerly written aews, oens. The nasal vowels d^ and a" occur in 
Polish, in which language they are written a, e. — 3/, in conversational French, 
is whispered, and not vocalized, in such words as schisme ; but, in formal 
. delivery, it has its usual vocal sound, followed by an indistinct murmur of the 
mute e. — N before ^, in Italian, usually preserves its pure sound ; in the other 
Continental European languages, or in most of them, it takes the sound of the 
English n in sinh. — N^ in Spanish, is a variety of w, formed by an attempt to 
pronounce n and consonant y simultaneously. The same is true of the Polish n. 
The effect is very similar t(/ that produced by the insertion of y after n; as in 
minion (min^yun). (Compare § 74.) 

§ 63. (34.) Qm, in Spanish and Portuguese, when followed by e or i, has the 
sound of h ; in other situations, that of kob. In French, the combination has 
the sound of k before every vowel. In German and Dutch, it is sounded as kw 
would be in those languages. (See § 68.) In most other languages, its sound 
is essentially the same as in English. 

§ 64. (35.) i2, at the end of a word or syllable, is sounded more distinctly, 
and in other positions is apt to be more strongl^rilled, than in English. By 
us, this letter is usually pronounced with the under surface of the tip of the 
tongue applied within the dome of the palate, in which position the utterance 
is naturally very smooth and easy. Sy foreign nations, r is ordinarily produced 
by applying the upper lurface of the tongue's tip to the upper, gmn at a point 
quite near the teeth, which, occasions a peculiar harshness of sound, and most 
generally a decided vibration, or trill. In French, m such, words as sabre, cidre, 
apotre, ceuvre, it is usually pronounced as a whisper, but is sometimes vocalized, 
particularly in serious discourse, forming a syllable with the obscure e. It 
never admits the interposition of the neutral vowel {u in np, urn) between it and 
a preceding vowel, as is often the case in English. Thus, the French dire is 
pronounced def or de^ru, whereas the English dear is pronounced de^r. 

§ 65. (36.) ^, between two vowels, has usually the sound of z in zeal. In 
German; it often has this sound given to it at the beginning of a syllable, but is 
commonly pronounced like sz, a hiss gliding instantaneously and almost imper- 
ceptibly into a buzz. In Hungarian, it sounds like sh in English. S, in Polish, 
blends in a single utterance the sounds of s and consonant y. (Compare § 74.) 

§ QQ. (37.) T has often a more dental sound than in English, the tip of the 
tongue being placed against the cutting edge of the upper front teeth, and not 
against the upper gum, as with us. This is particularly observable in Spanish. 

§ 67. (38.) F, in German, sounds like /. In Danish, it is usually like v in 
English, but sometimes has the sound of o6; as in havn (h^^donj or houn); 
when followed by <, it has the sound of y. 

§ 68. (39.) TF, in German and Dutch, is intermediate between the English b 
and w, on the one hand, and v, on the other, the inner surfaces of the lips being 
brought flat against each other, whereas in (Eng.) w they are rounded, in h the 
edges are compressed, and in v the lower lip comes in contact with the upper 
teeth. (See § 54.) By some writers, this peculiar utterance of w is said to be 
provincial and dialectical, in German, except in words in which w is preceded 
by a consonant, as, sckwan. In Polish, w, when it precedes a whispered or mute 


consonant, is pronounced as /; in other situations, it has the sound of the 
German w, 

§ 69. (40.) X, in French, has often the sound of «^ and occasionally that of 2, 
but more generally that of Jcs or of gz, as in English. In Spanish, it is equivalent 
to the J of that language. (See § 60.) In Portuguese, it is pronounced like 
sh in shaM. 

§ 70. (41.) Zy in German and Swedish, has the sound of ts; in Spanish, that 
•of ^A in think ; in Italian, usually that of dz. In Pohsh, z has the sound of this 
letter in the English word zeal; », the sound of zhy as in azure (a'zhoor); 
i, nearly that of rzh. 

Combined Consonants. 

§ 71. (42.) Ch, in Spanish (except in the Catalan dialect, where it sounds as 
^), is pronounced like the same combination in English in the word church. In 
Italian and Hungarian, it has the sound of Jc ; in French and Portuguese, of sA, 
the exceptions being confined to words in which it occurs before ^ oj* r, and to 
a few words from the Greek, where it sounds like Tc. In German, Dutch, and 
Polish, when preceded in the same syllable by any one of the vowels a, o, or w, 
it has a harsh, guttural sound somewhat resembling a strongly aspirated h; as in 
ac^, dochj buch : it is produced by bringing the uvula into contact with the base 
of the tongue, and forcing unintonated breath through the barrier thus formed, 
the position taken by the organs remaining in other respects unchanged. When 
preceded by e, «, a, 0, m, ei, aw, ew, I, w, or r, the sound is palatal, and approxi- 
mates closely to that of the first two elements in the word hue (h'^00), the 
tongue being considerably raised in the mouth ; as in echt, ich, mdchtig^ wochent- 
lich, biicher, reich, euch, milch, manch, durch. 

4@=" CA, in German and Dutch, before s radical, has the sound of A; / as in 
Sachsen (szik'sn). 

§ 72. (43.) Csj in Hungarian, has the sound of ch in church, 

§ 73. (44.) Cz, in Hxmgarian, sounds like ts ; in Polish, like ch in church, 

§ 74. (45.) DJ and dy, in Hungarian, is a peculiar sound, organically formed 
by placing the tip of the tongue in the position for uttering c/, and simultaneously 
raising the back part into the position for sounding consonant y, before speaking. 
It closely resembles the sound of d and consonant y produced in immediate 
succession, as in verdure (verd'yoor), and hence approximates the kindred soimd 
of j in just. 

§ 75. (46.) Gh, in Italian, is like gh in the English words gherkin, ghost / that 
is, like g in get, begin, &c. 

> § 76. (47.) Gj, in Hungarian, is equivalent to dj or dy in the same language. 
(See §'74.) 

§ 77. (48.) 6r? before I, not followed by a consonant, in Italian, is a peculiar 
liquid sound formed from I in precisely the same way that the Hungarian dy is 
formed from d. Examples are gli, marsigli, &c. (See § 74.) The i is mute, if a 
vowel foUows it; as in battaglia, miglio, &c. 

§ 78. (49.) Gn, in French and Italian, represents a peculiar liquid sound 
which is identical with n in Spanish, (gee § 62, and compare § 74.) 


§ 79. (50.) %, in Hungarian, is like dy in that language. (See § 74.) 

§ 80. (51.) Kj^ in Swedish, sounds like ch in church. 

§ 81. (52.) Lh^ in Portuguese, is the same in sound with gl in French and 
Italian, and II in Spanish. (See§§ 77, 82.) 

§ 82. (53.) Ll^ in Spanish, blends the sounds of I and consonant ?/ in a single, 
though compound utterance, by an attempt to pronounce them simultaneously, 
the back part of the tongue being placed in the position for forming ?/, and the 
tip at the same time in that for forming I. The effect produced is very nearly* 
the same as in the English words JiUcd (fiPyal), million (miPyun), &;c., where 
the y follows the /, instead of being amalgamated with it. (Compare § 74.) — In 
French, the sound here described is, by some speakers, given to II, when preceded 
by ^, and followed by a vowel ; but, according to the modern popular style of 
pronunciation, the sound of the i^is dropped, while that of y is -often whispered. 
Thu^, papillon is pronounced pa^pel/yon', or pa/pe^yon'; Jilh, fel, or fe'y'; 
mouille, mooPya', or moo'ya'. It is to be observed that the i preceding II is 
silent, if itself preceded by a vowel. 

§ 83. (54.) Ly, in Hungarian, is pronounced like II in Spanish. (See § 82.) 

§ 84. (55.) Ng^m German and Swedish, has the same sound as in the English 
words sing, singer. . 

§ 85. (56.) Nh, in Portuguese, corresponds to the Spanish n. Ny, in Hun- 
garian, has the same sound. (See § 62.) 

§ 86. (57.) Ph, in all the languages of Continental Europe in which it occurs, 
has the same sound, that of f. 

§ 87. (58.) Bh is pronounced like simple r. 

§ 88. (59.) Bz, in Polish, is a peculiar sound, said to be uttered by placing the 
tongue in the position for zh, and trilling the tip, which is at liberty ; in other 
words, it is a simultaneous pronunciation of r and zh. 

§ 89. (60.) Sc, in Italian, before e and ^, is sounded like sh in s?iall; in 
other positions, like sh. >§c, in Polish, unites the sounds of s and 6. (See §§ 
65, 55.) 

§ 90. (61.) Sch, in German, sounds like sh in shall ,• in Italian, before e and 
i, lik^ sch in school, or sk in sJdll ; in Dutch and Polish, before all the vowels, it 
resembles sJc, but is harsher, the ch having the guttural or palatal sound de- 
scribed in § 71. 

§ 91. (62.) Ss, in the Germanic languages, has the same sharp and hissing 
sound that it usually has in English. 

§ 92. (63.) Sz, in German and Hungarian, sounds like s in sun; in Polish, 
like sh in s?ialL *" 

§ 93. (64.) Szcz, in Polish, is pronounced as shch would be in English. 

§ 94. (65.) Th, in all the languages of Continental Europe, except the Modern 
Greek (in which ■&, the graphic equivalent of th, has the same sound that this 
digraph usually has in English), is pronounced like th in tttyme, Thomas, that is, 
like simple t. 

§ 95. (66.) Tj and ty, in Hungarian, b' nd the sounds of t and consonant y in 
the same manner that dj ar\,d dy, in the rune language, blend tjie sounds of d 
and y. (See § 74.) The nearest l^figli.-li equivalent is the combination of t 


Hind y in the pronunciation sometimes given to the words nature (nat''yoor/, 
virtue (vert'yoo), &c., though*the ch in church is a very similar somid. 

§ 96. (67.) Ts, in Hungarian, is like ch in churchy being the same as the 
Hungarian cs. (See § 72.) 

§ 97. (68.) Tsch, in German, sounds very nearly as ch in church. (See §§ 
8, 90.) 

§ 98. (69.) Zs, in Hungarian, is like zh in English, as heard in the pronun-| 
ciation of azure (a'zhoor), confusion (kon-fu'zhun), &c. I 

§ 99. (70.) Zsch^ in German, has very nearly the sound of ch in church ;[ 
thus Zschokhe is pronounced almost like chok^kS. (See §§ 8, 70, and 90.) 

§ 100. (71.) Zz^ in Italian, usually has the sound of ts. 

§ 101. (72.) The letters h andj!) have the same sound as in English. 

§ 102. (73.) Double consonants, in some foreign languages, are dwelt upon 
in a marked ujanner, producing the effect of double articulation, though there 
is- but one contact of the organs of speech. This is particularly observable in 
Italian words; as, e. ^., hanno, pronounced an'no, and not a'no, the two w's 
being pronounced as distinctly as in the English word unnerve. But if the 
double letters are cc or gg, and the second c or g has the power of ch (in 
church) or of j, in consequence of being followed by any one of the vowels 
e, ^, and y, the first c or g has the sound of t or d; thus ucdso is pronounced 
oot-che^zo, not ob-che'zo nor doch-e^zo; oggi is od''jee,not o'jeejnor oj'ee. In 
like manner, zz is equivalent to t-is, sometimes to d-dz. 

Final consonants in French — with the exception of c, /, ?, r, in most 
cases — are not generally pronounced, unless immediately followed, in the 
same sentence, by a word beginning with a vowel. But final consonants^ 
in classical and foreign names adopted in French, are almost always articu- 


§103. (74.) The French language, — as spoJcen, — unlike the English, has no 
decided accent, all the syllables of a word being uttered.with a nearly equal 
stress of voice, except those in which the mute or obscure e occurs, and those in 
which i) w, or ow, precedes a syllable commencing with a vowel. To an English 
ear, however, the French seem to accent the last syllable of a word, because the 
general tendency of our own language is to throw the accent back toward the 
beginning of the word. Hence, it is the usual practice in English books, in 
respelling French words for pronunciation, to mark the last syllable as having 
the accent; at the same time, secondary accents may be placed on the other 
syllables, to prevent them from being slurred over, or too hurriedly and indis- 
tinctly pronounced, as is often the case in the enunciation of unaccented syl- 
lables in English. It may be observed, that, in French words derived from the 
Latin, the final spoken syllable always represents the accented syllable of the 
Latin ; it therefore has a right to, and, in point of fact, receives, whatever accent 
there is. 

The Hungarian language, like the French, has no accent, the syllables of a 


word being distingnished from each other solely by quantity, as in Greek and|| 
Latin. (See§ 29.) But in this work, as in others, an accent is placed on the 
long syllable, in conformity with the principle observed in the accentuation of 
Greek and Latin words. . 

In the Germanic family of languages, the principal accent falls upon the radi- 
cal syllable ; but, in consequence of the vast proportion of compound words, 
secondarily accented syllables abound, so that two, and sometimes even three 
or four, accents of nearly equal force may occur in the same word. It is 
evident, that, to those who are familiar with the meaning and composition of 
words in these languages, the accentuation must be easy ; but no general 
rules can be given. 

Italian words are mostly accented on the penultimate syllable ; the same is true 
of Spanish and Portuguese words ending in a vowel, while those ending in a 
consonant, in these two languages, are generally accented on the last syllable. 
But the exceptions — especially in Italian — are so numerous that the rule is 
not, perhaps, of much practical utility. 

Polish words are invariably accented on the penultimate syllable ; while th« 
seat of the accent 'm Bussian words is almost always the last syllable. 


Am.j or Amer. J 
Ar., or Arab. 
A.-S., . 


Celt, . 



coll., or colloq., 



d., . 

Dan., . 




Fr., . 

Gr., . 

Hist, . 


. bom. 





. Compare. 


. died. 

. Dutch. 



. Egyptian" 


. feminine. 


. History. 

Icel, ', 
Ir., . . 
It, or Ital., 











q. V. {quod vide). 



sc, . 







. Italian. 





. Polish. 





which see. 


. scene. 

Sw., Swedish. 

J8®* Spaced letters are used to distinguish forms of spelling which are 
not so common or so well authorized as those adopted in the vocabulftry. 


ACH 8 

charged his arrow into the air with 
such force that it took fire, and 
marked out a pathway of flame, until 
it was wholly consmned and disap- 
peared from sight. 

Thy destiny remains untold; 

For, like Acestes' sl>af<l.of old, 


A-chit'o-phel. A nickname given to 
* the Earl of Shaftesbury (1G21-1G8;0 
by his contemporaries, and made use 
of by Dryden in his poem of "Ab- 
salom and Achitophel," a masterly 
satire, springing from the political 
,. ^ commotions of the times, and de- 



A-bad'd6n. [Heb., fi*om dbad^ to be 
' ruined.] The Hebrew name of the 
evil spirit or destroying angel, called 
Apollyon in Greek. (Rev. ix. 11.) 
Some of the mediaeval demonogra- 
phers regarded him as the chief of the 
demons of the seventh hierarchy, and 
as the causer of wars, combustions, 
and uproars. Klopstock has made 
use of him in his " Messiah," under 
the name of Abad(J!ina, representing 
him as a fallen angel, still bearing 
traces of his former dignit;y^ amid tlje 
disligurements caused by sin. 
Ab'l-ris. [Gr. 'A/3apif.] A hyper- 
borean priest of Apollo, whose history- 
is "entirely mythical. He is said to 
have been endowed with the gift of 
prophecy ; to have taken no earthly 
food ; and to have ridden through the 
air on an arrow, the gift of Apollo. 

The dart of Abaris, which carried the phi- 
losopher wheresoever he desired it, gratifies 
later enthusiasts in travel as the cap of For- 
tunatus and the space-compelling boots of 
the nursery hero [Jack the Giant-killer]. 


^.Ab'di-el. [Heb., servant of God.] The 
name of an angel mentioned by the 
Jewish Cabalists. He is represented, 
in Milton's " Paradise Lost," as one 
of the seraphim, who, when Satan 
tried to stir up a revolt among the 
angels subordinate to his authority, 
alone and boldly withstood his trai- 
torous designs. 

So spake the seraph Ahdiel, faithful founa 
Among the faithless; faithful only he; 
Among innumerable false, unmoved, 
Unshaken, unseduced, unterrified. 
His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal. 

Par. Lost, Bk. V. 

You shall invoke the Muse, — and certainly 

she ought to be propitious to an author, who, 

in an apostatizing age, adheres with the faith 

ofjbdiel to the ancient form of adoration. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Ab-hor'son (-sn). An executioner in 
Shakespeare's "Measure for Meas- 

^ are." 

jL'bdu Has'san. The hero of one of 
the stories in the " Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments," — a young man of 
Bagdad, who, by a stratagem of Ha- 
roun-Al-Raschid, was twice made to 
believe himself caliph, and who af- 
terward became in reality the ca- 
liph's chief favorite and companion. 

Ah I were I caliph for a day, as honest Ahou 
Hassan wished to be, I would scourge me 
these jugglers out of the commonwealth with 
rods of scorpions. Sir W. Scott. 

Addington [Secretary of the Treasury], on 
the other hand, was by no means inclined to 
descend from his high position. He was, in- 
deed, under a delusion much resembling that 
o^ Abou Hassan in the Arabian tale. His brain 
was turned by his short and unreal caliphate. 

Abraham - Cupid. An expression 
occurring in Shakespeare's '' Romeo 
and Juliet" (a. ii., sc. 1), conject- 
ured by Upton to be a mistake for 
Adam Cupid, and to -allude to Adam 
Bell, the celebrated archer. In Hal- 
liwell's opinion, " the conjecture is 

BS" For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," -rith the accompanying Explanations, 
•ad for the Remarks and Rules to whieh the numbers a^er cjer^tiD^wpri^refer, see pp. xiV-ixxii. 

corruption is unquestionable. Mr. K. 
G. Wiiite remarks, in confirmation 
of Dyce's conjecture, that "•Cupid is 
always represented by the old paint- 
ers as auburn-haired." 

Abraham Newland. See Newland, 

Ab'sa-16m. A name given ^y Dry- 
den, in his poem entitled " Absalom 
and Achitophel," to the Duke of 
Monmouth, a natural son of Charles 
II. Like Absalom, the son of David, 
Monmouth was remarkable for his 
personal beauty, his popularity, and 
nis undutifulne'ss to his father. 

Absolute, Captain. A character in 
Sheridan's comedy of" The Rivals; " 
distinguished for his gallant, deter- 
mined spirit, adroit address, and dry 

The author will do well to profit by Captain 
Absolute's advice to hia servant, and never 
tell him more lies than are indispensably 
necessary. Sir W. Scott. 

Absolute, Sir An'tho-ny (-to-). A 
character in Sheridan's comedy of 
" The Rivals; " represented as testy, 
positive, impatient, and overbearing, 
but yet of a warm and generous dis- 

MSS' " Sir Anthony is an evident copy 
after Smollett's kind-hearted, high-spir- 
ited Matthew Bramble." Hazlitt, 
I will no longer avitil myself of such weak 
ministers as you; — I will discard you; — I 
will unbeget you, as Sir Anthony Absolute 
says. • Sir W. Scott. 

Ab-syr'tus. [Gr. 'Ai/^uprof.] {Gr. 
(f Rom. Myth. ) A brother of Medea, 
and her companion in her flight from 
Colchis. Finding that she was nearly 
overtaken by her father, she killed 
Absyrtus, and cut his body into 
pieces, which she scattered along the 
way, that her father might thus be 
detained by gathering up the re- 
mains of his murdered son. See 
Argonauts and Medea. 
flL-bu'd^h. A wealthy merchant .of 
* Bagdad who figures in the " Tales of 

the inestimable talisman is — to obey 
God and to love his commandments ; 
and he finds also that all his wonder- 
ful experiences have been but the 
baseless fabric of a dream. 

Like Abtidah, in the Arabian story ,%le is 
always looking out for the Fury, and knows 
that the night will come, and the inevitable 
hag with it. Thackeray. 

And there, too, was Abudah, the merchant, 
with the terrible little old woman hobbling 
out of the box in his bedroom. IHckeius. 

A-ca'di-a. [Fr. Acadie, said to be de- 
* rived from Shubenacadie, the name 
of one of the principal rivers of NoA-a 
Scotia; in old grants called L'Acadie, 
and La Cadie.] .The original, and 
now the poetic, name of Nova Sco- 
tia, or rather of a tract extending 
from the fortieth to the forty-sixth 
degree of north latitude, which was 
granted, Nov. 8, 1603, to De Monts, 
by Henry IV. of France. The present . 
province of Nova Scotia extends 
from lat. 43° 86' to 45° 55' N. In 
1621, Acadia was granted by charter 
to Sir William Alexander, and its 

• name changed to Nova Scotia, 

JS^" In the numerous disputes between 
the English and French colonists previous 
to 1763, this territory changed masters 
ten or a dozen times, and the boundaries^ 
were widened or narrowed according to 
the respective views of the opposing par- 
ties. In 1755, the French inhabitants 
were seized, forcibly removed, and dis- 
persed among the English colonists on 
the Atlantic coast. Longfellow has made 
this event the subject of his poem of 
A-ces't$§. [Gr. 'A/cearT/f.] (Gr. if 

'*Rom. Myth.) A son of the Sicilian 
river-god Crimisus and of a Trojan 
woman of the name of Egesta or 
Segesta. iEneas, on his arrival in 
Sicily, was hospitably received by 
him, and, on revisiting the island, 
celebrated the anniversary of An- 
chises's death by various games and 
feats at arms. At a trial of skill in 
archery, Acestes took part, and dis- 

^S* For tke " Key to the Schema of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanation*, 


charged his arrow into the air with 
such force that it took fire, and 
marked out a pathway of flame, until 
it was wholly consumed and disap- 
peared from sight. 

Thy destiny remains untold; 
For, like ylcestes' shaft of old. 
The swift thought kindles as it flies, 
And burns to ashes in the skies. 


A-$ha't§s. [Gr. 'Axdrvc-] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A companion and 
friend of -^neas. His tidelity was 
so exemplary that "lidus Achates," 
faithful Achates, became a proverb. 

Old enough, perhaps, but scarce wise 
enough, if ho has chosen this fellow for his . 
" fidus Achates." Sir W. Scott. 

Ach'e-r6n. [Gr. *kxepuv ; as if 6 
uXta piDv, the stream of woe, or from 
tt privative and x^'-P^'-'^i to rejoice, 
the joyless stream.] ( Gr. <f Rom. 
Myth.) A son of Sol and Terra, 
changed into a river in hell ; some- 
times used in a general sense to 
designate hell itself. 

Abhorred Styx, the flood of deadly hate, 
Sad Acheron, of sorrow black and deejf). 

• Milton. 

A-5hUaS§. [Gr. 'P^xi^ViEV^.I ( Gr. <f 
Rom. Myth.) The principal hero of 
Homer's " Iliad," the son of Peleus, 
king of the Myrmidons, in Thessaly, 
and of Thetis, a Nereid. He was 
distinguished above' all the rest of 
the Greeks in the Trojan war by his 
strength, beauty, and bravery. At 
his birth, he was dipped by his mother 
in the river Styx, and was thus mad^ 
invulnerable except in the right heel, 
— or, as some say, the ankles, — by 
which she held him; but he was at 
length killed by Paris, or, according 
to some accounts, by Apollo. See 

An unfortunate country [Hanover], if the 
English would but think ; liable to be stran- 
gled, at any time, for England's quarrels; the 
Achilles-heel to invulnerable England. 


A-Qhil'lSg of Germany. A title 
given, on account of his braver}'-, to 
Albei-t, Margrave of Brandenburg 
and Culmbach (1414-1486), "a tall, 
fiery, tough old gentleman," says 
(^arlyle, "in his day, ... a very 
blazing, far -seen character, dim as 
-he has now grown." 

8 ACR 

A-chit'o-phel. A nickname given to 
* the Earl of Shaftesbury (1G21-1G8;0 
by his contemporaries, and made use 
of by Dryden in his poem of "Ab- 
salom and Achitophel," a masterly 
satire, springing from the political 
commotions of the times, and de- 
signed as a defense of Charles II. 
against the Whi^ party. There is a 
strikihg resemblance between the 
» character and career of Shaftesbury 
and those of Achitophel, or Ahitho- 
phel, the treacherous friend and coun- 
selor of David, and the fellow -con- 
spirator of Absalom. 

Of this denial and this apology, we shall 
onlv say that tlie lirst seems very apocryphal, 
ana the second would iustify any crime wljich 
Machiavel or Achitophel could invent or rec- 
ommend. Sir W. Scvtt. 

A'cis. [Gr. ''AKtg.] (Gr. cf Rom. 
Myth.) A Sicilian shepherd, beloved 
by the njmiph Galatea, and crushed 
under a huge rock by Polyphemus, 
the Cyclops, who was jealous of him. 
His blood gushing forth from under 
the rock was changed by the nymph 
into a river, the Acis, or Acinius, at 
the foot of Mount ^Etna. 

Thus equipped, he would manfully sally 
forth, with pipe in mouth, to besiege some 
fair damsel's obdurate heart, — not such a 
pipe, good reader, as that which Acis did 
sweetly tune in praise of his Galatea, but 
one of true Delft manufacture, and furnished 
with a charge of fragrant tobacco. 

• W. Irving. 

iL-cra'si-ii (^-kra/zhi-^). [From Gr 
uKpaala, want of self-control or mod- 
eration, intemperance, from ci priva- 
tive and KpuTog, strength, power.^ 
A witch in Spenser's " Faery Queen,'* 
represented as a lovely and charming 
woman, whose dwelling is the Bower 
of Bliss, situated on an island floating 
in a lake or gulf, and adorned with 
every thing in nature that could de- 
light the senses. Acrasia typities 
the vice of Intemperance, and Sir 
Guyou, who illustrates the opposite 
virtue, is commissioned by the fairy 
queen to bring her into subjection, 
and to destroy her residence. 

A'cre§, Bob (a'k^rz). A character 
in Sheridan's comedy of " The Ri- 
vals;" celebrated for his cowardice, 
and his system of referential or alle- 
gorical swearing. 

and for the Remarks and Kules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 



As through his palms Bob Acres'' valor oozed, 
So Juan's virtue ebbed, 1 know not how. 

Besides, terror, as Bob Acres says of its 
counterpart, courage, will come and go; and 
few people can afford timidity enough for the 
writer's purpose who is determined on " hor- 
rifyinir " them through three thick volumes. 
^ * * SirW. Scott. 

Ac-t8e'6n. [Gr. *A/crafa>v.] {Gr. <f 
Bom. 'Myth.) A famous hunter, who, 
having surprised Diana while she 
was bathing, was changed by her 
into a stag, and, in that form, was 
torn to pieces by his own hounds. 

He [Byron], as I guess, * 
Had gazed on Nature's naked loveliness, 
Act(jeon-l\k.e, and now he fled astray 
With feeble steps o'er the world's wilderness; 
And his own thoughts, along that rugged 

Pursued, like raging hounds, their father and 
their prey. Shelley. 

Adam. 1. Formerly a jocular name 
for a sergeant or bailiff. 

Not that Adam that kept the paradise, hut 
that Adam that keeps the prison. Shak. 

2. An aged servant to Oliver, in 
Shakespeare's "As You Like It." 

4®=- " The serving-man Adam, humbly 
born and coarsely nurtured, is no iasignif- 
icant personaj^e in the drama ;*and we 
find in the healthy tone of his mind, and 
in his generous heart, which, under re- 
verses and wrongs, still preserves its 
charitable trust in his fellows, as well as 
in his kindly, though frosty, age, a de- 
lightful and instructive contrast. to the 
character pf Jaques, which could hardly 
have been accidental." R. G. White. 

Adamastor (ad^a-mas'tor; Port.pron, 
a-d^-m^s-tor', 64). The Spirit of the 
Stormy Cape, — l. c, the Cape of 
Good Hope, — a hideous phantom 
described by Camoens, in the fifth 
canto of the " Lusiad," as appearing 
bv night to the fleet of Vasco da 
Gama, and predicting the woes which 
would befall subsequent expeditions 
to India. Mickle supposes that by 
Adamastor the genius of Moham- 
medanism is intended. According to 
Barreto, he was one of the Giants 
who made an attack on heaven, and 
were killed by the gods or buried 
under various mountains. 

Were Adamastor to appear to him [the 
" gamm " of Paris], he would shout out, " Hal- 
lo there, old Bug-a-bool " V. Hugo, Trans. 

Adam Kad'mon. In the Cabalistic 
doctrine, the name given to the first 

emanation from the Eternal Foun- 
tain. It sigiiiMes the First Man, or 
the first production of divine energy, 
or the Sou of God ; and to it the other 
and inferior emanations are subor- 

Adam, Master. See IMaster Adam. 

Adams, Parson Abraham. A coun- 
try curate in Fielding's novel of 
"Joseph Andrews;" distinguished 
for his goodness of heart, poverty, 
learning, and ignorance of the worfd, 
combined with courage, modesty, and 
a thousand oddities. 

J8®" "As to Parson Adams, and his 
fist, and his good heart, and his ^schylus 
which he couldn't see to read, and his 
rejoicing at being delivered from a ride 
in the carriage with Mr. Peter Pounce, 
whpm he had erroneously complimt' bed 
on the smallness of his parochial means, 
let every body rejoice that there has been 
a man in the world called Henry Fielding 
to think of such a character, and thou- 
sands of good people sprinkled about 
that world to answer for the truth of 
it ; for had there not been, what would 
have been its value? . . . He is one of 
the simplest, but at the same time man- 
liest of men ; is anxious to read a man 
of the world his sermon on ' vanity ; ' 
preaches patience under afiiiction, and 
is ready to lose his senses on the death 
of his little boy ; in short, has ' every 
virtue under heaven,' except that of 
superiority to the common failings of 
humanity, or of being able to resist 
knocking a rascal down when he insults 
the innocent. He is very poor ; and, 
agreeably to the notions of refinement iu 
those days, is treated by the rich as if 
he were little better than a servant him- 
self. Even their stewards think it a con- 
descension to treat him on equal terms." 
Leigh Hunt. 

" The humanity, benevolence, and 
goodness of heart so conspicuous in Mr. 
Adams, his unswerving integrity, his 
zeal in the cause of the oppressed, his 
unaffected nature, independent of his 
talent and learning, win our esteem and 
respect, even while his virtuous simplic- 
ity provokes our smiles ; and the little 
predicaments into which he falls, owing 
to his absence of mind, are such as excite 
our mirth without a shadow of derision 
or malevolence." Thomas Roscoe. 

As to his [Hu»o von Trimbere's] in war i 
man, we can still be sure tliat he was no 
mere bookworm, or simple Farson Adams. 


- For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 



4.d'di-son of the Worth (ad'di-sn). 
A surname sometimes given to Henry 
Mackenzie (1745-1831), the Scottish 
novelist, whose style, like Addison's, 
is distinguished for its refinement and 

Addle, or Addled, Parliajnent. 
{Jvnf/. Hist.) A name given to the 
English Parliament which assembled 
at London, April 5, 1614, and was 
dissolved on 4;he 7th of the following 
June. It was so called because it 
remonstrated with the King on his 
levying " benevolences," and passed 
no acts. 

Ad-me'tus. [Gr.''A6fi7jToc.'] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A king of Pherse, in 
Thessaly, husband of Alcestis, famous 
for his misfortunes and piety. Apollo 
entered his service as a shepherd, 
having been condemned by Jupiter 
to become the servant of a mortal for 
one year as a punishment for slay- 
ing the Cyclops. Lowell has made 
this incident the subject of a short 
poem entitled, "The Shepherd of 
King Admetus." See^ALCESTis. 

A(^irable' Crichton. See Crich- 

^ XON, The Admirable. 

Admirable Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
Mirabilis.] A title bestowed upon 
Roger Bacon (1214-1292), an English 
monk, who, by the power of his 
genius and the extent of his learning, 
raised himself above his time, made 
many astonishing discoveries in sci- 
ence, and contributed much to the 
extensioli of real knowledge. 

Ad^'o-na'is. A poetical name given 
by Shelley to the poet Keats (1796- 
1821), on whose untimely death he 
Wrote a monody bearing this name 
for its title. The name was coined 
by Shelley probably to hint an anal- 
ogy between Keats' s fat« and that 

. of Adonis. 

A-do'nis. [Gr. 'ASovic] (Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A beautiful youth, 
belove^ oy Venus and Proserpine, 
who quarreled about the possession 
of him. The dispute was settled by 
Jupiter, who decided that he should 
spend eight months in the upper 

. world with Venus, and four in the 
lower with Proserpine. Adonis died 

of a wound received from a wild boar 
during the chase, and was turned 
into an anemone by Venus, who 
yearly bewailed him on the anni- 
versary of his death. The myths 
Connected with Adonis are of Orient- 
al origin, and his worship was widely 
spread among the countries border- 
ing on the eastern portion of the 
Mediterranean. The story of Venus' a 
love for him was made the subject 
» of a long descriptive poem by Shake- 
speare, and is often alluded to by 
other poets. 

Beds' of hyacinths and roses 

Where young Adonis oft reposes, 

Waxing well of his deep wound 

In slumber soft. Milton. 

A-dras'tus. [Gr. "Adpaarog.'] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A king of Argos, 
and the institutor of the Nemean 
games. He was one of the heroes 
who engaged in the war of the 
" Seven against Thebes." 

A^dri-a'na {or ad'ri-an'a). Wife of 
Antipholus of Ephesus, in Shake- 
speare's " Comedy of Errors." 

Adversity Hume. A nickname given 
to Joseph Hume (1777-1855), in the 
time of "Prosperity Robinson," and 
in contradistinction to him, owing to 
his constant presages of ruin and dis- 
aster to befall the people of Great 
JBritain. See Prosperity Robinson. 

^'5-cus. [Gr. Am/c<5$-.] ( Gr. 4 Rom. 
Myth. ) A son of Jupiter and JEgina, 
renowned for his justice and piety. 
After his death he was made one of 
the three judges in Hades. 

-^-ges'ftn. [Gr. 'A Lyatov.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A huge monster with 
a hundred arms and fifty heads, who, 
with his brothers Cottus and Gyges, 
conquered the Titans by hurling at 
them three hundred rocks at once. 
By some he is reckoned as a marine 
god living under the ALgean Sea; 
Virgil numbers him among the gotls 
who stormed Olympus ; and Callima- 
chus, regarding him in the same 
light, places him under Mount iEtna. 

-^E-ge^on. A merchant of Syracuse, in 
Shakespeare's " Comedy of Errors." 

J^geria. See Egeria. 

-^'geus. [Gr. Aiyevg.] { Gr. cf Rom. 

•nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv -xxxii. 




Myth) A king of Athens from whom 
the ^gean Sea received its name. 
His son Theseus went to Crete to 
deliver Athens from the tribute it 
had to pay to Minos, promising that, 
on his return, he would hoist white 
sails as a signal of his safety. This 
he forgot to do, and Jjigeus, who was 
watching for him on a rock on the 
sea-coast, on perceiving a black sail, 
thought that his son had perished, 
and threw himself into the sea. 

7F.-gi^n5. (6V. tf Bom. Myth.) A 
daughter of the river-god Asopus, 
and a favorite of Jupiter. 

^'gis. [Gr. kiyig.'] {Gr. cf Bom. 
Myth.) 1. The shield of Jove, 
fashioned by Vulcan, and described 
as striking terror and amazement 
into the beholders. 

2. A sort of short cloak, worn by 
Miner\^a, which was covered with 
scales, set with the Gorgon's head, 
and fringed with snakes. 

iE-gis'thus. [Gr. AlyLG^og.] {Gr. 
^' Bom. Myth.) A son of Thyestes, 
and the paramour of Clytemnestra, 
whose husband, Agamemnon, he 
treacherously murdered at a repast. 
He was subsequently killed by Ores- 
tes, a son of Agamemnon, who thus 
avenged his father's death. See 

^gle (eg^le). [Gr. AlyTn].'] {Gr. ^ 
Bam. Myth.) 1. One of the Hes- 

2. The most beautiful of the Na- 
iads, and the mother of the Graces. 

^-gyp'tus. [Gr. Myvnrog.'] {Gr. ^ 
Bom. Myth.) A son of Belus, and 
twin brother of Danaus. He had by 
several wives fifty sons, who were 
married to their fifty cousins, the 
daughters of Danaus, and all but one 
of whom were murdered by their 
wives on the bridal night. 

iETi-a LseTi-a Cris'pis. The un- 
known subject of a very celebrated 
enigmatical inscription, preserved in 
Bologna, which has puzzled the heads 
of many learned men who have at- 
tempted to explain it. It is as fol- 
lows : — 

^lia Laelia Crispla, 
Nee vir, nee mulier, nee androgyna; 
Nee puella, nee juvenis, ncc anus; 

Nee mcrctrix, nee pudiea; 
Scd omnia: 
Sublata neque fame, nee ferro, neque veneno; 

Sed omnibus: 
Nee caelo, nee aquis, nee terris; 

Lucius Agatho Priscus, 
Nee maritus, nee amalor, ncc ncccssarius; 
Neque moerens, neque gaudens, neque flens; 

Scd omnia: 
Hanc neque molem, neque pyramidcm, ne- 
que sepulchrum, 

Seit et nescit quid posuerit. 
Hoc est, sepulchrum intiis cadaver non 

Hoc est, cadaver, sepulcKrum, extra non, 

Sed cadaver idem est, et sepulchrum 
^lia Lselia Crispis, neither man, nor wom- 
an, nor hermaphrodite; neither girl, nor boy, 
nor old woman; neither harlot nor virgin; 
but all of these: destroyed neither by hunger, 
nor sword, nor poison; but by all of them: 
lies neither in heaven,*nor in the water, nor 
in the ground, but everywhere. Lucius Aga- 
tho Priscus, neither her husband, nor her 
lover, nor her kinsman ; neither sad, glad, nor 
weeping, but all at once; knows and knows 
not what he has built, which is neither a 
funeral-pile, nor a pyramid, nor a tomb; that 
is, a tomb without a corpse, a qorpse without 
a tomb; for corpse and tomb are one and the 

jg®^ Various explanations of the mean- 
ing of this curious epitaph have, from 
time to time, been put forward ; but 
there is mwch reason for doubting 
whether it has any. Somefiave thought 
the true interpretation to be rain-water ^ 
some, the so-called "materia prima; ^' 
some, the reasoning faculty ; some, tlie 
philosopher's stone ; some, love ; some, a 
dissected person ; some, a shadow ; some, 
hemp ; some, an embryo. Professor 
Schwartz, of Coburg, explained it of the 
Christian Church, referring, in support 
of his opinion, to Galatians iii. 28, — 
" There is neither Jew nor Greek, there 
is neither bond nor free, ther» is neither 
male nor female ; for ye are all one in 
Christ Jesus." Spondanus, in his " Voy- 
age d'ltalie," aflRrms that the inscription 
is only a copy, and that it is not known 
what has become of the original, tie 
denies its antiquity, regarding it as the 
ludicrous fancy of a modern author, 
who, he insists, was ignorant of the prin- 
ciples of* Latin family nomenclature. 
But Franckenstein says that this asser- 
tion has been confuted b}' Misson, in the 
appendix to his " Travels." 

I might add what attracted considerable 
notice at the time, —and that is my paper in 
the •* Gentleman's Magazine " upon the in- 
scription jElia Lcelia, which I subscribed 
CEdipus. Sir W. Scott. 

Bacon's system is, in its own terms, an idol 
of the theater. It would scarcely guide a 
man to a solution of the riddle ^lia Lcelia 
Crvmis, or to that of the charade of Sir Hilary 
[by Prtied]. J. W. Draper. 

O^ For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 



^-mil'i-a. Wife of Mgeon, and an 
abbess at Ephesus, in Shakespeare's 
"Comedy of Errors." 

-Sl-ne'Ss. [Gr. 'Acvetai.] (Gr. # 
Jiom. Myth.) A Trojan prince, the 
hero -of Virgil's "iEneid." He was 
the son of Anchises and Venus, and 
was distinguished for his pious care 
of his father. Having survived the 
fall of Troy, he sailed to Italy, and 
settled in Latium, where he married 
Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, 
whom h& succeeded in his kingdom. 
See Creusa. 

.ffl'o-lus. [Gr. AioAof .] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) The ruler and god of the 
winds, who resided in the islands in 
the Tyrrhenian sea, which were called 
from him the ^olian Islands. 

^s'$-cus. [Gt. AlaaKog.] (Gr. # 
Bom. Myth.) A son of rriam, who 
was enamored of the nymph Hes- 
peria, and, on her death, threw him- 
self into the sea, and was changed by 
Thetis into a cormorant. 

iEs/cu-la'pi-us. [Gr. *AaKXi]m6c.\ 
(Gr. # Bom. Myth.) The son of 
Apollo, and the god of the medical 
art. He was killed with' a flash of 
lightning by Jupiter, because he had 
restored several persons to life. 

.ffl's6n. [Gr. Aiacjv.'] (Gr. (f Rom. 
Myth.) The father of Jason. He was 
restored to youth by Medea. 

ATric. A poetical contraction of Af- 

Where Afric's sunny fountains 

Roll down their golden sand. Heber. 

Ag'&-mem'n6n. [Gr. ^Ayafiifivuv.] 
{dr. # Rom.^Myth.) King of My- 
cenaes, brother of Menelaus, and com- 
mander-in-chief of the Grecian 
forces iii the Trojan war. See 


Ag^a-nip'pe. [Gr. 'AyavtTTTny.] ( Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A fountain at the 
foot of Moimt Helicon, in Boeotia, 
consecrated to Apollo and the Muses, 
and believed to have the power of 
inspiring those who drank of it. 
The Muses are sometimes called 

Agapida, Fray Antonio (fri Sn- 
to'ne-o S-gS-pe'thi). The imaginary 

chronicler of the " Conquest of Gra- 
nada," written by Washington Irving. 

A-ga've. [Gr. 'Ayav7].'\ ( Gr. 4' Rom. 
Myth. ) A daughter of Cadmus, and 
the mother of Pentheus, whom, in a 
fit of frenzy, she tore to pieces on 
Mount Cithaeron, believing him to be 
a wild beast. 

A'gib. The third Calendar in the 
story of " The Three Calendars," in 
the " Arabian Nights' Entertain- 

Agitator, Tlie Irisli. See Irish Ag- 

Ag-la'i-i (20). [Gr. 'Aylairi.-] (Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) One of the three 

Ag'n^g (Fr. pron. Sn^yes'^. 1. A 
young girl in Moliere's " L'Ecole des 
Femmes," who is, or affects to be, 
remarkably simple and ingenuous. 
The name has passed into popular 
use, and is applied to any young 
woman unsophisticated in affairs of 
the heart. 

4®=" Agnes is the original from which 
Wycherley took his Mrs. Pinchwife, in 
the " Countrj^ Wife," subsequently al- 
tered by Garrick into the "Country 

2. A character in Dickens's novel 
of "David Copperfield." See Wick- 
field, Agnes. 

Ag'ni. [Sansk., fire.] (Hindu Myth.) 
The god of lightning and the sun's 

Agramante (S-grS-mSn'tS), or Ag'ra- 
mant. King of the Moors, in Bo- 
jardo's poem of " Orlando Inna- 
morato," and in Ariosto's " Orlando 

Ag'rS-viine, Sir. A knight of the 
Round Table, celebrated in the old 
romances of chivalry. He was sur- 
named " L* Orgueillevx^''' or " The 

A-Green, George. See George 

Agricane (S-gre-ki'nS), or Ag'ri-can. 
A fabulous king of Tartary, in Bo-, 
jardo's "Orlando Innamorato," who 
besieges Angelica in the castle of 
Albracca, and is killed by Orlando 
in single contest. In his dying mo- 
ments, he requests baptism at the 

■ad for the Bemarks and Bules to which the numbers aftor certain words refer, see pp. xiv -xxxiL 




hand of his conqueror, who, TVith 
great tenderness, bestows it. He is 
represented as bringing into the field 
no fewer than two million two hun- 
dred thousand troops. 

Snch forces met not, nor 80 wide a camp, 
When Ayrican, with all his northern powers, 
Besieged Albracca, as romancers tell. 


Ague-clieek, Sir Andrew. A de- 
lightful simpleton in Shakespeare's 
" Twelfth Night." See Slender, 

j^== " To this straight-haired country 
«quire, life consists only in eating and 
drinking ; eating beef, he himself fears, 
has done harm to his wit ; in fact, he is 
stupid even to silliness, totally deprived 
of all fashion, and thus of all self-love or 
self-conceit." Gervinus, Trans. 

I suppose I must say of Jeffrey as Sir An- 
drew Ague-cheek saith : " An I had kno^^ he 
was so cunning of fcnce,^ I had seen him 
damned ere I had fought him." Byron, 

J^-has'u-e'rus (a-hazh^'oo-e'rus, 10). 
See Jew, The Wandering. 

Ahmed, Prince. See Prince Ah- 

A]i'rl-m5n, or Ali'ri-ma'nSg. [Per., 
from Sansk. ari^ foe.] {Myth.) A 
deity of the ancient Persians, being 
a personification of the principle of 
evil. To his agency were ascribed 
all the evils existing in the world. 
Ormuzd, or Oromasdes, the principle 
of good, is eternal, but Ahriman is 
created, and will one day perish. 
See Ormuzd. 

I recognize the evil spirit, Sir, and do 
honor to Ahrimanes in taking off my hat to 
this young man. Thackeray. 

Ai'denn. An Anglicized and dis- 
guised spelling of the Arabic form of 
the word Eden; used as a synonym 
for the celestial paradise. 

Tell this soul, with sorrow laden, if, within 

the distant Aidenn^ 
It shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom the 

angels name Lenore. Poe. 

Aimw^ell. A gentleman of broken 
f(>rtunes, master to Archer, in B'ar- 
quhar's comedy, " The Beaux' Strat- 

A'jSx. [Gr. Aloe.] (Or. <f Rom. 
Myth.) 1. A. son of Telamon, king 
of Salamis. Next to Achilles, he was 
the most distinguished, the bravest, 
and the most beautiful, of all the 
Greeks before Troy. Accounts differ 
as to the cause and manner of his 

death. A tradition mentioned by 
Pausanias states, that from his blood 
there sprang up a purple flower, 
which bore the letters ax on its leaves, 
which were at once the initials of 
his name and a sigh. 

Gad I she shoots her glances as sharply from 

. behind the old pile yonder, as Teucer from 

behind Ajax Telamon's shield. Sir W. Scott. 

2. A son of Oileus, king of the 
Locrians. He was one of* the great 
heroes among the Greeks in the Tro- 
jan war, but inferior to the son of 
Telamon, whence he is -called the 
lesser Ajax. 

His shafts, like those of the lesser Ajcui, 
were discharged more readily that the archer 
was inaccessible to criticism, personally 
speaking, as the Grecian archer under his 
brother's sevenfold shield. Sir W. Scott. 

A-lad'din. A character in the " Ara- 
bian Nights' Entertainments," who 
becomes possessed of a wonderful 
lamp, and an equally wonderful ring, 
on rubbing which two frightful genii 
appear, who are respectively the slave 
of the lamp and the slave of the ring, 
and who execute the bidding of any 
one who may have these talismans 
in his keeping. 

J8®^ By means of the lamp and ring, 
Aladdin is enabled to marry a daughter 
of the sultan of China, and builds in a 
single night a magnificent palace con- 
taining a large hall with four-and-twenty 
windows in it decorated with jewels of 
every description and of untold value, one 
window only being excepted, -which is 
left quite plain that the sultan may 
have the glory of finishing the apartment. 
But all the treasures of his empire and all 
the skill of his jewelers and goldsmiths are 
not sufficient to ornament even one side 
of the window ; whereupon Aladdin, after 
having the materials 'which have been 
used removed and returned to the sultan, 
directs the genie to complete the window, 
which is immediately doiie.. At length, 
a malignant magician fraudulently ob- 
tains the miraculous lamp, during the 
temporary absence of the owner, and in- 
stantaneously transports the palace to 
Africa. But the ring still remain;; to 
Aladdin, and enables him to pursue and 
circumvent the thief, and to recover the 
lamp and restore the palace to its former 

The ephemeral kingdom of Westphalia, the 
appanage of Jerome Bonaparte, composed out 
of the spoils of these principalities, vanished 
into air, like the palace of Aladdin, in the 
Arabian tale. Sir W. Scott. 

• For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,'* with the accompanying Explanations, 




It was absolutely impossible that a family, 
holding a document which gave them un- 
limitecf access to the patronage of the most 
powerful nobleman in Scotland, should have 
Buffered it to remain unemployed, like Alad- 
din's rusty lamp, while they struggled through 
three generations in poverty ana disappoint- 
ment. Senior. 
Ah! who shall lift that wand of magic power, 

And the lost clew regain ? 
The unfinished window in Almddin's tower 

Unfinished must remain. Longfellow. 

Alario Cottin (a^l^'rek' kot'tan '). A 
nickname given by Voltaire to Fred- 
erick the Great, king of Prussia, who 
was distinguished for his military 
genius, and was also known as a dab- 
bler in literature, and a writer of bad 
French verses. The first name refers 
to the famous Visigothic king and 
warrior, while the second probably 
refers to the Abb^ Cotin, a mediocre 
poet of the seventeenth century, who 
was severely satirized by Boileau, 
Moliere, and other writers of his time. 
See Tkissotin. 

>&.-las' The hero of a story in 
* the "Arabian Nights' Entertain- 
ments " entitled " The History of 
Prince Zeyn Alasnam and the Sultan 
of the Genii," which relates how he 
came into the possession of immense 
wealth, including eight statues of 
solid gold ; how he was led to "seek 
for a ninth statue more precious still, 
to place on an empty pedestal ; and 
how he found it at last in the person 
of the most beautiful and purest wom- 
an in the world, who became his wife. 

In this brilliant comedy [Congreve's 
" Love for Love "], there is plenty of bright 
and sparkling characters, nch as wit and 
imagination can make them ; but there is 
wanting one pure and perfect model of sim- 

})le nature, and that one, wherever it is to be 
bund, is, like Alasnani's lady, .... worth 
them all. Sir W. Scott. 

A-las'tor. [Gr. 'Alaarop, from a 
privative, and Aai^eZv, to forget.] In 
classical mythology, a surname of 
Zeus or Jupiter; also, in general, a 
•punitive deity, a house-demon, the. 
never -forgetting, revengeful spirit, 
who, in consequence of some crime 
per])etrated, persecutes g, family from 
generation to generation. Plutarch 
relates that Cicero, in his hatred of 
Augustus, meditated killing himself 
by the fireside of this prince in order 
to become his Alastor. In the Zo- 
roastrian system, Alastor is called the 

Executioner or Tormentor. Origen 
says he is the same as Azazel. 
Others confound him with the Ex- 
terminating Angel. By Wierus and 
other mediaeval demonographers, 
Alastor is described as a devil in the 
infernal court, and the chief execu- 
tive ofticer in great undertakings. 
Shelley, in his poem entitled " Alas- 
tor," makes him the " Spirit of Soli- 

Al-ba'ni-it, ) A name given to Scotland, 

Al'ba-n^. Jor the Scottish High- 
lands, in the old romances and his- 
tories. It is said to have been derived 
from a certain fabulous Albanoct, who 
received this portion of the island of 
Albion, or Britain, from his father 
Brutus. See Albyn. 

Al'ba-n^ Regency. A name popu- 
larly given in the United States to a 
junto of astute Democratic politicians, 
having their head-quarters at Albany, 
who controlled the action of Ihe 
Democratic party for many years, 
and hence had great weight in na- 
tional politics. The effort to elect 
William H. Crawford president, in- 
stead of John Quincy Adams, was 
their first great struggle. 

Al'bi-6n. An ancient name of Britain, 
said to have been given to it on ac- 
count of the lofty white clitTs (Lat. 
albus, white) on the southern coast. 
Others trace the word to the Celtic 
alby alp, high. 

j8®=- In the fabulous history of Eng- 
land, it is related that the first inhab- 
itants were subdued by Albion, a giant 
and a son of Neptune, who called the 
island after his own name, and ruled it 
forty-four years. Another legend derives 
the name from a certain Albina, the 
eldest of fifty daughters of "a strange 
Dioclesian king of Syria,-' who, having 
murdered their husbands on their mar- 
riage-night, one only excepted, whom his 
wife's loyalty saved, were by him, at the 
suit of his wife, their sister, not put to 
death, but turned out to sea in a ship 
unmanned, and who, as the tale goes, 
were driven on this island, where they 
had issue by the inhabitants, — none but 
devils, as some write, or, as others assert, 
a lawless crew, without head or governor. 
Milton characterizes these stories as " too 
absurd and too unconscionably gross ' ' * 
for credence; but he remarks, "Sure 

aad for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words-refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




enough we are that Britain hath heen 
anciently termed Albion^ both by the 
Greeks and llomans." 
Not yet enslaved, not wholly vile, 
O Atbion, O my mother islel Coleridge. 

Al'bi-Sn, New. A name formerly 
given to an extensive tract of land 
on the north-west coast of North 
America. It was originally applied 
by Sir Francis Drake, in 1578, to the 
whole of what was then called Cali- 
fornia ; but it was afterward confined 
to that part of the coast which ex- 
tends from 43° to 48^ N. lat., and is 
now included within the State of 
Oregon and Washington Territory. 

MBoraJc (Si bSr'ak). [Ar., the light- 
ning.] An imaginary animal of won- 
derful form and qualities, on which 
Mohammed pretended to have per- 
formed a nocturnal journey from the 
temple of Mecca to Jerusalem, and 
thence to the seventh heaven, under 
the conduct of the angel Gabriel. 
This marvelous steed was a female, 
of a milk-white color, and of in- 
credible swiftness. At every step, she 
took a leap as far as the longest sight 
could reach. She had a human face, 
but the cheeks of a horse ; her eyes 
were as jacinths, and radiant as stars. 
She had eagle's wings, all glittering 
with rays of light; and her whole 
form was resplendent with gems and 
precious stones. 

Albracca (al-brak^kS, 102). A castle 
of Cathay to which Angelica, in Bo- 
jardo's " Orlando Innamorato," re- 
tires in grief at being scorned and 
shunned by Rinaldo, with whom she 
is deeply in love. Here she is be- 
sieged by Agricane, king of Tartary, 
who reaolves to win her, notwith- 
standing her rejection of his suit. 

Al'bsm (aVbin). The ancient Celtic 
name of Scotland, and, until Caesar's 
time, the appellation of the whole 
island of Great Britain. It is said to 
be derived from the Celtic alp or aZ6, 
meaning high, and ^ww, an island. 
The Scottish Celts denominate them- 
selves Gael Alhinn, or Albinnich, in 
distinction from the Irish, whom they 
call Gael Eirinnich; and the Irish 

* themselves call the Scottish Gael 
Albannaich, while their writers, so 

late as the twelfth century, call the 
country of the Scottish Gael Alban. 
[Written also A 1 b i n and A 1 b i n n.] 

The Celtic people of Erin and Albyn had, 
in short, a style of poetry properly called 
national, though Macjjherson was rather an 
excellent poet than a faithful editor and trans- 
lator. Sir W. Scott. 
The pure Culdees 
"Were ATbrjrCs earliest priests of God, 

Ere yet an island of her seas 
By foot of Saxon monk was trod. 


But woe to his kindred and woe to his cause. 

When Albin her claymore indignantly draws. 


Alceste (SPsesf). The hero of Mo- 
liere's comedy, "Le Misanthrope." 

jgi^ " Alceste is an upright and manly 
character, but rude, and impatient even 
of the ordinary civilities of life, and the 
harmless hypocrisies of complaisance, by 
which the ugliness of human nature is 
in some degree disguised." Sir W. Scott. 
" Moliere exhibited, in his ' Misanthrope,' 
a pure and noble mind which had been 
sorely vexed by the sight of perfidy and 
malevolence disguised under the forms of 
politeness. He adopts a standard of good 
and evil directly opposed to that of the so- 
ciety which surrounded him. Courtesy 
seems to him a vice, and those stem vir- 
tues which are neglected by the fops and 
coquettes of Paris become too exclusively 
the objects of his veneration. He is often 
to blame, he is often ridiculous, but he 
is always a good man." Macaulay. 

Al-ces'tis, or Al-ces'te. [Gr. 'AZ/cjy- 
OTtg, or 'k'kKEGTri.'] {Gr. <f Rom. 
Myth.) A daughter of Pelias, and 
the wife of Admetus. To save her 
husband's life, she died in his stead, 
but was brought back to the upper 
world by Hercules. 

Methought I saw my late espoused saint 

Brought to me like Alcestis from the grave. 

Whom Jove's great son to her glad husband 


Rescued from death by force, though pale 

and faint. Milton.- 

jM-ci'd6§. [Gr.-'AAm'%.] {Gr. <f 
Rom. Myth.) A patronymic or title 
of Hercules, the grandson of Alcseus. 
See Hercules. 

Alcina (M-che'nS). A fairy in Bo- 
jardo's "Orlando Innamorato," where 
she is represented as carrying off As- 
tolfo. She re-appears in great splen- 
dor ill Ariosto's " Orlando Furioso." 

The scene, though pleasing, was not quite 
equal to the gardens of Alcina. Sir W. Scott. 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Al-cin'o-us. [Gr. ^A?.Ktvooc.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A king of Drepane, 
or, as some say, of Phaeatia, who en- 
tertained the Argonauts on their re- 
turn from Colchis, and Ulysses when< 
he was shipwrecked. 

Al'ci-phr6n. [Gr. 'Ahct<ppo)Vj from 
a?iK7j, strength, spirit, and <ppv^, 
heart, breast.] 

1. A freethinking interlocutor in 
Bishop Berkeley's work of the same 
name, — otherwise called the "Mi- 
nute Philosopher," — a work "writ- 
ten with an intention to expose the 
weakness of infidelity." 

2. The hero of Thomas Moore's 
romance, " The Epicurean," and also 
the title of a poem by the same au- 

We long to see one good solid rock or tree, 
on which to fasten our attention ; but there is 
none. Like Alciphron we swing in air and 
darkness, and know not whither the wind 
blows us. Putnam's Mag. 

Alc-me'ii$. [GT.*A2,Kfi7^v7}.'] (Gr.4 
Ham. Myth.) The wife of Amphit- 
ryon, and the mother of Hercules by 
Jupiter, who visited her ih the dis- 
guise of her husband. See Amphit- 

Alcofribas Nasier (SPko/fre'bS' nS'- 
se^', 44). An.anagrammatic pseu- 
donym of Francois Rabelais (1483- 
1553), the celebrated French ro- 
mancer. • 

Al-cy'o-ne. [Gr. ^ATucvovi].'] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.y A daughter of ^olus, 
and the wife of Ceyx. On hearing 
of her husband's death by shipwreck, 
she threw herself into the sea, and 
was changed by the gods into a 
kingfisher. [Written also Haley- 

AI'da (ai'd*), w Al-da-bella (M-di- 
bel'li, 102). The name given to the 
wife of Orland^ and sister of Oliver, 
in the romantic poems of Italy. 

1. A character in Henry Carey's play 
of " Chrononhotonthologos.'* 

I felt a8 if mv understanding were no 
longer niy own, but was alternately under 
the dominion of Aldihorontephoscophomio^ 
and that of his facetious friend Rigdum Fun- 
nidos. Sir W. Scott. 

2. A nickname given by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott to his school-mate, printer. 

partner, an(f confidential friend, 
James Ballantyne, on account of his 
solemn and rather pompous manner. 
See Rigdum Funnidos. 

Al'din-gar, Sir. A character in an 
ancient legend, and the title of a 
celebrated ballad, preserved in Per- 
cy's "Reliques," which relates how 
the honor of Queen Eleanor, wife of 
Henry II. of England, impeached by 
Sir Aldingar, her steward, was sub- 
mitted to the chance of a duel, and 
how an angel, in the form of a little 
child, appeared as her champion, and 

, established her innocence. 

JL-Iec'to. [Gr. ^ AXtjktC).'] {Gr. ^ 

' Rom. Myth.) One of the three Furies. 

Alexander of the Worth. A sur- 
name conferred upon Charles xn. of 
Sweden (1682-1718), whose military 
genius' and success bore some re- 
semblance to those of the Macedonian 

A-lex'is. A youth of great beauty, of 
whom the shepherd Corydon, in Vir- 
gil's second Eclogue, was enamored. 

Alfadur {tVfk'&ooi). [That is, All- 
Father.] (Scand. Myth.) A name 
given to the Supreme Being, the un- 
created, eternal, and omnipresent 
Deity, whose nature and attributes 
were unknown. The name was also 
used as a title of Odin. See Odin. 

Allen-a-Dale. The hero of an old 
ballad which relates how his mar- 
riage to his true love — who was on 
the point of being forcibly wedded 
ta an old knight — was brought about 
by Robin Hood. Allen-a-Dale is de- 
scribed as "a brave young man," 
gayly dressed, who 

"did frisk it over the plain, 
And chanted a roundelay." 

Where is Allen-a-Dale, to chronicle me in a 
ballad, or if it were but a lay? Sir W. Scott. 

Alliance, Grand. See Grand Al- 
liance; and for Holy Alliance, 
Quadruple Alliance, Triple 
Alliance, see the respective adjec- 
tives Holy, Quadruple, &c. 

AIl-the-Talents Administration. 
An administration formed by Lord 
Grenville on the death of Mr. Pitt 
(June 23, 1806). The friends of this 
ministry gave it the appellation of 

and fbr the Bemarka and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 

ALL • 



"All-the-Talents," wlpch, being ech- 
oed in derision by the Opposition, be- 
came fixed upon it ever after. The 
death of Mr. Fox, one of the mem- 
bers, Sept. 13, 1806, led to various 
changes, and this ministry was finally 
dissolved in March, 1807. 

JSi^ The members composing it were 
as follows : — 

Lord Grenville, First Lord of the Treas- 

Earl Fitzwilliam, Lord President. 

Viscount Sidmouth (Henry Adding- 
ton). Privy Seal. 

Rt. Hon. Charles James Fox, Foreign 

Earl Spencer, Home Secretary. 

William Windham, Colonial Secretary. 

Lord Erskine, Lord Chancellor. 

Sir Charles Grey (afterwards Viscount 
Howick, and Earl Grey), Admiralty. 

Lord Minto, Board of Control. 

Lord Auckland, Board of Trade. 

Lord Moira, Master - General of the 

Mr. Sheridan, Treasurer of the Navy. 

Rt. Hon. Richard Fitzpatrick. 

Lord Ellenborough (Lord Chief Justice) 
had a seat in the Cabinet. 

All^v^orthy, Mr. A character in 
Fielding's novel of "Tom Jones," 
distinguished for his worth and 
beoevolence. This character was 
drawn for Fielding's private friend, 
Ralph Allen, of whom Tope said, — 

•* Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame. 

Do good by stealth, and blush to find it 

The sturdy rectitude, the large charity, the 
good nature, the modesty, the iivTependent 
spirit, the ardent philanthropy , the unaffected 
indifference to money and to fame, make up 
a character, which, while it has nothing un- 
natural, seems to. ua to approach nearer to 
perfection than any 'of the Grandisons and 
AUworthya of fiction. Macaulay. 

Al-main'. [Low Lat. Alemannia, Fr. 
Allemagne, Sp. Alemania ; from Ale- 
manni, the collective name of several 
ancient German tribes in the vicinity 
of the Lower and Middle Main; 
from Celt, allman, a stranger, for- 
eigner, from a?/, another, man, place.] 
An old English name for Germany. 

I have seen AlmairCa proud champions 

Have Been the gallant knights of France; . . . 
Have HPcn the sons of England true 
Wield the brown bill and bend the yew. 
Search France the fair, and England free," 
Bui bonny Blue-cap still for me I Old Song. 

Al-man'zor. A prominent character 

in Drj^den's tragedy of " The Con- 
quest of Granada." 

After all, 'h say with Almanzor, — 

" Know that I alone am king of me." 

Sir W. Scott. 

^yUmighty Dollar. A personification 
of the supposed object of American 
idolatry, nitended as a satire upon 
the prevailing passion for gain. The 
expression originated with Washing- 
ton Irving. 

The Almiqhty Dollar, that great object of 
universal devotion throughout our land, 
seems to have no genuine devotees in thes« 
peculiar villages. 

W. Irving, The Creole Village. 

Alp. The hero of Byron's " Siege of 

Alph. A rivermentioned by Coleridge 
in his poem entitled "Kubla Khan," 
composed during a dream, imme- 
diately after a perusal of Purchas's 
"Pilgrimage," and written down 

• from memory. This name is not 
found in Purchas, but was invented 
by Coleridge, and was probably sug- 
gested by the Alpheus of classical 

" In Xanadu did Kubla Khan 

A stately pleasure-dome decree, 
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran 
Through caverns measureless to man, 
Down to a sunless sea." 

Alquife (al-ke'fa). A personage who 
figures in almost all the books of the 
lineage of Amadis as^ potent wizard. 

Then . . . thou hadst not, as now, . . . con- 
verted, in thy vain imagination, honest Grif- 
fiths, citizen and broker, . * . into some . . . 
sage Alquife, the mystical and magical pro- 
tector of thy peeriess destiny. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Al Rakim {tr ra-keemO- [Ar., from 
rdkatn, to write, rakimeh, something 
written or sent.] A fabulous dog 
connected with the legend of the 
Seven Sleepers. The Mohammedans 
have given him a place in Paradise, 
where he has the ^re of all letters 
and correspondence. See Seven 

Al-sa'ti-$ (al-sa'shJ-ii). A popular 
name formerly given to Whitefriars, 
a precinct in London, without the 
Temple, and west of Blackfriars. It 
was for a long time an asylum or 
sanctuary for insolvent debtors and 
persons who had offended against 
the laws. The scene of Shadwell's 

■ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




comedy of the "Squire Of Alsatia" 
is laid in this place ; and Scott has 
rendered it familiar to all readers by 
his " Fortunes of Nigel." 

4^ "It is not unlikely that the 
Landgraviate of Alsace [Ger. Elsass, Lat. 
Alsatia] — now the frontier province of 
France, on the left bank of the Rhine, 
long a cause of contention, often the seat 
of war, and familiarly known to many 
British soldiers — suggested the applica- 
tion of the name Alsatia to the precinct 
of Whi tefriars . This privileged spot stood 
in the same relation to the Temple as 
Alsace did to France and the central 
powers of Europe. In the Temple, stu- 
dents were studying to observe the law ; 
and in Alsatia, ac^oining, debtors to avoid 
and violate it. The Alsatians were troub- 
lesome neighbors to the Templars, and 
the Templars as troublesome neighbors 
to the Alsatians." Cunningliam. 

The furious German comes, with his clarions 
and his drums. 

His bravoes of Alsatia, a,ni. pages of White- 
hall. Macaulay. 

Al Sirat (as se-rStO- [Ar., the path.] 
A bridge extending from this world 
to the next, over the abyss of hell, 
which must be passed Tjy every one 
who would enter the Mohammedan 

Earadise. It is very narrow, the 
readth being -less than the thread 
of a famished spider, according to 
some writers; others compare it to 
the edge of a sword, or of a razor. 
The deceased cross with a rapidity 
proportioned to their virtue. Some, 
it is said, pass with the swiftness of 
lightning, others with the sp^d of a 
horse at full gallop, others like a 
horse at a slow pace, others still 
slower, on account of the weight of 
their sins, and many fall down from it, 
and are precipitated into hell. 
Am'S-dis de Gaul. [Sp. Amadis de 
Gaula.] The hero of an ancient 
and celebrated romance of chivalry, 
originally the work of a Portuguese, 
Vasco de Lobeira, who died, as Tick- 
nor conjectures, in 1403. It was 
translated into Spanish by Montalvo, 
between 1492 and 1504. The Por- 
tuguese original is no longer extant. 
A French version was made by Her- 
beray, and was printed, in 1555, under 
the mistranslated title of "Amadis 
des Gaules," meaning France. In 
the original romance, Gaula is Wales ; 

and the subject, characters, and lo- 
calities are British. The other Am- 
adises that figure in romance are 
represented as descendants, more or 
less remote, of Amadis de Gaul. He 
himself was a love-child of a fabulous 
King Perion of Wales, and of Eli^ena, 
a British princess. 
A-mai'mSn, or A-may'mon. An 
* imaginary king of the East, one of 
the principal devils who might be 
bound or restrained from doing hurt 
from the third hour till noon, and 
from the ninth hour till evening. 
He is alluded to in Shakespeare's 
"1 Henry IV." (a. ii., sc. 4), and 
"Merry Wives of Windsor" (a. ii., 
sc. 2). According to Holme, he was 
" the chief whose dominion is on the 
nortlj part of the infernal gulf; " but * 
Mr. Christmas says he ruled over the 
easternmost of the four provinces 
into which the world of devils was 
thought to be divided. Asmodeus 
was his lieutenant* 
Am'ai-thse'a. [Gr.'Afial^sta.'] (Gr. 
if Rom. Myth.) The name of a goat 
with whose milk the infant Jupiter 
was fed, and one of whose horns he 
is said to have broken off, and given 
to the daughters of Melisseus, a 
Cretan king. This he endowed with 
such powers, that, whenever the pos- 
sessor wished, it would ijistantane- 
ously become filled with whatever 
might be desired : hence it was called 
the cornucoj)ia, or horn of plenty. 
According to other accounts, Amal- 
thaea was the name of a nymph by 
whom Jupiter was nursed m his in- 

The Britannic Fountain . . . flowed like an 
Amalthcea?s horn for seven years to come, re- 
freshing Austria and all thirsty Pragmatic 
Nations, to defend the Key-stone of this Uni- 
verse. Carlyle. 

Am^a-ryllis. The name of a country- 
girl in the Idyls of Theocritus and in 
the Eclogues of Virgil, adopted into 
modem pastoral poetry as the name 
of a mistress or sweetheart. 

To sport with Amaryllis in the shade. 


Am'S-zo'ni-a. A name given by 
Francisco Orellana, in 1580, to the 
country on either side of the river 
Maraiion, from the companies of % 

«ad for the Remarks and Rides to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




women in arms whom he observed 
on its banks. He also gave the name 
Amazdn to the river, and it has since 
been generally known under this 

^ designation. 

A-meli-$ {or t-meeVyt). 1. The 
title of one of Fielding's novels, and 
the name of its heroine, who is dis- 
tinguished for her conjugal tender- 
ness and affection. The character 
of Amelia is said to have been drawn 
for Fielding's wife, even down to an 
• accident which disfigured her beauty. 

jge^ '• To have invented that character 
is not only a triumph of art, but it is a 
good action." Tluickeray, 

2. A young woman killed in her 
lover's arms by a stroke of lightning, 
who forms the subject of a, well- 
known episode in the poem of" Sum- 
mer," in Thomson's " Seasons." 

American FaHbi-us. An appellation 
often given to General Washington 
(1732-1799), whose military policy 
resembled that of the Roman general 
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, 
who conducted operations against 
Hannibal by declining to risk a bat- 
tle in the open field, harassing him by 
marches, counter-marches, and am- 

A-mine'. A character in the " Ara- 
bian Nights' Entertainments " who 
leads her three sisters by her side 
as a leash of hounds. 

Aminte (t^manf, 62). The assumed 
name of a female character in Mo- 
li^re's celebrated comedy, "Les 
Pr(?cieuses Ridicules." Her real 
name is Cathos, which she has dis- 
carded for a more sentimental one, 
in accordance with the prevailing 
fashion. She dismisses her admirer 
for proposing to marry her, scolds 
her uncle (see Gorgibus) for not 
possessing the air of a gentleman, 
and is taken in by a*valet whom she 

. believes to be a nobleman, and who 
easily imitates the foppery and sen- 
timentalism which she so much ad- 

Amlet, Bichard. The name of a 
gamester in Vanbrugh's " Confed- 
^ eracy." 

Richard Amlety Esq., in the play, is a nota- 

ble instance of the disadvantnges to which 
this chimerical notion of affinity confitituting 
fl claim to acquaintance may subject the spirit 
of a gentleman. Charles Lamb. 

Aiu'in6n. [Gr. "Afifiov.'] {Or. ^ 
Rom.' Myth.) The name of an 
Ethiopian or Libyan divinity, iden- 
tified by the Greeks and Romans 
with Jupiter. He was represented in 
the form of a ram, or as a human 
being with the head of a ram, or 
sometimes with only the horns. 
[Written also Hammon.] 

Am'o-ret. The name of a lady mar- 
ried to Sir Scudamore, in Spenser'8 
" Faery Queen." She expresses the 
affectionate devotedness of a loving 
and tender wife. 

Am-phi'Sn. [Gr. 'A^a^/wv.] {Gr. 
^ Rom'. Myth.) A son of Jupiter 
and Antiope, who built a wall round 
the city of Thebes by the music of 
his lyre. It is said, that, when he 
played, the stones moved of their 
own accord, and fitted themselves to- 
gether so as to form the wall. 

It was like a sudden pause in one of Am- 
phion's country-dances, when the huts which 
were to form the future Thebes were jigging 
it to his lute. Sir W. Scott. 

Am'phi-tri'te. [Gr. 'A^^frp^r??.] 
{Gi\ ^ Rom. Myth.) The wife of 
Neptune, goddess of the sea, and 
mother of Triton. 

Am-phit'ry-ftn. [Gr. * kiKptrpvLiv .'] 
{Gr. ^' Rom. Myth.) A son of Al- 
caeus and Hippomene. He was king 
of Thebes, and husband of Alcmena, 
who bore at the same time Iphicles, 
his son, and Hercules, the son of Ju- 
piter. See Alcmena. [Written also 

Am'ri. See Father of Equity. 

Amrita (am-re'ta). {Hindu Myth.) 
A beverage of immortality, churned 
from the sea by the gods, who were 
mortal until they discovered this po- 
tent elixir. 

A'mysandJL-myl'i-Sn. Two faith- 
ful and sorely tried friends, — the 
Pylades and Orestes of the feudal 
ages, — whose adventures are the 
subject of a' very ancient romance 
bearing these names for its title. An 
abstract of the story is given in El- 
lis's " Specimens of Early English 
Metrical Romances." 

taSf For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




An/a-§har'sis • Clootz (klots). A 
name assumed by Baron Jean Bap- 
tiste Clootz, who was born at Cleves, 
in 1755. He conceived the idea of 
reforming the human race, and trav- 
eled through England, Germany, 
Italy, &c., denouncing all kings, 
princes, and rulers, and even the De- 
ity., He called himself Anacharsis^ 
in allusion to the Scythian philos- 
opher of this name, who flourished 
about six centuries before the Chris- 
tian era, and who traveled to Greece 
and other countries for the purpose 
of gaining knowledge in order to im- 
prove the people of his own country. 

4.-nac're-6n Moore. A name some- 
times given to Thomas Moore, the 
Eoet, who, in 1801, published a trans- 
ition of the Odes of Anacreon. 

Julia sat within as pretty a bower 
As e'er held houri in that heathenish heaven 
Described by Mahomet and Anacreon Moore. 
• Byron. 

A-nac're-5n of Painters. A name 
given to Francesco Albani (1578- 
1660), a distinguished painter of It- 
aly. He was so called on account of 
the softness ©f his style, and his avoid- 
ance of subjects which require spir- 
ited and energetic treatment. 

4--nac're-6n of Persia. A title 
sometimes given to Hafiz (d. 1388), 
the Persian poet, whose odes and 
lyric compositions, like those of 
Anacreon, celebrate the pleasures of 
love and wine. 

A-nac're-6n of the Guillotine. A 
name given by the French to Ber- 
trand Barere (or Barrere) de Vieuzac 
(1755-1841), president of the Nation- 
al Convention in 1792, on account of 
the flowery and poetical language in 
which he spoke upon all the meas- 
ures of the reign of terror. See 
Witling of Terror. 

An'Ss-ta'Si-us (an'as-ta'zhl-us). The 
hero and title of a novel by^Thomas 
Hope (1770-1831), — a work purport- 
ing to be the autobiography of a 
Greek, who, to escape the conse- 
quences of his own crimes and vil- 
lainies of every kind, becomes a ren- 
egade, and passes through a long 
series of the most extraordinary and 
romantic vicissitudes. 

Anastasius Griin. See Grun, Anas- 


An-C88'us. IQY.'kyKalog.'] {Gr. (f 
Bom. Myth.) A son of Neptune 
who, having left a cup of wine un- 
tasted to pursue a wild boar, was 
killed by it, which gave rise to the 
proverb, " There 's many a slip be- 
tween the cup and the lip." 

An-chi'sfeg. [Gr. 'Ayxtt^VC-] {Gr. (f 
Rom. Myth.) A son of Capys and 
Themis, and the father of ^neas by 
Veniis. He survived the capture of 
Troy, and was carried by ^neas on 
his shoulders from the burning city. 

Ancient Mariner. The hero of Cole- 
ridge's poem of the same name, 
who, for the crime of having shot an 
albatross, a bird of good omen to 
voyagers, suffers dreadful penalties, 
together with his companions, who 
have made themselves accomplices in 
his crime. These penalties are at last 
remitted in consequence of his re- 
pentance. He reaches land, where 
he encounters a hermit, to whom he 
relates his story; 

" Since then, at an uncertain hour, 
The agony returns," 

and drives him on, like the Wander- 
ing Jew, from land to land, compelled 
to relate tKe tale of his suffering and 
crime as a warning to others, and as 
a lesson of Jove and charity towards 
all God's creatures. 

jg^^" The conception of this poem and 
the mystical imagery of the skeletou-fehip ■ 
are said by Dyce to have been borrowed 
by Coleridge from a friend who had ex- 
perienced a strange dream. But De 
Quincey asserts that the germ of the story 
is contained in a passage of Shelvocke, 
one of the classical circumnavigators of 
the earth, who states that his second cap- 
tain, being a melancholy man, was pos- 
sessed by a fancy that some long season 
of foul weather was owing to an albatross 
which had steadily pursued the ship, 
upon which he shot the bird, but with- 
out mending their condition. 

Andrewa, Joseph. The title of a 
novel by Fielding, and the name of 
its hero, a footman who marries a 
maid - servant. To ridicule Rich- 
ardson's " Pamela," Fielding njade 
Joseph Andrews a brother of that 
renowned lady, and, by way of con- 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the ntimbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




trast to Richardson's hero, repre- 
sented Iiii^ as a model of virtue and 

j^r" "The accounts of Joseph's brav- 
ery and good qualities, his voice too musi- 
cal to halloo to the dogs, his bravery in 
riding races for the gentlemen of the 
county, and his constancy in refusing 
bribes and temptation, have something 
refreshing in their naivete and freshness, 
and prepossess one in favor of that hand- 
some young hero." Thackeray. 

An-drom'a-she. [Gr. *Avdf)OfiaxV'] 
(Gr. (f Eom. Myth'.) A daughter 
of Eetion, and the fond wife of Hec- 
tor, by whom she had Astyanax. 
She is one of the noblest and loveli- 
est female characters in Homer's " II- 

An-drom'e-d^. fGr. ^Avdpofiedrj.] 
(Gr. (f Bom. Myth.) A daughter 
of Cepheus, king of Ethiopia, and 
of Cassiopeia. Her mother having 
boasted that her beauty surpassed 
that of the Nereids, Andromeda 
wag exposed to a sea-monster, but 
was found, saved, and married by 

An-gelt-cS. An infidel princess of 
exquisite beauty and consummate 
coquetry, in Bojardo's " Orlando In- 
namorato." She is represented to 
have come all the way from farthest 
Asia to sow dissension among the 
Christians in Paris, who were be- 
sieged by two hosts of infidels, one 
from Spain, and another, which had 
landed in the south of France, from 
Africa. Among many others, Or- 
lando falls desperately in love with 
her, forgetting, for her sake, his wife, 
his sovereign, his country, his glory, 
in short, every thing except his relig- 
ion. She, however, cares nothing 
for him, having fallen madly in love 
with Kinaldo, in consequence of 
drinking at an enchanted fountain. 
On the other hand, Rinaldo-, from 
drinking at a neighboring fountain 
of exactly the opposite quality, can- 
not abide her. Various adventures 
arise out of these circumstances; and 
the fountains are again drunk, with 
a mutual reversal of their effects. 
Ariosto, in his " Orlando Furioso," 
took up the thread of Angelica's 

story where Bojardo had left it, and 
making the jilt fall in love herself 
with Medoro, an obscure youthful 
squire, he represents Orlando as 
driven mad by jealousy and indig- 
nation. Angelica is celebrated tor 
the possession of a magic ring, which, 
placed on the finger, defended the 
wearer from all spells, and, concealed 
in the mouth, rendered the person in- 
visible. See Agricane. 

j^=* "Angelica, noted in romance as 
the faithless lady for whose sake Orlando 
lost his heart and his senses, was a gra- 
tuitous-invention of Bojardo and Ariosto ; 
for Spanish ballads and earlier Italian 
poets make him the faithful husband of 
Alda or Belinda." Yonge. 

The fairest of her sex, Angelica, 
. . . sought by many prowest knights, 
Both pamira and the peers of Charlemain. 

Angelic Doctor. [Lat. Doctor An^ 
gelicus.] Thomas Aquinas (1227- 
1274), the most famous of the medi- 
aeval schoolmen and divines. 

4^ Aquinas was ^extravagantly ad- 
mired by his followers*. One of his com- 
mentators endeavors to prove that he 
wrote with a special infusion of the Spirit 
of God ; that he received many things by 
direct revelation, and that Christ had 
given anticipatory testimony to his writ- 
ings. Peter Labbe says, that, as he 
leariied some things from the angels, so 
he taught the angels some things ; that 
he had said what St. Paul was not per- 
mitted to utter ; and that he speaks of 
God as if he had seon him, and of Christ 
as if he had been his voice. 

We extol Bacon, and sneer at Aquinna. 

But, if the situations had been changed, 

Bacon might have been the Angelic Doctor. 


Ang61ique (on/zha^ek', 62). 1. The 
heroine of Moliere's comedy, "Le 
Malade Imaginaire." 

2. The wife of George Dandin, in 
Moliere's comedy of this name. See 
Dandin, George. 

An'ge-lo. 1. The deputy qf Vincen- 
tio, in Shakespeare's " Measure for 
Measui^." At first he exercises his 
delegated power with rigor and seem- 
ing conscientiousness, but only to 
enable him the more safely to gratify 
his base passion for Isabella, the sis- 
ter of a young nobleman named 
Claudio. His design, however, is 
thwarted, and his hypocrisy un- 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronuncifl,tion," with the accompanying Explanations, 




masked, by a counteracting intrigue 
of Vincentio's, which, aided and fa- 
vored by chance, rescues Isabella, 
and punishes Angelo by compelling 
him to marry Mariana, a woman 
whom he had a long tinae before se- 
duced and abandoned. 

2. A goldsmith in Shakespeare's 
" Comedy of Errors." 

Angel of the Schools. A title given 
to Thomas Aquinas, the most cele- 
brated metaphysician of the Middle 
Ages. See Angelic Doctor. 

Angurvardel (ang^goof-vltf 'del). [Icel. 
a stream of anguish.] The sword of 
Frithiof. The blade was inscribed 
with runic letters, which shone dimly 
in peace, but gleamed with a won- 
drous ruddy light in time of war. 
See Frithiof. [Written also An- 

Gloriously known was the sword, the first of 
all swords in the Northland. 

Bp. Tegn^r, Trans. 

Anne, Sister. See Sister Anne. 

An-tae'us. [Gr. 'AvTalog.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A son of Neptune and 
Terra, a famous Libj^an 'giant and 
wrestler, whose strength was invinci- 
ble so long as he remained in contact 
with his mother earth. Hercules dis- 
covered the source of his might, lifted 
him up from the earth, and crushed 
him in the air. 

As when Earth's son Antcevs (to compare 
Small things with greatest) in Irassa strove 
With Jove's Alcides, and, oft foiled, still rose. 
Receiving from his motherearth new strength 
Fresh from his fall, and fiercer grapple ioined; 
Throttled at length in air, expired and fell: 
So, after many a foil, the tempter proud, 
Renewing fresh assaults amidst his pride, 
Fell whence he stood to see his victor fall. 


Ant'e-r6s. [Gr. 'Avrepwf .] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A deity opposed to 
Eros, or Love, and fighting against 
him ; usually, however, regarded as a 
god who avenged slighted love. He 
is sometimes represented as the sym- 
bol of reciprocal affection. 

An'ti-christ. Literally, the opponent 
of the anointed, or of the Messiah. 
The name of Antichrist was given by 
the Jews and Christians to the great 
enemy of true religion, who shall, ac- 
cording to the Holy Scriptures, ap- 
pear before the coming of the Messiah 

in his glorjr. The name occurs in 
the Bible in the following places 
only: — 1 John ii. 18, 22; iv. 3; 2 
John 7. The "man of sin," whose 
coming is foretold by St. Paul, 2 
Thess. ii., is supposed to be the same 
with Antichrist. Emblematic descrip- 
tions of him occur in the 12tli and 
13th chapters of the Revelation. The- 
ological writers have indulged in 
many and the most diverse and fan- 
ciful speculations respecting this great 
adversary of Christianity;, but the 
prevalent opinion among Protestant 
diviries has always connected him 
with the Roman Catholic church. At 
the Council of Gap, in 1603, the re- 
formed ministers there assembled in- 
serted an article in their Confession 
of Faith, in which the Pope is pro- 
nounced Antichrist. Grotius and 
most Roman Catholic divines con- 
sider Antichrist as symbolical of Pa- 
gan Rome and her persecutions ; Le- 
clerc, Lightfoot, and others, of .the 
Jewish Sanhedrim, or of particular 
Jewish impostors. Many are of opin- 
ion that the kingdom of Antichrist 
comprehends all who are opposed to 
Christ, openly or secretly. 

An-tig'o-ne. [Gr. 'AvnyovTi.] ( Gr, * 
^ Rom. Myth.) A daughter of (Edi- 
pus by his mother Jocasta^ She was 
famoiig for her filial piety. 

An-tin'o-us. [Gr. 'Arnvoof.] A page 
of the Emperor Hadrian, celebrated 
for his extraordinary beauty, and for 
Hadrian's extravagant affection for 
him. After his death by drowning 
in the Nile, — about A. d. 122, — he 
was enrolled among the gods, tem- 
ples were erected to him in Egypt 
an^ Greece, and statues set up in al- 
most every part of the world. 

An-ti'o-pe. \Gv.*kvTi6ir7j.'] {Gr. (f 
Rom. Myth.) A favorite of Jupiter, 
by whom she became the mother of 
Amphion and Zethus. See Lycus. 

An-tiph'o-lus of Eph'e-sus. i Twin 
An-tiph'o-lus of S^^'S-cuse.} broth- 
ers, sons to M^eon and :/Emilia, in 
Shakespeare's "Comedy of Errors," 

" the one so like the other 
As could not be distinguished but by names." 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp.xiv-xxxiL 




Their attendants were Dromio of Eph- 
esus and Dromio of Syracuse, also 
twins, and both alike in their per- 
sonal appearance. 
An-to'ni-o. 1. The usurping Duke 
of Milan, and brother to Prospero, 
in Shakespeare's " Tempest." See 


2. The father of Proteus, in Shake- 
speare's " Two Gentlemen of Vero- 

3. A minor character in Shake- 
speare's " Much Ado about Nothing." 

4. The " Merchant of Venice," in 
Shakespeare's play of that name. 
See Portia. 

5. A sea-captain, friend to Sebas- 
tian, in Shakespeare's " Twelfth 

A-nu'bis. [Gr. "AvovISlc.] {Egypt. 
Myth.) A divinity, a son of Osiris, 
worshiped in the form of a dog, or of 
a human being with a dog's head. 
He accompanied the ghosts of the 
dead to the under-world. 

Ap^e-man'tus. A churlish philoso- 
pher, in Shakespeare's play, " Timon 
of Athens." 

Their affected melancholy showed like the 
cynicism of Apemantua contrasted with the 
real misanthropy of Timon. Sir W. Scott. 

Aph^ro-di'te. [Gr. 'A ^podi'r?/.] {Gr. 
Myth.) The Greek name of Venus, 
the goddess of love, beauty, and de- 
sire. See Venus. 

A'pis. [Gr. TATTif.] {Egypt Myth.) 
The chief deity of the Egyptians, 
worshiped under the form of a bull. 
He is sometimes identified with Osi- 
ris and Serapis. 

i-pollo. [Gr.'AivoUcjv.] {Gr. ^ 
Roni. Myth. ) The son of Jupiter And 
Latona, and the brother of Diana, 
portrayed with flowing hair as being 
ever young. He was the god of song, 
music, prophecy, and archery, the 
pnnisher and destroyer of the wicked 
and overbearing, the protector of 
flocks and cattle, the averter of evil, 
the afforder of help, and the god who 
delighted in the foundation of towns 
and the establishment of civil consti- 
tutions. By the later Greeks he was 
identified with the sun. His favor- 
ite residence was at Mount Parnas- 

sus, and he had oracles at Delphi and 
^ Delos. 

A-polly-on, or A-poU'y6n. [Gr. 
'AnoTJivuv, from unok'/ivvai, to de- 
stroy utterly, to ruin.] In the Jew- 
ish demonology, an evil spirit, called 
in Hebrew Abaddon, and described 
in Rtv. ix. 11, as " a king, the an- 
^el of the bottomless pit." He is 
introduced by Buiiyan in his allegor- 
ical romance of the " Pilgrim's Prog- 

Apostle of Ardennes (af'den', 64). 
A title given to St. Hubert (d. 727), 
Bishop of Maestrecht and Liege, and 
son of Bertrand, Duke of Aquitaine. 
He was so called from, his zeal in de- 
stroying remnants of idolatry. 

Apostle of Germany. A title given 
to St. Boniface (680-755), who, for 
more than thirty years of his life, 
labored in the work of converting 
and civilizing the rude heathen na- 
tions of Germany. 

Apostle of Infidelity. A name 
sometimes given to Voltaire (1694- 
1778), a bigoted and intolerant deist, 
who avowed a design of destroying 
the Christian religion, and was un- 
ceasing in his attacks upon it and 
upon its defenders. 

Apostle of Ireland. St. Patrick, 
bom near the end of the fourth cen- 
tur}% died in 483 or 493. He was 
moved by visions, as he relates in 
his confessions, to undertake the con- 
version of the Irish to Christianity. 
He established many churches and 
schools, and made many converts. 

Apostle of Temperance. An hon- 
orary appellation given to the Rev. 
Theobald Mathew (1790-1^56), a dis- 
tinguished temperance reformer in 
Ireland and England. 

4®=- " However, as Protestants, we may 
question the claim of departed saints, 
here is a living minister, if he may be 
judged from one work, who deserves to 
be canonized, and whose name should be 
placed in the calendar not far below the 
apostles." Dr. Charming, 1811. 

Apostle of the English. St. Augus- 
tine, or Austin, who lived during the 
latter part of the sixth century. He 
was sent with forty monks, by Pope 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanying Explanations, 




Gregory I., to cany Christianity into 
England. Sucli was his success that 
he is said to have baptized 10,000 
persons in a single day. He has the 
merit of having allowed no coercive 
measures in the propagation of the 

Apostle of the French. A name 
given to St. Denis, the tirst bishop of 
Paris, in the third century. He was 
sent? from Rome, about A. d. 250, to 
revive the drooping churches in Gaul, 
and proceeded as far as Lutetia (Par- 
is), where he made many converts. 
He became the patron saint of the 
kingdom, and his name served, for 
many ages, as a rallying cry in bat- 
tle, — Montjoie St. Denis ! 

Apostle of the Frisians. An ap- 
pellation commonly given to Saint 
Wilbrord, or Willibrod (657-738), a 
native of the Saxon kingdom of 
Northumbria, who spent forty-eight 
years of his life in Fricsland in preach- 
ing Christianity, and endeavoring to 
convert the people from paganism to 
the true faith. 

Apostle of the Gauls. St. Irenaeus, 
presbyter, and afterward bishop, of 
Lyons, near the close of the second 

4^=- " The immortal Apostle of the 
Gauls, ivbo, in his earliest youth, had 
sat at the feet of Polycarp, at Smyrna, 
started from the school of Asia Minor. It 
was during a great crisis that Providence 
brought this gem of Asia into the West. 
Irenaeus possessed the apostolical pa- 
tience, as well as the fiery zeal, of Poly- 
carp. He learned Celtic, in order to 
preach the gospel to the barbarians in 
their own language, and rejoiced in be- 
holding the progress of the good work in 
which he was engaged in the parts of 
Germany bordering on Gaul." Bunsen. 

Apostle of the Q-entiles. A title 
assumed by St. Paul, who, in con- 
junction with Barnabas, was divinely 
appointed to the work of preaching 
the gospel to all mankind, without 
distinction of race or nation. His 
labors lasted through many years, 
and reached over a vast extent of 
country.. See Acts xiii., Rom. xi. 13, 
and 2 Tim. i. 11. 

Apostle of the Highlanders. A 
name given to St. Columba (521-597), 

one of the earliest teachers of Chris- 
tianity in Scotland. He established 
himself in the island of lona, and is 
believed to have been the founder of 
the Culdees, who had their head-quar- 
ters there. 
Apostle of the Indians. An appel- 
lation given to the lie v. John Eliot 
(1603-1690), a celebrated missionary 
among the Indians in the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay, manv of whom 
he converted to Christianity. 

jgSi* " The Apostle, — and truly I know 
not who, since Peter and Paul, better 
deserves that name." E. Everett. 

Apostle of the North. 1. A title be- 
" stowed upon Anschar, Anscharius, or 
Ansgar (801-864), because he intro- 
duced Christianity into Denmark, 
Sweden, and Northern Germany. 
At the instigation of the Emperor, 
Louis le Debonnaire, he went to Den- 
mark, and, after many disappoint- 
ments and persecutions, converted 
the king and the greater part of the 
nation. The Catholic church has 
placed him among the saints. 

jg®^ " He [Anschar] was the Colum- 
bus and the Cortes of that unknown 
world whither he penetrated with no 
other weapon than his dauntless faith • 
and the name of Home." 

Michelet^ Trans. 

2. A title conferred upon Bernard 
Gilpin (1517-1583), an English re- 
former, and the first who undertook 
to preach the Protestant doctrines to 
the inhabitants of the Scottish Bor- 
der land. 

Apostle of the Peak. A title given 
to William Bagshaw (1628-1702), a 
non-conforming divine, distinguished 
for his zeal and usefulness in the cause 
of religion in the northern parts of 
Derbyshire, England. 

Apostle of the Picts. A name given 
to St. Ninian, a British bishop of the 
latter half of the fourth and the be- 
ginning of the fifth centuries, on ac- 
count of his labors for the conver- 
sion of the Teutonic inhabitants of 

Apostle of the Scottish Reforma- 
tion. A title given to John Knox 
(1505-1572), the most active agent 

»nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxiL 




in the overthrow of the Roman Cath- 
olic religion, and the establishment 
of the Reformed kirk, in Scotland. . 

Apostle of the Slaves. A title given 
to St. Cyril (ninth century), who con- 
verted to Christianity the Chasars, 
dwelling by the Caspian Sea, labored 
in the same cause among the heathens 
of Bulgaria, Moravia, and Bohemia, 
and, with the assistance of some of 
his pupils and his brother, made a 
translation of the Holy Scriptures, 
which is still used by all Greek-Cath- 
olic Christians. 

Apostle to the Indies. A title often 
given to St. Francis Xavier, a distin- 
guished Roman Catholic missionary 
of the sixteenth centurj'-, who spent 
more than ten years in laborious ef- 
forts to introduce Christianity into 
the East. 
.Apostolic King. A title given by 
the Holy See to the kings of Hun- 
gary, on account of the extensive 
propagation of Christianity by Ste- 
phen I., the founder of the royal line. 

Ap'po-li'no. [The same as Apollo, 
the sun.] An imaginary- deity, sup- 
posed by the people of Western Eu- 
rope, during the Middle Ages, to be 
• worshiped by the Mohammedans. 
See Termagant. 

Aq'ui-lo. (Rom. Myth,) A personifi- 
cation of the north wind ; the same 
as Boreas. See Boreas. 

Arabian Tailor. See Learned Tai- 

Aj'a-b^. A poetical form of Arabia. 

Farewell, — farewell to thee, Araby's daugh- 
ter. T. Moore. 

A-ragli'ne. [Or. *kpaxvr).'] (Gr. (f 
Rom. Myth.) A Lydian maiden, so 
proud of her skill as a weaver that 
she challenged Minerva to compete 
with her. She was successful in the 
contest, but, being insulted by the 
goddess, hung herself in despair, 
and was changed into a spider. 

Shnll we tremble before cloth-webs and cob- 
webs, whotber woven in Arkwright looms, or 
by the silent Aruchnes that weave unrestingly 
in our imagination ? Carlyle. 

Ar'c^-dj^. A poetical form of Arcadia, 
a pastoral district of the Peloponne- 
sus (Morea) in Greece. 

Archer. Servant to Aimwell, in Far- 
quhar's "Beaux' Stratagem." 

Ar/Qhi-ma'go, or Ar'sM-mige. 
[From Gr. dpxh chief, in composi- 
tion, and {luyog, magician.] An en- 
chanter in Spenser's " Faery Queen." 
He is a type of Hypocrisy, or Fraud, 
and, as opposed to Christian Holiness 
embodied in the Red-cross Knight, 
may also represent Satan, the incar- 
nate principle of evil. He wins the 
confidence of the knight in the dis- 
guise of a reverend hermit, and by 
the help of Diiessa, or Deceit, sepa- 
rates him from Una, or Truth. 

By his mighty science he could take 
As many forms and shapes in seeming wise 
As ever Proteus to himself could make : 
Sometime a fowl, sometime a fish in lake. 
Now like a fox, now like a dragon fell; 
That of himself he oft for fear would quake, 
And oft would fly away. Oh, who can tell 
The hidden power of herbs, and might of 

magic spell? Faery Queen. 

Him followed his companion, dark and sage, 
As he, my Master, sung the dangerous Ar- 

chirnage. Sir W. ScotK 

"Whatever momentary benefit may result 
from satire, it is clear that its influence, in the 
long run, is injurious to literature. The sat- 
irist, like a malignant Archimago, creates a 
false medium, through which posterity is 
oblif^ed to look at his contemporaries, — a 
medium which so refracts and distorts their 
images, that it is almost out of the question 
to see them correctly. Atlantic Monthly. 

Ar'cite. A character in the " Knight's 
Tale," in Chaucer's " Canterbury 
Tales." See Palamon. 

Ar'den, Enoch. The hero of Tenny- 
son's poem of the same name, a sea- 
man who is wrecked on an uninhab- 
ited and rarely visited tropical island, 
where hie spends many years, and 
who returns home at-last only to find 
that his wife, believing him to be 
dead, has married again, and is pros- 
perous and happy. In a spirit of 
heroic self-sacrifice, he determines 
not to undeceive her, and soon dies 
of a broken heart. 

Ardennes, "Wild Boar of. See 
Wild Boar of Ardennes. 

A'r^§. [Gr.''Apvg.] (Gr. Myth.) The 
god of war ; the same as Mars. See 

Ar'e-thu'sS. [Gr. ^Apei^ovcra.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) One of the Nereids, 
and an attendant upon Diana. She 
presided over a famous fountain of 

O^ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanatione, 




the same name, close by the margin 
of the sea in the island of Ortygia, 
near Syracuse. According to Ovid, 
the river-god Alpheus became enam- 
ored of her while bathing in his 
stream in Arcadia. Diana, however, 
took pity on her, and changed her 
into a well, which flowed* under the 
Adriatic to Ortygia. But Alpheus 
still pursued her, and, passing by 
the same under-ground channel from 
Greece to Sic^y, re-appeared in the 
fountain, and mingled his waters 
with those of the nymph. [Written 
also, poetically, Arethuse.] 

That renowned flood, so oftcji sung, 
Divine Alpheua, who, by secret sluice, 
Stole under seas to meet his Arethuse. 


Aretino, The Only (S-ia-te'no). [It. 
V Unico Aretino.'] An honorary ap- 

g illation given by his admirers to 
emardo Accolti, an Italian poet of 
the sixteenth century, celebrated for 
his wonderful powers of improvisation. 
Th^ designation seems to have been 
^ intended to express his superiority to 
his uncle, Francesco Accolti (d. 1483), 
sumamed Aretinus^ who was also a 
poet, and to Pietro Aretino, a distin- 
guished contemporary "satirist. 

Argalia (af-ga-le^a). A brother to 
Angelica, in Bojardo's romantic 
poem, the " Orlando Innamorato." 
He is celebrated as the possessor of 
an enchanted lance which threw 
whomsoever it touched. Ferrau 
k eventually killed him, and Astolfo 
obtained the lance. 

Ar'gS-lus. An unfortunate lover ii^ 
SirPhilip Sidney's "Arcadia." See 

Argan (af^gon', 62). The hero of Mo- 
liere's comedy, "Le Malade Imagi- 
naire," an hypochondriac patient, 
whose love of medicine is accompa- 
nied by a spirit of parsimony which 
leads him to take every mode that 
may diminish the expense of his 
supposed indisposition. 

J8@== " Argan ... is discovered tax- 
ing his apothecary's bill, at once delight- 
ing his ear with the flowery language of 
the Pharmacopoeia, and gratifying his 
frugal disposition by clipping ofiF some 
items and reducing others, and arriving 
at the double conclusion, first, that, if 

his apothecary does not become more 
reasonable, he cannot aflford to be a sick 
man anj longer ; and, secondly, that, as 
he has swallowed fewer drugs by one 
third this -month than he had done the 
last, it was no wonder he was not so well. 
. . . [He] is at last persuaded that the 
surest and cheapest way of securing him- 
self against the variety of m:* ladies by 
which he is beset, will be to become a 
doctor in his own proper person. He 
modestly represents his want of pre- 
liminary study, and of the necessary 
knowledge even of the Latin language ; 
but he is assured that by merely putting 
on the robe and cap of a physician he 
will find himself endowed with all the 
knowledge necessary for exercising the 
profession. . . . This leads to the inter- 
lude which concludes the -piece, being 
the mock ceremonial of receiving a 
physician into, the iEsculapian college, 
couched in macaronic Latinity." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Argante (af^gonf, 62). A character 
in Moli^re's comedy, "Les Fourberies 
de Scapin." 

Ar-gan'te. A terrible giantess in Spen- 
ser's " Faery Queen ; " a very mon- 
ster and miracle of licentiousness. 

Argantes (af-gan'tess). The bravest 
of the infidel heroes in Tasso's epic 
poem, "Jerusalem Delivered." 

Bonaparte, in these disjointed yet signifi- 
cant threats, stood before the deputies like 
the Argantes of Italy's heroic poet, and gave 
them the choice of peace and war with the 
air of a superior being, capable at once to dic- 
tate their fate. Sir W. Scott. 

Ar-gier'. An old form of Algiers^ 
found in Shakespeare's "Tempest." 

Ar'go. [Gr. 'Apyw, from apyoc, swift.] 
(Gr. f Rom. Myth.) A fifty-oared 
ship in which Jason and his com- 
panions made their voyage to Colchis 
m search of the golden fleece. See 

Harder beset 
And more endangered, than when Argo 

Through Bosporus betwixt the justling rocks. 

Ar'go-nauts. [Lat. ArgonauUe; Gr. 
' ApyovavTQL.'] {Gr. <^ Bom. Myth.) 
The heroes and demigods Avho, ac- 
cording to the traditions of the Greeks, 
undertook an expedition to Colchis, 
a far-distant country on the coast of 
the Euxine, for the purpose of ob- 
taining a golden fleece, which was 

and for the iUmarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




guarded by a sleepless and tenible 
dragon. , 

A body of Bastille heroes, tolerably com- 
plete, ilia get together ; — comt)arable tb the 
Argonauts; hoping to eudure liice them. 


Ar'gus. [Gr. 'Apyog.] {Gr. (^^ Rimi. 
Myth.) A fabulous being of enor- 
mous strength, who had a hundred 
eyes, of which only two were asleep 
at once, whence he was named Pan- 
qptes^ or the All -seeing. Juno ap- 
pointed him to watch over lo (see lo), 
but Mercury killed him, and Juno 
transferred his eyes to the tail of the 
peacock, her favorite bird. 

Spangled with eyes more numerous than 

Of ^lj-srM5, and more wakeful than to drowse, 
Charmed with Arcadian pipe, the pastoral 

Of Hermes, or his opiate rod. Milton. 

A'ri-ad'ne (9). [Gr. 'ApLudvv.'\{Gr. if 
Rom. Myth.) A daughter of Minos, 
king of Crete, who, from the love 
she bore to Tlieseus, gave him' a clew 
of thread, which guitled him out of 
the Cretan labyrinth. Theseus in 
return promised to marry her, and 
she accordingly left the island with' 
him, but was slain by Diana in Naxos. 
According to another tradition, she 
was married to Bacchus, who, after 
her death, gave her a place among 
the gods, and placed her wedding 
crown as a constellation in the sky. 

A'ri-el (9). 1. In the demonology of 
the Cabala, a water-spirit; in the fa- 
Ijles of the Middle Ages, a spirit of 
the air, — the guardian angel of inno- 
cence; in Shakespeare's "Tempest," 
an airy and tricksy spirit, represented 
as having been a servant to Sycorax, 
a foul witch, by whom, for some acts 
of disobedience, he was imprisoned 
within the rift of a cloven pme-tree, 
where he remained for twelve years, 
*until released by Prospero. In grat- 
itude for his deliverance, he became 
the willing messenger of Prospero, 
assuming any shape, or rendering 
himself invisible, in order to execute 
the commands of his master. 

On the hearth the lighted logs are glowing. 
And, like Ariel in the cloven pine-tree, 

For its freedom 
Groans and sighs the air imprisoned in them. 

2. The name of a sylph in Pope's 
"Rape of the Lock." 

jg^- " Pope's fairy region, compared 
with Shakespeare's, was what a drawiug- 
room is to tiie universe. To give, tiiere- 
fore, to the sprite of the ' llape of the 
Lock ' the name of the spirit iu the 
* Tempest was a bold christeniug. Pros- 
pero's Ariel could have putfed him out 
like a taper. Or he would have suufled 
him up ad an essence, by way of jest, and 
found him flat. But, tested by le.^s potent 
senses, the sylph species is an exquisite 
creatiod? He is an abstract of the spirit 
of fine hfe ; a suggester of fashions ; au 
inspirer of airs ; would be cut to pieces 
rather than see his will contradicted ; 
takes his station with dignity on a pict- 
ure-cord ; and is so nice an adjuster of 
claims that he ninks hearts with neck- 
laces. . . . The punishments- inflicted ou 
him when disobedient have a like fitness. 
He ia to be kept hovering over the fumes 
of the chocoUite ; to be transfixed with 
pins, clogged with pomatums, and wedged 
iu the eyes of bodkins." Leign Hunt. ^ 

Ariodantes (Tt.pron. a-rc-o-dan'tess). 
The lover of Ginevra, in Arlosto's 
" Orlando Furioso." 

A-ri'on. [Gr. 'Apitjv.] {Gr. (f Rom. 
Myth.) xVn ancient Greek bard and 
musician of the isle of Lesbos. On 
his return to Corinth from Italy, on 
one occasion, the mariners formed a 

Elot to murder him for his riches; but 
eing forewarned of their intention, 
he played upop his lute, and, by the 
charms of his music, brought a num^ 
ber of dolphins around the vessel, # 
when he threw himself into the sea, 
and was carried on the back of one 
of them to the promontory of Taena- 
rus in the Peloponnesus. 
Ar'is-tae'us. [Gr. 'AptaTaloc.'] ( Gr. (f 
Rom. Myth.) An ancient Greek di- 
vinity, worshiped as the protector 
of vine and olive plantations, and of 
hunters and herdsmen. He was also 
thought to have instructed men in the 
management of 'bees. According to 
the common tradition, he was a son of 
Apollo and the water-nymph Cyrene. 

In such a palace Aristceiis found 
Cyrene, when he bore the plaintive tale 
Of his lost bees to he» maternal ear. 
Cowjjer {on Hie Ice-palace of Anne of Russia.) 

A-ris'te-as. [Gr. 'ApLCTeag.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A fabulous being, who 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




has been styled the "Wandering 
Jew " of popular tradition in ancient 
Greece. He appears lirst as a teacher 
of Homer, and re-appears in different 
ages and places in very different 
characters. Herodotus and Suidas 
assert that he was a magician, whose 
soul could leave and re-enter its body 
at pleasure. 

Aristophanes, The Modem. See 
Modern Akistophanes. 

Arlecchino (ar-lek-ke'no, 102). See 

Armada, The Invincible. {Eng. ^ 
S'p. Rlst.) A famous naval arma- 
ment, or expedition, sent by Philip 
II. of Spain against England, in the 
3^ear 1588. It consisted of 130 ves- 
sels, 2430 great guns, 4575 quintals 
of powder, nearly 20,000 soldiers, 
above 8000 sailors, and more than 
2000 volunteers. It arrived in the 
Channel on the 19th of July, and was 
defeated the next day by Admiral 
Howard, who was seconded by Drake, 
Hawkins, and Frobisher. Eight fire- 
ships having been sent into the Span- 
ish fleet, they bore off in great dis- 
order. Profiting by the panic, the 
English fell upon them, and captured 
or destroyed a number of their ships, 
and Admiral Howard maintained a 
running fight from the 21st of July to 
the 27th, with such effect, that "the 
Spanish commander, despairing of 
success, resolved to return home, and, 
as escape through the English Chan- 
nel was prevented by contrary winds, 
he undertook to sail around the Ork- 
neys ; but the vessels which' still re- 
mained to him were dispersed by 
storms, or shipwrecked among the 
rocks and shallows, on different parts 
of the Scottish and Irish coast, and 
upwards of 5000 men were drowned, 
killed, or taken prisoners. Of the 
whole Armada, 53 ships only returned 
to Spain, and these in a wretched con- 
dition. The English lost but one ship. 

Armado. See Don Adriano de Ar- 


Armed Soldier of Democracy. A 

name given to Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Armida (af-me/dS, 64). One of the 

most prominent female characters 

in Tasso*9 " Jerusalem Del'vered." 
The story of Armida is founded upon 
a tradition related by Pierre Delancre. 
Jg@=' The poet tells us, that, when tho 
Crusaders arrived at the Holy City, Satan 
held a council to devise some means of 
disturbing the plans of the Christian 
warriors, and Armida, a very beautiful 
sorceress, was employed to seduce Ri- 
naldo and other Crusaders. Rinaldo was 
conducted by Armida to a remote island, 
where, in her splendid palace, surround- 
ed by delightful gardens and pleasure- 
grounds, he utterly forgot his vows and 
the great object to which he had devoted 
hfs life. To liberate him from his volup- 
tuous bondage, two messengers from the 
Christian army, Carlo and Ubaldo, came 
to the island, bringiug a talisman so pow- 
erful that the witchery of Armida was 
destroyed. Rinaldo escaped, but was fol- 
lowed by the sorceress, who, in battle, in- 
cited several warriors to attack the hero, 
and at last herself rushed into the fight. 
She was defeated by Rinaldo, who then 
confessed his love to her, persuaded her 
to become a Christian, and vowed to bo 
her faithful knight. The story of Armi- 
da has been made the subject of an opera 
by both Gluck and Rossini. 

•T was but a doubt ; but ne'er magician's 

Wrought change with all Armida's fairy art 
Like what this light touch left on Juan's 
heart. Byron. 

The stage (even as it then was), after the 
recluseness and austerity of a college life, must 
have appeared hke Armida^s enchanted pal- 
ace. Hazlitt. 

The grand mansions you arrive at in this 
waste, howling solitude prove sometimes es- 
sentially robber -towers; and there may be 
Armida palaces and divine-looking Armidas^ 
where your ultimate fate is still worse. 


Amolplie (af'nolP). A selfish^ and 
morose cynic in Moliere's " L'Ecole 
des Femmes," whose pretended ha- 
tred of the world springs from an ab- 
sorbing regard to his own gratification. 

Ar'oun-dight (-dit). The sword of 
Lancelot of the Lake. 

It is the sword of a good knight. 
Though homespun was his mail; 
Wliat matter if it be not named 
Joyeuse, Colada, Durindale, 
Excalibar, or Aroundight ? Longfellow. 

Ar-sin'o-e. A prude in Moli fere's 
comedy, "Le Misanthrope." 

Ar'te-gai. 1. A mythic king of Britain 
mentioned in the Chronicle of Geof- 
frey of Monmouth, and in Milton's 
History of Britain. See Eliduke. 
2. [Written also Art egall, Ar- 

»nd for the Reiparkg and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. adv-xxxU. 




thegal,and Artegale.] Achar- 
acter in Spenser's "Faery Queen," 
representative of Justice, and also of 
the poet's friend and patron. Lord 
Grey. His main object is to rescue 
Irena from the tyranny of Grantorto ; 
but, like a chivalrous' knight-en-ant, 
he is ready to turn aside and subdue 
the spirit' of mischief and violence 
wherever it may be encountered. 

Every obligation, according to the- maxim 
of the Civil Law. is made void in the same 
manner in which it is rendered binding ; 
as Arthegal, the emblematic champion of 
Justice in Spenser's allegory, decrees as law, 
that what the sea has brought the sea may 
resume. Sir W. Scott, 

Ar'te-mis. [Gr. 'Apre/^if.] {Gr. 
Myth.) One of .the great divinities of 
the ancient Greeks ; the same as Di- 
ana. See Diana. 

Artful Dodger. A sobriquet of one 
of the characters in Dickens's " Oli- 
ver Twist." He is a young thief, 
and an adept in villainy. 

Arthur. See King Arthur. 
-Ar'un-del. The steed of Bevis of 
Southampton. See Bevis of South- 
ampton, Sir. 

Ar-vir'S-gus. A son of Cymbeline, 
in Shakespeare's play of this name, 
passing under the assumed name of 
Cadwal, and supposed to be a son of 
Belarius. See Belarius. 

As-cal'a-plius. [Gr. 'AaKa2ja<}>og.] 
( Gr. <f Rom. Myth.) A son of Ache- 
ron, who, having declared that Pros- 
erpine ~ whom Pluto had given per- 
mission to return to earth, provided 
she had not eaten any thing while in 
the under-world — had tasted of a 
pomegranate, was turned by Ceres 
into an owl, for his mischief-making. 

As-ca'ni-us. [Gr. ^kaaavLog.'] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A son of ^neas 
and Creusa. He accompanied his 
father to Italy, succeeded him in the 
kingdom oTLatinus, and built the 
city of Alba Longa. [Called also 
lulus.'l See ^neas. 

The former belong to that flass who, like 
the young Ai^caniuit, are ever beating aboutin 
quest of a tawny lion, though they are much 
more successful in now aud then starting a 
great bore. Sir W. Scott. 

As'c^-part. The name of a giant 
whom Bevis of Southampton con- 

quered, according to the old romance. 
His etiigy may be seen on the city- 
gates of Southampton. He is said to 
have been thirty feet high, and to have 
carried Sir Bevis, his wife, and horse, 
under his arm. Allusions to him 
occur in Shakespeare, Drayton, and 
other - Elizabethan writers. Accord- 
ing to Warton, he is a character in 
very old French romances. 

Each man an Ascapart, of strength to tosa 
For quoits both Temple-bar and Charing- 
cross. * Pope. 

He was a man whose huge stature, thews, 
sinews, and bulk in proportion, would hava 
enabled him to enact Colbrand, Ascapart, or 
any other giant of roreknce, without raising 
himself nearer to heaven even by the altitude 
of a Chopin. Sir W. Scott. 

Xs-crae'Sn Sage. [Lat. Ascrceus se-* 
nex.^ A name given by Virgil, in 
his sixth Eclogue, to Hesiod, who' 
was bom in the eighth century, b. c, 
at Ascra, a village of Boeotia, in 

Asgard ( ^s^gaf d). [Old Norse, yard, ot 
abode, of the Asir, or gods.] {Scand. 
Myth. ) A celestial city or territory, 
the dwelling of the gods, situated m 

. the center of the universe, and acces- 
sible only by the bridge Bifrost (the 
rainbow). Here each of the princi- 
pal deities had a residence apart from 
the rest. [Written also Asagard.] 

Asli'ford, Isaac. A peasant in 
CraSbe's "Parish I^egister," de- 
scribed as 
" A wise good man, contented to be poor." 

Asli't$-roth. {Myth.) The name 
given in the Bible to Astarte, an 
ancient Syrian deity, who was adored 
as the goddess of the moon; hence 
Jeremiah calls her "the queen of 
heaven." Solomon built her a tem- 
ple on the Mount of Olives (2 Kings 
xxiii. 13), but her chief temples were 
at Tyre and Sidon. Her worship, 
according to ancient accounts, was of 
a licentious character. See Astarte. 
[Written also Astaroth and 
As tore th.] 

Mooned Ashtaroih, 
Heaven's queen and mother both. Milton. 

Ash'tSn, Lucy. The heroine of Sir 
Walter Scott's novel, " The Bride of 
Lammermoor ; " daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Ashton, and betrothed to Edgar 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanationn, 




Ash'tSn, Sir "William. The Lord 
Keeper of Scotland; a 'prominent 
character in Scott's " Bride of Lam- 

Asir (a^sef). (Scand. Myth.) The 
most powerful, though not the oldest, 
of the deities: usually reckoned as 
twelve gods and twelve goddesses. 
The gods are — Odin, Thor, Baldur, 
Niord, Frey, T}^-, Bragi, Heimdall, 
Vidar, Vali, Ullur, and Forseti; the 
best-known of the goddesses — Frig- 
ga,Freyja,Iduna, and Saga. [Writ- 
ten also Aser, Asar, and iEsir.] 

As'mo-d&i. The same as Asmodeus. 
See Asmodeus and Belial. 

As'mo-de'us. [Heb. Ashmedai, the 
destro3^er.] In the Jewish demonol- 
ogy, an evil spirit, the demon of 
vanit}^ or dress, called in the Tal- 
mud " king of the devils," whence 
some assume him to be identical with 
Beelzebub, and others with Azrael. 
In modern times, he has been jocu- 
larly spoken of as the destroying de- 
mon of matrimonial happiness. 

J^Sg* In the Apocryphal book of Tobit^ 
he is represented as loving Sara, the 
daughter of Raguel, and causing the 
death of seven husbands, who married 
her in succession, on the bridal night. 
Tobias, instructed by Raphael, burns on 
'' the ashes of perfume " the heart and 
liver of the fish which he caught in the 
Tigris ; " the which smell when the evil 
spirit had smelled, he fled into the utmost 
parts of Egypt, and the angel bound 
him." Those demonoRraphers of the 
Middle Ages who reckoned nine kinds of 
evil spirits, placed Asmodeus at the head 
of the fourth rank, which consisted of 
malicious, revenging devils. According 
to other authorities, he is the lieutenant 
of Amaimon. Wierus, ip his description 
of the infernal court, makes him superin- 
tendent of gambling-houses. Le Sage 
has made him the companion of Don 
Cleofas, in " Le Diable floiteux," or " The 
Devil on Two Sticks," in which occurs 
the celebrated adventure known as As- 
modeus's flight. By direction of the 
demon, Don Cleofas takes hold of Asmo- 
deus^s cloak, and is immediately borne 
through the air like an arrow,and perched 
upon the steeple of St, Salvador. Ar- 
rived at this spot, the demon stretches 
out his right arm, and at once, by his 
diabolical power, the roofs of the houses 
are taken off, and, notwithstanding the 

darkness of the night, the interiors are 
made visible. The scholar beliolds, as at 
noonday, the inside of all the houses, as 
one might view the inside of a pie from 
which the crust had been removed. 

4®* "It is impossible to conceive a 
being more fitted to comment upon the 
vices, and to ridicule the follies, of hu- 
manity, than an esprit follet like Asmo- 
deus [in ' Le Diable Boiteux '], who is as 
much a decided creation of genius, in his 
way, as Ariel or Caliban. Without pos- 
sessing the darker powers and propen- . 
sities of a fallen angel, he presides over 
the vices and follies, rather than the 
crimes, of mankind ; is malicious rather 
than malignant ; and his delight is to 
gibe, and to scoff, and to tease, rather 
than to torture ; — one of Satan's light- 
infantry, in short, whose business is to 
goad, perplex, and disturb the ordinary 
train of society, rather than to break in 
upon and overthrow it. This character 
is maintained in all Asmodeus says and 
does, with so much spirit, wit, acuteness, 
and playful malice, that we never forget 
the fiend, even in those moments when 
he is very near becoming amiable as^well 
as entertaining." Sir W. Scott. 

Could the reader take an Asmorferis-Jfigfttt 
and, waving open all roofs and privacieB, look 
down from the roof of Notre-Dame, what a 
Paris were it I Carlyle. 

^-so'pu3. [Gr. •ArroTFOf .] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A son of Oceanus and Te- 
thys, changed into a river for rebel- 
ling against Jupiter. 

As-pa'si-S (as-pa/zhl-j)- A female 
character in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
play, " The Maid's Tragedy." 

J^» '^ Her sorrows are so deep, so 
pure, 80 unmerited-; she sustains the 
breach of plighted faith in Amyntor, and 
the taunts of vicious women, with so 
much resignation, so little of that ter- 
magant resentment these poets are apt to 
infuse into their heroines ; the poetry of 
her speeches is so exquisitely imaginative, 
that, of those dramatic persons who are 
not prominent in the development of a 
story, scarce any, even in Shakespeare, 
are more interesting," Hallam. 

Assassination Plot {Eng. Hist.) The 
name given to a conspiracy formed 
in 1696, by the Earl of Aylesbury 
and others, to assassinate King Wil- 
liam III., near Richmond, as he re- 
turned from the chase. It was dis- 
covered Feb. 15, the day before that 
fixed upon for the execution of th« 

and for the Remarks and Rujes to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




As'si-en'to. [Sp., seat, contract, 
agreement.] A treaty or convention ; 
specitically (Sp. Hist.), a convention 
between the king of Spain and some 
foreign power for the supply of ne- 
groes for the Spanish American colo- 
nies. The first Assiento was conclud- 
ed with the Flemings by Charles I. 
of Spain. In 1713, it was transferred 
to England by the treaty of Utrecht, 
and afterward made over for thirty 
years by the English government to 
the South-Sea Company, which, how- 
ever, in 1750, relinquished its rights 
to Spain, upon the payment of £100,- 
000, and the concession of certain 
commercial advantages. [Written 
also, though rarely in English books, 
A s i e n 1 0, which is the proper Span- 
ish orthography.] 

As-taj'te. (Myth.) The Punic name 
of the Syrian deity named Ashtaroth. 


With these in troops 
Came Astoreth, whom the Phcenicians called 
' Astarte, queen of heaven, with crescent horns ; 
To whose bright image nightly by the moon 
8idonian vir^ns paid their vows and songs; 
In Sion also not unsung, where stood 
Her temple on the offensive mountain, built 
By that uxorious king, whose heart, though 


Beguiled by fair idolatresses, feU 
To idols foul. 


As'to-lat. The name given to Guil- 
ford, in Surrey, in the old romances 
of the Arthurian cycle. 

As-tol'fo, or As-tol'pho. A celebrat- 
ed character in the romantic tales 
and poems founded upon the sup- 
posed adventures of Charlemagne 
and his 'paladins. Astolfo is repre- 
sented as the English cousin of Or- 
lando, being equally descended with 
him from Charles Martel. He is a 
boaster, and is perpetually under- 
taking great feats, which he is unable 
to perform; but he is generous, and 
brave to fool - hardiness, courteous, 
gay, and singularly handsome. In 
Ariosto's " Orlando Furioso," he is 
made to cure Orlando's madness by 
bringing home his lost wits in a phial 
from the moon, and is noted for his 
magic horn, that routed armies with 
a blast. 

In the hands of Antony Van Corlear, this 
windy instrument [the trumpet] appeared to 

him as potent as the horn of the pnladin Astol- 
pho, or even the more classic horn of Aiecto. 

As-tr8e'§. 1. [Gr. 'Acrrpam.] {Gr.^ v 
Bom. Myth. ) The goddess of justice, 
a daughter of Jupiter and Themis, 
or, according to others, of AstnTus 
and Aurora. She was the last of all 
the deities who left the earth when 
the golden age had passed away; 
and, when she departed, shocked by 
the impiety of mankind, she took 
her place in heaven among the stars, 
as the constellation " Virgo," in the 

2. A poetical name assumed by 
Mrs. Aphara, or Aphra, Behn, a 
dramatist and miscellaneous writer 
of the seventeenth century, notorious 
for the license of her liti5 and writ- 
The stage how loosely does Astrcea tread 1 


As'tro-phel. [A sort of ^metagram- 
matic translation of Phil, ^id., an 
abbreviation of Philip Sidney, — Sid. 
being taken as a contraction of the 
Latin sidus, a star, in Gr. aarpov, and 
Phil, standing for (^ilog, a friend. 
Hence, Astrophil, star-friend, or friend 
of the star [Stella], changed to Astro- 
phel, which is the name of a flower- 
ing plant called also starwort.] A 
name given by Sir Philip Sidney to 
himself in a series of poems entitled 
"Astrophel and Stella," in which he 
celebrated the praises of Penelope 
Devereux, to whom he was at one 
time betrothed. Spenser embalmed 
the mutual friendship of Sidney and 
himself in a pastoral ode entitled 
"Astrophel." See Stella, i. 

The long-winded strophes of the divine 
Astrophel. Sir W. Scott. 

As-ty'a-nax. [Gr. ^Karvdva^.'] ( Gr, 
^ Rom. Myth.) The only son of 
Hector and Andromache. Ai'ter the 
capture of Troy, the Greeks hurled 
him down from the walls of the city 
to prevent the fulfillment of a decree 
of fate, according to which he was to 
restore the kingdom of Troy. 

At'a-lan'ta. {Gr.'kralavTTi.'] (Or. 
<f Bom. Myth.) A princess of Scy- 
ros, or, according to others, of Arca- 
dia, who was famed for her beauty. 

ffltar For tlie " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanationa, 




She consented to marry that one of 
her numerous suitors who should out- 
run her; but he was to die who lost 
the prize. x\fter many, had perished, 
Hippomenes offered himself; and, by 
dropping at intervals three golden 
apples from the garden of the Hes- 
perides, which Atalanta stopped to 
pick up, arrived tirst at the goal, and 
thus obtained her hand. 

A'te. [Gr. 'Atti.] {Gr. f Rom. 
Myth.) A daughter of Jupiter, and 
the goddess of discord. The tragic 
writers describe her as the goddess of 

Ath'el-stine. A prominent character 
in Sir Walter Scott's novel of " Ivan- 
li"('." He is thane of Coningsburgh, 
and is surnamed" The Unready." 

A-the'ne. [Gr. ^Ai^^v??.] {Myth.) 
One of the great female divinities of 
the Greeks ; the same as the Minerva 
of the Romans. See Minerva. 
[Written also Athena.] 

Athenian Bee. A title bestowed 
upon Plato (b. c. 429-348), who was 
a native of Athens, in allusion to the 
sweetness and beauty of his style. 

Athens of America. A name 
sometimes given to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. See Modern Athens, 2. 

Athens of Ireland. A popular des- 
ignation of the city of Cork, the 
birthplace or residence of very many 
of the most cultivated and eminent 
Irishmen of the present day. 

Athens of the North. See North- 
ern Athens. 

At-lan't$s {It. pron. §t-lSn'tess). A 
famous enchanter, who figures in 
Bojardo's " Orlando Innamorato," 
and Ariosto's " Orlando Furioso," as 
the tutor of Rogero. 

Thoti mayst laugh, . . . but it [the shadow 
of a horse with two riders] reminded me of 
the magician Atlantes on his hippogriff with 
a knight trussed up behind him. 

•» Sir W. Scott. 

At-lan'tis. [Gr. 'krlavrig.'] A vast 
island supposed by the ancient Greeks 
and Romans to have been situated in 
the western ocean, beyond the Pil- 
lars of Hercules. It was first men- 
tioned by Plato, who tells us that he 
obtained his information from the 

priests of Egypt. He gives a beau- 
tiful picture of the interior of this im- 
aginar}^ land, and enriches it with a 
fabulous history. He says, that, nine 
thousand years before his time, the 
island suddenly sank into the sea, 
rendering it innavigable ever since 
by reason of the shoals of mud caused 
by the submersion of so great an ex- 
tent of land. 

At-ian'tis, The ISTew. The title of 
an allegorical fiction by Lord Bacon, 
and the name of an island described 
in it as being situated, like the At- 
lantis of the ancients, in the middle 
of the Atlantic Ocean. Bacon rep- 
resents himself as having been 
wrecked on this island, and as find- 
ing there an association for the cul- 
tivation of natural science and the 
promotion of improvements in the 

Atl^s. [Gr. 'Ar;\.af.] {Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) One of the Titans, son of 
lapetus and Clymene. Being con- 
quered bv Jupiter, he was condemned 
to the labor of bearing on his head 
and hands the heaven he had at- 
tempted to destroy. Another ac- 
count makes him a man metamor- 
phosed into a mountain by Perseus. 

Atlas, Witch of. See Witch of 

^ Atlas. 

A-tos's5. [From A(oss% the daughter 

* of Cyrus, queen of Cambyses, and 
afterward of Darius Hystaspis, by 
whom she had Xerxes. Herodotus 
speaks of her as a follower of Sap- 
pho.] A poetical name given by 
Pope to Sarah, Duchess of Marlbor- 
ough, a great friend of Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu, whom Pope calls 
Sappho in his "Moral Essays," Ep. 

But what are these to great Atossa^s mind? 
Scarce once herself, by turns all womankind. 

A'treus. [Gr. 'ATpevg.] { Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A son of Pelops and Hippo- 
damia, grandson of Tantalus, and 
father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. 

l-tri'dfes. {Gr.'krpddng.'] {Gr. (f 
Rom. Myth.) A patronymic used to 
designate Agamemnon, the son of 

aud for the Rc;nark8 a:id Rules to which the numbei-s after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




At'ro-p6s. [Gr. 'ArfMnoc^ the inflex- 
ible, from a privative, and rpETretv, to 
change.] {Gr. (f Rom. Myth.) One 
of the three Parcae, or Fates; the 
one that cut the thread of life. 
Attic Bee. An appellation conferred 
by the ancients upon Plato (428-347, 
B. c), the famous philosopher of 
Athens, on account of the purity of 
his style, and the unrivaled beauty 
and sweetness of his productions. 
Attic Muse. A title bestowed by the 
Greeks upon Xenophon (b. c. 450), 
the celebrated historian, on account 
of the merit of his style, which was 
regarded as a model of simplicity 
and elegance. He is sometimes 
called The Muse of Greece. 
At'ti-cus. 1. A poetical name given 
by Pope to Addison in the " Epistle 
to Dr. Arbuthnot" which forms the 
*' Prologue to the Satires." Atticus 
was an epithet applied by the Ro- 
mans to a person distinguished for 
his learning or eloquence. 

2. A name given to George Faulk- 
ner (d. 1775), to whom LordChester- 
lield addressed, under this title, a 
series of ironical letters, which at- 
tained great celebrity. 

3. A name given to Richard He- 
ber (1773-1833), a famous English 
book-hunter, in Dibdin's "Biblio- 
Attorney-General to the Lantern. 
[Fr. Procurew- General de la Lan- 
terne.'] A title adopted by Camille 
Desmoulins (1762-1794), one of the 
earliest instigators of the French 
Revolution, in reference to the sum- 
mary executions in the streets, when 
the mob took the law into their own 
hands, and hanged those whom they 
considered their opponents, by means 
of the long ropes to which the lamps 
were suspended. 
A'tys. [Gr. 'Arvf.] {Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A beautiful Phrygian shep- 
herd, beloved by Cybele, who made 
him her priest on condition of per- 
petual chastity; but he broke his 
vow, became insane, unmanned him- 
self, and was changed into a fir-tree. 
[Written also Attys, Attis, At- 
tes, Attin.] 

Audhumbla (owd-hoom/bl<^). {Scand, 
Myth.) The name of a wonderful 
cow formed by the fiat of Alfadur, at 
the creation of the universe. ISlie 
fostered the* giant Y mir, and, by lick- 
ing the salt rocks in Ginnunga-gap 
(from which she obtained her own 
nourishment), she occasioned the birth 
of Buri, the progenitor of the gods. 
Audhumbla represents the power of 
nature acting upon chaos. [Written 
also A u d u m b 1 a and A u d h u m- 

Audley, John. A name used by 
theatrical performers, in the phrase, 
" We willJohn Audley it," when they 
intend to abridge an act or a play. 
[Written also John r d e r 1 e y. j 

jji^ " In the year 1749, Shuter was 
master of a droll at Bartholomew Fair, 
and it was his mode to lengthen the ex- 
hibition until a sufficient number of pter- 
sons were gathered at the door to fill the 
house. This event was signified by a 
fellow popping his head in at the gallery- 
door, and bellowing out, ' John Audley ^^ 
as if in act of inquiry, though the inten- 
tion was to let Shuter know that a fresh 
audience were in high expectation below. 
The consequence of this notification was, 
that the entertainments wei-e immediati4y 
concluded, and the gates of the booth 
thrown open for a new auditory." 

Pulley n. 

Au'drey. A country wench, in Shake- 
speare's " As You Like It" 

4®= " Audrey is the most perfect spe- 
cimen of a wondering she -gawky. . . . 
She thanks the gods she is foul, and, if 
to be poetical is not to be honest, she 
thanks the gods also that she is not 
poetical." Cowden Clarke. 

She flourished the Bwitch she held in her 
hand, dropped a courtesy as low as a lady at 
a birthnight introduction, recovered herself 
seemingly according to Touchstone's direc- 
tions to Audrey^ andfopened the conversation 
without waiting till any questions were asked. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Au'ge-Ss. [Gr. Avyeaf.] {Gr. cf 
Rom. Myth.) A king of Elis, one of 
the Argonauts. It was the fifth of 
the twelve labors of Hercules to 
cleanse his stables in one day of the 
filth which had been produced in 
them by 3000 head of cattle during 
thirty years. This he accomplished 
by leading the waters of the Alpheus 
and the Peneus through them. The 
fable of the Augean stables is often 

• For the "Key to Jhe Scheme of Pronuncistion," with the accompanying Explanations, 




alluded to in declamations on politi- 
cal corruptions and the like. [Writ- 
ten also A u g i a s.] 

Auld Ane. [That is, the Old One.] 
A vulgai' name for the Devil in Scot- 
land and the North of England. The 
epithet "old," prefixed to so many 
of the titles of the Devil, seems to 
indicate the common opinion that he 
can only appear in the shape of an 
old man. 

Auld Clootie. A Scottish name for 
the Devil, supposed to allude to his 
cloiJen feet. 

Auld Hangie. A name popularly 
given in Scotland to the Devil. 

Auld Hornie. Among the Scotch, a 
familiar name for the Devil, who is 
often described and represented with 

O thou ! whatever title suit thee, 

Auld Homie, Satan, Nick, or Clootie, . . . 

Hear me, Auld Hankie, for a wee, 

And let poor damned bodies be. Bums. 

Auld Reekie. A designation given 
to Edinburgh on account of its 
smoky appearance, as seen from a dis- 
tance ; or, according to others, on ac- 
count of the uncleanliness of its pub- 
lic streets. 

JSK^ " This designation [Auld Reekie] 
reminds one, that the quarter of the city 
to which it particularly refers, presents, 
even to this day, the spectacle of the most 
flagrant violation of the most elementary 
rules for the preservation of public 
health and the maintenance of domestic 
decency." London Revieio. 

Ilech, sirs, but ye 've gotten a nasty, cauld, 
wet day for coming into Auld Reekie, as you 
kintra folks ca' Embro. M. Lindsay. 

When my mind was quite made up to make 
Auld Reekie my head-quarters, I began to ex- 
plore, in good earnest, for the purpose of dis- 
covering a suitable habitation. Sir W. Scott. 

Au-ro'ra (9). [Gr. "Avpio^ ijpa, the 
golden hour.] {Rom. Myth.) The 

goddess of the morning, or of the 
awn; sometimes described as the 
goddess of day. She had a passion 
for mortal youths, and carried off 
Clitus, Orion, and Tithonus. 

Aus'ter. (Roin. Myth.) A personifi- 
cation of the south wind. 

Austrian Hyena. An appellation 
given' to Julius Jakob von Havnau 
(1786-1853), an Austrian general dis- 
tinguished for his sinister appearance, 

and notorious for his ruthless cruelty 
to the prisoners — particularly the 
female political prisoners — captured 
by the forces under his command, in 
the wars against Charles Albert of 
Sardinia and the Hungarians under 
Kossuth and Gorgey. 

Authentic Doctor. [Lat. Doctor Au- 
thenticus.] An honorary appellation 
conferred upon Gregory of Kimini 
(d. 1357), a celebrated scholar of the 
Middle Ages. 

Au-tol'^-cus. 1. [Gr. AvToXvKog.] 
( Gr. (f Rom. Myth. ) One of the Argo- 
nauts, a son of Mercury and Chione. 
He is very famous in ancient story 
as a successful robber, who had the 
power of metamorphosing both the 
stolen goods and himself. 

2. A witty rogue in Shakespeare's 
"Winter's Tale.'" 

A lively, bustling, arch fellow, whose pack 
and oaken ell-wand, studded duly with brass 
points, denoted l\im to be of Autolj/cus's pro- 
fession, occupied a good deal of the attention, 
and furnished much of the amusement, of the 
evening. Sir W. Scott, 

Av'5-lon. In Middle-Age romance, 
the name of an ocean island, and of 
a castle of loadstone upon it, " not 
far on this side of the terrestrial par- 
adise; " represented as the s^^^lj^'f^ 
Arthur and Oberon --tttt^-^florgaine 
la F6e. It is most fully described in 
the old French Romance of " Ogier 
le Danois." 

j8®=- " Avalon was perhaps the Island 
of the Blest of the Celtic mythology, and 
then the abode of the Fees, through tho 
Breton Korrigan. Writers, however, 
seem to be unanimous in regarding it and 
Glastonbury as the same place, — called 
an isle., it is stated, as being made nearly 
such by the ' river's embracement.' It 
was named Avalon ^ we are told, from the 
British word aval, an apple, as it 
abounded with orchards ; and Ynys 
gwydrin,, Saxon Glastn-ey^ glassy isle, 
(Latin Glastonia^) from the green hue of 
the water surrounding it." KeighUey. 

Avenel, "White Lady of. See White 
Lady of Avenel. 

A-ver'nus (4). [Gr. "kopvog.'] {Rom. 
Myth.) Properly, a small, deep lake 
in Campania, occupying the crater 
of an extinct volcano, and almost 
completely shut in by steep and 
wooded t eights. From its gloomy 

•nd for the Remarks aud Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-aoodi. 




and awful aspect, it was described by 
tlie Latin poets as the entrance to the 
lower world ; but the name was often 
used to designate the lower world it- 
self. Avernus was also regarded as 
a divine being. 
Ay 'mer, Prior. A j o vial Benedictine 
monk, prior of Jorvaulx Abbey, in 
Sir Walter Scott's " Ivanhoe." 

Ay'mon. {Fr.pron. i^mo^', 62.) A 
semi-mythical character who figures 
in the romances and romantic poems 
of the Carolian series. He is repre- 
sented as Duke of Dordona (Dor- 
dogne), and father of four sons, Ri- 
naldo, Guicciardo, Alardo, and Ric- 
ciardetto (or Renaud, Guiscard, Alard, 
and Richard), M^hose adventures are 
the subject of an old French romance, 
entitled " Les Quatre-Filz-Aymon," 
bv Huon de Villeneuve, a French 
poet of the age of Philip II. (1165- 

jL-za'zel. Among the ancient Jews, 
the name inscribed upon one of the 
lots cast by the high priest, on the 
day of atonement, to determine which 
of the two goats selected as a sin-of- 
fering should be the scape-goat, and 
which should be sacrificed to Jeho- 
vah. (See Zei;. xvi.) There has been 
much discussion among biblical in- 
terpreters as to the meaning of the 
word Azazel. Some regard it as a 
designation of the goat itself; some 
as the name of the place to which he 
was sent ; and others as the name of 
a personal being to whom he was 
sent. Tholuck and other critics ren- 
der the word " for complete sending 
away." Ewald considers Azazel to 
have been a demon belonging to the 
pre-Mosaic religion. Another opin- 
ion identifies him with Satan, or the 

Devil. Milton makes him Satan's 

That proud honor claimed 
Azazel as his right, a cherub tall; 
Who forthwith from his glittering staff un- 
The imperial ensign, which, full high ad- 
Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind. 
With gems and golden luster rich emblazed, 
Seraphic arms and trophies. Par, Lost, Bk. I. 

A'z6. The name given by Byron to 
the Prince of Este, in his poem of 
"Parisina." The poem is founded 
on fact, and the real name of the 
prince was Nicholas ; but Lord Byron 
substituted Azo as being metrically 
preferable. See Parisina. 

Az'ri-el. [Heb., help of God.] In 
the Jewish and the Mohammedan 
mythology, the name of an angel 
who watches over the dying, and 
separates the soul from the body. 

jg®'' " The Mohammedan doctors ... 
say that Azrael . . . was commissioned 
to inflict the penalty of death on all 
mankind, and that, until the time of 
Mahomet, he visibly struck down before 
the eyes of the living those whose time 
for death was come ; and although not 
invariably seen by by-standers, yet he 
was supposed to be always visible, in the 
very act of inflicting the mortal blow, to 
those whose souls he was summoned to 
take away, Mahomet, struck by the ter- 
rific effect which this produced upon 
men, entreated that the angel of death 
should take away the souls of men with- 
out this visible appearance ; and, in con- 
sequence of the prayers of the prophet, 
it was no longer permitted, but men's 
souls were taken without their beholding 
the angelic form which removed them." 
Henry Chrislmas. 
Even Azrael, from his deadly quiver 

When flies that shaft, and fly it must. 
That parts all else, shall doom for ever 
Our hearts to undivided dust. Byron. 

Madness . . . invisible, impalpable, and yel 
no black Azrael, with wings spread over half 
a continent, with sword sweeping from sea to 
aea, could be a truer reality. Carlyle. 

' For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the ficcompanying Explanations, 





Ba'&l. [Heb., lord, master.] {Myth.) 
A* general appellation of honor used 
— sometimes in the plural form, Ba- 
alim — to designate many different 
gods among the ancient nations of 
the East; but speeiticallj' applied to 
the principal male deity of the Phoe- 
nicians, who was also worshiped in 
Assyria, Egypt, Carthage, and other 
countries. He was the god of the 
sun. See 1 Kings xviii. 

i8®- " The word Baal is frequently found 
coupled with gome epithet, and seems, in 
such cases, to have denoted a different 
deity, or perhaps the same deity regarded 
as exercising a different function. Thus, 
we have Bail-Bereth, ''the Covenant 
Lord," worshiped by the people of She- 
chem ; Baal-Peor, the Priapus of the Mo- 
abites and Midianites ; and Beelzebub, or 
Baal-zebub, — the " Fly-god," — the idol 
of the Philistines at Ekron. 

Baba, Ali (a^le' b^/bS). A character 
in the "Arabian Nights' Entertain- 
ments," which relates the storj" of 
his adventures with the Forty Thieves 
{q. r.), whom he discovers from his 
hiding-place in a tree, and whose 
cave he enters by the use of a magic 
pass-word, " Sesame," which he has 
accidentally overheard. 

Baba, Cassim (kas'sim bS'bJ). A 
character in the " Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments;" the brother of Ali 
Baba. See Forty Thieves. 

The spell loses its power, and he who should 
then hope to conjure with it would find him- 
self as much m^istaken as Cassim . . . when 
he stood crying, "Open, Wheat,** "Open, 
Barley," to the door which obeyed no sound 
but " Open, Sesame." Macaulay. 

Baba, Hajji (hSd/jee bt'bS). The hero 
of a novel of the sanie name, by James 
Mori er (1780-1849); a sort of Persian 
picaroon, on the Gil-Bias model. 

Babes in the "Wood. See Chil- 
dren IN THE Wood. 

Babes of the "Wood. (Irish Hist.) 
Insurrectionary hordes who infested 
the mountains of Wicklow and the 
woods near Enniscarthy, toward the 
end of the eighteenth century, and 
who were guilty of the ^eatest 

Baboon, Lewis. Louis XIV. of 
France; — so called in Arbuthnot's 
" History of John Bull." 

Baboon, Philip. A nickname given, 
in Arbuthnot's " History of John 
Bull," to Philip, Duke of Anjou, 
grandson of Louis XIV. of France. 

Bac'ghus. [Gr. Bokxov, the noisy or 
riotous god.] (Gr. ^ Mom. Myth.) 
The son of Jupiter and Semele, and 
the god of wine; represented as a 
beautiful but effeminate youth. 

Bachelor of Salamanca. See Don 

Backbite, Sir Benjamin. A censo- 
rious character in Sheridan's " School 
for Scandal." 

But could this sad, thoughtful countenance 
be the same vacant face of folly. . . that 

looked out so formally flat in Foppington, so 

" "' " .•»"... • otently busy iu 

Charles Lamb. 

frothily pert in Tattle, so impotentl 
Backbite f ^"^ - 

Bac'tri-an Sage. An epithet given 
to Zoroaster, the founder of the Ma- 
gian religion, and a native of Bactria, 
the modern Balkh. 

Badebec (bSd^bek'). The wife of 
Gargantua, and mother of Pantag- 
ruel, whose birth was the cause of 
her death ; which is not to be won- 
dered at, since he came into the 
world accompanied by eighty -one 
sellers of salt, each leading a mule 
by a halter; nine dromedaries, lad- 
en with ham and smoked tongues; 
seven camels, laden with eels; be- 
sides twenty -five wagons full of 
leeks, garlic, onions, and shallots. 

Badger State. A name popularly 
given to the State of Wisconsin. 

Badinguet (hk^dsi^^gti', 62). A nick- 
name given in France to the em- 
peror Napoleon III. 

Ba'don, Mount (baMn). ^ The scene 
of a battle which is said to have been 
fought by King Arthur against the 
Saxons who invaded his kingdom, 
and in which the latter were signally 
defeated. By some writers, Badon 
has been identified with Bath, by- 
others with Berkshire. 

Bag'stock, Joe. A wooden-featured, 

end for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 



blue-faced major in Dickens's " Dom- 
bey and Son," self-absorbed, and for 
ever talking of "J. B.," " old J. B.," 
"Joey B.," &c. 

Baillie lyTicol Jarvie. See Jarvie, 
Baillie Nicol. 

Baiser de Ijamourette, Le. See 
Lamourette's Kiss. 

Bajardo (bi-e-afMo). See Bayard. 

Bal'der-st6ne, Caleb. In Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's " Bride of Lammermoor," 
the faithful old butler of the Master 
of Ravenswood. He struggles most 
virtuously, without food, furniture, or 
comfort, to maintain an appearance 
of affluence, and is always ready 
with some ludicrous shift to uphold 
the fallen dignity of his patron. 

4^ " Of all our author's fools and 
bores, he is the most pertinacious, the 
most intrnsiye, and, from the nature of 
his one monotonous note, the least par- 
donable in his intrusion His silly 
buffoonery is always marring, with gross 
absurdities and degrading associations, 
some scene of tenderness -or dignity." 

The G^lic foray was even more terrible 
and fatorlhan Roman vanity chose to avow. 
It was like Caleb Balderstone^t thxinder-stoTm^ 
or Edward the First's destruction of charters i 
for it utterly ruined early Roman history. 


Baldur (bM'dobf ). [Old Norse, bril- 
liant, beautiful, powerful J {Scand. 
Myth. ) The second son of Odin and 
Frigga ; the god of the summer sun ; 
represented as the noblest, gentlest, 
and wisest of all the gods, and so fair 
that a brilliant white light streamed 
from his person. In consequence of 
the machinations of Loki, he was 
slain by his twin brother, Hodur, the 
blind god of war. His death typifies 
the disappearance of the sun from 
the horizon during the winter months 
in the North. [Written also Bal- 
der and Ball dr.] 

Balisardo (bS-le-saf'do). [It.] The 
name of ^ sword which, according to 
Ariosto, m his "Orlando Furioso," 
would cut even enchanted substances, 
and was made by a potent sorceress, 
named Falerina, to kill Orlando with. 
It became the property of Ruggiero. 

BaUengelgh, Goodman of. See 
Gooi>man of Ballengeigh. 

BSl'mS-wliSp'pIe (-pi). A strpidly 
obstinate Scottish laird who figures 
in Scott's novel of " Waverley." 

Balmung (baPmoong). A sword of 
^reat potency, belonging to Siegfried 
m the German epos, the " Nibeiun- 
gen Lied." Von der Hagen seems 
to think it merely the sword Mimung 
under another name. See Mimifng 
and Wieland. 

Younp: hearts, preneration after generation, 
will think with thomselvep, O worthy of wor- 
Bhip, thou king-descended, f?od-descended, 
and poor sister-woman [the Princess de Tyani- 
ballejl why was not I there [at her execu- 
tion]; and some Sword Balmung, or Thor's 
Hammer in my hand? Carlyle. 

BSl'nl-bar'bi. A land occupied by 
projectors, visited by Gulliver in his 
famous imaginary " Travels." See 

Bal-thaz'ar. 1. A merchant in Shake- 
speare's " Comedy of Errors." 

2. A servant to Don Pedro, in 
"Much Ado about Nothing." 

3. A name assumed by Portia, in 
Shakespeare's " Merchant of Ven- 
ice." See Portia. 

4. One of the " Kings of Cologne," 
— the three magi who came from the 
East to worship the infant Saviour. 

Balwery, Great "Witch of. See 
Great Witch of Balwery. 

Bai'whid-der, The Rev. Micah 
(baPhwlth-ur). A Scottish Presby- 
terian pastor in Gait's "Annals of 
the Parish," imbued with all old- 
fashioned national feelings and prej- 
udices, but thoroughly sincere, kind- 
hearted, and pious. He is easy, 
garrulouSj fond of a quiet joke, and 
perfectly ignorant of the world ; dili- 
gent, blameless, loyal, and exemplary 
m his life, but without the fiery zeal 
and " kirk-filling eloquence " of thei 
supporters of the Covenant. 

Ban, King. The father of Lancelot 
du Lac, and a famous knight of the 
Round Table. He was a king of 
Brittany, and a faithful ally of King 

Banou, Peri. See Paribanou. 

Ban 'quo (bangk^wo). A Scottish 
thane and warrior of the eleventh 
century, and progenitor of the royal 
House of Stuart, immortalized in 

0^" For the *' Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,'* with tlie accompanying Explanations, 




Shakespeare's tragedy of "Mac- 

Like Banquo^s murderer, there was blood 

on his face, as well as upon the rowels of his 

spurs, and the sides of his over-ridden horse. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Ban'shee. In the popular supersti- 
tions of the Irish, a sort of tutelary 
female demon, called the wife of the 
fairies, who is thought to give warn- 
ing of an approaching death by wail- 
ings and shrieks which she utters. 
[ VWitten also B e n s h i e.] 

Saph'o-met. A mysterious idol, or 
rather symbol, which was in use 
among the Templars. It was a small 
human figure, cut out of stone, and 
covered with emblems of unknown 
signification. It had two heads, one 
male and the other female, with the 
rest of the body purely feminine 
Specimens are to be found in some 
cf the museums of Continental cities 
J^^ The word Bapkomet is supposed 
to be a corruption — arising from the 
negligence of some transcriber — of the 
name Mahomet., occurring in the deposi- 
tions of witnesses against the unfortunate 
Templars, who were accused of having 
a leaning to the faith of the Arabian 

Baptiste, Jean (zhon ba'test', 62). A 
sobriquet given to the French Cana- 
dians, these being very common 
Christian names among them. 

Barataria (ba-r5-ta re-S). [Sp., from 
barato^ cheap ] Sancho Panza's isl- 
and-city, in Cerv^antes's romance of 
" Don Quixote." • " Sancho then, 
with all his attendants, arrived at a 
town containing about a thousand 
inhabitants. They gave him to un- 
derstand that it was called the island 
of Barataria, either because Barata- 
ria was really the name of the place, 
or because he obtained the govern- 
ment of it at so cheap a rate. On 
his arrival near the gates of the 
town, the municipal officers came out 
to receive him. Presently after, with 
cfertain ridiculous ceremonies, they 
presented him with the keys of the 
town, and constituted him perpetual 
governor of the island of Barataria." 

Sancho Panza, in his island of Barataria, 
neither administered justice more wisely, nor 
was interrupted more provokingly in his per- 
sonal indulgences. Shelley. 

I don't rat side-dishes; and a« for the roaat 
beef of Old England, why, the meat was put 
on the table and whisked away like Saucho's 
inauguration feast sA Barataria. Thackeray. 

Bar'ba-son (-sn). The name of a 
fiend* mentioned bv Shakespeare, 
"Merry Wives of Windsor," a. ii., 
sc. 2, and "Henry V.," a. ii., sc. 1. 

Barber Poet. A name sometimes 
given to Jacques Jasmin (1798-1864), 
a popular poet of Gascony, and a 
barber or hair-dresser by occupation. 

Bar-dell', Mrs. A widow landlady in 
Dickens's "Pickwick Papers," cele- 
brated for the suit which she brought 
against Mr. Pickwick ibr an alleged 
breach of promise to marry her. 

Bard of A'v6n. A surname often ap- 
plied to Shakespeare, who was born 
and buried in Stratford-upon-Avon. 

Bard of Ayrshire. A name often 
given to Robert Burns, the great 
peasant-poet of Scotland, who was a 
native and resident of the county of 

Bard of Hope. A title sometimes 
given to Thomas Campbell (1777- 
1844), author of " The Pleasures of 
Hope," one of the most beautiful di- 
dactic poems in the language. 

Bard of Memory. A name used to 
designate the poet Rogers (1762- 
1855), author of "The Pleasures of 

The Bard of 3femort/ slumhered on hia 
laurels, and he of Hope had scarce begun to 
attract his share of public attention. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Bard of Olney. An appellation 
sometimes conferred upon the poet 
Cowper, who resided for many years 
at Olney, in Buckinghamshire. 

Bard of Rydal Mount. A surname 
sometimes applied to the poet Words- 
worth (1770-1850), who resided from 
1813 until his death at Rydal, a clfap- 
elry of England, in the countyof West- 
moreland. His dwelling commanded 
a beautiful view of the lake Of Rydal 
and of a part of Windermere. 

Bard of Twick'en-liam. A name 
often given to the poet Pope (1688- 
1744), who resided at Twickenham 
for the last thirty years of his life. 

Of all the abject and despicable driveling, 
ever driveled by clerk or layman, is all that 

»nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv -xxxii. 





late driveling about the eternal principles of 
poetry, and tne genius of the Jiard of Twick- 
enham. BlackwooiVs Mag. 

Bar'dolpli. A follower of Falstaff, a 
bravo, and a humorist, in Shake- 
speare's " Merry Wives of Windsor," 
and in the two parts of " King Henry 

We are much of the mind of FalstalTs tailor. 
We must have better assurance for Sir John 
tlian Bardolph's. We like not the security. 

Though, like Bardolph, I have nothing, 
and cannot even coin my nose for guineas, or 
my blood for drachmas, it is not the less flat- 
tering to a man's minor vanities to receive a 
begging letter. Sala. 

Bare'bdne'§ Parliament. i^ng. 
Hist.) A nickname conferred upon 
the Parliament convened by Crom- 
well, July 4, 1653. It was composed 
of 139 persons, who resigned their 
authority Dec. 12, 1653 ; and it was 
i so called from a fanatical leather- 

j seller named Praise-God Barebone, 

i who was one of the principal mem- 
bers, and was notorious for his long 
prayers and sermons. [Called also 
Little Parliament.^ 

Bar'guest. {Fairy Myth.) A fright- 
ful goblin, armed with teeth and 
claws, which is an object of terror in 
the North of England. According 
to Ritson (" Fairy Tales," p. 58), the 
Barguest, besides its many other 
pranks, would sometimes, in the 
dead of night, in passing through 
the diflferent streets, set up the most 
horrid and continuous shrieks, in or- 
der to scare the poor girls who might 
happen to be out of bed. It was 
generally believed that the faculty 
of seeing this goblin was peculiar to 
certain individuals, but that the gift 
could be imparted to another, at the 
time of the ghost's appearance, by 
the mere act of touching. 

Baj!*kis. A carrier in Dickens's novel 
of " David Copperfield," in love with 
a servant-girl named Peggotty, whom 
he solicits in marriage by writing and 
displaying before her eyes a proposal 
uniquely worded, " Barkis is willin'." 

Barleycorn, Sir John. In England 
and Scotland, a jocular name for ale 
or beer, which is made of barley. 
Sir John is the subject of a famous 
old ballad of ihe same name. In a 

whimsical English tract of ancient 
date, entitled " The Arraigning and 
Indicting of Sir John Barleycorn, 
Knt.," he is described as of "noble 
blood, well beloved in England, a 
great supporter of the crown, and a 
maintainer of both rich and poor." 
The following list of the juiy is curi- 
ous: — 

Timothy Toss-pot. Richard Standfast. 

Benjamin Bumper. Small Stout. 

Giles Lick-spigot. John Never-sober. 

Barnaby Full-pot. Obadiah Thirsty. 

Lancelot Toper. Nicholas Speud-thrift. 

John Six-go-downs. Edmund Empty -purse. 

Sir John is tried in regular form, the 
jury returning a verdict of Not Guilty. 

Inspiring bold John Barlet/com, 

"What dangers thou canst make us scorn! 

Wi' tippenny we fear nae evil; 

Wi' usquebae we '11 face the devil I Bums. 

Good John Barleycorn, also, who always 
heightens and exaggerates the prevailing pas- 
sions, be they angry or kindly, was not want- 
ing upon this occasion. Sir W. Scott. 

John Barleycorn has given his very heart to 
this liq uor [the "Archdeacon "] : it is a su- 
perior kind of ale, the Prince of Ales, with a 
richer flavor and a mightier spirit than you 
can find elsewhere in this weary world. 


Bar'me-cide, The. A prince of the 
illustrious family of the same name, 
which flourished at Bagdad contem- 
poraneously with the Caliph Haroun- 
Al-Kaschid and his predecessors ; rep- 
resented in the "Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments " as ordering rich 
viands for a famished beggar named 
Shacabac, and, l>efore they could be 
brought, calling upon him to help 
himself to the diflerent dishes, — 
naming them one after another. The 
beggar humored the joke, pretend- 
ing to eat, and praismg the enter- 
tainment, and even protesting that 
he could eat no more. In the end, 
the eccentric host, pleased with the 
patient complaisance of his guest, 
• ordered a real and sumptuous enter- 
tainment for him, in place of that of 
which he had previously partaken 
only in imagination. 

It is, to be sure, something like the feast 
which the Barmecide served up to Alnaschar 
[Shacabac]; and we cannot expect to get fkt 
upon such diet. Sir W. Scott. 

The Bamiecide^s dinner to Shacabac was 
only one degree removed from these solemn 
banquets. Thackeray. 

V3f For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




As for Karl Albert, he had his new pleasant 
dream of sovereignty at Frag: Titular of Up- 
per Austria, and now of Bohmen as well, and 
enjoyed his Feast of the Barmecide, and glo- 
rious repose in the captured metroiK)lie atter 
difficulty overcome. Carlyle. 

Bar'nS-b^, "Widow. The title of a 
novel by Mrs. Trollope, and the 
name of its heroine, who is distin- 
guished for her husband - hunting 
schemes, her pretension, vulgar as- 
surance, and want of principle. 

Bamaby Budge. See Rudge, Bar- 


Bar'n^-^ne. A dissolute and reck- 
less character, " fearless of what 's 
past, present, and to come," who fig-* 
ures in Shakespeare's " Measure for 

Barn-bumers. 1. Lawless individ- 
uals who secretly set fire to the bams 
of the great landed proprietors in the 
State of New York, in the first half 
of the nineteenth century. 

2. A nickname formerly given to 
the more radical and progressive sec- 
tion of the Democratic party in the 
United States, who aimed at remov- 
ing the abuses connected with banks 
and corporations, in allusion to the 
story of an old Dutchman who re- 
lieved himself of rats by burning his 
barns, which they infested. 

Barn'well, George. The hero of 
Lillo's tragedy of the same name, 
founded on an old ballad. Barnwell 
is a London apprentice hurried on to 
ruin and murder by an infamous wo- 
man, who at last delivers him up to 
justice and to an ignominious death. 

Barons, "War of the. See War of 
THE Barons. 

Barrel-Mirabeau (mlr'a-bo). [Fr. 
Mirabeau- TonneauA A. nickname 
given to Boniface Riquetti, Viscount 
de Mirabeau (1754-1792), brother to 
the great tribune. He was so called 
from his bulk, and the quantity of 
drink he usually held. 

Bar'rett, Clerk, Walter. A pseudo- 
nym of Joseph A. Scoville (d. 1864), 
author of "The Old Merchants of 
New York." 

Barriers, Battle of the. See Bat- 
tle OF THE Barriers. 

Bartholo (baPto'lo'). A doctor who 
plays a prominent part in Beaumar- 
chais' comedies, "Le Mariage de 
Figaro " and " Le Barbier de Seville." 

Bar'thol'o-mew'g Day, St. [Fr. 
La St.-Barthelemy ; Ger. BartholO' 
mdusnacht^ Bartholomew's Night, or 
Bluthochzeit^ Blood-wedding.] {Fr. 
Hist.) The appellation given, in 
English books, to a dreadful massa- 
cre of French Protestants, commenced 
in Paris on the eve of the festival of 
St. Bartholomew, August 24, 1572. 
The massacre was secretly ordered 
by the king, Charles IX., at the in- 
stigation of his mother, the (j^ueen- 
dowager, Catharine de' Medici, and 
was attended by circumstances of 
the most fiendish cruelty. It is esti- 
mated that in all 30,000 (some au- 
thorities say 70,000) persons were 
murdered. [Called also The Barthol- 
omew^ and The Massacre of St. Bar- 

Basile (bS^zel'). A character in Beau- 
marchais' comedies, " Le Mariage de 
Figaro" and "Le Barbier de Se- 
ville; " a calumniator, a bigot, and a 
niggard. The name is used gener- 
icalTv in French, to designate any 
similar character. 

Bas^i-lis'co. A foolish and boastful 
knight in an old play called " Soli- 
man and Perseda," so popular that 
his name became proverbial. 

Bas-sS'ni-o. The lover of Portia, in 
Shakespeare's " Merchant of Venice." 
See Portia. 

Bastard of Orle-&n§. [Fr. Bdtard 
cP Orleans.'] Ah appellation applied 
to Jean Dunois (1403-1468), a natu- 
ral son of Louis, Duke of Orleans, 
brother of Charles VI. He was one 
of the most brilliant soldiers that 
France ever produced. 

Ba-ta'vi-|. The ancient Latin name 
of Holland, — often used in modern 

Lo I where, through flat Batavia's willowy 

Or by the lazy Seine, the exile roves. 


Bateman, Lord. See Lord Beichan. 
Bath, Maid of. See Maid of Bath. 
Bath, Major (2)., The name of a* 

aad for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xacxU. 




character in Fielding's novel of 
"Amelia;" a poor and pompous, 
but noble-minded gentleman, who 
swears, " by the honor and dignity 
or man," and is caught cooking some 
gruel in a saucepan for his ailing sis- 
Bath, "Wife of. See Wife of Bath. 

Bat^ra-cho/my-o-ma'clii-a. See 
Battle of the Frogs and M];pE. 

Battle, The Tearless. [Gr. "AdaKfwg 
fuixV'] {Gr. Jlist.) An engagement 
between the Lacedaemonians, under 
Archidamus XL, and the Arcadians 
and Argives (b. c. 367), in which 
the latter were defeated with great 
slaughter, while not one Spartan fell. 
Hence, says Plutarch, it was " known 
by the name of the Tearless Battle." 
[Called also The Tearless Victoi-y.] 

Battle of Spurs. [Fr. Journee des 
Fperons.] {Fr. Hist.) 1. A name 
given to the battle of Courtray (July 
•11, 1302), the tirst great engagement 
between the nobles and the burghers, 
which, with the subsequent battles of 
Bannockburn, Crecy, and Poictiers, 
decided the fate of feudalism. In 
this encounter, the knights and gen- 
tlemen of France were entirely over- 
thrown by the citizens of a Flemish 
manufacturing town. The French 
nobility rushed forward with loose 
bridles, and fell headlong, one after 
another, into an enormous ditch, 
which lay between them and their 
enemies. The whole army was anni- 
hilated; and when the spoils were 
gathered, there were found 4000 
golden, spurs to mark the extent of 
the knightly slaughter, and give a 
name to the engagement. 

I beheld the Flemish weavers, with Namur 

and Juliets bold, 
Marching homeward from the bloody Battle 

of the Spurs of Gold. Lonafellow. 

2. A name given to an affair 
at Guinegate, near Calais (August 
18, 1513), in which the English 
troops under Henry VIII. defeated 
the French forces. The allusion is 
said to be to the unusual energy of 
the beaten party in riding off the 
Rattle of the Baiyiers. {Fr. Hist.) 

The name of a battle fought under 
the walls of Paris, on the 30th of 
March, 1814, between the forces un- 
der Napoleon and the armies of the 
allied sovereigns. The latter, after 
an obstinate contest, gained the vic- 
tory, which led to the capitulation of 
Paris, and the abdication of Napo- 

Battle of the Books. The subject 
of a satirical composition by Swift, 
entitled " The Battle . . . between 
the Ancient and Modern Books in 
St. James's Library," alluding to a 
celebrated controversy among the 

• literary men of his day regarding the 
respective merits of ancient and mod- 
ern learning. 

Battle of the Frogs and Mice. [Gr. 
(Sarpaxo/ivofiaxta, Lat. Batradiomy- 
omachia.] The subject of a mock- 
heroic poem, ascribed to Homer, but 
evidently of a much later origin, and 
apparently designed to travesty the 
" Iliad " and " Odyssey." 

Battle of the Giants. {Fr. Hist.) A 
name given to the celebrated battle 
of Marignano (Melegnano), Sept. 13, 
1515, in which Francis I. of France 
fought against the Swiss, who were 
led by the Duke of Milan. Francis 
lost, upon this occasion, 8000 of his 
best troops, but displayed extraordi- 
nary generalship, and acquired ex- 
tensive fame. 

Battle of the Herrings. {Eng. Hist.) 
A name given by historians to 'an 
engagement which took plaice Feb. 
12, 1429, in which Sir John Fastolfe, 
an English general, at the head of 
1500 men, gained a victory over 6000 
Frenchmen near Orleans, and brought 
a convoy of stores in safety to ' the 
English camp before that place. The 
stores comprised a large quantity of 

Battle of the Kegs. The subject 
and title of a mock-heroic poem by 
Francis Hopkinson (1738-1791). This 
ballad, very famous in the time of 
the American Revolution, was occa- 
sioned by a real incident. 

J8®" *' Certain machines in the form 
of kegs, charged with gunpowder, were 
sent down the river to annoy the British 

• For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




phipping then at Philadelphia. The 
danger of these machines being dis- 
covered, the British manned the wharfs 
and shipping, and discharged their small- 
arms, and cannons at every thing they 
saw floating in the river during the ebb- 
tide." Author^ s Note, 

Battle of the Wations. A liame 
sometimes given to the battle of 
Leipsic (1813), one of the greatest 
and most sanguinary battles of mod- 
ern times, on account of the various 
nationalities, French, Austrian, Rus- 
sian, Prussian, &,c., which were there 

Battle of the Poets. The subject 
and title of a poem (1725) by John 
Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, in 
which he brings all the versifiers of 
the time tfito the field. 

Battle of the Standard. {Eng, Hist.) 
A name given to an engagement be- 
tween the English and Scotch at 
Northallerton, Yorkshire, Aug. 22, 
1138, resulting in the defeat of the 
latter. It was so called on account 
of a high crucifix borne by the Eng- 
lish upon a wagon as a military en- 

Battle of the Thirty. [Fr. Combat 
des Trente.'] {Eng. tf Fr. Hist.) A 
name given to a celebrated engage- 
ment which took place at a spot 
known as Midway Oak, half-way 
between the castles of Josselin and 
Ploermel, in France, March 27, 1351. 
The French General Beaumanoir, 
commanding the former post, being 
enraged at the depredations commit- 
ted by Bemborough, the English 
general, occupying the latter posi- 
tion, challenged him to fight. Upon 
this, it was agreed that thirty knights 
of each party should meet and de- 
cide the contest. The two chiefs 
presented themselves at the head of 
their best soldiers, and the battle be- 
gan in earnest. At the first onset, 
the English were successful; but 
Bemborough having been killed, the 
French renewed the struggle with 
redoubled courage, and finally won 
the victoiy. 

S^ This was one of the most heroic 
exploits of the age, and gained such 
popularity, that, more than a hundred 

years later, when speaking of a hard con- 
test, it was usual to say, •' There was 
never such hard fighting since the Battle 
of the Thirty." 

Bau'cis. [Gr. BaD/cif .] ( Gr. ^ Rom, 
Myth.) An aged Phrygian woman, 
who, with her husband, Philemon, 
hospitably received Jupiter and Mer- 
cuiy, after every one else in the place 
had refused to entertain them. The 
gods visited the country with an in- 
undation, but saved Baucis and Phi- 
lemon, and converted their humble 
dwelling into a magnificent temple, , 
of which this pious couple became ' 
the priests. Having expressed a 
wish to die together, when the time 
of their departure should come, Ju- 
piter granted their request by chang- 
ing them simultaneously into two 
trees before the temple. 

Bavieca (ba-ve-a^ka). The name of a 
famous steed of the Cid. He sur- 
vived his master two years and a ^ 
half, during which time no one was 
permitted to mount him. When he 
died, he was buried before the gate 
of the monastery at Valencia, in the 
public place, and two elms were 
planted upon the grave, the one at 
his head, the other at his feet. 

Bay'Srd (Fr.pron. bi^af'). 1. A fa- 
mous horse, of incredible swiftness, 
belonging to the four sons of Aymon. 
(See Aymon.) He was of the ordi- 
nar}"- size when only one of them 
wished to ride, but, when all four 
were to be carried, he had the power 
of elongating his body till it was 
of the requisite dimensions. Many 
wonderful things are related of him. 
It is said that one of his foot-prints 
is to be seen in the forest of Soignes 
in Brabant, and another on a rock 
near Dinant. 

2. The same name is given in the 
old romances and romantic poems to 
Rinaldo's famous steed, a wonderful 
animal of a bright bay color, which 
had formerly belonged to Amadis de 
Gaul. He was found by Malagigi, 
the wizard knight and cousin to Ki- 
naldo, in a grotto, together with a 
suit of arms and the sword Fusberta, 
under the watch of a dragon whom 

•nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. uv-zxxli. 




he charmed. Having obtamed the 
prize, he bestowed it upon Rinaldo. 
In the French romances, he is repre- 
sented to be yet alive in some of the 
forests of France ; but runs off on be- 
holding any one ; on which account 
all hope of securing him is vain. 
£aye§. The name of the principal 
character in ** The Rehearsal," a witty 
and celebrated farce, ostensibly and 
chiefly written by George Villiers, 
Duke of Buckingham, and intended 
as a satire upon the heroic or rhym- 
ing plays of his time. It was first 
brought out in the year 1671. In its 
original fonn, the character of Bayes 
was meant for the Hon. Edward 
Howard (for whom Sir William 
Davenant was afterwards substitut- 
ed); but, in its present form, the hero 
of the satire is Dryden, who had 
stood forth not only as a practicer, 
but as the champion, of this peculiar 
species of the drama. He is repre- 
sented as greedy for applause ; impa- 
tient of censure or criticism ; inordi- 
nately vain, yet meanly obsequious 
to those who, he hopes, will gratify 
him by returning his flattery in kind ? 
and, finally, as anxiously and dis- 
tressingly mindful of the minute 
parts of what, even in the whole, is 
scarce worthy of attention. 

In short, sir, you are of opinion with Bayes^ 
— *' Wliat the devil does the plot signify, ex- 
cept to bring in fine things?" Sir W. Scott. 

Bayou State. A name sometimes 
given to the State of Mississippi, 
which abounds in bayous, or creeks. 

Bay State. A popular name of Mas- 
sachusetts, which, before the adop- 
tion of the Federal Constitution, was 
called the Colony of Massachusetts 

Lift again the stately emblem on the Bay 

Staters rusted shield. 
Give to Northern winds the pine-tree on our 

banner's tattered field! Whittier. 

When first the Pilgrims landed on the Bay 

State's iron shore. 
The word went forth that slavery should one 

day be no more. Lowell. 

Bean Iiean, Don'ftld. A Highland 
robber -chief in Sir Walter Scott's 
novel of " Waverley." 

B^amais, lie (lu b^'af nft'), A sur- 
name given to Henry IV., king of 

France and Kavarre (1553-1598), 
from his native province, Le B^am. 
He was so called in especial by the 
Leaguers (see League, The), who 
refused to recognize him as king of 
France, or even as king of Navarre. 

Bear State. A name by which the 
State of Arkansas is sometimes des- 
ignated, on account of the number 
of bears that infest its forests. 

Be'$- trice {It. pron. ba-a-tre'chS). 
1. The Christian name of a young 
Florentine lady of the illustrious 
family of Portinari, for whom the 
poet Dante conceived a strong but 
purely Platonic afl'ection, and whom 
ne represents, in the *' Divina Com- 
media," as his guide through para- 
dise. • 

2. The heroine of Shakespeare's 
"Much Ado about Nothing." 

J8Q^ "The extraordinary success of 
this play in Shakespeare's own day, and 
ever since, in England, is to be ascribed 
more particularly to the parts of Bene> 
dick and Beatrice, two huniorsome be- 
ings, who incessantly attack each other 
with all the resources of raillery . Avowed 
rebels to love, they are both entangled in 
its net by a merry plot of their friends to 
make them believe that each is the object 
of the secret passion of the other. " Sc/ile- 
gel, Trans. — " In Beatrice, high intellect 
and high animal spirits meet, and excite 
each other like fire and air. In her wit 
(which is brilliant without being imagina- 
tive) there is a touch of insolence, not in- 
frequent in women when the wit predom- 
inates over retiection and imagination. 
In her temper, too, there is a slight in- 
fiision of the termagant ; and her satiri- 
cal humor plays with such an unrespect- 
ive levity' over all subjects alike, that it 
required a profound knowledge of women 
to bring such a character Avithin the pale 
of our sympathy. But Beatrice, though 
willful, is not wayward ; she is volatile, 
not unfeeling. She has not only an 
exuberance of wit and gayety, but of 
heart, and soul, and energy of spirit." 

Mrs. Jameson. 

3. See Beautiful Parricide. 

Beatrix. See Castlewood, Bea- 

Beau'clarc (bo'-). [Fr., fine scholar.] 
A surname of Henry I. of England, 
who received a more literary educa- 
tion than was usually given, in hig 

> Tot the " Key to the Scheme of Pronundatton,** with tlie •ccompanying ExpUnationSf 




time, citlicr to the sons of kings, or 
to la3micn of any rank. 

Beau Tibbs. A prominent character 
in Goldsmith*s " Citizen of the 
World; " said by Hazlitt to be 
" the best comic sketch since the 
time of Addison; unrivaled in his 
finery, his vanity, and his poverty." 

Beautiful Corisande (ko^re'zond', 
62). [Fr. La Belle Corisande.^ A 
sobriquet given to Diane d'Andou- 
ins (1554-1620), Countess of Guiche 
and Grammont, and widow of Philip 
de Grammont. 

Beautiful Gardener. [Fr. La Belle 
Jardiniere.] A sobriquet given to a 
mistress of Henry IV. of France. 

Beautiful Parricide. A name given 
to Beatrice Cenci (d. 1599), who is 
alleged to have murdered her father, 
a wealthy Roman nobleman, on ac- 
count of the revolting and incestu- 
ous brutality with which he treated 
her. For this crime, she was con- 
demned and put to death. Some 
historians maintain that she had no 
part in the murder, but was the vic- 
tim of dn infernal plot hatched by 
two robbers, or by unknown persons 
whose agents they were. The story 
of Beatrice has been made the sub- 
ject of a powerful tragedy by the 
poet Shelley. 

Beautiful Bopemaker. See Rope- 
maker, The Beautiful. 

Beauty and the Beast. [Fr. La Belle 
et la Bete.] The hero and heroine of 
a celebrated fairy tale — written in 
French by Mme. Villeneuve — which 
relates how a young and lovely wom- 
an saved the life of her father by put- 
ting herself in the power of a night- 
ful, but kind-hearted monster, whose 
respectful affection and deep melan- 
choly finally overcame her aversion 
to his hideousness, and induced her 
to consent to marry him, whereupon 
he was freed from the enchantment 
of which he had been a victim, and 
appeared to her in his proper form 
and character of a handsome and 
graceful young prince. 

So she [Caroline of Anspach, afterward 
^ueen of Georse 11. of England] lived at Ber- 
lin, brilliant tnough unportioned, with the 

3 n. of England] lived at Ber- 

ough unportioned, with the 

rough cub Friedrich Wilhelm much following 

her ahont, and passionfttely loyal to her, M 
the Beast was to Beauty ; whom she did not 
mind except as a cub loyal to her, being five 
years older thau he. Carlple, 

Beauty of But'ter-mfere. A cele- 
brated and lovely English girl, named 
Mary Robinson, who was married, l)y 
means of the most odious deceit, to 
John Hatfield, a heartless impostor, 
who was executed for forgery, at 
Carlisle, Sept. 3, 1803. 

Bede» Ciith'b^rt. A pseudonym a- 
dopted by the Rev. Edward BradJey, 
a popular English humorist of the 
present day. 

Bede, The Venerable. A famous 
English monk of the eighth century, 
whose surname was given him in 
honor of his eminent talents, virtues, 
and learning. 

j8^ There is an old story that a monk 
in vain attempted to write an epitaph 
upon Bede, and fell asleep, leaving it 
thus : " Hac sunt in fossa Bedae . . . 
ossa ; " and that, when he awoke, he 
found, to his great surprise and satisfac- 
tion, the long-sought epithet supplied by 
an angelic hand, — the whole line stand- 
ing thus : 
♦* Hac sunt in fossa Bedoe venerabilis ossa," 

Bed'i-vere, Sir. King Arthur's but- 
ler. He was a knight of the Round 
Table, and a prominent figure in 
many of the old romances of cmivalry. 

• [Written also B e d v e r .] 

Bed'red-din' Has's$.n. A charac- 
ter in the story of " Noureddin and 
his Son, and Shemseddin and his 
Daughter," in the "Arabian Nights* 

She [Effie Deans] amused herself with vis- 
iting the dairy, in which she had so long been 
assistant, ana was so near discovering herself 
to May Hetley, by betraying her acquaint- 
ance with the celebrated receipt for Dunlop 
cheese, that she compared herself to Bedred- 
- din Hassan, whom the vizier, his father-in- 
law, discovere'H by his superlative skill in 
composing cream-tarts with pepper in them. 
^V W. ScoU. 

Beef ing-tftn, Mi-lor'. A character 
in " The Rovers, or The Double Ar- 
rangement," in the poetry of the 
"Anti-Jacobin." He is an English 
nobleman in exile by the tyranny of 
King John, previous to the signature 
o/ Magna Charta. 

" Will without power," said the sagacious 
Casimir to MUar BeefingtoUy " is like children 
playing at soldiers." Macaulay. 

wid for the BemMrka aud Rules to which thfi numbers aftex certain wcmls r^er, see pp.xiv-zzxU. 




Be-el'ze-bub. [Heb. hanl, lord, and 
s'bub, fly.] (.Myth.) The title of a 
heathen deity, to whom the Jews 
ascribed the sovereignty of the evil 
spirits. . Milton, in his *' Paradise 
Lost," makes him second in rank to 
Satan ; but Wierus, the celebrated de- 
monographer of the sixteenth century, 
savs, that Satan is no longer the sov- 
ereign of hell, bu* that Beelzebub 
reigns in his place. Other media;val 
writers, who reckon nine ranks or 
orders of demons, place Beelzebub at 
the head of the first rank, which 
consists of the false gods of the Gen- 

"Which when Be'elzehvb perceived, than whom, 
Satan except, none higher sat, with grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seemed 
A pillar of state: deep on his front engraven 
Deliberation sat and public care; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone, 
Majestic though in ruin: sage he stood, 
With Atlantean shouldera fit to bear 
The weight of mightiest monarchies. 


Befana, La (la hti-Wnsi). [It., a cor- 
ruption of Gr. ''EiTZLcpuvta, the Epiph- 
any.] In Italy, a common personi- 
fication of the Epiphany, or Festival 
of the Manifestation of Christ to the 
Gentiles, — variously represented as 
a saint and as a fairy. According to 
other accounts, she is the Italian bug- 
bear of naughty children. 

j8®- The Epiphany (.Tan. 6) is the da^ 
for the presentation of Christmas gifts in 
Italy, and there is a pleasant fiction that 
lia Befana goes about at night like St. 
Nicliolas, carrying presents to children. 
Whether from thus personifying the 
season, or from whatever other cause, 
a figure, called La Befana, is suspended 
outside the doors of houses at the begin- 
ning of Lent. 

Beichan, Lord. See Lord Beichan. 

Bel. ( Chald. Myth.) The same as 
Belus and Baal. See Baal, Belus. 

Be-la'ri-us (9). The name of one 
of the characters in Shakespeare's 

Belch, Sir To'by. Uncle to Olivia, 
in Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night." 
He is a tvpe of the reckless, jolly 
roisterer of the Elizabethan period. 

Balmawhapple was young, stout, and ac- 
tive; but the Baron, infinitely more master 
of his weapon, would, like Sir Toby Belch, 
have tickled his opponents other gates than 

he did, had he not been under the influence 

of " Ursa Major" [a drinking-cup so called]. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Bel'fSrd. A friend and correspond- 
ent * of Lovelace, in Richardson's 
novel, " The History of Clarissa Har- 

It ia well for thee, that, Lovelace-and-^eZ- 
/orrf-like, we came under a convention to 
pardon everv species of liberty which we 
may take with each other. Sir W. Scott. 

Beli-^1. [Heb. bHi^ not, and ja'al^ 
useful.] A Hebrew word meaning 
worthlessness, and hence recklessness, 
lawlessness. The translators of the 
Bible have frequently treated the 
word as a proper name, though there 
can be no question that in the Old 
Testament it is a mere appellative. 
In the New Testament, the apostle 
Paul, in order to indicate in the 
strongest terms the high degree of 
virtue after which the Christian 
should strive, places Christ in direct 
opposition to Belial. " What con- 
cord hath Christ with Belial?" (2 
Cor. vi. 15.) The term as here used 
is generally understood as an appel- 
lative of Satan, as the personification 
of all that was bad; though Bengel 
explains it of Antichrist, as more 
strictly the opposite of Christ. Mil- 
ton in his " Paradise Lost " expressly 
distinguishes Belial from Satan, and 
he assigns him a prominent place in 
Pandemonium. Those mediaeval de- 
monographers who reckoned nine 
ranks of evil spirits, placed Belial at 
the head of the third rank, which 
consisted of inventors of mischief 
and vessels of anger. According to 

, Wierus, who, following old authori- 
ties, establishes a complete infernal 
court, Belial is its ambassador in 

Belial came jlast, than whom a spirit more 

Fell not from heaven, or more gross to love 
Vice for itself. 

A fairer person lost not heaven; he seemed 
For dignity composed and high exploit: 
But all was false and hollow; though his 

Dropped manna, and could make the worse 

The better reason, to perplex and dash 
Maturest counsels; for his thoughts were low. 

Belial, the dissolutest spirit that fell. 
The sensualest, and, after Asmodai, 
The fleshliest Incubus. Milton. 

" For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




But, could he make an effectual struggle, 
he might deperul upon the aid of the servile 
Barrere, a sort of Belial in the Convention, 
the meanest, yet not the least able, among 
those fallen spirits, who, with great adroitness 
and ingenuity, as well as wit and eloquence, 
caught opportunities as they arose, and was 
eminently dexterous in being always strong 
upon the strongest, and safe upon the safest, 
side. air W. Scott. 

Belianis. See Don Belianis of 

Be-lin'da. 1. The poetical name of 
the heroine of Pope's " Rape of the 
Lock," whose real name was Arabella 
Fennor. •A frolic of gallantry in 
which Lord Petre cut otf a lock of 
this lady's hair — a frolic so much 
resented that the intercourse of the 
two families, before very friendly, 
was interrupted — was the occasion 
of the poem, which was written with 
the design of bringing the parties to 
a better temper, and effecting a rec- 

2. The heroine of Miss Edgeworth's 
novel of the same name. 

Bell, Ac't6n. A pseudonym of Anne 
Bronte (d. 1849), an English noyelist, 
author of "Agnes Grey" and " The 
Tenant of Wildfeld Hall." 

Bell, Adam. The hero of a famous 
old ballad having this name for its 
title ; a wild, north - country outlaw, 
celebrated for his skill in archery. 

Bell, Bessy. A character in a ballad 
by Allan Ramsay, founded on fact, 
and entitled " Bessy Bell and Mary' 
Gray." These were daughters of 
tAvo country gentlemen in the neigh- 
borhood of Perth. When the plague 
of 1666 broke out, they built them- 
selves a bower in a very retired and 
romantic spot called Burn Braes, 
where they were supplied with food 
and other necessaries by a young 
gentleman who was in love with both 
of them. After a time he himself 
caught the disease, and, having un- 
wittingly communicated it to them, 
they all three sickened and died. 

Mrs, Le Blanc, a young woman fair to look 
upon, with her young infant, has to live in 
greenwood, like a beautiful Bessy Bell of song, 
her bower thatched with rushes; — catching 
premature rheumatism. Carlyle. 

Bell, Cur'rer. A pseudonym adopted 
by Mrs. Kicholls (Charlotte Bront^, 
— 1816-1855, — sister of Anne and 

Emily Brontt^), wife of the Rev. Ar« 
thur Bell Nicholls, and a distin- 
guished English novelist, author of 
"Jane Eyre," "Shirley," and " Vil- 

Bell, Ellis. A pseudonym of Emily 
Bronte (d. 1848), sister of Anne and 
Charlotte Bronte, and author of 
" Wuthering Heights." 

4®=- " Averse to personal publicity, 
we Tolled our names under those of 
Currer, Acton, and Ellis, Bell, — the am- 
biguous choice being dictated by a sort 
of conscientious scruple at assuming 
Christian names positively masculine, 
while we did not like to declare ourselves 
women, because — without at that time 
suspecting that our mode of writing and 
thinking was not what is called ' femi- 
nine ' — we had a v;igue impression that 
authoresses are likely to be looked on 
with prejudice ; we had noticed how 
critics sometimes use for their chastise- 
ment the weapon of personality, and for 
their reward jFQattery which is not truo 
praise." C. Bronte. 

Bell, Peter. The subject of Words- 
worth's poem entitled "Peter Bell, a 
Tale in Verse." A parody on this 
poem appeared soon after its publica- 
tion, and Shelley wrote a burlesque, 
entitled " Peter Bell the Third," in- 
tended to ridicule the ludicrous pu- 
erility of language and sentiment 
which Wordsworth often affected in 
the championship of the poetical 
system he had adopted. 

Bellas-ton, Lady. A profligate 
character in Fielding's novel, " The 
History of Tom Jones, a Foundling." 

Suppose we were to describe the doings of 
such a person as Mr. Lovelace, or my Lady 
Bellaston . . . ? How the pure and outraged 
Nineteenth Century would blush, scream, 
run out of the room, call away the younjj 
ladies, and order Mr. Mudie never to send 
one of that odious author's books again ! 


BeUe France, La (IS bel fr6"ss, 62). 
[Fr., beautiftil France.] A popular 
name applied to France, correspond- 
ing to the epithet " Merry England,*' 
as applied to England. 

Biddy Fudge, though delighted to find her- 
self in "Za liclle France," was yet somewhat 
disappointed at the unpicturesqueness of the 
country betwixt Calais and Amiens. 

Brit, if For. Rev. 

BelTen-den, Lady Margaret (beP- 
len-dn). An old Torjf lady, mistress 
of the Tower of Tillietudlem, in Sir 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxU. 




Walter Scott's novel of "Old Mor- 
Bel-lSr'o-phSn. [Gr. Be/Uepo^wv.] 
( Gr. if Lat, Myth, ) A beautiful son 
of the Corinthian King Glaucus, and 
a grandson of Sisyphus. With the 
help of the winged steed Pegasus, he 
killed the Chimajra. He atterward 
attempted to rise with Pegasus into 
heaven; but Jupiter sent a gad-fly, 
which • stung the horse . so that he 
threw the rider, who became lame 
and blind in consequence, and wan- 
dered lonely through the Aleian field, 
consumed by grief, and avoiding the 
paths of men. 

Upled by thee [Urania], 
Into the heaven of heavens I have presumed. 
An earthly guest. . . . With like safety guided 

Return me to my^ native element; 
Lest from this flying steed unreined (as once 
^ Bellerophon, though from a lower sphere), 
Dismounted on the Aleian field I fall. 
Erroneous there to wander and forlorn. 


Bel-le'rus (9). {Myth.) The name 
of a Cornish giant. 

Sleep'st by the fable of Bellerus old. 
Where the great vision of the guarded mount 
Looks toward Naraancos and Bayona's hold. 

Bel-lo'nS. {Eom. Myth.) The god- 
dess of war ; the companion and 
sister or wife of Mars. • She prepared 
the chariot of Mars when he was 
going to war; and she appeared on 
the battle-field with disheveled hair, 
a torch in her hand, and a whip to 
animate the combatants. 

Her features, late so ex<]^uisitely lovely in 
their paleness, [were] now inflamed with the 
fury of frenzy, resembling those of a Bel- 
lona. Sir W. Scott. 

Imminent blood-thirsty Regiments camped 
on the Champ de Mars; dispersed National 
Assembly; red-hot cannon-balls (to bum 
Paris); — the mad War -god and Bellona's 
sounding thongs. • Carlyle. 

Qell-the-Cat. A by-name given to 
Archibald Douglas (d. 1514), a Scot- 
tish nobleman, from an incident that 
occurred at Lauder, where the great 
barons of the realm had assembled 
at the call of the king, James IIL, 
to resist a threatened invasion of the 
country by Edward IV. of England. 
They were, however, less disposed to 
advance against the English than to 
correct the abuses of King James's 
administration, which were chiefly to 

be ascribed to the influence exerted 
over him by mean and unworthy 
favorites, particularly one Cochran, 
an a,rchitect, but termed a mason by 
the haughty barons. 

jl^^ " Many of the nobility and barons 
held a secret council in the church of 
Lauder, where they enlarged upon the 
evils which Scotland sustained through 
the insolence and corruption of Cochran 
and his associates. While they were thus 
declaiming, Lord Gray requested their 
attention to a fable. ' The mice,' he said, 
' being much annoyed by tHe persecution 
of the cat, resolved that a bell should be 
hung about puss's neck,* to give notice 
when she was coming. But, though the 
measure was agreed to in full council, it 
could not be carried into effect, because 
no mouse had courage enough to tie the 
bell to the neck of the formidable ene- 
my.' This was as much as to intimate 
his opinion, that, though the discontented 
nobles might make bold resolutions 
againi!?t the king's ministers, yet it would 
be difficult to find any one courageous 
enough to act upon them, Archibald, 
Earl of Angus, a man of gigantic strength 
and intrepid courage, and head of that 
second family of Douglas whom I before 
mentioned, started ut) when Gray had 
done speaking. ' I am he,' he said, ' who 
will bell the cat ; ' from which expression 
he was distinguished by the name of 
BtU-the- Cat to his dying day." • 

Sir W. Scott. 

He was equally worthy of blazon with him 
perpetuated in Scottish song and story by the 
surname of UcZKAe- Cat. W. Inking. 

Beloved Disciple. An appellation 
often given to John the evangelist 
and apostle, who enjo3''s the memo- 
rable distinction of having been the 
chosen and favored friend of our 
Lord. See John xiii. 23; xix. 26, 
27; XX. 2; xxi. 7,20. 

Beloved Merchant. A title bestowed 
by Edward III. of England upon 
Michael de la Pole, an eminent Lon- 
don merchant, who in the following 
reign became lord chancellor, and 
was raised to the peerage as Earl of 

Beloved Physician. An appellation 
sometimes used to designate St. Luke. 
It was first conferred upon him by 
the apostle Paul ( Col. iv. 14). 

Bel'phe-gor. {Myth.) A Canaanitish 
divinity, worshiped particularly by 
the Moabites. Wierus calls him the 

^ogr For the *' Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




ambassador in France from the in- 
fernal court of Beeliftbub. According 
to Pulci, he was a Mahometan deity; 
according to Macchiavelli, an arch- 
fiend who had been an archangel. 

Bel-phoe'be. [Fr. belle ^ beautiful, and 
Phcebe^ Diana.] A huntress in Spen- 

■ ser's "Faery Queen;" intended as 
a likeness of Queen Elizabeth, the 
woman, as contradistinguished from 
the queen, who is imaged in Glori- 

;@@=- " Flattery more highly seasoned 
may have been offered her [Queen Eliza- 
beth], but none more delicate and grace-' 
ful than that contained in the finished 
portniit of Belphoebe. She represents 
that pure and higii-spirited maidenhood 
which the ancients embodied in Diana ; 
and, like her, the forest is her dwelling- 
place, and the chase her favorite pastime. 
The breezes have imparted to her their, 
own fleetness, and the swaying foliage its 
graceful movement. . . . She is passion- 
less and pure, self- sustained and self- 
dependent, ' in maiden meditation fancy 
free,' and shines with a cold lunar light, 
and not the warm glow of day. The 
author has mingled the elements of her 
nature so skillfully that the result is 
nothing harsh, unnatural, or unfemi- 
nine ; and has so combined the lofty and 
the ideal with the graceful and attr.'ictive, 
that we behold in her a creature . . . 

• Too fair for worship, too divine for love ' " 
Geo. S. Ilillard. 

Belted Wm. A title bestowed upon 
Lord William Howard (1563-1640), 
warden of the western marches. 

His Bilboa blade, by Marchmen felt. 
Hung in a broad and studded belt; 
Hence, in rude phrase, the JBorderers still 
Called noble Howard, Belted mil. 

Sir W. Scott. 
It is within the memory of even middle- 
aged persons that the south-western portion 
of our country was in as lawless a state as 
ever were the borders of England and Scot- 
land, and with no Belted Will to hang up 
ruffians to swing in the wind. 

Atlantic Monthly. 

Beltenebros ibcl-tS-nJ-brosO. [Sp., 
the darkly beautiful, or fair forlorn; 
from belh)^ beautiful, and tenebroso^ 
dark, gloomy.] A name assumed by 
Amadis de Gaul on retiring to a 
hermitage, after receiving a cruel 
letter from his mistress, Oriana. 

Belus. [Gr. B^Ao?.] (Myth.) The 
ancestral hero and national divinity 
of several Eastern nations, especially 

the Chald?eans and Assyrians. He 
is the same as Baal. See Baal. 
[Called also Bel] 
BePvi-de'ra (9). The heroine of 
Otway's tragedy of " Venice Pre- 
served; " remarkable for her beauty, 
conjugal tenderness, spotless purity, 
and agonizing sufierings. See Jaf- 


More tears have been shed, probably, for 
the sorrows of Belvidera and Monimia than 
for those of Juliet and Desderaona. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Bendy, Old. See Old Bendy. 

Ben'e-dick. A young lord of Padua, 
in Shakespeare's " Aiuch Ado about 
Nothing," who combines the charac- 
ters of a wit, humorist, gentleman, and 
soldier. He marries Beatrice (though 
at first he does not love her) after a 
courtship which is a contest of wit 
and raillery. The name is often used 
as a synonym for a newly-married 
man, and is sometimes written Bene- 
dict., though this is not Shakespeare's 
orthography. See Beatrice. 

All these, like Benedick's brushing his hat 
of a morning, were signs that the sweet youth 
was in love. Sir W. Scott. 

In the first-named place, Henry found his 
dear Benedick, the married man, who ap- 
peared to be rather out of humor with his 
matrimonial chain. Thackeray. 

Ben'en-ie'li, Cid Hajn^et [Sp. Okie 
Hamete Benengeli,the'da S-ma'ta ba- 
nen-lia/lee]. An imaginary Moorish 
chronicler from whom Cervantes pro- 
fesses to have derived his account of 
the adventures of Don Quixote. 

4^ " The Spanish commentators . . . 
have discovered that Cid Harriet Benen- 
geli is, after all, no more than an Ara- 
bian version of the name of Cervantes 
himself. Cid., as all the world knows, 
means lord or signior. Hamet is a com- 
mon Moorish prefix. Benengeli signifies 
the son of a stag., which, being expressed 
in Spanish, is hijo del ciervo^ cerval, or 
cervanteno.^^ Lockhart. 

I vow and protest, that, of the two bad 
cassocks I am worth in the world, I would 
have given the latter of them, as freely as ever 
Cid Hamet offered his, only to have stood by 
and heard my Uncle Toby's accompaniment. 
But thou, at least, mine own especial pen ! — 
Once laid aside, but now assumed again, — 
Our task complete, like HameVs, shalt be 
free. Byron. 

Be-ni'ci-S Boy. A sobriquet given 
to John C. Heenan, a noted American 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




pugilist, who resided for a time at 
Benicia, in California. In 1860, he 
had a famous tight with Tom Savers, 
the " champion prize-fighter of Eng- 
land," which lasted for more than two 
hours, and was then stopped by the 
interference of the police. 
Ben-nas'kar. A wealthy merchant 
and magician of Delki, in Kidley's 
" Tales of the Genii." 

Like the jeweler of Delhi, in the house of 
the magician Benriaskai', I, at length, reached 
a vaulted room dedicated to secrecy and 
silence. Sir W. Scott. 

Ben'net, Mr&. A demure, shy, in- 
triguing, equivocal character in Field- 
ing's novel of "Amelia." 

Benshie. See Banshee. 

Ben-voli-o. A fi-iend to Romeo, and 
nephew to Montague, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " Romeo and 

Berchta. See Bertha, Frau. 

Berkeley, Old Woman of. The 
title and subject of a ballad by 

Ber-lin' Decree. {Fr. Hist) A de- 
cree issued at Berlin, on the 21st of 
November, 1806, by the Emperor 
Napoleon I., declaring the whole of 
the British islands to be in a state 
of blockade, and all vessels trading 
to them to be liable to capture by 
French ships. It also shut out all 
British vessels and produce both from 
France, and fi'om all the other coun- 
tries which gave obedience to the 

Ber-mdb'ffi6s. An old form of Ber- 
mwhs, and the Spanish pronuncia- 
tion of the name of the first dis- 
coverer of these islands, Bermudez^ 
who sighted them in 1527. 

In the deep nook, where once 
Thou callcdstnie up at midnight to fetch dew 
Trom the stili-vexed JSennoothes, there she 's 
hill. ^ Shak. 

Ber-mu'd5§. A cant term formerly 
applied to certain obscure and intri- 
cate alleys in London, in which per- 
sons lodged who had occasion to live 
cheaply or be concealed. They are 
supposed to have been the narrow 
passages north of the Strand, near 
Covent Garden. 

Ber-nar'do. The name of an officer 

in Shakespeare's tragedy of " Ham- 
let." • 
Bernardo del Carpio. See Carpio, 
Bernardo del. 

Berserker (bef-sef ^ker). [Old Norse 
ber, bare, naked, and sar-ke^ a shirt 
of mail.] {Scand. Myth.) A re- 
doubtable warrior who went into bat- 
tle unharnessed, his strength and 
fury serving him instead of armor, 
which he despised. He had twelve 
sons, who inherited his name as well 
as his warlike ferocity. 

Bertha, Frau (fiw ber'ta). [0. Ger. 
Peracta, shining, white; from the 
same root as the Eng. bnffht] In 
Germany, an impersonation of the 
Epiphany, corresponding to the 
Italian Befana^ variously represented 
as a gentle white lady who steals 
softly to neglected cradles, and rocks 
them in the absence of careless nurses, 
and also as the ten-or of naughty 
children. She has, besides, the over- 
sight of spinners. She is represented 
as having an immensely large foot 
and a long iron nose The legend 
concerning her is mainly of Christian 
origin, but with some admixture of 
heathen elements. [Written also 
Frau Berchta and Frau 

Ber'tha with the Great Foot [Fr. 

Berth'e au Grand Pied.] The moth- 
er of Charlemagne, by King Pepin, 
and the great - grand - daughter of 
Charles Maitel ; — said to have been 
so named because she had one foot 
larger than the other. 

Ber'trSLm. Count of Rousillon, a char- 
acter* in Shakespeare's "All 's Well 
that Ends Well." 

Bess, Q-ood Queen. A sobriquet by 
which Queen Elizabeth of England 
is often familiarly referred to. Her 
reign, take it all in all, was a happy 
as well as a glorious one for England, 
and the contrast it offers to that of 
her predecessor is very striking. 

Bes'sus. The name of a cowardly 
captain in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
play, "A King and No King." 

The story which Clarendon tells of that af- 
fair [the panic of the royal troops at Naseby] 

OS* For the " Key to the Scheme of Prbnunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




reminds us of the excuses by which Batsua 
and Bobadil explain their cudgclinj?8. 


Bettina (bet/te'na). [A diminutive of 
Elizabeth.] The name under which 
Elizabeth Brentano (b. 1785), after- 
ward the wife of Ludwig Achim von 
Arnim, corresponded with Goethe. 
This correspondence, under the title 
of " Goethe's Letters to a Child," was 
published in 1835, and was translated 
by Bettina into English. 

BeulaJi. See Land of Beulah. 

Beuves d' Aygremont (bov dSg'r'- 
mon', 43, 62). The father of Mala- 
gigi, or Maugis, and uncle of Rinaldo. 
He was treacherously slain by Gano. 

Be'vis of South- amp'tSn, Sir. A 
famous knight of romance, whose 
marvelous exploits are related in the 
second book of Drayton's " Poly- 
olbion." Heylin claims him as a 
real Earl of Southampton. He is 
the Beuves de Hantone of the French, 
the Buovo cT Antona of the Italians. 
[Called also Bems of Hampton.'] 
Ytene's oaks — beneath whose shade 
Their theme the merry minstrels made 
Of Ascapart and Bevis bold. Sir W. Scott. 

Be-z6n'ian (-yan). A name given by 
Pistol to Shallow in Shakespeare's 
" King Henr}^ IV." (Part IL, a. v., sc. 
3). It comes from the Italian word, bi- 
sogno (need, want), and is frequently 
used by the old dramatists as a term 
of reproach, meaning be (/gar, low 
fellow, or scoundrel. Strictly, it is 
not a proper name, but it is coni- 
monly thought to be such in the in- 
stance referred to. 

Bi-an'cS. 1. A daughter to Baptista, 
in Shakespeare's " Taming of the 

2. Mistress to Cassio, in the tragedy 
of " Othello." 

Bibulus, Consul. See Consul Bib- 


Bick'er-stSff, Isaac, Esq., Astrolo- 
ger (2). The assumed name under 
wliich the " Tatler " was edited. 

&^ " Isaac BickerstafF, Esquire, As- 
trolonjer, was an imaj^nary person, almost 
as well kno^vn in that apre [Addison's] as 
Mr. Paul Pry or Mr. Pickwick in ours. 
Swift had assumed the name of Bicker- 
staflF in a satirical pamphlet against Par- 
tridge, the almanac - maker. Partridge 

had be<^n fool enough to publish a fu- 
rious reply. Bickerstaff had rejoined in 
a second pamphlet, still more diverting 
than the first. All the wits had combioed 
to keep up the joke, and the town waa 
long in convulsions of laughter. Steele 
determined to employ the name which 
this controversy had made popular ; and, 
in April, 1709, it was atmounced that 
Isaac BickerstafF, Esquire, Astrologer, 
was about to publish a paper called the 
' Tatler.' " Macaulay. 

Jg®=- " Swift is said to have taken the 
name of Bickerstuff from a smith's sign, 
and added that of Isaac, as a Christian 
appellation of uncommon occurrence. 
Yet it was said a living person was act- 
ually found who owned both names." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Bicome. See Chichevaciie. 

Bid'den-den Maids (bid/dn-dn). A 
name given to two unmarried sisters, 
named Mary and Elizabeth Chulk- 
hurst, bom at Biddenden, in 1100, 
and joined together, as tradition 
states, by the shoulders and hips. 
They lived for thirty - four years, 
when one died, and the other, persist- 
ing in a refusal to be separated from 
the corpse of her sister, succumbed 
six hours after. They are said to 
have left twenty acres of land, called 
"Bread and Cheese Land," where, 
on the afternoon of Easter Sunday, 
six hundred rolls are distributed to 
strangers, and two hundred and sev- 
enty loaves, weighing three pounds 
and a half each, with cheese in pro- 
portion, are given to the poor of the 
parish, — the expense being defrayed 
by the rental of the land. Halstead, 
in his " History of Kent," rejects this 
«tory as fabulous, so far as it relates 
to the Chulkhurst sisters, and asserts 
that the " Bread and Cheese Land " 
was left 6y two maiden ladies by the 
name of Preston. 

Bifrost (bifrost, 46 ). [Old Norse bifa, 
to move, and rost, space.] {Scand. 
Myth.) The name of the bridge 
between heaven and earth, typiiied 
by the rainbow, and supposed to be 
constructed of stones of various col- 
ors. It was extremely solid, and 
built with great art. 

Big-endians, The. The name of a 
religious party in the imaginary em- 
pire of Lilliput, who made it a matter 

end for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, sec pp. xiv-xxxii. 




of duty and conscience to break their 
eggs at the large end. They were 
reecarded as heretics by the law, 
which required all persons to break 
, the smaller end of their eggs, under 
pain of heavy penalties in case of 
disobedience. Under this name the 
Koman Catholics of England are 
satirized, and under that of Little- 
encUans^ the English Protestants are 
ridiculed. See Lilliput. 

The Vatican is great; yet poor to Chim- 
borazo or the Peak of Teneritfe; its dome is 
but a foolish Big-endian or 1 little-endian chip 
of an egg-shell compared with that star- 
fretted Dome where Arcturus and Orion 
glance for ever. Ccu-lyle. 

Bigldw, Mr. Hosea. The feigned 
author of a series of humorous satiri- 
cal poems, in the Ytmkee dialect, 
really written by James Russell Low- 
ell, and directed mainly against slav- 
ery, the war between the United 
States and Mexico, and the late Re- 
bellion of the Southern States. 

Bimini (be'me-nee). A fabulous isl- 
and said to belong to the Bahama 
group, but lying far out in the ocean, 
where, according to a tradition cur- 
rent among the natives of Puerto 
Rico, was a marvelous fountain pos- 
sessing the power of restoring youth. 
This was an object of eager and 
long-continued quest to the celebrat- 
ed Spanish navigator, Juan Ponce 
de Leon. 

Bi'on-delTo. A servant to Lucentio, 
in Shakespeare's "Taming of the 

Birch, Har'vey. A celebrated char- 
acter in Cooper's novel of "The 

Bireno (be-ra'no). In Ariosto's "Or- 
lando Furioso," the lover and husband 
of Olimpia, whom he abandons. 

Biron (be-ronO- A "merry mad-cap 
lord " attending on the king of Na- 
varre, in Shakespeare's " Love's La- 
bor 's Lost," 

Bishop, Madame. The name given 
to a mixture of port, sugar, and nut- 

Bishop Bun'yan. A sobriquet given 
to John Bunyan (1628-1688), because 
he visited his religious brethren in 
various parts of England, exhorting 

them to good works and holiness o^ 

Bishop of Hip'po. A title by which 
St. Augustine (354-430) is often re- 
ferred to, he having held the office 
for many years. 

Black'&-cre, Widow (-a-ker). A per- 
verse, bustling, masculine, pettifog- 
ging, and litigious character in 
Wycherley's comedy of " The Plain 

J8^ " The Widow Blackacre, beyond 
comparison Wycherley's best comic char- 
acter, is the Countess in Racine's ' Plai- 
deurs,' talking the jargon of English in- 
stead of French chicane." Macaulay. 

Black Act, The. A name given in 
England to an act passed in 1722 (9 
Geo. I., c. 22). It was so called be- 
cause it was occasioned by, and was 
designed to put an end to, the Avan- 
ton destruction of deer, game, plan- 
tations, &c., by persons calling them- 
selves Blacks^ and having their faces 
blackened or otherwise disguised. It 
was repealed June 21, 1827, by 7 and 
8 of Geo. IV., c. 27. 

.4®=- The acts of the Scottish Parlia- 
ment from James I. of Scotland to 1586 
or 1587 were called Black Acis^ because 
printed in black or Saxon characters. 

Black Assize, The. A common des- 
ignation of the sitting of the courts 

. held at Oxford in 1577, during which 

. judges, jurymen, and counsel were 
swept away by a violent epidemic. 
The term is also used to denote the 
epidemic. • 

Black Captain, The. [Fr. Le Capi- 
taine Noir.'] A name given by the 
French to Lt.-Col. Dennis Davidoff, 
an officer in the Russian army, in the 
time of the French invasion. 

Black Death, The. A name given 
to the celebrated Oriental plague 
that devastated Asia, Europe, and 
Africa, during the fourteenth century. 
It took this name from the black 
spots, symptomatic of putrid decom- 
position, which, at one of its stages, 
appeared upon the skin. 

Black Dick. A sobriquet of Richard, 
Earl Howe (1725-1799), the English 
admiral who was sent with a squad- 
ron to operate against D'Estaing, 

ifcy- For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronuueiation," witfx the accompanying Explanations, 


who commanded the French forces 
on the coast of America during the 
war of the RevoUition. 
Black Hole of Calcutta. A name 
commonly given to a certain small 
and close dungeon in Fort William, 
Calcutta, the scene of one of the most 
tragic events in th'e history of British 
India. On the capture of Calcutta, 
by Surajah Dowlah, June 18, 1756, 
the British garrison, consisting of 
146 men, being made prisoners, were 
locked up at night in this room, 
which was only 20 feet square, and 
poorly ventilated, never having been 
mtended to hold more than two or 
three prisoners at a time. In the 
morning, of the 146 who were impris- 
oned, only 23 were found to have 
survived the excruciating agony of 
pressure, heat, thirst, and want of 
air. In the "Annual Register "for 
1758, is a narrative of the sufferings 
of those imprisoned, written by Mr. 
Holwell, one of the number. The 
Black Hole is now used as a ware- 

• Black Knight, The. See Faineant, 
Le Noir. 
Black Man, The. A common desig- 
nation for the Devil in the time of the 
New England witchcraft. It is a 
popular belief that the Devil is black. 
In the " Golden Legend " there is a 
story representing him as appearing 
in the guise of a man clad in black, 
of great height, and mounted on a 
superb horse. 

These wild doctors [the Indian medicine- 
men] were supposed to draw their pharma- 
ceutic knowledge from no gracious source, 
the Black Man himself being the principal 
professor in their medical school. 


Black Monday. {Eng, Hist.) A 
memorable Easter Monday in 1351, 
very dark and misty. A great deal 
, of hail fell, and the cold was so ex- 
treme that many died from its effects. 
The name afterward came to be ap- 
plied to the Monday after Easter of 
each year. 

My nose fell a-bleeding on Black Monday 
last. Shak. 

Black Prince, The. Edward, Prince 
of Wales, the son of Edward III. of 

47 BLA 

England ; — so called from the color 
of his ai-mor. 

To portray a Roman of the age of CamilluJ 
or Curius as superior to national antipathies, 
as treating conquered enemies with the deli- 
cacy of the Black Prince, would be to violate 
all dramatic propriety. Macaulay. 

Black Kepublicans. See Republi- 
cans, Black. 

Black Saturday. A name given, in 
Scotland, to the 4th of August, 1621. 
On this day, the Parliament sitting 
at Edinburgh ratified certain articles 
introducing Episcopalian fashions in- 
to the church, — a proceeding highly 
repugnant to the religious feelings 
and convictions of the Scottish peo- 
ple. A violent storm which occurred 
at the same time, and was accompa- 
nied by thunder and lightning and 
" heavy darkness," was thought to 
be a manifest token of the displeas- 
ure of Heaven. 

She was to remind a neighbor of some par- 
ticular which she was to recall to his memory 
by the token, that Thome Reid and he had 
set out together to go to the battle which took 
place on the Black Saturday. Sir W. Scott. 

Bla'dud. A legendary king of Eng- 
land, who is said to have built the 
t;ity of Bath, and dedicated the me- 
dicinal springs to Minerva. 

Winifred Jenkins and Tabitha Bramble 
must keep Englishmen on the grin for ages 
yet to come; and in their letters and the story 
of their loves there is a perpetual fount of 
sparkling laughter as inexhaustible as Bla- 
dud's well. Thackeray. 

BISnche'fleftr. [It. Blancafiwe.'] A 
lady beloved by Flores. Their ad- 
ventures make the principal subject 
of Boccaccio's " Philopoco," but they 
had been famous for a long time 
previously, as Boccaccio himself in- 
forms us. They are mentioned as 
illustrious lovers by Matfres Eymen- 
gau de Bezers, a Languedocian poet, 
in his " Breviari d' Amor," dated in 
the year 1288. Boccaccio repeated 
in the " Decameron " (Day 10, novel 
5) the storA'- of Flores and Blanche- 
fleur, but changed the names of the 
lovers to Ansaldo and Dianora. 
Chaucer took it as the foundation of 
the Frankelein's tale in the " Can- 
terbury Tales," though he professes 
to have derived it from " a British 
lay." Boccaccio's novel is unques- 
tionably the origin of the episode of 

and for the Remwka and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




Iroldo, Prasildo, and Tisbina, in 
Bojardo's " Orlando Innamorato." 
There is also an old English romance 
. entitled " Flores and Blanchefleur," 
said to have been originally written 
in French. See Prasildo. 

The chronicles of Charlemagne, 
Of Merlin and the Mort d'Arthure, 
Mingled together in his brain 
With talcs of Flores and Blanchefleur. 


Bias, Gil. See Gil Blas. 

Blatant Beast, The. A bellowing 
monster, in Spenser's " Faery Queen," 
typical of slander or calumny ; or it 
is an impersonation of what we now 
call " Vox Populi," or the Voice of 
the People. 

Ble-fus'cu. The name of an island 
mentioned in the imaginary " Trav- 
els " of Lemuel Gulliver, written by 
Swift. It is described as being ",sit- 
uated to the north-east side of Lilli- 
put, from whence it is parted only by 
a channel of eight hundred vards 
wide^" and as being ruled over By an 
emperor. The inhabitants, like the 
Lilliputiails, were all pygmies. 

jQ^ " Blefuscu is France, and the in- 
•gratitude of the Lilliputian court, which 
forces Gulliver to take shelter there 
rather than have his eyes put out, is au 
indirect reproach upon that of England, 
and a vindication of the flight of Ormond 
and Bolingbroke to Paris. ' ' Sir W, Scott. 

Bli'fll. A noted character who figures 
in Fielding's novel entitled " The 
History of Tom Jones, a Foundling." 

Blim'ber, Miss Cornelia. A char- 
acter in Dickens's novel of " Dombey 
and Son; " a daughter of Dr. Blim- 
ber, the head of a first-class educa- 
tional establishment conducted on 
the forcing or cramming principle. 
She is a very learned, grave, and 
precise young lady, with " no light 
nonsense about her," who has become 
" dry and sandy with working in the 
graves of deceased languages." 

It costs her nothing to disown the slight- 
est acquaintance with the dead languages, 
or science, or any thing that calls for abstract 
thougiht. In the opinion of those whose ap- 
proval she most cares for, she might as well 
assume Mias Blimber's spectacles as shine in 
any one of them. 

Essays from the Saturday Review. 

Blind Harry. A name commonly 
given to Henry the Minstrel, a wan- 

dering Scottish poet of the fifteenth 
century, of whom nothing else is 
known except that he was blind from 
infancy, and composed a romantic 

• poem entitled " The Life of that No- 
ble Champion of Scotland, Sir Wil- 

. Ham Wallace, Knight," which has 
been handed down to the present 

Blind Preacher. A popular sobri- 
quet given to William Henry Mil- 
burn (b. 1823), a blind American 
clergvman and lecturer, noted for 
his ability and eloquence. 

Blind Traveler. A name given to 
James Holman (d. 1857), a lieutenant 
in the English navy, and author of 
various books of travels. In 1812, 
a disease contracted in the discharge 
of his duty destroyed his eyesight. 

Bloody Assizes. A common desig- 
nation of the horrid judicial massacre 
perpetrated, in 1685, by George Jett- 
reys, Lord Chief Justice of the King' a 
Bench, while on a circuit through th a 
western counties of England. About 
three hundred persons were executed 
after short trials; very many were* 
whipped, imprisoned, and fined; and 
nearly one thousand were sent as 
slaves to the American plantations. 

Bloody Bill. A name given to th a 
statute of the "Articles" (31 Henry 
VIII., e. 14), by which hanging or 
burning was denounced against all 
who should deny the doctrine of 

Bloody-bones. The name of a hob* 
goblin fiend, formerly much feared 
by children. The " Wyll of the Dev^ 
yll " is said to be " written by our 
faithful secretar^^es hobgoblin, raw- 
hed, and bloodybone, in the spiteful 
audience of all the court of hell." 

Made children with your tones to run for 't 
As bad as Bloody-bones or Lunsford. 


Bloody Butclier. A sobriquet given 
to the Duke of Cumberland, second 
son of George II., on account of his 
barbarities m the suppression of the 
rebellion excited by Charles Edward 
Stuart, the Younger Pretender. 

Bloody Mary. A name commonly 
given to Mary, a Roman Catholfc 

©3~ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




queen of England, whose reign is 
distinguished for the sanguinary 
porsecutions of the adherents of the 
Church of England, no fewer than 
two hundred persons having been 
burnt at the stalce within the space 
of four years, for their attachment 
to the reformed doctrines. 
BlOwg/^-lin'da. A country girl in 
Gay's* pastoral poem, " The Shep- 
herd's W%k/' which depicts rural 
life in its cferacter of poverty and 
rudeness, rather than as clothed in 
the colors of romance. 

"We, fair, fine ladies, who park out our lives 
From common sheep-paths, cannot help the 

From flying over; we 're as natural still 
A& BloihsaUnda. Mrs. E.B. Browning. 

Blue-beard. [Fr. La Barbe Bleue.] 
The hero of a well-known story of 
the same name, originally written in 
French by Cliarles Perrault. He is 
represented as having a blue beard, 
from which he gets his designation, 
and as marrying a beautiful young 
woman, who has all the keys of a 
magnificent castle intrusted to her, 
with inj unctions not to open a certain 
apartment. She gratifies her curios- 
ity di\ring the absence of her lord, 
and is horrified to find the remains 
of his former wives, the victims of 
his boundless lust and cruelty. Her 
disobedience is discovered by means 
of an indelible stain produced on 
the key which opened the door of the 
interdicted room, and she is told to 
prepare for death, but obtains the 
favor of a little delay, and is happily 
rescued by the timely arrival of 
friends, who instantly dispatch her 
brutal husband. 

j§^ It is said that the original Blue- 
beard was Giles de Laval, Lord of Raiz, 
who was made Marshal of France in 1429. 
IIo was distinguished for his military 
genius and intrepidity, and was possessed 
of princely jevenues, but rendered him-, 
self infamous by the murder of his wives, 
and his extraordinary impiety and de- 
; baucheries. Mezeray says that he en- 
; couniged and maintained sorcerers to 
I discover hidden treasures, and corrupted 
; young persons of both sexes that he 
i might attach them to him, and after- 
i ward killed them for the sake of their 
i blood for his charms and incantations. 

At length, for some stato crime against 
tiie Duke of Brittany, he was sentenced 
to be burned alive in a field at Nantes, in 
1440. llolinshed notices another Blue- 
beard, in the reign of Henry VI., anno 
1450. Speaking of the committal of tae 
Duke of Suffolk to the Tower, he sa>s, 
" This doing so much displeased tae peo- 
ple, that, if politic provision had not 
been made, great mischief had imme- 
diately ensued. For the commons, in 
sundry places of the realm, asseuibled 
together iu great companies, and chose 
to them a captain, whom they calle I 
Blue-beard ; but ere they had attempted 
any enterprise their leaders were ap- 
prehended, and so the matt(;r pacified 
without any hurfc committed."' Blue- 
beard is also the name by which King 
Henry VIII. lives in the popular super- 
stitions of England. The German poet 
Tieck, in his " Phantasus," has a tragedy 
which is grounded upon the common 
nursery tale. 'Dunlop notices the strik- 
ing resemblance between the story of 
Blue-beard and that of the third calen- 
dar in the "" Arabian Nights' Entertain-- 

A dark tragedy of Sophie's this; the Bhie- 
beard chamber of her mind, into which no 
eye but her own must ever look. Carlyle. 

Blue-coat School. A name popu- 
larly given to Christ's Hospital, Lon- 
don, — a charitable institution for the 
education of orphans and foundlings, 
— on account of the blue coats or 
gowns worn by the boys. Their cos- 
tume has continued unchanged ever 
since the foundation of the school in 
the reign of Edward VI. 

Blue Hen. A cant or popular name 
for the State of Delaware. This so- 
briquet is said to have had its ori- 
gin in a certain Captain Caldwell's 
fondness for the amusement of cock- 
fighting. Caldwell was for a time 
an officer of the First Delaware Reg- 
iment in the war of the Revolution, 
and was greatly distinguished for his 
daring and undaunted spirit. He 
w^s exceedingly popular in the regi- 
ment, and its hi^h state of discipline 
was generally conceded to be due to 
his exertions ; so that when officers 
were sent on recruiting service to en- 
list new men in order to fill vacancies 
caused by death or otherwise, it was 
a saying, that they had gone home 
ht more of Caldwell's game-cocks; 

and for the Il«marks and Kulcs to which the numbers after certain words* refer, sec pp. xlv-xxxil. 




but, as Caldwell insisted that no cock 
could be truly game unless the mother 
was a blue hen, the expression " Blue 
Hen's chickens" was leubstituted tor 
" game-cocks." 
Delaware State Journal, July, 1860. 
Blue Ijaws. A nickname given to 
the quaint and severe regulations of 
the early government of New Haven 
Plantation, when the public authori- 
ties kept a sharp watch over the de- 
portment of the people of the colony, 
.^ and punished all breaches of good 
'* manners and good morals, often with 
ludicrous formality. Some account 
of these laws is given in a small work 
published in 1825 (Hartford, by Silas 
Ajjdrus), entitled '^ The Code of 1650, 
being a Compilation of the earliest 
Laws and Orders of the General 
Court of Connecticut," &c. The 
ancient records of the New Haven 
colony bear witness to the stem and 
somber religious spirit common to all 
the tirst settlers. The chapter of 
" Capitall Lawes," in the code of 
1650, is almost verbally copied trom 
the Mosaic law. 

jgi^ " After the restoration of Charles 
XL, the Puritans became the subject of 
every kind of reproach and contumely. 
The epithet blue was applied to any one 
who looked with disapprobation upon 
the licentiousness of the time. The 
Presbyterians, uuder^ which name all 
dissenters were often included, were more 
particularly designated by this term. 
Thus Butler : — 

• For his religion, it was fit 
To match his learning and his wit, — 
'Twas Presbyterian true blue.^ 

That this epithet of derision should find 
its way to the colonies was a matter of 
course. It was here applied not only to 
persons, but to customs, institutions, 
and laws of the Puritans, by those who 
wished to render the prevailing system 
ridiculous. Hence, probably, a belief 
with some that a distinct system of laws, 
known as the ' blue laws,' must have 
somewhere a local habitation." 

Blue-Nose. A nickname popularly 
given to an inhabitant of Nova Sco- 
tia or New Brunswick. The appel- 
lation is supposed to have been orig-j 
inally applied from the effect upon 
the more prominent parts of th« face 

of the raw easterly winds and long- 
continued fogs which prevail in these 
provinces. Others say that -it was 
lirst applied to a particular kind of 
potatoes which were extensively pro- 
duced by the inhabitants, and that 
it was afterward transferred to tiie 
inhabitants themselves. Others still 
assert that its use is accoimted lor by 
the custom among certain tribes of 
the aborigines of painting the nose 
blue as a punishment lor a crime 
against chastity. 

Blueskin. A nickname given to 
Joseph Blake, an English burglar, 
on account of his dark complexion. 
He was executed Nov. 11, 1723. 

Blue- Skins. A nickname applied to 
the Presbyterians, from their alleged 
gmve deportment. 

Bluestring, Bobin. See Robin Blue- 

Bluff, Captain Noll. A. swaggering 
coward in Congreve's comedy of 
" The Old Bachelor." 

Those ancients, as NbU Bluff'might say. 
Were pretty fellows in their day. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Bluff City. A descriptive name pop- 
ularly^ given to the city of Hannibal, 

Bluff Hal, or Harry. The sobriquet 
by which King Henry VIII. of Eng- 
land is commonlv known. [Called 
also Burly Kiny iHan'y.'] 

Ere yet in scorn of Peter's pence. 
And numbered bead ancT shrift, 

Bluff Harnf broke into the spence. 
And turned the cowls adrift. 


Bo^S-ner'gSs. [Gr. Boai/epyeV, from 
Heb. bene-reff€s, the Aramaic pro- 
nunciation of which was bonne-re ges.^ 
A name signifying " sons of thun- 
der," given by our Lord (Markin, 
17) to the two sons of Zebedee, James 
and John. Probably the name had 
respect to the fierj^ zeal of the broth- 
ers, signs of which may" be seen in 
Luke ix. 54, Maj^k ix. 38. 

Boar df Ardennes, "Wild. See Wild 
BoAK OF Ardennes. 

Boast of England. See Tom-a-lin. 

Bob'l-dn, Captain. A beggarly and 
cowardly adventurer, in Ben .lonson's 
comedy, " Every Man in his Hu- 

Our* For the '' Key (u the Scheme of Pruuuuciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




mor,'* who passes himself off with 
young and simple people for a valiant 
soldier. He^ys (a- iv., sc. 7): "I 
would select nmeteen more to myself; 
. . . gentlemen they should be, of good 
spirit, strong and able constitution. 
. . . We twenty would come into the 
field the tenth of March, or there- 
abouts, and we would challenge 
twenty of the enemy : they could not 
in their honor refuse us. Well, we 
would kill them: challenge twenty 
more; kill them: twenty more; kill 
them: twenty more; kill them too. 
And thus we would kill every man 
his twenty a day, — that 's twenty 
score: twenty score, that 's two hun- 
dred ; two hundred a day, five days, 
a thousand: forty thousand — forty 
lanes five — five times forty — two 
hundred days kills them all up by 

jK^ " Bobadil, with his big words and 
his little heart, with his sword and his 
oath, — ' By the foot of Pharaoh ! ' — is a 
braggart of the first water. He is, upon 
the whole, the best invention of the au- 
thor, andis worthy to march in the same 
regiment with Bessus and Pistol, and 
ParoUes and the Copper Captain." 

B. W. Procter. 

The present author, like Bohadil, had 
taught his trick offence to a hundred gentle- 
men,— and ladies, — who could fence very 
nearly or quite as well as himself. 

Sir W. Scott. 

The whole province was once thrown in 
amaze by the return of one of his campaigns, 
wherein it was stated, that, though, like Cap- 
tain Bohadil, he had only twenty men to back 
him, yet in the short space of six months he 
had conquered and utterly annihilated sixty 
oxen, ninctv hogs, one hundred sheep, ten 
thousand cabbages, one thousand bushels of 
potatoes, one hundred and fifty kilderkins of 
small beer, two thousand seven hundred and 
thirty-five pipes, seventy-eight pounds of 
Bugar-plums, and forty bars of iron, besides 
sundry small meats, game, poultry, and gar- 
den-stuff; — an achievement unparalleled 
since the days of Pantagruel and his all-de- 
vouring army. W. Irving. 

Royallsm totally abandons that BobndiUan 
metliod of contest. Carlyle. 

Bobbies. See Peelers. 

Bcenf, Front de. Sir Keginald 

(tV6" du bof 43). [Fr. ox-fuce, ox- 
head.] A gigintic and ferocious per- 
sonage wlio figures in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of " Ivanhoe " as a fol- 
lower of Prince John. 
Bogy. See Old Booy. 

Bo-he'mi-a. A recent cant depigna- 
tion of those parts of London inhab- 
ited by gay j'^oung fellows who hang 
loosely " about town," leading a sort 
of nomadic life, like the gypsies ( 1 'r. 
Bohetnieiis), and living on their wits, 
— as journalists, politicians, artists, 
dancers, and the like. 

/j®=- In France, La Bokhne is used of 
Paris iu a siuiiiar way. 

Bolieiuiau Tartar. Perhaps a gj^psy ; 
or a mere wild appellation designed 
to ridicule the appearance of Simple 
in Shakespeare's " Merry Wives of 
Windsor," a. iv., sc. 5. 

Bo'hort, Sir, or King. A knight of 
the Roun'd Table, celebrated in the 
old romances of chivalry. He was 
the brother of King Ban, and uncle 
to Lancelot du Lac. [Written- also 
B r s, B r t] 

Bois-Guilbert, Brian de (bre^in^du 
bwo'gePbeP). A brave but cruel 
and voluptuous Preceptor of the 
Knights Templars, in Sir Walter 
Scott's " Ivanhoe." 

The most resolute courage will sometimes 
quail ill a bad cause, and even die in its armor, 
like Bois-Guilbert. Atlantic Monthly. 

Bom'ba. A sobriquet given to Ferdi- 
nand n. (1830-1859), late king of the 
Two Sicilies. 

jg@=" " Bomba is the name of children's 
play in Italy, a iiind of prisouer's-base, 
or what used ftrftoerly to be called, ia 
England, ' Kingly your leave ; ' and 
there was probably an allusion to this 
pastime in tlie ni<'kname; especially as 
his majesty was fond of playing the king, 
and had a predilection for childish 
amupements besides, and for playing at 
soldiers. But the name, whatever its 
first cause, or its collective significance, 
is understood to have derived its greatest 
weiijht from a charge made ag;iinst his 
majesty of having called upon his soldiers 
to •■ bombard ' his people during one of 
their insurrections. ' Bombard 'em ! 
bombard 'em 1 ' he is said to have cried 
out ; that is to say, ' Sweep them away, — 
cannonade 'em I ' His apologist, ••Mr; 
Macfartane, not only denies the charge, 
but says his cry was the very reverse ; to 
wit, ' Spare my misguided people ! Make 
prisoners ; do not kill ; make prisoners 1 ' 
. . . The hook entitled ' Napl(?^ and King 
Ferdinand ' repeats th(?^harge, however, 
in the strongest manner. Jtsays that he 
kept crying out, ' Down with them I down 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which tlie numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




with them ! ' adding, in a note, what was 
stated to be the particular expression, 
' Bonibardare ; ' and hence, says the au- 
thor. • arose his well-known sobriquet of 
Bomba.^'' Leigh Hunt. 

jg^ " The name Bomba is often mis- 
interpreted as having some allusion to 
bombardments. It is not so. In Italy, 
when you tell a man a thing which he 
knows to be false, or when he wishes to 
convey to you the ideaof the utter worth- 
lessness of any thing or person, he puffs 
out his cheek like a bagpiper's in full 
blow, smites it with his forefinger, and 
allows the pent breath to explode, with 
the exclamatioD, ' Bomb-a.' I have wit- 
nessed the gesture, and heard the sound. 
Hence, after 1849, when regal oaths in 
the name of the Most Holy Trinity were 
found to be as worthless as a beggar's in 
the name of Bacchus or the Madonna, 
when Ferdinand was perceived to be a 
worthless liar, his quick-witted people 
whispered his name. He was called King 
Bomba, King Puff cheek, King Liar, King 
Knave. The name and his character were 
then so much in harmony that it spread 
widely ; and they have been so much in 
harmony ever since, that he has retained 
it till now, and will retain it, I suppose, 
till he is bundled into his unhonored 
grave." Dablin Evening Gazette. 

After Palermo's fktal siege, 
Across the western seas he fled 
In good King Bomba: s happy reign. 


Bom-bas'tS§ Pi-ri-o'go. The hero 
and title of a burlesque tragic opera 
by Thomas Barnes Rhodes, which 
was intended to rjjicule the bombast 
of modern traged^. 

Falling on one knee, [he] put both hands on 
his heart, and rolled up his eyog much after 
the manner of Bonibastes Furioso making 
love to Distaffina. Epes Sargent. 

Bo'nS De'a. [Lat., the good god- 
dess.] {Myth.) A Roman divinity, 
otherwise called Fauna, or Fatua, 
and described as the sister, wife, or 
daughter of Faunus. Her worship 
was so exclusively confined to wom- 
en, that men were not even allowed 
to know her name. 

So-nas'SUS. [Gr. B6i/ao-(i>9, Boi/ao-o-oc, 

a wild ox.] An imaginary wild 
beast, with which the " Ettrick Shep- 
herd " (James Hogg), in the " Noctes 
Ambrosianae " (No. XLVHI. April, 
1830), is represented as having had a 
most remarkable adventure. A huge 
animal of the genus Bison — Bison 

honnssus — had been exhibited in 
London and other parts of Great 
Britain a few years before. 

I must have been the Bonciitsjis himself to 
have mistaken myselffor a genius. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Bon Chevalier, sans Peur et sans 
Beproohe, Le (hi bo^ shva^leQi' 
s6^ pof tL SO" rii-prosh'). See Good 
Knight, &c. 

Bo'ney. A corruption or diminutive 
of Bonaparte, oilen used by English . 
writers and speakers in the lirst part 
of the present century. 

No monks can be had now tbr love or for 

(All owing, papa says, to that infidel Boncy). 

Bon Gaul'ti-er. A pseudonym adopted 
by Professor William Edmonstoimfe 
Aytoun and Theodore Martin, under 
which they published a popular book 
of ballads, and contributed to a num- 
ber of periodicals. 

Bonhomme, Jacques (zhak bo'- 
nom'). [Fr., Jack or James Good- 
man]. A derisive name given by 
the French barons of the' fourteenth 
century to the peasants of the coun- 
try The insurrection known as the 
Jacquerie — which derived its name 
from this epithet — was a terrible up- 
rising of this class against the nobles, 
in 1358. 

Jacques Bonhomme had a longer memory 
than nis representative on this side of tlie 
water [England]; and while the descendants 
of Wat Tyler's followers were comfortable 
chureh-and-king men, when the great trial 
came, in 1793, the men of the Jacquerie were 
boiling with revenge for centuries of wrong, 
and poured forth the concentrated wrath of 
generations on clergy, noble, and crown. 

Jiev.John iVMte. 

Bon'i-face. The name of a landlord 
in Farquhar's comed}'^, " The Beaux' 
Stratagem," — one of the best rep- 
resentatives of the English innkeeper 
in the language; hence, a landlord 
in general. 

" Oh ! I beg your pardon," replied the 
Yankee Boniface ; *' I meant no ofFcnsc." 

Putnam's Mag. 

Bono Johnny. The sobriquet by 
which, in the East, the English are 
commonly designated. 

Bontemps, Koger (ro'zhS' bon'ton', 
62). A popular personification, in 
France, of a sta^e of leisure, and free- 

ly- For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying ExBlauationa, 




dom from care. The equivalent, 
among the French peasantry, for the 
EngHsh proverb, " There 's a good 
time coming," is " Roger Bontemps." 
Tliis character is the subject of one 
of B (Granger's most celebrated songs, 
written in 1814 : — 

To show our hypochondriacs, 
In dnys the most forlorn, 
A pattern set before their eyes, 
lioyer Donteinps was bom. 
To live obscurely at his will. 
To keep aloof from strife, — 
Hurrah fbr fat ifofyifr Zto»<ewps/ 
This is his rule of life. 

Ye envious poor ; yc rich who deem 
Wealth still your thoughts deserving ; 
Ye who in search of pleasant tracks 
Yet find your cap is swerving; 
Ye who the titles that ye boast 
May lose by some disaster,— 
Hurrah for fat Roger Bontemps ! 
Go, take him for your master. 

Bdranger, Trans. 

Booby, Lady. A female character 
of frail morals, in Fielding's novel 
of " Joseph Andrews," who is unable 
to conquer the virtue of her footman. 
She was designed as a caricature of 
Richardson's " Pamela," and is rep- 
resented as a vulgar upstart, whom 
the parson is compelled to reprove 
for laugliing in church. 

Bo-o't$s. [Gr. BocStt??, the ox-driver.] 
• ( Gr. (j- Rom. Myth. ) A son of Ceres, 
and the inventor of the plow. He 
was translated to heaven, and made 
a constellation. According to another 
account, he was a son of Lycaon and 
Callisto, and was slain bv his father, 
who set him before Jupiter for a re- 
past, to try the omniscience of the 
god. Jupiter restored him to life, 
and placed him among the stars. 

Booth. The husband of Amelia, in 
Fielding's novel of that name. His 
frailties are said to have shadowed 
forth some of the author's own back- 
slidings and experiences. 

Bo-ra'chS-o. A follower of John 
(V)astard brother of Don Pedro, 
Prince of Arragon), in Shakespeare's 
" Much Ado about Nothing." 

Borak, Al. See Al Borak. ^ 

Border, The. In history and in popu- 
lar phraseology, the common frontier 
of England and Scotland, which, until 
comparatively modern times, shifted 

to the north or to the south, accord- 
ing to the surging tide of war or di- 
plomacy. From the eleventh century 
to about the beginning of the eight- 
eenth centur}", ruthless wars between 
the two countries, and feuds and 
forays of clans and families, caused 
almost constant disturbance on the 
border. Strenuous eflbrts were made 
during the reigns of Elizabeth and 
James VI. to preserve peace ; but it 
was not until the legislative union of 
1707 took place, that the long course 
of misrule was finally brought to a 

Border Minstrel. A title often given 
to Sir Walter Scott, who traced his 
descent from the great border family 
now represented by the dukes of 
Buccleuch; resided at Abbotsfordon 
the Tweed ; edited, in early life, a col- 
lection of old ballads under the title 
of " The Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border; '"and afterward wrote "The 
Lay of the Last Minstrel," and other 
original poems upon border subjects. 

When last along its banks I wandered, 
g Throujjh groves that had begun to shed 
Their golden leaves upon the pathways, 
My steps the Border Minstrel led. 

Wordsworth, Yarrow Revisited. 

Border States. Previous to the 
Rebellion, a common designation of 
those Slave States, in the American 
Union, which bordered upon the line 
of the Free States ; namely, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, and 
Missouri. With the abolition of slav- 
ery throughout the United States, 
the name will soon pass out of cur- 
rent use. 

Border-thief School. A name for- 
merly given, to some extent, to Sir 
Walter Scott and his poetical imita- 
tors, who celebrated the adventures 
of various predatory chiefs of the 
Scottish border. 

With your i<ake Schools, and Border-tMef 
Scfiools, and Cockncv and Satanic Schools, 
there has been enough to do. Carlyle. 

Bo're-as (9). [Gr. Bopea?.] {Gr. cf 
Rom. Myth.) The north wind, a son 
of Astracus and Aurora. He is fabled 
to have carried oflf Orithyia, the 
daughter of Erechtheus, and by her 
to have had Zetes and Calais, winged 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




warriors, "wlio accompanied the Ar- 
gonautic expedition. 

Bors, or Bort, King. See Bohort, 

Boston Bard. A pseudonym as- 
sumed by Robert S. Coffin (1797- 
1827 ), an American versifier who lived 
for some years in Boston, Massachu- 

Boston Massa<3re. {Amer. Hist.) 
A name popularly given to a disturb- 
ance which occurred in the streets of 
Boston on the evening of March 5, 
1770, when a sergeant's guard be- 
longing to the British garrison fired 
upon a crowd of people who were 
surrounding them and pelting them 
with snow-balls, and killed three 
men, besides wounding several oth- 
ers. The leader of the towns-people 
was a black man named Crispus At- 
tucks. The aftkir is of historical im- 
portance, as it prepared i)^ minds of 
men for the revolutionary struggle 
which followed. . ' 

Boston Tea-party. A name popu- 
larly given to the famous assemblage 
of citizens in Boston, Dec. 16, 1773, 
who met to carry out the non-impor- 
tation resolves of the colony, and 
who, disguised as Indians, went on 
board three English ships which had 
just arrived in the harbor, and de- 
stroyed several hundred chests of 
tea. The British parliament retali- 
ated by closing the port of Boston. 

Bottle, Oracle of the Holy. See 
Holy Bottle, Oracle of the. 

Bottle Riot. A disturbance which 
took place at the theater in Dublin, 
Dec. 14, 1822, in consequence of the 
unpopularity of the Marquess Welles- 
ley (Kichard Colbv, the younger), 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; so called 
from the circumstance of a bottle 
being thrown into his box. [Called 
also The Bottle Conspiracy.'] 

Bottom, Nick. An Athenian weaver, 
who is the principal actor in the in- 
terlude of" Pyramus and Thisbe," in 
Shakespeare's " Midsummer-Night's 
Dream." Obcron, the fairy king, 
desiring to punish Titania, his queen, 
commissioned Puck to watch her 
till she fell asleep, and then to anoint 

her eyelids with the juice of a plant 
called love-in-idleness, the efiect of 
which, when she awoke, was to make 
her dote upon -Bottom, upon whom 
Puck had fixed an ass's head. 

iK^ " Bottom . . . is a compound of 
profound ignorance and omnivorous con- 
ceit; but these are tentpered by good- 
nature, decision of character, and 8ome 
mother-wit. That which gives hiui his 
individuality does not depend upon hii 
want of education, his position, or his 
calling. All the schools of Athens could 
not have reasoned it out of him ; and all 
the gold of Croesus would have nuide 
him but a gilded Bottom after all. ... 
His descendants have not unfrequently 
appeared among the gifted intellects of 
the world. When Goldsmith, jealous of 
the attention which a dancing monkey 
attracted in a coffee-house, said, ' I can 
do that as well,' and was about to at- 
tempt it, he was but playing Bottom." 
R. G. White. 

Indeed, the caresses which this partiality 
leads him [Milton] to bestow on " Siid Elec- 
tni's poet," sometimes remind us of the beau- 
tiful queen of fairy -land kissing the long 
ears of Bottom. Macavlay. 

Pity poor Robinson [Sir Thomas Robinson], 
English reader, if you can, lor indignation 
at the business he is in. Saving the liberties 

of Europe! thinks Robinson confidently : 
Founding the English National iX'bt, an- 
swers Fact; and doing Bottom the Weaver, 
with long ears, in the miserablest Pickle- 
herring tragedy that ever was I Carlyle. 

Bountiful, Lady. See Lady Boun- 

Boustrapa (boo'8tra''p^'). A sobri- 
quet given to the Emperor Napoleon 
III., in allusioti to his unsuccessful 
attempts at a coup d'etat at 5o«logne 
(in 1840) and <Sfrflsbourg (in 1836), 
and his successful attempt at P«ris 
(in 1851), while President of the 
French Republic. 

Bower of Bliss. 1. A garden belong- 
ing to the beautiful enchantress Ar- 
mida, in Tasso's " Jerusalem De- 
livered " It is described as lovely 
beyond description, eveiy thing in the 
place contributing to harmony and 
sweetness, and breathing forth the 
fullness of bliss. Here Kinaldo and 
Arniida, in love with each other, pu!<s 
4lieir time; but at last tt^o knights 
come and release Rinaldo from his 
enervating and dishonorable servi- 
tude. See Armida. 
2. The dwelling of the witch 

0^ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,'* with the accompanying Explanations, 




Acrasia, in Spenser's " Faery Queen," 
Bk. II., c. 12. Acrasia is represented 
as a beautiful and fascinating woman, 
and her residence, which is situated 
upon a floating island, is described 
as being embellished with every 
thing calculated to charm the senses 
and wrap the soul in oblivious indul- 
Bdwling, Tom. The name of a ceU, 
ebrated naval character in Smollett's 
novel of " Roderick Random." 

4®*" The character of Tom Bowling, 
in ' Roderick Random,' . . . will be re- 
garded in all ages as a happy exhibition 
of those naval heroes to whom Britain is 
indebted for so much of her happiness 
and glory.'' Dunlop. 

Box and Cox. The title of a " dra- 
matic romance of real life," by John 
M. Morton, and the names of its 
principal characters. 

Boy-bishop, The. An appellation 
conferred upon St. Nicholas (fourth 
century), on account of his early con- 
formity to the observances of the 
Roman Catholic church, of which 
the old legends, relate marvelous in- 

Boy-et'. A lord attending on the 
princess of France, in Shakespeare's 
" Love's Labor 's Lost." 

B6z (by some pron. boz). A pseudo- 
nym under which Charles Dickens 
contributed a series of " Sketches of 
Life and Character " to the " London 
Morning Chronicle." Of this nom de 
plume he has given the following ac- 
count : — 

j(^* " Boz, my signature in the ' Morn- 
ing Chronicle,' . . . was the nickname of 
a pet child, a younger brother, whom I 
had dubbed Moses, in honor of the ' Vicar 
of Wakefield,' which, being facetiously 
pronounced through the nose, became 
Boses, and being shortened, Boz. Boz 
was a very familiar household word to me 
long before I was an author, and so I 
came to adopt it." 

Though a pledge I had to shiver, 

And the longest ever was. 
Ere his vessel leaves our river 

I would drink a health to Boz. Hood. 

Boz'zy. A familiar diminutive of the 
surname of James Boswell (1740- 
1822), the friend and biographer of 

Dr. Samuel Johnson, by whom the 
nickname was coined. 

Bra-ban'ti-o ( bra-ban ''shi-o). A sen- 
ator of Venice, in Shakespeare's 
play of " Othello." 

Brad'a-mant, or Bradamante (bra- 
da-man't^). A Christian Amazon, 
sister to Rinaldo, and mistress of 
Ruggiero, in Bojardo's "Orlando 
Innamorato " and Ariosto's "Or- 
lando Furioso." She possessed an 
irresistible spear, which unhorsed 
every antagonist whom it touched. 
See RuGGiEKO. [Written also B r an- 

4@* " I do not ttiink Bradamante or 
Brandamante is ever mentioned in old 
romances, and I greatly suspect her to 
be Bojardo's owu invention." Panizzi. 

Brad'war-dlne, Baron. A brave 
and gallant, but pedantic, character 
in Scott's " Waverley." 

Brad'war-dXne, Kose. The heroine 
of Sir Walter Scott's novel of " Wa- 
verley;" the daughter of Baron 
Bradwardine, and the lover of Wa- 
verley, whom she finally marries. 

Brag, Jack. The hero of a novel of 
the same name by Theodore Hook 
(1789-1841), a spirited embodiment 
of the arts employed by a vulgar 
pretender to creep into aristocratic 

In reality, however, he was a sort of liter- 
ary Jack Brag. As that amusing creation . . . 
mustered himself with sporting gentlemen 
through his command over the technicalities 
or slang of the kennel and the turf, so did 
Hazlewood sit at the board with scholars and 
aristocratic book-collectors through a free use 
of their technical phraseology. J. H. Burton, 

Brag, Sir Jack. A sobriquet of Gen- 
eral John Burgovne (d. 1792), who 
figures in an old ballad entitled " Sir 
Jack Brag." 

Bragi (brS'gee). [Old Norse hragga^ 
to adorn, embellish. Comp. Eng. 
})rag.'\ (Scand. Myth.) The son of 
Odin and Frigga, the husband of 
Iduna, and the god of poetry and 
eloquence; represented as an old 
man with a long, flowing beard, and 
a brow mild and unwrinkled. [Writ- 
ten also Bragur, Braga.] 

Bragmardo, Janotus de (jS-no'tut 

and for the Bemarka and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




de brag'mar-do ; Fr. pron. zha'no'- 
tiiss' du brag^'maf'do', 102). The 
name of a sophister in Rabelais' sa- 
tirical romance of " Gargantua," sent 
by the citizens of Paris to remon- 
strate with Gargantua for having 
carried off' the bells of the church of 
Notre-Dame, which he had taken to 
suspend at the neck of his mare. 

Brah'ma. XHindu Myth.) The su- 
preme, self-existent god of the Hin- 
dus, usuall}^ represented with four 
heads and four arms. He is regarded 
as the creator of the universe, and 
forms, with Vishnu, the preserver, 
and Siva, the destroyer, the divine 
Trunurti, or triad, consisting of the 
three principal gods of the Brahmin- 
ical faith. It is said that he has de- 
scended upon the earth nine times, 
in various forms, and is yet to appear 
a tenth time, in the figure of a war- 
rior upon a white horse, to visit retri- 
bution upon all incorrigible offend- 
ers. [Written also Br am a, and 
sometimes B r u h m a.] 

Brainworm. A curious, tricky char- 
acter in Ben Jonson's play of " Every 
Man in his Humor." 

Bramble, Matthew. A well-known 
character in Smollett's novel, " The 
Expedition of Humphry Clinker;" 
described as " an odd kind of humor- 
ist," afflicted with the gout, and " al- 
ways on the fret," but full of gener- 
osity and benevolence. 

To have all literature swum away before us 
in watery extempore, and a spiritual time of 
Noah supervene, — that, surely, is an awful 
reflection, worthy of dyapcptic Matthetc Bram- 
ble in a London fog. Carlyle. 

Bramble, Miss Tabitha. An un- 
married sister of Matthew Bramble, 
in Smollett's " Expedition of Hum- 
phry Clinker." She is character- 
ized as " a maiden of forty-five, ex- 
ceeding starched, vain, and ridicu- 
lous,'* soured by her unsuccessful 
endeavors to get married, proud, im- 
perious, prying, malicious, greedy, 
and uncharitable. She finally suc- 
ceeds in disposing of herself to Cap- 
tain Lismahago, who is content to 
take her on account of her snug little 
fortune of £4000. Her personal ap- 
pearance is thus described: — 

J8®=" " She is tall, raw-boned, awkward, 
flat-chested, and stooping ; her complex- 
ion is sallow and freckled ; her e\ es are 
not gray, but greenish, like those of a 
cat, and generally inttamed ; her hair is 
of a sandy, or, rather, dusty, hue ; her 
forehead low ; her nose long, sharp, and, 
toward the extremity, always red in cool 
weather ; her lips skinny ; her mouth ex- 
tensive ; her teeth straggling and 'loose, 
of various colors and conformation; and 
her long neck shriveled into a thousand 

Bra-mine% The. A name given by 
Sterne (1713-1768) to Mrs. Elizabeth 
Draper, a young woman of English 
parentage, bom in India, for whom 
he conceived a most violent and in- 
judicious affection. In cafling her 
" The Bramine," he obviously in- 
tended a reference to the countr}'^ of 
her birth. For himself he provided 
a corresponding name, — " The Bra- 
min," — suggested apparently by his 
profession of a clergyman. In 1775, 
ten letters of Sterne tp Mrs. Draper 
were published under the title of 
"Letters to Eliza." 

Bran. The name of Fingal's dog. 
See FiNGAL. 

Jgf^ " Our Highlanders have a pro- 
verbial saying, founded on the traditional 
renown of Fingal's dog. ' If it is not 
Bran,' they say, ' it is Bran's brother.* 
Now this is always taken as a compli- 
ment of the first class, whether applied 
to an actual cur, or, parabolically, to a 
biped." Sir W. Scott. 

In process of time, the noble dog slept with 
Bran, liuarth, and the celebrated hounds of 
antiquity. Sir W. Scott. 

Brandan, Island of St. See Island 
OF St. Brandan. 

Bran'di-mart. fit., swords-lover.] A 
character in Bojardo's " Orlando In- 
namorato," and in Ariosto's " Or- 
lando Furioso," king of the Distant 

Brandy KTan. A nickname given to 
Queen Anne, in her lifetime, by the 
populace, in allusion to her fondness 
for brandy. 

Brang'tong, The. Characters . in the 
novel of " Evelina," by Miss Bumey. 
Their name became a synoiiym for 
vulgarity, malice, and jealousy. 

Brass, Sally. Sister to Sampson 

laaT" For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Brass, whom she surpasses in vil- 
lainy. See infra. 

Brass, Sampson. A knavish attor- 
ney in Dickens's " Old Curiosity 
Shop," distinguished for his servility, 
dishonesty, and affected sentimental- 

Bravest of the Brave. [Fr. Le 
Brave des Braves.] A title conferred 
upon the celebrated Marshal Ney 
(1769-1815) by the French troops at 
Friedland (1807), on account of his 
fearless bravery. He was in com- 
mand of the right wing, which bore 
the brunt of the battle, and stormed 
the town. Napoleon, as he watched 
him passing unterrilied through a 
shower of balls, exclaimed, " That 
man is a lion; " and henceforth the 
army styled him the Bravest of the 

Bray, The Vicar of. See Vicar of 

Brazen Age. [Lat. ^nea (etas.] ( Gr. 
(f Eom. Myth.) One of the four ages 
or eras into which the ancient poets 
divided the history of the human 
race. It was a period of wild war- 
fare and violence, presided over by 
Neptune. The silver age preceded 
it, and the iron age followed it. See 
InoN Age, Silver Age. 

Bread and Cheese Iiand. See Bib- 
DKNDEN Maids. 

Breeches Bibles. A name given to 
editions of the so - called Genevan 
Bible (first printed at Geneva, by 
Rowland Hall, 1560, in 4to), from 
the peculiar rendering of Gen. iii. 7. 

Breeches Review. A name formerly 
given, among book scud's, to the 
" Westminster Review," from a Mr. 
Francis Place, a great authority with 
the "Westminster." This Place was 
at one time a leather-breeches maker 
and tailor at Charing-cross, London. 

Bren'da. Daughter of Magnus Troil, 
and sister to Minna, in Sir Walter 
Scott's " Pirate." 

Breng'wiin. The confidante of Isolde, 
and a prominent character in the ro- 
mances which treat of the love of 
Isolde and Sir Tristram. [Written 

also Bringwain, Brengein, 
Brangwaine, Brangwayne.] 

Brent'ford, The Two Kings of. 
Two characters in " The Rehearf-ai," 
a celebrated farce, written bv George 
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham (1627- 
1688), with the assistance of Butler, 
Sprat, and others, in order to correct 
the public taste by holding up the 
heroic or rhyming tragedies to ridi- 

J^^ The two kings are repreeented as 
walking hand in hand, as dancing to- 
gether, as singing in concert, and, gen- 
erally, as living on terms of the greatest 
intimacy and affection. There seems to 
have been no particular reason for mak- 
ing them kings of Brentford rather than 
of any other place. Bayes says (a. i., 
sc. 1), '' Look you, sirs, the chief hinge 
of this play ... is, that I suppose two 
kings of the same place, as, for example, 
at Brentford ; for I love to write famil- 
iarly." Colonel Henry Howard, son of 
Thomas, Earl of Berkshire, wrote a play 
called '* The United Kingdoms," whicii 
began with a funeral, and had also two 
kings in it. It has been supposed that 
this was the occasion of Buckingham's 
setting up two kings in Brentford, though 
some are of opinion that he intended 
them for the two royal brothers, Charles 
II. and the Duke of York, afterward 
James IT. Others say that the}'^ represent 
Boabdelin and Abdalla, contending kings 
of Granada. But it is altogether more 
probable that they were designed to bur- 
lesque the two kings contending for one 
and the same crown introduced by Dry- 
den — the Bayes of the piece — into sev- 
eral of his seiious plays. Persons who 
have been known to hate each other 
heartily for a long time, and who after^ 
. ward profess to have become reconciled, 
and to be warm friends, am often likened 
to the Two Kings of Brentford. 

This piece of generosity reminds ns of the 
liberality of Ihc Kings of Brentford to thoir 
Knightsbridge forces. Sir W. Scott. V 

Brewer of Ghent. A descriptive 
title bestowed upon Jacob Artcveld, 
a brewer of metheglin in Ghent, who 
became a great popular leader in the 
early part of the fourteenth century, 
drove Louis L, Count of Flanders, 
into France, ruled that province, and 
supported Edward III. of England. 

Brt-a're-us (9). [Gr. Bptapews.] {Gr. 
(^ Rom. Myth.) A son of Coelus and 

«nd for the B-emarka and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, sec pp. xiv-xxxii. 




Terra, a giant with a hundred arms 
and tirty heads. According to He- 
siod, he defended Jupiter against the 
Titans; but other poets say that he 
assisted the giants in their attempt 
to storm Olympus, and was buried 
alive under Mount ^tna as a punish- 
ment. [Called also ^gedn.] 
Brick, Mr. Jeffer-son (-sn). A 
fiery American politician, who figures 
in Dickens's novel of " Martin Chuz- 

Jefferson Brick, the American editor, twit- 
ted me with the multifiirious patented anom- 
alies of overgrown, worthless Dukes, Bishops 
of Durham, &c., which poor English society 
at present labors under, and is made a sole- 
cism by. Carlyle. 

Bride of the Sea. A poetical name 
of Venice, having its origin in the 
ancient ceremony of the espousal of 
the Adriatic, during which the doge, 
in the presence of his courtiers, and 
amid circumstances of great splendor, 
threw a ring into the sea, uttering 
the words, ^^ Desponsamus ie, mare, 
in sifjnum veri ptrpetuique dominii,^^ 
We wed thee, O sea, in sign of a true 
and perpetual dominion. 

Bridge'north, Major Balph. A 

Roundhead who figures conspicuously 
in Scott's " Peveril of the Peak." 
Bridge of Asses. See Pons Asino- 


Bridge of Sighs. [It. Ponte del ihs- 
jni'i.] The name popularly given to 
the covered passage-way which con- 
nects the doge's palace in Venice 
with the state prisons, from the cir- 
cumstance that the •ndemned pris- 
oners were transported over this 
bridge from the hall of judgment to 
the place of execution. Hood has 
used the name as the title of one of 
his poems. 

Bridget, Mrs. The name of a char- 
acter in Sterne's celebrated novel, 
" The Life and Opinions of Tristram 
Shandy, Gent." 

Bridlegoose, Judge. [Fr. Juge BH- 
doye.'] The.namc of a character in 
Rabelais' famous satirical romance 
of " Pantagruel," who decided causes 
by the chance of dice. 

Brid'oison (bre'dwo'zSn', 62). A 

stupid judge in Beaumarchais' "Ma- 
nage de i^garo." 

BrigheUa (bre-gePla). [It., from 
briffa, trouble, restlessness.] A 
masked character, in the Italian pop- 
ular comedy, representing a proud, 
bold, and crafty plebeian of Brescia. 

Brigliadoro (brel-yS-do'ro). [It., bri- 
dle of gold.] The name of Orlaudo's 
steed, one of the fiiost famous cours- 
ers in romance, and second only to 

Bri-se'is. [Gr. Bpi<njt?.] {Gr. 4" 
Horn. Myth.) The daughter of Bri- 
seus, a priest at Lyrnessus. She fell 
into the hands of Achilles, but was 
afterward forced from him by Aga- 
memnon. [Called also IIlppodamia.1 

British Ar'is-ti'dS§. An epithet fre- 
quently applied to Andrew Marvell 
(1620-1678), an influential member 
of the House of Commons during the 
reign of Charles II., and a firm op- 
ponent of the king. His integrity 
was such that he refused every offer 
of promotion and a direct bribe ten- 
dered him by the lord treasurer, and 
died in poverty, being buried at the 
expense of his constituents. 

British Jeremiah. A title given by 
Gibbon to Gildas, a British historian, 
who is said to have flourished in the 
first half of the sixth century. Wright 
considers him a fabulous person. 

The British Jeremiah ... is so pleased to 
find, or so determined to invent, topics for 
declamatory lamentation or praise, that it is 
difficult to distinguish the basis of truth from 
the fantastic superstructure of exaggeration 
and falsehood with which he has overloaded 
it. UdtJi. Rev. 

British Pau-sa'ni-Ss. A name 
conferred upon William Camden 
(1551-1623), one of the most dis- 
tinguished scholars and learned anti- 
quaries of his age. 

Brit^o-mar'tis, o?* Brit'o-mart. [Gr. 
BpiTo/otapri?, from the Cretan words 
/SpiTus, sweet, and /u,aoTt9, maid.] 1. 
{Gr. 4" Rom. Myth.) A Cretan 
nymph, daughter of Jupiter and 
Carme; a Cretan epithet of Diana, 
who loved her, assumed her name, 
and was worshiped under it. 

2. "A lady knight," representing 
Chastity, whose adventures are re- 

■ For the •' Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




lated in Spenser's "Faery Queen." 
She is represented as being armed 
with a magic spear, which nothing 
could resist. 

She charmed at once, and tamed the heart. 
Incomparable Britomart! Sir W. Scott, 

Brittany, Eagle of. See Eagle of 

Broad Bottom Ministry. {Eng. 
Hist.) A name derisively given to 
an administration comprising nine 
dukes and a grand coalition of all 
parties of weight and influence in the 
state, formed in Nov. 1744, and dis- 
solved by the death of Mr. Pelham, 
March 6, 1755. 

The names of the original members 
were, — 

The Rt. Hon. Henry Pelham, First Lord 
of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the 

Duke of Dorset, President of the Coun- 

Earl Gower, Lord Privy Seal. 

Duke of Newcastle, ) Secretaries of 

Earl of Harrington, j State. 

Duke of Montagu, Master of the Ord- 
nance. « 

Duke of Bedford, First Lord of the Ad- 

Duke of Grafton, Lord Chamberlain. 

Duke of Richmond, Master of the 

Duke of Argyll, Keeper of the Great 
Seal of Scotland. 

Marquess of Tweeddale, Secretary of 
State for Scotland. 

Lord Hardwicke, Lord Chancellor. 

From this administration, the particu- 
lar adherents of Pulteney (newly cre- 
ated Earl of Bath) and Lord Carteret 
were carefully excluded. 

Brob 'ding-nag. An imaginary coun- 
try described in Swift's celebrated 
romance entitled "Gulliver's Trav- 
els." The inhabitants are repre- 
sented as giants, about " as tall as an 
ordinary spire-steeple." Every thing 
else is on the same enormous scale. 
[Written also Brobdignag, an 
orthography which, though not that 
of Swift, has acquired a prescriptive 
title to be considered well authorized.] 

Greatness with Timon dwells in such a 

As brings all Brobdignag before your thought. 
When Sir Thomas Lawrence paints a hand- 
some peeress, he does not contemplate her 
" igh 

through a powerful microscope, and transfer 

to the canvas the pores of the skin, the blood- 
vessels of the eye, and all the other beauties 
which Gulliver discovered in the Brobdig- 
naggian maids of honor. Macaulay. 

Bron'zo-mar'te. The name of Sir 
Launcelot Greaves's steed, in Smol- 
lett's " Adventures " of that celebrat- 
ed hero ; represented to be " a fine 
mettlesome sorrel who had got blood 
in him." 

Brook, Master. A name assumed 
by Ford, in Shakespeare's "Merry 
Wives of Windsor," with a design 
to dupe Sir John Falstaft', who is in 
love with Ford's wife. The amorous 
knight duly reports to Master Brook 
the progress of his suit to Mrs. Ford, 
and the various contrivances by 
which he escapes the search of her 
jealous husband, one of which was 
that of being carried out of the house 
concealed in a heap of foul linen. 

Brother Jonathan. ^ A sportive col- 
lective name for the people of the 
United States. 

JS®=" When General Washington, after 
being appointed commander of the army 
of the Revolutionary war, went to Massa- 
chusetts to organize it, and make prep- 
arations for the defense of the country, 
he found a great want of ammunition 
and other means necessary to meet the 
powerful foe he had to contend with, and 
great difficulty in obtaining them. If 
attacked in suc^^ a condition, the cause 
might at once be lost. On one occasion, 
at that anxious period, a consultation of 
the officers and others was had, when it 
seemed no way could be devised to make 
such preparation as was necessary. Jon- 
athan Trumbull, the elder, was then 
governor of Connecticut, and, as Wash- ^ 
ington placed the greatest reliance on his 
judgment and aid, he remarked, " We 
must consult Brother Jonathan on the 
subject." He did so, and the governor 
was successful in supplying many of the 
wants of the army. When difficulties 
afterward arose, and the army was spread 
over the country, it became a by - word, 
*' We must consult Brother Jonathan.** 
The origin of the expression being soon 
lost sight of, the name Brother Jonathan 
. came to be regarded as the national sobri- 
quet. The foregoing account is from the 
" Norwich (Connecticut) Courier ; " but 
it has more recently been suggested that 
the expression originally had reference to 
Captain Jonathan Carver (1732-1780), an 
early American traveler among the In- 
dians, from whom he received large grants 

and for the Remarks and Bulea to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxlL 




of lands, in the deeds conyeying which he 
is repeatedly styled " our dear brother 
Jonathan." Cuiver published in London, 
in 1778, an octjivo volume entitled, •' Trav- 
els through the Interior Parts of North 
America, in the years 1766, "67, and '68." 
As the work was extensively read, the 
author became a sort of representative 
man of his countrymen ; and it is not 
difficult to see how the odd designation 
given him by the Indians might be caught 
up and applied to all Americans. The 
following citation, however, from an old 
pamphlet, satirizing the Puritan innova- 
tions in the arrangement and furniture 
of churches, would seem to imply that 
the name originated at a much earlier 
day, and that it was at first applied to 
. the Roundheads, or parliamentary party 
in the time of Charles 1.: — 

" Queen Elizabeth's monument was put up 
at my charge when the regal government had 
fairer credit among us than now, and her 
epitaph was one of my Brother Jonathan's 
best poems, before he abjured the University, 
or had a thought of NeAv England." 

The Eefonnad« precisely charactered br/a 
transformed Churchwarden at a Vestry^ 
London, 1643. 

If you knock ray old friend John Bull on 
the head, I mean to take up with Brother 
Jonathan,— who, after all, is a very decent 
fellow, and, in my opinion, more likely to 
have peace and quiet under his own fig-tree, 
by and by, than any other gentleman of our 
acquaintance. JS^octes Ambrosiance. 

Brown the Younger, Thomas. 
A pseudonym under which Thomas 
Moore, in 1813, published the " Two- 
penny l^ost-bag," a series of witty, 
playful, and very popular satires, 
directed against the prince regent 
and his ministers. 

Bru'in. [D. bi-uin^ brown.] In the 
German epic poem of " Reinecke the 
Fox," the bear is called by this 
name ; hence, a bear in general. 

Brunehild (broo'nS-hilt''), o?* Brnn- 
• hnde (broon-hiPdi). [O. H. Ger. 
brunihilt^ from bruni^ brunja^ coat of 
mail, and HUH, goddess of war, from 
hilt, battle, contest.] A proud war- 
rior-virgin in the German epic, the 
" Nibelungen Lied," who promised 
to be the bride of the man who could 
conouer her in three trials, in hurling 
the lance, in throwing the stone, and 
in leaping after the stone when 
thrown. By the arts and bravery of 
Siegfried, she was deluded into mar- 
rying Giinther, king of Burgundy; 
but, discovering the trick that had 

been put upon her, she planned and 
accomplished the destruction of Sieg- 
fried, and the humiliation of Chriem- 
hild, his wif6, who was her rival. 
The story of Brunehild forms a large 
part of the cycle of ancient Gemian 
romance. See Chriemhild. [Writ- 
ten also B run hi It, Brynhilda, 
and Brynhild.] 

Brurnello. A thievish dwarf in Bo- 
jardo's "Orlando Innamorato," who, 
besides other exploits, steals Angel- 
ica's magic ring, and, by means of 
it, releases Rogero from a castle in 
which he is imprisoned. 

Brute, Sir John. A character in 
Vanbrugh's play, " The Provoked 
Wife," distinguished for his absiu-di- 
ties and coarse, pot-house valor. 

Bubble, Law's. See Law's Bubble. 

Bubble, South-Sea. See South-Sea 

Bubble Act. {Eng. Hist.) The name 
popularly given to an act (6 Geo. I., 
c. 18) passed in* 1719, and designed 
to punish unprincipled adventurers 
who -proposed schemes — popularly 
called Bubbles — merely as baits to 
extract money from the ignorant or 
thoughtless. It was repealed July 5, 

Bu-ceph'a-lus. [Gr. /Sov/cecfxxAa?, Ma- 
cedonian, /3ov«e</)dAa5, bull -headed, 
from /3ov?, bullock, and Ke<|)aXi7, head.] 
The name of a celebrated horse of 
Alexander the Great, who was the 
first to break him in, and who thus 
fulfilled the condition stated by an 
oracle as necessary for gaining the 
crown of Macedon. 

Buckeye State. The State of Ohio; 
popularly so called from the buck- 
eye-tree {^sculus Jlava), which 
abounds there. 

Buddha (bobd'a). [Sansk., wise, sage, 
from budd, to* know.] One of the 
beings worshiped or venerated by the 
Buddhists, a sect of religionists in- 
cluding more than one third of the 
human race, and spreading over the 
greater part of Central and Eastern 
Asia, and the Indian islands. The 
term is used to designate either the 
historical founder of Buddhism, — a 

OE^ For the " Key. to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the »vc'>ompanying ExplanatiouR, 




Hindu sage named Gautama, who is 
tlio light to have lived in the sixth 
century, b. c, — or one of his fab- 
ulous prototypes or successors, of 
whom there "are many, of diiferent 
classes. [Written also Bud ha, 
Boodh, Bhoo4l, Budh, and in 
many other ways. Hardy, in his 
" Manual of Buddhism," gives a list 
of more than fifty varieties which 
had fallen under his notice.] 
Bull, John. A well-known collective 
name of the English nation, first 
used in Arbuthnot's satire, "The 
History of John Bull," usually pub- 
lished in Swift's works. In this 
satire, the French are designated as 
Lewis Baboon, the Dutch as Nicholas 
Frog, &c. The " History- of John 
Bull " was designed to ridicule the 
Duke of Marlborough. 

J^S^ "There is no spedes of humor in 
which the English more excel than that 
which consists in caricaturing and giving 
ludicrous appellations or nicknames. In 
this way, they have whimsically desig- 
nated, not merely individuals, but na- 
tions ; and, in their fondness for pushing 
a joke, they have not spared everf them- 
selves. One would think, that, in per- 
sonifying itself, a nation would be apt to 
picture something grand, heroic, and im- 
posing ; but it is characteristic of the 
peculiar humor of the English, and of 
their love for what is blunt, comic, and 
familiar, that they have embodied their 
national oddities in the figure of a sturdy, 
corpulent old fellow, with a three-cornered 
hat, red waistcoat, leather breeches, and 
fitout oaken cudgel. Thus they have 
taken a singular delight in exhibiting 
their most private foibles in a laughable 
point of view, and have been so success- 
ful in their delineation, that there is 
scarcely a being in actual existence more 
absolutely present to the public mind 
than that eccentric personage, John 
Bull." W. Irving. 

Byller of Brazenose. A name given 
in Wilson's " Noctes Ambrosianae " 
to John Hughes (of Oriel College, — 
not Brazenose, — Oxford), author of 
an " Itinerary of the Rhone," and of 
other works. 

Bully Dawson. See Dawson, Bully. 

Bum'ble, Mr, A mean and cowardly 
btiadle in Dickens's " Oliver Twist," 
puffed up with the insolence of office. 

Bunch, Mother. See Mother 

Bun'cle, John (bungk'l). The hero 
of a fantastic book entitled " The 
Life of John Buncle, Esq. ; contain- 
ing various Observations and Reflec- 
tions made in several parts of the 
World, and many Extraordinary Re- 
lations." He is said to be the repre- 
sentative of his author, Thomas Am- 
ory (1691-1789), an eccentric person 
of whose history little is known. See 
English Rabelais, 3. 

jg®* " John is a kind of innocent 
' Henry the Eighth of private life,' with* 
out the other's fat, fury, and solemnity. 
He is a prodigious hand at matrimony, 
at divinity, at a song, at a loud ' hem,' 
and at a turkey and chine. He breaks 
with tlie Trinitarians as confidently and 
with as much scorn as Henry did with, 
the Pope ; and he marries seven wives, 
whom he disposes of by the lawful pro- 
cess of fever and small-pox. His book is 
. made up of natural history, mathematics 
(literally), sofigs, polemics, landscapes, 
eating and drinking, and charr.cters of 
singular men, all bound together by his 
introductions to, and marriages with, 
these seven successive ladies, every one 
of whom is a charmer, a Unitarian, and 
cut off in the flower of her youth. ]3un- 
cle does not know how to endure her 
loss ; he shuts his eyes ' for three days ; ' 
is stupefied ; is in despair ; till suddenly 
he recollects that Heaven does not like 
such conduct ; that it is a. mourner's 
business to bow to its decrees ; to be de- 
vout ; to be philosophic; — in short, to 
be jolly, and look out for another dear, 
bewitching partner, ' on Christian prin- 
ciples.' This is, literally, a fair account 
of his book." Leigh Hunt. 

Oh for the pen of John Bnncle, to consecrate 
& petit souvenir to their memory [Lamb's 
Wednesday-evening parties]! Hazlitt. 

Bun'combe (bungk'um). A cant or 
popular name, in the United States, 
for a body of constituents, or for an 
oratorical display intended to win 
popular applause. [Written also 
B u n k u m.] 

j8@=" According to the Hon. William 
Darlington, the phrase " speaking for 
Buncombe " originated near the close of 
the debate on the famous '^ Missouri 
Question," in the sixteenth Congress. It 
was then used by Felix Walter, a naive 
old mountaineer, who resided at Waynes- 
ville, in Haywood, the most western 

«nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




eotmty of North Caroling., near the bor- 
der of the adjacent county of Buncombe, 
which formed part of liis district. The 
old mau rose to speak, wiiile the House 
was impatiently calling for the " ques- 
tion," and several members gathered 
round him, begging him to desist. He 
persevered, however, for a while, declar- 
ing that the people of his district expected 
it, and that he was bound to *' make a 
speech for Buncombe." 

Bundschuh (boont'shob). [Ger., a 
kind of large shoe which went over 
the ankle and was tied up.] ( Ger. 
Hist.) A name given to the insur- 
rection of the peasants in the first 
half of the sixteenth century, be- 
cause the insurgents carried a clouted 
shoe as an ensign upon a pole, and 
even upon their banners. 

Bung'by, Jack. A commander of a 
ship in Dickens's " Dombey and 
Son," looked up to as an oracle and 
philosopher by his friend Captain 
Cuttle. He is described as wearing 
a " rapt and imperturbable manner," 
and seeming to be " always on the 
lookout for something in the extrem- 
est distance." 

Bunyan, Bishop. See Bishop Bun- 


Buoyo d' Agramonte (boo-o'vb d^- 
gra-mon^ta). See Beuves d'Ay- 


•Bur'chell, Mr. A prominent character 
in Goldsmith's " Vicar of Wakefield," 
who passes himself off as a poor 
man, but is really a baronet in dis- 

f pise, his true name being Sir Wil- 
iam Thornhill. He is noted for his 
habit of crying out " Fudge ! " by 
way of expressmg his strong dissent 
from, and contempt for, the opinions 
of others, or his disbelief of their as- 
Burd Helen. [Burd^ according to 
Jamieson, is a Scottish form of bird, 
used as a term of endearment. But 
see infra.'] A heroine of Scottish 
ballad and tradition, renowned for 

her resolute constancy. She is bomo 
away to Elfland by *^the fairies, and 
imprisoned in a castle, from which 
she is rescued by her brother, the 
Childe Rowland. See Kowland, 

J9S=- " Burd is thfe Scottish feminine of 
the French preux or prucfhomme. The 
preux chevalier was brave and wise, the 
Burd of Scottish gong was discreet." 


Buri (boo'ree). [Old Norse, producer.] 
(Scand. Myth.) The progenitor of 
the gods. See Audhumbla. [Writ- 
ten also B u r e.] 

Burleigh, Lord. See Lord Bur- 

Burly King Harry. See Bluff 

Burnbill. A name given to Henry 
de Londres, Archbishop of Dublin 
and Lord Justice of Ireland, in the' 
reign of Henry IH. He is said to 
have fraudulently procured and 
burnt all the instruments by which 
the tenants of the archiepiscopal es- 
tate| held their lands. 

B6-si'ris(9). [Gr. BouVtpt?.] (Myth.) 
An Egyptian king, son of Neptune. 
He was a monstrous giant, who fed 
his horses on human flesh. He was 
finally slain by Hercules. 

Buttermere, Beauty of. See Beau- 
ty OF Buttermere. 

Buz'fuz, Sergeant. A character in 
Dickens's " Pickwick Papers." 

Byblis. [Gr. Bv^Ki^.] ( Gr. (f Rom. 
Myth.) A daughter of Miletus, who 
wept herself into a fountain from a 
hopeless passion for her brother Cau- 

By come. See Chichevache. 

By'rSn, Miss Harriet (9). A beau- 
tiful and accomplished woman, de- 
votedly attached, and finally married, 
to Sir Charles Grandison, in Richard- 
son's novel of this name. See Gran- 
dison, Sir Charles. 

0^- For the **Key to the Scheme of Fronuneiation/' with the accompanying E^cplanations, 





Cabal, The. {Eng. Hist.) A name 
given to a famous cabinet council 
formed in ISTOj^and composed of five 
unpopular ministers of Charles II.; 
namely, Lords Clifford, Ashley, Buck- 
ingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale. 
The word " cabal " — at that time in 
common use to denote aiunto, or set 
of men united for polliicalpiti'poses — 
iiaving been popularly applied to this 
ministry as a term of reproach, it 
was soon discovered to be a sort of 
anagram made up of the initials of 
the names of the several members. 

Caballero, Fernan (fef-nan^ ka-bal- 
yi^ro, 82). A nom de plume of Dona 
Cecilia Arrom, one of the most popu- 
lar living writers of Spain. She is 
the author of various tales, which 
present truthful and lively pictures 
of Andalusian manners. 

Ca-bi'rt (9). [Gr. Ka^eipoi.] (Myth.) 
Mystic divinities anciently worshiped 
in Egypt, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, and 
Greece. They were regarded as in- 
ferior in dignity to the great gods, 
and were probably representatives of 
the powers of nature. [Written also 

Ca'cus. (Rom. Myth.) An Italian 
shepherd, usually called a son of Vul- 
can, and described b}-^ Ovid as a fear- 
ful giant. He was a most notorious 
robber, and was slain by Hercules for 
stealing his oxen. 

There you will find the Lord Rinaldo of 
Montalban, with his friends and companions, 
■11 of them greater thieves than Cacus. 

Cervantes, Trans. 
Our hero, feeling his curiosity considerably 
•xcited by the idea of visiting the den of a 
Highland Cacus, took, however, the precau- 
tion to inquire if his guide might be trusted. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Caddee. See League of God's 

Cft-de'nus. A name under which 
Swift describes himself in his poem 
of " Cadenus and Vanessa." Cade- 
nm is the Latin word decanus (dean), 
by transposition of letters. See Va- 

Cadenus, indeed, believe him who will, ha« 
assured us, that, in such a perilous intercourse, 
he himself preserved the limits which were 
unhappily traudgressed by the unfortunate 
Vanessa, his more impassioned pupil. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Cad'mus. [Gr. KaS/mw.] ( (^r. cf Bom. 
Myth.) A son of Agenor, king of 
Phoenicia, and a brother of Europa. 
He is the reputed founder of the city 
of Thebes, in Boeotia ; and he is said 
to have invented, or at least to have 
brought from Phoenicia, the old Greek 
alphabet of sixteen letters, namely, 
a/376eiKA/u.i'07rpo-Tv. These 
are called Cndmean letters. They 
were afterward increased by the ad- 
dition of eight more, named Ionic 
letters, namely, ^riO^^x^*^' 

C|-du'ce-us. [Lat., from Gr. K-ripv- 
K€iov, a herald's wand, ^olic Kapv- 
K€iov {r being changed into its cog- 
nate, G?), from Kijpul, a herald.] ( Gr. 
<f Rom. Myth.) A winged staff or 
rod, with two serpents entwined 
about it; an attribute of Mercury. 

Cad'wai. A feigned name assumed 
by ArViragus in Shakespeare's " Cym- 
beline." See Arvira-gus. 

Csec'u-lus. ( Rom. Myth. ) A son -of 
Vulcan, a robber, and the reputed 
founder of Praeneste. 

Cagliostro, Count de (kal-yos'tro). 
The assumed name of Josepfi Bals^a^ 
ftio (1743-1795), one of the most im- 
pudent and successful impostors of 
modem times. 

Ca^ius, Dr. A French phvsician, in 
Shakespeare's "Merfy Wives of 

Bad in themselves [certain portions of Bos- 
well's "Life of Johnson"], they are good 
dramatically, like . . . the clipped English of 
Dr. Caius. Macauluy. 

Calandrino (kS-lSn-drCno). The 
subject of a story in Boccaccio's " De- 
cameron " (Day 8, Tale 9). His 
mishaps, as Macaulay states, " have 
made all Europe merry for more than 
four centuries." 

Cal'chas. [Gr. KaAxa?.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A famous soothsayer 

and for the Remarks and Rules to wfiich the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxiL 




who accompanied the Greeks to 
Cal'e-don. A poetical contraction of 
Caledonia. See Caledonia. 

Not thus, in ancient days of Caletlon, 
Was thy voice mute auiid the festal crowd. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Cal'e-do'ni-a. The ancient Latin 
name of Scotland, often used as a 
synonym of Scotland in modern poe- 

O Caledonia, stem and wild. 
Meet nurse for a poetic child I 

Sir W. Scott. 

Calendars, The Three. See Three 

Calendars, The. 
Cal'i-ban. [A metathesis of cannibal.] 
A savage and deformed slave or 
Prospero, in Shakespeare's " Tem- 
pest" He is represented as being 
the "freckled whelp" of Sycorax, a 
foul hag, who was banished from Ar- 
gier (or Algiers) to the desert island 
afterward inhabited by Prospero. 

J9^ " Caliban ... is all earth, all 
condensed and gross in feelings and im- 
ages : he has the dawnings of under- 
standing, without reason or the moral 
sense ; and in him, as in some brute an- 
imals, this advance to the intellectual 
faculties, without the moral sense, is 
marked by the appearance of vice." 


The quantity of furious abuse poured out 
against the Bourbons might have authorized 
the authors to use the words of Caliban, — 
" You taught me language, and my profit 
on ^t 

Is — I know how to curse." Sir W. Scott. 

Cal'i-burn. See Excalibur. 

Cal'i-dore. [Gr., beautifully gifted.] 

. A knight in Spenser's " Faery 

Queen," typical of courtesy, and 

supposed to be intended as a portrait 

of Sir Philip Sidney. 

In reality, he [Sir Guwain] was the Calidore 
of the Round Table. Southey. 

C$-lip'o-lis. A character in " The 
Battle of. Alcazar" (1594), an inflat- 
ed play attributed by Dyce to George 
Pcele, a dramatist of the Elizabethan 
age ; — referred to by Pistol, in Shake- 
speare's " 2 Yi^nry IV.," a. ii., sc. 4. 

Hark ve, most fair Calipoli.% ... if thou 
takest all that trouble of skewering thyself 
together, like a trussed fowl, that there may 
be more pleasure in the carving, even save 
thyself the labor. Sir W. Scott. 

C$-lis't§. The name of the heroine 

of Rowe's " Fair Penitent," charac- 
terized as 

"haughty, insolent, 
And fierce with high disdain." 

No high Calista that ever issued from story- 
teller's brain will impress us more deeply than 
this meauest of the mean, and for a good 
reason, — that she issued from the maker of 
men. Curlyle. 

Cal-li'o-pe. [Gr. KaAAtoTrrj, the. beau- 
tiful- voiced. J {Gr. ^ Hovi. Myth.) 
One of the nine Muses. She pre- 
sided over eloquence and epic poetry^, 
or poetry in general, and was the 
mother of Orpheus and Linus. She 
was usually represented with a style 
and waxen tablets. 

Cal-lis'to. [Gr. KaAAio-rui.] (Gr. if 
Rom. Myth.) Afi Arcadian nymph, 
and a favorite of Jupiter, who meta- 
morphosed her into a she-bear, that 
their intimacy might not become 
known to Juno. Her son Areas 
having met her in the chase, one 
day, was on the point of killing her, 
but Jupiter prevented him by placing 
both of them in the heavens as the 
Great Bear and the Little Bear. 

Cal'^-dSn. A forest supposed to have 
occupied the northern portion of 
Great Britain ; very celebrated in 
the romances relating to King Arthur 
and Merlin. 

CS-lyp'sO. [Gr. KaXv^<a.'] {Gr. rf 
Rom. Myth.) A daughter of Atlas. 
She was one of the Oceanides, and 
reigned in the island of Ogygia, 
whose situation and even existence 
are doubted. Here she received 
Ulysses, on his way home from 
Troy, entertaining him with great 
hospitality, and promising him im- 
mortality if he would remain with 
her as a husband. Ulysses refused, 
and, after seven years' delay, he was 
permitted to depart by order of Mer- 
cury, the messenger of Jupiter. 

a solitary roverj in such a voyage, with 
such nautical tactics, will meet with adven- 
tures. Nay ; as we forthwith discover, a cer- 
tain Ca?///>.so-island detains him at the very 
outset, and, as it were, falsifies and overseta 
his whole reckoning. Carlyle. 

CamachO (ka-m^'cho.) A character 
in an episode in Cervantes's " Don 
Quixote," who gets cheated out of 
his bride after having made great 
preparations for their wedding. 

Ji)Q~ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation." with the accomi)anying Explanations, 




Camaralzaman, Prince. See 
Pkince Camaralzaman. 

Cam'ba-lu. In the "Voyages" of 
Marco Polo, the chief city of the 
province of Cathay. It is now iden- 
titied with Pekin. 

Cam'brX-a. The ancient Latin name 
of Wales, often used by modern 
poets. It is derived from Camber, 
tlie son of Brutus, a legendary king 
of Britain. Brutus at his death left 
the isle to his three sons, one of 
whom, Camber, received the western 

When stars through cypress -boughs are 
And fire-flies wander briglit and free. 
Still of thy harps, thy mountains dreaming, 
My thoughts, wild Cambnu, dwell with thee. 
Mrs. Jlemans. 

Camnbus-can, or Cam-bus'can. A 
king of Tartary, in Chaucer's 
*' Squier's Tale," to whom, upon the 
anniversar}'- of his birthday, the king 
of Araby and Ind sends as presents 
a brazen horse capable pf transport- 
ing his rider into the most distant 
region of the world in the space 6f 
twenty-four hours ; a mirror of glass 
endued with the power of discover- 
ing the most hidden machinations 
of treason, and of showing any dis- 
asters which might threaten to befall 
the possessor ; a naked sword which 
could pierce annor deemed impene- 
trable; and a ring — intended for 
Canace, Cambuscan's daughter — 
which would enable the owner to 
understand the language of every 
species of birds, and the virtues of 
every plant. The poem ends abrupt- 
ly, the conclusion of the story having 
either been lost, or never written. 

J8@=- " I think that it is not unlikely 
that Chaucer had seen ' The Travels of 
Marco Polo,' and that Cambusran, or 
Cambu's Can, is a contraction of Cam- 
balu Can. We may observe that the 
name of one of his sons is Camhallo. Of 
Algarsif, the other son, I can give no ac- 
count. The name of his daughter, Can- 
ace, is Greek. Keightky. 
ii^ "It is strange that Milton should 
have pronounced the word Cambus'can ; 
nor is it pleasant, when his robust line 
must be resounding in the ear of every 
one to whom the story is called to mind, 
to be forced to obey even^the greater dic- 
tation of the original, and throw the 

accent, as undoubtedly it ought to be 
thrown, on the tirst and last sellable. On 
no theory, as respects Chaucer's versi- 
fication, does it appear intelligible how 
Milton could have thrown the accent on 
the second syllable, wheu the other read- 
ing stares us in the face throughout 
Chaucer's poem." Leigh Hunt. 

This noble king, this Tartre CambiiscaUy 
Iladde two sones by Elfleta, his wif. 
Of wliich the eldest sone highte Algarsif, 
That other was ycleped Camballo. 

Or call up him that left half told 
The story of Cwnbuscan bold, 
Of Cam ball and of Algarsife, 
And who had Canace to wife, 
That owned the virtuous ring and glass; 
And of the wondrous horse of brass 
On which the Tartar king did ride. Milton 

I have still by me the beginnings of several 
stories, . . . which, after in vain endeavor! U; 
to mold them into shape, I threw aside, like 
the tale of Cambiuican, " left half told." 

T. Moore. 

Cambyses, King. See King CaMn 


Cam'de-o. {Hindu Myth.) The god 
of love. See Kama. 

The tenth Avatar comes I at Heaven's com- 
Shall Seriswattee wave her hallowed wand. 
And Caiiuleo bright and Ganesa subhme^ 
Shall bless with joy their own jjropitions 
cUme! Campbell. 

Cain'e-16t. A parish in Somerset- 
shire, England (now called Queen's 
Camel), where King Arthur is said 
to have held his court, and where the 
vast intrenchments of an ancient 
town or station — called by the in- 
habitants " King Arthur's Palace '* 
— are still to be seen. It is some- 
times erroneously identified with 
Winchester. Shakespeare alludes to 
Camelot as being famous for a breed 
of geese. 

Goose, if once I had thee upon Sarum plain, 
I 'd drive thee cackling home to Camelot. 


Ca-me'neB. (Rom. Myth.) Prophetic 
nymphs, of whom Egeria was the 
most celebrated. The Roman poets 
often apply the name to the Muses. 
[Written also, but improperly, C a- 

Ca-mill5. A virgin queen of the 
Volscians, famous for her fleetness 
of foot and her grace. She assisted 
Turnus in his war against ^neas, 
and signalized herself by undaunted 

and for the jRemarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, sec pp. xiv-xxxil. 




Jg^ "The first female warrior is the 
Oamilla of Virpjil." Dr. Johnson. 

When Ajax strives some rock's vaat weight 

to throw. 
The line, too, labors, and the words move 

Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain, 
Flies o'er the unbending com, or skims along 

the main. Fope. 

Candide (k6»/ded', 62). The hero of 
Voltaire's celebrated novel of the 
same name, in which he collects to- 
gether the most dreadful misfortunes, 
and heaps them upon the head of a 
single individual, with the intention, 
probably, of inculcating a philosoph- 
ical inditference to the disasters and 
disappointments and sorrows which 
inevitably beset human life. 

The boy-author [Beckford] appears already 
to have rubbed all the bloom off his heart; 
and, in the midst of his dazzling genius, one 
trembles to think that a stripling of years so 
tender should have attained the cool cynicism 
of a Candide. Land, Qu. Rev. 

Candor, Mrs. A noted slanderer in 
Sheridan's " School for Scandal." 

iK^ " The name of ' Mrs. Caudor ' has 
becoQie one of those formidable by-words 
which have more power in putting folly 
apd ill-nature out of countenance than 
whole volumes of the wisest remonstrance 
and reasoning. ' ' T. Moore . 

His [Sterne's] friends, . . . wrote to him of 
the rumor [that he had accepted a bribe], and 
of how the Yorkshire Jfr.t. Candors were cir- 
culating that he had furnished all the details 
of that complaceu t sketch. Fercy Fitzgerald. 

CS-nid'i-S. A sorceress often men- 
tioned by Horace. She used wax 
figures in working her spells and en- 
chantments, and, by her conjurations, 
she made the moon descend from 
the heavens. 

The savor is sweet, but it hath been cooked 
by a Canidia or an Erichtho. Sir W. Scott. 

Can-nucks'. A nickname applied to 
Canadians by people in the United 
States. [Written also C u n n u c k s.] 

CS-no'pus. [Gr. Kdvoyiro?.'] (Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth. ) The pilot of Menelaus, 
killed in Egypt by the bite of a 
poisonous serpent, when returning 
from Troy. He was buried by Men- 
elaus on the site of the town of 
Canopus, which derived its name 
from him. According to some ac- 
counts, Canopus was worshiped in 
Egypt as a divine being, and was 
represented in the shape of a jar with 
small feet, a thin neck, a swollen. 

body, and a round back. [Written 
also Canobus.] 
Capability Brown. Launcelot Brown, 
a famous Enghsh gardener of the 
last century; — so called from his 
constant use of the word " capabil- 
ity," as^ well as on account of his 
genius for making sterile or naked 
grounds fruitful and beautiful. 

There is a very large artificial lake [at Blen- 
heim], which was created by CapaJnlity Brown, 
*"n.H!T ^"^ oiism that he scooped for it, just 
as if Nature had poured these broad water* 
into one of her own valleys. Jlawthorne. 

Cap'a-neuS. [Gr. Kairavevq.] {Gr. 

Myth.) One of the seven heroes 
who marched from Argos against 
Thebes. He was killed with a thun- 
der-bolt by Jupiter for impiously say- 
ing that not even the fire of Jupiter 
should prevent him from scaling the 
walls of the city, See EvAD^^E. 
Cape of Storms.' See Stormy Cape. 

Capitan (ka/pe'ton', 62). A boastful, 
swaggering, cowardly fellow, who 
figured in almost all the French 
farces and comedies previous to the 
time of Moliere. 

Caps and Hats. See Hats and 

Captain, The Black. See Black 
Captain, The. 

Captain Loys. [Fr. Le Capitaine 
Loys.'] A sobriquet given, by her 
contemporaries, to Louise Lab^ (1526- 
1566), who, in early life, embraced 
the profession of arms, and gave re- 
peated proofs of the greatest valor. 

Captain Bight. A fictitious com- 
mander — like the Captain Rock of 
more recent times — whom the peas- 
ants in the south of Ireland, in the 
last century, were sworn to obey. 

Captain Hock. The fictitious name 
of a leader of Irish insurgents about 
the year 1822, who appeared contin- 
ually in large masses, among the hills 
and valleys, and might, at almost 
any time of night, be met with in 
the highways. They were said to be 
under the command of a Captain, or 
General, Rock, and all the lawless 
notices they issued were signed in 
his name. ,The term is supposed to 
have been a common unaginary title 

* For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanymg Explanations, 




adopted by the chief confederates, — 
whose identity was never established. 

Cap'u-let. The head of a noble house 
of Verona, in Shakespeare's tragedy 
of " Romeo and Juliet," — hostile to 
the house of Montague. He is rep- 
resented as a jovial, testy old man, 
self-willed, violent, and "tyrannical. 

Cap'u-let, Lady. Wife of Capulet, 
in Shakespeare's tragedy of " Komeo 
and Juliet." 

je®=- " Then Lady Capulet comes sweep- 
ing by with her train of velvet, her black 
hood, her fan, and her rosary, — the very 
beau-ideal of a proud Italian matron of 
the fifteenth century, whose offer to poi- 
son Komeo in revenge for the death of 
Tybalt stamps her with one very char- 
acteristic trait of the age and country. 
Yet she loves her daughter ; and there is 
a touch of remorseful tenderness in her 
lamentation over hvr which adds to our 
impression of the timid softness of Juliet 
and the harsh subjection in which she 
has been kept." Mrs. Jameson. 

J8^ The Capulets and Montagues ( Cap- 
elletti and Montecchi, or Monticoli) were 
two rival houses of Verona in the latter 
part of the thirteenth and the early part 
of the fourteenth centuries. The familiar 
expression, "■ the tomb of the Capulets," 
does not occur in Shakespeare. It has not 
been found in any author previous to 
Burke, and probably originated with him. 
In a letter to Matthew Smith, he says, " I 
would rather sleep in the corner of a lit- 
tle country church-yard than in the tomb 
of alt the Capulets.'''* 

Car'a-bas, Marquis of. [Fr. Mnr- 
quls de Cardbas^ mai-'ke' du ka^rS'- 
M']. A fanciful title employed to 
designate a man who possesses, or 
makes a boast of possessing, large 
estates; a feudal lord; or, in general, 
any pompous and purse - proud in- 
dividual. The name occurs in the 
nurserj' tale, " Puss in Boots," and 
B^ranger has adopted it as the title 
of one of his most popular lyrics. 
See Puss in Boots. 

" See this old marquis treating us 

As if a conq uered race : 
His raw-bonc<i steed has brought him back 

From distant hiding-place. 
With saber brandished o'er his head 

That never dealt a blow. 
The noble moi-tal marches on, 

And seeks his old chateau. 
Ilats off, hats off ! near and fkr, 
Bow to the Marquis of Carabas.*y 

B^ranger, Trant. 

The States General assembled May 1, 1789. 
The delegates of the poor were to meet under 
the same roof with the titled aristocrats who 
had trampled on their social rights and do- 
mestic alfections so long, with the mitered 
lords who had extracted their last sheaves of 
corn. The opponents sat face to face — the 
pale, thoughtful, and emaciated face of the 
Buflfering ana revengeftil tiers-etat, the bloat- 
ed, hanasome, and contemptuous face of the 
high-born bishop and polished duke. They 
must have looked at each other with strangely 
ominous eyes when they met for the first 
time, and Jacques Bonhomme examined the 
Marquiade C'aroftos across the gulf of so many 
hundred years. Rev. J. White. 

In Vivian Grey, his [Disraeli's] views seemed 
bounded by a desire to find a Marquis de 
Curabas. Smiles. 

Car'a-doc. A knight of the Round 
Table, distinguished for his valor, 
but yet more as the husband of a 
chaste and constant lady, the only 
dame in Queen Guinever's train 
who could wear a certain mantle de- 
signed to prove matrhnonial lidelity. 
He was sumamed Brief -Bras, or 
" Shrunken-Arm," a Norman corrup- 
tion of Friech-Fr as J or "Strong-Arm." 
To explain the reason of the fonner 
epithet, the later romancers feigned 
that a wicked enchanter caused a 
serpent to fasten on Caradoc's arm, 
and suck his flesh and blood, and 
that no human power was able to as- 
suage his pain, or remove the reptile. 
Caradoc is the hero of an old ballad 
entitled " The Boy and the Mantle.'* 

Car'a-this. The mother of the Caliph 
Vathek, in Beckford's tale of this 
name; represented as an adept in 
jiftlicial astrology and magic. 

Cardenio {Sp.pron. kaf-da^ne-o). A 
distracted lover — the dupe of a per- 
fidious friend — whose adventures 
farm an episode in the history of 
"Don Quixote." 

CaT'du-el (6). A name given, in the 
old romances about Arthur and his 
knights, to the city of Carlisle. 

Carlcer, Mr. A plausible villain in 
Dickens's " Dombey and Son." 

Carlo KHian. A nickname given to 
Charles James Fox (1749-1806), on 
account of a bill which he brought 
into Parliament, in 1783, for a new 
regulation of the East Indies, from 
the supposition that he aimed to 
establish a dictatorship in his own 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xlv-xxxii. 




Carlyle, Jupiter. See Jupiter Car- 


Carmilhan. See Klabotermann. 

Car'pi-o, Ber-nar'do del. A very 
ancient mythical, or semi-mythical, 
hero of Christian Spain, who signal- 
ized himself, chiefly in the Moorish 
army, by his chivalrous deeds. He 
is said to have been an illegitimate 
son of Don Sancho, Count of Sal- 
dafia, and of Dofia Ximena, a sister 
of King Alfonso, sumamed The 
Chaste. He is a favorite hero in the 
old Spanish romances and ballads, in 
which the honor is claimed for him 
of slaying the famous Orlando, or 
lioland, on the fatal field of Ronces- 

Car-ras'co, Samson. [Sp. Sanson 
Carrasco^ san-son' kar-ras/ko.] A 
waggish bachelor of Salamanca who 
figures in Cervantes's romance, "Don 

He may perhaps boast of arresting the gen- 
eral attention, in tlie same manner as the 
bachelor Samson Carrasco, of fixing the 
weather-cock La Giralda of Seville for weeks, 
months, or years, that is, for as long as the 
wind shall uniformly blow from one quarter. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Car-taph'i-lus. See Jew, The Wan- 

Casella (ka-zeVla). The name of a 
musician and old friend of Dante, 
immortalized by him in his poem 
entitled " La Divina Commedia." 
Dante, on his arrival in Purgatory, 
sees a vessel approaching freighted 
with souls, under the conduct of an 
angel, to be cleansed from their 
sins, and made fit for Paradise. 
When they are disembarked, the 
poet recognizes in the crowd hfs old 
friend Casella. In the course of an 
affectionate interview, the poet re- 
fjuests a soothing air, and Casella 
pings, with enchanting sweetness, 
Dante's second canzone. 

Dnnte shall give fame leave to set thee higher 
Than his Casella, whom he wooed to sing, 
Met in the milder shades of Purgatory. 


Cas'i-mere. A Polish emigrant in 
" Tije Kovers, or The Double Ar- 
rangement," in the poetry of the 
" Anti-Jacobin." See Beefington, 


Cas-san'dra. [Gr. Kaa-a-dvSpa.] {Gr. 
tf Rom. Myth.) A beautiful daugh- 
ter of Priam and Hecuba. Accord- 
ing to the poets, she possessed the 
girt of prophecy, but noite believed 
her predictions. 

Cassim iBaba. See Baba, Cassim. 

Cas'si-o (kash/i-o). Lieutenant of 
Othello, and a tool of lago, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " Othello." 

Indeed, I have so poor a brain myself, when 
I impose upon it the Ica^it burden beyond my 
usual three glasses, that I have only, like 
honest Cassio, a very vague recollection of 
the confusion of last night. Sir W. Scott. 

Cas-si'o-pe, or Cas'si-o-pe'l-a (20). 

[Gr. Kacro'toTTTj, KacraioTreia.J ( u7'. (y 

Rom. Myth.) The wife of Cepheus, 
and the mother of Andromache. She 
was an Ethiopian by birth, and was 
so proud of her beauty that she even 
exalted it above that of the sea- 
nymphs, and thus incurred their en- 
mity. After death she was placed 
among the stars, forming the constel- 
lation popularly known as " The 
Ivady in her Chair." [Written also 

That starred Ethiop queen that strove 
To set her beauty's praise above 
The sea-nymphs, and their powers offended. 

Cas'ta-1^. A poetical form of Castalia, 
the name of a spring at the foot of 
Mt. Parnassus, sacred to Apollo and 
the Muses. The poets feigned that 
its waters filled the mind of those, 
who drank of it with poetic inspira- 

Cas-ta'ra. [Probably from Lat. casta^ 
fem. of casius^ chaste ; perhaps casta 
ara^ sacred altar.] A poetical name 
under which William Habington 
(1605-1G54) celebrated the praises 
of Lucia, daughter of the first Lord 
Powis, the lady whom he married. 

Castle, Doubting. See Doubting 

Castle of Indolence. The title of a 
poem by Thomson, and the name of 
a castle described in it as situated in 
a pleasing land of drowsiness, where 
every sense was steeped in the most 
luxurious and enervating delights. 
The owner of this castle was a pow- 
erful enchanter, who sought by the 

<BS~ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




exercise of magical arts to entice un- 
wary passers-by within the gate, that 
he migiit deprive tliem of their 
manly strength, take away all their 
high hopes and aims, and engage 
them in a constant round of sensual 

The effect of the climate, the air, the se- 
renity and sweetness of the i>iace, is ahnostas 
seductive as that of the Castle of Indolence. 
W. Irving. 

Castles in Spain. See ChIteaux 


Castlewood, Beatrix. The heroine 

of Thackeray's novel of " Esmond ; " 
" perhaps the finest picture of splen- 
did, lustrous physical beauty ever 
given to the world." 

Cas'tor. [Gr. Kdaruip.'] ( Gr. cf Eom. 
Myth.) A son of Leda, and a brother 
of Pollux, or Polydeuces. According 
to some writers, they were twins, and 
Jupiter was their father; others as- 
sert that they were the sons of Tyn- 
dareus, king of Lacedaemon ; others, 
again, say that Pollux was the son of 
Jupiter, and Castor of Tyndareus. 
Hence Pollux was immortal, while 
Castor was subject to old age and 
death, hke other men. But such was 
the mutual affection of the two 
brothers, that Jupiter granted the 
prayer of Pollux, and consented that 
they should share each other's lot, by 
living, alternately, one day in the un- 
der-world, and the next in heaven. 
According to a different form of the 
story, he rewarded their mutual at- 
tachment by placing them among the 
stars as Gemini, or " Tlie Twins." the 
third constellation of the zodiac. 
[Castor and Pollux are sometimes 
called the Dioscuri, or " Sons of Jove," 
and Tyndaridce, or *' Sons of Tynda- 

Ct-thay'. An old name for China, 
said to have been introduced into 
Europe by Marco Polo, the celebrat- 
ed Venetian traveler. It is corrupted 
from the Tartar appellation Khitai 
(ke-tP), that is, the country of the 
Khitans, who occupied the northern 
portions of the empire at the period 
of the Mongol invasion. The hero- 
ine of Bojardo's " Orlando Innamo- 

rato," the beautiful Angelica, was a 
princess of Cathay. 

Through the shadow of the p;lobe we sweep 

into the younger day ; 
Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of 

Cathay. 2'ennyson. 

Catholic Majesty. A title first given 
in 739 by Gregory III. to Alfonso 
I. of Spam, who was thereupon sur- 
named The Catholic. The title was 
also given to Ferdinand V., in 1474. 
It was bestowed upon Ferdinand and 
his queen by Innocent VIII., on ac- 
count of their zeal for the Roman 
Catholic religion, and their establish- 
ment of the Inquisition in Spain. 

Ca'to-Street Conspiracy. {Enfj. 
Hist.) A plot of a gang of low and 
desperate politicians to murder the 
ministers of the crown at a cabinet- 
dinner at Lord Harrowby's, with the, 
view of raising an insurrection in 
London, and overthrowing the gov- 
ernment. The conspirators were ar- 
rested in Cato Street, Feb. 23, 1820, 
and Thistlewood — one of the ring- 
leaders — and four of his chief as- 
sociates, having been convicted of 
treason, were executed May 1. 

Caudle, Mrs. Margaret. The feigned 
author of a series of " Curtain Lec- 
tures" delivered in the course of 
thirty years, between eleven at night 
and seven in the morning, to her 
husband, Mr. Job Caudle, "one of 
the few men whom Nature, in her 
casual bounty to women, sends into 
the world as patient listeners." The 
real author of these humorous and 
famous lectures was Douglas Jerrold. 

Violante was indeed a bewitehing^ child, — 
a child to whom I dcfv Mr$. Caudle herself 
(immortal Mrs. Caudle!) to have been a harsh 
step-mother. Sir E. Bulwer Lytton. 

Cauline, Sir. The hero of an an- 
cient English ballad of the same 
name, presented in Percy's " lic- 

Cau'nus. [Gr. KaOros.] See Byb- 


Caustic, Christopher. A pseudo- 
nvm adopted by Thomas Green Fes- 
senden (1771-1837) in his Hudibras- 
tic poem called " Ten*ible Tractora- 

Caustic, Colonel. A prominent char- 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




acter in "The Lounger," sketched 
by Henry Mackenzie. He is " a tine 
gentleman of the last age, somewhat 
severe in his remarks upon the pres- 
Cautionary Towns. {Eng. Hist.) A 
name given to the towns of Briel, 
Fhishing, Rammekins, and Wal- 
cheren, which were placed, in 1585, 
in Queen Elizabeth's possession as 
security for the payment of troops 
furnished by her to the Netherlands. 
Only one third of the sum was re- 
funded; but the Cautionary Towns 
were, notwithstanding, delivered up, 
July 14, 1616, a treaty for this purpose 
having been signed May 22. 

Cave of Mam'nidn. The abode of 
the god of riches, described in the 
seventh canto of the second book of 
Spenser's " Fatiry Queen." 

J8t^ " By what subtle art of tracing the 
mental processes it is etfected, we are not 
philosophers enoui^h to explain ; but in 
that wonderful episode of the Cave of 
Mammon, in which the Money God ap- 
pears first in the lowest form of a miser, 
is then a worker of metals, and becomes 
the god of all the treasures of the world, 
and has a daughter. Ambition, before 
whom all the world kneels for favors, — 
with the Hesperian fruit, the waters Of 
Tantalus, with Pilate washing his hands 
vainly, but not impertinently, in the 
game stream, — that we should be at one 
moment in the cave of an old hoarder of 
treasures, at the next at the forge of the 
Cyclops, in a palace and yet in hell, all 
at once, with the shifting mutations of 
the most rambling dream, and our judg- 
ment yet all the time awake, and neither 
able nor willing to detect the fallacy, is 
a proof of that hidden sanity which still 
guides the poet in the wildest seeming 
aberrations." Charles Lamb. 

Cave of Montesinos. See Monte- 


Ce'crops. [Gr. Ke«pwi^.] {Gr. Myth.) 
The first king of Attica, described as 
an autochthon, the upper part of 
whose body was human, while the 

• lower part was that of a dragon. He 
is said to have .instituted marriage, 
altars, and sacrifices, and to have in- 
troduced agriculture, navigation, and 

CSd'ric. A Saxon thane, of Rother- 

wood, in Sir Walter Scott's novel of 
" Ivanhoe." 
Cera-d6n. 1. The hero of an epi- 
sode in the poem of " Summer," in 
Thomson's " Seasons; " in love with 
Amelia, who is described as having 
been killed in his arms by a stroke 
of lightning. 

2. A poetical name for any swain, 
or rustic lover. 

Had we been the' Celadon and Chloe of a 
country village, he could not have regarded 
us as more equal, so far as the world went. 

Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, 

Ce-l8D'no. [Gr. KeAatrui.] ( Gr. ^ Bom, 
Myth.) One of the Harpies. See 

Celestial City. In Bunyan's "PiU 
grim's Progress," the city toward 
which Christian makes his pilgrim^, 
age; — the heavenly Jerusalem, 
whose splendors are portrayed in the 

Celestial Empire. A name often 
used, in Europe and America, as a 
popular designation of China. It is 
derived, according to Williams, from 
the Chinese words Tien Chun, that 
is, Heavenly Dynasty, meaning the 
kingdom ruled over by the dynasty 
appointed by Heaven. 

Celia. 1. Daughter of Frederick, the 
usurping duke, in Shakespeare's " Aa 
You Like It." 

2. The name given by Thomas 
Carew, an English poet of the sev- 
enteenth century, to his lady-love, 
whose real name is unknown. 

C61imene (sMe'mtin^ 31, 103). 1. A 
misanthrope in Moli^re's " Les 
Pr^cieuses Ridicules." 

2. A coquette in Molifere^s " Misan- 
thrope," — an admirable portrait. 

Cen'taup§. [Lat. Centauri, Gr. 
KeVraupot, bull-kill ers.] ( Gr. ^ Rom, 
Myth.) According to the earliest ac-» 
counts, a rude and savage people 
of Thessaly, afterward described as 
monsters half man and half horse, 
and particularly celebrated for their 
contest with the Lapithae. See 

Century "White. A sobriquet given 
to John White (1500-1645), a bar- 

«®" For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanation* 




riater and political writer of the time 
of the English Commonwealth, from 
his principal publication, " The First 
Century of Scandalous Malignant 
Priests, Made and Admitted into 
Benetices by the Prelates," &c. 

Ceph'$-lus. [Gr. Ke^oAo^.} ( Gr. f 
Mem'. Myth.) The husband of Pro- 
cris. See Procris. 

Ce'phelis (28). [Gr. Kt,<^€i;?.] {Gr. ^ 
Horn. Myth.) 1. One of the Argo- 

2. King of Ethiopia, husband of 
Cassiopeia, and father of Andromeda. 

Cer'be-rus (4). [Gr. Kep^epo?.] {Gr. # 
Jiom. Myth. ) A dog with three heads, 
a serpent's tail, and a snaky mane, 
who guarded the portal of Hades, 
into which he admitted the shades, 
but from which he never let them out 
again. Hercules overcame him, and 
brought him away. 

Ce'res (9). {Gr. (f Rrnn. Myth.) The 
daughter of Saturn and Ops, sister of 
Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, Juno, and 
Vesta, mother of Proserpine, and 
goddess of com, harvest, and flowers. 
She is usually represented as riding 
in a chariot drawn by dragons ; with 
a torch or a basket in her hand, and 
crowned with poppies or ears of corn. 

C6r'I-m6ii. A lord of Ephesus, in 
Shakespeare's "Pericles." 

Ce'yx. [Gr. K>}v^.] {Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) See Alcyone. 

Chad'band, The Kev. Mr. A char- 
acter in Dickens's "Bleak House;" 
a type of hypocritical piety. 

9h&-inont'. One of the dramatis per- 
sonce in Otway's tragedy of " The 

Why, Heaven love you ! I would as soon 
Invite a fire-brand into my stack-yard, — he 's 
an Almanzor, a Chamont. Sir W. Scott. 

Ckampion of the Virgin. A title 
given to St. Cyril of Alexandria. See 
Doctor of the Incarnation. 

5har'i-t6§. [Gr. Xapires.] ( Gr. ^ Bom. 
Myth.) The Graces. See Graces. 

Charlies. A sobriquet given to the 
night-watchmen of Lon<fon before the 
organization of the police force by Sir 

Robert Peel in 1829. They were po 
called from King Charles I., who, in 
1640, extended and improved the 
police system of the metropolis. 

Char'ini-a.n. A kind-hearted but 
simple-minded female attendant on 
Cleopatra, in Shakespeare's play of 
"Antony and Cleopatra." 

gha'rSn. [xdpuiv.] {Gr. ^ Rom, 
Myth.) A god of Hades, son of Ere- 
bus and Nox. He was an aged and 
dirty ferry-man, who conducted the 
souls of the buried dead across the 
river Styx. See Styx. 

Ch$-ryb'dis. [Gr. Xapv^St?.] {Gr. 

* ^ Rom. Myth.) A ravenous woman, 
turned by Jupiter into a dangerous 
gulf or whirlpool on the coast of 
Sicily, opposite to Scylla, on the coast 
of Italy. See Scylla. 

Scylla wept, 
And chid her barking waves into attention, 
And fell Chai'yhdis murmured soft applause. 

Chateaux en Espagne (sha^toz' on 
nes/pan',. 62, 78). [Fr., castles in 
Spain.] Groundless or visionary 
projects; a French phrase sometimes 
used in English. In the fifteenth 
centur}% thev said, in the same sense, 
^'' /'aire des chateaux en AsUj^^ to build 
castles in Asia. 

Chauvin (sho^van', 62). The princi- 

Eal character in Scribe's " Soldat La- 
oureur;" represented as a veteran 
soldier of the time of the first Empire, 
having an unbounded admiration of 
Napoleon, and a blind idolatry of all 
that pertains to him. 

Cherubim, Don. ^ee Don Cheru- 

Caievalier de St. George. See St. 
George, Chevalier de. 

Chev'y Chase. The subject and the 
title of a famous old English ballad. 
The event which is commemorated 
is probably the battle of Otterburn, 
which happened in August, 1388, 
and is declared by Froissart to have 
been the bravest and ntost chivalrous 
which was fought in his day ; but it 
is impossible to reconcile the inci- 
dents of the poem with history. 

j8^=- " According to the ballad, Percy 
vowed that he would enter Scotland, and 

and fur the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxu. 




take his pleasure for three days in the 
woods of his rival, and slay the deer there- 
in at will. Douglas, when he heard the 
vaunt, exclaiuied : ' Tell him he will find 
one day more than enough. ' Accordingly, 
at the time of the hay-harvest, Percy, 
with stag -hounds and archers, passed 
into the domains of his foe, and slew a 
' hundred fallow-deer and harts of grice.' 
When the English had hastily cooked 
their game, and were about to retire, 
Earl Douglas, clad in armor and heading 
his Scottish peers, came on the scene. 
Haughty challenge and defiance passed 
between the potentates, and the battle 
joined. In the center of the fray the two 
leaders met. ' Yield thee, Percy I ' cried 
Douglas. ' I will yield to no Scot that 
was ever born of woman ! ' cried Percy. 
During this colloquy, an English arrow 
struck Douglas to the heart. ' i'ight on, 
my merry men ! ' cried he, as he died. 
Percy, with all the chivalrous feeling of 
his race, took the dead man by the hand, 
and vowed that he would have given all 
his lands to save him, for a braver knight 
never fell by such a chance. Sir Hugh 
Montgomery, having seen the fall of 
Douglas, clapped spurs to his horse, 
dashed on Percy, and struck his spear 
through his body a long cloth-yard and 
more. Although the leaders on both 
sides had fallen, the battle, which had 
begun at break of day, continued till the 
ringing of the curfew -bell. When the 
battle ended, representatives of every no- 
ble family on either side of the border 
lay on the bloody greensward." 


4^ " I never heard the old song of 

Pei'cy and Douglas, that I found not my 

heart moved more than with a trumpet." 

Sir Philip Sidney. 

Chicaneau (she^k^/no'). A litigious 
tradesman in Bacine's comedy, " Les 

Ohicard (she^kaf ', 64). [From the orig- 
inator, a M. Chicard.] The Harlequin 
of the modern French carnival. His 
costume is composed of the most 
various and incongruous articles, but 
generally includes a helmet, a pos- 
tilion's wig, a flannel shirt, and 
cavalry trousers. His arms are half 
bare, and are thrust into buflf gloves 
with large cuffs. 

Chichevaclie (shesh^vSsh'). [Fr., 
said to signify literally, " melancholy, 
or sour, visage."] ' [Written also 
Chichefache and Chinch- 

vache.] A fabulous monster. 
Chaucer alludes to it near the close of 
" The Clerkes Tale." The following 
is TyrAvhitt's note on the place : — 

l^' " This excellent reading is restored 
upon the authority of the best MSS. in- 
stead of the common one, Chechivache. 
The allusion is to the subject of an old 
ballad, which is still preserved in MS. 
Harl. 2251, fol. 270, b. It is a kind of 
pageant, in which two beasts are intro- 
duced, called Bycorne and Chichevache. 
The first is supposed to feed upon obe- 
dient husbands, and the other upon pa- 
tient wives ; and the humor of the piece 
consists in representing Bycorne as pam- 
pered with a superfluity of food, and 
Chichevache as half starved." 

Childe Harold. See Harold, 

Childe Kowland. See Rowland, 

Child of Hale. A name often given 
to John Middleton, a famous English 
giant, who was born at Hale, in Lan- 
cashire, in 1578. His height was 
nine feet and three inches, " wanting 
but six inches," says Dr. Plott, " of 
the size of Goliath." 

Children in the "Wood. Two char^ 
acters in an ancient and well-know.a 
ballad entitled "The Children in th? 
Wood, or The Noriblk Gent.'s Las I 
Will and Testament," which \i 
thought by some to be a disguised 
recital of the alleged murder of his 
nephews by Richard HI. It is cer- 
tain that the ballad corresponds es- 
sentially with the narrative of the 
chroniclers. Addison says of the 
ballad referred to, that it is " one 
of the darling songs of the common 
people, and the delight of most Eng- 
lishmen at some part of their age." 
See the " Spectator," Nos. 85 and 

ght-msB'ra (9). [Gr. Xt>atpa.] ( Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A strange, fire-breath- 
ing monster of Lycia, killed by Bel- 
lerophon. See Bellekopiion. 

Chinaman, John. A cant or popular 
name for the Chinese. The earliest 
known instance of its use is in " A 
Letter to the Committee of Manage- 
ment of Drury-Lane Theater, London, 
1819," p. 64. 

• For the *• Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Chi'ron (0). [Gr. x^ip^v.'] (Gr. <f 

"^ Rom. Myth.) The wisest and most 
famous of all the Centaurs; lioted 
for his skill in music, medicine, and 
hunting. He was the instructor of 
Achilles, and many other heroes of 
Grecian story. Jupiter placed him 
among the stars, as the constellation 
Sagittarius^ or " The Archer." 

^hlo'e. Formerly a very common 
name, in pastoral poetry, for a mis- 
tress or sweetheart, but of late gen- 
erally appropriated to negresses and 

Chlo'ris (9). [Gr. XAcopc?.] {Gr, 

* Myth.) The wife of Zephyrus, and 
the goddess of flowers; the same 
with the Roman Flora. See Flora. 

Chriemhild (kreem^hilt), or Chriem- 
hilde (kreem-hiFdi): The heroine 
of the German epic poem, the " Nibe- 
lungen Lied," represented as a wom- 
an of the rarest grace and beauty, 
♦ and rich beyond conception. By the 
treacherous murder of her husband, 
she becomes changed from a gentle 
and loving woman into a perfect fury 
of revenge. See Brunehild, Hagen, 
Siegfried. [Written also K r i e m - 

Chria'ta-bel. 1. The heroine of the 
old romance of " Sir Eglamour of 

2. A lady in the ancient ballad of 
" Sir Cauline," the daughter of a 
" bonnye kinge" in Iixjland. 

3. A lady in Coleridge's poem of 
the same name. 

Christian. The hero of Bunyan's 
spii-itual romance, " The Pilgrim's 
Progress." This celebrated allegory 
describes the awakening of Chris- 
tian's spiritual fears; his resolution 
to depart from the City of Destruc- 
tion, where he had resided; his inef- 
fectual attempts to induce his wife and 
family and neighbors to accompany 
him; his departure; and all the in- 
cidents, whether of a discouraging or 
a comforting nature, which befall 
him on his journey, until he arrives 
at the Celestial City ; the whole being 
designed to represent the various ex- 
periences, internal and external, in 
the life of a real Christian. 

We seem to have fallen among: the a©- 
quaintances of our old friend CliHstian : some- 
tunes we meet Mistrust and Timorous, some- 
times Mr. Hategood and Mr. Lovelust, and 
then again Prudence, Piety, and Charity. 


Chrls/ti-an'a (krist/yi-an<S). The 
wife of Christian, iu liunyan's " Pil- 
grim's Progress^" who sets out with 
her children to rejoin her husband in 
the Celestial City, under the guidance 
of Mr. Great-heart. 

One, like the white robes seen by Christiana 
on the Delectable Mountains, is protected 
from impurity by an inherent virtue ; the 
other, like a virgin fortress, is secured against 
assault by its forbidding frown and its terrible 
powers of resistance. E, G. White. 

Cairistian Ci$'e-ro. A name con- 
ferred upon Lucius Coelius Lacta«tius, 
an eminent Christian author of the 
early part of the fourth century, on 
account of the remarkable purity and 
eloquence of his style. 

Christian Sen'e-oS. A title some- 
times given to Joseph Hall (1574- 
1656), Bishop of Norwich^ an eminent 
divine, highly esteemed as a moralist. 

Christian Vir'gil. A title given to 
Marco Girolamo Vida (14iK)-1566), 
one of the most learned scholars and 
most elegant Latin writers of his 
time. He was the author of a Latin 
poem in six books, on the life of 
Christ, the " Christias," which is as 
close an imitation of the " Jineid " 
as the great difference in the nature 
of the subject would permit. 

ghris'tle of the Clint Hill. A char- 
acter in Scott's novel of " The Mon- 
astery;" one of Juhan Avenel's re- 

Christopher* St. See St. Christo- 
Chroniclers, The Khyming. A 

series of writers who arose in England 
about the end of the thirteenth centu- 
ry, and related in verse the fabulous 
and the authentic history of that coun- 
try. The most celebrated of them 
were Layamon, Robert of Gloucester, 
and Robert de Brunne. 

ghro-non/ho-ton-thoPo-gos. 1. A. 
pompous character in a burlesque 
tragedy of the same name by Henry 

and for tho Remark^ftnd Rules tg Ajrhich the numbera after certain words refer^see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




2. A nickname given to General 
John Biirgoyne (d. 1792), on account 
of an inflated address which he de- 
livered to the American Indians 
during the war of the Revolution. 

Chrysalde (kre''sald'). A character 
in Moliere's " L'ficole des Femmes ; " 
a friend of Arnolphe. 

Chrysale (kre'sal'). An honest, sim- 
ple-minded, hen-pecked tradesman, 
in Moliere's comedy, "Les Femmes 

Chrys'i-or. [Gr. Xpvorawp.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A son of Neptune and 
Medusa, and the father of Geryon by 

Chrysaor, rising out of the !«a. 
Showed thus glorious and thus emulous, 

Leaving the arms of CaUirrhoe, 
For ever tender, soft, and tremulous. 


ghryrse'is. [Gr. Xpv<mU.'\ {Gr. 4- 
Bom. Myth.) Daughter of Chryses, 
a priest of Apollo. She was famed 
for her beauty, and for her skill in 
embroidery. In the course of the 
Trojan war, she was taken prisoner, 
and given to Agamemnon, who, 
however, was obliged to restore her 
to her father, in order to stop a plague 
which Apollo sent into the Grecian 
camp in answer to the prayer of 

* Chryses. 

Cliuz'zle-wit, Jonas. A character 
in Dickens's novel of " Martin Chuz- 
zlewit;" distinguished for his mean 
brutality and small tyranny. 

Cliuz'zle-'wit, Martin. The hero of 
Dickens's novel of the same name. 

Ci9'e-ro of Germany. [Lat. Cicero 
Gtrmanice.'] A title given to John 
III., margrave and elector of Bran- 
denburg (1455-1499). 

4®=" " Nothing struck a discerning pub- 
lic like the talent he had for speaking : 
spoke ' four hours at a stretch in Kaiser 
Max's Diets, in elegantly flowing Latin,'- 
•with a fair share of meaning too, and had 
bursts of parliamentary eloquence in him 
that were astonishing to hear. . . . Ilia 
bursts of parliamentary eloquence, once 
glorious as the day, procured him the 
name of ' Johannes Cicero,' and that ia 
what remains of them, for they are sunk 
now, irretrievable he and they, into the 
belly of eternal Night, the final resting- 

place, I do perceive, of much Ciceronian 
ware in this world." Carlyle.* 

Ci9'e-ro of the Senate. A title 
popularly given to George Canning 
(1770-1827), a distinguished British 
statesman, and a very eloquent 

Cic'e-ro's Mouth. [Fr. La Bouche 
ae Ciceron.'] A surname given, for 
his eloquence, to Philippe Pot (1428- 
1494), prime minister of Louis XL 

Cid, The. [Sp., lord, from Arab. 
seid.] A title given to Don Rodrigo 
Laynez, a Spanish nobleman of the 
eleventh century ,by five Moorish gen- 
erals whom he had vanquished. The 
title was confirmed by his king. He 
was also known by the abbreviated 
name of Ruy Diaz (^. e., Rodrigo, 
the son of Diego), and was Count of 
Bivar. In 1065, he was placed by 
King Sancho at the head of all his 
armies, whence he acquired the ap- 
pellation of Campeadai', i. e., waiTior, 
champion. He is said to have died 
at Valencia, in 1100, in the seventy- 
fourth year of his age. The details of 
his history are lost in a cloud of ro- 
mantic fiction. He is regarded as the 
model of the heroic virtues of his age, 
and the flower of Spanish chivalry. 

Cid Hamet Benengeli. See Ben- 
ENGELi, ClD Hamet. 

Cim-me'ri-an§ (9). [Lat. Cimmerii^ 
Gr. Ktjufiepiot.] (6V. (f Rom. Myth.) 
In the poems of Homer, a people 
dwelling " beyond the ocean-stream,'* 
in a land where the sun never shines, 
and where perpetual darkness reigns. 
Later writers placed them in Italy, 
near Lake Avemus, and described 
them as living in dark caverns, ex- 
ploring metals, and never coming 
into the light of day. 

Cin'der-el'lS. [That is, little cinder- 
girl; Fr. Cendriilon^ Ger. Ascherir' 
brodel, AschenputteL] The heroine 
of a well-known fairy tale, repre- 
sented as the daughter of a king or a 
rich man, and condemned by a cruel 
step -mother to act the part of a 
household drudge, sitting in the ashes, 
while her more favored sisters are 
dressed in finery and live in splendor. 

tBeS" For tlie "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




The story recounts how, by a fairy's 
help, Cinderella presents herself be- 
fore a young prince, and gains his 
love, to the chagrin of her sisters, 
who had sought to win his favor, and 
how, when he would pursue her, he 
loses sight of her, and, at last, by 
means of a glass slipper, or, as some 
say, a golden shoe, (the gift of the 
fairy,) which she had dropped in her 
flight, and which would lit no other 
foot but hers, he discovers her, and 
then marries her. 

4^ The story is very wide-spread, and 
is told with variations in different lan| 
guages. It is of great antiquity, ana 
probabl}'^ derived from the East. Among 
tlie Germans, the story is mentioned as 
Cirly as the sixteenth century, in Rollen- 
Ir j^en's " Froschmauseler." In France, 
I'errault and Madame D'Aunoy have in- 
cluded it in their " Fairy Tales." A 
similar story, of Grecian or Egyptian ori- 
gin, is told of Rhodopis and Psammiti- 
chus in Egypt. 

Ci-pan'go. A marvelous island, de- 
scribed in the " Voyages" of Marco 
Polo, the Venetian traveler. It is 
represented as lying in the eastern 
seas, some 1500 miles from land, and 
of its beauty and wealth many stories 
are related. The island of Cipango 
was an object of (filigent search with 
Columbus and the early navigators. 
It is supposed by some to be the same 
as Japan. [Written also Z i p a n g i 
and Z i p a n g r i . ] 

Nor wiU I bestow any more attention or 
credit to the idea that America is the fairy 
rc£»ion of Ztpanfirr?', described by that dream- 
ing traveler, Marco Polo, the "Venetian. 

W. Irving. 

Cip'ce (4). [Gr. Ktpjcrj.] ( Gr. ^ Rom,. 
Myth.) A daughter of Sol and the 
oceanid Perse, and a noted sorceress. 
She lived in the island of ^aea, sur- 
rounded with numbers of human 
beings, whom she had changed by 
her drugs and incantations into the 
shape of wolves and lions. When 
Ulysses, in his wanderings, came to 
this island, she turned two-and- 
twenty of his companions into swine ; 
but Ul^^ses himself, having obtained 
from Alercury a sprig of the herb 
nioly, — of wonderful power to resist 
sorceries, -r- went boldly to the palace 
of the enchantress, remained unin- 

jured by her drugs, and induced her 
to disenchant his comrades. 

Who knows not Circe, 
The daughter of the Sun, wlio^c charmed cv p 
Whoever tasted lost his upright shape. 
And downward fell into a groveling swine? 


Circumlocution Office. A dcsif.,- 
nation made use of by Dickens iu 
"Little Dorrit," in ridicule of ofiicinl 
delays and indirectness. The Cir- 
cumlocution Office is described as 
the chief of " public departments in 
the art of perceiving Ao?/; not to (h it.'* 
The name has come into popular use 
as a svnonym for governmental rou- 
tine, or "red tape," or a roundabout 
way of transacting public busmess. 

J^^ " The Administrative Reform As- 
sociation might have worked for ten 
years without producing- half of the 
effect which Mr. Dickens has produced 
in the same direction, by flinging out the 
phi*ase, ' The Circumlocution Office.' " 


Cirongillio of Thrace (the-ron-heP- 
ye-o). The hero of an old romance 
of chivalry by Bernardo de Vargas. 

Cities of the Plain. The name often 
given to Sodom and Gomorrah, the 
chief of the five cities which were 
destroyed by fire from heaven ( Ge7i. 
xix.), and their sites covered by the 
Dead Sea. 

Citizen King. A surname popularly 
given to Louis Philippe, who, in 
1830, was placed on the throne of 
France as the elective king of a 
constitutional monarchy. 

City of Brotherly Love. [Gr. 
*iAa5e'A<^eia, brotherly love.] Phil- 
adelphia, the metropolis of Pennsyl- 
vania, is sometimes so called, ,with 
reference to the signification of the 
name in Greek. 

City of Churches, A name popu- 
larly given to the city of Brooklyn, 
New York, from the unusually large 
number of churches which it con- 

City of David. A name given to 
Jerusalem by King David, who 
wrested it from the Canaanites, b. c. 

City of Destruction. In Bunyan's 
" PilgTim's Progress," the imaginary 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




city, typifying the world, from which 
Christian started on his pilgrimage 
to the Celestial City. 

City of Elms. A familiar d^omi- 
nation of New Haven, Connecticut, 
many of the streets of which are 
thickly shaded with lofly elms. 

When happier days shall return, and the 
South, awakening from her suicidal delusion, 
shall remember who it was that sowed her 
gunny fields with the seeds of those golden 
crops with which she thinks to rule the world, 
she will cast a veil of oblivion over the mem- 
ory of the ambitious men who have goaded 
her to her present madness, and will rear a 
monument of her gratitude in the beautiful 
City of Elins, over the ashes of her greatest 
benefactor, — Eli Whitney. 

Edward Everett (1861). 

City of Enchantineiits. A magical 
cit}" described in the story of Beder, 
Prince of Persia, in the " Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments." 

City of God. The subject and title 
of St. Augustine's celebrated work 
("De Civitate Dei"), written after 
the sack of Rome by Alaric, to an- 
swer the assertion of the pagans that 
the disasters to their country were a 
consequence of the desertion of the 
national deities by the Christians. 
The City of God comprehends the 
body of Christian believers, in dis- 
tinction from the City of the World, 
which comprises those who do not 
belong to the Church. The work 
treats of both cities, but it takes its 
name from the former only. 

The City of the "World, whose origin and 
vicissitudes Augustine had traced, appeared 
to him under very diirmal aspects, and it was 
toward the City of God, of which he was also 
the Catholic Homer, that all his hopes were 
turned. Poujotdat, Trans. 

City of Lanterns. An imaginary 
cloud - city spoken of in the " Verse 
Historiae " of Lucian, a romance writ- 
ten with a satirical purpose. The 
voyagers, whose adventures are the 
subject of the work, sail through the 
Pillars of Hercules, and aCre wrecked 
upon an enchanted island. They 
next travel through the Zodiac, an^ 
arrive at the City of Lanterns. Af- 
ter further adventures, the voyage 
terminates at the Islands of the Blest. 
Rabelais probably borrowed his con- 
ception of the Island of Lanterns (see 
Island of Lanterns) from this 

IBar* For thQ " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 

source, which also undoubtedly fur- 
nished hints to Le Sage and to Swift. 

City of Magnificent Distances. A 
popular designation given to the city 
of Washington, the capital of the 
United States, which is laid out on 
a very large scale, being intended to 
cover a space of four miles and a half 
long„ and two miles and a half broad, 
or eleven square miles. The entire 
site is traversed by two sets of streets 
from 70 to 100 feet wide, at right 
angles to one another, the whole 
again intersected obliquely by fifteen 

• avenues from 130 to IGO feet wide. 

City of Masts. A name often be- 
stowed upon London, in allusion to 
the magnitude of its commerce. 

City of Notions. In the Uiiited 
States, a popular name for the city of 
Boston, Massachusetts, the metropo- 
lis of Yankeedom. 

City of Palaces. 1. An appellation 
frequently given to Calcutta, the cap- 
ital of British India. The southern ' 
portion of the city comprises the 
principal European residences, many 
of which are very elegant and even 
palatial edifices. 

j8@=- The City o&Palaces really deserves 
that appellation. Nothing can be more 
imposing than the splendid houses of 
Chowringhee, viewed from the Course, 
which is a broad c^irriage-road on the es- 
planade of Fort William, adjoining the 
race-course, from which, I presume, it 
derives its name. Blackwood^s Mag. 

2. A title sometimes given to Ed- 
inburgh, but with no great propriety. 

City of Peace. A name sometimes 
given to Jerusalem, which was an- 
ciently called Salenij a word mean- 
ing "peace." 

City of Rocks. A descriptive name 
popularly given, in the United States, 
to the city of Nashville, Tennessee. 

City of Spindles. A name popularly 
given to the city of Lowell, Massa- 
chusetts, the largest cotton-manufac- 
turing town in the United States. 

City of the Great King. A name 
sometimes given to Jerusalem, Which 
is so called in Psalm xlviii. 2, and in 
Matt. V. 35. 




City of the Prophet. [Arab. Medi- 
nat al NiibiS\ A name given to 
Medina, in Arabia, because here Ma- 
homet was protected when he fled 
from Mecca, July 16, 622, — a flight 
known in history as the Ilegira^ and 
forming an important epoch in chro- 

City of the Straits. A name popu- 
larly given to Detroit, which is situ»- 
ated on the west bank of the river or 
strait connecting Lake St. Clair with 
Lake Erie. Detroit is a French word, 
meaning " strait." 

City of the Sun- 1. A translation 
of Banlbec, or Balbec, a ruined town 
of Syria, once of great size, magnifi- 
cence, and importance. Its. Greek 
name, Ildiopolis^ has the same signif- 

2. [Lat. Civit^is Soils, Fr. Cite du 
SoleiL] A city placed by Thomas 
Campanella (1568-1639) in the ideal 
republic which he constructed after 
the manner of Plato, and in which 
he depicts a perfect society organized 
somewhat like a convent, and estab- 
hshed upon the principles of a theo- 
cratic communism. 

City of the Tribes. A name given 
to Galway, in Ireland, as having been 
^ the residence of thirteen " tribes," or 
chief families, who settled Jier6 about 
the year 1235, and whose names 
were Burke, Blake, Budkin, Martin, 
Athy, Browne, D'Arc}^ Joyce, Kir- 
wan, Lynch, Morris, Ffont, Skerrett. 

City of the Violated Treaty. A 
name given to the city of Limerick, 
in Ireland, on account of the repeat- 
ed violations of a treaty signed Oct. 
1691, the first article of which was, 
that the Roman Catholics should €n- 
• joy such privileges in the exercise of 
their religion as they enjoyed in the 
reign of Charles II. 

4®* " Years of unjust and vindictive 
penal laws, which are now, happily, 
swept away, show that this name was 
well founded." Knight. 

City of the Violet Crown. A desig- 
nation sometimes given to Athens. 
The ancient Greeks were accustomed 
to wear garlands of fiowers at their 
festive entertainments ; and the violet 

{Gr. tor) ^as the favorite flower of 
the Athenians. It thus became the 
symbol of the city, to which, as well 
as to its inhabitants, the epithet ^c- 
<rTe<|)a>/o?, violet-crowned, is ajrplied by 
the poets. In the opinion of some, 
the name involves a punning allu- 
sion to the fact that Athens was the 
chief city in Europe of the Icnism 

He [Pitt] loved Erieland as an Athenian 
loved the City of the Violet Otovon. 


City of the West. * A name gener- 
ally given in Scotland to Glasgow, 
the largest city, and the manufac- 
turing and commercial metropolis, of 
the kingdom. It is situated on the 
Clyde, the principal river on the 
west coast, and far surpassing, in 
navigable importance, all the other 
Scottish rivers. 

City of Victory. Cairo, the capital 
city of Egypt; — sometimes so called 
with reference to the signification of 
its Arabic nmne, El Kahira, or " The 

Clarchen (klef'ken). A female char- 
acter in Goethe's "Egmont;" cele- 
brated for her constancy and devotion. 

ClSr'Ice (It pron. klS-re'chee). "Wife 
of Rinaldo, and sister of Huon of 
Bordeaux, frequently mentioned in 
th« romances and romantic poems of 
France and Italy. 

Clarissa. See Harlo%ve, Clarissa. 

Clau'di-o. 1. A young gentleman in 
love with Juliet, m Shakespeare's 
" Measure for Measure." 

2. A young lord of Florence, in 
Shakespeare's "Much Ado about 

Clau'di-us. A usurping king of Den- 
mark, in Shakespeare's " Hamlet." 

But Tom Tusher, to take the place of the 
noble Castlewood —faugh ! 't was as monstrous 
as Kin* Hamlet's widow taking off her weeds 
for Claudius. Thackeray, 

Claus, Peter. See Klaus, Peter. 

Claus, Santa. See St. Nicholas. 

Clav'er-house (klav'er-us). The 
name under which the unrelenting 
Jacobite partisan and persecutor, 
John Graham, Viscount Dundee (d. 
1689), eldest son of Sir William Gra- 
ham, of Claverhouse, was generally 

ftiid ^r the Bttiuarks «Bd Bulea to whicli the a«mbci« after certaia vrords refer, see pp. xiv-^uucii. 




known in the time of James II., and 
is still known in history. 

Clavileno, Aligero (klt-ve-lan'yo t- 
le-ha^ro, 58, 62). [Sp., wooden-pin 
wing-bearer.] A celebrated steed 
which enabled Don Quixote and his 
faithful squire to achieve the deliver- 
ance of the Dolorida Dueiia and her 
companions in misfortune trom their 

C16ante (kla^ont', 62). 1. A charac- 
ter in Moliere's celebrated comedy, 
" Le Tartuffe," distinguished for his 
sound and genuine piety. 

2. A* character in the " Malade 
Imaginaire " of the same author. 

Clean the Causeway Kiot. (Scot. 
Hist. ) The name popularly given to 
a skirmish or encounter in Edin- 
burgh, in the year 1515, between the 
rival factions of the Earl of Angus — 
chief of the Douglases — and the 
Earl of Arran — the head of the 
gi*eat family of the Hamiltons. In 
this contest, the partisans of Angus 
were worsted, and fled from the city 
in great confusion, being, as it were, 
swept from the streets. 

Cleishbotham, Jedediah (kleesh^- 
both-Sm ). An imaginary editor of the 
" Tales of My Landlord," written by 
Sir Walter Scott, but represented as 
the composition of a certain Mr. Pe- 
ter Pattieson, assistant teacher at 
Gandercleuch. See Pattieson. 

Richter tried all Leipsic with his MS. in 
vain; to a man, with that total contempt of 
grammar which Jedediah Ckislibotham also 
complains of, they " declined the article." 


C161ie (kia^le'). A principal charac- 
ter in a romance — " Cl^lie, Histoire 
Romaine" — written by Mme. Scu- 
dery, though the first volumes were 
originally published under the name 
of her brother, George de Scudery. 
The action of the story is placed in 
the early ages of Roman history, and 
the heroine is that Cloelia who es- 
caped from the power of Porsena by 
swimming across the Tiber. 

High-flown compliments, profound bows, 
sighs, and ogles, in the manner of the Cl^lie 
romance^. Thackeray. 

Clem/en-ti'n&, The Iiady. An ami- 
able, beautiful, and accomplished 
woman, deeply in love with Sir 

Charles Grandison, in Richardson's 
novel of this name. Sir Charles fi- 
nally marries Harriet Byron, though 
he is represented as having little or 
no partiality for her. 

I shall be no Lady Clementina, to be the 
wonder and pity of the spring of St. Ronan's, 
— no Ophelia, neither, — though I will say 
with her, " Good-night, ladies ; good-night, 
sweet ladies I " ^r W. Scott. 

Cleofas. See Don Cleofas. 

Cle-oin'bro-tus. [Gr. KAeo/a/SpoTo?.] 
An Academic philoeopher of Ambra- 
cia, who is said to have been so en- 
raptured by the perusal of Plato's * 
"Phadon" that he threw himself 
down from a high wall, or, according 
to some accounts, jumped into the 
sea, in order to exchange this life for 
a better. 

Others came single; ... he who, to enjoy 
Plato's Elysium, leaped into the sea, 
Cleombrotus; and many more too long. 


ClirfSrd, Paul. The title of a novel 
by Sir Edward Lytton Bulwer (now 
Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton), and the * 
name of its hero, a romantic high- 
wayman, familiar with the haunts of 
low vice and dissipation, but after- 
ward reformed and elevated by the 
power of love. 

Clim of the Clough. [That is, Clem- 
ent of the Glen.] A north-country 
archer, celebrated in the legendary 
literature of England. 

Clinker, Humphry. The hero of 
Smollett's novel entitled, " The Ex- 
pedition of Humphry Clinker." He 
is introduced as a destitute and shab- 
by fellow, who had been brought up 
in the work-house, put out by the par- 
ish as apprentice to a blacksmith, and 
afterward employed as an hostler's 
assistant and extra postilion. Hav- 
ing been dismissed from the stable, 
and reduced to great want, he at 
length attracts the notice of Mr. 
Bramble, who takes him into his 
family as a servant- He becomes 
the accepted lover of Winifred Jen- 
kins, and at length turns out to be a 
natural son of Mr. Bramble. 

j8@= "Humphry Clinker" is, I do be- 
lieve, the most laughable story that has 
eyer been written since the goodly art of 
l!tovel-writing began. Thackeray. 

' For the *' Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Cli'o. [Gr. KXetw, the proclaimer.] 
{Gr, (f Rom. Myth.) 1. One of the 
nine Muses. She presided over his- 
tor}^, and was represented as bearing 
a half-opened roll of a book. 

2. A name formed from the four 
letters used by Addison as his^ signa- 
ture in the " Spectator." His most 
admired papers were marked by one 
or other of these letters, signed con- 
secutively. But it is not probable 
that he meant to adopt the name of 
one of the Muses. With greater 
likelihood, the letters are supposed to 
refer to the places where the essays 
were composed; namely, Chelsea, 
London, Islington, and the Office. 
The contrary opinion, however, has 
generally prevailed; and Addison 
was often called " Clio " bv his con- 
temporaries, as well as by later vrrit- 

When panting virtue her last efforts made, 
You brought your Clio to the virgin's aid. 


Cloacina. See Cluacina. 

Clo-an'thus. One of the companions 
of ^neas in his voyage to Italy, and 
the reputed ancestor of the Cluentii 
family at Rome. 

The strong Gyas and the strong Cloanthus 
are less distinguished by the poet than the 
strong Percival, the strong Jolin, Richard, 
and Wilfred Osbaldistones [characters in 
" Rob Roy "] were by outward appearance. 

Sir W. Scott. 

CloDli-$. See Clelie. 

Clootie, or Cloots. See Auld Cloo- 

Clorinda (klo-ren'di). The heroine 
of the infidel army in Tasso's epic 
poem, " Jerusalem Delivered." She 
IS an Amazon, and is represented as 
inspiring the most tender affection in 
others, especially in the Christian 
chief Tancred; yet she is herself 
susceptible of no passion but the love 
of military fame. See Sofronia. 

Clo'ten. A rejected lover of Imogen, 
in Shakespeare's play of "Cymbe- 
line; " a compound of the booby and 
the villain; an "irregulous devil." 

J|®* Miss Seward, in one of her letters, 
assures us, that, singular as the character 
of Cloten may appear, it is the exact pro- 
totype of a person whom she once knew. 
'' The unmeaning frown of the counte- 

nance ; the shuffling gait ; the burst of 
voice ; the bustling insignificance ; the 
fever-and-ague fits of valor ; the fro ward 
tetchiness ; the unprincipled malice ; 
and — what is 'most curious — those oc- 
casional gleams of good sense, amidst the 
floating clouds of folly which generally 
darkened and confused the man's brain, 
and which, in the character of Cloten, we 
are apt to impute to a violation of unity 
in character; but, in the sometime Cap- 
tain C n, I saw the portrait of Cloten 

was not out of nature." 

Justice mav even sometimes class him 
[Pope] with tnose moral assassins who wear, 
like Cloten., their dagger in their mouths. 

E.r. Whipple. 

Ca.otliier of England. See Jack 
OF Newbury. 

Clo'tho. [Gr. KA<o0w, spinster.] ( Gr, 
^ Rom. Myth.) One of the three 
Parcae, or Fates; the one who pre- 
sides over birth, and holds the distaff 
from which the thread of life is spun. 

Mean criminals go to the gallows for a 
purse cut ; and this chief criminal, guilty of a 
France cut, of a France slashed asunder with 
C/o^Ao-scissors and civil war, . . . he, such 
chief criminal, shall not even come to the 
bar ? Carlyle. 

Ca.oudeslie, "William of. See Wil- 
liam OF Cloudeslie. 

Clout, Col 'in. The subject of a scur- 
rilous satire by John Skelton (d. 
1529), but better known as a name 
applied by Spenser to himself in the 
" Faery Queen " and the " Shep- 
herd's Calendar." Colin Clout fig- 
ures also in Gay's " Pastorals." 

Clu^a-ci'na. [From Lat. cluere, to 
purify.] \Rom. Myth.) A surname 
of Venus, who was so called "because, 
when the Romans and Sabines were 
reconciled, they purified themselves 
with sacred myrtle-branches, in the 
vicinity of a statue of the goddess, 
and afterward erected a temple there 
in honor of her. [Often written 
Cloacina, from a mistaken notion 
that she presided over the eloacce, or 

Club, The. 1. (Enff. lEst.) A knot 
of disappointed Whigs, of whom Sir 
James Montgomery, the Earl of An- 
nandale, and Lord Koss were the most 
conspicuous, foraied themselves, in 
Edinburgh, into a society, called " The 
Club," in William the Third's time. 
They were, according to Macaulay, 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers aftef certain words refer, sec pp. xiv-xxxii. 



dishonest malcontents, whose object 
was merely to annoy the govern- 
ment and get places. They formed 
a coalition with the Jacobites ; gave 
great trouble to William and Mary; 
and broke up in disgrace, the chiefs 
betraying each other. 

2. Under the name of " The 
Club," — at Garrick's ftmeral, in 
1779, entitled the " Literary Club," 
— flourished a celebrated association, 
proposed first by Sir Joshua Key- 
nolds, and acceded to by Dr. John- 
son ; of which the original members 
were Sir Joshua, Dr. Johnson, Mr. 
Edmund Burk«, Dr. Nugent, Mr. 
Beauclerk, Mr. Langton, Dr. Gold- 
smith, Mr. Chamier, and Sir John 
Hawkins. It has reckoned amongst 
its members some of the most distin- 
guished literary and scientific char- 

Clumsy, Sir Tun'bel-ly. A charac- 
ter in Vanbrugh's " Relapse." 

Clu'ri-caune. (Fairy Myfh.) A fa- 
mous Irish elf, of evil disposition, 
who usually appears as a wrinkled 
old man, and has a knowledge of 
hidden treasure. 

Clut'ter-buck, Captain Cuth'bert. 
A sort of pseudonym of Sir Walter 
Scott, it being the name of an imag- 
inary editor of his " Fortunes of Ni- 
gel," and of an equally imaginary 
patron to whom he dedicated his 

Clyt'em-nes'tr§. {Gt, KAvratM^rf- 
<rTpa.J (Or. ^ Rom. Myth.) The 
faithfess wife of Agamemnon, killed 
by her son Orestes for her crimes. 
See ^GisTiius, Orestes. 

Clyt'i-e(klish/l-e). [Gr. KAwWa.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Mytfi.) A water-nymph 
who fell in love with Apollo, or the 
Sun-god. Meeting with no recipro- 
cation of her passion, she became 
changed into a sunflower, and still 
keeps her face constantly turned 
towards him throughout his daily 

I will not have the mad Clytie, 
"Whose lioad is turned by the Bun ; 

The tulip is a courtly gitcan. 
Whom therefore I will shun. Hood. 

Coalition Ministry. (Enff. Hist.) 1. 
A designation given to the adminis- 

tration of Lord North and Mr. Charle* 
James Fox, as being an extraordi- 
nary political union of statesnien 
who had previously always displaj^ed 
a strong personal dislike toward each 
other. It was formed April 5, 1783, 
and dissolved Dec. 19, in the same 

J8^ "Not three quarters of a year had 
elapsed since Fox and Burke had threat- 
ened North with impeachment, and had 
described hihi, night after night, as tbe 
most arbitrary, the moi*t corrupt, the 
most incapable of ministers. They now 
allied themselves with him for the pur- 
pose of driving from oflBce a statesmaa 
[Shelburne] with whom they cannot be 
said to have differed as to any important 
question." Macaulat/. 

2. The same appellation was given 
to the "Broad Bottom Administra- 
tion" {q. v.), and to the Aberdeen 
Administration (formed Dec. 28, 1852, 
resigned Jan. 30, 1855). 

Cockade City. A title popularly 
given to the city oi Petersbuj-g, ia 
Virginia. , 

Co(*:agne (kok-^ri'), [Fr. (aho pays 
de cocaine); Old Fr.cocalgne, 
cniia, It. cncqgna, cuccagna^ cuf^ga- 
gna.y from IL ciicca, sweetmeats, dain- 
ties, Prov. Fr. couque, Catalan cocrr, 
cake, from Latin coquere, to cook, be- 
cause it was fancied that the houses 
in Cockagne were covered with 
cakes.] An imaginary countiy of 
idleness and luxury ; hence, in bur- 
lesque, London and its suburbs. It 
is the subject of a celebrated satirical 
poem of the same name, which War- 
ton holds to have been "evidently 
written soon after the Conquest," but 
which is probably not older than the 
year 1300. Boileau applies the name 
to the French capital. The mdt fie 
Cocagne (or greased pole) is one of 
the amusements of the Champs fely- 
sees, in Paris. The Neapolitans have 
a festival which they call Cocagna. 
In Germany, Hans Sachs has made 
the " Land of Cockagne " the sub- 
ject of a humorous poem under the 
name of Schlaraffenland. See Lun- 
liEULAND. [Written also C o c a i g n, 
Cockaigne, and anciently C o k- 

BS- For tlie •' Key to the Scheme of rronunciation," with the «Ccoinpanyiiig Explanation*, 




48®* " ' Cokaygne ' seems to hare been 
a sort of media3val Utopia. Perhaps the 
earliest specimeu of English poetry which 
we possess ... is the humorotis descrip- 
tion of it, beginning, — 

*Fur in see, by- west Spaj'gne, 
Is a lond ihote Cockaygne.' 
Wliatever may be the origin of the Wotd, 
it is evidently connected with the much- 
debated cockney, wliich probably implied 
an undue regard tor luxury and refine- 
ment in the persons to whom it was ap- 
plied — generally to Londoners as con- 
trasted with ' persons rusticall.' " 


Even the Grand Elector himself was liable 
to this fate of "absorption," as it was called, 
although he held his crown of Cockxngne in 
the commou case for life. Sir W. Scott. 

It was for the reader notthe El Dorado only, 
but a beatific land of Cockaigne (and paradise 
of Do-nothings), Carlyle. 

Cock-Lane Ghost. The name giv- 
en to the imagined cause of certain 
strange phenomena which took place 
in the year 1762 about the bed of a 
young girl by the name of Parsons, 
at house No. 33 Cock Lane, West 
Sniithfield, London, and were the 
cause of much excitement. The rec- 
tor of the parish, with " a number of 
gentlemen of rank and character," 
of whom Dr. Johnson was one, un- 
dertook to soh^e the mystery. Their 
examination satisfied them that the 
whole was an imposture originating 
in a malignant conspiracy, and the 
parents of the girl were condemned 
to the pillory and to imprisonment. 
The supposed presence of the ghost 
was indicated by certain mysterious 
scratchings and knockings produced 
on a .piece of board which the girl 
concealed about her person. Dr. 
Johnson wrote a statement of the 
affair, which was published in the 
" Gentleman's Magazine." See vol. 
xxxii., pp. 43 and 81. 

Cockney School. A name formerly 
given by some of the English critics 
to a literary coterie whose produc- 
tions were "said " to consist of the 
most incongruous ideas in the most 
uncoutli language." In this sect 
were included Leigh Hunt, Hazlitt, 
Shelley, Keats, and others; and the 
"Quarterly Review" (April, 1818) 
charged the first with aspiring to be 
. the '' hierophant " of it. 

^ 46g=* " While the whole critical world 
is occupied with balancing the merits, 
whether in theory or execution, of what 
is commonly called the Lalie School, it is 
strange that no one seems to think it at 
all necessary to say a single word about 
another new school of poetry which has 
of late sprung up among us. This school 
has not, I believe, as yet received any 
name; but, if I may be |)ermitted to 
have the honor of christening it, it may 
henceforth be referred to by the designa- 
tion of the Cockney School. Its chief 
Doctor and Professor is Mr. Ijeigh Hunt, 
a man certainly of some talents, of 
extraordinary pretensions both- in poe- 
try and politics, and withal of exqui- 
sitely lad taste • and exti-emely vulgar 
modes of thinking and manners in all 
respects. ... He is the ideal of a Cock- 
ney poet. He raves perpetually about 
' green fields,' ' jaunty streams,' and 
*o'erarching leafineFS,' exactly as a 
Cheapside 8hopk«'per does about the 
beauties of his box on the Camberwell 
Z. (i. e. J. G. Lockharl)^ in Blackwood's 
Mag., Oct. 1817. 

Cock of the Worth* A sobriquet 
given to the late and last Duke of 
Gordon (d. 1836). He is so called on 
a monument erected in his honor at 
Fochabers, in Aberdeenshire, Scot- 

Co'cl^, Ho-ra'ti-us. [Lat., Hora- 
tius the one-eyed.] A hero of the* 
old Koman lays, who defended a 
bridge against the whole Etruscan 
army under Porsena, initil his coun- 
trymen had broken down the end of 
it which was behind him, when he 
plunged into the stream, and swam, 
amid the arrows of the enemy, to a 
place of safety. , 

Co-cy'tus. [Gr. Kwkvto?, lamenta- 
tion.] {Gr. cf Rom. Myth.) ,One of 
the rivers that washed the shores of 
hell, and prevented imprisoned souls 
from returning to earth. It was a 
branch of the Styx. 

CoCit/tus, named of lamentations lond 
Heard on the rueful stream. Milton. 

Cceleb§. [Lat., a bachelor.] The 
hero of a novel bv Hannah More 
(1744-1833), entitled " Coelebs in 
Search of a Wife." 

Ready command of money, he feels, will be 
extremely desirable in a wife, — desirable and 
almost indispensable in present istraitcned 

«nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 





circumstances. These are the notions of this 
ill-situated C(clebs. Carlyle. 

Coe'lus. {Rom. Mytfi.) Son of JEther 
(air) and Dies (day), and one of the 
most ancient of the gods ; the same 
as Uranus. See Ukanus. 

Coeur de Lion (kur de li'on; Fr. 
pron. kor du le^o"', 47, 62). [Fr., lion- 
hearted.] A surname given to Rich- 
ard I. of England, on account of his 
dauntless courage, about a. d. 1192. 
This surname was also conferred on 
Louis VIIL of France, who signal- 
ized himself in the Crusades and in 
his wars against England, about 1223, 
and on Boleslas I., king of Poland. 

Coffin, Tom. See Long Tom Cof-' 


Co'i-la. A Latin or Latinized name 
of Kyle, a district of Scotland, 
county of Ayr, celebrated in the 
lyric poetrv of Burns. According to 
tradition, ft is derived from Coilus^a 
Pictish monarch. Bums also uses 
the name as a poetical synonym for 

Farewell, old Coila's hills and dales, 
Her heathy moors, and winding vales. 


Colada {Sp.pron. ko-la'tha, 56). The 
name of one of the Cid's two swords, 
which were of dazzling brightness, 
and had hilts of solid gold. 

Cold'brand. A Danish giant van- 
quished and slain in an encounter 
with Guy of Warwick. See Guy, 
Sir, Earl of Warwick. [Writ- 
ten also Colbran, Colbrand.] 

" It is false I " said Gregory; 
Dane was a dwarf to him." 

' Colbrand the 
Sir W. Scott. 

* Coldstream, Sir Charles. The name 
of a character in Charles Mathews's 
play 'entitled "Used Up;" distin- 
guished for his utter ennui, his men- 
tal inanity, and his apparent physical 

Colin Tampon (ko'lan' to^'pon', 62). 
A reproachful sobriquet said to have 
been anciently given to the Swiss, 
and to represent the sound of their 

Col-lean', May. The heroine of a 
Scottish ballad, which relates how a 
" fause Sir John " carried her to a 
rock by the sea for the purpose of 

drowning her, and how she outwitted 
him, and subjected him to the same 
fate he had intended for her. 

Colloquy of Poissy (pw6/se'). [Fr. 
Colbque de Poissy.] {Fr. Hist.) The 
name commonly given to a national 
synod of Catholics and Calvinistsheld 
at Poissy, in 1561, to settle the relig- 
ious controversies by which France 
was then agitated. The conference, 
however, was mutually unsatisfactory, 
and was brought to a premature con- 
clusion. Both parties became more 
embittered against each other than 
ever, and the desolating wars of 
religion soon followed. 

Cologne, The Three Kings of. 
A name given to the three magi 
who visited the infant Saviour, and 
whose bodies are said to have been 
brought by the Empress Helena 
from the East to Constantinople, 
whence they were transferred to Mi- 
lan. Afterward, in 1164,. on Milan 
being taken by the Emperor Fred- 
erick, they were presented by him 
to the Archbishop of Cologne, who 
placed them in the principal church 
of the city, where, says Cressy, 
" they are fo this day celebrated with 
great veneration." Their names are 
commonly said to be Jaspar, Mel- 
chior, and Balthazar; but one tradi- 
tion gives them as Apellius, Amerus, 
Damascus; another as Magalath, 
Galgalath, Sarasin; and still another 
as Ator, Sator, Peratoras. See Magi, 
The Three. 

Colonel Caustic. See Caustic, 

Cd-lum^bi-^. A name often given to 
the New World, from a feeling of po- 
etic justice to its discoverer. The 
application of the term is usually re- 
stricted to the United States. It has 
not been found in any writer before 
Dr. Timothy DAvight (1752-1818); 
and it probably originated with him. 
He wrote a song, formerly very pop- 
ular, which began, — 

" Columhia, Columbia, to plory arise. 
The queen of the world and the child of the 

JOGS' The ballad " Hail, Columbia, hap- 
py land," was written by Joseph Hop- 

li^ For the **Key to the Scheme of Fronundation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




kinson (1770-1842), for the benefit ^ an 
actor named Fox, and to an air entitled 
" The Preside ot's March," composed in 
1789, by a German named Teyles, on the 
occasion of Ceneral Washington's first 
visit to a theater iu New York. 

Col'um-btne. [It. Columbina^ pretty- 
little dove, — used as a diminutive 
term of endearment.] The name of 
a female mask in pantomimes, with 
whom Harlequin is represented as in 
love. Their marriage usually forms 
the denoument of the play. In the old 
Italian comedy, she appeared as a 
maid-servant, and a perfect coquette. 

Commander of the Faithful. [Ar. 
jEmir-al-Murnenin.] A title assumed 
b^ Omar I. (d. 644), and retained by 
his successors in the caliphate. 

Com.pany, John. A popular nick- 
name, among the native East-Indians, 
for the East India Company, the 
abstract idea involved in the name 
being above their comprehension. 
[Called also Mother Company.~\ 
I have gone to the leeward of John Company's 
favor. C. Jteade. 

Cp'mus. [From Gr. kw/xo?, a revel, 
from Kiafirjj a country town, whence 
also comedy.] {Myth.) In the later 
age of Rome, a god of festive joy 
and mirth. In* Milton's poem enti- 
tled " Coraus: a Masque," he is rep- 
resented as a base enchanter, who 
endeavors, but in vain, to beguile 
and entrap the innocent by means of 
his " brewed enchantments." 

Con-cor'di^§. ^Rom. Myth.) The 
goddess of concord, or harmony. 

Conqueror, The. A title given to 
William, Duke of Normandy, who, 
by the battle of Hastings, in 1066, 
became the sovereign of England. 

Talk of "coming over with the Conquer- 
or ! " The first Browns came over with Hen- 
gist and Horsa. Lower. 

Con'ride. A follower of John (bas- 
tard brother of Don Pedro, Prince of 
Arragon), in Shakespeare's "Much 
Ado about Nothing." 

Constable de Bourbon. [Fr. Con- 
netnble de Bourbon.] (Fr. Hist.) A 
name given to Charles, Due du 
Bourbonnais (1489-1527), a brilliant 
military leader, famous for his aus- 
tere morality and his misfortunes. 

Con'stang. A legendary king of 
Britain, celebrated in the old ro- 
mances of chivalry. He was the 
grandfather of Arthur. 

Consuelo (ko^/sii^a/lo', 34, 62). The 
heroine of George Sand's (Mnie. 
Dudevant's) novel of the same name, 
an impersonation of noble purity 
sustained amidst great temptaions. 

Consul Bib'u-lus. {Rom. Hist.) A 
colleague of Julius Caisar in the con- 
sulship in the year 59 b. c. He was 
a man of small ability and little* in- 
fluence. After an ineffectual attempt 
to oppose an agrarian law brought 
forward by Caesar, he shut himself up 
in his own house, and neither ap- 
peared in public nor took part in the 
affairs of state during the remainder 
of his consulship ; whence it was said 
in joke that it was the consulship of 
Julius and Caesar. The name of Bib- 
ulus is used proverbially to designate 
any person who fills a high office, 
and yet is a mere cipher in the con- 
duct of affairs. 

Continental System. {Fr. Hist.) 
The name given to a plan by which 
Napoleon I. endeavored to shut Eng- 
land out from all connection with the 
continent of Europe. See Berlin 
Decree, Decree of Fontaink- 
BLEAu, Milan Decree. 

Conversation Sharpe. A sobriquet 
bestowed upon Richard Sharpe, 
(1759-1835), well known by this 
name in London society. 

Conway Cabal. {Amer. Hist.) A 
name given to a faction organized in 
1777, for the purpose of placing Gen- 
eral Gates at the head of the Conti- 
nental army. 

C6-phet'u-$. An imaginary African 
king, of whom a legendary ballad 
told that he fell in love with the 
daughter of a beggar, and married 
her. The piece is extant in Percy's 
"Reliques," and is several times al- 
luded to by Shakespeare and others. 
A modernized version of the story is 
given by Tennyson in his poem en- 
titled " The Beggar Maid." 

Young Adam Cupid, he that shot so trim 
When King Cophetua loved the beggar-maid. 
• Shak. 

And for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xir-xxs^i. 




May not a monarch love a mnid of low de- 
gree ? Is not King Vopltaiua aud the beggar- 
maid a caee in point ? Sir W. Scott. 

How it would sound in song, that a great 
monarch had declined his aflSections upon the 
daughter of a beggai- 1 Yet, do we feel the 
imagination at all \iolated when we read the 
"true ballad" where King Conhetua wooes 
the beggar-maid ? Charles Lamb. 

Co'pi-$. {Rom. Myth.) The goddess 

of plenty. 
Copper Captain. Michael Perez, a 

celebrated character in Beaumont 

and Fletcher's comedy, " liule a Wife 

aiid Have a Wife." 

To this Copper Captain [General Vaa Pof- 
fenburgh], therefore, was confided the com- 
mand of the troops jlestined to protect the 
southern frontier. W. Irving. 

Gop'per-field, David. The hero of 
Dickens's novel of the same name. 

Copperlieads. A popular nickname 
originating in the time of the great 
civil \\'ur in the United States, and 

* applied to a faction in the North, 
which was very generally considered 
to be in secret sympathy with the Re- 
bellion, and to give it aid and com- 
fort by attempting to thwart the 
measures of the government. The 
name is derived from a poisonous 
serpent called the copperhead ( THg- 
onocephalus contoi-tnx), whose bite is 
considered as deadly as that of the 
rattlesnake, and whose geographical 
range extends from 45** N. to Florida. 
The copperhead, unlike the rattle- 
snake, gives no warning of its attack, 
and is, therefore, the type of a con- 
cealed foe. 

Cordelia. The youngest and favot- 
ite daughter of tear, m Shakespeare's 
tragedy of this name. See Lear. 

Cordiere, La Belle. See Eope- 
MAKER, The Beautiful. 

Oor-flam'bo. [That is, heart of flame.] 
A character in Spenser's " Faery 
Queen," representing sensual pas- 
sion. See TiMiAs. 

Oorinne (ko^ren'). The heroine of 
Mme. de Stael's novel of the same 
name, a young maiden whose lover 
proves false, and who, in consequence, 
lives miserably a few years, and then 
closes her eyes for ever on a world 
grown dark and solitary. 

CoMnoran, Giant. See Giant 

Com-cracfcer, The. A popular nick- 
name or designation for the State of 
Kentucky. The inhabitants of the 
State are^ten called Com-cracken. 

Corn-law Rhynier, The. Ebenezer 
Elliott, an English writer ( 1 781-1849), 
who, in a volume of poems entitled 
"Corn-law Rhymes," set forth the 
mischief which he believed the corn 
laws were actually producing, and 
the greater dangers which they were 
threatening. These rhyming philip- 
pics materially assisted' in producing 
that revolt of the manufacturing pop- 
ulation of the British islands against 
the corn laws which led to their final ' 
abolition in 1846. 

Is not the Corn-Low Rhymer &\reviAy a king, 
thouffh a belligerent one, — king of nis own 
mind and faculty? and what man in the long 
run is king of more? Carlyle. 

Corn'w4ll, Bar'r^^. An imperfectly 
anagra'mmatic nom de plume adopted 
by Bryan Waller Procter, a distin- 
guished English poet of the present 

Co-ro'nis. [Gr. Kopwm.] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A daughter of Phoroneus, 
king of Phocis. She was metamor- 
phosed by Minerva into a crow, 
having implored her protection on 
one occasion when pursued by Nep- 

Corporal, The Ijittle. See Little 

Corporal Wym. See Nym, Cor- 

Corporal Trim. See Trim, Cor- 

Corporal Violet. See Violet, Cor- 

Corrector, Alexander the. A name 
assumed by Alexander Cruden (1701* 
1770), the author of the well-known 
"Concordance to the Bible," who 
found employment for some j'^eare as 
corrector of the press, in London. 
He believed himself divinely com- 
missioned to reform the manners of 
the world, and petitioned Parliament 
to constitute him by act the " Cor- 
rector of the People," hoping by this 

■ For the **K«y to the Scjieme <^ Pronun^tlon," with t^e acoompauying fizplanationa, 




means to influence the people more 
■ effectually. 

It appears to him that the Beeming modesty 
connected with the former mode of writing 
fin the third person] is overbalanced by 
tlie inconvenience of stiffness and atFecta- 
tion which attends it during a narrative of 

some length, and which may be observed in 
every work in which the third person is used, 
from the " Commentaries " of^ Caesar to the 

"Autobiography oi' Alexander the Corrector. ' 
Sir W. Scott. 

Oorrouge (kor-roojO- The sword 
of Sir Otuel; — so called in the ro- 
mances of chivalry. 

Corsica Paoli (pa^o-lee). A name 
popularly given to Pascjuale de Paoli 
(1726-1807), a native ot Corsica, and 
leader in the war which his country- 
men made against Genoa, and subse- 
quently against France, in the effort 
to gain their independence. After 
the conquest of the island by the 
French, he took refuge in England, 
where he was received with much 

. respect, and passed many years in 
honorable friendship with Burke, 
Johnson, and other distinguished 
men of the time. 

Cortana. See Curtana* 

C6r/y-ban't$§. [Gr. Kopvpavre^.] 
Priests of Cybele whose religious 
services consisted in noisy music and 
wild armed dances. 

06r'y-don. J^ shepherd in one of the 
Idyls of Theocritus, and one of tlie 
Eclogues of Virgil; — hence used to 
designate any rustic, more especially 
a rustic swain. 

To obtain speech of him, I must have run 
the risk of alarming the suspicicwis of Doroas, 
If not of her yet more stupid Corydon. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Hardly a shiftless Corydon fails in walks of 
art that demand the loftiest endowments of the 
miT)d, — and what crowds of such there are 
every yearl — that he or his friends do not 
parade him as another example of melancholy 
shipwreck, as if he deserved, or could fairly 
have anticipated, any other end. 

Putnam's Mag. 

Coryph^us of Grammarians. [Gr. 

6 Koavftalo^ rCav ypa/u./maTi/ctbi'.] An 

appellation given to Aristarchus, a 
native of Samothrace, the most cele- 
brated grammarian and critic in all 
antiquity. His life was devoted to 
the correction of the text of the an- 
cient poets of Greece, — Homer, -^s- 
chylus, Sophocles, &c. 

Oos'tard. A clown, in Shakespeare's 
" Love's Labor 's Lost/' who apes the 
display of wit, point, and sententious 
observation affected by the courtiers 
of Queen Elizabeth's time, and who 
misapplies, in the most ridiculous 
manner, the phrases and modes of 
combination in argument that were 
then in vogue. 

Co-tyt'to. [Gr. Korvtrui.] {Gr, ^ 
Rom. Myth. ) The goddess of licen- 
tiousness, originally worshiped in 
Thrace, later in Athens also. Her 
rites were celebrated with great inde- 
cency in private and at midnight. 

Dark-veiled Coiv^to/ to whom the secret flame 
Of midnight torches bums. Milton. 

Countary Parson. A pseudonym, or 
rather a sobriquet, of the Rev. A. K. 
H. Boyd, a popular English essayist 
of the present time. . 

Courtney Melmoth. See Melmoth, 


Cousin Michael. [Ger. Vetter Mi- 
chel.^ A sportive and disparaging 
designation of the German people, 
intended to indicate the weaknesses 
and follies of the national character, 
and especially the proverbial nation- 
al slowness, heaviness, and credulity. 
In Germany, the name Michel is 
often used as a contemptuous desig- 
nation of any simple, coarse rustic, 
and has probably acquired this sig- 
nitication through a mingling of the 
Hebrew with the Old German michel, 

Coventry, Peeping Tom of. Sec 
Peeping Tom of Coventry. 

Gov'er-lejf-, Sir Roger de. The 
name of one of the membcrS of the 
imaginary club under whose direc- 

. tion the "Spectator " was professedly 
edited ; a genuine English gentleman 
of the time of Queen Anne. 

ig®"* " The characters of the club, not 
only in the ' Tatler,' but in the ' SPcta- 
tor,' were drawn by Steele. Tliat of Sir 
Roger de Coverley is among the number, 
Addison has, however, gained himself 
immortal honor by his manner of filling 
up this last character. Who is there that 
can forget, or be insensible to, the inimi- 
table, nameless graces, and various traits 
of nature and of old English character 
in it, — to his unpretending virtues and 

and for the Remturks and Hales to which the numbers after certain words refer^see pp.xiv-xxxii. 




amiable weaknesses, — to his modesty, 
generosity, hospitality, and eccentric 
whims, — to the respect of his neighbors 
and the aflfection of his domestics, — to 
his wayward, hopeless, secret passion for 
his fair enemy, the widow, in which there 
is more of real romance and true delicacy 
than in a, thousand tales of knight-er-. 
ran try, (we perceive the hectic flush of 
his cheek, the faltering of his tongue in 
speaking of her bewitching airs and the 
' whiteness of her hand,') — to the havoc 
he makes among the game in his neigh- 
borhood, — to his speech from the bench, 
to show the ' Spectator ' what is thought 
of him in the country, — to his unwill- 
ingness to be put up as a sign-post, and 
his having his own Ukeness turned into 
the Saracen's head. — to his gentle re- 
proof of the baggage of a gypsy that tells 
him * he has a widow in his line of life,' — 
to his doubts as to the existence of witch- 
craft, and protection of reputed witches, 
— to his account of the family pictures, 
and his choice of a chaplain, — to his fall- 
ing asleep at church, and his reproof of 
John Williams, as soon as he recovered 
from his nap, for talking in sermon- 
time ? " Hazlitt. 

j6@=- " What would Sir Roger de Cover- 
ley be without his follies and his charm- 
ing little brain-cracks ? If the good knight 
did not call out to the people sleeping in 
church, and say ' Amen ' with such a 
delightful pomposity ; if he did not make 
a speech in the assize court apropos des 
bottes, and merely to show his dignity to 
Mr. Spectator ; if he did not mistake 
Madam Doll Tearsheet for a lady of quality 
in Temple Garden ; if he were wiser than 
he is ; if he hq,d not his humor to salt 
his life, and were but a mere English 
gentleman and game-preserver, — of what 
worth were he to us ? We love him for 
his vanities as much as his virtues. 
What is ridiculous is delightful in him ; 
we are so fond of him because we laugh 
at him so." Thackeray. 

The greatest risk which he seems to have 
incurred, in his military capacity, was one 
somewhat resembling the escape of Sir Roger 
de Coverlei/s ancestor at Worcester, who was 
paved froni the slaughter of that action by 
having been absent from the field. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Coviello (ko-ve-eMo, 102), A Cala- 
brian clown who figures in-the " corn- 
media delV arte,^^ or Italian popular 

Crabshaw, Timothy. The name of 
Sir Launcelot Greaves's squire, in 
Smollett's " Adventures " of that 
\ redoubted and quixotic knight. 

Crabtree. A character in Smollett's 
novel, " The Adventures of Peregrine 

Cradle of Liberty. A popular name 
given toFaneuil (fun^il) Hall, a large 
public edifice in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, celebrated as being the place 
where the orators of the Revolution 
roused the people to resistance to 
British oppression. 

Crane, Ichabod. The name of 
a credulous Yankee schoolmaster, 
whose adventures are related in the 
" Legend of Sleepy Hollow," in 
Irving's " Sketch-book." 

jB^ " The cognomen of Crane was not 
inapplicable to his person. He was tall, 
but exceedingly lank, with narrow shoul- • 
ders, long arms and legs, hands that dan- 
gled a mile out of his sleeves, feet that 
might have served for shovels, and his 
whole frame most loosely hung together. 
His head was small, and flat at top, with 
huge ears, large, green, glassy eyes, and 
a long, snipe nose, so that it looked like 
a weather-cock perched upon his spindle 
neck, to tell which way the wind blew. 
To see him striding along the profile of a 
hill on a windy day, with his clothes bag- 
ging and jfluttering about him, one might 
have mistaken him for the genius of fam- 
ine descending upon the earth, or some 
scarecrow eloped from a corn-field." 

W. Irving. 

Crapaud, Jean, or Johnny (zhon 
kr^/po', 62). [Sometimes incor- 
rectly written Crapeau.] A sport- 
ive designation of a Frenchman, or 
of the French nation collectively con- 
sidered. The following account has 
been given of the origin of t^is 
name : — 

J86g=» " When the French took the city 
of Aras from the Spaniards, under Louis 
XIV., after a long and most desperate 
siege, it was remembered that Nostrada- 
mus had said, — 

' Les anciens crapauds prendront Sara' 
(The ancient toads shall Sara take). 

This line was then applied to this event 
in a very roundabout manner. Sara is 
Aras backward. By the ancient toads 
were meant the French ; as that nation 
formerly had for its armorial bearings 
three of those odious reptiles instead of 
the three flowers-de-luce which it now 
bears." Seward'' s Anecdotes. 

>9^ In Elliott's " Ilorae Apocalyp- 
ticae" (vol. iv. p. 64, ed. 1847), maybe 

Tttgr" For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




found a very full presentation of the 
reasons for believing that three toads, 
or three frogs, were the old arms of 

Crayon, GrSorfrey, Esq. A pseu- 
donym under which Washington Ir- 
ving published "The Sketch-book." 

Crazy Poet. See Mad Poet. 

Creakle, Mr. A tyrannous school- 
master in Dickens's novel of " David 
Copperfield;" represented as bully- 
ing the little David's incipient man- 
liness out of him. 

Creole State. A name sometimes 
given to the State of Louisiana, in 
fv^hich the descendants of the original 
French and Spanish settlers consti- 
tute a large proportion of the popu- 

Crescent City. A popular name for 
the city of New Orleans, the older 
portion of which is built around the 
convex side of a bend of the Missis- 
sippi River. In the progress of its 
growth up-stream, however, the city 
has now so extended itself as to fill 
the hollow of a curve in the oppo- 
site direction, so that the river-front 
presents an outline resembling the 
character 5. 

Cres'si-da. The heroine of Shake- 
speare's play, " Troilusand Cressida," 
founded upon Chaucer's " Troilus 
and Cresseide ; " represented as beau- 
tiful, witty, and accomplished, but 

4^ *' It is well known that there is no 
trace of the particular story of ' Troilus 
and- Cressida ' among the ancients. I find 
not so much as the name Cressida once 
mentioned." Knight. 

Cre-u'sa. [Gr. KpeWo-a.] ( Gr. ^ Roin. 
Myth.) A daughter of Priam and 
Hecuba, and the wife of ^neas, who 
became by her the father of Ascanius. 
When iEneas made his escape from 
the flames of Troy, with his father 
Anchises and his son Ascanius, she 
followed him, but was unable to keep 
him in sight, and became lost in the 
streets of the city. 

80 when JEneas through the flames of Troy 
Bore his pale sire, and led his lovely boy ; 
With loitering step the fair Creusa stayed, 
And death involved her in eternal shade. 


CrSy'ton, Paul (-tn). A pseudonym 
of J. T. Trowbridge, a popular Ameri- 
can novelist of the present day. 

Crichton, The Admirable (kri'tn). 
James Crichton, a Scottish gentleman 
of the sixteenth century, who, at the 
early age of fourteen, took his degree 
of Master of Arts, and was considered 
a prodigy, not only in abilities, but 
in actuarattainments. [Written also 

The editor of the translation before us has 
collected some anecdotes, one of which is truly 
sin^lar, and calls to mind the marvelou's 
stones which are told of the Admirable Creigh- 
ton. Edin. Rev. 

tie [Keyserling] carried off all manner of 
college prizes, and was the Admirable Crich- 
totL of Konigsberg University and the gradu- 
ates there. Carlyle. 

Crisp. One of the names of Puck, or 
Robin Goodfellow. 

Cris'pin. 1. The patron of shoe-mak- 
ers, represented as such in the cere- 

1 monial processions of the craft. He is 
al»o worshiped as a saint and martyr 
by the Catholic church. About the 
middle of the third century, under the 
reign of Diocletian, Crispin, with his 
brother Crispian, accompanied St. 
Quentin when he preached the gospel 
in France. The two brothers settled 
at Soissons, and, while pursuing their 
mission, supported themselves by 
making shoes, until their martyr- 
dom, A. D. 287. 

2. The name of a valet in French 
comedy ; — popularly used to desig- 
nate a wag or jester. 

Cris'pin-Cat'i-line. A nickname . 
fastened by Mirabeau upon J)'Es- 
pr^m^nil, in ridicule of his conspira- 
cies. He seems to have thought the 
name of Catiline alone too respect- 
able, and therefore prefixed that of 
Crispin, which probably alludes to a 
comedy in one act, published in 1707 
by Le Sage, and called " Crispin the 
Rival of his Master." The story 
turns on the tricks of Crispin to gain 
the aflfections of his master's mistress. 

Note further our old Parlementary friend 
Crispin- Catiline d'Espremenil. Carlyle. 

Criss Kringle. See Kriss Kringle. 

Croaker. A character in Goldsmith's 

comedy, " The Good-natured Man; " 

Mxd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




intended as a caricature On men who 
are always Ulled with groundless 
and ludicrous apprehensions. 

The young traveler expected a burst of in- 
dignation; but whether, as Ct-oaker sayn, . . . 
our hero had exhausted himself in fretting 
away his misfortunes beforehand, so that he 
did not feel them when they actually arrived, 
or whether he found the company in which 
he was placed too congenial to lead him to re- 
pine at any thing which delayed his journey, 
It is certain that he submitted to his lot with 
much resignatioa. Sir W. Scott. 

Cro'cus. [Gr. KpoKO?.] { Gr. f ^o^' 
Myth.) A young man who was en- 
amored of the nymph Smilax, and 
was changed by the gods into a saf- 
fron-plant, because he loved without 
being loved again. 

Croe'sus. [Gr. Kpor<7-o?.] The last 
king of Lydia, and the richest man 
of his time. 

Crortan-gry» Chrys't^. A pseudo- 
nym of Sir Walter Scott ; the name of 
the imaginary editor of his " Chroni- 
cles of the Canongate*" 

Cro'nos. [Gr. K^oi^o?.] {Gr. Myth.) 
The youngest of the Titans ; iden- 
tified by the Romans with Saturn. 
See Saturn. 

Crow-de'ro (9). [From crowd^ an 
ancient kind of violin.] A fiddler 
who figures in Butler's " Hudibras." 

To confirm him in this favorable opinion, I 
be^n to execute such a complicated flourish 
as I thought must have turned Crowdero into 
a pillar or stone with envy and wonder. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Crdwe, Captain. A celebrated nauti- 
cal personage in Smollett's " Adven- 
tures of Sir Launcelot Greaves." 

jQ^ " Captain Crowe had commanded 
a merchant ship in the Mediterranean 
trade for many years, and saved some 
money by dint of frugality and traffic. 
He was an excellent seaman, — brave, ac- 
tive, ftiendly in his way, and scrupulously 
honest ; but as little acquainted with the 
world as a sucking child ; whimsical, im- 
patient, and so impetuous that he could 
not lielp breaking in upon the conversa- 
tion, whatever it might be,- with repeated 
interruptions, that seemed to burst from 
him by involuntary impulse. When he 
himself attempted to speak, he never 
finished his period, but made such a 
number of abrupt transitions that his 
discourse seemed to be an unconnected 
series of unfinished sentences, the mean- 

- ing of which it was not easy to decipher." 

Crowfleld, Christopher* A pseudo- 
nym of Mrs. HaiTiet Beecher Stowe. 

Crowquill, A. A pseudonym adoi)t- 
ed by Alfred Henry Forrester (b. 
1805), a popular English humorist 
of the present day. 

Crummies, Mr. (kriim'^lz). The ec- 
centric manager of a theatrical com- 
Eanv in Dickens's novel of " Nicho- 
ls l^ickleby." 

Cru'sde, Bob'in-son (-sn). The hero 
of De Foe's great novel; a ship- 
wrecked sailor who for many years 
leads a solitary existence on an unin- 
habited island of the tropics, and 
who alleviates his long reclusion by 
an inexhaustible prodigality of con- 

i6®=" De Foe founded this story upon 
the adventures of Alexander Selkirk (b. 
1676), a Scottish sailor who was left on 
the uninhabited island of Juan Fernandez 
in 1704, by his captain, one Straddling, 
to whom he had given some cause of of- 
fense. Here he resided for four years and 
four months, wheU he was rescued by 
Captain Woods Rogers, and taken to 
England. De Foe has often been charged 
with having surreptitiously taken the 
story of Crusoe from the papers of Selkirk, 
but he can have borrowed little beyond 
the mere idea of a man being left alone 

• on a desert isle, there being scarcely any 
thing common to the adventures of the 
real and the fictitious solitary. 

There are Robinson Cniaoes in the moral as 
well as physical world . . . ; men cast on 
desert islands of thought and speculation; 
without companionship; without worldly re- 
sources; forced to arm and clothe themselves 
out of the remains of sbipwrecked hopes, and 
to make a home for their solitary hearts in 
the nooks and comers of imagination and 
reading, Leigh Hunt. 

What man does not remcmher with regret 
the first time that he read Robinson Crusoe ? 

It soon became evident to me. that, like 
Robinson Crusoe with his boat, I had begun 
on too large a scale, and that, to launch my 
history successtVilly, I must reduce its pr*>i>or- 
tions. W. Irving. 

Crystal Hills. An old name for the 
White Mountains, in New Hamp- 
shire, sometimes used by modern 

We had passed 
The high source of the Saco; ana, bewildered 
In the dwarf spruce-belts of the Crystal Hills. 
Had heard above us, like a voice in the clotid, 
The horn of Fabyan sounding. Whittier. 

Cu'bit-op'o-lis. See Mesopotamia. 

USr For th« " K^ to the Scheme of Fronunciaticm," with the accompanying Explanations, 



Cuddie, Headrigg. See HEADRio<;t, 

Curfee, or Cuf fey. A familiar or 
contemptuous name applied to ne- 
groes. The word is said to be of 
African origin, and it has been borne 
as a surname. See Sambo. 

Africa alone, of all nations, — though Turkey 
has a leaning that way, — sets up fatness as a 
standard of oeauty. But Cuffej/ is not ac- 
knowledged by the rest of the world as the 
arbiter eXeyantiarum. PutnanVs Mag, 

Cunc-ta'tor. [Lat., the delayer.] A 
surname given to the illustrious Ro- 
man general, Quintus Fabius Maxi- 
mus Verrucosus (d. b. c. 203), on ac- 
count of his cautious but salutary 
measures in opposing the progress of 
Hannibal. He avoided all direct 
engagements, ta;ntalized the enemy 
with marches and counter-marches, 
"Watched his movements with unre- 
mitting vigilance, cut off iiis strag- 
flers and foragers, and compelled 
im to weary his allies by necessaiy 
^Bxactions, and to dishearten his sol- 
diers by fruitless maneuvers, while 
Rome gained by the delay, and as- 
sembled her forces in greater strength. 

If Wellin^on found it judicious to play th« 
Cunctator in Portugal and Spain, he would 
hardly have followed the Fabian tactics, if he 
had met the French in England. Szalmd. 

Oun6gonde, Mmle. (kii^n^/gond', 
34,62). The mistress of Candide in 
Voltaire's novel of this name. 

Bright goddess [the moon], if thou art Hot 
too busy with Candid and Miss Cumgund^ 
affairs, take Tristram Shandy's under thy pro- 
tection also. Stertie. 

Cu'pid. [Lat. Cupido.] {Gr, ^ Rom. 
Myth.) The son of Mars and Venus ; 
the god of love. He ivas the con- 
stant companion of his mother, and, 
armed with bow and arrows, he shot 
the darts of desii^ into the bosoms 
of both gods and men. He was rep- 
resented as a winged child or youth, 
and often with a bandage covering 
his ^.j^^- 

Ou'ran. A courtier, in Shakespeare's 
tragedy of "Lear." 

Curate of Meudon (mo'dftn', 43, 62).. 
[Fr. Le Cure de Meudon.'] A name 
by which Rabelais (1483-1553), the 
French satirist, is often referred to. 
He was, during the latter part of his 
life, the parish priest of Meudon. 

Gu'H-«'ti-t (9,23). Three Albanian 
brothers, who, according to an old 
Roman legend, fought, in the time 
of Tullus Hostilius, with three Ro- 
man brothers, the Horatii, and were 
conquered by the cunning and brav- 
ery of one of them. 

Cu'ri-o. A gentleman attending on 
the Duke of lllyria in Shakespeare's 
" Twelfth Night." 

Curious Impertinent, The. [Sp. 
El Curioso Jmper-tinente.] The title 
of a'* novel" or tale introduced by 
Cervantes into his " Don Quixote " 
by way of episode, and a designation 
of one of the characters in it, an 
Italian gentleman who is foolish 
enough to make trial of his wife's 
virtue — of which he is firmly con- 
vinced — by persuading a trusted 
friend to seem to lay siege to it. He 
suffers the deserved penalty of his 
impertinent curiosity in the treach- 
ery of his friend and the infidelity of 
his wife. 

Cur-ta'nS. [It., the shortener; — so 
called ftom its being used to cut off 
heads.] 1. The sword of Ogier the 

2. The sword of Edward the Con- 
fessor, which is borne before the 
kings of England at their coronation. 
It has a blunted edge as being em- 
blematical of mercy, and is carried 
between the swords of justfce tempo- 
ral and justice spiritual. 

Cur'ti-o (kur'shi-o). A servant to 
Petruchio, in Shakespeare's " Tam- 
ing of the Shrew." 

Cutpurse, Moll, or M^U. A pseudo- 
m^m of Mary Frith, a notorious char- 
acter frequently mentioned or allud- 
ed to hy the older English writers. 
She is the heroine of Middleton's 
comedy entitled " The Roaring Girl," 
and is introduced by Nat. Field, a 
contemporary dramatist, in his piece 
called " Amends for Ladies." 

Cuttle, Captain. A chai*&cter in 
Dickens's " Dombey and Son," com- 
bining great humor, eccentricity, and 
pathos. He is distinguished for his 
simplicity, credulity, and generous 
trustfulness. One of his famous ex- 

»nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain word), refer, sec pp. xiv-xxxii. 




pressions is, " When found, make a 
note of." 

Are there any of you, my readers, who have 
not read the " Life of Robert Uall " ? If so, in 
the words of the great Captain Cuttle^ " When 
found, make a note of it. Never mind what 
your theological opinion is, . . . send for 
Robert Hall. ^'tV E. Bulwer Lytton. 

Cyb'e-le. {Rom. Myth.) The daugh- 
ter of Coelus and Terra, and the wife 
of Saturn ; the same as the Rhea 
and Ops of the Greeks. She is rep- 
resented as wearing a mural crown, 
and riding in a chariot drawn -by 
lions, or seated on a throne with lions 
at her side. [Called also Bona Dea 
and Mother of the Gods.'\ 

Might she the wise Latona be. 
Or the towered Qfbele, 
Mother of a liundred gods? 
Juno dares not give her odds. Milton. 
She looks a sea-CV&efe, fresh from ocean, 

Rising with her tiara of jproitd towers, 
At airy distance, with majestic motion, 
A ruler of the waters and their powers. 

Byron (on Venice). 

Cy'clops. [Lat. Cychypes^ Gr. KvkAw- 
7r€9, the round-eyed.] ( Gr. <f Rom. 
Myth. ) A gigantic one-eyed race of 
men inhabiting the sea-coasts of Si- 
cily, sons of Coelus and Terra. Ac- 
cording to Hesiod, they were three in 
number, and their names were Arges, 
Steropes, and Brontes. Homer de- 
scribes them as wild, insolent, law- 
less shepherds, who devoured human 
beings. A later tradition represents 
them as Vulcan's assistants m fabri- 
cating the thunderbolts of Jupiter. 
See Polyphemus. 

Cyl-le'ni-us. [Gr. KvAA^vio?.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth. ) A surname of Mer- 
cury, derived from Mount Cyllene. in 
Arcadia, where he was bom. 

Cym'be-line, or (Tym'be-ltne. A 
legendary or mythical king of Brit- 
ain, and the hero of Shaikespeare's 
play of the same name. 

Cyn'o-sure. [Lat. Cynosura^ Gr. 
Kvvo(Tovpd.'\ {Gr. (f Rom. Myth.) An 
Idaean nymph, and one of the nurses 
of Jupiter, who placed her in the 
constellation Ursa Minor ^ as the pole- 

Towers and battlements it sees 
Bosomed high in tufted trees. 
Where perhaps some beauty lies. 
The Cynosure of neighboring eyes. 


Cyn'thi-S. [Gr. Kweia.'] j ( Gr. cf 
Cyn'thi-us. [Gr. Kvveio^.'\ ) R(mi. 
Myth.) Surnames respectively of Di- 
ana and Apollo, — hence applied to the 
sun and moon,^ — derived from Mount 
Cynthus, in the island of Delos. their 
birthplace. See Apollo, Diana. 

Even Cynthia looks haggard of an after- 
noon, as we may see her sometimes in the 

present winter season, with PhoDbus staring 
her out of countenance from the opposite side 
of the heavens. Thackeray- 

Cyp'a-ris'sus. [Gr. Kvwdpi<r<ro^.] {Gr. 
cf llom. Myth. ) A beautiful youth, 
beloved by Apollo, whose favorite 
stag he inadvertently killed, in con- 
sequence of which immoderate grief 
seized upon him, and he was meta- 
morphosed into a cypress. 

C^-re'ne. [Gr. Kvpriirq.] { Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A water-nymph, the mother 
ofAristaeus. Her residence under the 
Peneus, and the visit of her son to her, 
are described in a beautiful episode in 
the fourth book of Virgil's " Geor- 

C3t-the'ra. [Gr. K<iBr,pa.] UGr.f 

Cyth^e-re'S. [Gr. Kvdepeta.] j Rom. 
Myth. ) Different forms of a surname 
of Venus, derived from the town of 
Cythera, in Crete, or the isle of Cy- 
thera, where the goddess was said to 
have first landed, and where she had 
a celebrated temple, 

Violets dim, 
But sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes. 
Or Cytherea's breath. Snak. 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,'' with the accompanying Explanations, 





D88d'a-lus (17). [Gr. Aai'5aAo5.] {Gr. 
cf Rom. Myth,) A most ingenious 
artist of Athens, who formed the 
famous Cretan labyrinth, and who, 
by the help of wings which he con- 
structed, tied from Crete across the 
^gean Sea, to escape the resentment 
of Minos. He was thought to be the 
inventor of carpentry and of most of 
its tools, such as the saw, the ax, the 
gimlet, and the like. See Icarus. 

Da'gon. [A diminutive of the Heb. 
dag\ a fish.] ( Myth.) A Phoenician 
or Sj^rian divinity, who, according 
to the Bible, had richly adorned tem- 
ples in several of the Philistine cities. 
In profane history, the name by which 
he is known is Derceto. He is repre- 
sented as having the face and hands 
of a man and the tail of a fish ; and 
he seems to have been generally re- 
garded as a symbol of fertility and 
reproduction. See Judges xvi. 23 ; 1 
Sam. V. 4. 

Next came one 
Who mourned in earnest, when the captive 

Maimed his brute image, head and hands 

lopped off 
In his own temple, on the grunsel edge, 
Where he fell flat, and shamed his worship- 
Dagon his name; sea-monster, upward man 
And downward fish: yet had his temple high 
Reared in Azotus, dreaded through the coast 
Of Palestine, in Gath and Ascalon, , 
And Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds. 


Dag'o-net, Sir. The attendant fool 
of King Arthur. [Written also 

I was then Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show. 

iDal-gar'no, Xiord. A prominent 
character in 3ir Walter Scott's "For- 
tunes of Nigel; " a profligate young 
Scottish lord, thoroughly heartless 
and shameless, who carried " the 
craft of gray hairs under his curled 
love-locks." * 

Dal-get'ty, Kittmaster Du'gaid. 
A mercenary soldier of fortune in Sir 
Walter Scott's " Legend of Mont- 
rose," distinguished for his pedantry, 
conceit, cool intrepidity, vulgar as- 

surance, knowledge of the world, 
greediness, and a hundred other 
qualities, making him one of the 
most amusing, admirable, and nat- 
ural characters ever drawn by the 
hand of genius. 

i8®=* " The general idea of the charac- 
ter is familiar to our comic dramatists 
after the Restoration, and may be said iu 
some measure to be (oni pounded of Cap- 
tain Fluellen and Bobadil ; but the ludi- 
crous combination of the soldado with 
the divinity student of Mareschal College 
is entirely original.?' Jeffrey. 

Our second remark is of the circumstance 
that no Historian or Narrator, neither Schil- 
ler, Strada, Thuanus, Monroe, nor Dvgald 
Dalgetty, makes any mention of Ahasuer's 
havmg been present at the battle of J.iitzen. 

He [a hack author] lets out his pen to the 
highest bidder, as Captain Dalgetty let out his 
Bword. jK. I'. Whipple. 

Damis (da'me'). A character in 
Moliere's comedy of " Tartufle," dis- 
tinguished by his self-willed impetu- 

Dam'0-ClS§. [Gr. AaixoKXrig.] A 

courtier of the elder Dionysius, the 
tyrant of Syracuse. Having extolled 
the happiness caused by the posses- 
sion of wealth and power, Dionysius 
gave him a striking illustration of the 
real natureof such seeming happiness, 
by placing him at a table loaded with 
delicacies, and surrounded by all the 
insignia of royalty, but, in the midst 
of his magnificent banquet, Damo- 
cles, chancing to look upward, saw 
a sharp and naked sword suspended 
over his head by a single horse-hair. 
A sight so alarming instantly changed 
his views of the felicity of kings. 

Like Damocles at his celebrated banquet, 
Rebecca perpetually, beheld, amid the gor- 
geous display, the sword which was suspended 
over the heads of her people by a single hair. 
Sir W. Scott. 
On what 2)amoc?es- hairs must the judg-. 
ment-sword hang over this distracted earth. 

Da-mce'-tas. A herdsman in Theoc- 
ritus and Virgil; hence, any herds- 
man or rustic. 

Bough satyrs danced, and feuns with cloven 
, neel 

and for the Remarks a<td Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




From the glad sound would not be absent 

And old Damcetas loved to hear our song. 

Da'mSn. [Gr. AanAwj/.] 1. A noble 
Pythagorean of Syracuse, memorable 
for his friendship for Pythias, or 
Phintias, a member of the same sect. 
The latter, having been condemned 
to deatli by Dionysius I., the tyrant 
of Syracuse, begged leave to go home 
for tlie purpose of arranging his af- 
fairs, Damon piedging his own life 
for the return of his friend. Dio- 
nysius consented, and Pythias came 
back just in season to save Damon 
from death. Struck by so rare and 
noble an example of mutual friend- 
ship, the tyrant pardoned Pythias, 
and entreated to be admitted as a 
tkird into their sacred fellowship. 

2. A goat-herd in the third Eclogue 
of Virgil ; hence, any rustic or swain. 

Damsel of Brittany. A name given 
to Eleanora, daughter of Geoffrey, 
third son of Henry II. of England, 
and Duke of Brittany by marriage 
with Constance, the daughter and 
heiress of Duke Conan IV. 

4®=* Richard, the successor of Henry, 
d3'ing without issue, the English crown 
rigtitfully devolved upon Arthur, the son 
of Geoffrey ; but John, the brother of 
Richard, and the youngest of the sons of 
Henry, determined to secure it to him- 
self. He, therefore, managed to capture 
the young prince, his nephew, and con- 
signed him to close custody, first in the 
oast'e of Falaise, and afterward at Rouen, 
>vhere he is supposed to have murdered 
him by his own hand. Arthur being 
dead, the next in the order of succession 
was Eleanor, his sister. John, however, 
obtained possession of her person, carried 
her to England, and confined her in the 
castle of Bristol, in which prison she re- 
mained till her death, in 1241. 

Dan'i-e. [Gr. Aamrj.] ( Gr. ^ Mom. 
Mijth.) The daughter of Acrisius, 
and the mother of Perseus by Jupi- 
ter, vdio visited her in the form of a 
shower of gold when she was shut 
up in a tower by her fatiier. 

Da-na'i-dS§. [Lat.; Gr. Aoi/aiSe?.] 
{Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) The fifty 
daughters of Danaus, king of Argos, 
betrothed to the fifty sons of JEgyp- 
tus, all of whom they killed on the 

first night after marriage, in fulfill- 
ment of a promise exacted by Danaus, 
Lynceus alone excepted, who was 
spared by his wife Hypermnestra. 
Her guilty sisters were punished for 
their crime, in Hades, by being com- 
pelled everlastingly to draw water 
out of a deep well, and pour it into a 
vessel full of holes. 

Dandle Dinmont. See Dinmont, 

Dandin, George (zhorzh don'dan' 58, 
62, 64). The title of a comedy by Mo- 
liere, and the name of its hero, a 
wealthy French citizen, who has had 
the impudence to marry a sprig of 
quality, daughter of an old nobk 
called Monsieur de Sotenville, and 
his no less noble spouse, Madame de 
la Prudoterie, and who, in conse- 
quence, is exposed at once to the 
coquetry of a light-headed wife, and 
to the rigorous sway of her parents, 
who, called upon to intei'pose with 
their authority, place their daughter 
in the right, and the unhappy rotu- 
rier^ their son-in-law, in the wrong, 
on every appeal which is made to 
them. Falling, in consequence of 
this mesalliance, into many disagree^ 
able situations, he constantly ex- 
claims, " Tti I' as voulu, George Dan- 
din,'''' You would have it so,* George 
Dandin. The expression has hence 
become proverbial to denote self-in- 
flicted pain, and the name is common- 
ly applied to any silly, simple-minded 

If you have really been fool enough to fall 
in love there, and have a mind to play Cteorge 
Dandin^ I'll find you some money for the 
part. C. Eeade. 

Dandin, Perrin (p6f/ran' do^/dan', 
62.) 1. The name OT an ignorant rustic 
judge in liabelais, who heard causes 
sitting on the first trunk of a tree 
which he met, instead of seating him- 
self, like other judges, on the fleurs- 

2. The name of a ridiculous judge, 
in Racine's comedy,"" Les Plaideurs," 
and in La Fontaine's " Fables." 

Dangle. A prominent character in 
Sheridan's farce, " The Critic ; " one 
of those theatrical amateurs who be- 
siege a manager with impertinent 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accon^panying Explanations, 




flattery and gratuitous advice. He 
is said to have been intended for a 
Mr. Thomas Vaughan, author of 
" The Hotel," an indifferently suc- 
cessful play. 

Daniel, The Well-languaged. A 
name given by William Browne 
(1590-1645), in his " Britannia's 
Pastorals," to the English poet 
Samuel Daniel (1562-1619), whose 
writings are remarkable for their 
modern style and pervading purity 
of taste and grace of language. 

Daph'ne. [Gr. Ad^v-n.} ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A beautiful maiden beloved 
by Apollo, and metamorphosed into 
a laurel-tree while attempting to es- 
cape from him. 

Nay, lady, sit; if I but wave this wand. 
Your nerves are all chained up in alabaster, 
And you a statue, or, as Daphne was. 
Root-bound, that fled Apollo. Milton. 

Paph'nis. [Gr. Aa</)i'i?.] {Gr.^Rom. 
Myth.) A beautiful young Sicilian 
shepherd, a son of Mercury. He was 
the inventor of bucolic poetry, and a 
favorite of Pan and Apollo. 

Papper. A clerk in " The Alchemist," 
a play by Ben Jonson. 

This reminds us of the extreme doting at- 
tachment which the queen of the fairies is rep- 
resented, to have taken for Dapper. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Dapple. The name of Sancho's ass, 
in Cervantes's ,romance of "Don 

Dar'by and J5an. A married couple 
said to have lived, more than a cen- 
tury ago, in the village of Healaugh, 

I in the West Ridmg of Yorkshire, and 
celebrated for their long life and con- 
jugal felicity. They are the hero 
and heroine of a ballad called " The 

• Happy Old Couple," which has been 
attributed to Prior, but is of uncer- 
tain authorship. Timperley says that 

i Darby was a printer in Bartholomew 
Close, who died in 1730, and that 
the ballad was written by one of his 
apprentices by the name of Henry 

You might have sat, like Darby and Joan, 
and flattered each other; and billed and cooed 
like a pair of pigeons on a perch. Thackeray. 

Indeed now, if you would but condescend 
to forgive and forget, perhaps some day or 
other we may be jMirbyatidJoan,— only, yon 
Bee, just at this moment I am really not worthy 
of Kuch a Joan. Sir E. Bvlwer Lyt^ton. 

Dar'd|-nus. [Gr. AapSaro?.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom'. Myth.) The son of Jupiter and 
Electra of Arcadia, and ancestor of 
the royal race of Troy. 

Da'res (9). One of the competitors at 
the funeral games of Anchises in 
Sicily, described ui the fifth book of 
Virgil's " Jiineid." He was over- 
come at the combat of the cestus by 

A Trojan combat would be something new : 
Let Dare» beat Entellus black and blue. 


Dark and Bloody Ground, The. 

An expression often used in allusion 
to Kentucky, of which name it is 
said to be the translation. The 
phrase is an epitome of the early 
history of the State, of the dark and 
bloody conflicts of the lirst white 
settlers with their savage foes; but 
the name originated in the fact that 
this was the grand battle-ground 
between the northern and southern 

Dark Day, The. May 19, 1780; — 
so called on account of a remarkable 
darkness on that day extending over 
all New England. In some places, 
persons could not see to read common 
print in the open air for several hours 
together. Birds sang their evening 
song, disappeared, and became silent; 
fowls went to roost; cattle sought the 
barn-yard; and candles were lighted 
in the houses. The obscuration be- 
gan about ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and continued till the middle of 
the next nf^ht, but with dift'erences 
of degree and duration in different 
places. For several days previous, 
the wind had been variable, but 
chiefly from the south"vfest and the 
northeast. The true cause of this re- 
markable phenomenon is not known. 

David. See Jonathan. 

Da'vus. The name commonly given 
to slaves in Latin comedies. The 
proverb, "Z)arws sum, non Q^dipiis,'''' 
I am Davus, not (Edipus, (that is, a 
simple serv^ant, not a resolver of rid- 
dles,) occurs in Terence. 

Da'vy. Servant to Shallow, in. the 
• Second Part of Shakespeare's " King 
Henry IV." 

ind for the Remarks and Rulea tq which the numkerft after certain words refer, see pp. ziy-xxxii 

. DAV 



Old Gudyill associated himself with a party 
BO much to his taste, pretty much as Davy in 
the revels of his master, Justice Shallow. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Davy Jones. See Jones, Davy. 

DaT^r'son, Bully (-sn). A noted Lon- 
don sharper, swaggerer, and de- 
bauchee, especially in Blackfriars and 
its infamous purlieus. He lived in 
the seventeenth century, and was a 
contemporary of Rochester and Eth- 
erege. An allusion to him occurs in 
the " Spectator," No. 2. 

Tom Brown had a shrewder insight into 
this kind of character than either of his pred- 
ecessors. He divides the palm more equably, 
and allows his hero a sort of dimidiate pre- 
eminence: — " Bully Dawson kicked by half 
the town, and half the town kicked by Uully 
Dawson.'''' This was true retributive justice. 
Charles LamJ). 

When, in our cooler moments, we reflect on 
his [Homer's] Jove-protected warriors, his in- 
vulnerable Achilles, they dwindle into insig- 
nificance, and we are ready to exclaim, in the 
quaint language of another, " Bully Dawson 
would have fought the Devil with" such ad- 
vantages." Jones Very. 

Day of Barricades. [Fr. Journee des 
Barricades.] {Fr. Hist.) 1. May 
12, 1588, on which day the Duke of 
Guise entered Paris, when Henry HI., 
at his instigation, consented to take 
severe measures against the Hugue- 
nots, on the promise that the duke 
would assist him in purging Paris of 
strangers and obnoxious persons. No 
sooner, however, was an attempt 
made to carry out this plan, than the 
populace arose, erected 'barricades, 
and attacked the king's troops with 
irresistible fury. Henry III., having 
requested the Duke of feuise to put a 
stop to the conflict, fled from Paris, 
and the moment the duke showed 
himself to the people, they .pulled 
down the barricades. 

2. August 26, 1648 ; — so called on 
* account of a riot, instigated by the 
leaders of the Fronde, which took 
place m Paris on that day. 

Day of Corn-sacks. [Fr. Journee 
des Farines.] {Fr. Hist.) A name 
given to the 3d of January, 1591, 
from an attempt made by Henry IV. 
to surprise Paris on that day. ^ome 
of his officers, disguised as corn- 
dealers, with sacks on their shoul- 
ders, endeavored to get possession of 
the gate St. Honore ; but they were 

recognized, and obliged to make a 
hasty retreat. 
Day of Dupes, [Fr. Journee des 
Dupes.] {Fr. Hist.) 1. A name 
given to the 11th of November, 1630, 
in allusion to a celebrated imbroglio 
by which the opponents of the prime 
minister Richelieu — at the head of 
whom were Maria de' Medici and 
Anne of Austria — were completely 
worsted in an attempt to ettect his 
removal from office, and the power 
of the cardinal was established upon 
a firmer basis than ever. 

Richelieu himself could not have taken a 
gloomier view of things, when his levees were 
deserted, and his power seemed annihilated 
before the Day of Dupes. 

Sir E. Bulwer Lytton. 

2. August 4th, 1789; — so called 
on account of the renunciation by the 
nobles and clergy in the French 
National Convention of their pecuhar 
immunities and feudal rights. 

Day of Gold Spurs. [Fr. Journee 
ties Eperons tf Or.] See Battle op 

Day of the Sections. [Fr. .Toumee 
des Sections.] (Fr. Hist.) The name 
commonly given to an affray which 
occurred on the 4th of October, 1793, 
between the troops under the control 
of the Convention and the National 
Guard acting in the interest of the 
sections of Paris. The contest re- 
sulted in the success of the Conven- 

Dean of St. Patrick's. A title of 
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), the cele- 
brated English satirist, by whic^ he 
is often referred to. The deanery of 
St. Patrick's is in Dublin. Swift 
was appointed to the place in 1713, 
and retained it until his death. 

Deans, Douce Da'vie. A poor cow- 
feeder at Edinburgh, and the father 
of Effie and Jeanie Deans, in Sir 
Walter Scott's novel, " The Heart 
of Mid-Lothian." He is remarkable 
for his religious peculiarities, for his 
magnanimity in affliction, and his 
amusing absurdities in prosperity. 

Deans, Effie. A character in Scott^ 
" Heart of Mid-Lothian," whose lov 
abandons her after effecting her i 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying £xplanati< 






Deans, Jeanle. The heroine of 
Scott's "Heart of Mid - Lothian." 
The circumstances of her history are 
based upon tacts communicated to 

. the author by a correspondent. 

i^=" " She is a perfect model of sober 
heroism ; of tiie union of good sense with 
strong affections, firm principles, and 
perfect disinterestedness ; and of the 
calm superiority to misfortune, danger, 
and difficulty, which such a uuioa must 
create.^' Senior. 

We follow the travelers [in the " Pilgrim's 
Progress "] through their allegorical progress 
with interest not inferior to that with which 

we foUow Elizabeth from Siberia to Moscow, 

or Jeanie Deans from Edinburgh to London. 


Debatable Ijand, The. A tract of 
land on the western border of Eng- 
land and Scotland, between the Esk 
and Sark, which was at one time 
claimed by both kingdoms, and was 
afterward divided between them. It 
was long the residence of thieves and 
banditti, to whom its 'dubious state 
attbrded a refuge. 

Decree of Fontainebleau (fon^tSn- 
blo'). {Fr. Hist.) An edict of the 
Emperor Napoleon L, dated at Fon- 
tainebleau, October 18, 1810, ordering 
the burning of all English goods. 

Dedloclr, Sir LSices'ter (les'ter). 
A character in Dickens's novel of 
" Bleak House." '' He is an honor- 
able, obstinate, truthful, high-spirit- 
ed, intensely prejudiced, perfectly un- 
reasonable man." 

Deerslayer. The hero of Cooper's 
novel of the same name. 

J^^ " This character ... is the au- 
thor's ideal of a chivalresque manhood, 
of the gr§ce which is the natural flower 
of purity and virtue ; not the Stoic, but 
the Christian of the woods, the man of 
honorable act and sentiment, of courage 
and truth." Duyckinck. 

Defender of the Faith. [Lat. Fidei 
Defensor.^ A title conferred, in 
1521, by Pope Leo X. upoti King 
Henry VlII. of England, in conse- 
quence of a Latin treatise " On the 
Seven Sacraments " which the lat- 
ter had published in confutation of 
Luther, and had dedicated to that 
pontiff. The title was not made 
heritable by his heirs, and Pope Paul 
III., in 1535, upon the king's apostasy 

in turning suppressor of religions 
houses, formally revoked and with- 
drew it. Henry, however, continued 
to use it as a J)art of the royal style, 
and, in 1543, parliament annexed it 
for ever to the crown by stat. 35 Hen. 
VIII. c. 3. 

4®" It has been shown that the same 
title was popularly applied to, or was as- 
sumed by, some of the kings of England 
who preceded Henry Vlll., as Richard 
II. and Henry VII. 

Deg'o-re', Sir. [A corruption of 
JDegnre, or L'egare, meaning a per- 
son " almost lost."] The hero of a 
romance of high antiquity, and for- 
merly very popular, an abstract of 
which may be seen in Ellis's " Speci- 
mens of the Early English Poets." 

De-id/a-mi'g. [Gr. Arjifia/xeia.] ( Gr. 
d Rom. Myth.) The daughter of 
Lycomedes, king of Scyros, and tUe 
mother of Pyrrhus by Achilles. 

De-iph'o-bus. [Gr. Arjt<|)oi8o?.] {Gr, 
^ Rom. Myth.) A son of Priam and 
Hecuba. After the death of Paris, 
he married Helen, but was betrayecl 
by her to the Greeks. Next to Hec- 
tor, he was the bravest among the 

Dej^$-iii'ra(9). [Gr. Arjiareipa.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) " A daughter of 
CEneus, and the wife of Hercules, 
whose death she involuntarily caused 
by sending him a shirt which had 
been steeped in the poisoned blood of 
Nessus, who falselv told her that his 
blood would enable her to preserve 
her husband's love. On hearing that 
Hercules had burnt himself to death to 
escape the toniient it occasioned, she 
killed herself in remorse and despair. 

Delaunay, Le Vicomte (lu ve^konf 
d'lo'nS', G2). A nom de plume of 
Mme. Delphine de Girardin (1804- 
1855), under which she published her 
best-known work, the " Parisian Let- 
ters " {'■''Leitres Parisiennes " ), which 
originally appeared in "La Presse," 
a newspaper edited by her husband, 
l^mile* de Girardin. . 

Delectable Mountains. In Bunyan's 
allegory of" The Pilgrim's Progress," 
a range of hills from whose summit 
might be seen the Celestial City. 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 


"When the morning was up, they 
had him to the top of the house, and 
bid him look south. So he did, and 
behold, at a great distance he saw a 
most pleasant mountainous country, 
beautitied with woods, vineyards, 
fruits of all sorts, flowers also, with 
springs and foun tarns, very delectable 
to behold. Isa. xxxiii. 16, 17. ... 
They then went till they came to the 
Delectable Mountains. ...Now there 
were on the tops of these mountains 
shepherds feeding their flocks. The 
pilgrims, therefore, went to them, and, 
leaning on their staffs (as is common 
with weary pilgrims when they stand 
to talk with any by the way), they 
asked, ' Whose delectable mountains 
are these, and whose be the sheep 
that feed upon them V ' " The shep- 
herds answered, "These mountains 
are Emmanuel's land, and they are 
within sight of his city, and the 
sheep are his, and he laid down his 
life for them." 

On the Muses' hill he is happy and good as 
©ne of the shepherds on the Delectable Moxm- 
tains. Charles Lamb. 

iDelia. A poetical name given by 
tlie Roman poet TibuUus (d. about 
B. c. 18) to his lady-love, whose real 
name is not certainly known, but is 
thought to have been Plartia (froni 
planus), of which the Greek Delia 
(from 5^Ao«r, clear, manifest, plain) is 
a translation. 

Deli-a. [Gr. Ar,Ata.] \ ( Gr. ^ Rom. 

Pe'li-us. [Gr. AtjAio?.] j Myth.) Sur- 
names respectively of Diana and 
Apollo, as bom in Delos. See 

Delight of Mankind. A name given 
by his subjects to Titus, emperor of 
Rome (40-81), whose liberality, af- 
fability, mildness, and virtuous con- 
duct were the subject of general ad- 

Dell$ Criis'cang, or Delia Crusca 
School (delia kroos'ka). A col- 
lective appellation applied to a class 
of sentimental poetasters of both 
sexes, which arose in England toward 
the close of the last century, and who 
were conspicuous for their affectation 
and bad taste, and for their high- 
flown panegyrics on one another. 

96 mh 

Thciif productions consisted of odess^ 
elegies, epigrams, songs, sonnets, 
epistles, plays, &c. 

'4®' Some of these persons had, by 
chance, been jumbled together for a whilo 
at Florence, where they put forth a vol- 
ume of rhyme?, under the title of " The 
Florence Miscellany," the insipidity and 
feintastic silliness of which ti«anscend all 
belief. Afterward, they and a number 
of other persoas, their admirers and imi- 
tators, began to publish their effusions in 
England, chiefly in two daily newspapers 
called " The World " and '• the Oracle ; " 
from which they were soon collected, and, 
with vast laudation, recommended to the 
public attention in a volume entitled 
" The Album,'- by Bell, the printer. An 
end was at length put to these inanities 
by the appearance, in 1794, of Gilford's 
"Baviad," which, in 1796, was followed 
by its continuation, the "Ma;viad," — • 
both powerful and extremely popular 
satires, which lashed the Delia Crusca au- 
thors with merciless but deserved sever- 
ity. One of "the founders of this school 
of poetry, Mr. Robert Merry, wrote under 
the signature of Delia Crusca^ and this 
name was given to the whole brood of 
rhymsters to which he belonged, prob- 
ably because he became the most noted 
of them. Merry had traveled for some 
years on the Continent, and had made a 
long residence in Florence, where he was 
elected a member of the celebrated Acad- 
emy Delia Crusca^ — that is, Academy of 
the Sieve, — which was founded for the 
purpose of purifying and refining the 
Italian language and style. In adopting 
the name of this Academy as a notn dt 
plume. Merry may not only have alluded 
to the fact of \\iA membership, but very 
possibly intended to intimate that what 
he should write would be quite exquisite, 
and free from chaff. It would appear that 
Merry was not the first of these writers 
whose lucubrations came o«it in " The 
Oracle" and "The World;" fcr, ?fi}S 
Gifford, " While the epidemic malady was 
spreading from fool to fool, Delia Crivsca 
came over [from Italyj, and immediately 
announced himself by a sonnet to Love. 
Anna Matilda wrote an incomparallo 
piece of nonsense in praise of it ; and the 
two ' great luminaries of the age,' as Mr. 
Bell calls them, fell desperately in love 
with each other. From that period, rot 
a day passed without an amatory epistle, 
fraught with lightning and thunder, et 
quicquid hahent telorum armamentaria 
call. The fever turned to frenzy : Laura, 
Maria*Carlos, Orlando, Adelaide, and a 
thousand other nameless names, caught 

• For the '* Key to tlie Scheme of Prouunciatiou," with thq accompanyins Explanations, 




the infection ; and from one end of the 
kingdom to the other, all was uoiiseuse 
and Delia Crusca." Other writers of this 
school, besides Merry, whose names have 
been preserved, are Mr. Bertie Greathead, 
a man of property and good family ; Mr. 
William Parsons, another gentleman of 
fortune ; Mr. Edward Jeruingham (" The 
Bard"), author of numerous plays and 
poems ; Miles Peter Andrews, a writer of 
prologues and epilogues ; Mr. Edward 
Topham, the proprietor of" The World ; " 
the Rev. Charles Este (" Morosoph Este," 
as Gifford calls him), principal editor of 
that paper ; Mr. Joseph Weston, a small 
magazine-critic of the day ; James Oobbe, 
a now-forgotten farce-writer ; Frederick 
Pilon, said to have been a player by pro- 
fession ; a Mr. Timothy, or Thomas, Ad- 
ney (who wrote under the anagram of 
"Mit Yenda," or "Mot Yenda"); Mr. 
Thomas Vaughan (" Edwin ") ; Mr. John 
Williams ("Tony — or Anthony — Pas- 
quin"); the celebrated James Boswell, 
who had not yet established his reputa- 
tion as the prince of biographers; and 
the dramatists O'Keefe, Morton, Key- 
nolds, Efolcroft, Sheridan, and the Youn- 
ger Colman, who survived and recovered 
from their discreditable connection with 
the Delia Cruscan folly. Of the female 
writers of this school, the principal names 
are those of Mrs. Piozzi, the widow of 
Johnson's friend Thrale, but at that tim« 
the wife of her daughter's music-master ; 
Mrs. H. Cowley (" Anna Matilda"), the 
clever authoress of the " Belle's Strata- 
gem ; " and the somewhat notorious Mrs. 
Kobinson, wlio, with all her levity, in- 
tellectual as well as moral, was not alto- 
gether without literary talent and poeti- 
cal feeling. In the preface to the "Mae- 
viad," Gifford intimates that he had been 
charged with breaking butterflies upon 
a wheel ; but " many a man," he adds, 
" who now affects to pity me for wasting 
my strength upon unresisting imbecility, 
would, not long since, have heard these 
poems with applause, and their praises 
with delight." On the other hand, the 
great patron, Bell, the printer, accused 
him of " bespattering nearly all the po- 
etical eminence of the day." " But, on 
the whole," says Gilford, "the clamor 
against me was not loud, and was lost by 
insensible degrees in the applause of such 
, as I was truly ambitious to please. Thus 
supported, the good effects of the satire 
(gloriose loquor) were not long in mani- 
festing themselves. Delia Crusca ap- 
peared no more in * The Oracle,' and, if 
any of his followers ventured to treat the 
town with a soft sonnet, it was not, as 
before, introduced by a pompous preface. 

Pope and Milton resumed their superior- 
ity, and Este and his coadjutors silently 
acquiesced in the growing opinion of their 
inconj potency, and showed some sense of 

De'los. [Gr. At)Xo?.] A small island 
in the ^gean Sea, one of the Cj-^clades. 
Here Apollo and Diana were born, 
and here the former had a famous 
oracle. Delos was at first a floating 
island, but Neptune fixed it to the 
bottom of the sea, that it might be a 
secure resting-place for Latona. See 

Del'phl. [Gr. AcAt^oi.] A famous 
oracle of Apollo in Phocis, at the foot 
of Mount Parnassus. [Erroneously 
written Delphos by early English 

Apollo from his shrine 
Can no more divine. 
With hollow shriek the steep of Delphos 
No nightly trance, or breathed spell, 
Inspires the pale-eyed priest from the pro- 
phetic cell. Miltom 

Delphine (dePfSn')- The title of a 
novel by Mme. de Stael (1766-1817), 
and the name of its heroine, whose 
character is full of charm, and is said 
to have been an idealized»picture of 
the authoress herself. Delphine has 
a faithless lover, and dies broken- 

Del't$« The signature under which 
David Macbeth Moir, a distinguished 
Scottish writer (1778-1851), contrib- 
uted a series of poems to " Black- 
wood's Magazine." 

Del'ville, Mr. One of the guardians 
of Cecilia, in Miss Burney's novel of 
this name; a gentleman of wealth, 
magnificent and ostentatious in his 
style of living, and distinguished for 
an air of haughty affability in his in- 
tercourse with his inferiors. 

Even old Delville received Cecilia, though 
the daughter of a man of low birth. 

Sir W. Scott. 

De-me'ter. [Gr. Arj/iiTjTTjp.] {Myth.) 
One of the great divinities of the 
Greeks, corresponding to the Ceres 
of the Romans. ^ See Cekes. 

De-moc'ri-tus, Junior. A pseu- 
donym under which Robert Burton 
(1576-1640) published his " Anatomy 
of Melancholy," a work which pre- 

and for the Remarks and Ruleii to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 





sonts, in quaint lanpfuage, and with 
many shrewd and amusing remarks, 
a view of all the moditications of 
that disease, and the manner of cur- 
ing it. The name of Democritus, 
Junior, is introduced in the inscrip- 
tion on his monument in Christ- 
Church Cathedral. It alludes to 
Democritus of Abdera, the celebrated 
" Laughing Philosopher" of antiqui- 
ty. See Laughing Philosopher. 
De-mod'o-cus. [Gr. At7/ui66okos.] A 
famous bard mentioned in Homer's 
"Odyssey ' * as delighting the guests of 
King Alcinous, during their repast, by 
singing the loves of Mars and Venus, 
and the stratagem of the Wooden 
Horse, by means of which the Greeks 
gained entrance into Troy. 

Tlien sins: of secret things that came to pass 
When beldam Nature in her cradle was; 
And last of kings, and queens, and heroes old, 
Such as the wise Demoaocus once told 
In solemn songs at King Alcinous' feast. 


De'mo-gor'gSn. [Gr., from 5aiVu>v, a 
god, and vopyo?, fearful.] {Myth.) 
A formidable and mysterious deity, 
superior to all o.thers, mentioned by 
Lutatius, or Lactantius, Placidus, the 
scholiast on Statins, and made known 
to modem readers by the account of 
Boccaccio, in his "Genealogia Deo- 
rum." According to Ariosto, the 
fairies were all subject to Demogor- 
gon, who inhabited a splendid palatial 
temple on the Himalaya Mountains, 
where every fifth year he summoned 
them to appear before him, and give 
account of their deeds. The very 
mention of this deity's name was said 
to be tremendous ; wherefore Lucan 
and Statins only allude to it. 

Thou wast begot in Demogorgon^s hall, 
And saw'st the secrets of the world unmade. 
The dreaded name 
Of Demogorgon. Milton. 

Derrydown Triangle. A sobriquet 
given to Lord Castlereagh (1769- 
1822), afterwards Marquess of Lon- 
donc^err?/, in a parody on the Athana- 
sian Creed by William Hone; the 
triangle referring, ' Recording to him, 
to " a thing having three sides ; the 
meanest and most tinkling of all mu- 
sical instruments ; machinery used in 
military torture. Dictionary." See 

the " Third Trial of William Hone 
before Lord Ellenborough," 3d edi- 
tion, p. 9, London, 1818. 

Des/de-mo'nS. The heroine of Shake- 
speare's tragedy of" Othello," daugh- 
ter of Brabantio, a Venetian senator, 
and wife of Othello, a Moorish gen- 
eral, who kills her in a groundless 
beliefof her infidelity. See Othello. 

She was never tired of inquiring if sorrow 
had his young days faded; and was ready to 
list«n and weep, like Desdemona, at the stories 
of his dangers and campaigns. Thackeray. 

Deu-cali-6n. [Gr. AevKaAtwf.] Gr. 
^ Bom. Myth.) A son of Prome- 
theus, king of Phthia, in Thessaly. 
With his wife Pyrpha, he was pre- 
served from a deluge sent upon the 
earth by Jupiter; and he became the 
progenitor of a new race of men, by 
throwing stones behind him, as di- 
rected by an oracle. From stones 
thrown by Pyrrha there sprang up 
women, and thus the world was re- 

Nor important less 
Seemed their petition than when the ancient 

In fables old»— less ancient yet than these, — 
Deucalion and chaste Pyrrha, to restore 
The race of mankind drowned, before the 

Of Themis stood devout Milton. 

Devil, The. In the Bible, and in 
Jewish and Christian theology, the 
sovereign spirit of evil, who is ever 
in active opposition to God. A ma- 
jority of the early Christians, literal- 
ly interpreting certain passages of 
Scripture, regarded him as an apos- 
tate angel, the instigator of a rebel- 
lion among the heavenly host, and 
their ruler in a kingdom of dark- 
ness opposed to Christ's kingdom of 
light. To his agency was ascribed 
all evil, physical as well as moral; 
and it was' believed, that, for his 
crimes, he was doomed to suffer end- 
less torment in a material hell. Al- 
though his power was supreme over 
all not guarded by Christian faith and 
rites, over those who were thus guard- 
ed, it was so weak that they could 
easily rise superior to his influence. 
As prince of the demons, and as the 
ideal of evil, vice, heresy, subtlety, 
and knavery, he has figured promi- 
nently in literature, especially that 

IBS* For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




of the Middle Ages. In the old mys- 
teries and miracle-plays, he was often 
represented on the stage as a sort of 
satyr or faun, with flaming saucer 
eyes, sooty complexion, horns, tail, 
hooked nails, the cloven hoof of a 
goat or horse, and a strong sulphurous 
odor. At the present day, the doc- 
trine of the existence of a personal 
Devil, the chief of evil spirits, and 
directly or indirectly the author of 
at least all moral evil, is maintained 
by most Christians, but r^ected by 
many. See Abaddon, Beelzebub, 
Satan, &c. 

Devils' Parliament. [Lat. Parlia- 
mentum Didbolicum.'] {Eng. Hist.) 
A name given to the Parliament as- 
Fc-.nbled by Henry VI. at Coventry, 
1459, because it passed attainders 
against the Duke of York and his 
chief supporters. 

Devil's Wall. A name given by 
the inhabitants of the neighborhood 
to the old Roman wall separating 
England from Scotland, because they 
supposed, that, from the strength (k 
the cement and the durability of the 
stone, the Devil must have built it. 
The superstitious peasantry are said 
to be in the habit of gathering up 
the fragments of this wall to put in 
the foundation of their own tene- 
ments to insure an equal solidity. 

Devonshire Poet. A sobriquet or 
pseudonym of O. Jones, an unedu- 
cated journeyman wool-comber, au- 
thor of " Poetic Attempts," London, 

Diable, Le (lu de1l/bl, 61). [Fr., the 
Devil.] A surname given to Robert 
I., Duke of Norman d}'. See Robert 
THE Devil. 

Diabolical Parliament. See Dev- 
ils' Parliament. 

Diafoirus, Thomas {Wmtf de'S^fwo'- 
riiss', 34, 102). A young and pe- 
dantic medical student, about to be 
dubbed doctor, who figures in Mo- 
liere's "Malade Imaginaire " as the 
lover of Angelique. 

The undoubting faith of a political Diafoirus. 

Diamond State. A name sometimes, 
given to the State of Delaware, from 

its small size and its great worth, or 
supposed importance. 
Di-a'nS, or Di-an'a. {Gr. cf Rom. 
Myth.) Originally, an Italian divin- 
ity, afterward regarded as» identical 
with the Greek Artemis, the daugh- ' 
ter of Jupiter and Latona, and the 
twin sister of Apollo. She was the 
goddess of hunting, chastity, mar- 
riage, and nocturai incantations. She 
was also regarded as the goddess of 
the moon. See Luna. Her temple 
at Ephesus was one of the Seven 
Wonders of the World. [Written 
also, poetically, Dian.] 

Hence [from chastity] had the huntress Dian 

her dread bow. 
Fair silver-shafted queen, for ever chaste, 
Wherewith she tamed the brinded lioness 
And spotted mountain pard, but set at nought 
The frivolous bow of Cupid ; gods and men 
Feared her stern frown, and she was queen of 

the woods. Milton. 

Diavolo, Pra. See Fr.A Diavolo. 

Dicky Sam. A cant name applied to 
the inhabitants of Liverpool. 

Diddler, Jeremy. A character in 
Kenny's farce of " Raising the Wind," 
where he is represented as a needy 
and seedy individual, always contriv- 
ing, by his songs, bon-mots, or other 
expedients, to borrow money or ob- 
tain credit. 

Di'do. [Gr. Aifici.] The 'daughter of 
Bel us, king of Tyre, and the wife of 
Sichaius, whom her brother Pygma- 
lion murdered for his riches. Escap- 
ing to Africa, she purchased as much 
land as could be encompassed with a 
bullock's hide, which — after the bar- 
gain was completed — she craftily cut 
into small shreds, and thus secured a 
large piece of territory. Here, not 
far from the Phoenician colony of 
Utica, she built the city of Carthage. 
According to Virgil, when ^neas 
was shipwrecked upon her coast, in 
his voyage to Italy, she hospitably 
entertained him, fell in love with him, 
and, because he did not requite her 

fassion, stabbed herself in despair. 
Calle'd also Elisa., or Elissa.] 
Dig'go-ry. A talkative, awkward ser- 
vant in Goldsmitli's comedy, "She 
Stoops to Conquer," — "taken from 
the barn to make a show at the side- 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




You might as well make Hamlet (or I>ig- 
goni) "act mad" in a strait - waistcoat, as 
tnii'nmel my buifoonery, if I am to be a buf- 
foon. Byron. 

Dimanche, M. (mos'e^)' de/monsh', 
43, 62).* [Fr., Mr. Sunday.] A sobri- 

* quet popularly §iven, in France, to a 
creditor or dun, in allusion to an hon- 
est merchant of this name, introduced 
by Moliere into his " Don Juan," (a. 
iv., sc. 3). He is so called, doubtless, 
because merchants and working-men, 
having no other ^ay in the week to 
themselves, take Sunday for present- 
ing their bills and collecting the 
money which is due to them. 

Dinah., Aunt. Mr. Walter Shandy's 
aunt, in Sterne's novel of " Tristram 
Shandy." She bequeathed to him a 
thousand pounds, which he had as 
many schemes for expending. 

Din'mont, Dan'die {or Andrew). 
A humorous and eccentric store- 
farmer in Sir Walter Scott's novel 
of " Guy Mannering; " one of the best 
of rustiVportraits. 

Di'o-med, or Di'o-mSde. [Lat. 
Diomedes^ Gr. Atoju-^Sij?.] ( Gr. cf Kom. 
Myth.) A son of Tydeus, king of 
yEtolia. He was one of the most re- 
nowned of the Grecian chiefs at the 
siege of Troy, where he performed 
many heroic deeds. He vanquished 
in tight Hector and iEneas, the most 
valiant of the Trojans, and, along 
with Ulysses, carried off the Palla- 
dium, on whieli tlie safety of Troy 
depended. [Called also Tydides.] 

Di-o'ne. [Gr. Atwrij.] ( Gr. (f Eom. 
Myth.) A nymph who was, accord- 
ing to some accounts, the mother of 

Di'O-ny'sus. [Gr. Aioi/v<r09, or Aiwm;- 

o-o?.] (Gr. Myth.) The youthful, 
beautiful, and effeminate god of wine ; 
the same as Bacchus. See Bac- 

Dl'os-cu'rl. [GrT. Aioo-Kovpoi, sons of 
Zeus, or Jupiter.] {Gr. ^ Horn. 
Myth.) The weH-known heroes Cas- 
tor and Pollux, or Polydeuces. See 

DPrsa (9). (Rom. Myth.) A name or 

title of the Furies, given to them from 
their dreadful appearance. 
Dir'ce (4). [Gr. Atp^rj.] Wife of 
the Theban prince Lycus. For cruel 
treatment of Antiope, she was tied to 
a mad bull, and dragged about till 
dead. See Antiope and Lycus. 

Dis. [Lat., kindred with divus^ god.] 
(Eom. Myth.) A name sometimes 
given to Pluto, and hence also to the 
infernal world. 

Quick is the movement here I And then 
BO confused, unsubstantial, you might call it 
almost spectral, pallid, dim, inane, like the 
kingdoms of Dia ! Carli/le. 

Dis-cor'di-a. (E(jm. Myth.) A ma- 
levolent deity corresponding with the 
Greek J^ins, the goddess of conten- 
tion. See Paris. 

Di'v^s. A Latin word meaning rlchy 
or a inch man. It is a common or 
appellative noun, or, more strictly, an 
adjective used substantively; but it is 
often erroneously regarded as a prop- 
er name, when allusion is made to 
our Lord's parable of the rich man 
and Lazarus. (See Luke xvi.) It 
has been suggested that the mistake 
originally arose from the fact, that, 
in old pictures upon this subject, 
the inscription, or title, w^as in Latin, 
"i)iVes et Lazarus,'' and that unedu- 
cated persons probably supposed that 
the first word was the name of the 
rich man, as the last unquestionably 
was that of the beggar. 

Lazar and IHves liveden diversely. 

And divers guerdon hadden tliey thereby. 


Nor have you, O poor parasite, and humble 

hanger-on, much reason to complain 1 Your 

friendship for I>ives is about as sincere as tho 

return which it usually gets. Thackeray. 

Divine Doctor. An appellation given 
to Jean Ruysbroek (1294-1381), a 
celebrated mystic. 

Dixie. An imaginary place some- 
where in the Southern States of 
America, celebrated in a popular ne- 
gro melody as a perfect paradise of 
luxurious ease ana enjoyment. The 
term is often used as a collective des- 
ignation of the Southern States. A 
correspondent of the ^' New Orleans 
Delta" has given the following ac- 
count of the original and early appli- 
cation of the name : — 

0^ For tho "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




J8®* " I do not wish to spoil a pretty 
illusion, but the real truth in, that Dixie 
is an indigenous Northern negro refrain, 
as common to the writer as the lamp-posts 
in New York city seventy or seventy-five 
years ago. It was one of the e very-day 
allusions of boys at that time in all their 
out-door sports. And no one ever heard 
of Dixie's land being other than Manhat- 
tan Island until recently, when it has 
been erroneously supposed to refer to the 
South from its connection with pathetic 
negro allegory. When slavery existed in 
New York, one ' Dixy ' owned a large 
tract of land on Manhattan Island, and a 
large number of slaves. The increase of 
the slaves, and the increase of the aboli- 
tion sentiment, caused an emigration of 
the slaves to more thorough and secure 
slave sections ; and the negroes who were 
thus sent off (many being born there) 
naturally looked back to their old homes, 
where they had lived in clover, with feel- 
ings of regret, as they could not imagine 
any place like Dixy's. Hence, it became 
synonymous with an ideal locality, com- 
bining ease, comfort, and material hap- 
piness of every description. In those 
days, negro singing and minstrelsy were 
in their infancy, and any subject that 
could be wrought into a ballad was eagerly 
picked up. This was the case with 

• Dixie.' It originated in New York, and 
assumed the proportions of a song there. 
In its travels, it has been enlarged, and 
has 'gathered moss.' It has picked up a 
' note ' here and there. A ' chorus ' has 
been added to it ; and, from an indistinct 

* chant ' of two or three notes, it has 
become an elaborate melody. But the 
fact that it is not a Southern song ' can- 
not be rubbed out.'- The fallacy is so 
popular to the contrary, that I have thus 
been at pains to state the real origin of 

Diz'zy. A nickname given to Ben- 
jamin Disraeli (b. 1805), an eminent 
living English statesman. 

Djinnestan ( jin^nes-tSn'). The name 
of the ideal region in which djinns, 
or genii, of Oriental superstition re- 
side. [Written also Jinnestan.] 

Doctor, The. A nickname often given 
to the first Lord Viscount Sidmouth 
(1757-1844), on account of his being 
the son of Doctor Anthony Addington 
of Reading. 

Doctor, The Admirable. See Ad- 
mirable Doctor; and for Angelic 
Doctor, Authentic Doctor, Di- 

vine Doctor, Dulcifluous Doc- 
tor, Ecstatic Doctor, Eloquent 
Doctor, Evangelical or Gospel 
Doctor, Illuminated Doctor, In- 
vincible Doctor, Irrefragable 
Doctor, Mellifluous Doctor, 
Most Christian Doctor, Most 
Methodical Doctor, Most Reso- 
lute Doctor, Plain and Perspic- 
uous Doctor, Profound Doctor, 
Scholastic Doctor, Seraphic 
Doctor, Singular Doctor, Sol- 
emn Doctor, Solid Doctor, Sub- 
tle Doctor, Thorough Doctor, 
Universal Doctor, Venerable 
Doctor, Well-founded Doctor, 
and Wonderful Doctor, see the 
respective adjectives. 

Doctor Dove. The hero of Southey's 

Doctor Dulcamara (dobl-kS-ma'rS). 
An itinerant phvsician in Donizetti's 
opera, "L'Elisir d'Amore" ("The 
Elixir of Love " ) ; noted for his char- 
latanry, boastfulness, and pomposity. 

Doctor My-book. A sobriquet very 
generallv bestowed upon John Aber- 
nethy (1765-1830), the eminent Eng- 
lish surgeon. " I am christened Doc- 
tor My-fx)ok^ and satirized under that 
name all over England." The cele- 
brated "My-book," to which he was 
so fond of referring his patients, w as 
his " Surgical Observations." 

Doctor of the Incarnation. A title 
given to St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 
444), on account of his long and 
tumultuous dispute with Nestorius. 
bishop of Constantinople, who denied 
the mystery of the hypostatic union, 
and contended that the Deity could 
not have been bom of a woman ; that 
the divine nature was not incarnate 
in, but only attendant on, Jesus as a 
man; and therefore that Mary was 
not entitled to the appellation then 
commonly used of Mother of God. 

Doctor Slop. 1. The name of a 
choleric and uncharitable physician 
in Sterne's novel, " The Life and 
Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gent." 
He breaks down Tristram's nose, and 
crushes Uncle Toby's fingers to a 
jelly, in attempting to demonstrate 
the use and virtues of a newlv in- 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxiU 




vented pair of obstetrical forceps. 
Under this name Sterne ridiculed 
one Doctor Burton, a man-midwife 
at York^ against whom he had some 

j^§= " The annals of satire can furnish 
nothing more cutting and ludicrous than 
this consummate portrait, so farcical, and 
yet so apparently free from satire." 


2. The name was applied to Doc- 
tor (afterwards Sir Jolm) Stoddart 
(1773-1856) on account of his vio- 
lent prejudices, and the rancorous 

'. denunciations with which he as- 
sailed the first Nnpoleon and his 
policy in the London ** Times " 
newspaper, of which he was edi- 
tor from 1812 to 1816. Under this 
name he was caricatured by Cruik- 
shank in the parodies and satires of 

Doctor Squintum. A name under 
which the celebrated George White- 
field (1714-1770) was ridiculed in 
Foote's farce of " The Minor." It 
was afterwards applied by Theodore 
Hook to the Rev. Edward Irving 
(1792-1834), who had a strong cast 
in his eyes. 

Doctor Syntax. The hero of a work 
by William Combe (1741-1823), en- 
titled " The Tour of Dr. Syntax in 
Search of the Picturesque," formerly 
very popular. 

Do-do'nS. [Gr. AwSwvtj.] A very fa- 
mous oracle of Jupiter in Epirus, sit- 
uated in an oak grove ; said to have 
been founded in obedience to the 
command of a black dove with a hu- 
man voice, which came from th« city 
of Thebes in Egypt. 

And I -will work in prose and rhyme, 

And praise thee more in both 
Than bard has honored beech or lime, 

Or that Thessalian growth 
In which the swarthy ringdove sat 

And mystic sentence spoke. Tennyson. 

Dods, Meg. 1. An old landlady in 
Scott's novel of " St. Ronan's Well ; " 
one of his best low comic characters. 
M^ " Meg Dods, one of those happy 
creations, approaching extravagance but 
not reaching it, formed of the most dis- 
similar materials without inconsistency, 
. . . excites in the reader not the mere 
pleasure of admiring a skillful copy, but 

the interest and curiosity of an original, 
and recurs to his recollection among the 
real beings whose acquaintance has en- 
larged his knowledge of human nature." 
2. An alias^ or pseudonym, under 
which Mrs. Johnstone, a Scottish 
authoress, published a well-known 
work on cookery. 

Dod'son and Fogg (-sn). Pettifog- 
ging lawyers in partnership, who fig- 
ure in the famous case of " Bardell v&. 
Pickwick," in Dickens's "Pickwick 

Doe, John. A merely nominal plain- 
tiff in actions of ejectment at com- 
mon law; usually associated with 
the name of Richard Roe. 

J^^- The action of tyectment is a species 
of mixed action, which lies for the re- 
covery of possession of real estate, and 
damages and costs lOr the detention of 
, it. It was invented either in the reign 
of Edward IT., or in the beginning of 
the reign of Edward III., in order to 
enable suitors to escape firom " the 
thousand niceties with which," in the 
language of Lord Mansfield, "real ac- 
tions [that is, actions for the recovery of 
real estate] were embarrassed and en- 
tangled." In order to foster this form 
of action, the court early determined 
(circiter A. D. 1445-1499) that the plain- 
tiff was entitled to recover not merely the 
damages claimed by the action, but also, 
by way of collateral and additional relief, 
the land itself. This form of action is 
based entirely upon a legal fiction, in- 
troduced in order to make the trial of the 
lessor's title, which would otherwise be 
only incidentally brought up for examina- 
tion, the direct and main object of the 
action. A sham plaintiff — John Doe — 
pretends to be the lessee of the real claim- 
ant, and alleges that he has been ousted 
by a sham defendant, — Kichard Roe, — 
who is called the "casual ejector." No- 
tice of this action is then given to the 
actual tenant of the lands, together with 
a letter from the imaginary Richard Roe 
stating that he shall make no appearance 
to the action, and warning the tenant to 
defend his own interest, or,Jf he be only 
the tenant of the real defendant, to give 
the latter due notice of the proceeding. 
If no appearance is made, judgment is 
given in favor of the plaintiff, who there- 
upon becomes entitled to turn out the 
party in possession. But if the latter 
makes appearance, the first step in the 
action is a formal acknowledgment by 
him of his possession of the lands, of the 

O^ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




lease in favor of Doe, of Doe's entry, and 
of the ouster by the tenant himself. This 
elaborate tissue of fictions having been 
iatroduced to comply with the technical 
rules of legal title, when the real question 
at issue presents itself, John Doe and 
Richard Roe disappear, the names of the 
real parties are substituted, and the ac- 
tion proceeds in the ordinary way at once 
to trial. The action of ejectment is still 
retained, with all its curious fictions, in 
several of the United States ; in New York; 
Pennsylvania, and other States, the fic- 
titious part of the action has been abol- 
ished. It has also been abolished, in 
England, by the Common Law Procedure 
Act of 1852 (15 and 16 Victoria, c. 76). 

Warren. Chambers. 
jg^" Those mythical parties to so many 
legal^ proceedings, John Doe a^d Richard 
Roe, are evidently of forest extraction, 
and point to the days when forest laws 
prevailed, and venison was a sacred 
ttiing." Lower. 

It was then I first became acquainted with 
the quarter which my little work will, I hope, 
render immortal, and grew familiar with these 
magnificent wilds through which the kings of 
Scotland once chased the dark-brown deer, 
but which were chiefly recommended to me, 
in those days, by their being inaccessible to 
those metaphysical persons whom the law of 
the neighboring country terms John Doe and 
Richard Roe. Sir W. Scott. 

While the patriotic author is weeping and 
howling, in prose, in blank verse, and in 
rhyme, and collecting the drops of public sor- 
row into his volume, as into a lachrymal vase, 
it is more than probable his fellow-citizens are 
. eating and drinking, fiddling and dancing, as 
utterly ignorant of the bitter lamentations 
made in their name as are those men of straw, 
John Doe and Richard Roe, of the plaintiffs 
for whom they are generously pleased to be- 
come sureties. W. Irving. 

Dd'eg. [From Doeg^ chief of Saul's 
herdsmen, "having charge of the 
mules." 1 Sam. xxi. 7.] A nick- 
name under which Dirden, in the 
second part of his "Absalom and 
Achitophel," satirized Elkanah Set- 
tle (1648-1743), a contemptible poet- 
aster, who was for a time Dryden's 
successful rival. 

Doeg, though without knowing how or why, 
Made still a blundering kind or melody. 
Spurred boldly on, and dashed through thick 

and thin. 
Through sense and nonsense, never out nor 

in ; 
Free from all meaning, whether good or bad, 
And, in one word, heroically mad. Dryden. 

Dde'sticks, Q. K. Pht-lan'der. A 

pseudonym adopted by Mortimer 
* Thompson, an American comic writ- 
er of the present day. 

DogHber-ry. An ingeniously absurd, 
self-satistied, and loquacious night- 
constable, in Shakespeare's "Much 
Ado about Nothing." 

It is an impoi-tant examination, and there- 
fore, like Dogberry, we mus* spare no wisdom. 
, Sir W. Scott. 

DdrnHbey, Florence. The heroine 
of Dickens's novel of " Dombey an4 
Son; " a motherless child, of angelic 
purity and loveliness of character. 

Ddm'bey, Mr. A prominent charac- 
ter in Dickens's novel of " Dombey 
and Son ; " a proud, self-sufficient, and 
wealthy merchant, who is disciplined 
and made better by a succession of 

Dom-danl-el. * A cave in the region 
adjoining Babylon, the abode of evil 
spirits, by some traditions said to 
have been originally the spot where 
the prophet Daniel imparted instruc- 
tion to his disciples. In another form, 
the Domdaniel was a purely imagi- 
nary region, subterranean, or subma- 
rine, the dwelling-place of genii and 

In the Domdaniel caverns, 
Under the roots of the ocean, 
Met the Masters of the Spell. 


We find it written, " "Woe to them that are 
at ease in Zion; " but surely it is a double woe 
to them that are at ease in Babel, in Dom~- 
daniel. Carlyle. 

Dominic, Friar. See Fkiar Dom- 

Dominie Samp'son (-sn). A school- 
master in Sir W. Scott's novel of 
"Guy Mannering ; " "a poor, mod- 
est, humble scholar," says the author, 
" who had won his way through the 
classics, but fallen to the leeward in 
the voyage of life, — no uncommon 
personage in a country where a cer- 
tain portion of learning is easily at- * 
tained by those who are willing to 
suffer hunger and thirst in exchange 
for acquiring Greek and Latin." His 
usual ejaculation when astonished 
was, " Pro-di-gi-ous ! " [Called also 
Abet Sampson.] 

Poor Jung [Stilling], a sort of German 
Dominie Sampson, awkward, honest, irascible, 
in old-fashioned clothes and bag-wig. 


Don A'dri-S'no de Ar-m&'do. A 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




pompons, fantastical Spaniard, in 
•Shakespeare's " Love's Labor 's 
Lost ; " represented as a lover and 
a retainer of the court, and said to 
have been Resigned as a portrait of 
John Florio, sumamed "The Reso- 
lute." See Resolute, The. 

JKS^ "Armado, the military braggart 
in the state of peace, as Parolles is in war, 
appears in the ridiculous exaggeration 
and affectation of a child of hot Span- 
ish fancy, assuming a contempt toward 
every thing common, boastful but poor, 
a coiner of words, but most ignorant, 
solemnly grave and laughably awkward, 
a hector and a coward, of gait majestical 
and of the lowest propensities." 

Gervinus^ Trans. 

Don Belianis of Greece (ba^le-a'- 
ness). The hero of an-old romance 
of chivalr}'- founded upon the model 
of the '' Amadis," but with much infe- 
rior art, and on a coarser plan. An 
English abridgment of this romance 
was published in 1673. It is often 
referred to in " Don Quixote." 

He called you " le grand serieux,** Don Be- 
lianis of Greece, and Idon't know what names, 
mimicking your manner. Thackeray. 

Don Cher'u-bim. The "Bachelor 
of Salamanca,'* in Le Sage's novel 
of this name ; a man placed in dif- 
ferent situations of life, and made to 
associate Avith all classes of society, 
in order to give the author the great- 
est possible scope for satire. 

Don Cle'o-fas. The hero of Le 
Sage's nov^el, " Le Diable Boiteux " 
(commonly called in English " The 
Devil on Two Sticks"); a fiery 
young Spaniard, proud, high-spirited, 
and revengeful, but interesting from 
his gallantry and generous senti- 
ments. See AsMODEUs. [Written 
also Cleophas.] 

Farewell, old Granta's spires; 
No more, like Cleofas, I fly. Byron. 

Come away thouj?h, now, Dow Cleophas ; 
we must go further afield. Sala. 

Don Ju'an {Sp. pr^tn. don hoo-Sn')- 
A mythical personage who figures 
largely in drama, melodrama, and 
romance, as the type of refined lib- 

4®=- There are two legends connected 
with the name, both of Spanish origin, 
but in course of time these have become so 

blended together that they cannot easily 
be separated. Don Juan Tenorio of Se- 
ville, whose life has been placed in the 
fourteenth century, is the supposed orig- 
inal of the story. The traditions concern- 
ing him were long current in Seville, in an 
oral form, and were afterward dramatized 
by Gabriel Tellez (Tirso de Molina), lie 
is said to have attempted the seduction of 
the daughter of the governor of Seville, or 
of a nobleman of the family of the Ulloas. 
Her father detects the design, and is 
killed in a duel which ensues. A statue 
of the murdered man having been erected 
in the family tomb, Don Juan forces his 
way into th« vault, and invites the statue 
to a feast which he has caused to be pre- 
I)ared. The stony guest makes his ap- 
pearance at table, as invited, to the great 
amazement of Don Juan, whom he com- 
pels to follow him, and delivers over to 
hell. The legend, in its earhest known 
form, involved the same supernatural 
features, the ghostly apparition, the final 
reprobation and consignment to hell, 
which have, in general, characterized the 
modern treatment of th'e subject. From 
the Spanish the story was translated by 
the Italian playwrights ; thence it passed 
into France, where it was adopted and 
brought upon the stage by Moliere and 
Comeille. In Italy, Goldoni made it the 
basis of a play. The first instance of a 
musical treatment of the subject was by 
Gluck, in his ballet of " Don Juan," about 
the year 1765. Afterward Mozart im- 
mortalized the tradition in his great ope- 
ra, " Don Giovanni," which first appeared 
at Prague in 1787. The name has been 
rendered most familiar to English readers 
by the use which Byron has made of it 
in his poem entitled " Don Juan." But 
the distinguishing features of the old 
legend, those which separate Don Juan 
from the multitude of vulgar libertines, 
Byron has omitted, and he can hardly be 
said. to have done more than borrow the 
name of the hero. 

JIJ®=* " As Goethe has expressed the - 
eternal significance of the German legend 
of Faust, so has Mozart best interpreted ' 
the deep mystery of the Spanish legend ; 
the one by language, the other by music. 
Language is the interpreter of thought, 
music of feehng. The Faust-sage belongs 
to the former domain ; the legends of 
Don Juan to the latter." 

Sckeibley JYans. 

We could, like Don Juan, ask them [Dante's 
ghosts and demons] to supper, and eat heartily 
m their company. Macaulay. 

Don't break her heart, Jos, you rascal, said 
another. Don't trifle^Fith her affections, you 
Don Juan ! Thackeray. 

ta^ For the "Keyio the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanymg ExplanatloDH, 




Don Pedro. A Prince of Arragon 
who figures in Shakespeare's " Much 
Ado about Nothing." 

The author of " Hajji Baba " returned an 
answer of a kind most likely to have weight 
with a Persian, and which we can all observe 
is, like DoH I'edro^s answer to Dogberry, 
"rightly reasoned; and in his own division. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Don Quix'6te. ^Sp. Don Quijote^ or 
JJon Quixote, don ke-ho^tij. The 
hero of a celebrated Spanish romance 
of the same name, by Cervantes. 
Don Quixote is represented as " at 
gaunt country gentleman of La Man- 
cha, full of genuine Castilian honor 
and enthusiasm, gentle and dignified 
in his character, trusted by his 
friends, and loved by his depend- 
ents," but " so completely crazed bj' 
long reading the most famous books 
of chivalry, that he believes them to 
be true, and feels himself called on 
to become the impossible knight-er- 
rant they describe, and actually goes 
forth into the world to defend the op- 
pressed and avenge the injured, like 
the heroes of his romances. " 

j8£g=* " To complete his chivalrous equip- 
ment, — which he had begun by fitting 
lip for himself a suit of armor strange to 
his century, — he took an esquire out of 
his neighborhood ; k middle-aged peasant, 
ignorant and credulous to excess, but of 
great good-nature ; a glutton and a liar ; 
selfish and gross, yet attached to his mas- 
ter ; shrewd enough occasionally to see 
the folly of their position, but always 
amusing, and sometimes mischievous, in 
his interpretations of it. These two sally 
forth from their native village in search 
of adventures, of which the excited imag- 
ination of the knight, turning windmills 
into giants, solitary inns into castles, and 
galley-slaves into oppressed gentlemen, 
finds abundance wherever he goes ; while 
the esquire translates them all into the 
plain prose of truth with an admirable 
simplicity, quite unconscious of its own 
humor, and rendered the more striking 
by its contrast with the lofty and courte- 
ous dignity and magnificent illusions of 
the superior personage. There could, of 
course, be but one consistent termination 
of adventures like these. The knight and 
his esquire suffer a series of ridiculous dis- 
comfitures, and are at last brought home, 
like madmen, to their native village, 
where (J^rvantes leaves them, with an in- 
timation that the story of their adven- 
tures is by no means ended. In a con- 
tinuation, or Second Part, published in 

1G15, the Don is exhibited in another 
series of adventures, equally amusing 
with those in the First Part, and is 
finally restored, ' through a severe illness, 
to his right mind, made to renounce all 
the lollies of knight-errantry, and die, 
like a peaceful Christian, in his own 
bed.' » Ticknor, 

4®* " Some say his surname wa.«j 
Quixada, or Quisada (for authors differ 
in this particular). However, we may 
reasonably conjecture he was called Quix- 
ada, that is. Lantern-jaws. . . . Having 
seriously pondered the matter eight whole 
days, he at length determined to call 
himself Don Quixote. Whence the au- 
thor of this most authentic history draws 
the inference that his right name was 
Quixada, and not Quisada, as others ob- 
stinately pretend." Quixote means liter- 
ally a cuish, or piece of armor for the 
thigh. Cervantes calls his hero by the 
name of this piece of arnjor, because the 
termination ote, with which it ends, gen- 
erally gives a ridiculous meaning to words 
in the Spanish language. 

Be this law and this reasoning right or 
wrong, our interfering to arrange it would not 
be a whit more wise or rational than Do7i 
Quixote's campaign against the windmills. 

jyoctes Ambt-osiancB. 

Don'zel del Phenbo. [It., donzello, a 
squire, a young man.] A celebrated 
hero of romance, in the " Mirror of 
Knighthood, " &c. He is usually 
associated with Rosiclear. 

Defend thee powerfully, marry thee sump- 
tuously, and keep thee in spite of Rosiclear or 
Donzel del Phebo. Malcontent, Old riay. 

Doolin of Miy-ence' (Fr. pron. 
do^la"'). The hero of an old French 
romance of chivalry which relates 
his exploits and wonderful adven- 
tures. He is chiefly remarkable as the 
ancestor of a long race of paladins, 
particularly Ogier le Danois. 

Dora. The "child-wife" of David 
Copperfield, in Dickens's novel of 
that name. 

Doralice (/iJ. p'on. do-ra-le'chft). A 
female character in Ariosto's " Or- 
lando Furioso." She is loved \y 
Rodomont, but marries Mandricardo. 

Dorante (do^ronf, 62.) 1. A count in 
Moliere's comedy, " Le Bourgeois 

2. A courtier devoted to the chase, 
who figures in Moliere's comedy, 
" Les Facheux." 

and for the Bcmarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words ifefcr, see pp. xiv-xxxlL 

. DOR 106 

3. A character in Moli^re's " L't- 
cole des Femmes." 

I am going to make it known bluntly to 
that . . . old beau, to that Dorante become a 
'Geronte. Victor Hugo, Trans. 

Do-ras'tus. The hero of an old 
popular " history " or romance, upon 
which Shakespeare founded his 
" Winter's Tale." It was written by 
Robert Greene, and was tirst pub- 
lished in 1588, under the title of 
"Pandosto, the Triumph of Time," 
an example, according to Hallam, 
of " quaint, affected, and empty eu- 

Do'rax (9). A character in Dryden's 
play of "Don Sebastian;" repre- 
sented as a noble Portuguese turned 

j8®=""Dorax is the chef-cfauvre of 
Dryden's tragic characters, and perhaps 
the only one in which he has applied his 
great knowledge of human kind to actual 
delineation." Edin. Review^ 1808. 

But some friend or other always advised me 
to put my verses in the fire, and, like Dorax 
in the play, I submitted, "though with a 
swelling heart." Sir W. Scott. 

Dorchester, Patriarch of. See 
Patriarch of Dorchester. 

Doria D'Istria (do^re-S des'tre-S). 
A pseudonym of Princess Koltzoff- 
Massalsky (nee Helena Ghika, b. 
1829), a distinguished Wallachian 

Dorl-cdurt. A character in Con- 
greve's " Way of the World." 

Dor'X-mant. A character in Etherege's 
play entitled " The Man of Mode;" 
a genteel witty rake, designed as a 
portrait of the Earl of Rochester. 

I shall believe it when Dorimant hands a 
fish-wife across the kennel. Charles Lamb. 

Dorine (do'ren'). A hasty and petu- 
lant female in Moliere's " Tartuffe; " 
represented as ridiculing the family 
that she yet serves with sincere af- 

3Do'ri8(9). [Gr. Awpt's.] {Gr. ^ Ram. 
Myth.) The daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys, and the wife of her 
brother Nereus, by whom she became 
the mother of the Nereids. 

D6r'o-the'& {Ger. pron. do-ro-ta^i). 
1. The heroine of Goethe's celebrat- 


ed poem of "Hermann und Doro- 

2. [Sp. Dorotea, do-ro-ta'^.] A 
beautiful and unfortunate young 
woman whose adventures form an 
episode in the romance of " Don 
Do'ry, John (9). 1. The title and hero 
of an old ballad, formerly a great 
favorite, and continually alluded to 
in works of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. 

2. A character in " Wild Oats, or 
The Strolling Gentleman," a comedy 
by John O'Keefe. 

Do what I might, he interfered with the 
resolute vigor of John Dory. Hood. 

D6'€he-boy§ Hall. [That is, the hall 
where boys are taken in and " done 
for."] A model educational establish- 
ment described in Dickens's " Nich- 
olas Nickleby," kept by a villain 
named Squeers, whose system of 
tuition consisted of alternate beating 
and starving. 

Oliver Twist in the parish work - house, 
Smike at Dofheboys Hall, were petted children 
when compared with this wretched heir-ap- 
parent of a crown [Frederick the Great]. 


Dotted Bible. A name given among 
bibliographers to an edition of the 
Bible published in London, in folio, 
1578, by assignment of Chr. Barker. 
It is printed page for page with that 
of 1574. 

Doubting Castle. In Bunyan's spirit- 
ual romance of " The Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress, "a castle belonging to Giant 
Despair, in which Christian and 
Hopeful were confined, and from 
which at last they made their escape 
by means of the key called Promise, 
which was able to open any lock in 
the castle. 

Conceive the giant Mirabeau locked fast, 
theriy in Doubting Castle of Yincennes ; his hot 
soul surging up, wildly breaking itself against 
cold obstruction, the voice of his despair re- 
verberated on him by dead stone-walls. 


Douloureuse Garde, La (IS doo'loo'- 
roz' gafd, 43). [Fr.] The name of a 
castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, won 
by Lancelot of the Lake in one of 
the most terrific adventures related 
in romance, and thenceforth called 

■ For the "Key to the Scheme of Fronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




La Joyeuse Garde. See Joyeuse 
Garde, La. 

Dous^ter-swiv'el (-swiv'l). 1. (Her- 
man.) A German schemer, in Sir 
Walter Scott's novel of " The Anti- 

2. A nickname given by the 
Scotch reviewers to Dr. John Gaspar 
Spurzheim (1766-1832), a native of 
Germany, a distinguished craniolo-i. 
gist, and an active promulgator of 
the doctrines of phrenology in Great 

Dove, Doctor. See Doctor Dove. 

Dow, Jr. A pseudonym adopted by 
Eldridge F. Paige (d. 1859), an Eng- 
lish humorist, author of "Patent 
Sermons," &c. 

Down'ing, Jack. A pseudonym 
under which Seba Smith, an Ameri- 
can writer, wrote a series of humor- 
ous and popular letters (first published 
collectively in 1833), in the Yankee 
dialect, on the political aftairs of the 
United States. 

Dra'co. [Gr. ApoKotv.] An Athenian 
lawgiver, whose code punished 
almost all crimes with death ; whence 
it was said to be not that of a man 
but of a dragon (SpdKtov), and to have 
been written not in ink but in blood. 

Dragon of "S^Sntley. The subject 
of an old comic ballad, — a frightful 
and devouring monster, killed by 
More of More-Hall, who procured a 
suit of armor studded all over with 
long sharp spikes, and, concealing 
himself in a well resorted to by the 
dragon, kicked him in the mouth, 
where alone he was mortal. This 
legend has been made the founda- 
tion of a burlesque opera by Henry- 
Carey. Wantley is a vulgar pro- 
nunciation of Warncliff, the- name 
of a lodge and a wood in the parish 
of Penniston, in Yorkshire. 

Dra'pi-ep, M. B.,. A pseudonjnn 
under which Swift addressed a series 
of celebrated and remarkable letters 
to the people of Ireland, relative to a 
patent right granted by George I., in 
1723, to one William Wood, allow- 
ing him, in consideration of the great 
want of copper money existing in 
Ireland at that time, to coin half- 

pence and farthings to the amount of 
^108,000, to pass current in that 
kingdom. As the patent had been 
obtained in what may be termed a 
surreptitious manner, through the 
influence of the Duchess of Kendal, 
the mistress of George I., to whom 
Wood had promised a share of the 
profits; as it was passed without 
consulting either the lord lieutenant 
or the privy council of Ireland ; and 
as it devolved upon an obscure indi- 
vidual the right of exercising one of 
the highest privileges of the crown, 
thereby disgracefully compromising 
the dignity of the kingdom, — Swift, 
under the assumed character of a 
draper (which for some reason he 
chose to write drapier), warned the 
people not to receive the coin that 
was sent over to them. Sufch was 
the unequaled adroitness of his 
letters, such their strength of argu- 
ment and brilliancy of humor, that, 
in the end, they were completely 
successful: Wood was compelled to 
withdraw his obnoxious patent, and 
his copper coinage was totally sup- 
pressed, while the Drapier — for 
whose discovery a reward of £300 
had been offered in vain — was re- 
garded as the liberator of Ireland; 
his health became a perpetual toast, 
his head was adopted as a sign, a 
club was formed in honor of him, and 
his portrait was displayed in every 
Draw'can-sir. The name of a blus- 
tering, bullying fellow in the cele- 
brated mock-heroic play of "The 
Rehearsal," written by George Vil- 
liers, Duke of Buckingham, assisted 
by Sprat and others. He is repre- 
sented as taking part in a battle, 
where, ^fter kilhng all the combat- 
ants on both sides, he makes an ex- 
travagantly boastful speech. From 
the popularity of the character, the 
name became a synonym -for a brag- 

j9®" ^^ Johnson. Pray, Mr. Bayes,who 
is that Drawcansir ? 

Bayes. Why, sir, a great hero, that 
frights his mistress, snubs up kings, 
baffles armies, and does what he will, 
without regard to numbers, good sense, 
or justice." The Rehearsal. 

«Qd for the Remarks and Rules to which the nttmbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxziL 




The leader was of an ugly look and gigantic 
(Stature; he acted like a jJrawcansir, sparing 
neither friend nor foe. Addison. 

In defiance of the young Drawcansir's 
threats, with a stout heart and dauntless ac- 
cent, he again uplifted the stave, — 

" The Pope, that pagan full of pride, 
Hath bluihed ." Str W. Scott. 

How they [the actors in the French Revolu- 
tion] bellowed, stalked, and flourished about, 
counterfeiting Jove's thunder to an amazing 
degree! territic Z>)*awctt/j.'}ir-figure8, of enor- 
mous whiskerage, unlimited command of 
gunfiowder; not without ferocity, and even a 
certain heroism, stage heroism, m them. 


Drish-een' City. A name popularly 
given to the city of Cork, from a dish 
peculiar to the place, and formerly a 
very fashionable one among the in- 
habitants. Drisheens are made of 
the serum of the blood of sheep mixed 
with milk and seasoned with pepper, 
salt, and tansy. They are usually 
serN'^d, hot for breakfast, and are 
eaten with drawn butter and pepper. 

Dro'gi-o. The name given, by Anto- 
nio Zeno, a Venetian voyager of the 
fourteenth century, to a country of 
vast extent, equivalent to a new 
world. It is represented as lying 
to the south and west of Estotiland, 
and, by those who confided in the 
narrative, was identified with Nova 
Scotia and New England. The whole 
story is thought to be fabulous. 

Dro'mi-o of Eph'e-sus. ) Twin 

Dro'mi-o of S^'§-cuse. ) brothers, 
attendants on the two Antipholuses 
in Shakespeare's "Comedy of Er- 

Drugger, Abel. A character in Ben 
Jonson's^ " Alchemist." 

Drum, John. A name used in the 
phrase, " John Drum's entertain- 
ment," which seems to have been 
formerly a proverbial expression for 
ill treatment, probably alluding orig- 
inally to some particular anecdote. 
Most of the allusions seem to point 
to the dismissing of some unwelcome 

' guest, W4th more or less of ignominy 
and insult. [Written also, though 
rarely, Tom Drum.] 

Oh, for the love of laughter, let him fetch his 
drum; he sajs he has a stratagem for it: when 
your lordship sees the l>ottom of his success 
in 't, and to what metal this counterfeit lump 
of ore will be melted, if you give him not Jofin 
Drum's entertainment, your inclining cannot 
be removed. Shak. 

Tom Drum his entertainment, which is to 
hale a man in by the head, and thrust him out 
by both the shoulders. Stanihurst. 

Drunken Parliament. {Scot. Hist.) 
A name given to the Parliament 
which assembled at Edinburgh, Jan. 
1, 1661, soon after the restoration of 
the Stuarts. Burnet says, " It was a 
mad, warring time, full of extrava- 
gance ; and no wonder it was so when , 
the men of aftairs were almost per- 
petually drunk." 

Dry'ad§. [Lat. Dryades, Gr. ApvaSes.] 
{Gr. (f Rom. Myth.) Nymphs who 
presided over the woods, and were 
thought to perish with the trees 
which were their abode. 

Dry'a§-dust, The Kev. Dr. An 

imaginarv personage who serves as 
a sort of introducer of some of Scott's 
novels to the public, through the 
medium of 'prefatory letters, purport- 
ing to be written either to him or by 
him, in relation to their origin and 
history. The name is sometimes 
used to stigmatize a dull, plodding 
author, particularly an historian or a 
writer upon antiquities. 

Nobody, he must have felt, was ever likely 
to study this great work of his, not even Dr. 
Dryasdust. De Qitincey. 

There was a Shandean librarj' at 'Skelton 
that would have captivated the most ascetic 
of Dryasdusts. Percy Fitzgerald. 

Truth is, the Prussian Dryasdust, otherwise 
an honest fellow, excels all other Dryasdusts 
yet known. I have often sorrowfully felt af 
if there were not in Nature, for darkness, 
dreariness, immethodic platitude, any thing 
comparable to him. Carlyle. 

Dry'o-pe. [Gr. ApvoTnj.] ( Gr. if Rom, 
Myth. ) A daughter of King Dryops, 
and the wife of Andrsemon, — turned 
into a poplar or a lotus by the Ham- 1 
adryads. She had a son Amphis- .1 
SOS by Apollo. ' 

'T was a lay 
More subtle-cadenced, more forest- wild 
Than Dryope's lone lulling of her child. 


Du-es'sa. [That is, double-minded.] 
A foul* witch, in Spenser's " Faery 
Queen," who, under the assumed 
name of Fidessa, and the assumed 
character of a distressed and lovely 
woman, entices the Red-cross Knight 
into the House of Pride, where, ener- 
vated by self-indulgence, he is at- 
tacked, defeated, and imprisoned by 

• Tor the *♦ Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




the giant Orgoglio. Duespa becomes 
the paramour of Orgoglio, who decks 
her out in gorgeous ornaments, gives 
her a gold and purple robe to wear, 
puts a triple crown on her head, and 
sets her upon a monstrous beast with 
seven heads, — from which circum- 
stances the poet is supposed to typify 
the Roman Catholic church. Una, 
having heard of the Red -cross 
Knight's misfortune, sends Prince 
Authur to his rescue, who slays the 
giant, wounds the beast, releases the 
knight, and strips Duessa of *her 
splendid trappings, upon which she 
flees into the wilderness to hide her 
shame from the world. 

At present, though her eyes [those of " pop- 
ish bigotry"] are blindfolded, her hands are 
tied behind her, like the false Ihiessd's. 


The people had now to see tyranny naked. 
That foul Duessa was stripped of her gorgeous 
ornaments. Macaulay. 

Compassion and romantic honor, the prej- 
udices of childhood, and the venerable names 
of history, threw over them a spell as potent 
as that of Ihiessa; and, like the Red-cross 
Knightj they thought they were doing battle 
for an injured beauty, while they defended a 
false and loathsome sorceress. Macaulay. 

Duke Humphrey. 1. A name used 
in an old expression, " To dine with 
Duke Humphrey," that is, to have no 
dinner at all. This phrase is said to 
have arisen from the circumstance 
that a part of the public walks in 
old Saint Paul's, London, was called 
Duke Humphrey's Walk, and that 
those who were without the means 
of defraying their expenses at a 
tavern were formerly accustomed to 
w^alk here in hope of procuring an 

j8®=- " In the form Humfrey, it [Huni- 
fred] was much used by the great house 
of Bohun, and through his mother, their 
heiress, descended to the ill-fated son of 
Henry IV., who has left it an open ques- 
tion whether 'dining with Duke Hum- 
phrey ' alludes to the report that he was 
starved to death, or to the Elizabethan 
habit for poor gentility to beguile the 
dinner-hour by a promenade near his 
tomb in old St. Paul's.-' Yonge. 

It distinctly appears . . . that one Diggory 
Chuzzlewit was m the habit or perpetually 
dining with Duke Humphrey. So constantly 
was he a guest at that nobleman's table, in- 
deed, and so unceasingly were his Grace's 
hospitality and companionship forced, as it 

were, upon him, that we find him uneasy, and 
full of constraint and reluctance; writing his 
friends to the effect, that, if they fail to do so 
and so by bearer, he will have no choice but 
to dine again with Duke Humphrey. Dickens. 

2. Duke Humphrey, the Good. 
See Good Duke Humphrey. 

Dulcaxaara, Doctor. See Doctor 

Dulcifluous Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
Dulcijluus.] A name given to An- 
tony Andreas (d. 1320), a Spanish 
Minorite, and a theologian of the 
school of Duns Scotus. 

Dulcinea del Toboso (dul-sin'e-$ 
del to-bo'zo ; Sp, pron. dool-the- 
na^a del to-bo'zo). In Cen^antes's ro- 
mance, the mistress of Don Quixote. 
" Her name was Aldonza Lorenzo, 
and her he pitched upon to be the 
lady of his thoughts; then casting 
about for a name which should have 
'some affinity with her own, and yet 
, incline toward that of a great lady 
"and princess, he resolved to call her 
Dulcinea del Toboso (for she was 
born at that place), a name, to his 
thinking, harmonious, uncommon, 
and significant." The name Dulcinea 
is often used as synonymous with 
mistress or sweetheart. 

I must ever have some Dulcinea in my 
head, — it harmonizes the soul. Sterne. 

If thou expectest a fine description of this 
young woman, in order to entitle thee to taunt 
me with having found a Dulcinea in the in- 
habitant of a fisherman's cottage on the Sol- 
way Frith, thou shalt be disappointed. 

Sir W. Scott. 

His moodiness must have made him per- 
fectly odious to his friends under the tents, 
who like a jolly fellow, and laugh at a melan- 
choly wamor always sighing afjer Z)M?cmea at 
home. Tliackeray. 

Du-Inaine^ A lord attending on the 
king of Navarre, in Shakespeare's 
" Love's Labor 's Lost." 

Dumnble-dtkes. A young and bash- 
ful Scotch laird, in love with Jeanie 
Deans, in Sir Walter Scott's novel, 
" The Heart of Mid-Lothian." 

Dumb Ox. [Lat. Bos Mutus.] St. 
Thomas Aquinas ; — said to have 
been so named by his fellow-pupils 
at Cologne, on account of his silence 
and apparent stupidity. His teacher, 
however, detected the genius that 
was wrapped up under his taciturnity. 

^nd for the Kemarks and Rules to which the numbers a'^^r certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




and remarked, that, if that ox should 
once begin to bellow, the world would 
be filled with the noise. He was 
afterwards known as the " Angel of 
the Schools" and the " Angelic Doc- 

J9^ '' He was the Aristotle of Chris- 
tianity, whose legislation he drew up, en- 
deavoring to reconcile logic with faith for 
the suppression of all heresy. . . . His 
overpowering task utterly absorbed this 
extraordinary man, and occupied his 
whole life, to the exclusion of all else, — a 
life that was entirely one of abstraction, 
and whose events are ideas. From five 
years of age he took the Scriptures in his 
hand, and henceforward never ceased 
from meditation. In the schools, he was 
called by his companions tke great dumb 
ox of Sicily. He only broke this silence 
to dictate ; and when sleep closed the 
eyes of his body, those of his soul re- 
mained open, and he went on still dic- 
tating. One day, at sea, he was not con- 
gci»us of a fearful tempest ; another, so 
deep was his abstraction, he did not \Bt 
fall a lighted candle which was burning 
bis fingers." Michelet, Trans. Miche- 
let, in a note, says of this surname, that 
it is "full of meaning to all who have 
noticed the dreamy and monumental ap- 
pearance of the ox of Southern Italy." 
St. Thomas is described as a large-bodied 
man, fat and upright, of a brown com- 
plexion, and with a large head, somewhat 

• Of a truth it almost makes me laugh, 
To see men leaving the golden grain, 
To gather in piles the pitiful chaff 
That old Peter Lombard thrashed with his 

To have it caught up and tossed again 
On the horns of the Ihtmb Ox of Cologne ! 


Dun'can Cdungk^Sn). A king of Scot- 
land immortalized in Shakespeare's 
tragedy of " Macbeth." Shakespeare 
represents him as murdered by Mac- 
beth, who succeeds to the Scottish 
throne; but, according to veritable 
history, he fell in battle. 

Dunces* Parliament. See Parlia- 
ment OF Dunces. 

Dundas, Starvation. See Starva- 
tion DUNDAS. 

Dun-drear'y, Lord. A grotesque 
character in Taylor's comedy, " Our 
American Cousm ; " noted for his 
aristocratic haughtiness of manner, 
his weakness and excessive indolence 

of mind, his habit of discontinuity 
in expression, his great admiration 
of " Brother Sam," and his suspi- 
cion of insanity in his friends, if, 
from any motive which he does not 
understand, they constantly cross his 
convenience. The name is used al- 
lusively to characterize any empty 
Dun Ed'in. A Celtic assimilation of 
the name Edinburgh {i. e., Edwin's 
burgh), serving at the same time as a 
descriptive designation of its site, the 
words meaning " the face of a rock." 
In Scottish poetry, the name is often 
used as a synonym for Edinburgh, 
[Written also Dunedin, as a sin- 
gle word.] 

"When the streets of high Dunedin 
Saw lances gleam, and falchions redden, 
And heard the slogan's deadly yell,— 
Then the Chief ofBranksome fell. 

Sir W. Scott. 
No, not yet, thou high Dun Edin^ 

Shalt thou totter to thy fall; 
Though thy bravest ana thy strongest 

Are not there to man the wall. Aytoun. 

Dun-shun'n^r, Augustus. A nom 
de plume of Professor William Ed- 
monstoune Aytoun (1813-1865), in 
" Blackwood's Magazine." 

Durandal (doo'ron'dal'). [Of uncer- 
tain etymology. The root is probably 
the Fr. dur, hard, durer, to resist.] 
The name of a marvelous sword of 
Orlando, the renowned hero of ro- 
mance. It is said to have been the 
workmanship of the fairies, who en- 
dued it with such wonderful properties 
that its owner was able to cleave the 
Pyrenees with it at a blow. See Or- 
lando. [Written also Dur an dart, 
Durindane, Durindale, Du- 
rindana, Durenda, Durendal, 
and Durlindana.] 

Durandarte (doo-rSn-daf 'tS). A fab- 
ulous hero of Spain, celebrated in the 
ancient ballads of that countrj^ and 
in the romances of chivalrj^ Cer- 
vantes has introduced him, in " Don 
Quixote," in the celebrated adven- 
ture of the knight in the Cave of 
Montesinos. He is represented as a 
cousin of Montesinos, and, like him, 
a peer of France. At the battle of 
Roncesvalles, he expires in the arms 
of Montesinos. Both of these char- 

ner* For the "Key to the Scheme of Fronundation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




acters are regarded by Ticknor as 
imaginary personages. 

In the mean time, as Durandarte says in the 
Cave of Montesinos, " Patience, and shuflle 
the cards." ^ Byron. 

Dur'den, Dame (dur^dn). 1. The 
heroine of a popular English song. 
She is described as a notable house- 
wife, and the mistress of numerous 
serving-girls and laboring men. 
2. A sobriquet applied to Esther 

Summerson, the heroine of Dickens's 
" Bleak House." 
Durga (dobr^ga). {Hindu Myth.) The 
consort of Siva, represented as having 
ten arms. 

Dur'wdrd, Quen'tin. The hero of 
Scott's novel of the same name; a 
young archer of the Scottish guard 
m the service of Louis XL of 

and for the Bemarks and Bules to which the numbers after certain wordg refer, see pp. ziv-xxxii 





Eagle of Brittany. [Fr. VAigle de 
H/'ttayne.] A title bestowed upon 
Bertrand du Guesclin (d. 1380), a 
native of Brittany, and constable of 
France, renowned for his gallantry 
and military skill. 

!Eagle of Divines. A title bestowed 
upon Thomas Aquinas, the famous 
theologian of the thirteenth century. 
See Dumb Ox. 

Eagle of French Doctors. [Fr. 
VAlyle des Docteurs de France,'] A 
surname given to Pierre d' Ailly ( 1350- 
1425), a celebrated French cardinal 
and theological disputant. 

Eagle of Meaux (mo). [Fr. DAigle 
de Meaux.] A name popularly given 
to Jacques Benigne Bossuet (1627- 

. 1704), a French divine celebrated for 
his extraordinary powers of pulpit 
eloquence, and for many years bishop 
of Meaux. 

Eastern States. A name popularly 
given, in America, to the six New 
England States, — Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, and Connecticut. 

Eblis {Arab. pron. ib-lees'). The 
name given by the Arabians to the 
prince of the apostate angels, whom 
they represent as exiled to the in- 
fernal regions for refusing to worship 
Adam at the command of the Su- 
preme. Eblis alleged, in justification 
of his refusal, that he himself had 
been formed of ethereal fire, while 
Adam was only a creature of clay. 
To gratify his revenge, Eblis tempted 
Adam and Eve, and succeeded in 
leading them to their fall from inno- 
cence, in consequence of which they 
were separated. The Mohammedans 
say, that, at the moment of the birth 
of their prophet, the throne of Eblis 
was precipitated to the bottom of hell, 
and the idols of the Gentiles were 
overturned. According to some, he 
is the same as the Azazel of the 
Hebrews. [Written also Iblis.] 

Ebony. [That is, Black wood.] A 
humorous appellation given to Mr. 

William Blackwood (1777-1834), tht 
original publisher of " Blackwood's 
Magazine." He was so called by 
James Hogg, the " Ettrick Shep- 
herd," in a famous jeu d esprit, en- 
titled " The Chaldee Manuscript," 
which appeared in the number for 
October, 1817, but was immediately 
suppressed on account of its perso- 
nahties and alleged immorality. The 
name is sometimes used as a synonym 
for the magazine itself. 
Egh'o {Lat. pron. e'ko). [Gr. 'Hxw.] 
{Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) An oread, who 
fell desperatelv in love with Narcis- 
sus. As her love was not returned, 
she pined away in grief, until at last 
there remained of her nothing but 
her voice. 

Eckhardt, The Faithful (ek^haft, 
64). [Ger. Der treue Edchardt.] A 
legendary hero of Germany, repre- 
sented as an old man with a white 
staff, who, in Eisleben, appears on 
the evening of Maundy - Thursday, 
and drives all the people into their 
houses, to save them from being 
harmed by a teryible procession of 
dead men," headless bodies, and two- 
legged horses,, which immediately 
after passes by. Other traditions 
represent him as the companion of 
the knight Tannhauser, and as warn- 
ing travelers from the Venusberg, the 
mountain of fatal delights in the old 
mythology of Germany. Tieck has 
founded a story upon this legend, 
which has been translated into Eng- 
lish by Carlyle, in which Eckhardt 
is described as the good servant who 
perishes to save his master's children 
from the seducing fiends of the moun- 
tain. The German proverb, " Thou 
art the faithful Eckhardt ; thou warn- 
est every one," is founded upon this 
tradition. See Tannhauser, Sir. 

Ecstatic Doctor. [Lat. Doctor Ecstat- 
tews.] An honorary appellation con- 
ferred upon Jean Ruysbroek (1294- 
1381), one of the old schoolmen. He 
was prior of the Canons Regular of 

Ot;^ For the " Key" to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




St. Augustine atGriinthal in Brabant, 
and a mystic. 

Edgar. Son to Gloster, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " Lear." 

Edict, Perpetual. See Perpetual 

Edict of Nantes (nants, or no^t, 62). 
{Fr. Hist.) A celebrated decree, 
dated at Nantes, in 1598, by which 
Henry IV. of France granted tolera- 
tion to his Protestant subjects. It was 
revoked by Louis XIV., on the 18th 
of October, 1685. The result of this 
despotic act was, that, rather than 
conform to the established religion, 
400,000 Protestants — among the 
most industrious, intelligent, and re- 
ligious of the nation — quitted France, 
and took refuge in Great Britain, 
Holland, Prussia, Switzerland, and 

Edict of Restitution. (Ger. Hist.) 
A decree issued, in 1629, by the Em- 
peror Frederick II. of Germany, re- 
quiring the relinquishment of many 
church lands. 

Ed'in, or E-di'n$. A poetical name 
for Fdinhurffh, said to have been in- 
troduced by Buchanan, the Scottish 

Edina! Scotia's darling seat I 
All hail thy palaces and towers, 

"Where once, beneath a monarch's feet. 
Sat legislation's sovereign powers. 


Edmonton, "Witch of. See Witch 

OF Edmontox. 
Edmund. A bastard son of Gloster, 

in Shakespeare's tragedy of " Lear." 
Edwin. 1. The hero of Goldsmith's 

ballad entitled " The Hermit." 

2. The hero of Mallet's ballad of 
" Edwin and Emma." 

3. The hero of Beattie's " Minstrel." 
i3galit6 {t'gt'X^'W). [Fr., equality.] 

A name assumed, in 1792, by Louis 
Philippe Joseph, Duke of Orleans 
(born 1747, guillotined 1793), in place 
of his hereditary title, in order to 
court the favor of the populace. 
E-ge'ri-^ ( 9 ). ( Rmn. Myth. ) A nymph 
from whom King Numa Pompilius 
was fabled to have received his in- 
structions respecting the forms of pub- 
lic worship which he established in 

Rome. Their interviews took place in 
a grove near Aricia, or, according to 
some versions of the story, near Rome. 

E-ge'us. Father to Hermia, in 
Shakespeare's " Midsummer-Night's 

Egla-mour. 1. A character in Shake- 
speare's " Two Gentlemen of Vero- 
na," who is an agent of Silvia in 
her escape. 

2. (Sir.) A valiant knight of the 
Round Table, celebrated in the ro- 
mances of chivalry, and in an old 
ballad. [Written also E g 1 a m o r e.] 

Eglan-ttne, Madame. The name 
of the prioress, in Chaucer's "Can- 
terbury Tales." She is distinguished 
for the mixture, in her manners and 
costume, of gentle worldly vanities 
and ignorance of the world ; for her 
gayety, and the ever-visible difficulty 
she feels in putting on an air of 
courtly hauteur; for the lady-like 
delicacy of her manners at table ; and 
for her partiality to lap-dogs. 

Egypt. A cant popular designation 
of the southern portion of the State 
of Illinois, — bemg a figurative al- 
lusion to the " thick darkness " in 
which ancient Egypt was involved 
for three days, in the time of Moses ; 
or, as some say, to the extraordinary 
fertility of that country. The inhab- 
itants of Southern Illinois have had 
the reputation of being, in general, 
extremely ignorant. In its agricult- 
ural capabilities, and in actual fruit- 
fulness, this region is unsurpassed, if 
not unequaled, by any other in the 
United States. 

Egjrpt, Iiittle. See Lords of Lit- 
tle Egypt. 

Egyptian Thief. A personage al- 
luded to by the Duke in Shake- 
speare's " Twelfth Night " (a. v., sc. 
1 ). The reference is to the story of 
Thyamis, a robber-chief and native 
of Memphis, who, knowing he must 
die, would have stabbed his captive 
Chariclea, a woman whom he loved. 

E-laine'. A mj'thic lady connected 
with the romances of King Arthur's 
court. Her story is treated bv Ten- 
nyson in his " Idylls of the King." 

( and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 

\ 8 




Elbow. A constable, in Shakespeare's 
" Measure for Measure," — ignorant 
and teeble-minded, but modest and 

El Do-ra'do, or El Do-ra'do. [Sp., 
the golden land.] A name given by 
the {Spaniards to an imaginary coun- 
try, supposed, in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, to be situated in the interior of 
South America, between the rivers 
Orinoco and Amazon, and to abound 
in gold and all manner of precious 
stones. Expeditions were fitted out 
for the purpose of discovering this 
fabulous region ; and, though all such 
attempts proved abortive, the rumors 
of its existence continued to be be- 
lieved down to the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. 

jg^ It is said that the name was at 
first applied not to a country, but to a 
man, "e/ rey dorado.''^ Sir Walter Ka- 
leigh, in his " Discovery of the Large, 
Rich, and Beautiful Empire of Guiana," 
gives a description of the rising of this 
gilded king, whose chamberlains, every 
morning, after having rubbed his naked 
body with aromatic oils, blew powdered 
gold over it through long canes. After 
the name came to be used as the designa- 
tion of a country, it seems to have been 
variously applied, and the expeditions in 
search of the golden land had different 
destinations. The whole of Guiana was 
sometimes included in the term. Hum- 
boldt, while exploring the countries upon 
the Upper Orinoco, was informed that the 
portion of Eastern Guiana lying between 
the rivers Essequibo and Branco was " the 
classical soil of the Dorado of Parima." 
Francis Orellana, a companion of Pizarro, 
first spread Jn Europe the account of this 
fabulous region. 

In short, the whole comedy is a sort of El 
Dorado of wit, where the precious metal is 
thrown about by all classes as carelessly as if 
they had not the least idea of its value. 

T. Moore. 

There stoodest thou, in deep mountain am- 
phitheater, on umbrageous lawns, in the 
serene solitude; stately, massive, all of granite, 
glittering in the western sunbeams, like a 
palace of El Dorado, overlaid with precious 
metal. Carlyle. 

E-lec'tr&. [Gr. 'HXe'fCTpa.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A daughter of Aga- 
memnon and Clytemnestra, and the 
sister of Iphigenia. She became the 
accomplice of Orestes in the murder 
of their mother. S ee C lytemnestra 
and Orestes. 

Eleven Thousand Vir^ns, The. 
Celebrated characters in Roman 
Catholic histor)^ The legend con- 
cerning them — which underwent 
some enlargements in the course of 
time — can be traced back as far as 
the ninth century, and is substan- 
tially as follows: Ursula, a saint of 
the Catholic church, being demanded 
in marriage by a pagan prince, and 
fearing to refuse him, apparently con- 
sented, but obtained a respite of three 
years, and a grant of ten triremes and 
ten noble companions, each, as well 
as herself, attended by one tliousand 
virgins. She passed the three years 
with her virgins in nautical exercises ; 
and when the marriage-day arrived, a 
sudden wind arose, and wafted them 
to the mouth of the Rhine, and thence 
to Basel. Here they left their vessels, 
and made a pilgrimage on foot to 
Rome. On their return, they encoun- 
tered at Cologne an army of Huns, by 
whom they were massacred, Ursula 
having refused an offer of marriage 
from the prince. Their corpses were 
buried by the people of Cologne, and 
a church was erected to their honor, 
in which bones, said to be those of 
Ursula and her companions,' are ex- 
hibited to this day. 

J8^ " This extravagant number of 
martyred virgins, which is not specified 
in the earlier legends, is said [Maury, 
' Legendes Pieuses,' p. 214] to have 
arisen from the name of one of the com- 
panions of Ursula being Undecimella^ — 
an explanation very plausible, though I 
must confess that I have not been able to 
find any authority for the name Undeci- 
mella.^'' Max Mxiller. 

Eli-§. A pseudonym under which 
Charles Lamb wrote a series of cel- 
ebrated essays, which were begun in 
the "London Magazine," and were 
afterward collected and published by 

4®^ " The establishment of the ' Lon- 
don Magazine,' under the auspices of Mr. 
John Scott, occasioned Lamb's introduc- 
tion to the public by the name under 
color of which he acquired his most bril- 
liant reputation, — ' Elia.' The adoption 
of this signature was purely accidental. 
His first contribution to the magazine 
was a description of the old Sputh - Sea 
House, where Lamb had passed a few 

1^* Foi' the " Key to the Scheme of PronuuciatioB,'* with 4^e accompanying Explanations, 




months' novitiate as a clerk, thirty years 
before, and of its inmates who had long 
passed away ; and, remembering the 
name of a gay, light-hearted foreigner, 
who fluttered there at that time, he sub- 
scribed his name to the essay." Talfourd. 
Lamb's second paper was unsigned, and 
the printer repeated the signature which 
had been affixed to the first paper. This 
led to its being attached to subsequent 
contributions ; and Lamb used it until, 
in his " Last Letters of Elia," he bade it 
a reluctant farewell. 

He is also the true Elia, whose essays are 
extant in a little volume published a year or 
two since, and rather better known from that 
name without a meaning than from any thing 
he has done, or can ho|)e to do, in his own. 

Charles Lamb, Autobiographical Sketch, 1827. 

Comfort thee, O thou mourner, yet a while; 

Again shall Elia's smile 
Eefi^sh thy heart, where heart can ache no 

What is it we deplore ? Landor. 

El'i-dfire. A legendary king of Brit- 
ain, fabled to have been advanced to 
the throne in place of his brother Ar- 
tegal, or Arthgallo, who was deposed 
bj powerful nobles to whom he had 
given great oft'ense. Returning to 
the country after a long exile, Artegal 
accidentally encountered his broth- 
er» who received him with open arms, 
took him home to the palace, and 
reinstated him in his old position, 
abdicating the throne himself, after 
feigning a dangerous illness, hj which 
he succeeded in inducing his peers 
once more to swear allegiance to his 
brother. Artegal reigned for ten 
years, wisely and well, and, after his 
death, was" succeeded by Elidure. 
Wordsworth has taken the story of 
these two brothers for the subject of 
a poem. See Artegal. 

El'i-6t, George. A pseudonym a- 
dopted by Mrs. Mary A. (Evans) 
Lewes, a popular and very able nov- 
elist of the present day, author of 
"Adam Bede," "The Mill on the 
Floss," and other works. 

E-li'sa, or E-lis'si. Another name 
of Dido, See Dido. 

ElivSgar (S-le-vS'gaf). [Old Norse 
elf^ stream, and vaga, to wander.] 
( Scand. Myth.) The name of a great 
chaotic river flowing from a^ fountain 
in Niflheim. [Written also Eli va- 
ga and Elivagor.] 

Elm City. The same as City of Elms. 
See City of Elms. 

Elocution "Walker. A name popu- 
larly given, in his lifetime, to John 
Walker, the English orthoepist and 
lexicographer (1732-1807), who was 
tor a long time a distinguished teacher 
of elocution among the higher classes 
in London. 

Eloquent Doctor. [Lat. Doctor Fa- 
cundus.] An honorary appellation 
given to Peter Aureolus, Archbishop 
of Aix in the fourteenth century. 

El'shen-d§r the Kecluse. The 
" Black Dwarf," in Scott's novel of 
this name. [Called also Canny El- 

El'speth. 1. A character in Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's "Antiquary." 

2. An old serv^ant to Dandie Din- 
mont, in Scott's " Guy Mannering." 

E-l^'si-um (e-lizh^i-um). [Gr. 'HAv- 
criov.] {Gr. ^ Roni. Myth.) The 
blissful abode of the virtuous dead, 
placed by Homer in the west, on 
the border of the Ocean stream ; by 
Hesiod and Pindar in the Fortunate 
Islands, or Isles of the Blest, in the 
Western Ocean; by Virgil in the 
under-world, with an entrance from 
a cave on the shore of Lake Avemus, 
in Campania. [Called also Elysian 

ErnHbro. A common Scottish corrup- 
tion of Edinburgh. 

Emerald Isle. A name sometimes 
given to Ireland, on account of the 
peculiar bright green look of the sur- 
face of the country. It was first 
used by Dr. William Drennan (1754- 
1820), author of " Glendalloch, and 
other Poems." It occurs in his poem 
entitled " Erin." > 

•• When Erin first rose from the dark-swelling 

God blessed the green island; he saw it was 

The Emerald of Europe, it sparkled, it 

shone, ' 

In the ring of this world the most precious 


" Arm of Erin, prove strong; but be gentle as 

And, uplifted to strike, still be ready to save; 
Nor one feeling of vengeance presume to 

The cause or the men of the Emerald Isle." 

end for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 


116 ENG 

^mile (S'mel'). The subject of Jean 
Jacques Rousseau's novel of the same 
name, and his ideal of a perfectly 
educated young man. 

E-mil'i-a. 1. The lady-love of 
Palamon and Arcite in Chaucer's 
" Kniffht's Tale." See Palamox. 

2. A lady attending Hermione, in 
Shakespeare's " Winter's Tale." 

3. Wife to lago, and waiting-wom- 
an to Desdemona, in Shakespeare's 
tragedy of " Othello; " a woman of 

• thorough vulgarity, loose principles, 
and low cunning, united to a high de- 
gree of spirit, energetic feeling, and 
strong sense. 

4. The sweetheart of Peregrine 
Pickle, in Smollett's novel entitled 
" The Adventures of Peregrine 

Enb-ped'o-cl$§. [Gr. 'Ei*7re5oKA^9.] 
A famous Sicilian philosopher who 
flourished about the year 450 b. c, 
and was the reputed possessor of mi- 
raculous powers. There was a tradi- 
tion that he secretly threw himself into 
the crater of Mount iEtna,in order that 
his mysterious disappearance might 
be taken as a proof of his divine origin. 
Lucian says that the volcano threw 
out his sandals, and thus destroyed 
the popular belief in his divinity. 

Others came single; he who, to be deemed 
A god, leaped fondly into Etna flames, 
Empedocles; . . . and many more too long. 

Emperor of Believers. A title of 
Omar I. (634), father-in-law of Mo- 
hannned, and second caliph of the 
Mussulmans. He was one of the most 
zealous apostles of Islamism. 

Emperor of the "West. A sobriquet 
given to John Murray (1778-1843), 
an eminent London publisher, who 
chantrM his place of business from 
Fleet Street, in ** the City," to Albe- 
marle Street, at the West End. 

Empire City. The city of New 
York, the chief city of the western 
world, and the metropolis of the Em- 
pire State. 

Empire State. A popular name of 
the State of New York, the most 
populous and the wealthiest State in 
the Union. 

• Lol the Empire State is shaking 

The shackles from her hand; 
"With the rugged North is waking 
The level s u nset land I Whittier. 

En-cel'a-dus. [Gr. 'Ev/ceAaSo?.] {Gr, 
4 Rom. Myth.) A son of Titan and 
Terra, and the most powerful of all the 
giants who conspired against Jupiter, 
and afttempted to scale heaven. He 
was struck bv Jupiter's thunderbolts, 
and overwhelmed under Mount ^tna. 
According to the poets, the flames of 
^tna proceeded from the breath of 
Enceladus, and, as often as he turned 
his weary side, the whole island of 
Sicily felt the motion, and shook from 
its very foundations. 

She holds her adversary as if annihilated; 
such adversary being, all the while, like some 
buned Enceladus, who, to gain the smallest 
freedom, must stir a whole Trinacria rSicilyl 
with its Etnas. Carlyle. 

Endor, Witch of. See Witch op 

En DOR. 

En-dym'i-6n. [Gr. •Ei/Sv^i'wv.] ( Gr, 
4- Rom. Myth. ) A beautiftd shepherd- 
youth of Caria, who spent his life in 
perpetual sleep, for which the old 
legends assign various causes. Diana 
is Tabled to have come down to him 
nightly, as he lay in a cave of JS^punt 
Latmus, that she might kiss him 

He stood, 
Fine as those shapely spirits, heaven-de- 
scended, ^ 
Hermes, or young Apollo, or whom she, 
The moon-lit Dian, on the I^atmian hill. 
When all the woods and all the winds were 
Kissed with the kiss of immortality. 

B. W.Procter. 

England, Boast of. See Tom-a-lin. 

England, Clothier of.-^ See Jack 
OF Newbury. 

England's Pride and "Westmin- 
ster's Glory. An honorary title or 
sobriquet given for a long time to ' 
Sir Francis Burdett (1770-1844), the 
most popular English politician of 
his time, and in particular the idol 
of Westminster, which he represented 
in Parliament for nearly thirty years. 

English Ar/is-toph'5-n$§. A title 
assumed by Samuel Foote (1722- 
1777), the comic dramatist. [Called 
also The Modern Aristophanes.^ 

English Bas-tille'. A nickname 
given, about the first of the present 

eS~ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




century, to the jail of Cold-Bath 
Fields, in London, Irom the number . 
of state-prisoners in it. 

Snglish Hob'be-ma. A designation 
popularly given to Patrick (or Peter) 
JS'asmyth (d. 1831), a Scottish land- 
scape-painter whose style was thought 
to resemble that of the great Flemish 
master Minderhout Hobbema (1611- 
1699), though it really had little in 
common with it e:^cept minuteness of 

Xlnglish Jus-tin'i-^n. A name often 
given to Edward I., whose reign is 
remarkable for the progress which 
was made in it toward the settlement 

' of the laws and constitution of Eng- 
land. Sir Matthew Hale remarks, 
that more was done in the first thir- 
teen years of this reign to settle and 
establish the distributive justice of 
the kingdom than in all the next 
four centuries. And similarly Black- 
stone says, " Upon the whole*, we may 
obsers^e that the very scheme and 
model of the administration of com- 
mon justice between party and party 
was entirely settled by this king." 

English JuVe-nai. An appellation 
given to John Oldham (1653-1683), 
a distinguished poet, on account of the 
severity of his satires, and his spirited 
delineation of contemporary life and 
manners. " 

English Mersenne (mef'sen'). John 
Collins, an English mathematician 
and physicist ( 1 624-1 683 ) : — so called 
from IVIarin M#rsenne, a contempo- 
rary French philosopher and mathe- 
matician, who was celebrated for the 
wonderful extent of his erudition. 

J8®^ " In short, Mr. Collins was like the 
register of all the new acquisitions made 
in the mathematical sciences ; the maga- 
zine to which the curious had frequent 
recourse : which acquired him the appel- 
lation of the English Mersenne." 


English Opium-eater. A name often 
given to Thomas De Quincey, one of 
the most remarkable English writers 
of the present century, celebrated 
for his eccentricities, induced — at 
least in part — by the habit of eating 
opium, and proclaimed by himself to 

the world in a well-known volume of 

English Pale. See Pale, The. 

English Palladio (pal-laMe-o, 102). 
A surname given to Inigo Jones 
(1573-1653), who introduced into 
Eligland the Italian or " classic " 
style of architecture as exempliiied in 
the works of Andrea Palladio ( 1 518- 
1580) and his school. [Called also 
The English Vitruvius.'\ 

English Pe'trargh. A name given 
by Sir Walter Kaleigh to Sir Philip 
Sidney (1554-1586), who, like Pe- 
trarch (1304-1374), was one of the 
earliest cultivators and refiners of 
his native language. His writings, 
as well as those of his Italian prede- 
cessor, are characterized by a rare 
delicacy of poetical feeling, and great 
brilliancy of imagination. 

English Kabelais (rab'l^'). 1. A 
jpame often given to Jonathan Swift 
(1667-1745), whose writings resem- 
ble in some points those of the great 
French satirist. 

2. A name sometimes given to 
Lawrence Sterne (1713-1768), the 
author of " Tristram Shandy " and 
" The Sentimental Journey," and the 
most airy and graceful of English 
humorists. "The cast of the whole 
Shandean history," says Fitzgerald, 
" its tone and manner and thought, is 
such as would come from one satu- 
rated, as it were, with Rabelais, and 
the school that imitated Kabelais." 
. 3. The same name has been giv- 
en to Thomas Amory (1691-178;)), 
author of " The Life and Opinions of 
John Buncle, Esq." See Buncle, 

J8^ " The soul of Francis Rallelais 
pa^ed into John Amory. . . . Both were 
physicians, and enemies of too much 
gravity. Their great business was to en- 
joy life." Hazlitt. " In point of ani- 
mal spirits, love of good cheer, and some- 
thing of a mixture of scholarship, the- 
ology, and profane reading, he may be 
held to deserve the title ; but he has no 
claim to the Frenchman's greatness of 
genius, freedom from bigotry, and pro- 
foundness of wit and humor. He might 
have done very well for a clerk to Rjibe- 


and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after ce^^Sii w(H-d» reft^,^ B|e^^^xiV' 


T • 7. 




lais ; and his master would have laughed 
quite as much at, as with, him." 

Leigh Hunt. 

English Ros'ci-us (rosha-us). An 
honorary name or title given to 
David Garrick (1716-1779), the most 
eminent actor of his day upon the 
English stage. * 

EngUsh Sap'pho (saffo). A title 
given to Mrs. Marv Darby Robinson 
(1708-1800), mistress of George IV. 
She acquired a brilliant reputation for 

• beauty and wit, and was the author 
of some well -esteemed lyric poems. 
See Della Cruscans, Perdita. 

English Sen'e-cS. A name given to 
Joseph Hall ( 1574-1 65G), an English 
bishop remarkable for his scholar- 
ship, piety, and misfortunes. [Galled 
also Tke ChHstian Seneca.^ 

J9^ " He was commonly called our 
English Seneca, for the pureness, plain- 
netis, and fullness of his style." Thomas 
Fuller. " It is much to our present pur- 
pose to observe thut the style of his pn;ise > 
is strongly titictured with the manner of 
Seneca. The writer of the Satires is per- 
ceptible in some of his gravest polemical 
or scriptural treatises, which are per- 
petually interspersed with excursive il- 
lustrations, familiar allusions, and ob- 
servations in life." Thotnas Warton. 

English Solomon. See Solomon of 

English T6r'encQ. A title some- 
times given to Richard Cumberland 
(1732-1811), an English dramatist 
and miscellaneous writer. 

The Terence of England, the mender of hearts. 

English Tin'to-ret. A name given 
bv Charles I. to William Dobson 
(1610-1646), a distinguished Eng- 
lish portrait and historical painter. 
[Called also The Erifflish Vandyck.] 

E'nid. A mythical lady mentioned 
in a Welsh triad as one of the three 
celebrated ladies of Arthur's court; a 
beautiful picture of conjugal patience 
and affection. Her story — which is 
not included in the general cycle of 
romances — has lately been rescued 
from obscuritv by Tenm'son, in his 
" Idylls of the King." 

Enlightened poctor. See Illumi- 
nated Doctor. 

Ent616chie {6r^^tPWshe% 62). The 
name given by Rabelais to an im- 
aginary^ kingdom, which he repre- 
sents as governed by Queen Quintes- 
sence, and as visited by Pantagruel 
and his companions in their search 
to tind the oracle of the Holy Bottle. 
This country symbolizes the taste 
for speculative science, and is, with- 
out doubt, the foundation of the isl- 
and of Laputa, in Swift's fictitious 
*' Travels " of Lemuel Gulliver. In 
the Peripatetic philosophy, entelechy 
signified an actuality, or an object 
completely actualized, in contradis- 
tinction to mere potential existence. 

En-tellus. See Dares. 

E'os. [Gr. 'Hoi?.] {Gr. Myth.) The 
goddess of the dawn; the same as 
Aurora, See Aurora. 

Eph^i-al'tes. [Gr. 'Ec^ioAttj?.] {Gr, 
^ Rom. Myth.) One of the giants 
who made war upon the gods. He 
was deprived of his left -eye by Apollo, 
and of the right by Hercules. 

E-pig'o-nt. \Gr. 'ETrtyoi/ot, the after- 
born.] A name given to the sons of 
the seven Grecian heroes who laid 
siege to Thebes. See Seven against 

Ep'!-men'i-d^s. [Gr. 'ETrt/aeviSTj?.] A 
philosopher and poet of Crete, who 
lived in the sixth or seventh century 
B. c. His history has reached us only 
in a mythical form. He is said to have 
fallen asleep in a cave, when a boy, 
and to have remained in that state 
for fifty-seven years. On waking and 
going out into the broad daylight, 
he was greatly perplexed and aston- 
ished to find every thing around him 
altered. But what was more wonder- 
ftil still, during his long period of 
slumber, his soul, released from its 
fleshly prison, had been busily en- 
gaged in the study of medicine and 
natural philosophy ; and when it again 
became incarnated, Epimenides found 
himself a man of great knowledge and 
wisdom. Goethe has written a poem 
on the subject, " Des Epimenides Er- 
wachen." See Klaus, Peter, and 
Winkle, Rip Van. 

Like EnimenifJes, I have been sleeping in a 
cave; and, waking, I see those whom I left 

80* For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




children are bearded men; and towns have 
sprung up in the landscapes which I left as 
solitary wastes. JSir E. Bulwer Lytton, 

Ep'l-me'the&s. [Gr. 'ETrijurj^eus.] (6'r. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A brother of Prome- 
theus, and the hj^sband of Pandora. 
See PANDokA, 

lilraste (^'rast')- The heroine in Mo- 
liere's comedy entitled "Les Pa- 

fir'5-to. [Gr. 'EpaTw.] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) One of the nine Muses. She 
presided over lyric, tender and ama- 
tory poetry. 

£r/a-tos'tra-tus. See Herostra- 


Er'e-bus. [Gr. 'EpejSo?, darkness.] 
( (Jr. if Rom. Myth. ) A son of Chaos, 
and a god of hell. The name is used 
by the poets to denote the dark and 
gloomy cavern under the earth, 
passed through by the shades in go- 
mg to Hades. 

E-re'tri-an Bull. An appellation of 
Menedemus of Eretria, in Euboea, a 
Greek philosopher of the fourth cen- 
tury B. c, and founder of the Ere- 
trian school, which was a branch of 
the Socratic. He was so called on 
account of the gravity of his coun- 

E-righ'tlio. [Gr. 'Epixflw.] A famous 
Thessalian witch consulted by Pom- 

Such a subject even the powerful Erichtho 

was compelled to select, as alone capable of 

being re-animated even fay her potent magic 

Sir W. Scott. 

E'rin (9). An early name of Ireland, 
now used as a poetic appellative. See 
Emerald Isle. 

E-rin'nys {pi. E-rin'ny-S§). [Gr. 

'Eptrvv?; pi. 'Epti'i've?, '^ptvvv<;.) \^Gr. 

Myth.) An avenging deity, one of 
the Eumenides, or Furies. See Fu- 

E'ris (9). [Gr. 'Epi?.) {Gr. Myth.) 
The goddess of discord ; a sister of 
Mars, and a daughter of Night ; the 
same as the Roman Discordia. 

Erl-king. [Ger. Erl-konig, Erlenko- 
nifi^ derived by some from the root 
€r?e,»alder; by others supposed to be 
identical with Elf en Konig^ King of 
the Elves.] A name applied to a 

personified natural power or elemen- 
tary spirit, which, according to Ger- 
man poetical authorities, prepares 
mischief and ruin for men, and espe- 
cially for children, through delusive 
seductions. It is fabled to appear as 
a goblin, haunting the Black Forest in 
Thuringia. The existence of such 
elementary spirits, and their connec- 
tion with mankind, have, in the ear- 
liest times, occupied the imagination 
of the most widely different races. 
The Erl-king was introduced into 
German poetry from the sagas of the 
North, through Herder's translation 
of the Danish ballad of " Sir Olaf 
and the Erl-king's Daughter;" and 
it has become universally known 
through Goethe's ballad of the "Erl- 
Erminia ( ef-me'ne-S). The heroine of 
Tasso's epic poem, " Jerusalem De- 
livered," in love with Tancred. 

She read of fair Erminid's flight, 
Which Venice once might hear 

Sung on her glittering seas at night 
By many a gondolier. Mrs. Hemans. 

E'ros (9). [Gr. 'Epa>9.] {Gr. Myth.) 
The Greek name of the deity called 
Cupido, or Cupid, by the Romans. 
See Cupid. 

JEr'rS Pa'ter. The name of some old 
astrologer ; but who was meant by it 
has not been determined. Some of 
the old almanacs say an eminent 
Jewish astrologer. William Lilly 
was so called by Butler. 

In mathematics he was greater 
Than Tycho Brahe or Erra Pater. 


fir/j^-ci'nS. [Gr. 'EpvKCvr).] {Gr. <f 
Rom. Myth,) A surname of Venus, 
derived from Mount Eryx, in Sicily, 
where she had a famous temple. 

fir'i^-man'thi-an Boar. See Her- 

!Er''j^-si5li'tlidn. [Gr. 'Epvo-ix^wi'.] 
( Gr. (f Rom'. Myth. ) A profane per- 
son who cut down trees in a grove 
sacred to Ceres, for which he was 
punished by the goddess ^ith raging 
and unappeasable hunger. 

E'ryx(9). [Gr. 'Epv^] {Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A king of Sicily who chal- 
lenged Hercules to fight with the 
gauntlet, and lost both his life and 

■ad for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-zxxiL 




his crown, which he staked on the 
issue of the contest. 
XjS'cS-Ius. 1. An ancient and kind- 
hearted lord, in Shakespeare's " Meas- 
ure for Measure," whom Vincentio, 
the Duke of Vienna, joins with An- 
gelo, but in an inferior rank, as his 
deputy during a pretended absence 
on a distant journey. 

We do not blame him [Leigh Hunt] for not 
bringing to the judgment-seat the merciless 
rigor of Lord Angelo, but we really think that 
such flagitious and impudent offenders as 
those now at the bar, deserved, at the least, 
the gentle rehu\L.e of Escalus. Macanlay. 

2. Prince of Verona, in Shake- 
speare's " Romeo and Juliet." 

XiS'c$-n$g. A lord of Tyre, in Shake- 
speare's " Pericles." 

£g'm6nd, Henry- The title of a 
nove'l by Thackeray, and the name 
of its hero, a chivalrous cavalier and 
Jacobite of the time of Queen Anne. 

iEsplandian (es-plan-de-Sn^. In the 
old romances of chivalry, the son of 
Amadis and Oriana. Montalvo has 
made him the subject of an original 
work, which is a continuation of his 
translation of the "Amadis," and 
which, in the preface, he announces 
to be the fifth book of the same. 

Espriella (es-pre-ePya). The name 
of an imaginary Spaniard, whose 
" Letters " from England, about the 
year 1810, were written by Southey. 

Es-tel1§. The heroine of Dickens's 

novel of " Great Expectations." 
Estermere, King. See King Ester- 

J Est-U-possible (^'tel' pos'se'bl, 61). 

! [Fr., Is it possible ?] A name given 
by King James II. of England to 
Prince George of Denmark, the hus- 
band of James's daughter, the Prin- 
cess Anne, afterwards Queen Anne. 
These words had been a common 
phrase with the prince at the time of 
the Revolution of 1688, as reports of 
one desertion of the king afler an- 
other cs^Q to' his ears. When he 
also went over to William and Mary, 
James is rei)orted to have said, 
" What ! Est-ilr-possihle gone too ? " 

Es-tot'i-lSnd, or Es-tot'i-land'i-ft. 
According to the " Geographical Dic- 

tionary" of Edmund Bohun (1695), 
" a great tract of land in the north 
of America, toward the arctic circle 
and Hudson's Bay, having New 
France on the south, and James's 
Bay on the west^the first of Ameri- 
can shores discovered, being found 
by some Friesland fishers, that were 
driven hither by a tempest, almost 
two hundred years before Columbus." 
Alcedo says of it, "An imaginary 
country which some authors suppose 
to have been discovered in 1477 by a 
native of Poland named John Scalve, 
and that the same was part of the 
land of Labrador. The fact is, that 
this country never had any existence 
but in the imaginations of the two 
brothers of the name of Zeno, Vene- 
tian noblemen, who had no particu- 
lar information whatever respecting 
the expedition of this Polish adven- 
turer; and that, in 1497, John Cabot, 
or Gabot, left England with three 
of his sons, under the commission 
of Henry VII., when he discovered 
Newfoundland and part of the imme- 
diate continent where this country is 
supposed to exist." 

Else . . . the low sun . . . 
Had rounded still the horizon, and not known 
Or east or west: which had forbid the snow 
From cold Estotiland, and south as far 
Beneath Magellan. Milton. 

The learned Grotius marches his Nor- 
wegians by a pleasant route across frozen 
rivers and arms of the sea, through Iceland, 
Greenland, Eatotiland, and Norumbega. 

W. Irving. 

E-te'o-cl6g. [Gr. 'ETeo^cA^?.] ( Gr. # 
Rom. Myth.) A son of CEdipus, king 
of Thebes. He and his brother 
Polynices agreed to reign alternately, 
each holding the power a year at a 
time. Eteocles did not adhere to his 
engagement, and hence arose the 
Theban war. The brothers at last 
agreed to finish the war by a duel: 
in this they both fell. 

Like fated JSteocZes-Polynices Brothers, em- 
bracing, though in vain ; weeping that they 
must not love, that they must hate only, and 
die by each other's hands! Carlyle. 

Eternal C5ity. A popular and very 
ancient designation of Rome, which 
was fabled to have been built under 
the favor and immediate direction 

• of the gods. The expressibn, or 
its equivalent, frequently occurs in 

• For the ♦' Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




classic authors, as Livy, Tibiillus, 
Quintilian, &c. In the "Jjineid," Vir- 
gil, following the received tradition, 
represents Jupiter as holding the fol- 
lowing language to Venus, in rei'er- 
ence to the Romans, who were sup- 
posed to be the descendants of her 
son ^neas : — 

" His fego nee metas rerum, nee tempora pono: 
Imperium sine fine dedi." Bk. /., v. /8, 79. 
" To them no bounds of empire I assisrn, 
Nor term of years to their immortal line." 
Dryden's IVans. 

Ettrick Shepherd. A name com- 
monly given to James Hogg (1772- 
1835), the Scottish poet, who was 
born in the forest of Ettrick, in Sel- 
kirkshire, and in early life followed 
the occupation of a shepherd. 

"When first, descending from the moorlands, 
I saw the stream of Yarrow glide 

Along a bare and open valley, 
The Ettrick Shepherd wa« my guide. 


Eu'cli-o. A character in Plautus's 
comedy of "Aulularia," celebrated 
for his penuriousness. 

Now you must explain all this to me, unless 
you would have me use you as ill as Euclio 
does Staphyla, iu the "Aulularia." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Eu-ge'ni-us. An amiable monitor 
and counselor of Yorick, in Sterne's 
"Life and Opinions of Tristram 
Shandy." He is said to have been 
intended as a portrait of the author's 
friend, John Hall Stevenson. 

Eulenspiegel (oi-len-spe'gel, 43, 58). 

See OwLE-GKAss. 
Eu-maD'us. [Gr. Eu/xato?.] {Gr. ^ 

Rom. Myth.) A swine-herd and slave 

of Ulysses, famed for his fidelity to 

his master. 

This seeond Eumceus strode hastily down 
the forest-glade, driving before him, with the 
assistance of Fangs, the whole herd of his in- 
harmonious charge. Sir W. Scott. 

Eu-men'i-d$§, [Gr. EujULei/iSe?, i. e., 
the gracious or benign goddesses.] 
{Gr. Myth.) A euphemistic name 
given by the Greeks to the Furies, 
whose true name of Einnnyes they 
were afraid to utter. See Furies. 

They lie always, those subterranean Eu~ 
menides, — fabulous, and yet so true, — in the 
dullest existence of man ; and can dance, 
brandishing their dusky torches, shaking 
their serpent hair. Carlyle. 

Eu-mol'puS. [Gr. Eu/moATros.] {Gr. 

^' Rom. Myth.) A son of Neptune 
and Chione, celebrated as a singer or 
bard, and as the founder of the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries. 

Eu-phor'bus. [Gr. Eu<|)op/3o5.] ( Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A Trojan, son. of 
Panthous, slain by Menelaus in the 
Trojan war. 

Eu-phros'y-ne. [Gr. "Ev^poavvrj, 
cheerfulness, mirth.] {Gr. 4^ Rom. 
Myth.) One of the three Graces. 

Come, thou goddess fair and free, 
In heaven y-clept Euphros^i/nej 
And by men, heart-easing Mirth. 


Eu'phu-6§. [Gr. Ev<^u^9, of good fig- 
ure, comely, clever.] The principal 
character in Lyly's two famous works 
entitled " Euphues, or The Anatomy 
of Wit," and " Euphues and his 
England." These works are re- 
markable for their pedantic and fan- 
tastical style, and for the monstrous 
and overstrained conceits with which 
they abound. Euphues is represent- 
ed as an Athenian gentleman, distin- 
guished for the elegance of his per- 
son and the beauty of his wit, and 
for his amorous temperament and 
roving disposition. 

Eu-ro'pS. [Gr. EvpwTrrj.] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A beautiful daughter of 
Phoenix, or of Agenor, carried off by 
Jupiter, under the form of a white 
bull, from Phcenicia to Crete. By 
him she became the mother of Minos 
and Sarpedon. ^ 

Europe, The Nightmare of. See 
Nightmare of Europe. 

Eu-ry'$-le. [Gr. EupvaAij.] {Gr. (f 
Rom. Myth.) 1. One of the three 
Gorgons. See Gorgons. 

2. A queen of the Amazons. 

3. A daughter of Minos, and the 
mother of Orion. 

Eu-ry'$-lus. [Gr. EupuaXo?.] A Tro- 
jan youth, immortalized by Yirgil as 
the faithful friend of Nisus. See 

We have been Nisus and Eurpalits, Theseus 
and Pirithous, Orestes and Py lades, and — to 
sum up the whole with a puritanic touch — 
David and Jonathan, all in one breath. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Eu-ryd'i-ce. [Gr. EvpuSt/cT?.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) The wife of Orpheus, 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, sec pp. xir-xxxii. 




killed by a serpent on her bridal 
day. See Orpheus. 

Orpheus' self may heave his head 
From golden slumber on a bed 
Of heaped Elj'^ian flowers, and hear 
Such strains as would have won the ear 
• Of Pluto, to have quite set free 
His half-r^ained Eurydice. Milton. 

Bu-ryl'o-Ql^^s. [Gr. EupvAoxo?.] ( Gr. 
<f Rmn. Muth.) One of the compan- 
ions of Ulysses in his wanderings, 
and the only one of them tvrho was 
not changed by Circe into a hog. 

Eu-ryn'o-me. [Gr. EupwofAr;.] ( Gr. 
^ Horn. Myth.) A daughter of Oce- 
anus and Tethys, and mother of the 

Eu-rys'thetls. [Gr. EipvaBev';.'] (Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A son of Sthenelus, 
and grandson of Perseus, king of 
Mycenae. At Juno's instigation, he 
imposed upon his cousin Hercules 
twelve difficult labors, which he had 
a right to do on account of his prior- 
ity of birth. See Hercules. 

Eu-ter'pe. [Gr. EvrepTrrj.] {Gr. cf 
Rom. Myth. ) The Muse of music ; 
represented in ancient works of art 
with a flute in her hand. See Muses. 

E-vad'ne. [Gr. Eua5»^.] 1. {Gr. ^ 
Rirni. Myth.) Wife of Capaneus, and 
mother of Sthenelus. Her husband 
having been killed at the siege of 
Thebes, she threw herself upon the 
funeral pile, and was consunibd with 

2. A female character in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's play, " The 
Maid's Tragedy." 

E-van'der. [Gr. ESarSpo?.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A son of Mercury by 
an Arcadian nj^mph. He is fabled 
to have led a Pelasgian colony from 
Arcadia into Italy, about sixty years 
before the Trojan war. ^neas, 
when he arrived in Italy, found him 
still alive, and formed an alliance 
With him against the Latins. 

Evangelical Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
EvanyelicusJ] See Gospel Doctor. 

E-van'ge-line. The heroine of Long- 
fellow's poem of the same name, 
founded upon the historical incident 
of the expulsion of the inhabitants 

of Acadia from their homes in the 
year 1755. See Acadia. 

£v'an§. Sir Hugh. A pedantic 
Welsh parson and schoolmaster, in 
Shakespeare's " Merry Wives of 
Windsor," of childish simplicity and 

The reader may well cry out. with honest 
Sir Hugh Evans, " I like not when a 'oonum 
has a great peard: I spy a great peard under 
her mutfler." Macaulay. 

Ev'e-li'n|. The title of a novel by 
Miss Blimey (Madame D'Arblay), 
and the name of its heroine, after- 
ward Lady Orville. 

Ever - memorable John Hales, 
The. See Hales, The Ever- 
memorable John. 

Evil May-day. {Eng. Hist.) A name 
given to the 1st of May, 1517, on ac- 
count of the dreadful excesses com- 
mitted on that day by the apprentices 
and populace against foreigners, par- 
ticularly the French. 

Evil One, The. A name often ap- 
plied to the Devil. See Devil, The. 

Ex-cal'i-bar. The name of Arthur^s 
famous sword, which he pulled out 
of a miraculous stone, in which it 
was inserted as in a sheath, though 
previously two hundred and one of 
the most puissant barons in the realm 
had singly been unable to withdraw 
it. An inscription on the stone 
around the sword stated that who- 
ever should be able to draw it out 
was rightful heir to the throne of 
Britain; and Arthur, in consequence 
of his remarkable success, was im- 
mediately chosen and proclaimed 
king by general acclamation. When 
about to die, he sent an attendant to 
throw the weapon into a lake hard 
by. Twice eluding the request, the 
knight at last complied. A hand 
and arm arose from the water, and 
caught the sword by the hilt, flour- 
ished it thrice, and then sank into 
the lake, and was seen' no more. 
Tennyson has admirably versified 
this incident in his poem entitled 
"Morte d' Arthur." [Written also 
Excalibor, Excalibur, Es- 
calibar, Escalibor, and C a 1 i- 
b urn.] 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanying Explanations, 




J8^ " According to the English metri- 
cal romance of 'Merlin,' this celebrated 
sword bore the following inscription : — 

♦ Ich am v-hote Escalibore; 
Unto a king a fair tresore.' 

And it is added, in explanation, — 

• On Inglis is this writing, 
A *' Kerve steel and yren and al thing." ' 

When Arthur first used this sword in 
battle, 'it cast forth a great light full 
splendant, with such force that all those 
who beheld it thought that they were 
burning torches which issued from the 
sword ; but they were the golden letters 
on the sword which shone so mightily.' " 

" No, surely," replied the king; "no sword 
on earth, were it the Excalibar of King Ar- 
thur, can cut that which opposes no steady 
resistance to the blow. Sir W. Scott. 

Excelsior State. The State of New 
V ork, sometimes so called from the 
motto " Excelsior " upon its coat of 

Expounder of the Constitution. 
A title popularly given to Daniel 
Webster (1782-1852), on account of 
his elaborate expositions of the Con- 
stitution of the United States. 

Expunging Resolution. (Amer. 
Hist.) A resolution introduced in 
the senate of the United States, on 
the 26th of December, 1836, by the 
Hon. Thomas H. Benton, of Mis- 
souri, by which a resolution adopted 
by the senate on the 28th of March, 
1834, charging " that the president 
[Jackson], in the late executive pro- 

ceedings in relation to the public 
revenue, [had] assumed authority 
and power not conferred by the Con- 
stitution and laws, but in derogation 
of both," was ordered to be expunged 
from the Journal of the senate by 
drawing black lines round the re- 
solve, and writing across the face of 
it, in strong letters, the following 
words: " Expunged, by order of the 

senate, this day of , A. d. 

1837." Mr. Benton's resolution was 
adopted on the 16th of March, 1837. 
Exterminator, The. [Fr. VExter- 
minateur^ Sp. El Externiinndor.] A 
name given by the Spaniards to 
Montbars (b. 1645), a notorious 
French adventurer, who signalized 
himself by his intense hatred of that 
people, and by the atrocities he com- 
mitted in the Antilles and other 
Spanish colonies. 

Eyes of Greece, The Two. See 
Two Eyes of Greece, The. 

fjyre, Jane (er, 3). The heroine of 
Miss Charlotte Bronte's novel of the 
same name, a governess, coping 
bravely with adverse circumstances, 
and finally proving hei* genuine force 
of character by winning the respect 
and love of a 'man in whom, though 
he had exhausted the world, and 
been exhausted b}-- it, the instincts 
and promptings of a noble nature 
were not dead, but only suppressed. 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv.-xxxii. 





Fac-to'tum, Jo-han'nSs. One who 

is good at any things who can turn 
his hand to any kind of work ; — 
the Latin equivalent of Jack-at-all- 

There is an upstart crow [Shakespeare]!, 
beautiful with our feathers, that, with his 
tiger's heart wrapped in a plaver's hide, sup- 
poses he is as well able to bombast out a blank 
verse as the best of y oUj and, being an absolute 
Johannes Factotum, is, m his own conceit, the 
only Shake-scene in a country. 

Greene'' s Groatsworth of Wit, 1592. 

Fad4a-deen'. The grand chamber- 
lani of the harem in Moore's " Lalla 
Kookh,"— magnificent, infallible, sen- 
tentious, and shrewd. 

Pag. A subordinate character, in 
Sheridan'» comedy of " The Rivals." 
He is a lying servant to Captain 
Absolute, and " wears his master's 
wit as he does his lace, at second- 

I am quite conscious of my own immuni- 
ties as a tale-teller. But even the mendacious 
Mr. Fag . . . assures us, that, though he 
never scruples to tell a lie at his master's com- 
mand, yet it hUrts his conscience to be found 
out. Sir W. Scott. 

Fa'gin. An old Jew in Dickens's 
" Oliver Twist," who employs young 
persons of both sexes to carry on a 
systematic trade of robbery. 

Painall, Mr. and Mrs. Noted char- 
acters in Congreve's comedy, " The 
Way of the World." 

Faineant, Le Noir (la nwof Wnt'- 
6n', 62). [Fr., the Black Sluggard.] 
In Sir Walter Scott's " Ivanhoe," a 
name applied to the disguised Richard 
Coeur de Lion by the spectators of a 
tournament, on account of his indif- 
ference during a great part of the ac- 
tion, in which, however, he was finally 

Faineants, Les Bois {\tL rwo f^'nS'- 
6n', 62). [Fr., the Do-nothing 
Kings.] A sarcastic designation ap- 
plied to monarch s who delegate their 
authority to their ministers, or from 
whom, Dy reason of incapacity and 
weakness, the power has been wrest- 
ed, while they are still permitted 

nominally to reign. The usual ap- 
plication of the term is to the later 
Merovingian sovereigns of France, 
under whose name the " Mayors of 
the Palace" really governed the 
country. The epithet Faineant was 
also given in contempt to Louis V., 
the last of the Carlo vingian dynasty. 

Fair City. A name popularly given 
in Scotland to the town of Perth, 
which is remarkable for the beauty 
of its situation, and for its elegant 

Fair Q^r'ai-dine. A supposed mis- 
tress of the Earl of Surrey (Henry 
Howard, 1516-1547), whose praises 
he celebrates in a famous sonnet,*and 
in other poems, and who has been 
the occasion of much controversy 
among his. biographers and critics. 
There is no doubt, however, that the 
lady called Geraldine in the sonnet 
was an Irish lady named Elizabeth 
Fitzgerald, the daughter of Gerald 
Fitzgerald, ninth Earl of Kildare, 
and afterward the wife of the Earl of 

Fair Im'o-gine'. The heroine of a 
popular ballad by Matthew Gregory- 
Lewis, entitled " Alonzo the Brave 
and the Fair Imogine." 

Fair Mag'ue-lone^ The heroine of 
an old chivalric romance, entitled 
" The History of the Fair Magalona, 
daughter of the King of Naples, and 
Peter, son of the Count of Provence." 
This romance was originally written 
in French, but was translated into 
Spanish before the middle of the six- 
teenth century. Cervantes alludes to 
Magalona, or Maguelone, in " Don 
Quixote." In Germany, her history 
has been reproduced by Tieck. 

Fair Maid of An'jou. A name given 
to the Lady Edith Plantagenet, * 
kinswoman of Richard Coeur de Lion, 
and an attendant of his queen, Beren- 
garia. She married David, Earl of 
Huntingdon, prince royal of Scot- 

' Tor the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations; 




Pair Maid of Gallo-wiy. A name 
popularly given to Margaret, the only 
daughter of Archibald V., Earl of 
Douglas. She became the wife of 
her cousin, William, to whom the 
earldom had passed in the year 1443 ; 
and, after his death, in reluctant obe- 
dience to the royal command, married 
his brother and successor, James, the 
last Earl of Douglas. 

Tair Maid of Kent. A name given 
to Joan, only daughter of Edmond 
Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, on account 
of her great beauty. She was mar- 
ried three times : tirst, to William de 
Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, from 
whom she was divorced; secondly, 
to Sir Thomas Holland ; thirdly, after 
his death, to her second cousin, Ed- 
ward, the Black Prince, under a dis- 
pensation from ' the pope, rendered 
necessary by reason of their consan- 
guinity. B^ the prince she was 
mother of Eichard II., in whose reign 
she died. 

Fair Maid of Norway. See Maid 

OF Norway. 
Fair Maid of Perth (4). The title 
of a novel by Sir Walter Scott, and 
a sobriquet given to the heroine, 
Catherine, or Katie, Glover, "who 
was universally acknowledged to be 
the most beautiful young woman of 
the city or its vicinity." 

Fair Ilo§'a-ni6nd. The name pop- 
ularly given to a daughter of Lord 
Clifford, famous in the legendary his- 
tory of England as the mistress of 
Henry II. shortly before his acces- 
sion to the throne, and the subject of 
an old ballad. The facts of her his- 
tory are not well ascertained ; but she 
is said to have been kept* by her royal 
lover in a secret bower at Woodstock, 
the approaches to which formed a 
labyrinth so intricate that it could 
only be discovered by the clew of a 
silken thread, which the king used 
for that purpose. Here Queen El- 
eanor discovered and poisoned her, 
about 1173. 

Fairservice, Andrew. A shrewd 
and humorous Scotch gardener at 
Osbaldistone Hall, in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of " Rob Roy." 

Fair-Star, Princess. See Princess 
, Faik-Star. 

Faith, Defender of the. See De- 
fender OF THE Faith. 

Faithful. One of the allegorical per- 
sonages in Bunyan's " Pilgrim's 
Progress," who dies a martyr before 
completing his journey. 

Faithful, Jacob. The hero of a pop- 
ular novel,' by Marryatt, having this 
name for its title. 

Falkland (fawk^mnd). 1. A charac- 
ter in Sheridan's comedy of " The 
Rivals," noted for his wayward, cap- 
tious jealousy. 

2. The true hero of William God- 
win's novel of "Caleb Williams,'* 
and an impersonation of honor, intel- 
lect, benevolence, and a passionate 
love of fame ; but a man driven in a 
moment of ungovernable passion, and 
under the provocation of the most 
cruel, persevering, and tyrannical 
insult, to commit a murder. His 
fanatical love of reputation urges him 
to conceal the crime; and, in order 
to do this more effectually, he allows 
an innocent man to be executed, and 
his family ruined. Williams, an in- 
telligent peasant-lad taken into the 
service of Falkland, obtains, by an 
accident, a clew to the guilt of his 
master; when the latter, extorting 
from him an oath that he will keep 
his secret, communicates to his de- 
pendent the whole story of his double 
crime, his remorse, and misery. The 
youth, finding his life insupportable 
from the perpetual suspicion to which 
he is exposed, and the restless sur- 
veillance of his master, escapes, and 
is pursued through the greater part 
of the tale by the unrelenting perse- 
cution of Falkland, who is led, by 
his frantic and unnatural devotion to 
fame, to annihilate, in Williams, the 
evidence of his accumulated guilt. 
At last Williams is formally accused 
by Falkland of robbery, and natural- 
ly discloses before the tribunal the 
dreadful secret which had caused his 
long persecution, and Falkland dies 
of shame and a broken heart. 

Fall City. Louisville, Kentucky; — 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxiu 




popularly fo called from the falls 
which, at this place, impede the navi- 
gation of the Ohio Kiver. 

Fal'stafF, Sir John (2). A famous 
character in Shakespeare's comedy 
of the " Merry Wives of Windsor," 
and in the First and Second Parts 
of his historical drama of " Henry 
IV.;" the most perfect comic por- 
trait that was ever drawn by the 
pen of genius. In the former play, 
he is represented as in love with Mrs. 
Ford and Mrs. Page, who make a 
butt and a dupe of him: in the latter, 
he figures as a soldier and a wit : in 
both he is exhibited as a monster of 
fat, sensual, mendacious, boastful, 
and cowardly. See Brook, Mas- 

Jl®- In this character, Shakespeare is 
thought to have ridiculed Sir John Fas- 
tolfe^ an English general of the time of 
Henry VL, who had part of the command 
before Orleans, in France, and, at the 
village of Patay, set the example of an 
inglorious flight before Joan of Arc, caus- 
ing great destruction of his men, for which 
cowardice he was degraded from his rank 
as a Knight of the Garter. The opinion 
that Shakespeare intended to caricature 
this personage has been very generally re- 
ceived. Fuller, the church historian, 
says, " Nor is our comedian excusable by 
some alteration of his name, writing him 
Sir John Fahtafe^ and making him the 
property and pleasure of King Henry V. 
to abuse, seeing the vicinity of sounds 
[doth] intrench on the memory of that 
worthy knight." Shakespeare introduces 
the historical Fastolfe in "The First 
Part of Henry VI.," and represents his 
conduct at Patay, and his subsequent 
degradation, with historical accuracy. 
But recent commentators deny that he 
was the original of the " valiant Jack 
Falstaff" of Shakespeare's other plays, 
and treat the supposition as a gross ab- 
surdity. In the first draugiit of *' King 
Henry IV.," Sir John Falstaff was calJed 
Sir John Old castle^ a name borne by a 
distinguished Wycliffite who was born 
under Edward III., and put to death in 
the fourth year of Henry V. The change 
in the surname is attributed to remon- 
strances on the part of Oldcastle's de- 
scendants. That Shakespeare was desirous 
to do away with any impression that Fal- 
staff andOldcastle were one and the same 
personage under different names, appears 
from the Epilogue to " The Second Part 
of King Henry IV.," in which, after prom- 

ising that the play shall be continued 
"with Sir John in it," he says, "For 
any thing I know, Falstaff shall die of a 
sweat, unless already he be killed with 
your hard opinions ; for Oldcastle died a 
martyr, and this is not the man.'''' 

All novelists have had occasionj at some 
time or other, to wish, with Falstajf, that tliey 
knew where a commodity of good names was 
to be had. Sir W. Scott. 

Fang. A sheriffs officer, ]n the Second 
Part of Shakespeare's " King Henry 

Farinata (degU Uberti) (fa-re-nS'tS 
dgl^yee oo-bef-'tee). A Ghibelline 
noble of Florence (d. 1624), placed 
by Dante in hell, as a punishment 
for his infidelity and epicurism. He 
is represented as occupying a red-hot 
tomb, the lid of which is suspended 
over him till the day of judgment, 
yet looking as lofty as if he scorned 
hell itself. 

They fthe Italians of the fourteenth century] 
said little of those awful and lovely creations 
on which later critics delight to dwell, — Fari- 
nata, lifting his haughty and tranquil brow 
from his couch of everlasting fire, the lion-like 
repose of Sordello, or the light which shone 
from the celestial smile of Beatrice. 


Farmer George. A name popularly 
given to George HI. of England, on 
account of his parsimonious disposi- 
tion, plain dress, familiar manners, 
and hearty and homely good-nature. 
He is said to have kept a farm at 
Windsor, not for amusement, but be- 
cause he derived a small profit from 
it. . 

Fata Morgana (f^'ta mor-gti'nk). 
The name of a potent fairy, celebrated 
in the tales of chivalry', and in the 
romantic poems of Italy. She was a 
pupil of the enchanter Merlin, and 
the sister of Arthur, to whom she 
discovered the intrigue of his queen, 
Geneura, or Guinever, with Ivancelot 
of the Lake. In the " Orlando Inna- 
morato" of Bojardo, she appears at 
first as a personification of Fortune, 
inhabiting a splendid residence at 
the bottom of a lake, and dit^pensing 
all the treasures of the earth ; but she 
is afterward found in her proper sta- 
tion, subject, with the other fairies 
and the witches, to the all - potent 
Demogorgon. [Called also Morgaine 
la Fee and Morgue the Fay.] 

• For the " Key to the Scheme ,«f Pxonuxkci»l&on," with the accompanying Explanations, 




i83r" At the present day, the appellajfcion 
of Jb'ata Morgana is given to a strange 
meteoric phenomenon, nearly allied to the 
mirage, witnessed, in certain states of the 
tide and weather, in the Straits of Mes- 
sina, between Calabria and Sicily, and 
occasionally, though rarely, on other 
coasts. It consists in the appearance, in 
the air over the surface of the sea, of 
multiplied inverted images of objects on 
the surrounding coiists, — groves, hills, 
towers, houses, and people, — all rep- 
resented as in a moving picture. The 
spectacle is popularly supposed to be pro- 
duced by the fairy whose name is given 
to it. 

Not a stream did he mention but flowed over 
sands of gold, and not a palace that was in- 
ferior to those of the celebrated Fata Morgana. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Pat Boy, The. A laughable character 
in Dickens's "Pickwick Papers;" 
a youth of astonishing obesity, whose 
employment consists in alternate eat- 
ing and sleeping. 

Fates. [Lat. Fata."] See Parc^e. 

Father of Angling. A title some- 
times given to Izaak Walton (1593- 
1683), the celebrated author of" The 
Complete Angler." 

Father of British Inland Naviga- 
tion. A name often given to Francis 
Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater (1736- 
1803), the originator of the first 
navigable canal constructed in Great 
Britain in modern times, and a zeal- 
ous promoter of other schemes of 
artificial water communication. 

J|®- " By that title he will ever be 
known." H. Martineau. 

Father of Comedy. A name given 
to Aristophanes (444-380 b. c), one 
of the most celebrated of the Greek 
dramatists, and the only writer of 
the old Greek comedy of whom any 
entire works have been preserved. 
He is remarkable for the nchness of 
his fancy, the exuberance of his wit 
and humor, and the Attic purity and 
great simplicity of his style. 

Father of Butch Poetry. A title be- 
stowed upon Jakob Maerlant (1235- 
1300), an early Belgic poet. [Called 
also Father of Flemish Poets.] 

Father of Ecclesiastical History. 
A name commonly given to Eusebius 
of Caesarea (264-340), a very learned 

patristic divine, author of " Historia 
Ecclesiastica," an important and valu- 
able record of the Christian Church, 
in ten books, reaching from the birth 
of our Saviour to the defeat of Licin- 
ius by Constantine in 324. 

Father of English Geology. An 
honorary appellation given to William 
Smith (1769-1840), author of the first 
geological map of England, and the 
original discoverer and teacher, in that 
country, of the identification of strata, 
and of the determination of their suc- 
cession by means of their imbedded 

Father of English Poetry. A title 
given by Dry den to Chaucer (four- 
teenth century), as the first great 
English poet. 

Father of English Prose. An ap- 
pellation bestowed on Roger Ascham 
(1515-1568), one of our earliest mis- 
cellaneous writers. His style is re- 
farded as a fine example of genuine 

Father of Epic Poetry. A name 
applied to Homer, the reputed author 
of the " Iliad " and the "Odyssey," the 
earliest national heroic poems extant. 

The former compares liim [Sarauel Rich- 
ardson] to Homer, and predicts tor his memorv 
the same honors which are rendered to the 
Father of Epic Poetry. Sir W. Scott. 

Father of Equity. A surname 
conferred on Heneage Finch. Lord 
Nottingham (1621-1682), an English 
lawyer and statesman of the time of 
the Restoration, who had a very high 
reputation for eloquence, s6und judg- 
ment, and integrity. His character 
is drawn by Dryden, in liis " Absa- 
lom apd Achitopbel," under the name 
of Amri : — 

" To whom the double blessing does belong, 
With Moees' inspiration, Aaron's tongue." 

Father of French History. [Fr. 
Le Pere de fHistoire de France.'] A 
title given to Andr6 Duchesne (1584- 
1640), an early and celebrated French 

Father of German Iiiterature. A 
name frequently given to Gotthold 
Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781), an il- 
lustrious author, and the admitted 
reviver of the national character of 

*nd for the Bemarjt^ and Rules to whic^ the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




German literature, which before his 
time was corrupted and enslaved by 
irencli influences. 

jge^ " Lessing was the Frederick [the 
Gre;tt] of thought. By nature wholly 
Teutonic, he too sounded a trumpet-call ;. 
and, with a restless energy in no wise in- 
ferior to Frederick's, an activity and plen- 
itude of resources that overlooked no 
opportunity, he dashed, now into this 
region of dormant literature, now into 
that unpenetrated department of philoso- 
phy, until he had laid the foundation of 
almost every conquest that has illustrated 
the recent ever-memorable career of his 
kindred." J. P. Nichol. 

Father of Greek Music. An appella- 
tion j^iven to Terpander, of Lesbos, 
who lived about the year 676 b. c. He 
tirst reduced to rules the different 
modes of singing which prevailed in 
diti'erent countries, and fonne4 out of 
these rude strains a connected sys- 
tem, from which the Greek music 
never departed throughout all the im- 
provements and rehneiflents of later 

Father of his Country. [Lat. Pater 
Patrice^ or Parens Patrice.^ A title 
given by the Roman senate and forum 
to Cicero, on account of the zeal, 
courage, and prudence he displayed 
in unmaskmg the famous Catilinarian 
conspiracy, and bringing the leaders 
to punishment. This title was offered 
to Marius, but was refused by him. 
It was subsequently bestowed upon 
several of the Caesars, and was borne 
by Andronicus Pal^eologus ( Androni- 
cus II.), by Cosmo de' Medici, and 
bv some other European princes. 
T^he same appellation has been pop- 
ularly conferred in America upon 
Washington, of whom Jefferson said, 
"His was the singular destiny and 
merit of leading the armies of his 
country successftilly through an ardu- 
ous war for the establishment of its 
independence," and " of conducting 
its councils through the birth of a 
government new in its forms and 
principles, until it had settled down 
mto a quiet and orderly train." 

Father of his People. [Fr. Le Pere 
de la Peuple.] 1. A title given by 
courtly historians to Louis XII. of 
France (1462-1515), who has the 

reputation of having been a kind- 
hearted and generous king. 

2. A title conferred upon Chris- 
tian III. of Denmark (1502-1559). 

Father of History. [Lat. Pater IJis^ 
torice.'\ A name given bv Cicero 
(Leg. i. i. v.) to Herodotus (484-408, 
B. c.), because he was, if not the first 
historian, the first who brought his- 
tory to any great degree of perfection. 

Father of Jests. A sobriquet be- 
stowed upon Joseph Miller (1684- 
1738), an English comic actor, whose 
name has become widely known from 
its connection with a celebrated jest- 
book, the authorship of which was 
ascribed to him, though it was not 
published, or even compiled, until af- 
ter his death. 

J8®=* Miller was himself proverbial for 
duUness ; and it is said, that, when any 
risible saying was recounted, his neigh- 
bors would derisively apply it to him on 
account of his taciturnity and impertur- 
bable gravity. When he died, his family 
were left entirely unprovided for ; and a 
Mr. Motley, a well-known dramatist of 
that day, was employed to collect all the 
stray jests current about town, and to 
publish them for their benefit. Joe Mil- 
ler's name was prefixed, and, from that 
time to this, the man who never uttered 
a jest has been the reputed author of 
every jest, past, present, and to come. 

Father of Letters. [Fr. Le Pere 
des Letti^es.] 1. An appellation some- 
times given to Francis I. (1494-1547), 
king of France, a distinguished pa- 
tron of literature and literary men. 

2. A title conferred upon Lorenzo 
de' Medici (d. 1492), the ruler of 
Florence, and a munificent patron of 
learning and art. 

Father of Lies. 1. A popular name 
for Satan, or the Devil, the supposed 
instigator of all falsehood. See Dev- 
il, The. 

2. A name sometimes given to 
Herodotus (484-408 b. c), the Greek 
historian, on account of the wonderful 
stories he relates. But the title is not 
merited, and has been given by " the 
half-learned, who measure his experi- 
ence by their own ignorance." Inci- 
dental confirmations of his veracity 
have been accumulating of late years 
on all sides. 

V&^ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Father of Medicine. A title often 
applied to Hippocrates (b. b. c. 460), 
the most famous among the Greek 
physicians, and author of the first 
attempt at a scientitic treatment of 

Father of Monks. A title conferred 
upon Ethel wold of Winchester (d. 
984) by his contemporaries. He is 
celebrated as a reformer of the monas- 
tic Orders in England. 

Father of Moral Philosophy. An 
appellation bestowed upon Thomas 
Aquinas (1227-1274), the famous 
scholastic theologian, on account of 
his original, clear, and comprehensive 
treatment of Christian ethics. 

Father of Music. A title bestowed 
upon Giambattista Pietro Aloisio da 
Palestrina (1529-1594), a celebrated 
Italian comix)ser of church music. 
" By his line taste and admirable 
skill in hannony," says Burney, he 
" brought choral music to a degree of 
perfection that has never been ex- 

Father of Ornithologists. A name 
sometimes given to George Edwards 
(1693-1773), an eminent English 
naturalist, whose works, according to 
Swainson, *' are assuredly the most 
valuable on general ornithology that 
have ever appeared in England." 

Father of Orthodoxy. A name often 
given to Athanasius (296-373), arch- 
bishop of Alexandria, one of the 
brightest ornaments of the early 
Church, and the great defender of 
" orthodoxy " against all heretics, 
especiallj^ the Arians. 

Father of Peace. A title conferred 
by the Genoese senate upon Andrea 
Doria (1468-1560), the celebrated 
ruler and admiral. He entered the 
service of Charles V. against Francis 
I., and became the deliverer of his 
country by expelling the French 
from (ienoa. After the conclusion of 
peace, Doria was invested with su- 

f)reme power, and the senate awarded 
lim the title above named. 
Father of Poetry. 1. A title some- 
times giv^en to Orpheus, of Thrace, 
an ancient Greek poet who is said to 
have flourished before Homer, and 

before the siege of Troy, but whose 
existence has been calleci in question, 
besides others by Aristotle. 

2. The same title is sometimes 

given to Homer. See Father of 

He whom all civilized nations now ac- 
knowledge aa the Father of Poetry, must have 
himself looked back to an ancestry of poetical 
predecessors, and is only held origmal because 
we know not from whom he copied. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Father of Ridicvile. A name some- 
times given to Francois Rabelais 
(1483-1553), the first noteworthy 
comic romancer of modern times, and 
the most original and remarkable of 
all humorists. 

Father of Song. A title sometimes 
bestowed upon Homer, the supposed 
author of the earliest Greek heroic 
poems extant, and of some hymns in 
praise of different gods. 

Father of the Faithful. A name 
often given to Abraham, the pro- 
genitor of the Jewish nation, and the 
first depositar}"^ of the divine promises 
in favor of the chosen people. See 
Rom. iv. ; Gal. iii. 6-9. 

Father of the Poor. An appellation 
given to Bernard Gilpin (1517-1583), 
a celebrated English reformer, on 
account of his pious and unwearied 
exertions among the poorer classes. 

Father of the Rondo. [Fr. Le Pere 
aux Eondeaux.'] A title sometimes 
given to J. B. Davaux (d. 1822), a 
celebrated French musical composer. 

Father of the Vaudeville. [Fr. Le 
Ph^e Joyeiix du VmuJerille.^ A name 
given to Oliver Basselin, a Norman 
poet and artisan, w^ho flourished in 
the fifteenth centur\% and gave to his 
convivial songs the name of his native 
valley, the Val-de- Vire, or, in Old 
French, Van -de- Vire. This name 
was afterward corrupted into the 
modern vniidtville. 

Father of Tragedy. A title bestowed 
by the Athenians upon the poet 
^schylus (B. c. 525-426). The al- 
terations made by him in the com- 
position and representation of tragedy 
were so great, that he was justly 
considered the originator of it. 

Father of "Waters. A popular name 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, sec pp. xiv-xxxii. 




given to the river Mississippi on ac- 
count of its great length (;3160 miles), 
and the very large number of its 
tributaries, of which the Red, the 
Arkansas, the Ohio, the Missouri, the 
Illinois, the Des Moines, the Wiscon- 
sin, and the St. Peter's or Minnesota, 
are the most important. The literal 
signification of the name, which is 
of Indian origin, is said to be " great 
river. ^^ 

jg®- The name of the great river of 
Farther India, the Irrawaddy, is said to 
mean "Father of Waters." The course 
of this river is estimated at 1200 miles in 

Father Paul. The name usually 
given to Peter Sarpi (1552-1628), a 
native of Venice, and a celebrated 
ecclesiastic, historian, anatomist, and 
astronomer. He is best known by 
his work entitled " A History of the 
Council of Trent." He was a father 
of the order of Servites in Venice, 
and, on assuming the religious habit, 
changed his baptismal name of "Peter 
for that of Paul. 

Father Proiit. A pseudonym adopted 
b}' Francis Mahony, a popular Eng- 
lish journalist and author of the 
present day. 

Father Thoughtful. [Fr. Pere de 
la Pensee.] A title given to Nicho- 

- las Catinat (1637-1712), marshal of 
France, by his soldiers, on account 
of his caution and judgment. 

Father Violet. [Fr. Le Pere la 
Violette.'] A nickname given by the 
Parisian populace to the Emperor 
Napoleon I. See Violet, Corpo- 

Fathom, Ferdinand, Count. The 
title of a novel by Smollett, and the 
name of its principal character, a 
complete villain, who proceeds step 
by step to rob his benefactors and 
pillage mankind, and who finally 
dies in misery and despair. 

The sturdy genius of modern philosophy 

has got her m much the same situation that 

Count Fathom has the woman that he lashes 

before him from the robbers' cave in the forest. 

diaries Lamb. 

Fafi-mS. 1. A female miracle-work- 
er, in the story of "Aladdin," in the 
"Arabian Nights' Entertainments." 

2. The last of the wives of Blue- 
beard, and the only one who escaped 
being murdered by him. See Blue- 

" Well, guardian," said I, " without think- 
ing myselt a Fatima, or you a Blue-beard, I 
am a httle curious about it." Dickens. 

Faun, or Fau'nus. {Rom. Myth.) A 
king of Italy, said to have flourished 
about 1300 years b. c, and regarded 
as the promoter of agriculture among 
his subjects, and as one of the great 
founders of the religion of the coun- 
try. After his death, he was wor- 
shiped as the protecting god of woods, 
fields, and shepherds, and as an 
oracular and prophetic divinity. As 
a rural deity, he corresponded in 
many of his attributes to the Greek 
Pan ; and hence arose the idea of a 
plurality of Fauns, or Fauni, assimi- 
lated to the Greek Panes or satyrs, 
and represented as monster deities, 
with tails, short horns, pointed ears, 
and goats' legs and feet, with the 
rest of the body human, to whom all 
terrifying soimds and appearances 
were ascribed. 

In shadier bower, 
More sacred and sequestered, though but 

Pan or Sylvanus never slept; nor nymph 
Nor Faunus haunted. Milton. 

Fau'nS. {Rom. Myth.) The prophesy- 
ing wife or sister of Faunus. 

Faust ( Ger. pron. fowst ; Anglicized 
fawst.) The hero and title of a cele- 
brated drama of Goethe, the materials 
of which are drawn in part from 
the popular legends of Dr. Faustits. 
Faust is a student who is toiling after 
knowledge beyond his reach, and 
who afterward deserts his studies, 
and makes a pact with the Devil 
(Mephistopheles), in pursuance of 
which he gives himself up to the full 
enjoyment of the senses, until the 
hour of his doom arrives, w^hen 
Mephistopheles re-appears upon the 
scene, and carries off his victim as. a 
condemned soul. On one occasion, 
Mephistopheles provided him with 
a mantle by which he was wafted 
through the air whithersoever he 
desired. See Margaret, Mephis- 
topheles, and Wagner. 
4®=" The mythical Faust dates from the 

* For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronmiciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




period of the Reformation. The numer- 
ous legends connected with the name all 
refer to a certain Dr. Faustus, reputed to 
be a celebrated magician and necroman- 
cer, who flourished during the latter half 
of the fifteenth and the beginning of the 
sixteenth centuries, and who is often con- 
founded with Johann Faust, or Fust, the 
associate of Gutenberg in the invention 
of the art of printing. It has been by 
many strenuously maintained that no 
such person ever ^sted, and that the 
name has been fancifully imputed to some 
magician ob faustmn in rebus peractu 
difficUlimis successum. As long ago as 
the seventeenth century, two books were 
written with the purpose of proving the 
historical nonentity of Dr. Faustus. Mod- 
ern criticism, however, leaves little room 
for doubting that there was a real person 
of this name. Faustus occupies the same 
place in reference to the popular super- 
stitions of Germany that the enchanter 
Merlin doeB to those of England, that Don 
Juan holds in Spain, Robert of Normandy 
in France, and Virgil in Italy. The Goe- 
thean Faust is the highest form which 
the tradition has attained. See infra. 

,J8®^ "As in Germany all popular -wit 
clusters about Eulenspiegel, so all that is 
weird, mysterious, and magical, — all that 
foretokens the terrible abyss of hell, — 
groups itself about the story of Faust." 
Scheible^ Trans. 

He gays, in so manjr words, ..." Society 
sails tlirough the infinitude on cloth, as on a 
Fausfs mantle . . . ; and, without such . . . 
mantle, would sink to endless depths, or 
mount to inane limbos, and in either case be 
no more." Carlyle. 

Faus'tus. The hero of Marlowe's 
tragedy of the same name ; repre- 
sented as a vulgar sorcerer tempted 
to sell his soul to the Devil (Mephcs- 
tophilis) on condition of having a 
familiar spirit at his command, the 
possession of earthly power and glory, 
and unlimited gratification of his sen- 
sual appetites, for twenty-four years, 
at the end of which time, when the 
forfeit comes to be exacted, he shrinks 
and shudders in agony and remorse, 
imploring yet despairing of the mercy 
of Heaven. 

J8®=- The tradition of the magician 
Faustus was early transplanted to Eng- 
land from Germany. In the same year 
(1587-8) in which the first history of 
Faust appeared in Germany, one ap- 
peared in England written by Bishop 
Aylmer. The transition from history to 
the drama was soon made, Marlowe's 

"Faustus" having been composed not 
later, probably, than 1589 or 1590, and 
having been entered in the Stationers' 
books in 1600-1. See Fausx. 
Pa-vo'ni-us. [Lat., from favere^ to 
fiivor.] {Rom. Myth.) A personifi- 
catjon of the west wind, regarded 
as the harbinger and attendant of 
^ring, and a promoter of vegetation ; 
the same ^as Zephyirus. See Zephy- 


Te delicate I . . . for whom 
The winter rose must blow, . . . and silky 

Favonius breathe still softer or be chid. 


Faw'ni-3. The mistress or lady-love 
of Dorastus, in the old romance of 
this name. See Dorastus. 

Feeble. A recruit, in the Second Part 
of Shakespeare's " King Henry IV." 
Falstaff calls him "most forcible 
Feeble;" and this expression is some- 
times used to stigmatize writers 
whose productions are characterized 


tame or jejune. 

He QAytoun] would purge his book of much 
offensive matter, if he struck out epithets 
which are in the bad taste of the forcUde- 
/eebte school. North Brit. Rev. 

Feliciaus, The (fe-lish'anz ). An im- 
aginary people described by Mercier 
de la Riviere (1720-1794), the French 
economist, in his work entitled " L' 
Heureuse Nation;" represented as 
free and sovereign, and living under 
the absolute empire of laws. 

Fe'lix-maj''te of Hyr-ca'ni-S. The 
hero of an old romance of cfiivalry, 
written by Melchior de Orteza Cabal- 
lero de Ubeda, and printed at Valla- 
dolid in the year 1566. His father's 
name being Florisan, and his moth- 
er's Martedina, it was suggested that 
he should be called Fhrismarte, after 
both of his parents. His mother, 
however, preferred Felixmarte. 

J8®- The curate, in "Don Quixote," 
condemned this work to the flames, and 
Lockhart speaks of it as a " dull and 
affected folio ;" but Dr. Johnson was of a 
different opinion, according to Boswell, 
who relates the following anecdote of him, 
on the authority of Bishop Percy : " The 
bishop said the doctor, when a boy, was 
immoderately fond of romances of chiv- 
alry, and he had retained his fondness 
for them through life ; so that, spending 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numlier? aft§r certain words refer, see pp. xiv-jucxii. 




part of a summer at my parsonage-house 
in the country, he chose for his regular 
reading the old Spanish romance of 
' Felixmarte of llyrcania,' in foUo, which 
he read quite through." 

Female How'ard. A title often 
given to Mrs. 'Elizabeth Fry (1780- 
1844:), an Englishwoman celebrated 
for her benevolent exertions to im- 
prove the condition of lunatics and 

Fe-nella. A fairy-like creature — a 
deaf and dumb attendant on the 
Countess of Derby — in Sir Walter 
Scott's " Peveril of the Peak," taken 
from the sketch of Mignon in Goethe's 
*' Wilhelm Meister." See Mignon. 

Penrir (fen'rer). (Scand. Mylh.) A 
frightful demon wolf, the oflspring of 
Loki, chained by the gods, and cast 
down into Niflheim, where he is to 
remain until Ragnarok. [Written 
also, but erroneously, F e n r i s .] 

Fen'ton (-tn). A character in Shake- 
speare's " Merry Wives of Windsor," 
who wooes the rich Anne Page for 
her money, but soon discovers inward 
treasures in her which quite trans- 
form him. 

Ferdinand. 1. A character in Shake- 
speare's "Tempest." He is son of 
the king of Naples, and falls in love 
with Miranda, the daughter of Pros- 

Fjro, a banished Duke of Milan. See 
KOSPERO and Miranda. 

Yet oft to fancy's chapel she would go 
To pay her vows, and count the rosary o'er 

Of her love's promised graces : — haply so 
Miranda's hope had pictured Ferdinand 
Long ere the gaunt wave tossed him on the 
shore, Lowell. 

2. King of Navarre, a character in 
" Love's Labor 's Lost." 

Fer'gus (4). The same as Ferracuie. 
See Ferracute. 

Fern, Fanny. A pseudonym adopt- 
ed by Mrs. Sarah Payson (Willis) 
Parton (b. 1811), a popular American 

Fernan Caballero. See Cabal- 
LERo, Fernan. 

Fe-ro'ni-a. {Rom. Myth.) An an- 
cient Italian deity, the patroness of 
plants and of freedmen. 

F6r'r$-ctite, or F6r/ri-cu'tus. [It., 
sharp-iron.] The name of a giant 

in Turpin's " Chronicle of Charle- 
magne," the prototype of Pulci's 
Morgante, and a very famous char- 
acter in all the old chivalric romances. 
He was of the race of Goliath, had 
the strength of forty men, and was 
twenty cubits high. His skin was so 
thick that no lance or sword could 
pierce it. During the suspension of a 
mortal combat wth Orlando, the two 
antagonists discussed the mysteries 
of the Christian faith, which its 
champion explained by a varietv of 
similes and the most beautiful beg- 
gings of the question; after which 
the giant staked the credft of their 
respective beliefs on the event of their 
encounter, which was, that he was dis- 
armed and put to death by Orlando, 
who was divinely endowed with irre- 
sistible strength for this express pur- 
F6r'ra-gus. A giant who flourished 
in romantic fable ; the same as Fer- 
racute. See Ferracute. 

My sire's tall form might grace the part 
Ot Fa-raffus or Ascapart. Sir IV. Scott. 

Ferrau (fer-ra-obO- The same as 
Ferracute. See Ferracute. 

Ffer'rex. A son of a fabulous king 
of Britain, Gorbogudo or Gorbodego, 
and brother of Porrex, by whom he 
was driven out of the country, and, 
on attempting to return, with a large 
army, was defeated and slain. But 
PoiTex himself was shortly after put 
to death by his mother, with the as- 
sistance of some of her women. The 
two brothers figure in an old tragedy, 
commonly called after them " Ferrex 
and Porrex," but sometimes named 
"Gorboduc," after their father. Hal- 
liwell says that it was " the first reg- 
ular historical play in the English 
language." The first three acts 
were written by Thomas Norton; the 
last two by Thomas Sackville, after- 
wards Lord Buckhurst. 

FSr'um-bras, Sir. The hero of an 
old English metrical romance of the 
same name, professedly translated 
from a French original, probably 
"Fierabras." (See Fierabras.) An 
analysis of the story may be found in 
Ellis's " Specimens of Early English 
Metrical Romances," vol. ii. 

VSr For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Fiammetta (fc-am-met'ta, 102). [It., 
little liame', tromjiamma, Lat.Jiamma^ 
tlame.] A name given by Boccaccio 
to a lady whom he loved, and wlio 
is generally believed to have been 
Maria, a natural daughter of Robert, 
king of Naples. It is used by him 
in many of his works. 

Fi-dele. A feigned name assumed 
by Imogen, in Shakespeare's " Cym- 
beline." See Imogen. 
fc Field of Blood. 1. A translation of 
the Hebrew word Aceldama, the 
name given to the piece of land pur- 
chased by the chief priests with the 
thirty pieces of silver for which Ju- 
das betrayed his Master, and which 
he afterward, in remorse, carried 
back and cast down in the temple 
before those who had bribed him. 
{Matt, xxvii. 5.) 

2. [It. Pezzo di Sangue.] A name 
— not of classical origin — given to 
the battle-field, of Cannae, on which 
Hannibal, in the year 216 b. c, 
defeated the Romans with great 

Field of Mourning. A name given 
to the place of a battle, near the city 
of Aragon, between the Christians 
and the Moors, July 17, 1134. 

Field of Peterloo. See Peterloo, 
Field of. 

Field of the Cloth of Gold. A 

- name given to an open plain, between 
Ardres and Guisnes, where Henry 
VIII. of England had an interview, 
in 1520, with Francis I. of France, in 
a pavihon of golden cloth. The no- 
bility of both kingdoms embraced 
the opportunity to display their mag- 
nificence with the utmost emulation 
and profuseness of expense. 

I supposed you must have served as a yeo- 
man of the guard since Bluff Kine Henry's 
time, and expected to hear something from 
you about the Field of the Cloth of Oold. 

iSir W. Scott. 

They [Petrarch's best compositions] differ 
from them [his bad ones] as a May -day pro- 
cession of chimney-sweepers differs from the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold. Macaulay. 

Fierabras (fe/i^ra'bra'). The hero 
of various old romantic poems that 
relate the conquest of Spain by 
Charlemagne and his Twelve Peers. 
Fierabras, who was a Saracen, made 

himself master of Rome, and carried 
away from it various sacred relics, 
especially the crown of thorns, and 
the balsam which was used in em- 
balming the body of 'the Saviour, 
and which possessed medicinal prop- 
erties of sovereign virtue, a single 
drop, taken internally, being suffi- 
cient to restore the continuity of the 
most cruelly mangled skin. 

Conveyances more rapid than the hippogriff 
of Ruggiero, arms more formidable than the 
lance of Astolfo, remedies more efficacioua 
than the balsam of i'^ieroferos. Macaulay. 

Fifth Doctor of the Church. A 

title bestowed upon Thomas Aqui- ' 
nas, the most celebrated schoolman i 
of the Middle Ages. See Angelic 

Fifth Monarchy. A universal mon- 
archy, which, in the belief of a 
strange religious sect of England, in 
the time of the Civil War and the 
Protectorate, was to succeed the fall 
of the Roman Empire, the fourth of 
the four great monarchies of Anti- 
christ marked out by the prophet 
Daniel. This monarchy, it was be- 
lieved, was to be given into the hands 
of the saints of the Most High ; and, 
under it, all the forms of violence 
and suffering hitherto attendant on 
• the governments of this world were 
to cease. In other words, it was to 
be the kingdom of Christ on earth. 
But it was to be set up with the 
sword, and the usual worldly expe- 
dients were to be employed for the 
purpose of securing partisans. In 
politics, the Fifth Monarchy men 
were republicans of the extremest 
views, and conspired to murder the 
Protector and revolutionize the gov- 
ernment. It is*said that they actual- 
ly proceeded to elect Jesus Christ 
king at London ! Cromwell dis- 
persed them in 1653. 

Figaro (fe'gS'ro'). The hero of Beau- 
marchais' celebrated comedies, " L« 
Barbier de Seville" and " Le Mari- 
age de Figaro." In the first of these 
plays, Figaro is a barber; in the sec- 
ond, a valet-de-chambre. In both 
characters, he coolly outwits every 
one with whom he has any dealings. 
The name has passed into common 

^nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




speech, and is used to designate an 
intriguer, a go-between; in general, 
any adroit and unscrupulous person. 
Mozart, Paesiello, and Kossini have 
made Figaro the hero of operas. 

4^ " In Figaro, Beaumarchais has 
personified the tiers-etat, superior in wit, 
industry, and activity to birth, rank, or 
fortune, in whose hand lies the political 
power ; so that the idea of the piece is 
not only a satirical allegory upon the 
government and nobility of that epoch, 
but a living manifesto upon the inequal- 
ity, just or UQJust, of society." Rose. 

t'ighting Prelate. A sobriquet given 
to Henry Spenser, bishop of Norwich, 
in the reign of Richard II. During 
the rebellion of Wat Tyler, he dis- 
tinguished himself by his decisive 
style of dealing with the insurgents ; 
first meeting them in the field; and 
then, when he had routed them, ex- 
changing his sword and armor for a 
crucifix and sacerdotal robes, and, 
thus arrayed, confessing and absolv- 
ing his prisoners as he hurried them 
to the gibbet. In 1383, he went over 
to the Continent to assist the burghers 
of Ghent in their contest with the 
Count of Flandets and the French 
king, and in support of the cause of 
Urban VI., in the general European 
war excited by the struggle between 
that pope and his rival, Clement VII. 

The Bishop of Norwich, the famous Fight- 
ing Prelate, had led an army into Flanders, 
^eing obliged to return, with discomfiture, he 
had been charged with breach of the condi- 
tions on which a sum of money was granted 
to him, and the temporalities of his see were 
sequestered. Lord .Campbell. 

Filomena, St. See St. Filomena. 

Finality John. A sobriquet given 
to Lord John Russell (b. 1792), a dis- 
tinguished English statesman, and an 
earnest advocate of the Reform Bill 
of 1831, which he regarded as a " fi- 

Fin'gal, or Fin-gal'. A mythical 
hero,' whose name occurs in Gaelic 
ballads and traditions, and in Mac- 
pherson's " Poems of Ossian." 

First Gentleman of Europe (9). A 
title given by many, during his life- 
time, to King George IV. of England 
(1762-1830), on account of his posi- 
tion and personal attractions. 

First Scotch Beformer. A title 
conferred upon Patrick Hamilton 
(1503-1527), who was burnt at the 
stake for his dissemination of Lu- 
theran doctrines. 

Fitz-Boo'dle, George. A pseudo- 
nym under which Thackeray (1811- 
1863) contributed to '' Fraser's Mag- 
azine " a variety of tales, criticisms, 
4escriptive sketches, and verses, all of 
which were characterized by a deli- 
cate irony, a profound knowledge of ^ 
the world, and a playful but vigor- 
ous and trenchant style. 

Flam^Jor-oughs, The Miss (flam'- 
biir-oz;. Snobbish female charac- 
ters in Goldsmith's novel, " The Vic- 
ar of Wakefield." 

Fian'dfr§, Moll. The subject of De 
Foe's novel of the same name, a tale 
of low vice. 

Fle'|n9e. A son of Banquo, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " Macbeth." 

Fle't^. A Latinized name of the Fleet 
prison in London, and the title of an 
ancient law-book written by an un- 
known author who was for a time 
confined in this prison. 

Flib'ber-ti-gib'bet. 1. The name 
of a fiend mentioned by Edgar, in 
Shakespeare's tragedy of " King 

4®=" About the time (rf the attempted 
Spanish invasion of England, some Jes- 
uits, for the sake of making converts, 
pretended to cast out a large number of 
evil spirits from the family of Mr. Ed- 
mund Peckham, a Roman Catholic. By 
order of the privy council, Bishop Hars- 
net wrote and published a full account 
of the imposture. Most of the fiends 
mentioned by Edgar are to be found in 
that work, 

Frateretto, Fliberdiaibet, Hoberdidance, To- 
cobatto, were four devils of the round, or 
morice; these four had forty assistants under 
them, as themselves do conresse. 

JIarsnet, Declaration of Effregious Popish 

This is the foul fiend Flibbertigibbet; he 
begins at curfew, and walks till the first cock; 
he gives the web and the pin, squints the eye, 
and makes the harelip, mildews the white 
wheat, and hurts the poor creature of earth. 


Flibbertigibbet, [the fiend] of mopping and 
mowing, who since possesses chamber-maids 
and waiting-women. Shak. 

2. A name given to Dickon Sludge, 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of FronunciaUon/' with the accompanying Explanations, 




a boy who figures in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of " Kenilworth," and 
acts the part of an imp at the enter- 
tainments given to Queen Elizabeth 
by the Earl of Leicester. 

Plo'r$(9). {Rom. Myth.) The goddess 
of tiowers and spring-time. 

Then, with voice 
Mild, as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes, 
Her hand soft touching, whispered thus. 


Flor'de-lice. The mistress of Bran- 
dimart, in Ariosto's " Orlando Euri- 
oso." See Brandimart. 

Flordespina (flof-des-pe^nS), or 
Flor'des-pine. A female charac- 
ter in Ariosto's "Orlando Eurioso," 
daughter of Marsiglio. 

Flo-ren'ti-U8. A knight whose story 
is related in the first book of Gower's 
" Confessio Amantis." He bound 
himself to marry a deformed hag, 
provided she taught him the solution 
of a riddle on which his life de- 

Be she foul as was Florentius' love. Shak. 

Flo'res. The lover of Blanchefleur 
in Boccaccio's " Philopoco," and in 
other old tales and poems. See 

F16r'i-iaeL A female character in 
Spenser's " Faery Queen." A ma- 
lignant witch is represented as hav- 
ing fabricated, out of snow, tempered 
*' with fine mercury and virgin wax," 
a counterfeit Florimel so like the true 
one that it was next to impossible to 

Eerceive any difference between them ; 
ut, on being placed side by side, — 

" The enchanted damsel vanished into naught; 
Her snowy substance melted as with heat; 
Ne of that goodly hue remained aught 
But the empty girdle which about her waist 
was wrought." 

4^ " Her name is compounded of 
two Latin words [Jlos, genitive Jloris, 
and met] meaning honey and flowers^ 
thus betokening the sweet and delicate 
elements of which her nature is molded. 
She seems to express the gentle delicacy 
and timid sensitiveness of woman ; and 
her adventures, the perils and rude en- 
count*ers to which those qualities are ex- 
posed in a world of passion and violence. 
She flees alike from friend and foe, and 
finds treachery in those upon whom she 
had thrown herself for protection ; and 
yet she is introduced to us under circum- 

stances not altogether consistent with 
femiuine delicacy, as having left the court 
of the fairy queen in pursuit of a knight 
who did not even return her passion." 

Geo. S. Hillard. 
To prove the whole system of this school 
absurd, it is only necessary to apply the test 
which dissolved the enchanted Flor-imel. 


Flor'is-mart. The name of one of 
Charlemagne's Twelve Peers, and 
the faithful friend of Orlando, or 

F16r'i-zeL A prince of Bohemia, in 
Shakespeare's "Winter's Tale," in 
love with Perdjta. See Perdita. 

Flour City. A popular designation, 
in the United States, for the city of 
Rochester, New York, a place re- 
markable for its extensive manufac- 
tories of flour. 

Flower City. A name familiarly 
given to Springfield, Illinois, the 
capital of the State. It is distin- 
guished for the beauty of its en- 

Flower of Chivalry* A name given 
by his contemporaries to William 
of Douglas, lord of Liddesdale, in the 
fourteenth century. 

Flower of Kings. [Lat. Flos Be- 
gum.] A name applied to Arthur, 
the renowned and half-fabulous king 
of ancient Britain; — first given to 
him by Joseph of Exeter, a Latin 
poet of the twelfth century. 

Flower of Poets. A title conferred 
upon Chaucer by his contemporaries. 

Flowery Kingdom. A translation 
of the words Hwa Kwoh^ a name often 
given to China by the inhabitants, 
who consider themselves to be the 
most polished and civilized of all 
nations, as the epithet hwa intimates. 

Fltl-el'len. A Welsh captain who is 
an amusing pedant, in Shakespeare's 
historical play of " Henrj^ V." 

Lord Mahon will find, we think, that hid 
parallel is, in all essential circumstances, as 
incorrect as that which Fluelkn drew between 
Macedon and Monmouth. Macaulay. 

The architect worked hard for weeks 
In venting all his private peaks 
Upon the roof, whose crop of leaks 
Had satisfied Fluellen. Lowell. 

Flying Dutchman. The name given 
by sailors to a spectral ship, which 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




is supposed to cruise in storms off the 
Cape of Good Hope, and the sight of 
which is considered the worst of all 
possible omens. She is distinguished 
from earthly vessels by bearing a 
press of sail when all others are un- 
able, from stress of weather, to show 
an inch* of canvas. The cause of her 
wandering is variously explained: 
according to one account, a Dutch 
captain, bound home from the Indies, 
met with long-continued head-winds 
and heav}'- weather off the Cape of 
Good Hope, and refused to put back 
as he Avas advised to do, swearing a 
very profane oath that he would beat 
round the Cape, if he had to beat 
there until the Day of Judgment. He 
was taken at his word, and doomed 
to beat against head-winds all his 
days. His sails are believed to have 
become thin and sere, his ship's sides 
white with age, and himself and crew 
reduced almost to shadows. He can- 
not heave to, or lower a boat, but 
sometimes hails vessels through his 
trumpet, and requests them to take 
letters home for him. Dr. John 
I.eyden, who introduces the story 
of the Flying Dutchman into his 
" Scenes of Infancy," imputes, with 
poetical ingenuity, the doom of the 
ship to its having been the first to 
engage in the slave-trade. But the 
common tradition is, as stated by 
Sir Walter Scott, "that she was 
originally a vessel loaded with great 
wealth, on board of which some 
horrid act of murder and piracy had 
been committed; that the plague 
broke out among the wicked crew, 
who had perpetrated the crime, and 
that they sailed in vain from port to 
port, offering, as the price of shelter, 
the whole of their ill-gotten wealth; 
that they Vere excluded from every 
harbor, for fear of the contagion which 
was devouring them ; and that, as a 
punishment of their crimes, the ap- 
parition of the ship still continues to 
haunt those seas in which the catas- 
trophe took place." The superstition 
has its origin, probably, in the loom- 
ing, or apparent suspension in the 
air, of some ship out of sight, — a 
phenomenon sometimes witnessed at 

sea, and caused by unequal refrac- 
tion in the lower strata of the at- 
mosphere. Marryatt's novel entitled 
" The Phantom Ship " is founded 
upon this legend. 

That Phantom Ship, whose form 
Shoots like a meteor througli the storm; 
"When the dark scud comes driving hard, 
And lowered is every top-sail vard. 
And canvas, wove in earthly looms, 
No more to brave the storm presumes; 
Then, 'mid the war of sea and sky, 
Top and top-gallant hoisted high, 
Full-spread and crowded every sail, 
The Demon Frigate braves the gnle ; 
And well the doomed spectators know 
The harbinger of wreck and woe. 

Sir W. Scott. 
Let this simple word [No, in answer to a 
claim for " recognition " on the part of the 
" Confederate States "] be uttered, and the 
audacious Slave-Power will be no better than 
the Flying Dutchman, that famous craft,which, 
darkened by piracy and murder, was doomed 
to a perpetual cruise, unable to enter a port. 
Charles Sumner. 

Flying Highwayman. A sobriquet 
given to William Harrow, a noted 
highway robber, executed at Hertford 
(Eng.), March 28, 1763. He was so 
called from his practice of leaping his 
horse over the turnpikes, which en- 
abled him for a time to escape detec- 

Foible. An intriguing lady's-maid in 
Congreve's " Way of the World," 
who plays her mistress false. 

Foi'gard. A mendacious and hypo- 
critical priest, in Farquhar's " Beaux' 
Stratagem," who acts the part of a 

We remember no Friar Dominic, no Father 
Foigard, among tJie characters drawn bv those 
great poets [the dramatists of the Elizabethan 
age]. Macaulaif. 

Fondlewife. An uxorious banker in 
Congreve's " Old Bachelor." 

Fontainebleau, Decree of. See 
Decree ob^ Fontainebleau. 

Fool, Tom. A popular nickname for 
a fool, or foolish person. 

4^ "Englishmen bestowed upon Kent 
the reproach that the tails cut from 
Becket's mules by his enemies had been 
transferred to themselves, and foreigners 
extended the imputation to the whole 
nation, insomuch that, as Joinville tells 
us, the stout Earl of Salisbury and his 
men were goaded on to perish in their 
last fatal charge on the banks of the Nile 
by the French scoff that they would not 
take the front lest their tails should bo 
detected. It is just possible that Tom 

tsa^ For the '* Key to the Scheme of Prftnuuclation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Fool may be connected with this story, 
though more probably with some jester 
of forgotten fame/' ' Yonge. 

The ancient and noble family of Tom Fool, 
which has obUiined such pre-eminence and 
dignity in Church and State throughout all 
Christendom. Qu. Rev. 

Fools' Paradise. See Limbo. 

Foot-breadth. The sword of Thoralf 
Skolinson the Strong, a companion of 
of Hako I. of Norway, distinguished 
for his strength and bravery. See 

Fop'ping-ton, Lord. An empty cox- 
comb, intent only on dress and fash- 
ion, in Vanbrugh's comedy, " The 

The shoe-maker in " The Relapse " tells 
Lord Foppinyton that his lordship is mistaken 
in supposing that his shoe pinches. 


Fdrd, Master. A jealous gentleman 
dwelling at Windsor, in Shake- 
speare's comedy of " The Merry 
Wives of Windsor." 

Ford, Mrs. One of the "Merry 
Wives of Windsor," in Shakespeare's 
play of ttiat name. Sir John Falstaff 
is in love with her, and she encourages 
his attentions for a time, in order to be- 
tray and disgrace him. See Brook, 

Forest City. 1. A name popularly 
given to Cleveland, Ohio, from the 
many ornamental trees with which 
the streets are bordered. 
, 2. A name given to Portland, 
Maine, a city distinguished for its 
many elms and other beautiful shade- 

3. A name given to Savannah, 
Georgia, the streets of which are 
closely shaded with pride - of - India 
{Margosa Azedarak) trees. 

Forester, Fanny. A nom de plume 
of Miss Emily Chubbuck (1817-1854), 
a popular American authoress, after- 
ward the wife of Adoniram Judson, 
the missionary. 

Forester, Frank. A pseudonym un- 
der which Henry William Herbert 
(1807-1858), a versatile English 
author, long resident in America, 
published a number of works on 
fowling, fishing, and field-sports in 

For'nax. (Rom. Myth.) A go.ddcsa 
of corn, and the patroness of bakers. 

Forseti (for^s^-tee). [Old Norse, pres- 
ident, from /or, before, and sitja., to 
sit.] {Scand. Myth.) The god of 
justice, a son of Baldur. [Written 
also Forsete.] 

For'tin-brSs. Prince of Norway, in 
Shakespeare's tragedy of " Hamlet." 

For-tu'na. (Eom. Myth.) The god- 
dess of chance or luck, particularly 
of good luck, success, and prosperity ; 
said to be blind. 

Fortunate Islands. See Islands of 
THE Blest. 

For / tu-na'tus. The hero of a German 
popular romance of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, based upon legends of an earlier 

jgEg"" The story recounts how, when ho 
had been exposed to great dangers from 
wild beasts, and was in a state of starva- 
tion, he suddenly beheld a beautiful lady 
standing by his side, with a bandage over 
her eyes, leaning upon a wheel, and look- 
ing as if she were going to speak. The 
lady did not wait long before she ad- 
dressed him in these words: "Know, 
young man, that my name is Fortune. I 
have power to bestow wisdom, strength, 
riches, health, beauty, and long life. One 
of these I am willing to bestow on you. 
Choose for yourself which it shall be." 
Fortunatus immediately answered, "Good 
lady, I wish to have riches in such plenty 
that I may never again know what it is 
to be so hungry as I now find myself.'* 
The lady then gave him a purse, and told 
him, that, in all the countries where he 
might happen to be, he need only put his 
hand into the purse, as often as ho 
pleased, and he would be sure to find in. 
it pieces of gold ; that the purse should 
never fail of yielding the same sum as 
long as it should be kept by himself and 
children. It is further related, that a 
certain sultan led Fortunatus to a room 
almost filled with jewels, opened a large 
closet, and took out a cap, which he said 
was of greater value than all the rest. 
Fortunatus thought the sultan was jok- 
ing, and told him he had seen many a 
better cap than that. " Ah," said tho 
sultan, " that is because you do not know 
its value. Whoever puts this cap on his 
head, and wishes to be in any part of tho 
world, will find himself there in a mo- 
ment." The story has a moral ending, 
inasmuch as the possession of this inex- 
haustible purse and wishing-cap are tho 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




cause of ruin to Fortunatus, and to 
his sons after him. The subject was 
dramatized by Hans Sachs in lo53, and 
by Thomas Dekker in his '* Pleasant Com- 
edie of Old Fortunatus " (1600); and in 
modern times it has been poetically treat- 
ed by Ludwig Tieck in his " Phantasus " 

"With a miraculous Fortunatxis's purse in his 
treasury, it might have lasted, longer. 


For-tu'ni-o (6). The hero of a pop- 
ular tale, closely allied to that of i'or- 
tunatus, — with whom he is perhaps 
identical, — but which has generally 
Ibeen treated as an independent story. 
He is famous for his adventure with 
a dragon, in the pursuit of which he 
made use of those marvelous servitors, 
Fine-ear, who, " putting his ear to 
the ground, informed his master that 
the dragon was seven leagues off;" 
Tippler, who " drank up all the rivers 
which were between;" Strong-back, 
who " carried wine enough to fill 

• them all; " Light-foot, Boisterer, and 

Forty Thieves. Characters of a cele- 
brated tale in the " Arabian Njghts' 
Entertainments," represented as in- 
habiting a secret cave in a forest, the 
door of which would open and shut 
only at the sound of the magic word 
" Sesame," — the name of a kind of 
grain. See Baba, All 

Ali Baba, when he entered the cave of the 
Forty Thieves, could not have been more 
amazed by the wealth of its contents than 
eome people will be 'when they first read the 
title of this book. Putnam's Mag. 

Porwards, Marslial. See Marshal 

Foul-weather Jack. A name given 
to Commodore Byron (1723-1786), 
bv the men who sailed under him, in 
allusion to his ill fortune at sea. 

Fountain of Life. A title given to 

, Alexander Hales, an English friar of 
the thirteenth century, and a distin- 
guished schoolman. He was more 
commonly styled Ths IrrefragabU 

Fountain of Youth. A miraculous 
fountain, whose waters were fabled to 
have the property of renewing youth. 
See BiMiNi. 

Four Masters, The. [Lat. Quaiuor 
MagistriJ\ A name given to the 

authors of an ancient Irish history 
called "The Annals of Donegal." 
Their names were Michael O'Clerigh, 
or Clerk, Maurice and Fearfeafa 
Conry, and Cucpirighe, or Peregrine, 

Fra Diavolo. (M de-S^vo-lo). [It., 
Brother Devil.] A sobriquet of 
Michele Pezza (1760-1806), a native 
of Calabria. According to some ac- 
counts, he was in early life a goat- 
herd, afterward a monk, under the 
name of Fra Angela. Others say that 
he was apprenticed to a stockinger. 
Escaping from the workshop or the 
monaster}^, he joined himself to a 
band of robbers, of which he soon 
became the leader. On the arrival 
of the French, he declared for the 
king of Naples, and in 1799 received 
pardon and office from Cardinal Buffo, 
organized his band, and made an 
incursion into the Roman territory. 
Subsequently he repaired to Palermo, 
where he took part in an insurrection, 
under the leadership of Commodore 
Sidney Smith. Being tal^en prisoner 
by treachery at San Severino, he was 
lianged at Naples^ Nov. 1806, not- 
withstanding the mtercession of the 
English on his behalf, prompted by 
respect for his military prowess. He 
has been made the subject of various 
traditions and songs, and of an opera 
by Auber, entitled " Fra Diavolo," in 
which, however, nothing of the char-^ 
acter but the name has been retained. 

Fran-ces'ca of Bim'i-ni (It. pron. 
frSn-ches^kS). A daughter of Guido 
da Polenta, lord of Ravenna in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century. 
She was mairied to Lanciotto, son 
of Malatesta da Rimini, a brave but 
deformed and hateful person, who, 
having discovered a criminal in- 
timacy between her and his own 
brother, revenged himself by putting 
them both to death. The story of 
Francesca forms one of the most ad- 
mired episodes in Dante's " Inferno," 
and has also been made the subject 
of a poem by Leigh Hunt. 

Frank'en-stein. A monster, in Mrs. 
Shelley's rom^ijice of the same name, 
constructed by a young student of 

«^ For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronuncifliion," with Ibe *c<M)mp«uiyiiig E3cpXaaaU,oi?», 




physiology out of the horrid rem- 
nants of the church-yard and dissect- 
ing-room, and endued, apparently 
through the agency of galvanism, 
with a sort of spectral and convulsive 
life. This existence, rendered insup- 
portable to the monster by his vain 
craviSg after human sympathy, and 
by his consciousness of his own de- 
&nnity, is employed in inflicting the 
most dreadful retribution upon the 
guilty pliiiosopher. 

It [the Southern " Confederacy "] will be the 
soulless monster of Fraakemtein,— tlie wretch- 
ed creation of mortal science without God; 
endowed with life and nothing else; for ever 
raging madly, the scandal to humanity; pow- 
erful only for evil; whose destruction will be 
essential to the peace of the world. 

Charles Sumner. 

Frat'er-et'to. The name of a fiend 
mentioned by Edgar, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " King Lear." 
See Flibbertigibbet, 1. 

Free-born Jojin. John Lilburne 
(1613-1657), a famous English repub- 
licau; — popularly so called on ac- 
count of his intrepid defense, before 
the tribunal of the Star Chamber, of 
his rights as a free-born Englishman. 

Freeman, Mrs. An assumed name 
under which the Duchess of Marl- 
borough corresponded with Queen 
Anne. See Mouley, Mks. 

Freeport, Sir Andrew. The name 
of one of the members of the imagi- 
nary club under whose auspices the 
"Spectator" was professedly is- 
sued. He is represented as a Lon- 
don merchant of great eminence and 
experience, industrious, sensible, and 

Freestone State. The State of Con- 
necticut ; — sometimes so called from 
the quarries of freestone which it con- 

Freischiitz (fri'shiits, 51). [Ger., the 
free-shooter ; Fr. Robin des Bois.] 
The name of a legendary hunter, or 
marksman, who, by entering into a 
compact with the Devil, procures 
balls, six of which infallibly hit, 
however great the distance, while the 
seventh, or, according to some of the 
versions, one of the seven, belongs 
to the Devil, who directs it at his 
pleasure. Legends of this nature 

were rife among the troopers of Ger- 
many of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, and during the Thirty 
Years' war. The story first ap- 
peared in a poetic form in 1810, in 
Apel's " Gespensterbuch " ("Ghost- 
book"), and F. Kind adapted the story 
to the opera composed by Weber in 
1821. which has made it known in 
all civilized countries. Pierer. 

French. Devil. An opprobrious title 
given by the English, Dutch, and 
Spanish to Jean Barth, or Bart (1651- 
1702), a French naval hero cele- 
brated for his boldness and success 
in battle. 

French FaHji-us. A surname be- 
stowed upon Anne (1493-1567), first 
Duke of Montmorency, grand con- 
stable of France, on account of .his 
success in nearly destroying the im- 
perial army which had invaded Pro- 
vence, by the policy of laying waste 
the country and skillfully prolong- 
ing the campaign. See American 

French Fury. (Hist,) A name given 
to the attempt made by the Duke of 
Anjou to caiTy Antwerp by storm, 
Jan. 17, 1583. The whole of his force 
was either killed or taken captive in 
less than an hour. 

French Phid'i-fts. 1. A title be- 
stowed upon Jean Goujon (d. 1572), 
a celebrated Parisian sculptor and 
architect, in the reigns of Francis I. 
and Henry II. 

2. A title conferred upon Jean 
Baptiste Pigalle (1714-1785), an emi- 
nent French sculptor; but not hap- 
Eily, as his taste cannot be said to 
e classical. 

French Pin'dar. A title bestowed 
upon Jean Dorat, a French poet of 
the sixteenth century. Charles IX. 
created expressly for him the office 
of Poete Royal. He died at Paris in 
1582, aged 80 years. 

French Baph'&-el. A title conferred 
upon Eustace Le Sueur (1617-1655), 
a distinguished French painter. 

French Ros'ci-us (rosh/i-us). Mi- 
chael Baron (1653-1727), a celebrated 
French actor. 

and for the Ile4aai-k8 and Rules to which the niuaberS'afiter.cei'taLa words refer, see pp. jciv-xxxil. 




French. Solomon. See Solomon ok 


Frerfch Ti-biil'lus. [Fr. Le Tlhulle 
FraiK^ais.^ A surname given to 
Evariste Desire Desforges, Chevalier 
de Parny (1753-1814), a French 
elegiac and erotic poet. 

Fres'ton. An enchanter or necro- 
mancer who figures in many terrible 
scenes of the old romance of " Don 
lielianis of Greece." 

Not Muniaton, but Freston, you should 
have said, cried Don Quixote. Truly, quoth 
the niece, I can't tell whether it was Freston, 
or Friston, but sure I am that his name 
ended with a " ton." Cervantes, Trans. 

Frey (fri, 42). {Scand. Myth.) The 
god of the sun and of rain, and hence 
of fertility and peace. He was one 
of the most popular of the Northern 
divinities. [ Written also F r e y r.] 

Freyja (fri/ya). (Scand. Myth.) The 
goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and 
fecundity. She was the sister of 
Frey, and the wife of Odur, who aban- 
doned her on her loss of youth and 
beauty, and was changed into a statue 
by Odin, as a punishment. [Writ- 
ten also Freyia and Frey a.] 

Friar Dom'i-nic. The chief person- 
age in Dry den's play, " The Spanish 
Friar," designed to ridicule the vices 
of the priesthood. It is the best of 
his comic characters. 

Friar GSr'iind. The hero of a cele- 
brated Spanish satirical romance by 
Padre Isla (1703-1781), designed to 
ridicule the style of pulpit oratory in 
vogue in his day, — oratory degraded 
by bad taste, by conceits, puns, and 
tricks of composition, and even by 
low buffoonery, indulged in merely 
to win the applause and increase the 
contributions of vulgar audiences. 
" The famous preacher. Friar Ger- 
und," is one of these popular orators; 
and Isla describes his life from his 
birth in an obscure village, through 
his education in a fashionable con- 
vent, and his adventures as a mission- 
ary about the country, the fiction 
ending abruptly with his preparation 
to deliver a course of sermons in a 
city that seems intended to represent 

Friar John. The name of one of the 

most celebrated characters in Rabe- 
lais' romance of " Pantagruel." 

13^ '* Throughout the book, he dashes 
on, regardless ot every thing in this world 
or the next. If there is a shipwreck or a 
skirmish, Friar John is foremost in the 
bustle ; fear is unknown to him ; if a 
joke more than usually profane is to be 
uttered, Friar John is the spokesman. 
The swearing, bullying phrases are all 
put in the mouth of Friar John. 
lais loved this lusty friar, this mass of 
lewdness, debauchery, profanity, and 
valor. He is the ' fine fellow ' of the 
book ; and the author always seems in a 
good humor when he makes him talk." 
For. Qu. Rev. 

And as to a dinner, they can no more do 
without him than they could without Friar 
John at the roistering revels of the renowned 
Pantagruel. W. Irving. 

Then came the Rebellion, and, presto ! a 
flaw in our titles was discovered, . . . and we 
were ... no relations of theirs after all, but a 
dreggy hybrid of the basest bloods of Europe. 
Pan urge was not quicker to call Friar John 
his " former" friend. Lowell. 

Friar Lau'rence. A Franciscan who 
undertakes to marry Komeo and 
Juliet, in Shakespeare's tragedy of 
that name. 

Friar Rush. [Lat. Frater Rauschius, 
Ger. Bi'uder Rausch, Dan. Brodtr 
Runs. His name signifies either noisej 
as Grimm thinks, or, as Wolf deems, 
drunkenness. Comp. Old Eng. rouse.^ 
A house-spirit, celebrated in the mar- 
velous legends of old times. His 
historv was printed in 1620, and had 
probably been often printed before. 
The whole tale is designed as a severe 
satire upon the monks, the pretended 
friar being sent from hell in conse- 
quence of news, brought to the prince 
of devils, " of the great misrule and 
vile living of these religious men ; to 
keep them still in that state, and worse 
if it might be." 

Quia non legit quid F)-ater Rauschius egit? 
Bruno Seidelius. 

Friar Tuck. One of the constant 
associates of Robin Hood, to whom 
Ben Jonson (in his " Sad Shep- 
herd") makes him chaplain and 
steward. According to some, he was 
a real monk. Sir Walter Scott has 
introduced him in " Ivanhoe," with 
great success, as the Holy Clerk of 

Frib'ble (-bl). A feeble-minded cox- 

C^ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




comb in Garrick'^ farce entitled " Miss 
in her Teens ; " much given to cod- 
dling himself, and " sadly troubled 
with weak nerves." 

Could this sad, thoughtful countenance be 
the same . . . that had looked out ... so 
blankly divested of all meaning, or resolutely 
expressive of none, in Acres, in Fribble, and a 
thousand agreeable impertinences? 

Charles Lamb. 

The fashionable FrMles of the day, the 
chat, scandal, and amusements of those at- 
tending the wells, and the canting hypocrisy 
of some sectarians, are depicted, sometimes 
with indelicacy, but always with force and 
liveliness. R. Chambers. 

Friday, Man. The nanfie of a young 
Indian whom Robinson Crusoe saved 
from death on a Friday, and kept for 
a companion and servant. 

Even before they were acquainted, he had 
admired Osborne in secret. Now he was his 
valet,' his dog, his Man Friday/. Thackeray. 

Friend of Man. [Fr. VAmi des 
Homines.] A name popularly given 
to Victor Riquetti, Marquis de Mira- 
beau (1715-1789), from the title of 
one of his works. He was a distin- 
guished political economist, and was 
father of the great tribune, Mirabeau. 

Frig'gS. (Scand. Myth.) The wife 
of Odin, the queen of the gods, and 
the mother of Baldur, Thor, &c. 
She sometimes typifies the earth, as 
Odin does the heavens. The Anglo- 
Saxons worshiped her as Frea. The 
name survives in Fri4ay, 

Fris^co-bai'do. A character in Dek- 
ker's " Honest Whore." Hazlitt pro- 
nounces it perfect, in its way, as a 
picture of a broken-hearted father 
with a sneer on his lips and a tear- 
drop in his eye. 

Fritliiof (frith/i^of, or frith/yof). [Icel. 
Fridlithjojr, peace-destroyer.] The 
hero of an ancient Icelandic " saga," 
which records his love for the beauti- 
ful Ingeborg, the daughter of a petty 
Norwegian king. After being reject- 
ed by the brothers of Ingeborg, and 
having committed various acts of re- 
venge on his enemies, he comes to 
the court of the old King Hring, to 
whom Ingeborg has been man-ied, 
and is received with kindness. At the 
death of her husband, Ingeborg is 
married to her lover, who acquires 
with her hand the dominions of Hring, 

over which he rules prosperously 
to the end of his days. The dis- 
tinguished Swedish poet, Bishop 
Tegner, has made use of this myth 
as the groundwork of a poem of his 
own (" Frithjof's Saga"), which has 
obtained a wide reputation, and has 
been translated into various modem 
languages. [Written also Frith- 
Fritz, DerAlte (defaPta frits). [Ger., 
Old Fritz, Old Fred.] A sobriquet 
given by the Germans to Frederick 
I. (1712-1786) king of Prussia, com- 
monly called Frederick the Great. 

Frog, KTic. A sportive collective 
name applied to the Dutch, in Arbuth- 
not's " History of John Bull." 

I back your Mc Frog against Mother Par- 
tington. Boctes Aiiibrosiance. 

FroI'lo, Archdeacon Claude (Fr, 
pron. klod froPlo'). A noted charac- 
ter in Victor Hugo's "Notre-Dame 
de Paris," absorbed in a bewildering 
search after the philosophers' stone. 
He has a great reputation for sanc- 
tity, but falls in love with a gypsy 
girl, and pursues her with unrelent- 
ing persecution, because she will not 
yield to his desires. 

Front de Bceuf. See Bckuf, Front 


Frontino (fron-te^no). The name 
given, in the old romances of chivalry, 
to the horse of Ruggiero, or Rogerol 

Go, Rozinante, ... go rear thy awful front 
wherever thou pleasest, secure that neither 
the hippogrifFon of Astolpho, nor the renowned 
Frantino, which Bradamante purchased at so 
high a price, could ever be thought thy equal. 
Cervantes, Don Quixote. 

Frost, Jack. A popular personifica- 
tion of frost. 

4®=" Frost is the name of a dwarf in the 
Scandinavian mythology, and Ferguson 
suggests that our nursery hero, .lack 
Frost, may be derived from that source. 

Froth.. 1. (Master.) A foolish gentle- 
man, in Shakespeare's *' Measure for 
Measure." His name explains liis 
character, which is without solidity 
enough for deep crime, and far too 
light for virtue. 

We have dealt with the tale very much ac- 
cording to the clown's argument in favor of 
Master FVoth : " Look upon his face. I '11 be 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




BTTorn upon a book that his face is the worst 
part about him ; and if his face be the worst 

8 art about him, how could Master Froth do 
le constable's wife any harm ? " Sir W. Scott. 

2. (Lord.) A solemn coxcomb, 
in Congreve's comedy of "The 
Double Dealer." 
Fudge, Mr. A contemptuous desig- 
nation bestowed upon any absurd or 
lying writer or talker. " See Bur- 

4®=" " There was, sir, in our time, one 
Captain Fudge, commander of a mer- 
chantman, who, upon his return from a 
voyage, how ill fraught soever his ship 
was, always brought home to his owners 
a good cargo of lies^ insomuch that now 
aboard ship the sailors, when they hear a 
great lie told, cry out, ' You fudge it.' " 
Remarks upon the Navy (London, 1700). 
" In the year 1664, we were sentenced for 
banishment to Jamaica by Judges Hyde 
and Twisden, and our number was 55. 
We were put on board the ship Black 
Eagle ; the master's name was Fudge, by 
some called Lying Fudge." A Collection 
of some Papers of William Crouch (8vo, 

4^ " With a due respect to their an- 
tiquity, and the unchanged reputation 
always attached to the name, we have 
long held in high consideration the an- 
cient family of Fudges. Some of them, 
as we know, have long resided in England, 
and have been ever ready to assist in her 
domestic squabbles and political changes. 
But their favorite place of residence we 
understand to be in Ii-eland. Their usual 
modes of expression, indeed, are akin to 
the figurative talk of the Emerald island- 
ers." Brit. 4" For. Rev. 

Pudge Family. A name under which 
the poet Moore, in a series of metrical 
epistles, purporting to be written by 
the members of a family of English 
tourists visiting Paris, satirized the 
absurdities of his traveling country- 
men, who, having been long confined 
at home by the wars waged by Na- 
poleon, flocked to the continent in 
swarms, after his defeat at Waterloo. 
The family is composed of a hack 
writer and spy, devoted to legitimacy, 
the Bourbons, and Lord Castlereagh ; 
his son, a young dandy of the first 
water ; and his daughter, a senti- 
mental damsel, rapturously fond of 
"romance, and high bonnets, and 
Madame Le Roy," in love with a 
Parisian linen-draper, whom she has 

mistaken for one of the Bourbons m 
disguise. There is also a tutor and 
"poor relation" of this egregious 
family, who is an ardent Bonapartist 
and Irish patriot. 

No sooner are we seated at the say saloon 
in Dessin's, than we call, like Biddy Fudge, 
for " French pens and French ink."' 

Mrs. Jameson, 

Funk, Peter. A person employed at 
petty auctions to bid on articles put 
up for sale, in order to raise their 
price ; — * probably so called from such 
a name having frequently been given 
when articles were bought in. To 
Jimk, or jfunk out, is a vulgar expres- 
sion, meaning to slink away, to take 
one's self off. In some localities, it 
conveys the added notion of great 

4^ " By thus running up goods, Vetet 
is of great service t,o the auctioneers, 
though he never pays them a cent of 
money. Indeed, it is not his intention to 
purchase, nor is it that of the auctioneer 
that he should. Goods, nevertheless, are 
frequently struck off to him ; and then 
the salesman cries out the name of Mr. 
Smith, Mr. Johnson, or some other among 
the hundred aliases of Peter Funk, as the 
purchaser. But the goods, on such oc- 
casions, are always taken back by the 
auctioneer, agreeably to a secret under- 
standing between him and Peter." 

Asa Greene. 

Furies. [Lati Fwnce.'] ( Gr. cf Rom. 
Myth.) The three goddesses of ven- 
geance, daughters of Acheron and 
Nox. They were armed with lighted 
torches, their heads were wreathed 
with snakes, and their w^hole ap- 
pearance was terrific and appalling. 
Their names were Alecto, Megaera, 
and Tisiphone. [Called also EHnnyts 
and JEumenides.'] 

Furioso, Bombastes. See Bombas- 
TES Furioso. 

Furioso, Orlando. See Orlando. 

Fusberta (fobs-bef/t^.) The name of 
the sword of Rinaldo. See Bayard, 
2, and Rinaldo. [Written also 
Frusberta, Fushberta, and 

This •* awful sword," as the common people 
term it, was as dear to him as Durindana or 
Fitshberta to their respective masters, and was 
nearly, as formidable to his enemies as those 
renowned falchions proved to the foes of 
Christendom. Sir W. Scott. 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation/' with the accompanying Explanations, 





G«l}ri-el. [Heb., mighty one of God.] 
The name of an angel described in 
the Scriptures* as charged with the 
ministration of comfort and svmf)athy 
to man. He was sent to Daniel to 
interpret in plain words the vision of 
the ram and the he-goat, and to com- 
fort him, after his prayer, with the 
prophecy of the " seventy weeks." 
(See Dan. viii.* and ix.) In the 
New Testament {Lukei.), he is the 
herald of good tidings, declaring as 
he does the coming of the predicted 
Messiah, and of his forerunner, John 
the Baptist. In the ordinary tradi- 
tions, Jewish and Christian, Gabriel 
is spoken of as one of the seven arch- 
angels. According to the Rabbins, 
he is the angel of death for the pJSople 
of Israel, whose souls are intrustecf to 
his care. The Talmud describes him 
as the prince of fire, and as the spirit 
who presides over thunder, and the 
ripenmg of fruits. Gabriel has the 
reputation, among the Rabbins, of 
being a distinguished linguist, hav- 
ing taught Joseph the seventy lan- 
guages spoken at Babel, and being, 
m addition, the only angel who could 
speak Chaldee and Syriac. The 
Mohammedans hold him in even 
greater reverence than the Jews. He 
is called the spirit of truth, and is 
believed to have dictated the Koran 
to Mohammed. Milton posts him at 
"the eastern gate of Paradise," as 
" chief of the angelic guards," keep- 
ing watch there. 

Gadg'hill. A companion of Sir John 
Falstaff, in the First Part of Shake- 
speare's " King Henry IV." 

Galier-is, Sir. A brother of Sir 
Gawain, and a knight of the Round 
Table, celebrated in old romances of 

GSl'&-had, Sip. The son of Lancelot 
of the Lake, and a knight of the 
Round Table, remarkable for the 
purity of his life. His successful ad- 
ventures in search of the sangreal 

were celebrated by the old romancets, 
and have been made the subject, in 
modern times, of one of the most ex- 
quisite of Tennyson's minor poems. 
[Written also G a 1 a a d.] 

Galaloxi. See Gan. 

G^'&-or. A brother of Amadis de 
Gaul.' His exploits are recounted in 
the romance of that name. 

Gl-laph'ro-He, or Qal'a-frftn. A 
king of Cathay, and father* of An- 
gelica, in Bojardo's " Orlando Inna- 
morato," Ariosto's " Orlando Furi- 
oso," and other romantic poems and 
tales of the Carlovingian cycle. 

Gai'a-te'i. [Gr. raAdreia.] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A sea-nymph, the daugh- 
ter of Nereus and Doris. She was 
Eassionately loved by Polyphemus, 
ut her own affections were bestowed 
upon Acis. See Acis. 

Ga-la'tian. A character in the Christ- 
mas gambols of the olden time. 

G&lTi-a. The ancient Latin name of 
France, often used in modern poetry. 

For gold let GfalUa's legions fight, 

Or plunder's bloody gain; 
Unbnbed, unbought, our swords we draw, 
To guard our king, to fence our law, 

Nor shall their edge be vain. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Galloping Dick. A name popularly 
given to Richard Ferguson, a cele- 
brated highway robber, — executed 
at Aylesbury (England), April 4, 
1800, — on account of his bold riding 
When pursued. 

Galloway, Fair Maid of. See Fair 
Maid of Galloway. 

Gammer Gurton. See Gurton, 

Gamip, Mrs. Sarah. A monthly nurse 
who is a prominent character in 
Dickens's novel of " Martin Chuz- 
zlewit." She is celebrated for her 
constant reference to a certain Mrs. 
Harris, a purely imaginary person, 
for whose feigned opinions and ut- 
terances she professes the greatest 
respect, in order to give the more 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiy-xxxii. 




weight to her own. See Harris, 
Gan (gan), Ganelone (gt-nti-Wnti), 
Ganelon (gan^lon', 62), or Gano 
igd^iio). A count of M^yence, and 
one of the paladins of Charlemagne, 
by whom he is perpetually trusted, 
and whom he perpetually betrays; 
always represented as engaged in 
machinations for the destruction of 
Christianity. Spite, patience, obsti- 
nacy, dissimulation, affected humility, 
and inexhaustible powers of intrigue 
are the chief elements of his charac- 
ter. He figures in the romantic 
poems of Italy, and is placed by 
Dante in his Inferno. See Mar- 
siGLio. [Written also G a 1 a 1 o n.] 

Have you not, all of you, held me at such a 

distance from your counsels, as if I were the 

most faithless spy since the days of Ganelon ? 

Sir W. Scott. 

Heimer the fierce, who was the Ganelon of 
the society, sat upon the left. H. Weber. 

Gan'der-cleugh (-klobk). [That is, 
gander-cliff, or gander-ravine.] An 
imaginary town situated on the imag- 
inary river Gander, in " the central 
part, the navel of Scotland." It was 
the residence of Jedediah Cleish- 
botham (see Cleishbotham, Jede- 
diah), who speaks of it as " a place 
frequented by most at one time or 
other in their lives." 

Ga'nem. The name of a young 
merchant who is the hero of one of 
the tales in the "Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments." He incurs the 
vengeance of Caliph Haroun-Al-Ra- 
schid, and has his house leveled to 
the ground in consequence, but es- 
capes being made a prisoner by dis- 
guising himself like a slave belonging 
to an eating-house, and putting on 
his head the dishes from which he 
had just eaten dinner, — a trick 
which effectually deceives the guards, 
who permit him to pass without ex- 

Gan'e-sa. {Hindu Myth.) The god 
of policy and prudence, or wisdom. 
He is represented with the head of an 
elephant, and with four arms; some- 
times with three arms. 

The tenth Avatar comes I at Heaven's com- 
Shall Seriswattee wave her hallowed wand, 

And Camdeo bright and Ganesa sublime 

Shall bless with joy their own propitious 

Come, Heavenly Powers! primeval peace re- 
store ! 

Love, — Mercy, — Wisdom, — rule for ever- 
more! Campbell. 

Gan'^-mede. [Gr. TawfiriSr]^, Lat. 
Ganymedes.'] {Gr. ^ Hem. Myth.) 
A son of Tros, king of Troy, b^ 
Callirrhoe. He was the most beauti- 
ful of mortals; and Jupiter, channed 
with his appearance, assumed the 
form of an eagle, snatched him away 
from his playmates on Mount Ida, 
and carried him up to heaven, where 
he became the cup-bearer of the gods 
in the place of Juno's daughter Hebe. 
See Hebe. [Written also, poetically, 

Tall stripling youths rich clad, of fairer hue 
. Than Ganymed or Hylas. Milton. 

Pour forth heaven's wine, Idaean Ganymede, 
And let it fill the Daedal cups like fire. 

There, too^ flushed Ganymede, his rosy thigh 

Half buried in the eagle's down. 
Sole as a flying star shot through the sky 

Above the pillared town. Tennyson. 

Garcias, Pedro (pa'dro gaf-the'ass). 
A mythical personage, of whom men- 
tion is made in the preface to " Gil 
Bias," in which it is related how two 
scholars of Salamanca discovered 
a tombstone with the inscription, 
" Here lies interred the soul of the 
licentiate Pedro Garcias," arid how, 
on digging beneath the stone, they 
found a leathern purse containing a 
hundred ducats. 

Then it was like the soul of the licentiate 
Pedro Garcias, which lay among the ducata 
in his leathern purse. Sir W. Scott. 

On the other hand, does not his soul lie 
inclosed in this remarkable volume much 
more truly than Pedro Gfarcias' did in the 
buried bag of doubloons ? Carlyle. 

Garden City. A popiflar name for 
Chicago, a city in Illinois which is 
remarkable for the number and 
beauty of its private gardens. 

Garden of England. A name gen- 
erally applied to the county of Wor- 
cester, on account of its beauty and 

If the county of Worcester, which has 
hitherto been accounted the Garden of Eng- 
land, is now (as the Report of the Home Mis- 
Bionary assures us) become, for want of 
preachers, " a waste and howling wilderness, 
what must the mountains of Macgillicuddy 
be? T. Moore. 

oa~ For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Garden of Europe. An appellation 
sometimes given to Italy, a country 
remarkable for the extreme fertility 
of its soil, the variety of its vegetable 
productions, the general salubrity of 
its climate, and the unsurpassed love- 
liness and magnificence of its scenery. 

Garden of France. [Fr. Jardin de 
la France.'] A name given to the 
department of Indre-et- Loire, in- 
cluding Tourraine, part of Anjou, 
Poitou, and the Orleanais, a region 
celebrated for its beauty and fertility. 

Garden of Italy. A name sometimes 
given to the island of Sicil}'-, which 
is distinguished for the romantic 
beauty of its scenery, and the luxuri- 
ance of its crops. 

Garden of the "West. A name 
usually given to Kansas, but some- 
times applied to Illinois and others 
of the Western States, which are all 
noted for their productiveness. 

Garden of the World. A name fre- 
quentiy given to the vast country, 
comprising more than 1,200,000 
square miles, which is drained by the 
Mississippi and its tributaries, — a re- 
gion of almost unexampled fertility. 

Gargamelle (gaf'ga'mel'). [Fr., 
• threat.] The mother of Gargantua, 
in Ifebelais' celebrated romance or 
this name. 
Gargantua (gar-gant'yoo-| ; Fr.pron. 
gar-'gou-tii^a', 34, 02). [Fr., from 
Sp. yarganta^ throat, gullet.] The 
hero of Rabelais' celebrated ro- 
mance of the same name, a royal 
giant, about whom manv wonderful 
stories are related. He lived for 
several centuries, and at last begot 
a son, Pantagruel, as wonderful as 

1^^ Rabelais borrowed this character 
from an old Celtic giant story. The wa- 
tur-giants were all great guzzlers. Gar- 
gantua, in the legend, when a child, sucks 
the milk from ten nurses. He stands 
with each foot upon a high mountain, 
and bending down, drinks up the river 
which flows between. 

You must borrow me Gargantua's mouth 
first; 'tis a word too great for any mouth of 
this age's size. Shak. 

Gar'ger-y, Joe. An illiterate black- 
smith, in Dickens's " Great Expecta- 

tions,*' remarkable for his simplicity, 
generosity, and kindness of heart. 

Gar'ger-y, Mrs. Joe. A virago, who 
figures in Dickens's novel of " Great 

Gate City. 1. Keokuk, Iowa; — pop- 
ularly so called. It is situated at the 
foot of the lower rapids of the Mis- 
sissippi (which extend twelve miles j 
with a fall of twenty-four feet), and 
is the natural head of navigation. A 
portion of the city is built on a blutF 
one hundred and fifty feet high. 

2. Atlanta, a city in Georgia, and 
the terminus of four of the principal 
railroads of the State ; — so called by 
Jefferson Davis, as being, in a mili- 
tary point of view, the most impor- 
tant mland position in the lower part 
of the South. 

Gate of Tears. A literal translation 
of the word Babelmandeb^ the straits 
of which name were so called on ac- 
count of the number of shipwrecks 
which occur in them. 

Like some ill-destined bark that steers 
In silence through the Gate of Tears. 

T. Moore. 

Gaudentio di Lucca (gow-dent'se-o 
dee lobk^ka). The name of a cele- 
brated romance, — written by Simon 
Berington, — and also of its hero, 
who is represented as making a jour- 
ney to Mezzoramia, an imaginary 
country in the interior of Africa. 

Gautier et Garguille (gS'te^a' a gaf- 
geP, 82). Two proper names having 
a signification equivalent to lout la 
mcnde, or every body, found in the 
French proverbial expression, " 8e 
moquer de Gauiier et Garguille^'''' to 
make game of Gautier andGarguille, 
that is, to make game of every body. 

For the rest, spare neither GavHer nor Gar- 
guille. Jieguier, Trans. 

Gaw'ain, Sir. [Written also Gau- 
vain.] A nephew of Kmg Arthur, 
and one of the most celebratetl 
knights of the Round Table, noted 
for his sagacity, his habitual court- 
esy, and his wonderful strength j 
which is said to have been greater at 
certain hours of the day than at oth- 
ers. Chaucer, in his " Squire's Tale," 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the number^ after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




describing the entrance of a strange 
knight, says tliat he 

** Salueth king and lordes alle, 
By order as they sat in the hall, 
With so high reverence and observance. 
As well in speech as in his countenance, 
That Gawain with his olde curtesie, 
Though he were come again out of faerie, 
Ne coude him not amenden with a word.** 

Gawkey, Lord. See Lord Gawkey. 

Gaw'rey. A name given, in the ro- 
mance of "Peter Wilkins," to the 
flying women among whom the hero 
of the work was thrown. See Wil- 
kins, Peter. 

She spread out her beautiful arms, as if 

indeed she could fly off like the pretty Gatcrey 

whom the man in the story was enamored of. 


Gefion (gS'fe-on), j {Scand. Myth.) 
GeQon (gif/yon). \ The goddess of 
virginity, to whom all maidens re- 
pair after death. 
Gel'ert. The name of a favorite grey- 
hound of Llewellyn, son-in-law to 
King John of England. On one oc- 
casion, during the absence of his 
master in the chase, he destroyed a 
ferocious wolf, who attacked Llewel- 
lyn's infant son. Returning from the 
field, and not finding the child, — 
v/ho was sound asleep under a con- 
fused heap of bedclothes,— Llewellyn 
rashly concluded that the dog, whose 
lips were bloody from his struggle 
with the wolf, had killed him; and, 
without waiting to examine or in- 
quire, plunged his sword to the hilt 
in Gelert's side. With the dying 
yell of the dog, the infant awoke, 
and Llewellyn, smitten with remorse 
for his rash and frantic deed, erected 
an elegant monument over the re- 
mains of the faithful animal ; whence 
the place was called Bethgelert, or 
"the grave of the greyhound," a 
name which it bears to the present 
day. It is in a parish of the same 
name in North Wales. This legend 
has been versified by William Robert 

Llewellyn's greyhound has a second grave 
verv distant from that of Bethgelert. It sleeps 
and points a moral in Persia. Willmott. 

6el'iat-ley, Da'vle. The name of an 
idiot servant of the Baron of Brad- 
wardine, in Scott's novel of " Wa- 

Gem of Normandy. A name given 
to Emma, daugliter of Richard I., 
duke of Normandy, married to Eth- 
elred II., king of England. She 
died in 1052. 

General Undertaker, The. ^ [Fr. Le 
General J^ntreprentur.] A nickname 
given by the populace of Paris to the 
Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, on ac- 
count of the immense public works 
which he entered upon, but did not 
always complete. 

6-e-neu'rS. The same as Guinever^ 
King Arthur's queen, notorious for 
her infidelity to him. See Guine- 


Gen^e-vieve'. 1. The heroine of a 
ballad by Coleridge. 

2. Under the form Genoveva, or 
Gtnovefa, the name occurs in a 
German myth as that of the wife of 
the Count Palatine Siegfried of 
Mayenfeld, in the time of Charles 
Martel. According to the tradition, 
she was left behind by her husband 
while on a march against the Sara- 
cens. Upon false accusations made 
to him, he gave orders to put her to 
death ; but the serv^ant intrusted with 
the commission suffered her to escape 
into the forest of Ardennes, where 
she lay concealed a long tim«, until 
b}^ accident her husband discovered 
her retreat, and recognized her inno- 
cence. This legend furnished the 
material of one of the earliest " Volks- 
biicher," or popular tales. In modern 
times, Tieck and Miiller have redacted 
the tradition, and Raupach has made 
it the subject of a drama. 

4®=* " St. Genevieve is the patron saint 
of Paris, and the name has always been 
held in high esteem in France. There is 
a German form of the name borne by the 
apocryphal saint Genovefa. of Brabant, 
to whom has attached the story, of sus- 
picious universality, of the wife who was 
driven by malicious accusations to the 
woods, there to give birth to an infant, 
and to be nourished by a white doe until 
the final discovery of her innocence." 


<jle'ni-t. {Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) Pro- 
tecting spirits or tutelar deities anal- 
agous to the guardian angels of the 
Christian faith. . 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanjing Explanations, 




Gentle Shepherd. A nickname, de- 
rived from a line of a well-known 
song, fastened upon George Grenville 
(1712-1770), by William Pitt, Earl 
of Chatham, in a celebrated debate 
in parliament. 

George a-Green. The subject of an 
English prose romance entitled " The 
History of George a-Green, Pindar 
of the town of Wakefield." In its 
MS. form, it is supposed to be as old 
as the days of Queen Elizabeth. 
*' Pindar" is a con*uption of pinner ^ 
or penner^ that is, keeper of the pub- 
lic pen or pound for the confinement 
of estrays. 

Look before you leap, 
For as you sow, you're like to reap; 
And were y' as j;ood as George a-Green, 
1 hhall make bold to turn again; 
Nor am I doubtful of the issue 
In a just quarrel, and mine is 30. Hudibras. 
I will presently order you a rundlet of 
Rhenish, with a corresponding^ quantity of 
neats' tongues and pickled herrings, to make 
you all as glorious as George a-Green. 

Sir W.Scott. 

&e-raint', Sir. A legendarj'^ hero, 
connected with the romances of the 
Round Table. His storv is treated 
in Tennyson's " Idylls of the King." 

66r'ai-dXne. A name of frequent oc- 
currence in romantic poetry. Lady 
Elizabeth Fitzgerald was the lady 
who was made by Surrey the heroine 
of his poetry, under the title of the 
"Fair Geraldine," thus leading to 
the adoption of this latter as one of 
the class of romantic names. Se« 
Fair Geraldine. 

6er'da (4). ( Scand. Myth. ) The wife of 
Frey. She was accounted the most 
beautiful of all the goddesses, and 
•was renowned for her piety and vir- 

German Achilles. See Achilles 
OF Gp:rmany. 

German Cicero. See Cicero of 

German Hector. See Hector of 

German Mil'ton (-tn). A title be- 
stowed upon Friedrich Gottlieb Klop- 
stock (1724-1803), author of " The 
Messiah," an epic poem. Coleridge 

. Faid of him, that he was "a very 
German Milton, indeed ! " 

While Klopstock was called our Milton, 
"Wieland our Voltaire, and others in the same 
way, Goethe and Schiller were never other 
than themselves. Gervinus, Trans. 

German Pla'to. Friedrich Heinrich 
Jacobi (1743-1819), a distinguished 
German philosopher, so called on ac- 
count of the high religious tone of 
his metaphysical writings. 

German Vol-taire' (3). 1. A title 
often given to Christoph Martin Wie- 
land (1733-1813), one of the great 
poets who are the pride of Germany. 

lie [Wieland] had imbibed so much of the 

taste of the French along with their philoso- 

ph5^, that he bore the name of the German 

Voltaire, in Germany and out of Germany. 

Bouttrwek, Trans. 

2. A title sometimes applied to 

4^ " Goethe has been called the Ger- 
man Voltiiire ; but it is a name which 
does him wrong, and describes him ill. 
Excepting in the corresponding variety 
of their pursuits and knov. ledge, in which, 
perhaps, it does Voltaire wrong, the two 
cannot be compared. Goethe is all, or 
the best of all, that Voltaire was. and he 
was much that Voltaire did not dream 
of." Carlyle. 

G6ronte (zh^/ronf, 62). [Fr., from 
the Gr, yepiav^ ye'poi'To?, an old man.] 
A character in Moliere's comedies, 
" Le Medecin malgr^ Lui " and 
"Les Fourberies de Scapin." The 
name is commonly used in French 
comedies to designate any old man, 
particularly one who for any reason 
makes himself ridiculous. 

Gerund, Friar. See Friar Gerund. 

6e'ry-on (9). [Qy. V-qpvov-q^.'] (Gr.^ 
Rom. Myth.) A king of Hesperia, 
son of Chrysaor and Callirrhoe, de- 
scribed as a being with three bodies 
and three heads. He possessed mag- 
nificent oxen, but, as he fed them 
with human tlesh, he was killed by 

Ghent, Pacification of. See Paci- 
fication OF Ghent. 

Giant Cor'mo-ran. A Cornish giant, 
slain by Jack the Giant-killer. See 
Jack the Giant-killer. 

Giant Despair. In Bunyan's "Pil- 
grim's Progress," a giant who is the 
owner of Doubting Castle, and who, 
finding Christian and Hopeful asleep 

and for the Bcmarkii and Rules to which the numbers after certain words re&r»aee pp. xiv-xxxii. 




upon his grounds, takes them pris- 
oners, and thrusts them into a dun- 

Since the time of John Milton, no hraver 
heart had beat in any English bosom than 
Samuel Johnson now bore. . • . No Giant 
Despair . . . appalls this pilgrim; he works 
resolutely for deliverance, in still defiance 
steps resolutely along. Carlyle. 

The monotonous desolation of the scene 
increased to that degree, that, for any redeem- 
ing feature it presented to their eyes, they 
might have entered in the body on the grim 
domains of Giant Despair. Dickens. 

Giant Grim. In the " Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress" of John Bunyan, a giant who 
seeks to stop the march of the pil- 
grims to the Celestial City, but is 
slain in a duel by Mr. Great-heart, 
their guide. 

Giant-killer, The. See Jack the 

Giants. [Gr. Tiyavre^, Lat. Gigantes.'] 
1. ( Gr. ^' Eom. Myth.) Sons of Tar- 
tarus and Terra, beings of monstrous 
size, with dragons' tails and fearful 
countenances. They attempted to 
storm heaven, being armed with 
huge rocks and the trunks of trees, 
but were killed by the gods with the 
assistance of Hercules, and were 
buried under Mount ^tna and other 

2. (Scnnd. Myth.) Evil genii of 
various forms aiid races, enemies of 
the gods. They dwelt in a territory 
of their own, called Jotunheim, or 
Giant-land. They had the power of 
assuming divers shapes, and of in- 
creasing or diminishing their stature 
at will. See Jotunheim. 

Giant Slay-good. In Bunyan's " Pil- 
grim's Progress," a giant slain in a 
duel by Mr. Great-heart. 

6ib'bet. A foot-pad in the " Beaux' 
Stratagem," a comedy by George 

Like Gibbet . . . [they] piqued themselves 
on bemg the best-behaved men on the road, 
and on conductmg themselves with all ap- 
propriate civility in the exercise of their voca- 
tion. Sir W. Scott. 

Gib'ble, Goose. A half-witted lad 
in Lady Bellendcn's service, in 
Scott's novel of "Old Mortahty." 

A great corrtpanion of my younger days 
•was Johnny Stykes, who, like Goo8e Gihbie 
of famous memory, first kept the turkeys, 

and then, as his years advanced, was pro- 
moted to the more important office of minding 
the cows. Keightley. 

Gibraltar of America. A name 
often given to the city of Quebec, 
which, ft'om its position, and natural 
and artiticial means of defense, is, 
perhaps, the most strongly fortified 
city in America. 

Gil Bias (zhel blass). The title of a 
famous romance by Le Sage (1G68- 
1747), and the name of its hero, by 
whom, and with whose commentaries, 
the story is professedly told. 

J8®=" " Gil Bias ... is naturally dis- 
posed toward honesty, though with a 
mind unfortunately too ductile to resist 
the temptations of opportunity or ex- 
ample. He is constitutionally timid, and 
yet occasionally capable of doing brave 
actions; shrewd and intelligent, but apt 
to be deceived by his own vanity ; with 
wit enough to make us laugh with him 
at others, and follies enough to turn the 
jest frequently against himself. Gener- 
ous, good-natured, and humane, he has 
virtues sufficient to make us love him, 
and, as to respect, it is the last thing 
which he asks at his reader's hand." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Q^ill, Harry. A character in Words- 
worth's ballad entitled " Goody 
Blake and Harry Gill," smitten with 
perpetual cold for his hard heart- 
edness toward an old dame. See, 
Goody Blake. 

&ill§, Sol. A warai-hearted, simple- 
minded ships'-instruments maker in 
Dickens's " Dombey and Son." 

Gil Morrice. See Morrice, Gil. 

&il'pin, John. A citizen of London, 
and " a train-band captain," whose 
adventures are related in Cowper's 
humorous poem entitled "The Di- 
verting History of John Gilpin, 
showing how he went further than 
he intended, and came safe home 
again." The story was related to 
Cowper by a Mrs. Austen, who re- 

membered to have heard it in he; 


childhood. The poem first appearec 
anonymously in the " Public Adver 
tiser," in 1782, and was first pub- 
lished as Cowper's avowed produc- 
tion in the second volume of his 
^8^=" " John Gilpin is said to have been 

tS^ For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Mr. Bayer, an eminent linen - draper, 
superlatively polite, who figured, in the 
visible order of things, at the top of 
Paternoster Row, or rather at the corner 
of Cheapside. Quoth Mr. John Gilpin, — 

' I am a linen-draper bold. 

As all the world doth know.' " 

J^'otes and Queries. 

Gines de Passamonte (Jie-nes' da 
pas-sa-mon'ta, 58). The name of a 
i^alley-slave and puppet-show man in 
''Don Quixote." 

In that case, replied I, painting excels the 
ape of the renowned Gines de Passamonte, 
which only meddled with the past and the 
present. Sir W. Scott. 

He manages his delightful puppet-show 
without thrusting his head beyond the cur- 
tain, like Oines de Fassamonte, to explain 
what he is doing. Sir W. Scott. 

(jl-nev'ra. 1. A lady whose story 
has been InterAvoven with the adven- 
tures of Rinaldo, in Ariosto's chiv- 
alrous romance, the " Orlando Furi- 
oso." Ginevra, falsely accused, is 
doomed to die, unless a true knight 
comes within a month to do battle for 
her honor. Her lover, Ariodantes, 
has tied, and is reported to have per- 
ished. The wicked duke who has 
brought the accusation appears secure 
m his treachery ; but the woman who 
has been his instrument, meeting 
with Rinaldo, discloses the truth ; 
then comes a combat, in which the 
guilty duke is slain by the champion 
of innocence, and the lover re-appears 
and recovers his lady. This incident 
was derived by Ariosto from the popu- 
lar traditions of the South of Europe. 
Spenser has a similar story in the 
" Faery Queen," and Shakespeare 
availed himself of the main incident 
in his comedy of " Much Ado about 

2. The title and subject of a 
metrical tale by Samuel Rogers, 
which relates how a young Italian 
lady, upon her wedding-day, secreted 
herself, from motives of frolic, in a 
self-locking oaken chest, the lid of 
which shut down and buried her 

Phcebus, sitting one day in a laurel-tree's 

"Was reminded of Daphne, of whom it was 

For the god being one day too warm in his 

She took to the tree, to escape his pursuing; 

Be the cause what it might, from his oflTers she 

And, 6rtn«vra-like, shut herself up in a trunk. 

3. See GuiNEVER. 
Gingerbread, (jrile§. The hero of an 
old and celebrated English nursery 

4^ "^he world is probably not aware 
of the ingenuity, humor, good sense, 
and sly satire contained in many of the 
old English nursery tales. They have 
evidently been the sportive productions 
of able writers, who would not trust their 
names to productions that might be 
considered beneath their dignity. The 
ponderous works on which they relied for 
immortality have perhaps sunk into ob- 
livion, and carried their names down with 
them ; while their unacknowledged off- 
spring, ' Jack the Giant-killer,' ' Giles 
Gingerbread,' and ' Tom Thumb,' flourish 
in wide-spreading and never-ceasing pop- 
ularity." W. Irving. 

Ginnunga-gap ( gin-noon^ga-gap ). 
[Old Norse ginn, wide, expanded 
(used only in composition), and gapi, 
to gape, yawn, open.] {Scand. 
Myth.) The vast chaotic abyss 
which existed before the present 
world, and separated Niflheim, or the 
region of fog, from Muspelheim, or 
the region of heat. 

Gjallar (gyal^laf). [Old Norse gala. 
to sing, call out. Comp. Eng. call.] 
(Scand. Myth.) The horn of Heim- 
dall, which he blows to give notice to 
the gods of those who arrive at the 
bridge Bifrost, and attempt to cross 
it. [Written also G i a 1 1 a r.] 

Glitsse, Mrs. (2). The real or fictitious 
author of a cookery-book, formerly 
very famous. It fe said by some to 
have been written by one Hannah 
Glasse, a habit maker and seller in 
the early part of the last century. 
Others attribute it to the scribatious 
Dr. Hill (Sir John Hill, 1716-1775), 
considering the name a pseudonym. 
The first edition was published in 
1747, and, very appropriately, in what 
is termed " pot" folio. Mrs. Glasse 
is popularly thought to begin a re- 
ceipt for cooking a hare with the pithy 
advice, "First catch your hare; " but 
this expression is not found in any 
known edition of her book. 

They [the Crim-Tortars] have so far relin- 

and for the Remarks and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




auished their ancient food of horse-flesh that 
ley will only feed upon colts; and to this 
diet is added ... a great variety of learned 
dainties, which Mrs. Gflasse herself would not 
disdain to add to her high-flavored catalogue. 
Edin. Itev. 
Semmes took a pinch of snuflT, and replied, 
" You remember Mrs. Glasse's well-worn re- 
ceipt for cooking a hare, — First catch your 
hare." JEpes Sargent, 

Glau'cus. [Gr. rXavKo?.] ( Gr. cf Bom. 
Myth. ) 1. A son of Sisyphus, torn 
to pieces by his own horses. 

2. A fisherman of Anthedon, in 
Euboea, who was changed into a sea- 

3l A son of Minos, king of Crete, 
by Pasiphae. He met his death b}"- 
falling into a cask of honey, but was 
miraculously restored to life. 

Glen-coe'. A name commonly given 
to Macdonald of Glencoe, who was 
the chief of a Scottish clan, and 
known among the mountains by the 
hereditary name of Mac Ian.' He 
was one of the most impracticable 
rebel chiefs in the time of William 
and Mar)^, and met with a disastrous 

Glen'do-veer. (Hindu Myth.) The 
most beautiful of the good spirits. 

Glen-gar'ry. The name under which 
Macdonald of Glengarry — one of the 
great Scottish chieftains who ulti- 
mately gave in his adhesion to the 
government of William IH. — is gen- 
erally mentioned in history. 

Glen-varloch, Lord. See Oli- 
FAUNT, Nigel. 

Glo'ri-a'na (9). In Spenser's " Faery 
Queen," the " greatest glorious queen 
of Faery-lond." 

4®=- " In that Faery Queen, I mean 
Glory in my general intention, but in my 
particular, I conceive the most excellent 
and glorious person of our sovereign, the 
Queen [Elizabeth], and her kingdom in 
Faery e-land .'''' 

Introductory ^^ Letter of the Author.^'' 

Glorious Preacher. A title popu- 
larly given to St. John Chrysostora, 
or the "Golden-mouth" (354-407), 
the most renowned of the Greek 
fathers, and a very eloquent Church 

je®=" He preached several times a week 
to crowded audiences, and his sermons 
were received by the people with such 

shouts and acclamations of applause, that 
his church became a sort of theater, 
which attracted great numbers who had 
hitherto attended only the circus and 
other places of amusement. 

Glos'sin, Gilbert. A villainous law- 
yer in Scott's " Guy Mannering." 

Glover, Catherine. See Fair Maid 
OF Perth. -. 

Glub-dub'drib. An imaginary island 
fabled to have been visited by Gulli- 
ver in his famous " Travels." It is 
represented to have been peopled by 
sorcerers or magicians, who evoked, 
for Gulliver's amusement,. the spirits 
of many great men of antiquity. 

Glum-dal'clitch. A little girl only 
nine years old, and barely forty feet 
high, who had charge of Gulliver 
while he was in Brobdingnag. See 
Bkobdingnag, and Gulliver, 

Soon as GlumdalcUtch missed her pleasing 

She wept, she blubbered, and she tore her 

hair. Fope. 

He took it [a letter] up wonderingly and 
suspiciously, as GlumdalcUtch took up Gul- 
liver. Sir E. Bulwer Lytton. 

Glyn'don, Hdw'ard. A pseudonym 
of Laura C. Redden, an American 
authoress of the present day. 

Gna'tho (naaho, 26). [Gr. VvaBi^v^ 
puff-cheek, from yra^o?, jaw, mouth.] 
A celebrated parasite in Terence's 
comedy entitled " Eunuchus." The 
name is used proverbially in the 
Roman and the later Greek comedy 
to designate a parasite. 

Gob'bo, IjSiin'9e-lot. A clown, in 
Shakespeare's "Merchant of Ven- 

Gobnbo, Old. A subordinate charac- 
ter in Shakespeare's "Merchant of 
Venice; " father to Launcelot Gobbo. 

Goddess of Reason. See Reason, 
Goddess of. 

Go-di'va, Lady. See Peeping Tom 
OF Coventry. 

Godon (go'don', 62), or Godam (go'- 
dam'). A nickname (with some varia- 
tions of spelling and pronunciation) 
applied by the French to the English, 
who are thus characterized by their 

• For the *' Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




national oath. The name has been 
long in use. 

JS^ "At the trial of Joan of Arc, a 
French witness named Colette, having 
used the name Godon, was asked who 
Godon was, and replied that it was not 
the designation of any particular person, 
but a sobriquet applied generally to the 
English, on account of their continual 
use of the exclamation, God damn it.^^ 

Sharon Turner. 

Goetz of the Iron Hand (gots, 46). 
See Iron Hand. 

Gog and Ma'gog. Popular names 
for two colossal wooden statues in 
the Guildhall, London. It is thought 
that these renowned figures are con- 
nected with the Corinaeus and Gotma- 
got of the Armorican chronicle quot- 
ed by Geoffrey of Monmouth. The 
former name has gradually sunk into 
oblivion, and the latter has been split 
by popular corruption to do duty for 

J8®=* " Our Guildhall giants boast of 
almost as high an antiquity as the Gog 
and Magog of the Scriptures, as they, or 
their living prototypes, are said to have 
been found in Britain by Brute, a youn- 
ger son of Anthenor of Troy, who invaded 
Albion, and founded the city of London 
(at first called Troy-novant), 3000 years 
ago. However the fact may have been, 
the two giants have been the pride of 
Ix)ndon from time immemorial. The old 
giants were burned in the great fire, and 
the new ones were constructed in 1708. 
They are fourteen feet high, and occupy 
suitable pedestals in Guildhall. There 
can be little doubt that these civic giants 
are exaggerated representatives of real 
persons and events." Chambers. 

Goldemar, King (gSlt^S-maf). A 
famous German kobold, or domestic 
fairy servant, fabled to be the inti- 
mate friend of Neveling von Harden- 

Golden Age. [Lat. Aurea cetas."] 
(Gr. f Horn. Myth.) One of the 
four ages into which the life of the 
hnman race was divided; the simple 
and patriarchal reign of Saturn, a 
period of perpetual spring, when the 
land flowed with milk and honey, and 
all things needed to make life happy 
were produced spontaneously; when 
beasts of prey lived peaceably with 
other animals, and man had not j'^et, 

by indulging his vices and passions, 
lapsed from a state of innocence. 
It was succeeded by the ages of 
silver, brass, and iron; but a belief 
prevailed, that, when the stars and 
planets had performed a complete 
revolution around the heavens, the 
Golden Age would return. 

Golden Bull. [Lat. Bulla Aurea, 
Ger. Goldene BuUe.] 1. {Ger. Hist.) 
An edict issued by the Emperor 
Charles IV. in the year 1336, mainly 
for the purpose of settling the law 
of imperial elections. 

2. {Hung. Hist.) A constitutional 
edict issued by Andrew II. in the early 
part of the thirteenth century. It 
changed the government of Hungary 
from absolutism to an aristocratic 
monarchy, and, until recent times, 
was the charter of the liberties of the 
Hungarians. It remained in force 
imtil the dissolution of the German 
empire in 1806. 

Golden Fleece. ( Gr. 4- Eom. Myth.) 
The fleece of the ram Chiysomallus, 
the acquisition of which was the 
object of the Argonautic expedition. 
See Argonauts. 

Golden State. A popular name for 
the State of California, which is one 
of the most important gold-producing 
regions in the world. 

Golden, or Yellow, "Water. See 

Gol'dy. An afl^ectionate nickname 
sometimes given to Oliver Goldsmith 
by his friends. It originated with Dr. 

Go-li'^th. A famous Philistine giant, 
a native of Gath, and a formidable 
opponent of the armies of Israel. He 
was slain by the stripling David 
with pebbles hurled from a sling. 
[Written also, but less properly, 

Gon'fr-il. A daughter of Lear, in 
Shakespeare's tragedy of this name. 
See Lear. 

The edicts of each succeeding set of magis- 
tratea have, like those of Goneril and Regan, 
diminished this venerable band with the 
similar question, " What need we five and 
twenty ? — ten ? — or five ? " Sir W. Scott. 

Gonnella (gon-nePlS, 102.) An Ital- 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




ian buiFoon of great celebrity, who 
was domestic jester to the Margrave 
Nicolaiis of Este, and to his son Borso, 
the Duke of Ferrara. He was accus- 
tomed to ride upon a miserable horse, 
to which the Duke upon one occasion 
applied a line from Plautus, " Ossa 
utquepelUs totvs tsV^ (" Aulularia," 
a.iii.,sc.6.) "The Jests of Gonnella" 
was published in 1506, at Bologna. 
See Kozi:n'Ante. 

Gon-zalo. An honest old counselor, 
m Shakespeare's "Tempest." 

Good Duke Humphrey. A name 
popularly given, by his contempora- 
ries, to Humphrey Plantagenet, Duke 
of Gloucester, and youngest son of 
Henry IV. 

He wrought his miracles like a second 
D«^■e HumjjTire?/ ; and by the influence of the 
beadle's rod, caused the lame to walk, the 
blind to see, and the paj&ied to labor. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Good Earl. A name commonly given 
to Archibald, the eighth Earl of An- 
gus (d. 1588), who was distinguished 
for his virtues. 

Goodfellow, Robin. A kind of 
merry domestic spirit, whose charac- 
ter and acliievements are recorded in 
the well - known ballad beginning 
" From Oberon in Fairy - land." 
Wright, in his " Essays on the Lit- 
erature, Superstitions, and History 
of England in the Middle Ages," 
suspects Robin Goodfellow to have 
been the Kobin Hood of the old pop- 
ular morris-dance. See Hobgoblin. 

J@^ " The constant attendant upon 
the English fairy court was the celebrated 
Puck, or Robin Goodfellow, who, to the 
elves, acted in some measure as the jester 
or clown of the company, — a character 
then to be found in the establishment of 
every person of quality, — or, to use a 
more modern comparison, resembled the 
Pierrot of the pantomime. His jests were 
of the most simple, and, at the same time, 
the broadest comic character ; to mis- 
lead a clown on his path homeward, to 
disguise himself like a stool, in order to 
induce an old ^ssip to commit the egre- 
gious mistake of sitting down on the floor 
when she expected to repose on a chair, 
irere his special employments." 

Sir W. Scott. 

That shrewd and knavish sprite 
Called Eobin OoodJ'ellow. ShaJ^. 

She wag pinched and pulled, she said y 

And he, by friar's lantern led. 

Tells liow the drudging goblin sweat. 

To earn his cream-bowl, duly set, 

When in one night, ere glimpse of mom. 

His shadowy flail had threshed the corn 

That ten day -laborers could not end: 

Then lies him down the lubber fiend. 

And, stretched out all the chimney's length. 

Basks at the fire his hairy 8tren|,'th; 

And crop full out of doors he flings, 

Ere the first cock his matin rings. Milton. 

Good King Ken6 (ru-na/, or ra^na). 
[Fr. Le Bon Roi Rene.'] The desig- 
nation by which Ren^ d'Anjou (1408-- 
1480) is commonly known in history. 

Good Knight, without Fe^ and 
without Reproach, The. [Fr. Le 
Bon Chevalier, sans Peur et sans Re- 
proche.] An appellation conferred 
upon Pierre de Terrail Bayard (1476- 
1524), a French knight celebrated for 
his valor and loyalty. 
Goodman of Ballengeigh (baVlen- 
gik). [That is, tenant of Ballen- 
geigh, which is a steep pass leading 
down behind the castle of Stirling.] 
A nom de guerre employed by the 
Scottish king, James V., who was 
accustomed to make disguised expe- 
ditions through the midnight streets 
of Edinburgh, as Haroun-Al-Raschid 
did through those of Bagdad. 
Goodmaai Palsgrave, j Contempt- 
Goody Palsgrave. j uous nick- 
names given respectively to Freder- 
ick v., elector palatine (Ger. pfalz- 
()raj\ Eng. palsgrave), and to his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of James I. 
of England. See Winter King 
and Winter Queen. 
Good Physician. A title applied to 
Christ, doubtless in allusion to the 
passage in Marie ii. 17, — " They 
that are whole have no need of the 
physician, but they that are sick : I 
came not to call the righteous, but 
sinners, to repentance." 
Good Queen Bess. See Bess, GtOOD 

Good Regent. A name given to 
James Stewart, Earl of Murray, or 
Moray (1531-1570), appointed regent 
of Scotland in 1567, after the impris- 
onment of his sister, Mary Queen of 
Scots, in Lochleven castle. He was 
distinguished for his zeal and pru- 
dence, and for the prompt and vigor- 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of ProaunciaUon," with the accompanying Explr-nations, 




ous measures he adopted to secure 
the peace of the kingdom. 

Good Samaritan. The principal char- 
acter in a well-known parable of our 
Lord. See Luke x. 30-37. 

Good Shepherd. A title often ap- 
plied to Christ. 

I am the good shepherd, and know my 
sheen, and am known of mine. . . . and I 
lay down my life for the sheep. And other 
sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them 
also I mnst brinpr, and they shall hear my 
voice; and there shall be one fold, and one 
shepherd. John x. 14-1(). 

Goody Blake. A character in Words- 
worth's poem entitled " Goody Blake 
and Harry Gill," which purports to 
be ''A True Storj^" She is repre- 
sented as a poor old dame, who, 
driven by necessity to pilfer a few 
sticks of wood from her neighbor's 
ground, in the winter-cold, is detect- 
ed by him in the act, and forced to 
relinquish what she had taken. In 
requital, she invokes upon him the 
curse that he may " never more be 
warm;" and ever after, "his teeth 
they chatter, chatter still." 

Goody Two-shoes. The name of a 
well-known character in the litera- 
ture of the nursery. Her " History " 
was first published by Newbery, a 
bookseller in St. Paul's Church-yard, 
renowned throughout the latter half 
of the last century for his picture- 
books for children ; and it is thought 
to have been written by Goldsmith. 

J^^ " The famous nursery story of 
* Goody Two-shoes ' . . . aippeared in 
1765, at a moment when Goldsmith was 
scribbling for Newbery, and much pressed 
for funds. Several quaint little tales in- 
troduced in his Essays show that he had 
a turn for this species of mock history ; 
and the advertisement and title-page bear 
the stamp of his sly and playful humor. 

" ' VV'e are desired to give no tire that 
there is in the press, and speedily will be 
published, either by subscription or 
otherwise, as the public shall please to 
de^ern^ine, the History of Little Goody 
Two Shoes, otherwise Mrs. Margery Two 
Shoes ; with the means by which she 
acquired learning and wisdom, and, in 
consequence thereof, her estate ; set forth 
at large for the benefit of those 
" Who from a state of rags and care, 
And having shoes but half a pair. 
Their fortune and their fame should flx, 
Andjjjallop in and six."' " 

Pray don't go on in that Goody Two-shoet 
sort of way. A. Trollope. 

Goosey Go'de-rich. A popular nick- 
name given by Cobbett to Frederick 
Robinson (created Viscount Goderich 
in 1827, and Earl of Ripon in 1833), 
on account of his incapacity as a 
statesman. He was premier fort a 
short time in 1827-28. See Pros- 
perity Robinson. 

Gor'di-us. [Gr. TopSio^.'] A peasant 
who became king of Phrygia, and 
father of Midas. He tied an inextri- 
cable knot on the yoke of his chariot, 
and an oracle declared that whoever 
should untie it would reign over all 
Asia. Alexander the Great cut the 
knot with his sword, and applied the 
prophecy to himself. 

Gorgibus (gof'zhe-biiss', 34). The 
name of an honest, simple-minded 
burgess, in Moliere's comedy, " Les 
Precieuses Ridicules." His distress, 
perplexity, and resentment are rep- 
resented as being extreme, and as 
all occasioned by the perverse affec- 
tation of elegance of his daughter 
and niece. 

Gor'gong. [Gr. Topyove^, Lat. Gor~ 
^ones.] ( Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) Three 
daughters of Phorcus and Ceto, 
named Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa. 
Their hair was entwined with hissing 
serpents, and their bodies were cov- 
ered with impenetrable scales ; they 
had wings, and brazen claws, and 
enormous teeth, and whoever looked 
upon them was turned to stone. The 
name GorCfOn was given more espe- 
cially to Medusa, the only one of the 
sisters who was mortal. She was 
killed by Perseus, and her head was 
fixed on the shield of Minerva. 
From her blood sprang the winged 
horse Pegasus. 

Gosling, Giles. Landlord of the 
"Black Bear" inn at Cumnor, in 
Scott's novel of " Kenil worth." 

Gospel Doctdr. [Lat. Doctor Evnn- 
gelicus.] A title given to Wycliffe 
(d. 1384), the celebrated reformer, on 
account of his ardent attachment to 
the Holy Scriptures. 

Gk)'th&in. A popular name for the 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. adv-xxxii. 




city of New York ; — first given to it 
in " Salmagundi " (a humorous work 
by Washington Irving, William Ir- 
ving, and James K. Paulding), be- 
cause the inhabitants were such wise- 

j6®- The allusion to the *' three wise 
Aen of Gotham " who " went to sea in a 
bowl "is very obvious. The Gotham 
here referred to is a parish in Notting- 
hamshire, England, which has long been 
celebrated ^ like the Phrygia of the Asi- 
atics, the Abdera of the Thracians, the 
Boeotia of the Greeks, and the Svvabia of 
the modern Germans — for the remark- 
able stupidity of its inhabitants. They 
arc said to have heard the cuckoo upon a 
certain occasion, but, never having seen 
her, hedged the bush from which the note 
proceeded. A bush is still shown there 
called the " cuckoo-bush." Fuller says, 
*' The proverb of ' as wise as a man of 
Gotham ' passeth publicly for the periph- 
rasis of a fool ; and a hundred fopper- 
if'S are forged and fathered on the towns- 
folk of Gotham . ' ' Wharton, speaking of 
'' the idle pranks of the men of Gotham," 
observes, that "such pranks bore a ref- 
erence to some customary law tenures 
belonging to that place or its neighbor- 
hood, now grown obsolete." Hearne, in 
allusion to this subject, also remarks, 
'' Nor is there more reason to esteem 
* The Merry Tales of the Mad Men of 
Gotham ' (which were much valued and 
cried up in the time of Henry VIII., 
though now sold at ballad-singers' stalls) 
as altogether romance ; a certain skillful 
person having told me, more than once, 
that they formerly held lands there by 
such customs as are touched upon in this 
book." The book is that noticed by Wal- 
pole, — "'The Merry Tales of the Mad 
Men of Gotham,' a book extremely ad- 
mired, and often reprinted in that age, 
written by Lucas de Heere, a Flemish 
painter, who resided in England at the 
time of Elizabeth." Wood, however, tells 
us that the tales were written by one 
Andrew Borde (or Andreas Perforatus, as 
he calls himself), a sort of traveling 
quack, from whom the name and occu- 
pation of the " Merry-andrew " are said 
to be derived. There is ahahcient black- 
letter edition of the work in the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford, called " Certeine Merry 
Tales of the Mad 'Men of Gotham, com- 
piled in the reign of Henry VIII., by 
Dr. Andrew Borde, an eminent physician 
of that period." Another derivation 
of the phrase " wise men of Gotham," 
given in Thoroton's " Nottingham- 
shire," is, that when King John, in one 
of his " progresses," was about to pass 

through Gotham toward Nottingham, he 
was prevented by the inhabitants, who 
thought that the ground over which a 
king passed became for ever after a public 
road. *. The king was naturally incensed 
at this incivility, and sent some persons 
to punish the inhabitants, who bethought 
themselves of an expedient for avoiding 
the king's wrath. The messengers, on 
their arrival, found all the people en- 
gaged in some foolish occupation or other, 
so that they returned to the court, and 
reported that Gotham was a village of 

J§®=' The Germans have an old talo 
called the " Schildblirger," which cor- 
responds to our " Wise Men of Gotham," 
and which first appeared in 1598. 

Gott'helf, Jeremias. A poor villager 
who is the hero of a touching story- 
entitled " The Mirror of Peasants," 
written by Albert Bitzius (1797- 
1854), a very popular Swiss author, 
who afterwards used the name as a 

Governor of Tilbury. See Til- 
bury, Governor of. 

Gow'er, The Moral. A name given 
by Chaucer, in the dedication of his 
" Troilus and Cresseide," and subse- 
quently by Lydgate and others, to 
John Gower, a celebrated English 
poet of the fourteenth century, who 
wrote a poem called " Confessio Aman- 
tis,^' which discusses, in a solemn and 
sententious style, the morals and met- 
aphysics of love. 

O Moral Goioer ! this book I direct 
To thee and to the philosophical Strood, 

To vouchsauf there need is to correct 
Of your benignities and zeales good. 


Gowk-thrap'ple, Maister. A cove- 
nanting preacher referred to as a 
"chosen vessel," in Sir Walter 
Scotf s novel of " Waverley." 

[Naigeon, author of a life of Diderot] a man 
or coarse, mechanical, perhaps rather intrin- 
sically feeble intellect, and then with the 
vehemence of some pulpit-drumming Gnwk- 
thrapple, or precious Mr. Jabesh Rentowel, — 
only that his kirk is of the other complexion. 

Graal. See St. Graal. 

Graces. [Lat. Gratim.'] (Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) Three sister-goddesses, 
daughters of Jupiter and Eurynome, 
represented as beautiful and modest 
virgins attendant upon Yenus. They 

' For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




were the source of all favor, loveli- 
ness, and grace. Their names were 
Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia. 

€rra''ci-o'sa (gra'shi-o'sa). A lovely 
princess in an old and popular fairy 
tale, — the object of the implacable 
ill-will of a step-mother named Gro- 
gnon, whose malicious designs are 
perpetually thwarted by Percinet, a 
fairy prince, who is in love with 

Qracioso (gra-the-o'zo). A panto- 
mimic character in the popular com- 
edy of Spain, noted for his drollery, 
and corresponding with the Italian 
Harlequin and English clown. 

4®=" Amid all these, and more accepta- 
ble than almost the whole put together, 
was the all-licensed fool, the Gracioso of 
the Spanish drama, who, with his cap 
fashioned into the resemblance of a cox- 
comb, and his bauble, a tvuncheon ter- 
minated by a carved figure wearing a 
fool's-cap, in his hand, went, came, and 
returned, mingling in every scene of the 
piece, and interrupting the business, 
without having any share himself in the 
action, and ever and anon transferring his 
gibes from the actors on the stage to the 
audience who sat around, prompt to ap- 
plaud the whole. Sir W. Scott. 

Uradasso (gra-d^s'so, 102). The name 
of a king of Sericana, who figures in 
Bojardo's " Orlando Innamorato " 
and Ariosto's " Orlando Furioso " as 
a wonder of martial prowess. Insti- 
gated by a desire of winning the 
sword and courser of Rinaldo, he in- 
vades France, followed by his vassals, 
" crowned kings," who never dare to 
address him but on their knees. The 
name is popularly used by the Ital- 
ians to designate a bully. 

Grad'grtnd, Thomas. A practical, 
utilitarian character in Dickens's 
novel of " Hard Times." "A man 
of realities. A man of facts and cal- 
culations. A man who proceeds 
upon the principle that two and two 
are four, and nothing over, and who 
is not to be talked into allowing for 
any thing over. . ." . With a rule 
and a pair of scales and the multipli- 
cation-table always in his pocket, 
sir, ready to weigh and measure any 
parcel of human nature, and tell you 
exactly what it comes to." 

The Gradgrinds undervalue and disparag* 
it, and the Jesuits and their sympathizers are 
enraged at it. Church Review. 

Grail, The Holy. See St. Gkaal. 

Gram (gram). A sword of trenchant 
sharpness owned by Siegfried. See 

Granary of Europe. A name an- 
ciently given to the island of Sicily, 
on account of its fertility. 

Grand Alliance. (Hist.f A treaty 
between England, Leopold I., em- 
peror of Germany, and the States 
General, signed at Vienna, May 12, 
1689. To this treaty the king of 
Spain (Charles II.) and the Duke of 
Savoy (Victor Amadeus II.) acceded 
in 1690. Its objects were "to pro- 
cure satisfaction to his imperial maj- 
esty in regard to the Spanish succes- 
sion, obtain security to the English 
and Dutch for their dominions and 
commerce, prevent a union of the 
monarchies of France and Spain, and 
hinder the French from possessing 
the Spanish dominions in America." 

Grand Corrupter. A name given to 
Sir .Robert Walpole (1676-1745) in 
the libels of his time, and by his 
political opponents. 

Grand Elector. See Great Elect- 

Grand Gousier, or Grangousier 
(gron'goo^se^')- [Fr., great gullet.] 
The father of Gargantua, in Rabe- 
lais' romance of this name ; thought 
by some to have been designed to 
represent Louis .XII. of France, by 
others, John d'Albret, king of Na- 

Gran'di-son, Sir Charles (-sn). The 
hero of Richardson's novel entitled 
" The History of Sir Charles Grandi- 
son." In this character, Richardson 
designed to represent Jiis ideal of a 
perfect hero, — a union of " the good 
Christian and the perfect English 

je®» " All this does well enough in a 
funeral sermon or monumental inscrip- 
tion, where, by privilege of suppressing 
the worst qualities and exaggerating the 
better, such images of perfection are 
sometimes presented. But, in the living 
world, a state of trial and a valley of tears, 

and for the Remarks and Boles to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. ziv-zxxii. 




such unspotted worth, such unvarying 
perfection, is not to be met with ; it could 
not, if we suppose it to have existence, 
be attended with ail tliose favors of for- 
tune w hich ai'e accumulated upon Rich- 
ardson's hero ; and hence the fatal ob- 
jection of Sir Charles Grandison being the 

* faultless monster that the world ne'er saw.' " 

Sir W. Scott. 

If we are by accident alone, I become as 

silent as a Turk, as formal as <Sir Charles 

Grandison. Sir E. Bulwer Lytton. 

Gran'di-son Crom'Twrell (-sn). A 
nickname given by Mirabeau to 
Lat'ayette, whom he looked upon as 
an ambitious man without power, 
and one who would coquet with the 
supreme authority without daring to 
seize it, or, indeed, possessing the 
means of doing so. 

jg^^ " There are nicknames of Mira- 
heau's worth whole treatises. ' Grandi- 
son Cromwell' Lafayette, — write a vol- 
ume on the man, as many volumes have 
been written, and try to say more. It is 
the best hkeness yet dravm of him." 

Grand Monarque, Le (lugro^imo/- 
nafk', 62). [Fr., the great monarch.] 
A title often applied to Louis XIV. 
(1638-1715), one of the most remark- 
able rulers that ever sat on the fhrone 
of France. ^ In his long reign of sev- 
enty-two years, he reared the fabric 
of the absolute monarchy which con- 
tinued for more than seventy-two 
years after his death, when it was 
shaken to pieces in the storms of the 
Revolution ; yet the ruling principles 
of his administration — uniformity 
and centralization — survived the 
wreck, and France is still governed 
by them. 

When it came to courtship, and your field 
of preferment was the Versailles CEil-de-Bceu^ 
and a Grand Monarqve walking encircled 
with scarlet women and adulators there, the 
course of the Mirabeaus grew stiU more com- 
plicated. Carlyle. 

Grandmother's Review, My. A 

nickname given to the " British Re- 
Aiew," a quarterly periodical owned 
and edited by a Mr. Roberts, whom 
Byron jocosely accused of having re- 
ceived a bribe from him. Mr. Rob- 
erts Avas foolish enough to take the 
matter quite seriously, declared that 
the charge was an absolute falsehood, 
and challenged Byron to name how 

and when the bribe was given. By- 
ron responded in an amusing letter, 
and turned the laugh against his op- 

" I bribed My Grandmamma's Review, the 
British." Don Juan. 

Am I flat, — I ii^ My Grandmother a bit of 
prose. Am I dunned into sourness,— I cut 
up some deistical fellow for the Quarterly. 

Noctes Ambrosiance. 

Grane (grS^na). A horse of marvel- 
ous swiftness owned by Sieglried. 
See Siegfried. 

Granite State. A popular name for 
the State of New Hampshire, the 
mountainous portions of which are 
largely composed of granite. 

Gratiano. 1. (gra^she-S'no.) A friend 
to Antonio and Bassanio, in Shake- 
speare's " Merchant of Venice." 

2. Brother to Brabantio, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " Othello.". 

3. (gra-tse-a/no.) A character in 
the Italian popular dramatic enter- 
tainment called " commedia dtW 
arte.'' He is represented as a Bo- 
lognese doctor, and has a mask with 
a black nose and forehead and red 
cheeks; his character is that of a 
pedantic and tedious proser. 

Gray. 1. (Auld Robin.) The title of 
an ancient and celebrated ballad by 
Lady Anne Lindsay (afterward Lady 
Barnard), and the name of its hero, 
a good old man married to a poor 
young girl whose lover was thought 
to have been lost at sea, but who 
returns to claim her hand a month 
after her marriage. 

2. (Barry.) A pseudonym of 
Robert Barry Coffin, an American 
writer whose sketches first appeared 
in the " Home Journal." 

3. (Duncan.) The hero of a ballad 
of the same name by Bums. 

4. (Mary.) See Bell, Bessy. 
Greal. See St. Graal. 

Great Bastard. [Fr. Le Grand Bd- 
tai'd.'] A sobriquet or surname given 
to Antoine de Bourgogne (1421-1504), 
a natural son of Philip the Good, 
Duke of Bourgogne. He was cele- 
brated for his bravery. 

Great Captain. [Sp. El Gran Cnpi- 
<«w.] 1. Gonsalvode Cordova (1463- 
1515), a distinguished general of 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Spain. He was sent by Ferdinand 
and Isabella to assist their kinsman, 
Ferdinand II. of Naples, in recover- 
ing his kingdom from the French. 
It was in the campaign of 1496, in 
which he drove the French (who a 
rear before had possessed the whole 
kingdom) entirely out of Sicily, that 
he was hailed by his soldiers as the 
Great Captain, a name by which he 
was ever afterward familiarly known 
throughout Europe. 

They [the people of India] could show 
bankers richer than the richest firms of Bar- 
celona and Cadiz, viceroys whose splendor 
far surpassed that of Ferdinand the Catholic, 
ni V riads of cavalry, and long trains of artillery 
wnich would have astonished the Great Cap- 
tain. Macaulay. 

The great Castilian heroes, such as the Cid, 
Bernardo del Carpio, and Pelavo, are even 
now an essential jwrtion of the faith and 
poetry of the common people of Spain, and 
are still in some degree honored, as they were 
honored in the age of the Great Captain. 


2. A surname of Manuel I. ( 1120- 
1180), emperor of Trebizond. 

Great Qham of Literature. A name 
given to Dr. Johnson by Smollett, in 
a letter to John Wilkes. See Bos- 
well's "Life of Johnson," vol. ii. 
chap. iii. 

* This [a prologue for the comedy of" The 
Good-natm-ed Man "] immediately became an 
object of great solicitude with Goldsmith, 
knowing the weight an introduction from the 
Great Cham of Literature would have with 
the public. W. Irving. 

Great Comnioner. William Pitt 
(Earl of Chatham), a famous parlia- 
mentary orator, and for more than 
thirty years (1735-1766) a leader in 
the House of Commons. 

We leave the Great Commoner in the zenith 
of his glory . Macaulay. 

Great Dauphin. [Fr. Le Grand Dau- 
phin.] A name given by French his- 
torians to the son of Louis XIV. He 
was bom in 1661, and died in 1711. 
See Little Dauphin. 

Great Duke. A title by which the 
Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) is 
often distinguished. 

Bury the Great Dvke 

With an empire's lamentation. 
Let us bury the Great Duke 

To the noise of the mourning of a mighty 
nation. Tennyson. 

Great Sari. A surname sometimes 
given to Archibald Douglas (d. 1514), 

Earl of An^us. He is better known 
as Archibald Bell-tlie- Cat. See Bell- 

Great Earl of Cork. A title be- 
stowed upon Richard Boyle (1566- 
1643), Earl of Cork, a nobleman who, 
possessing the largest estate of any 
English subject at that period, devot- 
ed it, in the most generous manner, 
to promoting public improvements. 

Great Elector. [Ger. Grosse Kur~ 
J'iirst.] A surname given to Fred- 
erick William, elector of Branden- 
burg (1620-1688), a sovereign dis- 
tinguished for his military genius 
and his private virtues, for the pru- 
dence and wisdom with which he , 
administered the civil government, 
and for the zeal and success with 
which he labored to augment the 
prosperity of his dominions, and to 
pfomote the welfare of his people. 
He is regarded as the founder of the 
Prussian greatness, and his reign 
gave to the countrj'- the military 
character which it still bears. 

Great-heart, Mr. A character in the 
" Pilgi-im's Progress" of Bunyan, 
represented as the guide of Christian's 
wife and children upon their journey 
to the Celestial City. 

Great Magician. An appellation of 
Sir Walter Scott, given to him on 
account of the singular fascination 
he exercises over his readers by his 
remarkable power of description and 
his charming style. The designation 
was originated" by Professor John 
Wilson in a poem called " The Magic 
Mirror," addressed to Scott, and 
published in the Edinburgh "Annual 
Register " for 1812. 

And when once more the gracious vision 

I felt the voice familiar to mine ear; 
While many a faded dream of earth awoke. 
Connected strangely with that unknown 

Who now stretched forth his arm, and on the 

A circle round me traced, as with magician's 

wand. Jfrof. J. Wilson. 

See Wizard of the North. 

Then spake the man clothed in plain ap- 
parel to the Great Magician who dwelleth m 
the old fastness, hard by the river Jordan 
fTweed], which is by the Border. 

Chaldee MS., Blackwood's Mag. (1817). 

Great Marquis. 1. A title given to 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




James Graham, Marquis of Montrose 
(1612-1650), on account of his heroic 
deeds in the cause of Charles I. 

I've told thee how we swept Dundee, 
And tamed the Lindsay's pride, 

But never have I told thee yet 
How the Great Marquis died. Aytoun. 

2. A name given by the Portu- 

fuese peasantry to Dom Sebastiao 
ose de Carvalho, Marquis de Pom- 
bal (1699-1782), the greatest of all 
Portuguese statesmen, and one of the 
ablest men of his time. 

Great Mogul. The title by which 
the chief of the Moguls, or of the 
empire founded in Hindostan by 
Baber in the fifteenth century, was 
known in Europe. The last person 
to whom this title of right belonged 
was Shah Allum,.at whose death, in 
1806, the Mogul empire came to an 

Great Moralist. A title offcen applied 
to Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), 
in allusion to .the ethical character 
of his writings, particularly his es- 
says, from which Goldsmith said a 
complete system of morals might be 

Dr. Johnson thought life had few things 
better than the excitation produced by being 
whirled rapidly along in a post-chaise; but he 
who has in youth experienced the confident 
and independent feeling of a stout pedestrian 
in an interesting country, and during fine 
weather, will hold the taste of the Great Mor- 
alist cheap in comparison. Sir W. Scott. 

Great Unknown. A name given to 
the author of the " Waverley Novels," 
which, on their first appearance, were 
published anonymously, and which 
immediately acquired an exthiordi- 
nary degree of popularity. The epi- 
thet was originated by James Bal- 

j$^ " The circumstance of Scott's hav- 
ing published a poem in the same year in 
which ' Waverley ' appeared, and his en- 
gagement in other literary undertakings 
being known, combined, with the com- 
mon prejudice that a poet cannot excel as 
a prose-writer, to avert from him for a 
time the suspicion of the authorship of 
the ' Waverley ' novels. The taciturnity 
of the few intrusted with the secret de- 
feated all attemps to obtain direct evi- 
dence as to who was the author. From 
the first, however, suspicion pointed 
strongly toward Scott ; and so many cir- 
cumstances tended to strengthen it, that 

the disclosures from Constable"'s and Bal- 
lantyne's books, and hLs own confession, 
scarcely increased the moral conviction 
which had long prevailed, that he was 
the ' Great Unknown.^ " Eng. Cyc. 

Great 'Witch of Bal-wfer'y. A name 
' popularly given to one Margaret 
Aiken, a Scotchwojnan of the latter 
part of the sixteenth century, who, 
on being accused of witchcraft, and 
subjected to torture, made a pretended 
confession of guilt, and, in order to 
save her life, informed upon others, 
asserting that they had a secret mark 
in their eyes by which she knew 
them for witches. She was carried 
about the country for the sake of de- 
tecting such emissaries of the Devil. 

Greaveg, Sir LSun'ce-lSt. The title 
of a novel by Smollett (a sort of 
travesty of " Don Quixote " ), and the 
name of its hero, a well-bom young 
English squire of the time of George 
II., handsome, virtuous, and enlight- 
ened, but crack-brained, who sets 
out, attended by an old sea-captain 
for his Sancho Panza, to act " as co- 
adjutor to the law, and even to rem- 
edy evils which the law cannot reach ; 
to detect fraud and treason, abase 
insolence, mortify pride, discourage 
slander, disgrace immodesty, and stig- 
matize ingratitude." 

Greece, The Two Eyes of. See 
Two Eyes of Greece, The. 

Greek Commentator. A title given 
to Fernan Nunez de Guzman (1488- 
1552), on account of his philological 
lectures, delivered in the University 
of Salamanca. 

Green, George a-. See George a- 

Green-Bag Inquiry. {Eng. Hist.) A 
name given to an investigation into 
the nature of a green bag containing 
Reports on the state of the country 
(alleged to be papers of seditious im- 
port), which was laid before parlia- 
ment by the prince regent, Feb. 3, 
1817. These Keports were referred 
to secret committees, and in accord- 
ance with their recommendations the 
Habeas Corpus Act was suspended 
(March 3), and other coercive meas- 
ures adopted. 

1^ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accomi)anying Ezplaaations, 




Green-eyed Monster. A common 
personification of jealousy. The ex- 
pression originated with Shakespeare. 

Oh, beware, my lord, of jealousy ; 

It is the Green-eyed monster which doth mock 

The meat it feeds on. ShaJc. 

Green Isle. Same as the Emerald 
Isle.' See Emerald Isle. 

If the Irish elves are anywise distineuished 
from those of Britain, it seems to be by their 
disposition to divide into factions, and fight 
among themselves, — a pugnacity characteris- 
tic of the Green Isle. Sir W. Scott. 

Green-Mountain State. A popular 
name of Vermont, the Green Moun- 
tains being the principal mountain- 
range in the State. 

Greenwood, Grace. A Tuym de plume 
adopted by Mrs. Sara Jane (Clarke) 
Lippincott, a popular American au- 
thoress of the present day. 

Gre'mi-o. A suitor to Bianca, in 
Shakespeare's " Taming of the 

Gretclien (gret'ken). See Marga- 

Grethel, Gammer (greth^el; Ger. 
pron. gra'tel). The imaginary nar- 
rator of a series of German nursery 
tales, said to have been taken down 
by the brothers Grimm, from the lips 
of Frau Viehmanin, wife of a peasant 
in the neighborhood of Hesse Cassel. 
They have been translated into Eng- 

Gride, Arthur. An old usurer in 
Dickens's " Nicholas Nickleby." 

Grimes, Old. See Old Grimes. 

Grin 'go, Harry. A nom de plume of 
Henry Augustus Wise (b. 1819), an 
American writer, author of " Los 
Gringos," "Captain Brand," and 
other works. Gringo is a Spanish 
word meaning unintelligible. 

Gri-sel'da, The Patient. A lady 
in Chaucer's " Clerk of Oxenford's 
Tale," immortalized by her virtue 
and her patience. The model of 
womanly and wifely obedience, she 
comes victoriously out of the most 
cruel and repeated ordeals to which 
her conjugal and maternal affections 
are subjected. [Written also Gri- 
seld, Grissell, Grizzell, Gri- 

J^'" The story of Griselda was first 
told in the " Decameron." Boccaccio 
derived the incidents from Petrarch, 
who seems to have communicated them 
also to Chaucer. About the middle of 
the sixteenth century (1565), a song of 
" Patient Grissel" appeared, and a prose 
history the same year. The theme has 
subsequently been treated in a great va- 
riety of ways. 

For patience she will prove a second Grissel, 
And Boman Lucrece for her chastity. 

He might cut 
My body into coins to give away 
Among nis other paupers; change my sons, 
While I stood dumb as Griseld, for black 

Or piteous foundlings. 

Mrs. E. B. Brovming. 

Grognon (gron^yo^', 62). See Gra- 


Grub Street. The former name of a 
street near Moorfields, in London, 
much inhabited by literar}'^ hacks 
(among whom Dr. Johnson includes 
"the writers of Dictionaries"), 
whence it was proverbially used to 
characterize any worthless author, or 
any mean production. Foxe, the 
martyrologist, and Speed, the his- 
torian, resided in this street. In 
1830, the name was changed %o 
Milton Street. 

Let Budgell charge low Orub Street on his 

And write whate'er he please — except his 

will. Pojic. 

I'd sooner ballads write, and Grvb-'Strect 
lays. Gay. 

Gnim/ble-to'ni-ang. A nickname 
sometimes given to those who were 
not of the Court party in the time 
of William and Mary. They were 
at times honored with the name of 
" Country party." 

Gru'mi-o. A servant to Petruchio, 
in Shakespeare's "Taming of the 

Griin, Anastasius (S-na-st^'se-oos 

f*iin, 34.) A worn deplume of Anton 
lexander von Auersperg (b. 1806), 
a German poet. 
Grun'dy, Mrs. A person frequent- 
Iv referred to in Morton's comedy, 
'^ Speed the Plough," but not intro- 
duced as one of the dramatis personcR. 
The Niolicitude of Dame Ashfield, in 
this play, as to what will Mrs. Gi'undy 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




say, has given the latter great celeb- 
rity, the interrogatory having ac- 
quired a proverbial currency. 

You will be pleased to hear that I have hit 
upon a mode of satisfying the curiosity of our 
fqend, Jfrs. Grtouly,— that is " the world," — 
without injury to any one. 

Sir E. Bulwer Lytton. 

Gudrun (goo-droon'). 1. A famous 
mythical female character in the Edda 
of Siimund, married, by the magic arts 
of her mother, to Sigurd, who was be- 
tiothed to Brynhild. After the death 
of Sigurd, she married King Atli [At- 
tila], at the instance of her mother. 
She did not love him, however; and 
soon coming to hate him for his 
cruelty, she took his life, having first 
caused him to drink out of the skulls, 
and eat the wasted hearts, of their 
two children, whom she had mur- 
dered. She then sought to put an end 
to her own wretched existence by 
throwing herself into the sea ; but the 
. waves bore her to the castle of King 
Jonakur, whom she married. 

2. The heroine of a celebrated 
North-Saxon poem supposed to have 
been composed in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, and still extant at Vienna in a 
MS. of the fifteenth century. It was 
translated into the modern High Ger- 
man in 18-J8. Gudrun is the daugh- 
ter of King Hettel [Attila], and is 
betrothed to Herwig, king of Heligo- 
land; but her rejected suitor, Hart- 
muth, king of Norway, invades the 
dominions of Hettel, kills him, and 
carries off^ Gudrun. As she still treats 
Hartmuth with contempt, and refuses 
to marry him, she is put to menial ser- 
vice, and is treated with great indig- 
nity by his mother, Gerlinda, or Gir- 
lint. As she is one day washing linen 
by the sea, she learns that a fleet is 
bringing her brother and her lover to 
her rescue. She flings the linen into 
the sea, and, in order to escape pun- 
ishment for doing so, feigns that 
she is willing to marry Hartmuth. 
But Herwig now appears on the scene, 
gain*? a decisive victory, puts Gerlinda 
to death, marries Gudrun, and, at 
her intercession, pardons Hartmuth. 
Gudrun is distinguished as a perfect 
model of angelic mercy, heroic forti- 
tude, and pious resignation. 

Guen'do-len (gwen^-). A divorced 
wife of Locrine. See Sabrina. 

Gul-de'ri-us (gwt-, 9). A son of 
Cymbeline, in Shakespeare's play of 
this name, passing under the assumed 
name of Polydore, and supposed to 
be a son of Belarius. Guiderius, as 
well as Cymbeline, was a legendary 
or fabulous king of Britain. 

Guil'den-stem (giP-). The name of 
a courtier, in Shakespeare's tragedy 
of " Hamlet." 

4^ " Rosencrantz and Guildenstern 
are favorable samples of the thorough- 
paced, time - serving court - knave ; serv- 
ants of all work, ticketed, a«nd to be hired 
for any hard or dirty job." 

Cowden Clarice. 

Guinart, Boque. See Roque Gui- 


Guin'e-ver (gwin^-). Queen to King 
Arthur, celebrated for her amours 
with Lancelot du Lac, and others. 
Hence the name was frequently ap- 
plied to any wanton woman. Geof- 
frey of Monmouth says that she was 
of a noble Roman family, and the 
most beautiful woman in all Britain. 
[Written also Guenever, Guin- 
evere ( g win 'e-veer' ), G u a n h u- 
m a r a (gwan^'hu-ma'ra ), G e n e u r a 
(ge-nu'ra), Ganora '(^a-no'ra, 9), 
Genievre (ge^ni-e'ver), and Gi- 
n e V r a (gi-nev^ra).] 

Gulli-ver, Lemuel. The imaginarj'- 
hero of Swift's celebrated satirical 
romance entitled " Travels into sev- 
eral Remote Nations of the World, by 
Lemuel Gulliver." He is representeii 
as being first a surgeon in London, 
and then a captain of several ships. 
After having followed the sea for 
some years, he makes in succession 
four extraordinary voyages, in the 
first of which he gets wrecked on the 
coast of Lilliput, a countiy inhabited 
by pygmies; in the second, he is 
thrown among the people of Brobding- 
nag, who are giants of a tremendous 
size; in the third, he is driven to 
Laputa, an empire of quack pretend- 
ers to science, knavish projectors, and 
sorcerers ; and in the fourth, he visits 
the Houyhnhnms, a race of horses 
endowed with reason. 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanation!, 




Gul-nSre'. 1. A female, character in 

Byron's poem of " The Corsair." 
She is rescued from a burning harem 
by Conrad, and, becoming passion- 
ately enamored of him, repays the 
service he has done her by taking 
the life of the pasha, Seyd, into whose 
hands Conrad falls. 

2. A character in one of the tales 
of the " Arabian Nights' Entertain- 
Guni'mer's Ore. A marvelous island, 
fabled to float in the northern seas, — 
a fiction probably based upon the 
existence of some* partly submerged 
reef or shoal. The geographer Bu- 
raeus placed this island on his map 
in view of Stockholm. 

4^ " There is a tradition in the north- 
ern seas, and upon the coast of Norway, 
that floating islands may often be seen 
rising out of the bosom of the waves, with 
trees fully formed, having branches from 
which hang shells instead of fruits, but 
which disappear after some hours. Tor- 
foBUS, in his history -of Norway, alludes to 
these. The sailors and inhabitants of 
the coast regard these places as the sub- 
marine habitations of evil spirits, who 
cause these islands to rise to taunt navi- 
gators, confuse their reckonings, and em- 
barrass their voyages." Pichot. 

Gungnir (gobng'nef ). {Scand. Myth,) 
The name of Odin's spear or lance. 

Gunpowder Plot. {Eng. Hist.) A 
memorable conspiracy for overthrow- 
ing the government by blowing up 
the king, lords, and commons, at the 
opening of parliament on the 5th of 
November, 1605. This diabolical 
scheme was projected by Robert 
Catesby, a Ronian Catholic, who 
leagued with himself Guy Fawkes 
and several other persons, of the same 
faith, who were exasperated by the 
intolerant and persecuting spirit of 
James I. and his ministers. It was 
discovered, however, on the evening 
before it was to have been carried into 
execution, and the principal conspira- 
tors were put to death. 

Giinther, King (giin^tef, 34). A hero 
whose adventures are related in the 
ancient German epic, the " Nibelun- 
gen Lied;" brother to Chriemhild. 

Gurtli. A Saxon swine-herd, the thrall 

of Cedric of Rothenvcod, in Sir 
Walter Scott's " Ivanhoe." 

Gnr'ton, Gammer (-tn). The hero- 
ine of an old English comedy, long 
supposed to be the earliest in the 
language, but now ranked as the 
second in point of time. It was 
written about 1561, by John Still, 
afterward Bishop of Bath and Wells. 
The plot turns upon the loss of a 
needle by Gammer Gurton, — a seri- 
ous event at that period, especially in 
a remote village, — and the subse- 
quent discovery of it sticking in the 
breeches of her man Hodge. 

Guzman de Alfarache (gooth- 
maiV di al-fa-ra'cha). The hero of 
a celebrated Spanish novel written 
by Mateo Aleman, and first printed 
at Madrid, in 1599. He begms his 
career as a dupe, but afterward 
becomes a consummate knave, and 
exhibits a rich variety of gifts in the 
various characters he is compelled by 
circumstances to assume, such as 
stable-boy, beggar, thief, coxcomb, 
mercenary, valet, pander, merchant, 
and the like. 

Guy, Sir, Earl of "Warwick. The 
hero of a famous English legend, 
which celebrates his surpassing proAv- 
ess and the wonderful achievements 
by which he obtained the hand of his 
lady-love, the Eair Felice, as well as 
the adventures he subsequently met 
with in a pilgrimage to the Holy- 
Land, and on his return home, tie 
is reputed to have lived in the reign 
of the Saxon King Athelstan. The 
romance of Sir Guy, mentioned by 
Chaucer in the " Canterbury Tales," 
cannot be traced further back than 
the earlier part of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. His existence at any period is 
very doubtful. 

JS^ Among the romances of the Anglo- 
Danish cycle, by no means the least 
celebrated is that of Guy of Warwick. 
It is one of the few which have been pre- 
served in the Anglo-Norman form ; and 
it has gone through an extraordinary 
number of versions. Chaucer enumerat- 
ed it among the romances of pris, or 
those which in the fourteenth century 
were held in the highest estimation. 

The Lord-keeper was scared by a dun cow. 

ftnd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




and he takes the young fellow who killed her 
for Guy of Warwick. Sir W. Scott. 

The conduct of the expedition was intrusted 
to a valiant Dutchman, who for size and 
weight might have matched with Colbrand, 
the Danish champion slain by Guy of War- 
wick. W. Irving. 

Guy'fin, SirCgl^'m). A knight whose 
adventures are related in the second 
book of Spenser's "Faery Queen." 
To him was assigned the task of 
bringing into subjection ^ witch, 
Acrasia, and of destroying her resi- 
dence, the Bower of BHss. Sir Guyon 
represents the qualitj'' of Temperance 
in its largest sense; meaning that 
virtuous self-government which holds 
in check not only the inferior sensual 
appetites, but also the impulses of 

passion and the movements of re- 
Gy'S-s. A mythical personage in Vir- 
gil's "JEneid;" a companion of 
^neas, noted for his bravery. At 
the naval games exhibited by ^neas 
in honor of his father Anchises, Gyas 
commanded the ship " Chimaera," of 
which Menoetes was the pilot. See 

^y'g^§. [Gr. ruyrj?.] ((?r. ^ Rom, 
Myth.) A son of Coelus and Terra, 
a monstrous hundred-handed giant, 
who, with his brothers, made war 
upon the gods, and was slain by 
Hercules, and subjected to everlast- 
ing punishment in Tartarus. 

* For the ** Key to the Scheme of Fronuuciatiou,'' with the accompanying Explanations, 





Rom. Myth.) The god of the nether 
world, the son of Saturn and Rhea, 
and the brother of Jupiter and Nep- 
tune. He is the same as Pluto. The 
name is also applied to his kingdom, 
the abode of the departed spirits, or 
shades. See Pluto. 

H8B'm6n. [Gr. AVwf •] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth'.) A son of Creon of Thebes, 
and a lover of Antigone. He is said 
to have destroyed himself on hearing 
that Antigone'was condemned by her 
father to be entombed alive. 

Hagen (ha^gen). The murderer of 
Siegfried in the German epic, the 
" Nibelungen Lied;" represented as 
a pale-faced and one-eyed dwarf, of 
demon origin, who knows every thing, 
and whose sole desire is mischief. 
He is at last killed by Chriemhild, 
Siegfried's wife, who strikes off his 
head with Siegfried's own sword. 

Haidee (hi-deO- A beautiful young 
Greek girl, in Byron's -poem of " Don 

Hajji Baba. See Bab a, Hajji. 

Halcyone. See Alcyone. 

Hales, The Ever-memorable John. 
A name often given to John Hales 
(1584-1656), an able scholar and di- 
vine of the church of England. The 
epithet of "ever-memorable" was 
first applied to him after his decease, 
in the title prefixed to a collection 
of his writings, called his " Golden 
Remains," published in 1659. 

Ham'$-dry/ad§. [Gr. 'A/utaSpvaSe?, 
Lat. Hama'dryades.^ (Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) Nymphs of the woods who 
were bom and died with particular 

Ham'il-ton, G-ail. A pseudonym 
adopted* by Miss Mary Khigail 
Dodge, of Hamilton^ Masssachusetts, 
a popular American writer of the 
present day. 

Hamlet. In Shakespeare's tragedy 

of the same name, son to the former, 
and nephew to the reigning, king 
of Denmark. 

J8@=- " This is that Hamlet the Dane 
whom we read of in our youth, and whom 
we seem almost to remember in our after- 
years; he who made that famous solilo- 
quy on life, who gave the advice to the 
players, who thought ' this goodly frame, 
the earth, a sterile promontory, and this 
brave, o'erhanging firmament, the air, 
this majestical roof, fretted with golden 
fife, a foul and pestilent congregation of 
vapors ; ' whom ' man delighted not, nor 
woman neither ; ' he who talked with the 
grave-diggers, and moralized on Yorick'g 
skull ; the schoolfellow of Rosencrantz and 
Guildenstern at Wittenberg; the friend 
of Horatio ; the lover of Ophelia ; he that 
was mad and sent to England ; the slow 
avenger of his father's death ; who hved 
at the court of Horwendillus five hun- 
dred years before we were born, but all 
whose thoughts we seem to know as well 
as we do our own, because we have read 
them in Shakespeare." Hazliit. 

4®=* The critics have been greatly di- 
vided in regard to Shakespeare's intent 
in this tragedy and character. Coleridge 
thinks that Shakespeare's purpose was 
" to exhibit a character flying from the 
sense of reality, and seeking a reprieve 
from the pressure of its duties in that 
ideal activity, the overbalance of which, 
with the consequent indisposition to ac- 
tion, is Hamlet's disease." Hazlitt says, 
" It is not a character marked by strength 
of passion or will, but by refinement of 
thought and feeling. . . . His ruling 
passion is to think, not to act ; and any 
vague pretense that flatters this propen- 
sity instantly diverts him from his pre- 
vious purposes." In Mr. R. G. White's 
view, " Hamlet is a man of contemplation, 
who is ever diverted from his purposed 
deeds by speculation upon their proba- 
ble consequences or their past causes, 
unless he acts too quickly, and under too 
much excitement, for any reflection to 
present itself." Goethe thought that 
Shakespeare designed to exhibit " a love- 
ly, pure, noble, and most moral nature, 
withotiJt the strength of nerve which 
forms a hero, sinking beneath a burden 
which it cannot bear, and must not cast 
away." 'According to Schlegel, " the 
whole [play] is intended to show that a 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




calculating conBideration, which exhausts 
all the relations and possible consequences 
of a deed, must cripple the power of ac- 

Hammer of Heretics. [Fr. Le 
Marteau des Ilereiiques.] 1. A 
sobriquet given to Pierre d'Ailly 
(1350-1425), a noted French cardinal 
and polemic. He was presidenf of 
the council of Constance, by which 
John Huss was condemned. 

2. A surname applied to John 
Faber (d. 1541), from the title of 
one of his works. He was a native 
of Swabia, and an eminent Koman 
Catholic divine. 

Hammon. See Ammon. 

Handsome Englishman. [Fr. Le 
Bel Anglais.] A name given by the 
French troops under Turenne to John 
Churchill (1650-1722), afterward the 
celebrated Duke of Marlborough, who 
was no less distinguished for the sin- 
gular graces of his person, than for 
his brilliant courage and his consum- 
mate ability both as a soldier and a 

Handsome Swordsman. [Fr. Le 
Beau Sabreur.] A title popularly 
given to Joachim Murat (1767-1815), 
who was highly distinguished for 
his handsome person, accomplished 
horsemanship, and daring bravery as 
a cavalry officer. 

Hanging Judge. A surname fastened 
upon the Earl of Norbury (d. 1831), 
who was Chief Justice of the Com- 
mon IMeas m Ireland, from 1820 to 
1827. He is said to have been in the 
habit of jesting with criminals, on 
whom he was pronouncing sentence 
of death. 

Hans von Kippach (h^nss fon rip'- 
palj. 67, 71). A fictitious personage, 
to ask for whom was an old joke 
among the German students. Hans 
is the German Jack, and Rippach is 
a village near Leipsic. 

Hanswurst (h^inss^voofst, 68). [Ger., 
Jack Pudding.] A pantomimic char- 
acter formerly introduced into Ger- 
man comedies, and originally in- 
tended as a caricature of the Italian 
Harlequin, but corresponding more 
particularly with the Italian J/acaront, 

the French Jenw Potage, the English 
Jack Pudding, and the Dutch Picktl- 
herringe, — all favorite characters 
with the lower classes of the popula- 
tion, and called after favorite national 
dishes. Hanswurst was noted for 
his clumsiness, his gormandizing ap- 
petite, and his Falstafiian dimensions. 
He was driven from the German 
stage by Gottsched, about the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

Happy Valley. In Johnson's " Ras- 
selas," a delightful valley, situated 
in Abyssinia. 

To his recollection, this retired spot was 
nnpardUeled in beauty by the richest scenea 
he had visited in his wanderings. Even the 
Happy Valley of Rasselaa would have sunk 
into nothing upon the comparison. 

Sir W. Scott, 

Hard'cas-tle, Mr. (hard^kas-sl). A 
character in Goldsmith's comedy of 
"She Stoops to Conquer;" repre- 
sented as prosy and hospitable. 

Harle-quin (har'le-kin or har^'le- 
kwin). [Fr. Harlequin, Arlequin, Sp. 
Arlequin, It. ArleccJdno ; probably 
from Old Fr. hiei-lekin, nellequin^ 
goblin, elf. Low Lat. harlequimis, hel- 
leqninus, from D. and Old Ger. helley 
hell. — MahnJ] 1. The name of a 
well-known character in the popular 
extemporized Italian comedy, in 
which he originally figured " as a 
servant of Pantaleone, the comic 
representative of Venetian foibles, 
and as the lover of Columbina, or 
the ArhcidneUa. He appeared before 
the public with a shaven head, a 
masked face, unshod feet, and a coat 
of many colors. He also carried a 
light sword of lath, and his hat was 
in a deplorable "CTJndition. He was 
noted for his agility, and for being a 
great gourmand, though his gluttony 
had no eflPect upon the size of his 
person. In this character were sat- 
irized the roguery'- and drollery of 
the Bergamasks, who were proverbial 
for their intriguing knavery. Har- 
lequin is accordingly represented as 
a simple, ignorant person, who tries 
very hard to be witty, even at the 
expense of being malicious. He is a 
parasite, cowardly, yet faithful and 
active, but easily induced, by fear 

' For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




or interest, to commit all sorts of 
tricks and knaveries. From the Ital- 
ian stage he was transteiTed to that 
of other countries. In England, he 
was first introduced on the stage by 
Rich, in the eighteenth century. The 
harlequin, in its original conception, 
has almost ceased to possess a legit- 
imate existence in comedy, being 
confined, at the present day, to the 
sphere of Christmas pantomimes and 
puppet-shows, and to the improvised 
plays of the Italians. 

2. A punning nickname conferred 
upon Robert Harley {imi-lf2'^), Earl 
of Oxford and Mortimer, an English 
statesman of the time of Queen Anne, 
noted for his restless, intriguing dis- 

Harley. " The Man of Feeling," in 
Mackenzie's novel of that name. 
He is remarkable for his fine sensi- 
bility and benevolence, and his bash- 
fulness resulting from excessive deli- 
cacy. See Man of Feelijsg. 

4^ " The principal object of Macken- 
zie, in all his novels, has been to reach 
and sustain a tone of moral pathos, by 
representing the effect of incidents, wheth- 
er important or trifling, upon the human 
mind, and especially those which were not 
only just, honorable, and intelligent, but 
so framed as to be responsive to those 
finer feelings to which ordinary hearts 
are callous. This is the direct and pro- 
fessed object of Mackenzie's first work, 
which is in fact no narrative, but a series 
of successive incidents, each rendered 
interesting by the mode in which they 
operate on the feelings of Harley." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Harlot, The Infamous Northern. 
See Northern Harlot, The In- 

Harldwe, Clarissa. The heroine 
of Richardson's novel entitled " The 
History of Clarissa Harlowe;" a 
young lady, who, to avoid' a mat- 
rimonial union to which her heart 
cannot consent, and to which she is 
urged by her parents, casts herself 
on the protection of a lover, who 
scandalously abuses the confidence 
she reposes in him, and finally suc- 
ceeds in gratifying his passion, 
though he fails in insnaring her 
virtue. She rejects the reparation of 

marriage, which is at length ten- 
dered, and retires to a solitary abode, 
where she expires, overwhelmed with 
grief and shame. 

jge^ " It was reserved to Richardson to 
show there is a chastity of the soul, 
which can beam out spotless and unsul- 
lied even after that of the person has 
been violated; and the dignity of Cla- 
rissa, under her disgrace and her misfor- 
tunes, reminds us of the saying of the 
ancient poet, that a good man, struggling 
with the tide of adversity, and surmount- 
ing it, was a sight upon which the immor- 
tal gods might look down with pleasure." 
Sir W. Scott. 

Har-mo'ni-S. [Gr. 'ApfxovCa.] (Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A daughter of Mars 
and Venus, and the wife of Cadmus. 
She is renowned in ancient story on 
account of a necklace which she 
received from her husband on her 
wedding-day, and which wrought 
mischief to all who came into pos- 
session of it. 

Har'61d, Childe (child, or child). The 
hero of Lord Byron's poem, " Childe 
Harold's Pilgrimage ; " represented as 
a man of gentle birth, lofty bearing, 
and peerless intellect, who, having 
exhausted all the pleasures of youth 
and early manhood, and feeling the 
fullness of satiety, loathes his fellow- 
bacchanals, and the " laughing dames 
in whom he did delight." To banish 
his disgust and melancholy, he de- 
termines to travel; but, though he 
traverses some of the fairest portions 
of the earth, the feelings of bitterness 
and desolation still prey upon him, 
without for one moment lightening 
the weight upon his heart, or ena- 
bling him to lose his own wretched 

4®^' Childe Harold may not be, nor 
do webelieve he is, Lord Byron's very 
self; but he is Lord Byron's picture, 
sketched by Lord Byron himself, arranged 
in a fancy dress, and disguised perhaps 
by some extrinsic attributes, but still 
bearing a sufficient resemblance to the 
original to warrant the conclusion that 
we have drawn." Sir W. Scott. 

The feelines arising from so rich a land- 
scape as is aisplayea by the valley of the 
Rhine, must have been the same m every 
bosom, from the period when our Englishman 
took his soUtary journey through it, in doubt 
and danger, till that in which it heard the in- 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbert after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxij. 




dignant Chikle Harold bid a proud farewell to 
his native couutry, in the vain seurcii of a 
land in which his heart might throb less 
fiercely. Sir W. Scott. 

Harpagon (ar^pa^go"', 62). The hero 
ot'xMoliere's comedy of "L'Avare;" 
represented as a wretched miser, 
whose avarice has reached that point 
where it is without pride, and whose 
dread of losing his wealth has over- 
powered the desire of being thought 
to possess it. 

Some [part of the treasure] went to stop for 
a time the mouths of such claimants, whoj 
being weary of fair promises, had become of 
t)pinion with Harpagon, that it was necessary 
to touch something substantial. Sir W. Scott. 

Harpagon is not more unlike to Jourdaiu 
• . . tlian every one of Miss Austen's young 
divines to all his reverend brethren. 


Har'pi-er, or Har'per. Some mys- 
terious personage referred to by the 
witches, in Shakespeare's tragedy of 
*' Macbeth," a. iv., sc. 1. Collier sug- 
gests that the word may be a cor- 
ruption of hnrpif. The orthography 
of the first folio, and of the best 
modern editions, is Harpier. 

Harpies. [Gr. "Aprrvtat, swift robbers ; 
Lat. flarpyice.'] {Gr. cf Eom. Myth.) 
Three daughters of Neptune and 
Terra, considered as ministers of the 
vengeance of the gods. They were 
disgusting winged monsters, of fierce 
and loathsome aspect, with the bodies 
of vultures, the heads of maidens, 
hands armed with long claws, and 
faces pale with hunger. They lived 
in an atmosphere of filth and stench,, 
and polluted every thing they ap- 
proached. Their names are com- 
monly given as Aello, Celaeno, and 

Har-poc'ra-tSg. [Gr. 'ApTroiepa-nj?.] 
(Myth.) The Greek name of the 
Egyptian Horus, the god of the sun 
and of silence, represented with his 
finger on his mouth. 

Harris, Mrs. An imaginary person- 
age to whom Mrs. Gamp — a month- 
ly nurse who figures in Dickens's 
novel of "Martin Chuzzlewit" — 
constantly refers as an authority for 
her own fabrications and fancies. 
See Gamp, Mrs. Sarah. 

J^f^ " Mrs. Ilarris was a glorious cre- 
ation, or, rather, conception. Only, the 

numerous and respectable persons who 
bear that name must feel themselves ag- 
grieved ; for their very existence iis no\v^ 
made a matter of doubt. By one breath 
of the magician, the solid flesh-aud-blood 
of all the Harrises has been volatilized 
into a hypothetical phantom." 

Fraser''s Mag. 
Now, liitherto, tliough tlie bandit was the 
nominal hero of the piece; though you were 
always hearing of him, — his wrongs, virtues, 
hair -breadth escapes, — he had never been 
seen. Not Mrs. Harris, in the immortal nar- 
rative, was more quoted and more mythical. 
Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, 

Hatch.'way, Lieutenant Jack. Hie 
name of a retired naval officer, on 
half-pay, in Smollett's novel, " The 
Adventures of Peregrine Pickle." 
He is represented as livingyVith 
Commodore Trunnion as a compan- 

He who can read the calamities of Trunnion 
and Hatchway, when run away with by their 
mettled steeds, . . . without a good hearty 
burst of lionest laughter, must be well quali- 
fied to look sad and gentleman -like with Loi-d 
Chesterfield or Master Stephen. Sir W. Scott. 

Hats and Caps. ( Swed. Hist. ) Pop- 
ular names given to two political 
factions by which Sweden was dis- 
tracted in the middle of the eighteenth 
century. The former party was fa- 
vorable to France, the latter was in 
the interest of Russia. They were 
both broken up, and their names 
prohibited, in 1771, by Gustavus HI., 
who desired to exclude foreign influ- 

J3(^ " ' Faction of Hats,' 'Faction of 
Caps ' (that is, n/^/ii-caps, as being som- 
nolent and disinclined to France and 
War): seldom did a once valiant, fiir- 
shining nation sink to such depths ! " 


Hat'tf r-iick. Dirk. A Dutch smug- 
gler captain, and a thorough and 
desperate villain, in Scott's novel of 
" Guy Mannering." His character 
is redeemed from utter sordidness 
and depravity only by his one vir- 
tue of integrity to his employers. 
" I was always faithful to my ship- 
owners, always accounted for cargo - 
to the last stiver." 

Hav'e-16k the Dane. [Fr. Havebh 
le Barlois.] The hero of an early 
French romance, the original of an 
ancient English romance of the same 
name, founded upon a story of the 

■ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Saxon era relating to the town of 
Grimsby, in Lincolnshire. 

Hawk'a-bites. The same as Tityr'e 
Tus. ' See Tityre Tus. 

Hawk'eye State. The State of Iowa; 
— said to be so named after an In- 
dian chief, who was once a terror 
to voyageurs to its borders. 

Head of Africa. A name formerly 
given to the Cape of Good Hope. 

H6ad'rigg, Cud'dle (or Cuthbert). 
A plowman in Lady Bellenden's 
service, in Scott's novel of '*01d 

Heart of Mid-Lo'tlii-^n. A poetical 
and popular name of the old jail in 
Edinburgh, the capital of the county 
of Mid-Lothian. It was taken down 
in 1817. One of Scott's novels bears 
this name as its title. 

He'be. [Gr. 'H/Stj.] {Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) The goddess of youth, a 
daughter of Jupiter and Juno, and 
the cup-bearer of the gods. She was 
banished from heaven on account of 
an unlucky fall. 

Wreathed smiles. 
Such as hang on Hebe's cheek. 
And love to live in dimple sleek. Milton. 

Hec'S-te {sometimes Anglicized hek'- 
^t).* [Gr. 'Exanj.] {Gr. f Rom. 
Myth.) The daughter of Jupiter and 
Latona; a mysterious divinity called 
Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, and 
ffecate, or Proserpina, in hell. In 
the latter character, she is described 

. as a powerful and cruel goddess, of 
hideous appearance, having all the 
magical powers of the universe at 
her command, and sending upon the 
earth all kinds of demons and terrible 

Hec'tSr. [Gr. 'EicTtop.] ( Gr, # Rom. 
Myth.) The son of Priam, king of 
Troy, by Hecuba, and the bravest 
and ablest of all the Trojan chiefs 
who fought against the Greeks. For 
a long time he gloriously defended 
Troy, but was at last slain in single 
combat by Achilles, who dragged his 
body in insulting triumph three times 
around the tomb of Patroclus and 
the walls of the beleaguered city. 
His exploits are sung by Homer in 

the " Iliad." One of the most beau- 
tiful and affecting as well as cele- 
brated episodes in this poem is that 
in which Hector takes leave of his 
wife and child at the Scajan gate 
before going into battle. 

Hec'tor de Ma'rys, Sir. A knight 
of the Round Table, brother of Lan- 
celot du Lac. 

Hec'tor of Germany. A title given 
by tKe old chroniclers to Joachim IL, 
elector of Brandenburg (d. 1571). 

Hec'torg. See Tityre Tus. 

Hec'u-ba. [Gr. 'E<d/3rj.] ( Gr. tf Rom. 
Myth.) The second wife of Priam, 
king of Troy, and the mother of Paris 
and Hector. After the fall of Troy, 
she fell into the hands of the Greeks 
as a slave, and, according to one 
account, threw herself in despair into 
the sea. 

Heep, Uriah. A detestable char- 
acter in Dickens's novel of " David 
Copperfield," who, under the garb 
of the most abject humility, conceals 
a diabolic hatred and malignity. " I 
am well aware," quoth he, " that I am 
the umblest person going, let the 
other be who he may. My mother 
is likewise a very umble person. We 
live in a numble abode. Master Cop- 
perfield, but have much to be thank- 
ful for. My father's former calling 
was umble; he was a sexton." 

HeimdaU (him/dal). {Scand. Myth.) 
A god who stands as sentinel at the 
bridge of Bifrost, to prevent the 
giants from forcing their way into 
heaven. It is said of him, that he 
requires less sleep than a bird, that 
he can see to a distance of one hun- 
dred leagues, as well by night as by 
day, and that he can hear the grass 
grow and also the wool on sheep's 
backs. See Gjallar. [Written also 

Heir of the Republic. A name 
given to Napoleon Bonaparte, " the 
plebeian child of the Revolution," 
who, in 1799, by a bold coup d'etat, 
overthrew the Directory, and made 
himself First Consul of France with 
sovereign powers ; and who, in 180-1, 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




assumed the title of emperor, and 
destroyed the last vestiges of democ- 
racy and freedom. 

Hel, m- Hela. {Scand. Myth.) The 
queen of the dead, daughter of the 
evil - hearted Loki and a giantess 
named Angurboda. She was Iright- 
ful to behold, her aspect being fero- 
cious, and the upper part of her 
body black or livid from congealed 
blood. Her abode (Helheim) was a 
vast castle in Niflheim, in the midst 
of eternal damp, snow, ice, and dark- 
ness. Here she received all who died 
of old age or disease. She was an 
inexorable divinity, and would re- 
lease no one who had once entered 
her domain. 

Uprose the king of men with speed, 

And saddled straight his coal-black steed; 

Down the yawning steep he rode, 

That leads to Hela-s drear abode. 

Till full before his fearless eyes, 

The portals nine of hell arise. Chray. 

Helen. [Gr. 'EAeVrj, Lat. Helena.'X 
( Gr. (f Rom. Myth.) A daughter of 
Jupiter and Leda, and the wife of 
Menelaus, king of Sparta. She was 
the most beautiful woman of her age. 
In the absence of her husband, Paris, 
son of King Priam, carried her oft' to 
Troy, which was the cause of the ten 
years' war against that city, and of 
its final destruction. 

Helen, Burd. See Burd Helen. 

Hel'e-nS. 1. See Helen. 

2. A lady in Shakespeare's " Mid- 
summer-Night's Dream," in love 
with Demetrius. 

3. The heroine of Shakespeare's 
"All 's Well that Ends Well," dis- 
tinguished for her romantic passion 
for Bertram, and her patient endur- 
ance of the most adverse fortune. 

J^tS^" " There was never, perhaps, a more 
beautiful picture of a woman's love, 
cherished in secret ; not self-consuming 
in silent languishment ; not pining in 
thought ; not passive and ' desponding 
over its idol ; ' but patient and hopeful ; 
strong in its own intensity, and sustained 
by its own fond faith. . . . The situation 
of Helena is the most painful and de- 
grading in which a woman can be placed. 
She is poor and lowly ; she loves a man 
[Bertram] who is far her superior in rank, 
who repays her love with indifference, 
and rejects her hand with scorn. She 

marries him against his will ; he leavps 
her, with contumely, on the day of their 
marriage, and makes his return to her 
arms depend on conditieus apparently 
impossible. All the circumstanoes and 
details with which Helena is surrounded 
are shocking to our feelings, and wound- 
ing to our delicacy ; and yet the beauty 
of the character is made to triumph ovei 
all." Mrs. Jameson. 

Hel'e-nS, The Patient. A character 
in an old popular tale, reproduced in 
Germany by Tieck. 

Hel'e-nus. [Gr. 'EAei/o?.] {Gr. cf 
Rom. Myth. ) A son of Priam and 
Hecuba, and a celebrated sooth&ayer. 

He-li'a-de§. [Gr. 'HAiaSc?.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) Daughters of Helios or 
Sol (the sun), changed into poplars 
on account of their grief at the death 
of their brother Phaethon. Theii 
names were Lampethusa, Lampetia, 
and Pheethusa. 

Heri-c6n. [Gr. 'EAt/cwi/.] A moun- 
tain of Boeotia, in Greece, sacred to 
Apollo and the Muses. 

From Helicori's harmonious springs 
A thousand rills their mazy progress take. 

Heli-os. [Gr. "HAio?.] (Gr. Myth.) 
The sun-god; identified in later timea 
with Apollo or Phoebus. He corre- 
sponds to the Roman Sol. 

HelTe. [Gr. "eaat?.] {Gr. # i?fi7,. 
Myth.) A daughter of Athamas ai d 
Nephele. With her brother Phrixus, 
she fled, on a golden fleeced ram, from 
her step-mother Ino to Calchas, but 
fell into the strait called after her the 

Hel-ve'ti4 (23). The Latin name of 
Switzerland^; sometimes used in mod- 
ern poetry/ 

See from the ashes of Belv€tia\i pile 
The whitened skull of old Servetus smile! 

Henriette {Fr. pron. 6n/re-et', 62). 
A daughter of Chrysale in Moli^re's 
comedy, "liCS Femmes Savantes." 
Her name has become proverbial in 

^the French language as a type of a 
perfect woman. 

He-phsBs'tus. [Gr.''H<^aio-To?.] {Myth.) 
The Greek name of the god called 
Vulcan by the Romans. See Vul- 

' oa* For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




He'rS(9). [Gr. 'Hpa, 'Hpr,.] {Myth.) 
The Greek name of the wife of Jupi- 
ter, called Juno by the Romans. See 

H6r/a-clei'd8B. [Gr. 'Hpa»cAeZ5ai.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth). The descendants of 
Hercules. See Hercules. 

Heracles. See Hercules. 

Her'cu-l$s. [Gr. 'HpaKx;)?.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A son of Jupiter and 
Alcmena, the most famous hero of 
fabulous history, remarkable for his 
great strength, and for his many 
wonderful achievements, particularly 
his performance of twelve labors im- 
posed upon him by his kinsman 
Eurystheus. These were, 1. To 
destroy a lion which haunted the 
mountain valley of Nemea. 2. To kill 
a formidable hydra which infested the 

, forest and marsh of Lerna. (See 
Hydra.) 3. To capture a swift stag, 
with golden antlets and brazen feet, 
which belonged to Diana. 4. To 
tak^ alive a wild boar which ravaged 
the neighborhood of Erymanthus. 
5. To cleanse the Augean stables. 
(See AuGEAs.) 6. To slay certain 
frightful- carnivorous birds that deso- 
lated the country near Lake Stym- 
phalis, in Arcadia. 7. To bring alive 
to Eurystheus a remarkable mad*bull 
belonging to Minos, king of Crete. 8. 
To obtain the mares of Diomedes, king 
of the Bistones in Thrace, which fed 
on human flesh. 9. To procure the 
girdle ,of Hippolyta, queen of the 
Amazons. 10. To kill the monster 
Geryon, and bring his herds to Ar- 
gos. (See Geryon.) 11. To obtain 
certain golden apples which were 
concealed in the gardens of the Hes- 
perides. (See Hesperides.) 12.* 
To bring from the infernal regions 
• the three-headed dog Cerberus. (See 
Cerberus.) To these " twelve 
labors " must be added many other 
exploits, such as his strangling two» 
serpents sent by Juno to destroy him 
while yet an infant ; his battles with 
the Centaurs and with the Giants; his 
participation in the Argonautic ex- 
pedition ; his liberation of Prometheus 
and Theseus ; and the like. It is re- 
lated by the sophist Prodicus, that 

Hercules in his youth met the god- 
desses of Pleasure and Virtue at the 
cross-ways, and that eacli endeavored 
to persuade him to become her vo- 
tary'; but he rejected the charms of 
Pleasure, and chose Virtue to be the 
constant companion of his life. (See 
Dejanira and Hylas.) [Called 
also Alcides, after his grandfather Al- 

The old world knew nothing of Conversion ; 

• Instead of an '* Ecce Homo " [Behold the Man ! 

See John xix. 5], they had only some Choice 

of Hercules. Carlyle. 

Heretics, Hammer of. See Ham- 
mer OF Heretics. 

HermanrL (hef^man). The hero of 
Goethe's poem entitled "Hermann 
und Dorothea." 

4®=" The aim of the " Hermann and 
Dorothea " is " in an epic crucible to free 
from its dross the pure human existence 
of a small German town, an(l at the same 
time mirrOr in a small glass the great 
movements and changes of the world's 
stage."' Goethe^ Trans. 

Her'mSg. [Gr. 'Epfi^?.] (Myth.) The 
Greek name of Mercury. See Mer- 

Her'mi-a. A lady in Shakespeare's 
" Midsummer - Night's Dream," in 
love with Lj'-sander. 

H^r-mi'o-ne. [Gr. '^pfiiovr}.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) 1. The only daughter 
of Menelaus and Helen, * celebrated 
for her beauty. She became the wife 
of Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus), the son 
of Achilles; but, having been previ- 
ously promised to Orestes, whom she 
loved, the latter procured the assas- 
sination of Pyrrhus, and carried her 
off and married her. 

2. The heroine of the first three 
acts of Shakespeare's " Winter's " 

4®=" " She is the wife of Leontes, king 
of Sicilia, and, though in the prime of 
beauty and womanhood, is not repre- 
sented in the first bloom of youth. Her 
husband, on slight grounds, suspects her 
of infidelity with his friend Polixenes, 
king of Bohemia. The suspicion once 
admitted, and working on a jealous, pas- 
sionate, and vindictive mind, becomes a 
settled and confirmed opinion. Hermione 
i^ thrown into a dungeon ; her new-born 
infant is taken from her, and, by the order 
of her husband, frantic with jealousy, 

and for the JKcmarks and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




exposed to death on a desert shore ; she 
is herself brought to a public trial for 
treason and incontinency, defends her- 
self nobly, and is pronounced innocent 
by the oracle. But, at the very moment 
that she is acquitted, she learns th6 death 
of the prince, her son, who, 
' Conceiving the dishonor of his mother, 
Uad straight declined, drooped, took it deep- 


Fastened and fixed the shame on 't in himself, 
Threw off his spirit, appetite, and sleep, 
And downright languished.' 

Bhe swoons away with grief, and her supt 
posed death concludes the third act. The 
two last acts are occupied with the adven- 
tures of her daughter Perdita ; and with 
the restoration of Perdita to 4ihe arms of 
her mother, and the reconciliation of Her- 
mione and Leontes, the piece concludes. 
Such, in few words, is the dramatic situ- 
ation. The character of Hermione exhib- 
its what is never found in the other sex, 
but rarely in our own, — yet sometimes, 
— dignity without pride, love without 
passion, and tenderness without weak- 
ness." * Mrs. Jameson. 

Hermod (her'mod, or hef/piod). 
{Scand. Myth.) A son of Odin, and 
the messenger of the gods. 

He'ro(9). [Gr. 'Hpai.] 1. {Gr. 4- 
Rom. Myth.) A beautiful priestess 
of Vftius at Sestos, in Thrace, be- 
loved by Leander of Abydos, who 
repeatedly swam across the Helles- 
pont to visit her; but, he being at 
length unfortunately drowned, she 
threw herself, in desJDair, into the sea. 
2. Daughter of Leonato, and a 
friend of Beatrice, in Shakespeare's 
"Much Ado about Nothing." 

J8^ " The character of Hero is well con- 
trasted with that of Beatrice, and their 
mutual attachment is very beautiful and 
natural. When they are both on the 
scene together, Hero has but little to say 
for herself ; Beatrice asserts the rule of a 
master-spirit, eclipses her by her mental 
superiority, abashes her by her raillery, 
dictates to her, answers for her, and 
would fain inspire her gentle-hearted 
cousin with some of her own assurance. 
... But Shakespeare knew well how to 
make one character subordinate to anoth- 
er, without sacrificing the slightest por- 
tion of its effect ; and Hero, added to her 
grax5e and softness, and all the interest 
which attaches to her as the sentimental 
heroine of the play, possesses an intel- 
lectual beauty of her own. When she 
has Beatrice at an advantage, she repays 
her, with interest, in the severe, but most 

animated and elegant picture she draws 
of her cousin's imperious character and 
unbridled levity of tongue." 

Mrs. Jameson. 
Hfer'Sn, Robert. A pseudonvm under 
which John Pinkerton (175&-1826) 
published a work, entitled "Letters 
on Literature," distinguished for its 
strange system of spelling, as well as 
for the singular opinions advanced in 
it on the value of the Greek and 
Roman writers. 

Hero of the Nile. A surname often 
given to Horatio Nelson (1758-1805), 
the illustrious naval commander of 
England, who, on the first of August, 
1798, with a greatly inferior force, 
attacked, and nearly destroyed, a 
French fleet under the command of 
Brueys, in Aboukir Bay. 

He-ros'tra-tus. [Gr. 'HpoaTpaTo?.] 
An Ephesian, who, to acquire inv 
perishable fame, set fire to the mag- 
nificent temple of Diana, at Ephesus, 
B. c. 356. He was tortured to dteath 
for the deed, and a decree was passed 
that no one should mention his name 
under pain of capital punishment; 
but the effect produced was exactly 
the opposite of that which was intend- 
ed. [Called also Eratostratus.'] 

Her'thS. ( Teutonic Myth.) A per- 
sonification of the earth. Hertha was 
worshiped by the ancient Germans 
and the Anglo-Saxons, as well &» by 
the Norsenien. The name is some- 
times used as a synonym of Frigga. 

Her Trippa (ef trep'p3'). The name 
of one of the characters in Rabelais' 
" Pantagruel." 

4®=" " Her Trippa is undoubtedly Hen- 
ricus Cornelius Agrippa burlesqued. Her 
is Henri cus^ or Herri cus, or perhaps al- 
ludes to Herr^ because he was a German, 
and Agrippa is turned into Triyrpa^ to 
play upon the word tripe.'''' Mottettst. 

He-si'o-ne. [Gr. 'Ucriovrj.'] {Gr. 4" 
Rom. Myth.) A daughter of Laom- 
edon, king of Troy, rescued from a 
sea-monster by Hercules, and given 
in marriage to Telamon, to whom 
she bore Teucer. • 

Hes-p6r'i-d$§. [Gr. *E<r7repi5€9.] {Gr. 
4 Rom. Myth.) Three n3Tnphs, 

• For the "Key to tlie Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanationi, 




daughters of Hesperus, — or, as some 
say, of Erebus and Nox, — and guard- 
ians of the golden apples which Juno, 
on her marriage with J upiter, received 
from Terra, and which were kept in 
a garden on an island beyond Mount 
Atlas, in Africa. The tree which bore 
tliem was watched by a huge dragon. 

Hes'pe-rus. [Gr. "Eo-Trepo?.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A personification of the 
evening star, worshiped with divine 
honors. According to one form of 
the legend, he was the son of Cepha- 
.lus and Aurora ; according to another 
form, the son of lapetus and Asia. 
Diodorus calls him a son of Atlas," 
and sa3^s that he was fond of astron- 
omy, and that once, after having 
a V ended Mount Atlas to observe the 
slars, he disappeared, and was seen 
on earth no more. . 

Hes'ti-a. [Gr. 'E<rTta.] \Gr. Myth.) 
The Greek name of the goddess 
worshiped by the Romans as Vesta. 
See Vesta. 

Hi'a-wS'tha. A mythical personage 
of miraculous birth, believed by the 
North American Indianslo have been 
sent among theni to clear their rivers, 
forests, and fishing-grounds, and to 
teach them the arts of peace. The 
story of Hiawatha has been made the 
subject of a poem by Longfellow. 

Hi-ber'ni-a. The Latin name of 
Ireland, often used in modern poetry. 

Hick 'a- thrift, Thomas, or Jack. 

The name of a famous character in 
an old legendary tale of the same 
name, doubtless* a popular corrup- 
tion of an ancient Northern romance. 
He is described as a poor laborer 
of the time of William the Con- 
queror, and the possessor of super- 
human strength, which enabled him 
to accomplish achievements so won- 
derful, and of such public importance 
and benefit, that he was knighted by 
his grateful king, and made governor 
of East Anglia, or Thanet. See 
"Qu. Rev.," No. XLI. art. V. 

When a man sits down to write a history, 
though it be but the history of Jack Hicka- 
thrift or Tom Thumb, he knows no more 
than his heels what lets and confounded 

hindrances he is to meet with in his wa; 


Hieronymo. See Jeronimo. 

High-heels. A faction or party in 
Lilliput opposed to the Low-heels. 
These parties were so called from the 
high and low heels of their shoes, by 
which they respectively distinguished 
themselves. The High-heels, it was 
alleged, were most agreeable to the 
ancient constitution of the empire, 
but the emperor made use only of 
Low-heels in the administration of 
the government. Under these desig- 
nations. Swift satirized the High- 
church and Low-church parties of 
his time, or the Wliigs and Tories. 
See Gulliver and Lilliput. 

Highland Mary- Mary Campbell, 
Bums's first love, the subject of 
some of his most beautiful songs, 
and of the elegy, " To Mar}^ in 

Hin'doo§. A cant name given to the 
"Know-nothing" or Native Ameri- 
can party in the United States, Dan- 
iel UUman, their candidate for the 
Presidency, having been charged 
with being a native of Calcutta. 

Hip''po-cre'ne {the Encjlish poets some- 
times pronounce it in three syllables^ 
hip-'po-kreen). [Gr. 'iTrTroKpTji/r].] A 
fountain near Mount Helicon, sacred 
to the Muse^, and fabled to have been 
produced by a stroke of Pegasus' s 
hoof. Longfellow has made use of 
this myth in his '' Pegasus in Pound." 
See Pegasus. 

Oh for a beaker full of the warm South, 
Full of the true, the blushful Hippocrene, 
"With beaded bubbles winking at the brim ! 


Hip/pO-da-mi'S. [Gr. •l7r7ro5ajLieia.] 

{Gr. (f Jio7n. Myth.) The real name 
of Briseis, the beloved slave of Achil- 
les. See Briseis. 

Hip-pol'j?--ta. [Gr. 'iTTTroAvTrj.] 1. 
{Gr. cf Horn. Myth.) A queen of 
the Amazons, and daughter of Mars, 
slain by Hercules, according to one 
account, but, according to another, 
conquered by Theseus, who married 
her, and had by her his son Hippoly- 
tus. [Written also H i p p o 1 y t^:] 

The worthy Doctor . . . magnanimously 
suppressed his own inclination to become the 
Theseus to this Hippohjta, in deference to the 

and for the Remtu-ks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




rights of hospitality, which enjoined him to 
forbear interference with the pleasurable pur- 
suits of his young friend. Sir W. Scott. 

2. Queen of the Amazons, in 
Shakespeare's " Midsummer-Night's 

Hip-pol'j?--tuS. [Gr. 'In-TrdAvTO?.] ( Gr. 
<f Roni. Myth.) A son of Theseus, 
king of Athens, by Antiope or Hip- 
polyta. His step-mother, Fhaedra, — 
the second wife of Theseus, — fell in 
love with him, but, finding that her 
passion was not responded to, she ac- 
cused him to her husband of attempts 
upon her chastity; the king in his 
rage cursed him, and prayed for his 
destruction, whereupon he was thrown 
from his chariot and dragged to death 
by his horses, ^sculapius, however, 
restored him to life, and Diana placed 
him, under the name of Virbius, and 
under the protection of the nymph 
Egeria, in the grove of Aricia, where 
he afterward received divine honors. 

Hip-pom'e-don. [Gr. 'imroix.iBuiv.'] 
{Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) One of the 
seven Grecian chiefs who engaged in 
the siege of Thebes. 

Hip-pom'e-nS§. [Gr. 'iTrTro/meVrj?.] 

iG7\ ^ Rom. Myth.) A Grecian 
prince who conquered Atalanta in a 
race, and thus obtained her as his 
wife. See Atalanta. 

Even here, in this region of wonders, I find 
That light-footed Fancy leaves Truth far be- 
Or, at least, like Hi()pomenes, turns her astray 
By the golden illusions he flings in her way. 
T. Moore. 

Hip-pot'a-d$§. [Gr. •iTrn-oTafirj^.] {Gr. 
(f Rom. Myth) A name given to 
^olus, as the grandson of Hippotes. 
See ^OLus. 

He . . . questioned every gust of rugged 

That blows from off each beaked promon- 
tory ; . . . 
And sage Hlppotades their answer brings. 
That not a blast was from his dungeon strayed. 

Hi'ren (9). [A corruption of /rewe.] 
The heroine of fin old play by George 
Peele, entitled "The Turkish Ma- 
homet, and Hiren, the fair Greek; " 
referred to by Pistol, in Shakespeare's 
"^ing Henry IV.," Part H., a. ii., 
sc. 4. The name is proverbially 
used by the writers of that day to 
designate a strumpet. 

" Come, come," exclaimed Oldbuck; •' what 
is tile lueauiug of all thisi' Have we got 
Hiren here ? We '11 have no swaggering here, 
youngsters." Sir W. Scott. 

His-pa'ni-a. The ancient Latin name 
of Spain ; sometimes used in modem 

Hob'bi-did/an9e. The name of one 
of the fiends mentioned by Sliake- 
speare in ''Lear" (a. iv., sc. 1), and 
taken from Harsnet's "Declaration 
of Egregious Popish impostures." 
See i? LiBBERTiGiBBET, 1. [Written 
Hopdance in a. iii., sc. 6.J 

Hotibididance^ prince of dumbness. Shak. 

Hob'gob/lin. A name formerly given 
to the merry spirit usually called 
Puck^ or Robin Gooclfelhtv. 

j8^=- " Goblin is the Vrench gobelin, 
German kobold ; Hob is Rob, Robin, Hob ; 
just as Hodge is Roger. " KeigiUley. 

Those that ^lobgoblin call you, and sweet 

You do their work, and they shall have good 

luck. Shak. 

Hob'i-noL A name giv€n by Spen- 
ser, in his " Shepherd's Calendar," 
to Gabriel Harvey ( 1545-1630), a per- 
sonal friend, a respectable poet and 
f)rose - writer, and one of the most 
earned persons of his age. [Writ- 
ten also H o b b i n 1.] 

Hob'o-mok'ko. The name of an 
evil spirit among the North American 

Hob'son, Tobias (-sn). A carrier 
who lived at Cambridge (Eng.) in 
the seventeenth century. He kept a 
stable, and let out horses, but obliged 
each customer to take the one which 
stood next to the door. Hence the 
proverbial expression, " Hobson's 
choice," used to denote a choice 
without an alternative. 

Hocus, HumphreyT A nickname 
used to designate the Duke of Marl- 
borough, in Arbuthnot's " History of 
John Bull." 

Hodeken (ho'da-ken, 4a)- [Ger., lit^- 
tle hat.] A famous German kobold. 
or domestic fairy servant ; — so oalleil 
because he always wore a little felt 
hat pulled down over his face. 

Hodge. The goodman of Gammer 
Gurton, in the old play of " Gammer 

JJ^ For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations. 




Gurton's Needle." . See Gurton, 

Hodiir (hoMobr, 46). {Scand. Myth.) 
A blind god who destroyed his broth- 
er Baldur, at the instigation of Loki, 
without meaning to do so. He is the 
type of night and darkness, as Bal- 
dur is of light and day. [Written 
also Hod, Hoder.] 

HoPo-ier'n^s. 1. See Judith. 

2. [h'r. { Thubal) JJoloferne.] The 
name of a pedant living in Paris, 
mider whose care Gargantua, in 
Kabelais' romance of this name, is 
placed for instruction. 

3. [An imperfect anagram of JbA. 
nes Flareo, or Johannes 1^'lorio.] A 
pedantic schoolmaster, in Shake- 
speare's "Love's Labor's Lost," fan- 

. tastically vain of his empty knowl- 
edge. See EuPHUES. 

jgc^ " Under the name of Holofemes, 
^Shakespeare ridicules John Florio (d. 
'1625), the philologist and lexicographer, 
called by himself 'The Resolute.' . . . 
The character of Holofernes, however, 
while it caricatures the peculiar folly and 
ostentation of Florio, holds up to ridicule, 
ftt the same time, the general pedantry 
atid literary affectations of the age ; and 
amongst these, very particularly, the ab- 
surd innovations which Lyly had intro- 
duced. Drake. 

Holy Alliance. [Fr. Z^a Sainte Alli- 
ance.] (Hist.) A league of the sov- 
ereigns ^of Europe, proposed by the 
Emperor Alexander of Russia, Sept. 
26, 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon 
at Waterloo, and founded upon the 
idea that religion should be made the 
basis of international politics. The 
act establishing this alliance was 
signed by Alexander, Francis of 
Austria, and Frederick William of 
Prussia, and consisted of a declara- 
tion that the principles of Christian- 
ity should be the basis of internal 
administration and of public policy. 
Principles so indefinite led in time to 
violations of justice, and the league 
soon became a conspiracy of the gov- 
ernments against the peoples. The 
kings of England and France acced- 
ed to the alliance, and, in 1818, a 
congress was held at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
in which a Declaration 'of the five 
monarchs was issued, stating that 

the object of the alliance was peace 
and legitimate stability. England 
and France afterward withdrew trom 
this union, as its views became more 
pronounced, and France at the pres- 
ent time occupies a position hostile to 
it. A special article of the treaty of 
alliance excluded for ever the mem- 
bers of the Bonaparte family from 
any European throne! 
Holy Bottle, Oracle of the. An 
imaginary oracle in search of which 
Pantagruel, in Rabelais' romance of 
this name, visits various islands, ac- 
companied by his friend Panurge. 
See Panurge. 

4@=- The last place at which they arrive 
is Lantern-land (see Island op Lanterns), 
where the oracular bottle is kept in an 
alabaster fount in a magnificent temple. 
Being conducted hither, the attendant 
priestess throws something into the fount, 
on which the water begins to bubble, and 
the word Trine ! (Drink) is heard to pro- 
ceed from the bottle, which -the priestess 
declares to be the most auspicious re-, 
spouse pronounced while she has ofii- 
ciated in the temple. They accordingly 
all partake of Falernian wine ; and with 
their ravings and prophesyings under the 
inspiration of Bacchanalian enthusiasm 
the romance ends. 

They were left in all the distresses of desire 
unsatisfied, — saw their doctors, the Parch- 
mentarians, the Brassarians, the Turpenta- 
rians, on one side, the Popish doctors on the 
other, like Pantagruel and his companions in 
quest of the Oracle o/'<Ae^o«fe, all embarked 
out of sight. Sterne. 

Holy City. A designation bestowed 
by various nations upon the city 
which is regarded as the center of 
their religious worship and traditions. 
By the Jews and Christians, Jerusa- 
lem is so called. By the Mohamme- 
dan nations, the name is applied to 
Mecca and Medina. By the Hindiie, 
Benares is regarded as the Holy City. 
By the Indian Mohammedans, Alla- 
habad is so called. In the time of 
the Incas, the name was given to 
Cuzeo, where there was a great tem- 
ple of the sun, to which pilgrims re- 
sorted from the furthest borders of 
the empire. 

Holy Qraal. See St. Graal. 

Holy Island. 1. A name formerly 
given to Ireland, ()n account of its 
innumerable multitude of saints. 

»nd for the Remarks and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




2. Guernsey was so called, in the 
tenth century, on account of its 
many monks. 

3. Riigen was so called by the 
Slavonic Varini. 

4. A synonym of Lindisfarne, a 
peninsula on the north-east coast of 
England, remarkable as having been 
the seat of a Saxon abbey over 
which the famous St. Cuthbert pre- 
sided as bishop. 

Holy Xiand. 1. A name commonly 
applied to Palestine; — first given to 
it in Zech. ii. 12. 

2. A name given to Elis, in an- 
cient Greece. 

Holy Ijeague. [Fr. La Sainte Ligue.'] 
(Hist.) 1. A celebrated combination 
against the republic of Venice, formed 
in 1508 by Pope Julius II., — whence 
the epithet of " Holy," — and in- 
cluding the emperor of Germany 
(Maximilian), the king of France 
(Louis XII.), the king of Spain (Fer- 
dinand III.), and various Italian 
princes. By this league, Venice was 
forced to cede to Spain her posses- 
sions in the kingdom of Naples. * 

2. A treaty concluded, in 1533, be- 
tween Pope Clement VII., the Ve- 
netians, the Duke of Milan {Fran- 
cesco Maria Sforza), and Francis I. 
of France, to compel the Emperor 
Charles V. to release the French 
king's sons on the payment of a rea- 
sonable ransom, and to re-establish 
Sforza in the possession of Milan. 
It was so called because the Pope 
was at the head of it. 

3t A politico-religious association 
formed by the Roman Catholic party 
in France, in the reign of Henry III., 
ihe object of which was to overthrow 
the Protestants, prevent the accession 
of Henry IV., and place the Duke of 
Guise on the throne. [Called also 
The League, by way of eminence.] 

Holy Maid of Kent. Elizabeth Bar- 
ton, a woman once popularly believed 
to possess miraculous endowments, 
and to be an instrument of divine 
revelation. She was beheaded at Ty- 
burn, on the 21st of April, 1534, for 
high treason in having predicted that 
direful calamities would befall the 

English nation, and that Henry VIII. 
would die a speedy and violent death 
if he should divorce Queen Catharine 
and marry Anne Boleyn. Her im- 
posture was for a time so successful 
that even Sir Thomas More was dis- 
posed to be a believer. 

Honeycomb, Will. One of the 
members of the imaginary club by 
whom the " Spectator " was profess- 
. edly edited. He is distinguished for 
his graceful affectation, courtly pre- 
tension, and knowledge of the gay 

Honeyed Teacher. An appellation 
bestowed upon St. Bernard (1091- 
1153), one of the most eloquent and 
distinguished ecclesiastics of the Mid- 
dle Ages. See Mellifluous Doc- 
tor. # , 

Hon'ey-mSn, Charles. A free-and- 
easv clergyman in Thackeray's novel 
of " The Newcomes." 

In the Honepman of the parish, even where 
that person is of ordinary qualifications, a 
more familiar tone both of speech and writing 
is tolerated. Percy Fitzgerald. 

Hon'ey-wdbd. A character in Gold- 
smith's comedy of " The Good-na- 
tured Man;" distinguished for his 
exaggerated generosity and self-ab- 

Honor, Mrs. The waiting-maid of 
Sophia Western, in Fielding's novel, 
" The History of a Foundling." 

Stop, stop; fold up the bedclothes agaiq, if 
you please. Upon my word, this is worse 
than Sophy Western and Mrs. Honor about 
Tom Jones's broken arm. Fro/. J. Wilson. 

Hood, Kobin. See Robin Hood. 

Hdbk'er, The Judicious. Richard 
Hooker, an eminent English divine 
(1553-1600), to whom the surname 
of" The Judicious " has been givenx)n 
account of his wisdom and judgment. 
Of his " Ecclesiastical Polity " Pope 
Clement VIII. said, " There are in it 
such seeds of eternity as will con- 
tinue till the last fire shall devour all 

Hookey "Walker. The popular name 
of an out -door clerk at Longman, 
Clementi, & Co.'s, in Cheapside, Lon- 
don, where a great number of per- 
sons were employed. His real name 
was John Walker, and the epithet 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




^^ Hookey '* was given him on account 
of his hooked or crooked nose. He 
occupied the post of a spy upon the 
other workmen, whose misdemean- 
ors were numerous. Of course it 
was for their interest to throw dis- 
credit upon all Jack's reports to the 
head of the firm ; and numbers could 
attest that those reports were fabri- 
cations, however true. Jack, some- 
how or other, was constantly outvot- 
ed, his evidence superseded, and of 
course disbelieved ; and thus his oc- 
cupation ceased, but not the fame of 
'•''Hookey Walker,'' who often forms 
a subject of allusion when the tes- 
timony of a person of tried and well- 
known veracity is impeached. The 
name is also often used as an ejacu- 
lation, to express incredulity. 

4^=- According to the Londoa " Satur- 
day Reyiew," the expression is derived 
from an aquiline - nosed Jew, named 
Walker, an out-door astronomical lect- 
urer of some local notoriety in his day. 

m Another authority refers it to " a magis- 
trate of dreaded acuteness and incredu- 
lity," whose hooked nose gave the title of 
"beak" to all judges, constables, and po- 

Hoosier State (hoo'zhur). The State 
of Indiana, the inhabitants of which 
are often called Hoosiers. This word 
is said to be a corruption of husher, 
formerly a common term for a bully, 
throughout th« West 

Hopeful. A pilgrim in Bunyan's 
" Pilgrim's Progress," who, after the 
death of Faithful, accompanies Chris- 
tian to the end of his journey. 

Hop-o'-my-Thuinb. A character in 
the tales of the nursery, often con- 
founded with Tom Thumb. See 
Thumb, Tom. 

Ho'rsB (9). [Gr.'Qpai.] {Gr. <^ Rom. 
Myth.) The Hours, daughters of 
Jupiter and Themis, goddesses that 
presided over the changes of the 
seasons and the works of man, and 
kept watch at the gates of heaven ; 
represented in art as blooming maid- 
ens carrying flowers, fruits, &c. 
Their names are usually given as 
Eunomia, Dice, and Irene. 

Lol where the rosy-bosomed Hows, 

Fair Venus' tfain, appear. Gray. 

Ho-ra'ti-1 (-shi-i). See Curiatii. 

Ho-ra'ti-o (ho-ra^shi-o). A friend to 
Hamlet, in Shakespeare's tragedy of 
this name. 
H6r'i-c6n. A fanciful name sometimes 
given to Lake George, and commonly 
supposed to be the original Indian 
name, but really an invention of the 
American novelist, James Fenimore 
Cooper. The ancient Iroquois name 
of this lake was Andialarocteyyfhich. 
is said to mean, " there the lake shuts 
itself." The French missionary, Fa- 
ther Jogues, called it Saint Sacre- 
ment, because he discovered it on the 
eve of that festival. 
Horn, King. See King Horn. 
Hor'ner, Jack. The name of a cele- 
brated personage in the literature of 
the nursery. The full history of his 
" witty tricks and pleasant pranks '* 
is given in Halliwell's "Nursery 
Rhymes of England." 

4®^ According to a writer in " Notes 
and Queries " (xvi. 156), " There is a tra- 
dition in Somersetshire that the Abbot 
of Glastonbury', hearing that Henry VIII. 
had spoken with indignation of his build- 
ing such a kitchen as the king could not 
burn down, — it being domed over with 
stone, — sent up his steward, Jack Hor- 
ner, to present the king with an accept- 
able dish ; namely, a dish, which, when 
the crust was lifted up, was found to con- 
tain deeds transferring twelve manors to 
his sovereign ; and that, as Jack Horner 
traveled up to to^n in the Abbot's wagon, 
he lifted up the crust, and stole out the 
gift of the manor of Wells, still possessed 
by his descendants, and, when he re- 
turned, told the Abbot that the king had 
given it to him, but was found, or sus- 
pected, to have imposed upon his patron. 
Hence the satire vested under the nursery 
lines, — * 
* Little Jack Homer 

Sat in a comer [namely, that of the wagon], 

Eying his Chnstmas pie; 

He put in his thumb. 

Ana pulled out a plum [the deed of the 
manor of Wells], 

And said, " What a brave boy am II"'" 
Another correspondent of the same work 
(xvii. 83) gives a different version of this 
story. " When the monasteries and their 
property were seized, orders were given 
that the title-deeds of the abbey estates 
at Mells [Wells ?], which were very exten- 
sive and valuable, and partly consisted 
of a sumptuous grange built by Abbot 
John Sellwood, should be given up to the 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




commissioners. After some delay, it was 
determined by the Abbot of Glastonbury 
to give them up ; and, for want of a safe 
mode, of conveying them, it was decided 
that the most likely to avoid their being 
seized by any but those for whom they 
were intended, was to send them in a 
pasty, wliich should be forwarded as a 
present to one of the commissioners in 
London. The safest messenger, and least 
likely to excite suspicion, was considered 
I to be a lad named Jack Horner, who was 
I a sou of poor parents living in the neigh- 
borhood of the grange*. The lad set out 
on his journey on foot, laden with the 
pasty. It was a weary road, and England 
not being so thickly inhabited as now, he 
sat down to rest inms snug a corner as he 
could find by the way -side. Hunger, too, 
overcame him, and he was at a loss what to 
do, when he bethought himself that there 
would be no harm in tasting ever so little 
of the pasty which he was carrying. He 
therefore inserted his thumb under the 
crust, when, lo I there was nothing but 
parchments. Whether that allayed his 
hunger then or not, I cannot say ; but, 
although he could not read or under- 
stand these parchments, yet he thought 
they might be valuable. He therefore 
took one of the parchments and pocketed 
it, and pursued his journey with the rest 
of his pasty. Upon his delivering his 
parcel, it Mas perceived that one of the 
chief deeds ( the deed of the Mells [Wells? ] 
Abbey estates) was ftiissing ; and, as it was 
thought that the Abbot had withheld it, 
an order was straightway sent for his ex- 
ecution. But the sequel was, that, af- 
ter the monasteries were despoiled, there 
was found in the possession of the family 
of Jack Horner a piece of parchment 
which was, in foct, the title-deed of Mells 
[Wells ? ] Abbey and lands ; and that was 
^ the plum ' which little Jack Horner had 
unwittingly become possessed of. The 
Abbot Whiting vras executed for with- 
holding the deeds. This is the tale as 
told to me." 

" No, I a'n't, sir," replied the fat boy, start- 
ing up from a remote comer, where, like the 
patron saint of fat boys, — the immortal Hcxr- 
ner, — he had been devouring a Christmas pie, 
though not with the coolness and deliberation 
which characterized that young gentleman's 
proceeding. Dickens, 

Horn Gate. One of "two gates of 
sleep " in the under-world, spoken 
of by Virgil in the " iEneid," Book 
VI., one of which is made of horn, 
the other of shining white ivory. 
Through that of horn, true visions or 
dreams are sent up to men. 

So too the Necklace, though we saw it van- 

ish through the Horn Gate of Dreams, and in 
my opinion man shall never more behold it, 
yet its activity ceases not, nor will. Carbjle. 

Hornie, Auld. See Auld Hornie. 

Horse Latitudes. A name given by 
seamen to a bank or region of calms 
in the Atlantic Ocean, between the 
parallels of 30° and SS'' N. The 
name is said to be derived from the 
circumstance that vessels formerly 
. bound from New England* to the 
West Indies, with a deck -load of 
horses, were often delayed in this 
calm belt, and, for want of water, 
were obliged to throw the animals 

Hor-ten'si-o. A suitor to Bianca, 
in Shakespeare's "Taming of the 

Ho'rus(9). [Gr. 'flpos.] {Myth.) The 
Egyptian god of the sun, correspond- 
ing to the Grecian Apollo. He was a 
son of Osiris and Isis, and along with 
his mother avenged his father's death 
by vanquishing Typhon in a great 
battle (see Osikis), and taking hjp 
place as king of the gods. He is 
often represented as a child seated 
on a lotus-flower, with his finger on 
his lips, and hence has been regard- 
ed as the god of silence. His wor- 
ship extended to Greece, and even to 

Hot'spur. An appellation for a person 
of a warm or vehement disposition, 
and therefore given to the famous 
Harry Percy. The allusion is to one 
who rides " in hot haste, or spurs 

It is probable that he . . . forgot, amid the 
hundreds of thousands which Paris contains, 
what small relation the number of his owi» 
faithful and devoted followers bore, not only 
to those who were perilously engaged in fac- 
tions hostile to him, but to the great mass, 
who, in Hotspmr's phrase, loved their own 
shops or barns better than his house. 

SirW. Scott. 

Hot'spup of Debate. A sobriquet 
given by Macaulay to the Earl of 
Derby (b. 1799), on account of his 
fiery invective and vehemence of 

Hours. See HoRiE. 

House of Fame. The title of a cele- 
brated poem of Chaucer's, and the 
name of a magnificent palace de- 
scribed in it as built upon a mountain 

tGT' For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




of ice, and supported by rows of 
pillars, on which are inscribed the 
names of the most illustrious poets. 
Here the goddess Fame, seated on 
her throne, dispenses her capricious 
and unjust judgments to the crowds 
who come to solicit her favors. 
Houssain, Prince. See Prince 


Houyhnhnms. A name given by 
Swift, in his imaginary " Travels 
into several Remote Nations of the 
World, • by Lemuel Gulliver," to a 
race of horses endowed with re^fton. 
The word seems intended to be sug- 
gestive of the whinnying of a horse. 
It is a dissyllable, and may be pro- 
nounced hoo-inmz', or hoo-'inmz, but 
the voice should properly be qua- 
vered, in sounding the w. 

Nay. would kind Jove my organs so dispose 
To liymn harmonious Houyhnhnms through 

the nose, 
I 'd call thee Houyhnhnm, that high-sounding 

Thy children's noses all should twang the 

same. Tope. 

" True, true, — ay, too true," replied the 
Dominie, his Houyhnhnm laugh sinking into 

an hysterical giggle. 

Sir W. Scott. 

If the Houyhnhnms should ever catch me, 
and, finding me particularly vicious and un- 
manageable, send a man-tamer to Rarey-fy 

me, I '11 tell you what drugs he would have to 
take, and how he would have to use them. 


H6#e, Miss. A personage who figures 
in Richardson's novel of "Clarissa 

J8i®= " Miss Howe is an admirably 
sketched character drawn in strong con- 
trast to that of Clarissa, yet worthy of 
being her friend, with more of worldly per- 
spicacity, though less of abstracted prin- 
ciple, and who, when they argue upon 
points of doubt and delicacj^ is often 
able, by going directly to the question at 
issue, to start the game, while her more 
gifted correspondent does but beat the 
bush. Her high spirit and disinterested 
devotion for her friend, acknowledging, 
as she does oh all occasions, her own in- 
feriority, show her in a noble point of 
view." Sir W. Scott. 

Hubbard, and Hubberd, Mother. 
See Mother Hubbard, and Mother 


Hub of the Universe. A jocular 
designation of the state - house in 
Boston, Massachusetts, originating 
with, the American humorist, Oliver 

Wendell Holmes ; sometimes ex- 
tended, in its application, to the city 
Hu'di-brSs. The title ^pd hero of a 
celebrated satirical poem bv Samuel 
Butler (1600-1680). Hudibras is a 
Presbyterian justice, of the time of the 
Commonwealth, who, fired with the 
same species of madness as the Don 
Quixote of Cervantes, sets out (in 
company with his squire, Ralph, an 
Independent clerk, with whom he is 
almost always engaged in contro- 
versy) to correct abuses, and to en- 
force the observance of the strict 
laws enacted by parliament for the 
suppression of the sports and amuse- 
ments of the people.' 

4®=" Butler is said to have taken the 
name of his hero from the old romances 
of chivalry, Sir Hugh de Bras being the 
appellation of one of the knights of Ar- 
thur's fabulous Round Table. A "Sir 
Huddibras " figures in Spenser's " Faery 
Queen," and is described as "an hardy 
man," but " more huge in strength than 
wise in works." " Huddibras " was also 
the name of a fabulous king of England, 
who is said to have founded Canterbury, 
Winchester, and Shaftesbury. 

He became wretched enough. As was natu- 
ral, with haggard scarcity threatening him in 
the distance, and so venement a soul lan- 

fuishing in restless inaction, and forced there- 
y, like Sir Hudibras^s sword by rust, 
" To eat into itself, for lack 
Of something else to hew and hack ! " 


Hug'ging and Mug'gins. A jocular 
embodiment of vulgar pretension. 

4®=" It has been suggested that these 
names are a corruption of Hooge en Mo- 
gendt (high and mighty), words occur- 
ring in the style of the States General of 
Holland, much ridiculed by English writ- 
ers of the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, as, for example, in the following 
couplet : — 

But I have sent him for a token 

To your Low-Country Hogen Mogen. 


S^" " Although we have never felt the 
least inclination to indulge in conjectural 
etymology, ... we cannot refrain, foi* 
once, from noticing the curious coin- 
cidence between the names of Odin's 
ravens, Hugin and Munin, — Mind and 
Memory, — and those of two personages 
who figure so often in our comic literature 
as Messrs. Huggins and Muggins. . . . 
Should this conjecture^ for it is nothing 
else, be well founded, one of the most 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 





poetical ideas in the whole range of my- 
thology would, in this plodding, practi- 
cal, spinning-jenny age of ours, have thus 
undergone a most singular metamor- 
phosis." * Blackwell. 
Whitford and Mitford joined the train, 
Huggins and Muggins from Chick Lane, 
And Clutterbuck, who got a sprain 
Before the plug was found. 

Hejected Addresses. 

Hugli of Lincoln. A legendary per- 
sonage who forms the subject of 
Chaucer's "Prioress's Tale," and 
also of an ancient English ballad. 
The story has its origin in the chron- 
icle of Matthew Paris, who, in his 
account of the reign of Henry III., 
relates, that, in the year 1255, the 
Jews of Lincoln stole a boy named 
Hugh, of the age of eight years, 
whom, after torturing for ten days, 
they crucified before a large number 
of their people, in contempt of the 
death of the Founder of Christianity. 
Eighteen of the richest and most 
distinguished Jews of Lincoln were 
hanged for participation in this mur- 
der, While the body of the child was 
buried with the honors of a martyr, 
in Lincoln Cathedral. The story has 
been generally discredited by modern 
historians. Wordsworth has given a 
modernized version of Chaucer's tale. 

Hugh Roe. [That is. Red Hugh.] 
The eldest son of Sir Hugh O'Don- 
nell, of Ireland, who flourished at the 
time of the intestine wars of that 
country, in the reign of Elizabeth. 
He was a man of great abilities and 

Hugin (hoo'gin). [Old Norse, thought, 
intellect.] {Scand. Myth.) One of 
Odin's two ravens, who carried him 
news from earth, and who, when not 
thus employed, perched upon his 
shoulders. See Huggins and Mug- 

Hugon (u/g6n', 34, 62). A kind of 
evil spirit, in the popular superstition 
of France, a sort of ogre made use 
of to frighten children. It has been 
said that from him the French Prot- 
estants were called " Huguenots," on 
account of the desolation resulting 
from the religious wars which were 
imputed to them; but the assertion 
is an incorrect one. 

Huguenot Pope. [Fr. Le Pape des 
Huguenots.^ A title bestowed upon 
Philippe de Mornay (1549-1623), a 
distinguished French nobleman, and 
an able supporter of the Protestant 
cause. He was so called on account 
of the ability of his arguments and 
the weight of his personal influence 
in behalf of the reformed religion. 

Humphrey, Duke. See Duke 

Humphrey, Master. See Master 

Humphrey, Old. See Old Hum- 

Hundred Days. [Fr. Les Cent 
Jours.^ A name given to the period 
which intervened between the en- 
trance of Napoleon Bonaparte into 
Paris (March 20, 1815), after his 
escape from the island of Elba, and 
his abdication in favor of his son 
.(June 22). 

Hunkers, See Old Hunkers. 

Hunter, Mr. and Mrs. Leo. Char- 
acters in Dickens's " Pickwick Pa- 
pers," distinguished, as the name in- 
dicates, for their desire to make the 
acquaintance of all the " lions " of the 

Mr. Dickens was the grand object of inter- 
est to the whole tribe v? Leo Hunters, male and 
female, of the metropolis. Qu. Rev. 

Huon of Bordeaux, Sir (bof^do')- 
The hero of one of the romances of 
chivalry bearing his name. H6 is 
represented as having been a great 
favorite of Oberon, the faiiy king. 
An abstract of this romance may be 
found in Dunlop's " History of Fic- 
tion," or in Keightley's " Fairy My- 
tholog5^" The adventures of Sir 
Hu#n form the subject of Wieland's 
beautiful poem of " Oberon," known 
to the English reader by Sotheby's 

I will carry him off from the very foot of the 
gallows into the land of faery, like King Ar- 
thur, or Sir Huon of Bordeaux, or Ugero the 
Dane. Sir W. Scott. 

Hurlo-thrum'bo. The chief char- 
acter in a play, entitled " Hurlo- 
thrumbo, or The Supernatural," by 
Samuel Johnson (d. 1773), an Eng- 
lish actor and dramatic writer. The 
whimsicalness and originality of this 

• For tlie " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations 




play, which is an absurd compound 
of extravagant incidents and uncon- 
nected dialogues, gave it great suc- 

Consider, then, before, like Hurlathrumbo, 
You aim your club at any creed on earth, 
That, by the simple accident of birth. 

You might have been high-priest to Mumbo 
J umbo. Hood, 

Hy'a-cin'thus. [Gr. 'Yaicii'doj.] {Gr, 
^ liom. Myth.) A Spartan boy of 
extraordinary beauty, beloved by 
Apollo, who unintentionally killed 
him in a game of quoits. Another 
form of the myth is that he was 
boJoved also by Zephyrus or Boreas, 
who, from jealousy of Apollo, drove 
the quoifc of the god a^inst the head 
of the boy, and thus killed him. 
Apollo changed the blood that was 
spilt into a*flower called the hyacinth, 
on the leaves of which there aj)peared 
the exclamation of woe, AI, Al (alas, 
alas), or the letter Y, the initial of 

Hy'a-dSs. [Gr. 'YaSe?, the rainy.] 
(Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) A class of 
nymphs commonly said to be seven 
in number, and their names to be 
Ambrosia, Eudora, Pedile, Coronis, 
Polyxo, Phyto, and Thyene or Dione. 
They were placed among the stars 
(forming the constellation Taurus), 
and were thought to threaten rain 
when they rose with the sun. 

Hy'dr^. [Gr. 'YSpa.] (Gr. # Rom. 
Myth.) A many-headed water-ser- 

E3nt which inhabited th« of 
ema,.in Argolis, near the sea-coast. 
As fast as one of its heads was cut 
off, two sprang up in its place. Her- 
cules, however, killed it with the 
assistance of his friend lolaus. 

Hy-ge'i-a (20). [Gr. 'Yyt'eta, 'Yyeea.] 

{Gr. 4" Rom. Myth.) The goddess 

of health, a daughter of ^sculapius. 
In works of art, she is u^ally repre- 
sented as a blooming virgin, with a 
snake, the symbol of health, drinking 
from a cup held in her hand. [Writ- 
. ten also Hygea and Hygia.] 

Hyl^s. [Gr. 'YAas.] (Gr. ^ Rom, 
Myth.) A beautiful youth passion- 
ately loved by Hercules, whom he 
accompanied on the Argonautic ex- 
pedition. He was carried off by the 
nymphs on the coast of Mysia, as 
he was drawing water from a foun- 
tain. Hercules loiig sought for him 
in vain. 

The self-same lay 
Which melted in music, the night before, 
From lips as the lips of Hy las sweet. 
And moved like twin roses which zephyrs 
meet. Whittver, 

Hy-'men, or Hym'e-nse'us. [Gr. 
'Yjit^i/, 'YjuieVotos.] ( Gr. 4 Rom, Myth.) 
The god of marriage, a son of Bac- 
chus and Venus, or, according to * 
some, of Apollo and one of the Muses. 
He is represented as a winged boy 
crowned with a garland, and hav- 
ing A bridal torch and a veil in his 

There let Hymen oft appear 

In safiron robe, with taper clear. MUon. 

Hyperboreans. [Gr. 'YTrep^opeot, i. e. 
dwellers beyond Boreas, or the north 
wind ; Lat. Hyperborei.'] ( Gr. <^ Rom. 
Myth.) A fabulous people living at 
the farthest north, supposed by the 
Greeks to be the favorites of Apollo, 
and therefore in the enjoyment of 
a terrestrial paradise and everlasting 
ydfith and health. 

H^-pe'rf-6n (9) (classical pron. hip'e- 
ri'5n). [Gr. ■YTrepiwr]. (Gr. f Rom. 
Myth.) One of the Titans, a son of 
Coelus and Terra, and the father of 
Sol, Luna, and Aurora. 

and for the Bemaxks and Bules to which the numben after eertain words refer, see pp. xIy-xxxiu 





i-ac'ghus. [Gr. 'icutxos]. (Gr.^Eom. 
Myth.) A poetic surname of Bacchug. 

lash'i-mo (3'ak/i-mo). The name of 
an Italian villain, in Shakespeare's 
" Cj-mbeline," celebrated for the art, 
address, audacity, and ill success, 
with which he attempts the chastity 
of Imogen, the wife of Posthumus, 
and for the daring imposture by 
which he conceals the defeat of his 

1 know where she kept that packet she had, 
— and can steal in and out of her chamber 
like lachimo. Thackeray. 

lago (e-a^go). The " ancient," or en- 
sign, of Othello, in Shakespeare's 
'tragedy of this name; "a being of 
motiveless malignity,- passionless, self- 
possessed, skeptical of all truth and 
purity, — the abstract of the reasoning 
power in the highest state of activity, 
but without love, without veneration, 
a being next to devil, and only not 
quite devil, and yet a character which 
Shakespeare has attempted and exe- 
cuted without scandal." 

Richard Plantagenet was one of those, who, 
in lago's words, would not serve God because 
it was the Devil who bade him. Sir W. Scott. 

I-ap'e-tUS. [Gr. 'laTreros.] {Gr. ^' 

Rom. Myth.) A Titan or a giant, 
the father of Atlas, Prometheus, and 
Epimetheus, regarded by the Greeks 
as the ancestor of the human race. 

S-be'ri-5 (9). [Gr. *i/3r;pia.] yThe 
Greek name of Spain; sometimes 
used by ancient Latin authors, and 
also in modern poetry. 

Art thou too fallen, Iberia ? Do we see 
The robber and the murderer weak as we ? 


Ic'S-rus. [Gr. "iKapo?.] ( Gr. ^ Bom. 
Myth.) A son of Daedalus, who, 
flying with his father out of Crete, 
soared so high that the sun melted 
his wings, and he fell into the sea, 
— which was called after him the 
Icarian Sea. 

Belleisle is an imaginary sun-god; but the 
poor Ican(s, tempted aloft m that manner into 
the earnest elements, and melting at once 
into quills and rags, is a tragic reality I 


I-dom'e-neiis. [Gr. 'iSo/xevev'?.] ( Gr, 
^ Mom. Myth.) A king of Crete, 
celebrated for his beauty, and for his 
bravery at the siege of Troy, whither 
he led the Cretans. He was banished 
from his dominions b}* his own sub- 
jects for bringing a plague upon them 
in consequence of sacrificing his son 
on account of a vow which he had 
made to Keptune ui a tempest. 

Iduna (e-doo'nl) {Scand. Myth.)'The 
goddess of .youth, and t]ie wife of 
Bragi. She was the guardian of the 
apples of immortality, the juice of 
which gave the gods.pert)etual youth, 
health, and beauty. [Written also 
Idun, Idunna.] 

I-ger'na (4). The beautiful wife of Gor- 
lois, Duke of Tintadiel, or Tintagel, 
in Cornwall, and mother of the illus- 
trious Arthur, by Uther, a legendary 
king of Britain, whom Merlin, the 
reno^Tied magician, changed into the 
semblance of Gorlois, thus enabling 
him to impose upon the duke's wife, 
for whom he had conceived a violent 
passion. [Written also I g e r n e and 
I guerne.] 

I-li'o-nevls. [Gr. 'lAtoveus.] (Gr. <f 
Rom. Myth.) 1. A son of Niobe, 
unintentionally killed, while praying, 
by Apollo. 

2. A Tsojan, distinguished for his 

Il'i-thy'i4 (20). [Gr. EiAet^via.] {Gr. 
Myth.) The goddess of birth, who 
came to women in travail, and short- 
ened or protracted the labor, accord- 
ing as she happened to be kindly 
disposed or the reverse. She cor- 
responds with the Roman Lucina. 
Homer mentions more than one, and 
calls them daughters of Hera, or 

n'i-um, or Il'i-6n. [Gr. 'lAtov.] A 
poetical name for Troy, which was 
founded by Ilus. 

Hi-grounded Peace. {Fr. Hist.) 
The name commonly given to a 
treaty, between the fiuguenots and 

• For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 


the Roman Catholics, concluded 
March 23, 1568. It was a mere 
stratagen^on the part of the latter to 
weaken their opponents, and was soon 
broken. [Called also Lame and Un- 
stable Peace and Patched-up Peace.] 
Illuminated Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
Jlluminatus.] 1. A title bestowed 
upon Raymond LuUe, or Lully (1235- 
1315), a distinguished scholastic, and 
author of the system called "Ars 
Lulliana," which was taught through- 
out Europe for several centuries, and 
the purpose of which was to prove 
that the mysteries of faitli are not 
contrarv to reason. 

2. A title conferred upon John 
Tauler (1294-1361), a celebrated 
German mystic, on account of the 
visions he professed to have seen, 
and the spiritual voices he professed 
to have heard. 

3. An honorary appellation given 
to Francois de Mairone (d. 1327), a 
French religious writer. 

Uluminator, The. A surname com- 
monly given to St. Gregory of Arme- 
nia, a celebrated bishop of the primi- 
tive church, whose memory is held in 
freat reverence by the Greek, Coptic, 
byssinian, Armenian, jand Roman 
Catholic churches. 

Imlac. A character in Dr. Johnson's 
" Rasselas." 

Iin'o-gen. The wife of Posthumus, 

* and the daughter of Cymbeline by a 
deceased wife, in Shakespeare's play 
of this name^ She is distinguished 
for her unalterable and magnanimous 

* fidelity to her mistaken husband, by 
whom she is unjustly persecuted. 
" Of all Shakespeare's women," says 
Hazlitt, " she is, perhaps, the most 
tender and the most artless." 

Imogine, The Fair. See Fair Imo- 


Imperial City. One of the names by 
which Rome — for many ages the 
seat of empire — is familiarly known. 

Impertinent, The Curious. See 
Curious Impertinent, The. 

Ind. A poetical contraction of India, 

High on a throne of roval state, which far 
Outshone the Avealth or Onnua and of Ind, . . . 
Satan exalted sat, Milton. 

181 INN 

In'drS. [Sansk., the discoverer, scil, 
of the doings of the world.] ( Hindu 
Myth.) The ever youthful god of 
the firmament, and the omnipotent 
ruler of the elements. He is a most 
important personage in Indian fable. 
In the Vedic period of the Hindu 
religion, he occupied a foremost rank, 
and, though degraded to an inferior 
position in the Epic and Puranic pe- 
riods, he long enjoyed a great legend- 
ary popularity. In works of art, he 
is Vepresented as riding on a gigantic 

" Then," as Indra says of Kehama, " then 
was the time to tstrike." Macaulay. 

In'g6ld§-b^, Thomas. A pseudonym 
adopted by the Rev. Richard Barham 
(1788-1845), author of a series of hu- 
morous tales in verse entitled " The 
Ingoldsby Legends," — wild and 
wondrous stories of chivalry, witch- 
craft, and diablerie^ related in singu- 
larly rich and flexible meter, and in 
language in which the intermixture 
of the modern cant phrases of soci- 
ety with antiquarian pedantry pro- 
duces a truly comic effect. 

Iniquity, The. A personage who 
figured in the old English moralities, 
mysteries, and other dramas; the 
same as The Vice, See Vice, The. 

Inlsle, Mr. Thomas (ingk'l). The 
hero of a storj'- by Sir Richard Steele 
in the " Spectator " (No. 11 ) ; a young 
Englishman who got lost in the 
Spanish Main, where he fell in love 
with a young Indian maiden named 
Yarico, with whom he lived for many 
months ; but, having discovered a 
vessel on the coast, he went with her 
to Barbadoes, and there sold her iuto 
slavery. The story of Inkle and 
Yarico has been made the subject of 
an opera by George Colman. 

Innamorato, Orlando. See Orlan- 

In'nis-fail. An ancient name of 
Ireland, signifying the isle of destiny. 

Oh! once the harp oflnnisfail 
"Was strung full high to notes of gladness; 

But yet it often told a tale 
Of more prevailing sadness. Campbell. 

Innocents, The. A name given, from 
early times, to the infants whom 

ftnd for the Remarks and Bules (o which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




Herod massacred at Bethlehem. They 
were termed in Latin innocentes, from 
in, not, and nocere, to hurt. These 
harmless ones were revered by the 
Church from the first, and honored, 
on-the third day after Christmas, as 
martyrs; and with them were con- 
nected many strange obser\'ances, 
such as the festival ot the boy-bishop, 
and, in opposition to this, the whip- 
ping children out of their beds on that 
morning. In the modefn Church, the 
feast of the Holy Innocents is cele- 
brated as a special holiday by the 
voung, and many curious and sport- 
ive customs connected with it prevail 
in Catholic countries. The relics of 
the Holy Innocents were great fa- 
vorites in the Middle Ages. The 
Massacre of the Innocents is the sub- 
ject of a poem by John Baptist Ma- 
rino ( 1569-1625 ),*the Italian poet. 

t'no. [Gr. 'li/ui.] (Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) 
A daughter of Cadmus andHermione, 
sister of Semele, and wife of Athamas, 
king of Thebes. Being pursued by 
her husband, — who had become rav- 
ing mad, — she threw herself into the 
sea with her son Melicertes, where- 
upon they were both changed into 

Xnspired Idiot. A sobriquet applied 
by Horace Walpole to ' Oliver Gold- 
smith (1728-1774), on account of his 
' exquisite genius, his ungainly per- 
son, his awkward manners, and his 
frequent blunders and absurdities. 

Interpreter, The. A personage in 
Bunyan's allegorical romance, " The 
Pilgrim's Progress," designed to sym- 
bolize the Holy Spirit. Christian, on 
his way to the Celestial City, called 
at the Interpreter's house, where he 
was shown many wonderful sights, 
the remembrance of which was " as 
a goad in his sides to prick him for- 
ward " in his journey. 

Invincible Armada. See Abmada, 
The Invincible. 

Invincible Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
Invincibilis.] An appellation con- 
ferred upon William of Occam, a 
celebrated English scholastic of the 
fourteenth century, on account of his 
rigorously logical and rational treat- 

ment of Nominalism, of which he 
was a zealous advocate. 

I'o. [Gr. -loi.] (Gr. ^ Bom. Myth.) 
A daughter of Inachus, king of Argos. 
She was beloved by Jupiter, who 
turned her into a cow, tiearing the 
jealousy of Juno. Juno, however, 
set the hundred-eyed Argus to watch 
her, and Jupiter in return had him 
killed by Mercury. Thereupon lo 

' was smitten with madness by J uno, 
and, wandering about, came at last to 
Egypt, where she was restored to her 
own form, married King Osiris, and, 
after death, was worshiped by the 
Egpytians under the name of Jsis. 

Po-la'us. [Gr. 'idXao?.] ( Gr. ^ Bom, 
Myth.) A son of Iphicles, and a 
faithful friend and servant of Her- 
cules. He assisted his master in 
destroying the Lemaean hydra. See 
Hercules and Hydra. 

Iphl-ge-ni'^. [Gr. *lff>iy4v€ia.'] ( Gr. ^ 
Bom. Myth.) A daughter of Agamem- 
non and Clytemnestra. Her father 
ha\ing killed in Aulis a favorite deer 
belonging to Diana, the soothsaj'^er 
Calchas declared that Iphigenia must 
be sacrificed to appease the wrath of 
the goddess. But when she was on 
the point of being slain, Diana carried 
her m a cloud to Tauris, and made 
her a priestess in her temple. . 

rphis. [Gr. "1(^1?.] (Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth. ) A Cyprian youth who hanged 
himself because his* love for the high- 
bom Anaxarete was not reciprocated, 
and whose fate the gods avenged by 
changing Anaxarete to stone. 

Fr^s (9). An attendant on Cleopatra, 
in Shakespeare's tragedy of " Antony 
and Cleopatra." 

I-re'ne. [Gr. Eip^nj.] (Myth.) The 
goddess of peace among the Greeks. 

I'ris (9). [Gr. "Ipi?.] (Gr. (f Bom. 
Myth.) The daughter of Thaumas 
and Electra, and sister of the Harpies. 
She was one of the Oceanides, and 
messenger of the gods, more partic- 
ularly of Juno. She is generally 
regarded as a personification of tlie 
rainbow; but the prevalent notion 
among the ancients seems to have 

' For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanying Explanations, 




^ been that the rainbow was only the 

Eath on which Iris traveled between 
eaven and earth, and that it there- 
fore appeared whenever the goddess 
wanted it, and Vanished when it was 
no longer needed. 

Irish Agitator. An epithet applied 
to Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847), the 
leader of the political movements in 
Ireland for the emancipation of Roman 
Catholics from civil disabilities, and 
for the repeal of the Act of Union 
between Great Britain and Ireland, 
^ which was passed on the 2d of July, 
* 1800. •^' 

Irish Night. {Eng. Hist.) A night 
of agitation and terror in London, 
after the flight of James II., occa- 
sioned by an unfounded report that 
the Irish Catholics of Feversham's 
army had been let loose to murder 
the t*rotestant population, men, wom- 
en, and children. 

Iroldo (e-roPdo). A character in 
Bojardo's " Orlando Innamorato, " 
• distinguished for his friendship for 
Prasildo. See Prasildo. 

Iron Age. [Lat. Ferrea cetas.'] ( Gr. 
4- Rom. Myth.) The last of the four 
ages into which the ancients divided 
the history of the human race; the 
age of Pluto, characterized by the 
prevalence of crime, fraud, cunning, 
and avarice, and the absence of honor, 
truth, justice, and piety. 

Iron Arm. [Fr. Bras de Fer.] A 
surname or sobriquet given to tran- 
9ois de Lanoue (1531-1591)^ a famous 
Calvinistic captain, who died at the 
siege of Lamballe, in the service of 
Henry IV. 

Iron City. A name popularly given, 
in the United States, to Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania, a city distinguished 
for its numerous and imniense iron 

Iron Duke. A familiar title given to 
the Duke of Wellington. According 
to his biographer, the Rev. George 
Robert Gleig, this sobriquet arose out 
of' the building of an iron steamboat,, 
which plied between Liverpool and 
Dublin, and which its owners called 
the " Duke of Wellington." The term 
" Iron Duke " was first appUed to the 

vessel; and by and by, rather in jest 
than in earnest, it was transferred to 
the Duke himself. It had no reference 
whatever, at the outset, to any peculi- 
arities, or assumed peculiarities, in his 
disposition; though, from the popu- 
lar belief that he never entertained a 
single generous feeling toward the 
masses, it is sometimes understood as 
a figurative allusion to his supposed 
hostility to the interests of the lower 

Iron Hand. A suniame of Gottfried, 
or Goetz, von Berlichingen, a famous 
predatory burgrave of the sixteenth 
century, who, at the siege of Land- 
shut, lost his right hand, which was 
replaced by one of iron, yet shown 
at Jaxthausen. Goethe has made 
him the subject of an historic drama. 

Iron Mask. See Mask, Iron. 

Ironside. 1. A surname conferred 
upon Edmund II. (989-1016), king 
of the Anglo-Saxons, on account 
either of his great strength, or else 
of the armor which he wore. [Writ- 
ten also Ironsides.] 

2. (Nes'tor.) A name under 
which Sir Richard Steele edited the 

3. (Sir.) One of the principal 
knights of King Arthur's Round Ta- 
ble. . See Round Table. 

Ironsides. 1. A name given to the 
English soldiers who served under 
Cromwell at Marston Moor, on ac- 
count of the great victory they there 
gained over the royalist forces, a vic- 
tory which gave them a world-wide 
renown for invincible courage and 

2. An appellation populariy con- 
ferred upon the United States frigate 
"Constitution." See Old Iron- 

Irrefragable Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
Irrefragabilis.] An honorary title 
bestowed upon Alexander Hales, an 
English friar of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, distinguished as a scholastic 
divine and philosopher. 

Isabella. 1. Sister to Claudio, in 
Shakespeare's "Measure for Meas- 
ure," and the heroine of the drama. 
See Angelo. 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




2. Tlie lady-love of Zerbino, in 
Ariosto's poem of" Orlando Furioso." 

Isaie le Triste. See Ysaie le 

Isengrin (e'zen-grenO' The name of 
the wolf in -the ancient and famous 
animal-epos of Germany, " Reinhard, 
or Reinecke, Fuchs." See Renard. 

Fsis. [Gr.'lo-i?.] {Myth.) An Egyp- 
tian divinity, regarded as the god- 
dess of the 'moon, and the queen of 
heaven. She was the mother of Ho- 
rus, and the wife of Osiris. She was 
sometimes represented with the head 
veiled, a symbol of mystery. Her 
worship spread from Egypt to Greece, 
Rome, and other parts of ancient 
Europe. The Greeks identified her 
with lo. See lOj Osiris. 

The drift of the maker is dark, an Isis hid by 
the veil. Tennyson. 

Island, The Ringing. See Ringing 

Island City. A popular synonym for 
Montreal, the largest citv of British 
America, built on an island of the 
same name. 

Island of Lanterns. [Fr. Dlle des 
Lanternes.] In the celebrated satire 
of Rabelais, an imaginary country 
inhabited by false pretenders to 
knowledge, called Lanternois. The 
name was probably suggested by the 
"City of Lanterns," in the Greek 
romance of Lucian. See City of 

Island of St. Bran'dftn. A marvel- 
ous flying island, the subject of an 
old and widely spread legend of the 
Middle Ages, which exercised an in- 
fluence on geographical science down 
to a late period. It is represented as 
about ninety leagues in length, lying 
west of the Canaries. This island 
appears on most of the maps of the 
time of Columbus, and is laid down 
in a French geographical chart of as 
late a date as 1755, in which it is 
placed 5° W. of the island of Ferro, 
in lat. 29° N. The name St. Bran- 
dan, or Borandan^ given to this im- 
aginary island, is said to be derived 
from an Irish abbot who flourished in 
the sixth century, and concerning 

whose voyage in search of the Isl- 
ands of Paradise many legends are 
related. Many expeditions were sent 
forth in quest of this mysterious isl- 
and, the last beilng from Spain in 
1721 ; but it always eluded the search, 
though it was sometimes seen by ac- 
cident. A king of Portugal is said 
to have made a conditional cession 
of it to another person, " when it 
should be found." The Spaniards 
believe this lost island to have been 
the retreat of their King Rodrigo; 
the Portuguese assign it to their Don 
Sebastian. " Its reality," says Ir-"* 
ving, " was for a long time a matter 
of tirm belief. The public, after try- 
ing all kinds of sophistry, took refuge 
in the supernatural to defend their 
favorite chimera. They maintained 
that it was rendered inaccessible to 
mortals by divine Providence, or by 
diabolical magic. Poetry, it is said, 
owes to this popular belief one of 
its beautiful fictions ; and the garden 
of Annida, where Rinaldo* was de- 
tained enchanted, and which Tasso 
E laces in one of the Canary Isles, has 
een identified with the imaginary 
San Borandan." The origin of this 
illusion has been ascribed to certain 
atmospherical deceptions, like that 
of the Fata Morgana. 

Island of the Seven Cities. An 
imaginary island, the subject of oi\e 
of the popular traditions concerning 
the ocean, which were current in the 
time of Columbus. It is repi*esented 
as abounding in gold, with magnifi- 
cent houses and temples, and high 
towers that shone at a distan<;e. The 
legend relates, that, at the time of the 
conquest of Spain and Portugal by 
the Moors, when the inhabitants fled 
in every direction to escape from 
slavery, seven bishops, followed by a 
great number of people, took ship- 
ping, and abandoned themselves to 
their fate upon the high seas. After 
tossing about for a time, they landed 
upon an unknown island in the midst 
of the ocean. Here the bishops 
burned the ships to prevent the de- 
sertion of their followers, and found- 
ed seven cities. This mysterious isl- 
and is said to have been visited at 

189* For the " Key to the Scheme of Fronunciatiou," with the accompanying Explanations, 




different times by navigators, who, 
however, were never permitted to re- 
Islands of the Blest. [Gr. Twv Ma- 
Kaptav N^o-oi, Lat. Fortunat(E InsulxB.'] 
( Gr. if Rom. Myth.) Imaginary isl- 
ands in the west, abounding with the 
choicest products of nature. They 
were supposed to be situated on the 
confines of the earth, in an ocean 
warmed by the rays of tlie near set- 
ting sun. Hither the favorites of the 
gods were conveyed without dymg, 
and dwelt in ne\;er ending joy. The 
name first occurs in Hesiod's " Works 
and Days." Herodotus applies the 
name to" an oasis in the desert of Af- 
rica. It is also of common occur- 
rence in modern literature. 

Their place of birth alone is mute 
To sounds that echo further west 
Than your sires' Islands qf the Blest. 


Isle of Saints, or Island of Saints. 
[Lat. Insula Sanctorum.'] A name 
by which Ireland was designated in 
the Middle Ages, on account of the 
rapid progress which Christianity 
made in that country, and the num- 
ber of learned ecclesiastics which it 
furnished. See Holy Island, 1. 

♦' My lord," uttered with a vemaoular rich- 
ness of intonation, gave him an assurance that 
we were from " tne Island of Saints, and on 
the right road to heaven." Sheil. 

Ismeno (ez-ma^no). The name of a 
sorcerer in Tasso's "Jerusalem De- 

Ig'dlde. The wife of King Mark of 
Cornwall, and the mistress of her 
nephew. Sir Tristram, of whom she 
became passionately enamored from 
having drunk a philter by mistake. 
Their illicit love is celebrated in 
many an ancient romance, and be- 
came proverbial during the Middle 
Ages. References to it are innumer- 
able. She is often called Isolde the 
Fair, to distinguish her from Isolde 
of the White Hands, a Breton prin- 
cess whom Tristram married after he 
undertook the conquest of the Holy 
Grail. See Tristram, Sir. [Writ- 
ten also I sen It, Isoude, Yseult, 
Ysolde, Ysolt, Ysoude, and, 
very erroneously, Y s o n d e.] 

No art the poison might withstand; 

No medicine could be found 
Till lovely Isolde's lily hand 

Had probed the rankling wound. 

Sir W. Scott. 

I§'ra-feel. {Mohammedan Myth,) The 
name of the angel whose othce it 
will be to sound the trumpet at the 
resurrection. He is said to have the 
most melodious voice of any of God's 
creatures. [Written also Israfil.] 

I§'iun-bra,s, Sir. The hero of an old 
romance of chivalry, which cele- 
brates the painful labors and misfor- 
tunes visited upon "him as a punish- 
ment for his pride and presumption, 
and the happiness and blessings with 
which his penitence was finally re- 

Italian Molidre (mo'le^f'). A title 
given to Carlo Goldoni (1707-1793), 
a distinguished Italian dramatist. 

Italian Pin'dSr. A name given to 
Gabriello Chiabrera (1552-1637), a 
celebrate^ Italian lyric poet, and one 
of the best modern imitators of Pin- 

I-thu'ri-el (6). [Heb., the discovery of 
God.] In Milton's "Paradise Lost," 
an angel commissioned by Gabriel to 
search through Paradise, in company 
. with Zephon, to find Satan,»who had 
eluded the vigilance of the angelic 
guard, and effected an entrance into 
the garden. 

Him . . . they found. 
Squat like a toad, close at the ear of Eve, 
Assaying by his devilish art to reach 
The organs of her fancy, and with them forge 
Illusions as he list, phantasms and dreams; . 
Or if, inspiring venom, he might taint • 
The animal spirits ; . . . thence raise. 
At least, distempered, discontented thoughts. 
Vain hopes, vain aims, inordinate desires, 
Blown up with high conceits engendering 

Him thus intent, Ithuriel with his spear 
Touched lightly ; for no falsehood can endure 
Touch of celestial temper, but returns. 
Of force, to its own likeness; up he starts, 
Discovered and surprised. 

Par. Lost, Bk. IV. 

Such spirits have nothing to do with the 
detecting spear of Ithuriel. Macaulay. 

He who argues against it [ChriBtianity], or 
for it, in this manner, may be regarded aa 
mistaking its nature; the Ithunel, though to 
our eyes lie wears a body and the fashion of 
armor, cannot be wounded by material aid. 


I'van-hfte. The hero of Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of the same name. He 

and for the Remarks and Bales to which the numbers after certun words refer, see pp.xiv-xxxii. 




figures as Cedric of Rotherwood's dis- 
inherited son, the favorite of King 
Kicliard I., and tlie lover of the Lady 
Rowena, whom, in the end, he mar- 

Ivanovitch, Ivan (e-vSn' e-v^n'o- 
vitch). An imaginary personage, 
who is the embodiment of the pecu- 
liarities of the Russian people, in the 
same waj^ as John Bull represents 
the English, and Jean Crapaud the 
French character. He is described as 
a lazy, good-natured person. 

Ivory Gate. According to Virgil, a 
gate of sleep in the under -world, 
wrought of shining white ivory, 
through which the infernal gods send 
up false dreams to earth. See Horn 

Ix-i'6n. [Gr. 'I^'coi/.] (Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A king of the Lapithae 
in Thessaly, and father of the Ceft- 
taurs. For his presumptuous impiety 
he was sent to hell, and there bound 
to a perpetually revolving fiery- 

■ For the " Key to the Scheme of Fronunctation/' with the accompanying Explanations, 





Jack. [An Anglicized form of the Fr. 
Jacques (from Lat. Jacobus^ James), 
the commonest Christian name in 
France, and hence a contemptuous 
expression for a peasant or common 
man; introduced in the same sense 
into England, where it got into use 
as a diminutive or nickname of John^ 
the commonest of all English Chris- 
lian names.] A general term of rid- 
icule or contempt for a saucy or a 
paltry fellow, or for one who puts 
himself forward in some office or em- 
ployment ; hence, any mechanical 
contrivance that supplies the place 
of an attendant ; as, a hoot-jack. Tay- 
lor, the " Water- Poet," in his " Jac le- 
a-lent," thus enumerates some of the 
persons and which the name 
has been applied : — 

*' Oi Jack-an-apes I list not to indite. 
Nor of Jack Daw my goose's quill shall 

OfJadk of Newhurif I will not repeat^ 
Nor of J'ack-of-boih-sides, nor of Sktp-Jach 

To praise the turnspit Jack my Muse is 

Nor of the entertainment of Jack Drum. 
I'll not rehearse; nor ot Jack Dog, Jack 

Jack FooJ, or Jack-a-dandy, I relate; 
Nor of Black-jack at ^arth buttery bars. 
Whose liquor oftentimes breeds household 

Nor Jack of Dover, that Grand-Jury Jack, 
Nor Jack Sauce, the worst knave amount 

the pack." 

\Jack-a-lent, a stuffed ptippet, dressed in 
rags, formerly thrown at in Lent. Jack- 
an-apes, or Jack-a-napes, a monkey, a buffoon, 
a fop. Jack Daw, the daw, a common Eng- 
lish bird. Jack of Newbury. See below. Jack- 
of-both-sidet, one who is or tries to be neutral. 
S Skip-Jack, an upstart. Jack Drum. See Drum, 
John. Jack Fool, a foolish person. See Fool, 
Tom. Jack-a-dandy, a fop, a coxcomb. Black- 
jack, a leathern jug for household service. 
Jack of Dover, a fish, the sole. Jack Sauce, 
a saucy fellow.] 

Jack, Colonel. The hero of De Foe's 
novel entitled " The History of the 
Most Remarkable Life and Extraor- 
dinary Adventures of the truly Hon. 
Colonel Jacque, vulgarly called Col- 
onel Jack ; " a thief, whose portrait is 
drawn with great power. He goes to 
Virginia, and passes through all the 
gradations of colonial life, from the 

state of a servant to that of an OTmer 
of slaves and plantations. 

Jack, Sixteen -string. See Si*- 


Jack and (jUI. Characters in an 
ancient and popular nursery song. 
[Written also Jack and Jill.] 

J8®" ^^ Julienne was in vogue among 
the Norman families, and it long pre- 
vailed in England as Julyan; and, in- 
deed, it became so common as Gillian^ 
that JiU [or CriU] was the regular com- 
panion of Jack, as still appears in nurs- 

• ery rhyme, though now this good old 
form has entirely disappeared, except in 
the occasional un-English form of Juli- 
ana.^'' Yonge. 

How gallantly he extended, not his arm, 
in our modern Jack-and-Jill sort of fashion, 
but his right hand, to my mother. 

Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, 

Je^ysi and the Bean-stalk. A le- 
gend of the nurser}'-, which, like Jack 
the Giant-killer, is of ancient, and 
probably of Teutonic, origin. A boy 
was sent by his mother to sell a cow, 
and met with a butcher, to whom he 
parted with her for a few colored 
beans. His mother was very angry, 
and threw them away. One of them 
fell into the garden, and grew so 
rapidly in one night, that by morning 
the top reached the heavens. Jack 
ascended the vine, and came to an 
extensive country. After divers ad- 
ventures, a fairy met him, and di- 
rected him to the house of a giant, 
from whom he acquired great wealth. 
He descended the vine, and as the 

• giant attempted to follow him, he 
seized his hatchet and cut away the 
vine, when the giant fell and was 
killed. Jack and his mother lived 
afterward in comfort. 

Jack-in-the-Green. A character — 
a puppet — in the May-day games of 
England. Dr. Owen Pugh says that 
Jack-in-the-Green, on May^day, was 
once a pageant representing Melva, 
or Melvas, king of the country now 
called Somersetshire, disguised in 
green boughs, as he lay in ambush 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




to steal King Arthur's wife, as she 
went out hunting. 

Yesterday, being May -day, the more se- 
cluded parts of the metropolis were visited by 
Jnck-in-the-Green, and the usual group of 
grotesque attendants. London limes, 1844. 

Jack of Wewbury. A title given to 
John Winchconib, the greatest eloth- 

* ier in England, in the time of Henry 
VIII. He kept one hundred looms 
in his own house at Newbury, and 
armed and clothed at his own ex- 
pense one hundred of his men, to 
march in the expedition against the 
Scots at Flodden Field. 

Jack Pudding. See Hanswurst. 

Jackson, Stonewall. See Stone- 
wall Jackson. 

Jack the Giant-killer. The name 
of a famous hero in the literature of 
the nursery, the subject of one of the 
Teutonic or Indo-European legends, 
which have become nationalized in 
England. Jack was " a valiant Cor- 
nishman." His first exploit was the 
killing of a huge giant named Cor- 
moran, which he accomplished, when 
a mere child, by artfully contriving 
to make him fall into a deep pit, and 
then knocking him on the head with 
a pick-ax. He afterward destroyed 
a great many Welsh monsters of the 
same sort, being greatly aided in his 
task by a coat of invisibility, a cap 
of knowledge, an irresistible sword, 
and shoes of incredible swiftness, — 
treasures which he tricked a foolish 
giant into giving him. For his inval- 
uable services in ridding the country 
of such undesirable inhabitants, he 
was made a knight of Arthur's Round 
Table, married to a duke's daughter, 
and presented with a large estate. 

jR^ " Before we dismiss the giganti- 
cide, we must remark that most of his 
giants rest upon good romance author- 
ity ; or, to speak more correctly, Jack's 
history is a popular and degraded version 
of the traditions upon which our ear- 
liest romances are founded." Qu. Rev. 
'' Not only single words come to attest our 
common ancestry ; but many a nursery 
legend or terse fable crops out in one 
country after another, either in lofty my- 
thology or homely household tale. For 
instance, the Persian trick of Ameen and 
the Ghool recurs in the Scandinavian visit 

of Thor to Loki, which has come down to 
Germany in ' The Brave Little Tailor,' and 
to us in ' Jack the Giant-killer.' " Yonge. 
"Our 'Jack the Giant-killer' . . . is clear- 
ly the last modern transmutation of "the 
old British legend, told in Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth, of Coriueus the Trojan, the com- 
panion of the Trojan Brutus when he first 
settles in Britain ; which Corineus, being 
a very strong man, and particularly good- 
humored, is satisfied with being king of 
Cornwall, and killing out the aboriginal 
giants there, leaving to Brutus all the rest 
of the island, and only stipulating, that, 
whenever there is a peculiarly difificult 
giant in any part of Brutus's. dominions, 
he shall be sent for to finish the felloe-" 

While he [Junius] walks, like Jack the 
Giant-killer, m a coat of darkness, he may do 
much mischief with little strength. Johnson. 

They say she [Mec Merrilies] . . . can gang 
any gate she likes, like Jack the Giant-killer 
in the ballant, with his coat o' darkness and 
his shoon o' swiftness. Sir W. ^ott. 

He made up for this turnspit construction 
by stridigg io such an extent, that yon would 
have sworn he had ^n the seven-leagued boots 
of Jack the Giant-killer; and so high did he 
tread on parade, that his soldiers were some- 
times alarmed lest he should trample himself 
under foot. W. Irving. 

Jack-with-the-Iiantern. In the 
superstition of former times, an evil 
spirit who delighted in leading be- 
nighted and unwary travelers astray 
from their path, by assuming the 
appearance of a light like that of a 
candle. This superstition, as is well 
known, had its origin in the ignis- 
fatuus^ a luminous meteor seen in 
summer nights over morasses, grave- 
yards, and other spots where there is 
a great accumulation of animal or 
vegetable substances, and caused, as 
is supposed, by the spontaneous ig- 
nition of a gaseous compound of 
Ehosphorus and hydrogen, jesultin^ 
•om their decomposition. '[Written 
also Jack o' Lantern.] 

Jacob's Ijadder. A ladder seen in a 
vision by Jacob, the Jewish patriarch. 
♦' And he dreamed, and behold, a lad- 
der set upon the earth, and the top 
of it reached to heaven: and behold, 
the angels of God ascending and de- 
scending on it." ( Gen. xxviii. 12.) 

All of air they were, all soul and form, so* 
lovely, like mysterious priestesses, in whose 
hand" was the invisible Jacob's Ladder, where- 
by man might mount into very heaven. 


• For the " Key to the Scheme of Fronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




JaTfi^r. A prominent character in 
Otway's " Venice Preserved." He 
joins with Pierre and others in 'a con- 
spiracy against the Venetian senate, 
but communicates the secret to his 
wife, Belvidera, and she, anxious to 
save the life of her father, a senator, 
prevails on Jaffier to disclose the 
plot. This he does upon the solemn 
assurance of pardon for himself and 
friends ; but, on discovering the per- 
fidy of the senate, who condemn the 
conspirators to death, he stabs his 
friend Pierre, to prevent his being 
broken on the wheel, and then stabs 

"I have it! "said Bunce, "I have it!" and 
on he went in the vein of Jajffier. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Janot, or Jeannot (zhS^no'). A 
French proper name, the diminutive 
of Jean (John), used proverbially to 
designate a simpleton, a quiddler, 
one who exercises a silly ingenuity. 

Without being a Janot, who has not some-p 
times, in conversation, committed a Janot- 
ism? Ourry, Trans. 

January Searle. See Searle, Jan- 

Ja'nus. {Rom. Myth.) A very ancient 
Italian deity who presided over the 
beginning of .the year, and of each 
month and day, and over the com- 
• mencement of all enterprises. He 
was originally Vorshiped as the sun- 
god. He was represented with two 
faces, one on the front, the other on 
the back of his head, one youthful, 
and the other aged. A gateway — 
often erroneously called a temple — 
which stood close by the Forum in 
Rome, and had. two doors opposite 
to each other, which, in time of war, 
were always open, and in time of 

Seace were closed, was dedicated to 
anus by Numa. The myth makes 
him to have been the most ancient 
king of Latium or Etruria, where he 
hospitably received Saturn when ex- 
pelled from Crete by Jupiter. 
Jaques (ja/kwes or jaks; Fr. pron. 
zhak). A lord attending upon the 
exiled duke, in Shakespeare's " As 
You Like It." 

j8®=' " Jaques Is the only purely con- 
templative character in Shakespeare. He 

thinkf?, and does — nothing. His whole 
occupation is to amuse his mind ; and he 
is totally regardless of his body and his 
fortunes. He is the prince of philosoph- 
ical idlers ; his only passion is thought ; 
he sets no value on any thing but as it 
serves as food for reflection. He can * suck 
cielancholy out of a song, as a weasel 
sucks eggs ; ' the motley fool, ' who mor- 
als on the time,' is the greatest prize he 
meets with in the forest. He resents Or- 
lando's passion for Rosalind as some dis- 
paragement of his own passion for ab- 
stract truth ; and leaves the duke, as 
soon as he is restored to his sovereignty, 
to seek his brother, who has quitted it 
and turned hermit." Hazlitt. "Jaques 
is a morose, cynical, querulous old fel- 
low, who has been a bad young one. He 
does not have sad moments, but ' sullen 
fits,' as the duke says. His melancholy 
is morbid, and is but the fruit of that 
utter loss of mental tone which results 
from years of riot and debauchery. He 
has not a tender spot in his heart. There 
is not a gentle act attributed to him, or 
a generous sentiment, or a kind word 
put into his mouth by Shakespeare." 

R. G. White. 
Indeed, my lord. 
The melancholy Jaques grieves at that. 


That motley clown in Arden wood, 
Whom humorous Jaques with envy viewed. 

Not even that clown could amplify 
On this trite text so long as I. Sir W 


The forest-walks of Arden's fair domain, 
"Where Jaques fed his solitary vein , 
No pencil's aid as yet had dared supply. 
Seen only by the intellectual eye. 

Charles Zamb. 

Jarn'di^9e. A prominent figure in 
Dickens's " Bleak House," distin- 
guished for his philanthropy, easy 
good-nature, and good sense, and for 
always saying, *' The wind is in the 
east," when any thing went wrong 
with him. The famous suit of " Jarn- 
dyce vs. Jarndyce," in this novel, is a 
satire upon the Court of Chancery. 

Jar'vie, Baillie K"ic'61. A prominent 
and admirable character in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of " Rob Roy." He is 
a magistrate of Glasgow, and a kins- 
man of Rob Roy. * 

4®=- " Nothing can promise less origi- 
nality and interest than the portrait of a 
conceited, petulant, purse-proud trades- 
man, full of his own and his father's lo- 
cal dignity and importance, and of mer- 
cantile and Presbyterian formalities, and 
totally without tact 6r discretion, who 
does nothing in the story but give bail, 

and for the Renxarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




take a journey, and marry his maid. But 
the courage, the generosity, and tne frank 
naivete and warm-heartedness, which are 
united to these unpromisiug ingredients, 
and above all, perhaps, the ' Hieland 
blude of him that warms at thae daft 
tales o' venturesome deeds and escapes, 
tho' they are, all sinfu' vanities,' and 
makes him affirm before the council that 
Rob Roy, 'set apart what he had dune 
again the law o' the country, and the her- 
ship o' the Lennox [i. e. the laying waste 
and plundering a whole county], and 
the misfortune o' some folk losing life by 
him, was an honester man than stude on 
any o' their hanks,' make him both origi- 
nal and interesting." Senior. 

Ja'son (-sn). [Gr. 'Ido-wv.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth. ) A famous Grecian hero, 
king of Thessaly, leader of the Ar- 
gonautic expedition, and a sharer in 
the Calydonian boar-hunt. He mar- 
ried Medea, and afterward Creusa. 

Javert (zha^vep, 64). A character in 
Victor Hugo's **Les Mis^rables;" 
an impersonation of the inexorable- 
ness of law. 

Jeaiue§. An old English form of 
James, so pronounced, and often so 
spelt, in the best society, till the end 
of the last century, when it became 
confined to the lower classes. Re- 
cently, owing to the popularity of 
Thackeraj^'s " Jeanies's Diary," it 
has acquired a proverbial currency 
as a designation of a footman, or of 
a flunky. It has also been applied 
to the London " Morning Post," the 
organ of the " haristocracy." 

A poor clergyman, or a poor military man, 
may have no more than three hundred a year; 
but I heartily venerate his endeavors to pre- 
serve his girls from the society of the servants* 
hall, and the delicate attention of Jeames. 

A. K. H. Boyd. 

Jean d'Epde (zhon d^/p^' 31, 62). 
[Fr., John with the sword.] A sym- 
bolical name given to Bonaparte by 
his partisans in France who conspire(i 
to etfect his restoration to power after 
Tlie allied sovereigns had banished 
him to Elba, in 1814. 

Jean Jacques (zho" zhak, 30, 62). 
Christian names of Rousseau (1712- 
1778), the distinguished French phi- 
losopher, by which alone he is often 
designated by*Knglish writers, partic- 
ularly those of the last century. 

Years ago, at Venice, ■poor Jean Jacques was 
Legation secretary to him [Count de Bernis], 
as some readers may remember. Carlyle. 

That is almost the only maxim of Jean 

Jacques to which I can cheerfully subscribe I 

Sir E. Bulwer Lytton. 

Jeanjeah (zhon^zhon', 62). A popular 
name in France for a conscript. 

Jean Paul {or zhong powl ). The name 
under which the eminent German 
author, Jean Paul Friedrich Richter 
(1763-1825), wrote, and by which he 
is most familiarl}'' known. 

Jerfrey's Campaign. A name giyen 
by King James H. to the judicial 
expedition through the west of Eng- 
land, headed by Lord Chief Justice 
Jeffreys, in 1685. See Bloody As- 

Jel1y-b^, Mrs. A character in Dick- 
ens's novel of" Bleak House ; " a type 
of sham philanthropy. 

Jenk'ins. A cant name for any- 
snobbish penny- a liner. It was first 
given, in " launch," to a writer for 
the London " Morning Post," — said 
to have been originally a footman, — 
whose descriptions of persons and 
events in fashionable and aristocratic 
society," betrayed the ingrained servil- 
ity, priggishness, and vulgarity of his 

Jenk'ins, 'Win'i-fred. The imme 
of Miss Tabitha Bramble's maid, in 
Smollett's " Expedition of Humphry 

Jenk'in-son, Ephraim (-sn). A swin- 
dling rascal in Goldsmith's " Vicar of 
Wakefield," who wins the confidence 
of Dr. Primrose by his venerable ap- 
pearance, his great apparent devout- ' 
ness, his learned talk about " cos- 
mogony," and his loudly professed 
admiration of the good Doctor's 
writings on the subject of monogamy. 
See Primrose, The Rev. Doctor. 

Je-ron'i-mo, or Hl^er-on'^-mo. 
The principal character in an old 
play by Thomas Kyd, entitled " The 
Spanish Tragedy;" — used in the 
phrase, " Go by, Jeronimo," an ex- 
pression made almost proverbial by 
the ridicule of contemporary writers. 
In the original, these words are 
spoken by Hieronymo, or Jeronimo, 

Ga~ For the "Key to the Scheme of PronunciatJou," with the accompanying Explanations, 




to himself, on finding his application 
to the king improper at th^ moment. 
Hence, probably, the word go-by, sig- 
nifying a putting or thrusting aside 
without notice. 

Jes's§-in;^ Bride. A by-name given 
to Miss Mary Horneck, afterward 
Mrs. Gwj'n. She was a contempo- 
rary and friend of Goldsmith, who 
is supposed to have been in love with 

Jes'si-c$. The beautiful daughter of 
Shylock, in Shakespeare's " Mer- 
chant of Venice." She is beloved by 

■fl®=' "Jessica, though properly kept 
subordinate, is certainly — 
*A most beautiful pagan, a most sweet Jew.' 
8he cannot be called a sketch ; or, if a 
sketch, she is like one of those dashed off 
in glowing colors from the rainbow palette 
of a Ilubens ; she has a rich tint of Ori-' 
entalism shed over her, worthy of her 
Eastern origin.'.' Mrs. Jameson. 

Jew, The "Waaidering. [Lat. Judceus 
non Mortalis, the undving Jew ; Ger. 
Der Ewige Jvde^ t'r. Le Juif 
Errant.'] An imaginary personage, 
who owes his existence to a legend 
connected with the history of Christ's 
passion. As the Saviour was on the 
way to the place of execution, over- 
come with the weight of the cross, he 
wished to rest on a stone before the 
house of a Jew, whom the story calls 
Ahamerus, who drove him away with 
curses. Jesus calmly replied, '' Thou 
shalt wander on the earth till I re- 
turn." The astonished Jew did not 
come to himself till the crowd had 
passed, and the streets were empty. 
Driven by fear and remorse, he has 
since wandered, according to the 
command of the Lord, from place to 
place, and has never yet been able 
to find a grave. According to another 
account, he was Pontius Pilate's 
porter, and his original name was 
Cartaphilus. Soon after the Saviour's 
crucifixion, he becamg converted, and 

• took the name of Joseph. At the end 
of every hundred j'^ears, he falls into 
a fit or trance, upon which, when he 
recovers, he returns to the same state 
of youth he was in when our Saviour 
suflPered, being about thirty years of 

age. He remembers all the circum- 
stances of the death and resurrection 
of Christ; the saints that arose with 
him ; the composing of the Apostles' 
Creed; and the preaching and dis- 
persions of the apostles themselves. 
In the fourteenth century, he was 
" called Isaac Lakedion, or Laquedem ; 
but the chronicles of that time make 
no mention of these periodical alter- 
nations of youth and age, though they 
still attribute to him pei-petual life. 

IS^ Roger of Wendover, a monk of St. 
Albans (d. 1237), and Matthew Paris (d. 
1259), a Benedictine monk of the Congre- 
gation of Clugny, and likewise of the 
monastery of St. Albans, give us the old- 
est traditions of the Wandering Jew. Ac- 
cording to Menzel (" History of German 
Poetry "), the whole tradition is but an 
allegory, the Wandering Jew symbolizing 
heathenism. M. Lacroix suggests that it 
represents the Hebrew race dispersed and 
wandering throughout the earth, but not 
destroyed. In Germany, the tradition of 
the Wandering Jew became connected 
with John Bultadoeus, a real person. The 
story of this Jew was printed in 1602, and 
frequently afterward. He is said to have 
been seen at Antwerp in the thirteenth 
century, again in the fifteenth, and a 
third time in the sixteenth, with every 
appearance of age and decrepitude. His 
last recorded apparition was at Brussels, 
ia April, 1774. Southey, in his poem of ^, 
"The Curse of Kehama," and Croly, in i% 
his romance entitled "Salathiel," trace ^ 
the course of the Wandering Jew, but in fL^ 
violation of the whol« legend ; and Eugene ^ 
Sue adopted the name as the title of one 
of his most popular and most immoral 
novels ("Le Juif Errant"), though the 
Jew scarcely figures at all in the work. 

4®=" " Ahasuerus is the antitype of 
Faust. He shuns life, and seeks deliver- 
ance from its pains, while Faust seeks to 
eternize the moment." Crr'dsse, Trans. 

Coppet, ... in short, trudged and hurried 
hither and thither, inconstant as ^an ignis- 
fatuus, and restless p the JFandetnng Jew. 


Jewish Pla'to. A title bestowed upon 
Philo Judaeus, the Alexandrian Jew 
and Platonist, who flourished in the 
first century of the Christian era. 

Jewkes, Mrs. (juks). A hateful char- 
acter in Richardson's " Pamela." 

Jez'e-bel. The wicked wife of Ahab, 
an infamous king of Israel. How 
she came to her end may be seen in 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




2 Kings ix. 30-37. The name is 
proverbially used to designate a 
showily dressed woman of frail morals 
or suspected respectability. It has" 
been applied in this sense from the 
time of the Puritans. 

Philosophe - Sentimentaligm, what hast 
thou to do with peace when thy mother's' 
name is Jezebel f ' Carlyle. 

Jingle, Mr. Alfred. An impudent, 
swindling stroller, in Dickens's 
"Pickwick Papers." He is repre- 
sented as never speaking a connected 
sentence, but stringing together mere 
disjointed phrases, generally without 

Jinnestan. See Djinnestan. 

J. J. Initials used, particularly by 
writers of the last centurj^, to desig- 
nate Rousseau, the celebrated author 
of the " Confessions," whose Chris- 
tian names were Jean Jacques, or 
John James. 

Joan. The name sometimes given to 
the wife of Punch. She is common- 
ly called Judy. 

1 confess, that, were it safe to cherish such 
dreams at all, I should more enjoy the thought 
of remaining behind the curtaui unseen, like 
the ingenious manager of Punch and his wife 
Joan, and enjoying the astonishment and 
conjectures of my audience. Sir W. Scott. 

Jdan, Pope. A supposed individual 
of the female sex, who is placed by 
several chroniclers in the series of 
popes between I^o IV. and Benedict 
III., about 853-855, under the name 
of John. The subject of this scan- 
dalous story is said to have been a 
young woman of English parentage, 
educated at Cologne, who left her 

» home in man's disguise, with her 
lover, a very learned man, and went 
to Athens, where she made great 
■progress in profane law; afterward 
she ^fent to Kome. where she became 
equall}^ proficient in sacred learning, 
for which her reputation became so 
great, that, at the death of Leo, she 
was unanimously elected as his suc- 
cessor, under the general belief of her 
male sex. She, however, became 
pregnant, and one day, as she was 
proceeding to the Lateran Basilica, 
she was seized with the pains of 
child-labor, on the road between the 
Colosseum and the church of St. 

. Clement ; and there she died, and -was 
buried -without any honors, after a 
pontificate of two years, five months, 
and four days. 

4®= The first to mention this delecta- 
ble piece of scandal was Marianus Scotus, 
a monk of the abbey of Fulda, who died 
at Mainz in 1086 ; but the authenticity of 
the MS. attributed to him is very doubt- 
ful. The story is given more circumstan- 
tially by Martinus Polonus, a Cistercian 
monk, and confessor to Gregory X. It is 
also mentioned by Stephen de Bourbon, 
who wrote about 1225. " Until the Ref- 
ormation," says Gibbon, ''the tale was 
repeated and believed without offense." 
The learned Calvinist divine, David Blon- 
del, demonstrated its historical ground- 
lessness ; yet attempts have occasionally 
been made, since his time, to maintain 
the truth of the tradition. Panviniua 
and other writers find the origin of the 
fable in the effeminacy or licentious, 
ness of Pope John XII., who was killed 
in 964, while prosecuting an unlawful 
intrigue. There is an ancient miracle- 
play upon this subject, in German, en- 
titled " The Canonization of Pope Joan, 
1480," which was widely diffused, and 
did much to shake the popular rever- 
ence for the Papal See. 

Jo-cas't^i. [Gr. 'loKdarq.'] {Gr. cf 
Rom. Myth. ) The mother of (Edipus, 
whom she married unknowingl}^, and 
to whom she bore Eteocles and Poly • 

Jockey of Norfolk. A sobriquet con- 
ferred upon Sir John, son of Sir Rob- 
ert Howard, a close adherent to the 
house of York, and remarkable alike 
for the magnificence of his estate 
and for the high offices •which ho 
held. In 1485, he accompanied his 
master, Kichard III., to the field of 
Bosworth, and, notwithstanding the 
celebrated and friendly warning, 

^ Jockey of Norfolk, be not too bold, 
For Dickon, thy master, is bought and sold," 

which was posted on his tent during 
the night before the battle, he entered 
into the fight, and paid the penalty of 
his fidelity with his life, bemg one of 
the slain on that well-contested day. 

Jolin. J. A bastard brother of Don 
Pedro, in Shakespeare's " Much Ado 
about Nothing." 

2. A Franciscan friar, in Shake- 
speare's "Romeo and Juliet." 

■ For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




John, Friar. See Friar John. 

John-a-dreains. A name apparently 
coined* to suit a dreaming, stupid 
character, a " dreaming John," as it 

Yet I, 
A dull and muddy -mettled rascal, peak, 
JAke John-a-dreams, uupregiiant of my cause. 
And can say nothing. ShaJc. 

John Company, See Company, 

Johnny B-ebs. A sobriquet given by 
the soldiers of the United States 
army, in the time of the late Rebel- 
lion, to the " Confederate " soldiers. 
It is said to have originated in a 
taunting remark addressed to a rebel 
picket, to the effect that the Southern 
States relied on " John Bull " to help 
them gain their independence, and 
that the picket himself was no better 
than a "John Bull;" an accusation 
which he indignantly denied, saying 
that he would " as sooti be called a 
' nigger ' as a ' Johnny Bull.' " 

Jonathan. A son of Saul, king of 
Israel, famous for his tender friend- 
ship — " passing the love of women " 
— for David, whom Saul hated and 
persecuted. " The soul of Jonathan 
was knit with the soul of David, and' 
Jonathan loved him as his c^u soul." 
(1 Sain, xviii. 1.) 

Jonathan, Brother. See, Brother 

Jones, Da'vy. A familiar name 
among sailors for Death, formerly for 
the evil spirit who was supposed to 
preside over the demons of the sea. 
He was thought to be in all storms, 
and was sometimes seen of gigantic 
height, showing three rows of sharp 
teeth in his enormous mouth, open- 
ing great frightful eyes, and nostrils 
which emitted blue flames. The 
ocean is still termed by sailors, Davy 
Joneses Locker. 

The heads of Opposition, the Pitts and 
others of that country [England] • . . wish 
dear Hanover safe enough (safe in Dari/ 
Jones's locker, if that would do); but are tired 
of subsidizing, and fighting, and tumulting 
all the world over, for that high end. Carhjle. 

Jones, Tom. The hero of Fielding's 
novel entitled " The History of Tom 
Jones, a Foundling; " represented as 
a model of generosity, openness, and 

manly spirit, mingled with thought- 
less dissipation. 

4®=" " Our immortal Fielding was of 
the younger branch of the Earls of Den- 
bigh, who drew their origin from the 
Counts of Hapsburg. . . . Far differei.t 
have been the fortunes of the English and 
German divisions of the family. . . . The 
successors of Charles V. may disdain their 
brethren of Eugland ; but the romance 
of ' Tom Jones," that exquisite picture of 
human manners, will outlive the palace 
of the Escurial and the imperial eagle of 
Austria." Gibbon. 

J8®=- " I cannot say that I think Mr. 
Jones a virtuous character ; I cannot say 
but that I think Fielding's evident liking 
and admiration for Mr. Jones show that 
the great humorist's moral sense was 
blunted by his life, and that here in art 
and ethics there is a great error. ... A 
hero with a flawed reputation, a hero 
sponging for a guinea, a hei*© who cannot 
pay his landlady, and is obliged to let his 
honor out to hire, is absurd, and his 
claim to heroic rank untenable." 


Jormungand (yof'moon-gandO- [Old 
Norse, Jormwi, great, universal; and 
gandi\ serpent.] (Scand. Myth.) A 
fearful serpent, the oftspring of Loki, 
hurled down by the gods into the 
ocean that surrounds Midgard, where 
he is to remain until Eagnarok. He 
is represented by the poets as hold- 
ing his tail in his mouth, 

Josse, M. (mos'e-o' zhos). A jeweler 
in Moliere's comedy, " L'Amour M^- 
decin," whose advice to a friend who 
consults him is that of a man who 
wishes to dispose of his merchandise. 
The expression," " Vous etes or'fevre, 
M. Josse,^' You are a jeweler, Mr. 
Josse, is proverbially applied, in 
France, to any one who seeks to ad- 
vance his own interests at the ex- 
pense of another. 

Jotunheim (yo'toon-hlmO- (Scand. 
Myth.) The abode of the Jotun, or 
Giants. See Giants, 2. 

Jourdain, M. (mos'eQ)' zhoof^da^^', 
62). The hero of Moliere's comedy, 
" Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme ; " repre- 
sented as an elderly tradesman, who, 
having suddenly acquired immense 
riches, becomes desirous to emulate 
such as have been educated in the 
front ranks of society, in those accom- 

and for the Bemarks and Bnles to which the numbers after certain worda refer, see pp. xlv-xxxii. 




plishments, whether mental or per- 
sonal, which cannot be gracefully ac- 
quired after the early part of life is 

The Arabs, under great emotional excite- 
ment, give their language a recognizable me- 
ter, and talk poetry as 31. Jourdain talked 
prose [i. c, without knowing it], Lewes. 

Joum^e des Dupes (zhoof''n^' di 
diip, 34). See Day of Dupes. 

Jove. See Jupiter. 

Joyeuse, La (la zhwo'yoz', 43). [Lat. 
Gaudiosa.] The sword of Charle- 
magne ; — so called in the romances 
of chivalry. It bore the inscription, 
*''' Decern prcecepUxi'umcustos Carolus.^'' 

Joyeuse Garde, La (it zhwo'yoz' 
gafd). The residence of the famous 
Lancelot du Lac, commonly said to 
have been at Berwick-upon-Tweed. 
He having successfully defended the 
honor of Queen Guinever against Sir 
Mador (who had accused her of pois- 
oning his brother), King Arthur, in 
gratitude to her champion, gave him 
the castle which had been the scene 
of the queen's vindication, and named 
it " La Joyeuse Garde " in memory of 
the happy event. See Mador, Sir. 
[Written also Joyous Gard and 
Garde Joyesse.] 

The Garde Joyesse, amid the tale. 
High reared its glittering head; 

And Avalon's enchanted vale 
In all its wonders spread. Sir W. Scott. 

Juan, Don. See Don Juan. 
Judge Lynoli. See Lynch, Judge. 

Judicious Hooker, The. See Hook- 
er, The Judicious. 

Judith. The heroine of a well-known 
book of the same name in the Apoc- 
lypha; a beautiful Jewess of Bethu- 
ha, who, to save her native town, 
undertook to assassinate Holofemes, 

general of Nebuchadnezzar, putting 
oth her life and her chastity in jeop- 
ardy by venturing alone into his tent 
for this purpose. But she accom- 
plished her object, and escaped with 
the head of Holofemes to Bethulia ; 
whereupon her fellow-townsmen, in- 
spired with a sudden enthusiasm, 
rushed out upon the enemy, and 
completely defeated them.' The 
story, if not altogether fictitious, as 
many think it to be, is a legend 

founded upon some fact not men- 
tioned by any historian. 

Ju'dy (6). The wife of Punch, in the 
modern puppet-show of " Punch and 
Judy." See Punch. 

Jug'ger-naut. [Sansk. Jagannatha^ 
lord of the world.] {Hindu Myth.) 
A name of Vishnu, of whom an idol 
is kept in a temple at Jaggeniaut, or 
Jaggernaut Puri, a town in Orissa. 
This idol is one of the chief objects 
of pilgrimage in India, and has ac- 
quired great notoriety in consequence 
of the fanatical practice, formerly 
very prevalent among Hindu believ- 
ers, of throwing themselves under 
the wheels of the lofty chariot — sixty 
feet high — in which it is carried in 
procession, in the hope of attaining 
eternal bliss bv such a sacrifice of 
their lives. [Written also Jagger- 

Julia. The name of a lady beloved 
by Proteus, in Shakespeare's " Two 
Gentlemen of Verona." 

Julie (zhii^Ie', 34). The heroine of 
Moliere's comedy, "Monsieur de 
Pourceaugnac. " 

Juli-et (6). 1. A lady, in Shake- 
speare's " Measure for Measure," be- 
loved by Claudio. 

2. The heroine of Shakespeare's 
tragedy jof '^Komeo and Juliet." 

Jg^ " Juliet is a child whose intoxica- 
tion in loving and being loved whirls away 
the little reason she may have possessed. 
It is impossible, in my opinion, to place 
her among the great female characters of 
Shakespeare's creation." Hallam. "All 
Shakespeare's women, being essentially 
•women, either love, or have loved, or are 
capable of loving ; but Juliet is love it- 
self. The passion is her state of being, 
and out of it she has no existence. It 13 
the soul within her soul ; the pulse within 
her heart-; the life-blood along her veins, 
' blending with every atom of her frame.' 
The love that is so chaste and dignified in 
Portia; so airy-delicate and fearless ia 
Miranda; so sweetly confiding in Per- 
dita ; so playfully fond in Rosalind ; so 
constant in Imogen ; so devoted in Des- 
demona ; so fervent in Helen ; so tender 
in Viola, — is each and all of these in Ju- 
liet." Mrs. Jameson. 

The hyperbole of Juliet seemed to be veri- 
fied with respect to them. *' Upon th eir browg 
ghame was ashamed to sit." Macaulay. 

' For the " Key tQ the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




June, Jennie. A pseudonym of Mrs. 
J. C. Crol}'', an American authoress 
of the present day. 

Ju'ni-us {or jun'yus, 6). A celebrat- 
ed pseudonym, under which a series 
of remarkable political letters were 
published at intervals from 1769 to 
1772, in the *' Public Advertiser," 
then the most popular newspaper in 
Great Britain. 

j8^ In these letters, the writer who 
concealed himself under this signature 
attacked all the public characters of the 
day connected with the government, and 
did not spare even royalty itself. Every 
effort that could be devised by the gov- 
ernment, or prompted by private indig- 
nation, was made to discover their au- 
thor, but in vain. " It is not in the na- 
tui-e of things," he writes to his publisher, 
'^ that you or any body else should know 
me unless I make myself known ; all arts, 
or inquiries, or rewards, would be inef- 
fectual." In another place he remarks, 
" I am the sole depositary of my secret, 
and it shall die with me." Many con- 
jectures, however, have been started on 
the subject of this great puzzle; and 
Burke, William Gerard Hamilton (com- 
monly called " Single - speech Hamil- 
ton "), John Wilkes, Lord Chatham, Mr. 
Dunning (afterward Lord Ashburton), 
Lord George Sackville (afterward Lord 
Germain), Serjeant Adair, the Rev. J. Ro- 
senhagen, John Roberts, Charles Lloyd, 
Samuel Dyer, General Charles Lee, Hugh 
Boyd, Colonel Isaac Barre, Sir Philip Fran- 
cis, and many other eminent names, have 
all been identified by different inquirers 
with Junius. The evidence which has 
been presented to prove that Sir Philip 
Francis was the author of these memo- 
rable philippics, though entirely circum- 
stantial, is very strong. Macaulay thinks 
it sufficient '' to support a verdict in a 
civil, nay, in a criminal proceeding.*' The 
inquirer will do well to consult the articles 
that have appeared on the subject of " Ju- 
nius " in " Notes and Queries," and in the 
" Athenaeum "since 1848. See also Junius 
in AUibone's " Dictionary of Authors " and 
in Bohn's edition of Lowndes'g *' Bibli- 
ographer's Manual." 

This arch hitriguer, whom, to use an ex- 
pression of Junius^ treachery itself could not 
tnist, was at one moment nearly caught in 
his own toils. Sir W. Scott. 

Ju'no. {Gr. cf Rom. 3fyth.) The 
dauii^-hter of Saturn and Ops, the sis- 
ter and wife of Jupiter, the queen of 
heaven, and the guardian deitj'' of 
women, especially married women. 

He, in delight . . . 
Smiled with superior love; as Jupiter 
On Juno smiles, when he impregns the clouds 
That shed May flowers. Milton. 

Junto. {Erifj. Hist.) A small knot of 
distinguished men in the time of Wil- 
liam 111. (1690), who, under this name, 
exercised 'over the Whig body, by 
their counsel during twenty troubled 
years, an autliority of which, say& Ma- 
caulay, there is perhap.« no parallel in 
history", ancient or modem. Russell, 
Lord -keeper Somers, and Charles 
Montague were prominent members 
of it. 

Ju'pi-ter. [Lat., a contraction of Dio^ 
vis or Dies ( = divitm, heaven ) pater ; 
i. €., the father of heaven, or heavenly 
father.] {Gr. # Rom. Myth.) A 
son of Saturn and Ops, .brother and 
husband of Juno, the father and 
king of gods and men, and the su- 
preme ruler of the universe. As the 
god of heaven, he had all power of 
the phenomena of the skies; hence 
his numerous epithets, such as Plu- 
vius (the rain -giver), Tonans (the 
thunderer), Fulminator (the light- 
ning-wielder), and the like. [Called 
also Jove and Zeus.'] 

Ju'pi-t6r Carl^Ie. A sobriquet giv- 
en to the Rev. Alexander Carlyle 
(1722-1805), ixjinisler of InvereskJ in 
Scotland, remarkable for his magnif- 
icent head, which was considered 
worthy of being a model for a Jupi- 
ter Tonans. 

4^^ "• The grandest demigod T ever saw 
was Dr. Carlyle, minister of Musselburgh, 
commonly called Jupiter Carlyle, for hav- 
ing sat more than once for the king of 
gods and men to Gavin Hamilton." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Ju'pi-ter Sca'pin. A nickname given 
by the Abb^ de Pradt to Napoleon 
I^onaparte, on account of the mix- 
ture in his character of greatness and 
goodness with irregularity of imac:- 
ination and a disposition to artih*ce 
which sometimes, as in his Egyptian 
campaign, led to conduct half impi- 
ous, half childish. See Scapin. 

Jfe-tur'nt. The sister of King Tur- 
nus; changed into a fountain of the 
same name, the waters of which were 
used in the sacrifices of Vesta. See 


and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain w<a^ xefoTy see pp. ziv-xxzii. 





Kaf, Mount. See Mount Cap. 

Kail'y|,l. The heroine of Southey's 
poem, " The Curse of Kehama." 

Kama (kat'iiiS), or KSmadeva (ka- 
ma-da/v2). {Hindu Myth.) The god 
of love. He is a favorite theme of 
description and allusion in Sanskrit 
poetry. His power is so much ex- 
alted that even the god Brahma is 
said to succumb to it. He is de- 
scribed or represented as riding on a 
parrot or a sparrow, — the symbol of 
voluptuousness, — and holding in his 
hands a bow of sugar-cane strung 
^vith bees, besides five arrows, each 
tipped with the bloom of a flower 
supposed to conquer one of the senses. 

Katherine. A lady attending on 
the princess of France, in Shake- 
speare's " Love's Labor 's Lost." 

Kay, Sir. A foster-brother of King 
Arthur, and a rude and boastful 
knight of the Round Table. He was 
the butt of Arthur's court. He is 
generally made by the romancers the 
first to attempt an offered adventure, 
in which he never succeeds, and his 
failure in which acts as a foil to the 
brilliant achievement of some more 
fortunate and deserving, and less 
boastful, knight. [Written also 

Ke-ha'ma. A Hindu rajah, who ob- 

* tains and sports with supernatural 

power. His adventures are related 

in Southey's poem entitled "The 

Curse of Kehama." 

Keith, "Wise 'Wife of. See Wise 
Wife of Keith. 

Kfemp'fer-hau'sen (-zn). A name as- 
sumed by Robert Pcarce Gillies, a con- 
tributor to " Blackwood's Magazine," 
and one of the interlocutors in the 
" Noctes Ambrosianae " of that work. 

Ken'na-quliair (-kwar). [Scot., 
Don't-know-where. Comp. Ger. 
Weissnichtivo,] A Scottish name 
for any imaginary locality. 

It ■would be a misapprehension to suppose, 
because Melrose may in general pass for 
Kennaquhair, or because it agrees with scenes 
of tlie " Monastery " in the circumstances of 
the drawbridge, the mill-dam, and other points 
of resemblance, that therefore an accurate or 
perfect local similitude is to be found in all the 
particulars of the picture. Sir W. Scott. 

Kent, Holy Maid of, or Kun of. 
See Holy Maid of Kent. 

Kerr, Or'pheus C. (4). [That is, Of- 
fice-seeker.] The nom de plume of 
Robert H. Newell, a humorous and 
popular American writer of the pres- 
ent day: 

Ketch, Jack. A hangman or e:j:ecu- 
tioner; — so called in England, from 
one John Ketch, a wretch who lived 
in the time of James IL, and made 
himself universally odious by the 
butchery of many brave and noble 
victims, particularly those sentenced 
to death by the infamous Jeffreys 
during the "Bloody Assizes." The 
name is thought by some to be de- 
rived from Richard Jacquett, who 
held the manor of Tyburn, near Lon- 
don, where criminals were formerly 

Ket'tle-drum/mle, Gabriel (-drum^- 
ml). A covenanting preacher in Sir 
Walter Scott's " Old Mortality." 

Key of Christendom. A name 
formerly given to Buda, the capital 
of Hungary, on account of its political 
importance, its situation on the Dan- 
ube, and its proximity to the Ottoman 
empire. It was twice taken by the 
Turks in the sixteenth century, but 
was final! V wrested from them in 
the year 168G. 

Key of Russia. An appellation popu- 
larly given to Smolensk, a fortified 
city of Russia, on the Dnieper, cele- 
brated for its resistance to the French 
in 1812. 

Key of the Gulf. A name often given 
to the island of Cuba, from its com- 
manding position at the entrance of 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

Key of the Mediterranean. A name 

■ For the " Key to the -Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




frequently given to the fortress of 
Gibraltar, which to some extent com- 
mands the entrance to the Mediterra- 
nean Sea from the Atlantic. 

Key-stone State. The State of 
Pennsylvania ; — so called from its 
having been the central State of the 
Union at the time of the tbrniation of 
the Constitution. If the names of the 

thirteen original States are arranged 
in the form of an arch, Pennsylva- 
nia will occupy the place of the key- 
stone, as in the above cut. 

Kil^man-segg, Miss. The heroine 
of " A Golden Legend " by Thomaf 
Hood ; an heiress with great expecta- 
tions and an artificial leg of solid 

King and Cobbler. King Henry 
VIII. and a certain merry London 
cobbler, who form the subject of one 
of the many popular tales in which 
the sovereign is represented as visit- 
ing the humble subject in disguise. 

King Ar'thur. A famous king of 
Britain, supposed to have flourished 
at the time of the Saxon invasion, 
and to have died at Glastonbury, in 
the year 542, from wounds received 
on the fatal battle-field of Camlan, 
which is thought to be Camelford, 
near Tintagel, in Cornwall. His true 
history has been overlaid with so 
many absurd fictions by the monkish 
chroniclers and medijeVal poets and 
romancers, that many have errone- 
ously regarded him as altogether a 
mythical personage. The usual resi- 
dence of King Arthur was said to be 
at Caerleon, on the Usk, in Wales, 
where, with his beautiful wife Guin- 
ever, he lived in splendid state, sur- 
rounded by hundreds of knights and 
beautiful ladies, who served as 
patterns of valor, breeding, and grace 
to all the world. From his court, 

knights went out to all countries, to 
protect women, chastise oppressors, 
liberate the enchanted, enchain giants 
and malicious dwarfs, and engage in 
other chivalrous adventures. A popu- 
lar traditional belief was long enter- 
tained among the Britons tli^t Arthur 
was not dead, but had been carried 
oft' to be healed of his wounds in 
fairy -land, and that he would re- 
appear to avenge his countrymen, and 
resume the sovereignty of Britain. 
This legend was proverbially referred 
to in the Middle Ages, in 'speaking 
of those who indulged vain hopes 
or cherished absurd expectations. 
According to another account, Arthur 
was buried by his sister, the fairy 
Morgana, in the vale of Avalon, fif- 
teen feet deep, and his tomb bore this 
inscription, — 

" Hie jacet Arthurus, rex quondam, rexque 

futurus." * 
Here Arthur lies, king once, and king to be. 

Giraldus Cambrensis states, that, in 
the reign of Henry II., a leaden cross 
bearing the inscription, " Hie Jacet 
sepultus inclytus ttex Arthurus in 
insula Avalbnid,^^ Here in the island 
of Avalon the illustrious King Arthur 
is buried, was found in the cemetery 
of Glastonbury Abbey, under a stone 
seven feet below the surface; and 
that, nine feet below this, was found 
an oaken coffin containing bones and 
dust. See Excalibar, Guinever, 
Igekna, Modred, Eon, Round 
Table, Uther. 

The feats of Arthur and his knightly peers; 
Of Arthur, who, to upper light restored, 

With that terrific sword 
"Which yet he wields in subterranean war, 
Shall lift his country's fame above the polar 
starl Wordsworth. 

King Bomba. See Bomba. 

King Cam-by's$§. The hero of " A 
Lamentable Tragedy " of the same 
name, by Thomas Preston, an elder 
contemporary of Shakespeare ; a 
ranting character known to modem 
readers by Falstaff^s allusion to him in 
Shakespeare's " 1 Henry IV." (a. ii., 
sc. 4), — " Give me a cup of sack to 
make mine eyes look red ; for I must 
speak in passion, and I will do it in 
King Cambyses' vein." 

" How ! " said the smith, in King Cambysetf 

and for the Bemaxks and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




vein; *♦ are we commanded to stand and de- 
liver on the king's highway ? " Sir W. Scott. 
King Cambyses' vein is, after all, but a worth- 
less one ; no vein for a wise man. Carlyle. 

King Cole. A legendary king of 
Britain, who reigned, as the old 
chronicles inform us, in the third 
centur/ after Christ. According to 

. Robert of Gloucester, he was the 
father of the celebrated St. Helena, 
and the successor of Asclepiad. He 
is fui'ther relegated to the realms of 
fable by the rhyme that sings, — 

" Old King Cole 
Was a merry old soul. 
And a merry old soul was he." 

See Halliweirs " Nursery Rhymes of 
England," where much curious in- 
formation in regard to this celebrated 
personage may be found. 

The venerable King Cole would find few 
subjects here to acknowledge his monarchy 
ofmkth. E.P. Whix>ple. 

King Cotton. A popular personifica- 
tion of the great staple production of 
the Southern States of the American 
Union. The supremacy of cotton 
seems to have been first asserted by 
Mr. James H. Hammond, of South 
Carolina, in a speech delivered by 
him in the senate of the United 
States, on the 4th of March, 1858, 
from which the following is an ex- 
tract : — 

" No : you dare not make war upon cot- 
ton. No power on earth dares tcmake war 
upon it. Cotton is king. Until lately, the 
Bank of England was king ; but she tried 
to put her screws, as usual, the fall be- 
fore the last, on the cotton crop, and was 
utterly vanquished. The last power has 
been conquered. Who can doubt, that 
has looked at recent eyents, that cotton 
is supreme ? " 

When . . . the pedigree of King Cotton is 
traced, he is found to be the lineal child of the 
Tariff; called into being by a specific duty» 
reared by a tax laid upon the manufacturing 
industry of the North, to create the culture of 
the raw material in the South. JE. Everett. 

King Es'ter-m^re. The hero of an 
ancient and beautiful legend, which, 
according to Bishop Percy, would 
^eem to have been written while a 
great part of Spain was in the hands 
of the Saracens or Moors, whose em- 
pire was not fully extinguished be- 
fore the year 1491. Sir Walter Scott 
suggests that an old romance, entitled 

" How the King of Estmureland 
married the daughter of the King of 
Westmureland," may have been the 
origin of the legend. 

King Franconi (fron/ko^ne', 62). A 
nickname given to Joachim Murat 
(1767-1815), a famous French gen- 
eral, from a celebrated mountebank 
of that name, on account ©f his fan- 
tastic love of finery in dress. See 
Handsome Swokdsman. 

King Goldemar. See Goldemar, 

King Giinther. 


King Horn. The hero and title of a 
French metrical romance, the work 
of a poet who calls himself " Mestre 
Thomas," heM by some to be a 
composition of the latter part of the 
twelfth century, and the original of 
the English ''' Home Childe," or 

^ " Geste of Kyng Horn." Brothers, 
the English poem is regarded as the 
earlier of the two. Bishop Percy 
ascribed the English " King Horn " 
to so early a date as " within a cen- 
tury after the Conquest," although, 
in its present foim, it is probably not 
older than the latter part of the thir- 
teenth century. 

King liog. A character in a cele- 
brated fable of ^sop, which relates 
that the frogs, grown weary of living 
without government, petitioned Jupi- 
ter for a king, and that, in response 
to their request, he threw down a 
log among them for their ruler. The 
fable adds, that the frogs, though at 
first terrified by the sudden appear- 
ance of their king, on becoming 
familiarized to his presence, and 
learning his true character, expe- 
rienced a complete change of feeling, 
their dread being turned into the 
utmost contempt. They therefore 
entreated Jupiter for another king; 
whereupon he sent them a stork, — 
or, as some say, a serpent, — who 
immediately began to devour them 
with unappeasable voracity. Find- 
ing that neither their liberty, prop- 
erty, nor lives were secure under such 
a ruler, they sent yet once more to 
Jupiter for another king; but instead 

0^ For the **Key to the Scheme of Froauaciatlon," ynXix the accompanying Explanations, 




of giving them one, he returned this 
answer merely : '' They that will not 
be contented when they are well, 
must be patient when things go 

So, when Jove's block descended from on 

high, . . . 
Loud thunder to its bottom shook the bog. 
And the hoarse nation croaked, " God save 

King Log I " Pope. 

I do not find throughout the whole of it 
[Wouter Van Twilier^s reign] a single in- 
stance of any offender being Drought to pun- 
ishment, — a most indubitable sign of a mer- 
ciful governor, and a case unparalleled, ex- 
cepting in the reign of the illustrious King 
Log, from whom, it ia hinted, the renowned 
Van T wilier was a lineal descendant. 

W. Irving. 

King-maker, The. A title popularly 
conferred upon Richard Nevil, Earl 
of Warwick (d. 1471), who was 
chiefly instrumental in deposing 
King Henry VI., and raising the 
Duke of York to the throne as Ed- 
ward IV., and who afterward put 
Edward to flight, and restored the 
crown to Henry. 

Thus, centuries after feudal times are pasL 
we find warriors still gathering under the old 
castle-walls, and commanded by a feudal lord, 
just as in the days of the King-maker, who, no 
doubt, often mustered his retainers in the 
same market-place where I beheld this mod- 
em regiment. Hawthorne. 

King Nibelung (ne/b^-lo6ng). A 
king of the Nibelungen, a mythical 
Burgundian tribe, who give name to 
the great mediaeval epic of Germany, 
the " Nibelungen Lied." He be- 
queathed to his two sons a hoard or 
treasure beyond all price or compu- 
tation, and incapable of diminution, 
which was won by Siegfried, who 
made war upon the Nibelungen and 
, conquered them. See Siegfried. 

Here is learning; an irregular treasury, if 
;ou will, but inexhaustible as the hoard, of 


'ina Nibelung. which twelve wagons in 
twelve days, at the rate of three journeys a 
day, could not carry oflF. Cartyle. 

King No'del. The name of the lion 
in the old German animal-epos enti- 
tled " Reinecke Fuchs." See Re- 


King of Bark. A sobriquet given by 
the Swedish peasants of his day to 
Christopher III. (d. 1448), king of 
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, on 
account of their having had to use 
birch-bark mixed with meal, in a 
time of scarcity. Michelet says that 

Christopher himself was obliged to 
subsist temporarily on the bark of a 
tree, and derived the nickname from 
this circumstance. 
King of Bath (2). A title bestowed 
upon Richard Nash (1674-1761), com- 
monly called " Beau Nash," a cele- 
brated master of the ceremoiyes, or 
president. over amusements, at liath, 
England. His reign continued, with, 
undiminished splendor, for fifteen 

King of Beggars. A sobriquet given 
to Bampfylde Moore Carew, a noted 
English vagabond, who dieu in 1758. 
An " Apology " for his life was writ- 
ten by Robert Goadby (8vo, London, 

King of Brave Men. [Fr. Roi des 
Braves.] A surname or title given 
by the troops under his command to 
Henry IV. (1563-1610), a valiant and 
successful general. 

King of Cots'\^6uld. Grey Brydges, 
Lord Chandos (d. 1621); — so called 
from his magnificent style of living, 
and his numerous attendants. Cots- 
would^ or Cotswold^ is the name of a 
range of hills in Gloucestershire, in 
the neighborhood of Sudley Castle, 
his lordship's residence. 

Bling of England's Viceroy. A 
name given bv the French, in de- 
rision, to Louis XVIII. (1755-1824), 
on account of his manifestations of 
gratitude to the government of Great 
Britain for the assistance he had 
received from it in recovering the 
throne of his ancestors. 

King of PeuiUetons (fo^^'^to^', 43, 
62). [Fr. Le Bm des Feuilletons.'] 
A sobriquet given to Jules Gabriel 
Janin (b. 1804), a clever and ex- 
tremely popular French journalist, 
who for many years was connected 
with the " Journal des D^bata." as 
a writer for the "yem7/etow," or that 
part of the paper devoted to light 
literature and criticism, it being the 
foot of the page, and separated from 
the upper portion by a heavy line. 

King of Kings. [Gr. Bao-tAevV Ba- 

crtAewv.] 1, A title given to Christ 
in Hev, xvii. 14. 

and for the Remarks and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




2. A title given to Artaxerxes, or 
Ardishir (d. 241), the first Sassanide 
king of Persia. 
King of Men. 1. A title given by 
Homer, in the "Iliad," to Agamem- 
non, king of Mycenae. 

She, too, [Electra,] though a Grecian -wom- 
an, and the daughter of the King of Men, 
yet«wept sometimes, and hid her face in her 
robe. De Quiticey. 

2. The same title is given to 
Jupiter and to Odin. See Jupiter 
and Odin. 

King of Painters. A title assumed 
by Parrhasius of Ephesus, a cele- 
brated painter of antiquity, and the 
contemporary of Zeuxis. According 
to Plutarch, he was accustomed to 
dress himself in a purple robe, and 
wear a crown of gold. 

King of Preachers. [Fr. Le JRoi aes 
Predicafeurs.] A name conferred 
upon Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704), 
a noted French preacher. 

King of Reptiles. *" [Fr. Le Boi des 
Reptiles.'] A nickname given to 
Bernard Germain Etienne de la Ville, 
Count Lac(?p6de (1758-1825), on ac- 
count of his researches in natural 
history, and also on account of the 
ready eloquence with which he justi- 
fied the arbitrary measures of the 
Emperor Napoleon. He was the 
author of a work entitled " Histoire 
des Reptiles.'''' 

King of Tars. The subject and title 
of an ancient English metrical ro- 
mance. Tars is Thrace, or, accord- 
ing to some commentators. Tarsus. 

King of Terrors. A common person- 
ification of death. 

His confidence shall he rooted out of his 
tabernacle, and it shall bring him to the King 
of Terrors. Job xviii. 14. 

King of the Border. A name given 
to Adam Scott of Tushielaw, a noted 
rgbber who infested the border terri- 
tory of England and Scotland. 

King of the Courts. [Lat. Rex 
Judidorum.'] A name conferred 
by Cicero upon Quintus Hortensius 
(d. B. c. 50), a distinguished Roman 
forensic orator. • 

King of the French. [Fr. Le Roi des 
Frangais.] The original style or ti- 

tle of the French kings, which was 
changed into that of " King of 
France" by Philip Augustus (1179- 
1223). On the 16th of Oct.,a789, the 
National Assembly decreed that the 
old style should be resumed by Louis 
XVI. In 1792, the monarchy was 
abolished, and the'^epublic declared ; 
but in 1814 the house of Bourbon 
was restored, and both Louis XVIII. 
and Charles X. assumed the title of 
" King of France." In 1830, the 
Revolutionof July occurred, and soon 
after Louis Philippe was called to 
the throne as constitutional " King 
of the French," a title which he 
formally accepted on the 9th of 

King of the Markets. [Fr. Le Roi 
des Halles.l A sobriquet conferred 
upon Francois de Vendome Beaufort 
(1616-1669), grandson of Henry IV. 
He acquired this name from his pop- 
ularity with the Parisians, his familiar 
manners, and the pleasure he took 
in using their language and slang. 

King of the Romans. [Lat. Rex 
Romanorum.'] A title assumed by 
the Emperor Henry II., previous to 
his coronation in 1014. He was the 
first reigning prince of Italy or Ger- 
many who bore it. In 1055, it was 
conferred upon the eldest son of 
Henry III., and afterward, for many 
years, was borne by the heirs of the 
emperors of Germany. Napoleon I. 
conferred the title of " King of 
Rome" upon his son, March 20, 

King of "Waters. A name given to 
the river Amazon. 

King of Yvetot (ev'to')- [Fr. Le 
Roi d' Yvetot.] A title assumed by 
the lord of a little principality in 
France, named Yvetot, some time in 
the latter part of the eleventh cen- 
tury. In the sixteenth century, the 
title of king was changed to that of 
prince souverain, and, at a later day, 
the idea of sovereignty attached to 
this seigniory disappeared. B^ran- 
ger has made of the King of Yvetot 
a model of a potentate, a good little 
king, not known in history, but hap- 
pier than any monarch, having taken 

• For tSe " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with tlie accompanying Explanations, 




pleasure for his code. " Under this 
apologue," says Tissot, "Beranger 
has satirized the Great Emperor him- 
sehV ^ The title is metaphorically 
applied'to a ruler of large pretensions, 
but insignificant authority. 

There was a King of Yvetot once 

But little known in story; 
To bed betimes, and rising late, 
Sound sleeper without glory; 
"With cotton night-cap, tcK), instead 
Of crown, would Jenny deck his head,' 

'T is said. 
Rat tat, rat tat, rat tat, rat tat, 
Oh, what a good little king was that I 

Rat tat. Beranger, Trans. 

They would exchange Cassar for Prusias, 
and Napoleon for the King of Yvetot. 

Victor Hugo, Trans. 

King Pe-9heur'. [Fr. pecheur, a sin- 
ner.] Uncle of Perceval, and keeper 
of the sangreal and sacred lance, the 
guardianship of which was intrusted 
only to a descendant of Joseph of 
Arimathea, and on the sole condi- 
tion of his leading a life of perfect 
purity in thought, word, and deed. 
Having one day so far forgotten the 
obligations of his sacred office as to 
look with unhallowed eye upon a 
young female pilgrim, whose robe 
was accidentally loosened as she knelt 
before him, his frailty was instantly 
punished by the sacred lance spon- 
taneously falling upon him, and in- 
flicting a deep and incurable wound. 

King Pellenore. See Pellenore. 

KingP^taud (pi^to'). A French name 
occurring only in the phrase, "Ze cour 
de Roi Pelaud^'^ The court of King 
P(5taud. It derives its origin from 
an assembly of beggars, who formerly 
held meetings under the presidency 
of the most adroit, or the poorest, 
among them, who took the title of 
King P^taud (from the Latin peter e, 
to beg). The phrase "the court of 
King P^taud" denotes a place of 
confusion, where every thing is out 
of order, where every body is master. 

King Pym. A sobriquet given, on 
account of his great popularity and 
his political influence, to John Pym 
(1584-1643), leader of the English 
house of commons during the strug- 
gle preceding the parliamentary wars. 
He was originally so called by the 
royalists, in derision. 

King Kyence. See Eyence, King. 

Kings, The Do-nothing. See 
Faineants, Les Rois. 

King Sacripant. 

See Sacripant, 

King Serpent. See King Log. 

It might have been as well expected that the 
frogs in the fable would, in case of invasion, 
have risen in a mass to defend King Serpent. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Kings of Brentford, The Two. 
See Brentford, The Two Kings 


Kings of Cologne, The Three. 
See Cologne, The Three Kings 

OF. ' 

King Stork. See King Log. 

Kink'el, Mme. A pseudonym adopt- 
ed by Miss Elizabeth Sara Sheppard, 
an English novelist (d. 1862), author 
of " Charles Auchester," " Counter- 
parts," &c. 

Kin'mont "Willie. William Arm- 
strong, of Kinnronth, a notorious free- 
booter of the latter part of the six- 
teenth century, and the hero of a 
spirited and famous Scottish ballad. 

Kirke, Edmund (4). The hterary 
name of James Roberts Gilmore, an 
American writer, author of " Among 
the Pines," " My Southern Friends," 

Kirke's Lambs. A name given to 
the soldiers of Colonel Percy Kirke, 
an officer in the English army in the 
time of James II., on account of their 
ferocity and the barbarities which 
they committed. 

Kiss of Lamourette. See Lamou- 
rette's Kiss. 

Kitchen Cabinet. A name sportively 
given, in the United States, to Francis 
P. Blair and Amos Kendall, by the 
opponents of President Jackson's ad- 
ministration. Blair was the editor 
of " The Globe," the organ of the 
president, and Kendall was one of the 
principal contributors to the paper. 
As it was necessary for Jackson to 
consult frequently with these gentle- 
men, and as, to avoid observation, 

" they were accustomed, when they 
called upon him, to go in by a back 
door, the Whig party styled them, in 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




derision, the " Kitchen Cabinet," al- 
leging that it was by their advice 
that me president removed so many 
Whigs from office and put Democrats 
in their place. 

Kite, Sergeant. A prominent char- 
acter in Farauhar's comedy of " The 
Recruiting Officer." He is an origi- 
nal and admirable picture of low life 
and humor. 

Kitely. The name of a rich city 
merchant, extremely jealous of his 
wife, in Ben Jonson's comedy of 
" Every Man in his Humor." 

KXabotermann (klS-bo'tef-man). A 
ship kobold of the Baltic, who is some- 
times heard, but rarely seen. He 
helps sailors at their work, and beats 
them with a rope's-end, when needful. 
He appears only to doomed vessels, 
sitting on the bowsprit of a phantom- 
ship called " Carmilhan," smoking 
a short pipe, dressed in yellow sail- 
or's clothes, and wearing a night-cap. 
[Written also Klabautermann.] 

Klaus, Peter (klOwss). The hero of 
an old popular tradition of Germany, 

— the prototype of Rip Van Winkle, 

— represented as a goat -herd from 
Sittendorf, who, one day leading his 
herd to pasture on the Kyffhauser, 
was accosted by a young man, who 
silently beckoned him to follow. The 
goat-herd, obeying the direction, was 
led ii^to a deep dell inclosed by crag- 
gy precipices, where he found twelve 
knightly personages playing at skit- 
tles, no one of whom uttered a word. 
Gazing around him, he observed a 
can of wine which exhaled a delicious 
fragrance. Drinking from it, he felt 
inspired with new life, but at length 
was overpowered by sleep. When 
he awoke, he found himself again on 
the plain where his goats were accus- 
tomed to rest. But, rubbing his eyes, 
he could see neither dog nor goats ; 
he was astonished at the height of 
the grass, and at trees which he had 
never before observed. Descending 
the mountain and entering the village, 
he found, to his consternation, that 
every thing in the place wore an 
altered look ; most of the people were 
strangers to him; the few acquaint- 

ances he met seemed to have grown 
suddenly old; and only at last by 
mutual inquiries was the truth elicited 
that he had been asleep for twenty 
years. The story is related inOtmar's 
" Volcks-Sagen " (Traditions of the 
Harz), Bremen, 1800. See Epimen- 
iDEs, Sleeping Beauty in the 
Wood, and Winkle, Rip Van. 

Your Epimenidea, your somnolent Peter 
Klatts, since named " Rip Van "Winkle." 


Knick'er-bock/er, Die'drich. (de'- 
drik nik'^r-bok'er). The imaginary 
author of a humorous fictitious " His- 
tory of New York," written by Wash- 
ington Irving. 

Knight of La Manclia. See Don 

Knight of the Sorrowful Counte- 
nance. [Also Knight of the Woful 
Countenance^ or Knight of the Rueful 
Countenance.^ An appellation given 
to Don Quixote. See Don Quix- 

Know-nothings. A name popular- 
ly given, in the United States, to a 
short-lived party of " Native Amer- 
icans," a secret political order, which 
sprung up in 1853, and into which 
no members were admitted whose 
grandfathers were not natives of the 
country. To all questions regarding 
the movements of the organization, 
the prescribed reply was, "I don't 
know; " hence the nicl^name. The 
cardinal principles of the party were, 
the repeal or radical modification of 
the naturalization laws ; the ineligi- 
bility to public office of any but na- 
tive Americans; a pure American 
common-school system; and opposi- 
tion to Catholicism. The party split 
on the slavery question, and became 
divided into " North Americans " and 
" South Americans." See Hindoos 
and Sam. 

Kriemhilt. See Chbiemhild. 

Kriss Kringle (kring'gl), or Christ 
Kinkle (kingk'l). [From Ger. 
Kristkindlein^ Christ-child.] A term 
somewhat vaguely used in the 
United States, — where German and 
Dutch customs prevail, — both for 
Christ in his boyhood and for St. 

09* For the *' Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanatlonst 




Nicholas. It generally means the 
latter, who, under the influence of 
the former, is presumed to issue his 
rewards to good children, on the vigil 
of his festival, " Christ Kinkle eve," 
disguised in a fur cap and strange 
apparel, with a capacious bag before 
him from which to distribute his 
gifts. Under the name Pelznichel 
{pelzy fur), in Germany, he is the 
terror of the young at that season, as 
he is presumed to have heard all 
about them from the omniscient 
Christ-child. He is the Mumbo Jumbo 
of Teutonic nations. By the little 
children he is often propitiated as 
follows : — 

" Christkindchen komm; 
Much mich fromm; 
Das ich zu dii- in Himmel komm." 

Christ-child come ; make me devout ; 
that I may come to thee in heaven. 
On Christmas eve, the young folks 
hang up their stockings in their 
chambers in expectation of being 
held in remembrance by the same 
mysterious stranger. [Written also 
Criss Kringle and C r i s s 

Kuvera (koo-va'r^). [Sansk., having 
a wretched body.] {Hin^u Myth.) 
The god of riches, represented as 
frightfully deformed, and as riding in 
a car drawn by hobgoblins. 

apl for the Remarks and Bules to which the numl>eri after f ertam worcls refer, see pp. xiv-zxzii. 





Iiabe, Queen. See Queen Labe. 

Hjasjti'e-sis. [Gr. Aax^o-ts.] {Gr. ^ 
* Rom. Mytii.) One of the three Fates; 
the one that spun the thread of life. 
See Parcic. 

lia-co'ni-a. A name originally given 
to a tract of country bounded by the 
Merrimack, the Kennebec, the ocean, 
and the "River of Canada," included 
in a royal grant to Ferdinando Gorges 
and John Mason. 

Ijadies' Peace. [Fr. La Paix des 
Dames.] {Fr. Hist.) The treaty- of 
peace concluded at Cambrai, in 1529, 
between Francis I. of France, and 
Charles V., emperor of Germany. 
It was so called because it was chief- 
ly negotiated by Louise of Savoy, 
mother to Francis, and Margaret, 
duchess -dowager of Savoy, the em- 
peror's aunt. 

Lady Bountiful. A character in 
Farquhar's "Beaux' Stratagem; " a 
benevolent old country gentlewoman 
who goes about curmg all sorts of 

To sum up the whole, the dame . . . being 
a sort of Lady Bountiful in her way, . . . was 
proud of the skill by which she had averted 
the probable attacks of hereditary malady, so 
inveterate in the family of Bridgenorth. 

Sir W. Scott. 

He [Southey] conceives that ... he [the 
maj^istrate] oufrht to be a perfect jack-of-all- 
trades, — architect, engineer, schoolmaster, 
merchant, theologian, a Lady Bountiful in 
every parish, a Paul Pry in every house, spy- 
ing, eavesdropping, relieving, admonishing, 
spending our money for us, choosing our 
opinions for us. Macaulay. 

Lady of Avenel, The "WTiite. See 
White Lady of Avenel. 

Lady of England. A title conferred 
upon Matilda, daughter of Henry I. 
of England, and wife of Geoffrey 
l*lantagenet, by a council held at 
Winchester, April 7, 1141. 

Lady of Sha-lott'. A maiden of 
gentle birth and exquisite beauty, 
who fell in love with Lancelot du 
Lac, and died on finding her passion 
unrequited and altogether hopeless. 
Tennyson has made her story the 

subject of one of the most beautiful 
of his minor poems. 

Lady of the Lake. 1. A name given 
• to Vivian, mistress of the enchanter 
Merlin. She had a palace situated 
in the midst of an imaginary lake, — 
like that often seen by the traveler 
across tropical deserts,*^ — whose de- 
luding semblance served as a barrier 
to her residence. Here she dwelt, 
surrounded by a splendid court of 
knights and damsels, and attended 
by a numerous retinue. 

2. The title of a poem by Sir 
Walter Scott, and a name given to 
its heroine, Ellen, the daughter of 
Douglas, the former favorite of King 
James, but now banished, disgraced, 
and living in a secret retreat near 
Loch Katrine. 

Lady of the Sun. A name given to 
Alice Ferrers (or Pierce), a mistress 
of Edward HI. of England, and a 
married woman of great beauty, who 
had been lady of the bed-chamber to 
Qu6en Philippa. Although Edward 
lavished upon her both honors and 
riches, yet at his death she stole hjg 
jewels, taking even the rings from 
his fingers. 

Lady of Threadneedle Street. See 
Old Lady of Thkeadneedle 

Lady Touchwood. See Touch- 
wood, Lady. 

L&-er't$g (4). Son to Polonius, and 
brother to Ophelia, in Shakespeare's 
tragedy of " Hamlet." 

La-feu'. An old lord, in Shakespeare's 
" All 's Well that Ends Well." 

LS-ga'do. The name of the capital 
city of Balnibarbi, a continent subject 
to the king of Laputa. (See Gulli- 
ver, Lemuel.) Lagado is celebrated 
for its grand academy of projectors, 
who try to extract sunbeams from 
cucumbers, to calcine ice into gun- 
powder, &c. In the description of 
this fancied academy. Swift ridicules 

■ For the " Key to the Scheme of Frouunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




ttie speculative philosophers and the 
false and chimerical pretenders to 
science who were so common in his 

' day. 

La'i-us (20). [Gr. AaVo?.] (Gr.^Eom. 
Myth.) A king of Thebes, and the 
father of CEdipus, by whom he was 
unwittingly killed. 

X|$-ke'di-6ii, Isaac. See Jew, The 

Lake Poets, Lake School, Lakers, 
or Lakists. A nickname given by 
the British critics, near the beginning 
of the present century, to " a certain 
brotherhood of poets" — to use the 
language of the " Edinburgh Review," 
vol. xi., p. 214 — who "haunted for 
some years about the lakes of Cum- 
berland," and who were erroneously 
thought to have united on some 
settled theory or principles of com- 
position and style. Wordsworth, 
Southey, and Coleridge were re- 
garded as the chief representatives 
of this so-called school, but Lamb, 
Lloyd, and Wilson were also included 
under the same designation. 

JS^" " The author who is now before us 
[Southey] belongs to a sect of poets thrst 
has established itself in this country 
within tliese ten or twelve years, and is 
looked upon, we believe, as one of its 
chief champions and apostles. The pecu- 

•" liar doctrines of this sect it would not, 
perhaps, be very easy to explain; but 
tiiat they are dissenters from the estab- 
lished systems in poetry and criticism is 

• admitted, and proved, indeed, by the 
whole tenor of their compositions." . . . 
" The productions of this school . . . can- 
not be better characterized than by an 
enumeration of the sources from which 
their materials have been derived. The 
greatest part of them, we apprehend, will 
be found to be composed of the following 
elements : 1. The anti - social principles 
and distempered sensibility of Rousseau ; 
his discontent with the present constitu- 
tion of society ; his paradoxical morality ; 
and his perpetual hankerings after some 
unattainable state of voluptuous virtue 
and perfection. 2. The simplicity and en- 
ergy (horresco refprens) of Kotzebue and 
Schiller. 3. The homehness and harsh- 
ness of some of Cowper's language and 
versification, interchanged occasionally 
with the innocence of Ambrose Philips, 
or the quaintness of Quarles and Dr. 
Donne. From the diligent study of these 
few originals, we have no doubt that an 

entire art of poetry may be collected, by 
the assistance of which the very gentlest 
of our readers may soon be (luaiified to 
compose a poem as correctly versified as 
' Thalaba,' and to deal out sentiment and 
description with all the sweetness of 
Lamb, and all the magnificence of Cole- 
ridge." Edinburgh Rev., vol.. i. 
4®= " When, some years ago, a gentle- 
man [Mr. Jeffrey], the chief writer and 
conductor of a celebrated review [the 
' Edinburgh Keview ' ] distinguished by 
its hostility to Mr. Southey, spent a day 
or two at Keswick [Mr. So a they 's place 
of residence], he was circumstantially 
informed by what series of accidents it 
had happened that Mr. Wordsworth, Mr. 
Southey, and I had become neighbors ; 
and how utterly groundless was the sup- 
position that we considered ourselves as 
belonging to any common school but that 
of goq^ sense, confirmed by the long- 
established models of the best times of 
Greece, Rome, Italy, and England, and 
still more groundless the notion that Mr. 
Southey (for, as to myself, I have pub- 
lished so little, and that little of so little 
importance, as to make it almost ludi- 
crous to mention my name at all) could 
have been concerned in the formation of 
a poetic sect with Mr. Wordsworth, when 
so many of his works had been published, 
not only previously to any acquaintance 
between them, but before Mr. Words- 
worth himself had written any thing but 
in a diction ornate and uniformly sus- 
tained ; when, too, the slightest exami- 
nation will make it evident that between 
those and the after-writings of Mr. South- 
ey there exists no other difference than 
that of a progressive degree of excellence, 
from progressive development of power, 
and progressive facility from habit and 
increase of experience. Yet, among the 
first articles which this man wrote after 
his return from Keswick, we were char- 
acterized as ' the school of whining and 
hypochondriacal poets that haunt the 
Lakes.' " Coleridge. 

Lake State. A name popularly given 
to the State of Michigan, which bor- 
ders upon the four lakes, Superior, 
Michigan, Huron, and Erie. 

Laks'mi. (Hindu Myth.) The con- 
sort of Vishnu, and the goddess of 
beauty, grace, riches, and pleasure. 
She is a favorite subject of Indian 
painting and poetry, and is pictured 
as a being of transcendent loveliness, 
yet of a dark blue color. 

LSllaRobkli. The title of a poem 
by Moore, and the name of its hero- 

>and for the Keraarks and Kules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




ine, the daughter of the great Au- 
rengzebe. She is betrothed to the 
young king of Bucharia, and sets 
forth with a splendid train of attend- 
ants, to meet him in the delightful 
valley of Cashmere. To amuse the 
languor, or divert the impatience, of 
the royal bride, in the noontide and 
night halts of her luxurious progress, 
a young Cashmerian poet had been 
sent by the gallantry of the bride- 
groom, and, on these occasions, he 
recites the several tales that make up 
the bulk of the poem. With him 
she falls desperately in love, and by 
the time she enters the lovely vale of 
Cashmere, and sees the glittering 
palaces and towers prepared for her 
reception, she feels that sh£ would 
joyfully forego all this pomp and 
splendor, and fly to the desert with 
the youthful bard whom she adores. 
He, however, has now disappeared 
from her side, and she is supported, 
with fainting heart and downcast 
eye, into the presence of her tyrant; 
when a well-known voice bids her be 
of good cheer, and, looking up, she 
sees her beloved poet in the prince 
himself, who had assumed this gal- 
lant disguise, and won her affections, 
without any aid from his rank or her 

Lam'bro. The piratical father of 
Haidee, in Byron's "Don Juan;" 
considered by Coleridge to be the 
finest of all Byron's characters. 

Lame and Unstable Peace. [Fr. 
Paix Boiteuse et Mal-assise.] {Fr. 
Hist.) A name given to a treaty of 
peace, of short duration, concluded 
with the Calvinists, in 1 568, in the 
name of Charles IX., by Biron, who 
was lame. [Called also Ill-grounded 
Peace and Patched-up Peace."] 

La'mi-a. [Gr. Aafiia.] ( Gr. ^ Ham. 
Myth.) A female phantom, whose 
name was used as a bugbear to 
frighten children. According to tra- 
dition, she was a Libyan queen, a 
daughter of Belus, of great beauty, 
and beloved by Jupiter, for which 
reason the jealous Juno robbed her 
of her children. Lamia, filled with 
. revenge and despair, and unable to 

injure Juno, robbed others of their 
children, whom she afterward mur- 
dered. Her face became fearfully 
distorted and ugly by indulgence in 
such savage cruelty, and Jupiter in- 
vested her with still greater terror by 
giving her the power of taking out 
her eyes and putting them in again 
at will. Lamia is the subject and ti- 
tle of an admired poem by Keats. • 
J8®=- In a later age, a belief sprang up 
in a plurality of Lamiae, handsome spec- 
ters, who, by voluptuous artifices, enticed 
young men to them, in order to feast 
upon their flesh and blood. 

Larn'mi-kin. The subject of a well- 
known Scottish ballad. 

>8@=* " The hero, if such a term is af^pli- 
cable to the blood-thirsty mason, has been 
celebrated under the names of Lammikin, 
Lamkin, Linkin, Belinkin, Bold Rankin, 
and Balcanqual, and has become, through 
the medium of injudicious servants, the 
prime terror of the Scottish nursery. 
Like most such ogrea, he is a myth ; at 
least, I have never seen any satisfactory 
attempt at his identification, nor has any 
one*discovered the locality of the castle 
which he built and baptized with blood." 

Iiamourette's Kiss {Wmoo^ret'). 
[Fr. Le Baiser de Lamouretie.'] * (Fr. 
nist.) A name derisively given to a 
sudden reconciliation of the different 
factions of the Legislative Assembly, 
which had previously been bitterly 
hostile to each other. It was brought 
about, on the 7th of July, 1792, by 
an eloquent appeal of the Abb^ La- 
mourette, constitutional bishop of 
Lyons, — whose name signifies the 
sweetheart^ — but was of very brief 
duration. [Called also La Reconci- 
liation JVormande^ or The Norman 
Reconciliation^ from the countrj'' of 
the bishop.] 

ij^ " The deputies of every faction, 
Royalist, Constitutionalist, Girondist, 
Jacobin, and Orleanist, rushed into each 
other's arms, and mixed tears with the 
solemn oaths by which they renounced 
the innovations supposed to be impute(i 
to them. The king was sent for to enjoy 
this spectacle of concord, so strangely 
and so unexpectedly renewed. But the 
feeling, though strong, — and it might 
be with many overpowering for the mo- 
ment, — was but like oil spilt on the rag- 
ing sea, or rather like a shot fired across 

VS* For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanationa, 




the wares of a torrent, which, though it 
counteracts them by its momentary im- 
pulse, cannot for a second alter their 
course. The factions, like Le Sage's de- 
mons, detested each other the more for 
having been compelled to embrace." 

Sir W, Scott. 

IiSn'ce-lSt du LSc, or Lancelot of 
the Ijake. The son of King Ban 
of Brittany, and one of the most 
famous knights of the Round Table ; 
equally remarkable for his gallantry 
and good-nature. He was the hero 
of a celebrated romance of chivalry, 
written in Latin by an unknown au- 
thor, and translated by Walter Mapes, 
in the twelfth century. He received 
the appellation of" du Lac " from hav- 
ing been educated at the court of Viv- 
ian, mistress of the enchanter Merlin, 
and better known as the Lady of the 
Lake. Lancelot was celebrated for 
his amours with Guinever, the wife 
of his friend and sovereign, King 
Arthur, and for the exploits he un- 
dertook for her sake, which involved 
him in a long and cruel war with Ar- 
thur. Toward the close of his life, 
he became a hermit. 

J8^ " Thou . . . wert never matched 
of none earthly knight's hands ; and thou 
wert the curtiest knight that ever bare 
shield ; and thou wert the truest friend 
to thy lover that ever bestrode horse ; and 
thou wert the truest lover, of a sinful 
man, that ever loved woman ; and thou 
wert the kindest man that ever struck 
with sword ; and thou wert the goodliest 
person that ever came among press of 
knights ; and thou wert the meekest man 
and the gentlest that ever ate in hall 
ai^png ladies ; and thou wert the stern- 
est knight to thy mortal foe that ever put 
spear in the rest." Morte cf Arthur. 

Land of Beulali. In Bunyan's alle- 
gory, " The Pilgrim's Progress," a 
land of rest and quiet (symbolizing 
the Christian's peace of mind), rep- 
resented as lying upon the hither 
side of the river of Death. In it the 
pilgrims tarry till their summons 
comes to cross the stream, and enter 
the Celestial City. The name occurs 
in Isa. Ixii. 4. 

4®=- " After this, I beheld until they 
came unto the land of Beulah,- where the 
sun shine th night and day. Here, be- 
cause they were weary, they betook them- 

selves awhile to rest. But a little whil* 
soon refreshed them here ; for the bells 
did so ring, and the trumpets continu- 
ally sounded so melodiously, that they 
could not sleep, and yet they received 
as much refreshing as if they had slept 
their sleep ever so soundly. Here also 
all the noise of them that walked the 
streets was, More pilgrims are come to 
town ! And another would answer, say- 
ing, And so many went over the water, 
and were let in at the golden gates to-day ! 
In this land they heard nothing, saw noth- 
ing, smelt nothing, tasted nothing, that 
was oflFensive to their stomach or mind ; 
only when they tasted of the water of the 
river over which they were to go, they 
thought that it tasted a little bitterish to 
the palate ; but it proved sweet when it 
was down." 

Land of Bondage. A name some- 
times given to Eg>^t. The Israel- 
ites, during the first part of their so- 
journ in that country, were treated 
with great kindness, and increased 
in numbers and prosperity-; but at 
length " there arose up a new king 
over Egypt, which knew not Joseph,'^ 
and who adopted a subtle system to 
afflict and reduce them by making 
them perform forced labor, and soon 
afterward by killing their male chil- 
dren. This oppression led to the ex- 
odus, the forty years' wandering in 
the wilderness, and the subsequent 
conquest and occupation of the land 
of Canaan. 

Land of Cakes. A name sometimes 
given to Scotland, because* oatmeal 
cakes are a common national article 
of food, particularly among the poorer 

Hear, Land o' Cakes and brither Scots, 
Frae Maidenkirk to John o' Groats, 
If there 's a hole in a* your coate, 

I rede ye tent it: 
A chiel 's amane you takin' notes. 

And, taith, he '11 prent it. Bums, 

The lady loves, and admires, and worships 

every thing Scottish; the gentleman looks 

down on the Land of Cakes like a superior 

intelligence. Blackwood's Mag. 

Land of N"od. The state or condition 
of sleep, conceived of as a country 
which people visit in their dreams. 

J8®=- This figure is evidently borrowed 
from the use of the English word worf, as 
denoting the motion of the head in drow- 
siness. But it was also, most probably, 
at first employed as containing a ludi- 
crous allusion to the language of Scripture 

and for the Kemarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




in regard to the conduct of the first mur- 
derer: ''And Cain went out from the 
presence of the Lord, and dwelt in the 
land of Nod." ( Gen. iv. 16.) 

"And d' ye ken, lass," said Madge, "there 's 
queer things chanced since ye hae been in 
the Land of Nod f " Sir W. Scott. 

Land of Promise. See Promised 

Land of Steady Habits. A name 
by which the State of Connecticut 
is sometimes designated, in allusion 
to the settled usages and staid de- 
portment of its inhabitants. 

Land of "Wisdom. [Fr. La Pays de 
Sapience.^ A name given to Nor- 
mandy, in France, because of the 
wise customs which have prevailed 
there, and also because of the skill 
and judgment of the people in mat- 
ters of j urisprudence. 

Lane, "Wycliffe. A pseudonym of 
Mrs. E. Jenings, a writer of the 
present day. 

Lang'staSf, LSun'ce-lot (2). A 
pseudonym under which " Salma- 
gundi " was jointly published by 
Washington Irving,' William Irving, 
and James K. Pafilding. 

Languish, Miss Lydia. The hero- 
ine of Sheridan's comedy of " The 
Rivals;" distinguished for the ex- 
travagance of her romantic notions. 

Let not those, however, who enter into a 
union for life without those embarrassments 
which delight a . . . Lydia Languish, and 
which are perhaps necessary to excite an en- 
thusiastic passion in breasts more firm than 
theirs, augur worse of their future happiness, 
because their own alliance is formed under 
calmer auspices. Sir W. Scott. 

Lanternois, L'tle des. (lei d^ 16^'- 
ter^na', 62). See Island of Lan- 

Li-oc'6-on. [Gr. Aao*c6wv.] {Gr. cf 
Rom. Myth.) A son of Priam and 
Hecuba, and a priest oC Apollo, or, 
as some say, of Neptune. He op- 
posed the reception of the Wooden 
Horse into Troy, thinking it some 
artifice of the deceitful Greeks. He 
and his two sons were killed by two 
monstrous serpents which came from 
the sea; but the reason of their be- 
ing made to suffer this horrible fate 
is differently stated. The serpents 
first entwined the boys, and, when 

their father attempted to rescue them, 
they involved and crushed him also 
in their coils. The death of Laocoon 
is the subject of one of the most 
magnificent and celebrated works of 
ancient sculpture still in existence; 
it was discovered in 1506 at Rome, 
and is now preserved in the Vatican. 

Li-od^a-mi'S. [Gr. AaoSoLjaeia.] ( Gr. 
cf Rom. Myth.) The wife of Protes- 
ilaus, whom she followed to the un- 
der-world, after his death at the 
hands of Hector. Wordsworth has 
made this myth the subject of his 
exquisite poem entitled " Laodamia.'* 
See PiiOTESiLAUs. 

Li-om'e-don. [Gr. Aao/u.eSwi'.] ( Gr, 
cf Rom. Myth.) A king of Troy, 
son of Ilus and Eurydice, and the 
father of Priam, Ganymede, and Ti- 
thonus. With the assistance of Apol- 
lo and Neptune, he built the walls of 
Troy ; but, when the work was done, 
he refused to pay the reward which 
he had promised for the labor, and 
expelled them from his dominions. 
Hereupon Neptune sent a sea- mon- 
ster to ravage the country; and in 
compliance with the command of an 
oracle, a maiden, chosen by lot, was 
from time to time sacrificed to pro- 
pitiate it. Gn one occasion, Laome- 
don's own daughter Hesione was the 
victim selected ; but Hercules saved 
her on receiving a certain solemn 
promise from her father, which not 
being fulfilled, Hercules killed him. 

Lap'i-th88. [Gr. AaTrt^ai.] {Gr.' if 
Rom. Myth.) Monstrous giant* in- 
habiting the mountains of Thessaly. 
At the marriage of their king, Pirith- 
ous, they fought with the Centaurs 
and vanquished them, but were after- 
ward themselves overcome by Her- 

La-pu'ta. The name of a flying isl- 
and described by Swift in his imagi- 
nary " Travels " of Lemuel Gulliver. 
It is said to be " exactly circular, its 
diameter 7837 yards, or about four 
miles and a half, and [it] consequently 
contains ten thousand acres." The 
inhabitants are chiefly speculative 
philosophers, devoted to mathemat- 
ics and music ; and such is their ha- 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




bitual absent-mindedness, that they 
are compelled to employ attendants 
— called "• flappers " — to rouse them 
from their profound meditations, 
when necessary, by striking them 
gently on the mouth and ears with a 
peculiar instrument consisting of a 
blown bladder with a few pebbles in 
it, fastened on the end of a stick, like 
the swiple of a flail. See Lagado. 

Thou art an unfortunate philosopher of 

Laputa, who has lost hia flapper in the throng. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Strange it is, that, whilst all biographers have 
worked with so much zeal upon the most 
barren dates or most baseless traditions in the 
great poet's life, realizing in a manner the 
dreams of Laputa, and endeavoring to extract 
Bunbeams from cucumbers, such a story with 
regard to such an event . . . should formerly 
have been dismissed without notice of any 
kind. De Quincey. 

So materializing is the spirit of the age, that 
the extended study of physical and mechani- 
cal science seems likely, one of these days, to 
convert our island into a Laputa. Keightley. 

Jjt,'T%. The hero of Byron's poem of 
the same name; represented as a 
chief long absent from his own do- 
main, who returns at length, attended 
by a single page. Dark hints and 
surmises are thrown out against him 
by a noble whom he encounters at a 
banquet, and who seems to be pos- 
sessed of some knowledge of the 
manner in which Lara's time has 
been occupied during his prolonged 
absence. This knight disappears 
most opportunely for the reputation 
of Lara, when he should have come 
forward to substantiate the charges 
against him, and is never heard of 
after. A peasant, however, is witness 
to the concealment of a corpse on the 
same night, and the reader is left to 
draw his own conclusions. 

La'rSs. [Lat., pi. of lar^ a word of 
Etruscan origin, signifying fore?, hing^ 
or hero.^ {Rom. Myth.) Tutelary 
deities of particular localities. They 
were of two classes : 1. Tiie domestic 
lares^ or household gods, whose im- 
ages were kept on the hearth in a 
little shrine, or in a small chapel, and 
who were regarded as disembodied 
and guardian spirits of virtuous an- 
cestors ; 2. The public lares^ protect- 
ors of streets, highways, cross-roads, 
&c. [Written also, in an Anglicized 
formf Lars.] 

La Ild^lie. A Protestant clergyir 
whose story — wrilLeu by iieiiij 
Mackenzie — is told in " The . Mir- 

Lar'vsB. {Rom. Myth.) The same 
as Lemures. See Lemures. 

Last Man. An appellation given, by 
the parliamentary party in England, 
to Charles I. (lGOO-1649), he being, 
in their expectation, the last monarch 
who would ever sit on the British 

He did not consider himself as free in con- 
science to join with any party which miglit be 
likely ultimately to acknowledge the interest 
of Charles Stuart, the son of the " Last Man,^* 
as Charles I. was familiarly and irreverently 
termed by them in their common discourse, 
as well as in their more elaborate predications 
and harangues. Sir W. Scott. 

Last of the Fathers. A title given 

by some Roman Catholic writers to 

St. Bernard (1091-1153), one of the 

most influential theologians and vo- 

- luminous writers of the Middle Ages. 

Last of the Goths. Roderick, the 
thirty-fourth and last of the Visi- 
gothic line of kings, who filled the 
throne of Spain from 414 to 711. 

Last of the Greeks. [Lat. Ultimus 
Grcecoj-um, Gr. "YaraTos 'EWrjviov.^ 
An appellation conferred upon Phil- 
opoemen (b. c. 253-183), a native of 
Arcadia, and the last really great and 
successful military leader of the an- 
cient Greeks. 

4^ " One of the Romans, to praise 
him, called him the Last of the Greeks, 
as if after him Greece had produced no 
great man, nor one who deserved the 
name of Greek." Plutarch^ Trans. 

Last of the Knights. A title be- 
stowed upon Maximilian I. (1459- 
1519), emperor of Germany. 

" The Last of the Knights" with his wild 
effrontery and spirited chamois - hunting, 
might be despised by the Italians as *' Mas- 
similiano PocM Danari [Maximilian the Pen- 
niless];" but he was beloved by the Austri- 
ans as " Our Max." Yonge. 

Last of the Mo-hi'cang. The hero 
of Cooper's novel of the same name, 
by which title the Indian chief Uncas 
is designated. 

Last of the Komans. [Lat. Ulti- 
mus Romanorum.] 1. A name ap- 
plied to the Roman general Aetius, 
by Procopius. When the invasion 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxU. 





of Attila took place in A. D. 450, 
Aetius, with the help of Theodoric, 
arrested it first by the relief of Or- 
leans, and then by the victory of 
Chalons. With his death, which oc- 
curred iij 454, the last support of the 
empire fell. 

2. A name given by Marcus Ju- 
nius Brutus to his fellow-conspirator, 
Caius Cassius Longinus (d. b. c. 42), 
one of the murderers of Julius Caesar, 
and one of the best generals of his 

3. [Fr. Ze Dernier des Eomains.'] 
A title bestowed upon Fran9ois Jo- 
seph Terasse Desbillons (1751-1789), 
a celebrated Jesuit, on account of 
the elegance and purity of his Latin 

Ijast of tlie Troubadours. A name 
given by his admirers to Jacques 
Jasmin (1798-1864), a native of (jas- 
cony, and the most eminent modern 
patois poet of France. 

La-ti'nus. A son of Faunus, and 
king of the Laurentians,, a people of 
Latium, in Italy. When .^neas 
first arrived in Latium, Latinus op- 
posed him ; but he afterward formed 
an alliance with him, and gave him 
his daughter Lavinia in marriage. 

Latin "War. (Ger. Hist.) An insur- 
rection of the peasantry in Salzburg, 
in 1523, occasioned % the unpop- 
ularity of an archbishop. It was 
quickly suppressed. 

Ki^-ix}[n%. [Gr. Atjtu), Doric, Aarw, 
^olic, AaTMv.] {Gr. <f Rom. Myth.) 
Daughter of Coeus, a Titan, and 
Phoebe, and by Jupiter the mother 
of Apollo and Diana, to whom she 
gave birth on the island of Delos. 
(See Delos.) Ovid ("Met. " vi.,fab. 
iv.) relates a story of some clowns of 
Lycia who insulted Latona as she 
knelt with the infant deities in arms 
to quench her thirst at a small lake, 
and who were in consequence changed 
into frogs. 

I did but prompt the age to quit their clogs 
By the known rules of ancient liberty, 
When straight a barbarous noise environs 
Of owls and cuckoos, asses, apes, and dogs: 
As when those hinds that were transformed to 

Railed at Latona's twin-born progeny, 
Which atler held the sun and moon m fee. 

Laughing Philosopher. Democri- 
tus of Abdera, a celebrated philoso- 
pher of antiquity, contemporary with 
Socrates ; — so called because he al- 
ways made a jest of man's follies 
and sorrows, his feeble struggles and 
evanescent works. He is usually 
contrasted with Heraclitus, " The 
Weeping Philosopher." See Weep- 
ing Philosopher. 

Ij^un9e. An awkward and silly serv- 
ant of Proteus, in Shakespeare's 
" Two Gentlemen of Verona." 

Ijatiii'fSLl, Sir. One of the knights 
of the* Round Table, the subject of 
a metrical romance composed by 
Thomas Cliestre, in the reign of 
Henry YI. The name has also been 
adopted as the title of a poem by 
James Russell Lowell, entitled " The 
Vision of Sir Launfal." 

Laura (/<.j9ron. low'rS). The Chris- 
tian name of an Avignonese lad}'-, 
young, but already married, for 
whom, in the year 1327, the poet 
Petrarch conceived a strong though 
Platonic affection, which exercised a 
powerful influence over his life, and 
ended only with his death. He sung 
her praises in " rime," or sonnets 
and canzoni, which have immortal- 
ized not only her name, but his own. 

Laurence, Friar. See Friar Lau- 

LS-vin'i-i. 1. A daughter of Latinus, 
and the second wife of iEneas. She 
had previously been betrothed to 
Tumus. See Latinus and Creusa. 

Sad task ! yet argument 
Not less but more heroic than the . . . rage 
Of Turnus for Lavinia disespoused. Mtlton. 

2. The heroine of a tale introduced 
by Thomson, in his " Seasons," into 
the poem on " Autumn." See Pale- 


Law's Bubble. A name given to a 
delusive speculation projected * by 
John Law (1671-1729), a celebrated 
financier, and a native of Edinburgh. 
In 1716, he established a bank in 
France, by royal authority, composed 
of 1200 shares of 3000 livres each, 

VSr For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanfttionit 




which soon bore a premium. This 
bank became the office for all public 
receipts, and there was annexed to it 
a Mississippi company, which had 
grants of land in Louisiana, and was 
expected to realize immense sums b^ 
planting and commerce. In 1718, it 
was declared a royal bank, and its 
shares rose to twenty times their 
original value, so that, in 1719, they 
were worth more than eighty times 
the amount of all the current specie 
in France. In 1720, the shares sunk 
as rapidly as they had risen, nearly 
overthrowing the French govern- 
ment, and occasioning great and 
wide - spread financial distress and 

ljaz'i;-rus. A poor leper, who, in the 
parable of our Lord {Luke xvi.), im- 
plored in vain the pity of a rich man ; 
but after the death of both, Lazarus 
went to heaven, and the rich man to 
hell, whft-e he in turn vainly implored 
help from Lazarus. 

jgi:^ This is the only case in the New Tes- 
tament where a proper name occurs in a 
parable. The use of the word lazzaro ap- 
plied to a leper, and of the words lazaretto 
and lazar-house for leper hospitals, and 
of lazzaroni for beggars, shows the influ- 
ence which this parable has had upon the 
mind of Christendom. 

Lazy, Lawrence. The hero of a 
popular "history," or romance, of 
ancient date, " containing his Birth 
and slothful breeding ; how he served 
the Schoolmaster, his Wife, the 
Squire's Cook, and the Farmer, 
which, by the laws of Lubberland, 
was accounted High Treason ; his 
Arraignment and Trial, and happy 
deliverance from the many treasons 
laid to his charge." 

League, The. [Fr. La Ligue.] (Fr. 
Hist.) A political coalition organized 
in 1576 by the Roman Catholics of 
France, to prevent the accession of 
Henry IV., who waa then of the re- 
formed religion. [Called also The 
Holv League (Fr. La Sainte Ligue), 
an(f The Holy Union (Frf La Sainte 

League and Covenant, Solemn. 
See Solemn League and Cove- 

League of God's House. [Fr. Li^ue 
de la Maison de Dieu,] {Swiss Hist.) 
A celebrated combination formed by 
the Orisons in 1400, for the pur- 
pose of resisting domestic tyranny. 
[Called also Caddee.] 

League of the Public Good. [Fr. 
Ligue du Bien Public] {Fr. Hist.) 
An alliance, in 1464, between the 
dukes of Burgundy, Brittany, and 
Bourgogne, and other French princes, 
against Louis XL 

Leander. [Gr. AeiavSpo?.] A youth 
of Abydos, famous for his love for 
Hero, a priestess of Sestos, to visit 
whom he nightly swam across the 
Hellespont. See Hero. 

L6andre (la'on'dr, 62, 64, 103). A 
lover in Moliere's "L'fitourdi." 

Lear. A fabulous or legendarv king 
of Britain, and the hero of Shake- 
speare's tragedy of the same name. 
He is represented as a fond father, 
duped, in his old age, by hypocritical 
professions of love and duty on the 
part of two daughters (Goneril and 
kegan), to disinherit the third (Cor- 
delia), who had before been deserv- 
edly more dear to him, and to divide 
his kingdoifi between her sisters, who, 
by their perfidious and cruel con- 
duct, soon drive the poor old king 
mad. After his misery has reached 
its highest pitch, he is found by the 
daughter whom he has so deeply in- 
jured; and, through her tender care, 
he revives and recollects her. She 
endeavors to reinstate him upon his 
throne, but fails in her attempt, and 
is hanged in prison, where her broken- 
hearted father dies lamenting over 

Learned Blacksmith. A name 
sometimes applied to Elihu Burritt 
(b. 1811), who began life as a black- 
smith, and afterward distinguished 
himself as a linguist. 

Learned Tailor. A title sometimes 
bestowed upon Henr}" Wild, a native 
of Norwich, England, where he was 
bom about the year 1684. He was 
in early life a' tailor, and, while 
working at his trade, nlastered the 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, Syr- 

and for the Remarks and Bulea to which the numbers after certaia words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




iac, Arabic, and Persian languages. 
[Called also The Arabian Tailor.^ 

Leatherstocking. A sobriquet given 
to Natty, or Nathaniel, Bumppo, a 
celebrated character in Cooper's nov- 
els of" The Deerslayer," " The Last 
of the Mohicans," "The Pathfinder," 
" The Pioneers," and " The Prairie." 
4®=" " Leatherstocking stands half-way 
between savage and civilized life ; he has 
the freshnefss of nature, and the first- 
fruits of Christianity, the seed dropped 
into vigorous soil. These are the elements 
of ot)e of the most original characters in 
fiction, in whom Cooper has transplanted 
all the chivalry, ever feigned or practiced 
in the Middle Ages, to the rivers, woods, 
and forests of the unbroken New World." 
One Natty LeatherstocTcing, one melodious 
eynopsis of man and nature m the West. 


Le Beau. A courtier, in Shakespeare's 
" As You Like It." 

Le'dS. [Gr. A>j5a.] {Gr. <f Rom. 
Myth.) The daughter of Thestius, 
and the wife of Tyndareus. Jupiter 
falling in love with her, and visiting 
her in the form of a swan, she bore 
two eggs, from one of which came 
forth Pollux afld Helen, and from 
the other Castor and Clytemnestra. 

Led'dy Grip'py. The name of the 
heroine in " The Entail," a novel by 

A decreet o' court, Jamie, as Leddie Grippy 
would have said. Frof. J. Wihon. 

Tie Fevre (lu fev'r, 64). The name 
of a poor lieutenant, whose story is 
related in Sterne's " Life and Opin- 
ions of Tristram Shandy." 

Legion. The name assumed by the 
demoniac, or the unclean spirit, 
spoken of in Mai-Jc v. : " My name 
is Legion; for we are many." The 
term implies the presence of a supe- 
rior power, in addition to subordi- 
nate ones. 

Legion, The Thundering. See 
Thundering Legion. 

Leg-of-Mutton School. A name 
given to those poetasters, who, at- 
taching themselves as parasites and 
dependents to persons of wealth and 
station, endeavor to pay for good 

dinners and sumptuous entertainment 
by servile Hattery of their patron, 
and profuse laudation of him and his, 
the " leg of mutton " being supposed 
to typify the source of tlieir inspira- 
tion, which is chielly gustatory. The 
phrase was first used by Loekhart, in 
a review of a ridiculous poem entitled 
" Fleurs, a Poem in Four Books," 
the author of which is not named. 
Fleurs Castle was the seat of the 
Duke of Roxburghe, whose mutton 
and hospitality the rhymster appears 
to have shared, greatly to his delec- 

J8®=- " The chief constellations in this 
poetical firmament consist of led captains 
and clerical hangers-on, whose pleasure 
and whose business it is to celebrate ia 
tuneful verse the virtues of some angelic 
patron, who keeps a good table, and has 
interest with the archbishop, or the In- 
dia House. Verily, they have their re- 
ward. The anticipated living falls vacant 
in due time, the son gets a pf^r of colors, 
or is sent out as a cadet, or the happy 
author succeeds in dining five times a 
week on hock and venison, at the small 
expense of acting as toad-eater to the 
whole family, from my lord to the butler 
inclusive. It is owing to the modesty, 
certainly not to the numerical deficiency, 
of this class of writers, that they have 
hitherto obtained no specific distinction 
among the authors of the present day. 
We think it incumbent on us to remedy 
this defect; and, in the baptismal font of 
this our magazine, we declare, that ia 
the poetical nomenclature they shall in 
future be known by the style and title 
of The Leg-of-Mutton School.''^ . . . 
" He [the bard of Fleurs abovementioned] 
is marked by a more than usual portion 
of the qualities characteristic of the Leg- 
of-Mutton School ; by alltheir vulgar ig- 
norance, by more than all their clumsy 
servility, their fawning adulation of 
wealth and title, their hankering after 
the flesh-pots, and by all the symptoms 
of an utter incapacity to stand straight 
in the presence of a great man." 

Z. {J. G. Loekhart), Blackwoocfs Mag, 
vol. ix. 

Le-gree'. A slave - dealer, in Mrs. 

Stowe's novel, " Uncle Tom's Cab- 
in; " a hideous exhibition of the bru- 
talizing influence of slavery. 

Leigh, Au-ro'rS (lee). The heroine 
of Mrs. Browning's poem of the same 
name ; " the representative of the 

OSr For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




spiritual and aesthetic spirit of the 
age, through whom are exemplified 
the noble ends and the high oflice of 
true art." 

Leila. The name of the heroine in 
Byron's poem of "The Giaour;" 
a "^beautiful slave - girl who suffers 
death for love of her paramour, a 
young " infidel." 

Leilah. See Mejnoun. 

Ii. E. L. The initials and literary 
signature of Letitia Elizabeth Lan- 
don (afterward Mrs. Maclean, 1802- 
1838), a well-known English poetess. 

Xj^lie (la^le'). An inconsequential, 
light-headed, gentleman - like cox- 
comb, in Moli^re's " L'fitourdi." 

Ijein'u-rds. iR(mi. Myth.) Spirits of 
the dead thought to wander about 
at night, like ghosts, and to torment 
and frighten the living. 

J8®= Milton Anglicizes the word in its 
pronunciation, making it consist of two 
syllables instead of three. 
"In consecrated earth, 
And on the holy hearth, 
The Lajs and Lemures moan with mid- 
night plaint." Ode on the Nativity. 

Le-nore'. 1. The heroine of a popular 
ballad, composed bv Gottfried August 
Biirger (1748-1794), the German 
lyric poet. The subject of this ballad 
is an old tradition, which recounts 
the ride of a spectral lover, who re- 
appears to his mistress after death, 
and carries her on horseback behind 
him, " a fiction not less remarkable 
for its extensive geographical dis- 
semination, than for its bold unagi- 
iative character." 

ij^ Burger is said to have borrowed 
the subject of his poem from an old Eng- 
lish ballad entitled '' The Suffolk Miracle, 
or a Relation of a Young Man, who, a 
month after his death, appeared to bis 
sweetheart, and carried her on horseback 
behind him forty miles in two hours, and 
was never seen afterward but in her 
grave." Burger, however, contradicted 
this assertion, and declared that an old 
Low Dutch ballad furnished him with 
the idea of Lenore. The traditions prob- 
ably both have a common origin. 

2. The angelic name of " a rare 
and radiant maiden " mentioned in 
Poe's mystical ballad entitled " The 

Le'o-na'to. Governor of Messina, in 
Shakespeare's " Much Ado about 

Le-on'i-das of Modern Greece. A 
title given to Marco Bozzaris, a Greek 
patriot, and an heroic soldier, who 
distinguished himself in the early 
part of the modern Grecian War of 
Independence, particularly by a suc- 
cessful attack with 1200 men upon 
the van of the Turco-Albanian army, 

• 4000 strong, at Kerpenisi, on the 
20th of August, 1823. In this en- 
gagement, Bozzaris lost his life. 

Le-on'i-das ^We'dell (ya/del, 68). A 
name given by Frederick the Great 
to General C. H. Wedell (1712-1782), 
an officer in the Prussian service, on 
account of his heroic defense of the 
Elbe at Teinitz, on the 19th of Novem- 
ber, 1744. 

Le'o-ntne. A servant to Dionyza, in 
Shakespeare's "Pericles." 

Lc'on-noys'. A fabulous country, 
formerly contiguous to Cornwall, 
thoifgh it has long since disappeared, 
and is said to be now more than 
forty fathoms under water. It is oft- 
en mentioned in the old romances of 
cliivalr}^ [Written also Leonais, 
Lioness e, Lyonnesse.] 

>6^ The Lyones or Leonnoys, where Sir 
Tristram was born (see Tristram, Sir), is 
Leonnois in Brittany. 
For Arthur, when none knew from whence 

he came. 
Long ere the people chose him for their king, 
Roving the trackless realms oi' Lyonnesse, 
Had found a glen, gray bowlder, and black 
tarn. Tennyson. 

Le-on'tSg. King of Sicilia, in Shake- 
speare's " Winter's Tale." 

j6@=" "Jealousy is a vice of the mind, 
a culpable tendency of the temper, hav- 
ing certain well-known and well-defined 
effects and concomitants, all of which are 
visible in licontes, . . . such as, first, 
an excitability by the most inadequate 
causes, and an eagerness to snatch at 
proofs ; secondly, a grossness of concep- 
tion, and a disposition to degrade the 
object of the passion by sensual fancies 
and images ; thirdly, a «ense of shame of 
his own feelings, exhibited in a solitary 
moodiness of liumor, and yet, from the 
violence of the passion, forced t* utter 
itself, and therefore catching occasions 
to ease the mind by ambiguities, equi- 
voques, by talking to those who cannot^ 

and for the Bemarks and Rules to whifh the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




and who are known not to be able to, nn- 
derstand what is said to them, — in short, 
by soliloquy in the form of dialogue, and 
hence, a confused, broken, and frag- 
mentary manner; fourthly, a dread of 
Tulgar ridicule, as distinct from a high 
sense of honor, or a mistaken sense of 
duty ; and lastly, and immediately con- 
sequent on this, a spirit of selfish vindic- 
tiveness." Coleridge. 

Leg'bi-S. A name given by Catullus 
(b. B. *c. 87) to his favorite Clodia, 
whose praises he celebrates in a num-- 
ber of amatory poems. 

Le'the. [Gr. A^^rj, forgetfulness.] {Gr. 
c^ Rom. Myth.) A river in Hades, 
the waters of which caused those who 
drank it entirely to forget the past. 

Far off from these, a slow and silent stream, 
Lethe, the river of oblivion, rolls 
Her watery labyrinth : whereof whoso drinks 
Straightway his former sense and being for- 
gets, — 
Forgets both joy and grief, pleasure and pain. 

Le'to. [Gr.ArjTci.] {yfyth.) The Greek 
name of Latona. See Latona. 

Iieu-oo'the-^. [Gr. XevKoOd-q.] ^ {Gr. 
(^ Rom. Myth.) 1. A name given to 
Ino, alter she was received among 
the sea-gods. See Ino. 

2. One of the Sirens. See Sirens. 

Iie-va'na. [Lat., from levare, to raise.] 
(Rom. Myth.) The name of the 
goddess that protected new-born in- 
fants when they were taken up from 
the ground. Richter used the name 
as the title of an educational work 
which he wrote, and which has been 
translated into English. 

;*jeviathan of Literature. An 
appellation very generally conferred 
upon Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709- 
1784), the eminent writer and critic. 

Lewis, Monk. See Monk Lewis. 

Li'b^r. (Rom. Myth.) An old Italian 
deity, who presided over the cultiva- 
tion of the vine, and fertility of the 
fields. By the later Latin writers, 
the name is used as a synonym of 

Liberation, 'War of. See War of 

Liberator, The. 1. [Sp. ElLiberta- 
dor.^ A surname given by the Pe- 
ruvians, in 1823, to Simon Bolivar 

(1785-1831), who established the in- 
dependence of Peru, and also of thft 
other Spanish colonies of South 

2. A surname given to Daniel 
O'Connell (1775-1847), a celebrated 
Irish political agitator, on account of 
his endeavors — which were, after 
all, unsuccessful — to bring about a 
repeal of the Articles of Union be- 
tween Great Britain and Ireland. 

Lt-ge'a, ) (20). [Gr. Ai'yeia.] {Gr. 

Li-ge'i-a, j # Rmn. Myth.) One of the 
Sirens ; also, a nymph. 

By . . . fair Ligea's golden comb, 
"Wherewith she sits on diamond rocks. 
Sleeking her soft alluring locks, Milton. 

Light-horse Harry. A sobriquet 
popularly conferred upon General 
Henry Lee (1750-1818), a gallant 
American cavalry officer in the war 
of the Revolution, in allusion to his 
rapid and daring movements in battle, 
particularly during the campaign in 
the Carolinas. 

Lilith, or Li'lis. In the popular be- 
lief of the Hebrews, a female specter 
in the shape of a finely dressed woman, 
who lies in wait foV, and kills, chil- 
dren. The old Kabbins turned Lilith 
into a wife of Adam, on whom he 
begot demons, and who still has power 
to lie with men, and to kill children, 
who are not protected by amulets, 
with which the Jews of a yet later 
period supply themselves as a pro- 
tection against her. Burton, in his 
"Anatomy of Melancholy," tells us, 
" The Talmudists say that Adam had 
a wife called Lilis before he married 
Eve, and of her he begat nothing but 
devils." Heber says, " To revenge 
his deserting her for an earthly rival, 
she is supposed to hover round the 
habitation of new -married persons, 
showering down intprecations on their 
headsv The attendants on the bride 
spend the night in going round the 
house and uttering loud screams to 
frighten her away." A commentator 
on Skinner's " Etymologicon Linguae 
Anglicanae," quoted in the " Encyclo- 

' pjedia Metropolitana," says that the 
English word hillaby is derived from 
JJUa,abi! (Begone, Lilith!) In the 
demonolog}- of the Middle Ages, Lilis 

O^* For the " Key to the Scheme of rronuncuitlon," #rith tlie accompanying Explanations, 




was a famous witch, and is introduced 
as such in the Walpurgis-night scene 
in Goethe's " Faust." 
JLil'lI-put. An imaginary country- 
described as peopled by a very dimin- 
utive race of men, in Swift's satirical 
romance entitled " Travels into sev- 
eral Remote Nations of the World, by 
Lemuel Gulliver." The voyage to 
Lilliput is for the most part a satire 
on the manners and usages of the 
court of George I. 

There is no end to the variety of these small 
missiles of malice with which the Gullivers of 
the world of literature are assailed by the Lil- 
liputians around them. T. Moore. 

Xjim'bo, or Lim'bus. [Lat., limbus^ 
a border.] A region supposed by 
some of the old scholastic theologians 
to lie on the edge or confines of hell. 
Here, it was thought, the souls of 
just men, not admitted into heaven 
or into Purgatory, remained to await 
the general resurrection. Such were 
the patriarchs and other pious an- 
cients who died before the birth of 
Christ. Hence, the limbo was called 
Limbus Patrum. According to some 
of the schoolmen, theie was also a 
Limbus Puerorum, or Infantum^ a 
similar place allotted to the souls of 
infants dying unbaptized. To these 
were added, in the popular opinion, a 
LiTnbus Fatuorum, or Fools' Paradise, 
the receptacle of all vanity and non- 
sense. Of this superstitious behef 
Milton has made use in his " Paradise 
Lost." (See Book HL v. 440-497.) 
Dante has placed his limbo, in which 
the distinguished spirits of antiquity 
are confined, in the outermost of the 
circles of his hell. 

liimonadidre. La Muse. See Muse 

LiMONADlfeKE, La. 

liimp. A Jacobite sign in the time of 
William HL, which consisted in the 
zealots for hereditary right limping 
about at night and drinking. Those in 
the secret knew that th'e word " Limp" 
was formed from the initials of august 
names, and that the loyalist, when he 
drank his wine and punch, was taking 
oflPhis bumper to Zouis, James, Mary^ 
and the Prince. 

Lin-dab'rl-d^g. A celebrated heroine 
in the romance called " The Mirror of 

Knighthood." From the great celeb' 
rity of this lady, occasioned by the 
popularity of the romance, her name 
was commonly used for a mistress. - 

I value Tony Foster's wrath no more than 
a shelled uea-cod; and I will visit his Xm- 
dabrides, by Saiut George, be he willing or 
nol Sir W. Scott. 

Iiin'dSr. A poetical name formerly in 
use for a swain or gallant. 

A truce, dear Fergus! spare us those most 
tedious and insipid persons of all Arcadia. 
Do not, for heaven's sake, bring down Cory- 
don and Lindor upon us. Sir W. Scott. 

I have listened to you when you spoke en 
hergere, — nay, my complaisance has been so 
great as to answer you en bergere, — for I do 
not think any thing except ridicule can come 
of dialogues betwixt Lindor and Jeannetun. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Iii'nus. [Gr. AiVo?.] {Gr. (f Rom. 
Myth.) 1. The son of Apollo and 
an Argive princess ; torn to pieces by 

2. The son of Apollo and Terp- 
sichore, and the instructor of Orpheus 
and Hercules, the latter of whom 
killed him by a blow with a lyre. 

Lionesse. See Leonnoys. 

liion of God. A title conferred upon 
Ali (597-660), son of Abu Taleb, the 
uncle of Mahomet. He was distin- 
guished for his eloquence and valor 
in defense of Islamism. 

Xjion of the North. A title bestowed 
upon Gustavus Adolphus (1594- 
1632), king of Sweden, and the bul- 
wark of the Protestant faith during 
the Thirty Years' War. 

That great leader, captain, and king, the 
Lion of the North, . . . had a way of winning 
battles, taking towns, overrunning countries, 
and levying contributions, which made his 
service irresistibly delectable to all true-bred 
cavaliers who follow the noble profession of 
arms. Sir W. Scott. 

His task at this battle of Lutzen seems to 

have been a very easy one, simply to see the 

, Lion of the North brought down, not by a 

cannon-shot, as is generally believed, but by 

a traitorous pistol-bullet Carlyle. 

Iiion of the Sea. [Port. Leao do 
Mar.'] A name formerly given to 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

Lis'ma-ha'go, Captain. A superan- 
nuated officer on half-pay, who fig- 
ures in Smollett's " Expedition of 
Humphrj^ Clinker " as the favored 
suitor of Miss Tabitha Bramble. He 
is described as a hard-featured and 
forbidding Scotchman, of the most 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




singular dress and manners, self-con- 
ceited, pedantic, rude, and disputa- 
tious, with a jealous sense of honor, 
and strong national pride. 

J8®=" '' Lisuiahago is the flower of the 
flock. His teuaciousness in argument is 
not so delightful as the relaxation of his 
logical severity when he finds his fortune 
mellowing in the wintry smiles of Mrs. 
Tabitha Bramble. This is the best-pre- 
served and most severe of all Smollett's 
characters. The resemblance to ' Don 
Quixote ' is only just enough to make it 
interesting to the critical reader without 
giving offense to any body else." 


In quotine: these ancient authorities, I must 
not forget the more modern sketch of a Scot- 
tish Soulier of the old fashion, by a master- 
hand, in the character of Lismahago, since 
the existence of that doughty captain alone 
must deprive the present author of all claim to 
originality. Sir W. Scott. 

Little, Thomas. A pseudonym — in- 
tended as a playful allusion to his 
diminutive stature — under which 
Thomas Moore, in 1808, published a 
volume of amatory poems. 

Little Comedy. A name familiarly 
given to Miss Catharine Horneck, — 
afterward Mrs. Bunbury, — an ac- 
quaintance and friend of Goldsmith. 
The sobriquet was probably thought 
to be indicative of her disposition. 
She is described as being intelligent, 
sprightly, and agreeable, as well as 
very beautiful.' 

Little Corporal. [Fr. Le Petit Capo- 
ral.'] A familiar appellation jocose- 
ly conferred upon General Bonaparte, 
immediately after the battle of Lodi 
(1796), by the soldiers under his 
command, on account of his juvenile 
appearance and surpassing bravery. 
Ever afterward, even as First Consul 
and as emperor, he was popularly 
known by this honorary and affec- 
tionate title. 

Little Dauphin. [Fr. Le Petit Dau- 
j}hin.] {Fr. Hist.) A name given 
to the Duke de Bourgogne, eldest 
son of Louis the Dauphin (commonly 
called the Great Dauphin), who was 
the son of Louis XI v. 

Little-endians. See Big-endians, 

Little England. A name popularly 
given to Barbadoes by the inhabitants. 

Little Giant. A popular sobriquet 
conferred upon Stephen A. Douglas, 
a distinguished American statesman 
(1813-1861), in allusion to the dispar- 
ity between his physical and his in- 
tellectual proportions. 
Little John. A celebrated follower 
of the still more celebrated English 
outlaw,J.iobin Hood. His surname 
is traditionally said to have been 
Nailor. See Robin Hood. 

je®" " It is certain that another of the 

Sherwood heroes has imprinted his name 

upon our family nomenclature in the 

• shape of Littlejohn." Lower. 

In this our spacious isle, I think there is not 

But he hath heard some talk of him and 
Little John. Drayton. 

A squat, broad, Little-John sort of figure, 
leaning on a quarter-staff, and wearing a 
jerkin, which . . . had once been of the Lin- 
coln green. Sir W. Scott. 

Little-John, Hugh. The designa- 
tion given by Sir \Yalter Scott to his 
grandson, John Hugh Lockhart, to 
whom he addressed the " Tales of a 

little Magician. A sobriquet con- 
fen-ed upon Martin Van Buren (1782- 
1862), President of the United States 
from 1837 to 1841, in allusion to his 
supposed political sagacity and tal- 

Little Marlborough (mawl'bur-o). 
A sobriquet given to Count von 
Schwerin (1684-1757), a Prussian 
field-marshal, and a companion-in- 
arms of the Duke of Marlborough. 

The Little Marlborough — so they call him 
(for he was at Blenheim, and has abrupt, hot 
ways) — will not participate in Prince Karl'a 
consolatory visit, then 1 Carlyle. 

Little Master. A title.given to Hans 
Sebald Beham, a very celebrated 
painter and engraver of the sixteenth 
century, on account of the extreme 
smallness of his prints. The name 
was also given to other artists of the 
same century. 

Little Nell. A child, in Dickens's 
novel of " The Old Curiosity Shop ; " 
distinguished for the celestial purity 
of her character, though living amid 
scenes of selfishness and shame, of 
passion and crime. 

Little Paris. A name given to the 
city of Milan, in Italy, from its re- 

• For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




semblance, in point of gayety, to the 
Frencli capital. 

Little Parliament. The same as 
Barebone's Parliament. See Bare- 
bone's Parliament. 

Little Ped'dling-t6n. An imagina- 
ry locality in which humbug, quack- 
ery, cant, puffery, affectation, unmit- 
igated seltishness, and other social 
vices abound. It is described in a 
work of the same name, written by 
John Poole, — a good-natured and 
amusing satire on the present condi- 
tion of literature, art, criticism, and 
social intercourse. 

The would-be founder of a great slave em- 
pire [Jefferson Davis] could now hardly lead 
the debates of Little Feddliiigton. 

Boston Evening Transcript, May 1, 1865. 

Little Queen. A sobriquet giv^en to 
•Isabella of Valois (1387-1410), who 
married Richard II., king of Eng- 
land, when but eight years old, and 
was left a widow when but thirteen. 

Little Ked Kiding-hood. [Fr. Cha- 
peron Rouge^ Ger# Rothkdppchen.'] 
The heroine of a well-known nursery 
tale, which relates her encounter with 
a wolf in a forest, the arts by which 
he deceived her, and her tragical 
end. Grimm derives tlie story from 
a tradition current in the region bor- 
dering upon the river Main, in Ger- 
many. The legend is, however, 
widely disseminated. In the Swed- 
ish variation of the story. Little Rid- 
ing-hood takes refuge in a tree, the 
wolf meanwhile gnawing away at 
the roots, when her lover, alarmed 
by her cries, comes up just in time 
to see the tree fall and his mistress 
crushed beneath it. 

No man, whatever his sensibility may be, 
is ever affected by " Hamlet " or " Lear '^ as a 
little girl is affected by the story of poor Red 
Riding-hood. Macaulay. 

Little Khody. See Rhody, Little. 

Little "Whig. A sobriquet given to 
Anne, Countess of Sunderland, se(v- 
ond daughter of the great Duke of 
Marlborough. She is described as 
*' rather /7e/;//e in person;" and it is 
said that she "did not disdain the 
appellation conferred upon her, at a 
time when every thing bore the en- 
signs of party of one kind or other." I 
She died April 15, 1716. 

Loathly Lady. A hideous creature 
whom Sir Gawain takes to be his 
wife, when no one else would have 
her, and wlio becomes a beautiful 
woman on the moment of being mar- 
ried to him, having previously been 
under the power of a malignant en- 
chanter. The story forms the sub- 
ject of an old ballad entitled " The 
Marriage of Sir Gawain," and occurs 
under other forms in our early litera- 
ture. See Gawain, Sir. 

The walls of the apartment were partly 
clothed with grim old tapestry representing 
the memorable story of Sir Gawain 's wedding, 
in which full justice was done to the ugliness 
of the Loathly Lady ; although, to jud^'e from 
his own looks, tlie gentle knight had less 
reason to be disgusted with the match on ac- 
count of disparity of outward favor than the 
romancer has given us to* understand 

Sir W. Scott. 

Lo-chi'el. Sir Evan Cameron (d. 
1719), of Lochiel, surnamed "The 
Black," the ruler of the Camerons, 
who in personal qualities has been 
described as unrivaled among the 
Celtic princes; "a gracious master, 
a trusty ally, a terrible enemy." He 
figured largely in the wars of the 
Highlands, but ultimately took the 
oaths to the government of William 
III. His grandson, Donald Cameron 
(d. 1748), was sometimes called "The 
Gentle Lochiel." 

Lochiel, Lochiel, beware of the day 
When the Lowlands shall meet thee in battle- 
array. Campbell. 

Logli'in-var'. The hero of a ballad 
by Sir Walter Scott, sung by the fair 
Lady Heron, in " Marmion." Ap- 
pearing suddenly at Netherby Hall, 
where his sweetheart is to be sacri- 
ficed in marriage to 

" a laggard in love, and a dastard in war," 
he persuades her to join with him in 
one last dance, and, on reaching the 
hall-door, where his horse is standing, 
whispers in her ear, swings her to 
the croup, and, springing into the 
saddle, carries her oflP before the 
eyes of the astonished bridegroom 
and his friends, who pursue them 
without success. 

And so I come, — like Lochinvar, to tread a 

single measure, 
To purchase with a loaf of bread a sugar-plum 

of pleasure. Holmes. 

Lock'it. A character in Gay's " Beg- 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, sec pp. xiv-xxxii. 




gar's Opera." The quarrel between 
Peachum and Lockit was an allu- 
sion to a personal collision between 
Walpole and )iis colleague, Lord 
Townshend. See Peachum. 

When you peered at the misty prisoner in 
the dock, you were always reminded of Cap- 
tain Macheath in hia cell, when the inhuman 
Mr. Lockit wouldn't allow him any more 
candles, and threatened to clap on extra fet- 
ters in detiault of an immediate supply on the 
captain's part of " garnish," or jail-fees. Sola. 

liOcksley. An outlawed archer, in 
Sir Walter Scott's novel of " Ivan- 
hoe." Under this name the author 
has represented Robin Hood, who, 
according to ballad authority, some- 
times assumed it when in disguise. 
It is said to have been the name of 
the village where he was born. 

IjO'co-Fo'c6§. a nickname formerly- 
given to adherents of the Democratic 
party in the United States. It origi- 
nated in 1834, from an incident that 
occurred at a meeting in Tammany 
Hall, New York. There being a 
great diversity of sentiment among 
those who were present, a scene of 
confusion and tumult took place, 
during which the chairman left his 
seat, and the gas-lights were extin- 
guished, with a view to break up the 
meeting But the opposite faction 
produced loco-foco matches and can- 
dles, relighted the hall, continued the 
meeting, and accomplished their ob- 

IiO-crine'. A son of Brutus, a fabu- 
lous king of ancient Britain. By his 
father's death, he became king of 
Lcegria, or England. See Sabrina. 

Ijod'o-vi'co. A Venetian, kinsman 
to Brabantio, in Shakespeare's trag- 
edy of " Othello." 

Iioe'gri-S (le'gri-S). In the romances 
of chivalry, and among the fabulous 
historians, an old name for the part 
of Britain occupied by the Saxons. 
It is said to be of. Welsh origin. 

Ijo^pris-tiina. A fairy in Ariosto's 
" Orlando Furioso ; " a sister of Alcina 
and Morgana. She teaches Ruggiero 
how to master the hippogriff, and 
gives Astolpho a book and a horn of 
wonderful power. 

liO'gres. Another form of Lcegria, an 

old name for England, in the romances 
of chivalry. [Written also L o g r i s.] 

Fairer than fcip;ned of old, or fabled since. 

Of fairy damsels, met in forest wide 

By knights of Logres or of Lyones. Milton.' 

Iioki (lo'kee). [Old Norse locha^ to 
tempt.] {Scnnd. Myth.) A sort of 
Eddaic Satan ; a demigod descended 
from the Giants, but admitted among 
the gods, mingling freely with them 
as an associate and equal, yet essen- 
tially opposed to them, being full of 
all manner of guile and artifice, and 
often bringing them into perilous 
plights, from which however, he 
again extricates them by his cun- 
ning. He treacherously contrived the 
death of Baldur (see Baldur), and 
was, in consequence, made to suffer 
the most terrible punishmerft, being 
bound with the intestines of his sons 
to a sharp subterranean rock, where 
two enormous serpents continually 
drop torturing venom on his limbs. 
His personal appearance is described 
as very beautiful. He is often called 
Asa-LoJcij to distinguish him from his 
kinsman, Utc/mrZ-Loki ; but the two 
are sometimes confounded. See Ut- 
GARD-LoKi. [Written also Lok, 

Iiolli-us. A mysterious author often 
referred to by the writers of the Mid- 
dle Ages ; but so vain have been the 
attempts to discover and identify him, 
that he must be regarded as the ignis- 
fatuus of antiquaries. " Of Lollius," 
says one of these unhappy and baffled 
investigators, " it will become every 
one to speak with deference." Ac- 
cording to Coleridge, " Lollius, if 
a writer of that name existed at all, 
was a somewhat somewhere." Dry- 
den calls him " a Lombard." 

Iione-Star State. The State of 
Texas; — so called from the device 
on its coat of arms. 

Long, Tom. The hero of an old 
popular tale entitled " The Merry 
Conceits of Tom Long, the Carrier, 
being many pleasant Passages and 
mad Pranks which he observed in 
his travels. " 

liOn'ga-ville. A lord attending on 
the king of Navarre, in Shake- 
speare's " Love's Labor 's Lost'^ 

' For the *' Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanatione, 




Iion'e!-us. A name given in the 
Middle Ages to the knight, or soldier, 
who pierced the side of the Saviour 
with his sword, to ascertain if he were 

Long Meg of "Westminster. A 
"lusty, bouncing romp" and pro- 
curess of the sixteenth century^, whose 
" Life and Pranks " were " imprinted 
at London," in 1582, and subse- 
quently. She is often alluded to by 
the older English writers. 

XiOng Parliament. {Eng. Hist.) 
The name which is commonly used 
by historians to designate the cele- 
brated parliament which assembled 
Kovember 3, lG40,-and was dissolved 
by Cromwell, April 20, 1653. 

liong Peter. [D. Lange Peter, It. 
Pittro Lungo, Fr. Long Pierre.'] A 
sobriquet given to the eminent Flem- 
ish painter, Peter Aartsen (1507- 
1573), on account of his tallness. 

Long Scribe. A sobriquet given to 
Vincent Dowling (d. 1852), an em- 
inent British sportsman, and an in- 
fallible authority on all matters con- 
nected with field or other sports. He 
was remarkable for his great height. 

Long Tom Coffin. A character in 
« Cooper's novel, " The Pilot; " " prob- 
ably the most widely known sailor 
character in existence. He is an 
example of the heroic in action, like 
Leatherstocking, losing not a whit of 
his individuality in his nobleness of 

Lonq Tom Coffin himself will be for fetching 
me, with a shroud in one hand, and a dead- 
light in the other. Hood. 

Lor-brul'grud. The metropolis of 
the in^aginary country of Brobding- 
nag, visited by Gulliver. The word 
is humorously' said to mean, " Pride 
of the Universe." 

Lord BSi'ghSn. The title of an old 
ballad of which there are many 
versions, Scottish and English, and 
the name given to the hero, who is 
said to have been Gilbert Becket, 
father of the renowned St. Thomas 
of Canterbury. [Called also Lord 

Lord Burleigh (bur'li). The name 
of a character in Mr. Puffs tragedy 

of the " Spanish Armada,'" in Sheri- 
dan's farce of " The Critic." He 
says nothing, being a minister "with 
the whole ati'airs of the nation on his 
head," and therefore having no time 
to talk ; but he comes forward upon 
the stage, -and shakes his head ex- 
travagantly, — an action which is • 
thus explained by Mr. Puff: " By 
that shake of the head, he gave you 
to understand, that, even though they 
had more justice in their cause, and 
wisdom in their measures, yet, if 
there was not a greater spirit' shown 
on the part of the people, the country 
would at last fall a sacrifice to the 
hostile ambition of the Spanish mon- 

If her looks express all this, my dear Tinto, 
replied I, interrupting him, your pencil rivals 
the dramatic art of Mr. Puff, who crammed a 
whole complicated sentence into the expres- 
sive shake of Lord Burleigli's head. 

Sir W. Scott. 

There are no such soliloquies in nature, it 
is true; hut, unless they were received as a 
conventional mediuin of communication be- 
twixt the poet and the audience, we should 
reduce dramatic authors to the recijje of Mas- 
ter Puff, who makes Lord Bwleigh intimate ti 
long train of political reasoning to the avidi- 
ence, by one comprehengive shake of his nod- 
dle. Sir W. Scott. 

The Provost ansM'ercd with another saga • 
cious shake of the head, that would llavedon^J 
honor to Lord liurleigh. Sir W. Scott, 

Lord Fanny. A sobriquet conferred 
upon Lord Hervey, a foppish and 
efteminate English nobleman of the 
eighteenth century. He was in the 
habit of painting his face to conceal 
its ghastly paleness. See Spokus. 

J8@^ " The modern Fawny is apparently 
of the days of Anne, coming into notice 
with the beautiful Lady Fanny Shirley, 
who made it a great favorite, and almost 
a proverb for prettiress and simplicity, 
so that the wits of George II. 's time called 
John. Lord Hervey, ' Lord Fanny,' for 
his effeminacy." Yonge. 

Rake from ench ancient dunghill every pearl, 
Consult Lord Fanny and confide in CurU. 


Lord Foppington. See Foppington, 

Lord Gawkey. A nickname given 
to Richard Grenville, Lord Temple 
(1711-1770), in the pasqninad^iSLof 
his time, yi'^" - ./V;' X '• 

Lord Harir$r. A vulgar name for the j. ,, ^ 
Devil. /See Old Hakky. '- ' :r 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after c4|ain words refer, see pp. : 






By the Lord Harry, he Bays true; fighting 
is meat, drink, and cloth to him. Comjreve. 

Lord Lov'el. The hero of an ancient 
and well-known Scottish ballad. 

Lord of Crazy Castle. A sobriquet 
of John Hall Stevenson (1718-1785), 
author of some clever, but licentious 
' poems, called " Crazy Tales." His 
residence was at Skelton Castle, — 
nicknamed " Crazy Castle, " — an 
ancient and ruinous mansion near 

His [Sterne's] conversation was animated 
and witty, but Johnson complained that it 
was marked by license better suiting the 
company of the Lord of Crazy Castle than of 
the Great Moralist. Sir W. Scott. 

Lord of the Isles. A title assumed 
by Donald, a chief of Islay, who, in 
1346, reduced the whole of the Hebri- 
des or Western Isles under his author- 
ity. It was also borne by his succes- 
sors, the last of whom died in 1536. 

Lord Ogleby. See Ogleby, Lord. 

Lord Peter. A humorous designation 
of the Pope in Arbuthnot's " History 
of John Bull." 

Lords of Little Egypt. A title 
assumed by the leaders or chiefs of 
a horde of gypsies, who entered Hun- 
gary and Bohemia from the East, 
giving themselves out as Christian 

Of the kinglv demeanor and personal 
achievements of old Will Fow [a gypsy chief 
in Scotland], msmy curious particulars are 
related. He nevor forgot his high descent 
from the Lords of Little Egypt. 

Blackivood^s Mag. 

Lord Strutt. Charles II. of Spain ; 
— so called in Arbuthnot's satire en- 
titled " The History of John Bull." 

Every body must remember . . , the par- 
oxvsm of rage into which poor old Lord Strutt 
fell, on hearing tliat his runaway servant 
Nick Frog, his clothier John Bull, and his old 
enemy Lewis Baboon, had come with quad- 
rants, poles, and ink-horns to survey his 
estate, and to draw his will for him. 


Lo-ren'zo. 1. A young man in love 
with Jessica, Shylock's daughter, in 
Shakespeare's " Merchant of Venice." 
2. The name of a character in 
Young's " Night Thoughts," repre- 
sented as a person of a thoroughly 
debauched and reprobate life, and by 
some supposed to be the portrait of 
the poet's own son, but probably 

nothing more than an embodiment 
of imaginary atheism and unavailing 
remorse and despair. 

Lor're-quer, Harry. The hero of a 
novel of the same name by Charles 
James Lever (b. 1806); also, a pseu- 
donym of the author. 

Lo-san'tl-ville. [That is, L, the river 
Licking, os (Lat.), the mouth, anti, 
ojiposite to, vUle, a town or city : the 
town opposite the mouth of the Lick- 
ing.] The original name of the city 
of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Lo-tha'ri-o (9). One of the dramatis 
personos in Rowe's tragedy, " The 
Fair Penitent." His character is 
that of a libertine and a seducer, and 
has served as the prototype of that 
of many dramatic and romance he- 
Is this that haughty gallant, gay Lothano ? 


Shorn of their plumes, our moon-struck son- 

Would seem but jackdaws croaking to the 

Our gay Lotharios, with their Byron curls. 

Would pine like oysters cheated of their 
pearls. Holmes. 

Lovel, Lord. See Lord Lev el. 

LovelSLce. The hero of Richardson's 
novel, " The History of Clarissa 
Harlowe," represented as an unscru- 
pidous voluptuary, who has devoted 
his life and his talents to the subver- 
sion of female virtue. He is, perhaps, 
the most finished picture of a self- 
possessed and insinuating libertine 
ever drawn. The character is an 
expansion of that of Lothario in ?/' 
Rowe's " Fair Penitent." See Hau- yy 
LOWE, Clarissa. / / 

The eternal laws of poetry regfjined then* 
power, and the temporary fashions which had 
superseded those laws went after the wig of 
Lovelace and the hoop of Clarissa. 


Lover's Leap. The promontorj^ from 
which Sappho is said to have thrown 
herself into the sea; Leucate, on the 
south-western extremity of Leucas, * 
now Santa Maura. 

Lovers' "War. ("Fr. Guerre des Amou- 
reux.'] {Fr. Hist.) A name given 
to a civil war in the year 1580, during 
the reign of Henry V. It was so 
called because it arose from the j cal- 

ls^ For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the nccoiiipanying Explanations, 




ousies and rivalries of the leaders, 
who were invited to meet at the palace 
of the queen-mother. 

Low-heels. See High-heels. 

Loys, Le Capitaine. See Captain 


Lreux (Iroo). King Arthur's seneschal, 
introduced in romances of the Round 
Table, and always represented as a 
detractor, a coward, and a boaster. 

liUbberland. The same as Cochagne, 
for which name it was substituted by 
the English poets of the sixteenth 
century. Hence, also, a burlesque 
name anciently applied to London. 


But the idea wliich Sieyes entertained of 
lodging the executive government in a Grand 
Elector, who was to be a very model of a king 
ofLvbberland, was the ruin of liis plan. 

Sir W. Scott. 
Black Forests and the glories of Zt^berZanrf, 
sensuality and horror, the specter-nun and 
charmed moonshine, shall not be wanting. 


IiU-cas'ta. A poetical name under 
which Richard Lovelace (1618-1658) 
celebrated the praises of " the lady 
of his love," whom he usually called 
Lux Casta. Antony Wood says that 
she was " a gentlewoman of great 
beauty and fortune, named Lucy 
Sacheverell ; " but W. C. Hazlitt, the 
latest editor of Lovelace's works 
(London, 1864), thinks the statement 
" may reasonably be doubted." 

Luce. Servant to Adriana, in Shake- 
speare's " Comedy of Errors." 

Lu-cen'ti-o. Son to Vincentio, in 
Shakespeare's "Taming of the 

Lu-cet'ta. The name of a waiting- 
woman to Julia, in Shakespeare's 
" Two Gentlemen of Verona." 

Lu'ci-a'na. Sister-in-law to Antiph- 
olus of Ephesus, in Shakespeare's 
" Comedy of Errors." 

Lu'ci-fer. One of the names of the 
Devil, being applied to him from 
an allegorical interpretation by the 
Church fathers of a passage in Isaiah 
(xiv. 12), in which the king of Baby- 
lon is likened to the morning star. 
Wierus makes him the highest officer 
of justice in the infernal court or 

4®* " Lucifer is, in fact, no profane or 
Satauic title. It is the I^atin Luciferus^ 
the light -bringer, the morning star, 
equivalent to the Gx-eek ^uia<i)6po<;^ and 
was a Christian name in early times, borne 
even by one of the popes. It only ac- 
quired its present association from the 
apostrophe of the ruined king of Bab- 
ylon, in Isaiah, as a fallen star : ' How 
art thou fallen from heaven, iiucifer, 
son of the morning I ' Thence, as this 
destruction was assuredly a type of the 
fall of Satan, Milton took Lucifer as the 
title of his demon of pride, and this name 
of the pure, pale herald of day light has 
become hateful to Christian ears." 

Lu-ci'n$. [Lat., from lux^ light, be- 
cause she brings to light.] {Rom. 
Myth.) The goddess of childbirth, a 
daughter of Jupiter and Juno. 

Lu'ci-o. A fantastic, in Shakespeare's 
tragedy, "Measure for Measure," 
who, without being absolutely de- 
praved or intentionally bad, has be- 
come, through Avant of consideration, 
both vicious and dissolute. 

The Introductory Epistle is written, in, 

Lucio's phrase, " according to the trick," and 

would never have appeared had the writer 

meditated making his avowal of the work. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Mr. Hunt treats the whole matter a little too 
much in the easy style of Lucio. Macaulay. 

Lud. A mythic king of Britain, said 
to have given his name to London. 

The famous Cassibelan, who was once at point 
(O giglot Fortune) to Master Csesar's sword. 
Made Lud's town with rejoicing bright. 
And Britons strut with courage. Shak. 

Lud, General. A name of great 
terror given to the feigned leader of 
bands of distressed and riotous arti- 
sans in the manufacturing districts of 
England, who, in 1811, endeavored 
to prevent the introduction of power- 
looms, — that is, looms worked by 
machinery, — which they thought 
would lessen the amount of manual 
labor. In 1816, they re-appeared, but 
were put down, after a short and 
sharp riot in London, by the police 
and military. The real leaders ap- 
peared in women's clothes, and were 
called " Lud's wives." 

i3r^ " Above thirty years before this 
time [1811], an imbecile named Ned Lud, 
living in a village in Leicestershire, was 
tormented by the boys in the streets, to 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




his perpetaal irritation. One day, in a 
great passion, he pursued one of the boys 
into a house, and, being unable to find 
him, he broke two stocking-fi'ames. His 
name was now either taken by those who 
broke frames, or was ^ven to them. When 
frames were broken, Lud had been there ; 
and the abettors were called Luddites." 
H Martineau. 

Ludwig der Springer (loot^vik def 
spring/ ef). [Ger., Louis the teaper.] 
A name popularly given in Germany 
to a margrave of Thuringia, born 
in 1042. There is a tradition of his 
having become attached to the Pals- 
gravine Adelheid of Saxony, whose 
husband, Frederick III., he killed, and 
then married her. For this he was 
imprisoned in the castle of Giebich- 
enstein, near Halle, and escaped by 
a bold leap into the Saale. 

One of their sisters, too, [sisters of the mar- 
graves of Brandenburg in the eleventh centu- 
ry,] had a strange adventure with "Ludwig 
the Springer" — romantic, mythic man, fa- 
mous in the German world, over whom my 
readers and I must not pause at this time. 


Lugg'nSgg. The name of an imagi- 
nary island about a hundred leagues 
south-east of Japan, mentioned in 
Swift's fictitious " Travels " of Lem- 
uel Gulliver. In the account of this 
countr}'- and its inhabitants, we are 
shown how miserable would be the 
consequence of human beings' re- 
ceiving a privilege of eternal life, 
unaccompanied by corresponding 
health, strength, and intellect. 

Lumber State. A popular designa- 
tion for the State of Maine, the inhab- 
itants of which are largely engaged 
in the business of cutting and raft- 
ing lumber, or of converting it into 
boards, shingles, scantlings, and the 

r^nimprkin, Tony. A young, clown- 
ish country squire, the foolish son of 
a foolish mother, in Goldsmith's com- 
edy, " She Stoops to Conquer." 

J8^ " He is in his own sex what a hoi- 
den is in the other. He is that vulgar 
nickname, a hohhetyhoy^ dramatized ; 
forward and sheepish, mischievous and 
\dle, cunning and stupid, with the vices 
of the man and the follies of the boy ; 
fond of low company, and giving him- 
self all the airs of consequence of the 
young squire." • Hazlitt. 

You ask mc for the plan. I have no plan. 
I had no plan; but 1 had, or have, materials; 
■ though, if, like Tony Lumpkin, " I am to be 
snubbed so when I am in spirits," the poem 
will be naught, and the poet turn serious 
again. . Byron. 

Nature had formed honest Meg for such en- 
counters; and as her noble soul delighted in 
them, so her outward properties were in what 
Tony Lumpkin calls "a concatenation accord- 
ingly." Sir W. Scott. ' 

I feel as Tony Lumpkin felt, who never had 
the least difficulty in reading the outside t>f 
his letters, but who found it very hard work 
to decipher the inside. A.~K. H. Loyd. 

Ijun. A feigned name of John Rich 
(d. 1761), a celebrated Engli.-h act- 
or. When young, he attracted gen- 
eral admiration by his performance 
of Harlequin, and received frequent 
tributes of applause from contempo- 
rary critics. 

When Lvn appeared, with matchless art and 
whim. Garrick. 

Lu'nS. (Rom. Myfh.) The goddess 
of the moon ; a name of Diana. 

Lu-per'cus (4). [Lat., from lupus^ a 
wolf.] {Rom. Myth.) A god of the 
old Komans, sometimes icTentified 
with the Grecian Pan. He was 
worshiped by shepherds as the pro- 
tector of flocks against wolves. His 
priests were called '' Luperci," and 
his festivals " Lupercalia." 

liU'sig-n&n. A prominent character 
in Aaron Hill's tragedy of " Zara; " 
the " last of the blood of the Christian 
kings of Jerusalem." 

His head, which was a fine one, hore some 
resemblance to that of Garrick in the charac- 
ter of Lusignan. Sir W. Scott. 

liU'si-ta'nl-^. The ancient Latin 
nSme of Portugal ; often used in 
modem poetry. 

"Woe to the conquering, not the conquered, 

Since baffled Triumph droops on Lusitania's 

coast. Byron. 

Lu'sus. A mythical hero, fabled to 
have visited Portugal in company 
with Ulysses, and to have founded 
Lisbon under the name of Ulyssop- 

liU-te'ti-a (-te'shi-li). The ancient 
Latin name of Paris. 

IjUz. a name given by the old Jewish 
Rabbins to an imaginary little bone 
which they believed to exist at the 
base of the spinal column, and to be 

' For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 


??5 LYS 

incapable of destruction. To its ever- 
living power, fermented by a kind of 
dew from heaven, tliey ascribed the 
resurrection of the dead. 

J8^ " Hadrian (whose bones may they 
be ground, and his name blotted out ! ) 
asked R. Joshua Ben Hananiah, ' How 
doth a man revive again in the world 
to come ? ' He answered and said, .' From 
Luz, in the backbone.' Saith he to him, 
* Demonstrate this to me.' Then he took 
Luz, *a little bone out of the backbone, 
and put it in water, and it was not 
steeped ; he put it in the fire, and it was 
not burned ; he brought it to the mill, 
and that could not grind it ; he laid it 
on the anvil, and knocked it with a ham- 
mer, but the anvil was cleft, and the 
hammer broken." Lightfoot. 

Iiy-ca'on. [Gr. AvKawi'.] ( Gr, <^ Rom. 
Myth.) A king of Arcadia whom 
Juno turned into a wolf because he 
defiled his altar with human sacri- 
fices. He was the father of Callisto. 

Ij^-5li6r'i-da. A nurse, in Shake- 
speare's " Pericles." 

Iiy9'i-dS.s. 1. A shepherd in the third 
Eclogue of Virgil. 

2. A poetical name under which 
Milton, in a celebrated monody, be- 
wails the death of his friend Edward 
King, fellow of Christ College, Cam- 
bridge, who was drowned on his pas- 
sage from Chester to Ireland, August 
10, 1G37.- 

Lyc^o-me'dSg. [Gr. Au/co/xrjSrj?.] ( Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A king of the island 
of Scyros, with whom Achilles con- 
cealed himself for some time, dis- 
guised in female apparel, to avoid 
going to the Trojan war. 

Ly'cus. [Gr. Au'ieo?.] {Gr. <f Rom. 
Myth. ) A king of Thebes, in Boeotia, 
and the husband of Antiope, whom 
he divorced because she was pregnant 
by Jupiter. He then married Dirce, 
who treated Antiope with great cru- 
elty; but the children of the latter, 
when they were grown up, avenged 
their mother on both Dirce and 
Lj'cus. See Dirce. 

Lying Bick. See Talbot, Lying 

Lyn'oetls. [Gr. AvyKev?.] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 

Myth.) 1. One of the Argonauts, 

famed for the sharpness of his sight. 

2. A son of Jfigyptus, and the 

husband of Hypermnestra. See 

, Danaides. 

Lynch, Judge. In America, a per- 
sonification of violent and illegal 
justice, or of mob-law. The name is 
usually alleged to be derived' from 
one Lynch, who lived in what is now 
the Piedmont district of Virginia at i 
the time when that district was the 
western frontier of the State, and 
when, on account of the distance from 
the courts of law, it was customary 
to refer the adj ustment of disputes to 
men of known character and judg- 
ment in the neighborhood* This man 
became so prominent by reason of 
the wisdom and impartiality of his 
decisions that he was known through- 
out the country as " Judge Lynch.'* 
Criminals were brought before him 
to receive their sentence, which was 
perhaps administered with some se- 
verity. At present, the term Lynch- 
law IS sjmonymous with mobocracy. 
By some, the term is said to be 
derived from one James Lynch Fitz- 
Stephen, a merchant of Galway, and 
in 1526 its mayor. His son having 
been convicted of murder, he, Brutus- 
like, sentenced him to death, and, 
fearing a rescue, caused him to be 
brought home and hanged before his 
own door. These explanations can- 
not be regarded as conclusive, or 
even tolerably well authenticated. A 
more probable solution is to be ^und, 
perhaps, in the Provincial "English 
word linch, to beat or maltreat. If 
this were admitted, Lynch-law would 
then be simply equivalent to " club- 

Ly'on-nesse'. Another form of Leon- 
noys. See Leonnoys. 

•Lyric Muse. A title awarded to 
Corinna, a poetess of Tanagra, in 
Boeotia, contemporary with Pindar, 
whom she is said to have conquered 
five times in musical contests. 

L^-san'der. A character in love with 
Hermia, in Shakespeare's " Midsum- 
mer-Night's Dream.' ■ 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxiL 





Mab. [Erse Meabhdh^ said to have 
been originally the name of a great 
Irish princess.] The name given by 
the English poets of the tifteenth 
and succeeding centuries to the imag- 
inary queen of the fairies. Shake- 
speare has given a famous descrip- 
tion of Queen Mab in " Komeo and 
Juliet," a. i., sc. 4. 

Mab, the mistress faiiy. 
That doth nightlv rob the dairy^ 
And can hurt or help the churning 
As she please, without discerning; 
She that pinches countr>^ wenches 
If they T\ib not clean their benches, 
But if so they chance to feast her. 
In a shoe slie drops a tester. JJen Jonson. 
If ye will with 3M) find gi-ace, 
Set each platter in its place; 
Rake the tire up and get 
Water in ere sun be s^et; 
Sweep your house; who doth not bo, 
Mab will pinch her by the toe. Jlerrick. 

Ma-caire', Bobert {Fr.prcm, robber' 
ma-'ker', 64). The name of a char- 
acter in a large number of French 
plays, particularly two, entitled 
" Chien de IMontargis " and " Chien 
d'Aubry ;" appUed to any audacious 
criminal. Macaire was a real per- 
.son, a French knight of the time of 
Charles V., but his Christian name 
was Richard, not Robert. He is tra- 
ditionally said to have assassinated 
Aubry de Montdidier, one of his 
companions-in-arms, in the forest of 
Bondy, in the year 1371. As the dog 
of fh^ murdered man displayed the 
most unappeasable enmity towards 
Macaire, the latter was arrested on 
suspicion, and required to fight a 
judicial combat with the animal. 
The result was fatal to the murderer, 
and he died confessing his guilt. 
The character of Macaire has been a 
favorite one upon the Parisian stage,' 
and hence the name is sometimes 
used as a f^portive designation of the 
French people generally. 

Mac-beth'. An ancient king of Scot- 
land, immortalized by being the hero 
of Shakespeare's tragedy of the same 
name. See Duncan. 

Mac-beth', Lady. The chief female 

character in Shakespeare*s tragedy 
of "Macbeth." 

4^ " In the mind of Lady Macbeth, 
ambition is represented as the ruling mo- 
tive, — an intense, overmastering ptission, 
•which is gratified at the expense ©f every 
just and generous principle, and every 
feminine feeling. In the pursuit of her 
object, she is cruel, treacherous, and 
daring. She is doubly, trebly dyed in 
guilt and blood ; for the murder she in- 
stigates is rendered more frightful by dis- 
loyalty and ingratitude, and by the vio- 
lation of all the most sacred claims of 
kindred and hospitality. When her hus- 
band's more kindly nature shrinks from 
the perpetration of the deed of horror, 
she, like an evil genius, whispe