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Full text of "An explanatory text to accompany the 1:750,000 scale fault and geologic maps of California"

Physical! 
Sci .Lib. 

TN 
24 
C3 
A3 
NO. 201 






PHYSICAL S«K 

AN EXPLANATORY TEXT SI 
TO ACCOMPANY 
THE 1:750,000 SCALE 
FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS 
OF CALIFORNIA 



PURPOSE AND USE 

EVOLUTION OF FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS 

FAULTS AND EARTHQUAKES 

MAJOR STRUCTURAL BLOCKS OF CALIFORNIA 

FAULT PATTERNS 

VOLCANOES 

THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 

INDEXES TO: Faults 

Hot Springs 

Formations 

Source Data 



1 s^l 


STATE OF CALIFORNIA ' 

GEORGE DEUKMEJiAN 
GOVERNOR 




H^^m 




\ \ ' ¥ ^'WS<^) ■ 




Pi^lNES AND GEOLOGY y^J 

THE RESOURCES AGENCY 

GORDON K VAN VLECK 
SECRETARY FOR RESOURCES 


BULLETIN 201 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

RANDALL M WARD 
DIRECTOR 



-J 



BULLETIN 201 



AN EXPLANATORY TEXT 

TO ACCOMPANY 

THE 1:750,000 SCALE 

FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS 

OF CALIFORNIA 



By 
Charles W. Jennings 

Geologist 



1985 



L^ CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
^^'"'M^ DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 
1416 NINTH STREET, ROOM 1341 
SACRAMENTO, CA 95814 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Preface vii 

Abstract ix 

Introduction 1 

Purpose and uses 1 

Value of map compilations 2 

Base Mop 2 

Source data 2 

Acknowledgments 3 

Part I 
Fault Map of California 

Introduction 7 

Recognition of faulting as cause of eartliquakes 7 

Evolution of fault maps of California 7 

First fault map of the state — 1908 7 

Second fault map of California — 1922 - 9 

Faults sfiown on Geologic Map of California — 1938 10 

Combined Wood and Jenkins fault map of tfie southern half of the state — 1947 11 

Earthquake Epicenter and Fault Map of California — 1964 12 

Earthquake Epicenter Mop of California — 1978 12 

Small-scale fault maps of California 12 

Preliminary Fault and Geologic Map of California — 1973 14 

Fault Map of California — 1975 edition 14 

Depiction of faults 15 

Fault classification 15 

Fault definitions 15 

Historic faults, earthquakes, and creep 16 

Earthquakes with surface rupture 16 

Recorded fault creep 18 

Displaced survey lines 23 

Seismicity 23 

Quaternary faults 24 

Identification 24 

Problems 24 

Plio-Pleistocene boundary controversy 26 

Major Quaternary faults 26 

Philosophy of conservatism 26 

Pre-Quoternory faults 27 

Accuracy of fault locations 27 

Offshore structure 28 

Coast Range thrust 28 

Circular fault structures 28 

Future changes in fault depiction 29 

Fault patterns 30 

Structural provinces 30 

Predominant fault trends defining structural provinces 31 

Major structural blocks with predominantly northwest faults 31 

Coast Ranges block 31 

Peninsular Ranges block 31 

Major structural block having predominantly east-trending faults 31 

Transverse Ranges block 31 

Santa Ynez and Son Gabriel sub-blocks 31 

Banning sub-block 31 

San Bernardino sub-block 31 

Pinto Mountains sub-block 31 

Major structural blocks charocterized by northeast-trending fault boundaries 32 

Mojove block 32 

Tehachapi block 32 

iii 



Page 

Major structural blockj charocterized by north-trending faults 32 

Kern Canyon block 32 

Ponomint and Death Valley blocks 32 

Worner block 33 

East Sierra block 33 

Cascade block 33 

Gordo block 33 

Major structural blocks characterized by other types of faults 33 

Sonoran Desert block 33 

Sierra Nevada block 33 

Klamath block 33 

Modoc block 33 

Coast Ranges sub-blocks 33 

Santo Lucia and Gobilan sub-blocks 33 

Son Francisco ond Berkeley sub-blocks 34 

Diablo and Great Valley sub-blocks 34 

Stonyford sub-block 34 

Peninsular Ranges sub-blocks 34 

San Clemente and Cotalina sub-blocks 34 

Polos Verdes and Inglewood-Son Diego sub-blocks 34 

Santa Ana, Riverside, and Son Jacinto sub-blocks 34 

Sub-blocks within the Modoc block 34 

Summary 34 

Fault couples 35 

En echelon faults 35 

Regularity of fault spacing 35 

Summary on fault geometry 39 

Faulting and patterns of seismicity 39 

Relationship of epicenters to faults 39 

Relationship of surface rupture to earthquake magnitude 41 

Faults with recurring earthquake activity 41 

Patterns of seismicity 42 

Cautions in use of Fault Map of California for land-use planning 42 

Depiction of volcanoes 43 

Distribution and age 43 

Relation of volcanoes to faults 44 

Volcanic hazards 44 

Depiction of thermal springs and wells 45 

Temperoture 45 

Mode of occurrence of hot springs 45 

Distribution of hot springs 45 

Part II 
Geologic Map of California 

Introduction 51 

History of geologic mops of California 51 

The first attempts 51 

Preliminary Minerological and Geological Map of the State of California — 1891 51 

Geological Mop of the State of Colifornia — 1916 51 

Geological Mop of California — 1938 52 

Geologic Atlos of California— 1958-1969 52 

Two smoll-scole geologic maps of California (1966 and 1968) 54 

Geologic Map of California — 1977 54 

History of the project 54 

Uses of the geologic map 55 

Objectives and contents 56 

Representation of faults 56 

Representation of contacts 56 

Compilation method 56 

Classification of rock units and special problems 58 

Colors, patterns, symbols of rock units, ond mop appearance 61 

Geologic time scale 66 

Volcanoes 66 

Botholiths ond plutons 66 

Offshore geology 68 

References cited in Parts I ond II 69 

iv 



Part III 
Appendices 

Page 
APPENDIX A: INDEX TO FAULT NAMES SHOWN ON THE FAULT MAP OF CALIFORNIA, 1975 EDITION 

Named faults shown 77 

Procedure for naming faults 77 

Index to fault names 78 

Supplemental index to fault names 80 

APPENDIX B: TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 

Data used and acknowledgments 81 

Locating thermal springs and wells 81 

Tabulated list of thermal springs and wells 81 

References cited in Appendix B 1 17 

APPENDIX C: INDEX TO THE GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS GROUPED WITHIN EACH UNIT PORTRAYED ON 
THE GEOLOGIC MAP OF CALIFORNIA, 1977 EDITION 

Explanation 1 19 

Index 120 

APPENDIX D: SOURCE DATA INDEX 

How to use this index 125 

Other references 125 

Indexes to published geologic maps 125 

Indexes to theses 125 

Explanation of maps 127 

Bibliography (by atlas sheet) 128 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
Figures 

Figure 1. Increase of published geologic map data for California 2 

Figure 2. Theses on California geology 1892-1976 (exclusive of topical and brood regional studies) 3 

Figure 3. Bruce Clark's 1930 map of California showing "principal known primary faults" 13 

Figure 4. Mop of California and adjacent terrone showing major Quaternary faults and identifying historic fault breaks, occurrences 

of fault creep, and triggered creep 19 

Figure 5. Mop showing small-magnitude earthquake epicenters reported during 1975 25 

Figure 6. Generalized mop of the Long Volley-Mono Craters area showing location of faults 29 

Figure 7. Numerous short NW and NE conjugate faults characteristic of the Panomint and Death Valley blocks 32 

Figure 8. Diagonal faults formed between two major strike-slip faults, the Son Andreas and the Rodgers Creek-Heoldsburg faults ... 36 

Figure 9. Diagonal faults formed between the strike-slip Son Andreas and Son Gabriel faults 37 

Figure 10. Diagonal folds formed between the San Andreas and Rinconada faults in thin sedimentary cover overlying granitic 

basement rocks 38 

Figure 11. Fracture zones illustrated by Menard (1955) 40 

Figure 12. Part of a tectonic mop of the world (Condie, 1976) including the same area illustrated by Menard 40 

Figure 13. Alignment of Tertiary volcanic plugs near San Luis Obispo along a line of weakness presumed to be on ancient fault 44 

Figure 14. Relief Mop of California showing geomorphic provinces 48 

Figure 15. Geologic Legend (generalized description of rock types) 62-63 

Figure 16. State index map showing the boundaries of the individual Geologic Atlas sheets and the source data index mops in 

Appendix D 126 



Page 

Tables 

Table 1. Summory of published foull mops of Colifornia 14 

Table 2. Comporison of various commonly used fault definitions 17 

Table 3. Evidence used for determining fault history 17 

Table 4. Port A. Historic surface faulting associated v/ith earthquakes in California 20 

Port B. Historic surface faulting associated with earthquakes in Nevado ond Bajo California 22 

Port C. California faults displaying fault-creep slippage not associated with earthquakes 22 

Part D. Triggered creep along faults associated with earthquakes in California 23 

Table 5. California seismic record for 75 years 41 

Table 6. Observed volcanic events in California 44 

Table 7. Springs neor boiling point temperature 46 

Table 8. State geologic mops of California 52 

Table 9. Geologic otlos of California (1 -.250,000 scale) 53 

Table 10. Derived legend for 1:750,000 scale Geologic Mop of California 59-60 

Table 11. Comparison of "American" and "International" mop colors for sedimentary rocks 64 

Table 12. Comparison of "American" and "International" map colors for plutonic and volcanic rocks 64 

Table 13. Patterns used on Geologic Mop of Colifornio 65 

Table 14. Geologic time scale 67 

Table 15. Botholifh, plutons, and stocks identified on the 1977 Geologic Mop of California 68 



Plates (in pocket) 

Plate lA. Faults shown on the first fault mop of California. From Mop No. 1 of the State Earthquake Investigation Commission report on the 
California earthquake of April 18,1906 (Lowson and others, 1908) . Fault names shown in quotation marks ore from the text of 1908 
report; other fault names were added from current usage. 

Plate 1 B. H. O. Wood's abridged version of Lawson's 1908 fault map of California, showing faults and "lines" tentative!/ considered by Wood 
to be generatrices of earthquakes. 

Plate IC. Faults shown on the Fault Map of California compiled by B. Willis ond H. O. Wood and published by the Seismologlcal Society 
of America in 1922 at o scale of 1:506,880. 

Plate ID. Faults shown on the Geologic Mop of California published in 1938 at 1:500,000 scole. This reduced version, showing faults only, 
includes all those faults shown on the larger scale mop. Faults were not shown by name on the original mop, but have been identified 
on this plate. 

Plate IE. Foult mop of southern California (here slightly generalized) compiled by H. O. Wood. Faults were taken largely from the 1922 
Fault Mop of Californio and the 1938 Geologic Mop of California. 

Plate 2A. Structural provinces of California determined by the prominent fault patterns and characteristics of the faults they contain or 
bound. 

Plate 2B. Parallelism between major Quaternary faults and regularity of fault spacing. 

Plate 2C. Relationship of earthquake epicenters to faults in California. Note the close relationship of earthquakes of magnitude 6 and greater 
to the major Quaternary faults. 

Plate 2D. Eorthquoke epicenters of mognitude 4 to 4.9, showing more scatter than for the larger earthquakes, but also suggesting certain 
areas of low historic seismicity. 



VI 



PREFACE 

This bulletin was prepared after the GEOLOGIC MAP OF CALIFORNIA was published in 1977. The 
parts dealing with hot springs and wells, and with source data, now included in the appendices to 
this bulletin, were prepared in draft form in conjunction with the FAULT MAP OF CALIFORNIA 
published in 1975. Most of the text was written in 1978 and a first draft was reviewed at that time. 
After several delays the manuscript was approved for publication in 1981. 

The data in Appendix B, Tabulated List of Thermal Springs and Wells have been incorporated in the 
U.S. Geological Survey GEOTHERM data bank and later the California Division of Mines and 
Geology, Geologic Data Mop No. 4, GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. It is included in 
this bulletin as documentation for the locations of thermal springs and wells shown on the FAULT MAP 
OF CALIFORNIA, WITH LOCATIONS OF VOLCANOES, THERMAL SPRINGS AND THERMAL WELLS, 
Geologic Data Map No. 1. 

The Source Data Index (Appendix D) , although somewhat outdated, is still the best guide to the most 
useful and available areal geologic mapping in California to approximately 1972, and its annotations 
indicate the sources used to classify the recency of activity of faults in California. The Source Data 
Index also contains some data to 1975. 

This bulletin reviews the history and development of geologic and fault maps of California. The author 
has taken this opportunity to articulate various ideas and speculations pertaining to the geology and 
structure of California that have occurred to him over the years he has spent compiling maps published 
by the California Division of Mines and Geology. 



VII 



ABSTRACT 

The latest in a series of State Geologic Maps of California was published in 1977, and a Fault 
Map of California was published in 1975. Bulletin 201 attempts to put these maps in historical 
perspective by describing in chronological order the earlier state maps of both these types. The 
bulletin explains various uses for these maps and also discusses precautions against their misuse. 

This volume is divided into three parts. The first deals with the Fault Map of California. The 
evolution of fault maps of California is described beginning with the first fault map of the state 
(published in 1908), and ending with a detailed description of the 1975 Fault Map of California. 
Emphasis is placed on historic and Quaternary faults and the criteria used to classify them. Fault 
patterns recognized in California are discussed, and structural provinces of the state, as defined 
by predominant fault trends, are proposed. The hmitations in the use of the Fault Map of 
California for land-use planning are reviewed. Finally, a discussion of the volcanoes and thermal 
springs and wells that are plotted on the Fault Map concludes the first part of Bulletin 201. 

The second part of the bulletin, pertains to State geologic maps of California. A brief historical 
account of early geologic maps of the state is followed by a discussion of the 1977 edition. The 
objectives and contents of the map are described, and considerable explanation is given to the 
compilation method and the physical apjjearance of the map, including a discussion of the choice 
of colors, patterns, and symbols. A brief explanation of batholiths and other plutons, as well as 
the offshore geology, follows. 

The third part of the bulletin consists of reference data organized in four appendices. Appendix 
A is an index to the 272 fault names shown on the Fault Map of Cahfomia. In addition, a 
procedure for the naming of faults that would avoid repetition and confusion is suggested. 

Appendix B consists of a tabulated hst of 584 thermal springs and wells, organized by 1° x 
2° State Map Sheet units. This list contains location and temperature data, and pertinent refer- 
ences. For the thermal wells, total depth and year drilled are also given. The location of each 
thermal spring and well is shown on the index maps to the source data in Appendix D. 

Appendix C is an index to the over 1,000 geologic formations grouped within the units 
portrayed on the 1977 Geologic Map of California. 

Lastly, Appendix D is an extensive index to the source data used to compile the Geologic Map 
and for classifying the faults on the Fault Map. This index is keyed to 28 maps showing in detail 
the area covered by the references listed in the bibliographies. 

Bulletin 201 consists of 197 pages, including 16 figures, 15 tables, and two plates. The Bulletin 
was designed to accompany the Fault Map of California (1975) and Geologic Map of California 
(1977), and hopefully will enhance the usefulness of these maps by providing additional explana- 
tion and background data. 



AN EXPLANATORY TEXT 

TO ACCOMPANY THE 1:750,000 SCALE 

FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



BY CHARLES W. JENNINGS 



INTRODUCTION 

The Fault Map of California (1975), the Geologic Map of 
California (1977), and this bulletin culminate nearly ten years 
of extensive research. To a degree these maps represent the 
"state-of-the-art" in California regional geology. They supersede 
the Prehminary Fault and Geologic Map of California on the 
same 1:750,000 scale, published by the California Division of 
Mines and Geology in 1973. 

The Geologic Map of California presents an overview of the 
geology and structure of the state with sufficient detail to be 
useful for many purposes. It should fill the need for a modem 
geologic wall map showing the distribution of the major rock 
types and the major structural elements of the state. The Fault 
Map of California, on the other hand, emphasizes fault activity 
in the state and differentiates faults according to time of activity. 
The fault map also shows the locations of the numerous recent 
volcanoes in California and the locations of all known thermal 
springs and wells. 

This bulletin was prepared to accompany the Fault Map and 
the Geologic Map and is intended to enhance their usefulness by 
providing additional explanation. This report also describes the 
historical antecedents of these two maps, the latest in a sequence 
of state geologic maps that was started in 1891. No attempt has 
been made to write a comprehensive "Geology of California" — 
so much is now known and the problems are so complex that 
California geology, for most intents and purposes, has become 
the field of specialists. Nor has the writer attempted to summa- 
rize or generalize the basic facts of Cahfomia's geologic history 
because at least two effective overviews have been published in 
recent years; G.B. Oakeshott's "California's Changing Land- 
scapes" (1971 and 1978), and Norris and Webb's "Geology of 
California" (1976). Readers are referred to these texts, as start- 
ers, if they are unfamiliar with the geologic setting in California. 
For more advanced considerations of California geology, the 
recent literature abounds with outstanding papers. Some of the 
most instructive are the outgrowth of symposia on various top- 
ics, or field trip guides to specific areas within the state. To list 
these would require much space; however, the reader is referred 
to the "References Cited in Parts I and 11" on pages 69-74 
wherem many useful papers are included. 

Bulletin 201 consists of two main parts and four extensive 
appendices. Part I is a detailed explanation of the Fault Map of 
California and Part II is a discussion of the Geologic Map of 
California. Part III contains four appendices: ( 1 ) an index to the 
faults shown on the 1975 edition of the Fault Map, (2) a tabulat- 
ed listing of data for the thermal springs and wells depicted on 
the Fault Map, (3) an index to the geologic formations grouped 
within each of the units shown on the Geologic Map of Califor- 
nia, and (4) a detailed bibliography keyed to 27 index maps 
identifying all of the source data used to compile the Geologic 
Map and Fault Map. 



The Geologic Map of California and the Fault Map of Califor- 
nia are syntheses of the available information on the geology and 
structure of California. An attempt was made to summarize and 
incorporate some of the currently accepted conclusions regard- 
ing the geologic evolution of California, for example, depiction 
of the Coast Range thrust fault as the upper boundary of a late 
Mesozoic subduction zone; however, little attempt was made to 
devise a uniform structural interpretation of the entire state. 
Uniformity is certainly desirable; however, it was believed that 
to achieve it on a map of a state as large and complex as Califor- 
nia would be a difficult and time-consuming task and might even 
prove to be of dubious value. It was decided, therefore, to con- 
centrate more intently on the basic data, namely the distribution 
of the various rock units, and generally to use the structural 
interpretations shown by the authors of the source data. 

In synthesizing data from individual maps, an attempt was 
made to follow the field geologist's interpretation as closely as 
possible, but in order to harmonize one map with another, it was 
often necessary to be arbitrary in the selection of what is most 
significant. No two compilers will make identical decisions; 
however, at the onset of this project, guidelines were established 
and followed by all those who assisted in the compilation. In the 
final map-synthesis, the writer tried to view the state as a whole 
and tried to give the compilation a certain balanced judgment. 
Thus, in the resulting maps, the depiction of faults, especially 
recent faults, was considered more important than the portrayal 
of rock types. In congested areas, faults may have sometimes 
been exaggerated by connecting several segments, or by general- 
izing the local geology. 

Purpose and Uses 

The primary purpose in preparing the Geologic Map of Cali- 
fornia was to show clearly the regional relationships of rock and 
time-rock units in California, and of the Fault map of California, 
to depict the faults as to their recency of movement. The maps 
summarize up-to-date geologic information on California for use 
in applied and theoretical geology. 

These are multipurpose maps. The Geologic Map portrays the 
geologic setting of mineral deposits of California and can be used 
in planning mineral resources investigations. It is helpful in mak- 
ing regional land-use plans, soil surveys, and in locating and 
planning large-scale civil engineering projects such as roads, 
dams, tunnels, and canals. The Fault Map is an inventory of 
faults in the state and can be useful in preliminary earthquake 
hazard evaluations. A preliminary version of this map was pub- 
lished to aid local governments in preparation of seismic safety 
elements required by California law as part of the general plans 
(or master plan) for cities and counties. The Fault Map is also 
useful as a guide to Quaternary and recent volcanism and thus 
is useful in consideration of possible volcanic hazards. Lastly, the 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



locations of thermal springs and wells shown on the Fault Map 
are indications of abnormally high temperature gradients and 
are useful in the exploration and development of geothernial 
power. The Geologic Map of California and the Fault Map of 
California are also useful in classrooms for those teaching and 
studying geology, seismology, and geophysics, a.s well as related 
fields such as geography, oceanography, ecology, and soils. 

Value of Map Compilations 

A compilation is no better than the data sources from which 
it is compiled, which usually vary from detailed to general maps. 
A compilation, however, can go beyond the sco[)e of the source 
maps and reveal broader relationships, by virtue of the capability 
of synthesizing individual areas and thereby revealing important 
regional trends. A careful synthesis thus reveals new concepts, 
which because of their magnitude, may be more important than 
the details. 

Base Map 

The base map used on the Fault Map of California and the 
Geologic Map of California is a reduction of the two-sheet 
1:500,000 scale Map of California published in 1970 by the U.S. 
Geological Survey. These two sheets were reduced to 1:750,000 
scale and joined to make a single map 4 '/: by 5 feet. The use of 
a single large-size sheet instead of two separate sheets eliminated 
problems in registration and matching of colors from sheet to 
sheet and, most important of all, allowed the faults, geologic 
formations, and structures to be displayed with uninterrupted 
continuity. 

The base map indicates county boundaries in green; cities and 
towns, highways and roads, railroads, and the township-and- 
range boundaries in black; and rivers, streams, and other water 
features, including ocean depth curves at 100 fathom intervals, 
in blue. Contours, at 500-foot intervals with 100-foot supplemen- 
tary intervals, are shown in brown on the Fault Map and are 
available on the Geologic Map (part of the first printing of the 
Geologic Map was without contours). The base map is a Lam- 
bert conformal conic projection, based on standard parallels 33° 
and 45°. The highways shown are correct to 1969. 

Source Data 

In a state as large and geologically complex as California, the 
quality and accuracy of the geologic mapping varies. In general, 
the latest information available was used. The 1:250,000 scale 
Geologic Atlas of California was the principal source, but exten- 
sive revisions were made and nearly 900 new references were 
added, approximately 30 percent of which were from unpub- 
lished sources. 

The continual progress and rate of growth in preparation of 
published and unpublished geologic maps in California are 
shown in Figures 1 and 2. 

Among the unpublished data, besides geologic theses and dis- 
sertations, some company and consultant reports arc included 
and unpublished maps by geologists of the California Division 
of Mines and Geology and other Stale and Federal agencies, 
especially the California Department of Water Resources, and 
the U.S. Geological Survey. Extensive reconnaissance maps of 
parts of the northern Coast Ranges, which were made by the 
Department of Water Resources in connection with proposed 
dams and tunnel routes, were very useful in revising the Ukiah 
Sheet area, and the extensive work by the U.S. Geological Survey 



in the San Francisco Bay Region Environment and Resources 
I'lannmg Study was invaluable in the revision of several Bay area 
sheets. 

Unlike the extensive mapping done by the staff of the Division 
of Mines and Geology for the preparation of the State Geologic 
Atlas, most of the Division maps used in the 1:750,000 scale 
compilation were taken from projects such as the urban mapping 
cooperative projects with cities and counties and from the com- 
pletion of 15-minute or 7 '/;-niinute quadrangle projects. The 
preparation of a totally revised 1:250,000 scale Death Valley 
sheet (Streitz and Stinson, 1977) was especially useful, and in- 
deed, was done in part to aid the 1:750,000 scale compilation. 
Work done by the Division specifically for the 1:750,000 compi- 
lation included extensive photo-interpretation of Quaternary 
faults in northeastern California and field evaluations of selected 
faults to determine their extent or recency of movement. 

Preparation of the 1:750,000 scale map began in 1969, and 
revisions were added to keep the work sheets current until about 
1972. An extensive review of the product was then undertaken 
with the help of many geologists both inside and outside the 
Division of Mines and Geology. As a result, numerous changes 
and additions were made to the compilation. After 1974, while 
the maps were being drafted for publication, no attempt was 
made to keep the compilation current, because of lack of time 
and the difficulties of making piecemeal revisions of areas which 
had already been drafted. However, some later data, especially 
newly recognized faults, or data affecting the fault classification, 
were incorporated. The offshore area was the largest single area 
thus affected, because of the vast amount of new data released 
by the U.S. Geological Survey. All reference data used in the 
compilation are indexed by atlas sheets, and shown m Appendix 
D. 



278 GEOLOGIC MAPS 



37 27 56 45 105 217 383 670 



■^-1270 — 

GEOLOGIC 

MAPS 



1850 60 



70 80 90 1900 10 20 30 40 50 I960 1970 
PUBLICATION YEAR 



Figure 1. Increase of published geologic mop doto for Colifornio. 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



60 



55 



50 



45 



V) 
UJ 

X 
H- 35 

li. 
O 

ir 30 

CD 

i25H 



20 



10 



p. 



niil 



XL 



Jl 



in 



£1 



1892 95 



1900 



05 



10 



20 



25 



30 35 

YEAR 



40 



45 



50 



55 



60 



65 



70 



1975 



Figure 2. Theses on California geology 1892-1976 (exclusive of topical and broad regional studies). 



Acknowledgments 

The Fault Map of California and the Geologic Map of Califor- 
nia are based on the work over many years by a vast array of 
geologists and institutions. In a way, these two maps represent 
about 150 years of geologic exploration and mapping since Lieu- 
tenant Edward Belcher first surveyed the "Port of San Fran- 
cisco," which became in 1839 the first published geologic map 
of any part of California. Acknowledgment therefore goes to all 
the geologists down the years who have mapped in California, 
for only by drawing on this collective body of knowledge have 
we arrived at our present level of understanding of the state's 
rocks and structure. 

Within the Division of Mines and Geology, the writer is espe- 
cially grateful to R.G. Strand and T.H. Rogers for their assist- 
ance in compiling and revising the 1:250,000 scale work sheets 
during the first stages in the preparation of the compilation. 
M.C. Stinson in the later stages helped revise the depiction of 
selected Quaternary and historic faults, and J.L. Burnett pre- 
pared a photogeologic interpretation of Quaternary faults for the 
northeastern part of the state. J.E. Kahle provided valuable as- 



sistance in the location of historically active faults, and his un- 
published catalog of "Earthquakes with Surface Faulting or 
Ground Breaks and Creep Events" was particularly valuable. R. 
Streitz and M.C. Stinson substantially improved the representa- 
tion of the geology in the Death Valley Sheet area by the prepara- 
tion of a new compilation of this sheet (Streitz and Stinson, 
1977). Robert Switzer assisted in the interpretation of some of 
the latest geologic data used in updating the compilations and 
also in making numerous corrections immediately prior to sub- 
mittal of the maps to the printer. The painstaking task of color- 
ing the preliminary compilation, photographic prints of which 
were used in the reviewing process, was done by my daughter, 
Marcia Jennings. 

The compilations benefited greatly by the comments and new 
data generously provided during careful review of this map by 
members of numerous federal and state agencies, as well as 
independent geologists familiar with California geology. At the 
risk of appearing partial, I would like to mention the following 
geologists who made particularly constructive suggestions or 
contributed new data covering large areas of the state; E.H. 
Bailey, E.E. Brabb, T.W. Dibblee, Jr., P.E. Hotz. W P. Irwin, 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



R.D. Nason. H.C. Wagner, CM Wentwonh, and J.I Ziony, all 
of the U.S. Geological Survey; Professors C.R. Allen, California 
Institute of Technology; J.C. Crowell, University of California, 
Santa Barbara; C.A. Hall. University of California, Los Angeles; 
B.M. Page, Stanford University; C. Wahrhaftig, University of 
California, Berkeley; and ML. Hill and A.O. Woodford, Po- 
mona College, Claremont, California. To all these geologists and 
many other unnamed contributors, the State is especially grate- 
ful. 

Of all the individual contributors to the geologic mapping of 
California, surely Thomas W. Dibblee, Jr. warrants special rec- 
ognition and appreciation. A vertiable one-man geological sur- 
vey, he mapped and published more than eighty-four 15-minute 
and thirty-five 7 ' .-minute quadrangles. In addition, Mr. Dibblee 
has numerous geologic quadrangles that he has mapped but not 
published. 

The immense task of scribing and preparing the plates for 
publication was e.xpertly done by R.R. Moar, R.T. Boylan, and 
R.A. Switzer of the Division. The Fault Map of California and 
The Geologic Map of California could not have become a reality 
without the ready help of Merl Smith, Publications Supervisor 
of the California Division of Mines and Geology. His sage advice 
in lithographic matters and his assistance in obtaining the type 
of map we desired are especially recognized. 



The maps were printed by the Williams and Heintz Map 
Corporation of Washington D.C., under the masterful supervi- 
sion of William Heintz. Mr. Heintz's keen interest, cooperation, 
and patience were demonstrated time after time while we experi- 
mented with difTerent colors, shades, patterns, and formats. 

In the preparation of this manuscnpt, two of the four appen- 
dices — the Tabulated List of Thermal Springs and Thermal 
Wells and the Source Data Index — could not have been possible 
without the extensive help of John Sackett, Duane McClure, 
Melvin Stinson, and Robert Switzer, who plotted most of the 
thermal springs and wells; David Peterson, who assisted in the 
preparation of the source data index; and Robert Switzer, who 
drafted most of the plates. The initial manuscript was edited by 
Virginia McDowell. Dorothy Hamilton carefully and cheerfully 
typed and proof-read this manuscript, including all the extensive 
listings, and all the revisions. 

Special thanks are due B.W. Troxel, R.D. Nason, J.W. Wil- 
liams, G.B. Oakeshott, D.L. Wagner, S.J. Rice, R.G. Strand, and 
C.R. Real, who read all or parts of the manuscript and generous- 
ly aided with constructive criticism. 

To all those mentioned above, and all the unnamed individuals 
who over the years contributed or encouraged the preparation of 
these two maps and this bulletin, I wish to express deepest thanks 
and appreciation. 



PART I 
FAULT MAP OF CALIFORNIA 



He looketh on the earth, and it trembleth: 
He toucheth the hills, and they smoke. 



-Psalm 104 
Verse 32 



FAULT MAP OF CALIFORNIA 



INTRODUCTION 

The 1975 Fault Map of California depicts the most recent 
knowledge on the distribution and nature of faults in California. 
It also indicates as factually as possible the activity of the faults. 
Indications of the degree of activity on faults that have been 
mapped in the state are based on the recency of the last recog- 
nized movement. 

The following section briefly discusses when faulting was 
recognized as the principal cause of earthquakes and how faults 
were considered on early California geologic maps. The evolu- 
tion of fault maps of the state is then presented before going into 
a detailed discussion of the present Fault Map of California. 
Regional fault patterns are discussed, and the writer then pre- 
sents his concept of structural provinces of California based on 
the predominant fault directions recognizable in the state. The 
relationship of faults to patterns of seismicity is discussed. Last- 
ly, other features depicted on the fault map, such as volcanoes 
and thermal springs and wells, are described and related to faults 
where appropriate. 



RECOGNITION OF FAULTING AS 
CAUSE OF EARTHQUAKES 

The understanding of earthquakes has come a long way since 
Josiah Whitney, early State Geologist of California, considered 
that ground fractures associated with the great 1872 Owens 
Valley earthquake were of small importance. The prevailing 
thought at that time was that ground fractures were the result, 
not the cause, of earthquakes. 

As a matter of historical interest, it was not until 1819, in 
connection with the Cutch, India earthquake of that year, that 
surface faulting itself was first recognized and well documented 
as accompanying an earthquake. In California, the first descrip- 
tions of ground displacements associated with major earth- 
quakes were in 1836 on the Hayward fault and in 1838 and 1857 
on the San Andreas fault. However, descriptions of ground dis- 
placements during these earthquake-events were in newspaper 
accounts and were not made by trained observers. In fact, it was 
not until many years later that the connections between these 
earthquakes and these specific faults were recognized (Lawson, 
1908; Louderback. 1947). 

In California it probably was LeConte who first proposed the 
idea of faulting as a cause of earthquakes. In his article "On the 
Structure and Origin of Mountains," LeConte (1878, p. 101) 
considered readjustment along the fault at the eastern base of the 
Sierra Nevada as the cause of the Owens Valley earthquake. 
Later, LeConte (1886, p. 179) stated that "With every readjust- 
ment and increase of fault [movement] there is probably an 
earthquake." Worldwide, according to Davison (1927), the first 
person to attribute an earthquake to the movement along a fault 
probably was Rev. Fisher (1856) in his description of the Visp, 
Switzerland earthquake. 

What we now take for granted, that movement along faults is 
the cause of most earthquakes, did not become generally accept- 
ed until after the 1906 California earthquake and H.F. Reid's 
(1910) precise theoretical formulation of the elastic rebound 
theory. However, the English engineer Milne, anticipated Reid's 



elastic rebound theory by 24 years (but, without of course, the 
benefit of Reid's rigorous analysis of accurate triangulation sur- 
veys across the San Andreas fault): 

The ground is broken and slips either up, down, or side- 
ways, as we see to have taken place in the production of 
faults. Here we get distortion in the direction of the move- 
ment, and waves are produced by the elastic force of the 
rock, causing it to spring back from its distorted form 
(Milne, 1886, p. 47). 

Though faults had long been noted in older rocks, as in the 
case of displaced beds, early geologic maps mostly ignored fault 
features or only noted an occasional fault. Individual U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey folios for California (from 1894 to 1914) show no 
faults, or at most two or three on a folio map before 1909. 
Fairbank's San Luis Folio (1904) shows several faults on a cross 
section, but the faults are not shown on his geologic map. 
However, it appears to have been early U.S. Geological Survey 
policy not to show faults on the folio maps even if the geologists 
had mapped them as Fairbanks had done (Olaf P. Jenkins, 
personal communication, 1957). In 1909, the Santa Cruz foho 
by Branner, Newsom, and Arnold was published, and it dis- 
played many faults. Perhaps the Geological Survey changed its 
policy for this folio because the area it maps blankets a segment 
of the San Andreas fault zone, the importance of which had been 
dramatically demonstrated by the 1906 California earthquake. 
The San Francisco foho by A.C. Lawson, published in 1914, also 
portrayed many faults on the maps and on the cross sections. 
However, no faults are shown on Lawson's map of the San 
Francisco Peninsula, published in the 15th Annual Report of the 
U.S. Geological Survey (1893-94), although in the text the San 
Andreas and other faults are discussed at considerable length. 

A perusal of other early geologic maps of areas in California 
also reveals few mapped faults. The earliest volumes of the Uni- 
versity of California Publications in Geology show but few 
faults, albeit more than on the early U.S. Geological Survey 
folios. Apparently, in early geologic mapping more attention was 
given to plotting the rock distribution than in trying to resolve 
geologic structure. 



EVOLUTION OF FAULT MAPS 
OF CALIFORNIA 

First Fault Map of the State — 1908 

The atlas of the State Earthquake Investigation Commission 
report (Lawson and others, 1908) contains a map of California 
and the adjacent states, showing the more important known 
faults. This report and atlas were the result of the monumental 
investigation of the 1906 California earthquake which did such 
heavy damage in north coastal California. The fault map in the 
atlas is the first attempt to depict faults in California statewide 
(Lawson and others, 1908, p. 346). The scale of the map is 
approximately 1 inch equal to 30 miles, and the title is: "Geo- 
morphic Map of California and Nevada with portions of Oregon 
and Idaho showing the diastrophic character of the relief, the 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



steep descent from the sub-continental shelf to the floor of the 
Pacific, and the more important faults" — a cumbersome but 
accurate description of the map. Plate lA (pocket, herein) is a 
reduced version of this map identifying the faults described in 
the Lawson report. 

Lawson's map is very interesting, for some of the faults shown 
on it were subsequently, and mistakenly, ignored on later maps. 
On Platel A, the San Andreas fault is shown extending about as 
far south as San Gregorio Pass. The prominent portion of the 
San Andreas fault in the Mecca Hills, on the east side of Coa- 
chella Valley and on the east side of Salton Sea, had not been 
discovered. To the north, however, the Shelter Cove fault rup- 
ture of 1906 is joined to the San Andreas where it leaves the 
mainland at Point Arena. This speculative connection, concealed 
by the waters of the ocean and requiring a broad curve in the 
otherwise long straight stretch of the fault, was later thought to 
be unreasonable, and the segments were not joined together on 
most subsequent maps. This lack of connection persisted until 
1967 when sonic profiling at sea showed that the San Andreas 
fault does indeed swing back to shore at Shelter Cove (Curray 
and Nason, 1967). 

The Sierra Nevada fault is shown on Lawson's map as being 
cut off at its southern end by the San Andreas fault at Gorman. 
Actually the Garlock fault, as we know it today, intersects the 
San Andreas fault at Gorman and also intersects the Sierra 
Nevada fault northeast of the town of Mojave. The Garlock fault 
also extends far eastward into the southern Death Valley area. 
The Mojave Desert on Lawson's map is, as we might expect, 
shown as being devoid of faults, for little of the desert land had 
been explored or even mapped topographically by 1908. The 
northern extent of the Sierra Nevada fault is shown as an almost 
continuous trace following the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada 
crest past Lake Tahoe and into Plumas County. Modem detailed 
mapping shows that this continuity is a gross oversimplification. 
Lawson described (p. 19) a "San Gabriel branch of the San 
Andreas fault" in southern California heading westward to the 
ocean at Carpinteria. This fault line quite accurately connects 
what are now known as the Cucamonga, Sierra Madre, Santa 
Susana, and Oakridge faults. What is mapped as the San Gabriel 
fault today lies farther north, within the San Gabriel Range, and 
then heads northwestward, joining the San Andreas near Gor- 
man. 

The San Jacinto and Elsinore faults are crudely depicted on 
Lawson's map, but the Whittier and Malibu-Santa Monica faults 
are quite accurately drawn. 

The Kern Canyon fault is quite accurately located, and Law- 
son's map, unlike several succeeding maps, shows its full north- 
em and southem limits. A prominently depicted fault west of the 
Kem Canyon fault is not recognized on later geologic maps. 

Some other important faults in the southem part of the state 
that were mapf>ed at that time (at least in part) include the San 
Clemente Island, Santa Ynez, and Nacimiento faults. 

In central Califomia, Lawson (1908, p. 19) described a "Santa 
Lucia fault" as "one of the dominant structural lines of the Coast 
Ranges at the base of the Santa Lucia Range on the border of 
Salinas Valley." Today wc know the northern part of this struc- 
tural line as the King City fault. Lawson shows this fault con- 
tinuing southeastward to San Miguel. This part is incorrect 
according to modem maps, which show the King City fault as 
a possible continuation of the Rinconada fault somewhat farther 
to the west. 

In the San Francisco Bay area, the Hayward fault is correctly 
depicted, but its north-bay counterpart, the Rodgers Creek- 
Healdsburg fault, is missing. However, in the text, Lawson 
(1908, p. 17-18) discusses the prolongation of the "Haywards" 
fault on the cast side of the Santa Rosa and Russian River Valley 



northward to about Cloverdale. The Calaveras fault is not well 
located, but the shorter Concord and Green Valley faults are 
recognized. Other faults correctly mapf)ed in the Bay area are 
the San Gregorio fault and the San Bruno fault. A strange fault 
is shown directly cross-cutting the San Andreas at Pajaro Gap 
and is described by Lawson (p. 19) as: (1) lying approximately 
on the axis of the geosyncline of Monterey Bay, (2) transverse 
to the San Andreas and intersectng it, and (3) near the place 
where the 1906 surface mpture ceased. 

In the east central part of the state, the White Mountains fault 
is recognized and extended as far south as the Coso Mountains. 
In northem Califomia, the Mother Lode faults are totally ab- 
sent, but probably this was because of their great antiquity and 
complexity. The Mother Lode fault system was also not recog- 
nized on several subsequent geologic maps of the state, including 
the 1938 Geologic Map of Califomia. 

The fault along the Chico monocline is correctly depicted 
from its southem extent near Paradise, but it is drawn too far 
north. By the time the second fault map of Califomia was pub- 
lished (Willis, 1922), only a small segment of this fault (east of 
Red BlufO was shown (as a probable fault) . When the next map 
(Jenkins, 1938) was published, no faults were shown in this area. 
Mapping for the Chico Sheet of the Geologic Atlas rediscovered 
these faults (Burnett, 1963). Admittedly, the faults only show 
small displacements, but their continuity and abundance on the 
crest of the monocline are very striking on aenal photos and are 
also very interesting in that they are aligned with the active 
Foothills fault system to the southeast. 

Lawson correctly shows the Honey Lake fault and the Sur- 
prise Valley fault in northeastem Califomia. He also noted 
other important faults in this part of the state, but owing to lack 
of adequate maps and only crude reconnaissance studies, mis- 
connections were made. The same is true of the northwestern 
part of the state. The Orleans fault was recognized at its 
northemmost extent (where it crosses into Oregon), but unhke 
the simple curving line depicted, the Orleans fault to the south 
is now known to take a much more circuitous route, befitting a 
low-angle thrust fault, before continuing for many miles to the 
southeast. Actually the southem two-thirds of this fault, about 
145 km (90miles), in extremely rugged terrain, is quite correctly 
located on Lawson's map. Just west of this fault, is O.H. Her- 
shey's "Redwood Mountain" fault (Lawson and others, 1908, p. 
17). This corresponds to the South Fork Mountain fault of the 
Geologic Atlas. 

It is interesting to note that faults were not depicted on any 
of the state geologic maps preceding Lawson's 1908 fault map 
(see Section II, herein), nor were they shown on the 1916 geo- 
logic map of Califomia. G.A. Waring (1915), in describing the 
springs of Califomia, tried to show the relationship of springs to 
faults in the state, but a note on his map indicates that the faults 
were taken from the atlas accompanying the 1908 State Earth- 
quake Investigation Commission report. 

In 1916, Harry O. Wood, in a study of faults in Califomia as 
generators of earthquakes, published a modified version of Law- 
son's 1908 fault map (Wood, 1916). This map, (Plate IB, here- 
in), confined itself to Califomia, but omitted a number of valid 
faults shown on Lawson's map. Wood added five faults or 
"lines" which he considered "generatrices of earthquakes." Per- 
haps the most interesting (and prophetic) was his so-called "Eu- 
reka-Ukiah-San Pablo line." This appears as a northwestward 
continuation of the "Haywards" fault along the Rodgers Creek, 
Healdsburg, and Maacama faults, extending all the way to Eu- 
reka as similarly proposed by Herd ( 1979) and Jennings (here- 
in). Two other lines, lying offshore, Wcxxi referred to as the 
Monterey and San Pedro submarine fault zones, but they do not 
correspond to any of the offshore faults recognized in recent 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



years by acoustical profiling. Wood's "Mare Island-Nevada-Car- 
son line" was delineated on the basis of rather inaccurate loca- 
tion of earthquakes, but this northeasterly trend does not 
correspond to any faults known in the surface or subsurface 
today. It is, however, parallel in part to the subsurface Stockton 
fault across the Great Valley. The fifth feature or "line" added 
by Wood is the "Great Valley axis" lying on the east side of the 
Valley and approximately bounding the Sierra Nevada block. 
"This line," Wood (1916, p. 79) states, "is not considered to 
delineate, even crudely, any fault zone or chain of faults, — 
simply to bring to notice the tendency for certain meizoseismal 
areas to cluster in line along the Valley." An inspection of recent- 
ly published earthquake epicenter maps, however, does not seem 
to bear out Wood's statement. 

Second Fault Map of California — 1922 

Bailey Willis, Professor of Geology at Stanford University, 
and H.O. Wood, Research Associate in Seismology of the Carne- 
gie Institution of Washington, prepared a new fault map of 
California that was published by the Seismological Society of 
America in 1922 as a separate publication. The map was com- 
piled at 1:506,880 scale (1 inch equals 8 miles). A reduced 
version of this map is portrayed in Plate IC (in pocket). The 
Willis-Wood map is evidence of the growing concern about 
earthquakes in California; Willis (1923a) reports that the busi- 
nessmen of San Francisco subscribed $1,600 for the pubhcation 
of the map. The publication of the map was followed by a text 
(Willis, 1923b) which attempts to explain the rationale in com- 
piling the faults and includes a brief discussion of earthquakes 
and their relationship to faults. (Wilhs' strong feeling on the 
importance of this relationship is evident in the opening sentence 
of his text, which reads: "Another title, and perhaps a more 
obvious one, would be 'Earthquake Map of California.' ") A 
large part of the report is also given to description of various 
fault features, which includes a particularly long treatment of the 
physiography observed along the San Andreas rift. 

Willis was responsible for compiling the northern part of the 
state, that is, the part north of San Luis Obispo, while Wood 
prepared the southern part (Willis, 1923, p. 4). An attempt was 
made to identify "active faults," "probably active faults," and 
"dead faults." However, Willis' criteria for classifying faults 
were not the same as Wood's criteria. Willis considered any lault 
related to "a growing mountain" as a reasonable subject for an 
active fault. The method, as he explains, was based on observa- 
tion of "mountain forms" and the interpreted age of topographic 
surfaces and old landscapes. In this way, he classified numerous 
mountains as being bounded by active faults. Wood, on the other 
hand, considered active faults as those that are known to have 
had some movement during historic time or those for which 
there is evidence of recent surface dislocation. The map has two 
different legends for the three sectional sheets of the state to 
clarify this difference in interpretation of "active faults." The 
northwest sheet (which was entirely the work of Willis) and the 
southwest sheet (a joint effort) contain the following note in the 
legend: 

North of San Luis Obispo faults are shown as active if 
there has been an earthquake during historic time and also 
wherever they define valleys, ridges, or ranges which are 
now growing, even though there is no record of an earth- 
quake on that particular fault during historic time. 

Consequently, that part of the map compiled by Willis shows 
many more "active" and "probably active" faults than the area 



compiled by Wood. In the central Coast Ranges, for example, 
more than half of the faults are shown in the "active" fault 
category. The legend for the southeast sheet specifies that the 
"active faults" have "earthquakes recorded on lines so marked." 
Such faults indicated include the Owens Valley, San Andreas, 
Newport-Inglewood, San Jacinto, and parts of the Elsinore and 
Chino faults. The "dead faults" are designated as "not known to 
have been active during historic time." 
Plate IC is a greatly reduced and somewhat generalized version 
of the Willis and Wood map, but it accurately represents most 
of the faults shown on the 1922 map. In many ways the detail 
of the Willis and Wood map goes far beyond Lawson's 1908 
map, not only by virtue of the much larger scale, but more 
importantly because, during the 14 years following the Lawson 
map, faults and the problem of locating and understanding them 
received much more attention than before, not only from seis- 
mologists, but also from geologists searching for petroleum and 
other mineral resources and from geology professors and their 
students in the two leading academic institutions then in the 
state, the University of California and Stanford University. Un- 
fortunately, the map is totally blank in the northernmost part of 
the state where the earlier map by Lawson showed a surprising 
amount of information on faults that has, in most instances, 
withstood the test of time. Willis (1923, p. 6) justifies the ab- 
sence of fault delineation north of the latitude of Santa Rosa by 
explaining that topographic maps showing sufficient detail and 
accuracy of the landscape did not exist and that, therefore, it was 
impossible to follow and plot the faults except by an expenditure 
of time and money beyond the project's means. Willis intention- 
ally disregarded Lawson's map. (Perhaps his professional feud 
with Lawson influenced his decision — this is suggested by his 
reference to the map in Lawson's Earthquake Commission re- 
port of the 1906 earthquake as "a map of the principal earth- 
quake faults of California but on a small scale and not complete 
enough to be of practical use.") 

The Willis and Wood fault classification was highly interpre- 
tive and commonly went beyond the data at hand. The attempt 
was certainly too ambitious; even today, distinguishing between 
"active" faults and "probably active" or "dead" faults may still 
be beyond our means. Nevertheless, as a map showing the loca- 
tion of faults known in the state at that time, the 1922 map 
contains a wealth of information, some of which even goes 
beyond maps published later. 

The remarkable advancement in fault mapping represented by 
Willis and Wood's 1922 fault map (Plate IC) becomes readily 
apparent when it is compared to Lawson's 1908 map (Plate lA). 
In the Coast Ranges province, for example, the 1922 map shows 
numerous faults — including the Rodgers Creek-Healdsburg, the 
Tolay, the Burdell Mountain, the Pilarcitos, the Butano, the Ben 
Lomond, the Tesla, the Ortigalita, the Sur, the Tularcitos, the 
Rinconada, the Ozena, the Little Pine, and the Pleito faults — 
which are not shown on the earlier map. Also, in this province, 
such unnamed faults as those at Dunnigan Hills and in Capay 
Valley are correctly shown on the 1922 map but not on the 
earlier one. 

Wilhs and Wood's map remains an informative source even 
today. The map shows, for example, an "active fault, uncertainly 
located," lying west of and parallel to the San Andreas fault and 
coincident with the straight coastline from Bodega to Point 
Arena. Today the existence of this fault is a likely possibility, 
although confirmation of it is still lacking. Another interesting 
feature shown, in a critical area, is the Dry Creek fault at the 
Warm Springs dam site. According to Willis and Wood, this is 
an "active, well located" fault which connects (to the north as 
well as to the south) with "probable faults, character and loca- 
tion uncertain." Today part of this fault is recognized and ap- 



10 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



pears on recent U.S. Geological Survey maps (Blake and others, 
1974), although the connection between the Dry Creek fault and 
the active Rodgers Creek fault, which is shown on the 1922 map, 
has not been verified. To the north, faults arc shown in Anderson 
Valley and along the Navarro River — areas which since 1922 
have not been cntically evaluated for active faults. To the south, 
the Quaternary faults now recognized at San Simeon are shown 
as "active." Interestingly, an "active fault, well located" is 
shown in the San Luis Range, at Diablo Canyon; however, recent 
investigations in this area have not confirmed it. The Hayward, 
Calaveras, and parts of the Nacimiento fault zones are shown 
much as they have been mapped since then. The major Quater- 
nary faults in the central and southern Coast Ranges as we now 
know them were all recognized by Willis and Wood, perhaps 
with the exceptions of the San Juan fault and the full extent of 
the Rinconada fault zone. Of course, they had no idea of the 
offshore continuations of the Seal Cove-San Gregorio-Palo Colo- 
rado faults or the Hosgri fault zone lying offshore of San Luis 
Obisf>o County. Also, they did not always recognize certain 
Coast Range faults as being young faults, for some are shown as 
"dead" faults. 

Of all the areas shown on the 1922 map, the Transverse 
Ranges and the Los Angeles basin are depicted in greatest detail. 
Therefore, the 1922 map shows numerous faults in these areas 
not recognized on Lawson's map, including the northern part of 
the San Gabriel, the San Francisquito (site of the St. Francis 
Dam failure), the Arroyo Parida, the Red Mountain, the Simi, 
the Newport-Inglewood, the Palos Verdes, the Cucamonga, and 
the Sierra Madre faults. On Willis and Wood's map the Pacifico 
and Santa Ynez faults are shown more accurately than on Law- 
son's map (although still somewhat crudely). The Liebre and 
Clearwater faults are recognized but incorrectly joined together. 
Willis and Wood classify the faults shown in the Transverse 
Ranges as "dead" with the exception of the San Andreas fault 
(which transects the Transverse Ranges) and a concealed fault 
in the Alamo area along San Antonio Creek in the Santa Maria 
basin. This latter fault, shown as an "active fault, uncertainly 
located," is not recognized by later mapping in the area (for 
example, Woodring and Bramlelte, 1950) and therefore, is not 
shown on the 1975 Fault Map of California. The fault was 
apparently based on a doubtful fault hypothesized by Arnold 
and Anderson (1907) and was probably viewed by Willis and 
Wood as the cause of the rather severe 1902 and 1915 "Alamo" 
earthquakes. Willis and Wood likewise classify as "dead" all the 
faults in the Los Angeles basin, with the exception of the New- 
port-Inglewood and Chino faults. 

On close inspection, one can make out the San Fernando fault, 
on which the disastrous earthquake of 1971 occurred. However, 
Wood has identified this fault as a "probable fault, character and 
location uncertain." Nevertheless, other available geologic maps 
of the San Fernando area prior to the 1 97 1 earthquake show little 
indication of a San Fernando fault. 

In the Peninsular Ranges a large number of faults are shown. 
Among these, the San Jacinto, Elsinore, and Whittier faults are 
better defined than on the 1908 fault map. The Chino fault is 
depicted as a "probable active fault," presumably on the basis of 
earthquake epicenters. A probable fault is correctly shown in the 
upper part of the San Diego River, but many other "probable 
faults" m the southern California batholith are today considered 
to be joints in granitic rtKksand not faults (on the basis of a close 
examination showing that they have no displacements). The 
Crislianilos fault and a fault m Palm Canyon by Palm Springs 
arc mapped more or less as they would be today. 

The Mojave Desert is shown largely devoid of faults. The 
northern boundary, the Garlock fault, is recognized, but the rest 



of the area is still largely unmapped on the 1922 map, as it was 
in Lawson's time. 

North of the Garlock fault, in the southern Sierra Nevada, the 
Sierra Nevada-Owens Valley faults are quite accurately located; 
the Kern Canyon fault, however, is incorrectly shown as being 
shorter than depicted by Lawson; and the White Wolf fault, 
which ruptured during the 1952 Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake, is 
shown, although only as a "dead, well-located fault." liast of the 
Sierra, only a part of the Death Valley, Panamint, and Furnace 
Creek faults are recognized. Several other probable faults are 
shown bounding valleys and steep mountain fronts, but few of 
these have been confirmed by later mapping. 

Like Lawson's map, Willis and Wood's map shows no faults 
in the Mother Lode of the northern and central Sierra Nevada. 
This is interesting because a close examination of the text of 
some of the U.S. Geological Survey Mother Lode District folios 
— for example, Ransome (1900) — reveals that early geologists 
were aware of abundant faults in the area and that, furthermore, 
some believed that such faults were possibly still active. For 
example, Ransome (1900, pp. 7-8) writes: 

It appears highly probable that much of the movement 
which has affected the Sierra Nevada since the close of 
Jurassic time.. .has resulted in the linear fissure system of 
the Mother Lode. 

The dislocations by which the fissures were originally 
opened, were of the kind known as thrust faults.* The 
present structure of the veins shows that the original dis- 
placement was followed at intervals by further movement 
of the same kind. There has very probably been subordi- 
nate displacement of reverse character, i.e., downward 
movement of the hanging wall relative to the foot wall, 
producing local crushing of earlier-formed veins, and re- 
sultmg m more bodies of irregular and brecciated charac- 
ter. There is evidence that this latter movement is still in 
progress, producing the gouges and slickensided surfaces 
which accompany most of the veins. 

The fissures which the veins fill were formed after the 
post-Jurassic folding in of the bed-rock complex and after 
the granitic and dioritic intrusions. They have probably 
continued to be a zone of movement and readjustment ever 
since their first dislocation, and such movements are still 
in progress. 

Why the Mother Lode faults and "fissures" were not plotted 
on the folio maps — whether because of L'.S. Geological Survey 
policy or because of difficulties in mapping the structural com- 
plexities — is not known. In any event, no attempt was made to 
show this important and extensive fault system, even in a most 
general way, on any regional map until very much later (see p. 
11). 

Faults Shown on Geologic Map 
of California— 1938 

A far more accurate depiction of faults in California appears 
on the 1938 Geologic Map of California, compiled by Olaf P. 
Jenkins at a scale of 1:500,000. This outstanding map of its time, 
however, followed conventional compilation practice, whereby 
all faults arc treated alike and historic or recently active faults 
are not distinguished from any other faults shown on the map. 

*Wc would refer lo ihese Taults today a& high-angle reverse faults. 



1985 



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11 



Plate ID is a reduced version of the 1938 geologic map showing 
just the faults. 

Jenkins did not refer to either the Lawson fault map or the 
Willis and Wood map, because he had much more recent data 
to choose from for most parts of the state. In some ca.ses he could 
have profited by selective use of certain faults from these earlier 
fault maps, but he may have chosen not to do so because of 
possible problems with harmonizing the earlier mapped faults 
with the geologic contacts he was depicting. Jenkins rightly 
could not mix faults and geologic contacts without additional 
field evaluation, for which he had neither the time nor the funds. 
In addition, the small scale of the Lawson map and its crude 
shaded-relief base, would have posed serious problems in some 
places in locating features on the larger and much more accurate 
1938 base map. 

A comparison of the 1938 map with the 1922 map shows that 
in the Coast Ranges, a few faults that were not shown on the 
1922 map were added, but others were omitted. The major 
Rodgers Creek-Healdsburg fault is missing, but the less pro- 
nounced Tolay fault is shown. The Hayward fault falls short of 
San Pablo Bay at its north end. The Concord fault is shown as 
before, but its counterpart north of Suisun Bay, the Green Valley 
fault, is missing. The Palo Colorado and Sur faults were added, 
and the controversial King City fault was omitted. 

Some of the more important faults in the northern part of the 
state that the 1938 map shows, but that the 1922 map does not, 
include the Surprise Valley and Honey Lake faults and the faults 
of the Lake Tahoe graben. Absent from the 1938 map are the 
series of faults now known to be associated with the Chico 
monocline, which are indicated on the 1922 and 1908 maps. 

In the Transverse Ranges, the Santa Ynez fault is better de- 
fined, as is the Clearwater, but the Big Pine fault still had not 
been discovered. The San Gabriel fault is correctly shown at its 
north end, disappearing under the Frazier Mountain thrust fault, 
and the south end is correctly shown terminating at Mt. Baldy. 
The Malibu-Santa Monica fault (shown on the 1922 map) is left 
off, but the Raymond Hill fault is correctly shown, as well as the 
Sierra Madre-Cucamonga faults. A vast improvement is shown 
where the San Andreas splits into two branches and becomes 
entwined with the Banning fault. Also, the Pinto Mountain fault 
was recognized for the first time, and the Santa Rosa Island and 
Santa Cruz Island faults were added. 

On the 1938 map the myriad of joints shown in the Peninsular 
Ranges on the 1922 map have been omitted although the Temes- 
cal fault has been preserved. It is difficult to see the Newport- 
Inglewood and the Palos Verdes faults, which are there, at least 
in part. The submarine San Clemente Island fault, although 
known at the time, is not shown, probably because no faults were 
shown off the coast on the 1938 map except where they happened 
to intersect islands. A more correct orientation of the Rose 
Canyon fault near San Diego is shown. 

Some faults are shown in the Mojave Desert, signaling the 
beginning of recognition of a strong northwest structural grain, 
but the area at this time was still largely unmapped. 

Very little of the configuration of the Sierra Nevada fault 
shown on the 1922 map is shown on the 1938 map, and definition 
of this fault's southern end is almost nonexistent. The faults in 
Owens Valley (except for the 1872 break at Lone Pine) are not 
as completely defined as on the 1922 map. The northern extent 
of the Kern Canyon fault, correct on Lawson's map, falls far 
short on the 1938 map. Not until new mapping by the Division 
of Mines and Geology for the Fresno Sheet of the Geologic Atlas 
was this fault depicted correctly again on any published map 
(Matthews and Burnett, 1966). 

As mentioned in a preceding section, faults in the Mother 
Lode still were not depicted. By this time, such prominent geolo- 



gists as Knopf (1929) and Ferguson and Gannett (1932) had 
not only recognized the abundant fault fissures in which the 
gold-quartz veins were emplaced, but also had talked about the 
existence of a major through-going reverse fault bordering the 
Mother Lode region on the east. These faults are not shown on 
any of their regional maps but the segments which lie in the areas 
that they mapped in detail are shown. Then, in 1944, King and 
others defined a highly generalized fault trace identified as the 
"Mother Lode mineralized fault" on the Tectonic Map of the 
United States. Sixteen years later, Lorin Clark, taking the find- 
ings of the early gold-belt workers and adding his detailed obser- 
vations, prepared a regional map defining the Foothills fault 
system (Clark, 1960). His map shows the Foothills fault system 
bounded on the east and west by what he named the Melones 
fault zone and the Bear Mountains fault zone, respectively. Sev- 
eral years later Lorin Clark's fault system appeared on the Base- 
ment Rock Map of the United States, compiled by the U.S. 
Geological Survey and the University of Texas (Bayley and 
Muehlberger, 1968) — although mislabeled as the "Mother Love 
Belt"! The recency of fault activity on faults within the Melones 
fault zone, was recognized on the detailed maps by Eric and 
others, (1955, Plate I and p. 27). They note that movement took 
place following the formation of the Table Mountain Latite, 
suggesting late Pliocene or even Pleistocene activity. Much more 
recent investigations involving trenching (Alt and others, 1977) 
have shown that Holocene activity, including fault-displacement 
of soils has taken place. Thus, Ransome's intuitive observations 
77 years ago concerning the recency of fault movement men- 
tioned earlier, have proved to be correct. 



Combined Wood and Jenkins 

Fault Map of The 

Southern Half of the State — 1947 

In 1947, Harry Wood published in the Bulletin of the Seismo- 
logical Society of America a paper entitled "Earthquakes in 
Southern California with Geologic Relations." In it he tried to 
correlate earthquake origins in California with geologic faults. 
To illustrate his ideas, he took the faults shown on the southern 
half of the 1938 Geologic Map of California and supplemented 
it with faults he had shown in the same area on the 1922 Fault 
Map of California. Wood also added certain faults not known by 
him before and also not shown on Jenkins' 1938 map. Wood, 
being primarily a seismologist, had J. P. Buwalda, Professor of 
Geology at the California Institute of Technology (with which 
Wood was then associated), critically examine the resulting fault 
map. The published map, from which Plate IE is patterned, was 
then used to plot epicenter locations, their relation to the faults 
serving as the basis for the paper. Choosing an approach to fault 
classification more cautious than the one used by Willis and 
Wood on the 1922 map, with its "active," "probably active," and 
"dead" designations. Wood designates the faults on his map as 
"major faults" and "other faults," and classifies each fault as 
"well located," "approximately located," or "uncertain." 

A comparison of Wood's 1947 map with both Jenkins' 1938 
map and Willis and Wood's 1922 map shows that Wood resur- 
rected possibly significant faults from the 1922 map which do 
not appear on the 1938 map and also that he added some faults 
that do not appear on either the 1938 or the 1922 maps. 

Among the features that Wood carried over from the 1922 
map but that do not appear on the 1938 map are the King City 
fault and faults in the vicinity of Diablo Canyon and Los 



12 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Alamos.' The joints in the southern California balholith east 
and northeast of San Diego arc retained as probable faults, but 
later invesligaton; have found no evidence for displacement on 
most of these features and have concluded they are not faults. 
The fault in Palm Canyon, by Palm Springs, which the 1*538 map 
docs not show, is correctly retained from the l')22 map. 

Among the significant omissions on the 1947 map are the Big 
Pine fault and the San Juan fault — both known today as major 
Quaternary faults. The configuration of the Banning and Mis- 
sion Creek faults is much improved in the manner of the Jenkins' 
compilation, but a significant departure exists with the projected 
location of the San Andreas fault in the Salton Sea area (which 
still is largely a matter of conjecture). The Inglewood fault is 
more continuous on the 1947 map, and the Palos Verdes fault 
is shown as a splinter off the Inglewood fault. The Imperial fault, 
with offset along some 64 km (40 miles) of the fault trace during 
the May 1940 earthquake, is added. Many other differences in 
detail occur between this map and the earlier ones, and the 1947 
map is without doubt the best fault map of the southern part of 
the state published up to that time. 

Earthquake Epicenter and Fault Map 
of California — 1964 

In 1964, the California Department of Water Resources com- 
piled a fault map of California using mainly the published and 
unpublished 1:250,000 scale geologic atlas sheets of the Califor- 
nia Division of Mines and Geology (Hill and others, 1964). 
Although this map depicts faults, its primary purpose was to 
show epicenters, and the bulk of the report accompanying the 
map consists of a catalog of epicenters (magnitude 4 and greater, 
from 1934 to 1961 ). The faults shown were divided crudely into 
"active faults" (after C.F. Richter's textbook "Elementary Seis- 
mology," 1958), and "other faults, activity not ascertained." 
The criteria used to distinguish between these two classes are not 
indicated on the map, nor are they explained in the text. All the 
faults on this map are shown in red and, according to the legend, 
the two classes of faults are represented by two different line- 
widths; unfortunately, the map shows a range of line-widths, 
making it difficult to determine in some cases whether the fault 
was meant to be designated as active or not. 

The map was published on three sheets at 1 :5(X),(X)0 scale and 
is included in the pocket of the California Department of Water 
Resources Bulletin 1 16-2. The map and report were prepared as 
part of a "crustal strain and fault movement investigation," for 
use in planning studies and tinal design stages of water resources 
development in the state. The report recognized the usefulness 
of such data in preparing estimates on the probability of earth- 
quake occurrence and the magnitude of the damaging earth- 
quake forces that should be anticipated at sites proposed for 
construction of authorized State water facilities. 



Earthquake Epicenter Map 
of California — 1978 

The California Division of Mines and Geology published an 
earthquake epicenter map of California, known as Map Sheet 
39 (Real and others, 1978). This 1:1,000,000 scale map shows 
all epicenters of magnitude 4 or greater from 1900 through 1974. 
Faults shown on the map arc reduced from the Division's 1975 
Fault Map of California The map, which represents all faults 



with thin blue lines, does not distinguish among the faults as far 
as recency of movement is concerned. It is a product of the 
Division's Earthquake Catalog Program. A short text is included 
on the face of the map. 

Small-Scale Fault Maps of California 

Several page-size and smaller outline maps specifically show- 
ing the major and/or active faults of the state have been pub- 
lished over the years. Some of the more noteworthy ones are 
listed below: 

• Richter, C.F., 1958, Elementary seismology, W.H. Free- 
man and Co., and Francisco, p. 441 (Figure 27-3). 

• Dickinson, W.R., and Grantz, A., 1968, Historically and 
recently active faults of the California region, /n Proceedings 
of conference on geologic problems of San Andreas fault 
system: Stanford University Publications in the Geological 
Sciences, v. XI, (map and list following p. 374). 

• U.S. Geological Survey, 1970, Active faults of California, 
(map and text, p. 15), information pamphlet (revised and 
updated periodically; latest revision, 1974). 



The scale of these maps and the grossly simplified bases used, 
however, make it almost impossible to locate the faults except in 
the most general way. 

In addition to the small-scale maps discussed above (faults of 
which are almost all well documented), an interesting fault map 
of the state, particularly of the Coast Ranges, was published by 
Bruce Clark in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 
(1930). Clark, a Professor of Paleontology at the University of 
California, Berkeley, was intrigued with the tectonics of the 
Coast Ranges, which he interpreted as a complex series of fault- 
ed blocks. To illustrate his ideas he prepared a map of what he 
considered to be the "pnncipai known primary faults" in the 
Coast Ranges (Figure 3). 

As was common in those days, Clark mterpreted the faults in 
the Coast Ranges, not as large-scale strike-slip faults, as we do 
today, but as bounding a series of raised and depressed blocks. 
Clark indicates in his text that the data for his map came from 
various published and unpublished maps and that a large num- 
ber of the fault lines were studied in the field by either himself 
or his assistant James Fox. Clark states (p. 70) that "only faults 
which we considered definitely proven, by either direct or in- 
direct methods, have been included." Of course, "indirect meth- 
ods" leaves much room for interpretations that may not always 
be accepted by other geologists. A close look at the map shows, 
however, that solid lines represent "accurate" faults and that 
these comprise less than half of the faults shown on the map. 
Dashed and dotted lines indicate "approximate" and "buried" 
faults, respectively, and most of these must have been deter- 
mined by Clark's "indirect" methods. Many of them, in light of 
later detailed field mapping, have been modified or discredited, 
but some have proved to be correct or are still considered possi- 
ble. For example, his interpretation of a Salinas Valley (his no. 
10) and King City (no. 1 1) faults as branches of the San An- 
dreas ( 1 ) has not held up. But his extension of the unnamed fault 
known today as the White Wolf fault across the southern San 
Joaquin Valley to the San Emigdio fault (23) was substantiated 
in a dramatic way by the occasion of the Arvin-Tehachapi earth- 
quake of 1952 and the a.ssociated ground rupture. In like man- 
ner, Clark's northward extraptilation of the Hayward fault (3) 



•The |j»i AUntcM fault u alio najnrd on ui MxompjinyinK map by Wood (his map No. 4> . here, although shown concealed, it is identified as one of the major faults of the state Perhaps 
thu tuipectr<l fault svai given nich prominmce on the basil of the significant earthquakes reported in the vicinity of L^os Alamos in 1902 and 1915. 



1P85 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



13 




Figure 3 



Bruce Clork's 1930 mop of Colifornio showing "principol known primary foults". [From Geological Society America Bulletin, V. 41, pi. 



161. 



14 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



into Marin and Sonoma counties is recognized today, although 
his northernmost arcuate extension into Mendocino County may 
not exist, or if it does, at least not as part of the same Hayward- 
Rodgers Creek-Healdsburg-Maacama fault trend we know to- 
day. 

As an interesting sidelight we might point out that what is now 
known as the South Branch Garlock fault was earlier known as 
the Antelope fault (57). Note also that Clark's Sisquoc fault 
(34) extrapolation to the San Luis Hills area across the Santa 
Maria Valley resembles Clarence Hall's east-side bounding fault 
of his proposed Lompoc-Santa Maria pull-apart basin (Hall, 
1978). The reader can make other interesting compansons with 
earlier and later fault maps illustrated in this bulletin. 

Preliminary Fault and Geologic Map 
of California — 1973 

As an integral part of the new 1:750,000 scale Geologic Map 
of California, which was planned in 1965, the writer proposed 
that faults be emphasized and that relatively recent faults (those 
with known historical movement or with known offset of Qua- 
ternary beds) be appropriately indicated. This innovation in 
depicting faults was designed to help satisfy the numerous re- 
quests the Division was receiving for a map showing the "earth- 
quake faults in the state." Thus a three-fold fault classification 
system, based on recency of movement, was devised and utilized. 
In an attempt to be as specific as possible and to avoid the 
problems arising from various definitions and understandings of 
the term "active fault," faults were subdivided into three catego- 
ries, based on the time-scale universally used by geologists and 
seismologists. It was felt that this system was commensurate 
with the scale of the map used and was also realistic within the 
time-frame considered for preparing a statewide compilation. 
The three categories of faults chosen for the statewide compila- 
tion were: ( 1 ) faults along which historic displacement has oc- 
curred (red color), (2) faults having Quaternary displacement, 
but without an historic record of movement (orange color), and 
(3) faults that are pre-Quatemary in age or for which no Quater- 
nary movement has been recognized (black). This fault classifi- 
cation system made this the first statewide map to depict faults 
by recognized recency of movement. 



In 1971, a preliminary version of the geologic map including 
classified faults was completed. It appeared as two sheets in the 
pocket of a limited edition of a report financed by the U.S. 
Department of Housing and Urban Development entitled "Ur- 
ban Geology Master Plan for California" (Bruer, 197f).* This 
highly preliminary map was then revised, and review copies were 
prepared in 1972. After the reviewing process was completed and 
changes and additions were made to the compilation, a prelimi- 
nary version of the map was prepared and published rapidly in 
order to satisfy the growing demands for fault information by the 
cities and counties that were faced with the preparation of a new 
seismic safety element for their General Plans, as required by the 
State. As a result, Preliminary Report 13, "Preliminary Fault 
and Geologic Map of the State of California" was published in 
1973. 

The map was printed on two sheets at 1 :750,000 scale ( 1 inch 
= 12 miles). The map showed faults offshore as well as on land. 
Special symbols and notations on the map indicated: (1) seg- 
ments of faults with observed historic surface displacement, (2) 
points of fault creep slippage, (3) direction of fault dip, (4) 
direction of relative lateral movement along faults, and (5) rela- 
tive up or down movement of individual faults. The map proved 
to be useful not only to planners but also to geologists and 
seismologists, engineers, and others involved in assessing the 
possibility of future fault activity and ground rupture in various 
parts of the state. 



FAULT MAP OF CALIFORNIA 
— 1975 EDITION 

The Preliminary Fault and Geologic Map of California, 1973, 
proved to be in such great demand that the printed supply was 
soon exhausted. In the meantime, the fault information on the 
preliminary map was further edited for a new edition, and new 
data were added in several areas, especially offshore. Then the 
locations of some 584 thermal springs and wells were added. The 
resulting new edition measured about 1.4 by 1.5 meters (4.5 by 
5 feet) and was printed in six colors. Each historic fault, shown 
as a red line on the map, was emphasized with a narrow pink 
band. Among the Quaternary faults, shown as orange lines, pale 



* In this lame report, a page-size provisioiial fault map of the state was included as Figure A-6 (original compilation scale was 1:1,000,000) . This map. compiled by J.E. Kahle, attempted 
to document the type and kind of stirface faiJting associated with historic ground breaks. 

Tab/e 1. Summary of published fault maps of California. 



TITLE 


SCALE 


TOPOGRAPHY 


COMPILER 


Map of faults accompanying State Earthquake 


1 in. = 30 mi. 


Shaded relief 


Lawson (1908) 


Commission report (Map No. 1 in Atlas) 








Fault Map of California 


1:506.880 


Shaded relief 


Willis and Wood 




(1 in. = 8 mi.) 




(1922) 


Earthquake epicenter and fault 


1:500.000 


500 foot 


Hill and others 


map of California 


(1 in. = 8 mi.) 


contours 


(1964) 


State of California, preliminary 


1:750,000 


No topography 


Jennings (1973) 


fault and geologic map 


(1 in. = 12 mi.) 






Fault map of California 


1:750.000 


500 foot 


Jennings (1975) 




(1 in. = 12 mi.) 


contours 




Earthquake epicenter map 


1:1.000.000 


No topography 


Real and others 


of California (on fault base) 


(1 in. = 16 mi.) 




(1978) 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



15 



orange bands were added to identify the major Quaternary 
faults. The map was published in 1975 in a new series. It was 
designated as Geologic Data Map No. 1, and entitled "Fault 
Map of California, with Locations of Volcanoes, Thermal 
Springs, and Thermal Wells." 



Depiction of Faults 



Among the multitude of faults shown on the State Fault Map, 
many have lengths of tens or hundreds of kilometers, and cumu- 
lative displacements of kilometers or even scores of kilometers. 
For example, there is considerable evidence to postulate hun- 
dreds of kilometers of right-lateral displacement on the San An- 
dreas fault since its inception, and 25 to 64 km ( 16 to 40 miles) 
of left-lateral displacement on the Garlock fault. Also, we know 
that the Sierra Nevada block was raised several thousand meters 
during the late Cenozoic era. In addition, it appears that, as a 
result of subduction, rocks of the Franciscan Complex have been 
dragged far below the rocks of the Great Valley Sequence along 
the Coast Range thrust. 

On the other hand, many other well-known faults have rela- 
tively small displacements, even though the fault length is meas- 
urable in tens or hundreds of kilometers. Furthermore, many of 
the faults shown on the Fault Map are comparatively minor. 
Some geologists have questioned the advisability of showing mi- 
nor fault features, contending that they contribute little informa- 
tion and "clutter" the state fault map. These suggestions are 
valid for certain map uses, but they are not in keeping with the 
original map objective of recording all fault features in as much 
detail as our data allowed and within the limits of legibility. In 
this way the map would serve as a dependable source of back- 
ground fault data for the state as a whole, which could be eva- 
luated and interpreted in the future by more detailed studies. 

Further, it was felt that by recording faithfully all mapped 
faults, no matter how short or isolated they might appear, future 
mapping might show possible fault extensions or reveal a fault 
zone. The writer has been impressed ever since his student days 
that there are many faults that are plainly visible in underground 
mine workings that cannot be detected on the surface even after 
close scrutiny. Indeed, the discovery of many previously un- 
known faults during exploratory trenching shows that there are 
many more faults in California than heretofore expected. 

The prime users of such a statewide inventory of faults are 
engineering geologists and others who have responsibility for 
siting critical structures such as dams, nuclear power plants, and 
any other large, potentially hazardous engineering works. 
However, land-use planners and lay people concerned with ac- 
tive faults and earthquakes are also interested in such data. The 
numerous calls and inquiries for additional information about 
the faults shown on the map are continual testimony to the 
correctness of our decision to show faults in such detail. 

In addition to showing the location and extent of faults with 
lines color-coded to indicate recency of activity, the map indi- 
cates the relative movement on faults (where this is known) with 
symbols. Arrows indicate the direction of relative lateral fault 
slippage; the letters U and D indicate relative vertical (up and 
down) fault slippage; and barbs on a fault indicate the upper 
plate of low-angle reverse or thrust fault. An arrow at right 
angles to the fault trace indicates the direction the fault surface 
dips. Dates placed alongside the historic faults indicate when 
earthquakes occurred that were accompanied by fault rupturing, 
and symbols indicate the extent of the earthquake fault rupture. 



Lastly, red dots on faults indicate where fault creep has been or 
is being measured. All these special notations are described in 
more detail below. 



Fault Classification 

In 1965, when plans were being made for a 1;750,000 scale 
geologic map, it was decided to show more than the usual infor- 
mation about faults on a state map by indicating some informa- 
tion about each fault's history. A way of doing this would be to 
classify faults according to their recency of activity. At that time 
(as at present), there was little agreement as to what "active 
faults," "potentially active faults," and "inactive or dead faults" 
were, so these terms were deliberately avoided.* In their place, 
a fault classification system was developed that permitted the 
presentation of fault information that was as factual as the geo- 
logic data would permit and that still included some indication 
of the relative degree of fault activity. 

The three-fold fault classification scheme devised distin- 
guishes faults entirely on the basis of recency of movement. The 
first category includes those faults on which recorded displace- 
ment of the surface of the earth has taken place in historic time 
during earthquakes or by fault creep. In California, historic time 
is about two hundred years, a very short interval indeed, in any 
geologic sense. The historically active faults are shown in red 
with a pink border for emphasis. The second category includes 
those faults that have displaced Quaternary deposits (the latest 
geologic epoch, which includes approximately the past two mil- 
lion years), but that have no historic record of surface displace- 
ment. These Quaternary faults are shown in orange, with the 
major faults and fault zones emphasized by a pale orange band. 
Faults in the third category, designated by heavy black lines on 
the map, are those without reccign/zec/ Quaternary displacement. 
Probably most of these are Pliocene or older; but many are of 
unknown age, and some of these may have had unrecognized 
Quaternary movement. 

The pink and orange bands on the historic and major Quater- 
nary faults are for emphasis only. The width of the bands has no 
particular significance. They are not to be confused with the 
special studies zones of the Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Zones 
Act, which requires the State Geologist to delineate zones en- 
compassing all potentially and recently active faults. (These 
study zones maps are available separately from the California 
Division of Mines and Geology.) 

Fault Definitions 

Before proceeding further, it will be useful to discuss the 
definition of "fault" and such terms as "active," "potentially 
active," and "capable," because these terms are often used with- 
out a clear understanding of them. In recent years, especially 
since the siting of nuclear power plants, consideration of poten- 
tially hazardous faults are of special concern (and the subject of 
extensive investigations, reports, and hearings). A definition of 
terms, therefore, is essential to make common understanding 
possible, not only among geologists, but also between geologist 
and lawyer or geologist and lay people involved in planning 
decisions. Numerous reports contain fault definitions, and some 
of the most pertinent definitions recently have been summarized 
by Slemmons and McKinney (1977). 



■Miiny dcniiitions of thoM: lypt'5 uf faults have been published, some of which are widely andesen legally recognized. Howes er. in most of Ihese cases j purpose has to be slated first — for 
example, construction of a nuclear power plant, a large dam. or a hospital — Ix'fore a specific fault definition can be applied. This problem is discussed more fully in the following 
section. 



16 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



In defining the term "fault," geologists have no significant 
disagreement; the various defmilions differ only in the elabora- 
tion. All agree in defining a fault as a tectonic fracture* or break 
in the earth's crust along which displacement (horizontal, verti- 
cal, or diagonal movement) has taken place. In elaborating, 
some definitions further specify ( 1 ) that the fracture or break 
may be either a discreet surface or a wide zone of fractures; (2) 
that the fault may be a result of repeated displacements which 
took place suddenly or very slowly as a result of creep slippage; 
and (3) that the cumulative displacement may be measurable in 
fractions of an inch (centimeters) or in miles (kilometers). 

The use of the designation "active fault" on a map in this 
country (and probably in the world) began with the publication 
of the Willis and Wood "Fault map of California" (1922). Un- 
fortunately, two difTerent sets of criteria were used in different 
parts of the state by the two compilers. Willis designated an 
"active fault" as one on which slip is likely to occur and a "dead 
fault" as one on which no further movement may be expected. 
His criteria for distinguishing between the two, however, were 
quite vague and his active faults were based primarily on a 
"growing mountains" theory. Wood, who compiled the southern 
part of the state, was more factual and designated his "active 
faults" as those which have shown activity in historic time, or 
which have physiographic evidence of recent surface dislocation. 
Wood's definition of an active fault is thus based on observation 
and has survived through the years with only slight modification. 
The main changes to Wood's definition have been: ( 1 ) the addi- 
tion of other criteria, principally seismic, for identifying active 
faults, and (2) the addition of a spsecific time frame since the last 
fault movement for separating "active" from "inactive" faults 
(possible because of the modem capability of deteriming the 
time of movement on them). 

All definitions of "active faults" in common use imply future 
movement commonly constituting a geologic hazard. In recent 
years, specialized definitions vary according to the type of struc- 
ture to be built in the vicinity of a fault and the degree of risk 
acceptable for a particular type of structure. The most conserva- 
tive definition is that of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commis- 
sion (NRC, formerly U.S. Atomic Energy Commission). In 
defining fault activity for its special uses, the NRC sought to 
avoid the misunderstanding that might arise from its use of the 
term "active" by using the term "capable" in its place. A "capa- 
ble fault" is defined as a fault that exhibits one or more of the 
following characteristics: ( 1 ) movement at or near the ground 
surface at least once within the past 35,000 years, or movement 
of a recurring nature within the past 500,000 years; (2) mac- 
roseismicity instrumentally determined with records of sufficient 
precision to demonstrate a direct relationship with the fault; (3) 
a structural relation to a fault deemed "capable" such that move- 
ment on one can be reasonably expected to be accompanied by 
movement on the other. 

In California, special definitions for active faults were devised 
to implement the Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Zones Act of 
1972, which regulates development and construction in order to 
avoid the hazard of surface fault rupture. The State Mining and 
Geology Board established Policies and Criteria in accordance 
with the Act. They defined an "active fault" as one which has 
"had surface displacement within Holocene time (about the last 
11,000 years)" (Hart, 1980, p. 21 ). The State Geologist, who has 
the responsibility under the Alquist-Priolo Act to delineate spe- 
cial studies zones (i.e., regulatory zones) to encompass poten- 
tially hazardous faults, has adopted additional definitions based 
on wording in the Act. A "potentially active fault" was defined 
a-s any fault that "showed evidence of surface displacement dur- 



ing Quaternary time (last two to three million years)" (Hart, 
1980, p. 5). On the 1974 and 1976 editions of the Special Studies 
Zones maps, such faults, including the San Andreas, Calaveras, 
Hayward and San Jacinto faults and their branches, were zoned 
unless it could be demonstrated that specific fault strands were 
inactive during all of Holocene time. Because of the large num- 
ber of potentially active faults in California, the State Geologist 
adopted additional definitions and criteria in an effort to limit 
zoning to only those faults with a relatively "high" potential for 
surface rupture. Thus, the term "sufficiently active" was defined 
as a fault for which there was evidence of Holocene surface 
displacement. This term was used in conjunction with the term 
"well-defined," which relates to the ability to locate a Holocene 
fault as a surface or near-surface feature. All faults zoned since 
1977 have had to meet the criteria of "sufficiently active and 
well-defined" (Hart, 1980, p. 5-6). 

Another special definition is used by the U.S. Water and Pow- 
er Resources Services (formerly the U.S. Bureau of Reclama- 
tion) in the design of dams. To this agency, any fault exhibiting 
relative displacement within the past 100,000 years is an active 
fault (Slemmons and McKinney, 1977, p. 19.) 

Table 2 is a summary of the fault definitions in common use 
and the factors on which they are based. Each of these definitions 
is concerned with future fault activity and this is based on the 
recent history of the fault. Depending on the type of structure 
being planned and the acceptable risk to be taken, the definition 
of an active fault may be based on the last 1 1,000 to 100,000 
years or on repeated movements during the past 500,0(X) years. 
The recent history of movement on a fault can be determined by 
use of geological or historical criteria. A summation of these 
criteria is presented in Table 3. 

Of recent concern is the possibility that faults, even geological- 
ly ancient ones (that is, pre-Quatemary), can be reactivated by 
the influences of man. For example, there are now several au- 
thenticated cases showing that the filling of a reservoir can in- 
duce fault activity and earthquakes of significant size. In this 
way, what may have been considered "inactive faults" can 
become "active faults." 

The term "active fault" is best avoided altogether when seis- 
mic risk is not a consideration. For simply describing the charac- 
teristics of faults, such terms as "historic fault," "Holocene 
fault," "Quaternary fault," "pre-Quaternary fault," or "seismi- 
cally active fault" are preferable. With these designations, a 
project geologist, after confirming the designation of a fault, can 
then go on and make his own determination of its activity rela- 
tive to the type of structure to be built and the acceptable risk. 

Historic Faults, Earthquakes, and Creep 

Faults along which displacement has occurred during historic 
time are shown in red on the Fault Map of California. A fault 
was classified as historic if it had ( 1 ) a recorded earthquake with 
surface rupture. (2) recorded fault creep, or (3) displaced sur- 
vey lines. A fourth criterion was considered, namely seismicity, 
but this was ultimately rejected for the 1975 map (for reasons 
explained in a later section). 

Earthquakes With Surface Rupture 

The historic record of earthquakes in California goes back 
slightly more than 200 years to the Portola expedition of 1769, 
when violent earthquakes were felt in the Los Angeles region and 
recorded in the diaries of these explorers. However, no record of 



•A Irctuuc (ractuir it dulinKuutublr from nontpclonic fraclum »uch us %ul«idcncc rruclur<■^. IuiuUIkIc (riKluro^. el cx-lcra, by huviiiK ili ongin <l<i-p iii Ihf <Mrlh 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



17 



Table 2. Comparison of various commonly used fault definitions. 





Design 
structure 


Fault 
term 


Time of last displacement on fault 


Other criteria 


NRC 

(U.S. Nulcear 

Regulatory 

Comm.) 1975 


Nuclear 

power 

plants 


Capable 


1) at least once within 
past 35,000 yrs. or 

2) two or more times 
within past 500,000 yrs. 


1) Macro-seismicity relatable to specific 

fault. 

2)Structural relationship to a capable 

fault such that movement on one could 

cause movement on another. 


CDMG 
(Calif. Div. 
Mines & 
Geol.) 1976 


Structures 
for human 
occupancy 


Active 


Within Holocene 
( 11,000 yrs.) 




Potentially 
active 


During Quaternary (last 
2-3 million years). 


USBR" 

U.S. Bur, Re- 
clamation) 1976 


Dams 


Active 


Within past 100.000 yrs. 




New Zealand 
Geol. Survey 
1976 


Town 
planning 


Active 


Since last glaciation 
(50.000 yrs.) or repeated 
movement in last 500,000 yrs. 




Grading Codes 
Board (Assoc. 
Eng. Geol.) 
1973 


Not specified 


Active 


Historic. 




Potentially 
Active 


No historic evidence but 
strong evidence of geologically re- 
cent activity. 




High 
Potential 


Holocene. 


a) Ground water barrier 

or anomaly within Holocene deposits. 

b) Related earthquake epicenters. 


Low 
Potential 


Pleistocene (less than 
1,000,000 yrs.). 




Louderback 
1950 


Not specified 


Active 


Historic or Recent 
(i.e. Holocene). 


Related earthquake 
epicenters. 



Table 3. Evidence used for determining fault history. 



Criteria 


Evidence For Recent Displacement 


Geological 


1) Geomorphic evidence of fresh or youthful appearance (e.g , fault scarps, triangular facets, markedly linear 
and steep mountain fronts, and shutterndges. i.e., ridges blocking normal stream drainage). 

2) Alignment of horizontal depressions that are not the result of differential erosion (e.g., sag ponds, saddles, 
troughs, valleys). 

3) Displaced or deformed deposits of Holocene or Pleistocene age (e.g., faulted alluvium, alluvial fans, terraces, 
and other recent geologic formations). 

4) Offset Holocene or Pleistocene ridges or stream courses (offset systematically in the same direction.) 

5) Ground water barriers in alluvium (often marked by contrasts in vegetation or determined by well-log 
records). 


Historical 


Recorded accounts of: 

1) actual ground breakage. 

2) distributed earthquake damage permitting reasonable reference to a particular fault. 



Criteria 


Evidence For Current Displacement 


Geological 


1) Creep slippage. 

2) Surface features in modern alluvium or in soils (e.g., open fissures, mole tracks, pressure ridges). 


Seismological 
or Geodetic 


1) Alignment of earthquake epicenters including microearthquakes ( <M3.0) 

2) Displaced survey lines. 



18 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



ground displacemeni was reported by ihe expedition for this 
event, although the intensity of the quake at their camp was 
considerable. 

As far as can be ascertained, the first record of ground dis- 
placement in California was associated with the Hayward fault 
during the earthquake of 1836. About 30 subsequent earthquake 
events have occurred in California that have well-documented 
ground breakage. These events are listed in Table 4, Part A, and 
are shown on Figure 4 and the Fault Map of California. 

During the l''52 Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake, many wide- 
spread and well-defined surface breaks or cracks developed 
which were noi part of the causative White Wolf fault. These 
ground breaks were the result of ground failures during the 
shaking of this event. Because of the extensive distribution and 
possible significance of the cracks to future land-use planning, 
some of these breaks are shown on the Fault Map. Likewise, 
small breaks were associated with the 1971 San Fernando earth- 
quake that were probably due to severe ground shaking. Some 
of these breaks also have been shown on the map. 

It should be noted that the dates of the earthquakes associated 
with fault rupture are indicated on the Fault Map of California 
in red. Red triangles are placed along the historic faults to indi- 
cate the terminating points of observed surface displacement. 
Most of these points are well established, but unfortunately, the 
records are not always good enough to know for certain what the 
extremities were in the case of several earlier earthquakes having 
ground ruptures. Today, when an earthquake occurs, numerous 
geologists and seismologists swarm into the area to study and 
map the effects, but before 1906 the relation between faulting 
and earthquakes was not recognized and little or no attempt was 
made by early-day scientists to record such data. For example, 
Josiah Whitney, the State Geologist of California, was the first 
scientist on the scene after the great 1 872 Owens Valley earth- 
quake, but he made no effort to record the ground ruptures. 
Hence the full extent of these ruptures is still imperfectly known. 
What is known has been learned by modem interpretive tech- 
niques. The 1872 scarps at the few populated areas where the 
ground ruptures are well known (because of reports of associat- 
ed damage) were observed, and low sun angle aerial photo- 
graphs were scrutinized closely to distinguish scarps with 
features characteristic of the known 1872 scarps from older, 
more eroded scarps in the area. 

The extent of the ground rupture associated with the 1857 
earthquake on the San Andreas fault poses still another problem. 
In this case, the accounts of rupture were based on newspaper 
reports made by untrained observers. Thus the southern end of 
the break is reported in two different places, one near San Ber- 
nardino and the other in the Colorado Desert. A study of the 
relative youthfulness of fault features on the San Andreas, many 
of which are still preserved in this semi-arid climate of southern 
California, suggests that the southern extent of the 1857 event 
was at Cajon Pass and that the fault features traceable into the 
Colorado Desert should be attributed to some earlier pre-historic 
event. The northern extent of the 1857 rupture is also in doubt 
because of vague reports. Attempts to reinterpret its northern 
limit have not been successful because of subsequent earthquakes 
and fault breaks in the same region. 

There is great uncertainity about the location of the 1852 
earthquake ruptures in southern California. Newspaper ac- 
counts of this event describe the occurrence in a sparsely inhabit- 
ed Lockwood Valley, but because there are two Lockwood 
Valleys in the state that are astride major fault zones (the Big 
Pine fault and the Rinconada fault), there is considerable uncer- 
tainty about which remote area suffered the reported 30 miles of 
ground breakage. Until recently, the Big Pine fault was believed 



to be the site, but closer scrutiny suggests that the fault features 
along the Big Pme fault are probably not of historic origin. 

Ground rupture associated with the 1966 Truckee earthquake 
in the Boca Reservoir area north of Lake Tahoe, is not complete- 
ly understood. The area is dominated by northwest-trending 
faults, but the concentration of ground breakage resulting from 
this earthquake was along a northeasterly trending zone 16 kilo- 
meters long. This suggests that it may be related to a subsurface 
northeast-trending fault (Kachadoorian and others, 1967). 
Whether the surface earthquake effects mapped on and adjacent 
to this probable fault were due to tectonic movement or to 
ground shaking could not be determined (Carter, 1966). 

The San Jacinto fault is one of the most seismically active 
faults in southern California. The fault has a record of historic 
fault displacement along its southernmost portion; for example, 
breaks were associated with the 1968 Borrego Mountain earth- 
quake and a 1934 earthquake in the Colorado River Delta area 
of Baja California. However, no verified fault displacements 
have occurred on its northern section although numerous earth- 
quakes have been associated with it. Some reports of ground 
breakage on the northern part of the San Jacinto fault during an 
1899 earthquake were published by Danes (1907), in an Austri- 
an geological publication, but these reported ruptures could have 
been caused by landsliding (Allen and others, 1965, p. 767; 
Sharp, 1972). 

Recorded Fault Creep 

Fault creep is described as slow ground displacement usually 
occurring without accompanying earthquakes. It was first recog- 
nized on the Buena Vista fault, in an oilfield near Taft, California 
(Koch, 1932). It was later recognized on the San Andreas fault 
at a winery south of Hollister, (Steinbrugge and Zacher, 1960), 
and since then has been found on several other faults in Califor- 
nia. It is apparently a relatively rare phenomenon outside of 
California. Creep may have preceded the 1959 Montana earth- 
quake (Myers and Hamilton, 1964). Outside the United States 
it has only been reported in Turkey. On the Fault Map of Cali- 
fornia, fault creep has been used as the sole criterion for classify- 
ing the six following faults as having activity during historic 
time: Concord, Antioch, Kern Front, Casa Loma, Buena Vista, 
and Mesa (see Table 4, Part C). 

Fault creep of tectonic origin is often difficult to distinguish 
from nontectonic ground displacement resulting from ground- 
water or oil withdrawal. In fact, creep on the Buena Vista fault, 
as well as on the Kem Front fault, is today generally attributed 
to withdrawal of oil. Creep on the Casa Loma fault is considered 
by some to be a result of ground-water withdrawal. The creep 
shown on the Mesa fault is questionable, and there are now 
indications that earlier reports of creep may have been in error. 
The places where fault creep has been observed and recorded are 
shown on the map with red dots on the fault. These locations 
include both tectonic and nontectonic creep. 

Fault creep has been noted on some faults in areas where the 
ground has been previously broken by historic earthquakes (for 
example, on segments of the San Andreas, Hayward. Coyote 
Creek, and Imperial faults). But fault creep has also been ob- 
served on other segments of active faults that have had no record 
of earthquake ground ruptures during historic time (for exam- 
ple, certain parts of the San Andreas and Calaveras faults). 

Since 1975, when the Fault Map of California was published, 
fault creep in places on the Imperial fault has been rcpi>rtcd 
(Gilman and others, 1977). A segment of the Brawley fault (not 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



19 



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gered creep. 



20 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



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22 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Table 4, Part B. Historic surface faulting associated with earthquakes in Nevada and Baja California. 



Earthquake 


Fault 


Reference-" 


Year 


Locotion 


Magnitude 


Name 


Location 
number 
(See 
Fig. 4) 


Length 
surface 
rupture 
(kilometers) 


Maximum 
displacement 
and type of 
slippage' 












[miles] 






1869 


Nevada 


7.0 1 


Olinghouse 


36 


No data 


No data 


Slemmons. 1967. 


19031? 


) Nevada 


No data 


Gold King 
(Also see 44) 


37 


19 km (?) 
[12 m, (?)] 


No data 


Bonilla. 1970; Slemmons and others. 
1959; Toctier and others. 1957. 


1915 


Nevada 


7.6 


Pleasant Valley 


38 


32-64 km 
[2040 mi] 


N 4.6m 


Bonilla. 1970 Jones, 1915. 


1932 


Nevada 


7.3 


Cedar Mountain 


39 


61.2 km 
[38 mi] 


RL 8.5 m 
V 1.2m 


Bonilla. 1970; Gianella and Callaghan. 
1934. 


1934 


Nevada 


6.5 


Excelsior Mtn. 


40 


1.5 km 
[0.9 mi] 


LL slight 
N 1.2cm 


Bonilla. 1970; Callaghan and Gianella 
1935, 


1934 


Mexico 


7.1 


San Jacinto 


41 


Faulting 
inferred from 
aerial pfiotos 


RL (') 


Bonilla. 1970; Kovach. 1962. 


1954 
(July) 


Nevada 


6.6 


Rainbow Mtn. 


42 


17.7 km 
[11 mi] 


N 3.1cm 


Bonilla, 1970; Tocher. 1956, 


1954 
(Aug. 


Nevada 


6.8 


Rainbow Mtn. 


43 


30.6 km 
[19 mi] 


N 0.76m 


Bonilla, 1970; Tocher, 1956. 


1954 


Nevada 


7.1 


Fairview 
Gold King 


44 


58 km 
[36 mi] 
Part of 
Fairview F.Z. 


RL 4.3 m 
N 3.7m 
RL little or 
none.V 2 feet 


Bonilla. 1970; Slemmons. 1957. 
Slemmons and others. 1959. 


1954 
1956 


Nevada 
Baja. Mexico 


68 
6.8 


Dixie Valley 
San Miguel 


45 
46 


61.2 km 
[38 mi] 
19+ km 
[12+ mi] 


N 2.1+ m 
(4.6m scarp) 
N Im 
RL 08 m 


Bonilla, 1970; Slemmons. 1957. 
Bonilla. 1970; Shor and Roberts, 1958. 



Table 4, Part C. California faults displaying fault creep slippage not associated with earthquakes. 



Fault 


Location 
number 
(see 
Fig. 4) 


Reference^ 




San Andreas " 


- 


Nason and ottiers. 1974 




Hayward " 


- 


Nason and others. 1974 




Calaveras 


47 


Nason and others. 1974. 




Concord 


48 


Sharp. 1973. 




Anliocti (?) 


49 


Burke and Helley. 1973. 




Kern Front 


50 


Manning. 1968 (p. 132. 139). 




Casa Loma (San Jacinlo F Z ) 


51 


Felt and others. 1967 (p 22. 25. 27. 28). 




Buena Vista 


52 


Koch. 1933. Manning, 1968 (p. 133-134); Nason and others, 
(p 100-101), 


1968 


Mesa |7| 


53 


Wilot. 1972; Pollard, 1973. pers comm. 




Coyote Cn- ■ 


b.l 


Clark, 1972 (p. 73) 




Imperial 


55 


Gilman and others. 1977. 




Brawley" 


56 


Sharp. 1976 (p 1153). 




Busch 


57 


Rogers. 1967 




'/.LicamB** 


57A 


Smith. 1981 





1984 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



23 



Table 4, Part D. Triggered creep along faults 


with earthquakes in California. 




Eorffiquake Fault 


Triggered Fault 


Reference^ 


Year 


Location 


Magnitude 


Name 


Location 
number 


Length 
surface 


Maximum 
displacement 










(See 
Fig. 4) 


rupture 


and type of 
slippage' 




1940 Imperial 6 7'° 


Brawley" 58 


No data 


V 25.4 cm 


Sharp. 1976 (p 1152), 


1952 White Wolf(?) 77 


Garlock (?) 59 


122 meters 
[400 feet] 


No data 


Buwalda and St Amand. 1955 (p. 53); 
Clark. 1973, 


1965 No data 4.0 (') 


Superstition Hills 60 
(San Jacinto F.Z. ) 


1 km 
[0.6 mi] 


No data 


Allen and others, 1972 (p, 94), 


1968 Coyote Creek 6 5 


'Superstition Hills 61 

(San Jacinto F.Z, ) 
i Imperial 62 

San Andreas 63 


7,7 km 
[4,8 mi] 
19,3 km 
[12 mi] 
No data 


RL less 
than 2,5 cm 
RL less 
than 2,5 cm 
RL less 
than 2,5 cm 


Allen and others. 1968 
Allen and others, 1968 
Allen and others. 1968 


1969 No data No data 


Superstition Hills 64 
(San Jacinto F.Z.) 


No data 


No data 


Allen and others, 1972 (p. 94). 


1971 Superstition 5.3 
Hills 


Imperial 65 
(San Jacinto F,Z, ) 


27,4 km 
[17 mi] 


RL 1,5 cm 


Allen and others. 1972 (p, 89). Kahle 
(pars, comm). 



FOOTNOTES FOR TABLE 4 (PARTS A THROUGH D) 

Abbreviations: RL — right lateral, LL = left lateral, V = vertical, N = normal, m = meters, cm = centimeters. 

Multiple fault ruptures on the same fault, but not necessarily at the same place. 

See references cited (at end of Pan II) for complete bibliographic description. 

Location of 1852 earthquake is questionable (see text p IS). 

May represent two (possibly three) events (Nason, R.D., 1980. personal communication). 

The 1875 earthquake, until recently, was thought to have occurred in Mohawk Valley as shown on Fault Map of California (1975). Some 22 years after the event. 

Turner ( 1897). in talking with local residents, thought he could IcKate ground ruptures for this event near Cho. New data and isoseismal maps (Toppozada and others, 

1980) indicate the earthquake probably was centered in the Honey Lake area, probably on the Honey Lake fault. 

Two early newspaper accounts recently uncovered (Toppozada and others, 1980) describe a fissure 0.5 to 1 mile long near Allendale, 5 miles west of Dixon. [Not plotted 

on Fault Map of California (1975) ] 

Questionable fault rupture — may have been landshdes (Allen and others. 1965; Sharp. 1972). Not plotted on Fault Map of California, nor on Figure 4. 

Questionable fault rupture — crackmg may have been caused by shaking only. 

Widely hsted as magmtude 7.1 — recalculated by C.I.T. to be 6.7 (Hilman and others. 1973). 

Displacement given includes tectonic creep that occurred within SO days following main shock. 

Surface fault rupture not conclusive. 

Some uncertainty regarding earthquake associated with 1968 ground rupture near La Habra (Yerkes. 1972). 

Brawley fault of R.V Sharp (1976) is not shown on the Fault Map of California (1975 ed.) because it was reported after the Fault Map was pubUshed. Sharp's "Brawley 

fault" IS oriented somewhat differently than the fault by the same name shown on the Fault Map of California based on Elders and others. 1 972. 

Numerous occurrences of creep along this fault; see Figure 4. 

Not plotted on Fault Map of California because first reported in 1977 

Evidence of some surface ruptures in 1940 at the lime of the Impenal earihquake according to report in R.V. Sharp < 1976. p. 1152) and suggestions of creep over an 

extended period of time (1976. p. 1153), Not plotted on Fault Map of California because first reported in 1976. 



shown on the Fault Map of Cahfornia) is also undergoing fault 
creep (Sharp, 1976). 

Fault creep is not well understood. It may signify a building 
of stress along a fault or it may indicate a releasing of stress. 
Research into fault mechanics may eventually explain its causes. 

Another type of creep, designated "triggered creep," has been 
observed in recent years. This type of creep occurs on a fault 
after it has been triggered by a strong earthquake on some other 
fault. The 1968 Borrego Mountain earthquake, for example, 
which is centered on the Coyote Creek fault, triggered movement 
on the Superstition Hills, Imperial, and San Andreas faults. 
Other triggered creep has been noted on the Imperial fault in 
1971 and on the Superstition Hills fault in 1965 and 1969. Table 
4, Part D lists all the known triggered creep events along faults 
associated with earthquakes in California. On the Fault Map of 
California, red squares are plotted where triggered fault creep 
has occurred, and the date of the causative earthquake is indicat- 
ed. 



Displaced Survey Lines 

The third criterion recognized for designating faults with his- 
toric ground displacement is measured displacement across sur- 
vey lines. In compiling the Fault Map of California, this criterion 
served mostly to corroborate other evidence for historic activity 
(earthquake ground rupture or fault creep slippage). However, 
one location in the San Bernardino Valley, on the San Jacinto 
fault, was shown to have historic ground displacement based 
solely on the repeated surveys of the Rialto-Colton triangulation 
network. 

Seismicity 

A fourth criterion, active seismicity, was considered in classi- 
fying faults with historic activity. This criterion was used on a 
preliminary unpublished compilation but not on the final map. 
An attempt was made to classify a fault as having historic activ- 
ity in cases where there appeared to be a close correlation 



24 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



between the epicenter locations of earthquakes and a specific 
fault. Both macroseismic and microseismic activity were consid- 
ered, and all types of events were evaluated — whether they were 
repealed earthquakes over a period of years, aftershocks of a 
larger event, or microcarthquakes detected by extensive continu- 
ous monitoring by close seismic survey networks. The guiding 
factor was w hether or not an alignment of epicenters appeared 
to be clearly related to a specific fault. This criterion was used 
most sparingly because of imprecise location of epicenters (espe- 
cially with older data). In this way several faults thai otherwise 
had no observable historic surface fault displacement were tenta- 
tively classified with the group of historic faults. These included 
the Newport-Inglewood, Palos Verdes, Mendocino, Sargent, 
Mission Creek. Palo Colorado-San Gregorio faults, the northern 
part of the San Jacinto fault, and the southern part of the Healds- 
burg fault. However, because of disagreement among seismolo- 
gists about the significance of micn>earthquake alignments, and 
because of the uncertainties involved with ascertaining align- 
ments among the random distribution of macrocarthquakes, a 
decision was made not to include seismicity with the other wide- 
ly recognized geologic and historic criteria used in making this 
official fault map of the state. 

The uncertainty of relating individual macrocarthquakes 
(magnitude 3 or greater) to specific faults in cases where there 
is no ground displacement is well known among seismologists, 
although sometimes overlooked by geologists. The problem lies 
with the accuracy of epicenter locations. "Without a group of 
several good stations, velocities and crustal structures are uncer- 
tain and location of epicenters is unreliable" (Richter, 1958, p. 
315). Well-recorded earthquakes may be located accurately within 
5 km. (3 mi.), but most epicenter maps include locations with 
far less accuracy. Also, there are instances in which well-located 
earthquakes do not line up with known faults. 

In recent years, the sensitivity of seismograph networks has 
been greatly increased. As a result, a remarkably close relation 
between microseismicity (magnitudes less than 3) and specific 
faults in certain parts of the state has been confirmed. Figure 5 
shows how a section of the San Andreas fault, and the Hay ward, 
Calaveras and Rodgers-Creek faults are clearly outlined by the 
alignment of very small earthquakes. However, historically ac- 
tive faults may for periods of time show no microseismic activity; 
thus, a lack of microearthquakes is not conclusive evidence that 
a fault is dead. For example, north of San Francisco, where a 
long stretch of the San Andreas fault ruptured in 1906, no recog- 
nizable microseismicity or macroseismicity has occurred since 
1906. 



Quaternary Faults 

A Quaternary fault is any fault that shows evidence of having 
been active during approximately the last two million years. The 
Quaternary period therefore encompasses those historic faults 
just described in the previous section. The Fault Map of Califor- 
nia, however, treats the two terms as mutually exclusive time 
intervals; that is, a Quaternary fault is any fault not considered 
an histonc fault \\\d\ shows evidence of having been active during 
approximately the last two million years. Quaternary faults are 
indicated by orange lines; historic faults, as we have seen, are 
indicated by red lines. 

Faults designated by heavy black linc-s are those without 
rcfo^«;ir«/ Quaternary displacement; faults in this category are 
discussed later in the section entitled "Pre-Quaternary faults." 



Identification 

Quaternary faults are recognized by various criteria. Because 
some of the evidence becomes destroyed with time and is not 
always clearly recognizable, geologists try to utilize as many bits 
of evidence as they can accumulate in their interpretation. Some 
of the most commonly used criteria include the following: 

(1) Scarps in alluvium, terraces, or other Quaternary 
units; 

(2) Lateral offsets in Quaternary units; 

(3) Stream courses offset in a systematic direction; 

(4) Alignment of fault-caused depressions, such as sag 
ponds, fault troughs, and fault saddles; 

(5) Markedly linear and steep mountain fronts that ap- 
pear to be associated with a bordering concealed fault 
trace; 

(6) Ground-water barriers in Quaternary sediments 
caused by faults (such barriers may be evidenced by 
vegetation contrasts, alignment of springs and seeps, 
or by well data showing comparable water tables at 
different levels). 

Problems 

Using the above criteria, numerous faults can be shown to 
have Quaternary activity; however, as with any classification, 
there are situations where it is difficult to decide whether to 
designate the fault movement as being Quaternary in age. 

In northeastern California, for example, a large group of faults 
within Quaternary volcanic rocks have been shown as orange 
lines on the Fault Map. However, in the same area and on the 
same trend, many other faults that occur wholly within some- 
what older volcanic units have been shown as black lines. These 
faults may have formed at the same time as those faults in the 
Quaternary units, but without further evidence they cannot be 
classified as Quaternary. The faults in this area were largely 
determined by photo interpretation and only a limited amount 
of field checking. Further field work may reveal evidence of 
Quaternary displacement on many of these faults in the older 
rocks. 

In various parts of California extensive nonmarine deposits 
were laid down over a long period of time ranging from late 
Pliocene well into the Pleistocene. These Plio-Pleistocene depos- 
its (such as the Paso Robles and Santa Clara Formations in the 
central Coast Ranges) generally lack fossils, so the Pliocene 
portion of the rocks can rarely be separated from the Pleistocene 
rocks. Where these beds are cut by faults, geologists cannot 
readily determine whether the faults were active during Pliocene 
or Pleistocene time. A decision therefore had to he made by the 
compiler as to whether they should be designated as Quaternary. 
In order to avoid overlooking possible Quaternary faults, it was 
decided to include these faults within the Quaternary category. 

For dating the faults shown on the Fault Map of California, 
the Quaternary rocks depicted on the new State Geologic Map 
were used as a guide. Although some of these age designations 
are probably incorrect, they were the most useful guide we had 
at the time. Even if the rocks shown as Pleistocene are somewhat 
older — that is. Pliocene — faults cutting such rocks could be post- 
Pliocene, nonetheless. In fact, if the rocks cut by a fault are /art- 
Pliocene in age, then the fault is most likely Quaternary. 

Some dotted faults are shown as being Quaternary in volcanic 
terrain such as at Mount Shasta and in Owens Valley where 
there are alignments of Quaternary volcanic cones. These con- 
cealed "faults" may actually be fissures or fractures along which 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



25 



"T 1 1 T 



40* 0.00' 



SACRAMENTO 




SYMBOL 


MAGNITUDE 


. 


M < 15 


. 


1 5 < M < 2 5 


X 


25 < M < 35 


X 


35 < M < 4 5 


X 


M > 45 




1 1 I 


50 KM 
1 1 1 



35*0.00 



Figure 5. Mop showing smoll-mognitude eorthquoke epicenters reported during 1975. Eorthquokes in the region enclosed by the dashed line ore generally 
well recorded and located. Note the alignments developed olong parts of the Son Andreas, Hayward, Coloveros ond Rodgers Creek faults. (From McHugh 
and Lester, U.S. Geological Survey, Open File Report 78-105 1. 1 



26 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



lava was extruded, and may in themselves have little or no 
displacement. But because these volcanic rocks are Quaternary 
in age and occur in an area where known Quaternary fault 
structures exist, these structures are interpreted to be of early 
Quaternary age also. 

Faults that were determined solely on the basis of geophysical 
interpretations have been used, but with caution. The same is 
true of Quaternary faults located on the basis of well-log data. 
The quality of the logs and the well spacing were critical factors 
that were considered. With geophysical interpretations (espe- 
cially those made by geologists), the date of the survey and the 
experience of the interpreters were considered, and consultation 
with Rcxlger Chapman, the Division's geophysicist, was sought 
before deciding w hethcr to use certain fault interpretations based 
on geophysical data. 

In cases where a geologic map indicates a fault separating 
bedr(xk from alluvium, especially along a mountain front, it is 
often difTicult to determine what age the geologist considered the 
fault to be. Sometimes the map's scale is such thai it cannot show 
a fault or fault zone in bedrock close to the alluvium contact. 
Sometimes, when a mapper interprets a mountain front as an 
eroded fault-line scarp, the geologist may not be particularly 
concerned about the age of the fault he is depicting and simply 
neglect to show it as a dotted line in the alluvium paralleling the 
mountain front. If such a fault is not discussed in the text, it is 
impossible to know whether it was considered to be a young or 
an old feature. This problem most commonly occurs in the Basin 
and Range and Mojave Desert provinces. In compiling the Fault 
Map of California, if a bedrock-alluvium fault relationship was 
not clear from the source data, the fault was usually shown in 
black — not to indicate that the fault movement was necessarily 
pre-Quaternary, but that the age of movement was undeter- 
mined. 

In many cases, it is difficult to recognize Quaternary displace- 
ment along a fault when the fault lies wholly within rocks older 
than Quaternary. This is especially true in areas of great rainfall 
where subtle geomorphic evidence is easily destroyed or covered 
by vegetation. Also, some faults have been designated by geolo- 
gists as Quaternary solely on the basis of photo-interpretation of 
suspected geomorphic features. Later field investigation, includ- 
ing trenching, may disprove the Quaternary designation or, in 
some cases, the existence of a fault. 

Some faults that may actually have been active in historic time 
are shown as Quaternary because the activity went unobserved 
or unrecorded. It is not surprising that such activity on faults 
located in sparsely populated, remote areas such as in the deserts 
or in the heavily forested mountains would go unnoticed or, if 
noticed, never be recorded. 

Plio-Pleistocene Boundary Controversy 

The duration of the Quaternary period is not well defined, and 
the position of the Pliocene-Pleistocene time boundary in Cali- 
fornia has been considered at different places by various experts 
in recent years. The Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary is generally 
based on palcontological concepts and the first evolutionary ap- 
pearance of certain species (Handy and Wilcoxon, 1970, p. 
2939). The palcontological evidence is correlated to magnetic 
events, paleo-climatic cycles, glacial events, and radiometric age 
determinations. Because of worldwide problems in correlation 
and disagreements among the experts, the duration of the Qua- 
ternary period has been variously reported as being from one 
million to three million years. The longer lime interval has now 
been largely discredited (Bandy, 1969, also Handy and Wilcox- 
on, 1970, p. 2939), and an age closer to two million years is more 



widely accepted. However, because three million years was the 
accepted age for the Quaternary period while some of the State 
Atlas sheets were being compiled, certain volcanic rocks of that 
age (determined radiometrically) were classified as Quaternary. 
Some faults within these volcanic rocks could thus be older than 
the age implied on the Fault Map of California. 

Major Quaternary Faults 

Quaternary faults are abundant and widespread in California. 
Many are short minor breaks, but others consist of numerous 
small segments that define major structural trends. Some Qua- 
ternary faults are extensive, but are largely concealed under 
alluvium. In order to emphasize the major Quaternary faults or 
fault zones, a pale orange band has been superimposed on the 
map portrayal of the fault. Certain criteria were used to decide 
which Quaternary faults should be selected for such emphasis. 
To be considered "major," a Quaternary fault had to be charac- 
terized by one or more of these factors: 

(1) The fault is of considerable length (for example, usu- 
ally more than 30 miles [48 km]). 

(2) The fault is associated with an alignment of numerous 
earthquake epicenters (such as with the Sargent and 
Newport-Inglewood faults). 

(3) The fault trace is continuous with segments that have 
historic displacement (for example, the Green Valley 
fault), 

(4) The fault is associated with youthful major mountain 
scarps or mountain ranges (for example. Surprise Val- 
ley, Honey Lake, and Panamint Valley faults). 

(5) The fault is associated with strong geophysical anomal- 
ies (for example, the Likely, Surprise Valley, San Cle- 
mente, and Mendocino faults). 

Certain faults near the California-Nevada border that are 
shown as major Quaternary faults appear to be short. These 
faults, however, continue for many miles into Nevada and are, 
therefore, major structural features. 

As with any classification, cases arose where the data were not 
clear-cut, and it was necessary to decide somewhat arbitrarily 
whether to include a fault as major. In general, the policy was 
to keep the number of emphasized faults to a minimum. If one 
were to extrapolate segments of faults across greater distances, 
many more Quaternary faults could be shown as major, but the 
writer preferred to await additional information in such cases. 



Philisophy of Conservatism 

In general, a "philosophy of conservatism" was followed in 
depicting the c.v/cvj/ of Quaternary faulting; that is, where local 
evidence indicated that a fault has had displacement during 
Quaternary time, the entire length of the fault was shown as 
Quaternary unless contrary evidence indicated otherwise. This 
"philosophy," which has also been expressed by the VS. Geo- 
logical Survey (Wentworth, Ziony, and Buchanan, 1970, p. 4-5), 
takes into account the desirability of calling possible geologic 
problems to the attention of decision-makers fK'fore critical 
structures are built. If possible problems are known, they can be 
investigated, and their presence or absence be established, so that 
appropriate modifications of plans can be made in advance of 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



27 



siting or before detailed design and construction. Omission of the 
possible geologic hazards might lead users of the map to an 
erroneous conclusion that none existed. The maps that were 
compiled by Wentworth, Ziony, and Buchanan of several coastal 
areas in southern California were used in the preparation of the 
Fault Map of California, and in these areas their philosophy was 
directly incorporated. Elsewhere in the state, this conservative 
philosophy was followed, but perhaps not as rigorously because 
of the vastly greater area covered and the less specific character 
of the information available. The U.S. Geological Survey prac- 
tice is to include some questionable information as long as it has 
some basis and is reasonable (Wentworth and others, 1970; 
Ziony and others, 1974). Hence, individual faults and connec- 
tions between faults were shown where they were considered 
reasonable, even though conclusive evidence for their existence 
may be lacking. 

On the Fault Map of California, aligned faults were generally 
not connected unless the gap between was too narrow to repre- 
sent adequately at the map's scale; instead, an attempt was made 
to follow the source data as closely as possible. However, because 
of an extensive review of the Fault Map by many geologists, both 
the location and the extent of Quaternary faults shown on the 
Fault Map were carefully considered and many modifications 
were made. As a result, the 1975 Fault Map of California is the 
most complete and accurate portrayal of faults known in the 
state at the time of publication. The data on faults of California 
are constantly being evaluated and re-evaluated and, as time 
passes, new information will support or modify the Fault Map. 
It is obvious, therefore, that the map should be periodically 
revised and new editions pubUshed. 

Pre-Quaternary Faults 

Pre-Quatemary faults are shown by heavy black lines on the 
Fault Map of California. They are defined as faults that are older 
than Quaternary (older than two milhon years) or faults with- 
out recognized Quaternary displacement. There may be in- 
stances in which the youthfubiess of a fault is not recognized for 
several reasons: 

(1) The fault may not affect Quaternary rocks because 
none were present or, if ever present, they have since 
been removed by erosion. 

(2) The fault may not retain evidence of youthful displace- 
ment because such evidence has been destroyed by 
erosion or covered by vegetation. This is especially true 
in areas of high rainfall. 

(3) The stratigraphic or geomorphic evidence may have 
been removed or covered by works of man, such as in 
urban areas. 

(4) The fault may not have been studied in sufficient detail 
to ascertain when displacement last took place. 

Therefore, many of the faults shown as heavy black lines may 
be young and possibly may become active. An example of this 
is the Cleveland Hill fault, which ruptured in the August 1975 
Oroville earthquake. Subsequent studies have shown that the 
fault lies within the Foothill fault system, which extends for more 
than 240 km (150 miles), but prior to the 1975 earthquake, most 
geologists viewed this system as a very ancient and "seismically 
dead" fault zone. Also, it must be stressed again that many faults 
have been included with the faults designated as pre-Quatemary 
because of a lack of age data. 



Accuracy of Fault Locations 

Fault traces are indicated in the same way on the Fault Map 
of California and the Geologic Map of California. The faults are 
indicated by solid lines where the location of its trace is accurate, 
by dashed lines where they are approximately located or in- 
ferred, and by dotted lines where covered by younger rocks or 
concealed by lakes or bays. The fault traces are queried where 
their continuation or existence is uncertain. 

The accuracy of fault locations depends on the area studied 
and on the confidence that the geologists have in their work. A 
geologist may show a fault as solid or dashed depending on such 
factors as how well the feature is exposed, the scale of the map, 
the amount of time spent in the field, the extent of vegetative 
cover, and the complexity of the geology. With such variables, 
the degree of certainty in fault depiction varies greatly on a map 
compilation such as the Fault Map of California. However, even 
though the degree of certainty may not be uniform, the map 
accurately reflects the source data (within the limits of scale) 
and gives the map-user an indication of the degree of certainty 
on the location shown for the various faults within the state. 
Thus, the map-user should be able to distinguish those faults that 
are well located (shown by a solid hne) from those that have 
some degree of uncertainty in location or existence (shown by 
dashed or queried lines) . Of course, to be more precise, a map- 
user should refer to the larger scale maps from which the compi- 
lation was prepared (Appendix D). 

The map-user must keep in mind three factors regarding the 
accuracy of faults portrayed on the Fault Map. First, a fault is 
not usually a simple, continuous feature; more often than not it 
is a zone or feature made up of discontinuous segments. Second- 
ly, geologic features are mapped in the field by "eye" as they 
relate to topographic and cultural features. Where a fault crosses 
a featureless or gently undulating region, or where the land is 
densely vegetated, the mapped fault traces may be off by signifi- 
cant distances. Thirdly, on the 1:750,000 scale map, the width 
of a scribed fault line (0.012 of an inch) represents in itself about 
232 meters (760 feet). 

Depiction of concealed faults poses a special problem, particu- 
larly for the faults in the Great Valley. Here the fault evidence 
is taken largely from oil company maps of selected subsurface 
horizons, and many of the faults shown are at great depth. If a 
fault is vertical, its projected surface location lies directly over 
the fault at depth. However, if the fault is inchned, as commonly 
happens, the vertical projection of the fault to the surface is not 
directly over the fault. Such projections shown on the Fault Map 
can only be approximate and may indicate fault trends only. The 
main purpose of showing the faults is to indicate that the Great 
Valley is not an area devoid of faults. More subsurface informa- 
tion would undoubtedly show that the Great Valley harbors 
many more faults than the Fault Map of Cahfomia now indi- 
cates. 

Faults such as the San Andreas, Hayward, San Jacinto, White 
Wolf, and San Fernando, which have ruptured during historic 
time, and the Garlock fault, so well exposed in the semi-arid 
desert of southern California, have all been mapped in great 
detail. These studies show that the faults occur as a series of 
multiple breaks, rather than as a single continuous fracture. 
Large-scale strip maps of these faults were used in our compila- 
tion as the source data for showing more meaningfully the actual 
nature of these important California faults. 

Offshore faults that are concealed beneath the ocean (they are 
discussed in the next section) are shown as dashed lines on the 
compiled map to indicate that their location is generally less 
accurate than is the location of faults mapped on land. Such 



28 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



faults are located by acoustic-reflection profiling from ship- 
board, and the problems of ship position and record interpreta- 
tion naturally introduce certain inaccuracies. 

Offshore Structure 

A.C. Lawson (1893) was one of the first to point out dias- 
trophism along the coast of southern California based on an 
analysis of the topography of the Channel Islands. He noted that 
the prominent marine terraces at San Pedro Hill on the mainland 
and on San Clemente Island do not exist on Santa Catalina 
Island. He attributed this to submergence of Santa Catalina 
Island. Later he made structural interpretations of the California 
coastal area from bathymetric charts. He concluded that "por- 
tions of the (continental) slope where the contours are crowded 
together... can scarcely be interpreted as other than fault scarps," 
and he compared them with the fault-scarp of the eastern front 
of the Sierra Nevada (Lawson and others, 1908, p. 13-15). 

One of the most detailed fault maps of the southern California 
offshore, based chiefly on sea floor topography, was made by 
K.O. Emery (I960, p. 79). However, with modern sparker pro- 
filing, knowledge of offshore structure has increased so rapidly 
that faults and also folds can be based on much more than 
inferences made from the configuration of bathymetry. Unfortu- 
nately, much of this new information is retained in oil company 
exploration files and is thus unavailable, but the broader aspects 
of these data are occasionally released, as for example in the 
paper on northern and central California offshore petroleum 
geology published by the American Association of Petroleum 
Geologists (Hoskins and Griffiths, 1971). Most of the available 
information, however, comes from recent studies and pubHca- 
tions by the U.S. Geological Survey and various universities and 
institutions, especially the University of Southern California and 
the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. 

Although the quality and quantity of data are not uniform in 
the offshore area, an attempt was made to acquire all data that 
were available and to show at least some structural data for the 
entire California coastal area. Thus, for the first time, the Fault 
Map of California depicts offshore faults (and on the Geologic 
Map of California, offshore folds as well). 

Most of the offshore structures record late Cenozoic tectonism 
which may in fact, be of Quaternary age. As incomplete as these 
data are, one is struck by the activity and mobility of the conti- 
nental shelf area. By the depiction of offshore structure, one can 
see the continuity of such major faults as the San Andreas fault, 
the Seal Cove-San Gregorio-Palo Colorado-Hosgri fault zone, 
and the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault zone as they 
leave land and reenter at more distant points. One can also 
recognize the characteristic northwest-trending structural im- 
print of the Coast Ranges and the Peninsular Ranges provinces 
on the adjacent continental shelf area and the west-trending 
structural continuation of the Transverse Ranges province off- 
shore. Also, a part of the anomalous west-trending Mendocino 
fault zone can be seen offshore. This feature actually extends 
westward for more than 3700 km (2300 miles) and one can 
ponder the character of this structure as it impinges on the 
continent at Cape Mendocino. Menard (1955) pointed out that 
this IS the only one of the several offshore fracture zones that 
offseus the continental slope, but the fault has no clear topo- 
graphic or fault continuation where it comes ashore at Cape 
Mendocino. 

Recognizing these offshore structural features is very impor- 
tant because of their role in the siting of critical engineering 
facilities along the coast, and in the evaluation of offshore min- 
eral resources. 



Coast Range Thrust 

The Coast Range thrust, first described by Bailey, Blake, and 
Jones (1970), is depicted by open barbs. This fault rnarks the 
upper boundary of a long-active, late Mesozoic subduction zone 
extending from Oregon nearly to Santa Barbara. In most cases, 
the fault surface is now very steep, but locally it is flat or has been 
folded into prominent hooks (Blake and Jones, 1977, p. 6). It 
is best exfKJsed in northern California and becomes more difficult 
to follow in its central and southern part because of modification 
by later vertical and strike-slip faults or because it is concealed 
by younger rocks. 

E.H. Bailey and other geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey 
at Menio Park were most helpful in identifying this structure on 
the 1 :250,000 scale work sheets so that it could be more accurate- 
ly portrayed on the I ■.750,000 scale maps of the state. 

The Coast Range thrust brings together the Mesozoic rocks 
of the Franciscan Complex and the Mesozoic rocks of the Great 
Valley sequence. The contact is easy to recognize where the 
ophiolitic rocks (a sequence of ultramafic rocks with mafic rocks 
above) that occur at the base of the Great Valley sequence are 
in contact with the Franciscan Complex. However, if the Fran- 
ciscan rocks are in fault contact with strat^i of the Great Valley 
sequence, one cannot be sure whether the contact is the Coast 
Range thrust or a later vertical or strike-slip fault. Also, if the 
Franciscan rocks border serpentinite, which is itself not overlain 
by other ophiolitic rocks or strata of the Great Valley sequence, 
one cannot be sure whether the contact is the Coast Range 
thrust. Such stratigraphic problems made the plotting of the 
Coast Range thrust very difficult in many places. Additionally, 
the scale of the map is such that details of the pertinent stratigra- 
phy do not always show. 

These newer concepts were not used in the older mapping. In 
fact, faults on old maps were sometimes shown or omitted on the 
basis of now-outmoded interpretations. For example, ultramafic 
rocks that would be interpreted today as klippen of Great Valley 
ophiolite were mapped with intrusive, non-faulted contacts. 

The Coast Range thrust interpretation gives us an explanation 
of the heretofore inexplicable juxtaposition of the two great belts 
of coeval Mesozoic strata: the largely chaotic and rarely fossilif- 
erous Franciscan Complex; and the orderly and abundantly fos- 
siliferous Great Valley sequence. The serpentinite lying 
immediately above the Coast Range thrust, previously thought 
to have been intruded into a fault zone, is now interpreted as part 
of the Mesozoic oceanic crust on which the Great Valley se- 
quence was deposited. More recent work in the Coast Ranges has 
expanded the concept of subducting plates into a more complex 
pattern [for example, see Blake and Jones (1974) on the origin 
of Franciscan melanges as imbricate thrust sheets], but this work 
was done after the compilation of the 1:750,000 scale geologic 
and fault maps of California and hence could not be utihzed on 
these maps. 



Circular Fault Structures 

Two very interesting circular and elhptical fault structures lie 
on the east side of the Sierra Nevada, just south of Mono Lake 
(Figure 6). The larger of the two is the Long Valley Caldera, a 
16- by 31-km ( 10- by 19-mile) elliptical depression. This feature 
has been mapped in part by surface exposures, but the connec- 
tions and complete closure have been determined from geophysi- 
cal studies, especially gravity surveys (Pakiser and others, 
1964). The caldera has been studied by several geologists over 
the years, and has recently received many detailed geological. 



1985 



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29 



II9°I5' 



20 KM 




i, - 37°45' 



- 37° 30 



MODIFIED FROM BAILEY, AND OTnERS, i976 ii8°45' il8°30' 

Figure 6. Generalized map of the Long Valley-Mono Craters area showing location of faults. 



,8°I5' 



geophysical, and geochemical investigations as a result of a geo- 
thennal study program. According to Bailey and others (1976), 
the Long Valley structure is a volcanic caldera left by the erup- 
tion of the Bishop Tuff some 0.7 million years ago. As a result, 
the Long Valley magma was partially emptied, and its roof 
collapsed along arcuate ring faults. 

The Mono Craters, to the north, between Long Valley and 
Mono Lake, are another ring-fracture zone of nearly circular 
configuration. It is even younger (Holocene) than the Long 
Valley caldera. However, according to Kistler ( 1966), the arcu- 
ate fault trace of the Mono Craters is probably the protoclastic 
border of a quartz monzonite pluton. 



Future Changes in Fault Depiction 

Most of the geologic maps that were used in compiling the 
Fault and Geologic Maps of California probably show only a 
small fraction of the faults that actually exist in the area of the 
maps. This is illustrated dramatically in mine mapping where 
many more faults are commonly visible in underground work- 
mgs than are apparent at the surface. On older maps, faults of 
small displacement have often been ignored and dismissed as 
merely local features of little significance in the tectonics of the 
area. While it may be true that such features have had little effect 
on past geologic history, such faults, especially in young rocks. 



30 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



might be harbingers of a developing stress system and could 
provide important clues to future tectonic activity. In recent 
years, much more attention is being paid to subtle geomorphic 
features that may be evidence of Quaternary faulting. Thus, 
inconspicuous geomorphic features in the topography of valley 
alluvium, like those along the pre-earthquake San Fernando 
fault, will hopefully be detected and allowed for in planning 
decisions. 

Active faults and earthquakes are now the subject of intensive 
research which will improve the interpretations shown on the 
Fault Map of California. Since its publication in 1975, many new 
data have been collected, and future detailed fault studies will 
require many changes on the Fault Map. Thus, the length or 
location of certain faults will be modified, and the class of activ- 
ity for some faults will be changed. Some faults that are now 
shown as pre-Quatemary (or age unknown) will be changed to 
Quaternary as evidence for Quaternary movement is discovered. 
It is less likely that faults now shown as having affected Quater- 
nary rocks will be changed by further studies unless the age of 
the rocks was originally misinterpreted. It is also expected that 
additional mapping will reveal new, as yet unsuspected faults of 
both Quaternary and pre-Quatemary ages. Mapping tools being 
used widely today that only a few years ago were seldom utilized 
in fault evaluation — for example, trenching, boreholes, detailed 
geomorphological studies, and radiometric age determinations 
— are continually providing new data. 

Hopefully, future work will be able to determine the age of 
faults more accurately within the Quaternary period, so that 
those faults that have affected rocks of the late Quaternary or 
Holocene epoch can be shown separately. A better knowledge of 
where faulting has occurred within the most recent geologic past 
should be helpful in inferring what is likely to happen in the 
future. Thus, succeeding editions of the Fault Map of California 
should attempt to distinguish those faults with recognized Holo- 
cene movement, as well as Quaternary and historic designations. 

The Fault Map of California, 1975 edition, is a provisional 
inventory of faults in the state, which should be revised periodi- 
cally to keep abreast of the vast amount of new data being 
generated. Such information is vital to geologists, seismologists, 
engineers, planners, and others who use these data in their work. 



FAULT PATTERNS 

The Fault Map of California depicts many fault types and 
many major and minor faults. On close analysis, a characteristic 
orientation of fault traces over large segments of the state is 
apparent. Some faults stand out because of their great length, or 
because they separate vastly different rock types (as is apparent 
on the companion Geologic Map of California), or bound or 
terminate major mountain ranges. The San Andreas fault is 
considered the master fault in California, and is now recognized 
as one of the major faults in the world, separating two of the 
earth's major plates. Conjugate to the San Andreas are the Gar- 
lock fault and its probable offset western counterpart, the Big 
Pine fault. The Big Pine fault, together with the prominent Santa 
Ynez fault and the Malibu-Santa Monica-Raymond Hill faults, 
form part of the boundaries of the east-trending Transverse 
Ranges province in southern California. The Sierra Nevada-Ow- 
ens Valley fault zone defines a north-trending zone and, unlike 
the earlier described strike-slip faults, is the most conspicuous 
normal fault zone in the state and perhaps in the western Cordill- 
era 



Further consideration of the Fault Map of California suggests 
certain unfaulted areas, such as the Great Valley and Sierra 
Nevada provinces. This is partly misleading. Intensive explora- 
tion in the oil and gas fields of the Great Valley has revealed that 
numerous faults lie within the sedimentary strata of the valley 
at various horizons, indicating faulting at different times in the 
past. It is also suspected that extensive faults exist in the base- 
ment rocks underlying the Great Valley. The Sierra Nevada, prin- 
cipally a huge batholith consisting largely of ancient multiple 
intrusions, however, is apparently devoid of large faults except 
in two places. The first place is near its southern margin, where 
the Kern Canyon fault lies exposed in granitic rocks and is 
prominently emphasized in places by Pleistocene glaciation. The 
second place is at the western margin of the batholith where the 
Foothills fault system lies in old, pre-batholith rocks. The well- 
developed faults in the pre-batholith rocks suggest that the site 
of the batholith was earlier extensively faulted, perhaps forming 
a weak area in the earth's crust that the magma could easily 
invade during Mesozoic time. 



Structural Provinces 

An analysis of the structural features of the state reveals cer- 
tain trends and patterns which appear to define structuraJ prov- 
inces* and specific blocks. Each structural province is 
characterized by faults of a predominant trend or pattern, or in 
some cases, by two or more intersecting trends. Folds within 
these structural provinces are similarly related, and together, 
faults and folds are the result of stresses acting on and within 
each block in each province. As will be shown, an understanding 
of the distribution and nature of Quaternary faults in California 
should be a clue in the understanding of present stress fields. 

No attempt will be made in this paper to analyze these stress 
fields. Such analysis requires an understanding of the structural 
blocks which respond as units to any applied stresses and the 
effort here is to recognize and describe the component blocks. 

Each of the crustal blocks is of irregular shape and interacts 
with neighboring blocks in a complex fashion, much more com- 
plicated than the model envisioned for the conventional stress 
ellipsoid type of analysis. Furthermore, the blocks are highly 
fractured internally and thus are not homogeneous. Nonetheless, 
an understanding of the stresses on each individual block would 
be helpful in predicting where and to what extent future fault 
ruptures and earthquakes might take place. An understanding of 
the distribution and nature of Quaternary faults in California is 
one clue in the understanding of present day stress fields. 

As a result of some 140 years of geologic mapping in Califor- 
nia, we now have much empirical data about the geologic effects 
of the stress in most parts of the state as recorded in the rocks 
in the form of faults and folds. Because California has had a long 
and changing structural history since Precambrian time, and 
because so many of the structures revealed in the rocks are a 
reflection of long-sin;e departed or reoriented stress fields, focus 
is here made on the most recent sequence of events and on the 
patterns of faults within the provinces and blocks that are de- 
fined largely by major Quaternary structures. Some of these 
structural boundaries are covered by alluvium or young rocks, 
and so sometimes it will be necessary to consider earlier struc- 
tural patterns that may control later patterns. In some parts of 
the state, boundaries are not well defined because of incomplete 
geologic mapping; in these isolated cases, the boundaries sug- 
gested may need later modification. 



"Dwae itnjctural province* ihoujd not be cxmfujed with the geomophic provinces by which the state ij often described. Some of the structural province boundaries coincide with the 
Seoniorphic provinces, but others do not 



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31 



Interaction between and among the blocks has caused second- 
ary stresses within individual blocks. The internal shearing and 
rupturing caused by these stresses have resulted in the formation 
of many sub-blocks. Thus, the crust of California is comprised 
of several structural provinces which form a mosaic of blocks 
and sub-blocks of varying sizes and shapes interacting in a com- 
plex fashion. 

Various geologists have noted fault patterns and structural 
blocks in different parts of California. For example, Cummings 
(1976) and Garfunkel (1974) discussed the pattern of Cenozoic 
faults in the Mojave Desert block, and Wright (1976) discussed 
the late Cenozoic fault patterns and stress fields in the Great 
Basin. In this Bulletin, however, the writer points out fault pat- 
terns and blocks throughout the state. 

In this discussion, the state is divided into eight structural 
provinces, containing 16 blocks and 24 sub-blocks, which are 
defined on the basis either of predominant fault trends or of the 
characteristics of faults they contain. The reader is asked to refer 
to Plate 2 as the following structural blocks and sub-blocks in 
California are defined and discussed. 



Predominant Fault Trends Defining 
Structural Provinces 

The Quaternary faults in California can be grouped into spe- 
cific structural provinces according to the predominant trend of 
the faults. Four of these provinces seem to be limited to specific 
areas with rather definite boundaries, while four additional 
structural provinces are bounded by somewhat less definite 
boundaries, and contain within them complex or multiple fault 
trends rather than a single dominant fault trend. The first four 
structural provinces are subdivided into a number of blocks and 
many of these can be further subdivided by subpeirallel bounda- 
ries into elongate slices or sub-blocks. 



Major Structural Blocks With 
Predominantly Northwest Faults 

The Coast Ranges block (la) and the Peninsular Ranges 
block (lb) (as well as their component sub-blocks) comprise 
Structural Province I, which is characterized by faults with a 
strong northwest orientation exemplified by the trend of the San 
Andreas fault. These faults interestingly, all display right lateral 
slip (usually with a vertical component). These northwest- 
trending faults and blocks, however, are interrupted in the south- 
em part of the state by faults having a strong eastward trend or 
transverse direction, which define Structural Province II. 



Coast Ranges Block 

The eastern boundary of the Coast Ranges block lies beneath 
the alluvium of the Great Valley, and the western boundary is 
concealed by the waters of the Pacific Ocean. In the northern 
part of the Coast Ranges block where the east-trending Mendo- 
cino fault aligns with the Eel River basin, the relationships ap- 
pear to be very complex and may form a small intervening block. 
However, everywhere else the Coast Ranges block is dominated 
by a strong northwesterly structural pattern. The southern 
boundary of the Coast Ranges block is abruptly terminated by the 
Big Pine fault and by the transverse Structural Province II. 



Peninsular Ranges Block 

The caslcrn boundary of the Peninsular Ranges block is de- 
fined by the Dillon fault, which closely parallels the San Andreas 
fault zone, and its .southeast projection through the Orocopia 
and Chocolate Mountains (fault 1 A on Plate 2 A). This fault also 
marks a separation between the prominent northwest trending 
faults of the Peninsular Ranges block and either the east-trend- 
ing faults m the Pinto Mountains sub-block (II,) or the diverse 
pattern of faults in the Sonoran Desert block (V). The western 
boundary continues offshore, probably as far as the Santa Rosa- 
Cortes Ridge. The southern boundary lies in Baja California. 



Major Structural Block Having 
Predominantly East-Trending Faults 

Transverse Ranges Block 

A predominant east-trend or transverse fault trend is charac- 
teristic of Structural Block II. This block is composed of the 
Santa Ynez, the San Gabriel, the Banning, the San Bernardino, 
and the Pinto Mountains sub-blocks. All the major faults within 
these sub-blocks are left lateral and/or reverse faults. 

Santa Ynez and San Gabriel Sub-Blocks 

The Santa Ynez sub-block (11,) is bounded sharply on the 
south by the Santa Monica-Raymond Hill fault zone and on the 
north by the Big Pine fault and its westward projection. The San 
Gabriel sub-block (11,) is bounded by the San Andreas, the 
Cucamonga, and the San Gabriel-Sierra Madre faults. The Santa 
Ynez and the San Gabriel sub-blocks very abruptly terminate the 
northwest-trending faults of the Peninsular Ranges block and 
those in the southernmost part of the Coast Ranges block. 

Banning Sub-Block 

The wedge-shaped Banning sub-block (IL) is enclosed by 
parts of the San Andreas, the San Jacinto, and the Banning 
faults. Both the east-trending Cucamonga and the Pinto Moun- 
tains faults abruptly terminate against this sub-block. 

San Bernardino Sub-Block 

The San Bernardino sub-block (IL) and the Pinto Mountains 
sub-block (II,) appear to be offset right laterally from sub- 
blocks 11; and II, by the San Andreas fault zone. The San Bernar- 
dino sub-block is bounded on the north by an east-trending 
thrust fault, on the west by the San Andreas fault, and on the 
south by the Pinto Mountains fault. The eastern side of this 
sub-block is not well defined by any mapped fault but is mark- 
ed by the termination of the San Bernardino Mountains. 
Cummings (1976) included this sub-block with his Mojave 
Desert block, but its internal transverse structure could exclude 
it from the Mojave Desert block, at least in recent geologic time. 

Pinto Mountains Sub-Block 

The Pinto Mountains sub-block (II,) is bounded by the east- 
trending left-lateral Pinto Mountain and Chiriaco faults. Mid- 
way between these faults lies another left-lateral fault, the Blue 



32 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Cut fault, which may be considered as further subdividing the 
Pinto Mountains sub-block (Plate 2 A). The Dillon fault clearly 
forms the western boundary. The southern boundary may extend 
farther south toward the ChiKolate Mountains where certain 
east-trending faults are known. However, this area has not been 
mapped in detail, so the southern and soulheastern boundaries 
arc not precisely defined. 

Major Structural Blocks Characterized By 
Northeast-Trending Fault Boundaries 

The Oarlock and White Wolf faults are the two most signifi- 
cant northeast-trending faults in the state and define Structural 
Province III. which consists of two blocks.* These faults are 
characteristically left-lateral, but may also have a minor reverse 
slip component. 

Mojave Block 

The Mojave block (Ilia) has been recognized as a separate 
entity for a long time and was discussed in some detail by Hewett 
( 1954) and several others since then. The wedge-shaped Mojave 
block is bounded by the Garlock and the San Andreas faults and 
on the south by east-trending faults. The eastern boundary has 
not been mapped in detail, but appears to be defined by the 
junction of the predominantly northwest-trending faults within 
the Mojave block and the diversely oriented faults in the Sonoran 
Desert block to the east. Within the Mojave block, northwest- 
trending right-lateral faults are certainly common and conspicu- 
ous, although the northeast portion of the block is dominated by 
east-trep jing faults and may be a separate sub-block as suggested 
by Garfunkel (1974. p. 1938). 

Tehachapi Block 

The Tehachapi block (Illb) is included in this report as part 
of the same structural province as the Mojave block because it 
is bounded on two sides by northeast-trending faults — the Gar- 
lock and the White Wolf faults. It is mostly comprised of granitic 
and metamorphic rocks like the Sierra Nevada, but is offset to 
the southwest from the main Sierra Nevada block. 

Major Structural Blocks Characterized by 
North-Trending Faults 

The fourth fault direction in California, that gives rise to Struc- 
tural Province IV, is north-trending. The most important struc- 
ture of this trend is the Sierra Nevada-Owens Valley fault zone. 
Several subparallel major faults of this same orientation (actual- 
ly, slightly west of north) make up several blocks within this 
structural province. All these north-trending faults are normal 
faults, and any lateral component of slippage is usually right 
lateral. 

Kern Canyon Block 

One of the blocks is the Kem Canyon block (IVa), which lies 
between the Kem Canyon fault and the Sierra Nevada-Owens 
Valley fault zone Its southern end is uncertain but is possibly 
bounded by a northeastern extension of the White Wolf fault 
lrcnd(Plate2A). Faults within this block, especially in the Owens 



Valley-Bishop area, are numerous and trend almost always 
north. In addition, these faults align with the long north-trend- 
ing zone of active faults in Nevada which extends from Owens 
Valley into Nevada through Cedar Valley, Fairview Peak, and 
Dixie Valley. 

Panamint and Death Valley Blocks 

Due east of the Kern Canyon block are the Panamint and 
Death Valley blocks (IVb and IVc). They are more crudely 
defined than the other blocks of the structural provinces but are 
well expressed in part by the north-trending Panamint Valley 
and Death Valley fault zones. Within these blocks are numerous 
short faults which characteristically trend northwest and 
northeast. These conjugate fault directions appear much more 
numerous when we include the faults designated as "pre-Quater- 
nary or age unknown" (Figure 7); perhaps some or many of 
these "older" faults may also be found on closer analysis to be 
of Quaternary age. In any event, the conjugate faults within these 
blocks bounded by north-trending faults collectively make a 
pattern with a preferred northwest and northeast orientation, 
with no sign of an east-trending direction. Interestingly, this area 
appears to be the only place in the state where this northwest- 
northeast conjugate system is so well developed — a fact suggest- 
ing that it is acting as a unit to a specific stress system. 




Figure 7. Numerous short NW ond NE conjugate toults characteristic of the 
PonominI and Death Valley blocks . (thick lines = Quaternary faults,- thin 
lines = pre-Quaternary or undated faults) 



•An wiclrnt norttwait-IrmdinK fault, the Stockton fault, lies in Ihr w*»-iurf«cr beneath the Cri-at Valley, but ha-i no apparent relationship to the Quaternary tectonics discussed here 



1985 



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33 



Warner Block 

Another prominent block with characteristic north-trending 
faults is the Warner Block (IVd) in the northeastern comer of 
the state. Most prominent is the Surprise Valley fault and the 
block-faulted Warner Range. 

East Sierra Block 

The East Sierra block (IVe) has a well-defined boundary on 
the west side formed by the main Sierra Nevada block, but only 
a vaguely defined boundary on the east side at the Walker Lane 
in Nevada. This block is characterized by block-faulting with 
strike-slip shearing. 

Cascade Block 

The Cascade block (IVQ, in the northern extremity of Cali- 
fornia, is the southern tip of an elongate north-trending block 
which continues for many miles into Oregon and Washington. 
It is principally defined by a north-trending series of volcanoes 
that may be controlled by deep faults or fractures along which 
these volcanoes and lavas have erupted. 

Corda Block 

Finally, offshore of northwestern California lies another block 
with north-trending faults. This appears to be part of the eastern 
edge of the subducting Gorda block (IVg). 



Major Structural Blocks Characterized By 
Other Types Of Faults 

The state contains four other structural provinces, which are 
in general less well defined, especially by Quaternary structures, 
but which nevertheless form specific areas that have their own 
si>ecial characteristics. 

Sonoran Desert Block 

Structural Province V forms a rather large region which is 
fairly well defined on the west, but extends eastward into Ne- 
vada, Arizona, and Mexico, where its boundaries have not been 
studied in detail. Geomorphologically, this region is considered 
part of the Mojave and Basin Ranges geomorphic provinces, 
but structurally it appears to form a separate province — here 
called the Sonoran Desert block. Its eastern boundary may be 
defined by the Walker Lane in Nevada and Arizona, wherein lies 
another structural province with north-trending faults. Thrust 
faults are known in the Sonoran Desert block, but their extent 
has not been determined. In fact, much of this area has only been 
mapped by reconnaissance, and so further analysis at this time 
is not feasible. 

Sierra Nevada Block 

Structural Province VI consists of the Sierra Nevada block, 
which has long been recognized as a major structural feature. 
Certainly this large batholith forms a resistant block and serves 
in some places as a buttress and elsewhere as a ram on adjacent 
blocks. Its western boundary lies beneath the Great Valley. Its 
eastern boundary is clearly marked by an immense scarp in some 



places and by the faulted tcrrane of Structural Province IV. The 
northeastern boundary with the Modoc block was shown by 
Durrell (1965, 1966) as a separation of an area of relatively 
young block faulting from a more stable mass. The northwestern 
boundary is a complicated and vaguely defined junction of at 
least four blocks. Further work in this area should help to clarify 
the inter-relationships. This northwestern portion of the Sierra 
Nevada block also contains a large mass of the older, pre-bath- 
olith rocks through which trends the well-developed fault zone 
of the Melones and Bear Mountain faults. At the south end, 
these faults have a prominent northwest trend; they turn due 
north in the central region and then swing northwest again at the 
north end. This fault zone widens northward and splits into 
several branches. The faults were formed in pre-batholith times 
but renewed activity has been noted along parts of this ancient 
zone of weakness (Alt and others, 1977). The Oroville earth- 
quake of August 1975, with associated ground rupture, for ex- 
ample, illustrates the effects of a modem stress field acting on a 
very old zone of crustal weakness. 

Klamath Block 

Impinging on the northwestern end of the Sierra Nevada block 
is Structural Province VII, the Klamath block. This structural 
unit is typified by numerous ancient thrust faults. No Quater- 
nary faults are known within this area of resistant granitic and 
metamorphic rocks. 

Modoc Block 

Lastly, the Modoc block forms the irregular, anomalous 
Structural Province VIII. It is characterized by numerous Qua- 
temary faults, most of which trend northwest, but with some 
conjugate faults that trend northeast, and, in one part of this 
province, with some seemingly arcuate faults. The faults are 
largely in young volcanic rocks, but their relationship to this 
outpouring of lava is not understood. Two long and significant 
faults appear within this unit — the Likely and the Honey Lake 
faults. The Likely fault appears to have a right-lateral strike-sUp 
component, while the Honey Lake fault is mostly normal dip- 
slip. Northwest-trending fault segments line up with the Honey 
Lake fault, and they may be part of the same fault zone extending 
toward Oregon. This northwest trend may be a reflection of an 
underlying stmctural province hidden beneath the Modoc lavas, 
or it may be the result of a totally new stress field. It should be 
pointed out that only reconnaissance mapping has been accom- 
plished in most of this area and that most of the faults were 
largely unrecognized as recently as 20 years ago. 

Coast Ranges Sub-Blocks 

Within the Coast Ranges block, seven sub-blocks are recog- 
nized. Four of these sub-blocks are well-defined and are bounded 
by well-known faults. The faults are parallel for the greater part 
of their length, and are abruptly terminated at the southern end 
by the Transverse Ranges block. In central California , sev- 
eral adjacent faults converge with one amother forming blocks 
having remarkable mirror-image symmetry. 

Santa Lucia and Cabilan Sub-Blocks 

The King City-Rinconada fault separates the Santa Lucia and 
the Gabilan sub-blocks ( la, and laj). The Santa Lucia sub-block 
is bounded on the west by the inter-connection of the Seal Cove, 



34 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



the San Gregorio, the Sur. and the Hosgri faults, and the Gabilan 
sub-block is bounded on the east by the San Andreas fault. Note 
that the Seal Cove fault converges with the San Andreas to the 
north. Likewise, a short extrapolation of the northwest-trending 
King City fault coincides with similarly oriented faults under 
Monterey Bay, which in turn are aligned with a northwest- 
trending portion of the Santa Cruz County coastline that is 
probably fault controlled, and thus converges with the San Gre- 
gorio fault. To the south, both of these sub-blocks terminate 
against the transverse Big Pine fault and its westward extrapola- 
tion. 

San Francisco and Berkeley Sub-Blocks 

The San Francisco and Berkeley sub-blocks (lai and la,) are 
separated by the Hayward-Rtxigers Creek-Maacama fault zone. 
The San Francisco sub-block is bounded by the San Andreas 
fault on the west; the Berkeley sub-block is bounded by the 
Calaveras-Green Valley fault zone on the east. The Hayward 
fault appears to converge with the Calaveras fault to the south, 
and likewise the Calaveras fault converges with the San Andreas 
fault to the south. It is interesting to note the symmetrical rela- 
tion between sub-blocks la, and la,, north of the San Andreas 
fault, and sub-blocks la, and la, south of the San Andreas fault. 



the continental borderland shown on the Fault Map of Califor- 
nia are determined to be Quaternary upon further investigation; 
in any event, all these offshore faults shown are at least of late 
Tertiary age. 

San Clemenfe and Catalina Sub-Blocks 

The San Clemente sub-block (lb,) is well defined on the east 
by the San Clemente fault and faults lying on the same strike to 
the north. The western boundary appears to lie among the faults 
along the Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge. The Catalina sub-block 
(lb.) is bounded on the east by the Thirty Mile Bank and the 
Catalina Island faults and on the west by the San Clemente fault 
(faults 5, 5A, and 6 on Plate 2A). 

Pahs Verdes and Inglewood-San Diego Sub-Blocks 

The Palos Verdes sub-block (lb.) is bounded by the next 
major northwest-trending Quaternary fault to the east, the Palos 
Verdes fault and its offshore extensions on strike to the south. 
The Inglewood-San Diego sub-block (lb,) is defined by the 
Quaternary Newport- Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault zone on the 
east and the Palos Verdes fault on the west. 



Diablo and Great Valley Sub-Blocks 

The next sub-block to the east is the Diablo (la,), defined in 
pan by the Ortigalita fault and its extrapolation to the north. Its 
southern boundary and its boundary with the Great Valley sub- 
block (Ia») to the east, are hypothetical; they have been drawn 
largely on the basis of the equidistant fault spacing concept 
discussed later. 

Stonyford Sub-Block 

Lastly, the Stonyford sub-block (la,) is the anomalous 
northeast comer of the Coast Ranges block. Older faults have 
made the breaks dividing this comer from the main block. Al- 
though the Bartlett Springs fault on the west side of this sub- 
block has now been recognized as a Quaternary fault (Hearn and 
Donnelly, personal communication, 1977), the faults within the 
Stonyford sub-block appear to be characterized by ancient thrust 
faults. On the basis of photo interpretation and prominent linea- 
ments, it appears that the Bartlett Springs fault connects with the 
Grogan fault farther north, which may in turn join with a promi- 
nent Quaternary fault offshore. 



Peninsular Ranges Sub-Blocks 

The Peninsular Ranges block, in the southern part of the state, 
is readily divisible into eight sub-blocks. These eight northwest- 
trending sub-blocks, without exception, terminate against the 
Transverse Ranges block lying to the north. All the Peninsular 
Ranges sub-blocks in California and offshore are remarkably 
parallel, and all extend southward into Baja, California. 

Three of the Peninsular Ranges sub-blocks lie almost totally 
offshore of California, and definition of their boundaries is large- 
ly dependent on the ofTshore geophysical work that has been 
accomplished in recent years. Although the Peninsular Ranges 
sub-blocks illustrated on Plate 2A are defined by Quaternary 
faults, the boundaries are re-enforced by the patterns of the older 
faults. It would not be surprising if additional offshore faults in 



Santa Ana, Riverside, and San Jacinto Sub -Blocks 

The Santa Ana (lb,). Riverside (IbJ, and San Jacinto (lb,) 
sub-blocks have remarkably distinct boundaries formed by the 
Quaternary Elsinore fault, the San Jacinto fault, and the San 
Andreas fault on the east side of each. A possible eighth, narrow- 
sub-block may lie east of the San Andreas, bounded by the 
Dillon fault and other somewhat older faults along the south- 
east-trend of the Dillon fault (fault 1 A on Plate 2A ) . 



Sub-Blocks Within The Modoc Block 

The Modoc block (VIII) in the northeast comer of the state 
is irregularly shaped, and it seems to be characterized by numer- 
ous Quatemary faults. Many of these faults trend northwest- 
wardly, but some also strike in other directions. Mapping of this 
area has been mostly reconnaissance, but even so, the fault pat- 
terns suggest some tentative subdivisions that are shown on Plate 
5. These are identified as the Alturas, Eagle Lake, Diamond 
Mountains, and Medicine Lake sub-blocks. 



Summary 

From the preceeding discussion and by consideration of the 
Structure Map of California (Plate 2 A), the basic concepts con- 
ceming predominant fault trends and the structural provinces 
they define may be summarized as follows: 

1. The state is divisible into eight structural provinces, each 
containing faults and folds of a characteristic trend or 
pattern, or, in a few cases, two dominant conjugate direc- 
tions. 

2. The structural provinces are also divisible, so that the 
state appears to be broken into a complicated mosaic of 
fault blocks. 

(a) Each block appears to be acting as a unit, but also 
interacting with adjacent blocks. 



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35 



(b) Stresses within each block (particularly the larger 
blocks) develop secondary faults which define 
sub-blocks. 

(c) The blocks and sub-blocks appear to be best de- 
fined in the southern part of the state where the 
rocks are well exposed and where the most detailed 
mapping has been done. The blocks in the 
northernmost part of the state are less well defined; 
where the forest cover is most dense and the map- 
ping less detailed, the block boundaries are least 
known. 

3. Most of the blocks are bounded and characterized by 
major Quaternary faults of great linear extent. In a few 
cases, major pre-Quatemary structures define blocks 
having common structural characteristics. 

4. With only a few exceptions, all Quaternary and older 
faults and folds within a block or sub-block are confined 
to that block and never cross its boundaries, even when 
the fault or fold may cross the entire block or sub-block. 

5. The most common fault trend in California is northwest 
with east being secondary. Northeast-trending faults are 
relatively few but include two major faults — the Garlock 
and the White Wolf. North-trending faults are not com- 
mon and usually form more complex, segmented fea- 
tures. 



6. (a) 
(b) 
(c) 
(d) 



All major northwest-trending Quaternary faults are 
right lateral (usually with a vertical component).* 

All major east-trending Quaternary faults are left 

lateral and/or are reverse faults. 

All major northeast-trending Quatenary faults are 

left lateral and/or are re\erse faults. 

North-trending Quaternary faults are normal 

faults (with mostly right lateral components). 



FAULT COUPLES 

An interesting observation about sub-blocks can be noted. An 
apparent "couple effect" is generated in the block between two 
parallel strike-slip faults. In this situation, diagonal breaks occur 
between the bounding faults, forming a family of diagonal faults 
with a consistent orientation. Good examples of this can be seen 
in the northern Coast Ranges between the San Andreas and the 
Rodgers Creek-Healdsburg faults or in the Transverse Ranges 
between the San Andreas and San Gabriel faults (Figures 8 and 
9). Still other examples can be seen in other parts of the state, 
especially in the western part where the major faults are strike- 
slip. It appiears that most of the diagonal faults have no Quater- 
nary displacement and that the bounding faults do have Quater- 
nary displacement. Perhaps this is because the diagonal faults are 
activated only after a long period of time when the confining 
stress finally exceeds the strength of the crustal materials. If so, 
the stress on the diagonal faults is intermittantly accumulated 
and relieved, while the confining parallel faults undergo more 
frequent strike-slip movement. Hence, it should not be surprising 
if an occasional stress release occurs on some of these diagonal 



faults — in fact, many of the earthquake epicenters not lying on 
major faults could represent release of stress on such diagonal 
fauhs (Plate 2D). 

There are places between major parallel strike-slip faults 
where no diagonal fault pattern has developed — for example, 
between the northern parts of the Elsinore and San Jacinto faults 
or between the Elsinore fault and the Newport-Inglewood-Rose 
Canyon fault zone. However, an examination of the Geologic 
Map of California at these places reveals the presence of exten- 
sive bodies of Mesozoic and older granitic and metamorphic 
rocks. These rocks probably would tend to resist such diagonal 
shearing and focus the release of stress along the block bounda- 
ries. Another place where the absence of diagonal faults is espe- 
cially noticeable is in the Gabilan block, which has virtually 
no intra-block faults and which is characterized by the granitic 
rocks of the Gabilan Range between the strike-slip San Andreas 
and King City-Rinconada faults (Figure 10). Southeast of the 
exposed granitic rocks of the Gabilan Range, there is also a 
virtual absence of faults, but the rocks here consist mostly of a 
thin layer of late Tertiary sedimentary rocks overlying the rigid 
granitic rocks. Here, however, gentle folds in the overlying sedi- 
mentary rocks, exhibit north northwest-trending axes along the 
direction of the expected diagonal faults. 



EN ECHELON FAULTS 

Within the northern Coast Ranges, the major Quaternary 
strike-slip faults which bound certain sub-blocks commonly dis- 
play a remarkably consistent right-stepping en echelon pattern. 
For example, the Hayward, the Rodgers Creek, the Healdsburg, 
and the Maacama faults each appear to be a successive right- 
stepping continuation of a principal fault zone bounding the 
eastern edge of the San Francisco sub-block. And the Calaveras, 
the Concord, the Green Valley, and the unnamed faults to the 
north appear to be a successive right-stepping continuation of 
another major fault zone bounding the eastern edge of the Berke- 
ley sub-block. Both of these sub-blocks are characterized by 
diagonal shear faults. In a similar fashion, the Bartlett Springs 
fault lines up with right-stepping lineaments northward into 
Trinity and Humboldt counties; this alignment suggests the loca- 
tion of heretofore unrecognized faults bounding the Stonyford 
sub-block. 



REGULARITY OF FAULT SPACING 

The spatial geometry of the major Quaternary faults reveals 
another interesting relationship. This concerns their remarkable 
parallehsm and uniformly spaced intervals over great distances. 
This is particularly evident in the sub-blocks of the Coast Ranges 
and Peninsular Ranges structural blocks. In the Coast Ranges 
block, the spacing between the major faults bounding the sub- 
blocks ranges from approximately 33 to 39 km along lengths of 
well over 240 kilometers (Plate 2B). Within the onshore portion 
of the Peninsular Ranges block, three sub-blocks vary from 37 to 
42 km in width (except for the southern part of the Santa Ana 
block, which is as much as 72 km wide; however, there the 
southern California batholith widens to its greatest extent). Off- 
shore the spacing interval is 32 to 42 km with the Palos Verdes 
fault appearing to divide a 32 km wide block into two sub-blocks. 

' \t fir^t cLiiic*', It appears th.tt thi- fjiiiiK of ^.horl norlhwrsl-trciuliii).: Titills in iiorthrrii ( ;.iliforiii.i known .i\ Ihi- I'.iskt-nl.i. I'lldtT Ort'fk .(tut Oold l-ork f.tults. «hich diNpl.ict^ I/)\%er 
( .'f c't.ic*-<>ns .ind Jnr.isMC rncks left Litcr.ill> . is .in oxcoplion to the b.isic cnncrpl prrsnili-d horr .ilxiiil iKirthwcNl Irrnilin^ f.llilts Im'iiik rinht l.it(T;il llowrxrr. if thru- f;uilts are 
mtrrprotod .!_«. tear fallll\ off the (".Oiist Rani^c thriisl. where the (;oast Ranjfr thriiNt liKips arolilKl the Klani.ith Monnl.iiiis Iwfore hea{lin>< south, then these northwest faults are 
a special case and arc Ix'hasinK a.s tear faults of this orientation would Ix* e\jx*cted to. In addition, thes*- faults .irc \erv oUI and h.i\e no ri-coKni/ahlc Qiiaternars dis|ilacenicnt 
(Jones and Insin, 1971). 



36 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



\ •. V c 











Figure 8. Diagonal faults formed between two major strike-slip faults, the Son Andreas ond the Rodgers Creeli-Heoldsburg faults. 



The major faults bounding the three adjacent north-trending 
structural blocks — Kern Canyon, Panamint, and Death Valley 
— also display roughly equidistant spacing. Two of these blocks 
are about 50 to 53 km wide, while the third is about 42 km wide 
over distances of over 160 km. 

It appears that regularity of spacing between major faults, 
repeated in many parts of the state, must be more than a coinci- 
dence. It suggests that the rigidity of the earth's crust is behaving 
in some consistent fashion related to the strength of the crustal 
or even sub-crustal materials and to the direction of deep stresses 
applied to the structural blocks.* If such be the case, then the 
existence of faults in unmapped areas (such as some offshore 
areas) and in incompletely mapped areas (such a.s in northwest- 
em and southeastern California) might be predicted by extrapo- 
lation of known faults by maintaining equidistant spacing 
between them. For example, the northwestward continuation of 
the San Francisco and Berkeley sub-blocks into Mendocino 
County would therefore be expected, by extension of the Maaca- 
ma and Barilctt Spnngs faults (with right-stepping en echelon 
offset). The continuation of an accompanying diagonal fault 
system between these strike-slip faults would also be anticipated; 
and, in fact, topographic lineaments and incompletely mapp>ed 



faults (see Fault Map of CaUfomia) strongly suggest such a 
continuation of both the strike-slip faults and the diagonal fault 
system. 

To extend precisely the mapping of faults paralleling the San 
Andreas trend northward into the terra incognita of the northern 
Coast Ranges block will be difficult because of the existence of 
numerous and gigantic landslides. However, one thing is certain 
— the major faults coming up from the south must continue into 
this landslide terrane. Indeed, many of the landslides are in all 
probability a reflection of the weak rock crushed by the suspect- 
ed faults. The strong northwest-trending lineaments, expresed by 
the major river drainages, are an indication of the structural 
grain of the country. Unfortunately, the river-undercutting of 
the steep slopes in this high rainfall area, releases the landslides 
which can easily mask fault traces. 

Twenty-five years ago, H.W. Menard (1955, p. 1172) noted 
the regularity of fault spacing in the tx;ean floor off California 
and, on the basis of this regularity, predicted the existence of 
additional offshore fracture zones. "Four fracture zones have 
been discovered," writes Menard, "and others may be found as 
more echograms become available from other regions in the 
Pacific." Figure 1 1 is Menard's map showing the location of 



•Upon cofnpiplion of thu nianuKnpt. in which the wnlrr independently developed the ideas of equidiitani fault spacing m C^ifornia. he came upon foreign reports describing this 
phmocnenon in other paru of the world Kspecially noteworthy are papen by j. Kuttna ( 1966) and Radan Kvet ( 1974} In these papers the authors describe examples of equidistant 
rupture lystetiu In Czechoalovalda. Austria, Scotland, and Sardinia. 



IPSS 



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37 







38 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 




o c 
E o 






0"2 

^ 6 



o — 
E ^ 



c — 

p < 



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c i 






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£ S 

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1985 



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39 



these four fracture zones. Speaking of other likely fracture zones, 
Menard (p. 1172) writes: 

Possible locations are about 600 miles north of the Mendo- 
cino fracture zone, midway between the Murray and Clar- 
ion fracture zones, and about 600 miles south of the 
Clipperton fracture zone. These positions are suggested by 
the regular spacing of the zones. 

The most probable position for another fracture zone is 
midway between the Murray and Clarion fracture zones. A 
zone at this location would give a regular unit spacing for 
all the zones from Mendocino to Clipperton rather than a 
unit spacing between the northern and southern pairs and 
double the unit spacing between the middle pair. 



As a matter of fact, later work has proved Menard's prognostica- 
tion correct. Figure 1 2 shows the configuration of the same area 
as Menard's, but is based on much additional data collected at 
a later date. Note how the equally-spaced faults have been dis- 
covered. Of course, the offshore crustal blocks between Menard's 
fracture zones are several orders of magnitude larger than the 
sub-blocks herein described for onshore parts of California. The 
offshore blocks are merely presented here as an example of crus- 
tal materials undergoing stress, which deform in a more or less 
uniform, predictable fashion. 

Menard also saw some possible correlation between the off- 
shore fracture zones and the geologic provinces on the conti- 
nents. He felt it weis particularly significant that the Great Valley 
and the Sierra Nevada, as well as other geologic provinces south 
of California, all appeared to be terminated at their northern and 
southern ends by the onshore continuation or projection of off- 
shore fracture zones. 



SUMMARY ON FAULT GEOMETRY 

The following facts can be stated about the geometry and 
distribution of sub-blocks, fault couples, and fault-spacing regu- 
larity: 

1. Each sub-block has remarkably parallel boundaries for 
great distances. 

2. (a) Each sub-block in the southern Coast Ranges 

abruptly terminates against the Transverse 
Ranges block. 

(b) Each sub-block in the northern Peninsular 
Ranges likewise abruptly terminates against the 
Transverse Ranges block. 

(c) The northern termination of two Coast Ranges 
sub-blocks (I,) and la,) by convergence is sym- 
metrical with the southern termination by con- 
vergence of two other contiguous ccniral Coast 
Ranges sub-blocks (la, and Ijl,), that is, the Seal 
Cove-San Gregorio fault converges with the San 
Andreas and with the projected Rinconada-King 
City fault zone, while the Green Valley-Calaveras 
fault zone converges with the San Andreas and 
with the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault zone. 

3. (a) Most sub-blocks bounded by strike-slip faults 

contain diagonal faults that may be a result of a 
couple effect whereby diagonal shears are formed 



in the block between the bounding strike-slip 
faults, 
(b) Where diagonal faults do not develop, or are not 
well developed, between parallel strike-slip faults, 
the reason could be that resistant granitic and 
mctamorphic rocks lie at or near the surface 
between the bounding strike-slip faults. 

4. Major Quaternary strike-slip faults bounding sub- 
blocks in the central Coast Ranges display a consist- 
ent right-stepping en echelon pattern. 

5. Spacing between the major parallel Quaternary faults 
shows a remarkably uniform interval. 

(a) In the Coast Ranges block this equidistant spacing 
interval in five sub-blocks ranges from 33 to 39 
km over distances in excess of 240 km. 

(b) In the Peninsular Ranges block, the equidistant 
spacing interval ranges from 32 to 42 km in five 
sub-blocks. 

(c) Where spacing intervals apjjear to vary, they oc- 
cur as a multiple of, or equal fractional parts of, 
the regular interval. 

(d) Three adjacent north-trending blocks east of the 
Sierra Nevada block approximate equidistant 
spacing, two being about 52 km wide and the 
third 42 km wide. 

(e) Regularity in fault spacing has been noted before 
in offshore California areas by Menard and 
served as a useful concept in correctly predicting 
the existence of additional offshore fracture 



FAULTING AND PATTERNS OF 
SEISMICITY 

California is situated within a mobile belt of rocks on the 
boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Here 
the rocks are highly folded as well as faulted, and in places are 
marked by numerous volcanoes, some of which have been active 
in historic time. The state is also part of the well-known circum- 
Pacific earthquake belt, now recognized as coinciding with inter- 
connecting plate boundaries around the Pacific Ocean. As such, 
it should be no surprise that California has had, and will contin- 
ue to have, numerous earthquakes. 

Relationship of Epicenters To Faults 

Various inaccuracies are inherent with epicenter maps, and 
most epicenter patterns appear more or less randomly positioned 
in relation to individual faults. However, with care, some rela- 
tionships can be observed between faults and earthquake epicen- 
ters of certain magnitudes. For example, almost all of the 
earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 and greater in the last 75 years 
(see Plate 2C) have epicenters that are on or near major Quater- 
nary faults. In a few cases where this relationship does not seem 
to exist, the epicenter locations could be suspect, for they may 
have been far from the seismic networks existing at the time. 
(These earlier locations are often rounded off to the nearest 
degree, half-degree, or quarter-degree latitude and longitude). 

Two earthquake events in the magnitude 6 range that may not 
be related to major Quaternary faults are the 1947 Manix and 
the 1966 Truckee earthquakes. Although the magnitude 6.2 



40 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 




Figure U. Fracture zones illustrated by Menard (1955). 



ES 




MS 



Figure 12. Port of a tectonic mop of the world (Condie, 1976) including the some oreo illustrated by Menard 25 years previously (compore with Figure 11). 
Note nearly equol spacing between Menard's faults and additional discoveries. 



1985 



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41 



Manix earthquake is associated with the Manix fault, along 
which ground rupture occurred for a distance of about 1 .6 km 
(one mile), the overall length of this fault is probably no greater 
than 14.5 km (nine miles) — hardly a major California fault. 
Indeed, from the aftershock distribution, which was nearly at 
right angles to the Manix fault, Richter (1958, p. 517-518) felt 
that the ground breaks observed along the Manix fault were 
actually the effect of the earthquake, and that the earthquake 
was presumably caused by subsurface movement along a buried 
fault as defined by the aftershock distribution. The magnitude 
6.0 Truckee earthquake is also not clearly associated with a 
major Quaternary fault, although ground cracking in the area 
was aligned for about 16 km (ten miles). However, the area still 
is relatively poorly mapped, and may contain unrecognized 
faults of significance. 

Earthquakes of less than magnitude 6, which of course are far 
more numerous, show less close correspondence with major 
Quaternary faults. Reasons for this less frequent relationship 
include: (a) inaccuracies in location of pre- 1932 epicenters, (b) 
inaccuracy of epicenter locations owing to the great distance 
from networks existing at the time, and (c) possibility that many 
of the smaller earthquakes may simply be minor crustal adjust- 
ments within the various interacting crustal blocks and sub- 
blocks (as described in the previous section on fault patterns p. 
31), and hence are not occurring along breaks exposed at the 
surface. We should also keep in mind that inchned faults, such 
as thrust faults, do not give rise to epicenters which project 
vertically to the fault's surface exposure. For example, the epic- 
enters of the main 1971 San Fernando earthquake, and its after- 
shocks, plot well to the north of the trace of the inclined San 
Fernando fault. 

A study of the fault-epicenter map (Plate 2D) also reveals a 
certain number of major Quaternary faults without any apparent 
relation to earthquake epicenters. For example, in the northeast- 
em part of California, there are many Quaternary faults but very 
few epicenters. This is perhaps because the setting is an area of 
extensive volcanic outpourings. The extensive faulting here may 
have originated from a shallow, short-term cause such as local 
land collapse due to volcanic activity. If so, repeated movements 
on most of these faults would not be expected.* 

Many currently "quiet" faults in other parts of the state, 
however, are likely to be dormant or "locked" portions of active 
faults. For example, long segments of the San Andreas fault that 
broke in 1857 or in 1906 do not today have associated epicenters. 
We also know from other parts of the world, such as China, 
Japan, and the Mediterranean, where the seismic record extends 
over a period of several thousand years (Allen, 1975), that the 
200 years of historical record and 90 years of instrumental 
record of California earthquakes is far from adequate for es- 
timating fault activity. Seismic gaps of several hundreds of years 
are not uncommon in the long-term records from these ancient 
cultures, and hence our brief California record must be used with 
proper caution in evaluating the potential for recurring seismici- 
ty on seemingly "dead" Quaternary faults. 



Relationship Of Surface Rupture To 
Earthquake Magnitude 

In general, earthquakes in Cahfomia of magnitude 6 and 
greater are accompanied by surface fault rupture, but there are 
exceptions. The data in Table 5 (1900-1974) show a one-to-one 



Table 5. California Seismic Record for 75 Years. 



Earthquakes 


- 1900-1974 


Surface Ruptures 


Magnitude 


No. of Events 


No. of Occurrences 




(Excluding 


(See Table 4, 




offshore) 


Part A) 


8-h 


1 


1 


7-7.9 


r 


1 


6^.9 


31 


8 


5-5.9 


238 


5 


<5 


— 


2 



• The 1940 Imperial earthquake, which for years was reported as magnitude 7.1. has not 
been included because more recent calculations by the California Institute of Technology 
show this event as magnitude 6,7 (Hileman and others. 1973). 



relationship between surface faulting and earthquakes for magni- 
tudes 7 and 8. The earlier historical period before 1900 (Table 
4, Part A) adds two more earthquakes of estimated magnitude 
8 and three estimated magnitude 7 earthquakes associated with 
surface rupturing. However, of 3 1 magnitude 6 earthquakes that 
occurred during the /POO- 7974 interval in California (excluding 
those offshore), only eight are clearly known to have had as- 
sociated surface ruptures. Of course, most of these magnitude 6 
tremors without known surface ruptures occurred in the first 
part of the century when locating events was less precise. Also, 
many of the earthquakes occurred in very sparsely populated 
parts of the state, and could have had surface ruptures that were 
not observed or reported. In recent years, however, with vastly 
improved and telemetered seismic networks, any earthquake of 
the size expected to break ground, no matter in what remote part 
of the state, is immediately examined by seismologists and geolo- 
gists from the Division of Mines and Geology and other organi- 
zations and institutions. 

Below magnitude 6, only a few earthquakes are known to have 
broken ground even though, on occasion, earthquakes in Cali- 
fornia of magnitudes as small as 4.7 and even 3.6 have had 
accompanying surface ruptures (Table 4, Part A). Very recent- 
ly, earthquakes of magnitude 4 to 4.6 that occurred in the Mount 
Shasta area produced more than two kilometers ( 1 .2 miles) of 
discontinuous surface cracks. 

Faults With Recurring Earthquake Activity 

Table 4, Part A shows that 19 out of 30 well-documented 
historical earthquakes associated with surface rupture in Califor- 
nia have occurred on the San Andreas fault system. They include 
nine on the San Andreas proper; two each on the Hayward, San 
Jacinto, and Calaveras faults; three on the Imperial fault; and 
one on the Superstition Hills fault — all of which are considered 
part of the right-lateral San Andreas fault system. Of the faults 
along which occurred the remaining 1 1 historical earthquakes 
associated with surface rupture, none has had a recurrence. 
Thus, the San Andreas is by far the most active fault system in 
the state. 

In recent years, it has been recognized that California is domi- 
nated by strike-slip faults of which the San Andreas system is 
pre-eminant. However, as far as seismic hazards are concerned. 



•Certain faults in this region, however, such as the throughgoing Likely fault (which shows evidence of strike-slip movement and for which aeron^agnetic data suggest it to be a m4)or 
fiiult feature) may behave difterently from the regional swarm of faults. Likewise, the Surprise Valley fault, which is a major normal fault with several htindred meters of vertical 
slip, must have undergone several periods of movement 



42 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



one of the largest earthquake events observed in Cahfomia, the 
1872 Owens Valley earthquake, was associated with a fault hav- 
ing a dominantly normal (vertical) displacement history. In 
addition, two very disastrous earthquakes have occurred on 
predominantly thrust type faults — the San Fernando earthquake 
of 1971 and the Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake of 1952. 

Patterns of Seismicity 

Although earthquake epicenters occur in most parts of Cali- 
fornia, greater concentrations do appear in certain areas or along 
certain fault zones. For example, the west -trending Mendocino 
fault zone clearly marks a boundary between an area of great 
seismicity on the north and a quiescent area to the south. The 
San Andreas fault for at least 180 miles (288 km) south of San 
Francisco, and the Hayward and Calaveras branches are all well 
marked by numerous epicenters; in fact, microseismic earth- 
quake monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey, with its close- 
order network in the San Francisco Bay area, shows an even 
closer relationship of seismicity to these faults (Figure 5). The 
San Andreas system in southern California also displays a close 
relationship to earthquake epicenters, especially the San Jacinto 
branch and, to a lesser degree, the southern and northern parts 
of the Elsinore fault. The Newport-Inglewood fault zone is a 
well-marked trend even though no clearly visible, continuous, 
historic, or even Quaternary fault rupture is present at the sur- 
face. The 1952 Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake and its numerous 
aftershocks are clearly related to the White Wolf fault when 
consideration is made for the dip of the fault. There is also a very- 
conspicuous north-trending concentration of epicenters along 
the 118° meridian from Nevada extending south into the Owens 
Valley of California, marking the historic ruptures on the Pleas- 
ant Valley (1915), Dixie Valley (1954), Rainbow Mountain 
(1954), Fairview Peak (1954), Cedar Mountain (1932), Excel- 
sior Mountain (1954), the Owens Valley (1872) faults (Table 
4, Parts A and B). This particular seismic zone has been noted 
in previous studies: it was called the "118° Meridian Seismic 
Zone" by Slemmons and others (1965) and the "Nevada Seismic 
Zone" by Gump>er and Scholz (1971). 

The epicenter map shows what appear to be several aseismic 
areas within the state ( Plate 2C and 2D ). In the eastern Mojave 
Desert area, from the Ludlow fault eastward to the Colorado 
River, there is a total absense of earthquakes of magnitude 4 or 
greater; in this area, also, almost no faults having evidence of 
Quaternary movement have been recognized. It may, however, 
be too early to conclude that this is truly an aseismic area be- 
cause: (1) our historic record is very short in years; (2) owing 
to its extremely sparse settlement, the area has until very recently 
been far from seismic networks capable of recording smaller 
earthquakes; (3) the short observational period may not reflect 
the long-term seismic history, and the faults in the area may 
in fact be temporarily dormant; (4) most of the geologic map- 
pmg has only been reconnaissance and was not performed with 
any special attempt to evaluate recency of faulting. (On the other 
hand, one would expect that any truly significant, extensive 
Quaternary faulting would have been recognized, especially in 
this desert terrane where faults are so well-exposed and geo- 
morphic features endure for a long period of time.) 

Another apparent seismically quiet area encompasses the 
greater part of the Sierra Nevada, except for the southernmost 
part at the Tehachapi Mountians, and to a much lesser degree, 
the northernmost part in theOrovillearea(Plates2Cand2D).Only 
a very few magnitude 4 to 4.9 events occur in the larger central 
part of the Sierra Nevada block. To the south, the White Wolf- 
Walker Pass seismic lineament (and perhaps the Kern Canyon 



fault) form confining boundaries to seismic activity, with much 
more activity to the east than to the west. West of the Sierra, the 
Great Valley is also quiet like the Sierra. 

Few seismic events have been plotted in the northeastern part 
of the state, but this apparent lack of historic epicenters may be 
deceptive because this sparsely settled area is remote from any 
seismic network. Three major faults with large displacements 
must have had considerable Quaternary activity — the Surprise 
Valley, Honey Lake, and Likely faults. Hence, it may be delusive 
to conclude that the recent history of sparse seismic activity is 
an indication of an aseismic area. 

The western tip of the Mojave wedge, bounded by the Garlock 
and San Andreas faults, is anomalously free of seismic events of 
magnitude 4 and greater. Only a few Quaternary faults have been 
mapped in this area. This may be deceptive because faults could 
easily be concealed beneath the vast blanket of alluvium in An- 
telope Valley. 

From the foregoing, it can be seen that certain major bounda- 
ries of seismic activity appear in the state, such as along the 
Sierran front, the Mendocino fault zone, and the White Wolf- 
Walker Pass trend. These correspond to certain boundaries of 
the structural provinces described in the section on fault pat- 
terns. In addition to these there are other seismic boundaries. 
For example, at the boundary between the Transverse Ranges 
and the Peninsular Ranges — especially where the Newport-In- 
glewood and the San Jacinto faults approach the transverse 
Santa Monica and Cucamonga faults — there appears to be a 
concentration of seismic activity. Another example is the appar- 
ent boundary between the area of extensive seismicity in the 
Coast Ranges province and the area of extremely low seismi- 
city in the Great Valley province. 

In a similar fashion, several of the sub-block structural bound- 
aries described earlier, are well marked by seismic activity. Espe- 
cially good examples are the sub-blocks marked by the San 
Jacinto, Elsinore, Palos Verdes, Calaveras, and Hayward faults. 

The coincidence of so many of these seismic boundaries and 
trends, with the structural provinces circumscribed by fault 
trends, suggests a strong relationship. This relationship supports 
the idea of the crust being divided into structural blocks and 
sub-blocks which interact along their boundaries giving rise to 
the major earthquakes. The vast number of small, apparently 
random earthquakes in the state may be explained as events 
occurring within these structural blocks and sub-blocks as a 
response to minor crustal adjustments within the blocks them- 
selves. 

CAUTIONS IN USE OF FAULT MAP OF 
CALIFORNIA FOR LAND-USE PLANNING 

The Fault Map of California is a useful tool for considering 
fault hazards in various parts of the state. However, it cannot be 
overstressed that the nature and scale of the map pose severe 
limitations. First of all, more faults exist than are portrayed — the 
limitations of the map scale alone (in which .32 cm [one-eighth 
inch] on the map represents about 2.4 km [1.5 miles] on the 
ground) restricts what can be shown at 1:750,(X)0 scale. Second- 
ly, some faults are hidden beneath alluvium and other surficial 
deposits, or concealed by water; or they simply have not been 
recognized because of insufficient geologic investigations. Also, 
it is important to remember that the map is a product of numer- 
ous sources, some of which are more detailed than others, and 
that some observations were made by geologists whose objectives 
and purposes may not have included the evaluation of faults. 
Therefore, the degree of validity for the faults shown on the 
Fault Map varies from area to area. This is not only true for the 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



43 



existence or extent of some faults, but sometimes in regard to age 
designations of fault displacement as well. Thirdly, not all the 
faults shown in black should be assumed to be of pre-Quatemary 
age. Unfortunately this assumption has been made by some, even 
though the explanation on the map states that faults shown in 
black may also signify a "fault without recognized Quaternary 
displacement." The map explanation also has this to say about 
faults shown in black: 

Faults shown in this category should not necessarily be 
considered "dead." Evidence for recency of movement 
may not have been observed, or it may be lacking because 
the fault may not be in contact with Quaternary deposits. 
In many cases, the evidence may have been destroyed by 
erosion, covered by vegetation, or by works of man. 

Above all, the State Fault Map should not be used to replace 
detailed site investigations for specific undertakings. For engi- 
neering purposes, faults at specific sites should be individually 
examined by detailed surface examination. Trenching, drill 
holes, and geophysical techniques may be helpful. 

Certain precautions must be specifically mentioned concern- 
ing the offshore areas. The offshore submarine faults shown have 
not been directly observed but rather interpreted from various 
remote-controlled devices. In addition, because of the difficulties 
in ship positioning, offshore faults may not be as precisely locat- 
ed as those on land. Factors such as the type of geophysical 
equipment used, the depth to the sea floor, and the character of 
the rocks and sediments below the sea floor afTect the quality of 
the records obtained. 

This map should therefore be used only as an initial guide, or 
as a first approximation, or for regional fault considerations. 
Before site-specific decisions are made, more information and 
maps on a larger scale should be consulted. The Fault Map of 
California, by virtue of the area covered — an entire state, and a 
very large and geologically very complex one at that — must be 
supplemented with additional data. Hopefully this map and this 
Bulletin (especially the Index to the Source Data, Appendix D) 
will be useful as an introduction to the pertinent geologic litera- 
ture and information on faults that were known at the time of 
the compilation. These references should be considered an inte- 
gral part in the understanding and use of the Fault Map of 
CaUfomia, for by referring to the documentation the reader can 
evaluate the interpretation given, and may possibly come to a 
different conclusion, especially if subsequent data have been gen- 
erated. 

This Fault Map of California should not be confused with the 
"Special Studies Zones Maps" developed as a result of the Al- 
quist-Priolo Special Studies Zones Act of 1972 amended (Hart 
1980). The Special Studies Zones Maps, at a scale of 1:24,000, 
were conceived at a different time and for a different purpose, 
and may not always agree in detail with the Fault Map of Cali- 
fornia. The Fault Map of California, together with the Geologic 
Map of California were developed over nearly a nine-year period 
largely preceding the Special Studies Zones Maps. It should be 
clearly understood that no desire or intent is implied in the Fault 
Map of California to either zone active faults or to predict where 
earthquakes, with or without ground rupture, might occur. 

No attempt is made in this volume to describe the methods 
geologists use in evaluating fault and/or earthquake hazards. 
Publications on the subject abound and their numbers continue 
to increase. The following partial list is submitted as an introduc- 
tory guide: 

Bonilla, M.G., 1970, Surface faulting and related effects, in 
R.L. Wiegel, editor. Earthquake engineering: Prentice- 
Hall. N.J.. p. 47-74. 



Borcherdt, R.D., editor. Studies for seismic zonation of the 
San Francisco Bay region: U.S. Geological Survey Profes- 
sional Paper 941 -A, 102 p. 

Cluff, L.S., Slemmons, D.B., and Waggoner, E.B., 1970, 
Active fault zone hazards and related problems of siting 
works of man: Proceedings, Fourth Symposium on Earth- 
quake Engineering, University of Roorkee, India, p. 401- 
410. 

Grading Codes Advisory Board and Building Code Com- 
mittee, 1973, Geology and earthquake hazards, planner's 
guide to the Seismic Safety Element: Association of Engi- 
neering Geologists (Southern California Section), 44 p. 

Hart, E.W., 1980, Fault hazard zones in California: Califor- 
nia Division of Mines and Geology Special Publication 42 
(Revised), 25 p. 

Lung, R., and Proctor, R., editors, 1966, Engineering geol- 
ogy in southern California: Association of Engineering 
Geologists (Los Angeles Section), 389 p. 

Nichols, D.R., and Buchanan-Banks, J.M., 1974, Seismic 
hazards and land-use planning: U.S. Geological Survey 
Circular 690, 33 p. 

Sherard, J.L., Cluff, L.S., and Allen, C.R., 1974, Potentially 
active faults in dam foundations: Geotechnique 24, no. 3, 
p. 367-428. 

Slemmons, D.B., 1977, State-of-the-art for assessing earth- 
quake hazards in the United States, Report 6, Faults and 
earthquake magnitudes: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways 
Experiment Station Miscellaneous Paper S-77-8, 129 p., 
and Appendix, 37 p. 

Ziony, J. I., Wentworth, CM., Buchanan-Banks, J.M., and 
Wagner, H.C., 1974, Preliminary map showing recency 
of faulting in coastal southern California; U.S. Geologi - 
cal Survey Map MF-585, with 8 p. text. 



DEPICTION OF VOLCANOES 
Distribution And Age 

In addition to the faults, some 565 volcanoes are shown on the 
Fault Map of California. These consist mostly of cinder cones, 
although volcanic domes and plugs, broad shield volcanoes, and 
a few strato- volcanoes (composite cones) are included. These 
volcanic centers are associated with the vast outpourings of rela- 
tively young lava and pyroclastic rocks depicted on the Geologic 
Map of California (1977). The volcanoes shown are almost 
entirely of Quaternary age. Although volcanism has been very 
active throughout most of California's geologic history, no at- 
tempt has been made to locate the older volcanoes because they 
were mostly ephemeral structures destroyed during the course of 
geologic time by erosion. 

Of the volcanoes shown on the map, five were the centers of 
eruption in recent years (Table 6) . Many other volcanic centers 
are probably of Holocene age (less than about 11,000 years). 
These centers are located in such areas as Medicine Lake High- 
lands-Lava Beds National Monument (Siskiyou and Modoc 
counties), Inyo-Mono Craters (Mono County), Clear Lake area 



44 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



(Lake County), and Amboy-Pisgah Craters (San Bernardino 
County). Most of the volcanoes shown on the map are older than 
Holocene but less than two million years old. A few volcanoes 
shown on Geologic Data Map No. 1 are of Pliocene age (two to 
five million years old). 

Table 6. Observed volcanic events in California (modified 
after C.W. Chesterman, 1971). 



1951 Violent eruption of mud-volcanoes and hot water dis- 

charge at Lake City. Modoc County. 

1914-17 Eruption of Mt. Lassen, lava flows, ash falls, mud flows, 
and nu6es ardentes. 

1890 Eruptions in Mono Lake, including emission of steam, 

sulfurous fumes, boiling water, and hot mud. 



1857 



Ash eruption from either Mt. Lassen or Mt. Shasta. 



1851-62 Eruption of Cinder Cone and associated lava flows. 
east of Lassen Peak. 

1786 Eruption of steam and ash from either Mt. Lassen or 

Mt. Shasta (observation of La Perouse while sailing 
along the California coast). 



Relation of Volcanoes to Faults 

The relation of volcanic centers in California to faults remains 
a subject of controversy, although there are certainly several 
places in the state where there is clear evidence or strong sugges- 
tion of such a relationship. For example, Howel Williams (1934, 
p. 232) pointed out that the alignment of five plug domes, two 
cinder cones, and one lava cone suggests a through-going frac- 
ture passing across the summit of Mount Shasta even though no 
surface displacements are to be seen along this trend. Similar 
alignments can be seen on the maps by Gordon Macdonald in 
the Lassen Peak area. The close alignment of nine cinder cones 
east of Crater Peak (Manzanita Lake quadrangle), about 19 km 
(12 miles) north of Lassen Peak, is strongly suggestive of fault 
or fissure control, as is the alignment of at least 19 cinder cones 
in the eastern part of Lassen National Park, south-easterly from 
Poison Lake, on the Harvey Mountain and Prospect Peak quad- 
rangles (Macdonald, 1963, 1964, 1965). 

The arcuate alignment of more than 1 5 volcanic eruptive cen- 
ters south of Mono Lake, including the rhyolite domes of Mono 
Craters, is a classic example of fault-controlled volcanoes (Fig- 
ure 6). Russell (1889) was probably the first to conclude that 
the Mono Craters were probably localized along faults (related 
to the faults along the east scarp of the Sierra Nevada). Mayo 
and others (1936) described the structures in the rhyolite domes 
south of the Mono Craters and concluded that they are deter- 
mined by faults in turn controlled by northwest-striking joint 
sets in the bedrock. Kistler (1966) proposed that the arcuate 
traces of faults are not related to joint sets but to a zone of 
weakness thought to be related to the early cooling history along 
the border of a quartz monzonitc pluton. In any event, the 
existence of a fault control beneath the line of Mono Craters was, 
in fact, confirmed dunng the construction of the Los Angeles 
Water District tunnel (Putnam. 1949, p. 1299). 

Another clear example of fault-controlled volcanoes is the 
Quaternary (possibly 1872) fault scarp that trends between the 
volcanic cones of Red Mountain and Crater Mountain, in Owens 
Valley south of Big Pine (Allen. 1965. p. 761; and Mayo. 1941. 



p. 1065). In fact, Mayo described the fault boundary between the 
Sierra Nevada and the bedded sediments to the east as a deeply 
penetrating zone of weakness that opened many channels for the 
extrusion of lava and the location of volcanoes (Mayo, 1941, p. 
1064-1069). 

According to Koenigand others (1972, p. 1,4), the extrusions 
in the Coso geothermal area, Inyo County, consisting of a mix- 
ture of explosion breccia rings, perlite domes, and obsidian sills, 
are fracture-controlled. Inspection of the geologic map of the 
Haiwee Reservoir quadrangle (Stinson, 1977) shows conspicu- 
ous north and northwest alignments of volcanic centers. These 
may be fault controlled, perhaps by a buried north-trending fault 
zone and a northwest-trending fault zone. More recent geologic, 
geophysical, and geochemical studies in the Coso area suggest 
that the youngest volcanic rocks, the rhyolitic dome field, and 
the associated fumaroles lie at the center of a ring-fault structure 
superimposed on regional fault patterns and overlying a young 
magma chamber (Duffield, 1975; and ERDA 77-74, p. 65). 

Allen and others (1965, p. 761) have shown that Cerro Prieto, 
a Quaternary cone, 35 km south of the Mexican border, lies 
squarely athwart the extended trace of the Quaternary San Ja- 
cinto fault. 

In San Luis Obispo County, 14 intrusive volcanic plugs are 
aligned over a distance of approximately 32 km (20 miles) (see 
Figure 13) through the town of San Luis Obispo to Morro Rock 
(and offshore, according to H.C. Wagner, 1974). These Tertiary 
plugs, although much older than the Quaternary volcanoes 
shown on the Fault Map of California, appear to be another 
example of emplacement of volcanic centers along a zone of 
weakness that in all probability is a fault even though a fault 
trace has not been observed in the field. 



EXPLANATION 

[H 

Ouolcrnarir 
dcpoiiti 

m 

T«rl.O(y 
maiinc rockt 

Crdoctoui 
maont lockk 

FroncitCOn 
CompUi 

Cr«tae«ou» 
gianilic rochi 



Tvilisri 
•Cconic plug 

» 

T«ri>o>y volconic 
plug Itubntorint) 



Figure 13. Alignment of Tertiary volcanic plugs near San Luis Obispo along 
o line of weakness presumed to be an ancient fault. 

Volcanic Hazards 

Volcanic eruptions have commonly occurred throughout Cali- 
fornia's long geologic history, and numerous eruptions have oc- 
curred in relatively recent geologic time, as indicated by the large 
number of volcanoes depicted on the Fault Map of California. 
Volcanism has occurred in California approximately 65 years ago 
with the violent eruption of Lassen. It would therefore seem 
reasonable to expect other eruptions in the state, although exact- 
ly when or where is uncertain. The most probable centers of 
future volcanic eruptions are in areas where past eruptions have 
occurred and particularly at large central-vent volcanoes (Mil- 
hneaux. 1976). 




1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



45 



The Urban Geology Master Plan for California (Alfors and 
others, 1973) estimates that losses due to future volcanic erup- 
tions could amount to $50 million between 1970 and the year 
2000. The report concludes that major urban areas of the state 
are relatively safe from the threat of volcanic eruptions. 



DEPICTION OF THERMAL SPRINGS 
AND WELLS 

Besides faults and volcanoes, 584 thermal springs and wells 
are also plotted on the Fault Map of California. Separately iden- 
tified are the locations of high temperature mud volcanoes and 
mud pots at Wister (Imperial County), Lake City (Modoc 
County), and the unusually prolific carbon dioxide springs and 
wells at Niland (Imperial County) and Hopland (Mendocino 
County). Many of the hot springs are clearly associated with 
known faults or volcanic rocks. Where a hot spring is not shown 
associated with a fault, it may indicate that the area has not been 
mapped in sufficient detail. 

The location of hot springs and wells serves as an approximate 
guide to areas of anomalously high temperatures present today 
in the crustal rocks of California. This, of course, is pertinent in 
the exploration of geothermal power sources. In volcanic areas, 
the location of hot springs may indicate either a dying phase of 
volcanism or a precursor of volcanic activity. 

Information concerning temperatures, more specific location 
data, well depths, date drilled, and pertinent references is con- 
tained in Appendix B. 



Temperature 

Following the convention established by G.A. Waring's re- 
jxjrts (1915 and 1965), which were the principal sources used 
when this present compilation was started, the writer considered 
as thermal only those springs that are more than 15°F (8.3°C) 
above the mean annual temperature of the air at their localities. 
In the case of drilled wells, a normal thermal gradient of about 
VF increase for each 100 feet of depth (2°C for each 100 meters) 
was taken into consideration when determining whether the well 
should be classified as thermal. 

The water from thermal springs may be meteoric — that is, 
surface water that has percolated downward, been heated, and 
then ascended to the surface. Or, thermal water may be juvenile 
—that is, a product from the magma; water which has reached 
the surface for the first time. Thermal spring waters also may be 
a mixture of meteoric and juvenile water. Methods of distin- 
guishing between juvenile and meteoric waters by major and 
minor element chemistry, isotope ratios, and other means are 
described by White (1969). 

The abnormally high temperature of hot springs and wells 
may fluctuate or even normalize, and some springs and wells 
may "dry up" or cease to flow. One of the factors commonly 
accounting for these phenomena in California is the occurrence 
of earthquakes. Another factor commonly affecting springs is 
the precipitation of calcium carbonate, which causes clogging, 
resulting in reduction of flow and ultimately cessation. 

Springs close to boiling-point temperatures are found in many 
localities in the state. Because the boiling point decreases with 
an increase in elevation, the boiling temperature of springs in 
California ranges from 212°F (100°C) at sea level to about 185°F 
(85°C) at 14,250 feet (4377 m). Table 7 summanzes the loca- 
tions of springs near the boiling point in California. 



Mode of Occurrence Of Hot Springs 

Thermal springs in California are probably associated with or 
controlled by one or more of the following geologic conditions: 

(1) areas of volcanoes of geologically recent activity 

(2) frictionally heated rocks associated with faults 

(3) intensely deformed mountains 

(4) jointed or faulted batholithic rocks 

1 . In some areas of volcanic rocks, especially in areas of recent- 
ly active volcanism, magma or solidified magma, probably lies 
below the surface that has not cooled to normal temperatures, 
and water coming near it will be heated. In a few places — at The 
Geysers area of Sonoma County, for example — it is believed that 
heat from magma at depth has been transmitted to the overlying 
rock. Meteoric water penetrating near the hot materials is thus 
heated. Faults and fractures may serve as conduits bringing the 
hot water to the surface. 

2. Rocks along fault zones are heated considerably by the great 
pressure and friction that are produced by extensive masses of 
rock moving past one another. This is evidenced by the presence 
of fused mylonite or crushed rock along certain fault zones 
(Wallace, 1976). In an analysis of faulting, McKenzie and 
Brune (1972) have shown that a temperature of 1000°C can be 
obtained by frictional heating along a fault, with actual melting 
taking place along the fault plane. When water comes in contact 
with a fault zone, fault gouge can act as a barrier to lateral 
migration, and the crushed zone adjacent to the fault gouge can 
serve as a conduit for water to reach the surface. Thus, if water 
passes upward near recently active faults, the water can take up 
heat by contact with the frictionally heated rocks. 

3. It can be reasonably assumed that accompanying intense 
deformation of crustal rocks by folding and faulting, a considera- 
ble amount of thermal energy is generated. Furthermore, a sig- 
nificant portion of the thermal energy is expected to remain 
stored over a certain interval of geologic time (Chaterji and 
Guha, 1968). For example, only comparatively recent (Tertiary 
or post-Tertiary) deformation might be expected to account for 
the heat-flow of certain thermal springs. A good example of this 
may be a comparison of the abundant warm springs in the Late 
Tertiary-Quaternary highly deformed Coast Ranges with the 
almost total absence of thermal springs in the Klamath Moun- 
tains — the intense deformation of the Klamaths having largely 
taken place in pre-Tertiary time. 

4. Deep joints or faults in batholithic rocks, like those in the 
Sierra Nevada, occasionally give rise to moderately warm 
springs. Meteoric waters collected in such cracks may be heated 
by the disintegration of radioactive elements in the granitic rocks 
(Kiersch, 1964, p. 43). 



Distribution Of Hot Springs 

Hot springs in California have a wide geographic distribution. 
Because the state is readily divisible into 1 1 geomorphic prov- 
inces, each reflecting fundamental differences in geology (Figure 
14), Cahfomia's thermal springs will be discussed in relation to 
these provinces. Although no consistent or clear relation of the 



46 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Table 7. Springs near boiling point temperature. 



STAU MAP 
SHEET . 


SPRING 


COUNTY 


ELEV 


TEMP 

CF) 


ROCK TYPE 


STRUCTURE 


NOTES 


LOCATION NO 












A.!^r« 


"Mud volcanoes ' neat 

Lake C-ty 


Modoc 


4480 


120-207 


In alluvium very dose to Late 
Tertiary volcanic rocks. 


Surprise Valley fault zone 


A maior normal fault in California, 
Fault probably serves as a conduit for 
heat below, as well as con inbutmg 
frictionai heal. 




\7 


Ho( Spnngs near 
Cedarviiie 


Modoc 


4b00 


200 


tn alluvium not far from Late 
Tertiary volcamc roclcs. 


Surprise Valley fault 
trough. 


Ditto 


U 


Benmac Hot Spfings and 
Surpf.se Valtev 
Hot Springs 


Modoc 


4500 

4500 


205-207 
209 


In alluvium not far from Late 
Tertiary volcanic f Celts. 


Surprise Valley fault 
trough. 


Ditto 




Kellev Hot Springs 


Modoc 


4360 


204 


In close proximity to 
Pleistocene volcanic rocks 


On fault 


Fault probably serving as heat conduit 
from votcan.cs below 


DMih Valley 


Devib Kitchen Fumaroie 


Inyo 


4290 


180 to 
twiling 


In Hotocene volcanic 

rocks 


Fractured volcamc 
caldera 


Ditto 


7 


a 


COSO Hoi Springs 


Inyo 


3600 


140 to 
boiling 


In alluvium, not (ar (rom 
Ouaternarv volcamcs 


On Quaternary fault 


D.I10 


Los Angeles 


Sesoe Hoi Springs 


Ventura 


2850 


I9M94 




In Pine Mm. fault zone. 
highly folded strata 




7 


Ma'.posa 


Paoha Is springs and 
Steam vents 


Mono 


6400 


203 


In lake sediments very dose 
to Pleistocene volcanic rocks 






I 


12 


C«sa Dtabk) Hot Springs 


Mono 


7290 


115-194 


Pleistocene basalt. 


Volcanic caldera 


Fault acting as conduit from heat be- 
low 


IB 


HOI Creek Geysers 
(springs) 


Mono 


7040 


194-203 


Pliocene rhyolite (not far 
(rom Pleistocene basalt) 


D'T!0 


D'tro 


Senofi Sea 


Mud pots 


Irnpenal 


.'ij 


100 to 
boi'ing 


Alluviurr>-(ake beds. Holocene 
volcamcs tn vicinity- 


On or near concealed 
San Andreas fault 
extension 


Heat from mantle below Ihm crust? 


*«5 


San Bernardino 


Waterman Hot Springs 


San Bernardino 


wso 


123-210 


Fractured granitic and 
gneissic rocks 


On branch of San 
Andreas fault 




b 





Arrowhead Hot Springs 


San Bernardino 


2000 


110-202 


Ditto 


On branch ol San Andreas 

fault 




Santa Hosa 


The Geysefs 


Sonoma 


1600 2 


140 to 

botlmg 


Jurassic(?) Franciscan rocks 
Quaternary volcamc in v.cr :> 


On or dose to faults 


faults transmitting heat from shsiiow 
magma to Overlying rocks- 


13 


Waike' Lake 


Faies Hot Sprtng^ 


Alpine 


7400 


176 


Pliocence volcamcs over- 
lain by glacial deposits 




Heat of the water probable derived from 
the nearby lava— Waring (1915) p 133 


3 


Weed 


Hoi Springs or 
Mount Shasta 


Siskiyou 


14,000 


184 


Pleistocene and Holocene 
volcanic rocks 


Strato volcano 


■ Possibly (resh magma withm the cone* 
— H Williams (1934) p 228 


' 


Suianville 
















''.Vf-.'AO'ydi 


Tophet Hot Springs 
(Lassen area) 


Shasta 


/ooo 


175 to 

boiling 


Pleistocene volcanic rocks; not 
far from Holocene volcamcs. 


Recently active volcano 


Part of the water from the springs iS 
probably of juvenile origin, derived 
from an under lying magn^a or batholith 


4 


s 

7 


BufTtpas Hot Springs 
Growler Hot Springs 


Shasta 

Tehama 


8160 
5120 


boiling 
203 + 


Pleistocene volcamc rocks. 

not far from Holocene volcanics 

Pleistocene volcamc rocks 


Ditto 


Ditto 
Ditto 


11 


Boiling Spririg Tartarus 
Lake 


Plumas 


5920 


170-190 


Pleistocene volcamc rocks 


On small fault. 


Fault probably serving 

as heat conduit from volcamcs botow 


12 




Plumas 


5920 


120-205 


Pleistocene volcanic rocks 


On small fault. 


Ditto 


IB 


Wendel Hot Springs 


Lassen 


4038 


206 


Alluvial deposits; close to 
Pdo-Pieistocene volcamc rocks 


On Litchfield fault. 


Ditto 




Amedee Hoi Spnngi 


Lassen 


4000 


178-204 


Alluvial deposits, dose to 
PlioPfoislocene volcamc rocks 


On Amedee fault 


Ditto 



•S« imp ihceu in Appendix D and ublualcd dau in Appendix B 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



47 



hot springs to the four previously mentioned geologic modes of 
occurrence discussed is always discemable, where these condi- 
tions are recognized, they will be briefly described. 

The Modoc Plateau in northeastern California is a region of 
extensive Late Tertiary and Quaternary lava flows and vol- 
canoes. Within these volcanic rocks are hot springs that probably 
derive heat from the same source as the lava outpourings. Al- 
though the area is largely mapped only in a reconnaissance way, 
often the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. 

Immediately east of the Modoc Plateau is Surprise Valley in 
the Basin Ranges province, a province characterized by vol- 
canism and block faulting. Here, five boiling springs and four 
thermal wells are aligned along the Surprise Valley fault, a major 
Quaternary fault with vertical movement estimated in excess of 
1650 m (5500 feet) (Gay, 1959) and associated with promi- 
nent gravity and magnetic anomalies. It also has evidence of Late 
Quaternary activity. Several other springs in California's Basin 
Ranges province, some at boiling temperature, occur in the 
Honey Lake volcanic area. The springs are situated along the 
Quaternary Amedee and Litchfield faults and, farther to the 
south, in the Coso Mountains, on faults in an area of Quatenary 
volcanism. 

Two of California's most famous volcanoes. Mount Shasta 
and Lassen Peak, lie in the southernmost end of the Cascade 
Range province. This province consists of a chain of volcanoes 
extending into Oregon and Washington. Mount Shasta and Las- 
sen Peak, both active in historic time, are the sites of several hot 
springs, steam vents, and fumaroles. The associated hot springs 
are clearly related to recent volcanism and probably to faults. 

The Sierra Nevada province is bounded by a profound fault 
on the east side, which is the loci of several hot springs, especially 
where geologically recent volcanism has occurred, such as at the 
Mono Lake, Casa Diablo, and Owens Lake areas. The south- 
central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith is also the site of 
several warm springs. Here hot water issues from granitic and 
metamorphic rocks far removed from young, volcanic rocks. 
The springs appear to be related to the Kem Canyon fault along 
which they lie. As suggested earlier, the heat may be derived 
from the disintegration of radioactive elements in the granitic 
rock. The Kem Canyon fault, although a major tectonic feature, 
is probably not active, inasmuch as undisturbed Pliocene vol- 
canic rocks are known to lie athwart the trace of the fault. 

Hot springs in the northern part of the Coast Ranges province 
in California are both numerous and among the hottest in the 
state. Most of them are associated with the Clear Lake and 
Sonoma volcanic areas, or lie in the intensely faulted and de- 
formed Mayacmas Mountains. The Clear Lake Volcanics are 
late Pliocene to Holocene in age (Heam and others, 1975) and 
the older Sonoma Volcanics are Pliocene. The Mayacmas Moun- 
tains lie between the Clear Lake and Sonoma volcanic areas. 
Here, in the world-famous area of The Geysers, is the first (and 
at present, the only) commercially developed geothermal power 
source in the United States. The Geysers are situated in meta- 
morphosed, sedimentary, and volcanic Mesozoic rocks of the 
Franciscan Complex, and although no geologically recent vol- 
canic rocks are exposed, the area is marked by numerous fuma- 
roles, steam vents, and other signs of active volcanism. The area 



is highly faulted, and the source of heat is probably a magma 
chamber at shallow depth (Chapman, 1957). 

Moderately warm springs are scattered in the central and 
southern parts of the Coast Ranges province in highly folded and 
faulted Mesozoic and Tertiary strata. Likewise, the Transverse 
Ranges is a highly folded and faulted province marked by a 
number of thermal springs, including the near-boiling Sespe Hot 
Springs in the Santa Ynez Mountains. The Sesi>e Hot Springs are 
situated within the Pine Mountain fault zone. In the eastern part 
of the Transverse Ranges, in the San Bernardino Mountains, are 
the Arrowhead Springs. This group of boiling springs is also on 
a fault, probably a splay of the San Andreas fault. 

The Peninsular Ranges province, in the southwestern part of 
the state, has a number of warm springs. These springs he close 
to the Elsinore and San Jacinto fault zones. The thermal springs 
in the Peninsular Ranges province, the central and southern 
Coast Ranges, and the Transverse Ranges are all outside areas 
of geologically recent volcanism (although containing volcanic 
rocks of earlier geologic time). These provinces, however, are 
among the most active tectonically, and are traversed by numer- 
ous major faults. These provinces are also intensely folded and, 
in places, as for example the western Transverse Ranges, are still 
undergoing active deformation by folding, uplift, and faulting. 

The Salton Trough is essentially a graben or down-faulted 
block. Numerous mud volcanoes and hot springs are situated 
principally along or near the active San Andreas fault zone on 
the east side of the graben. For example, shallow hot water wells 
occur at Desert Hot Springs, a hot spring is found at Dos Pal- 
mas, and numerous mud volcanoes occur at the southeastern end 
of the Salton Sea. Also in this fault trough, numerous explora- 
tory wells have tapped high temperature steam and brine on 
some of the largest known geothermal anomalies of the state. 
One of these geothermal anomalies, at Niland, is associated with 
relatively young volcanic rocks which are dated at 16,000 years 
(Muffler and White, 1969). Positive gravity and magnetic anom- 
alies suggest the presence of intrusive bodies at shallow depth. 

The Mojave Desert province, although containing both exten- 
sive volcanic rocks of recent geologic age and numerous exten- 
sive Quaternary faults, is nearly devoid of thermal springs. This 
is probably attributable to the dearth of water rather than to the 
lack of a subterranean heat source. 

The Klamath Mountains province in northwestern California, 
with abundant water, and lying in an intensely deformed terrain, 
has only one known abnormally high temperature spring. This 
may be due to the lack of geologically recent volcanism or to the 
great geologic antiquity of the deformation, in which case any 
thermal energy generated from these movements would proba- 
bly have dissipated during the long period of conduction and 
radiation. Another possibility might be related to the huge abun- 
dance of ground water (one of the highest rainfall areas of the 
state) that is available to mix with and cool to normal tempera- 
tures any hot water that rises from the underlying rocks. 

The remaining natural province of the state, known as the 
Great Valley, is essentially a gigantic alluvial plain containing a 
tremendous thickness of sediments. It is not surprising that no 
thermal springs (or thermal wells) occur in this province, for it 
lacks a known subterranean heat source. 



48 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



iO 




®\ ■: 



•••• • 



■*a 



\K 



©N®\ ® 



1. BASIN RANGES 

2. MODOC PLATEAU 
3. CASCADE RANGE 

4. KLAMATH MOUNTAINS 

5. COAST RANGES 

6. GREAT VALLEY 

7. SIERRA NEVADA 

8. TRANSVERSE RANGES 

9. MOJAVE DESERT 

10. PENINSULAR RANGES 

11. SALTON TROUGH 




.....*^ 



\ 



V 



© V 



© 



8^ ^8 
^ 



..•••. *. 



.:r ® 



Figur« 14 Relief Map of Californio ihowing geomorphic provinces. 



PART II 
GEOLOGIC MAP OF CALIFORNIA 



The Man with the Hammer 

A wanderer — with downcast eyes he looks 
For truth 'mid ruins and the dust of Time. 
The strata of the mountains are his books 
Wherein he reads, as he does slowly climb. 



— -A.C. Lawson 

University of California Chronicle 

October 1925 



GEOLOGIC MAP OF CALIFORNIA 



INTRODUCTION 



More than 90 years have passed since the preparation in 1891 
of the 1:750,000 scale Preliminary Mineralogical and Geological 
Map of the State of California. The 1977 edition of the Geologi- 
cal Map of California is the latest in the series of statewide 
geologic maps published by the State, and represents a great step 
forward in the mapping and understanding of California's geol- 
ogy. (See Table 8 for list of State geologic maps of California.). 



HISTORY OF 
GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



fornia State Mining Bureau. Beginning with this map, the re- 
sponsibility for preparing and publishing succeeding editions of 
relatively large-scale geologic maps of California has remained 
with the State. Only eight geologic units were depicted on the 
1891 map; however, their general relations are better shown than 
on all the previous geologic maps. Special emphasis was given to 
mineral resources. Such units as auriferous gravel, auriferous 
slate, and limestone are portrayed, and the locations of known 
mineral deposits are shown. The map was issued by the State 
Mineralogist, William Ireland, but the map compiler is not cred- 
ited on the map. However, the 10th Annual Report of the State 
Mineralogist (Ireland, 1890, p. 21) states that the topographical 
and other work on the Preliminary Geological and Mineralogi- 
cal Map was "being executed by Mr. Julius Henkenius, who 
received aid in the geological and mineralogical locatings from 
the Field Assistants." 



The First Attempts 



Geologic mapping in California began about 160 years ago. 
The first geologic mapping in the state, done by Lieutenant 
Edward Belcher, a British naval officer, was a remarkably accu- 
rate geologic map of the Port of San Francisco. Although Belch- 
er did the surveying for the map in 1826. it was not published 
until 1839. This map and other early geologic maps of California 
are described and illustrated in "State Geologic Maps of Califor- 
nia — a Brief History" (Jennings, 1966). 

Landmarks in the publication of early geologic maps of the 
entire state begin with the hand-tinted geologic map of Califor- 
nia made by W.P. Blake in 1853 and published in Volume V of 
the War Department's "Report of Explorations in California for 
Railroad Routes" (Blake, 1857). Utilizing nine geologic units, 
this 41 X 56 cm (16 x 22 inch) map was the first published 
geologic map that specifically and exclusively pertained to Cah- 
fomia. This map was followed by the first color-lithographed 
map of the state, made in 1 867 and published four years later in 
Paris as part of a report of a French scientific mission to Mexico 
and the "ancient Mexican possessions of the north" (Guillemin- 
Tarayre, 1871). The geology is portrayed in a most impressive 
manner by ten geologic units, and the geologic interpretation is 
much improved over Blake's map. 

The second color-lithographed geologic map of California was 
prepared by another Frenchman, Jules Marcou (1883), and 
published in the "Bulletin of the Geological Society of France." 
The nine geologic units shown were largely based on Marcou's 
observations while working with the Pacific Railroad Survey in 
1854 and the Wheeler Survey West of the 100th Meridian in 
1875, both Federal surveys. The map was accompanied by a 
report on the geology of California. 

These early, page-size geologic maps of the state were su- 
perseded in 1 89 1 by the first relatively large-sc£tle statewide geo- 
logic map. 

Preliminary Mineralogical and Geological 
Map of the State of California — 1891 

The Prelimmary Mineralogical and Geological Map of the 
State of California, at a scale of 1:750,000 (12 miles equals one 
inch), was prepared and published in four sections by the Cali- 



Geological Map of the 
State of California — 1916 

Twenty-five years after the 1891 Preliminary Mineralogical 
and Geological Map of the State of California, another 1:750,000 
scale state geologic map was published by the California State 
Mining Bureau. This map was prepared by J. P. Smith, Professor 
of Paleontology at Stanford University, and was accompanied by 
a brief bulletin describing the geology (Smith, 1916). 

The map legend lists 21 geologic units. Although Professor 
Smith's bulletin clearly explains that certain areas of California 
were still unmapped, his map, unlike the earlier 1891 edition, 
shows the entire area of the state covered by colors representing 
geologic units with delineated contacts. This, unfortunately, 
leaves the map-user without any clue as to what is known and 
what has merely been projected. The absence of geologic faults 
on this map is also somewhat puzzling. Although faults were by 
this time widely recognized and mapped — as, for example, in the 
atlas accompanying the "State Earthquake Investigation Com- 
mission" report on the disasterous 1906 San Francisco earth- 
quake — not even the San Andreas fault is shown on the 1916 
geologic map of California. 

By 1916, there was much outstanding geologic mapping to 
draw upon. U.S. Geological Survey geologists H.W. Turner, 
Waldemar Lindgren, J.S. Diller, F.L. Ransome, G.H. Eldridge, 
Ralph Arnold, Robert Anderson, R.W. Pack, and H.W. Fair- 
banks had completed a number of geologic folios and bulletins 
on the Sierra Nevada gold belt area, the Coast Ranges, and the 
oil regions of the state. In addition, many significant contribu- 
tions had been made by Professor A.C. Lawson and graduate 
students at the University of California and by Professor J.C. 
Branner and his students at Stanford University. 

The 41-page bulletin, "The Geologic Formations of Califor- 
nia," which accompanies the 1916 Geological Map of California, 
consists of the following: an expanded legend for the reconnais- 
sance geologic map; a description of the geologic record of Cali- 
fornia as related to the fluctuations of the "Great Basin Sea" and 
the Pacific Ocean; a description of the "rock-forming agencies 
of California" wherein the formation of igneous rocks, organic 
and inorganic sediments, and chemical deposits are briefly dis- 
cussed; a listing of the sources of data for the geologic map; and, 
lastly, a listing of the formations included in each geologic unit 
shown on the map. 



51 



52 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Table 8. State geologic maps of California. 



DATE 
OF MAP 


TITLE 


SCALE 


GEOLOGIC 
UNITS 


CONTOUR 
INTERVAL 


COMPILER 
(PUBLISHER) 


1857 


Geological map of a part of the 
State of California 


1 in.=38 mi 


9 


No contours 


W.P Blake 
(U.S. Senate Document) 


1867 


Carte gfeologique de la Haute 
California et de la Nevada 


1 in. = 64 mi. 


10 


No contours 


Guillemin-Tarayre 
(Pans. France) 


1854- 
75 


Carte g^ologique de la 
California 


1 in. = 95 mi 


9 


No contours 


J. Marcou 

(Soc Geol. France 

Bull ) 


1891 


Preliminary mineralogical and 

geological map of tfie State of 

California. 


1 in. = 12 mi. 
(1:750.(X)0) 


8 


No contours 
(Shaded relief) 


J. Henkenius 
(State fVlining Bur ) 


1916 


Geological map of the State of 
California 


1 in. = 12 mi. 
(1 750.000) 


21 


No contours 


J P Smith 
(State Mining Bur ) 


1938 


Geological map of California 


1 in. = 8 mi. 
(1:500,000) 


81 


No contours 


OP Jenkins 
(Calif. Div. Mines) 


1958- 
69 


Geological atlas of California 
(27 sheets) 


1 in. — 4 mi. 
(1:250.000) 


124 


200 feet 


Jennings. Strand. 

Rogers et al. 

(Calif. Div Mines & 

Geol.) 


1973 


State of California, prelimi- 
nary fault and geologic map 


1 in. = 12 mi 
(1:750.000) 


52 


No contours 


C.W. Jennings 

(Calif Div. Mines & 

Geol.) 


1977 


Geologic map of California 


1 in. = 12 mi. 
(1:750.000) 


52 


500 feet 


C W Jennings 

(Calif Div. Mines & 

Geol.) 



Geologic Mop of California — 1938 

Twenty-two years later, another milestone in California geo- 
logic maps appeared in the form of a 1:500,CXX) scale map pub- 
lished in six sections by the California Division of Mines. This 
map was prepared by Olaf P. Jenkins, Chief Geologist of the 
Division of Mines, and represented nine years of careful geologi- 
cal research. 

Much larger in scale than any preceding geologic maps of the 
state, the 1938 map shows much more detail than the earlier 
maps. The geologic boundaries of the 81 units depicted were 
drawn with greater precision than before. Care was taken to 
follow the source data faithfully, and in areas where no geologic 
maps were available, or where previous maps were too general 
in nature or at a scale much smaller than the base map, the area 
was purposely left blank. This portrayal of the geology of the 
state showed that about 25 percent of the state was unmapped. 
The largest unmapped areas at that time were in the Klamath 
Mountains, the northern Coast Ranges, the southern Sierra Ne- 
vada, and the desert areas of southeastern California. For the 
first time, faults were shown on an official geologic map of 
California. 

A brief report heralding the new map was published by Jen- 
kins (1937). It contained a history of previous state geologic 
maps and a description of the new state map. It also presented 
a detailed listing of the source data used in the compilation. The 
1938 Geologic Map of California was prepared during the Great 
Depression when funds were in short supply. Fortunately, Dr. 
Jenkins had the services of a number of fine geologists who were 
paid by the Federal government under a Public Works Adminis- 
tration (PWA) program. Two PWA geologists in particular, 
Wayne Galliher and Bert Beverly, did the bulk of the drafting 
and compilation (Jenkins, 1976, p. 31-32). In addition, the Geol- 
ogy Department at Stanford University provided work space 
near the Branner Memorial Geological Library. 



Geologic Atlas of California — 1958-1969 

The ground work for the Geologic Atlas of California began 
in 1951, after the popular 1938 edition went out of print. Great 
demand prompted Olaf P. Jenkins to set up a program for prepar- 
ing a new edition of the state map that would incorporate the 
large amount of new geologic data collected since the earlier map 
was compiled (Jahns, 1961). 

Under Dr. Jenkins' direction, eight preliminary sheets com- 
piled by Charles J. Kundert were issued in 1955. They were 
printed in black and white, on a new 1:250,000 scale series of 
Army Map Service base maps. These sheets covered much of the 
coastal and interior desert regions of southern California. The 
base maps, however, were very inaccurate, and a few years later, 
after the Army Map Service had tremendously upgraded the 
quality of the topographic maps, these eight preliminary geologic 
map sheets became obsolete. 

Work on a new, full-color edition, utilizing the vastly im- 
proved Army base maps, was begun in 1956 by Charles W. 
Jennings. The first map to be completed, the Death Valley Sheet, 
was published in 1958. The new edition was designated the "Olaf 
P. Jenkins Edition" in recognition of the stimulus Dr. Jenkins 
provided to geologic mapping in California during the 29 years 
he served as Chief Geologist and later as Chief of the Division 
of Mines, and in recognition of his personal direction of the 
program at its inception. 

The new State Geologic Map sheets were lithographed and 
published individually in the same order that the new topograph- 
ic base maps became available. The standard map sheet covers 
two degrees of longitude by one degree of latitude, but certain 
sheets bordering the coast or containing irregular areas along the 
Nevada, Arizona, and Mexican borders were combined to form 
single oversize sheets. The topography of the land surface is 
expressed by a 200-foot contour interval, and the Division added 
the bathymetry from other sources for the offshore area and 



I<585 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



53 



Lake Tahoe using 300-foot contours, and for Salton Sea using 
10-foot contours. 

Shortly before the retirement of Dr. Jenkins, Charles Jennings 
was put in charge of the map compilation and Rudolph Strand 
and James Koenig were added as assistants. One of the greatest 
problems facing the compilation project at the onset was deter- 
mining the existence of all the new source data. The U.S. Geolog- 
ical Survey's excellent index to published geologic maps of 
California (Boardman, l'^52) was several years out-of-date, and 
no map index to doctoral dissertations and master's theses spe- 
cifically on California geology existed at that time. 

Largely through the efforts of Rudolph Strand, an index to 
published geologic maps was prepared. This index updates the 
Boardman index through 1956. Approximately 256 entries were 
added, and the boundaries of all the entries were plotted on a 
new format using the Army Map Service one degree by two 
degree quadrangle units. The index proved to be so valuable in 
other areas of the Division's work and to geologists and others 
outside the Division that it was made available by publication 
(Strand and others, 1958). 

Similarly, an index to graduate theses on California geology 
was prepared in order to identify and tap the enormous wealth 
of geologic mapping available from this source. For many areas 
of the state, unpublished doctoral dissertations and master's 
theses were the only source of geologic information; hence these 
were essential to the preparation of the State Geologic Map. The 
first such index covered the span of time from 1892 (the earliest 
recorded thesis on a California area) through 1961, and also was 
published by the Division (Jennings and Strand, 1963). 

From time to time various staff members were assigned to the 
"State Map Project." These geologists worked either on a full- 
time basis to compile one or more sheets (Table 9), or part-time 
principally for field mapping to fill in "blank areas" or to prepare 
additional source data indexes (see "Indexes to published geo- 
logic maps" and "Indexes to theses" listed under "Other Refer- 
ences" in Appendix D). 

Compiling the Geologic Atlas turned out to be more difficult 
than anticipated. At the outset of the project, the difficulties 
associated with compiling a geologic map of the entire state, with 
all of its geologic diversity and complexity, were for the most 
part recognized, but it was hoped that the abundance of new data 
on hand would make overcoming these difficulties fairly simple. 
Actually, the inconsistent nature of these new data made the task 
more difficult. The source maps for some areas of the state were 
excellent; in other areas they were very poor, incomplete, or 
simply nonexistent. Frequently, well-described areas were adja- 
cent to poorly understood, incompletely mapped, or totally un- 
mapped areas. Often, too, there was no continuity between maps 
for adjacent areas because of differences in geologic interpreta- 
tion. Thus, the compilation could easily have resulted in a patch- 
work of data. Fortunately, perhaps, the scale of the atlas made 
it possible to ignore a multitude of discrepancies. Numerous 
problems, however, had to be resolved in the field, and almost 
all blank areas in the state were filled in by a series of reconnais- 
sance mapping programs undertaken by various Division per- 
sonnel. Nevertheless, in a few areas of complex geology, or where 
particularly detailed work was surrounded by less detailed map- 
ping, white areas were left around the more detailed area to 
preserve as much information as possible. 

Blank areas marked on the atlas sheets as "unmapped" or 
"incomplete" actually amount to a very small percentage of 
some map sheets and are absent entirely from others. To provide 
geologic data for the large areas of the state for which there were 
no published or unpublished maps or theses available, the Divi- 
sion's reconnaissance geologic mapping program was initiated in 
1957. The first mapping by the Division for this purpose was 



Table 9. Geologic Atlas of California (I -.250,000 scale). 



MAP SHEET 
(by order of 
publication] 


YEAR 


COMPILER (S) 


Death Vallev 


1968 


C.W- Jennings 


Alturas 


t958 


I.E. Gay. Jr.. and A, Aune 


San Luis Obispo 


1968 


C.W. Jennings 


Santa Maria 


1969 


C.W. Jennings 


Santa Cruz 


1959 


C W. Jennings and R.G. Strand 


Ul<iah 


1960 


C.W. Jennings and R.G. Strand 


Westwood 


1960 


PA Lydon. T.E, Gay. Jr.. and C.W 
Jennings 


Kingman 


1961 


C W Jennings 


San Francisco 


1961 


C.W. Jennings and J,L. Burnett 


San Diego-El Centro 


1%2 


R.G. Strand 


Long Beach 


1962 


C.W Jennings 


Redding 


1962 


R.G. Strand 


Chico 


1962 


J.L. Burnett and C.W Jennings 


Trona 


1962 


C.W. Jennings. J.L Burnett and 8W 
Troxel 


Wallter Lalie 


1963 


J B Koenig 


Santa Rosa 


1963 


J.B. Koenig 


Weed 


1964 


R G Strand 


Needles 


1964 


C C. Bishop 


Baltersfield 


1966 


A.R. Smith 


Fresno 


1966 


R.A, Matthews and J.L Burnett 


Santa Ana 


1966 


T H, Rogers 


Sacramento 


1966 


R G. Strand and J.B. Koenig 


San Jose 


1966 


T.H. Rogers 


Salton Sea 


1967 


C.W. Jennings 


Mariposa 


1967 


R.G. Strand 


San Bernardino 


1967 


T H. Rogers 


Los Angeles 


1969 


C W Jennings and R.G. Strand 


Geologic Legend and 
Formation Index 


1969 


C W Jennings and R.G. Strand 


Death Valley (revised 


1974 


R. Streitz and M C. Stmson 



done by T.E. Gay and Q.A. Aune. They mapped 5,400 square 
miles of the Alturas sheet. Later an additional 5,000 square miles 
were mapped by T.E. Gay and P. A. Lydon for the adjacent 
Westwood sheet. The mapping of six 15-minute quadrangles for 
the Chico Sheet by M.C. Stinson and J.L. Burnett completed the 
coverage for northeastern California. 

In the southern part of the state, an area equivalent to about 
nine 15-minute quadrangles was mapped in the Death Valley- 
Mojave Desert region largely by B.W. Troxel, C.H. Gray, and 
L.A. Wright for the Trona Sheet. More than half of the Salton 
Sea Sheet was previously unmapped when compiling began for 
this area. However, as the result of a mapping effort continued 
through several winter seasons in this desert-mountain terrain by 
C.W. Jennings, P.K. Morton, T.H. Rogers, R.B. Saul, B.W. 
Troxel, F.H. Weber, and C.H. Gray, this huge "blank" area was 
covered. Through the efforts of F.H. Weber and P.K. Morton, 
several 15-minute quadrangle-size areas were mapped in San 
Diego and Imperial counties. The mapping of these areas com- 
pleted the map down to the Mexican border. In addition, many 
smaller areas in the state were studied and mapped by various 
Division geologists. 



54 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Perhaps the most widespread and inaccessible area mapped by 
the Division lay in the high Sierra, extending from near Lake 
Tahoe at the north to the Tehachapi Mountains at the south. 
This mapping provided data for about half of the Fresno Sheet 
and parts of the Walker Lake, Mariposa, and Bakersfield Sheets. 
The main objective of this reconnaissance work was to block out 
the major roof pendants in the Sierran batholith that heretofore 
had not been mapped, and to delineate the remnants of volcanic 
deposits and extensive glacial deposits. Much of this area was 
only accessible by backpack or horse and, because of the high 
elevation and snow, could only be mapped during the summer. 
Fourteen Division geologists contributed to this concerted effort 
before the job was completed, with the major part done by J.L. 
Burnett, R.A. Matthews, and C.W. Jennings. 

The final sheet was completed in 1968 and published in 1969. 
Collectively, these works make up the Geologic Atlas of Califor- 
nia, which consists of 27 sheets, 1 10 pages of explanatory data, 
a master legend, and a formation index. 

The geologic legend for this atlas consists of 124 cartographic 
units. In a state as geologically complex as California, with 
formations representing every geologic period known in the 
world, the choice of units to show statewide such variety and 
diversity in a meaningful way required some special innovation. 
Olaf P. Jenkins worked out an admirable legend for the 1938 
map, and this with only a few modifications, was also used for 
the atlas series. At first glance, the legend appears to be based 
principally on age, with the exception of two formations, the 
Franciscan and Knoxville (which are very widespread in the 
California Coast Ranges). In actuality, the geologic contacts 
shown are drawn on the basis of rock-stratigraphic units (forma- 
tions) and not time-stratigraphic units. The procedure followed 
was to group the numerous formations into "State Map Units" 
according to (a) their relative stratigraphic position (usually 
expressed by age); (b) their fundamental rock type (sedimen- 
tary, metasedimentary, igneous, and meta-igneous); (c) their 
environment of sedimentation (marine or non-marine); and (d) 
their broad modal composition (in dividing volcanic and pluton- 
ic rocks such as rhyolite, andesite, and basalt, or granite, 
granodiorite, and tonalite) . Genesis was the basis for subdividing 
the various Quaternary units (for example, dune sand, salt 
deposits, lake deposits, glacial deposits, and terrace deposits, 
with the alluvium of the Great Valley province subdivided into 
stream channel deposits, fan deposits, and basin deposits — inter- 
preted largely from federal and state soil survey maps). 

The more prominent or well-known faults are identified by 
name; however, no attempt was made to distinguish faults by age 
of latest movement. 

Accompanying each map sheet is an explanatory data sheet 
that includes an index to the geologic mapping used in the com- 
pilation, a table of stratigraphic nomenclature for the units com- 
piled on that sheet, and an index map indicating the U.S. 
Geological Survey topographic quadrangles within the map 
sheet area. Aerial oblique photographs of salient geologic fea- 
tures in the map sheet area illustrate most data sheets. 

The map is not specifically designed as a wall map of Califor- 
nia, but rather as an atlas, suitable for use in the field as well as 
in the office. Should the entire map be assembled, however, (as 
has been done in several universities and in the former Division 
Headquaters office in San Francisco), it covers an area about 4.6 
X 4.3 meters (15 x 14 feet). Although the sheets were published 
individually over a period of 1 1 years, all the colors and patterns 
of the geologic units were integrated as closely as possible so that 
adjacent sheets match in continuity of units and color. Thus, 
adjacent sheets can be trimmed and joined in any size block, if 
desired. 



Two Small-Scale Geologic Mops of 
California (1966 and 1968) 

Two relatively recent lithographed maps of the state, although 
of much smaller scale than the previously described maps, 
should be mentioned. The first of these was compiled jointly by 
the U.S. Geological Survey and the Cahfomia Division of Mines 
and Geology at a scale of l;2,50O,(X)O. It was published by the 
U.S. Geological Survey (1966) as "Miscellaneous Geological 
Investigations Map 1-512" and has been reprinted or copied in 
several different formats in various other publications. This 
highly diagrammatic map vividly portrays the major rock units 
by 1 1 subdivisions — three Cenozoic (marine, nonmarine, vol- 
canic), three Mesozoic (principally sedimentary), one Paleozoic 
(sedimentary and volcanic), one Precambrian (all rock types), 
a Pre-Cenozoic metamorphic rock unit, Mesozoic granitic rocks, 
and lastly, ultramafic rocks. Faults are shown with heavy black 
lines, and direction of apparent movement is indicated by ar- 
rows. The base is without roads, and only a few major cities and 
geographic features are identified. This map effectively displays 
the most prominent geologic features of the state, and has en- 
joyed considerable popularity. 

The second map was prepared and published by the American 
Association of Petroleum Geologists (1968) as part of their 
Geologic Highway Map Series. It includes Nevada as well as 
California and is at a scale of 1 inch equals approximately 30 
miles. Twenty-nine geologic units are depicted, but because their 
identification is obscure and their description is scattered among 
five separate legends, five columnar sections, and lengthy explan- 
atory notes, using the map is cumbersome. The back of the map 
is filled with cross sections, a geologic history, a physiological 
map, and a tectonic map. 



GEOLOGIC MAP OF CALIFORNIA— 
1977 

History of the Project 

Even before the 1:250,000 scale Geologic Atlas of California 
was completed, it was recognized that a smaller-scale map of the 
state, one that would present an overview of the geology of the 
entire state, was highly desirable. It had become apparent that 
the individual atlas sheets, as useful as they were for field and 
office purposes, were not satisfactory for evaluation of statewide 
geologic and structural trends. Therefore, late in 1965, plans 
were made for a 1:750,000 scale map of California (Jennings, 
1965). 

After consideration of various scales, 1:750,000 was chosen 
because the resulting size, about 1.4 x 1.5 meters (4.5 x 5 feet) 
is convenient for fitting on an average office or classroom wall. 
In addition, this scale is consistent with the first two official 
geologic maps of Cahfornia published by the State in 1891 and 
1916, and the scale is also sufficiently large to show a significant 
amount of geologic information. 

Almt)st two years passed, however, before work on compiling 
this new map could begin. A pilot compilation of the Chico Sheet 
area, using a newly devised legend, incorporating such new data 
necessary for classifying the faults, and adding fold axes and 
other structural data, was then started by C.W. Jennings. It soon 
became apparent that considerable updating of the geologic data 
for most of the map sheets would be necessary because many of 
the published atlas sheets were already several years old and a 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



55 



large quantity of new geologic map data was available for a good 
part of the state. 

At the beginning of the project, it was decided that a multipur- 
f)Ose map of the state would be most desirable. In addition to the 
geology, the map would emphasize recently active faults, recent 
volcanic rocks and volcanoes, thermal springs, offshore struc- 
tures, and major fold axes. Therefore, all these data were plotted 
on the work sheets; but it became evident that, for publication 
purposes, it would be much more effective to separate some of 
this information and make two maps rather than one. Pursuing 
this concept, it was planned to present a series of maps at the 
same 1:750,000 scale illustrating various geologic and geophysi- 
cal parameters that can conveniently be studied individually or 
in relation to one another. Thus, the first map in this series is the 
Fault Map of California With Locations of Volcanoes, Thermal 
Springs and Thermal Wells. The Geologic Map of California is 
Geologic Data Map No. 2. The third in the series will be a 
Gravity Map of California, which is nearing completion.* Other 
maps in the series, such as an epicenter map and aeromagnetic 
map, are in the planning stage. In addition, consideration is 
being given to periodically update and revise the Fault Map of 
California, because of the rapid rate at which new information 
is being generated and because of the growing demand for such 
data in city and county seismic safety planning, and in the loca- 
tion of schools, hospitals, nuclear power plants, and other engi- 
neering works. 

A preliminary draft of the 1:750,000 geologic map was com- 
plete in 197 1, and it accompanied a report entitled "Urban Geol- 
ogy Master Plan for California" (Bruer, 1971), which was 
financed by the Federal Department of Housing and Urban 
Development. Many areas on the map, however, were still shown 
in a tentative state and the map needed additional work pending 
receipt of new information. The map also required more editing 
and generalization in complex areas. This work was accom- 
plished and the compilation was complete in 1972. 

Because of the complexity of the map, a hand-tinted copy of 
the map was carefully prepared and then photographed and 
full-scale color prints were made. These colored prints proved 
very helpful in the extensive reviewing process that the map then 
underwent by more than forty-five geologists conversant with 
California geology. Reviewers from outside the Division includ- 
ed personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey, universities, other 
federal and state agencies, and a number of consulting geologic 
firms. The review was completed in about six months, and exten- 
sive revisions and additions were then made to the master compi- 
lation. Because of the demand for the information on this map, 
an uncolored version of the original hand-drafted compilation 
was published (see "Preliminary fault and geologic map of Cali- 
fornia — 1973" in Part I of this report). Work also began in 
scribing and preparing the plates for the fault map portion of the 
compilation. Scribing of the geologic contacts for the "Geologic 
Map of California" did not begin until January 1975, when 
drafting help became available. During the final stages of scrib- 
ing and preparing of the printing plates, some additional correc- 
tions of the geology were made, and new data for a few selected 
areas were added. The bulk of the data shown, however, is 
only complete to 1973. 

•Editor's nole: Geologic Data Map No. 3, Gravity Map of California and its 
Continental Margin, and Geologic Data Map No 4. Geotherma! Resources Map 
of California, ha\c been published since this was writtcn. 

Uses Of The Geologic Map 

The usefulness of the Fault Map of California, whose intimate 
relationship to earthquakes is easy to explain, is generally appar- 



ent. This is not the case, however, with a geologic map of the 
state, the use of which is difficult to explain to the nongeologist. 
Dr. P.B. King and H.M. Beikman of the U.S. Geological Survey 
discussed this difficulty in their explanatory text for the Geologic 
Map of the United States (King and Beikman, 1974). Their 
explanation is succinctly expressed, and because it applies as well 
to the Geologic Map of California as it does to the Geologic Map 
of the United States, we quote at length from it here: 

Sometimes, when we explain to nongeologists our project 
for a Geologic Map of the United States, we are dismayed 
when asked, "What good is it?" We compilers, enmeshed 
in our many problems of assembling, collating, and gener- 
alizing the source data for the map, find it difficult to 
produce a ready answer to this question. Nevertheless, the 
values and uses of an accurate geologic map are manifold, 
not only to geologists, but to the public at large. 

First of all, of course, the map displays the rocky founda- 
tions on which our country is built and is a summation of 
the nearly two centuries of investigation of this foundation 
by a succession of geologists. It is thus a reference work 
that present and future geologists of the country can con- 
sult and is of prime importance in the education of earth 
scientists in schools and colleges. Further, it can be con- 
sulted by geologists in other countries and continents who 
wish to learn about the geology of the United States; they 
will compare the map with similar national or continental 
maps of their own countries. 

In terms of resources useful to man, the Geologic Map lays 
out accurately the major regions of bedrock in the United 
States upon which many facets of our economy depend. It 
illustrates the areas of stratified rocks that are the sources 
of most of our fuels, and the areas of crystalline, plutonic, 
and volcanic rocks that contain important parts of our 
mineral wealth. The map shows areas of complex folding 
and faulting, parts of which are still tectonically unstable 
and subject to earthquake hazards. To some extent the 
bedrock represented on the map also influences the surface 
soils, which are of interest in agriculture and engineering 
works. 

Beyond this, the practical value of the map is less tangible, 
although it can be an important tool for the discerning 
user. Clearly, the map will not pinpoint the location of the 
next producing oil well or the next bonanza mine, nor will 
it give specific advice for the location of a dam or a reactor 
site; these needs can only be satisfied on maps on much 
larger scales, designed for specific purposes. Nevertheless, 
the sapient exploration geologist can find upon it signifi- 
cant regional features not apparent to the untrained user. 
Important mineral deposits cluster along regional tec- 
tonic trends or chains of plutons of specific ages. Final- 
ly, the Geologic Map will be used in national planning 
activities in conjunction with other national maps showing 
environmental features such as climate, vegetation, and 
land use — for the location of power transmission corri- 
dors, highways. National Parks, wilderness areas, recla- 
mation projects, and the like. 

In essence, the Geologic Map of California is simply a repre- 
sentation of a part of the earth's surface. It shows the distribution 
of the rock units that occur at the surface, and tells us something 
of their composition and origin, as well as their relative degree 
of hardness — a clue to their resistance to erosion. In addition, the 
map shows by appropriate symbols where and how the rocks are 
folded and faulted. 



56 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Objectives and Contents 

Ideally, the geologic map represents the various features that 
one would find on a visit to any locality on the map. Of course, 
the amount of detail that can be depicted is limited by the scale, 
but the most important geologic features are portrayed. During 
the compilation this factor was continually kept in mind; where 
necessary, particularly significant geologic features, even if 
small, were exaggerated in order to portray them. Likewise, in 
some places the geology is generalized in order that the most 
important features are not lost in a maze of detail. The geologic 
map of the state is first and foremost a factual documentation of 
the distribution of rocks in the state; it is secondarily an indicator 
of the presence of major folds and faults where known. As such, 
the Geologic Map of California should be the kind of data source 
that can be used to build theory as closely grounded in reality 
as possible. 

Although the Geologic Map of California confines itself with- 
in the political boundaries of the state, during its construction 
attention was given to the geologic data for adjacent areas pro- 
vided by maps of Arizona, Oregon, Nevada, and Baja California. 
In the Pacific Ocean area, the map does not attempt to show 
geologic units (largely because of the unavailability of data). 
However, the major offshore structural features are shown. Data 
on offshore faults and folds are rapidly accruing, due largely to 
the increasing efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey and certain 
universities and other institutions. Unfortunately, the wealth of 
offshore knowledge possessed by the petroleum exploration com- 
panies is largely unavailable. 

Representation of Faults 

The location of faults shown on the Geologic Map of Califor- 
nia are the same as those shown on the Fault Map of California, 
but the faults are not color-coded according to recency of move- 
ment. Thus, all faults on the Geologic Map are shown as black 
hnes, and no distinction is made between historic. Quaternary, 
or pre-Quatemary faults. The symbology showing sense of 
movement on faults is the same for both maps: pairs of half- 
arrows for direction of lateral displacement along a fault, arrows 
showing direction of dip of a fault plane or fault surface, and 
letters U and D for relative up and down movement along a fault. 

Representation of Contacts 

All contacts between map units are shown on the Geologic 
Map of California as solid fine lines except where the map units 
are bounded by faults (depicted by a thicker line), regardless of 
the rehability of the contact on the original data source. The 
reader is referred to the 1 ;250,0OO scale Geologic Atlas or to the 
original source data (indexed in Appendix D) for details as to 
the nature of the various contacts. 

In several places in the Coast Ranges where "Franciscan me- 
lange" is depicted, there may be no contact between it and the 
"undifferentiated" Franciscan Complex because of incomplete 
knowledge of the area. In such places the pattern alone separates 
"melange" from undifferentiated Franciscan. 

In a few places where mapping or paleontological control is 
inadequate to distinguish between map units of similar rock 
types, a combination map symbol has been used. For example, 
there is shown on the map in the northern Coast Ranges, E-Ep 
(Eocene-Paleocene marine undifferentiated); in the southern 
Coast Ranges, Ku-Ep (Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene marine un- 
differentiated) ; and on Santa Catalina Island, M -|- KJf (Miocene 



marine together with Franciscan rocks). In each case, the color 
used for the unit is the color of the first indicated symbol, which 
suggests the more likely or more predominant unit of the combi- 
nation. 

In editing the final map, the writer tried to keep in mind not 
only the large-scale features that illustrate the geologic frame- 
work of the state and that should be apparent even when viewing 
the map from a distance, but also to retain important details for 
which the state is noted, and which can be seen on close in- 
spection of the map. 

Compilation Method 

For those who may be embarking on their own statewide 
geologic map compilation, and for those who are interested, the 
method used in compiling and pubhshing the Geologic Map of 
California will be described. There are probably as many meth- 
ods of compiling as there are compilers, each method having its 
own advantages and disadvantages. The method described here, 
devised through trial and error, was found suitable for our pur- 
poses. The method essentially consists of six steps in compiling 
followed by two steps for publication outlined as follows; 

1. Search and collection of source data. 

2. Evaluation and generalization of data. 

3. Reduction to the compilation scale. 

4. Plotting on the master base. 

5. Further generalization and editing. 

6. Review and correction. 

7. Preparation of printing plates. 

8. Final proof and publication. 

1. Search and collection of source data: No compilation is 
better than the sources upon which it is based. For this reason, 
a large amount of the effort involved in a good compilation is 
spent searching out the best available data. We in California are 
fortunate to have a data bank of map sources going back many 
years. This data bank was started in the 1930s by Dr. Olaf P. 
Jenkins, Chief Geologist of the Division of Mines, who came to 
the Division in 1929 to prepare a new geologic map of California. 
Much of the data contained in Dr. Jenkins' collection of maps 
has been superseded by more detailed work, but certain data, 
especially unpublished data covering remote areas of the state, 
are still useful or valuable for their historical content. 

When the preparation of the 1:250,0(X) scale Geologic Atlas 
of California was undertaken, the files of Dr. Jenkins were reor- 
ganized into r X 2° units, corresponding to the atlas sheets, and 
each piece of information was evaluated and either saved or 
rejected. As new data were acquired, they were systematically 
added into the collection. By 1973 the data bank had expanded 
from less than a single five-drawer file cabinet to six such cabi- 
nets and a number of roll-map files — and it is still growing. Then, 
as now, the amount of new data generated every year was so 
great (and becoming greater each year — see Figures 1 and 2) 
that even a brief suspension of data gathering would seriously 
compromise the usefulness of the data collection. 

In order to ensure completeness in gathering published data, 
one can refer to source indexes such as that published by the U.S. 
Geological Survey (Boardman, 1952). However, we found that 
the published indexes lagged far behind publication of new data. 
Thus, we had to develop our own indexes, and considerable time 
and effort were expended in this direction (see Strand and oth- 
ers, 1958; Koenig and Kiessling, 1968; Kiessling, 1972; and 
Kiessling and Peterson, 1977). 

We found the largest source of unpublished geologic map 
information on California in universities and colleges, in the 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



57 



form of theses and dissertations for advanced degrees — especial- 
ly in the fields of geology, seismology, paleontology, oceanogra- 
phy, geophysics, and geochemistry. Here too, no complete or 
up-to-date indexes existed, and much time was spent in prepar- 
ing our own indexes and gathering the data (see Jennings and 
Strand, 1963; Taylor, 1974; Peterson and Saucedo, 1978). 

Other unpublished sources of information include oil com- 
pany and mining company maps. However, little surface map- 
ping is done in oil exploration today — the bulk of the effort going 
into subsurface interpretations. The numerous surface maps ex- 
isting in the older files of oil companies were occasionally used, 
but all too often gaining access to them was difficult or impossi- 
ble. Moreover, there was no way to know whether data for 
certain areas even existed in company files . 

Maps by mining companies consist mostly of underground 
workings. Often their areal coverage is so narrow as to be of 
limited usefulness for regional compilations. However, regional 
mining exploration maps have been made for remote areas where 
mineral deposits occur, and these maps can be very useful. When 
such maps were known to exist and to be available, they were 
used. 

One other source of valuable unpublished data is work under 
way, especially work that is nearly complete. Numerous maps of 
this kind were made available by the U.S. Geological Survey, the 
Division of Mines and Geology, other state or federal agencies, 
and universities. 

2. Evaluation and generalization of data: Oftentimes more 
than one interpretation of the geology of a given area exists, and 
the compiler must choose which to use. Usually, the most recent 
map is chosen on the premise that the geologist has made use of 
pre-existing data and has correspondingly improved on that 
body of information. This is usually the case, but not always. The 
area of geologic interest or the objectives of later mappers may 
have been different from the earlier workers, and deliberate 
omissions in their maps may have been made. The compiler must 
always be on the lookout for such possibilities. 

After the data have been evaluated, a tracing of the mapped 
area is made for inclusion into the compilation. The tracing is 
done on an overlay of either good-quality tracing vellum or 
polyester drafting film. The advantage of using drafting film is 
that, with its superior transparency, it can be seen through with- 
out the use of a light table. Drafting film, of course, is also 
scale-stable. The original mapped units are combined according 
to a predetermined legend, and the contacts are then generalized 
in accordance with the amount of reduction that will be required. 

3. Reduction to the compilation scale: The tracings of the 
combined and generalized units are marked with a bar-scale 
showing the amount of reduction required to fit the master base 
map. A few major roads, or intersecting latitude and longitude 
lines, are drawn on the tracing in order to verify the amount of 
reduction or to provide control for adjusting any distortion that 
might exist in the source map. The tracings are then photograph- 
ically reduced to accurately fit the compilation base map. For the 
Geologic Atlas, reduction was made to the final publication 
scale, that is, 1 :250,000. In prepanng the 1 :750.000 scale Geolog- 
ic Map of California, intermediate - scale work sheets at 1 :250,- 
000 scale were prepared and later reduced to the 1:750,000 
publication scale. 

The photographic reduction technique used most successfully 
and efficiently by the Division was performed by high-quality 
engineering reproduction firms equipped with large cameras, 
vacuum frames, and photographic processing labs. The proce- 
dure for this technique consists, first, of making a 105-mm nega- 
tive of the tracing, utilizing a vacuum frame to ensure a fiat 



surface of the tracing. The negative is then used to photograph- 
ically print a positive image on sensitized drafting film. At the 
same time the image is enlarged to the precise size indicated by 
the bar-scale shown on the tracing. 

4. Plotting on the master base: The master compilation base 
map must be scale-stable material. This is absolutely essential in 
the publication process following the completion of the compila- 
tion. The base map shows at a minimum the roads, railroads, 
streams, lakes, and topographic contours. These features are 
printed on the reverse side of the base so that any erasures or 
changes in the geologic compilation will not destroy the base 
map features. Showing the culture and topography in one color 
and the streams and lakes in another makes it easy to distinguish 
between the two while plotting the geology. The geologic con- 
tacts are then drawn onto the master base utilizing black draw- 
ing ink and technical pens. A fine point is used for normal 
contacts and a broader point for fault contacts. 

Invariably additional generalization and simplification are re- 
quired at this stage. Now that these data have been reduced to 
the actual publication scale, it is possible to visualize the final 
product and to begin generalizing the data. The compiler's objec- 
tive is, of course, to present a picture that is as definitive as 
possible and that has both clarity and intelligent emphasis. To 
reach this goal, the compiler usually must make compromises 
dictated by the limits of space and legibility. Often the compiler 
finds that he has more geologically significant features to portray 
than space on the map to portray them, and he will have to 
choose what to show and what to leave out, relying on his 
interpretation of the relative importance of the available data. 

5. Further generalization and editing: After each of the indi- 
vidual reduced segments have been plotted and such inevitable 
problems as "dangling contacts" and mismatches have been re- 
solved (perhaps by consultation with the individual geologist, by 
compromises, or by field examination), the map is ready for an 
overview evaluation. At this point, attention is given to such 
factors as balance (areas where too much detail is shown), clari- 
ty (taking a more detached look at the overall map), and empha- 
sis ("can't see the forest for the trees"). A most useful aid at this 
step is the preparation of a hand-colored copy of the map. This 
may be a long and exacting task, but its value cannot be overesti- 
mated. With a hand-colored map, consideration of the above 
mentioned factors is greatly facilitated and many problems 
become glaringly apparent. 

6. Review and correction: Before the compilation is submitted 
for publication, it is advisable to have the map reviewed by 
experts conversant with wide areas of regional and detailed geol- 
ogy of the area. During preparation of the Geologic Map of 
Cahfomia, we were fortunate to have the benefit of extensive 
reviews by a wide range of professionals affiliated with the U.S. 
Geological Survey, and universities, other State of California and 
Federal agencies, as well as a number of consulting geologists 
and firms. Each reviewed our maps with great interest and dedi- 
cation. 

Following the review process, the various comments, correc- 
tions, and suggested additions are evaluated and the necessary 
changes incorporated in the master compilation. 

7. Preparation of printing plates: After the map compilation 
is submitted for publication, it becomes a job for the drafting 
staff and lithographer. However, the responsibility for checking 
the work submitted to the lithographer still falls on the compiler. 
Inevitably, no matter how carefully the compilation has been 
prepared, problems will be encountered which only the geolo- 
gist-compiler can resolve. 



58 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



It is usually beyond the knowledge and experience of the 
geologist-compiler to tell the drafting staff how to make the map 
ready for the printer. However, the compiler should understand 
something of the printing procedure in order to recognize some 
of the problems in preparing the printing plates. A summary of 
the steps involved in this procedure is as follows; First, the 
compilation must be photographically transferred to a sensitized 
drafting film in order that the contacts and faults can be scribed 
(engraved). These are first scribed solid so that the necessary 
"peelcoats" for each of the formation colors and patterns can be 
made by the lithographer. Then the contacts and faults, which 
were scribed as solid lines, are "dashed" where required by 
opaqueing, usually utilizing a "visitype" pattern on a transparent 
overlay sheet. Similarly, overlays are prepared using "visitype" 
for dotted faults, queried faults and queried contacts, thrust fault 
"barbs," fault attitudes, formation symbols, volcano symbols, 
fault names, hot springs and well locations, and any other special 
symbols. Some of these symbols can be combined on the same 
overlay, but usually certain ones are kept separate if the map is 
to be printed in various forms for other purposes where simplica- 
tion may be required or different colors are to be used — for 
example, color-coded faults for a fault map and uncolored 
(black) faults for a geologic map. Lastly, an overlay for the 
explanation, titles, and other peripheral data is prepared. 

The plates and overlays of the contacts, faults, and the forma- 
tion symbols are then photographically combined, and a film 
positive is made of the combination. Ozalid prints of this com- 
posite plate are made, and these are hand-colored for use as color 
guides by the lithographer when the peelcoats are made. 

8. Final proof and publication: After all the necessary scribed 
plates and overlays are prepared, the hand-colored guides made, 
and a color and pattern scheme selected, the "map" is ready to 
send to the lithographer. In addition to the above, a dummy 
layout is included, together with instructions concerning the 
various plates for the base map (previously acquired from the 
U.S. Geological Survey). After these materials are sent to the 
lithographer, the job for the compiler and drafting staff does not 
end, because the extremely important task of proofing is yet to 
come. 

After the lithographer prepares the printing plates, the first 
color proof will arrive. The compiler will be especially interested 
in seeing how the selected color scheme appears. Do the colors 
show up properly? Can units be adequately distinguished? Are 
the color shades aesthetically pleasing? Changes in colors or 
patterns may be required before the second proof is prepared. 
The drafting staff, in the meantime, will make a careful, sys- 
tematic search for printer's errors in the placement of colors 
and/or patterns. Everyone, of course, will be interested in how 
the layout appears, the titles, explanations, and legend. After all 
the discovered errors have been noted, and instructions to the 
lithographer for any changes in color and layout have been 
made, the lithographer will correct and change the printing 
plates accordingly and a second proof will be prepared. This 
procedure will be repeated until satisfaction by all concerned is 
attained. The map is then ready for printing. 



Classification of Rock Units and 
Special Problems 

The rock units selected for the new Geologic Map were largely 
derived from the legend for the 1:250,000 scale atlas sheets. The 
124 units shown on the 1:250,(XX) scale series have been com- 
bined into 52 units. Fewer units are used as a result of fewer 



subdivisions within epochs or periods; for example, Miocene 
marine sedimentary rocks are shown rather than uppei, middle, 
and lower Miocene marine sedimentary rocks. Table 10 illus- 
trates how the units of the 1:250,000 scale Geologic Atlas of 
California have been grouped into the new 1:750,000 scale Geo- 
logic Map of California. 

From Table 10, it might appear that the units shown on the 
map are defined by time lines, but they are in fact drawn on 
formation boundaries. For convenience, formations of approxi- 
mately the same age and origin are grouped under the same 
symbol. Thus, all the marine formations of Miocene or predomi- 
nantly Miocene age are shown as "M," and all the volcanic rocks 
of Miocene or predominantly Miocene age are shown as "Mv." 
Although the boundaries shown on the map are drawn on the 
basis of mapped formations, only the Franciscan Complex is 
separately identified. This exception is warranted because of the 
Franciscan's widespread extent, its time span of deposition (Ju- 
rassic through Cretaceous), and its importance in the under- 
standing of California geologic history. 

For reference purposes, a complete listing of all formations 
grouped within each of the units shown on the Geologic Map of 
California is included in Appendix C. The Geologic Legend of 
the map contains brief descriptions of the units indicating the 
predominant lithologic types. Among the Cenozoic rocks, a 
statement is also included to indicate the degree of consolidation. 
This could be useful in estimating relative slope stability, ground 
shaking during earthquakes, erosion resistance, and liquifaction 
potential. 

The plan for classification of the rock units in the Geologic 
Legend, which is reproduced in Figure 15, follows a systematic 
scheme. The rock units have been broadly classified into sedi- 
mentary, volcanic, metamorphic, and plutonic lithologic groups, 
and are arranged in normal stratified sequence with the oldest 
rocks at the bottom of the chart. Thus, the relative and compara- 
ble ages among the lithologic groups are indicated as closely as 
possible — rocks of approximately the same age being shown on 
the same horizontal level in the legend. The marine and nonma- 
rine (continental) facies of the Cenozoic sedimentary rocks have 
also been distinguished. 

The Cenozoic rocks, ranging in age from Holocene through 
Paleocene, have been grouped into: ( I ) marine sedimentary 
rocks, (2) nonmarine (continental) sedimentary rocks, (3) vol- 
canic rocks, and (4) plutonic rocks. The nonmarine sedimentary 
rocks are distinguished from the marine rocks by the letter "c" — 
for example, "Pc" for Pliocene "continental" rocks. The Ceno- 
zoic volcanic rocks have been further subdivided into fiow rocks 
and pyroclastic rocks, the pyroclastic rocks being distinguished 
by the superscript "p." 

The lower half of the Geologic Legend, representing the pre- 
Cenozoic rocks, is more complex and includes rocks of Precam- 
brian through Mesozoic age. These are grouped into: ( 1 ) marine 
sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks, (2) mixed rocks (of 
uncertain age, consisting of undivided granitic and metamorphic 
rocks or undivided metasedimentry and metavolcanic rocks), 
(3) metavolcanic rocks, and (4) plutonic rocks. 

The plutonic rocks are classified by age and by broad litholog- 
ic types. For example, the granitic types are the most common 
in California and are the most amenable to classification by age 
(mainly on the basis of radiometric data). Among the granitic 
rocks, the Mesozoic ones have the greatest extent, but Precam- 
brian. Paleozoic, and Cenozoic granitic rocks are also distin- 
guished. These are all identified by the symbol "gr" indicating 
their basic composition, and the superscripts Mz, pG, Pz, and Cz 
are used to indicate their age. Other major plutonic types are 
separately identified but not subdivided in detail. For example, 
the ultramafic rocks (mostly serpentine) are shown as "um" and 



1<)85 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



59 



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60 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



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1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



61 



gabbroic rocks as "gb." The ultramafic rocks in large part are 
fragments of mantle material of various ages and rest in their 
present position by tectonic rather than by magmatic processes. 

Rocks of the Franciscan Complex have been separated into 
three subdivisions. "KJf" is the most widespread, and consists 
of Cretaceous and Jurassic sandstones with smaller amounts of 
shale, chert, limestone, and conglomerate. "KJf„" indicates 
Franciscan rocks that have been intensely fragmented and 
sheared into a melange . "KJf," is the designation for the meta- 
morphosed part of the Franciscan Complex, consisting largely of 
blueschist and semi-schist. 

A hybrid symbol "SO" is used for Silurian and Ordovician 
rocks. These rocks are found in California in limited extent and 
could not be readily portrayed on the present map if shown 
separately. The rocks occur in narrow bands in the Klamath 
Mountains, Sierra Nevada, and Basin Ranges geologic prov- 
inces. 

Because in many places in California the older rocks are de- 
void of fossils (or the forms found may not be complete enough 
or diagnostic of age), several broad rock groups have been desig- 
nated for some of the pre-Cenozoic rocks. For example, the 
symbols "m," "mv," "gr-m," "sch," and "Is" have been used for 
rocks whose ages are very uncertain. The symbol "m" is used for 
undivided pre-Cenozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic 
rocks; "mv" for undivided pre-Cenozoic metavolcanic rocks; 
"gr-m" for a mixture of granitic and metamorphic rocks ranging 
in age from Mesozoic to Precambrian; "sch" for schist that is 
believed to be mostly Paleozoic or Mesozoic (although some 
may be Precambrian); and "Is" for hmestone, dolomite, and 
marble of various pre-Tertiary periods or of uncertain age. 

A similar broad rock unit group has also been used in one 
instance in the Cenozoic section. This is the symbol "Tc," which 
is used to represent nonmarine sedimentary rocks whose relative 
age cannot be determined any closer than Tertiary. 

Special problems exist in the Cenozoic rocks where it is impor- 
tant to separate the nonmarine from the marine sedimentary 
rocks. The marine Tertiary rocks lie principally along the west- 
em part of the state (coastal ranges). However, in many places 
within sections of shallow-water marine rocks, there are nonma- 
rine strata — for example, rocks containing coal or hgnite, red 
beds, and sand dunes. These are not shown as nonmarine units 
if they appear to be very local or limited in area. Likewise, many 
elevated marine terraces are covered wholly or in part by a thin 
cover of nonmarine talus debris. These areas also are generally 
shown as marine to emphasize the geomorphic origin of the unit. 
Similarly, a unit like the Sespe Formation, which consists 
predominantly of red beds and other nonmarine deposits, does 
have marine facies — particularly as the unit is traced westward 
toward the sea. The Sespe, in addition, poses a problem because 
its age ranges from late Eocene to early Miocene. In portraying 
this unit, a compromise has been chosen, and the unit is shown 
on the map by its predominant characteristics — nonmarine 
Oligocene. 

Among the older (pre-Cenozoic) rocks, the nonmarine facies 
are usually almost impossible to recognize as mappable units and 
have only been done so in a few places in California. For exam- 
ple, the Cretaceous Trabuco Formation and the Carboniferous 
Supai Formation have been recognized as being wholly or in part 
of nonmanne origin. However, these rocks are exposed only in 
limited areas in California, and are hence grouped on the 1:750,- 
000 scale map with the marine units. 

Metamorphic rocks were the most diPTicult to denote on the 
Geologic Map of California. In general, the older rocks show 
increased evidence of metamorphism, although this might be of 
a very low grade. Where the age of metasedimentary rocks is 
known, for example, by their fossil content or by well-defined 



stratigraphic position, the unit is depicted on the map by the 
symbol representing the geologic period when it was deposited. 
If the age of a metamorphic rock unit is uncertain or unknown, 
we tried to show the rocks by their characteristic field appear- 
ance, for example, "sch" (schist of various types) or "Is" (mar- 
bleized limestone or dolomite). Where undivided pre-Cenozoic 
metamorphic rocks have not been mapped by their metamorphic 
characteristics, they are shown on the compilation simply as 
"m" (undivided metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks), or 
"mv" (metavolcanic rocks). Where the general age of some 
metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks is known, the symbols 
"Pz," "Mzv," and "Pzv" are used to indicate Paleozoic 
metasedimentary rocks and Mesozoic and Paleozoic metavol- 
canic rocks. 

The map legend also shows that the Geologic Map of Califor- 
nia tends to emphasize bedrock rather than surficial geologic 
units. It can be seen, however, that various surficial deposits of 
Quaternary age are lumped into the unit "Q." The largest area 
of such surficial deposits in the state is the Great Valley of 
California. Smaller deposits occur elsewhere, but they are usu- 
ally shown only where the area covered is significant. Stream 
alluvium, fan deposits, salt deposits. Quaternary lake deposits, 
and Quaternary marine or stream terrace deposits are all includ- 
ed in the unit "Q." Such deposits, however, are not shown if they 
greatly interfere in the depiction of the bedrock units. An excep- 
tion to this general rule is the case where a fault intersects or 
offsets Quaternary surficial units. In such cases, the young surfi- 
cial unit might even be exaggerated to illustrate this important 
evidence for recency of faulting. 

Certain other Quaternary surficial deposits are shown where 
significantly large. For example, glacial deposits are shown be- 
cause of their importance to Quaternary chronology, and exten- 
sive dune sand deposits are depicted, especially where they occur 
as rather large areas of possible economic or geomorphological 
importance. Lastly, some Quaternary landslide deposits are in- 
dicated where they are particularly large (for example, Black- 
hawk and Martinez Mountain rock slides in southern 
California), or where they drastically obscure the geologic rela- 
tionships of the bedrock units (for example. Table Mountain 
serpentine landslides in the central Coast Ranges). Unfortunate- 
ly, the decision to show landslide deposits was not made until the 
compilation was well underway; as a result, some truly huge 
landslides have not been depicted. This is not altogether a short- 
coming of the map, however, because if too many large land- 
slides were shown, the bedrock geology would be 
correspondingly obscured. 



Colors, Patterns, Symbols of Rock Units, 
and Map Appearance 

A combination of colors, patterns, and symbols has been used 
to distinguish the rock units shown on the Geologic Map of 
California. Each device was chosen to adhere as closely as possi- 
ble to national or international convention and to best illustrate 
the complex geology of California. 

I . Colors: Worldwide efforts to achieve a systematic scheme 
of colors for geologic maps began nearly a century ago. The 2nd 
and 3rd International Geological Congresses made recommen- 
dations for international standards in 1881 and 1885, and the 
World Map Commission made certain modifications in 1958. In 
this country, attempts to set a national standard of colors for 
portraying rocks of each geologic age began in 1881 with J.W. 



62 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



GEOLOGIC 



MARINE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS 



NONMARINE (CONTINENTAL) SEDIMENTARY ROCKS 





• 








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Earentivs mariiM ond nonmorin* tond depoiiM. ^n»iaiiy 
neor Hm cooil or d«t«r1 ployot. 



Selected large londtlidet, iwch oi Blockhawk Slide on 
rtortti tide of Son Gabriel Mountaini; eoHy lo loie Quoter- 
fKjry. 



m 



Alluvium, lake, playa, ond lerroce depotili; unconiolidot- 
ed ond iemi-conu>lidated MatHy nonmanne. but includei 
morine depOfili neor fhe cooil 



Glocial till and morainei. Found af high elevations moitly 
in the Sierra N*vodo ortd Klomoth Mowntaint. 



Sondilone, lilhtone, thole, and conglomerote; moilly moderately con- 
solidated. 



Sandilorte, thole, liltitone, conglomefote, and breccia; moderately to well 
consolidated. 

Sandstone, shole. conglomerate; mostly well consolidated 



Shale, sandstone, cortgtomerate, minor limeslorte; moitly well consolidoted. 



Sandstone, shole, and conglomerate; motlty well consolidated. 



Pliocerte ond/or Pleislocene sandstone, shole. and grovel depos- 
its; moitly loosely consolidated. 



Sor^storte, shale, conglomerate, and fonglomerote; moderately 
lo well consolidated. 



Undivided Tertiary sarsdslone. shole, conglomerote. brec- 
cia, ortd artcient lake deposits. 



Sortdslone, shole. and conglomerate; mostly well consolidoted. 



Sandstone, shale, conglomerote; moderately to well consolidat- 



MARINE SEDIMENTARY AND METASEDIMENTARY ROCKS 



ia s 



5 i 



Sor>dstone, shole. ar»d mirsor conglomerate in coastal belt of nortSweilem 
California; included by sottm in FrorKiscan Complei. Previously considered 
Cretoceows, but rvow krtown to contoin eorly Tertiory microfossils in ploces. 



Upper Cretoceout landitone, shale, artd conglomerate. 



Lower Cretoceou* Mindifone, ihale, and conglomerate. 



Shale, sandilo«>e. minor conglomerate, chert, slate, limeslorte; minor pyro- 
cloitk rock*. 



Shole. cor>glomerote, limestone and dolomite, sandstone, slate, homfels, 
quorttite; minor pyroclostic rocks. 



r:^ 



Shale, cor>glomerole. limestone and dolomite, sandstone, ilote, homfels, 
quortiite; minor pyroclostic rocks. 



Shole. sartdslone, conglomerate, limestone, dolomite, chert, homfels, mar- 
ble, quartiile; m part pyroclostic rocks. 



Limestone or>d dolomite, sandstone and shole; in port tuffoceous 



Sondstor>e. shale, conglomerore, chert, slate, quortiite, homfels, marble, 
dolomite, phylltte; some greenstorte. 



SortditoTM, shale, limestone, dolomite, chert, quortiite. ond phyllite; 
includes some rocks thot ore possibly Precambrian. 



Conglomerote. shole, sandstone. limestor>e. dolomite, marble, gneiss, hom- 
fels. ond qworttite; moy be Poleoioic in port 



Undivided Cretoceovt iar»dstor>e, shale, and cor»- 
glomerate; miiKM nonmarirre rocks in Peninsular 
Ranges. 



Kjr: FrarKiKon Complex: Cretaceous and Jurassic sandstorte with 
smolter amounts of shale, chert. timestof\e, orvd cor>glomerote 
Includes FrarKiscon melange, except where seporated-see KJf,. 

Kji«: Mdongeof frog men ted and sheared FroncisconComplex rocks. 

Kji, : BIweschisi and semi-schist of FrorKiscan Complex. 



Schists of various types; mostly Poleoioic or Meso- 
loic oge; some Precombrian. 



Limeitorte. dolomite. ar»d morble whose oge ii un- 
certoin but probobly Poleoioic or Mesotoic 



Undivided Poleoioic metosedimentory rocks In- 
cludes slote. sar>dstone. shale, chert, conglomerate, 
limestone, dolomite, morble, phylltte, schist, hom- 
lels. and quortiite. 



Figure 15. Geologic Legend (generalized description of rock types) 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



63 



LEGEND 



\ OLCANIC ROCKS 



PLUTONIC ROCKS 



0.. a 



0>: R«c«At (Holocan*) ■d c onk flow tocki; nMwr 

pyrodoftk dapoiiti 
(>■*: t«c««l (Holocana) pyrod o itk and loi c onk 

mudflow 6*poun. 



a,' 



dcpotiH. 
Ov* : Q\iat**norf pyrodoiHc and vokonk mvdflow 
dvpoftv 



Tv : Tsrtiofy volcomc flow rockt; minor pyrodaiHc 

<l*pOtitl. 
r.»i T«ft»ory pyroclaihc of>d vokontc mudflow 
dvpoiitt. 



Tvftiory mtrvvv* rocki; moitty ihoNow (hypobytiol) 
plugi and dikvi. 



OH^ 



C«nozo*C (Tertiary) Qronilic rock* — quartz monxo- 
nile, qwortz lotit*, ond minor monzonlte, orar>odior- 
it«, ar>d gronitv; found m ttte Kingilon, Ponomint. 
AmorgoMi. and G'e*nwot»r Ror>oet in K>urt>«Oit- 
em Cal'pfomta 



MIXED ROCKS 



META\OLCANlC ROCKS 



PLUTONIC ROCKS 



GroniHc and NMtamorpluc rocks, mosriy gn«iu and 
oftwr rwtamorphk rockl iniected by gronitic rockv 
MeioioK h) pTtcomhnan, 



Undnnd*d pre-Csrtozoic mctascdi men lory ond 
m«tovolcan>c rocki o4 grval vonety Moitty Uote. 
qwartiii*. Komfeli. chert, phyllite. myionil*. icKiit, 
gr>*<ii, ond minor morbU. 



oO: 



CompU* of Precombrion igneout ortd mclomorphK 
rockL Mottly gn*>u and Khiil intruded by igrkeoMt 
rockij noy be Mvtoxok in port. 



Uf 



Urtdivided Metoioic volconic or»d metovokonic 
rockt Andeiile and r+iyoJit« Bow rocki. greenilone, 
TolconK breccia ond other pyrockjltic rocki; in port 
itrongfy melomorphoied Includei vokonic rocki of 
Fronc'Kon Complei- boMiltic pillow lovo, diaboie, 
greenitorte. artd mir>or pyrocloitic rocki. 



Undnrided pre-Cenozok metovolconic rocki. ln< 
cli>dei latite, docite. twtf. and greenstone; common- 
ly KhiltOM 



Ufxlivided Paleozoic metovokonic rockt Moitly 
fkiwi. breccia, and tuM. irKluding greenstone, dio- 
boM ond pilow lovQi; minor mterbedded ledimert- 



Mesozok granite, quortz monzonite, granodiorite, 

ond quart! dionte 



Ultromofk rockl. mottty Mrpentirte. Mirtor pendo- 
tite. gobbro, ond diobai* Otieffy Metotok 



Gabbro artd dork (fioritk rocki; chiefly Mewzok. 



Undated gronitk rocki. 



Paleozok ond Permo-Trioiiic gronitk rockt in the 
Son Gabriel ond Klamath Mountomt. 



Precombnon gronde. tyer^ite. orvorthotile. artd 
gobbroK rockt m Itte Son Gobnel Mountomt. atio 
vorioui Precombnon pKttonk rockt eliewhere tn 
towtheottem CoTifomio. 



64 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Table 11. Comparison of "American" and "International" map colors for sedimentary rocks. 



SYSTEM 


AMERICAN COLOR SYSTEM 


INTERNATIONAL COLOR SYSTEM 


U.S. GEOL. SURVEY 
2nd ANN. REPT. 
1881' 


GEOLOGIC MAP OF 
UNITED STATES 
1974^ 


GEOLOGIC MAP 
OF CALIFORNIA 
1977 ' 


2nd and 3rd 

INTERNAT. GEOL. CONG. 
BOLOGNA AND BERLIN 
1881, 1885' 


WORLD MAP 

COMMISSION 

1959' 


QUATERNARY 


Gray 


Gray 
Pole yellow 


Pah yalhw 
Gray 


Undecided 


Pate yellow brown 


TERTIARY 


Yello. 


Yellow 

Pole brown 

Pole flesh 

Dorit yellow 

Greenish yellow 

Oronge 


DeHcyeOow 

f/eth 

Ton 

Greenith yellow 

Yellow green 


Yellow 


Shodes of yellow 


CRETACEOUS 


Green 


Olive green 
Yellow green 
Cool green 


Ofive green 
Coal green 
Gray green 


Green 


Light greeni 


JURASSIC 


Blue green 


She green 


Blue 


Shades of blue 


TRIASSIC 


Peacock blue 


Peacock blue 


Violer 


Ughl purple 


PERMIAN 


Blue 


Cool bloe 


Cool blue 


Gray 


Warm brown 


PENNSYIVANIAN 


Gray 


Warm blue 


Dork groy 


MISSISSIPPIAN 


Worm blue 


DEVONIAN 


Purple 


Blue 


Dofi blue 


Brown 


Brown 


SILURIAN 


Purple 


Lavender 


Greeniih gray 


Grayish green 


ORDOVICIAN 


Rose and pink 


Medium green 


CAMBRIAN 


Red and coral 


Dark lavender 


Brownish green 


PRECAMBRIAN 


Bro.n 


Yellow brown 

Brown 

Bluish gray 

Brick red 


Worm brown 


Rose 


Groyish green 

ro 

Orange pink 

and Rose 



' Powell. 1882. p. xi-iv 
* Jennings. 1977 



' King and Beikman. 1974 

* King and Beikman. 1974. p. 27; also see Fraser, 1888. p. 90 



* Commission for the Geologic Map of ihe World. 1959 



Table 12. Comparison of "American" and "International" map colors for plutonic and volcanic rocks. 







AMERICAN COLOR SYSTEM 


INTERNATIONAL COLOR SYSTEM 


ROCK TYPE 


U.S. GEOL. SURVEY 
2nd ANN. REPORT 
1881' 


GEOLOGIC MAP OF 
THE UNITED STATES 
1974^ 


GEOiOClC MAP OF 

CALIFORNIA 

1977^ 


2nd and 3rd 

INTERNAT. GEOL. CONG. 
BOLOGNA AND BERLIN 
1881, 1885' 


WORLD MAP 

COMMISSION 

1959' 


u 
z 
O 

t- 

3 

Q. 


"Granitic" 


-o 

« 

o 

s 

-D 
O 


Rondom dash-portern 
on color ossigned to 
sedimentory rocks of 
same age 


Shades of red 


■D 

V 

O 

c 

c 
« 


Shades of bright 
red to bright red 
oronge 


Mofic 


Double dosh-pattern 
on shades of green 
[Jurassic and Paleozoic) - 
Solid pale red (Triassrc) . 





Light purple 


Shades of purple 


Ultramafic 


Dork blue 


III 


Dark purple 


U 

z 
< 


Cenozoic 
Volconic 
Rocks 


Shades of pink and 
orange Ifelsic rocks 
with v-pottern ] 


6 «, 


Orange 


Shades of strong 
oronge (acid) to 
purplish reds (basic) 


1 


Pink 


1 


Salmon 


Pre-Cenozoic 

Volconic 

Rocks 


v-pottern on color 
assigned to sedimentary 
rocks of same age- 


v-pattern on color 
oisigned to iedimentary 
rocks of iome age 


Pattern of short 
lines on color 
osjigned to sedimentary 
rocks of some age. 



' Powell. 1882. p Xi'lv 
' King and Beikman. 1974 



' Jennings. 1977 
" Fraser. 1888. p 95 



* Commission for the Geologic Map of the World. 1959 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



65 



Powell, Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. For an interest- 
ing history of the development of schemes for geologic map 
colors, the reader is referred to King and Beikman (1974, p. 
25-28). 

Both schemes proposed that the orderly sequence of sedimen- 
tary rock units be portrayed on geologic maps by a prismatic 
sequence of colors. For example, with the use of yellow, green, 
blue, and violet, yellow would be younger than green, green 
younger than blue, and so forth — the darker shades representing 
progressively older rocks (Table 11). In this way, the map would 
show at a glance which sedimentary rocks were younger and 
which were older, and oftentimes, the structures they form 
would be readily apparent. 

In actual practice, most geologic maps follow this principle 
but with departures because of limitations in contrasting shades 
of color for areas with numerous units of comparable ages. The 
"International color system" works well for maps of Europe 
(where the system was proposed), but it has important deficien- 
cies for geologic maps of the United States. The international 
scheme, unfortunately, is not entirely suitable for areas where 
Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks predominate and where they 
have been subdivided into numerous periods. This was not a 
problem in Europe where neither the Precambrian nor the Paleo- 
zoic is extensive or subdivided as much as in some other parts 
of the world. 

Therefore the map colors proposed by Powell, with subse- 
quent elaborations, have become the "American color system," 
which is the general model used by the U.S. Geological Survey. 
The principal differences between the "American" and "Interna- 
tional" color systems are shown in Table 1 1 for the sedimentary 
rocks and Table 12 for the igneous rocks. Note that in the' Ameri- 
can" system the blues and shades of purple extend farther down 
in the Paleozoic Era, and also note the different treatment of the 
intrusive and extrusive rocks. 

The color scheme chosen for the Geologic Map of California 
is largely patterned after the "American" system, as exemplified 
by the U.S. Geological Survey's Geologic Map of the United 
States (King and Beikman, 1974) for the sedimentary rocks, but 
a closer adherence to the "International color system" was fol- 
lowed for plutonic and volcanic rocks. Note that bright reds and 
purples have been reserved on the California map for plutonic 
rocks. This departure from the "American" system is in keeping 
with a long tradition of geologic maps of California. The use of 
bright colors for the plutonic rocks achieves a much better con- 
trast between the vastly different sedimentary and plutonic rock 
types. A glance at the Geologic Map of California and the bright 
red color immediately conveys the location of batholithic rocks, 
and the deep purple color shows the distribution of serpentinite 
and related ultramafic rocks, which are so important tectonically 
and economically to California. Following the use of intense red 
for the deep-seated plutonic rocks, warm shades of pink and 
orange are used to portray volcanic rocks. 

Among the prismatic colors used to portray sedimentary 
rocks, there is not a large contrast between the yellowish-greens 
of the Lower Tertiary rocks and the light green of the Upper 
Cretaceous rocks. This was done purposely, because in many 
places in California the distinction between rocks of these ages 
is very difficult to draw. Lithologically, the rocks of these two 
ages are commonly identical, and the lack or sparseness of fossils 
makes the separation in many cases almost impossible. 

A similar situation exists with the "coastal belt" rocks of 
northwestern California, shown as "TK." These rocks of li- 
thologic similarity* to the Franciscan Complex (indeed, often 

* Cottstal belt rocks, when analyzed carefully, often have a high K-feldspar content, 
unlike the typical Franciscan rocks. 



shown as Franciscan on some maps) are now known to contain, 
in the sparse fossil record, early Tertiary microfossils. Hence, 
these rocks, too, are shown as a transitional green between the 
Lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous colors. Likewise, lithol- 
ogy and other characteristics of Miocene and Oligocene marine 
sedimentary rocks are often very close and hence are portrayed 
by similar colors on the map. 

2. Patterns: In addition to colors, certain rock units are distin- 
guished by an overprint pattern (Table 13). Basically, all marine 
sedimentary or metasedimentary units, whether Cenozoic, 
Mesozoic, Paleozoic, or Precambrian, are represented by solid 
colors without any overprint patterns. Nonmarine units (distin- 
guished on this map in the Cenozoic only) are shown by the 
same color that is used to show their marine counterparts, but 
with a stipple pattern overprint (either blue or red, depending 
on which shows up better). 

Table 13. Patterns used on Geologic Map of California. 



UNIT 


PATTERN 


Nonmarine sedimentary 
rocks (Distinguished 
only in Cenozoic) 


Stipple pattern on same solid 
color as marine counterparts. 


Marine sedimentary rocks 
(all ages) 


No pattern, solid colors represent - 
ing appropriate geologic age. 


Pyroclastic volcanic 
rocks (Cenozoic age 
only) 


V-pattern. on appropriate strati - 
graphic color. 


Metavolcanic rocks 
(Pre-Cenozoic age) 


V-pattern. on appropriate strati - 
graphic color. 


Franciscan melange 
(where mapped) 


Random dot pattern on green 
color of Franciscan Complex rocks. 


Highly metamorphosed 
rocks (schist, gneiss, 
slate, mylonlte. etc.) 


Randomly oriented short dashes. 


Granitic rocks 


Red color with various patterns to 
distinguish various ages. 



Pyroclastic volcanic rocks of Cenozoic age and metavolcanic 
rocks of pre-Cenozoic age are shown with a v-pattem overprint 
on the appropriate stratigraphic color. 

A random dot pattern overprint is used on the green color of 
the Franciscan Complex to indicate where areas of melange have 
been mapped. Because melange in the Franciscan has been 
recognized as mappable units only in the past decade, this infor- 
mation is incomplete. However, because of its importance to 
structural concepts and its relevance to the stability of slopes, 
this information is shown where it is known (although often 
without contacts bounding the unit and with only the pattern to 
indicate the presence of mapped melange). 

Most of the more highly metamorphosed rocks (for example, 
schist, gneiss, slate, mylonite, etc.) and the undivided mixed 
rocks are shown with an overprint of randomly oriented short 
dashes. Granitic rocks of different ages are depicted with various 
distinguishing overprint patterns. 

3. Symbols: Besides colors and patterns, each geologic unit is 
identified by a letter or combination of letters in order to aid in 
matching the colors of map units to units with similar colors on 
the legend. This is particularly helpful in complex parts of the 
map where the unit may only be a small patch or a narrow band. 



66 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Symbols become increasingly useful as the map fades with time 
and makes some color contrasts more difficult to distinguish. We 
have also found it particularly useful to label every area bounded 
by contacts with a symbol because it enables the pubhcation of 
an uncolored edition of the geologic map. 

The letter symbols used on the Geologic Map of California 
were chosen to comply as much as possible with accepted con- 
ventions, and also to be simple. Most symbols consist of a single 
capital letter indicating the geologic epoch or period when the 
rock tormation was formed. In some cases, combinations of 
capital letters were used where the age of the unit widely trans- 
gresses geologic time, for example, "TK" for Tertiary-Cretaceous 
rocks. Likewise, "SO" was used for Silurian and Ordovician 
rocks, which because of their limited exposure in California, 
would not have shown up individually. 

Because of the repetition of certain first-letters in the names 
of several periods and epochs, a number of contrived symbols 
were utilized. For example. Pliocene, Paleocene, Permian, and 
Paleozoic, each begin with the letter "P"; therefore, the follow- 
ing symbols were used for these units respectively; P, Ep, Pm, and 
Pz. This follows the convention used for many years on the 
Geologic Atlas of California and on some U.S. Geological Sur- 
vey maps. Cenozoic, Cretaceous, Carboniferous, and Cambrian 
also posed a problem with the repetition of the first letter "C." 
This was resolved by using the symbols Cz, K, C, and €. This 
has also been common practice on Califomian, U.S. Geological 
Survey, and a number of foreign geologic maps for many years. 

Lower case "u" and "1" differentiate upper and lower parts of 
certain periods, for example, Ku and Kl. Lower case "c" identi- 
fies nonmarine ("continental") sedimentary rocks. A lower case 
"v" is used to denote volcanic rocks, and a superscript "p" is 
used to distinguish Cenozoic volcanic rocks of pyroclastic origin 
from flow rocks. Other lower case modifiers used are; "g" for 
Quaternary glacial deposits (Qg), "i" for Tertiary intrusive 
rocks (Ti), and "s" for extensive Quaternary sand deposits 
(Qs). 

For plutonic and metamorphic rocks that range widely in age 
or are of uncertain age, lower case letters or combinations of 
letters are used to indicate their broad rock classification. For 
example, "m" is used for undivided pre-Cenozoic metamorphic 
rocks (where metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks have not 
been distinguished); "mv" for metavolcanic rocks; "sch" for 
schist; "Is" for hmestone, dolomite, and marble; "gr" for granitic 
rocks; "gb" for gabbro; and "urn" for ultramafic rocks (mostly 
serpentmite and related rocks). 

4. Map appearance: It is apparent, even from a distance, that 
the Geologic Map of California shows a major color contrast 
among certain geologic units. This was purposely intended. For 
example, the deep-seated batholithic-type rocks shown in bright 
red hues are easily distinguished from the paler (pastel) hues 
depicting the sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks (arranged 
in a prismatic sequence, yellows through lavender with the dark- 
er colors being the oldest). Between these two principal color 
and rock contrasts are depicted the Cenozoic volcanic rocks, 
shown in shades of warm pink and orange. Thus, at a glance, the 
map user is able to see the distribution of the granitic rocks, the 
widespread Cenozoic volcanic rocks, the sedimentary and 
metasedimentary rocks, and the vast basins of unconsolidated 
alluvium. 

On closer inspection, with attention to various patterns used, 
the map-user is able to easily differentiate between marine 
and nonmarine rocks (stipple pattern on the latter); most vol- 
canic rocks (random v-pattem) ; and metamorphic rocks 
(randomly-oriented dash pattern). In addition, stratified rocks of 
similar age and lithologic origin appear as different shades of the 



same color. In this way, they may appear as one unit from a 
distance and the major sedimentary groups are emphasized; 
however on closer inspection, the rock groups can be separated 
by the more subtle color contrasts. 

Geologic Time Scale 

In addition to the conventional geologic legend on the Geolog- 
ic Map of California, in the lower left-hand part of the map is 
a chart portraying a generalized geologic time scale. This chart 
is reproduced as Table 14 (but without color). 

The purpose of this generalized time scale is to assist those 
who are not familiar with the geologist's way of depicting rela- 
tive rock ages. The term "relative geologic time" is used on the 
chart, for that is how geologists began scores of years ago to 
depict rock sequences, not knowing the rock's actual age in 
numbers of years. Of course, with the knowledge of radioactive 
decay rates and other sophisticated dating techniques, geologists 
now can determine the actual age of many types of rocks. 
However, the generalized geologic time scale was devised to put 
rock ages in some sort of perspective, especially as they relate to 
the evolution of life on the planet. The same geologic time scale 
is used universally by all geologists and paleontologists. 

The generalized time scale shown on the Geologic Map of 
Cahfomia is shown in color to match the major time units of the 
stratified rocks depicted on the map. Subdivisions of the various 
periods are, of course, shown on the Geologic Map by shades of 
the colors shown on the generalized geologic time scale. For 
example. Upper and Lower Cretaceous are shown in shades of 
green, and subdivisions of the Paleozoic are shown in shades of 
blue and lavender. 

The colored time scale shows that the colors are arranged as 
a spectrum with yellow for the youngest rocks, green for Meso- 
zoic.and blue and lavender for Paleozoic. Thus, the map-user can 
quickly get an approximate idea of the distribution and age of 
stratified rocks within the state. 

Volcanoes 

The location of numerous volcanoes of all types (cinder cones, 
domes, composite or stratovolcanoes) are shown on the Geolog- 
ic Map of Cahfomia with the conventional volcano symbol, in 
the same way that they are shown on the Fault Map of Cahfor- 
nia. Some 565 volcanoes are plotted, most of which are cinder 
cones. The greatest concentration of volcanoes in California are 
in the Modoc Lava Plateau, Clear Lake, Owens Valley, and 
certain southern California desert areas. For more discussion of 
volcanoes, see pages 43 - 45 . 

Batholiths and Plutons 

Numerous granitic intrusive bodies are found in California, 
and many of these have been given specific names as they are 
studied in detail. Table 15 is a list of all the named granitic 
intrusive masses shown on the Geologic Map of California, 1977 
edition. Additional plutons have been carefully studied and 
named, but because of their relatively small size or the lack of 
space available on the map, they are not labeled. Others have 
been the subjects of careful study, but the results of the studies 
had not been published at the time the compilation of the map 
was under way. 

The term hatholith has traditionally been used for large plu- 
tonic bodies, usually of granitic composition, that generally 
cross-cut the structure of the rock they intrude and have steep 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



67 



Table 14. Geologic time scale. 



RELATIVE GEOLOGIC TIME 



Epoch 



TIME 

in millions of 

years before present 



TIME OF APPEARANCE 0(^ DIFFERENT FORMS OF LIFE 



Quaternary 



Tertiory 



Oligocene 



Cretaceou! 



Carboniferous 
Systems 



Siluric 



Precombrian 



225 - 
280 • 
320 
345 ■ 



4,500 



1 Historic record in California, 200 years 
Post-glacial period 



Ice oge, evolution of man. 



Age of mammotfts. 



Spreod of onlfiropoid apes. 



Origin of more modern families of mammals, grazing animals. 



Origin of many modern families of mammals, giont mammals. 



Origin of most orders of mammals, early fiorses. 



Appeoronce of flowering plonts; extinction of dinosaurs at end; appearance of a few modern orders and 
fomilies of mammals. 



Appeoronce of some modern genera of conifers; origin of mommols and birds; fieigf>t of dinosaur 
evolution. 



Dominance of mommol-liko reptiles. 



Appeoronce of modern insect orders. 



Dominance of omphiblans and of primitive tropical forests wfiich formed coal; earliest reptiles. 



Earliest ompftibions. 



Earliest seed plonts; rise of bony fisfies. 



Earliest land plants. 



Earliest known vertebrates. 



Appeoronce of most phyla of invertebrates. 



Origin of life; olgae, worm burrows. 



Estimoted age of earth. 



Modified from U S. G«olo9icol Survey. Geologic r>Jamei Commitlee, 1972, and G. ledyord Slebbins, ProceHes ol organic evolution, 1966, Prenfice.Holt, Inc., Englewood CliKs. New Jersey 
• 11.000 yeofi, Zlony el ol.. 1974, US Geological Survey Mop MF 585, 



walls dipping outward so that the body enlarges downward and 
has no visible or inferred floor. Often a batholith is a regionally 
extensive complex body, consisting of many individual intrusive 
masses of various compositions. The term pJuton is a noncom- 
mittal term for an intrusive igneous body of any shape or size. 
Also, it is commonly applied to the various separate intrusive 
masses that make up a batholith. Stock is a much more restric- 
tive term for an intrusive igneous body having the features of a 
batholith, but covering less than 40 square miles (100 km^). 

The largest of the batholilths in the state is the Sierra Nevada 
batholith, which is at least 644 km (400 miles) long and as much 
as 80-97 km (50-60 miles) wide. Strictly speaking, the Sierra 
Nevada batholith is confined to the granitic terrane of the Sierra 
Nevada (Bateman and others, 1963), and it is labeled this way 
on the Geologic Map of California. However, in a broader sense 
the term has been applied by many geologists to include the Inyo 
batholith and other similar granitic rocks to the east and north, 
far into Nevada (Crowder and others, 1973, p, 285 and 287), 



The terrane shown on the State Geologic Map as the Sierra 
Nevada batholith is composed of granitic rocks of various com- 
positions and is made up of a number of separate intrusive 
masses, the limits of which have often not been delineated. 
Hence, with the exception of a number of satellitic intrusive 
bodies in the northwestern part of the Sierra, the main Sierra 
Nevada batholith has not been separated into its component 
plutons on the 1977 Geologic Map of California, The batholith 
has been studied most intensely in the central and northern parts 
by the U,S, Geological Survey (for example, Bateman and oth- 
ers, 1963; Hietanen, 1973). In general, the major plutons in the 
western part of the batholith are older and more mafic than those 
in the eastern part. Isotopic ages in the Sierra Nevada batholith 
range from Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous. 

The granitic rocks of the southern California batholith occupy 
an area about 97 km (60 miles) wide and more than 1610 km 
(1,(X)0 miles) long extending from Riverside to the southern tip 
of Baja California. Although this batholith consists of many 



68 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



Table 15. Batholiths, plutons, and stocks identified on the 
1977 Geologic Map of California. 



NAME 


LOCATION 


Bath 


oliths 


English Peak 


Klamath Mountains 


Hunter Mountain 


Inyo Mountains 


Inyo 


Inyo-White Mountains 


Ironside Mountain 


Klamath Mountains 


Shasta Bally 


Klamath Mountains 


Sierra Nevada 


Sierra Nevada 


Southern California 


Peninsular Ranges 


Wooley Creek 


Klamath Mountains 


Plutons 


Ashland 


Klamath Mountains 


Bald Rock 


Sierra Nevada 


Bucks Lake 


Sierra Nevada 


Canyon Creek 


Klamath Mountains 


Caribou Mountain 


Klamath Mountains 


Cascade 


Sierra Nevada 


Castle Craggs 


Klamath Mountains 


Craggy Peak 


Klamath Mountains 


Deadman Peak 


Klamath Mountains 


Forks of Salmon 


Klamath Mountains 


Granite Peak 


Klamath Mountains 


Grizzly 


Sierra Nevada 


Heather Lake 


Klamath Mountains 


Merrimac 


Sierra Nevada 


Paiute Mountain 


Inyo Mountains 


Papoose Flat 


Inyo Mountains 


Pat Keyes 


Inyo Mountains 


Russian Peak 


Klamath Mountains 


Sage Hen Flat 


Inyo Mountains 


Santa Rita Flat 


Inyo Mountains 


Shelly Lake 


Klamath Mountains 


Slinkard 


Klamath Mountains 


Swedes Flat 


Sierra Nevada 


Wildwood 


Klamath Mountains 


Stc 


cks 


Mule Mountain 


Klamath Mountains 


Pit River 


Klamath Mountains 



separate intrusive masses of various lithologic composition 
(Larsen, 1951), in general, individual plutons have not been 
identified. No individual pluton names are therefore shown on 
the 1977 Geologic Map of California. The southern Cahfomia 
batholith is known to be overlain by fossiliferous Upper Creta- 
ceous sedimentary rocks, and the batholith is considered to have 
been emplaced in early Late Cretaceous time. 

Granitic intrusive masses are common in parts of the Coast 
Ranges west of the San Andreas fault, and although studied in 
some detail (for example, Compton, 1966), few of the individual 
plutons have been given formal names. An all-encompassing 
name of "Coast Range batholith" has been applied in a general 
sense (Spotts, 1962), but more commonly the granitic terrane is 
referred to as "granitic rocks of the Salinian Block," or simply 
by petrographic descriptions at various localities. Determining 
the age of these granitic rocks is not without problems, but they 
are generally interpreted to have been emplaced during Creta- 



ceous time (Compton, 1966, p. 277 and 287). Because of the 
scattered nature of the intrusive masses (they extend from Bode- 
ga Head at the north to the La Panza Range at the south, and 
include the Farallon Islands, Montara Mountain, Ben Lomond 
Mountain, parts of the Santa Lucia Range, and the Gabilan 
Mesa), the Coast Range batholith could not meaningfully be 
identified on the Geologic Map of California by that name. 

Most of the granitic masses found in the Klamath Mountains 
have been studied and named. Some of the larger intrusive bodies 
are referred to as batholiths; the others are described as plutons 
and stocks (Irwin, 1966; Davis, 1966). With one exception, all 
are of Mesozoic age and are generally thought to have been 
emplaced during the Nevadan (Late Jurassic) orogeny (Irwin, 
1966). The only evidence for an earlier intrusion comes from the 
small Pit River stock, whose age has been determined as Per- 
mian, 246 million years (Lanphere and others, 1968), and 
is shown on the map as Paleozoic granitic rocks . 

The granitic rocks of the Transverse Ranges are of various 
compositions and ages, and the geologic relations among the 
various granitic rocks are very complex and not completely un- 
derstood. No bathohths as such have been named, but various 
areas have been studied in detail. The oldest of the plutonic 
rocks, in the San Gabriel Mountains, consisting of anorthosite 
and related rocks, are Precambrian. Also in the San Gabriel 
Mountains are granitic rocks of Permian-Triassic age, common- 
ly referred to as the Lowe Granodiorite. These represent one of 
only two occurrences of recognized Paleozoic granitic rocks in 
the state — the other lying far to the north in the Klamath Moun- 
tains, as described previously. Mesozoic granitic rocks are also 
widespread throughout the Transverse Ranges, extending from 
the Santa Monica Mountains on the west to the Eagle Mountains 
on the east. 

The numerous scattered granitic plutons in the Mojave geo- 
logic province, in general, have not been studied in detail and, 
as far as the writer knows, none of the plutons have been named. 
They are mostly Mesozoic in age, although some Precambrian 
bodies are known. The age of many of the granitic bodies have 
now been radiometrically determined (Armstrong and Suppe, 
1973). 



Offshore Geology 



Until recently, knowledge of the geology of offshore California 
has been largely based on the geologic mapping of the offshore 
islands plus crude extrapolations between the mainland and the 
islands. There has also been speculation as to the location of 
offshore faults based on the configuration of sea-floor bathyme- 
try. This is explained on page 28 , where a discussion of 
ofTshore structural features, as determined by modem geophysi- 
cal methods, is also included. 

The Geologic Map of California shows the same offshore fault 
locations shown on the Fault Map of the state, but in addition, 
fold axes are plotted. A separate map of the state showing the 
offshore surFicial geology has been compiled and published by 
the California Division of Mines and Geology at 1:500,000 scale 
(Welday and Williams, 1975). This offshore surficial geologic 
map provides an excellent overview of the distribution of rock 
and various types of sediments on the ocean bottom. 



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69 



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70 



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Lowson, A.C., ond others, 1908, The California earthquoke of April 18, 
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Lung, R., and Proctor, R., editors, 1966, Engineering geology in southern 
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73 



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Peterson, D.H., and Soucedo, G.J., 1978, Index to graduate theses ond 
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Radbruch, D.H., 1968, New evidence of historic fault activity in Alameda, 
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Richter, C.F., 1959, Seismic regionolizotion: Bulletin of the Seismoiogicol 
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Sharp, R.V., 1973, Map showing recent tectonic movement on the Concord 
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50, no. 4. 

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earthquakes, 1852-1960: Bulletin of the Seismoiogicol Society of Ameri- 
ca, v. 55, no. 2, p. 519-565. 



74 



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BULL. 201 



Slemmons, D.B., ond others, 1965, Earthquake epicenter map of Nevada: 
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Streitz, R., and Stinson, M.C., 1977, Geologic mop California, Death Valley 
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PART III 
APPENDICES 



False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for 
they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some 
evidence do little harm, for everyone takes a salutary pleasure 
in proving their falseness. 



-Charles Darwin 



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77 



APPENDIX A 

INDEX TO FAULT NAMES 

SHOWN ON THE 

FAULT MAP OF CALIFORNIA, 1975 EDITION 



NAMED FAULTS SHOWN 

A list of all the faults plotted and named on the 1975 edition 
of the Fault Map of California follows. Because of space prob- 
lems, not all these faults are named on the Geologic Map of 
California, 1977 edition, although an attempt was made to iden- 
tify the major faults on that map. 

The faults are listed alphabetically, followed by the name of 
the State Atlas sheet on which the fault occurs. Many additional 
named faults occur in the state, and a good number of these are 
indicated on the sheets of the larger-scale Geologic Atlas of 
California (see supplemental index to fault names, p. 8 ). 

Many other named faults occur in California, but most of 
these could not be identified, even on the Atlas sheets, because 
of the lack of space, or because they had not been formally 
recognized in a geologic publication. 



PROCEDURE FOR 
NAMING FAULTS 



Of course, as time goes on, more and more faults will be 
mapped and described in pubhshed geologic reports. Although 
no systematic procedure exists for naming faults (such as the 
"Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature" devised and periodically 
expanded by the American Commission on Stratigraphic No- 
menclature as a guide for naming formations and other strati- 
graphic units) , it is important for geologists to exercise judgment 
in devising new fault names. For example, most faults are named 
after nearby prominent geographic features; this convenient 
practice should be continued. A notable exception to this prac- 
tice is the recently named Hosgri fault, located offshore near San 
Luis Obispo County. The need to name this fault arose when it 
became a subject of concern during the evaluation of the seismic 
safety of the adjacent Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. There 
was no prominent geographic feature noted on bathemetric 
charts of the faulted area to name the fault after. In this instance, 
it was decided that the two geologists who first published a map 
showing the fault should be recognized in the name. Thus, the 
fault became known as the "Hosgri" fault — a contraction of the 
first parts of the geologists' names, Hoskins and Griffiths. 

Although naming faults does not require the kind of care and 
consideration to detail specified for naming geologic formations 
by the "Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature," a cavalier ap- 
proach can easily result in subsequent confusion. In order to 
avoid confusion, careful consideration should be given to the 
following principles when naming surface faults. 

1. A fault should be given a name only if it has considerable 
length or offset, or is situated in hazardous proximity to 
man-made structures, or is of recent origin, no matter the 
length. For example, any future fault rupture associated 
with an earthquake (if not on a previously recognized or 



previously named fault), warrants a name, if only for con- 
venience of reference. 

The name of a geographic feature on or near the fault should 
be used to help in visualizing its location or "type locality." 
This practice reduces the confusion in nomenclature when 
faults are determined to be connected or separated by fur- 
ther studies. The concept of a type locality for faults was first 
suggested by H. J. Buddenhagen, M. L. Hill, F. S. Hudson, 
and A. O. Woodford in 1930 (Bulletin of the American 
Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 14, no. 6, p. 797- 
798). Over the years this practice has not always been fol- 
lowed, but it is strongly recommended that the type locality 
be an integral part of any description of a newly described 
fault. The first public description of a fault should include 
an accurate location of its trace, preferably by an adequate- 
scale map, and a description of its best exposure ("type 
locality"). 

As much information as can be determined about the geom- 
etry of the fault should be described, including length, direc- 
tion of prevalent strike, direction and magnitude of dip, and 
recency of movement as can best be determined. The 
amount of displacement should be given if it can be reason- 
ably deduced, with careful attention being given to the dis- 
tinction between separation and slip, that is, the distinction 
between displacement between the traces of a displaced 
plane on two sides of a fault and displacement of points that 
were formerly adjacent (see J. C. Crowell, 1959, Bulletin of 
the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 43, 
no. 11, p. 2653-2674). If not enough of these factors can be 
determined, the naming of the fault should perhaps be 
delayed until more is known about it. 

Previously used fault names should not be used for faults in 
other areas of the state that might have a similarly named 
geographic feature. To do so creates confusion. For example, 
we have already three "San Jose Faults" in the state, and 
four "Hot Springs faults," two of which are less than 25 
miles apart! Even though the following indexes of fault 
names are incomplete, they should be consulted, and similar 
names should be avoided. As the Division of Mines and 
Geology publishes updated fault maps of the state, it will 
incorporate new fault names. It would be helpful and it 
would ensure completeness if newly described faults are 
called to our attention and a description provided to this 
Division. Such information should be addressed to the atten- 
tion of the State Geologist, California Division of Mines and 
Geology, Resources Building, Room 1341, 1416 Ninth 
Street, Sacramento, CA 95814. 

In recent years, with the advent of strong earthquakes with 
new (or newly recognized) faults, the intensity of investiga- 
tion has sometimes resulted in different names being applied 



78 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



to the same fault by various investigators. It is important 
that different names for the same fault not enter the Htera- 
ture where future confusion is created. Here again, if the 
State Geologist is regularly informed before publication, du- 
plicate fault names can be avoided and suitable arbitration 
can be provided in questions of priority of name, or of nam- 
ing different traces of the same fault zone. 

A special problem arises when two or more separately 
mapped and named faults are found to join, after additional 
work has been done. When this occurs, giving the fault a new 



name or applying one of the original fault names to the 
entire length of the fault may be warranted. If such a change 
is proposed, the proposal should be accompanied by a de- 
tailed analysis of the situation, well documented by maps, 
fully explained in a text, and the proposal published in a 
recognized geological journal. A good example of this is the 
case of the Espinosa, San Marcos, and Rinconada faults, 
now recognized as the same fault, for which Dibblee has 
proposed, in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 981, 
that the name Rinconada be applied to the entire length of 
the fault. 



INDEX TO FAULT NAMES 

Faults Usted are those shown on the 1975 edition of the Fault Map of California. To aid in their location, the 1° x 2° State Atlas 
sheet on which the fault lies is indicated in parentheses. Abbreviations of sheet names are identified at the end of the list. An asterisk 
indicates a fault not shown, or not named, on the 1:250,000 scale Geologic Atlas. 



Agua Cahente (SA) 

Alamo Mt. thrust (LA) 
♦Algodones (EC) 

Aliso (SA) 
*Amedee (Su) 

Arroyo Parida (LA) 

Bald Mountain (R, W) 

Banning (SA, SB) 
*Bat Mountain (DV) 

Bear Mountain (Sac, SJ) 

Bear Valley (SC) 

Ben Lomond (SF) 
•Big Bend (C) 

Big Pine (LA) 

Big Spring (SLO, B) 

Blackwater (T) 

Blake Ranch (SB) 

Bloomfield (SR) 

Blue Cut (SS, SA) 

Blue Rock (SC) 
•Bradley Canyon (SM) 
•Brawley (EC, SS) 

Breckenridge (B) 
•Browns Valley (SC) 

Buena Vista (B) 

Bullion (SB, N) 
•Burdcll Mountain (SR) 

Butano (SJ, SF) 

Cady (SB) 

Calaveras (SC, SJ) 

Calico (SB) 

Calico, West (SB) 
•Calipatria (EC, SS) 
•Camel Peak (C) 

Camp Rock (SB) 

Cantil Valley (T) 
•Carmel Canyon (SC) 

Casa Loma (SA) 

Cedar Canyon (K) 

Chabot, East (SF) 

Chamock (LA, LB) 

Chino (SA, SB) 

Church Creek (SC) 



Claremont (SA, SB) 
•Clark (SA) 

Clearwater (LA) 
•Coast Range thrust (LA, SR, 
R, W, U, SM, SJ, SC, SLO) 

Coast Ridge (SLO, SC) 
•Cold Fork (R) 
•Concord (SR, SJ, SF) 

Coyote Creek (SA) 

Coyote Lake (T) 

Cristianitos (SA) 

Cucamonga (SB) 
•Cypress Point (SC) 
•Dead Mountains (K, N) 

Death Valley (see Northern 
Death Valley-) 

Death Valley Graben (DV) 
•Death Valley, South (DV, T) 
•Del Norte (W) 

Dillon (SA, SB) 
•Dogwood Peak (C) 

Durrwood (B) 

Earthquake Valley (SA) 
•East Fork (W, R) 

Edison (B) 

Elder Creek (R) 
•El Modeno (SA) 

El Paso (T) 

Elsinore (SA, SD) 

Emerson (SB) 

Falor (R) 
•Fort Sage (Su) 

Franklin (SF, SR) 

Freshwater (R) 

Furnace Creek (DV) 

Garhc Spring (T) 

Garlock (B, LA, T) 

Garlock, North Branch (LA) 

Garlock, South Branch (LA) 
•Goat Ranch (B) 

Green Valley (SR) 

Grizzly Valley (C) 

Grogan (W, R) 



•Grouse Point (W) 

Halloran (K) 

Harper (SB, T) 

Harris (SA) 

Hayward (SF, SJ) 

Healdsburg (SR) 

Helendale (SB) 
•Hidalgo (SB) 

Hidden Springs (SS) 

Hildreth (LA) 

Hilton (M) 

Hitchbrook (LA) 

Hoadley (R) 

Holser (LA) 
•Honey Lake (Su, C) 
•Hosgri (SLO, SM) 

Hot Springs (C, SA-2, SS) 

Huasna, East (SLO) 

Imperial (EC) 

Independence (F) 

Ivanpah (K) 

Jawbone (B) 

Jewett (B) 

Johnson Valley (SB) 

Jolon (SLO) 

Kern Canyon (B, F) 
•Kern Front (B) 
•Kern Gorge (B) 
•King City (SC) 

Korbel (R) 
•Laguna Salada (EC) 
•La Honda (SF) 
•La Nacion (SD) 
•La Panza (SLO, B) 

Last Chance (C) 

Lenwood (SB) 

Leuhman (SB) 

Liebre (LA) 

Likely (A, Su) 
•Litchfield (Su) 

Little Pine (LA, SM) 

Little Salmon (R) 

Livermore (SJ) 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



79 



Lockhart (T. SB) 
•Lockhart, South (T) 
*Los Lobos (SC, SLO) 
Los Pinos (SA) 
•Lucia (SC) 
Ludlow (SB, N) 
Madrone Springs (SJ) 
Malibu Coast (LA) 
Mallethead thrust (W) 
Manix (SB) 
•Manly Pass (T) 
•McCuUough (K) 
Melones (C, SJ, Sac, Su, M) 
•Mendocino (R) 
Mesa (LA) 

•Mesquite Lake (SB, N) 
Midland (Sac, SJ) 
Mirage Valley (SB) 
Mission Creek (SB, SA) 
•Mohawk Valley (C) 
•Monterey Bay (SC) 
•Monterey Canyon (SC) 
Morales (B, LA) 
More Ranch (LA) 
Morongo Valley (SB) 
Mount Poso (B) 
Munson Creek (LA) 
Muroc (T, B) 
Nacimiento (SLO) 
Newport-Inglewood (LB, LA, SA) 
Northern Death Valley-Furnace Creek 
(M, DV) 
•North Fork (R, W) 
Northridge Hills (LA) 
Norwalk (LB, SA) 
•Oak Flat (R) 
Oakridge (LA) 
Old Woman Springs (SB) 
•Orleans (W) 
Ortigalita (SJ, SC) 
•Owens VaUey (M, F, DV) 
Owl Lake (T) 
Ozena (LA) 
Pacifico (SM) 
Paicines (SC) 
•Palo Alto (SF) 
Palo Colorado (SC) 
Palo Colorado-San Gregorio (SF, SC) 
Palos Verdes (LB) 



Panamint Valley (T, DV) 

Paskenta (U, R) 

Pastoria (LA) 

Pilarcitos (SF) 

Pine Mountain (LA) 

Pinnacles (SC) 

Pinto Mountain (SB, N) 

Pinyon Peak (B) 

Pipes Canyon (SB) 

Pisgah (SB) 

Pleasanton (SJ) 

Pleito (LA, B) 
•Point Reyes (SR, SF) 
•Pond-Poso Creek (B) 

Porcupine Wash (SS) 

Punchbowl (SB) 

Raymond (Raymond Hill) (LA) 

Recruit Pass (B) 
•Red Hill (SB) 

Red Mountain (LA) 

Refugio (SM) 

Reliz (SC) 
•Rialto-Colton (SB) 
•Rich Bar (Su, C) 

Rinconada (SC, SLO, LA, SM) 

Rodgers Creek (SR) 

Rosamond (LA) 
•Rose Canyon (SD, SA) 

Salton Creek (SS) 

San Andreas ( SS,SB, SA, LA. B, 
SLO, SC, SJ, SF, SR, U, R) 

San Andreas, North Branch (SB) 

San Andreas, South Branch (SB) 

San Benito (SC) 

San Bruno (SF) 

San Cayetano (LA) 
•San Clemente (LB) 
•Sand Hills (EC, SS) 

San Fehpe (SA) 

San Fehpe Hills (SA) 

San Francisquito (SC, LA) 

San Gabriel (LA, SB) 

San Gregorio (SF) 

San Jacinto (SA, SB) 

San Jose (LA, SB, SJ, SF) 

San Juan (SLO, B) 

Santa Cruz Island (LA, LB, SM) 
•Santa Maria (SM) 

Santa Monica (LA) 



Santa Rosa Island (SM) 

Santa Susana thrust (LA) 

Santa Ynez (LA, SM) 

Santa Ynez, South Branch (SM) 

Sargent (SC, SJ) 

Sawpit Canyon (SB, LA) 

Seal Cove (SF) 
•Shady Canyon (SA) 
•Sheephead (T) 

Sierra Madre (LA, SB) 

Sierra Nevada (M, F, DV, T, B) 

Silver Creek (SJ, SF) 
•Simi (LA) 

Spring (SB) 
•Spring Creek thrust (R) 

Springs (B, LA) 
•Stanford (SF) 

State Line (K) 

Stockton (Sac, SJ) 

Suey (SM) 
•Sulphur Spring (R) 

Superstition Hills (SS, EC) 

Superstition Mountain (EC) 

Sur (SC) 

Sur-Nacimiento (SC) 

Surprise Valley (A) 

Sweitzer (SR) 

Tejon Canyon (B) 
•Temescal (SA) 

Tesla (SJ) 

Tolay (SR) 

Tularcitos (SC) 

Tule Creek (LA) 
•Twin Sisters (R, W) 

Verdugo (LA) 

Vergales (SC) 

Verona (SJ) 

Vincent thrust (SB) 

Walnut Creek (SB) 
•Waltham Canyon (SC, SLO) 
•White Mountains (M) 

Whiterock (B, LA) 

White Wolf (B) 

Whittier (SA, LB) 

Willow Creek (SC) 
•Willows (U, C) 
•Wilson Canyon (T) 

Yager (R) 

Zayante (SF, SJ) 



Abbreviations of Mop Sheets 



A = Alturas 

B = Bakersfield 

C = Chico 

DV = Death Valley 

EC = El Centre 

F = Fresno 

K = Kingman 

LA = Los Angeles 

LB = Long Beach 



M = Mariposa 
N = Needles 
R = Redding 
SA = Santa Ana 
Sac = Sacramento 
SB = San Bernardino 
SC = Santa Cruz 
SD = San Diego 
SF = San Francisco 
SJ = San Jose 



SLO = San Luis Obispo 

SM = Santa Maria 

SR = Santa Rosa 

SS = Salton Sea 

Su = Susanville 

T = Trona 

U = Ukiah 

W = Weed 

WL = Walker Lake 



80 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



SUPPLEMENTAL INDEX TO FAULT NAMES 

Faults listed here are not shown on the 1975 edition of the Fault Map of California because of space problems, but they are shown 
on the individual sheets of the 1:250,000 scale Geologic Atlas of California, O. P. Jenkins edition. The sheets on which the faults occur 
are indicated in parentheses; abbreviations used are the same as those used in the previous index to faults. 



Acton (LA) 

Agua Blanca thrust (LA) 

Agua Dulce Canyon (LA) 

Agua Tibia (SA) 

Aguanga (SA) 

Aliso Canyon (SA) 

Amargosa thrust (T) 

Americano Creek (SR) 

Arnold Ranch (SA) 

Arrastre Spring (T) 

Ash Hill (DV) 

Avalon-Compton (LB) 

Bee Canyon (LA) 

Ben Trovato (SJ) 

Berrocal (SJ) 

Bicycle Lake (T) 

Black Butte (SJ) 

Black Mountain (SR) 

Bolinger (SF) 

Brown Mountain (T) 

Bryant (SA) 

Buck Ridge (SA) 

Butte Valley (T) 

Cabrillo (LB) 

Cajon Valley (SB) 

Cameros (LA) 

Camuesa (LA) 

Carnegie (SJ) 

Cameros (SR) 

Chabot (SF) 

Chalone Creek (SC) 

Cherry Hill (LB) 

Childers Peak (SR) 

Chimeneas (SLO) 

Clark Mountain (K) 

Cleghom (SB) 

Clemens Well (SS) 

Collayomi (SR) 

Cook Peak (B) 

Cottonwood (LA) 

Cox Ranch (SA) 

Cull Creek (SF) 

Curry Mountain (SC) 

Cuyama (SLO) 

Cuyama, South (LA) 

Diamond Bar (SA) 

Doble (SB) 

Dos Pueblos (LA) 

Dry Creek (LA) 

Duarte (SB) 

Dublin (SJ) 

Eisner (SR) 

Espinoza (SC, SLO) 

False Cape Shear Zone (R) 

Fitch Mountain (SR) 

Frazier Mountain, North (LA) 

Frazier Mountain, South (LA) 

Gandy Ranch (SA) 

Garnet Hill (SA) 

Glen Anne (LA) 

Glen Helen (SB) 



Glen Ivy (SA) 

Goose Lake (A) 

Gravel Pit (SJ) 

Green Ranch (LA) 

Greenville (SJ) 

Handorf (SB) 

Harper Lake (SB) 

Hillside (SF) 

Holmes (SB) 

Honda (SM) 

Huer Huero (SLO) (now La Panza) 

Indian Hill (SB) 

Indio Hills (SA) 

Juncal Camp (LA) 

Keene Wonder (DV) 

Kennedy (SR) 

Kern River (B) (now Kern Gorge) 

Kramer Hills (SB) 

Laguna Canyon (SA) 

Lancaster (SA) 

Las Tablas (SLO) 

Las Trampas (SF) 

Lavigia (LA) 

Lawrence (SA) 

Leach Lake (T) 

Limekiln (SJ) 

Little Oak Canyon (LA) 

Little Rock (LA) 

Little Sulphur (SR) 

Lockwood (LA) 

Loma Aha (LA) 

Loma Linda (SB) 

Lone Tree (LA) 

Maacama (SR) 

Magic Mountain (LA) 

Maguire Peaks (SJ) 

Mattole (R) 

McWay thrust (SC) 

Mecca Hills (SA) 

Mesquite (SB) (now Mesquite L.) 

Mesquite thrust (K) 

Middle (K) 

Midway (SJ) 

Mill Creek (SB) 

Miller Creek (SF, SC) 

Mint Canyon (LA) 

Mission (SJ) 

Mission Ridge (LA) 

Mount Diablo (SJ) 

Mount Jackson (SR) 

Mule Spring (T) 

Nadeau (LA) 

New Idria thrust (SC) 

North (K) 

North Fork (SC) 

Old Dad (K) 

Orocopia thrust (SS) 

Overland Avenue (LA) 

Palm Canyon (SA) 

Park Hill (SA) 

Parks (SJ) 



Patterson Pass (SJ) 

Pelican Hill (SA) 

Pelona (LA) 

Pick Creek (SC) 

Pine Rock (SC) 

Pinecate (SC) 

Pinole (SF) 

Pinyon Hill (LA) 

Pole Canyon (LA) 

Protrero (LB) 

Red Hills (SLO) 

Rincon (SJ) 

Round Mountain (B) 

Russ (R) 

San Antonio (SLO) 

San Dimas Canyon (SB) 

San Guillermo (LA) 

San Juan (SA) 

San Marcos (SLO) 

San Pablo (SF, SR) 

Santa Rosa (LA) (now Simi) 

Santa Ynez, North Branch (SM) 

Seal Beach (LB) 

Shannon (SJ) 

Sidewinder (SB) 

Sierra Azul (SJ) 

Soda Creek (SR) 

Soda Spring (SJ) 

Soledad (LA) 

South (K) 

South Fork Mountain (R, W) 

Southhampton (SR) 

St. John Mountain (SR) 

Stewart (SA) 

Stony Brook (SJ) 

Stony Creek (U) 

Sunol (SF) 

Sycamore (LA) 

Temple Hill (SA) 

Tenaja (SA) 

Thomas Mountain (SA) 

Towne (DV) 

Tracy (Stockton) (SJ) 

Transmission Line (LA) 

Tyler Horse (LA) 

Tyler Valley (SB) 

Valle (SJ) 

Vasquez Canyon (LA) 

Water Tank (SJ) 

Welch (SJ) 

West Huasna (SLO) 

Wildcat (SF) 

Wildomar (SA) 

Wilhams (SJ) 

Willow Springs (LA) 

Wilson (SR) 

Winters thrust (K) 

Woods (SR) 

Workman Hill fault extension (LA) 

Wragg Canyon (SR) 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



81 



APPENDIX B 

TABULATED LIST OF 
THERMAL SPRINGS AND THERMAL WELLS 



The following tabulation provides additional data for the ther- 
mal springs and wells shown on the Fault Map of California. 
These data include information on location, water temperature, 
references, some notes, and, in the case of wells, the total depth 
and year drilled. 

DATA USED AND 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Multiple references are often indicated on the tabulated Ust 
because in many instances supplementary references can be help- 
ful in locating the spring or well more precisely on a map or in 
finding it in the field. In addition, many of these references 
(especially the more recent ones) contain data pertaining to 
chemistry and physical properties (for example, conductivity, 
discharge rate, and isotopic analysis). In addition to the pub- 
Ushed references Usted, unpubUshed data were acquired from 
Robert W. Rex (Repubhc Geothermal, Inc.), James B. Koenig 
(Geothermex), and Sanford L. Werner (California Department 
of Water Resources). To these, I wish to express my gratitude. 
Help in plotting and tabulating these data was ably provided by 
John Sackett, Melvin C. Stinson, Robert A. Switzer, and Duane 
A. McClure. 



LOCATING THERMAL SPRINGS 
AND WELLS 



Locations of many thermal springs and wells, especially many 
of those listed in the earher publications, were vague and difficult 
to plot. A reason for this was the lack of adequate base maps for 
many parts of the state when these earUer reports on hot springs 



and wells were made. If later reports did not clarify the locations, 
county records were examined (old copies of official county 
maps, as well as early Mines and Mineral Resources Reports by 
the California Division of Mines and its predecessor, the State 
Mining Bureau). Particularly useful in locating many early ther- 
mal springs and resorts was a book entitled "Mineral Springs 
and Health Resorts of California" (1892), by Winslow Ander- 
son, Professor of Medicine at the University of California Medi- 
cal School, San Francisco. Because the early references often did 
not give the location of the thermal springs and wells by town- 
ship, range, and section, these data were often determined by the 
compilers where possible, from 7'/;- or 15-minute quadrangles. In 
unsurveyed land, the locations were described by the compilers 
by latitude and longitude from the published quadrangles. 

The thermal springs and wells are shown on the Source Data 
Index maps (Appendix D) as circles for theimal springs and as 
squares for thermal wells. These spring and well locations are 
numbered, starting with "1" (one) for each atlas sheet. These 
coded numbers refer to the tabulated data in the following Ap- 
pendix B. On the Fault Map of CaUfomia, the thermal springs 
and wells are shown, but are not coded by number. 

It should be noted that a number of the thermal springs are 
actually shallow wells that were dug or drilled for water but 
came in flowing as artesian wells. Oftentimes such artesian wells 
were dug for convenience in areas where no springs occur, so 
both wells and springs are intimately associated and, in fact, on 
the early records often the two are not clearly differentiated. 

Following the convention estabhshed in reports by G. A. War- 
ing (1915 and 1965), which were the principal sources used 
when this present compilation was started, the writer considered 
as thermal only those springs that are more than 15°F (8.3°C) 
above the mean annual temperature of the air at their locaUties. 
In the case of drilled wells, a normal thermal gradient of about 
IT increase for each 100 feet of depth (2°C for each 100 meters) 
was taken into consideration when determining whether the well 
should be classified as thermal. 



82 

ALTURAS SHEET 










DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY BULL. 201 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 


• 

HAP 

LOC. 
HO. 


NAME 


LOCATIOM 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
<FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 
(see list of references for abbreviations) 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BW 


PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


UX. 
NO. 


1 


Har« sprinq 


48N 


9E 


33 


N> 


Steele Swan^idS') 
















Pars, coma., J.B. 
Koenig 


J 


Pothole Spring 


46N 


9E 


15 


M) 


Steele SwampClS') 


70 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


20 


4 


















70 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


334 


Modoc 

1 








46N 


gc 


15 


M) 




78 














Tea^. by Burnett 
ft Jennings 9/71 


3 


Hot springs or 
Bldwll Creek 


46N 


16E 


e or 

n 


IC 


Fort BldwelKlSM 


97-108 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


12 


















108 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


121-122 


Modoc 

10 






Fort BWwell Hot 

Springs 


46N 


16E 


8 « n 


H) 




109- 
115 






USGS Geoth. Modoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


ea 




2 springs 




Fort Bl<i«ell Res. 
Hot Springs 


4eN 


leE 


17 


H) 




111 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table 
4a 


1 






Peterson Ranch Well, 
Buchner'B Well, 
Fort Bid-ell Well 


46N 


16E 


e »n 


H) 




97-108 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


1, 2, 3 




4 


Spring, north of 
Big Glass Mtn. 


44N 


3E 


1 


M) 


Medicine Lake 
(15'> 


191 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


20 


3A 


Location vague 


5 


Spring, near 
Rattlesnake Creek 


43N 


12E 


22? 


K) 


Big Sage Res. 
(15') 


80 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


20 


5 


L^ication vague 
















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


120 


Modoc 

8 




6 


Hagma Energy Inc. 
Paman 1 


44N 


15E 


24 


W 


Cedarville (ISM 


283 


2150 


1959 


USGS Geoth. Modoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


6a 








Mag&a Energy Inc. 
Parman 2 


44N 


15E 


24 


W 




257 


1968 


1959 


USGS Geoth. Nadoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


6a 








Ha<;pu Energy Inc. 
Paraan 3 


44N 


15E 


24 


M) 




- 


92 


1962 


USGS Geoth. Modoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


6a 




Rig destroyed by 
blo-out 




Ha^u ^ergy Inc. 
Phipps 1 


44N 


15E 


24 


ICI 




278 


1267 


1962 


USGS Geoth. Modoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


6a 








rtogaa Energy Inc. 
Phipps 2 


44N 


15E 


24 


K) 


Cedarvllle (15') 


320 


4500 


1972 


USGS Geoth. Modoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


6a 








Wells 












32C 


max. 

4500 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


5 




7 


Several springs at 
site of Kjd 
"volcanoes" 












120- 
207 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


14 






Hot springs north 
of Lake City 












- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


122-123 


Msdoc 
11 






Hid volcano and 
hot springs 


44N 


15E 


24 


H) 


Cedarville (15-) 


118- 
207 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


4 






"Lake City Bid 
explosion" 












205 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table 
4a 


2 




B 


Boyd Spring 


45N 


17E 


31 


M) 


Cedarvllle (15') 


70 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


13 


Now only 50"F, 
Marshal Reed, CDOG, 
pers. cos». 7/1/74 
















67 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


124 


Hxloc 
12 


9 


Hot springs 


43N 


ISE 


12 


H3 


Cedarville (15* ) 


140- 
149 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


16 


Waring's location 
(18E) corrected 
















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


123 


14 








43N 


16E 


12 


K> 




185 






USGS Geoth. Hodoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


8a 




Several springs 




Seyferth Hot Springs 












186 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table 
4a 


3 






Seyferth Hot Springs 












IBS 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


9 




10 


Leonards Hot Springs 


43N 


leE 


13 


H} 


Cedarville (15') 


106 






USGS Geoth. ttidoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


ea 


B 


















149 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


10 




U 


Leonards Hot Springs 
(east) 










Cedarvllle (15M 


150 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


20 


17 


Waring's location 
corrected 



S«« Appendix D for location. 



1985 

1 TURAS SHEET 




TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 83 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 


ip 

C. NAME 


LOCATICW 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEHP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 
(see Hat of references for abbreviations) 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 


PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


WC. 

NO. 


I Leonards Hot Springs 
(east) 


4 3N 


16£ 


13 


rc 


CedarvlUe {15- ) 


- 






uses WSP 3 38 


191S 


123 


tt>doc 
13 




Hot springs 












143 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table 
4a 


4 
















150 






USG5 (;eot}l. Kxloc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


8a 


A 
















144 






CDOC TR 13 


1975 


47 


11 




A Hutchens Well 


4?N 


16E 


20 


H) 


C«]arville (15') 


lie 


400 




(330G TR 13 


1975 


47 


6 




B Well 


43N 


16E 


20 


tc 


Cedarville (15') 


156 


650 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


7 




C RoM son's Well 


43N 


16E 


30 


lO 


CedarvUle (15') 


122 


250 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


e 




ll»t springs 


42N 


16E 


1 


tc 


Cedarville (15' ) 


130 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


18 
















200 






uses Geoth, Modoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


ea 


D 
















" 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


123 


Modoc 
15 




Hot Springs Motel 
Hell 


42N 


ITE 


e 


H) 


Cedarvllle (15') 


210 


90 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table 
4a 


5 




Hot Springs Hotel 
Hells 












183- 
20B 


~ 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


13 




Magna Energy, Inc., 
CedarvUle (*1 












129 


734 


1962 


USGS Geoth. Modoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


6a 






BenBSC Hot Springs 


42N 


17E 


6 


H) 


Cedarvllle (15') 


205- 
207 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


15 




Surprise Valley 
mneral Wells 

Isprinas) 












209 






USGS Geoth. MDdoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


8a 


C 




Gcoth«nul Resources 
Int. Kelly Hot 
Spring 1 


42N 


lOE 


29 


W> 


Canby (15' ) 


230 


3206 


1969 


USGS Geoth. Modoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974"^ 


6« ■ 






Well 


42N 


lOE 


29 


M) 


Canby (15') 


230 


3206 


- 


CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


20 




Kelly Hot Springs 


42N 


lOE 


29 


W) 


Canby (15') 


204 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


8 
















199 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


118-119 


Madoc 
4 
















196 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


29 


1 
















198 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


19 




Warm Springs Valley 


42N 


lOE 


13 


ff> 


Canby (15') 


ei 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


7 
















ei 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


119 


Modoc 
5 




Essex Springs 


42N 


HE 


10 


n> 


Alturas (15') 


80-92 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


6 
















92 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


119 


Modoc 
6 




Hot Creek Ranch 


42N 


HE 


9 


m 




91 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


18 




Spring near Canyon 
Creek 


40N 


HE 


227 


m 


Alturas (15') 


80 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


9 


Location very vague 














- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


120 


Modoc 

7 




Spring near Alturas 


42N 


13E 


30 


(C 


Alturas (15* ) 


72 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


10 


Ixscation vague 














72 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


323-324 


HDdoc 
9 




Williams Ranch Well 


40N 


13E 


31 


M) 


Alturas (15' ) 


110 


114. 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


29 


2 




Old Wllllau Ranch 
Well 

- 












111 


~ 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


22 




S Appendix D for location 





























84 

ALTURAS SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
KW 

LOC. 

NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICM 


OUADRWlGtE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CD 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BU< 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
HO. 


?1A 


New Williams Ranch 
Bell 


40N 


13E 


30 


H) 


Alturas (15') 


84 


200 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


21 




2? 


Warm spring 


40N 


13E 


31 


M) 


Alturas (15*) 


75 














FerB. corm. , J.B. 
Koenlg 


23 


Henlo Warm Springs 


39N 


17E 


7 


M) 


Eagleville (Tlj- ) 


117-125 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


20 


















- 






uses DSP 338 


1915 


123 


Modoc 
16 


Location vagu« 




Henlo Baths 


39N 


17E 


6 « 7 


H) 




12B, 
139 






USGS Geoth. rtodoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


8a 




















120 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


16 






Menlo Hot Springs 


39N 


17E 


7 


VD 




135 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table 
4a 


6 




24 


Kosk creek Hot 
Springs 


37N 


IW 


25-26 


to 


Big Bend (15') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


23 


















- 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


116-117 


Shasta 

7 






Hunt Hot Spring 


37N 


IW 


25 


M) 




136 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


29 


7 






Hunt (Kosk Creek) 
Hot Spring 


37N 


IW 


26 


H> 




136 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1966 


27 








F.E. Rayner, Jr. 


37N 


IW 


26 


K) 




105 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast S Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


27 






25 


Big Bend Hot Springs 


37N 


IW 


36 


MD 


Big Bend (15') 


100-180 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


24 


















180 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


115-116 


Shasta 

8 


















ISO 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
{No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1966 


27 






2$ 


Little Hot Spring 
Valley 


39N 


5E 


9 


H> 


Fall Fiver mils 
(15') 


127, 
170 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


11 






Little Hot Spring 
Valley 


39N 


5E 


9 


VD 


Fall River Mills 
(15') 


127, 
170 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


lie 


Modoc 
3 






Little Hot Springs 












168 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


29 


3 


















167-171 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


26 




27 


Hot springs 


37N 


6E 


28 or 
27 


K> 


Fall River Hills 
(15') 


7 














Pers. comm., J.B. 
Koenlq, Q. Aune 


26 


Bassett Hot Springs 


3eN 


7E 


12 


rc 


Bieber (15') 


173 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


20 


26 


















173 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


117 


Lassen 

1 


















174 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


29 


5 


















174 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


24 




29 


Stonebreaker Hot 
Springs 


38N 


BE 


14 


W) 


Bieber (15') 


110-165 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


29 


















165 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


117-118 


Lassen 
2 






Kelloq Hot Spring 


38N 


BE 


15 


vc 




174 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


29 


6 






Kellog Hot Spring 


3eN 


8E 


14 » 15 


VD 




172 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


25 




30 


Warm spring 


?9N 


13E 


}} 


«J 


Tule ntn. (71i') 
















Pers. conw., J.B. 
Ko«nlq 6/71 


11 


Wars spring 


3aN 


14t 


6 


W) 


Tule Htn. (7),' ) 


70t 














Pers. coitm., 'j.B. 
Koerlq 6/-'l 


3? 


West Volley Rc6., 
Hot Spring 


39N 


14E 


29 


H) 


Tule Htn. (7),') 


171 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


29 


4 


















165 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


23 





• S«« Appendix D for location. 



1985 

ALTURAS SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 85 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 







LOCATICN 


QUADRANGLE 


VnTER 
TEHP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


.^ ' -•"- 


T 


R 


SEC. 


8CM 




sc. 




PUB LI CATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 
HO. 


33 


Hot aisrlltg 


39N 


17E 


M 


K> 


Snak< Lak« (7>fl 


120 






uses P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


21 


















- 






USGS WSP 330 


1915 


123-124 


«D<l0C 
17 






Squaw Baths Springs 


39N 


17E 


29 


N> 




95-109 






uses GeoUl. Hodoc Co. 
(Open file) 


1974 


ea 




3 springs 






















OXXi TR 13 


1975 


47 


17 




34 


&ar« Ranch 


iSN 


17E 


107 


W 


Snak< Lake (7>i') 


70 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


22 


Location vague 
















■ 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


124 


Hodoc 

18 





BAKERSFIELD SHEET 



1 


California (Deer 
Creek) Hot Springs 


22S 


3 IE 


31 


W 


California Hot 
Springs (15") 


105- 
126 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


137 


















120- 
126 






USGS HSP 336 


1915 


49-50 


Tulare 

18 




2 


Democrat Springs 


28S 


31E 


4-5 


lO 


Glennville (15* } 


100- 
115 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


152 


















115 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


51-52 


Kem 7 




2A 


Hot spring 


27S 


3 IE 


33 


m 


Desocrat (A') 


1 






USGS Democrat 7H' quad. 


1972 








3 


Delcnegha Springs 


27S 


31E 


26 


H> 


Glennville (15*) 


104- 
112 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


151 
























USGS WSP 338 


1915 


51 


Kem 8 




4 


Clear Cre«k (Hobo) 
Hot Sprlr.gs 


27S 


32E 


15 


fC 


Glennville (15') 


119 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


150 






Clear Creek (Hobo) 
Hot Springs 


27S 


32E 


15 


HI 


Glennville (15') 








USGS WSP 338 


1915 


51 


Kem 9 




5 


Miracle Hot Springs 


27S 


32E 


15 


M) 


Glennville (15') 


7 






USGS Glennville IS' quad. 










6 


Nellls Hot Spring 


35-37. 2'N 

11S-2S.6'M 


Isabella (15') 


131 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


149 


Shown as Scovem Hot 








131 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


51 


Kem 10 


quad. 


7 Hot spring 


35*43. 7'N 
118*24. e'K 


Isabella (15- ) 


96 
113 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


148 








103 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


50 


Kem 11 




6 


MllUaK Hot Springs 


29S 


33E 


6 


K> 


Emerald Htn. 
(15') 


60-100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


153 


Shown as Yates Hot 
Springs on 1943 topo 
quad. 
















97 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


52 


Kem 17 



CHICO SHEET 



1 

2 


Doyle Hot Springs 


24N 


12E 


24 


H> 


Blairsden (15') 


106 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


34 




tfcLear Sulphur Spring 


22N 


13E 


32 


H) 


Sierra City 
(15') 


66 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


42 


















84-86 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


283-284 


Plusias 
15 




McLear's Warn Springs 












86 






CDOG TK 13 


1975 


48 


46 




3 


rterble Hot wells 


22« 


14E 


13 


ff> 


Portola (15' ) 


125- 
161 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


41A 


















125- 
161 


350 


1885- 
1888 


USGS WSP 338 


1915 


128-129 


Pluauis 
16 


Also springs— 87" 



S*« Appendix D for location. 



86 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



CHICO SHEET 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



7\ 

MAP 

LOC. 
NO. 


NAME 


L.OCATICM 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 

CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


1 ■ 

YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 




, 


NOTES 




T 


R 


SEC. 


But 






PUBLICATIOW 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 
NO. 




' 


Marble Hot Springs 
Mils 


22N 


i4e 


13 


M) 


Portola (15' 1 


1 sa- 
les 


330 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


11 


1. 2 




















158- 
163 


330 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


35, 36 






4 


vlsclB Well 


22(1 


14E 


25 


K) 


Sierraville (15- 1 


104 


25 




aiOG TF. I ' 


1975 


48 


37 






5 


Shallow Well 


22N 


15E 


26 


rc 


Slerraville (15' ) 


131 






CDOG TR 1 3 


1975 


48 


18 






6 


w. Hagge Well (1) 


'J2N 


15E 




Mr. 


Sierraville (15' ) 


104 


699 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


11 


3 








Haqge Well 1 












104 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


39 




\ 


7 


w. Hagge well (?) 


?2N 


ISE 


32 


HD 


Sierraville Wj''! 


102 


597 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


11 


4 








Ha9ge Well 2 












102 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


40 






8 


w. Haqqe Well (3) 


221J 


15E 


32 


HD 


Sierraville (15') 


111 


699 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


11 


6 








Hagge Well 3 












126 


909 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


41 






9 


G. Fllipinl Well 111 


2 2N 


15E 


'•■ 


M' 


Sierraville (15') 


201 


1099 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


11 


5 








Filipinl Well 1 












201 


1080 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


42 






10 


G. Fillpini Well (2) 


21N 


15E 




t-lD 


Sierraville (15-) 








CDOG TR 15 


1975 


11 


7 








Fillplnl Well 2 












124 


399 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


43 






11 


Fillpini Well 3 


21N 


15E 


5 


rc 


Sierraville (15') 


111 


600 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


44 






12 


Campbell Hot Springs 


20N 


15E 


19 


m 


Sierraville (15') 


65-111 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


43 








Campbell Hot Springs 


20N 


15E 


19 


HD 


Sierraville (15') 


98-111 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


129-130 


Sierra 1 




















100 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


11 


9 




















99-111 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


45 






13 


Brockway Hot Springs 


16N 


ISE 


30 


MD 


Tahoe (15' ) 


120-140 






USGS P.P. 49; 


1965 


21 


44 




















137 






USGS WSP 33B 


1915 


131 


Placer 8 




















131 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


47 


Near Kinqs Beach 




14 


Wentworth Springs 


14N 


15E 


31 


W3 


Granite Chief 
(15') 


60-75 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


44A 


























USGS WSP 338 


1915 


235-236 


Eldorado 

7 


Carbonated springs 





DEATH VALLEY SHEET 



1 


Spring In Saline 
Valley 


13S 


39E 


le 


PC 


Waucoba Wash 
(15') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


139 


















warm 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


136 


Inyo 12 






Lower warm Spring 












110 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


90 


Also lenown as 
Burro Warm Springs 


2 


Palm Springs 


13S 


39E 


le 


W) 


Waucoba Wash 
(15') 


120 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


91 




3 


Upper Warm Spring 


13S 


39E 


9 


W) 


Dry Mtn. (15') 








USGS Dry Mtn. 15' quad. 


1957 








4 


Keenr wonder Spring 


15S 


46E 


I 


rt) 


Chloride Cliff 
(15') 


8- 






USGS P.P. 44ri 


1963 


54 


1 r.-pn.,ltlr,.l 
travertlnp 



• Se« Appendix D for location. 



1985 TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 87 

DEATH VALLEY SHEET APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



HAP 
LOC. 
HO. 


NAME 


LOCATICW 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


REFEra:NCE(S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 




PUBLICATK* 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


4 
5 


ice«ne Morder Spring 


15S 


46E 


1 


PC 


Chloride Cliff 
(15') 


90-93 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


140A 




Dirty Socks -Hot 
Spring- 


les 


37E 


34 


rc 


Ke«ler (IS- ) 


7 


600 


1917 


CTHG ms vol. 17 no. U 


Nov. 
1964 


202 






6 


Hot sprlng-fumarole 


2?S 


38E 


i; 


re 


Halwe* Rm. (15') 


150-2C3 






uses P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


141 




7 


D»vHs Kltcho. 

(fUMTOle) 


25S 


39E 


7 


ro 


Halwee Rea. (IS- ) 


180 to 
bolllrg 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


141A 


















203 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


150-151 


Inyo 30 


















206 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


14 




8 


Coso Hot Springs 


22S 


39E 


4 


N> 


Halw«« Res. (IS- ) 


140 to 
boiling 






\JSGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


U? 
























USGS WSP 338 


1915 


149-150 


Inyo 31 






Mil 












207 


106 




USGS WU 33-73 


1974 


6 


12 






WU 












240 


375 




USGS WI 33-73 


1974 


6 


13 




9 


war» sprir.a 


21S 


44E: 


10 


PC 


Telescope Pk. 
115-I 


80 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


144 


Shown as Warm 
Sulphur Springs on 
1952 topo. quad. 






















USGS WSP 338 


1915 


136 


Inyo 29 



EL CENTRO SHEET 



1 


C.L. S«lth Well 


16S 


lOE 


5 


SB 


Painted Gorge 


85 


150 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


4 


-- 


































2 


J. Green Well 


16S 


lOE 


16 


SB 


Painted Gorge 
(TiiM 


85 


105 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


4 


161A 




3 


Dolllnger Well 


16S 


lOE 


16 


SB 


Painted Gorge 
(71,') 


86 


300 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


4 


162 




4 


KaqaM Er.erc>' Co. 
Bonanza 1 


15S 


14E 


22 


SB 


El Centre (Tlj*) 




5024 


1973 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Map 


28 




5 


well 


15S 


15E 


le 


SB 


Holtville West 


100 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


57 




6 


N. rifleld Well 


14S 


15E 


6 


SB 


Alamorio <7)j' ) 


124 


1250 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


17 


















129 


1290 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


64 




7 


T. Shank well 


13S 


15E 


32 


SB 


AlajTorio iTH' ) 


111 


1006 




(DOG TB 15 


1975 


Table la 


12 




8 


Maiaer-Shank well 


14S 


15E 


9 


SB 


Alanorio (7^5' ) 


88 


800 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


144 




9 


J. Blrger Well 


145 


15E 


9 


SB 


Alamorlo (71,') 


89 


385 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


42 


















88 


387 




CDOG TH 15 


1975 


Table la 


18 




10 


Ha^wlla School Well 


13S 


15E 


33 


SB 


AlMnorlo (TT) 


124 


1337 




OXIG TB 15 


1975 


Table la 


13 




11 














127 


1389 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


1 




M. Pheglev Well 


13S 


ISE 


34 


SB 


Alamorlo (T",' ) 


111 


950 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


14 






Rutherford Well 












112 


954 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


4 




12 


rifleld Wei! 


135 


15E 


34 


SB 


Alajoorlo (7»j') 


112 


1045 




Rex unpub . 


1972 


1 


111 




13 


Orlta Stage Station 
Well 


13S 


15E 


34 


SB 


AlsBorlo (T<j') 


110 


900 




Rex unpub. 1 ^"2 

1 1 


1 


7 





S*« Appendix D for locAtion. 



88 

EL CENTRO SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
MAP 

LOC. 

NO. 


NAKE 


LOCATION 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 
(see list of references for abbreviations) 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BtM 


PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 

NO. 


14 


md1o1« rtta Lot well 

(Same as No. 51?) 


14S 


15E 


11 


SS 


Alamorlo (71}') 


107 


654 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


19 




15 


A. Glslf^r Well 


l.iS 


15E 


15 


SB 


Alamorlo n^' ) 


117 


1172 




CDOG TP 1' 


1975 


Table la 


21 






Gisler-Bowman Well 












121 


1165 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


35 




16 


Hendlburu Feed Lot 
Well 


14S 


15E 


12 


SB 


Alamorlo (75j*) 


125 


1240 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


20 






K-F Feed Let Acll 












124 


1260 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


43 




n 


OKXTTED 




























18 


J. Blrger Well 


US 


15E 


23 


SB 


Alamorlo (71i') 


103 


754 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


22 






Janes Blrger Sr. Well 












106 


750 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


I 


34 




19 


J. Birgec Well 


14S 


15E 


27 


SB 


Alamorlo (7H' ) 


90 


402 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


23 






James Blrqer Jr. Well 












90 


400 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


33 




20 


A. Foster Well 


14S 


15E 


2B 


SB 


Alamorlo C75j' ) 


86 


380 




Rex unpuh. 


1972 


3 


143 




21 


Jenson Well 


145 


15E 


34 


SB 


Alamorlo 171)' ) 


86 


359 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


24 




22 


Gaddls Well 


14S 


15E 


34 


SB 


Alamorlo (7Ji' ) 


96 


613 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


25 




23 


Gaddls-Hanson Well 


145 


15E 


34 


SB 


Alamorlo <7!jM 


97 


610 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


^ 


31 




24 


Shawner Well 


155 


15E 


10 


SB 


Holtvllle West 
(7),M 


90 


463 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


32 






Shawner-Harmon Well 












90 


460 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


25 




25 


F. Shaffner well 


15S 


15E 


9 


SB 


Holtvllle West 
(71,') 


69 


550 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


41 




26 


A. Barnes Well 


155 


15E 


10 


5B 


Holtvllle West 
(71,') 


90 


399 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


30 




21 


C. Aller, .^eU 


15S 


15L 


14 


SB 


Holtvllle West 
(71,') 


104 


864 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


24 


















104 


869 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


33 




2S 


K. Sharp well 


15S 


15E 


13 


SB 


Holtvllle West 
(71,') 


97 


800 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


145 




29 


J. DePaoll Well 


15S 


15E 


26 


SB 


Holtvllle West 


104 


954 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


34 


















106 


970 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


11 




30 


Hodem Grocery Well 


15S 


15E 


25 


SB 


Holtvllle West 
(71,') 


96 


850 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


'- 


14 




31 


Holtvllle Ice Co. 
Well 


15S 


15E 


35 


SB 


Holtvllle West 
(7),') 


113 


1100 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


8 


CDOG »t35 


32 


City of Holtvllle 
Well 


15S 


15E 


36 


SB 


Holtvllle West 
(7>,') 


84 


850 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


36 






Unnamed well 


155 


15E 


36 


SB 




109 


14 




USG5 WRt 33-73 


1974 


e 


56 




33 


Haiz Strar^g Well 


15S 


15E 


25 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(71,') 


112 


673 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


150 




34 


Spanish Trails Mobil 
Home Park Well 


15S 


16E 


30 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(71,') 


110 


1551 




Rex unpub. 


ll?.-! 


1 


17.' 




35 


A. PuBl, Jr. Well 


15S 


16E 


30 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(71,M 


104 


918 




CVOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


44 


















104 


1000 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


I 


62 




36 


A. Fual. Well 


15S 


16E 


29 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(71,') 


87 


580 




CDOG Tf- l'. 


1975 


Table la 


43 





• S«« Appendix D for location. 



1985 

EL CENTRO SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



89 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



HAP 
LOC. 
NO. 


name: 


LOCATICW 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BIM 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


IOC. 
NO. 


36 

37 


A. Fusl, Sr. Well 


ISS 


leE 


J9 


5B 


HoltvUle Enst 


88 


616 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


16 




F. Strahm Well 


I5S 


UE 


10 


5B 


Holtvllle East 


97 


839 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Tabic In 


40 




38 














98 


834 




Rex unpuh. 


1972 


2 


21 




Hooke Well 


15S 


l&E 


7 


5b 


Holtvllle bast 
US') 


97 


663 




CLOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


37 






H. Hoke Well 












99 


695 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


28 




39 


G. Hoyt Well 


15S 


16E 


8 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(A') 


89 


484 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


38 


















89 


488 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


27 




40 


F. Grlnello 


15S 


15E 


12 


SB 


Holtvllle East 


101 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


146 


















106 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


59 




41 


J. Rohret Well 


15S 


15E 


1 


SB 


Alamorlo N.E. 
<7liM 


100 


580 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


147 




47 


A. Iitmel Well 


14S 


16E 


19 


SB 


Alamorlo N.E. 
(7I5M 


124 


1135 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


157 




43 


F. Axler Well 


14S 


16E 


Jl 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 


96 


450 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


154 




44 


5. Stacey Well 


14S 


16E 


21 


SB 


Alamorlo N.E. 


88 


450 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


38 


















90 


440 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


30 




4S 


Singh Well 


145 


16E 


22 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 
(7I,M 


96 


709 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


39 


















117 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


58 






Singh Well 


14S 


16E 


22 


SB 


Alamorlo N.E. 
(71,.) 


107 


706 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


31 




46 


Chopenlck well 


145 


16E 


16 


SB 


Alamorlo N.E. 
(71,') 


90 


450 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


155 


2 separate wells 




K. Axler well 












78 


402 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


29 


47 


F. Borchard Well 


14S 


16E 


4 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 


102 


456 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


47 


















100 


425 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


26 




48 


F. Borchard Well 


145 


16E 


4 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 
(7!,') 


102 


457 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


46 


















101 


460 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


27 




49 


B. EAaruelU Well 


135 


16E 


32 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 
I7!,M 


106 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


112 




50 


Q.O. Cattle Co. Well 


135 


16E 


28 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 


98 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


156 




51 


Moiola Feed Lot Well 


145 


16E 


11 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 
(71j'l 


108 


650 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


45 




52 


U.S.G.S. casts well 


145 


16E 


11 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 
(7>,.) 


96 


287 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


65 




53 


U.S.-B.L.M. Well 


145 


16E 


11 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 

lA'l 


94 


287 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


28 




54 


Coons Well 


14S 


16E 


27 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 
(71,M 


88 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


148 




5S 


A. Jechlms Wells 


145 


16E 


34 


SB 


Alamorio N.E. 
(71,'> 


92 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


149 




56 


R. Garewal well 


155 


16E 


15 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(71jM 


91 


800 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


23 


















90 


804 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


39 





See Appendix D (or location. 



90 

EL CENTRO SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
HAP 

LOC. 

HO. 


HAKE 


LOCATICW 


QOADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CFl 


TOTAI. 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFEREMCE(S) 






BOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B£M 




PUBLICATICM 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


57 


0. St«rr Hell 


15S 


16E 


22 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
<71,M 


98 


750 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


20 


















94 


754 




COOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


41 




58 


L. Foster well 


15S 


16£ 


23 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
{7l)' ) 


95 


561 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


IB 


















94 


544 




CBOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


42 




59 


Neldlf(er well 


15? 


I6F 


27 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(71,') 


89 


600 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


17 




60 


C. An«lel well 


165 


16£ 


4 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(73,- ) 


102 


940 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


61 


















94 


944 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


45 




61 


Date City Store Well 


16S 


i6e 


3 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(7),M 


89 


596 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


133 




62 


Hagpia energy Inc. 
Sharp *1 


155 


16£ 


35 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(7l,M 




6070 


1972 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Map 


17 


















259 


6072 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


26 


215 




63 


techuqa Store well 


16S 


16E 


17 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(7),M 


104 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


136 




64 


Alano School Well 


165 


16£ 


15 


SB 


Holtvllle East 


99 


lOOO 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


29 




65 


Hasserinl well 


165 


16E 


15 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(Tl,') 


107 


1060 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


36 






Alaao School (ABD.) 
Well 












100 


881 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


47 






Old Alano Store Well 












lis 


1177 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


26 




66 


watton Labor Camp 
Well 


165 


16E 


14 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(7>C) 


112 


800 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


15 






watton Labor Camp 
Well 


16S 


16E 


14 


SB 


Holtvllle East 


109 


1134 




CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table la 


46 




67 


Schnelder-Gothrle 
Well 


165 


16E 


12 


SB 


Holtvllle East 
(71,M 


106 


825 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


137 




6e 


Under Gravel Well 


165 


16E 


13 


SB 


Holtvllle East 


120 


810 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


134 




69 


U.S.B.R. 06-151 Well 


165 


17E 


6 


SB 


Glamls SW (7!,M 


91 


150 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


170 




70 


U.S.B.B. Mesa 6-1 
well 


165 


17E 


6 


SB 


GlarUs SW (7!iM 




6030 


1972 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Map 


27 


















395 


7960 




U5<a Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


30 


336 




70A 


U.S.B.R. Mesa 6-2 
Well 


165 


17E 


6 


SB 


Glamls SW (fljM 




6005 


1973 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Hap 


31 


















368 


5920 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


30 


339 




71 


U.C. Rlverslde-127 
Well 


165 


17E 


17 


SB 


Glamls 5W i^>,^ ) 


181 


1500 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


71, 71A 


















186 


1363 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


30 


348 




7J 


U.S.B.K. Mesa 5-1 
Well 


165 


17E 


5 


SB 


Glamls SW ITS' ) 




6000± 


1974 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Hap 


34 




73 


S.llh Bros, .-n 


135 


16E 


33 


SB 


Clanls (15*) 


160 


680 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


171 




74 


U.S.B.R.-U.C.R. »115 


155 


I9e 


33 


SB 


Glamls (15') 


212. 


350 


1971 


CDWR-UCR Dunes Report 


1973 


3, 8, 9 








DHR Dimes «1 Well 












21 2± 


leoot 


1972 


CDWR-UCR Dunes Report 


1973 


3, 8, 9 








DWR Dunes Kl Well 














2007 


1972 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Hap 


18 




75 


E.rBa Hire xcl 1 


ns 


19E 


33 


SB 


Oqlbley (15* ) 


66 


700 




Rex unpul . 


1972 


4 







&•• Appendix D for location . 



1985 

EL CENTRO SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 91 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
HAP 

UX. 

SO. 


NAME 


LOCATICW 


QUADRANCIZ 


WATtJR 
TEMP. 
CF) 


T^rAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 




PUBLICATIOH 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


■>(, 


Gold Rock Ranch Well 


15S 


20E 


7 


SB 


Oqlbley (15M 


98 


690 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


13 




77 


Texaco 1-8 Well, 
Ii^)«rlal Hwy. 


l&S 


9E 


36 


SB 


Coyote Wella 
17',M 


91 


547 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


7S 


















85 


312 




Rex ixipub. 


1972 


4 


" 




78 


w. Slnpsor^ Well 


ns 


loe 


11 


SB 


Coyote Wells 
(7l,.> 


85 


302 




Rex unpub. 


197? 


4 


fi? 




79 


Ns^a Energy, Inc. 
Fed-Rlte wl Well 


17S 


HE 


8 


SB 


Ht. Si^al (71,') 




5380 


1973 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Hap 


30 




80 


na^a Energy, Inc. 
Holtz aZ well 


16S 


HE 


31 


SB 


Heber (71,') 




5000 


1972 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Map 


?0 


















318 


4890 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial valley) 


1976 


30 


302 




ei 


Nagaa Energy, Inc. 
Molti #1 Well 


16S 


14C 


32 


SB 


Heber (7>iM 




5147 


1972 


WerTier unpub. 


1973 


l«p 


19 


















3 34 


5025 




OSGS Open File 
llmperlal Valley) 


1976 


30 


304 




62 


Chev«»i Oil Co. 
Nowlln Fart. 1 Well 


l&S 


14E 


33 


SB 


Heber (T!,') 




50 30 


1972 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Map 


21 




83 


L. Bomt well 


ns 


16E 


9 


SB 


Bonds Comer 


95 


714 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


63 


















100 


714 




oxx: TB 15 


1975 


Table la 


48 




B4 


hets Feed Lot Well 


16S 


16E 


33 


SB 


Bonds Comer 
(71,'l 


87 


soo 




Rex unpub. 


197? 


4 


135 




85 


rb^u Energy, Inc. 
Sharp «2 Well 


16S 


leE 


34 


SB 


Bonds Comer 




6465 


1973 


Werner unpub. 


1973 


Hap 


29 





FRESNO SHEET 



MAP 
LOC. 
NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICW 




WATER 
TEMP. 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


VEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 
(see list of references for abbreviations) 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 




B&H 


PUBLICATION 


IfEAR 


PAGE 


LOG. 
NO. 


1 


Kem (Jordan) Hot 
Spring 


36* 28.7 -N 
118»24.2'W 


Kem Peak (15M 


95-123 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


135 










95-123 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


53-54 


Tulare 7 




2 


Cn S. Fork of M. Fort 
of Tule R. 


36*09. 2'N 

llB"39.e'M 


Caa^ Nelsor. (15') 


77 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


134 


Water carbonated 








77 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


242-243 


Tulare 
11 




■3 


Kmache neadows 


20s 


35E 


3 


K> 


Hanache Htn. 
(15') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


136 


Water carbor.ated 






















USGS WSP 338 


1915 


246 


Tulare 8 





KINGMAN SHEET 













No thenwl springs or wells reported. 


1 









LONG BEACH SHEET 



1 


Unnaaed warv springs, 
Malaga Cove area. 


4S 


15W 


36 


SB 


Redondo Beach 
(A-l 


77 






Torrance Dally Breeze 


1970 


9 




Jan. 23, 1970, 
newspaper 


2 


Whites Point Hot 
Springs 


5S 


14W 


31 


SB 


San Pedro (15*) 


114 






USGS WRJ 3)-71 


1974 


10 


92 




3 


Segura Fetrol«» Co. 
Se^a SI 


5S 


UW 


34 


SB 


Seal Beach (7>,') 


425 


8340 


1920's 


CDOG Huntington Beach Map 
No. 134 








COCG wrltter. coaa. 
7/26/74 


4 


HcCasden Well 


6S 


UW 


10 


SB 


Seal Beach (7)j' ) 


very 
hot 














CDOG written coawi. 
7/26/74 



• See Appendix D for location. 



92 

LOS ANGELES SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
HAP 

UK. 

NO. 


NAME 


LOCATIOM 


QUADRANGLE 


HATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BIM 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 
NO. 


1 


San Hbtcos Hot Springs 


5N 


J9W 


2 


SB 


lalce Cachuma 
(7>,') 


69-108 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


102 






(Mtn. Glen, Hot 
Springs) 












■ 






uses USP 338 


1915 


67-68 


Sta. Bar. 
2 






(Cuyama Hot Springs) 












110 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open Pile 
(So. Coast, Transv. I Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-16 






2 


Agua Callente (Big 
C«ll«nte) Spring 


5N 


26V 


1 


SB 


Hlldreth Pea)< 
(7S') 


133 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-16 






3 


War* spring 


5N 


25W 


4 


SB 


Hildreth Peajc 
(71,') 


90 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


104 




4 


Hax« spring 


5N 


2iV 


1 


SB 


Old Han Mtn. 
(7>,M 


90 






USCiS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


105 




5 


Wheelers Hot Springs 


34*30. 5'N 
119'17.4'W 


Wheeler Springs 
(7!,M 


62-102 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


109 










102 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


64-66 


Ventura 
2 










94, 102 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-18 






6 


Wlllett Hot Springs 


SN 


20V 


30 


SB 


Topatops Mtn. 
(7!,-) 


120 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


110 


















108 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-19 






7 


Sesp« Hot Springs 


ex 


20W 


21 


SB 


Devils Heart Pie. 
(7!,'l 


191 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


111 


















194 






US(>S Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Poiin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-19 




















191 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


66 


Ventura 

1 


















191 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


87 




8 


Elizabeth Lake Canyon 
wami Spring 


6N 


16W 


15 


SB 


Warm Springs Mtn. 
(71,M 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


112 






Elizabeth IjUce Canyon 
Wanri Spring 


6N 


16W 


15 


SB 


Warm Springs Mtn. 
(71,.) 


~ 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


66 


Los 
Angeles 

1 


















92 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A- 7 






9 


Tecolate Tvjnnel 


5N 


29W 


26 


SB 


Dos Pueblos Can. 
(71,') 


93 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Per.ln. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-16 






10 


Honteclto (Santa 
Barbara) Hot Springs 


4N 


26W 


5 


SB 


Santa Barbara 
(71,') 


111-118 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


103 


















m-iie 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


66-7 


Sta. Bar. 
7 


















lie 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


86 






Monteclto Hot Springs 
and Arsenic Springs 


4N 


26W 


5 S 6 


SB 




111. 

112 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A- 15 




Arsenic Springs in 
Section 6 


11 


Vlckers Hot Springs 


34'30.1-N 
119'?0.75'W 


Wheeler Springs 
(Tlj' ) 


118 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


106 










" 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


62-63 


Ventura 

3 




12 


Stlngleys Hot Springs 


5N 


24W 


24 


SB 


Matlll)o (71,') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


107 


















100 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


63 


Ventura 

5 






G.A. Rice 












123 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-19 






13 


Katlll]a Hot Springs 


SN 


J3W 


29 


SB 


Matili]a (7),' ) 


116 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


108 


















116 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


63 


Ventura 

7 


















109 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. t Penln. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-19 






14 


Sewlnole Hot Springs 


IS 


lew 


5 


SB 


Point Dume (TS") 


114 


3000± 




USGS Water Res. Div. (5pen File 
(So. Coast, Transv. ft Penln. 
Ranges ) 


1968 


A--' 




Oil teat well 



• S«« Appondix for location. 



1985 TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 93 

LOS ANGELES SHEET APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
HAF 

LOC. 

NO. 


NAMt- 


LCCATItli 


OUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
{*F) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


VEAB 

DRILLED 


REFEreNCE(S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BU4 




PUBLIOJTICW 


YEAR 


PAGE 


ux. 

HO. 


1". 


Enclno Ranch 
(SeMinolc) Hot 
Springs 


34*09.1'N 
n8-29.0'W 


Van Nuys (Tlj*) 


B5 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


112 A 










85 






USia MSP 338 


1915 


246-247 


Loa 

Angeles 
8 




16 


RadluB SuUur Spring 


IS 


HW 


14 


SB 


Hollywxx) (Til') 


80 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


11? S 


(^663 Melros« Ave.) 
near Gower St.) 


















1000± 


CA. 1904 


USGS WSP 338 


1915 


71-7? 


Angeles 
10 


Oil test well; later 
bathing resort 


n 


BlBlni Hot Springs 


IS 


13W 


19 


SB 


HollyiMod (Tlj'l 


104 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


112 C 


(3rd 8. Vermont Ave.) 
















104 


1750± 


CA. 1903 


USGS WSP 338 


1915 


71 


Los 

Angeles 
11 


Oil test well; later 
bathing resort 
















104 






USGS WRI 33-13 


1974 


10 


7S 





KARIPOSA SHEET 



1 


Paoha Island 


1 
2N 


27E 


31 


« 


Mono Craters 
(15') 


176 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


120 


















176 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


144-145 


Mono 7 


















176 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


8 






Springs and steaa 

vents 












203 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


55 




2 


Geothemal Resources 
InterTiatlonal "State 
P.R.C. 4397.1" 1 


IN 


27E 


17 


fC 


^tono Craters 
(15'1 


130 


4110 


1971 


CDOG Sum, Op. V. 57, no. 2 


1971 


13 








Geotherval Resources 
Intematiorial "State 
P.R.C. 4397.1" 1 












129 


4110 


1971 


CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


57 


Also see p. 35 


3 


Springs 


m 


2eE 


6 


m 


Cowtrack Mtn. 
(15') 


? 








1950 






Shown as hot spring 
on Mt. Morrison 
30' quad. 


4 


Benton Hot Springs 


2S 


31E 


2 


M) 


Glass Htn. (15') 


135 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


127 


















135 






US(^ WSP 338 


1915 


136 


Mono 12 


















136 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


10 




5 


Bertrand Ranch 


IS 


32E 


8 


^G 


Benton (15' J 


70 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


23 


127A 


Location somewhat 
uncertain 






















USGS WSP 338 


1915 


322 


Itono 10 


6 


Reds Meadows Hot 
Springs 




37-37 
119-04 


I'N 
7'W 




Devils Postplle 
(15') 


90-120 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


128 










120 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


55-56 


Madera 6 




7 


Two fu»aroles 


T4S 


27E 


6 


H) 


Devils Postplle 
(15') 








USGS GO 437 


1965 








B 


puaarole 


T4S 


27E 


7-8 


H> 


Devils Postplle 
(15') 








USGS QQ 437 










9 


Fish Creek Hot 
Springs 


5S 


27E 


8 


K) 


Devils Postpile 
(15') 


110 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


129 










37-32 

119-01 


N 












USGS WSP 338 


1915 


56 


Fresno 2 
















USGS GO 437 


1965 








10 


Casa Diablo 
Geotherial Hell 


3S 


28E 


31 


fD 


Mt. Morrison 
(15') 


128 






CDWR Long Valley Invest. 


1967 


PI. 2, 

107 








Geothenaal Hell 


















CDWR long Valley Invest. 


1967 


PI. 2, 
107 




Second well in 
SecUon 31 


11 


Ritchie uelU 
1 thru 3 


3S 


28E 


32 


tt> 


Mt. mrrlson 
(15'1 








CTOG Map G 5-1 


1973 










Bathrlcic Uella 1 > 2 


















CDOG Hap G 5-1 


1973 


- 


- 





See Appendix D for location. 



94 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



MARIPOSA SHEET 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



LOC. 
NO. 


NAHE 


LOCATICW 


QUADRANGLE 


vaTER 

TEMP. 

CD 


TOT At 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 


, 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&H 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


UX. 

NO. 


11 


Na^M Power Co. i 
Assoc. Hells 


3S 


28E 


32 


K) 


Mt. Horrlson 

(15M 


Max. 
352 


Max. 

1000 


1959- 
196? 


CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


60 


Also see p. 35 
(20 wells) 


1? 


C«s. Diablo Hot 
Springs 


"is 


2ec 


32 


W 


Mt. rtorrlson 
(15') 


115-194 






uses P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


123 


















115-194 






USGS HSP 336 


1915 


146-147 


nno IS 








3S 


28E 


31 


w 




128 






uses HRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


1 








3S 


28E 


31 


w 




128 






CDWR Long Valley Invest. 


1967 


107 








Cass Olablo Hot 
Springs 


3S 


2eE 


32 


M) 




115-194 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


58 




n 


Ritchie Hells 
04, 5, 6 


3S 


28E 


32 


H) 


Mt. Morrison 
(15'> 








CDOG Map G 5-1 


1973 




■ 




14 


htxio County Sheriffs 
Substation Hell 


IS 


2eE 


33 


H) 


Mt. Itorrlfion 
(15') 


79 


75 


1962 


CDHR Mam. Basin Rept. 


1974 


39 




















91 






<3)HR Long Valley Invest. 


1967 


107 






15 


Hagma Power Co. 
Chance #2 


3S 


28E 


35 


M) 










CDOG Hap G 5-1 


1973 


" 


~ 






Casa Diablo Hot Pool 
Hell 












275 


80S 


1961 


CDMG SR 75 


1963 


11 


12 




16 


Casa Diablo Hot Pool 


3S 


2eE 


35 


W) 


Mt. ttorrison 
(15'l 


180 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


124 


















120-180 






USGS HSP 338 


1915 


147 


nsno 16 


















165 






USGS HRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


« 


















165 






CDHR Long Valley Invest. 


1967 


110 




















180 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


59 




17 


Hot spring 


3S 


2eE 


13 


w 


Mt. Morrison 
(15') 


170 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


122 


















- 






USGS HSP 338 


1915 


147 


Mono 14 


















180 






USGS HRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


2 


















174 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


46 


61 




18 


Hot springs 


3S 


28E 


25 


H3 


Mt. Morrison 
(15') 


120-203 






USGS P.P. 385 


1964 


PI. 1 
80-81 
fig. 39 


5 


















200 






CDHR Long Valley Invest. 


1967 


109 




















200 






USGS HRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


3 






Hot Creek Geysers 
(Springs) 












194-203 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


62 




19 


Harm spring 


3S 


29E 


7 


H> 


Mt. Morrison 
(15- ) 


1007 






USGS P.P. 385 


1964 


PI. 1 
80-81 
fig. 39 


10 




?0 


Whltjnore Hani Springs 


4S 


29E 


e 


hC 


Mt. Marrlson 
(15') 


90 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


126 


















100 






USGS HSP 338 


1915 


147.148 


Mono 17 






Whltsnre Hot Springe 












91 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


64 




21 


Harsi spring 


3S 


29E 


31 


W 


Mt. Morrison 
(15') 


140 






USGS P.P. 385 


1964 


80-81 


8 


















- 






USGS HRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


7 


















142 






CDWR Long Valley Invest. 


1967 


112 








Hot springs 












136 






CDOG Tl> 13 


1975 


48 


63 





• 8*0 Appendix D for loc«tlo 



1985 

MARIPOSA SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 95 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



map" 

LOC. 
NO. 


NAME 


LOCATION 


gUADRANCLE 


HATER 
TEMP. 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 




, 


NCTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


8&M 




PUBLICATI :W 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


22 


Hot spring 


3S 


29C 


29 


» 


m.. Hwrlson 
(15') 


172 






CDWR »ta0. Basin Rept. 


1973 


40 






?3 


Hot sprlTiq 


3S 


nt 


17 


Kl 


Mt. Harrison 
(15M 


131 






CDWR Mam. Basin Rept. 


1973 


40 






24 


"Tt» Geysers* 


3S 


29E 


30 


IC 










uses P.P. 492 


1965 


'' 


125 




n 


D^Y Hot Spring 


3S 


29E 


21 


W 


Ht. Itorrlson 
(ISM 


126. 
134 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


5 t 6 






Hot springs 












128, 
132 






CDWR Long Valley Invest. 


1967 


111 






27 


omTrec 




























omrrer 




























26 


Warw ST>rln<3 


3T24.75'N 
119*08. 35'N 


Kaiser Peak (15-) 


95 














Written contn. 
V.P. Lockwood 


2S 


Itooo Hot Springs 


7S 


27E 


16 


K) 


Kaiser Peak CIS') 


112 






USGS P.P. 492 


196S 


23 


130 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


55 


Fresno 4 




30 


Keough Hot Springs 


8S 


33E 


17 


Ml 


Bishop (15' ) 


130 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


138 


















130 






USGS >ISP 338 


1915 


148 


Inyo 1 


















138, 

130 






USGS Va 33-73 


1974 


6 


9 > 11 


Loc. 9 In error; 
should be In Range 
33 


31 


Blaney Fieadows Hot 
Sprljigs 


8S 


2aE 


23 


N) 


Blackcap Htn 
(15') 


110 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


131 


















lie 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


54-55 


Fresno 5 




32 


Grapevine Spring 


lis 


42E 


3 


K) 


Ubehebe Crater 
<15' 1 








USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


93 





NEEDLES SHEET 



1 


Fla«ingo Well 


ION 


20E 


13 


SB 


Bannock (15' ) 


104 


- 


- 


USGS WRI 33-73 


1973 


8 


30 




2 


Ruricka 


IS 


24E 


9 


SB 


Parker (15M 


90 


- 


" 


USGS P.P. 4e6-G 


1973 








3 


Ruzlcka, Oeahrlng 
and Fortner 


IS 


24E 


10 


SB 


Parker 115') 


84 


290 


1959 


USGS P.P. 486-G 


1973 








4 


Rio Mesa Ranch #2 


IS 


24E 


10 


SB 


Parker <15') 


86 


332 


- 


USGS P.P. 48&-C 


1973 










Rio rtesa Ranch «1 












86 


- 


- 


USQS F.F. 486-G 


1973 








5 


V. Ruzlcka 


IS 


24E 


16 


SB 


Parker (IS') 


108 


225 


1959 


USGS P.P. 486-G 1973 









REDDING SHEET 



1 


Tuscan (Lick) Springs 


28H 


2W 


32 


W 


Tuscan Springs 
(7i|') 


86 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


45B 
























USGS WSP 338 


1915 


2B9-291 


Tehaaa 5 


Saline with HjS 


2 


Stlnklr.q Springs 


27N 


8W 


3 


W 


Colyear Springs 
(15') 


101 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
Rept. (No. Coast and Klajnath 
Htns.) 


1968 


33 







SACRAMENTO SHEE 



1 


Valley Springs 


5N 


IDE 


24 


m 


Valley Springs 
(IS') 


75 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


113A 


















75 






USGS WSP 338 


191S 


300-301 


Calaveras 

1 


Saline 



• S«e Appendix D for locAtion. 



96 

SALTON SEA SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
HAP 
LOC. 
NO. 


NAME 


UXIATION 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B6M 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


1 


Kaiser North Well 


3S 


15E 


4 


SB 


Coxcomb Mtn. 
(15') 


65 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


4 


186 




? 


IhuriMr Rsqsdale Well 


4S 


15E 


17 


SB 


Coxcomb Ntn. 
<15') 


104 


600 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


193 




3 


Desert Center Airport 
Well 


5S 


16E 


e 


SB 


CoxcoITi) Mtn. 
(15') 


66 


225 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


4 


99 


Possibly in 55-16E- 
Sec. B 


4 


Dos PalBss Spring 


8S 


HE 


3 


SB 


Orocopia (Tlj') 


60 






U5G5 P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


176 


















- 






uses W5P 336 


1915 


315 


Riverside 

IB 


















84 


- 




CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


PI. 2 






5 


Sunland Oil Well 


5S 


15E 


29 


SB 


Chuckwalla MtJls. 
(15'1 


66 


650 




Rex unpub . 


1972 


4 


177 




6 


Dlv. of Highways, 
Desert Center Well 


55 


15E 


27 


SB 


Chuckwalla Mtns. 
(15') 


89 


585 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


187 




7 


Stanley Raqsdale Well 


5S 


15E 


27 


SB 


Chuckwalla Mtns. 
(15') 


91 


600 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


176 




8 


Trailer Park East and 
West Wells 


5S 


15E 


23 


SB 


Chuckwalla Mtns. 
(15') 


93, 94 


500 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


192, 194 




9 


LaTy C Trailer Park 
Well 


5S 


15E 


13 


SB 


Chuckwalla Mtns. 
I15'> 


86 






Rex urpub. 


1972 


4 


198 




10 


Howard Brown Well 


5S 


16E 


7 


5B 


Chuckwalla Mtns. 
(15') 


95 


650 




Rex unpub. 


197? 


? 


185 




n 


Wiley well Rest »re« 


6S 


20E 


33 


SB 


McCoy Spring 
(15') 


lie 


17O0 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


197 




1? 


Mesa Verde Well 


65 


21E 


36 


SB 


Ripley (71i'l 


88 


360 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


191 




n 


Nicholls Warm Springs 


6S 


21E 


36 


SB 


Ripley (Tij') 


91 


638 


1946 


U5GS P.P. 486-G 


1973 


111 






14 


Riverside Co. Airport 
Well 


65 


?2E 


32 


SB 


Ripley (7H' ) 


68 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


183 




15 


Ballard's Tnjdchaven 
Well 


105 


lOE 


IB 


SB 


Truckhaven (7)j') 


104 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


36 


5 


















104 






uses WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


29 




le 


Truckhaven Well 


105 


lOE 


16 


SB 


Truckhaven (7)j') 


104 


1200 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


74A 




17 


Truckhaven Well 


lOS 


lOE 


16 


5B 


Truckhaven (71(') 


90 


1200 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


74 




le 


"Hunter's Spring" New 
Well 


es 


HE 


12 


SB 


Durmid (7)(') 


90 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


36 


24 




19 


King, Spa Well 


es 


12E 


36 


SB 


Frlnk NW (TJj' ) 


174 


347 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


127 




?0 


New Pilger Hot 
Mineral Well 


85 


12E 


36 


SB 


Frlnk NW (71,') 


160 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


36 


23 






Pilger Estates Well 












160 






uses WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


25 




21 


Hot mineral well 


9S 


12E 


2 


SB 


Frink NW (Tij') 


166 


300 




USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


176A 






Hot mineral Spa well 












190 






U5G5 Water Res. Div. Open File 
(Colo. Desert) 


1969 


9 






22 


Bruhfords Well 


9S 


12E 


2 


SB 


Frlnk NW (7I5' ) 


143 


247 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


126 


















170-174 


325 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


e 


27 




23 


Youth Spa Well 


95 


12E 


2 


SB 


Frlnk W (71,' ) 


136 


611 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


12 




24 


Unnamed well 


95 


12E 


2 


5B 


Frlnk riw (71)'l 


159-174 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


92 






7S 


Fountain youth Hot 
Hineral Well 


95 


13E 


7 


SB 


Frlnk NW (7)5') 


140 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


36 


21 




26 


frlnk Springs 


95 


13E 


20 


SB 


Frlnk NW (7),' ) 


75 






CDWR Bull. 141- 


1970 


36 


20 





• S«« Appendix D for location. 



1985 

SALTON SEA SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 97 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



MAP 
LOC. 
SO. 


NAME 


LOCATICW 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&H 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


27 


Hjdle, Gravel Co. Well 


9S 


13E 


21 


SB 


Frlnk NW (T^i" ) 


se 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


125 




26 


Mid volcsno(sl 


9S 


HE 


35 


SB 


Wlster (A'l 








Mln. survey 








So. Pac. Kin. Sur. 
unpub. maps 1961 


29 


Mjd volc«no(st 


9S 


13E 


36 


SB 


Wister (7>,'l 








Min. survey 








So. Pac. Min. Sur. 
unpub. maps 1961 


30 


Hjd volcano(s) 


lOS 


13E 


2 


SB 


Wlster (7>- ) 








Min. survey 








So. Pac. Kin. Sur. 
unpub. maps 1961 


31 


Hid volcanoes] 


lOS 


13E 


1 


SB 


Wlster 171,') 








Min. survey 








So. Pac. Kin. Sur. 
unpub. maps 1961 


32 


Hjd volcano(s) 


lOS 


13E 


10 


SB 


Wlster (71,') 








Min. survey 








So. Pac. Hln. Sur. 
unpub. maps 1961 


33 


Hjd volcano(s) 


lOS 


13E 


U 


SB 


Wlster (Tlj') 








mn. survey 








So. Pac. mn. Sur. 
unpub. naps 1961 


34 


Hjd volcano(s) 


lOS 


13E 


23 


SB 


Wlster ITH') 








Min. survey 








So. Pac. mn. Sur. 
unpub. maps 1961 


35 


»*id volcano! s) 


lOS 


13E 


24 


SB 


Wlster (7H' ) 








Hln. survey 








So. Pac. Mln. Sur. 
unpub. maps 1961 


36 


Magma Energy Inc. 
Dearborn 1 


12S 


13E 


30 


SB 


Calipatria (7H* ) 




4135 


1972 






Map 


16 


S.L. Werner, written 
comm. 10/25/73. 


37 


omrrEr 




























36 


Western GeotherTMl 
Sinclair 4 


12S 


13E 


4 


SB 


Nlland (75)') 


•212 


5306 


1964 


CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


45, 87 




Also see PI. 2 
















328 


4503 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


20 


70 




39 


Western Geothemtal 
Sinclair 3 


12S 


13E 


10 


SB 


NUand (7)iM 


- 


6922 


1962 


CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


45 




















334 


4720 




USGS WRl 33-73 


1974 


8 


50 


















228 


5327 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


20 


72 




40 


Earth Dierqy Inc., 
Elnore 1 


lis 


13E 


27 


SB 


Nlland (7Ji' ) 


536 


7117 


- 


USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


55 




















7117 


1964 


CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


45 






41 


Imperial TTiemal 
Prod. I.I.D. 1 


lis 


13E 


23 


SB 


Nlland (TSi'l 


430 


5232 


1962 


CnVR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


45, 87 




















450 


4859 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


54 


















334 


5232 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


18 


39 




42 


laperial Therwal 
Prod. I.I.D. 3 


lis 


13E 


23 


SB 


Nlland (71j') 


221 


1695 


1965 


CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


45, 87 






43 


Ii^jerial Thermal 
Prod. I.I.D. 2 


lis 


13E 


22 


SB 


Nlland (7^') 


626 


5826 


1963 


CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


45. 87 




Temp, from nxffler 
and White (1969) 


44 

45 














660 


56O0 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


18 


37 




Mud Pots 


lis 


13E 


14 


SB 


Nlland (Tlj- ) 


100 

to 

boiling 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


25 


182A 




Kid Pot 


lis 


13E 


14 


SB 


Nlland (71j*) 


100 

to 

boiling 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


25 


182A 




46 

47 


Halsson'B Spa 


us 


13E 


13 


SB 


Nlland <7l(M 


106 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


96 




Halsson's well 


US 


13E 


13 


SB 


Nlland (THM 


104 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


36 


19 




48 


Earth Energy Inc. 
Hudson Ranch 1 


US 


13E 


13 


SB 


Nlland (Tl,-) 


192 


6141 
500 


1964 


CDWR Bull. 143-7 
USGS WPI 3^-7? 


1970 
1974 


45 
8 


53 




49 


Joseph O'Neill. 
Sportsman 1 


US 


13E 


23 


SB 


Nlland (7>i') 


590 


4729 


1961 


CDWR Bull. 143-7 


197C 


45 




Temp, from Kjffler 
and White (1969) 
















392 


4729 


1961 






Map 


5 


S.L. Werner written 
co™. 10/25/73 
















495 


3000 




USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


18 


40 





See Appendix D for location. 



98 

SALTON SE* SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



LOC. 
HO. 


NME 


LOCATION 


QUADRANGLE 


lATER 
TEKP. 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 




, 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BU4 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 

NO. 


50 


E«rth Energy Inc. 
River Ranch 1 


lis 


UE 


23 


SB 


Nilsnd (7S' ) 


653 


8100 


1963 


CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


45 


■ ■ 


Tea^. from Muffler 
and White (1969) 


51 


Hid Pot 


lis 


UE 


24 


SB 


Niland (7»i' ) 


100 

to 

boiling 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


25 


182A 






(Hid volcanoes) 












100 






USGS Water Rea. Div. Open Pile 
(Colo, Desert) 


1969 


10 




















100 


- 




CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


94 






52 


Hell 


US 


14E 


15 


SB 


Weatjnorland (T^'l 


282 


6350 




USGS WRl 33-73 


1974 


8 


52 




53 


c. Bowles Hell 


lis 


14E 


14 


SB 


Iris (71,M 


106 


920 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


101 




54 


Cai^) Dunlop Well 


lis 


14C 


1 


SB 


Iris (A'l 


112 


825 




Bex unpub. 


1972 


1 


1 




55 


J. Ullliiu. Well 


ns 


15E 


5 


SB 


Wiest (TS'l 


102 


666 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


59 


















98 


864 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


7 




56 


West Store Well 


ns 


15E 


5 


SB 


Wiest <71j' ) 


102 


812 




Bex unpub. 


1972 


? 


60 


















100 


797 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


8 




57 


Butters-Rivers Well 


us 


15E 


3 


SB 


Wiest (71,') 


104 


S80 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


lib 




58 


Hjlberry School Well 


us 


15E 


3 


SB 


Wiest (Tij- ) 


106 


890 




Bex unpub. 


1972 


1 


50 


















105 


890 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


6 




59 


M. Lunceford Well 


us 


15E 


16 


SB 


Wiest (7H-) 


106 


780 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


49 


















104 


764 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


9 




60 


■meodore Shank Well 


13S 


15E 


?? 


SB 


wiest (735' ) 


112 


1000 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


44 




61 


J. RatUff Well 


13S 


15E 


23 


SB 


Wiest (71iM 


133 


1300 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


6 


















130 


1307 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


10 




6J 


Butters-Reese well 


US 


15E 


24 


SB 


Wiest n>f) 


112 


700 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


5 


















109 


704 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


11 




63 


Dlckenaan-Butters 


US 


15E 


U 


SB 


Atos (71iM 


126 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


19 




64 


Heyer-Dlckennan 


US 


15E 


12 


SB 


Ajnos n^' ) 


98 






Rex unpub. 


197? 


2 


114 




65 


Schoenan-Koluyek Well 


us 


16E 


6 


SB 


AJTOS (7I5' ) 


92 


616 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


53 






F. Schonemsn Well 












92 


619 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


15 




66 


Ton Olesh well 


us 


16E 


6 


SB 


Amos (7H' ) 


90 


300 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


16 


















100 


300 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


5? 




67 


omTTED 




























60 


Tsylor Wei! 


us 


15E 


1 


SB 


Ancs (7!,M 


U6 


1089 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


54 


















132 


1089 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


5 




69 


P. Rebrlk Well 


i;s 


16E 


11 


SO 


Anos (7T,*) 


107 


925 




Bex unpub. 


lo?? 


1 


55 


















102 


931 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


4 





• S«« Appandlx L Cur location. 



1985 TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 99 

SALTON SEA SHEET APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



UX. 

NO. 


fJAMK 


LlXTATICN 


gUM) RANCLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REreRENCE (b) 


, 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 




PUBLICATIOW 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


70 


Richard Cowll Mil 


12S 


ISE 


3S 


SB 


AIDS (7I|'I 


92 


344 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


56 


















91 


346 




axx TK 15 


1974 


Table la 


3 




71 


G. Bro*^ell well 


ws 


15E 


27 


SB 


Wlest (TljM 


94 


4 30 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


^ 


56 
















92 


429 




COOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


2 




7? 


D. BroM^ell u«ll 


12S 


15E 


23 


SB 


Wleat (TH-) 


88 


325 




Rex unpub. 


19-'? 


^ 


57 


















90 


330 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table la 


1 




73 


L.C. winters 


5S 


??E 


33 


SB 


McCoy Wash (7lj'l 


88 


380 


1962 


USGS P.P. 466-0 


1973 


111 






74 


C. Cheely 


5S 


22t 


35 


SB 


McCoy Wash (7H' ) 


88 


450 


1965 


USGS P.P. 486-G 


1973 


111 






75 


E. Fortj^cr 


5S 


?2E 


35 


SB 


McCoy Wash {7^}') 


88 


405 


1964 


USGS P.P. 486-G 


1973 


111 






76 


USGS Well 


es 


J2E 


9 


SB 


McCoy Wash (75j') 


90 


276 


1967 


USGS P.P. 466-G 


1973 


112 






77 


Z. weeks 


6S 


2JE 


15 


SB 


McCoy wash (Tlj') 


91 


585 


1963 


USGS P.P. 486-0 


1973 


112 






76 


L'S^^S "ell 


&S 


22E 


20 


SB 


»tCoy Wash (7>,M 


88 


276 


1967 


USGS P.P. 486-G 


1973 


112 






79 


Besha «1 


6S 


22E 


28 


SB 


McCoy wash (7I5') 


88 


- 


1965 


USGS P.P. 466-0 


1973 


112 






eo 


Bill Passey 


6S 


?2E 


32 


SB 


RitJley ITSi'l 


88 


560 


1947 


USGS P.P. 486-G 


1973 


113 






81 


Bash. «3 


7S 


21E 


14 


SB 


Ripley (Tl)') 


113 


1368 


1966 


USGS P.P. 466-G 


1973 


113 






82 


Southern Pacific Co, 


lis 


21E 


5 


SB 


Quartz Peak (15* ) 


88 


752 


- 


USGS P.P. 486-G 


1973 


114 






83 


tVC Nagmanax #3 


lis 


13E 


33 


SB 


Nlland (TH* ) 


568 


3083 


1972 


USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


18 


46 






PPC Magmaiwut K2 


lis 


13E 


33 


SB 


Obsidian Butte 
(7>,M 


533 


4360 


1972 


USGS Open File 
(Inperial Valley) 


1976 


16 


48 




84 


WC Maflma»ax «1 


lis 


13E 


33 


SB 


Niland (Tlj* ) 


509 


2263 


1972 


USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


18 


49 






wc woolsey wl 












236 


2340 


1972 


USGS Open File 
(Imperial Valley) 


1976 


18 


50 





SAN BERNARDINO SHEET 



1 


Ne*iberry Spring 


9N 


3E 


32 


SB 


Ne«berry (15') 


77 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


157 


















77 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


317 


San 
Bern. 20 




2 


Spring in Deep Creek 
Canyon 


3N 


3W 


15 


SB 


Lake Arrowhead 
(15') 


80-100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


159 




3 


Spring in Deep Creek 
Canyon 


3N 


3W 


14 


SB 


Lake Arrowhead 
(15') 


80-100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


160 




4 


Tylers Bath Spring 


2N 


6W 


26 


SB 


San Bernardino 
(15') 


92 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


158 


















90 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


35 


San 
Bern. 34 
























USGS WSP 142 


1905 


Plate 
XII 




Location of Hot 

Spring in Lytle 
Canyon 


5 


water»ar. Hot Springs 


IN 


4H 


11 


SB 


San Bernardino 
(15') 


l.-'l 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


162 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


33 


San 
Bern. 35 


















210 






USGS WU 33-73 


1974 


10 


66 






• S«e Appendix D for location. 



100 

SAN BERNARDINO SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
NAP 

UX. 

KO. 


NAME 


LOCATION 


QUADRANGLE 


WVTER 
TENP. 
CD 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILIED 


REFERENCE (S) 




, 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BtM 




POBLI CATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 

NO. 


e 


Arrowhead Hot Springs 


IN 


4W 


11 


SB 


San Bernardino 
US') 


110-181 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


162 


















202 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


32-33 


Sen 
Bern. 36 


















154 






USGS WRl 33-73 


1974 


10 


65 




7 


Urblta Hot Springs 


IS 


4W 


16 


SB 


San Bernardino 
(15') 


80-106 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


24 


162A 


















106 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


36-37 


San 
Bern. 38 




s 


Veil 


IS 


4W 


16 


SB 


Son Bernardino 
(15') 


106 


175 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


70 




9 


Well 


IS 


4W 


16 


SB 


San Bernardino 
(15') 


107 


600 




USGS WRl 33-73 


1974 


10 


71 




10 


Well 


IS 


4W 


?? 


SB 


San Bernardino 
(15') 


112 


642 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


72 




11 


well 


IS 


4W 


22 


SB 


San Bernardino 
(15M 


124 


852 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


73 




17 


Wel 


IS 


4W 


22 


SB 


San Bernardino 
(15') 


110 


975 




USGS WRl 33-73 


1974 


1(1 


74 




13 


Harlem Hot Springs 


IN 


3W 


31 


SB 


Redlands (?>,■) 


120 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


161 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


35 


San 
Bern. 37 




14 


Well 


IS 


3W 


6 


SB 


Redlands (T!)') 


110 


138 




USGS WRI 33-7' 


1974 


10 


69 




15 


Well 


IN 


3W 


32 


SB 


Redlands tA'l 


130 


194 




USGS WRI 33-71 


1974 


10 


67 




16 


Well 


IN 


3W 


33 


SB 


Redlands (TJi'l 


124 


500 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


66 




n 


Hot Springs in 
Santa Ana Canyon 


IN 


?W 


34 


SB 


Yucaipa (7^') 


90 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


163 




17A 


Warm spring at Baldwin 
Ijike 


?N 


IE 


12 


SB 


Lucerne Valley 
(IS'l 


88 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


164 


















B8 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


35 


San 
Bern. 33 






Pan Hot Springs 


2N 


le 


12 


SB 










USGS Topo nap 


1949 








18 


Well 


IN 


5E 


12 


SB 


Joshua Tree {15') 


lOB 


477 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


95 




19 


Well 


IN 


8E 


2 


SB 


Twenty Nine Palms 
(15M 


128 


- 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


17 




?0 


Well 


IN 


9E 


14 


SB 


Twenty Nine Palms 
(15') 


146 


- 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


IB 




Jl 


Wel] 


IN 


9E 


29 


SB 


Twenty Nine Palms 
(15') 


118 


- 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


19 





SAN DIE(;0 SHEET 



1 


Well 


16S 


7W 


16 


SB 


Ij. Mesa (71j') 


80 






CDWR Bull. 106-.' 


1967 


222 






2 


Well 


15S 


IW 


14 


SB 


El Caloi. (7S') 


87 






CDWR Bull. 106-2 


1967 


208 






3 


Agua Caliente Springs 


14S 


7E 


lfl-19 


SB 


Agua Caliente 
Springs (71(') 


90 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


180 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


46 


San 
Diego 9 








14S 


7E 


18 


SB 




101 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


64 








14S 


7E 


18 


sa 




99 






Rex unpub. 


1972 


2 


106 








14S 


IE 


18 


S3 




99 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
ftept. (So. Coast, Transv. & 
Pwiln, Hangesl 


1968 


A-13 







• See Appendix D for location. 



1985 

SAN DIEGO SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



101 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



MAT 
LOC. 

NO. 


N?iMK 


LCX^TIC« 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REreRENCE (S) 
(see list of references for abb 


ruviationu) 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 


PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


UX. 
NO. 


4 


Hell 


les 


?w 


26 


SB 


Imperial Beach 
(7>,M 


80 






CDWR Bull. 106-r 


1967 


228 






5 


»«11 


18S 


TV 


28 


SB 


Imperial Beach 


97 






CDWR Bull. 106-? 


1967 


220 






6 


well 


185 


2« 


21 


SB 


Imperial Beach 
(Tl,') 


82 






CDWR Bull. 106-? 


1967 


227 






7 


»»n 


IBS 


IW 


31 


SB 


Imperial Beach 


91 






CDWR Bull. 106-? 


1967 


229 






e 


wu 


19S 


IW 


3 


SB 


otay Mesa (7ij' ) 


83 






CDWR Bull. 106-.^ 


1967 


231 






9 


W«ll 


les 


IW 


34 


SB 


Otay Mesa (71j') 


83 






CEWR Bull. 106-? 


1967 


229 






10 


Kell 


IBS 


2W 


14 


SB 


Otay Mtn. ITH') 


60 






CDWR Bull. 106-2 


1967 


233 






11 


Hell 


17S 


5E 


3 


SB 


CaiMron Comers 


86 






CDWR Bull. 106-2 


1967 


234 






12 


Herri' Lazazc well 


les 


7E 


8 


SB 


Tierra Del Sol 


101 


200 




Rex ujipub. 


1972 


2 


87 




13 


JacuBt>a Springs 


18S 


8E 


7 S 8 


SB 


Jacumba (15') 


94, 96 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


25 


181 


















96 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


45 


San 
Diego 19 


















101 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1973 


8 


32-3 




14 


Raynond Rasco Well 


18S 


BE 


9 


SB 


Jacumba (15') 


87 


160 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


4 


141 




15 


Millers Service 
Station Well 


les 


9E 


35 


SB 


In-ko-pa Gorge 
(7!,M 


93 


535 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


3 


76 




16 


H.D. Currey Well 


16S 


9E 


35 


SB 


In-leo-pa Gorae 


85 


350 




Rex unpub . 


1972 


4 


159 





SAN 


FRANCISCO SHEET 




























HAP 

VX. 
NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICN 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET> 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 
{see list of references for abfc 


reviations 


) 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 


PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


WC, 

NO. 


1 


Rocky Point Spring 


37-53. 5'N 
122-37.65W 


Bolinas (7%') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


84 










- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


80-81 


Marin 3 


Located on the 
beach at low tide 








90 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
Rept. (Ko. Coast & Klamath 
Mtns.) 


1968 


23 






2 


Sulfur Springs 


37*55.4'N 


Walnut Creek 
(TJjM 


75-81 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


85 










1??-^ 


7.9'V 












USGS WSP 338 


1915 


270 


Contra 
Costa 3 





SAN 


JOSE SHEET 




























1 


Byron Hot Springs 


IS 


3E 


15 


W 


Byron Hot Springs 
(7>i') 


72-120 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


86 


















73-122 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


109-112 


Contra 
Costa 7 


















83-96 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
{So. Coast, Transv. & Renin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-4 






2 


Warn Springs 


5S 


IE 


18 


K) 


Livemore (15* ) 


85-90 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


87 


















66-90 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


80 


Alaneda 

3 






(Alaavda War* Springs 
msslcff^ San Jos* Hot 
Springs) 












80 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. a Penln. 
Ranges ) 


1968 


A- 3 






3 


Alum Roc)c fark 
Springs 


6S 


2E 


19 


H) 


Calaveras Res. 
(7!,M 


62-87 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


88 


















69-87 






USGS WSP 338 

• 


1915 


208-217 


Santa 
Clara 3 






white Sulphur Spring 












84 






USGS Water Res. Div. open File 
(So. Coast. Transv. & Penln. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-17 







« See Appendix D for location. 



102 

SAN JOSE SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
NAP 
UX. 
NO. 


NAME 


LOCATION 


eUADRAHGIf 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


BZFEREHCE(S) 




, 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BW 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


UX. 
NO. 


4 


Gllroy Hot Springs 


9S 


4t 


36 


H) 


Gllroy Hot 
Springs (15') 


110 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


B9 


















110 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


79-80 


Santa 
Clara 9 










1 








106 






USGS W«ter Res. Dlv. Oper File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Kanqes) 


1968 


A-ie 







SAN LUIS OBISPO SHEET 



1 


Paso de Robles Kid 
Bath Springs 


26S 


12E 


20-;i 


ft- 


Fnso Robles (IS-) 


55-118 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


95 


















122 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


73-75 


San Luis 
Obispo 1 






(H.B. Jenne) 


2&S 


12E 


20 


ff) 




108, 
110 


* 


" 


USGS Water Res. Dlv, Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-14 




Roman type pool 
in baths 


2 


Paso de Robles Hot 
Springs 


?6S 


12E 


33 


rc 




105 




c. 19O0 


USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


2? 


96 


Vague locations; 
wells & springs 
















105 


640 




USGS WSP 338 


1915 


72-73 


San Luis 
Obispo 2 






(Paso Robles city 
Baths) 












101 


400 




US(;S Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-14 






1 


Santa Ysabel Springs 


27S 


12E 


14 


M) 


Paso Robles (15') 


94 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


97 


















96 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


76-77 


San LuLs 
Obispo 3 






(Sulphur springs) 












92 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv, & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-15 






4 


Wans Well 


26S 


12E 


26 


m 


Paso Robles (15') 
















Pers. comn. J.B. 
Koenlg, 1972 


5 


Pecho Warm Springs 


SOS 


IDE 


36 


t€t 


Horro Bay South 
(TljM 


72, 95 






USGS P,P. 492 


1965 


22 


99 






Pecho Warm Springs 


30S 


lOE 


36 


H) 


Horro Bay South 


95 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


69-70 


San Luis 
Obispo 7 




6 


Caffleta Warm Spring 


29S 


17E 


? 


H) 


La Panza (15') 


74 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


98 


Very vague location 
















74 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


77-78 


San Luis 
Obispo 5 




7 


San LaiIs (Sycamore) 
Hot Spring 


31S 


12E 


32 


H) 


Arroyo Grande 
(15') 


107 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


98A 


















107 


937 


1886 


USGS WSP 338 


1915 


70-71 


San Luis 
Obispo 8 


Well drilled for oil 




Sycamore Hot Springs 












100 






USGS Water Res. Dlv, Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-15 






e 


Hidden Valley Hot 
Springs 


31S 


12E 


32 


H) 


Arroyo Grande 
(15') 


135 


40-50 


1908 


USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. S Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-15 






9 


Newsom's Springs 


3?S 


UE 


23 


m 


Arroyo Grande 
(15') 


98 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


100 






(Arroyo (Srande) 












100 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


ee-69 


San Luis 
Obispo 9 


















99 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. ft Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-15 







SANTA ANA SHEET 



1 


Alvarado Hot Springs 
Well 


2S 


low 


24 


SB 


La Habra (7S' ) 


112 


5000± 


1910 


USGS Water Res. Dlv, Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. ft Penin, 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-7 






2 


I,a Vlda Mineral 

Sprlnio Wrll 


3S 


9W 


2 


SB 


Yorba Linda (7))') 


110 






USGS Water Res, Dlv. open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. ft Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-9 




Well at or near 
former springs 


3 


Wrl 


3S 


7W 


11 


SB 


Corona North 
(7S' ) 


119 


917 




USGS WRI 33-71 


1974 


10 


89 


Drilled In 1925 or 
earlier 


4 


Glen Ivy (Temescal) 
Hot Spring 


5E 


6W 


10 


SB 


[v»ke Mathews 
(T^j* ) 


102 






US(;S P.P. 49? 


1965 


^.1 


ll.T 





• &•• Appandix for location. 



1985 

SANTA ANA SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL 



103 

SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
MM' 

LOC, 

HO. 


NAME 


lcx:ation 


OUADBANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 




, 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 




PUBLICATIOW 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


4 


Glen Ivy (Teneccal) 
Hot Spring 


ss 


6W 


10 


SB 


Lake Mathevs 
(TH'l 


102 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


42 


Riverside 

3 




5 














102 






uses WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


77 
















131 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


»-ll 






Pilares Hot Sprlnqs 


4S 


3W 


12 


SB 


Perrls (15') 


100 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


24 


171 


(Shown as 
"Bemaecone" o»i 
Perris 15' quad and 
"Lakevlew" on Ferris 
7)j* quad.) 




(Bemasconl-Lakevlcw 


















USGS WSP 338 


191S 


40 


Riverside 

7 


6 

7 
S 


No name 


3S 


2W 


7 


SB 


Sunnymead (7)iM 


104 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


84 




Hot eprlnq 


IS 


2W 


33 


SB 


Lalcevlew (7»i') 








USGS Lakevlev IH' quad. 








No other iCTiown 
reference 


Men Hot Spring. 


3S 


?W 


23 


SB 


El Cosco (7),') 


90-110 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


172 
















110 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


37 


Riverside 
8 


















109 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


35 




9 


Highland Springs 


2S 


iw 


25 


SB 


Banning (15- ) 


112 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


172A 


















112 






CJMG V. 41 No. 3 


1945 


178 






10 


Gllnan (San Jacinto. 
Relief) Hot Springs 


4S 


IW 


9 


SB 


Banning (15* ) 


83-116 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


173 


















- 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


36 


Riverside 

9 


















117 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


85 




u 


Soboba (Rltchey) Hot 
Sprlnqs 


4S 


IE 


30 


SB 


Banning (15') 


70-111 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


174 






Soboba (Rltchey) Hot 
Springs 


4S 


IE 


30 


SB 


Banning (15') 


70-111 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


39 


Riverside 
10 


















111, 
102 






USGS WHI 33-73 


1974 


10 


80, 83 


2 sites 


llA 


»ell 


35 


4E 


2 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


84 






OJMG SR 94 


1966 


PI. 1 






IIB 


Kell 


3S 


4E 


2 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15M 


64 






CDMG SR 94 


1968 


PI. 1 






1? 


Men 


2S 


5C 


29 


SB 


Thousand Palms 

(15M 


166 






CDMG SR 94 


1968 


PI. 1 






13 


Discovery Well 


2S 


it. 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 

(15M 


146 


154 


1934 


CDMS SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






U 


Original Bath House 
Hell 


2S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


118 


170 


pre 1940 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42. 

PI. 1 






15 


Coffee Bath House 
(4 MellB) 


2S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15M 


106-116 


157 


1940- 
1954 


CDMG SB 94 


1956 


42, 

PI. 1 






16 


Chandler well 


2S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


125 


160 


pre 1950 


CXMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






17 


Blue Haven Well 


?S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


130 


140 


pre 1950 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






16 


Realty Co. of Am, 
Deoo. Well 


2S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15M 


120 


212 


1952 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






19 


Dorslc Well 


2S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15M 


120 


149 


1957 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






20 


Necne well 


2S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


104 


1?7 


1946 


CDM3 SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






}l 


Desert Hot Springs Co. 
water Dist. wl 


}S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


66 


92 


1941 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






n 


Desert Hot Springs Co. 
Water Dlst. »6 


2S 


SE 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


88 


90 


1955 


CDMG SR 94 


1966 


42, 
PI. 1 






23 


Well 


?S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15'1 


112-116 


300t 




USGS P.P. 49? 


!"65 


24 


174A 


8 wells 



• S«ft Appendix D for location. 



104 

SANTA ANA SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



LOC. 
NO. 


NN<E 


LOCATICN 


eUUIOHSLE 


HATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TCTTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 
(see list of references for abb 




, 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BU4 




PireLICATIOW 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 

HO. 


?4 


Well 


2S 


5E 


30 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15M 


116 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


46 




?5 


NcCuUouqh Well 


2S 


5E 


31 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


S8 


220 


1940 
1954 


CDMG SR 94 


1966 


42. 
PI. 1 






26 


Desert Hot Springs Co. 
Water Dist. »3 


2S 


5E 


31 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


us 


46 


1940 


CDMG SR 94 


1966 


42. 
PI. 1 






^^ 


^sert Hot Springs Co. 
Water Dlst. b5 


2S 


SE 


31 


SB 


Falm Springs 
(15M 


9!:. 


b07 


1948 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






28 


mr»cle ".■■ 


25 


5E 


32 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


14*:. 


143 


1948 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






29 


Well oe 


2S 


SE 


32 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


142 


76 


19S2J 


CDfC SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






30 


Hell ail 


2S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


146 


40 


1956 


CDMG SI- '1 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






31 


Well «12 


2S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Paljn Springs 
<15' 1 


134 


150 


19527 


CDH3 SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






32 


Well «13 


2S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


153 


165 


19527 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42. 
PI. 1 






33 


Well HIS (Yerxa HI) 


2S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


12? 


90 


1940 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI, 1 






34 


Davis Well 


2S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


102 


128 


1949 


CDMG SR 94 


196e 


42, 
PI. 1 






35 


lemplenan 017 


?S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


156 


95 


1955 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






36 


Angel View Crippled 
Childrens Foundation, 
Inc. aie 


2S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


136 


138 


1955 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






37 


Schwartz «19 


2S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


150 


54 


1955 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






38 


Well «21 (YeDca n> 


2S 


5E 


32 


S& 


Thousand Palms 
(IS-) 


176 


200 


1940 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






39 


Sullivan 1122 


2S 


5E 


3? 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


166 


161 


1956 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






40 


Spring 


2S 


5E 


32 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15M 








CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

footnote 
3 




"only Surface water 
in area" 


41 


Highlands Desert Hot 
Springs W9 


2S 


5E 


33 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


120 


165 


1955 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






42 


Simone and Babin «10 


2S 


5E 


33 


S», 


Thousand Palms 
(15'> 


112 


136 


1954 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






43 


Hubbard ill 


3S 


5E 


5 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15'1 


108 


16 


1946 


CDMG SR 94 


1966 


42, 
PI. 1 






44 


Hubbard n? 
(Bubbling Wells) 


3S 


5E 


5 


35 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


108 


23 


1947 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






4S 


Reeves Well 


3S 


SE 


4 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


95 


76 


1949 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






46 


Bannon et al Well 


3S 


5E 


4 


sn 


TlQousand Palms 
(15') 


90 


182 


1957 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






47 


Ervln and Assoc Well 


3S 


5E 


3 


SB 


Ibousand Palms 
(15') 


98 


225 


1954 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42. 
PI. 1 






46 


Terra Vista Corp. 
Well 


3S 


SE 


3 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15'1 


94 


164 


1954 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


4?t 
PI. 1 






49 


Johnson a? 


3S 


5E 


3 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


106 


147 


1955 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 






50 


Holmes Well 


3S 


5E 


10 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
<15') 


165 


80 


1951 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






51 


Lucky 7 Well 


■S 


^E 


I'l 




1!,. M.rand Palms 


184 


83 


1950 


CDMG SR 94 


1966 


42, 
PI. 1 




See footnot*' ' . 
p. 42 










188 


157- 
167 


1950 


CDHG SB 94 


1968 


42, 

PI. 1 










200 


188- 
218 


1950 


CDBG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






1 


200 


- 




USGS P.P. 497 


1965 


24 


174B 





for location. 



1985 

SANTA ANA SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



105 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



MAr 

uv, 

NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICW 


^^LiADBANGI£ 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TCTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REreRENCE(S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 

NO. 


5? 


young Well 


3S 


5E 


10 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15M 


lie 


75 


1951 


CDHG SR 94 


1968 


«2, 
PI. 1 






S? 


GuptlU well 


3S 


5E 


10 


S3 


Thousand Palms 
(15M 


106 


117 


1956 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42. 

PI. 1 






56 


uell 


3S 


5E 


10 


S3 


TTiousand Palms 
(15M 


176- 
208 


5001 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


39-42 


4 wells 


«en 


IS 


5E 


11 


SB 


Thousand Halms 
{15M 


190 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


B 


43 




bell 


3S 


5E 


11 


S3 


Thousand Palms 
<15') 


178 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


44 




57 


Lanciols Well 


3S 


5E 


11 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(IS'l 


175 


no 


1953 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






58 


Johnson Ml Well 


3S 


5E 


11 


S3 


Thousand Palms 
(ISM 


175 


105 


1951 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






59 


rtody Wei 1 


3S 


5E 


11 


SB 


Ttiousand Palms 
<15M 


150 


170 


1956 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






60 


Tarbutton well 


3S 


5E 


11 


S3 


Thousand Palms 
US') 


125 


210 


1955 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 




See footnote 6, 
p. 42 


61 


Kiel Well 


3S 


5E 


14 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15'1 


103 


265 


1951 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42, 
PI. 1 






6! 


Simons and Bafcln Well 


3S 


5E 


14 


SE 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


130 


146 


1953 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42. 
PI. 1 






63 


Paddo<a( well 


3S 


5E 


14 


S3 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


134 


220 


1956 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


42. 
PI. 1 






64 


wen 


3S 


5E 


e 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15M 


B5 


- 


- 


CDMG SR 94 


1968 


PI. 1 






65 


Well 


3S 


5E 


17 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15M 


64 






CDM5 SR 94 


1968 


PI. 1 






65A 


well 


3E 


5E 


22 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


89 






CDMG SR 94 


196B 


PI. 1 






66 


Well 


3S 


6E 


17 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


120 


- 


- 


USGS WPI 33-73 


1974 


e 


45 




67 


Well 


3S 


6E 


21 


SB 


Thousand Palms 
(15') 


112 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1973 


e 


47 




67(1 


Palin Springs 


4S 


4E 


14 


SB 


Palm Springs 
(15') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


175 






(Aguas Callentesl 












100 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


40 


Riverside 
11 






Agua Caliente Spring 












100 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


60 


















104 






USGS Water Res. Oiv. Open File 
Report (Colo. Desert) 


1968 


11 






56 


obrlen "Porter" 2 


6S 


liw 


2 


SB 


Newport Beach 
IT,') 


"hot 

salt 
water" 






CDOG written comm. 


1974 






CDOG Map 134 
Huntington Beach 


69 


Beloil "Davenport" 
Well 


6S 


llw 


2 


SB 


Newport Beach 
(7),') 


"hot 
water" 






CDOG written corrm. 


1974 








70 


Fairview Hot Spring 


6S 


low 


10 


SB 


Newport Beach 
(7!,') 


96 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


165 




TOA 


Well 


7S 


ew 


16 


SB 


San Juan Cap. 
(7>i') 


82 






CDWR Bull. 106-2 


1967 


159 






71 


Well 


7£ 


7W 


34 


SB 


Canada 
Gobemadora (A' ) 


95 






CDWR Bull. 106-2 


1967 


160 






7? 


San Juar (Caplstrano 
Hot) Springs 


75 


ew 


4 


SB 


Canada 
Gobemadora (Tlj") 


121- 
124 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


166 






San Juan Hot Springs 


7S 


6W 


3 


SB 




123 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


37 


(Loc. corrected) 




San Juan Hot Springs 


7S 


6W 


4 


SB 




120 






USGS water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast Transv. & Penln. 
Ranges ) 


1968 


A-10 






7! 


Wrervden (Bundys 
Elsinorel Hot Springs 


es 


4W 


5 


SB 


Elslnore (7)j' ) 


lie 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


168 


well on site of 
spring 
















112 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


43 


Riverside 

4 




74 


Elslnore Hot Springs 


6S 


4W 


5 


SB 


Elslnore (T!,') 


125 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


169 


Wells on site of 
spring 



• S«e Appendix D for location. 



106 

SANTA ANA SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY BULL. 201 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



LOC. 
HO. 


NAME 


LOCATICK 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
(Tl 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


REFEI«NCE(S) 




, 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


8U4 




PIJBLICATICW 


IfEAR 


PAGE 


WC. 

NO. 


74 


EUlnore Hot Springe 


6S 


4W 


5 


SB 


ElBlnore (71)M 


125 






U5G5 WBl 33-73 


1974 


10 


76 


















- 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


42 


Riverside 

5 




75 


Tenec\jla Hot Springs 


7S 


yu 


?3 


SB 


Hjrrleta (Tie) 


116 






USG5 WRI 31-7' 


1974 


6 


36 




76 


Hirrleta Hot Springs 


7S 


3W 


14 


SB 


Itirrleta ITlj') 


134- 
136 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


170 


















136 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


44 


Riverside 
6 


















132 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


34 






Kirrlets (Ramona) and 
Bethesda Hot Spring 












96-117 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin, 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-11 




2 springs 


T7 


Well 


SS 


iw 


16 


SB 


Heinet (Tl,-) 


in: 






USGS WRI 33-7' 










76 


«»1I 


65 


iw 


4 


SB 


Hemet (71,') 


80 






CDWR Bull. 106-2 


1967 


167 






79 


Hot Spring 


75 


JE 


23 
or 26 


SB 


IdyllwUd (ISO 








Pers. comm. Bob sharp, USGS 


1972 






Near border of 
section 23 & 26 


SO 


Hall 


SS 


6E 


24 


SB 


Palm Desert (IS- ) 


162 


356 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


?? 




60* 


Mall 


75 


9E 


16 


SB 


(*cca (7!]') 


90 






CDWR Bull 143-7 


1970 


86 






81 


De Luz warn Springs 


8S 


4W 


32 


SB 


Fallbrook (7%' ) 


64-88 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


177 


















84-88 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


47-46 


San 
Diego 1 


















85 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast. Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-12 






61A 


Nell 


6S 


3E 


7 


SB 


Temecula (73j') 


65 






CDWR Bull. 106-? 


1967 


165 






62 


Agus Tibia Spring 


9S 


IW 


29 


SB 


Pala (Tij") 


92 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


176 


















92 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


47 


San 
Diego 2 




63 


well 


lOS 


IW 


23 


SB 


Boucher Hill 
(71,') 


80 






CDWR Bull. 106-2 


1967 


166 






83A 


Uamer (Las Aguas 
Csllentes) Hot Springs 


lOS 


3E 


24 


SB 


Warner Springs 
(7H') 


131- 
139 






USGS P.p. 49r 


1965 


24 


179 


















139 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


45-46 


San 
Diego 4 




84 


Well 


8S 


6E 


13 


SB 


Oasis (7>i'l 


90 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


PI. 2, 
90 






85 


well 


65 


9E 


19 


SB 


Oasis (7S') 


109 


387 




USGS WRI 33-7? 


1974 


6 


23 




e« 


Well 


8S 


9E 


29 


SB 


Oasis (Tlf-l 


109 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


90 




















102 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


24 




67 


Well 


9S 


9E 


4 


SB 


Oasis (TliM 


115 






CDWR Bull. 143-7 


1970 


91 




















115 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


8 


26 




68 


Fish Sprlras 


95 


9E 


9 


SB 


oasis (7.J.) 


Ml] 






USGS l.i . 4"-" 


1965 


25 


162 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


315 


Imperial 
1 




69 


Holly Hot Wells 


105 


9E 


3'i 


SB 


Seventeen Palms 
(71,.) 


136. 
142 


1980 




Rex unpub. 


1972 


1 


73, 73A 


2 wells 


90 


Well 


lis 


9E 


2 


SB 


Shell Reef (TijM 


136 






CDWR Bull. 14'- ■ 


1970 


PI. 2, 
92 




















136 






USGS WRI 13-73 


1974 


8 


31 





• S«« Appendix D for location. 



1985 TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 107 

SANTA ANA SHEET APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
KAF 
UX. 

NO. 


•,■." 


LOCATICN 


QUADRANGLE 


HATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEETl 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


B£raPENCE(S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


91 


Mil 


US 


» 


n 


SB 


Valley Center 
(71,-) 


81 






anm Bull. 106-2 


1967 


193 






9? 


J. Balch, Ironwood 
Hotel w«n 


12S 


BE 


e 


SB 


Borreqo Htn. 


99 


335 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




124 




93 


The**ate. Circle T. 
Trailer Park. Well 


12S 


SE 


6 


SB 


Borreqo Mtn. 


98 


312 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




123 




94 


H.A. aaith Well 


12S 


et 


b 


SB 


Borreqo Mtn. 
(AM 


88 


300 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




152 




95 


C. Peterson Well 


12S 


SE 


8 


SB 


Borreqo Mtn. 
(7H') 


89 


285 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




120 




96 


E. Robinson Wells 


12S 


SE 


9 


SB 


Borreqo Mtn. 
(7H' ) 


98 


209 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




85/85A 


2 wells 


97 


A. Williams well 


12S 


BE 


15 


SB 


Borreqo Mtn. 
171,M 


96 


148 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




119 




99 


De Anza Trail Inn 
Well 


12S 


e£ 


15 


SB 


Harper Canyon 


lOO 


215 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




89 




99 


Cornish well 


12S 


8E 


22 


SB 


Harper Canyon 


89 


229 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




118 




lOO 


A. 1>oner Well 


12S 


BE 


10 


SB 


Shell Reef <7!}') 


B9 


200 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




153 




101 


I.M. Jacobs «3 Well 


12S 


9E 


22 


SB 


Borreqo Mtn. SE 


102 


1200 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




90 




102 


T.H. Jacobs N2 Well 


12S 


9E 


23 


SB 


Borreqo Mtn. SE 
(•7>,M 


86 


670 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




91 




103 


Landmark Co. 


13S 


9E 


2 


SB 


Borreqo Htn, SE 
(THM 


95 


1185 




Rex unpub. 


1972 




151 





SANTA CRUZ SHEET 



> 


Sarqent Estate war™ 
sprlnq 


lis 


4E 


31 


W 


Chittenden (Tij') 


77 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penln. 
Ranges ) 


1968 


A-18 






2 


San Benito Mineral 
Well 


13S 


6E 


7 


H) 


Tres Plnos (Tij- ) 


75 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


89A 




















286 


early 
1890 -s 


USGS WSP 336 


1915 


306-307 


San 
Benito 1 


Saline 


3 


Warm spring 


13S 


lOE 


29 


ID 


Ortlqalita 115') 


81 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv, A Renin. 
Ranges ) 


1968 


A-8 






4 


Sulfxir hot sprlnq 


36-37. I'N 
121-50. 65'W 


Seaside CA') 


100± 






USGS Map W-577 


1,74 


Sheet 
2 of 2 




Described under 
Seaside fault 


5 


Mercey Hot Sprlnqs 


14S 


lOE 


15 


»o 


Panocbe Valley 
(15M 


79-109 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


132 


water bradush 






















USGS WSP 338 


1915 


78-79 


Fresno 
8 


















119 






USGS Water Res, Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. ft Penln, 
Ranges ) 


1968 


A-4 






6 


War» spring 


15S 


12E 


8 


H> 


Chounet Ranch 
I7!,M 


75 






USGS Water Res, Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. 4 Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-5 






7 


Hot sprlnq 


18S 


IE 


26-27 


W) 


Big Sur (71j') 


114 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


90 


















114 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


57 


Ptenterey 

1 




8 


Paralso Hot Sprlnqs 


les 


5E 


25 


M> 


Paralso Springs 
(7!,M 


65-111 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


92 


















118 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


60 


Monterey 

2 


















98 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-e 






SA 


Sulphur sprlnq 


les 


6£ 


30 


H) 


Paralso Springs 
<71,'l 


87 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast. Transv. S. Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-e 






9 


Slates Hot Sprlnqs 


21S 


3E 


9 


W 


Lopez Point (71}') 


100- 
121 






US<;S P.P. 492 


1965 


2? 


93 


















110- 
121 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


56-57 


(txilerey 

4 





S«« Appendix D for locatioo. 



108 

SANTA CRUZ SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



HkF 
UK. 

NO. 


HAHE 


LOCATICH 


QUADRANGLE 


HATER 
TEHP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 


, 


NWES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BfcH 




PUBLICATICM 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 

NO. 


9 


(Big Sur Hot Springs) 


21S 


3E 


9 


K> 


Lopei Point nH-i 


116- 
122 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-9 






10 


Dolans Hot Springs 


21S 


iE 


24 


W 


Lopez Point 11^') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


2! 


94 
























USGS WSP 338 


1915 


57 


Honterey 

5 


















9B 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
{So. Coast, Transv. s Penln. 
Ranges ) 


1968 


A-9 






11 


Tasaajara Hot Springs 


19S 


4E 


32 


m 


Tassajara Hot 
Springs (7)5' ) 


100- 
140 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


91 


















100- 
140 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


57-60 


Hanterey 
3 


















119. 
134, 
144 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penln. 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-8 




3 springs 


12 


Fresno Hot Springs 


?os 


UE 


34 


H) 


Criest Valley 
(15') 


88-97 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


13-1 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


78 


Fresno 
9 






(Coallnqa Mineral 
Springs) 












112 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penln, 

Ranges) 


1968 


A-5 







SANTA MARIA SHEET 



1 


Las Cruces Hot 
Springs 


5N 


32W 


22 


SB 


Solvang (7^' ) 


67-97 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


101 


















" 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


68 


Sta. 
Barb. 1 






(^viota or Sulphur 
Hot Springs 












99 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(So. Coast, Transv. & Penin, 
Ranges) 


1968 


A-16 








San Marcos Hot Spring 












108 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


88 





SANTA ROSA SHEET 



• 
HAP 

LOC. 

NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICK 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEHP. 

(T) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 

NO. 


1 


Point Arena Hot 
Springs 


UN 


15W 


27 


m 


Point Arena (15') 


110- 
112 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


47 


















110- 
112 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


82-83 


Mendocino 
33 


















- 






CDMG HIS V. 21, no. 4 


Apr. 
1968 


61 


* 


















112 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1966 


24 






2 


Old Ombaun Hot 
Springs 


12N 


38' 
123- 

13W 


63'N 

10.4'W 

4 


H) 


Ombaun (15* ) 








Corps of Engineers 
Ombaun 15' guad. 
1:62.500 scale 


1944 






cnly ref, to "Hot 
Spring" 


3 


Hoods (Fairmont) Hot 
Springs 


UN 


12W 


14 


H) 


Hopland (15M 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


70 


Location from R.G. 
Strand, pers. coinn. 
1968 
















- 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


82 


Sonoma 1 


4 


Highland Springs 


13H 


9W 


31 


H> 


Highland Springs 
(7!,M 


52-82 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


52 


















max. 84 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


183-165 


Lalce 39 




5 


England (Elliott) 
Springs 


12N 


9W 


8 


ff) 


Highland Springs 
(7>lM 


76 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


53 


















76 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


166 


Lalie 40 
























Official Map of Lak* County 


1909 






CDHG SF Hap Rm. 
Hap file H-B 


6 


K«ls«Yvllle wells 


I IN 


9W 


14 


K> 


Kelseyvllle (Tlj' ) 


78 






USGS P.P. 49.'' 


1965 


21 


54* 


















76 




before 
1915 


USGS WSP 338 


1915 


IBl 


Lake 35 


Carbonated 


6A 


UnnaliVd Spring 


\vt 


fr-J 


10 


m 


Lower Lalte (15') 


100 






USGS WSP 3 IP 


1915 


191 


Lake 17 





1985 TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 109 

SANTA ROSA SHEET APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



uv. 

NO. 


NAME 


LOCATION 


QUADRANGIE 


HATER 
TEMP. 

CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 


1 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&H 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 
NO. 


6A 


Bear S-rln,- 


13N 


8W 


10 


^o 


Lok-er lake (15') 








Lake Co. Map 


1909 






CDMG SF Map Rm. 
Map file H-8 


- 


Carlsbad Spring 


12N 


9W 


1 


^D 


Kelseyvllle (7H') 


66-76 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


54 


















85 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


187 


Lake 41 




? 


Sullivan «1 Well 
E.B. Tov-ne, Operator 


12N 


BW 


IS 


fC 


Kelscy\'llle (T!,') 


180 


6140 


1972 


C0M5 Geotherm. Hotline 


Dec. 

1972 








9 


Kettenhofer. nl Well 


13N 


8W 


26 


H> 


Kelsey%'ille (7^' ) 




7822 


1973 


CDMG Geotherm. Hotline 


Nov. 
197? 








10 


The Geysers Geothermal 
Field 


UN 


9W 


1, 11, 

12, 13, 
14 
6, 7 

n-20 
26-30 


MD 


The Geysers (7^' ) 
and 

Whispering Pines 
(7S') 


- 


- 




CDHG Map G 6-1 


Aug. 

1974 


- 


- 








UN 


8W 


W 


















11 


Rorabaugh A-2 
Pacific Energy Cort'. 


UN 


9W 


14 


H) 


The Geysers (7^' ) 


steam 


7150 


1971 


CDMG Hap G 6-1 


Auo. 

1974 


" 


" 


One of several 
Rorabaugh wells 


n 


Harry JacV Q 


UN 


9W 


12 


M> 


The Geysers C7Jj' ) 


steam 


6091 


1968 


Koenig, J.B., No. Cal. Geol. 
Soc. Geysers Field Trip 


1968 


6-7 






The 3eysers 


UN 


9W 


13 


HD 


The Geysers (Tlj*) 


140 to 
boiling 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


72 
























USGS WSP 338 


1915 


83-88 


Sonoma 4 


















112- 
212 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast i Klamath Htns.) 


1968 


32 




4 springs listed 


14 


Signal Oil Co. 
Cobb Mtn. «1 Well 


UK 


3W 


!^ 


■■- 


The Geysers (Tlj') 


steam 


7500 


1967 


No. Cal. Geol. Soc. Fieldtrip 
to The Geysets-J.B. Koenig 


1968 


6-7 






15 


Sulphur Creek 


UN 


3W 


29 


MD 


The Geysers (7I3' ) 


120 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


73 


Vague location 


16 


Little Geysers 


UN 


SW 


33 or 
28 


m 


The Geysers (T';' ) 


110- 
160 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


74 


Vague location 
















160 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


88.89 


Sonoma 5 




n 


Gordon Hot Springs 


UN 


8W 


3, 10 
or 11 


MJ 


Whispering Pines 
(7^4') 


92 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


60 


Vague location 
















92, 100 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


93 


Lake 46 




■.= 


Castle (>'i;is) !tt 
Springs 










Whispering Pines 


164 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


62 


















164 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


91-B 


Lake 54 






Castle Rock Springs 


UN 


BW 


35 


MD 




163 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


49 


73 




1? 


Anderson Springs 


UN 


ew 


25 


H3 


Whispering fines 


145 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


63 


















146 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


89-91 


Lake 55 








UN 


ew 


26 


W) 




128 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Htns.) 


1968 


19 










UN 


8W 


25 


MD 




126 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


49 


72 




JO 


Selgler Springs 


12N 


ew 


24 


n> 


Clearlake 
Highlands HH' ) 


126 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


59 


















126 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


96-97 


Lake 49 


















126 
108 






USGS Hater Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Htns.) 


1968 


20 




2 springs listed 
















104- 
126 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


49 


69 




2'j* 


Biker io^i irr-.r.g 


12N 


6W 


16 




Lover L-T.e ( ' -j ' ) 


76 






USGS Water Res. Uiv. uperi File 
(No. Coast s Klanath Mtns.) 


1968 


2. 






2! 


Howard Springs 


12N 


7W 


30 


fC 


Whispering Pines 
(7I,') 


48-110 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


5B 


















110 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


95-96 


Lake 51 





' Se* Appendix D for location. 



no 

SANTA ROSA SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



NAP* 

LOC. 
NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICN 


QUADKAHSLE 


MATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TCTTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


REFERENCE (SI 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BUI 




PiraLICATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 
NO. 


21 


Howard Springs 


12N 


7W 


30 


m 


Whispering Pines 


95-113 






CDOG TB 13 


1975 


49 


7C 




22 


Spiers (Capsey) 
Springs 


UN 


7W 


5 


M) 


Whispering Pines 
(7>I') 


78, 84 






USGS P.p. 49; 


1965 


21 


61 


















74, 78 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


190-191 


Lake 52 




23 


Harbin Springs 


UN 


7W 


20 


H> 


Whispering Pines 
(7I,') 


90-120 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


64 


















122 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


93-95 


Lake 56 


















119 






uses Water Res. D!v. Open File 
(No. Coast 8 Klamath Ktns. ) 


19S8 


19 




2 springs listed 
















120 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


49 


71 




24 


Skoggs Spr:.-. r 


ICN 


liw 


2i 


W> 


Skaggs Springs 


120-135 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


21 


71 


















135 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


81-82 


Sonoma 8 








ION 


liw 


25 


H) 




132 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Htns.) 


1968 


32 






?5 


Mark West Warm 
Springs 


8N 


8W 


U 


HD 


Hark West Springs 


60-62 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


75 


















65-85 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


115 


Sonoma 1] 


















67 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


31 






?6 


CaliEtcqa rower Co. 
Wells 


9N 


7W 


26 


HD 


Calistoga <7^') 


89 


305 




USGS WPI n-71 


1973 


Table 4 
Fig. 3 






27 


we:: 


9N 


7W 


26 


n> 


Calistoga (Tlj' ) 


279 


max. 

2000 


1960- 
1961 


CDHG SR -?t 


1963 


11 


8 


3 wells 


28 


Well 


ew 


7W 


2 


VD 


Calistoga (7i5' ) 


88 






USGS WEI 13-73 


1973 


Fig. 3 






29 


Well 


9N 


7W 


26 


«D 


Calistoga (75s') 


110 


207 




USGS WRI 13-73 


1973 


Table 4 
Fig. 3 








WelKs) 












333 


2000± 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


66 


3 wells 


30 


Well 


9N 


7W 


25 


HD 


Calistoga (7ij' ) 


HS 


14-1 




USGS WRI 13-7- 


1973 


Table 4 
Fig. 3 






31 


Well 


9N 


6W 


31 


MD 


Calistoga (7!i') 


68 






USGS WRI 13-71 


1973 


Fig. 3 






32 


Well 


9N 


6W 


31 


«j 


Calistoga {7J5') 


210 






USGS WRI 13-71 


1973 


Table 4 
Fig. 3 








Pacheteau's Calistoga 
Hot SprlngB (well) 












210 


152 




USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


26 






33 


Calistoga Hot Springs 


9N 


6W 


31 


M) 


Calistoga (7>j' ) 


126-173 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


81 


















126-173 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


108-109 


Nape 4 


















126-172 






CDOG TR 13 


i97r, 


48 


65 




34 


Wei: 


PN 


sw 


7 


HD 


r„ll;,tDg„ (71,') 


77 


245 




USGS WRI 13-71 


1...71 


Tatlf 4 
Fla . 1 


^■ 




35 


Well 


eN 


6W 


4 


' g« (7>5') 


178 


207 




USGS WRI 13-73 


1973 


Table 4 
Fig. 3 


^ 




36 


A«tno SprlngB 


9N 


6W 


1 


W 


Aetna Springs 
(71)') 


63-92 






USGS P.P. 49.' 


1965 


22 


eo 


6 springs 
















92 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


156-157 


Napa 2 


2 springs 




Sulphur Spring, 
G.B. tV-Il<-l 












91 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No, Coast 4 Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


26 




Prom old nln« shaft 


37 


Wei 


SN 


6W 


25 


K) 


St. Helena (71,') 


10 






USGS WRI 13-7 


1171 


Fig. 1 






. 


thlllpB Soda Springs 


»H 


4W 


25 


m 


Chiles Valley • ■ . t 
(71,' ) 






USGS P.P. 49. 






9U 





• S«« Appcnidx for location. 



1985 TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 1 1 1 

SANTA ROSA SHEET APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



vx- 

NO. 


KAME 


LOCATIOW ] 


gUASRAHSLE 


WATLR 
TEMP. 
(T) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCK(S) 


, 1 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B«M 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


38 


Philips Soda Sprlnqs 


8N 


4W 


25 


m 


Chiles Valley 


- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


161-162 


Napa 8 




)« 


Napa Rock (Priests) 
Soda Springs 


ew 


4W 


?5 


K) 


Chiles Valley 
(7H') 


79 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


83 


















79 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


lei 


Napa 9 


















79 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtna.) 


1968 


26 






40 


ptlEwan Ranch warn 
Springs 


6N 


6W 


6 


>n 


Kenwood (71,') 


BO 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


22 


77 


HcCwan Ranch on 
1908 Sonoma Co. map, 
CDMG SF map file 
















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


114-115 


Sonoma 
14 
















73 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns. ) 


1966 


31 




41 


Los OulUcos Warsi 
Sprlnqs 


6N 


6W 


5 


m 


Ken»ood (7!)') 


78, 82 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


76 


















78. 82 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


114 


Sonoma 
15 






Los Gutllcos 
(n>rtcn's) Warn 
Springs 












84, 87 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(No. Coast 4 Klamath Htns.) 


1968 


31 




3 springs listed 


42 


"Eldrldg« State Hosie" 
Warn Springs 


6N 


6W 


22 


M) 


Glen tllen (Tij-) 


72 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


78 


















72 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


114 


Sonoma 
16 






Scnoa« State Hoiw 

Warn Spring 












70 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(No. Coast t. Klamath Htns.) 


1966 


31 






45 


St. Helena White 
Sulphur Spring 


711 


ew 


2 


M) 


Rutherford (7)j' ) 


69-90 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


62 


















max. 
90 






IlSr,'! WSP 338 


1915 


254-255 


Napa 10 






Spring 












90 






USGS WRI 13-73 


1973 


51 








White Sulphur Springs 


7B 


6W 


? 


M} 


Rutherford (71jM 


96 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1966 


25 






44 


Agua Callente Springs 


eN 


6W 


35 


H) 


Sonoma <7)jM 


97-115 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


79 


















max. 
114 


3001 




USGS WSP 338 


1915 


113-114 


Sonoma 
16 


Several wells 


45 


Fetters Hot Springs 


6« 


6W 


35 


« 


Sonoma (T!,') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


79 


4 wells 
















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


114 


Sonoma 
19 




46 


Boyes tChms) Hot 
Springs 


5N 


6W 


1 


M> 


Sonoma <7»j*) 


114-116 






US(3S P.P. 492 


1965 


22 


79 


Water from 4 wells 
















114-118 


200± 




USGS WSP 336 


1915 


112-113 


Sonoma 
20-21 


2 wells 
















112 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


31 






47 


Well 


TN 


5W 


3 


If) 


Rutherford (7)j') 


77 






USGS WRI 13-73 


1973 


Fig. 3 






4e 


Well 


TN 


5W 


15 


rc 


Rutherford (7%' ) 


70 






USGS WPl 13-73 


197) 


Fig. 3 






49 


Well 


7N 


5W 


14 


H> 


Rutherford (T)}') 


69 






USGS WRI U-73 


1973 


Fig. 3 






50 


Well 


7N 


5W 


26 


K) 


Rutherford (7!,M 


80 






US(a WRI 13-73 


1973 


Fig. 3 






51 


well 


7)1 


5W 


26 


ICI 


Rutherford {7)}*) 


85 






USGS WRI 13-73 


1973 


Table 4 
Fig. 3 






5? 


Well 


6N 


4W 


23 


N) 


Napa (T),') 


85 






USGS WRI 13-73 


1973 


Fig. 3 






55 


Well 


6N 


4W 


24 


H) 


Napa (7ij' ) 


76 






USGS WRI 13-73 


1973 


Fig. 3 






54 


Hot spring 


(th 


4W 


34 


fC 


Napa ITH' ) 


83 














Napa City water Dept. 
pers. com. 5/5/72 



• S«e Appendix D for locAt.lon. 



112 



SUSANVILLE (wESTWOOD) SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY BULL. 201 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
MAP 

UX. 

NO. 


NANE 


LOCATICN 


OUkSIWNGLE 


HATER 
TEMP. 
CFl 


TOl-AL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE CSl 




NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BtH 




PireLICATlCN 


YEAR PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


I 


Sel licks Springs 


31N 


15E 


7 


H> 


Karlo (ISM 


72 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


324 


Lassen 9 




2 


Tlpton(s) Springs 


31N 


15E 


37 


fD 


Karlo I15M 


70 






USGS P.p. 49.'' 


1965 


20 


29A 


Location not precise 
















- 






USGS WSP 338 


191S 


324-325 


Lassen 
10 




3 


Upper mil creek 
Springs 


JON 


4E 


21-22 


fO 


Lassen Peak (IS'} 


120-150 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


25 
























Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 360 


192S 


90 






4 


Tophet Hot Springs 


30N 


4E 


21 


H) 


Lassen Peak (15*) 


175 to 
boiling 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


26 






(Soupan, Supan) 


















USGS WSP 338 


1915 


141 


Shasta 
15 




5 


Busipas Hot Springs 


30N 


4e 


14 


M> 


Lassen Peak (15' ) 


boiling 






USGS P.P. 492 


196S 


20 


27 






(Bunpss Hell) 












- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


140-141 


Shasta 
16 




6 


Morgan Hot Springs 


29N 


4E 


11 


m 


Lassen Peak (15' ) 


90-200 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


33 


















200* 






USGS WSP 338 


191S 


138-139 


Tehama 2 




7 


Growler Hot Springs 


29N 


4E 


n 


W) 


Lassen Peak (15') 


203. 






USGS P.P. 440-F 


1963 


40-41 


5 




e 


Devils Kitchen 


30N 


5E 


?i 


rt) 


Mt. Harkness 
(15') 


150-205 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


21 


34 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


141-142 


Plumas 1 




9 


Hot Spring valley 


30N 


5E 


22-27 


H) 


Mt. Harkness 
(IS') 


83 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


35 


















83 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


227 


Plumas 2 


Carbonated 


10 


Drake Hot Springs 


30N 


5E 


22 


M) 


Mt. Harkness 
(15') 


123-148 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


36 






(Drakeshad ) 












146 






USGS WSP 3 38 


1915 


142-143 


Plumas 4 




11 


Boiling Spring 
Tartarus Lake 


30N 


5E 


27 


m 


Kt. Harkness 
(15') 


170-190 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


37 


















170 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


143 


Plumas 5 




1? 


Terminal Geyser 


30N 


5E 


36 


fC 


Mt. Harkness 
(15') 


120-205 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


21 


38 






The Geyser 












- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


143-144 


Plumas 6 




13 


Geysers Steam Co., 
Terminal Geyser Well 


30N 


SE 


36 


M3 


Mt. Harkness 
(15') 


265 


1270 


1962 


CDMG SR 75 


1963 


n 


3 




14 


Roosevelt Swimming 
Pool Hell 


29N 


IJE 


6 


FC 


Susanville (IS') 


96 


295(7) 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table 3a 


1 


















97 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


27 




15 


Church of Latter Day 
Saints Well 


J9N 


12E 


67 


M) 


Susanvllle (15') 


120 


593 




CDOG TR 15 


1974 


Table 3a 


2 


location uncertain 




L.D.S. Church Well 


29N 


12E 


57 


H> 




120 


593 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


26 


Location uncertain 


16 


Wrl! 


30N 


1?E 


3? 


«> 


Susanville (15') 


128 














Pers. comm. J.B. 

Koenlq 


17 


mller custon inrk 
Well 


J9N 


12E 


5 


Ml 


Susanville (IS' ) 


lis 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


29 


















1282 














Pers. comm. J.B. 
Koenlo 


18 


Shaffer (Branbacks) 
Hot Springs 


?9N 


15E 


23 ( 24 


ff> 


Litchfield (15') 
and Wendel (15' 1 


160-204 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


?0 


30 


Sec. 24 on Wendel 
quad. 














Litchfield (15') 
«K) Wendel (IS') 


204 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


124-126 


Lassen 
16 


Sec. 24 on Wendel 
guad. 



• S«« Appendix D for location. 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



113 



sus/ 


NVILLE (WESTWOOD) S 


Hbtl 
















APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 


LOC 
NO. 


NAME 


LOCATION 


OUAORANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CD 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


IfEAR 

DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 
(see list of references for abbreviations) 


NC^ES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BiM 


PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


ux:. 

NO. 


18 


Wendel Hot Springs 


29N 


15E 


23 


W 


Litchfield (ISM 


205 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


30 


















205 






CDOG TR 15 


1975 


Table 3n 


3 




19 


HeglM Power Co. 
Wendel Well 


29N 


15E 


23 


rf> 


Litchfield (15') 
and Wendel (15' 1 


174 


630 


1962 


COMG SR ■" 


1963 


11 


4 






Hell 












147 


623 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


31 




ro 


S.P. Railroad Well 


29N 


16£ 


30 


ro 


wendel (15') 


83 


305 




axxs TR 15 


1974 


Table 3a 


4 




.■■i 


Maqma Power Co. Wells 


JSN 


leE 


e ( s 


« 


Wendel (15-) 


220 


116 


1962 


CDMG SR 75 


196-' 


11 


5 


3 wells 




Wells 


26N 


16E 


4 t 8 


K) 




225 


1102 




CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


33 




'' 


AJnedee Hot Springs 


2SN 


16E 


e 


hD 


Wendel (15' 1 


178-204 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


31 


















172-204 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


127 


Lassen 17 


















204 






aX>G TR 15 


1974 


Table 3a 


5 


















203 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


47 


32 




ji 


Warm springs 


25N 


SE 


13-14 


H) 


Almanor (15' ) 


80-98 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


40-41 


Vague locations 


24 


Kryger Hot Springs 


26N 


9E 


2 


«) 


Greenville (15') 


90-106 






US(;S P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


39 


Shown as Indian 
Valley Hot Springs 
on Greenville quad. 




(Indian Valley) 












94 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


128 


Plumas 11 


25 


HlghrocJc Spring 


28N 


17E 


25 


«) 


Doyle (15') 


86 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


32 
















86, 

1007 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


128 


Lassen 19 





TRONA SHEET 



• 


NAME 


LOCATICH 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BiM 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


tj3C- 
NO. 


1 


Baintex Spring 


24S 


4 3E 


18 


Hi 


Trona (15') 


92 






CDWR Bull. 91-17 


1969 


67 






2 


Well 


24S 


4 3E 


9 


H) 


Trona (15') 


136 






CDWR Bull. 91-17 


1969 


66 




















137 


600 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


6 


16 




3 


Well 


24S 


43E 


22 


H) 


Trona (15') 


90 


297 




COWR Bull. 91-17 


1969 


67 






4 


Hell 


25S 


43E 


9 


fC 


Trona (15') 


86 






CDWR Bull. 9l-l-r 


1969 


68 






5 


Sprlnq 


22N 


7E 


30 


SB 


Shoshone (15') 
















Very warm spring, 
B.w. Troxel pers. 
coma. 


6 


Spring 


21N 


7E 


30 


SB 


Shoshone (15" ) 














Warm artesion spring, 
B.w. Troxel pers. 

conrn. 


7 


Tecopa Hot Springs 


21N 


7E 


33 


SB 


Tecopa (15') 


109 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


146 


















109 






US(S WSP 338 


1915 


137 


Inyo 35 


















108 






USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


61 






H»9u Power Co. test 

well 












- 


422 


1962 


CDNG SK 7S 


1963 


11 


13 




e 


iKell 


21N 


7E 


28 


SB 


Tecopa (15') 


118 


400 




USGS WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


62 


Flowing well drilled 
by Stauffer Chemical 
Co., B.w. Troxel 






























pers. COMB. 


9 


Yeo«an Hot Springs 


21N 


7E 


1 


SB 


Tecopa (15' > 


80 






uses P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


145 




10 


Besting Spring 


21N 


BE 


31 


SB 


Tecopa (15- ) 


80 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


147 


















80 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


319-320 


Inyo 34 





i • See Appendix D for location. 



114 

TRONA SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



HAP 

LOC. 
NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICW 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


1 — 

TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(PEETl 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


refeic:hce(s) 
(see list of references for abbreviations) 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BKM 


PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 

NO. 


11 


Mil 


?6S 


39E 


19 


W> 


Inyokem ( 15 ' ) 


87 


367 




CDWR Bull. 91-9 


1963 


148-149 






1."' 


Well 


?6S 


39E 


?4 


H) 


Rldqecrest (15' 1 


86-93 


825 




CDWR Bull. 91-9 


1963 


151 






U 


Well 


27S 


40E 


7 


m 


Rldgecrest (ISM 


86 


410 




CDWR Bull. Ol-u 


1963 


185 






14 


Well 


26S 


40E 


?? 


H) 


Ridgecrest (15*1 


90 


830 




CDWR Bull. 91-9 


1963 


169 






15 


Sorstoqs Spring 


ISM 


5E 


? 


SB 


AvawAtz Pass 
(15M 


82 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


24 


154 


















82 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


137-138 


San 
Bern. 3 




16 


Magma Power Co. well 


?9S 


41E 


J5 


HJ 


Klinker Htn. 
(TS'l 


241 


772 




CDMG SR 75 


1963 


11 


14 






"Steam Mell" 












205 


415 


1920± 


US(a P.P. 457 


1964 


56 




Drilled as a prospect 
for mercuTY 


17 


Parfidlse Spring 


12N 


JE 


7 


SB 


Lone Mtn. (15') 


85-106 






USC^S P.P. 49? 


1965 


?4 


155 


















102 






US(» WSP 338 


1915 


52-53 


San 
Bern. 9 



















102 






US(;S WRI 33-73 


1974 


10 


63 





UKIAH SHEET 



1 


Sulphur Spring near 
Laytonvllle 


21N 


15W 


1 


hD 


Laytonvllle (15' ) 


70 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


45A 


Water contains H^S 
















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


259 


Mendocino 
4 


















70 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast S Klamath Mtns.l 


1968 


25 






1« 


Jackson valley md 
Springs 


21N 


ISW 


19 


MD 


Cahto Pealt (T^i') 


80 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


25 






2 


Crabtree Hot Springs 


17N 


9W 


25/36 


Ml 


Lake Pillsbury 
(15') 


66-105 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


48 


















105 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


106-107 


Lake 5 








17N 


9W 


36 


m 




IDS 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast » Klamath Mtns.l 


1968 


22 






3 


Fouta Springs 


17N 


7W 


5 


m 


Stonyford (15* ) 


60-75 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


48A 


















75 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


205-207 


Coluaa 3 


Carbonated springs 




(Red eye Springs) 












78 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast ft Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


16 






4 


Orrs Hot Springs 


16N 


14W 


24 


W) 


Boonvllle (15' > 


63-104 






USGS P.p. 492 


1965 


21 


45 


2 springs 
















104 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


83 


Mendocino 
20 




Hot Springs, Alfred 
weger 












104 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


?4 




5 


Vichy Springs 


15N 


12W 


14 


M> 


Ukiali (15- ) 


50-90 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


21 


46 


















90 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


171-173 


Mendocino 
24 


















85 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast 1 Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


24 






6 


wells (Cal. Dri Ice 
Co.) 


UN 


12W 


1 


n> 


Ukiah (15') 


- 


350- 
790 


- 


USGS WSP 1548 


1965 


6? 




7 wells assoc. with 
hot ground w.iter ; 
location vague 


7 


Sods Bay Springs 


13» 


ew 


6 


m 


Lucerne (71j') 


80-87 






USGS P.P. 49? 


1965 


?1 


55 


















90, 124 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


191-192 


Lake 36 





S«« Appendix D for location. 



1985 

UKIAH SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 1 15 

APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
HAP 
LOC. 
NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICW 


OUADRANGIZ 


WATEK 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TCO-AL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 






NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&H 




P(raHCATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 
NO. 


7 


CBlg Soda Spring) 


UN 


8W 


6 


ICl 


Lucerne (Tlj') 


- 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast ft Klamath MthS.) 


1968 


20 






e 


Spring (unnamwl) 


16N 


SW 


3S 


m 


Cle«rl«ke Oaks 
US') 


90 






US(^ P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


49 


Location vague 


9 


Springs 


16N 


8W 


35 


» 


Clearlake 0«k» 
(ISM 


72-92 






uses p.p. 492 


196S 


21 


50 


















92 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


202 


Lake 8 


Car1»nate<J spring 


10 


Sulphur Bank Sprlngi 


13N 


7W 


5 


HI 


Cleerlake Oeks 
<15') 


83-120 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


57 






(Hot Balata) 












120 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


98-99 


Lake 38 






(Borax Springs) 












157 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast i Klamath Mtns. ) 


1968 


20 




Zn Sulphur Bank nine 
















86-122 






CDOG TI! 13 


1975 


49 


67 




u 


Well (Mfloiflft Power Co.) 


13N 


TV* 


5 


rc 


Clearlake Oaks 
(ISM 


367 


1391 


1961 


CDMG SR 75 


1963 


11 


6 


















367 


5016 




CDOG Til 13 


1975 


49 


68 




12 


Spring 


14N 


7W 


36 


H) 


Clearlake Oaks 
(ISM 


BO 






Ciancanelli unpub. map 










13 


Spring 


14N 


7W 


14 


le 


Clearlake Oaks 
(ISM 


66-70 






Ciancanelli unpub. map 










14 


Chalk Mtn. 


14N 


7W 


12 


tv 


Clearlake Oaks 
(ISM 


67-70 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


51A 


In altered lava 
















67-70 






US(3S WSP 33B 


191S 


196-197 


Lake 25 


Carbonated springs 


15 


CoB^lexlon Springs 


15N 


ew 


3 


m 


Clearlake Oaks 
(ISM 


74 






USGS P. P. 492 


196S 


21 


SI 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


191S 


297-298 


Lake 14 


Saline springs 




Complexion Springs 


15N 


6W 


3 


H) 


Clearlake Oaks 
(15M 


- 






USGS Water Res. Div, Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


21 






16 


Deadshot Springs 


14N 


5U 


e 


WD 


Wilbur Springs 
(ISM 


67-79 






VSGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


65 


















78 






USGS WSP 338 


191S 


195 


Colusa 6 


Carbonated spring 
















60 






US(;s Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


15 






17 


Springs at Elgin Mine 


14N 


ew 


13 


fC 


Wilbur Springs 
(ISM 


140-1S3 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


69 


















140-153 






US(3S WSP 338 


1915 


104-106 


Colusa 7 




le 


Spring at Abbott Mine 


14N 


5H 


31 


m 


Wlllsur Springs 
(ISM 


79 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


21 




Mercury mine 


19 


Blancks Hot Springs 


14N 


5W 


29 


K) 


Wilbur Springs 
(ISM 


120 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


66 


















. 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


104 


Colusa 12 




?0 


Springs on Manaanlta 
Hlning property 


14N 


SW 


29 


m 


Wilbur Springs 
(ISM 


110-142 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


67A 
















110-142 






USGS WSP 338 


191S 


104 


Colusa 10 




21 


Wilbur (Sinmons) Hot 
Springs 


14N 


5W 


26 


w 


Wilbur Springs 
(ISM 


65-140 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


21 


68 


















140 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


99-103 


Colusa 9 


















120 






USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 


1968 


15 




3 springs listed 


22 


Jones Hot Springs 


14N 


SW 


28 


H) 


Wilbur Springs 
(ISM 


125 






USGS P.P. 492 


196S 


21 


67 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


103 


Colusa 11 





• See Appendix D for location. 



116 

WALKER LAKE SHEET 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



• 
KM- 

LOC. 

NO. 


NME 


LOCATICH ] 


CUADRMIGlE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 

DRILLED 


REFERENCE (S) 
(see list of references for abbreviations) 


NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


BtH 


PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PAGE 


LOC. 

NO. 


1 


Grovers Hot Springs 


ION 


19E 


24 


HJ 


Harkleevllle 
US') 


128-146 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


113 


















128-146 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


131 


Alpine 1 


















147 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


48 




! 


Fflles Hot Sprinqs 


6N 


J IE 


24 


to 


Fales Hot Springs 
(15') 


97-141 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


114 


















129-141 






uses WSP 338 


1915 


132 


Mono 1 


















176 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


49 




3 


MflcFw) Power Co. Well 


6N 


23E 


24 


WJ 


Fales Hot Springs 
(15') 


- 


413 


1962 


CDMG SR 75 


1963 


11 


9 




4 


Buckeye Hot Springs 


4N 


24E 


4 


MD 


Hatterhom PeaJc 
115M 


140 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


115 


















140 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


132-133 


Mono 2 


Extensive lime 
carbonate deposits 
















140 






CDOG TB 13 


1975 


48 


50 




5 


Travertine Hot 
Springs 


5N 


25E 


54 


rt> 


Bodle (15'1 


121-148 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


116 


















148 






USGS WSP 336 


1915 


133-135 


Mono 3 


















122-149 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


51 




6 


The Hot Springs 


AN 


25E 


9 


«) 


Bodie (15') 


70-105 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


117 


















70-105 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


133 


Hjno 4 


















95-113 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


52 




7 


Magma Power Co. Well 


4N 


25E 


9 


H3 


Bodie (15' ) 


122 


982 


1962 


CDMG SB 75 


1963 


11 


10 




7* 


Magma Power Co. Well 


5N 


25E 


32 


Wl 


Bodie (15') 


122 


924 


1962 


CDOG TR 1 3 


1975 


4B 


53 




8 


Warm Sprinqs Flat 


4N 


26E 


le 


Ki 


Bodle (15') 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


lie 


















- 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


135-136 


Mono 5 




9 


Near Mormon Creelc 


4N 


26E 


16 


H) 


Bodle (15' ) 


100 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


23 


119 
























USGS WSP 338 


1915 


135-136 


Mono 5 




10 


Hot spring 


2N 


26E 


11 


n> 


Bodie (15') 


? 






USGS Bodle 15' quad. 








No otJier reference 


11 


Getty Oil Co. "State 
P. B.C. 4572. 1" 


2N 


26E 


23 


MD 


Bodie 115') 


136 


2437 


1971 


CDOG Sum. Op. v. 57 no. 2 


1971 


13 




















135 


2440 


1971 


CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


56 


Also see p. 35 


12 


Mono Basin warm 
Spring 


2N 


2BE 


n 


M) 


Trench Canyon 
(15') 


90 






USGS S'.f. 492 


196S 


23 


121 


















80-90 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


145-146 


Mono 8 






warm spring 












91 






CDOG TR 13 


1975 


48 


54 





WEED SHEET 



1 B09U8 Soda Spring* 47N 5W 



«J Copco (15') 



USGS P.r. A9? 



USGS WSP 338 



E«« Appsndlx D for location. 



Siskiyou 



Carbonated aprlnqs 



1985 

WEED SHEET 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



117 



APPENDIX B - TABULATED LIST OF THERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS 



MAP 
UX". 

NO. 


NAME 


LOCATICW 


QUADRANGLE 


WATER 
TEMP. 
CF) 


TOTAL 
DEPTH 
(FEET) 


YEAR 
DRILLED 


HEVEVLUCKiS) 




NOTES 


T 


R 


SEC. 


B&M 




PUBLICATION 


YEAR 


PACE 


LOC. 
NO. 


1 


Boqus Soda Springs 


47N 


5W 


13 


W 


Copco (15-) 


72-76 






CDMG Bull. ISl 


1949 


56 








Klamath Hot Springs 


4eN 


3W 


27 


w 


MBcdoel tlSM 


100-152 






uses P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


2 






(Shovel Creek 
Springs) 












112-156 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


120-121 


Siskiyou 

7 






(Besvlck Hot Sprlnqs) 












152 






OJMG Bull. 151 


1949 


55 






3 


Sulphur Springs 


15N 


8E 


29 


re 


Ukonom US') 


90 






USGS P.P. 492 


1965 


20 


1 


















84 






USGS Water Res. Dlv. Open File 
(No. Coast « Klamath Mtjis. ) 


1968 


28 






4 


Hot spring on Ht. 
Shasta 


4 IN 


3W 


9 


H) 


Shasta (15-) 


184 






Zeltschrlft fxlr Vullcanaloqte 


1934 


228 




















" 






USGS WSP 338 


1915 


144 


Siskiyou 
14 





• See Appendix D for location. 



REFERENCES CITED IN APPENDIX B 



ABBREVIATION 



COMPLETE REFERENCE 



CDMG B 151 

CDMG SR 75 

CDMG SR 94 

CDMG MIS V. 17, no. 11 

CDMG MIS V. 21, no. 4 

CDOG Huntington Beach Mop 
No. 134 

CDOG Mop G 5-1 

CDOG Mop G 6-1 

CDOG Geotherm. Hotline 

CDOG Sum. Op. v. 57, no. 2 

CDOG TR 13 

CDOG TR 15 

CDOG written comm. 
CDWR Bull. 91-9 

CDWR Bull. 91 17 

CDWR Bull. 106-2 



Williams, Howel, 1949, Geology of the Macdoel quadrangle: California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 151, 78 
P- 

McNitt, J.R., 1963, Exploration and development of geothermol power in California: California Division of Mines and 
Geology Special Report 75, 45 p. 

Proctor, R.J., 1968, Geology of the Desert Hot Springs-upper Coachella Valley area, California: California Division of Mines 
and Geology Special Report 94, 50 p. 

California Division of Mines and Geology, 1964, The history trail (Dirty Socks spring): Mineral Information Service, v. 
17, no. 11, p. 202. 

California Division of Mines and Geology, 1968, Point Arena hot springs: Mineral Information Service, v. 21, no. 4, p. 
61. 

California Division of Oil and Gas, 1971, Huntington Beach Oil and Gas Fields Mop No. 134. 

Colifornia Division of Oil and Gas, 1967, Geothermol Mop Caso Diablo area. Mop G 5-1. 

California Division of Oil and Gas, 1974, Mop of The Geysers geothermol area: Map G 6-1. 

Colifornio Division of Oil and Gas Geothermol Hotline, November 1972 and December 1972 issues. 

California Division of Oil and Gos, 1971, Resume of oil, gas, and geothermol field operations in 1971: California Division 
of Oil and Gos Summary of Operotions, v. 57, no. 2, p. 13. 

Hannah, J.L., 1975, The potential of low temperature geothermol resources in northern Colifornio: Colifornio Division of 
Oil ond Gos, Report No. TR 13, 53 p. 

Reed, M.J., 1975, Chemistry of thermol woter in selected geothermol oreos of Colifornio: California Division of Oil and 
Gos, Report No. TR 15, 31 p. 

Reed, M.J. (and Don Lande), Colifornio Division of Oil and Gos written communication received 7/26/74. 

California Department Water Resources, 1963, Data on water wells in Indian Wells Volley oreo, Inyo, Kern, and Son 
Bernardino counties, California: Bulletin No. 91-9, 243 p. 

California Deportment Water Resources, 1969, Water wells and springs in Ponaminf, Searles, and Knob Valleys, Son 
Bernardino and Inyo counties, Colifornio: Bulletin No. 91-17, 109 p. 

California Department Water Resources, 1967, Ground water occurrence and quality. Son Diego region: Bulletin No. 106-2, 
235 p. 



118 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



ABBREVIATION 



COMPLETE REFERENCE 



CDWR Bull. 143-7 

CDWR Long Valley Invest. 

CDWR Mom. Bosin Rept. 
CDWR-UCR Dunes Rept. 

OMG V. 41, no. 3 

Comegie Inst. Wosh. Pub. 360 

Koenig, 1968 

Rex, unpub. 

uses GO 437 



USGS Geoth. Modoc Co. [open 
file) 

USGS MF 577 



USGS Open File (Imperial Vo.) 

USGS PP 385 

USGS PP 440-F 

USGS PP 457 

USGS PP 486-G 

USGS PP 492 



USGS Woter Res. Div. Open File 
(Colo. Desert) 

USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(No. Coast & Klamath Mtns.) 

USGS Water Res. Div. Open File 
(So. Coast - Penin. Ranges) 

USGS WRI 13-73 



USGS WRI 33-73 

USGS WSP 142 

USGS WSP 338 
USGS WSP 1548 

Werner, unpub. 

Zeitschrift fiir Vulkonologie 



California Deportment Water Resources, 1970, Geothermcl wostes and the water resources of the Salton Sea area: Bulletin 
No. 143-7, 123 p. 

California Department Water Resources, 1967, Investigation of geothermol v»aters in the Long Valley area, Mono County, 
141 p. 

California Department Water Resources, 1973, Mammoth basin woter resources environmentol study. Final Report, 70 p. 

Coplen, T.B., and others, 1973, Preliminary findings of on investigation of the Dunes thermal onomoly. Imperial Valley, 
California: California Department of Water Resources ond University of California, Riverside, 48 p. 

Tucker, W.B., and Sampson, R.J., 1945, Mineral Resources of Riverside County: California Division of Mines, California 
Journal of Mines and Geology, v. 41, no. 3, (p. 178, Highland Springs). 

Day, A.L., and Allen, E.T., 1925, The volcanic activity and hot springs of Lassen Peak: The Carnegie Institute of Washington, 
Publication 360, 190 p. 

Koenig, J.B., 1968, Field trip guide to The Geysers, Sonoma County, California: Northern California Geological Society 
Field Trip Guide. 

Rex, R.W. (Republic Geothermmol, Inc., Whittier, CA) , Computer print-out list of data on geothermol wells in Imperial 
and Coachello Valleys, 1972. 

Huber, N.K., and Rinehort, CD., 1965, Geologic map of the Devils Postpile quadrangle. Sierra Nevoda, California: 
U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-437. 

Duffield, W.A., and Fournier, R.O., 1974, Reconniossonce study of the geothermol resources of Modoc County, California, 
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 19 p. 

Clark, J.C, and others, 1974, Preliminary geologic map of the Monterey and Seaside 7V2' quadrangles, Monterey County, 
California with emphasis on active faults; U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF 577. 

Hordt, W.F., and French, J. J., 1976, Selected data on water wells, geothermol wells, and oil tests in Imperial Valley, 
California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 251 p. 

Rinehort, CD., and Ross, D.C, 1964, Geology and mineral deposits of the Mount Morrison quadrangle, Sierra Nevada, 
California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 385, 106 p. 

White, D.E., Hem, J.D., ond Waring, G.A., 1963, Chemical composition of subsurfoce waters. Chapter F, in Doto of 
geochemistry: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 440-F, 67 p. 

Smith, G.I., 1964, Geology and volcanic petrology of the Lovo Mountoins, Son Bernardino County, California: U.S. 
Geological Survey Professional Paper 457, 97 p. 

Metzger, D.G., Loeltz, O.J., and Irelan, B., 1973, Geohydrology of the Porker-Blythe-Cibolo area, Arizona and California: 
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 486-G, 130 p. 

Waring, G.A., 1965, Thermal springs of the United States and other countries of the world — A summary: U.S. Geological 
Survey Professional Paper 492, 383 p. 

Berkstresser, C.F., Jr, 1969, Data for springs in the Colorado Desert area of California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File 
Report, 13 p. 

Berkstresser, C.F., Jr., 1968, Data for springs in the northern Coast Ranges and Klamath Mountains of California: U. S. 
Geological Survey Open-File Report, 49 p. 

Berkstresser, C.F., Jr., 1968, Data for springs in the southern Coast, Transverse, ond Peninsular Ronges of California; 
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 21 p. 

Foye, RE., 1973, Ground-woter hydrology of northern Napa Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources 
Investigations, 13-73, 64 p. 

Moyle, W.R., Jr., 1974, Temperature and chemical data for selected thermal wells and springs in southeastern California; 
U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 33-73, 12 p. 

Mendenhall, W.C, 1905, The hydrology of Son Bernardino Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey Woter-Supply and 
Irrigation Paper No. 142, 124 p. 

Waring, G.A., 1915, Springs of Colifornio: U.S. Geologicol Survey Woter-Supply Paper 338, 410 p. 

Cordwell, G.T., 1965, Geology ond ground water in Russian River Valley areas ond in Round, Loytonville, and Little Lake 
Valleys, Sonoma and Mendocino counties, California: U.S. Geologicol Survey Water-Supply Paper 1548, 154 p. 

Werner, S.L. (California Department Woter Resources), List of data on geothermol wells in Imperial Valley (from talk, 
1974). 

Willioms, Howel, 1934, Mount Shasta, California; Zeitschrift fur Vulkonologie, vol. 15, pp. 225-253. 



1985 



TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



119 



APPENDIX C 

INDEX TO THE GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS GROUPED 

WITHIN EACH UNIT PORTRAYED ON THE GEOLOGIC 

MAP OF CALIFORNIA, 1977 EDITION 



Obviously, all the individual formations mapped in California, 
of which there are well over 1,000, could not be depicted on the 
1 :750,000 scale Geologic Map of California. As explained in Part 
II of this bulletin, the units portrayed on the Geologic Map are 
drawn on the basis of formation boundaries, but there are nu- 
merous formations contained within many of the mapped units. 
These formations are not portrayed on the map or named in the 
geologic legend — only a description of the predominant litholog- 
ic types for each mapped unit is given there. For a complete and 
detailed listing of the individual formational units in California, 
along with cross indexes by geologic age and by map sheet areas, 
the reader is referred to the "Geologic Legend and Formation 
Indexes" which accompany the Geologic Atlas of California. 
The index of geologic formations presented in the following 
pages is much more generalized than that of the Atlas; it was 
designed not to supplant the Atlas index, but rather to provide 
an easy-to-use listing that is referenced directly to the units 
portrayed on the 1:750,000 Geologic Map of California. 

EXPLANATION 

In preparation of the 1 :75O,0OO scale Geologic Map of Califor- 
nia, the mapped formations in the state were grouped into 52 
units according to lithologic similarities and rock origins, and 
were also arranged chronologically, according to relative age. 
The contacts for the units shown on the 1977 map are therefore 
based on actual formation contacts — if not individual formations 
—then grouped formations. The following list shows what for- 
mations were grouped into each map unit shown by the different 
symbols on the 1:750,000 scale map. This, of course, is a state- 
wide synthesis, and in any one location either a single formation 
is represented or two or more formations have been grouped. 
Because geologic formations commonly transcend time bounda- 
ries, many formations listed on the following table do not strictly 
fit the time interval indicated. It was not only more practical but 
also more meaningful in compiling the map to conform to forma- 
tion boundaries, which can be more easily related to the rocks 
in the field, than to try and "take apart" the geologist's forma- 
tion and draw "time" lines. 



Many formations in the following list are described in paren- 
theses as "(in part)." This was done where a formation is com- 
pKjsed of rocks of vastly different lithologies or dissimilar origin. 
For example, a sedimentary formational unit may have volcanic 
members within it. In such a case, the volcanic members would 
be grouped with the volcanic units (of comparable age as the 
sedimentary unit). Likewise, a marine formational unit may 
have interbedded nonmarine members, and these would in most 
cases (if extensive enough to show) be grouped with the nonma- 
rine map unit of appropriate age. 

Most of the designated units on the 1977 map contain the 
formational units depicted on the State Geologic Atlas sheets; 
however, where subsequent work has shown that certain forma- 
tions were of a significantly different age than what was previ- 
ously considered (probably as a result of the discovery of new 
or more-diagnostic fossils, or by reason of more accurate strati- 
graphic correlations), the results of this new information were 
taken into consideration, and the formation was depicted in the 
most appropriate way on the new State Geologic Map. 

Several new geologic units are shown on the 1977 map that 
were not recognized on the State Geologic Atlas. These include 
several areas in the southeastern part of the state where Tertiary 
granitic rocks have been dated (gr*^ ); an extensive belt of Terti- 
ary-Cretaceous rocks in the northern Coast Ranges, known as 
the Coastal Belt rocks or "Coastal Belt Franciscan" (TK); two 
locations of newly recognized Paleozoic (or Permo-Triassic) 
granitic rocks (gr*^) , one location in northern California and one 
in the southern part of the state; and two subdivisions within the 
Franciscan Complex — a melange unit (KJf„) and a schist unit 
(KJf.). 

If the reader would like a more detailed description of the 
individual formational units listed in the following table, he may 
refer to the various stratigraphic nomenclature sheets that ac- 
company the individual Geologic Atlas sheets or to the source 
data from which the Geologic Atlas was derived, as indicated on 
the explanatory data accompanying each sheet. 

For a more detailed explanation of the way in which the rock 
units were classified, and for a discussion of special stratigraphic 
problems encountered in preparing the 1:750,000 State Geologic 
Map, one should refer to pages 58- 63 in Section II. 



120 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 



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TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 



125 



APPENDIX D 



I 



SOURCE DATA INDEX 



Following the format of earlier Division of Mines and Geol- 
ogy indexes to published geologic maps and indexes to theses 
(see below), this index is organized by State Geologic Atlas 
sheets (generally 1° x 2° quadrangles). In determining the refer- 
ences used for any particular area on the Geologic Map of Cali- 
fornia, or the basis on which a fault was classified on the Fault 
Map of California, the map-user must first determine the State 
Atlas sheet on which his area of interest lies. If not particularly 
familiar with these sheets, the map-user should refer to the State 
Index Map (Figure 16), which shows the boundaries of the 
individual Atlas sheets. Once the map-user knows the appropri- 
ate Atlas sheet, he can use the index map and bibliography for 
that sheet to determine the source data used. 



HOW TO USE THIS INDEX 

This index should be used in conjunction with the "Index to 
Geologic Mapping" accompanying each sheet of the Geologic 
Atlas of California, 1:250,000 series. It supplements the source 
data given in the Atlas sheet indexes; only references that were 
published or acquired subsequent to the issuance of the corre- 
sponding State Geologic Atlas sheet, as well as additional refer- 
ences that were used in classifying faults, are shown in Appendix 
D. Some of these references were received late, and may not have 
been used (or were used only in part) in the compilation of the 
Fault Map of California and the Geologic Map of California. 
They are included here because of their potential usefulness to 
persons seeking more recent references for an area. * 

Because the primary purpose of the Fault Map of California 
is to provide more information on individual faults, especially for 
active or potentially active ones, particular attention has been 
given to providing references to the historic and Quaternary 
faults. For ease in locating references on specific historic or 
Quaternary faults, the index maps have selectively shown these 
faults, albeit in a generalized and simplified form (using solid 
and dotted lines only). For more accurate depiction of these 
faults, the reader should refer to the 1:750,000 Fault Map of 
California. If no source data are given for a specific fault shown 
on the index sheets, then the reference (s) used were taken from 
the published 1:250,000 State Geologic Atlas sheets, and the 
reader should consult the Atlas and its accompanying source 
data indexes. 



OTHER REFERENCES 



For more extensive references to areal geologic mapping, the 
reader is referred to the following publications of the California 
Division of Mines and Geology: 

Indexes to Published Geologic Maps 

Special Report 52, Index to Geologic Maps of California to 
December 31, 1956, by R. G. Strand, J. B. Koenig, and C. W. 
Jennings. 

Special Report 52-A, Index to Geologic Maps of California, 
1957-1960, by J. B. Koenig. 

Special Report 52-B, Index to Geologic Maps of California, 
1961-1964, by J. B. Koenig and E. W. Kiessling. 

Special Report 102, Index to Geologic Maps of CaUfomia, 1965- 
1968, by E. W. Kiessling. 

Special Report 130, Index to Geologic Maps of California, 1969- 
1975, by E. W. Kiessling and D. H. Peterson. 



Indexes to Theses 



Special Report 74, Index to Graduate Theses on California Geol- 
ogy to December 31, 1961, by C. W. Jennings and R. G. 
Strand. 

Special Report 115, Index to Graduate Theses and Dissertations 
on California Geology, 1962 through 1972, by G.C. Taylor. 

California Geology, February 1978, Index to Graduate Theses 
and Dissertations on California Geology, 1973 and 1974, by 
D.H. Peterson and G.J. Saucedo. 

California Geology, April 1978, Index to Graduate Theses and 
Dissertations on California Geology, 1975 and 1976, by D. H. 
Peterson and G. J. Saucedo. 



•Becaust of the lale publication of this Bulletin (more than ten years after the compilation of the Fault Map of California and the Geologic Map of California), many of 
the references cited in Appendix D as ■"work in progress" have subsequently been published Because of subsequent changes that may have occurred from the "work in 
progress" stage to the final published work, no attempt has been made to update this Source Data Index with later references. Hence the references cited in Appendix D 
are largely those that were actually used in the compilation of the Fault and Geologic Maps The source data should be quite complete to approximately 1972 In a few- 
instances this Source Data Index contains some references up to 1975 that were added after the Stale maps had been compiled and while the text of this bulletin was being 
wntten 



126 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 



BULL. 201 




Figure 16. Slote index mop showing the boundories of the individuol Geologic Alias sheets ond the source doto index mops in Appendix D. 



1985 TEXT TO ACCOMPANY THE FAULT AND GEOLOGIC MAPS OF CALIFORNIA 127 



EXPLANATION OF MAPS 

On the following index maps of Appendix D, some of the 
boundary lines are solid and some are dashed. The dashed 
boundaries indicate one of the following: 



(a) The extent to which a source map was used — that is, that 
the source map continues farther, but that other data 
were used beyond the dashed boundary. 

(b) The area enclosed includes only selected data, for exam- 
ple, fault data only. 

(c) The boundary of one map, where two or more maps 
overlap — in the interest of clarity in cases of overlapping 
source data. 



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INIVERSITV OF CALIFORNIA, OAVII 



75 02103 8438 



COLLATE: 



PIECES 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA- GEC 
THE RESOURCES AGENCY - GORDON K. 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATIO! 



>v 



DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 
JAMES F DAVIS. STATE GEOLOGIST 



STATE OF CALIFORN 

THE RESOURCES AGENCY - G( 

DEPARTMENT OF CON! 




MAP A Structural Piofincei of Colilornlo daletmined by the prominent foult paltemt and ehorocteri»fi« of Hn faulti they 
tonioin or bound. lEncitcled numberi in lower port of mop identify certain foulti referred to in te»t.) 



RGE DEUKMEJIAN, GOVERNOR 

'AN VLECK, SECRETARY FOR RESOURCES 

I -DON L BLUBAUGH, DIRECTOR 



Faull ond Geologic Data Mops of California 
BULLETIN 201. PLATE 2 




MAP B; Parollelilm between major Quoternory faults and regularity of foolt spacing. ( Encirc^d numbers 
in lower portion of mop identify certoin faults referred to in the text.) 




MAP C: Relotionship of eorthquoke epicerXers to foulls in Colifornia, Note the close relationship of 
eorthquokes of magnitude 6 ond greoter to the mojor Quoternory foults. (Epicenters from 
Eorthquoke Epicenter Mop Of Colifornio, 1900-1974, by C.R. Real, T.R. Toppozodo ond O.L. 
Pofke, 1978-1 



OD 



n 




MAP Dl Earthquake epicenters of magnitude 4 to 4.9 showing more scatter than for the lorger earth- 
quakes, but olio suggesting certain oreos of low historic seismicity. (Epicenters from Earthquake 
Epicenter Mop Of Colifornio, 19001974, by C.R. Real. T,R, Toppoiobo, ond DL. Porke. 1978.) 



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