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SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 72, NUMBER 15 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1921 




(Publication 2669) 



SEP03«87 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1922 



pUVI/'^" 



Q 



r SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

^ VOLUME 72, NUMBER 15 ^ \/. 7 ^, -vu:j T/ U . 7 Is, >l«i. I 3 J 






EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OFTHE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1921l-^^^2^ 




(Publication 2669) q.^V/''. 




CITY OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
1922^ I'? 3-^ 



BiLTlMORE, Mn., l(. S. A. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction i 

Geological Explorations in the Canadian Rockies I 

Paleontological Ficld-Work in the United States 22 

Astrophysical Field-\\ Ork in Arizona and in Chile 30 

Botanical Expedition to the Orient ;}^;;y 

Biological Exploration in the Dominican Republic 44 

Experiments in Heredity 47 

Entomological Expedition to Alaska 52 

Archeological Field-Work on the Mesa Verde National Park 64 

Archeological Collecting in the Dominican Republic 83 

Archeological Reconnaissance of the Cahokia and Related Mound Groups. 92 

Archeological Investigations at Pueblo Bonito. New Mexico 106 

Archeological Field-Work in South Dakota and Missouri 117 

Field-Work on the Kiowa, Pueblo, and California Indians 125 

Archeological Field-Work on the .Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania 127 



EXPLORATKINS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION IN 1921 

INTRODUCTION 

The exploration and field-work conducted by the Smithsonian In- 
stitution is one of the means employed for the " increase and diffusion 
of knowledge," the purpose of the Institution as stipulated in the 
will of James Smithson, its founder. Attention is directed whenever 
possible to regions which have previously been imperfectly explored 
from a scientific point of view, and during the seventy-five years of 
its existence, the Institution's field parties have been able to make 
notable additions to existing knowledge as well as to provide vast col- 
lections of biological, zoological, and anthropological material for the 
exhibition and study series of the United States National Museum, a 
branch of the Institution. 

During the past year, the effectiveness of the Institution's limited 
funds for this work has been so reduced by the prevailing high costs 
that it was not possible to take part in as many expeditions as is 
customary. The more important of those which did take the field are 
briefly described in the present pamphlet, which serves as an announce- 
ment of the results obtained, many of the expeditions being later 
treated more fully in the various series of publications under the direc- 
tion of the Institution. The photographs here reproduced were for the 
most part taken by the field-workers themselves. 

GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES 
The geological work by Secretary Charles D. Walcott in the 
Canadian Rockies was in continuation of that of the field seasons of 
1919, 1920, for the purpose of securing data on the pre-Devonian 
strata of the Sawback range in Ranger Brook Canyon, and a recon- 
naissance of the pre-Devonian formations to the northwest as far as 
the headwaters of the North Fork of the Saskatchewan River, Alberta. 
The season was an unusually cold and stormy one. The party 
started with a pack train from Banff, June 30, and returned September 
30. During this period there were 35 stormy days, 28 cloudy and cold 
days (20° to 45°) and more or less snow fell on 20 days in August and 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections Vol. 72, No. 15 




l-ic. 1— l';uK>ianiii; view from soiitli side of Saskatchewan River looking west up the river toward Mounts Uutram (lo.O^c'J and I'urlies (ij.iu_>') ; Glacier l^ke taiiyun. and on right across the North Fork, Survey I'eak am! unnamed nmuntanis in i1k imrd 

Lovalily: The view is from a point about 47 miles (75.2 km.) northwest of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada. (C. D. Walcott, 1921.) 



SINIITHSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIOXS 



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man, Oriloviciaii. and C'anihnan -.trala soutlnvest of I'.adger Pass, at head of Cascade Creek and northeast of canvon of Johnson Creek, 
n leaihni; up from Johnson Creek to Uadgcr Pass in Sawhack Ransc. Position of camera aliont ten miles in air "line east of Lake I.onisc Station 
on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada. ( C. D. Walcott, igji.) 




J.iH-alilv: 



4.— Thompson Pass on Continental Divide. Mountain on soutli (leftl .\lt. Rice (10.745'). and on north (risht) Mt. liryce (ii.ono') and glaciers 
'Ihompson Pass ahout 6,1 miles (ici.,? km.) northwest of I-ake Lonise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, .Alherta, Canada. ( C. D, Walcott, 1921,) 



NO. 15 



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September. While on the trail 30 camps were made, but owing to 
weather conditions and to the fact that the snow remained on the slopes 
and clitTs above timber line, a relatively small amount of productive 
work was accomplished. 

The section studied near the head of Ranger Brook Canyon of the 
Sawback Range about 12 miles ( 19.3 km.) northwest of Banff, was 
from the base of the Devonian limestones down through the post- 
Cambrian (Ozarkian) Mons formation and the sul)jacent Lyell and 
Sullivan ' formations of the Upper Cambrian. 




Fig. 8. — Camp on the lower eastern slope of Fossil Mountain looking north 
toward the head of Red Deer River. 



The character of the formations is indicated by figures 2 and 3, 
which show the southwesterly slope of the highly inclined beds (45^ 
to 70°) and the .saw-tooth-like effect caused by the unequal rate of 
erosion of the massive bands of limestone and the softer, more friable 
sandy and clay shales. Towards the northwest end of the Sawback 
range at the Red Deer River the Black and White Douglass mountains 
stand high above the surrounding ridges. ( h^ig. 5.) Oyster Mountain 



^ See Exploration 
No. I, 1920, p. 15. 



lianiplilet for 1910, Smitlisonian Misc. Coll., \'ol. 72 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



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(fig. 6) has been cut out by erosion from the limestones between 
Douglass and Fossil mountains, and figure 6 illustrates the crumpling 
of shaly limestones by thrusting of a series of massive limestone strata 
against them during the period of displacement of the great series of 
formations of this part of the Cordilleran ranges. 

Fossil Mountain, named from the presence of Devonian corals, is 
about 9 miles (14.4 km.) northeast of Lake Louise Station and faces 
Baker Creek Pass on the east. It has a good section of Devonian and 




Fig. 10. — Wild flower camp on northwest side of Johnson Creek Pass. 
(Mrs. Mary V. Walcott, 1921.) 



pre-Devonian rocks on its eastern slope. There is a fine outlook from 
camp at the east foot of the mountain. 

The broad LT-shaped valley (fig. 9) between Fossil and Oyster 
mountains has been eroded in the shale and thin bedded limestones 
that pass beneath Fossil Mountain ; this formation is one of those in 
the Sawback Range that is readily worn away, with the result that the 
agencies of erosion followed by the glaciers have made a valley al- 
together disproportionate to the present erosion agencies, water, frost 
and snow. 

At a camp in the heart of the Sawback Range on a tributary of 
Baker Creek leading up to Johnson Pass there was a wonderful 



NO. 15 SMITHSOXIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 9 

exhibit of wild flowers in bloom. Mrs. Walcott counted 82 species 
within a short distance of the tents. A spring-fed pond supplied camp 
water ; dead pines and spruce, firewood ; and a grass covered snow- 
slide slope, abundant feed for the horses. 

The moss pink (fig. 11) and the beautiful Dryas octopctala were 
very abundant, but heavy frosts in August killed nearly all the plants 
and few of the flowers went to seed. 

On our way north we crossed over Pipestone Pass and down the 
Siffleur River. Clearwater River heads in glacial gravels on the east 
side of the Sifileur about two miles north of Pipestone Pass. Figure 
13 is a view looking west through the Clearwater Pass and across to 
the high clififs on the western side of Sifileur Canyon. 

Twenty-five miles further to the northwest at the point where the 
south branch (Alistaya Creek), the middle branch ( Howse River), 
and the north branch unite to form the Saskatchewan River, there 
are some beautiful and instructive views of the surrounding mountains. 
Figure i (frontispiece) is a fine view of the head of the river, with 
Howse River in the left background and the North Fork beyond the 
island on the right. The Mount Forbes massif on the left is a superb 
mountain mass and in the distant center is Division Mountain at the 
head of Glacier Lake Canyon which we visited in 1919; on the right 
Survey Peak and beyond two unnamed points. The Glacier Lake 
section of the pre-Devonian and Upper Cambrian formations was 
studied on the northern slopes of the Mount Forbes massif as illus- 
trated by figure i (frontispiece) of the Smithsonian exploration 
pamphlet for 1919,' and the rugged clififs and peak of Mount Forbes 
are shown by text figure 14 of the present number. 

Twelve miles northeast of Mount Forbes the clififs of Mount 
Murchison (fig. 15) rise high above the dark forested slopes and 
present a view of the Devonian and pre-Devonian formations that is 
unequalled in all this region of peaks, clififs and broad canyon valleys. 

Opposite Mount Murchison on the north side of the Saskatchewan, 
Mount Wilson (fig. 16) presents another section of the pre-Devonian 
formations, the upper end of which is a massive white quartzite formed 
of the sands of the beaches over which the Devonian Sea deposited 
thick layers of calcareous sediments abounding in the remains of 
corals and various invertebrates of the time. On the west, Mount 
Wilson rises directly above the North Fork of the Saskatchewan which 
here flows through a narrow picturesque inner canyon (fig. 17). 



^ Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 72, No. i. 



10 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Jl 




Fig. II. — Moss pink in Johnson Creek Pass. 







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NO. 15 



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17 



The trail up the North Fork follows the hed of the river most of the 
way to its head beneath Wilcox Pass. The same is true of the trail 
up the west branch called Alexandra River, and its northwest exten- 
sion named Castleguard River, by the Interprovincial survey of the 
boundary between Alberta and British Columbia. Near the union of 
Castleguard and Alexandra Rivers there is a fine view of the peaks 
along the Continental Divide and Alexandra glacier. On one of the 




Fig. 19. — Mount Wilson and glacier from the southeast, with the eastern 
section of the broad syncline, of which Mount Wilson is the western section, on 
the right. 

Locality: View taken from south shore of Saskatchewan River about two 
miles (3.2 km.) east of Mistaya Creek and 47 miles (75.2 km.) northwest from 
Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada. (Mrs. 
Mary V. Walcott. 1921.) 



misting days of early September a photograph of Alexandra glacier. 
Queens Peak, and Mount Alexandra was taken from the river bed 
and is reproduced as figure 20. 

Castleguard River heads in a deep, rather broad canyon at the foot 
of the Castleguard glacier. Thompson Pass is on the southwest and 
high barrier ridges on the northeast. On the summit of the latter 
great terraced buttes occur with narrow side facing the line of drainage 
(fig. 21). These outlying buttes are formed of the alternating hard 



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Fig. 22. — Waiting for the pack horses to be brought up to receive camera l)uxcs, 
dunnage bags, blanket rolls, tent, and small impedimenta. 




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Fig. 22,. — Horses foraging through the snow. 



KO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



21 



and soft bands of limestone and shale of the Sullivan ' formation, and 
they form a somewhat unique topographic feature, and are the top of 
the world at this point. 

Thompson Pass is one of the scenic features of the Continental 
Divide when viewed from the high Alpine valley on the northeast side 
of Castleguard Canyon. The Pass is low (6,511' or 1,984 m.), and 
bold high ridges lead up to mountain summits on either side (fig. 4). 
A view taken on a misting day shows Watchman Lake (6,050' or 




Fig. 24. — A snowy morning on upper Pipestone River. 

1,844 m.) and above it Cinema Lake (6,400' or 1,950 m.) on the north- 
east slope of the Pass. On the south Watchman Peak (8,674' or 
2.634 m.) which lies in front of Mount Rice (10.745' or 3,275 m.) 
and on the right Mount Bryce ( i i.ooo' or 3,352 m.) and Bryce glacier, 
which is at the head of the middle branch of Castleguard River. The 
Castleguard glaciers flow down from Mount Castleguard (10,090' or 
3,075 m.), which is a fine peak a few miles northeast of Mount Bryce. 
Figure 4 is a fine illustration of a misting day along the Continental 
Divide. We were camped for a week on the south side of the Alpine 



^ Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. "Ji, No. i, 1920, p. 15. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOL'S COLLECTIONS VOL. 



72 



upland in the foreground, and on each day numerous squalls of fine 
snow or frozen mist would sweep over from Thompson Pass or 
Bryce glacier. 

I do not know the origin of the names of Rice and Bryce. but it 
is probable that the mountains were named in honor of Sir Cecil 
Arthur Spring-Rice and Lord James Bryce. 

As the result of unfavorable weather not more than one-third of 
the work planned was com])leted when the late September snow drove 
us back to the railroad. The morning we broke camp to go to Lake 
Louise Station the horses were pawing away the snow to get at the 
grass beneath (hg. 2^), and the snow was very beautiful on the trees 
and along the stream below camp (fig. 24). The trail was obscured 
by it and to make matters more complicated, snow driven by a strong 
east wind beat into our faces during the seven hours march. The 
next day the sun came out and the storms were forgotten except for 
the wonderful snow scenes along the trail down the Pipestone River. 

The Commissioner of the Canadian National Parks, Hon. J. B. 
Harkin, and the members of the Parks Service in the field, from 
Superintendent to Park Warden, were most helpful, and the same is 
true of the officials and employees of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

PALEONTOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IN THE UNITED STATES 
Field-work by the Department of Geology of the U. S. National 
Aluseum during 1921 was carried on by three members of the Division 
of Invertebrate and Vertebrate Paleontology. 

Dr. R. S. Bassler, Curator of the Division of Paleontology, in 
cooperation with the Geological Survey of Tennessee spent the 
month of July in field-work in the Central Basin of that State, where 
he was occupied in collecting geologic material and in mapping and 
studying the economic resources of the Franklin quadrangle in 
Williamson County, south of Nashville. This area of about 250 square 
miles is of economic interest, on account of phosphate and oil shale 
possibilities. It is also classic ground for the paleontologist because 
of the numerous outcrops of Ordovician and later Paleozoic forma- 
tions which afi^ord a wealth of fossils. During the course of the 
mapping, Dr. Bassler was able to collect a considerable number of 
these fossils needed in the museum study series and was also fortu- 
nate in securing several large exhibits illustrating various geological 
phenomena. Among the latter is a large mass of limestone composed 
cntirel}' of the dismembered calices and columns of a large species of 
crinoid or sea lily in which the individual fragments are perfectly 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS. I92I 



^Z 









Fig. 25. — Contorted and cross bedded phosphate rock, Franklin, Tenn. (Photo- 
graph by Bassler. ) 




Fig. 26. — Massive limestone with an intercalated coral reef, near Franklin, 
Teim. (Photograph by Bassler.) 



24 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 

preserved and admirably illustrate the formation of a limestone 
through the accumulation of this type of animal remains. Material 
was also secured, both for the exhibition and study series, illustrating 
the origin of the phosphate beds of the locality through the removal 
from a phosphatic limestone of the easily soluble calcium carbonate 
by the leaching power of surface waters. Such material is represented 
in figure 25 showing a rock outcrop where a porous limestone is over- 
laid by the contorted and crossbedded rock which upon such leaching 
gives rise to the phosphate. 

Among the interesting stratigraphic results secured was one show- 
ing the efficacy of coral reefs of the Ordovician in rock formation. 
The massive limestone about fifteen feet thick shown in figure 26 
represents a middle Ordovician formation here containing but a single 
reef but within a distance of ten miles the number of intercalated coral 
reefs has so increased that the formation attains a thickness of over 
250 feet. 

An ancient Indian village near Brentwood, Tennessee, was visited 
during this trip in the interest of the Bureau of Ethnology. The 
object of the visit, namely the determination of the length of time 
since the village was deserted, proved to be, however, outside of the 
domain of geology. 

Upon the completion of this work Dr. Bassler proceeded to Spring- 
field, Illinois, where with the permission of Dr. A. R, Crook, Chief 
of the Museum, he prepared casts of the type specimens of invertebrate 
fossils contained in the Illinois State Museum collections. The aim 
in this work is to make the national collections of invertebrate fossils 
as complete as possible in its representation of type specimens, a 
work which was further advanced in the early part of January by a 
visit to the Walker Museum of the University of Chicago, where 
the casting of all the Paleozoic species which had remained unfinished 
on the occasion of a former trip was completed. 

Through the courtesy of ]\Ir. E. J. Armstrong, of Erie, Pennsyl- 
vania, Dr. Bassler was enaljled to visit all the classical Silurian and 
Devonian localities in northwestern Pennsylvania and western New 
York during the latter half of September. The object of this trip 
was to obtain a field knowledge of the detailed geology and to collect 
carefully selected sets of fossils illustrating the numerous formations 
of this region. This work was successful and the many large collec- 
tions of Devonian fossils in the museum hitherto lacking exact strati- 
graphic data can now he determined and arranged in the detail neces- 
sarv to-dav. 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 25 

In April, Mr. C. W. Gilmore. the Associate Curator of Vertebrate 
Paleontology was authorized to undertake a trip into New Mexico, 
" for the purpose of making collections of geological material for 
the National ^luseum and determining the advisability of preserving 
certain lands in northern New Mexico for national monumental pur- 
poses." Mr. Gilmore was obliged to report that : 

Since the many square miles of " bad lands " surrounding the reserved area 
are equally fossiliferous and in places present much more favorable territory 
for the recovery of fossil remains than any observed within the boundaries 
of the monument, and also since the greater part of these surrounding areas 
lie within Pueblo Grants over which federal control has been relinquished, 
there would be no advantage in retaining governmental control of so small a 
part of the area as is represented in the proposed monument. 

]\Ir. Gilmore did, however, find a contiguous fossiliferous area in 
the Santa Clara Pueblo Grant and secured for the museum a well- 
preserved skull and other bones of a small rhinoceros, and in an ad- 
joining Pojoaque Pueblo area remains of an extinct camel. The 
most promising area for collecting would appear to lie within land 
grants over which the government has at present no control. 

In January, this same year, Mr. J. W. Gidley, Assistant Curator 
in this Division, was authorized in cooperation with the United States 
Geological Survey to conduct field explorations in the San Pedro and 
Sulphur Springs Valleys of southern Arizona and on the completion 
of this work to visit the La Brea asphalt deposits of southern Cali- 
fornia and from there go to Agate, in Nebraska, for the purpose 
of securing other exhibition material. The work in Arizona was 
eminently successful, Mr. Gidley shipping some 24 boxes having 
an aggregate weight of 5,000 pounds. The bulk of this collection, he 
reports represents " a practically new Pliocene fauna containing about 
60 vertebrate species, most of which are mammalian." 

In detail Mr. Gidley reports essentially as follows : 

" The geological structure of the San Pedro A^alley will be published 
in detail by Doctor Bryan of the United States Geological Survey. 
It. however, may be noted here that this beautiful desert valley, now 
drained by the Rio San Pedro (which, rising near the Mexican border, 
runs nearly north-northwest, emptying into the Gila River, more than 
a hundred miles away), narrows and deepens as it runs northward 
from Benson leaving relatively small and scattered areas of sedi- 
mentary deposits which may contain fossil vertebrate remains. Most 
of our work, therefore, was confined to the upper valley, which forms 
a rather wide basin bounded on the east by the Dragoon mountains, 
on the west by the Whetstone Range, and on the south by the Tomb- 



26 



SMITHSONIAN' MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



stone mountains, and extends northward a few miles below the town 
of Benson. 

" Erosional exposures in this general region are quite extensive, but 
time and funds being limited the work done on this expedition was 
confined entirely to two promising localities of relatively small area, 
previously located by Doctor Bryan. One of these is situated on 
the west side of the vallev. about two or three miles due south of 




Fin. 27. — General view of fossil bearing exposure at Lurti> Ranch locality, 
looking across the San Pedro \'alley. Partly excavated bones of Glyptodon 
in foreground. ( Photograph by Gidlc}-. ) 

Uenson, the other on the east side, at the head of a large ' wash ' 
three miles east of the Curtis ranch which is situated on the state 
road about 14 miles south-southeast of Benson and an equal distance 
northwest of Tombstone. The latter locality occupied the greater 
part of my time and yielded by far the greater amount of material, 
although the number of species later collected in the Benson locality, 
slightly exceeded those fotmd here. 

"Among the larger, and, from the museum standpoint, more im- 
]-)ortant specimens secured at this locality are included parts of two 
skeletons of a new sjiecies of mastodon, and ])arts of three skeletons 
of a large armored edentate, Glyptotlicriniu. which when restored 
should make a striking exhibition j^ece. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



27 



" Other material obtained here consists of remains representing a 
wide variety of species which include a large and a smaller species 
of camel, the latter apparently closely related to the South American 
guanaco; two or three species of horses, a species of deer; a small 
extinct antelope of the Mcrycodus type ; a carnivore related to the 
dog-wolf group but more primitive in some respects than any of the 
living forms ; several new species of the rodent group, but all belong- 



i 



■:-.?2>tS>?»fc4."j^x*£r'.-:«.- 



■^ f -^v"^- "^*f 




I 




Fig. 28. — Portion of the carapace or hony skin covering of a (ilyptodon, parti- 
ally excavated. Curtis Ranch locality. (Photograph by Gidley.) 



ing to modern genera ; two species of land turtles, and a species of 
bird not yet determined. 

" At the close of this work, which had nearly exhausted the original 
allotment for field expenses, an additional suiu was granted, whereby 
it was possible to proceed with a desired investigation planned for 
earlier, in the Sul[)liur Springs \ alley near W'illcox. 

" I arrived at Willcox on the 15th of March. As found on a previous 
visit the conditions were not such as would inspire enthusiasm over 
the prospects of a good collecting-field. The surrounding country 
stretched away for miles in every direction almost as level as a floor, 
with no erosional exposures ; and had not recent fossil remains already 



28 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 



/^ 



Ijeen discovered through the digging of a shallow well in the vicinity 
no one would have suspected their presence here. Several years 
earlier fossil hones had also been found at nearly the same depth 
(about 9 feet) in another well, now filled in, which had been dug 
at a distance of about 250 feet from the present open one. It was 
thus assumed that the fossil-bearing gravel deposit was of rather wide 
extent, and that by making a long stripping with plow and scrapers, a 
considerable area of " pay gravel " might be uncovered and worked 
at comparatively small expense. The spot chosen as being most 
promising was naturally that between the two wells. 

" At Willcox, the services were procured of a reliable man with 
teams, plow and scrapers and this work was put into execution. 
Thanks are here due Mr. Harris, a local real estate agent, who lent 
valuable aid in this connection. I was also indebted to this gentleman 
for permission to put through the project, for the locality worked 
was on deeded land which he had in charge. 

" As the stripping progressed, it became evident that the strata, or 
layers, of deposits passed through did not conform to the section 
exposed in the abandoned well. Hence, on reaching the 7-foot level 
three prospect holes, about 15 feet apart, were put down to a depth 
of about 6 feet, or 4 feet lower than the top of the gravel deposit in 
the well. In none of these holes was there any sand or gravel en- 
countered thus proving that the gravel exposed in the well was part 
of an ancient stream channel of limited lateral extent. This discovery 
of course caused a complete abandonment of the trench excavation 
work, and the remainder of our time was spent in ' mining ' the 
gravel from the sides of the well as far as was considered safe to do 
so. In this way several good fossil horse teeth were procured. 

" From Willcox. I went by way of Tucson to Feldman, arriving there 
about noon of the 29th of March, where I was joined by Dr. Bryan. 
Feldman is a ranch and post office in the lower valley of the San 
Pedro, about 90 miles north-northwest of Benson and about 10 miles 
above the junction of the San Pedro with the Gila. The valley here 
is very much narrowed and deepened, the river bed being nearly 
2,000 feet lower than at the Curtis ranch. The gradient of the 
streams and ' w^ashes ' emptying into the San Pedro in this vicinity 
is very steep and benches and divides rise quite abruptly on either 
side. Erosional exposures one might expect to find here under 
these conditions are very much reduced by a heavy covering of gravel 
of relatively recent age. But paleontological evidence for confirming 
the age of this part of the valley was so much desired, a special effort 



NO. I S 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



29 




Fig. 29. — Base of skull of mastodon with tusks in position, partially excavated. 
Curtis Ranch locality. ( Photo,?rap]i hy Gidley. ) 




In,. .•;u. — Searcliiiig lor small nuuiiiiial jaws m excavation made in collect- 
ing one of the mastodon skeletons. Curtis Ranch locality. (Photograph 
by Gidley.) 



30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 'J 2 

to procure it was considered worth while. However, the few days 
spent here met with little success, and owing to the great inconvenience 
of continuing it further without more complete field equipment, the 
project was abandoned. On the morning of April 2, we left Feldman, 
returning to Benson via Tucson, and the next morning began a 
systematic search for fossils at a locality about two to three miles 
south of the town. During our earlier stay at the Curtis ranch we had 
made one short visit to this locality, the material obtained then sug- 
gesting a slight difference in age, or phase, between these deposits 
and those of the Curtis locality. The material obtained at this place 
is fragmentary and abounds mostly in remains of mammals of small 
size, intermixed with which were bones of birds of several species 
sufficiently well preserved for their determination, and a new species 
of box turtle. Here remains of thirty-four species of vertebrates were 
recovered. This collection, together with the material obtained at 
the Curtis ranch locality, in which 26 species are represented, makes 
up a very considerable fauna which should not only do much toward 
definitely determining the age of the beds of the San Pedro Valley, 
but will also throw valuable added light on the at present very little- 
known animal life of the upper Pliocene of America." 

From Arizona, Mr. Gidley proceeded to Los Angeles, California, 
where he passed a week studying the museum of the southern branch 
of the University of California and in examining the well-known 
asphalt bone deposits of the Rancho la Brea. From Los Angeles, he 
proceeded on the i6th of April to Agate, Nebraska, prepared to carry 
out a second detail of field-work mentioned above. He was unfortu- 
nate here in encountering bad weather, but succeeded in securing for 
the museum a block of the bone-bearing sandstone some 3^ by 5^ feet 
and 14 inches in thickness. This was shipped to the museum and 
preparation for exhibition is now under way. 

ASTROPHYSICAL FIELD-WORK IN ARIZONA AND IN CHILE 

As stated in last year's Exploration pamphlet,' the solar radiation 
work of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory was removed 
from Mount Wilson, California, to Mount Harqua Hala, Arizona, in 
September, 1920, in order to observe under better sky conditions, 
and in a more favorable place for continuing the observing the whole 
year round. Under the charge of Dr. C. G. Abbot the work was 



Smithsonian Misc. Coll., \'ol. ^2, No. 6. 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 3I 

established and continued at Mount Harqua Hala until January 20, 
1921, when it was taken in charge by Mr. L. B. Aldrich. He remained 
until May 20, 1921, when he was relieved by Mr. A. F. Moore, 
formerly director of the Smithsonian private observing station at 
Calama and Montezuma, Chile. Under Mr. Moore's charge, the 
work has been continued steadily at Mount Harcjua Hala, with the 
assistance of Mr. F. A. Greeley. 

The Smithsonian Institution maintains from the income of the 
Hodgkins fund a similar station at Mount Montezuma, near Calama, 
Chile, under the direction of Mr. L. H. Abbot assisted by Mr. P. E. 
Greeley. From this Chilean station daily telegrams are forwarded 
to Buenos Aires, Argentina, giving the observed value of the solar 
constant of radiation for the day. These data are employed regularly 
by the Argentine Weather Bureau for weather-forecasting purposes. 

While the Smithsonian Institution is not yet in position to champion 
the use of statistics of solar variation for meteorological forecasts, the 
great interest which its studies of solar variability have aroused here 
and abroad seems clearly to warrant the continued maintenance of 
the Arizona and Chile solar stations under the best possible observ- 
ing conditions for several years, until a satisfactory basis for a test 
of the solar variability as a weather-forecasting element has been laid. 

The present year has unluckily proved unfortunate at both stations. 
At Mount Harqua Hala the spring months were very hazy, the 
summer and autumn months unusually cloudy, with almost unpre- 
cedentedly heavy rainfall. At Montezuma the cloudiness of the 
earlier months was quite unprecedented. During August and Sep- 
tember a disarrangement of the apparatus caused apparently by earth- 
quake, combined with illness of the director, led to the loss of many 
observing days. 

In October, Dr. Abbot began an inspection trip to Montezuma, 
arriving at the station on November 15, and remaining until December 
14. During this interval of 30 days, the observers fortunately were 
able to determine the solar radiation on 26 days, and generally with 
three or four closely agreeing determinations per day. All of the 
apparatus was readjusted and improved to the most perfect state of 
fitness. Many of the results in these conditions proved of a higher 
grade than ever before observed. In fact it would be hard to con- 
ceive of anything which could add now to the excellence of the 
Montezuma station and outfit. 

The accompanying illustrations show the desolate, rainless char- 
acter of the region ; figure 31 shows the mountain top with the observ- 



32 



SMITHSONfAX MISCELLANEOL'S COLLF.CTIOXS VOL. Jl 



t-t- 




fex 







■>«ii^ 







Fig. 31. — Summit of Mount Montezuma. Observing cave near tlie top 




Fig. 32. — Garage, Shop and Dwelliiii;, Mount Montezuma. 



so. I 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



33 



ing cave ; figure 32, the group of buildings comprising the observer's 
quarters, the shop and the garage ; and figure 33 the entrance to the 
observing cave with such observing apparatus as is employed outside 
during observations of the solar constant. 

It is possible to drive the automobile on high gear clear to the 
observer's quarters which are situated at the head of a canon sheltered 
on the west by a rise of several hundred feet from the strong west 
winds of afternoon. There is almost invariably jiractically complete 



9~* 




^^f 



^r 



'■ i -^■■ 



^- 



Fig. .33. — Pyranometer, coelostat, p3'rheliometers and theodolite with L. H. 
Abbot, Director at Mount Montezuma. 

absence of wind for several hours after sunrise, a thing highly favor- 
able to morning work. 

The observing cave near the top of the mountain is less than 
10 minutes walk from the observer's quarters. It is only necessary to 
go up twice a day, once to observe, and again at 8.30 P. AI. to signal 
the observed value to Calama, whence it is telegraphed to Buenos 
Aires. > 



BOTANICAL EXPEDITION TO THE ORIENT 

During the summer and fall, 1921, Dr. A. S. Hitchcock, system- 
atic agrostologist of the Department of Agriculture and custodian of 
the section of grasses of the Division of Plants in the U. S. National 



34 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 72 



Museum, visited the Orient for the purpose of collecting and studying 
the grasses, especially the bamboos. He left Washington April 25 
and returned December 23, visiting the Philippines, Japan, China, 
and Indo China. Six days were spent at Honolulu on the way over. 
Collections were made at the following places : Philippines, Manila, 
Los Banos, Baguio ; Japan, Keelung (Formosa), Yokohama, Tokio, 
Nikko, Lake Hakone, Mount Fuji, Kyoto, Nagasaki ; China, Shang- 




FiG. 34. — A peasant's luit nrar ddtfinlia, Japan. I'hv roots of the bnilding are 
thatched with coarse grass. The bundles are for firewood. 



hai, Nanking, Kuling, Flongkong, Canton, Wampoa, Yingtak, Shiu- 
chow, Lohfau Mountain, IVIacao, Island of Hainan, Pakhoi ; hido- 
China, Haiphong, Hanoi, Vinh, Hue, Tourane. 

The countries were visited in the order named so that collections 
might be made at the most favorable season for grasses. 

Collecting in the vicinity of Manila is not very satisfactory as 
the native flora has been largely replaced by introduced species. From 
Los Baiios, the seat of the Agricultural College, a trip was made to 
the summit of Mount Makeling about 3.500 feet high. This moun- 
tain is of especial interest to botanists as it is the most accessible 
region for the virgin forest, most of which has disappeared from the 
vicinity of Manila. On this moimtain was met one of the worst pests 
of the eastern tropics, the leeches. At upper altitudes in the rain 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



35 



forest these vile worms are found in countless numbers. They attach 
themselves to the skin and suck the blood with great avidity and con- 
stant vigilance is necessary to prevent serious damage. 

Japan is not very favorable for the collecting of grasses as it is 
mostly a forested region and there is comparatively little open country. 
The bamboos were of interest as there are many species. In the 
Lake Hakone region the hills were covered for miles with a single 




Fig. 35. — Hills near Lake Hakone, Japan. The vegetation on the distant 
slopes is almost exclusively a single species of hamboo (Anmdiiiaria cluiio), 
4 to 8 feet high. 



species of bamboo {Anindiuavia cJiino), 4 to 8 feet high, often to the 
exclusion of everything else. 

China on the other hand was very rich in grasses. One of the 
surprises of the trip was to find so much open grass land in a country 
that is said to be very thickly populated. The cities of China are 
very much crowded and the valley lands are intensively cultivated, 
but the hills are unoccupied and almost unused. This is in striking 
contrast to our own western regions where, except in National Forests 
and other protected areas, the grass lands are extensively grazed. 
The basic reason for this condition in China appears to be the risk 
from bandits. The valley lands can be protected but the hills are 
open to the attack of robbers. 



36 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



China was entered at Shant^hai, a large comparatively modern city, 
much under the influence of foreigners. Here is the only American 
post office outside of the United States or its possessions. Mail can 
be sent from here under frank or with United States postage stamps. 
The two other places visited in central China were Nanking and 
Kuling. At the former city is the University of Nanking, a flourish- 
ing missionary institution, which extended many courtesies to Doctor 




¥u;. 36. — A street scene in Shangliai. 



Hitchcock. Nanking is a thoroughly Chinese citv showing little 
foreign influence. Like most Chinese cities it is surrounded ]\v a 
high wall, this one being 32 miles in length and 30 to 50 feet high. 
Kuling is a resort on a mountain south of the treaty port Kiu Kiang, 
where the missionaries and other foreigners of central China con- 
gregate during the summer. 

During the visit of Doctor Hitchcock the Yangtse River was in 
flood and the rice fields of the valley were covered with water. The 
unfortunate peasants were in the water up to their w^aists or even 
to their shoulders cutting the rice and placing it in small circular 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



37 




Fig. 2)T- — -^ typical valley at Aanking, Lliina, showing intensive cultivation. 
There is a fish pond in the left foreground. The hills on each side of the 
valley are covered with grass, much of which will he cut and used for fuel. 




Fig. 38. — A ricksha party ju.-i ...... \ ...-.:;.,-, i.. l::;- j.,_ii one uf the main yat(. 

of Nanking China. The city wall is about 50 feet high. 



38 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 




Fig. 39. — The Yangtse Valley above Nanking in flood. View from a ruer 

steamer. 







Fig. 40. — Slender pieces of split banilioo drjing in the sun. From these joss 
sticks are to be made. 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 39 

boats. The bundles were supported on the ends of crossed poles on 
the dikes to hold them out of the water to dr\-. 




Fig. 41. — A chimp of bamboo, Canttjii. i ;,ii:a. .\ l. .11111,.,;, ..rnamental plant. 

The gateway to south China is Hongkong, a very mountainous 
island owned by the British, the peak being i,8oo feet high. There is 
here a botanic garden and a herbarium. Canton lies up the river 
west of Hongkong al>out 80 miles. Opposite Canton on the island of 
Honam is the Canton Christian College, where Doctor Hitchcock 



40 



SMITHSOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIOXS 



VOL. 



made his headquarters. ILxcursions were made to Yingtak and 
Shiuchow on the North River north of Canton, to Lohfau Moun- 
tain east of Canton and north of Shekkuig, to Wampoa lo miles east 
of Canton, where the Wilkes Expedition made collections, and to 
Macao, a Portuguese possession 40 miles from Hongkong and the 
oldest foreign settlement in this region. 

A more extended trip was made in compan}- with Mr. ]\IcClure 
of the Canton Christian College, to Indo-China and the Island of 




Fk;. 42. — ^A street scene in Yingtak, on the North River, about 80 miles north of 
Canton. The bundles of stalks are to lie used for firewood. 



Hainan. Going from Hongkong to Haiphong, a stop was made at 
Pakhoi on the southern coast of Kwantung Province. Here forty- 
six species of grasses were obtained in a few hours on the sandy 
areas and rocky hills. Haiphong is the ])ort of Tongking. Indo- 
China is a French Colony (officially I^'rench Indo-China), consisting 
of five divisions, Tongking, Annam, Cambodia, Cochin-China, and 
Laos. The objective in Indo-China was Hue. the capital of Annam. 
Loureiro, a Portuguese botanist, resided here and pul)lished in 1790 a 
flora of Cochin-China and it was to determine the identity of many of 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, l()2I 



41 



his grasses that this interesting city was visited. To reach Hue one 
goes by rail to Hanoi and then south to Vinh, the present terminus of 
the railroad that is to be Ixiilt to Hue and ultimately to Saigon. 
Bevond Vinh one goes by auto-ljus over good roads about 175 miles. 
x\ trip was made to Tourane on the coast, connected with Hue by 
railroad. 

On the return trip from Haiphong to Honkkong, a stop was made 
in Hainan, landing at Hoihow on the north coast. Hainan is a 
seldom-visited island about 180 miles long, belonging to China. 



SsStSC 





Fig. 43. — A wayside shrine at Yingtak. China. These shrines are common but, 
like the present one. often sutifer from neglect. 



Through the kindness of Doctor McCandliss, a missionary in charge 
of a hospital at Hoihow, we were able to penetrate to the interior of 
the island as far as Kachek where there is a branch missionary station. 
The journey was made by boat on the river the first day and on foot 
the second and third days. From Kachek a trip was made up the 
river into the foothills of the Five-finger Mountains. Traveling in 
Hainan as in nianv other parts of China is chiefly l)y chair carried 
bv two coolies. 

Traveling in China is mostly by rather primitive methods. ^Modern 
steamers ply along the coast and on the larger rivers and there are a 
few railroads. The sami^an. a small partly covered boat propelled by 



42 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. J 



/- 



oars, is common in the harbors. In the cities where the roads are 
wide enough the ricksha (jinrikisha) is used. This is a two-wheeled 
cart, mostly now with pneumatic tires, drawn by a coolie, and holding 




Fk;. 44. — A sampan at Shiuchow. Tliis is the common type of small boat 
used on the rivers of south China. The bamboo pole is used to push the boat 
in shallow water. Oars are used in deeper water. 



one person. In the narrow streets of the cities where there is not 
room for rickshas, and on the country trails or paths, chairs are 
commonly used. These are covered seats supported by two poles 
and carried bv two coolies. Long journeys in them are far from com- 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 43 

fortable. In the part of China visited animals are httle used for 
transportation of any kind. Freight is carried on land by man- 
power, one man with a pole supporting two weights, two men with 




Fig. 45. — .V siitLiiiicii oi ilie traveler's tree, growing in the botanical garden 
at Hue, the capital of Annam, French Indo-China. The plant is a native of 
Madagascar. 

a pole supporting one weight, heavy loads on rude wheelbarrows, in 
the cities heavy loads, as much as a ton, on carts pulled and pushed by 
several men. 

One of the curious sights to one visiting China for the first time 
is the enormous number of graves distributed at random over the 



44 SMITHSONIAN' MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 'J 2 

country. Thousands of little mounds are to be seen on every hand, 
some hemispherical and grass-covered, some more elaborate, with 
stones or masonry. 

The agriculture of China is intensive and in some ways much in 
advance of ours. The rice fields show usually a perfect even stand, 
and the amount per acre is the maximum. It represents a large amount 
of labor as every stalk is set out and harvested by hand. 

The botanical results of the trip were very satisfact(jry. a large and 
valuable collection of grasses having been made. 

BIOLOGICAL EXPLORATION IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

In November, 1920, Dr. W. L. Abbott revisited the Dominican 
Republic, working in both the Samana Peninsula and the region lying 
between Sanchez (at the head of Samana Bay) and Puerto Plata, 
on the north coast. Already familiar with much of this territory, he 
was able to investigate a number of new and very interesting localities. 
Two weeks was spent at Sanchez ; three weeks in the vicinity of 
Samana. a town on the south coast of the Samana Peninsula about 
20 miles east of Sanchez, and on the mountain known as Pilon 
d'Azucar ; seven weeks at several stations along the railroad connect- 
ing Sanchez and Puerto Plata, among which were Villa Riva, Pi- 
mentel, Cotuy, Mao, and Navarrete ; two weeks in the easternmost 
portion of the peninsula, in visiting Las Cacaos, Rojo Cabo, and Cape 
Samana ; one week on the south coast of Samana Bay in the vicinit}' 
of San Gabriel ; and one week in the region of Old Heart River, in 
the north-central part of the peninsula. 

Contrasting with the remaining part of Plispaniola, the population 
of the Samana Peninsula is chiefly English-speaking, due to the fact 
that Samana was settled by a colony of Philadelphia negroes under 
President Boyer of Haiti in 1820-22. The region is well watered 
and has a luxuriant vegetation, and provisions are plentiful and rela- 
tively cheap. The hills extending north to the coast from Pilon 
d'Azucar are covered with unbroken forests. 

The Yuna River forms a vast swamji, which occupies the entire 
region at the head of Samana Bay and extends along the railroad 
for a distance of 12 miles. West of this swamp region, in the vicinity 
of Villa Riva, Pimentel, and Cotuy, are vast stretches of grassy 
savannah. The soil is fertile, and the inhabitants are industrious and 
prosperous. Beyond this region the land, except along the streams, 
becomes arid and the towns, such as Guaybin, Navarrete, and Mao, 
are small, poorly provisioned, and lacking in enterprise. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



45 




Fig. 46. — View down Rio Alao from schist outcrop near Bulla ; cliffs of con- 
glomerate in the distance. 




Fig. 47. — View along the Rio Mao. near Cercado de Mao. 



46 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 

Numerous caves provide an interesting feature on the south coast 
of Samana Bay, one of them comprising nearly the whole interior of 
San Gabriel Isle. A cave at the mouth of Naranjita River contained 
a quantity of Indian bones and pottery. 

A collection of about 4,000 plants was procured, representing 1,460 
numbers. Of these about 20 per cent are ferns, one being an interest- 
ing new species of AncDiia. 

The birds obtained by Doctor Abbott on this visit totaled thirty-one 
skins, with a few skeletons and eggs, chiefly representing species not 
previously collected by him. Of particular interest is a whip-poor-will 




Fig. 48. — Harbor of Puerto Plata, looking north from Monte Isabel de Torres. 

(Antrostoinits) , closely related to a species found in Cuba, but not 
hitherto recorded from Santo Domingo. On the natural grassy plains 
on the north side of the island he secured several specimens each of 
the local form of the grasshopper sparrow (Aumiodramus savannarum 
intricatHs), and of the stone-plover or thick-knee (Oedicncmus 
dominiccnsis) , both new to the museum collections. The thick-knee 
belongs to a family of birds resembling overgrown plovers, and is 
related to theuL It occurs in the West Indies only in Santo Domingo, 
but allied forms are found in suitable localities in Central and South 
America. The family is chiefly an Old World one, and for the most 
part tropical in distribution. The Santo Domingo species is well- 
known to the natives, under the name " boukera," and tame individuals 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 47 

are often kept about the houses for the purpose of ridding the 
premises of insects and spiders. 

In addition many land shells and a considerable quantity of 
ethnological material were secured. Doctor Abbott left New York 
about the middle of December, 1921, on another expedition to the 
island, but thus far no information or material has been received 
from him. 

EXPERIMENTS IN HEREDITY 

Progress in the experiments in heredity conducted under the joint 
auspices of the Smithsonian and Carnegie Institutions by the writer. 
Dr. Paul Bartsch of the U. S. National ]Museum, have from time to 
time been published in this pamphlet and in the Year Book of the 
Carnegie Institution. A summary of the results attained up to 1920 
was published as " Experiments in the Breeding of Cerions " in 1920, 
volume 14 of the Department of Marine Biology of the Carnegie 
Institution, pp. 3-55, pis. 1-59. 

The reported loss of the Cerion colonies introduced into the 
Tortugas which were said to have been wiped out by the hurricane of 
September, 1919, made it necessary to revisit the Bahamas to secure 
additional breeding material for the heredity experiments. Accord- 
ingly, passage was secured at Miami on the power schooner '' Tecoma " 
for Nassau, New Providence, on May 18, and there the services of the 
power boat " Standard J " were secured for a trip to Andros. 

The desired adolescent specimens of Cerion viarcgis were obtained 
along King's Road, Bastian Point. South Bight, Andros, with con- 
siderable difficulty because the agricultural efforts on the part of the 
local population have shifted to the ground that was occupied by the 
Cerion colonies during our 1912 visit. 

The colony of Cerion easablancae has met with even greater mis- 
fortune, for sheep and pigs have been introduced into the region 
occupied Ijy this species, and the larger vegetation has been cut down 
in order to furnish more opportune habitat for grass culture. These 
new environmental conditions promise well to exterminate this colony. 
The necessary material for the experiments was secured with great 
difficulty. 

A trip was next made through South Bight to the western end of 
Andros and then back to the eastern shore through INIiddle Bight. On 
this journey many stops were made and Cerions were gathered in 
large numbers. The localities from which they were taken were care- 
fully listed so that it will be possible to go back to the same spot in 



48 SMITIISONTAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 



/^ 



the future and gather material for comparison with that now resting 
in the National Museum. 

There were several points of interest as far as the physical features 
of the locality visited were concerned. In 1912 the waters of the 
western end of South Bight were of a creamy consistency and the 
land areas adjacent low flats, mud cracked, with flakes of oolitic 
rock. On the present visit South Bight was found to be a perfectly 
clear stretch of water with well-packed bottom with an abundant 
growth of aquatic plants, while the land adjacent gave the impres- 
sion of moss covered flats. The green element, however, was due to 
blue-green algae, which appear to serve as a binding factor. 

The trip was enlivened by an iguana hunt, which resulted in the 
securing of several of these large lizards which are now in the collec- 
tion of our Zoological Park. 

Returning to Nassau, five days were spent exploring the cays oft' 
the northwestern shore of New Providence and the adjacent main- 
land. Here large collections of Cerions were made, the location of 
each colony being carefully noted, so that these likewise may serve 
as a check series for comparison with future generations produced in 
place. 

On June 3 Dr. Bartsch returned to Miami and on the following day 
set sail for the Tortugas, stopping to examine the various plantings 
along the Florida keys. 

It was a pleasure to find that the hybrid colony on Newfound 
Harbor Key, around which the greatest interest centers just now, had 
escaped being wiped out by the hurricane. Evidently the rain preced- 
ing the hurricane had caused the Cerions to take to the ground, as 
they are wont to do for foraging purposes under such circumstances, 
and the dense mats of grass here had kept them from being swept 
away by the floods that had passed over them, a most fortunate state 
of affairs. A large number of dead specimens were nevertheless 
found, which have been placed in the National Museum for record. 

Incidentally, it may be stated that another almost fledged young 
great white heron was discovered on White Heron Key, the island that 
furnished the specimen that was shipped to the Zoological Park two 
years ago. The present specimen, which is probably a younger brother 
or sister of the former sending, was also transmitted by parcel post 
to the Zoo, where it arrived in good condition. 

In " Experiments in the I^>reeding of Cerions," there are given on 
page 46 detailed measurements of 100 specimens representing the 
check series of Ccrion crassilabris from Balena Point, near (uianico 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 49 

Bay, Porto Rico, which were planted on Loggerhead Key in 1915. 
These were figured on plates 48 to 50. On page 47 measurements 
were given and on plate 51 figures of 36 adult shells of the first Florida 
grown generation which were gathered in January, 19 19. This year a 
much larger series of first generation material was found, and 200 of 
such specimens were measured. 

The summaries of these measurements show that no appreciable 
changes in measurements have taken place in the first generation of 
Florida grown Ccrion crassilabris. The measurements in size all fall 
within the limits of variation, as denoted in the check series, excepting 
one, i. c, a single specimen which was found among the 200 of the first 
Florida grown generation that had a diameter 0.2 mm. less than any 
in the check series. There is no doubt that one could find an indi- 
vidual giving such a measurement among the specimens on the native 
heath of this species, for the check series was not a selected one, but a 
hundred specimens taken at random. 

COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS OF FIRST FLORIDA CROWN CERION 
CRASSILABRIS WITH THE CHECK SERIES 

No. whori 

Average -fg^^^^^ s<^"^%. 9-55 

l^birst generation 9.13 

Greatest diameter \^^}'^f ^^ries 10.5 

l^rirst generation 10.4 

Least diameter (2'^'^'' '^"^l- I'^r 

l^hirst generation 0.0 

It is interesting, therefore, to note that so far as the first genera- 
tion of this Porto Rican Cerion is concerned, it is in complete agree- 
ment with the facts adduced from the two Bahaman species. 

The hurricane of 191 9 destroyed the cages in which had been placed 
a specimen of each of two species, in order to determine their ability 
to hybridize, and to note the results of such crosses as might be 
observed from such selected individuals. 

A new set of cages was therefore prepared. Eleven groups of 
these cages consist of four compartments, each a cubic yard in size. 
The septa between compartments are double wire walls to prevent 
possible mating through the meshes of the fine Monel metal wire 
screen. In each of these cages there were placed a Plymenocallis 
plant, some grass and dead wood rubbish, in other words, habitat 
conditions which were found to be favored by Cerions at the Tortugas. 
Then two half-grown specimens, one of Cerion viarcgis and one of 
Cerion incannm from Key West, were placed in each of the forty-four 





Greatest 


Utitiuie 


diameter 


22.13 


12.41 


22.36 


11.89 


27-5 


13-9 


257 


13.2 


19.0 


10.6 


19.6 


10.4 



50 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 'J2 



compartments. I'hese cages are securely anchored, and every pre- 
caution has heen taken to make sure that the moUusks will be confined 
within them, and that no extraneous individuals can find entrance. 
The cages are arranged as shown in the following diagram, and a 
better idea of them may be formed from the photograph (fig. 50). 







20 








/9 






/8 






/7 




/J 


/¥ 


IS- 


/6 




fZ 






// 






10 






9 




JT 


(, 


7 


B> 




^ 






5 






Z 








/ 









¥/ 


^/ 


4^5 // 




^0 






59 






3^^ 






5? 




32> 


3;^ 


3. 


5- 36 




3Z 






3/ 






30 






Z9 




Z5 


zc> 


Z 


7\Z? 




Z¥- 






Z3 






zz 








Z 


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ss 


SG 




5¥ 






5-3 




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SZ 




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¥9 




^^ 


VS' 




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Fig. 49. — Diagram showing arrangement of cages. 



Cages No. 45 and No. 46 are of the same size as those last men- 
tioned. In cage 45 were placed 183 young of Ccriun incanuui from 
Key West, in order to determine what percentage of these will reach 
maturity. In cage 46 was placed an abnormal specimen of Ccrion 
viaregis. This had a spiral keel, which may be the result of an injury, 
although Doctor Bartsch was unable to discover any sign of it. 
With it was also placed a normal specimen of Cerion viaregis in order 
to determine if this character might be transmitted to offspring. 

In addition to these, five groups of cages were made which have the 
same size as the four unit cages, but they have only one partition in 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



51 



the middle, thus making them 3 by 6 feet, and 3 feet high. In these 
there were placed the following combinations : 

No. 47, 25 each of Cerion incanuvi and Cerion viarcgis. 

No. 48, 25 each of Cerion incanum and Cerion casablaiicac. 

No. 49, 25 each of Cerion iiiccDitiiii and Cerioi irca. 

No. 50, 25 each of Cerion incanum and Cerion crassilahris. 




Fig. 50. — A portion of the monel metal wire cages used in Cerion breeding 

experiments. 



No. 51, 25 each of Cerion viaregis and Cerion uzv. 

No. 52, 25 each of Cerion z'iaregis and Cerion crassilahris. 

No. 53, 25 each of Cerion casablancae and Cerion nva. 

No. 54, 25 each of Cerion casablancae and Cerion crassdabris. 

No. 55, 25 each of Cerion nva and Cerion crassilahris. 

In cage 56 there were placed 203 young of various sizes of the huge 
new form collected in Middle Bight, Andros, which Doctor Bartsch 
has called Cerion may on. 

Two additional species were introduced this year on Loggerhead 
Key, one Cerion niayori, as above stated, and the second, Cerion 
incanum, as also stated above, but of this species a large colony was 



52 



SMITIISOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 72 



also placed about the water tower at the northern end of the island, 
in order to have additional material if it should he needed for hreeding 
purposes in the future. 

While at the Tortugas a careful bird census was made, as usual. 
By the use of a blind, a series of photographs of the beautiful roseate 
tern, nesting here abundantly, was secured. The accompanying illus- 
tration shows one of these birds together with an unhatched egg and 
a babe. 




Fig. 51. — Roseate tern, vdung. and egg. Lkisli Key. Tortugas, Fla. 



ENTOMOL(3GICAL EXPEDITION TO ALASKA 
In May, 192 1, Dr. J. M. Aldrich, Associate Curator of Insects, U. S 
National Museum, was detailed to collect insects in Alaska, especially 
in the interior. The museum had very little material from Alaska, 
except from the coast region. The government railroad, extending 
from the southern coast north to Fairbanks, was nearing completion, 
and otTered opportunity for travel not heretofore existing. It ap- 
peared also that the completion of the railroad would probably lead 
to an increase of population which would create greater interest in 
the insects of the region. 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 53 

Doctor Aldrich left Seattle May 30. The steamship made some 
stops for unloading freight, enabling him to collect one day at Skag- 
way and one day at Valdez. The coast region is fairly familiar to 
tourists, with its innumerable islands, steep shore-line, snow-capped 
mountains and numerous glaciers (figs. 52-56). Seward was reached 
on June 9. The government railroad begins at this point and close con- 
nections were made with a waiting train. The railroad passes over 
rugged mountains in the Kenai peninsula close to several large 
glaciers ; it then descends to sea-level at Turnagain Arm, keeping near 
the shore line to Anchorage. This was the first collecting point which 
might be considered to represent the fauna of the interior. Although 




Fig. 52. — Cannery near Juneau, Alaska. 

it is on tide-water it is behind the coast range and has the dry climate 
characteristic of the interior. The town is on a level glacial plain, 
several miles wide, covered with a light forest and having a thin soil 
upon c^uite recently deposited gravel. The forest is composed of 
spruce, aspen, birch, alder and willow. After several days collecting 
here the journey northward was resumed. Steel had been laid as far 
as Hurricane, 285 miles from Seward. On arriving here Doctor 
Aldrich was furnished a horse by the Alaskan Engineering Commis- 
sion and rode along the right-of-way for 85 miles across Broad Pass 
and down the Nenana River to Healy, which was at the time the 
terminus of the rails laid southward from Nenana on the Tanana 
River. Only casual collecting was done until Healy was reached, but 
here it was necessary to wait several days for baggage to be brought 
from Hurricane by wagon. This proved to be a very good collecting 



54 



SMITIISOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



/- 



point as it is at the mouth of the canyon on the edge of the Yukon 
Valley, thus comhining to some extent the motmtain and plain fauna. 
After five days here, Doctor y\ldrich v^ent north on the railroad to 
Nenana, collected there for only part of a day and continued the fol- 
lowing day on the narrow gauge line, recently acquired hy the govern- 
ment, to Fairl)anks, his destination. It had been intended to spend 




Fig. 53. — North side Lynn Canal near Skag 



Ala> 




liG. 54. — Glacier on Lynn Canal, Alaska. 



most of the collecting time in the vicinity of Fairbanks, but the trip 
had taken much longer than expected, so he stayed only a week at 
this point. 

The Tanana Valley at Fairbanks is typical of the Yukon Valley in 
general, as far as the species of insects are concerned. Although it 
is within about 100 miles of the Arctic Circle, it has a fairly hot 
summer on account of the extremely long period of sunshine in the 
day. Some farms are developed and the government experiment sta- 
tion has been demonstrating for many years that the usual garden 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 55 

vegetables of the northern states as well as some cereals can be grown. 
The aspect of the light forest is much like parts of northern Minnesota 
and the regions about Lake Superior generally : the insects collected 




Fig. 55. — Port Althorp, Alaska (merely a cannery). 




Fig. 56.— Looking north from Tannel Station, Alaska. Valley filled with glacuil 
gravel in part very recent. 

were mostly species occurring in the region named and eastward to the 
Adirondacks and New England. 

A return trip was made along the same route, with stops at Healy 
and at some of the construction camps on the unfinished part of the 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 




Fig. 57. — A good insect collecting ground on Ship Creek, near Anchorage, 

Alaska. 







-^ 

Ca 


. l,**^ 


oi 


j^MflHijj^E^t" ' ^ ^ 




B^^Bp3^T7Tl^^B| 




^M 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hf^^^SHJI^^HH 


lii 



Fig. 58.- — -Homesteader's cahin near Anchorage, Alaska. 



NO. 15 S>[ITITSOX[AN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



57 



♦aw'WWiflHil 







Fig. 59. — Outskirts of Anchorage. Log houses make up ahnost the whole 
town, and are the usual thing in Alaska. 




Fig. 60. — Outskirts of Anchorage, Alaska. Half-cleared land. 



58 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



road. The bad condition of the wagon road along the right-of-way 
south of Healy had reduced wagon travel to a very low stage. The 
only wagons using the road were those of the Alaskan Eno^ineerino- 




Fig. 6i. — Spruce forest on Chulitna River near Mount McKinlev. 




Fig. 62. — Hurricane, a construction camp on the government railroad J85 miles 
north from Seward. Alaska. 



Commission, carrying su])])lies to tlie cam])s. .As each wagon tiuMicd 
back on unloading, and only a few were in use at the time, considerable 
delay was encountered in getting baggage moved from Healy to 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 92 1 



59 



Hurricane. This delay could have been used to good advantage for 
collecting except for the fact that the weather became cloudy and 
windy and very unfavorable. Doctor Aldrich, after several days 
delay, went on to Anchorage and spent a few more days collecting 
there while awaiting his baggage. Here the weather was again favor- 
able so that the result was very good. Resuming his journey Doctor 
Aldrich went to Seward with the intention of spending at least ten 
days in getting a collection of the insects of the humid coast region. 
The weather, however, gradually became more rainy, greatly limiting 
the result and finally making it expedient to take the boat from Seward 
about a week after arrival. 




Fig. 63. — Middle fork of Clnilitna. a little south of Broad Pass, 
bridge of the .\laskan Engineerino; Commission. 



Corduroy 



The expedition resulted in the accession of about 10,000 specimens 
of Alaska insects, nearly all from the interior region. As far as they 
have been studied up to the present time they indicate three somewhat 
distinct fatmal regions in the territory covered. 

First, the maritime fauna consisting of the insects living upon the 
seashore and depending upon the ocean for necessary conditions of 
existence. Insects of this group extend down the coast, in many cases 
as far as the State of Washington and some even so far as San 
Francisco ; while it is presumed that they would also be found more 
or less in the Asiatic side of Bering Sea. 

The second element is that of the humid mountain region along the 
coast ; a considerable part of this faima extends to Puget Sound, 



6o 



SMITHSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 





Fig. 64. — Contractors' calMii> uu the line of the j>oveniiiKiii raihuad ncai 

Broad Pass, Alaska. 




Fig. 65.. — Looking northward down the Nenana, Alaska. Unfinished govern- 
ment railroad in foregronnd and down left side. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



61 



Mount Rainier, and in less degree, to other mountains of the Pacific 
northwest. The relation of this element to the Asiatic fauna is very 
little known. 

The third element of the Alaska fauna, as far as ohserved, is that 
of the dry interior and especially of the Yukon Valley, which has 
many elements in common with Northern Minnesota, Wisconsin and 
Michigan, Ontario, the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the 
White Mountains of New Hampshire. Many of the insects of this 
group also occur in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and no doubt 
further exploration will show that they occur in other mountains 
of the western United States. Those which represent a more northern 




Fig. 66. — Town of Healv in the lignite belt on the Nenana River, Alaska. 



range also reappear in Labrador collections, and presumably extend 
across North America although we have no collections from inter- 
mediate points. This element contains many species known from 
Finland and the Scandinavian Peninsula in Europe, pre-umably ex- 
tending in their distribution across Russia and Siberia. 

In most orders of insects Alaska has a comparatively large fauna. 
There are very numerous species of the two-winged flies, or Diptera ; 
and from Doctor Aldrich's long experience with this group he natur- 
ally paid especial attention to collecting in this order. Bumble bees 
and wasps are conspicuous insects everywhere on flowers ; and in the 
absence of darkness bumble bees were observed to work as late as 
10.30 at night in Fairbanks. Grasshoppers were strikingly scarce, 
only two species being found and in all but half a dozen specimens. 

5 



62 



SMITHSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



/^ 



Mosquitoes in the interior are exceedingly abundant, as is well known. 
Especial attention was given to them in collecting, and two species 
previously undescribed were among the material brought back. It 
appears, however, that the most troublesome species are the same ones 
which occur in somewhat less numbers in the Pacific northwest in 
occasional favorable localities. Horse flies are very numerous in the 
region at Fairbanks where they are commonly called moose flies since 
the moose is more common than the horse. 




Fig. 67. — Construction camp at Nenana Bridge, north of Healy, Alaska. 



The common house fly was not found at any point in Alaska. Con- 
tinuous attention was given to this matter, and collections were made 
at the garbage dumps in Anchorage and Seward ; while at Ketchican, 
the southernmost town in Alaska, grocery stores, restaurants and a 
cannery were carefully examined early in August without finding any 
of the flies. Other garbage-feeding flies were studied at every pos- 
sible point and one new species of blow-fly was collected. The absence 
of several scavenger flies which are common in the United States was 
noted. 

The exploration of Alaska, especially the interior, from an entomo- 
logical point of view is important in itself and also forms a link in the 
study of a much broader problem — that of the entire Holarctic fauna 
which extends almost continuously around the globe in the vicinity of 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



63 



the Arctic Circle. It is a matter of great scientific interest to determine 
how much of this northern fauna is the same in the new world as in 
the old, and also to determine how much of the faiuia further south, 




Fig. 68. — Fairbanks, Alaska, and adjacent country from top of a buildins 




Fig. 69. — Looking up the Cheva River eastward from Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 
farms cleared and cultivated on the slopes of the distant hill. 



as for instance in the United States, has been derived from this 
northern region. It is hoped that opportunity will arise to carry this 
exploration much farther not only in Alaska, where as yet merely a 
beginning has been made, but also in other northern regions as for 
instance Labrador, Greenland and Siberia. 



64 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. "J 2 

ARCHEOLOGICAL FIKLD-WORK ON THE MESA VERDE 
NATIONAL PARK 

During May and June, 1921. Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, Chief of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, continued his archeological work of 
former years on the Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, the brief 
season's field-work being financed with a small allotment from the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 

The site chosen for field operations was the Mummy Lake cluster 
of mounds, a typical prehistoric southwestern village situated 4] miles 
north of Spruce-tree Camp. One of the mounds in this village, 
excavated in 1916, is now known as Far View House. The surface 
contours of the remaining mounds dififer somewhat, indicating that the 
buildings hidden in them have different forms, but excavations are 
necessary to determine the use of these buildings. It has long been 
known that some of the prehistoric pueblos of our southwest had 
rooms called kivas for religious purposes, but only within the last 
year has it been recognized that there was sometimes added to these 
kivas a complex of rooms, also for ceremonial purposes. Several of 
these specialized religious structures have already been described, but 
there remain many other mysterious mounds beckoning the archeol- 
ogist for excavation and accurate identification. How many different 
types of buildings designed solely for ceremonials there are in our 
southwest, time will reveal. 

The word house {¥\, Hopi) is applied in prehistoric clift'-dwellers' 
nomenclature to a compact collection of inhabited rooms, secular and 
religious (fig. 70). A pueblo is such a communal dwelling; but a 
group of uninhabited rooms, each and all constructed for ceremonial 
p/Urposes, should bear another name. The discovery of Sun Temple 
introduced archeologists to a type of southwestern buildings not in- 
tended for habitations, but for a specific communal purpose supposed 
to be religious. Fire Temple, on the Mesa Verde, is also regarded as 
such a specialized building and is likewise believed to have had a 
religious use. Similarly, Cedar-tree Tower and Far \'iew Tower 
were not habitations but communal buildings with a religious function. 
The " Lower House " at Yucca House National Monument, the 
" Great Kiva " at Aztec, and similar great kivas situated in the Chaco 
Canyon and elsewhere on tributaries of the San Juan River morpho- 
logically belong to this type. All these may be called temples. There 
are many large buildings never inhabited but now in ruins scattered 
over the southwest, the use of which is doubtful. Among these are 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 




66 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



72 



the so-called fire houses or " houses " of the Hopi fire people and the 
twin mounds conspicuous on the mesa top above Sikyatki, which may 
on excavation be found to have been devoted solely to religious 
purposes. 




Fig. 71. — Far View Tower and Kiva, partially exca- 
vated. Mesa Verde National Park. (Photograph by 
Fewkes. ) 

This specialization in the San Juan Valley of buildings showing 
functional differentiation in structure is indicative of a high cultural 
development. It is instructive to find that it is confined to prehistoric 
stages of development and is most abundant in areas where sedentary 
inhabitants had disappeared before the advent of Europeans. 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 67 

The plan of the work of the Bureau on the Mesa Verde National 
Park in 1 92 1 was to investigate a conspicuous and centrally placed 
mound not far from Far View House. The indications are that this 
was an ancient necropolis of the Plummy Lake Village, combining 
subterranean rooms or kivas with a large cemetery situated on the 
southern side of a high tower. Unfortunately, this cemetery had been 
rifled several years ago by vandals ; but the many fragments of pottery 
found on the surface betray features important in cultural comparisons. 

Far View Tower was relatively an ancient building ; its architectural 
form is characteristic and its pottery decidedly archaic as compared 
with that of the golden epoch of geometric decoration from Cliff 
Palace or Spruce-tree House. We may never know in what century 
this tower was built, but its construction can be referred to an older 
epoch than the great cliff dwellings of the park, which were probably 
inhabited as late as 1360 A. D. The refuse heaps of cliff houses 
have so little depth that a stratification or superposition of pottery 
shards is too small to afford satisfactory evidence of long occupancy. 
In historic refuse heaps of pueblos now inhabited they are thicker and 
the stratification method has proved advantageous ; but nothing that 
was not already known has been added to our knowledge of the 
sequence of prehistoric pottery of cliff' houses by this method of study. 
No Mesa Verde refuse mound has yet shown any difference in the 
character of pottery found on its surface and at its base. The pottery 
fragments of mounds containing relics of earth lodges are as a rule 
cruder than others. The pottery from the cemetery or necropolis of 
Far View Tower is rudely decorated ware, while that from Far View 
House is finer, but not as well made as that from Spruce-tree House. 
It is probably older than the pottery from Far View House, but both 
are more ancient than the pottery from Spruce-tree House. 

Far View Tower (fig. 71 ), like Cedar-tree Tower, has one and pos- 
sibly more subterranean rooms or kivas on the south side, but the 
latter lacks the large cemetery. The use to which Far View Tower 
was put and the significance of the relation of the accompanying kivas 
to it were probably not very different from those at Cedar-tree 
Tower, discovered last year (1920). Evidently the complex was 
devoted to some archaic cult, like fire worship. 

In addition to the work above mentioned, Doctor Fewkes also 
excavated Painted Kiva House, a small prehistoric cliff' dwelling 
situated on the Mesa Verde a short distance north of Cedar-tree 
Tower, under the rim of the west side of Soda Canyon. This ruin 
was excavated and described by Baron Nordenskiold, who called it 
Ruin 9. It contains remains of two well-made kivas of the regular 



68 



SMITIISOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. '/2 



circular Mesa Verde type and of several granaries and living rooms. 
The approaches to it from the mesa rim are very precipitous and it 
was necessary to construct four ladders and otherv^ise improve the 
trail to enable visitors to see it. 

On the walls of one of its two kivas there survives a very good 
example of decorated plastering. As shown in the accompanying 
illustration (fig. yz) there is a dado or lower part of the kiva wall 
which is painted red, and on its upper edge there are arranged at 
intervals clusters of triangular symbols (three in number) around 
which extends a row of dots. The Hopi identify these triangles as 




Fig. 72. — Interior of kiva, showing mural decoration, niches, and pilaster. 
Painted Kiva House, Mesa Verde National Park. (Photograph by Fewkes.) 



symliols of butterflies. They are of common occurrence on the walls 
of several kivas and survive in certain secular rooms of the clifif 
dwellers. These triangles with surrounding dots occur constantly on 
the oldest cliff-dweller pottery, as shown in the accompanying figures. 
The ventilator shaft is represented in the painted kiva by a tortuous 
passage, extending under walls and opening some distance from the 
room. It is spacious enough to serve as an entrance into the cere- 
monial chamber. Although Baron Nordenskiold made extensive ex- 
cavations in Painted Kiva House and devoted several pages of his 
memoir to a description of it and the specimens he found there, many 
objects (fig. "/^^^ remained in rear chambers which were found in 
1921. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 192I 



69 




Fig. 73-— Snowshoe frame. Painted Kiva House, Mesa Verde National Park. 
Size: 141/' mches by 9^ inches. (Drawn by Mrs. Cieorge Mullett.) 




Fig. 74.— Rim basket. Painted Kiva House, Mesa Verde National Park. 
Size: 13% inches. (Drawn by Mrs. George Mullett.) 



70 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 72 



Among the instructive specimens collected in Painted Kiva House 
should be mentioned a rim basket (fig. 74) and a woven headstrap of 
yucca fiber. The unique object shown in figure 75 reminds one 




Fig. 75. — Unidentified object. Painted Kiva House, 
Mesa Verde National Park. Size : sH inches long. 
(Photograph by De Lancey Gill.) 

of Navaho " bugaboos," sometimes found farther down the San Juan 
but not yet recorded from Mesa Verde. In a rear room which gave 
every evidence of having been a granary or bin for storage there were 
found numerous ears of corn with kernels entire, beans, and squash 
seeds. The belief is widespread that cliff-dweller seed corn when 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I /T 

planted will germinate, but all experiments in that direction have 
failed. There is no hope that any greater success will reward experi- 
ments made with corn from this granary. In the centuries that have 
elapsed since the mesa was deserted, corn seed left behind has lost 
its vitality. 

The walls of a ruin called Mummy House, situated almost directly 
under Sun Temple, are among the most carefully constructed on the 
park. This ruin has one kiva which was cleaned out but not repaired. 
A mummy (now in the Mesa Verde Park Museum) was found in this 
ruin several years ago. Above it is Willow-tree House, practically 
inaccessible. Ladders were put in place connecting the trail up the 
canyon with Mummy House. A typical form of clifif house called 
Oak-tree House, before and after repair, is shown in figures 76 and -j-j. 

One of the important ruins on the ]\Iesa Verde, called Step House 
by Nordenskiold, is situated in a cave 5 miles west of Spruce-tree 
Camp, It presents to the archeologist one of the most instructive prob- 
lems on the Mesa, and should be put in shape for visitors. In the floor 
of this cave, which has been considerably dug over by Nordenskiold 
and others, there was material bearing on a most interesting chrono- 
logical problem, viz., the age of the cliff houses ; for the artifacts in 
this place represent two different epochs in the cultural history of the 
pure pueblo-cliff-dwelling type. Out of the floor of the cave there 
projects the edges of upright slabs of stone showing the existence of 
cists like those in Earth Lodge A. These suggest the slab-house cul- 
Lure ; but at the other end is a building in the highest form of hori- 
zontal masonry. The probability is that the former is the older con- 
struction or that it was built by the most ancient people of the park, 
who lived and were buried in that end of the cave, designated by 
Nordenskiold a cemetery. Here we have evidences, both architectural 
and ceramic, of former earth lodges or fragile walled buildings of the 
prepuebloan or archaic culture. The original dwelling built by 
people when they moved into Step House Cave was an earth lodge, 
and the dwelling with horizontal masonry and kivas, at the other 
end of the cavern, was a later development. The pottery of the 
former is more archaic than that of the latter. Figure 78 illustrates 
the most highly developed Mesa \>rde pottery. We have, in other 
words, indications of two distinct stages of development in Step 
House Cave — one the earth lodge and the other the pure pueblo or 
kiva style ; the former or earth construction situated at one end of the 
cave, the latter stage at the other. This evidence of two stages of 



/^ 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 




Pi 



Q 



O 



jz o 

;- re 



o 






o 



NO. 15 



SMITHSOXIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



73 




m 



1^ 



oJ ID 



O 



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74 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. ^2 

development in the same cave is derived from both ceramic and archi- 
tectural studies. The indications are that after the earth-lodge con- 
dition was outgrown the floor of the cave where the evidence occurs 
was used as a cemetery, and the survivors constructed their new 
homes at the other end of the cave in the form of cliff houses. 
Although no satisfactory scheme of the chronological secjuence of 
different types of ^^lesa Verde pottery has been worked out, it is 
most important to pay some attention to its bearing on the age of the 
above-mentioned buildings. 

The mortuary pottery (fig. 79) from the Far View Tower cemetery 
belongs to a primitive type quite unlike any yet recorded from Mesa 
Verde cliff dwellings. The most exceptional features are the numer- 
ous varieties of coiled, corrugated, undecorated ware. Figure 80, 
restored from a fragment, and figure 81 show one of these exceptional 
bowls. A similar bowl with a blackened inner surface occurs else- 
where in the southwest, as on the Little Colorado, but has never been 
described from the Mesa Verde. A comparison of ceramic objects 
from the cemetery of Far View Tower (fig. 82) indicates it belongs 
to an ancient type related to Earth Lodge A, described in the explora- 
tions pamphlet for 1919/ Attempts have been made to show an 
architectural evolution from an earth lodge with roof and walls of 
logs and mud into buildings constructed of well-laid horizontal stone 
masonry. There is a chronological development in technique, form 
and decoration of pottery from the simple to the complex, but those 
who have studied clift'-house pottery have not yet succeeded in arrang- 
ing the different kinds in chronological sequence. 

Each ceramic area in our southwest has its distinct facies. Mesa 
Verde pottery excels all others in its geometrical decoration. Con- 
ventionalized designs and life figures on it are few in number and 
crude in execution, but linear designs are abundant and varied. In 
the prehistoric Hopi pottery, where there are few life figures and the 
majority of designs are geometric or highly conventionalized, there is 
nothing showing successive steps in the development of designs. In 
those ruins where geometric figures (fig. 83) predominate there is 
little to show their evolution. The pottery from the Mimbres Valley, 
New Mexico, decorated with both fine geometric and realistic figures, 
gives us no clue to evolution of different typical naturalistic designs. 
Apparently the three types, geometric, conventional, and realistic, are 
distinct from their very origin and it is difiicult to prove that one type 



'Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 72, No. i. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



75 




Fig. 78. — Mug ; black on white ware. Fire Temple House, Mesa Verde National 
Park. Size : 4 by 4 inches. (Photograph by De Lancey Gill.) 




Fig. 79. — Archaic black on white ware ; coarse decoration, Far View House 
Village. Necropolis, Mesa Verde National Park. Size: 5% inches. 



76 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 




Fig. 80. — Bowl ; indented corrugated ware with black interior, Far View 



House Village. Necropolis, Mesa Verde National Park, 
inches. (Repaired by W. H. Egberts.) 



Size : ^Y2 by 2], 




Fig. 81. — Detail of indented corrugated bowl, figure 80, Far View House 
Village. Necropolis, Mesa Verde National Park. (Drawn bv Mrs. George 
Mullett.) 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 'J'J 

preceded another in evolution. For the present, then, our knowledge 
of sequence of types of pottery is largely derived from descriptions 
and not generalizations. But our archeological method permits us to 
determine the main features of a stage of culture among the Indians 
of which little is historically known. For instance, previous to the 
year 191 5 we were ignorant of the manners and customs of the people 




Fig. 82. — Archaic black and white ware, coarse decoration, 
Far View House Village. Necropolis. Mesa Verde National 
Park. Size: 3H by 3 inches. ( Photograph by De Lancey 
Gill.) 

who inhabited the IVIimbres Valley, New^ Mexico. Documentary his- 
tory is silent about them. Through archeological studies data are 
being brought to light year by year by which our knowledge of these 
Indians is greatly advanced. Pictures on ancient pottery often impart 
more information than written descriptions and are most important in 
the study of lost races. During the last few years ISIr. E. D. Osborn, 
of Deming, New Mexico, has from time to time sent to the bureau 
many unique photographs of mortuary bowls (figs. 84-86), some of 
6 



78 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 



/^ 









f. 

Fig. 83.-Decorated pottery from Mesa Verde National Park, a trian- 
gular geometric design; b, hatched and terraced line; c, black trian- es "n 
concentric series ; d central triangle with curved lines at angles • e unknown 
GergTMullS' ^' ''' '"'^"- ^°'''"" ''■°" Photog-ph/by Mrs 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



79 







Fig. 84. — Decorated pottery from Mimbres Valley, New Mexico, Osborn 
Collection, a, bird trap ; h, gambling game ; c. emergence of man from 
lower world ; d, white outline on black ground ; e, two fishes ; /, two negative 
pictures of fishes. (Drawn from photograph, by Mrs. George Mullett.) 



8o 



SMITHSONIAN' MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 






d. 





Fig. 85. — Decorated pottery from Mimbres \'allcy. New Mexico. Osborn 
Collection, a. unknown bird, from back, with outstretclied wings; b. feath- 
ers used in geometric decoration ; c, three-headed turkey ; d, parrot, head 
often repeated as club-shaped design on Casas Grandcs pottery ; r, humming 
birds and flowers; /. unidentified flowers. (Drawn from photograph, by 
Airs. George Mullett.) 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



Si 








Fig. 86. — Decorated pottery from Mitnbres Valley, New Mexico, Osborn 
Collection, a. unknown fish with feathered horn ; b, animal heads like 
swastika ; c. sun with four tail feathers ; d, geometric ornaments ; e, geo- 
metric ornaments; /, geometric ornaments. (Drawn from photograph, by 
Mrs. George MuUett.) 



82 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 

which are decorated with well-made pictures showing hitherto un- 
known features of prehistoric life in that valley. .Similar pictures 
have been reproduced in former reports, but several specimens lately 
discovered are the most instructive yet found. References to a few of 
these close this account. 

The food bowl (fig. 84a) apparently represents a hunter snaring 
birds. He carries three nooses in his hand and in three of the snares 
that are set are birds, while a fourth is empty. On the opposite side 
of the bowl there are two other birds that possibly have been captured 
earlier. 

Figure 84^ represents a prehistoric game of " stick dice." In this 
design three of the " canes " or dice are represented in a rectangular 
enclosure around which are seated the players. The stakes are arrows 
shown in a receptacle deposited above the picture. 

Two fishes shown in figure 846" call to mind the unusual method of 
representing certain life figures, men, birds, and other animals, on 
other pieces of pottery. The background of the two fishes of figure 84/ 
is black, the bodies white ; a negative picture common on ware from 
Casas Grandes, Mexico, and peculiar to the inland basin in which the 
Mimbres lies. The upper beak and eye of the head of the well-drawn 
parrot is shown in figure 85^/. This conventionalized head often 
occurs without the body of a bird or any realistic likeness to a parrot 
in the decoration of pottery from Casas Grandes and it is interesting to 
note in this connection that Mr. Osborn claims to have found a mound 
a few miles from Deming, New Mexico, in which the pottery is 
practically the same as the well-known Casas Grandes ware. 

The body of the animal represented in figure 86« is serpentine, but 
the shape of the head and the possession of fins suggest a water 
monster. The horn with a cluster of feathers occurs in a similar 
painting without fins, and may he a representation of the Horned or 
Plumed Serpent. 

As is true of decorations on prehistoric Hopi ware, the feather 
is sometimes used as a decorative element. The identification of the 
use of this motive was made by a comparison of the undoubted bird 
with outstretched wings and well-marked symbolic wing feathers 
shown in figure 85a, and the existence of four clusters of a like design 
in figure 85^. A study of over a hundred decorations, realistic, con- 
ventional and geometrical, taken from Mimbres pottery indicates that 
this lost people of southern New Mexico had reached a very high 
stage of ceramic decoration. There is evidence that this art was 
somewhat influenced from outside but mainly developed where it was 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 83 

found. It is one of several localized culture areas related to but not 
necessarily belonging to the pueblo with which it has affinity. It is 
most closely afifiliated with that of Casas Grandes and the southern 
part of the plateau in which it lies. The environment of this plateau 
is Mexican, climatically speaking, and the culture will probably be 
found to correspond. While superior to the Casas Grandes and all 
other prehistoric Indian pottery in variety and the accuracy with 
which human and animal figures are drawn, it shares enough with 
it to hold a place in the same group. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL COLLECTING IN THE DOMINICAN 
REPUBLIC 

While engaged in a biological exploration of this republic in 192 1 
and previous years, Dr. W. L. Abbott of Philadelphia incidentally 
made a collection of aboriginal Indian antiquities on the north coast, 
especially around Samana Bay and the region between it and Puerto 
Plata, as well as in other parts of the island. No systematic excava- 
tions were attempted ; the majority of the specimens were either pur- 
chased or otherwise obtained. The localities where individual speci- 
mens were said to have been found are mentioned in the legends under 
the illustrations. This accession contains many specimens, one or two 
of which merit special notice, even if it anticipates a final report. 

There is in this collection an exceptionally good water jar of unique 
form upon the neck of which are incised rude figures of animal or 
human heads. The body of this jar (fig. 87), instead of being round 
is roughly four-sided, its base flat, neck constructed bottle shaped. 
Another bowl (fig. 88), spherical in form, is also unique and the 
incised figure covers much of the upper surface. 

In the collections of every West Indian archeologist there are speci- 
mens of burnt clay heads called " zemis " (idols) by the natives. 
These objects are not idols but broken handles of bowls, portions of 
which sometimes adhere to them. As broken specimens they teach 
very little, but if the jar from which they were broken be restored 
they become instructive. The results of Mr. Egbert's clever recon- 
struction of the bowls to which three of the handles belong are shown 
in figure 89, a, b, and c. 

The decoration of Santo Domingo pottery, like that from prehistoric 
Porto Rico, as a rule is limited to handles or lugs of bowls and vases. 
These heads are attached to the rims of jars or bowls and give us a 
means of classification. They fall naturally into three distinct types : 
First, and most common (fig. 89a), those where the handles are oppo- 
site each other, the handle represented as looking into the bowl ; 



84 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 'J2 



second, a less conimon type, those with handle faces looking outward; 
and third (fig. 89c), rarest of all, those with human or animal heads 
attached to the rim hv the back of the head or hing along the rim 




Fig. 87. — Unique vase. Cueva de Roma. Dominican Republic. Size : 8^ 
inches. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 316445. 



of the bowl with their axis parallel to it. Santo Domingo pottery as a 
rule is a coarse biscuit ware, its surface waterworn but smooth, ap- 
parently sometimes formerly covered with a red slip, showing, how- 
ever, no evidence of a glaze. Although in bolder relief than that made 
by the prehistoric potters who preceded the Carib in the Lesser 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



85 



Antilles, the ceramics of the aborigines of the Greater Antilles are 
more closely related to the work of the Huaxtecs of Mexico than to 
that of the aborigines of South America. 

There are in the Abbott collection representatives of all types of 
those Antillean idols characterized as three-pointed stones: one (figs. 
90 and 91) with head on the anterior point: another (fig. 92), a 
second type characterized by a head on the side of the cone; a third 




Fig. 



-Globular bowl of thin ware. Locality, Yaqui del Norte, Dominican 
Republic. Size: 5^ inches. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 293016. 



type has the cone modified into a head ; and lastly one smooth, undec- 
orated specimen, referred to a fourth type. The specimen represented 
in figure 93 belongs to the first type and has on each side of the base 
of the cone two shallow circular pits ; each of these pits represents a 
joint of the fore and hind limbs, both of w^hich are cut in relief on the 
side. Although similar pairs of pits are known on several specimens 
and accompanying forelegs or arms sometimes appear in relief, no 
specimen with two pits both having relief representations of limbs 
has been recorded. 



86 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 'J2 






Fig. 8q. — Restored pottery from shards collected in the Dominican Repuhlic, 
by Dr. W. L. Abbott. Restoration by W. H. Egberts, a, food bowl with effigies 
on rim, facing inward ; b, effigy bowl with handles in form of heads, facing 
upward; r, food bowl, handles in form of heads transversely placed on rim. 
Size: a, gyz inches; b, 6]4 inches; c, i6^ inches. U. S. Nat. AIus. No. 316454. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



87 




Fig. 90. — Three-pointed stone of first type, from side. Constanza, Dominican 
Republic. Size, 5^ inches x 2i4 inches. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 309536. 










Fig. 91. — Same three-pointed stone from al)ove. 




Fig. 92. — Three-pointed stone of second type, from side. Constanza, Dominican 
Republic. Size: 2V2 inches x iH inches. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 309537- 



88 



SMITHSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 'J2 




k^ 







NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



89 



There are only seven known specimens of three-pointed stones of 
the second group, and the U. S. National Museum now has five of 
these, one of which we owe to Doctor Abbott. 

He has also added to the museum collection the three especially fine 
Antillean amulets shown in figure 94. The form of one — that figured 
in the middle — is unique. These objects are supposed to have been 



W^ 





Fig. 94. — Three marble amulets. Locality, Guayubin, Yaqui River. Domin- 
ican Republic, a, 2Vs inches, U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 316448; b, 4I4 inches, No. 
316446; c, 2fs inches, No. 316447. 

used as fetishes and to have been tied to the foreheads of warriors 
when they went into battle, as described by Gomara and other early 
writers. 

The cylindrical object of clay with incised figure shown in figure 95 
belongs to a type concerning the use of which there has been con- 
siderable discussion. These specimens have been identified as rollers 
for stamping pottery with the design incised on their surfaces ; but if 



90 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. ^2 




L 



*;_iu>»a ■»/>»#*( 



u C 

p B 3 
OS 

o +: 



.-« o . 
° c S 







-I Pi ro 



u o; O 

;o^ - 

U 3 

2 o rt 






■^-a f^^ 



•- n^ 




oS 



•=5D 






NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



91 



we judge from the similar objects of aborigines of Venezuela they 
were more probably used for stamping fabrics or even for printing 
certain totemistic or other designs on the face or body. 

There is in the Abbott collection an artificially worked stone (fig. 
96), about a foot in length, which appears to have been used as a 



' 'I'Mlfc,,!, 



.^^^' 










5^'j 












'^^^' 



{£. 



Fig. 98. — Stone Cassava grinder. Yaqui del 
Norte, Jarabacoa. Size : 12^ inches x 19^ inches. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 292998. 

baton, possibly a badge of office. One end bears incised designs 
representing eyes and mouth suggesting a human head. 

Figure 97 resembles outwardly a pestle, but a closer examination 
shows that it is made of clay, a material impossible for an efifective 
grinding implement. It has many pits on the imder surface (shown 
in the figure) which suggests that it was functionally like the cylinder 
above mentioned used for imprinting paint patterns on the human 
body or woven fabrics. 



92 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 

One of several flat stone objects collected by Doctor Abbott having 
extensions, two " handles " on the rim, is shown in figure 98. In 
shape and especially in the form and position of the handles these stone 
implements resemble graters — generally of wood — specimens of which 
are still in use in Haiti. Stone graters are novelties and those col- 
lected by Doctor Abbott are the first of this material added to the 
museum. It is probable that the surface of this stone was formerly 
covered with some kind of matrix in which were set sharp stones 
arranged in an ornamental design that has now completely disap- 
peared, leaving no trace of its former presence. 

All the above-mentioned specimens are referred to the Tainan or 
most advanced neolithic culture of the West Indies, that originated 
and flourished in the Haiti-Santo Domingo and Porto Rico areas in 
prehistoric times. The three-pointed idols, stone collars, elbow stones, 
and characteristic pottery separate the Porto Rico Tainan from that 
of Jamaica, eastern Cuba, and the Bahamas, which belong to another 
closely related culture that may be called Cuban Tainan. 

The pottery of the aborigines of the Lesser Antilles belongs to an 
allied prehistoric Tainan culture that was submerged by the Caribs, 
v/ho inhabited these islands when discovered by Europeans, at the 
close of the 15th century. The fine addition that Doctor Abbott has 
made to our West Indian collection all belongs to the true Tainan cul- 
ture which reached its highest development in Espafiola and Porto 
Rico. 

The archeological specimens from the West Indies presented to the 
museum by Doctor Abbott are very valuable and as time goes on will 
be more and more appreciated by students of the history of man in 
the Antilles. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANXE OF THE CAHOKIA AND 
RELATED MOUND GROUPS 

David I. Bushnell. Jr., collaborator of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, conducted during 192I a reconnaissance of the remarkable 
mound groups in the vicinity of the great Cahokia Movmd. The in- 
formation secured at this time, added to notes made during frequent 
visits in the past, has been used in preparing the following sketch of 
the interesting region. 

It is quite evident that long before Pere Marquette discovered 
and passed the mouth of the Missouri, during his journey down 
the Mississippi early in the summer of i<^73. the region immedi- 
ately below the confluence of the two great streams had been an 
important center, a gathering place, of the native inhabitants of the 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



93 



valley. Mound groups, village sites, and burial places remain to 
indicate the presence of a numerous people before the coming of 
Europeans, and the innumerable objects of native origin encountered 



SCALE IN MILES 




Fig. 99. — Map showing location of mound groups. 

in the region bear evidence of their skill in working the available 
materials. 

Immediately below the mouth of the Missouri, on the left or 
Illinois bank of the Mississippi, the river blufifs become more distant 
from the stream and consequently the lowlands are in some places 
6 or 8 miles in width from east to west. Shallow lakes covered much 



94 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 

of the surface and some parts were heavily timbered. As indicated 
on the accompanying map, figure 99, four mound groups stood in the 
lowlands east of the Mississippi and a fifth was on the opposite bank, 
land now covered by the city of St. Louis. And as is shown on the 
map the five groups were placed with a certain degree of order to one 
another, with the great mound. Cahokia, rising near the center of the 
area. 

But who were the builders of the mounds, the most important 
groups in the Mississippi Valley? The question may never be 
definitely answered although it is more than probable they should 
be attributed to a tribe or tribes known in historic times but who may 
have become greatly reduced in numbers and relative importance 
before the coming of the French. Evidently the historic Algonquian 
tribes did not reach the eastern bank of the Mississippi until about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, and it is doubtful if others 
of this linguistic family had preceded them. Siouan tribes when mov- 
ing from the eastward may have traversed the region, but there is no 
reason whatsoever to attribute the great mound groups which form 
the subject of this sketch to either the Algonquian or Siouan tribes. 
The works were probably raised by a southern tribe, a southern people 
who at some time before the arrival of the Algonquian tribes, or 
the migration of the Siouan tribes from the eastward, occupied the 
region, later to move elsewhere, possibly to return southward. These 
may have been the ancient Natchez, the Chickasaw, or some other 
Muskhogean tribe of whom we possess no historic record : however, 
a careful examination of the mode of construction and the contents 
of one or more of the mounds may enable us to arrive at some con- 
clusions regarding their origin. 

The great Cahokia Mound which rises from the level alluvial plain 
near the center of the area, is somewhat less than 6 miles east of the 
Mississippi and 10 miles east of south of the mouth of the Missouri. 
It is a truncated pyramid, of rectangular form, with a broad terrace 
extending from the south side which continues in a graded way or 
approach. The sides of the work face the cardinal points, as do those 
of the lesser rectangular mounds of the group. Its maximum eleva- 
tion is about 100 feet. Its extreme length including the approach is 
1,080 feet, and its width from east to west is 710 feet. The base 
covers an area of approximately 16 acres. Viewed from the east, as 
in figure 100, it appears quite regular in outline and is clearly defined 
from base to summit. A small conical mound formerly stood on the 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



95 




U 



(^ 



96 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. J 2 

upper plateau near tlie southeastern corner but it was removed many 
years ago. The northwestern portion of the great mound is deeply 
gullied and very irregular in contour ; it is a question whether this part 
of the structure was ever completed. 

Cahokia is the largest earthwork in the United States and one of 
the most remarkable monuments left by the native tribes. Fortunately 
it remains in its original condition, practically untouched since the 
coming of Europeans, and in this condition it should be preserved. 
With each succeeding generation, as the lesser mounds and other 
earthworks disappear by reason of the cultivation of the soil or the 
requirement of the land for other purposes, this great terraced work 
is destined to become of greater popular interest and immediate steps 
should be taken to make certain its preservation. 

The several groups, as indicated on tlie map, may now be described 
in detail. 

NORTH GROUP 

Eleven mounds constitute this group which stands on the north 
side of Long Lake, near the station of Mitchell. They are about 
three and one-half miles east of the Mississippi, nearly midway across 
the lowlands and some seven miles west of north of Cahokia. When 
the group was surveyed March 13, 1900, it was not possible to deter- 
mine the original shape of several of the mounds. The land had been 
cultivated for many years and this, with the constant washing and 
wearing away of the surface, had caused the works to assuiue an 
entirely different appearance from their original condition. 

The largest mound of this group stood apart and to the west of the 
main cluster. It was practically destroyed years ago at the time of 
the construction of two railroads which pass through it, but parts of 
the work may now be traced between and on either side of the tracks. 
]\Iany remarkable objects of stone and coj^per were recovered during 
the destruction of the structure. 

As is shown on the map the large mound stood to the west. The 
mound nearest it on the east, as determined by the survey of 1900. 
was 1,200 feet distant and at that time had a maximum elevation of 
9.3 feet above the plain, and was of circular form with a diameter of 
approximately 237 feet. Eastward from this mound are other units 
of the group. The highest mound of the group at that time measured 
10.4 feet, but undoubtedly the large work to the west was originally 
much higher than any now standing. 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 97 

South of the lake, away from the main group, is a single, isolated 
mound. Others may have stood within the area, all traces of which 
have disappeared. 

CENTRAL OR CAHOKIA GROUP 

Surrounding the great Cahokia Alound, which has already been 
briefly described, were many lesser works, about seventy in number, 
some of which were more than 40 feet in height. Some were rec- 
tangular, others were circular and although at first glance they appear 
to have been placed without definite order, nevertheless it is quite 
evident that in several instances they were so arranged as to create 
inclosed areas, thus conforming with the position of the mounds of 
the three lesser groups to the north, west, and south of the central 
cluster. 

Unfortunately the large majority of the mounds east and west of the 
great central structure have been much reduced and modified by the 
plow, while several have been practically destroyed and a slight rise is 
all that remains to indicate their position. The inclosure formed of 
the smaller mounds on the east is clearly defined and gives the impres- 
sion of having been intentionally planned and arranged, but for what 
purpose may never be determined. And although many of the lesser 
mounds have thus lost their original form and appearance, Cahokia 
remains the most important and impressive native work in the Valley 
of the Mississippi. As the great mound now stands it should be pre- 
served : to permit its destruction would be a calamity, an irrepar- 
able loss to future generations. 

The rectangular work immediately southwest of Cahokia was 
occupied from 1810 until 1813 by a small body of Trappist monks, 
during which time their garden was on the southern terrace of the 
great mound. According to the survey of 1875- 1876 from which all 
measurements now given are derived, this lesser mound was 25 feet 
in height, its base line from north to south was 180 feet and from 
east to west 200 feet. Just south of this is a small circular work. A 
short distance east of south of the latter stands a conical mound which 
rises 44 feet above the plain, having a diameter at base of 150 feet. 
Immediately east of this is a rather irregular mound 46 feet in height, 
and possibly other units of this remarkable cluster were even higher 
and more extensive than these. A rectangular mound southeast of 
the preceding was, according to the survey mentioned, 40 feet in 
height, with its base extending 300 feet from north to south and 250 
feet from east to west. This reference to several of the lesser works 



98 



SMlTirSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIOXS VOL. ^2 




Fig. ioi. — Airplane photograph showing Cahokia in upper right center. 
INIounds to the south and southwest are also defined, likewise the country 
northward. Camera pointed west of north. 




I*"m. 102. — Airplane pliotofirapli showing Cahokia in tlic unner left corner. 
The rectangular mound in the center of the picture, just south of Cahokia. 
rises 46 feet ahove the original surface. .A. light snow covers the ground. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



99 




Fig. 103. 



-Airplane photograph showing mound north of Cahokia, partly 
removed. Camera pointed west. 




Fig. 104. — Airplane photograph showing mound about lYz miles west of 
Cahokia. One of the most perfect of the group, and probably quite similar in 
appearance to the large mound of the St. Louis group which was removed in 
1869. Camera pointed northeast. 



100 SMITHSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. ~2 

will serve to convey an idea of the magnitude of the group as a 
whole ; the most important prehistoric site in the entire valley. 

It is of interest to be able to reproduce at this time four aerial 
pictures of units of the Cahokia group, and these are believed to be 
the first photographs of American mounds or earthworks to be taken 
from the air. The negatives, with others, were made during the winter 
of 1921 and 1922 by Lieut. Harold R. Wells and Lieut. Ashley C. 
AIcKinley, stationed at Scott Field, Belleville, Illinois, under instruc- 
tions of ]\Iajor Frank W. Kennedy. 

Unfortunatelv, weather conditions during the winter were not 
favorable for aerial photography, and although many attempts were 
made ground haze and smoke interfered greatly with the work. As 
Major Kennedy wrote in part February 6, 1922, after mentioning the 
mines and factories in the vicinity of the mounds : " These activities 
produce a large amount of smoke which seems to settle near the 
ground and form a blanket two or three hundred feet thick.'' Never- 
theless the four pictures are shown to record the first attem]:it to 
photograph mounds from an airplane. 

On the summit of the blufifs northeast of Cahokia, as indicated on 
the map, are two mounds of great interest which command a wide 
view of the lowlands extending to the Mississippi, and beyond. Both 
are of conical form and rise 30 feet or more above the original surface. 
One, as it appears from the foot of the blufif, is shown in figure 105. 

A view of the blufifs, with the beginning of the lowlands which 
slope westward to the bank of the Mississippi, is reproduced in 
figure 106. This is looking northward from a point southeast of 
Cahokia. 

Extending from the main group which surrounded the great mound, 
in a direction south of west and following a slight ridge, is a chain of 
works which terminated in an irregular group of smaller mounds near 
the bank of the ^Mississippi. It is to be regretted that all units of 
this group have now disappeared. 

WEST OR ST. LOUIS GROUP 

There formerly stood on the right, or west l)ank of the Mississippi, 
on the summit of the high blufl:' within the limits of the present city 
of St. Louis, an interesting group of mounds, twenty-seven or more in 
numl)er. All have now disappeared but fortunately their positions 
were indicated on early maps of the city. 

( )ne of the earliest as well as most detailed descriptions of the 
mounds was that prepared by members of the Long Expedition, 
more than a century ago. At that time they stood north of the settled 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



lOI 




Fir.. 105 — Conical mound on summit of the I)luff northeast of Cahokia. 




Fig. 106. — Looking northward from near the road leading to I 
showing the eastern border of the lowlands which extend westward lu tlic 
^lississippi. 



102 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 73 




NO. 15 SMITIISOXIAN EXPLORATIOXS, I92I IO3 

portion of the town and were in their primitive condition, but soon 
the settlement was to extend northward and the mounds were destined 
to be leveled. A view of St. Louis from the east, taken from the 
Illinois bank of the Mississippi during the year 1840, is reproduced in 
figure 107. Far to the north of the principal structures of the town, 
on the extreme right of the picture, stands the large detached mound. 
The main group was below, probably near the middle of the picture. 

The large isolated work was more than i ,400 feet north of the main 
cluster which formed an inclosure, thus conforming with the arrange- 
ment of the mounds on the opposite side of the river. This most 
important work was of oval form, with the maximum diameter of its 
base, from north to south, 319 feet, and from east to west 158 feet. 
The dimensions of the summit plateau were 139 feet and 11 feet. 
Height 34 feet. On the eastern side, facing the river, was a terrace 
resembling that on the south side of Cahokia, which was 79 feet from 
east to west and probably extended the entire length of the structure. 

At the time of the destruction of the great mound in the year 1869 
a most remarkable cavity was discovered within it. This was a burial 
chamber which could be traced for a distance of 70 feet and part had 
previously been removed. It had probably been constructed of logs 
over which the mass of earth had Ijeen deposited and shaped. Within 
were encountered human remains in the last stages of decay, and 
associated with these were vast quantities of shell beads and other 
objects. This was trul\- a remarkal)le structure and one which should 
have been preserved, l)ut unfortunately it shared the fate of the lesser 
mounds of the group, all traces of which have now disappeared. 

SOUTH GROUP 

The southern part of the American Bottom — a name long applied 
to the lowlands occupied by the ancient works mentioned in this 
sketcli — across the Mississippi from Jefferson Barracks, becomes 
cjuite narrow, the bluffs approach the river and are, in some places, a 
scant mile from the low marshy ground which was formerly covered 
with water the greater part of the year. But the land extending along 
the foot of the blufifs at this point was evidently at one time occupied 
by a village of some importance which stood in the midst of a group 
of mounds. This may be designated the south group and in some 
respects resembles the north or Mitchell group, already described. 

The site was visited liy the writer during the latter part of October, 
1921, at which time a plan of the group was made, this now being 
included on the general map. As is indicated there are now seven 



104 



SMITIISOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIOXS 



VOL. "J 2 



mounds standing on the lowland and one. a large conical structure, 
on the bluff to the east. It is said that until a few years ago. at the 
time of the construction of several railroad embankments, five mounds 
extended in a row southward from the one now remaining nearest 
the bluffs, consequently these, together with the five now remaining, 
formed an inclosure quite similar to the north group. Northward 
from the main cluster or inclosure, are two detached moun(l>. both 
large and prominent. The grottp as a whole and as it originally stood, 
must have been as interesting and imposing as either the north or 




Fig. io8. — Village site and mounds at Bixhy, with liluffs beyond 



west groups as already de^cril)ed, and all were probably of e(iual 
importance to their builders. 

Unfortunately, the majority of the remaining units of the group 
b.ave been greatly reduced and modified by the plow and consequently 
it is not possible to determine their original size or foruL However, it 
is evident the second mound from the south, on the west near the 
Mississippi, was rectangular and quite large. It appears to have been 
oriented with its sides facing the cardinal points, as were the units o1 
the other groups, including the great mound. .\t the present time 
it is worn down l)v long-continued cultivation and now measures about 
12 feet in height, with a diameter of 200 feet. A ])hotograph looking 
eastward from the summit of this work is reproduced in figure 108. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



105 



This is a view over the plain once occupied l)y a native village and 
shows the ])luffs in the distance. Fragmentary pottery and ohjects of 
stone are now found scattered over the intervening ground. 

As has heen mentioned, and as is shown on the map, a conical mound 
stands on the hluff just east of the main group. It is not on the 
highest point, not on the summit, but on a commanding spot visible 
from miles away, north and south, and from far westward across the 
Mississippi. It is on the bluff in the exact middle of figure io8, and a 
closer view, taken from the south, is shown in figure 109. This 
resembles the two mounds on the bluff's northeast of Cahokia and 
is of equal interest. 




Fir,. UK). — Lonical mouiul on liliitt east of Rixliv. 

No other area of equal size in the entire valley of the Mississippi 
appears to have been of so great importance to the native tribes as that 
mentioned in this sketch. Here they reared their greatest monument, 
Cahokia, and surrounded it with many lesser works. The several 
distinct clusters should be considered units of a greater group, in 
which the massive terraced work stood as the central structure. This 
was the gathering place of a numerous people, but when or whence 
they came can never be known. Now, two and one-half centuries 
after the region was first entered by the French, at which time Illinois 
tribes were occupving small villages near the banks of the ^Mississippi, 
the majority of the ancient mounds have disappeared, but Cahokia 
remains and it should ever stand. It must be saved as have the 
pyramids of Egypt ; a monument of another race whose origin is 
shrouded in mystery. 



io6 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 72 



ARCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT PUEBLO BONITO, 
NEW MEXICO 

]\Ir. Neil AI. Judd. curator of American archeology, U. S. National 
Museum, began work during the year on a five-year archeological 
project undertaken by the National Geographic Society, mentioned 
in the Smithsonian Exploration Pamphlet for 1920,' centering about 
Pueblo Bonito, one of the largest and most important prehistoric 
ruins in the United States. Mr. Judd left Washington for New 
Mexico on May i and shortly thereafter began operations in the 





^^^."^m 



-%- 






Fiii. lie. — Pu(.'l)l() I'ldnito, from the northwest, showing the vast accumula- 
tions of fallen wall material and wind-blown sand which cover the ruin. The 
present height of the north wall is indicated by the three figures in the left 
center. (Photograph by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the National Geographic 
Society.) 

great ruin ; his stafif consisted of seven assistants with Navaho and 
Zimi Indians employed for the actual work of excavation. 

The first few weeks were largely devoted to development of a water 
supply sufficient for the expedition camp, to transporting equipment 
and provisions from the railroad, 62 miles distant, and to removal of 
several hundred tons of fallen wall material and wind-blown sand 
which had accumulated in that section of the ruin selected for the 
season's explorations. Following these preliminaries attention was 



^ Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 72, No. 6. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 92 1 



107 



directed, respectively, to the central and southeastern portions of the 
pueblo. The central wing was considered of prime importance since 
it included the Great Kiva, the civil and religious heart of Pueblo 
Bonito; the southeastern quarter was chosen because its masonry, 
apparently the most recent of all in the village, suggested that antiq- 
uities found in this area would illustrate the very apex of cultural 
advancement by the ancient Bonitians, thus forming an index for sub- 
sequent discoveries. 




Fig. III. — Zuni workmen pointing out features of the masonry in Pueblo 
Bonito, which is far superior to that in their own village. The skill exhibited 
by the ancient artisans was a source of constant admiration to these modern 
Pueblos. (Photograph by Neil M. Judd. Courtesy of the National Geo- 
graphic Society.) 

Altogether, fifty secular rooms and five kivas were excavated during 
the summer. In addition, a number of dwellings previously opened 
were cleared of their individual accumulations of wind-deposited sand 
and other debris. An outstanding result of this work was identifica- 
tion of three distinct types of masonry, each illustrating the dominant 
construction method at a given period during occupancy of the village. 
It is, of course, still too early to designate the factors which brought 
about these various styles in building, just as any present efifort to 
trace the ground area formerly occupied by each of the three types 



io8 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 'J2 




Fig. 112. — Central portion of Pneblo Bonito, from the south, showing the 
north cliffs of Chaco Canyon towering above the ruin. Some of the rooms 
were so large that the initial work of excavation could be done directly with 
teams. (Photograph by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the National Geographic 
Society.) 




Fic. 113. — An excavated kiva in Pueblo Bonito, showing the low encircling 
bench and, above this, the roohng timbers which overlap above the pilasters. 
.\t the left will be seen the decayed fragments of upright hewn planks which 
stood between the dome-shaped roof and the circular wall of the chamber. 
(Photograph by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



109 




Fig. 114. — Excavating the Great Kiva. The hhick ^f masonry in the middle 
is the fireplace ; that in the lower right, an inter-pillar compartment. The piles 
of stone at the top consist of blocks retained for repair of the ancient walls. 
(Photograph by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 




Fig. X15. — The Great Kiva and its surrounding rooms, as seen from the 
cliffs north of Pueblo Bonito. This remarkable structure is 52 feet in diam- 
eter; it was the largest and most important ceremonial room in the village. A 
trench for stratigraphical examination of the west refuse mound will be noted 
at the upper left center. (Photograph by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the 
National Geographic Society.) 



no SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. '/2 

would be premature. Dwellings were razed and rei)laced by otber 
structures as Pueblo Bonito grew in size and population. 

Those walls which appear to have formed the nucleus of the village 
are crude and irregular ; the rooms they inclose are relatively small 
and low of ceiling. In contrast to these, walls of the second type 
exhibit an infinite amount of patience and attention to detail. They 
consist of rather large uniform blocks of friable sandstone, dressed 
on the face only, laid in adobe mud and chinked with innumerable 
small, thin chips. Equally marked in its variation from that in the 
oldest houses is the masonry of the third type mentioned. In this, 
uniformly thin tablets of laminate sandstone were utilized with a 
minimum of adobe and little or no chinking. Larger blocks were 
frequently laid in bands both for the decorative effect produced and 
as bonds to hold the masonry veneer to the earthy core of the wall. 
Beneath the floors of a large number of the rooms excavated during 
1 92 1 were found the razed walls of older structures in which a differ- 
ent style of construction prevailed. 

These principal variations in masonry may represent merely local 
developments — the will of ascendant influences in Pueblo Bonito — but 
it seems more reasonable to believe that each came in upon a wave 
of immigration from other regions. Among the collections made 
during the summer are specimens of pottery characteristic of the INIesa 
Verde cliff-dwellings in Colorado, of the prehistoric ruins in the 
Kayenta and Gila River districts of Arizona and of the Rio San 
Francisco, New jMexico. The very number of these objects would 
indicate not that they had been introduced through intertribal com- 
merce but rather that their makers had come to dwell at Pueblo Bonito, 
bringing with them their own distinctive arts and industries. On the 
other hand, it is manifest that the prehistoric Bonitians maintained 
an active trade with other primitive folk at a great distance from their 
terraced village in Chaco Canyon. The quantity of Pacific coast 
shell — used for beads, pendants and other ornaments — copper bells 
from central Mexico and especially skeletons of the great macaw 
(//ra iiiaccw), furnish abundant proof that adventurers from Pueblo 
Bonito or friendly traders from distant valleys ])raved the rigors of 
open desert travel long before the Spanisli cimciuistadores introduced 
the horse and otlier beasts of burden. 

The circular kivas in Puelilo Bonito, as elsewhere, were both 
council chambers where clan representatives met for consultation and 
religious sanctuaries in which secret ceremonies were enacted and prep- 
arations made for public rituals to be held in the open courts of the 



NO. 15 



SiMITIISONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



III 




Fig. 116. — Repairing third-story walls in Pueblo Bonito. Some of these high 
walls had been so weakened by vandalism and the elements that their repair 
was necessary before excavation could safely be undertaken beneath. Ihe 
work will serve, also, to preserve the present height of the walls for many 
years to come. (Photograph by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the National 
Geographic Society.) 



112 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 72 












Fk;. 117. — Repaired walls of the third type of masonry, showing occasional 
bands of thicker blocks inserted for strength and decorative effect. Corner 
doorways are not uncommon in Pueblo Bonito ; they provided a direct means 
of communication between neighboring dwellings occupied by members of the 
same family or clan. (Photograph liy Neil M. Judd. Courtesy of the National 
Geographic Society.) 



NO. I 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



"3 




P^iG. 118. — A Zuni Indian in an ancient Bonitian doorway. The excellence of 
the masonry and the trueness of tlie corners are well illustrated in this picture ; 
a typical lintel of pine poles will be noted at the top. (Photograph by Neil M. 
Judd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 



114 



SMITIISONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 'J2 




Fig. 119. — A trench 20 feet deep was cut in the west refuse mound in order 
to obtain chronological data. Potsherds deposited during the early occupancy 
of Pueblo Bonito were quite different from those found near the surface of the 
mound. (Photograph by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the National Geographic 
Society.) 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



"5 



village. These important structures were constructed both Ijelow 
the level of the plazas and among the living rooms, in which latter 
case the surrounding walls were so arranged as to simulate the re(|uired 
subterranean position. In certain features of construction and equip- 
ment, however, Bonitian kivas — judging from the five already ex- 
cavated — differ from those heretofore examined in other sections of 




1 


1 


^^^Bt' ■■^ISTS^IRH^^^BK^I^'^^ 


1 1 


y 




i 


it 


t..*^,- ^1 






ro c/: Q 



<u--5 g a, 



the Southwest. Tlie ventilator shaft is connected with a manhole in 
the room through a hidden tunnel ; sub-floor chambers are sometimes, 
but not always, present ; the primary roof supports or pilasters have 
been so specialized as to lose their original stability and to take on a 
new function, that of depositories for ceremonial offerings. 

The Great Kiva possesses several noteworthy features not found in 
the lesser structures of its kind. It is a room of exceptional size. 



Il6 S.MITIISONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION'S VOL. 72 

being 52 feet (15.85 m.) in dianieter with a ceiling formcrl)- 11 feet 
(3.35 m.) high. The central portion of its flat roof was supported by 
four masonry pillars each of which had a separate foundation of low 
grade, soft coal. On the east and west sides of the chamber, between 
the pillars, were built-in receptacles, probably for containing cere- 
monial paraphernalia. A fire box with protective screen stood at the 




Fig. 121.- — A iiaive example of Iluniliaii engineering. In an obvious attempt 
to hold up a huge section of clifi which threatened to topple upon their village, 
the ancients placed pine props under the weathered section and covered these 
with a great terraced mass of masonry. The north wall of Pueblo Bonito 
stands at the left. ( Photograph by Charles Martin. Courtesy of the National 
Geographic Society. ) 

south side and, opposite this, a flight of narrow steps led to an elevated 
room in which a central block of masonry represented the " altar." 

Excavation of the kivas and secular rooms in Pueblo Bonito is 
contributing in large measure to our knowledge of the prehistoric 
sedentary peoples of the Southwest. Chronological data from the 
vast accumulations which comprise the adjacent refuse mounds is 
expected to illustrate not only the character and extent of local cul- 
tural development but to serve also as a medium of correlation between 
the ancient Bonitians and other aboriginal peoples of the south- 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I II7 

western United States. Through such data it is hoped uhimately to 
arrive at the approximate age of this famous center of pre-Cokimbian 
civilization. 

The National Geographic Society proposes, as an essential feature 
of its Pueblo Bonito Expedition, to conduct dependent researches 
which will seek to determine the ancient source of water supply ; the 
agricultural possibilities of Chaco Canyon in prehistoric times ; the 
rapidity of subsequent sedimentation ; the age and probable source 
of the large timbers used in roofing the dwellings of Pueblo Bonito, and 
the geophysical changes, if any, brought about since abandonment 
of the great ruin. These are lines of investigation which may result 
in information of far-reaching significance and yet they have been 
generally neglected, heretofore, in connection with archeological 
explorations. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IN SOUTH DAKOTA AND 

MISSOURI 

In the fall of 192 1 Mr. W. E. IMyer, a voluntary collaborator of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology, investigated sites in South Dakota 
and western Missouri, known to have been occupied by the Omahas 
and Osages in early historic times, after they had come in contact with 
the whites but before they had been changed thereby to any con- 
siderable extent. 

Especial attention was paid to any resemblance to the ancient cul- 
tures found in the valleys of the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee 
rivers. This line of research was suggested by certain traditions of 
both the Omahas and Osages, as well as some of the other branches of 
the great Siouan linguistic family, that they had at one time lived 
east of the ]\Iississippi River, on the Ohio, and elsewhere, and after 
many wanderings, stopping here and there for years, finally reached 
their present sites in South Dakota and western Missouri. 

THE OMAHA SITES 

Mr. Francis La Flesche reported that the traditions of his people, 
the Omahas, stated that they had occupied two important villages on 
what the Omahas call " The Big Bend of the Xe." at some time in the 
seventeenth or eighteenth century. These traditions also told of 
many important events while the Omahas dwelt on these two sites. 

Aided by these traditions, Mr. Myer was enabled to locate these 
two ancient villages. He found one of these on the Big Sioux River, 
at its junction wnth Split Rock River, designated Split Rock site in 
this report. 



I]8 SMITHSONIAN .MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 



He found the other site wliere the Rock Island Railroad now 
crosses the Big Sioux River, about lo miles southeast of Sioux Falls. 
It is designated here the Rock Island site. 

ROCK ISLAND SITE 

Sometime in the seventeenth century the ( )maha and Poncas re- 
moved from the Pipestone regions in Minnesota and finally, after 
some further wanderings, built a fortified town on the Big Sioux 
River at the Rock Island site. While living in this fortified Rock 
Island site they were attacked and defeated by an enemy, most prob- 
ably the Dakotas, and finally forced to leave the region. Before 
leaving, they buried their dead from this fight in a mound on this 
site. This burial tradition was confirmed by excavations made by 
Mr. A. G. Risty and Mr. F. W. Pettigrew, who report finding a 
considerable amount of human bones in one of the mounds. Some 
glass beads and small copper bells of white man's make were also 
found in one of the mounds on this site. There is evidence that this 
site was occupied somewhere between 1700 and 1725- 

SI-LIT ROCK SITE 

After leaving the Rock Island site, the Omahas and Poncas roved 
without long permanent settlements for several years, but finally 
returned to their beloved Xe and built a permanent village at Split 
Rock site on " The Big Bend " at the junction of the Big Sioux and 
Split Rock rivers. 

The month of October, 1921, was spent exploring this Split Rock 
site. Many interesting relics of the Omahas were here unearthed, 
which throw new light on the life of these people before the\- had 
been very much changed by contact with the whites. 

There is a group of 30 mounds on the ridge between the two rivers 
marking the site of that portion of the old town occupied by the 
Omahas. On a hill one-half mile to the east was a group of ten more 
mounds, occupied by the Poncas before they split away from the 
Omahas at this old town. 

On the tall ridge i| miles to the west, by following the clues furn- 
ished by the traditions, three low mounds were discovered. These 
were said by the traditions to have been on the site of the lookouts for 
the main village. These lookout mounds command a view, ranging 
from 6 to 15 miles, on all sides. The mounds on this Split Rock site 
appear to have nearly all been used for burial. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



119 



The exploration of mound No. i showed that the Indians had 
selected for its site the summit of a beautiful little knoll on the edge 
of the steep bluff-like bank of Split Rock River. In the soil of this 
summit they dug a shallow pit, about 12 feet by 6 feet, and 2 feet deep. 
In this shallow pit bones belonging to five bodies had been placed. 
Several of these bodies appeared to have been buried after decay of the 
flesh. One body appeared to have been buried in the flesh, closely 
flexed, and this human bundle placed in the pit. The position of the 




l-"u.. 122. — A ijortioii ol' the layer of iumiaii liono lui llour ui charnel pit. 

skeleton of a horse with a crushed frontal bone showed that when 
this body-bundle had been placed in the pit, a large horse, about seven 
years of age, had been led to the knoll and there killed, on the edge 
of the pit, by the side of this body-bundle. Then, over all these, a low, 
round-topped mound, Cio feet across base and 5| feet in height, had 
been raised. 

^lound No. 2, the largest mound of the group, was near the center 
of the village. It was round-topped, 1 10 feet across base, and 10 feet 
high. This mound proved to be of considerable importance. In 
beginning its construction, a rectangular charnel pit, 12 feet by 14 
feet, and 2 feet deep, had been dug in the surface of the soil near the 
center of the town. This empty pit was then thoroughly coated with 
a white layer, about ^ inch in thickness. This white coating was 
made from calcined bones. 



120 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 72 

The bottom and sides of this white pit were then probably covered 
with soft furs. This is indicated by a thin l)lack layer of animal 
matter next to the white coating. 

On the floor of this fur-lined pit, bones representing about 50 
human beings had been laid. These bones had been brought from 
elsewhere after the decay of flesh. The bones presented the appear- 
ance of belonging to bodies which had either been left unburied, as 
on some battle field, or of belonging to scaffold burials. This solid 
layer of compressed broken and decayed human bones entirely covered 
the floor of the charnel pit to a depth of from 2 inches to 6 inches. 




Fig. 123. — Bone Hesher. 

Portions of this layer of human bones, before it had been disturbed, 
are shown in figure 122. 

On top of this solid mass of human bones traces of the thin fur layer 
were also found. Over this soft, warm fur covering a layer of bark 
was laid, and over this bark earth had been spread to a depth of from 
3 to 6 inches. This layer of earth was then smoothed and pressed 
down, and on this surface a white coating, similar to that on the 
bottom and sides, had been spread. Thus, these human bones, en- 
closed in their layer of warm furs, were completely incased by this 
white layer, very much as the filling of a pie is enclosed by the crust. 
Only one small, cylindrical copper bead was found with all this 
mass of bones. 

On the exterior of this communal charnel pit, on all four sides, the 
separate burials of several adults and two small children were found. 
With these outer burials were found several objects. Amongst these 
was the bone flesher shown in figure 123. Whh a compact bundle of 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



121 



bones belonging to two adults was a small pile of 30 circular orna- 
ments of shell like those shown in figure 124. These ornaments had 
probably been attached to some garment in the original temporary 
burial and removed from the decayed garment when placed with the 
bones in this new burial. 




Fig. 124. — Shell ornaments. 



No object of white man's manufacture was found on this site. 
There is evidence that this site was occupied by the Omahas some- 
where between 1725 and 17/5- 

The Omahas and their kindred, the Poncas, lived together at this 
Split Rock site. It was here that some of the most important events 
in the history of the Omahas and Poncas took place. While living 
here the long hostilities between the still united Omahas and Poncas 
and their old enemies, the Cheyennes and Arikaras, were ended by 



122 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 'J2 

a peace which was concluded with great ceremony at this Omaha- 
Ponca town. At the urgent request of the Arikara the sacred chant 
and dance of the calumet was used to cement this great peace pact. In 
this manner the Omahas and Poncas for the first time came into 
contact with this the most profoundly hinding and sacred ceremony 
known to savage man. 

At this site the age-long association hetween the kindred Omahas 
and Poncas was hroken. The tradition does not give the cause of 
their separation ; hut for some reason the Poncas, after having lived 
with the (3mahas through their long slow wanderings in the regions 
east of the Mississippi and through the lower and middle reaches of 
the ^Missouri Valley, left their kindred and formed a separate tril)e. 

It was at this site that the Omahas first came to possess the white 
man's horse, which was to play such an important part in the later 
Omaha life. The tradition tells that neither the Poncas nor the 
Omahas had possessed horses until after their separation at this site. 
The finding of the skeleton of a horse in a mound on this site is 
one of the many evidences which confirm this tradition that the 
Omahas remained at this site after the Poncas split away, and shows 
the Omahas were still living here when thev first ohtained horses. 

OS ACE SITES 

In Vernon and Bates counties, western ^Missouri, near the junction 
of the Osage and Alarmiton rivers, Mr. Myer found several sites 
known to have heen occupied by the Osage Indians in early historic 
times, shortlv after they had come in contact with the whites. 

Two of these early historic Osage sites, the village of the Grand 
Osage and the Little Osage village, were probably located. These 
were visited by Zebulon Pike in his journey of exploration in 1806. 

The site of the village of the Grand Osage was at the junction 
of the Marmiton and Little Osage rivers, in Vernon County. 

The probable site of the Little Osage village of Pike was at the 
Perry and MacMahan coal mine, about 2 miles northwest of the 
village of the Grand Osage. Old settlers stated that decayed lodge 
poles were still standing and many other signs of Indian occupancy 
were to be seen at this Little Osage site as late as 1840. The present 
appearance of this site is shown in figure 125. 

A considerable collection of surface finds from this site shows no 
objects of white man's manufacture ; l)ut local tradition says frag- 
ments of brass kettles, old gun barrels, early bullets, and other objects 
of white man's manufacture have been found here. 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



123 




i'K;. i-'^.— ^ile ut I'lkcs Little Osas'e Village. 




Fig. 126.— Hallev's Bluff. 



124 SMITHSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. '/2 




Pic. 127.— Site (.1 cache pits at base of Halley's Bluff. 



NO. 15 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I I25 

Two of these surface finds throw Hght on the extent of aborigmal 
barter. One of these is a broken obsidian implement. The nearest 
source of this material is probably in the Rocky IMountains, some 
1,000 miles to the west. Another is a shard of Mesa Verde pottery, 
the nearest source of which is in the Mesa Verde culture region around 
the southwestern corner of Colorado, about 800 miles to the west. 

The largest Osage village in X^ernon County is at what is still known 
as Old Town, on Old Town creek, about 3^ miles south of Pike's 
village of the Grand Osage. This site covers about 40 acres and is 
the best known of any of the Osage sites. It has yielded a large 
amount of iron axes, gun barrels, gun locks, fragments of brass 
kettles, glass beads, and other articles of early white manufacture. 
Along with these large quantities of shell beads, flint arrow heads, 
broken pipes, and other objects of purely aboriginal origin were 
found. Old Town culture furnishes an excellent example of Indian 
culture in the days of early contact with the whites. 

The most picturesque Indian site in this Osage region is Halley's 
Bluff on the Osage River, about i^ miles down stream from where 
the jMarmiton and Marais des Cygnes unite to form the Osage River. 
A photograph of a portion of this bluff is shown in figure 126. There 
is evidence showing occupancy of this bluff" by Indians long before 
the coming of the white man and probably before the coming of the 
Osages. 

The long summit of the bluff shows many small, low heaps of stones 
and other Indian signs. The sheltered spaces at the foot of the over- 
hanging cliffs were out of reach of the highest waters and were 
sheltered in large degree from the winds and rains. Here, in these 
dry, sheltered spaces, these ancient people lived and worked. They 
dug about 20 cache pits at present about 5 feet in depth, in the mod- 
erately soft red sandstone. 

FIELD-WORK ON THE KIOWA. PUEBLO, AND CALIFORNIA 

INDIANS 

At the end of July J\Ir. J. P. Harrington, ethnologist, proceeded to 
California to continue his studies of the Indians of the Chumashan 
area of that state. Place-names, material culture, and sociology, all 
these branches being closely related to language, were especially in- 
vestigated and all obtainable data recorded. By rare good fortune 
several dozen old ceremonial songs were obtained on the phonograph, 
with full notes and translation where possible, these songs having 
not been in use since the middle of the past century. The songs were 



126 



SMITHSOXIAX MISCELLAXEOUS COLLECTIOXS 



VOL. 



accompanied l)v the lieatint^ of the spht-stick, and the rendition, while 
not what might he desired, will douhtless he adequate for transcription. 
They helong to several distinct cycles. Interesting comparisons were 
drawn hetween the California Indian culture and that of the south- 
west. The sweathouse is certainly the same as the kiva. The Cali- 




FiG. i_'8. — Aged Mission hidian informant. ( I'liotograpli 
1)v Harrington.) 



fornia phratries correspond to the dual division of the Pueblos. The 
dancers who represent demons are the Pueblo katcinas. These re- 
semblances also extend to many minor features. 

Nor was the linguistic side of the work neglected, ethnology and 
linguistics, and in fact archeology, of necessity going hand in hand 
in this dii^cult held. This linguistic work is of the greatest im- 
])ortance since it furnishes material for com]iarison with all the 
related lanjruaiies. 



NO. 15 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I92I 



127 



jVIr. Harrington's field studies reveal the fact that the language 
of the Kiowa, who are now settled in Oklahoma but formerly had 
eastern Montana as their habitat, is closely and genetically related to 
that of the Taos and other Tanoan tribes of New Mexico, which have 
typical Pueblo culture. Thus, the interesting fact is established that 
the Taos speak a dialect of Kiowa just as the Hopi, farther west, speak 
a divergent Shoshonean. These studies also make it clear that Keres 
and Zuni are related to each other genetically, and furthermore to 
Tano-Kiowan and Shoshonean, the languages all having a common 
origin. 



ARCHEOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK ON THE SUSQUEHANNA 
RIVER, PENNSYLVANIA 

In July, 1 92 1, Mr. John L. Baer, Acting Curator of American 
Archeologv of the United States National Museum, examined for 




¥ir.. 129. — Petroglyphs, Bald Friars 
Md. 



Fig. 130. — Fetrogix'phs on Miles Is- 
land, Susquehanna River, Pa., near 
Mason-Dixon Line. 



the Bureau of American Ethnology a number of instructive picto- 
graphs at Bald Friars and Miles Island in the Susquehanna River. 

These occur about one-fourth the distance between Bald Friars 
Station and Conowingo Station, on the Columbia and Port Deposit 
Railroad. 

All the rocks upon which petroglyphs are found seem to have been 
polished before the petroglyphs were cut in them. The top surfaces 
of most of the rocks l^earing petroglyphs were marked with cups and 
circular grooves, some of which were concentric. Some of the rocks 
were fractured destroying the continuity of pictures that originally 
existed. Upon one large rock broken from its original position pos- 
sibly by ice are carved two slender fishes headed up-stream. The rock 
upon which they were found suggests a good stand for shad fishing 
with a net. 



128 



SMITIISOMAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION'S 



VOL. 



On a group of low rocks to the northwest of Miles Island is a 
peculiar arrangement of figures. On one side of a tectiform rock 
are two concentric circles with radiating spokes, a cup, and two semi- 
circular concentric grooves, while on the ridge and extending down on 
the opposite side of the roof-like rock is a figure that might represent 
an animal. 

During the same trip. Mr. Baer spent several days on Mount 
Johnson Island, Susquehanna River, and on the near-by flats below 




Fig. 131. — Petroglyphs on Miles Is- 
land, Susquehanna River, Pa., near 
Mason-Dixon Line. 



Fig. 132. — Petroi^lvphs, Bald Friars, 
Md. 



Peach Bottom, Lancaster Co., Pa., seeking further evidences of the 
bannerstone workshop in which he has been interested for a number 
of years. He brought back with him a number of broken and unfin- 
ished slate bannerstones, flint pecking stones, polishing stones and 
other utensils showing evidences of a considerable sized workshop on 
the island. A synoptic series from this workshop showing the difter- 
ent stages in the manufacture of the l:)annerstone has been placed on 
exhibit in the Pennsylvania case in the .American Archeological col- 
lection of the National Museum. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 74, NUMBER 5 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1922 




(Publication 2711) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1923 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 74. NUMBER 5 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIHLD-WOKK OF THE 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 11122 



fPrW 



per\ 



/orb 



(Publication 2711) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1923 



Zf)t Boxb QSaffmore (preee 

BALTIMORE, MI)., 0. S. A. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction i 

Geological Explorations in the Canadian Rockies (Dr. Charles D. Wal- 
cott) I 

Paleontological Field-Work in the United States (Dr. R. S. Bassler) 24 

Astrophysical Field-Work in California, Arizona, and Chile (Dr. C. G. 

Abbot) 27 

Expedition to Examine the North Pacific Fur Seal Islands (Dr. Leon- 
hard Stejneger ) 30 

Explorations in Australia and China (Mr. Charles M. Hoy) 41 

Biological Explorations in Southeastern China (Mr. A. de C. Sowerby) . 42 

Heredity Experiments in the Tortugas (Dr. Paul Bartsch) 45 

Collecting Trip to Jamaica (Air. John B. Henderson) 54 

The Mulford Biological Exploration (Dr. W. M. Mann) 54 

Botanical Exploration of the Dominican Republic (Dr. W. L. Abbott).. 62 

Botanical Exploration in Central America (Mr. Paul C. Standley) 63 

Botanical Exploration in Colombia (Mr. Ellsworth P. Killip) 70 

Visit to European Herbaria (Mrs. Agnes Chase) 80 

Recent Discoveries of Ancient Man in Europe (Dr. Ales Hrdlicka) 82 

Meeting of International Congress of Americanists in Brazil (Drs. Hough 
and Hrdlicka) 85 

Exploration of the Paleolithic Regions of France and Spain (Mr. M. W. 

Stirling) 87 

Archeological Field-Work on the Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado 

(Dr. J. Walter Fewkes) 89 

Observations Among the Ancient Indian ]\Ionuments of Southeastern 
Alaska (Dr. T. T. Waterman) 115 

Archeological Investigations at Pueblo Bonito (Mr. Neil M. Judd) 134 

Investigation of Prehistoric Quarries and Workshops in Pennsylvania 

(Mr. John L. Baer) 143 

Investigations Among the Algonquian Indians (Dr. Truman Michelson).. 146 

Field-Work Among the Yuma, Cocopa and Yaqui Indians (Miss Frances 

Densmore) I47 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 



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8 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 



but as far as known it had not been visited, except by trappers lung 
ago, until the summer of iQ2i when Walter D. Wilcox and A. L. 
Castle camped in it and photographed some of its more striking 
features. Wilcox called it the " Valley of the Hidden Lakes," ' but 
for geologic description and reference " Douglas Canyon " is more 
simple. 

Mount Douglas (10,615 ft., 3,018 m., figs. 2 and 3) towers for 
4,500 feet ( 1,371.60 m.) above the canyon bottom, and Lake Douglas 




Fig. 8. — Lake Gwendolyn, the gem of the upland valley, with Bonnet 
glacier and the northwest cliffs of Bonnet Mountain. 

Locality: The lake is about 12.5 miles (20 km.) east-northeast of Lake 
Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada, and 7,500 
feet (2,250 m.) above sea level. (Mr. and Mrs. C. D. Walcott, 1922.) 



(fig. i) fills the ancient pre-glacial channel for two miles or more. 
This superb canyon valley with its forests, lakes, glaciers and moun- 
tain walls and peaks (figs, i, 3-10) should be opened up to the moun- 
tain tourist who has the energy to ride along a fine Rocky Motuitains 
Park trail (fig. 12) from Lake Louise Station up the Pipestone and 
Little Pipestone rivers to the upper section of the Red Deer River, 
or from the Station by the way of Lakes Ptarmigan and Baker to the 
Red Deer camp and thence to Douglas Lake and Canyon Valley. 



' Bull. Geog. Soc. Pliiladelphia, \'ol. XX, 1921. 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 







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SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



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SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



II 



The trail into Douglas Lake from the Red Deer River is not cut 
out for three miles, but lo pack horses were led through the forest 
on a mountain slope without difficulty. This part of the trail should 
be opened up by the Rocky ^Mountains Park service and made part 
of the Pipestone-Red Deer-Ptarmigan circuit. 



-A A" ■ 




Fig. II. — Limestone rock fall from mountain side on right of picture. The 
horses and riders indicate the size of the blocks. 

Locality: Douglas Lake canyon about 1.5 miles (2.4 km.) above Lake 
Douglas and about 13 miles (20.S km.) east-northeast of Lake Louise Station 
on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada. (Mr. and Mrs. C. D. 
Walcott, 1922.) 



Game is abundant. The party saw 144 mountain goats, many black 
tail deer, and marmots on the Alpine slopes of Douglas Canyon (figs. 
7 and 10), and at the head of the Red Deer-Pipestone divide, moun- 
tain sheep. 

The measured geologic section was from the base of the Devonian 
above Lake Gwendolyn across the canyon to the deep cirque below 
Halstead Pass where the great Lyell limestone forms the crest of 



12 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 



the ridge. (See fig. lo.) The section includes the Ozarkian Mens 
formation down to the Lyell formation of the Upper Cambrian.^ 

A short visit was made to Glacier, B. C, where Mrs. Walcott 
measured the recession of Illecillewaet glacier, which she began to 
record in 1887. The recession the past four years has been at the 
rate of 112.5 feet (34.29 m.) per year, and all of the lower rock 
slopes are now free from ice. (See figs. 13 and 14.) 




Fig. 12. — Rocky Mountains Park trail on north side of head of Red Deer 

River, en route from Lake Louise to Douglas Lake canyon. 

Locality: Same as figure 2. 

On our way south from the Bow Valley no stops were made for 
photography or geologic study until camp was made on the Kootenay 
River about six miles (9.6 km.) below the mouth of the Vermilion 
River. The Kootenay Valley is deep and broad, with the high ridges 
of the Mitchell Range on the east and the Brisco Range on the west. 
(Figs. 15 and 16.) In places the old river terraces extend for miles 
along the river with a varying width. This greatly facilitated the 



' Explorations and Field-work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1919, p. 15. 
Smithsonian Misc. Coll.. Vol. 72. No. i, IQ20. 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



13 




Fig. 13. — Photograph of Illecillewaet glacier taken in 1898, for com- 
parison with one taken 24 j'ears later in August, 1922. In this photograph 
the bare space between the glacier and the dark bushes represents the 
recession of the ice between 1887 and 1898. 

Localify: Two miles (3. 2 km.) south of Glacier House, British Columbia, 
Canada. (George and William Vaux, 1898.) 




Fig. 14. — Remnant of Tllecillewaet glacier photographed in August, 1922. 
Locality: Same as figure i,^. (Mrs. C. D. Walcott, 19^-'-) 
2 



14 



SMITHSONIAN M ISIELI.ANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 




NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



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SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 



building of the motor road, as long, level and straight sections were 
readily surveyed and fine gravel was at hand for surfacing the 
read bed. 




Fig. 17. — Ilhistrating a thrust fault. The 1)ecldt'd Hmeslones have heeii 
dragged and bent upward on the west (left ) side of fault, the plane of which 
slopes northeast at about 45°. The thin layers of limestone above the thick 
strong layer which slid over the limestones beneath are broken and crowded 
against the massive bed on the upper side of the fault. 

f.ocality: North side of the Banff-Windermere motor road a])out one- 
half mile (.8 km.) below Radium Hot Springs, Sinclair Canvon, British 
Columbia, Canada. (Mr. and Mrs. C. IX W'alcott, I9-'-^) 
Xote face in u]ipcr left corner. 



A view in the forest section of the Kootenay \'alle\- is shown by 
figure 20, and a more dif^cult section for road building by figures 



NO. 



SMITIISUMAN KXPLOKATIONS, 1C)22 



17 



15 and 16. The motor road is a fine public work and opens up for 
pleasure and business direct connection through the main ranges of 
the Rockies between the Bow and Columbia River valleys. 

The limestones and shales of both ranges are upturned and sheared 
and faulted so as to make it very difficult, without detailed areal maps 
and unlimited time, to work out the structure and the complete 
stratigraphic succession of the various formations. (See fig. 17.) 




Fig. 18. — ^West slope of Stanford range south of Sinclair Pass, with white 
quartzite band at base of Silurian limestones. About six miles (9.6 km.) 
above Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, Canada. (Mr. and Mrs. 
C. D. Walcott, 1922.) 

The Silurian limestones, with their fossil coral beds above the white 
quartzite of the Richmond transgression (see fig. 18) were found in 
the upper portion of Sinclair Canyon, and not far away black shales 
full of Silurian graptolites (fig. 19). Lower down the canyon thin 
bedded gray limestones yielded fos.sils of the Mons ' formation not 
unlike those so abundant at the head of Clearwater Canyon, 73 miles 
( 1 17.4 km.) to the north, and Glacier Lake, 94.6 miles ( 152.21 km.) 



' Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 72, No. i, p. 15, 1920. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 



north. It is evident that in the ancient and narrow Cordilleran Sea 
that extended from the Arctic Ocean 2,000 miles (3,218 km.) or more 
south between the coast ranges of the time and the uplands of the 
central portion of the North American continent, there was a simi- 
larity of Lower Paleozoic marine life along the shores and in its 
shallow waters. Evidences of this and of strong currents and per- 
sistent wave action occur all the way from central Nevada to Mount 




Fig. 19. — Graptolites that flourished on the muddy bed of the sea in 
Silurian time. The coiled form Monograptus convohitus Hisinger is found 
both in Europe and America. The straight form is very abundant in some 
of the partings of the shale. 

Locality: Sinclair Canyon about 3.25 miles (5.2 km.) above Radium Hot 
Springs, "in cliff on south side of Banff-Windermere motor road, British 
Columbia, Canada. 



Robson in British Columbia. The record of the marine life and 
deposits of mud and sand is most complete, and it has been great sport 
running down the various clews that have been encountered from 
time to time. 

The lower Sinclair Canyon opens out into the Columbia River 
Valley through a narrow canyon eroded in the upturned and faulted 
limestones. Some conception of the character of the canyon may be 
obtained from figures 21-23. 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



19 











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SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 




NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



21 




Fig. 24.— a beautiful cluster of white saxifrage in a sheltered spot among 
limestone boulders. 

Locality: South branch of the headwaters of Clearwater River, 22 miles 
(35.2 km!) north of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
Alberta, Canada. (Mrs. C. D. Walcott, 1922.) 




Fig. 25. — A group of white heather, Bryantlnis, growing on limestone 

Locality: Near head of Red Deer River 10.5 miles (16.8 km.) northeast 

of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada. 
(Mrs. C. D. Walcott, 1922.) 



22 



SMITFISONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 7 



74 




Fig. 26.— Purple gentian growing on a south slope of a limestone ridge at 

about 7,000 feet (2,100 m.) elevation. 

Locality: Same as figure 25. (Mrs. C. D. Walcott, 1922.) 




Fig. 27. — A fine plant of Zigadenas growing on a slope of limestone debris. 
Locality: Same as figure 25. (Mrs. C. D. Walcott, 1922.) 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1^22 



23 




Fig. 28. — Mrs. Walcott sketching a wild flower in water colors on a frosty 
morning in camp. The camp fire kept the open tent warm and comfortable. 

Locality: Vermilion River canyon between the Banff- Windermere motor 
road and"the river, British Columbia, Canada. ( C. D. Walcott, 1922.) 




Fig. 29. — Getting acquainted will, a MHUii; liruiicliu. Ucili\ Xaiicy and her 
mistress at Hillsdale camp, Bow Valley, Alberta, Canada. (C. D. Walcott, 
1922.) 



24 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS V(JL. 74 

The living evidence of the heat developed by the upturning and 
compression of the strata under the eastward thrust of the massive 
Selkirk Mountains is that of Radium Hot Springs in Sinclair Canyon, 
and Fairmont Hot Springs, 15 miles (24 km.) or more to the south. 

During the summer ]\Irs. Walcott sketched in water colors 24 
species of wild flowers, or their fruit, that were new to her collection 
now on exhibition in the great hall of the Smithsonian building. 
Some of her photographs of wild flowers are shown by figures 24-27, 
and sketching in camp by figure 28. 

The party at the end of the season camped on the eastern side of 
the Columbia River Valley at Radium Hot Springs postoffice, where 
the veteran prospector, John A. McCullough, has made his home for 
many years. He and Mrs. McCullough were most courteous and 
obliging to the party which then consisted of the Secretary and Mrs. 
Walcott, Arthur Brown, Paul J. Stevens, packer, and William Baptie, 
camp assistant. 

Familiar scenes in connection with the life on the trail are illus- 
trate'd by figure 29. 

The Commissioner of the Canadian National Parks, Flon. J. B. 
Harkin, and the members of the Parks service in the field, especially 
Chief Inspector Sibbald and Chief Game Warden John R. Warren, 
were most helpful, also the officials and employees of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. 

PALEONTOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IN THE UNITED STATES 
Dr. R. S. Bassler, curator, division of paleontology, U. vS. National 
Aluseum, working in collaboration with the State Survey, was in the 
field six weeks in June and July, in a continuation of stratigraphic 
and paleontologic studies begun a year earlier in the Central Basin 
of Tennessee. This work is so extensive that a number of seasons 
of field-work will be necessary for its completion. In 1921 the study 
and mapping of the Franklin quadrangle, an area of about 250 
square miles, just south of Nashville, was well advanced but so many 
new stratigraphic problems arose that the State Geologist, Mr. Wilbur 
A. Nelson, suggested the field season of 1922 be devoted to the fur- 
ther study of the Franklin quadrangle and to stratigraphic studies in 
contiguous areas. Accordingly, the mapping of the Franklin quad- 
rangle was completed and data secured for the preparation of a geo- 
logical report upon the area, to be published by the State. Strati- 
graphic studies were then undertaken in the adjacent contiguous 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1^22 



25 



areas and some of the classic geologic sections of Central Tennessee 
were visited and studied in detail. Dr. E. O. Ulrich, associate in 
paleontology in the National Museum, joined in this work on account 
of his life-long interest in the stratigraphy of Central Tennessee, and 
with the aid of his assistant, Mr. R. D. Mesler of the U. S. Geologi- 
cal Survey, numerous detailed sections and about a ton of carefully 
selected fossils were secured for the National Museum. 

The classic section at Nashville, Tennessee, in which the proper 
delimitation of the formations has long been in dispute, was studied 




Fig. 30. — Section at Nashville, Tennessee, illustrating sequence of 
Ordovician formations. (Photograph by Bassler.) 



with especial care and ample collections of fossils were secured to 
verify the stratigraphic results. 

The deep sea origin of all limestones has long been taught in spite 
of the trend of evidence that many limestone formations were laid 
down in shallow seas. The shallow water origin of limestone is 
well illustrated in the section of Ordovician strata exposed near the 
blind asylum at Nashville which has been studied by several gener- 
ations of geologists. At the base of this section, as shown in figure 
30, is the Hermitage formation which was evidentlv formed along 



26 



S M 1 r 1 1 SON 1 A X M ISCF.I.LAX li( )US C( )LI .ECIK >N S 



74 



ancient shore lines l)ecause it is composed of beach worn fragments 
of shells and other fossils. Above this comes the liigby limestone, the 
source of much of the Tennessee brown phosphate and which also is 
made up almost entirely of the comminuted remains of fossils. Next 
is the Dove limestone, an almost pure, dove-colored, lithographic- 
like limestone which shows its shallow water origin in the worm 
tubes penetrating it and its sun-cracked upper surface. A slab 
of this limestone a foot thick, as shown in figure 31 and now on 




Fig. 31. — Stratum of dove limestone showing sun-cracked upper surface 
and penetrating worm tuljes. indicative of shallow water origin. (Photo- 
graph by Bassler. ) 



exhibition in the National Museum, well illustrates the polygonal 
upper surface and the penetrating worm tubes, both featui"es indica- 
tive of the origin of the rock on old mud flats which were periodically 
above water and thus became sun cracked. The sticceeding Ward 
limestone is of the more typical blue variety but here the rock is filled 
with millions of fossil shells which under the influence of weathering 
are changed to silica and are left free in great numbers in the soil. 
This section is only a ]:)ortion of the entire geological sequence at 
Nashville but it well illustrates the various types of limestone out- 
cropping throughout the Central Basin. 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 27 

ASTROPHVSICAL FIELD-WORK IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, 

AND CHILE 

The Astrophysical Observatory of the Institution did some notable 
work at Mount Wilson on the spectra of the sun and stars. Some 
discrepancy had appeared between the work of 1920 and the early 
work of the observatory prior to 1910 on the distribution of energy 
in the sun's spectrum as it is outside the atmosphere. It appeared 
necessary to go over this ground again, as the result is used in every- 
day work at the two field stations in Chile and Arizona, in computing 
the solar constant of radiation, so the work was repeated by Messrs. 
Abbot and Aldrich with as much variety in conditions as was possible. 
The results of the different experiments were in close accord, and 
in accord with the work of 1920. so that the new determination is 
now going into effect in the computations in Arizona and Chile. 

At the invitation of Director Hale, of the Mount Wilson Observa- 
tory, Messrs. Abbot and Aldrich employed the great hundred-inch 
telescope there in connection with a special vacuum bolometer and 
galvanometer designed and constructed at Washington in order to 
measure the heat in the spectrum of the brighter stars. In other words, 
they attempted to investigate the distribution of radiation in the stellar 
spectra with the bolometer as they have long done with regard to the 
spectrum of the sun. When one thinks of taking the light of a star, 
which looks like a firefly up in the sky, separating it out into a long 
spectrum, and observing the heat in the different parts of the spec- 
trum, it seems a practical impossibility. Nevertheless, the observers 
succeeded in doing this for ten of the brighter stars, and they also 
observed the sun's spectrum with the same apparatus. In this way 
it was possiljle to represent the distribution of radiant energy in the 
different types of stars from the bluest to the reddest ones, and to 
know the displacement of the maximum of energy from shorter to 
longer wave-lengths as the color of the stars tended more and more 
towards the red. 

The outlook for further investigations of this kind is hopeful, and 
it will have a notable value in the estimation of the temperatures of 
the stars and the study of stellar evolution. 

The two field stations at Mount Harqua Hala, Arizona, and Mount 
Montezuma, Chile, are continued in operation. The station on Mount 
Harqua Hala. under the direction of Mr. Moore, has been much im- 
proved during the year. Owing to the driving rains and high winds, 
it proved necessary to sheathe the adobe building there with galva- 



28 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 



nized iron. At the same time all cracks for the entrance of wind, 
snow, and noxious insects and animals were closed. A small building 
was erected to house the tools and electrical appliances used for 
charging storage batteries and other purposes, and in this was ar- 
ranged a shower bath ingeniously contrived to give a continuous 
shower as long as desired with only about a gallon of water. Cement 
water reservoirs for collecting and preserving the rain and snow 
water from the roofs have been constructed, with a total storage 




Fig. 32. — Mount TTarqua Hala Solar Observing Station, Arizona. 

capacity of about two thousand gallons. A small porch was attached 
to the dwelling quarters and the rooms have been neatly painted and 
curtained. A " listening in " wireless outlit has been erected, and a 
so-called " Kelvinator " or sulphur dioxid refrigerating device for 
keeping provisions and cooling water for drinking purposes has been 
installed. 

The observatory owns a Ford truck which is ke]it in a small garage 
Ijuilt at the foot of the trail, and weekly mail and stipply service is 
maintained from Wenden to the movmtain top. /V telephone line is 
just being erected to connect from Wenden to the observing station. 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



29 



The cost of these various improvements, which have made living on 
the mountain very much more comfortable, has been borne by funds 
provided for the purpose by Mr. John A. Roebling, of New Jersey, 
to whom the Institution is greatly indebted for his generous interest 
in its solar radiation program. 

A notable case of fluctuation in the solar radiation has recently 
been reported from the Arizona station. A fall of 5 per cent in 
the solar heat occurred, beginning about the 15th of October and 




Fig. t,2>. — Mount Harqua Hala and garage at foot, Ar 



izona. 



reaching its minimum on the 21st, and then quickly recovering to 
the normal by the 25th. By inquiry at the U. S. Naval Observatory, 
it is learned that a very notable new group of sun spots was formed, 
the first indications appearing about the 17th of October and the group 
reaching great dimensions by the 21st when it neared the limb of the 
sun and shortly disappeared over the edge, due to the solar rotation. 
This occurrence is nearly parallel to that of March, 1920, when a 
similar great drop in the solar heat occurred and a very extraordinary 
sun-spot group passed over the sun. 



30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

EXPEDITION TO EXAMINE THE NORTH PACIFIC FUR SEAL 

ISLANDS 

The Department of Commerce wishing to ohtain exact informa- 
tion as to the status of the fur seal herd on the Russian seal islands, 
situated off the coast of Kamchatka and known as the Komandorski 
or Commander Islands, with special reference to the eft'ect of the 
treaty of 191 1 entered into by the United States, Russia, Japan and 
Great Britain for the protection of the fur seals in the North Pacific 
Ocean, requested the detail of the head curator of biology of the 
Museum. Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, to accompany an expedition to 
Alaska and adjacent regions during the summer of 1922. The expedi- 
tion, under the immediate leadership of Assistant Secretary of Com- 
merce C. H. Houston, was primarily organized for the purpose of 
studying the conditions of the fisheries of Alaska as well as the other 
economic and commercial problems of that territory in so far as they 
are included in the activities of the Department of Commerce. Among 
others it included Mr. W. T. Bower, Bureau of Fisheries, Assistant 
in charge of Alaska, and Dr. Alfred H. Brooks. U. S. Geological 
Survey, in charge of Alaskan Geology. Capt. C. E. Lindquist was 
engaged as special assistant to Dr. Stejneger. 

The expedition left Seattle, Washington, in the U. S. Coast Guard 
Cutter Mojave, Lieut. Comm. H. G. Hamlet commanding, on June 
20, 1922, and proceeded by the inside passage to southern Alaska, 
making short stops at various places for inspection of canneries, 
hatcheries, factories, mines, etc. At Juneau, an excursion to Menden- 
hall glacier was undertaken. On June 27, Cape St. Elias, the " land- 
fall " of Bering in 1741, was rounded, and the Mojave stopped at 
Cordova, the principal town in Prince William Sound. From here 
Mr. Huston and a small party went overland to Fairbanks, returning 
by the recently opened Central Alaska Railroad to Seward, where 
they again boarded the Mojave on July 4. The stay of the cutter at 
Cordova was taken advantage of by Stejneger and Lindquist to 
arrange a visit to Kayak Island. The Russian commander, Vitus 
Bering, in May, 1741, left Petropaulski, Kamchatka, on board the 
St. Peter under orders to sail eastward until discovering America. 
After a stormy voyage a cape with high land beyond was clearly made 
out on July 16, old style, and on July 20 the St. Peter came to anchor 
ofif an island which is now known as Kayak Island. Steller, who 
accompanied the expedition as a naturalist, was only allowed to go 
with the crew sent ashore in a boat to fill the empty water casks at 
a small creek on the western shore of the island. Accompanied by 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



31 




Fig. 34. — U. S. C. G. C. Mo jure in Dutch Harbor, Alaska. (Photograph 

by L. Stejneger.) 




Fig. 35. — Steller's landing place. Kayak Island, Alaska. (Photograph by 

L. Stejneger.) 



32 SMiriisoxrAX miscellaneous cof-lections vol. 74 

his cossack, he explored as much of the island as he could during the 
short stay of al)OUt 6 hours, collecting plants, hirds and other natural 
history ohjects. This was the first landing of a scientific man in 
Alaska for the purpose of making obseryations and collections. 

The principal object of the trip to Kayak Island was to yerify 
Steller's description, to locate the place where he made his celebrated 
landing and where the water was obtained, and to make such collec- 
tions of natural history objects as circumstances would allow. Pas- 
sage for the 50-mile trip to Katalla was secured on the motor boat 
Pioneer. Leaving Cordova at 2 a. m. on June 29, it did not reach 
Katalla until 9.30 p. m. owing to its grounding at ebb tide on the 
extensive mudflats at the mouth of Copper Riyer. Another motor 
boat was hired at Katalla, but it was not possible to leave until the 
following day, so that Kayak Island was not reached until 6.15 p. m. 
A landing was eft'ected at the mouth of a creek which, from Steller's 
description, can be none other than the one at which Bering's crew 
took in water. Owing to the fast failing daylight, the party at once 
set out along the beach in the direction of the mainland for the distant 
hill described by Steller. but came to an abrupt halt after a laborious 
walk of about two miles along the bouldery lieach at a compara- 
tively recent fall of huge blocks of conglomerate rock among which 
the ocean waves were breaking so furiously as to stop further progress. 
The remaining few moments before darkness set in were utilized in 
collecting a few plants accessible along the beach at the foot of the 
precipitous cliffs which prevented access into the interior of the island. 
Returning, Cordoya was reached at 4 p. m. 

The fair weather which had favored the expedition hitherto 
changed to fog and rain after leaying Seward. Passing through 
Shelikof Strait opposite Katmai, a glimpse was had of the mountains 
on Kodiak Island still white, as if covered with snow, from the ash 
deposited diu'ing the eruption of the Katmai yolcano in T912. The 
passage through Unimak Pass was successfully accomplished in spite 
of the heavy fog on July 10, and the Mojave anchored ott the Akutan 
Whaling Station which was yisited. Two finliack whales were stripped 
of their lilubber during the inspection, .\rriying at Unalaska at 3.30 
p. m. the outfit and baggage of Stejneger and Lindcjuist were at once 
transferred to the U. S. Coast Guard Cutter Algonquin which was 
lying ready to take Secretary Huston and Mr. Bower to the Pribilot 
Islands for an inspection of the fur seal rookeries there, leaving 
Unalaska the same evening. 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



33 




Fig. 36. — Whaling station, Aicutan, Alaska. (Photograph by L. Stejneger.) 




Fig. T,y. — Carcass of fin back whale, whaling station, Akutan, Alaska. 
(Photograph by L. Stejneger.) 



34 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

The visit to the Prihilofs was favored with cool cloudy weather 
which showed up the rookeries to the best advantage. The increase 
in the number of seals on the beaches, a result of the elimination of 
pelagic sealing by the treaty of 1911 between the United States, Great 
Britain, Japan and Russia, was very remarkable, notwithstanding the 
handicap of the excessive increase of superfluous and therefore dis- 
turbing young males due to unfortunate legislation which stopped 
land killing for five years following the signing of the treaty. By 
drastic measures the proper numerical ratio between the sexes has 
almost been accomplished by now, and a complete restitution of the 
fur seal herd to its former maximum is confidently predicted for the 
not distant future, if pelagic sealing is not resumed. An improved 
method in stripping the skin from the body of the dead seal and 
subsequent cleaning of the skin was being tried out for the first time 
on an extensive scale and was shown to be a great improvement on 
the old method. Greatly improved methods were also observed in 
the handling of the blue foxes. The air of prosperity and progres- 
siveness pervading the whole establishment as compared with condi- 
tions 25 years ago was very notable, bearing testimony to the efifi- 
ciency of the management of the islands by the Bureau of Fisheries. 

The Algonquin with Stejneger and Lindquist on board returned to 
Unalaska to fill up with fuel oil preparatory to the trip to the Com- 
mander Islands, a distance of approximately 1,100 miles. At Dutch 
Harbor, while the vessel was taking in oil, the opportunity was taken 
advantage of to examine the small group of Sitka spruce planted 
there nearly 100 years ago by the Russian Admiral Liitke while 
visiting the island in the corvette Senia^'iii. A fire during the 
summer of 1896 came very near destroying the stand, but timely 
aid saved most of the trees. The little isolated grove, the only one 
west of Kodiak Island, showed the efi^ects of the fire. There are 
now 15 trees left, all looking healthy, the foliage being dense and 
dark, and the lower branches sweeping the ground. The south side 
of the trees was covered with blossoms and last year's cones, but no 
seedlings were seen anywhere. Among the large trees, however, there 
were a couple of saplings about 10 feet high, which had been 
smothered to death, but which show that fertile seeds have been pro- 
duced occasionally. The largest tree was measured and found to be 
8 feet in circumference 3 feet from the ground. About a foot higher 
it divides into three distinct trunks. 

The Commander or Komandorski Islands were reached on July 24. 
These islands form the most western group of the Aleutian Chain. 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



35 









Fig. 38. — Wharf at Unalaska. (Photograph by L. Stejnegcr. ) 




Fig. 39. — Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U. S. C. G. C. Algonquin taking in oil. 
(Photograph by L. Stejneger.) 



36 SMITHSONIAN ^MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

It consists of the two islands, Bering and Copper, situated about lOO 
miles east of Kamchatka. Thev belong to Russia and at the time 
of the visit were controlled by the Vladivostock government under 
]\Iiliukof. The conditions of the inhabitants were found to be better 
than expected. Perfect order was maintained, no foreign traders or 
disturbers were present, and the people, though reduced both in 
number and resources, were not starving thanks to the abundance 
of fish and the cargo of necessities which had been sent them in 
exchange for the furs of the past season. They were lacking, how- 
ever, in clothing, shoes and fuel. The party on the Algonquin was 
received with open arms, especially as the officers and crew of the 




Fjg. 40. — Grove of Sitka spruce, Dutch Harbor, Alaska. (Photograph by 

L. Stejneger.) 

cutter supplemented the scanty stores of the communities with gen- 
erous donations of necessities and a few luxuries. Immediately after 
landing the baggage and outfit of the expedition, the Algonquin left 
for Unalaska. 

The first important business was the examination of the only re- 
maining fur seal rookery on Bering Island. The South Rookery had 
long since ceased to exist, and the great North Rookery, one of the 
most important on the islands had been greatly reduced. The actual 
state of affairs was found to be much worse than anticipated. At his 
last visit to this rookery which he had studied and mapped in 18S2, 
1883, 1895, 1896 and 1897, Stejneger had estimated the number of 
breeding seals located there to be about 30,000. On July 28, 1022, 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



37 




Fig. 41. — Preobrazhenski village. Copper Island. (Photograph by 
L. Stejneger.) 




Fig. 42. — Nikolski village, Bering Island. (Photograph by L. Stejneger.) 



38 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

there were scarcely 2,000 left. Regular killing had been stopped and 
for the present the Komandorski seal herd is non-productive. 

The vi^eather which had been stormy and foggy now settled down 
to a continuous fog and rain which interfered greatly both with ob- 
servations and collecting. The latter was confined mostly to insects 
and plants. An interesting addition to the flora of the Commander 
group was the finding of Cypripcdiuni guttatutii, apparently confined 
to a single locality on Bering Island on a hillside south of the great 
swamp back of the Nikolski village. 

On August 8, the first clear day for weeks, the Mojave arrived 
and after staying a couple of hours proceeded with the completed 




Fig. 43. — Harbor of Petropaulski, Kamchatka. (Photograph by 
L. Stejneger.) 

party to Petropaulski, the capital of Kamchatka. The delay had 
been caused by the necessity of the Mojave returning from Anadir 
to Unalaska for fuel oil. 

At Petropaulski the town was found to be in the possession of the 
" whites," i. c, the officials of the Vladivostock government supported 
by an " army " of about 50 men, while the " reds," i. e., the portion 
of the male population recognizing the authority of the Far Eastern 
Republic, were holding the hills about four miles out. Two days 
were spent here examining into the conditions and gathering statistics 
of various kinds. A member of the Swedish Scientific Kamchatka 
Expedition which has been collecting natural history objects for the 
National Museum in Stockholm for a couple of years. Dr. Rene 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



39 



Malaise, a well-known entomologist, was met here and some of his 
interesting collections were examined. 

The next objective of the Mojavc expedition was an inspection of 
the Japanese fur seal island off the eastern coast of Sakhalin in 
Okhotsk Sea, usually known as Robben Island. 

On August 13, the Mojave passed the Kuril chain through Amphi- 
trite Strait but on account of fog did not anchor off Robben Island 
until the 15th in the evening. The party was there met by three 
Japanese officials of the Karafuto provincial government who with 
the greatest liberality placed all the desired information and statistics 
at the disposition of the American investigators. Robben Island is 




Fig. 44. — Robben Island, Okhotsk Sea. Part of fur-seal rookery. Breeding 
place of innumerable murres. (Photograph by L. Stejneger.) 

a small, elongated, flat-topped rock, nowhere higher than 50 feet, only 
1,200 feet long and less than 120 feet wide, surrounded by a narrow 
gravelly beach 30 to 120 feet wide, on which the rookery is located. A 
couple of low houses for the sealing crew, which is stationed here dur- 
ing the summer season, are located on the western slope. When Stej- 
neger visited and photographed the rookery in 1896 the seals occupied 
a small spot on the east side. Since the Japanese took over the island 
from the Russians in 1905, the number of fur seals has gradually 
increased until now the animals not only occupy the entire eastern 
beach but are extending the rookery at both ends on to the west side 
of the island. The Japanese have closely followed the methods em- 
ployed in managing the American seal herd on the Pribilof Islands, 
and the result has been equally gratifying. The history of the sealing 



40 



SMITIISONIAX MISCEl-I-AXEOUS (.Ol. LECTIONS 



VOL. 74 



industry on this rock is nio>t instructive as it proves in the most con- 
vincing manner that " protection does protect." After examining 
and photographing the rookery the party was entertained l^y the 
Japanese Comiuissioners with refreshments in a kirge tent erected 
for the occasion. 

From Robben Iskand the Mojave proceeded to Hakodate. Japan, 
where additional important information rekating to the Russian fur 
seal islands was obtained from Mr. Koltanovski of \dadivo>tock. who 
was on his way to the Commander Islands with a statT of assistants 
to assume charge of the iisheries there during the coming winter. In 




Fig. 45. — Members of tlie expedition at Robben Island. (Photograph by 

L. Stejneger.) 

r. E. Takamnkn, Chief of Fisheries Section, 
Karafuto Government. 

2. W. T. Bower, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

3. C. H. Huston, Assistant Secretary of Commerce. 

4. L. Stejneger, U. S. National ^Museum. 

5. S. Okamoto, Otomari, Karafuto. 

6. K. Fujita, Karafuto Middle School. 

7. C. E. Lindquist, Oakland, Calif. 

8. A. H. Brooks, U. S. Geological Survey. 



Yokohama, the next stopping jjlace. an interview with Col. Sokolnikof , 
who had been administrator of the Russian fur seal islands for ten 
years, was prodtictive of valuable information, as was also a visit 
to the Imperial Fisheries Bureau in Tokyo, thanks to the kind assis- 
tance of Prof. K. Kishinouye of the Imperial L^iiversity. ]\Ir. K. 
Ishino. the fur seal expert of the Ijureau, was kind enough to allow 
inspection of a series of |)hott)gra])lis which he had taken dtu'ing the 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 922 4I 

trip to the Commander Islands in 191 5 and 1916. An interesting- 
excursion was also undertaken to the Biological Station at Misaki, 
but as the season had not opened yet, only the buildings and the 
apparatus of the station could be examined. 

Messrs. Stejneger and Lindquist having now completed the task 
of inspecting the fur seal rookeries, left the Mojave in Yokohama and 
took passage in the President Jefferson sailing for Seattle, Washing- 
ton, on September 2. Dr. Alfred H. Brooks returned in the same 
steamer. 

EXPLORATIONS IN AUSTRALIA AND CHINA 

Through the generosity of Dr. W. L. Abbott, Mr. Charles M. Hoy 
continued his work of collecting specimens of the very interesting 
fauna of Australia. The work was terminated during the winter 
and Mr. Hoy returned to the United States in May, 1922. The 
results of this expedition are of especial value for two reasons : First, 
the Australian fauna has heretofore been but scantily represented in 
the National JNIuseum, and, second, the remarkable fauna of that 
continent is being rapidly exterminated over large areas. The speci- 
mens received during the year bring the total up to 1,179 mammals, 
including series of skeletal and embryological material ; 928 birds, 
with 41 additional examples in alcohol, and smaller collections of 
reptiles, amphibians, insects, marine specimens, etc. The accom- 
panying photograph (fig. 46) shows part of an exhibition case in 
the National INluseum with mounted specimens mostly from the 
Hoy collection. 

This expedition has been so important that the main features of 
its history may now be appropriately recapitulated. Doctor Abbott 
arranged early in 1919 to send Mr. Hoy to Australia. Departure 
from San Francisco took place early in May and collecting was 
begun at ^^ andanian, New South Wales, on June 19. From this 
time until the middle of January, 1922 Mr. Hoy was constantly in 
the field. The regions visited were as follows : New South Wales 
(June to December, 1919), South Australia, including Kangaroo 
Island (December, 1919, to the end of March, 1920), West Australia 
(May to September, 1920), Northern Territory (October to end of 
November, 1920), New South Wales (January and February, 1921), 
Tasmania (April to June, 1921), northern Queensland (July, 1921, to 
Januarv, 1922). As the main object of the expedition was not to visit 
the unexplored portions of Australia but rather to secure material 
from regions where settlement of the country is producing rapid 



42 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



74 



change in the fauna, travel was of the ordinary kind, by boat, rail and 
wagon road. Tent life was an important element in the living condi- 
tions, and at times it was rendered difficult by the heavy rains which 
in some districts broke a long-continued drought just at the time 
of Mr. Hoy's arrival. Detailed accounts of the work, with photo- 
graphs of many of the animals collected, and with passages from 
Mr. Hoy's letters have been published in previous numbers of this 
series of Exploration pamphlets (Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 72, 
No. I, pp. 28-32; vol. ']2, No. 6, pp. 39-43). 




Fig. 46. — Part of exhibition case in National Museum showing some of the 
kangaroos collected by Mr. Hoy in Australia. 



Dr. Abbott's unfailing interest in the national collections is shown 
by the fact that he has now arranged to send Hoy to China for the 
purpose of obtaining vertebrates from certain especially important 
localities in the Yang-tze valley, a region with which Hoy has been 
familiar for many years. Departure for the field took place on 
December 15, 1922. 

Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. 

BIOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN SOUTHEASTERN CHINA 
In the summer of 192 1 Mr. A. de C. Sowerby returned to China 
to continue the work of exploration interrupted by the war. This 
work, which is made possible by the generosity of Mr. Robert S. 
Clark of New York, will now be carried on in the region south of 
the Yangtze, and the zoological results will come to the National 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 43 

Museum. While it is too soon for any full report on the explorations 
in which Mr. Sowerby is engaged, the following passages from a 
letter dated December i, 1921, give some idea of the conditions imder 
which the work is being done. 

In the Interior of Fukien Province, 

S. E. China, December i, 192 1. 

Here I am over 200 miles from the coast up a tributary of the 
Min River, right at the back of beyond of the province, as you might 
say. I couldn't sit idle in Shanghai, so I decided to have a shot 
at this province. I took steamer to Foochow and was very fortunate 
in meeting a young American named Carroll, engaged in the lumber 
business, who was on his way to the very spot I had decided to visit, 
and he offered me the hospitality of his boat — an adapted river-boat, 
shallow draft, but comfortable — and his pleasant company. Natur- 
ally I accepted, and so here I am. We went away up a side stream, 
too small for boat traffic — to a spot in the back liills — or mountains, 
about 5.000 feet — where his company is opening up a forest, and 
there we camped a week, scouring the whole neighborhood, and 
having a few good hard tries for serows. Though we failed to get 
anything big, I did pretty well with small mammals. Next we came 
back to the main stream, where I am camped, while he has gone on 
up stream to transact some business. He expects to return here 
to-morrow or the next day, when we will go down stream to a place 
where a couple of tigers have been killing a lot of people, and see 
if we can't get a shot at them. Then on back to Foochow, whence I 
shall return to Shanghai for Christmas. After that I have fixed up 
with a party to go up the Yangtze as far as Wuhu, then inland to a 
place called Ning-kuo-fu, taking in some forested country on the 
way in the hopes of getting some Ccrvus kopschii, across the divide 
into Chekiang Province and down some stream to Hangchow. The 
other fellows are out for sport pure and simple, but I shall have 
time to do some collecting. So you see I am panning out pretty well. 
I shall come back to this province again as soon as possible, as it 
is simply full of stuff. The only trouble is that the cover is so dense 
that trapping and shooting are extremely difficult. I already have 
a collection of 94 mammals — including 14 species — some interesting 
birds, fish, frogs, etc. The rats are a puzzle. As far as I can make 
out I have five different species of Epimys. 

I have met Caldwell, the man who saw the famous " Blue tiger," 
and he tells me it was of such a color that he thought it was a chinaman 
in his blue coat in the brush. But he had a good enough view of the 



44 SMITHSONIAN MISCEfXANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

animal to be perfectly certain of what it was. And the only reason 
why he did not shoot it was that it was just above two boys who were 
working in a field, and had he shot it it must have fallen on top of 
them. Indeed, it was actually stalking them when he saw it. Yen- 
ping-fu is a wonderful animal centre. Caldwell got a tufted rnuntjac 
and a leopard just back of his compound, and wild cats, palm-civets 
and what not actually in it. 

This is very, very beautiful country. T have never seen anything 
quite like it. The whole country is hilly and mountainous, and 
covered with heavy underbrush, and woods of spruce, pine, and 
deciduous trees. The rivers and streams are clear as crystal, studded 
with rock, and exquisitely beautiful. The underbrush is a terror to 
get through by reason of its denseness and the sword-grass that occurs 
everywhere and cuts like a razor. I like the people, and find them . 
very friendly. At this moment I am camped in the local temple of 
a small village, my things spread all over the place. I am the centre 
of interest for the whole countryside. People come and burn incense 
and chin chin joss,, and then stop to look at me and have a good chin 
wag. It doesn't seem to worry them that 1 have dead rats on the 
altar. And the small boys bring me in rats, and mice, and shrews, 
and bats. Truly they are a most remarkable people. And there have 
been ever so many cases of murdered missionaries in the province in 
bygone days. I don't believe these people are pure Chinese. Some 
of them have most remarkably bushman-like faces. They say that 
there are real aborigines in the province, and the natives call ihem 
dog- faced men 

By the way, there was a tiger reported here this afternoon ! One 
man came in and said he saw it take a chicken. And there isn't any 
door to this temple. What would you do under the circumstances? 
All the tigers in this province are man-eaters ! I have made plans 
to try conclusions with this particular fellow to-morrow — but he may 
assume the offensive first. Don't think me an alarmist. I'm not. 
I'm merely telling you the cold truth about things. The other day 
when we were on our way up here we pulled up for the night beside 
a village. And all along the shore were the fresh tracks of two 
tigers. There was a lovely stretch of white sand, and it was bright 
moonlight, and so I kept the cabin window open and my rifle handy 
.... and I'll swear I woke ui> every 20 minutes and had a look out 
of the window. Next day we heard that 15 people had been killed 
by tigers in the neighborhood during the past month or so. 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAX EXPLORATIONS, I922 45 

HEREDITY EXPERIMENTS IX THE TORTUGAS 

Dr. Paul Bartsch, curator, division of mollusks in the INIuseum, 
has continued his heredity studies, for which molkisks of the genus 
Ccrioji are used as a basis. He visited the various colonies trans- 
planted to the Florida Keys from the Bahamas, Curacao, and Porto 
Rico and made a. careful study of the new generations which have 
arrived since last year. He reports a loss of all the material which 
was placed in cages last year for the purpose of studying the crossing 
products of selected pairs. A little experimenting led him to believe 
that this loss was due to the fact that the fine screen ?\Ioncl wire used 
for the cages, which not only covered the sides but also tops of these 
structures, prevented dew formation on the vegetation in the inside 
of the cages and thus inhil)ited the moisture required by these organ- 
isms. A heavy dew forms at the Tortugas during the night, the time 
during which Cerions are actively foraging for food, which is largely 
gained by plowing immediately below the surface for fungal mycelial 
threads. It is more than likely that the lack of dew also prevented 
the proper formation of mycelia in the area enclosed by the wire 
meshes and the Cerions may therefore not only have been famished 
for want of water, but likewise starved. 

Dr. Bartsch believes that these were the controlling factors for he 
found that by placing a piece of IMonel wire over a board at some 
little distance from the board and leaving a portion of the same board 
uncovered, the part over which the wire was stretched was found dry 
in the morning, while the uncovered portion was duly covered with 
moisture. To overcome this all the tops of the cages were removed 
and a narrow fringe of wire, turned down at the distal edgQ, was 
placed around each to prevent the Cerions from escaping. The cages 
were then stocked with the same elements used a year ago. 

Two additional cages were built. The sides and top of one were 
covered with paraffine treated cheesecloth and in the other the sides 
only were covered with this material. In these, specimens were placed 
in order to make sure that the contentions expressed above were the 
active factors in the killing ofif of last year's material, and that the 
attaching of the Cerions to the wire mesh of the sides of the cages, 
which become decidedly warm when the sun shines upon them, was 
not responsible. 

The Newfound Harbor hybrid colony was found flourishing. A 
lot of dead specimens was brought to Washington for record. 

Two new mixed colonies were established, consisting of 500 Florida 
grown specimens of Cerion viaregis Bartsch taken from Colony E, 

4 



46 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

Loggerhead Key, and 500 Ccrioii incanum Binney from Key West. 
It is hoped that these two colonies will reproduce the conditions 
existing in the hybrid colony on Newfound Harbor Key. It was 
deemed wise to establish these colonies so that in the event a fire 
should sweep over the Newfound Harbor colonies the experiments 
might be continued in these additional places. The first of these 
colonies was placed on the east end of Man Key in a small, low 
meadow, which suggested the conditions in which the hybrid colony 
on Newfound Harbor Key is existing. The other colony was estab- 
lished on the north end of the little key east of Man Key, which may 
be called Boy Key. 

Five hundred each of Ccrion viarcgis, Ccrion casablancac and 
Ccrion incamun were sent to Dr. Montague Cooke at Honolulu for 
colonization in the Hawaiian Islands. 

Thanks to the good offices of the Navy Department, Dr. Bartsch 
was granted the use of a seaplane for a week. This was under the 
command of Lieut. Noel Davis and Lieut. L. F. Noble. By means 
of this plane Dr. Bartsch was able to fly at low altitude over 
all the keys between Miami, and the Tortugas and West Cape 
Sable and the eastern fringe of islands. During past years he had 
spent as much time as was available in the exploration of the Florida 
Keys, for the native Ccrion incammi in order to establish the present 
extent of the colonies and to note what variation might exist in the 
members thereof. These colonies are usually found in the grassy 
plots on the inside of the keys and frequently in small grassy plots, 
which are difficult to discover as one approaches these mangrove 
fringed islands by water. To discover such colonies has usually 
meant cutting through the mangrove fringe to reach the interior, 
and there was danger of missing the smaller grassy plots. Flying 
over these keys made it easily possible to see all favorable places 
and to mark them on the charts. This will now permit a direct attack 
upon the places in question and determine positively the extent of 
existing colonies. Dr. Bartsch feels that at least a year of solid work 
was saved by the four days during which these explorations were 
made, to say nothing about saving an endless amount of punishment 
by mosquitoes which usually infest these mangrove fringed islands. 

This aerial survey of the Bay of Florida also adduced the fact 
that the milky condition of that stretch of water which has obtained 
for some time and was probably responsible for the killing off of the 
greatest part of the marine flora and fauna of the region, has sub- 
sided, a state of affairs also noted in the Bahamas last year. It was 
found that the water was clear everywhere and that the channels as 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



47 




Fig. 47. — A great white heron at Newfound Harbor Key. This is the 
younger brother or sister of the two now in the National Zoological Park, 
sent there by Dr. Bartsch in 1920 and 1921. 



48 



SMITIISOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 




Fig. 49. — Upper figure showing the wave undermined condition of the war- 
den's house on Bird Key before removal. Middle figure, the new location of the 
warden's house in the midst of the tern colony. Lower figure, Mr. Bethel, the 
w^arden, and his home in the new location. 

(49) 



50 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

well as the shallow flats were being repeopled by plants and animals. 
It will be interesting to note what, if any, change in the flora or fauna 
may ensue ; that is, to what extent an additional West Indian element 
may be injected into the lower Florida reaches. The partial stamp- 
ing out of the old fauna without serious physiographic or oceano- 
graphic changes in the region as far as physical features are apparently 
concerned is a rather interesting phenomenon and the re-establish- 
ment of a new flora and fauna will be ecjually noteworthy. 

As heretofore, careful notes on the birds observed on the various 
keys visited were kept. One of the remarkable things resulting from 
the use of the seaplane was the finding of several colonies of the 
great white heron (Ardca occidcntalis) which in previous years had 
been found breeding singly in the mangrove bushes. Two colonies 
of at least fifty each were found and several other colonies of lesser 
number. A photograph of a young of this year is shown in figure 47. 

During Dr. Bartsch's stay at the Tortugas, the Navy Department, 
at the request of the U. S. Biological Survey, moved the warden's 
house on Bird Key. This necessitated the removal of a large number 
of eggs of the breeding terns which were on the point of hatching. 
Dr. Bartsch staked out the place to be invaded and removed all these 
egg<., giving the terns breeding in the area adjacent to the marked 
place each an additional egg, which all the birds accepted without 
protest. In this way, 2,420 foster parents were established and it is 
hoped many young sooty terns saved. Of the nests destroyed, only 
eight contained two eggs. All the others had one only. Figure 48 
shows a photograph taken of Bird Key from the seaplane, by 
Dr. Bartsch, and figure 49 shows the old and new location of the 
warden's house. 

There were but seven nests of the noddy tern in this region. The 
noddy tern on Bird Key is disappearing rapidly. Dr. Bartsch does 
not believe that there are 800 birds there at the present time. This 
is largely due to the fact that the vegetation was destroyed almost 
wholly by a hurricane a few years ago, and no serious efforts have 
been made to replace it. Unless some relief is found in this matter, 
both the sooty and noddy will undoubtedly become decidedly dimin- 
ished in numbers because the young birds will not find the shade 
essential to their protection. It is again suggested, as heretofore, that 
a row of Australian pines and coconut trees be planted all around 
Bird Key, preferably alternately, and that the pines be kept topped so 
that they will become bushy and furnish a nesting site for the noddies. 
These trees grow very rapidly and should, in a very little while, fur- 
nish adequate home sites for the noddy tern. At the present time 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



51 




Fig. 50. — Near view of two noddies on their tree nests, on Bird Key, taken 

five years ago. 




Fig. 51. — This illustration shows transition stages from tlie tree breeding habit to 
the sand breeding stage depicted on the next plate. The upper figure shows a nest 
of dead twigs placed on tlie ground. The middle figure shows a number of nests 
placed among debris and rulibish on the site of the blown down house, while the lower 
figure shows an egg placed on a lioard. 

(52) 




Fig. 52.^^The upper figure showiug the uoddy terns breeding on the bare floor- 
ing, the rnajor remaining portion of the structure of the blown down house. The 
middle picture shows a noddy and her egg on the bare sand, and the lower figure 
shows another pair in a similar location. 

(53) 



54 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

the noddy terns, which are tree and bush building birds, are making 
their homes in ckimps of grass wherever these are available, or on 
old boards or even in bare sand. Their habits in the last lo years 
have changed on this key almost completely, resulting in the shrinking 
of the colony from about 4,000 birds, as estimated by Dr. Watson, 
to about 800, Dr. Bartsch's estimate, at present. Figures 50, 51, and 
52 show the changes that have taken place. The photograph of 
figure 50 was taken five years ago ; the other two this year. 

Another interesting observation made on birds was the large num- 
ber of thrushes found, chiefly on Garden Key. These included the 
veery, the olive back, the hermit, Alice's and Bicnell's thrush, all 
rather emaciated. Evidently the place did not furnish adequate food 
for them. It was interesting to see these birds mingle with the 
colony of exceedingly active white rumped sand pipers, which fre- 
quented the outer sandy beach of Garden Key, and to watch them 
chase sand fleas on the beach for food. 

COLLECTING TRIP TO JAMAICA 
In February, 1922, Mr. John B. Henderson, a Regent of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, desiring living specimens of Antillean Zonitid and 
Thysanophoroid landshells for anatomical study in connection with 
a monograph on these groups in preparation, proceeded to Jamaica to 
collect them. He made trips to Bog Walk on the Rio Cobre River, 
to Holly Mount on the summit of Mount Diablo, to Momague and 
to Brownstown in the Province of St. Anns. From the latter point he 
proceeded to St. Acre to complete for the Museum its series of fossil 
land shells occurring there in a Pleistocene deposit. From Browns- 
town he continued along the north coast to St. Anns Bay, collecting 
at numerous stations. A final trip was made to Morant Bay along 
the southeast coast. Although the time spent in the island was only 
a fortnight, the results were most satisfactory. About 40 species 
of land mollusks were expanded and preserved for study and as many 
more were collected for their shells only. Mr. Henderson also visited 
Panama for the purpose of learning the possibilities of obtaining 
suitable craft from the Canal Zone authorities for contemplated 
future dredging operations at Colon and Panama. 

THE MULFORD BIOLOGICAL EXPLORATION 
The National IMuseum has received the zoological material, other 
than reptiles, batrachians and fishes, collected by the IMulford Biologi- 
cal Exploration of the Amazon Basin, an expedition financed by 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



55 



the H. K. Mulford Co. of Philadelphia. The party consisted of Dr. 
H. H. Riisby, of the College of Pharmacy of Columbia University, 
director and botanist, W. M. Mann, assistant custodian of hy- 
menoptera, National Museum, assistant director, N. E. Pearson of the 
University of Indiana, ichthyologist, O. E. White of the Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden, botanist, G. Schultz McCarty and two Bolivian 
students, ^Manuel Lopez and Martin Cardenas, who were detailed by 




l''G. 53. — Start of mule train, La Paz, Bolivia. 
(Photograph by N. E. Pearson.) 

the Bolivian Government to study entomology and botany with the 
expedition members, and was accompanied by Mr. Gordan MacCreagh 
and J. Duval Brown, moving picture photographers, representing the 
Amazon Film Company. 

The expedition left New York on June i, 1921, and proceeded 
to Arica, Chile, and from there to La Paz, Bolivia, where arrange- 
ments were made for transportation across the mountains. At Pongo 



^6 



S:MITHS()N1AN MISCET-LAXEOUS coi.eections 



\'()L. 



"4 



de Quime (Alt. 11.500 ft.) above the timber line, a stop was made 
for several days and eonsiderable zoological material gathered. From 
here to Espia the journey was by mule train. Espia is a spot at 
the junction of the Megilla and La Paz rivers which form the Rio 
Bopi. In August it was exceedingly dry and not ver}- productive 
of specimens. 




Fig. 54. — Nest of Hoatzin, Little Rio Negro, Bolivia. 
( Pliotograph by Mann.) 

]Mositana Indians at their village down the river built balsas or rafts 
and towed them up to where the party waited and the meml)ers 
floated down the Bopi into the Rio Beni and to Huachi. a small settle- 
ment, and remained in this vicinity for over a month, with several 
excursions to nearby regions, as Covendo where the mission is located, 
and up the Cochabaml)a River to Santa Helena, a localitv visited 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



57 




Fig. 55. — Loading a halsa, Rio Bopi, Bolivia. (Photograph by 
N. E. Pearson.) 




Fig. ^6.— Camp of Balseros (raft men), :\Iositana Indians, Rio Bopi, 
Bolivia. (Photograph by N. E. Pearson.) 



58 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 




Fig. 57. — Younp: tapir, Rio P.eni, Bolivia. (Photograph 
bv N. E. Pearson.) 




Fig. 58. — Mositana Indian girl at loom, Covcndo, l'.oii\ ia. ( I'hutograph by 

Mann.) 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



59 



rarely by the Indians on hunting trips. This hilly, forested country 
was rich in animal life and large collections were made. 

From Huachi the Beni was descended to Rurrenabaque, a short 
distance above the head of navigation on the Rio Beni, and over 
three months spent in this vicinity, with side trips across the pampa 
to Lake Rocagua, and to Tumupasa, a small village situated at the 
very edge of the Amazon Valley, and to Ixiamas, an isolated pampa 
region beyond Tumupasa. 

Dr. Rusby, director of the expedition was compelled to return to 
the United States from Rurrenabaque, because of bad health. The 




Fig. 59. — Church music, Ixiamas, liohvia. (Photograph by Mann.) 

party under Dr. Mann then went down river to Riberalta and after- 
ward returned as far as the Little Rio Negro, where they spent several 
days collecting, and making short trips in the vicinity of Cavinas and 
up the Rio Madidi. In the region near the Lower Madidi several 
villages of Gorai Indians were visited and a small lot of ethnological 
material gathered. 

A final stop was made at Ivon, at the mouth of the river of that 
name. Then the party proceeded to Cachuela Esperanza and from 
there to the Madeira-Mamore Railroad in Brazil where steamer was 
taken for Manaos and to New York. 

The collection of living animals made by Dr. Alann on this expedi- 
tion reached the National Zoological Park on April 15, 1922. In 



6o 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 





ti-^ 




Fig. 60. — Wasp nest made of clay, Rio Beni. Bolivia. Suspended from 
branch of tree over water. 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



61 



V 






CQ 



m 



Csi 






c5 S 
u o 



62 SMITIISOXIAN .MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \T)r.. 74 

addition to a few specimens lost from the effects of the join"nev the 
collection included !•, mammals. 50 hirds. and 17 reptiles that arrived 
in perfect condition. Among these are a ntimber of very rare species 
never l)efore exhibited in the Zoological Park. The red-faced spider 
monkey, black-headed woolly monkey, jjale capitchin, choliba screech 
owl, Bolivian penelope, short-tailed parrot, Maximilian's parrot, blue- 
headed parrot, Cassin's macaw, golden-crowned paroquet, Weddell's 
paroquet, orange-crowned paroquet, and golden-winged paroquet are 
new to the collection. These and other rarities are mostly from Rio 
Beni, Bolivia, and the ttpper Rio Madeira. Brazil, localities from 
which animals seldom find their way into collections. Of special 
interest also are such rare birds as the festive parrot. .Vmazonian 
cacique, and white-backed trumpeter, and a number of reptiles. Very 
few collections containing so many rare species in such perfect con- 
dition have ever been received at the National Zoological Park. 

The collection of insects secured by Dr. Mann was one of the 
largest single accessions ever received in the Division of Insects of 
the National Museum, estimated at 100.000 specimens. Only a small 
part has yet been examined. Some rare wasps' nests, made of carton 
and clay, were brought back in perfect condition. Ants received 
especial attention, and many biological observations were made upon 
them. 

BOTANICAL EXPLORATION OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 
Dr. W. L. Abbott spent the winter and spring of 1922 in further 
botanical exploration of the Dominican Republic, and was able not 
only to rework much of the region about Samana Bay, but to make 
a thorough investigation of the entire southern portion of the Pro- 
vince of Barahona, as well as the cordillera north of San Francisco de 
Macoris. In the Province of Barahona he visited Barahona City. 
Paradis. Trujin, Enriquillo (Petit Trou), Los Patos, Polo, Maniel 
Viejo, and Cabral. The first four are small villages on or near the 
seacoast, south of Barahona City. The land here is for the most 
part low, rocky, and semiarid. except in the immediate vicinity of 
occasional springs and streams, but rises rapidly toward the interior 
to the Bahoruco Mountains. As the rock is limestone, caves and 
imderground streams are freqtient. One cave in jiarticular, sitt:ated 
near Los Patos, is regarded by Dr. Abbott as promising valuable 
results to the ethnologist. Trujin, the most southern station reached 
on this tri]), is on a large salt lagoon. Llerman's coffee plantatioiL 
about 1,500 feet above Paradis, is of interest as being the source of 
earlier botanical collections by von Tuerckheim and by Fuertes. 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, \i)22 63 

Polo, a small settlement in the mountain region west of Barahona 
City, is situated on the edge of a long flat valley ahout one mile wide, 
evidently at one time the hottom of a lake. Just east of this village 
the Loma de Cielo rises to a height of 4,200 feet, while four miles 
northeast of Polo the Loma la Haut reaches an elevation of 4,500 
feet. The former is covered with wet forests, while the timber of 
the latter is rather poor, having suffered from l)oth the hurricane 
of 1905 and numerous recent forest fires. Forest fires have almost 
entirely destroyed the pine forests about !Maniel Viejo, south of Polo, 
leaving nothing but dry scrubby thickets and bare slopes. 

Exploration in the region of San Francisco de Macoris was con- 
fined to the vicinity of Lo Bracito, a small village on the southern 
slopes of Ouita Espuela. These slopes are covered by humid thickets 
and forests, having, in fact, a reputation of being one of the wettest 
spots in the Dominican Republic and consequently affording a flora 
rich in ferns and mosses. 

A collection of over 3,000 plants was procured, nearly 50 per cent 
of which are cryptogams. Many of the flowering plants collected 
represent shrubs and timber trees that are likely to prove of great 
interest. 

Although the results of this expedition were chiefly botanical, 
Dr. Abbott collected also in other branches of natural history, his col- 
lections including specimens of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, land 
shells, insects, and earthworms, as well as a small assortment of 
archeological material. 

BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN CENTRAL AAIERICA 
Botanical exploration in Central America during 1921 and 1922 
was made possible by the cooperation of the Gray Herbarium of 
Harvard University, the New York Botanical Garden, j\Ir. Oakes 
Ames, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and the National Mu- 
seum. It was undertaken in order to obtain material for use in the 
preparation of a flora of Central America and Panama, which is 
now under way. Mr. Paul C. Standley left Washington in December. 
1921, going by way of New Orleans to Guatemala, and directly to 
the Republic of Salvador. 

Salvador, although the smallest of the Central American republics, 
has been the least known botanically, and previously hardly any 
collecting had been done there. With the fullest assistance of the 
Salvadorean Department of Agriculture, especially that furnished 
by Dr. Salvador Calderon, it was possible to make extensive collections 



64 



SMITIiSONIAX .MISCFJ-LAXKOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 




Fig. 62. — Scene near San Salvador, the Cerro de San Jacinto in the distance. 
Tlie hills are composed wholly of volcanic ash. 




Fig. 63. — Amate or wild fig tree i^J'icus sp. ) in San Salvador. 



NO. 



SMITIISOXIAX i:XIM.( iRAI'KiX: 



1922 



65 



of plants in widely separated localities, covering nearly all parts of 
the country. All except three of the 14 departments were visited, and 
collecting was carried on m most of them. Five months were spent 
in the work, and 4.600 numbers, represented by about 15,000 speci- 
mens of plants, were obtained. The central and western parts of the 
country are densely popidated and intensively cultivated, the nidun- 




FiG. 64. — Kruption irom the ^ccondai'}' crater of 
the volcano of San Salvador in 1917. ( Photo- 
graph 1iy Dr. \'. ^1. Huezo. ) 

tains being given over to the culture of coltee, which is often planted 
up to the very summits of the highest volcanoes. On this account, 
most of the nattiral vegetation has been destroyed, and conditions 
are not so favorable for botanical work as in the other Central Amer- 
ican countries. There are forests still remaining on some of the vol- 
canoes, and in the mountain chain known as the Sierra de Apaneca. 
which lies close to the Guatemalan frontier, and here it is possible 



66 



;.M n IISOXJAN MISCKLLAXEOl'S COLLECTIONS 



\OL. 74 



to get some idea of the former state of the vegetation. In eastern 
Salvador there are extensive areas still nncnltivated, hnt this land 
lies at a low altitude, where the flora is less interesting than at 
higher elevations. The highest mountains, it should he noted, are 
much lower than those of the neighhoring countries, the largest of the 
Salvadorean volcanoes attaining an elevation of less than 2,500 
meters. All the mountains are of comparatively recent volcanic origin, 




Fk;. 65. — Ciiant L'eiha tree in the city of San Salvador. 

and several of the volcanoes are still active, an eru])tion of the volcano 
of San Salvador having wrecked the capital in 191 7. 

It is expected that there will he prepared for puhlication in Salva- 
dor a list of the s])ccies of plants ol)tained hy this ex])editioiL includ- 
ing also those collected hy the Salvadorean De])artment of .\griculture, 
which is actively engaged in hotanical exploration. Thus far onlv 
a small part of the collections has heen studied critically, hut it is 
alreadv evident that a considcrahle ntimher of imdescri])ed iilants is 



NO. 



SMITHSONTAX EXPLORATIONS, I922 



67 



contained in them, besides many that are rare and httle known. The 
flora of Salvador is essentially like that of the Pacific slope of Guate- 
mala (which likewise has been but imperfectly investigated), but it 
is of great interest to find here many species that heretofore have not 
been known to extend north of Costa Rica and Panama. 

Particular attention was devoted to securing the vernacular names 
emploved in Salvador, and many hundreds were obtained. A part 




Fig. 66. — Gathering Salvadorean balsam in for- 
ests of the Balsam Coast. (Photograph by Dr. 
V. H. Hnezo.) 

of the country was occupied before the Spanish conquest by people 
who spoke a dialect of the Nahuatl language, the idiom spoken also 
by the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico, although not or scarcely 
known in the intervening territory of Guatemala. A large part of 
the names now used here for plants are of Nahuatl origin, some of 
them being the same as those employed in Mexico, while others are 
quite difi^erent. Besides these philological notes, much information 



68 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 



was secured regarding economic applications of the plants of the 
country. Salvador is especiall}- rich in valuable cabinet woods, a 
remarkably large number of plants with fruits or other parts that are 
edible occur, and hundreds, probably, of the native plants are em- 
ployed by the country people because of real or supposed medicinal 
properties. The most interesting of all the native plants is the balsam 




Fig. 67. — Basaltic formation in the Department of 
La Libertad, Salvador. 

tree {Tolitifcra pcrcirac), from whose sap is secured the article 
known as Salvadorean balsam or sometimes, erroneously, as balsam 
of Peru, because of the former belief that it came from Peru. Al- 
though this tree is widely distributed in tropical America, the balsam 
is gathered almost exclusively in Salvador, and in a limited portion 
of the country, known as the Balsam Coast. Other noteworthy trees 
are the giant ceibas and the auiatcs (ficiis spp. ) or wild tigs, which 
are sometimes called the "national tree" of .Salvador. Thev are 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



69 




Fig. 68. — Coconut trees in a Salvadorean finca. 




Fig. 69. — Coast ni S.iKador, in the Department of La Libertad. The 
rocks are mostly of recent volcanic origin. (Photograph by Dr. V. M. 
Huezo.) 



yo sMniiso.xiAX m iscEi.r.AXF.ou.s cdi.i.iu i loxs xol. 74 

comniuii and characteristic features of tlic lan(ls;-a])e, and almost 
every country dwelling has its particular aiiiatc tree. 

Air. Standley left Salvador early in May and proceeded to the 
north coast of Gtiatemala, where sttperior facilities for work were 
furnished through the kindness of the United Fruit Company. About 
three weeks were spent at Quirigua, a locality long famous archeologi- 
cally l:)ecause of the ruins of an ancient Alayan city which are located 
here. Over a thousand numbers of plants were collected, chiefly 
trees and shrubs, many of them of great interest. The most con- 
spicuous feature of the vegetation of this part of Guatemala is the 
enormous plantations of bananas which are grown to supply the 
markets of the United States. Adjoining these plantations are bound- 
less areas of swamp and hilly woodland which remain in their natural 
condition. Especially noteworthy are the " pine ridges," low hills 
covered with scattering pine trees and occasional groups of the cohune 
palm. The vegetation on these hills is strikingly like that of the Ever- 
glades region of southern Florida, and the whole country looks about 
as Florida might if it were crumpled up into hills, instead of being 
almost perfectly level. 

After leaving Quirigua, about a week was spent in collecting at 
Puerto Barrios, on the north coast of Guatemala. The land here is 
nearly all swampy, but at this time of the year (early June), at the 
end of the dry season, it was possible to walk about in the swamps 
and gather plants that at other seasons of the year are inaccessible. 

Altogether six months were spent in Salvador and Guatemala, and 
a collection of over 6,000 numbers of plants was obtained, which will 
add materially to previous knowledge concerning the Central Ameri- 
can flora. The data concerning distribution and the notes upon ver- 
nacular names and economic applications will contribute greatly to 
the completeness of the flora of Central America which it is proposed 
to publish. 

BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN COLOMBIA 
Between the months of April and October. 1922, Dr. Francis W. 
Pennell, curator of the herbarium of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Sciences, and Ellsworth P. Killip, of the Division of Plants. 
National INIuseum, carried on botanical exploration in the Republic of 
Colombia. The expedition was organized by the New York Botani- 
cal Garden, the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, the Philadel- 
phia Academy of Natural Sciences, and the National Museum as part 
of a general plan, adopted in 191 8, for botanical research in northern 
South America, b'inancial assistance was given also b\- Mr. ( )akes 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



71 




Fig. 70. — Arid valley of the Dagua River, Colombia. The transition from 
a luxuriant rain-forest to this dry "pocket" is very abrupt. (Photograph 
by T. E. Hazen.) 






Fig. 71. — View to the north from La Cumbre, in the Western Cordillera, 
Colombia. The wooded valleys are filled with orchids. (Photograph by 
T. E. Hazen.) 



72 



SMITHSONIAN" MISCELLANEOUS COLLEC'llONS \()L. 74 



Ames. Mrs. Pennell accoinpanied lier husband, reluniiiii;- in July, 
and Dr. Tracy E. Hazen, of the Biological Department of lolumljia 
University, was a member of the party from July to ."-^einember, giv- 
ing Special attention to photography. 




Fig. 72. — Dense forest at La Cumbre, Colombia. 
Plants of the Tropical Zone here mingle with the 
subtropical vegetation. 

The Republic of Colombia occupies the northwestern corner of 
the continent of South America, facing both the Caribbean Sea and 
the Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountain chain, extending northward 
in practicallv a single range from its origin in southern Chile, divides 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS. ig22 



73 



at the southern Ijoundary of CV)k)ml)ia into three branches, known as 
the Western. Central, and Eastern cordilleras. Between the Western 
and the Central cordilleras lies the valley of the Canca River ; be- 
tween the Central and the Eastern, the Magdalena River. On the 
present trip it was possijjle to visit only the Western and Central 
cordilleras, the Cauca A^alley, the city of Bogota in the Eastern 
Cordillera, and one or two localities on the Pacific slope. The expedi- 
tion entered the country at Buenaventura, the principal seaport on 
the Pacific, and at once established headquarters at the village of 
La Cumbre, in the Western Cordillera, for the purpose of studying 
the vegetation of the central part of this range. Descending to the 




Fig. 7S- — View from the summit of the Western Cordillera toward the 
Pacific slope, Colombia. The peaks are more angular than noted in other 
regions. 



city of Cali the party proceeded up the Cauca Valley to Popayan, the 
southern portions of both the Central and the W^estern cordilleras 
being explored from this point. Subsequently trips were made to 
Salento, in the northern part of the Central range, and to Ibague and 
Bogota, material being collected at historic localities along the Quindiu 
Trail. Dr. Pennell sailed from the north coast, after exploring the 
northern portion of the Western Cordillera. Dr. Hazen and Mr. 
Killip returning by wa}' of Buenaventura and the Panama Canal. 
Approximately 7,200 numbers were collected, sufficient material being 
secured to make nearly equal sets for each of the institutions associated 
in the expedition. Particular attention was paid to orchids, a group 
in which ^Ir. Ames is especially interested. To dry these specimens 



74 



SMITIiSON lAX M ISCEI.I.AN EOUS COLLECTIONS 



\'OL. 



74 



required the use of artiticial heat, the [jlants being put between driers 
and corrugated Ixjards, bound tightly in packages, and ])laced over a 
charcoal-burning heater. 

As might be expected from its physiography, the vegetation of 
Colombia is extremely diverse. \\^ithin a few miles mav occur a 
luxuriant tropical flora, the more open woods of the temperate zone, 
and the low alpine growth familiar on our American mountain tops. 
Again, as in the Dagua Valley, one may ride through a dense rain- 
forest, filled with ferns, mosses, and aroids, to emerge suddenly in 
an arid, desert-like region where cacti and acacias are the conspicuous 
plants. 




Fig. 74. — Crest of tlie Western Cordillera at EI Derrunibo, 9,500 feet alti- 
tude, Colombia. Here occurs the stunted growth of the temperate zone. 



Since Colombia lies between the first and eleventh parallels, the 
development of its vegetation is little influenced by latitude. The 
controlling factors are altitude and precipitation, the rainfall ranging 
from 400 inches a year to almost perpetual dryness. Four zones of 
plant life may be recognized, the limits being approximately as 
follows: Tropical, from sea-level to 5.000 feet; Stibtropical. from 
5.000 to 9,000 feet; Temperate, from y,ooo to 12,000 feet; Paramo, 
above 12.000 feet. The tr()])ical forests are very dense; giant-leaved 
aroids, bromeliads. and heliconias are most abundant ; everywhere are 
palms and bamboos. In the subtropical forests orchids become more 
common, many of them being of great beauty ; tree trunks are densely 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



75 




Fig. 75. — Raft-building on the Cauca River, Colombia. The ever-present 
bamboos and palms supply the material needed. 




Fig. 76. — Crossing the Vieja River, a tributary of the Cauca, Colombia. 
As there is no bridge at this point, cargo must be removed from the mules 
and transported in native dug-out canoes. 



76 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 




Fig. T^. — Village of Salento, in the Central Cordillera, Colombia. Through 
this town passes the historic Quindiu Trail, reaching from Cartago to 
Ibague. 




Fig. 78. — Upper valley of the Quindiu River, Colombia. The forest land is 
being cleared out for pasture. (Photograph by T. E. Hazen.) 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 yj 

covered with mosses, hepaticae, and ferns. In this zone occasionally 
occur oak forests, recalling vividly our northern woods, and black- 
berries are to be found. The Temperate Zone is a region of small- 
leaved, usually dwarfed trees, of blueberries and other ericaceous 
shrubs, and of open hillsides, where geraniums and Andean genera 
of the rose family are numerous. The Paramo is the bleak open 
country between timberline and the snows. Here flourish densely 
woolly espeletias, bizarre senecios, and many other brilliantly flowered 
herbaceous plants. , 

Travel in Colombia is by railroad, by boat, and by horse or mule. 
Railroad construction has necessarily been slow, no road having yet 
been built over the Central Cordillera, while only a single line crosses 
the Western Range. In the Cauca Valley construction is being 
pushed, though only a small portion of the line has been completed. 
Boat travel is fairly satisfactory, and the scenery along many of the 
streams is very picturesque. The Cauca, navigable for good-sized 
steamers between Cali and Puerto Caldas, winds its way down a broad 
valley, in the main keeping to the western side, the banks lined with 
palms and bamboos. On one hand are the hills of the Western 
Cordillera; on the other, the higher mountains of the Central range. 
But to the botanist travel by horse or mule, though slower, is far 
preferable, since it aftords opportunity to collect thoroughly in speci- 
ally favorable places. So inadequately known is the flora of Colombia 
that even along the regular routes of travel many species are found 
that are either new, unrepresented in American herbaria, or known 
only from specimens preserved in European collections. 

The Colombians are of Spanish descent and are mostly well edu- 
cated, many of them having studied in American and European 
universities. Even among the lower classes illiteracy was rarely met 
with. The Indians, foimd chiefly in the mountainous regions of the 
interior, seem to be peaceful and industrious. No " wild savages " 
were seen, although members of the expedition reached remote cor- 
ners of the country. Indian women delight in gay colors, a blue waist 
and a scarlet dress being a particularly favorite combination ; the 
men dress more somberly and more scantily, often wearing merely a 
black smock reaching barely to their knees. The negroes are confined 
mainly to the coastal strips and to the warmer parts of the main 
valleys. 

Perhaps the most lasting impression one brings back from Colombia 
is that of the unaft'ected friendliness of the people. Everyone, from 

6 



78 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 



1 "^n* . *^.. -'^^^PHi 


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Fig. 79. — Upper valley of the Quindiu River, Colombia. Part of the 
forest has been supplanted by pastures. The palm is Ceroxylon andicola, 
or a closely related species. 




Fig. 80. — Paramo above Bogota, Colombia. From this lake arises one of the 
important tributaries of the Orinoco River. 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



79 



the highest official to the lowliest peon, showed marked courtesy and 
hospitality to the members of the expedition. Customs officials made 
entrance into the country easy; railroad men were most helpful in 




*< - 



L 



Fig. 81. — Apparatus for drying specimens. The 
bundle of plants rests upon two poles. From this, 
cloth is draped about the charcoal-burning heater, 
being lined with woven wire to prevent its being 
blown into the fire. 



every way ; landowners continually were placing their liaciendas at 
the disposal of the party. Much of the success of the expedition was 
due to this universal spirit of friendly cooperation. 



8o SMITIISONIAX MISCKLr.ANKOUS COI. LECTIONS VOI.. 74 

VISIT TO EUROPEAN HERBARIA 

Mrs. Agnes Chase, assistant custodian of the Grass IIerl)arium, 
National Museum, visited several of the larger herliaria in Europe 
during 1922 for the purpose of studying the grass collections. Five 
weeks were spent in Vienna. The herhariuni of Professor Eduard 
Hackel, whose work on the genera of grasses in Engler & Prantl's 
Pflanzenfamilien is the accepted one in current use, is deposited in 
the Naturhistorisches Staatsmuseum, Vienna. Professor 1 lackel has 
described about 1,200 species from all parts of the world, ])robably 
half of them from South America. The types of all but about 50 were 
found. Most of the missing ty])t's were found later in the herbaria 
whence he had borrowed material. Besides this collection, of greatest 
importance to American agrostology, the Vienna herbarium was 
found to contain many iVmerican types of Weddcll, Philippi, Doell, 
and Mez, as well as classic collections such as Lechler's plants of 
L'hile, D'Orbigny's from the Andes. Mandon's from Bolivia, and 
.Spruce's from the .\mazon, upon which many sjiecies are based. 

A visit was made to Prof. Hackel at Attersee m western Austria, 
and important but unrecorded items in the recent history of agros- 
tology were secured. 

In Munich were found the types of Nees's Flora Brasiliensis. a 
few of Doell's and several of Mez's. xAt the Museo e Laboratorio di 
Botanica in Florence, Italy, types of Poiret, I'oiteau. and Bosc were 
studied. Poiret was the author of the grasses in the supplement to 
Lamarck's Encycloi)edia. His descriptions, like Lamarck's, are indefi- 
nite. It was necessary to see his plants to be certain of his species. 
Poiteau botanized in Santo Domingo in the latter part of the i8th 
century, and made a brief visit to the Luiited States. Bosc was a 
friend of Alichaux, and came to Charleston in 1798, where Michaux 
had established a propagating garden. During the next two years he 
collected in the Carolinas. In Pisa there is a small but very important 
collection, that of Joseph Raddi, whose Agrostografia Brasiliensis, 
published in 1823, is the earliest work devoted to South American 
grasses. These were collected by Raddi himself in 1817-18. Tiie 
Agrostografia contains 64 species of grasses, of which t,^ are de 
scribed as new. A number of these had never been identified. The 
specimens were found to be unusually ample and well ]ireserved, and 
photographs were obtained of them. (Fig. 82.) 

Ten days were spent at the Delessert Herbarium at Geneva. This 
herbarium contains, besides full series of the more recent collections, 
several old herbaria. Of great imj)ortance to the agrostologist is 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 8l 

the herbarium of PaHsot de Beauvois, whose small volume " Essai 
d' une nouvelle Agrostographie," published in 1812, has caused much 
trouble for the agrostologist. because of his misunderstanding of the 
structure of grasses. An examination of his specimens, fragmentary 
though they are, cleared up many difficulties. At Delessert a number 




lii(;_ 82.—Raddia brasiliciisis, named by Ber- 
toloni for Joseph Raddi in a preliminary paper. 
Raddi himself referred the species to Olyra and 
gave it a new species name. It is recognized 
today as Raddia brasilieiisis. 

of grasses collected by Rafinesque in the I'nited States were also 
found. Types of Nees, Schrader. Kunth, Willdenow, Sprengel, Link, 
Pilger, and Alez were .studied at the herbarium of the Botanical Gar- 
den, Berlin. 

Visits were made to the Rijks Herbarium at Leiden, and to the 
herbarium of the Jardin Botanique d' I'Etat at Brussels. 



82 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

Two very profitable weeks were spent at the herbarium of ihe 
Paris Museum. In this institution the Lamarck Herbarium and that 
of ]\Iichaux are segregated. Dr. A. S. Hitchcock had studied these 
collections in 1907. Mrs. Chase made drawings and took some addi- 
tional photographs. The Paris Herbarium is exceedingly rich in 
early American collections, such as those of Humboldt and Bonpland, 
Poiteau, Gaudichaud, Bourgeau, and D'Urville. The Fournier Her- 
barium, the basis of Fournier's JMexicanas Plantas, was of very great 
interest. 

An important early paper on American species of Paspahim was 
by LeConte, 1820, an American of French descent. His herbarium is 
deposited in the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia. When the col- 
lection there was studied a few years ago some of his species were 
not represented. Dr. Asa Gray, in a biographical note on LeConte, 
states that LeConte took his collection with him on a visit to France 
and that he was very generous in allowing his friends to have speci- 
mens. It was a great satisfaction to find the missing LeConte speci- 
mens in the Paris Herbarium. 

Two weeks were spent in London, studying the grasses in the Kew 
Herbarium and in the herbarium of the British ^luseum. Both of 
these herbaria contain much that is of greatest importance to Ameri- 
can agrostology. 

Botanizing in herbaria does not afford the same pleasure as does 
botanizing in the field, but it is not without its thrills of discovery. 
Current concepts of several species were found to be erroneous ; that 
is, our ideas were those of later authors instead of those of the 
original ones. 

RECENT DISCOVERIES OF ANCIENT MAN IN EUROPE 
Under a grant from the Joseph Henry Fund of the National 
Academy of Sciences, and upon the conclusion of his work as chair- 
man of the American Delegation to the XX International Congress 
of Americanists at Rio de Janeiro, Dr. Ales Hrdlicka proceeded to 
Europe to examine the more recent discoveries of skeletal remains 
of early man and several of the most important sites where these 
discoveries have been made. 

In this quest Dr. Hrdlicka visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia 
and England. The important specimens studied included the jaw of 
Baiiolas in Spain ; the La Quina site and specimens in southern 
France ; the La Ferrassie skeletons, now beautifully restored, in Paris ; 
the Obercassel finds in Bonn; the I^hringsdorf discoveries and site 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



83 



at Weimar and at Ehringsdorf ; the Taubach site near a village of 
that name, with the specimens at Jena ; and the principal Predmost 
skeletons now preserved in the Provincial Museum at Brno, as well 
as the site of these important discoveries at Predmost (in northern 
Moravia) itself. In addition to these, thanks to the courtesy of Dr. 




Fig. 83.— Side view of the reconstructed La Quiiia skull. 

Smith Woodward, Dr. Hrdlicka was enabled to submit to a thorough 
study the Piltdown remains at the British INIuseum of Natural His- 
tory, and to see there the originals of the Boskop skull as well as the 
highly interesting Rhodesian skull and parts of skeleton, from South 
Africa. He was finally once more able to see, at the Royal College 
of Surgeons, London, the originals of the Galley Hill and Ipswich 
skeletal remains. 



84 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 






y-ic 8 1 —Top view of a cast of the intracranial cavity of the l.a 
Quina skull, showing the shape of the hrain. The hram, compared wall 
inodern specimens, is small and especially low. 



NO. 5 SMITIISOXIAX EXPI,OKATI()NS, 1922 85 

The examination of the specimens and the visits tu the sites where 
most of them were chscovered. produced a deep impression on the 
one hand of the growing importance as well as complexity of the 
whole subject, and on the other of the vast amount of the deposits in 
western and central lutrope bearing remains of early man and giving 
great promise for the future. It was also once more forcibly im- 
pressed upon the mind of the observer how much more satisfactory 
is the handling of the original specimens than of even the best made 
casts. 

So far as the scientific results of the trip are concerned, Dr. lird- 
licka feels confident that he was able to reach a definite conclusion and 
position as to the human nature of the Piltdown jaw ; to satisfy him- 
self on the more or less intermediary nature, between Neanderthal 
and the present type of man. of the Obercassel, the Pi'edmost and 
some other crania ; and to see the admirable restorations of both the 
La Ferrassie and the very important La Quina discoveries, the latter 
including the highly interesting and, so far as ancient remains of man 
are concerned, unique specimen of a well-preserved skull of a child. 

Plaster casts of nearly all the important specimens not yet repre- 
sented in the U. S. National ^Museum were obtained for the 
Institution. 

MEETING OF INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF AMERICANISTS 

IN BRAZIL 

The twentieth meeting of the International Congress of Ameri- 
canists at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was attended by Dr. Walter Hough 
and Dr. Ales Hrdlicka. who were delegated by the Department of 
State and the Smithsonian Institution. Through the aid of the Car- 
negie Endowment for International Peace means were supplied for 
the journey of these delegates. A successful meeting of the Congress 
is reported, the efi^ect of which on the promotion of anthropological 
science in Brazil is lielieved by the delegates to be important. While 
there was not time to travel in Brazil more than in the environs of 
Rio, it was interesting to view the resources of the capital as an index 
to the progress of the country. In this center there is a historical 
department, a national library, a national museiun, fine arts institu- 
tion, botanic garden, athletic clui), and all the activities relating to 
engineering, sanitation, commerce, etc., reflecting modern conditions. 
There is seen a tendency at present to lay more stress on historical 
researches than on science, but the nucleus is here to be developed in 
such a way as the future afifords. In some lines science is being ade- 
quately treated as in General Rcindon's work among the Indians, 



86 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 




u 



w 



"o o 



.2 E 



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NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1^22 87 

which has resulted in the gathering of important collections and in 
the publication of valuable ethnological studies, especially by General 
Rondon's assistant, Dr. E. Roquette-Pinto. 

EXPLORATION OF THE PALEOLITHIC REGIONS OF FRANCE 

AND SPAIN 

During the month of September, 1922, Mr. M. W. Stirling, aid 
in the Division of Ethnology, National Museum, in the company of 
of Mr. P. J. Patton. a student in the University of Paris, explored 
the paleolithic regions of southern France and northern Spain. All 
of the important sites where remains of ancient man have been dis- 
covered were visited, and in addition a great many caves unknown to 
science were entered. 

The idea has become prevalent in America that this region has 
been practically exhausted archeologically. Although the previous 
existence of paleolithic man in this locality has been known for half 
a century, it may be truly said that the work of exploration has hardly 
begun. 

The habitations of the Stone Age are closely linked with the lime- 
stone formation which overlies large areas in this part of Europe. 
These may be said to fall into two classes, /'. c, rock shelters and 
caverns. The former are undercuts in the limestone, made by the 
rivers during the early Pleistocene or late Pliocene. A general ele- 
vation of the land has caused the streams to deepen their channels, 
thus leaving the undercuts well above the surface of the water. 
These were utilized as dwelling places by paleolithic man and in many 
instances were artificially modified. There are literally miles of relic 
bearing deposits of this class that have not yet been touched. The 
possibilities in this field are very great. 

The caverns of the Dordogne region are for the most part com- 
paratively small, while those in the department of Ariege are immense 
caves of a most spectacular nature. Of the former class are the 
grottoes of Font du Gaume, Combarelles, La Mouthe, Marsoulas, 
Montesquieu, and others. Of the latter class are the immense caves 
in the neighborhood of Foix, as for example, Salignac, Ussat, and 
Niaux. The tunnel of Mas d'Azil is the remnant of such a cave. 

Many of these caverns have become blocked with sediment owing 
to the fact that they frequently slope downward from the entrance. 
Messers. Stirling and Patton entered at least a dozen such caves 
which had become sealed at varying distances from their mouths. 
The opening of such caves has heretofore been left almost entirely 
to chance. Scientific endeavor at this work should produce most 



SMITIISONMAN M ISCELLAXEOLS e OI.LECTKJNS \OL. 74 




Fig. 86. — Pal, a typical village of Andorre, showing slate roofs and stone 
construction of houses. Note the terraces on the hare rock hillside hack of 
the village. Every foot of soil is made availahlc for cultivation. 




Fig. 87. — An old hridge in Andorre. The verdure in this scene is exceptional. 
Andorre as a whole is practically treeless. 



NO. 5 SMITIISOXIAX KXPr,ORATIONS, 1922 89 

fruitful results. The sealing of these caves has heen a fortunate 
accident of nature, since the contents are by this means preserved 
intact. 

Of the regions visited, that in the neighborhood of Altamira, in 
Spain, and Ussat, in France, give most promise of rich returns to 
the archeologist. 

A few days were .spent in the republic of Andorre. This little 
semi-independent state contains much of interest to the ethnologist. 
Here one finds medieval customs and usages still functioning in the 
same manner that they did in the middle ages. 

Located in the rugged mountains l)etween the Spanish province of 
Lerida and the French department of Ariege, it is very difficult of 
access. Preserved from innovations by rival jealous potentates as 
well as by the conservative temper of its inhabitants, it has kept its 
medieval institutions almost intact. The administration of minor 
matters of justice and legislation is in the hands of local councils 
chosen from the heads of families in each of the six parishes into 
which the state is divided. The central government is vested in two 
z'iguicrs, one nominated by France and the other by the Bishop of 
Urgel in Spain. Serious crimes and important cases in dispute are 
brought before them for judgment. There being no written laws, 
their decisions are given according to their consciences, and are final. 

The population is entirely self-sufficient, and each family is an 
independent unit, raising their own produce, grinding their own meal, 
and making their own clothing. The primitive nature of their farm- 
ing and household imjilements and utensils make an interesting study. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL FIELDAVORK ON THE MESA VERDE 
NATIONAL PARK, COLORADO 

In the year 1922, from ^lay to August, inclusive, Dr. J. Walter 
b>wkes, chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, continued his 
archeological investigations, begun 15 years ago, on ruins of the 
Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. The brief season's work was 
financed with small allotments from the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy and the National Park Service. He had for assistants Messrs. 
W. C. ]\IcKern and J. H. Carter, who contributed much to the 
success of the summer's work. The site of the field operations was 
the so-called Mummy Lake village, better named the Far View group 
of mounds (fig. 88) through which runs the government road to 
Mancos. The group is situated about 4^ miles north of Spruce-tree 
Camp, contains 16 large stone buildings, many indicated by mounds 
of stone, sand, and a luxurious growth of sage brush. The three of 



90 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 











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92 



SMITIISONIAX .MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \"0L. 74 




NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



93 



these which have thus far been excavated belong to different types; 
but it is desirable to examine and repair them all in order to discover 
Other types. Indian corn, the national food of the clift'-dv^ellers, 
should be again planted in this area so that the future student or 
tourist could behold a Mesa Verde village in approximately the same 
environment as in prehistoric times. The first of the mounds was 
excavated by the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1916, and was 
called Far View House, and the particular mound chosen for excava- 
tion in 1922 lies about 100 feet to the south of it (fig. 89) or on the 
southern edge of the sage-brush area. 




Fig. gi. — Distant view of Pipe Shrine House. Iliis view shows the 
whole north wall and the east wall foreshortened. The group of men at 
extreme left are looking at skeleton in cemetery. (Photograph by Geo. L. 
Beam. Courtesy Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad.) 



The only noticea])le characters of the mound when work began 
were a saucer-like central depression, and an elevated rim, which led 
Dr. Fewkes to suspect a buried subterranean kiva surrounded by a 
series of rooms above ground. The mound was covered by a dense 
growth of vegetation. No walls were seen when this was removed, 
and much accumulated sand, earth, and stone had to be removed 
before any masonry was visible. Complete excavation revealed a 
remarkable building or pueblo (figs. 89, 91) presenting to arche- 
ologists several new problems for solution. 

The large depression turned out to indicate a central kiva (fig. 92) 
quite unlike that of any other on the Mesa Verde National Park. 
This room has no central fireplace : no ventilator or deflector to dis- 



94 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 






.^^^- 



"^S^ 






•v*-**^ -^"^^ 








^^4 




Fig. 92. — Interior view of kiva of Pipe Shrine House, looking north, 
showing shrine where pipes were found on floor. The ruin in the distance 
is Far View House. (Photoaraph hy Geo. L. Beam. Courtesy Denver and 
Rio Grande \\'estern Tvaih^oad.) 



NO. 5 



SMlTlISOiMAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



95 



tribute fresh air ; but in place of these a segment of the floor was 
separated from the remainder by a low curved ridge of clay. This 
area was a fireplace, as indicated by the large quantity of ashes and 
burnt wood it contained, and many artifacts mixed with the ashes 
showed that it served also as a shrine. Among other objects in it were 




Fig. 93. — Several pipes from shrine on the floor of the 
kiva of Pipe Slirinc House. Reduced a little less than 
one-half. 



a full dozen decorated tobacco pipes made of clay, some blackened by 
use, others showing no signs that they had ever been smoked. Sev- 
eral of these are figured in the accompanying illustration. There 
were fetishes, a small black and white decorated bowl, chipped flint 
stone knives of fine technique, and other objects. For many years 
it had been suspected, that the ancient inhabitants of the jMesa Verde 
clifif dwellings were smokers, but these pipes (figs. 93, 94) are the 



96 



S.\l 1 I IISOX lAX M lSCKl.l.A.\i:(irS Col.l.l-XriDNS 



VOL. 74 



first objective evidcnee we have to pnne it, and the fact that these 
objects were found in the shrine of a sacred room would indicate 
that they were smoked ceremonially, as is customary in modern 
pueblo rites, l^vidently the priests when en,<,faged in a ceremonial 
smoke sat about this shrine and after smoking;- threw their pipes as 
oiTerings into the fireplace. Probably as with the Hopi everv great 




Fig. 94. — Pipes and other objects in shrine, 
as found. In addition to pipes many other 
objects were found, among which may be 
mentioned small black and white bowl, flint 
knives, idols, and " septarian nodule." ( Pho- 
tograph by J. W. Fewkes. ) 

ceremony opened and closed with the formal smoking rite at this 
shrine, and one can in imagination see the priests as the\' blew whiffs 
of smoke to the cardinal ])oints to bring rain. 

The discover)- of ])ipes for ceremonial smoking in a Mesa \'erde 
kiva is a significanl one. indicating that the ancient ])riests of the 



NO. 5 



SMITHSOXIAX i:XPr.()KATIONS, Jg22 



97. 



plateau, like the llopi, .smoked cereniuniallv. Moreover the forms 
of the prehistoric pipes (fig. 93) thus used differ materially from 
those of modern pueblos, in size and shape, although a few formerly 
used by the Hopi have much in common with them. 

The walls of the kiva show structural variations from a standard 
Alesa Verde kiva. There were eight instead of six small mural pilas- 
ters, an addition of two to the usual number ; evidently the roof of 
this subterranean chamber was vaulted and as its size was large it 
needed more than the regulation number of supports for the roof 




Fig. 95. — Interior of Pipe Shrine Mouse looking southwest across the 
central kiva. (Photograph by W. R. Rowland. Durango, Colorado.) 



beams. Although the means of entrance to the room is unknown 
there was prol^ably a hatchway in the roof, but no sign of a ladder 
was discovered and no vertical logs to support rafters were seen. 

The stones and plastering of the inner walls of the kiva indicate 
everv where a great conflagration ; the beams of the roof had com- 
pleteh- disappeared, and the color of the adobe covering of the walls 
was a Ijright brick-red. The kiva measured about 24 feet in di- 
ameter and was about the same depth. Its roof served as the floor 
of a court surrounded l)v one-storied rooms. There was no large 
banquette on its south side (fig. 95) as almost universally occurs in 
a regular Mesa Verde kiva. A conspicuous slab of rock set in the 



98 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 



floor near the rim of the shrine was possil^ly reserved for an idol or 
the altar during ceremonies. 

Midway in the length of the west side of the ruin there remain 
foundations of a circular tower whose wall once rose, like a minaret, 
several feet above the roofs of surrounding rooms. The altitude of 
this tower was no doubt formerly sufficient for a wide outlook, and 
its top, rising above the cedars, served as the elevation from which 
the sun priests watched the sun's position on the horizon at sunrise 
and sunset. It was perhaps built as an observatory for determining 
time for planting and other agricultural events, and may likewise 
have been used in certain solar rites. 




Fig. 96. — Storage jars in place as found in northeast corner room of Pipe 
Shrine House. Four of these made of corrugated and one smooth white 
ware with black decoration. (Photograph by J. W. Fewkes.) 



The chambers surrounding the central kiva do not appear adapted 
for habitations ; several were more likely used for storage of food, 
or for other secular purposes. In a room situated on the northeast 
angle several pottery vessels were found arranged in a row (fig. 96). 
It would appear that the site of the kiva was dug out by the ancients 
before these rooms were built, and that the rooms forming the north 
side were built later than the others and constructed of poorer masonry 
than those of the south side, where the masonry compares very well 
with the best on the Mesa. The east rooms are well made and 
resemble those of Sun Temple. There are two entrances or passage- 
ways through the south side, midway between which on the outer 
surface there is set in the wall a large stone with a spiral incised figure 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



99 



supposed to represent the plumed snake ; and near the southwest 
corner there are smaller mural designs representing two snakes. 

The presence of shrines outside Pipe Shrine House is significant 
as the first of their kind ever found on the Mesa. On the northeast 
corner of the ruin there is a small square enclosure with walls on 
three sides, one of which is the wall of the northeast side of the ruin. 
Reset in the north wall of this enclosure is a stone, found a little 
distance away, bearing an incised circle or sun symbol ; and within 
the shrine were found several waterworn stones ; also an iron meteor- 
ite, a fossil nautiloid, and many stone concretions and waterworn 




Fig. 97. — Mountain Lion Shrine, or Shrine of the South. Stairway con- 
structed by aborigines. Square enclosure is shrine as found. South wall 
of Pipe Shrine House shown above. (Photograph by Geo. L. Beam. 
Courtesy Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad.) 

stones. A stone slab found nearby bears on its surface an incised 
circle, the symbolic representation of the sun, indicating the presence 
of a sun shrine nearby. Waterworn stones, by a confusion of cause 
and efifect, are supposed to be efficacious in rain-producing. 

South of Pipe Shrine House the ground slopes gradually (fig. 97), 
the earth being held back by a retaining wall. Aboriginal stone 
steps lead down to an enclosure which was a shrine, rectangular in 
shape, built in a recess of the retaining wall opposite the western door- 
way on the south side of the ruin. Within this shrine were a number 
of waterworn stones sufficient to fill a cement-bag, surrounding a large 
crudelv fashioned frasrment of a stone idol of the mountain lion. Al- 



lOO 



SMITHSONIAN" .\1 ISCEI-LAXICOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 



tliough the head and forelegs were broken from the body the hindlegs 
were intact ; a long search for the broken anterior end of the idol was 
a disappointment. The indentations on the surface due to chipping 
were plainly seen ; and the tail was especially well made, resting along 
the dorsal line. This position of the tail is. in fact, what led the 
writer to identify the rude image as a representation of the mountain 
lion, for among the Hopi a picture of the puma painted on the north 
side of the warrior chamber has a similarly ])laced tail. The Hopi 
priests say that a Mountain Lion clan formerly inhabited the same 
cliff dwellings in the north as the Snake people. The position of 





Fig. 98. — Stone idol of a bird. Views from front A, and one-half lateral B. 
Pipe Shrine House. Size : 4^4 >^ -H -^ -M inches. 

this shrine and the accompanying idol would indicate that the piuna 
was the guardian of the south while at W'alpi this animal is associated 
with the north. Among the Hopi, the mountain lion is also the guard- 
ian of cultivated fields. 

Lest, in the future, vandals loot this shrine, it was protected by a 
wire netting set in cement spread on top of the walls. l)ut the contents 
were left as originally found. South of the mountain-lion shrine, 
about 20 feet distant, was another enclosure, also a shrine, contain- 
ing many watcrworn stones, but its idol or guardian animal had dis- 
appeared. This receptacle was likewise protected by a wire net. 
Although it had no beast-god image ; several stone idols (fig. 98) 
were found in the adjacent dump aroinid i'ipc Shrine House — evi- 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 lOI 

dently belonging to other cardinal ])oints — l)nt no other shrines were 
discovered. 

The heads of two stone idols, homeless or withont a shrine, were 
picked up outside the walls of Pipe Shrine House, on rock piles 
between the retaining" wall and the south side of the ruin. One of 
these (fig. 99) is thought to represent the head of a mountain sheep, 
another a serpent, and a third (fig. 98) a bird. The instructive thing 
about these idols, next to their crude technique, is the fact that stone 
images rarely occur on the Mesa Verde, few similar stone idols or 
images having previously been reported from ruins on this plateau. 
Their crude form reminds one of pueblo idols. 




Fig. 99. — Stone idol of a mountain 
sheep. Pipe Shrine House. Size : 
3x5x6 in. 

An aboriginal cemetery, ransacked of its mortuary contents years 
ago by vandals, was found near the southeast corner of Pipe Shrine 
House. The human skeletons found in this cemetery show the dead 
were buried as a rule in an extended position. In cave burials the 
bodies were fiexed or in a seated posture. The accompanying 
pottery contained food and drink for the deceased. On the western 
fringe of this graveyard Dr. Fewkes discovered about a dozen human 
skeletons that had escaped desecration, one or two of which were 
buried only a few inches below the surface ; the deepest grave was 
shallow, not more than three feet deep. All the skeletons that were 
found were well preserved, considering their antiquity, and had been 
buried in an extended position on a hard clay bed. They lay on their 
backs at full length with legs crossed and heads oriented to the east. 



I02 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

generally accompanied by mortuary vessels of burnt clay and other 
objects. Several whole pieces of typical Mesa Verde pottery were 
taken out of the soil of this and another cemetery southeast of Far 
View House. These vessels once contained food and water, the 
spirit of which was thought to be suitable food for the spirit of 
the defunct. One of these skeletons (fig. lOo) was as fresh as if 
buried a few years ago and the bones were so well preserved that they 
were left in situ. Every bone of one skeleton remains where it was 
found and was not raised from the position in which it was interred 
over 500 years ago. Walls of a stone vault (fig. lOo) were con- 
structed around the skeleton, reaching to the surface of the ground, 
and to a wooden frame firmly set in cement was nailed a wire netting, 
above which one of the workmen constructed a waterproof wooden 
roof hung on hinges. By raising this roof the visitor may now behold 
the skeletal remains of a man about 45 years old, 5 feet 6 inches tall, 
as he was laid out in his grave centuries ago. Visitors called him a 
mummy ; his flesh had not dried as is sometimes the case with the 
cliff-dwellers, but turned into a brownish dust. So far as known this 
is the first time care has been taken to preserve a skeleton of a 
Pueblo in its aboriginal burial place so that it may be seen by visitors. 
It shows the environment of the defunct and satisfactorily answers 
the question whether the cliff-dwellers were pygmies. 

In a refuse heap a short distance east of the sun shrine of Pipe 
Shrine House were found a hundred worn-out grinding stones and 
metates with many stones once used for pecking, all evidently thrown 
in a heap when they were no longer needed. 

The grading of the area about Pipe Shrine House was a work of 
considerable magnitude, as the surface was very irregular and over- 
grown with vegetation. The soil, earth and stones fallen from the 
rooms had raised mounds of considerable magnitude around the ruin. 

Pipe Shrine House appears to have served as a ceremonial building 
rather than a habitation — a kind of temple, originally constructed for 
the accommodation of the inhabitants of the neighboring Far View 
House. The tower was probably devoted to the worship of Father 
Sun and other celestials ; the kiva to that of Mother Earth and terres- 
trial supernaturals. 

In the thick cedars south of Far View House there were two 
mounds, one of which (fig. lOi) was completely excavated by Dr. 
Fewkes, who found in it a fine central kiva surrounded by low walls 
of rooms, the whole probably being the house of one clan, for which 
the name. One Clan House, seems appropriate. It was probal^ly the 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



103 







Fig. too. — Cyst constnicted around skeleton in cemeter}- southeast of Pipe 
Shrine House, and two partial skeletons. The rock walls were huilt around 
the skeletons by Dr. Fewkes. (Photograph by Geo. L. Beam. Courtesy of 
Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad.) 



104 



S.M n USONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

m 



\oL. 74 




NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN ENl'I.ORATIONS, 1922 IO5 

residence of a single social unit having a men's room or kiva in the 
center of the women's rooms or those used for grinding and storage 
of corn, sleeping, cooking, and other purposes. 

The kiva (fig. 102) of this ruin is t}pical of a cliff-house sanctuary. 
Its architecture is normal, the floor being cut down a short distance 
into the solid rock and covered with a white earthy deposit. The 
roof was supported on six pilasters between each pair of which there 
is a banquette, that on the south side being larger than the others. 
In the floor there is a circular fire pit, near which is a deflector facing 
a ventilator. There is also a large slf^af^fi or ceremonial opening in 
the floor. The surface of the north banquette has its ledge lowered 
to a level below that of the others, and in the wall above it is a recess 
that served, no doubt, for the idol. A slab of stone formerly used 
to close this recess lay on the kiva floor below it. A structural peculi- 
arity was observed in the wall of One Clan House. As a rule kiva 
walls are built of horizontal masonry, but here the walls above the 
banquettes were made of upright stone slabs. 

A well-worn trail, prol^ably originally made by Indians, connects 
Far View House, Pipe Shrine House, and One Clan House with 
Spruce-tree House. Since the Indians abandoned the Mesa this trail 
has been deepened by stock seeking water and by herdsmen ; it was 
also formerly used by all early tourists who visited the ruin on horse- 
back before the construction of roads. 

An important result of the archeological work of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology at the Mesa Verde the past summer, 1922, is 
new information on the use of towers revealed by the excava- 
tion and re])air of h'ar \'iew Tower. This building (fig. 103) is 
situated north of Far \'iew House, about midway between it and 
" Mummy Lake,"' and when work began on it no walls were visible : 
the site was covered with sage bushes, and fallen stones strewn over 
the surface had raised a mound a few feet high, which is now a fine 
circular tower surrounded by low walled basal rooms. Three kivas 
were revealed on the south side where formerly no evidences of their 
existence appeared. Two of these (figs. 104. 105) were completely 
excavated and a third showed evidences of a secondary occupation. 
After this kiva had been used for a time, no one knows how long-, it 
was filled with debris and fallen stones on which new walls were built 
by subsequent occupants. The masonry of the rooms they built is 
much inferior to that of their ])re:lecessors, the original builders of 
the kivas, and probably contemporaneous with the low walls east and 
north of the tower. 



io6 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 




Fig. 102. — Kiva of Oik: L'laii I luii.sc, truni the north. Sliowing two pilas- 
ters, ledge on hanciuette for ahar, conical corn fetish, sipapu and mortar. 
(Photograph hy (ico. T,. Beam. Courtesy Denver and Rio Grande Western 
Railroad.) 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1^22 



107 




. -^ 



^ ' 



5-0 
o u 



L:. . 





.0^^ 



;o 






oU 



iffl 



-J 


M • 




&0 


^ 


r- >> 


"^ 



H 



t, 



io8 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 




Fig. 104. — Kiva A, Far View Tower, looking south, showing ventilator 
opening and large banquette. (Photograph by \V. R. Rowland, Durango, 
Colorado.) 




Fig. 105.— Kiva I!, l"ar View Tower. (Photograph by W. R. Rowland, 
Durango, Colorado.) 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 ICQ 

The main object in excavating Far View Tower was to discover the 
use of these buildings, many of which occur on the Mesa Verde and 
still more in the canyons and tablelands west of the park. These 
structures are commonly supposed to have been used to detect enemies 
approaching the settlements. This was one of their functions; they 
were undoubtedly constructed to enable the (jl)server to see or signal 
a long distance. Nordenskiold suggested that L'edar Tree Tower had 
a religious character, which appears feasible. it is believed that 
one of their uses, perhaps the main one, was to observe the position of 
the sun on the horizon and thus to determine the seasons of the year 
by noting the corresponding points of sunrise and sunset. The sun 
priests of the early cliff dwelling determined the time of planting and 
other necessary calendar data for the agriculturists in the same way 
as the Hopi who use the following method: The line of the horizon 
silhouetted against the sky l)etween the rising of the sun at the sum- 
mer and winter solstices is divided into a number of parts each corre- 
sponding to a ceremony or other important event.^ The point of sun- 
set at the winter solstice is likewise used for the .same ]nir])ose. Having 
determined in this way that the time for jilanting has come, the sun 
priest informs the speaker chief who makes the announcement stand- 
ing on the highest roof of the pueblo. These towers were not only 
lookouts from which by horizontal sun ol)servations the seasons were 
determined, but likewise sun houses or chambers where certain sun 
rites were performed. There is a room dedicated to sun ceremonies 
connected with the (ireat Serpent worshi]) among the modern Hopi; 
and it is instructive to note that incised spiral designs representing the 
great snake frequentlv occur on stones of which towers are built. 
These towers mav be square, circular, or D-shapcd in form ; may have 
one or many chambers ; and mav be accompanied with kivas or desti- 
tute of the same. Commonly the rising or the setting sun illuminates 
their summits. Sun Temple, on the Mesa Verde, may be regarded 
as a complicated tc^wer with many chamliers Ixit in function practi- 
cally the same as that of a simple one-chamber tower. The complex 
of rooms at Far View Tower should be looked upon as an architectural 
unit, composed of a tower, probal)ly when in use as high as the tops 
of the neighboring cedars ; three subterranean ceremonial rooms, cir- 
cular in form and similar to cliff-house kivas ; and a cemetery situated 
on the south. The rooms for habitation surrounding the tower do 

^ Tt would be ver}- instructive in thi.s connection to determine by excavation 
whether the two towers known as Kiikiichomo, on the East Mesa of the Hopi, 
were used for the same purpose as those at ]\Iesa Verde. 



1 10 



SMirilSOXIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 



not belong to this complex but indicate a secondary occupation ; their 
masonry is crude ; their number shows that the population was insig- 
nificant. The few people who occupied them came later than those 
who erected and used the tower. 

There remain several large mounds in the IMummy Lake area 
awaiting excavation : some of these cover pueblos or houses of many 
clans, others small one-clan houses. The superficial appearance of 
these mounds seems to indicate types somewhat different from any 
yet described. One of the most unusual is a mound lying a few 




Fig. 106. — Megalithic House. Mainly distinguished by walls made of 
huge stones on edge. (Photograph by Geo. L. Beam. Courtesy Denver 
and Rio Grande Western Railroad.) 



hundred feet north of ]*ilummy Lake, near the government road. 
When discovered nothing appeared above ground except a row of 
large unworked stones set on edge, forming one wall of a small room. 
On excavation walls of other rooms appeared, one of which was paved 
with flat stones. The ruin had a single subterranean kiva, of regula- 
tion shape and size, the walls characterized by large stones. This 
ruin, called Megalithic House (fig. io6), belongs to a type which there 
is every reason to suspect is represented elsewhere on the Mesa. 
Cyclopean walls similar to those of Megalithic House have been pre- 
viously reported from the blufif overlooking the junction of the 
"S^ellow Jacket and McElmo Canyons, and at various jDlaces in the 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



III 




c,d 





f,a 






Fig. 107. — Pottery from cemetery of Pipe Shrine House: a. Red food bowl ; 
h. Coiled brown ware, archaic decoration; c. Effigy jar, black on white; </, 
Ladle, black on white; c. Effigy jar, black on white; (, Vase, rough ware; g. 
Mug, gray with glossy black figures ; h, Alug, gray with black decoration. 

a. Diameter 11", height 4" ; /', diameter 614", height 3" ; c, height 414", length 
6", width 4"; (f, diameter y/2" . handle ^A" long; e, length 3^", height i%", 
width 2" ; /, height 3^4" : 9- height 4^/4" : h. height 4^". 



112 SMITIISONI.W MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \'OL. 74 

San Juan \'alley. In some instances the walls are made of much 
larger stones, but always vertically placed. 

An examination of the numerous artifacts or small objects like 
stone implements, pottery (tig. 107), and the like, that were collected 
in the excavation of the rooms above mentioned, impresses one with 
the unique character of several, and the differences of the ceramics 
from those of Spruce-tree House and Clift' Palace. We find charac- 
teristic cliff-house forms of indented and corrugated ware differ from 
those of Far \^iew Tower which more closely resemble those found at 
ripe Shrine House; other forms do not occur in cliff houses. Many 
specimens of apparcnth coiled ware were decorated with stamps, one 




Fk;. 108. — Stone with parallel 
grooves, possibly used as a pottery 
stamp. Pipe Shrine House. Size : 
2-)4 >^ 2^ X 5 inches. 

of which is shown in figure 108. Among pottery types may be men- 
tioned : a, food bowls with shiny black interiors and small grooves 
with corrugations on their exteriors ; /'. pottery showing coils (fig. 
109) on their exteriors and painted designs on their interiors. The 
black and white ware is coarse and the designs used in decoration are 
simple and not very artistic. Representations of a few of these 
archaic types appear in the accompanying figures. The excavations 
at Far View Flouse. Pipe Shrine House, and other surface pueblos 
show that there are several divisions of corrugated ware which 
should Ije considered. \\'e should not rely wholly on geography in 
a comparative study of ceramics in the Southwest ; age may also 
be considered. It is probable that types of architecture have changed 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



"3 



since man settled on Mesa Verde, and that pottery also has changed 
seems probable, but direct observations regarding that change are 
necessary. Take for instance the type known as effigy jars and 
vases. No clay effigies of men or animals had been recorded from 
jMesa A'erde before the present year. Jars representing birds, 
quadrupeds, and a clay representation of the foot of a human effigy 
were excavated at Pipe Shrine House. A more archaic i)ottery dis- 
tinguished by black figures on white ware is not the same as the black 
on white ware found in clifif dwellings, which would appear to indi- 
cate that the pottery from the cemetery of Pipe Shrine House was 
earlier than that of Spruce-tree House, and yet we find at the former 
locality pottery fragments equal in technique and almost identical in 





Fig. 109. — Fragment of corru- Fig. iio. — Stone with carved T- 

gated pottery. One-third natural doorway in intaglio. (Drawing by 

size. (Drawing by Mrs. George Airs. George Alullett.) Size: 5/^ x 

Mullett.) 5 X 3.>4 inches. 



ornament with the best taken from the latest clifif houses on the park. 
There is evidence from the character of the pottery that some of the 
INIesa Verde pueblos were inhabited later than Clifi" Palace, rendering 
it easy to accept the theory that the Mesa Verde caves became so 
crowded with buildings that their inhabitants were compelled to move 
out and, having constructed pueblos, to settle on the mesa tops near 
their farms. 

Several objects, some of which are of doubtful use. were found 
near Pipe Shrine House. One of these is the stone shown in figure 
I TO. on which is engraved a T-doorway and roof beams, a speci- 
men which, so far as known, is unique. A bare mention of the 
various forms of stone weapons and mortars and pestles, imple- 
ments, pottery objects, bone needles, scrapers and the like would 



114 



S.\l rniSONlAX MISCELI.AXEOUS COr.T.ECTIONS 



VOL. 74 




Fig. III. — Fossil shell used as an arrow pol- 
isher. Pipe Shrine House. Size: J'4 x i-54 -'^ 
i\s inches. 




Fig. 112. — Cool Sprinj^ House on Cajon Mesa, Hovenweep National 
Monument. (Photograph hy J. W. Fewkes.) 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, \<J22 II5 

enlarge this report to undue proportions. An implement hitherto 
undescribed (fig. iii) is made of a fossil bivalve shell with two 
grooves for arrow polishing. This object is ornamental as the outer 
surface of the shell valves give it an artistic look. 

In order to protect them from the weather, the tops of the walls 
of rooms in Pipe Shrine House, One Clan House, Far View Tower 
and the kivas of the same were covered with a cement grout. The 
walls of Far View House were treated in the same way and it is 
to be hoped that these ruins will not need additional protection from 
the elements for several years to come. 

At the close of his season's work on the IVIesa Verde National 
Park, Dr. Fewkes visited Cool Spring House (fig. 112), a large un- 
described ruin on Cajon Alesa, in Utah, about 10 miles west of the 
junction of jNIcElmo and Yellow Jacket canyons. Cool Spring House, 
like Cannon Ball Ruin, is situated about the head of a canyon 
and consists of several more or less isolated rooms. It takes its 
name from a fine spring below the mesa rim. This ruin is situated 
so far from white settlers that its walls are at present in no danger 
of l^eing mutilated, but there is danger that the neighboring towers 
will soon be torn down, if not protected. As it is proposed that Cool 
Spring House be added to the towers in Sc^uare Tower Canyon and 
Holly Canvon to form the proposed Hovenweep National Monu- 
ment, it would be most unfortunate if these three groups of ruins 
should be allowed to be destroyed by vandals. 

OBSERVATIONS AMONG THE ANCIENT INDIAN MONUMENTS 
OE SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA 

In the spring of 1922, the Bureau of American Juhnology dis- 
patched a special investigator. Dr. T. T. Waterman, to examine the 
remains of native villages in southeastern Alaska. A number of these 
interesting old settlements were scrutinized, in the company of native 
informants. There is much of interest in and al)out these old-time 
villages, though signs of Indian occupancy are rapidly vanishing. 
The principal objects of remark are the totem-poles, for which this 
part of America is celel)rated. Every village site shows a number 
of these columns, though some have fallen, some have been cut down 
with axes, and some have been hauled away bodily as curiosities, 
sometimes to distant cities. In spite of the fact that they are carved 
out of nothing more enduring than wood (usually yellow cedar) 
some of them are of such tremendous size and solidity that they have 
stood for many generations. Here and there on the old village-sites. 



ii6 



SMITUSOMAX .MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 



there still may be seen among the poles the framework of one of the 
old-time Indian houses. 

The area in which totem-poles were originally in use was very 
definitelv limited. Xnwadays small replicas are being cut for sale 




Fig. 1 13. — A fine example of totemic art, from the Alas- 
kan town of Howkan (central pole). Striking features 
of totemic art are, (i) the love of comple.\it3^ and (2) the 
fact that the whole pole is an artistic unit. A figure merges 
into the ones above it and lielow it in the most clever way. 
This is well shown in the splendid column in the center. 
(Photograph by Julius Sternberg, for the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution.) 

out of all sorts of wood, and stone, by all sorts of people, many of 
whom have not the faintest notion of how to do it properly. Origi- 
nally, poles were not set up anywhere south of Frazer River. Ihe In- 
dians of Puget Soimd. for example, never heard of these colmnns 
until late vears. Tlie Indians of the east coast of \'ancou\er Island 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



117 



had totemic columns, but the custom had never spread to the island's 
western side. To the northward, totem-poles were carved by all the 
tribes as far north as the Chilkat (a Tlingit group living not far 
from Haines. Alaska). The Indians to the north and west of them, 




Fig. 1 14. — The degeneratiun of tolemic art uiidci" civili/cd 
influences. It would be a pity to discuss this wretched 
thing, except to note that the clever joining of one figure 
to the next is completely forgotten. The carvings show (at 
the bottom) the Sun, above that two Beavers, and, at the top, 
an Eagle. The house behind it is called " Eagle-leg house." 
The house-posts represent the legs and feet of the eagle. 
(Photograph by Julius Sternberg, for the Smithsonian 
Institution.) 

however, knew nothing of such columns. Beyond these lived the 
Eskimo and Aleut, to whom the whole matter is absolutely foreign. 
The whole idea of art from which the totem-pole rose, was limited 
strictly to the coast region. 



Il8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

It is safe to say that totem-poles are peculiar. As a matter of fact 
they represent a very highly developed, and very highly perfected, 
art. For many generations the Indians hereabouts were developing 
a special " knack," and special ideas, and the matter has gone so far 
that other people (even some civilized artists) seem to have a hard 
time even in copying their handiwork. 

In looking over these monuments, one is impressed by the fact that 
there has been a gradual change in artistic style even on the part of 
the Indians themselves. Unfortunately, this cliange is in the wrong 
direction. The older monuments are much more interesting, and are 
better executed, than tlie later ones. In other words, the Indians 
themselves are forgetting their art. This matter is worth illustrating 
l)y photographs (figs. 113, 114). ]\Ionuments carved within the last 
40 years look (usually) rather staring and stiff, compared to the ones 
executed previously. With the increasing decay of the old land- 
marks, a unique style of work bids fair to pass as completely out of 
existence as though it had never been. 

This art consists almost solely in the representation of animals. In 
the second place, the carvings refer almost always to the parts which 
these animals played as actors in certain interesting old myths. The 
carving is meaningless, unless one understands the allusions. Per- 
sonal experiences are sometimes portrayed. This matter, also, can be 
very simply illustrated. In the third place, in making a representation 
of an animal the Indian has special stylistic devices. He puts in what 
he knows should be there (inchiding at times things not visible at all). 
Finally, he often simplifies and distorts (according to certain defi- 
nite rules), in the interest of getting in what he regards as im- 
portant. He actually loves artistic complexity. All of these tenden- 
cies prevent us from readily appreciating what is in many cases a 
genuine artistic masterpiece. These points may well be explained 
separately. 

The significance of the poles can scarcely be understood without 
taking into consideration the form of society which these Indians had 
developed. All of tlie tribes of the Northwest Coast are divided into 
what are usuall\- called " clans." This word is borrowed from the 
Scotch, and is a very poor term to describe the social groups of the 
Northwest Coast Indians, for here each group looks upon itself as 
related by blood to some particular animal. /V tremendous mass of 
ideas and usages has grown up, involving kinship, rules of marriage, 
property, religious ceremonies, and descent, all centered al)out these 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXl'LORATIONS, I922 



119 





120 SMITilSUiXlAN MlSCELLA.\i:()L'S COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

animal crests. To the Indian of this region, the most important thing 
in life is his animal crest or " totem." All his ideas and ambitions 
center about this hereditary animal progenitor and protector, the 
similitude of which he carves on all his utensils, paints on his house- 
front, tattoos on his arms and chest, paints on his face, and repre- 
sents on his memorial column. Curiously enough (from our particu- 
lar point of view) these people reckon kinship through the mother 
only. This has some curious consequences. A man (to mention one 
consequence) sets up a memorial column, not for his father, but for 
his mother's relatives, particularly her brother. Conversely, if a col- 
lector wishes to buy a pole for preservation, he ought logically to 
arrange matters, not with a dead chief's son, but with the dead chief's 
nephews; for a son has (according to the native idea) no connection 
with his father. It is to a maternal uncle that a boy or young man 
looks for guidance and counsel, and it to his maternal uncles mem- 
ory that he owes respect and veneration. It is from this uncle only 
that he inherits property. A boy's whole position in society, his rank, 
his outlook, his standing, and his prospect for a wife, all hinge upon 
the animal crest which he inherits from his mother's brother. It is 
clear, therefore, that a " totem-pole " will display to the public view 
all the animal crests which the Indian possesses, and all those with 
which his family ( /. c, his maternal relatives) have been associated 
in the past. 

The importance of these animal crests to the Indian, may 1)e illus- 
trated in an interesting way by the matter of personal names. Many 
of the names used within a group of kindred, refer to the qualities, 
or traits, or tricks of behavior, of those animals to which the group 
looks. Sometimes the names are highly figurative. Sometimes they 
are so pitilessly literal and Homeric in their directness that they 
almost disconcert us. Some very famous names, which have been 
used in certain families for generations, a])])ear in the following list: 

NAMES IN THE RAVEN CLAN 

"Kazrn's child." 

" Waddling^ This refers to the raven's gait when he walks on 
the ground. 

" Ti'cating-eacli-()tlur-as-d()(js." This alludes to the fact that when 
a raven dies, the other ravens ])ull the body al)()ut. dragging it here 
and there. 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 121 

" Big-doings." This refers to the fact that young ravens are noisy, 
in the nest. The native word means hterally a celebration, or fiesta 
of some sort. 

"Stinking-nation." This epithet refers to the fact that the raven's 
nest has a bad odor. 

NAMES IN THE EAGLE CLAN 

" Foiir-cggs," an alkision to the eagle's trait of laying always four 
eggs in the nest. 

" Tail-dragging," because the tail of the eagle drags when he walks. 

" Flying-dcliberatcly." The eagle, with his great bulk and enormous 
wings, flies strongly but deliberately, unlike any of the smaller birds. 

The next point to be explained is the matter of mythology. The 
animals whose likenesses appear in the carvings are the heroes of 
endless mythical tales. It requires a good deal of erudition therefore 
to explain some of the carvings on the totem-pules. (July the old 
Indians can do it. In the first place, the animal may be represented 
either in human or in animal form, for any animal can take either 
form, as he pleases. A bear, for example, in his own den, takes ofif his 
bear-skin and hangs it up. What looks like a lot of stones or branches 
is in reality the furniture and property in a fine house ; and the 
bear himself appears there as human as you or I. Conversely, when 
the Indian artist is carving the likeness of a man, he is occasionally 
so moved by his feeling for that man's totem or crest, that he intro- 
duces features of the crest-animal into the carving. The art is there- 
fore a bit abstruse ; and the native sculptor seems in some cases to 
delight in border-line styles of execution. 

The carvings on a given pole, where they refer to the great animal 
heroes, usually allude to some certain episodes in the myth of that 
particular animal. For example, a certain family of Raven-people 
living at the town of Kasaan put up the pole shown in figure 117. It 
represents part of the legend known as " Raven Travelling." At the 
top is Raven himself, in human form. Below him is his likeness in 
bird form (and an impish look it has). Below this again is a fish 
called the sculpin or bull-head — an excessively ugly and repulsive 
looking fish. 

Bull-head used to be a beautiful fish, the prettiest of all that swam 
in the sea. Raven when walking along the shore saw Bull-head dis- 
porting himself, and called out to him, " Come on shore one moment." 
Bull-head paid no attention. " Come ashore a moment," said Raven, 
" you look just like my grandfather." " I know you," said Bull-head, 



122 



SMI TIISOXIAX M ISCK'.l.AXlCOUS COLLECTION: 



VOL. 74 



"you might as well he still. I'uture generations also will know what 
kind of a person you are! " Bull-head was thus too smart to come 
ashore. " \\ ell then, '" said Raven. " from this time on your head 
will be big, and your tail will he skinny, and you will he ugly." That 
is whv Bull-head is so uglv to-daw 




Fig. 117. — A totem-pole at Kasaan Village, illustrating 
the myth of the adventures of Raven. (Photograph by 
Julius Sternberg, for the Smithsonian histitution.) 

An illustration of another kind of crest is supplied hy the following 
picture (fig. 1 19). The carving at the top represents a man in a stove- 
pipe hat and a frock coat. An old lady belonging to the house in front 
of which this jxjle stood, was the first person in the village to en- 
counter a white man. .She went to Sitka with some Indians, and 
there saw a sh\p with whites in it. The figiu'e rejiresenting what she 
saw was accordingly put on her pole. Below this white man is a 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1C)22 



123 




124 



S.MITIISON lAX M ISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 



splendid carving' of i\a\en, and beUnv him a ligure representing a 
" sca-llon rock." The snpernatural being who hves in the rock is 
pictured as a great I)east. who embraces a sea-hon. the flukes of which 
are under his chin. Such a rock-l)eing is cahed " Grand father-o£-the- 
sea-lions." In this ])<)k\ carvings Hke the carving of the Raven, 
representing the ancestor of the owner's familw are combined with 








Fig. 119. — A pole with a white man as a totem (cen- 
tral pole). An old lady who set up this pole was the first 
Indian of her group to see the whites, so she took a 
white man (in a frock coat and a stove-pipe hat) as her 
crest. (Photograpli by Julius Stcrnliers. for the Smith- 
sonian Institution.) 

a carving representing something in the history of the owner's wife, 
namely, that she was the hrst person in tlie village to come in contact 
with the whites. 

A totem-])ole represents, really, a certain Indian's claim to fame. 
ITis claim may be based either on his own experiences (like a dis- 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1(J22 I25 

tinguished conduct medal is, with us) ; or it may Ijc founded on his 
ancestry, as in the case of a title of nobility or a coat of arms. 

The idea that a pole always represents descent is therefore not 
quite accurate. It is more nearly correct to say that the pole re])re- 
sents the Indian's claim to fame, or the claim of his family, whatever 
that claim may be based on. Examples of both kinds of carvings are 
plentifully illustrated in the poles. 

A quaint example of a recently-accjuired crest is shown in the next 
photograph (fig. 120). This specimen was described to me as " the 
best totem-pole in Alaska." As a matter of fact, it is not properly 
speaking an example of totemic art at all. The owner's wife was an 
h'agk' woman, so the Eagle appears at the top of the pole. The 
owner himself many years ago, prior to the American occupation of 
Alaska, became converted to Christianity. The three figures on the 
body of the pole were copied, along with the scroll designs, from a 
Bible in the Russian church at Sitka. The bottom one represents, it 
is said, St. Paul. The pole, while it is not a totemic monument as 
far as the designs on it are concerned, illustrates how an individual's 
inner experiences give rise to crests. This man gave a great " pot- 
latch " when he raised the pole, and thus endowed himself with title 
to these carvings, and made them his own. He was the first of his 
group to become a Christian. 

It will be seen that there are a variety of ways in which carvings 
come to be on poles. In one case I know of, a chief who belonged 
to the Raven side, gave a great feast to a rival chief, a man of the 
Killer-whale persuasion at Wrangell, and made him numerous gifts. 
This latter chief fell upon evil days (he became a drunken loafer, in 
fact) and was never able to return these gifts, in their equivalent. 
The first chief therefore put on his totem-pole his own crest, the 
Raven, represented as biting the dorsal fin of a Killer-whale. The 
rival chief resented the afifront, but he had lost his property so what 
could he do ? 

Some of the larger poles are 50 or 60 feet long. The tree is 
felled and transported to the village-site, often at great labor. Here 
it is blocked up, and an artist, hired for the purpose, works out the 
design. To carve an elaborate pole was often the work of several 
years. The back side of the pole was hollowed out, to lighten, as much 
as possible, the labor of erecting it. A large concourse of people 
assembled for the actual erection of the great column, and to partake 
of the accompanying feast. Tremendous amounts of property were 
distributed at such times, by the host and by his relatives, and such 
an occasion has come to be called a " potlatch." The rank of a family 
9 



126 



;.Mrnis()XiAx .misceij-axeous collections 



VOL. 74 




Jmc. !_'().-- -.\ " t()Hni-])ul(.- " with ll^ures copied from an old Russian liilile in 
tlic clnircli in Sitka. The owner was the lirst inliahitant of tiie villa.tie to ht'Come 
a Christian. ( T^hriioorajili h\' Iterostresser. Alaska.) 



NO. 



SM ITIISOXJAX I".XI'I.(»K.\II()XS, l<;22 



127 



was great]}' increased by this means. The size of a ])<)le, and the 
style of the carvings, Hke the name assumed by the owner, were corre- 
lated to a nicety witli the cost of the potlatch and the amount of 
property disbursed. The noble families were very careful of their 
dignitv. ( )nce a }()ung man who was preparing to take a swim, 




Fig. 121. — A pole at the village of Howkan, showing (near 
the top) a representation of the Czar of Russia who sold 
Alaska to the U. S. A. ( Photograph by Julius Sternberg, 
for the Smithsonian Institution.) 



slipped on a treacherous rock and capsized on this beach. His father 
at once ordered that a slave be killed, so that nobody would laugh at 
his son. Slave people, who merely represented objects of value, were 
often dispatched at ]:)Otlatches, to add lustre to the occasion, and to 
show that the owner was so rich that the value of a slave was nothing 
to him. 



128 SMITHSONIAN ]\riSCKl.l..\.\ ICOIS (Ol.l.KC IJONS \(i|.. 74 

In later times, after the first contact with civihzation, it hecanie 
difficult to kill slaves. The custom developed, therefore, of manu- 
mitting one or more slaves w^hen a pole was set up. A figure repre- 
senting the slave who went free, was often carved on the pole. A 
very finely carved jiole in Howkan (fig. 121) has an amusing figure 
on it. It represents the Czar of Russia who sold Alaska. It shows 
him with his military uniform, with epaulettes. An Indian made 
this pole soon after the transfer of Alaska to the United States. 
Concerning the Czar he said as follows : " We have now got rid of this 
fellow. We have let him go off about his business. Therefore, I 
will jnit him on my ])ole, in memory of the event." 

A certain artistic st}le has become established in this region, which 
also tends to prevent the carvings from being readily recognized. 
Two tendencies especially may be recognized. In the first place, 
many parts of the animal are suppressed entirely, and selected fea- 
tures only are portrayed. In the second place, [he Indian artist feels 
at liberty to rearrange the parts of the animal, to make the design fit 
the available space. Often the animal is reassembled in an entirely 
new way, the parts appearing in the most unex])ected and incongru- 
ous way. These two tendencies have beeri labelled ])v Boas the 
tendency toward syiiiholisiii. and the tendency toward distortion. 

Some of the important totem animals are symljolized by the follow- 
ing traits. When one or two of these traits are present, the animal 
may be readily recognized. 

Beaver. This animal is usually re])resented as sitting uj), and 
gnawing at a stick, which he holds in his forepaws. The great 
incisor teeth of this rodent are always shown \erv plainlv. 

Bear. The bear is usually in a sitting postm-e. usuallv holds some- 
thing between his ])aws. and usually has something jirotrnding froni 
his jaws (if nothing else, then his tongue). 

Ragle. The l)cak of the eagle cm-ves over at the end, and has 
a characteristic sha])e. 

" TJiunderbini." This bird (which does not appear in the natural 
histories) makes thunder by clapping his wings, and lightning bv 
winking his eyes. He is carved very much like the eagle, but Ins I)eak 
is larger, and he wears a cloud hat. 

Hawk. The carving of the hawk may l)e distinguished ])v the fact 
that the beak curves over, and the point of it touches the mouth or 
chin. 

Shark. The characteristics emphasized in the shark-carvings are 
rather curious. The animal's gill-slits (a row of openings on either 
side of the animal's neck) are alwa\s shown bv crescent -shaped 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN liXi'LORATlONS, 1^22 I29 

markings. When the shark is represented in human form, these 
marks appear on the cheek. The mouth is invaria1)ly curved down- 
z^'cird at the corners, and is often furnished with sharp triangular 
teeth. The forehead of the shark always rises into a sort of peak. 

The principle of dissection is equally useful to the native artist. 
It may be illustrated not merely in the ca.-e of totem-poles, but with 
many varieties of objects. We may suppose for example that an 
Indian's totemic crest happens to be the Killer-whale, and that this 
man is ornamenting a slate bowl with this family crest. The shape 
of the bowl is settled in advance ; that is, being a bowl or dish, it is 
round. The nature of the design is also a cut-and-dried matter. The 
man in the nature of the case wishes to represent the Killer, for that 
is the crest he has inherited from his forebears. He therefore has to 
make a killer-whale pattern which will exactly fit into a round field. 
The Indian's artistic ideal is quite different from our own. He feels 
(apparently) that certain essential traits (or "symbols") of the 
animal must go in ; and that the design when finished must neatly 
fill up the available space. 

The monuments left in Alaska are often in the last stages of 
neglect and decay. Worse than that, even, many of them are being 
deliberately destroyed. The Indians themselves, under the influence 
of the whites, learn to despise these monuments of their past, as being 
reminders of their state of unregenerate barbarism. One Indian 
chap, trained in the white man's ways and " educated " perhaps some- 
what beyond his intelligence, cut down with an axe a lot of fine old 
totem-poles, sawed them into sections, and used them in building a 
sidewalk. (See fig. 122.) 

The fate which has for various reasons overtaken these monuments 
is best indicated by the accompanying photographs. The ruin and 
decay which has fallen upon all things simply beggars description. 
No work could be better than to preserve, somewhere in Alaska, at 
at least one house, with its totem-poles and carvings complete. This 
would at least serve to illustrate the kind of architecture which these 
Indians developed. Some of these native houses were of cyclopean 
proportions, the great 1:)eams being 3 and 4 feet in diameter. The 
older Indians themselves often have toward the whole matter what 
seem> to l)e an apathetic attitude, but this is misleading. The 
real inner feeling seems to be that the old times are gone, and that 
these monuments of the vanished past should, in the nature of things, 
be allowed also to decay in peace and to vanish quietly from oft" the face 
of the earth. It would not be impossible to interest some of the more 
alert ones in the preservation of at least some of the ancient glories of 



I30 



SMITIISOXIAX xMISCEI,LANEOUS COl-LECTIOXS VOL. 74 





3 ^ 'S r 



■r. > IJ.E >. 

' ^ ;S ^ be C 

O C ri o O O 

J > o « = 

"^ ^ *" rt r-- ^ 

■/■;" It's S rt 
^ ^^ Sc- 
at:^--::— 
;; '■' c „ c o 



I ~' '* "^ '>. "^ 

^' trii = 2 '- 
• c b c 

CM- ns J3 S 



NU. 



SMITIISUXIAN EXl'LORATiONS, ig22 



i3t 



this region. In spite of all that has happened, there is much of great 
interest left, as the pictures show. No poles worthy of the name have 
been carved for 30 years, and for 20 years before that the art was 
degenerating. Some of the old columns are in a marvelous condition 
of preservation considering their age. The decay l)egins at ihe top, 




Fig. 124. — Interior of an abandoned native house, showing- 
one of the totemic house-posts, portraying the Bear. ( Photo- 
graph by Julius Sternberg, for the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution.) 



where seeds also take root and sprout. Often when the top figure 
is gone, the remainder of the carvings are fairly sound. At the town 
of Tuxekan an observer in 1916 counted 125 poles standing. In 
T()22, only 50 were left. The information about the poles, also, is 
disappearing even more rapidly than the poles themselves, for only 
the old peo])le know or care. 



132 



S.Mll IISOXIAX MlSCEl.I.AXKOUS COLLECTIONS \'OL. 74 




NO. 



SMITHSOXJAX EXPLORATIONS, I922 



133 



During the time the < l)server wa> in the lieUh n lialf dozen of the 
old village-sites were visited. Sketeh-maps were prepared, showing 
the eondition of the monnments. Quite extensive notes were taken 
from native informants. res])ecting the genealogies of the people who 
owned the houses, and the symbolism of the poles. A complete list 




Fig. 126. — Tlircc Indians of a tolem-jiole tribe, in native garb. 

was made also of the geogra])hical nanie^ along the coast from one 
village to the next. The native geography of extreme southeastern 
Alaska was tlierefore rather completelv obtained. The number of 
jilace-names thus recorded, charted and arialw.ed, amount to se\'eral 
thousand. There is ])rol)ably no region in North America where 
investigations can be carried out with richer restdts. 



'34 



M 11 IISOMA.N .MlSCKI-LAMiOl'S COI.I.Kf'l IONS 



\-OL 



74 



ARCHEOLOGICAL TNVES'J'IGATIONS AT PUEBLO BONITO, 
NEW MEXICO 

During the months of ]\Iay to Septemher, inclusive, Neil !M. Judd. 
curator of American archeology. U. S. National ^Museum, continued 
his investigation of prehistoric Pueblo Bonito, in behalf of the Na- 
tional Geographic Society/ As in 1921, ]\Ir. Judd's staff consisted 
of seven trained assistants v^ith about 20 Navaho and Zuni Indians 
employed for the actual work of excavation. 





Fig. 127. — Mr. R. P. Anderson, a former captain of engineers, A. l'^. P., 
at work on a topographic map of Chaco Canyon. This view, taken from 
above Pneblo Bonito, affords an excellent idea of the surronndings of the 
great rnin and the height of tlie canyon wall. Note tlie horses and one of 
the expedition's test pits in the right forcgronnd. ( Photograpli by Neil M. 
Judd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Societx. ) 

In these recent cxi:)l()rations, attention was directed es])ecially lo 
the eastern ])an of llu- great ruin, a section which includes not only 
the finest masonry in the whole pueblo l)Ut which cxhi])its other evi- 
dence of relatively late construction. I'his entire section, although 
apparently erected last, was probably abandoned before the remainder 
of Pueblo r.onito. IVcausc of this general abandonment, ctilttu-al evi- 



' Smithsonian Misc Ci 



\'nl. 



Nos. 6 and m. 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN' EXl'LORATIONS, I922 



135 



dence is largely lacking in the several rooms but the information 
gathered has been sufficient, nevertheless, to aitord accurate compari- 
son with that of other sections. It is now certain that Pueblo Bonito 
is not the result of a single, continuous ]:)eriod of construction, rather, 
that it took its final form after much building and rebuilding in which 
substantial homes were razed to make way for others. 

A deep trench was cut in the east refuse mound in order to obtain 
chronological data for use, with similar information gathered in the 




Fig. 128. — Part of the excavated northeast section of Pueblo Bonito at 
the close of the 1922 season. Most of these rooms had been abandoned 
prior to the general exodus from the village and were utilized as dumping 
places for refuse by families which continued to dwell nearby. (Photo- 
graph by Neil M. Judd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 

west refuse mound during 1921, in tracing the cultural development 
of Pueblo Bonito and establishing relative dates, if possible, for the 
several foreign influxes already apparent. As has been previously 
noted, clans from the Mesa Verde, in Colorado, and from the valley 
of the Little Colorado River, in Arizona, and elsewhere, came to 
dwell at Pueblo Bonito at some time after the establishment of the 
great commiuiity house. The expedition seeks to isolate these outside 
influences and to determine the effect they exerted upon the distinc- 
tive local culture. 



136 SMITIISONIAX .MlSCEI.l-ANEUUS CUl. LECTIONS \()I.. 74 

In addition to the purely archeological phase of the expedition, 
geophysical investigations were undertaken in an effort to trace cli- 
matic or other changes which may have taken place in I'haco Canyon 
since the occupancy of prehistoric Pueblo Bonito. Three test pits 
near the ruin, each more than 12 feet in depth, provided stratigraphic 
sections of the valley fill in addition to that already available in the 
arroyo. From the evidence disclosed in these pits, and elsewhere, it 
now appears that Pueblo Bonito was originally constructed on a slight 
elevation, superficial indications of which have since been entirely ob- 
literated through building up of the level valley floor by means of 
blown sand and silty deposits washed in from the sides of the canyon. 
These deposits vary in depth from 2 to 6 feet and frequently contain 
scattered objects of human origin. 

A pre-Pueblo ruin, the existence of which was disclosed only 
through caving of the arroyo bank. afl:'ords further evidence of the 
human occupancy of Chaco Canyon at a consideral)le period prior 
to the erection of Pueblo Bonito and the other major ruins, a similar 
structure having been excavated by the National Geographic Society's 
Reconnaissance Expedition of 1920. This ancient habitation consisted 
of a circular pit 12 feet 9 inches (3.9 m. ) in diameter and about 4 
feet (1.2 m.) deep, excavated in the former valley floor; its roof 
was qf reeds and earth supported l\v small poles which reached from 
the wall of the excavation to upright posts placed just within an 
encircling bench. A considerable quantity of potsherds, collected both 
from the deliris which fllled the ])it and from the masses of adobe 
which had fallen awav from the bank. estal)lishe(l tb.e period tn which 
the dwelling belongs as " early black-on-white."" a culture well known 
throughout the San Juan drainage. Idie fact that the floor of this 
ancient structure lay 12 feet below the present valle\- surface is evi- 
dence not only of the vast amount of silt which has been deposited 
since occupancy of the room. Ijut carries the [jromise. also, that other 
similar lodges may \ et be disclosed by excavation or through the 
gradual erosion of the valley. 

A topographical survey of that ])art of Chaco Canyon adjacent to 
Pueblo Bonito. completed ]i\- the i()22 ex])edition. aflords the hrst 
accurate map of the ])rinci])al ])ortion of the C haco C anxon Xalional 
]\Ionument. This sur\f\- correctly locates nine of the major ruins 
and indicates the relati\e i)osition of most, but not all. of the smaller 
structures to be fonnd. es])eciall\' ihnsf along the southern side n\ 
the can\'on. 




Fig. 129. — A narrow, elevated passage-way constructed through one 
Pueblo Bonito room to connect the two adjoining chambers. The lintel 
poles of the nearer doorway are supported, on the right, by a hewn plank 
which rests upon an upright pine log partially imiicddcd in the wall. (Pho- 
tograph by Neil M. Jndd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 




.*»V 



Tk. 130. — Tlie ceremonial rooms which belong with the characteristic 
Chaco Canyon culture are all very much alike. This view in Kiva G, at 
Pueblo Bonito, shows a portion of the encircling bench, one of the pilasters 
or_ roof supports and several charred posts which originally formed some- 
thing of a wainscoting behind the lower ceiling logs. (Photograph bv 
Neil M. Judd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.") 

(137^ 




Fig. 131. — Excaw'iting' one of Puelilo Bonito's numerous i-;i\as. Mule- 
drawn dump cars were used in connection with a portable steel track which 
could be shifted as the explorations progressed. Owing to the depth of 
some rooms it was necessary to pass the deliris upward from one man to 
another before it reached the Irack level. (Photograph ]>\ Wil M. Judd. 
Courtesy of the National Geographic Society. ) 





^^*^ 










Fig. 132. — Many instances of superjjosition have been disclosed by the 
excavations at Pueblo P)onit(). This particular view shows the disintegrat- 
ing masonry of a typical Chaco Canyon kiva resting directly upon the 
partially razed walls of a ceremonial room fundamentally different in con- 
.struction and representing an entirely distinct culture. ( Photograiih by 
Neil M. Judd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I9: 



139 



Altogether, 35 secular rooms and six kivas were excavated in 
Pueblo Bonlto during the past summer. Several of these, follovi^ing 
abandonment of the eastern portion of the pueblo, had been utilized 
as dumping places by the families which still dwelt nearby. Rubbish 
from wall repairs, floor sweepings containing potsherds and other 
artifacts, cedar bark and splinters from old wood piles, etc., com- 
prised this debris. The doorways in many of these deserted dwellings 
had been blocked with stone and mud and the rooms themselves were 




Fig. 133. — Part of the excavated area of Pueblo Eonito at the elo-e nf 
the 1922 season, looking southeast across Kiva G (in the foreground). 
The upper walls in the three kivas shown here have been sHghtly repaired 
to prevent rain water from running into the open rooms. ( Photograph 
by Neil M. Judd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society. ) 

entirely filled by masonr\- fallen from the upper stories and by the 
vast accumtilation of blown sand and adobe. Indications of fire were 
encountered frequently but in most instances the conflagration ob- 
viously occurred at a consideral^le period following the general aban- 
donment inasmuch as blown sand and. sometimes, fallen wall material 
had accumulated upon the lower floors before the Inirning of the 
ceiling structure. From this evidence, it is certain that the fire which 
destroyed much of the woodwork in the eastern portion of Pueblo 
Bonito could have contributed in no wise to its desertion. Sections 



]40 



s.\i 11 1 1 SON lAX M isci:i.i,.\Ni-:i)i's coLi.EcrniX; 



\"(IL. 



"4 



(if charred ami other beams have been examined hi determine the 
relative date of cutting- and in the hope. also, that a means may yet 
lie discovered for connectin;^ the annual rinys in these ancient timbers 
with those in trees -till grov^'ing upon the northern New Mexicti 
mesas. Inasmuch a> the prehistoric Bonitians left no known calendar 
or other time record, an ehort is to be made to correlate their dis- 
tinctix'e chronoloyv with that of our own ci\ilization ihi-ough over- 



^^'r 



. v.:!:^ 



- :vS3 



9mmmm 







J^'^lit^r^f^-"- 



Img. 134. — The high clitt behind Puelilo fionito ahords an excciiuimai 
vantage point from which to view the ancient rnin. In this photograph, 
taken at the close of the 1922 season, the relationship of the secular 
rooms and kivas is at once apparent. Note the cars and track l)y which 
debris was conveyed from the ruin for deposition in the arroyo ; also the 
expedition camp in the upper right-hand corner. (Photograph l)y Xeil M. 
Judd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 



lapjjing scries of growth ring^ in li\ing trees, old logs and ancient 
beams. 

Investigations pursued beneath the Hoors of both dwelling rooms 
and kivas revealed, as in i(;2l. the remains of razed walls belonging 
to an earlier period of constrtiction. Idie later habitations do not 
necessariK' conform to the outline of those iireceding : the masonrv 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, \()22 



141 



itself is usually, but not always, different in type thus indicating that 
people with entirely distinct cultural customs reoccupied this section 
of the pueblo prior to its final abandonment. 

Among the artifacts collected during the past two years are speci- 
mens and many fragments of mosaic. These, with the number and 





Fig. 135. — A circular pre-Pueblo dwelling, i mile east of Pueblo Bonito, 
was cross sectioned by caving of the arroyo bank. Twelve feet of blown 
sand and water-deposited silt had accumulated upon the floor of the room 
whose furnishings included a central fireplace (above the Indian) and a 
semi-circular bench (at upper left). Charred fragments of roofing poles 
are plainly seen. (Photograph by Neil M. Judd. Courtesy of the Na- 
tional Geographic Society. ) 



variety of bracelets, pendants and other objects of personal adornment 
already recovered, tend to confirm the Navaho and other traditions 
relating to the great wealth of the ancient Bonitians. Pueblo Bonito 
is still identified among the Indians of northwestern New Mexico as 
a village where turquoise and rare shells were abundant. The pottery 



142 



SMITIISOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 74 




Fig. 136. — Dwellings in Puchlo Bonito were sometimes razed to permit of 
the construction of ceremonial chambers. The former ceiling beams shown 
in this illustration are here used both as braces for the curved wall of a 
kiva and as supports for a second-story room which was subsequently 
abandoned as its enclosing walls were still further altered. (Photosraph 
bv Xeil M. ludd. Cotirtesv of the National ("icograiihic Societv.) 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN I-:X1MJ)KATI( )NS, I922 I43 

of this ancient community is among the finest in the Southwest, no 
other prehistoric pe()])le within the horders of the United States hav- 
ing surj^assed the ancient Donitians in the heauty of form and decora- 
tion of their ceramic artifacts. 



INVESTIGATION OF PREHISTORIC QUARRIES AND WORK- 
SHOPS IN PENNSYLVANIA 

Mr. John L. Baer, acting curator of American archeology in the 
U. S. National Museum during the ahsence of ^Nlr. Neil ^U Judd, 
curator, spent a part of April, 1922, and a numher of week ends 
during the summer, along the Susquehanria River, where he investi- 
gated a numher of prehistoric quarries and workshops for the Bureau 
of American Ethnology. 

On Mount Johnson Island, one mile ahove Peach Bottom, Lancaster 
Co., Pa., he has located a workshop where slate hanner stones were 
made in quantity. These prehistoric objects, figures 137, 138, often 
of finest workmanship, are peculiar to the eastern part of the United 
States and their use has led to much speculation among archeologists. 
During the past few years more than 300 broken and unfinished ban- 
ner stones have been found here, from which a numl:»er of series have 
been assembled showing all stages of development from the split 
blocks of slate to finished banner stones. The series illustrated herein 
has been placed on exhibition in the Pennsylvania case in the Archeo- 
logical Hall of the U. S. National INIuseum. 

This workshop was conveniently located a short distance up the 
river from a large vein of slate which crosses the Susquehanna. A 
high cliff of exposed slate extends to within a few yards of the 
water's edge on either side of the river. 

The large number of specimens broken in the early stages of manu- 
facture, found at the island workshop, and the scattered specimens 
showing more advanced work, picked up on nearby camp sites, indi- 
cate that many of the unfinished banner stones were blocked out and 
partly pecked at the workshop near the source of material and carried 
to distant camp sites to be completed there. As there was a famous 
shad battery on Mount Johnson Island, to which Indians from distant 
points came for supplies of shad and herring, it is probable that 
many of the slate banner stones scattered through Pennsylvania and 
Maryland may have been made, or at least started, at this workshop. 



144 



SM I TIISONrAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 





Pig. 137. — A series of unfinished banner stones. 



NO. 5 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, ig22 



145 






^ff 







/3 




/-y- 




^^ 




/f 



Fig. 138. — Banner stones in series, and shaping tools. 






146 



S.M IT 11 S( ) X 1 A X M ISCEIJ.A X E( )US COI.LECTIOX S 



\1)L. 74 



INVESTIGATIONS AMONG TllF. ALGONQL'IAN INDIANS 

At the close of j\Iay. 1922. Dr. Truman Michelson. of the Bureau 
of American l^thnology. proceeded to OkhUioma to conduct researches 
among the Sauk and Kickapoo. The prime object was to secure data 
on the mortuary customs and behefs of these tribes. From these 
data it is now absokitely certain that the mortuary customs and behefs 
of not onlv the Sauk and Kickajioo l)ut also those of the Fox for the 




^^,,-rf -^ 



mmb.u..^.^^.^ 



Fig. i^^q. — Fox winter lodne, at Tama, Iowa. 




greater ])art have ])een derived from a common source. Towards 
the end of jime. Dr. Michelson went to Tama. Towa, to renew his 
work among the Fox Indians. Many texts in the current syllabary 
were translated, some restored phoneticall}-. ftiller data on the mor- 
tuary cust(jms and beliefs were obtained as well as new data on the 
ceremonial attendants and runners. 

In August, Dr. Michelson left for Wisconsin, where he spent a 
week of reconnaissruice among tht- highU' conservative I'otawatomi, 



NO. S 



SMITPISOXIAN EXIM.ORATIOXS, I922 



147 



near Arpin. He then visited the Ojibwa near Reserve, Wisconsin, 
to obtain some first-hand information on them, and afterwards the 
Ottawa of the lower Michigan peninsula. It appears that their lan- 
guage and folklore survive with full vigor, but their social organiza- 
tion has rather broken down. Dr. ]\Iichelson next visited the Dela- 
ware and Munsee of Lower Canada. It is clear that the Delaware 
and JNIunsee spoken in Canada are not the same as spoken in the 
United States ; so that the term " Delaware " is really nothing but 
a catch-all designation of a number of distinct though closely related 
languages. Finallv. Dr. Michelson carried on investigations among 




Fig. 140. — Fox matting at Tama, Iowa. 

the Alontagnais, near Pointe Bleue. P. O., for a few days. He found 
that although the language is distinctly closely related to Cree, never- 
theless it is decidedly more archaic than has lieen commonly stipposed. 



FIELD-WORK AMONG THE YUMA, COCOPA, AND 
YAQUI INDIANS 

IMiss Frances Densmore, collaborator of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, conducted field-work among the Yuma and Cocopa In- 
dians living near the ^Mexican border in Arizona, and the Yaqui living 
near Phoenix, Arizona. Songs of the jMohave were recorded by 
members of the tribe living on the Yuma reservation, and a Mayo 
song was obtained from a Yacjui Indian. 



148 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

The Yuma and Cocopa are the most primitive tribes visited by IMiss 
Densmore and are probably as little affected by civilization as any 
living in the United States. The Yaqui are still citizens of ^lexico 
though they have lived in Arizona for many years, their little settle- 
ment being known as Guadalupe Village. They obtain a scanty living 
by working for neighboring farmers and their chief pleasure is 
music, which is heard in the village at all hours of the day. They are 
governed by a chief and several captains, and seem contented and 
orderly. 

The field-work among the Yuma and Cocopa centered at the Fort 
Yuma Indian agency, situated on the site of Fort Yuma, in California. 
An opportunity presented itself to observe their custom of cremating 
the dead. The body of an Indian who had died in an asylum for the 
insane was brought to the reservation for cremation. When Miss 
Densmore went to the cremation ground in the morning the body was 
seen lying on a cot under a " desert shelter." The relatives were 
crowded around it, sitting close to it and fondling the hands as they 
wept. The face of the dead man was covered. The wailing had been 
in progress all the previous night and the people showed signs of 
weariness. About lOO people were present, many being old men who 
sat with tears streaming down their faces while others sobbed con- 
vulsively. The cremation took place at about two o'clock in the after- 
noon. The ceremony was witnessed from the time when the body 
was lifted for removal to the funeral pyre, until the flames had 
destroyed it. Clothing and other articles of value were placed with 
the body or thrown into the fire. The ceremony was given in its 
most elaborate form, the deceased being accorded the honors of a 
chief because he had, prior .to his mental illness, been one of the two 
leading singers at cremations. The rattle used in the ceremony is 
said to be about 250 years old. It is made of the " dew-claws " of 
the deer, one being added for each cremation in early times. It is 
now impossible to continue this as the deer are not available. 

Information concerning this ceremony was surrounded with the 
secrecy which envelopes this class of material among all Indian 
tribes. Many of the ceremonial songs were, however, recorded pho- 
nographically by the oldest man who has the right to sing them, and 
an account of the history of the custom was obtained, together with 
a description of the Knrok, or memorial ceremony which is held 
every summer. In this ceremony there is a public burning of effigies 
of the more prominent persons who have died during the year. The 
dead are never mentioned, this custom being rigidly observed. The 



.NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



149 



songs of the Kurok, and several cremation songs of the Mohave, 
which showed interesting differences from those of the Yuma, were 
recorded. 

Miss Densmore's study inckided war customs, the songs used in 
treating the sick, those of the maturity ceremony of young girls, those 
connected with folk tales, and several long cycles of songs sung at 




Fig. 141. — Kachora, a Yuma. His long hair is wound like a turban around 
his head. ( Photograph by Miss Densmore. ) 

tribal dances, or for pleasure without dancing. These songs are 
interesting, many of them being pure melody without tonality. The 
words are exceptionally poetic and concern birds, insects and animals, 
as well as rivers and mountains. The work among the Yuma was 
aided by Kachora (fig. 141), a prominent member of the tribe. 

A trip was made to a Cocopa village in the extreme southwestern 
portion of Arizona, near the Colorado River and only a few miles 



150 



S.MirilSOiXrAN M ISCELLAXEOUS C(JLLECTI()NS 



\0L. 74 



from the Mexican border. In the work of recording songs it was 
necessary to employ two interpreters, Nelson Rainbow, who trans- 
lated Cocopa into Yuma, and Luke Homer who translated Yuma into 
English. In many instances it was necessary for the singer to ex- 
p\a\u his material to Tehanna (fig. 142) who discussed it with Rain- 




|-i(,. 14_'. - I'raiik 'i\-lianna. a Cooopa. ( l'lKjt()i;ra]ili hy Miss 1 )(.-nsnn)rc. ) 

bow, who in turn related it to Homer, after wliicli it was translated 
into English. Under such conditions it was jxissiblc to make only a 
general study, but much interesting material was oljlained. Two of 
the princi]ial C'ocojm singers were Clam and I'.arlcx- (tigs. 143, 144). 
The musical instruments of the Yimia and Coco])a are the gourd 
rattle, the morachc (rasping sticks), the basket drum beaten with 
wooden drumming sticks or witli liundlo of arrow-weed, also a flageo- 



NO. 5 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



t;t 




Fig. 143. — Clam, a Cocopa. ( Photograph by Aliss Dcnsmore.) 




Fk,. 144.— r,aiic\ , a Cocopa. (I li.ii..yi tn|i i,_v \li^^ ncnsmorc.) 



152 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 74 

let and a flute, the latter being the fir>t wind instrument blown across 
the end which has thus far been obtained. Sjiccimens of all these 
were secured and the playing of the flageolet and flute were recorded 
by the phonograph. In addition to her musical work, Miss Densmore 
made a phonograph record of the numbers from i to 30 spoken by 
an aged woman who knows the " old language." 

In April, 1922, jMiss Densmore visited the Yaqui at Guadalupe 
Village, about 10 miles distant from Phoenix. She was present at 
the observances of the week preceding Easter, including the deer 
dance which was given on Good Friday. Similar, though more primi- 
tive, observances were attended at a Yaqui village near Tucson, in 
April, 1920. The Yaqui observance of Holy ^^'eek is a mixture of 
Roman Catholic influence and native ideas, customs, and dances. The 
singing is said to be continuous day and night from Good Friday to 
Easter. There is an evident fanaticism, and a certain hypnotic effect 
in Yaqui singing which suggests that, under some conditions, the people 
could work themselves into an irresponsible state of mind by its use. 
The melodies connected with the religious observance were less dis- 
tinctly native than those of the deer dance which was performed on 
the day before Easter by five men. all scantily clad. The leader of 
the dancers wore a head dress made of the head of a deer and his leg- 
wrappings were ornamented with hundreds of tiny pouches made of 
deer hide containing pebbles, forming a series of rattles. Two of 
the dancers carried rattles made of a flat piece of wood in which were 
set several small tin disks which vibrated as the rattles were shaken. 
In this dance they likewise used four half -gourds, of which one was 
placed hollow side dowmward on water in a small tub and another 
was inverted on the ground. These served as drums. The other two 
were placed on the ground and used as resonators for rasping sticks. 
A few days later ^^liss Densmore recorded the deer dance songs, 
given by an old man who was the leading singer at all the deer dances. 
She recorded also a deer dance song of the r^layo, living in Mexico. 

It was found there are two kinds of music among the Yaqui, one 
being the native, exemplified in the deer dance, and the other showing 
a Alexican influence, though the people stoutly asserted that it is 
Yaqui and " different from ^Mexican music." The songs of the deer 
dance are simple, with some characteristics not previously found in 
Indian music but appearing to be native concepts. These and similar 
songs are known to only a few of the old men. Songs of the second 
kind are sung by the younger men and are very pleasing, joyous 
melodies, usually accomj:)anied by the guitar. 



NO. 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I922 



153 



Instrumental music is highly regarded among the Yaqui, a favorite 
instrument being a short harp of native manufacture, which is played 
in an almost horizontal position, its base resting on a box in front 
of the seated player. 





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1 


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flP' 


i 


vJU! 


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^4> ^^^^Hi' ■ 


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Fia. 145. — Manuel \\ala, a ^ a'|ui, playing on flageolet and drum. (Photo- 
graph by Miss Densmore.) 

Among the musicians at the observance of Good Friday was Manuel 
Ayala who played the drum and the flageolet at the same time, each 
having its own rhythm (fig. 145). This flageolet had only two sound 
holes, and was made in two sections which could be taken apart. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 76, NUMBER lo 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1923 




(Publication 2752) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1924 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 76. NUMBER lO 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

IN 1923 




(Publication 2752) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1924 



ZU ^oti) (§(x{timoxi (pxtee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction i 

Geological Explorations in the Canadian Rockies ( Dr. Charles D. Wal- 

cott) I 

Geological Field- Work in the Ohio Valley (Dr. R. S. Bassler) 8 

Expedition to the Dinosaur National Alonument, Utah (Mr. C. W. Gil- 
more) 12 

Collecting Fossil Footprints in Virginia (Mr. C. W. Gilmore) i6 

Paleontologic Reconnaissance in the Great Basin (Dr. Charles E. Resser). i8 

Field-Work of the Astrophysical Observatory (Dr. C. G. Abbot) 22 

Biological Explorations in the Yang-Tze Valley, China (Mr. Charles 

M. Hoy) 30 

Molluscan Studies about the Florida Keys, Bahamas, and West Indies 

(Dr. Paul Bartsch) 35 

Botanical Exploration in the Dominican Republic (Dr. W. L. Abbott).. 43 

Botanical Exploration in Panama and Central America (Dr. W. R. 

Maxon) 47 

Studies on Early Man in Europe (Dr. Ales HVdlicka ) 56 

Archeological Investigations in South Dakota (Mr. M. W. Stirling).... 66 

Archeological Investigations at Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico (Mr. Neil 

M. Judd) 71 

Explorations in San Juan County, Utah (Mr. Neil M. Judd) TJ 

Archeological Field- Work in New Mexico (Dr. J. Walter Fewkes) .... 82 

Archeological Field- Work in Florida (Dr. J. Walter Fewkes) 88 

Ethnological Studies in Maine, Canada, and Labrador (Dr. Truman 

Michelson ) 99 

Ethnology of the Osage Indians (!Mr. Francis LaFlesche) 104 

Archeological Work in California (Mr. John P. Harrington) 107 

Archeological Field- W^ork in Tennessee (Air. William Edward Myer).. 109 

Field Studies of Indian Music (Miss Frances Densmore) 119 

Bannerstone Investigations in Pennsylvania (Mr. John L. Baer) 127 



EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE SMITH- 
SONL\N INSTITUTION IN 1923 

INTRODUCTION 

The field expeditions sent out by the Institution or cooperated in 
by the members of its scientific stafif during the calendar year 1923 
are here briefly described and illustrated. The scientific results of 
many of them will be presented later in the various series of publica- 
tions under the direction of the Institution ; the bulletins and proceed- 
ings of the United States National Aluseum and the bulletins and 
reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. That part of the 
Institution's income from its small endowment of slightly over one 
million dollars, which is available after defraying administrative costs, 
does not permit of extensive field operations, but every effort is made 
to send out or cooperate in as many expeditions as possible with the 
means at hand. This scientific exploration forms an important part 
of the Institution's work in the " increase of knowledge," and by 
means of it much valuable information has been gathered and dis- 
seminated and the collections of the United States National Museum 
have been greatly enriched. 

GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES 

During the summer and early fall of 1923 Secretary Charles D. 
VValcott carried on geological field-work in the Canadian Rockies of 
Alberta and British Columbia, in continuation of the previous year's 
work in the main range and the western minor ranges that form the 
great eastern wall of the Columbia River Valley from. Golden south 
to Kootenay River. His object was to secure data on the Pre-Devonian 
strata from the Clearwater River southeast to the Bow Valley and 
along the eastern side of the Columbia River Valley. 

The field season was a favorable one for geological work up to the 
middle of September, despite the intense heat, as the nights were 
invariably cool and restful. 

It was found that the Mons formation which was discovered on 
the headwaters of the Saskatchewan River at Glacier Lake, extended 
southwesterly on the western side of the Continental Divide in British 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 76, No. 10. 



2 SMITHSONIAN M ISCKLLANEOUS COI-LECTIONS \"0r.. 76 

Columbia to the southern end of the Stanford Range between the 
Kootenav River and Cokmibia Lake, which is at the head of the great 
Cohnnbia River, which here flows northwesterly in what is popularly 
known as the Rocky ]\Iountain Trench. 

The valley of the Columbia was found to be largely underlain by 
the limestones and shales of the Alons formation of the Ozarkian sys- 
tem, and the strata have been greatly upturned, faulted and folded 
prior to the great pre-glacial period of erosion that cut out the Rocky 
]\Iountain Trench for several hundred miles in a north-northwest 
and south-southeast direction. 

The Mons formation is upwards of 3,800 feet in thickness in the 
Beaverfoot-Brisco-Stanford Range on the eastern side of the Colum- 
bia River \"alley, and contains four well-developed fossil faunas that 
indicate its position to be between the Upper Cambrian and the 
(Jrdovician systems of this and other portions of the continent 

(fig-5)- 

A great development of Lower Ordovician was discovered near the 
head of Sinclair Canyon, and cliiTs of massive Upper Cambrian lime- 
stones were recognized at several localities beneath the Mons forma- 
tion. Collections were made of corals and other fossils from the 
Silurian limestones that occur above the Ordovician shales. 

This is a wonderful region for the geologist to work in as the 
numerous canyons and mountain ridges give access to many of the 
formations from base to summit. Beneath the great series of lime- 
stones, shales and sandstones there are 16,000 feet or more of older 
stratified rocks that form the main range of the Rockies which are 
so wonderfully exjiosed along the line of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way from Banff westward over the Continental Divide to the central 
portions of the beautiful Kicking Horse Canyon east of Golden. 

It was intended to review some of the work of 1921-22 north of 
Lake Louise near Baker Lake, but a heavy snow storm drove the 
party back to the railway on the i8th of September, just after a day 
of taking photographs. The coming of the storm was indicated by 
the presence of large numbers of mountain sheep and goat in the up])er 
limits of the forest, as well as the presence of black and grizzly bear 
lower down on the moimtain slopes, and wisps of va])or trailing to 
leeward from the mountain i)eaks. When the mists and clouds broke 
away foiu" davs later, a tliick mantle of snow covered the ridges and 
peaks well down into the forest covered slopes. A few of the photo- 
graphs taken neur liaker Lake are illustrated by figures i, 2, and 3. 




I'lc. I. — Lake of tlic Hanging Glaciers. This represents :i t\i)Ral \allc\ glacur iliat himniah •, \u a lake wliere the ice front cahes or breaks olT and lloats a\va\ in tin- I'urni 
of ice lloes or miniature icebergs. The main glacier is fed by the snow and ice that fall from tiie small surrounding glaciers that cling to the slopes of the surrt)unding iiioun- 
laiiis. This is a beautiful glacial view just at timber line in one of the wildest spots in the mountains west of Lake Windermere in the Columbia River Valley, British ("olumbia. 
( W'aieott, 1923.) 



Rcdoiiljt Mountain 
(9,510') 



Ptarmigan Peak 
(10,060') 



Fossil Mountain 
(9.655') 




I'Ki. 2. — A mountain view northeast of Lake Louise Si.iUun uii tlie Canadian Pacific Railway. Baker Lake (/.^Ji feet, 2231.4 m.) at the foot of L^ossil Mountain (9,655 feet, 
2942.8 m.) ; Ptarmigan Peak (10,060 feet, 3066.2 m.) in tlie distant center; Redoubt Mountain (9,510 feet, 2898.6 m.) on the left in the distance, and the slope of Brachiopod 
Mountain on the extreme left. ,'\11 In the Province of .\Iberta. 

The Lower Cambrian and Pre-Caiubrian rocks of Ptarmigan Peak have been thrust eastward and now lie above the much later Devonian rocks of Fossil Mountain. The 
crest of Fossil Mountain is a syncline or basin of limestone caused by the pressure of the rocks from the westward. (Walcott, 1923.) 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 




SMITIISOXIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



\OL. 76 



A side trip was made in August from the Lake Windermere area 
west up Horsethief Canyon to the Lake of the Hanging (ilaciers 
(figs. I and 4). Passing through W'ihner the temperature was 
ahove 90° ; two days later the snow fiakes were sifting down on 
the tent in the early morning at the camp just helow the foot of 
Starbird ( ilacier. Climbing up 2,000 feet on a slippery trail, we spent 
a day at the Lake of the Hanging Glaciers, and were so fortunate as 
to have a little sunshine in the intervals between snow squalls and 
whirling clouds of mist. Some of the pliotograjihs reproduced here 




Fig. 5. — Looking across Cdlumhia River Xalky to the west face of Stan- 
ford Range between Stoddart Canyon (on right) and Dry-Creek Canyon 
(on left). At the mouth of Stoddart Canyon the Upper Cambrian Lysell 
limestones (L.) form a low cliff, and to the left of the canyon foothills of 
Mons shales and limestones (M.) abut against the cliffs of Silurian lime- 
stones, Brisco (Br.) and Bcaverfoot (B.). The strike of the Mons and the 
Silurian strata is indicated by short lines, and the position of the fault 
between the Mons and the Brisco limestones by a dotted line. A second 
block of the Mons with Silurian further up Stoddart Canyon is indicated 
by the letters M., Br. The Red Wall fault and lireccia are shown on the 
face of the high cliffs to the left, which are a short distance south of Sinclair 
Canyon. (Walcott, 192,3.) 

give a very imperfect idea of this ])eautiful lake hidden away in an old 
glacial cirque which now has a normal glacier fed by the falling ice 
and snow of the smaller glaciers clinging to the clififs above. To be 
fully appreciated both this lake and the Starbird glacier must be 
visited for a few days. 

As a whole the season was a .successful one, both from its geologic 
results and the sketches and photographs of mountain wild flowers 
obtained by Mrs. Walcott, who sketched in water colors 30 species of 
wild flowers or their fruit that were new to her collection, a jiortion 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 




Fig. 6. — Lake Louise, All^erta, after a September snow squall. A reflec- 
tion of Mounts Victoria and Lefroy from the mirror of the lake. (Mrs. 
Mary V. Walcott, 1923.) 




Fig. 7. — Starbird Glacier at the head of Horsethitf Canyon. Purcell 
Range, about 40 miles (64.3 km.) west of Lake \\ uKJermere, British Co- 
lumbia. (Mrs. Mary V. Walcott, 1923.) 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



\OL. 76 




l*'u;. 8. — A great cluster of 75 Ijlossunis of the Lady Slipper {Cypripcdiuin 
pan'Moniiii Salisb. ). Seven miles east of Lake Windermere in the Stan- 
ford Range, British Columbia. (]\Irs. Mary X. Walcott, IQ2.^.) 




I'K;. y. — Labrador lea (l.cdn)n (jrociildiiduuni (Jeder), which has a range 
of many thousands of s(|uare miles. This particular group of blossoms was 
from Sinclair Canyon, L.risco-.Stanford Kangc, P>ritis!i Columbia. (Mrs. 
Mary V. Walcott, 1923.) 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 




Fig. 10. — Bell heather (Cassicpc iiicrtciisiana ( Rong. ) Don) which carpets 
large areas in the Canadian Rockies. From Lake of the Hanging Glaciers, 
British Columbia. (Mrs. Mary V. Walcott, 1923.) 




Fig. II. — Grizzly bear camp up among groves of Lyell's Larch. South- 
east of Baker Lake and northeast of Lake Louise, on the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, Alberta. (Mrs. Mary V. Walcott, 1923.) 



8 SMITHSOXIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \'(JL. 76 

of which is exhihited in the main hall of the Smithsonian Institution 
building. Three of the photographs of wild flowers as growing are 
reproduced by figures 8, 9, and 10. 

During most of the field season the party consisted of Secretary 
and Mrs Walcott. Dr. Edwin Kirk of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
Arthur Brown, Paul J- Stevens, packer, and William Harrison, camp 
assistant. 

The Commissioner of the Canadian National Parks, Plon. J. B. 
Harkin, and the members of the Parks Service in the field, and the 
officials and employees of the Canadian Pacific Railway, were all 
most courteous and helpful. 

GEOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IN THE OHIO VALLEY 

The field-work for 1923 of Dr. R. S. Bassler, curator of paleon- 
tology, United States National Museum, was limited to three regions 
of the Ohio Valley, namely, the Central Basin of Tennessee, the 
Knobstone area of southern Kentucky and the Niagaran plain of 
southwestern Ohio. The stratigraphic and paleontologic studies in 
the Central Basin of Tennessee, commenced two summers ago, were 
continued this year in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Ten- 
nessee. In previous field-work the geology of the western side of 
the Central Basin, particularly an area of about 250 scjuare miles just 
south of Nashville, was studied and mapped. This season's work was 
concentrated upon the Hollow Springs quadrangle, an area of similar 
size located on the opposite side of the Central Basin and upon the 
adjacent Highland Rim. This Highland Rim, a plain area underlaid 
by very gently undulating strata, is a possible source of oil, so that 
State Geologist Wilbur A. Nelson suggested that in addition tt) the 
usual stratigraphic studies, a structural contour map be made of the 
quadrangle for use in locating oil areas. Therefore during the geologic 
mapping special attention was paid to the accurate determination of 
the top of the Chattanooga black shale, a widespread oil shale forma- 
tion separating the Mississippian limestones above from the Ordovi- 
cian limestone below. Sufficient observations were obtained to make 
it possible to draw on the map the structural contours or lines of 
equal elevation of the oil shale, thereby revealing the slight undula- 
tions of the strata. Several anticlines of interest as possible oil reser- 
voirs were discovered by this method. The stratigraphic sequence in 
this region proved to be quite different from the w-estern side of the 
Central Basin for here the middle Ordovician, Cannon limestone as 
shown in figm-c T2 is overlaid directly by the early Mississi])])ian Chat- 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 




lu,. 12. — \ icw of Middle Urdovician-Mississippiaii uuconfurmity near 
Hollow Springs, Tennessee, showing the undnlating line of contact between 
the Cannon limestone (C) and the Chattanooga black shale (B). (Photo- 
graph by Bassler. ) 




Fig. 13. — View of Highland Rim in e?,st central Tennessee, dissected by 
Central Basin stream. (Photograph by Bassler.) 



lO 



SMITHSIINIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 




Fig. 14. — Falls of Duck River near Alanclicstt 

b}' Bassler.) 



lcnn?ssee. (Photograph 




I-'k;. 15. — Porlion of Stone I'^ort mound near Manchester, 
Indian eartliwork built largely of black shak 
(Photograph by Bassler.) 



ennessee, an 



NO. 10 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 II 

tanooga black shale, all of the upper Ordovician, Silurian and Devon- 
ian strata thus being absent. 

The Highland Rim in this part of Tennessee is dissected by many 
streams which carve out narrow rocky valleys opening into the Central 
Basin. This in turn gives rise to many rock outcrops and consequent 
opportunities for collecting fossils. Such areas, although very rough 
in nature, contain beautiful scenery, as shown in figure 13. The High- 
land Rim is as a rule a monotonous plain, but interesting scenery upon 
it is sometimes developed along the streams where erosion has been 
sufficient to cut through the hard silicious limestone into the softer 
underlying black shale. In such cases, as shown in figure 14, waterfalls 
of considerable size are developed. This particular outcrop is also of 
archeological interest m that the blocks of black slate shown at the 
base of the falls furnished part of the material with which the Indians 
built extensive mounds along the river banks. A portion of these 
mounds known as the Stone Fort is shown in figure 15. 

In company with State Geologist Nelson and the late Mr. W. E. 
]\Iyer, Dr. Bassler visited the Indian earthworks along the Harpeth 
River west of Nashville in order to study a blue-clay stratum out- 
cropping in the mounds. Elsewhere in Tennessee this blue clay con- 
tains mammals of Pleistocene age but here it was underlaid by strata 
holding human remains. Therefore at first glance it seemed that defi- 
nite results as to the age of early man in America had been discovered 
but upon a little investigation it became evident that the Indians had 
transported this clay from some distance and packed it down into the 
flat layers resembling geological strata. 

The geologic work in Kentucky was financed by Mr. Frank Springer 
and consisted of quarrying operations in an area of crinoid-bearing 
strata. Although some specimens were discovered this season, the 
mam object of the work was to uncover the fossiliferous strata so 
that weathering during the coming year would reveal the crinoids now 
hidden in the debris. 

In southwestern Ohio, in connection with the packing of the Austin 
collection of fossil invertebrates for shipment to the Museum, 
Dr. Bassler, through the courtesy of Dr. George M. Austin the donor 
of this collection, was enabled to study the geology of the Niagaran 
plain and surrounding areas from which Dr. Austin had secured his 
specimens. In this way a first hand knowledge of the region was 
obtained which is now proving very useful in the study and arrange- 
ment of the specimens in final Museum form. 



12 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. j6 



EXPEDITION TO THE DINOSAUR NATIONAL MONUMENT, UTAH 

The department of geology of the United States National Museum 
has long been desirous of obtaining a mountable skeleton of one of the 
large sauropodous dinosaurs to be utihzed as a central feature in the 
main hall devoted to the exhibit of fossil vertebrates. In the latter 
part of 1922, the opportunity for securing such a skeleton was pre- 
sented w^hen the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh abandoned opera- 




FiG. 16. — Sign on the Victory Highway near Jensen, Utah, directing 
visitors to the Dinosaur National Monument. Erected by the Vernal Cham- 
ber of Commerce. (Photograph by C. W. Gilmorc.) 



tions at the Dinosaur National Monument in northeastern L tab. In the 
course of their final excavating, the Carnegie collectors uncovered 
two partially articulated skeletons of Diplodocus, which were left 
in situ, since a sufficient amount of such material had already been 
secured. When this fact and the intention of the Carnegie ^Museum 
to cease operations in the region were communicated to the officials 
of the Smithsonian Institution, plans were formulated for taking up 
the work, and in Alay, 1923, Mr. C. W. Gilmore, curator of vertebrate 
paleontology, was detailed to take charge of such operations as were 
necessary to secure a mountable skeleton of one of these huge reptiles. 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXI'LORATIONS, 1 923 



13 







« .*^ 








J'^iG. 17. — View of the quarry at the Dinosaur National Aionumcnt. The 
slope in the center foreground was excavated for dinosaur remains by the 
Carnegie Aluseum. The dump may be seen in the lower left hand corner. 
(Photograph by Earl Douglass.) 




I'iG. 18. — General view of the region surrounding the Dinosaur National 
Monument with Green River at right. The arrow indicates the location of 
the quarry. (Photograph by Earl Douglass.) 



14 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 



The fossil deposit in the Vernal Valley, near Jensen, Utah, now 
known as the Dinosaur National Alonunient (see figs. i6, 17, and 18), 
was discovered hy ^Ir. Earl Douglass in 1909, and has heen worked 
continuously by the Carnegie Museum since that time. The material 
secured there — some 300 tons — is greater in quantity and finer in 
quality than the sum of all that has been obtained hitherto in America. 
The fossil ])ones are found here in a thick, cross bedded sandstone of 
variable hardness that is tilted up to an angle of 60°, as is clearly 
indicated in the accompanying illustrations. 




Fig. 19. — View showing the steeply inclined plane of the fossil bearing 
sandstone, with blocks of fossils being boxed preparatory to shipping. 
(Photograph by Earl Douglass.) 



j\Ir. Gilmore arrived at the quarry on JMay 15. A preliminary sur- 
vey showed that the two skeletons uncovered by the Carnegie collec- 
tors had been partially worked out in relief, as illustrated in figures 20 
and 21. These are here referred to as No. 355 and No. 340. It was 
at once decided that No. 355 (see fig. 21), although lacking much of 
the neck and some other parts, would form the basis of a mountable 
skeleton, its value being materially increased by its articulated condi- 
tion, while the preserved j^arts of No. 340 would serve admiral)ly to 
replace the missing bones of No. 355. 

Regular work in the quarry was begun on ]\Iay 24 and proceeded 
continuously up to August 8. The employment of three men with ex- 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



15 




Fig. 20. — General view of the skeletons of Diplodocus collected by the 
National Museum. Men are working on specimen No. 355 at the right, and 
No. 340 is shown near the floor of the quarry to the left. The large plas- 
tered blocks on the ledge are portions of the neck of No. 340. (Photograph 
by Arthur Coggeshall.) 




Fig. 21. — Photograph showing a more detailed view of specini^en No. 353 
as it was uncovered by Carnegie Museum collectors. The squares, 4 feet 
across, are painted on the rock to assist in properly mapping the bones. 
(Photograph by Arthur Cogg-eshall.) 



l6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

perience in this field, together with the assistance of Mr. Norman H. 
Boss of the jMuseuni's paleontok)gical force, who joined the expe- 
dition on June 5. were largely responsible for the successful outcome 
of the operations. 

The work of quarrying these often fragile bones from the ledge of 
rock without doing irreparable damage is a slow and tedious operation, 
involving the skill of both the stone cutter and the miner. Further 
difificulty is encountered in handling by primitive methods the immense 
blocks of rock enclosing the bones, with the subsequent arduous work 
of boxing and transportation. The largest block quarried, containing 
the sacrum with attached hip bones, weighed nearly 6.000 pounds 
when readv for shipment. The transportation of the boxes to the rail- 
road involved a haul by teams of 150 miles across country and over a 
range of mountains 9,100 feet alwve sea level. However, 34 large 
boxes having a coml)ined weight of over 25 tons were safely- 
transported. 

The expedition resulted in the acquisition of sufficient material for 
a good skeletal mount of Diplodocits which, it is estimated, will 
exceed 80 feet in length with a height at the hips of 14 feet. 

COLLECTING FOSSIL FOOTPRINTS IN VIRGINIA 

In September Mr. Charles W. Gilmore, curator of vertebrate pale- 
ontology. United States National MuseuuL visited the farm of 
Mr. F. C. Littleton, near Aldie. Loudoun County. Virginia, for the 
jnirpose of investigating the reported discovery of fossil footprints. 
In excavations made by Mr. Littleton in the red Triassic shale in 
quest of flagstone, numerous footprints were to be observed. The,sc 
occur in four distinct horizons in a vertical distance of perhai:)S 100 
feet. In two instances at least prints were found in successive la\ers. 
Three-toed imprints j^redominate though they vary in size from a 
length of three to fourteen inches. A few tracks were noticed having 
four toes, evidently terminated with wide, flat unguals. All of these are 
probably of dinosaurian origin, but a few small 4- or 5-toed tracks 
with traces of sharp claws perha])s pertain to some other grou]). 

While as a whole the tracks bear a striking similarity to those from 
the Trias of the Connecticut Valley, a critical study and com]:)arison 
of them would be most interesting. Thev are nf further interest as 
being the first footprints to have been found in the State of Virgim'a. 

Through the courtesy of T^lr. Littleton, Mr. (iilmore again visited 
the locality and with the assistance of Mr. N. II. Boss collected a fine 
.slab, two by twelve feet, on wliieh were the imprints of a 3-toe(l 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



17 




i8 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 



dinosaur. This slab shows that the animal had a stride of 56 inches. 
This specimen which weighed in the neighborhood of 1,500 pounds 
makes a most important and interesting addition to the collection of 
fossil footprints now on exhibition. A few separate tracks were also 
secured at the same time. 




I''ii;. J,v- ( iciK'ial \ ii_\v of tlx \)\vxv wIktc fiii)ti)rints were found on the 
President .Monroe farm near Aldie, \'irginia. ( Photogrr.ph liy C. W. Gil- 
more.) 



PALEONTOLOGIC RECONNAISSANCE IN THE GREAT BASIN 

Dr. Charles E. Resser, associate curator of paleontology, United 
States National AIuseuuL was detailed by Secretary Walcott to spend 
the months of August and Sei:)tember. 1923. in reconnaissance strati- 
graphic and paleontologic work in the Great Basin Ranges of Nevada 
and Utah. This work was planned primarily to obtain information and 
collections of Cambrian fossils to further the work of Dr. Walcott 
in his monographic studies of the Camljrian and allied formations. As 
the region to be studied was so extensive and lacking ordinary means 
of travel, a Ford truck was ])urchased in advance at Elko. Nevada, the 
starting point of the trip (fig. 24). 

Mr. M. C. Mohr of Washington, D. C, accompanied Dr. Resser and 
ably assisted about the cam]) and in making the collections. Dr. Murray 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



19 




Fig. 24.--pelaycd in irrigation ditch, soutli of Egan Canyon, Nevada, 
showing difficuUies encountered in exploration work. (Photograph by 
Resser. ) 




-"^J^ 




I'iG. 25. — Lamoille Creek and Canyon, in the Ruby Range, the most rugged 
and picturesque in Nevada. (Photograph by Resser.) 



20 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \0L. 76 

O. Hayes, professor of Geology at Brigham Young University, Provo, 
Utah, joined the party for a week's work near the end of the season 
in the Wasatch and Bear Lake Mountains. 

Passing hy the beautiful Rul)y Range (fig. 25) the party proceeded 
to Eureka, Nevada, where the first two weeks were spent in this region 
made classic by Dr. Walcott's monograph of 1886. Large collections 
were secured here supplementing those made by Dr. Walcott in the 
early days when the district was densely populated and the producer 
of great quantities of silver and gold. Now it is largely abandoned 
like the other older mining districts, but more knowledge of the 
geology is necessary because at the present time several large mining 
companies are making an intensive search to find any ore bodies that 
may lie beyond the older workings. 

A rapid survey was then made of the Schell Creek, Egan and Snake 
Ranges in eastern Nevada, all typical Basin Ranges where Cambrian 
beds are brought to the surface at many places. A most excellent and 
important section was found in Patterson Canyon. 50 miles south of 
Ely in the Schell Creek Range, but as it is eight miles by very steep 
road from the nearest water and 50 miles from the nearest gasoline 
station, through a wide desert (fig. 26), only one trip could be made 
to it from the spring at the Geyser Ranch. 

A large collection of Cambrian fossils was secured along the Lincoln 
Highway just west of the summit on Schellbourne Pass. Thousands 
of tourists pass this way each season, for the party was joined in its 
camps along this highway invariably by numerous other parties repre- 
senting every type of American citizen. 

In the drier portions of the world the universal and absolute control 
exercised by water on the position of man's habitation and manner 
of living is the more apparent. In the Great Basin one finds no 
dwellings except where water can be secured and the size of the 
unit of dwellings is determined altogether by the amount of water. 
Thus one may find a single individual at a small spring, a small ranch 
at the end of a small stream and a large ranch or groups of ranches 
where the stream carries more water. The copper ores from the Ruth- 
Kimberley District must be carried 30 miles across Steptoe Valley to 
the concentrators and smelters at McGill, situated on Duck Creek, 
the largest stream in this region. To conserve the water supply the 
ranches formerly depending on this stream have been abandoned and 
the water is piped to the ])lant to avoid the loss in the natural stream 
bed. The higher ranges catch the greater amount of snow and rain 
and so the denser populations arc located along their foot. 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



21 




1 i<,. 20. — T\pical desert view along Overland Trail in Steptoe Valley, 
Nevada, showing flood water after a storm. (Photograph by Resser.) 




Fig. 27. — Early morning picture of the Smithsonian camp in Blacksmith 
Fork Canyon, known for the excellent section studied here by Dr. Walcott. 
(Photograph by Resser.) 



22 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 



The last two weeks were spent in a brief study of certain sections 
in the Wasatch and Bear Lake Mountains in Utah. These ranges 
form the western edge of the great Rocky Mountains and offer many 
comphcated problems in structure and stratigraphy. These mountains 
are higher and consequently catch a heavier rainfall. The well-watered 
strip, which is the rich agricultural district of Utah, is the result. 
Cache Valley in the northern part of the state, between two ranges, is 
densely peopled in its many farming communities and is a region of 
great beauty. Numerous canyons have been cut by the larger streams 
around this valley and among them is the Blacksmith Fork Canyon 
studied some years ago by Dr. Walcott (see fig. 27), with results 
which proved so interesting that further collections were desirable. 

FIELD-WORK OF THE ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

In 191 8, the Astrophysical Observatory began to undertake the 
daily measurement of the variation of the sun. The late Secretary 
Langley used often to express his prevision that the study of the sun's 
heat, the losses which it suffers in passing through our atmosphere, the 
variations which it may be subject to, would at length serve to fore- 
cast the changes of weather and climate which are so important for 
the agriculturist, and which in some parts of the world even lead 
occasionally to periods of disastrous famine. He used to speak of 
Joseph's seven years of plenty and seven years of famine, in this con- 
nection, and of the possibility that in the future the student of the 
sun might be in a position to emulate that ancient prophet. 

Langley's dream received some support when the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory discovered the substantial variability of 
the sun, and confirmed this discovery by its expeditions to Africa. 
The influence of the solar variation on the weather was studied by 
Mr. Clayton, at that time chief forecaster of the Argentine Meteoro- 
logical Service, and he seemed to find that the sun's variations pro- 
duced notable influence on the weather conditions of Argentina, and, 
indeed, of the rest of the world. The results of these preliminarv 
studies of Mr. Clayton were published in the Smithsonian Miscel- 
laneous Collections, Vol. 68, No. 3, and Vol. 71, No. 3. 

Our previous investigations had been restricted to the summer and 
autumn seasons which are notably cloudless at our observing station 
on Mt. Wilson, Cal. These results apj:)eared so encouraging that it 
seemed incumbent on us to make the necessary observations of the sun 
throughout the entire vear for a number of vears. in order to make 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 23 

a groundwork for further studies of the relation of the variation of 
the sun to the variation of the weather. As is well known, solar ob- 
servations of this kind require the highest degree of cloudlessness and 
uniformity of sky. After many inquiries, it was decided to occupy 
a station near the city of Calama, on the edge of the Nitrate Desert 
of Chile. This station was first set up in July, 1918, and continued 
until July. 1920, when, by the advice and financial assistance of 
Mr. John A. Roebling, it was removed to the top of Mt. Montezuma, 
about ten miles south of the former location and high above the dust 
and smoke which had hmdered to some extent the observations near 
Calama. 

At the same time, also, by Mr. Roebling's assistance, the apparatus 
which had hitherto been used on Mt. Wilson, Cal., was transferred 
to the top of Mt. Harqua Hala, Ariz., selected after a long meteoro- 
logical investigation conducted through the kindness of the Director 
of the United States Weather Bureau. This station was first occupied 
in October, 1920, and both stations have reported continuously from 
their establishment until the present time. 

The method of solar observation invented by Langley and developed 
by the Astrophysical Observatory requires a continuous uniform 
transparency of the sky for several hours, either in the early morning 
or the late afternoon. It also requires about twenty-five hours of 
measurement and computing for each day of observation. In 1919. a 
brief empirical method, based upon this longer and fundamental 
method, was devised and applied first at Calama and later at Harqua 
Hala and Montezuma. In 1922, a still further abbreviation of the 
methods of computing was devised and was introduced at both stations 
in the spring of 1923. According to this newest method, the required 
observations for determination of the intensity of the sun's heat as it 
is outside the atmosphere can be secured in less than fifteen minutes, 
and the results can be computed in less than an hour, so that it is now 
possible and usual to make daily five independent determinations at 
each station of the intensity of the solar heat as it is outside the atmos- 
phere, reduce these observations by one or two o'clock in the after- 
noon, and, again by Mr. Roebling's financial assistance, communicate 
them by telegraph, from the stations at Harqua Hala and Montezuma, 
to the Smithsonian Institution at Washington where they are received 
early on the following morning. If it were essential, the matter might 
lie still further accelerated, so that telegraphic reports from these 
distant observing stations could be had on the afternoon of the same 
day of the observation. 



24 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

Now that five independent determinations are usually made daily 
at each station, the mean results are very accurate. A comparison has 
been made of the daily determinations at the two stations over the 
period January to October, inclusive, 1923. It proves that a half of 
one per cent is the average daily difference between the indications of 
the solar heat as it is outside the atmosphere, determined at these two 
stations many thousands of miles apart, one in the Northern, the other 
in the Southern Hemisphere, one at an altitude of 5,000 feet, the other 
at 9,000 feet. 

The two stations join in indicating the march of the solar heat up 
and down, and within the past year the fluctuations have ranged over 
about 4 per cent. During the years 191 4 to 1921, the results had run 
generally at a level of about 1.95 calories per square centimeter per 
minute. Beginning in 1921, a notable downward march began, and by 
September, 1922, the monthly mean values were ranging at about 1.91. 
This lower level continued, with minor fluctuations, for a number of 
months, and the lowest values were reached in February and March, 
1922. After that, there was a gradual increase until in September 
and early October, 1923, the values had come to an average level of 
about 1.93. Still more recently, there has begun a slump, so that at 
latest advices, up to February i, 1924, the solar heat outside the 
atmosphere is running at approximately 1.92 calories. It will be of 
great interest, after two or three years of this steady investigation of 
the solar radiation, to compare the results with meteorological 
conditions. 

The reader might think it obvious that if the solar radiation falls 
the temperature would fall also. Nothing so simple as this occurs. For 
the earth's surface is so complex that its deserts, its mountains, its 
oceans, and other features, with the circulation of the atmosphere, 
modify extremely the eiTects of the solar heat. It is easy to see, for 
instance, that inasmuch as a quarter of the sun's heat is absorbed in 
the atmosphere itself, and as the atmosphere has but a trifling capacity 
for heat compared with the solid earth or the ocean, that its tempera- 
ture must be almost immediately afifected by solar variations, far more 
directly than the temperature of the ocean or the temperature of the 
land. But since the atmosphere is in some regions hazy, humid, and 
cloudy, in other regions dry and transparent, the quantitv of solar 
heat absorbed must vary very much from place to place. So the 
changes in the solar heat must i)roduce very difi'crent temperature 
efifects in the atmosphere in a cloudless desert region at high altitude 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



25 







I'll,. 28. — TIr- W iiulinill of the Aluiitc/unia Staliuii 




Fig. 29.— The Montezuma, Chile, Solar Oliscrving Statit)n. 
Living quarters below, observatory in a cave at the top of the mountain. 



26 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

than they would at a cloudy, humid, hazy region where the air is con- 
taminated, perhaps by the smoke of a great city. 

The consequence is that air expansion, due to the increased tempera- 
ture accompanying increase of solar radiation, takes place in much 
larger proportion in the humid, hazy regions than it does in the 
cloudless, clear ones, and so the air must flow from the regions of the 
former condition to those of the latter. This produces changes in 
barometric pressures which in turn produce the winds and cyclonic 
movements which are so familiar. With the changes of season and 
other variable conditions, the regions which are sources of these 
cyclonic disturbances move about from place to place. This alters the 
direction of the winds, and, as is w^ell known, the temperature depends 
intimately on the prevailing winds at every locality. This may explain 
why it is that we are not to expect at every station and at every time 
of the year colder weather when the solar radiation is lower. We 
may have exactly the reverse, depending on these secondary effects. 
Consequently the study of the dependence of weather on solar radia- 
tion must be very long continued and thorough before it will be 
possible to hazard predictions based upon the variation of the sun, or 
even to know for certain that the variations of the sun are of import- 
ance for our forecasters. The Smithsonian Institution, however, hav- 
ing developed the methods of measurement of the solar heat, seems 
in duty bound to continue these careful determinations of it long 
enough to furnish a first rate groundwork of data from which 
meteorologists can determine these interesting relations. 

Notable improvements have been made at both stations through the 
enthusiastic work of the directors, INIr. L. B. Aldrich at Montezuma 
and Mr. A. F. IMoore at Harqua Hala. One of the most striking 
of these is the introduction at Montezuma of a windmill, situated at 
the very top of the mountain, and furnishing sufificient power to 
produce electric lights and to charge the storage batteries used al^out 
the dwelling-house and the observing station. Some additions have 
been made to the living quarters at each station in order to add to the 
comfort of the observers and their families. The accompanying illus- 
trations show the Montezuma station whh the windmill as now 
installed. Readers may compare these with previous illustrations of 
former Exploration Pamphlets. 

An expedition was made by Dr. Abbot to the station on Mt. Wilson, 
formerly occupied for the measurements of the solar heat, but now 
reserved for occasional occupation for the study of problems requiring 
good, cloudless observing conditions not found in Washington. Three 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 27 

investigations were proposed: i. Further study of the use of the 
sun's heat for cooking purposes, first reported in the Exploration 
Pamphlet of 1920; 2, the study of the effects of ozone in the earth's 
atmosphere ; 3, a repetition, with improved apparatus, of the measure- 
ments of the heat of the spectra of the brighter stars, first attempted 
in 1922, in the focus of the 100-inch telescope of the Carnegie Obser- 
vatory on Mt. Wilson. 

Some progress was made with the solar cooker, and oven tempera- 
tures up to 175° C. were reached. At this high temperature, the oil 
circulating system sprung leaks and soaked the insulating material 
which, thereby becoming combustible, spontaneously took fire. So the 
experiments had to be discontinued. It is proposed to rebuild the solar 
cooking apparatus for further experiments another year. 

The measurements of ozone in the atmosphere have very interesting 
aspects. The French observers, Fabry and Buisson, have worked out 
photographic methods of determining the quantities of ozone. This 
gas, formed by the action of ultra-violet sun rays upon oxygen, occurs 
very high up in the atmosphere and is scarcely found in appreciable 
quantities at the earth's surface. The measurements of Fabry and 
Buisson indicate that the quantity existing in the higher atmosphere, 
although small, is sufficient to produce notable absorption, indeed ex- 
tinction, of the extreme ultra-violet sun rays, and the quantity seems 
to vary from day to day through a range of even as much as 20 per 
cent. These variations in the atmospheric ozone would not be of im- 
portance meteorologically if the effects were restricted to the ultra- 
violet regions. For the quantity of solar rays there is small and, 
besides, the extinction of them 1>y the ozone is always so complete that 
variations are insignificant. However, in the far distant infra-red 
spectrum region there is a strong absorption band of ozone exactly 
where the earth itself sends out rays to space. Those are rays which, 
cooling the earth, maintain the balance of temperature dependent on 
the equality of the rays which the earth sends out and those which it 
receives from the sun. 

By comparison of the results of Fabry and Buisson with variations 
of the sun reported from our stations, it seems likely that there is a 
dependence of the quantity of atmospheric ozone on the intensity of 
the sun's heat. If so, we have here an indirect influence on the earth's 
temperature, depending upon the variations of this infra-red ozone 
band, for it falls precisely in the only region of the infra-red where 
otherwise the atmosphere is transparent to the earth's rays. Apparatus 
w^as set up at IMt. Wilson for the study of this question, but time did 



28 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 



not permit of the actual program of ozone measurements being started 
this year, so that it is postponed for another season. 

By the kind assistance of Dr. E. F. Nichols, of the Nela Research 
Laboratories in Cleveland, and his colleague, Dr. Tear, a radiometer, 
an instrument similar in principle to the blackened vanes which 
revolve in the glass bulb in the optician's show window, was employed 
for the measurements of the heat of the spectra of ten of the brighter 
stars. It proved possible to measure them very easily and very accur- 















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Fig. 30. — Observed Prismatic Energy Spectrum Curves of tlie Sun and Stars. 



ately with this instrument. Indications observed were all abotit the 
same magnitude as those which were obtained last year with the 
bolometer, but owing to the great simplicity and consequent steadi- 
ness of the radiometer, the accuracy obtained this \ear was very much 
superior to that which was attained last year. The results secured 
were of very high interest to all astronomers who have seen them. It 
looks as if this method of studying the stars would prove of much 
value. 

It is possible, in this way, by comparison with the sun, to determine 
the intensity of star heat nearly as accurately as we can determine the 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



29 



intensity of solar heat. From rough prehminary computations it 
appears, for instance, that the radiation sent by the bright star Alde- 
baran, if collected over a square mile, would produce i calory of heat 
per minute, whereas the sun's radiation collected over a surface of i 
square centimeter, that is to say about three-eighths of an inch on a 
side, amounts to 1.94 calories per square centimeter per minute. 

It is also possible, in this manner, to determine the diameters of 
some of the stars, providing their distance from the earth is known. 
In the case of the star Aldebaran, preliminary computations give the 
diameter as 58,000,000 miles. 

Still more interesting are the opportunities offered by the method 
for estimating the temperatures of the stars. In the case of Aldebaran, 




Fig. 31. — The energy spectrum of Aldebaran, as reduced to wave-length 

scale, and compared to the perfect radiator at 

3000° Absolute Centigrade. 

the distribution of heat in the spectrum between wave-lengths 0.4 
and 2.0 microns, that is to say between a point in the violet and a 
point far beyond the end of the visible red, fits almost precisely upon 
the curve of the radiation of the perfect radiator or " absolutely 
black body " of 3,000° Absolute Centigrade. The fit is, indeed, start- 
lingly close, so that one has no hesitation in assigning to the star 
Aldebaran the temperature 3.000° Absolute Centigrade. In the case 
of other stars, including our sun. the fit is less exact, so that one can 
only give moderately approximate estimates of their temperatures, 
but the accurate determination of the distribution of the stellar heat 
in the spectriun cannot but lead to advances in our knowledge of the 
physical constitution of the stars. 

The accompanying figure 30 shows the results as originally ob- 
served on the prismatic spectrum of the sun and the stars Rigel, 



30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \OL. 76 

Sirius, Procyon, and lietelgeuse. Figure 31 shows the corrected 
results in the spectrum of Aldebaran as reduced to the normal wave- 
length scale and compared with the energy of the perfect radiator or 
" absolutely black body '' at 3,000°. 

BIOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN THE YANG-TZE VALLEY, CHINA 

On December 15, 1922, Mr. Charles ]\I. Hoy sailed for China to 
collect vertebrates for the Smithsonian Institution in the region of 
the Yang-tze Valley. As in previous years his work was made possible 
by the generosity of Dr. William L. Abbott of Philadelphia. ]\Iuch 
delay was experienced in clearing the collecting outfit at the custom 
house in Shanghai. Consequently it was impossible to begin serious 
field-work until ]May 17 when the supplies at last reached Huping 
College, Yochow City, Plunan. Work was carried on in this general 
district until June 24, when Hoy wrote as follows : 

I am enclosing my ofificial report on the Yochow district, also pages from 
my catalogues covering all specimens collected to date. I have finished up, 
for the time being, my work in this district and expect to start, in a few days 
for Kiangsi. I would have been away before this only my headman stepped 
on a bamboo spike and poisoned his foot. He has been in the local hospital 
for over a week but will be discharged tomorrow. When it comes to exas- 
perating delays, this trip seems to be ridden by a sure enough jinx. First one 
thing then another comes up but I am hoping that the finish will be better 
than the start. I suppose that you have been reading, in the papers, about the 
unsettled state of affairs here in China. Things are going from bad to worse 
and there is, now, practically no central Government. The various Provinces 
are ruled by their Military Governors who recognize no power but their own 
and as this power is, generally, not very strong, the lawless element has 
taken full advantage of the situation. Bandits are everywhere overruning 
the country and very little is being done to check them. Even those bandits 
that derailed a train, in Shantung, and captured twenty-si.x foreigners and over 
three hundred natives, whom they held for ransom, have gone unpunished. 
In fact you might say that they were rewarded, for they were enrolled, cii 
masse, into the army! Such things just tend to make the bandits, in other 
parts, all the bolder. Last week a Catholic priest was kidnapped from near 
Hankow and he is now being held for ransom which is fixed at $1,000,000 
(Mex.) or sixteen thousand rifles. Travel, anywhere through China, is, of a 
consequence, not without a certain amount of danger, but I am going ahead 
with all my plans and trust to luck in getting through. If I am caught, all 
that I ask is that nobody ransom me. I don't believe in encouraging the 
blighters. There was a bit of a scare thrown into the community here, in 
the disappearance of two of the Americaji professors, last night. At first it 
was thought that they had fallen into the hands of bandits but it appears 
that they were out in a canoe when a storm blew up and nothing has been 
heard of them since. We have searched all day but found nothing but the 
two paddles and the hat of one of the men. .\othing has been heard of 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 3I 

either the men or the canoe but the supposition is that they were drowned. 
However, there is still the chance of their having been blown out into the 
current and carried away clinging to the overturned canoe. Thirty boats 
have been dragging the lake, all day, without success. The paddles came 
ashore near the spot where the men had last been seen. That spot is one of 
the most dangerous promontories in the Tung Ting Lake and, annually many 
boats are wrecked there. (Since writing this the bodies of both men have 
been recovered.) I have everything ready for my start, except the shipping 
of the specimens to the United States. My porters arrived today, ten of them, 
and a right hefty looking bunch they are. They have contracted to carry a 
minimum load of one hundred pounds at a maximum rate of thirty miles a 
day, for the magnificent wages of two dollars (U. S. currency) per month, 
plus their food. Everything in my outfit seems satisfactory with the exception 
of the auxiliary shells. They seem to be loaded too heavy for about one in 
every twenty explodes. As a general rule when that happens, the base of 
the shell is blown off as neatly as if it had been filed. I have several times 
been temporarily blinded by the powder that blew back through the locking 
mechanism. The country around Yochow is very well differentiated as to 
topography, containing movmtains, rolling hills, plains and swamp lands. 
Fully half of the land is not under cultivation and is covered with a dense 
growth of scrub bamboo, buffalo grass and reeds. Here and there areas of 
scattered forest growth, mosth^ pine and other conifers, are met with but as 
these for the most part have been planted and are not allowed to grow to 
any great size, they do not support any strictly forest forms of mammals. The 
district, up to a few years ago, teemed with a great variety of mammal life 
but floods, droughts, fires and the great increase in hunters have created 
such havoc that certain species seem to have been exterminated while most 
of the others have become very scarce. Prices of skins have risen several 
hundred per cent in the last few years and this fact is mainly responsible for 
the increase of hunters, for if a man gets only four or five skins a month, 
he is making far more money than if he worked for wages. Work in the 
Yochow District has been closed for the present with a total of 169 mammals, 
representing nineteen species, and 84 birds. 

On July 2 Hoy left Hiiping for a trip through Hunan and Kiangsi. 
His field books have not yet been received, consequently no detailed 
account of his route can now be given. He finally arrived at Kuling, 
Kiangsi, the summer hill resort for foreigners in the Yang-tze Valley. 
Many interesting specimens were obtained, though no part of the 
collection has yet reached Washington. About this trip Hoy writes 
from Kuling, under date of August 12, 1923 : 

The day after writing my last letter to you, from Iningchow [never received], 
I had a bad fall and badly wrenched my back. For about a week I was 
scarcely able to crawl about. Just when my back was getting so I could 
straighten up I had another accident and shot myself through the left leg 
with the Colt 45 automatic. The accident was due to a " hang fire." The gun 
did not go off when the hammer struck and so I lowered the gun to eject the 
shell when the shell exploded. The bullet struck me on the inside of the leg 



32 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \OL. 76 




Fig. 3J. — A typical Chinese farmhouse in the Yochow district, China. 
(Photograph by Hoy.) 




Fig. 33. — Native cheek gun, Yochow district, China. ( rhdici-raph by 1 iny. 1 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



33 



four inches above the ankle, just missed the Ing tendon, and came out on the 
other side just half an inch above the ankle bone. Luckily no bones or im- 
portant sinews and blood vessels were struck and so the wound although rather 
painful is not serious. As soon as the accident happened I applied first aid and 
struck out ahead of my stuff for this place and a doctor. The wound is healing 
nicely but the doctor says that it may be several months before I get full use 
of my foot and that I will most likely have a slight permanent limp. However, 




iistrict, China. ( I'liDtograph by Hoy.) 

I am hoping that it won't interfere with my collecting, but even if I won't be 
able to do much walking myself I have one man who is a crack shot with the 
shot gun and another that is fair with the rifle, so I ought to be able to get 
specimens anyhow. IMy trip down from Iningchow was rather uneventful 
except for the above accidents. We were under military guard all the way from 
there to Kuikiang. The country, it seems, is full of disbanded Northern soldiers 
who have driven out the natives and occupied their farms. Consequently it 
is dangerous for even natives to travel through that region. The final explana- 
tion given me, as to the reason of the escort, was that it was feared that my 



34 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 76 



guns and ammunition might fall into their hands. We were tired on once, in 
the night, but aside from a lot of shouting and that one shot, nothing happened. 
We could never learn who tired the shot but the way things turned out I am 
convinced that we were mistaken for bandits and the shot was fired to scare 




Img. ^1^. — Water dccT, ^"(lchow district, China. ( riioto.graph by lloy.) 



us off. Owing to the accidents, 1 have not been able to secure any specimens 
since the writing of my last letter. My outfit has not yet arrived owing to the 
heavy rains but as soon as it gets here 1 plan to send my men out collecting 
so T will be able to get specimens notwithstanding the fact that I am confined 
to the house. 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 35 

The wound was not a subject of serious anxiety. Other conditions, 
however, soon appeared. These and their subsequent course are de- 
scribed by Dr. W. E. Hoy, Jr., Department of Biology. Presbyterian 
College of South Carolina, in two letters dated October 14 and 18: 

Sometime between the 8th and 12th of August Charles was carried up the 
mountain to Ruling, suffering from a gunshot wound in the leg. Kuling, as 
you probably know, is tlie summer resort for foreigners in the Yank-tze valley. 
The wound was caused by the accidental discharge of his revolver. The bullet 
made a clean wound between the tibia and the fibula. No anxiety was felt for 
his condition. My mother was on the mountain at the time and took care of 
him. In the next few days my brother developed severe abdominal pains and 
an attending physician pronounced it appendicitis. He was operated on im- 
mediately. This was about the i/th. The operation was a long affair. The 
appendix could not be found for several hours. The surgeons stated that the 
appendix was gangrenous and bound, down by multiple adhesions. They ex- 
pressed it as the worst case they had ever operated on. Just after I had 
written to you the beginning of the week I received further letters from home. 
My mother stated that Charles had had severe hemorrhages and that he lapsed 
into coma on the sixth of September. That evening at six o'clock he ceased 
breathing. 



MOLLUSCAN STUDIES ABOUT THE ELORIDA KEYS, 
BAHAMAS, AND WEST INDIES 

The experiments in heredity which are being conducted by Dr. Paul 
Bartsch, curator. Division of Mollusks, C'nited States National 
Museum, under the joint auspices of the Smithsonian and Carnegie 
Institutions required the addition of several elements to render these 
studies as comprehensive as possible. For that reason transportation 
was secured on May i, 1923, on the naval transport Henderson sailing 
from Hampton Roads for Porto Rico. This inade possible a number 
of stops ; viz., Guantanamo Bay, Cuba ; Port au Prince and Cape 
Haitian. Haiti ; Porto Plata, San Domingo City, San Pedro Macoris, 
San Domingo ; and San Juan, Porto Rico, in all of which places series 
of minute shells were gathered. 

In Porto Rico Governor H. M. Towner was good enough to place 
an automobile at Dr. Bartsch's disposal, to carry him and his collecting 
outfit to Guanica Bay at the southwestern end of the island. This 
gave him an opportunity to see the lay of the land and to understand 
the zoo-geographic features which govern and underly the distribution 
of the molluscan fauna. It also showed what a beautiful island Porto 
Rico really is, and how it has been almost completely bent to human 
use, with results that in most places very little of the original flora. 



36 



SMITllSUXIAN" .MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



\0L. 76 




Fig. 36. — Upper: A Sari Salvador mocking bird enjoying a drink from a 
bird bath made of half a watermelon rind. 

Lower: A hand of the junior mcmlier of the party, .showing the effects 
of the innumerable bites of the sand fly (i'lilicoidcs furciis I'ocy ), resulting 
in an endless nimiber of tiny tumid areas. The li/ard on the band was tiie 
pet and mascot of the party. 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EX PLORATJOX S. I923 



37 




"•SSSBMiRlralll 




Fig. t,7. — Upper : Colunilnis Bay, San Salvador, in which it is believed 
the ships of Columbus came to anchor, upon his discovery of America. 

Lower : Columbus Point, San Salvador, showing the monument erected 
by the Chicago Herald in commemoration of Columbus' discovery of 
America. 



38 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \'0L. "6 





Fig. 38. — Upper: A view of the splendid roads which are being built 

around and across the island of San Salvador. 

Lower: .-\ view of the landing in Lake Isabella, showing the type of boat 

used in laki.' travel. 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 39 

and therefore fauna, remains. Frequent stops were made, where 
suitable places presented themselves, and bags of leaf mould, rich in 
minute land mollusks, were secured. Thanks to a letter from the 
governor to Mr. French T. Maxwell, Vice President of the Guanica 
Central, Dr. Bartsch had splendid quarters assigned to him, and he 
was granted every facility and assistance to make his week's stay at 
this end of the island thoroughly available for intensive work. With 
the aid of a launch owned by Mr. Thompson he was able to comb the 
south coast from Balena Point to the western extremity of the island, 
as well as the ofif-lying islands, for Cerions and other land mollusks, 
a large series of which was secured. 

The return trip was made by the railway that skirts the western 
and northern shores of the island to San Juan, whence the naval 
transport Kittcry carried Dr. I'artsch back to Hampton Roads, arriv- 
ing on May 2^. 

This expedition resulted in the securing of about 15.000 land, fresh 
water and marine mollusks, 48 bats, i lizard, some ectoparasites, a 
collection of ants, and 3 fungi. 

A second expedition to the island of San Salvador was undertaken 
on August 9, at which time Dr. Bartsch and his son left New York 
on the army transport St. Miliiel. They were landed at Cockburn 
Town on August 12, and spent two trying weeks on San Salvador in 
intensive collecting. The work was made particularly arduous by the 
presence of countless numbers of little sand flies, which made it 
difficult to attend to anything but these little pests in the day time, and 
absolutely forced one under a cloth screen after sunset. There was 
only one night when it was possible to collect night flying insects 
without wearing a superabundance of clothes, gloves securely tied at 
the wrists, leggins and a cloth head net, but in spite of these trials 
the island was thoroughly searched for Cerions, and quite a number 
of new species were secured, but unfortunately not the one that was 
particularly sought, which group is not represented on the island. 
Large series of other land mollusks. as well as marine and fresh- 
water species, were gathered and as many insects and birds as time 
would permit. 

It is interesting to compare present conditions with those described 
by Columbus in his journal. Not a trace of Indian blood was apparent. 
The black population consisted of about 700 souls. It was a rather 
homogeneous, tall, splendid type, actively engaged in pursuits of one 
kind or another, chief among which is the growing of sisal. Thanks 
to our Eighteenth Amendment, funds have been steadily pouring into 



40 



SMITIISOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 




^'''" ^"^'^huihni ror;!l'r'' ^'T' '" ^^"' ^^\^ ^'^'^''■- These are practicallv all 
r nw.r- \ ?' '""^^^-^ ""^^ a"d usually thatched with palm. 

i^7S^?^V;tf^l '"- " ■' ''r --"jve population of San Salvador 
IS I'lack, [)ractically umuixctl. and .,t splendid physique. 



ISIO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



41 




Fig. 40. — Upper: A sisal held with a primitive sugar mill. Sisal forms 
the greatest export element of San Salvador. Its fiber is largely used in 
the making of rope. 

Lower : The greatest element in the milk and meat supply of the island 



42 



SMITHSOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTK )XS VOL. 76 




NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 43 

the treasury of the llahanias as import and export duties on wet goods, 
and this is making it possible for these islands to enjoy a financial 
uplift which is manifesting itself in the building of si)lendid roads. 
The island of San Salvador, for example, is rapidly acquiring an auto- 
mobile road which will shortly completely encircle it, although there 
is not a single machine there at the present time, transportation being 
efifected almost exclusively by human carriers, or horseback. 

There are two huge lagoons within the island, the larger eastern one 
of which I have named Lake Ferdinand, and the smaller western one 
Lake Isabella. These lagoons are supersaline and communicate with 
the sea by long underground channels. They contain a remarkabl}' 
modified molluscan fauna characteristic of such places. 

The visit to San Salvador resulted in the gathering of approxi- 
mately 25,000 specimens of mammals, birds, reptiles, batrachians, fish, 
mollusks, insects and plants. 

After two weeks the L^. S. Naval transport Kiftcry stopped and 
carried the expedition to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. From there the 
party proceeded to Havana by rail, thence by P. & O. boat to Key 
West. Here Dr. Bartsch was met by Mr. Mills, the chief engineer 
of the Marine Biological Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, and 
carried by the launch Valclla to the Tortugas. where a study was made 
of the Cerion colonies previously placed here. Here, likewise, 
Dr. r)artsch tried out a new submarine moving-picture camera, with 
which he secured several hundred feet of excellent films, showing 
marine organisms in their native habitat in depths varying from lo 
to 20 feet. 

On the return trip the various keys containing Cerion colonies 
were examined, and the specimens studied. On Newfound Harbor 
Key 150 Cerions from the hybrid colony were gathered for anatomic 
study in the laboratories at Washington. The dissections of these 
specimens are showing some wonderful results. 

The J'lilclla reached Miami September 9, where Dr. Bartsch took 
train for Washington. 

In addition to the specimens secured, careful notes were taken of the 
birds observed in the various regions visited. 

BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

In continuation of botanical exploration conducted in Hispaniola 
for several years past, Dr. W. L. Abljott, for many years a generous 
patron of the Smithsonian Institution, revisited the Dominican Repub- 
lic in Fel)ruary and March, 1923, giving particular attention to the 



44 



SMITIISUXIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 76 




'■■ 4-2-— Tree ferns (Cyathca arborca). on tlie road to Seylio. Fcr- 
liai)s tlie most jiraceful of all tree ferns. L'niike most, it commonly grows 
in oi)en sunny situations at low altitudes and is oftt'ii planted alxnu' houses. 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXl'LORATIONS, 1 923 



45 




Pig _^3. — Harbor and town of Samana. 




i-u-. 44 -A iviucal house near Jovero. The r,.<>f ,s fonned ..f the sheath- 
ino- leaf-bases of the royal palm (Roysfoiica). 



46 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 




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NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 47 

southern coast of Samana Bay in the eastern part of the RepubHc. 
Field-work was carried on in the vicinity of Jovero, LiaH, and Las 
Canitas, all located in this region. 

Jovero is a small town 21 miles southeast of Samana, near the river 
Lajiagua and on the road running south to Seybo. Supplies are 
obtainable in small quantities from the several shops which the town 
affords and good water is obtained from the river, a factor of con- 
siderable importance in some of the coastal regions of Hispaniola. 
The principal product of this district is cacao. 

Six miles south of Jovero is a small clearing with three houses, 
called Liali. From this point as headquarters Doctor Abbott was able 
to reach the summit of the Cordillera Central in this vicinity at an 
altitude of about 490 meters. He found the slopes very steep and for 
the most part covered by virgin forests. ]\Iuch of the forest of the 
upper slopes is composed of a low tree called " maho " and scattered 
royal palms. It mav be interesting to note that this locality was the 
last stronghold of the patriots, held in defense against the American 
Occupation for five years. This situation had hitherto prevented 
Doctor Abbott's plan of exploration locally. Peace was, however, 
made in June, 1922, and the chiefs were given positions in the 
Dominican Government ; consequently the region was quite safe 
during his present visit. 

Las Canitas is a small village farther west on the south shore of 
Samana Bay near the mouth of the Rio Catalina and about 12 miles 
distant from Samana. Supplies are scarce here and mosquitoes plenti- 
ful, especially in the lowlands. 

The collections made consist of over 500 plants, a large percentage 
of which are ferns. The flowering plants prove to be of great interest, 
and many of them if not new are at least not represented in the 
United States National Herbarium. 

Doctor Abbott returned to the Dominican Republic in November, 
and at the present time is ex])loring in the eastern peninsula of the 
Republic. 

BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN PANAMA AND 
CENTRAL A^IERICA 

In Mav, 1923, Dr. William R. ]\Iaxon, associate curator of plants in 
the United States National Museum, was detailed to accompany a 
partv from the Department of Agriculture, engaged under the direc- 
tion of Dr. O. F. Cook in investigating rubber resources in Panama 



48 



SMITHSOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



\0L. 76 



and Central America. In company with ^Ir. A. D. Harvey he sailed 
for Panama May 15, heing joined there shortly after by other mem- 
bers of the party. Mr. Harvey and ^Ir. A. D. Valentine served as 
assistants in Panama and during a short trip in western Nicaragua, 
and the former also during a fortnight spent in Costa Rica the latter 
part of July. Travel and incidental expenses were borne by the De- 
partment of Agriculture. Unfortunately rains interfered seriously 
with field-work in both Panama and Nicaragua ; nevertheless a general 




Fig. 47. — A new clearing in dense lowland jungle near Frijoles, Canal Zone, 
for banana plantation. 



botanical collection of al)out 4,500 specimens was made, representing 
more than 2,000 collection numbers apportioned about equally among 
the three countries visited. 

Aside from two days given to collecting in the interesting Juan 
Diaz region east of Panama Cit}-, work in Panama was mostly con- 
fined to the Canal Zone, being conducted chiefly from headquarters 
on the Pacific side, at ISalboa, with the coiu-teous assistance of the 
Panama Canal authorities. Of particular interest were trips to Barro 
Colorado, a large wooded island in datun Lake op]~)osite Frijoles. 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



49 




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50 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 




Fig. 50. — Inflorescence of the Ippi-appa "palm" (Carludovica), which 
is not a pahn bnt a member of the family Cyclanthaceae. From the palm- 
like leaves of this plant most of the cheaper " Panama " iiats are made. 
(.Slightly reduced.) 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 5I 

recently set aside as a wild reserve upon representation of the Insti- 
tute for Research in Tropical America ; the virgin forest region at the 
headwaters of the Rio Chinilla. above Monte Lirio ; and the Fort 
Sherman Military Reservation, which includes the famous old Spanish 
stronghold. Fort San Lorenzo, at the mouth of the Chagres. All these 
localities are forested and are rich in palms, and special attention 
was directed to obtaining material in this difficult group. With the 
steady clearing of leased land for planting bananas the original forest 
in the Canal Zone is rapidly disappearing, and with it its characteristic 
palm associations. These can hardly appear in abandoned cut-over 
areas for a long time to come, and will therefore have to be sought 
shortly in unexplored territory adjacent to the Zone. Owing to the 
killing of thousands of huge trees by flooding in forming Gatun Lake 
the natural habitat of many rare and peculiar orchids has been de- 
stroyed also, and it may be doubted if some of these species will ever 
be found elsewhere in the region. Fortunately they are largely repre- 
sented in the truly remarkable collection of living orchids amassed 
by ^Ir. C. W. Powell at his home in Balboa as the result of many 
years of painstaking search in the Canal Zone region and western 
Panama. 

About three weeks was spent in Nicaragua, wholly in the region 
west of Lake Nicaragua and mainly working from Managua, the 
capital, which lies picturesquely at a low elevation 90 miles inland from 
the Pacific coast, flanked by numerous volcanoes. Except for the 
volcanoes and the low range called the Sierra, given over to coffee 
production, western Nicaragua is low and almost entirely cleared of 
forest. Cane and grazing are the main industries. The soil is largely 
a rich black loam of volcanic origin, and supports a luxuriant growth 
of tall grasses, the arborescent vegetation being mainlv confined to 
roadsides and abandoned " potrero." The most interesting trips were 
to the region of Casa Colorada in the Sierra, and to Mombacho and 
Santiago volcanoes. The material collected indicates a rich flora for 
the higher mountain slopes, one that would amply repay extended 
exploration. Returning to Corinto, a dav was given to collecting 
avocados at Chinandega, a localitv famous for this fruit throughout 
the Republic. Notwithstanding the remarkable diversity and excel- 
lence of the varieties that are here locally abundant, these seem to have 
attracted no attention on the part of growers in other countries. 

From Corinto Dr. Maxon proceeded by steamer to Puntarenas. the 
Pacific port of Costa Rica, a little town chiefly notable for its heat, 
cleanness, and manufacture of tortoise-shell articles. The ascent bv 



52 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \0L. 76 




Fir,. 51. — lieach and low coastal hills, San Juan del Sur, western Nicaragua. 




i''i(,. 5J. — .Moiiiotdn'.ho X'olcano, as seen from tlie railroad on the way U 

Managua. 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 923 



53 








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U 



fc. 



54 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 




i'U. 



-Partially cleared area in the liumiil I'urcst rcgiuii of the Atlantic 
coastal plain ; Rio Honda, Costa Rica. 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



55 




Fig. s^- — A banana plantation in the Zent District, eastern Costa Rica, 

near sea level. 



56 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANi:()US COLLFXTIONS VOI,. "/(i 

rail from this point in the semi-arid coastal plain to the ca])ital. San 
Jose, lying at an altitude of 1.140 meters in the cool Jiicscta central, 
is through a region remarkahly diverse as to phy^siography. From 
San Jose three principal trips were made : First, to La Palma, a 
classical botanical locality on the cloud-drenched southwestern slopes 
of Irazu volcano ; next to Santa Clara, in the mountains a few leagues 
south of Cartago ; then to \'ara Blanca, lying high up in an almost 
unexplored region between the volcanoes Poas and Barba. Special 
attention was here given to ferns and orchids, both groups being 




Fig. 57. — Street scene in Puntarenas, the Pacific port of Costa Rica. 

extremely abundant both as to species and individuals, and many new 
and interesting species in these and other groups were collected. The 
flora of the upper slopes of the interior mountain region appears well- 
nigh inexhaustible and w ill long be a most profitable field for botani- 
cal exploration. 

STUDIES ON EARLY M.\N IN l-UROPl-: 

l)uring the summer and early autumn of 1923, Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, 
curator of the division of ])h}sical antliropology. United States Na- 
tional Museum, s])ent three and a half months in revisiting the 
numerous important sites of early man in western and central 
Europe, and the institutions in which the skeletal remains of ancient 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 57 

man and the fossil European apes are preserved. Acting at the same 
time as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric 
Studies, Dr. Hrdlicka was accompanied on his trip by a number of 
graduate American students to whom the sites and specimens were 
demonstrated. 

One of the principal objects of the trip was the securing of accurate 
measurements of the teeth, particularly the lower molars, of the larger 
fossil apes and early man by one observer, a strictly defined method, 
and accurate instruments ; while a second important object was the 
taking of photographs of the various sites of early man of which 
good photographic views were not yet available. 

The work began with a re-examination of the Piltdown jaw and 
skulls which are in the care of Professor Smith Woodward in the 
British Museum of Natural History, London.' The Rhodesian, 
Boskop, Gibraltar and other early remains in London were also seen 
once more, and then a day was spent in company with Professor 
Smith Woodward in a visit to the interesting site where the Piltdown 
remains were uncovered and where further search was to be resumed 
during this summer. The results, so far as the Piltdown remains are 
concerned, were merely to accentuate the conviction that the lower 
jaw and the skulls do not belong together. 

The next visit was to the important Ipswich Museum and to the 
archeological sites in the vicinity, including that of Foxhall, under the 
guidance of Mr. Guy Maynard, the Curator of the Mvtseum. A trip 
to Cromer, kindly arranged by Mr. J. Reid ]\Ioir, was undertaken on 
the following day, to examine the famous " Cromer forest beds." 
Here Mr. Savin showed the party his invaluable paleontological col- 
lections from the Cromer forest beds, and under the guidance of 
Professor Barnes of Oxford the clififs bearing worked stones were 
examined, together with the beach accumulations containing many 
chipped flints, and also a large private collection of what are sup- 
posed to be Tertiary implements. It is in the sites about Ipswich, 
particularly at Foxhall and also on the beach at Cromer, that worked 
stones of Tertiary man are believed to have been recovered ; but after 
seeing conditions and noting the divergent views of men who are 
giving close attention to this subject it was felt that a definite answer 
to this weighty question is not as yet possible. 

^ Grateful acknowledgments for aid rendered on this trip are due to all those 
mentioned in this report. Their assistance in giving first hand reviews of the 
knowledge concerning individual specimens and sites, with personal conduct 
in many instances to the latter, was of the greatest value. 



58 SMITIISONIAK^ MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

On the following day the party arrived at Jersey and were met by 
Professor ]\larett under whose guidance were seen the originals of 
Homo brcladcnsis. the local archeological collections and the cave of 
St. Brelade. where work still continues. This site has already given 
upwards of 20,000 chipped stones of the Mousterian and Aurignacian 
cultural periods. 

Upon his arrival at the British ^luseum of Natural History, 
Dr. Hrdlicka found awaiting him in care of Professor Smith Wood- 
w^ard a cordial invitation from Professor Eugene Dubois of Haarlem, 
Holland, to visit him and see the famous remains of the Pithecan- 
thropus as well as the other Java remains in his possession, which for 
many years were inaccessible. This so far unique privilege, made 
possible by the fact that Dr. Dubois has at last completed his studies 
on the precious objects, was taken full advantage of on July 15, 
Dr. Dubois demonstrating personally and without reserve all the 
specimens. The remains of, or those attributed to, the Pithecanthropus 
consist of the now thoroughly cleansed skull-cap, a femur and three 
teeth, two molars and one premolar. Besides these there is from 
another locality a piece of a strange primitive lower jaw, and also two 
skulls with many parts of the skeletons of a later, though yet rather 
primitive, type of man from consolidated calcareous deposits in still 
another part of the island. 

The examination of the originals belonging to the Pithecanthropus 
find was in many respects a revelation. It was seen that none of the 
casts now in various institutions are accurate, and that the same is 
true of the so far published illustrations, above all those of the teeth 
and femur. The originals are even more important than held hitherto. 
The new brain cast shows an organ very close to human. The femur 
is without question human. When the detailed study of all these speci- 
mens is published, which Dr. Dubois expects to occur before the 
end of the winter, the specimens, though all controversial points 
may not be settled, will assume even a weightier place in science 
than they have had up to the present. 

In connection with the visit to Haarlem a stop was made in Amster- 
dam for the purpose of visiting the classic Vrolik Museum, together 
with the valuable more recent anthropological collections of Pro- 
fessor Louis Bolk. w'hich include a series of the deformed skulls from 
the Zuyder Zee showing a type that is identical with that of several 
.skulls from the Delaware \'allcy which at one time were supposed to 
be very ancient (Bull. 33, Bureau of American Ethnology). The 
Museum is now directed bv Professor Bolk, and in his absence, duo 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



59 



to illness, the collections were demonstrated to the party Ijy his two 
able assistants. 

The next visit was to the two museums at Brussels which contain 
valuable collections relating to early man, namely, the National 
Museum and the Cinquantenaire. Both these very profitable visits 
were made under the guidance and with all possible assistance of 
Professor A. Rutot, who also arranged an excursion to the but little- 




FiG. 58. — 'Gravel beds yielding ancient paleolithic stone implements in the 
Low Somme Terrace at Montier, suburb of Amiens. Most of the stones 
showing work of man are found in the very lowest layers of the gravel, 
as seen in the pit at the right. (Photograph by A. H., July, 1923-) 



known cave of Spy and to the equally little-known paleolithic caves of 
the Lesse \"alley. 

The next stopping point was Liege, for the re-examination of the 
Spy skeletons. In company with Professor Charles Fraipont. 
Dr. Hrdlicka visited the house of Professor Maxime Lohest where 
the precious specimens had been hidden during the war and where they 
are temporarily preserved to-day. A visit was also paid with Profes- 
sor Fraipont to the rich prehistoric collections of M. Hamal-Xandein 
and a participation in the excavations of an early Neolithic site was ar- 



6o SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

ranged fnr the next day, l)Ut tbis was made impossible by rainy 
weatber. Instead of this a very stimulating trip was taken along the 
archeologically important Meuse Valley from Xamur to the French 
boundary. 

Upon entering France the first visit paid was that to the St. Acheul 
and Montier quarries about Amiens. These gravel and sand deposits 
are still l)eing" worked and they are still yielding Acheulean and 
Chellean and possibly other ancient implements ; but since the death 
of AI. Commont, no one is watching the work and the implements 
recovered by the workmen are being sold b}- them to tourists or anyone 
who cares for them. From Amiens a visit was made to Abbeville, 
where similar conditions were found to exist. 

The next stage was Paris, with a visit to the Laboratoire d'Anthro- 
pologie (Professor ]\Ianouvrier) and to the Institut de Paleontologie 
humaine ; after which Dr. Hrdlicka with all the students proceeded 
to Bordeaux where they attended (Dr. Hrdlicka as a foreign guest) 
the meeting of the Association Frangaise pour I'Avancement des 
Sciences. The meeting of the anthropological section of the associa- 
tion was almost entirely devoted to man's prehistory in France and 
X'orthern Africa and was very interesting, particularly in its discus- 
sions. In connection with the meeting an examination was made of 
the prehistoric collections in the Bordeaux Aluseum and of the rich 
private collections of Dr. Lalanne ; while excursions were made to 
various other collections and prehistoric sites ( Bourg, cave Pere-non- 
Pere, valley of the A'ezere). 

On the return trip from Bordeaux, a stop was made at St. Germain 
where, under the guidance of AI. Hubert, the Curator, the richest 
prehistoric museum of France was examined. This museum belongs 
to the government. It is located in a large, ancient palace and contains 
vast prehistoric collections, including most of the precious objects 
relating to the arts of ancient man that have so far been discovered 
in France. 

The continuation of the journey led to Germany, to the cities of 
Tiibingen, Stuttgart, Frankfort. Heidelberg, Weimar and Berlin, in 
the institutions of which are preserved highly valuable remains both of 
early man and fossil European anthropoid apes, all of which, together 
with most of the sites from which they were derived, were re-exam- 
ined. In addition, the occasion was utilized for participating in the 
Congress of the German Anthropologists at Tubingen. jNIany favors 
were received from them and from the paleontologists, particularly 
from Professors Schmidt and Ilenig in Tubingen. Martin Schmidt in 



NO. lO 



SMITHSOMAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



61 




Fig. 59. — The ^Nlauer site from a distance. The heaps in front are refuse 
from the quarry. (Photograph by A. H.) 




Fig. 60. — Part of the Mauer sand and gravel quarry as it appears today. 
(Photograph by A. H.) 



62 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 




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NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



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64 SMITHSONIAN ISIISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

Stuttgart. W'egner in Frankfort, Salomon and his tirst assistant in 
Heidelberg. Schuchart in Berlin and Herr Lindig in Weimar. 

From Germany the trip led to Bohemia where, to facilitate the work, 
a special representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Novak, 
together with Professor IMatiegka, gave personal guidance to various 
museums as well as to the great ossuary at Melnik and especially to 
that at Sedlec, where many thousands of crania and bones from the 
time of the Hussites ai'e tastefully arranged in the form of a most 
impressive, spacious subterranean chapel. Under the same guidance 
visits were paid to the great ^Moravian caves which have yielded and 
probably still contain remains of early man as well as those of the cave 
bear (six complete skeletons) and Quaternary beaver (upwards of 
20 finely preserved skulls with many bones) ; to the Provincial ^luseum 
at Brno which harbors the valuable remains of the Pfedmost mammoth 
hunters, and to the monastery of Alendel, still full of reminders of the 
student-monk, including his library and garden. A number of inter- 
esting details were learned about Mendel from the excellent abbot of 
the monastery, among them the fact that Mendel was a IMoravian and 
spoke both the languages (Czech and German) of the country. 

The following stage of the journey was to Vienna, where the rich 
prehistoric and anthropologic collections of the former Hoff-Museum 
were examined under the guidance of Professor Szombathy. 

From Vienna Dr. Hrdlicka with some of his students proceeded to 
Zagreb in Croatia, where in company with Professor Gorjanovic- 
Kramberger they re-examined the very valuable Krapina remains and 
visited the locality where they were discovered. This is situated at 
the head of the very beautiful but little-known Krapinica Valley, and 
indications were seen that there may be additional sites of ancient 
man in the vicinity of the original discovery. 

From Zagreb the journey led over northern Italy to Lyons where 
the collections of the University were examined in company with 
Professor Mayet ; this was followed by an excursion under the 
guidance of Professors xA^rcelin and Mayet to the prehistoric site of 
Solutre. Here existed some 15,000 years ago a large paleolithic 
settlement, the duration as well as the size of which may be seen from 
the fact that its refuse accumulations are estimated to contain, aside 
from implements and other objects, the bones of approximately 
200.000 late Quaternary horses. New explorations have just recom- 
menced at this site, and they led within three days of the visit to the 
recovery of no less than five prehistoric Solutrean or Upper Aurigna- 
cian skeletons, some in a very good state of jireservation. 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



65 



From Solutre the road led to Les Eyzies, in the valley of the 
Vezere (Dordogne), which is probably archeologically the richest as 
well as one of the most picturesque regions of the world. Here under 
the guidance of Abbe Breuil and AI. Peyrony, were visited the sites 
of Le Moustier, La Madeleine, La Ferrassie, Laugerie Haute and 
Basse and others of importance, as well as numerous caves showing 
graven, painted, or sculptured prehistoric animals. Here was also 
examined the very promising new local museum which is under the 




Fig. 63. — Part of excavations at La Quina, Charente. France. (Photograph 
by Dr. G. G. MacCurdy.) 

direction of M. Peyrony and which was officially opened a short time 
subsequently. 

After 10 days spent in the district of Les Eyzies the journey was 
prolonged southward to Toulouse where, with Count Begouen the 
local museum with its rich Cartailhac and Begouen collections was 
examined and from which an excursion was made to a vast cave 
with splendidly preserved paintings of ancient animals in the Pyrenees. 

The last portions of the journey included an eight days' stay with 
Dr. Henri Martin at La Quina. becoming acquainted with its already 
important museum and assisting in the excavations ; this was sup- 
plemented by visits to the prehistoric collections of the museums at 



66 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

Perigneux. Angouleme and Gueret. Then followed a return to Paris 
and a final trip to Havre where the very interesting and but little- 
known prehistoric collections from the maritime district of Havre 
were examined in the local museum. 

The trip resulted in an overwhelming sense of the greatness as well 
as scientific importance of the field of early man in western and central 
Europe, and in a keen appreciation of the opportunities for coopera- 
tion in this field by American students. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN SOUTH DAKOTA 

Mr. M. W. Stirling, assistant curator of the division of ethnology, 
U. S. National Museum, spent the month of June, 1923, in the exami- 
nation of old village sites on the Missouri River. The region investi- 
gated was the 12-mile strip between Grand River and Elk Creek, 
South Dakota. Much of the success of the exploration was due to the 
able cooperation of Mr. E. S. Petersen of Mobridge, South Dakota. 

During the eighteenth and up to the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
turies, the upper Missouri River was the scene of a very considerable 
shifting of native populations. On the one hand there was a south to 
north movement and a possible reverse tendency ; on the other hand 
a general east to west movement in which such tribes as the Cheyenne, 
Sutaro, Arapaho. and others, figured. These tribes before leaving the 
Missouri River for the nomadic life of the plains were, according to 
tradition, a sedentary agricultural people, living in earth-lodge vil- 
lages like those of the Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa. The Grand 
River formed the western pathway for these migrations, and we find 
the point of intersection of these tribal movements in the vicinity of 
the junction of the Grand River Avith the Missouri. To establish the 
identity of the numerous sites in this region is a complex but interest- 
ing task. 

In all, 10 of these old villages were visited and excavations carried 
on in four. Three of these, on the west bank of the Missouri, Avere 
identified as Arikara ; one being the historic upper village of the 
Arikara visited by Lewis and Clark in 1 804 and later by Brackenridge 
and Bradbury in iSii. The others were all prehistoric, but from the 
presence of a few objects of European origin found in each, obviously 
of post-Columbian age. The fourth site excavated is on the east bank 
near the town of Mobridge and seems most likely to have been 
Cheyenne. 

There is a close similarity existing between the material culture 
remains of all of the upper Missouri tribes. Because of this fact, 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



67 






Fig. 64. — Two specimens of old Arikara pottery showing incised and cord 

marked designs. 



68 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 











Fig. 65. 



-dorgots and halls of Catlinitc, and a polished chalcedony pendant. 
Arikara. 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



69 




Fig. 66. — Glass beads and ornaments of native manufacture. .-Xrikara. 



70 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \0L. 76 



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Fu;. 67. — Shell beads and ornaments. Arikara. 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 Jl 

pottery, ornaments, and implements do not serve as a safe means of 
distinction between the several tribes. Any differences which existed 
were nullified by the constant intercommunication and intermarriage 
between members of the neighboring villages. It is also doubtful 
whether much can be deduced from the arrangement of the lodges in 
the villages. 

The physical type of the region is likewise quite uniform, with 
the result that the skeletal remains of the inhabitants themselves tell 
but little. The best means of distinguishing between the occupants of 
the various villages is in the manner of disposal of the dead. The 
Mandan, the Hidatsa, and the Cheyenne practised exposure of the 
dead on scaffolds with usually secondary burial of the bones. The 
Arikara and the Arapaho buried the dead directly. 

Excavations in the four sites which were worked were carried on 
in the refuse mounds, cache pits, house rings, and cemeteries. An 
extensive archeological collection was made consisting of pottery, 
implements and ornaments of bone and stone, and a good many ob- 
jects of European manufacture from the historic Arikara site. An 
interesting discovery was a number of glass beads, pendants, and other 
ornaments of native manufacture. This art, the origin of which is 
a mystery, was described as practised by the Mandan and Arikara by 
Lewis and Clark in 1804, but examples of it in collections have been 
extremely rare. 

A large collection of skeletal material w'as made, representing no 
individuals, filling an important gap which has heretofore existed 
in the collection of the division of physical anthropology. 

The region has by no means been exhausted, and a number of sites 
yet remain to be positively identified. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT PUEBLO BONITO. 
NEW ^lEXICO 

During the spring and summer months of 1923, Mr. Neil M. Judd, 
curator of American archeology. United States National Museum, 
continued his investigation of prehistoric Pueblo Bonito ' under the 
auspices of the National Geographic Society. As heretofore. 
Mr. Judd's staff" consisted of several trained assistants ; 27 Navaho 
and Zuhi Indians were employed for the actual work of excavation. 

During the explorations of 1921 and 1922, the expedition devoted 
its efforts primarily to excavating the eastern portion of Pueblo 
Bonito. In this area is to be found the finest type of prehistoric 

^ Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 7J, Nos. 6 and 15 ; Vol. 74, No. 5. 



72 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 







^4 



!_ l^lf'f; 




NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 73 

masonry north of Mexico; it is that last erected at Pueblo Bonito and 
overlies the partially razed walls of other equally distinct types of 
construction. The secular rooms and the circular kivas, or ceremonial 
chambers, associated with them formed a group of structures occu- 
pied by one of the immigrant groups which added greatly to the 
original population of Pueblo Bonito and helped to spread the fame 
of this remarkable village throughout a large portion of ancient 
America. Excavations during the two years mentioned established 
the fact that this eastern portion of Pueblo Bonito, although compris- 
ing the largest and finest rooms in the entire village, was deserted at 
some time prior to final abandonment of the community. 

The explorations of 1923 centered in the northern section of the 
ruin. Much of the expedition's efiforts this year were devoted to 
removal of the vast accumulations of debris and blown sand which 
covered the fallen walls. It was in this particular section that the Hyde 
Exploring Expedition made its remarkable discoveries during the 
years i8y6 to 1899. Conforming to a custom of the time, these early 
explorers threw the refuse from each room into that last excavated. 
Prehistoric habitations were not then regarded as objects of instruc- 
tion in connection with the pre-history of our country and no concerted 
effort was made to support insecure walls, or to leave excavated ruins 
in a condition that would invite popular attention. 

In removing the accumulations of earth and stone from the northern 
portion of Pueblo Bonito the National Geographic Society's Expe- 
dition of 1923 exposed three new kivas or ceremonial chambers and 
26 previously uncharted and unexplored dwellings and storage rooms. 
A few of these structures had been destroyed by fire during or follow- 
ing the time of occupancy. In them and in other neighboring rooms 
a considerable collection of cultural material was recovered and has 
been forwarded to the United States National ISIuseum. 

In addition to the investigations pursued within the walls of Pueblo 
Bonito proper, search was made in the adjacent areas for further 
evidence of building operations. Enormous piles of blown sand and 
fallen masonry were removed from the outer east and northeast walls 
of the great ruin — debris which heretofore has completely concealed 
the first-story walls of the ruin. In removing this debris a veritable 
network of foundation walls was disclosed. These foundations con- 
nect directly with similar walls exposed beneath the floors of rooms 
excavated during 1921 and 1922 ; although obviously prepared as sup- 
ports for heavy structures it is equally certain that these foundations 
were never utilized subsequent to their preparation. Plans for the con- 



74 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \0L. 76 



vitana^jrxi^jB? 




.AT ♦ 



Vie. 6q. — The root of a Pueblo Bonito council cliamber was a very com- 
plicated affair. Beginning on eight or ten low masonry supports, pairs of 
logs lay close to the kiva wall ; above these were other poles laid in threes, 
fours, etc., until a neat vault, flat on top, covered the room. ( Photograph 
by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 




l"i(i. 70. — Beneath a vast accumulation of earth, sand, and stone on the 
north and northeast sides of Pueblo Bonito were a numher of foundation 
walls which had been prepared for contemi)lat'ed additions to the village. 
Some of these walls are shown at the lower left. (Photograph by O. C. 
Havens. Courtesy of the National Cieographic Society.) 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



struction of the later dwellings were altered and the Pueblo Bonito 
of to-day afifords evidence of the extent of these alterations. 

After the northern group of habitations had been examined, the east 
court was cleared of debris to a point corresponding with its last 




Fig. 71. — Extensive repairs have been made to strengthen the shattered 
walls of prehistoric Pueblo Bonito and preserve its masonry for future 
generations. Four stories are evident in this particular view. (Photograph 
by Neil M. Judd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 



level of occupancy. Earlier levels were disclosed beneath the latest one 
and the exploratory trenches also exposed the partially razed walls of 
several abandoned kivas. The depth of these now hidden structures 
furnishes abundant proof of the antiquity of Pueblo Bonito and the 
length of the period during which it was occupied. 



76 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 76 







FiG. '/2. — This view of work in progress on the west side of Pueblo del 
Arroyo ilhistrates the extent to which fallen masonry and blown sand will 
accumulate. ( Photograph by O. C. Havens. Courtesy of the National 
Geographic Society. ) 




^^^^^S?i:: 









.■■•^w^ 



.v 






':l^ 



:3 



l*"iG. 73. — The outer southwest corner of I'ueblo del .Arroyo during the 
course of excavation. In this .section, nine rooms, jircviously unsuspected, 
were discovered. (Photograph by O. C, Havens. Courtesy of the National 
Geographic Society.) 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS. I923 JJ 

As Opportunity permitted during the exploration of Pueblo Bonito, 
attention was also directed to a neighboring ruin, Pueblo del Arroyo. 
Excavations in this latter village were under the immediate super- 
vision of Mr. Judd's chief assistant, Mr. Karl Ruppert, of the Uni- 
versity of Arizona State Museum. 

This first season's exploration in Pueblo del Arroyo resulted in the 
complete excavation of one kiva and 20 living rooms. One of the 
latter is 58 feet long but its original length, before certain partitions 
were constructed, had been almost twice as great. In addition to the 
excavations within the walls of Pueblo del Arroyo itself an accumula- 
tion of debris was removed from the south and west sides of the ruin. 
In this debris nine small rooms were unexpectedly discovered — rooms 
which formed no part of the original ground plan of the pueblo. 

Several unique specimens of pottery were recovered during the 
initial explorations in Pueblo del Arroyo and the success of this past 
season increases the belief that this particular ruin possesses much that 
will add to the scientific importance of current studies in Pueblo 
Bonito. Pueblo del Arroyo appears to have been designed and erected 
as a unit ; it lacks the many intricate problems created by successive 
waves of immigration so evident in Pueblo Bonito. The 1923 explora- 
tions in Pueblo Bonito and Pueblo del Arroyo were conducted at a 
cost of more than $18,700. The success with which this expedition has 
been rewarded during the past three years warrants the belief that 
the National Geographic Society will continue its explorations during 
the next two years at an estimated cost of $15,000 annually. This is 
in conformity with the Society's program as adopted by its research 
committee in 1921. 

EXPLORATIONS IN SAN JUAN COUNTY. UTAH 

Bordering the Rio Colorado in Utah are vast areas which, owing 
chiefly to their inaccessibility and barrenness, have thus far escaped 
thorough examination by men of science. Certain i)ortions of these 
areas, indeed, have never been visited by white men. To investigate 
one such district, that lying immediately east of the Colorado and north 
of the San Juan rivers, and to determine whether further, more 
detailed researches therein were desirable, the National Geographic 
Society, in cooperation with the Smithsonian Institution, organized a 
small reconnaissance party for explorations during the months of 
October and November ; Mr. Neil M. Judd, curator of American 
Archeology, United States National Museum, was designated leader 
of this expedition. 



78 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

Fortified with all the information obtainable, most of which was 
later found to be useless, Mr. Judd proceeded to Kayenta, Arizona, 
upon conclusion of his annual explorations for the Society in Pueblo 
Bonito. At Kayenta, the limit of automobile transportation, saddle 
and pack mules were obtained for the prospective journey. Besides 
]\Ir. Judd the party consisted of John Wetherill, guide, E. L. Wisherd, 
photographer for the National Geographic Society, George B. Martin 
of Denver and Julian Edmonson of McElmo, Colorado, assistants. 
Two Navaho Indians who professed to know something of the region 
to be visited failed, in turn, to appear as the time for departure 
approached. 

It had been planned to swim the Rio San Juan at the mouth of 
Piute Canyon but the river, being still in flood, forced a long east- 
ward detour that cost the expedition several days' time and brought it 
to the Clay Hill divide by way of Grand Gulch. Further delay was 
experienced at this point in recovering a quantity of grain and pro- 
visions which Indians had failed to deliver, on a previously designated 
date, at the Clay Hill Crossing. 

Having gained the west slopes of the Clay Hills, seven of the 12 
pack mules were pastured in a secluded cove at the head of Lake 
Canyon and those supplies actually recjuired for the return journey 
were cached nearby. With fewer animals and equipment to care for 
and with only a week's rations, more rapid progress could be made 
and a proportionately larger area traversed in the limited time available 
for actual exploration. 

From this base camp the party continued in a northwesterly direc- 
tion to the Rio Colorado at Hall's Crossing, thence along the river 
edge into Moki Canyon. The latter, because of its name, had been 
chosen as one of the objectives of the expedition, under the belief that 
numerous remains of prehistoric habitations would be found in its 
deeper recesses. 

Moki Canyon had been represented as about five miles long and 
enterable, on foot only, at its mouth and extreme head. Mr. Judd not 
only led his pack train into the narrow gorge, but he advanced with 
it 18 miles or about two-thirds the total length, over quicksands and 
rock ledges that added frequent barriers and not a little danger to the 
expedition. 

Signs indicative of former Indian trails were noted at intervals 
throughout that portion of the canyon traversed and on one of these, 
after having directed the other members of the ]iarty to return to the 
Lake Canyon cache, Mr. Judd and his guide climbed the north wall of 
Moki Canyon in order to ascertain the location and characteristics of 



N.O. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1923 



79 




Fig. 74. — The Clay Hills exLend suiilluvaiii u) uu- Km San Jiuui a.> an 
unscalable barrier of red and gray shale, overtopped by sheer walls of pink 
sandstone. (Photograph by E. L. Wisherd. Courtesy of the National Geo- 
graphic Society.) 




Fig. 75. — ^^When Moki Canyon cut its tortuous course, massive caves were 
formed at every angle and in these caves prehistoric peoples sought refuge 
from the elements and from their tribal enemies. ( Photograph by E. L. 
Wisherd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 



8o 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



\()l-. 76 






".y^A- 







.\\ 





Fig. 76. — The expedition's pack train cru.s.sin.n the >an(l^t(inc ridges that 
reach out from the base of Navaho Mountain, en route to the Rainbow 
Natural Bridge. ( Photograph by E. L. Wisherd. Courtesy of the National 
Geographic Society.) 




Fig. 77. — The Rainbow Natural Bridge, one of the most majestic and 
inspiring spectacles in the United States, rises to a height of 309 feet yet 
it is dwarfed by the sheer red walls of the canyon which shelters it. ( Photo- 
graph by F. L. Wisherd. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.) 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



what is more recently known as Knowles Canyon. They had with them 
at this time only their saddle animals and one pack mule, but to afford 
some understanding of the topography of the entire region traversed 
by the expedition it may be noted that, in leaving Moki Canyon, 
Messrs. Judd and W'etherill progressed only 15 miles in six hours' 
time and then, at dark, found themselves less than 2 miles from their 
last previous camp. 

With the party reunited at its Lake Canyon cache the return trip to 
Kayenta was begun. Although handicapped by rain and dense fog 




(A. J^^M 



Fig. 78. — Thin lingers of pink and red sandstone tower alxixe the yeUow 
floor of Monument Valley pointing the height of the rock mesas that once 
covered northern Arizona. (Photograph by E. L. Wisherd. Courtesy of 
the National Geographic Society.) 

which for three days almost obscured the dim Indian trail they were 
following, members of the expedition finally crossed the Rio San Juar 
immediately north of Navaho Mountain and thence visited the Rain- 
bow Natural Bridge. Mr. Judd, as assistant to Dean Byron Cum- 
mings, was a member of the party which discovered this great stone 
arch on August 14, 1909. 

The results of these recent explorations north of the Rio San Juan 
in Utah indicate the desirability of further, more extended archeologi- 
cal investigations ; it is felt that the botanical and l)iological sciences 
would profit to a less degree. Animal and plant life in this region, 

6 



82 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

according to Mr. Judd's observations, are neither plentiful nor greatly 
diversified, at least in the fall season. Such prehistoric habitations as 
were visited are small, crudely constructed affairs which suggest tem- 
porary occupation by small, migratory bands or family groups. Traces 
of a people older than the cliff-dwellers were observed in several 
localities ; further research should afford a clearer conception of the 
cultural development of these two distinct types of cave folk and, at 
the same time, disclose their relationship to other prehistoric tribes 
of the great plateau country. 

Several unavoidable factors, however, will tend to limit and restrict 
exploration of the uninhabited area north of the Rio San Juan. Water 
is at a premium except in the deeper canyons where seeps and inter- 
mittent streams may usually be found ; " tanks," or natural reservoirs, 
do not occur on the broad sandy mesas separating the canyons. All 
supplies must be transported at least 200 miles by pack mules and 
quicksand in the narrow gorges is certain to prove troublesome except 
during the late fall and winter months. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IX NEW MEXICO 

In ]\Iay and June, 1933, Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, chief of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, continued his field studies of ceramic decora- 
tions characteristic of the Mimbres Valley, New Mexico. The wonder- 
ful picture pottery of this region strikes the attention on account of 
the geographical position of the valley between ]\Iexico and the pueblo 
region, and promises to shed light on prehistoric migrations of the 
southwestern Indians. 

The Mimbres Valley is comparatively limited in extent and its 
pottery is being rapidly collected and sold as curiosities. In order to 
])revent the complete loss to science of this material and to give it a 
|)ermanent home for future students. Dr. Fewkes obtained by pur- 
chase about a hundred s])ecimens and added them to the collections 
of the National MuseuuL The designs on these are as a rule different 
from those already recorded. The Mimbres ]Mcture potterv (fig. 79) 
was made by a peoj^le that disappeared in prehistoric times without 
leaving a documentary trace of language or culture. Archeology is the 
only guide to its characterization. The ])ictures on these specimens 
are reproduced in .Smithsonian ^Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 76, 
No. 8, and in the ])rescnt ])ublication only a few general conclusions 
are considered. 

Copper deposits in tlie Mimbres ^Mountains first attracted attention 
of the .S])aniards to this area. Considerable (juanlities of this and other 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



83 



ores were mined liere in early days by the Mexicans and shipped to 
Chihuahua ; but the distance of the market and the interference of 
hostile Apaches rendered transportation rather hazardous. At the 
time of the survey of the boundary between Mexico and the United 
States, in 1854, the production of metal had practically ceased from 
the upper end of the Mimbres, which lower down was raided by hos- 
tiles and had become a dark and bloody ground. The Apaches were 




Fig. 79. — Restoration of the parrot food bowl from the Mimbres Valley, 
New Mexico. (Painted by Mrs. George Mullett.) 



embittered against the white people by atrocities they had suffered, 
and the toll of death of Ijoth races was large. From the year i860 to 
1864 considerable mining was done there by Americans, but the 
infamous killing of the Chief Mangas Colorado led to a general rising 
of all of the Indians seeking revenge, and for several years no white 
man entered or crossed this valley except with the greatest danger to 
his life. Hundreds of travelers were killed in Cook's Pass and the 
settlers in the valley were in continual danger. The Indians found in 



84 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. "6 



the Mimbres were known as Minibrenos Apaches. Shortly after 
the whites came into the neighborhood the town, Pinos Altos, became 
a center of mining industry, but existence there was precarious on 
account of hostile Indians who fought a battle within its limits. 
Little now remains of the old Santa Rita settlement. One of the 
bastions of this ancient fort is now used as the fuse house. The region 
of the old Santa Rita mine (fig. 80) has now changed so much that 
ancient landmarks are difficult to discover. The mountains over it are 
bare but not without interest. A standing rock called the Kneeling 
Xun, which rises to the east of the present copper company's building 
near the point of a high mountain, is said to commemorate an accident 




Fig. 80. — Santa Rita Wine, New Mexico. (Photograph by Fewkes.) 

in which a large number of miners lost their lives. This " Kneeling 
Nun " is supposed to be praying for the souls of the deceased men. 
Whatever population existed in the Mimbres Valley in prehistoric 
times disappeared as a distinct people, probably having lieen absorbed 
into bands of Apaches, the so-called Mimbrenos Apaches, now settled 
at San Carlos and other reservations.' It would be an interesting and 
important inquiry to study their legends in order, if possible, to deter- 
mine any survival of the ancient people that may still exist. When 
Bartlett visited the valley in 1854 no villages of the original pre- 
historic population existed, although he speaks of ruins here and there 
and comments on fragments of potterv. 

*The oldest inhal)itants were proI)ahIy tlie Mansos or Gorritas, so-called 
l)ecause they wore little cajis, one of which is figured on a food howl. 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



85 




Fig. 81.— Design on the interior of a food bowl from the Mimbres Valley, 
New iNIexico. U. S. National Museum. 





Fig. 82. — Two specimens of Casas Grandes pottery found at Black Mountain 
ruin near Deming. New Mexico. U. S. National Museum. 



86 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 76 



It has been shown in former pubHcations that the pottery (fig. 81) 
of the Mimbres resembles that of Casas Grandes in the adjoining 
State of Chihuahna, ^Mexico. There is no doubt that there was inter- 
course between the two peoples, for whole pieces of the brilliant 




Fig. 83. — Food bowl with Gila Valley decoration found at Black Moun- 
tain ruin near Deming, New ^Mexico. U. S. National Museum. 



Chihuahua pottery (fig. 82) were obtained in a ruin at Black Moun- 
tain, about six miles from Deming. In the same ruin there was found 
typical pottery from the (iila \'alley (fig. 83), and the conclusion 
seems legitimate that this ruin was inhabited by an intrusive people 
conteni])orary with the ancient Minil)rcs settlements. 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



87 



The so-called City of Rocks is situated near Fay wood Hot Springs, 
which was cleared out some 15 years ago. The construction of the 
famous Hot Springs Hotel rendered it desirable to excavate the accu- 
mulated mud, and in removing it, a large number of votive offerings 
came to light. These consisted mainly of arrowheads, pipes, spear 
points, stone clubs, and various other objects. The spring was evi- 
dently a sacred shrine where offerings were thrown many years ago 




Fig. 84. — Fragment of ancient Zuni pottery, Canyon del Muerto, Arizona, 
collected by Dr. W. H. Spinks. U. S. National Museum. 



by the aborigines as sacrifices. Happily some of these specimens are 
now preserved in private hands ; others are scattered through the 
valley. Among these objects are tubes called " cloud blowers," types 
of pipes that have been elsewhere described. 

In May Dr. Fewkes visited Pinos Altos, on the divide separating the 
headwaters of the Gila and those of the Mimbres V^alley. Near it is a 
large ruin situated on top of Montezuma Hill. This ruin, which from 
its position ofifers many problems for investigation, is one of the most 
imjxirtant on account of the mixed character and decoration of the 



88 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 76 



pottery. Its pottery may be decorated with designs from all the three 
ceramic areas here mentioned. In the high country north of Pinos 
Altos occurs the so-called Tularosa ware whose decoration connects 
pottery designs from the ]\Iimbres with the pure pueblo. We must 
await more specimens from this region before we can determine the 
extent and meaning of the relation. 

A beautiful fragment of ancient Zuhi ware (fig. 84) has been pre- 
sented to the Bureau by Dr. W. H. Spinks, by whom it was found in 
a ruin in Canyon del Muerto. It bears a bird head and neck and the 
typical geometric design that occurs so frequently in modern Zuni 
ware. In texture and color, however, this ancient example differs from 




Fig. 85. — Boy Scouts watching prugress of excavations, Weeden Mouiui, 

Florida. 

the modern Zuni and in these respects is more closely related to the 
brilliant yellow ware of Sikyatki. a well-known ruin of the Hopi. 
This is the first time that ceramic evidence has been adduced to show 
the relation of a Canvon del ]\Iuert() ruin to modern Zuni. 



ARCHEOLOCilCAL FIliLD-WORK IX FLORIDA 

In November. i()23. the chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
made a preliminary trip to the southwestern coast of b^lorida. 
Although several archeologists. C'ushing, Moore. Hrdlicka. and others, 
have investigated this region, manv unsolved problems are still await- 
ing solution, as known facts are too scanty for accurate generaliza- 
tions. The archeology of this region has es])ecial attractions to the 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXTLORATIOXS, I923 



89 



chief of the Bureau on account of certain West Indian affinities of its 
prehistoric inhabitants. Through the kindness of Mr. E. AI. Elliott, of 
St. Petersburg, he was able to make a short preliminary visit in antici- 
pation of more intensive work which will naturally follow. 

The prehistoric human inhabitants of the southern part of Florida 
were, from the nature of their environment, low in culture. Their 




CLUSTER OF MOUNDS 

AT 

WEEDEN ISLAND 
TAMm BAY, FLORIDA 



Fig. 86. 



surroundings presented t)nlv scanty possibilities for a high develop- 
ment, and judging from data available not only was their material 
culture low. but they also owed little to outside influences. The visit 
was intended as a reconnaissance in which some of the numerous shell 
heaps and other remains of the culture antecedent to the coming of 
the white were inspected (figs. 85 and 86). The northern part of 
Florida has l)een well investigated but the Ten Thousand Islands are 
almost virgin soil for the archeologist. Caxambas, Kev Marco, Horr's 



90 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \"OL. 76 











, ^^^Sije'^"' 





l-IG. 87. 

A. Entrance of the canal to Shell Mound near Porpoise Point. 

B. Landing place at Porpoise Point Settlement. 

C. Mangrove jungle near canal at Porpoise Point Settlement. 

D. Live oak on mound at Weeden's Island. 

(Photographs hy Fewkes.) 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



91 




Fig. 88. 
A. Typical shell-heap on Ten Thousand Islands, Florida. 
B Large tree on periphery of Weeden's Mound. 

C. Inhabitants of Porpoise Point in front of their new schoolhouse. 

D. Old house at Porpoise Point. 

(Photographs by Fewkes.) 



92 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

Island, Porpoise Point. Postman's Key, and Choskoloski River have 
many little-known shell heaps. The keys near Caxambas appear to 
have been the center or the sites of a considerable population, judging 
from the number of these mounds. 

This word with a different orthography, cacimbas, occurs in the Isle 
of Pines, Cuba, where 20 or 30 objects called Cacimbas de los Indios 
were examined by Dr. Fewkes several years ago. The word occurs 
on the mainland of South America and is interpreted as a " pipe." 
Cuban cacimbas are large vase-like objects buried in the earth and 
ample enough to contain a child. These vases are associated with low 
mounds showing eft"ects of fire, and are supposed by some writers to 
be receptacles for turpentine or pitch with which the ancients pitched 
their canoes. Naturally it would l^e interesting to know why the name 
is applied to this region in Florida. \\'as the " Arawak Colony " in 
this neighborhood? 

.Several shell implements (fig. 92) were found at Horr's Island, 
near Caxaml)as, among which was a perforated circular disk of stone, 
called an anchor by the owner. It was smooth on one face and rough 
on the opposite, suggesting a (}uern or mill for grinding or bruising 
roots or corn, similar to those elsewhere described from Haiti and 
Porto Rico. The particular interest attached to this object which was 
one of many other specimens is that it is one of the few implements 
from the Ten Thousand Islands that substantiates the historical 
accounts that the Indians in southern Florida ground food into meal. 

There are only a few modern settlements in the Ten Thousand 
Islands scattered along the southwestern coast of Florida, the most 
extensive of which, at Porpoise Point, consists of several houses and 
about 50 people, all related or belonging to one social unit or clan 
(fig. 88f, d). At this isolated community a school house has been 
erected for the natives by ^Ir. Elliott, and ^Ir. Little, who will serve 
as their school master, was carried to them on this trip. The oldest 
man of the settlement claims to be a Choctaw Indian ; he is very old, 
and although there is some doubt of his ancestry, his descendants are 
mixed bloods. Life is very simple in this primitive place and the 
houses are mounted on i)iles like pile dwellings. 

One of the most interesting clusters of shell hea])s (fig. 88^0 
visited in Florida is situated near Porpoise Point. The shell heaps 
near this settlement are rarely visited or at least seldom described by 
archeologists, probably because it is hidden by a dense jungle of 
mangroves and approached by a narrow channel cut through this 
forest, and navigalile onlv at half or full tide. The difficult entrance 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



93 




t- 



ffi 



t- 



> 



< 



94 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 



to this passageway is concealed as one approaches from the gulf, and 
appears to he artificial. The concealed entrance extends to a clearing 
in the forest, which is the site of the cluster of mounds on which now 
grow cocoanut palms, alligator pears, citrus fruits, bananas, and 
cultivated plants. The approach to one of the elevated shell heaps in 
this secret area is shown in the accompanying figure (fig. 87a). This 
area is the farm of the Porpoise Point settlement and would well 
repay archeological study. Several interesting shell implements were 
picked up on the surface and shallow excavations revealed a unique 
perforated bivalve fossil shell of unknown use. The whole collection 
thus far made is very large, and the work of Dr. Fewkes' assistant. 
Mr. M. W. Stirling of the U. S. Xational ^luseum, has attracted wide 
attention. 

Profile of Excavation in Shell Mound on Weeden Island 
November 22, 1923. 




135 130 125 120 lis 110 105 160 95 90 K 80 TS W M 65 55 50 45 40 

LENGTH IN FEET 



30 25 20 is 



Fig. go. 



The site of ^Nlr. Cushing's explorations at Alarco was examined 
with great interest under the guidance of an old resident of Marco 
who remembered the valuable objects found there 28 years ago. The 
site is now much changed, the lagoon, from the muck of which so 
much was taken, is only a few hundred feet from the hotel; but the 
depression in which the most of the objects were found has been 
filled with shells leveled from nearby mounds in construction of a road, 
and the locality does not offer great inducements for future ex- 
ploration. 

Although it is hardly possible on such a slight acquaintance with 
Morida archeology to properly choose the most desirable sites for 
future work it would seem that the least known were those on the 
Ten Thousand Islands, especially from Caxambas southward. The 
Tampa Bay shell heaps, especially the cluster on Weeden's Island 
(fig. 91 ), aljout six miles from St. Petersburg, present many ])ractical 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



95 







p5^ 



?5m 



r- O 



b£-a 



< 



96 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLAXKOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 





c 




Fig. 92. — Shell objects from southwestern Florida. 

A. Perforated fossil bivalve shell. 

B. Shell pendant. 

C. Unknown shell im])Ienicnt. 
1). Shell gorget. 

(l". S. National Museum.) 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EX I'LORATIONS, I923 



97 



i 







Fig. 93. — P>ontal amulets from Alayaguez. Porto Rico, loaned to the U. S. 
National Museum by Mr. D. W. May. 

Center, frontal amulet of shell. 

Upper left, frontal amulet of indurated clay. 

Upper right, frontal amulet of quartz. 

Lower figures, frontal amulets of Falcore mineral. 



98 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

advantages and a beginning was made on that island. A deep trench 
(fig. 90) was dug into the main mound in order to determine its 
character and stratification. It is l^eheved to be a domicihary mound 
or, since it is the largest in the cluster, that on which the chief's 
house was probably erected. Dr. Weeden's claim that De Soto and 
Narvaez landed on this mound seems probable, and if so we can 
identify it as the Calusa town, Ucita, which according to Bourne 
" stood near the beach, upon a very high mount made by hand for 
defense ; at the other end of the town was a temple, on the roof of 
which perched a wooden fowl wnth gilded eyes." 

The archeological problems of the southern part of Florida are 
complex and require more field-work than has yet been devoted to 
them. We have on the southwestern Florida keys many heaps of shell 
indicating several types, as eating places, domiciliary mounds, and 



"^1 





Fig. q4. — Three-pointed stone of the Fig. 95. — Apical view of fignre 94. 

fourth type, JNIayaguez, Porto Rico. 
Loaned to the U. S. National AInsenm 
by A!r. D. W. May. 

mounds of observation and defense. At the time of the discovery we 
learn from historical documents that a tribe of Indians called Calusa 
inhabited these keys and the names of certain towns of this tribe are 
recorded, but our knowledge of the ethnology, language and customs 
of the Calusa is scanty. Did the Calusa build the shell heaps or 
were they an intrusive people ? Did the shell heap people come from 
the Antilles or were they Muskhogean? Archeology dealing with 
material culture can contribute to an answer to this question. 

In the accompanying figure (fig. 93) are shown specimens of 
true Antillean amulets lately loaned to the United States National 
Museum by Air. D. W. Alay, from Alayaguez on the west coast of 
■ Porto Rico. The central figure is a uni(|ue carved shell amulet with 
lateral wings different from anv ])rcviously described. The other four 
amulets figiu'ed are likewise new. The three-]it)inted stone belongs to 
the fotu'th tv])e, nr tliat characterized by absence of head and legs 
but with a cin-ved longitudinal (le])ression on the base. 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATJONS, T923 99 

ETHNOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ALMNE. CANADA, AND LABRADOR 

Dr. Truman Alichelson, ethnologist in the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, left Washington towards the close of iNIay for a recon- 
naissance trip among the Algonquian trihes of northeastern United 
States and the adjacent parts of Canada including the Lahrador 
peninsula. The Penohscot Indians of Maine rememl)er their ethnology 
and folk-lore very well ; hut their language is dying. Practically none 
of the younger generation speak it ; so it is only a matter of time hefore 
it is extinct. The native arts and industries are still kept up. In sharp 
contrast with them are the Malecites of " Indian Village," about 
14 miles from Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. Everyone, even 
small children, speak the language ; yet English is understood and 
spoken also. In their own homes, however, the Indian language is 
practically the only one in use. Their native arts and industries are 
still practiced. It was a rare treat to see them pound ash and then draw 
out the long splints which are used in basketry. The folk-lore is still 
remembered. Init their ethnology properly speaking is nearly gone. 
It should be noted that as Penobscot, Malecite, and ^Nlicmac have a 
partially developed dual, in contrast to the Central Algonquian lan- 
guages, it is plausible to consider this grammatical feature as due to 
Esquimauan influence. 

Dr. Michelson left Sydney, Nova Scotia. June 19, and arrived at 
Port-aux-Basques. Newfoundland, the next day. Erom there he went 
to St. Johns liy rail. While in St. Johns he took the cranial measure- 
ments of four Beothuk skulls in the local museum. These, of course, 
are too few in number to guide us regarding the racial affinities of 
the Beothuks, beyond their general American Indian one. Yet it 
may be worth noting that three of the skulls were mesocephalic (two 
nearly dolichocephalic) and one (a female) brachycephalic. It may be 
further noted that one skull (that of a male) had an unusually heavy 
supra-orbital ridge. Dr. Michelson left St. Johns on June 2~, for 
Rigolet, Labrador, on the S. S. Sagona. The passage was rather severe 
for the season of the year, but this was more than recompensed for by 
the sight of so many ice-bergs. At Wesleyville the trip was livened by 
the ship striking rocks, fortunately without damage. It will ht remem- 
bered that the Portia earlier in the season was fast on the rocks. And 
at Lord Arm. Dr. Michelson's steamer found the Ranger standing by 
Seal, whose propeller had been broken off by ice. The Sagona arrived 
at Rigolet. Labrador, July 3. The next day Dr. ^iichelson left in a 
motor boat for the Northwest River. The weather was rough and 



lOO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 





Fk;. 96. — Iceberg off tlie coast of Labrador: (Photograph by Michelson.) 




r 



Fig. 97. — Indians at the Xurlluvi-sl Kivcr, Labradur. ( I'hoto.nraph by 

Michelson. ) 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



lOI 



the first attempt was unsuccessful, but towards night-fall the weather 
moderated, and the Northwest River was reached early the next day. 
Dr. Michelson lodged at a Hudson Bay Company post during his 
stay at the Northwest River. The very best thanks are due to officials 
of the Hudson Bay Company at Rigolet and the Northwest River, as 
well as those of the Revillon Freres at the Northwest River, for their 
uniform courtesy and endeavor to make the expedition a success. 




Fig. 98. — Indian making canoes at 
Northwest River, Labrador. (Photo- 
graph by Michelson. ) 



At the Northwest River there were some Indians from Davis Inlet, 
and at least one Nascapi from Ungava. Dr. Michelson took the physi- 
cal measurements of a few, and made linguistic and ethnological notes. 
It follows that Nascapi is really not a distinct Algonquian language ; 
it is the same as the Indian language spoken at Davis Inlet, and is 
merely a Montagnais dialect, di tiering only in a few details. From 
work done previously by others as well as by Dr. Michelson it is 
clear that the Indian languages at the Northwest River, Davis Inlet, 
and Ungava (i. c, Nascapi) distinctly form a unit as opposed to the 



102 SMITIISOXIAN AIISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \OL. 76 

Montagnais of Lake St. John, Alistassini, the " Cree " of Rupert's 
House, and the '" Cree " of the East Main River. It should be men- 
tioned that the folk-lore and mythology is much nearer that of the 
Central Algonquian than hitherto supposed. Dr. Michelson was in- 
formed that west of the Nascapi are some Indians whose language 
they cannot understand. Obviously these cannot be Eskimo or Alon- 
tagnais ; for the Nascapi know that the Eskimo and Montagnais dif- 
fer but slightly from their own language. Rut who these Indians 




Fig. 99. — Indian carrying a canoe at 
Northwest River, Labrador. (Photo- 
graph by Michelson.) 



are is at present quite unknown. Later on Dr. ^Michelson was informed 
by William Cabot, Esq., of Boston, Mass., who has done a great deal 
of exploring in Labrador, that he had heard the same thing. 

Dr. Michelson left the Northwest River July 21 for Rigolet and 
arrived there without adventure. He proceeded to Turnavik and from 
thence to St. Johns, Newfoundland. On the tri]) Dr. Michelson was 
able to take the physical measurements of a few Eskimos ; up to that 
time he had taken only the measurements of a few mixed-blood 
E,skimos who are common on the Labrador coast and who constitute 
an important element of the so-called " Liveveres." St. lohns was 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



103 




Fig. 100. — Fox Indians, Tama, Iowa. 
(Photograph by Michelson.) 




Fig. ioi. — Wigwam. Tama, Iowa. (Photograph by ]Michelson.) 



104 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

reached on July 31, and on the same day Dr. ]Michelson left for Port- 
aux-Basques by rail. The train was wrecked at almost the center of 
the island, hve cars leaving the track which was torn up for at least 
50 yards and probably more. After a delay of more than 24 hours 
he reached Port-aux-Basques, taking the S. S. Kyle that night for 
North Sydney. Nova Scotia, which he reached early the next morning. 
From there he proceeded by rail to Tama, Iowa, to renew his re- 
searches among the Fox Indians. When not far from Chicago this 
train was also wrecked, but not badly. At Tama, Dr. Michelson 
finished a memoir on tli^teremonial Runners of the Fox Indians as 
far as practical in the field ; he also gathered other ethnological data, 
and returned to Washington September 22. 

ETHNOLOGY OK THE OSAGE INDIANS 

Mr. Francis LaFlesche, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
spent a part of May and all of the month of June, 1923. among the 
Osage Indians. The purpose of the visit was to gather information 
relating to the fruits of plants, cultivated and uncultivated, which the 
Osage people learned to use for their sustenance before contact with 
the European races. 

It was learned from Wa-no"'-she-zhi"-ga, better known as Fred 
Lookout, and his wife Mo"'-ci-tse-xi (figs. 102. 103), and from other 
members of the tribe, that the Indian corn, or maize, which was 
known to many of the Indian tribes before the coming of the " whites," 
still forms a large part of the daily subsistence of the people, that they 
have over 20 different ways of preparing it for eating. As among 
other Indian tribes who cultivate the soil, the corn is a sacred food to 
the Osage, and it figures prominently in their ancient trilial rites and 
ceremonials. Green corn ])artly boiled or roasted on the cob. the grains 
removed from the cob and dried in the sun for use at all seasons, is 
liked much better by these Indians than the canned corn of the white 
man. Corn thus prepared for preservation is called. " u'-ho"-Qa-gi," 
and the woman who wishes to give a dinner to her friends never fails 
to have it on her table. A description of the Indian wav of planting 
and cultivating the Indian corn was also given by Wa-no"'-she-zhi"-ga 
and his wife. 

Many of the Osage Indians continue to use as food the roots of 
a number of wild plants. princi])ally those of the Nchimbo lutca, 
commonly known as " water chinka])in " (fig. 105). The root of this 
])lant, the native name of which is tse'-wa-the, has an important place 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 923 



105 




1- ra . 

^^ o 
•*. o 






2-5 








= CO 






io6 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 



among the food plants upon which tlie people depended for their daily 
sustenance. In recognition of the great value of this natural product 
of the soil, the ancient Xo"'-ho"-zhi"-ga (learned men) made special 
mention of it as a sacred ])lant in the tribal rites which they formulated 
and transmitted to the successive generations. 

The root of the water chinkapin was gathered in large quantities 
and dried for winter use. The outer skin was scraped away from the 




Fig. 105. — \'iew of the growing Xclinnbo liitca (water chinkapin 



long armlike roots, which were then cut into one- or two-inch pieces, 
strung together (fig. 104) with thongs and hung up to dry in the sun 
on racks erected for the purpose. The root is eaten raw when fresh, 
and it is also cooked for immediate use. The nuts are also eaten when 
fresh and taste somewhat like chestnuts. The nuts are also dried and 
stored for winter use. 

The Qta-i"'-ge (persimmon) is a fruit that is gathered in large 
quantities for winter use. In j)rei3aring the fruit for preservation the 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 10/ 

seeds are first separated from the ])ulp with a rude screen made of 
small saplings. The pulp of the fruit is then moulded into cakes, put 
on wooden paddles and held over live coals to hake. After baking the 
cakes are dried in the sun and stored. The persimmon cakes thus 
prepared resemble chocolate cakes. A specimen which was furnished 
by Mo^'-gi-tse-xi is now in the National Museum. The process of 
preparing the persimmon for preservation is called (^ta-i"-ge ga-xe, 
making gta-i"'-ge. In the autumn the people go out in groups and 
camp in the woods to gather persimmons for preserving. 

Wa-to'", the squash, was also cultivated by the Osage. They always 
raised a sufficient quantity to last till the next season. The pulp of 
the fruit, after removing the seeds and the skin, is cut into long strips 
which are hung up for a time to partly dry in the sun. after w^hich 
they are taken down to be braided or woven into a mat-like shape and 
hung up for the final drying. When thoroughly dried these woven 
pieces are packed away in raw hide cases for winter use. The smaller 
pieces left over are strung together on strips of bark to be dried in the 
sun and stored. The squash was also counted as a sacred food and 
was given special mention in the ancient tribal rites. 

A number of other wild plants afiforded the Osage plenty of food, 
but the corn, squash, water chinkapin and persimmon are valued most 
because they never fail to yield a dependable supply of food. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL WORK IN CALIFORNIA 

During the past summer the Bureau of American Ethnology has 
been engaged in cooperative work in California with the Museum of 
the American Indian ( Heye Foundation) . At the request of Mr. Heye, 
Mr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist of the Bureau, was detailed to 
take charge of the exploration of the site of the principal rancheria 
of the Santa Barbara Indians, which is called the Burton Mound. 
Several years ago efforts were made to obtain permission to excavate 
this site, but when the Potter Hotel was erected on it in 1901 all hope 
was given up, and it was supposed that the opportunity for opening 
this mound had vanished ; but this hotel was burned a few years ago, 
and the opportunity to excavate the site was obtained by Mr. Heye 
from the Ambassador Hotel Corporation. The excavations under the 
direction of Mr. Harrington for the Heye Museum and the Bureau of 
American Ethnology were begun early in 'May. 1923, and the first 
day's work located the position of the cemeterv on the slope leading 
to the beach. 



io8 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 76 




-••wt 



Fig. 106. — Collection of soapstone and sandstone bowls taken from Burton 
Mound cemetery. Left to right : G. W. Bayley, Professor D. B. Rogers, John 
P. Harrington. (Photograph arranged by J. P. Harrington.) 




Fig. 107. — Santa Barbara bieacli, looking east from Castle Rock Bluff. 
The cove this side of the further wharf is the former puerto de cayucos or 
canoe landing place of the Indians in front of Burton Mound. (Photograph 
by J. P. Harrington.) 



ND. lO SMITHSOiXIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 923 IO9 

Several hundred human skeletons and a valuable collection of 
mortuary and other objects were found, among which was a fragment 
of a canoe made of soapstone, stone utensils and implements, mortars, 
pestles, beads, daggers, pottery, and other articles. By arrangement 
with the Heye Museum the report of this important discoverv will be 
pulilished by the Bureau of American Ethnology and a collection of 
duplicates of objects obtained will be deposited in the U. S. National 
Museum. The collection is the finest illustrating the culture of the 
Santa Barbara Indians that has been made in many years. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IN TENNESSEE 

Mr. William Edward Myer. special archeologist. Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology, spent Alay and June, 1923. exploring the remains of a 
great prehistoric Indian town in Cheatham County, Tennessee. These 
remains are known as the Great Mound Grouj) on account of the 
great central mound. Some interesting scientific problems were re- 
vealed by his excavations at this old town on the Harpeth River near 
Kingston Springs. Through the kindness of Mr. Wilbur Nelson. 
State Geologist of Tennessee. Mr. Crawford C. Anderson made a 
survey of the group. His maps are shown in figures 108 and 109. 
Through the efforts of Lieutenant Norman McEwen. of the 136th 
Air Squadron.. Tennessee National (iuard. aeroplane photographs 
were secured. 

The remains of this ancient town or towns are found in two adjoin- 
ing bends of the Harpeth, aljout a mile apart, and cover about 500 
acres. The two sections of the town or two separate towns had each 
been protected Ijy its own line of defenses, consisting in part of 
perpendicular bluffs and the remainder of palisaded walls. 

GREAT MOUND DIN'ISION OF THE GROUP 

In the upstream bend of the Great Mound division f)f the town he 
found a bold projecting hill which had been artificially shaped from 
base to summit. The original rounded summit had lieen leveled until 
a great plaza or ]niblic square, about i.ooo feet in length and 500 feet 
in breadth, had been formed. This plaza is indicated by P on figures 
no and in. xAt the northeast corner of this plaza, at the brow of the 
tall terraced hill and overlooking the adjoining region for several 
miles, the Great Mound had been erected. It is denoted by M on 
figures no and in. Along the eastern edge of this plaza two smaller 
mounds had been built. Three wide terraces had been formed along: 



I lO 



SMITHS! IXIAX MTSCKLLANKOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 




NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



III 



the northern side of this hill. \'ery faint traces of them can be seen 
at T, T, T, figure ii i . 

The Great jMound division of this ancient town was protected on 
the water side by the perpendicular clififs of the Harpeth River. On 
the land side it was defended by an earthen embankment or breast- 
works surmounted by a wooden wall from which at intervals semi- 
circular wooden towers projected. These earthen breastworks, which 
had formerly supported this wooden wall, were still to be found in 
the undisturbed woodlands where they yet extend about i| miles, and 
there is evidence that they originally ran much farther. Wooden 
palisades, consisting of small tree-trunks, had been driven into the 
ground side by side and wedged together and the soil thrown against 



MAP or 
MOUND BOTTOM 




Fig. 109. 



them until they were by this means firmlv imbedded in these earthen 
embankments or breastworks. These palisades, bound closely together 
and strongly braced, formed a wooden wall wdiich had been plastered 
on the outside in order to make scaling by an enemy difficult. Earthen 
bastions projecting beyond this line of wall at intervals of about 150 
yards were still to be found. These had formerly supported semi- 
circular wooden towers. The enemy advancing to attack was there- 
fore subjected to fire from the defenders through port-holes along the 
main wall and also to a flanking fire from the warriors in the towers 
on these l)astions. Faint traces of some of the timbers of these 



112 SMITHSONIAN iM ISCELLAXEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 




NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



113 



palisades and wooden towers were found in the soil of these embank- 
ments. 

This prehistoric town is notal:)le for the artistic ability displayed 
by the ancient man who planned the beautiful, terraced, bold central 
hill with its fine plaza surmounted by towering Great J\Iound. No 
other remains of ancient man have been found in our southeastern 




Fig. III. — Aeroplane view of northern side of central liill, showing Great 
Mound, M, Plaza, P, faint traces of terraces at T, T, T. (Photograph by 
Lieut. Norman McEwen.) 

United States which approach this Great Mound Group in an artistic 
sense. On the other hand, the pottery and the stone artifacts are 
somewhat ruder than those of the adjoining region. The remains of 
about 15 mounds of various sizes were found on this site. 

While this great central mound topping the bold terraced hill formed 
the most striking feature of this ancient town, there were within the 
walls four other eminences whose summits had likewise been leveled 



114 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 



into plazas. All these jilazas yielded traces of earth lodges and other 
evidences of former buildings. On the edges of the terraces v^ere the 
earth lodges of the common people. See map, figure io8. The larger 
mounds had probably supported important public buildings and the 
lodges of leading personages. 

All the buildings unearthed appeared to have been destroyed by fire. 
A line of wall-post holes and fragments of the charred poles used for 
wall posts in the large building, A, can be seen in figure 112. 

Under the fallen-in walls of this building the charred remains of 
woven cane-matting wall hangings were found and carefully pre- 
served. The woven design could still be discerned. 




Fig. 112. — Wall post lioles and fragiTient> of charred wall posts of building 
A, Great Mound Group. 

There is some evidence that this group of important buildings 
around five separate plazas and in dififerent parts of the town verv' 
probably indicates that the population was made up of what had once 
been four or five separate groups of kindred peoples. These groups 
had probably formerly been autonomous. Here in their later home 
each group had gathered around their own public square in their own 
section of the town and thus preserved at least some of their old 
ceremonials and held together in some fashion their old organizations. 

It is impossible to determine even approximately the number of 
inhabitants, but the large number of the buildings and the long extent 
of the walls to be manned re(|uircd a ])o])ulation of several thousand. 



NO. 10 SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 II5 

MOUND BOTTOM DIVISION OF GREAT MOUND GROUP 

Figure 109 shows a map of the Alound Uottom division of the Great 
Mound Group. This portion of the remains covers nearly all of the 
lower river bend which is called INlound Bottom by the local people. 
The accounts of the early white visitors to the region indicate that a 
line of walls with towers every 40 paces at one time extended around 
the edge of this river bottom. If so, all trace has disappeared under 
long cultivation. A curious line of earthen embankments was found 
on the narrow neck of blufifs through which entrance was gained to 
the ancient town. These embankments do not appear to have been 
portions of fortifications. 

A photograph of a portion of Mound Bottom is shown in figure 1 13. 
Numbers 2. 4, 5. and 6 are large mounds. Number i is a wide artificial 




Fig. 113. — Muund 1 'Mittii:ii. Ilarnitli l\uu-. Iwd link's hclnw mouth of Dog- 
Creek, Cheatham Co., Tennessee. 

earthen platform adjoining mound number 2. Number 7 is a ceme- 
tery containing stone-slab graves. 

It is not as yet possible to determine the age of these remains. 
Beyond all question the town had been destroyed long before the com- 
ing of the whites. In like manner the Indians living in this section 
when the whites arrived stated their ancestors had also found these 
vestiges of some unknown people lying silent and deserted along this 
beautiful river when they came into this region. 

DENNY MOUND 

Later in the summer of 1923 Mr. Myer ex]:)lored a small mound on 
the Denny farm at Goodlettsville, Sumner County, Tennessee, which 
proved to be of unusual importance, in that it yielded relics which 
showed it to belong to a culture quite different from that of much of 



Il6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

the surrouncling region in the valley of the Cuniherland in middle 
Tennessee. 

Several of the potsherds found in this mound were decorated v^ith 
fabric impressions which throw new light on the clothing of some of 
the southern mound-builder women and reveal important differences 
between some of the customs of the builders of the Denny mound 
and those of ancient man in the adjoining states. 

The burial customs, pottery fragments, pipes, implements of bone 
and antler, copper ornaments, and other artifacts brought to light in 
this excavation were of great interest as they furnished intertwin- 
ing clues which led to tracing out a cultural relationship between manv 
widely scattered important ancient sites occupied by prehistoric man 
in the upper valleys of the Tennessee River in eastern Tennessee, 
northwestern North Carolina, the Shenandoah Valley, the upper val- 
levs of the Potomac, the valleys of the New and the Kanawha, the 
central and lower Scioto valley, a site in the suburbs of Cincinnati, 
certain sites in the southern peninsula of ^lichigan, and in southern 
\\'isconsin and elsewhere in our central northern states. 

Probably the most interesting contributions to knowledge brought 
to light by the exploration of the Denny mound were the clues which 
led to determining what modern Indians are the descendants of the 
ancient mound-builders who erected this old Tennessee mound. A 
studv of the material cultures aided by the scanty written records and 
traditions regarding the localities where cultures have been found 
somewhat similar to that of the Denny mound lirings out the fact that 
the little outlying settlement of ancient people who lived at the Denny 
mound belonged to a culture group whose remains are found at vari- 
ous points in eastern Tennessee, northwestern North Carolina, south- 
western Virginia. Shenandoah \^alley. the upper Potomac valleys, 
the vallev of the Kanawha, southern and central Ohio, southern Wis- 
consin, the southern peninsula of [Michigan, and possibly in other 
sections. This culture group appears to have belonged to the Algon- 
quian stock. The many interlocking evidences render it probable that 
the Dennv mound and some of the other culturallv related sites here 
mentioned were at some time occupied by the Shawmees or people 
closely akin to them. 

REMAINS IX LINCOLN AND MOORE COl'NTIES, TENNESSEE 

iNIr. ]\Iyer also visited Lincoln and Aloore Ccninties. in the southern 
part of Tennessee, where he studied several ancient sites and surveyed 
and mapped a large and hitherto undescribed mound group on Elk 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 II7 





Fig. 114. — Vase from Lincoln County, Tennessee. 



Il8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

River, in the southern corner of ]\Ioore County at the point where 
JMoore. Lincohi, and Franklin counties corner. This group of large 
mounds, plazas, and traces of ancient wigwam sites covers a large 
bottom on Elk River. Its accompanying cemetery is found on a tall 
l)lult overlooking the site. These remains of some important ancient 
mound-builder town have never been ex])lored. It has l)een named the 
R. H. Gray group in recognition of Mr. R. H. Gray's services to 
archeology in seeking out and accurately recording for the Bureau of 
.American Ethnology 74 ancient Indian sites in Lincoln County 
where formerly only two had been reported. Through the kindness 
of Mr. R. C. Brossard, of Fayetteville, some unusual relics were 
secured from an ancient site in Lincoln County, on Swan Creek near 
its junction with Elk River. One of these, a long-necked vase deco- 
rated with three unicjue heads, is shown in figure 114. 




Fig. 115. — Boat-shaped object from Lincoln Connty, Tennessee. 

An exact duplicate of this vase in material, size, shape, and heads 
was found in the suburbs of Nashville, Tennessee, several years since. 
These very striking heads probably are connected with some ancient 
tradition or religious rite of these prehistoric men in Tennessee. 

A fine boat-shaped object from the same Swan Creek site is shown 
in figure 115. 

LINK GROUP 

Mr. Myer also visited Humphreys County, Tennessee, and studied 
and mapped the Link group of mounds on Duck River, some six 
miles southwest of Waverly. This is the site where the famous cache 
of fine, long, chipped flint ceremonial blades and chipped flint imple- 
ments now in the Missouri Historical Society collection was found. 
He secured some new information in regard to this important group 
and the surrounding region. 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



119 



FIELD STUDIES OF INDIAN MUSIC 

In July, 1923. Miss Frances Densmore went to Neah Bay, Wash- 
ington, to continue her study of Indian music for the Bureau of 
American Ethnolog}-. The purpose of the trip was to record the songs 
of Pacific Coast Indians for comparison with the songs of desert and 
plains tribes. The ]\Iakah were selected for this comparison as they 
are particularly efficient in the catching of whale and seal. The result 
fully justified the undertaking. Proof of the efl:'ect of environment 
and occupation on Indian song was obtained, together with descrip- 
tions of musical customs not found in tribes previously studied. The 




Fig. 116. — Neah Bay village, Ohmpic Alts, in distance. (Photograph by 

Miss Densmore.) 



resultant material comprised phonographic records of 103 songs, more 
than 200 pages of manuscript notes, 26 specimens of plants with 
descriptions of their use, 5 portraits of singers and numerous photo- 
graphs of the locality. A considerable number of specimens relating 
to the material were obtained, and several specimens which the owners 
refused to sell were photographed with their permission. 

Neah Bay is on the Strait of Juan de Fuca and lies within a few 
miles of the end of Cape Flattery. Across the Strait can be seen the 
mountains of \"ancouver Island while back of the village rise the 
Olympic mountains (fig. 116). Communication between Neah Bay 
and the outer world is entirely by water. Long ago, the Spaniards 



I20 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \'0L. 76 

came here, built a dock and '* surveyed the place." An informant 
said this took place in the time of his grandfather's grandfather. The 
Indians were friendly to the Spaniards until they molested the women, 
when they drove them away. A trace of Spanish influence was found 
in the statement that the earth revolves once every day, but the Alakah 
added that " the earth is a flat disk, supported by something under- 
neath but resting on the surface of the water." One edge was said to 
be a little lower than the other, so that in revolving it dips below the 
water, this causing high and low tides. Further evidence of Spanish 
influence lay in the description of an armor made of narrow wooden 
slats, worn in war by the early Makah. The next white visitors were 
" Boston men " concerning whom it was said " they dug large deep 
holes and buried a great many bottles to prove they discovered 
Neah Bay." 

Four tribes of Indians are under Neah Bay Agency, the largest 
number being the ]Makah who comprise 414 persons. They frequently 
exchange visits with the Indians on Vancouver Island but did not 
mention the tribes living on Puget Sound. A clear distinction was 
made between Makah songs and those of the British Columbia 
Indians ; it was said, however, that many of the Makah songs had 
" B. C. words." No explanation was given for this usage. The words 
of the gaming songs were in the " Chinook jargon." Many songs 
were in a " dream language." 

As an outstanding peculiarity of ]Makah music we note the custom 
of pounding on planks instead of drums. Timber was easily obtained 
and the material for a drum head could be obtained only by hunting 
in the mountains. The planks were " shag," made by splitting a log 
with a wedge, and the short sticks used for pounding were of the 
same crude manufacture. The Thunderbird dance was performed 
on the flat roof of a house and as an accompaniment for that dance 
a plank was placed on the ground near each side of the house, the 
company sitting beside these planks, facing the house, and pounding 
as they sang. A somewhat similar arrangement was used at a social 
gathering on the beach, attended by the writer (fig. 117). The planks 
are raised a few inches above the ground, giving space for resonance. 
Drums appear to have been used l)y individuals. Mrs. Long Tom 
(fig. 118) declined to sell her drum, saying " it was so much companv 
for her in the long winter evenings." Certain songs were accomiianied 
only by handclapping, and certain dances had no songs, being accom- 
panied only by pounding on the planks. 



NO. 10 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, 1 923 



121 



Throughout the general culture of the Makah is seen the influence 
of the " caste system " and the keeping of slaves. Many acts were 
permitted only to the " first families " and forbidden to the " lower 
classes." In former times a prominent Makah owned at least 12 
slaves usually obtained from other tribes in exchange for the various 
products that resulted from his successful whaling. These products 
included whale meat, oil, blubber, and bone. The possession of slaves 
aflfected the position of women, as they were relieved of much arduous 
labor. This enabled them to spend more time on their personal appear- 
ance and to enter more fully into an enjoyment of their children. A 




Fig. 117. — Makah singing on beach. Pacihc Ocean in distance. (Photograph 
by Miss Densmore.) 



woman who was careful of her appearance washed her hair and mas- 
saged her face and body every day. Men as well as women rubbed 
their bodies with cedar bark fiber or with fine hemlock branches, the 
men following this with prayers for physical strength. Occasionally 
the women also desired great strength. 

Two ideals were noted in this tribe, personal beauty in the women 
and physical strength in the men, and we find also a certain grace in 
social intercourse. For instance, each person at a feast was expected 
to sing a " gratitude song " before his or her departure and there were 
many songs, sung at social gatherings, in which men and women 
expressed an admiration for each other. A charming custom was that 
of " lullabv singing " bv the older women which was alwavs followed 



122 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \OL. 76 




Fig. 118. — Airs. Long Tom. (Photograph l)y Miss Densmore.) 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXTLORATIONS, I923 



12^ 




Fig. 119. — Mrs. Wilson Parker. (Photograph liy Aliss Dcnsmore.) 




I'"i(;. 120. — Mrs. Sarah Guy. ( Pholn.i^raph hy Aliss 1 H'u.smorc. 



124 SMITllSOXlAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

by gifts supposed to be bestowed by tbe infant. There were songs 
for boys and for girls. Frequently the words were supposed to be 
those of the child. Thus a lullaby for a baby girl contains the words 

" The only reason I cannot gather more berries 
Is that so many other babies are bothering me." 

The following lullaby is addressed to a boy, 

" What a nice basket full of snipes you are carrying. 
You got them at Tcatcatiks." 

The singer of this song would expect to be rewarded with a feast 
of snipes. Several of the lullabies were recorded by Mrs. Wilson 
Parker (fig. 119), whose head shows a deformation observed fre- 
quently among the ]\Iakah. 

The wedding customs were elaborate, including mock and genuine 
feats of strength as well as dramatic performances of various sorts. 
An instance of the latter was the presentation of what might be 
termed a " model " of an island, given by a man to the girl who 
married his son. A song concerning this action was recorded by 
Mrs. Sarah Guv (fig. 120) and contains these words. 

" 'Sly island home is ready, 
There are many ducks around it."' 

The most characteristic songs and legends of the Makah are those 
connected with whale catching. In these songs we find tones prolonged 
to the length of four or more counts in slow tempo, suggesting the 
" ahoy," or call across the water, which is used among sea-faring 
people of other races. In addition to these very long tones the whaling 
songs contain short rhythmic units, crisp and decided, like the motion 
of the paddles in the water. The intervals and compass of these melo- 
dies is rather small. Mr. James Guy (fig. 121), who recorded whaling 
songs, said they were sung " in time with the paddles " and that be- 
tween renditions the men held their paddles upright and gave a long 
wail or inoan, imitating the sound made by a wounded whale 

The prominence, power and wealth of a ]\Iakah depended on his 
success in catching whales. One or two whales was the average catch 
for a man in a season Intt sometimes a man caught four or five. In 
that event he was al;>le to give an oil potlatch. at which about 500 
gallons of whale oil were given away. Not only was the oil taken home 
by the guests but buckets of it were poured over the women relatives 
of the host who danced at the potlatch. The host even showed his 
lavish intention by pouring a large quantity of oil on the fire. In the 
songs of the oil potlatch n captured whale is supposed to be speaking. 



NO. lO SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 




Fig. 121. — Mr. James Guy. (Photograph by Miss Densmore.) 




Fig. 122. — Young Doctor. (Photograph by Miss Densmore. J 



126 S.MITIISOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \"Or.. 76 

Among the songs peculiar to tliis triljc was one learned from the 
frogs, another concerning the story of an encounter hetween a man 
and a shark, and another concerning a mysterious creature of the sea 
called hy a term meaning " lightning helt of the thunderbird." Con- 
cerning one song it was said, " In old times the jjeople believed that 
the singing of this song would bring rain." Three " echo songs,'" with 
prolonged tones, were recorded by Young Doctor (fig. 122) who said 
he heard them in a dreauL sung by men in a canoe on a very calm day. 
Young Doctor was an excellent singer, a proficient, industrious worker 
in wood and whale bone and formerly treated the sick, using a rattle 
of shells strung on thin whale bone. 

Other sul)jects studied were war, contests of strength, and the ordi- 
nary potlatch, with its songs of invitation, welcome and feasting. 

The following incident is of interest, in connection with the study 
of Indian music. ]\Iiss Densmore played for Young Doctor the phono- 
graph record of a Yuma song. He listened attentively and then said, 
" That sounds like a song calling on the southwest wind and asking for 
rain. It is calling for a soft wind, not a strong wind."' He was 
interested to learn that the song came from a desert country where the 
desire for rain is often in the minds of the people, and the song be- 
longed to the Kurok, or ^Memorial ceremony of the Yuma. The words 
of this song were in an obsolete language, unknown to the man who 
recorded it. 

Two phases of singing by the Makah women deserve special men- 
tion. It was said to be the custom with all old songs that a man sang 
the introduction, then a certain woman pronounced the words, after 
which all sang the song. This woman acted as a sort of precentor, and 
her action was not unlike that of " lining out the words." The second 
interesting phase of singing by the women was the use of a high drone, 
or sustained tone, while the other singers gave the melodv. It was 
said " the Makah women sometimes do this if they are not sure of a 
song and are asked to help with the singing, but the Ouileute women 
do it a great deal, calling it the * metal pitch ' because it is like a piece 
of metal which can give only one pitch." Aliss Densmore heard and 
noted this high drone in the singing of Papago women in southern 
Arizona, where it seemed to l)e regarded as an ornamentation to the 
music. A high drone is said to characterize the singing in " some parts 
of European Russia and all over the eastern Caucasus, in the wild 
recesses of the mountains where the native music has not felt the 
modifying influence of European culture." Its i:)resence in these 
localities in the United States, and not in tribes living farther from 



NO. lO 



SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I923 



127 



the Pacific coast, is of peculiar interest. There has been no oi)por- 
tunity for investigating the possible use of the high drone by Cali- 
fornia tribes. 

After leaving Neah Bay Miss Densmore went to Prince Rupert, 
B. C, where she interviewed some memljers of the Tsimshian tril>e 
and learned that their old songs are remembered by at least one mem- 
ber of the tribe. No attempt was made to record songs in British 
Columbia, but there seems an important opportunity for musical work- 
in that re'ion. 




Fig. 123. — Unfinished l)anner stones, showing different stages of workman- 
ship on various types found in eastern Pen.nsylvania. 



BANNERSTONE INVESTIGATIONS IN PENNSYLVANIA 

John L. Bacr, special archeologist for the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, spent three months in eastern Pennsylvania studying ban- 
nerstones and the method of their manufacture. Four more aborigi- 
nal workshops, where bannerstones were made, were located ; two 
along the Susquehanna and two along the Delaware. None of these, 
however, was as large as the one formerly reported on Alt. Johnson 
Island in the Susquehanna River. At each of these workshops the 
bannerstones were made either after dififerent patterns or of a 



51^^^ 



128 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 76 

different material. V>y learning the sources of the various types of 
these ceremonial objects Mr. Baer hopes to discover some of the pre- 
historic migrations of certain tribes of the American Indians. Many 
interesting specimens of bannerstones were located in small private 
collections in Pennsylvania. In one town there are nearly a dozen 
which were found within a radius of lo miles. Unless this section 
of the country was specially favored, bannerstones must have been 
much more numerous than has heretofore been supposed. 

Numerous reports of a cache of rhyolite blades, ranging from 
20 to 150 per cache, attracted Mr. Baer's attention to the source of 
material in the South Mountains west of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 
These prehistoric rhyolite quarries were discovered and described by 
Prof. W. H. Holmes a number of years ago. Recently a trench for a 
pipe-line was dug over the side of the mountain, which exposed 
chips and reject blades of rhyolite and trap hammers for a distance of 
half a mile. The bushels of rejects scattered along this narrow path 
are indications of the magnitude of this prehistoric workshop, which 
was as broad as it was long. 



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