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Right Worfhipful and Well-bdoved, 
:? THE 


O F 



Mercy unto you^ and Peace, and Love be mnltipliedi 

F I iliould be at any time unmind- 
ful of your commands^ you might 
well efteem me unworthy of your 
continued Favours; and there is 
fome reafon to fufped 1 have in- 
curred the interpretation of for- 
I c^^^^rn-^'^^'^^^^i^th^^c, gg|-jpy]j^g(5 _^ having been fo back- 
ward in the performance of my Promifes. Some 
years have pafled fince J preached unto you upon fuch 
i Texts of Scripture as were on purpofc feleded in re- 
lation to the Creed, and was moved by you to 
make thofe Meditations publick. But you were plea- 
fed then to grant what my inclinations rather led me 
to, that they might be turned into an Expofition of 
the Creed it Ick : which pardy by the diliiculcy of 
the W ork undertaken, pardy by the intervention of 
fome other imployments, harh taken me up thus long, 

A for 


The Efiflle dedicatory. 

for which 1 defire your pardon. And yet an happy 
excufc may be pleaded for my delay, meeting with a 
very great felicity , that as Faith triumpheth in good 
works, io my Expofition of the Creed iliould be con- 
temporary with the re-edifying of your Church. 
For though I can have little temptation to believe 
that my Book fliould lafl: fo long as that Fabrick ; 
yet 1 am exceedingly pleafcd that they fliould begin 
toi^ether , that the publifliing of the one fliould fo 
agree with the opening of the other. This 1 hope may 
perlvvade you to forget my flacknefs , confidering ye 
were not ready to your own expedation , your expe- 
rience tells you the excufe of Church-iopor^ will be ac- 
cepted in building , 1 befeech you let it not be denied 
in printing. 

That blefled Saint , by whofe name your Parifh is 
known, was a fellow-labourer with St. 5^ W, and a 
fucceffour of St. Teter ; he had the honour to be num- 
bred in the Scripture with them wbofe names are 
written in the bool^ of life , and when he had fealed 
the Gofpel with his Blood, he was one of the firft 
whofe memory was perpetuated by the building a 
Church to bear his name. Thus was S Clement's 
Church fimous in Rome , when Rome was famous for 
the faitb ffoh^n of throughout the whole world. He 
wrote an ipiftle to the Corinthidns , infcfled with a 
Schilm, in imitation of St. Faul ^ which obtained io 
great authority in the Primitive times, that it w^as 
frequently read in their publick Congregations ,• and 
yet had for many hundred years been loft, till it 
was at lafi: fet forth out of the Library of the late 

Now as by the Providence of God, the memory 
of that Primitive Saint hath been reftore^ in our age, 


The Epjile Dedicatory, 

{o my dcfign aimeth at nothing elfe but that the Pri- 
mitive Faith may be revived. And therefore in this 
Edition of the Creed I fliall ipeak to you but what 
S. Jude hath already Ipoken to the whole Churchy 
Beloved , when I gave all diligence to write unto you 
of the common falvation , it mas needful for me to write 
unto you , that ye fhould earneflly contend for the Faith 
which was once delivered to the Saints, Jf it were {o 
needful for him then to write and for them to whom 
he wrote to contend for the firft Faith, it will appear 
as needful for me now to follow his waiting, and for 
you to imitate' their earneftnefs , becaufe the reafon 
which he renders, as the caufe of that neceffity, is now 
more prevalent than it was at that time, or ever fince. 
For^ faith he, there are certain men crept in unawares^ 
who ivere before of old ordained lo this condemnation , 
ungodly men^ turning the grace of God into lafcivioufnefs ^ 
denying the only Lord God^ and our Lord Jejus Chriji, 
The Principles of Chriftianity are now as freely quefti- 
oned as the moft doubtful and controverted points ; 
the grounds of Faith are as (afcly denied, as the mod 
unneceflary (uperftrudions ,• that Religion hath the 
greatefl: advantage which appeareth in the neweft 
dreis, as if we looked for another Faith to he deliver- 
ed to the Saints. Whereas in Chriftianity there can 
be no concerning truth which is not antient j and 
whatfocver is truly new is certainly falfc. Look then 
for purity in the Fountain, and ftrive to embrace the 
firft Faith, to which you cannot have a more proba- 
ble guide than the Creed, received in all Ages of the 
Church 5 and to this 1 refer you, as it leads you to the 
Scriptures, from whence it was at firft deduced, that 
while thofe which are unsh^lful and mijiable^ wrefi the 
words of God himiclf unto their own damnation, ye 

A 3 may 

Jhe Epifile Dedicatory, 

may receive fo much inftrudion as may fet you be- 
yond the imputation of unskilfulnefs , and lo much 
of confirmation as may place you out of the danger 
of inftability ; which as it hath been the conftant en- 
deavour, fo fhall it ever be the Prayer of him , who 
after fo many encouragements of his labours amongft 
you, doth ftiJl defire to be known as 

ToHr moft faithful 

Servant in the Lord 

John Pearson. 




IHiil'c in this 'Book undertaken an Expojition of the Creed, and think 
it necejfary in this Preface to give a brief Account of the Work : left 
any Jhould either expeSl to find that here ivhich Tb^ never intended^ 
or conceive that which they meet with fuch as they ezpetied not. 
The Creed fvithout controVerfie is a brief comprehenfmi of the objcfls of 
our Chrijiian Faith, and is generally taken to co7itam all things neceffary to 
he believed. Now ivhether all things necejfary be contained there, concerneth 
not an Expojitor to difpute , mho ts obliged to t^ke notice of what is in it, 
hut not to mqmre into what is not : fi/hether all truths comprehended in the 
fame be of equal and abjolute necejpty, we are no "^ ay forced to declare j it 
being fufficient y as to the dejign of an Ezpofition, to interpret the tpords, 
and Jo deliver thefenfe, to demonjirate the truth ofthejenje delivered, and 
to manifej} the proper neceffity of each truthy holp far^ and in what degree^ 
and to what purpofes it is necejfary. 

This therefore is the Method ivhich I propofed to my felf, and haVe profe- 
cuted in every Article. Ftrjl, to fettle the words of each Article according to 
their Antiquity and Generality of reception in the Creed. Secondly^ to expli- 
cate and unfold the Terms, and to endeavour a right notion and conception of 
them 06 they are to be underflood in the fame. Ihirdly, to Jl?cw iphat are 
thoje truths ivhich are naturally contained in thofe terms fo explicated, and 
to make it appear that they are truths indeed, by fuch arguments and reajons 
as are refpeclively proper to evidence the verity of them. Fourthly, to declare 
what is the Tslecejfity of believing thofe truths , what efficacy and influence 
they have in the J out, and upon the life of a 'Believer. Lajlly, by a recolleBion 
of all, briefly to deliver the fumm of every particular truth, jo that every one 
when he promunceth the Creed, may knoiv what he ought to intend, and what 
he is underflood to p^'ofefs^ when he fo pronounceth it. 

In the prof edition of the Wholcy according to this Method 1 have confidcy 
ed, that a Work of fo general a concernment mufl be expofvd to two kinds of 
^adcrs, which though they may agree in judgment, yet mufl differ much in 
their capacities. Some there are who underjland the Originjl Languages of 
the Holy Scripture, the Vijcour/ef and Tractates of the ancient Fathers, the 
determinations of the Councils, and Hi/hry of the CImrch of God, the con- 
flant profefjion of felled truths, the rife and mcreafe of Schifms and Here* 
fies. Others there are unacqminted with fuch conceptims, and uncapable of 


To the Reader. 

[uih injlrticlms : tvho unJcrJliVhi the Scriptures as they are tranjlated : 
ip.'.o arc capab'e of the knowkJ^e of (he truths tlemfelvciy and of the proofs 
drawn from thence : who can apprehend the nature of theihrifiian faith, with 
tJ-e power and efficacy of the Jatne^ when it is deliycred unto the??! out oj thr 
M'ordofGod, and in the language which they know. When imake this dif- 
ference ^and diftinction of Readers : 1 do not intend thereby that , hecaufe one 
of theje IS Learnedj the other is ignorant ; for he which hath no skill of the 
learned Languages , may notwithftandin^ he Very knowing m the Principles 
ofChrifltan l{eligiQn, and the reafon and efficacy of them. 

According to this diflinclion 1 haVe contrived my E^pofition., fo that the 
^ody of it containeth fully what can be delivered and made intelligible in the 
linglifh Tongue, Tiithout mjerting the leafl fentence or phraje oj any learn- 
ed Language.^ by ivhich he which is wjt acquainted with itj might he diflur* 
bed in his readin<r., or interrupted in his undcrfl anding. Kot that 1 haVe 
fcleBed only fuch notions as arc common, cafe, and of themjelvesjjut 
have endi'aV tired to ddiVer tie moft material conceptions m the mofi plain 
and perfpicuows vunner ', as defirous to compri:^ the ivhole frength of the 
U'ork, 06 far as it is poffble^ in the Body of it. The other Tart 1 have pla- 
ced in the Margin , {but Jo as oftentimes it taketh up more room, and yet is 
never mimled or confounded with the reji,) in which is contained ivhatfoeVcr 
is necefjary for the illufhation of any part of the Creed, as to them ivhich 
have any kyio'^kdge of the Latinc, Greek, and Original Langiuges, of the 
Writings of the ancient Fathers, the Doctrines of the Jovs, ayidthe Hiflory 
of the Church, thofe great advantages to')Vard a right perception of the Chri- 
fi.m ^ligion. 

No'W being the Creed comprchendeth the Trinciples of ow ^ligton, it mufi 
contain thofe truths which belong unto it as it is a Religion, and thojc which 
concern it as it is ours, jis it is a %eligion, it dcliVcrcth fuch Principles as 
are to be acknoivkdged m ]>latural Theology, fuch as no man which l\:>orf}np- 
peth a God can deny, and therefore in the proof of thefe 1 have made ufe of 
fuch arguments and reajons as are mofi proper to oppofe the Atheifs, who dc* 
ny there is a Cjod to be worj]?ipped, a ^ligion to be profeljed. As it is our 
Q{eligion , it is Chriflian and Catholick: a6 Chriflian, it containeth fuch 
truths as were delivered by Chriji and his Apoflles, and thofe efpecially con- 
cerning Chrifl himjclf, which I haVe projecuted conftantly with an Eye to the 
Jews, who obfinately deny them, e.rpefling flill another Mejfas to come ; 
wherefore I jlew out of the Law and the Trophets "ivhich they ackno'^ledge, 
Iphdt was foretold in every particular concernm'^ the SlAeffhs, and proVe all 
thofe to be completed by that Chrift in whom we believe. As our ^ligion 
is Catholick, it holdeth fafl that faith which was once delivered to 
the Saints, and fmce preJtrVed in the Church, and therefore I c.rpoundfuch 
Verities in oppoftion to the Hereticks arifing in all Ages, efpecially againjl 


To the Reader. 

the T^hotinianSj who of all the reft haVe moji pen>erted the Articles of our 
Creed, and found out followers in thefe Utter ages, who have ereSled a new 
(Body of Divinity in oi>pofition to the Catholick Theology. J^ainji thefe I 
proceed uponfuch 'Principles as they themfebcs allow, that is, upon the Word 
of God delivered in the Old and ]S[ew Tejlament, alkdged according to the 
truefenfe; and applied by right re afon : not urging the Authority of the 
Church which they rejeH, hut only giving in the Margin thefenfe of the Tri- 
mitive Fathers, for the Jatisfadm of Jtich as have any refpecl left for 
Antiquity, and are perfwaded that Chriji had a true Church on the earth be'' 
fore thejc times. 

In that part which after the demonfiration of each Truth teacheth the ne- 
cefpty of the believing it, and the peculicir efficacy lohtch it hath upon the life 
of a Chrtflian : J have not thought fit to expatiate or inlarge my felf, but 
only to mention fuch effeHs as flow naturally and immediately f om the Dq" 
Brine, efpecially fuch as are delivered in the Scriptures j ivhich 1 haVe en" 
deavoured to fet forth with all pojfible plainnefs and perfpicuity. And in- 
deed in the whole 11/ork) as 1 have laid the foundation upon the written iVord 
gfGody jo 1 have with much diligence colleBed fuch places of Scrip ure as are 
pertinent to each Voclrme, and with great faith j nine fs delivered them as they 
lye in the Writing! ofthofe holyTen-nifn ; not i cf erring the ^ader to places 
nmed in the Margin, {which too of len I find in many 'Bouks multiplied to 
little purpofe) but producing and interweaving the Jentences of Scripture intci 
the body of my Expofition, fo that the \eadcr may underfland the Jinn^th of 
all my reafon without any further inquiry or conjultation. For ifthofe words 
which I have produced, proVe not what I have intended, I dejlre not any to 
think there is more in the places named to maintain it. 

At the Conclufon of every dijlincl and feVcral Notion, I haVe rccolleEled 
briefly and plainly the fumm of^vhat hath been delivered in the explication of 
it, and put it, as it were, into the mouth of every Chriftian, thereby to ex» 
prefs more fully his faith, and to declare his profeffwn. So that if the 
Reader pleafe to put thofe ColleFiions together, he may at once fee and per* 
ceive what he is in the ^vhole obliged to believe, and what he is by the Qhiirch 
of(jod underflood to profefs, when he maketh this publick, ancient and Or" 
thodox Confejfion of Faith. 

I have nothing more to add ; but only to pray that the Lord would give 
you and me a good underfianding in all things. 




I25rlicl)c in OoD tljc 5fatt)cr :^lniigt)ti% mmt of ^ta^ 
\)m ant) €artl) ; ant) m girdis C^ift, l)is onlp ^on 
our ^020, M)\i\) Ibas concf il^cD tiv tl)e !^olv (3l)oft, 
boni of tt)c Virgin i^arp, fuffetcD uuocr ^ontius ^ilate, 
H)as crucifico, tican auD DurieD, Ijc ucfc mncD mto J^cii, tijc 
tt)iri) Dap i)c rofc again ftom t^c ncao, t)e afcmnru into 
i^cabm, ano Ottctl) at tl)c ri5t)t Dano of oot) ttje 5?att)ct 
:5Cluiigl)ti> : from tljcnce \)t (Ijall conic to jutigc tl)e Quicfe 
ano tljc ocao* 3 25clict)c m tl)c i^olp 0t)oft, tljc J^}olp Ca^ 
tt)oitcK Ctjurct), tljc communion of faints?, tl)c fc^giuc^ 
nets: of Cms, tl)c Bcfurrcction of tt)c boop, anO tljc life 


A N 


O F T H E 



gi btlicbe in (Bon tlje Sfatljer :^linisl)tp> ^ma 

r S the firft word Cre^o, 1 kiiezie, giveth, a denomination to 
the whole Confeflion of Faith, from thence commonly 
cali'd the CREED ; ib is the fame word to be imagin'd not 
to {land only where it is expreflcd, but to be carried 
through the whole Body of the Confeflion. For although 
it be but twice aftually rehearfed, yet muft we conceive 
it virtually prefix'd to the Head of every Article : tiiat as we fay, / he- 
Ikve in God the Father Almighty y fb we are alio underltood to fay, 1 be- 
lieve in Jepis Chrifi his only Son, our Lord ; as , / believe in the Holy Ghojlj 
fb alfb, I believe the C^tholick Church. Neither is it to be joyned with every 
compkat Article only ; but where any Article is not a fingle verity) but com- 
prchenfive, there it is to be look'd upon as affix'd to every part, or (ingle 
truth, contained in that Article : as, for example, in the firfl, / believe in God^ 
1 believe thzi God to h& the Father,! believe that Father to be Almighty, I be- 
lieve that Father Almighty to be the Maker of Heaven and Earth. So that this 
Credo I believe rightly confidcred, multiplieth it felf to no Icfs than a dou- 
ble number of the Articles, and will be found at leaif twenty four times con- 
tained in the ^R EED. Wherefore being a word ib pregnant and diifu- 
five, fo ncceflary and clfentiai to every part of our ConlelBon of Faith, 
that without it we can neitlvjr have ^/<ii£D nor Confeflion, it will rc- 
tjuire a more exa£lconfideration, and more ample explication, and that in 
luch a Notion as is properly applicable to lb many andfb various Truths. 
Now by this previous exprelFion, / believe y thus confidcred, every parti- 

B cular 


culiar Chriftian is firft taught, and then imagined, to make confefTion of his 
Faith : and conlequently this wordjfo ufcd, admits a threefold ccnlideration, 
Firft, as it liippoleth BcUef, or Faith, which is confelled. Secondly as it is 
a ConfelTion, or external expreffion ol that Faith lb fiippofed. l'hirdly,as 
both the Faith and ConfefTion are of neceflary and particular obligation. 
When therefore we fhall have clearly delivered, Firft, what is the true na- 
ture and notion of Belief; Secondly, what the duty of conl'cffing of our 
Faith; Thirdly, what obligation lyes upon every particular perfon to be- 
lieve and confefs; then may we be conceived to have fufficicntly explicated 
the firft word otthe C R EE D, then may every one undcrftand what it is 
he fays, and upon what ground he proceeds, when he profeflfcth, I believe. 

For the right undcrftanding of the true nature of Chriftian Faith, it will 
be no lefs than neceffary to begin with the general notion of Belief; which 
being Hrft truly ftatcd and defined, then by degrees deduced into its feveral 
kinds, will at lalf make the nature of Chriftian Faith intelligibk: a defign, 
if I miftake not, not fb ordinary and ufual, as ufcful and neceffary. 

Btlief in general I define to be an Jjfent to that which is Credible, at Credible. 
.By the word * Affent is exprefTed that A£l or Habit of the Underftanding, 
iii^r^ til- by which it receiveth,acknowledgeth and embraceth any thing as a Truth ; 
Aw4/{ i'KiciU it being the !| nature of the Soul fo to embrace whatfoeverappeareth true unto 
^L' c'*M- ^^■f ^"'^ ^° ^^^ ^^ '^ ^° appeareth. Now this Ajfent^ or Judgment of any thing 
^^l7l!. to be true, being a general AQ: of the Underftanding, and fo applicable to 
Strom, lib. 2. .|. other Habits thereof as well as to Faith, muft be fpecificd by its proper 
nis7< 'iS tv Objeft, and fo limited and determined to its proper Aft, which is the other 
^ (\jyKt.ja.- part left to compleat the Definition. 

T©* ^^''Im- '^'^^^ Objeft of Faith is firft expreft by that which is Credible ; for every one 
SixAav at who believeth any thing, doth thereby without queftion affent unto it as to 
-jhn^ttcela.^ that which is Credible, and therefore all belief whatfbcver is fuch a kind of 
tnfvxtiv'':ay Aifcnt. But tliough all belief be an Affent to that which is Credible, yet every 
&iZ y<^7/, fuch Affent may not be properly Faith ; and therefore thofe words make not 
vi^Bafiikiians 'hc definition compleat. For he which fees an aQion done, knows it to be 
'OelCot^Liytl done, and therefore affents unto the Truth of the performance of it becaufe 
eJ ira BioiAH YiQ fees it : but another perfon to whom he relates it, may affent unto the 
4v Jh< c'vy- performance of the lame aftion, not becaufe himfelf fees it, but becaufe the 
KXTcihajv Other relates it ; in vvhicli cafe that which ii Credible is the Objeft of Faith in 
T.-;( 7-/ -??/ p evident knowlcdse in the other. To make the definition therefore 

aTc^itni- s-il full, bcfidcs the material Objefl: or thing believed, we have added the formal 
^^ ri' "^if' ^bjeft, or that whereby it is properly believed, exprcifed in the laft term, as 
lib.' 2. ' ' ' Credible ; which being taken in, it then appears tiiat, Firft, whofbever behe- 
T,)eodout. d( veth any thing, alfenteth to fomething which is to him credible, and that as 
^J^^^'l'^-^'"'^i^ 'tis credible ; and again, whofoever affenteth to any thing which is credible 
iv/iTi.^.i- ^3- as 'tis credible, believeth fomething by fo affenting : which is fufficient to 
yii, rtj^i ijjV f}je^y ^^ definition compleat. 

■J'l'X''* {j)yv.*ji.^ii%i. And yet he nlfi afterwards aclipcwledgcth they had that definition from the Greel^s. TW /J^ j8 Tt^t xj 
etOniTifji 9iK'offotoi eieiimf'loTi) iitKxtnt* 'f 4"X^'f C^yi'-*Td.'^*7i»- Crcdcrc v{l cum MVt:n(ucog\tire, S. Auiiiji. Et de 
Sp. (fyr Lit. cap. C(uid eft credere, nifi confcntire vcrum c(lc quod dicitur ? S) 1 tal^' the Qvyx.iT»SiJi( ufed by the Greeks 
father s to fi^mfie adcnfum or anenllonem, as A. Gcllius tranflatcth the Stately, QyyKaju.ri'iiTaj, fua ancnfionc approbar, /. i p. 
I. andbepie him Cicero, Nunc deancnfione acq; approUacionc, quam Gr-tci ryyutiTdiiffiy vocant, pauca dicanius,Hi /«- 
cuUo. So dwiiiti and (\iyKa.Tii9*<rif ire oppofed by the Orecl^i. A; Scxcus Empiricus fpcaljn^ (i/'Admccus feeing Alccftis bi ought 
/>jfti> Hercules /rom Hades, 'i.mtiyAvToi'ni'n on Ti^vrnt. 'OtHcmtiTO twH li Sii.'oia.i^ <} QvyKaTtt^'i<nu<, iLj ■ti'fjt 
i-ui^Ktv XnKiti, Pyrrh. Hipot. I. 13.3. \\ibih*Ki\%< li ^it/;t'' «V^»iT« xj^ to ■UvS'Q- dytyouitif </>j1i9-<&5,rt W.a xj' 9tvl¥ 
a'MljJt rrxyjut K) dt9i){. Simplic. in 5. Ariji. de Anim. CI. Alex. I. 2 Strom. Kof ti( TaAiiSef o'xotm , (i'f i'lff" t iv^faiKit 
Cil7« J)jCtC>^nui¥tv AiV ■rtt}< Tny tS ■i'dJJ^Hf QvyKariiiicny, 'i^ovjd. jj ^'to^/jof -j^t rricir T«tAn9» * ^s Qvynnrei'lta'K 
the Oreel^aord kfed for thn a^nt is appliedto other alls of the miderllanding as well as that of Belief. 5oClcmcns Alexandrinus, 
fpenkjniofthedetinitionofhailh, 'AMoi J^' cit<tv»c>rf7yuctT& iraliKbji Qvytajk^ttiy d-riJ^^Ktiy fDrtjji rrigtr, oicmit 
df/LiKu -i^ 'imS'f^jy eiyvoKuif^v 1^ T p<iyijj£\f^ f<xvtfi}y QuyK^riiiJiVi ^trom. I- 2 and a^ain, n«eB «"► Ji^a. ij xtimf 1^ 
\!o'oM Ik o1< ai/^ K, lymtd/^ cut* -nS yirti r^ eLy^^vtav, Qyyx.a.r(lAnni thv n J'' iJiv aMo » Tilpi ftf «■» ' n T» 
«T/f7«, i.TvrJnnt van i «inv(, J'vMxJUjiJ'tiKvvtn "f QjyKnTxhm tj )Cj m\'^r. But 

1 Believe, ^c. 

But for the explication of the iame, farther obfervation will be neceffarj'. 
For if that which we believe be fomething which is credible, and the notion 
under which we believe be the Credibility of it, then muft we firft declare 
what it is to be Credible^ and in what Credibtltty doth confift, before we can 
undcrftand what is the nature of Belief. 

Now that is properly Credible which is not apparent of it lelf, nor certain- 
ly to be colleftcdj either antecedently by its caufe,or reverfely by its eftefl:, 
and yet, though by none of thefe ways hath the atteftation of a truth. For 
thofe tilings which are apparent of themfelves, are either {o inrefpe6l of our 
Senfe, as that Snow is white, and Fire is hot ; or in refpe£t of our Under- 
ftanding, as that the whole of any thing is greater than any one part of 
the whole, that every thing imaginable, either is, or is not. The firft kind 
of which being propounded to our lenfe, one to the fight, the other to the 
touch, appear of themfelves immediat:;ly true, and therefore are not termed 
Credible, but evident to fenfe ; as the latter kind, propounded to the under- 
ftanding, are immediately embraced and acknowledged as truths apparent 
in themfelves, and therefore are not called Credible, but evident to the un- 
derflanding. And fb thofe things which are ^ apparent, are not laid proper- * Apparemiu 
ly to be believed, but to be known. SemSagnt 

Again, other things, though not immediately apparent in themfelves, may tionem.Greg.^. 
yet appear mofl; certain and evidently true, by an immediate and necellary '^'f^ "-?•,''• 
connexion with fomething formerly known. For being every natural caule cuios fuos "ui- 
aftually applied doth necelfarily produce its own natural effeCt, and every na- bus quodam- 
tural effed wholly dependeth upon, and abfblutely prefuppofeth, its own j^m'^fequod 
proper caule j therefore there muft be an immediate connexion between the nondum videt, 
caufe and its etTefl;. From whence it follows that, if the connexion be once & 5"!''"^ FJ""- 
clearly perceived, the effeft will be known in the caule, and the caufe by the nondum fe vi- 
effe£l. And by thefe ways, proceeding from principles evidently know n by derequodcre- 
confequences certainly concluding, we come to the knowledge of propofi- '^^' ^^^''^^ 
tions in Mathematicks, and conclufions in other Sciences : which propofiti- 
ons and conclufions are not faid to be Credible , but Scientifcal ; and the 
comprehenfion of them is not Faith, but Science. 

Befides,fbme things there are,which, though not evident of themfelves, nor 
leen by any necelTary connexion to their caufes or effefts, notwithftanding 
appear to moft as true by fbme external relations to other truths ; but )'ct 
ib, as the appearing truth ftill leaves a poflibility of falfhood with it, and 
therefore doth but incline to an Ajjent. In which caufe whatfbever is thus 
apprehended, if it depend upon real Arguments, is not yet calPd Credible,hut 
Probable : and an Aflent to fuch aTruth is not properly Faith, hut Opinion. 

But when any thing propounded to us is neither apparent to our fenfe, nor 
evident to our underftanding, in and of itfelf, neither certainly to be coUeftedi 
from any clear and neceffary connexion with the caufe from which it pro- 
ceedeth,or the cflTeds which it naturally pioduceth,nor is taken up upon any 
real Arguments or reference to other acknowledged Truths, and yet not- 
withftanding appeareth to us true, not by a manitcftation, but atteftation of 
the truth, and fo moveth us to alfent not of it felf, but by virtue of the Te- 
ftimony given to it ; this is faid IJ properly to be Credible ; and an AJJent unto W^'ifiot.ProbL 
this, upon flich Credibility, is in the proper notion Faith or Belief. \^ ^ V^^fl"'"'* 

Having thus defined and ilkirtratcd tlic nature of Faith in general, fb far as pf'/ij/ ■vhm- 
it agreeth to all kinds of belief whatfbever; our method will lead us on to 
defccnd by wayof divifion,to the fcveral kindsthcreof,tillat laft we come to 
tiie propernotion of Faith in the Chriftians Conftffion, the defign of our pre- 
fent difquifition. And being we have placed the formality of theObjedl of all 

B a belief' 


belief in Credibility, it will clearly follow, that diverfity of Credibility in the 
Objc6l will proportionably caufca cliftinQion o^Jjjent in the Underftanding, 
and conlequently a Icveral kind oi faith, ^\•hich we have fuppofcd to be no- 
thing elle but fuch an Affent. 

Now the Credibility of Objefts, by which they appear fit to be believed, is 
diftinguifhable according to the divcrfities of its foundation, that is, according 
to the different Authority of the Teftitnony on which it depends. For we ha- 
ving no other certain means of alluring our felves of the truth, and confe- 
quently no other motives of our Ajfent in matters of mere Beliefs than the Tt- 
ftimony upon which we believe ; if there be any fundarnental diftinftion in 
the Authority of the Te/limony, it will caufe the like difference in the Ajfenty 
which muft needs bear a proportion to the Authority of the Tejiimo/iy, as be- 
ing originally and effentially founded upon it. It is therefore neceflary next 
to confider, in what the Authority oi a Teflimony confifteth, and fo to defccnd 
^ . „ ^ , to the leveral kinds oiTeJlimomes founded upon feveral ^Authorities. 
tII tJylsil, The ftrength and validity of every Teftmony muft bear proportion with 
Tiv AiyofT* the ^Authority of the Tejlifier ; and the Authority of the Tefiifier is founded 
""^P^l % "P^" '^'^ Ability and Integrity : his Ability in the knowledge of that which he 
1^9 f fi *. delivereth and alTerteth; his Integrity in delivering and afferting according to 
Tcu, n <i't«< n i^is knowledge. For two feveral ways he which relateth or teftifieth any 
%j.M.'i:b.\.^'' thing may deceive us; one, by being ignorant of the truth, and fb upon 
cap. 8. that ignorance miftaking, he may think that to be true which is nor fo, and 

li ^*^^y^°fu^t confequently deliver that for truth, which in it felf is falle, and io deceive 
geiwra ? Divi- iiimfelf and us; or if he be not ignorant, yet if he be difhoneft or unfaith- 
num & huma- fuJ^that which lic kuows to be falfe he may propound and aflert to be a truth, 
ut'oracuia" m and lb though himfelf be not deceived, he may deceive us. And by each 
aufpicu,utva- of thcle ways, for want cither of (Ability or Integrity in the Tejli/ier, whofb 
ref'^nirracc^ grounds his ^Affe^t unto any thing as a truth, upon the teftimony of ano- 
tiotum, arufpi- ther , may equally be deceived. 

cum.conjeao- guf whoioevcr is fo able as certainly to know the truth of that which he 
«um,quod^e- delivcrcth, and ib faithful as to deliver nothing but what and as he knoweth, 
itatu'r ex au- he, as he is not deceived, fb deceiveth no man. So far therefore as any per- 
v"?u'"atc^ & ^°" teftifying appeareth to be knowing of the thing heteftifies, and to be 
cNorationeaut faithful in the relation of what he knows, fo far his teftimony is accepta- 
libcra aut ex- ^Iq^ fg far that wliich he teftifieth is properly Credible. And thus the Autho- 
fniUm ' fcHpta! ''^"' of cvery Tefiifier or Relater is grounded upon thele two foundations, his 
paftj, promif- Ability and Integrity. 

fita" cTtT^T- Now there is in this cafe, fb far as it concerns our prefent defign, jj a dou- 
rat.panit. ble Teftimony : the Teflimony of man to man, relying upon humane Autho- 
* Non dicant ^ity, and the TcFiimony of God to man, founded upon Divine Authority : 
qub non vidi- whlch two kiuds of Tesitmnny are refpeftive grounds of two kinds of Cre- 
mus ; quoniam dibilityy Humane and Diziine ; and conft;qucntly there is a two-fold Faith 
cogumuf f«e: diftinguifh'd by this double Objea, a Humane and a Divine Faith. 
ri inccrtos fibi Humane Faith is an A(fent unto any thing Credible merely upon the Teftimony 
f*^*^ T)"^r'^ "-^ "''^"' ^^""'^ ^^ ^^^^ belief we liavc of the words and affeftions one of ano- 
mm invifib. a- ther. And upon this kind of Faith we proceed in the ordinary affairs of our 
mmi\ the life; according to tlicopinionwc liavcof thc ability and fidelity of him which 
Ai'icililL.^""' •'^■^'"^'^5 O"" ^'Tcrts any thing wc believe or disbclie\ e. By this a friend alTuretli 
AoTic >*f i- iiiiTirelf of the aftcftion of his friend .-by this the * Son acknowledgeth liisFa- 
j»<5t cT/t Ti t|,cr, and upon this is his obedience wrought. By virtue of this Htmane Faith 
■a».''j 'o'l;- Jt is that we doubt not at all of thofe things which wc never faw, by reafbn 
M^fj -rdflu, n of their diftance from us, either by time or place. Who doubts whetherthere 
V^M^r and ^^ ^"^'^ ^ Country as Italy., or fuch a City as Confiantinople, though he never 
^f>b. pafb'd 

1 B E L I E V E , ^C, 

pafsM any of our four Seas ? Who queftions now whether there were fuch a 
Man as Alexander in the Eaft, or C^far in the Weft ? and yet the lateft of 
thefe hath been beyond the polTibility of the knowledge of rnanthefefixteen 
hundred years. There is no * Science taught without original belief, there * ,^-^^^i^&^ 
are no || Letters learnt without preceding faith. There is no Juftice executed, '^ul^^ti^X 
no commerce maintained, no bufinefs profecuted without this; * allfecular /^"'w »'5»<- 
affairs are tranla£led, all great atchievements are attempted, all hopes, de- J'T'^^^'^'^' 
fires and inclinations are prelervedby this Humane Faith grounded upon the || ou^' jS ri 
Teftimony of man. ■^f-T^so/- 

In which cafe we all by eafie experience may obferve the nature, genera- }liv^tlT-TtS 
tion and progrefs of Belief. For in any thing which belongeth to more than vejiw/uaT/s-ii 
ordinaryJ<nowledge, we believe not him whom we think tob^ ignorant, nor ^tid!"^ '''"'" 

do we alTent the more for hisaffertion, though never fo confidently delivered : * riaVr* t*" 
but if we have a ftrong opinion of the knowledge and skill of any perfon, ^ /^^ "''^f'?. 
whatheaffirmeth within the compafsof his knowledge,tiiat wereadily alTent lT/r'i%!^ 

unto; and while we have no other ground but his affirmation, this J[]'entis a^^o'?eii'l'THc 
properly Belief. Whereas if it be any matter of concernment in which the !X-^'^tS'L. 
intereft of him that relateth or af " • meth any thing tousis confiderable, there cnU. c'atech. ' 
it is not the skill or knowledge of the Relater which will fatisfie us, except ^:?/'^'?-f' 
we have as ftrong an opinion of his tiJelity and integrity : but if we think Euf.'de vr^p.' 
him fb juft and honeft, that he hath no defign upon us, nor will affirm any ^^""^^ >• '• 
thing contrary to his knowledge for :'.ny u;ain or advantage, then we readily ^r^,;^^ ^^^j^. 
affent unto his affirmations; and this Jffent xsour Belief. Seeing then our/?e- oentj. 2. 
lief relies upon the ability and integrity of the Relater, and being the know- 1,^^^"*" ^* ^' 
ledge of all men is imperfefl, and the hearts of all men are deceitful, and fb quam^indig- 
their integrity to be fufpeded, there can be no infallible univerfa' irround of nuiii,uchuma- 

TT vr J lis teitimoniis 

Humane taith. _ _ de alio creda- 

Rut what fatisfaftion we cannot find in the teftimony of man, we may mus, Dei ora- 

receive in the teftimony of God. 11 Iftve receive the witmfs of man. the wit- cui'jdefenon 

r r /^ \ \r i /^ i i i , r t^- credamus ! 5. 

mjs of Uod a greater, lea, let Lrod be trtte^ the ground of our Divme^ and -imbrif. i. de 
every man a Itar^ the ground of our Humane Faith. Ab^ilumc. 3. 

As for the other Member of the Divifion, we may now plainly perceive \l'^lfciT%jr, 
that it is thus to be defined ; Divine Faith is an Affent unto (omething as Credi- virrm ^ 
He upon the lefiimony of God. This Affent \s the higheft kind oiFaith^ becaufe '^',^v^^'y'* ^ 
theobje£l hath the higheft Credibility^ becaufe grounded upon the Tefiimony ^„y i^^. 
0?God, which is infallible. Baalam could tell Balak thus much, * God u not a i"'' ^-i'Mo^ 
many that hefhouldlie ; and a better Prophet confirmed the fame truth toSa.i^^ 1'^r"orb' ad. 
The frength of Jfrael will not lie ; and becaufe he will not, becaule he cannot, celf.l. i. 
he is the ftrcngth of Ifrael, even my God, my flrength, inwhomi will 'rnfl. ' Nmb.2^. 

For firft, God is of infinite knowledge and wifdom, as Hannah hath taught i sam. 15. 

us, '' the Lord is a Godofknovkdgr, or rather, if our language w ill bear it, of ^9- 

knowledges, which are fo plural, or rather infinite in their plurality, that the ^ t's^am.^2. ^ 

V^z\m\^\\zXhiz\6,'^ Of his under (landing there is no number. Heknoweth there- myi 7N 

fore all things, neither can any truth be hid from his knowledge, who is effen- ^^ ©,3^^'"^^ 

tially truth and effentially knowledge, and, as lb, the caufc of all other truth yvr^n -v kJ- 

and knowledge. Thus the underftanding of God is infinite in rcfped of f ^Z, , 

* comprehenfion, and not fb only, but of certainty alio and evidence. Some ^, ,nthe n'eb. 

things we are laid to know which arebutobfcurely known, wefeethem but _^'^J:"n7 

as in a Glafs, or through a Cloud : But ^ God is light, and in him ii Kodar',:nefs , (;u,^°£3j(.n. 

At all : he feeth without any obfcurity, and whatlbever is propounded to his tia fi-,piiciter 

underftanding is moft clear and evident; ' neither is there any Creature that is '""'"pIcm & 
° ' ■' uniforguKr 

multiformis, incomprehenfibili comprchenfione omnia incomprchcnfibilia comprehendit. 3. Miujhnus dc Civir, D?f, 

lib. 1 2. CO}. 1 8. I I Job. I. 5. « Heb, 4. 1 3. 



»ot want fe ft in his fight ; but all things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him 
with whom we have todo. Wherefore being all things are within the corapafs 
of his knowledge,beingall things which are fo, are molt clear and evident un- 
to iiim, being the knowledge he hath of them is moft certain and infallible, 
it inevitably foUoweth that he cannot be dcceiv'd in any thing. 

Secondly, the luftice of God is equal to his knowledge, nor is his holinefs 
inferiour to his wifdom : a God of truth, H faith Mofes, and tvitbottt tmcfutty^jull 
and right is he. From which internal, elTential and infinite rectitude, gocd- 
ncfs and holinefs, followcthan impofTibility to declare or deliver that for 
truth which he knoweth not to be true. For if it be again (1 that finite purity 
and integrity which is required ofman,to lie, and therefore finful, then mult 
we conceive it abfolutcly inconfiltent with that tranfcendent purity and infi- 
nite integrity which is elTential unto God. Although therefore the power of 
God be infinite, though he can do all things; yet we may fafely lay, without 
any * preiudice to his Omnipotency, that he i| cannot fpeak that for truth 
which he knoweth to be otherwife. For the pertedtions of his will are as ne- 
celTarily in Hnicc as tiiofe of his underftanding ; neither can he be unholy or un- 
j uft more than he can be ignorant or unwife. * If ive believe not, yet he abideth 

'• faithful, he cannot deny htmfelf. Which words of the Apoftle, though proper- 
ly belonging to the promifesof God, yet are as true in refpeft of his alTerti- 
ons; neither fhould he more a/ew^/'/w/e/)^ in violating his fidelity, than in con- 
tradicting his veracity. 'Tis true, that '' God willing more almndantly tofhew 

. unto tht Heirs ofpromfe the immutability of his counfel, confrmed it by an oath ; 
that by uvo immutable things, in which it was impoffible for God to lie, we might 
have aftrong conf elation : but 'tis as true, that all this confirmation is only for 
our conlblation; otherwife it is as impoffible for God to lie, without an oath, as 
with one; for being he can ^ fwear by no greater, he fweareth only^^ himfelf, 
and fo the ftrength even of the Oath of God relieth upon the Veracity of 
God. Wherefore being God as God is of infinite rectitude, goodncfsand ho- 
linefs, being it is manifeftly repugnant to his purity, and inconfiltent with 
his integrity, to deliverany thing contrary to his knowledge, it clearly fol- 
loweth that he cannot deceive any man. 

It is therefore moft infallibly certain, that God being infinitely wife, can- 

' not "^ be deceived ; being infinitely good, cannot f| deceive: and upon thele 
two immoveable pillars Itandeth the Authority of the Tefiimony of God. For 
fince we cannot doubt ofthewitnelsof any one, but by queltioning his abili- 
ty, as one who maybe ignorantofthat wiiich he afRrmcth, and fbdeceived ; 
or by excepting againlt his integrity, as one who may affirm that which he 
knoweth to be fallc, and ib have a purpofe to deceive us : where there is no 
place for either of thefe exceptions, there can be no doubt of the truth of the 
'i'ellimony. But where there is an intrinfecal * repugnancy of being decei- 
ved in the under Itanding, and of deceiving in tiic Will, as there certainly is in 
the underftanding and will of God, there can be noplace for eitlierof thofe 
exceptions, and confcquently there can be nodoubt of the truth ofthatwhich 
Godteflifieth. And wlioibever thinketh any thing comes from him, and al- 
fenteth not unto it, muft nctclTarily deny him to be wile or holy: ^ Hethatbe- 
lievtih not God, faid the Apoltle, hath madehim a liar. That truth then which 
is teflificd by God, hath a Divine Credibility : and an Jjjent unto it as fb credi- 
I'le, is Divine Faith. In which the material Obieft is the Dodrine which God 
delivcreth, the formal Obje£t is that Credibility founded on the [| Authority 
ot the deliverer. And this I conceive the true nature o( Divine Faith in general. 

voluntatis intrinfcce S: necelliriorcai, poterit explicari, Ovted. Trail. d( Fide Conn, 2. fun. a. '' i Joh. 5. 10. 
liDiviiucftAuiftoritascuicrcdirauE ; divinaeftdoftrinaquarafcquimur. Leo,S(rm, ■]. in Nativ. 



aTif J'uuai- 

ic] gvfif fP), 

Orii. contra 
11 Si vciint in- 
vcnirc quod 
noil potcft, 
habcnt pror- 
I'us, ego di- 
cani, nicntiii 
non potcfl. 
S. Au^uft. dc 
Civ.Dei, I. 
c. 25. 
' 2 lim. 2. 


' Heb.6. 13. 

* Ut fie om- 
nium po- 
tciis, mori 
falliiion po- 
tcft, mcntiri 
Don potcfl. 
Augitfi. dc 
Sjmb. adCii- 
II Dcui facere 
iraudcm ne- 
fcic, pati non 
potcll. Cb)- 
fol. Serin. 6i. 

* Authoritas 
in intrinfcca 
feu falfitatis 
giiam liabec 
divinuni ju- 
dicium, & in 
intrinfcca rc- 
aftiis volun- 
tatis impc- 
rantis tefli- 
monium c\- 
non confcn- 
ticns iudicio 
intcrno } 
vosa(lii. in- 
vni, be aOus 

I Believe, d>^. 

Now being the Credibility of all which we believe is founded upon the Te- 
fiimony of God, we can never be fufficiently inftrucled in the notion of Vaith^ 
till we firfl: under (land how this teftimony is given to thofe truths which we 
now believe. To which end it will be neceffary to give notice that the Tcjii- ^ 
mony of God is not given unto truths before queftioned or debated ; nor are eft'audku^'fc 
they fuch things as are firft propounded and doubted of by man, and then iocutio,rciiicet 
refblved and confirm'd by interpofing the authority of God : but heis then faid corporaHs ^' & 
to witnefs when he doth propound, and his tefiimony is given by way of Re- interior a'c fpi- 
veUtion^ which is nothing elfe but the delivery or fpeech of God unto his "flails; itadu- 
Creatures. And therefore upon a diverfity of delivery mull follow a diffe- unrquseorimr 
rence, though not of Vaith it felf, yet of the means and manner of A^ent, '" cordibus fi- 

Wherefore it will be farther neceffary to obferve, that Divine Revelation is dkuText"!"'- 
of two kinds, either Immediate, or Mediate. An Immediate Revelation is that rem, cum fdl. 
by which God delivereth himfelf to manbyhimfelf without the intervention ^^"^ P'^'' .^''" 
of man. A Mediate Revelation is the conveyance of the counicl of God unto aMh creSa 
man by man. By the firft hefpake unto the Prophets; by the fecond in the propcnic ; & 
Prophets, and by them unto us. Being then there is this difference between ^^.j nobis^S 
the revealing of God unto the Prophets and to others, being the Faith both communi fta- 
of Prophets and others relieth wholly upon Divine Revelation^ the * diffe- "" fi'^'^''""^ 
rence of the manner of Aj[ent in thefe feveral kinds of Believers will be very quod adWre" 
obfervable for the explanation of the nature of our Faith. mus reveiacio- 

nibus Prophe- 
tis & Apoftolis faftis : alia eft qui oritur in aliquibus per fpiritualem locutionem, qua Deus aliquibus per incernam infpi- 
rationetn crcdenda revelat, nullo hominis miniftcrio utens ; ficut efl fides Apoftolorum & Proplietarurrij qui ab ipfo Deo per 
intrinfccam illuminationem func dc credendis inftrufti. Francifc. Feirarienfis in Thorn, com. Gent, cap, 40, 

Thofe then to whom God did immediately fpeak himfelf, or by an Angel 
reprefentingGod, and lb being in his flead, and bearing his name, (of which 
I fhall need here to make no diftinftion) thofe perfbns, I fay, to whom God 
did fb reveal himfelf,did by virtue of the fame Revelation perceive,know,and 
affure themfelves that he which fpake to them was God ; fb that at the fame ^ ^^^ 
time they clearly underftood both what was delivered, and by whom: other- *r,iT»^^„2^. 
wife we cannot imagine that Abraham would have flain his Son, or have been ^"^"f. ^hhh 
commended for fuch a refolution, had he not been moft affured that it was X' ^od^ilu'" 
God who by an immediate KeW4^/o« of hiswillclearly commanded it. Thus ;^*'a', afp-o- 
^ by faith Noah being warned of God of things not feen as yet, moved with fear, pre- t^''"f/ ^^ '^' 
pared an Ark, to the faving of his houfe : which * warning ofCJod was a clear rack\or Anftoer 
i^£i/e/4//ci«ofGod'sdetermination to drown the world, ofhis will to fa ve him &'^enfy God, j 
and his Family, and ofhis command for that end to build an Ark. And this -^ ///.^'^ 
Noah fb received from God, as that he knew it to be an Oracle of God, and ixtvTiUiTau, 
was as well affured of the Author as informed of the Command, Thus the '^'"fi""?"''**- 

Ifilf, 22. Ill, 

judgments hanging over Judah were revealed in the ears of ^ Jfaiah by the ' i s.xm 321.' 
LordofHoJls. TThus '^ the Lord revealed himfelf to Samuel in Shiloh: at firff in- ■* ' •^•""- 3- 7- 
deed he knew him not ; that is, when the Lord fpake,he knew it not to be the ^^ f-)** 
voice of God, ^ Now Samuel did not yet know the Lord, neither was the word of , 7Sipty 
the Lord ytt revealed unto him ; but after that he knew him, and was affuied JJ^"„^, ^l^f. 
that it was He which fpake unto him, the Scripture teaching us that the t ears Aav Sa^.w., 
of Sa>nttel were revealed, and the * word of God revealed, and f God himfelf ' ^"""^^l^l 
reveakdtohim. By all which we can underftand no lefs, than that. V<iw//f/ was r-?s r^^r 
fo illuminated in his Prophecies, that he fully underftood the words or things ^'"J^'^p'^^^Jl 
themfelves which were delivered, and as ccrtainlv knew that the Deliverer Mt^i;^^ <w- 
was God : fo Samuel the Seer, fb the reft of thofe Prophets believed thofe -^^J p^V* xuei* 
truths revealed to them by fuch a Faith as was a firm Alfent unto an objeft ' "'^Ijj'^ 
credible upon the immediate Teftimony of God. "^TiPail; 

* But 


But thofe faithful people to whom the Prophets fpake, btlicved the i'aiivz 
truth, and upon the teftimony of the fame God, delivered unro them not by 
God, but by thole Prophets, whole words they tlicreforc allcnted unto as 
certain truths, becauic they wercalTured that what the Prophets fpake was 
immediately revealed to them by God himfelf, without which alTurance no 
faith could be expeftcd from them. When God appeared unto Mafcs in a. 
Exid. 3. 2. p^g ^fjij.^. ^n( ^^fij^ jffi^ji cfa, Bufb, and there immediately revealed to him 
firft himfelf, faying, / am the God of thy Fathers., the Godof Jbrahar?!^ the God 
oflfju, andthe Godof'']acob^ and then his will to bring the children oHfrad 
out of the Land of Hg//'/, Mo/e^ clearly believed God both in the Revelation 
of himfelf and of his will, and was fully fatisfied that the Ifraelitus fhouldbe 
delivered, becaufehe wasalTuredit was God who promifed their deliverance: 
yet notwithllanding Hill he doubted whether the Ifr.telites would believe the 
fame truth, when "it (hould be delivered to them, not immediately by God, 
^''•l' 4- I- jjm- by Mofts, And Mofes anfvered and faid^ Bra behold they will net believe me^ 
nor hearken unto my voice ; [or they nill Jay, The Lord hath not appeared unto 
thee. Which words of his firlT: fuppofe, that if they fiad heard the voice of 
God, as he had, they would have affented to the truth upon a teftimony Di- 
vine ; and then as rationally aiRrm, that it was improbable rhcy fhould believe, 
except they were allured it was God who promifed, or think that God had 
promifed by Mofcs, only bccaufe Mofes faid fb. Which rational objection 
was clearly taken away when God endued Mofes with power of evident and 
undoubted miracles ; for then the Rod which he carried in his hand was as 
infallible a fign to the Ifraelites that God had appeared unto him, as the fla- 
ming Bufli was to himfelf; and therefore they which fiiw in his hand God's 
Omnipotency, could not fufpeft in his tongue God's Veracity; infbmuch as 
Exol 4. \6. when Aaron became to Mofes inflead of a Month, and Mofes to i^aron injlead 
£W.4.3o,5i. q^Qq^^ Aaron fpake all the words which the Lord h.xd fpoken unto J^I(fcs, and did 
the (igns in thefght of the people, and the people believed. For being perfwadcd 
by a lively andaftiv^eprefence of Omnipotency that God had appeared unto 
Mofesy and what was delivered to them by him came to him from God, and 
being fufficiently allured out of the very Icnfe and notion of a Deiry, that 
whatfbever God fliould fpcak, mull of neceillcy be true, they prefently af- 
Lxod. 14, 31. icntcd, and believed the Lord, and his Servant xMc/is ; Mofes, as the immediate 
Propounder, God, as the original Revealer: they believed Mofes tha.t God 
had revealed it, and they beheved the promife becaule God had revealed it. 
So that the Faiih both of Mofes znd the Ifraelites was grounded upon the fame 
tellimony or revelation of God, and differed only in the propofitioa or ap- 
plication of the telHmony ; Mo/ei receiving it immediately Irom God himfelf, 
the Ifraelites mediately by the minillry of Mofes. 

In the like manner the liicceeding Prophetswere theinftruments of Divine 

Revelation, which they Hrll believed as revealed to them, and then the 

people as revealed by them : for what they delivered was not the tellimony 

of man, but the teftimony of God delivered by man. It was he who fpake by 

Lul^t I. 70. tl,g mouth of his holy Prophets which have been (i//ce the world began : the mouth, 

the inflrumcnt, the articulation was theirs ; but the words were God's. The 

a Sm. 23. :. Spirit of the Lord fpi'<e by me, faith David, and his word was in my tongue. It 

iKillil \l. ^^'^^ ^'^'^ woxd of the Lord, which he fpake by the hand of Mo fa, and by the 

hand of his Servant Ahijah the Prophet. The hand the general inlh ument of 

man, the «.w///nhc particular inlirument of fpeech, both attributed to the 

Prophets as merely infirumental in their prophecies. The words which Bx- 

A«/«j.2i: :8. Uatn's Afs fpake were as much the Als's words, as thofe u hich Balaam fpake 

*^ ■ ^^' '■ were his ; for the Lord opened the mouth of the Afs^ and tb^. Lord put a word 


I Believe, &^c. 

in Balaam's mouth ; and not only fo, but a bridle with that word, only the a*«*- 22 3$-' 
nwd that I (hall [peak unto thee, that thott fljalt [peak. The Prophets, as they 
did not frame the notions or conceptions themlelvcs of thofe truths which 
they delivered from God, fb did they not looien their own tongues of their 
own inltinft, or upon their own motion, but as moved, impelled, and aded 
by God. So we may in correfpondence to the antecedent and fiibiLquent 
words interpret thofe words of S. Peter, that »o Prophecy of the Scripture is of 2 pct. i. 20. 
aajf * private interpretation : that is, that no Prophecy which is written did "^ 'i^'H *3"-w- 
lb proceed from the Prophet which fpake or wrote it, that he of himfelf or '^"^' 
by his own inftinft did open his mouth to prophefie; but that all Propheti- 
cal Revelations came from God alone, and that whofbever firft delivered 
them was antecedently iiifpired by him, as it followeth, for the Prophecy 
came not in old time hy the will of man, but holy men of God fpake m they were 
moved hy the Holy Ghoft. That therefore which they delivered was the word, 
the Revelation of God ; which they alfented unto as to a certain and infal- 
lible truth, credible upon the immediate teftimony of God, and to which 
the reft of the Believers alTented upon the fame teftimony of God mediate- 
ly delivered by the hands of the Prophets. 

Thus G'>d, irho atfundry times and in divers manners fpahfi in times ptfl unto Heb. i. i. 
the Fathers hy the Prophets, and by fo (peaking propounded the Obn.£f of 
Faith both to the Prophets and the Fathers, hath tn thefe lafl days fpoken unto Verf. 2. 
us by his Son, and by lb I'peaking hath enlarged the Objeft of Faith to us by 
him, by which means it comes tohtth^ t ait h ofjefm. Thus the only-btgotten R^v. 14. 12. 
Son, who was in the bofom of the Father ^ the exprefs image of his per f on, he in ^''" '* '^* 
whom it pleafedthe Father that all fulmfs fhould dwell, he in whom dwelleth all Cnl. L' 19. 
thef'tlnefs of the Godhead bodily, revealed the will of God to the Apoftles who ^"^^ =• ?• 
being affured that he knetg all things, and convinced that he came forth from John 16. 30, 
God, gave a full and clear aflent unto thofe things which he delivered, and 
grounded their Faith upon his words as upon the immediate teftimony of 
God. 1 have given unto them, faith Chrift unto his Father, the words which thou John 17. 8. 
gave(l me, and they have received them, and have known furely that I came out from 
thee, and they have believed that thou didji fend me. Befidesthis delivery of 
thefe words by Chrift to the Apoftles. they received the Promife of the Spirit John 16. 13. 
of truth, which fhould guide them into all truth, and teach them all things, ^"'"^ ^4- *^' 
and bring all things into their remembrance whatfoevtr Chrifl had f aid unto them. 
Soclearly,fb fully, fb con ftantly were they furnifhed with Divine Illuminati- 
ons and Revelations from God, upon which they grounded their own Faith ; 
that each of them might well make that profeffion of S Paul, I know whom I 2 Tim. 1. 12. 
have believed. Thus the Faith of the Apoftles, as of Mofes and the Prophets, 
was grounded upon the immediate Revelations of God. 

But thole Believers to whom the Apoftles preached, and whom they con- 
verted to the Faith, believed the fame truths which were revealed to t!ie 
Apoftles, though they were not fb revealed to them as they were unto the 
Apoftles, that is, immediately from God. But as the I/raelites believed thofe 
truths which Mofes fpake, to come from God, being convinced by the con- 
ftant fupply of miracles wrought by the Rod which he carried in his hand : lb 
the blelTcd Apoftles, being fo plentifully endued from above with the power 
of Miracles, gave fufficient teftimony that it was God which fpake by tlieir 
mouths, who fo evidently wrought by their hands. They which heard S. Pe- 
ter call a lame man unto his legs, fpeak a dead man alive, and ftrike a living 
man to death with his tongue, as he did ^/z.j«/.« and i'^/'/'/'/M, might eafily be 
perfwaded that it w as God who fpake by hi'imouth,andconchidethat\vhi;re 
they found him in his Omnipotency, they might well expeQ him in his Ve- 

C racity. 



racity. Thefe were the perfons for whom our Saviour next to the Apoftle? 
prayed, bccaufe by a way next to that of the Apoftlcsthey beUeved. Neither 

Jikn 1 7. JO. pray I for thtfe aloae, faith Clirifl-, but for thtm alfo rvho/baH believe on pk through 
their nor A. Thus tlie Apoltles beUcved ou Chrill through his own word, and 
tlie primitive Chriflians beUeved on the fame Chrift thorough the Apoftles 
word : and this diftinftion our Saviour himfelf hath clearly made; not that 
the word of the Apoiiles was really dilf inft from the word of Chrift, but on- 
ly it was called theirs, becaufe delivered by their Miniftry,othcrwile,it was 
the fame word which they had heard from him, and upon which they them- 

T John 1. 1, 5. lelves believed. Ihat which was from the begintfing^ iaith S. JoA/;, which we hxvt 
heard, whtch we have [ten with our eyes, which we have looked upon^ and our hands 
have handled of the word of life^ That whtch we have fee n and heard, dec/are we 
unto you. And this was the true foundation of Faith in all them which belie- 
ved, that they took not the words which they heard from the Apoftles to be 
the words of the men which fpake them, no more than they did the power 
of healing the fick, or raifing the dead, and the reft of the miracles, to be the 
power of them that wrought them ; but as they attributed thofe miraculous 
works to God working by him, ib did they alfb that laving word to the 

A!fi 13. 44. fame God fpcaking by them. When S. Paul preached at A»twch, almojl the 
whole City c.tme together to hear the word of God; fo they efteemed it, though 
they knew him a man whom they came to hear fpeak it. This the A poitle com- 

\ Thejf. 2, 13. mendeth in the Thejjalonians, that when they received the vPordofGod, which 
they heard of him, they received it not as the word of man, but {as it is in truth,) 
the word of God ; and receiving it fb, they embraced it as coming from him 
who could neither deceive nor be deceived, and conftquently as infallibly 
true ; and by fo embracing it they affented unto it, by fo aflenting to it they 
believed it, ultimately upon the teftimony of God, immediately upon the te- 

a ihtff. I. 10. llimony of S. Paul, as he fpeaks himfelf, becaufe our tefiimony among you was 
believed. Thus the Faith of thof: which were converted by the Apoftles was 
an a{fent unto the word as credible upon the ttsiimony of God, delivered to them 
by a Tefiimony Apoftolical. Which being thus clearly ftated, we may at laft 
defcend into our own condition, and fb defcribe the nature of our own 
Faith, that every one may know what it is to Belttve. 

Although Mofts was endued with the Power of Miracles, and converfed 
with God in the Mount, and fpake with him face to face at the door of the 
Tabernacle : although upon thefe grounds the Ifratlites believed what he de- 
livered to them as the word of God ; yet neither the Miracles nor Mofes did 
forever continue with them ; and notwithftanding his death, they and their 
Pofterity to all Generations were obliged to believe the fame truths. Where- 

A^s 7. 53. fore it is obfervable which S. Stephen faith, he received the lively Oracles to give 
unto them ; the Decalogue he received from the hand of God, written with 
the finger of God, the reft of the Divine patefaftions he wrote himfelf, and fb 

x«;** (StTit. delivered them not a mortal word to die with him, but living Oracles, to be in 
force when he was dead, and oblige the People to a belief, when his Rod 
had ceafed to broach the Rocks and divide the Seas. Neither did he only tie 
them to a belief of what he wrote himlelf, but by foretelling and defcribing 
the Prophets which fhould be railed in future Ages, he put a farther obliga- 
tion upon them to believe their Prophecies as the Revelations of the fame God. 
Thus all the Ifraelites in all Ages believed Mofes, while he lived, by belie- 

J)'r.'. ^<,47. ving his words ; after his death, by believing his writings. Had ye believed 
Mofes, faith our Saviour, ye would have believed me; for he wrote of me. But 
if ye believe not his writings, how fljall ye believe my words? Wherefore the 
fiith of the Ifraelites in the land of Canaan was an A(fent unto the truths of the 


1 B E L I E V E J &'C. I I 

Lav as credible upon the tejlitmny of God, delivered unto them in the Writings of - 
Mofes and the Prophets. 

In the like manner is it now with us. For although Chrift firft publifhed 
the Gofpel to thole rvho beheld his glory , the glory as of the only begotten Son of j^f^ j^ ; 
the Father; although the Apoflles firft converted thofe unto the Faith who 
heard them fpeak with Tongues they never learn "d, they never heard before, 
and difcover the thoughts of men they never faw before, who faw the lame 
to walk, the blind to lee, the dead to revive, and the living to expire at their 
command : yet did not thele Apoftles prolong their lives by virtue of that 
power which gave fuch teftimony to their Doftrine, but rather fhortned them 
by their conftant atteftation to the truth of thatDoftrine firther confirmed 
by their death. Nor did that power of frequent and ordinary miraculous ope- 
rations long iurvive them ; and yet they left as great an obligation upon the 
Church in all fuccecding Ages to believe all the truths which they delivered, 
as they had put upon thole perlbns who heard their words and faw their 
works; becaule they wrote the fame truths wich they rpake,aflriH:ed in wri- 
ting by the fame Spirit by which they fpake, and therefore require the fame 
readinefs of alTent 16 long as the fame truths fliall be prelerved by thofe Wri- 
tings. While Mofes lived and fpake as a Mediator between God and the If 
raelites, they believed his words, and lb the Prophets while they preached. 
When Mofes was gone up to Mount Nebo, and there died, when the reft of the. 
Prophets were gathered to their Fathers, they believed their Writings, and 
the whole objeft of their Faith was contained in them. When the Son of 
God came into the World to reveal the will of his Father, when he made 
known unto the Apoftles, as bis friends^ all things that he had heard of the. Fa- John 15. i§. 
ther, then did the Apoftles believe the Writings of Mofes and the Prophets, 
and the words of Chrift, and in thefe taken together was contained the en- 
tire obje£l of their Faith, and they believed the Scripture, and the word which John 2. 12. 
Jefus h4dfaid. Wlien Chrift was afcended up into Heaven , and the Holy 
Ghoft came down, when the words which Chrift had taught the Apoftles 
were preached by them, and many thouland Souls converted to the Faith, 
they believed the Writings of the Prophets and the Words of the Apoftles ; 
and in thefe two was comprifed the oompleat objeQ: of their Faith. When 
the Apoftles themfelvcs departed out of this life, and confirmed the truth of 
the Goipel preached by the laft of fuflerings, their death, they left the fumm 
of \\ : .it they had received, in writing, for the continuation of the Faith in 
thcT .hurches which they had planted, and the propagation thereof in other > jgij„ ,0, oj'. 
place., by thofe which fucceeded them in their ordinary fun6Hon, but were " £;*• 3. 20. 
not to come near them in their extraordinary gifts. * Thefe tffings were writ- l!i^ff^]"^f^ ^' 
ten, faith S. John, the longeft Liver, and thelatell: Writer, that ye might be- quos omnium 
lievc, that lifiu is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing ye might have t^ccieiiarum 

,./■ ', //. ' -^ ' .S.' & (undjmcntalo- 

l>fe through his name, cintur. s. Hie- 

Thofe Chriftians then which have lived fince the Apoftles death and ne- pfti. in. 
ver obrain'd the wifli of S' Jugufiine,to fee eitherChrift upon earth or S' Paul JridSur 
in the Pulpit, have believed the writings of Alofes and the Prophets, of the Orhistcrrarum 
Apoftles and Evancelifts, in which together is fully coniprehended wliatfb- crcdcnsniDo- 
ever may properly be termed matter ot Divme Faith; and lo ^ the honjboldof *dii,.v,/.l ,. 
God is built upon the foundation of the JpofHes and Prophets, who are continued f(/^ 2^. q. i. 
unto us only in their Writings, and by them alone convey unto us the truths h.,bJH,s'qHoaf, 
which they received from God, upon whole teftimony we believe. And there- (huimus diftis 
fore he which put their Writings into the definition of Faith, cohfidering ^"^tripcur-t pro- 
Faith as now it ftands with us, is none of the fhialleft 0^ the * Schoolmen. Jjccm Dd'Tf" 
From whence we may at laft conclude, that the true nature of tiic I^'aith of a vci^jmis. 

C 2 ('hriftiaUj 


Chriftian, as the ftate of ChrilVs Church now ftands and fhall continue to 
the end of the world, confifts in this, that it is an Jjfe»t unto truths crtdtble 
upon the tejiimony of God delivered unto us in the ]Vrttings of the Apojlles 
and Prophets. 

To believe therefore as the word ftands in the Front of tlie C RE ED, and 
not only fo, but is dit^bfed through every Article and Propofition of ir, is to 
aflent to the whole and every part of it, as toacertain and infallible truth re- 
vealed by God, (who by reafon of his infinite knowledge cannot be deceived, 
and by reafon of his tranfcendent holincfs cannot deceive) and delivered un- 
to us in the Writings of thebiciTed Apoftlcs and Prophets immediately infpi- 
red, moved and afted by God, out of whole Writings this brief lijnim of ne- 
ceflary points of Faith was firfl; * collefted. And as this is properly toMieve, 
l!^i*fliit] which was our firrt confideration ; fo to fay I believe, is to make a conleflion 
owjCiIbI -tl-t or external expreflion of the Faith, which is the fecond Confideration pro- 
7'"'*' •^' pounded. 

*S«^^*xL«-' • Faith is an habit of the intelle£tual part of man, and therefore of it felf in- 
<iT:nt n,K- virible;andtobelieveisafpiritualacl,and conlequently immanent andinter- 
^i^9i»i«^i*^ nal, and known to no man but him who believeth : ' For what man knoweth 
-f .Invr <fl- the things of A mtn, fave the (pirit of a mdnwhich is in hint? WhereforeChrift 
jnTK<tK\tt_ being not only the great Apoltle lent to deliver thefc revealed truths , and 
Ecdefiatum fo the Autliourof our Faith, but alfo the Head of the Church, whole Body 
Patrcs dc po- confifteth of faithful Members, and fo the Authour of union andcommuni- 
foiiciTex'dT- °"' which principally hath relation to the unity of Faith, he muft needs be 
verfis 'voiami- imagin'd to have appointed fome external expreflion and communication of 
nibus Scriptu- jf . efpecially confidcring that the found of the ApolHeswas to go forth unto 
rum'^ccftirao- the ends of the World, and all Nations to be called to theprofeflion of the Go- 
niadivinisgra- fpel, and gathered into the Church of Chrill: ; which cannot be performed 
tis^&<y'e"cS! without an acknowledgment of the truth, and a profeflion of Faith, with- 
in .y)^. out which no entrance into the Church, no admittance to Baptifm. ^ What 
I ^Pq'^' "• doth hinder me to be baptized? faith the Eunuch. And Philip faid. If thott be- 
37. ' lievefi rvith all thine heart, thou mayefl. And he anfrvered and fatd, I believe that 
'Ram. 10. 10. Jefus Chrifi U the Son of God. So believing with all his heart, as Philip re- 
undc^'creTre laired, and making profeflion of that Faith, he was admitted. " For with 
dcbcas, corde the heart man believeth unto righteoufnefs, and with the mouth confeffion is made 
^iftr'^^^°h'' ""to falvation. The belief of the heart is the internal habit refiding in the 
bcsundcdcbci Soul, and a£l of Faith proceeding from ir, but terminated in the fame ; the 
as confitcri, o- confejfion of the mouth is an external fignification of the inward habit or acl of 
ad'^Qkl^^.''^ Faith, by words exprefling an acknowledgment of thofe truths which we 
chrjf.serm ^6. bclievc Or aflcut to in our Souls. || The ear receiveth the word, faith cometh 
amfi™° "d" h^'^'*^*"K '■> ^hc ear conveyeth it to the heart, which being opened receiveth 
fu5concipit fi- it> receiving believeth it ; and then •* out of the abundance of the heart the 
dcm,crcJuiita- mouth fpeaketh. In the heart Faith is feated ; with the tongue confeflion is 
d«',''con'fe'i;^ made ; between thcfe two Salvation is * complcated. ' If thou (halt conffs 
nem crcduli- with thy mouth the Lord 'Jefus, and /halt believe in thine heart that God hath 
fcfTw^^r "^°"' riz/e^ him from the dead, thou jhalt befaved. This Faith of the heart every One 
amdacCiJutcm ought, and is prcfum'd to have; this confeflion of the mouth every one 
chrjhi. Sirm. is kuowu to make, when he pronounceth thefe words of the C REE D, I be- 
'Mjt. 12 ^4. '^^'^^ ' ^"^^ '^ uut, he may with comfort fay, ^ the word of Faith is nigh we, 
* Magnum fill- even in my mouth and in my heart : firft in my heart really aflenting,then in my 
dei'Sotvl' ^^^^^ clearly and fincerely profefling with the Prophet Dtvtd, e / have be- 

demus cfle compendium, quando inter cor & linguam cotum falutis humane verfatur & gcritur 5jf ramentum. Chryfol. ^erm. 
$6. Quod j tc & pro tc repof icur, intra tc eft, i.e. oris famulatus & cordis effcftus. Bufih. Gall. ' Rom. lo. 9. ' Rom. 
108 Dc hoc fine dubiolcgiraus per I'rophaam, propc eft, inquic, in ore cuo, & in cordc tuo. Bufeb. GMl « Ffal. 1 1^. 10. 


1 Bel I EVE, &-€. 


ikved, therefore have Ifpoken. Thus briefly from the fecond Conficleratidn 
concerning Confeflion implied in the firft words Ibelie-ve, we fhail pafs unto 
rhe'third Confideration, of the necefTity and particular obligation to fuch a 
ConfeflTion. , ,:, it^-... a . .tu<vi^:. 

If there were no other Argument, yet being tHeObjeO: of Faith isfuppbred 
infallibly true, and acknowledged to be foby every one thatbelieveth, beihg 
it is the nature of Truth not to hide it (elf, but rather to defirethe hght that 
it might appear ; this were fufficient to move us to zConfeJfion of our Fxith. 
But befides the nature of the thing, we fliall find many Arguments obliging, 
prerting, urging us to fuch a profeflion. For firft, from the fameGod,and by 
the fame means by which we have received the Objeft of our Faith, by wkich .R.n 

we came under a poflibihty of Faith, we have alio received an exprefs com- 
mand to make a Cofjfeffion of the fame : ^ Be ready, faith S' Peter ^always to give ' ' ^"- ?• 's- 
an anfrver to every man that asketh yon a reafon of the hope that u in yon\ and 
there can be no rex(on of hope but what is grounded on Faith, nor can there be 
an Anfwer given unto that without an acknowledgement of this. Secondly,'tis 
true indeed that the great promifes of the Gofpel are made unto Faith, and 
glorious things are fpoken of it ; but the fame promifes are made to the Con- 
fefflon of Faith ^ together with it ; ^nd we know who it is hath laid, ' tVhofo- ^ Rom. lo. lo- 
everfhall confefs me before men, himwill I confefs alfo heforcmy Father which h in ' ^'"' 'o- ?*• 
Heaven. Befides, the profeflion of the Faith of one Chriftianconfirmeth and 
edifieth another in his,and the mutual benefit of alllayeth an obligation upon ^ " 

every particular. Again, the matters of Faith contain fo much purity of Do- 
^cine, perfwade fuch holinefs of life, defcribe God fb infinitely glorious, fb 
tranlcendently gracious, fb loving in himfelf, fb merciful in his Son, ib won- 
derful in all his works, that the fole confeflion of it glorifietb God ; and how 
can we expeft to enter into that glory which isnone of ours, if wedeny God 
that glory which is his ? Laftly , the concealing thofe truths which he hath re- 
vealed, the not acknowledging that Faith which we ai^ thought to believe, 
is fb far from giving God that glory which is due unto him, that it difhonour- 
eth the Faith which it refufeth or neglefteth toprofefs, and cafl:eth a kind of 
contumely upon the Authour of it, as if God had revealed that which man 
fhould be afhamed to acknowledge. Wherefore he that came to fave us hath 
alfb faidunto us, ^Whofoever fhall be ajhamedofme andofmy rpords, ofhimfha// * Luke 9. i5w 
the Son of man be afhamed, when he fhall come in his own glory., and in his Fa- \ 9 ^J^f''** 
ther's, and of the holy Angels. Such a neceflity there is of Confeflion of Faith, kuv'^ ^\^'- 
in refpeft of God, who commanded it, and is glorified in it ; in refpeft of our J^ *«7Jx*i' 
felves, who fhall be rewarded forit ; and in refpecl of our Brethren, who are v);f^^7f/|.* 
edified and confirmed by it. Which neceffity the wifdom of our Church in M^t.iren.i. i. 
former Ages hath thought a fufficient ground tp command the recitation of the ^^^j^; (-y,, ^^jj^^^ 
CREED at the * firfi: initiation into the Church by Baprifm, (for which pur- sTnaciofidei 
pofe it was tauglit and expounded to thofe which were to be baptized imme- ^ •P°'!^° 'J'"- 

^ • tis pignorcn- 

tur, ncccdarioacljicitur Ecclefiac mentio, quoniam ubi crcs, id eft, t'atcr, Filius, & Spiritus San^Sus, ibi Ecclc(ia,qu.rtrium 
corpuscft Tatul. de Baptif. In quem tingcre? in pa-niccntiani ? quo ergo illi pricurforem? in pcccatorum rcniinioncm 
quam vcrlxidabat ? in femctipfum, quern humilicare celabat > in Spiritum Sanduni qui nondum i Parrc dcfandcrat ? in Ec- 
clcfiam, quam nondum Aportoli ftruxcrant ? W. Deiiinc tcr intrgimur, amplius aliquid re pondcntcs quJm Dominus in E- 
vangclio detcrminavic. W. dc Cor. Militis. Sed Sc ipfa intcrrogatio qua; fit in Baptifmo tcHis eft vcritatis, nam cum dicimus, 
Credit in ytiam,!^ remiffinnem peccatnum per (anil am Ecdcfiam^ intclligimus remidioncm peccatorum non nifi in Ec- 
clcfiadari. S.Ciprianus^Ep. adjamarium, &c. Quod fi aliquis illud opponit, ut dicatcandcm Novatianum l.cgrni tcncre 
quam Catliolica Ecclefia tentat,codem Symbolo quo & nos baptizarc,cundciii nftire Dcum Pacrcm,eundcm Fiiium Cliriftum, 
eundcm Spiritum propterea ufurparecum potcftatcm baptizandi po(re,quod vidcatur in intcrrogationc B.iptifnii a 
nobis non difcrcparc : iLiat quifquis hoc opponendura putat,non cfle unam nobis & Schifniaticis Symboli Legem ,ncq; candcm 
interrogutioncm. Nam cum dicunt, Credit remijjionem peccatorum, (fy" vitain Mernamper Sjn'fam Eccefiam ' mcntiuntur in in- 
^rrogatione, quando non liabcant Ecclcfiam. Hum, r.pij}. ad Magnum. Mos ibi (/i efl, Roms) fervatur antiquum cos qui gratiani 
Bapcidiii lulccpturi funr, publice i.e. fidelium populo audience, Symbolum rcdderc. Ruffin. in S)mb. '>oIciinc eft in lavacrc, 
poftTrinicatrsconfeflTionem interrogarc, Crcrfw inSanllam Ecrlefiam? credit remijfmcm pcccatorum f S. Hieron.contra Lu ifcr. 
Mens Haretica relirruit Doftorcm i quo fidcm Ecclefia; didiccrat, oblita eft pafti Dei fui, hoc cft,fidci iplusDon.iniciqii^ein 
S} mbolo continecurj quam fe die Mptifmatis fervaturum c(lc promifcrac. Id. Com. in Prov. Intcrrogatus cs, Crcdii 7/1 Deum 



Patrem ommpiticiem .' dixirti, tVfife.ii: nierfifti, lioc tft.repultusts. Itcrum interrogatus cs, CieJn in Somirmm mjlrum Jc- 
fi>m Chrijhm, ir in crucem cm y dixilli, Credo, & nierfitli , iileo fe Chrifto es confcpulcus. Tcrrio interrogatus, Credit in Spi,-.- 
tum S.miium > dixifti. Credo ; terd6 mcHifti : ut multiplicfni lapfum luperioris aTacis aMolvcrct trina confeflio. Ambroj. de S.i- 
ei.m.l.i.c.-. i.m fpeah rhw of Lutychfi in hit tpij:lciil-h\'unu-., (^am tniratruditioncin dcfacriiNovi Si Vctctis Tt- 
ftamcmi paginis jcquifivir,qui ne ipriusquidem Symboli initia compr.chendit ? . & quod per tecum mundum omnium regcnc- 
randorum voce dcpnimitur, iiUus adliuc icnis cordc non capitur. And in r/.v 12. Book dc Tnnir.ue r formerly Mnibutedto Atba- 
nafiKt, but mve frobM nTW thought to hehng to Vigiliiti Tapfcnjis,') Ncc non ic ilia magna 8c bcata Conttflio i idei, imo ipfa h ides 
San<ftorum, ii Tc(lamcntum quod difpofuimus ad Patrem, Filium & Spiritum Sanftum, ad facrum lavacrum regeneracionis 
vcnicntcs, Cre.i> in DtHm P.itrem omnipolentem, i/t in Jefum Chrtftum f ilium em umgcnitKnu & '" Spiritum SmHum, K«9(J{ 
'wa.ftKeiCoijAfi rrnea ■Sfl' 'mgi iuSy UtTKoirair'tr tt Tr tjoItii (talnX"*'**. J^ 5^8 to \t}^yt k^tfj-CdifOicdlJ Eufeb. of the Con- 
f-jfm ofFMih nkiTh hi exhibited to the Council of Sice. Socr. /. t . c.S. Tlieodor. /. i . i. i :. Abrcnuntio,inquis,Diabolo,pompis, 
rpcftaculi5, ii^ opcribus ejus -, & qnid poftea ;■ Credo, rnquis, in Dcum P.irrem 0*nnipncmem. Salvianus de Ouber. Dei, lib. 6. 
And when thu Creed mai enLvgedbithe C oHn :i I nf Nice, and.ifier that by others, Epiphaniut commends it to the Catechumcni, to be 
repe.ited.ii their B.iplifm ; » t«»« tx^^-fi iV *«. i>'/.»u^-->i> tV nt)*Jiv]fJ tw iyu Ai<]f « f/cjfityau, » ftorsK 6'»»f><W>*<i' ofMAe- 
Ti ri Tig^CMf 7o7( tajurii uol< if x.\jtM tin.i, Kj JiMtKHv frfluf, u< TaVlr.T « au/T« u>:7»f ufMoynt <! nu-Tf, ri }\yuy, 
ni»«u«/:t^»<<SM 0tiv, Annr.iti. "And when be had yet farihei enlarged it hreafrnof fime new emergent Hertfies, 
/v commends it,n^i^ Tcif t&( aijia Wilfj rgfniait, ir« «V«ef}tV.««" x} fi-yfi" »TtK. lb. Thejirfi Council of Conftantinople 
confirms theUlccne Coifeffionas TfiisCuroiTlM ti i<m.v ly */.oA¥9i)r thS fix-/'li<7n:t1i. Theodor. lib. <,. c.ip. 9. AndiheCoui-.cilpf 
Chalcedon ofthe fime,\lu, (U xo/cor i^ «>ia>c dwj'innit., to7» ixv»l^oi( t^;; tW 'f qoSitWctf •ri.fij',uu!fj.%: a.ffpx^Hxv. Parte 
terti't. Tne S)n\i>it |erufalcm, 73 ij/sr QuaC>\*p «? • iCi-rji^niu.^ Kf B<t'rli(,»/J^- The Syndat Tyre, i# buJt&I fiifrjlJ^'itltf 

I. 5. c.ip. 4, .W7. and the Edii'l of the, EinperoHT juilmun, Anathema'tizaverunt COS qui aliam definitionem fidci, five Syrabo- 
bolum, five Mathema, tradunc acccdentibus ad lanttum bapcilma. 

» 'Ot/ /«;»•( diatdy * before the great Solemnit}' oi'Eafler') and to require a particular 
*wV;'^/lf- '' repetition of itpobiickly as often as the Sacrament of theEucharill vvasad- 
wi«tiarnv, ^ minillrcd,ahd a conftant and perpetual inculcation ofthefameby the^Cler- 
J" ''-""^^ f gy to the people. 

ir«-)";>A«k4^ And us this nccefTity is great, as the praftice ufeful and advantageous; fbis 
e%-/to-f.. H the obligation of believing and confeiting particular, binding ever}' finglc 
rllw/fTr^fa/. Chriftian, obfervable in the number and perlbn exprelTed, / believe. As if 
LaodicXan.46. Chrift did quellion every one in particular, ashedidhim who Wiis born blind, 
^bfer^edihar '^^^^^ ^^ ^ rcftored him his fight, (and we are all in his condition) ' Dojt 
Tis7f is ta{en thoii believe on the Son of God ? every fingle Chriftian is taught to make the 
s'-'^'w^r'^'"' ^°^^ Anfwer whicl»he made. Lord, I believe. As if the Son of God did pro- 
dcT, a^rwls "^''^ to every oneof them which are gathered together in his name, what he 
fjtntnjlatedan- promifcd tO '' Qne of the multitude rvhofe Son had a drtmb fpirit. If thou canft be- 
't'e,nelh% "t^- ^^^^i' '^i^ ^^''»g^ ^^^ foffibl^ to htm that helieveth; each one for himielf returneth 
Canon prejerved his Aufwcr, Lord, 1 believe ; Lord, help my unbelief. Not that it is unlawful or 
'Lw' iT" ""fit^ to ufe another number, and inftead of /, to fay, Wlf^e//ex/e.- for taking in 
dred' ih'ut, Ba of Others, we exclude not our felves ; and addition of charity can be no dif^ 
ptizandos o- patagemcnt toconfeflion of Faith.S.Pc/f ranfweredfor the twelve,"^ IVebelievCy 
%mholumdi'i: ^"^ -^^'^ f'^>'^ ^^^^^ tf^ou art, the Son of the living God. For though 
cere, & quinci Chrjll immediately replied that o»e of them had a Dtvtl, yet is not St. Peter 
pt^ma"nl'velE ^'^'^''^' "^^'^^ knew it HOt. But cvcry One is taught to exprefshisown Faith, 
piibipo^^vd becaufe by that he is to ftand or fall. "^The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous 
I'rcsbyteris m.tfj xvailethmtich for the benefit of his Brother, but his Faith availcth nothing 
^r'^iechifiJ^l *°'' ^'"^ )urtiHcation of another. And it is otherwife very fit that our Faith 
"P- 58. Sym- fhould be manitelled by a particular confefTioo, becaufe it is effeftual by par- 

bolum ctiam 

, „ -, ,c^<i6.c\\, Credom heum Patrem Omnipotenlem,{yi- 

cialitcr doccantur. Cmcil. Erachar. 2. cap. i , The Canon of the Laodicean Council, already mentioned, is verbatim rehearfedin the 
filth Council in TTn\\i,C4n.', 9. ft appe.ireth ihenfore a general command of the Chunk, that thofe who were to be bapti^ea, 
JhouU ha\r a certain time atttihd for tlx learning and rekearfing of the Creed. And in cafe of Kecejily if any were baptised, they 
were 1 1 le.trn the Creed^ imnicdiuiely after their Bapiifm, on /«! Tni", "s it m in the Edition c/Einius, fc/A//i thu Canon and tn the 
prmt-r,moft abjurdly,lri i m)^i( (X- y'oiici Tm^^Miji.Cirtl'latripurifijLat, ^ i^TO. i,yaia.tliu, i^pcavS-tiwi- Tni' aijvr, ^ 
ytia/jKHtoTi iHV J^fiSf Ktln^iu'iimr. 'c:nc Ijiod.Can.^-;. \\ As appears intl.e ancient Greek. Liturgies and the Decree of the 
/*;»■/ Cwna/i/Toicdo.uton.nilaLrintiuciiipore ante communicnem corporis Clu-ifti&fanguinis, juxca Oricntaliumpartium 
morcm, unanimitcT clar J voce facratifllnium lidei receiifcant Svrabolum. Which Cujhm as they callit of the Oriental p.irts, ufaid 
tiifl to be introduced by Fctm; Mongus at Alt>;aiidnj, and afur by Timotlii us at Conftantinople, as appears out of the fragments of 
Theodorus Lcftor. ♦Co*://. Mogunt. cj/. 45. Symbolum quod eft fignaculum fidei, & Oracioncm Dominicam difcere fcmper 
admontantfacerdotespopulum Chriftianunu ' Job.^.'i^^ii.^ Mar.^.i-j.z^,!^.' Jok.6.6^.^ Jam.t,.\6. ticubr 

IBelieveInGod. i<- 

ticular application ; therefore mull: it needs be proper for me to fay Ibelkve^ 
and to make profeflion of my faith in the $on of God, who loved me, and gave 
himfelffor we. 

Being then I have delcribed the true nature and notion of Belief the duty 
oUonfeffing our Faith, and the obligation of every particular Chriftian to 
believe and toconffs ; being in thefe three explications all which can be ima- 
ginably contained in the firfl: word of the CREED muft neceOarily be in- 
cluded ; it will now beeafiefor me to deliver, and for every particular per- 
Ion to underftand what it is he fays, and upon what ground he proceeds, 
when he begins his Confefjion with thele words, I believe, which I conceive 
may in this manner be fitly expreffed. 

Although thofe things which I am ready to affirm be not apparent to my 
fenfe, fo that I cannot fay I fee them; although they be not evident to my 
under (landing of themfelves, nor appear unto me true by the virtue of any 
natural and neceffary caufe, fo that I cannot fay I have any proper know- 
ledge or fcience of them: yet being they are certainly contained in the Scri- 
ptures, the writings of the bleffed Apoflles and Prophets; being thofe Apo- 
Itles and Prophets were endued with miraculous power from above, and im- 
mediately infpired with the Holy Ghoft, and confequently what they deli- 
vered was not the word of man, but of God himlelf; being God is of that 
univerfal knowledge and infinite wifdom, that it is inipoffible he fhould be 
deceived ; of that indefeftible holineft and tranfcendent reftitude, that it is 
not imaginable he fliould intend to deceive any man, and confequently vvhat- 
Ibever he hath delivered for a truth muft be neceffarily and infallibly true ; I 
readily and ftedfaftly aflent unto them as moft certain truths, and am as fully 
and abfolutely, and more concerningly perfwaded of them, than of any thing 
I fee or know. And becaufe that God who hath revealed them hath done it 
not for my benefit only, but for the advantage of others, nor for that alone, 
but alfo for the manifeftation of his own glory ; being for thofe ends he 
hath commanded me to profefs them, and hath promiled an eternal reward 
upon my profeffion of them ; being every particular perfbn is to expe£l the 
juftification of himfelf, and the Salvation of his Soul, upon the condition of 
his own Faith : as with a certain and full perfwafion I affent unto them, fb 
with a fixed and undaunted refblution I will profefs them ; and with this 
faith in my heart, and confeffion in my mouth, in refpeQ: of the whole body 
of the C REtD, and every Article and particle in it, I fincerely, readily, 
refolvedly fay, / believe. 

3 beliebe in (^tm, 

HAving delivered the Natnreof E*/V^, and theafl: o[ Belief common toall 
the Articles of the Creed, that we may underftand what it is to believe; 
we fliall proceed to the explication of the Articles themfelves, as the moft ne- 
ceffary objei^sofour Faith,that we may know what is chiefly to be believed- 
Where immediately we meet with another word as general as the former, and 
as univcrfiilly concerned in every Article, which is GOD; fov ii' to belitve 
be to alTent upon the teftimony of God, as we have before declared, then 
wherefbcvcr belief is expreffed or implied, there is alio the name of God un- 
der ftood, upon whofe teftimony we believe. He therefore whole authority is 
the ground and foundation of the whole, his exiftence begins theCVee^, as the 
foundation of that authority. For if there can be no divine Faith without the 
attcftation of Gcj^, by which alone it becomes divine, and there can be no fuch 
atttftation, except there were an exiftence of the tcftifier, then muft it needs 





be proper to begin the Co»fe/^o/t of our Faith with the agnition of our God. 

* e>il', diic If his "^ name were thought fit to be exprelTed in the front of every attion 

'£9&;iii''c;t« ^ j.j^g heathen, becaufe they thout'ht no a6\ion profperedbut by hisap- 

T«©-, itU probation ; much more ought we to hxir betorc our icnfef/iofi, btcaulewith- 

''^7' lT'"" ^""^ '^'"^ ^^ beheve as we profefs, is no Icfs than a contradiction. 

"ejjXicx!' Now tliefe words, Ihtlieve tn God, will require a double confideration ; 

one, of the phrale or manner of ipetch ; another, of the thing or nature of 

the truth in that manner exprclfed. For to Mnve with an addition of the 

prcpofition/>J, isaphiale or exprelfion ordinarily conceived fitto be given to 

none but to God himlelf, asaUays implying, befide a bare aft of Faith, an 

addition of hope, love, and affiance. An oblervation, asl conceive, prevail- 

^ ing specially in the Latin Church, grounded principally upon the authority 

i^^ch ^u V'" o^ !i S- Jugiipne. Whereas among tiie Greeks, in whole Language the New 

ike Creed, ir? Tcflament waspcuii'd, I perceive no fuchconftintdiflinftif^n in their delive- 

Nt''dkZ£. ries of the Creed ; and in the * Hcbnw Language of the Old,from which the 

Jo ueumj vcl Jcwifh and ChrilHan Greeks rcceived that phrale of ^t//. x'//;^ /;?, it hath no 

'''^"'V &T' ^"^'^ pecuhar and accumulative figmhcatit n. For it is Ibmetimesattributed 

?a"H ncccifa- toGod,the author and original caufe, fometimes to the Prophets, theimme- 

riaiint. Aiiud diatc rcvealcrs, of the Faith; fometimis it is (poken of Miracles, the motives 

derdinfaHu'd to believe ; fometimes of the L^w of GoH, thcmaterial Objedof our Faith. 

crcdtrc'iiium, Amongall wliich varictiesof that phrale of fpeech, it is fufficiently apparent, 

aimd crcdcrc jji^f jj^ ^[^[^ CoiifclTion of Faith it is moft proper to admit it inthelaft accepti- 

in ilium. Ore- '^ ' ' 

dcre illi, ert credere vera elTe qui loquitur -, Credere ilium, credere quia ipfe tft Deus ; Credere in illuni, diligerc ilium. 

^nd thwc^h rl:.u coilc^ion of Serimnt de tempore under the tmrne ofS. AuguiUne be n <t ail hif, (Jners if them beir.^ Tratijlations 
oftkeGreel^H~ini!ie!.))etti:Kdil]m!}hnma> be ciUe lied out ofttherfaiis of his norh. Forpiji, he diftingai/hithter) clearl/ 
and feriokj) /"ivn'ffn credere Dto, <ini/ crcdcrc in Deuiii. Nunquam aliquis Apollolorum diccre audcrct. Qui credit in me. 
Crcdinius Apoftolo, fed non rredimusin Apollolum. Trail. 54. in Ppilm. And again Credimus I'aulo, fed uon crcdimus in 
Paulum j credimus Pttro, xd nc^n credimus in Petrum. Second!), '.e dijiin^mp.-eth bcitreen credere Dtuin, and crcdcrc in 
Dcum. Mulmm intcrcft urrumquiscrcdatipfumelTeChriflum,S: utrum crcdac in Chriftum. Ille credit inChridum qui & 
fperat inCiiriflum, ScdiligirChrirtiun. De i erbu Dom. Snm. 6 1 . And, trhirb if the fnm of all, he futi a h:gh value ufm the 
frepifiinn, as if by -oirtue cfthe addifon in, the phrafe did profeil\ ftgnifi: fi great an accejion unto faiih, (^d eft credere in 
Dcum ? crcdcndo amare, crcdcndo diligcre, crcdcndo in cum ire, & ejus mcmbris incorporari. Tail^. in Job, Which do- 
iliine ofS AiiguftinV, being tahn notice of bj Peter Lombard, h.ith fince been continued by the Schoolmen; and Aquinas, Sum. 
2. 21. ■^. 2.§. 2. ad frimuniyhnnginiti-l tiree under one all of Faith, hath been contnaJilledb) Durand.Jn ?.5njf, d:f, 25. 7.7. §5. 
credere in Dcum i.oi.eft pi<ecise aftus tidci fed hdti& charitatis. fmiul -, & funtetiain plurts, & non unus aclustantuiii : b) wtnfe 
fkbtile, but }et clear. determination fas man) ofhtf are bejondthe rell of the Schiol!) tvhatfoever is added by the prefKifition to believe, 
appcart not to he apnitoj Bdief, but an all fuper added to the all ofhaitb. * for [.. \Mt fmetimes ')onedmth "-;, fometimes with 
D; when with -<, it anfwcis proper 1)1 i ■Ti';Xni-n^ dea, credere Deo, (^1 beingnotkingelfe but afi^ntjicaicrof the caje ;) when 
with Q it coirefpondsto tc iHt^j ti< r 5ih, crcdtr^ in Dcum, ("3 being a prcp^fitnn oj the fame nature reitbtior in._) Butjtt 
there is fo little, crrat-ernodiffaece intbe ffebrett;that in the prj} place where itHu(ed,and of the father of the faithful, even 
for the a:iof ^uflifing faith, HIHO jC>- H" Oen. 1 5. 6. tt is tranfliued by the lXX. k, S^raiaiv hC^j/. TaT ^;», not Hf 

^ii:-, and tb.u ttanjlation tsairantedb) S. Paul, Rom. 4. 9. Oal. 5. 6. and S. James 2. 25. In the fame m.wner 2 Kings 1 7. i±. 
QTIT'S r~l\~l^D IJ'CKH N*^ "1.1, S istran:l.uedbt tlje LXX. (as that franjlation is prefned in the Alexandrian ani 
Compiutcnfian Cif/ej) t] iKifkirdftv Kvtiv ^iuaxirV' Befides, the fame phrafe is ufedinihe fame place both to God and to man 
as Exod. 14. 31. 1"i:iy i~'.l,7_;31 nliTi 'IMN'1 and tlicy believed in God and in his fervant Mofcs, which the Chaidee 
Par.ifhrafeexplaineththm V^HiZ mN'TIjni ^"ISlQ'QQ IJ'J'HI and tlicy believed in tie word of God,and in the 
prophecy ctMoa-shii fervant. /I1V IJQND"* DD^T•^< mnU IJ'O^'n ; Chron.i^. 20. "in^'-'Sni VS^jJn tJ'CNn 
Believe in the Lord your God, fofliall yebccftablifhed \ believe in his Prophets, fo fhaltyeprolpcr. for alikmghtheyiil- 
gar Latin, which our TranjLtioufoilon elh, hath made that dijlinliion which the Hebrew makcth not, Crcdite in Doniinu Leo veflro, 
& fccuri crisis ■, crcdite Prophetis ejus, & cunila evenicnt prolpera ; )et the Septuagint acl^wledgeth no necetjtt) of)ecediiig, 
from the original phrafe, 'twjiT^mi a» Kve'u)) tJ di^J tJ'v'^", *; iixTt^viioiri^i ' iix-ri^iumi iv t^ ^.'iT«uf an n<, jtl iua- 
J^9':n&i ^'or IS It only attrruled to Moils as mnedwith God, andfuakcnas it were mf the fame phrafe. bit feparate!) by 
himfelf, as £io</, I p. 9. The Lord laid unto Mofis, Lo I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when 1 
fpcak with thee, D'7iy'7 UDti' 13 CDJI and belie-ve in thee for ever. And therefre when ^ tt was objelled to S. Bafil, ti?ey didbclieie inVioks, as well as that they were baptized into Mofcs, and generally, n tis;« a>iit,K'<iy» ,0/ hifx lyMs rn^i 
«tf9j»T»< y^-f/'*^ '''■ Father d)lh not deny the Umgtiage. but interjretsit, n tis iur cr-ri^c tyiri ^ 'Ctiov dm^ifilyj. De Sp.S. 
c. 14. h'eitheris inisonlyfpil^nof^.Hofesand the Prpkets,that the Ifaelites belinedin tk:m,but "fDaiidnot os a Piophft at 
abare relator 'f his in-na^inm, 1 Sam. 27. 12. HH^ "vI^'DS iOK''1 k, (J^yi.'fln 'A;^?? kv itw.f, l^'u/g. Et crcdidit Achis 
in David. Eft ergo tiJcs noftra primb quidem omnium in Dominum nolUum Jcfum Chriftum, confequcmcr vero ctiam in 
omncsfan5tosPatrJarchas,vcl Propheta=,vil ApollolosClirifti.(9n^.;n/Jpo/.r<"npfc//.roi:ow/j?</f//7/^i'nfrn/;>('r/jyf5y"helievingin, 
isoriijnallyattributedfomeiimeno ikejupreme author if our P ait h, astoGod; fometimes to the interxenient mejfen^ers, as the Pro- 
phets; fometimes lithe motnei of our taiij, Pfal. 78.512. VPN^tJH IJ^QSH K7'' Lxx. Kiisk ShfiLmv it Tti< dtw/jici.' 
eitis flui n<, and believed not for hib wondrous works ; fometimes lotbeobjeH of it, or which is beliexed, as Pial. 1 1^.66. 
TQ- NH "I'n^'iOi I lave believed in thy Commandments, as Mar. 1 . 1 5. -rudJiT: i* V ev^vAMV 



on, by wliich it is atrributed to the material objefl of belief. For the Creed. 
being nothing elfc but a brief ccnipreiiendon of the mod- neceflary matters 
of faith, whatfbever is contained in it befidc the firlf word Ibditvc^ by which 
we make confeffion of our Faith, can be nothing elfe but part of thole veri- 
ties to be believed, and the aft of belief in relpeft of them nothing but an aG- 
lentunto them as divinely credible and infallible truths. Neither can vvc con- 
ceive that the ancient Greek Fathers of the Church could have any firther 
meaning in it, who make the whole body of the Creed to be of the lame na- 
ture, as fo many truths to be believed, acknowledged and confeiTcd ; info- 
much as fometimes they ule not * btlkving in., neither for the Father,Son, nor h-s gafi] 
Holy Ghoft ; fometimes ufing it as to them, they 1| continue the lame to the r<i'o/xV 't^ ^u 
following Articles of, the Catholick Church., the communion of Saints., &c. and °''<"'fy^f^i- 
* generally fpeakof the Creed as of nothing but mere matter of Faith, with- IVC'^I, 7^'- 
out any intimation of hope, !| Love, or any ILich notion included in it. So ,?=' ©^^c >^ 
that belitying tn, by vertue of the phraie or manner of fpeech, whether we W^^-'^'l"'^'-^ 
look upon the original ufeof it in tlie Hebrew, or the derivative in the Greek, %uj-''><'<'v^^vJs- 
or the fenfe of it in the firil Chriftians mtheLatinc Church, can be of no y-<^»y'"'- 
farther real importance in the Creed in refpecl of God, who immediately fol- }[ Arius rf«iEu- 
lows, than to acknou'ledge and alTert his being or exiifence. Nor ought this c'mfejjim 'dell 
to be imagin'da (lender notion or fmall part of the firft Article of our Faith, '^'"•'■'i '" Con- 
when it really is the foundation of this and all the reft; that as the C^eed is.l'XX«f'?»I' 
fundamental in refpeft of other truths, this is the '^' foundation even of the ®-\v -ncn'tf^, 
Fundamentals , ^ tor he that cometh to God mafi believe that he is. And this "-^ "* -'1* "J'^r 
I take for a liifficient explication of the phralc, I believe in God., that is, / be- t3 lyZ'^vT- 
iieve thitt God is. f^« <) ^( m^- 

/o< *.'a,-a»i!' 

i^ «{ I'.' ■ iy^v, TiT-.-v 6JC«s5» li) K. \ii!rA^x.(Hv m-. <iioy!i( ■ li^nifymg eiery p.titioiilar n'hich be h.xd lebectrjcd he 
believed to be. And wat all in the Confcffion intended. Alexander B'iflnp 0/ Alexandria, after a long decLirati n of the firmer 
Article' concerning the Father and the Son, draws to a conclufson on the Utter Articles, thw ; Of (,'$ 3 th ivjiCeict.(l.'cunCtt)rtwr» 
«6< '7r<t\e)< }L) lii tft'^ii .. \y •xvivncL ^ji^y ouo\cyt/x1fJ-.. /uisi/ yj i^iirbtJ ku^oMk' r t 'A7!»it)KiH.i:v ly.K^ii-.iy.. ,«j; t^tcJ- 
(\<el T«T») Ix. vm^m d.vii'^inv o'ljk/j^. Theodor. Hijl. Eccl. I. i.e. 4. So Terrul. de Frsfcr. adv. H^et. Rfgiilu eft' fidei ilia 
qua crcdicur Unum omnino Dcum clVe : and adv. Vraxeam, cap. 2. rvhere lie nul^s annher rehearful of hit Creed, he begins with 
Unicum quidem Dcum crcdimus. |jNon ell amor DciArticulus, ncq; etijiii aiiioi proKiiiii ; quia ctiamri fmc pracepta gc- 
neralij aftiva, tamen cum aftio contineatur, non oportec cum confliruerc ariimlum: fed i(ta func fidei dogmata qu.i- futic 
column* & t'undamenca kgis divina;. Jf. Abr.ivanel dc Cap. Fidei, c.ii. Primus ell Deoruni cidcus, Deos credere ^iv;. ■*■ i/.i/- 

mnides de F.mdam. Legis, t4K02 7D N^jica Nim pWNi ^^XQ iZD^; \D^v yT''? moDnn moyi m rD^■^ -JID^ 

the f'undati'm ofjoHudationsandfillarofrvifdimsistoknorv that the firjl Being is, and that it giveth cxijlence to every tiling 
which if. ' Heb, 11.6. 

As for the matter or truth contained in thefe words fo explained, it admits 
athreefold confidcration, firft of the Notion oi'God, what is here underltood 
by that name; fecondly, of the exiifence of Go^, how we know or believe 
that he is; thirdly, the Unity oiGod in that, though There be Gods m.tnyand i Cir. 8. 3; 
Lords nnny., yet in our Creed we mention him as but one. When tJKrelbre 
we (hall have clearly delivered what is the true notion o'lGod in whom we 
believe, how and by what means we come to allure our (elves of the exillence 
of fijch a Deity, and upon what grounds we apprehend him of (iich a tran- 
Icendcnt nature that he can admit nocompetitour ; then may wc be concci- 
ved to have (iifliiciently explicated the former partof tlie fail: ^iiicle ; then 
may every one underlfand what he lays, and upon what ground he proceeds, 
when he profeifeth, / believe in God, 

The name of Go^ is attributed unto many, but here is to be underitocdof 
him who by way of eminency and excellency bears that name, and therefore 

D is 

i8 ARTICLE 1. 

'ikut. 10. 17. is flylcd ' God of gods ; 7 /^e Lord cur God is Godofgods^ and I ord of lords : and 
vfn. i?!?^ ^" •^'^'^ ^^"^^ reljjed is called '' the mofl high Gort'/othcrs being but inferiour,or 
aniw. 5<j under liim,^ and God " oz'cror shove ^tl. This eminency and excellency, by 
'Cen 14 18, ^yiiicJi thcle titles become proper unto bimand incon.municabietoany other, 
'Am^p.^^j. is grounded upon the divine nature or effence, m hichallotlier who are called 
£;«<•/ 4. 6 gods have not, and tl;erefore arc not by nature gcds. ^Ihen when yc l:new 
cdfe"crt con- «o'Goi/, faith S. Paul^ye did fervicetotbimnhichhy r,aure are KotGcds. There 
ccdjtii cm- is then a GoJ by nature, and others u hich are called gods, but by nature are 
miorcm Dcurn "*^' ^'^'- '^'' ^'^'^^r they ha ve no power at all, bccauie nobeirrg, but only in 
& manripcm t!ic lalfc opinions of dcccivcd men, as the gods of the Heathen ; or iFtliey 
quendsm uivi- i^ayg gpy re^^i poucr or authority, from w hence lome are * called gods in the 
hominiUisD'i.''- Scripcurc, yet have they it not from themielves or of their own nature, but 
osfcc.rir. 7a- jrom Ilim who only hath immortality, and confcquently only Divinity, and 
^"cw/''^"!"" therefore is the o»Iy true God. So that the Notion of a Deity doth at laft 
*£io*^m, ' exprcfly figniHeaBeingor nature of |1 infinite perfeftion ; andchein^nite per- 
pii tins; fed fedjon of Nature or Being confifteth in this, that it beabfblutely and ef^ 
in CO inthiiti ^gpjjjiiy iieceflrary, an aftual being of it felf ; and potential or caufative of 


fifitio cfl: s: all Beings befideit (clr", independent from any other, upon w hich all things 
^o^ji'uio^uJi ^'^^ depend, and by wliich all thingselfe are governed. ' f is true indeed, that 
ti>. crt potfc to give a perfe£t definition of God u impolfible, neither can our finite realbn 
(irmo qujii {^qIj .|,iy proportion with infinity : but yet a flnfeof this Divinity we have, 
'xiU."de'riin. ^nd tlie firll and common Notion of it co.ifirtsin thele three particulars, that 
/. 7- it is a Being of it itlf, and independent from any other ; th it it is that upon 

ac^cnclfdr ^'hichall things which are madei!epend ; that it governs all things. And this 
vinitaiiicano- Iconccive liifficient as to the firft confideration, in reference to the Notion of 

men. //il.u. de ^ Q^^^ 

iJcus fubilan- ^s for the cxiftcnce of fuch a Being, how it comes to be known unto us,or 
t « ipiius no- by what means we are allured of it, is not fo unanimoudy agreed upon, as 
mciMdcftDi- jj^^(. -J. j^_ pyj. although, fome have imagined that the knowledge of a Deity 
t.d..^dv.jjcrm- Js Connatural to the Soul of man, lb that every man hath a com-.ate inbred 
notion of a God; yet I rather conceive the Soul of man to have no connatu- 
ral knoM le(!ge at all, no particular notion of any tl inginitfrom the begin- 
ning; but being we can have noalTuianceot its precxilience, we may more 
rationally judge it to receive the firft apprehenlions of things by fenfe, and 
by them to make all rational coUeftions. I! then the Soul of man be at the 
firft like a fair fmooth Table w ithout any aflual charafters of knowledge im- 
printed in it; if all the knowledge which we have comes fuccelTively by fen- 
iaiion, inftruflion. and rational culleftion ; then mult we not refer the appre, 
henfion of a Deity to any connate notion or inbred opinion ; at leaft we are 
afliircdGod neverchargcth us with the know ledgcof him upon that account. 
Again, although others do affirm, tliat theexiftence olGcdis a truth evi- 
dent of it lelf, lb as wholbever hears but thele terms once named, that Godisy 
cannot chule but acknowledge it for a certain and infallible truth upon the 
iirft apprehenfion ; that as no man can deny that the whole is greater than 
any part, who knowcth only what is meant by nVWe, and what by part ; fb 
no man can pofilbly deny or doubt of the exiltencc of God^ who knows but 
what is meant by God, and what it is to be ; Yet can we not ground our 
knowledge of God's cxiftence upon any fuch clear and immediate evidence : 
nor were it (ale to lay it upon fuch aground, becaufe wholbever fhould deny 
it, could not by this means be convinced; it being a very irrational way of 
inftruclion to tell a man that doubts of this truth, that he muft believe it be- 
caulc'fis evident unto him, when he knows that he therefore only doubts of 
it, bccauie it is not evident unto him. 


i Believe In God. 


Aithougli therefore that, Go.i is, be of it Iclf an immediate, certain, necisf- 
fary truth, yet mult it be ^evidenced and made apparent unto us. by its con- 
nexion unto other truths; fb that the being of theCreatour may appear unto. '<■ Hic propo- 
us by liis Creature, and the dependency of inferiour Entities lead us to a clear ^^"'"' ^^us^U 
acknowledgement of the fupreme and independent Being. The Wifdon) of cfi^pe"r'a- 'c^if 
the Jews thought this method proper ; ^ for by the grtatnefs and beauty of the fft,' quia pra;i 
creatures, proportiOKAbly the r/t.xker cfthtm is fien : and not only theV-,but S"^ Paul ';"^*'"™ ^^'^. j- 
hath taught us, that " the wvijible things oJKjod front the treat ion of the World cto, Dcuseniin 
are clearly feen , being under fiood by the things that art made , even his eter/tal '■.'"' ^"""} «^k-.- 
Power and Godhead. For if j| P/Wi.zf could fb contrive a piece of his own noniumus*de 
work, as in it to prelerve the memory of himfelt^ never to be obliterated ^^o quid eft, 
without the deftruQion of the work ; \vell may we read the great Artificer perfc'^ot""f'i 
of the World in the Works of his own. hands, and by the exUf ence of any indigcc de-. 
thing demon ftrate the firft Caufe of all things. monftraii p<;rj 

'-' ^ '^ • ea qua.' fuut, 

magis nota quoad nos, & minus nota quoad nSturam, (cilicec per eftcftus. Aqu'in. i.p.q. 2. an. i. 'V/ifii- of Sol, 13. 5^' 
'' Rom. I. 20. This f Lice mull be vindicated from tbefdfe Gbfs of Socinus, b-Zw contends that it cannot be proved from the Creatmi- 
that there ii aGid, and therefore to this place ofS. Paul anfivers thus : Sciendum eft verba a creatione mundi deberc conjungi cuiji* 
Verbo Invifibilia — Ait igicur eo in loco Apoftolus, Mernam divinitiitem Dei, i. id quod nos Dcus pcrpetud facere vulc, (dJ- 
vinitrts enim hocfenfu alibi quoque apud ipfuin enunciacur, uc Col. 2. 9.) ttern.vnr,potentiain, i. promilSpnes quxnunquam 
inccrcidcnc,(quofenfupau'olUperiusdixerac£i/»«n|eiW'flfjfJe'f9fc7ifMOTDei^hx'c,inquam,qu.cnunquira poftquam mr.ndus crcr 
atus cfl ab lioniinibus vifa fueranc, i. non fucranc eis cognita, per opera, hoc efi:,pcr mirabile ipllus Dei & divinorum hominum'^ 
prxfertim v. Chrifli & Apoftolorum eius,operationes,confpefta fuilTe. In which explication there is nithinj, which is not forced and 
diilorted : fir though his firfl obfervationfeem pltmfible, yet there is no validity in it. Hebrinieth on/y /or fioj/Mac. 1.5.55 «>/i.«V*. 
&5 K^liCohn! Kciff/xK, fvhich proves not at all thafini yCl'm-.'f has the fame ferfe : and it is more probable that it hath not, becaufe 
that is t'fually etpreffed by J^-n' ^pj^Sf itjimaf, 6. W 13.19. 2 Pec 5.4. nexet by)im x'iloirvf. Befides,the KiK(vtJi.u)fiit. 
in 5'. Matdiew bears not that Analogy with io^ctwhich Socmuipretenis fignifyin^ not things mfe(n or unknown till then, but only 
objcmefajings or parables ■■, for which purpofe thofe words were produced out ofthq Pfalmsby the Evangelifi, to prove that the Aleffhts, 
was to fpeali in parables, in the Original D"lp"''JQ n^n, LXX. -nr fjiGiKw.a'la. aV*f jij, i wi{e , ancient fafmgi , which were. not. 
nnfeen and mkrnwn.for it immediately followeth, which M,e have heard and known, and our Fathers have cold us, I'fal. 78.3. And 
though he would mal^e out this Interpretation, by accufmg other Interpreters of unfaithfulnefs, i'lcriq; inter'prcccs ex pripofitionc.* 
ex feceruut, contra ipforuni Grxcorum Codicum fideni, qui non i«, k['i na( fed &rf Kl'mui lubenc -.'yet there is no griundfir 
fitch a calumny, becaufe "im may be, and is often, rendred e or ex as well as i*, as Matt. 3. 4. Sot Tfei);^«i' KctfAhi, e pi'is ciiiicli- 
nis. 7. 4. W ifk o%^siK\j.K di, ex oculo tuo, 10. iiro xit.cti'flwi', ex (pinis ; and even in the fenfe which Socinus contend! fr. Matt. 
17. i3. ini -f «/«« ia-Hi'iK, V.T. ex illaliora, «; Tully,e\ eo die, and yirgil. Ex iI!oCof>iion,Corydon c(i tcii.porc nobis, 
<»«(/. Tc.npore jam ex i!!o cafusniihicognitusurbis Trajana;. .^0 the Greek. ^ luffBcf/.'c Latins render ex parte, iro Us 'itut 
CK JCquo : of which examples are innumerable. There ism unfaithfulnefs then imputable to the Interpreters : nir can fuch pitiful Cri- 
ticifmsgice any advant.tJC to thefirjl part cj SjcinusV Expofitim.lhwfexcr the Catholick.inteipretaiion depends not on thoie words 
5iro '^tTim;, luton the confubrationofthe perj'on<,thai is the Gentiles, and the other wiids, -rroifiaan vaii^a, wiiich he farther 
perverts, rendrhi^ them the miraculous Operations of Chrijl and his Apoflles, or, as one of our Learned Men, their doings, milLtkjn^ 
7r»i»ij.a.. which is from the Pajjive TnrT(>'t»u^-,for 7roina-i<,frjm the Allive eToiMcw •/'■"' ^w'n^a is properly the thing made or crea- 
ted, not the operation or doing 0/ if ; as K]itn is fomenmes taken for theCr^imic fmdimes for th^: Creiuoi\,but KjjjjLuis the 
Creature 5n/)'..^; therefore we read, iTim. 4.4. •woiv Kl't^iJ-ct. ©£? ita\o)/. i'liEpii. 2. lo.ouiri yd^ ituSiJ to'ihi/.- . In this fenfe 
[pake Thales properly, Xl^itr&uTa.Twi^'oi^m' ®ii(, dyivvmov ja'f * »«?A/wc )ioa-/i/©-,xaiiv.ta yi &i7. Laerc. Ti:e other Inter- 
pretations, which he was forced to, are yet more extravagant : us when he renders the eternal Godliead, that which God would 
ahvays have us do, or, his cvcrlafting will, and proves that rendition by another place of S. Paul, Col. 2. 9. For in liimdwelieth 
all tlic tulnefi of the Godhead bodily, that is, fap he, all the will of God ; fwhereas it is moft certain, that where the God- 
liead IS, efpecially where the fulnefs, even all tlic t'ulnefs of the Godhead is, there muji be all the Attributes as well as the Will of 
0)d:) and when he interprets t/)e eternal Power fo beihc promifcs which (hall never fail ; and thinks he has fufficiently proved it, 
becaufe the Came Apoifle calls the Gfpel the power of God. For by this way oj Interpretation no fentence of Scripture can have any 
certain fenfe. \\Inihe jJneldof VAUs. Arii'i. demundo. 

We find by the experience of our felvcs , that Ibmc things in this World 
Iiave a beginning before which they were not; the account of the years of 
our Agefufticiently infer our Nativities, and they our Conceptions, belbrc 
which we had no Being. Now if there be any thing which had a beginning, 
there mufl: necelfarily be fomcthing \vhicli had no beginning, becaufe no- 
thing can be a beginning to it felf. Whatfbever is, mulf of ncceflity either 
have been made,or not made ; and fomething there mult needs be which was 
never made, becaufe all things cannot be made. For wliatfbever is made, is 
made by another, neither can any thing produce it felf; otherwLfe it would 
follow, that the fame thing is and is not at the fame inltant in the lame re- 
ject : it is, becaufe a producer ; it is not, becaufe to be produced : ii is there- 
fore in being,and is not in being ; which is a manifeft contradiction. If then 
all which arc made were made by fbme othcr.that other which produ- 

D 2 Ctrr.i 


ced them cither was it felf produced, or was not: and if not, then have we 
already an Independent Being ; if it were, we mull at laft come to Ibme- 
thing which was never made, or elle admit either a circle of produftions, in 
» •aw.t' ^'-c vvhich the effeft (hall make its owncaulc, or an * infinite lucceflion in caiu- 
S7,>^r?tr 2_^ alities, by which nothing will be made; both which are equally impofliblc. 
ilngtr'^'^- Something then we mull: confeis was never made, fomething which never 
TKt^'for^f.r, iijjjj beginning. And although thclo ertefts or dependent Beings fingly con- 
)J:cr%T^iutT' fidered by themfelves, do not infer one fupreme Caulc and Maker of them 
if/©-, J^Kov. ail, yet the admirable order and '| connexion of things fliew as much ; and this 
Anft.^ ^^•*. oneCupremeCauleisGW.Forali things which we ice or know have their Ex- 
jEain,i?.^,uH iftcnce for Ibme end, which no man who confidereth the ufes and utilities of 
^'J^7''^l' every Species can deny. Now whatlbever is and hath its being for Ibme end, 
"^^ iJiTsb. of that the end for which it is murt be thought the Caufe ; and a finalCaule 


lliufl;;' j^^ov is no otherwife the caule of any thing than as it moves the efficient Caufe 
^r,TJ-^<lv ^° work: from whence we cannot but colle£l a prime efficient Cauie of 
Zrl6i7<n!'ijT- all things, indued with infinite Wifdom, who having a full comprehenfi- 
''* Z' ^,'^?' on of the ends of all, defigned, produced, and difpofed all things to thofe 
Qiijifi.fy Reff. ends. 

nd Grscos. Again, as all things have their Exiftence, fo have they alfo their operations 

*'Ev?7,t<Ti- for fbme * end ; and whatfoevcr worketh fo, muft needs be directed to it. 

A©-7iS?i,T«- Although then thofe creatures which are indued with reafbn can thereby ap- 

I'lZ^rT^^- prehend the goodnefs of the end for which they work, and make choice of 

tV-: c K, t3 ~i- liich means as are proportionable and proper for the obtaining of it, and fo by 

(p=f«.»vj;'«< jj^gif Q^j^ counfel direO: themfelves unto it : yet can we not conceive that 

rf^i^sju^'-xi other natural Agents, whole operations flow from a bare Inftincf, can be di- 

•< Ti^u/jcrtc refted in their attions by any counfel of their own. The lione doth not deli- 

tt'lT^r^'- derate whether it fhall defcend, nor doth the wheat take counfel whether it 

liToji IZ^,. fhall grow or no. Even men in natural aftions ufe no a6t of deliberation : we 

rrc^-rJiTOA, -^ Jq notadvife how our heart fhall beat, though without that pulfe we cannot 

!!j"*, J'^^J live ; when we have provided nutriment for our ftomach, we take no coun- 

TijH hix.i. fclhow it fhall be digefted there, or how the chyle dillributed to every Part 

M^. ph)f. 1.2. ^Qj. ji^g reparation of the whole ; the Mother which conceives taketh no care 

how that conceptus fhall be framed, how all the parts fhall be diftinguifhed, 

and by what means or ways the Child fhall grow within her womb : and yet 

li xatottoi- ri all thefe operations are diretled to their proper ends, and that with a greater 

n'y^'SjuX- l^t;afbn, and tlicrefore by a greater Wifdom, than what proceeds from any 

At iii lA)^ thing of humane undcrf^anding. What then can be more clear, than that 

I-ubw'iA/ .- ' ^^''^^^ natural Agents which work conftantly for thofe ends which they them- 

XII 701 '^ n fclves cannot perceive, muft be dire^led by fomc high and over-ruling Wif- 

rUvn n e»^ (jom ? and who can be their dircftour in allthcir operations tending to thofe 

w ^iJjiJ^-^i ends, but he w hich gave them their being for thofe ends ? and who is that, but 

-uAr^ « i-ai/TM- the great Artificer who works in all of them P For Art is fo far the imitation 

^r*!!; »lw'- °^ Nature, that if it were not in the Artificer, but ji in the thing it felf which 

To'iM.Ariji ib. by Art is framed, the works of Art and Nature would be the fame. Were 

t K*9»'^»J# that which frames a Watch witiiin it^and all thole curious wheels wrought 

TirZ', i^ if- '^''tliout the hand of man, it would feem to grow into that form ; nor would 

lixTi ni»- _ there be any diftin£lionbetweenthe making of that Watch, and the growing 

,y9-^ « x«f^ of a Plant. Now what the Artificer is to works of Art, who orders and dif- 

o» ToAH j yi pofcs them to other ends than by nature they w ere made, that is the Maker 

»x9-,i» r^e^lo- of all things to all natural Agents, direfling all their operations to ends which 

1iIy"nro^i t''<^y cannot apprehend ; and thus appears the Maker to be the Ruler of the 

iiivKitfjUf,. Woi^Id, * the fteerer of this great Ship, the law of this univerfal Common- 

A.;/i. ^^,£,^1^1,^ tlic General of all the holb of Heaven and Earth. By thefc ways, as 


IBelieveInGod. 21 

by the * tedimonyof the Creature, we come to find an eternal and indepen- '^.Habet Do- 
denc Being, upon which all things elfedepend.and by which all things elfe arc ni'""/ "^^^ocum 
governed ; and this we have before flippoled to be the firil: notion oi God. hoc quod fu- 
Neither is this any private collection or particular ratiocination, but the '""-' ^^ '" qu.> 
publick and univerfal reaibnot'the world. || No Age fo diftant, noCountrey pAfxI^Tnt 
lb remote, no people fo barbarous, but gives a fufficient tellimony of this '^''yi^ >y i- 
truth. When the Romm Eagle flew over moft parts of the habitable world, ^' '■^^t.'^*" 
they met with Atheifm no-where, but rather by their milcellany Deities at % in. SQ''"^ 
Rome, which grew together with their vittorics, they fhewed no Nation was '^''i^*', i ^* 
without its God. And lince the later Art of Navigation improved hath difco- Q^{^^!1 a- 
vered another part of the world, with which no tormcr commerce hath been "i^ di Mmda. 
known, although the Cuftoms of the people be much different, and their 
manner of Religion hold fmall correfpondency with any in thefe parts of the 
world profeffed, yet in this all agree, that Ibme religious obfervances they 
retain, and a Divinity they acknowledge. Or if any Nation be difcovered 
which makcthno profellion of Piety, and exercilethno religious oblervances, 
it foUoweth not from thence that they acknowledge no God : for they may 
only deny his Providence, as the Epicureans did ; or if any go farther, their 
numbers are lb few, that they mull; be inconfiderable in refpeft of mankind. 
And therefore fb much of the Cf^ed hath been the general Qonftjfion of* all * Nulla gens 
Nations, / believe in God. Which were it not a moft certain truth grounded "'q"-'™ <^'t a- 
upon principles obvious unto all, what reafon could be given of fo univerfal g^ mor^fque 
a conlent ? or how can it be imagined, that all men fhould || confpire to de- projefta , uc 
ceive themfelves and their poftericy ? _ ^"'^^ 'JX! 

Nor is the reafon only general, and the confent unto it univerfal, but God Sen. 
hath flill preferved and quickened the worfhip due unto his Name, by the | ^^"^ '" '^""'^ 
patefa£lion of himfelf. Things which are to come are f o beyond our know- nes morcaks 
ledge, that the wifeft man can but conjecture : and being we are alTured of confcnfiffcnc 
the contingency of future things, and our ignorance of the concurrence of da°numba'^ 
feveral free caufcs to the produftion of an etFeft, we may be f Lire that certain inefficaces De- 
and- infallible prediclions are clear divine patefadions. For none but he who °^' '^^''• 
made all things, and gave them power to work, none but he who ruleth all 
things, and ordereth anddireflieth all their operations to their ends, none but 
he upon whofe will the adions of all things depend, can poffibly be imagined 
to forefee the eftecls depending merely on thofe caules. And therefore by 
what means we may be aflfured of a Prophecy, by the fame we may befecu- 
red of a Divinity. Except then all the Annals of the world were forgeries, 
and all remarks of Hiftory defigned to put a cheat upon pofterity, we can 
have no pretence to lufpeft God's exiltencc, having fb ample teftimonies of 
his influence. 

The works of nature appear by obfervation uniform, and there is a cer- 
tain f'phcre of every body's power and activity. If then any aftion be per- 
formed which is not within the compafs of the power of any natural agent, if 
any thing be wrought by the intervention of a body which beareth no pro- 
portion to it, or hath no natural aptitude fb to work; itmufl:beafcribcdtoa 
Caufctranlccnding all natural caufes, and difpofing all their operations. Thus 
every Miracle proves its authour, and every a6tof omnipotency is a fuffici- 
ent demonftration of a Deity. And that man muft be polTelVed with a flrange 
opinion of the weaknefs of our Fathers, and the teffimony of all former Ages, 
who Jhall deny that ever any Miracle was wrought. We have beard mth our ^. 
ears, Gnd, our Fathers have told f*s what works thou didji in their days, itt the 
times of old. Blejfed be the Lord God, rvho only doth rvondrotts vforks. 7^- ' *• 

Nor are we only informed by the necelTary dependency of all things on 



Kcm. 2. 15. 

God, as crt'cQs upon their univerCil cauf^, or his external patefa£Vions unta 
others, and the conlentient acknowledgement of mankind ; but every parti- 
cular perlbn hath a particular Remembrancer in himlelf, as afufficient tefti- 
mony of hisCreatour, Lord, and Judge. We know there is a great force 
of Confcicnce in all men, by which their thoughts are ever acaifmg, or txcufmg 
them ; they feel a comfort in thofe vertuous aclions which they find them- 
fclves to have wrought according to their Ru!e,a llingandfecret romorfcfor 
all viciousadsandimpiousmachmations. Nay thole who Itrive mofttodcny 
a God, and to obliterate all fenfe of Divinity out of their own Souls, have not 
been leaft fenfible of this Remembrancer in their Breafts. 'Tis true indeed, 
that a falfe opinion of God, and af'uperftitious perfwafion which hath nothing 
ofthe true God in it, may breed a rcmorle of Conlcience in thofe who think it 
true; and therefore lome may hence colleft that the force of Conlcience is 
only grounded upon an opinion of a Deity, and that opinion may be falle. 
But if it be a truth as the teftimonies of the wifcfl Writers of moil diHerent 
perfuafions, and experience ofallfoitsof perlbnsof moil; various inclinations, 
do agree, that the remorfe of Conlcience can never be obliterated, then it ra- 
ther proveththan fuppoieth an opinion of a Divinity ; and tliat man which 
mofl peremptorily dcnieth God's cxiftence is the greateft argument himlelf 
that there is a God. Let C4%«/4 profels himfeli'an Atheiil:,and with thatpro- 
feffion hide his head, or run under his bed, when the thunder ftrikes his ears, 
and lightning fiafhes in his eyes ; thofe terrible works of nature put him in 
mind ofthe power,and his own guiltof the juflice, of God; whom while in 
his wilful opinion he weaJily denieth, in his involuntary atlion he ilrongly 
alTerteth. So that a Deity will either be granted or extorted, and where it is 
not acknowledged it will be manifefted. Only unhappy is that man who de- 
*Hfc eft nieshimtohimlelf,and proves himtoothers; whowiilnot*acknowledgehis 
nonr^agnoVcc- cxiiience, of whole power he cannot be ignorant. " God is not far from every 
re queni igno- one of ui. The proper dilcourfe of S. Pant to the Philofophers o^ Athens was, 
rarenonporns. j-jj^j. ^^^ mhht feel after him and fnd him. Some Children have been lb un- 
Km. gracious as to retuie to give the honour due unto their rarent,but never any 

* M. 17. 27. lo irrational as to deny they had a Father. As for thofe who have dilhonour- 
td God, it may ftand moil with their intercil, and therefore they may wifh 
there were none ; but cannot confift with their reafbn to alTert there is none, 
\Aa. 17. 28. wiicn even the very Poets of the Heathen have taught us '' that we are his 

It is necelTary thus to believe there is a God, Firfl:, becaule there can be no 
Divine Faith without his belief. For all Faith is therefore only Divine be- 
caufe it relieth upon the authority of God giving teftimony to the objeft of 
it ; but that which hath no being can have no Authority, can give no Te- 
flimony. The ground of his Authority is his Veracity, the foundations of 
his Veracity are his Omnilcicnce and Sandity, both which llippole his el- 
fence and exiftcnce, becaule what is not is neither knowing nor holy. 

Secondly, it is neccffary to believe a Deity, that thereby we may acknow- 
ledge fuch a nature extant as is worthy of, and may juftly challenge from us, 
the higheft worfhip and adoration. For it were vain to be religious and to 
exercile devotion, except there were a Being to which all luch holy appli- 
cations were moftjuilly due. Adoration implies lubmilTion and dejeclion,(b 
that while wc worfliipwecaftdown ourfelvcs: there mull be therefore Ibme 
great eminence in the ob)eft u or{hipped,or elle we fhould difhonour our own 
nature in the worfhip of it. But when a Being is prelented of that intrinlecal 
and necelTary perfe£l:ion,that it depends on nothing, and all things elfe depend 
on that, and are wholly governed anddilpoled by it, this worthily calls us to 


IBelieveInGod. 23 

our kn?es, and (hews the humblefl: of our devotions to be but jull and loyal 

This necefTary truth hath been Co univerfally received, that we fhall al- 
ways find all nations of the World more prone untoldolatry than to Acheifm, 
and readier to multiply than deny the Deity. But our Faith teacheth us equal- 
ly to deny them both,and each of them are renounced inthefe words, I believe 
in God. Firll:, in Go^ affirmatively, 1 bdieve he is, againfl: Atheifm. Second- um°c^i(^^"as 
Jy, in God cxclufively, not in Gods, againlT: Polytheilni and Idolatry. Altho' cuem tJiiium 
therefore the Exiftence and Vfiity of God be two diftinft truths, yet are they •^'-""L """^j' 
of fo necelfary dependence and intimate coherence, that both may be exprel- rjim Anims, 
led bv * one word, and included in one !| Article. c. 2. 

■' . . When Leo Bi- 

fjop c/Rome in an SpifHe to Flavianns hadvcrhten thefe »Wr,Fidelium univerfitas proficetur credere k in Deum Pacrem omtri- 
pocci.ccni,S: in Jtlum -hriftuiii H ilium ejus; oneofrheEucfc'.hnsobjenedtvitbthifqiidlhn, Cur non dixevic lu iwum Dcam 
Pacrem, Si \.,un<m Jcfum juxcaNicani DecretumConcilii? 7o«v/;;c/; Vigilius Bijliop of Trent, or rather of Tapm. gives tbu an- 
fwer, S^d RomA & antequam sicana S> nodus convcniret, a temporibus Apoftoloruni ufque ad ru:.c, irafidtlibusSvmbolum 
tradicur,n<,cp Ajudicaric verba ubiftnfus incoluniis permanet: magis enim cum D.J. Chrifii fenn-ncia haec fidei profcrtia 
facie dicencis, oi'ditis in eum 'ir in "ic credite : nee dixie in unum Deum Patrera, & in unum nicip um C^iiis enim ncfciat unum 
cfle Deura,& unum J .Chrirtum filium ejus ? Vigil. I. 4. contr. Ent\th. \\ Rab.Chafdai in Or. Adon'at. R. j ojepb albo in ail^^irim. 

And that the Unity oftheGodheadisconcluded in this Article is apparent, 
not only becaule the Nicene Council fo exprelTed it by way of cxpofition,bnt 
alfo becaule this Creed in the * Churches of the Ealf, before the Council of foricntalcs 
Nice, had that addition in it, I believe in one God. We begin our CV^Wthen Ecciefic om- 
as II PLito did his chief and prime Epiifles, who gave this diilinftion to his 2"^^' cndlhi 
friends, that the Name of Gr?^ was prefixed before thofe that were more fe- mi Deo pme 
rious and remarkablcbutofGo^j, in the plural, to fuch as were more vulgar ''^"T\^^"\t, 
and trivial. ^ Vnto thee it rvas fbetved, faith Mofes to Ifrael^ that thou might eft b ne hxc om- 
knorv that the Lord he is God, there is none elf a bcfide him. And as the Law, (o "*-• poarunc 
the Gofpcl tCdcheth us the fame, ^ We know that an Idol is nothing in the World., ^^^^^ p, rcTnc- 
and there is none other God but one. This Unity of the Godhead will cafily re,quiatairave- 
appear as necelTary as the exiftence, fo that itmuftbeas impofTible there [""^ p^^^- 
lljould be more Gods than one, as that tliere Ihould be none : which will tcrdixerit du- 
clearly be demonftrated, firft, out of the Nature of God, to which multipli- "-^ ^'-0^' cum 
cation is repugnant; and, fecondly, from the Govcrnmeijt as he is Lord, in"T 1!^ 
which we mulf not admit Contufion. Nps cniiu & 

fcimus, &Iegi- 
mus, & credimus, & tcnemus, unum effe Deum, qui fecit ccclum paricer ac terram, quoniam ncc altcrum novimus, ncc nolle, 
cilm nullusiit, aliquando poterinius. Novatianus dc Trinit, c. 50. Andbefrealltbcje Irarxui, citing under the tit/e of Scripture, 
a pttffage out oftbe bool^of HcrmiS called ?a!\or. Bene ergo Scriptura dicit,prim6 omnium crcdc quoniam unus eft Dcus, qui 
omnia confticuit S: confummavi[,& fecit ex co quod nonerat,ut omnia, omnium capax, & qui a ricminc capiatur, /. 4. 
C.57. \\ Eufeb. m prsp. Evang. the paffage is yet extant in the Epiftle^ of \!h'i.o. ^ Deut, ^. 55. '■ i Cor. 8. 4. 

Forfirfi',the nature of God confifts inthis, thathcisthc prime and original 
cau(e of all things, as an independent Being upon which all things elle depend, 
and likewilethe ultimate end or final caufe of all; but in this fcnletwo prime 
caufcsarc inimagi; able, and for all things to depend of one, and to be more in- 
dependent beings tlian one, is a clear contradiftion. This primity God re- 
quires to be attributed tohimfelf; Hearken unto me.,0 J acob.^and Ifrac I my called^ ifai. 48. u. 
I am he, 1 am the firjl, I alfo am the la(t. And from this primity he challeng- 
eth his Unity ; Thus faith the Lord the Kjng of Ifrael, and his licdeemer the ^.j.,?. 

Lord of Hojls, 1 am the firfl, and J am the lajl., and befide me there is no God. 

Again, if there were more Gods than one, then were notallperfedionsin 
one, neither formally, by reafbn of their diitinftion, nor eminently and vir- 
tually, for then one ihould liave power to produce the other, and rhat nature 
which is producible is not divine. But a!l acknowledge God to be al)(oIutely and 
infinitely pcrfcft, in whom all perfections imaginable which arc fimply fuch 



mull: be contained formally, and all others which imply any mixture of im- 
perfcdion, virtually. 

But were noargumcnts brought from the infinite pcrfcftions of the Divine 
nature able to convince us, yet were theconfidcration of hlsiupremc Domi- 
nion fufficientto perfwade us. The will of God is infinitely irec, and by that 
freedom doth he govern and difpole of all things. ^ He doth according to his 
*Dm. 4. 3';. *^''l^ '» ^^J^ -^^^y c/ heii'tn., and nmong the t/jh.tbitants of the earth, f^iid JSlebuchad- 
nezz^ir out of iiis experience ; and S. P/tw/expreilethhim zstvorking all things 
after the coiinfel of hti own rvill. If then there were more f'uprcme Governours 
of the World than one, each of them ablblute and free, tlxy might have con- 
trary determinations concerning the lame thing, than which nothing can be 
more pre)udicial unto Government. God ib a God of order, not confufion ; 
and therefore of unity, not admitting multiplication. If it bebetter ihatthe 
liTaS^lctb/S.'- ;, Univcrfe fliould be governed by one than many, we may be iilTurcd that it 
■U' 5r "°^~ • ^^^°' becaufc nothing mull: be conceived of God but what is belh He there- 
oj-t ^^^T^r fore who made all tlnngs, by that right is Lord ot all, and becaule all * power 
»»M/-.<)/f«iiif, is his, he alone ruleth over all. 

^ri/.°fe'#' ^'^''^ ^°^ ^^ """^ °"'y ^"^' ^^""^ '^^"^'^ ^" '^'''^y " peculiar to himfelf by 

/. 12 cult, which he is the 0«/y God ; and that not oal) by way of aftuality, but alio 

of pofTibility. Every individual man is one, but lb as there is a fccond and a 

third, and confequently every one is part of a number, and concurring to a 

multitude. The Sun indeed is one ; fb as tliere is neither third nor fecond 

Sun, at lead within the lame Vortex .• but though there be liOt, yet there 

* Unus omni- iniglu have been ; neither in the Unity of the Solar nature is there any rc- 

cft Dali™nc- pugnancy to plurality ; for that God which made this woild, and in this the 

que c! in iiii Sn,i to rule the d.ty, mighthave made another world by the fame fecundity of 

'c'a'Tab ^^' hisoninipotency, and another Sun to rule in that. Whereas in the Divine 

conforrcni Nature there is anintrinfecal and elTential fingularity, becaufe no other Be- 

ciim io!a om- ipg Can have any cxiftence but from that; and whatlbever clTence hath its 

^allan^\^.°' exiflc-nce from another is not God. ^ 1 am the Lord, faith he, and there is none 

Cypr. ds Lhl. tlfe, thtrt is nc Godbiftdes me : that they may know front the rifmg of the Stm, ani 

'''jZj'l'j^^Mj, i| from the /Ff/?, that there is none htfides me, I am the Lord and there is none elfe. 

l•<^'\ nns He who hatliinfinire knowledge knoweth no other God befide himlelf. *^ Is 

^7 "'^/^^ then a God befid-.s me? yea there is no God, I know not any. And we whobe- 

''J..y -,p^, lieve in him, and defire to enjoy him, need for that end to Icnow no other 

K*7ND\"!J God but him : *' for this is life eternal ^ that they might know thee the only true 

''^1^^,3,7,5 ^'"'^'^ * ^^ certainly One, as God. 

-inv ><-'i — a~n anns -;^-d i^i'nj ;'d3 "ns i'^'? :i:r>yji a'^'icjn annxn :a -tr« 

on;, nif firj, or mire than two, but only One : rvhifeZ^niiy m mr lit^- to of the Individtmls of thit world, neither is he one by 
irjf of Species omprehendin^ m.tny Indhiduals, neither one inm.tnner of .i bidy which it divifible into parts and extremes : but he 
if fj one, asrnVnii} m^hi< ti to befokndin theii'orld. Afifcs M.iim. de t'lind-tm. le,iu. Quod auccm diximus, Orictitis Ec- 
clcfias cradcrcunuiii ratrcm Omnipotcnteni, & iinum Domiiium, lioc modo intcliigcnJum eft, unum non numcrodici, fed 
univcrlitatt : vcrbi grati,i,ri quisdicacuniim honiincm,aur unumcquuni, hie unum pronumcro pofuit, poccfl tnim & alius 
Iiomo tdc, & tcrtius, vd equus. U'li auccm ftcundus & tcrtius non pocefl junpi, unus fi dicarur, non numeri, led univerfitatis 
cftnomcn. tit fi exempli cju^a dicanms unum Solem, hie unus ita dicitur uc alius vcl ccrtius addi non poflit ; multo magis 
Deus cum unus dicicur, unus non numeri, led univcrlicatis vocabulo nuncuparur, id cil,qui proprerea unusdicacur, quod alius 
ron fit. <\inb. *" Ifa. 4^.^,6.Deiit.^.7;i.and ^z.^ 18. 51. ' (/.i. 45.18, :i,22.rtn.y 44.8. "^ John 17. 5. * Veritas 
Chriftian.i dircftc pror.unciavit, Dcus (i nun unus c(t, non crt, quia digniuscrcdimus non elle, quodcunque non ita fueric 
ut clfe deSf'.it. Teiiul. adv. Mncnn. I. 1 . c. 2. Dcus ciim liimnium magnum fit, rcfte Veritas noftra proniuiciavit, Deus ft 
noti unus ell, non eft, Non quad duUitemus cir. Dcum, diccndo, fi non unus, non eft Dcus-, led quia, quern conhdimus 
cife, idcjn dehnia:)iusillc,qu.')il li non eft Deus, non eft, I'unuiium feilicet mapnum. Porro fummum magnum nniium <it nc- 
ctif.: eft, cr,;") S; Dcus unicus crit non aliter Dews nili fummum magnum, nee alicer fummum ni.igi;uni iiifi parem n-jn habtns, 
nrcalitcr parcm non ha'.xns nili unicus tucrit. Ibid. 

It is necefliry thus to believe tlic Unity ofthe Godhead, that being afTurcd 
there is a nature worthy of our devotions, and challenging our religious fiib- 


IBelieveInGod. ^5 

jeftiou, v\e may learn to know \vho(e that nature is to which we owe our 
adorations, leil our minds fliould wander and liuftuatein our worfnip about 
various and uncertain objcfts. If we fiiould apprehend more Gods than one, 
I knov/ not what could determinate us in any inlhmt to the aftual adoration 
of any one: for where no dilierence doch appear, (as, if there were many, 
and all by nature Gods, there could be none) what inclination could we 
have, what reafon could we imagine, to prefer or elett any one before the 
reft for the obietl of our devotions ? Thus is it necellary to believe the Uni- 
ty of God in rc^lpcQ: of us who are obliged to worlhip him. 

Secondly, It is necelfary to believe the Unity of God in refpeftof him who 
is to be worfhipped. Without this acknowledgment we cannot give untoGod 
the things which are God's, it being part of the worOiip and honour due 
untoGod, to accept of no compartner with him. When the Law was given, 
in the obfervance whereof the Religion of the Ifraelites confilfed , the firft 
precept was this prohibition,T'/^o//yZ7^/f h.ive no other gods before me ; and who- ^w^-ao.j. 
ibever violateth this, denieth the foundation on which all the relt depend, as 
the * j^ejvj oblerve. This is the true reafon of that ftrift precept by which all "i-Mofes mu 
are commanded to give divine worfhip to God. only , ^ Thoujbalt tvor[Jjip the """!• '^^ ^i""^ 
Lcrd thy Grid, and him only jjj nit thou ferve ; becaufe he alone is God : him -^^i^tt 1' lo 
only thalt thou fccsr, becaufe he alone hath infinite power ; in him only flialt 
thou truil, becaule he only ii our rock and our Jahation ; to him alone Hialt ^Mi52. 2. 
thou dw'tjd: thy devotions, becaufe he only knomth the hearts of the children of 2 C-h'm. 6. 30. 
mtn. Upon this foundation the whole heart of man is intirely required of 
him, and engaged to him.^O Ifrael, the Lord our God is one God: And D:w.^. 4,5. 
(or rather. Therefore^ thou jjjalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart., and 
with all thy foul, and with all thy might. Whofoever were truly and by nature 
God, could not chule but challenge our love upon the ground of an infinite 
excellency, and tranfcendent beauty of holinefs : and therefore if there were 
more Gods than one, our love muil neceffarily be terminated unto !| more II Numerus di- 
than one, and conlequently divided between them ; and as our love, fo alfb mrrado'^'r"' 
the proper elfed thereof, our chearful and ready obedience, which, like the conaarc de- 
Child propounded to the judgment oi Sofomjn ^ as fbon as ''tis divided, is '^f^.^eiquo- 
deftroyed. '' No man can ferve twomajters : for either he will hate the oncj and ejus in anceps 

love the other : or elfe he will hold to the one., and defpife the other. dcduceremr. 

Ecce cnim, 
duos intucns Deos tarn pares qukni duo fumma magna, quid facerem fi ambos colerem ? verercr ne abundantia officii fu- 
perftitio potiijs quani religio ciedcrctur ; quia duos cam pares & in alcero amhos pofTcm in iino demercri : hoc ipfo cc- 
flimoni'',m prasflans parilirati & unitati eorum, diim alcenim inaltero vcnerarer, dum in uno mihi duo func, Tertid. adxi, 
Mircnn. / i. c. 5. '' Mattb. 6. 14. 

Having thus defcribed the firft notion of a Go^, having demonftrated the 
Exigence and Vnity of that God., and having in thefe three particulars com- 
priled all which can be contained in this part of the Article, wc may now 
clearly deliver, and every particular Chriftian underftand, what it is he fays 
when he makes his Confeffon in thele words, I believe in God ; which in cor- 
refpondencc with the precedent uifcourfe may be thus expreffcd : 

Foraflnuch as by all things created is made known the eternal poorer and 
GodhcaJ,:ind tlic dependency of all limited Beings infers an infinite and inde- 
pendent elTence ; whereas all things are for fomc end, and all their operati- 
ons direcled to it, although they cannot apprehend that end for which they 
are, and in prolecution of which they work, and therefore muft be guided by 
fbme univerfal and over-ruling wifdom ; being this coUeftion is fo evident, 
that all the Nations of the earth have made it; being God hatli not only 
written himfelf in the lively charaftefs of his Creatures, but hath alfo made 
frequent i^atcfadions of his Deity by moft infallible prediftions and fuper- 

E natura! 


natural operations ; therefore I fully alTcnt unto, freely acknowledge, and 
clearly profels this truth, that there is a God. 

Again, being a prime and independent Being fuppofeth all other to de- 
pend, and confequently no other to be God ; being the intire fountain of 
all perfeftions is incapable of a double Head, and the moft perfedl govern- 
ment of the Univerle I'peaks the lupreme dominion of one abfolute Lord ; 
hence do I acknowledge tliat God to be but one, and in this Unity or rather 
fingularity of the Godhead, excluding allaftual or poffible multiplication of 
a Deity, / believe in God. 

3 I3cliei3r in ooti tije 5ratl)ct, 

AFter the Confeflion of a Deity, and alTertion of the Divine Vnityy the 
next Confideration is concerning God's Paternity ; for that one God is 
I tor. 8. 0. fj(/jer of all, and to us there is but one God, the Father. 

Now, although thcChrirtian notion of the divine Paternity be Ibme way 
» omnem Dc- peculiar to the Evangelical patefatlion ; yet * wherefoever God hath been 
mTnecofiw'" acknowledged, he hath been underftood and worfhipped as a Father : the 
ncain.- L{\ in- Very Heathen l| Poets fo dclcribe tlieir Gods, and tlieir vulgar names did 
tirfoiciincs ri- carry father * in them, as the moll: popular and univerfal notion. 

iu»& prccatic- ■' ^ 

lies P.itrem nuncupari ; non tantiim lionoris gratia , fed & racionis , & quod antiquior cfl honiinc, & quod vitam, falu- 
tem, viiftum pr.illac ut pacer. Itaquc & Jupiter a prccantibus i'^ifa vocatur, & Sacurnus, & Janus, & Liber, & ca:tcri de- 
inccps. LiiUiW. dc \ cr. iap. I. 4. c. 5. || That fojrcqucni in Homer, Tct.iif iyJ'iuy t5 diav tj • eundemque apptUans dicic 
Ennius, Divi<in<jiie hmnnHtnjucp.iter rex. ^er. de L. L. l.^. at Senm observes of yirgil, a Pocta pcnc omnibus Diis noraen 
pjtcrnuin additur, uc fiantvcncrabiliorcs : and before him Lucil'tM, 

lit nemo fit noftrum quin pater optima' Divum, 
Ut Ncptunu' pater, Liber, Saturnu' pater, Mars, 
Janu\ C^irinu' pacer nomen dicacur ad uiiura. Ltinan ib, 

*i4f Jupiter, which U |ovis pater, or ZdjTirr.'f, orif iwije Diefpater, or ^'iiToiraf' and Marrpiter, 0/ wAom Sertw apud 
Pontmces Marlpiter dicicur, /ijieid.1.^. So Semipater /w Semo, and Saj/oTttTw? /sr Sardus//;f proper Deity of Sardmia. 

This name of Father is a Relative ; and the proper foundation of Pater- 
nity, as of a Relation, is Generation. As therefore the phrafe of genera- 
ting is diverfly attributed unto feveral a£ls of the fame nature with Gene- 
ration properly taken , or by confcquence attending on it : fb the title of 
Father is given unto divers perfbns or things, and for leveral reafbns unto 
Gf«. 2.4. tlie fame God. Thefe are the generations of the heavens and the earth , when 
they n-ere created , in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, 
faith Mofes. So that the creation or produdion of any thing by which 
it is, and before was not, is a kind of generation , and confequently the 
79*38 :8. Creator or Producer of it a kind of Father. Hath the rain a Father? or 
nlo hath btgoitcn the drops of dew ? By wliich words 'Job fignifics , that as 
there is no other caufc alTignable of the Rain but God, fb may he as the 
*'ET?f«<^*f caufe be called tlic Father of it, though not in tlic mofl: proper fenfe, * as 
""^I'ltl^in ^^^ ^^ ^^^'^ Father of his Son : and fb the 1| Piiilofbphers of old, who thought 
x) •Tif-.,< qV. ' tliat God did make tlic World, called himexprefly, as the Maker, io tlie 

frlutar'" if' ^"^^^^'^ 0^^^' -^"^ ^'^^^ ' ^^ "^ ^^^^^^ " ^"^ °"^ ^^^' '^^ Father, of whom are aO, 
riaio^ZiHirg things ; to which the words following in tlie Creed may fccm to have rela- 
C}dTa.iigr. tion, the father '^hnighty, maker of heaven and earth. But in tliis mafs of 
^*HT'iif,/'Of, ^r^'iturcsand body of theUnivcrfe, fome works of tlie Creation more pro- 
rAUiT!>i(Oii pcrly call him Father as being more riglitly fbns : fijch are all the rational 
yjy^^/ and intellectual cff-fpring of the Deity. Of merely natural Beings and irra- 

■r)t jr/o;- ~:C,'-(^ jj »',?//« icUadcs. FlMon, iiuifi. AndAlcimus, Ta]iip /i £?i 7^ iu7l(^ IT) wcifTar. \ 1 Cor. 8. 6. 


1 Believe In God The Father. 27 

tional agents he is * the Creatour,of rational,as fb, the Father alio; they are * •S'? Plutarch 
his Creatures, thefe his Sons. Hence he is ftiled the * Fatber of Spirits, and "^j'-^n % 
the blelTed Angels , when he laid the foundatioas of the Earth, his Sons ; viatoterZ'^ 
^ When the tmrni-/! fang together, and, all the fom of Godfljoitted for joy : '^"^ 'he A:aker 
hence Man, whom he created after his own image, is called his " off-ffrmg^ ai/thingT 
and Adam, the immediate work of his hands, ^ the [on of God : hence may ""^^ y^^i' 
we all cry out with the Ifraelites taught by the Prophet fb to fpeak, "^ Have ^^ W^^. 
we not all one Father ? hath not one God created us ? Thus the firil and moft ^^i^uv ^ajiif 
univerfal Notion of God's Paternity in a borrowed or metaphorical fenie is ^'T'C""" \ 
founded rather upon Creation than Procreation. i.-\tx^"\^. 

tlier of Gods and 
men, Mxkerjf things inanimate and irrational. « jS yoeig (pyin XpvWT®- TctHea Ka\fiQ^ toc mie^^i/ja. to carifun, 
Kal^^ hn, Tx atrff^ittji'^ •vs")/0)'ot'>. Non cnim agri pacer, fi Chryfippo crediraus , h dicitur qui cum confevir quan- 
guam e leniine deinde truges nalcautur : as the Lutine Tranjlation moft abfurdly. For there is neither corn nor field' mr any 
feed belonging to them in the mrds a/Plutarcli.- But ^oeiov (not yauw) n the Secunda, the coat (or rather coat's, in the 
accepiton o/Chryfippus and the language of thofe times') in which the boetus k involved in tbemother^s womb. Tliough therefore 
both the Secunda and the hoecus be made of the feed of the male in the Phikjophy q/ Chryfippus, )et he « not called the Father of 
the after-birth, but of the child; the one being endued with life and reafon, and the other not. ^ Heb. 12. 9. ^ Jobzi, 7. ' Alts 
17.23. ^1*^^^3.38. ' Aialach. 2. 10. ' y i •/• . 

Unto this a£l of Creation is anriexed that of Confervation, by which God 
doth uphold and prelerve in being that which at firfb he made, and to which 
he gave its Being. As therefore it is the Duty of the Parent to educate and 
prelerve the Child, as that which had its Being from him ; fb this paternal 
education doth give the name of *f4/^er unto Man, and Confervation gives *-^'Eurtati,iu5 

^1 r ^ J " cbferves out of 

the fame to God. _ _ an ingenious e- 

Again,Redemption from a ftate of mifery,by which a people hath become 'ymohzift .- 
worfe than nothing, unto a happy condition, is a kind of Ge»er/ifw», which ^^XVilz 
joined with love,care,and indulgence in the Redeemer, is fufficient to found 7nf'a^-^V9p« 
a new Paternity, and give him another title of a Father. Well might Mofs '^^ '^ "' "^y 
tell the people oflfrael^no-w broughtout ofthelandof f^/// from their brick J/"^^^^' '^"i"^' 
and ftraw,unto theirQuails andManna,unto their Milk and Honey, ^ Is not he '^'^"t- 32- <*• 
thy Father that hath bought thee ? hath he not made thee, and ejlall/jhed thee ? 
Well might God fpeak unto tlie fame peopleas to '' hiiSon, evenhisf.rft horn, ^Exod.^.23. 
' Thus [aith the Lord thy Redeemer , and he that formed thee from the xvomh ; '/p. ..,2. 
Hearken unto me, houfe of Jacob, and all the remnant of the houfe oflfrael, tvhich 40- 3- 
are born by me from the belly, which are carried from the womb. And juft is the 
acknowledgment made by that people igftrufted by the Prophet, ^ Doubtlefs ^ift. 5j. ks. 
thou art our Father, though ^^braham be ignorant of ui,and Ifrael acknowledge us 
not ; thou, Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer, from tverlafting is thy Name. 
And thus another kind of paternal Relation of God unto thefbns of men is 
founded on a Reftitution or temporal Redeniption. 

Befides, if to be born caufeth Relation to rather , then to be born again 
maketh an addition of another : and if to generate foundeth, then to regene- 
rate addeth a Paternity. Now though we cannot enter thefecond time into our 
mothers womb, nor pafs through the fame door into the Scene of life again; 
yet we believe and are perfuaded, that * except a man be born again, he cannot *Joh. 5. j; 
fee the Kjngdom of God. A double birth there is, and the [| world confifls of || Tomm ho- 
two, the firll and the fecond man. And though the incorruptible feed be the "™jam^f,T 
Word ol God, and the dif penfers of it in fbme fenfe may fay>as S. PWfpake (imc homrncs* 
unto thcCorinthians, ^ 1 have begotten you through theGo/pel : yet he is the true ''"o- primuik 
Father, whofe Word it is, and that is God, even b the Father of lights, who of ^y^.^^^^'' 
his own will begat us with the word of truth. Thus '' ivhofvtver believtth that Jc- ' i o. 4. 15. 
fits is theChriJt^is bornofGod; which Regeneration is as it were a fecondCre- 'J"'"* '•''» 
ation : ' for we are God's workmanffjip , created in Chriji fefits unto good works. » ijoh. 5. 1. 
And he alone who did create us out of nothing>can beget us again.and make ' ^M- 2. i^ 

£ 2 us 


? Geiuio. I, ;. us of the new Creation. When Rachel cAkd to Jacoh, ^Give me children or 
clfe I die; he anfweredher fufficiently with this queftion,^/» linGod'sjlead? 
*0y -^ d/ll And if he only openeth the womb, who elfe can make the * Soul to bear ? 
■1-' p'"ryi,^'. Hence hath he tlie name of Father, and they of Sons who are born of him ; 
"XTa! ^iJ- and ih from that mternal aO: of fpiritual Regeneration anotlier title of pater- 
XVI' ^>iJfa< nity redoundeth unto the Divinity. 

'^'^^^fZif Nor is this the only fecond birth or fole Regeneration in a Chriftian 
dvlc[i( <ljilci<, {cnfe ; the Soul, which after its natural Being requires a birth into the life of 
)^ Ttiiiv t>- Grace,is alio after that born again into a life of Glory. Our Saviour puts us 
71^04 T* Kct- in mind of ^^e Regeneration, '' rvhen the Son of man (hall fit in the throne of hit 
Ki- Fhik di gig^y^ ji^g Rcfurreftion of our bodies is a kind of coming out of the womb 
^MM. 19.28. oftheearth, andentring upon immortality, a nativity into another life. For 
' Luke 20. c they which /ball be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the refttrreFlion 
^Rom^s 17. from the dead, arethefo»sofGvd,beingthefonsoftherefurreclion; and then as 
*Col.\ 24.' Tons, ^ they become heirs , coheirs with Chrifi , * receiving the fromife and re- 
Heb.9. 1 5. „^j.j^ of eternal inheritance. ^ Beloved, norv ive are the fans ofGod^ faitii S. 'John, 
'^Il'a !?«('£- even in this life by Regeneration, and it doth not yet appear , or, // hath not 
f »^«- beeri yet made mantfeft, what we {ball be ; but we know, that if he appear, ive 

/hall be like him : the manifeflation of the Father being a fufficient declara- 
tion of the condition of theSons,when the Sonfhip it felf confilkth in a fimi- 
[ 1 Pet. 1. 3,4. litude of the Father. And ^ ble/Jed be the God and Father of our Lord Jefus 
Chrifi , which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten m again unto a lively 
hope, by the RefurreElion ofJefmChriH from the dead ; to an inheritance incor^ 
ruptible and andefiled, and that /adeth not away, referved in heaven for w. Why 
may not then a fecond kind o{ Regeneration be thought a fit addition of this 
paternal relation ? 

Neither is there only a natural, but alfo a voluntary and civil, foundation 
of Paternity : for thcLaws have found a way by which a man may become a 
II Can injl. i. Father without procreation : and this imitation of Ij nature is called Adopti- 
Adopno"natu- on, taken in the general * fignification. Although therefore many ways God 
rx fimiiitudo be a Father, yet left any way might feem to exclude us from being his Sons, 
fiiium'hab^c' he hath made us fo alfo by Adoption. Others are wont to fly to this, as to a 
pofi'ic, qucm comfort of their fblitary condition, when either || Nature hath denied them, 
"^nR^ncravic. or death bereft them of their off-fpring. Whereas God doth it not for his 
^'a w.^zimm' ow"» but for our fakes ; nor is the advantage his, but ours, b Behold what 
<oe^zi< uinv- manner of Love the Father hath be/lowed upon us , that we /hould be called the. 
'^'"t^^JsT f^"^ of God ; that we, the Tons of difobedient and condemned Jdam by na- 
■nu(fi^v^isv tural generation, fhould be trandated into the glorious liberty of the fbns of 
^nvnM,\. God by Adoption ; that we, who were aliens, ftrangers and encmieSjfliould 
/. 1 1. ' ' be affumed '' unto the Father of our Lordjefm Chrifi, on whom all the * family 
^'HtfoSsCTi of heaven and earth is named, and be made partakersof ' the riches of the glory 
vt''>:X^rJ7- 9ff"^'"fjeritance in the Saints. For as in the legal Adoption, tiie Father hath 
^{•TliaV ouJth as II full and abfblute pov^er over his adopted fon as over his own ilTue ; fb in 
«»» i^iy.iv the fpiritual, the adopted fbns have a clear and undoubted right of inhcri- 

ovty.a, nf </tia • * " 

ifivffiTau, «< afgiyajiiva, )c, tW ln'oivutv Aj^o-rjiU'it. Theoph. ibid. ^C.iii Infi- 2. f/f. 5.§. 4. Spadones aiitcm, 
<]ui gencrare non pofTunt, adoptare jpoflunt ; & licet filios gencrarc non pofllnt,quos adopcavcrunt filios habere po(runt,'L'/;>, 
lit. §. 6. Hi qui gencrarc non polTunc, velut fpado, utroque modo polTunt adoptare. Idem juris ell in coelibc, Theoph. 
tit, II. 7vyjv ttK 'i-)(Ci Ti< rrauSdi Sia. tI (jlyi tKif-v iH yd.iJ.ov, 3 «a9s7c f^\ p.)) i'ejStmti7\acu J) n fro/ef OTs/JJ^ai 
fiiv, "imCdiMd^ 3 t«t»{, ri mc <# f,'j<n<i'( «AaT7t'jua » to (\nj.Ca.v /vru'^ii/i/a /Sb'ac/mV®" ^K.*^\fsJ ., tKadv ti{ 
t^Aaiuf ri»ci.^ Uonii Nn/el 27. 7oT{ ei7vy7j7V d-TriuSiav t^uttv (IvKm^Q- ii Jv^ytitjut >itx& n'tSsleTi&J o-ifsaarw, 
Z) yvijAn iiLiiya K]S,5^y ij.h d^-jogjv ha.Ciiv Tragji <? tpvcnaf. • I John j. i, •■ Eph ?. 15. * In alicnam familiam 
tranfitus, if the dcfi:riptim in A^ellius, l.$. 19. Ci»m in alienani familiam inque liberorum locum c>:tranti funiuotur, auc 
per pr*torem fit, aut per populum : quod per pritorem fit, adoptiodicitur; quod per populum, arrogatio, /*. ' Eph. j. 
18. II Ai appcArs out if the fyim ofRog.uion yet extant in thit wanner : Velitis, jiA)eatis, C^irites, uti Lucius Valerius Lucio 
Titio ram jure legcque Kilius fibi fiet, quam fi tx eo patre matrequc faniilias ejus natos effet, utiquc ci vie* nccifquc in eo 
potirrta* fiet, uti pacri endo filio eft ? lb. 


i Believe in God The Father. 


tance. He then who hath ^ predefiinated m unto the adoption of Children byje- ' ^/''-- •• 5- 
fui Chrifi to himfelf\ hath thereby another kind of paternal relation, and ^o 
we receive the '' Sprit of adoption whereby we cry^ Abba, Father. •• Rom-.irtf. 

The aeceflity of this faith tn (jod as in our Father appearcth, firft,in that it 
is the ground of all our filial k^r, honour and obedience due unto him upon 
this relation. '^ Honour thy Father is tht first Commandment with promife, writ- ' Epb.6, \i 2. 
ten in tables of ftonc with the finger of God ; and, children obey your parents 
in the Lord , is an Evangelical precept, but founded upon principles of 
reafon and juftice ; for this ii right, iaith S. Paul. And if there be llich a ratio- 
nal and legal obligation of honour and obedience to the fathers of our fiejby 
how much more muft we think our felves obliged to hirti whom we believe 
to be our heavenly and everlaUing Father ? ^ Afon hononreth his father., and a \MaUL\,6, 
fervant his majler. If then I be a fat her, where is my honour ? and if I be a ma- 
fter, where is my fear ? faith the Lord of hojls. If we be heirs, we mull; be co- 
heirs withChrid ; if Ions, we muft be brethren to the only.- begotten : but 
being he came not to do his own will, but the will of him that lent liim, he 
acknowledgeth no fraternity but with fuch as do the lame ; as he hath faid, 

' Whofoever fhall do the will of my bather which is in heaven , the fame is my "Man, 12. 
brother. If it be required ot a Bilhop in the Church of God, to be ^ one that e i^"',* '' ' 


rnleth well his own Houfe , having his Children in fubje^lion with all gravity ; i- AAiff. a.'a.' 
what obedience mull be due, what fiibieftion muft be paid, unto the Father ' ^^•'"•7. . 

of the family? ...... . 2.r°'^4W. 

The fame Relation in the Objedl: ot our Faith is the lite of our devotions, (rx,5fTior -ra- 
the expeftation of all our petitions. Chrift, who taught his difciples,and us ^T'* ^f^ 
in them, how to pray, propounded not the knowledge of God, though Itvcud,!'^^ 
without that he could not hear us ; neither reprefented he his power,though Bif^riivuy. 
without that he cannot help us ; but comprehended all in thisRelation, ^ When ^^™ '^-^ ,^j ^^. 
ye pray, fay, Our Father. This prevents all vain repetitions of our moft earneft ^^ yK^'TtU? 
defires, and gives us fuUfccurity to cut off all tautology ; for '' Our Fatijer ^f^'- 
knnweth what things we have need of before we ask him. This creates a clear '•■Meb. 


alTurance of a grant without miftake of our petition : ' What man is there of 9> jo. ^ 
us, who ifhisfon ask bread, will give him a flone ? or if he ask {ifb,will give him .^^^ ^onnj,]j^ 
afnptni P If we then who are evil know how to give good gifts unto our children ; crcdimusincu- 
ho.v much more [ball our Father which is in heaven give good things to them that "' 5"',^'§" 
ask him ? quam Domino 

Again, this paternity is the proper foundation of our Chriftian patience, priht-amus ? 
fweetning all affliQions with the name and nature of fatherly corredions. gi^,tuiiri"&" 
'' We have had fathers of our flejh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence : sauderc nos 
fhall we not much rather be in fubjelJion to the father of Spirits, and live ? efpe- ^^^^^ ^}^'^' 
cially confidering that they chajlened us after their ownpleaftrc ; but He for our catligationis. 
profit, that we might be partakers of his holinefs : they, as an argument of their £6", j"q»it, 
authority ; He,as an alTurance of his love ; they, that we might acknowledge )/"''(,. o'fcrv"m 
them to be our Parents ; He, that he may perfuadc us that vvc are his Sons : ilium beatum 
For whom the Lord loveth he chafleneth, and fcotirceth every [on whom he recti- f."^".^ cnienda- 
veth.And what greater mcitement unto thecxercileol patience is imaginable inibt, mi di- 
unto a fuffering foul, than to fee in every ftroak the hand of a Father, in e- K'latur irafci, 
very afflidion a dcmonftrationof his love? Or how canft thou repine, or be ^"ndi diifimu- 
guilty of the leaft degree of impaticncy, even in the fliarpeft correftions, if lationcnondc- 
* ihoitfhalt know with thine heart, that as a man chafleneth his f on, fo the Lord thy \l^pl^ '^"'"'' 
God chafleneth thee ? How canft thou not be comforted, and even rejoice in 'Dm.'s.i. 
the midft of thy greateftrufflTings,whenthouknoweft that he which ftrikcth 
pitietli,hc which afflicleth is as it were afflifted with it? ""for like as a father '"''Mio? ij. 
pitieth his children^ fo the Lord pitieth thtm that fear him. 



LaiHy, the fame Relation iirongly inierreth an abibkite neanTity of our 
imitation ; it being clearly vain to ailume the title of Son without any fimili- 
* UM-ti -y tude of the Father. What is the '<■ general notion of Generation but the pro- 
itw" W~* duclion of the like ; Nature, ambitious of perpetuity, driving to preferve the 
'Epip!i.hlr*^6. /pedes in the multiplication and fucceflionof individuals? And this flmilitude 
•*• confiftcth partly in elTentials, or the likenefs of nature ; partly in accidentals 

or the likenels in '' figure, *or afleftions. * Mam hegat a fan i» bis cmi like- 
^ JJ^*'^ j^ nefs, after his image : and can we imagine thofe the Tons of God wiiich are no 
fji;'<am^ Tci waylikchim? A fimilitudeofnaturewemull not, of figure we cannot pre- 
'^'VAr'iiht^de ^^'1^ ""f° •■ ^^ reiTiains then only that we bear fome likenefs in our aclions 
c7nerM. Ani-^ and atfeclions. ^ Be ye therefore followers, faith the Apofi;Ie,or rather imitatorsy 
mai.i. i.f.p. ofQo^^ as dear children. What he hath revealed of himfelf, that we muft ex- 
anmTfor^ib^ prefs within our feh. es. Thus God fpake unto the Children of //r/ie/ whom he 
& bonis. Eft in ftylcd his Son, "Tefljallbeholy.forlamholy. And the Apolile upon the fame 
cq^'uTpatrum" ground fpeaketh unto us, as to obedient children, ^ As he that hath called you 
\ ircu5,ner im- is holy^fo be ye holy in all >nanner ofconverfation. It is part of the general bene- 
beiium feroccs f^^ence and univerfal goodnefs of our God, that " he maketh his fun to rife on 
qu?la'"oiuni- the evil and on the good, and fndeth rain on the juji and on the unjufi. Thefe 
him. Hw.oii. impartial beams and fhowrs are but to fhew us what we 
'"^spixf.l^. ought to do , and to make us fruitful in the works of God ; for no other 
fi/^)i1si. Fiiii reatbn Chrifi hath given us this command, ^ love your enemies, blefs ther»that 
hominum funt, ^uyf^ jo-f^ do good to them that hate you, that ye may be the children of your Father 
ticilm°;quan- tvhich IS in heaven. No Other command did he give upon this ground, bur, 
do bene, filii /^g yt therefore merciful, as your Father is merciful. 

Dei. 6. AMi.m ^ * J ■> / 

I'fjl. 5a. ' Lev. n. 44 and 19. 2. /flii 20. 7. * 1 Pet. I i^. ' -Waff. 5. 44, .jj. yide S. Au^. in Pfitl. ico, 'JLulyd. p. 
Si.TiJIitudincm pjcris aftus indicenc foSolisi fimilitudo opcrk finiilicudinan indicct generis: aftus nomcn conlirmet, uc 
nomcn genus dcmonllret. Ax^tle Temp. Serm. 'j6. 

So neceflary is this faith in God as in our Father, both for direftion to the 
bell of a£lions, and for coniblarion in the worfl of conditions. 

But although this be very neceflary, yet is it not the princij:)3l or moft pro- 
per explication ofGod's Paternity. For as we find one perfbn in a more pecu- 
liar manner the Son ofGod; fo muft we look upon God as in a more peculiar 
'7?*. ic. 17. manner the Father of that Son. * I afcend unto my Father, and your Father^ 
cia/3«/V» jajj}^ Qur Saviour ; the fame of both but in a different manner, denoted by 
^.,)«;xVt- f ^""^ Article prefixed before the one, and not the other : which diftinftion in 
(f Cfiuv. //.tJ the original we may preferve by this tranflation, / afcend unto the Father of 
Jifcetl^ its^ zwf, and Father of you ; firif f/we, and then of you : not therefore his, becaufe 
article, there ours ; but therefore ours, becaufe his. Sofar we arc the fbns of God, as we 
leemi^fa ^^^ likcunto him ; and our fimilitude unto God confifleth in our conformity 
then: had the to the likcncls of his Son. ** For rvhom he did foreknmv, he alfo did predeflinate 
tntide beenpi. (g y^ conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firjl'born among ma- 
'/Js'!i7etlSd "^^''^f^^''^"- He the firft-born, and we fons, as brethren unto him: he*^-i;«- 
*j-.< fc:med pointed heir of all things, and we heirs of God,as joint-heirs rtith him. Thus God 
cMYs-Lt" '^ fi»( forth his Son, that tre might receive the adoption of Sons. And becaufe rve 
bi:n;prejJx:dto are Sons, God hath fcnt forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, 
lifJs^cTtilt ^^'^^'^''- % liis miffionare we adopted, and by his Spirit call we God our Fa- 


/iun/»7 7i iin>}.a.')f/.:Ytv. S.Chr\foft. ad locum. ° Rom. 8. 29. ' f/eb. 1. 2. '' Cd/ 4 4, 5, 6. Hoc facie Deus cx filii* 
Jioniinura filics Dei, quia ex filio t>ci Iccit Deus fUiurn hominii. S. /iK^. in Pfal. 51. 


1 Believe In God The Father. 51 

ther. So are we no longer ^ [trvants, but now fans 5 and. iffons, thin htirs of ' '^•'-''"- 4- 7- 
God^ but ftill through Cbrifl. 'Tis true indeed, that ^ both he that fancfifieth, "'Vrf.s. n. 
that is, Chrifi, and they ivho are fancfiftd, tliat is, iliithful Chriflians, cr? ^//(,/' 
o»e, the fame Father, the lame God ; for which canfe he is not ajb.imed to c^i'.l 
them brethren: yet are they '^ not all oniim after the fame manner, not the linjcHtdlife" 
^ many Sons like the Captain of their Salvation : but Chrifi tlie beloved, the aiictriiliusDci, 
firll-born, the only-begotten, the Son after a more peculiar and more excel- %J''ff'-" 
lent manner; the reft with relation unto and dependence on his Sonfliip ; as toUuu I ^fi.- 
givenunto him, "^ Behold 1, and the children which God hath given me ; as be- " «'^i^>' !<*/■■«• 
ing fo by faith in him , ^ For n-e are all the children of God by faith in Chrtsl Hf^'l^il"! ■'^ 
Jejm ; as receiving the right of Sonfliip from him. ^ For as many m nc-^ived y>.\i^ ^-Jy^ j^ 
him^ to them gave he power to become the fons of God. \\ Among all the foPiS *^5f<a,T8f*e- 
of God there is none like to that one Son of God. And if there be fb great ^s. cynLfiienf. 
a difparity in the Filiation, we mull make as great a difference in the corre- ^■'"■'''^•i- 
Ipondent relation. There is one degree of Sonfhip founded on Creation, and ^ ijki'. s'. ts'. 
tliat is theloweft-, as belonging unto all,both good and bad : another degree ^^i>- 2. 13' 
above that there is grounded upon Regeneration, or Adoption, belonging I'i^/;,^^^^^' 
only to the truly faithful in this life : and a third above the reit founded on liErgonemoin 
the Refurreftion, or Collation of the eternal inhcritanccjand the Similitude ^.'"^ Dcyimi- 
of God, appertaining to the Saintsalone in the world to come : For s we are oei^Tipfe'di- 
now the fons ofGod,and it doth not yet appear what ire jhall be ; but we knorv that fi"? <•(! filius 
when he ihall appear , we (hall be like him. And there is yet anot!ier decree S-'r '^^ "°^-'' 

PT--I- .■'',''•'. , ,-,-p ■' . . ^ (ti luiiius nlii 

or Filiation, or a greater cmmency and adinerent nature, appertaining pro- Dei: Stdquis 
perly to none of thefe, but to the true Son of God alone, who amongli all "l"^ '"■liiisDo- 
his brethren hath only received the title of his * own Son, and a fingular tc- Del ? I'l'ie uni- 
ftimony from Heaven, '' This is my beloved Son., even in the prefence of fchn cus, nos nmiii. 
the Baptilf,even in the midft oiMofes and Elias,(\v{\o arc certainly the fons of in''iiio'un"ra 
God by all the other three degrees of Filiation) and therefore hath called God iiie naais, nos 
after a peculiar way ' his own Father. And fb at laft we come unto the moft ''^°P""- '!'<: 
fingular and eminent paternal relation, '' tmto the God and Father of our Lord unigcnicus' per 
Jefiis Chrtfl., n>hich is bleffed for evermore; the Father of bim, and of us, but "■""'"•"'i' nos a 
not the Father of us as || of him. Chrijl hath taught us to fay. Our Father : pc"' g°a7ia'm 5 
a form of fpeech which he never ufed himfelf : fbmetimeshe calls him the Aii^' 
Father, fbmetimes ?w7 Father, fbmetimes /car, but never w/r; he makes no ^'/"'"l'^* 
fuch conjun£lion of us to himfelf, as to make no dilfinftion between us and Ut mTgniriarn.- 
himfelf ; fb conjoining us as to diflinguifh, though fb diltinguifhing as not t'J i^ei diie- 
to feparate us. aionisexcom- 

r paracionis ge- 

ncre nofccrecur, non pepercidc Pacrem proprio filio fuo docuic. Nee utiqiic proadoprandis adoptaco, neque pro creatis 
creaturjc: fed pro alienis fuo, pro connuncupandis proprio. Hilar.l. 6. dcTrin- '' yJ//ir. 5. 17. andi-j.'^. Anne ibi in eo 
quod dicitur. Hie eft, non hoc fignificarc videtur, Alios quideni cognominatosabco filios, fed IiIl filius mcus eft ; Donavi 
adopcionis pluriniis nomcn,fcd iftc milii filius eft ? Id. ' "J^bn 5. i8 Tra.Tifa. Ifiev "ihiyi r ■5-i'ov. "t t<.')'n 8.32-5< y. -rs itfti* 
Ci» ini'T.timlo. ' 2 Cor. II. 31. II Non ficut Clirifti pater, ita & noftri pjcer Nunquamcnini Ciiriftiis ita nos conjunxir, 
ut nullum diflinftionem facerec inter nos & fe. 111c enim filius aqualis pucri, ille artrnuscuni patrc, patricjuc coxtcrnus : 
Nos autem fa<fli per filium, adoptati per unicum. Proindc nunqnam auditum eft do ore Domini noftri Jelu Chiifti, cum 
ad difcipulos loqueretur, dixillc ilium de Deo fummo patrc fuo, Pater nofter; fed aut Pater incus dixit, aut Pattr vefter; 
ufqucadeo uc quodam loco poneret hac duo, Vado ad Veum meum, inquic, fy Deum \eftnim. (^ujrc non dixit Deum no- 
ftrum ? & patrem meum dixit, & patreni veftrum ; non dixit noftrum ? Sic jungit nc diftinguat, lie diftinguit ut non fe- 
jungat. llnum nos vulc efle in fe, unnm autem patrem & ic. S. Aug, in Joan.Tiait, 21. 

Indeed I conceive this, as the moft eminent notion ofGod's Paternity, fo 
the original and proper explication of this Article of the Creed .- and that not 
only bccaufe the ancient Fathers deliver no other cxpofition of it; but allb 
hecaufethat which I conceive to be the firfl: occafion,riie,and original of the 
Creed it fclf, requireth this as the proper interpretation. Immediately before 
the afcenfionof our Saviour, he laid unto his Apoliles , All power is given -w^f. 28. i3, 
tfnto me in heaven and in earth. Go yt therefore and teach all nations, baptizing ^' 


^2 ARTICLE 1. 

tkm in the mme of the Futhtr^ and of the Sc», and. of the holy Ghoft. From tliis 
» Anitt .wJEii- lacred Ibrm oF Baptifin did the Cliurch derive the * Rule of Faith, requiring 
cr'^.ddlrnacd t'l^ protefiioii of belief in the Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, before they could 
toCo>>ihmwt\- be baptised in their Name. When the Eunuch asked Phi/ipy ^ [ doth hin- 
TdfcTlui *-7i'- ^^^ ^,,g ^g he baptized ? Philip f^id. If thou believeji with all thine heart, thou 
9Ll'^u%' f»\yffi •• And when the l-Ainuch replied, J klieve that'JefusChnfi is the Son 
dyc^v i-jx-)r.- of God ; he l/.tptizid him. And before that, the Samxritans., '' when they be- J, ^ 
7©''tVxi;'I;» li^i^td Philip preaching the thiKgs concerning the kingdom of God, and the name ■ 
7.7< tau/T? ofjefus Chrijl, mere baptized, both men and tvomen. For as in the Acts of the _^\poI^lcs there is no more expreiTed than that they baptized "^ in the name of 
e«1eS ***' !/f/«-f ^l^xfi • lo is no more exprelTed of the Faith required in them who were 
rriylt Tu «9- jq be baptizcd, than to believe in the fame Name. But being the Father and 
S dui'^'ir ^'^<^ Holy Gholl were likcwife mentioned in the firft Inllitution, being the 
B?o/!^T-r1*-; of one dotli not exclude the other, being it is certain that from the 
T^tV, jt;?t'f, y\pc]ilcstimestlK names of all three wereufed; hence upon thcfameground 
'^:Ii-3'^. was required Faith, and a profelTion of belief in the Fatlier, the Son, and the 
.-.xV./.I.V.ii. [loly Ghoft. Again, as the Eunuch faid not fimply.I believe in the Son, bur, 
^xthTn' rhk ^ beliez-c that 'Jijus Christ is the Son of God, as a brief explication of that part 
cii-fjnn of cf the Inllicuiicn u liich lie had learned before of Phi/ip : lb they wlio were 
^//' '^^'T" converted unto Chriftianity were firft taught not the barenames.but the ex- 
cimL'lJ'of plications ar.d de!criptioriS of them in a brief, eade and familiar way ; w!)icli 
the Church bj wlicn they had rcndi cd, acknowledged, and profefled, they were baptized 
%Tm.f4m. '" ^^^Q^' And thefe being regularly and conllantly uled, made up the Rule 
//2.C.27. of Faith, that is, the C/efi^. The truth of which may fufficiently be made ap- 
jn the fime parent toanv who lliall ierioufly confider the conlfantpraQiceof theChurch, 

manner Eue- r , ^ A . 1 • i- 1- i i- • i ti 1 ■■ t- • 1 1 r- 

biiu ddixend Irom tliC fir ll Age unto tins prelent, ot dehvenng rlie Rule ot taith to thole 
hk Creed unto vviiich uetc to be baptized, and fo requiring of themfelves, or their Sureties, 
t-ue!Zd[dU ancxprefs recitation, profeiTion, or acknowledgment of the Creed. From 
and'dcduang't u'hcncc thisoblervatiou is propcrly dcduccablc ; That in what fenle the name 
£ '^'JT - of Fathtr is taken in the Form of Baptifm, in the fime it alio ought to be ta- 
« lSj&- 1 ** ken in this Article. And being nothing can be more clear than that, when it 
uy,-i.n'^.}>.-iv is faid. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, the notion of Father hath in 
JIi'"/4l^T«' this particular no other relation but to that Son whole name is joined with 
/tia9„7iv, «Ti, !iis ; and as we are baptized into no other Son of that Father, but that only- 
"Xl!u'llr ^^go'ittnChriji Jefus, ib into no Other Father, but the Father of that only- 
&c. jwr.Z'i. begotten : it foUoweth, that the proper explication ol the firft words of the 
c. 8. ne}d:r. />ef^ Js this, / belifve in God the Father cfChrifl lefi/s. 

I. I.e. 13. 

The fame k alf^ attedged by the Council of Antioch, under the Emperour Conjlantiw and Pope Julius. Socrat. I. 2. c 10. Ude S. 
/ in Epijh ad ubi^ue Crthid. Crat. contra Cregales SabeUii, ^ contra Ari.mos, ex Deo Dew. I'lde Bajll. de Spirit. S. 
Si HiiUMT.ql'erfisDial. I. 1. m-iteV^JriiM and Aih.wafmi ]ointty fpe.ili_thefe vwds : Credimus in Dciim Patrem Onmipo- 
tcntcm, & in Jcf.'.ni C!iri(K;ni hiliiim ejus, Dominuin noftrum, & in Spiririim S. Hxc eft fidei noftri Rcgula, quam coc- 
Icfti magillciioDominuitradidit Apoftolij, diccns, Itc, Bap:izacc,Zirc-. ^A7.3. 56,37. "Verfc 12. ' A7. 2. 7,i. and 
8. 16. and ic. 48. and 1^. 5. 

In vain then is that vulgar diftinftion applied unto the explication of the 
Cretd, whereby the Father is confidered both perfbnally, and clTentially : 
perfcnally,as the firfl in the glorious Trinity, with relation and oppofition to 
the Son ; elTentiallv,as comprehending the whole Trinity, Father, Son, and 
Hcly Ghcli. For tliat the Son is not here comprehendcfl m tlie Father is evi- 
dent, not only out of the original, or occafion, but alio from the very letter 
of the CV(e<^,vvh;ch teachcth us to belitve in God the Father, and in his Son; for 
if the Sc n were included in the Father, then were tlie Son tlie Fatlicr of him- 
Idf. As therefore when I fay, / believe in Jefus Chrifl his Son, I mull: necelTa- 
rily underftand the Son of that Father whom I mentioned in the firll: Article; 


1 Believe In God The Father. 


fb wlien I laid, I believe in God the * ¥.ither, I mull: as neceflarily ba under- ^p^crchmia- 
Itood of the Father of him whom I call hh Son in the fecond Article. '^'^^ F-iii intei- 

Novv as ic cannot be denied that God may feveral ways be faid to be the pius^^fupTadi' 
Fatlicr oi'O^r^jf ; firft, as he was begotten by the ^ Holy Ghoft of the Virgin fti- fie Imigo 
Mary; fecondlv, as he was fentby him with fpecial authority, as ^ the King ^,^|J^-'"f' 
on'; thirdly, as he was "^ railed from the dead, out of the womb of the 'Li(e"i/"'i. 
earth unto immortal life, and made heir of all things in his Father's houle : fb " 7-'>'-"' i°« 3<?.. 
muft we not doubt but, befides all theIe,God is the Father of that Son in a more f^// 1^' , , 
cmincntand peculiar manner,asheisandeverwas'*wiihGod,andGod:which 55. 
fliall be demonftrated fully in the fecond Article, when we come to fhe w how l-^^*" ^'}'n. 
Chrifr is the only-bcgottcn Son. And according unto this Paternity by way Qit/'^^A 
of Generation totally Divine, in which he who begetteth is God, and he i-^tTii?- i-^.v- 
which is begotten the fiime God, do we believe in God, as the eternal Father "ff",^''^,,!' 
of an eternal Son. Which Relation is co-xval with his Effence : fb that we riui '-^vmny- 
are not to imagine one without the other; but as we profefs him always f^^ °'^* ^"^ 
God, fo muft we acknowledge him || always Father, and that in a far more l^^l "^^'^"i- 
* proper manner than the fame title can be given to any Creature. Such is ^Q-.^-Oi-z/. 
the f^uftunnt condition of humane generation, and of thofa relations which fi'^i/'T™-^' 
arile horn thence, that he which is this day a fon, the next may prove a fa- ■)))?, i^ in^il 
ther, and within the fpace of one day more, without any real alteration in '^^^o< ^"v \x- 
himlclF, become neither fbn nor father, lofing one Relation by the death of ,^7,',?. fl-z^l! 
him that beaot him, and the other by the departure of him that was begotten Hiicf.62. 
by him. But in the Godhead theie Relations are more |i proper, becaufe fii™Deu's" 
lixed, the Father having never been a Son, the Son never becoming Father, iw nunqua fu- 
in reference to the fame kind of generation. icnon Pater, a 

° cjuotiliasnatus. 

Oennad. de Ecclef. dogm c. i. Credimus in Deum , cundem conficemur Patrera, ut eundcm femper liabiiilTe filiuin nos crc- 
daraus Chrjfol. Serm. ^^. Inert Deo piecas, eft in Deo femper affeftio , pacernicas permanec apud ilium ; femper ergo 
filfum fuille credas, nc pacrem femper non fuifle blafphemes. Id Serm.62. Advertice, quod cum Dei patris nomtn in Con- 
fell loiic ronjungit. ofttndit quod non ante Dtus efle ca-peric 8: poftea pater, fed fine ullo initio & Deus fcnipcr & pater eft. 

10 i!|3{ *« ifos V4). S. Athatiaf Vijp contvaAridms. \\ 'Etj juocik -f ■SioTtf]©- to Tftliif iC, to i|J< iaiici 1^ 'i^v a-fi- r^ 
p: )i ccv^s^i-TTyv ei irnLTiif h'yilcil Tif, dW iTtfu yiymv v3f> j^ •< iio* hkytltu-, a/A* iti^v hiy^cu Toji'if d'^E W div%fci>- 
•xay (ji» oa^eSj x.vtia( to Tajg^f iCj ui ofoja*. S Athanaf. Tom. i. fl^Tilf xweiaf, ot< nn xj ^H. acar-f Kj i^Jj Kvcicif, 
on fj.ii >^ TKt'liif. TO. y^ ii^»T££jt i KveJui, ort 1^ eiy-ptt. Greg Na^. Oral. 55. 

A farther rcafon of the propriety of God's Paternity appears from this, that 
he hath begotten a Son of thefame nature and elTence with himfelf, not only 
fptciHcally, but individually, as I fliall alfo demonftrate in the expofition of 
the fecond Article. For Generation being the produ£fion of the like, and 
that likenefs being the fimilitude of * fubftance ; where is the nearefl identity * Etiamfi fiiius 
of nature, there mull be alfb the moft proper Generation, and conlequently in°"quiburdam 
])e which gcnerareth, the moll proper Father. If tliereforeman, who by the fimiiis, in qui- 
benediftion of God given unto him at his firft creation in thefe words, ' Be |^^"jj^j|^" ''^^'^'.'; 
fruitful^ andmultiply, and repknijh the earth, begetteh a Son ^ in his own lil{e- umcn quia e- 
ntfs, afttr his image, that is, of the fame humane nature, of the fame fubftance '"'l^*-'" '"i^ftan- 
with him, ^whichif he did not, he fhould not according to the benedi6fion verusfi'i ills noil 
multiply himfelf or man atall,j with which fimilitude of nature many acci- potcft, &quii 
dental difparities may confift, if by this a£lof Generation lieobtaincth the )Icg"rj^eiufdem 
name of Father, becaufe, and in regard, of the fimilitude of his nature fu'jiijmix non 
in the Son ; how much more properly mull that name belong untoGod him- v°^^^^ ^ ^"&- 
Iclf, who hath begotten a Son of a nature and elfencc fb totally like, fb to- c. '1*5?" 
tally the lame, that no accidental difparity can imaginably confifl with that i^tdcUo. sum. 

i.J-rrirv? M.-^/wf?. ?^ 

^^^1'"'^} ■ m.2.adqi,.r,t. 

[Gen. I. 23. ''Crn. 5.3. 

P That 

3 + 



That God is the proper and eternal Father of his own eternal Son is no^v 
A > . . declared : what is the eminency or cxcelicncy-of this Relation iblloweth to 

nVTi 70 0- - 1 1 T /- r 1 I !• 1 • I -It 

vixt n "a- beconfidered.Ingeneral then we may lately obkrve, that in tlie very ^ name 
Vf f^^C'^^^ of Father there is Ibmcthing of eminence w hich is not in that of Son ; and 
^c!*77W./.". fomc kind of priority we mult afcribeunto him whom we call the ind; in 
c. 8. infciiaiiir rclpcQ of him \v horn we term the fecond Perfon : and as we cannot but 
S'riraVinfi''" aictibc it, 16 mull we endeavour to 1| prelerve it. 

lio nativitas.s. Now that priviledge or "* priority confifteth not in this, that the eflence or 
nfi"''^' ■ iu ' ^ft' '^"•'t'^s of the one are greater than theelTcnce or attributes of the otiier ; 
lift-r^SuK^' (for we fhall hereafter dcmonllrate them to be the fame in both) but only 
Of tt?ia/n=t f u- in this, that the Father hath that elTence of hirafclf, theSonby communica- 
vl'^'fiWal'^ ^''^" ^°"^ ^^^^ Father. From whence he acknowledgeth that he is "from him, 
■r auTiov A4- that he '' /i'Veth by him, that the "^ Father gave htm to have life in himfelf, and 
^"'Jth ^'r' g<-'n^'"a"y icferreth all things to him, as received from him. Whereforein this 
Tuc.l^ ^^' lenle fomc of the Ancients have notffuck to interpret thofe words, '^ the fa.;- 
**H^»;< -5 K->.- ther is greater than I, of Chriflas the Sonof God, as the fecond Perfon in the 
L*T^ ''^rr^< l^l^i^^d Trinity ; but ftill with reference not unto his ElTence, but his Gene- 
ra jf oji^ ration, by which he is underftood to have his Being from the Father, who 
Sftw, T.:V only ]iaj-ii it; of himfelf, and is the original of all power and effcnce in the 

"^^rtJt'^^^l- Son. ' Jean of mint own felf do nothing, faith our Saviour, || becaufejie is not 
/4o\ )(Po T«( of himfelf; and whofbever receives his Being, mufl; receive his power from 
'TiictT/*^v 'Another, cipccially where the elTence and the power are undeniably the fame, 
Bafil.nm.En- as in God they are. ^ The Son then can do nothing of himfelf but xvhathe fteththe 
mw./. u J^ W;er ^y, becaufe he hath no* power of himfelf, but what the Father gave: 

"John 6. $7. ' John 5. 26. '' John 1 4. 28. fj-tilav, MWti', i fxiyi^H rni iji ;^6»w , «M* </)tt Tiiy i^tuJH n rra^if ©- yit- 
I KjTf. S. Alhaiiif. contra Arianos, I. 2. ht^-Jilaj 7»i»tu) xj" t thj aiTia< K'oyov ai]aZ9ct to nHl^av Asjti^ , kiinJ^ ^ &» rx 
•Kctlf^ii II i-tX" '^ ^?) yS* ''^To f/f<^<vi' '. Tjt^Hf , aJf tun®- 19 *PVij- Hi 'lyo Kvti !?- « wec/O varnf fj.v /i/»!^<iir |uk S2i k«9o 
Tcniif /oAovcT/ • Ti 'j TaTTif Ti £>Ko Qiffxwn, » k'x' '■o '"■'■let il) ly a'f X" ^ '5 'UJ'''' ';^jynQ'it]&' i S- Bafil. cont. Eunom. 
1. 1. And the ftme S.BiM doth not only aclyowkdge this to be true inreffell of the Dhine Nature of Chrij}, but thinl^th the Divinity 
ej'the Son ma) be proved from hence. '£•)« '^ ^ i^. ravrttt t« ^iictif, to ouoirtw V^ t vJc to Tojet <AiA.«o5j ■Ti-jU<djK:f.. ral 
yi Qvyye'ffns tlJir- xi/e'&'f "sSj rf^ 7V( ajJTnf jt/jKjf j/i'ouVa<' afyif^oy ^ dfyiw Atj^ioV nf^C"''*' '9 (ti'^pwTOc dvQfarts 
tf)K<i'i,Ti(:v, «, TJiiKiv t]hi'S TttyuTiffy. H Toil luj aJ QvyKexaHf i^ ^ oij.onJSv jitovjyj, ixti^oi' j xj' Qjyy.ei(ni' ttfnjaj 
Tij/iV ''^ u<i ofidiffi'S' T7.) Tttlei !. i/of. Ad Cijiirienfes EpiJ}. 141. ToiufJ^of^ S?t T«f air'tat, re 'j lavy r^f fj(na><. Mar. 
Oral. 5s. Z7 (7r(tf. 4>?^ » vj" tmh ^usne tJ //«^o:', ;^ tW cuTi'«ti' /e. K/«'t' £/;/■/; /n yJ/irur. c 17. h •;} At'yo/ T/f /xw^oca Ij) r 
Tttltf » K^Sa (UTi^ T i|<, i/i 7-.-7o d/JifS/jii/J- S. Chr\f. Homil. in Joan.",'^. ]ff^ Ttiyo-tSy r(f} ^ rm iaiat h'oye* lireifyuy 

Fatri, cxccpco co qi;6d illc iiipaiiu:s eft, S: iftc gcnitus. De Trinit. I. 1 1. Idco totum quod habec, quod poteft, iion tribuic 
Tilii, fed ratri, quia non eft a icipfo, (cd a Patre. Aiqualis eft enim Pacri, fed hoc quoque acccpic a Patrc. S. Aug. Epifi. 66. 
Nccellccftquodammodo prior lit, qua I'ater (It; quoniam antcrcdat ncceirccft cumq liliabctorigincm, illequi oiigincm 
iitfcit. Siniul ut hie minor fir, dum in illo cllc fc fcit, habcns origincm, quia nafcitur. Novatianw. Major itaq; Pater filio 
eft, & plane iiiajor, ciii tantum donat clTc quantus ipfc eft, cui innafcibihtatis ettc inugincin facramento nativitatis impcrtit, 
qucm ex (c in forma fua gtnerat. S. ae Trin. I. 9. Non praftantcm quenquam cuiquam generc fubftanti*, fed fubjcftum 
.ilcerum alteri iiativitatc natiira- : Patrcm in eo majorem cfle quod Pater eft, bilium in co non minorem clfc quod filius fit. 
Id. de .V>H f ,;;(/<i Aiianis, Quis Patrcm non potiorem confitebitur ut iiigenitum .1 genito , ut Pattern i filio, ut Cum qui mi- 
Icrit ab to qui milfus eft, ut volcntcm ah ipfo qui obediac? fe ipfe nobis tcftis eft, Pater ma]ot me cii. Id. dc Trin. /. 5. In 
CO ouod in fcfc fiint Dei , ts Deo Diviiiitatcm cognolcc ; in co vcro quod Pater major ej}, eonlcd'ioncm paterni authoritatis 
intcIHgc. Id. An. And before all thefe Alexander Biflnp o/Alexandria ; To 3 <t>^u'i'ii]oi' -t&5 ■Trd.'i&i ix-'vot )cA'«//« -xi^nteu <A'- 
VA^ofls*, a.Ti p lif aZn za.VKo\]& ri o^t^(& , 'O Tttjiif ixk ijieiC,av //» ajj. Theodor. H:l}. I. \.c. 4. Laflly, rve have the te- 
Jtimon; oj Ihotiu;, that man) of the ancient Fathers fi expounded it: Tlui'O -jrali'if fm (/»i^\»' /xv <>?7, ri iijify^Kiii p'vlui, 
lAxfifac ci -ra'n^u iiu?/ 'ocf^^'t'fir ■ cl /5' yl( toLin -ni cuTro fjifi^orei Hf7\^. Epiji. 175. yKqiialis I'atri ; fed major 
Patcr,quod ipfc dedit ipfi omnia, & caiifa eft ipfi ^ilio ut (it, ut ifto modo fit. I'lilor.Afr. I. i. Pater, inquit, ma]or meed; 
mcrito major, quia folus hie aurtor line aurtorc eft. ;'/;jp/W/m. ' John 5. 50. 19. ||C^icquid filius liabctuttaciat, il Parre iia- 
bct ut Ijciat. t^uarc lu'.Kt a Patrc ut faciat ? quia a Patrc habet ut I- ilius ("it ; quia a Patrc habet ut poflit ; quia a Patre habct 
ut (it. A. Aug. Trail. 20 m Joan * Non alia potentia eft in Filio, & alia fubftantia -, fed ipfa eft potcntia qua: fubfbntia ; fub- 
ilantia ut t:t, potcntia ut pclTit. Ergo quia b ilius dc Patre eft, idco dixit, Konpotcfi Pilius afefacere ijuicquam: quia non eft 
filius il fc, idco non potcft a fc lb. Totum quod eft, dc Patrc eft ; totum quod potcft, dc Patrc eft ; quoniam q nod pottft & 
eft, dc Patrc totum eft. Ih. Non potcft Filius i fc faccrc quicquam, nifi quod vidcrit Patrcm facicnani : quia de Patrc eft to- 
rus Filiuf, & tora fubftantia & potcntia ejus ex illo eft qui gcnuit eum. Id. Trail, 2 1. Et primiim (• ilium cognofcc,cuni dicitur, 
Kcjipoteji hiliM ,i Je Jacere -juicjuam, iiiji 'jiiodviderit P.itremf.icicntcm. Habes nativitatem Filii, qua;ab fc nihil potcft faccrc 
nifi vidcac. In Co autcm quoil ii fc nihil potcft, innafcibilitatis adimit crrorcm. Abfe cnim non potcft polfc nacivitas. .i. Ni- dilrin. 1. 7. Dum non ii fc facit, ad id quod agit fecundum nativitatem (ibi Pater autor eft. td.l 11. Autorem dilcrcvic, 
c^mm, tionpate^ a fe facere : Obcdicntiani (ignificat, cuni addit, Nifi quod xidcnt P.urem fidemem. Id. de Sjii. 


1 Believe In GodTheFathePi. 


and being he gave him all the power, as communicating his entire and undi- 
vided Ellcnce, therefore rvhat things foLverhe doth^ thtjt aljo doth the SonUke-, 
wifty by the fame power by which the Father worketh, becaule he had re- 
ceived tiie fame Godnead in which the Father fubfiiteth. There is nothing 
more intimate and elTential to any thing than the lite thereof, and that in no- 
thing fb confpicuous as in the Godhead, where hie and truth are fb inlepara- 
ble, that there can be no living God but the true, no true God but the li- 
ving. ^ Iht Lord is the true God, he is the living God, and an everUJUng K^'no, '7^f- lo. lo. 
laith the Prophet jeremy; and S. Paul puttetli the TheJJalonians in mind, how » jj^'^ j/.* 
they ^ turned from idols, to (erve the living and true God. Now life is other- Sicuc habec Pa- 
wile in God than in the Creatures : in him originally, in them derivatively ; meT"T"d^' 
in him as in the fountain of ablblute perfcdion, in them by way ofdepen- die & HibvU 
tlence and participation ; our life is in him, but his is in himfelf; and ^ as the "'" ^^?^"^ '» 
Father hath life in himfelf, fo hath he given to the Son to have life in himfelf: hoTlolh^m in- 
II both the fame life, both in themfelves, both in the fame degree, 4/ the one, terfic inter Pa- 
yi>the other; but only with this difference, the Father givethit.and the Son qu™ pffcr"™'- 
receiveth it. From whence he profeffeth of himfelf, that the living Father fent betvitam infe- 

him, and that he liveth ^ by the Father. metipfo quam 

nemo ei dcdic. 
Filius autcmliabccviramin femetipfo quam Pater dedit. S. Aug. TraS. ii^.injoh. Incommutabilis efi vita Filii ficut & Pa- 
triSjSi: taraen de Patre ert :& inkparabilisefi: optratio Patris& Ulii; fed tamenitacperari liliodeilloeft dequoipfeeft, 
id eft, de Patre. Id. dc Trin. I. 2. c. 1. ||Sicuthabct, dcdit ; qualcni habet ded't; quantam habec, tantam dedit. Li. contra 
Jitaxim.l.^.c. 14. Ergo quod dicitura'tVir ji/w, tale eO aclidiceretur, genuic filium ; gcnerandocnim dedic. Qiiomodo 
enim dcdit lit edet, He dedit ut vita eirtc,S: fie dedit ut in lemctipfo vita cHer. Id.Traii. 22-inJv]. Tali coiiftflTione ori- 
gitiii lux indifcrctA'iiatura; perfefta nativitas eft:- C^uod enim in utroque vita eft, id inutrcque lignificatureftentia; & vita 
qui:generatut ex vita, id eft, clfentia qux> de cflcntia nafcitur, dum non didimiiis naftiiur,rcilicct quia vitacx vica eft, tenet 
in fe indifliiiiilcm naturam originis fui', quia & nati' & gignenciselfentia, id eft, vitSE qux habc;ur & data eft, limilitudo non 
difcrepet. S. Hilar, de. Spwd. adverf. Ariams. C>uia ergo apparec vita Patris hoc efle quod ipfe eft ; firut iiahet vitam in fe^ 
fie dedic ; fic dedit bilio liaberc virana, id eft, ftc eft elTe bilii, ficut effc Patris. Vigil. Ajric.tmts Difpm. In vita naturi' & 
eflenti.v fignificatio eft, qisx ficut habetur, ita data efle docetur ad habendum. S. H:lar. rb. * Propter Pattern vivat Filius, 
quod ex Patre Filius eft : propter Patrem, quod eruftacuni eft verbum ex Patris corde, quod a Patre procclfit, quod ex pa- 
terno generatus eft utcro, quod fens Pater Filii eft, quod radix Pater Filii eft. S- Ambroj. de Fide, 1. 4. c. 5. 

We muft not therefore fb far endeavour to involve our felves in the dark- 
nefs of this myfl;ery, as to deny that glory which is clearly due unto the Fa- 
ther jwhofe preeminence undeniably confiffeth in this, that he is God not 
ofany other, but of himfelf, and that there is no other perfbn who is God, 
but is God of himfelf. It is no diminution to the Son, to fay he is from ano- 
ther, for his very name imports as much ; but it were a diminution to the 
Father to fpeak u) of him.* and there muft be fome preeminence, where there ^ 
is place for derogation. * What the Father is, he is from none ; what the lo patre, Fililis 
Son is, he is from him: what the firft is, hegiveth; what the fecond is, he ''e Deo Patre : 
receivcth. The firft is a Father indeed by reafon of his Son, but he is not ^''7,[i?io"'e'(f ■ 
God by reafbn of him ; whereas the Son is not fb only in regard of the Fa- quodauccmPa- 
ther, but alfb God by reafon of the fame. '".^'^'P'PP"^.'" 

' ■' Filium eft. Fi- 

lius vero& quod filius eft, propter Pacrem eft, & quod eft, a Patre eft. S. Aug. Irtiif. i^.injoh. Filiuro dicimusDeum 
de Deo, Patrem autcm Dcum tantiiiii, non de Deo, Unde nianitcftum eft quod Filius habet alium dc quo fit, & cui filius 
eft; Pater autem non filiumdc quo fit habcat, fed cui Pater fic. Omnis cnim filius de patre eft quod eft, *: patri filius eft : 
nullus autem pater dcfilio eft quod eft /./. dcTrin. I. 1. c. i. Filius non hoc tantiiin habet nafcendo, ut Filius fit, fed 
omnino uc fic. lb, I. 5 c. 14. Filius non cantiim ut fic Filius quod relative dicitur, fed omnino ut fit, ipfam fubftaiitiaiii 
nafcendo habet. lbid.c.i<,. Pater non habet pattern dc quo fit, Filius autem dc Patre eft ut fit, acquc ut illi cc-i'ternus 
fic. Ibid. I 6.c.-io. Ab ipfo, inquh, fiim; quia Filius de Pacrc , & quicquid eft filius , de illo eft cujus eft Filius. Ideo 
Dominum Jedim diciinus Deum de Deo, Patrem non dicimus Dcum de Deo : &. dicimus Dominum Jefum lumen de lumiiic, 
Pai rem non dicimus lumen deluminc, fed tantiiin lumen. Ad iioc ergo pertinct quod dixie , >li tpfo fiim. Id T>,t!L in 
Job. 51. Pacer non eft fi non habeat Filium, & I'ilius non eft fi non habcat Patrem : fed tanicn Filius Dcus de Patre, Pater 
autem Dcus, fed non dc Filio : Pater Filii, non Dcus dc Filio ; illc autem Filius Patris, & Deus dc Patre. /./. Tr.ill. 30. in 
Job. Hoc tamen inter Patrem & Filium intcreft, quia Pater a nullo hoc aeccpit, Filius autcm per gencrationem omnii 
Patris acccpit. Ambr.inEpift.adFfh.cj, Eft ergo Dcus Pater omnium , iimitutor & creator, folus originemncfciens. 
Kiviit. de Trinit c.^i. vphereas he [peak? oftef 'he Son , Eft ergo Deus , fed in hoc ipfura gcnicus, ut clTec Dcus. Pacer eft 
Dins dc quo Filius eft Dcus, de quo autem Pater nullus eft Dcus. S. Ah^. Epift. 66. 

F 2 Upon' 



Upon this preeminence (as I conceive) may fafely be grounded the con- 

gruity of the Divine MilTion. We often read that Chrilt was lent, from 

/'f>. ?. I. whence he bears the name of an Jpoftle himfelf, as well as thofe whom he 

John 20. 21. therefore named lb, becaufeas the Father fent himjoftnt he them : The Holy 

Ghoft is alfo laid to be lent, Ibmetimes by the Father, fometimes by the Son : 

* Pater cnim But we * ncvcr read that the Father was fent at all, there being an || authori- 
[cSurmiifuT ^y ^" ^'^^^ Name which feemsinconfiftent with this MilTion. In the Parable, 
J'. Aug. I. ^ a certain honjJjolder which planted a vineyard fir ft fent his fervants to the hitf- 
Jnn. f 5. bandman, and again other ftrvants, but laft of all he Jent unto them his Son :\t 
non legicur had bccn inconliftcnt even with the literal fenfe of an hiliorical Parable, as not 
miiTus, quufo- at aH confonant to the rational cuftoms of men, to have faid, that laft of all 
autho°rcm''i^^ the Son fent his Father to them. So God, placing man in the Vineyard of his 
quo genitus fir, Cliutch, firft fcnt his lervants the Prophets, by whom he ^ fpake at fundry times 
vcl Jquo pro- ^,^^ ^^^ diver s manners; but in the lajl days he fent his Son: And it were as 
non"'proptcr'^° * incongruous and inconfiffent with the Divine Generation, that the Son 
luturcdivcrH- fliould icnd the Father into the world. ' As the living Father hath fent me^ and 
puT"Vp'fanf au- ^ ^'^'^ h ^^'^ Father^ faith our Saviour ; intimating, that by whom he lived, by 
thorincciii, fo- him he was fent, and therefore fent by him becaufe he lived by him, laying 
Iu5 I'atcr non |^j Generation as the proper ground of his MilTion. Thus he which beoetteth 

ilicitur millus: ^ , , , , 1 • f • .i 1 ■ r a r 1 r 1 ■ 11 1 1 

non enim fendeth, and he which is |1 begotten is lent. '^ ror I am from him, and he hath 
ipicndor auc J^fjt rne, faith the Son : from whom I received my Effenceby communication, 
fcd'ignis mitlit ^^om him alfo received I this Commiffion. As therefore it is more worthy to 
live fpicndo- give than to recei ve,to fend than to be fent ; lb in refpeft of the Sonfhip there is 
rem ''^^^^'^rvo J^j^^ priority in the Divine Paternity : from whence divers of the '^ Ancients 
Serm. cmr. A- read that place of S. 'John with this addition, * The Father (which fent me) is 
>/<w. C.4. c^ui grtdter than I. He then is that ^ God who fent forth his Son made of a. woman, that 
tcm 'Vua°m in ^c^ who hath fent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father^ 
to qucd mic So that the authority offending is in the Father : which therefore ought to 
^s^Hdll'^T^l' ^^ acknowledged, becaufe upon this Miflion is founded the highelf telHmony 
'Atof. 21. 33', of his love to man; for herein is love^ faith S. John, not that «e loved God^ but 
^'■- , that he loved us, and fent his Son to be the propitiation for our (ins. 

^ Heb. I. I, 2. ' -^ ' '^ •* ^ 

* Si voluidcc Dcus Pacer per fubjcLUm creaturam vifibilitcr apparerc, abfurdinfimc tamen aut a Filio,. queni genuit, ant \ 
Spiriru Sanfto, qui dc illo procedir, midus dicerctur. S. Augujl. di Irinit. lib 4. c.i;> nit. ' John 6. 57. |j Filius eft 
igicur i I'atre miffus, non Pater a liiio; quia Filius eft i Patre natus, non Pater a Filio. Fulgent. I, 8. contrtt Fabia- 
num , in CotUH. Thodul- de S. S. Quis autcm ChrifUanus ignorac quod Pater miferit , miiriifque fit Filius? Ncn 
cnim genitorcm ab co quern genuit, fed genitum a genitolrc mitti oportebac S. AugHjiin. contra Alaximin- lib 5. 
f. 14. Ubi audis, Iffe we mifit , noli intdligere nature dilTimilitudincm, fed generantis authoritatem. Idem Trait, 
31. in Job. 'Eyiajj'ia. sy a 4rer6iAc« x) '^irwfD^'ofjSfJ^, Ira Ai^if tV Ttttlay ayaiSy lAav ^ ■f 'T})ym; Tis7ifj t 
Il<tT4f^- Epiph. Hsrtf. 6f. 54. Hence thi language of the Schools, Miflfio importac procefliontm originis, as Thvn. A^uin. 
10. q. 43. art. i. adprimum; oc authoritatem priocipii, as Durand, I. i.difl. lyq. i. ^ Johni. 29- * Ai>«fj j^tf 7i fmiyfi 
Eua-jj-sAlii Kaxat ifutivJiii'lif, oTi i iirrwAa^ ^t irctrrt ^'i^mf fu 5}i, Jaith Epiphanius of the Arians ; and anlwcring.,gi-ants 
in tnefe words which folhw, t^ rrfSriy fJ/i i ^r^?^at fit tcitm^, ipdfKM, K^i^i >C\'\ira( )xt. Hirtf. 69. $J. To the fame 
purpol'e Athanaf. de Hum. A'.if . fufc. is; Cyril. Theftur. I. 11. read it, ««ju4<« M« -Tra/rnf. and S. Bafil mal^s Eunomius read 
it fo, in his firjl Bn\^ ag.tinil him, and with that addition anfwers it. So the fccond Confeffion of the Council of Sirmiuni, botb in the 
iMiHc O'iginal, and Crr f ^ Tranjlation. S. Hilar, de S)n. S. Athanaf ix Socr. /. 2. c. 3. • Job. 14. 28. ' Col. 4. 4. 

Again, the dignity of the Father will farther yet appear from the order of 

the Perfbns in the bleffed Trinity, of which he is undoubtedly the firll. For 

although in fome palfages of the Apoffolical difcourfes the Son may firft be 

iCur. 13. 14. named, (as in that of S. Paul^ The grace of our Lord Jeftts Chrifi, and the love 

ofGod,and the communion of the holy Ghoji be with you 4//,the latter part of which 

is nothing but an addition unto his conftant Benediftion ;) and in others the 

1 C;». 12.4, 5, Holy Ghofl precedes the Son (^s,Now there are diverfities of gifts, but the fame 

^' Spirit ) and there are differences of adminifl rat ions, hut the fame Lord ; and there 

are diver f ties of operations , but it is the fame God which worketh all in all : ) 

yet where the three Pcrfonsare barely enumerated, and delivered unto us as 


1 Believe In God The Father. 


the ''^ Rule of Faith, there that order is obferved which is proper to them ; * nn.^^-DJ'if 
witneli. the form of Baptifm w the name of the Father, and of the So/j, and of ' ^""^'^ T'^ 
the Holy Ghoji ; wliich order hath been perpetuated in all ConfelTions of tJ< (j.a.',n-i<ij- 
l^aith, and is for ever 'J inviolably to be oblcrved. For that which is not in- <i4>/'<;/(-T^''Ao; 
ftituted or invented by the will or defign of man, but * founded in the nature ]l''^c!$^^. 
of things themfelves, is not to be altered at the pieafure of man. Now this ►*»/" ri 
priority doth properly and naturally relult from the Divine Paternity ; fo that '^^^'^'■'^, ''g^l 
the Son muft neceflarily be ]| fecond unto the Father, from whom he receiveth £/.//"?. go. 
hisori2;ination,andthe Holy Ghoft unto the Son. Neither can we be thought irA<;t()7»('_ )^ 

to want a fufficient foundation for this priority of thefirrtPerfbn of the Tri- 
nity, if we look upon the numerous teftimonies of the ancient Doftors of the ^<y<T^Vf< Tto> 
Church, who have not ftuck to call the Father the * origin, 11 the caufe, f^"'^"*,'*" ^ 

contr.i Eimvn. 1.7,. Si unum Deum fingulariter nominamus, excludentes vocabulum fecundsE peribna', turorem ejus hircfis ap- 
probamiis qui ipfum alTeric Pacreni pafTim. Phxbnd. contra Arian. Illi ciii eft in Hlio fecunda perrona,cft & tertia in Spiricu 
Sanfto. U. Sic alius j tilio Spiritus, ficuc a Fatrc bilius : fic tercia in Spiritu, uc in Filio fecunda perfoiia. Ibid. O-iine quod 
prodic ex aliquo, fccundum fit ejus necelFe eft de quo prodit, non camen eft feparatum. Secundus autcm ubi eft, duo (unc ; 
&tcrtius ubi eft, tics func : terciusenim eft Spiritus aDeo& Filio. Tertnl. adverf. Praxeam, c. 8. Sicaiium a fc Paracietum 
quoinodo &nosa I'atre alium Filium : ut tcrtiumgradumoftcnderet inParacleto,ficucnosfecundum in tilio. 7iii/. c. o. Hie 
interim acceptum a Patre munus effudit Spiritum Sandum, tcrtium numen divinitatis, & tertium nomen Majeftatis. C,rp. 20. 
*0 J^iuJiny^iPvofUiUt /tfVsf ©- «" Sfii' i)o« Kit3i^Ki, mt£ji rk -rttlg); i^ri Vi) <,To7o< /i 17) wAiijrJf. Enft'b. Dcm. Ei.w, 
/.4.C.5. Ec quidem confeflione comniuni fecunda quidem ab aucore nativitas eft, quia ex Deo eft •, non tamen leparabilisab au- 
tore,quia in quantum fenfus nofter intelligcntiam tencabit excedere,in tantum necefle eft etiam generatio cxccdac. S. fJiU,-. 
di' Trinit. 1. 1 2. Tua enim res eft, & unigenitus tuus eft filius, ex te Deo Patre Deus verus, & a ce in nature tux veritatc genitus 
port te ita confitendus, ut tecum, quia iternSE originis fuse es author sternus. Nam dum ex te eft, fecundus a te eft. Id. Tb^ 
b) the Schools is cdled ordo nature, ordo originis, ordo nacuralis prifuppofitionis. Which being fo generally acl(notvledged by the 
fathers, when we read in the Athanafian Creed, In this Trinity none is afore or after other, rve mufi underfiand it of the priority 
ofpnfe^ion,ortime. * UiKfay y6ivtin ly dLva-^iav if}(^i fxt>}^ov j ixiKf~< t» tyivx^itK, |U» ■9-toT»7-3" ac df/ri 1^ dyt.'ih- 
TnlQ- 'f u ij'i <J Tf^/xa-Ti ^iaf\s/Jpn{. Naz^. Orat. 1. CT 29. Hu^oviKh *f x"'' '^ M" ȣa7^<^"?it riyof \ijfilrji , ci.}^^ 

a-yfovov dfX** '>**'""'■- TToJe^^t* *f5c'' j^Si/Ja^^^ocQ-, a.VaT<t\«Tj3-. S.Cyril. Hier.Catecb. 1 1. 'Af^^i; u1vr^c„( 
iJ\y.\a.,itx^\'i t'i iJ?o Tuliif. S.BafiLcontra Eunom. I. 1. ^iay{\<u KofTrlv (/«**£<©- Evx.yyt\i^( C'^tk^ecy iuiy Ipuh- 
yj,vy TO '? if/iK ovo!xu..KfiyyaftT*(fV,a( HiiU,^f df)(lu» nyai ptim ri auiiv t rictjifix, «j' i j^ i I^Sv 'iK^ijL-\.i 
Aov®-. xaSx'a^ '<J^ fih'm ri ^a(. vK*ya.iX^ -mf Tiw flo'Ti'if ; S. Cyril Alex. Tliefaur.c. 32. Ciim dixilfet, quern mittet 
Pater, addidit, in nomine meo : non tamen dixit,7«cm mittet Paler a me, quemadmodum dixie, quem ego miitam vobit a Patre ; 
vix. oftendens quod totius Divinitatis, ve!, fi melius dicitur, Deitatis, principium Pater eft, S. Aug. de Trin. I. 4. c. 20. Unum 
principium ad creaturam dicitur Deus, non duo vcl tria principia. Ad fe autem invicem in Trinitate, fi gignens ad id quod 
gignitur principium eft, Pater ad Filium principium eft, quia gignit eum. S. Trin.l.'^.c.i^.. I'atcr ergo principium Dei- 
tatis, Ecclef.Dogmat. c. i, Inthiffenfe the Greek^Fathers ufedaiydifx'^^ asproperto the Father, (inthefime mtionrvitly 
d-^uynrQ- ^ with relation to the ^■smd^\\im^roA\x6tiOTiii,) and denied it to the Son: 'O ;J 4^<' iiv ft at alriov rovw/Jif>gi 
?^iit.u.Cdvif<,vx.iyufx&'d.fX'' ><^m'» o^<tl«ia(curi@- ' ieiy 3 tIu> W ;^oct( >'oit< .*?>■•''')<< «t'af5t®''^'»^.0>-.if. 20. Ei ti( 
di{'hnri>ti <!, iyu-f^oy KXyti r q o», of <PlJ» itAfX''-^ % <^' d-^ytiTA f,i-)aY, ^ JVo ^oiar iti<, dydQifxa. f s& Synod. Sirm. 
Conf.frim!i,tbiii firjl tranjlttedimo Latin ; Siquis innafcibilem & fine initio dicat Filium, tanquam duo fine principio, &(iuo 
innafcibilia, Sidio innatadicens, duos faciet duos,Anathema fit. S. Hilar, de Synod. In which fenf; the Plutonifts didunderli.ind 
d'^'JvrdS- of God,"Sl^ h'k dy.^iyT>i ^iyniVMUM ri KOffixHSft,, fit^ i'^ytd©- in m) ^ ^iyt /j.oy»y, i}f,i )u ri &b 
cuTiav, Kitf Qw.'xjy'ofjifjov >C, Toy d^ioy d-^ynrty >\y/^. Hierocles de Frovid. And the Latins attributing the term princi- 
pium to the Son, do it with the addition ofdcor ex principio. Pater principium non de principio, Filius principium dc principio. 
3. Aug. contra Maxim. /. g. c. 1 7 . Principium ex principio fe unum eft,& initio caret. Fautim Rheg. Epifi. 1 6. Ex orc,inquir, 
Altinimi providi. Hac eft enim nativitas perfeitaSermonis, hoc eft principium fine principio; hie eft ortus habcnsinitiuni 
in nativit.itc, inftatu non habcns. Phjebad. contra Arian. Sicutincreaturisinveniturprmcipium prin)um& principium fccun- 
dum ; ita in perfonis divinis invcnitur principium non de principio, quod Pater eft,& principium j principio, quod eft !■ ilius. 
Tho.Ajuin. 1 . </. 5 5 <J<'f . 4. Andtothit all the Schoolmenwritingon hU Summes agiee, as all the Sentences, i.liij\.2<). HAiri* 
SJiV H t5 558 n/'mj, ^19 7» ii~, ;^ tS ct'jiK TkEii/ual©-, >h •? K\'i<!\t< irdan<> S. Alhanaf Dijfert. Orthod. iy Anom. 'A AXa m JJf 
iui>i.[i.iid-jjjvnra:i K, (ti'ctf-/«« JesgsjTO, >7th SJiV ajTlA »? aTai'7a»i' oi'liif aJria*- oK yaf nTitJf^t i^if, cAJ T4Ttt;1«. 
S. Bafd, E/I//K 45. "And upon that place,t\\\i(.i3y have I begotten thee; 'Ay^iro p., j4-)^uVi))i*. tmc aljla.y dip m( 'ixi tAf 
d^yhurk t|) ffufjii ItH- Id. iOntra Eimom.1.2. nS( iJ\iAa.y ftaipoc^y x.a1aA.»JT«, n'JV Tnp tn/ajTioK ""(^^fTdiy^ajJT^ im- 
id^X\!aa.v\ Id. I. I. \\(}( t3, ot/ syi iiA,9oc o» ttJ iyofjiuJiri'Tralt^if (/.«, liSiviu y^>\, St( afy^t iaxiiy ic, cLnia.ythyf!>ti'f 
ikV^"'^ :j-^.7«faTaiir4At>(;.W.£;>//f.64. i^ntftpj.yi^ <»o<;a nay w> n'oyajf Teu(Tex<iir (<A67it»i, Tii dicuTio i^mletK^tU 
euTixT.i tll''x)i,;tj T7tajTiA}',i >C) inTOfiujii, i^yyeiffno/uSfJ, Damafc.l.A^^.ToyTitl'iesf''^ ^'"y* *W (^o$ia<, j^TefCoKkara 
Tcsw/it)*^ ■rit d-)iii, ^TTfUTlw aJniai' x] df/^JJ (pdtA> 'f ^i'orn]Q- e^. Zachar. Mitylen. And although ThomasAquinas, 
and Eugchi.ii Btfliof 0/ Rome in the definition of the Councilofl-lotcBcc, have obfcned that the Greel^s in thif cafe do ufe the term of 
raufa, but the Latins only principium ; yet the very Latin Fathers in the 2$.SeJJion of the fame Council have thefe words, iAay 
■j'.yatKtiJ^Th "ituri^ouTlay, j^ pl^atK, ;|^ Tt)>W t«( •^sctf??®- ' W»'f /wveif/in- c/ffi/Viftorinus AfcrjW/M/rfj/, Pater 





caufj eft ipfi filio uc (it. So S. HUjt). Dcura nafci, non eft aliud qium in ca natura cffc qua Deus eft, quia nafci ciim caufara 
nacivicatisoftcndJt,noncJ;fproncic tamen ingcnercautoriscxfiftcre. D.Tun. I. ii. ExSpiriru enim lpiriti;, Jicec 
dc proprictace Spiricus.pcr quaniS: ipfe Spiritus cftjnafcanir, non taTivrnalia ei pnetcrquam pcrtertarum arquc indcmurabi- 
fiunicaufarumadiilquodnafcicurcaulaeft, & ex caufa, iict-c pcrtcfta arque indemutabili nafcens, neceire eft ex caula in 
caufi ipfiusproprictacc nafcarur. /./. /. 12. Qui ex eo qui eft nacuscft, incelliginon potcft ex eo quod non fuit nacusclTe, 
quia ejus qui eft ad id quod cftcaufjcft,nonctia.-n id quod non eft origonafccndi eft. 7};V, Dcus omnium qu,i luntcaufa eih 
Qiiod auctmrerum omnium caufaeft, ctiam laprcntii- furciufa eft, ncc unquam Deus fine fapicncia fua. Igitur fempitcms fxu 
fipientif cjtvU eft fcmpLccrna. S. Au^. I. i^.^Hiii. \6. AnJafiintcaHeUthit'.vhertki ciHje efihi S<m,J'a tkiy accwntedit tke 
pro[rien of the Father n be n-ni'.ut a caufe ; m ail^ars out o/Altxander the Bijlnp 3/" AlexandriaV Epijl. before froduced. 

* K'f kaie ci- * the authour, the !1 root, the ^ fountain, and the i! head of the Son, or the 

ted PI abadius u 1 t-\ • • 

fr^.tt:ns f, be- whole Divinity. 

fore; to which For by thelc titles it appeareth clearly, firft, that they made a confidera- 
si^ nhT'uur ^^^ ditfcrcncc between the perlbn oftiie Father, of whom are all things, and 
adhuc & dc A- the pjrfon of the Son, by whom are all things. Secondly, that the dirterence 
poftolo rcqui- confifteth properly in this, That as the branch is from the root, and river 
ftatun™™'^cft, from the fountain, and by their origination from them receive that being 
iinguiaris lu'^v which they have ; whereas the root rcceivcth nothing from the branch, or 
im^'qif 'per f'ii^iit^aii ^'oni ^^^^ '"'^'S'" • ^^ ^'^ Son is from the Father, receiving his fubfi- 
natnram auco- ftence by generation from him; the Father is not from the being what 
rifuon.>igicur: he IS from nonc. 

A!ii:d eft line auto eclTe Temper aternum,3liud quod patri, id eft, autori, eft cairernum. Ubi enim pater aucor, ibi S: 
ujciviiaseft. At vtrj ubi aucor .ncrnus eft, i'>^i & nativitas xcerna eft: quia licut nativitas ab autorc eft, ica ab icerno 
autorc nativitas eft. Id. I. 1 2. (^od vero ex xcccno natum eft, id ft non atcmuni nacum eft, jam non crit &. pater autor Si quid igitur ci qui ab icerno pjtrc nacus eft ex ^ernitacc deftierit, idipfum autori non eft arnbiguutn dcfuilTc. 
id. Natum non poft aliquid, fed ante omnia, uc nativitas tantura teftetur aucorem, non prxpoftcrum aliquid in Ic aucore 
llgniSctc lb. Natus aucem ica, uc nihil aliud quam te fibi figniricet autorem. !!>. Ipfius tamen auror eft Pacer generando 
line iniiio. Ruff, in S)m!). Si propcerca Dcum Patrem Deo hilio dicis autorem, quia ille genuit, genitus eft ille, quia illc 
deilloeft, non illcdc ifto; faccor S.: concedo. S.Aug.cmtra M.ixim. I. 3. c. 14. I'Nec dubitaverim Filium dicerc & 
radicistruticem, 8c toncis rl'jvium, S: Solis radium. Tcrtul.adv. Ptaxeim^c. 8. Nee frucex came n a radice, nee fluvius a 
loiice, ncc radiusaSoledifcernicur; JxatnecaDcc fcrmo. htd. 'E-;j ^ y6 -zxl^ f Ti>^no:' 'ix"'-' to 17) <)<'!'5''<ft«> fi^a. 
«; Tti>ii 7^ ijf *S iS a[)ix TKA'/xarS-. S. BjJIL H^mil. 26. Dominus Pacer, quia radix cl\ Filii. S. Ambrof. in Luc. I, 10. 
c. \.ut fy' d; hjde, I. 4. c. s. S. Cyril, of Alexahdrin. Jpe.if;ing of the Baftifmul inflitution, Ttu? /*' jap dymraiTo i^i/^cLy, 

i< i-rill.ttVXTO QjfJiT:lviI\V., tlKO.lS'Hf TOV I'eLTl^ ' Toy A Jt "f ttVUTtlJU pi^Mf iKTJIUKiTct )^ yt-yfJiniJ^Oy Vtl£jf/i^l1 

Tinjli'. DcS.T'in.Diiil 2. .'''''Aj'af ^J^ -rarrf -rn-yn t5 -r»7uju«c Tiil«/t>i«, n fxe/fi^'i iat.Ti\f. Cnil. /ficrof. 
Cuiech. II. In hacergbnacurafiliuscft, S: in hoc originis fontc fubftftens procellic ex fapiencc fapientia, cs torti virtus, 
ex lumine fplen Jor. Vi^'l. Difp, 'il( ird^nn •5i« j^ 5^ ajjik Tit\ftl<, cutiov outJc i^j:; d< Tnyiuu luun, r.dKC^^iv 
TDja^oi'. Bafil. Himil. 23. t^'-'ii «ei T» m'Tm 3ria yc^z«y ^M:n, eiicii'.i*'' oui.-jfj Ui ts]«/ix:< MfLn'nf, iKT0fit/i|<Jii/3" 
•Tmaokot* If. i ei\ti9e{ •tiiv''< ■>"''< ^''mj- Tiit ri ■rctTg/< diWn'Q . AH. Loncil. Nic. I. 2. c. 22. And St. Ciril. ofAlexiindrij., 
vh) often ujerb this exprcffion, gives in the full fgnifcarim of it in tbefe words, upn 1 of S. John: 'AJ)kiuh 3 oKa( vjiy 
t3, i-J< it irn'yJ, ttJ ffa^e' rir tj3r vsrsf -/wf ivraHf ' ix'ivoy yif t3 (^ «" t3 riif td^m* c* tWok ocopca nuslyM. Patrem 
quiJcm non gcnitum, non creatum, fed ingcnicum proficemur ; ipfc enim a nullo origincm ducic, ex quo & Filius nativi- 
utciTi, He Spiritus Sanftua proctfl'ioncm acctpit. Pons ergo ipie & origo eft cotius divinitatis. Circil. Tofet. an- 1 1 . Quanto 
magis Dei voccm credcndum eft & manere in sternum, & icniu ac virtucccomitari, quam dc Deo Patrc tanquam rivus dc 
fonte craduxit ? I defalja S^p. /. 4. c. 8 . ir rurfm c, 1 9. Cilm igitur & Pacer filium t'aciac, S: Filius Patrem, uni utriq j 
mens, unus fpiritus, unafubftancia eft ; fed illc qual'i exuberans fons eft, hie tanquam deriuens ex co rivus ; ille tanquani 
Sol, hie tanquam radiui i Sole porrcftus. |! Caput, quod eft principiuin omnium, Filius-, capuc aucem, quod eft princi- 
pium Chriftx^tjus. Concil. S'rrm. accepted and expyunded at Oiihidox by S. Hilary. Caput enim omnium Filius, fed capuc Filii 
Dcu!. .V. ///.'. ie Sin. Ciim ipfc fit omnium capuc, ipfius camcn capuc eft Pacer. Rjiff. in Symb. Tu capitis capuc, & primi 
tu tontis origo. //iLr. ad Uin m. Out. J)>o ^^r i'y,iu, ctT^i Kit-jKn Ti ti? Tajwf, ^1* » i^yju Onl. H:si fC.itich.\ i. 
Capuc Filii Pater eft, S,: capuc Spiritus Sanrti Filius, quia de ipfo accepit. S. A^^. Siusfi. yet. Tejl. 9. S. Chrffjlome if fi 
tlearh afll.\' opinion that 1 C:r. 11. i< ro be underjiood ifChril} as God, that fnm tiicnce he prnes him to have the fame Ejfence 
aithOid: Ei^cif JtcCiXi'i yuaurtif cicwfi oficnn®' 'j 1! x;;**.)) tt.I cauaTi ' xsioAb o i) < djJf, o//c»'»i©- iJ5t 
-TrS-wxrei. Sol.l:ca:feThcodotC( up^m the fame place: "H ■^ ^ujjA i tttnu-i ■ftnivS'^t, a>x' ck. rnttiiifTi dvJ'eJt ' e'c/isS 
;j3< <tf« "oiiVJ.t'fi&i^, «?>.' ckth^bctk t» d«»- SoS.Cyil. KtpxKi ts Xtif* &ii(> an i^axiji yj' s\iav • jt'^^oinToi 
)ap G Aiyir w<. ii ^i* «j ■xi.T^f. Ad Re^in. Ep. 1. 

"* taftan. I. 1. Somc iudccd of the Ancients may feem to have made yet a farther dif- 
\.^'i,^' zLk.' ^'^•"ti'i'^c bctvscen the perfons of the Father and the Son, laying upon that 
M)t',ien. Rclarion terms of greater oppofition. As if, bccaule the Son hath not 

K^J""'. '^ his ElTcnce from himlclf, * the Father had ; becaufe he was not begotten 
*-s. Hu,7n.n of himfclf, the ;; Father had been lb ; becaulc he is not the caufe of himfelf, 
6* i. .,j Efh. * theFatlier were. Whereas, if we fpeak properly, God the Father hath 

* neither 

1 Believe In God The Father. 


"^ neither his Being from another, nor from himfclf : not from another, that *''^''^?>c®; 
were repugnant to his Paternity ; not from himfelf, that were a contradiction t^fi^fj^^!/ 
in it fclf. And thereiorc thole exprefTions arc not to be underftood pofitively ajjTT.'^,i ji^tf' 
andaffirmatively, but || negatively and excluGvcly, that he hath his Effcnce ^^g^f' ^' 
from none, that not begotten of any, nor hath he any caufe of his exi- o a^w?>- »* 
ftence. So that the proper notion of the Father in whom we believe is this, ^fi'"'^'^ 'X 
that he is a Ferfbn fubfifting eternally in the one infinite Elfence of the God- ^^' |^!^.' '* 
head • which eflence or fubfiflence he hath received from no other perfbn, s.Man. 
but hath communicated the fame clTencc, in which himfelf fiibfifteth by Ge- f f^^etT^o'fi^ 
neration to another perfbn, who by that Generation is the Son. accipias, nemo 

fibi ipic & inu- 
neracor & munus eft. S. Hilar, de Tr'm. I. 2. Qui putant Deum ejus potentia; efle ut feipfum ipfc gcnucric, c6 plus errant, quod 
non foliim Deu5 icanoneft, fed ncquecorporalis ncquel'piricualiscrcatura. Nulla enim omninorcscft qua'fcipfamgignatun 
fit. Et idco non eft crcdendum, vtl dicendum, qucd Deus genuit I'e. S Aug. \\ TbU afpearethhy thofi expofitims which have 
been given "f fitch woviis iis feem to bear the affirnuuion ■■, ai cWTif^ii^h^,ajuTtifvh,<wr'oy»vS , iWTo-^i)(t &c. 'AuToil/ufif, 
aATo-'JI,-Jii\&-, ix. iK riv^ i{'jfii/j^&. f/efych. And, AuVo^oj^dl-T©-, .^jJs rt'^iJukoT©-, twTii-^vnr& , Id. And after him 
Suidat ; AUToAo^fuT'r , a"TO')ljoV»)T©-, ^iiiotL-^uvrtTQ-. And if auTi-fptin©- be not auio^iv •j^utn'Jof ' m more if 
euyTo9ii5^ tobetal^nfor (tjj7'oiiv,or'c^iajJT6, ^■.''.<- EufcbiusHWjw Panegyrical Oration gives thi< title to the Son OIolthm.- 

Swj'J./AOV ic twTol^vltM >tj ■ixiTotTot'tAV- contra Anathem quartum Cyr. S. Bafil. iw7o?^a,lw, in Pfal. 48. <fy de Spiritu Sanifo, c. 8. 
MdajJToi)>iM'>3w>'-'Jj. Epijl. 141. J.Cliryfoft. owToiiflaccffTSK, auT(>iJia.x.Aei'oT\(l-j..S. /^than. gives him them and many more to 
the jii/ne purpojlr And before all rhefe Ong.''Oti p^ voij.i^aiu}/j ly -rtTWiTAtsflci af^JiSsi' t?) 0ior i^iih (-'>i2, ojuToKiy©- 
J>?i ;^ M ai'Vocroif ia, )i]i a.vToa.hiiina.. And again. 'Xi(fjLai>^ov -flnvv^^X^f^ x.ttK wj^'TAiij7«< xfKoMiila/ ttJ Kuei'w.Tii 
auT)hiya,K] aOrofot'ia,, ^ at/TooiKuWct,;^ nMToflKOUoffuuri I. 6. EiKiii/ (a t» ^ii '7rfv']'oTOK& rreiaitf icj'mat SciK avTO- 
^'cyQ-, >y 1; auTe» All •)«:£, 'in ■S >^ >' a.vromt'iA.Ib. And certainty inthe fame fenfe that «uto< is pined tvitb one attribute, it may 
be other, and with the Godhead : becaufe all the attributesof Oodare aire ays the fame, not only rviththemfehes, but 
with the ejlcr.i e. But in rvhatfenfe it ought to be underftood, when thus ufed by the Fathers, it will be neceffary to enquire, left it befo 
attributed to the Son as it froie derogator, tothet'ather. V. Bafil, Iconfefs,may feemfotofpea\j,as iftheSon rfcre therefore ciuro^oriy 
becaufe he hath life of himfelf, not from the Fathef,(<^ confequently he may be tertneda.vr'oQi'Q-, as Godofhimfelfnotfrom the Father) 

contra Eunoni. 
ing to the fame , 

fi.9j, l^aluj ovo(/.a^n' -ttav yi to <f) ni._ v ^uv auto^'-'K f?) i S'uudlat. To which teftimonics I anfwer, prft,that thnfe words of 
hif,a(,(ii I think) fhewthatbe 'ioth not abfol itely deny thefe words of Chrift to be underftoodof hii Divinity, of whichthe 
reft of the Fathers quoted before did underft^nd it; and not only they but S.BifW himfelf, in his Bool^de Spiritu San{h,c. 8. hath 
deltxered aclear refolution of this point according to that interpretation, wholly confonant to his doilrine of the Trinity in other pans 
ofhifworl;:, "O/xv! /u^-roil.a. ij.h to/s ox, '--t fJtiyiiiK ^ i^ifyv/j^aiv ':^<met&a/j^ ti( to ^dvlet^tlfcu aiBif, ov'fT) ^ kv- 
etot, 71 fHOTf li auTc^-.n. 'E^a ^'^ </>* r 'Ttt]^^a. ' ^ )i 7a ^-S cTuuscf/./s ; OOJ'wjcilcu iiof -roiuy da i<w:>, iJif ' sd i 
ttuToJiKiK an fin; 'EyjoKlpj t>^a,Cov ri s'l-ra K.ri h<ih.\\Ta> ; Chrift therefore as aVTo^an fpal:^e thoje words, I live by the Fa- 
ther, and by them fl:etred hii origination from him, from whom he received his life, power and wifdom, at receiving his effence, 
which is the fame with them. Wherefore thife former pajja/^es are to be looked upon, asif itiroi in compofition did mtdeny origina- 
tion, but participation, or receiving by way of affeiHon. And that he underftood itio, appears out of the places themfelves-: for in the 
prft, after ef) '4Cf(»;v i^ai' (t.vToC.c<n {5) i J'lu'icflaj, immediatel}foUoweth,i "j jS xji X*^'' Ayt^ ouJto«,j<©- • andinthefe- 
cond, after nrdLVTo StlTcgfv l^Siv auraCm f7) « J'wktja,', foUoweth likmife, d< » Ji ri vp'trk^v ^i^/jLctyiiii' djjT<iB;(ntn>i(ti). 
Vie meaning then "f S. Bafil muft be tbu , that be ivhich receiveth lijefom another merely as a grace or favour, as the Saints receive 
theit SanHity, cannot properly be termed ojj ' o^wh no more than they cwr 0*7/0; " or 1) he receive it by derivation or participation, as 
water nceiveih beat from fre, hedeferxeth the fame name no mve than water heatedto be called ouiTo^SfjuoTHf. And this is fully 
confonant ti the expreffivis of the reft of the Ancients : as particularly Athanafius ;• OJ j^ri ui]oylui toZtcl iV, «'/i 'i^a^iv, Sh- 
jtpof^av riray (writi >(p 78\t ajJn /ut€Tt;^fli»)tt{, ^ (7x>»/{owV«f JV cwn, 1^ S'uua.TiS'i, j^ Aoj/xk? it axiW y4voidfi«( • ctM.' 
a/iTeOTji*, aiiT>Koy(^,fjjjTofuuy.ui( 1^^ tx Totlf-.'i SJji' ajjj 09ci( ) aZ i ov x{]^fi'j..,rijjT» <f)y.ciJO<snjiit,cwToc>fi'ii.inpne I'roirept,. 
And to the fame purpofe,"07 1 k ixiBucll/ji %xi ^ Ji^^'av^ajy ewTo-rnyi xj ouJropp/^* -ra.t]av 'SH •r^ Hya^'v, cwTo^ah >t^ au- 
•rozw(. Kj <iZTiia.K\.^tt!/.. in the MS. Catena in the K.ofVrmcc bis Library. I'ctav de Trm. 1.6 c. 11. All therejore which the^e 
compofiiions fi;,nife, k either a negation of a derivative participation, or an affirmation of areality and identity of fubftance, as yet 
farther appears by S.^^\^\xmK.s, aj^remnJ. SJ1V0 $ii( TaJ.fp xi ' t|3<, ;^ t3 i}<QV rrvd^/jLet, x) « )^ iT-ivaia. and Oi\gei\ him- 
}e fuponS. John, 1' ajjToJ)Kauofui}tt » inei<fyi< Xc.?d< 8Jt, as alfo 11 ojuToaAii9«a w vtn'iJ'xf, k- h srr.f ti^o, Tf«/|oTi/T©" 
•f t» V KiyKoit ■^ij-)(aii( a.hi\'''i'iiti. T> conclude, there is aCatbiiickfenfe in which the Son is termed MiT'od'.@^ , aiiTimtii, 
&c. by the ancient Fathers ; and another fenfe there is in which thefe terms are fo prop, r and peculiar to the Father, that they a> e denied 
to the Son. Indeed cwTcQi©-, in the bigbeft jenfe, ap iaufi d«3<, pofitixely taken, belongeth neither to the Son mr to the Father, 
Its implying a miinifefl conir.tdi'lion ; becaufe nothing can have its being aHiutJIy from :t felj, as communicated to it felf, and that by 
itjelf: but in a negative wav of Interpretation, hynhicbthatisfiidtobeofitfelfwhibisandyei h not of or from another auj- 
■Tofls!? belongs properly to the Father, neither generated by, nor proceeding from another; and in that Jenfe it if denied to the Son, 
becaufe he is generated bs the Father, as m 3-s» 3«Jf, In nfi avji'ia., Ik ho-ytKv Koy'^ , x^ In, t*/; .\ i\h<,jaith S Athanafiu^ 
com. Ar. Or. 5. from whence be thus proceeds, l/^io( n //.t) u.y t/< mto/ ajWootupiav ff) «] ajjToK'j'^y ^ d^.h', o(X\' « t«to «ii 
ay ajhoi icwrs ■nalnf iC) ii'o<- and again u /' rj/jjempa. ^ii<, x.) t3 in tbtb cctotop eJfn?*/ rrtv^ S«C«M.iw. Lallly, in 
iuiother fenji, in which oLnif in compofition is taken n t inobliquo, iwf in Tc£to,aijT''Jli@-, is,iw7i( .Jio<,God liini(llt",dm/ 
ajjio^aii, cotA m ^wh, life it fcliifo all thefe terms are attributed to the Son as truly, re.illy and ejjential/y, as to the Father. Andthjt 
the F.ithen took^it ji appears, becaufe they did fometimes refohe the compofition : as when Eufcbiiis calletb Chi ill «u/to9:o», in the 
Panegynclibejoie cited prefently after be Ipeaki'ththus; Ti yj f^J/ixsM* t» irniJiCixnKiaf <^ Tani>*,uor©- xJou/'tb Si» Koy* 
c»MJ«(&^ Ttfi TTvd^iJitli ; where aj^ji @u is the fame with mk^^'u, HoW fo- 


Howfoex'er, it is moCt rcafonable to alTert that there is but one Pcrfon 
who is from none; and the very generation of the Son and proceflion of 
the Holy Ghoft undeniably prove, that neither of thofe two can be that 
Perfbn. For whofoever is generated is from him wiiich is the Genitor, and 
whofbever proceedcth is from him from whom he proceedcth, whatfoever 
the nature of the generation or procelTion be. It iollowetli therefore that 
this Perfbn is the Father, which name fpeaks nothing of dependence, nor 
^'ohfti^ti- ^uppofech any kind of priority in another. 

sr\e/, ly T£<7tt From hence it is obferved that tiie name of Go^, taken * abfblutcly,is often 
9c*'^\ li ttV« in the Scriptures fpoken of the Father : as when we read of God fending his 
w^r'o' &iU, ^'^'" '^'^^ y ^^ ^ the grace of our Lord 'Jefus Chrift, and the love of God ; and ge- 
Sjok ^ku- ncrally wherefoeverChrift: is called the Son of God, or the Word of God,the 
"^oeiLl^iZ name of God is to be taken particularly for the Father, becaufe he is no Son 
«i.rar CiuJ but of tlic Father. From hence he is ftyled ^ one God, " the true God, ^ the 
^t^ttf,, xj X"- on/y true God, ' the ll God and Father of our Lord lefus ChrifL 

\5»osa1/«i T a:t1{£5t /'AoT. TheoJ.Miic.vaOfufc. ^2. ^ i Cor. 13. 14. •" i Cor. 8. 6. £/>';. 4. 6. ' 1 Thej]'. 1.^. "^ Job.i-j.^. 
•: Cor. 1.5. F.fh. I. :j. ||Unxic tc Dens, Dcuscuus. Id cnimquodaic, tum, adnacivitatcm rcfcrtur; cf tcrum non peri- 
niic nactirain. £c idcirco Dcus ejus eft, qui ex Deo natus in Dcum eft. Non tamcn per idqi:6J PaterDcuscfl, nonfc 
FiliasDciiscrt. Unxit inimtcDcus, Dcus tuus ; dcfignaca videlicet & authorisfui & ex cogcniti fignificacione, uno co- 
dcnique diifto utruiiiqucilluin innituri'cjufdctn& digniiatisnuncupationeconftiti'.ir. S.Hilar.l.^. Dcocnimes quo omnia 
fiint Dens nulluseft qui fine iiiitiosnernus eft. Kilio autcm Deus I'acer eft, cs eo enim Dcus natus eft. Li. fauh p.ff. Cilni 
aiitcm ex Deo Deus eft, per id Dcus Pater Deo Kilio & naiiviratis ejus Dcus eft, & natura: Fatcr, quia Dei nativiras & ex Deo 
eft, & in CO Rcneris eft natura qua Dcus eft. U. /. 1 1 . So S. Cyril, of Jeruf.ilem, Catech. j i. ©eJj "ffjfimi-, ■Scot -^tn- 

Which, as it is moft true, and fo fit to be believed, isalfo a moft neceflary 
»m;im«i<«*ii- truth, and therefore to be acknowledged, for the avoiding * multiplication 
Tf, .A/'j >J5«'< and plurality of Gods. For if there were more than one which v\'ere from 
Inar'L'uy-' noue, it could not be denied but there were more Gods than one. Wherefore 
jiw.«, »■ J^'s this i! origination in the Divine Paternity hath anciently been looked upon as 
^T^Il! ^<!i *^''^ aifertion of the Unity : and therefore the Son and Holy Ghoft hath been 
Ac'if>-i<«ra- believed to be but one God with the Father, becaufe both from the Father, 
ytvJ^Jt,^) who is one, and fo the * union of them. 

x»if:.r»< dfKf 

S. B.^fil. Humil. 26. In duobus ingenicis divcrfa Divinitas invenitur, in uno autem gcnito ex uno ingcnico naturalis unitas de- 
monftratur. Ohj.^. Si quis innalcibilem & fine initio dicac Filium, tanquam duo fine principio,& 
duo innafcibilia, & duo innata diccns, duos faciat Deos, Anatiiema lit, Comil. Sirmi. Dcus utic^ue procedcns ex Deo fecun- 
dam pcrfonam erficicns, fed non eripicns illud Patri quod unus cil Dcus. Si enim natus non tuilFet, innatus comparatus cum 
CO qui clTct innatus, a;quationc in ucrcq uc oftcnsa, duos lacerct innatos,& ideo duos faceret Dcos. Si non genitus eirec,colla- 
tujcum eo qui genitus non elllt aqualesinventiduos Deosmeritoreddidillentnongeniti: atque ideo duos Dcos reddidit' 
let Chriftus, fi fine origincellet uc Pater inventus i & ipfe principium omnium ut Pater, duo tacicns principia, duos oftcn- 
diffet nobis confequcnterS: Decs, &c. Trin.c. 31. Ii'nozrif 3 f/i*rtVx"' ^K? t^"^" "* ■?''>'• ■S.Athan.Orat. 5. 
Tii£j7to u , af I «iy3( Aoy^, n< /t* ■^l.<, »i< 'iv tuTlit ifc i('» Kj iyiv rTudtfAal^^ araptc^wV^f • S.Oregor.Ka^.Or.U.2^. "Oth 
y6u'\3./* njLf-yji. iv ■jji k^aurm., lyXt (j. li d^yiTu-zov, ^I'a '5 M»ijt«K, -f WoTnl^ hiy^s J)eLtdeipi7aj. S. Bafil 
/{mil. 25. Patri originem fuam dcbens,difcordiain Divinitatis dc numero diiorum Dcorum facere non potuit, qui ex illo 
qui eft unus Deus originem nafccndo concraxit. Nnat.c.^i, Conlitcmur hon Decs duos, fed Deum unum, neque per id 
non & Deum Dei r ilium, eft cniiucx Deo Dcus; non innafcibiles duos, quia authoritatcinnafcibilicatis Deus unus eft. S. Hi- S}nod.wh)fi ajjittunii, Unum Dcuni cllc ex quo omnia, unam vircutem innalcibilem, S: unam banc die fine initio 
poteftatein: vbich uoids belong unto ik- Fiither, and ilKn it fjlloweihoftki Son y Non enim Patri adiaiitur quod Dcus unus eft, 
quia & Kilius Dais eft. Eft enim Dcus ex Deo, unus ex uno. Ob id unus Deus, quiaex fc Dcus. Contra vcro non minus 
jjcr id Filius Deus,quia Pacer Dcus unus fit. Eft enim unigenitus Filius Dei non inna(cibilis, ut Patri adimat quod Dcus unus 
lit. D; Tiin, i. 4. ♦ fJmt 3 rt7< retjt lA^t deoj • iyatu ■^ Taji'f, «:; »^ xj ^f •*< '<'f\cu t« i;iis. Oic^. Sa\.0rat.'^2. 
Vntotvhichn.'oiditlwfcofl'kcod.Abucai.tb.ivciflatiyn; &io( ^i^cuf'iTaf f^iyiJajti-jtiSu ulratif, Tixw a.V*T'Ji/r/« ^ Met.- 
xf ;«Axi«J7if, i itii.i'Q- Trail; f Sity, if «T=r fc)e«Ai>0-.^ Ofufc. 42. 

Secondly, It is necelTary thus to believe in the Father, becaufe our Salva- 
tion is propounded to us by an accefs unto the Father. We are all gone a- 
way and fallen from God, and we muft b^- brought to him again. There is 
no other notion under which we can be brought to God as to be faved, but 
the notion of the Father ; and there is no otiier perfbn can bring us to tlie 
Ephf.i. i2. pather, but theSon of that Father : For, as the Apoftle teacherh Us, through 
hifit ivc have an accefs by one Spirit unto the Father. 


HE Father Almighty. 


Having thus deicribed the true nature and notion of the Divine Paternity, 
in all the ieveral degrees and eminencies belonging to it, I may now clearly 
deliver, and every particular Chriftian underftand, what it is he fpeaks, when 
he makes his Coniedion in thefe words, Ibdieve in God the Father : by which 
I conceive him to exprefs thus much. 

As i am allured that there is an infinite and Independent Being, which we 
call A God, and that it is impoHible there (hould be more Infinities than one ; 
fb I aflure my lelf that this one God is the Father of all things, efpecially of all 
men and Angels, lb far as the mere aft of creation may be if y led generation; 
that he istarther yet, and in a more peculiar manner, the Father of all thole 
whom he regetierateth by his Spirit, whom he adopteth in his Son, as heirs and 
co-heirs with him, whom he crowneth with the reward of an eternal inheri- 
tance in the heavens. But beyond and far above all this, befides his general 
off-fpring, and peculiar people, to whom he hath given power to become the [on s 
of God; I believe him the Father, in a more eminent and tranfcendent man- 
ner, of one fingular and proper Son, his own, his beloved, his only-begotten 
Son : whom he hath not only begotten of the bleffed Virgin , by the coming 
of the Holy Gholf , and the overfiiadowing of his power; not only lent with 
fpecial authority as theKingof 7/?-ae/; not only raifed from the dead, and 
made heir of all things in his houfe; but antecedently to all this, hath be- 
gotten him by way of eternal generation in the lame Deity, and Majefty 
with himfclf: by which Paternity, cosval to the Deity, I acknowledge him 
always, Father, as much as always God. And in this relation, I profefsthat 
eminency and priority.that as he is the Original caufe of all things as created 
by him, ^q is he the fountain of the Son begotten of him, and of the Holy 
Ghoft proceeding from him. 

3 l3clicbe III (^oD tj)e 5fatljer 2llniifi!)tp* 

AFter the relation of God's Paternity, immediately followeth the glorious 
Attribute of his * Omnipotency : that as thofe in Heaven in their Devo- * >,> tkeoidefl 
tions, fo we on earth in our confellions might acknowledge that ^/io/y, holy, &pjonencrceJ 
holy Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come; that in our fblemn Attr'ibut?' ex-' 
meetings at the Church of God, with the joynt expreflion and concurring 
language of the Congregation, we might fome way imitate that '' voice of a ^^'"^' '''f 
great multitude, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunder- was ' m^narily 
ings, Jnying, Alltlujah, for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth. *)"*^ Andms 

Father, iif Origen. /. 7. adv. Cclfum. 'E;:^Iiu 3 auriv — ^SeSj ajjT<u< K*^'.(n to} T^c^nDttim' «t' »» ait «;3< VXctflo- 
Xfjiraif t-7rnyyi>MTo f7) At-jai', wt' cy cu( i \\i( n &ia, iiT oy ai< t3 flK^jucc Ti a.}4tr A.ijpi' V7) <?^r<ieT«. And 
according to thu general Confcffwn did Polycarpu5 begin his Prayer at his Martyrdom : KuVis 0;of •trdtvltx-f^Ttif , tS aja.- 
irnii )C, IvMynii rraiJii an 'IiiffB Xe^r? Talilf . Eccl. Smyrn. Epijl. * Aevf/. 4.8. ^ Reiel. ip. 6. 'O/ ■jra'fftwu.v tiKti^'olif 
V iTitiliy.eJ.Ttgy. Ta7i£jt JcetAHc. ConJiit.Apojl. 1. 1. Proccm. 

This notion oC Almighty in the ^ree^ muft certainly he interpreted accord- 
ing to the fenie which the original word bcareth in the New Teft ament : and 
tliat cannot be better underftood than by the Greek Writers or Interpreters 
of the Old , efpecially when the Notion it felf belongs unto the Gofpel and ^ 
the Law indifferently. Now the word which we tranflate * Almighty, the ^,^^n°an0ted 
moft ancient Urcek Interpreters uled fbmetimes for the title of God, the Lord byTMid ands. 
of hnjls, (bmetimes for his name Shaddai, as ecnerally in the book of Job : by "^"^ Oniimc- 

J J ^ T t3 J J J nciis, as {Tcr- 

tHllian translates ^otf-jaox^ftTopa^ nmnditcncntcs^ Jy Prudcntitis, oninipollcns j A}' d//, Omnipotcns, (^as S. Hilary tranjlated 
jcoo-i/OHf Jrof.-ti inundiporL'mci: } and, as 1 conceive, it is tr.mflated Cjpa\\nn\xr\OTum, by the Latin Inicrpreicr of Hermas 
Primum omnium crcdcquotl unus ell Ijcus, qui omnia crcavit, & conluiiimavit, & ex niliilo fccic. Iplc capax univcrlb- 
rum, folusiaimcnfuse!^. /. 2. Aland, i. W/iich by the Interpreter of IreiiJiiis is ituis translated, Omnium capax, & qui a ncniinc 
c.pijcur. /. 4. c. 57. 

G the 


the firft they fecm to fignific the Riile and Dominion which God hath over 
,>, ^ all ; by the lecond, the Itrcngth, force, or power by vhicli lie is able to p>er- 

^lf"'.^<,. 12. form all things. * The heavens and the earth were fintjbtd, iaith Mofes, and all 
'^ Kuw©- ex- the hoft of them : and he which begun them, he which finifhcd them, is the Ru- 
\Xt%,Lvei3- l^T ^"'^ Commander of them. Upon the right of Creation doth heiultly chal- 
c«Sita?9 lyKn- Icnge this dominion. ^ I have made the earthy and created man upon it ; /, even 
TiKi^iv )iiJ.iv ^y hands have Jlretched out the heavens^ and all their hofl have I commanded. 
^OT.'p! 29. f/.'c And on this dominion or command doth he raifc the title oi^ the Lord of 
vwdsofif.t I. ijojiy^ which, thoughprefervedin the II original language both by S.P4«/ and 
^"^'iL^Si S, "James, yet by S. John is turned into that word w hich we tranflate Almighty. 
»;<T«^TaKi/- Wherefore from theufeofthe facrcd Writers, from the * notation of the 
e'uC<^U-2iti word in Greek, and from the teftimony of the ancient || Fathers, wc may well 
j„w.l^^whuh afcribe unto God the Father, in the explication of this Article, the dominion 
.wthi it-:rd! of Qyer a j] ^„ j ^\y. j-^ig g^d government of all. 

.T. James, /n»v- ° 

/.imnwDcuc 24. i5."A><{^, 5>/9-,i>/®- xJe'©- 0ii( TAvJoK^/.Taf Rii/^l- 4- B. which were before in Jtiiih." A j^Q-', 

a-)t&-, S.'iiQ- KVti'9' OB.3ir/9 Ifit- 6. 5. Xi /' ofjLOlov 5f»A<V <• 1*' 'f 'S.J.Sa.tilj ^-iivnt, ToyXayy vV iT'JQy ■mt^K*i/.C<f 
jCaVi^f c7itiixi]i\j.aSxva/x^7oof»iJi.s.ti(To Ku'e/®" ^ ifuuituiayt uKvuQ- rf^iSt; i! I letWoxgar- y , (,/)- joj «( ^3 
cMTc cl^-JiloLtjo cl i^MtKiovlif ewTo) ijiv TToii'iavu.^. Ofigen. contra Celf. I. 5. * Ihnt ■Tra.Ylo/.fti.T'.'f flmld have rlie fig- 
nipcation of government in it, according to the compfttion in the Greek. Languitge, no man cat: doubt , who bat only confidcrs thofc 
lutgar term! of their Potitidls, Jufxoi^^Ha., and eiejL<;'llt, from whence it appears that /uoro/gj-lii might as well have been 
Kfcdai fj.tyu^X'^' ""din that fenfe <wTo)(.cy.ja^ if the p)oper title given by the Greel^s tothe Rman Emperour , not onl) the later 
Jiijlorians, but eien the Coins of ]u\\uiC3.[dt Hcf)ch.'h\j\ox.(y.T<n, <jjuT«>tn- , xo^/uox^araif. becaiife the R^man Emperour 
wat Ruler of the l^niwn World. So the Deiils or Frincesof the air are termed byS. I'aul Kca-;/o*£aTef?f , Eph. 6. i 2. whichkall 
one with a'f X"l« ^a itoir^« , as will appear Joh. 12. 31. and 1.1. go. and 16.11 As therefore Kgjr & fignifcth of it fcif 
Rule and Authority, Hefych. Kf^rQ-, li:-<n\M, i-^Ktrj'a* Kg^TH, «tfx») i^sintt' to which fenfe \L\x(\3i\iiui hath o!>Jcrve.iHumcr 
ted the following H'ritcri by thofe words of his, — Qov j n^titQ- alii/ di^Mv . Iliad. M. t< «V ij-cJtQ- QvyXeLulHviriu ri 
Toli C^ifv ¥ HtLaiKiia.* KgfifQ- \'ky»(si ' vehence j^fchylus calls Agamemnon WMcnelaus Si^icyov XfaV'^- 'Axa^av, and 
Sophocles after him, Jirccariif 'A7f »!/<«< * and as k^1«k " rule or govern , (Kfct7«, xt/etdt'«, a^xi ' f""" '"■'hence Kf aTi/'j, 


i?»»7xr ix''''> (j't'tinS' '$ ii.»aiiv ixi) i^''"'' ^"* ■^cttloK^^Tti^ , >^ J\casaT»( L,w/uaTay jun 'i^va icLt,uf '^ ■xtd^iJuiTar, 

rri!f mtiJoKftTaf ; S. C){'i\. Catech. 8. Thcodotui apud CI. Aky..p.So^.'0.( ■)6ro Tuf'i^vijTa'jov tW T-iX" ''"' 'C'^'-*' 
Troy KfgiTiy,STa ly 0ii( TdtJoS'txil^lJiQ- lu TctrloicfitTap, /lujaiaV'®' XfarJioa/, Toi'iim.i, Ttit*<y, tw^ei:', au^ny, 
QduATiy'-, ly ■■lt>X>i< f^x'^ti' itJc''''' ^'""' '^^ Doiiiinus Jcfus Chriftus per quern Dcus Pater dominaruni omDium tenet ; 
unde & fcqucns fermo Omnipotcncem pronunciat Dominum. Omnipotens autem ab co dicicur , quod omnium tcncac po- 
tcftatcm. Ruffir,, in S)mb. 

This authority or power properly poteftative is attributed unto God in 
* "Evxin* the facred ^ Scriptures : from whence thofe |1 names or titles which moft aptly 
A7?i'.^-?* ^"'^ ^"^'b' cxprcls dominion are frequently given unto him; and the rule, 
></f 25. empire, or go\crnment of the world is acknowledged to be wholly in him,as 
if^/' jns nccclTarily toUowing that natural and eternal right of dominion. 
iv'eiS-.ACTo- W hat the nature of this authoritative power is, wc fhall the more clearly 
tmV h% ri underltand, if we fir ft divide it into three degrees or branches of it: the firll 
'-roftl liJii ^^'licrcof we may conceive, a right of making and framing any thing which 
X»'£i'yi^.l*.'9 lie willecli, in any manner as it plealeth him, according to the abfblute free- 
o( ^d^Tuy JV Jqj^ Qf (jj[5 Q^yj^ ^iii . l]■^Q fecond, a right of having and polTefTing all things 
^/^ravT^J'- ^ made and framed by him, as his own, properly belonging to him. as to the 
A« n- I'lwt. Lord and mafter of them, by virtue of dircft dominion ; the third, a right of 
£;. 162. ufing and dilpofing all things fb in his polTeirion, according to his own plea- 
liire. The firft of thcfc we mention only for the ncceffity of it, on the de- 
pendence of the other two upon it. God's aftual dominion being noother- 
wajsneceffary, than upon fuppofition of a precedent a£t of Creation; be- 
caufe nothing, before it hath a being, can belong to any one, neither can 
any propriety be imagined in that which hath no entity. 

But the lecond branch, or abfblute dominion of this Almighty, is farther to 
be confidcred in the Independency and Infinity of it. Firft, it is independent 
in a double rcfpeft, in reference both to the original, and the ule thereof. 
For God hath received no authority from any, bccaufe he hath all power 


The Father Almi ^rffT y. 


originally in himfeirand liatti produced all things by the aft of his own will, 
without any Commander, Counfeiier, or Coadjutor. Neither doth the ufe 
or exercife of this dominion depend upon any one, {'o as to receive any dire- 
ftion or regulation, or to render any account of the adminiff ration of it; as 
being illimited, abfblute, and liipreme, and lb the fountain from whence all 
dominion in any other is derived. Wherefore he being the ^ God of Gods, 'Dent. lo. 17. 
is alfo the Loyd of Lords mi Kjng of Kjngs^ the only Potentate ; becaufe he ''^"! '55- 3- ' 
alone hath all power of himfelf, and wholoever elfe hath any, hath it from ''T'loiV^'- 
im, either by donation or permiliion. ^(.sap.S)r.46. 

The Infinity of God's Dominion, if werefpeft the Objeft, appears in the ^■y-^'^®' ^^~ 
amplitude or extenfion ; if we look upon the Manner, in the plenitude or per- 2~.%ic. 1 5. 29. 
feclion;ifweconridcr theTime, in the eternity of duration. The amplitude « J'uuKsuf.^ 
of the Objeft is llifficiently evidenced by thofe appellations which the holy "^I'fj^^^^ 
Writ alcribeth unto the v^/«?/|;/^/7,caUinghim the ^ Lord of heaven, the Lord 5.24.T^^«- 
of the irhok earth, the Lord of heaven and earthy under which two are com- ''^f'^'f-''"-^? 
prehended all things both in heaven and earth. This Mofes taught the di- '^^'JT^,^,. 
ftrufting Ifraelites in the Wildernefs : "^ Behold the heaven and the heaven ofj^'^l^'^i'*; 
heavens is the Lord's thy God, the earth aljo with all that is therein. With °^^i)*m l\ ^'' 
thefc words David glorifeth God: ^The heavens are thine, the earth alfo ii 7#. 3. 11,1"?. 
thine ; '^o acknowledging his dominion ; a^sfor the world and thefulnefs there- ^I"'" ^^' ^' 
of, thou haft founded them ; fo expreffing the foundation or ground of that Zach'^^i'^. 
dominion. And yet more fully , at the dedication of the Otlerings for the "'"^^- 5 
building of the Temple, to fliew that what they gave was of his own, he ^'^^I'ln'Al'. 
fiiith, ^ Thine, Lord, is thegreatnefs, and the power, and the glory , and the 'Deitt.'io. 14. 
viflory, and the Miijfly: for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is thine. !^cA^^'"' 
Thine is the kingdom, Lord, /t:-jd thou art exalted as head above all. Both 11,12. 
riches and honour come of thee, and thou reigneft over all. If then we look- "^"'nnry n 
upon the Objeft of God's Dominion , it. is of that amplitude and extenfion, , - 'T'lin 
that it includcth andcomprehendethall things ; fb that nothing can be ima- rTrl-u^tl:] 
gined which is not his, belonging to him as th? true owner and proprietor, ^ ■<>X'^, K-j.i 
and fubjeft wholly to his will as the Ible governour and difpoler : in refpeft 7«''^" 7«^7''"; 
of which univerfal power we mult confels him to be L^lm/gky. KfaHn. ze- 

If weconfider the manner and natureoi this Power, the Plenitude thereof '"^.''•'- ^^ "/''"'''• 
or perfcftion will appear : for as in regard of the extenfion , he hath power "' " *' 
over all things ; fb in refpeft ot the intenfion, he hath all power over every 
thing, as being abfblute and lupreme. This God challenged to himfelf, when 
he catechifed the Vro^ihtt Jeremy in a Potter's houfe, faying, ^0 houfe oflfracl, ^ Jer. is. s. 
cannot 1 do with you as this potter ? faith the Lord. Behold , as the clay is in the 
potter's hand, fo are ye in my hand, houfe of IJrael. That is, God hath as abfb- 
lute power and dominion over every perfbn, over every Nation and Kingdom 
on the Earth, as the Potter hath over the pot he makcth,or the clay he mould- 
cth.Tliusare we wholly at the difpoial of his will,and our prefent and future 
condition framed and ordered by his free, but wife and jufl, decrees. Hath Rom. 9. 21. 
not the potter power over the clay, of the fame lump to make one vejjel unto honour, 
and another unto difljo'Mur^. And can that earth-artificer have a freer power 
over his brother potfheard, (both being made of the fame metals than God 
hath over him, w ho by the If range fecundity of his omnipotent power, firfl 
made the clay out of nothing, and then him out of that P 

The duration of God's dominion muft likewife necelTarily be eternal , if 
any thing which is be immortal. For, being every thing is therefore his, be- 
caufe it received its being from him.and tlie continuation of the creature is as 
much from him as the firlf produftion ; it foUoweth that fb long as it is con- 
tinued it mufl: be his, and confequently, being fomc of his Creatures are im- 

G 2 mortal, 


^iTim. K 17. mortal, his dominion muft be eternal. Wherefore S. P.Wexprefly callcth 
Tiii2a«A^^ God ' tht Kt»? tttrnaL with reference to that of D.xvid. '^ Thy kinodom is an 

phrafe for ever and ever in the original 
rrdtlctr ^ fij^g jQ come afllsnable or imaginable, but after and beyond that God Ihall 

'£.w.i5. i8. reign. 

"nr Dyv^n Xhe third branch of God's authoritative or poteftatlve power conlirtetii 
va. i^^Ti.'"''' in the u(c of all things in his polTeflion, by virtue of his abfblute dominion, 
x/r/fr. infccu- For it is the genera 1 diftate of reafbn, that the ufe, bcnefitand utility of 
X'/fi.^'rw' 2ny thing, redoundeth unto him whole it is, and to whom as to theproprie- 
.wflf/k- /?/?/)£- tor it bclongeth. 'Tis true indeed, that God, who is all-iufhcicnt and in- 
^"s"Plxx fi^'i^^^'y Jiappy in and ofhimfclf, fb that no accellion ever could or can be 
tgJn.DM. \z. made to his original felicity, cannot receive any real benefit and utility from 
7. »;< wj ala- the creature. '^ Thou art my Lord, faith David, my good/ie/s txtendeth net to 
i)//ci Z'i "'^i '^^^- '^"'i therefore our only and abfolute Lord, becaufe his goodnels ex- 
•f als*a. ic, i- tendcth unto us, and not ours to him, becaufe his dominion is for our bene- 
'^l'T/% - ^^' "°'- ^^^ ^^'^ ^^'" ■ ^^^ "^ ^^^^ want, and therefore may receive ; not for 
iiic' ii-r- liimfelf, wlio Cannot receive, becaufe hewantcth nothing, whoie honour 
vitiicc non in- ftandcth uot in his own, but in our * receiving. 

digct,nos vcro 

dom'macionc illius indi.£;emus, uc operetur & cuilodiac nos : & idco vcrus & folus eft Dcminus, quia non illi ad, fed 
ad nollrain udliracem lalurcmq-, fcrvimus. Nam fi nobis indigeret eo ipfo non verus Dominui i-ffcc , cilni per nus ejus ad- 
juvaretur ncccflicas, fub quaSc ipfcfcrvirct S. Aui-dc Gen. ad lit. t. S. c 11. Dixi Domino^Dcus manes tu, quare? ijuon /im 
baimum mnegis lUc non cgcc noftri , nos egcmus ipiius •, ideo vcrus Dominus. Nam tu non valdc vcrus Dominus fcrvi 
tui ; ambu lioniints, anibo tgcntcs Deo. Si vcro putas egere tui fcrvuni cuum, uc dts pancm, cgcs & tu icrvi tui, uc ad- 
juvec labores tuos. Utccquc vcllrum alcero veftrum indiget : itaq; nullus veiiruni vtrc dominus, & nuHus vcftrum vere 
fcrvus. Audi vcrum Dominuni, cujus vcrus es itrvus, iiixiDomiro, Dc'w mew «'«; quare tui domi. us ? Liarum 
tneorwn mn eges. Id. ad Ffal. 69. * T/inLuI to/hto/ n dvivAst 7hu t^ d-r c«,n;k -r^^H.tijMav a.yaB~v yisro/b^J-"^: 
/iterocl. in Aine.t Car. /tnda^ain, "O^; thiS. tIv wsay at T^a'Ai/j.^o:', ui Ajah?';' oi'vjiVS' iuiTc:' •lit Q a '^ 

But though the univerfal Caufe made all things for the benefit of fbme crea- 
tures framed by him, yet iiath he made them ukimarely lor himfelf ; and 
God is as univcrfally the final as t!ie ci^cient caufc of his opcratio.ns. The 
yV""' "' ^^' -'^P^'^'^*^ '^'^^''^ t'iughc us, that not on\y ^ of him, wnibyhim, as tlie Hrli Author, 
'' I cw. 8. (5. but alfb •* to him, and for him, as the ultimate end, art all things. And 'tis 
' Piav.\6 ^. one of the proverbial fentences oi Solomon, " The Lord hath made all things 
for himfelf, yea even the wicked for the day of evil. For though he cannon re- 
ceive any real benefit or utility from the creature, yet he can and doth in a 
manner receive that which hath fbme fimilitude or affinity with it Thus 
* Ffal. 104.31. God '' njoiceth at the cffe8:s of his wifdom, power and goodnels, and taketh 
delight in the works of his hands. Thus doth he order and difpole of all 
.* '^T- ^^ '*'• things unto his own glory, which redoundeth from the dcmonllration of his 
yLK^.o i^iU Attributes. ..... 

THlw/iISa ^n- An explicit belief of this authoritative power and abfblute dominion of 
^Hilo^^ l^'d- '■'^'- ^^^'"^gf^^y is nccellary, firlT: for the breeding in us an awful reverence of his 
6*i'*T(i/n^' a- Majeily, and entire fub)e£lion to his will. For to the highell: excellency tlic 
tivH.^ , greateii honour, to the * fuprcme authority the rooll: exaft obedience is no 
vti ic'l^'-zv more than duty. If God be our abfblute I^ord, wc his fervants and valfals, 
ynkii v'-!^'r tlicn is thcrc a right in him to require of us v\liatlbever we can perform, and 
T'lj)yT'~A^- ^" II obligation upon us to perform whatfbever hecommandcth. Whoioever 
7i< xciTiit i doth otherwilc, while he confelTcth, denieth him • while heacknowlcdgetii 
Ji2iriTMyrf.\ hi|-p^ ^^^iti^ i^ij tongue, he fcts his hand againll him. '' IVhy call ye me Lord^ 
? y \^i. ser- Lord, laith our Saviour, and do not the things which I fjy ? 
11US aptid Me- Sccondly, this belief is alfb neceffary to breed in us equanimity and pati- 
"Tu(c6.4i. ^^^*^ ^^ ^^^ fuftcrings, to prevent all murmuring, repining, and ob)e£fing 


The Father Almighty. 



againft theadlions or determinations of God, as knowing that he, who is al 
Iblute Lord, cannot abufe his power ; he, whofe will is a law to us, cannot 
do any thing un wilely or unjulHy. ^ Let the pot/heard J}rive with thepotfhe.irds ^jfai.^^. p. 
of the earth : jbati tht clay (ay to him that fajhioneth it. What makejt thou? 
But let the man after God's own heart rather teach us humble and religious 
filence. ^ I mas dumb , laith he, and opened not my mouth, becauft thou dtdfi " jy;,/. 59. p. 
it. When Shimn call ftones at him, and curled him, let us learn to fpeak as 
he then (pake; ■= The Lord bath /aid unto htm, Curfe David: ivho (hall then \ 2 Sa/n,, 
[ay, Wherefore hajt thott done fo .«" 

Thirdly, the belief of God s abfolute dominion is yet flirthernecelTary to 
make us truly and fufficiently fenfible of the benefits we receive from him, 
fo as by a right value and eftimation of them tounderftandhow farwe ftand 
obliged to hmi. No man can duely prize the bleflings of Heaven, but he 
which acknowledgeth they might luif ly have been denied him : nor can any 
be ilifficiently thankful for them, except it be confelTed that he ought him 
nothing who beftowed them. 

But as the original word for Almighty is not put only for the Lord ofHofls, 
but often alio for the Lord Shaddai : ib we muft not reftrain the fignifica- 
tion to the power authoritative, but extend it alio to that power which is 
properly operative and executive. In the title of the Lord of Sabaoth we 
underlfand the rule and dominion of God, by which he hath a right of go- 
verning all : in the name ^7;.?^/^^; we apprehend an infinite forceand ftrength, 
by which he is able to work and perform all things. For whether we take ^^ r. n , 
this word in * compofition, asfignifying the All-fujficient ; whofoever is able mu LnViT 
to fuppedirate all things to the fiifficingall, muft have an infinite power : "mpomdtd of 
or whether we deduce it from the Ij Root denoting vaflation or defiruction; ^t'^^^',!^'""'-, 
whofoever can dcftroy the being of all things, and reduce them unto no- ''mn7b4n 
thing, muft have the lame power which oricinally produced all things out l '"^7^ I-"? 
ot nothuig, and that is mfanite. Howloever, the hrft notion or Almighty there iiCuffickn- 
neceffarily inferreth the fecond, and theinfinity of God's dominion fpeaketh ^y.^ f '■''"", fuffi- 
himinfir.itely '^ powerful in operation. Indeed in earthly dominions, the 'Xnyaelme'.- 
ftrength of the Governour is not in himlelf, but in thofe whom he govern- /'"'« ^-bsme 
cth : and he is a powerful Prince whoie Subjefts are numerous. But the f%'^'"'; ^"'*' 
King of kings hathin himfelf all power of execution, as well as right of do- job2\!'i'<,.if^ 
minion. Were all the force and ftrength of a Nation in the perfbnof the ?'-.^- "•"'!/''«? 
King, as the authority is, obedience would not be arbitrary, nor could re- S)m!job\i''i. 
bellion be fucccfsful : whereas experience teacheth us that the moft puiifant '"'.'i^ '^'•v'"^-' 
Prince is compelled adually tofubmit, when the ftrouger part of his own f'/Zi.*""' 
people hath taken the boldnefs to put a force upon him. But we muft not || "nty yjft'a- 
imagine that the Governour of the world ruleth only over them which are p'^'j'",'-^'""-^'''' 
willingto obey, or that any of his Creatures may difputc his commands with jvw'Vi;^"' 
Jafety, orcaftoft his yoke with impunity. Andif his dominion be uncon- ^'"-^ denroyer 
rrculable, it is becaule his power is irrefiftible. For man is not more inclina- ","1. dcjiiuiim 
b!c to obey God than man, but God is more powerful to exaft fubic£lion,and uvh/wA pwer 
to vindicate rebellion. In refpeft ofthe infinity, and irrefiftibility of which 'Jli'iim the 
active power we muft acknowledge him Almighty, and fb, according to the omnipotem-, 
moft vulgar acception, give the fecond explication of his 1| Omnipotency. |'"'j w'^'yf*-- 

tranjiiteh 'I'TTdiv]^ -To/«oa<. Andthif Etymology rather than the former fecmeth to be confirmed hy the Prophet Ifai. 15. 6. Howl 
ye, for the clay of the Lord it at hand, f<0' ^II/JO IttD. It (hall come as a deffruftion from the Almighty (i/t'/fraici) 
♦ H^mer h.itli ■ffetl'pyncdtijefe two- Ia-S'. ''fi ^<i1«p li^utTef « K^eci^, uxali k^h'-hIuv, EiT n( xj it^i»<< i/«V> on &i.y&- 
i*. ^^li'nt- liHoc niiicredamus, periclitatur ipfura iiolir* fidci Conftdionis initium, cjiia nos in Dcuiii Tatrtm Omni- 
p.xcntcm cridcre c 'jntiiemur. Ncquc ciiim vtracitcr ob aliud vocatur Omnipotcns, niii quia quicquid vuk porell, ucc 
vjlu;ic3ce cujofpiam crcaturx voluntatis omnipotcntis impcdicur tfl'cftus. ^. Aui. Enchir. c. 95. 

* But 



» ArticU I. * I3ut bccauie this word ^^/mighty is twice repeated in the Cned, once in 

"Tr^itT' this tirft Article, and again in the fixth, where Chr/fi is reprefented y////»_^ at 
■!rac7o)tfaT9- the right hand of God the Father Alr»ighty ; and alcliough in our Engltjb and the 
^.A>t.6.Ka.- [^,iti„ the fame word be exprefled in both places, yet in the ancient GretX- Co- 
j^5jjd=TT«- P'^'s there is a manifeft diltinclion; being the word in the fiift Article may 
T^<-r*i.7o equally comprehend God's power in operation, as well as authority indomi- 
u"i'tTt'Mcim "'or>> whereas that in the fixth fpeaketh only infinity of power, without re- 
cif)ofti.'eCrced lation to authority or dominion : I lliall therefore relerve the explication of 
iA /'"/Ben ^'^^ I'^tter unto its proper place, defigning to treat particularly ot'God's infi- 
nei College, and nitc powcr wlicre it is moll peculiarly exprelTed ; and fo conclude briefly 
fit firth by thi ^vith two othcf interpretations vvhich fomc of the Ancientsliave madooi'tlie 
Amiagli7 original word, belonging rather to Philofophy than Divinity,though true in 
i; As Tiicopiii- ^^^^- For li fome have ilretched tliis word Almighty, according to the Greek 
\\v,Bi(lnfofhi\- notation, to (igniHc that God holdeth, incircleth, and containeth all things, 
noch, giving a j^/y^^ i^^^f^ gathered the wind in his fjts ; who hath bound the waters in a gar- 
mrJ'snkkh' ment? ivho^hath ejtah/ijhed a/l the ends of the earth ? who but God ? ^ Who 
""' "'fn^wffl' fj^tlj meafured the waters in the hollow of hU hand, and meted out heaven with the 
•»4°f Ktj'wG-, ff^"^ and comprehended the dtifl of the earth in a, meafure ^ who but he? I'hus 
vli^&,teitsw then may hcbecalled Almighty, as holding, containing, and comprehending 

(wtUto. -Tiir- * Others extend it farther yet, beyond that of containing or comprchen- 
T'^^f^ " ' ''°"' ^° ^ more immediate influence of fuftaining or prelervation. For the 
y^i {i^'"'rV^ ^^<^^^ power whicli firlf gave Being unto all things, continueth the fame Being 
iflii>~v,^)t,r<i unto all. "^ Godgiveth to all life, and breath, and all things. In him ne live, 
t^v" ^t'^I^tZ '"'^^■> ^^^ ^^'^^ °'*'' ^^'"Si ftith the ftrangcft Philoibphep that ever entrcd 
e/'* -f oixK- Athens, the firft: expofitorof that blind infcription,7br/;e unknownGod. <^ How 

* '^~tk '''^'*^'^^"y^f^'>'^S,^'^'^^^"'^'"'^'^y'f^^^^'^^"'^^^^^"^h^^^^^ or been preferved, if not 
^AmoU.i.' called by thee 'f as the wifdom of the [jews confclfeth. Thus did the Ltvites 
•Pcov. 30.4. fland and blels : '^ Thou even thou, art Lord alone; thou hafl made heaven, the 
^w/GrcRNsfr. ^^'^'^^^ of heavens, with all their hofi, the earth and all things that are therein^ 
oiiCct '.TM ■r the fea and all that is therein, and thou preferveft them all. Where the conti- 
nar^oK-e^Tip iiual confervation of the creature is in an equal latitude attributed unto God 
'^^T-^TcHc- '^yith their firfl: produftion. Becaufe there is as abfolute a ncceflity of pre- 
^,ii -ivTcL fcrving us from returning unto nothing by annihilation, astherewas for flrft 
\D^qLZ<^; beftovvingan exillcnce on us by creation. And in this fenle God is undoubt- 
Ni!tbcr^a)s he, cdly Almtghty, m that he doth fuflain, uphold, and conliantly preferveaJl 
would aod be things in that Being which thcv have. 

termed iro vjo- ^ o j 

Kp0.Tu^, H ixn rrioa. n KlitK n '7fcAKg^.riii'l& avrlui, 11^ It ■tt'^u) C""'''>mt}&AJi^'>- contra Crcatorii Omni- 
potcntij. Si Omnipoccmis atquc omiiitcnentis virtus, eft caufu fubdlkikli omnt creaturo:. C^ui virtus ab cis quae crcata funt 
rcgcndU fi aliquandoccdarct, ("imul & illoriun ccflarct fpccies.omnifqi natura concideret. S. Aug. in Genef. I. 4. c. 12. ' Alh 
17.25,28. '»'//(/. 11.25. "AVA. 5. 5. 

From whence-wc may at laft declare what is couched under this Attribute 
of God, how far thisOmnipotcncy extends it felf, and what every Chrillian 
is thouc^ht to profcfs, when he addeth this part of the firft Article of his 
Creed, / believe in God the Father ALMIG HTT. 

As I am pcrfw.ided of an infinite and independent eflence, which I term a 
God, and of the mylfcry of an eternal generation by which that God is a Fa- 
ther : fo I afl!"urc my (elf that Fatlicr is not fubje^ to infirmities of age, nor is 
there any w cakncis attending on the Ancient of days ; but, on the contrary, 
I believe Omnipotency to be aneffential attribute of his Deity, and that not 
only in rclpccl of operative and aftive power, (concerning which I fhall have 
occafion to exprefs my faith hereafter) but alfb in regard of power authori- 
tative, in which I mult acknowledge his antecedent and eternal right of ma- 

Maker Of Heaven And Earth. 


king what,and when,and how he pIea{ed,of pofTelling whatfbever he maketh 
by diredl dominion, of ufing and difpofing as he pleafeth all things which he 
fo poiTclfeth. This dominion I believe mod abfolute in refpeftof its Inde- 
pendency, both in the Original, and the Ufe or exercife tiiereof .• this I ac- 
know ledge Infinite for amplitude or extenfion,as being a power over all things 
without exception ; for plenitude or perfedion,as being all power over every 
thing without limitation ; for continuance or duration, as being eternal with- 
out end or conclufion. Thus I believe in God the Father Almighty^ 

^mi of "^tmw auD careo* 

ALthough this laft part of the Fir ft Article vi^ere not exprefTed in the 
* ancient Creeds, yet the fenfe thereof was delivered in the !| Hrft Rules ^^p^..^g r^^ 
of Faith, and at laft thefe particular words inferted both in the Gretk and La- it mt '^memor.- 
tiff Confeflions. And indeed the work of Creation moft properly follow- ^i *-^ ^- ^ugu- 
eth the Attribute of Omnipotency, as being the foundation of the firft, and ?itf «? 
the demonftration of the fecond explication of it. As then we believe there therbath Ruffi- 
is a God, and that God Almighty ; as we acknowledge that fame God to be Z^t^.TAmil'^m 
the Father of our Lord Jefta Chrifi, and in him of us : fo we alfb confefs ZmtJVtobe 
that the fame God the Father made both heaven and earth. For the full expli- /"""^ '«''''' ^'^ 
cation of which operation, it will befufficient, firft, to declare the latitude S'.Tco/*- 
of the Ob)e£t, what is comprehended under the terms of heaven and earth ; "''m the three 
fecondly, to exprefs the nature of the adion, the true notion of creation, by i^/^^^]'il[%l". 
which they were made ; and thirdly, to demonftate the Ferfon to whom vianus, mak_eth 
this operation is aftribed. mmmbnofh. 

^ . .... Efij}. 10. Ma- 

ximus Taurinenfis hath it not in Traditione Symboli, nor Petrus Chryfologus in hit Sermon, amongl\ fix feveral expofitiors. It « 
not in the Homilies o^ufebius Gallicanus, or the Expofition of Venantiiis Fortunatus. Marcellus BiJJiop of Ancyra Uft it not at 
Rome mith Julius : Nor did Arius in hit Catholick_Confe(Jion unto Conftantine acl^nowled^e it. Neither are the K'ords to be foimdm 
the Latin tr Oreel^ Copy of the Creed written about the beginning of the eighth Century, and publijjjed out of the MSS. by the mojl Re- 
verend and Learned Archbi/Jiop of Atmigh ; or in that which Etherius rtn^Beatus produced againfl Elipandus Archbijhop «/ Tole- 
do, towards the end of the feventb Century. || As in that delivered by IrensEus, E/f IviL 5i3l' ira]i^ TctvloK^Te^^, r Ti-roi- 
tiKiTuT ify.viv K^'f yhS ii,rii( 9a.\duxTa4, >yirel/ldt to. It «uto7{. Adver.Hsr.l.i.c. 2. ji nd that by Tenul. llnum om- 
ninoDeumeffe, iiec aliumpnter mundi conditorem, quiunivcrfade nihilo Y>toda\cr\t. Ve prsfcr. adv. Hn: c. 15. Andthat 
tinder the nrfmeq/TMovacian, not in formal -words, but with an (id ed) by way of explication. Regula cxigit vcricatis uc primo 
omnium credaraus in Deum Pacrem & Dominum Omnipotentem, id eft, rerum omnium perfeftifllmum conditorem, qui 
ccclum alta fublimicace fufpenderic, terram dcjefta mole folidavic,maria foluco liquore diffudic, & hic omnia propriis & con- 
dignis inftrumentis &ornara & plena digeffic. BeTrin. c. i. Itwas alfoobferved by Origcn, thtit the Chrijlians werewont mifl 
frequently to mentionGod under that at the mojl common title. '*H -^ ioej.?u( ofiiKoyin to koivov cvohm, tJ 0e3f» 5t )La f^^ 
irfi<&{iKn< <}, jMj/.iv^y( t^ %Kav, to/mthj «£«"'* ^ >''*• ^^' Celfum, 1. 1. Eufebius deiive'cd the firj} Article thm in 
hkConfefflon to theUkene Council: UiTdJo/uS^ ti< ha. ^icv 'yalkf^vctvl»K^.T$^, riV i-rivlav heitrav n >i,dLop^.rav 
irtitiTlw • andthat Council cxprejfed the fame without alterationintheir Creed. Butajierthe 'tilceae Council, wc find added -rain- 
tW uVwi-b ly y^(, by S. Cyril o/Jerufalem in bis CatechifmjandEpi'phzn'ius in Ancorato : which addition was received, confirm- 
ed and tranjmitted to w b) the Cownci/o/ Conftantinople. By which means at lafi we find this Article thm exprejfed in the H'ejiern 
Ctnfeffions, Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, creatorem coeli & terra:. 

For the firft, I fuppofe it cannot be denied as the fenle of the Creed^ that 
under the terms of heaven and earth are comprehended all things ; becaufe the 
firft Rules of Faith did fbexprels it, and the moft ancient Creeds had cither 
inftead of thefe words, or together with them, the maker of all things vift'olc 
and invifible, which being terms of immediate contradi£lion, mull: conie- 
quently be of univcrfal comprehenfion ; nor is there any thing imaginable 
which is not vifible, or invifible. Being then thefe were the words of the 
Nicene Creed ; being the addition oi heaven and earth in thcConflantinofolitan 
could be no diminution to the former ,whicli they ftill retained together with 
them, laying, I believe in one God the Father Almighty , maker of heaven and 
earth, and of all things vifible and invifthle ; itfoUowetli, that they which in 
the Latin Church made ufe only of this laft addition, could not choofe but 
take it in the full latitude of the firft exprclTion. 



A R T 1 C L E J. 

And well may this be taken as the un-'oubted fenfe of the C^ed. becauleit 
Bxod. 31. 17. is the known language of the facred Scriptures. In fixddys^ faith Mofts^ tht 
Lord made heaven .tnd earth : in the lame time, faith God himfelf, the Lord 
txixf. 20. n. made heaven and earthy the ft a^ and all that in them is. So that all things by 
thofe twomult beunderftood which are contained in them: and weknoW 
no Being which is made or placed without them. When God w ould call a ge- 
neral rendezvous, and make up an univerfal Auditory, the Prophet crys out, 
tfai. I. J. Hear, heavens, and give ear, earth. When he would exprefs tiie full fplen- 
1/4.66. 1. jQur of his Maiefty, and utmoft extent of his aQual dominion, Thw faith the 
Lord, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is myfootfiool. When he would 
challenge unto himfelf thofe glorious attributes of Immenfity and Omnipre- 
Jer. 25. 24. fence, Do not 1 fill heaven and earth ? faith the Lord. Thefe two then taken 
together fignifie the Univerle, or that which is called the world, S. Paul 
hath given a clear expofition of thefe words in his explication of the Athenian 
ASti-j. 24. Akut ; God that mxde the world and all things therein, feeing that he is Lord of 
heaven and earth, dwelltth not tn temples made with hands. For being God is 
necelTarily the Lord of all things which he made, (the right of his dire£l do- 
minion being clearly grounded upon the firft Creation) except we fhould 
conceivethe Apoiile to exempt fbme creature from the authoritative power 
of God, and fb take fbmc work of his hand out of the reach of his Arm ; we 
mufi: confefs that heaven and earth are of as large extent and ample fignifca- 
tionas the world and all things therein. "Where it is yet farther obfervable, 
that the Apoftle hath conjoyned the fpeech of both Teflaments together. 
For the ancient Hebrews feem to have had no word in ufe among them 
which fingly of it felfdid fignifie the world, as the Greebhdd, in whole 
language S. Paul did fpeak ; and therefore they ufed in conjundion the hex- 
* KtfAjf >j ven and earth, as the * grand extremities within which all things are contain- 
7z']^' ^*^'''' ^^- ^^y^ if we take the expofition of the later Writers in that language, 
Toff iK^Vf, i- thofe two words will not only as extremities comprehend between them, but 
e^^ujtK.y7!, in the extenfion of their own fignifications contain all things in them. For 
''JeJ^ir^'h'^' '^^'hcn they divide the Univerfe into 1| three worlds, the inferiour, fuperiour, 
^i)(iiZ-Z('j and the middle world ; the lower is wholly contained in the name oiearth, 
£K£fj}«u.'r, 3- [j^e Other two under the name of heaven. Nor do the Hebrews only ufe this 
x.L^lit'rrlvlii manucr ofexprefRon, but even the Greeks themfelves ; and that not only 
iM*"iAit?s- before, but * after || Pythagoras had accuftomcd them to one name. As 
^?<r> >ca.Ta9i¥ t-herefQre under the finele name of * World or Univerfe, fo alio under the 
Tuf H>», Ti- con)un6live expreffion o( heaven and earth, are contained all things material 
f** !J Ts'Tffli- aji^j immaterial, vifible and invifible. 

yaf i(y.v'<,< • 1 KwraxiM '5 <t mi5«v, et'f >^i) f^ o ig^tl(, -ri^ai 'j 'T3v']av i* yn ' u^ 3 »V.«*« ^ '^ >"< ''« Koitx rej'a. 'sitinAit- 
<T7«usT/>^Ha. Jc. Pk' M:mAi Great. I. i.e. 5. "Xa '^ s'fctn'iu Qdy-ctli (11 ei/nj} il Tiet^ n -Travjif tiirivnij.*, txJ 
J i^ytiv TO x.'it]':v.c*'fj Qjicufif: aT^ox /x ri x.4vlg;v aj^H a/A'.< jj n ck^tixou}©- of@-. Jiiero.l.m Aw. Carm. 
h For the Ri^->£\ns ufH.t!l) diiiJi the whole fume of thing! into PIQ 71/ WlV} three worlds : thefirJ},])r^Ur\r\ D7iy the 
infcriciir, or ■ (Sli-'H Q7iy the deprcflcd and lowcll world ; LlD7iy '. ^^1 l*»J"n that is tliis world, f.i) they, to rrit, 
thit globe of c.trlh onwLich vre inc. Tliis they divide into three farts-, D' the lea, i^kes and rivers, 131Q the dcfan' 
foliicry anduninhabitabc places, DHi)\T JQ piri"* far (rem the habitations of men, and y\''IJ'' rhui o'lKMiSpUij., the earth inha- 
bited. Thefecondii caUed XO.T\^ CD7iy the middle or inmoft world ; Zyii ''J 1 iZ37"iy tvl'.n tliis is the world 
of the fphcrcs, crntainin^ the aerial rcgionandtkejhnry heaxcns. The third is \V^^r\ iI37iy tile fuperiour world ; Sin 
D'2b5 7Cn D7iy this is the world of Angels, ZD'n7K of God, TVWDll of Souls, ^jnnn a7iy the fpiricualworld. 
Nov be'.rg thfe thee comprehend all things imaginable; being tlxprj} is fufficiently expreffed in V"'X the earth, and the two 
lift inZ^^OVJ the haven ; it foUon-eth that, in the fenfe oftl.v Hehra-s, heaven and earth fignifie all things. * E'f T«7f 
aKr.iti'Jinr, t'^ftii SsSf, Sf k'^^iJi, TirXjc; ic, yeHxf mtn^jf. \\nvHtyfa( t^Ct^ a't'ouamlw rfif Ihav 'A/oyLo 
ii'-:<Tij.or, U -f o- ai^Ti.) ri'ji,,. de Flac. Phihfoph. l.2.c.i. » Si MurMm dixeris, illic crit & caliim, & qua in eo, 
fol,& luna, Sffidcra, & allra, &terra, & freta, & omnis cenfus elemcntorum. Omnia dixtris, cum id dixcritquodcx 
omnibus conrtat. Tatiil. d: Vng.Veland. c. 4. 4>aa7 '^ d 31901 >^ i^vov «^ >(«; 19 ■?=»( k, ii-SfWTBf rhi noiyaAa.* Quui- 
>*"'• %«'^'<"'- "tj I'l'W'oTiili, x^ Qas(S(ruiiljJj 10 Ji^.ajo7wli'jM • iCjTi c^o^' Tiro J)xtojj7u. Kituov KyMmf- J.nnbl. 
I'rotrept. but the words arc VImo's to Gorgia. 


Maker Of Heaven And Earth. ^9 

Buc as the Apoftle hath taught us to reafon, ll^/jc/z he faith alltb.ngy ar^ pat - car. 15. 27. 
ufider him, it it munifcfl that hi is cxapted which did put all things ntsdtr him : 
fo when we fay, all thuigs were made by God, it is as manitcfl that he is 
excepted who made all things. And then the Propofition is clearly thus 
delivered ; All beings whailbever befide God were made. As wc read in 
S. John concerning the Word, that the world was made by him\ and in Z"*' '• 'o ?• 
more plain and ex pre (s words before , All things rpere made by him, a-nd with- 
out him was not any thing fnade that was made. Which is yet farther illuftra- 
ted by S. P^inl : For by him were all things created that are in heaven a:-jd that Col. i. la. 
are inearth, 'vifiblc and invifible, whether they be thrones, or dominions , or prin- 
cipalities, or powers ; all things_ tfere created by him. . If then there be notliing 
imaginable which is not either in heaven or in earth, nothing which is not 
either vifible or invifible, then is there nothing befide God which was not 
made by God. 

This then is the unquefiionable dodilrine of the Chriflian Faith, That the 
vaft capacious frame of the World, and every thing any way contained and 
exifting in it, hath not its effence from or of it felf, nor is of exiflenee abfb- 
lutely neceiTary ; but what it is, it hath not been, and that being which it ■*'"*"^'' '^ 
hath was made, framed and conftituted by another. And as every'houfe is ficb. 3. 4. 
but/ded by fome mm ; for we fee the Earth bear no fuch creature of it fclf ; 
Stones do not grow into a wall, or firll hew and iquare,then unite and faftcn 
themfelves together in their generation ; Trees fprout not crofs like dry and 
faplels beams, nor do fparrs and tyles fpring with a natural uniformity into 
a roof and that out of lione and mortar : thefe are not the works of Nature, 
but Hiperftruftions and additions to her, as the fupplies of Art, and thete- 
flimonies of the underftanding of Man, the great Artificer on earth : So if 
the World it fclf be but an"^ houfe, if the Earth, v,'hich ^Z'^;?^^;^ upon nothing, *'o cu^,{!'c( 
be the foundation , and the glorious fpheres of Heaven the roof, (whicii VI" J^'"^it''^ 
hath been delivered as the moft univerfal Hypothe(is) if this be the habita- g^^'^f^^" 
tion of an infinite Intelligence, the i| Temple of God ; then muft ^ve ac- ^sJ- Piniode 
linou'ledce the world was built by him, and, confequently, that he which ^^"'"' ^ , 
buflt all things is yjod. TfSTi:;, %| ?. 

From hence appears the truth of that diftinction, Whatlbevcr hath any to/^'^ a;,^,,. 
being is either made or not made : whatfoever is not made, is God '; what- Js^/'/'^'^ '^ 
fbever is not God, is made. One uncreated and independent effence; all rlmt.Noe. 
other depending on it , and created by it. One of eternal and necelTary ?^H''"f'^'>* 
exiftence; all other indifferent, inrefpe£t of a£lual exifting, cither to be or ^^h.'^^'tti 
not to be, and that indifferency determined only by the free and voluntary ^^&»ii<.id.i{i 
aa of the firft Caufc. _ ^/^'If;?- 

Now becaufc to be thus made includes fbme imperfc£lion,and arnbng the ^imctmc.-tik 
parts of the world Ibme are more glorious than others; ifthofe which are '''"^ ■'^.-ww. 
moft perfeft prefuppofc a maker, then can we not doubt of a Creation wlicrc nmn's: vai' 
\ve find far Icls perfeftion. This houfe of God, though uniform,yet is not all "'^^ tcmpium, 
of tiie lame materials , the t'ootftool and the throne are not of the lame ri'^vror^r^o 
mould ; there is a vail: difference between the heavenly expanfions. This firll )^ ,r^;< dM- 
aercal Heaven , where God fettctli up his pavilion , where ^ he maketh the 6^*'' «ty 
clouds his chariot, and walketh upon the wings of the wind, is not fb tar inferior (f^J~'^yrl^ 
in place as it is in glory to the next, the (eat of the Sun and Moon, the two x" ««<»-mo»' 
great lights, and Stars innumerable, far greater than the one of them. ^^^ fjl„,j^l",^ 
yet that iccond Heaven is not lb ilir above the firll: as beneath tlie " third,\mo " pfii. 104. 5. 
whieh S. Paul was caught. The brightnels of the Sun doth not 16 far ilirpafs ' ^ ^"'- ' 
the blicknefs of a wandring cloud, as the glory of that Heaven of prefence 
llirmounts the fading beauty of the ftarry firmament. For in this great Fcm- 

H pic 

3. 2. 

50 ARTICLE 1. 

plc of the world, in which the Son of God is the Higii Prieft, the Heavcrt 
which we fee is but the Veil, and that which is above, the Holy of Holies. 
This Veil indeed is rich and glorious, but one day to be rent, and then to 
admit us into a tar greater glory ,even to the Mercy-feat and Chcrubins. For 
'"ifitf e}Kn7ii- this third Heaven is the ' proper hditation of theblelTcd Angels, uhich con- 
«••'• ftantly attend upon the Throne. And if thofc moft glorious and happy fpi- 

^7»4^8f7,4. lit!^. thoic^ morning fiars \v\uchfa»g togtthir,tho[h/ons of God which J/jouied 
for joy when the foitndAtions of the earth were laid^ if tliey and their habitation 
were made ; then can we no ways doubt of theprodudion of all other crea- 
tures, fb much inferiour unto them. 

Forafhiuch then as the Angels are termed the /o;«j ofGod,k fufficicntly de- 
noteth that they are from him,not of themfelves; all filiation inferring Ibmc 
kind of produ6tion ; And being God hath but one proper and only-begotten 
Son,wholc propriety and fingularity confifteth in this,that he is of the fame 
increated clTence with the Father ,all other oft-fpring mufl: be made,and con- 
fcquently even the Angels created fbns ; of whom the Scripture fpeaking 
PfiiJ, 104. 4. faith, Who md-eth his Angels fpirits, and his minifiers a, flame of fire. For al- 
though thofe words, as firfl fpoken by the Pfalmifl, do rather exprefs the na- 
ture of the wind and lightning : yet being the Authour of the Epiftle to the 
Hebrews hath applied the fame to the Angels properly fo called, we cannot 
Amis^. 15. butconcludeupon his authority, that the iameGod who created the wind, and 
Job 2S. 26. ^^^g ^ tvayfor the lightning of the thunder ^ hath alfo produced thofc glorious 
fpirits ; and as he furnifhed them with that aftivity there exprefTcd, ib did 
he frame the fubjcft of it, their immaterial and immortal efTence. 

If then the Angels and their proper habitation, the far moft eminent and 
illuftrious parts of the WorId,werc made ; if only to be made be one charaftcr 
of impcrfe£f ion ; much more muft we acknowledge all things of inferiour na- 
ture to have dependence on their univerfalCaufc,and confequently this great 
Univcrfe, or, all things, to be made, befide that one who made them. 
This is the firll part of our Chriflian Faith, againlt fome of the ancient 
■^Mundum, & Philofbphers, who were fb wildly fond of thofc things they fee, that they 
hoc quod'nc- imagined ^ the Univerfe to be infinite and eternal , and, what will follow 
nunc alio ca- f^^j^ jj.^ jq ^^^. ^.ygfj Qq^ himfelf. 'Tis true that tlie moft ancient of the 
iibTiit?cujus*^ Heathen were not of this opinion, but |i all the Philofbphy for many Ages 
circumflcxu fc- delivered the World to have been made. 

guntur cunftj, 

numcn cflc crcdi par cfl atcrnum,immcnfuii),neque genicum,ncquc interituruni urquam. riirt. Kat.Hifl.l. 2.c.\ . \\ Tn'tu^tt 
p: ?r i-raflu Urtu fAtii; ftH Ar'tftotle, Dc Cxlo, I. 1. c. 10. confefwi it the general opinion, that the World tfas made. Whick 
watfi iincicni a Tradition of ail the frft Philopiphers, that from Liniti, Mnf*iis,Orfheui, Homer, Hefiod and the rcji, tkey all men- 
tioned the Original of the nr<rld, enlilling their Bo^l^s Kofixtpviit, or &toyovla.,or the lil^c. I'lat ja'f TifU ci tpufiy aU/ 
ai^tnltf It) ^ o^>^.<tT4>r, a!v>« rnivTci. "yj^i «<&^ • -^h/j^t '■i rd ^i ctj J«f7« </>auV»<»'. 7ii ■j "xihtv eWf f<^ • yLrLxi^ 
pt •! •*! -5^ 'Haie/'of, *Ttf, ii,^ a.n.oi^ 01 Tf«To/ «u!r/oA»yii<7«»7«<» i^ys Ariflotte, de Cceh, /.j. c. 1. Intrkiji uords he 
mamfejily attributes the dollnnc of the Creation tfthe World not only to Hefiod, but to ail the frjl natural Fhilofophen : which learn- 
ing, beginning with Promcthem the firji Profepr of that Science, continued in that family amongji the Ailantiadx, rcho all fuc- 
cefftvely delixered that truth. After them the Ionian Phihfophy did acknowledgt it, and the Italian received it by Pythagoras, 
whfe Scholars allmainlained it brl'ide Ocellus Lucanus, the prfl of them that fanfied the World not made, ubom Plato, though he 
much ejieemed him, yet followed not ; for there h nothing more evident than that he Md the mrld was made. Ai-^itfjifj J'it, J1 US 
tdrittr -jfJitif lyTh -rZp TocTk ^tujifa< ^uui^nv, a-ytBit Iim- In which words he delivers not only the generation of the Vni- 
verje, but alfo the true cOufe thereif which h the goodnefs of God. tar he which ail^s this plain and clear queflion, -Tr'artfft UJS a.*i, 
■ji^iatui dfxja* IX'^* iJi/ilty, it jvyercr, «t' dfytif Tn& df^oLfjipQ- ; av.danjwers the quefttonbncHy with a yiyotty • 
He which gives this general rule upon it, -rti' /' ax! "j^c/Jifiy j«mV u'^' "f'TiK Tinif iyslyKLu T!) "^iS)^ ' ""d then immediately 
concludes. tIv (j- »y -reinjlui Xj t*]*^ oSA m "XdLvrit JCfUr ts %(yof, ic, d.'ff*\<t. m metfrm «d iwslIov Mytip ' cannot, 
(notwiihUandtn^ all the flnfts ofhu Greel^ Expofitors) be imagined to httvc conceived tlx world not made. And Arifioile, who befl 
ur.derjhod him, tells its clcirly his opinion It -rri Tifjulo, from whence I cited the precedent words, ittu •ya'f fuji ^ i^tly 
{where by the way obfcivc in Plato's t^rc( and xoff-jix®- tre made fnonymwi) "if-'iSl^ p., i pc ffijfTtf. 

When this tradition of the Creation of the world was delivered in all pla- 
ces down llicccflivcly by thofc which fcrioully conlidcixd t!ie frame ot all 
things, and the diticrence of the mofl ajicient Poets and Pliilolophers from 


Maksb. Of Heaven And Earth 


Mofts was on!', in die manner of exprelTing it ; thole which in after-ages firft 
deniL'd it made ufe of very frivolous and iaconcluding arguments, grcuiiding 
then new opinion upon v\eak foundations. 

For that which in the firfl place they take for granted as an Axiom of un- 
doubted truth,that ^ IVhatfoL ver hath a begmning^ mtifl have An end, and co/i (e- * ^'^'f* {."^T' 
quentiy, Whatfoever jha/I havenoend, hAd no beginnings is grounded upon no yiavTif't^iri- 
general real6n,but only upon particular obfervation of fijch things here below "^f? "''•'■'''•' ^''t 
as from the ordinary way of Generation tend in fome fpace of time unto Cor- ^ade% o^'tj. 
ruption. From whence, feeing no tendency to corruption in feveral parts of '""i^v/if^ 'in 
the world, they conclude that it was never generated,nor had any caufe or ""'"-'' ^'"'^' 
original of its being. Whereas, if we would Ipeak properly, future exilience 
or non-exilfence hath no fuch relation unto the firff produftion. Neither is 
there any contradiftion that at the fame time one thing may begin to be, and 
laff but for an hour, another continue for a thoufand years,a third beginning 
at the fame inftant remain for ever •• the difference being either in the nature 
of the things fb made, or in the determinations of the will of him that mads 
them. Notwithflanding then their univerfal rules, which are not true but in 
fome limited particulars,it is mofl certain the whole world was mdde,and of 
it part fhall perifh , part continue to all eternity ; by which fbmething 
which had a beginning fhall have an end, and fomething not. 

The lecond fallacy which led them to this novelty was the very name of 
Univerfe,which comprehendeth in it all things; from whence they reafbned 
thus: ll If the World or Univerfe were made, then were all things made ; and IITo^^i- ;/io- 
if the world fhall be di(rolved,thenall things fliall comsto nothing: which is ^'^X.^"^' ^2 
impoffible. For if all things were made, then muft either all, or at leaftfbme- ra ?6h^.;VVoi? 
thing, have made it felf, and fb have been the caufe of it felf as of the etfecl, '^"^ ""*" 'i'*'; 
and the effeft of it felf as of the caufe, and confequently in the lame inftant y.''J^'!Z'W^°. 
both have been and not been ; which is a contradiftion. But this fallacy is ivai^ov h xj 
eafily difcovered : for when we fay the Univerfe or all things were made.w^e Ijl't-J^ol'd- 
mufl: be always underflood to except him who made all things, neither can /«*. 
we by that name be fuppofed to comprehend more than the frame of heaven 
and earth, and all things contained in them ; and fb* he which firft deviled . ^^ -"^V'* '' 
this argument hath himfelf acknowledged. hvo,xirco lii, 

Far more grofs was that third conceit, that if the world were ever made, "^A^^aya »cc- 
it muft be after the vulgar way of ordinary natural generations ; in which "J^j]'^ 'ft^. 
II two mutations are obfervable, the firft from lefs to greater, or from woife <nyei^ iru- 
to better; the fecond from greater to lefs, or from better to worfe. (The '^-:^*^ ff "'' 
beginning of the firft mutation is called Generation, the end of it Perfeftion : vutt^tif. ocd- 
the beginning of the fecond is from the fame Perfeftion, but concludcth in ^'^- ^ 
Corruption or dilTolution.)* But none hath ever yet oblerved that this frame tsr.^Iy^Ww^ 
of the world did ever grow up from lefs to greater, or improve it felt from AH$a< -^ {/*- 
worfe to better : nor can we now perceive that it becomes worfe or lefs than ''1^'',!.';°''^^'"' 
it was, by which decretion we might guefs at a former incrcafc, and from a /Jo i^ rt^^i- 
tendency to corruption colleft its original generation. This conceit, I fay, is 7^ M'T«foAai- 
far more grofs. For certainly the Argument fb managed proves nothing at 'i^^'-rt^l^vO- 
all, but only this, (if yet it prove fb muchj that the whole frame of the ^ '■\"/\VV 
world, "and the parts thereof which are of greater perfection, were not gene- '^J^rt^^^ 
rated in that manner in which we fee fbme other parts of it are : which no ra si^l/*/-'* 
man denies. But that there can be no other way of produdion befule thele <^^Tv'«/ ':? , 

^u^^jf^ Tij iJitiovQ- SKri ixti^ov /xtTiSahit )C, ^ ri yw«;r®- i^ t3 S'l/iliov. Occl/ia. *Ti Si )* If^cv <. ri 
•Bclv iJiv rif/iv {§ tWTH •xa^'iyijcu TtKiJLMei>¥ rotSror ' aT? yi •>^>o.aV'f '"'l^ f<i/i/xV. »li A ^ "^^ Bif^'Uof iC, to ixfi^^'y 

H 2 petty 

52 ARTICLE 1. 

petty generations, or that the World was not (ome other way actually prO' 

ducccJ, this Argument doth not endeavour to infer , nor can any other 

prove it. 

Tlie next Foundation upon which they caft off the conftant doftrine of 

'*'A^',^tio» tlicir FredecclTors, was that general Affcrtion, That it is* impoffible for any 

tiSKiy^^^'i '^'^'"g ^° ^''^ produced out of nothing, or to be reduced unto nothing .- from 

c'fTj'nHi 7l whence it will inevitably follow, that the matter of this World hath always 

M» 5/ rtVstAi/- been, and mull: always be. The clear refutation of which difficulty requires 

•^of^ifl*^^' an explication of the manner how the World was made : the fecond part 

ay^\%^(:t 7I bcfotc propoundcd for the expofition of this Article. 

•XM. OceHm. j^T^^^, jj^^j. jj^^ j.|,^^g nature and manner of this Adion may be fo far under- 

flood as to declare the Chriflian Faith, and refute the errours of all oppofers, 

it will be nccelTary to confider it firft with reference to thcObjed or Effect ; 

fccondly, in relation to the Caufe or Agent ; thirdly, with refpcft unto the 

'lime or Origination of it. 

The Aftionby which the Heaven and Earth were made, confidered in re- 
ference to the cffe£t, I conceive to be the produfticn of their total Being ; fo 
that whatfbcvcr entity they had when made,hadnoreal exiftence before they 
Avcrc fo made. And this manner of production we ufually term Creation, as 
excludinp; all concurrence of any material caufe, and all dependence of any 
[ si r coucchc I^ind of fubjecl, as preluppofing no privation, as including no motion , as 
it biflc^rrej^d fignifying a produftion out of nothing ; |j that is, by which fomething is 
k Anfiim Arch- made,and not any thing preceding out of which 'tis made. This is the proper 
*.•(»).• Dicitiir a- ^nd pcculiar ieulc orthe word Crc.i/w«; not that it ligiuheslo much bv virtue 
liquid cfie til- of its Origination or vulgar ufc in the '^ Latine tongue ; nor that the Hebretv 
Kdiir'tntdli- ^^o^d ufcd hy Mofes, I» the beginning God created the haven and the earthy bath 
gimus circqui- of it felf any fucli peculiar acception. For ic isoften uled Ij fynonymoufly with 
licm tjftum, avoids which {ignifie any kind of produfticn cr formation, and by it fclf it 

ltd non etfi; a- -. , , , ° , ^ . ' - , - ' . { "■ 

liquid undc He Icluom dcnotcs a production outot nothing, cr proper creation, but moft 
fjftiun. Am:- frequently the making of one (iibftance out of another preexifting, as the 
♦CK«ioapiid ^ fi^^^s of the water, and ^ man of the duft of the earth ; the "^ renovating or 
nos gcncracio rcftoring any thing to its former perfection, for want of Hebrew words in 
vci nativicas compofition ; or, laiHy, the doing Tome neN\' or * wonderful work, the pro- 
Graws vcro ducing fome ftrange and admirable cfitft, as the ** opening the mouth of the 
fub nomine earth, and the fignal ' iuderments on the people of Jfrael. 

creation s vcr- d ^ D t r J 

bun, fafiurrS: condi cionis accipicur. S.h'ia-n. aJ Eph.4. \\ tvlll U fr:)m'<fcuoufl) ufcd nhh r~lti;y, ^kkh if of tks grcatefl 
UtilHde, diKjtingtirri l:jrJoj' tiffcJUtn; arJtfithl'i^, wl)ich r.itkcr implies a form.iti^» out of fomctkin^, from whence "XP 
apottcr. Fir tkcprflyve rcadCcn. 2.3. f^w God reftcd from all his work r^yV])"? C2'n*7t* t>il3 ~\'i;ti: mtthtit 
en tkepxthda) he did tte mrl^of mt dujs, th.u he im^ht ,^} on the fexentb, as Rjbti Solomon; nn in fix da\s kc made 
ti.e nits if things, thattkey might aftern:nd produce the /;(^?, as Aben Ezra; tnt tkcfe or wether Fancies of the Rjtbbires: at 
if NllH Pimped inenorii^and r-l'V]f ar.otker ; fir the) both exprcfs the proJuilion, as appears clearly in the filiovirg verfe, 
Tlxicarc the generations of the heavens and of the earth, Ci<1Qni when they were created, I~\'li;y ill.1'3 in the 
i!jy that tin: Lord God made the JKaven and the earth. So If.t. 4s. 1 :. I have made the earth, and created man upon ic: 
nhtie the prji exprc)]eth the proper, thefear.d the improper creation. Which indifferent acception appeareih in collating Pul. 115.15. 
>md 121. 2. with 111. 42. 5. (11^45. iS. as alio Ifa. 17. 7. niik Eccl. 12. 1. From whence tlx LXX. tr,infate t<'t'2 indiffe- 
reiitlji T«/"F or uli^wy. hor ihej'ecmd, "»'i' k ufually rendredby the Targiim t»<1^ and by the LXX. though generally -yhcLr- 
7f<>, yet y?i\^nY. And th.u it h.ith the fame fignijication will appear by confnring Gen . :. 7. with Ifa. 45. 1 2. anJ 
i'-!-iil)r3, b:.i by that fingle lafe, Ifa. 4?. •• Now thus faith the Lord "^8"^Q thatci-cated dice, O Jacob, TXM and he 
i:;a:,.rnicdtlnc, O I.racl.^ •M/'/r, aij tkefe are jointly ufed in the fiwe laiidity of exprcjfr.n., lU. 45. -. Every one that is 
called by my name: fcrV'NIl I have created him for my glory, VPSy I have formed him, \ea ';TI"'i:Jy I have 
nadchim. ' AiGtn.\.2\. " Get. 1. 2-;.ard2. -;. ' FfaL^i. 10. Ifa.6^.iT. * Crcatio atque conditio nunquani nifi 
in ma^nisoperi'Jiisnominancur: verbicaufa, niunduscreatus eA,urbscondita eft, domus vero, qearav/s magna fir, sdifi- 
cata potius dicitur, quara condita vcl creaia. In magnis cnim opcrib;:s aequo fafturis vcrbam creationis afliunitLir. 5. Hier. 
ad £jh. c, 4. " A'umb. i5. 30. ' If.t. 45. 7. 

\Ve muft not therefore weakly collefl the true nature of Creation from 
the force of any word which by fome may be thought to exprefs lb much, 
but we mull colled it from theteftimony of God the Creator, in his word, 


M AKEFi Of Heaven And Earth 5^ 

and ofthe world created, in our rcafbn. The opinion of the Church of the 
^faw will fuiriciently appear in that zealous motlier to her fevcntli and young- 
eft fbn ; / hi fetch thee^ my fon, look ripor? the heaven and the earth, and all that 2 Mace. 7. 23. 
is therein , and confidtr that God made them of things that were not : which is 
aclear defcription of Cre^/zo;?, that is, production out of nothing. But be- 
caufe this is not by all received asCanonical, we lliall therefore evince it by 
the undoubted teftimony of S. Paul, who expreffing the nature oi AbrahanPs 
faith, propoundeth him whom he believed as God who quickeneth the dead, and 
calleth thofe things which be not, as though they were. For as to be called in 
the language ofthe Scripture is to be, (Behold what manner of love the Father i Jihn 3. i, 
hath hefio\red upon m, that we fhould be called the fons of God , faith S. fohn in 
hisEpiftle, w^ho in his Gofpel told us, he had given us power to become the 
fons of God ;) lb to call is to make, or catife to be. As where the Prophet Je- 
remy faith, Thou hafl caufed all this evil to come upon them, the original may Jer.-^i. 25. 
be thought to f'peak no more than this, thou hajt called this tvil to them. He t<ipn1 
therefore calleth thofe things which be not, as if they were, who makcth thofe 
things which were not, to be, and produceth that which hath a being out 
of that which had not, that is, out of nothing. This reafon, generally per- 
fwafive unto Faith, is more peculiarly applied by the Apolile to the belief 
of the Creation .• hv through faith, faith he, we underfland that the worlds were f^eb. 11.3. 
framed by the word of God, fo that things which are (ten were not made of things 
which do appear. Not as if the earth, which we fee, were made of air, or 
any more ilibtiie body, which we fee not ; nor as if thoie things which are 
feen were in equal latitude commenfiirable with the worlds which were fra- 
med : but that thofe things which are feen, that is, which are, were made of "^Foritakean 
thofe which * did not appear, that is, which were not. ^ f ^^y^-Vav 

' ' in thit p!.ice to 

be equivalent unto «'« ll^ hrav in the Maccabees, and that of the fame fenfe with 'J^ kk ofav, as the SuiMh Ttanfiatron, 
nnnO I*>1"7"! .^"^^K (C exiis qiirT lion confpiciuntur. Which manner oj fpeecb may he ohfrved even in the bc'l GfeeliAn- 
th:rs : asin Aiiilotlc, (wflafc/Wio/ aV t3 f/«'iafstW.oi'Tr1f^,;f<ii<' n >£t? t^ varo<HttV«i ^« ^oKfifA/Joo, ti k'k ti yisronf*- 
fjfin ti( i-^ v^aroicf'M.VoCi >) rJ-» {^"VozwiaVn ^^< vVo)t«M.V»is » '-^u :J^-t (if f/ii VTTOx.fii^ay. Wiiere ax i? J/rexwaV*!! 
M the fame with i^ ix u'to KHfj^»;, and ;/^ i^ {j'TroKHf/^n with ly, ^m vTroKH/j^n. 

Vain therefore was that opinion of a real matter C03eval with God as ne- 
celTary for production ofthe world by v\'ay of flibjeft, as the eternal and 
i\lmighty God by way of efficient. For if fbme real and material iking 
muft be prefiippofed by indifpenfable neceffity, without which God could 
not caufc any thing to be, then is not he independent in his anions, nor of 
infinite power and ahfjlute aftivity ; which is contradiQory to the divine 
perfection. Nor can any reafon be alledged why he (hould be dependent 
in his operation, who is confcfled independent in his Being. 

And as this coetcrnity of matter oppolcth God's Independency, the propei" 
notion of the Deity,lbdoth it alfb contradift his All-fufficiency. For if with- 
out the production of fbmethingbeOde himfelf he cannot makea demonftra- 
tion of his Attributes, or caufc any fenfibility of his power and will for the 
illultration of his own glory ; and ifwithoutfbmethingdiftinftwliolly from ^^^^^^ ^^^j^^^ 
himfelf he cannot produce any thing, then muft he * want fbmcthin^exter- „„ii cgct code 
nal : and wholbever wanteth any thing is not all-fufficient. And certainly he c")"s ""'"•■■' 
muft have a low opinion and poor conception of the infinite and eternal "j'^j^'uVd cuius 
God, who thinks he is no otherwife known to be Omnipotent than by the (r,ccut ponic 
II benefit of another. Nor were the Framers ofthe Creedi'o wile in prefixing i'"^!^" '*' "cmo 

tlo, lion minor efteo de cujus utitur i & nemo qui pra»flat dcfuouti, nonin hoc fupcrior eft co ciii pra;ft;ttuti. Jhtul adv. 
Hcrmx;. c. 8. || Grande rcverabencficium contulic, ut habcrct hodic per quern Dcuscognofceretur Scomnipoteiib vo arctur: 
nifi quoii jam non omnipotcns, finon & hoc potcns, ex nihilo omnia proterre. Ibidem, (^oniodo ah hominc divina ilia vis 
diffcret, fi, uc liomo, fic etiam Dcus ope indigeat alicna ' Indigcc autcm fi nihil moliri poccft, nifi ab altcro illi materia mi- 
niftrctur. Lallan, /. 2, c. 9. 




the K^lmtghty before mahr of heaven and earthy if, out of a neceflTity ofma- 

teriakoncurrence, the making of tlicm left a mark of impotency rather than 


The fuppofition then of an eternal Matter is fo unneceffary where God 

works, and lb derogatory to the infinity of his power, and all-fufRciency of 
*^ 'f iX'.' himfelf, that the later * Philofophcrs, fomething acquainted witli the truth 
),i'-^,Jcl^r'l- which we profels, though re)eftingChriflianity,have reproved thofe of the 
T«5' °''' y- ^ School of Plato who delivered, as the doftrine of their Mafler, an eternal 
K^f rml^.T Companion, lb injurious to the Father and Maker of all things. 
if6hji * 1*; Wherefore to give an anfwer to that general pofition,That cut of nothing 
£;'j>^SL nothing can be produced, which !| yVr/y/o/Ze pretends to be the opinion of all 
uZiJ^Ty^l natural Philolbphers , I muii Hrft obferve, that this Univerfal Propofition 
h.uvh-,j:-Tiv ^^,jj3 ^^|:j. framed out of particular confiderations of the works of art and na- 
ITofAs"™" ture. For if we look upon all kinds of* artificers, we find they cannot give 
rrc^T.-j SwU- any fpecimen of their art without materials. Being then the beauty and uni- 
^ ."''^r" . , formitv of the world fhews it to be a piece of art moft exquifite, hence they 
X, C'S'V «s concluded that the maker ot it was the molt exact || Artificer, and conle- 
c'ii'uhiipyh'- qiicntiy had his matter from all eternity prepared for him. Again, confidcr- 
'\tT^st',^''TZ ing tlie works of nature and ail parts of the world iubjetl: to generation and 
ff>!/V. ^ t| corruption, they alfo * oblervcd that nothing is ever generated but out of 
^-.*V» tf^H Ibmething preexiftcnt, nor is there any mutation wrought but in a fubiedt, 
xilaxwf/*- and with a prefuppofed capability of alteration. From hence tliey prelently 
.■<.»,^t!»j». /»- colleded, that if the whole world were ever generated, it muft have been 
Ta'^^'De vio- produced out of feme fubjcft, and conlequently there muii be a matter eter- 
vid.i^FM. nally preexifiing. 

tj^ova-yiyn >i»'?3j ii ij o.'l'iii' ii Ik, /jl^i o/jav. ihtiv '^ 7o /j. Iv, n>f oi^av yinp^ a.J'tu'ia.'jov ■ cfel y6 rajjTm iixeyvif 
(xovtcnif J i^x' a,rai]i(li ife' ?i/'at»(. Phyfic.l.,^. c.\ * Uc igiciir bjbcr cum quid adificaturuscrt, iioii ipfe facie matc- 
rium, fed ca iiticur qi;.t lit parata, fiftorque item cera : fic illi providcntix divina' materiam pr.tftu c(le oporcuir, non qium 
ipl'c t'accret, fed quain hahcrct paratam. dccrode Nat.Deorum. 'A-juKo.'dii' "ni f£ ^u)riv "nyvil^t tit ■^ a.vS'tta.via. 
TTiWhtuai- McthodiM tfii ?iS 'yfivtiT^ . \\5o Miencks calls kirn y.o7y.oiotoy ly dti^Ttx*'^ ^'-'^^ in Aur.C.irm. *"0// ^ 
ai iaitu^ ly loo. a>^* anhmt ovT* i^ vtokh/jVh TlVf jivijoj, ShtrK(nrvv]i -jjlon' a.y ^ctKH^Vr • ctw yo.% cji 7/ 3 C7rilbH'- 
7CU, i^tjlnlcu rl Ttyf'ofjSiJti', o^ li ip<j]a.)d,Ta.C,ux Ik axriSfjajQ-. Ariji. Fhjf.l. i.e. 7. 

Now what can be more irrational, than from the weaknefs of fbme crea- 
ture to infer the lame imbecillity in the Creator, and to meafiire the arm of 
God by the linger of man? Whatfcever fpeakcth any kind of excellency or 
perfection in the Artificer may be attributed unto God : whatfoever fignifi- 
eth any infirmity, or involveth any imperfeftion, muft be excluded from the 
notion of him. That wifdom,prefcicnce,and preconception, that order and 
beauty of operation which is required in an Artill, is moll eminently con- 
Hijti. i:.2-. taincd in him, who hath ordered a// things intKe.tfiire, and number, and weight: 
but if the mott abrolute/<a'tvzin the Artificer's underitanding be not fufficient 
to produce his dcfign without hands to work, and materials to make ufe ol", 
it will follow no more that God is necclTarily tied unto prcexifting Matter, 
than that he is really compounded of corporeal parts. 

Again, 'tis as incongruous to judge of the production of the world by thofe 
parts thereof which we fee fubjc£t ro generation and corruption, and thence 
to conclude,that ifitever hadacaufc of the Iking which it hath,it mull have 
been generated in the fame manner which they are; andif that cannot be, it 
muft never have been made at all. For nothing is more certain thantliat this 
manner of generation cannot poftibly have been the firft produftion even of 
thofe things which are now generated. We lee the Plants grow irom a feed ; 
that is their oidmary way of generation : but the firit pbnt could not be fo 
gcncrated,bccaule all feed in the fame courfe of nature is from tlie preexifting 
plant, VVcfce from Ipawnthc fif]]es,and from eggs the fowls receive now ths 


Maker. Of Heaven And Earth. 


original of their being : but this could not at firfl: be fb , becaufe both 
fpawn and egg are as naturally from precedent fifh and fowl. Indeed becaufe 
the feed is fcparable from the body of the plant, and in that fcparation may 
long contain within it felf a power of germination ; becaufe the fpawn and 
eggare fejungeable from the fifh and fowl, and yetflill retain the prolifick 
power of generation; therefore fbme might pofTibly conceive that thefe fe- 
minal bodies might be originally flattered on the earth,out of which the firfi: 
of all thofe creatures fliould arifc. But in viviparous Animals, vvhofe off- 
fpring is generated within themfelvcs, vvhofe feed by feparation from them 
lofeth all its leminal or prolifick power, this is not only improbable, but in- x-nere words of 
conceivable. And therefore being the ^Philofbphers themfelvesconfefs,that Arijhtkareve- 
whercas now all animals are generated by the means of feed , and that the '^/*^'^ ^'''''f'/" 
animals themfelvcs mufl be at firft before the feed proceeding from them ; Jutes againfi 
itfolloweth that there wasfbmew^ay of produclion antecedent to and differ- spcufippu^ and 
ing from the common way of generation, and, confequently, what we fee 'ans^htlkught 
done in this generation can be no certain rule tounderftand the firff produ- the'rudimentsoj 
ftion. Being then that univerfal Maxim, that nothing can be made of nothings ''"Y •^'^ f 
is merely calculated for the meridian of natural caufes, raifed fblely out of whicht%g!ew 
obfervation of continuing creatures by fucceflive generation, which could ^"'o r^^'feitjon : 
not have been fb continued without a Being antecedent to all fuch fucceffi- mZcIZJ!^ 
on ; it is molf evident, it can have no place in the production of that ante- aut{ »i n«- 
cedent or firft being, which we call Creation. da^(Moi ^ 

Ti eiti^f >^ JtiM/sBK /xn I* »iX~> ^y ^'^ '■^ ^* ^ ^vrf^ )^ rff ^dav Tt^ ''f^aj air id ^ u), t3 jj koi.Ko¥ >^ ri TiKKw 
M T«»i Iv. rvTav, ix, Jf 9 Jf hovTcu. To >!) car'i^iJia, i^ iTi^ttv SJt T^fjifity riKticiiv ' i^ To mfaroy i ar'i^i^^ 6?ii', a>Aa 
tJ T4AK0I'. 0^ Tgfriccr ttuJpfflToc oLV (faun Ti( VS) tS anifna]®-, i rev hi rira ■^^yau^ty , jtM' 'ingfy i^i ri anif/jia.- 
By which words Arijiotle hath fufficienth deflroyed his own Argument, which we produced befne out ofthefirjt of the Phyficl^., and 
« excellently urged in that Fhilofophicul Piece attributed unto Juftin Martyr: Ei Tfarit Sfi to cmfi^v tmiffiot., ^ ufsg^i'TO 
c* cmipfjictTQ- ■)4yyofj.%Jay, ^ ■jl/ui'»'^» dixfonfcr, r'« jS ~j^i(TM ■re KMuff^is in, tnrefimt)®- jtytoui/iis vi-'oKtilcu ro an'ifna.' 
tS iJ ■^j'iirH n aatiftuvlQ- Jtoxhi3j t3 an'i^fJLct. i J'wixJ'oy. ix, S.f^ dii t« ^a* )^Ta ^uta ix. ou-sf/u*]©-. Aijtot. Dogm. 
Evcrj. Pkt. Symfof. I. 2. Probl. 3. "O^v « W< hiyfi rk catifiJ.a\<Q- IT) tok aySfto-roy, iJi ndS^^ a Asxloei/o. • -f ^ 
dfiiKjodJ^Q- TO liiy e7), )^ ri tmijua n dy^fiiiv \iyo/Li)fJ. 

Now when we thus defcribc the nature of Creation, and under the name 
ofMeaven and Earth comprehend all things contained in them,we muff diftin- 
guifh between things created. For fome were made immediately out of no- 
thing,by a proper, fbme only mediately, as out of fbmething formerly made 
out of nothing, by an improper kind of Creation. By the firft were m'ade all 
immaterial fublfances, all the orders of Angels, and the Souls of men,the Hea- 
vens and the fimple or elemental bodies, as the earth, the water, and the air. 
' In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth \ fb in the beginnings as ' ^'"'- '• '• 
without any preexifting or antecedent matter ; this earth, when fb in the be- 
ginning made,was'' without forf» and void,covcTc6 with waters like wife made ^Verfa. 
not out of it, but with it, the fame which, "^ when the waters were gathered to- 'J'^'/f ?. 
gether unto one place, appeared as dry land. * By the fecond, all the hoffs of the * Hie viil!)ilis 
earth, the fowls of the air,and the fifhes of the fea. '' Let the earth, faid God, [J^™'|:-j '^^^ j 
bring forth grafs, the herb yielding feed^ and the fruit-tree yielding fruit after his Deo fatta tuc- 
kind.- * Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, "^ faftus ell 
and fowl that may jlie above the earth ; and more exprefly yet , * Out of the caimdc'.io. 
ground ijod for tried every beaft of the field, and every fowl of the air. And well "'Gei; i. n. 
may wc grant thcfe plants and animals to have their origination from fuch \^q'1'^^' 
principles, when wc read , ^ God formed man of the dufi of the ground \ and » Oen. 2. 7. ' 
fiiid unto him whom he created in his own image, '' Dujt thou art. '' '""v '?• 

lining thus declared the notion of Creation in re(pc6l of thofe things 
whicli were created, the next confideration is of that aftion in reference to 
t!ic Agent who created all things. Him therefore we may look upon firft 




as moved; fccondly, as tree under tliat motion; tliirdly,as determining un- 
der tliat freedom, and ib performing of that a£lion. In the firfl: we may lee 
hisgoodncls, in the lecond his will, in the third his power. 

I do not here introduce any external movins; God unto 
theCreation of the world ; for I have preluppoled all things diilinft from him 
to have been produced out of nothing by him, and conlequently to be po- 
flerior not only to the motion but the acfuarion of his will. Jieingtheu no- 
tliing can be antecedent to the Creature befide God himlelf, neither can any 
thing be a caufi^of any of his aftions but what is in him ; we mull not look 
for anything cxtrinlecalunto him, but whoUv acquieice in his inliniteGcod- 

n^JnJo" tfo«- r/y^f « God, faith our Saviour ; noneorigmally, effentially, infinitely, inde- 
JlvV^i'Jll- pcndently good, but he. Whatlcever goodnels is found in any Creature is 
6or, rtMo t3 bur by way of emanation from that fountain, whole very Being is dirt'ufiv( 
^f6;rfl|< tfja- ^yi^QJ^ nature confilh in the communication of it ielf. In the end of th 

"Aj^oyifTi nels, as the only moving and impeUing cauje, ^JhtretsfioKe^oodhutom^ 


Tmtum, fixth day '' Uod faw every thi>7g that be had made , and behold it was very good : 
To 5 a^'T»«t- which fliews the end of creating all things thus good was the communica- 
^^JrJ.^bir tion of that by which they were, and appeared, 16. 

" Gen. 1.^1. The ancient heathens have acknowledged this ^ truth,but with fuch difad- 
-(J1v'-*'/>'w' vantage, that from thence they gathered an undoubted errour.For from the 
^tUp \\u=7iv goodnels ofGed, which they did not unfitly conceive necelTary, infinite, and 
^ VJ'*" T* eternal, || they collcfted that whatlbcver dependcth ol it muft be as neceifary 
guuiVj^r?- ^'^'■l eternal, even as light mull be as ancicntas the Sun, and a lliadow as an 
o/aSof ?!'_. d- opacousbody in that light.If then there be no inflant imaginable before which 
^"ii'/t "/''«'- ^°'' ^^^^ ^^^ infirately good, then can there likcwile be none conceivable 
c^'To7€ tyyvi- before which tlie Vvorld was not made. And thus they thouglit the goodnels 
Toj (f'i^fC'-- of the Creator mnfl: liand or fall with the eternity of theCieature. 

•r»{ d/S'^^Y t£fi'if/.o>v'i^.hy_'.fj}ij'i> , l^.'QTii]ct'imJi)(»n a.¥. InTimM. Airr* jjIt r Trdil^^v Toiimaf iJin'ist. a>^u 
'j^'n^. £\(iy&., vkUu 't KuT ^viar ayt^'oTnlQ-. Aur. Citrin. A] yaf Tra^yi r ajaOoTtiTi hiy/J^:'/ euTian 
4 J)< ,if.f\i!n -raA Tr: -icn^h, citO^Mr.iviuf iia.»«v 'ttct^nmv n to -Siw tfi-rtunir. ibid. |{ 'Ara'^y.ii S i<l r n •3s«.<t3a- 
flsTiWa CC7©- n K'iilt/.K, a.H T? T ^iiv djaili' H)- JC) Tor X-o^r/zev •izrd^yjuv ' ff'arsf »Air.i fi -it^ "TrVat ^uriw?^'?it''fl!' ?«f, 
cral'/tt'"/ 3 a-<;a'. Sittufluti, dcD'.is fy mundoc, ']. V.\-}a.(> auuvov lAn'miHv, rrat tif ro-xciHv /^.iiaSiCiKii fij TA^oifiy, 
•J I ijii \j% o.lSiv'i'ofyLBiv'i Hkr^dci d: Fato.fy Ftovid. ^'either doihhc irx.wanylcfs^rthcn ni l:h fcr.ff Ik thw dcfaiba the Fit jl 
Caufc of all things ; i^'' afQp I n\id !t,mi irV »», ai the Frinicd Copici, cr'i-^f «>, ds Cutte>i!»)M ri Tf.vVc!' <w^f curiof 
dutJciCAnjer -raiTh KJctTfirrJev, K,Tima.v th icff>*i'at Ti^atiTlui xjxInwVo', KjTnvaytUtn'la.iz 6lti)L]nTtv 'l)(it,a.}\' 
imttiAhlw KitV airluj, V) JV lu/Tko t« Ttf'rTjt T^if To IJ) ?;a£ji>o» ' folicad it, notTavjay -tt^U 7: ^^, as t;:e ftinled. 
hierccL in Air. Cirm. 'S.uui^lmaj v.^ i7\ fi «' j«8oti)7/ li rra.jg)( v -r ^f^coiaj IaIu'Ha • tox/tv 3 t rg Sip-iv^-yH ftsudf 
ViQ- iion\!n( ' JOJJrtf j » n'^atQlt xV t a-rHfjii' yfivcr aifilrnt- jt) a/j-Tof ^o'v®- raurbu rt iyojffi, itj tkv -lyu- 
B'oTnjct n-ri tc/mxotiJt. Procliti in Timsum. Kow altktugh thif be the conjlant Argmnentaium (j the Lite) I'latcnijh, )et rlxy 
fjund «) j'ucli deduHion m- conje^uer.ce in A'/ijlo' Plato ; and 1 fimethitii incline id (/i/«t, tlyougl) it ma- fecm \ery jhange, 
rk.n they receixed it from the Chrilhans , J wean out of the School of / at Alexandria; nhum though Porph)riift would 
fnal^e an Aprijlate, for the credit of hit heathen gods, )et S. Jerome hathfufficicmh ajjioed in that I e tixtd and died in the Ch ifiiah 
t-'aith. Tl)e reafon of mj conjeiikre if no more than this : Procliii aclinon-ted^cth that Plutarch and,othcis. though wirh Plato tbej 
tnaintnined the giodnefs of God to be the caufe of the world, )et withal they d.nied the eternity of it : and' when he quotet other Ex- 
fofitorsfor his own ofinim, he produceth none but Porphyi ins and lamblicinu, the eldeft of which was the Scholar of Ploiimtf tlx 
difciple of Ammonhu. And that be was of the tfinion, 1 colte'l from him who was {(is Scljolar both in 'Philofophy and Divinity 
that is, Origcn, whofe judgment, if it were not clfewbere apparent, is fufficiently l^torvn by the Fragment rfJUcthodiw tieii^vn- 
^,prefenediit Pkotim. "Or/ V-ei-^utic %v Kiv}(W(^;v c.aXM, ^Myt {^iwxtJ)ov7l)-Tti fiitcj cb;w y^ iT(^:<rJSH dsS t3 ~ur. 
Heingtlien I orphyrius and lamblichus cited by Pracliis; bein^ liierocies, Ptoclns and Salufti;tf were allathtr in. it itfo.< "jS"; 
intheyc.tllcd it, thai is, defcendedficcejjiiely from tloe School of Amwonius (the great Conciliator of Plajo and Ariiioile,,mi . 


J, I of the ancient Philofophy') or at leajl contemporary to them that were fo; it is woif probable the) might receive it from his 
mouth, efftcitiily confidering that even Ori gen aChifiian confirmedtloe fame. 

For the clearing of which ancient miliake, we mufl; obferve, that as God 
iselTentially and infinitely good without any mixture of deficiency, lb is he 
in rtljxft of all external adlions or emanations ablolutcly free without the 
leafl neceflTity. Thole bodies which do ad without under/landing or precon- 
ception of \v1iat they do, as the Sun and Fire give light and heat, work 
always to the utmoll of their power,nor are they able at any time to fufjiend 


Maker Of Heaven And Earth. 57 

tiicir aftion. To conceive any fuch neceflity in the Divine operations, were 
to deny all Icnowledge in God, to reduce him into a condition inferiour to fbme 
of the works of his own hands, and to fall under the cenfure contained in the 
Pfajmift's cueftion, Hethatplantedtl}eear,pjallhetjcthear? In that forr/icd the TM 04.9,10. 
eye, jjjt/l he not fee .<" he that teacheth man kyiovekage^ {Jjall he not know ? Thole V 
Creatures which are endued with underftanding, and confequently with a 
will, may not only be neceifitatcd in their aftions by a greater powcr,butaIfb 
as ncccflarily be determined by the propofal of an infinite good : whereas nei- 
ther of the{e ncccfTities can be acknowledged in God's aftions, without ILip- 
pofinga power belideandaboveOmnipotency,ora real happinefs befide and 
above All-fufficiency. Indeed if God were a neccflary Agent in the works of 
Creation,the Creatures would be of as neceffary Being as he is ; whereas the 
receffity of being is the undoubted prerogative of the firllCaufe. He work- Eph. i. nj 
eth a/l things after the counfel of his onnrvi//, faith the Apoftle: and whcrefb- 
ever counlei is-,thcre is ekdion,or elle 'tis vain ; where a will, there mufl: be 
freedom, or ehe 'tis weak. We cannot imagine that the ail-wiieGod fhould 
act or produce any thing but what he determineth to produce ; and all his 
determinations muft Row from the immediate principlcof his will. If then 
his determinations be free, as they mufl: be coming from that principle, then 
mull; the Aflions which follow them be alfb free. Being then the goodncfs 
of God isablolutely perfeft of it felf, being he is in himfelf infinitely, and eter- 
nally happy, and this happinefs as little capable of augmentation as of dimi- 
nution ; he cannot be thought to look upon any thnig without himfelf as 
determining his will to the defire, and neceffitatmg to the produ8:ion of it. 
If then we confidcr God's goodnefs,he was moved ; if his All-fufficiency,he 
■was not nccelfitated : if we look upon his will, he freely determined ; if on 
his pou er, by that determination he created the World. 

Wherefore that ancient conceit of a neceffary emanation of God's goodneft 
in the eternalcreation of the World will now eafily be refuted,ifwe make a 
diftinftion in the equivocal notion ofGoodnefs. For ifwetakeit as itfignifi'- 'Rev. 4. n. 
eth a rectitude and excellency of all vertue and holinefs, with a negation of ^•*''' Semens 
all things morally evil, vicious, or unholy; fo God isabfolutely and neceffa- fpe^.^i^I^o/c^I 
rily good : but if we take it in another fenfe, as indeed they did which made '^''^? -nil^i- 
this Argument, that is, rather for beneficence, or communicativcnefs of Ibme ^'^^ vjj"'^' 
good to others; then God isnotneceffarily, but freely, Good, that is to lay, loi-'jasAii^L' 
profitable and beneficial. For he had not been in the Icafl: degree evil or un- "^■^"''J^j?^^ 
juft, if he had never made the World or any part thereof, if he had never "pnn^K 
communicated any of his perfeQions by framing any thing befide himfelf. Wl'-fMra 
Every proprietary therefore beingaccountedmafter of his own, and thought '*^,^y'^^\'^f-^ 
freely to bcftow whate're he gives ; much more muft that one eternal and li- s. Bafii. 
independent Being be wholly free in the communicating his own perfcdions '5'I''V^.f'"^' 
witliout any necelfity or obligation. We muft then look no farther than the ^^;t/""lE 
dctcrminaricn of God's will in the creation of the World. ^iwVjTiv ttJ 

For this isthe admirable power of God, that with him to will is to effcd, t'l^'ly'JH 
to determire is to perform. So the Elders fpeak before him that fitteth upon if wV^w -tt^cs- 
the 1" hrone ; * 7 hou halt created all thincs, and for thy pleafure (that is, by thy ^''>/^"?f^„ 
Will) th^ are and rvere created. Where there is noreliltencc in the object, Ll.inhc.xacm. 
where no need of preparation, application, or inftrumental advantage in the T/iof c»»fji. 
Agent, there the actual determination of the Will is a fiifficicnt production. Z^l'jl'^itoy 
TlaisGod did make the Heavens and the Earth by "^ willing them to be. J\/xiHf)St; i- 
This was the firft command unto the creatures, and their exirtehce was tlicir '^ ^'' '^"^'i^'* 
fii ft obedience. || Let there be light., this isthe injuniicion ; and there was light ^ /x')'i^?< ; ill 
that's the creation. Which two are 16 intimately and immediately the fame, i-^-^xtv.&mm. 

I that 



-■ As -^•.>::»Tu chat ihougli in our and * other Tranflationsthofe worJs, ht there be, which 
««<,«; v>=j» exprefi the command of God, differ from the other //(ere ir4f, which denote 
rtaftacftiux! the prtTent cxiftence of the creature ; yet in the Original there is no difte- 
or,at Aquiij, j-cTice at all, neither in point nor letter. And yet even in the diverfity of the 
$=,tr«'im- Tranflatiun thephraie Iccms lb expreffive of God's infinite power, and im- 
maciius, v^i.x) mediate efficacy of his will, that it hath railed feme admiration o'iMofes in 
f-Sm^-'* ^'^^ '' enemies of the Religion both of the 'Jim and Chriftiam. * God is tn 
rrhereasintk- the heavens, he hath dene whatfotver ht fleafed, faith Dazid ; yea in the ma- 
Hebrew it Ka j^jj^g ^r ^j^^ Hcavcns, lie therefore created them, becaufe ht fleafed; nay 
3X'2'w more, thereby he created them, even by willing their creation. 
taiaohg). ]Njow although fome may conceive the Creature might have been produced 

ri!^,!!j|: from all eternity by the free determination of God's will, and it is io far cer- 
4,Kon,r,J" tainly true, that there is no inftant aflignable before which God could not 
i.ongin°s,^X have' made the World; yet as this is an Article of our Faith, we are bound 
ii'4«, seii. 7. to believe the heavens and earth are not eternal. ^ Through faith we tmderjiand 
To/tj, x; i^ ^f^^ worlds were framed by the word of God. And by that faith we are aflured, 
f/sS'lriK, k'x that vvhatfoever poflibihty ot an eternal exiltence ct the creature may be ima- 
Tt/-/«Va),-f. gined, actually it had a temporal beginning; and therefore all the arguments 
^Zj'lctiw ibr this World's eternity are nothing butfb many erroneous mifconceptions. 
vj rjjji d'-iav b The Lord pofftjfed me in the begirming of his way, before his works of old, faith 
h'»"tTllt'c< ^^^'1^0'"' i wasftt up from everlafting, from the beginning, or ever the earth wai. 
if'jr^ ftVcoAir And the fame Wifdom of God being made man reflefteth upon the fame pri- 
yejivr v'.- ority, ia)'iiig, ' No-.v, Father, glorifie thou me with thine own felf, with the 
^ih,tn0i'\C, g^ory which J had with thee before the world was. Yea in the lame Chrijl are 
■^i^:o zS(,>^ WQ bleffedirith all fpiritual bleffings, according as he hath chofen us in him before 
^'•'>°^. ^'i- f^^^f'^"^'^^(ic" ^f^f^^ world. The impoflibility of the origination of a circular 
•)?<;=To. wi'ere motion, which we are fure is either in the heaven or earth, and the impro- 
nufwJ'kf'^or V^^^^^ of the beginning of Time, are fo poor exceptions, that they defcrve 
the T.'.^njium not the leaft labour of refutation. The aftual eternity of this World is lb 
ofAqwh. ^ far from being ncceffary, that it is of it felf moft improbable; and without 
mSIah^Ts-^oT ^^'^^ infallible certainty ot Faith, there is nofingle peribn carries more eviden- 
nnvit^ -Tii i- CCS of lus jouth, than the World of its |i novelty. 

gaily Kj ^ in 

ct< uiTkyilvn- S.chfyfoj}. i. >!^ tx iio.Ta.Ki'i'r])}, 'Neb. 1 1. ^. ^ Prov. 8. 22, 2^. ' John i-j. i. || i4/ men Lucretius 
conf-jjcth, and that oai oj the Principles nf Epicurus. 

Veruni, utopinor, habcc noviratem fumma, rccenfquc 
Natura eft mundi, nequc pridem exordia cepic. 

Tis true indeed, feme ancient accounts there are which would perfwade 
*?itt!i ^^ ^^ imagine a flrange antiquity of the World, far beyond the Annals of 
o/.in account ^^ofes, and account of the lame Spirit which made it. The * Egyptian 
which an E^y FrieRs pretended an exa£l Chronology lor fome myriads of years, and the 
^liTfoSoil'n Chaldeans or || Affyrians far out-reckon them, in which they delivered not 
innh:ch the' onlv 3 Catalogue of their Kings, but alfo a Table of the * Ecliples of the 
Athenians »w Suu and Moon. 

^cooyears old. 

and thofe of^ Sals 8ooo. rif/Jiff/^y jui! !f "jreLf' Cim¥ 'irtm X'Afwt Ix, y«( t« ly 'HpoJrx ri anifna Tfjf.ACitmf C/^- lUi 
tft^^n Titf A ii'i:iJ\ J)AKoriJc!'<n-j( traf I'lixif o* to7; H£.-7f yfimJM(nt ltC\a.Ki^ih.'i(cv i^f a.ti^u.ct y.y^-rlsj. In Ti- 
7HS0, PoniponiusMiljw.if't'/rt larger account out i/Hcrodows : Ipfi vcmftillimi (ut predicant) hominum trecento* & criginca 
reges ante Amalim, & lupra tredecim miiliuni anncrum xtates ccrtis Annalibus ; rvhere, as the Egyptians mnchfirctch the 
truth,/) Jith Mela Jlretci f 'V relation o/Herodotus, tvh) makes it not 1 3000, but 1 1 ^^o years. Diodorus Siculus teUs m of 1 3000 
jeaxjiom the rcign of the firji Kini of Eg)ft to the Expedition oj Alexander ; and Diogenes Laertius out of other Authors more than 
doubles that accoimt.^ A'i-',o-rloiJi'ytp'K*i\,>-iyiSr^'T£Jii.''Hiaj.;vv,ovi^^cui!,iK<>7*;>iai, )T< A>i T^csraTa^ i«f4«< VD ^ 

TgJ* 48353. I, Aaivetoi j, joctV 'U'uCnyC'^, ix ttU Jfe «-o»i y.vtial'at \^ fiUiu JTMfdOBi', <?< ifi\<ny '\irrr3.iy@- ' 
«W.«x, oAa{>i'7sx*7i^VM( x^,i%^;/^f ^4-r]j£;t,^^o;,^]jy<i,, ^^,', ,^,^^^4^j^j,. p,3chs in Timsum. '''Ev «J( nAl« /* 
i.Kh*f^Hi i^iQ^Tet'Kifiat i^/o/Jii'iKoyU ■»■$«;, inKUAtK iJ WjciiiointSTa'Utrlx J\i>. Diog.Laert. 


Maker OfHeaven And Earth. 


But for their number of years nothing is more certain than their forgery ; 
for the .£gjptians did preferve the antiquities of other Nations as wcJl as 
their own, and by the evident fallacy in others have betrayed their own va- 
nity. When Alexander entrcd A'gypt with his viftorious army, tlic Priells 
could fliew him out of their iacred Hiftories an account of tlic Perfian Empire, 
vvhicii he gained by conqueft, and the Macedofiian, which he received by 
birth, of each for ^ 8000 years : whereas nothing can be more certain out of U!^/'!^';'" 
the befl Hiftorical account, than that the Perfim Empire, whether begun in %!fi'k K-hlT 
Cyrus or in jMedtis, was not then 500 years old, and the A/4Cf^/o/?i/?», begun Alexander 
'in Cor^fiit^-, not -500. They then which made fo large additions to advance J/woiym'piat 
the antiquity of other Nations, and were fb bold as to prcfent them to thofe mentioned by a- 
which fo eafily might refute them fhad they not delighted to be deceived to Mhntlu"^- 
their own advantage, and took much pleafiire in an honourable cheat j may s.c\y,x\i%an(i 
>^ithout any breach of charity be fufpefted to have extended the Account '^•'^"^"'^ine. 
much higher for the honour of their own Country. Bcfide, their Catalogues & Macedonum 
muft needs be ridiculoufly incredible, when the A^gfpt/a^is mdike their firft imperiumurq; 
Kings reigns above || i2coyears apiece, and the y4/fw/^;>?/ theirs above 4COC0; i|f 'p'""''-^!^-- 
exccpt ye take the yhgyptian years ror * months, the Jjjynafjs for davs; and quebutnr, plus 
then the Account will not leem fo formidable. ' qiumoctomii. 

Inini .i!,non'.ni 
ille conftituic ; ciim apud Grxcos Macedonum ufcjiie ad morcciii Alcx.indri qr.adringcnti oJtoginra quinqiic rcpi.ii.;iitiir 
anni , Pcrfarum vero , donee ipfius Alexandri vidorixfinirentur, duccnti £: triginta cres conipiircnrlir. S, A:i^. dc Civ. 
Dei, L 1 2. c. I o. II Ai Diodcnis Siculus f/j^M notice of the /Egyptians , md Abydenus of the Clialdeans, rehfe ten Hi fl Kin. .- 
reigned 120 Sari. 'Cli TSii rrd/Jat 'ip ^(tnAof JiKa' Sv x°i'<5^ ''' /3aff)A<ia< (^ujuJiJs caft.; kstJiilv ii cr. Km- thu 
word (THf ©- raas proper to the Babylonian or Chaldean account. Hefych. Sap©-^)iJ.''Ji t;« iru^. C ^plia-, viati-, bnt this 
number tvrts he tells us mt. In the Fragment of Abydenus prefervedb) F.ufebius, 2c>fv9- «Ae '6iiv i'-dKoci-j, k, reta^^i^ta I'ntu 
every t,a.f&- is 5600 years, and confequently the 1 20 aa-fst belonging to the Reign of the ten Kings 4 j'^ooo years. Acitl:er nas 
this the account only 0/ Abydenus, but atfo of Eerofus ; neither was the Interpretation only of Eufebius, but alfo of AlcKaiidcr l'ol\-- 
hifbr, w/m likewife expeffeth r ^ovty th« ^a(nxtiat ttui^ <7af«f iMJov M^on , hit kr^I i^vvdJh.( TiojJi(y.K!)i^a. 
tftii ^ cA/o X'^'^-^-f' This feemed fo highly incredible , that tivo ancient Monies, Anianus and Panodorus, interpreted thofi 
ChzldJem years to be but days, fo that every oafQ- fJnuld confifl of 3600 days, that is, 9 years, 10 months ar.d a half, and the 
whole 120 augfi I for the ten Kings nS^ years, 6 months, and odd days. This is all tvhich joC Sfaliger, or jacobus Goar 0/ 
late could find concerning this Chaldean Computation : and thefirfl of thefe complains that none but HeA chius nia^es mention of tins 
account. Iftiall therefore fupply them not only with another Authour , but alfo with a diver fe and dUtinil interpretation. "Zi^it 
f<C8T|£«|i ;i^ aetS^of -mify, Xa.hJ'cutK . «< j<j fx,' atifji 'Ttoikoiv Ittauns^j HitkC', 01 3/1 oZ/o/ in' itiiWToi ly fj.[uji; s5. that is, 
according to the Iranjlation of Pormi, 5/rn apud Chaldxos eft mcnfura & Humerus : nam 120 i'lijv faciunc annos 2^22 , qui 
funt anni 18 & fex menfes. Well might he fix his N. L. or, non liquet, fo thefe words ; fr as they arc in the primed Books there 
is nofenfe to be made of them ; but by the help of the MS. in the Vatican Library wefljall both fupply the defe'l in, and find a 
third valuation of the uai^i. Thin then that MS, reprefents the words : Oi y6 ^x,' azi^u TOiif^v ina/jn^ 0<7kC' xp tLuS 
Xa.hS'cuav 4w?0!') iit^ aa.f@- ■Trtiti fdiZai tnxlMia.y.ay hkC, 0I01 jh'o/Im /«' anicwloi >i iJ.h2ili i5. And fo the fenfe is 
clear, S;(,'f©-, according to the Chaldee account, comprehends 222 months, which come to iZ years aiui fix mviths ; therefore 
1 20 (7a'f;i mal^ 22Z0 years ; and therefore for /So-xf ', / read, leavingout the lajl /3 , /Sa-j,.', th,il is, 2220. "'• EJ 3 x) ^»<nv 
Ei/cft^iW- aMi9»<, oTi AijuV?/!)/ Toc fjlulu. ititwTot ittaAay, ixdV n r^ tiOft^av rijav intcwr^ uzae'Sunini iyai it 
Sauixaciv. Proclw in Timauin 3 1. 50. 

Again for the calculation of Eclipfes, as it may be made for many thou- 
fand years to come, and beekaftly true, and yet the world may end to mor- 
row ; becauie the calculation mull: be made with this tacite condition, Ifthe 
bodies of the Earth and Sun and Moon do continue in their fiibllancc and 
conftant motion lb long: lb may it alfb be made for many millions ot' years 
pad:, and all be true, if the world have been foold; which the cilciilating 
doth not prove, but fuppofe. He then which fliould in the Aigypti.tfj 'j'cm- 
plcs fee the dcicription of lb many Eclipfes of the Sun and Moon, could net 
be allured that they wete all taken from real ohiervation, when they might 
be as well delcribed outof proleptical fuppofition. 

Refides, the motions of the Sun, which they mention together and witit 
authority equal to that of their other obfervations, arc io incredible and 
palpably fabulous, that they take oft all credit and eftcem from the rellof 
their narrations. For with this wild account of years, and lecmingly ac- 
curate oblei vations of the heavens, they left it written to pollerity. that 
the whole courle of the celeflial motions' were four times changed : lb that 

I a ^ the 


> ■e^7„'ku«1»- * the Sun hath twice rifen in the Eaft and fet in tlie Weft, as now it does ; 
7« -pJ p<;'.rw and, on the contrary, twice rifen in the Weft and fet in the Eaft. And thus 
'^'^'^Tiii^' thefe prodigious Antiquaries 'I confute tliemlclves. 

^"waT^i- "*•'«- What then arc tliefc feigned oblervations and f,ibulous dcfcriptionsfor the 
tfiKcuhSc'. Ti World's antiquity, inrelpcftnotonly of the infalHblc Annals of the Spirit of 
t'1 "iiuv !■ Go'J J ^"^ ^^'^'^ o^ ^'^'^ conftant teftimonies of more fober men, and the real 
ji( 'inr«vT«- apparenccs and lace of tilings, which fpeak them of a far fliorterdate ? 
f,aj- tj uStv jf vvclook into the Hiftorians which give account of ancient times, nay, if 
"i^^JZ^U ' vve perufe the fiftions of the Poets, we Ihall find the firft to have nofootfteps, 
KATi^riiifj. j-j-je jafi; tQ feign no aftions, of fb great antiquity. ^ If the race of men had 
MamiitSque been eternal, or as old as the Mgyptum -md the Chaldees fanfic it; how 
litcris fervant, fliould it comc to pafs that the Poetical inventions fhould find no aclions 
fl'i™ '*u2ccr" worthy their Hcroick Verfe before the Trojan or the Thtban War, or that 
cu"fiisfuos vcT- great adventure of the Argonauts ? For whatfoever all the Mufes, the daugh- 
niilfidcra, ac tersof Mcmory, could rehearfe before thofe times, is notliing but the Crea- 
ocddiiic^br tion of the World, and the nativity of their Gods. 

ni! c oritur. If we \\ confidcr the neceftaries of life, the ways of freedom and commerce 
u/t''',!LMr: amongft men, and the inventions of ail Artsand 'Sciences,the letters which we 
tie mm-jhberh, iifc, and languages which we Ipeak ; they iiave all known origmals, and may 
'ef «-ra!'?' )S be traced to their firft Authors. The firft beginnings were then Co known 
*f I-w")^ tW and acknowledged by all, that the inventers and authors of them were recko- 
7n^jiJi,ij.i- ned amongft their Gods, and worlhipped by thofe to whom they had been 
' t^ud'^iJvV* ^^ highly beneficial .• which honour and adoration they could not have cb- 
aa,f,aj ^i]i- tained, but from fiich as were really fenfible of their former want, and had 
HiCxn^hf , «■ experience of a prefent advantage by their means. 

t'XitTor ifijvior , In xj' fxi''iot auun ^ t'lKtiav iSiv. De Crh, I. i . K. iimfl. || As the Chaldees did affirm th.n tbej hai 
i^in Objerxations of the Ce!eflial mothin for ^-joooo }vars ; and withal they alfi affirmed that for the fame jf.ta of time tl.'ey 
had calculated the Nariiitj of all the Children which were borti- Which lajl h certaittly falje. Nam quod aiunt quadringcnta & 
fepcuaginta iiiillia annorum in pcriclitandis cxperiundlfq; pueris quicunq; naci eflent Babylonios pofuiirc ; failunt , Si cnim 
elict taftuni, non edit dcficum. Neminem autcm liabemus auftorem qui aut fieri dicat, aut faaum fciat. C/co-j,/. 2, de Di- 
vinat. And if the lail be filfr, n-e have no reafoft to believe the firji irrrue ; but rather to deny their AJhwomical Obfervatiim by 
tWir vain Ambition in Aftroh^ical prediilionT. And indeed thofe Obfervations oftlx Chaldees bein^ cmionfly fearched into by CaJ- 
liftlicnes, api^-inrcd by Arifbotic for that pmfnje, were found really to go no farther than i &03 ye>trs before Alexander , as Porphy* 
rius hath declared, who was no friend to the account of Mofes. ^idri yitWa rdf Ovi K«^^;c&e^'^(f in BaBv\»yQ- mn^iei>- 

yj\ia)r (t^/S tV) xj iym^oaiui' reiif M'DcCi tV y^onaiv 'AKi^tiyJ^js n Maf.tJiTQ- nt^ti^at. Simplic. ltd 2. Arijht de 
Crh, p. I 2y. * Tds Argument is therefore to me thejhon^er, becaufe made by him wh cannot be though a Favcitrer of our Re- 
ligiwy becjuj'e he rcai a Count cnancer if none, Epicurus, whofe mind is thus delivered by Lucretius, /. 5. 

Pr*terea, fi nulla tuit genitalis origo 

Tcrrarum & Coeli, femperque a^tcrna fucre; 

Cur fupra bcllum Thcbanum S: funcraTroji- 

Non alias alii quoque res cccincre PoccE ? 

Quo tot fafta virum toties cccidcrc ? ncque ufquanj 

-'Etcmis fam.t monumcntis inlka rtorent ? 
Ii Pliny g\ts a large account of thefe, 1. 7. c. 55. and Lucretius mal^t ufe of thk Ariument, I. 5. 

Quarc ctiani quxdam nunc artcs cxpoliuncur, 

Nunc cuani augcfcunr, nunc addita navigiis func 

Mulca, niodo organici mclicos pcpcrerc fonoros; 

Dcniquc natura h.ic rerum ratioque repcrta cfl 

Nupcr, & hanc primus comprimis ipfe rcpertus 

Nunc ego fum in pacrias qui poflim verterc voces. 

^ If we fearch into the Nations themfelvcs, we fhall fee none w ithout fbme 

only fchai'" Original : and were thofe * Authors extant which have written of the firft 
nrueihe build- plantations and migrations of people, the foundations and inhabiting of Ci- 
/"r citfes""!,] ^'" ^^^ Countries, their firft rudiments would appear as evident as their later 
Apoiion. kho- growth and prefent condition. We know what ways within 2000 years 
•diusKjjIyBx.^;- people have made through vaft and thick Woods for their habitations, now 

cTi', Xcnophan. >■>'=> ' 

KoAojcJcy- K!im;Cr'noSvfi(fini7Kii ypiiinv, and Philocliorus "ZetKai/ivQ- K\\tnv ' but thofe more general, ,n An(\otlcKTifn( 
>U«oAi7Ha<, I'olemo K](V«< ■iroAtvif c» *i/Ki J>, Cluron noAts>» KTi/Mf, Calliniachus K7ia-«< utiatty j^ ^6A«aic,Hcllanicus 
Kt'ithi k^y^y j^ tCaivi , and the LUefnite KIljHf written by DacyUui, Diooyfius, Hippys, Clitoplion, Trifiinadius, and 
Qtlic's. 25 

Maker Of Heaven And Earth. 6i 


as fertile, as populous as any. The Hercynim trees, in the time ofthe Cefa; 
cccupyingfb great a to take upa journey of* 60 days,were thouf^ht * Sjivarum, 
even then |1 co-sxdX witli the World. We read without any fliew of contnidi- """X"'^ ^]^: 
aion, how this Weftern part ofthe world hath been peopled from the Eall; [ro'capj"? 
and all the pretence ofthe i?.!'>7c»w^2 antiquity is nothing elfe, but that we ."^ "'•'i^'raiiis,' 
all came from thence. Thofe eight perfons favcd in the Ark, dcfccnding 7;lT^l\ 
from the Gordiaan Mountains, and multiplying to a large colledion in the li H^rcynii fyil 
Plain of 5i».Mr, made their firft divifion at that place ; and that difpcrfion, vidicfri^'ft 
or rather difTemination, harii peopled all other parts of the world, either ne- itis"& conV- 
ver before inhabited, or difpeopled by the Flood. nitamundo, 

Thefe Arguments have always fcemed fo clear and undeniable, that they faHrortt".Sra- 
have put not only thofe who make the world eternal, but them alfo who cii'-i exccdic. 
confefs it made, ("but far more ancient than we believe it) to a ftrangean- '^'"'•'*'<^-<^'2' 
fwer,tothcm(elves uncertain, to us irrational. 

For to this they replied, * That this World hath fuffered many alterations,- v- 7/;«,oceiiu^ 
by the utter deftruftions of Nations and depopulations of Countries, by »^'w maintain' 
which all monuments of antiquity were defaced^all Arts and Sciences utterly 't^lleTl^'^ 
loft, all fair andftately Fabricks ruined, and fo mankind reduced to paucity, Zl-iTanf^ers 
and the world often again returned into its infancy. This they conceived to' '''^ ^^iumenr 
have been done oftentimes in fevcral Ages, fometimesby a deluge of Water, Oycf^Hiflmcs 
fometimes by a torrent of Fire; and left any ofthe clementsmight bethought -^hich began 
not to confpire to the deftruftion of mankind, the Air mull fweep away T'r^^S"^,* 
whole Empires at once with infe8;ious plagues, and earthquakes fwallow up j'?i^n/JiL'r 
all ancient Cities, and bury even the very wjines of them. By which anfwer 'f ^'Ji'>y,rM 
of theirs they plainly afford two great advantages to the Chriftian Faith. SmS"'''^ 
Firft, becaufe they manifeftly fhew that they had an univerfal tradition of '"'M" ocd- 
y\WA Flood, and the overthrow ofthe old world : Secondly, becaufe it S^t't^^ 
was evident to them, that there was no way tofalvc the eternity or antiquity ^"'EwKf 
ofthe World, or to anfwer this argument drawn from Hiftory and the ap- 'f<^''^ ^■^'X-'^ 
pearances of things themfelves, but by fuppofing innumerable deluges and S°'il5^»,^ 
deflagrations. Which beingmerely feigned in themfelves, not proved, (and -^d^^^leorV- 
that II firft by them which, lay they, are not fubjea: themfelves unto them, I^' ;,",©. *} 
as the Egyptian did, who by the * advantage of their peculiar fituation ;J/^f«T«*'' 
feared neither perifhing by fire nor water) ferve only for a confirmation of "^^ "^ >**'<'' 
iV,9/?//s Flood fo many Agespaft, and the lurer expeftation of S. Peter^ fire, '^TJly'S'-' 
we know not how foon to come. iiui. sothat he 

tfill have Ina 

>»f rSfoTif a< iti K, •Ofji if/.Z( a.{xiM<nf. Ocellw deVmveJo, c. 5. Tiius Plato, who affertcd the creation of the 
world, but either fom eternity, or fuck aiitiijimy as doe; not much differ from it, brings in Solon inquiring the age ofthe Greek 
Jiijiories, asoj Phoroneus and^xohc, Deucalion <iMi/Pyrrha ■■, and an Egyptian I'riefi anfwering, that aU tlie Greeks were Boys, 
and not an old man amongj} them, that if, they had no ancient monuments, or hiftory of any antiimty, but refled contented with the 
inn^vlede ofthe timtfnice the lajl gfeai mutation of their ot^n Country. ncV.a; ^^f ^ ^o».i ^-Jof a? y',-^t,x!nv xv%a:Tm >d, 
'i<ni']m, jveij^ Kj S/inm'.ytstti.fivexoif 3 i}}.oi(ir(^ai Cfyx'^rt^cu, inTimso. Origen ofCclfw. To TOtM U irai- 
ri( cir::y'j- -Trvfdam yiyiyivoj, ^oWv« /' £hKhvfti(, ^ ytdrtuv ^vcu rh ^ Ci.d»CiKiu¥^ Kx]aK?.0!rfj:ii' hayxQ- 
■yi~^unfj^'av, cru.j,a< ToU aMnv aun S'ujtJ.ij^oK Tetei'snai rl Kaf axnav to xo«-^k d-^mw, A I. And Lucrttius the Epi- 
cmean, whilhoHgkt the world but feUvthoufand years old, aswebelieve, andthat it fimld at Lift be confumed, as we alfj are perfw/t- 
lied, thuikj '/w aiijtrer of theirs jo far from bring a refiaatm ofthe former, that be admits it as a conjirmation ofthe latter part of hit 
opin.on. De rerum natura, I. 5. 

<^iod fi fort^ fuilTct antchac cadcm omnia crcdis, 

Scd pcriiirchominum torrcnci fi rla vaporc, 

Aut cccidiir^ urbcs magno vcxaniiiic mundi, 

Auc ex inibribusairiduis exilic rapaccs 

Per terras, amnesatquc oppida coopcruitfc : 
Tancuquippc magibviilus taccare nccclleert, 

txicium qiioquc cerrarum caliquefiitiiruni. 

Cmg. adv. Cetjum, /. i . * So that Egyptian Pricji m PlatoV Tim.cus tells Solon, that the Fable cf Pl,aethon did ji^mh a real 
Ctnpgratun ofthe wjrld; but fi as all they which ifked m mountains or dry farts ofthe earth were fconhed ard confmed but of 



rivers in rh: valleys, fo me wsrepeferved: rfTtv 3, /"''i *'. N«a©- Hf t« Ta>X!t oi.7r?, >^ 

J'J>a»^pi«- To<r' Mac/ior )t4Tfi.9«v (Tdwii-cu T«jwy.«r cSic *, d» «f n^ritf; T«»3«rfs U<«C,'-,«V« '.»J*I<« ■:Tn?^tuorc.!x. 
ioEcvpt Tf.-c-;w«'n.3/ f/AvrBvi!<-r;/»r'n.iAoir Ar f/9*«if, i;(t/rpm ^f/jw I') Sf rings ^Uwg the rner Nile, n>ai m of d.wg-y !n 
,t Dehi-e mJ t'enby frejhv:d the mojl .indent m-numeMs andtecndi. Biit,alM^this « j poor fliift loihem «hub belieieiLuin 
theiieMjnd uniicrfil F/ox/all the fountains ot the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven '.vcrc opened, 
Oen. 7. 1 1. 

It remainetli then that \vc ftcdfallly believ't-',not only tliat the k.tvcfis and, 
earth and all the hofi of thtm were made, and fo acknowledge a CreKion, or 
iin aftual and immediate dependence of all things on God, but alio that all 
things were created by the handofGod, in the lame manner, and attliefamc 
time, which are delivered unto us in the Books diMofes by the Spirit of God, 
and lb acknowledge a novity, or no long cxiftence of the Creature. 

Neither will the novity of the World appear more plainly unto our con- 
ceptions, than if we look upon our own iiiccelTions. Tlie vulgar accounts, 
' which exhibit about 5600 years, though fuiSciently refuting an eternity, 
and allaying all conceits of any great antiquity, are not yet To properly and 
nearly operative en the thoughts of men, as a reflexion upon our own gene- 
rations. The firftofmen was but fix days younger than the being, uot ^q 
many tlian the appearance, of the earth : and if any particular pcrlon would 
confiJcr how many degrees in a direct line he probably is remo\ed from than 
fingle perlbn ^^jw, who bare together the name of man and of the earth 
from whence he came, he could not choole but think himftlf fo near the ori- 
ginal fountain of mankind, as not to conceive any great antiquity of the 
» 5oCiccroz"n- \Vorld. For though the ancient Heathens did imagine '^ innumerable ages 
deedffeaki^ in- j ocncrations of men pafl:, though I! Orhcn did fondly fecm to collect fo 
cuU,iniiiiBooi^ much by fume mifinterpretations of the Scriptures ; yet it we take a lober 
«f Divination: vicw, and makc but rational colleflions from the Chronology of the Sacred 
WacoVThccte" Writ, wc fliail iiiid no man's pedigree very exorbitant, or in his hne of ge- 
tus brinis tbu ncratiou defccnt of many Icore. 

argument a- _ 

gain]} tlie fride ofgrejt and nible Families, that they which mention a fuccejfioh ofthir Ancefttrs which hne been rich /tndpm>erfiil, 
t6 it merely vw' i'rojj'dbciai. i S^uua.ij^av «j to 'r:a.v ti^ $KiTHv, v'Ji ^c^lQ.d^, on ■^dit-ray x) "rgfyvur nveixJif indr^ 
y.^ eiva.elStJ.mti, It ai( rr\ifin t, "wjvyoi, x.', SttfiKtif K^ J^Koi, Bo-^Ga-tfl Ts Ji^Eytlain -roWdy-K ixvdoi yf^vemv 
'iiaiv' "< ife~'-er)[':rfm were eiuaUyhnom able, haxinginnumcrable Ancefiors, rich andpxir,ferx.wts and Kings, learned and bar- 
taiiiLS. \,Ox']gcn did not r/nhcllell the eternity of the world from the coexiftencc of aU Ood^s Attributes, as becaufe he is Ta.v\»- 
Kf^Tuf ■■!ndJ\fiJiyt^'}p<i there f re he was ii!rra\sfo, (forhirf ould he be J\i(ii>s(2i<eiK^ JyiiiivfyvatToiv, or TafJ»Kfa,Tv( iidj 
^' y.f^TBwV-vi' i ) '"" "'!/■' ff""' f*f 9° Pfttm, From cverlaAing to everlafting, thou art Goii. For a thoufand years in thv 
fghtarcbutaiyelrerJay, and tktt at the beginning of ^c\t(\3.(i\cai,\\ho can number die fand of the fca,and thedrops of 
the rain, and the days of eternity ? B«t yieii\odi\iS,BiJhop and Martyr, hath well concluded that difpntation: ItiJTt. fnmt o 

When tlie age of man was long, in the infancy of the World, wc 
find ten generations extend to 1656 vears, according to the fhortefl, 
which is thought, becaufe the Hebrew, therefore the beft account, ac- 
cording to the longell, which, becaufe the S ptiiagints, is not to be 
contemned, 2262, or rather 2256. From the Flood brought at that 
time upon the earth for the fins of men which polluted it, upon the birth 
of, the Father of the faithful, not above ten generations, if 
lb many, took up 292 years, according to the leaft, ii?2, according to 
the largi.ll: account. Since which time the ages of men have been ve- 
ry much alike proportioiiably long ; and it is agreed by all that there 
have not palfed fince the birth of Jhraham ^700 years. Now by 
the experience of our Families which for their honour and grcatneJs 
have been prekrvctl, by the genealogies delivered in the Hicred Scriptures, 
and thought nccellary to be prefented to us by the blcllcd Hvangelift's, 
by the oblervation and concurrent judgment of former Ages, tliree 

* genera- 

Maker Of Heaven And Earth. 6^ 

* generations ufually take up a liundred years. If then it be not yet 5700 * Bythc Greeks 
years fince the birth o{ Abraham, as certainly it is not ; ifall men which are "^^l-^;^ "^t'^w 
or have been fince have defcended from AW^, as undoubtedly they have ; if teStm; f icnc were but the tenth from A^oah, as Noah from Adam, which Mofts '''l"<^"'P'"'i-\u 
hath allured us : then is it not probable that any perfbn now alive is above inst. Mat. 1!^ 
1 50 generations removed from Adam. And indeed thus admitting but the ^i-indcedfme' 
Greek account of lefs than 5000 years fince the Flood, we may eafily bring 'u'^f^r I'tiicrfM. 
all fober or probable accounts of the £^;'/'^/4».f, Babylonians, and Chmefs, to ce'oft-me: m 
begin fince the Difperfion at BabeL Thus having exprelTed at la(t the time, 5^I^'):''^'''TV 
lb far as isneceffary to be known, I fliall conclude this fecond Confideration xen:fafs k^ 
of the nature and notion of Creation. «"'«< A t" C* 

ew o\ Jttle/xo/, iV cA/'o ipiSv (not ^g/ -^ as Wolphius and Porcus would coneSf it^ f/ii JV'r* Cfot uti ^fiv, as c- ida;_) pt. Co- 
TBixHv, -f T«aj«f s<rxou</1t)t«tTH T"'' TsarafSfr^caiA'^aToi;, as Suidas tranfcribing hm negligently J K-^v]i( Sometimei they 
interpet it 20, 2$, or ^o years, as appears by Hctychms, Mndby that lajl account they reel oned the jears of ^i.(\ot, K Ticik* :^ a'. 
eSey ^ r N^sb^^s StKovjcutit twivimov^tt irti -^yviviu- So Anemidorui and the GranunariaBS. Although J cannot imagine 
that to be thefenfe of Homer. I^. le. 

'Efflietfi', 0/ «l 'm^J^iif eiiAcc. j^.'ptv nJ"' i-^ivrt' 

And I conceive thatghfs in Hefychius. 'EtJ eftmsn'/ustT®- ^ovmv jV f/.i *«]' Au'ri /StCiuKoTay, to befar more properly appli ca- 
ble to that place. But,inthefenfeofwhichnorf> wefpeal^, it is ta^en for the third part ordinarily of an hundred years : us lie 
Todovii, mentioningthe Bgyptians feigned Genealogies ; Kairti rtttin'oncu p! a.vJ'fTv •j^ial J'm'mitu iMmt irnt, 300 enera- 
tions ejuallixe loooo years, -j/jitu jS T^wf a'r/f *c tKaCliv tT«« J?t. And after /;im Clemens Alex. 6trom.l. 2. Eif ra iK./\i? 

Now being under the terms oi heaven and earth, v^& have proved all tilings 
befide God to be contained, and that the making of all thefe things u as a 
clear production of them out of nothing ; the third part of the explication 
muftof neceflity follow, that he which made all things is God. This truth is 
fb evident init felf, and fbconfefledbyall men, that none did ever alTert the 
World was made, but withal affirmed that it was God who made it. There 
remaineth therefore nothingmorein this particular, than to affert God fb tlie 
Creator of the World as he isdefcribed in this Article. 

Being then we believe in God the Father maker of heaven and earth., and by 
that God we expreffcd already a fingularity of the Deity ; our firfl: alfertion 
which we muft make good is. That the one God did create the World. 
Again, being wiioibever is that God cannot be excluded from this ait of 
Creation, as beingan emanation of the Divinity, and we leemby thefe v\'ords 
to appropriate it to the Father, befide whom we fhall hereafter fhew that we 
believe fome other perfons to be the fame God ; it will be likewife necefiary 
to declare the reafbn why the Creation of the World is thus fignally attri- 
buted to God the Father. . 

The firlt of thefe deferves no explication of it felf, it is fb obvious to all 
which have any true conception of God. But becaufe it hath been former- 
ly denied, (as there is nothing fb fenflefs, but fome kindof Hereticks have 
embraced, and may be yet taken up in times of which we have no realbn to 
prefume better than of the former) I fhall briefly declare the Creation of the 
World to have been performed by that one God, the Father of our Lord 
'^efus Chrift. 

As for the firfl-, there is no fuch difference between things of the world, 
as to infer a diverfity of makers of them, nor is the leafl or worfl of crea- 
tures in their original any way derogatory to the Creator. God jaw every (;«,. i. ■^i. 
thirtg that he had made, arid behold it was very good., and confequently like to 
come from the fountain of all goodnefs, and fit always to be afcribed to the 
fame. Whatfoever is evil, is not fb by the Creator's adion, but by the crea- 
ture's dcfe^libn. 


In vain then did the Hercticks ofold,torciTiovea fceming inconvenience, 
* inde ^fam- rcnouiKC a certain trutli ; and whili't tl;cy ^ feared to make their own God 
cbsHi,wpcum gyjj^ ^IJ^.y made him partial, or but half the Ueity, and lb a companion at 
mXum°m.c- leari with an evil God. For dividing all things of this world into natures 
ret, jitcrum fubflantially evil, and fubftantially good, and apprehending a ntccflityof an 
wSrcra "'"' origination conformable to fo different a condition, they imagined one God 
'"nicTinNa- elTentially good, as the firft principle of the one, anodicr God ellentially 
hum, C.J. j,^.-j^ 35 ji^g original of theother. And this lUange Herefie began upon the 
VtLkmn firft II (prcadingof the Golpel; as if the greatell light could not appear with- 

Nines as the Q^t a fliadoW. 

prjt Aitmr of ,. n i r • c j ■ i l i ■ r^ ■ 

the HeHfie,thciugb they which fattowed him were caUed from fcmiManichxar.s. A Jr mujf rve beJMispedanbibe relation 4 Socrszcr, 
nko allots 'ihe beginning of that hcrcjk ^,xg)y i^-rc.&iv ^ Kav^y]iy« >s'->'«i'> " {j'/'*" ^C''"' Cor.nantinc ; barg Epiphaniui 
affcrtstiK firft Author of it, ?^'>/«& a' r^ofucv S^ id'Ui^ffiKvfjLct -sfel tsv x'.c« ^ V.TOjixat- toliavc gone to Jr,uf.,!em c- 
vtn about the Apoaics timis. t-UncsthenJontierlycaUcdCuktkMS, (*cf Urbitus, asS.A^ig.) n'hi dijjemimed thif HcreOe in ike 
d.i)sofAme\\3DuiorVToh\i%the Bmferour,obMt the year 2'jT,hada PredeccS-fW^tlmgh not a m\lo; ciUcdfirfi^ Tcrehiiithus, ajicr 
Euddas. h'orthk Buddas/e/f bit Books and Eiiate to a Widorv, who, faith Epiphanius, ?^n^s ■ro}hS ttA ^^^oii. Sraf, continued 
with hii Eftnie and Books a long lime, and at LH bought Cubricus/or herfoiant. This Euddas had a fmnc,- M^fler called Sc) - 
thianus, the pfi AuthrofihU Herefie. Bcfidetheje,bemen Scythianus awiCubricus there was yet another teacher rj the diHrine, 
- " ■ '"<tr«1(S-)^ «»«?©" -^xax'ttf J)J'tifKttKG- t<wtii(, Zafavnf o-Afjia^i, otjt.'offc.:y m' ^ 

calledlirmci. ^Hf^Tgi ti(T« (MirMllS- 3 :^ «»«?©■ -f xawof JiJ'e.fxaKG- tw-tds, Za^ortK oycfxa//. O(uoff«». aiiti 
•wo-af vwr- Jfthen we ivfert thit Zaranes into the Maaichsean Pedigree, and confider the time oj the Widow leiween Buddas and 
Cubricus. and the age o/Cubricus, who was then but fexen years old, as Sccratcs teftijies, whenjhe refohedta buy h:m,arJ difcoier 
the Heicfieto him j thae will be m reafin to doubt of the relation o/Epiphaniu5,rt.if Scythianus Icgan about the ^poUotical times. 

Korneed we any of the abatements inthe Animad^erfionsofTaivhs, much tefs that redirguation oj Epiphanius, w^-ij cites Origin 
as anaffertoroftheChiflian Faith againft this Herefie; for though he certainty died before yhnes ffread his doHrir.e, yet it was 
written infei eral Bo^ks before him, not only in the time of Euddas, to whom Socrates and Euidas attribute them, but cfSc\ thianus, 
whom S. Cyril and Epiplianius make the authr of them. Neither can it be objeUcd that tkey were not Maniclirans before ihe ajfea- 
ranceofMmti ; fir I cnncei\ethe name of yfaxicsC thought by theGrceks to be a name fallen up by Cubricus, and proper to him J i:oc 
to be any proper or peculiar name at all, but the general title offferetick. in the Syriack. tongue, her I am loth to think, tl'-a Tlieo- 
dorct or tlie Author in Suidas were fi far miftaken, when they call Sry tliianus. Manes, as to conceive Cubricus and he were the fame 
perfm : when we may with much better reafm conclude that both Scythianus and Cubricus had the fame title. For I c-ncci\ c Manes 
at Jirj} rather a title than a name, from the' Hebrew \''D or ''^'*D fignifying a Hercticks And althugh feme of the 9,3hh\t\^ derive 
their pO from Manes, yet otlters make it more ancient than he was, referring it to Tzadok ar.d Bajeihos, called ^''J'Cn ''d/'fcit 
tbefirj} or chief Hereiickj, who lived isoyearsbeftreChrifl. V.'herefore it is far more rational to a([ert, that he which heg.m the He- 
refie of the^Vmkheeswas called \'^0 as an Heretickjn the Oriental tongues, and fom thence hlaimf by the Creek/ ftocomphwith 
(jLAtia. or MaJnefuntheir language) thanibatMdvn< wasfirfi the name of a mancoimied an Heretick, by the Chrijiians ; and then 
made the generj name for all Heretickj, and particularly for the Chrijiians by the Jews. H^oich beinggr.mted,both:ic)ihiit\v.iar:J' 
Cubricus might welt at firft have tlie name of Manes, tl:at k Herelick,- However, the antiiuity of that Herefie will appear in the 
Marcionites, who differed not in thii particular from f/;eManichecs. Duos Ponticiis Deos alTcrt tanquam duas Svniplegadas nai;- 
fragii tui : qucni negare non potuit, id eft, crejtorem, id eft, noftrum ; Sc qucm prob^rc non potuit, id cf:, muni. Pallus in • 
feiix hujus prUumptionis inftinftum de fmiplici capituloDominic.i pronHnciationis, in homines non in Decs difponentis cn- 
cmpla ilia bon* S; malxarboris, quod ncque bona malos ncqucniala bonosprotcratfruv'tus. Tertul. I. i.e. i. This Marcion 
inedinihe days o/ Antoninus rius,flH<y. if Eurebius/e/f7/iV//j,JuftinMarcyrnTo;c',j^.i;/!/fA/'n.^.c. 1 1. Ircnarus relates 
hw he fpal:e with Poh carpus Hif\:op of Smyrna, wIm was taught by the Apftles, aiidanverfed with diiei s which faxv vo- Saiiour, 
1.3,. c. 5. Keither was Marcion thefir{l which taught it at Rome, /be Ix received it from Ccrdon. Kabuit E: Cerdoncm quendam 
informatorem Icandali hujus, quo facilius duos Deos cjci esiftimaverunt. Tliis Ccrdonfucceeded Heraclcon, andfo at loft this 
Herefie may be reduced to the Gnofticks, who derived it from the old Gentile Pliitojophrrs, and miglit well be emlraced by Manes ni 
fethi^becaufe it was the dollrine of the Vct(\m Mag:,as An(\oilc teftifieth. 'Pict^fiMi it Tf-Jru ■afei c/AoCTjiaj j^ "^ftfCvTi' 
ft( Qx^j tActytf) e7) 'tV Ai-)V7r]la[/, it, cWo k«/'ou/7K\j tj)*PX*> '*5'*9-*' S'oaiJ.ovs. «. xanJc J^cu/xoya., Laert. inprojemio. And 
thii derivauonitwellohfer\edbyXwno\!cie\& Presbyter of Qo\\^3Sxi\nc>'f\c, pcakjngthwojt'Unci : ilagjt ^ M«f woi'®- *J ^ 

Whereas there is no Nature originally finful, no fubftance in it fe'f evil, 
and therefore no Being which may not come from the lame fountain of good- 
Jf''-4i'7>5- nels. I form the light ^ andcreate darknefs ; / mal:e peace, and create evil; I the 
Lord do all thefc things, ikith he wlio alio faid, / am the Lord, and thne is none 
elfe, there is no God he/ides me. Vain then is that conceit which framed two 
Gods, one of them called Light, tlie other Daiknefs ; one good, the other 
evil ; refuted in the firll words of \}n&Cretd, I believe in God, maker of hea- 
ven and earth. 

But as we have already proved that one God to be the Father, fb muft we ^ 
yet farther fhew that one God the Father to be the Maker of the World. la % \ 
which there is no difficulty at all : the whole Church at "^jertifalem hath fuffi- 
ciently declared this truth in their devotions; Lcrd, thou art Godn'hich hafl 
fvade heaven and earthy a?:d the fex, a».i all thai in them « : agc^Jl thy holy 


Maker. Of Heaven And Earth. 65 

child 'Jefiti, whom thou hast anointed^ both Herod And Pontius Pilate with the 
Gentiles and the people of Ifrael were gathered together, '^efu-s then was the child 
of that God which made the Heaven and the Earth, and confcquently the 
Father oiChrifi is the Creator of the World. 

We know that 0Jf'ifi is the light of the Gentiles,by his own interpretation ; 
we are alTured likewiie that his Father gave him, by his frequent alTcrtion : 
we may then as certainly conclude that the Father of C/^r//? is the Creator of 
the World, by the Prophet's exprcfs prcditlion : ¥ot thus faith God the Lord^ rfa.42. 5,^.' 
he that created the heavens and firetched them out^ he which [pread forth the earthy 
and that which comethoiit of it ; / the Lord have called thee in righteoufnefs, and 
will hold thine hand, and will keep theCy and give thee for a covenant of the people, 
for a light of the Gentiles. 

And now this greatfacility may feem to create the greater difficulty : for 
being the Apoftles teach us that the Son made all things, and the Propliets, 
that by the Spirit they were produced, how can we attribute that peculiarly 
in the Creed isnto the Father, which in the Scriptures is afligned indifferently 
to the Son and to the Spirit ? Two rcafbns may particularly be rendred of 
this peculiar attributing the work of creation to the Father. Firlt,inrerpe6l 
of thole Herefies ariling in the infancy of the Church, which endeavoured 
to deftroy this truth, and to introduce another Creator of the World, difliii- 
guiflicd from the Father of our Lord Jefus Chrifl. An Errour lo dcliruftivc 
to the Chrirtian Religion, that it rafeth even the foundations of the Goipel, 
which refers it lelf wholly to the promiles in the Law, and pretends to no 
other God but that God of ^^braham^ oilfaac, and of Jacob ; acknowledgetli 
no other fpeaker by the Son, than him that fpake by the Prophets ; and there- 
fore whom Mofes and the Prophets call Lord of Heaven and Earth, of him 
our blefled Saviour (Ignifies himfelf tobe the Son, rejoycing in fpirit, and 
faying. / thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth. Secondly, in rcfpecl Lul^e lo. 21. 
of the Paternal priority in the Deity, by reafbn whereof that which is com- 
mon to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, may be rather attributed to the 
Father, as the firfi; Perfon in the Trinity. In which rerpe61 the Apoflle hath 
made a diftinftion in the phrafe of emanation or production : To us there is i cor. %. 6. 
but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord 
Jefui Chrifl, by whom are all things, and we by him. And our Saviour hath 
acknowledged, The Son can do nothing of himfelf, but what he feeth the Father "! Scabat fiilcs^ 
do-, wiiichlpeaketh fbme kind of priority in adlion, according to that of the atore & ciiri- 
Perfon. And in this fenfe the Church did always profefs to believe in God ^° m^-Tm^i. 
the Father, ^ Creator of Heaven and Earth. /.'k Non alia 

The great neceffity of profeffingour faitli in this particular appcarctli fe- agnofcenda e- 
veral ways, as indilpenHibiy tendnigtothe illuftration of God's glory, the po(io1on!°i^' 
humiliation of mankind, the provocation to obedience, the averlion from quam qui ho- 
iniquity, and all confolation in our duty. die apud ipib- 

God is of himfelf infinitely glorious, bccaufe his perfcfbions are ahfolute, cditur.Nuiiam 
his excellencies indcfedlive : and the fplcndour of this glory appeareth unto aurcm Apoflo- 
us in and througii the works of his hands. =" The invifible things of him from the dtfijm intc^t- 
creation of the world are clearly fecn, being iinderftood by the things that are made, as qut non in 
even his eternal power and Godhead. ^' For he hath made the earth by his power, Crcatorc C|.i 1- 
he hath e/lablifljed the world by his wifdom, and hath firetched , out the heavens 'Rom. 1.20. 
by his difcrction. After a long enumeration of the wonderful works of the "Z'"'- 'o- 12. 
Creation, the Plalmift breakcth forth into this pious meditation. "^ Lordjjow ^'p/^/[',04*2 . 
manifold are thy works ! in wifdom halt thou made them all. If then the glory 
of God be made apparent by the Creation, if he have '^ made all things fur htm- •' Pmj, 1^.4. 
ftlf,\\\dX is,for themanifeftation of his glorious Attributes,ifthe "^ Lordrejoycetb .^y^^ ,^^^, 

K m 

66 ARTICLE 1. 

in his TPorks, becaule hii glory fbill endure for ever ; then is it abfblutely necefl 
fary we fhould contefs him Maktr of heaven and earth, that we may fufficient- 
pftl. 148. 1 J. ]y praile and glorifie him. Let thempraife the name of the Lord, faith David, for 
his name alone is excellent, his glory is above the earth and heaven. Thus did the 
A>';. 9.5,5. Levitcs teach the Children oiffrael to glorifie God: Stand up and bkfs the 
Lord your God for ever and ever : and blejfed be thy glorious name, nhich is ex- 
alted above all bleffing andpraife. Thou even thou art Lord alone ; thou haft made 
heaven, the heaven of heavens, vcith all their hcfis, the earth and all things that 
Rom. 11.^6. are therein. And the fame hath S. PW taught us : For of him, and through him^ 
and to him are all things, to whom be glory for ever. Amen. Furthermore, that 
we may be afTured that he which made both Heaven and Earth will be glori- 
fied in both, the Prophet calls upon all thofe celeftial hofts to bear their part 
Pfil 148. 2,3, ^f* 'lis Hymn : Vraife ye him allhii Angels, praife ye him all his hojls. Praife 
4,5. ye him Sun and Moon, praife him all ye Stars of light. Praife him ye heavens 

of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens. Let them praife the name of 
the Lord, for he commanded, and they were created. And the 24 *EIders in the 
Rev. 4. lOjti. Revelation of S. 'John fall down before him that fittith on the thrcne, and tvor- 
jbip him that livethfor ever and ever, and cast their Crowns, the emblems of 
their borrowed and derived glories, before the Throne, the leat of infinite and 
r/Ti/. •?• I- eternal Majefty, faying, Thou art worthy, Lord, to receive glory, and honour^ 
rj'al. 145.10, a„(i ^oxer: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pltafure they are and were 
created. \^\\QXQioxc, if the heavens declare the glory of Cod, and all his works 
praife him; then JJjall his Saints blcfs him, they fljall fpeak of the glory of his 
kingdom, and talk of his power. And if man be filcnt, God will fpeakj while 
we through ingratitude will not celebrate, he himfclf will declare it, and 
Jer. 27. 5. promulgate. / have made the earth, the man and the beast that are upon the 
ground, by my great power, and by my out-fl retched arm. 

Secondly, the Doftrine of the World's Creation is mofl; properly effectual 
towards man's Humiliation. As there is nothing more deftrudive to humanity 
than Pride, and yet not any thing to which we are more prone than that ; lo 
nothing can be more properly applied to abate the fwelling of our proud 
conceptions, than a due confideration of the other works of God, with a fo- 
Ffal. 8. J. ber reflexion upon our own original. When Iconfderedtht heavens,the work of 
thy fingers, the moon and the ftars which thou hast ordained; when I view thole 
glorious apparent bodies with my eye, and by the advantage of a glafs find 
great numbers before, beyond the power of my fight, and from thence 
judge there may be many millions more which neither eye nor inftrument can 
reach ; when I contemplate thofe far more glorious fpirits, the inhabitants of 
the Heavens,andattendants on thy Throne ; I cannot but break forth into that 
admiration of the Prophet, W''/'<i/ is man, that thou vrt mindful of him ? what is 
tharoff-fpring of the earth, that duft and aOies? what is that fonof man, that 
thou vifitejl htm ? what is there in the progeny of an cjeftcd and condemned 
Father, that thou fhouldefl: look down from Heaven, tlie place of thy dwel- 
ling, and take care or notice of him ? But if our Original ought fb far to hum- 
ble us, how fliould our Fall abafe us ? That of all the creatures which God 
made, we fhould comply with him who firfl: oppofed his Maker, and would 
be equal unto him from whom he new received his Bemg. All other works 
of God, which we think inferiour to us, becaufcnot furnifhed with the light 
of underllanding, or endued with the power of cledion, are in a happy im- 
poflibility of finning, and fo offending of their Maker : The glorious Spirits 
which attend upon the Throne of God, once in a condition of themfelvesto 
fall, now by the grace of God prefcrved, and placed beyond all poffibility of 
finning, are entredupon thegreatefihappinefsof which the workmanfhipof 


Maker Of Heaven And Earth. 67 

God is capable : But men, the foiis of falPn j^.dam^ and finners alter the fimi- 
litude of him, of all the creatures are the only companions of thole Ja^eh Judcv. 6. 
tvhicb kft their own habitations, and are delivered into chains of darkmji, to be 2 Pet. 2 4. 
referved unto judgment. How fhould a ferious apprehenfion of oui own cor- 
ruption, mingled with the thoughts of our creation, humble us in the fight 
of him, whom we alone of all the creatures by our unrepented fins drew 
unto Repentance ? How can we look without confufion of face upon that 
monument of our infamy, recorded by Mofes^ who firlt penned the original 
of Humanity, It repented the Lord that he had made man on the earthy and it ccn 6. 5. 
grieved him at his heart ? 

Thirdly ,thisDoclrine isproperly efficacious and produftiveof mofl: chear- 
ful and univerial Obedience Jt made the Prophet call for theCommandments 
of God, and earneftly defire to know what he fhould obey. Thyh.tf2ds have rr.ti. up. 73. 
made me and fajbioned me : give me underjlanding, that I may learn thy com- 
mandments. By virtue of our firft pfoduftion, God hath undeniably abfblute 
dominion over us, and confequently there muft be due unto him the moft ex- 
aft and compleat obedience from us. Which reafon will appear more convin- 
cing, if we confider, of all the creatures which have been derived from the 
fame fountain of God's goodnefs,noue ever difobeyed his voice but the Devil 
and Man. Aline h.tnd,fdith he, hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right /■/.'r.48. 15. 
hand hath fpannd the heavens ; when I call unto them they ft and up together.- 
The moft loyal and obedient fervants which ftaffd continually before the moft 
illuftrious Prince are not fo ready to receive and execute the commands of 
their Sovefaign Lord, as all the Hofts of Heaven and earth to attend upon 
the will of their Creator. Lift up your eyes on high, and behold tvho hath ifi. 40. 26. 
treated thefe things, that bringeth out their hofts by number : he calkth them all 
by names, by the greatnefs of his might, for that he is ftrong in poxer , not one 
faileth, but every one maketh his appearance, ready preft to obfervc tiie de- 
fignsoftheirCommander in chief.Thus the Lord commanded, and /A/:7/o//g/;/ /'"4'-5' 25- 
from heaven, the ftars in their courfes fought again fl Sifera. He commanded the i K/n^. 17.4,5. 
Ravens to feed Elicts , and they brought him bread and fle(lj in the morning , and 
bread and fte/b in the evening ; and fo one Prophet lived merely upon the 
obedience of the Fowls of the air. He fpake to the devouring Whale, and 
it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land ; and fo another Prophet was deliver- Jonah 2. 10. 
ed from the jaws of death by the obedience of the Fifhes of the S:a. Do we 
not read of fire and hail, fnorv and vapour, ftormy wind fulfilling his word? rjlii.i^a- 8. 
Shall there be a greater coldnefs in man than in the fnow ? more vanity in us 
than in a vapour ? more inconftancy than in the wind ? If the univerial obe- 
dience of the creature to the will of the Creator cannot move us to the fame 
aifedion and defire to ferve and pleafe him, they will all confpirc to teftifie 
againft us and condemn us, when God fhall call unto them, faying. Hear, 
heavens, and give ear, earthy for the Lord hathfpoken: I have nourijbed and /y.,, ,. 2. 
brought up children, and they have rebelled againli me. 

Laftly, the Creation of the World is of 'moft ncceflary meditation for the 
Conlblation of the fervants of God in all the variety of their conditions.Mj/'- p^nUjsfi. <^,6. 
fy is he whofe hope is in the Lord his God, which made heaven and earth, the fca . 
andall that therein is. This happinels confifteth partly in a full alTurance of 
his power to fecuie us, his ability to latisfic us. The earth is the Lord^s, and pfai. 24. 1,2. 
the ftUnefs thereof, the world and they that dwell therein. For he hath foundid ic 
upon the feas, and eflablijhed it upon the ^ouds. By virtue of the firft juodudi- 
on he hath a perpetual right uuto and power to difpofe of all things ; and lie 
which can order and difpole of all, muft necelTarily be eftecmed able to fecure 
and fatisfie any Creature. Haft thou not knoivn, haft thou not heard that the ifn.\o. :8. 

K 2 everlajling 


evtrlxjiing God, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the e.irth, fainteth not, nei- 
ther is weary ? There is no external refiftencc or oppofition where Oninipo- 
tency vvorketh, no internal wcaknelior dekftion of powtr uhcrc the Al- 
mighty is the Agent ; and confequentiy there remaincthafull and firm per- 
fwafion of his ability in all conditions to prclerve ns. Again, this happinefs 
confiftcth partly in a comfortable affurance, arifing from this Meditation, of 
. the will of God to protccl and lijccour us, of his dcfire to prclerve and blcls 
Pfd. 121.2,9. us. My help coweth from the Lord , who Made htaven and earth : Ht mil not 
fiifjer thy foot to be moved, laith the Prophet David; at once expreding the 
Jib 10. J. foundation of his own expeftancy and our Iccurity. God mil not defpifc the 
mrk of his hands , neither will he fuffer the relVof his Creatures to do the 
ifa. 54, i<j,i7. leaft injury to his own image. BeAo/^,faith he,/ have created thefmsth that bloxv- 
eth the coals in the fire, and that hringtth forth an inflrnmcnt for his rvork. No 
weapon that is formed again/l thee Jball profper. This is the hertt^ige of the fer- 
vantsof the Lord. 

Wherefore to conclude our explication of the firft Article, and to render 
a clear account of the laft part thereof, that every one may uiiderfland what 
it is I intend, when I make confellion of my faith in the i\hker of heaven and 
earth, I do truly profefs, that I really believe, and am fully perfwaded, that 
both Heaven and earth and all things contained in them have not their being 
ofthemrelves,butwere mad^in the beginning ; that the manner by whichall 
things were made was by mediate or immediate creation ; (b that antecedent- 
ly to all things befide, there was at firft nothing but God,who projluced molt 
part of the World merely out of nothing,and the reft out of that which was 
formerly made of nothing. This I believe was done by the moft free and vo- 
luntary aft of the will ofGod, of which no reafon can be alledged, no motive 
adigned, but his goodnels; performed by the determination of his will at 
that time which plcafed him, moft probably within one hundred and thirty 
generarions of men, moft certainly within not more than fix, or at fartliGft 
(even, thoufand years. I acknowledge this God Creator of th.e World to be 
the fame God who is the Father of our Lord JefmChrift ; and in this full la- 
titude, I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth. 

:^nii in 3jcfus Cl)?tft Ijis onlp ^m, our llo?li* 

TH E fecond Article of the Creed prelcnts unto us, as tiie obje£t of our 
Faith, the fecond Perlbn of the blclTed Trinity ; that as in the Divi- 
j"- .^. .. nity there is nothing intervening between the Father and the Son, io 

»Eadcmceii. ^^^^^ ^"^f^cdiate union might be perpetually cxprelTcd by a conftant conjun- 
la vcritatis do- ftiou in our Chriftian Confcflion. And that upon nolefs authority than of 
mnoscrcdcrc the Author and Ftnijherof our Faith, who in the pcrfonsof the Apoftles gave . 
{jjniinFHhim this Command to US, ' Te believe iniJod, believe aljo in mc. Nor ipeaketh he 
Dei, chrifium* this of himlclf, but from the Father which lent him : '' for this is his com- 
i!ura'Dcu?nn'c- ""^"^^'^"t-> ^^^^^ n'e jboiild belicve on the name of his Son Jtfus Chrifl. Accord- 
rtrum, fedDci ing therefore to the Son's prcfcription, the Father's in junftion, and the Sa- 
Fihuni ; hiijus cramental inftitution, as we arc baptized, lb do wc * believe in the name 
&fo)uscft,con- ortneFatner, andtheSon. 

ditor fciiiccr Our blcflcd Saviout is here reprefented under a threefold dcfcription : 
'u^!^K^Z!'de fi""^' ^y h'^ Nomination, as 'Jefus Chrijl ; fcccndly, by his Generation, as 
Tiinit.c.^. the only Son of God ; thirdly, by his Dominion, as our Lord. 


And In Jesus, d^c. 69 

But when I refer JefmOrnft to the Nomination of our Saviour, becaufe he 
is in the Scriptures promifcuouny and indifferently Ibmetimes called 'Jefitty 
Ibmetimes Chrift , I would be underllood ^o as not to make each of them 
equally, or in like propriety, his name. ^ Hisnamc woi called 'jefii^^which was 'z«^f2. 2r, 
fo named of the Angel before he rv.ts conceived in the womb : ^ who is alfb called ^'^i:'"- '• '^* 
Chrisl, not by * name,but by office and title. Which obIt;rvation,feemingly mcn^^^chr^ 
trivial, is neceflfary for the full explication of this part of the Article: for by ftiis.&nonap- 
this diltinftion we are led unto adouble notion, and i'o refblve our Faith into v!,\f^laim' 
thefe two Propolitions. I believe there was and is a man, whole name \vas fignificatur. 
aftually, and is truly in the moft high importance, Jefui, the Saviour of the '■'"^"^ ^f^^^" 
world. I believe the man who bare that name to be the Chrijl, that is, the m°en eft%^m 
Meffi.ts promiled of old by God, and expected by the jfe«'-f. vcnitus, quan» 

calceatus, acci- 
densnomini res. Tenul. adv. Prax.c. 2S. Quorum nominum altcruni efl proprium, quod ab Angelo impofitum eft ; alte- 
riim acciilens, quodab unftioneconvcnit. IbiJ. Chriftuscommune dignitatis eft nonieii, JcfuspropriumvocabuIiimSalva- 
toris. S. Hicron. inAMt. id. 20. Jefus inter homines nominacur; nam Chriftus non proprir.m nomcn eft, fed nuncupitio 
poteftatis & regni. LaHan. de Falfa Sap. 1. 4. c. 7. Dum dicitur Chriftus, commune nomcn dignitatis eft ; dum Jefus Chri- 
ftus, proprium vocabulum Salvacoris eft. Ifidor. Orig. l.^.c.i. 'InirSf KuKftrcu fifanifjLuf, 

For the firjj, it is undoubtedly the proper name of our Saviour given unto 
him, according to the cuftom of the Jews, at his Circumcifion : and as the 
• Baptift was called John, even fb the Chriji was called Jefm. Befide, as the 
impofition was after the vulgar manner, fb was the name it felf of ordinary 
life. Wc read in the Scriptures of ^Jeftts which was called J uJIhs, a fellow- 'coi.^.iu 
worker with S. Paulj and of a certain Sorcerer, a Jew,whofe name wm Bar jefus, jl'* '^'^•r 
that is, the Son ofjefits. Jofephus in hisHiftory mentioneth one J ejus the Son dw quofdim 
o^ Ananus, another the Son ofSaphates, a third the Son of Judas, flain in the Z'"-'^' quorum 
Temple : and many of the high Priefl:s,or Priefts, were called by that name ; tur vocfiluiisT 
as the Son of Damn£i(s, of Gamaliel, ofOnias, of Phabes, and of Thebuth. Ec- lHa enim nee 
clcfiajiicus is called the Wifdom of Jefus the Son of Sirach, and that Sirach the j""""^' "'^'•■P^" 
Son of another J'-fts. ^ S. Stephen fpeaks of the Tabernacle of witnefs brought dcntur. t'n - 
in with Jefus into the pofjeffion of the Gentiles : and the Apoftle in his explica- "'"'''• '" ^'^"'• 

Serm. 1 5. 


tion of thofe words of David, To day if you ivill hear his voice, oblerveth, x^'"."^; 
that, '^ if Jefus had given them reft, then would he not afterwards have fpoken ' Hcb. 4. 8.' 
of another day. Which two Scriptures being undoubtedly underftood of 7t*- *as"fnr'^j'^^' 
fhua^ the Son of Nun, teach us as infallibly that Jefusis the lame name with rheBoo'litofMo- 
Jofljua. Which being at the firft * impofition in the full extent of pronun- ^^^^s "ijofihuah, 
ciation Jehofhuah, in procels of time contracted to Jejhuah, by the omidion eV/«Kin^esT.i 
of the lalt letter, (Ifrange and difficult to other languages) and the addition even /nWaggai 
oftheGw;& termination, became 7e/?/j. wzaduriah: 

WherCiOre it will be neccllary, for the proper interpretation of Jefus, to inn yity, ^ 
look back upon the firft that bare that name, who was the Son ofN«»,of the '^^ '■''-' » chron. 
trihe of Ephraifa, the ruccclTor of /If^yej, and fo named by him, as it is writ- It.H' an/an- 
ten, '' And Mofes calledOjhea the (on of Nun Jehojhua. His firft name then im- ."•"■''!> "' Ezra 
pofed at hisCircumcifion was OJbea,or Hofeah ; the fame with the name of the ^rtf'^|[!f7,!?f '* 
'fonofAzazz!ah,rulerofEphraim, of the ^ fon of Elah, king of Ifrael, of the letter'^ was but 
^ fon ofBeeri, the Prophet : and the interpretation of this firft name || Hofeah is ''i'f'y tromim- 

bytfuGrecl^Tranlatm, I Chron. ^.i^, where ^"ATV if rendied in the RominrtndAlcxandnanCop)'li\insi, in the Altliis and 
Complutenlian Ednim! 'l'itcyii,and by Euftbius, rvh'> c:iprej)eth it truer than thife Copies,'lr,i(Tsi. At lajl y was totalh left out both 
in the fronmciiiiion and tkc writing., and the wliote name oj \oi\iUdh contrail ed to ^\D'^. ''Numb. 13. 16. 'i Chion. 27. 20. 
' 2 Kings 17. 1 . 6 Hof. I.I. Ii Ofee in lingua noftra Salvacorcni Ibiiat, quod habuit ctiam )ofuc filius Nun, antequam 
ei a Deo vocabulum mutarctur. S. flier. in Ojee,c.i, v.x.ij l.\. adv.JoxmianHm. I read indeed of other interpretations amongthe 
Creeh, no ^ood expof tors of the Hebrew names: as in an ancient MS. oj the LXX. Tranjlaiionofthe Prophets, now inthe Libr.ny of 
r<ic/7M/B:irbcrini, at the beginning of Ho\t3\\. "ClnL Kvrrku\j'^^' and (iganu'iimi,Qiniff/Jfi&; ti Cv<rKi3'l^uf- (Of which 
thefirjl and Ltj} are far from the Original : and the middle agreeable with the root, mt with the lonjugation, as being deduced from 
y'i)^ ;»f ;n Niplial, tof ;'ii Hiphil} And in another MS. of the Prophets in the King''s Library at S. jamesV, 'ilni, <rx/4^aif, »i 
cuAi)?/ and ,.gi:n, 'tlni, k^f*. mCi/^^. which K the intirpretationinfertcd intoHc{ychiui; inwhomfr ' Cinf we miijl 
'ilni ■ and Jo Ifuppfe Salmalius intended it, though the Holland Edition hath trnide his emendation 'ilrick- 




*• >ir f/'f sama- n^-uiour. Now wc muli not imagine this to be * no mutation, neither miift 
rican m.u- ^^,^ |q^,]^ ^pQ,-, j^ g^ ^ , ^Qtal alteration, but cblerve it as a change not trivial 
%f.,mfmniL or * inconlidcrablc. And being HofJ; \\as a name aiterwards uled by iome, 
which /« rrr.i g^nd Jeholbu^h, as diftinft, by Others, it will ntceiraiily follow, there was 
iiTbf' t"d fome dirfercnce between tliele two names ; and it u ill be (It to incjuire what 
afiemards ; as ^^.35 the addition, and in what the torce of the alteration doth conhlh 

\caa-dO\hci, Ofhea. |1 So Juftin Martyr /fwl^t of Hofcah .« u.i\<,v(,u.a.Sti/]&- -ru ^UaZ oi-oaaTr And comparing it with 
that alteration cf hcoh'sttame ; 76 t ToicvVoi. 'laxa^ tiJ 'l7f5t»A tCTH^MSifl/ «/ol)n, yj^rc /Kvirrihonit"lii(r»< eTsxAi'fln • 

iiium Aufcs vocjrctur, Mofts juQlt turn Jefum vocari. UHan.d^reraiap.j \-j. Ou T.,Ttiif y»v_(W-cx,BYi) t aiin 

'UtlV^ri< a^cVfi/H Eiifeb. Ecd. Hift. l.i. c. 3. T7;;« nw r/^e Hofcah />/nf//;;/'i dtfgiafcdh Auks, andn-as further cftranged 
yet by thoff which frequently called him Nax-irSf , <»« Eufeb. Dcmonft. Ev. 1. 5. c. 1 7 . thrice. * This Juihn Martyr charges upon the 
Jews nsneilelted h) them, ar.da^rms the reafvi vehy they received not Jefiiifor iheChnl\ wastheij not obferxmithe alterationjif 

ifi fiKotdy-fi<. 7oiytfZv AiMiH m y.a?iu lidvctyytasMv i swi'm- And whereas thy fpal;e much of the change made 

■w/zJ/tf miJia(eof the c7ee[s,'who generally deliver the addition ^f a in the name oj AhTA\M\y und^ in the name if Sarah, when^ 
the fti /f was an additim of r\, thefccnd a change of ^ into H, he would mal;e that of Hofca into Jefus afar more cmfiderabk itl- 
tei/ttion than that of Abraliam or of iarali. 

)}^D^r\ * Fijf^ therefore, \\c oblcrve tliat all the original letters in the name * Mofeah 

V'^'^'^' are prefjrved in that of JoJIjuah : from whence 'tis evident that tliis altcra- 

a Fr it may tion was notmadeby a verbal mutation, as when J^col^ was called Ifrael, nor 

wen be thiught {^y ^,iy literalchange, as when Sarai was named, nor yet by diminution 

lomallethf"^ or mutilation ; butby addition,aswhen//i!'r<«w wascallcd.if^r.j/'^;^. Secondly, 

name y\U'r>^ it mull: be confelTed that there is but one literal addition, and that of that Ict- 

r-e^iMp^Jitn ^'^^' which ismoft frequent in the He^reiv names : but L-eing thus folcm.nly 

'cft'hefHtmc "" added by Mofes, upon fo remarkable an occafion as tlie viewing of tlie land of 

"i^fjipM, Ca»a.t?f was, and that unto a name already known, and after ufed ; it cannot 

?/f/;i nthe be thought to give any lefs than a !i prefentdefignation of his perfbn to be a 

charaiierijlicai Saviour of tlic pcople, and futurc Certainty of falvation included in his name 

jSl'^pW/ ""to t'^'^ I/raelites by his means. Thirdly, though the number of the letters 

te excluded in be augmented adually but to one, yet it is not improbable that another may 

the future tenfe, ^^ virtually added, and in the fignification underltood. For being the firft 

'i"rwo!/be'^"' letter of Hfeah will not endure a duplication, and if the fame letter were 

];''\U^Yrci:uitt- to be added, one of them muft be abibrpt ; 'tis poffible another of the fame 

'jhmetimes it'L might be by Mofts intended, and one of them fuppreifed. If then unto the 

expeffed, as it namc Hoftah wc join one of the titles of God, which is Jd/;, there will refult 

wyf./, iSam. ^j.Q^^ both, by thecuflomof the We^reii' tongue, Jthojhttah ; and fo not only 

n^rin K"^ ^^^^^ inftrumental, but alfb the original caufe of the Jeivs deliverance will 

n':nn' be found cxprelTed in one word: as if Mofes had (aid. This is the perfon by 

^J^'!'Z whom God will fave his people from their Enemies. 

And all the alkmbly (hall know that tlic Lord fjTcch (or will favc) not with fword and fpcar : and Fftl. 1 16. 6. ^nm 
yDin^ '*71 I wa! brought low, and he helped me. And although there be another '' in tie future than in the name, yet 
being it isalCi fund funetimes with the lejfer Chiric, and fo wiihiut th; latter ', or wiiioout any Chine at all, as frefiently 
with the addition of ^ yiyV\ there if noreafon but ]!''D^r\'', thename of the fon of l^un, may be of the fame force, asconfifting 
ofthe fame letters, with the third perfon of tlte future in Hiphil. Again, being ^ added to the Future, as formative I hereof, fiitndf 
intlx place of 1 (for the avoiding of confufion with 1 con'iunHive) which is nothing elfe than the abbreviation of JvilP, we may 
well a(fign at leajl this Emphafis to the mutation which Mofcs made ; that whereas before there was nothing but Salvation barely 
in his name, notv there is no left than lie (hall favc, in which the l*<in or ^ is a peculiar defignation of the perfon, and the fhall or 
Tenfe a certainly of the fuiurition. fi-m wiS the delign of y\ofL-i appear to be nothing clfe but d predHiion or conptmation of that 
which was nit b<: fore, but by tv ay of defire or omination ; andthis only by changingthe Imperatiie into the Future, y^lH ferva, fie 
cxpeHation of thepeoplc, intoif'<ll^r\'' Icrvabit, the ratification of Mofes. *So dii the Aniients undeijland it : to the Orceins ]e- 
CiS, is ab}^)titv 0i»i 10 the Latines, Salvator Dt-/ 5j Eufcb. Demonftr. Ev. 1. 4. ad fincni. E^t^'j ji^V'eiov 0i» ti< tLu E\- 
yi'Ja yvrlui'ro ri'lnft i*iTxht\zHrhoij.x<r,<:J.iJyn, Ifteiij: ^6 'jxf 'ECfiicn fo]iicii, {{if 3 Naji/» Ttv^joifaiiTolt 

And In Jesus, &'C. y i 

'taxrai woij.a^iTcij • 'Iwtf-Bt ,fi Shy 'lea ottrttei'-t, nr' %^, ©i» otDTneitv. Wheremthing can be more certain thm that 'laa 
it takettfor the name of God, and ' U» QarneJct together, the Silvacion ot God. And yet Theoph) latt has Jiraii^ch miiialen it 
Mat. 1. 1. To 'l»m orp(x«B';^'EWkIu</x.ii' ejir, aWk"Eff^^i)co», lf|i/fx</di'eT«u 3 Q»t^, \4.a ya » Qc^TwexA'-jrAi 'BCtsusil 
Myi]cj ' which rvords jeem pUinly to figmfy that }e(us is interpreted Saviour, becanje Ud in the Hebrew tongue fi^nifieth Salva- 
tion. Iconfefs thewords maybiftrainedtothefamefenfevpiththofeoj Eiifebius, but not without fome force, and contrary to trhat 
he feemcth to intend. Ej'pecially confidering thofc which foUotved him in the fame mijlule, us Mofchopiiliis i*< <vs Jli'i' TM-rlt iJV 

hadfirj} the fame name ivith that of the Prophet, faith, Non enini (uc male in Grsecis codicibus legicur Sc Latinis) AiifdiiHi 
eft, quod nihil omnino intclligitur ; fed Ofee, id eft, Salvacor : fe additum eft ejus nomini Domijius, uc Salvacor Domini di- 
cerctur. What then jf as it but T~V the Dominus added to his name .■' For as in the nime o/Efaias, S. Hierome achtiwledgesthe 
addition of the name of God, Interpretacur auceni Efaias Salvacor Domini ; in the fame manner did he conceive it in the name of Jo« 
fuah, onfy with this diffe/ence, that in the one it bepns, in the other concludes the name. 

Now being we have thus declared th^ijefus is the fame name with Jofuah, 
bebg the name ofjofuah was firft impofed by Divine defignation, as a cer- 
tain prediftion of the fulfilling tothe I/raelites, by the perlon which bare the 
name, all which was fignified by the name, being Jefus was likewife named 
by a more immediate impofition from Heaven, even by the minirtration of 
an Angel ; it folio weth, that we believe he was infallibly defigned by God to 
perform unto the ions of men whatlbever is implied in his nomination. As 
therefore in Ho/eah there was exprelTed Salvation, in Jc/uah at leaft was ad- 
ded the defignation of that fingle perfon to fave, with certainty of prelerva- 
tion, and probably even the name of God, by whole appointment and power 
he was made a Saviour ; fo fhali we find the fame m Jefus. In the firft laluta- 
tion, the Angel GabrielioXA the blefled Virgin, fhe (liould conceive in her tvomh, i_^u, ^ , ^^ 
and bring forth a fon, and fhould call his name Jefus. In the Dream o^ijofeph 
the Angel of the Lord informed him not only of the nomination, but of the 
interpretation or ^ Etymology; Thoujhalt call his name [jefus., for hefliallfave * y^j^Hcbrao 
his people from their fins. In which words is clearly exprefled the defignation fermone.Wvrt- 
bf the perfon, He, and the futurition of Salvation certain by him,he/ha/lfave. '"' '*ic'tur. e- 
Befide, that other addition of the name of God, propounded in 'Jofuah s^s el^^o°nomi!!is 
probable, appeareth here in Ibme degree above probability, and that for two ^^"^ Evangeij- 
reafons. Firft, becaule it is not barely faid that He, but as the Original raifeth ccIi^TJd^fs' 
it, II He himfelfjhalljave. Jofuah faved Ifrael not by his own power, not of nomenejusje- 
himftlf, but God by him; neither faved he his own people, but the people of A^'J"'f'^^^ 
God : whereas Jefus himfelf, by his own power, the power of God, (hall fopukm'fmm. 
fave his own people, the people of God. Well therefore may we underifand •^•H'*^';' 
the interpretation of his name to heGodthe Saviour. Secondly, immediately ^"'^°'' '^'^' 
upon the prediftion of the nameof jfe/wjjand the interpretation given by the 
Angel, the Evangelift exprefly obierveth, ^ All this was done., that it might ' Mat. 1.22 21,. 
he fulfilled which was fpoken of the Lord by the Prophet., faying., Behold., a Virgin '■B^i^«<Jo«- 
pjall be with child, and /hall bring forth a fon, and they f Jail call his name Em- f!/^^~^V^' 
manttel, which, being interpreted, is, God with iis. Several ways have been 9>n>s f »<!■»(] 
invented to fhew the fulfilling of that Prophecy, notwithftandins our Sa- fj^'f'^'f •■'»- 
viour was not called tmmanuel; but none can certainly appear more pioper, ,/sr {1,^^'^ 
than that the fenfe of £w^^z4««e/ fhould be comprehended in the name of ««»/,<>??' ot»- 
Jefus : and what elle is God with us, than God our Saviour ? Well therefore ^a^^ Aw"^' 
hath the Evangelift conjoyned * the Prophet and the Angel aflerting fhrijl Ac^iriujifA- 
was therefore named Jefus, becaufe it was foretold he fhould be called Em- ^','^y*;^'''r!!' 
m.inuel, the Angelical God the Saviour being in the higheft propriety the tenjisin ch'- 
Prophetical God with us. '^w- 

However, theconftant Scripture-interpretation ofthis name is i'^wW. So 
faid the Angel of the Lord to the amazed Shepherds, ^ Vnto you is born this ^Luke 2- «'• 
day in the fnyof Davida Saviour., which is Chrifl the Lord. So S. Paul to the 
Jews and Gentile Profely tes at Antioch, l Of this man's feed hath God, accord- <■ aHs i j. 2 j- 



* jupucr ,be ;> to his promt fe, raifed unto Jfrael a iiaviour,'jtfus. Which exphcation ot this 
chief of then, ^^Jj.^^ j^Tjj^e ^^,as not more new or lirange unto the world ,than was the Name 
r^Tn^'PfS it fclf fo often ufed before. For the ancient Gredans ulually gave it at firll 
imJerihu title ^^ ^ jj^jg jq ti^eir * Gods, whom after any remarkable prefervations they fti- 
S'lmphi- led 6-^wavri, and under that notion built Temples and confecrated Altars to 
trvo I'mng by them. Nor did they reft with their miftaken piety, but made it ftoop unto 
mlJi^ ifif t'leir bafcr flattery, calling thofe men their \\Saviours ior whom they (eem- 
t"Til^^l cd to have as great refpeft and honour as for their gods. 
x«9l^« 7okA Nq,. Joes it always fignific fomuchasthat it maynot be attributed to man : 
W^^nrfA- for even in the Scriptures the Judges of Ifrael were called no lefs than their 
riftopharcs in- Sav/oitrs. ' JVkn the children of I/raei cried unto the Lord, the Lord raifed up a 
chus/Lvi^S ^'^Itverer'to the children of Ifratl, n^ho delivered them, even Othntel the fon of 
ivj.) tJv Aif' }{enaz. And again, When they cried unto the Lord, the Lord raifed them up 
t2. s«T?;?* • ^ '^^li^frer, Ehud the fon of Gera. Where though in our Tranflation we 
flli'Ztdf cd.\\ Othntel 2ii\6 Ehud Deliverers, yet in the Original they are plainly termed 

Among the ^^ -^ S.tVlOUrs. 

^wcaTmhht be,ke Imvm hit Temple in theirPir£eiim,ai Strabo tejlifiethj.9.(ri'here Demofthenes by virtue of a Vectee was to build 

in Hcfychius, as .tfe.irs owe/ Athcnaus, /. 2. m.i 1 5. Andefped.iU} o/Alexis the Comedian : A>A iyxi<>» Au-nJ Aiit )* 
■rid Ji SarSf 9- • Stir 0ymot( J. riiay yinn,j.'J>Ti!'\®- TOAu 'O Z<l;^ SwT.jf . Paulanus in Corinthiacis.MelTenicis.U- 
conicis & Arcadicis, menrims fexaul Statues and Temples ancicntl) dedicated to Jupiter, ^KKnay^'Zaytt- Of which title Cor- 
nuciis ;h /;«BootDcnaturaDeorum£/iwf/;;j<Jtco.(nf. ^u.Ta. r -^vStlAib >^ ro aai^nv* '^vS., )^ fi i^iit i^tiuhv 2»- 
Tnp 'v- tD hiy>i^%- And thouih this title was [1 generally given to Jupiter, as that Hefychius expounds SoiTWf , Z(£(, yet was 
it likervife attributed to the other gods : <w Herodotus re/dfw /«n>f/;'e Grecians ;n their Naval War againjl the Pcrfians made their 
•vjivs PofnJiiyi SaTMe/, and that they preferxed tlje title tol^eytancin his da)s, I. "J. Aiid AnemidozMS tal^s notice that Cadoi 
nnd Pollux are tal^nfor the Sui SaiiiipSf, tcirm the Poembearingthe name o/Orpheus to Mufeus calls (usjaMif anT^fa^, oui 
A/J< «?9/T* Te/.fo-. • as the Hymn o/Homcr, Stali^^^c rke ■rcuJ'af l^hyi^oAav iv9(^r»)v, 'ClKWo^av t« viut — <jni The- 
ocritus in the Idyllion on tl.-em, 'At^fd-riv inJjn^^f S-n ^vfZ m/h iir]ay. hence Lucian in Alexandro ufeth it at their conflant 
title, df.i'^iy.ix.i 'Hfa/.AH<, «; Zdl" ^^ltt^cui,-'C, A/i(r*i<£,-/ C"tS?-:<. Neither have we mentionofthe title otily^but of the original 

• Infcriptions,' MK\»-riZ Qiro'S.uTnei' andagain, hsKM-Jiu*) -. . 

Deities, ft did they attribute this tiiL- t) their Oiddeffes, Md that both in the MafcuUne and the Feminine Gender. As to Venus, 
• Afefcft'Tiji &'a. ri «F*>i9« Kf S.-.-rru ' to Diana, 'AfT f>/ J) Sc^Tiiex, as the fame coUeJlion of Infcriptions hath it. Thus Pr.ere- 
rratcs, 'Wyvu-hi f tsas- < \i) toZtoi SaT^faj ' ^iniSuphocles, Ty'x? >t "^^ 2»t»c^. TZjw rAe Epigram extant in Suidas, 

*«»?'-f 3", to 2 -JTHf', t^ n*Ma/ > 1^9/ Khn^uv'A^Tini. OuJiv \\iJov y.iy.»vtv C'^r'^est^'i) d.hi^Uu.Koy trej- 

(Tnjef ito;-. T|-.ccdortc.Jtvw.8.s9'i''/Hercules. Ti:e Cai'cnfes, an ancient people in Pcloponncfus, 'AfTiixiv ci'sMat'C"" 2*'T«f«i'. 
Pauf. in Ijconicis. f/er Temple and Statue in the City TicLieti was built and named by Jhckus at his fife returnfiom Crete. The 
Megarcnfts preferred by her from tl\' Pcrfians, 69? to A SoiT^fjn a jaAjua sTo<ii<?ay7o ' AfTt/ixi/i^^. and upon the fame occafion 
another of the fame bign.fs fit np at rj£.i'. I J. But this title efpeciall) was given /o Minerva. S«tM(?<z ii 'AflJoiie ot^ tc7« ''E\- 
Aiini-, Hir)ch. '£57 )^*A0!'/»»j2v7«f^X53;>MVit:f «}■*''«»'• Ranas. Ariftotic /n '7/ H';.7o6//£fi Nicanor 
to a dedication ^tl Qarvei n) Afilu/a Q'^Tti^/i. Lien, in Vit. Arift. And in general they invocated God under the notion of^a- 
7rio, as Plato m Timao, &iiv 3 ^ fuij i-r' a? X'' "^ A«j*«^«r C'^THg^t c^ aToTK >^ otiiflaf <hnynnetf itiU ri ^ H^oTarr 
cfs>ju« /)aKi,i;«VH/iic?<<?37x«A€ra.'4t.oi,TitA/i'ctfX^AA5i'Ai>f<i'- {[This tras theconflant titleofthefirjj Ptolom)\thefonofLagus, 
given to him b) the Rliodians. 'OcSftala /£ JV^i^J' Tst 9xl7«nToAe|U.a7ai QtKnii, iiAAi) ^ <5'}>»AM»7f *>Aii "_«)><> 'I'/^o/ttiiTop* 
y.nhvn, )^ "t/Ai* 
/)/fn i/ //;<: Rhod: 

rTToAjMS'n tS Aa'^yi ,^ ., _ . y^ . , - . , . 

Tcrtullian «/■//; rte f/»iV infiead of the name. Port cum ((c. Alexandrum) regnavit illic in Alexandria Soter aiinis 5 5. Tdm Antigo- 
nus rviufirii ciii'ed by the Grec\iitheir Eu:f>*TiK,;» Bcnefaflor, f/.'fnS«Tilf,(>r Saviour : «' nlvov indin rrup auriy •? kcu^.V 
EtJsf jirtif , aM^t x5/!zs?<t».a^a<,2a»T»'f . Polyb./. 5. Tl:^s rve re.tdofUemeit'wRwhoreftortd ike Athenians to their liberty ; inngf- 
Tiican, 1^ $iavV.( iKiKiVof ^CeuvHt 'T £^KnnreA»v, "Zat",^ K, f-Ocfyirhu a.ya.-)tidJovTi<. Plut. in Vita. Andnot only fo, 
b'lt nunilred Dcmett'mi and hnxAgofWii amongtlmriyWSotcxci; andinjlead of their annual Arclm, rrhofe name they ufed in their 
dijlin"tion of jean, they created a Prieft ofthefe Dii Sotcrcs, as the fame Author leftifeth : n'ovn ^ 2iiTMcg!< oei'S-yf^ 3«»<» 
7^ T iTan/ftoi' iC -r/.Tetav if x"!* K-i]a.-j<W'mv]*(i i'fta SaTi'if «;' tx«fi*7oi"ii' *a9 «KisiF c»/auToc. Appian relates ofDc- 
mcrriiis that he receixedthis title from the lJahy\on\atM. TiixafX'* iTa.yi?tifj.%Joy iythdy, ,y TaAAa T«i'iif(u.- -f BaCi/A«^@- 
ji-yeMVoftif" <? ■'"i S&iTiV <t»;«aW-.'i« Pp/" B^fruAaiiai' dttijuAn- i>c bell. Syriac. Ludan's milial^e in his Salut.ttion tells m of 
'AvihyQ- 'S.:7l\^,and Apf'un giies ustherMingoftheGauhas thccaufe of that title : o< j^ 2<iirrf 5-TjxA>'9iir6tAaTa(i»i 
-f Ei/'fvT«< it ■5' 'A57:(i' «uf«A'.>T<« Lf lAaraf. ibid. And in process of time this title grexv fo cujbmary .tndj.imiliar, that the 
biciljjrs belhnrcdit upin Vcrrci their ?ppi ejj'or. Itaquc ilium non folu.n Parronum illi'is infuli, led ctiam Sotcra inlcriptum vidi 
.'<yracuCs,/-;>- Cicero, Vcrrin. 2. ' Jlud^. :■. 9. and ^. i i. ♦//<i.ZZ^/'''i;n -?N"I':;^ 'n"? yUJ'O rTini dSp"*! So the 
Septiiagint t/t'.tr/r, KaJ H^upe Ki^ei^ 'S.viti^ -tt.! la-f^^A. ;^ '((j'tt^ii' ou/tsoi, -r To^nnKi^h Kict^* Qui fiifcitavit eis 
Saivjtorcm, & libcravit cos, Othonicl. Again, >^ »>«(= Kvejt& aintli 'S.arr.fgi, t 'A&i/, ijJc Tdgji • C^ifufcitavit eis Sal- 
vfltorem vocabulo Aioch, filium Gcra, Vet. Tranjl. Vp-jn which place S. Auguftinc litres, Animadvcrtendum eft autera quod 
iiivarorem dic;t etiam homincm, per quern Dcus falvcs faciat. Husiji. I. 7. c. i3. 


And Ik Jesus, d^^o 73 

^-Jj Cicero,! 

Now what the full import and ultimate Jen fe of the Title of i'^o'/wr might 
be, {eemed not eafie to the Ancients : and the * befl: of the Latins thought 
tlie Greek word ^o pregnant and comprchcnfive, that the Latin tongue had ii^'fLKeTefirl 
no fingle word able to exprels it. cited , Lmng 

„ . . f-iidhi'faw\'cT- 

res infail'ed Soccra, goes in. Hoc quantum eft ? ita magnum, uc Latifto iino vcrbo expri :ni non pofTi:. But tlmjh in Cicero V 
time there was m Latin wndufed in that fenfe ■■, )ct mt long after it wasfamdinr. J^or as in the Ureel^infcri'ptions rve read 
open Dedic.mms A/« ^mri-t . Jo in the Latin we find often Jovi Scrvacori, or Confcrvatori, fmetimes Jovi Sjlvacori, or Salu- 
tari .• all rthich are nothing e!fe but the Latine exprc^vis of the Greek_infcriptions. And without queflion 2i>7-il j ini.J}r lave been 
rendredSoCphitor^ /fnd c-uen Sotpes,asit was ifcd in the days 0/ Eniius. Sofpes, falvus : Ennius camen fofpirem pio fcrvacore 
pofuic Vcft-.n. Keitlxr indeed could the Sicilians mean any more of Verrcs hy the word Sotcra, than Tully fpal^ of himfelf, when 
hefiylcd hiinflfServitoTcm reipub. AtkaJ} Tacitus did conceiie that Confervator is as r/iuch as Sotcr, when fpcaFwe of Mili- 
chus, who dcteHed the confpiracies to Nero, he faiths Milichus prami is ditatus Confcrvatoris fibi nomen, Grico ejus rci vocabu- 
lo, allumpiit. Annal. I. 1 5. He toolito himfelf the Name o/Conlcrvacor, in a Greel^word which fi^nifcs lb much : and without que' 
ftion that mijl be 2a)T»^ ■ However, the jirj} Chrijlians of the Latin Church were fometimes in doubt rvhat word ro ufe as the con- 
ftant interpretation cf S.vTiif, fo frequent andeffential toChriftianity. Tertullian ifeth Salutificator , or, as fome boohs read it 
Salvificator : Ergo jam non unus Deus, nee unus Salutificator, fi duo falutis artifices, & utrique alter altero indigens. DeCarne 
Cbrijii, c. 14. aiuljjiews it was Jo tranjlatedin the Fhilippians 3. 20.. Etquidcm de terra in coelum, ubi nollrum munici- 
patum liiiliupenfcs quoquc ab Apoflolo difcuiit -, unde & Salutificatorem noftrum exfpeftamus Jcfuni Chriflum. DeRefur. 
Carnis, c. 47. S. Hilary thought Salutaris a fujficient interpretation. Eft autem Salutaris ipfo illo nomine quo Jejipi nuncupa- 
tur. Jefm cnim fecundum Hebraicam linguam Salutaris ell. m Pf.d. 118. S. Augulliiie is indifferent between that and Salva- 
tor: Dcuslalvosfaciendi Dominuseft Jcfus, quod interpretatur Salvator , five Salutaris: and fo Laflant. At taj} they gene- 
rally ufed the ivori/Salvatcr. Fitjl, Tertullian, Chriftus in illo figniticabatur, taurus ob utramque difpofitionem ; aliis ferus 
ut judex, aliis raaiifuetus , ut Salvator. adv. i.'arcion. 1. 3. a. 18. Which word of his was rather follon-vd by his Imitator S*. 
Cyprian, ajier whom Arnobius ufed it, after him his Difciple Ladantius ; and from thence it continued the confiant language of the 
Cirarch, till the late Innovators thruU it out of the Latine Tranjlation, •' 

But vvhatlbever notion the Heathen had of their Gods or Men which tliey 
ftyled Saviours^ we know this name belongeth unto Chriji in a more fublime 
and peculiar manner. Neither is there fdhation in any other \ for there is none Alls 1. 12. 
other name tmdtr heaven given among men whereby rve muH bejaved. 

It remainetli tlierefore that we ihould explain how and for what reafbns 
Chrift truly is and properly is called, our Saviour. Firft then, I conceive one 
fufficient caule of that appellation to confift in this, that he hath opened and 
declared unto us the only true way for the obtaining eternal Salvation, and 
by fucli patefaftion can delerve no lefs than the name oi Saviour. For if thole 
Apoillesand preachersoftheGofpel, who received the way of Salvation from 
him, which they delivered unto others, may be faid to lave thole peribns 
which were converted by their preaching ; in a far more eminent and excel- 
lent manner muft he be laid to fave them, who lirft revealed all thole truths 
unto them. <S\ Paul f revoked to emulation them which were his Jlejlj , that he Rom.u.i^. 
might fave fome of them ; and was made all things to all men, that he might by i (-or. 9. 22. 
all means fave fome. lie exhorted 1 imothy to take heed unto himfelf, and unto i Tun- 4- 1^. 
the doctrine^ and continue in them ; for in doing thisy he jhould both fave himfelf 
and them that heard him. And S. James fpeaks in more general terms ; Brethren^ Jam. 5.19,20. 
if any of you do err from the truth, and one convert him ; Let him know, that he 
which convert eth a (inner from the err our of his way, fhall fave afoul from death. 
Now if thele are i'o exprcfly faid to fave the Souls of them which arc con- 
verted by the do6lrine which they deliver, with. much more rcalbn muft 
Chrill be laid to fave them, whole Minifters they are, and in whofename tliey 
fpeak. For it was he which came and preached peace to them which were aftr Epi:- 2. 17. 
oj]\ and to them that were nigh. The Will of God concerning the Salvation of 
man was revealed by him. No man hath fen God at any time: the only-btgot- J-'''" >• iS- 
/c^a Son, which is in the bofomof the Father, he hath declared him. Being then 
the G of pel of Chrift is the power of God unto falvation to every one that believtth, /j,„/;. ,. i5, 
being they which preach it at the command of ChriH are laid to fave the 
Souls of fuch as believe their word , being it was Chrijl alone who brought » inn- 1. 10. 
life and immortality to light through the gofpel; therefore he muft in a moft 
eminent and fingular manner be acknowledged thereby to Live, and conle- 
quently muft not be denied, even in this firft rel'peO-, the title o^ Saviour. 

L Secondly, 

74 A II T 1 C L E 11. 

S'.cor.dly, t!)is [jtfus liath not only revealed, but alfo jrrcciircd, tlic way oF 
Salvation ; not only delivered it to us: bur alfo wrought it out for us: and 
John - 17. lo (Jod/t'fit his Sofj into the wor/d, that the world through him -might be faved. 
We were all concluded under fin, and, being tlic wages of fin is death, \\ e 
were obliged to eternal puniflimcnt, from wliicli it was impOifiblc to be 
freed, except the fin were lirll remitted. Now this is the conflanr rule, that 
M-ft.;, mthotit (Jjedding of blood is xo rvmiffion. Jt was therefore neajj^iry that Chriji 
-^- fjo;i!d apptar to put away Jin by the facrifice of hirnftlf. And fb he did, for he 

n:att. 26. 28. jbed his blood for inafiy, for the remtjfion of (ins, as himfell profcireth in tlic Sa- 
1 ret. 2. 24. cramcntal inilitution : he b.tre our fms in his on^n body on the tree, as S. Peter 
Col. 1. 14. Ijxaks ; and fb in him we have redemption through his bloody even the forgivenefs 
Rom. 5. 8, 9. of Jim. And if while we were yet [inner s, Chrifl di.d for us :• much tuore then^ 
being now jtijUfied by his blood., we Jb.ill b? ftved from wrath by him. Again, we 
were all enemies unto God, and having oHcndcd him, there was no poflible 
way of Salvation, but by being reconciled to him. If then we ask the quc- 
I Sam. 19.4. once the Philijtmes did concerning David, Wherewith (honldwe recon- 
cile our f elves unto our Master ? we have no other name to anfuer it but 
zCor. <,. 19. fefus. For God was in Chrifl reconciling the world unto bimf'f\ not imputing 
their trefpajfes unto thern. And as under the Law the blood of the fin-ojfering 
was broH2})t into the t.ibernacle of the congregation to reconcile withal in the holy 
C4. I. 2021, place ; fo it pleafcd tlic Father through the Son, having made peace by the 
**' blood of his crofs^ by him to reconcile all things unto himfelf. And thus it comes 

to pais, that/// who were enemies in our mind by wicked works., yet now hath he 
reconciled in the body of his flejh through death. And upon this reconciliation of 
Rm. 5. 10. our perlbns mull: necelTarily follow the Salvation of our Souls. For if when 
we were enemies , ire were reconciled unto God by the death of his Hon ; much 
more., being reconciltd, vie flj all be faved by his life. Furthermore, we were all 
at firftenllavcd by fin, and brought intocaptivityhy Satan, ncitherwasthere 
any pollibilityof cfcapebut by way of Redemption. Now it was the Law 
Lev 25. 4p. oi Mcfes, that \^ any were able he might redeem himfelf: but this to us was im- 
poffible, hecaufe abfolute obedience in all our aftior.s is due unto God, and 
therefore no act of ours can makeany nitisfa£lion for the Icafl: offence. Ano- 
tlicr law gave yet more liberty, that he which was fold might be rcltemed 
Lev. 25. 48. again ; one of his brethren might redeem him. But this in rcijxcf of all the mere 
Ions of men Vv as equally impolTible, becaufe they were all under the fame ca- 
ptivity. Nor could they latisfie for others, who were wholly unable to re- 
deem thcmfclvcs. Wherefore there was no other brother, but that Son ot man 
which is the Son of God, who was like unto us in all things, fin only except- 
ed, which could work this redemption for us. And what he only could, that 
Man. 10. a3. he freely did perform. For the Son of man came to give his lift a ranfom for 
1 Tm 2. 6. many : and as he came to give, fb he gave himfelf aranfom for all. So that 
^\ cnt' "' -x ''^ '^'^ "'^ '■'•^'^^ redemption through his blood., the forgivenefs of fins. For we are 
1 /.;. 1. i^, b-'ught with a price .-for w'z axQ redeemed, not with corruptible things, as filver and 
'?• gold ; but With the precious blood ofChrifl., as a lamb without blemijh and without 

fpot. He then which hath obtained for us remifTion of fins, he who through 
himfelf hath reconciled us to God, he who hath given himfelf as a ranfbm to 
redeem us, he who hath thus wrought out the way of Salvation lor us, muft 
necclTariJy have a fccond and a far higher right unto the name of'jefus, unto 
the title of our Saviour. 

Thirdly, befide the promulging and procuring, there is yet a farther a£1:, 

which is, confcrrirlgof Salvation on us. All which we mentioned before was 

wrought by virtue of his death, and his appearance in the Holy of holies; 

ffcb. 7. 25. but wc mull fiill believe, he is able alfotofave them to the iittermojl that come 


And In Jesus, d>c. 7 5 

tmto God by him, feeing he ever liveth to make inter ctffion for them. "For now 
being fee down at the right hand ot'God, he hath received all power both in 
Heaven and Earth; and the end of this power winch he hath received is, to 
confer Solvation upon thofe which believe in him. For the Father gave tlic 
Son this power over alljltflj, that he jhoM give eternd life to lu mxny as he hath jJm 17. 2. 
given him ; that he fhould raife cur bodies cut of the duft,and caufeour cor- 
rupdt^ic to put on incorruption, and our mortal to put on immortality :and 
upon this power wc are to expeft Salvation from him. For we mull look for rbi.'.^ 20,21. 
the Saviour, the Lord'JtftisChrifi, from heaven, who jh all change oitr vile body, ^ 
that it may be fajhioned like unto hit glorious body , according to the working 
whereby he is able even to fiibdue all things unto himfelf And unto them that Mcb. 9. 28. 
thui look for him fljall he appear the fecond time, without fin, unto falvation. Be- 
ing then wc are all to endeavour that ouvfpirits may be faved in the day of the i cor. j. 5. 
J^crd "jefns ; being S. Peter hath taught us, that God hath exalted fhrifl with ^^'"^ ?*• 
his right hand to he a Prince and a Saviour ; being the conferring of tliat up- 
on us which he promiled to us, and obtained for us,js the reward of what he 
fufFered; therefore we muft acknowledge that the aftual giving of Salvation 
to us is the ultimate andconclufive ground of the title Saviour. 

Thus by the virtue of his precious blood Cbrift hath obtained rcmilT'on of 
our fins, by the power of his grace hath taken away the dominion of fin, in ' "^f- 1-21. 
the life to come will free us from all poflibility of finning, and utterly abotifli \i^ii]^ ^l' 
death the wages of fin : wherefore well faid the Angel of the Lord ^ ^Htb. j'p, * 
call his name ^eftis, for he jballfave his people from their fins ; well did Zjtchanas ^J^" -• "^• 
call him '' an horn of falvation ; Simeon, " the falvatioH of God; S. Paid, ^ the iNchm.g.'ii. 
captain and author of eternal falvation; S. Peter, ' a Prince and a Saviour, cor- ^ £<c/'«. 40. i. 
refpondcnt to thofe Judges oilfrael, raifed up by God himfelf to deliver his \^M^-l'}f%^. 
people from the hands of their enemies, and for that reafon called Saviours. 5;,c,<»<T;jf,Au- 
^ In the time of their trouble, fay the Levites, when they cried unto thee, thou ■^f'l''^- ""Z'^- 
heardcjl them from heaven, and according to thy manifold mercies thou gavefl them ^^-j llh^l- 
Saviours, v.ho faved them out of -thehand of their enemies. e<3-.»i Ai/ifci- 

Tiiecorrcfpondency of Jefus unto thofe temporal ^'^wwrj will beft appear, |[Q*,',ntu>n iH- 
if we confider it particularly in Jofuah,. who bare that Salvation in his name, net a.i pi ophe- 
and approved it in his aftions. For, as the fbn ofSirach faith, ^ Jefus the ticim appara- 
fon of Nave was valiant in the wars, and was the fuccejjonr of Mofes in prophecies, ntc'di'ri alt 
ivho, according to his name, was made great for the faving of the elect of God. n'l'd po'fic in- 
Although therefore Aio/ej was truelyand really "^ a ruler and deliverer, \v\\ic\\ ^^^^^J^^^'^^^ 
is the * fame with Saviour; although the reft of the Judges were alfb by pcrduaa eft 
their office Rulers and Deliverers, and therefore ftyled Saviours, 2iS exprefly "';!■• '!|?""'"* 
Othniel and Ehud are ; yet Jofuah, far more particularly and exaftly than the s. Aig^o'^nfa 
rcfi-, is rep'rcfcnted as a Ty pe of our ^e/z/j, and that typical fingularitymanife- ^''f^- ^6.19. 
Ikd in his || name. For firff , He it was alone, of all which palTed out oi Algypt, i^^^^'q^J,^.* 
who wasdefign'd to lead the children! of T/r^e/ into 0^<t.^/:?, the land of pro- jo;«i« «t tU" 
mife, flowingwith milk and honey. Which land as it was a type of the Hea- «;'«»• tWi-.v 
vcn of Heavens, the inheritance of the Saints, and eternal joys flo^ving from ff,v'xi^l'< i- 
the right Iiand of God ;' fo is the Perlbn which brought tlie Ifraclitcs into that x^^®-'c» km'j- 
place of reft ^' a Type of him who only can bring us into the prefcnce of ^'"'..f^'^f*^^. 
God, and there prepare our manfions for us, and affign them to us, asjofuah nKB^n ,j.It 
divided the land for an inheritance to the Tribes. Beiidcs, it is farther obfer- f^'\- "!■'>_ 
vable, not only what \fofuah did, but what Mofes could not do. The hand J'^':^ c^.- Jo- 
{^'i Mofes and Jkron brought them out of Jfgypt, but left them in the Wilder- fcf f< M?t- 
nels, and could not feat them mCanaan. lofuah, the fucceflbur, onlv could ■^''"f'-tl' "^v 
eHe£V tliat in which Mofes failed. Now nothing is more fixqucnt in the phrale nya^i-ji >i« 
ofthcHoly Ghoif; than 10 lAcMofes for the doctrine delivered, or tlic books 6'-«f<-- .H'"- 

L a written 

^6 ARTICLE 11. 

*AsiM';e i<. written by him, that is,the*Law; from wlience it followeth, that the death 
rt'rf l± 27. of Mc/is and the fuccetTjoii oijofiuh prcflgniHed the ccntlnuancc oft'.ie Law 
Jo/;..;. 45, 45. till Jefits came, * i>y whom allthit bttitve art jnjlifted from .ill things, from which 
^'ti ^i ' '••!) ^' ^^"'^ "^^ ^^ rifhfnd by the Law of Mofes. ^ The Law ana, tht Prophets irere 
;L ij.i^V'-- ""^'^ John: fin'ccthat the kingdom cf God is preached. Mofes mull die, that 
A^ls 15.21. Jof/J, niay Tuccccd. "^ By the deeds of the Law there (ball no flejlj be jujiified, 
7cor\ \\. (for by the Law is the knowledge of fin ; ) but the righteottjnefs of God ivithont the 
M.vWa iev'kev Law is tftinifefied, even the rightsoufnefs of God, which is by faith ofjefiis Chriji 
^J''"i''.' }"' ttnto. ill and upon all them that believe. Mofes indeed lecms to have taken Jo///^ 
T's-'.^c^iT^- with him up into the ! Mount: but if he did, fure it was to enter the cloud 
T?^ •^Jot.-j which covered the Mount where the glory of the Lord abode : for * without 
Ill'dL^fu^ti, J^f"^-> '" '^'^-'^'^ "'"'^ '-"^ all the treaf tires of wifdcm and knowledge, tl'.ere is no 
Tt7«Air.i.ta- looking into the lecrcts of Heaven, no approaching to the prefence of God. 
"^^.l^^^f^f The command of Cireumcifion was not given unto Mofts, but to Jofuah:nor 
■ rrl'fyZACiJ' were the Ifradites circumcifed in the Wildernefs, under thecondud oi Mofes 
t^jrAya-i-.y^xZ- and J.iron, but in the land oi Canaan, under their SuccefTour. For ^ at that 
''J.uh%Ip^o //we the Lord faidunto \Jofnah, Make thee /harp l{nivts, and cireumcife again 
yiiVJi^^ih- the children of Jfrael the fepond time. Which fpeaketh T "Jefiis to be tlie true 
%'^tl- ^'-'^ circumcifer, the author of another cireumcifion than that of theflefh com- 
nCS^l'^rorlJi manded by the Law, even ^ the cireumcifion of tlte heart in th^ fpirit, and not 
$a7,f.ii:ti- ^ ia tl^e Letter ; that which ^ is made without hands, in putting off' the body of the 
aW.**)fl ri. f'"^ oftlicflejh, which is therefore called the circumcif.on of Chriji. 

Prixm. Cum 

fjccdlor >'iO\(l cleflinaretur Aufes filius Nave, transfcrtnr ccrte de prifiino nomine, & inciptt vocari Jeftit. Cera-, i.squii, 
Kin: prius dicimus frguram tuturi fiiillc. Nam quia Jcfus Chriftus fecundum pnpulum , quod fumus res , nationes in fcculi 
dcferto commoranrcs antca, introdu..^urus elTcc in tcrram repromiirionis raclle & larte manantem , id eft, in vir* itcm.c 

poiTctrioncm, qua niliil dulcius, idque non per Mi)fcn, id eft, non per Lcgis dirciplina)n,fed per Jef^im, id eft, per nov.c 
l-cgis prariam, provcnirc habc'jac,circuaiciiis nobis petrina acie, id eft, Chrifti pnrcepcif. ^pctra enim CliriftusnGultj- modis 


In cuius ccniparatiopc (Moyfcs) imprcbatus eft, nt non ip(e introdurcrct populum in terram promifticnis ; re videlicet Lex 
pcrMoyfrn, con ad lalvandum, lid ad convinccndum peccatorem, data, in re^num coclonim introduccre putarctur, (cri 
j;rati3& Veritas pet Jcfu.TiCh.-illuni fatJa- S. Aug. contra fMiftum, I. 16. c ip. /t-;«i duxqui pop'.ili\meduxer3t ue /I'gvpto^ 
JfjiHCfM intcrprc:j:i:r Salvjtor, Mofc mortuo & ftpulro in Moab, lice eft, Ix:j;c mortua, in K^-angtlium cupic indurtrc ao- 
puliMTi fuuni. J. iVwin. f/i r/i/. 8rf. '>t3y 13. 59. "/j^^:? i5. i5. ' ir-n. 5. 10, ji 2J. |! Ex^i. 24. 13. * Movfcsin niibem 
inrravit, ur opcrta & occulta cognofceret, adlwrente ftbi fccio Jcfit, quia nemo (;ne vcro jcii potcft incerra fapientiie, & oc- 
culta comprclitrdcrc. Et ideo in ipecic Jefii Sjve veri Salvatons Cgnincabatur aftitura prajilntia , per quern rierent omncs 
dociSiles Dei, qui Legem aperirct, PWangclium rtvelaret. S.AmbnJ'.inPfilm.i^-j. '' Ji/ <;. 2. |l Non enim prophcta (Ic air, 
Et dixit Dominus ad mc ; fed ad Jefum : ur oftendcret quod non de fe loqueretur , fed dc Clirifto, ad quern turn Deus 
loquebatur. ChrulicDimtiguram gcrebat illc/f/w'- La'lan.l.^.c.i',. 'Rom. 2. 29. 'Cot. 2. 11. 

'rfr'"^' "'*' '^' Thus if wc look upon Jofuah as the " minifier of Mofes, he is even in tliat 
^Rm. 15. 3. 3 type of ChriJt, the ^ minifler of the cireumcifion for the truth cf God. If we 
' J-:hn 1. 17. look on him as the fucceffour of Mofes, in that he reprefenteth '^tfus, inaT 
* TwToi/ j i- lyjuch 35 c fij^ £^p „,4j gi-jcn by Mofes, but grace and truth came by Jefus Chrift. 
d- Xtf^^ 'in- If we look on him as now Judge and RuJerof Ifracl, there is fcarce an a£lion 
".'l'^.'^^^*^: which is not clearly prcdiQive of our Saviour. * He begins his office at the 
"%^*«7ix"', bunks of, where Christ is baptized, and enters upon the publicic 
if;«Toi75 T» exercife ot his prophetical office. He chuleth there; twelve men out of the 
^'''f Xf/" r P-opjc,to carry twelve flbnes over with them ; as our Jefus thence began to 
is'i5l«&«t »f- chute his jj twelve Apollles, thofe foundation-lioncs in the Church of God, 
Sfj" eu<r^- whole ** names are in the twelve foundations rf the wall of the holy City, the new 
^iL Co! cell. 10 fcrnfaUm. It hath been * oblcrvcd, that tlie faving Rahah the Harlot alive 
IS. Cvril ai- forctold what [jefus once fhould I'pcak to the "jervs, ' I'erily I fay unto you, that 

dell] I e Ji / y j 

•i'iJed the l.inJ b} trreUe \ £iii/'na.''j J)cup»/latTlua y.KtifjteaiAy Ki'iifn^t a n Neu/SySr, ic, StiAK'j. Wv) 'Atosb'Akc 
K■^fV'<^'f iihnitii.{A( -raarif liy c'ln.xiSpUu'iK'r'JXH <> \nis<. Jb'd. '' ivfv. ;i. 14. * B) the f^mc S.C\:\\ , Htrd/n-nv 
'9d».3 Ti'c rrsfft/w \jtir\v a Ti'T/iCSf • j ctAllflrtf ?II7/; , 'iSi oi 7lKeirxt ly al yrof ys/ fffiyvfiii ■J:jiai «,- rh' if*7// ri/r 
n 3:i. 'MJttk.2l.^:.l. 


And In Jesus, &'C, 77 

thePniflica/is a-id harlots go into the kingdom of God before yon. ^ He faidin the ' N- i^- "» 

ftght of Ij'racl^ Sun^fland. thou ftill iipoaGiheou : and the Sun flood fi ill in the '^' 

midft of heave7i, and hajled not to go do:vn about a whole day. Wliich great 

miracle was not only vvroug'jc by the power of him whole name he bare, ^cjctjcso! 

but did a!'b ^ fignifie that in the latter days^ toward the letting of the Sun, quu in Jeftic 

when the light of the world was tendinguntoanightofdarkneis, ^k-.S'tf;? ^^.^ typum tuturl 

righteouf/jL/s fboiild arife trith healing tnhiswings^ and, giving a check to the nomciuN^que 

approaching i^iglit, become ^ the true light , which light eth every man that com- eniminfuavir- 

ethwto the World. ... IcdVnSiftT' 

But to pais by more particulars, Jofnah finotethe L^malekites, and fubdued myfterio coc- 

iheCanaanites ; by the firft making way to enter the Land, by the fecond leftibusiunu- 

giving poffefTion of it. And Jefus our Prince and Saviour, tvhofe kingdom was bacloefignaba- 

not of this world, in a fpiritual manner goeth in and out before us againft our turenimDcifi- 

fpiritual enemies, fubduing fin and Satan, and fo opening and clearing our cuium"e(le v[n^ 

way to Heaven; deftroyingthelaft enemy, Death, fo giving us poffeflion of turum, qui 

eternal life. || Thus do wobelieve the man called Jefus to have fulfilled, in mundani lumi- 

thehigheft degree imaginable, all which was but typified in him who firft "is^,&"amvc"r-' 

bare the name, and in all the reft which fucceeded in his office, and fb to be gentis in tcne^ 

the Saviour of the world ; *^ rvhom God hath raifedup- an horn of falvation for ^f-f^^f^^^^^^^' 

m in the houfe of his [ervant David, That rre fhould be faved from our enemies, occafun?, lu- 

and the hands of all that hate us. cem rcdderec, 

inveherct cla- 
riratcm. S. /mbrof. Apoh;.David.pol}cr.c. /^. Ille imperavitSoli utftaret; & ftetit.fe iftiustypo illemagnuscr.ic. IlIeinH 
pcrabat, fedDominusefficiebac. S. Hkron.iii Pfal.'j6. ^ Johnx.g. ||T» ^ty« tia/;' M&otk -rr^f 'Im^s ttJ tS NrJt/» uVj, 
oJtWj oJt'/ 7-dTO ovo(ut;i 'i>-J\t iT(^ifi\\Tij S IpA fAovtv <t)t»Vti rrS.( \u.o<, art war/a o Vi/.riif f ice;.? .?Ai Trs il< 'Ihctb i)V 

Ncwil ■ JC) Sil^tif THTD OVO'i 
liuuQ-- OTI In. pl^ri' 
TltKlV 'Ilias'f »X ° 1 

The ncccfiity of the belief of this part of the Article is not only certain, but 
evident : bccaule thei^e is no end of Faith without a Saviour, and no other' 
name but this by which we can be faved, and no way to be faved by him but 
by believing in him. For this is his commandment, that we fhould belitve on j j.j,„ ,. j,^ 
the na',ne of his Son fcfits Chrift : and he that keepeth his commandment drvclltth 24. 
tn him, and he in him. From him then, and from him alone, muft we ex- 
pert Salvation, acknowledging and confcffing freely there is nothing in our 
lelves wliich can cfic£l or dcferve it from us, nothing in any other creature 
which can promerit or procure it to us. For there is but one God, and one i Tun. 2. 5. 
Mediator between God and men, the man Chrift Jefus. 'Tis only the beloved 
Son, in whom God is well pleafed :!l]e is cloathed with a, vefiure dipt in blood -^ 
he hath trod the wine-prefs alone. rVe like fheep have gone aflray, and the Lord jr., t-, e 
hath laid on him the inicjuity of us all. By him God hath reconciled all things ^ , 
to himftlf by him, I [ay, whether they be things in earth or things in heaven. 
By him alone is our Salvation wrought : for his fake then only can we ask 
it, from him alone expcft it. 

Secondly, this Belief is neceffary, that we may delight and rcjoyce in the 
rnmcof Jf/^'.fjas that in which all our happlncfs is involved. Athis nativity an 
y\ngcl from Heaven thus taught the Shepherds, the firft witneficsof the blef- 
fcd Incarnation ; Behold, 1 bring you good tidings of great joy, which /hall be to all Luks 2. 10,1 r. 
people. For unto you is born this day, in the City of Davtd, aSaviour, which is 
Chrifi the Lord. And what the Angel delivered at prcfent, that the Prophet 
Ifaiah, that old Rvangclifi , foretold at diflrancc. When the people which walked if.t. 9. 2, 6, 3, 
;;; d.irkncfs fliould fee a great ligfit; when unto us a child fjjould be born, unto 
Us a fon (hould be given ; then fJjould they joy before God, according to the joy 
pfharvip, and ns men rejoyce when they divide the fpoil. Wlien God fj all come if.t. 35. 4, is, 


78 ARTICLE 11. 

with recofKpajce, when he Jhafl come a»dfxve tts ; then the ranfcmed of th" 
Lord jbalt return, and come to Sion rvithjcngs, and evtr Lift i»g joy tf^on their 

Thirdly, the behcf in ^tj'fs ought to infiame our afFeclion, to kindle our 

love toward him, engagingus tfl hate all things inrefpcQ of him, thatis,ro 

far as they aieinoppolicion tohim,or pretend to equal ihareof alicdion with 

;»^.(f, 10. 37. him. Hi. thnt loveth father or mother more than me is not rvorthy of me, and he 

that lovcth (0,1 cr da://hter more than mt is not northy ofms^ faith our Saviour; 

fo forbidding all prelation of any natural atlcftion, bccaulc cur IpirJtual union 

is far beyond all fuch relations. Nor is a higher degree of love onlj' dcbarr'd 

Lu^ji^. 25. us, but any equal pretenfion is as much forbidden. ]f any man come to me, (kith 

the fame Chri/f, and hate not his father and mother, and wife and children, and 

brethren And fijhrs, yea and his own life alfo, he cannot be my difciple. Is it net 

this Jefits in whom the love of God is demonlUatcd to us, and thatin fo high 

Jol-n 3. \S. a degree as is not cxprefTiblc by the pen of man ? Godfo loved the world, that 

he oavehis only-bigotten Son. Is it not he who fl::ewed his own love to us far 

J^kn 15. 13. beyond all poflibility of parallel? for greater love hath no man than this, that 

Rot.. 5. 8. 4 man lay down his life for his friends : but nhik ne were yet f.nners, that is, 

enemies, Chrifl died for hs, and fo became our "Jcft::. Sliall thus the Father 

fliew his love in his Son ? fliall thus the Son Ihew his love in himfelf.'* and 

(hall we no way ftudy a requital ? oris there any proper return of love but 

cm. 2.-. love? The voice of the Church, in the language of vS'cj/c'wo/?, is, A^/crc .- nor 

'^fdi. 4." V\-as that only the exprcITion of a Spoufe, but of * Ignatius, a man, after the 

* "o i^o< Vf a»f Apoftles, moll remarkable. And whofoever confidereth the infinite benefits 

isuyf*!^- to the ions of men flowing from the a£lions and futierings of their Saviour, 

iCor. i<. 22. cannot choofe but conclude with S. Paul, If any man love not the Lord 'Jefm 

Chrtfl, Itt him be Anathema M.iran-atha. 

Laftly, the confeflion of faith in Jcfa is necelTary to breed in us a corre- 
fpondent efl;ecni of him, and an abfblute obedience to him. That we maybe 
pkU. 3. 8. railed to the truetemper ofS. Paul, who co.-inted all things but lofs for the excel- 
lency of the knowledge of Onifl "jefis our Lord, for whom he fufflred the lofs of 
all things, and counted them hat dung,that he might nun Chrift. Nor can \\c pre- 
tend toany true love o'iftfu;, except we be Icnfible of the readinefs of our 14. 15. obedience to him: as knowing what language heuledto his Dn'cipLs,//^eWe 
I ^:hn $. 3. tne, lecp my commandments; and what the Apoftle of his bofom Ipake, This is 
the love of God, that ne kiep his commandments. His own Dilciples once mar- 
MM.i.z:. veiled, and (aid, What manner of man is this, that even the winds and the jea 
obey him ? How mucii more lliould we wonder at all difobedicnt Chrillians, 
faying, What manncrof men are thele, who refufeobedicnceunto him whom 
Afrk,^. ;3. the fenOefs creatures.the winds and the fca, obeyed ? Was the n.ime ofjefus at 
iikfB'-i?- fivi\ fuSicicnt to cafl: out devils ? andfhall man be more refra£lory than they ? 
A7/IC. 13. ShM the Exorcijl fay to the evil fpirit, I adjure thee b^' the name ofjefis, and 
t!i£ devil give place? fliall an Apolilc fpeak unto us in the lame name, and 
we refufc ? Shall they obey that name, whicli fignifieth nothing unto them ; 
Phil. 2. 8. for he took not en him the nature of Angels, and fo is not their Saviour ? and can 
\vc deny obedience unto him, who took on him the feedof Abraham, and became 
obedient to d^Atheven the death of the Crofs, for us, tliat we might be railed 
to full power *id ablblute dominion over us, and by that power be ena- 
bled at laft to favc us, and in tlic mean tin-ve to rule and govern us, and exa£l 
Phi:. 2. 9 J . the highefl veneration from Us ? ¥or God l^^th highly ex t/tcd him, and given 
him a Name which is above every na»ic, that at the name ofjefis every kneefljould 
bo-v, of things in heaven, and things in earth, aftd things under the earth. 

Having thus declared the Original of the name 'Jeffs, the means and ways 


A N D 1 N J E S ir S C H p.. I S T. yn 

by which he which bare it cy.prefTed fully the utmoft fignificationofit; we 
may now clearly deliver, and every particular Chriftian eafily underlland 
what it is lie lays, when he makes his Gonfeflion in thefe words, I k/kve i/i 
Je/us : which may be not unfitly in this manner defcribed. I believe not only 
that tl^.ere is a Gcd who made tlie World ; but I acknowledge and nrofefs 
that I am Tuliy perfwaded of this, as of a certain and infallible truth, that 
there was and is a man, whofe name by the miniftry of an Angel was call- 
ed Jef/fs, of whom, particularly Jo/itah, the firftofthat name, and all the reft: 
of the Judges and Saviours oi', were but types. I believe that Jefas^ 
inthehigheft and utmcll: importance of tliat name, to be the Saviour of the 
world ; inafmuch as he hath revealed to the fbns of men the only way for the 
Jalvation of t'u:r Souls, and wrought the fame way outfor them by the vir- 
tue of his Liood, obtaining remillion for finners, making reconciliation for 
enemies, paying the price of redemption for captives ; and fhall at laft himfelf 
aftually confer the fame ialvation, which he hath promulged and procured, 
upon all thofe which unfcignedly and ftedfaftly believe in him. I acknow- 
ledge there is no other way to Heaven befide that which he hath fiiewn us, 
there is no other means which can procure it for us but his blood, tliere is no 
other perlbn which fhall confer it on us but himlelf. And with this full ac- 
knowledgment, / believe in "jejtts. 

:?Jnt) m 3fcru0 Cij?il!» 

HAving thus explained the proper Name of our Saviour, J'e/.'/j, we come 
unto that Title of his Office ufually joyned with his name, which is 
thorelorc the more diligently to beexamined, becaufe the * 'Jews who always vj^jv, 
acknowledged him to be Jeftis, ever denied him to be Chrift^ and agreed toge- Ko^oMy/yllu 
t/jtr,' » if any man did confefs that he was Chrifiy he jhould hi pit out of the 7^^ ^~f^l°' •> 
Synagcgue. . Xet^/'tj) tS- 

For the full explication of this Title,it willbe necclTary, firfl:,to deliver the '^°^Y''cJ' ^' 
fignilicarion of the word ; lecondly,to fliew upon what grounds the Jeiwal- ^ jobii ^1 22°' 
ways cxpeSed a Chrift or ISh-ffias ; thirdly, to prove tliat tlie Mefflas promi- 
fcd toths ;7^-irj is already come; fourthly, to demonftrate that omjef/is is 
that iUe/fas ; and fifthly, to declare in what that Unftion, by which Jef/us is 
Chri/l, doth confiil:, and what are the proper effefls thereof. \V hich five par- 
ticulars being clearly difculTed, I cannot fee what fhould be wanting for a 
perfe£l undcrlfanding that Jefus is Chrift. 

For tlie firft, we find in the Scriptures two feveral names, Meffias and 
Chrift, but both of the fame fignification; as appeareth by thefpeech of the 
woman of Sam.ui.t, I knoiv that Mtffias cometh, which is called Christ; and Jolm^i^. 
more plainly by what Andrew fpake unto his brother Simon^ We have found joimi. 41. 
the Meffiasy which is, being interpreted, the Chrift. Mefjias in the Hebrew 
tongue, Chrift m the \\Greek. '^Mtffias, the language of Andrew and the |sJ-);oi5, 
woman of Samaria, who fpake in Syriac/^ ; Chrift; the interpretation of S. ^l"""^?''. C*' 
John, who wrote his Goli3cl in theGm'^-, as the moft general languaj'e in T/e/il dv>f 
tliofe days : and the fignification of them both is, the Anointed. S. Paul and xc<stj •[»/«;- 
tlie rcfi: of the Apofiles, writing in that language, ufed the Greek name, which "p^" f^'J^'^?. 
the Latins did retain, calling IiIhi confiantly Chrifliis; and we in Englijb svmu. 
have retained the fame, as univcrlally naming him Chrift. u,/-"^'" ™<P 

Hebrew nWt^ aidW'JJfl unftus, /nfAeS^rwf Kn"'"i;Q.- in thcGreek_,b^cbangingp imo 03, by omUiini 7\-i&iiitU}.ilnotS\r 
forththpronindalm, andbytidMn^ ( at their orJiniiry termimttiw, NITIVO U iiirneJ intoUiosiv. TiMt this rm the Cretin 
Xe/<:B! tiidtke I tttiii Chnfivi, if euJeiit ■■, and yet the Utms living at a dijl ime, Jhangers to the cuftomsofthejetrs, md the 
d)lhi»e of the Chrij\i,mf, mijlool^ this name, and c,i!!edhimOKc(\uifromtheOreek\iti^:. So SuaoWius in the life o/Cl.iudius, 
c. 25. ]ufi*osimu^;IlbrcC/jre/?9 alTiduc- timuiltiuntcs Uoma cxpulfi. lVi:ichwai not only bis miftake, but generally the Rviuim at 
*irj}, mthey turned him Chrcftiis, fo they called in Clirc-aiani, Tertiil. adv. Gemcs. Scd & cum pcrpcram Chrcrttanus pronuncia- 

rajtl jap 

8o ARTICLE 11. 

tur a vobis (nam ncc nominii ccrtn cH ncncia penes vos) de fuavitate vcl benignicarccon-.pciici:m eft. L<i:lm.L 4. r. 17, Sal 
cxponencia luijus nominis ratio eft propter ignorantium crrorcni, (jin am inuniitata htcr.i Cl.rL.'dim luknt dkcre. Vpm 
which mift'tlx lurti" Marcvrj.//J//?w tbiChnfthins of his fmi. Et^ amy yt lit. rd TaTiij^j.vAv iiuyJ ov'!J.-x][^,-^y^ra n 

then theignifMce of the Jcwijl) alfairsrvhichcaufi'd the to mme^ our S.nmr One llui, andthc trtie^ tttk is cert.nwy Chri- 
ft IS. Xfi?6f A'l'''''''^ ;c5p<«^J"''''j Jtii'in. 'Xi r^.Xu'»'ovmv.rrqaTcvl-^aTii.-Tji( xcoiJ^oii oh fi/cu, f.r.s Euftl). Dcin. 

Qua Iti" dV.'^H/i/' 11 AV, vJi lifdmiJ.oy, 

y.ftia. x.u.TifKi}}^oy}»- 
Tromethcus j 

AdU'.S-'. Asiherefji 

drink rchich is received, n:t quod pocat, but quod potabile tfl ; /) x&i'^i' « "of '/wt nhicb rcccticih o)l, but that which is receiiecl 

"h Toi n/se«<A« — 

•>-e«5""> Lev. 21.10. itndiig.tin verf. \2,Tr^tVVtl \tyD Iji ri a-}«ty '-.k-uov to jfeijic e-r ajj-rxi- Oleum unflionis then U 
%Kyjoy yo-dv, whichin Exodus 29. 7. and y-^.i^-and 40. 9. the fame T.anflators^cm-efpondentio the Hcbren- fhr.ifc, caUiKrucy 
veiirM-1'9'''""''"'"''^/'''/"'^'"'' '''^*'»i' Xe^fnaf. TheplaceofSo^hocksisfo!Heil>ing doiibtfnl^"OBt:- ^toAo/^aufV-jf^Taf »»<- 
e« T<t»^i5"« C" VX£?!9"< iln'!re^(fi<r*t &tieJ< • /oc f/.u'(^/j f(V Scholiall f^_(r /(;«fAco)</;n.;i;>/i-»yi',^T.">;H;ir«] a.hth tz/ 
'Ti-jK'o ii>Ki' t3 >;£ic3-a']/ Tt^Afo QuyntKfijtMQ- >^ «p^i3c3-»i« t^i th9<i« 'la .^sg/f ' .)« both rat ch9»! iiityoie ;/, ,!i:J 
QyyKe^.'i^f "fii'^y y^''"' '" incline to the former fenfe,p. 554. and in the next p.t^e afli ^^eisoc « f Am* /> attribiiiedto the ointment. T» 
pa.qfj.a.i'.ov nr S.-7rU(fy,iKl'ivQ- t «« Q-nJiix aiiKloy it ixvyjilf Qa^Hyiuit "£<•< clV c.flix"?^^ ifut.a-fjfj.i rns. finm 
whence Dc\.m\(ifa)sprefei:th i^im iJ.un.u- But though it apfeaf from hence that iLe^rj} uenfthe tiwd >ci5i< i:mo>i,ii;e deeks 
was to fi^iiife the a'l orm.ittcr ufcdVi inunUion. not the fub'-etl or perfvi anointed; )ct in the vi,!£.ir accefiion of the Lzi':;. it s-.-f 
mojl con!}ai:tly received for the perfon anninted.ofthe fame validity with ^et&^f or Ki'j(_eiffu!'/^&, (iuidas yei?i;. Kiy^^Knuy^..':- 
If'tKiuv') IS ''Ifi Tfi'!' iihuiJiy'G" • i'or though Laftancius in the place jore-cited feem 10 in)d an improper icrjicn of ;/v 
hebrexv H^iyO undc in quibiifdam Grxcis fcripcuris, qua; male dcHcbraicis inccrprccaca; (lint, nK^fiJiAvO id eft, 
curatiis, llriptiim invenitur, -^-tb tS 2K^-^iS!{^.)et the Lxm. haxefo iranflnted it^'i^v.mb.'}.:^. oi hfiif 01 vKci/juivci. A'ndtk-oiijt 
Athcnaus /jiJf/j oi/i'nff/, X //tifwc ta.yS.ytki ^iaiJ'.i}ci,Tti J' clheiij(j.:i]a.' jet inthevuti^.iri'Je oj thewodithere is nodiffcreire, 
ashehimfelffpeaksaliitle after,To 'j ^eim^Tr.i Toiireo g.Ktiij.ij.:/!]i ijije!<7a.K!^*ipuKiy. /1'iil'lutari.h, Syn.pgl./. 5 c. 4. liii- 
flu 7Ttu» tV '■*■' C.tujj.vaTcwoiJ.ifvy yiwou^iv li fju^-.y iMXiiXiJivcui !i 'ihiucv ' c^.ya.'j'ttJ.Tha.vlojt yi ewrs li}& it 

Ta^** "yp^v cunlvyiyviyouihaju, « TW Jj^ii'AMf Qu/jLa.Te.'tydfXi -m ofS^w -^ dyah>\ nKHfJ-ixiVty Tctei^m. Hj], 
Eccicl'. /. 1 . c. 3. X&i SB J ''•''■" in the vulvar fen e if the Lxx. it a perfon amir.ted, and in thatfenfe is oitr Saviour called Chrift. 

Nor is this yet the full interpretation of the word, which is to be under- 
ftood not fimply according to the aftion only, but as it involveth the dcfign 
in the cuftom of anointing. For in the I-aw wiiatfocvcr was anointed was 
thereby fct apart, as ordained to lomc fpccial ufe or office: and therefore 
under the notion of unftion we mufl: underhand that promotion and ordina- 
Gen.1d.22. t'lon Jacoh poured ojil o» the top of a pi/Iar, and that anointing was tiie con- 
fecration of it. jl/o/ej anointed the Tabernacle and all the VefTels, and this 
anointing was their dedication. Hence the Prie/l is anointed C\gm'ni:th.,in 
the phrafc of Mofes, the High Prieft, becaufe he was inverted in that office 
at and by his unclion. When therefore Jifus is called the Mtffias or Chrifi:, 
and that fb long after the anointing oyl had ccafed, it fignifieth no lefs than 
a perlbn let apart by God, anointed with mollfacred oyl, advanced to the 
higheft office, of which all thole employments under the Law, in the ob- 
taining of which oyl wasuled, were but types and ll:ado\vs. And this may 
fuffice for the figni'kation of the word. 'J'liat 

AndInJesusChrist. 8i 

That there was among the Jews an expe£tation of fuch a Chrijt to come, 
is moft evident. The woman of SamarU could fpeak with confidence, I know j^hn 4. aj. 
that Melji.ts cometh. And the unbelieving Jem^ who will not acknowledge 
that he is already come, expe£t him ftill. Thus we find all men mtifing in their Ukf 3, ij. 
hearts of John, whether he were the Chrifi or not. When Jeftis taught in the 
Temple, thofe which doubted laid, li'^hen Chrifi cometh, no man knoweth Jo^^" 7- 27- 
mhence he is ; thole which believed faid , When Chrifi cometh, will he do more ^^''^ ?»• 
miracles than thefe which this man hath done ? Whetiier therefore they doubt- 
ed, or whether they believed in Jefus , they all expefted a Ojrift to come; 
and t!ic greater their opinion was of him, the more they believed he was that 
Meffias. Many of the people /aid , Of a truth thii is the Prophet : others [aid, Verfc40i4r, 
This is the fhrifL As foon as John began to baptize, the Jews fent Priefis and John 1. ip. 
Levites from Jerujalem, to ask him. Who art thou ? that is, whether he were 
the 0}r/fi, or no, as appeareth out of his anfwer, Jnd he confejjed and denied Verfe 2a. 
mt, but confejfed, I am not the Chrifi. For as they asked him after. What then ? Verfe 21. 
Art thou Eli its ? andhe faid,I am not : Jrt thou that Prophet ? and he anftvered, 
No : So without queftion their firfl: demand was, * Art thou the ChriB ? and '^ so Nonnus 
he anfwered, / am not. From whence it clearly appeareth that there was a *"/* "K#</, 
general expefbation among the Jewsoi zMeJJias to come; nor only fb, but hansel"} i, tl 
jt was always counted among them an || Article of their Faith,which all were ^'^ """Moodi 
obliged to believe whoprofeffed the Lzw o^Mofes, and wholbever denied j^lTrl^"' ^'. 
that, was thereby interpreted to deny tke Law and the Prophets. Wherefore '^^Jis h^it 
it will be worth our enquiry to look into the grounds upon which they built '^'f"' V* Q^ 
that expeftation. ^ _ '\^Xhv<\ 

It is moft certain that the Meffias was promifed by God, both before and l^/j^^or sepher 
under the Law. God faid unto Abraham, ^ In Ifaac /hall thy feed be called ; and c.iit!7jmot. 
we know that was a promife oiz. Meffias to come, becaufe S. Paul hath taught Tran. de Re^t 
us, '' Now to Abraham and his feed tvere the promifes made. He faith not, unto ^q^^' ' '• 
feeds, as of many, but as of one, and to thy feed, which is Chrifi. The Lord faid "Cd/." 3. i^.* 
unto Mofes, I will raife them up a Prophet from among their brethren like unto 
thee. And S. Peter hath fufficiently latisfied us, that this Prophet promifed to 
Mofes is Jeftts the Chrifi. Many are the Prophecies which concern him, many Ans 3. 22. 
the promifes which are made of him .- but yet fome of them very obfcure; 
others, though plainer, yet have relation only to the perfbn, not to the no- 
tion or the word Meffias, Wherefbever he is fpoken of as the Anointed, it 
may well be firft underftood of fbme other perfbn; except one place in Da- D""- 9-^^ 
mel, where Meffiah is foretold to be cut off: and yet even there the Greek 
Tianflation hath not the Meffias, but the Vnttion. It may therefore feem 
Ibmething fi:range,how ^fo univerfal an expeftation of a Redeemer under the 
name of the Meffias fliould be fpread through the Church of the J^ws. 

But if we confider that in the fpace of feventy years of the Babylonijh Capti- 
vity the ordinary Jews had loft the exa£l underftanding of the old Hebrew 
language before fpoken in Jud<ea, and therefore when the Scriptures were 
read unto them, they found it neceifary to interpret them to the people in the 
Chaldee language , which they had lately learned : As when Ezra the Scribe 
brought the book of the Law of Mojes before the Congregation, the Levites 
are faid to have cauted the people to underftand the Law, becaufe they read a'*w.8. 8^ 
in the book, in the Law of God, difiinHly, and gave the fenfe, and caufed them to 
tindtrfiand the reading. Whicli conftant interpretation begat at laft a Chaldee 
Tranflation of the Old Teftament to be read every Sabbath in the Syna- 
gogues : And that being not exaftly made word for word with the He- 
brew, but with a liberty of a brief expofition by the way, took in, together 
with the Text, the general opinion of the learned Jews. By which means it 

M Game 


came to pafs that not only the doftrine, but the Name alfb, of the Meffias 
was very frequent and familiar with them. Infbmuch that even in the Cbaldet 
Paraphrafe now extant there is exprefs mention of the Me(/ias'm above (e- 
» Ccifus fAf £- vcnty places, befide that of Daniel. The * Jews then informed by the plain 
hZ'iH'aT '^'^'ocdsof Dviitl, inflruiikd by a conlfant interpretation of the Law and the 
t"Mbotfthc Prophets read in their Synagogues every Sabbath-day, relying upon the in- 
Jctcsiindchi- fallible prediftions and promiies of God, did all unanimoufly expcft out of 
i'JI'LnkePro- their own Nation, of the Tribe oVJudah, of the Family oi' David, a Mfjf/iaf, 
phets did fore- or a ChriJ}, to come. 

tel a Saviour of »,.,--, 

the mrld, OUtoj ij.nSiv Qiixvir V!) I* Tn 'lnj^auav if, KagiaLvSy ^g/( ctMi^Mif ^wjiiffM* T/rfi/oK/air fj^ eiixftrigav 
cri -i^ .Jm« UvXixJ]®- T4f57Ml<ji'flM ri< e^J)iiJi»jr^y SiwriV Tti yivti ^ avi^tiTrav. Orig.adv, Celfum,!. 3. jind this 
Saviiur, fitih Origcn, was to be called, xji rai'lvl'alciv meLrex*, Xeisw- 

Now this being granted,as it cannot be denied, our next confideration Is of 

the Time in which this promife w^asto be fulfilled: which wefhall demon- 

ftrate out of the Scriptures to be paft, and confequently that the promifed 

Meffijs is already come. The prediction of Jacol on his death-bed is clear 

'C?n.49. 10. and pregnant, ^Thejcefter fljdl not depart from Judah, nor a Uve-giver from 

* f"' '"j'*^'"' between his feet, until Shiloh come \ and to him {hall the gathering ofthefeople be. 

'^-iro Na^ But the Scepter is departed from Judah, neither is there one Law-giver left 

onVdoirenders betwccn iiis fcct. Therefore 6'/;//o/;, that is, th^Meffias, is already come That 

"' 'n^n -iy ^\^q Jewijh government hath totally failed, is not without the greatelt iolly to 

and Tu'iirJh^ ^^^ denied : and therefore that Shiloh is already come, except we fliould deny 

^ndtb'i jerufa- the tiuth of Divinc prediclions, muft be granted. There remains then no- 

j!?,^"?"'!!.' thing to be proved, but that by Shtloh is to be undcrftood the Mtjfias'. which 

tljD"7Q i^ fufficiently manitefl both from the confent of the ancient jferr/, and from 

NOT^2;c the defcription immediately added to the name. For *all theoldParaphraft-s 

A f/f ' %^'^ ^^^^ '^^"^ exprefly the Meffias, and the words which follow, to himfball thega.- 

ner% fl inter- thtrtng of the peopk he, fpeak no lefs ; as giving an explication of his Pcribn, 

fretiu becaufe Office, ot Condition, who was but darkly described in the name of Shiloh. 

acoD^wg ^^^ For tliis is the fame charafter by which he was fignified unto Abraham ; In thy 

their computati- feed JJjall all the nations of the earth be blejjed : by which he is decyphered in 

'fammmtr V^'^^ J ' ^« ^^^' ^'U' ^f^^re (hall he a root of Jej[e, which fball ftand for an enfign 

vritk the Letter! cf the people ', to it jlj.tll the Gentiles feek, and his refl fhall be glorious : and in 

oj ^J^^^i ^"'^ Micah, <^ The mountain of the Honje of the Lordjfjill he eflablifljed on the top of 

ad, Sanhedrim, '^-'^ mountains, and it ^ all be exalted above the hills, and people fljall flow unto it. 

Rabbi johanan ^pd thus the blcfTuig ofjtidah is plainly intelligible : '^ Judah thou art he whom 

ZanieZam! of ^h hrethien jb.tll praife ; thy hand fhall be in the neck of thine enemies, thy fa- 

r*i;Meflias,f/;e>' the)-^ s children fl} all bow down before thee. Thou fhalt obtain the primogeniture 

"k^chiffaL^^ thy brother Reuben, and by virtue thereof fhalt rule over the rell of the 

fwcr, n7^iy Tribes: the government (hall be upon thy fhoulders, and al! thy brethren fball 

;0'^ his name be fubjcft unto thcc. i\nd that you may underfland this blelfing is not to ex- 

fWHr^lV/^rti P'""^' ""'^'' '^ make way for a greater, know that this government fhall not fail, 

■vehicbis xcrit- until there come a Ton out of your loins who fhall be far t'.reatcr tjian your 

t^n until Shi- [^if. JQp whereas your dominion rcacheth only over your brethren, and fo 

"/;:». 11.10. is confined unto the Tribes of //r4f/; his kingdom fhall be univerfal, and all 

•■ Mtc. 4. 1, nations of the earth fhall fcrve him. Beinfi then this Shiloh is fb defcribcd in 

^^' ' the text, and acknowledged by the ancient Jtw^ t© be the i^/f:,^4j , being 

God had promifed bv Jacob the government of Ifrael fhould not fail until 

' y I Shilohcame; being thatgovcrnment is vifibly and undeniably already failed.- 

* ' ' M-|^-{ it followeth inevitably, that the Mefji^s is already come. 

"C^u ^<T^ In the lame manner the Prophet Malachy hath given an exprefs fignificati- 

r'l'iyQn on of the coming of the Meffias while the Temple Hood. ' Behold, 1 will fend 

Kimchi on the ^^ mefftnger, and he Jhall prepare the way before me; and the Lord whom ye feek 


AndInJesusChkist. 83 

pjAll fuddenly come to his Temple, even the me^engtr of the Covenant whom ye de- 
light in. And HaggAt yec more clearly ; Thitsjaith the Lord of hojisj'et once it mg. ,.. 6,',,^. 
is a. little while, and I will jhal^e the heavens, and the earth, and thefea^ and the 
dry land ; And I will jhake all nations ; and the defire of all mt ion s fl} all come • 
and I will fill this houfe with glory, faith the Lordof hojis. The glory of this Utter 
houfefball be greater than the glory of the former, faith the Lord ofhofls. It is then 
mod evident trom tiicfe prediftions, that the Meffias was to come while the 
fecond Temple ftood. it is as certain that the fccond Temple is not now Han- 
ding. Therefore except we contradift the Veracity of God, it cannot be de- 
nied but the Mtffias is already come. Nothing can be objected to enervate 
this argument , but that thefe Prophecies concern not the Meffias ; and yet 
the ancient Jaw confciTed they did, and that they do focannot be denied. For, 
firft, thofe titles, the Angel of the Covenant, the delight of the Ifraelites, the de- 
fire of all nations, are certain and known charadci's of the Chrijl to come. And, 
lecoridly,it cannot be conceived how the glory of the fecond Temple Oiould 
be greater than the glory of the firft, without the coming of the Mtffias to it. 
For the \jews themlelves have obferved that five figns of the Divine glory 
were in the firft Temple,which were wanting to the lecond: as the Urimand 
Thummim, by which the HighPrieft was miraculoudy inftruQied of the will 
of God ; the Ark of the Covenant, from whence God gave his anlVvers by a 
clear and audible voice ; the Fire upon the Altar, which came down from 
Heaven, and immediately confumed the Sacrifice; the Divine prefence or ha? 
bitation with them, reprelentcd by a vifible appearance, or given, as it were, 
to the King and High Prieft by anointing with the oyl of un£lion ; and, laft- 
ly, tlie Spirit of Prophecy, with which thole efpecially who were called to the '- 

prophetical office were indued. And there no comparifon between the 
beauty and glory of the ftrufture or building of it, as appeared by the tears 
dropt from thofe eyes which had beheld the former, (^For many of the Pr lefts Ezra 3. 
and Levites, and chief of the Fathers, who were ancient men, that hadfeen the firli 
Houfe, when the foundation of this Houfe was laid before their eyes, wept with a 
loud voice; ) and by thofe words which God commanded Higgai to fpeak to 
the people for the introducing of this Prophecy, Who is left among you that Hag. 2, 3. 
faw this Houfe in her fir (I glory ? and how do ye fee it now ? is it not in your eyes in 
comparifon of it as nothing ? Being then the ftrufture of the fecond Temple 
was lb far inferior to the firft, being all thofe figns of the Divine glory were 
wanting in it with which the former was adorned ; the glory of it can no other 
way be imagined greater, than by the coming of him into it in whom all 
thole figns of the Divine glory were far more eminently contained ; and this 
Perfbn alone is the Meffias. For he was to be the glory of the people Ifrael, 
yea even of the God of J/r^e/; he was the Urim ancfThummin,by \vhom the 
will of Go J, as by a grcaterOracle, was rcavealcd; he the true Ark of the Co- 
venant, the only Propitiatory by his blood; he which was to baptize with 
the Holy Ghoft and with fire, the true Fire which Came down from Heaven, 
he wliich was to take up his habitation in our flcfli, and to dyvell among us, 
that we might behold his glory ; he who received the Spirit without meal iire, 
and from whole fulncfs we do all receive. In him were all thofe figi)s of the 
Divine glory united, which were thus divided in the firft Temple; in him they 
were all more eminently contained than in thofe .- therefore his coming to the 
fecond Temple was, as the f'ufficient, ib the only, means by which the glory 
of it could be greater than the glory of the firft. If then the Meffias was to 
come while the fecond Temple ft ood, as appeareth by God's prediction and 
promile; if that Temple many Ages fince hath ceafed to be, tliere being not 
one ftone left upon a ftone; if it certainly were before the deftrudion 01 it in 

M 2 greater 




greater glory than ever the former was^ if nO fuch glory' could ^pcrue uht6 
it bfrt by the coming of the Mtfjitts : then is that Me^fits already cbme. 

having thus demonftrated out of the Promifes given to the 'Jews^ that the 
Mej/Lv who was lo promifed unto them mufi be already come, becaiife thofe 
events which were foretold to follow his coming are already paf^;^,tvefhat'l 
proceed unto the next particular, and prove that the man Jefus, in v^'Kom we 
believe, is r.h^l JS'kffi as who was promilcd. Firft, it is aci^nowIedgE^^toth by 
the Jffpand Genttk, that this '^jefns ^'zs born in Jud^a, and livddiuddied 
there, before the Commonwealth o'l Ifratl \i^asdirpcrrcrf;:before'the*recdnd 
Temple was deftroyed, that is, at the very time when ^^\t Fropltetrs fofetdM 
the M([/ias fhould come. And there was no other befide'him, thar did with 
any fiiewof probability pretend to be, or was accepted a's^the M^.//. 'There- 
fore we muft confefs he was, and only he could be, xhiXhrifi. 

Secondly, all other Prophecies belonging to the MefftM were fulfilled in 

jfe/w, whether we look upon the Family ,the Place, or the manner of his Birth ; 

neither were they ever fulfilled in any perfon befide hini: he then is, and no 

other can be, the Meffias. That he was to come out of the Tribe of Judah 

* ^'■'■^ ^'j*!^ , and Family of David^ is every where manifeft. * The Jorr, which mention 

doTbkVitL^: Meffi.ts as a Son of "jofefh or of Ephraim^do not deny, but rather dignifie, the 

to one they at- ggfj Qf Dayid or of 'Jtidah, whom they confefs to be the greater Chrifl. There 

'iiaas1!k!f fb^li come forth a- rod ont of the fi em ofjejfe, and a brmth jlull grow out of 

mentmhiflm' hts TOots, and the fpirit of the Lord fbAll reft ttpon him, faith the Prophet ^/^i^. 

fetts'^'Vte ^^ ^§^'" ' i) ^" ^^^^ ^"'^Z ^^^^^^ ^"^^ ^^ '^ ^°^^ ^^ '^^^^ ' rvhichjJxiUftmdfor an 
otha^uchM" enfign of the people: to it JJjall the Gentiles feek , and his reft (ball he glorious, 
ffea\ of hk ^Tqvv who was it but 70« of whom the Elders fpake, Behold the Lion of the 
^r-nfom tribe of Jndah,the root of David ? who but he faid , ^ I am the root and off- 
thiyfiyle fpring of David, and the bright and morning ft or ? The Jews did all acknow- 

.. ^ r- „ . T^ ^ , Scribes that 

They fay 
feeing of 
The for, of Jo- thc blind, and fpe'aking of the dumb, ^ Is not this the f on cf David ? The blind 

a/r* '!h^ TTr ^""^^^ ^^"^ ^"^° '^''^' 'i^f'"'* ^^'°" ^°" of David, have mercy on us ; and the mul- 
ElhtaimTMi titude cried, ^ Hofanna to the [on of David. The Genealogy of "Jefus flicws 
the finof David his Family : thc firft words of the Gofpel are, ^ The book of the generation of 
fJ^alZ"' l^h ^^^'fi f^'^f^" ^f ^^'^'^' The Prophecy therefore was certainly fulfilled 
Targum Cant, in rcfjieft of liis linage ; '' for it is evident that our Lordfprang out ofjudah. 
^^- ^^ Belide, if \\c look upon the Place where the Mcffias was to be born, wc 

brcaftsa°eiikc fhall find that Jefiis by a particular a6l of Providence was born there. When 
two young ' Hercd gathered all the chief Priefis and Scribes of the people together, he deman- 
roes » i ^^^^ lied of them where Chrift fljonld be born. And they faid unto him, In Bethlehem 

"13 n^'v^Q ofjudxa. The people doubted whether Jefus was the Chrift, becaule they 
n'lyoi nn thought he had been born in G<i//7fe, where 'Jofeph and Mary lived; wherefore 

,?Tr?tir' ^^^y ^^^^' ^ shall Chrift come out. of Galilee!' Hath not the Scripture faid, that 
redeemers, Chrift comcth of the feed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where Da- 
Meffiai the (on vidwas ? That placcof Scripturc which they meant was cited by the Scribes 
%!ni'm thc7ot to Herod, according to the interpretation then current among the Jeirs, and 
of Ephraim. (till prcfervcd in the * Chaldee Paraphrafc. ' For thus it is written in the Prophet , 
Vtf,^\'^ff' -^f"^ thou Bethlehem in the land of judah art not the le aft among the princes of 

Clialdee Paraphrafc tim t,at,flatcs , imP"' \"Ti:a ^nO Hn'tUQI ^IWn \~IinQ ^70 l^S^I A king fliall come o£ 
thc Tons of Ji'Se, and the .♦/^-jj/.w out of liis funs fons. S) Rabbi Solomon ard Kimchi. ^R;v- 5. 5. and 22. \6. ' Mar. 12. 
3<;. ".Hiff. 22.42. ' ^jfM2. 23. ' .»r.:rf. 21.9. «,»Ai/r.i.i. ''//tA.7.14 ' Matt. 2.^,^. ' /o*n7.4i, 42. * Which eiprc^y 
tran{I.ih-ih ,t tim, ':ir\\D' 1]} JU^Itl; T1]f Mno*? HWJJC pi£;^ ''Oip "(JO Out of thee ftiall come before me the 
Megiiof, ■• henijv excrrJH- dominaii'jn in lfri{:l. 55 R. Solomon, "H ]^ n'ti/Q H^> '7 ICC. Ja Kimchi <i«i Abar- 
bjnel n'vtJQn TtQ «^t. ' AU't. 2. 5. 6. 


A N D 1 N j E S a ,S 'C H R I R T, 85 

Judah, for. out ofthee(bitll come a govermur that jhallrule my peofk IfmeL This 
prediftion was moft manifeftly and remarkably fulfilled in the Birth of jfe/«/, 
when by the providence of God it was {q ordered that Auguftue fhouid then 
tax the world, to which end every one fhouid go up into his own City, 
Whereupon Jofepkdind Mary his efpoufed Wife left Nazareth oi' Galilee, their 
habitation, and went into i^enWe/^ew? (^'^edaa^ the City of David, there to 
be taxed, becAufe th^yjvere of the hotife and linage of David. And while they z.«tc2. 4. 
were there, ^s the days of the Virgin Mary were accomplifhed, ih the prophe- 
cy was fulHUed ; for there fhebrought forth her firlf-born Son ; and Co u»to iMkp 2. it. 
Hs was born that day in the City of David a Saviour ^ which is Chrifi the Lord. 
'.■ But if we add unto the Family and Place, the manner of his Birth, alfb 
'foretold, the argument muft ncceffarily appear conclufive. The Prophet 
■Ifaiah fpake thus unto the houfe o{ David; The Lord himfelf fball give yott a jfa,.,, 14, 
Ifigft : Behold^ a Virgin jball conceive and bear a Son^ and. jhall call his name lm~ 
tnanuel. What nativit}- could be more congruous to the greattiefs of a Mef- 
fias than that of a Virgin, which is moft miraculous? what name can be 
thought fitter for him than tiiat oilmmmuel, God with us, whofe Land Jn- iiU. a, g. 
d^a is (aid to be? The Immanuel ihtn thus born of a Virgin was without 
queftion the true Mtjfias. And wc know Jefus was thus born of the blefled 
Virgin Mary, that it might be fulfilkd which was thiis/poken of the Lord by the Mm. u 21. 
Prophet. Wherefore being alf the proplrCcies concerning the Family, Place 
and manner of the Birth of theMsj^^j were fulfilled in Jefus, and not fo much 
as pretended to be accomplifhed inany other; it is again from hence apparent 
that this ^e/r^ is the CV^rz/?. » 

• Thirdly,he which taught what the Meffias was to teach^did v/hat tiie Mef- 
(laswas to do, fuftered whattheMe^^^ wastofuftar, and by fufFcring ob- 
tained all which a Me^as could obtain, muft be acknowledged of neceftity 
to be the true Meffias. But all tliis is^nanifeftly true of Jefus. Therefore 
we muft coflfefs he is the Chrifi. For fir ft, it cannot be denied but tlie Mef- 
fias was promifcd as a Prophet and Teacher of tlicpeople. So God promifed 
him to Mofes ; / mil raife them up a Prophet from among their bnthren like un- 
to thee. So Ifaiah^ Ezekiel and Hofeah have expreffed him, as we fhall here- 
after have farther occafion to Ihew. And not only fo, but as a greater Pro- 
phet, and more perfeft Dofl:or,than ever any was which preceded him,more 
univerfal than they all. / have put my fpirit upon him, laith God : he /ball if<i-4^. i, 4,' 
hring forth judgment to theGextiks, and the Ifles jhall wait for law. Now it is 
as evident that "jefus oi Nazareth vj2iS\.\\G moft perfefl: Propliet, the * Prince v-^j^y^o,'. 
and Lord of all the Prophets, Doftors and Paftors, which cither preceded mU iPef.54. 
or fucceeded him. For he hath revealed unto us the moft perfect will of God l.'^°^'^!^ff 
both in his precepts and his promifes. He hath delivered the fame after the ,u4>a{, 
moft perfeft manner, with the greateft authority; not like i'l/^j/f/ and the Pro- ■?^'*- '|?°:. 
phcts, faying, Thus faith the Lord, but ^ I fay untoyott ; nor like the Interpre- "J^I'^-k©^^ 
ters of Mofes, for '° he taught them as one having authority, and not as the ■^vx^'v^ 
Scribes : with the greateft pcrfpicuity, not, as thole before him, under types .' .^^'z/' *a'^„v 
and fhadows, but plainly and clearly ; from whence both he and hisDodrine \ i,m.-].i<). 
is frequently called Light: with the greateft univerfality, as pl-eaching that 
Gofpel which is to unite all the Nations of the earth into one Church, that 
there might be one Shepherd and one Flock, Whatlbever then that great 
Prophet the Meffias was to teach, that "jefus taught ; and whatfbever works 
he was to do, thofe Jefus did. 

When John the Baptift had heard the works of Chrifi, hefeiit two ofhiu'Di- Mat. u. 2, ?• 
fciples with this meflage to him, Art thou he that fbotild cnnte, or do we h(fk for 
another f And Jefus returned tliis anfwer unto him,, fhewihg the grmindof 



that mefTage, the works of O^^'fi, was a fufficient refolution of the queftion 
Mat. . I. 4, 5. fent •, Go and jbew Joh» again thofe things which ye do hear and fee : 1 he biind 
recdve then fight ^ and the lame walk, the lepers are cleanfed, the dtaf hear^ and the 
dead are ratfedup. And as Jefus allc^ged the works whicli he u rought to be a 
fufficient teftimony that he was the Mefflas ; fo did thofe Jews acknovv ledge it, 
jchn -. ?i. w ho fa id, IVhea Chnft cometh, will he do more miracles than thefe which this man 
John 3. ;. doth ? And Nicodemits, a Ruler among them, confeflcd little leis : B.ahb:, nx 
knoxp that thou art a teacher come from God; for no man can do theft mr lacks that 
thou dojl, except Godbe with him. Great and many were the miracles which 
Mofes and the relt of the Prophets wrought for the ratification of the Law, 
and the demonllration of God's conftantprefence with his people; and yet all 
thofe wrought by fo many fevcral perfons, in the ipace of above three thou- 
fand years, are far fliortof thofe which this one ^e/w^did perform within the 
compafs of three years. The ambitious diligence of the Jews hath reckoned 
up feventy fix miracles for Mofes, and feventy four for all the refl: of the Pro- 
phets : and fuppofing that they were fo many, (though indeed they were not) 
how few are they in refpe£t of thofe which are written of our Saviour! how 
inconfiderable, if compared with all which he wrought I when S.Jtj/wtefti- 
john 21. 25. ficth with as great certainty of truth as height of Hyperbole, that there are 
many other things which Jefus did, the which if they fbould be written every one, 
he fiiPpofed that even the world it felf could not contain the books that fbould be 
written. Nor did our Saviour excel all others in the number of his miracles on- 
ly, but in the power ofworking. Whatfoever miracle Mofes wrought, heei- 
ther obtained by bis prayers, or elfe, coiifulting with God, received it by com- 
mand from him ; fo that the power of miracles cannot be conceived as imma- 
nent or inhering in him. Whereas this power mufl: of neceffity be in Jefus, 
Col. 2. c,. in whom dwelt all the fulnefs of the GodJiead bodily, and to whom the Father had 
John 5. 26. given to have life in himfelf. This he fafficiently fhewed by working with a 
word, by commanding the winds to be ftill, the Devils to fly, and the dead to 
rife : by working without a word or any intervenient fign ; as when the wo- 
iKirtj.25,19. nian which hadant[[ue of blood twelve years touched his garment, and ftraight- 
way the fountain of her blood was dried up by the virtue which flowed out from 
the greater fountain of his power. And led this example fhould be fingle,we 
it/<>r. 14 94,35. find that the men of Genefaret, the people out of all Judda and Jerufalem, and 
Luke 6. n^i^.from the fea-coafl of Tyre and Sidon, even the whole multitude fought to touch 
him ; for there went virtue out of him, and healed them all. Once indeed ChriU 
feemed to have prayed, before he raifed Lazarus from the grave ; but even 
John 1 1, 42. that was done hecaufe of the people which flood by : not that he had not power 
within himlelf to raife up Lazarus, who was afterward to raiie himfelf; but 
that they might believe the Father had fent him. The immanency and inheren- 
cy of this power in "^efus is evident in this, that he was able to communicate 
£j<tf 13. 19. it to whom lie pleafed, and aftually did confer it upon his Difciples : Behold^ 
I give unto you pow<.r to tread on ferpents and fcorpions, and over all the poaer 
iHir. ic. 8. of the enemy. Upon the Apoftles : Heal the ftck,, cleanfe the lepers, raife the 
dead, cafi out devils ; freely ye have received, freely give. Upon the firll Be- 
iiark^\6. 17. lievers : Thefe ftgns fball follow them that believe ; in my name they /ball caft out 
John 14. 12. devils. He that belitvtth on me, the works that I do (fjtillhe do alfo ; and great- 
er works than thefe (ball he do. He then which did more aftions divine and 
powerful than Mofes and all the Prophets ever did, he which performed them 
in a manner far more divine than that by which they wrought, hath done 
all which can be expe£led the Meffias, foretold by them, fliould do. 

Nor hath our "Jefus only done, but fiiftered, all which the Mijftas was to 
fuffer. For we mult not with the Jem deny a fuffering Chrifi,oi fondly of our 


AndInJesusChrist, 87 

• _^ , "J 

own invention make a double Meff/as,oneto fulTer, and another to reign. It 
is clear enough by the Prophet I/aiaswhu his condition was to be, whom he ^ . 
calls the ^ ServAnt of God.: and the later ']tm cannot deny but their * fathers '^^For%}j„' 
conftantly underilood that place of the Mtfftas. ftead o/rhoji 

Now the fufferings oiChrift fpoken of by the Prophet may be reduced to mvtrv^nJ"''^ 
two parts: one in refpefl: of contempt, by which he was dcfpifedcfmen; the niaii'^dca^pru- 
other in rcfpeQ; of his death, and allthofe indignities and pains which prece- dendy/Ae rir- 
ded and led unto it. For the lirft, the Prophet hath punftually dcfcribed his ;/lI"i!n 
condition, laying, '' He hath no form or comlinefs^ md when we fljall fee h'lm^ 'i:iy n'7!i'' 
there is no beauty that wt jhonld defire him. He is defpijed and rejected of mtn. f^'^''^? • 
He 11 Teems todefcribe a perlbnage no way amiable, an afjoe6l indeed rather ioraheWS;^ 
uncomely : and fb the moft ^ ancient Writers have interpreted Ifaias^ and '^''" profper. 

1 And Solomon 
larchi on f/.'ep/.ai", TV^tyi n? V!Dp1Q im^"!. Our Rabbins underftand this of die Mcjfias. And the reafn which 
he renders 0/ their interpretation U vcryobfervnble. For they fiy, fays he, that the Mefllas k Jhicl^n, as it is written. He cook 
our infirmities and bare our griefs ; which are the words of the 4. verfe of the 5 ^ . Chapter. From whence we may perceive 
how the ancient Jews did joyn the latter part of the <,2.Chapter with the 5^. and expound them of the fame perfon. Befides. he cites a 
certain Mdraflj or Glofs, which attributes the fame xerfe to the Mefllas, and that is to be found in Eercfhit Kabba upon Gen. 28 10. 
A-here faUingupon that place in Zach^.y.What arc thou,Ogreat mountain,beforeZerubbabel > he anfwersJ^^^C m '7njn IH 
that great Mountain is die Mefllas. Then asking again. Why doth he call the Mefllas a great mountain .■' he gives this anfw-r, 
UWU mi n^y l^JV' r-\jn -W nnxn \Q "7™ Siniy Becaufe he is greater dian the Fathers, as- it is writ- 
ten, Behold, my lervant fliall underftand,_ that is, the Mefllas; n-h:ch are the words rf the verfe before cited. Andthefum:: 
Berefliic Rabba, upon Gtn. 24. 6^. faith, Mtlllas the King was in the generation of the wicf^d; that he gave himfelftofeel^for mer- 
cies for Ifrael, andtofafting and humbling himfelffor them, as it is written ; andfo prodiiceth the words of la. '55.5. From whence 
it appears a'^ain, that the Author thereof interpreted both tl)e chapters of the fame Mefllas. And farther it if obfervable, that the Mi- 
drofh upm Ruth 2. 14. expounds the fame verfe in the fame manner. And Rabbi Mofes Alfhech fpeal^s vet trfrefidly of the confent 
of the ancient Jewifl> Dotlors upm thisplace, "a "11 n^lWOn -[70 ""^y ''D 172pi 1Q '"^p ins* ,— IS 7'n mjn Behold 
our Doftors of happy memory conclude with one mouth, as they have received from their anceftors, diat this is fpoken of 
' - '■ - ■' ■■■ -■-■■'■■ .. . .. ^ - ^ 

feemstofignifienolefs, as being from the root "l^n which fignifeth to form, figure, fafliion or delineate; from when e the Noun 
attributed to any perfon figmfietb the feature, complexion, fliapc , or compofition of the body : as Rachel was "IXn f ''S'. forma! 
pulchra, Gen. 9. 17. <"!(//) Jofeph,">Snn2S Gen. 56. d./o AbigaiUni/Eflher, and in general, Deut. 21. 11. with an ad- 
ditionof{maddeii'to~\'&T\ whereas Vny'xd is called, without fuch addition, "iSP '^^^^) but with the full fignitication, :ti'He 
£i)a.-JJ<-n;.f«<r«. 7/1 Judges 8. 18. "PO^ ''J3~lXnD irii* H(oixiiiaij.iw Ci<n),iae,fo the Roman; but the Aldus andCom- 
phic. better, «'< ^/©- n'ac 0ttoi\iet( • according to that verfe o/Euripic!es citedby Athcnaus and Porphyrius, Hf iroi' ^ ^J^&^ 
Si^m Tf gjtci'i.f a>-. The MeiTias was to be a King, wbofe external form and perfonage fpal^ lufucb Ma]eJ}y, * As Juflin Martyr, p. 

^rt/iHTiit ''S.KKKnindi Iv <K.fH.i fJi tt«cft!« J>6Ai'iAu5s x^AUopaQ-. Strom ■'i. ^ni^Celfus, impioujly ar u ngag.iinj} the defccnt of the 
Holy Gboft upon our Saviour, lays, it is iinpojftble that any body in which'omething of the Divinity were flnuld not differ from others. T«t» 
•■j, the body of Chrifl, lijiy a.t),-<s efttpspsv.aWi' <a'{ 91:77, n/ocgsV, x] SuJMjkf, i^i-^uvh iS: T.'n whichCclts'^y I:k at p^nfeems 
total^efrom the commonrtportofChrifiiansinhif rt»e, Origen will have him tain; n out of Ilaiah, and upm that acl^iofvleJgeth ro 

be as he was,he mujijethe SonofGod. MiyiM>LcC\ci.(T<d,n Ui tm Ta;a«f?ov c/liitBv;:t 67)'Iii!r?i/ ifh sT) JeJ, ri ^rg) -iMai- 
iiW ■f ';^'i<n''>( auns •jn-rgjztnlivSK, 'i- 'vei Tif^/'n? aurn. Orig. contra Cclfum. /. i5- In the fame Jenfe did S. Cyril fu(v thefi' 
wordsoj the Prophet ; who, fpeal^itigofthat place of the Pfilmifl, fpcciofus forma pri' filiis liominun, o'> erves thif mull be under- 
ftood of hit Divinity, Kii/ain< )<Jttji7rJ k] rcf.Tmanf •^ ,«3? ottfKif o'lKovon'tcti ^kov oH to iJt.vgyietoy ' yea^ci J^^'nt >Cj a ^^^o• 
ipiiT(i«'Hfftt'ta<«Mou;r», Otiic i;';^5i/«?'cr'^, ((t/4 «et?A©-,S£c, rtnirt^d/n, "Er tij%i Tipvivi*<:^3( ttS \iiy iiK.i)}^i';aTro. Ter- 
tuUun fpeal^s plainly as to the prophecy,and too freely in hifway ofexprefion : Sed carfiii terrene non mira cotidiio ipfa cncqui 
cajtcra cjusmirandafacicbat, cum d\cercnt,Vnde huic do'lrina hic ^'y figna ijia .^ adco ncc liuman* honcAacis corpus fait, 
nedum coelcftis claritatis. Tacemibusapud nosquoque prophecis (Ifa. 5^. 2.) <le ignobili afpeftu < jus, ipfc palllonts iplAquc 
contumeliac loquuntur. Paflloncs quidem humanam carncm, contumclia.' vlto iiiiioncilani piobavcrc. An aufus elfec aiiquis 
ungue fummo pcrftringerc corpus novum, fputaminibus contaniinare faciem nifi racrcnteni .' Oe came (.lirilli, c. q. And ibat 
we may befure he pointed at that place in Ifaiah, he fays, that Chrijl was nc afpcdu qiiidciii honcflus ; Annunciavimus cnim, in- 
quit, de illo ficuc pucrulus, ficut radix in terra fiticnti, & iion ell fpecies ejus neque gloria. Adv. Marcion, /.^.c. 1 7. ;V .idv. Ju- 
dj!0!, c. 14. This humility of chrijl, intaljngupon him the nature of man without the ordinary ornaments of wan at :irj} acl^now- 
tcdged, was afierwardi denied, as appears by S. Hicronic, on Ifaiah 5^. Inglorius crat inter liomiiKS aipcffus (jus, iioii quo 
torma- figniticat fa-ditacem,fed quod in liumilitatc vencrit & paupcrtaf. . And Epiil. 140. Abfquc pjfllonibus crucis univcrfis 
pulclirior eft virgodcvirginc, qui nonex voluntate Dei, fed ex Ueo natus elh Nifi cnim lubuilla S: in vuUuquiddam ocu- 
lifque fidercum, nunquam cum ftatim ftcuti fuilTcnt Apoftoli, ncc qui ad comprchendciidum cum vcntraiu ■.-orruilRnc SoS. 
Chrylbftome interprets the words o/'lfaiall i^f hU Divinity, or Humility, or hit Paffion ; but thife ofthe Pfalnuil , 0/ bis native corporal 
beauty. OuJi ><j ^twij.a,1>s^-^v lt2 d<wiJM<;i< i/jyojy a.n^i. Kj fcut'ou^i^- J.-jhSii ^re/Aii* 'iy,.ij.t '^^.e/l& ' Jj";- to -igffn- 
7iK (AiAiJ)' tA4')^'j, 'ilfoijQ- KoeMM Tta^ tk" ija; ^ di'd-fai-Tmi'. Hoinil. 28. in Mat. Afterwards they began lo magm]ie theex- 
tonal beauty of bit bo ly, and confined themfctvcs to one lijnd of piUure orforttaiilurc, with ai^ealoM pretence of a lH^eiicfs not tube 


88 A R T 1 C L E II. 

dented, which Szc. (vio»n*r none, exeryfexerd Cwntry h^xwg a feverat Image. H'hencs came thai iirgument of the 
Jcorocbll-i ly n;i)o)\'iiiic, nhich oJth)fe Imaces rrtts the true : rioTr£.;t' fi-rm^ 'Punaucif, n tw •:^ "IrJbi yf^zani; w i Tof 
'E»^rcyy n i rrtf A/)u-r7ioM ; i^ oaneu dniiKajf aural. AndweU might none oftbcfe be /;/;t' another, when eier) nationfain- 
ted our Saviour in iht ne.ireli J'lmiliti'de to thvivofle of tieir onn Country. 'EMtu/'f Jjt (tuToif ofjtity S^ y^f C.a.i\/Z<u r Xet- 
W rojixi^«»'j '\'tiJL^~t>i 3 fjLat^Hf iajfioif keiy.iTu. • 'li Jbl j mdiKir uof^'i rii aul^, K; A}3^»»t«( Jvk<h a( ituj]ti(. Fhotius, 
Etifi.6A. And the difference of cfinionsinthii l^ind it fugicienilyappiirent out of th-fenordt in Swidai, 'Ift'cr ;J on fxmr si axei- 

confeflcd the fulfilling of it in the body of our Saviour. But whattIiL-afpc£l 

ot his outward appearance was, becaufe the Scriptures arc filent, we cannot 

now know : and it is enough that we are alTuredjthe ftate and condition ofhis 

life was in the eye of the '^jtwi \\ ithout honour and inglorious. For tliough, 

Phil. 2 6, 7. heing in the form of Hod, he thought it /70t robbery to be equal with God : yet ^e 

made himjtij of no repntationy and took upon him the form of afervant. For thirty 

years he hved with his mother Mary and Jofeph his reputed father, of a mean 

Lkij 2. 5 1, profedion, and rvasfubjecf to them. When he left his mother's houfe, and en- 

tred on his prophetical office, he paffed from place to place, (bmetimes receiv- 8. -o. cd into a houfe, other times lodging in the fields : for while the foxes have 

holes, .ind the birds of the air have nejls, the Son of man had not where to lay Im 

head. From this low eftate of life and condition, feemingly inglorious, arofe 

''J'"'- '?-S5- in the ^ew a negleft of his works, and contempt of his Do£lrine. ^ Is not this 

* KaiTiK-jo- the Carpenters fon ? nay farther, '' Is not this ^ the Carpenter., the fon of Mary ? 

v^ vofxi{a- and they were offended at him. Thus was it fulfilled in him, he was defpifedand 

Ti Ttlw^'" rejef^ed of men, and they ejleemed htm not. 

ifyt f^tyiCilo This contempt of his perfonage, condition, doftrine and works, was by 
J» «.3=«To;f degrees railed to hatred, deteftation, and perfecution to a cruel and ignomi- 
ll'yl^ ^^ -' nious death. All which if we look upon in thegrofs, we mufl acknowledge 
Juji. .^fart.Dl- it fulfilled in him to the highefl degree imaginable, that he was "a man of 
"'^'ifa.l.ri!.''' foi^roas, and acquainted with grief . But if we compare the particular predi£li- 
ons with the Hiftorical pafTages of his flifTerings, if we joyn the Prophets 
and cvangclifls together, it will mofl manifeftly appear the Mejfias was to 
\Zich.i\. 11. fuffcr nothing which Chrifi hath not fuffered. liZjchary^^y ^ they weighed for 
my price thirty fieces of Silver ; ^.Matthew will fhe w that JudM fold "jefta at the 
yv.rf. 26. 1), fame rate : for the chief Priefls covenanted with him for thirty pieces of filver. 
ZacPi^' o ^^ If^'^^^ f^y that he w.ts wounded, if Zjchary, they (hall look upon me whom they 
pfti. 22. 1 5. have pierced, if the Prophet David yet more particularly, they pierced my hands 
andmyfeet ; theEvangelirt will fhew how he wasfafl:enedtotheCrofs,and Je- 
r/i" 22' -^8. f^"^ liimfelf'^-'f p'tnt of the nails. If the Pfalmifl: tell us, they fhould Utigh him to 
fcorn, and jbakc their head, faying, He trujled in the Lord that he would deliver 
him ; Itt him deliver him, feeing he delighted in him ; S. Matthew will defcribe 
.W.W. 27.39,43. the fame a£tion, and the fame expreffion : For they thatpajfed by reviled him, 
n^agging their heads, and fnying, fie trujled in God, let him deliver him now, if 
pfal. 22. 1. /je will have him ; for he [aid, I am the fon of God. Let David fay. My God, my 
God, why hail thou for faken me ? and the Sonof i)4z//W will fhew in whofe per- 
'^iff.\V.'\2.' ^°" '^''^ Father fpake it, Eli, Eli, lama fabachthani. Let Ifaiah foretel, he wxs 
Mar.i^.i-;. numbred with the tranfgrejfours; and you fhall find him crucified betaten two 
thieves, one on his right hand, the other on his left. Read in the Pfalmill, In 
pfat.69. 21- my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink ; and you fhall find in the Evangclill, 
John 19. 18. 'Jefus, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, faid, I thirfl : And they took a fpungCy 
* '■ ^ • and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a. reed, and gave him to drink. Read 
Pja. 22. i3. farther yet, They part my garments among them, and cajl lots upon my vejhtre ; 
and, to fulfil the prediftion, the Souldicrs fhall make good the dif^indion, 
7*^)9.23, ;4. jrho took his garments, and made four parts, to every fouldier a part, and alfo his 
coat : now the coat was without feam, woven from the top throughout. They faid 
therefore among themf elves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whofe it /ball be. 


AndIpjJesusChrist. 89 

Laftly, let the Prophets teach us, that he [hull be brought like a. lamb to the ifa. 53. 7,8. 

Jl.tiighter, and be cut off out of the land of the living ; all the Evangelifts will 

declare how like a Lamb he fuffered, and the very Jews will acknowledge 

that he was cut off. And now may we well conclude, Tht^ it is written, ukei^./iC. 

and thtts it behoved the Chrifl to fujjer ; and M'hat it fb behoved him to fuffcr, 

that he fuSered. 

Neither only in his Paffion, but after his death all things were fulfilled in 
"jefni whicli were prophefied concerning the Meffi.ts. He made his grave with ifa. j;. g„ 
the wicked, and with the rich in his death, iaith the Prophet of the Chrifi to 
come : and as the thieves were buried with whom he was crucified, fb was 
JefrfSyhut laid in the Tomb ofjofeph o( Jrimatkea,2in honourable Counfellor. 
Jfter two days will he revive us, in the third day he will raife us up, faith Hofeah ^"f- ^- 2* 
of the people of Ifrael : in whole language they were the ^ type of ChriH ; '>■ //of. 1 1. 1. 
and the third day Jefui rofe from the dead. The Lord faid unto my Lord, faith pfd. no. u 
David, Sit thou at my right hand. Now David is not afcended into the heavens, aUs 2. 34. 
and confequently cannot be fet at the right hand of God ; but Jefus is already 
afcended , and fet down at the right hand of God : and fo all the houfe of a^s 2. s5. 
Jfratl might know ajjur'edly, that God hath made that fame Jefus, whom they cr»- 
ci^ed, both Lord and Christ. For, he who taught whatfbever the Meffias, 
promifed by God, foretold by the Prophets, expefted by the people of God, 
was to teach ; he who did all which that Meffias was by virtue of that ofRce 
to do ; he which luffered all thofe pains and indignities which that Meffias 
was to fuffer ; he to whom all things happened after his death, the period of 
his fufFerings, which were according to the Divine predi£tions to come to 
pafs ; he, I fay, muft infallibly be the true Meffias. But Jefus alone taught, 
did, fuffered and obtained all thefe things, as we have fhewed. Therefore 
we may again infallibly conclude that our Jeftu is the Chrifl. 

Fourthly, if it were the proper note and charafter of the Meffias, that all 
Nations fhould come in to ferve him ; if the Do£lrine of Jefi/s hath been 
preached and received in all parts of the world, according to that charafter 
fb long before delivered ; if it were abfblutely impoffible that the Doftrine 
revealed by Jefus fhould have been fb propagated as it hath been, had it not 
been Divine'; then muft this Jeffts be the Meffias : and when we have pro- ->■ 

vcd thele three particulars, we may fafely conclude he is the Qrifl. 

That all Nations were to come in to the Meffias,zttd fo the diflin£tion be- 
tween the Je.v and Gentile to ceafe at his coming, is the moft univerfal defcri- 
ption in all the Prophecies. God fpcaks to him thus, as to his Son ; Jsk of me, pfd, 2. S^ 
xnd I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance,and the uttermofl parts of the 
earth for thy pojfeffion. It was one greater than Solomon of whom thefe words 
were fpokcn, Jll kings fball fall do-vn before him, and all nations fhall ferve him. ^M 72- »'•! 
It fhall come to pafs in the lajl days, faith Ifaiah, that the mountain of the Lord's ifa. 2. 2. 
ho:ifefJja!l be efiablifbed in the top of the mountains, and fhall be exalted above the 
hills, and all nations ffjafl flow unto it. And again, Jn that day there fhall be a ch. 11. 10. 
root of Jeffe, which jb all [land fur' an enfign of the people ; to it fhall the Gentiles 
feek. And in general, all tlic Prophets were but inftruments to deliver the fame 
melTagc, which ^'V/^/.^f/;;' concludes, from God : From the riftng of the Sun, even /n»i. i. u. 
to the going down of the fame, my name f}j all be great among the Gentiles, and in 
every place incenfe fhall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering : for my 
name fhall be great among ths heathen, faith the Lord of hofls. Now being the 
bounds of 'judfa were ietlcd, being tlie promifc of God was to bring all na- 
tions in Ht the coming of the Me^^;, being this was it which the jfeiv; lb much 
oppofcd, as loth to part from their ancient and peculiar privilcdge ; he which 
actually wrought this v. ojrk mud certainly be the Meffias : and that Jefus did 
IT, >s mult evident. N Thac 


Tbat all nations did thus come in to theDo£trine prcaclicd by jre////,cannot 

* M.m. 1 5. 24. be denied. For although he ' tvere notftnt but to the lojl fljeep of the houfe oflfrael; 
*'i!d"\'^' '^' alt!iough of thole many Ifratlites which believed on him while he lived, very 
"jVfU.^iu^' lew were left immediately after his death : yet when the Apoftles had re- 

* A7f 4. 4. ceived their Commiffion from him to ^go teach all tutions^ and were " endued 
*1ias%'^i "'''^ /'<'Tt'' A^'" ""^ %^^ by the plentiful efhifion of the holy Glioft ; the firll: 
"^7/ 21. 20. day there was an accelfion of ^ three thouf and fouls ; immediately after we find 
^ca-rt/ (Avtii- t ffj^ /j'.mkr cfthemen^ befide women, rras about five thoufand; and fliil ^ be- 
'Joim 12.20. lievers were more added to the Lord, multitudes both of men and women. Upon 
"^Alh 2. 5. ti^e perftcution at jcrtifaltm, they went through the ^ regions ofJiidjia,Galike 

Rom. 15. 18, ^^^ s^ttf}iiria,zvid \'o the Gofpcl ipread \ infomuch that S.James the BiOiop ofje- 
"Cohf. 1. 2^ rufaltm (pake thus unro S, Pa:.l, *■ Thou feejl, brother, how many thonfands{px ra- 
reldi* na coi'i" th^fj ^'""*' ^'^"y 'w/'^'^^-f- that is, ten thoulands) of the Jews there arervhich be- 
fuTcatronc m'j- lieve. Befide, how great was the number of the believing \fews ftrangers.fcat- 
ximc propccr fgpgj through Pontus,Gjlatu, Cappadocia, Jfia, Bithynia, and the reft of the 
rmern™. R^w.f»Provinces,will appear out of the EpiftlesofS.Pe/fr,S.7.;wj,and5.>/^/;. 
ti enim omuls And yet all thele are nothing to the fulnefs of the Gentiles which came after. 
«atis, omnis pj, (I' jj^ofe which wcrc before Gcntilc-worfhippers, acknowledging the fame 

ordinis,utriur- ,' . . , ^ , - • , , '' 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 

que iixus cti- God With the Jews^ but not receiving the Law : w^io had betore abandoned 

a;i ' --.... - . ^ _ . . 

tini.Tdlkos of the whole Law. Now the Apoftles preaching the fame God with Mofts, 
ctiam atquc a- whom they all acknowkdged,and teaching thatCircumcifion and the ; eft of 
gros, fupcrfli- j|-,g Jegal Ceremonies were now abrogated, which thofe men would never ad- 
concagio "per- mit, they were with the greateft facility converted to the Chriftian Faith. For 
vagacaert.p/;/!. being prefcnt at the Synagogues of the Jews,zn6. und^erftanding much of the 
flmm."^ ^''^' Law, they were of all the Gentiles readieft to hear, and moft capable of the 
Tanta" homi- Arguments which the Apoftles produced out of the Scriptures to prove that multiru- Jefus was the Chrif. Thus many of the ' Ureeks which came up to worfhipat jfe- 
ina'jor civicath rtiftlemy^ divout men out of every nation under heaven^ not men of Ifratl, but 
cu)uiquc,in fi- yet f^kring God., did firft embrace the Chriftian Faith. After them the reft 
fth ag?mu°sf*^ of the Gentiles left the idolatrous worft]ip of their Heathen gods, and in a 
Tcnui. ai'ic.x- fhort time in infinite multitudes received the Gofpcl. How much did ftfus 
^I'j "^j,'- work by one S. Panl to * the obedience of the Gentiles by word and deed? how 

tos,nontantum did he pafs from 'Jerufalem roundabout through Phanice, Syria and K^rahia^ 
vindiccs occul- tjirougll Afii, Achaix and Macedonia, even to Illyricum, fully preaching the Go- 
lelsfXdraZ/'f^^/ ^^''^7? ? How far did others pals befide S.Paul, that he fhould fpeak 
nobis vis nil- evcH of his time, that the "" Go/pel was preached to every creature under heaven? 
mcrorurn&co- \/;^j^y werc the Nations, innumerable the people, which received the Faith 
rimiruni Mauri in the Apoltlcs days: and in not many years alter, notwithiranding millions 
& Marroman- were cut off in their bloody pcrfecutions, yet did their =^ numbers equalize 
ti!i,'\^'i''q"unt!r- lialfthe Roman Empire : and little above two Ages after the death of the 
cunq-,ut)iusta- laft Apoftlc, the Emperoursofthe world gave in their names to Chrifi, and 
men loci Kcfu- fiibmittcd their fceptersto his laws, that tlie " GfA/Z/Ye/ might come to his li^ht. 
gentcs, quini and Kjngs to the brightnefsofhis rifng ; that ° Isjngs might become the nur- 
totiusorbis ? n„g fathers, and Queens the nurft/tg mothers, of the Church. 

mus, 8c vcflra omnia implevimus, urbes,infulas,canclla,municipia, conciliabula,caftra ipfa, cribus, decurijs, palacium.fcna- 
rura, forum iJ.Apjlogc.^i. Potuimiis & inermcs, ncc rebcllcs, fed tantummododifcordcs, folius invidiaadverfus vosdi- 
niicalTc. Si enim tanta vis liominum in aliqucm orbis rcmoti finum abrupillcmus i vobis, fuffudillct utique dominationcm ve- 
Aram cot qualiumcunq; amillio civium, imoctiam & ipfd dcllitutionc puniiret : prociJdubio expavilFecis ad folitudinem ve- 
llram, a.l filcntium renim, & ftuporcm qucndam quafi niortu* urbis ; quafilfttis qiiibus in ea impcralletis. IJ. iliiJ. And 
Ircnxus, tcho rrnte before Tertulllan, and it mentioned by him, fpejl;s cf the Chrij}i.tns inhis lime liiin^ intke Com of Rams : 
<^iid autcm & hi qui in rcgaii aula funt fidcles ? no:ine ex cisqusCairaris funt habent ucenfilia, & his qui non habcnt unuf- 
qarfque fcsundum luitn virtutem priflat ? ° Ifu, 6^. 3. • Jfa. 49. 2 j. 



From hence it came to pals, that according to all the prcdiftions of the 
ProphctSjthe one God of //r.7e/,the Maker of Heaven and Earth,was acknow- 
ledged through the World for the only true God: that the Law given to 
Ifratlw'd.'i taken for the true Law of God, but as given to that people, and fo 
toceafe when thej' ceafed to be a people; except the moral part thereof, 
which, as an univerfal rule common to all people, is ftill acknowledged for 
the Law of God, given unto all, and obliging every man : that all the Ora- 
cles of tiic Heathen Gods, in all places where Chriftianity was received, did 
preftntly ceale, and all the Idols or the Gods themfclvcs, were rejefted and 
condemned as fpurious. For the Lord of Hofts had fpoken concerning thole 
times exprefly ; It jha/J come to pafs in that day , that I mil cut of the names of ZMh, 17. i. 
tijt Idols out of the land^ and they jhall no more be remefnbred : alfo I ri'ill cauft 
the prophets and the unclean fpirit to pafs out of the land. 

Now being this general reception of the Gofpel was fb anciently, fo fre- 
quently, foretold, being the fame was fo clearly and univerfally performed, 
even this might ftem fufficicnt to perfwade that 'Jefn^s is Chrijl. But left any 
fhould not yet be fully latisfied, we fliall further fl-iew, that it is impolTiblc 
"^eftis fliould have been fo received for the true Meffias^ had he not been fo ; 
or that his Doctrine, which teacheth him to be thcChriJl, flioulJ be admit- 
ted by all nations for divine, had it not been fuclu For whether we look 
upon the Nature of the Doftrine taught, the Conditions of the Teachers of 
it, or the manner in which it was taught, it can no way feem probable that 
it fiiould have had any fuch fuccefs, without the immediate working of tlic 
hand of God, acknowledging Jefas for his Son, the Doftrine for his own, 
and the fulfilling by the hands of the Apoftles what he had foretold by the 

As for the Nature of the DoQrine, it was no way likely to have any fuch 
fuccefs. For, firft, it ablblutcly condemned all other Religions, lettlcd and 
corroborated by a conftantfucceffion of many Ages, under which many na- 
tions and kingdoms, and efpecially at that time the Roman, had fignally ilou- 
rifncd. Secondly, it contained Precepts far more ungrateful and troublefbm 
to flefh and blood, and contrariant to tlie general inclination of mankind ; 
as the abnegation of our felves, the mortify if ig of the fief h,the love of our ene- 
mies.and the bearing of the Crofs. Thirdly, it inforccd thole Precepts feem- 
ingly unrealbnable, by fiich Promifes as were as iecmin.'j'y incredible and 
unp^rceivable. For they were not of the good things of tli;? v/orid, or fiich 
as afford any complacency to our Senle; but of fuch as cannot be obtained 
til! after this life, and nccefiariiy prcfuppofe that which t'-.en leemed as ab- 
fbluteiy impodible, the Refurrcft ion. Fourthly, it delivered certain predi- 
£lions which were to be fulfilled in tije perfons of fuch as fljould embrace it, 
whicli feem fufficicnt to have kept moll part of the world from I'llning to 
it, as dangers, lofTes, afflidions, tribulations, and, in f'umm, Jll that would itim.'^.ji.i 
live godly in Chrift ^^efm Iho'.ddfufjer perfecution. 

It we look upon the Teachers of this Doftrinc, there appeared nothing in 
them which could promife any fuccefs. The fird: Revealer and Promulger 
bred in tlie hpufe of a Carpenter, brought up at the feet of no Profcifor, de- 
fpifed by the IJigh-priefts, the Scribes and Pharifecs, and all the learned in 
the Religion of his Nation ; in the time of his preaching apprehcnded,bound, 
buffeted, fpit upon, condemned, crucified; betrayed in his life by one Dilci- 
ple, denied by another; at his death diflrufled by all. What advantage can 
we perceive toward the propagation of the Gofpel in this Author of it, Chrifl i Cor. i.aj, 
crucified, unto the Jews a flumbling-bloch , and unto the Greeks fooltflj/i-fs ? 
What in thofc which followed him,fent by him, and thence called Apoftles, 

N 2 m--n 


men by birth obfcure, by education illiterate, by profc{T^.on low and inglo- 
rious ? How can we conceive that all the Schools and Univerfities of the 
"World Ihould give way to them, and the Kingdoms and Empires fhould at 
laft come in to them, except their Do£lrine were indeed Divine, except 
that jf(/w, whom they teftiHed to be theC'/;r//?, were truly lb ? 

If we confidcr the manner in which they delivered this Doftrine to the 
world, it will add no advantage to their perfons, or advance the probability 
of fuccefs. For in their delivery they ufcd no fuch rhetorical exprefTions, or 
ornaments of eloquence, to allure or entice the world j they affeQed no lijch 
liibrilty of wit, or ftrength of argumentation, as thereby to perfwade and con- 
vince men ; they made u(e of no force or violence to compel, no corporal 
menaces to affright mankind unto a compliance. But in a plain Simplicity of 
I Cjr.2. 4. words they nakedly delivered what they had leen and heard, prvacli^jg, not 
with enticing words of mans wifdom, but in the dtmonflratton of the Spirit. It is 
not then rationally jmaginablejthatfo many Nations fhould forfake their own 
Religions, fb many Ages profeffed, and brand them all as damnable, only that 
they might embrace fuch precepts as were moft unacceptable to their natural 
inclinations, and that upon fuch promifes as-feemed not probable to their 
reafbn, nor could have any influence on their fenfe, and notwithftanding 
tliofe prediftions which did affure them,upon the receiving of that Doftrine, 
to be expofed to all kind of mifery : that they fhould do this upon the Autho- 
rity of him who for tlic fame was condemned and crucified, and by the per- 
»inChrifti no- fwafion of thcm who were both illiterate and obfcure ; that they fhould be 
n!r"quf unxit^ enticed with words without eloquence, convinced without the leaft fubtilty, 
& ipie qui un- conftraincd without any force. I fay,it is no way imaginable how this fliould 
unftio'^'in^ '^u'a ^°^^ '° P^^^j '^^'^ ^^^ ^'^^ Doftrine of the Gofpel, which did thus prevail, 
unftus dt.^" been certainly Divine ; had not the light of the Word, which thus difpelled 
LenA. 5.C.20. fhc clouds of all formcr Religions, come from Heaven ; had not that JefttSj 
l^'^sf ''^'"l '^^^ -inthoKr and fmfher of our faith, been the true Mefftas. ' 
;v5/si/ iTB ri- To conclude this difcourle. He who was in the world at the time when 
ll^r^^^^"^ '^ ^^^ ^l/f^k/ was to come, and no other at that time or fince pretended ; he 
^"•^ «; ^,. who was born of the fame family, in the fame place, after the fame manner, 
<t|. ;uj) Miirt. which the Prophets foretold of the birth of the Mcffias ; he which taught all 
*'chriftHi J thofc truths, wrought all thofe miracles, fuffered all thofe indignities, recei- 
chrifmatc di- vcd all that glory, which the Meffias was to teach, do, f uffer, and receive ; 
cuTanti' 'Vc ^^^ ^^hofe Doftrine was received in all Nations, according to the charafter 
ges a faccrdo- of the Miffias ; he was certainly the true Meffias. But we have already fiiffi- 
"''"^ '^'f?/^" c'^"^'y n^ewcd that all thefe things areexaftly fulfilled m'Jefui, and in him 
banrur/icc/.(^ alone. We muft therefore acknowledge and profefs that this Jffits is the 
>«Sp'"ii- promifed Meffias, that is, the ChriH. 

eft^^Iw^r! Having thus manifefted the truth of this propofition, Jeftis is the C^rijl, and fhcwcd the interpretation of the word Chrijt to be Jnotnted; we find it 
*c/"""'^*' '■ ^^^ * '^•^cedary for the explication of this Article, to enquire what was the 
Ij sicut'niinc^* ^^'^ O"" immediate cfFeft of his unftion, and how or in what manner he was 
Romanb ihdu- anointcd fo that end, 

purilllflp^nr Po"" t'>c firl^, as the Mtfias was foretold, fo was he typified : nor were the 
cfl rcgii dig- anions prefcribed under the Law lefs prediftive^than the words of thePro- 
"ti "^ fie ' ■11' P'^'-^^' ^^Y) ii vvhofbever were then anointed, were therefore ib, becaufe he 
wirtiofjcriun- ^^'^^ to be anointed. Now it is evident that among the Jetvs they were wont 
gucnti nfnicii to * anoint thofe which were appointed as Kings over them .• ?>oSamHelfaid 
recKim'^ccnf!." ""'^ Saul, ' 7 he Lord fent me to anoint thee to be Kjng over his people, over Ifrael. 
rcbat. La{ When i'xv/ was rciccled, and Djw<:i produced before i^wwf/, ^ the Lord [aid, 
1. 4. c. r. strife J anoint him, for this is he. And fbme !i may have contented themfclves 


And In Jesus Chp. ist. 


with this, that the Mejfias was to be a King. But not only the Kings, but be- 
fide, and long before them, the High Priefts were alfo anointed ; infomuch as 
the ^ Anointed^ in their common language, fignified their High Prieft. And *.^'^r ''""'^* "' 
becaufe thefe two were moft conftantly anointed, therefore || divers have [flton^lTr- 
thought it fufficient to alTert that the Mejfiai was to be a King and a Prieft. "nmtedat n>ea 
But being not only the High Priefts and Kings were aftually anointed, ^Lf"°Exod 
(though they principally and moft frequently ; ) for the Lord faid unto Eli^u, 40. 1 5. fj«u 
^Go anoint Hazntlto be Kjng over Syria, and Jehu the [on of Nimjhi jhalt thou ^^^^ ^"°'"^ 
anoint to be Kjng over Ifrael, and Eli/ba the Jon of Shaphat flialt thou anoint to be dijft'anoinc" 
Prophet in thy room : therefore hence it ^ iiath been concluded that the three their fatiier, 
Offices ofProphet,Prieft, and King, belonged m'-fefus as the Chnji, and that £3;"'/ 
upon good rcafbn. For the Commonwealth of Ifrael was totally ordered mc in -he 
and difpofed, both in the Conftitutionand adminiftration of it, for and with ''"*)'!' *^*^- 
refpeft unto the Mejfias. The Conftitutionofthat people was made [)y a (e- ^aftcfiminuT! 
junftion and feparation of them from all other nations on the earth : and this i"i'ti!efnccej]ors 
began in 'Abraham, with a peculiar promilc of a feed in whom all the nations 'lm^}^,hh^',hs 
ftould be bleffed, and be united into oneReligion. That promifed Iced was 7t-.}f, chdra- 
the Mefftas, the type of whom was Ifaac. This feparation was continued by "",'",""^.*^'' 
the adminiftration of that Commonwealth, which was a roy.dpritjlhood: and evcriadiD^ 
that Adminiftration of the people did confift in three funftions, prophetical, tjr'e'ihood 
regal, (acerdotal; all which had refpeftunto the |i Meffias, as the fcope of all [hdr|enerati- 
the Prophets, and the complement of their prophecies, as the Lord of the om -. and there- 
Temple, and the end of all the Sacrifices for which the Temple was erctted, ^ilf„"„'i^ 
as tlie heir of an eternal Priefthood after the order ofMekhizedeck, and of the \'hcy fl,aU need 
Throne o( David^ or an everlafting Kingdom. Being then the Separation "" ^"'f'^'-^K 
was to ceafe at the coming of the Mejfias, being that could not ceafe fo long \bcTn-h-priJfi- 
as the Adminiftration of that people ftood, being that Adminiftration did h^od jhaUreue- 
confift in thofe three funftions ; it followeth that thofe three were to beuni- frlmtTeKe'the 
ted in the perlbn oi' the Mef^as, who was to make all one, and coniequently Pricftthacisa- 
that the Chri^ was to be Prophet, Prieft and King. ""'"j^rt "fier- 

the High Prk!ii,asLQ.v./^. 7,. H^iyOn inDH) 'Lyx.A i^x'^.^'^i oKt)(^?i(ifj^^ bytvay of explication : where''! vcrj'e the ^i 
and the i5. of the fume chn;'ter,imd6. 22. they render it b; abare tianflation, c U(^( ya'pit ' which by the iiilgiir Latin n 
tranjlated, Sacerdos qui jure pacri fuccederct, becaufe 111 other but the Son which fucceeded the Father in the office of the High 
PrieJ] was afterward) anointed: at the Arabick_. & fmiilicer Sacerdos fucccffor de hiiis km. For in the anointing ij/ Aaron and 

hii Sons, -7nji ;nD niK '3 nniJ miua? iDi^iin ^<'7 m*:'! ziy^ro nvn"? onnnN D's::n -?d iniyoj 

Levi Sen Gerfon iKings i. \\As Laftan. Erac Jiidans ante prxcepcum ut ("icrum conficcrenc iinguentiim, quo pcrungi pol- 
fentiiqui vocabanturad facerdotium vclad rcgnum. /, 4. c. 7. And S. h\ig. Prioribus Vcccris Teftamenti teinporibiis ad 
duasfolas perfonas pcrcinuitunftio. Enarr. 2. Fftl. 21. Clirirtus vel Pontiticaie vel Regiiim nomcn eft.. Nam prms & Pon- 
tificcs unguento chrifmatis confecrahantur & Ilegcs. S'lnb. ' i King. 19. 15, 16. ^TStoto -xeitrixj. /xn tJ-^voy 
'Afy^iif^n •TTOf^Jh'^huajifi.n^i. i^Tolf /u^ rttuTa. risy(fnT cut )y LunKd^nv, o?( )^ avToif t^tu^^'^ u.ivot'c/Xov hii 
TtS /w.t/'f <-j. Eufeb. Demonj}. Evang. 1. 4. c. 1 5. ^ HilJ. I. i.e. 4. Wherefore i'.Augurtine recoUelling a place in hti S^ Queftions, in 
which he hadtiwght, the'twofifljesin theGofpel, pcrlbnas fignificare quibus popiiliis ille regebacur, ut per cas con- 
riliorummodcramenaccipcrct, regiam fcilicct & faccrilotalem, ad quasctiam facrofanib ilia iinftio pertincbat, tual^s thn 
particular Ketrallation; Dicenduni potiustiiit, w.«r/w pertinebat, quoniam uiiftos aliquando kgimus & Proplictas. Retrail. 

I. 1. C. 26. II 00 l/rjV>t< j) APy. Wlj ci^y^lifajiwlf TiTIIJ.IUJ^Xi TO tJ X^'''^ KtlTiKoaiJifi 'Jctf' 'BC^OUOK OVOIX^-, JtM* )t} TV\jr 

^'jfiKtat' S< >y ajjiK>i Vi^udLTl 5ei(o -ttj j^iJtcw p<iovT6f, einoviKdf Tiva; X^^^f a.Tti^yl(^ovTo • on cAi >Lj (WTti Tii( ts 
ffVt ii/it '^ )^aJjt^ ^ Tgj^n^ TifOi <hi, xe'ct^xrvy- j/e/rtf c* tu'tu -jiystii/xt -rifWAiiipa^^. d< tb'tm oi-irMrat ¥ t^ 
/.ta, <] (Mvov TrgfpniV a.x''^if?iiTlM n '37*T£^{ T^yxifovln. Htjl. E:cl. /. i. c. 3. 

Again, the Redemption or Salvation which the Meffias was to bring, con- 
fiftcth in the freeing of a finner from the ftatc of fin and eternal death into a 
ilate of righteoulhels and eternal life. Now a freedom from (in in refpcct of 
the guilt could not be wrought without a lacrifice propitiatory, and there- 
fore there was a neccfTity of a Prieft; a freedom from fin in rel'pjiSt of the 
dommion could not be obtained without a revelation of the will of God, 
and of his wrath againft all ungodlinefs, therefore there was alio need of a 


94 A R T 1 C L E II. 

Prophet ; a tranflation from the (late of death into eternal life is not to be 
effcGcd without abfolute authority and irrefiftiblc power, therefore a King 
was alio necelTary. The Mtjjias then, the Redeemer of J/fMl, was certainly 
anointed for that end, that he might become Prophet, Prielt, and King. And 
if we beheve him whom we call Je/f<s, that is, our Saviour and Redeemer, 
to be Chrtjl, we muft allert him by his undlion fent to perform ail thele three 

That Jc/m was anointed to the Prophetical Office, though we need no 

///. 6u r. more to prove it than the prediftion on/atah, Tht fpirit of the Lord is upon 
mcy hecaiife he hath anointed me to preach the Go/pel to the poor ; the explication 

Zj<tc4. 21, :2. of our Saviour, This day is this Scripture fuljilled in your ears ; and the con- 
feffion of the Synagogue at Naz^areth^ who all hare him wttnefs^ and ivondnd 
at the gracious words tvh/ch proceeded out of his mouth : yet we are furnifhed 
with more ample and plentiful demonif rations : for whether v. e confider his 
Preparation, his Miffion, or his Adminiftration, all of them IJDcak him 

Jer. 1.5. fully to have peribrmcd it. To Jeremiah indeed God laid. Before thou camefi 
forth out of the nwmb, I fan£fified thee, and I ordained thee a Prophet unto the 

ImI^u 15- Nations; and oifohn the Baptift, He (hall be filled with the HolyGhofi^ even 
from bis mother's ivomb. And ifthefe became lingular Prophets by their pre- 
parative fandification, how much more eminent muft his prophetical prepa- 

^'' I'SS- ration be, to whole mother it is faid, The Holy Ghost jball come upon thee, and 

Kmnb. 4. 47. the power of the Highest flj all overjhadov thee ? If the Levites muft be thirty years 
old, every one that came to do the fervice of the miniflry ; '^efiM will not enter 

LH\(e 3. 23. upon the publick adminiftration of this Office till he begin to be about thirty 
years of age. Then doth the Holy Ghost defend in a bodily fhape like a Dove 
upon him : then muft a voice come from heaven, faying. Thou art my beloved 
Son, in thee I am ivellpleafed. Never fuch preparations, never fiich an Inau- 
guration of a Prophet. 

As for his MilTion, never any was confirmed with fuch letters of credence, 
fuch irrefragable teftimonials, as the formal teftimony of jfo/'«_theBaptift,and 

Mtii. 4. ;. the more virtual teftimony of his Miracles. Behold, I will fend you Elijah the 
Prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord, laith God by 

Luke 1. 17. Malachy. And ''John went before hipt in the fpirit ofEliM, faith another Ma- 
Lchy, even an Angel from Heaven. This ^ohn, or Elias, faw the Spirit de- 

Jolm 1. 54, fcend on Jefus, and bare record that this is the Son of God. The ''jews took 

John i- 26. notice of t!iis teftimony, who faid unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee be- 
yorid Jordan, to whom thou barefl witnefs, behold, the fame baptiz.eth, and all men 

John 5. 3 J. come unto him ; and fefus himfelf puts them in mind of it, Te fent unto John, 
and he bare veit„efs unto the truth ; nay they themfelves confefled his teftimony 

John 10. 41. to be undeniable, John did no miracle, but all things that Johnfpahe of this man 
were true. But though the witnefs of John were thus cogent, yet the teftimony 

John 5. 35. Qf Miracles was far more irrefragable. / have greater witnefs than that of John, 
faith our Saviour ; for the works which my Father hath given me to finifl), the 
fame works that I do bear witnefs of me, that the Fat her hath fent me. Notwith- 
ftanding the precedent record Q'iJohn,Jefusxcqu\'ctt\\ not an ablblutc aftcnc 

Ji,h. 10.37,38. unto his Doftrine without his Miracles : Jf I do not the works of my Father, 
believe me not. But upon them he challcngeth belief: But if I do, though ye 
believe not me, believe the works ; that ye may know and believe that the h ather 
is in me, and I in him. If then Mofes ^nd other Prophets, to whom God 
gave the power of Miracles, did affert their miffion to be from God by the 
Divine works which they wrought ; much more efficacious to this purpofc 
muft the Miracles of 5'^e/«jappcar,who wrought more wonders than they al!. 
Never therefore was there [o manifeft a Miffion of a Prophet. 


A^^InJesusChrist. qC 

. _— — . i 

Now the Prophetical Funftion confifteth in the promulgation, confirmati- 
©n, and perpetuation of the Doftrine containing the will ot" God for the Sal- 
vation of Man. And the perfeft Adminiftration of the Office muft be attri- 
buted unto ^^A^- Fcir no man hath fee>t God at xny time ; tht only-hegotttnSon^ John i. li 
which u in tht bofom ,j tht Father^ he hath dec/and him. He gave unto the Apo- John 17/8, 14. 
files the words which his Father gave him. Therefore he hath revealed the per- 
fefl; will of God. The Confirmation of this Doftrine cannot be denied him, 
who lived a moll innocent and holy life to pierfwade it, for he did no fin, 1 Peui. 22. 
neither was guile found in his mouth ; who wrought moft powerful and divine 
works to confirm it, and was thereby known to be a teacher from God ; who John 3. 2. 
died a moll: painful and fhameful death to ratifie it, witneffing a good proftjjion i rim.6. ig. 
before Pontius Pilate ; which in it felf unto that purpole efficacious, was made 
more evidently operative in the raifing of himlelf from death. The Propaga- 
tion and perpetual fucceflion of this Doftrine muft likewife be attributed un- 
to Jefus, as to no temporary or accidental Prophet, but as to him whoinlli- 
tuted and inftruflied all who have any relation to that Fundion. FortheSpi- • f^t- '• n. 
rit ofChrifi was in the Prophets : and when he afcended up on high, he gave gifts 
unto men. For he gave fame Jpofiks^ and fome Prophets, and (ome Paftors and £;>/;. 4.8,1 r," 
Teachers ; for the perfecitng of the Saints^ for the work of the Mini fry, for the '^• 
edifying of the body ofChrijt. It is then rnoft apparent that jfe/W was fo far 
Christy as that he was anointed to the Pr.iphecical Office, becaufe his Prepa- 
ration for that Office was moft remarkable, his Million unto that Office was 
undeniable, his Adminiftration of that Office was infallible. 

Now as Jefus was anointed with the Unftion of £//2;e//ir to the Prophetical, 
fo was he alfo with the Unftion of Jaron to the Sacerdotal Office. Not that 
he was called after the Order of Jaron ; * for it is evident that our Lord 'Heb.n.x^M'' 
fprang out of Judahy of which tribe Mofes [pake nothing concerning priefthood : .f^'f '^'^^° 
but after a more ancient Order, according to the prediftion of the Pfalmift, =<■ Z-'rhtd-. 
The Lord hathfworn, and will not repent ^ Thou art a Prieft for ever after the brj^^'^'^)}}' 
order ofMelchizedtck. But t^.ough he were of another Order, yet whatlb- 'n^l'^^by^uthi 
ever Jaron did as a Prieft was wholly typical, and confequently to be fulfil- Tar^nmshn-n. 
led by the Me/^as, as he was a Prieft. For the Priefthood did not begin in ,t,if •*'"^"''^' 
Jaron, but was tranflated and conferred upon his family before his conlecra- gcnici': ^liidfi' 
tion. We read of ^ the Priefis which came near the Lord; of '^ young men of'''^^''^^'":k.''>t^ 
the children of Ifrael which offered burnt -offerings, md facrifced peace-offerings tm!^"^^""^'^' 
of oxen unto the Lord: winch without queltion were no other than the "^'-3.8. 5. 
* firft-born, to whom the Priefthood did belong. Jtfm therefore, as the Ij^fj- '°- ^• 
firft begotten of God, was by right a Prieft, and being anointed unto that iEfi,. 5, 2!°* 
Office, performed every fun6non, by way of Oblation, Interccffion and Be- """^ 'P'^ mc 
nedidlion. '' Every high priefi is ordained to offir gifts and facrtfices : where- &*quod'i^ffefc- 
fort it is of necefjity that this man^ jft/«-S if he be an High Prieft, have fome- Iwt. S. Ah^. 
what alfo to offer. Not that he had any thing befide him felf, or that there l';',"!,™'^""'-'"? 
was any peculiar Sacrifice allowed to this Prieft ; to whom, "" when he co- tcrcbar, umun 
mcth into the world, he faith, Sacrifice and offering thou would/l not, but a body '" (^ 'ccic pro 
haji thou prepared me: and, ^ by the offering of this body of jefus Chrifl are we batTumis^pic 
fanclified. For he who is our Prieft hath 1^ given himfelf an offering and a crat'quioffe- 
facrifice to God for a fweet-fmelling favour. offcrcbft '^";? 

Now when Jefm had thus given himfelf a propitiatory Sacrifice for fin, he de Tmit'. 
alcended up on high,and entred into the Holy of holies not made with hands, 
and there appeared before God as an atonement for our fin. Nor is he pre- 
valent only in his own oblation once offered, but in his conftant Interceffion. 
Who is he that condemneth ? faith the Apoftle ; /'/ is Chrifl that died, yea rather Ram. 8. 94. 
that is rifen again, who is even at the right hand of God \ who alfo maketh inter- 



Heb. 7. 25. ceffionfcr us. Upon this foundation he buildeth our perfwafiori, that he is able 
alfo to fiive them to the uttermojt that come unto God iy him, ftting he ever liveth 
*ni£iic\i,l»y tomal^e tntercfffionfor thim. Nor mufl: we look upon this as a * Icrvilcor pre- 
i)^,ayj'U3tv, carioi.iS;but rather as an efficacious and glorious.Iiiterccirionjasof him tovvhom 
*3J^ ^aA(K- ^^^ power is given both in Heaven and Earth. Bcfidcthcle offerings and inter- 
/b>Wt;t«- cedings, there wasfomcthing more required of the Pricll,and t!iat isBlcfTing. 
T£?< It) ^t>*'" ' Aaronwas ftparated^ that he jboiildfanciifie the most holy things, he and his fons 
ViKur i-Tilc f°^ (ver, to burn incenfe before the L%rd, to miiiijler unto him, and to bkfs in his 
¥ S'ih'jjj 'or- name for ever. We read of no other lacerdotal aft perfoi med by Me/chizedeeJ: 
TliSill''^ the Prieft of the moil High God, but only that of bleffing, and that in rcfpeft 
^t<LiJ.iT^- both of God and man: Firft, ^ he bleffed man, and Jaid^ B/effedbe ^^bramof 
BTe yifi rrar the moft High God, pojfejfor of heaven and earth : then, BleJJtd be the mofi High 
"rfJ^Y^f"- God. which hath delivered thine inemics into thine hand. Now it is oblervable 
Jf rrci^tiv,^ B what the Rabbins have delivered, that at the morning- (acrifice the Prieffs un- 

/)a'°ft5if 'J' ^^'" '■'^^ ^^^^' ^^'^ '^'^^^ ^'^^ people with tlie fblemn form of Benediftion, but at 

Ki^lr^K^'olf the evening-facrifice tliey blelTcd them not ; to flicw that in the evening of 

jiwoiflic oJf the world, the lalf days, which arc the days of the Mtffijs, the bentdiftiori 

•rlw.^i^- of the Law fhould ceafc, and thcblefling of the Chrift take place. When Zj.- 

t^vaihhyQ- cW/WythePricft, the father of JcA^ Baptift, the forerunner of our Saviour, 

X, 5rj(£ji/nTrif . >= executedYas' office before God in the order of his courfe^ and the whole multi- 

f/»/ n -Tm^j.- tude oi the people waited for him^ to receive his bencdiclion, he could not fpcak 

Khr\n<. S.Greg, ttnto them, for he was dumb; fhewing the power of bcnediifion was now paf^ 

. fcAronTai ' ^'"g to anotlicr and far greater Prielt, even to 'Jefis., whole Dodlrine in the 

13. Mount begins with Blej]ed; who,when he left his Difciples, '^ lift up his hands^ 

Gen. 14. 19, ^^^ blejjed them. And yet this function is principally performed after his re- 

'iuke 1.8,21, furreftion, as itis written, Vnto youfrjl^ God having raifedup his Son "Jefusy 

22- fent him to blejs you^ in turning every one of you from his tntquities. It cannot 

, t' 24- 50. ji^gjj j^g denied that "Jefu^^ who offered up himfelf a moft perfeft facrificc and 

oblation for fin, who ftill maketh continual interceffion for us, who was rai- 

fed from the dead, that he might blefs us with an cverlafting benediftion, is a 

moft true and moft perfeft Prieft. 

The third Office belonging to xhtMeffi^ts was the regal, as appeareth by 
tke'pa'<iphr4( ^^^ "^oft ancieut li tradition of the Jeipj, and by theexprefs prediftions of the 
inthe moflpu- Prophets. " Tet have I fet rm Kjngy laitii the Plalmift, upon my holy hillofSion. 
*nuntkml"the ^ '^"^^ **^ "■ '^^"^^ '^ ^'"'^' "'^'^ "^ ^ -^^^ ^^ given, and the government (hall be upon 
McfCasydothit h/s/houldtr,idi\th the Vwphct Ifaiah, who callcth him the Prince of Peace, 
"^"Vk Z'^'^' ^'^^^''ng ^'^^ perpetuity of iiis power,and particularity of his feat. " Of the in- 
'"^ i-<~nn (""('f^ of his government and peace there ffj all be no end upon the throne of David^ 
' pj^^^ei^ '^"^ "f°" ^'^ /7>f^^(?w, to order it, and to efablijh it mth judgment and with ju- 
'ijai. g.6. fliceffrom hence forth even forever. All wiiicli moft certainly belongs unto our 

VffU' , 7^/'"' by the unerring interpretation of the Angel Gabriel, who promilcd the 

^^ V «• js, bleffed Virgin tiiat the Lord God {[\o\\\(\ give unto her Son '' the throne of his 
father David, and he ffjall reign over the houfe of 'Jacob for ever, and of his ki/ig- 
dowtherefljall be noend. He ackn(jwlcdgctli himlelf this Office, though by a 
ftrangeand unlikely reprcfenration of it, the riding on an Afs : but by that 

Mot. n. 4, 5. it yfjz-i fulfilled which wasfpoken by the Prophet, Tell ye the daughter of S ion. Be- 
hold thy lying cometh unto thee, meek, andftting on an afs. He made as ftrange 

John 18. j7. a confeffion of itunto Pilate; for when Ik fiiid untohim. Art thou a Kjng then? 
']ejus anfirercd. Thou f aye ft that 1 am a Kjng. To this end was I lorn, and for 
this caufe came I into the world., that I jhould bear witmfs mito the truth. I1ie 
folcmn inauguration into thisOffice was at his afccnflon into Heaven,and his 
feffion at the right hand of God : not but that he was by right a King before, 

J/.*. i.2«,2i. ijyt the full and publick execution was deferred till then, when Godraifedhim 


And In Jesus Christ. 


from the dead, .a/7d fit him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, far 

ahove all principaltty, and power , and might, and dominion. Then he, whole i<f, 

name is called the xvcrd of God, had on his vefltire and on his thigh a name tvrit' 

ten, Kj^g of kings, and Lord of lords. 

This Regal Office of our Saviour confifteth partly in the ruling,prote9:ing 
and rewarding of his people \ partly in the coercing,condemning and deftroy- 
ingof hisenemies.Firftjherulethin his own people,by deliveringtliema Law, 
by which they walk ; by furnifhing them with his grace, by which they are 
inabled to walk in it.Secondly,he protefteth the fame,by helping them to fub- 
due their luffs, which reign in their mortal bodies; by prelerving them froni 
the temptations of the world, the fiefh and the Devil; by fupporting them in 
all their affliftions; by delivering them from all their enemies.Thirdly,whom 
he thus rules and protefts here, he rewards hereafter in a moft royal manner, 
making them Kjngs and Priefts unto God and his Father. On the contrary, he Rev. i. 6. 
fheweth Iiis Regal dominion in the deftruQion of his enemies, whether they 
were temporal or fpiritual enemies. Temporal, as the Jews and Romans, who 
joined together in his Crucifixion. While he was on earth he told his Dilci- 
ples, There be fome flanding here which jh all not tajle of death till they fee the Son Mmth, i6. 28, 
of man coming in his Kjngdom : and in that Kingdom he was then feen to 
come, when he brought utter deftruftion on the Jews by the Roman Armies, 
not long after to be deftroyed themfelves. But befide thefe vifible enemies^ 
there are other fpiritual, thofe which hinder the bringing in of his own peo- 
ple into his Fathers Kingdom, thole which refule to be fubjcfl: unto him,and 
conlequently deny him to be their King ; as all wicked and ungodly men, of 
whom he hath faid , Thefe mine enemits , which would not that I jhould reign ij,j^ ip. ,„^ 
over them, bring hither, and flay them before me. Thus Sin, Satan, and Death, 
being the enemies to his Kingdom, fhall all be deftroyed in their order. For he ' Cor. 15.2$, 
must reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet : and the lafl enemy that ffjall 
be deflroyed is death. Tiius is our Jefus become the Prince of the I^tngs of the Rev. 1. j. and 
tarth; thusisthe L^iw^aclcnowledged tobe L<?r^(7/^/(?r^y, and f^ing of kings. '7-i4- 

Wherefore feeing we have already fhewed that the Prophetical, Sacerdo- 
tal and Regal Offices were to belong unto the promiled Alexias, as the proper 
end and immediate effeftbf his Unftion; feeing we have likewife declared 
how Jef(s was anointed to thefe Offices, and hath and doth aftually per- 
form the fame in all the funftions belonging to them : there remaineth no- 
thing for the full explication of this particular concerning the Chrifl, bur only ^^^v^-nn 
to fliew the manner of this Unftion, which is very nccelfary to be explain- "i\ny 

ed. For how they were anointed under the Law,who were the types of the wnpn 
Meffias, is plain and evident, becaufe the manner was prefcribed, and the ma- ^'il"l]Il^ 
terials were vifible : God appointed an Oyl to be made, and appropriated it vjy7 

to that ule ; and the pouring that Oyl upon the body of any perfbn was his JOty miK 
anointing to that Office for which he was defigned. But being thatOyl fb ap- ^^^Im^,^ 
propriatcd to this ufe was loft many hundred years before ourSaviour's birth, 'ryuu 
being the cuftom of anointing in this manner had a long rime cealed, being iny UJJi!; 
howlbever we never read that Jefus was at all anointed v\ itii Oyl ; it remain- ""^^ in ^^ 
eth ftill worth our enquiry, how he was anointed, fb as to anlwer cothe f r- Q-'j^cn 
merunclions; and what it was which anfwercd tothatOyI, which then was Q'jnDm 
loft, and was at the f rft but as a Type of this which now we learch for. CD^ run 

The ^ Jews tell us, that the anointing Oyl was hid in the days of ]oftah,and Jj^l^P^J~^^^ 

the MeJJiits God will rcftore unto liis people tlic oyl of un(Jtion which < ofci made, whirl) was hidilcn with the Ark ; and the 
Kings and High Priefts fhall be anointed with it in thole days. Abarbanel Comment, ad -3,0. Exodi. Now the hf' 0) that njil, 
which they call the hiding of it, may well be thought to foretct the fenodofthe Mtfaical Admtmlhation, being they con feft that 
after that thev iicier had am Fried ! anointed , becaufe they had no power to w.i(\' the fame oyl. So plainh confrileth the fame 

•in ii;y7 T\w\ Qn7 r^^^ k7i o'tynpn :3na-i,T 



that it fhall be found and produced again when the Me^^x .comes, that he 

may be anointed with it, and the Kings and High Fricfts of his days. But 

though thelofsof that Oyl befpake thedelbudion of that Nation, yet the 

Chrifi which was to come needed no fucli unftion lor his Confecration ; there 

bein'^ as great a diftercncc between the Typical and correljDondent Oyl , as 

between the reprclenting and rcpreleuted Chrili. The Prophet D^w'^callcth 

*pfd. 45. 7. it not by the vulgar name of Oyl of unftion, but the ' oyl of gladnefs. For 

though that place may in the Hrd fence be underilood o( Solomon y whom 

" I Kin^. 1. 39, •when Zjdoc the Priell anointed '' they blew the Irumptt, a»d all the people fatd, 

'*"■ Godfave l{ing Solomon. And all the people came up after him^ and the people piped 

rvith pipes, and rejoiced with great joy ^ fo that the earth rent with the found of 

them ; though from thence it might be laid of him, 7 hy God hath anointed thee 

with the oyl of gladnefs above thy fellows : yet being thofe words are fpoken 

unto God, as well as of God, (* therefore God thy GodJ the Oyl with which 

» Ouas pcrfo- ^hat God is anointed muft in the ultimate and higheft fenle fignifie a far grea- 

unausTaDci! ter gladncjs than that at 6'o/()wo«'s Coronation was, even the fountain of all 

& qui unsit, joy and felicity in the Church of God. 

&'a' uiia^Eb- T'lc li Ancients tell us that this Oyl is the Divinity it felf, and in the lan- 
him q'A^Tn guage of the Scriptures it is the Holy Ghoft. S. Peter teacheth us hoof God 
yerbnmHcbra- anointed Jef//s of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power. Now though 
J^"^,i"°"Jf°'. there can be no queftion but the Spirit is the Oyl, yet there is (bme doubt, 
fed vocativol'when Jtfusw'is anointed with it. For we know the Angel faid unto the blef- 
intcrprctutur^ fed Virgin , <^ The Holy Ghosi [hall come upon thee, and the power of the Higheft 
mspropzcrm- JJjall overfj tdotv thee : therefore alfo that holy thing which /hall he horn of thee 
teiiigcntii D:e j^^ll be called the Son of God. From whence it appeareth that from the-Con- 
C[™.i5a ception,or at the Incarnation, Jefuswas lanftified by the Holy Ghoft,and the 
non accipit',nc power of the Higlieft ; and fb confequently , as S. Peter fpake, he was * anointed 
*1"'^ ^tn\T ^^^'^ ^^''^^^ ^^"'^ ^ y Ghoft and with power. Again, being we read that after he 
[c(X\ & aman- was thirty years of age, the Spirit like a Dove defcended and lighted upon him, 
tifTimi & regis ^nd heidclcending in the power of the Spirit into Galilee, (aid unto them of A^4- 
min^^T.Hk- ^'"'eth, This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears, meaning that of Ifaiah, The 
rm.Epifi- 104. Spirit of the Lord is upon me, becaufe he hath anointed me to preach the Gofpel; 
^nxu'^T^n'- '■'cnce || hath it been alfo colle£led,that hisUnftion was performed at his Ba- 
w, Diiii imn, ptifm.Nor need we tocontend which of thefe two was the true time of our Sa- 
primum n> viour'sUn£lion,fince neither isdcftruftiveof the other,and confequcntly both 
dvo c'^fil iiud- '''^-^y well conlill: together. David, the moft undoubted type of the AJeJfiahy 
ligendum eft, was anointcd at jye//'/e/'<zw; Cor there '^ Samuel took the horn of oyl, and anointed 
fcqucns nomi- ^^-^ -^^ ^f^^ ^^^-^^ ^y- f^^^ brethren : and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David 

miror cur A- from that day forward. Of which unQion thofe words of God mull: neceflarily 

quila non, iit ^j. under llood, ' I have found David my fervant ; with my holy oyl have I anoin- 
ccepcrat in -' j j ^ y y j 

primo verficulo, vocativo cafu iiitcrprctatus fit, fed nominaiivo, bisnominans Dcimi qui fupradidlum unxeric Deum. U.Ib, 

}l[ So Greg. Ujz. crpiiwtt! the place : "Ov \yei<n* Xkojov d.-ja}Xitinu( Trufyi ix'j ix{\'oyv< aurf, ye^ei<m< tW iiSfa-ni' 
T«1a Tii ^c-otmI/. «9i Tonjcj TO, dfJip'oTi/xf. it. And tgain, \ei'X< 3 J)<ii tLu ■dsoTo?*' 0'" ''■"" '-"'' D'^'"''/ '*"•" 
Aminted, or Chiiji aminted tn rcffr'f of his Civinuy i but he w.ti .inointed in his Humanit) by his Divinity) y^isj< jii aJj- 

rntni yeiov , x) T«/nJ'a« OsJk to ;^;<5,u.V»»'- Oral. hitio. 'Uil^i.'^^. * Xa^f ix't^" ^^f $itci\Jb'( xj U(£t 
TW yt^iiwiTi t5i( oKjjtwjtM*. Ocrmanui Kt^eiSK^ '■j i^iiifat tpoiij^ t3c usr, !) oti xJ* atifKA '■J^'^/uffJov, /;)Ao- 
riri haV ti//<<, ^ c**»9fvini<7Bi'1i* Titus Bflienf. Dcus eft qui ungit, & Dcus qui ficundiim carnem ungirur Dei filius. De- 
nique quos liabec uniliotlis fu j Chriflus nifi in carnc participcs ? Vidcs igitur quia Deus a L'eo unftus , fed in alfumptione 
nature unftus Imman.r Dei !■ ilius dcfignatur. .V. Ambrof. de tide, I. x . c. 2. H2;c omnia carni convcniunt , eiiiii piifilnmm & 
gk3rio(in"i;iuiiu verbum uniturn ert pro falutc rumtloruin. Caffiodorus in Pfitl. 44. || S. Hicrome, mentioning that place of the 
Pfahriy U^Mdo confute f nominantur, naturam carnis intclligc, quia Dcus conlbrtes fubftantii fus non habct. Et quia crat 
nnftio fpiritiwli!. & ncqujqium liumani corpoiis, (ut fuit in facerdotibus Jud.toruni) idcirco pr<i confortibuf,id eft, ceteris 
fanftis, unftuscffc rnenioracur. Cujus undio illo cxpltracft tempore quando baptizatuseft in Jordane, & SpiritusSanftiis 
in fpecie CoKimha' defccn.lit fupcr turn, & manfic in illo. Comment, in Ef.iiam, c.6i. . In ilia columba qua: fupcr ipfuni 
poftbaptifnadcfccndit, cum facramcnto Bapcifmatis , & veri faccrdotii jura fufcepit , fufo videlicet fuper cum oico ex- 
(ultacioni?, de quo Pfjliiiifta canit ; Unxii to, inquit Deuf, Dcus tuUi. Fetim Diunianus, Opufciil. d. r . 4. '1 Sam. 16. 13. 
' I'fi!. 8f . sa. 


AndInJesIisChrist. 99 

ttdhim. And yet he was again anointed at Hebron ; firft over the houft of 2 -*•"". 2.4. 
'jiid.ih^ then over aLI the tribes of Ifrael. As theretore Divtd at his firll Un£tion "''"' ^' ^' 
received the Spirit of God, and a full right unto the Throne oflfrMl, which 
yet lie was not to exercile till the death of Sa/il and acceptation of the Tribes • 
and therefore wlicn the time was come that hefliould aftually enter upon his 
Regal Oincc, he was again anointed : So omjcft/s, tlieSon of David, was 
firft fanttified a nd anointed with the Holy Ghoil at his Conception,and there- 
by received a right unto, and was prepared for, all thole Offices which be- 
longed to the Redeemer of the world; but when he was to enter upon the 
aftual and full performance of all thole Functions which belonj^ed to him, 
then doth the lame Spirit which had lanQitied him at his Conception vifibly 
defcend upon him at his Inauguration. And that moll properly upon hisBa- 
ptifm, bccaufe, according to the cuftoms of thole ancient Nations, walhing 
was wont to * precede tlieir Unclions: wherefore " lei us. whsft he was bivti- » . .. ,» 

I ii ■ t r I lilt I Ai aj<pe.ris by 

Z£d, went up Jtraigbtivay out of the water : and lo, the heavens were opened unto him, thijc mertain. 

and he faw the Spirit of God defcending like a Dove. As David fent Solomnn """"•'■ -^' /';••" 

to be anointed dtGihon: from whence arofe that ancient oblervationof the ZTfy Homer 

Rabbins, that Ij Kjngs were not to be anointed but by a fountain. '" '" odyilcs .• 

iti when Tcle- 
machus K zntevtnmdby Neflof, Toj^^ j J»Kiixa-)(tv >.s!nv x.aM) ^o^ulta'^ , N«5Bf t?- 07rXo7aT« -Jt/jaTD? NtiAniiAorf 
AuT<i{ mti Kxffiv 7i Kft'/exTiv hi-rr' t/iaifj. Od.T. And Tdcmidms anJl'iCinrMui arc invited ti tlxCoHrt of KLtiehui; 

E( p' aciay.icSsf /3a>755 ^v'A.7»< Mcnvio- 

Ti< /' 4tm iy S'fj.a'Ji A*m.v )ij yuanv ihvM.t, Od. A. 
TImlUySci k entertained, Od. 0. f/;;« Pyrxiis andTi:km.ich\\i,Od. P. and Vciius, vetmmngto Paplius, k fo ordered by the Chi^ 
rices; "EcS^ ii pnv X-ietlu Asoai' ly ^H^tnv ihaju 

AujSfsTM, ei'« •5.K« i-TiHto^iv aJty 'iav^Ui. Od. 0. 
So Hdena ffeal^ of her entertaimni Ulsflcft in a dil^uife ; 

'A>A 0T« J'ii HIV kyiv tfSdisi >tj yettv iK'JJa- 
Jt if .If parent tiiut thk was the cuftom of the ancient 0'(rf(\f. Oj tvhich tuflathiui gives thh re.tfon : 'Ehala i -^totlo o] KHTaoSfJai 
«/LC7rXaToi'7f< tVlj Q'<!J:.a]in.i< Tofat, df a,v ij^ K^gjv ^yoiiv rUovy 'mla. Ihiscitliom was Jt ancient imd ,_cncral, that the 
Greek.! hadonc way lo exfvcjs this anointing with oyl after wajhtni, with water, wbnb ihey called yvrha.. and -y^vrha mt- Eninol. 
Xu7hu<mi, «_^ J.-jKut TO a.Kii\'Jut, d/^.a ro 61n hv](!i ctA"' «i^. Schol. Anjlofb. \uT\a. 3 Kuelat, to Cy^S 'iri "in SJk}©- 
ev']&- r^ jauct}'^ a.KA].at^. Hefych. Xuta«, mj \ip' S Ji/!] 'jr iKouw- and /VTKaimi, T0i«A.«4=" ^v ^° KimStl- Hence 
wAfM Nauficaa went unto the pools to waf], her Mother gave her a boxofoyl. 'OS"Z. 

hiaf y^VThrlmLijo ffwi awpi-roKum ■yuua/w'f, 

inhere the old SJ.'oiiaJl , xt'TMti/avIo, mjtomV>i *A»«4«"7o ' "i"^ Euftatliius, Ejvf x^'^^'"'^^']''^ "•''■^ it, ^iraf .«]? Akt^V va7- 
1>.»^»ri AKH-^AfjS^H ■ which exfofnim if rvarr anted by the petfirmance ajter ineniioned, ' 

/Indai this was the ancient cuftom of the Greek.!, fi was it alfo the common culiom ofik: Jews, as appears by the words o/Naomi to 
Ruch.wjfli thy felf therefore, and anoint thee, anijputclivrayinent upon thcc^Riith 3. 5. 'Mutt. ;j. 16. \\They fay in the Qetnt- 
ra, that tliis is a Aluxime of the Votlors, V^yOH '-7>; W7N ZiyyiC H nS {'H'^Z/'IO pK (iy^ UP t^lCJl nON. 
Abarbant-l in 3 j. Exoil. The end of which ceremony was tofljew the prolmjng nf his kingdom who was J) anointed; and the original 
is referred to the anoint m,^ of So\om(}tt, i King. 1. 313. tor f it followetb in the Ti\m\i(i,'^)TW yU jniI37i iWOTl^i; »"1T 
•pnU mniN Dm. Abarbanel ibid. 

Now PS we have (hewed that ^e/z/i was anointed with the Holy Ghoft,lell: 
any iliould deny any iuch delcenfion to be a proper or iiilTicient Un£lion,we 
Ihall farther make it appear, that the Eftufion, or Aftion of the Spirit, emi- 
nently containeth whatibever tlie jfeiw have imagined to be performed or fig- 
nified by tliofe legal Anointings. Two very good realbns they render why- 
God didcommand the ufe of fuch anointing Oyl, as in relpedf oftheaftion. 
Firll that it might figniiie the Divine Hledion of that perlon, anddelignatioii 
to that Office: from whence it was necelTary that it fliould be performed by a 
Prophet, who underflood the will of God. Secondly, that by it the perlon 
anointed might be made fit to receive the Divine influx. For the firff , it is evi- 
dent there could be no fuch infallible fign of the Divine dellgnation oi'Jefus 
to his OlVices, as the vifible defcent ol the Spirit, attended with a voice from 
heaven^ in ilead 'of the hand of a Prophet, laying, 'I'his is my beloved Son^ in Mattk. > i-- 
fthom I am well pU-tfed. For the lecond , this Ipiritual Unftion was fb tkr 
from giving lefs than an aptitude to receive the Divine influx, that it was 

O 2 -that 

loo ARTICLE il. 

that uivine influx,nay,the Divinity it fclf, the Godlicad dwelling in him bodily. 
In refped ot'the matter, they give two cauleswhy it \\'asOyl,and not any 
other liquour. Firlt, becaule of all other it (ignifies the greatdl glory and ex- 
cellency. The Olive was tf>e Hrll of 'J'recs mentioned as fit for Sovereignty, 
Judg 9 p. in regard of its fat ntfs, ivhenwith they honour God and »/a». Therefore it was 
fit tliat thoic pcrfons which v\ere called to a greater dignity than the reft of 
the f/ov/, fliould be conkcrated by Oyl,as the beft fign of eledion to Honour. 
And can there be a greater honour than to be the Son of God, the bdoved 
6on,tis Jt/ui was prcclaimcd at this Un6lion,by which he w as conlecrated to 
fuch an Office as will obtain liim a Name far above all names? Seco!^dly,they 
tell us that Oyl continueth uncorruptcd longer than any other liquour. And 
(1 Ungiicnra o- indeed it hath been oblerved to prelerve not only it lelf, but !' other things, 
ptinie fcrvan- f^om corruption. Kcncc they conclude it fit, their Kings and Pricfts, whole 
iiTis, odorci in fucceflPion was to continue for ever, fhould be anointed with Oyl, the moft 
oko.ri!n.//:j}. proper emblem of Eternity. But even by this realbn of their own, their 
Exift mat'ur & UnftioH is ccafed, being the fucceflion of their Kings and Priefts is long fince 
eboiivindican- cut offj and their eternal and eternizing Oyl loft long before. And only 
''n-^"c"^''"r'^ that one Je/us, who wasanointed with the moft fpiritualOyl, " conti-iutth for 
niuiacruin "^Sa- ^ftr'^ and therefore hxth an unchangeable Briefthood^ as hcingrnade uoi ajitr 

iiirniRomain- tht law of A carnal commandment, but after the power of an endkfs life. 

tus olco rcplc- ■' •> 1 t J J ) 

turn eft. IJ.I.i<,.c.j. And tvhfoevcr madi that St.tiue at Rome, feems to have had hk Art $ut of Greece, fryi that f^.riis 

Iwry Statue made h) Fliidias. OiTt®- y: f/^ ri Kolaandniffiu Vliaauov "cfeAOK, (a^ ihif tLvi& ;J '.cTo l2) iXeuet t^- 

^«i^ TpinraL^iv diJipi vjfii ■jiS'at-, 'i[/.T(j.dtt rk iyi,Kii<t\i3 > *.^eiv^t¥ »«< J' fvh^aray auTa, Proclus apud Epi- 

phan. Nsf. 14. §. i8. ' MA. 7. 24, \6. 

Befide, they obferve, that fimple Oyl without any mixture was fufficient 
for the Candleftick ; but that which was defigned for Unftion muft be com- 
pounded with principal Spices, which fignify a good name,always to be ac- 
quired by thole in places of greateftdignity by the moft laudable and honour- 
able a£lions. And certainly never wasluchan admixtion of Spices as in the 
Unftion of our Saviour, by wiiich he was endued with all variety of the Gra- 
ces of Godj by which he was enabled to offer himftlf ajacrifice for afrveet-fmel- 
'/;*. 1.14,15. lir,g favour. For as '' he was full of grace and truth ; lb ofhisfulnefs have n>e 
' Joh. ■}. 27. all received, grace for grace : and as we "^ have received anointing of him ; fb we 
*2Cor.2. 15. ^ are unto God a fveet favour of Chriff. 

Again, it was fufficient to anoint the VefTels of the Sanctuary in any part; 
but it was particularly commanded that the Oyl fhould be poured upon the 
Head of the Kings and Priefts, as the feat of all the animal Faculties, the 
* i4iw(//Xj /o fountain of all Dignity, and * original of all the members of the body. This 
'in th'Htbrfi ^vas more eminently fulfilled in 'Jefns, who by his Unftion, or asChri/l, be- 
Languagc, of came the head of the Church ; nay, the ' head of all principality and power , from 
nd'here "(•« ^^''^^^ ^^^ ''^^ ^^^7 h pi"f^ ""^ bands having nourifhmtnt mimjlred, and knit 
notice ■■, p7l together, increafeth with the increafe of God. 

L'K ^ lopj Laftly, they obferve, that tliough in the Veflels nothing but a fingle Unfti- 

m^isi ^^ '^^'''^ required ; yet in the Kings and Priefts there was commanded, or at 

Hd"? Icaft praftifed, both Unftion and Eftufion, (as it is written, ^ Me poured of 

^"'■?^'^ ?/^e anointing oyl upon .Aaron's head, and anointed him tofancfifie him:) the 

r-T7^ya ^""'^ ^^ fignifie tlieir Separation, tlie fccond to alTurc them of the falling of 

■ZHTxy^l} the Spirit upon them. Now what more clear tlianthat our O^fift was anoin- 

'Coi. 2. ic.ip. ted by Affbfion, whether we look upon his Conception , the Holy Ghofi /ball 

come upon thee ; or his Inauguration, the Spirit defcended and lighted upon 

him? And thus, according unto all particulars required by the '^ews them- 

fclves to complcat their legal Untlions, wchavefumciexitly fhewcd that Jefus 

waS; as moft eminently, lb moft properly, anointed with the Spirit of God, 


AxMdInJesusChrist. lol 

Wherefore being we have fliewn that a Mtffias was to come into the 
.Wofid ; being we have proved that he is already come, by the (ame predi- 
clions by which we beheve he was to come ; being we have demonltrated 
that 'jefus born in the days of Htrod was and is tliat promifed Mifjias ; be- 
ing we have farther declared that lie was anointed to thole Offices which be- 
longed to the J/f/^-«5, and aftually did and doth Hill jx-rform them all; and 
that his anointing was by the immediate effufion of the Spirit, which anl'wer- 
eth fully tcfall things required in theLegal and Typical Un6tion : I cannot 
ice what farther can be expefted for explication or confirmation of this 
Truth, that Jefus ts the Chriji. 

The neceifity of believing this part of the Article is moft apparent, becaufe 
it were* impoflible he fhould be our Je//^, except he were the Chrift. For he 
could not reveal the way of Salvation, except he were a Prophet ; he could 
not work out that Salvation revealed, except he were a Prieft ; he could 
not confer that Salvation upon us, except he were a. King; he could not 
be Prophet, Prieft, and King, except he were the Chrisi. This was the 
fundamenraldoftrine which the Apoftles not only teftified, as they did thax 
of the Refurreftion, but argued, proved, and demonffrated out of the Law 
and the Prophets. We find S. P^«/at Thefjaiomca three Sabbath-days reafon- Alls i-j. ?, e,', 
ing with them out of the Scriptures^ opening and alkdging that Chrifl muTt 
f2ecds have fujfered, and riftn Again from the dead ; and that this Jefn^s whom I 
preach unto yoa, is Chrifi. We find him again at Corinth prejjed infpirit^md te- ck. ig. ^. 
fiifying to thejews^ that "Jefus wasChriJt. Thus Apullos, by birth a Jew, but in- 
ftrufted in the Chriftian Faith by Aqttila and Prifcilla, mightily convinced the Verf. 28. 
Jews^ and that publickly^ffjemng by the Script ures^ that Jefus was ChrifL This 
was the Touchftone by which all men at firft were tried whether they were 
Chriftian or Antichriftian. For whofoever belitveth, faith S. John,that jefus is 
the Chrifl, is born of God. What greater commendation of the alTertion of 
this Truth? Who is a liar, faith the fame Apoftle, but he that denied that Je fits 
is the Chrifl ? This man is the Antichrijl, as denying the Father and the Son^ 
What higher condemnation of the negation of it ? 

Secondly, as it is neceffary to be believed as a moft fundamental Truth, fb 
it hath as necelTary an influence upon our converfations ; becdufe except it 
hath fb, it cannot clearly be maintained. Nothing can be moreabfurd in a 
disputant, than to pretend to demonftrate a Truth as infallible, and at the 
fame time to fhew it impofhble. And yet fb doth every one who profcfTcth 
Faitii InChrifl already come, and livethnot according to that profelfion : for 
thereby he provcth, as far as he is able, that the true C^jrif is not yet come, 
at lea ft that Jefiis is not he. We fuflicicntly demonftrate to the Jews that our 
Saviour, who did and futferedfb much, is the true ^Ut;;^/?; ; but by our fives 
we recal our arguments, and ftrengthcn their wiltul oppofition. For there 
was certainly a Promife, that when Chri/l fhould come, thetvoif jhould dwell /A- u.^. 
with the lamh, and the leopard fhould lie down with the kid, and the calf and 
the yvii?7g lion and the fat ling together, and a little child jhould lead them; that 
is, there fhould be fo much love, unanimity and brotherly kindnefs in the 
Kingdom o'iChrifl-, that all ferity and inhumanity being laid afide, the molf 
dilTerent natures and inclinations fhould come to the fweeteif harmony and 
agreement. Whereas if we look upon our felves, we muft confcfs there was 
never more bitternefs of fpirit, more rancour of malice, more heat of conten- 
tion, more man ife ft lymptoms of envy, hatred, and all uncharitabienels, 
than in thofe which make profcftion of the Chriftian Faith. It was infallibly 
foretold, that when the law fhould go forth out of ZJon, and the word of the Lord ch. 2. 3, 4. 
fromJerufulcWj they fboidd heat thtir f words, into plough-fljarcs. it nd their f pears 




into pruning-hooks : nattjn jhotild not lift up fword againjl nation, mithtr 
jhoulci thty' learn war any more. Whereas there is no other Art To much flu- 
dieJ, fb mucli applauded, \'o violently averted, not only as lawful, but asne- 
ceirary. Look upon the face of Chrilkndom divided into feveral Kmgdoms 
and Principalities^ what are all theie butfo many publick Enemies, either ex- 
ercifini; or dehj^ning War ? The Church was not more famous, or did more 
cncreaie, by the iirll blood which was llied in the Primitive times through 
the external violence of tenPerlecutions, than now 'tis infamous,and declines 
through conftant violence, fraud and rapine, through publick engagements 
of the greatell Empires in Arms, through civil anJ uitellinc Wars, and, left 
any way of fliedding Chriitian blood fhould be unafTayed, even by Mallacres. 
Zach. 13. 2. It was likewile prophefied of the days of the Mtfrn, that all Idolatry fhould 
totally ccafe, that all falfe Teachers Ihould be cut off, and unclean Ipirits re- 
jrrained. And can we think that the Javs, w ho really abhor the thoughts of 
vvorlliipping an Image, can ever be perfuaded there is no Idolatry committed 
in t!ie Chriitian Church ? Or can we excufe our felves in the leaft degree 
from the plague ot the Locuflsof £g//'/, the falfe Teachers? Can fo many 
Schifms and SeO:s arile, and (pread, can lb many Hercfics be acknowledged 
and countenanced, without falfe Prophets and unclean fpirits ? If then we 
would return to the bond of true Chriftian Love and Charity, if we would 
appear truelovcrs of Peace and Tranquillity, if we would truly hate the abo- 
minations of Idolatry, falle Doftrine and Herefie, let us often 
what we ever profels in our Creed, that Jefus is the CZ/m/, that the Kingdoni 
of the Mtfjt.ts cannot confilf with thefe Impieties. 

Thirdly, the ncceiTity of this Belief appeareth irt refpecl of thofe Offices 
which belong to '^jefus as he is the Chrift. We muft look upon him as upon 
the Prophet anointed by God to preach the Golpel, that wc may be incited 
to hear and embrace his Do£lrine. Though Mofes and Elias be together with 
him in the Mount, yet the Voice from Heaven fpeaketh of none but "Jefus, 
Mtt. 17. 5. Hear ye him. He is that Wifdom, the delight of God, crying in the Froverhy 
Prn-. 8. 34. Bltljedis the man that heareth n.e, watching daily at my gates , waiting at the 
iMlie 10. 42, po/ls of my doors. There is one thing needful, laith our Saviour ; and Mary choft 
39- that good fart-, who fate at Jtfus feet, and heard his words. Which devout pofture 

tcacheth us, asa willingnefs to hear, fb a readinefs to obey : and the proper 
etfetl which the belief of this Prophetical Office worketh in us, is our Obedi- 
ence of Faith. We muft farther confider him as our High Prieft, that we 
Heb. 10. 19, may thereby add Confidenceto that Obedience. For we have holdnefs to en- 
21,22. fgr into the Holtefl by the blood ofjeftis; y&2i, having an Htgh-prttjl over tf/e 

hoitfe of God, rv£ may draw near with a true' heart in full affurance cf Faith. And 
as this breedeth an adherence and affurance in us, fo it requiretha refignation 
of us. For \'i Christ have redeemed us, we are his ; if he died for us, it was 
1 Cor. 6. 20. that wc Oiould live to him : if we be bought wtth aprice, we are no longer 
our own ; but we muft glorific God in our body and in our fpirit, which are God's. 
Again, an apprehenfion of him as a King is necclfary for the performance of 
Tfi. 16. 1. our true and entire allegiance to him. Send the lamb of the Ruler of the earthy 
do him homage, acknowledge him your King, Hiew your felves faithful and 
obedient fubjctls. We can pretend, and he hath required, no lefs. As foon as 
3/rff.28.i3,io. he let the Apoftlcsunderfland t\\^x. All power was given unto him in heaven and 
in earth, he charged them to teach all nations, to obfirve all things whatfoever 
he commanded them. Can we imagine he fhould fb ftridly en)oyn fiibjeclion 
to htgher powers, the highcfl: of whom are here below, and that he doth not 
CXped exaft obedience to him who is exalted /jr td>ove all principalities and 
fowersy and isfet down at the right hind of God? It is obiervable, that in the 


And In Jesus Christ. 103 

Defcription oF the coming of the Son of man, it is (aid, The Kj»g Pja'l fay 
tmto them on his right hand., Come ye blejfed of my Father, inherit the Kingdom pre- 
f.ired for you : which title as it Iccures hope, in refpeft of his power; as it 
magnifies our reward by the excellency of our inheritance ; fb alio it teach- 
eth us the indifpenfable condition of Obedience. 

Fourthly, the belief of ^f//<i the Chrtfi is necedary toinftruQius what it is 
to be a Chriftian, and how far we fland obliged by owning that name. Thofe ^.^^^ 
who did firft embrace the Faith were ftyled * Difcipks, (as when the number ^Forveben'our 
ofDifcipks TPas multiplied,^ or Believers, or Brethren, or || men of the Church , or ^"■'vi^wgave 
Callers upon the name of Chrijl, or '^ men of the rvay \ or by their Enemies, fVX"^^?L, 
Nazarens^ and Galileans. But in a fliort time they gained a Name derived Trofijfivln h 
from their Saviour, though not from thatname of his which lignifieth Salva- ''*l"''*°?'',j 
tion ; for from Chrift they were called P^riflians. A title lb honourable, dru, go make 
and of fuch concernment, that S. Luke hath thought fit to mention the City ^'! 5^^"°'?' '*'' 
in which that name firft: was heard. || And the Difci pies were called ^l^icuJiiZr- 
firsiat Jntioch, as theScripturesalTure us ; fb named by Euodi/(s the Bifhop of ''"^ 'he oof>d 
that place,as Ecclefiaftical Hiftory inform us. Ananle nofooner invented,but "J^^^lfe^^'^ 
embraced by all Believers, as bearing the moft proper fignification of their r^hkhwen 
Profeflion, and relation to the Author and Mafler whom they ferved. In '"J^''^ 'dTwm 
which the Primitive Cliriftians fb much delighted, that before the face o^TuZnlm'^ 
their enemies they would acknowledge * no other Title but tliat, though ha- Ms^ol'^^^y- 
ted, reviled, tormented, martyred for it. Nor is this Name of greater ho- ly'^nameZbl 
nour to us, than obligation. There are two parts of the Seal\)f the founda- tmi fxx^nla}, 
tion of God, and one of them is this, *Let every one that nameth the name of'If"'^"!^^.^!'^ 
Chrifl depart from iniquity. It was a common anfwcr of the Ancient Martyrs, tes, or'dinmiiy 
II lama Chriftian, and with m no evtlis done. The very name was thought to DiicipuiL m*- 
fpeak fomething of * emendation ; and whofoever put it on, became the bet-. ^J'^^^^^J.' 
ter man. Except fuch Reformation accompany our Profeffion, there is no t^^u-tii <w^ 
jl advantage in the appellation ; nor can we be honoured by that title, while ^^"k^ -L*^ 
we difhonour him that gives it. Ifhe be therefore called Christ, becaufe a- ^,,^^^^5. ' 
nointed ; ar v\ e derive the name o{ Chriftian, Co do wx receive our '^ Unftion, «VS^2 ''^ i' 
from him. For as '■' the prectom ointment upon the head ran down upon the beard, '^^^^J^yf^f^^l 
even Aaroris heard, and went down to the skirts of his garments : fb the Spirit, w^' f^h^v 
which without meafure was poured upon Chrift our head, is by himditfuled '^^^^'^'^^^. 
through all the members of his || body. For '^ God hath eflablifbed and anointed ^.s^f cJ-t4 <ii 
us in Chrifl : ^ We have an unuiion from the Holy One, and the anointing <vhich ^ot-otm, >l.^ 
we have received from him abideth in us. Necedary then it cannot chufc but ,*", ^^ </)\'*. 
be, that wcfhouldknow^e/wjto be the Chrifl •■ becaufe as he is I'efus, that K<tA,- *a>i9k- 
is, our Saviour, by being Chrift, that is, anointed ; fo we can have no fliare f ' ^"^ C ^^ 
inhimasjft////, except we become truly CAr/'/?/<i»j, andfobein liimasC^Av/, ihw then, in 
* anointed with that Unftion from the Holy One. '*'" W«'';f »/" 

■' the Saipt^res 

fiAbnliJHv rivi. is to make a Difcipic ; m y.dL^n]^mLy]i( ho-vii. Alls 14. 21. /wA-^iilrft'Hc tivI, to be a Di ciplp; as 
Jofcpli o/Arimathxa s^ct.jHTi5l'(ri -rxS'lns'*, M^u 27.57. iJi.a.iii}djSltjiauthe fvnc ; its ■y^a.ut/.ctldjt nu.SiO-i' "•' "( '^ '^*" 
ciKtijLv 'T^! ieg^vav, Mtit. \7,. 52. Thw nAii(](L^lMaji TT.t Kt/e<V, «'/'«'"/'■''*> ■i'-E'ifil '/s Baptifiiutc, ir/j'/I-m/i- :/, "On 
J'H Tf~Toi' iJ.a.^»ld^%j:aj'n,\ Kueif;), >y tstj xotT*;/(u9Uia< -rw ajiw Hv^^VKruLo}^^^, •tccouiwg f) our Saiiciirs method, 
/fence thij'e which were firll converted to the Faith were called ixa.^i{]a), as the Difciplcs of Chrift their Diilor and M.tfter. \\ Oi 
^ rvt lv,y.Kv(ni( as when Herod flrctched forth his hand nanatT-A rivat 7^ ^ f lii.KKninaty to milciiiet fome of tliole 
vvhicli were of the Church. * As when Saul went down to Damafcus n/f/' a Commifjion, Sti.< «</■■ ntat sufii Tnt 5/i< 
"fivlm a.vS'^at T5 K, ywixiKcti, cAeA«V«< otjit-j/ii ti( 'Isfa9«\)V. A'-ts 9. 2. we tranflaie it. -any ottliiswjy, whentherc was 
>:.) tvay mentioned lowhich the Pronoun x.hii/fio.ild have relation ; n^r is n iJls in (jrccliany innu- than tlic way. ^0 when S, Paul 
went to the Synagogue at Cotmth. divers were hardned and believed not, K^Kohoyiit^is ■5' o-Hv itarioi' n tAi'iAk 1 Aiils 19.9. 
t>ere wc traiijlaie it, fpakc evil of that way ; but Bcza has left bn Articulus pronominis vice lungirur, which hehad jtom Erafmus, 
and iiathoiherwifefuiflied it, male loqucntcs de via Dei : and the Old Tranflation, which in the jorrtier had huiii^ ^i.t, in tbit 
/i./f/?y/m''/ymalcdicentcsvix' : andceriainly i hJU is noth n^ but the way. Again, at Eplicfus s>*ri"o ^ xj' ■r khj^v a^i.i'iov 
TdfityQ- ix. oKiyf^ tafei i els'*. Alls 19. 25. de via, K. TranjI. Bc'ia agjin ob viam Dei, but it is notbini but, the vv.iy. Tins 
Va:\KfHtoff S.\'A\x\,a.KeiC'i<pie^v tijioi Tec lAi 'f o/«,tiil he had a more cxaft knowledge of the way,r.7?.i«//.dc via luc i Bc^a, 
ad ftftam iftam. Whereat th<n thephrafe m fofimply and fo frequently the fame, it can be notbini elfe but tht word then inufe ti)jignify 



thiR:li.jonnhichth:C.lniyumsp(>fcJicd. Andjlpmc.tipoftheAr.cierrs feem to ff<il:tn,^ ,is .iplvars b, the Lingu.t,e of thi 

iJb*- Eileb. j7///./. s-f. I li-i- iM\xntiteihiheflace,but reither the time xthen, tKr per fon h rthm this rnime rv,ts ii-icii. Tertul- 
Yunfeems fo/n.i'f if tis uncknt ai the icign o/ Tiberius, /ipl;i. c. 5. Tiberius ergo, cujus tempore nomen Chriftianura in le- 
culum iiicroivit." Bur Ianc;:v: indeed he fpcal^s not ojthe name, but of the Reliiicn : forfo he may rveU be timght to exp-ouiid hiw- 
/f//",/;i)'n2')vi.i/w,Ccnriisilliusdifciplini, ut jam cdidimus, a Tibcrio eft, c.-j. However, the name of Chriftianis nit f» 
<j«m'n/rf.f Tiberius, MT.,iis lihir\, ns Caius. Some ancient Author in suidasdjOifu'i us, that it rrat firji named in the rei^n of 
Chnd'mwi^henii.Veia had vdained EuodiusB//lop o/Antioch. TWofj «''/ ^ KKiwJi>s^^it(n\'ia('l'aiJL)i(,T\iTfii n ^si\» 
yifeTai{ia3.t')& 'Ev'of^ov, ui]a>»iydi^nmv, »l -raKat M-}iu?fJoi Ns^n^tTo/ ly ra.hiKtuei. Xetgti.>i>i. inid. in^a^^^^r^ 
and in Xci^*< ol- And JoluiiiKS Aiitiocl;enus confirms not onl^jhc time,but tells us Ihat that Euodiui the Hifliip vpiu the Author of the 
nxme. Ksu ShaSiri {i\\<wJi^)\etcj:fKil aycu^i&rtcni; Tiiwii diiTXCTn Ei/'o/lu Tf ,-(n>jx/Ai'io«ti'l©- iw7«i< 19 th%m^^^Q- 
aujidif TOotouxTyro'-'rf'ibjjyi \ai^u^hnc,Ta.KiKitot ly,xKtv\a ei Xe/S7a»of. Thus the name ofChriftianrcas frfl brought 
into life 3t Amioch,*) Euudiusf/w Bifiopofthe place, and hath ever fmcc been continued as the moll proper appellation which could 
b' given unto our Profefion, being derived from the Autlior and Finifhcr of our Faith. At nunc Scfta orditur in nomine utique 
fiji Autoris. Quid novi (i aliqua difciplina de Magiftro cognomentum Seftatoribus fuis inducit ? Nonne Philofoplii de Au- 
toribusfuis nunciipantur Platonici,Epicurci, Pytiiagorici ? Etiam a locisconventiculorum & ftationum fuarumStoici, Acade- 
luici ? NcqucMediri ab Erafiilrato, & Grammatici ab Ariftarcho, Coci ctiam ab Apicio ? Netjue tamen quenquam offendic 
proftfllonominis cuminllicutionctranfmiiraabinllitutore. Tertut.Apolog.c.^. * Asrre read oj iin&ui, a Deacon at Yienot, in 
ahitperfecutionoj the French Church, «/.'3, being in the midjl of tortures, was troubled with feveral Quejiions, which the Gentiles 
tifially tlxn asked, to try if tl)ey could extort any confefm of any wicked anions praUifcd fecretly by the Chriftians ^jet would not 
give iihy other Ainfwer to any queflion, than that he was a Chriftian. Ttaaxnii mi^?tifi arli^Tafijci'^^'jo ajjrolf, asi fjLnn 
t3 ifiot Ktlimtiii ovofji^, (/I'lTS S9c« ijiiTi rroKiaioSiV LtJ'>jW)''TS_« cTbA®" m £^€u'9«f@- ««• aMa 'rg}( ■^ra.via.Ta. i'S^u- 
T<i/j!>/Ja.ciTiKeivu}t> T^i'Pf''IJ.-j'iK.T< ^ati:,Xei^cli/'offifJil' •tSt* 10 eivri oyoixa]©-, ly dvri -roMaif, j^ ttKT/ ;»>»(, x^ dfTi 
-javr Of i T«>^)iA«« auohiyi. Eullb.jV^h£«/./.5.c.i . The fame doth S. Cliryfoftome tefiifeofs. Lucian: Uoioi Si rralilj"©- ; 
XeisTzfcjwjw./, ?ii^'" 71 Vx,"f '^'"""^"'M* j Xeis7*i'^< •*/^' ■ jiv 04 -rf.yifiK ; p ^^( S.-j<i.t']a. ihi-^, on Xe/pii-ot 
tiixi. ' 2 Tim. 2. 1 5. Il io Blandina (n the French ferfeciition : U^twf dv*Ktt-li( !o indriwnf k, dycthyn^t t^ QvnCaivoy- 
T'j-/. t8 hkyiv oTi Xa^citii"i^i,>y TAf nyHtiSivtffwKtviivilaj. Eulcb. /fiJhEcc 1. 1. 5. f. i." * Alii qiios ante hoc nomen 
vagob, viltj, improbos noverant, ex ipio dtnotant quoJ laudant, cjcitate odii in fuffragium impingnn:. (iv.x mulicr ! quam 
lalcival quam fclliva! qui juvenis! quanilaUivus ! quam amafius ! fafti funt CMT/ii/iw; ; ita nomen emendationis imputatur. 
TertiiU. hTotum inid rcvolvitur, ut qui Chrirtianinominis opus non agit, Chriftianusnon effe vidcatur. Nomen cnim fine 
aiJtu atque officio fiio iiiliil e(l. Salvian de Proud. 1. 4. '£<»» t/< t3 ofo/xi \nCtSr n 3teisr«K/irju» o»t/;8e»^!i r X^^'f ''^^ 
«3?X'5- oju'-nv' i-rr -^ 'a^fmyei-ii- ■^■ Amphiloch. * Chrillianus vero, quantum interpretatio unftionededucitur. 
Tertull. Apohi. c. ?. " Pf'l- 1 ? ?• 2- Pnde apparct Cltrifli corpus nos eflc, qui omnes ungimur, & omnes in illo & Chrifli & 
C*r/y?«frumus,quiaquodaiTimodototusr./)){/^/(x caput & corpus eft. S.<4«^H/ Pfal.26. ' 2 Cor. 1.21. J i Joh.2,2o,2T. *T<i<- 
jtcfif nijfii Tim f^tir.* )c«A»V-9* Xe<t7a,!'oJ, 3t/ j^a/o(X59i ihjuti &ii. Theophilus adAutot. /. 1. 

Thus having run through all the Particulars at firft defigned for the expli- 
cation of the title C7;r//?, \vc may at laft clearly exprefs, and every Chriftian 
eafily undcrlland, what it is we fay when we make our Confeflion in thefe 
words, 1 hditve in Jefus Chrift. I do affent unto this as a certain truth, that 
there was a man promiled by God, foretold by the Prophets to be the Mti^as, 
the Redeemer oUfrae/, and the expeftation of the Nations. I am fully affured 
by all thole prediftions that the MejJiM fo promifed is already come. I am as 
certainly pcrfwaded, that the man born in the days of Herod of the Virgin 
Mary, by an Angel from Heaven called Jefts, is that tiw^Meffias.^ lb long, {q 
often promifed : that, as the MeJJias, he was anointed to three fpecial OiTiccs, 
belonging to him as the Mediator between God and man : that he was a Pro- 
phet, revealing unto us the whole will of God for the Salvation of man; 
that he wasaPrieft, and hath given himfclf a Sacrifice for fin, and io hath 
made an atonement for us ; that he is a King, fct down at the right hand of 
God, .far above all Principalities and Powers, whereby, when he hath fub- 
dued all our enemies, he will confer a£lual, perfe£l and eternal Happinefs 
upon us. I bcHevethis Unftion by which he became the true Mejjias was 
not i>erformcd by any material Oyl, but by the Spirit of God, whi^h he re- 
ceived as the Head, and conveyeth to his Members. And in this full ac- 
knowledgment, I believe tn Jejtts Chrijij 


His Only Son. 


AFtcr our Saviour's Nomination immediately followeth his Filiation : and 
juftly, after we have acknowledged him to be the Chr/Jt, do we coa- 
tels him to be the So» of God; becaufe thefe two were ever inleparable, and 
even by the Jews themfelves accounted equivalent. Thus Nathanael, that 
true Ifraelite, maketh his confeflion of the Meffioi) Rabhi ^ thou art the Son Johm.^^, 
of God, thou art the Kjng of Ifrael. Thus Martha makes exprelHon of her John 11.27. 
Faith ; / believe that thou art the Chrifi., the Son of God, which fhould come 
into the world. Thus the High-prieft maketh his inquifition ; / adjure thee by Matth. 26. 63. 
the living God, that thou tell us whether thou he Chrijl., the Son of God. This 
was the- famous ConfelTion of S. Peter ; We believe and are fure that thou art John 6. 6^. 
that Chrifit the Son of the living God. And the Gofpel of S. John M'as there- John 20. 31. 
fore written, that we might believe that Jefus is the Chrijl, the Son of God. 
Certain then it is that all the ^^w^-, ' as they looked for a Me/fas to come, 
fb they believed that Mefjias to be the Son of God .• (although fince the co- 
ming of our Saviour they have * denied itj and that by reafon of a conftant *f'":»'*«'"Ccl- 
interpretation of the fecondPfalm, as appropriated unto him. And the Prir ofa"]cw,iild 
mitive Chriftiansdid at the very beginning include this filial Title of our Sa- Jpoien thefe 
viour together with his names into the compafs of|J one word. Well there- fjaf!^'^,^'^^' 
fore, after we have exprelTed our Faith in Jefus Chrijl, is added that which « 'lig^m^v- 
had ib great affinity with it, the only Son of God. '^''^ -^'^^'Ot 

v^ oaiav xei]i)f, i^ ■^^ dfiKav MhcL^f, Ongen fays they were mojl improperly attributed to a Jew, who did look_indeed 
for a Meffiai, but not for the Son of God, i, e. not under the notion of a Son. 'la/ai©- j *y. *V ofxtMyvKrax ox/ -rspipHTm rif 
tiftv M;**!" 05K i|ov ■ -^hAyvrnv 22ic, or/ mJ" o Xeifof tS 05?' i^ rroT^AKK j C,»Txin Tg.«< »/u:5cv5-«t 'oc^ ^^ (''u, a< 
iJinit hi©- roiiits iJi •T^-ij))7<)!.96f';®-- Adv. Cetf I. i. \\ That k, I X T 2. Nos pifciciili fecunduni 'I t^^vSi noftrum 
Jefum Clirillum in aqua nafcimur. Tertul. de Bapt. c. i. which U thm interpreted hi Optacus , Cujus pifcis nonitn fccunduiu 
appellationem Grxcani in uno nomine per fmgulas litcras turbam fanAorum nominum concinet, «x9wV; quod eft Latiiic, 
jeliis Chriftus Dei tilius Salvacor, //*. 3. 

In thefe words there is little variety to be obferved, except that what we 
tranflate the * only Son, that in the phrafe of the Scripture and the Greek * J^^ intines 
Church is, the only begotten. It is then fufficient for the explication of thele /"„^. 'tf^Zl^d 
words, to fhew how Chrijl is the Son of God, and what is the peculiarity of Unicum. so 
his Generation ; that when others arc alfo the fbns of God, he alone fhould f^^^Jl'^f^if^ [." 
fb be his Son, as no other is or can be fb j and therefore he alone fliould have jus: which u 
the name of the only begotten. /' -'•"' f"'" '"' 

■^ <^ //y m hu appre- 

henfion the fmie with unigenitus, that he refers it as well to Lord at Son. Hie ergo Jefus Cliriflus, filius unicus Dei, (]uj d\ & 
Dominus nofter unicus, & ad filium referri & ad dominuni potcft. So St. Augult. in Enchnidio, c. ■^^. 'ind Leo, Epifl. 10. 
Which k therefore to be obferved, becaufe in the ancient Copies of thofe Epi^tes , the word unicum WiH not to be fund ; as appear- 
eth by the dijccurfc o/Vigilius, who, in the fourth Book_againfl Eutyclics, h.tth thefe words: Ula priniitusuno diluens vokimiiie 
qa* Lcoiiis objiciuncur Epifiote, cujus iioc fibi primo capitulum irte nefcio quis propofuic -, Hdciium Univerfitas proritcrur 
credere fe in Denm Tatrcm omnipotcntem, & in Jefum Chriftum, filium ejus, Domiaum noflrum. TDat which he aims at 
k the icnih Epijile of Leo, in which thofe words are found, but with the addition of unicnm, which, as it fecmt, then was not there ; 
as appears yet further by the words which follow : Miror tamen quomodo hunc locum ille noravic , & ilium pr.wcrmifit, ubi 
unici filii commcmorationcm idem Beatus Leo tacit , dicciis, Idem vtro fempirerni cenicoris unigenitus fempitcrnus, natus 
de Spirifu S. ex Mari.i Vir^ine ; which words are not to be found in the lame EpilUe. Nmf^eier it was in the fir ft Copies n/ Leo ; 
bath Uuffinus, and Sj. Auguiiine, who were before him, and Maximus Taurineniis, Cliryfo ogus, Ethcrius and Beatus, rvbo were 
later, readit, & in jefum Chriftum, filium ejus unicum. But the wordufedin the Scriptures, and kept (onjlantly by the Greclis, 
is jjLOiioj^ris, the oiily-bcgotten. 

Firft then, it cannot be denied that ^/'r//? isthe<S'o« of God, for that rcafbn, || For the ori- 
bccaule he was by the Spirit ofGod born of the Virgin Mary; for which ^^r^'-ljvX^. 
is conceived (or || begotten) in her, by the teftimony of an Angel, » of the Holy nn/'iisihe ob- 
Ghojl;2iT\di becaufe of him, therefore the Son of God. For lb fnake the An- (i'lfT ''/•^• 

Ttu, TO )(i;«9tf, ei^i,ri 't^vMy. Indeed the Vulvar Tanflatiw renders it, quod in ca natum eft, and in S. Luke, quod na- 
fcctur fandtum ; and it mufl be confeffed this was the tnofi ancient Tranflation. For f) Tcrtullian rcail it, i\r virgincm dicitis tia- 

^ turn, 


lum non rx virekie & in vulva, non ex vulva, quia &. AngcUis in foninis ad Jofeph,A"<»m qmd w ea natum eft, mqm:,deSp.S,el}. 
DeCMiieChrijiic ig.MdoftbM in i. Luke, H-tc & abAngelo exceperac fecundiuiinolbumEvangdium.i'roi'wert^wrf in ;<• 
Mfcetur locabimUn'Jum. ftlim Dei. adv. Marcion. /.4.C.7. Tet quod in ea natum eft cam"! be proper, volute it isyt in the womb ; 
nlr r ,n f/..- chilJtirl} b' Uid to be bwn, and then that the mother fli.tll bring it forth. 'Tts true indeed, -Jlf^ySr iignijies not altvap to 
bccet butfmettiTK! to bear w bring fortlr, ai ti ymn C«< EA/5K/5iT i/JS'nui ^'>v (^01, i,r(<y i 15. nnrf 1^,57. «, t^Kt« n-r. ia 
-jS --5 ■ Uff* ii/jfnM& 6» B»9^st/K, Matth. a. i . mw/? ntcejfarity be mderjhodofCbrift\ nativity Jir it is mofi certain that he was 
not bciotten or conceived at Betlilcheni And this without quejlion muii be the meaning of HctodS in'fuiOtion, -ri Xc ,^< i^vtircuy 
where the Mejias tvai to be born. But though -^ttv haxefomeiiine the Jignipcaiinn oj bearing or bringmg fonli ; )ct to i* aiiju 
'hjtnUv cannot be f) inteipreteJ,becauJe it fpeakj offomething as},when as yet wot not born ; and though the conception was 
already p.ift and m tranjlate it fo, vvliicli is conceived i yet S. Bafil rejeSs that interpretation, -^f^y is one thing , Qu>^eLn0cunr 
anothfr. Seeing then the S.uivit} was not yet come, and '^vn^lh fpea^s of fometbing already pajl ,there)ore the old Iranflation is mt 
tflod qiiod in ea natum eft. Seeing, though tht Conception indeed were pajl, yet -^vS-v Pgnifeth not to conceive, andfo is not 
frobtVZ to be interpreted, that Wiiich io conceived ; feeing ifjviv ismoji properly to beget, as v t?</c«7/)cii the generative faculty: 
tbereme I conceive the fttej} interpretation of thofe words, 70 0* tuurTt -yjuniSic , that which is begotten in her. Wni becaufetbe 
An'tl in S, Luke fpeal^s of the fame thing, therefore I interpret t3 i^ni/^ot In. C*» '" 'he fame manner, that which is begotten of 

gel to the Virgin ; The Holy Ghofi /ha/I come tipn thee., and the power of the 
Hr^hefi fijall overfhadow thee : Therefore al/o that holy thing which jh all he born 
of thee (or, \fhich Is begotten of thet)fhall he called, the Hon oj God. And the rea- 
fon is clear, becaufe that the Holy Ghqft is God. For were he any Creature, 
and not God himlelf, by whom our Saviour was thus born of the Virgin, he 
murt have been the bon of a Creature, not of a God. 

Secondly, it is undoubtedly true, that the fame C/;r/y?, thus born of the 
Virgin by the Spirit of God, wasdefigned to fo high an Office by the fpecial 
and immediate will of God, that by virtue thereof hemuft be acknowledged 

Jtbn 10. 54, the Son of God. He urgeth this argument himfelf againft the Jews ; Is it not 

35' 3^- written in yonr Laiv^ I faid, Te are Gods ? Are not thefe the very words of the 

eighty (econd Pfalm ? If he called them Gods, if God himfelf fb fpake, or the 
pjalmift from him, if this be the language of the Scripture, if they be called 
Gods tmto whom the word of God came^ ( and the Scripture cannot he broken^ 
nor 'the authority thereof in any particular denied; j Say ye of him whom the 
Father hath fan^iified and fent into the worlds whom he hath confecrated and 
commidioned to the nriofl: eminent and extraordinary Office -, fay ye of him. 
Thou hlafphemejl., hecaufe If aid I am the Son of God. 

' Tliirdly, Clirifl: muft therefore be acknowledged the Son of God, becaufe 
he is raifed immediately by God out of the earth unto immortal life. For 

^' 13' 3 J* God hath ftiljilled the promife unto its., in that he hath raifed up Jefus again ; as 
it is alfo written in the f econd Pfalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten 
thee. The grave is as the womb of the earth ; Chrifl , who is raifed from 
thence, is as it were begotten to another life ; and God, who raifed him, is 
his Father. So true it muft needs be of him, which is fpoken of others, who 

Luke 20. 16. are the children of God., being the children of the refurreclion. Thus was he defnd^ 

Ram. 1.4. or conjli tilted J and appointed the Son of God with power by the refurreclion from 
the dead : neither is he called fimply the lirfl that rofc, but with a note ©f 

CoL I. 18. generation, the firfi-bo>s from the dead. 

Fourthly, Chrifl, ahcr his rcfurredlion from the dead, is made aftually heir 
of all things in his Father's Houfe,and Lord of all the Spirits whieh minifler 

Heb 1.3,4,5. unto him, from whence he alfo hath the title of the6o» of God. He ufet down 
on the right hand of the Majefiy on high ; Being made fo tnnch better than the 
Angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they. For 
unto which of the Angels fatd he at any time. Thou art my Son, thii day have I 
begotten thee ? From all which teftimonies of the Scriptures it is evident, that 
Chrif hath this fourfold right unto the Title of the Son of God: by genera- 
tion, as begotten of God ; by commiffion, as fent by him ; by refiirrection, 
as the firft-born ; by aftual polTefllon, as heir of all. 

But befide theic four, we mull find yet a more peculiar ground of our Sa- 
viour's Filiation, totally diftinft from any which belongs unto the reft of the 
Sons of God, that he may be clearly and fully acknowledged the only-begotten 


His Only SoNa 207 

Son. For although to be born of a Virgin be in it ielf miraculous, and judly 
entitles Chrtfi unto the Son of God ; yet it is not fb far above the produftion 
of all mankind, as to place him in that fingular eminence which mull be attri- 
buted to tlie only-begotten. We read of Jdam the Son ofGod^ as well as Setb utke g. 3?. 
the Son of Jdam : and liirely the framing Chrifi out of a Woman cannot fb 
fartranfcend the making Jdam out of tlieEarth,as to caufe Co great a diftance 
as we muft believe between the firil and fecond Jdam. Befide, there were 
miny while our Saviour preached on earth who did believe his doftrinc,and 
did confefs him to be the Son of God, who in all probability underftood no- 
thing of his being born of a Virgin ; much le(s did they forefee his rifino- 
from the dead, or inheriting all things. Wherefore fuppofing all thele ways 
by which Pjriji is repreiented to us as the Son of God, we fliall find out one 
more yet, far more proper in it felf, and more peculiar unto him, in which 
no other Son can have the leaft pretence of fhare or of fimilitude, and con- 
fequently in refpefl: of which we muft confefs him the Onlyhegotten. 

To which purpofe I obferve, that the adual poflfeffion of his inheritance, 
which was our fourth title to his Sonfhip, pref uppofes his Refiirreft ion,which 
was the third : and his commiflion to his Office, which was the fecond, pre- 
fuppofeth his generation of a Virgin, as the firft. But I fhall now endeavour 
to find another generation, by whichthefameC^r//? was begotten, and confe- 
quently a Son, before he was conceived in the Virgin's womb. Which that I 
may be able to evince, I fhall proceed in this following Method, as not only 
mofl facile and perfpicuous, but alfomofl: convincing and conclufive. Firft, 
I will clearly prove out of the holy Scriptures, that Jefus Chrifi, born of the 
Virgin Marj, had an aftual being or fubliftence before the Holy Gholf did 
come upon the Virgin, or the power of the Higheft did overlhadovv hen 
Secondly, I will demonftrate from the fame Scriptures, that the being which 
he had antecedently to his conception in the Virgin's womb was not any cre- 
ated being but efTentially Divine. Thirdly, we will fhew that the Divine 
elTencc which he had, he received as communicated to him by the Father. 
Fourthly, we will declare this communication of the Divine nature to be a 
proper generation, by which he which communicateth is a proper Father, 
and he to whom it is communicated, a proper Son, Laflly, we will mani- 
feft that the Divine elTcnce was never communicated in that manner to any 
perfon but to him, that never any was fb begotten befides himfelf, and con- 
lequently , in rcfpeCt of that Divine generation , he is moil properly and 
perfectly the only begotten Son of the Father. 

As for the firft, that Jefts Chrift had a real being or exiftence, by which he 
truly was, before he was conceived of the Virgin Mary, I thus demonftrate. 
He which was really in Heaven, and truly defcended from thence, and came 
into the world from the Father, before that which was begotten of the Vir- 
gin afcended into Heaven or went unto the Father, he had a real being or 
exiftence before he was conceived in the Virgin, and diftinft from that bein^ 
which was conceived in her. This is moft clear and evident, upon thefe 
three fuppofitions not to be denied. Firft, that Chrift did receive no other 
being or nature after his Conception before his Afcenlion, than what was be- 
gotten of the Virgin. Secondly, that what was begotten of the Virgin had it5 
firft being here on Earth, and therefore could not really be in Heaven till it 
alcendcd thither. Thirdly, that what was really in Heaven, really was; be- 
caufe nothing can be prefent in any place, which is not. Upon thefe fuppofi- 
tions, certainly true, the firft propofition cannot be denied. Wherefore I af- 
fume •, Jefus Chrtfi was really in Heaven, and truly defcended from thence, 
and came into the World from the Father, before that which was begotten of 

P 2 the 


the Virgin aiccnded into Heaven, or went unto the Father ; as I fliall parti- 
cularly prove by the exprefs words oi' the Scripture. Therefore I conclude, 
that Jtfus Chrift had a real being or exillence beibre he was conceived in the 
Virgin, and diltincl from that being which was conceived in lier. Now that 
he was really in Heaven before heafcended thither, appeareth by Iiis own 
words to his Dilciples , IVhdt and if youfljallfeetheSonof nun afandupnheie 
iiHin'ri '.' as f^^ '^-^-^ htfore ? For he ipeaketh of a real alcenfion, lijch as was to be leen or 
it came to pifs, looked upon , fuch as th.ey might view asSpedators. The place to which 
^^t-JliT '•'^^'- ^^cenfion tended was truly and really the Heaven of heavens. The 
A;h 1.9. ' Verb liibllantive, not otherwile uied, fufficiently teftifieth, not a figurative, 
»«" ^- but a real, being, elpecially confidering the oppofition in the word l^efore. 
Whether we look upon the time of I'peaking, then prelent, or the time of his 
alcenfion, then to come, his being or exifting in Heaven was l>efore. Nor is 
this now at lall dcnied,that he was in Heaven before the alcenfion mentioned 
in thefe words, but that he was there before he afcended at all. We fhall 
therefore farther fliew that this afcenfion was the firft ; that what was born of 
the Virgin was never in Heaven before this time of which he fpeaks : and be- 
ing in Heaven before this afcenfion, he muft be acknowledged to have been 
there before he alcended at all. If Chrift had afcended into Heaven before 
hisdeath,and defcended from thence, it had been the moft remarkable aftion 
in all his life, and the proof thereof of the greateft efficacy toward thcdiffe- 
minating of the Gofpel. And can we imagine fo Divine an action of lb high 
concernment could have paiTed, and none of the Evangehlh ever make men- 
tion of it ? Thofe which are lb diligent in the defcription of his Nativity and 
Circumcifion, his oblation in the Temple, his reception by Symeon, his adora- 
tion by the Wile men ; thole which have defcribed his defcent into ^E^//"/; 
would they have omitted his aicent into Heaven ? Do they tell us ofthe wii- 
dom which he (hewed when he difputed with the Doftors ? and were it not 
worthy our knowledge whether it were before he was in Heaven or after? 
The diligent leeking of Jofeph and Metry, and her words when they found 
Lukei.eiZ. him, «So/2, why hasi thou dealt fo with i4s ? fliew that he had not been miffing 
from them till then,and confequently not afcended into Heaven. After that he 
went dow n to jVaz,areth, znd waifttbje[l unto them : and I underftand not how 
he Ihoukl alcend into Heaven, and at the fame time be fubjeft to them; or 
there receive his Commillion and Inftruftions as the great Legate of God, 
orEmbalTador from Heaven, and return again unto his old fubjeftion; and 
afterwards to go to John to be baptized of him,and to expe£t the defcent of 
the Spirit for his Inauguration. Immediately homjordan he is carried into the 
Wildernefs to be tempted of the Devil : and 'twere flrange if any time could 
iVrfrt I. :?. then be found for his Alcenfion : for he w.u forty days in the wildtrtiefs^ and 
certainly Heaven is no fuch kind of place ; he was all that time with the beajls, 
who undoubtedly are none of the celefiial Hierarchy ; and tempted ofSatan^ 
whole dominion reacheth no higher than the Air. Wherefore in thofe forty 
days Christ afcended not into Heaven , but rather Heaven defcended unto 
Marl^ 1. 13. jiim ; for the Jn^tls mini find unto htm. After this he returned in the power of 
Lm.k< 4. 14. ,/^g spirit into Galttte^ and there exercifcd his Prophetical Office : after which 
there is not the leaft pretence of any reafbn for his Afcenfion. Bcfide, the 
whole frame of this tntecedent or preparatory Afcenfion off^rijl is not only 
railed without any written teftimony of the Word, or unwritten teffimony 
of Tradition , but is without any reafon in it felf, and contrary to the re- 
vealed way of our Redemption, For what reafon fhould Chnjt afcend into 
Heaven to know the will of God, and not be known to afcend thither? Cer- 
tainly the Father could reveal his will unto the Son as well on earth as in Hea- 

His Only Son. ioq 

ven. And if men mull be ignorant of his afcenfion, to what purpofe fhould 
they fay he alcended, except they imagine either an impotency in the Father, 
ordidatisfailion in the Son ? Nor is this only aiferted without realbn, butal- 
fo again II that rule to be obferved by Chriji as he was anointed to the Sacer- 
dotal Oifice. For the Holy of holies made with hands was tht figure of the true, f/^i, „, , 
(that is, Htave/i it ftlf) into which the High-frieft alone went once every year : 7. 

and C^nji as our High-prieft entredtn once into the holy place. If then they de- ' ^* 

ny CJjrift was a Prieft before he preached the Gofpel^ then did he not enter 
into Heaven, becaufe the High-prieft alone went into the type thereof, the 
Holy of holies. If they confels he was, then did he not afcend till after his 
death, becaufe he was to enter in but once^ and that not without blood. 
Wherefore being C^r/Tif afcended not into Heaven till after his death, being he 
certainly was in Heaven before that afcenfion, we have fufficiently made 
good that part of our Argument, that f/e/^ Chrift was in Heaven before that 
which was begotten of theVirginafcended thither.Now that which followeth 
will both illultrate and confirm it ; for as he was there, fo he defcended from 
thencebefore he alcended thither. This heoften teftifieth and inculcateth of 
himlelf: The bread of God is he which cometh doxvn from heaven \ and, lam j^f,^ 5. -itj 
theliving bread which camt down from heaven. He oppofeth himfelf unto the 
Manna in the Wildernefs, which never was really in Heaven, or had its Ori- 
ginal from thence. Mofes gave you not that bread from heaven: but the Father Verf. 32. 
gave Christ really from thence. Wherefore lie faith, I came down from heaven, y^^.r g. 
not to do mine own tvi/l, but the will of him that fent me. Now never any peribn 
upon any occafion is laid to delcend from Heaven, but fuch as were really 
there before they appeared on earth, as the Father, the Holy Ghofl, and the 
Angels : but no man, however born, however fendified, lent, or dignified, is 
feid thereby to defcend from thence ; but rather when any is oppoled to 
Chr/Jl, the oppofition is placed in this very origination. John the Baptift was 
filed with the holy Ghojl even from his mother's womb ; born of an aged father ^"t^ ^- '5- 
and a barren mother, by the power of God : and yet he diftinguifbeth himlelf 
from Chrifi in this ; tie that cometh from above is ahove all: he is of the Johni. 31. 
earth is earthy^ and fpeaketh of the earth ; he that com th from heaven is above all. 
Adarn was framed immediately by God, without the intervention of man or 
woman ; and yet he isfo iarfrom being thereby from Heaven, that even in 
that he is d iftinguiflied from the fecond Adam. For the firfl man is of the earth , cor. i ',. 47. 
earthy, the fecond man is theLordfrom heaven. Wherefore the dclcent of Chrifi 
from Heaven doth really prefuppofe his being there, and that antecedently 
to any alcent thither. For that he afcended, what is it, but that he alfo defcended Eph.4.9. 
firj} ? So S. P/i«/, affcrting a defcent as necelTarily preceding hisafcenfion.teach- 
eth us never to imagine an alcent oiChrt(l as his firft motion between heaven 
and earth; and conlequently,thatthefirftbeingorexifi:encewhichC/;r//?had, 
was not what he received by his conception here on carth,but what he had be- 
fore in hea,ven,in rclpeft whereof he was with theFather,from whom became. 
His Dilciples believed that he came out from God: and he commended that 
Faith,and confirmed the objeft of it by this afiertion ; 1 came forth from the Fa~ joh.i6. 27,28. 
ther, and am come into the world : again, I leave the world and go to the bather. 
Thus having by undoubted tellimonies,made good the latter part of the Argu- 
ment, I may fafely conclude, that being Chrift was really in Heaven, and de- 
fcended from thence, and came forth from the Father,beforc that which was 
conceived of the Holy Ghofl: alcended thither ; it cannot with any fhew of rea- 
ion be denied, that Chrifl had 2 real being and exiftence antecedent unto his 
conception here on earth,and dill inft from the being which he received here. 
Secondly, we fhall prove not only a bare priority of exilience, but a prc- 


I lO 


exiftenceof fbme certain and acknowledged fpaceotduration. For whofbevcr 
was before John the Baptill: and before Abraham^ was fome (pace of time be- 
fore Chrifl was man. This no man can deny, becaufe all muft confefs the 
bleffed Virgin was Hrft laluted by the Angels fix months after Eltzabtth con- 
ceived,and many hundred years after Abraham died. But 'Jeftu Chrtft was re- 
ally cxiflcnt betore [fohn the Baptift, and before Abraham, as we fliall make 
"ood by the tcllimony of the Scriptures. Therefore it cannot be denied but 
^hriU had a real being and exiftence fome fpace of time before he was made 
jiibn I. i-i. man. For the firft, it is the exprefs teltimony oijohn himfelf^ This is he of 
whom I fp-ii:^, He that cometh after me is preferred before wf , for he was before 
me. In wiiich words, Firft, he taketh to himfelf a priority of time, fpeaking 
oiChrifi,he that cometh after me : for ib he came after him into the womb, 
at his Conception ; into the world, at his Nativity ; unto liis Office, at his 
Baptifm ; always after Joh»,jind at the fame diftance. Secondly, he attribu- 
teth untoChrifi a priority of dignity, faying, /(e « preferred before we,asappear- 
John 1. 17. eth by the reiteration of thefe words ; He it is who, coming after me, ts prefer- 
redbtfore me,whofefl}oes latchet I am not worthy totmloofe. The addition of which 
cxpreffion of his own unworthinefs fliewech, that to be preferred before him is 
the lame with being worthier than he, to which the fame expreffion is conftant- 
ly added by all the other three Evangelifts. Thirdly , he rendreth the reafon or 
caule of that great dignity which belonged to Chriji, faying, /or, or rather, 
becaufe he wns before me. And being the caufe muft be fuppofed different and 
diftindl from the etfeft, therefore the priority lall mentioned cannot be that 
of dignity. For to a{fign any thing as the caufe or reafon of it felf, is a great 
abfurdity, and the expreflionof it a vain tautology. Wherefore that priority 
muft have relation to time or duration, (as the very tenfe, he was before »;e, 
fufficiently fignifieth) and fobe placed in oppofition to his coming after him. 
As [{John the Baptift had thus fpoke at large : This man Chriji Jefus, w^ho 
came into the world, and entred on his Prophetical Office fix months after 
me,is not withftanding of far more worth and greater dignity than I am ; even 
fo much greater, that I muft acknowledge my felf unworthy toftoop down 
and unloofe the latchet of his fhocs : and the reafon of this tranfcendent dig- 
nity is from the excellency of that nature which he had before I was ; for 
though he cometh after me, yet he was before me. 

Now as Chrtfl was before John, which fpeaks a i'mall, ib was he alfb be- 
fore Abraham,\\hkh fpeaks a larger time. Jefus himfelf hath aflcrted this pre- 
John 8. 58. exiftence to the Jews; Ferily, verily, I fay unto you. Before Abraham w.ts I am. 
"Which words, plainly and literally expounded, muft evidently contain this 
truth. For firft, Abraham in all the Scriptures never hath any other fignifica- 
tion than fuch as denotes the perfon called by that name ; and the queftion 
to which thefe words are direded bv way of anfwer, without controverfie, 
fpake of the fame per Ion. Befide, Abraham muft be the fubied of that pro- 
pofition, Abraham was; becaufe a propofition cannot be without a fubjefl, 
and li Abraham be the predicate, there is none. Again, as we tranflate Abra- 
hamwM, ina tenle fignifying the timepaft; fo it is moft certainly to be under- 
ftood, becaufe that which he fpeaks unto, is the pre-exiftenceof ^^r4^ w;,and 
that of long duration ; fo that whatfbever had concerned his prefent eftate 
or future condition had been wholly impertinent to the precedent queft:ion. 
* S) Ncnu5 L^ftly, the cxprelTion, / am, feeming fbmething unuf iial or improper to figni- 
fjcremne briefly fic a priority in refpect of any thing paft, becaufe no prefent inftant is before 
.„:.ipi.iwiy ihm (hat whlch precedeth, but that which followeth : yet the * ufe of it fufficient- 

■^V' -^yO' *?C-'' '^y* TiMi'. So }oh. 14. 9. To7HTor ■/ejvarixty iTof^'wui, <^ k* 'iy\it»Kiti ut ; Have I been fo long time 
with yoi', and yet haft thou not known mc? wni Joh. 15. 27. in «>' «f;t"* I*''''' '.'*« '^' ''ccaafc ye have been (or con- 

HisOnlySon. jii 

dnued) witli me from the beginning. Tim Nonniis, 'E$ i.^yji< ycyt-^TU o\b)y ^miitoj =< 'if)ctv. John 6. 24. "On Iv SAv 
Q «^A@- oTi IiKTsf ix. ?j7c MCM, WlicH thc pcoplc Ijw tiijc Jcfus wM HOC there. Nor only doth S. John ufc tbm theprejint 
tenje for that which if paft, but as frequently for that nhkhk to come. For m before, To^bToc y^ivov ij.i'i' v/^' ei/j.!, fo on the 
contrary, in txiKg^v ^ovov nid' vt^Jp-'' eifxi, John 7.? 3- and oth tint i-^a, in*! k,'iSro kt/.Ui?in, John 12.26. 14.3. 
I7'24. Wherefore it is very indifferent whether ("John 7.34.) we re^id, oT«^«f^« e^a, or lira ^fj.i. for Soaiiuifeemsto have read 
^fjLiby histranJlation,ti{ drgif.'rivlM':^ oJ^Jint' and the quefiion, -re bVQ- (/i>j^M ■7n)q-\jiS:i(^-, jhervs they underfiood it /).• 
/" thif HfAi, though ofaprefentform, is^ of a future fignif cation. Hefych. Ev//, ■jo^di'nyiaj. And fi it a^reeth with that which fol- 
lows, John 8.21. o'lris iyi \iBi,yt, u/xftf a J'miu.Sri JA.9wi'. I) we tiixi, as the old Tranflation, ubi ego luni, it will have 
the force of 'i<niji.aj, and agreewith the other ■■, 'tva. oith eifxi iyi, j^ Jm«{ «ti. Howfei er it ii clear, S. johniifeth the prejent 
^/xi either tn relation to what is pjjl, or what is to come, and if therefore to be. interpreted as the matter in hand requbeth. And 
tertainly the place now under our confideration can admit no other relation but to the time already pafl, in which Abraham lived. 
Andwe fndthe prefent tenfe in the fame manner joined with the Aorift elfewhere: as Plal. 90. 2. Tgp t» of m -^IJuiiSWo/, Ki ttKa- 
Snrcu "f yhS ^ ¥ ointsMlu), i^^m ajSf& iaf n aiai©-, av »f. What can be more parallel than, Tgy t« of w "^n^lwoj, tj 
Teif ' Afff^tecV T^i"^. and n h, to, t^« w^/ ; In the fame manner, though by another word, ir^ n of m iS'^SswaJt ir^ -j' T«f- 
"Jwy/XBCaF, Oljui-in', Prov. 8.25. 

ly maintaineth,and the nature of the place abfolutclyrequireth,thatitfhouId 
not here denote a prelent being, but a priority of exiftence, togetlier with a 
continuation of it till the prefent time. And then the words will plainly lig- 
nifie thus much : Do you queftion how I could fee Abraham., who am not yet 
fifty years old ? Verily, Verily, I fay unto you, ]] Before ever ^braham^ the II •^^f*'-'^'/-'"- 
perfbn whom you fpcakof, was born, I had a real being and exiftence, (by men dko"'vo' 
which I was capable of thc fight of hiin) in which I have continued until "'^^ priufquam 
now. In this ienfe certainly the Jens uriderfl:ood our Saviour's anfwer, as icere'liTfuTe- 
pertinent to their queftion, but in their opinion blafphemous; and therefore go;andthePer- 
they took tip^fioms to caft at him. ■/'""> Vfre, ve- 

This literal and plain explication is yet farther necefTary; becaufethofe quod nondam 
whichonce recede from it, do not only wreft and pervert the place, but alfo Abraham ta- 
inventand fiiggeft an anfwer unworthy of and wholly misbecoming him that egoeram.'^"'" 
fpakeit. For (letting afidetheaddition, of the/fg^fo/iZ'e jvor/^, which there * r/j« if the 
can be no *fhew or rcafon to admit;) whether they interpret the former ^cwLVwh^"' 
part (before Abraham ts) of fbmething to come, as the calling of thc Gentiles, mai^etbiffpeecb 
or the latter {I am^ of a pre-exiftencc in tlie Divine foreknowledge and ap- "^^'j")' eUipti- 
pointment ; they reprelent Chrifi with a great afieveration highly and ftrong fup'il"t '*'"« 
ly afferting that which is nothing to the purpole to which he lpeaks,notiimg fv 12. uerje. 
toanyotherpurpoleatall: and they propound the Jemifennefly offended and of'^,e''fJ'^'j'^ ' 
foolifhlyexafperated with thofewordsjwhich any of them miglithave fpokcn quod vcro ea 
as well as he. For the firft interpretation makes our Saviour thus to fpeak : Do vcrba,£^o;],w, 
ye ib much wonder how I fhould havefeen Abraham, who am not ytt fifty years ,^"odum fup- 
old^ Do ye imagine fb great a contradiftion in this? Itellyou, and be ye moft picnda, ac fi 
afTured that what I fpeak unto you at this time ismoft certainly and infillibly )P'«-''"Wccinec 

J n. u r Lr • 1 • 1 j i- ns,Eiofamlux 

true, and molt worthy or your obiervation, which moves me not to deliver ;wW/,fupcrius 
it withoutthis iblemnafifeveration, Q^erily, verily, 1 fay unto you) Before Ahra- t-piincipiocjus 
ham fhall perfcftly becomethat which was fignified in his name, the father of'^^Xhc'q'lod. 
many Nations, before the Gentiles fliallcome in, / am. Nor be yc troubled at chridus bis fc- 
this anrwer,or think in this I magnifie my felf : for what I fpeak is astrueof ^lJfn,„^^l^'^^^-^ 
you as 'tisofme; before Abraham be thus made Abraham, ye are. Doubt ye mlmdi vocavc- 
not therefore, as ye did, nor ever make that queftion again, whether I have ''f' v.2).& 28. 
feen Abraham. The (econd explication makes a fenfe of another nature, but p'otcii! cvi/cr/j. 
with the fame impcrtinency. Do yecontinucftill to queftion, and that with ^"ov. where- 
ih much admiration ? Do ye look upon my age, and ask, HaH thou feen Abra- '" '*f ^ " "' 
ham? 1 contcls tis more than eighteen hundred years Imce that ratna rch jmcA connexion, 
died, and lels than forty fince I was born at Bcthkhem .- but look not on '*'" >^'fio'"fi<>f 

, the light oj the 

world Wits in the Treafury, i;. 20. that which followeth was not, at leafl appeareth not to be fo. Tlierefore the tUipfn of the 24. and 
22virfes isnot tohefup^Hed by the 12, but the 2,\, from the 2:^. iyj In r^ (tyaQ'iv h/xi, and the 29. e'thcr from the fame, 01 
that which if m-)fl general, hn Office, iyS lifxi ^i?o<- Again, v. i\, 'tis xery probable that a new difcourfe if ogam be^^un, 
and therefore if there were an ellipfis in the words allcd^ed, it wolild have n» relation to either of the former fupplies, or if to cither, 
to the Utter ; but indeed it hath to neither. 




1 ret. 3 
19, 20. 


TO H li 0t» 

this computation, for before Abraham was born, I was. But miftake me not, 
I mean in the foreknowledge and decree of God. Nor do I magnifie my 
fclf in this, for ye were fb. How cither of thefe anfwers fhould give any 
reafonable fatisfaftion to the queftion, or the leall cccafion of the Jews cx- 
afpcration, is not to be undcrftood. And that our Saviour fhould fpeak any 
fuch impertinences as thefe interpretations bring forth, is not by aChriftian 
to be conceived. Wherefore being the plain and moft obvious fenle is a 
prtiperand full anlwer to the quelTion, and moll likely to exafJ3crate the 
unbelieving Jews ; being thofc ftrained explications render the words of 
Chrifty not only impertinent to the occafion, but vain and ulelefs to the 
hearers of them ; being our Saviour gave this anfwer in words of another 
language, nioft probably uncapable ol any fuch interpretations : we muft 
adhere unto that literal fcnl^ already delivered, by whichit appearethC/^r;_y? 
had a being as before '^ohn, fb alfo before Abraham, (not only before Ahram 
became Ahrabam, but before 'Abraham was Ahram) and conlcquently that 
he did exift two thoufand years before hewasborji, or conceived by the 

Thirdly, we'fhall extend this pre-exiftenceto a far longer fpace of time, 
to the end of the flrfl: world, nay, to the beginning of it. For he which 
was before the Floud, and at the Creation of the world, had a being before 
lie was conceived by the Virgin. But Chrijl was really before the Flood, 
for he preached to them that lived before it ; and at the Creation of the 
world, for he created it. That he preached tothofe before the Flood, isevi- 
dent by the words of S, Ptrer, who faith, that Chrtji was put to death in the 
Fleflj, hut qiiickmd by the Spirit ; By which alfo he rrent and preached unto the 
fpiritf in prifon, IVhich fometimes were dtf obedient y when once the long- ftifftring 
ofGodwaited in the dnys of Noah, while the ark was a preparing. From which 
words it appeareth, that Chrift preached by the fame Spirit by the virtue 
of which he was raifedfrom the dead : but that Spirit was not his Soul, but 
fbmething of a greater power. Secondly, that thofc to whom he preached 
were fuch as were dilbbedient. Thirdly, that the time when they were 
difbbedient was the time before the Flood, while the Ark was preparing. 
It is certain then that Chrifi^xd preach unto thofe perfbns which in the days 
of AW-/ were dilbbedient all that time the long-fnffering of God tvaited, and, 
confequcntly, fblong as repentance was offered. And it is ascertain that 
he never preached to them after they died ; which I fhall not need here to 
prove, bccaufe thofc againft whom I bring this Argument deny it not. 
It followctli therefore, that he preached to them while they lived, and 
were difobedient ; for in the refufing of that mercy which was offered to 
them by the preaching of C/;r//?, did their difobcdience principally confifl. 
In vain then are we taught to underftand S. Peter of the promulgation 
of tlic Gofpel to the Gentiles after the Holy Ghoft delcended upon the 
Apollles, when the words themfelves refufe all relation to any fuch times 
or perfbns. For all thofe of whom S. Peter fpeaks, were difbbedient in the 
daysof A'04/y. But none of thofc to whom the Apoflles preached, were 
ever difobedient in the days of Therefore none of thole to which 
the Apoffles preached were any of thofc of which S. Peter fpeaks. It re- 
maineth therefore that the plain interpretation be acknowledged for the 
true, that Chrifi did preach unto tliofe men which lived before the Flood, 
even while tl.ey lived, and confcqueutly that he was before it. For though 
this was not done by an immediate aft of the Son of God, as if he perfb- 
nally had appeared on earth, and actually preached to that old world ; but 




HisONLvSdN. 115 

by the ^ miniftry of a Prophet,by the fending of Noah,' the eighth preacher of *■ Prophets a'o 
righttoufrftfi '. yet to do any thing by another not able to perform it without JP'^ iiabentcs 
him, as mucli demonftraces the exiftence of the principal caule, as if he did ium"p?opheta' 
it of himielf without any intervening inftrument, venmc Bar^i- 

.... bxEfifi. 
' 2 Fet. 2.5./ htne tbm tranjlated th'n place of S. Peter, becaufe it may addf^mc advantage to the arguinent : for if Noah teen 
theeigbt Preacher of ri^hteoufheff, and he rverefent by the Son ofGod; no titan, I conceive, will deny that the fevett before him were 
fent by the fume Son : and h hythjsn'e have gained the pre-exi^ence of another laoo years, Noitevcr the e words, «'/>. iyj^- 
ty N«i ftnajcffuiiM xiifi/K* wjuVa^s may be better interpreted than they are, when we translate them , but fjvcd Noah the 
eight ptrfon, a preacher of righteoufnefs. For,firJ}, if we haliiipon the Greel^^phrafe, oyJb^ KSi may h: not the ei^ht perjon, 
but one of eight, or Nnali with [even more ; in which it jignifieth not the order in which he was in refpell of the reft, but only con- 
ft^ipetii the nimbir which were with hun. As when we read in the Supplices of /Efchylus , To yi rtr.'ovlav liBai, Teiror to^' 
at 9i(ri/ioi( AiKo* j^'x^'l*! f 6>5T}Tfu!f, we muft not underfland it, as if Honour due to Parents were the third Commandment 

f-t. . . ■ ^ - . . ■ ■ 

made Kfe oj mift part of that fourth Bool(_ of Porphyrius : xenocratcs Philofophus de Triptolemi legibus apud Acheiiicnlls ttia 
tancum pracepta in Temple Eleuhn* refidere Tcribi: ; Honorandos Kirences , Venerandos Dcos, Carnibus non vcfccnduin. 
Ad-j. Joi I. 2. Where we fee Honwr due to Parents the firft precept, though by -tfchylus called the th:rd, not in nfpeil of the 
mdnr, but the number. Thw Dinarchus the Or at our , KaJ raj 2://r4 deaj £i ix,wv©- Ji^jwa/Jf Kijxw Jix-cC]St aur;». 
Fnm whence we muft not coUeil that theperfon of whom hefpeal^s was the tenth in order of that Office, fo that nine were neccffurily before 
or aboie him, and many more might be after or below him : but from hence it is inferred, that there were ten tig^iroiti waiting m 
the'Eifitai 5;a2, and nomore, of which number that manwasonc. After this manner fpeal^ tiic Actick Writers, efp.ciallyTUix- 
cydides. Andfirwe may underfland S. Peter, tlmt Godpreferved Noah fa preacher of ri^hteoufnefsj withfeien mire, of which 
U defervcth to be named t/je prfl, rather than the laft or eighth. But,fecondly, the Ordinal oyJooy maypjfjibly n:t being to the nam: 
erperfm 0/ Noali, but to his title or office; and then we muft tranjlate, lyJiov Nai (TtKaiofimnt xi'ift/xx. Noah the eighth 
preacher of righteoufr.efs. for weread at the birth of Enos, that men began to call upon tiic Dame of the Lord, Gen. 4. 26. 
which the ancients underftood peculiarly of his perfon: as the LXX, It&- iJKWKnv thKAhUbt, ro oFO^aKi/giB 7« Qri,andthe 
vulgar Lai inc. Iftc coepii invocare nomen Domini. The Jews have a tradition, that God fent in the Seaupm tnankindinthe days of 
Enos, and delhoyed many. Frttn whence itfeems Enos was a Preacher, or Prophet, and fi the reft that folLwcdhim ; and th'n 
No2b is the eighth. 


The fecond part of the Argument, that Chrifi made this world, and confer 
quently had a real being at the beginning of it, the Scriptures manifeftly and 
plentitully aiTure us. For the fame 6o», by whom in'thefe laft days God fpakc ^'^^- 1- ^■ 
unto us, is he by whom alfo he made the worlds. So that, as through faith tve ufi' ■^<'*- ' '• 3- 
dtrjiand that the worlds xpere framed by the word of God, fo muft we * alfb be- '^ ft being in 
lieve that they were made by the Son of God. Which the Apoftle doth not ^I'^.f'", "; 
only in the entrance of his Epiftle deliver, but in the fcquele prove. For fame phrafe by 
fhewiiig greater things have been fpoken of him than ever were attributed '^JfneAuthor, 
to any of the Angels, the moft glorious of all the creatures of God; amongft ar^jiXovKv 
the reft he liiith, the Scripture Ipake ^ unto the Son, Thy throne, God, is for t^eb. r 2. ^i- 
ever and ever. And not only fb, but alfb. Thou Lord, in the beginning hafi laid ^" r,}^!^} 
the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of thine hands. They fljall a}£vat p.^/a]* 
ptrijb, but thou rtmaineft : and they fjall wax old as doth a garment ; And as a ;"^"- 
ztefture fljdt thou fold them lip, and they /hall be changed ; but thou art the fame, u^i^.' ' ' 
and thy years jh. ill not fail. Now whatfbever the pcrfbn be to whom thcle 
words were fpoken, it cannot be denied but he was the Creator of the world. 
For he muft be acknowledged the maker of the earth, who laid the foundati- 
on of it; and he may juftly challenge to himfelf the making of the Heavens, 
who can fay they are the work of his hands. But thelc words were fpoken 
to the Son of God, as the Apoftle himfelf acknowledgcth, and it appeareth 
out of the order and feries of the Chapter ; the dcfign of which is to declare 
the fupcreminent excellency of our Saviour Chrift. Nay, the conjunction 
Afjd refers this place of the Pfalmtft \\ plainly to tlie former, of which he had \\Tiie Anfwer 3} 
faid exprefly, but unto the Hon, he faith. As fure then as thyThront, OGod,isfor ^cotimUhn'^is 
ever and ever, was faid unto the Son: fb certain it is, Thou, Lord, haft laid the xerywcal^, re- 
foundation of the earth, was faid unto the fame. Nor is it poffible to avoid the '-'/'« ""'^ T" 

Comma after Kai in the Greel^, and Ec in the Latine. And whereat it is evident tbat there are diflin'lions in the Latine andOree^ 
Cipies after that conpin'li'm, he ftieuo the ancienttft Copies, which all men (vrom were moft c.trelefs ofdiftin^ions, .v\d urgeth that 
there ii n: addition of tutf\irn or the lil^' after Etj whereas in the SYThc]iTi anlatim we find exprejly tliat a.lUtiiil^TW 

CL- ' ' Apol^l&'« 


Apoftle's connexion by attributing the Deftruftionoftlie Heavens, out of the 
lall u-ords,to theSon,and denying the Creation of thcm,out of the ffrlt,to the 
fame. For it is mofl; evident that there is but one pcrlon fpoken to, and that 
the Deftruclion and the Creation of the Heavens are both attributed to the 
lame. Wholbevcr therefore fliall grant that tlie Apoftle produced this Scri- 
pture to fhewthat the Son of God Ihall deilroy the Heavens, muft withal ac- 
knowledge that he created them : wholbevcr dcnieth him to be here fpoken 
of as the Creatour, muft alio deny him to be underftood as the Dcftroyer. 
Wherefore being the words of the Pfalmifl were undoubtedly fpoken of and 
to curSaviour/or elle the Apoflle hath attributed that unto him which never 
belonged to him, and confequcntly the fpirit of S. PWmiftook the Ipirit of 
David; J being to whomloever any part of them belongs, the whole is appli- 
cable, becaufe they are delivered unto one ; being the literal expofition is lb 
clear that no man hath ever pretended to a metaphorical : itremaineth as an 
undeniable truth, grounded upon the profeflion of thePIalmifl:,and the inter- 
pretation of an Apoftle, that the Son of God created the world. Nor needed 
we lb long to iiave infiftcd upon thisteftimony, becaule there are lb many 
which tclHhe as much, but only that this is of a peculiar nature and different 
from therelf. For they which deny this truth of the Creation of the world by 
the Son of God, notwithflanding all thofe Scriptures produced to confirm it, 
have found tVvo ways to avoid or decline the force of them. If they Ipcak ib 
plainly and literally of the work of Creation, that they will not endure any 
Hgurative interpretation, then they endeavour to fhcw^ that they are not fpo- 
ken of the Son of God. If they fpeak fb exprefly of ourSavioifr C/)r//?,as that 
by no machination they can be applied to any other perfon, then their whole 
defign is to make the Creation attributed unto him appear to be merely me- 
taphorical. The place before allcdged is of the firft kind, which fpeaketh 
ib clearly of the Creation or real production of the world, that they ne- 
ver denied it : and I have ib manifeftly fhewed it fpoken to the Son of God, 
that it is beyond all polTibility of gain-faying. 

Thus having aflerted the Creation acknowledged real unto C^r//?, we fhall 
theeafier perluade that likewife to be fuch which is pretended to bemetapho- 
Coi. r. 14. rical. In the Epiftle to the Colv(fians we read of the Son of God, in whom we 
have redemption through his blond; and we are fure thofe words can be fpoken 
of none other than ']efm Chriji. He therefore it mulf be who was thus de- 
Col. r. rj, 16, fcribed by the Apoftle; Who is the image of the invifible God, the fir Jl -horn of 
*'• every ere. it lire. For by him were all things created are in heaven and that 

are in earth, vifible and invifible ; whether they be thrones or dominions^ or prin- 
cipalities or powers : all things were created by him , and for him. And he if be- 
fore all things, and by him all things confifl. In which words OUr Saviour is 
II TTji fyfi torn exprcdy ftyled the |! frjl-born of every Creature, that is, begotten by God, 
ofe-Lerycreauire as the * Son of his love , antecedently to all other emanations, before anv 
ecn'/a" ^n°«- ^'^'"''S procccdcd from him, or was framed and created by him. And thatpre- 
pe^m deciu ccdcncf is prcleotly proved by this undeniable Argument, thatall other ema- 
'■"'* 'fR%' nations or produftions came from him, and whatfbever received its being by 
"Ind uled by'him Creation, was by him created. Which alTertion is delivered in the moft pro- 
of a phraft in per, full, and pregnant exprellions imaginable. Firft, in the vulgar phrale of 
''fhmmiity"'to'' ^'^^ofts, as moft conlbuant to his deicrij)tion \for by him were all things created 
exprefsthef.ime. that are in heaven, and that are in earth; fignilying thereby, that he Ipcakcth 
'Emv«V5 -«■ of the fame Creation. Secondlv, by a divifion which Mofes never ufed, as 

Xf fA TtiT.vj mi^-r^htjaj ' aj ■^ -n Kir aurh votuyin it»9fMT«, »'< t; , Nuu <A' /xi (,>\l''Tt i-rcx.'] »(»*', Mf^rroy at tUu 
ah.\iniy vui.' f.u^Xiut. lib. 1. adv.Celfum. * InrelJthi tothe prtcedent words, n vt <? dyei-Tiif aun, fir that {■is uja- 
iTKiH ^■fi the ■^ifrftt'joTtn'S'- 1 r- • 


HisOnlySon. 115 

dcfcribing the produdion only of corporeal fubftances : left therefore thofe 
immaterial beings might fcem exempted from the Son's creation, becaufe 
omitted in Mo/a his delcri prion, Iv^ addtth z>i/i^/e and i»v/fii?k ; and left in 
that invifible world, among the many degrees of the celeftial Hierarchy, any 
Order might (eem exempted from an ellential dependence upon him^ he na- 
meth thole which are of greateft eminence, nhethtr they be thrones, or domi- 
nions, or priMcipalitits, or powers, and under them comprehendeth all the reft. 
Nor doth it yet fufiice, thus to extend the objed of his power by aflerting all 
things to be \nM\i by him, except it be ^0 underftood as to acknowledge the 
fbvereignty of his Verfbn, and the authority ot his Adion. For left we Jhould 
conceive the Son of God framing the World as a meer inftrumental caufe 
which worketh by and for another, he fheweth him as well the final as the 
efficient caufe ; for all things were created by him, And for him. Laftly, whereas 
all things iirft receive tlieir being by creation, and when they have received 
it, continue in the fame by virtue of God's coniervation, in whom we live, and 
moiK, and have our being ; left in any thinsj we Ihould be thouglit not to de- 
pend immediately upon the Son of God, he is defer ibed as the Confer vcr, as * 
well as the Creatour ; for he is before all things, and by him all things confiif. 
If then wo confider the two laft cited verles by themlelves, we cannot deny 
bat they are a moit compleat defcription of the Creatour of the World ; ' 
and if they were I'pokcn of God the Father, could be no way injurious to 
his iMajefty, who is no-where more plainly or fully let forth unto us as the 
Maker of the Wcfrld^ 

Now although this were fufficient to perfuade us to interpret this place of 
the making of the world , yet it will not be unfit to make ule of another rea- 
fon,which will compel us 16 to underftand it. For undoubtedly there are but 
two kinds of Creation in the language of the Scriptures, the one literal,the 0- 
ther metaphorical ; one old,the other new ; one by way of formation,the other 
by way of reformation. If any man be in Chrift he is a new creature, faith S.Paa/-, 2 Cor. ?. 1 7. 
and again. In Pjriji "Jtfus neither circumcifion avaikth any thing, nor uncirctim- Gal. 6. i j. 
cifion, but a new ure. In ftcad of which words he had ht^oxQ, faith work- and 5. 6. 
tng by love. For we are the workmanfljip of God, created in Chriji 'Jefus unto good Ephef. 2. lo.- 
works, which God bath before ordained that wc jhoiild walk in them. From whence 
ic is evident that: a new creature is fiich a perlbn as truly belie veth in Chrifl,a.nd 
manifefteth that faith by the exercife of good works; and the new creation is 
the reforming or bringing man into this new condition,which by nature or 
his firft creation he was not in. And therefore he which is to created is called a 
new man, in oppofition to the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceit- Epbef. 4. 22, 
ful lufts : From whence the Apotf le chargeth us to be renewed in the fpirit of '^' ^■i- 
our mind, and to put on that new man, which after God is created in righteotifnefs 
and true holine/s ; and which is renewed in knowledge, after the image of him that Col, 5. 10. 
created him. The new creation then is defcribcd to us as conlifting whol- 
ly in ^ renovation, or a tranflatioa from a worfe unto a better condition by ,, ^*'''>"-^''< 
way of reformation ; bv which thofe which have loft the image of God, in nc anbenew 
which the iirft man was created, are reftored to the image of the fame God '"•"■ '^ «*" 
again, by a real change, though not fubftantial, wrought within them. Now ^^^3, iio*^'^ 
this being the notion of the new creation in all thofe places which undoubt- -^B-- Tkeprfi 
edlv and confclTcdly fpeak of it, it will be ncceffary to apply it unto flich Scri- f,*",-!,',"'''"^'*' 

I J • 1 /- ' -ri \ c ^ the U}1 a Avu.- 

ptures as arc pretended to require tlie fame interpretation. 1 Iius therefore I .oi^SitV©-. 
proceed. If the fecond or new creation cannot be meant by the Apoftic in the '"'*,'*' [■""'' 

^ ■' "^ ^uidJS, A»a- 

xaif/su,', w iviv'ii'^f ' Ki'jiiajj iC, ivuKxiyajii ' which is the langiiiige of the Near Teflament. This Remxttion being thiu called 
X»(»« nlfinf, tie Ancicrt^ framed a proper rvird )w it, rvhib is. eitditlKnc it h jt'cj]"-' tki/'Jui/ rff e.» ei>9f»T0/< xj^ -fi 
■\v)(luii 1^ xj^ ri Cvnt KAi-.'jy c£^aip;»Tc. J^Jl. Qi<- & Refp. adOr.tos. This new creation doih fo tiectffurilj infer an ajicrtti'' 
on, that it n c.iUedb) S. I'aul .( Metamwph^fis ; tj.{\afji<i^fiQi tj Ar^Kaiteifi th ceof Oiu^'. Rirr,, i a. 2. 

Q^ 2 place 


place produced out of the Epiftle to the Colcffiam, then it muft be ifiterpre* 
ted ol the firlh For there arc but two kinds ot Creation nientiooed in the 
Scriptures, and one of them is there expri;ily named. But the place of the 
ApolUecan nOiwav .admit an interpretation by the new Creation, as will thus 
appear : The objcft of the Creation , mentioned in this place, is of as great la- 
utudc a,nd univcrlality as the objed of the firft Creation, not only expreffed, 
but implied, by Mofts. But the obieft of the new Creation is not of the lame 
latitude with that of the old. Therefore that which is mentioned here can- 
not be tjaenew Creation. For certainly if we refleft upon the true notion of 
the new Creatior^, it neccirarily and eflentially includes an oppolition to a 
former worfe condition, as the new man is always oppolcd to the old ; and if 
Mum had continued rtill in innocency, there could have been no fuch diflin- 
ttion between the old man and the new, or the old and new Creation. Being 
then all men become not new, being there is no new Creature but ilich whofe 
faith worketh by love, being fb many millions of men have neither faith nor 
love ; it cannot be faid that by Cljri(l all things were created anew that are in 
heayeft and, that art in earthy wheji the greateft part of mankind have no flian? 
in the new Creation. Again, we cannot imagine that the Apoftle fhould Ipeak 
of the Creation in a general word, intending thereby only the new, and while 
lie doth fo, exprefs particularly and efpecially thofe parts of the old Creation 
which are incapable of the new, or at leaft have no relation to it. The Angels 
are all either good or bad : but whether they be bad, they can never be good 
again, nor didC'/;/'//? come to redeem the Devils ; orwhether they be good, 
they were always fuch, nor were they 16 by the virtue of OmjFs Incarna- 
tion, lor he took not on him the nature of Angels. We acknowledge in man- 
kind a new Creation, becaufe an old man becomes a new ; but there is no fucli 
notion in the Celeftial Hierarchy, becaufe no old and new Angels: they 
which fell, are fallen for eternity ; they which ftand, always flood, and fhall 
ftand for ever. Where then are the regenerated thrones and dominions f 
where are the reciated principalities and powers ? All thofe Angels of what- 
Ibever degrees were created by the Son of God, astheApofllc exprefly af- 
firms. But they were never created by a new Creation unto true holinefs and 
righteoufnefs, becaufe they always were truly righteous and holy ever fince 
their firft creation. Therefore except we could yet invent another Creation, 
which Mxre neither the old nor the new, we muft conclude, that all the 
Angels were at iirft created by the Son of God ; and as they, fball things 
" ^ts'iuftii^Jic elle, efpecially Man whofe creation |( all the firft Writers of the Church of 
paci pro aninij God cxprcfly attribute unto the Son, alTerting that thofe words, Let us make. 
nortrj, mm (It ^an^ were fboken as by the Father unto him. 

orbis Terr J- ' •' 

rumDominus, cui dixie die ante confticucionem Scculi, FMinmm ai imaginem i^ fimilitudintm rojlram. Barnahx 

Eftfl.c.^. tind again, Ai'),^ y6i] yf^fti txi n(^ afAtyi "^ 'T/w, flwiioop^ kot' fiKona., &c. c. 5. 'EyKu.K«/uhl k» 

vx /i) ''.y,!,'n»nv ii/xslifjif. Orig. adv. Celfam, /. 2. 

Nor need we doubt of this Interpretation, or the Doftrine arifing from it, 
Job. ». 1,1,3. feeing it is fb cleaily delivered by S.John : In the beginning was t he Wo d^ and 
the Word tv.ts with God, and the Word xo.u God. The fame w.ts in the beginning 
with God, All things were made by him, and without him w.ts not any thi/jg made 
that w.fs made. Whereas we have proved Chrijl had a being before he was 
conceived by tlie Virgin i^fary, becaufe he was at the beginning of the world ; 
and have alfo proved that he was at the beginning of the world, becaufe he 
made it ; this place of S. John gives a fufficient teftimony to the truth of both 


jHisOnlySon. 117 

the la ft together. In tht beginning rvasthe Word\ and that Word made flefii 
is Chriji : therefore C'"'^ was m the beginning. All thirtgs rvere made by him ■ 
therefore lie created the World. . Jjideed nothing can be more clearly penn'd, 
to give luU fatisfaclion inthis point, than thefe words of S. John, winch feem 
with a ftrange brevity defiga'd to take oft' all obieftions, anij remove all pre- 
judice, before they teach fo ftrange a truth. Chrifi was born of the Virgin 
Mary, and his age was known to them for whom this Gofpel was penned, 
S. "John would teach tliat this Chrifi. did make the World, which was created 
at leaft four thoufand years before his birth : The name of Jefus was given 
him fince at his Circumcifion, the title of Chrifi belonged unto his Office, 
which he exercifed not till thirty years after. Neithcrof thefe with any lliew- 
of probability will reach to the Creation of the World. Wherefore he produ- 
ceth a name of his, as yet unknown tothe World, or rather not taken notice 
of, though in frequent ufe among the Jews, which belonged unto him who 
wasmade man, but before he was fo. Undcrthis name he Chewsat ftrftthat 
he hadabeing in the !| beginning ; when all things were tobe created, and \\'ii,^^^;;;j!,c 
confequently were not yet, then in the beginning was the Word, and To not fi> ft '^'>>d of kc- 
created. This is the firft ftep,the Word was not created when the world was fV^T^r"^^/^- 
made. The next is,that the fame Word which then was, and was not made, r/j/iinViij 
at the fame time * was with God, when he made all things :, knd therefore well ■i'" Solomon, 
may we conceive 'tis he to whom * God /aid. Let m make man in our image, Vx ^oi,>d 
After our likenefs ; and of whom thofe words may be underftood, ^' Behold, "^l '^'\^ JJ'l 
the man is become asoneof ui. After this, left any fliould conceive the Cre- ffi/,P/oy.8.2.;. 
ation of the World too Great and Divine a Work to be attributed to the inpr'nc'piof- 
Word; left any fhould obje£l, that none cari produce any thing out of no- "uo^prTncipio 
thing but God himfelf ; -he addeth, that the Word, as \\owas with God, ^o was 'ciiicct Dcur, 
he alfo God. Again, left any flioiild divide the Deity, or frame afalfe conce- [erram^WA 
■ption of different Gods, he returns unto the fecond aflertion, and joynsit with adv.Hermog. c. 
the ']rft ; The fame was iathe beginning with Go^; and then delivers that which l^- , „ 
attliefirftleemed ftrange, but now, after thofe three propofitionsjmayeariiy iJ^tkuh^^A- 
be accepted ; All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing (}■ ■n-> ©;«• 
made that xvas made. For now this is no new Doftrine, but only an interpre- ^'JNonnus^nt- 
tation of thofe Scriptures which told us, God made all things by his word be- ?«< Vju JtVi- 
fore. For '^ God f aid, Let there be light ; and there was light. And fo, ^ By the wo<d ^^^•='^'^°!' 
cf the Lord were the heavens made, and all the hofts of them by the breath of his j^|i^. Zlvifiom 
mouth. From whence "^ we under/land that the worlds were framed by the word fpe''l:s'''^ ''rov. 
o/God. Neither was it anew interpretation, but that which was moft familiar fv« ''i,y^''|';"„| 
to the Jeivs, who in their Synagogues, by the reading of the 1| Paraphrafe or ^7^^'^i^i 
the Interpretation of the Hebrew Text in the Chaldee language,were conftant- r^a.p'Jnl^ 
ly taught, that the Word of God was the fame with God, and that by that c/.u/rf.ri'im 
Word all things were made. Which undoubtedly was thecaufe why S.'lohn !^"^,^ ^ "^'" 

" ■' ■' '^ m latere ejus. 

jyiD[ch-ipHlus afei ^iSiiv ' vfi}i r Osoc. ti/1'sj, «J to 0«« ./Is Mat. 15. <,6. hi a.-hKtial nun liyj ita-iai Tg}* iiuZd/n ; 
Mar. 14. 49. itttB itui^v »/■/'/« «■,•>«( 'Jfji.Zf, 1 Cor. 16. 6. Tftf v//.i( 3 ivx^* 7me/./u^':o. Htvi'rdiu.t//''i J)tiKoiiat,v 'lixri 
Xeir*, OS -TT-y oj-ovvvvm^ ilititi bJu, Kj &♦ T«A« ijcti/n- \gn^ M.igncf. 'Gen. 1. 26. ''Gen. ^. 22. 'Gen. i. 5. 
" Pfal, 53.5. ' Hcb. 1 1 . g. 2 I'cc. :;.';• II ^ conceive this ChaUce Paraphrafe to reprefriit the fenfc of the Jews of that Age, as 
being, their publicly interpretation of the Scripture. Wherefore ruiat ive fnd common and frequent in it, we cannot but ;/;;n(^ the 
Mulgar and general opinim of that Nation. Notv it U certain that this Paraphraj} doth often me ^'1 f<*lCQ c!ic word of 
God, for r~^'fr\'' God himfelf and that efpcciall; with relationio th creationnfthe world. A; Ifai. 4<;. 1 2. ^1^* T\^iyy 'DJS 
'Hi^Il . I^'7y iZJISI I made the earth, and created man upon ir, faith the Lord, the Holy One of Ifrael ; which the 
ChjUcetranjhtethi^'yi'ti iry\'^V ^"IQ''Q!2 I*«iJi< I by my word made the earth, and ereaccd man upon it. Intr: 
fame manmr, Jcr. 27. 5, I nu^le the earth, and men and hearts on the tace of the earth : the T.-.r^nm ''"13^ 01 SJK 
J>iy-|N-^mn"13;/l/ii/llai.4S. ig.yi* r-nO^ n^ P)X .My hand ahb founded the earth : tleChaldee ^ :.^-:^ ^^ 
l»<y"'^S rT?'7D'i' Kciam in verba meo tiindavj terram. And imll clearly Geo. i. 21. we read, Etercavii Djus homi- 
nem •, the jerufalem Tar ,11m, Verbum Domini creavit liomincm. Ard Gen. ^. S. Audierunt voceni Daniini Dei : toe Chaldee 
Paraphrafe ^^"^ ^>i"1C:'0 *n^p P^^ ly^^^ Eraudievunt vocem verbi Domini Dei. K^w this which the Chaldee Paraphrafe 
called X'^W^O^ the HeUenijis named \''jyt • (haifearetbby \'\\\\o the Jew, ivlio vtrote before S. [olin, <i;«/)(rc(;-w^ in A/xDivc 
nily,jirli naTi^ tV 'iKvr, then S'd^ncjv Qih, h ^v W^va AivS"' '■^."''Jf. 6' ^■^^'- Wh^rn Iji calls l^liv cU Ai^-y, 

1,8 ARTICLE 11. 

rr»,v1JT*:o: uir, Tc Aj;ricult. f/c .titiihutes thi CrcnriKf the M>.rWfo thit ti'oyfb- y rvhom It terms l^ytvov ©«?, cf>' f ( 

exfie.l}fiir the SonofOoii, Koi tu^ht vecio look on Vhiio ].idxui in this its tt Flannili, but meerh as n Jerv, whrcfers hk whule 
D)'!riticofili:s i\'oy& tothe jirfi cbuftci o/Gcnetls. Andihe rejl of the 'fern before htm., who no fuch (iiowted^e outofVln. 
to's School, iifedt'vf.ime notion. For as 15. tliclund ofGod,wi^v the r.b.ildee I'.xrafhrafi tranfl.tiedthcW ord(jiGo^\ : 
foin f/ie! Bm^c/ Wif(Jom,)i Ta^lo/ ujit;^i< Q» x^f ^ iCl'imm. •f noa-f/oi-.Sap.l 1.17. i< changed into lai^lcJ'ujUi/oi Qv xiyQ- 
ttV •V*!'*!', 18. 15. <WSira.Klcs43. 2<. Ey\o>6) au/n* Ci/'>k«1ou t«i'7»- A'j;, f'r Scptuagint Aa//; i*<jni('iSliadclai. fAf 
undoubtediutme'^f the Ornnipitem Gjd, into A'oy& the Word, E:^eli. 1. 24. ''HiJ"7"lpD quad vox iubliii.h Del, quod JK- 
braicc appcllatur 'Ti>& juxta I.XX. *anT ri a'-^ki id <:i\^ vox VcrUi, ut univerfa qui prxdicantur in miindo voccm Filii 
Dei cUc di.amts. J.Hieron. and therefore Ci:Ku%, n-ririn^m theperfinofa Jew, ackjitrvledgeth that the Wud !S the Sonof Old. 
El ;'. a6>iP^ Sht CuTiv m'o« rl 0i«, ;9 i;^"! t^x'i'JwV- Or'g- ''^i'- Ccllum, /. 2. And dthtugh Origen oij<;t'/ f/w/ m thh Ccl- 
(ustnal^esthe Jeip, becaujethe Jews which he had con\eifcd with, did never acl^owledge that the Son of God 
wasthe IVord ; jet Ccllui his ]fen> did fpea^the Language of ?h\\o: but Uween the time of CeKus and that of Ongen,riguefs about 
threefcoreyears,)the Jews had learnt todenf that notion f t\(fy@-, that they might with more colour re'jeli S.john. If then all the 
Jews, both they which utderjlood th: C'ualdee Expfition, and thofe which only ufed the Greek, Tran/lation, had fuch a notion of the 
Word of God ; ifaUtbings by their conj^jfion were made by the Word ; we have no reafon to believe S. Johii flmld make ufe of my 
other notion thm what they before had, and that by means whereof he might be jo eafily underfiood. 

delivered fo great a myftery in fo few words, as fpeaking unto them who at 
the firft apprehenfion underfiood him. Only that which as yet they knew 
not was, that tliis Word was made flelh, and that this Word made fiefh was 
Jefus Chrifi. Wherefore this expofition being lb literally clear in it felf, To 
conlbnant to the notion of the Word, and the apprehenfion of the Jwv; it 
is infinitely to be preferred before any fuch interpretation as fhall rcflraia 
themoif univcrfalsto a few particulars, change the plaineftexpreflions into 
figurative phrafes, and make of a fublime truth,a weakjufelefs, falle difcourfc. 
For who will gxinithm inthe beginning muft be the fame with that m^.Johns 
EpifHe,/r(j»; the beginning., efpecially when the very interpretation involves 

I Johrt 1. 1, in it felf a contradidion ? For the beginning in S.John's Epiflle is that in which 
the Apoftles law, and heard, and touched the Word : the beginning in his Go- 
fpel was that in which the Pl''ord was rvith God, that is, not leen nor heard by 
the Apoftles, but known as yet to God alone, as the new expofition will have 
it. W ho will conceive it worthy of the Apoflle's afTertion, to teach that the 
Word had a being in the beginning of theGofpel, at what time John the Ba- 
ptift began to preach, when we know the Baptiff taught as much, who 

Jobtii. 31. therefore came baptizing rvith xvAter, that he might be made manifeli unto Ifra- 
e! ? Whea we are fare that S.Mattheiv andS. Luke, who wrote before him, 
taught us more than this, that he had a being thirty years before ? when we are 
afTurcd, it was as true of any other then living as of the Word, even oi Judas 
who betrayed him, even ofP/'/^^e who condemned him ? Again, who can 
imagine the Apoftlc fhould affert that the Word was, that is, had an aftual 
being, when as yet he was not aftually the Word ? For \[the htgtnning be 
when John the Baptift began to preach, and the Word, as they fay, be no- 
thing elfe but lic which fpeaketh, and fo revealcth the will of God ; Chrift 
had not then revealed the will of God, and confequently was not then actu- 
ally the Word, but only potentially or by dcfignation. Secondly, 'tis a 
if range ligurative fpcech, the H^ord was with God, that is, was known to God, 
cf{:>ecially in this Apoff les method. In the beginning was the Word ; there rv.ts 
niufl: figniHe an a£tual cxiftenCe : and if fb, why in the next fentence {the 
word was with God) fhall the f;ime verb fignitie an obieftive being only ^ 
Certainly though to be in the beginning be one thing, and to be with God, 
another ; yet to be in either of them is the fame. But if we fliould imagine 
this being underfiood of the knowledge of God, why we fhould grant that 
thereby is fignitied he was known to God alone, Tcannot conceive. For the 
Propofiticii cfit felf is plainly affirmative, and theexclufive particle (Jw/y ad- 
ded to the expufition, maketh it clearly negative. Nay more, the affirmative 
fenfe is certainly true, the negative as certainly falfe. For except Gabriel be 


His Only Son, 

1 19 

God, who came to the Virgin ; except every one of the heavenly hofi: which 
appeared to the Shepherds be God ; except kjchary and Elizabeth, except Si- 
meon and Anm, except "Jofeph and Mary be God ; it cannot be true that he 
was known to God only, for to all thele he was certainly known. Thirdly, 
to pafs by the third attribute, and the Word was God, as having occafion liad- 
denly after to handle it ; feeing the ApoJlIe hath again repeated the circum- 
ftance of time as moft material, the fame was in the beginning xvith God, and im- 
mediately fubjoyned thole words, a^ things were made by htm, and w/tho/,i 
bim was not any thing made that was made ; how can we receive any cxpofiti- 
on which referreth not the making of all thefe things to him in the befrinninp^ 
But if vt-e underlland the latter part of the Apoftles, who after the Afcenfion. 
of our Saviour did nothing but what they were commanded and impowcred 
to do by Chriji, it will bear no relation to the beginning. If v/e interpret the 
former, of all %vhich Je/kf faid and did in the promulgation of the Golpel, we 
cannot yet reach to the beginning afligned by the new Expoiitours; For 
wmXtJohnxhc Baptift only preached,wlule in their fenfe the Word was with 
God, they will not affirmthatje/^^ did any of thefe thingsthathcrearcfpo- 
ken of. And confequently, according to their grounds, it will be true to lay. 
In the beginning was the Word, and that Word in the beginning was with 
God,infbmuch as in the beginning notl:ii||was done by him,but witliout liim 
were all things done which were done i^the beginning. Wherefore in all 
reafon we lliould flick to the known interpretation, in which every word re- 
ceivethlts own proper fignification without any figurative diftort ion, and is 
preferved in its due latitude and extenfion without any curtailing reftridion. 
And therefore I conclude from the undeniable teftimony of S. John, that in 
the beginning,when the Heavens and the Earth and all the hofts of them were 
created, all things were made by the Word who is Chrift Jefm being made 
flefh ; and confequently, by the method of Argument, as the A poftle antece- 
dently by the method of Nature, that in the beginning Chriji was. He then 
who wasinHeavenand dcfcendcd from thence before that which wasbegot- 
tenof the Virgin alcended thither, he who was befere John the Baptifl: and 
before Abraham^ he who was at the end of the firll: world, and at the begin- 
ning of the fame ; he had a real being and exiftence before Chrift was con- 
ceived by the Virgin Mary. But all thefe we have already fhewed belong 
unto the Son of God. Therefore we muft acknowledge, that Jejus Chrift 
had a real being and exiftence before he was begotten by the Holy Ghoft : ^KllTii^rc-. 
Which is our firll AlTertion, properly oppofcd to the * Photinians. '"^v^ /' <•'<'''•'/ 

fram I'hotiniis, 
Bijfjop o/Sirmium. but bnn in Gallogricia ind Scholar to Marccllus Biflinf i/" Arxvra. riioriiius dc Gnllogrxci.i, Marcclli difrf- 
pulus, Sirmii Epil'copusordinatus, HebionisHxrtfin inftaurarc conacuscft. S. Hkron. tccl. Pliotinus Simiicnfis Epif- 
copus fuic a Marccllo imbutiis. Nam S: Diaconus (ub to aliquandiu faic. N:tai: ihagm. Wherefore n'kcn Epiplianias/J'f<i(^ff/T 
thw afhirr, »t0- 'ini S/p/ziK, it h.ith m rehtion ti the uri^imtl nflw Perfin, but his Herefie ; of which <. Hilary, Pelu- 
fere, natum jcfum Chriftum ex Maria, Pannonia dcfcndit, De Tnn. He nwf a mm of WngHLty pr-rts and atiLties^ <t>Jna< 'i- 
^aviC Kiynv, Kf-j^fiw tK^.vo(,fii)i ,''02om./.4.f.^. Yijpyi jtTot *i»T^io< k-ikQ- ^ TfoTOf, k] d'^Vf/./Jlfi& TyK^i^ir, 
•7ro)^i( /uuctuV©- aValf' Tii TK KoyK w£; joja ly iTointKayia.. Efiph.' i . Erat S: iniHuii viribus valcns,& dof^rini" 
opibuscxccllcns, & eloquio prxpotens,quippc qui ucroqiic fcrmoiiccopinfc Sr gravitcr difpirar r Sc fcribere:. Vincent. Urin* 
c. I rt. Ne M fticL byfimc tofoUnrc the fkrcfie 0/ Ebioji. Hebionis Hxrefm inftjurare conatus eft, f.i\s S. Hiciome, r.idS. Hilary 
ordinarily unJcrJi'inds him bf the n.imc nf Vicbion, iind fimetimes exfomids hiwfelf Hcbioii, qui cU Photinus. Bit there it no fi- 
militude in their OoHrineSy I !cbion ic/n; mne Jew than Chrijlitin^ and teaching Chrirt as much bc^ntten by Jofcpli, as bvn o/'Mary. 
V\M\3{'i(:'f'vidhax'ehimapyeevi>holhnvh I'aulus Samo'iitcnus in omnibus. Epiphanius »■;?/) .ih i-iti //if k<, and i-ri^v a.. Socn- 
tesd»ir/So7omcn, T»/>/j/)fmrtnrfw/f/;.\abcllius.- whereas he differed much from them both,ejpCii.iUyfram Sabciliiis,<ir Acin^/Iir/i'W 
.1 Patripaltan. Marccllu3 .-abcllianie liafrcfis adcrtor csfiiterac : Pliotinus vcro novam li.irciiii jam anic protulcrac, a Sabtllio 
quideni in uiiione diffenticns, fed initium ChrilH cs Maria pr.idicabac. Seieriis ffijL Sac. Wherepre it ni'd n-t be mmccijjarj 
to coHert lut ofAnttjuityrvhat did priferli belong unto Pliociniis, becaufe 1 thiiil^it mt yet done, and trc pnd his Herefie in the propri. 
eiy af it tjbc^in and I'pread again. Phocinus, mentis ca;cicatc dccepcus, in Chrifto vtruni & fiibflaiicix noflr* cui.tilVuscil lio- 
mincm, fed ciindem Dtum dc Deo ante omnia leciila gcnitum elTc non crcdidit. Leo de Nat v Chnili Serin. 4. tree Pi-.oti- 
niis honiincm tant\uu protitttur Dei !■ ilium ; dicit ilium non tuille ante beatam Mariam. Lucifer c'l.nit. i.i quia in Clirido (0 
vcritatem prsdicat anim.i Si cariiis,ut vcricatem in co nolit accipcre Deitatisjd c(},qui fic dirit Cl-.iiftjm lioiiiJHcm.ut Deum 
ncgct,iione(lChiil1ianusCatl)olicus, led Photiiiianus.H,trcti#is. F/i/i;. adDmai.t. 16. *e^lmh sJ/Aofc'i'»9fiip-'^:' A*~, « t >♦- 

* Tiie riiotini- 


de Ef-tf.Cmdl. p. 3 f . 10. Anathematixaimis Photinum, quiHebionis H<trcfin> inftaiirans, Dominum jtfuni Clirifliun 


•»«s(n.-7o. av.' Mi }.Uej<u 5«7,vSdj T Xei^r H^yHre.Scrirr.fn.l^.c.o. Photini trgofcfta hxc tft. Di(.it Dcum Iingulum die 
Jkrolitariuni, & more Judaico conritcndum. Trinitatis pknicudincm ncgar, nequc ullain Dei Vcrbi, auc ullaiii Spiriiiis iau- 

di putac efle perlbnam. Cliriftuni vcrohomincm cantummodofoliurium alTcrit.cui principiuni adfcnibit.ex Maria; &iioc 
omnibus modis dogmatizat, folam nos pcrfonam Dei Patris, & folum Chriftum liomineincolercdcbere. K/nr. Lirinenfis adv. 
Hvef c. 1 7. In the drj put. Jtm framed by Vigilius out of thejeventh Bioliof S. Hilary, a< Iconcehe, Photinus ,ne!fing the ofini- 
■mof Sabc.'Iiiis (whom Scctazei.wdSc^omcnfaidhe filhwed) astmfMH, thtu declares hk own : Undc magii tgodito,Dciira 
Pacrenil-ilium habere Dominiim Jefum Clvidum, ex Maria Virgiiie inicium fumcnrem, qui per Cuiftaconvcrfationiscx. 
cellonciiiimum atque inimitabile bcaticudinij mcritum, a Deo Parrc in Filiiimadopocacus & cxiraio Divinicacis lionoredo- 
natus. And again. Ego Domino noftro Jefa Chrifto initiumcri'.iuo, puriiraque homincmfuifl'caffirmo, & pcrbcaw vi(X ex- 
ccllcotiinmum mcricum Divinicitis honorcm fuiffc adeptum. Vide cundem iib. 2. adv. Eutych. Ignorat ctiara I'hotinns mag- 
num pictacis, quoti Apartolus memorat, facramcntum, qui Chrifii ex Virgine facctur exordium : Ec proptcrta non crciiit li- 
re initio fubliantialiter Deum natum ex Deo Patrc, in quo carnii vcritateni contitccur^cx Virgincfw/^. adThrafim.l. i -Greg. 
Naiianzcn, ac(»dwg to hif ciijhm, gives a very brief, but remarl^le, expreffm ; idlntv t )c«t« Xtiqcc i^ i-re Maeia* «f X"" 
pSfjiV. 2 5. But the ofinim of Phocinus cannot be better under}} ood than b) the Condemnation of it ii the Council of Sirmiuni ; 
rvhich b.iv!ng fit oHt the Confeffim if their Faith in brief, addeth many and v.vioi*i Anathema's, auor ding to the feveral Herefies 
then at'f.irenr, nithout menuoning their n.irnes. Of thefe the fifth aims clearly at Photinus. Siquis fecundum prxicientiam vel pra- 
dcllinationtm ex Maria dicicfiliuni efle, &; non ante fcculaex Patrc natum, apud Deum cfle & per eum faftaefle omnia, Ana- 
thema fit. Trc 13, ijf,aihi is. alfottere farticul.irs direHed againf} him, as S. Hihty hathobferved: but the taftofaSisrmft m.ue- siqiiis Ciiridum Dcimi, l- ilium Dei, ante fccula rubfiftenteni, & miniftrantem Patri ad omnium perfedionem, non dicat, 
lid ex quo de Maria natus ell, ex eo & Chriftum & biliiun nominatum elfe, & initium accepilTe ut lit Dcus, dicat, Anatiic- 
niadt. Vfon tvhxh the obfenatnn of S. Hilary m fte .• Concludi damnatio ejus Hsrefis propter quam conventum erat, (that 
k, the lliorinian) expofitione totiiis fidti cui adverfabatur, oportuic, qui- initium Dei Filii ex partu Virginis mentiebatur, 
S. Hilar, de Synod, contra Arianos. Tnin was Photinus B///.0; cy Skjj^m condemned by a Council held in thefme City. They all 
igrecdfudderJy in the condemnation of him. Arian;, Semi-Arians, <^PPltholick5 ; KiSH/^ov cuius, fays Socmtcs, )^ nro p:' 
uf KiKut >C, <fiKiuei( •>(!uo//.V!»' '^diiii Wifvttmv K. T'Its >^ (X^ nSrx. I. 2. c. 29. And becaufe hif Hifiory u zety obfcure and 
intric.ite, ral:ethif brief Catilogne of his Condemnatims. H e read that he was condemned at the Council o/Nice, and at the fame 
time by a Rome ;(niit'r Sylvefter : but this if delivered only ina forged EpUo^ust^ondWiKomini. He was then firjl con- 
demned with y)arceUui his maRer, as Sulpitius Sevenis relates, probably by the Synod at Conftantinople ; for in that Marcellus was 
depriied.SciZom.l. 2.33. Socrat. /. 1.55. Secondly, hif Herefie if renounced m the fecond Synod at Aniioch. Adiaml'.deSyn. So- 
crat./. I. 19. Thirdly, he was condemned in the Council of Siides. Epiphan. <ma' Sulpitius Severus. Fomthly, byaCoimcitat M- 
lan. .V. Hilar. F/'.ti'w. Fifthly, in a Synod at SiTm'mm he w.u depofed by the Wejlem BiJJ:ops ; but by reafon of thegreat opinion and 
affection of the people he could not be removed, J'.HilaT. Fragm. Sixthly, he was again condemned and depofedat Sirmium by the Eajiern 
Bi/hops, and being conviiied by hi(\\ Bijhopof Ancyti, was banijhedfrcm thence. S. Hilar. Epiph. Socr. Sozom.WgiL Indeed h: 
was Jo gener.illy cm.'lemnedmt only then, but afterwards under Valentinian, as i, Hierome tejlifies, and the Synodic Epiflleofthe Aqui- 
leian Council, th.1t his opinion w.isfom worn out of the world, "hJ^i y) x) J^t7Kt<fk.&n fi( M)py ^ifc* n tb't* ri »7r*ttifJt!x 
aififfjs, fays Epiphanius, who lived not long after him. So fuddenly was li/tf opinion rejeHed by aliChriflians, applauded by none but 
]iilui\ ti.e Nercticl^ who railed at S.]o)m for mal^ngChri]} God, and ctmmended Vhounui for denying it; as appears by an Epijlle 
writtsn ir Julian to him, as it is (though in a mean tranjl.iticn) delivered by I'acundus. Tu quideni, O Photine, verilimilis 
vidsris. ic proximus lalvare, bene taciens nequaquam in utcro inducere, quem credidilH Deum. F.icun, adjujlmian, 1. 4. 

Thefecond AflTertion, next to be made good, is that the being which Chrijl 
had btlorc lic\vas conceived by the Virgin was not any created, but the Di- 
vine cflence, by which he always was truly, really and properly God. This 
will evidently and nccelTaiily tollow from the lail dcmonlkation of the firft: 
Aflertion, the creating all things by the Son of God: from whence we infer- 
red his pre-exiiknce in the beginning alluring us as much that he was God, as 
heb. 5. 4. that he was. For he that built all thtngs U God. And the fame Apoftlc which 
aflfures us All things were madeby him, at the fame time tells us, In the begin- 
ning w.ii thelVord, and the Word with God, and the Word was God. Where 
In the beginning muft not be denied unto the third propofition, becaufe it 
*Fr*M, 8. 23. cannot be denied unto the fecond. Therefore in the beginning, or ever the earth 
was, the Word was God, the fame God with whom he was. For we can- 
not with any fhew of realbn either imagine that he was with one God, and 
was another, becaufe there can be no more fupreme Godb than one ; or con- 
ceive that the Apoftle fhould fpeak of one kind of God in the fecond, and of 
11 Aijthat upon ^"'^ther in the third propofition ; in the fecond, of a God eternal and inde- 
jipo-'f aground peudcnt, in the third, of a i; made and depending God. Efpecially, firll con- 
f^'^J^^j.^/^^^^-'iidcring that the eternal God was fo conrtantly among the jfere-/ called the 

ctufe in the firjl ptjcejt if U2 Tfjf T 0ii?, inthe fecund, OiitlSl'^, nst i Qt'of ' from hence to conclude, i&iifiscnt 
God, that is, xaT ir,o^(u/\ the fupreme Ood, 0ee< another, nor the fupreme, but one made Gjdby kirn. Indecdtheyare beholder, tc 
Epiphintui for thUObfrvatioii, wbofe words are thefe : 'EaV HfJtV ©tif, «K)t tS a.'f9f», t rv /i,f\A h:toJ^J @iiv 'ffJ' H- 
l-wr, n 0«3i- tJh o/}a(or iKirlf^idy vj »>t«^ es3(,/fc/.of u( ^ ri itf9f». roy hla. Cnix^tO/^ iKrt% n lu yvu- 
r«»,aW- SamaricZ/vir/. But Wbojtever fhall apply this rule tothe facted Saiptures willpnd it moji ja'daciow, Inthe beginmrg 

HisOnLySoN. I2S 

Woittnr ^ii( •?• i£if.viv ic, ¥ yUv, undoubtedly belongs to the true and fufreme God: but it does not thence fiii'w, that tyX'us 
Si* i-^f^tfs]* i-Tiifa ri SjklQ , jhould be underftoid of the Spirit of another or inferiour God. Certainly S.]o\m,rvhen he fpeai^i 
if the Bapttfl,i-^ij{]» it^^anrO- a,iri^\iuV'&- ■'m^ 3i«, rncant, he had his commi(fion from Heaven % and rvhm it is fp:l(en of 
Chrifl, 'iJtoKiv a/jTutt 'J^KnAv 7iKvcc •3-sb -^Jit^, and again, Iv, dt? \-^JVi)^i\m.v , it muft be undsrftocdof the true GJ the F&i 
tber. In the like manner, ^ilv »/«« idfaKi 7rci7n]i,if it were ta^en rvx'-il'^f of any ever called God, my, ex/snofcbriji Jefm 
as man, it were certainly falft. Hore can then any deny the word to be the Supreme Gad, becaufe he is caHedfiir.plv 0io<, tvhen S. John 
in the four next places, in vcbich he fpeaketh of the S^(preme God, mentimeth him rvithout an Articled T'.'is Criticifm "f theirs rvai 
frU the obfenatm of Mlctiui the Arian, Ow^ c?Tey o //.■' ncwh@- "Hej^zv Kifivasm ^ n -^iS J'vmx/j.iv,'!! r nd^iZ Qo- 
f iar,a>Act J'^'-t. 'f ■T^c&tiKnf J uiiJ-ixiv -Sts. It, dta Qt(pit.v' aWiLw p. i7) tLu jJ><tt ojjfi'fi, -Sik S'wla-u.iv liui ttjL.'jiiTay a/]-rzi 
]y (ruuVTci^yycra.* ii-^v''\Tm(, KMfi/ Tnefe are tbcrvords of Afterius recorded by h\.\vuuCK& Orat. 2. cw.Arianos Inrphich 
place, mivcithfianding, nine can deny but '«« js twice ta^cn tpitbout an Article f«r the true and fifreme God. Thiis Djdjmus of 
Alexandria , de Sp. S. would diiiinguifl, between the ferfon and the gift of the Holy Ghofl, by the addition or defeii of the Article. 
Apoftcli quandc iiitelligi volunc Perfoiiam Spiritus Sanfti addunc Arciculiini, to -rciCjua, fine quo '^piritus Sanfti dona no- 
tancur. ^«rt'At!;ana(ius ob]eits againjl bis advetfaries denfwg the Holy Ghofl to be God, that they produced places out of the Prophets 
toprove him a Creature, where Tviufj-A had not fo much as an Article prefixed, which might ghe fome colour to interpret it of the 
Holy Spirit. G\lSi yiiJ^ Iv to S.^'^g^v'iyji t3 ttu^ ii Tt^cif'nn Ki-}ii^ov nJj TKtufxa, °iva xac i-g^juLmy iy iiji. Eptj}. ad 
Serapionem. Whereas we find in the fim' place of S, John, the fame Spirit in the fame fenfe mentioned with and without an Article. 
'Edr |wii 7/f •)?</rtt9ii 11^ vJklQ- >y rrvdJunt]©-, John 3. 5. and, to y.-ffjv»iMav Iv. ta '!tvi!,y.A\Qr, v. 6. So i John 4. U 
Mh Ta^7' 'nyijy.cvti 'Tri^diiji, dt^^a. S'tx.ii/.ii^ili la.Ti/dj'i/.^sL' and again, '£;> Tkra ■jtvuiKi]- To Tceu/ua li Sis' -rxr 
mydjf/Mj&c. And befide, according to that diftin'lion, to ■xviiiixot. certainly Jlands for the g: ft of the Spirit, i Thejj.<,. ip. 
Ti -vyivyii f/.h <r^k.Viiv]i. In the li^e manner, it is fo far from truth,that the Scriptures obfcrve fo much the Articles, as toufe h ^ttt- 
always jor the true andfupreme God, and Qtc( for the falfe or inferiour ; that where the true is profcffedly oppofcdto thefilfe, even 
there he is fiyledfimph ©eos- As, 'AWia tots ji: in w/otk Sioy, iJ'afi.iHimJi to»{ i/.» fuV^ xaj Stcii ' NiuT 3 yviv,ti d-.iy, 
ItaitXciv 3 yva^'iiltt \sisi &tS. Gal. 4. 8, 9. And where the fupreme is dijlinguijlied from him nhvnthey make the infcriour God, 
he is called likewife Qiif without an Article : as, J^eAgr l«ux Xu^i, dpavtr/jS/i^i- '^( Ivi^fyihlorSiS, and ns oet^'^^']Q- 
^!l ^is i* JhtitiiJLH, Rom- 1.1,4. 'ATost!A©-'li)a-« Xe/r? tA* ■SeAiV-ic')®" vs?! iCor.i. 1. aCo/.i.i. Eph.\.i.C.oL i. \, 
Andif ihitdiflinSion were good, our Sai iou/s argument to the Pharifets were not fo : Ei 3 i-ja &♦ Tydiu-jri 5sS i;t;SaMia t* 
JitiiJi.<>vict,a,^i$^ti.<nv i<f' undi n ^ctmKiin n SiS. Matth. 12.28. Por it doth not foUotv, that if by the potver of aninferiour 
wfalfe God he cajl out Devils, that therefore the Kingdom of the true and fuprcme God is come upon them. 

Word, the only reafon which we can conceive why the Apoftlc fhoulci thus 
ufe this phrale : and then obferving the manner of S. 'John's writing, who 
rifes ftrangely by degrees, making the laftword of the former fentence the 
firft of that which followeth : As, In him was life, and the life was the light of joh,\ i. <j,ji' 
then ; and, the light fljineth in darknefs^ and the darknefs comprehended it not : 
fb, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word, whicli fo was in the begin- 
ning, was with God, and the Word was God ; that is, the fame God with whom 
the \Vord was in the beginning. But he could not be the fame God with him 
any other way, than by having the fame Divine elTence. Therefore the be- 
ing which Chrifi had before he was conceived by the Virgin was the Di- 
vine nature, by which he was properly and really Godi 

Secondly, He who was fubfifling in the form of God, and thought himfelf 
to be equal with God, f'in which thought he could not be deceived, nor be 
injurious to God) muft of necelTity be truly and elTcntially God: bccauie 
there can be no equality between the Divine eifence, which is infinite, and 
any other whatfoever, which mufl be finite. But this is true of Chrijl; and 
that antecedently to his conception in the Virgin's womb, and exiftence in his 

humane nature. Vor ^being (sr rather \\ f'l^fjling) in thaform of Godjie thought ^h'l. 3.0,7. . 

~ ~ It emptied himftlf and took upon him the \^^fC\mai. 
form of afervant, and was made in the likene/s of tnen. Out of which words na- Tertuil. 

it not robbery to be equal with God : But 

turally refult threePropofitions fully demonftratingour Aflertion. Firrt,That [",,^*j""uf" 
C///-/// wasin tlieformof a fervantas (bon as he Mas made man. Secondly, cpr. 
That he was in the form of God before he was in the form ofa fcrvanr.Third- 
ly,That he was in the form of God, that is,didas truly and really fubfiftin the 
Divine nature, as in the form of a fervant,or in the nature of man. It is a vain 
imagination, that our Saviour then firil appeared a lervant when he was ap- 
prehended, bound, fcourged, crucified. For they were not all flaves which 
ever fuffcred fuch indignities, or died that death :; and when they did, their 
death did not make, but find them, or ftippofe them fervants. Be(idc,our Sa- 
viour in all the degrees of his humiliation never lived as a fervant unto any 
Mafier on earth. 'Tis true, at firll he was fubjc£l,but as a Son, to his reputed 

R Father 



Father and undoubted Motlier. When he appeared in pubUck he lived 
after the manner of a Prophet, and a Doftour fcnt from God, accompanied 
with a Pamily, as 'twere of his Apoftles, whofe Mafler lie profeffed him- 
felf, Ibbieft to the commands of no man in that Office, and obedient only 
unto God. The form then of a [tr'u.rnt which /a- took upon him^ muft confilt 
in Ibmcthing diftinct from his lufterings,or fubmifTion unto men ; as the con- 
dition in which he was when he fb Ibbmitted and lb liiflTcred. In that he 
Kim. 8. ?. was madefltjh , lent tn the Itktmjs of fmful fltfb, fubjed unto all infirmities 
and miferies of this life, attending on the fbns of men fallen by the fin of 
Cil. 4. 4. Jhm : in that he was rmde of a. noman , made under tht Lvv, and fo obliged 
to perform the fame; which Law did fo handle the children of God, as 
that they differed nothing from fervants: in that he was born, bred, and 
;/4. 5?. 2, J. lived in a mean, low and abjcft condition ; ^ a root out of a dry ground, he 
hid no form nor comeltnefsy and ivbcn thsy faw him, there rvas no beauty that 
they jhoald dejire him; but was dtfpfed and rejected of men, a man of forrorvs, 
and accjuainted irith grief : In that he was thus made man, he took upon him 
the form of a fervant. Which is not mine, but the Apoftle's explication ; as 
adding it not by way of conjunftion, in which there might bcfome diver- 
fity, but by way of appofition, which fignifieth a clear identity. And there- 
fore it is neceiTary to oblerve, that our tranflation of that verle is not only 
not exa£l, but very diladvantageous to that truth which is contained in ic. 
For we read it thus ; He made himfelf of no reputation, and took upon him 
the form of a fervant, and rvas made in the likenefs of men. Where we have 
'•am.' i<w'\iv two copulative conjunctions, neither of which is in the * original text, and 
"'i^'fiL*^?!- ^^^^^ diftinft propofitions, without any dependence of one upon the other -, 
%h,'^%o^- whereas all the words together are but an expreflion of Chrijth exinanition, 
fxx]i iv^.^v- ^yit-ij an explication fhewing in what it confiiieth : which will clearly appear 
1Z,'thut^i( by this literal tranflation. But emptied himfelf, taking the form of a fervant^ 
iiifo'exniiiy ob- i,ci„^ made in the likenefs of men. Where if any man doubt how Chrisi em- 
m'i uttl P'^icd himfelf, the text will fatisfie him, by taking the form of a fervant; if 
sed fcmctip- any ftill queftion how he took the form of a fervant, he hath the Apo- 
fumexinanivit, fji^'^ lefolution, by being made in the likenefs of men. Indeed after the 
acc^kr.s,'7n exprelfiou of this exinanition, he goes on with a conjunftion, to add aoo- 
fimiiicudinc tlier aft of Clirift's humiliation ; * Jnd heing found infajbion as a man, being 
ft°s"n^f ^^'' alrf-ady by his exinanition in the form of a fervant, or the likenefs of men, 
»c^V^ »*'''/- ^^ humbled himfelf , and became Cor rather, ]) becoming) obedient unto death, 
did b) Ofpfi- g„^^fj f[jQ ^^.jf/j ^yf (/jg crofs. As therefore his humiliation confilfcd in his 
'and'lnxl b!th obcdicncc unto death, fo his exinanition confifted in the alTumptionof the 
tquaireLtionto form of a fctvant, and that in the nature of man. All which is very fitly 
^hkhulHoL' cxprelfed by a ftrange interpretation- on the Epiffle to the Htbrea^s. For 
Uivan h<t-' whereas thefe words are clearly in the Pfalmirt, ** Sacrifice and ojftring tho» 
^^' Y'^*''' ^''"^fi "°f defire, mine ears hast thou opened : the Apoffle appropriateth the fen- 


"phit. 2. 8. tence to Christ ; When h-^ cometb into the world, he faith, Sacrifice and offering 
H'ETa-TWi-K- thou wouldejl not, but a body hafl thou prepared me. Now being the "^ boaring 
"J,J^l^''<Jt of the ear under the Law was a note of perpetual fervitude, being this 
»»!>.'' For in was exprcifed in the words of the Pfalmifl, and changed by the Apoftle in- 
bothtixfivfrfti J jj pj-eparinff of a body ; it followcth, that when Chrift's body firfi: was 

there n but one ,' ^ P ,- , , ^ rr 1 ,- c r 

onmnion . iramed, even then did he ailume the lorm ot a lervant. 

jwwn« together 

ttv} AHsof o-^r Sii\hur, liMfitfl exinanition, or if.uitn- and his ftotber humitiation, tr iraitHtun ' 'he reft toe dU P/irtici- 

f'.es added for exjiuttiin t» the Verbs. *> Pfal. 40, 6, ' Bxad, 21.6 Dent. 15. 17. 



HisOnlySon. 123 

Again, it appeareth oat of the fame Text, thatCV^r//? wasin the form of 
God before he was in the form of a fervant, and confequently before he was 
made man. For he which is prefuppofed to be, and to think of that being 
which he hath, and upon that thought to aflume, muft have that being 
before that atfumption ; but Chrifi is tirfi: exprefly laid tabe in the form of 
God, and , being fb, to think it no robbery to be equal with God, and, 
notwithftanding that equality, to take upon him the form of a fervant : 
therefore it cannot be denied but he was before in the form of God. Befide^ 
he was not in the form of a fervant, but by the emptying himfeh", and all. 
exinanition neceffarily prefuppofeth a precedent plenitude; it being as im- 
polfible to empty any thing which hath no fulncfs, as to fill any thing 
which hath no cmptinefs. But the fulnefs which Chrift had , in refpeft 
whereof afTuming the form of a fervant, he is laid to empty himfelf, could 
be in nothing elfe but in the form of God, in which he was before. Where- 
fore, if the afTumption of the form of a fervant be contemporary with his 
exinanition j if that exinanition necelfarily prefuppofeth a plenitude asindif^ 
penfably antecedent to it ; if the form of God be alfb co-aval wich that 
precedent plenitude: then muft we confefs, Christ was in the form of 
God before he was in the form of a fervant ; which is the fecoad Fropo- 

Again, it is as evident frorh the fame Scripture, that Christ was as much 
in the form of God as the form of a Servant, and did as really fubfill: in 
the Divine nature, as in the nature of man. For he was fb in the form of 
Gody as thereby to bt * tquxl with God. But no other form befidc the elTcn- * t3 7D 1 _ 
tial, which is the Divine nature it felf, could infer an equality wich God, '"'s?- I'ariari 
' To tvhom will ye liken me^ aiid make me equal ? faith the Holy one. 7'here can ^^^ k'TjU' 
be but one infinite, eternal and independent Being; and there can be no kmDco,c\pr> 
comparifon between that and whatfbever is finite, temporal, and depend- ^^^ ^i"^^v 
ing. He therefore who did truly think himfelf equalvvith God, as be- rfrnJexprefi 
ingin the form of God, muft be conceived to fubfifb in that one infinite, ''^enomnofE- 
eternal and independent nature of God. Again, the phrafe, tn the form '^^hnmtuTe'.-mr 
of God J not elfewhere mentioned, is ufed by the Apoftle with a relpeil cw ^-^ mdcr- 
unto that other, of the form of afervant^ exegetically continued intheUke-^]f'l'L'^V^''^^f^ 
mfs of man ; and the refpeft of one unto the other is fb neceffary, that if the * 'i^r^-l^Ti- 
form of God be not as real and elTential as the form of a fervant, or the like- ^f "™'^^,*<?- 
nefs of man, there is no force in the Apoftle''s words, nor will his argument "y^Jii^d'X'^tL 
be fit to work any great degree of humiliation upon the confideration 0^ or.'fh,a!V\n- 
ChriiPs exinanition. But by the form is certainly undcrlfood tlie true con- '^^^^."^ ^''""^' 
dition of a fervant, and by the likenefs infallibly meant tlic real nature of "ij^r 5 vj- 
man: nor doth the f/i\hion, in which he was found, deftroy, but rather j"-'"''.'",'*', . 
alTert, the truth of his Ilumanity. And therefore, as fiire as Christ was re- ]^,? ^^t.m'^i- 
ally and elfentially man, of the fatne nature with us, in whole liniilitude /oilft. i^r- 
he was made; fb certainly was he alfb really and effentially God, of the ■^^/''^;,, ,, 
fame nature and being with him, ii whole form he did fiibfilt. Seeing Tttidin;^. 
then we have clearly evinced from the exprefs words of S. Va:if that 
Chrljl was in the form of a fervant asfoon as he was made man, that he was 

Sorvhomthe Gielj calllgvBiav- Homer'\a% Qt/i, 0d)j^,O. 

vohnc'i'TH ))M mt the n.nme ofiin AJverb, as belonging to tin.. 'un, but of a fioun referred to the antecedent Ti^, or incfudingiin Ai- 
Mtib addedto a\'oiin,Tiv vvZdf 'iTi'^iov-lhe colleHion rfGroliui fro/n ih'uxerfc tilery llrnii f, IT)?™ 0i,^,cft Ipcftari caiinuam 
■ Dciun./y if he jhoidd have fiildtim^-^r.m fit,ni)ie! fpcrtant, therefore i1)J'iiiiltes Ipci^uri. Tljit he riuu forced to /•/if off 'liiu,!iec.iuja 
the llren th of am interpret,itm, rendring an e:iuMit), lies in the Verb fiibjLmtive ri u). As nionyCms ^/Alexandria very •tncicntij, 
Kivatni( iinriir, >C) TcfjitdmLt iv( ^icv'jtTB, ■^«kx't« g 'leu/fJ, JsK 0r<j \iardif >;<; Kpill ad Pauluni Saniol'ic hor we .j;(v.dw- 
tedge that ?ja by it jelfojt-timesfi/nipeth -w more th,tn inrtar, itndjo tfiferreth notbinglut a limil.tiide : as ne tirni it fh-jnent!) in the 
biil^of job. i'/heie it jometimetMJweretbto the infefarable panicle Ji j'«n*7"7D.,4U3lJ JunortCjTfeB iukJi, j. 14. i — IJ'H-r, 

R a fKMt 


l.cuccaicum, j:wTt/fj_,.-. i^.->l. , ;i , r, j ^_ «r.r,-, ^;.,..) - T- „,a«, 27.16. ^^J/C^/icut vcftimenco. 


nciieih an Hebrew rtmd r.ither tavdin^ 10 the wtcr,tion,tbin the ]iimpa:i:cn; "liCS ' /i.>u, toniparjDitur cineri, . 
, nrovcrhi.. cincri.s W <mo/^;. 1 ?. i2. 60 f/.vf in </// /'^^/e tl-tces it h ujed adxejbutll) for inQar, and in Lnb ,h. 
of 7i jf) 'J ii. As fir that anfner of ?ocii:us. that chrijl canmt be Oid, becauje he is [aid f> be equal mtb <j:d, r.intun 

the adJi- 

™ - •— - ' ... liiiiabeft 

uc "ab co°qIfod cii'rifii!'^ lit iquaiis Deo fcquatur ipfiim c(Tc ascernum & lummum Deum, uc potius ex hoc ipfo nccclTario coiile- 
ciutur ncrfelle & amimum Ucum. Nemo cniin f ibi ipfi iquaiib elk poteft. Soc . ad 8.c. Wiek. m if there could be m 
pedralbn of equality irheie we nnd a fubj}.ir} identity : it is inojl certainly }al]e, becaufe themoft exuliffeal^ers ife juck language 
as this H. Tcere can be no eilrejfions moreexafl and pertinent than thofenhich are ufed by Geometricians, neither can there be any 
bitter wdg-^s of equality than they are; but they m^lifre^juentlyufe that expreffion in thit notion, proving an equality, and wferring it 

fom identity. As 

t.ur.edhy tvto oth 

the bafis of amthii m^uf^,,., •^^-—j j- "-'■,,', 'r ' r j ' l ■ • ■ \ '• •' / 

f) be eiuiil to the Father m e\]cnceor porrer, becaufe they both huxe the jame ejfnce and power, Jk at h, *n%v ic, J'wix.ixi* Kniluu. 
Ocellus de Vniierfi, a.».' ad xj^ -'OJjII )ij usiwru'f SiA^HhH itflnv >ij c//o/oc <wtl kojjfi.p. 1 1. 'Ifa 40. z'^. and ^6. 5. 

in the form of God before he was in the form of a fcrvant, that the form of 
God in which he fubfided doth as truly fignifie the Divine,as the likenefs cf 
man the humane nature ; it necelTarily folioweth, that Chrift had a real exi- 
Icence before he was begotten of the Virgin, and tliat tlie being which he had 
was the Divine elTence, by which he was truly, really and properly God. 

Thirdly, He which is exprelly flyled Alpha, and Omegu, -the firlt and the 
lart without any reftridlion or limitation ; as he is after, fb was before any 
time atTignable, truly and elTentially God. For by this title God defcribetli 
ifi-^u 4. his own being, and diftinguifheth it from all other. I tht Lord^ thefirfiy and 
'^^' Y' ivh/j the List, 1 am he. I am he, I am the firjl, I alfo am the lafi. I am tht fir ft, and 
'*'*" " 7 am tht lajt, and beftde me there is no God. But Chrifi is cxprefly called Alfhx 
Kev. I. II. and Omega, the firli and the laft. He fo proclaimed himfelf by a great voice, 
as cf a trumpet., faying, I am Alpha and Omega, the firfi and the lajl. Which an- 
ifa. 43. 12. fw ereth to that folemn call and proclamation in the Prophet, Hearken unto 
me, Jacob, and Ifrael my called. He comforteth S. "[fohn with the Majefty 
Kev. 1. 1-. of this title, Fear not, I am the firfi and the lifl. Which words were fpokeii 
'3) »8. jjy ^^^g like unto the Son of man, by him that liveth, and dead, and is ali-vt 
for evermore ; that is, undoubtedly, by Chrifl:. He upholdeth the Church of 
2. 8. Smyrna in her tribulation by virtue of the fame defcription, Thefe things faith 

the frfi and the lafi, which w.ts dead, and is alive. He alcertaineth his coming 
Kev. 22. 13. unto judgment with the fame affertion, / am Alpha and Omega, the beginning 
and the end, the firfi and the lafi. Antl in all thefe places this Title is attribu- 
ted unto Chrifl abfolutely and univerfally, without any kind of rellriclion 
or limitation, without any affignation of any particular in refpc£l of which 
» With the Ar- hc is tlic firll Or laft ; in the fame latitude and '^ eminence of exprelTion 
''f/'-' '/'""'"■* in which it is or can be attributed to the fupreme God. There is yet another 
upm, t3 i x^ Scripture in which the fame defcription may feem of a more dubious intcrpre- 
t3 &>, Tfw- tation : ^ 1 am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, faith the Lord, 
^^"'^^^5^*- which u, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. For being it is 
phaancithco- the Lord who fb calls himfelf, which title belongcth to the Father and the 
"'7'Y'''i ft'^ ^°"' '^ "^^y ^^ doubted whether it be fpoken by the Father or the Son ; but 
Forle^nJjinot wlicthcr it be underftood of the one or of the other, it will fufficiently make 
takeToaaitix good what w'c intend to prove. For if they be underftood of Chrifl, as the 
^l^bywu'h'tL precedent and the following words imply, then is he certainly that Lord, 
jigntfie only ihc which is, and ^vhich was , and which it to come, the K^lmighty ; that is, the (u- 
Utter written in pj-(.fne eternal God, of the fame Divine effence with the Father, who was 

thalpgurc, aid r ' ' 

SViiilii corruptly. Hefychius lilu- 



HisOnlySoN. I2C 

before defcribed by him which is, and tvhich mas, and which is to come, to ■R'''^. i. 4. 
whom the fix-wing'd Beafts continually cry, Holy, holy, holy. Lord God At- Rev. 4. 8. 
mighty, tvhich w.ts, and is, and is to come ; as the familiar explication of j^at 
name which God revealed to Mofes. If they belong unto the fupreme God, Exod. 3. u, 
the Father of our Lord jfe/7// Christ ; then did he fo defcribe himfelf unto 
S. "^fohn, and exprefs 'his iiipreme Deity, that by thole words, / am Alpha 
and Omega, the beginning and the ending, he might be known to be the one 
Almighty and eternal God: and contequently, whofoever (hould alTume 
that title, muft attributeas much unto himfelf. Wherefore being Chrift hath 
lo immediately, and with ib great iblcmnity and frequency, taken the fame 
ftyleupon hina by which the Father did cxprels his Godhead ; it follovveth, 
that he hath declared himfelf to be the Supreme,Almighty,and Eternal God. 
And being thus theAlpha and the firlf ,he was before any time afrignable,and 
conlcquencly before he v\as conceived of the Virgin ; and the being which 
then he had was the Divine Elfence, by which he was truly and properly the 
Aim.ighty and Eternal God. 

Fourthly, He whole Glory Ifaiah faw in the year that King Vz,z.iah died 
had a being before Chrift was begotten of the Virgin, and that being was the 
Divine which he was naturally and eflentially God : For he is ex- 
preOy called the Lord, Holy, holy, fwlyjhe Lord ofHofts, whofe glory filkth ifai.6. i,j. 
the whole earth ; which titles can belong to none befide the one and only 
God. QutChriJl was he whole Glory Iftiah {kw, as S.Johft doth teftifie, 
laying, Thefe things [aid Efaias, when he Jaw his glory, and [pake of him : and Johniz-^^i. 
he whofe Glory he faw, and of whom he fpake, was certainly Chrift: for 
of him the Apolllc treateth in that place, and of none but him. Thefe things 
fpake Jefus, and departed. But though he (that is, Jefus) had done Jo many ^^• 
??iirdcles before them, yet they believed not on him, that is, Chrift who wrought 
thole miracles. The realbn why they believed not on him was. That the 38. 
faying of Efaits the Prophet might be fulfilled, which he fpake. Lord, who hath 
believed our report ? And as they did not, lb they could not believe in Christ, _ 
hecaiife that Efaias faid again. He hith blinded their eyes and hardned their 40. 
hearts ; that they ftjould not fee with thetr eyes, nor under fi and with thetr hearts, 
and be converted, and Iftjould heal thtm. For thole who God forelaw, and 
the Prophet foretold Ihould not believe, could not do it without contra- 
difting the prefcience of the one, and the predidions of the other. But 
the 7fivj refufing to afTent unto the Doftrine of our Saviour were thole of 
whom the Piophet fpake: For thefe things faid E/aias when he faw his glory, 41. 
and fpake of him. Now ii the Glory which Ifaias law were the Glory of 
Chriif, and he of whom Jfaias in that Chapter fpake were Chrifl: himfelf; 
then mu ft thole blinded eyes and heardned hearts belong unto thefe Jews, 
and then their Infidelity was lb long fincc foretold. Thus doth the fixing of 
that Prophecy uponthatpeople, which law our Saviour's miracles, depend 
upon //4/<ij's Vifion, and the appropriation of it unto Chrifl. Wherefore 
S. John infallibly hath taught us, that the Prophet faw the Glory of Chrift; 
and the Prophet hath as undoubtedly alTured us, that he whole Glory then 
he law was the one Omnipotent and Eternal God ; and confequently both 
together have fealcd this tiutlj, that Chrift did then fubfift in that glorious 
Majcily of the Eternal Godhead. 

Lartly, He who, being man, is frequently in the Scriptures called God,and 
that in luch a manner, as by that name no other can be underffood but the 
one only and eternal God, he had an exigence before he wasmade man, and 
the being which then he had was no other than the Divine EfTence ; becaufc 
ail novelty is repugnant to tlie Deity, nor can any be that one God,who was 



not (b from all eternity. But Jefus Chrifi.htxng in the nature of man, is 
frequently in the facrcd Scriptures called God ; and tiiat name is attributed 
ur<o him in fuch a manner, as by it no other can be underliood but the one 
Almighty and Eternal God. 

Wliich may be thus dcmonllrated. It hath been already proved, and we 
all agree in this, That there can be but one Divine EfTence^and lb but one fu- 
premeGod. Wherefore were it not laid in the Scriptures, there are fmny 
Gods ; did not he himlelf who is fupreme, call others fo; we durif not give 
that name to any but to him alone, nor could we think any called God to be 
any other but that one. It had been then enough to have alledged thatC'^r;// 
is God, to prove his lijpreme and eternal Deity : whereas npw we are an- 
fwered, that there are Gods many, and therefore it foUoweth not from that 
name that he is the one eternal God. But if Chrift be none of thofe many 
Gods, and yet be God, then can he be no other but that one. And that he is 
not to be numbred with them, is certain, becalife he is clearly diftinguifhed 
/74/.82. 6.. from them, and oppoled to them. We read in thePfalmirt, ihavefatdye are 
Gods, and all of you are children of the moH High. But we muft not reckon 
Chriil: among thofe Gods, we muft not number the only-begotten Son among 
5- thofe children. For they knew not, neither irould they underjland, they rralked 
on in d.vkntfs : and wholoever were Gods only as they were, either did, or 
Col. 2. 9: might lb do. Whereas Chrilt, in whom done dmlt all thefulnefs of the God- 
head bodily, is not only diftinguiftt from, but oppofed to, fuch Gods as thofe, 
Joim 1(5. p. by his Difciples laying. Now we are fur e that thou knowe'fl all things ; by him- 
John 3. 1 2, ftlf proclaiming, I am the light of the rvorld: he that followeth me (ball not walk 
I Cor. 8. 5, (5. in darknefs. S. Paul hath told US there be gods many, and lords many\ but 
withal hath taught us, that to us there is but one God, the Father, and one Lord 
']efu5 Christ. In which words, as the bather is oppofed as much unto the 
many Lords as jnany Godsj fo is the Son as much unto the T».iny Gods as many 
Lords ; the Father being as much Lord as God, and the Son as much God as 
Lord. Wherefore being we find in Scripture frequent mention of one God, 
and befide that one an intimation of many Gods, and whofbever is called 
God muft either be that one, or one of thofe many ; being we find our blef- 
led Saviour to be wholly oppoled to the many Gods, and confequently to be 
none of them, and yet we read him often liiled God : it follow'eth, that that 
name is attributed unto him in fuch a manner, as by it no other can be un- 
derfiood but the one Almighty and eternal God. 

Again, thole who deny our Saviour to be the fame God with the Father, 
have invented rules to be the touchftone of the eternal power and Godhead. 
Fjrft, where the name of God is taken ablblutely, as the fubjeft of any pro- 
pofltion, it always fignifieth the fupreme power and Maiefty, excluding all 
others from that Deity. Secondly, where the lame name is any way uled 
with an Article by way of excellency, it likewife fignifieth the lame fupreme 
Godhead as admitting others to a communion of Deity, but excluding them 
from the S'upremacv. Upon thele two rules they have railed untothemlelves 
this Oblervation, That whenfoever the name of God abfolutely taken is pla- 
ced as the fubjeft of any propofition, it is not to be underfiood of Chrifl: 
and wherelbever the lame name is fpoken of our Saviour by way of predicate, 
it never hath an Article denoting excellency annexed to it ; and conlequently 
leaves him in the number of thole Gods who arc excluded from the Majefty 
of tlie eternal Deity. 

Now though there can be no kind of certainty in any fuch oblervations 

of the Articles, becaufethe Greeyt/ promilcuoufly often ule them or omit 

, t-hem, without any reafon cf their ufurpation or omiflion, whereof examples 


His Only Son. 


are innumerable ; ) though, if thole rules were granted, yet would not their 
Conclufion tbllow,Decaule the fupremeGod isotten named (astheyconfefs) 
without an Article, and therefore the fame name may fignifie the lame God 
when fpoken of ^/'r//?, as well as when of the Father, lb far as can concern 
the omiilion of the Article : yet, to compleat my demonftration, I fhall fhew, 
firft, that the name of God taken fubjedively is to be underftood of Chrijl ; 
lecondly, thatthe fame name with the Articleaffixcd is attributed unto him ; 
thirdly, that if it were not 16, yet where the Article is wanting, there is that 
added to the predicate which hath as great a virtue to fignifie that excellen- 
cy as the Article could have. 

S. Paid^ unfolding themyftery ofGodlincfs, hath delivered fix Propofitions 
together,and the fubje6lof all and each of them is God. Without controver- iTim. 3. 16; 
fit great is the my fiery of goMim'fs : God was manifefied in the flefij^ juftifed in 
the Spirit y [em of Angels^ f reached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the worlds 
received up into glory. And this God which is the fubjecl of all thefe Propofi- 
tions mult be underltood oi fhrift, becaufe of him each one is true, and al! 
are fo of none but him, He was the Word which was God, and was made 
flefh, and conlequently God mmifefied in thefefij. Upon him the Spirit de- 
fcended at his Bapcifm,'and after his Alcenfion was poured upon his Apollles, 
ratifying his CommiHion, and confirming the Doctrine whichthey received 
from him : wherefore he \v2~s God jufiified in the Spirit. His nativity the 
Angels celebrated, in thedilcharge of his Office they miniftrcd unto him, at 
his Refurreftionand Alcenfion they were prelent, always ready to confels 
and adore him: he was therefore Godfeen of Angels. The Apoftles preach- 
ed unto all Nations, and he whom they preached was ^ Jefis Chrifi. The ' ^-^^s.^, 35. 
Father '' feparated S. Paul from his mothers rvomb^ and called him by his grace ^ ^' ^°* 'i* ^°' 
to reveal hU Son unto him, that he might preach him among the heathen : there- 1?. ' 
fore he was God preached unto the Gentiles. John the Baptifl fpah '^ unto the ^'""- '*^- ^5- 
people^ that thiy fhould btlieve on him which ^ould come after him, that is, on \u^, '' '^* 
Chrtfl "Jefiis. ^ We have believed in JefusChrifi, faith S.Paul, who ib taught the f'^l- 1- 18. 
Gaolour tremblingat his feet, ' Believe in the Lord Jefiis Chrifi, and thoufijalt ! ^/j,"','^'"^' 
befavtd : he therefore was God believed on in the world. When he had been " cai. 2. \6. ' 
forty days on earth after his Refurreftion, he was taken vifibly up into Hea- ' ^^^ ^^' ''* 
ven, and fat down atthe right hand of the Father: wherefore he was Godre- 
eeived up into Glory. And thus all thele fix Propofitions, according to the plain 
and familiar language of the Scriptures, are infallibly true oiChrift, and foof 
God, as he is taken by S. fohn, when he fpeaks thole words, the Word was 
God. But all thele cannot be under (lood of any other, which either is, or is 
called, God. For though we grant the Divine perfeftions ami attributes to 
be the lame with the Divine Eltence, yet arc they never in the Scriptures cal- 
led God ; nor can any of them with the leaft (hew of probability be pretend- 
ed as the fubjeft of thefe propofitions, or afford any tolerable interpreta- *Deus,i.c. vo 
tion. When they tell us that God, that is, the * Will of God, was manifefted funcasipilusdc 
in theflipj, that is, was revealed by frail and mortal men, and received up in l^yi"^^" I]^ 
glory, that is, f was received glorioufly on earth, they teach us a language iiomincs infir- 
which the |1 Scriptures know not, and the Holy Gholl never ufed. And as no mo^^ morca- 

' •' Icsperteitepa- 

tefafti crt, ire. Cutech RMov.aiQjiAft.^i). f Infigncm in raodiim Si fummacum gloriJKcepcafuit. i6. \\Fo} (dtifismt 
de,/ nux 04« , ni;ich left if unKnifBti received or embraced. Klias fjval^vib not of his reception, but h:s afcenfiin, ifhtn he fiith 
ta Elidi.i, Ti Toyno* Qoi -jeh h (tc^'Mi^Glua/ >irB (][k ; 2 Kings 2. 9. 'Vhi 'EaV 1 J^itc /xi ^ta.ha.f/Cxvhtjijov in' Qi, 1^ iVa* 
(^0/ ktiuc. Whfnheallwill)! the otiginal'^^^y it is nootherrvij'etriwfl.ttcd b\ /AeScptilaginc, f/wn (tvtA>i»9ii 'HA<J 
c,» Quojnru!i ix fi< T ig^jivcv Which Language reasprej'ervcdb) the I'ellenixiiig ;eivs : 'O WrrtAiif 8»1< c* KouKa.-ri -rvgjt, Sirac. 
48. 9. twditgain, <tvt/,)ij)9ii iat »J< r ifv.tii!-, i Mnc. 2. 58. Neither did the} ufe it o/Elias on//, but of Enoch/i//'- Oii/i «« 

cmI'i^h h '* 'El <i;^, ly ><J axnlf liviKnp'iw iiro ■f yvf. Tiie f.ime Lane^ua^c is continued in the New leflament of our Saviim'i 
Afcenfion, di'dtKtxp'Jtt'if t iegtviy- M'lr. 16. I9. itKtAn^9«< etV vf/d^ ti< ^ vpntiv. Ails i. 1 1. and finih, etv«Mic>9i(, Wi.'?y 
t> 2. and a.;ihi\f^n a.^' tii^f^. Ails i, 22. As therefore i.vd.Kr\\ii TiMrf(n,vf, ii\ thil.Anin.tgeofiheJesfS, was net the reception of 


,38 ARTICLE 11. 

Mofcs k ,be IirAtlius, but ,he aj],<mpmn of hu fo.V, i /, clUm^h -H Xe<r»~H fAf Afcenjm^ Chnjt, Luke 9. 51. Wf^trejorem, 
Timenldllgnwft «,,) affumptum eft in gloria ; nndrhi it here by the word by wimb he alv^ays tranjlated -re^Hf 9«. 

Atti ibute, fb no perfon but the Son can be liere underftood under the name 
ot'God : not the Holy Gholl, lor he is dillinguiflied from him,asbeing)u(lifi- 
ed by the Spirit ; not the Father, who was not rtianitefted in the flefh, nor 
received up in glory. It remaincth therefore that, whereas the Son is the 
only Perfon to whom all thefe clearly and undoubtedly belong, which arc 
here joyntly attributed unto God, as fure as the name of God is cxprelTed 

fp^J/S'*' univcrlally in the * Copies of the Original Language, 16 thus ablblutely and 

writtn in the fubjcftively taken muft it be underftood o^ChrtJt. 

ftTs^liwthtFahbofe Cofies do asree. Nwnecdwe be troubled tenh tbeobfervmonofGrouusonthefl^ce: Sufpeftam nobis lianc 
leftioncm tacianc Intcrpretts vcteres, Latinus, Sn rus, Arabs & Ambrofiiis, qui omnes Icgcrunt o f »av«f «3«. J confefsthe yulgar 
I arin rca^s it othenvife t'um th Greek., Quod manifcnatum eft in carnc ; and it cannot be denied but the Syriac, hotcever tranjla- 
ted h Trmcllius a-reetb rviththe Latin ; and b:thjeem to have read 'i, inftead ofQiU- But the ,ornf confent of the Cree^ Copies 
and Lerrretcrs are above the authority oftheje tm Tranflators ; and the Arabiclcjet firth in the BMu Polvglotta a.reetb expre/ly 
tnth thvn But that which Grouui hath farther obfcrvedU of far greater conf deration: Addic Hincmarus opufculo fj. ilJud @ii( 
lie Doiituin 1 Neftorianis. i-w // at iirfl the Greeks read « b^Hf «5)i, and that o were altered into 0to(b) the Neflortans ; tiien 
ou£ht we to corrcll the Oreek.Copi by the Latm, and confefs there knot only no force, but not fo much as any grounder colour fir our 
Aruments But fir j], it is no way probable that the Nejlorians flmld find it in the Original », andmake ii eiht, becaufe that by fo 
do'rn they had oiertlron-n their oirn ,i(}'crtio„, which was, that Cod was not incarnate, nor- born of the Virgin Mary ; that God 
did not afcenduiuo heaven, but Chnfl by the My Ghofi remaining upon him, Hj r^ tyxKit-iiv M^tti vofWwJ^or. Concil. Ephel. 
Darr i cap i '. Secondly, it is certain that they did not ma^j this alteration, becaufe the Catholicl^ Greeks read it esJf befire 
they werefiic'b Hcr!tickj,fo called. Ncftorijni a Ncftorio Epilcopo, I'acriarclia Conftancinopclicano. Aug.Hiref. Neftorius,/row 
whom thu Hcrefie began, wjs Patriarch oj Conftantinople after Siilnnius, Sifinnius after Atticus, Atticus ajter Neftarius, who 
iucce-l-d\oimti a it/.'.ii/v £/«:/<:</ Clirylbftomus. But S.Chr\(o(ior\\c read not^but ^^to(,tts appears by bis Commentariesuponthe 
place- e^-i \iJiv^iSa i* Caf'.T.rssji.o />.fi/8Cj*<. W5.Cyril,w/» byall means oppofedUcdotmsitpontheprJ} appearance of 
his Herefie, wrote two large Epililes tube yueens Vnkhcrh ^nd Eudocia, in both which he^ mal(eth great ufe oftktsText^ mthefirjt, 
after the repetition of the words as tb y are now in the Greek_Copies , he proceedeth tkm ; Tif o it C'^fKi jaisf «9«'$ > « /^Aoi-, St« 

Wiieref'ire in S. Paul be read 0;9« God, and toik,that God to be the Word. In the fecond, repeating the fame Text verbacim, he ma- 
r.agethitthm againk Ntftorius : £/ 5-eJf av o KoyQ- ivuvi^aTiifax A»j*/7e> i^ »' <AiTK^fX59«« t3 j^ -StJf, *^X' m- c'f Um 
rt'« cf>*MV.v^, /*«;■« ./h T^Ts ^ oiJLchoy^fAp:<< f/sja J^ tJ -f iMnCnof ixv^extv ' »< ;} it^fttirQ- v'^^Jcu Kinif i \a^(, 
rroi i» r=«f *' Ttpai'Sf vltti 5 x-iu to/ ^«« » X a.mmv ivxfyks, on rrdi S.v^i^aiQ- c* (^af /.i T« SJi, xj «k 5.V irifuf ofuTo 
riti- Atk in the explanation of his fecond Anatbemati'm he ma^eth ufe of no other Text but jbis to prove the Hypoftatical Vnim, 
eivin' It ihisglofs or exp'Jition :. Ti SJi t3, 6? *i'5f«9M of C'^ft' '■> t«t»?;, ■)i}PVi C^P^ ° «-» ^-* '^^f^h Aoy®-, &c. The 
iame'he urgetb in his Scholion dc Unigeniri Incarnationc. So alfo Tlieodorec contemporar) with -f. Cyril : ««3< i^ar i^ 3«« 
ile Kni'of^ov'iX'^v^ p^^v, Jii\@- £rci,<nv 'iviiv9ia'T»ffa{i-jiUiT0,(TApS< '■$ i/Ji.<ii<f\io (pviri( iJijtt^ii', it Qo-fKl y6 TIM 
*h!ci -t« ^j.vK'otuJic>j ^'jjiv- Tuirdly, Hmcmnus does not fay that the Nejlorians put ee3{ intotbe Greek_Text, but that he which 
tut it in waicafl outofbii Bif}}Opriili_for a Ncjbrian. Hiswordiare thefe: Quidam nimirum ipfas Scripturas verbis inlicitis im- 
pofturaverunt ; ficut Maccdonius Conftantinopclicanus Epircopus,qui ab Anaftafio impcratore ideo a Civitate cxpulfus legicur, 
ouoniam ialuvit Evangclia, & ilium Apolloli locum ubi dicit, quod apparuit in came, jujlificatum ej} in Spiritu, per cognationem 
Grjcarum litcrarum O in liocmodo mutandofalfavit. Ubi cnimliabuic /?<(;, hoc eft OS monofyllabum Gra;cum,litera mu- 
tara O in vcrtit •, & tlcic 0S, id eft uc eflct,ne;« apparuit per carnem. Quapropter tanquam Neftorianus fuit espulfus. Htncm. 
Ot-ufc sS f- '3' Ny.v wbcreasHmcmzTui fa)s cxpulluslcgitur, we read not inEuagriuSjOr the Er.cerpt a ofThcodotns, or in joan- 
ncs Malala,f/j.« Maccdonius was caji out of bis BifJnpricQbr any fuch falfttion. It is therefore probable that he had it from Libera- 
tus a Deacon of the Church o/ Carthage, wh) wrote a Breviary, coUeiled partly out of the Ecclefiaftical Niftories and Ails tfthe Coun- 
cils tartly out aftherelaiinsoffucb men as he thought fit to believe, extant in the fourth Tome of the Councils. In which, c\u^. ip. 
j„e have thefamerelaTion.cnlywith this difference, tbatO is not turned into 0, but intoCl; and fo O'S, becomes njf 0S, but fi2. Si 
that fii /} the Greeks Copies arc mtfaid to have readit o, but o(, andfo not to have relation to the myfiery, but to the perfon ofCbrifl ; and 

Ihrianifm but jor other reafins. Howfoever Miccdoniui co,ild not falfifie all theGreek,Copies, when as well thofe which were before 
his time as tl>ofe which were written fince all acknowledge eto(. And if he had been ejeiledfor fubjlitiiting 0ti(i without quejiim 
Anaftalius would have taken care fir tk: rejhring %(, which wefindnotm any Copy. It remaincth therefne that the Nefiorians did 
noifallijie the Text by reading 0io( ijacjf &!)»), but that the ancient Greek. Fathers read it fo ; and confe^uently, being the Greek, *f 
the Original, this Lellionmuft be acknowledged Authentical. 

Alls 10. :3. Again, S. Paul fpeaketh thus to the Elders of the Ciiurch of Fphefus ; Take 
hted unto your felves, and to all the ^ock over the which the Holy Ghojl hath made 
you ov'.rjiers, to feed tin Church of God., which he hath fur chafed with his own 
blood. In thele words this doftrinal Propofition is clearly contained, God 
hath purchafed the Church with his own blood. For there is no other word 
cither in or near the Text which can by any Grammatical conftruftion be 
joyned u ith the Verb, except the Holy Ghoft, to whom the Predicate is re- 
pugnant, both in rcfpcftoftheai^, or our Redemption, and ofthe means, the 


HisOnLySoN. I20 

Blood. If then the Holy Ghoft hath not pUrchafed the Church; if he hath 
not blood to filed for our Redemption, and without bloodjhed there is no re~ 
mifjion; if there be no other word to which, according to the literal con- 
ftru6lion,the act of purchafing can be applied ; if the narne of Go^^,moft fre- 
quently joined to his * Lhurch, be immediately and properly applicable by *r^<iUt.Q- 
all rules of Syntax to the Verb which followeth it: then is it of ncceffity to portim'flf' 
be received as the fubje£t of this Propolition, then is this to be embraced as church be p'ro- 
infallible Scripture-truth, God hath purchafed the Church with his own T^hfh'Cbitnh 
blood. But this God may and muft be underflood of Christ : it may,becaufe is.'Is.col"'. 
he hatii ; it mull:, becaufe no other pcrfbn which is called God hath fb pur- 24- <""/'« the 
dialed the Church. * We were not redtemed with corruptthle things^ as filver and ll'^^f'Z' ''^'"^ 
^old^ hat with the precious bLod of Chrijt. With this price were we bought ; maj rk x«r«, 
and therefore it may well be faid , that Chrift our God hath pnrchafed us with ^'>m.j6.i6.^s 
bis ovn blood. But no other perfon which is, or is called, God, can be faid fb churches 'of 
to have purchaled us, becaufe it is anaft belonging properly to the Media- Gcd, \cor.\i, 
torfliip ; and there is but one Mediatour between God and men : and the Church IndiTMlt 
is ^ j.i itiifed through the offering of the body of Jeftu ChriB once for all. Nor can 14. yet » Ia- 
the exprelTion of this a6t,peculiar to the Son, be attributed to the Father, be *7,!?''^,f "^ 
caufc this blood fignifieth death ; and though the Father be omnipotent,and fc/^^a^'i cor. 
can do all things, yet he cannot die. And thoua,h it might be faid that he '-^-^ i°.^''- 
purchafed us, becaufe he gave his Son to be a ranU'^me for us, yet it cannot ^,"'| 22' ^2 cwt 
be faid that he did it by his own blood ; for then it would follow, that he gave i . 1. 1 Tr.n. 3. 
not his Son, or that the Son and the Father were the lame Perlon. Befide, '^•'^y^^ly^'- 
it is very obfervable, that this particular phrafe of his own hlood,is in t ' e Scri- j-j „ot once n^-.- 
pture put by way of oppofition to the blood of 1| another: and howibcver med.Andthere- 
we may attribute the Afts of the Son unto the Father, becaufe fent by him ; relf7ntoaiter^it 
yet we cannot but acknowledge that the blood and death was of another tli^n m thUText, ^r 
the Father. ' Not by the blood of goats and calves^ but by his own blood he ent> d ''Jj^,1"j,'^ ''^^fj 
in once into the holy place : and whereas "^ the High-priejl entred every year with then made'd7, 
the blood of others, Chri(l appeared once to put away Jin by the facrifice of him/elf. "'/'''" " 'f f" 
He thee which purchafcd us wrought it by his own bloo.d,asanHigh-priefl: e€^',n»'-"'X?! 
oppofed io the Aaronical, who made atonement by the blood of others. But ^ome mss. m 
the Father taketh no Prieffly (office, neither could he be oppofed to the legal ■'jcSrlgt 
Prieil;, as not dying himfelf, but giving another. Wherefore wherefbever an', and New 
the Father and the Son are defcribed together as working the Salvation of Coii./)f ,s. rt/ij 
man, the blood by which it is wrought is attributed to the Son, not to the [hdntelpmntf 
Father : as when S. Paul fpeaketh of the ' redemption that is in Jefus Chrijl, 1 renins regere 
whom God hath fit forth to be a propitiation through faith in his bloody to declare ^^^;li^_^^' 
his ri'jhteoufmfs; his^ that is, hts own righteoujnefs^ hath reference to God others reprefem 
the* Father ; but his^ that is, his own bloody muft be referred to ChrtH the f,^^^,^j®^f' 
Son. When he glorifieth the God and Father of our Lord jefus ChriJl, at XXt /«'«- 
tributing unto him, that he hath blelTed, elefled, predellinated, adopted, ac- P^^'^i^i '"•''f* 
ceptcd us, made known unto us the myltery of his will, and gathered us to- T^mjil'ui^' ir- 
gethcr in one ; in the midftof this acknowledgment he brings in ^the beloved gument;Diit,be- 
in whom we have redemption through his bloody as that which cannot be attri- "j.^^///'||^,'2*/ 

mt like to be true. The Syriack^trmPating it Chrifti, ( t^n'lf Q"I not Domino ,^t it is in the Latine Tranjlation) gives an Expojition than a Verfion. ' i Fet. i. 18, 19. " 'eA. I.. 10. H'lcftBi' cS/Mt is oppofed to iS/jia. (";Aot«o». And 
therefore it is obfervable that the Author of the Racovijn Catechifm, in his Anftcer to th:s place of saipiiire, doth never mal^c the 
leajl mention of i/ioi- or proprium , but only affirms that the bloodof Chrijl may be called the blood of God the Fattier ; & totidcm 
verbis did Sodnui anfrver to Wickus before, but in his whole Anfwer concealed the force of 'ifiov, whereas the flrcngth of our^Agu- 
ment lies in tbofe tvirdi, J)a. ni Ic^'a c'J/[/«7©"j <"> "' ''■'■' Alexandrian MS. and one mentioned by Beza, <A* n ajiAcLl&n ij>ii. 
• /lb. 9. 1 2. » yerfe 25, 26. ' Kom. 3. 2$. *0(( vafi^iio i ©jJt IMi^ietOf J^d -^ itinaf i» Tti ewn S^aIi, ♦Jj Jlf/W- 
^it i J)Ka!»jvj'inf *urS. '. Eph. i. 6, 7. 

S buted 

ip ARTICLE 11. 

buted CO the Father. Chrift hath blelTcd us; and the Apoftle faith, the Fa- 
Afls 3. a:. ther liath blelTcd us .• w hich is true, becaufe he fe»t his Son to bkfs us. Christ 
hath made known unto us the will of his Father ; and the Apoftle faith, 
tfh. 1. 9. tjie Father hath mtde known unto us the myftery of hii rrill; becaule he fent 
c«/. 1 13. his Son to reveal it. Chrtfi hath delivered us ; and the Father is faid to 
deli'ver us from the pom r of darkntfs : not that we are twice delivered, but 
bicaule the Father delivereth us by his Son. And thus thefe general aftsare 
familiarly attributed to them both ; but ftill a dirfere::ce muft be obierved 
and acknowledged in the means or manner of the performance of thele afts. 
For though 'tis true that the Father and the Son revealed to us the will of 
God ; yet it is not true that the Father revealed it by himlelf to us ; but 
that the Son did fo, it is. They both deliver us from fin and death : but the 
Cil. 1. 4, Son gave hiwfelf for our fns, that ht might deliver m ; the Father is not, can- 
not be, laid to have given himfelf, but his Son: and therefore the Apoftle 
Col. 1. 13, 14- giveth thanks unto tlie Father, n-ho hath dtlivered m frotn the power of dark- 
riefs^ and hath tranflated as into the kingdom of his dear Son., in whom we have 
redemption through his blood. Now this blood is not only the blood of the 
new Covenant, and confequently of the Mediator : but the nature of this 
Covenant is fuch, that it is alio a Teftament, and therefore the blood mult 
tiib. 5. 1 5. jjg jhe blood of the Teftator ; for where a Teftament is., there mujl alfo of ne- 
ceJfty he the death of the Teftator. But the Teftator which died is nor, can- 
rot be, the Father, but the Son; and confequently, the blood is the blood 
of the Son, not of the Father. It remaineth therefore that God, who pur- 
chaled the Church with his own blood, is not the Father of our Lord jefm 
Chrift, or any other which is called God, but only Jefm Chrift the Son of 
God, and God. And thus have I proved the firft of the three Aflertions, 
that the name of Go^abfblutely taken and placed fubjeftively, is fometimes 
to beunderftood ofChriB. 

The fecond, 'That the name of Gc)^ inverted by way of excellency with an 
Article is attributed in the Scriptures unto Chrift,imy be thus made good. He 
which is called Emmanuel is named God by way of Excellency ; for that name, 
siMth.i- =j. f^ijh S. Matthew, king interpreted, is God with us, and in that interpretation 
II KaJ KrtMt j^ tiie Greek ]\ Article is prefixed. But Chrift is called Emmanuel ; * that it might 
^rZ'D^ffz i>e fulfilled which wm fpoken of the Lord by the Prophet, faying. Behold, a Virgin 
TSb , »/!9m- ^nll be with child., andjhall bring forth xfon, and they fhall call his name Emmt- 
ivH^°*/'i ^"^^- Therefore he is that God with lu, which is exprefled by way of Excel- 
idiU- ' *^' lency, and diftinguifhed from all other who are any way honoured with that 
Vfr/f z2, 2?. name. For it is a vain imagination to tliink that Chrift is called £ww.j/7«e/, but 
jldiesl. 24. t'l'^t he is not what he is called : as Mofes built an Altar, and called the name 
Jcr. 33. i5. of it "Jehovah Nifji, and Gideon another called Jehovah Shalom ; and yet nei- 
ther Altar was Jehovah: asjerufalem was called the Lord our righteouf»tfs,znd 
yet that City was not the Lord. Becaule thefe two notions, which are con- 
joynedin the name Emm.tnutl, are feverally true of Chrift. Firft, he is Em- 
John 1. 14. f„anii, that is, with us, for he hath dwelt among us : and when he parted from 
•£*"•' ^"jl^j" t'ls earth, he faid to his Difciples, / am with you alway, even to the end of the 
tiai world. Secondly, he is El, and that name was given him, as the fame Pro- 

^"'^'^■x U,y phct teftifieth, For unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given; and his name 
jball be called Wondtrful, Counfellour, the mighty God. He then v ho is both 
properly called £/,that is, Goi5(',and is alfb really Emmanu, that is, with us, he 
muft infallibly be that Emmanuel who is God with us. Indeed if the name 
Emmanuel were to be interpreted by way oi'a propofition, God is with its, as 
^I'k: 45- 35- the Lord our righteoufnefs , and the Lord is there, muft be underltood where 
they are the names of Jerujakm ; then fhould it have been the name not of 


HisOnlySon. i^i 

Clirift, but of his Church .• and if we under the Gofpel had been called fb, 
it could have received no other interpretation in reference to us. But being 
it is not ours, but our Saviour's name, it bears no kind of fimiiitude with 
thofe objefted appellations, and is as properly and direftly to be attributed 
ro the Meffias as the name of Jeftti. Wherefore it remaineth that Chriil 
be acknowledged God with us, according to the Evangelical Interpretati- 
on, with an exprclTion of that excellency which belongethto the Supreme 

Again, He to whom S. ThowM (aid, My Lord and my God, or rather, The John 20. sS. 
Lord of me and the God of me, he is that God before whofe name the Greek 
Article is prefixed, which they require, by way of excellency. But S. Thomas 
fpake thefe words ^ to Chrilf. Fur [jefusfpake unto Thornas^ and Thomas an- le"n"mfwered 
/wered and faid unto him. My Lord and my God. And in thefe |j words he thatthejemrdi 
made confelFion of his Faith; for our Saviour replied, Thomas, becatif thou Zmdt"'^i'-\' 
hap fen me, thou ha(i belitvtd. And let him be the Lord of me, and the God Lut^o God'ihe 
of me, who was the Lord and the God of an Apollle. Father.soTh^- 

•^ odor. Mopfue- 

ftenus /h hU Commentary on S.John ; Thomas quidem, cum fic crcdidiffer, Domima mem fy D«« mew ciicir, non ipfum Doini- 
runi & Dcum dici.ns,(tion eiiim refurreftionis fcientia docebac & Deum elTe eum qui refurrexic) fed quafipromiraculofo fa- 
fto Dtum collaudat. Syn.i' CoJiU. ^. As if Jhoma wtindedonly to have praifcd Godfor raiJingChrijl. Butfiijl itisplain Tliomas tmf>veicJ Chrilt ; jecon'ih, that hefpal^e imto him, that is, to Chiijl, and that the words rphich he fpal^ be- 
long to Chrift i thirdly, that the words are a Confrffion of hii fjith in Chriji, as our Saviour doth acl>norf'ledge. And whereas 
Francilcus Visidxi did ob]e it, that in a Latin Tefiament he found, not Si dixie ei, but SLd\-y.'K without ci, it it fufficiently difcoun- 
tenanced by SocirMS in hif Epiflle, ajfrrmrg that all the Greek, Md La'in Copies had it, except that one which he bad fund : and 
therefjr.' the omi[fion mufl be impAted to the negligence of the Printer. \\ 'O Mti'of uk xJ o ©s''< uk- Either in thefe words there it 
an EliipCis of M cv, Thou arc m) Lord, thou arc my God; or an Antiptofis,thc Nomimtiie Cafe ufedfor the Vocative, as'Zha'lt 
'EAiij, 0to< /u«, 0sl< f/8 j^&t<; 15. ^4. 'Afffa TitTi'if, Mar'>i^\i^.'^6. and'i^tu^i a QcnhSciV leJ^L-uav, John t^.-f. 
If It be an '•.liipfis of the Verb S, fo frequent in the Scriptures, and of the Perfn fufficiently underfiood in the preceding Pronoun ; then 
it is evident that a @i^( is attributed unto ChriJl,for then S. Tiionias faid unto him, Thou arc o -Sso? [/.ts. If it be an Aniptofis, 
thouji the conflruiHonre-iuire not a Vttb, yet the fignif cation vrt allyrequtrethas much, which is equivalent : for he ac^niwledg* 
•^th him as much God vrhile b' ca'.leth him fi, as if he did affirm him to be jo. Neither can it be nh]eihd that the Article '-. ferx eth only, 
in the place of S, ns fignifyingthat the Nominative is to be taken for the Vocatixe cafe; becaufe the Nominative may as wed l}and 
rocalively without an Article, as Twj>i?i, ijf< Aaf /, * att. i. 20. and E^enOTi/ i>s5- Kve/^, v^U A CiS'i '■'^•tt. 20. 50 31. 
and therefore whentte yocative is invejlednithan Arttcle, it is as confrerable as in aNominativc. And being thefe words were 
ancxprcffion of the ApoflWs Faith, asChrifl undcrjlood and approved them, iheymuji contain in them. lirtua'Jyat leal}, a Propofi- 
ti in i becaufe no all of our faith can ie expreffed, where the Ob'jeii is not at lea ll a virtual Ptopofit ■ m . Ar.d in that Pi opofition, i 
.&iO( mufl be the Predicate, andChrijl, to \ehom thefe words atefpok-n, mufi alfo be the Sub]c i. It cannot therefore he avoided, but 
that S. Tl^omcis did attribute the name of Gtdto our Saiiour with an Article. Indeed to m.e there is no doubt but S. Tliomas in thefe 
wmds did make ai tru. ..idreala Confejfionof his Faith concerning the Per!on of ChriJ}, at S. Vcter did, »>/;en fe anfucrcd and 
did, Thou art Cliriil, the Son of the living God, Matt. \6. 16. and confequently, tiiat 5 Kt/ei©-, and 0«Jf do as properly be- 
Img untohim, as S. I'ccerV Xet^f and i if'oi. Astherefire Chriji fiid to hisVifiplcs, VotTocarismc a J)Jii<rKa.h@-, ^ Ku- 
ei .? . & bene dicicis, fuiTi ecciiin, John 13.1?. fo he might have replied to Tii;;mas, To:i call me HJet'^ and ir)ii(, and you 
fay well, for I am fo. Affor the Obje'iion of Soc'uKii, that though 3to< be here fpoken of Chnft, andthat mtb an Article 0, yet that 
Article is of no force becauje of the following Pronoun ^a* it is tnoj} groundlejs : for the Article cannot have relation to the following 
Pronoun fyv, t-»rirr-*j « ctrnt^JJiK^Q «'i'7wii/f/«« "^ ioOffui- &» l^^'tJ 'nIdjH lii9«a< afSfcK 'Trnf^Siyiiiu '- as that great 
rr/(;(-(^ Aporonins Alcxandrinusoi/erie^, / i. deSyntaxic. 30. And if for (un it were ;/iiJ<, yet even that Article would belong 
tod\i(, for tn theft words, i ^ii( iixif, neither Article belongs to iy.ot, but both to ^il( • for, as the f,twe (Sritick_ohferves in ih^ 
f.imc caje,rJ'J)j7 a!^•6fxe^{ /.'ittv r cuhfi-iv (tr*j»pe]iu * vy. xf^ &• TW, Titrrf iiJ.i(, :;«1iii' ''>icasB/ to ?76£.-i/ •^ «f 9f<MK 
^ r a.r]-o\w.'iaii ^if^fij. Sothatifo^ih fc the f.iprcmc God,f/wi 3s oj unmufl be my iupTCntC Qod : as whenDdvid fpeakj 
tiGod. ^ii<, 3»o< fjLts, 'n^'.( u\ o{9e'^&', Pfi^l- 62. 1. the latter if of as great importance as the farmer. So again Pjal. 42, 5. 
ci^OLtoAevBOTf/su c# x/9/fa.o -9^85{, c Oeoj (ub • and^c).^. odiof «fxf(tya< n^H,o dit yf^S' and-jo.i^. ^to( /xit fjitt- 
Xfujjiit "'-r' ?u'. 3;o(iu«. I d.ire njt therefore fay to anyperfonthat he is'o ^I'of 1 it,except 1 do belieietkat he is a ^i'a(. Where- 
fore I conclude th It the word! of S. Thomas, Kveiof //« ly ^ik juh, are as fully and highly figniftcative as thofe of David, ■ 

n,»c'5^?f Ti? I^av\\ -f JilinVf IJ\S, ^XJlhXs (iV K) 3?0f MK, /'/•"' 5- 2- <" '^'"f^t dil( /UK It'j KuetH IXX, li( f J^kIuJ /UH> 

Plat ;{5. 2g- or thife, Tct ^veitdni «■», K^e/e ^ S'uu'.tJ.iav, &a.inK<it< ixhj^ 3ji« (xv.Pfal 84.^3. or thofe ofS. Joiin intiie 
Revelation, as they lie in the Alc;^andrian «hi/ Complutenfian Copies," A^i!jr »«, x) dti{ «//^'i> «;<&'-, ABlfHi", i^"^'. 
or that lajily in the mojl ancient Hymn, KJaie 0e3j, «tf^>3{ to 0*5 — th%t)n» ifj^di. 

Nor have we only their acquired teffimony of Chrifl's fliprcme Divinity, 
but alio an addition of verity averting that Supremacy. For he is not only 
termed the God, bur, for a farther certainty, the true God : and the fame Apo- 
Itle, who fiiid theV/ord wasGod, lelf any cavil fliould arife by any omilTion 
of an Article, though fo frequently neglefted by all, even the moif accurate 
Authors, hathalfb alfured us that he is the true God. For, we ^v;yn', faith he, , joim 5. a». 
thit the Son of God is come , and hath given us an under (landing that tfe may 

S 2 knO(f 


k/toiv him that is true : and ire are in him that is trut , even in his Son Jefm 
foTiU ?J.. Chrtjf. I! This is the true God, and eternal life. As therefore we read in the 
^M\iyl< 0i- jj-j^^ of the ' l^^ord which Godfent unto the children of Ifrael, f reaching peace by 
^V,S- HicT 'jef(fsChr//l ; he is Lordcf all; where it is acknowledged that the Lord of 
gitur non fo- al| is by the Pronoun * he joyned unto 'Jeftis Christ, the immediate, not unto 
S, feddcir- ^"^^ ^'^^ remote antecedent : fo hkewilc here the true God is to be referred 
lo uno vcro unto t hri/l, who ftaiids next unto it, not unto the Father, fpoken of indeed 
Deo, uc ani- jj^ jj^^ Text, but at a diftance. There is no reafon alledged why thele laft 
co"udJirus'in- wotds fhould not be referred to the Son of God, but only this, that in Gram- 
dicat. carcch. matical conftruttion they may be aicribed to the Father. As, when '' another 
^Aih 10.^6. ^'"g ^^°i^ ^^^'^'^^' ^"^^ "^* l°i^f^y the fame dealt fubt illy with our kindred; the 
* oSt& for fame referreth us not to Jofph, but to the King of yFgypt. Whereas, if 
jf. as M'h 8. nothing clfe can be objc6led but a polTibility in refpeft ot the Grammatical 
^A;;t^«. rl'- coniiruftion, we may as well fay that Jofeph de^k fubtilly with his kindred 
C<tv oZr» iiiy as the King o^ jRgjpt; for whatfoever the incongruity be in Hiftory , it 
!iuSr'ta?"* makes no Solcecilm in the Syntax. Wherefore being Jefus Chrift is the im- 
»><//. 7.18,19. mediate Antecedent to which the Relative may properly be referred ; being 
the Son of God is he of whom the Apolile chiefly fpeaketh ; being this is 
rcndred as a reafon why ire are in him that is true, by being in his Son, to 
wit, becaufe that Son is the true God; being in the language of S. John the 
conitant Title of our Saviour is eternal life ; being all thefe reafbns may be 
drawn out of the Text it felf, why the Title of the true God fhould be at- 
tributed to ihc Son, and no one reafon can be railed from thence why it 
fliould be referred to the Father: I can conclude no lefs, than that our Savi- 
our is the true God, fo ftyled in the Scriptures by way of eminency, with 
*if^xeii^,% an Article prefixed, as the * firfl Chriflian Writers which immediately fol- 
dt'ov.liimt.E- lowed the Apoffles did both (peak and write. 

ftft. ltd Sm^rrt. 

'Ey ^if,ij/jut]i n X\it\^(, K, 'IwZ Xeif J ri ^li yi/jSIS. Id, Ep. adEph. 'O )S ^iii i/jS^'U<ni! i XcJfrf lKVtp»friB» \jy) 
W«e(a<. lb. 'O yb diif if^ 'inirif 'Xet<i( &» ll«7ci <Ji'|uaMor ^aivijeu. Ep. adRom. T? ^u t^hya tx 'T?i.M-/jt.ctja. 
ti/xfit. Cl.Al.adv.Gentes. Audit wasnellobfnvidb) the Atahornf thtAtHfy. A^iSJe/iiSiP" , written about the beginning of the 
third Century, that not only the ancienter Fathers before him, at Juft in, Miltiades, Tatianus, Clemens, IrensEus, Melico, ^c. did 
ffeal( of Chrift as God, but that the Hymns alfo penned by Cliriftians from the beg'nning did exprefs Chrift's Divinity. •>Fa A/noi 5^ om 
K) dj'cu dSiKzSv a.-r' cli'/jif ^^ "Jncvv ^a/zHnn r Koyv n •S'sf ■¥■ Xe/sic Cfxvtin ^ufi.tyvvii(. And the Epiftle of Pliny 
13 Ttijznteftijies the fame," (^od ef^cnt folici Itato die ante lucem convcnire, carmenq; Chriftoquafi Dcodiccrc. 

But, thirdly, werethere no fuch particular place in which the Article were 
expreffcd, yet Oiall we find fuch Adjunfts fixed to the name of God when at- 
tributed unto Chnf^ as will prove equivalent to an Article,or whatfoever may 

lUm. 9. 5. exprefs the iijpreme Majeliy. As when S. Patd doth magnifie the Jews out of 
whom, ,u concerning the fltfj, Chrift came, who is over all, God blejjedfor ever, 

IP T- L f Amen. Firfl:, It is evident that Ar//? is called 11 God, even he who came of the 

I Timgh fome cy i i i r i i • i- inn . • . . 

noM lea-ce J^'^'^i tiiough not as he came ol them, that is, according to the flelh, which is 
God out of the here ^ di(f mguifhed from hisGodhead. Secondly, He is fo called God, as not 
pret'enceXcLfe ^° ^'^^'^Y of tile mauyGods, but the one fupreme or moft high God; || for he 
s. Cyprian, in fo" God over all. Thirdly, he hath alfo added the title ofblejjed; which of it felf 

lib. 2. adv. Ju- 

djios, citing this place, leaxes it out. But that mufl needs be by the negligence of fome of the Scribes, as is evident. Firft, becaufe 
Mjnutius and Mortl!ius/s«;ii the word Dciu in their C-^pia , and both the MSS. nhich Famelius ufed acknowledge it. Secondly, 
becaufe .S. C) prian produccth the Text to prove q uod Deus Chriftus ; and reckoneth it among the reft in vhich he is called eyp:eJ7y 
God. nirdtt, becauje Tcrtuliian, ivhofe dtfdple S. Cyprian proffted himjelf and bothfo retid it, andfo ufe it. Solum autcmChiJ- 

cfl per (vtl liipcr) omnia Dtus bencdiftu; in avum. Novatiaim de Trinitate ufeth the fame Atgument. Ar.d. mother ancient 
Author \ery ex[rejty ■, Rogo tc, pcum crctlis clfcHliuni, an non ? Sine dubio, refponfurus cs, Deum; qui ccfi ncgare volu- 
cr!S,faDftj»icripturis convinciris, diccnic Apoft&lo, Ex quibus Chriftus fccundum carnem, qui eft fupcr omnia Deus bcne- 
diftus in fceula. So alfo S. Aug. Non folum Pater Deus eft, ficut eciam orancs Hatrttici concedunt, fed etiam Filius ; quod, 
vtlir.r nohut, cognncur faccri, diccnte Apoftolo, CJui eft fupcr omnia Dtui benediftus in ftcula. DeTiin.l. i.e. 13. ^ycont^a 


HisOnLySoN. 17^ 

Faujhm I. id. c. 15. As jor the Ob'ie}lm,that S.ChT\[o(\ome d':th mt fignific inhU Commentmes that beread ^^if in the Text- 
iMJwer that neither docs befigr.itie that he read i bin i-dAav, frr in his expofition he pajjeth over wholly h Sit t-Mov d^Jf ' 
but it doth not follow that he >ead not ^ T^yrav in the Text. But when he repeats the nords of the Apojlle, h-. agrees n'lioul 
with the Greelc_Text, uv W -Tii:nvv 3-ei< hjK^y«rU ' and Theodortc, rvho lived mt long after him, dnh not onl/achnvled'e 
the woiiisM give iJH'JExpfitionof them : "h^kh /& .i tS <r <^fK* -woSrmn Tiv^J^Karcu li Jim'^rv XeirJ •J'djsT.,?*' 

f/H • «Ta« anToZ^u. tirrav to, xJi cmfKt, Tf.i^x'-'eoi.i to, ay £^ -Trivru? ^ia( luKayviTk ii( rKiJ ajtatoi. As for the omiifr.Ti 
»/Deus in S. Hilary on the FJ.ilms, it muft ofnecejfity be attributed to the negligence oj the Scribe, not to the reading of the Father. 
for how he read it he hath clearly exprejfed in his boikj Dc Trinitate : Non ignorat Paulus Chriftum Dc-uni, dior.s, Qiiorum fui't 
Patres, ify- ex quibus Chriftus,qui eft fuper omnia Dens. Non hie creatura in Deum depuratur, fed crcacurarum Deus tfl qui fu- 

----- , , ..-^J' oufKu, is uj'eJ 

without an Article, becaufe yT^ ■rviVfut, to which it is oppofed,foUoweth, and fo the oppofition is of itfelf apparent. But here being 
)^71 'jrvivfJM is not to be expreficd in the following words, the Article to fignifing of it felf a diftinHion or exception, fl.-en-eth that 

it U to be mderftood. || 'O af iJ5H ■ ' "- ■' ^-' — ■' "^ ■• ^ 


name of God, w4/r®", the mofthigii ; at it tt taken for the fupreme God by it felf, Afts 7. 48. and M defcribed, Plal. 07. j, 
*Ot/ av S, KtSeii, u4<r©' ^' TrcLnv tU» >!<*, Cf J^gjc \^x)-\d^ij( vjj^' lavjoi Tsd dt»(. 

elfewhere fignifieth the ^fupremeGod, and was always ufed by the "Jervsto * ^ „j^,. . 
exprefsthat one God oi Ifrael. Wherefore it cannot be conceived S. Paul i5i.2u(?ox«- 
fhould write unto theChrillians, moft of which then were converted 'Jews f'' ° '<!< '^ 
or Profelytes, and give unto our Saviour not only the name of God, bur aifo ttou?ii"ciir1ft, 
addthattitle which they alwaysgave unto theone God oUfrael, and to none ^''^ ion of the 
but him; except he did intend they fhould beheve Iiim to be the fame God ^j^e^!^f,i',^J'"l 
whom they always in that manner and under that notion had adored. As tribute i{ tai^el 
therefore the Apoftle fpeakethof ^ the God and Fathtrof our Lord JefttsChrifi, fo^^-^i^l^mfeif, 
which is hkjfedfor evermore^ of the Creator, n>ho is blejjtdfor ever. Amen; and iy"'tdded to the 
thereby doth fignifie the fupreme Deity, which was fb glorified by the Ifrae- nameofGod;as 
lites ; and doth alfo tcftifie that we worfliip the fame God under the Gofpel 'o^^.V'^'' 
which they did under the Law : fo doth he fpeak of Chrift in as fublime a ^Aovwrat «< 
ftyle, xvho is over 4//, God hkffed for ever, Amen ; and thereby doth teftifie ^^ ai^m- or 
the equality, or rather identity, of his Deity. If we confider the fcope of the onVf hlmTat 
Apoftle, which is to magnify the IJratlitesby the enumeration of fuch privi- 'tf^<i.Tfjj<nvj'S 
ledges as belonged peculiarly to that chofen Nation, (the moft eminent of '/(i^^^n'ff, 
which was contained in the Genealogy of our Saviour) we fliallfind their ^vlvhiyinU 
glory did not confift in this, that Chrift at firft was born ofthem a man, and f*5 '!^, '"'i'^«<. 
afterwards made a God ; for what great honour could accrue to them by th^: expreffims 
t!ie nativity of a man, whole Godhead is referred not to his birth, but to his "/ -^^ Paul are 
death ? whereas this is truly honourable, and the peculiar Glory of that Na- ""["iei't' "ujl!^ 
tion, that the moft High God bleffed for ever fliould take o» him the feed of of the jem^ 
Abraham., and come out of the Ifraelites as concerning thefltfh. Thus every ^*"' "**''" '** 
way it doth appear, the Apoftle fpake of Chrift as of the one eternal Sanihi»ry re- 
God. ''''"' f^'^ ''-"^ 

n.trne of God., 
were wont to ati'wer, Bleflcd be his name for ever, tnfomuchas the Blefled one did in their Language fignifie as much as tlie 
Holy one,and both, oreitherofthem,theGodoflirad. f/ence are fo frequent in the Rabbins, i^}'n "{TID lynpH the Holy Blcf- 
fed one,<«ni t*>i''n '\'n;i, the ElelTed one, that they are written by abbreviation, r~T HH or !~n' UpH ; and the infnite blef- 
fedone, iT'3 D"N, Bleffedbe Godfor ever. Amen, rt/irf Amen, 1S7'i3, and 1^7"". ' 2 Cor. n. 31. Rora. i. 52. 

He then who was the Word which in the beginning was with God, and 
was God ; he whole Glory Ifaias faw as the Glory of the God of Ifrael ; he 
who is fty led Alplia and Omega without any rcftritlion or limitation ; he who 
was truly fubfifting in the form of God, and equal with him,bjfore he was in 
the nature of man ; he who being man is frequently called God, and that in 
all thofe ways by which the fupreme Deity is exprelfcd ; He had a being be- 
fore Chrift was conceived by the Virgin Alary, and the being which he had 
was theone eternal and indivifibk Divine Effence, by which he always was 


,54 ARTICLE 11. 

truly, really and properly God. But all thefe are certainly true of him in 
whom we believe, Jfftu Chnsf, as hath been proved by clear teftimonies of 
the (acred Scriptures. Therefore tlK being which Chrift hcd before he was 
conceived of the Virgin was not any created, but the Divine Eflence; nor 

» Thit Hcref,, was he any Creature, but the true eternal God : which was cur fecond Af- 

»•« h oHai lertion, particularly oppofed to the * Arian Hercfy. 

from tm win ' ' j i • , „ y- ,' ■ • , 

bare the f.mic name, anJfcUat the fame time into the fame Anion ; one of them being a Presbyter, andReSor of a Chinch in Alcxan- 

J-;, ./,«»»(,j.. -. i\. . ^. Al..'L'^..^/>r B;/I/l^,.^ Al.-VMnflria in hit Foilile extant in Thcodoret ; 'El^ '•{ 01 cLynQiUXTIeiiinti 

*'£)-* yif .«- Ti-je third Affertion, next to be demonftrated, is, That the Divine EfTence 
wJiS ^vhich ChnJ} had as the Word, before he was conceived by the Virgin AJary, 
'jira'v a>- hc had not of himfelf, but by communication from God the Father. For this 
■jUiA «=(t4- j^ ^^^ jQ be denied, That there can be but one ElTence propei ly Divii.c, and 
2vwx"- fo butoncGodcf infinite Wifdom, Power and Majedy ; That there can be 
rj. s.^M.Ep. jjut ^ one pcrfon originally ofhimfelf fubfiftingin that infinite Being, becaufc 
JgJ „\^,;,„7o,, a plurality ot more perfbns fo fubfifting would ncceflTarily infer a multiplicity 
ritti/f Alex' of Gods ; That the Father of our Lor<5<J^e/"wC/;r//? is originally God, asnotre- 
£p.fl/WTiKo- ceiving his eternal being from any other. Wherefore it necellarily followeth 
' "joimTs. 15. that Jefu, ChyiJl,vjho iscertainly not the Father,cannot be a pcrfon fijbrifling 
nxvrciim'i- in the Divine nature oiiginallyofhimrdfjandconfequently, being we have al- 
S*vf sji^r^'f ""^^dy proved that hc is truly and properly the eternal God, he mull be under- 
\uT:t?,iit ' 7* ftood to have the Godhead communicated to him by the Father, who is not 
^.'V'^.'l'' i] only Lternally,but originally, God. * Jll things whatfre'-jer the bather hath are 
T^Miirji-^;^ w/«e,laith Chrijl ; becaule in him is the fame fulnefs of the Godhead,and more 
^oMTcToS- than that the Father cannot have : but yet in that perfeQ; and ablblute equa- 
uTi-Xn H "k, ^^^Y ^'i^'"'^ ^s notwithfl:anding this diipaiity, that the Father hath the Godhead 
7T.'if? '^' ? not from the Son, or any other, whereas the Son hath it from the Father. 
c^^^'n-z^'o ^^^^'^^ i^ t'^'^ ^"^"^ ^^^ ^"^ eternal life ; but that he is fo, is from the Father : 
rat. 2. dcFilto. ^ For M the Father hath life in himfelf fo hath he given to the Son to have life in 
john-i. 26. htfnftlfy not by participation, but by communication. 'Tistrue, our Saviour 
J1wS^V!/m ^^as fb in the form of God, that he thought it no robbery to be equal with 
M haheiet earn God : but vvhcn tlic Jeir/ fought to kill him becaule he '^ made himfelf equal 
'"^^m'd^cerct' ^'^^^ ^od, he anfwered them, Ftrily, verily, 1 fay unto you, the Son can do no- 
Patcr. qui eft thifjg of hifnftlf but what he fetth the Father no : by that connexion of his 
yii-a in icma- operations, fliewing the reception of his Effence; and by the acknowledg- 
ifum^qurcdc't ment of his power, profefling his fubfiance from the Father. From whence 
viu in fsmct- he vvhich was equal, even in that equality confcfleth a priority, faying, 

ipfo. Pro CO e- 

nim qnodeft^fn«/f, voluic 'm\.t\\\g\dedit, tanquamfi cuiquam diccrcraus, dcdit tibi Dcus cfc. 5. Au^. Er panlo poll, Qiid 
ergo Filio dcdit ? dcdirciut Kiliuscflct ; gcnuicutvitacdct ; hoc eft, dedit habere ci vitam in kmctipfo, ut ctTet vica iicn 
tgensvita, ne participando inccliigatur lialx-rc virani. Si cnini parcicipando habcrct vitam nonin fcmctipfo, poffct&aTiiic- 
tcndoiUcrnevita: hocin Filicnc accipias, nc cogics, lie crcdas. Manet crpo Pater vita, manetS: Filiusvita. Pater vita 
in fcmctip o, non i Filio ; Filius vita in fcmctipfo, fed it Patre. So again, dc Trinit. /. i.e. 1 2. I'lcrumquc dicit, Deditmihi 
Pat r; iiiquovuli iiitclligi quod cum gcnuerit Tater : non ut tarquam jam cyf-ftenti & ron habtnti dcdcrir a!iquid, fed 
ipfum dcdilll- ut habcrct, genuine ut ellet. '/o/w^.iS, 19. Tanquamdiceret, Quid fcandalizati cftis quia Patrcm meuni 
dixi Dcuni, quia a:qualcm mc facio Deo ? Itafum 2Equalis,iit non ille ame, fed egoabillo fim. Hoccnim intclligitur inhii 
vcrbi:, Non potcft Filius a fc facerequicquam, /tc. hoccft,quicquid Filius habct ut taciat, a Patrc habetut faciat Qiiarc 
habtta Patrc ut faciat ? cui.ii Patrc habet ut poftlt, quiaa Patrc habctutfit. F il 10 cnim lice c(> cifc quod polTc. S.Aug, in 
Lcum. Paido pofl. Hoc eft, Non potcft Filius i fc quicquam taccrc, quod cfllt, (i diccra, non eft Filius a fe. Etcnim fi Fi- 
liLS eft, r.atut dl j fi iiacui eft., ab illo eft de quo natui eft. 

His On L Y Son. i^c 

* The Father is greater than I : The Son equal in refpeft of his nature, the * A^'^oi' ^ri 
Father greater in reference to the Communication otthe Godhead. ^ I hmtv arsf" V'^' 
himy faith C;.riii, for I am from him. And becaufe he is from the Father, t3 's'l^^rTt 
jl therefore he is calLd by thofe of the Nicent Council, in their Creed, Goi P^'^-'^f- •^•Gr- 
of God, light of light, very God of very God. The Father is God, but not of ^e%h.'"' *' 
God, hght, but not of light ; Chrijt is God, but of God, hghc, but of light. "John-j.-i^. 
There is no difference or inequality in the nature orellence, becaule the fame !i"^V'il"^"y'. 
inbotli ; but the Father of our Lord JefasChrtfi hath that eiTenceof himlelf, Abipfo^inquic'i 
from none, Chnft hath r'-e fame not of himfelf, but from him. '""' qu'Jf-ili- 

• us de Patre 5 fc 
quicquid c1 illo eft cujui c.l r.lius. Idee Dominum Jcfum dicimus Deum de Deo ; Patrem non dicimus Dcum de Deo, 
fed tautum Et a\c\mv& Dommntn ]e'.\im lumen de tumine ■■, Tatrem non dicimus lumen delumine, .edtartuni /.men. Ad 
hoc ergo pertiticc quod dixit,-4i ipfofum. From hence then did the Nicenc Council gather thofewsrds of their Creed, O-oviKQi^i 
x) tSi if. ?'''tJ<, diou atAttfl/voi' ex. -S-J? :• Adfl/cB. But not irtimcdiately, for they were partly infomc of the Oriental Creeds before i 
as afpenyctbby that Cmfejjion which Y.ukhmprefented to the Council, as cvitaming what he had believed and taught ever fince hit 
Baptifm,inwhich be Had thefe words, x^eicitaKtietori'ln^h^ei^f, r n ■^iv \<:y)v, ^ihv l*. ^u, ipSfMZarif, (olui lit. 
^a«. And as F.ulehiws calls him Life of I fe,fo others Power of power, andWifdomofwifdom. fdeoClirillus virtus & lapientia 
Dei, quia de Patre virtute & fapientia etiam ipii. viitus & fapientia eft, ftcuc lumen de Patrc luminc, & tons vitiapud Deuin 
Patrem utique fontein vit*. S. Aug. de Trin. l.j.c,^- And not only fo but effence of ejjence. Pater & Filius fimul una lapi- 
tntia, quia una effentia ; & fingillaiiin fapientia de fapientia, ficut effentia dc cUentia. 

And being the Divine Nature, as it is abfolutely immaterial and incorpo- 
real, isalfo indivifible, Chrifi cannot have any part of it only communicated 
untohim,but the whole, by which he muft be acknowledged ''^ coeff.ntial, * 'Om"'"©-, 
of the lame fubftance with the Father ; as the Council of Nice determined, J^*ciai "■ ^c^^\ 
and the ancient Fathers before them taught. Hence appeareth the truth of fubftantiai, k 
thofe words of our Saviour, which railed a fecond motion in the Jews to T '" **■ ^^^^" 
ftone him ; ' / and the Father are one : where the plurality of the Verb, and DiiiZ Effence, 
the neutrality of the Noun, with the diftinftion of their perfbns (peak a per- asifthesonwere 
feftidcntity of their effence. And though Chrifl fay, the Father is in me, filcelniKFa. 
and I in him ; yet withal he faith, I came out from the Father : by the for- ther, and fo of 
mer fiiewing the Divinity of his effence, by the latter the origination of him '^llj^^^j'^^'f^i 
felf We mufl: not look upon the Divine Nature as || fferil, but rather ac was the'opiri- 
knowledge and admire the fecundity and communicability of it felf, upon ""'f'he Mani- 
which tiie * creation of the world dcpendeth ; God making all things by o,;«1c?t^|^ 
his Word, to whom he firff communicated that Omnipotency which is the t, fo^w ri 
caufe of all things. And this may fufRce for the illuliration of our third AV- ^1"^""^ :? 
fertion, that the Father hath communicated the Divine Effence to the Word, « *Tml- iA" 
w ho is that Jefm who is the C^rrf. '^\ lUvi^x^ot 

uiffr huoiai- 
ov t3 XXdt^S^ ''■^ '^vm"' »imyfi(7K}i>' as Arrius in bk Epijlle t» Alexander ; by the intsrpretatiin of 5. Hilary, Nee uc, prolationcm natum Patris commencatus eft ; nee, ficuc Manichsiis, partem unius fubftantij; Patris natum expo- 
fuic. dc Trn.l. 6. C^odHilarius ita Latine reddidit, tanquam o//oa'»7oi' id fignificaretquod/'d(-f:7» yi(6/?.<n??c habetcx toto 
refcftani, fays Dionyfius Petavius, without any reason : for S. Hilary clearly tranflatcs h^jLoimiiv barely unius fubftjiiti*, and it was 
in the Or'ginalix'i^Q- j.oitnov, which he expreffed by partem unius fubftantix. Vnder this nttton fi'Jl the Arrians prcterded to 
re fife the name ouni'nov, as Arrius in the fame Bpifllefignifetb, left thereby they fl;ould admit a real lompofiiion and divifion 
in the Dfit). Ei t3 Ik yt<;()<;, k^tI l/n. Wttlffi cijilxfloc, ai< (usf ®- tS ouoiim )^ tit -tccCoKu vnro T/Vap roSrai (^iuJ9=1#« 
eV*' llaTHf, )C J)aj(iri<, ic, Tf€T)of. And S. H'lcromc teftifies th is much not onh of Arrhs andi'MnomiM, but alfo of Ongcn 
before them : Habctur Uialogus apiid Grafcos Origcnis, & Candidi V.ilentinian,E HaTcfeos dcfcnforis. Qiios duos Andabatas 
digladiantes fpettatlc me tatcor. Dicit Candidus, Filium de Patris clfc fuhftantia, crrans in eo quod t- foAS<*J afferit; E 
regioneOrigcnes, juxta Arrium & Eunoniium, repugnant tumvel prolatuni elFc vel natiun, ne Dtus P.ittr dividarur in par- 
tes. Aptl. 2. in Ruffin. And therefore Eufebiiis Biftiop of Cafarea rcfufednit to fubfcribe to the Niccnc Creed, bein-i fo interpreted as 
that ob'elH'tn might be taken away. TJ ix. -^ «^a<, iiij.oKoy)fli Tf^? ojjt^ /)i\!.TiKoy f7) tv, ck, ff tv tlar '< V^. «' ^ de 
(^cpfji- .'-a^^j^Hv m I irtTfJ*. Vpon this Confeffion hcfubfcribedto that claufe, begotten of the fubftance of the Father, rrhich 
was not inhu oivn Creed. And again, OStu 3 xj to, owokittoi/ VI) ■;>; ■;rct.T,y< t qoc, 'J^iTct^o/u^Q- a K'.yPt- Qfui\^nv 
i )^ •%■ rm larav Tfc-jrovi >sji ret'. dcMTo'it ^a'oi< WK^7r/ii)S7f.)f , J'tS y& xj^ (Dojftny <? vaictf, Urt x^ !ctd7 '|utti. Sec. Upon 
this achnnwledgemeiit he was perfwaded to fubfcribe to the other claufe alfo, ( added to that Creed which l.e himfelf i,a^e in to the 
Council,') being of one fubftance witli the Father : which claufe was inserted by the Council at the inffance o/'Conltantine the Em- 
fcrour. Now as the Maniclices made ufe of the word ct/obj?®" to exprefs their Errours concerning the nature ofOid and the perfon 
»f thrift ; fi the ancient Fathers bejore the Niccne Council h.uUifed the fame in a trite Caxhliclifenfc, to exprefs the umr\ m effence of 
the Fati:er and the Son: as appca/cth bv the confejfion of the fame Eiiftbius ; Eir»i k, ^ -rciKcuSv A<!;('«« ?/►*«, n) ihtwtif Sh- 
(rxoTK<, K. Q.M^ypa'p'iai iyvauhi^ ^ 'f n -rargfi j^ ii« dsOAo;ia( tui th i/joxm fijy^nJtL>j.^<i< ivif/.it'li. lii.'ercjore the 
other Eufebius i/Niconiedia, umlcrftanding the ancient Catholicli fenfe, confeffed that if they bei:exed Chrift to be the true begitten, 
andiot cre.ited, sonofOod, they muft acl:i\owkdge him iixtvntr, wbtcb the Arrians endjavowsd to make fo odioiti ; andthcrefoie 


1^6 ARTICLE 11. 

'MCwncilinofpafitmtoihtmdeierrmnedit, Qiiid eft aliiid cur Homo'.ifion Patn nolint Filium dici, mii quia nolunr verum 
DciKilium' iicut Author ipforuni Eulebius Nicomedicnfis Epiftola fuaprodidit, dicens, Si vcrum, inquit, Del biliuni & 
inmatum dicimus, Hcraoulion cum Pacre incipimus connari. Hac cum lefta cflct Epiftola in Concilio Niccno, hoc ver- 
bum in Traaatu fidci pofucruat Patrcs, quod id videruut adverf.riis effc tormidmi, uc tanquam evaginato abipfjs gladio 
jplorum nefandi caput hacrclis amputarcnc. S. Ambrof. /. ?. de fide, c. 7. Dc voce'Oj^cu'in©-, vtde Dionyf. PctaT. dcTnmt.^ 
i.^ic.6. -"/j/jn 10.5c. ♦ A/uxSil*' jafTJydeciwTMC cfti.oi''^ (fwinicSf jpi-zMolii]©-' Daniafc. /. i._c. 8. liEio^ti 
*.if»cjp»5>-S?jV<tuTi>)i5i.'a«'in*, ■x>x"nYiu.Qr , kiT o^^Jy if fSt iJ.» ^itTt/^ty, «) ■rnyii ^not- tS{ c/Vm"?)'*!" m- 
*ty*t^y ojj'^'* ' k"^ ^^''^''^** »* *'5t''i'»*'1'" J •*• Athan. Orai.i. 

The fourth AfTcrtionfollowctii, That the Communication of the Divine 
EITence by the Father is the Generation of the Son ; and Chrift, who was eter- 
nally God, not from himfelf, but from the Father, is the eternal Son of God. 
That God always had a Son, appeareth by Jgiirs queliion in tlic Proverbs 
of Solomon ; Who hath efiahlifljecL all the ends of the earth ? what is his name ? 
and what is his Son's name ? if thou canft tell. And it was the chief dedgn of 
Mahomet to deny this truth, becaufe he knew it was not otherwife poflible to 
prefer himluif before our Saviour. One Prophet may be greater than another, 
and Mahcmet might perfwade his credulous Difciplesthat he wasgreaterthan 
any of the fbns of men ; but while any one was believed to be the eternal 
*rhis u often Son of God, he knew it wholly impofTiblc to prefer himfelf before him. 
tefrated there. Wherefore he frequently inculcates that blafphemy in his * Alcoran, that 
/T ir'tix'tl'^ God hath nofiich Son, nor any equal with him : and his Difciples have j, cor- bHtnre, rupted the Pfalm 0^ David, reading, (inftcad of, Thou art my Son, this day 
El'^lpfe'Dcus ^^^^'^^ i begotten thee,') Thou art my Prophet, 1 have educated thee. The later 
unus utus a- * Jews, acknowledging the words, and the proper literal reading of them, 
ternus.qu^nec apply thcm fb unto David, as that they deny them to belong to Chrijl ; and 
lUus cftl^fc cai that upon no other ground, than that by fuchanexpofition they may avoid 
ruiius eft a;- die Cliriflians ConfefTion. But by the confent of the ancient Jews, by the in- 
s"raccni!"a 'fit tcrpretation of the blelTed Apoftles, we know thefe words belong to Chri/lj 
forth b) Syibur- aod in tlie moft proper fenfe to him alone. ' For, unto which of the Angels 
fhisankeTrii f'^'^ ^^^ ^^ ^"y ^^^'^1 ThoH art my Son, this day have I begotten thee ? as the 
ftindiielfMti- Apcllle argues. And if he had fpoken them unto any other man, as they 
hmietanifm, ^^.^g fpoken unto him, the Apoftle's Argument had been none at all. 

Or/ H( ^tof "^ 10 

Hij-joiiiVh tV oKov, (xt'iTi i^rn^ftf, /xim -^vi'tfiu. ..4nrf Joannes Siculus ani Georgius Cedrenusretof /kw Mahomet ^<nr 
commMid. "Kca n'otev Tgfjy.uufif ^ton, i^ t XeiSBC Ttjjiiv u( \i^y n ^u f^ , i'xi M''* e/V. ■^"'^ fi" read of hk ridtculom 
Hiftory, that Chrili, after his ajcevfim into Heaven, was accufed by Odd fir calling himfelf hit Son ; and that he denied it, as being fi 
named only by men with')ut any aulhorit) from him. 'Oti ttviKSipTa. r XeiSBi- «f tJc i^avov tifarnnv i d«c(, Myity, '''Cl 
'lltjB. av •<^6« TCI' Aojpif t5to)i, "Ot/ iiif ti/xi n ^iZ xj .J-fot ' !^ i-TiKei^t) lna»(,'OTI tK^Tift-yd, *Ji aja^wMfxeu 
i7) ttS^U ffn ' «?,■.' ci icSfajwo/ Kiyvatu oTiff-rev T Koyw 'TbTor. |i Alfirozabadius in his Kamuz : Dirtum Dei omnipo- 
teiuis ad Jefiim,(nii propiiiusfic iic pacemconccdac Deus^ Tkw A?<»iy<r Prophcta mens, f^o jv^i/.K/foca, fovi te ; atdixcrunt 
Chriftiani, Tues tion.iya, f\\\ai meui, ego fvaladtoca, tegenui. Longe eft fupra liiEc Deus. And to the famepurpife EbnolAlhir : 
In Evangclio dixit I&, ego walladioca, i.e. ediicavite; at Chriftiani, dcmpta litcra Lam altera, ipluni ei filium (latuerunt. 
C^ui lonjic clatus eft (uper ea qua- dicunt. Whereas then the Apoftles attributed thofe wotds of the Pfalm to Chrift, the Mahume- 
tansyul)/; could not deny butihey were fpokenof the Meffiiis, we/c forced to corrupt the Text : and for that they pretendthe eminency 
and cxhllcncy oftheGjdlead, as if tt irere beneath the Majefty of Ood to be^et a Son, or be a Father. And indeed rvhofotier 
would brin^in another Vrophet grciter than Chrift, as he was than Mofcs, muftdofo. * I fay. the later Jcrvs fo attribute thof; 
uords to David, as if the) belonged nof to the y.ejfias ; but the ancient Jews underftood them of the Chrift : as appeareth not only 
cut oftlufe places in the Evangelifts where the Chrift and the bon ot God are fynonymous ; but alfa by the teflimony of the later 

Zeivs themfelves, nht have confejjed no lejs. So Rabbi David Kinichi in the end of his Commentaiies on the (econd Pfalm, 

jntcrprtt thi; Pfalm of Gog and Magog, and tiie anointed is Mt/lias the King ; and fo our Doftors of liappy memory have cx- 

it, ,11 then Language, Chriftians) it is rather to be interpreted of Daiid in his own perfon. ' Heb. 

Now that the Communication of the Divine Eflence by the Father (which 
wc have already provt;d) was the true and proper Generation by which he 
hath begotten the Son, will thus appear : becaufe the moft proper Generation 
which we know, is nothing elfe but a vital production of another in the fame 


His Om L Y Son. i-yy 

nature, with a full reprefcntation of liim from whom he is produced. Thus 
Man begcttcth a Ton, that is, produceth another man of the fame humans 
nature with himfelf; and this produftion, as a per fe£f generation, becomes 
the foundation of the relation of Paternity in him that produceth, and of Fi- 
liation in him that is produced. Thus after the prolifical benediftion, Be Oen.t.2i.dtid 
friiitfiil and multiply, Adam begat in his own tiktntfs , after his im.ioe: and by ^" ^' 
the continuation of the fame blefling, the fucceffion of humane generations 
hath been continued. Ihis then is the known * confedioh of all men, that . 
a Son is nothing but another produced by his Father in the fame nature with *y^tl^-% 
him. But God the Father hath communicated to the Word the fame Divine ?o/>X)3o^T 
effence by which he is God; and confequently he is of the fame nature with ';;'"^°>''««.*< 
him, and thereby the perfed image and fimilitude of him, and therefore r^vr^^'J^T 
his proper Son. In humane generations we may conceive two kinds of fi- ■)?"''«x'-7/ «t^a< 
militude ; one in refpeft of the internal nature, the other in reference to |/''i^"r/Six 
the external form or figure. The former fimilitude is eflTential and necefTary ; "- 'the lav'luage 
it being impoffible a man fhould beget a fon, and that fon not be by nature "f^'j^^^l^^-^^ 
a man ; the latter accidental ; not only fometimes the child reprefenting this, IfS'fE! 
Ibmetimes the other parent, but alfb oftentimes neither. || The fimilitude P^ i''""^ 'P'^I'* 
then, in which the propriety of generation is pireferved, is that which con l.^m.'uf^'t 
fifteth in the identity of nature : and this Communication of the Divine ef^ cm. Eunomi* 
fence by the Father to the Word is evidently a fufficient foundation of fuch "'!^' '^"l"? ? 
a fimilitude ; from whence ChriB is called ^ the image of God, tht brightmfs TJSvI)'S''^ 
of his glory ^ and the exprejs image of his perfon. aixo'tav fainii 

mif^X'^v. II Etiamfi films hominis, homo, in quibufdamflmilis, in quibufdam (it difTimilis patrii tanienquiaejufdem 
fubllami.E ert, iiegari verus filiusnon poceft, & quia verus eft filius, negari ejufdem fubftanci* non poteft. S. Aug. contrn 
Maximin.c. i^. •* 2 Cw. 4. 4. //ei. 1. 3. 

Nor is this Communication of the Divine effence only the proper gene- 
ration of the Son, but we muft acknowledge it far more proper than any na- 
tural generation of the Creature, not only becauie it is in a more perfeft 
manner, but alfo becaufc the identity of nattire h moft perfeft. As in 
the Divine elTence we acknowledge all the perfeftions of the Creature, 
fubtrafting all the imperfeftions which adhere unto them here in things 
below : I'o in tlie Communication we muft look upon the reality without 
any kind of defect, blemifli, or impurity, In humane generation the 
fon is begotten in the fame nature with the father, which is performed by 
derivation, or dccifion of part of the fubflance of the parent ; but this de- 
cifion includeth imperfefl:ion,becaufe it fuppofeth a fubftance divifible, and 
confequently corporeal ; whereas the elTencc of God is incorporeal, fpiritual 
and indivifible ; and therefore his nature is really communicated, not by de- 
rivation or dccifion but by a total and plenary communication. In natural 
conceptions the father neceffarilyprecedeth the fon, and begetteth one youn- 
ger tlian himfelf: for being Generation is for the perpetuity of the Species^ 
where the Individuals fucceffively fail, it is fiifHcient if the parent can pro- 
duce another to live after him, and continue the exiftence of his nature, when 
his perfon is dilTolved. But this prcfiippofeth the imperieflion of mortality, 
wholly to be removed, when we fpcak of him who inhabitcth eternity : the 
effence which God always had without beginning, without beginning he did 
communicate ; being always Father, as always God. * Animals, when they ^ly[''f*^l'^ 
come to the pcrfcftion of nature, then become prolifical ; in God eternal "»-^TV^«iJ 

-atholickb con/?.iKf/i 'tfferting, aridt^f, «»iqo{" <tf*a Tariif , *|iii« ijsj. 


In iiumauc generations the Son is ot the fame nature with the Father, and yet 
is not the fame man ; becaufe though he hath an effcnce of the fame kind, 
yet he hath not the fame effence : the power of generation depending on the 
firfl: prohfical benediftion, Imreafe and multiply^ it mull be made by way of 
miiltiphcation ; and thus every Son becomes another man. But the Divine 
elTcDce, being by realbn of its limphcity notfubjed to divifion,and in relped 
ot its infinity uncapable of multiplication, is fb communicated as not to be 
multiplied ; that he which procecdeth by that communication hath 
not only the fame nature, but is alio the fame God. The Father God, and 
the Word God; K^braham man, and Ifaac man : but K^brabam one man, 
Jf-tac another man ; not fo the Father one God, and the Word another, but 
the Father and the Word both the fame God. Being then the propriety of 
generation is founded in the eifential fimilitude of the fon unto the father, by 
reafon of the fame which he receiveth from him ; being the full perfeft na- 
ture of God is communicated unto the Word, and that more intimately and 
with a nreatcr unity or identity than can be found in humane generations : it 
followcth that this Communication of the Divine nature is the proper gene- 
ration by w'KxchChrift is, and is called, the true and proper Sonof God. This 
was the foundation of S. Peter's Confeflion, thou art the Son of the living 
B Muitum di- God\ this the ground of our Saviour's || diftinftion, I go unto my Father^ and 
ftac iiitcr do- (q y^-^^ father. Hence did S. John raife a verity, more than only a negation 
Mndilioncm, of falfity, when he faid, we are in the true Son : for we which are in him are 
inter gcncrati- true, not falfe, fons, we are not as the true Son. Hence did S. Paul draw an 
pHonem, iul°r argument of the infinite love of God toward man, in that ha/pared not hit 
fubnantijm &: oivij proper fon. Thus have we fufficiently fhewed, that the eternal commu- 
graciam idt- nication of the Divine efTence bv the Father to the Word was a proper gc- 

oquc liic non . , , ■ , y^, -^ -^ ^ r i i r^ r ^°i 

pcrmixtc ncc ncratiou by whichC/;r///7e/«f always was the true and proper Son or God; 
pajTim dicitur, ^vJiich v\as our fourth AlTertion. 

Afcendo ad I'a- 

trem noftnm auc Deum nojlnm ; fed aJ Patrem meum fy Patrem vejinm, ad Deum meum iy ad Deum veflrum. Alicer enim 
Jlli Deus I'atcr elf, aliter nobis. Ilium fiquidem nacura coxquat, mifericordia humiliat : nos vcro natura profternit, rai- 
fericordia erigic. Cfpreolus Caitkag. Efifl. 

The fifth and laft Affertion foUoweth, That the Divine efience was (b 
peculiarly communicated to the Word, that there was never any other na- 
turally begotten by the Father ; and in that refpeft O^^'ft is the Only-hegot- 
ttn Son of God. For the clearing of which truth, it willfirft be neceffary to 
enquire into the true notion of the Only-btgotten\ and then fhew how it be- 
longs particularly to Chrifl, by reafbn of the Divine nature communicated 
by way of Generation to him alone. Firfl, therefore, we muft avoid the 
Vain interpretation of the ancient "^Hereticks, who would have the re- 
*ThU ^'tf'l'e llraining term on/y to belong, not to the Son, but to the Father ; as if the 
Kunomius'Vn- Only-bcgntten were no more than begotten of the Father only. Which is 
deavouredtoput both Contrary to the language of the Scriptures, and the common cuflom 
ufonthechurch, ^f ^^^^^ ^^j^^ ^p^ jj. j^^j. j^j. j^jj^ ^^^ |j begotten of one, but for him who 

at appears "J' . . ■ ^ " 

thfe rvo.ds of alouc IS bcgottcu Of any. 

his ddhered Sccondly, we muft by no means admit the expofition of the I! later Here- 

and anjfvercd ■' ■' '■ . u 

viv ySTH^yt- as if (Aovoi^'jh fere only imfyi n'-'ftt, and unigcnitus rvere miking elfe but gcnicus ab uno. This S. Bafil refuted 
cefioiijl) : tirfl, from thcUn^uageof the Scriptures and the u'age of mankind; Sii ^ waK>f>/ac Iti' «fe« 7 3 S»»|u* n ixorc^if 
1/ik'J.KifynTi, vTogji T5 t£uJ tV ctv^(aTr,.n Qwjri9ciA>', A^ 7m£^ rliu cuTljSi) i^ yfftfai/ 7m£fiJbny Ket/x^dtav ajjn T W Ji' 
dvQiay. Movc-f^at-iiiH'^i 7m^ lxiyii-^iiii't/jQ~,et?}C fxivi'!^ ')^vniM(, i* ■r(^<7a.)ffAJijjLj. Secondly, by a 

retort pccuiiar lo that Herejie which held the Son of Oodrnight be called K]i£rt>< as rvell as ■^wkmShV , created as wiU as begotten, 
md cwfeiiueMl) might be as properly named ^oiiicln©: as fxtviit^»(. E» (uh -mtfy. ri (j.'n©- >*')?«fMS^, <t >/a </>« 73 -jafj. /x'o 
Htvo-f^^<f^(t(}iu, rauli A Sb )ta|<t m ri U'liSj^ TTjjf^ucHcaj, li ix' >c, Mi);oit7/5Bi' <u>lif^n< ; Uirdly, by aparticul 


ilK Scciaiant 

His Only Son. 


Socinitins m.ilie ^*■>> much of tins Notion, and .ijfly it fo unto ( hrill, at that ihereb) the) might avoid all n;ce(fit) of nn s^ererir- 
mn. S)t':.e R.ic;\i.m C.ncchtfm : CaiifacurCiiriUo ifla xtrmwi (^ic.propr mm <!j imigcmt am Dei f //;«/« clle^ conipcwnc, 
dt ; quod inter omiics Di i "^lics & pricipuus (it,& Dro Cli.iriflinius : n ucmadmodum Ifaac,quiaAbraliamo chariillmas S- lure: 
tidiKK,ur\!gemtni vocatus eft, Hsb, 11. 17. licet fratrem Ilhiaekm iiabucrit ; Sc Solomon unigenitus Mt\im mntrefu.i, licet plu- 
res ex eadem macre fracrcs fiicrint, I P.tval. g . i , 2 . ^ , &c. Ai'd that this might be affiled to the i itcrprstation of the Creed, Schli- 
tingius huth infertedit^ .is a m.ncnal ObfervatiM ; Ndm \\\ciinicM fell uiiigenafiliiis nominatur, qui cateris longecharior elt Pa-, 
trijongeq; pr.eftantior ; and anfiyms the Imcyprftationwiththoje tn'otefttmonies conreniing Ikac and Solomon. But ceyt.tir.h thk 
ObfervMon of theirs is lam, or elfe they fay isfalfe. For ifChriJi be called the Son ofO>d, becaxfe conceived by the H:h OhoJ}, 
iind noncelfe was ever fi conceived, then is he the only-begotten by viytiie of hit generation. And if fo, then ii he not the Only-begotten 
at [faac and Solomon were, that is, by the affellion and prelation of their I'arenis. Or ifChrijl rveye the Only-begotten as I faac and 
Soomon mere, then n>as he not conceived after a fmguLir manner, for the brethren 0/ Solomon m rcay differed fyom^ him tr. their gene- 
ration. It is [lain th:refaretiM this Interpretation was invented, that, when all the reft p,ould fail, they might ftlck, to i/:::, 

ticks, who take the Only-hegotten to be nothing elfe but thcmoft beloved of 
all the Sons ; becaufe Ifa.ic was called the only Son o'i Abraham, when we know 
that he had Ijhmael befide, and Solomon laid to be the only-begotten before his 
Mother, when David had other Children even by the Mother of Solomon- 
For the only-begotten and the mosi beloved are not the lame ; the one havini^ 
the nature of a caufe in refpeft of the other, and the lame cannot be cau'fc 
and effe£l to it lelf. For though it be true, that the only Son is the beloved 
Son ; yet with this order, that he is therefore beloved becaufe the only, not 
therefore the only becaufe beloved. Although therefore Chriji be the Only 
begotten and the beloved Son of God, yet we muft not look upon thcfc two 
Attributes as fynonymous, or equally fignificatitofthe fame thing, but as one 
depending on the other, Unigeniture being the foundation of his finguiar 
love. Befide, 7/^4f was called the only Son of J^/'/j^4«? for forae other rea- 
fbn than becaufe he was fingularly beloved of Jbraham ; for he was the only 
Son ofthe free Woman, the only Son of the pfomife made to Abraham, which 
was firii this, S.trahfhall have a Son, and then, In Ifdac (Ij all thy feed be c.illcd. Cen. h. n. 
So that I faac may well be called the only Son of Abraham in reference to the """' ^i. 12. 
promife, is the Apollle fpeaks exprefly ; By faith Abraham when he was tried Heb. n. 17, 
offered up I faac, and he that had received the fromifes offered up his only begotten 
Son. Avoiding therefore thefe two expofitiOns, as far fliort ofthe true no- 
tion of the only begotten, we mufi: look upon it in the molf proper, full and 
fignificantfenfe, asfignifying a Son fb begotten as none other is, was, or caft 
be : fb as the term reftriftive only fhall have relation not only to the * Father * Eimomkis ., 
gcnerating,butalfo to the Son bcgotten,and to the manner ofthe Generation. ^^I'^'IJ'"^''' /' 
'Tis true, the Father fpake from Heaven, faying, Thou art my beloved Son, in m-h in fei^kn 
whom 1 am welt plea fed : and thereby we are to underfland, that whofbever t'>ti'ey-['k'ron-. 
of us are beloved by the Father are fo beloved in and through the Son. In that,nliy^^!. 
the fame manner Chrifl is the Only-begotten Son of God ; and as many of us as /•"■. <""' .^^wj 
God hath bellowed his love upon, that we fhould be called the Sons of God, ■Zt''i'°2tul. 
are all brought into that near relation by our fellowfliipwithhim, whoisby T«e5«f<6r».W 
a"far more near relation the natural and eternal Son. ^7®"'<7«>*''.: 

»«;*'. i. Cyril 
tt-ids thefe two Tat^i ij-'ov* and f/ov®- together, in relation to the Father and the Son : Moi'oj'.i'iir xj) p'an- a ok. ■JfsTa.- 
T^t uv'iut.<r9j h'oyQ-, on ij.'oyQ- Itin'oKsycyivvifloJ'ri'ma.hJf. Epift. t.adRegin. A Riitfinus (/o;/; /n Uiiicus : Ide-ofub- 
jangic UnicUni liunccrTe Filium Dei, Unus cnim de uno naftitur. r.xpof. Symb. S. Greg. Naz adds tj thefe iu.o a third, in 
refpe^} ofthe manner : Mocojtj'i'r ;J, »'^ in (iioi'O- Iv, u'om ly imw, d.)>C In ^ (jtv^e^rax iy^ d( t* nifjuij^t. So he fome- 
thing ohfcurcly and corruptly, but plainly enough in Damascene, who aims often to'delivey hunjclj in the woyds of Nazianzen ! Aiu-. 
rajijiavoyitnK, b'riftoc®' in (xofn T* vitlffi Vi'ont( e>*»»i'iflM * iji ■;^ i/j-oliTcu iTiesr- ^vwCTn ni-'iiTi *•» >tri'il(r«,»>lj 

Having thus declared the interpretation of the word, that, properly, as 
Primogeniture confiflcth in Prelation, fb Unigeniture in Exclu/ion ; and that 
none can be ffriftly called the Only-begotten but he who alone was fb begot- 
ten : we fliall proceed to make good our Aifcrtion, fliewing that the Divine 
Elfence was peculiarly communicated to the Word, by which he was begot- 
tenit he Son of God, and never any was fb begotten befide that Son. 

T 2 Andf 


And here we meet with two difficulties : One (hewing that there were 
other Sons of God faid to be begotten of him, to whom either the Divine 
EiTence was communicated ; and then the Communication of that to the 
Word made him not the Onl)-kgotteri ; or it was not communicated, and 
tlien there is no fuch Communication neceflary to found fuch a Filiation : 
The other, alledging that the fame Divine Eflfence may be communicated to 
another befidcthe Word, and not only that it may, but that it is fb, to the 
Perfbn of the Holy Gholt ; w hence either the Holy Ghoft mufl be the Son 
of God, and thenthe Word isnotthe Only-begotten \ or if he be not the Son, 
then is not the Communication of the Divine EfTence a fufficient foundation 
of the relation of Sonfhip. Thcfe two Objeftions being anfwercd, nothing 
w ill remain farther to dcmonftrate this laft Aflertion. 

For the firft, we acknowledge that others are frequently called the Sons of 
God, and that we call the fame God our Father which C/'r//? called his ; that 
Htb. 2. II. (jQflj /,£ tf}^f fanciifieth and they rvho are fanclifed are all of o-ne, for xrhich caujt 
* I Cor. 4. 1 5^ ht is not afljamed to call m brethren : we confefs that thofe whom S. ^'atil * hath 
'uytjht^^ ^c^c/re« through the Gofpel may well be termed the begotten cfGod^whcfefeed 
iM-jy^iKui-ia remaineth in than : but withal, we" affirm that this our Regeneration is of a 
vixaiiycvvnoa. natuic wholly ditFereut ftom the Generation of the Son. We are firft I gene- 
\S(ly^'vvy<- rated,and have our natural being; after that regenerated, and 10 receive a fpi- 
^\PS-' Uris ritual renovation,and by virtue thereof an inheritance incorruptible : whereas 
0«dM,V^«f t;h,^Q(>nerationofC/;r/y/ admits no Regeneration, he becoming at once there- 
tmifyi<t ojiH by God and Son and Heir of all. The Hate of Sonfliip which we come into is 
M ajjr$ lAvi. j^yj. Qf Adoption, fliewing the Generation by which we are begotten to be but 
fre;iy'"i Joh'<). mttapliorical : whereas Christ is 16 truly begotten, fo properly the natural 
I. n«< m- Son of God, that his * Generation clearly excludeth the name of Adoption ; 
^^■^Tox"'- ^'^^ not only Ibj but when he becomeththeSon of man,evenin his humanity 
?E<, u ■re .?;? refuleth the name of an adopted Son. For * rvhen thefulnefs of time was con.e 
3i7*;r.)Ta( • «J God fait forth his Son made of a woman ^ made under the Law, To redeem them 
'^^ntmi^rl, that were tinder the law, (not that he, but) that we might receive the adoption of 
ctta^a. x; TOK fons. He then whole Generation is totally different from ours whom hecal- 
ir^L'^fouif- ^^^^^ Brethren ; he whom in thefacred Scriptures the Spirit nameth the true 
quis crcdicje- Sou, the Father fomctimcs his own, fbmetimes his beloved, but || never his 
ftim ciTe chri- adopted Son ; he who by thofe proper and peculiar appellations is * difl:in- 
Deo gcnitus guilhcd from US, who Can claim no higher filiation than that which we receive 
eftj&quifquis by the privilcdge of adoption ; he is truly the Only-begotten Son of God, not- 
genui^^^dTiigk wichftanding the fame God hath begotten us by his Word : and the reafbn 
ctiameumqui why he is fo is, bccaufc the Divine EfTence was communicated unto him in 
ex CO genuus IjIj natural and eternal Generation, whereas only the grace of God is con- 
I] Nos genuic vcycduntous in our Adoption. Indeed, if we were begotten of the EfTence 
Dcu5,uc fiiii e- of God, as Chrifl was, or he were only by the grace of God ;! adopted, as we 
tccerTiiHi^ are, then could he by no priority of fpcech be called the Only Son, by rea- 
mines cffcmus. fon of fo many brethren : but being we cannot afpire unto the firft, nor he 
'^'" u°t V"^fo^ defcend unto the latter, it remaineth we acknowledge him, notwithfianding 
fumVt fiiivis ef- the flrft difficulty, by virtue of his natural and peculiar Generation to be the 
(ft , q uod I'atcr Only-bepotten Son . 

non irt, led c- ^ ^ 

tiam utDcusilTct, quod U Pacercft.i'.Aug.</eConf. £vrtn^f/. /.a.f.g. In the Boo^^ o/Celfus there was a Jew introduced fpeui^inc 
thin tiChnjl ; Ei tkto At>«<, on -rlt a>9f sjt'^ >^ ^»idv rr^fttntv jt;^M»< \i'i( Jijr ^s?, ti ay ai <»?A» c/>t;|if iif ; wki 
ii thiiSMj'n'creJ byOngLfi; i V,\i(i» ifJaVi on Ta( pi, df o neuJK®- diina.n, jziiKtr/ ire plCa TeuJkluyifJ^lfjr, ctWia 
Jiojjri Ti K.a.Kiv <ufitSi)'3- , \\\f 'Sb ^ii' vr jj iro?xJ Kj fjo-n^u J)**4f(/ it».v]o( t5 cfttt rlui n^irliM ^vn:t.T't^3yl&- wT 
n '>t», o0( ticmifH TM>ii ri( ly -Zfxy tV ToitTuv TvyyitH. Orig. adv. Cclfum,/. I . * Fi'^Jh " '-f rnofi certain that the 
li'ordoJOjd, as tlx Word, is not the adopted, bHttlie natural, Hmo/Gjd. Non efl Dei Filius Dcuj falfus, ncc Deus adopcivus, 
nee t>cus nunciipativus, fcdDcas vcrus. S. fiilar, de. Trin. I. 5. Hie etiam Filius Del natura eft Filius, non adoptione. 'T/3< ^«» Sit •i/Vm, ly * •^•a-«, >*ymW« ex. ■mijef!. i'. Cyril. Hicrofol. '..wci. 11. and a^an, Uvx, l){, 
ii /*» if]^ «>• Ti IJ) f i)Sr Wrtfiijaj^c, »/• ■?• ix>) ey'}* ti( qc^inxr n>*>i» ' *».' i-tSf^ it i ym^f iiAvf 'ty'vtnn t^ 

H [ S O N L Y S O N. 1^2 

a,tizfpf.^(^hh^ ix'oi'fj-, lAK-fovHK. -.yj)v]f.. tliis hath been fo generally confei^ed^ that Felix and Llipandus, vfhi rrcre 
rmdemned for maintamngChrift ns man to he the ad'iptt'd •■ox &fOod, did aclimwledieifi at afpearcth by the be^inmrg oj iheir 
i}55^, Coiifitemnr & credimusDeura, Dd hilium ante omnia teniporafinc initio ex Patre gcnicuTi, coatcrminTs: con- 
lubflantialcm, non adopcione fed gcnL-re. Sii or.dly, it ii.tlfo certain, that the Man Chrill Jcfus taken pirfonalh u the natural, 
not the adopted, '''on oJ G-d: becaufe the Mm Ch.tjl Jefu! if mother perfm than theWord, who is the eternal'arj natural Son, 
tmd by fubfifiingin the humane nature could mt leave of to be the natural Son. The denial of this by Felix onrfElipandus svfwcw- 
Jetnned as Neteticalin the Council of t'tMKiord; and their Opinion rvas t m exprejjed, partly tn the rfords of S. .'^.uouiYme, pattly 
in their orvn additions: Confiteniur fecrcuimus turn fafluni ex niulierc, f'aLlum fub Lege i non gcncrc cde filluni Dti, fed 
adoptionc, non natiira, fed gratia, Tristhey inaintained'byfwgedtejiimmesoffome'Fathers^ and by the Liturgy of the Chmch .f 
Tolcdo,compofed by Hildephonfui, as the Romgn by Gregory, in the AUjs de Ca-na Domini, Qiii per .idoptivi IvDmiiiis paflionem, 
dum fuo non induKic corpori ; and in the Maf: de Afccnlione Domifli, Hodic Salvador nofter, per adoptloncni carnis, fcdeni 
rcpetivit Dcitatis. To this the Symdepp'-feJ. their determination in Sacrofyllabo ; <^od ex ce nafcenir fanftum vocabj^r filius 
DS'i, non adopcivus fed verus, noa alienus fed proprius. And again ; Porro adoptivas dici non potcfl qui jlicnus ci^b eo a 
quodicicur adoptaciis ; & gradsei adoptio cribuitur, quoniani non exdebito,fedesindulgentia tai.cuni;iiodo,ad^ ••"'o pr^- 
flatur: ficucposaliquandocumciTeaiuspeccanJofilii ir.i',alieni eramus a Deo, per proprium & verum Filium,qi;i non eguic 
adoptione, adoptio nobis fiiiorum Sonata eft. Andofthii tlieygivcw the true gromdin the Synodic Ep'file ■■, llnicas pcrlonas 
quae eft in Dei tilio & filio Virginis adoptionis tollit injuriain. ' Oal. 4. 4, 5, ||Legi & relegi Scripcuras, jcfi:m Filiiim Dei 
nufq uam adoptione inver.i. Amhrofiafter Com.ia Ep.adRom. Dices mihi, Cur timts adcpcivumChrillumDonfinuni noniiiarc? 
rico tibi, (^uia nee Apcftoli euro iic nominarunt, nec'fanfta Dei &: Catholica Fxclcfia eonfuecudincm habuit fie cum appel- 

miglit "diiiinimfli the filiation oj C'miftfrom ours. At vero eriam nos, quibus dedit Deus poccftatcrt filioE ejus' fieri, de natura 
atque fubftantia fua non nosgeouit, ficut unicum Filium, fed utique dileftione adoptavit. C^io verbs Apoftolus fepe utJ 
non ob aliud inte-lligitur, nifi ad difcernendum Unigcnicura. De con/e;;/. Evang. 1. 2. c. 5. And S.Amhroie tal^:s notice, that the 
name oftruedejiroyeth thatofa.\opted: Adoptivum fiiiiun non dicimus filium eflenatora, fed ciim uicimus natura cfle filium 
qui vuus cfl filius. De Incarn. Saa: c. 8. || S\ unicus, quomodo adoptims, dum multi font adoptivi filii ? Unicus itaque de 
mulcib non pctcSt dici. Coned, truncof. Quod fi ctiam Unigenitus Filius faftus dicitur ex gratia, non vtre gcnitus ex nacura, 
proculdubionomen& veritatem Unigenitiperdidic, poftquain fracrcs habere jam coepit: priv.!tiir cnira hujus veritatt do- 
minis, fi in Unigenito non eft de Patre Veritas naturalis. fulgentim adVirafim. I. 3. c. 5. Si divina ilia Filii fempicernaque 
hativitas non denatura Dei Patris, fed ex gratia, creditur fubfticiffe, non debet Unigenitus vocari, fed tantummodo gecitiis. 
Quoniam ficut ci nomen geniti largitas adoptionis pacerna: contribuic, fic cum ab Uiiij^enici nomine nobis quoquc tributa cons- 
munio paterna; adoptionis exclufit. Unigenitus enim non vocatur, quamvis genitus poffit vocari, cum genitis. lb. c. 4. 

But though neither Men nor Angels be begotten of the fubftance of God, 
or by virtue of any fuch natural Generation be called Sons ; yet one perfbn we 
know, to whom the Divine Eflence is as truly and really communicated by 
the Father as to the Son, which is the third Perlbnin the biefTed Trinity, the 
Holy Ghoft. Why then fhould the Word by thatConimunicationoftheDi- 
vine Effence become the Son, and not the Holy Ghoft by the lame ? or if, by 
receiving the fame nature, he alfo be the Son of God, how is the Word the 
Only Son ? To this I anfwer. That the Holy Ghoft receiveth the fame Effencc 
from the Father which the Word receiveth, and thereby becometh the fame 
God with the Father and the Word : but though the Effencc be the lame 
which is communicated, yet there is a difference in the communication ; the 
"Word being God by Generation, the Holy Ghoft by Proccflion : and though ^ 
* every tiling which is begotten proceedeth, yet every thing which proceed- quod proccdit, 
eth is not begotten. Wherefore in the Language of the facred Scriptures and nafcicur, ficac 
the II Church, the Holy Ghoft is never faid to be begotten, but to proceed ^^^^^^ "^^^^l 
from the Father ; nor is he ever called the Son, but the Gift of God. Eve cedit. s.Aug. 
was produced out 0^, and in the fame nature with him, and yet was """•' •'"^^- /• 
not born of him, nor was fhe truly the Daughter of ^^.«»? ; whereas St;th pro- ^Vw the fame 
ceeding from the fame perfon, in the fimilitude of the fame nature, was truly foi'ition to the 
and properly the Son oi Adam. And this difference was not in the nature {wbf''mc"fi 
produced, but in the manner of produftion ; Eve delcending not from Adsm, de fubftanria 
as Stth did, by way of generation, that is, by natural fecundity. The Holy us^^^.^j},*),^^;^' 

tia Patris eft etiam Spiritus Sanftus, cur unus Filius fit, & alius non fit Filius. Ego rcfpondeo, five capias, five non capias j 
Dc Patre eft Filius, de Patre eft Spiritus S. fed ille genitus eft, ifte procedcns. noM« t«'t« -riitveiTtfcf to ceivai, «; i- 
KtiiK yt 1W tytfvliTntfwiiJ T Ao;or 19 to "Ayttv fluu^i * t /j, ui Aij/H", Mt TO C" j*fra«V«f " t3 5\ at lltd^ixa, ly.- 

^oref. Shm. 2- p. '504. || Nunquam fuit non Pater, h quo Filius natus, a quo Spiritus Sanftus non natus, quia non eft Filws. 
Cennad. De Ecclef. Do,'. Dcus Pater innafcibilis non ex aliquo, Deus Filius unigofiitus ex aliquo, hoc eft, ex I'acre, Spiritus 
i.innafcibiliscxaliquo, hoc cft,cx I'atrc. Kaac. lib. l-Jet. Qiicil ntquc natum n'-qucfi(auincft,SpirisusS. eft, qui a Pjtr* 
fc Falio procedit. S.Ainbr.inSymb. 



Giioftproceedeth from the Father in the fame nature witli him, the Word 
procecdcth from the fame Perfon in the fame fimihtude of nature alfo; but 
the Word proceeding is the Son, the Holy Ghoft is not, becaufetlie firfl pro- 
ceflion is by way of Generation, the other is not. As therefore the Regene- 
ration and Adoption of man, ib the ProcefTion of the Holy Gliolt doth no 
way prejudice the eternal Generation, as pertaining foleiy to the Son of 


SecincT then oUr Saviour Jefus CIm/l had a real being and exiffence before 
* he was Snceived by the Virgin ; feeing the being which he had ante- 

cedently to that Conception was not any created, but the one and indivilible 
Divine, EfTcnce ; feeing he had not that Divinity of himfelforiginally,as the 
Father, but by communication from him ; feeing the communication of tjie 
fame ElTence unto him was a proper Generation ; we cannot but believe that 
the fame Jefus Chrift is the begotten Son of God : and feeing the fame EfTencc 
*'o.(^'%vl:i{, was never fo by way of Generation communicated * unto any, we muft alfb 
9t-«K«« xk- acknowledge him the Oftly-bevotten, diftinguiflied from the Holy GhofI:, as 
l^c u., ^uo- Son, from the Adopted Children, as the Natural Son. 
*r^vh,^ 5a* xj,e nccelTityof the belief of this part of the Article, thtLtJefw Chrifi isthe 
2i^iS proper and natural Son of God, begotten of the lubftance of the Father, and 
y-( K^l=^liet- by that fingular way of Generation the Ofjly Son, appeareth firft in the ccn- 
^f^Vs\X\ firmation of our Faith concerning the Redemption of mankind. For this 
Hm.'dehide. dotli fhcw fuch an excellency and dignity in the perfon of the Mediator as 
will alTurc us of an infinite efficacy in his Adions, and value in his fufferings. 
\Heb. lo. 4. We know * it is not pojjible that the blood of bulls and goats fljoiild take an\tr 
fins : and we may very well doubt how the blood of him who hath no other 
nature than that of man, can take away the fins of other men ; there appearing 
no fuch difference as willfhew a certainty in the one, and an impoffibility in 
' I Cor. 6. :». the Other. But fince we may be '' bought ivith a price^wdl may we believe the 
dndi. 23. blood oiChrift fufficiently " f redout, when we are affured that it is the "^ blood 
'*^/ml'-i^'2Z.' (>fG°^ •■ nor can we queftion the efficacy of it in ' purging our canfcience from 
IHeb.i.'i^'. deadTvorki, if \vchc\k\e Chrijl offered up himfelf through the eternal Spirit. 
If we be truly fenfible of our fins, we mufl acknowledge that in every one 
we have offended God ; and the gravity of every offence muff needs increafe 
proportionably to the dignity of the party offended in refpeft of the offen- 
der; bccaufe the more worthy any perfon is, the more reverence is due unto 
him, and every injury tendethto his difhonour : but between God and man 
there is an infinite difproportion ; and therefore every offence committed a- 
gainft him muft be efteemedas in the higheft degree of injury. Again, as the 
gravity of the offence beareth proportion to the perfon offended ; fb the va- 
lue of reparation arileth from the dignity of the perfon fatisfying : becaufe 
the fatisfaftion confifteth in a reparation of that honour which by the injury 
was eclipfed ; and all honour doth encreafc proportionably as the perfon yiel- 
ding it is honourable. If then by every fin we have offended God, who is 
of infinite eminency, according unto which the injury is aggravated ; how 
(ball we ever be fecure of our reconciliation unto God, except the perfon 
who hath undertaken to make xhc reparation be of the fameinfinitc dignity, 
fb as the honour rendred by his obedience may prove proportionable to die 
offence and that difhonour which arofe from our difbbedience ? This fcruple 
is no otherwile to be fatisfied than by a belief in fuch a Mediator as is the 
Only-begctten Son of God, of the fame fubftance with the Father, and confe- 
quently of the fame power and dignity with the God whom by our fins we 
have offended. 

Secondly, The belief of the eternal Generation of the Sen, by which he 


His Only Son. 143 

is the fame God v/ith the Father, is neceffary for the confirming and encou- 
raging a Chriftian in alcribing that honour and glory unto Chrift which is due 
unto him. For we are commanded to give tiiat Worfhip unto the Son which 
is truly and properly Divine ; the lame vi'hich we give unto God the Father, 
who hath committed all judgment unto the Son, that all men Ihoald honour the Jok 5.22, 23. 
Son tven as thty honour the bather. Asit wasreprefented toS."yo/'»in a Vifion, 
when he heard every creature which is in hexven, and on the earth, tind under the ^''''- 5. »3- 
earth, andfiich as are in thejea, and all that are in them, faying, Bkffing, honour, 
glory, and power be unto him that fitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for 
ever and ever. Again, we are commanded to fear the Lordour God, and to o«(f-6.i3,i4. 
\ferve him ; and that with fuch an emphafis, as by him we are to underlland j;^'f ^wi'/w^ 
hima.\onc,hQCSiulh the Lord our God is one Lord. From whence,if any one arofe that it is 'm 
among the ^ervs teaching under the title of a Prophet to worfhip any other ^'""^(j^n^yri'i 
befide him'forGod,the judgment of the "^ Rabbins was,that not withftanding ^-oyninsi 
all the Miracles which he could work, though they were as great as Mofes *^.'p'' fcrvks, 
wrought, he ought immediately to be ftrangled, becaufethe evidence of this a'Jtf'rejhim. 
truth, that One God only muft be worfhipped, is above all evidence of on as is expnp. 
fenfe. Nor muft we look upon this Precept as valid only under the Law, ^^f ^l''^.^ ^'"'^' 
as if then there were only one God to be worfhipped, but fince the Gofpel ^"^1Q^p^ 
we had another ; for our Saviour hath commended it to our obfervation, by &inconfpeftu 
making ule of it againft the Devil in his temptation, laying, ' Get thee hence, ejus femes, a» 
. Satan, for it is written. Thou (halt worfljip the Lord thy God, and him only (halt '*^,^^^- ^ ^• 
thouferve. If then we be obliged to worfhip the God oi Ifrael only, ifwe be Tf<iV«{^ w 
alfocommandedto give the fame Worfliip to the Son which we givetohim ; '*"' reftrimon 
it is necefTary that we fhould believe that the Son is the God oUfraeL ^ When "savkJ MatI 
the Scripture bringeth in the frfi begotten into the world, it faith. Let all the An- 4- ««■ ' 
gels ofGodworjbip him ; but then the fame Scripture calleth that firft begotten 'p^jf^lf^j"'' 
' Jehovah, and the Lord of the whole earth. For a man to worfhip that for God Zera'im. 
which isnotGod, knowing that it is not God, is afFeOied and grofs Idolatry; ^'^^'f-4-to. 
to worfhip that as God which is not God, thinking that it isGod, is not the 'p/i/p'.f'. 
fame degree, but the fame fin ; to worfliip him as God who is God, thinking eJ 5 « 0.0 ■>?««? 
that he is not God, cannot be thought an aft in the formality void of Idola- Sjl^' ^"^Jf 
try. Left therefore, while we are all obliged to give unto him Divine wor- us^-.x^t^* 
fhip, we fhould fall into that fin which of all others we ought moft to abhor, ''* j^'^'^ "«- 
it is no Icfs neceffary that we fhould believe that Son to be that eternal God, n'xlet.'f^j^l 
whom we are bound to worfhip, and whom only we fhould ferve. c 2. 

Thirdly, Our belief in C/;y//? as the eternal Son of God is necefTary, to raife 
us unto a thankful acknowledgment of the infinite lov^e ofGod appearing in 
the fending of his only begotten Son into the world to die for (inners. This 
loveof God is frequently extolled and admired by the Apoftles. '' Godfo lo- ^John 3. \6, 
ved the world, faith S. John, that he gave his only-begotten Son. "^ God cowmen- 'Aom. "5. 8. 
deth his love towards us, faith S. Paul, in that while we were yet (inners Chrtjl dt- '""^^' 32- 
ed for us ; in tliat hefpared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all. ^ la ^i Jtshn 4. j,' 
this, faith S. John again, was manifefled the love of God towards us, becaufe that '°' 
God fcnt his only-begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him. 
Hereirt is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and fent his Son to 
be the propitiation for our fins. Ifwe look upon all this as nothing elfe, but that 
God fhould caufc a man to be born after another manner than other men, and 
when he was fb born after a peculiar manner, yet a mortal man fhould deli- 
ver him to die for the fins of the world ; I fee no fuch great cxprelfion of his 
love in this way of redemption, more than would have appeared ifhe had re- 
deemed us any other way. 'Tis true indeed, that the reparation oflapfedman 
is no a6l of abfolutc necelTity in refpeftof God, but that he hath as fieely de- 



dellgned our Redemption as our Creation ; confidering the mifery frorr 
which we are redeemed, and the happinels to which we are in\ited, we 
Cannot but acknowledge the fingular love ofGod even in the a£l ot'Redem- 
prion it fcif : but yet the Apoftles Jjave railed thatconfideration higher, and 
placed the choicell mark of the love of God in thechoofing fuch means and 
performing in that manner our reparation, by lending his Only begotten in- 
to the World ; by not fparing his own Son, by giving and delivering him up 
to be Icourged and crucified for us : and the cilimation of this acl of God's 
love raufl: necefTarily increale proportionably to the dignity of the Son fo lent 
into the World ; becaufe the more worthy the pcrion of Chrill before he 
fuftered, the greater his condefcenfion unto fuch a fuffeiing condition ; and 
the nearer his Relation to the Fatiier, the greater his love to us for whole 
Jakes he fent him fo to fuffer. Wherefore to derogate any way from the Per- 
fon and nature of our Saviour before he iliflered, is lb lar to undervalue the 
love of God, andconfequently, to come fhort of that acknowledgement and 
thankfgiving which is due unto him for it. If then the lending of Chriftinto 
tlie World were the highelt aft of the love of God which could be cxprefTed ; 
if we be obliged unto a return of thankfulnefs fbme way correfpondcnt to 
fuch infinite love; if fuch a return can never be made without a true fenfe of 
that infinity, and a fenfe of that infinity of love cannot confift withoutan ap- 
prehenfion of an infinite dignity of nature in the Perfbn fent : then it is ablo- 
lutely neceflary to believe that Chrift is fb the Only-btgottenSon of the Fa:- 
ther, as to be of the fame fubftance with him, of Glory equal, of Majefty co- 

By this difcourfe in way of explication every Chriftian may undcrfbnd 
what it is he fays, and e^iprels his mind how he would be underftood, when 
he maketh this brief Conteffion, I believe in Chriji the only Son of God. For 
by thefe words he mufl: be thought to intend no lefs than this : I doprofefs 
to be fully affuredof this Aflertion as of a moft certain, infallible and necef- 
fary truth. That "Jeftts ChriH, the Saviour and Meffias^ is the true proper and 
natural Son of God, begotten of the fubltance of the Father ; which being 
incapable of divifion or multiplication, is fb really and totally communicated 
to him, that he is of the fameEffence with him, God of God, light of light, 
"very God of very God. And as I affert him fb to be the Son, fb do 1 alfb exclude 
all other pcrlbns from that kind of Sonfhip, acknowledging none but him 
to be begotten of God by that proper and natural Generation ; and thereby 
excluding all which are not begotten, as it is a Generation ; all which arc 
laid to be begotten, and are called Sons, bat are foonly by adoption, as 'tis 
natural. And thus I believe in God the Father, and in Jeju^ Chrtfi his 
Only Sony 

' c>ut am* 

AFter our Saviour's Relation founded upon his eternal Generation, fol- 
loweth his Dominion, 1| in all ancient Creeds, as the necelTary conle- 
Ta',"hmem:oZ qucut of his Filiation. For as we believe him to be the Son ofGod, fomuft 
ed by iremeus wc acknowledge him to be our L*rd, becaufe the only Son muff of ncceffity 
»//?!/"." Do- ^^ ^^^^ ^"^ Lord of all in his Father's houfe ; and all others which hear the 
minum no- nameofSons, whether they be Men or Angels, ifcompared tohim,mufl:noc 
ftrum, }et in be lookcd Upon asSonsofGod, but as Servants of Chrift. 

«Z/ thf Creeds ' ' 

afttrifjrds we findthife words -, pribabl) inferted becaufe denied fy the Valentinians, ofwhtm Irenscus, A/* 7?Tt 7h 2«7w£jt ai- 

ytmf, iJ\ yi KycJOf ifOui^Hf ainiv dih.\tti. t. I.e. i. 


O II R L O R b. 145 

Three things are necefTary, and more cannot be, for a plenary explication 
tifthis part of the Article. Firft, the propernotation of the word Lord m 
tlie Scripture-phrafe, or language of the Holy Gholl : Secondly, the full iig- 
lufication of the fame in the adequate latitude of the lenfe, as it belongs to 
Chrift : 'I'hirdly, the application of it to the perfon makin'j;confeflionof his 
Faith, and all others whom he involves in the lam,i condition with himlelf, 
as faying, not «y', nor their, but, Our Lord. 

Firll; then, we muft obferve that not only Chiiil is the Lord, but tliatthis 
title doth i'o properly belongunto him, that the Lord aloneablblutely taken 
is II frequently ufed by the Evangelifls and detcrminately for Chnji, i' '^^"'l '^ " ?> 
infomuch that the Angels obferve that Dialeft, * Come, fee the place where the l^] j,,^/ 24.34' 
Lord lay. Now for the true Notation of the word, it will * not be fo ne* >>« ■^.^.in.i 
cefTary to inquire into the ufe or origination of the Greek, much Icfs into the f '^^'/^o '2' 
Etymology of the correfpondent Latin, as to fearch into the Notion of the \i,2o,2^.ind. 
Jews, and the language of the Scriptures, according unto which the Evan-» 2'-t-a7.?.i, 
gclil^s and Apoflles fpake and vvrote. 17, 27,V',4j' 

And firft, it cannot be denied buc that the word which we tranflate the ^m 11.16,24, 
Lord,\\zs ufed by the Interpreters of the Old Teflament fometimes for * men, kjI'IJ^'^''^"" 
with no relation unto any other than Iiumane Dominion. And as it was by ' mtt.'is. 6. 
the Trandators of the Old, fo is it alfo by the Pen-men of the |; New. But a5"^/£';V 
it is mofl: certain that Chrift is called Lord in another notion than that which f;gHi/!u:ion'''oi 
fignines any kind of humane Dominion ; becaufe, as to, *" there are mxny Lords, f^vei'3- in t^t 
but He is in that notion " Lord which admits of no more thano^e. They are ^h'i'Ji!')^i 'Jiii 
only *^ mt/lers according to the fle(lj ; He ' the Lord of glory, the Lord from hex- jcira find any. 
ven, ^ King of kings, and Lord of all other lords. fmfltpsof the 

ciin: Grilles In our Sacrid Writ it isthtfrcquint name of God, tvhtreas I imagine it is not' to be found fo ufedbj/ anyeftbiold Gne!^ 
Aultws. Julius Pollux, vhofe b:ifiasfs is to ubftrve what words and phrjfts miy be properly made ufe of in that Languag!, tills its. 
the Gods may be called €>ui or AaiiAovK, but mintions not Kvtt©-, as neither proper, nor any name oj God reilh them at aS. Not 
did thiy anci-.ntly ufe it in their Oeconomicl^s ; rvhere their conflant terms rve-e not Kuii©-, but <Ac3t'>thc, aniS'S\& ' fnd 
they had torn another l^ind of notion of ii, as appears by the complaint of the firvant in Ariftoplianes, Ts Qcjn3il3- yi iKt^'t 
kveiov K(^iiv Ictiixv,', iy^ir iuvnuS^iv. in which words, ij they were interpreted bi the S:riptnri i,'igf, KveiQ- would 
fignifie ihcMdWcr, ani kay»/jSi/}Q- the perfon bought, thst if, the Servant ; ivhtrtas the place requires an intirpntationwhoUi 
contrary : for iuHiiuV®" i^ "'' fe"'< t);*f9!*'i«.V®"i but etyig^jtif, ordy»aarJifjQ-, as the Schuliafl, Suidas and Mofchopulu^ 
\)ivi obferved, that i', not the Servant, but the Maflir who bought him. And though thoje Grammarians bring no othir place to 
ffove this aflive fignipcation befide this of Arirtopharles, by which means it might be (iiUqutftinnahlt whethtr they hid rightly in- 
itrpreled him without any Authority ; yet Phrynichus will fufficiently fecure us oj thisfenp. "Ztv/ov s^vm.mV'S" ciitlai' i)a7/e?V» 
i-tVUBa. ifi/ iyx'-?*' TV'im T» ^ei'ae&J • mV'" 'o i&rii.MW®- Jim/j-ot. 'E(wniA(V'®- f''^" '^^''^ " fc* which buyitb, that is, 
themiflir; and confequemly u-'Jet^- ""t the MaUer, but the Sirvant bought, whom he juppoftth originally to have power over hit 
on-'z b)dr. Indeed it was not only diflinguifhed, but in a manner oppofd to J^um't^Ttif ' fs appears by that ohftrvatian (>/ Amnio- 
m\xi t'lts dilivtred by VMiWix}^^ inOilff-S. ^ufi@- ymtny.ii iCf Mciv dviio >^ 'zaj^t^, /'htjoTik 3 etf>Wf'<'t'ii7-mi'. * y!s 

1}~ii is generally tranflited n^fi^, whin' it fignif/ith Lord or Mafter in refpeBof afervantor injerioiir. So SinU called fier 
•Mband, Gen. 18. 12. 1 Pet. ?. 6. /"o Eleezf r his Mailer Abraham, Gt;?. J4. frequently. TousRicbelfaiuted htr Fathir Laban, 
C:n ?i. 35. and Jjcob his BrotherEUu, Gen. jj. 8. Potipliar is the jct/'p/Q- of Jofeph whov he bought. Gen. 59. 2, &c. aid 
Jofcph inpowir is fo lalutei bt his F.rtthnn, Gin. 42. 10. and acl-iiowledged hyhis firvant, 44. 5. Vn general name in the law ojf 
Mofcs/ov fervant and Mailer is 'jrati and KUfiQ-, Exod. 21.2,4. ■" " iideed fo plain that the ancient Jews ufid this word tt 
fignifit no mo'i thin htmane powf, that we find CDIX the name of man fo tranflited, as i Sam. 17. ^2. 3*7 "*?I!^ "^i? 
V7y mS /i/H /m QuiA-jiTira KHfJix. n nueiv [jis 'nr^r'av. \\ For jtt/'fiQ- is ulii wi\h relation and in op-jofitign th rrau- 
J^'.TKtf, Acls \^. i6. m the fenfe which the later, nut the ancient. Gneiss uied it : Hoi cAVxii, tbto bH -S-jgji raivm of I'uo t/- 
^'icttriV 01 3*f^<uiJ/ ^ TK««i'/J*&> /If Phrynichus obfervis, as it is oppofed to i]x.irn<, Lul-i i#. 1^. (a. curding to that of 
Etymol. Ku'^iQ- ^ ^(^( t/ b$f, 'iyi ^■^e)i ^ o'txlthv) to KkQ-, Matt. lo. 94. and 18. 25, &■:. And in the Apojlo- 
lical r.ilis prtaining to Chrijiian Oeconomic^s, the Maflir and Sirvant arc S'ih©- and itJf «©-. As alfo by way of adiition 
kvfi^Ti ^tfiffxv, M.itt, 9. 58. w^iQ- -ns <iuiri\av©-. Matt. 20. 8. x.v?i©- -f o'lKUti, Marli 19 35. Infomuch .u )cu'f;« 
is fom, times uftd by way of addrefs or I'alutation oj one manto another, (as it is now gtni'alh among iht lattr Grilles, andas Domi- 
nus was anciently among the Latins, Qiiomodo obvios, fi nomen non occurrac, Dominos falutamu!. Stn) not only oj Servants 
to Ma/iirs, as Ma'.t.ii,. 27. orSonstoVirints,asMatt.^\.%o. or injiriuurs tomm in authority, as Matt 2'}. 6 1, but oj llian- 
gifs; as whin the Greel^s ^al^eto Philip, and difired him, laying, Ku(ii,dif,afa.itJ Toy'Iiuff 'tJ'fiv, jfoh-l3. ai. andHlty Mag- 
diknfpeat^ing unto Chrijl, but talking him far a Gardener, Kv^n, »i aC t€ci.im7ai ffjjroi', John 20. 1 5. And it cannot be denitd 
tut this litli was ftmitimts given to our Saviour himfelf in no higl^ or othirjc>ife than this : As whin the Samaritan woman 'aw fc.'.w 
alone at the w, II, and ^new no moreoj him than that he appeared to bt one of the Jins, Ihifiiid, Ku'f/l, a/7AH//a«)(.ll;( .'(.itj ri 
f f ia? EJi' 0a8i?, John 4, 1 1. j^ni the infirm man at the pool of Bcthcfda, whtn he will nrit who it was, faid unto him, Ki,'f le, 
ai/flf aTTOf k'x. tX'''> J''^'" 5- ■'• T'^i ^'""^ "'■"'' '" whom he had riflorid his fight, with tit lamefjl-.itjtitn mal^ith mnftfim 0/ his 
ignoran.-f, and his faith, Ti'j SJi, xjf/t ; and, m^djv, KVfi.,John p. 3^, j8. ) 1 fir. 8. 5, ' lb. v. 6. and 4. 5. '' Co', 
i. 2 J. ' I Cor, 2. 8. and i<. 47. ^ Kcv, 19. i5. 

• ■ - V Kor 



Nor is it difficult to find that Name amongft the Books of theLivv in the 
mofl high and full fignification ; for it is moll frequently ufed as the name of 
tlie lijprtmc God, ibmetimes for tl or Elohtnt, fbmctimes for Shaddat or the 
Rock, often for Mo»ai, and moft univcrfally for 'Jehovah, tlie undoubted pro- 
per name of God, and that to which the UreeL- Tranllators, long before our 
Saviour's birth, had moft appropriated the name o( Lord, not only by way of 
pfai 82. i3. expli<-'ation,but dillindionand particular cxprcfllon. As when v eread,7'^o« 
Exoj. 6. 5. trhofe mmt alont is Jehov.ih, art the mofi high in .ill the earth; and W'lien God 
II / knotv " tt {'q exprelTeth himlclf , / appeared unto Abraham, unto Ifanc^ and unto 'Jacob, 
JonTha"\lti- h fhe name of God almighty ; but by my name Jehovah was I not known unto 
©- pi-operh an- them. In both thefe places, for the name Jehovah, the Greek Tranflation, 
'ri>^?WfL ^^'hich the Apoftles followed, hach no other name but Lord; and therefore 
reafon\hy it Undoubtedly by that word which wetranflate the || Lor^ did they underffand 
wrtf 4o ufeti j[^g proper name of God, Jehovah. And had they placed it there as the ex- 
other than, te- polition ol any Other name of God, tliey had made an interpretation contra- 
caufethe Jens ry to the manifefl intention of the Spirit : for it cannot be denyed but God 
^^t^Adonai 'il ^^^ known to Jbrahjm by the true importance of the title Jdonai, as much 
t Ik place of ]c- as by thc mmc of Shaddai ; as much by his Domi.iion and Sovereignity, as by 
^obilrvMh^''t'h ^^^^ Power and All- fufficiency : but by any experimental and perfonal fcnle of 

mal^e great ufe trljo deny the t>n initj ofC.hrift. Qjiia enim Adonai pro Jehovah in Icftione Hebraorura verborum fubAitui con- 
fuevir, i Jeo illius etiam intcrprctatio huic acconimodatur, fi)s Crellius de Deofy .. ttrib. c. 14. Butfirfl, it is not probable that 
the LXX. flKmld thinl(_^\iai'^ tT be the proper interpretation o/^jlN, and give i: ro Jehovah en/> in tl}e place cf Adonai ; fir if 
they had, itrvmldhavefi/oifed, that tehere Adoml and ]ehovih had met together in sne fentence, tliey vtou Id not haze put ano- 
ther WTid fir Adonai, to which kvci'^ was proper, andplace KveiQ- fir Jehovah, to whom of itfelf (according to their objerva- 
ti-n) It didnii belong. Wi}er:as rvereadnot only T-^^iV "^y^HtranriMd JitmtJcL KueH, Oen. 15. 2, 8. aBd':-\\rV pINTl 
mSIlS oA'm'oriit KvetS- ^tCxa^, //rt.1.24. but alfi yyilH r~lin"' Kiev n dti MA^, ^'ehem. 10. 29. Secondly, th^ 
reafin o] this afferiion is mifl uncertain. For though it be confejfed that the Maforctiis did redi'jIN rehere they found 7~y\r\'', and 
Jofcphus before them exprejfs thefenfe of the Jews of hit age, ti:at the Ti\gy.yp^iii]o> was mt to bepronounced, and before him Philo 
fpe.\s as much; yet it foUorveth mt from thence, that the Jews reere fo fuperjJitiom above ^00 years before; which muil be proved, 
before we can be ajfuredthiU the LXX read Adonai for Jehovah, and for that reaf%n tranflatedit Kuet&. Tliirdly, as we l^now no 
reafon why the Jetts flmld foconfiundthe names of God; f) were it now ve,y irrational in fome places to read 'J18 for r^lH' 
As whenOod faith, I appeared unto Abra'u.m, unto Ifaac, and unto Jacob. ^^7 "'nyTJ 1^*7 nVI' ''C'l;) n'^ "nHJ.', 
though the vulgm- Tranjiation render it, in Dcoomnipoteme, & nomen mcum Adonai non indicavi eis, and thereby mal^e an ap- 
parent fenfi no way congruow to the intended importance of the My OhoJ} ; (for it cannot be imagined either that GodfJ,ouldnot be 
t^norvnto Abraham /y the name Adonai, or that it were any thingto the prefent intendment, which was to encourage V\Qki and the 
Ifraelites by the interpretation of the name Jehovah) yet we have no reafon to believe that the LXX. made anyfuch heterogeneous tran- 
flanon, which ne read ^ to ot/o/itinn Kuf /,5^ vk icWAuoa tjjrrtif. Thus again, where Godfpeal(s unto Moles, OuTut ifHt To7t 
xi'n Ifffianfi, Ki/'f/®-, dsJf '^ ■janfan u«3S''',aVisKAJt4jLt5 rrgff VfJuS, nti (/b Siiv IvofiA auuvitv, Exod. j, 15. whofo- 
f I er thwKJ KvfiQ- flands for Adonai doth injury to the Tranjittors ; and whofoever readeth Adcnai /irjehovah puts a force upon 
the Text. As alfi when the Prophet David faith. That men may know that thou, whofe name aJonc is Jehoi ah, art the moft high 
over all the earth. Iconfef the ancient Fathers did, together with the Jews, read Adonai fir Jchovali in the Hebrew Text, as af- 
pe.treth by thofe words of Epiphanius de Ponderibus, hSuvcu, Ai^a. xafffli. ]<rijuti>?^, hCCrni, xKaK' which xery corruptly re- 
prcfent partoj thetirflicrfeo} thei4i.Pfalm,''11p nj'INH ''7 Hiy IP IPSIp ^^^r\\ but plainly enough renderr~Xr 
<tJ*»v'A. KotwiihJlanJing it if very obfervable, that they were wont to dijltnguifli KvfiQ^, in the Greek, tranjlatians, where it flood 
/or JcliGvali, fvn KvgiQ- where it jlood for Adonai ; and that was done by adding in the ma>gin the Tctragranmiaton itfelf, 
rnin , rvlj.u-h by the ignorance of the Gree^ Scribes, who underflood not the Hebrew Charaiiers , was converted inro four Greel[ 
tetters, andfi :i,.idea wtrd of no /ignijication ninl. Tl^is isflHl extant in the Copy of thc Text o/Ilaiah printed by Curteriiis with 
the Commeaiar} of Procopius, andS. Hicromc gives an account of it in the Greeli_Copies of his age, Noniini TtTg^y^f/./xalor, 
quod axs^fftrMjoi/, id tft, ineffabile, putavcrunt, quodhlsliteris fcribitur, jod ■• he Hvaul he H : quod quidamnon inteJ- 
ligentes, propter clemcntorum fimilitudincni, cum in Graxis libris rcpcrcrint. Pipi Icgere confucverutit. Ep. 1 54. Neither 
did tne Greel^s tnly place this 1 II n I /« thc m.irgin of tkeir Tranjlations, but when they defer ibed the Hebrew Text in C, eel^Chara- 
ilers, they iiedtL-ejame Uhn forT^}n\ and confetjuently did not read Adona\ for jchovih. An example of this it to befiund 
m th.U excellent Copy of the Prophets according to the LXX. coliited with the rejl of the TranjUors, in thc Library of thc moft emi- 

Tranjlatlonoj Aqui- 
f an excellent exam- 

I ttragrainmaton in qui, u, ;jm Gracis volun.inibiis ufq; hodic antiquis expreffiim literis invtnimus. Ep. ic6. Being then we 
'ZZl iu J'fl ) • IT '"^^r^fo' '■~''^'"'' i being they haie ujed Kv(,& for Jehovah, nhcn thes have made ufe of 
riJC general tUrdeiit fir Adonai; being m f^me places Adonai cannot be read fir Jehovah, without manilefl violence offered 
totiiejexi: ,tfiUoweth,thatit is now.y probable that V.i^,Q- a, uld therefore be ufed for Jehovah, bccaufe ,t was tah-n for the 
proper Jigmflcation ef Adonai. ^ ■* 


Hfs Only S6n. t^f 

the fulfilling oF his Promifes his narne Jehovah was not known unto him : 

for though God fpake txprefly unto Jbraham^ All the land which thoujetft^ to Gen. 13. i",. 

thee will I give it, .wd to thy feed for ever; yet the hiftory teacheth us, and S. '""^*^' ^' 

Steven confirmeth us that he gave him none inheritance in it., no not fo much as ac!s 7. ;. 

tofet h 14 foot on, though he promt fed that he would give it to hirn for a pofftf^on. 

Wherefore when God faith he was not known to Abraham by his name "Je- 

hovah, the interpretation of no other name can make good that exprelTich .* 

and therefore we have reafbn to believe the word which the firft Greek 

Tranflators, and after them the Apoftles, ufed, may be appropriated to that 

notion which the Original requires ; as indeed it may, being derived from a 

Verb of the fame fignification with the \\ Hebrew root, and ib denoting the YLY'^bf'Tu 

Eifence or Exiflence of God, and whatlbever elfe may be deduced from tk'a r\^r^' « 

thence, as revealed by him to be fignified thereby. rn'rP"''^W 

God's oten interpretation proves no lefs n^^S "I'^Z/'S nTiX Exod. 3. 14. And tlmgh fome conteiid that futuritm « effi^nnat 
to the name, )tt all agree the root fignipeth nothing but Effence or Exigence, that is riVl) , or ^jad^xi^'- '•'""' ^'f'^^n ^"^'^H."! 
the Hebrew mn\ jhthe Greeks i-io tS ku^hv Riiei®"- And what the proper figmpcainn o/jcJfH* tf,no man can teach us betta^ 
than Hefychius, in whom we read Ki/'jm, via-eif x4, 7vyxdv«, r.v^n prima longa, xv{« prima brevi. jo/'/w/. OedifoCohn. «•« j 
§ ^uttv %KV(^f». Schol. Qvav iKV^fv, i./\t w eni/fBr, Ttw]iv |J rti nuyyjtvav. Hence was mi^I by the Attickfufedfcr'{<^ fic,j 
f) I take it from the words of the ScholiaJ} upon So]i>hoc\es, to kv^uJ rkAtma/n^ai pn(ny « QwrSeict ij 'ATjiy.ei, en o ^-i"?'"-"? 
fiifvfvnv (wri 'AT]*KOi /X^ lyjdnaf t» t/, xi/'e;/ \iyplt( aini n ftW£;iii. Not that the) ufcd^ it by an Apxofe, taking vf^ti 
)cuc;iti ■ but that Kv^t was taken in the fen fe of Kv^ciw or KVfj'tTofrom y.rj^a, Ujs-a'f >;«, /.uW. tin or liardfX'i-. ^^ ''•"" Sc^olinft 
Mpmthofe words of Sophocles, AH^oijt S'ethaietv KCtn< ' KyjMj, itVBC vara'f ^ <<.. Neither knjvj I better how to render xof«i 
than by ^et.c)(H{ in the place of /Efchylus his Prometheus^ 

ZiiAa <t' o9' svtx.' ly^lif cut'io; KujWf, 

V]a!fjay ix.i]a.^Ji¥ >^ TtTtKunKUi «(>iol. 
As the Arundelian Scholiajl upon the Septem Thebana, Kuf «, v23-«f xi ' ""'' '" the fame Tragedy, W adtri^ jtuf »5i', m rendred 
by the mvc ancient Scholiaj}, Vt) &ii 'f g.aaiS'S- • as in the Perf.e, nmsu^aii xuf", « by the fame Interpreter explained k. fR 
£ \i»etf^« nnifffi^Q-. Sothe fatr.e Poet in his Agamemnon, 

TtwrbM kircuvHv irchflti^tv xAiiflu^Ioao', 

TgjtCai 'AT^fiS'luJ ttJivOJi KvfiV%' ^TJ-ftlJ. 

mich the Scholiajl renders thus, '^.irrov^fjLcu /i^jof v« thjjjLm yva(/.[u/, to (y.*0«f I* oiqi eji'SH 5 jSimx^'f. Aitdrr: 
Other fenfe can be imagined of that lef/J in Sophocles, *oii4* m ffltif*' Tct yS'gh « <^mtH( Kv^^/,than byrendring if , w) <jr \jsr«s'" 
yj[f' andp.2^6, ^yOf* ykfuv Kv^a, TO -f Si p^Jfaj » y^yn^m &'»& • andp.^i^. 'Am,' e*8«J^' i)</V( nJx ri ■wa^tj 
Kuga or of that in Euripides hit PhoEnifli , 

fi)), ri< c* irv\ajft Jkifiare^v KV^fty .... » . . 

Tliis original interpretation ttppeareth jarther in the frequent iife of KVfiv for yvyyiva ds it fignifietb no more than pJm: a: in Sot 

K)iTcu,or ^J)Kn^n, as the Sclioliifl . From alt which it undeniably appeareth, that the ancient fi^nif cation of M^a or kv^u is the 
fame with i^ixi or yktr'^X'^^ fum, I am ; (^iriic/j is much confirmed by that it was anciently obfcrved to be a Verb tranfttivc, ,11 it 
was tifd by tly forementioncd Author, Kvfoi Qvi^uyi'as -rf hi'tiic t^ -r^mrmi^'av , to 'T^lvy^^^arr^ ' a.v]i '■$ is ■isra,f)(fi> ;3? 
7KV Tf,;>)tK( i.iA{\a.Cct\i>v. So an ancient Lexicon J and therefore Kveil?- imrtiediately derived jrom thence mujl be o uv. n" '». 


name . . , ^j , o , , ■ ■ . - . . 

pretation of that name, as beingequivalent to 'o"'£ly. We have no reafon then to conceive cither that they [o tranjhited n out oj the lU- 
perfiitionoftue Jews {as fame would per fwade m, whoin we have already refuted J or bechifethey had no Iciicfs inthe Creek^lav- 
guage by which they could exprefs the Hebrew name , whereas we find it often exprejfed even ivfton^ the Gentile Creel'j ; but btctiifi 
they thought theGreek,K-^et& to be a pnper interpretation, as beingreducible to the fane fignification. hor even they which an prer ' 
tended to have read Adonai fr Jeliovah, wOrigcu, fyc do acknowledge that the Heathens and the ancient Hereticks dsfcendtng 
from the Jews had a name by which they did exprcjs the Hebrew Joliovah. We k>iiw Oracle preferi edby Macrobius, Sacurna.'t . 
/. I .c. 1 8. *estC«o T -Trdnhv uTralty diiy 'iy/Ai' ' lad. rtWDiodoruS hath taught us from whence th.n tiaincfirif carijc,m''i.tioniif^ 
Mofcs m thism.wner, -na^ J toI{ 'I«/'ttio/{ XAmtihu nr'\a.ii bhn.a.Kifdiloy diof • WTlicodorctmiir «/•)<;_;/% Qiuft. i f m 
Exod. KiX?»7 5 oSj-tI 2-.<nafHTai ^ 'UC4, 'IbJ'^Ioi 3 '!««• Porplv /. 4. c^nt.ChriJhan. tells «i, Sanchoniachon badkts relrf-: 
tions 0] the Jews mig^'lt iixeeiKv t6 Ut'iaf ^** n 'Idjti' EufebiusQ« wejormerly mentvMd) jaid, 'lain'i ^y, \xu (^a7.i6«- 
Hefychius, 'Ia)-y9«u,ia<i» CuuYihua., taking hi! in cempojition for the contralitonof ]a.d- y^js'laiai i^itiuj^ija^, uJlrx «oiBp 
7©-. And the I.XX. Jcr. 23. 6 have rendred IJpIS niH^ 'lanfit, id eft, Domimis juflus, [.nth .V. Hicrorae. And as t^i 
Heathens andthefirJlChrijUans,fo the Hereticks had among them the pronunciation andexpreffmoj the name mn\^ As the Yalcri, 
mimwas baptized it -rol hv'ou-At r* 'I**'' Ircn. /. 1. andthe Ophidm had their feveral 03ds,am3ng the rejl, i-rs^' fj.a.yia4 ^ 

vhom itfignitiesthefainewho is called jdh. for that it ought fo to beread appeMcthbythi fi)msrwo)ds of Origen, Oie».7« * 
ift«Aaoc1a \ lJ.\Ju.Caa¥ ic, tfUmvld. hi r 'la /wi' At^Hi', tO ■j KCJi-lo/j.^fiay >>c/ct£' vc i^i >ij tcT .\ ct>;»vr iu*)of i>j»y 
/i'xsjt 'lad. In the printed Op)' indeed it is 'm/wy, and m the Lattn ladin, biti without fenfe , wherejs dtvrdwi the tooj«\ 
the fenfe is manifeft, and the reafon of the former emendation apparent, liewg then i here were /q many amcnr, the (jreekj "''■"'"■' «"* " 
all a^eS exprefs the Hebrew name, it can be no way probable that the LXX. flmldavtidit M inexprefible in then L'n iiagt. 

Y 2 Being 

,^.8 ARTICLE 11. 

Being tlicn this title Lord thus (ignifieth the proper name ofGc^^Jt/Jcval■r, 
being the ^ame is certainly attributed unto Chr/Ji in a nciion far ILrpafling 
all other Lords, which are rather to be looked upon as Servants unto him : i't 
V ill be worth our inquiry next,whether as it is the Trai.flation oi'thc name 
'^chcn/Jj it belong to ChriJ}; or whether, though he be Lord of all otiier 
Loids, as fubiedcd under hisauthority,yet he bclbinfcriour unto him whole 
name alone is Jthov^ih, as that in that propriety and eminency in which it be- 
longs unto the liipreme God it may not be attributed unto Chrifi. 

This doubt will cafily be latisfied, if we can fhew the name Jthcvah it felf 
to be given unto our Saviour ; it being againft all reafon to acknowledge the 
original name, and to deny the interpretation in the fenfe and full impor- 
tance of that original. Wherefore if Chriji be the Jthovah, as fo called by the 
Spirit of God ; then is he fo the Lord, in the fame propriety and eminency in 
which Jt/jovah is. Now whatfoever did belong to the Mef/ias, that may and 
muft be attributed unto Jefns, as being die true and only Chri/l. But the 
Jeivs themfelvesacknowledge that Jehovah fhall be known clearly in the days 

• As MiJrafcli ^^' t'^c M<ffias, and not only ib, but that it is the * name w hich properly be- 
TiUim on 21. lougcth to him. And if they cannot butconfefs fo much who only read 
rKEchaRa- the'Prophecics, as the Eunuch did, without an interpreter ; how can we be 

igi-.orant of ib plain and neccfTary a truth, wliofe eyes havelcen the full com- 
pletion, and read the infallible interpretation of them? If they could fee 
ifa. 8. 15, 14. 'JthoTjah the Lord of ho/Is to be the name of the M;^<*f, who was to them/or a 
Jhne of ftHmblifig and rock of offence, how can we poffibly be ignorant of it, 
*Km. 9. 33. w'ho are taught by S. P4«/,that in Christ this prophecy was fulfilled, ^ As It is 
tvrittefi. Behold, I lay in Sion afiumbling-flone and rock of offence, and whofoevtr 
helieveth on him jhallnotbe ajhamed ? It was no other than Jehovah wiio fpake 
*Hof.\>here tliofe words, '' / rvill have mercy upon the houfe of Judah, and willfavt them by 
his farther ob- ffjg J^ord ('Jehovah) their God, and rvill not fave them by bow norfword. Where 
i'h^chMce'p!! "Ot only he who is delcribed as the original and principal caufe, that is, the 
raphrafe kith pjthet wlio gave his Son, but alfo he who is the immediate efficient of our 
J.^"" !1II.^'8? Salvation, and thatin oppofition to all other means or inftrumental caufes, is 
by 'die "word Called Jehovah ; who can be no other than our Jefus, becaule " there is no 
of Jcliovali,/!)>- other nxme under heaven given unto men whereby we muH be fxved. As in ano- 
Y^if^\.^. thcr place he fpeaketh, ^ Irvillfirengthen them in the Lord (Jehovah^ and they 
* z.uh. \c.12. JhaH ivalk tip and doivn m his name, faith the Lord (Jehovah;) where he which 
Ilrengtheneth isone,andheby whom he ftrengtheneth is another, clearly di- 

♦ Deut. 6. 4. '^ inguifhed from him by the perfonal Pronoun, and yet each of them is Jebo' 
liTwo Advcrf.1- vah, and ' Jehovah our God is one Jehovah. Whatfoever |! objeftions may be 
"TWoiithn'of^'^''^^*^^ againft US, wc know ChriJI is the ^righteous branch rai fed unto Da- 
this fUe, the vid, the f^ing that fjail reign and profper, tn who/e days Judah /hall be faved, and 
jeie, Md the Ifael jhatl dwell fofely ; we are alfured that this is his name xrhere'jy hefljall be 
wl/'/;X' di^l called. The Lord our Righteoufnefs : the Lord, that is, Jehovah, the exprefTion of 
Ttnce, that we his Supremacy ; and the addition of 0«r righteoufnefs can be no diminution 
.ftW f/Wc/i Of. J J ^Y^.jj^j:ty If thole words in tiie Prophet, e Sin^ and rejoice, daughter of 

pojitionjromthe r , r ,11,11 ■ ,/i r 1 r • 1 11 j ^t u in 

jen, jfom S'.on ; for lo, I come, and I dwell in the miajt of thee, J ait h the Lord (Jenovan,) 

wi»m indeed ^jjj ^qj fufficicntly of themfclvcs denote our Saviour who dwelt amongft us, 

J/f Tconle^on as they certainly do ; yet the words which follow would evince as much, 

<!/ will dijltoy yind many nation^ (Jjill be joined to the Lord in that day, andjhall be my people ; 

nalii/ion'.hirft ""'^ ^"''^^ ^"'^^^ ^'« ^^^^ '"'"^ft ^f ^^^^^ ""'^ thou /halt know that the Lord of basis 
sqcinus an- hath fent me unto thee: for what Other Lord can we conceive dwelling in the 
f^e,y,thc,:ame niidft of US, and fcut unto us by the Lord of hofts, hut Chnf? 

delon^eth.nj' to ' > j 

, jCh'tJi, but unit Ifracl; and that it fj appears b) a parallel place in the fame Prophet, Jcr. 33. 15, \6. Socin. >v/Hf. Jac.Wiek. 
Vc/. ^, .C/i'^fO Racov. de Perf.CbriRi, cap. i. CreWw de Dc: ^ Attribut lib. i. cap. n. To this we firfr oppofe the cwjlart 

■ intfipx- 


Our Lord. 


imerpretanon of tisf Jetv!, wh attribute the name jchovah to the Mefutt from this one pMtkular Text. As in the Sephcr 
Ikkarim,/. a.c.S. ""Jj-ly "'^ rC'i/On ZDJ niPDn t«<">p''l. The Scripture caUeth the name of the Mejfias Tchovah ovr 
rigliteoufncfs. And in Midrafch Tillim o;;l'fal. 21. ~in^ 'W r-Wn"" M2UJ mr.l ^Qiyn nW::r\ "t'O^ I^~ir-1 

.yp-is r-iin' .x-p' ^tys iq^ .— in thd n-i'^^on i^cai iciy^ r-i.::n"7Q w^x ooi cukth the .v.V- 

y/jr A) /)/>■ !)»nm(m:% iT;i/ /j!^ «><//!? »f Jeliovaii; as is faid ( Exod. 15. 3.) TIic Lord is a man of war, Jehovah is his name- 
And it is written of the Mefjim.. (/ic 23 . 6.) And tliis is the name vvliich they (liall call him, Jehovah our rightcoufnefs. ihiu 

FxhaRabati, / 1.5. ijp"!:i ,— un^ itjip^ 11:;^^ iQ!!; HU "^'j vs^ r^^^n' t>{3s "7N n^iya iiu icv no u the mime of the Mejjias ? R. Ab'oa J.:id, Jehovah « hU name ; <»* ?f isfnd (Jer. 23. 6.) Anci this is the name uhiclv 
the\ fhall call him, Jehovah our rigi.ceoLi!nels. The f.ime be reports o/Rabbi Levi. The Viihhmt then, though enemies to the tritth 
trhi -hn-e reduce frfim thence, conjlramed by the literal importance of tkeText, did acl^iorvtedge tk.xt the nime jchov^h did belong 
to the A:ejjias. And as for the colleHion of the contrar) ft om the parallel place pi etended, there if not ft great a fmiilitude a: to infotce 
the fame interpretation. For tphere.ji in the 2-^. 6. of ]cvem'nb it if :xprelh [aid, IQiy ni' this is the name, ;;i f/j; 33. if 
« only r""/!!, n'ithout any m ntian of a name ; andfurely that place cannot prote Jehovah to be the name of llracl, rvhicb fpeakj 
mt one trord oj the name o/JerufaJcni : fomoherertereadin Crellius, hoc (cilicet nomen eft, all but hoc if not Scripture, but th^ 
glofs o/Crc'lias, and hoc it fe If cannot be warranted jor the interpretationofr^] nor quo fir ~VUii ; the fimpkjl interpretation of 
tboje words'i i7 I*<"1p'^ "liiJS i~V.\beini, ifte qui vocabitcam, he which calletb Jerufalem itthe Urdour righteonfnefs, that 
is, Chriji. And tkm the iirjl anfwer of Scc'muiis invalid : rvbich he eafilyforefeeini, hath joined rvith the Jervijh Rabbins in the 
fecond anfiver, admitting that Jehovah our rigllteoufiicis is the name of the yejfiat, but withal denying that the Chrift ii that 
Jehovah. To which purpofe they ajj'ert thofe words, Jehovah our righccoufiicfs, to be delivered by way of propofition, not ofappo- 
Jition: an.: this they endeavour to prove by fuch places of Scripture as feem to injer as much. As Moles /;«;/? /in Altar, and caUed 
the name of it Jehovah Nifli, Exod. 17. i <;. Gideon built an Altar unto the Lord, and ca'Jed :t Jehovah Shalom, Jud^. 6. 24. And 
the name of the City inihela}} wor^/; o/Ezekiel ij- Jehovah Sliammah /// all which places it U moji certain th.n tiie fli^vAus 
not predicated of that of whofe name it if a part; but if the Sub]eli of a Propofition, given by reay of nomination, whofe Verb fub- 
ft.intive or co^wh is underjiood. But from thence to conclude, that the Lord our righteou'nefi can be no otherwifc linderftood of 
Chriji than as a Frop-jfition, and that we by calling him fr, according to the Prophet's prediilion, can underjlandno more thereby 
than that Godthe Patberofchnfl doth juftipeus, tsmofl irrational. I'orjirji, it is therefore neceffary to interpret thofe names by way 
ofapropojilion of ihemfelves, bec.uife Jehovah cannot be the Predicate of that which if named; it being moji apparent that an Attar 
or a City built cannot be God: and whaifoever is not Jehovah without addition^ cannot be Jehovah with addition. But there it 
no incongriiit) in attributing of that name to Chrift, to whom we have already prnied it aHualli Jvcn: and our Adverf tries, who 
teach that the name Jehovah is fomctimesgivento the Angels reprfentingGod, inuft aclQiowledge that it may be given unto Chrift,. 
whom they cmfjstobe above all Angels, and far more fully andexailty toreprefent the Father. Secondly, that which is the .tddition in 
thofe names cannot be truly predicated ofthatthingwhich bears the name. Moles could not jay that .Itarwas hit Exaltation, nor Gi- 
deon that It was his Peace. And if it could not jo be predicated by it felf, it could neither he by appojition, and ' confe<,ucntly, even in 
this reipefc it w.ts necejjary to make the name a Propofition. But our Righteoufnefs may undoubtedly be predicated of him who is here called 
by the name of the Lord our righccoulnefs ; fer the Apojlle bath exprejty taught us that be if made righteoufnefs unto us, i Cor. 1.30. 
And if it may be in it felf, there can be no repugnancy in its predication by way ofapfofition, Tuirdly, that addition of our righteoufnefs^ 
doth not only truly belong to Clorijl, but infome manner properly and peculiarly, jo as m that notion it can belong to no other per [on called 
Jchovali but to that Chrift alone. For be alone is the end of the Law for righteoufnefs to every one that believerh, Rjom. !o. 4. 
and when he is fatdto be made unto us rightcoufnefs, i Cor. i . 50. he is thereby dijhnguiflied from. God the Father. Being then 
Chrij} is thuf peculiarly called our Righteoujnejs under the Gofpel, being the place oj the I'rophet forementioncd fpeaketh of this as a name 
to be iijed under the Gofpel, being no other per<on called Jehovah m ever exprejl) called our righteoufnefs under the Gofpel ; it foiloweth 
not only that Chriji may befo called, but that the Prophecy cannot otherwife be fuljilled, than by acknonjedging tliat Chriji u tl;e Lord 
our rightcouliieis ; and comequently that it hit name, not byway of propofition,but of appofition and appropriation; fo that being both 
Jehovah rf«i/ our righteoufnefs, /;f is as rj-«/y Jehovah <« our righteoufnefs. ' Jcr. 23. 5, 6. "^Zach, 2. 10, 11. 

And as the original Jehovah was fpokcn of Chrift by the holy Prophets ; fb 
the titleof Lord,diS the ufual interpretation of tiiat name, was attributed unto 
him by the Apoftles. In that fignal prcdiftion of the firil: Age of the Golpcl 
God promiicd by Joel, that whofoever fljull cull on the mrne of the Lord (Jcho- 7'"'' 2- 35. 
\-ei\\)jh.t!!k delivered : and S. Paul hath afTured us that Clfrijl is that Lord, by 
proving from thence, that whofoever believeth on him jh all not be ajhamcd, and ^ p 
inferring from tiiat, ii'we confefs rvith our mouth the Lordjefus, xvejballbefaved. 
For if it be a certain truth, that whofoever confelTeth the Lord Jefus fliail be 
faved; and the certainty of this truth depend upon that foundation, thac 
whofoever believeth on him (liall not be afhamed ; and the certainty of that 
in relation to Chrift depend upon that other promife, Wholbever Ihali call 
on the name of the Lori^ fhall be faved: then mull the Lord in the tliirteenth 
vei fe of the tenth Chapter to the Romans be the fame with the I .ord Jefus in 
the ninth verfe ; orelie S. Paul's Argument mull be invalid and fallacious,as 
containing tliat in the Conclufion which was not comprehended in the Pre- 
niiOes. But the Lord'in the ninth verfe is no other than Jehovah, as appear- 
eth by the Joel from whom that Scripture is taken. Thcreforeour 
Saviour in the New Teflament is called Lord, as that name or title is the in- 
terpretation oi' Jehovah. 

If we confider the Office of John the Baptift peculiar unto him, we know 
/■/ was he of whom it is written in the Prophet Malich/, l4i'ill ffftd mf mejjenger, 



jyfat. I ', 10, 


And ht /b.tH prep.trs the rvny before me: we are lure he which fpak&thofe words 
M„ch , was Cl'chovah) theLordof ho(ls ; and we are as lure that Chriit is that Lord 
before whofe face >/;« the Baptift prepared the way. The wice of htm that 
cricth in the wilder nefs, faith Ifaiah, prepare ye the wxy of the Lord (Jehovah:) 
mt. ?. ,. and thii is he that was fpoken of hy the Prophet If.iiah, faith S. Matthew : this is 
Luke i.-ji. he of whom liis Fatlier Zjchariah did Divinely prcfage, Thou child (halt he cit- 
^.( r led the Prophet of the Htgheft, for thou jhilt go before the face of the Lord to pre- 
mAcSrie- p.tre his ways. Where Chnjt is certainly thelord, and the Lord * undeniably 
cnufe it ,s m 'jchovab. 

onh ihe iindnbt- •' _».„•,,•,• 1 ,-, ■ 

edtranptionoftkc lmme—\^rV intht P,o?hft, (whkhofit ^clf tfere fufficim ■■, ) but alfo is delivered in that manner which U^ 
(thwih meafinabh) required to fi^mfie the proper name of God. 'r(firoi<Lan y6 Tfo Tt--oti»» Kue.'», not nV.vti<j that is, witlmt, 
jft with, an Article. For noif our Savion) 's Deitv mull be tried by a nerv kind of School-Divtnity, and toe mofl fundamental Dtihine, 
n.ilntaiv'd as Cuheverfwce the Apoflles times by the whole Caiholick, Church, muj} be examined, cenfurcd and condemned, by i, r, 
TO. Soc(nu= fiV'i maizes ufe of this oblervation againfi Wiekus ; and after him Crellius hath laid n as a graie and feriom jounda- 
tion. andfpicadit out into itsfneral corners, to uphold the tabrick_ofhis fuperJlruHions. Ftrfl, Vox Jelnvah magis quam citcra 
Dciiiomina proprioriim naturam loquitur ; iJeo ctiam Gwca Kt/'«0-,cum pro ilia ponicur, propriorum indolcm,qiia Ijcct, 
scmutatur. Secondly, rropriisnoiiiinibus articulus libcntius fubtrahitur, liccc eum ctiam fa'pc concmnitatis potiiis quam ucccfli- 
tatis causa admitram. Idem fit in voce Kva& turn pro Jelmah ponitur. ihirdly, Hac eft cau(a cur in novo Tcftamcnto, 
maximeapud Lucam S: Paulum,vox xi/«©-, cum Deum fummiim defigtiat, articulo libcntius careat; at cum de Chrirto lub- 
jcftivc ul'urpatur, raro articulus omicticur. H'hatflrange uncertainties are tliefe to build the denial of fo important an Article at 
CkrijVsDixinityiipmf Ne dies not fay abfolutely]chovah if the proper name of God, but only that it doth more folhrv the natmi of 
proper names thanth: other names of God. Andindesdit it certain that fometimes it hath the nature of an appellatixe, oj Deut. 6. 4. 
"Wy^k mn^ 13\T'X : — nrV' the Lord onr God is one Lord, andyet if it be nor always and abfolutety aproper name, timih 
aUthereflwercsi-antcdtobetrue. the Argument mufl be of no validity. Again, he cannot [ity an Article is never affixed to a ppo;'t-r 
name, but on/) //jj/ libcntius fubtrahitur, it it rather omitted than affixed : which yet ii far from a certain or a true rule, efpea.illy 
in theLaniiiage ofth: New Tefiame-.t. For no man can deny Jefm to be the proper name of Chriji, given hirn acording to the Ltni 
at h'K Circumcijlm, ;^ mi,a.)9ii tI ceo^a twn Ititxt, Luke 2. 21. andyet whomever fjiall read the Cofpel ofs. Matthew, w:il 
find it ten times i'lnjet with an Article, for once'Uftu withoutit. And in the Ads of the yipoflles, written in a more Atiicli 
'lly!e,S.V3\i\isoftner liylcdi niwK&- thanfimplyX\axi\Q-. JoBalaam,Gallio,2irf. Some pirfons we find m the Sew Teflament, 
who'm,'if we flmld Hay till we found them rviihm an Article, we flmld never call by their names at all; .x Apelles, Balak, ([tc. 
Thirdly, Ku'ciS" « /J often ufcdfor that God who H the Father with an Article, and KuctQ- for the Son without an A>ticle, {For 
the Fatl:er,M3X. 1.22.2. 15. 5- 3 5- 22. 44. Mark 12.55. Luke 1. 15,9,15, 25, 45. 2.15,22,23. lo. 2. Afts 2. 25,34. j-'ip. 
17.27. Rom.15. II. I Cor.10.26.16. 7. 2Cor.5. II. Eph.5. 17,,20,23. 2The(r.3.3. 2Tim.i.i6. Heb., 
i4.Jam.4 10,15. i Pct.2.3. forrAf5o«, Mat. 5. 5. 22.43,45. Mark i.j. Luke 20.44. John i. 23. Afts 2. 36. 
10.36. 11.16,21. i5.ii.Rom.j.7.>c.p,i2. 14.6.8,14.16.2,8,11,12,13,22. I Cor.1.3.4. i7-7-22!25.S9-9-'.2-'o-2'->>-". 
12. 3. 14. 37. 'V^S. 16,10,19. 2 Cor.i. 2.2.1 2.4.5. 10-17.11.17. «2'i. 1.2.,5,17. 5.8. 6.4,10, 
21^:3. Phil. 1.2,14. 2. 1 1,19,24,29. 3. 1,20. 4. 1,2,10. Col. 1.3. 3. 17,18,24. 4.7)'7. I The(I".i.i. 3. S. 4. 1,15,17. 5.2,12. 
aThcff. I. I, 2. 2. 13. 3.4. I Tim. i. 1. 2 Tim. 2. 24. Tic. 1.4. Philem. 3, 16, 20. Jam. 1. i. 2 Pet. 3. 8. ic. 2 John 3. 
fudcr4.Rev. 14. 13. 19. 16. I fay, they are thus fooftedufed) that though they equalnot the number of their contrary acceptions, 
yet the) come fo near, at to yield m ground for any ftich obfervation, as if the Holy Ghoj) intended any fuch Article-diftinllion. Kay, 
it if moil evident that the [acted fen-men intended no fuch diJ}inffion, becaufe in the fame place fpea^ing of the fame perfon, they 
■^fitnlly obfcrve the indifferency oj tf^dingor omitiingthe Article. >lr Jam. 5. 11. TW vo-ejxoj'W 'I»f wxbotc]*, jc^ tJ t»A©- 
Kt/ei» "Ati, In ■;7oAutn7A<f>>;(o< oJik Ki/ei©- 1^ ou?'?/^*""' 2 Tim. i. 18. Awh aZtti Kie/G /<'f"» 'iKi& migf, KPr 
eis c» iufi*'? Ti! il^x'-fot." ' Cor. 7. 17. "E/.a^tsi d( tiKKnutv KJci®-, Stu tfuTctlfiTai- 22. 'O jb it Kueiu KAn6')< /»- 
^,Q , ciTif^<i''^it& Ki/eia S?/. ■5'i?f Rom. 14.6,7,8. Whertfore being, ]chov3h k not affirmed abfolntely to be a prope> name ; be- 
ing, k '' »'^'''''> } ■■' '' "PP^"!^ ''•'" '' '•* '''>' ''-'f cuflom of the Sew Teftament to ufe every proper name ofrner without an Article than with 
one ; beim, Ku'e.(^ « /' often tal^en for him whom they acl^nowledge Cod, and Kilei©" for him whtm they cannot deny to be the 
Chriji ; itfoUoneththat Ckrij}, acknowledged to be the Lord, cannot by any virtue of an Ankle be denied to be the true Jehovah. 
We imifl not then tltinl^to decide this Controverfie by the Articles, of which the Sacred Pen-men were not curioiu, and the Tranfcribcrs 

.,.,,.,,■, - - -- — '4* 

■^1. the Vulgar Edit, iri^n Kvc'unoiy arloAai ' the Complut. 07/ Kceiv. So where we iifully read \tt^(, divers amient .\'Ss. Ku'e'®"' Lal}ly,)t is-objervable that even in theje words oftheCreed, which we now e::pound, KuciQ- if pollen exprefly of 

Chrill without jn Article ; for fo wereadit,]iajiH( 'itiivyXti^f, ilv vi^c oouto ■jf- jui!c»'>5</if, Kiietov i/j^- 

Nor is this the only Notation of the Name or Title Lord taken in a fenfe 

Divine, above the expreHiun of all mere humane power and dominion ; for 

as it is often ufed astlie interpretation of the name Jehovah., fo is it alio for 

pfal. 110. 1, that of JdoH or Ado/tai. The Lord faidunto my Lord, faith David, that is, in 

11 chald. Para- the Original, Jehovah unto Ado/t ; and that Jdo» is the !| f4^ord, that Lord is 

Phraf. Chriji. We know the Temple at Jerufalem was the Temple of the moft High 

God, and the Lord ot that Temple in the emphafis of an Hebrew Article was 

MaUc. 3. I. Chrtjt, as. appeareth by that Prophet ; The Lord whom ye feek (hall fuddenly 

{ni<n cente to his lemple^eve/t-the jnejftnger of the Covenant, whom ye deltght i». 


Our Lord. 


Now this Notation, as it is the interpretation o^Jdoft, fignifieth immediate- 
ly and properly dominion implying a right ot" poffefTion, and power of difpo- 
fing. Which doth not only agree with that other notion of'Jthovah. but pre- 
iiippofesit,as following and flowing from it. For he w ho alone hatha being 
or exillence of himfclf, and thereby is the fountain of all things befide him- 
lelf, mull be acknowledged to have full power and dommion over all : be- 
caufe every tlung muif ncceflarily belong to him from whom it hath received 
what it is. Wherefore being Chrifi is the Lord, as that title is taken for Jeho- 
vah, the name of God, exprefling the necelfary exiftence and independence 
of hii fingle being, and confcquently the independency of all others upon 
him ; it foUoweth that he be acknowledged alio the Lord, as that name ex- 
prefleth Adon, fignifying power authoritative and proper dominion. Thus 
having explained the Notation of the word Lord, which we propounded as 
the firft part of our expofition ; we come next to the fecond, which is, to 
declare the nature of this Dominion, and to fhew how and in what refpeft 
Chrijl is the Lord. 

Now for the full and exaft underftanding of the Dominion feated or inve- 
rted in Chrifi as the Lord, it will be neceflary to dillinguifli it according to 
that diverfity which the Scriptures reprelentunto us. As therefore we have 
obferved two Natures united in his f erlbn.lo muft we alfb conlider two kinds 
of Dominion belonging refpeftively to thofe natures; one inlierent in his 
Divinity, the other beftowed upon his Humanity ; one as he is the Lord the 
maker of all things, the other as he is made Lord of all things. 

For the Firft, we are affured that the JVordwas God,thcLt by thelame Word John 1. 1, 3. 
a/i things were made, and without him was not any thing made that was made; 
we mull acknowledge, that wholbever is the Creator of all things muft have 
a dircd Dominion over all, as belonging to the poffelfion of the Creator 
who made all things. Therefore the IVord, that is, Chrifi as God, hath the Ih- 
preme and univtrlal Dominion of the world. Which was well expreffed by 
that lamousconiellionof no longer doubting, but believing Thomas, my Lord John 20. 28. 
and my God. 

For the Second, it is alfb certain that there was fbme kind of Lordfhip gi- 
ven or beftowed on Chriil, whufe very Undion proves no lefs than an impar- 
ted Dominion , asS.Pe/er tells us ihaithewzsmadel>oth Lord andChri/i. What ^'?^2. 36. 
David rpake of man, the Apoitle hath applied peculiarly unto him, Tho/t 
crownedft him with glory and honour, and didfi fet him over the works of thy hands : ■**• *• 7> ^' 
Thou hast put all things in fubjeciion under his feet. 

Now a Dominion thus imparted, given, derived or beftowed, cannot be 
that which belongeth unto God as God, founded in the Divine Nature, be- 
caufe whatlbevcr is fuch is abfolute and independent.Wherefore this Lordfhip 
thus imparted or acquired appertaineth to the humane nature, and belongeth 
to our Saviour as the Son of man. The right of Judicature is part of this 
Power; and Chriil himfelfhath told us, that theFather hath given him autho- John -y. 27. 
rity to execute judgment, becaufe he is the Son of man : and by virtue ot this de- 
legated authority, the Son of man (hall come in the glory of his rather wtth his ^W". «»• 27, 
Angels, and reward every man according to his works. Part of the fame Domi- 
nion is the power of forgiving fins; as pardoning, no Icfsthan puniihingsis a 
branch ofthe fupreme Magillracy : and C/^r/// did therefore lay cothe fick of 
the palfie, thy fins be forgiven thee, that we might know that the Sot of man had Mat. p. 2, 6. 
power on earth to forgive (ins. Another branch of that Power is i. ic alteration 
of the Law, there being the fame authority required to abrogate or alter, 
which is to make a Law : and Chrift alTcrtcd himfelf to he greater than the M't. 12. 6, 8. 
Temple, (hewing that the Son of man was Lord even ofthe Sabbath-day. 




This Dominion rhus given untoChrifi in his humane nature was a direft 
and plenary power over all things, but was not aftually given him atonce, 
but part uhile he lived on earth, part after his death and refurreftion. For 

70^/113.5. though it be tnxQth/ttJefus kmw^ before hisdcatli, thit the Father had given 
/ill things tfttohishanas ; yet it is obiervable tliat in the lame place it is writ- 
ten that he likewile knew that he was come from God^ and went to God: and 
part oi that power he received when he came from God, with part he was in- 
verted when he w ent to God ; tb.c Hrll: to enable him, the lecond, not only 

Km. 14. 9. f5, but a!lb to reward him. For to this tndthriji both d/td, rofe,and lev/vedj 
that he might he Lord both of the dead and living. After his refurreftion 1 •laid 

Ma. 28. 18. to the Diiciples, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. He drunk of 

Fhi'i. y.^'o ^^-'^ brook in the way, therefore he hath lift up his head. Becaufe he humbled him- 

jo, II. ' ' felf, and became obedient unto death .^ even the death of the crofs : Therefore God 
hath alfo highly exalted him, and given htm a name which is above every name ; 
That at the name off ejus every kneejhould bow, of things in heaven, and things in 
earth, and things tindtr the earth ; And every tongue jhonld conftfs that'^efns 
Chrijl is Lord, to the glory of God the Father, 'llius for and after his death he 
was inflated in a full power and dominion over all things, even as the Son of 

Eph. 1. 20,21, man, but exalted by. the Father, who raifd htm from the dead, andfet him at 
his right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality and power, and 
might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only tn this world, but 
itlfo in that which is to come'. And hath put all things under his feet, and gave 
him to be head over all things to the Church. 

Now as all the power given unto Chn^ as man had not the fame begin- 
ning inrefpctl of theufeorpofledionilb neither, when begun, fhal lit all have 
the fame duration. For part of it being merely Occonomical, aiming at a 
certain end, fhall then ceafe and determinate,when that end for which 'twas 
given Ihallbe accompliftied: part, being either due upon the union of the hu- 
mane nature with the Divine, or upon covenant, as a reward for the Suffer- 
ings endured in that nature, muft be coeval with that union and that nature 
which [0 futTered, and confequently muft be eternal. 

Of the firft part of this Dominion did David fpeak, when by the fpirit of 

Ffai. \ic. I. Prophecy he called his Son his Lord; The Lord faid unto my Lord, Stt thou 
at my right hand until 1 make thine enemies thy foot flool: where the continua- 
tion of Chri(l\ Dominion over his enemies is .promifed to be prolonged until 

1 cic.1j.25. their final and total (bbjedtion. For he mufl reign till he hath put all things 
under his feet. And as we are Ture of the continuation of that Kingdom 

icoc. 15. 24, fjH that rime, fb are we afTuredoftherefignationatthat time. For whenhc 
{hall have put down all rule, and all authority and power, then JJjall he deliver 
up the I\Jngdomto God, even the Father. And when all things {hall he fubdued 
unto him, then fhall the Son alio himfelf be fuhjecf unto him that put all thinos 

Pfnl. 1 10. 2. finder him, that God may b; all in all. Thus he which was appointed to rule 
tn the midjl of his enemies during their rebellion, fliall refign up his Commil^ 
fion after their fubjcftion. 

But we muft not look upon p^riji only in the nature of a General, who 
hath received a Commiirion,or ofan AmbalTadour, with perfect Inftrudions ; 
but ot the only Son of God, impowcrcd and employed to deftroy the enemies 
of his Father's Kingdom : and though thusimpowered and commilTioned, 
though rcfigning that authority which hath already had its perfeft work, yet: 
ftill the only Son, and the heir of all things in his Father's houle, never to 
relinquifti his dominion over thofe whom he hath purchaled u ith his own 
blood, never to be deprived of that reward which was adigned him for his 
Sufferings: for if the prize which we expeft in the race of our iinperfeft obe-. 


OurLokd. I 



dience be an immarceffible crown, if the weight of glory which we look 
for from him be eternal ; then cannot his perfect and ablblute Obedience be 
crowned with a fading power, or he ceale ruling over us, who hath al- 
ways reigned in us. We ihall for ever reign with liim, and he wiil make 
us prielfs and kings; but fb that he continue liill for ever High Pricll: and 
king of kings. 

The certainty of this eternal Dominion of CAr//, as Man, we may well 
ground upon the promife made to David, becaufe by realbn of that promile 
Chnji himlelf is called David. For fb God fpeaketh concerning his People ; 
7 will fet up one jhtpherd over them^ and he fljall feed them, even my jervant Da- Exeli. 34. j^\ 
vid; he jhall feed them ; and he fhall be their jhepherd. And I the Lord tvtll =4- 
be their Uod, and my fervant David a Prince among them. I the Lord havejpo- 
ken It. Now the promife was thus made exprefly to David, Thy houfe and thy 2 sam. 7, 16. 
kingdom jfyall he ejlabl:(hed for ever before thee, thy throne (hall be eBablijhedfor 
ever. And although thnttrm for ever in the Hebrew language may lignifie ZDHV^ "ip 
oft-times no more than a certain duration fo long as the nature of the thing 
is durable, or at the utmoft but to the end of all things ; and fb the Oeco-, 
nomical Dominion or Kingdom of Chrifi may be thought liifficiently to fulfil 
that promife, becaufe it fhall certainly continue fo long as the nature of that 
Oeconomy requireth, till all things be performed for which Chrift was lent, 
and that continuation will infallibly extend unto the end of all things: yet 
f bmetimes alfb the fame iQimfor ever fignifieth that abfblute eternity of future 
duration which fliall have no end at all : and that it is fb far to be extended 
particularly in that promife made to David, and to be fulfilled in his Son, is as 
certain as the Promife, For the Angel Gabriel ^id give that clear expofition to 
the blelTed Virgin, when in this manner he foretold the glory of him who was 
then to be conceived in her womb ; The Lord God /Jjall give unto him the throne [_^]^^ j, . 2, 3*, 
of hii father David: And he fli all reign over the houfe of Jacob for ever, and of 
his kingdom there fhall be no end. Nor is this clearer in Gabriel's explication 
of the promife, than in DantePs previfion of the performance; who firv in j-,,^ - 

the night-vijions, and behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of hea- 
ven; And came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. 
Afid there was given him dominion and glory, and a kingdom, that all people drid 
languages jhould ferve him : his dominion is an everlajiing dominion, which fjjall 
not pa/s away , and his kingdom that which fjjall not be dejlroyed. 

Thus Chrijl is Lord both by a natural and independent Dominion ; as God, 
the Creator, and confequently the owner, of the works of his hands; and 
by a derived, imparted and dependent right, as man, fent, anointed, raifcdand 
exalted, and fo made Lord and Chriji : which authority fb given and bef^ow- 
ed upon him is partly Oeconomical, and therefore to be refigned irrto the 
hands of the Father, when all thofe ends for which it was imparted ai e ac- 
compliQied ; partly fb proper to the union, or due unto the paflion, of the 
humane nature, that it muft be co-^eval with it, that is, of eternal duration. 

. The third part of our Explication is, the due confideration of the Objeft 
of Chrifi: s Dominion, enquiring whole Lord he is, and how ours. To which 
purpofe Hrft obferve the latitude, extent, or rather univerfality, of his Power, 
under which all things are comprehended, as fiibjefted to it. For he is Lord Ansxo.-jS. 
of all, faith S. Peter, of all things, and of all perfons ; and he muftbc fb, who 
mnde all things as God, and to whom all power is given as man. To him then 
all things are (ijb)ecled whole iub)e£lion implieth not a. contradidion. For i cor. i-. i"-'. 
he hath put all things under his feet : but when he faith all things are put under 
him, it is mamfeU that he is excepted which did put nil things under him, God" 
only then excepted, whofe original Dominion is repugnant to the l"calf (ub- 

X icdiop; 



jeaion,all things are iubied unto Chrift^ whether they be things in Heaveii^ 
or things on Earth. In Heaven he is tar above all principalities and powers, 

Heh I. 6. in-i all the Angds of God worjh'p him ; on earth all nations an- his mheritafjct, 

pyil. a 8. a^.dthe nttermoji parts of the t.trth are his fojfefion. Thus C^'^'ft is certainly 
our Lordy becaufe he is the Lord of all ; and vviicn all things were ii]bje£leii 
to him, we were not excepted. 

But in the midftofthisUniverfality of C/;r/y?'s Regal Authority, it will be 
farther necelTary to find (bme propriety of Dominion, by which he may be 
laid to be peculiarly our Lord. Tis true, he made us, and not we our lelves, 
we are the work of his hands ; but the lowefl: of his Creatures can fpcak as 
much. We are ftill prefe; ved by his power, and as he made us, lb doth he 
maintain us; but at the fame time he feedeth the ravens and cloatheth the 
lilies of the field. Wherefore befide his original right of Creation, and 
his continued right of Prefervation , we fhall find a more peculiar right of 
. , Redemption, belonging properly to the fons of men. And in this Redem- 

VdlljIaJwi ption, though a fingle word, we fhall find a !| double title to a moll: juft Do- 

ofthisJoMeti- minion, one of Conqueft, another of Purchace. 

//f involved in 

the ward Redmp'm, invill be neceffary to take notice of the ways by rchkh Humane Cotnitiion is acquired, and Servitude intrc- 
dACid. Scrvi auc naf-unciir, auc fiunc, faith the CivHtan , Inft. 1. 1 . tit. 5, but in Tiieologywe fa) more , Servi & nafcuntur, & 
fiunc' Mm is bo)n the fervant of God his Maker, man is made the fenant of his Redeemer. Tm ways ingeneraj they obferved, by 
which they c.ime to fine rvho were not b:rn Slaxes. Kiunr aut jure gcntiuni, id elt, capcivitatc ; auc jure civili cum liber ho- 
mo major viginti a'nnis ad prctiiim participandum fefe vcnundari paffus eft. Two ways then alfo there were by which Dominion 
over thCe fer-cants was acquired, by Conquejl or by Purchace, and both thefe were alwaj.s accounted jujl. Dionyfius Halicarnaffaus, 
an excclleKt fiiliorian, a curiotu Obferver of the Roman Cujloms, andancxall Judge^ of theit Mions , b(inga<ir£cian,)uf\ifuth the 
riiht which theMalhrs in Rome claimed over their fervants ufon thefetwo grounds^ 'ETuyxa.vai>J^Tei< 'P^naitK al ^' dig^- 


cCf-'Y, r, Ti Tg^lrya avyyaftiaavlQ- aiiJict.T a.>f^*i< aUKeixii ;^ Ji)(Ux\uT«( Ti7< fiM.Ciaii' iy^Hy, n TatiuffJoi :ra{ 
irlpar, t(^ -rt-^' <f"'^' Tg/-T»< Kvei-.yH'JOf^yJay UUIImJo n\} /b'abj. /fijh I- 4- Where it Is alfo farther to be obfaied, that 
the fame ferfons were made jlaves by Conquer, and pojjejfed by Purchace ; by Conqueft tn the City of Rome, A> Purchace to the Roman 
citizen. The General firft tt^k-Ondfavedthem, and fo made them his , that is, reduced them to the Will and Power of the State 
from which he received his Commifion, and in whofe name and for whofe intercft he fought : This State expifed their inter efl to fall, 
and (<i what-evcr right had been gained by the conquering fword was devolved on the Roman Citizen for a certain fumm of Money 
taidto the State to defray the charges of that war. Tom every Lord or Mafter of a flave fo taken had full power over him, and 
tolTeffion of him, by right of Purchace, unto which he was firjl made liable by Conquejl. And though not exaHly in that manner, yet 
bythat dmble right, is Chrijl become our Lord, and we bis fervants. 

Rom. 6 16. We were firft fervants of the enemy of God ; for him we obeyed, and his 
Hib. 2. 14. fervants we are rvhom ive obey : when Chrifi through death dejlroyed him that 
Col. 2.1$. had the ponrer of death, that is, the Devil., and delivered us; He fpoiledprin- 
cipalittes and powers, and made a jbew of them openly., triumphing over them. 
But contrary to the cuftom of triumphing Conquerours, he did not fell, 
but buy us; becaufe while he faved us, he died for us, and that death was 
the price by which he purchafed us ; even fo this dying Viftor gave us life : 
upon the Crofsjas his triumphant chariot, he fhed that precious blood which 
bought us, and thereby became our Lord by right of Redemption, both as 
to Conqueft and to Purchace. 

Befide, he hath not only bought us, butprovidcth for us ; what-ever we 

have, we receive from him as the Mafter of the Family ; we hold of him 

all temporal and eternal bleflings, which we enjoy in this, or hope for in 

AHs i- 15. another life. He is the Prince of life., and by him we live ; he is the Lord of 

I Cor. 2. 8. glory, and we are called by his Gofpel to the obtaining of the glory of oar Lord. 

3 "^S '• '4- Wherefore he hath us under his dominion, and becomes our Lord by right 

of Promotion. 

Laltly, Men were not anciently Ibid always by others, but fbme- 

times by thcmlelvcs ; and wholbever of us truly believe in Chnfi, have 

given up our names unto him. In our Baptifmal vow we bind our lelves 

R)rr.6.6,ii, ^^^^^ '^'^ fervicc, that henceforth ive will not ferve fm; but yield cur 

i>i. /elves unto God, as thoft that are altve from the dead, and our members 


Our Lord. 


asinflr ; mtnts of righteoufmfs unto God: that, a^s we huve yielded our memberi 
(trvah s to timkanmfs and to inicjuity; even fo we fhould//e/<^ our memhtrs 
fervams to righteoujmfs, unto holinefs. And thus the fame Dominion is ac- 
iinow 'edged by Compaft, and confirmed by Covenant ; and fo Christ be- 
come our Lord by right of Obligation. 

Thi ncceffity of believing and profefling our faith in this part of the Arti- 
cle ap leareth, firft, in the ditcovery of our condition ; for by this we know 
that \ 'e are not our own, neither our perfons nor our aftions, Kjiow ye \ cir. e. ig, 
not, {[' 'th S. P/tul, that ye are not your oi^n ? for ye are bought with a price. And ^'' 
ancie t fervitude, to w hich the Scriptures relate, put the fervants wholly in 
the ^ |JolTe(Iion of their Mafter ; (b that their perfons were as properly his as '^ f "'*'^; "!''■ 
the ri- II: of his goods. And if we be fo in refpeft oiChrift., then may we not vti, ^'i, 'i^^i 
live to our (elves but to him ; for in this the difference of || fervice and free- 'ijT'-v'v r,^; 
dom doth properly confift ; we cannot do our * own wills, but the will of X'tTT./^'i 
him vlioie we are. Chrift took upon him the form of a fervant .- and to give rihotMu. i[ 
us a proper and perfeft example of that condition, he telleth us, ^ / came '■^- .^''^V^ 
down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that fent r/is. '^^f^ "Uu'l'- 
Firfl. therefore we mu!i conclude with the Apoftlc, reflefting upon Chrifi\ tok, ^^ a- 
Dominion and our Obligation, that '' none of us Itvetb to himftlf and rto man |°'''^"' " ^V'''\ 
dieth to himfelf. For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; or whether we die, ly l^yivoy d- 
we die unto the Lord : whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord's, fajfiforrij^' 

tf'lhQ- * [t/;^©-. IJ Eth. l.g.c.g. And again morcexprefly, Tk ^ af » ?u'»i« n <f»Ai(, 19 rU » /tuittu/f. It ritav /SacV. 'O -^ 
fi.Yi t^jTx pw9'w,«>A'«.'Wii«,ct»9fs)T0< 3\ cm^pvan S'tKii S^ik c!,'mk /'' b^vaVflpfflTOj, 0," iv x^MMa.r, -Iv^ou-^of civ. So that the de- 
finition of a fervant according to Ariflotle «, he, who being a man, is notrvithiianding the fojjejfion of a man. And although all Relatives 
be predicated of each other inobliquo, as parer eft filii pater, &fil us patris filiusi dominus eft fervidomimis,& fervus domini ; }et he observes a dijference in this, that afcrxant is not only fervus domini, butfimply doraini, but the mafier is notfimply fer- 
y'l,i'Ut dominus fervi. 'O ^ Aan'oTwt tk eTtAs A<m'oTn< imovov, oKttvn ij iit igjv o 3 cTSa©- i iMvav Jian'orit S'iKof ^v, «A" 
Act Z thti aKtipii.The fervant then is fo wholly in the poffejjion and for the ufe of his maj}er,that he is nuthing iifebut a liiing tool or in- 
Jiri tient ; infimnch,fays he, that if all tools rvere like thnfe i5/Dsdalus,or the Tripods of Wu\car\,rvhich the Poetsfeigri'dto move of them- 
feLei,Aitifizers n-ould need no under rcorl^en, nor Mafters fervants. || 5<) Arift. Ethic. 4. Tg;j aMoi' i^,\v i'vhiKov.andinthefirjl 
of his Rhetoricks on tie contrary, khdi^'i^v t3 y.h t^Jj «Moi' ^hc. * 11 ^av at ^i\i]cu t/(, »? ihdihe'iti( Vf jpf «•»> t« /b'ak ei/- 
TJ^,7o^ii;'|u^ a( ^vKi]au. AriJ}.Pol.6.2. Quid etliibcrtas ? poteftasvivendi ut vclis. Cic.Far. ' Jch.i.'^'i. "^071.14.7,8, 

Secondly, the fame is neceflary both to inforce and invite us to obedience j 
to inforcL us, as he is the Lord, to invite us, as Chrifi the Lord. If we acknow- 
ledge our (elves to be his fervants , we muft bring into captivity every thought 2 Cor. 10. 5, 
to the obedience of Chrifi. He which therefore died, and role and revived, that 
he might become the Lord both of the dead and living, maketh not that death 
and refurreftion efficacious to any but fuch as by their fervice acknowledge 
that Dominion which he purchaled. He, though he were a Son, yet learned obe- Heb. j. B^gi 
dience by the things which he ftiffered ; And being made perfect he is become the 
Author of eternalfalvation unto all them that obey him. Thus the confiderati- 
on of the power invefted in him, and the necedity of the (ervice due unto 
him, (hould force us to obedience; while the confideiation of him whom we 
are thus obliged to fcrve fhould allure and invite us. When God gave the 
Law with fire and thunder, the affrighted I/raelites defired to receive it from 
Mofes, and upon that receipt promiled obedience. Go thou near, (aid they to 
him, and hear all that the Lord our God (hall fay ; andfpeak thou untotts, and Dcut.^.a^i 
we will hear it and do it. If they interpreted it (b great a favour to receive 
the Law by the hands of Mofes ; if they made (b ready and che.irful a 
promife of cxad obedience unto the Law (b given ; how (hould we be in- 
vited to the (ame promi(e, and a better performance, who have received the 
whole will of God revealed to us by the Son of Man, who are to give an 
account of our performance to the fame Man let down at the right hand 
of the Father ? He firfl: took our nature to become our Brother, that with 
fo near a Relation he might be made our Lord. If then the Patriarchs 

X 2 di<ji 



did chearfully live in the land of Goffjen fubjeft to the power and commanii 
of £;j^/'/', becaufe that power \sas in the hand oi'jojeph their exalted brother; 
fliairnot we with all rcadinefs of mindfubmitour idves to the Divine domi- 
nion now given to him wl\o gave hlmlelf for us ? Shall all the Angels w or- 
fliip him, and all the Archangels bow down before him ? and (hall not we 
be proud to join with them ? 

Thirdly, the belief of Chrift's Dominion is neccdary for the regulation of 
all power, authority and dominion on earth, both in rcfpcft of thofe w hich 
rule, and in relation to thoie that obey. From hence the moft abfoluteMo- 
narchs learn, that the people which they rule are not their own, but theSub- 
jefts of a greater Prince, by him committed to their charge. Upon thisS. Pj«/ 

Col. 4. 1. doth ground his admonition to Mafters, Give unto your fervants that which is 
jitfi and equal, knowing that ye alfo have a Mafler in heauen. God gave a power 
to the Ijraditis to make hired Servants of their brethren, but not flaves; and 

uv. 25.42. giy£5 ti,i5 reafon of the interdiction. For they are my fervants which 1 brought 
forth out of the land of K^'i^yft \ they ^all not he fold as bondmen. What tendcr- 
nefs then (hould be uled towards thofe who are the fervants of that Lord who 
redeemed them from a greater bondage, who bought them with a higher 
price? From hence thofe which are liibjeft learn to obey the powers which 
are of humane ordination, becaufe in them they obey the Lord of all. Subjeds 
bear the fame proportion, and Hand in the lame relation to their Governours, 

Co/. ;. 22, J3, with fervants to their Matters : and S. Foul hath given them this charge, Obey 

24- in all things your majlers according to the fltflj ; <^nd whatfoever ye doy do if 

heartily^ as to the Lord , and not unto men \ Kjiowing that of the Lord ye fljall 
receive the reward of the inheritance : for ye ferve the Lord Chrifl. Neither 
do we learn from hence only whom, but alfo how, to obey. For while we 
look upon one Lord in Heaven, while we confider him as the Lord of lords ^ 
we regulate our obedience to them by our fervice due to him, and fo are al- 
ways ready to obey, but in the Lord. 

Laffly, this Title of our Saviour is of neceffary belief for our comfort and 
encouragement. For being Lord of all, he is able to difpofe of all things for 
the benefit of thofe which ferve him. He who commanded the unconftant 
winds, and Hilled the raging feas, he who multiplied the loaves and fifhes,and 
created wine with the word of his mouth, hath all creatures now under exa6t 
obedience ; and therefore none can want whom he undertaketh to provide 

Km, JO. 12. for. Lor the fame Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. Many are 
the enemies of thofe perfons who dedicate themfelves unto his fervice ; but 
our enemies are his, and part of his dominion is therefore given him, and to 
continue in him until all his enemies be made his footftool. Great is the 
power of the lufts of our flefh which war in our members ; but his grace 
is fufficient for us, and the power of that fpirit by which he ruleth in us. 
Heavy are the affliftions which we are called to undergo for his fake : but if 
we fulfer with him, we fhall reign together with him : and bicfled be that 
Dominion which makes us all Kings, that he may be for ever Lord of lords 
and King of kings. 

After this explication, every Chriftian may perceive what he is to believe 
in this part of the Article, and exprels himfclf how he would be underllood, 
when he maketh this profefTion of his Faith, I believe in Chrijl our Lord. For 
thereby we may and ought to intend thus much ; I do aflcnt unto this as a 
certain and infallible trutli, taught me by God himfclf, that Jefm Chnjl, the 
only Son of God, is the true Jehovah, who hath tliat being which is original- 
ly and eternally of it felf, .and of which all other beings do elfentialJy de- 
pend : that, by the right of emanation of all things from him, he hath an ab- 


Which Was Conceived. 157 

folute, fupreme and univerfal Dominion ever all things, as God : That as the 
Son of man he is inverted with all power in Heaven and Earth : partly Oeco- 
nomical, for the complcating our Redemption, and the deftruQion of our 
enemies, to continue to the end of all things, and then to be refigned to the 
Father ; partly confequent unto the union, or due unto the obedience of his 
Pa(rion,and lb eternal, as belonging to that Kingdom which fliall have no 
end. And though he be thus Lord of all things by right of the firft creation 
and conftant prefervation of them, yet is he more peculiarly the Lord of us 
who by Faith are confecrated to his fervice : for through the work of our 
Redemption he becomes our Lord both by the right of Conqueft and of Pur- 
chace ; and making us the Sons of God, and providing heavenly Manfions for 
us, he acquires a farther right of Promotion, which, confidering the Cove- 
nant we all make to ferve him, is at lafl; compleated in the right of a volun- 
tary obligation. And thus I believe in Chrift our Lordy 

Article IIL 

mt^k^ ttjas conceiijeti bp tl)e i^olp (Si)oft, bom of 
tDe Virgin i^atp. 

THcfe words, as they now ftand, clearly diftinguifli the Conception of 
Jefus from his Nativity, attributing the firft to the Holy Ghoft,the fe- 
cond to the bleffed Virgin .• whereas the ancient Creeds made no fuch diftin- 
ftion, but, without any particular exprefs mention of the Conception, had it . 

only in this manner, * tvho was born by the HolyGhofi of the Virgin Mary ; or fic'^'^™ Jl^ctnc 
of the Holy Ghofi and the Virgin Mary\ underftanding by the word^or», not foium, ut ne- 
on ly the Nativity, but alfo the Conception and Generation. This is very F"^ ^''"™ ^* 
neceffary to be obferved, becaufe otherwife theaddition of a word will prove '^^i "uTeou- 
thediminutionof the fenfe of the Article. For they which fpeak only of the mim dfe qoi 
operation of the Holy GhofI: in Chrift's Conception, and of the manner of his "'•"ty'-'lneto 
Birth, leave out moft part of that which was anciently underftooJ under that ex Ma. iu vrr- 
one term of being born of the Holy Ghoft and of the Virgin Mary. S'"^*^- ^^V"''- 

That therefore nothing may be omitted which is pertinent to exprefs the "us '.•(■■ de spt 
full intent and to comprehend the utmoft fignification of this Article, we lliall ritj -^ancto ex 
con fider three Pcrfbns mention. d,fo far as they are concerned in it. The firl> ^J^^^slni^m- 
is He who was conceived and born ; the fecond. He by whole energy orope- Whot j-- Aug, 
ration he was conceived ; thethird. She who did conceive and bear him. ^'""*' "'' ^""' 

lenf.c. 34, ?7, 
and 98. Natus 'le Spiritu S. & Maria Virgine, as alfo the CoMmv/ o/Franckford in Sacnfyllabo. S. Aug. de Fid^ i^r Symb, NatuS 
eft per Spiricum o. ex Virgine Maria. Nonnede SpiricuS. & Virgine Maria Dei filias unicusnacus eft > i'. Aug de Pr.tdeji- 
Sari'Kc, 15. <!^ paulo pDJi, quianatuseft de Spiritu S. ex Maria Virgine. 5. Leo 2. (•U-a'imuiTiMtin.Chiyfot.&the- 
rius Vxam. Author Symbil. adCatecbum, Qui natus eft de Spiritu S. ex Maria Virgine. So rt//oVcnanrius Kortunatus. From 
»»/w!i;eFulgcnciuS(/e Fide adVctrnm DiMonum ; Natumde Spiritu S. ex Maria Virgine, in Symbolo acceptum, & cordc ad 
juiliciam credit, & ore ad lalutcni S. Ecclefia confitctur. Item pr.cdicandum eft qJomoJo Kiliiis Dei incarnatus eft de Spi- 
ritu S. ex Maria fcnoper- Virgine. ( apitut. Caro\\S2. And Akmavs I. ^. de Trinit. c. i. Uicitur in Symbolo Catliolica- fidei, 

theeccajion of the ApolimarianHercfie, asrcas obferved by Viogcncs Bifliof o/Cyzicum in the Council o/Clulccdon •■, Oj y6 eLyttt 
m^tfit oi (J^ TtuJTH, ri io«f*«9M^« HTOK 0? a.j4ot a* N/xoJrt. -way^n, imfluluHi' wtok'/k, Ik 'rviiija}& aji'n iCj Ma- 
e'l.-M 4 TTc-.f^itis. hthefeveral expoftiions among the Sermons de Tempore, faljl) aitributedto S, Aug. C^iii conccptus eft de Spi. 
ritu S. natus ex Virgine Maria. So Eufebius Gallicanus //omit, de Symbolo. And from thence it hath fo continued, as a>e n:v read 
it. Which was conceived by thehoiy Ghoft, bom of the Virgin Mary. 

For the firft, the Relative in the front of this carries us clearly back urto 
the former Article, and tells us that he which was thus conceived and bora 



was '](fus Chrift, the only Son of God. And being we have already demor- 

ftrated that this only Son is therefore called lb, bicaufe he was begotten by 

the Father from all eternity, and fb of the lame fubftance with him ; it fol- 

loweth that this Article at the firft beginning, or by virtue of its connexion, 

n Huic qum can import no lefs than this mofl certain, but miraculous, truth, that i| He 

dudum de I'a- which was begotten by the Father before all worlds,was now in the fulnels oi 

fobilHT'diJi- t"^e comctved by the Holy Ghoft, and born of the Virgin iMary. Again, being 

cifti, nunc a by the Conception and Birth is to be underftood whatfoever was done to- 

^fii'^'^^fab^l^" ^^'^"^^ ^^^ produftion of the humane nature of our Saviour ; therefore the 

turn" intra'fc- famc Relative confidercd with the words which follow it can fpeak no lefs 

rreta uteri vir- ti^gj-j thelncamation of that Peribn. And thus even in the entry of the Article 

gr'Airf""^"'' ^ve meet with the Incarnation of the Son of God ; that great myftery wrapt 

up in that fhortfentence of S. "John^ The word was mitdeflejb. 

Indeed the Pronoun hath relation not only unto this but to the following 
Articles, which have their neceffary connexion with and foundation in tins 
Third ; for He who was conceived -and born, and fo made man, did in that hu- 
mane nature fuffer, die, and rife again. Now when we fay this was the 
Word, and that Word was God, being wholbever is God cannot ceafe to be 
fb ; it mull; neceHarily follow, that he was made man by joyning the humane 
nature with the Divine. But then we muft take heed left we conceive, be- 
caufethc Divine nature belongeth to the Father, to which the humane is con- 
ioyned, that therefore the Father fhould be incarnate, or conceived and horn. 
For as certainly as the Son was crucified, and the Son alone; b certainly the 
fame Son was incarnate, and that Son alone. Although the humane nature 
was conjoyncd with the Divinity, which is the nature common to the Father 
and the Son ; yet was that Uiiion made only in the perfen of the Son. Which 
*tffe}!mPe»f Doclrine is to be obferved againft the Herefie of the ^PatrifaJJians, which 
'*' ''^'"paffi- .^yas both very ancient and far ditfufed, making the Father to be incarnate, 
Tavl'nimon 'to a^d bccomiug man to be crucified. But this very Creed was * always thought 
the Meririi of to be a fufficient confutation of that fondOpinion, in that the Incarnation is 
M«i'"/'r w "^"^ fubjoyned to the firft, but to the fecond, Article ; we do not fay, / be- 
fignijjesmrmre Heve in God the Father Almighty, which was conceived, but, in his only Son, 
than the Pa(fm g„f. i^rd, which was conceived by the Holy GhoFl. 

of the Father. ' ■' ^ 

But It U jwnded in an errir concerning the Incarnation, it being out of quefiion that he which was ttiade man did fuffer. Epi- 
plianiuso/)/fn.'e/, Uocius not the firjl which taught thif Herepe, rvho lived i^o ye As before him, more or Ufs, and when he was 
queflionedfir it he denied it : Jii to unSivtL Tgy ajiiri i^tixiffiu raulluui -rliii Tixeiav. But certainly this Herefie was an- 
cientcr than Noctus •, frthe Patripafliani are named by S. Cyprian, Epifl. 7;. rfrf/Terrullian hit Maflerchargethitufin Praxias: 
Duo negotia Diaboli Praxtas Roma procurjvit, I'rophctiam cxpulir, & Hxrefim inculic ; Paracletuni fugavit, & Patreni 
criicifixit. Adv. PraK. r. i. And exfrcffingthe ahfurdity of that opinm; Itaque port tcmpus Pater natus & Pater paflus, 
ipfc DeusDorainus Omnipotens Jcfus Chriilus pradicatur. c. 2. AndDe Prufc adv. Hiret. Port hos omnes ctiam Praxcas 
qiiidcm Hiredm introduxit, qiiam Viftorinus corroborate curavit. Hie Dcum Patrem Omnipotcntein Jefum Cliriftum cffc 
ditit, liunc crucifixum panumquecontendit; mortuum prxterca feipfuin fibi federc ad dextram luam, cum proUna & fa- 
crilepa tcmeritatc proponit. c. 5^. After Praxeas Noctus taught the fame. 'EroA/ixMin A«>"y t 'na.-r'kf^. -jriTOKftsKui fays 
Epiphanius : andbeingijucjlwnea fof 't, heanfwered, ti y6 kukov Tt-i-o'itiKa. ; ha. dior M<K"'> ^"'^ ^^f^<"' '^ «* *'^»>' 
taW auTti oljuiMSic?* TerrokQil*. ire Set KOI'']*, he thought the Father and the Son to be the fame Fcrfon, and therefore if the Son, 
the Father to be incarnate. 'TtfTrdtogjt t Xeisir iJiJkp.,i,^ ajirii' 'i!) Tallfa 1^ iih ly a}40y tHvijlc/.. Epipli. Anaccph. 
X/ferf/;f Noctiani/o//o»rf(//;;fSabcllidni. 50 Philaftrius : SabcIIius Difcipulus ejus, qui fimilitudincm fui Docloris itidcni 
ficutus eft, undc & Sabetliani poflca funt appcllati, qui & Patripaffian, & Praxtani a Praxea, & Hcrmogemani ab Hcrmogene, 
qui tuerunt in Afnca, qui & irta fenticntis abjefti funt ab Ecdcfia Catholica. So S. Aug. Sabcllani dicti funt qiiidcm H*rc. 
tici, qui voc^ntur & Vatfipafftam, qui dicunt ipfum Patr«m palluni effe. TraH. 56. ;n Joh. This I confejs it denied by Epiplu- 
Uliiiywht acknonUdged ^3.bc\[iu$ to baie followed Noc(us in manuhings, but noi in the Inctnialion or Pajfionofthe Father. 2^.- 
^?W./tt?c/ eiTj' 5^»/a a!«i'i7<ii((/.«ioi'iT«K,ideft,Ne»7'=<n«<. vcl<troiiT£.', id eft, NoHTht, <m 5. Aug. Novate} Jhtii^iiv]** 
va£^nro ij.'oioy ' Kiyvai yd( mi) Tt-a-BifliFou ^ Totjs^. This S. Auguftine wonders very much at in Lpiphanius : babtlJiani, 
iiiquit, fimilia Noetodogmatizantcs, prater hoc quod dicunt Patrem non ede paiFum ; quomodo dc Sabtllianis intclligi 
potert, cum fic innotucrint diccre Pattern pafliim, ut;;.j//;<i/ii quam Sabclliani fjtpius nuncupcntur? Aug.Hir.^x. 
Indeed the Latin F^^iers generally call the Saheliians Patripaflians ; and mt onlyfo , but Thcodorec doth fy d:fcnbi them ai profef- 
Jmgone Perfm, t* ^ tb -xaKatS., <-'( -ralt^a foMoflilwa-a', o* -^ t5 Kajv7), at iiiy ara,vBfm7r»ireu. I. 2. c: $. After the Sabd- 
UiMjuccccdedtnihcfme hcrcfic /Of Prffcillianift*, ai.ippe.neihby Pipe Leo, whop>eas they tiught but one perfin if the Father, 
Son,andh!ljGbjJ}: Quod blafphcrtiiigcnusdcSabtllii opii.ione fumplcrunt, cujus difcipuli ttiam Patrrpajiani metitODmi- 
cupanrur; quia fi ipfc eft Filius qui & Patcr, cruxFilii patri» eft paflio, & quicguidii, forma Icrvi l-iliui Patri obtdicndo, 
iuftinuit, totum in (c Pater ipie fufccpit. Ep pj.c. i. Thm the Vitn^affna Hert/Je, beginning from? nyva WHermogene*, 



tiraf continued by Noctus, Sabellius and Prifcillianus, and mingled with all their fevurnl Hcfcfics, the fum and fnbflanc.e of which k 
thm we'll f:: dm-n by Viaorinus : Vatripajjiani Deum folum elTc dicunt quern nos Patrem clirimus ; ipfum Iblumcxfiftenccni & 
tiTtftorem omnium, & venilTe non folum inmundum, led & in carnem, & alia omnia qu<c nos Filiumfecifll'dicimus. * It ap- 
peareth plainly that Tcrtullian confuted Praxcas, by reduing him to thcfe tvoyds of the Creed. For when he hadjirj} dicUred Nos ii- 
nicuni quiJem Deum crcdimus {whiJjrvasthe objei'lion of i'tKCJs) fub ii.ic tamen dirpcnfacionf,quam u/.oroixif.t dici'mus. ut 
uniti Dei (it & t-ilius fcrmo ipfius, qui ex ipfo piocelTcric.pcr qvicm oini.ia fafta funt, & finequo faftuni crt nihil Then hefib- 
joyneth, Hunc milTum a Patre in Virgincm, Hl cx ea natum homincm, & Deum, filium hominis, & filium Dei, Sc cognominucum 
JefumChrifhim, 1-Iuncp.illiini, hunc niorcuum,& fepulcum,(ccunduiii Scripturas, & reliifciratuni a Patre, & in coelos reiuni- 
ptum, (cderc ad dexcram P-cris, vcaturum judicarc vivos & mort. os. And that we may be affwed that he ufed thcfe words out 
of the Creed, it follotvcth, Hanc Regulam ab initio Evangelii dccucurriflc, (lye. TbU U yet farther evident m n/Epiphanius, who 
tells US the Eaftern Doclors confuted Noecus in the fame manner, by reducing him to the words of the Creed. "F.vt. ^clff cft-a?oaV 
}^ ax/To/, (^)uft as Tertullian, Nos unicum quidem Deum crcdimus^ «>>,' as o'tJ'a.'i%J c/>K«ia>« Jh1<i(Hv • ii, ha. X?,^v ^iytu^, 
d^K' df oUa.'Ai'ir:'. Xe<j5» ifi)i Six Ta^ivjeLaf^Ta^iy, •i^&a.y'on'Jt. K-J^at d^i'}*y*v,d.Kt?ti\/]ct,eivi\0'oila. fi( riv B<r"«:'oJ',' 
hfJtL if J\^iS T6 ■7rJ]e)<:-, ii/ifji^ov kHvoji l_mv\ai^ vin^U- Andwhen the Argument of Tetr'AlhnagainJi Tsdyc^iandtheGreel^ 
agamjl Uocias drawn jrom the Creed aid not fufncientl) convince the Patripaillans, the Church of Aqnikii, to cxcludethem wholly' 
added thefe two words tj thefirj} Article lnviribiicm,(!/irf Impaflibilcm. Invifibilem, tofliew he was not incarnate ; Inpaffibilem, to 
fliew hervasmt cruajjed. SoKu'fyw.i in the conckjion of hU expofitim upon th fe words. Credo in Deum Patrtm Oninipocentem 
addeth, Hisadditur Invilibikm & Inipufifibilem : and then giies the reafon. Sciendum qucd duo ifti fermones in Ecclcfe 
Roniaucf Symuolo non habcncur. Conltacautcmapud nosaddicosHarertoscausaSabellii, illii:sprof^.fto qus a nofcris Pa- 
tr'ipaffuina appellatur, id eft, qu<E Patreni ipfum vcl tx Virgine natum dirit, & vifibilem taftum, vel paiUim affinnat in car- 
ne. Uc ergo exciuderetur talis impietas de Patre, videntur hac addidifie raajores, & invifibilem Pattern ;itque impaniti'lem 
dixide. Conftat cnim t ilium, non I'atrem, in came & ex carne natum, & ex nativitite carnis t ilium vifibilem & pallibilcni 

Firll then, we believe that he which was made flefh was the Word, tliat he 
which took upon him the nature of man was not the Father, nor the Holy 
Gholl, nor any other Perfon but the only-begotten Son. And when we 
fay that Peribn was conceived znd born, we declare he was made really and 
truly Man, of the fame humane nature which is in all other men who by the 
ordinary way of generation are conceived and born. For the ^ Mediator be- ' i Tim. 2. 5, 
tween God and mm is the mm Chrijt Jefa^ : That fince '' by man came death .^ by b , ^j,^ , ^ , 
man alfo fhould come the rejurrectton of the dead. As fure then as the firit A- 
dam and we who are redeemed are men, fb certainly is the fecond Jdam 
and our Mediator man. He is therefore frequently called the 6W ofm.m, 
and in that natur.: he was always promiied. Firft '^ to Eve, as her feed, and ' Gen. 3. 15. 
conlequcatly her Son. Then to Abraham, ** In thy feed fl) all all the Nations of * Gen. 22. 18. 
the earth be blefjed; and that ^ feed is C^jrifi, and fb the Son of Abraktm. ' 
Next to David, as his /on to fit upon his throne ; and fb he is ^ m.tde of the fed i ^,^, , 
of David according to the flejh, ^ the fan of David, the f on of Abraham, and i,)/;,r ,'," 
confequently olthe fame nature with David and with Abraham. And as he 
was their Son, fb are we his Brethren, as defcending from the fame Father 
Adam; *' and therefore it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren. For '' Hcb.2.\i,i6. 
he ^ laid not hold on the Angels, but on the feed of Abraham, and fb became not 
an Angel, but a man. 

As then man confifteth of two different parts^Body and Soul, fo doth Chrijl : 
HealTumeda Body, at his Conception, oftheblelTcd Virgin. ' Forafmnch a-s '• Heb.2. 14. 
the children are partakers of the fefjj and blood, he alfo himfelf likewife took part ll^arcion, ut 
of the fame. The verity of his body ftands upon thetruth of his || Nativity ; nS'r«,^S! 
and the actions and pamons of his life fhew the nature of his fleih. vit ctiam nati- 

He was firU born with a body wh'xch^TiS prepared for him, of the fame ap- ^'""^'n? ^^t' 

.,,,.«, . -^r I II 1 re Ut nativicatcm 

pearancc witli tliole or other Inrants; he grew upbydegrces,ana wasiorar ncgarer, ncga- 
trom being fudained without accuftomcd nutrition of our bodies, that he was "'^^ &carHcm : 
obferved even by his enemies to come eating and drinking, and when he did vVa-nVVibi tci 
not fb, he fuffcred hunger and thirft. Thole plowers never doubted of the ilimoniu red- 
true nature of his flefh , who plowed upon his back and made long furrows. The ^''■'''^^'j'^ '^ x^- 
Thorns which pricked his facrcd Temples, the Nails which penetrated tiviuiicaroj 
tlirough his Hands and Feet, the Spear which pierced his lacred Side, give ']»'» ",tcnati- 
fufllcient teflimony of the natural tendernefs and frailty of his'flefh. And lelf ^J,l*nccax^"i. 
his faffing forty days together, left his walking on the waters and traverling I'e nativirmt. 
the Seas, lefl: his fudden flandingin the midlfof his Dilcipics when the doors l"^^j;ai^f'\\ 



were fhut, fhould raife an opinion that his body was net true and proper 

ii,te J4-5?. fiefh he confirmed firft his own Difciples, Ftdandfte, that affntthathKctfiifij 

andhonts, as you fee me to have. As therefore we beUeve the coming of C/>r//r, 

lo mufl: we confefs him to have come in the verity of our humane nature, 

even in true and proper flcfli. With this determinate cxprtfTion was it always 

1 Job. 4. 2, 5. necclTary to acknow ledge him : For every jpir it that cc»fe{[eth Jt/us Chrtfi coiut 

in the fle/h, is of God \ and every fptrtt that cof/feffeth not Jefus ChriH umt in 

the fltJJj, IS not (f God, This fpirit appeared early in oppofition to the Apo- 

, g.^^^ ^^^ ^^ ftolical Do6lrine ; and Chrift,\\'\\o is both God and Man, was as loon denied 

^,jS^ *fm- to be Man as God. || ^tmon Magm, the Arch-heretick, firft began, and ma- 

fei/tobtchnji; j^y ^fter followcd him. 

una what he ■' 

fei^neJ of kimfelf, that rras attributed by others unto Chtift. Dixcrat fe in monte Sina Legem Mofi^ in^Pacris pcrfona dcdiHc 
Jud*is, tempore Tibcrii in Uliiperfonapucativeapparuiffe. .y. Aug. So.S'. Cyril repefents him ix. It amfy.i, «tMct Ax.ii- 
«r«, dtXv^y'lna-ty iftLVivJa.. Catech. 6. From tbii AKt)Tt( of his invention amfe the Hercfie of thu ^oKnloj. for Sacurnilus, or 

tth, that Chrift was nn realty what be appeared, mr did truly fHJfer what he feemed to endure. Tliis early Herefte eppeareth by the 
Cfpofition wbiciyiS. Ignatius tnade unto it in his EpijUes. 

'■ And certainly, if the Son of God would vouchfafe to take the frailty of our 
flefli, he would not omit the nobler part, our Soul, without which he could 

*Luie2. 52. not be man. For " Jefus increajed in wifdom andflature ; cne in refpe£l of 
his body, the other of his Soul. Wifdom belongeth not to the flefh, nor 
can the knowledge of God, which is infinite, encreafe ; he then whole know- 
ledge did improve together with his years mufl: have a fubjeft proper for it, 
which was no other than a humane Soul. This was the feat of his finite 
Under ftanding and direfted Will, diftinft from the will of his Father, and 
confequently of his Divine Nature; as appeareth by that known fubmif- 

^t^ 22.42. fion, Not my wilt, but thine, be done. This was the ilibjeft of thole Aft'efti- 
ons and Pailions which fo manifeftly appeared in him ; nor fpake he any 

Mat. 26. 38. Other than a proper Language, when before his fuflfcring he (aid, My foul 
is exceeding forroo'ful, even unto death. This was it which on the Crofs, be- 
fore the departure from the body, he recommended to the Fatlier ; teacli- 

Lii\e 13, 4^. ing us in whole hands the Souls of the departed are ; For rvhen \jeftu had cri- 
ed with A loud voice, he faid, Father into thy hands I commend my fpirit : and 
having faid thus, he gave up the ghofi. And as his death was nothing elfc 
but the reparation of the Soul from his Body ; lb the life of Christ as man 
did confift in the conjunftion and vital union of that Soul with the Body. 
So that he which w^ls perfect Ggd, was alfo perfect man, of a reafonable foul 
and htim.tnt flcfh fubftjling. Which is to be oblerved and aflerted againft 

*T^o^ 'fnera'"'^ the * aucicnt Hereticks, who taught that Chrifi aflumed humane flefli, but 

Sells were mji that the Word or his Divinity was unto that Body in the place of an in- 

remarkable,the forming Soul. 

Arians andthe '^ 

Apollinarians. Arius taught thatChriJ} hadnothing of man but t1:ejlefli, and with that the Word was )oineJ. 'Af^®- t) oafKv. 

oaf HI Aivw j4^»4vffj. Atlian de adv. Clirifti. .So Fclicianusf/jc ArLirijin Vigilius ii'1//i;Mfe T/vn. c. 17. lea cnini amajori- 
busnoftrisftniper eft traditum,quod Chrilli corpus ad viccmAninii communis ipfius KiliiDei habitus animarici necacccl- 
fionc animalis indigcns fiicrit, cui inliabitans fens viti potuit confcrrc quod vixit. Eunomius followed him tn this parti- 
r«/.ir:*Af^5*- 3 lU Et/yo^i©- aaia Jlc twTor 'ipxauv »iM]tit'eU; ^t'tnnltt'j 4"X'f imf>»"'^i<" tW ;y^»«it'. Tlieod./ 5. coBf. 
Ffer. c. 1 1 . ApolTinaris dijlmguijled between the Soul and the Mind, the 4i'X'^ """^ '^-^ *'«< ' "''''' "i^kn^wleJ^ed that the wordaffumed 
the Body and Soul or •\vyvi of man, but mt the Mind or Spirit,or the Kh(, but the Word it felfwas intheplaceofihji. .pollinariftas 
Apollinaris inftituit, qui dc anima Chrifti ab Ecclefia Catholica diirCDrenint.dicentcs, licuc AriaDi,Dcupi Chrilium carncm ti- 
ne fufcepiire. In quarftionctcflimoniis Evangelicis vifti,mcnteni, qua rjcionaliscft anima lioi..inis,non tuiiTc in aniira 
Chrifti, fcdprohaciprum Vtrbumin cafuiirc,dixerunt. Tliis was then the clear differencebetwixt'thc hv'unand Apoliinarian 
Herefie : Apollinarifti quidcmcarni?& anima naturam fine mcnte airumpfilTe Deunicrcdunt,Ariani vcrc carnibcamur.'.n-.odo. 
Facundus /. 9. ^0 that twn things are to be obferved in the ApoU'init'um, their Philifiphy, and their Pivini.y : thetr Philofophjy in 
maliivgmanconfijl of three diftinil parts, the BiJy,tke Soul and the ^jind; the.r Divinity, in n.:'kingthe l.un.ine nature of Chriji t^ 
etnlifi but ofttn, tlie Body md the Soul, andthe third to be by the Word. Which if excellently exprejjed by Nemcfius de Sat. 
Horn, inrefi-ell cfhis Phihjophy : Tni, j^', Sy eii k, U?yi/fiv^, iyi^Uu ij) tW -|v;t^*' 4 ''•^•*-»»' "^ >■»'> ^V.wa, J«c»'T^<- i» 


lejtav rh iv^UTov C.ujsiWM ^ihovlai, adficilQ-, ly ■WxTk, x^ vt. Oj{ liics^/^ni^ ^ 'AiroM/i'atiG*- o t«< AmJi- 
x^'a< 'fi/<,;j^Q- ohty-o-rQ- • Tkrey y) ■rn>.xfj^& Toi' ^ifxihtov rni (itmoi c/b'^Hf , iLj Ta A'/Ta 'T^:aryKiiJifj.^\n y^ to 
«iic«oi' </i'>(>ii. and by "XhcoAoxci in tefpell of his Divinity: •Z-j^Ka^UZaj 3 tok 06oi' :*t)« aSjpc, ^£«« x) -Ivybu atuxvi- 
ip'oTii K T))v KojvitW, d>xi ^ £oKyi»-, nc fvtjKnv, iyvr ^(w'/'tiif. T/»ij oco/u^^'i^oiti. tJi» 3 ►at' «e?A5 t; ?ra£^ Tili' {t/yi'-^ 

Thus the whole perfect and || complete nature of Man was alTumed by the 11^".'^ ^ •"•""£ 
Word, by him who was ^conceived and horn of a woman, ahd io made a Man. ^-rafniVucd 
And being the Divine nature which he had before could never ceafe to be s: induerat,' 
what before it was , nor ever become what before it was not ; therefore he ''"j^i"^'" '"'"'^ 
who was God before by the Divine Nature which he had, was in this Incar- animiqicexw- 
nation made nian by thtit humane nature which he then affumed; and fo r-nn-^.Tw/.^fe 
really and truly was * both God and man. And thus this third Article from ^frHfcww 
the conjui.ftion with the lecond, teacheth us no leis than the two natures credence jam 
really diftinG: in Cimfi incarnate. "ioSbJmo" 

For if both natures were not preferved complete and dillinft in Chrifiy it nes contfrean" 
muft be either by the converfion and tranfubftantiation of one into the other, tur HiiumDci 
or by commixtion and confufion of both into one. But neither of thefe ways r|^^\'^rginJ!!'s^ 
can confift with the Perfbn of oQr Saviour, or the Office of our Mediator. canitmnj:uM 
For if we fhould conceive fuch a mixtion and confufion of fubftances as to '™"'-'"* J^^"? 
make an union of natures, we fhould be {o far from ackno<vlcdging him to piffe. s.Hur. 
be both God and man, that thereby we fhould profefs him to be neither God ^P'^ 2- '"^^"f- 
nor Man, but a Perlbn of a nature as different from both, as all mixt bodies ^''tf J|' Jts- 
are diftind from each element which concurs unto their compofition. Be- <?*« <Lv^d- 
fides, we know there were in Ojrifl the Affeftions proper to the nature of ^f .'^',°'a: 
man, and all thole Infirmities which belong to us, and cannot be conceived 'i^Jv(^^S,ii- 
to belon<i to that nature of which the Divine was but a part. Nor could ?«,0«<t« «5 
our Humanity be fo commixed or conlounded with the Divinity of our "Aieilnif'ad. 
Saviour, but that the Father had been made Man as much as the Son, Gemes. 
becaule the Divine nature is the fame both of the Father and the Son. 
Nor ought wc to have fo [| low an efteem of that infinite and iude- || Abfit ica crd- 
pendent Being, as to think it fb commixed with, or immerfed in, the ^^'^"j^? nuoda!!^ 

creature. genercdtlasnd- 

turas in unani 
arbitretnur redaftas cfle fubftanciam; hujufmodi enim commixcio partis utriufqne corruptio eft. Deus etiim qui capax 
eft, non capabilis, pcnccrans, non penetrabilis, implens, non implebilis, qui ubique fimul totus, & ubiquc diflufus eft p^r 
infufionem pocencia; fuse, niifericordicer naturae mixtus eft liumanSE, non humana narura nacufj;eft mixta Divine. Lej^- 
rim Libel. Emend, 

Again, as the confufion, fb the converfion of natures is impoffible. For, 
firft, we cannot with the leaft (hew of probability conceive the Divine na- 
ture of C/^W// to be tranfubftantiated into the humane nature; as thofe whom . ... 
they call * Flandrian Ambaptijls in the Low-Countries at this day maintain, fj-op^o i,Sil" 
There is a plain repugnancy even in the fuppofition : for the nature of Man Tiieoi,'/.4.c.8. 
muft be made, the nature of God cannot be made, and confequcntly cannot 
become the nature of Man. The immaterial, indivifible and immortal God- 
head cannot be divided into a fpiritual and incorruptible Soul , and a carnal 
and corruptible Body ; of which two Humanity conlilteth. There is no 
other Deity of the Father than of the Son ; and therefore if this was conver- 
ted into that Humanity , then was the Father alio that Man, and grew in 
knowledge, fuffered, and died. We muft not therefore (b far ftand upon ,,^^ ^^^^ 
the propriety of fpecch, when it is written, || The Ward wm madeflillj, as to j'mon,i hiy®- 
deftroy the propriety both of the Word and of xhaflefh. o^f'. /i"!^"- 

flrangc force ufcd by men nf contrary ludgmenis , and for contrary ends, Oi to the word t-j^iro. The Socinimi endeavouriniti [rove 
it cm h.tvc no other fenfe than fimply fuit, the word was fteO'. Tlie Flandrian Aiiabapafts Ihetching it to the hiiheft fenj'e of fa- 
ftum eft, the Ward was made fJefJi. It is confcffi-d that the Verb j(V«i&J in the ufe of the Oreeli Language is (afabte ofeithet inter- 
fretation: ii is alfoacl^owted^cdtbat the mojl ancient Imerprctosyfere diiUed in then renditions. For the 'i^ihi.k rtndr^d it 


j>^1,-; ^i^D^ l^^n^QI Et vcrbum caro fuit ; the ancient Litir.e , Ec vcrLum caro faftum eft. It camot he denied t.t 
In the Scr':;tines it h.iih been ufed indifferently in either fenfe. And tie fame old Vxl^.tr Ti.mjlMion in feme ] tenders it, at 
the Syriui'th here, Matth. lo. i6. ynStisf fgjnixoi «'< «i o»t<c, E(totcergo prudcntts, Ikut ftrpcntc^ j .wd 35. 'Afx=- 
TOK tJ /ua9ii7« Ir* -^tncu ri< </)/?> it a A*!^ ajurii, Sulticir difcipulout fit (kut magilkr ejus, htm mherce it :se\idea 
that the) placed not the force in the finification of the trord jinSr^, but m the circumftance of the matter in rrhich tifai ufed. 
f/on fiever, neither ofthcfe Interfretati'fns pioxe either of thefe Oiinions. For if 11 be aclncrr leaded il.u tie H' )./ >» ,is jUJl, ^i.d 
u hath been already proved, and prehpp^fed by S. John in his precedent difourfe, that the H'ord had a former bein^ antecedent tj hts 
being flefii; it follort-eth, that he xhuh was before the Word , and was nrn ]i(f\> , if after he were ftefJi, mkfl bemadefuch. Atid 
fo the Socinian otfination falls. A^ain, If he which was made Jlefi was the Word, and after he .was made fuch was ftill the 
Word, as certainly he nai, and is ft ill the fame ; then his being m.ide or becoming flePi can n3 w.iy evacuate that natme in uticb ke 
did before fnhfift. ■ Andfothe Flandrian Interpretation is of no validitj. 

Secondly, we mull: not, on the contrary, invent a converfion of the hu- 
mane nature into the Divine, as the Eutychians of ofd did fanfic. For lijre the 
Incarnation could not at fir ft confift in (iich a converfion, it being unima- 
ginable how that which had no being fhould be made by being turned into 
Ibmcthing cllc. Therefore the Humanity of Chrtft could not at the firft be 
made by being the Divinity of the Word, Nor is the Iixarration fb pre- 
poftcroufiy cxprelTed, as if the flefli were made the Word, but that the Word 
was m.idc fl*.!]). And if the Manhood were not in the firft aft of Incarnation 
converted into the Divine nature, as we lee it could not be ; then is there 
I Tns was the no pretcncc of any time or manner in or by which it was \\ afterward fo 
o/Eutvd(c"« tranlubftantiated. Vain therefore was that old conceit of Entyches , who 
apfearhhtyhis tliouglit thc Union to be made fb in the natures, that the Humanity was ab- 
own confefiion jQ^pt and wliolly tumed into the Divinity, (b that by that tranfubftantiation 
chaiccdon:'o- the humane nature had no longer being. And well did the ancient Fathers, 
tJit\oyZuJ)jo who oppofcd this Hcrcfie, make ufeof the Sacramental union between the 

I^^Jk k£ ^'^^^ ^"^ ^^^"^ ^""^ ^'^^ ^°^y ^"^ ^'^°^ °^ Chrift, and thereby (hewed, that 
if^f-T^/ rsi the humane nature of Chrift is no more really converted into the Divinity, 
y»«<v<. ,mJ 5 and fo ccafeth to be the humane nature, than the fubftancc of thc Bread and 
^.j'^^^I/ Wine is really converted into the fubftance of the Body and Blood, and 
yi.Aii.i.Tno thctcby cealcth to be both Bread and Wine. From whence it is by the way 
'ffcfnfejpZ obfervable, that the Church in thofe days underftood no fuch dodrine as 
firj}, but when that of * TranfiibftantJation. 

the VniM was 

once made be acl^owledged but one. But when Zinion was made he expreffed not, nor could his h'Alm'ers agree ; f'^me aitributine 
it to the Cmcepiim, fome to the RefwreUion, others to the Afcenfion. Hawfoever, when they were united, his Opiwn clearly wat 
that thc humane n.iture was fo abjvpt into the Dixine, fa wholly made the fame , that it ceafed wholly to be what it was ,' andft 
there was but one, that is, the Divine , nature remained. This is fufficiently expreffed by S. Leo , who was theflrongefl eppofer »f 
htm, andfpeakeih thus of his Opinion, Serm. 8. de Nativ. Hie autera reccntioris facriicgii profanus affertor unitionem quickm 
in Clirifto duarum conrtfllib cfi naturarum ; fed ipfa unione id dixit effeftum , ut ex duabus una remaneret nullacenus 
alccrius exfiftcnte fubftantia. And Eranifles in the Dialogue of Thcodoret arguing for that Opinion , being urged to declare whe- 
ther inthatVnion one r.tture was made of them both, nr one remaining, the other did not fo , anfweredpLiinty, "EyJ rr!v ■d'trnla. 
M-^et uia^riKittau, ««]aTe9iiFai ■j vwo TojuTtn ^ ccvSpf-iToTiila. * There can be m time in which we may ohfen-e the D«- 
{irwe of the Ancients f} clearly, as when ihcy write profeffedly againii an Hrefic evidently l;nown, and mal^e ufe generally of the 
fame Arguments againjl it. Now what the Herefie of Euc^xhcs was it certainly knom, and the nature of the Sacrament was gene- 
rally made ufe of as an Argument to confute it. Gclafms Bifliop of Rome hath written an excellent Boi^ againfl Euc) che5, De duabus 
naniris in Clinilo, m which he pr^foundeth their Opinion thus ; Eutycliiani dicunt unani clTe raruram, id eft, Diviram ; and 
fola cxfifteme DcTtatc , Humanitas illfc c(Te jam deftitit. That then which he difputes againji is the Tranfubftantiation of the 
humane nature into the Divtne. Vx Axumcnt which he mai^s ufe of againfl it is drawn from the Eucharift : Certc Sacramenu 
quf lumimus corporis & fanguinis Chrifti Divina res eft, propter quod & per eadem Divin.e erticimur combrtts naturar : fc 
tamen elk- non delinit Tubftantia vel natura Fanis S: Vini. Ec certe imago & finiilicudo corporis & Ijnguinis Chrifti n 
aftionc mylkriorum cclcbrantur. Satis ergo nobis cvidcnccr oftciidicur, hoc nobis ipfo Chrifto Domino fentiendum, 
quod m ejus imagine prortccmur, celcbramus, & fnraimus , ut ficuc in hanc, fcilicet, m Divinam, tranfeant, S. Spiritu 
perhciente, fubftantiam, permantnics tamen in i\ut proprittate nature i ficillud ipfum niyflerium principalc, cujusnobB 
tificicntiamvirti;tcmquc vtracitcr rcpraicntant, ex auibns conftat propric permancnti'jus, unumCliriftum, quia integrum 
vcrumquc, perinantrc dcmonftrant. In which words 'tis plain he affirms the union of the Humane nature ofChtill to be tin 
principal myftery, the rep) efentatmn of that myftery to be in the Sacrament of the Eucharift : he concludes from tlience ', that as in 
the reprejentation ikc fubftance if the Bread and Wine remaineth in the propriety of their own n.ttwe, fo the nature of thrift 
in t.:egieatct myftery dithfttll remain. In the margin of this place in thc Bibliotheca ^iirum theie is prinieJ Cautc, as if there 
could bt any danger in obferiing the fenfe of the Fathers, when tbeyfpeal^fo exprefly and confiderately. In the fame manner We 
pnj a DijputMim ieiwe.n an Merettcl^ and a CMholickJn the fecond Dialogue of Theodoret, where Eraniftes, as an Heretick, asks 
Ortliodoxui 4) •"'■■'"-'—-'---"- •' « j '■'•■ - - ' ' - . _ . ...... ..^ ^ 


irh' _ _ 

*nar fi.{]i&K.iU titi ^t*i* ■ As the Symbols of the Eodiracd Biood of ci.rift are one tiling before Confecration, 'uti 



Wh ICH WASCO ncefved. i6^ 

ill their tormcr I'ubllance, fhape, and form. In the f.ime maimer, ^. i^f^ro to aa//'-t tJ ^ -TrfsTt^ci/ e?/©- r;^»* x^ 5t»/>t« i^ 
<s^>f4ftui, ^, ttTa^ecTAa? wTwy, ■? Tb (ml/zttl©" ii(nai» • the body of Chrili hath the fame form, figure and fliape, and, 
indeed, the (anic bodily fubflance. And when ETim{\es Jlill objeils, that the Bread u called the Body, and n;f Bread, Ortlio- 
iloxus an^rpen that he it mijlal^n ; Ov ^ aanA n'ovov, ci>^a, )u iflQ- ^s>t)f oi'o/jt.a.!^ilcu, vrr.'t ojWcf o KileiG- ■TrfQ'm-p^iiin. 
K, ^ji 3 cmfxa. ■SHov o^ojun'^o^ m/jLo.' Kor it is not only called the Body, but alfo Bread of life, and the Body it felf we 
call the Divine Body. Who fees not then f/'rtf Thccdorec believed no more that the Bread is converted into the Body, than that the 
P,idy if converted into the Divinity of Chriji Z Who perceives not that he thought the Bread to be as fuhjlantially and really Bread after 
the Confecration, as the Body of Chriji is really a Body after hit Afcenfion^ The fame Argument if w/erfiy J.Chryfoftonie upenthe 
fame occafion again]} ti;e Apollinarians in hit Epijilezd Cffarium, not yet pubiijhed in Greeks, and by Ephraimus in Photii Bibli- 
othcca againfi the Eutychians. As therefore all the iJLi]it(;ztytirjitn< of the Sacramental elements mal^th them net ceafe to be of the 
fame nature nhich befre they tvete ; fo the humane nature of Chriji, pined to the Divine , lofeth mnhe namrn of Humanity, but 
cminueth with the Divinity as a fubjiance in it felf dijlin'l ; and Jo Chrij} doth jhbjijl mt only ex, but in, duabus naciiris, as the 
Council tf Chalccdon determined againii Eutyches. 

Being then he which is Conceived was the onh Son of God, and that only 
Son begotten of tlie iiibftance of the Father, and fo always fubfifted in tlie 
Divine nature ; being by the fame Conception he was made truly Man, and 
confequently alTumed an humane nature ; being thefe two natures cannot be 
made one either by commixtion or converfion, and yet there can be but one 
Qhrifl fubfifting in them both, becaufe that only Son was he which is con- 
ceived and born ; it followeth, that the Union whicTi was not made in t)ie 
nature, was made in the perfbn of the Word; that is, it was not fb made, 
that out of both natures one only mould refult, but only lb, that to one Per- 
fbn no other fhould be added. 

Nor is this Union only a Icholaftick rpeculation,but a certain and necelTary 
truth, without which we cannot have one Chriji, but two Chrifts, one Me- 
diator, but two Mediators ; without which we cannot join the fecond Arti- 
cle of our Creed with the third, making them equally belong to the fame 
perfon ; without which we cannot interpret the facred Scriptures, or under- 
ftand the Hiftory of our Saviour. For certainly he which was before AbrahaTn 
was in fhe days of Herod born of a woman ; he which preached in the days 
of AW-', began to preach in the reign o^ Tiberius, being at that time about 
thirty years of age ; he was demonftrated the Son of God with power who 
was the feed of David according to the flefh ; he who died on the Crofs rai- 
led him from the dead who died fb, being put to death through the flejh, and 2 Pet. j. isfo' 
quickned by the Spirit ; he Was of the fathers according to the flejh who was God ^cn-?-?' 
over alt blejfedfor ever. Being thefe and the like a£lions and aflfeflions cannot 
come from the fame nature, and yet muft be attributed to the fame Perfbn ; 
as we muft acknowledge a divcrfity of natures united, fo muft we confefs 
the identity of the Perfon in whom they arc conjoined, againft the ancient ]{Jth"m^^f'. 
Herefic of the |] Nejiorians., condemned in the Council of Ephefns. maify contradnf. 

thefe ti'ords of 
the Creed, becaufe it immediately denies thif truth, that the eternal Son of God tvas conceived and born. AndinvaindidNcdotiusfeei^ 
mt only to avoid it in the Nicenc Creed, but to tnal^e ufe of the xfords of the Creed even againji the Vnity of the Perfon oj Chriji. S.^ 
Cyril had firll ob'jcHed the feries, order and confetjucnce of confeffion : 'Efn » a.-)ia. K) /u«>aA« t.umS'{?-, dOrlr •i' o* ©sJ 
n<elff)f xj* funt \\ov ixavo-^un, t a% @i« aif^nSiV* Wfic aAMS/fif, to ?>«< Ti an, n t'-irif, t <A' 5 T<t Tii'1* ri'^'iyiKlv o 
HetTi'f, XciI^aOwi', tm^KtMZaj n x^ kneLviffTtMaj ,'Ka.^&v, ivif^l^vai Tii Te«Ti,i i)/Ltff^, xj aitKii^f iff ifK/nif. Thejirtngth 
of this ob'ie'lion lies in tlm, that Chriji, the only-begotten Son, begotten of the hather before all Worlds, was incarn,i!e. The anftcer of 
Ncftorius, rvas in this manner : lU^£.»i^*<( r Kvetov npd^J'lttaay Xeirci'i r ^'■v <wth t uovo-^uii, a'.i'oT»--r,i> orat 'Ina-Kf, 
Xe/so<i 1^ ^^ovo■^li<^ xj M0<, ireiriffv ^ivl'.^i t« koivo. f ^6o7»)')©- xj oti/Of •^otm?©-, a{ 5«j[X5Aiaf, ov'o/.t.'tjj; r'ort ^ <f 
Mrtcflfwri'ifftai, It) T« taOk*, x} -f tf,VasTj'<r«a»<, iwo/xoAMSr Tn^AyTV- And the jiren'jh, or rather the v>ea{n-'fs, thereof it 
this : that frji the Coiwci I placed the nameof Jcjm, Chriji, anithe only-begiitcn Son, names common to the Divinity and Humanity 
of Chriji ; and then upon tnem built the dollrine of his Incarnation. Whereas it is evident, fuppofing the Onb-begotlen a term 
common to the Humanity and Divinity, yet the Council clearly expounds it of the eternal generation, addwg immediately, hcgcMQn 
of his Father before all Worlds; neither is there anyrpord bcttveen thai expoption ami the Incarnation, but fiich as fpcaii wholly 
"fChrji as God. Thoefore that only-begotten Son, who teas begotten of his bather before all Worlds, defcendcd from He.tven, and 
was incarnate. Tlim S- Cyril inhis fecond Epijile to Neftorius, rt;iiNcftorius in his fecond to htm. Which miji.tke of his feems yet 
morefirance to me, rohen I confider in thejame Epijile of Ncllorius that fundamental truth ajferted, which of it iclf fufficiently, nay 
full), confutes h:s Herefie : F»r he mknowlcdgeth the name of Chriji to be ec'-Tot9<i$ )j TotSiiTijt isiat o* (xovx<!)ko) rt,jeti>iru -ret- 

Y 2 njtai^ 




^lamiTan/a "Z'^ble \'amt \ ' impaji'bl'c'ai God^'Jagibte as Mak. Wmefire "b) that which Neflorius hath confeff^d, andnoiwith- 
ilirJw ' that rf"kh he hith ob,eHed, it H eiidetit out of the Nictne Creed, that the Son of Gcd, begotten of his Father before aU 
mrhii", was incarnate and made Man; and as evident out of thi Apoftles Creed, effeciallj expounded bj the iiicene, that the fume 
cnlybel)Uen Son rrat concetxcd by the Hoi) Ghjj}, and born of the Vtrgm Mary. 


25p tlJC J^Olp (I5l)0ft. 

■ Aving thus difpatched the confideration of the firft Perfon concerned 
ill this Article, and the Aftions contained in it fo far as diftindly from 
the Tci\ they belong to him , we defcend unto the other two concerned in 
the fame ; and firft to him whofe operation did precede in the Conception, 
the Holy Ghoft. Which fccond part lome may think to require a threefold 
confideration; firft, of the Conception, fccondly, of the Perfon, thirdly, 
of the Operation. But for the Perfon or exiftence of tlie Holy Ghoft, that 
is here only mentioned obliquely, and therefore to be referved for another 
Article where it is propounded direftly. And for the Conception it felf, 
that belongcth not fo properly to the Holy Ghoft, of whom the Aft cannot 
be predicated. For though Chrift tvas concaved by the Holy Ghofi, yet the 
Ln\t i.ii. Holy Ghoft did not conceive him, but faid unto the Virgin, Thou jhah con- 
ceive. There remaineth therefore nothing proper and peculiar to this fecond 
part, but that Operation of the Holy Ghoft in Chri/fs Conception, whereby 
the Virgin was enabled to conceive, and by virtue whereof Chrijl is faid to 
be conceived by him. 

Now when we fay the Conception of oijr Saviour was wrought by the 
operation of the Spirit, it will be neceflary to obferve, firft, what is exclu- 
ded by that attribution to the Spirit ; fecondly, what is included in that ope- 
ration of the Spirit. 

For the firft of thefe we may take notice in the Salutation of the Angel, 
when he told the blelTed Virgin fhe fhould conceive and bring forth a Ion, 
Luke 1, 54. fhe fdid. How (hall this be, feeing I know not a. mm ? By which words fhe ex- 
cludcth firft all men, and then her felf: all men, by that aflertion, / know not 
a. man ; her felf, by the queftion, HorvfiMll this be^ jeeing it is fo ? Firft, our 
Melchizedek had no father on earth, in general ; not any man, in particular, 
Maith. 1. 18. ■ not Jofeph. 'Tis true, his mother Mary was efpoufedto'Jofefh : but "'tis as true, 
before they came together, Jbe was found with child of the Holy Ghoft. Wc read 
Luke 2. 27. in S. Luke, that the parents brought up the child Jefits into the Temple : but thefe 
Luke 2. 3?. Parents were not the Father and the Mother, but as it toUoweth, Jofeph and 
his Mother marvelled at thofe things which were fpoken of him. 'Tis true, Philip 
John 1.4';. calleth him Jifii^s of Nazareth the [on of Jofeph ; and, which is more, his Mother 
i«^e2. 48. faid unto him, Behold, thy Father and I have fought thee forr owing : but this 
^kt 3- 23. niull: be only the reputed Father of Chrift , he being only , as was fuppofed, 
the (on ofjofph, which was the f on of Eli. Whence they muft needs appear 
without all excufe who therefore affirm our Saviour to have been the proper 
fbn oi 'Jofeph, becaufe the Genealogy belongs to him ; whereas in that very 
place where the Genealogy begins, Jofeph is called the fuppofed Father. 
How can it then therefore be neceffary Chrift fhould be the true Ion of Jo- 
feph, that he may be known to be the fbn of David, when in the fame place 
*Matth. 1. 1(5. ^vhcre it is proved that Jofeph came from David, it is denied tbditC hrift came 
Indeed in our from Jofeph ? And that not only in S. Luke, where Jofeph begins, but alfo in 
^{'£'!Z re- ^' ^"^^^'fhew, where he ends the Genealogy. » Jacob begat Jofeph the hiuband 

late to bith, as^ well as one, and to Jofeph at vpeU at Mary j bia in tht Original it evidently belongs to Mary : t J» 'lunf t arJ'e^ 


By the Holy Ghost. 165 

of Mary, of whom was horn "Refits, who u called Christ. Howfbever then the 
Genealogies are defcribed, whether one belong to Jofeph^ the other to Mary, 
or both to Jo/ep/}, it is from other parts of the Scriptures infallibly certain, 
not only that Chrifl dcicended lineally from David according to the flefli, 
but alfo that the fame Chrijl was begotten of the Virgin Mary, and not by 

Secondly, astheblefled Vigin excluded all mankind, and particularly 7"- 
feph, to whom fhc was then efpoufed, by her aflertion ; fo did fhe exclude 
her lelf by the manner of the queftion, (hewing that of her felf fhe could not 
caufe any fuch Conception. Although fhc may be thought the root ofJeJ]e, 
yet could (lie not germinate of her felf; though Eve were the Mother of all 
living, yet generation was founded on the Divine benediftion which wasgi- 
ven to both together : For God bleffed them, and faid unto thtm. Be fruitful. Gen. i. aS. 
and multiplie, and replemjh the earth. Though Chrijl was promifed as tlie/eei 
of the Woman ; ye we muft not imagine that it was in the power of Woman to 
conceive him. When the Virgin thinks itimpoffible flie fliould conceive bc- 
caufe fhe knew not a man, at the fame time fhe confefTeth itotherwife as im- 
poffible, and the Angel acknowledgeth as much in the fatisfaction of his an- 
iwer. For with God nothing jhall be impojfii'le. God then it was who imme- iJ!<Lf '• S'- 
diately and miraculoufly enabled the blefTed Virgin to conceive our Saviour ; 
and while Mary, Jofeph, and all men are denied, no perfbn which is that God 
can be excluded from that operation. 

But what is included in the conception by the Holy Ghoft,or how hisOpe- 
ration is to be diftinguifhed from the Conception of the Virgin,isnot fbeahly 
determined. The words by which it is expreffed in Scripture are very gene- 
ral : Firft, as they are delivered by way of promile, prediftion, or fatisfaftion 
to Mary ; The Holy Ghoft jhall come upon thee, and the power of the Highejf Jhall Luke i. jj, 
oveyfhadow thee : Secondly,as they 1 uppofe the Conception already pall ; JVhen 
his Mother Mary was efpoufed to ''jofeph, before they came together, fhe was found 
with child of the Holy GhoU ; and give fttisfaftion unto jofeph. Fear f:/ot to 
tah to thee Mary thy Wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Gho/f. 
Now being the expreflions in the Scriptures are fb general, that from thence 
the operation of the Spiritcannot precifely bediftinguifhedfrom tlic concur- 
rence of the Virgin; much lefs fhall we be able exaftly to conclude ic by that 
late diftinclion made in this Article, conceived by the Holy Ghoft, born of the 
Virgin; becaufe it is certain that the lame Virgin alfo conceived him accord- 
ding to the Prophecy, Thou fbalt conceive and bear a Son : and therefore, not- 
witiirtandingthatdiftinaion, the difficulty ftill remains, how he was concci- >t jj, ^^^^^^^^^ 
ved by the Spirit, how by the Virgin. Neither will any diflPercnce of * Pre- de spiritu s. 
politions be fufficient rightly todiftinguifhthefe operations. Wherefore tliere naws ex Mnria 
is no other way to bound or determine thcAftion of the Holy Gholl, but by ,Zlmf^dt 
that concurrence of the Virgin which muft be acknowledged with it. For if inm-tfadiflin- 
(be were truly the Mother of Chrift, (as certainly fhe was, and we Ihall here- ^c wexTI/- 
after prove) then is there no reafon to deny to her in refpecl of him what- ter M n'mer, 
foever is given to other Mothers in relation to the fruit of their womb ; and fpctkingtorhofe 

■* o words oj the A- 

polile. Qiioniam ex ipfo, 8: per ipfum, & in ipfo, funt omnia. Ex ipfo non hoc fignificat quod de ipfo. Quod cnira dc ipfo e(l 
poteft dici ex iplb, non aiitcm omne quod ex ipfo eft rcftcdicitur dcipfo. Ex ipfo cnim ca-Imn & terra, quia ipfc tccic 
ea -, non auccm de ipfo, quia non dc fubftantia fua. Sicut aliquis homo fi gignat filium, & faciac domuni, ex ipfo filiiis, ex 
ipfo domus ; fed filius de ipfo, ficut domus de terra & ligno. Dc Boni adv. Mankh. c. 27. This dijhnnion, kaving no 
jomidatminthe LatmTongue, if ill made ufi of for the dlui}ratitn of thU Article, becaufe in the Orcek.Langiiaicof!he Teftament 
ihcrcH nofuchdivcrfitiiofPrepoOtiom: foriXSwercidofWdry J^ t\< i^^vn^n '1»(tu(, fo alfi of the Holy Ghoj} , <&('iSn In 
jarei Vva™ c* ■zvAJi/.-jltIQ- iyix, and re e* tjJTn'^vm'ih' Ix, TvdJijLciT'of SJti'jtji'a. It is therefore f.vd as well C* TKi/tt*- 
T©- , rff iv, M«ei«<. Again, the Vulgar obferreth no fuch difference, as rendring for the one, de qua naciis e\\ Jdiis, and for the other, 
in urcro habcns dc Spiritu S. Correfpondentlyin theGreek^Creeds, (\j)>.r\^i'ivTci. Ia ntvJiJf/.it,T'- , -jllvciiflivTa. in M*.«ia{, or, as 
in the Niccnc, cr. rrii-uftT©- ^ Mctciaj. And the Latin not onl) dc Spiritu S. ex Maria Virginc, b.a pmetimes de Sp S,' it 



Maria Virgine, andde Maria Virgine. Chry fol. and S. Aug. often de Tnnittitc. Wherefore in vain have tne Schools firj} accepteJof 
S. Aucuaine'i diftinllhn, and then affiled it to Chril}'i conception ; /icf? tailing the Vrepofitm Ac to fiinify no lejs than a procejfion 
from ihefMance of the caufe, and then ncln-'wkdie Chrijl fi be/gotten of the Hoi) Ghofl, becauje the eternal Son w/jo was Jo begoiten 
teas of the fame fuhjlance niihthe Holy Ghofl. 7*(« Thoirws Aquinas hm delivered the fubtilty,'i\\m. p. ?. q.l2. a. 2. In Spiritu 
S. duplex liabicudoconfiderjtur rcfpcftuCliridi. Nam ad iplum filium Dti,qui diciriir ede conceptus.liabet habitudinem con- 
fubnantialiciris ad corpus autcm ejus hahec habitudinem cauHc cftkientis. Hare autem pripofitio De utramquc habitiidimm 
dcngnac, Cicik . iim dicimus liomineni aiiauem efp- de fuo patrc. Et iJco convenicntcr dicerc poflumus Chrillum clle con- 
ceptum dc Spiritu S. hoc modo, quod efticicntia Sp. S. referatur ad corpus alTumptum,confubnantialiras vero ad perfonam 
affumcntcm. Builhis diftwlltonof Confubjlantiality and effeiiive Caujalm can make nothing for the propriety of the Phrafe ; for 
the Prepofition De figniperh the material caufe as well as the efficient^ it mufi do fo in refpell of that n'hicb if the effect, if it re- 
quire that the thing which it made be made of the fubjlance of de quo eft : then muft Chrijl , according unto that n hich h 
made, be madeofthejubftance of the Hol}Ghof\ \ or, to fpealiinthe words of the Scripture, Quod in ca natum eft, de Spiritu 
Santto eft. h here either that which was conceived in the Virgin mujl be acl^nowledged of the fubjlance of the Holy Ohojl, or etfe 
the Prepofition Dc mufi mt be tal(cn in S. Auga(\\nc'sfenfe. Howfoever, being there if but one Prepofition, Ik, common ti both in 
the Original Greeks ; being the Vulgar Tranflation ufeih Dc indifferently for either ; being where they have dHUnguiflied De and Ex, 
they have attributed Ey., which doth not Jignify Confubftantiality, to the Virgin, of whom they confefs he did ajjume the fubftance of 
hH Body, and Dc, which fignifeth (as they fay) Confubftantiality, to the Holy Ghoft, ofwhofe fubjlance he received nothing: a 
foUoweth, that the difference in the Prej'ofitions can no way declare the different concurrence of the Spirit and the Virgin in ChrijVc 

confcquently, no more is left to be attributed to the Spirit, than what isne- 
celTary to caufe the Virgin to perform the aftions of a Mother., When the 
Scripture fpeaketh of Regeneration, or the lecond birth, it denicth all which 
John 1. 13. belongeth to natural procreation, delcribing the fons of God as begotten not 
of bloods, nor of the willof theflejh^ nor of the will of man, but of God: And in 
the Incarnation of our Saviour, we remove all will or luft of the flefh, we 
deny all will of man concurring ; but as xhtbloodsin the Language of the /-/t- 
hrtws did fignific that fiibftance of which the flefh was formed in the womb, 
fb we acknowledge in the generation ofjefus Chrijl, that he was made of 
the fubftance of his Mother. 

But as he was fo made of the fubftance of the Virgin, fo was he not made 

of the fubftance of the Holy Ghoft, whofeeffence cannot at all be made. And 

bccaule the Holy Ghoft did not beget him by any communication of his ef^ 

fence, therefore he is not the Father of him, though he were conceived by 

\.4s chryfolc- ^^^- ^^^ ^^^^ ^"V ^'"^e I have faid, Chrift was begotten by the Holy Ghoft 

gus serm. 57. of tlic Virgin Mary, if the Ancients fpeak as if he || generated the Son, it is 

ner^*"" viret "°' ^ *° ^^ uuderftood, as if the Spirit did perform any proper aft of gene- 

P3rturit,totum ration, fuch as is the foundation of Paternity. 

divinum gcri- Again, as the Holy Ghoft did not frame the humane nature of Chrift oue 
nianum.EtSf". of Iiis own fubftancc ; fo muft we not believe that he formed any part of his 
62. Srupcnti fleOi of any other fubftance than ot the Virgin. For certainly he was of the 
peTi'quti'cft^ Fathers according tothcflefti, and was as to that truly and totally the Son of 
quod Mpiritus David 3.1x6 of Jbraham. The 6oc/»/^»/, who will acknowledge no Other way 
conrNt^v° ^^'^'"'^ Chrift's Conception by which he could be the Only begotten Son of 
goparic' " God, havc been forced toinventaftrangeconjun£lion in the nature of C)&m7: 
*Dtusipfcmct one part received from the Virgin, andfb confcquently from D^w^and from 
Mari'ilddidTc ^^''^^^^'"y from wliom that Virgin did defcend ; another * fiamed by the Spi- 
aiiani matcri- tit, and coujoyncd with it: by the one part of which Humanity he was the 
cki'ridc ''chrf Sonof man,as by the other part he was the Son of God. 

ftus conccptus & narus eft. Snialcius, De Vero i(y Naturali Dei Filio, c. 2. Verum manet gcnerationem & hanc dici poffc, 
quittnus in Dcuni ea cadere potcft, fi ad fjnguincni Marii addita fit ex parte Dei materia, ex qua .iim fanguinc Marix 
jimAj nacus fit Chriftus. lb. c. j. What this was thm added to the fubjlance nf the Virgin, he eljewhere explains : Nos Dei vir- 
cutcmin Virginisuterumaliquamfubftantiamcreatain vcl immifilleaut ibi crealfe alfirmamus, ex qua, junfto eo quod ex 
ipfuis Virginis fubftantia acttfllt, vcrus homo ^eneratus tuit. Thit he doth not only without any authority affirm, but ground upon it 
the ionfliip oj chrij}. Forf it follows ; Alias cnim homo illc Dt i !• ilius a conceptione & nativitate pr Tic non tuiilet. And 
tigjin; Ncccflltas magna tuit ut Chriftus ab initio vir.rfui diet Deo Kilius, qualis hiturusnon tuifTct, nili Dei virrute aliquid 
creatum f uiHei quod ad conftituendumChrilii corpus una cum Maria? fanguinc concurrit. Vm wDileth'y denytlx eternalge- 
neration of the Son, they ellablijh a temporal in fuch manner as if not cvihnant with that Word which they pretend wholly to fol- 
low, and haie made a body of chrill pji th defcendingfrom the Father, partly mt : and whereas as man he if lilf to us in all things, 
Jm only excepted ; the) hnx e invented a body, partly like ours, partly not : andfo in no part totally like. Indeed jh me ofti:e Ancients 
didfpeakfo as to tnake the Hly Ghojl the (cmcn Dei : as TcrtuUian ; Ergo jam Dei filius ex Pacris Dei (emine, i. c. Spiritu, uc 
cllcr hominis filius, care ci Tola crat ex hominis carne fumenda fine viri femine. Vacabat cnim viri femen apud habentcm 
Dti fcmtn. De carne Chrijli, c. 18. ^i J'.Hilary calls it Scmcntivair. incumis Spititus cfficaciam, /. a. de Tnn. But in this 


By the Holy Ghost. 167 

theyonly unJeifiond the 0[>criitm of the spirit, loco (emms. Andrvkofoever ffal^eofanyftofcrkmcn, they abbotred; as apj'etirs by 
the 191. Sermon de Tempore : Ncc, uc quidam fceleratidlmi opinancur, Spiricum S. dicimus pro femine fuiflc, led pocencia 
& virtute Creatoris operatum. Il;n-irv not whether be the' gre.tteft folly 5 to mcike the Holy Ghoftthe Father,ai thefemen have dona, 
hy creating part ofhii bod) by way offeminal conjunilion ■■, or to make the fame Spirit Mother of Chnji, as the Nazara;aiis did. In 
HvangelioHebraEorum quod Icftitant Nazani Salvator inducitur loquens, Modo me arripiiit Mater mea, Spiritm HarJlii!, 
There it only this difference, that one is founded upon no authority ofScripme, the other upon the authority of a pretended but no Scrip- 
ture : the one mal(eththe Holy OhoH a partial, the other a total, mother. 

The belief of this is neceflary to prevent all fear or fufpicion of fpot in 
• this Lamb, of Sin in this Jefifs. Whatfbever our original corruption is, 
howfbever difpleafing unto God , we may be from hence alFured there 
was none in him, in wliom alone God hath declared himfelf to be well 
pleaftd. J^^/jo can bring a clean thing out of an unclean ? faith Job ; a clean 
and undefiled Redeemer out of an unclean and defiled nature ? He 
whofe name is Holinefs, whole operation is to fanflifie, the Holy Ghod. 
Our 'Jefm was like unto us in all things, as born of a Woman ; fin only 
excepted, as conceived hy the Holy Ghoft. This original and total fan£lifica- 
tion of the humane nature was firft neceffary, to fit it for the perfbnal union 
with the Word,- who, out of his infinice love, humbled himfelf to become 
flcfh, and at the fame time, out of his infinite purity, could not defile him- 
felf by becoming finful flefh. Secondly, the fame fanftification was as ne- 
ceffary in refpeft of the end for which he was made man, the redemption 
of mankind : that as the 1| firft Adam was the fountain of our impurity, lb || iiiud unuro. 
the fecond Adam fhould alfobethe pure fountain of our righteoufnefs. ^ God peccatum, 
fending bis own fon in the likenefs of ftnful fiejh, condemned fin in the jlefjj \ num inTocolc 
which he could not have condemned, had he been fent in finful flefh. '" The habitu tantaiti- 
F.ither made him to be fin for «^, who knew no fm^ that we might be made the righ- ^^^^^^^ ,^\n 
teoufnefs of God in him ; which we could not have been made in him, but unohomineo- 
tliat he " did noftn^ and knew no fin. For whofbever is finful wanteth a Re- "8i"aiirer, ac- 
deemer; and he could have redeemed none who flood in need of his own ^e^i'In"^adica' 
redemption. We are redeemed ^ with the preciom blood of Chrifl : therefore lice^totum ge- 
precious, becaufe of a Lamb without blemi/h and without fpot. Our atone- damnamur""' 
ment can be made by no other High-priefl than by him who is '' holyjiarm- non foivicur ac 
Itfs, undefiled^ and fepxr ate from finners. We cannot ^ know that he was manife- un"'^"'^",'''P" 
fiedtot/ike away our fins, except we alfb know that i» htm is no fin. Where- lurcm bci & 
fore, being it is fb neceflary to believe the original holinel^ of our humane hominum, ho- 
nature ia the Perfon of our Saviour ; it is as necelTary to acknowledge that fium"efiim,qd 
way by whidi we may be fully affured of that fan£tity, his conception by foius pocuicica 
the Holy Ghoft. -f ; J X 

reiiafci. S. Augnft. Encbirid. cap, 48. =■ Rm. 8. 3. *■ 2 Cm. 5. 21. ' i Pet. 2. 22. * i Pet. 1. 19. • Heb 7. 25. ' > Joh. ?. 5. 
inquononcft pcccatum.ipfevenitairferrepeccacuin. Namficffccin ilLo peccatum, aufcrendura elkc illi, nonipfc aulcr 
ret. S. Augufi. 

Again, it hath been * obferved, that by this manner of Chrift's conception *^',^;^^"«|^'^j 
is declared the freedom of the Grace of God. For as the Holy Ghoft is God, j^ spir'iui^ 
fb is he alfo called the Gift of God : and therefore the humane nature in its crt iccundum 
firft original, || without any precedent merit, was formed by the Spirit, and ''IJ^^'" ^hX^ 
in its formation fan£l:ificd,and in its fanftification united to the Word ; fb that quid aiiiid 
theGrace was coexiftent, and in a manner connatural with it. The Myftery ''"^j^.^^J,'',^"; 
of the Incarnation is frequently attributed in the Scriptures to the love, mer- tur'£nr/;.c.?7. 
cy and goodnefs of God. ^ Through the tender mercy of our God the dxy-fpring \\ Modus ilk- 
from on high hath vifited m : In this ^ the kindnefs and love of God our Saviour ^""iib'dc/p. 

S. non llcut filius, & de Maria Virgine ficuc filius, infinuat nobis gratiam Dei.qua homo, nullis prxcedentibus im ritb, in ip(o 
esordio naturx fuse quo eflc coepit, verbo Dei copularctur incantam Pcrfomcunitatem, ut idem ipic clTet ftiius Dciquihliiis 
lioniinis, & filius hominis qui filius Dei : ac fie in liumanx' nature alTumptione fiersc quadammcdo ipfa grat a naturalis, qu* 
nullum pcccatum potTct admittere. Qiia; gratia proptcrea per Spiritum S. fucrat fignihranda, quia ipfc proprie fic ell Ucus, 
ut ctiain dicatur Dei Donum. Id. c. 40. ' Lul^ i. 78. ^ Tit. 5,4. 


i68 ARTICLE Hi. 

toivard man appeared. And though thefe and fuch otl;cr Scriptures fpeak pro- 
perly f'l the love and mercy of God to man alone, offered unto him in the 
Incarnation of our Saviour, and ib dircftly exclude the merits of other men 
only ; yet becaufe they fpeak lb generally with reference to God's mercy, 
they may well bethought to exclude all univerfally. Efpecially confidering 
!" Cum ad na- jj^^ inipoflTibiiity of * merit in Chr'tJPs Humanity, in refpeO: of his Concepti- 
pcrtincatnatu- OH ; becaufe all defert nccelTarily precedeth its reward, and Cbrijl was not 
ra huniana, ad ^an before he was conceived, nor can that merit which is not. 

perfonam ta- 

menunigcnitiFiliiDeipcr grariam ptrtinethumana natura; & tantain gratiam, ut nulla fit major, nulla prorfus a?qualis. 
Ncque enim iilam fufccptionem hominis ulla merica pra^ccflcruDt, fed ab ilia fufcepcionc raerita ejus cun(fb coepcrunt. 
S. Ai'g. Trail. 82. in Joan. 

Thirdly, whereas we are commanded to be holy, and that even as he is 
holy ; by this we learn from what foundation this holinefs muft flow. We 
bring no fuch purity into the world, nor are we fan£tified in the wornb : but 
as he was fan£lified at his Conception, fo are we at our Regeneration. He 

joim u 13. was conceived not by man, but by the Holy Ghoft; and we are »o( of bloody 
nor of the will of the flejb, nor of the will of man, but of God. The fame over- 
fhadowing power which formed his humane nature, reformeth ours : and 

abin^tf^'fidci ^^^ H ^^^^ Spirit afliireth us a remiflioh of our fins, which caufed in him an 

fuiE homo qui- exemption from all fin. He which was born for us upon his IncarnatioQ,is 

cunqjchriftij- jjom * within US upon our Regeneration. 

nus, qua gratia ' '-' 

homo ille ab initio fuo faftus eft Chriftus. Dc ipfo Spiricu & hie renatus, de quo eft ille natus. Eodem Spiritu fie in nobis 
feniiflio pcccatorura,quo Spirini laftiim eft ut nullum iiaberet ille peccatum. S. Aug. de Fr£dejl. S/inil. c. 1 5. * Nolite dclpt- 
rare j quod feme! nacum eft ex Maria, quotidie fe in nobis nafcitur. Hkron. Comm. in Pfal. 84. 17. 

All which confidered, we may how render a clear explication of this part 
of the Article^ whereby every perlbn may underfland what he is to profels, 
and exprefs what is the Objettof his Faith, when he faith, I beheve in Jefiu 
Chrifi, nhich was conceived by the Holy Qhoft. For hereby he ought to intend 
thus much ; I afl'ent unto this as a moft neceffary and infallible truth, that the 
only-begotten Son of God, begotten by the Father before all worlds, very 
God of very God, was conceived and born, and fb made man, taking to 
himfelf the humane nature, confifting of a Soul and Body, and conjoyning it 
with the Divine in the unity of his perfon. I am fully aftured that the Word 
was in this manner made flefh, that he was really and truly conceived in 
the womb of a Woman, but not after the manner of men ; not by carnal 
copulation, not by the common way of humane propagation, but by the 
fingular,powerful, invifible^ immediate operation of the Holy Ghofl:, where- 
by a Virgin was beyond the Law of nature enabled to conceive, and that 
which was conceived in her was originally and compleatly fandified. And 
in this latitude I profefs to believe in Jefm Chrifi. which rvas conceived by the 
Holy Ghoft, 


Born of the Virgin Mary. 


26o?n of t!)c MitQin i^arp* 

TH E third Perfon confiderable in this third Article is reprelented un« 
der a threefold defcripcion, of her Nxme, Condition and Action : The 
firft telleth us who it was, it was Mayj ; the fecond informeth us what fhc 
was, a Virgin; the third teacheth us what flie did, fhe conceived and bare 
our Saviour, and brought forth the Son of God : which was Bom of tht Vir- 
gin Miry. 

The Evangdifi, relating the Annunciation, taketh particular notice of this 
Name ; for Ihewing how an Angel was lent unto a Vi.gin e/poa/td to a ma», ui^; i.i-,' 
he firrt obfcrveth that his name was Jofeph ; and then that the Virgins name 
w.ti Mary : Not for any peculiar Excellency in the Name it felf, or any par- 
ticular Application to the /'7r^/>arifing from the Origination of it, !| asfome n rD'fomihave 
have conceived ; but only to denote that finguiar Perfon, which was then -'b'^ebt the di- 
fo well known to all men, being efpoufed unto Jofeph, as appeareth by the l^^n^I^Td'ns- 
queftionofhis admiring Countrymen, * Is not this the Carpfnttr*s Son? is trd in her it^mt. 
not hit Mother called Mary ? Otherwiie the Name was common even at that ^' Gr^g- Nyili 
time to many ; to the '' Sifter oi Lazarus, to the ' Mother of James and 'Jofes, murfouttr).'^ 
to the ■* Wife o(Cleophas, to the ' Mother oi'John whofe Surname was Marl; >^°^ in Natal. 
to her which was ^ of Magdal in Galilee, to s her who beftowed much la- ^^J^w^^"' 
hour on S. Paul : Nor is there * any original diftinftion between the Name ri *w/ior, 
of thefe and of the Mother of our Lord. For as the name oi'Jefm was the '^'}ifp ^ , 
lame with Jofuah, {'o this of Mary was the lame with * Miriam. The firft of 7v^,i(£v ^^' 
which Name recorded was the Daughter oi Jmram, the Sifter ofMofes and •f>»l«(i-ruyv- 
Aaron, a Prophetefs ; to whom the bringing of Ijrael out of &"^ypt is attribu- ^'J^ J)l^'i^fy. 
ted as well as to her BvethvenJ' For I hought thee up out of the land of /Egypt y{z\i\\ Sf<» tSI? x*'- 
the Lord, arid redeemed thee out ofthehoufeofferz'ants; and 1 fent bt fore thee ^V^" ^"' 
Mofes, ^fXaron and Miriam. As Die was exalted to be one of them wlio cui'diliheo- 
brought the people of God out of the A-gyptian bondage; fo was this il/jry risimtion of 
exalted to become the Mother of that Saviour, who through the red Sea of ^/Aniia, ';/// 
his Blood hath wrought a plenteous Redemption for us, of which that was Moti}^r,r~\ir\. 
but a Type: and even with the confeffion of the lowhnefs of an Handmaid "^^'fj^' '^^^ff 
/Tie leems to bear that II Exaltation in her Name. Dominion, ;» 

be antair.ed i I 
her "Sxmi. 'H M^te/i if utowdt'sVeu xuei*, «)Ast >y sAwiy. Kvuov )55 ?t«»5 tW tx-vii'ct n -mtrif nlff/xv Xcis-oc. Author How^ 
de Liui. B. lH-i^i't,l!'h nomine F.r>ii)hiiiii. Tiitlij Ttiytfows A yiiH (nTo yi m 'At'c* Ifuxt/J/cij/cu) rlul tLvexAV tSto jof un- 
fxaivi i ^icceiof To ovQfjLA- l)imcilc. Ortbnd. Fid- l.^.c.x 5, S. Num. Hebraicis : Sciendum quod Mirii fermone Syro 
Doinina nuncupatur. 6'o Chrvfologus ; Dignitas Virgtnis annunciatur ex nomine : Nam Maria Hehrxol'ccmonc, Livne Do- 
»i//ij niincuparur. Vocjt ergo Angelus Dominam, ut Dominatoris genitricem trcpidatio deferac fervitutis, quam nafci & 
vocari Doininam ipfa (ui gcraiinis fecit & impc-rravic autoritas. Snm.i^^. Sernnonc Syro Maria Duniina nuncupatur, & 
pulclirc, quia Oominum gcnuir. Ifiior. Hiipal.Qrig, I. 7. f . 10. The fame Iftdote with others gives another Etynohgy : Ma-iia. 
illuminatrix, five fttlla nuris ; gtnuit eniin lumen mundi. /Inri Bernard. HowiV. 2. /;<pfr MilTus ert, Loquemiir pauca & fu- 
pcr line nomine, qund iiitcrprctatnm maris fklla dicitur, & marri Virgin! valde convenienter aptarur. Ipfa njmque aptif- 
fimc (idcii comparjtur, quia (icut fine fui corruptione fidus fuum emirtit radium, iic ablquc (ui lafionc Virgo parruritfilium. 
So jar not amip. But ti'litn from a bad FJymology he maizes rvorje Divinity, catling h<r the Star of Jacob, and attributing unto 
her the Light oj our Minds, the Lift oj our Graces, and Extirpation oj our l-'ices, (thtWorl^o] the Spirit oi C'i,\i^ \ ) when in the 
midii oj a!!o:ir T'lKptations, Horrours ojConfcnnci, and diptbs oj Difpair, he advifeth m iminediattly to a Rclpicc Srellam, Mariam 
cogica, Mariam invoca ; his I/iierprttaiion can -n arrant no juch Devotion. This Etymology alfo delcindtth from S. Hicrom, vhit ju 
/!« Inttrpritation 0] tl t Names in Enodus, as from I'liilo, Mafia illuminatrix mca, vcl, illuminans to«, autfmyrna maris, vel lUl- 
la maris. And again, on the Names in S. hUithcw, Mariam plerique exirtimant intcrprctati.illuminant me irti,vcl illuminatrix, 
«cl fm^rna rraris ; fed mihi nequaquam videtur. Melius auicm tit utdicamus fjnare cam llciUm marif, five amarum mars. 
'Vft^UvdCtTou iraKiii ij Matfite QfJ-^^v^ daf^J.ajrtf. Homil. de Uudibus H. Manx. Diflx lunt & ante Maria; multa;: nam & Ma- 
ria foror Aaron ditta fuit, fed ilia Mjria amatitudo maris vocahatur. S- Ambrof. Inltit. I'irg. c. 5. Indied that al) .imaritudinc, 
■tt'iiitnd the adjinion o/inare, ts the Etymology obiervid by the Jews ; ai appears by the /lulhor oj the Life of Molet, -aho relating 
h<vr ^mimto(ll^]o^■\\^.'*(:A to \tije, ani o\ her bigat a Daughter, iddith,'i<'^TyT\ ry^l O ^"IQ .""IQW J^lpHl 
— "STJ^i ^n vn -1-107 ZyVl-l ^^y^Ur^ nun, ihtwascalluiW\t\im,becault at that time the J>^nm,-tv'.>o 
rven the (Jjftpri'i^rif Cham, ma-ir tht lives of the Sons of Ifratl bitter. And in the lilie mmntr Seder OIjiji, ! Q'i/ I^"lp3 
"iroa uDU ^y ^O. ■ mtth. 13. 55. " J^i'm 1 m. ' Matth. i-j. j5. * John 19. 1$. • Ai'ls i2. I J. [ UfB. a- 



« Rem. \6.i. * Toisii to bi obfirvid, by nafon of fomi liirnd mm, who nn^i th; mme oj tht Virgin diffirent f^om thit of o- 
tiiirs CjS-d Wiry in t'ni C}fpd, upon two irounds, in nf^'.cl of thi Acctnt, and tht terminatiou ; thi one bting UctaiiJi^ thi othir 
Maeli -thi firfl rrith m H-hnw laminitioi, irLii:linzt:-:, and thi Accent in uitima ; ti>t Uttir vfith a Gritkttyjr.injtior., diclini- 
b'-\ an i lot Actnt in pcDultima. Ai lyofj.* -r'k w«j9<V8MaewV, La^.i. 2^. in the yiminitivej ^-7s>ea4*^ C<^ M«e;i«V, 
JLit 2.<. in :'„' Ditivi\yih ipoQn^^x Tragf X*C«;' V[cLa«i\i,t>1it'.\.20. in the Accujativi; and ixn foC«, M2e2aV,iJ<^.i-?o. intbt 
Vocative ci'i. AH which biiong to thi Virgin, whois mvir nimid Mtfti** as none oj thtrtSl by any oj toi Evingdifls uivit aOtd 

h\taiti, nm -royU lyWiac^, «« n^i<5, '<om.i6. 6. BeOdt, theSynackTranfliiion makes ""j"^^""" ^^,!~l^'i?i'"'jLt^"li 
anith'Vrgin; ai ^VJ/n P-'.QK 3'"101 t^P^^IJO CDnQ Mir. \<,.i,o. So again, lD^IQI Mn^?"IJQ Q'TQ 
rnmnS Matt. 21.1. And thi-tfonihainn be nofufficient jo:,ndatioit jor any fucb dilimaut. Forwbertoj wefrft read n.xid. 
I 5. 20. nS^Hjn :3na, tht LXX. tranflatt it, Mcittia fi »£;j«T/<, and thindgar Lat. Maria prophetilTa. The Hebrew 
firil was CD^'^Q Mi'iam ; thi Syiiack. altering the fronunuatun. Ml th: Utters, n'"!Q Marjim , as for 'n\l3l2 "^IJD 

bifaufe iheGne^Ungitagetdmitteth no Jodconfonant, they fronouacei it^idutut)/.- Jhatgh fometimis iudetd even tht Ga^s 
ife thiba)biro:/tpo3unciitiok in tht baybarom words, as Lucian with the Utins ma^es'UJal©- of thru Syttthles, 

'UJ'eil^ ?T»«» ixaeh *5ot/" A.a^aV. 


did ui . - 

«<rtA.j», of Miriam the fi;iir of Mofes ; whom it another place be cats i^x^vt oMm MneidfAtuv. Ihitefmt In thought the nav.e 
of Mariainne to bi the jam: with Miriam. And as the Greeks T»iri wont to add iciir own tirminMtons t» exttit^ vrords; /» did (Itfy 
at other times leave out the txiticfi terminations, ifthtrehy their own -iv-rt left^ As for rT'IlX & njH 'AC»« and" Ana.' .far 
nDS^-rniJ 'Aoa and Z «««•/<"■ ■"T'n 0«©S, f»r UajtiifJi Kaelet. H'hertfori from the Htbriw Miriam came, by vati- 
ety ofprtit inciaiin, at f,>jl tht Sir < Ji^ Mar jam ; and jrom the Sjriack. M|rwm. 4t M^ "''» '"' f*« variition offrmuidatiin, Ma- 
ei«V, then, for the prariity of tirmination, M«te/a. " Mic. 6. 4- |l For _th(mgb that Inttrpnution Domma mny jttm ttcomt 
conviMimtly enough from N^IQ, yet that being rather from the Chaldees, cannot [0 will agree with Miriam .- nor is tht Ulo pre- 
fer'.y added atthi en J, as in thi beginning, oj av Hetnw word, rthtriii is ufiiaHyit wards of fivfU fignificatiort Hetmantical. .4- 
gun, CD' ")0 ffij> //^Ji;;?! Smyrna raaj-is, or lUuroiDatrix, which S. Hierome rtjiQed ; md ftella (or rasher Mlt, which if 
fropmj ID; maris, or amarum marc, which he rathir embraced : yit thefe am^ofitions art not fo proper, or pyjoablt at all, e^eci- 
cilUy ia a nam ■ dif})'JiUe. though ib< Jews themfdw diduce it front 11Q, to fignifie tht Wrterncfs of tht .f.gyptran bondage, is 
■we read in Midrafh ]!Wyy, kfidts the two Abhors before quoted, w^H ''H ni* uUnXOn niQ'^ anO PlbilpJ •■ 
yet Ilia the addition of the fnal .yf'.m is not prober ; or if that fijoM (land for rPt, thire 7i' trt nt good account to be givin $1 the 
Jod. H-hertas if we deduce it from the Radix CDI"^, with tht addition of tht Beemantici^ Mem, the notatitn is evidtnt, titd tht 
pgti^ation dear, as of one ixalted above others. 

Befide this name of theblefled Virgin, little hath been difcovered to us. 
Chrijl, who commended the faith of the Centurion, the love of Marji Magd*- 
Itfie, the excellencies of ^ohn the Baptift, hath left not the leaft encomium of 
his Mother. The Evangelifts who have fo pundually defcribed the City, 
Family and Genealogy o^Jofeph, make noexprefs mention of her Relations, 
only of her CoC\nE/>eth, who was of the Tribe oi Levi, of the Daughters 
of JaroM. Although it be of abfblute neceflity to believe that he which 
was born of her defcended from the Tribe of ludah^ and the Family of Da- 
K I caii this a ^"^ ', Y*-^ 'I'^t'i "0^ the Scripture clearly exprefled fo much of her, nor have 
Tradition, be- we any more than an |j oblcure tradition of her Parents Joacim and J^na. 

caufi Ket in the 

written word ; and obfcure, bicanfe the fir^ mention we find of it wts in the fourth Century. Epipiiaoiut fkH informs us, wbr, 
f^eakingti Jofcpli, fayshtl{new thus muA ; VurnuKi. /wS/h twrlui init^ign, i^^nh»<*v th ^uV«, «• o« /un7f;f 'Akriif. «J 
iM. TiTf.'f 'Iikt)t»iM' W-»"i- 78. Again, E'l dyfih^st va^a-Kiuj"^ » <>6/i«, TotrwuxaMei' Tiir 'ini''Avv)\(yi'^rtii^ljJ, Trr 
OK. Ti"I««**^/ft'''3i'At')c(,/tefc)fiiMWl«^ j Hi»rtj. '.^. whtri hi m^l^ts mir.tion ojthi Hiltny oj Mary, and the tradition 
htr njti-jity.'H t/< i>l*ei<»linvix>y -i!U(^itst*% "iy^sm^'ii'hYf'Khn^'' ~(t7ei aoTMj 'I«*x»tV o»T?l^sftV«>or/ b yyuin(\tQ\u>{- 
Km\J{±, ^c. Damalc. OrthttJ. Fid. i. 4- c. \^.& Orig. contra Cclfum dt Panthera. What thif Hifior) of Mjry was, or oj what 
aittnoHiy thoH traditions wire, «>« cannot learn out oj tpiplianiu?. nhit the interpolator oj Gregory Nyflen'i Hjmilyproductth, be 
Cflnjtl]rth tai-infrem Apocrypbahvritings. And divtrs oj the lil^e relations titjcendid jrom the priKt and griattfl Herttickj. Tht 
Gaoliici^i had ai/o»l^ among them which was called Tuva Maeia<. H<trti. 25. Amongli /(;f Manidiccs Scleucus rvriite the Hiftcy 
0) the l-'irgii. And the Vrotcvangelium \jiCQbt deceiitji many in relations oj this tttture. A-ni,ng wi-ich many being certainly falfe, 
it is TM now ta(i<,{ij at all pcffiblt ) to difiinguijh what part oj thim or particular is true. Qiiod rfe gencratione MariseFaudus po- 
fuit, cjuod pjrrcm liabucric ex tribu Levi faccrdotcm quendara nomine Joachim, quia Canoniaim non eft, con mc coriftrir.- 
gir, lait,>S.AMu\l. 2}. contratiutiumc. 9. 

* Tic tots, n Wlitrefore the title added to that name maketh the diftinftion : for * as* 
if -Toi* ->•« divers charaftcrs arc given to fcveral perlbns by whicli they aredillinsuifhed 

?.fit ri o»»out Ma?j«« rlit o'ji'a<, i^ i|w7(»'(MV^ x*" to9u; eirluJi'j'XI ti T^tf Sir cy ', 'E J mi^'* >t^ ^ ^i'trat Jre/zuVat ly 
T"j <fsl.^< in)tfu»< Tet Tt'.ttiicia. 'Awiifxotla /A jS orijuarjir WAiiJiflir •< ^<cuoxfc>utr« «'fi'Tck7o»{, ;^ »r nfus^*. Ksi 
•ni p: 'nCggL'ifJt 'rff!T%]i:mi. ti\Q- &'.», >^ i Xl<tKu^)^n]<u • tt^I 5 'laxaf, To 'lff£^i!K x^AoiS^, ic^ «/. av.o;<ii|)i<fiJ«#, 
i^T«7i A««sii\o«<, ri 'iS»*K«f)*(, TbI'sTF, qt? /Se/r^HSii^iK^K^jct^ififmlaf jJT«aV* M^e-V) t« »«; fliri®-, j^b" 

7*3tTi'fftla/. E-pipO, titirii. 78. 



from all others of the fame common nomination zsj.tcob is called Ifrac/, ?.nd 
K_y^bizh.imt\v^ Friend of God, or Father of the faitliful ; fbis this Mary fiiffici- 
ently charaderized by that infeparable companion cf her name, the firgi/t. 
For the full exnHcation whereof more cannot be required.than that we fhew 
firfl: that'the Myj^-^j was to be born of a Virgin, according tothcpredlftion 
of tlic Prophets; fecondiy, that this Mary ^ of whom Cbr:fi was born, was 
really a Virgin when fhe bare him,according to the relations of theEvange- 
lifts; thirdly, thac bemgat once the Motherof the Son of God and yeta Vir- 
gin, file continued for ever in the fame Virginity, according to the Tradi- 
tion of the Fathers, and the conflantDoftrine of the Church. 

The obdurate Jen', that he might more eafily avoid the truth of the ie- 
cond, hath moft irrationally denied the firft; refblved rather not to under- 
ftand Mojes and the Prophets, than to acknowledge the interpretation of the. 
Apoftles. It will therefore be necelTary, from thofe Oracles which were 
committed unto them, to fhew the promifed Mtfflas was born after a mira- 
culous manner, to be the Son of a woman, not of a man.Tlie firft promife of 
himfeems tofpeak no lefs. The feed of the wom.ra fjjdl bruife the ferfent^s 
head: for as the name oifeed is not generally or collectively to be taken for 
the generation of Mankind, butdeterminately and individually for that one 
Seed, which is Chrift ; fo the Woman is not to be underflood with relation 
unto Man, but particularly and determinately to that ^ejcfrom which alone 
immediately that Seed Giould come. 

According tothisfirft Evangelical Promife followed that Prediction of the 
Prophet, The Lord hath treated a. new thing on the earth, atvoman JImU com- Jer.^i.zz, 
pafs a man. That new creation of a man is therefore new, and therefore a 
creation, becaufe wrought in a woman only, without a man, compalling a 
man. Which interpretation of the Prophet is ancient, || literal and clear ; ..p - ■ 
and whatfbe're the jeiw have invented "to elude it, is frivolous and forced. VVtih/^at 
For while they force the Phrafe oicompaffing a man in the latter part of the '('« profit ligni- 
Prediftion to any thing elfe than a Conception, they do not only wreft the f^'ckc^m^f 
Scripture, but contradict the former part of the Promife, making the new «>■ dngfrc. r! 
creation neither new, as being often done, nor a creation, as being eafie to J"'^'' '' '';''' ''^' 

r 7 Z3 7 7 . D jjr.:(/ but one 

pertOrm, inttrpr-t^tion 

of this Vrb, 

"ins ]'3y Z3"71D : fnd Kimcbi teflifitth, that nU words which cme from the root "230 fignifle incoinpaning, o' cinuicion. 
Thirejore tbofe yvords, "13 J miDD iI3pJ, mu[l literaUy imfort no Lifithan that a womtin (hiW compafs, orencloic, a 
man, which, with the addition oj a new creation, i>u) wiUbe^r the inltrpttition of a miracidow Conccptioji.E'/'-riiUy :m(id:- ing 
thit the ancient Jcv»s did acknowledge this ftnfe, and did apply it daerminately to the Meffias; as apptanth in Burtniic Ratiba 
Parafli.Sp. where fhtwing that Cod doth heal with that with which he woundetb, be faith,iTs hepuniflnd Uraci ir. a Virgin,/? -nrould 
hi alfo heal them with a Virgin, according to the Prophet, The Lord hath created a new thing on the earth, a woman fhali com- 
pafs a tnan. By the te^limony oj R. Huna, in the name of R. Idi, and R. Jofhua the Son 0/ Levi, CSVH Jli; TVMJ H "T/C TW 
^'n'T7\ This ii Meffiali the King, of whom it is written, fPfahi.?.; This day have I begotten thee. And again in Midrafh 
Tilli.ii, upon the 2.1'ral. R. Huna in the name of lAMu^Mat^ingof the fufjcrings of the Vleffuh^ iaith,nat when his hour is come, 
0,d ihaUfay,'y\r\-\iy iI31\T mU^nn mnn ins -127 ^75; ':N -IOIN t^in pi.I mud create Wm with anew 
creation. And fc {by vertue oj that new creation) he faith. This day nave I begotten thee. From whence it appearitb that this 
Jenfe is oj it (elf literally clear, and that the ancient Rabbins did imderfiand it of the Mcffias ; whence it foUoweth that the lattr 
Interpretations an but to atoid the Truth which we projefi, that jcfus was torn of a Virgin, and therefore is lbs Chrift, 

But if this Prophecy of Jeremy ieem obfcure, it will be fufficiently clear- ^ jf^^^ , 
ed by thzt o( IJaiah ; "^ Behold, a Virgin [hall conceive, and bear a Son, and (hall Wuowjoon thefe 
callhisname Emn:<inHel. The ancient '^ervs \\ immediately upon the promul- ^^^'P""I'V[' 
gation of the Gofpel, underltanding well how near this place did prcfs them, oh Jews, wfl- 

appear by Ju- 
ftine Martyr, the firH uriter which made any conflderabte Explication and Defence of the Chriftlan Religion; who, in bis Dia- 
logue wiib Try^ho the ]i:\v, (hews liS what were the Objetlitns n/'tfct Rabbins : 'Etw 3 C/ifif i^ o! S^lS■iaKa.Klll^|/7^.'7s>~^Ji^^9 

TiKthj W'V- And Tertullian, wbofe worlds are full of the Divinity of Jultinc; Si quando ad dejiclendos aliquns ab hacdivin* 
pra'dicaiionc, vcl convcrttre fingulos fimplicc!. quofqiic gcftitis, mcntiri audetis, quafi non wV^'«fW> (ed juvencuUm, con- 
*:cpturam Scripmra comincat. Advtrf. Judxos, c.^.& adv. Marcionim,lib. 3. cap.ii. 

7, 2 gave 

,72 ARTICLE iH. 

gave three fcveralanfwers to this Text: Firft, denying that it fpake of a 

II Aid as thij II Virgin at all ; ftcondly, afferting that it could not belong to *Jefui ; tliird- 

^dd /r'"»'M ly, affirming that it was fully complcatcd inthe pcrion oVfEzeh.u. Wiiercas 

w/r! "tois^'ob- t'li'c Origina I word was tianflatcd a Virgin.hy Cuch * Interpreters as w ere ''Jem 

yciion: Hodie, themfelveSjiome hundred years before our Saviour's birth. And did not the 

o°mc' mu"do, notation of the w crd and frequent ulc thereof in the Scriptures perfuade it, 

arfunncntanriir the u ondcr Ct^thtfign givcu by t!:e Lord himfi If would evince as much. But 

Kerne ^de" ^s for that couccit, that all fhculd be fulfilled in Htzei-tah, it is fo manifelfly 

^uri!- & virgi- and undoubtedly falfe, that nothing can make more for the confirmation of 

niri-ec-ius Et- ^vuf faith. For this fign was given and this promife made {J Virginjhallcon- 

''ol!ipiJ,&7'°- ceive a;jd kar a /on,) at icme time in the reign of ^/ajc. 1 hh' Jha^ reigned 

ritt fiiim , in ^«/ fixteen ytars in Jerufalem ; and Hezekiah his fbn, who fucceeded nim, 

Hcbrxo ji^vm- t fnentv and£ve years old whtn ht began to re/>»,and therefore born feveral 
f.ijw Icriptiim '»>^ » I'y r >' „. j /■ i i • , 

die, non -wv. years before ^/'4^. was King, and ccniequently not now to be conceived 
ginim , id tft xvhcn this fign was given. Thus while the ancient Jt^rs name him only to 
tuim^a, non bi- ^.^j^j ^j^^ prophccy in whcm it is imp)o(Tible it fbould be fulfilled,thfcy plain- 
* Dicum Tu V ^'^^^' '^'^^'^' ^°'' ^"y knowledge which they had, it was not fulfilled till our 
dsEi.'Tovocc^ Saviour came : and therefore they cannot with any reaiun deny but that it 
inusiHampra:- belonged unto the Mj^<«^,as divcrs of the ancient Rabbins thought and 
£Tfac£ confeficd; and is yet more evident by their monftrous error, who therefore 
mus'compara- expe6^ecl * no Mej/i/ts in Ifrael, becaufe they thought whatfbever was fpoken 
thriX' *ui ^^ '^'"^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^" completed in Hezekiah. Which is abundantly enough 
jamremtcom- for our prcfent purpofe, being only to prove that the il/#.w promifed by 
petatiiiipriiro QqJ^ ^^id cxpcclcd by the people of God before and under the Law, was to 
Ma'sVadi- be conceived and born of a Virgin. 

cavit, & iniig- . . , , • • r ■ 

nia ejus Quae de co nunci-vit. Equidem Efaias przdicat eum Emmanudem vocati oportere, delimc virtutem lumptiinim Da- 
mafci & fpolia Samariaradvcrlus rcgem Aff\ riorum. Porro, iiiquinnr, ifte qui vcnit ntque fub cjufmodi nomine eft diftns, 
ncque re bellica funftus, Tirtul. adz.: Judxos. \\ So jufiine tiflifnth cj tkt ]e«s, Ipu^ii-.g to Tr\ p!io, and in him lo tKim ; 
«;«>«<&= TWTe:?ii1««c»<»5<'EC«*ia*TSi'')l!</o^V»f >!i^$*<nMit. ^ni -^r^yho ie;'liis agim to Jufiine; •'I/<i,«V ^^ 
C.iivot (i( Xeirci- riv v/jLirti^? ^•mJ'tiKyvit rifSfl^, ^fiHf y> "5 'E^snIaC awrlu! ^i>o^V "BrcTg.-fnlsiTi&S. * Toe LXX. 'I/« 
»i '•»■?« 9 ikfr e.)! >arei Ai)4t1ai- '/" tn.t, tot rfji oj tht lnctrpr(ttrs,ccn:u-iins Ti'tiii iti Ob!:llion 0} tin jews, tranjhled it, 
"ifc ; v=£vi!, i. f. adolelcentula, or javcncula. But as their antiquity, /» thrir authority is jar (liort oj the LXX, iIpcciaBy 
in ti'n cjjt. I (hail not nitd to jhtw how thi Origination of nD'?^; from D"?^ frivis no Itj's. Wt ^mw the affinity oj tkt 
Punick tongue with t'a Hibntv ; and by tki tcflimony ojS. Hkiotr.e, Lingua Punica, quae dc HebrJEorum fontibus manarc di- 
cJnsr propiicvirR0.2>jappelUtur. '2King.i6.2 ° 2 K<'«^.i 8.2. It :i thi t^tiorvr, faying oj HllM, rtcordeii in Sanhe- 

«•«»,'(. t^r^'f^, "in V'ln '0^3. innDs ~i23u; — ^Niiy? n"2JQ inn? r^. ^hcTe a do Aug^jtxo the if. 

raefices, becaufe ihcv have already enio\ed him in the da) s o( F.iZfkjah. Divers oj ibt UttrRiW\ns indtavoir to moOifie thtfe 
•wWio/Hillel by th;ir fn-vat (xpo/itions, but in vain, ^r.d R.]olcph undirliood him bat r, vrho thought he too^awiy tUI 
txpiilation oj a MefTias, and thtrtjort j airly prayed far kirn, Condoiitt Dominus hoc R. Hillcl. Horvfotver it appetrt that 
from trvoprinciplts, tvhcrioj om tvm jalfCy be gaibiredthat ja'.fi conclufion. Forfi'j}, bethought thofevrords in \(i\i\\ ■mirt fpo^tn 
of the McfTia* : irhith ^'opofition vras true. Secondly, ht csnctived that tbsfe n^ords were fpit^en of Hezekiah, and fulfillid in 
-him : which propvfttivn wot falfe. From htnce ht inferred, that the lliaelkes were not to exftH a Mcffias after Hezckith .- 
'Wbiib conclufion w.veife falfe. 

Secondly, as wc are taught by the predictions of the Prophets, that a 
Virgin was to be Mother of the promifed Mvffias ; i'o are we affured by the 
infallible relations of the Evangelifts, that this Mary, the Mother of Jefus^ 
whom we believe to be Chtiji^ was a Virgin when flie bare him, when fhe 
brought forth htr fir siborn Son. That fl:e was a Virgin when and after fhe 

/a<^M.2 7. was cfpouled unto fofeph., appearcth by the narration o'i^.Luke: For the 
Angel Gabriel was fent from God to a Virgin efpottftd to a tnan tvho/e n.ime was 
Jo/tph. After the Salutation of that Angcl, that fhe ftill was (b, appeareth 
by her queftion, How fimll this be, feeing I know not a man ? That fhe conti- 
nued fb after fhe conceived by the Holy Ghofl, is evident from the rela- 

Miith. 1. 18. tJon of S. Matthew : For when {he was efponfed unto 'Jofeph., before they came 
together, fhe w.ts found with child of the Holy Ghofl. That fhe was a Virgin 
apt only while fhe was with child, but even when flic had brought forth, 


BornoftheVirginMary. 175 

is alfo evident out of this application of the Prophecy : Behold, a Virgin ^"'i''- '-2?. 
Jb:l/ be with child, and jf jail bring forth a Son. For by tlie fame H prodictiop it || v\;tcii^ vir- 
is as manifeft that a Virgin fhould bring forth, as conceiut a, Son. Neither was go qua in utc- 
her acl of Parturition more contradiftory to Vireinity, than that former ^? "^oncepic , 

^ ^ ■ ■' o V ' virgoque pepe- 

or Conception. n: fiiium. s.c 

enim fciiptum 
eft, Ecce,^iygo in uttroconcifitt, & piriet fiiium. Nonenim concepturam taniurr.modo Virginem, fed S: parituram Virgi- 
ncm dixit. S. Ambraf.Epilt. 7. ad Siricium- So he arguith from the ytophccy, and S. Aug. fi-um ik Oe i : Si vci per nafcen- 
tenicorrumpereturciusintegritas, non jam ille de Virgine njfccretur •, cu:r.quc falio, quod abfit, dt Virgint mtjmxoxicon- 
fittrtwr Ecclcfi.i, qui, iiiiitans ejus macretn, quotidie parit inciiibra, & Virgo t(l. Enc\nr.c.'H. As aifo S. Amhrol'c m the fam 
En'Ui : Qiia: potuit Virgo concipere, pocuic Virgo gencrjre ; quum femper coiiccptus praccdat, partus Itquacur. Scd fi 
dofttinis non credimr facerdotum, credatur oraculisChrifli, crcdatur inonitis Angelorum, credacur Syniholo Apoftolonim, 
qu -d Ecclefia Rornana intemeracum femper curtodic & fcrvar. And S. Bafil kjion occafion oj thtjame Vrofbicy : i <uJ]» yuun xX 
T^fScC©- Kj f/HTHj. Kjl/t -ni tLyntuiu} 'f wtfp9ti(i£(( ^Vbo-i*, )C, tLm f TiKtoyoulits cMhoyiu.v i<.h»^roij.i(rct. Horn. 25. 
Virgo peperit, quia Virgo concepir. Vigii. de Vnitaie Trinit. c. 10. 

Thirdly, we believe the Mother of olir Lord to have been not only be- 
fore and after his Nativity,but alfo for ever, the moft immaculate and bleffed 
Virgin. For although it may be thought fiifficient ji as tothemyftery of the Wmyetyi-} 
Incarnation,that when our Saviour was conceived and born,hisMother\\asa ^ '^^/"^ovo; 
Virgin ; thougli whatfoevcr fhould have followed after could have no refle- ^Tra'p^X'!; 
ftive operation upon the firft fruit of her womb ; though there be no farther '^'^f^'i}*^ ^a 
mention in the Creed, than that he was born of the Virgin Mary : yet the pe- fy!''?*'^'T* 
culiareminency and unparallel'd privilege of that Mother , the fpecial honour tok ■^' Aiy"?. 
and reverence due unto that Son, and ever paid by her, the regard of that '^(^v;'ieI>iKu.- 
Holy Ghoft who came upon her, and the power of the Higheft which over- ^.''l^liu.H^m. 
fliadowed her, the fingulargoodnefs and piety o^Jofeph, to whom fhe was '^^ ^"i''^- 
cfpoufed, have perfuaded the Church of God in all Ages to believe that Oie Gnl^chmh 
ftill continued in the fame Virginity, and therefore is to be acknowledged 'Always caM 
the ^ Ever Virgin Mary. As if the Gate of the Sanftuary in the Propliet '''"^"-^j^^f 
Ez,ekiel were to be underftoodof her ; ^ Thii gatejh.tll be fljut, it jhall not be *thim th" ut'ine 
opened, and no man jhall enter in by it : becaufethe Lord the God of Ifrael kzth en- Seinper- Virgo. 
tered in by tt, therefore it fhall be jhiit. \^Jf!ii^,v'tn:i:l 

I) Many indeed have taken the boldnefs to deny this truth,becaufenotrer in the time of 
corded in the facred Writ ; and not only fb, but to aflertthe contrary as de- Ongcn, tfc^r 
livered in the Scriptures; but with no hiccefs. For though, as they ob|ecl, t7il the t/irgi. 
S. Matthew teftificd that Jofeph ^ knew not Mary, until fje had brought forth her «''>»/ Mary no 
firft-born Son, from whence they would infer, that afterwards he knew her ; cMirlZlivt 

, . . . . ^ . „ r -rr • ^ ^ . I)'. Ill rancam 

hefLio quis prorupic infaniam,ut afiereret negatamfuiireMKiam-a Salvatore, eo quod port nadvicacem illius junrta fuerit 
Jof.ipb. mmiUi. inLucan. Tmuiiian himfilfwus produced as an ^[ferttr of the fame Opinion ; nor does 5'. Hieromc ^f;iy // 
though I thinl^he might have done it. ApoUinarius, or atleajthu ToLowers, delivered the fame, (jys Epiplianius ; and Eunomius 
■withh-', ilv 'laiTi}^/^ tUu iyf^oi- Kvopoeitv CuwaVJif i -ri^eiKtitn tm »(tfdscw. I'lioiius out 0/ I'liiloftjrgius. Not that 
rtfff wiirdsin Vhotmwere the words oj Philoftorgius, for be rvas dearly an Eunomian', and therefore -would r.evtr exprefs their 
Opinions with an i vritpexyf-xnt. And as he always commended Eunomius, /» wiu he not commended but by an EunomiaD, that ii x 
man of his own Sect. As that Epigram, ' 

'Iroeitu* iTtfAajct. &iS ^aeiTioji Qo/ptt^t. 
vhith t therifore mention, becaufe Gotofred bath made an nnneceffary Emendation in the Verfe ItsAsm' «5«k, and a tvorfe interpre- 
■tmm m the Infmptton, talking the Eunomian to be a Catliolick, and the name of the Scft /or the name oj a Man ; and confirming 
thu Error by a greater rnifta^e, faying EunomianuS was the name of a Man,twice (pokfn 0/ in Smd3i,onct in'Evi'oiii^i>o(,a)id again 
11 U»«. Ti> true indied^Swdis laith exprefly,<,ovaiA<x Kvexty, and immediately adds ihije wo^ds, ^ ^ ldn,u»yiy 
Unirt TiiKij^aS^ji •&»*«» A«7£(,V, as i] Eclif.irius hid baptized one whoft name wm Eunoniianus. Hut the words are tuktn tut 
of Procopius m Hilt. Arcana, pag. 2. fiom whence it appears that he who was baptised was by name Thtodofius, and by Scft aa 
Eunomian. And wbatfoevir hu name was who wrote that Epigram on the Hi/lory 0/ Philoftorgius, he wm ceitainly b) Sed an Eu- 
roinian, and that was intended m the lnfcription,tvritten without queflion by fomedthoWckyWho thought no man could commtnd the 
miiory ol Piulodorgius but one of his own opinion.ThefeContradino's of the perpituat f^irginily of the Mother oj our Lord aittrn-ards 
tr.crtaHd to a greater number,whom Epiphanius taffj byagenaal n^Wf Antidicomarianit*. .4nd from S.Aug.Ancidicomarianitae ap- 
rclla'.i funt H^retici, qui Maria Virgmitati ufq; .idco roniradicunr, ut affirment cam poft Chriftum natum viro fuo fuilTc com- 
niixiam, de Harcf. Condemned under that nam< by the fixth General Council, Aft. 1 1 . The fame were called by the Latims, Helvidi- 
am, /vow Mclvidius, Cu D/Tn/j/f of AuKcnTius t/jf Arlan) whofe name is mojl madsujeof, becaufe refuted by S.Hkiome. Hi was 
jollom'id b) Joviman a Mock fi/Miilan, as S.Hicrom ; though S.Auguftinc dtUmeth his opinion ofiiurife, Virginitatcm 




Marii .leflrucbic, diccnseam paricndo fjific corrupcam. Ani Bonofus, a Bj% tn Macedonia, rt^tmd by the cjuncil oj Capua 
tj -h- i>igm-n- »/AnUius Bi'h-' oj Thcilalonica.n'.w jor tbtlimi,<u afpuritbby thi ^t).E}ifdt oj S.Ahibrole.wiirrM 
ti Thcophilus j«.i Anyfius ; Sane non poiTumub ncgare de Marix filiis jure reprchenfum.meritoq; veftram Sanftitatem abhor- ' 
ruilTe quod ex eodcm'utero virgimli, ex qio fccundutti carnem CluiOus natus eft, aliui partus tffufus (it T>:i5 is thi Cau- 
loiMi 'o] thoje bj tht Anciints accoumd Hcreiicks jor dtnjhe tm ptrpimt l^irgmity oftht Motoir oj our Lord. "_ Matih.1.25. 

yet the manner of the Scripture-language produceth H no fuch inference. 
I forjt tht wijep, God faid to J^:ol?^ * / rvtilnot kive thee until I have done that which I 
7hiv'i^nlu:h haveffokot to thee of^ it followeth not that when that was done, the God of 
jorcf. Ti "E-f 'jacoh left him. When the conclufion of Deuttrommy was written, it was laid of 
tj/'t'^V^'" ^H">^ no man knoweth of hts ftpfdchre unto this day : but it were a weak Argu- 
^J 7!>M^i, mcnt to infer from thence,that the Sepulchre o\' Mofes hath been known ever 
A}>.iri MJx' fince. When Samuel had delivered a levere Prediction unto Saul, he ' came no 
^,^ ^a^^^rfro more to fee him until the day of hts death : but it were a Arrange colledion to in- 
3 »< di'cdvtliu, fcr^ that he therefore gave him a viht after he was dead. '^ Michalthe daughter 
F^!o^T'i'B»,'f ^f Saul hadm child until the day of her death ; and yet it were a ridiculous ftupidi- 
wiw.«;^; y^l ty to dream of any Midwifry in the Grave. Chrifi promifed his pretence to the 
n (uV T/rtt Apoftles until the end of the rvorld: who ever made io unhappy a conftrudion 
SrvJ^l'-" as to infer from thence, that for ever after he would be abfent from them? 

«tA»9«»rTo iiti^v S'ttuv'unv- ^-Birtl. Htm. de Nit.Dom.^E^Q- tlX yp<t9'ii ^ priai* Ttdrlni SH JiaeifuVnTiytrau ^ins. 

foliorvtth rut tht'. hi dii i'. whin or jjter that thing w.u doni. As rvhtn Helena favandt^nirv UljfTes 4 Spy in Tioy, flji prt- 
mifed *p» Oath that jbi would difcouer him to none tiii bitv.u fij! r-turntd to thi Grecian Fleet. 

Tlsly ;* riy 4* »''•« t* ^tx< KKiiixt r aziKtSK^, Od. J'. 

*ForijhtBnot Again, 'tis ^ true that C/^r// is termed the fir(l-born Son of Maty, from 
deny that chriji whcnce they infer flie muft needs have a fecond ; but mightas well conclude 
fiifl bomi/''' *^hat wherelbevcr there is one, there muft be two. For in this particular 
ri^iiiof his the Scripture-notion of Priority excludeth an Antecedent, but inferreth not 
Mother, though ^ Conlcquent ; it fuppofeth none to have gone before,but concludeth not any 
twJgbt thit J to follow after. Sanclifie unto me^ Cmh God, a/i the fir s7-hrn ; which was a 
fuficient A^- f^fm and fixed Law, immediately obliging upon the Birth: whereas if the 
-T/a e*.*'.^"' Firft-born had included a relation to a fecond, there could have been no pre- 
iiv Tj.f..i3T-:- fent certainty, but a fufpcnfion of obediejice ; nor had the firft-born been 
^K'^imiJlt ^'^"^ifi^^ of It (elf, but the fecond Birth had fanftified the firft. And well 
!•? ^f'-X*«'Ti'' niight any "Tacrilegious "jerv have kept back the price of Redemption due unto 
Tiviiy aj^TM- the Prieft,nor could it have been required of him, till a fecond Off-fpringhad 
^«(x»/»=,T t 3pp,;;3rgfj. and fb no Redemption at all had been required for an only Son 


iwrh, a.»A Whereas all I'ucli pretences w ere unheard of in the Law, becaule the Origi- 
"^l^ 'E»i'^'° "^^ I' ^^^''^'^ '^^'"'^ '^ ^^^ capable of any liich conftruclion; and in the Law it 
yat Tt,^ iry tw- fclf it carricth with it a clear Interpretation, ^ San^ife unto me all the fir jl- 

Tuf ttnuaviv. 

e^twT^tKp rngKifH-^f.^at- Sit ^ tH ri ■i^fcSjii'oxvi'To.'vvfji.iif.ix.iTi t2 cu/"t«( s-3i7o.aW.« 9rf<n7oT«xoi>tJioi'. H^tref. y2. 
Asijh'r Son the fi-fl-bnrn rent not htr firft-btrn Son. OC 'waiylaif [ifoiloTtnQ- Tg^i 78fj ^yit<ndpn< ixi tIui* aiyKOtmr-, 
itX' -fvror hati'iyuv ixtW^^v T\fu}irsK& ctoiJLxl^t]au. S. Bdpl. Horn, di Sativ. Primogenicus ell non tantum poll 
q\icm&a1ii, fed ante quern nulluj. S P.ieron. liv. Hdvid. It isobferzed by Servius, to that of WrgxVs J£.t\eid. 1. Trojx 
tjuiprimw ab oris.fkaf I'rinrjs is port quem nullus. ^ tnia Hlerom ma^ei his Pita: Quid me in unius mtnfis ftringis arti- 
culo ? quid primogenijum voca? , quem an fequantut fratrcs i^noro ? Exfpeda donee nafcatur fccundus : nihil debeo 
laccrdoci, ni(i & illc fucrit prbcrcacus, per quem is qui ante natus eQ incipiat ciTe primogenitus. Advirf, Htlvid. lD^'^^'D'2 it 
[Exolti.i. ' horn ■■, 

BornoftheVirginMary. 17c 

born ; mfjAtfoever opeaeth the womb among the children of Ifrael, both of man- and, • • --1 

htifl, it is mine. The apertion of the womb * determineth the Hr It-born ; * ix^niyit fer. 
and the law of redemption cxcludethall fuch tergiverfation : ^ Thofe tljxt are *'' ,^,"„*'"„f 
redeemed, from a month old thou jhalt redeem ; no flaying to make up the re- um\ omr.e,\n- 
lation, no expecting another birth to perfefl: the redemption. Being then ^"''"^' "'""'^ '^^^' 
^ they brought our Saviour to "Jerufalem, to prefent him to the Lord ; As it is HiJ.adv'nelv. 
written in the law of the Lord^ Every male that openeth the womb [hall be called ' 'V'"»- iS. i^^ 
holy to the Lord : it is evident he was called the frfi-born of Mary according ''^'"^''' ^^' ''^' 
to the notion of the Law of Mofes, and confequently that title inferrcth no 
lucceflion, nor proveththe Mother to have any other off fpring. 

Indeed, they thirdly objeft, it cannot be denied but that we read cxprefly 
in the Scriptures of the Brethren of our Lord : He went down to Capernaum, Jo^" 2' '^« 
he, and hii mother J andhii brethren; and, While he talkedunto the peuple, hit mo~ Mm. 12. 4,6. 
ther and hii brethren food without, defiring tofpeak with hirn. But although 
his Mother and his Brethren be named together, yet they are never called 
the Sons of his Mother ; and the queftion is not whether C^;*//? had any Bre- 
thren, but whether his Mother brought forth any other Children. 'Tis pof- 
Cihle Jofeph might have children before Mary wasefpoufed to him ; and then, 
as he was reputed and called our Saviour's father, to might they well he ac- 
counted and called his Brethren, as the 1| ancieht Fathers, efpccially of the \\ut\genfirfidi- 
Gree^ Church, have taught. Nor need we thus affert that jTo/f^A had any H'-mthitonS. 
off-Ipring, becaule the language of the Jews includeth in the name of bre- biuf/i^f^j^^ 
thren not only the ftrift relation of Fraternity, but alfb the larger of Con- epiuon, tjieu^- 
fanguinity ; and therefore it is fufBcient fatisfaftion for that exprcflTion, that '"^ "^^ ^^'"**1 
there were fuch perfons allied unto the blelTed Virgin. " We be brethren, faid [',1 uM^Jluli. 
Abraham unto Lot ; when Abraham was the Ion of Terah^ Lot of Haran, and ''■f- '• 1 f- •; 
confequently not his brother, but his nephew, and, as elfewherc properly ^I'/^J^^^ ^ 
ftyled, '' the fon of his brother. 'Mofes called Mifhael and Elzapban, the fons k-jsIh a^^Vi- 
of IJz^iel the uncle of ^^aron, and faid unto them. Come near, carry your bre- V^ iftxiph^ 
thren from before the Sanctuary ; whereas thofe brethren were Nadah and Wj<^?6w«- 
Abihu, the Ions, not of Vzziel, hut of Aaron. ^ Jacob told Rachel that he was ?^ '^^<> f 5 
her father^s brother, and that he was Rebekah's fon ; whereas Rebekah was the 'j^'^' ^J'^p, 
fifter oi Rachel's father. It is fufficient therefore that the Evangelifts, accor- riad,2s' it is fee 
ding to the conftant language of the Jews, call the kindred of the blefled i'"^''''y ^'^'^^- 
Virgin the brethren and filters of her only Son ; which indeed is Tomething Im^ "coUaud 

the ^ later, but the moft generally approved, anfwer. »"'> "i ""d- 

° •' ^'^ m MS. in 5 

'thus S. Hilary, Homines praviffirni hinc prsfumunt opmionis fua' authoritattm, quod plures Dominum noftruiii Iratres ha- 
buiffc fit tradituin, quafi Maria; ilii fuiffeot, & noo potius Jofcpli es priore conjugio (ulctpti, ro.w. in Matth. up. i. Thus 
alfa S. Ambrofe dt Virg. and gineralij all the Vathtrs to thit time, and the Crte^t afterwards, ^.Chryf. 5.Cyrin, Eiicliyiniu3,Tlic- 
ophylaQ,Oecumeniuf, and Nicephorus. 'fliefe aSjtem to havefoSowcd an old traditioKjWhirh is pa>tly ftill coKSimu I in Epiphan. 
"^^t ^^ ° 'litnij -5* ^ 'jfeJTlui ajjn yvjidjiiCA c* -f puKtif ' liJ^* ' i^ KVttKH <uim aZin ncuJat Toydfiifxiy'i^, rkajx- 
f^i p! afl,cKti, ^tiAMc^ 3 <A/'o. Hxrtj.'j'i. T\)e firfi ofthile/ixchijdnnwjs James; ^er' auroy 3 jivijcu Tcuf 'lasv Kahi- 
lSf}&,^ra-lJ.'.T aZjh^vy.i<iv, i-rci}cf/US^a4' xj <Wo-5t/;AT«.p3<,)' Maew, >y It SaAa//)) JtaAx/JVil- Th.nhdd the Grtil^s d 

]vm.Orat. inDeip- H^ioktbv Ji mili k^ t\ rk 'lacnp vti, K*'}ii( u^^v^ii o'^<, ly t'X •*«<;« rOtAe^9'./|«T} 
ttAiiSij, yty(^%wa.3\v 'IctKuCQ- icj 'liJ^at Txvri -nji Kjirf/a,©*? ly Kveiv'lnati Xfir» A'ak? ia/jTVtj e7). ' Om, 1 ^. 8. 
''Gen. 12.5. 'Lev. 10.4. '61w.29.lJ. ^Ihefirft I anceiie, who returntd this anfwer was S.Hwrome, in aTtailate writ- 
tin in his yniith at Kome againj} Helvidius •, wherein, after a long dijcoutle oj fever jI arj.efnions uf Brt chr*n in the Scrinti/rts, he 
thiii concludes : Reftat igitur, ut fratrcs eos imelligas appcllatos coj;nat!one, non affcftu, non gcntis privilcgio, non Datura; 
quo mode Lot Alirali.T, quo inodo Jacob Laban clt appcll.itus fratcr. .■Ind as jor the other opinion oj thofe which went bejort 
him, he Ian 'twas grounded menli ufon an yipocr;/phal Hsjlori, com. in Afuti. cap.i 2. (^uidam fratrcs Domini dc alia uxorc Jofeph 
filios fufpicaiHur, IcqucmcsdcliraiTienca Apocrypliorum, & qiiandam Efcham niulicrculam corttingentcs. indeed Origen W«- 
felf, followed in this partiadar by tht Greeli Church, did. confefs no lifs; who tells the /lutbors pom whom that inurprttation firfl 
aiofi; Pratrcsaucemjefu putabanc nonnullieffc, (ex traditionc.Hebriorum (unipi3 occafionc, ex cvangclio qund titulum 




habet jitxta Pttrum, aut ex libro Jacobi) filios |oi*ph ex priorc usorc.qvi* convhterat ipfi antcquam ducerct Mariam,/* Aijc. 
«5.i5. Thii Jacotxjs Miniioati by Origin, ji iht umi with him wnjm h.uAvhmimintioni in Hcvanicro/A^mr j rliu't^teutf 
i>J)'ilnn Mt7< AyiatM3eiM'lj^*.-^Ci( 7i< irrtK^tiv- n mn ni ncl^ins ]ak\)h intr r^i ^),ttLo/,at' uii Kpiphanius cji7i 
'i:iKcC&- 'tfyJO^.S. Hicrom thiujurt obfiriiie that ihi fcrrmtr Opinion oj Jofcph'j Som reus joHitdtd mvl'.y upn an Apocry- 
plial uriiing, Jina biing rtady lo tffat \h: t^iigini:i oj Joleph as w«//*> ^^ry, fi'lt iminti4 tht othtr Solution in tht kind'td V 
Mary, .n jounded not only in tht Language but a'-loTiliimony oj tht Scriftwti : Qtildam fratrts Domini de alia uxore JoCepli fiiios 
fuipicjiHurjlcqucntcs deliramcnta Apocryphorutr,& qujndam Efcham muliercin contingtntcs. Nos auiem, ficut in iibto qucin 
contra Hclvidium fcriptimus contin«ur,frarrcs Doimni non filios jofcphjcd coriiobrinos Salvatorii, M.rijE liberos ihielligi- 
m\is matcrttri Domini, qui ciTc dicitur mater Jicobi minorisSc jofcpli & Jiidf, qi:os in alio Evangeiii Icco fratres Domini 
Icgimus appelljtos. Fratrrj auttm conioSrinos dici Scriptura denionltrar. i.Hinon.inAijtih. ij. 4c. A;t,r S. Hiium 
S. Asg. iir.'oraciiibis O;'inion : ConUnguinci Vir^inii Marix- fratres Domini dicebaniur. Erat tnim confiictudinis Scripturaroin 
appcUare fratresquonib. cconfanguincos&cognatio;.is propinquos, in Joh. 7ra{i.2i. ittmT an. 10. & contra Faujiunt l.iz. 
?5. ^libokgb thitifo'e htltimtobi indijjrnr.t in hu Expofition 0] thi Epijili loibi Galaiians, Jacobus Dorr.inl frjter, vt] tjc 
filiis Jofeplv-de alia uxore, vcl ex cognationc Mari* macris ejus, debet intclligi : yd kcufi this F.xpufiiion tVM wriitm vrhiU 
ht -wia 1 Presbyter,aBrf thoft bcjore mintiontdajtir btwafmadi a Bilhop;thitijt>t tht former woi ta^afor hisundgnbitd Ofinion, 
*nd upon his tnd S. Hierom'j Authority huh bun gintraOy fmct rictivti in tht Latin Churcii. 

And yet this difficulty, though ufually no farther confidcred, is not fully 
cleared: for they which'impugncd the perpetual Virginity ofthe Mother of 
our Lord urged it farther, pretending that as the Scriptures called them the 
Brethren ofChrifiy fo they alfb fhewed them to be the Sons oi Mary the Mo- 
ther of Chrifi. For firll the \Jeivs exprefs them particularly by the'ir Names, 
Is not hii Mother called Mary^ and his brethren James, and Jofes, and Simon^ 
andjitdoi ? * Therefore James and Jofes were undoubtedly the brethren of 
C/;r//?, and the fame were alfo as unqueftionably the Sons of Mary : For 
among the Women at the Crofs we find '' Mxry Magdalene^ind Mary the Mo- 
ther of James and Jo/es. Again, this Mary they think can be no other than 
the Mother of our Lord, becaufc they find her early in the morning at the 
Sepulchre with ''Mary Magdalene and Salome; and it is not ii probable tliac 
any fhould have more care of the Body of the Son than the Mother. She 
then who was certainly prefcnt at the Crofs, was not probably abfent from 
the Sepulchre: Wherefore they conclude, /lie was the Mother of c6r;/, who 
was the Mother of James and Jofes, the Brethren o\' fhrist. 

Quos Judli fra:ref appellarunt. " «j.'/''. 27. 55. ' ^lar^^6.\. \\ Hin »e\\\d\ui exclaiming tylnnhhaf, 
e:it &impiumdeMaiiaiioG feniire, ut cum alia txmiojr curam fcpul:uri luauciii.c, iraatm cjut dicair.ui 


* From this 
place Helvidius 
argud, Hac 
cadem vocabu- 
la in alio loco 
nominari, & 
eofdcm efTe 
fratres Domini, 
filios Marii. 
S. Hier. adverf. 
Hdv. And from 
tot next ht con- 
ciudtd, Eccc 
JacoDus & Jo- 
• e-S filii Ma;i.E, 
Quam ini(erum 
abfcntem ! 

And now the urging of this Argument will produce a greateifclearnefs in 
the Iblution of the queltion. For if it appear that Mary the Mother of James 
and Jofes was different and diitinguifhcd from Mary the Virgin ; then will it 
alfb be apparent that the Brethren of our Lord were the Sons of another Mo- 
ther, for James and Jofes were fb called. But we read in S.John, that there 
Jlood by tht Crofs of Jefus his mother, and his mother's fjler, Mary the wife of 
Cleoph,u, and Mary Magdalene. In the relf of the Evangelifis we find at the 
fame place Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Jo/es; and 
again at the Sepulchre, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary : wherefore that 
other Mary by the conjundion of thefe Telhmonies appcarct'i to be Mary the 
wife of Clcoph,u, and the mother ofjamesznd Jofes; and confequently James 
and Jofes, the Brethren of our Lord, were not the Sons oi' Mary his Mother, 
but of the, and therefore called his Brethren, according to the 
appcifawr Tra- language otthc Jeir/jbccaufe that the other Mary was the Sifter of his Mother. 

ttr Domini, 

cognomcnto Juftus, tt nonrulli exiftimant, Jofephcx aliauxnrc, ut autem milii videtur, Maria fororis Matris Domini, cu- 
ius Joannes in libro I'uo mcminii, fiiius.,s\ nitron, in caialogn. Snut in fcpulclire ubi podtum ell corpus Don.ini, nfc anic» 
nee polica moriuus jacuic; (ic uierus Mari^t ncc antca ncc pollea quii-quam iwortalc fufcepit. S.Aug. in Jijh.Ttaci.2B. 

NotwithOanding therefore all thefe Pretenfions, there can be nothing 
found to raiie the leafl liifpicion of any interruption of the ever-blelTcd AJa- •• 
ty^s perpetual Virginity. For as fhe was a Virgin-whcn file conceived, and 


John I p. a 5. 

Mir^ 15. 40. 

Jacobus qui 

Born of the Virgin Mary. 


after flie brought forth our Saviour ; fo did fhe continue in the fame ftatc 
and condition, and was comn>cnded by our Saviour to his beloved DilcipFe, 
as a mother only now of an adopted fbn. 

Tlic tliird Confideration belonging to this part of the Article is, how this 
Virgin was a Mother, what the foundation was of her maternal relation to 
the Son of God, what is to be attributed unto her in th'is lacred Nativity be- 
fidc the immediate work of the power of the Highcfl:, and the inflitence.of 
the Holy Gholl:. For we are here to remember again the molT: ancient form 
of this Apticle, briefly thus delivered, Born of the Holy Ghofi a/td the Virgin 
Mixry ; as alio that the word * Born was not taken precifely for the Nativity ' ricniSuXit. 
of our Saviour, but as comprehending in it whatlbevcr belonged to his hu- 
mane Generation : and when afterward the Conception was attributed to the 
Spirit, the Nativity to the Virgin ; it was not fo to be underrtood, as if the 
Spirit had conceived him, but the blefled Virgin by the power and operation 
of the Spirit. 

Fir ft therefore we muft acknowledge a true, real and proper Conception, 
by which the Virgin did conceive of her '' own fubftance the true and real nacWiutcm 
iiibftance of our Saviour, according to the prediQion of fhe Prophet, Behold, camisexfede-; 
' a Virgin (hall conceive, and the Annunciation of the Angel, Bthold, thou /halt fctemi'n*^-*^'^ 
" conceive in thy womb. From whence our Saviour is exprelly termed by Eli- dendcrumcsr- 
faheth. ^ the" fruit of her rvomb. parumuifce- 

-' ■' -" pets originil)us 

impcndunt. S. Hilar. I. lo. de Trinit. ' Tl)it ii, by a profer Canctption, <rv>X;t^«c iv ;a?'&i' thi Snhcl^ it one rvord \\2'2i 
ac (i diceres, vcntrefcere. So tht LXX. trmflatid the [imple iTI •^, at jarfi A..'i4«Ta<. As tht'ijort U >»?■{/ ix'V ^•^Z"'^'" 

fith aprnPirOnuidation, fa doth In jarfitfi/Mafwi/ a proper conception. According to that exprejjlon of Gregory Nazianzen, 
&tiKu( p!, iTi ;^a)f I J ic/c^'t • iyS^HTTiKuf '■$, on co^uw Kv!iJia>(. Ckdon. '' Liil^i 1.42. = H:i)- \0'2. ^12. 

Secondly, as fhe did at firft really and properly conceive, fb did fhe 
alfo nourifh and increafe the fame body of our Saviour, once conceived, by 
the true fubftance of her own ; by which ^ fhe wm found mth child of the Ho- ^ ^'■^''- '• '^• 
/y Ghojly and is dcfcribed going with Jofeph to be taxed, ^ being great with t^'V *• ?' 
child, and pronounced happy by that loud cry of the woman in the Golpel, ^'"u^Tu'n. 
^ Bkffed is the womb that bare thee. «/aU m ;3*- 

Thirdly, when Chrifi was thus conceived and grew in the womb of the s*'*^*'*" 
BlcfTed Virgin, fhe truly and really did bring forth her Son by a true and 
proper Parturition; and Chrifi thereby was properly born by a" trueNati- ' ^'^"M^coi- 
vity. For as wc read, ^ Elizabeth's full time came that flje jhould be delivered, KoU"'* ^h^\ 
and/be brought forth afon; fb in the like fimplicity of expre{Iion,and proprie- aMi9a< \na. 
ty of fpcech, thefameEvangeliftfpeaksof M<iry, ' The days were accompliffj- ^jx"^'^"^^^" 
ed that fjc jjjould be delivered, andjjje brought forth her fr/l-born fon. i,h di« xj^ 3s-' 

Wherefore fromthefe three, a true Conception, Nutrition and Parturition, ^"/^^ j^/™*- 
we muft acknowledge that the bleffed Virgin was "" truly and properly the '^^'^uS^lJi^^' 
Mother of our Saviour. And Ibis fhe frequently ftiled the Mother oVJefus 9J<«c TafSi- 
in the language of the Evangclifts, and by Elizaheth particularly the mother ^''/snlyr /'"■''' 
of her Lord, as the general confent of the Church (" bccaufe he which "^ u,i;t i. <?. 
was fbborn of her was God,) the ° Deipara ; which being a compound title 'J'^^'.''^' ''" 
begun in the Greek Church, was refblved into its parts by the Latines, and prii fiUi quhn°i. 
fo the VirE^in was plainly named the II Mother of God. (iabfuididiirus 

^' r J ii ^^^^^ y^^^ gj 

proprie ciTe ni.itrcm ? F^cimdm L i. f. 4 Hoc & ad crcdendum difficile, & dignum controvcrfi.i vidchatu"", luruin Dcum 
ilia Virgo grniicrit: cxtcrum qnod vcre & proprie gcniicrir, qnicquid elt illc qiicni gcnuit, nuUi digruoi difccptationis 
appita. ibid. ".Hat y6 i 0taj'oK& a ^ih xiiv iyiKm. Tinod. Ahticira. 'nis niai iras firft in life in theGrtc^Chunh^ 
who, df lighting in 'the happy compoftions 0/ Unguagc, caUtd thi bttffed I'irgin QioToKo*. From rvhenct tht Lttinsin 
imitation llHtd htr Virgincm Dcipamn & Uei gcnirriccm. Mcurfiiis in hi< Ghfjjry f,ts the Originil of this Title in the time of 
funinian. Inditiiin hoc nomcn e(l marri Uomiai ac Scrvarorls noflrl )cfu Ciirifli ;i Synodo V. Connaminopoliiana tempore 
Jufliiiiani. Wmreat thif -iv.n not the Original, l>iit the confirmation., of that litlt. In Jiac Synodo Catholii:c ert indiciitum, Uc 
Ecata Maria femper-virgo ©so'JSjt®- dicerctur: quia, ficut Catholica fides lialier, non linmiiifm fokun, fed vrre D:utn & Ho. 

A a • ">'""", 



mini-m, gcnuir. Pail Unrntf. di Gtft.Longobard,'.6.c,\^. Soffu^ithht tj thi fame Synod : and ^tis trin^or tbt fntntb Cinon oftjt 
fjmi rur.itth th'n, E« Tif xj' civctzog^r ri Ka]<t^\i\fiK.a< QtoToKoy hiyfi ¥ iy/xy, ivJiri,ty, *«T*p9ti'0ii Maei'a»t.,.a'Mie^i) 
xweiaif i K'-iT cLKnina.!' ©soloxoif duiliM outKoyfi.-- o rtiiii^ a.yMtfJ.n Vjaj. Olhiru-ilt in ilnj Cnii^ril i.vr confirm, d 
ivhath^'tbitn dttirmin-.d andjUtUd longhtjife : andtbt<ejnre Vhoaui lnj/s thirtofy Avrnii Siuj's/C^ Nifocix rraKiy to. lu/aga? 
tme^^u'o/^a. Jiyix-M^ «f t3 ^«ti'7«A« 'J^iiiei'T:, that it itttoly cut off the Htrijii 0} Ncllorius wLi.h ihtn btga't to g?e/!v .,p 
agjia. Sow p-irt uj tin Htrtjie aj Ncdorius ;p;w tbt dinia! 0) this 0:J]ox©-, and tbi rvhole was nothing dfe but tin grohni oj liut 
diiiia!. And tbiXifon biingbt was condmnsdjor dtnying ojit^ that 'fitlimufl bt adyiowlidgtd autr.tnticl^whi(h hi diniedfrom the 
timtofthi Coiitcil oj Epiiefus 1 in which thofi ritheri,fjitb Photius expri[ly,rfiy Ta»aj<<tir7»r 19 itt<T*f8i;'oc(XeirO(^'fl'£St 
yutiiif id oiAit^(v{ KAKfiQ^ ^ dvJLptiiJiiid^ ©eolixoi' Tm^JiJ^Kitn. I'.pilt. l. And ti)at it wai \o thtn u m^niji,/, buaujt b) ihi 
dinijlcftbii Ihi Nellorun Herifli w,73 firlt dijco-.cnd^tiot in f^tHormhiwfdj, but inhii Vrabyttr ?,n3i\3fKi,wbo firfl in aStrmon. 
mjgift-riaUi dilivotd, Qiorixot Ttly Maeiac KtiKHTit unSoit, Soc.Ecr.l Hift. l-f. c. ?». and Libtrat. hmiar. f 4. as alloEui- 
grius jB.-f Niccphoruf, Vpnn which words a'ijing a T^muit, Ncllorius tool(_his Prefbyto's part, ttaching tbt farm DoCl'iniconJIantly 
in tlie Clmrchy^ T(tv7«;/f riiv \i^iy to ©sot'ic©- iKCJi^.uv. And hfreufon thi tumult gnw jo gr(jt,tiit a gtntrjl Council jorihat 
r-jfon WHS ciUid by Thtodofius Jim. n Nsjbc'k tmii a.-)is.y Maei*]/ ij) ©joJokok i^yHi^v, as JuDinian ttjlifuth, Ep. ad I'. Sy- 
nodim. m which, whin all things itimid clterly to bt ciiritd agtinjl NeJiorius and hu faflien, he lioptd to bait riconciled at by ths 
]iignid acl^owledgmtnt, I\iy^&» Kj t^soTo;^©- n Mcteict, 1^ ■yrtwim^u ra. hvTti^. Soc. l.T- c. 34. Lib:r. B'lv, c- 6. It is pUin 
thtn that the Co-inciloj Ephefii;, wiiich condemned Neltorius, confirmed this Title ©soto/c©-. I fay confirmed it; fot'tii ividint 
that it was btfo'e uftd in the Church, bi the tumult which arofe at the firfl denial of it by Anallafius ■, and jo confirmedit as receizid 
kfore, be'a-ife th-) approved the EpiUlis of S. Cyril, who proved it by the ujige of thofe Fathers which precedid him. tthtre by the 
way it is obj;r-jMe, that while S. CytW producitb nine feveral Fathers for the ufe of this word, and hoihbifure and afttr he product th 
thtm, apr'netb thst t\-ey all did ufe it, thire ■art but three ofthim who exprefly mention it, Atlianafius, Artiochus and Ammco, E- 
pill. ad r.iginas. And it is fomcthing to be admired that he (hould fo name the other fix, and recite thole places out oj them wiich 
haditnit, v'h-':ih!rc wire bif»rel>im fo many befide them that uftd it. ^i Gregory Nazianzen, Ei t/( » 0«»Joxck tW MaeaK 
\5»ox*'/C*i'M, yweiV R» <? •^tOTiiT^-* . £!"7?-iJ(iCIedonium: and in his firjlSration defWio, fpeai^ing oj the difference oj bit 
gtneratifin j' iw 'h^tnj others, ts •>/«? -.» ToUfCfiif 'iyyoK QarhMy TUfiiyoy ; And S. Bafil afltrtetb, fjn) x«7<t<A'x<<^'^9<- 
f^o^i^iiy rt/ji a.y.oh,oTi TOTfc iT3jJm[o t7) Td.fSii'©- m Osotox©-. Horn, de nat. Ciirijli. And that in tl>e live oj S. Kafil and 
S. Gregory tha tirm was ufujl, appiaretb by the ohjeftion of Julian, who deridtd the Clnijlians for thini^ing God could be lorn of a 
rvomun; QiorUov 'j ut^ttf iidjji&tt>liteiAy x.ctKx/]t(. S. Q\r.tom. 6. i fore both tht'e 'f.\ik\3\\i% fpial(ith ojH(.\^i, who built 
a Church at Ecihlchcm ; 'H jSanAK it ^aenCi'^Tn 'f &to]:x.>i thk icvii»ii' iMtifxAvi ^a/jfJCAciif KajiKifffjei. de vita Conft. 
/.?. And ''tfiire Eiifcbius, Alexander Bijhop oj Alexandria -, clra.fx*' y^^tty • Ki/ei3- i/jd^'l»7i{ Xe/yof, O'a/ix^t (pof'itat iKn- 
flfflif, K. i Jh^')3H, Ik "f dioToKn Mi&'ai. Ep. ad Alex, apud Theod. it. c. 4. Btfori him Dionyfius Alex, calis our Saviour !}■ 
oaf'o>%i\j. in. 'f iyat Taf'iky* k, 'r)soToKK M^^iaf- F-?ifi- id Paulum Samofat. And (peaking oj the words oj Ifaiah, a Vir- 
gin fhall conceive, S^Hy.vTjv or/ » ©-loT-yn©- ti¥z <iviui\u.Ciy, I'l Trtfflsc©- JVaokot/. Re^^. ad Qjnell. 5. And in the Anfwtr 
to the fame Qutflion, Trt'dj/jnijidyiro nfg^roj, 19 (TKi-rijeu Tif fuuiyctt n J4l5"» " «f^/!<t'«r®- 9kUu^ n 0tJ, MaCi* 1! &n- 
TO*©-, )Lj TafSb© . and again, tiT'.ffti xiyi >^ rfei fis '^vr\^'ir'\Q- Isf. 7^( ©ioTokk. In the anfwtr to the -^th Q^uiftion, ■/)» 
t3 (Jbynf ti( A(-u;507 riy "lajiiy oM* '? 0«o')ox«i) Maaijl c» tt> »«t Aa/f fifuVii riiy K»!}m;,vyitv iu^\ and foojten. Say yet 
b.'jnn him Orig;n did not only ufe, but expound at large tin meaning of that title ©eoloK©-, in his firfl Tome on the Efifile to th: 
Romans ; as Sccrat. and Liberat teflifie. iieUtiyertfort did Andochus Bifhop o/Antioch urge the ancient Fatiiirs againjl Neftoriu;, 
Cil/ing it ■r('.'(rfogfy ocof/a >y Tijeiixf.^ov To^Xotf 'tV Tla.rifi>y. and again, T8AAo~f 'j^ rrtrifav j^ ffuurtiiy, i^yf^ifiy, 
)^ pti'iiy. Tbto >ap'''3 ovt>/xa,fays he, »'/«( •j^ 'ExxAHJiay/Kwi' J^Jk^KcLhay muffiTtflou. tl T* yi^ ^n<mij$fitii <wTr,\ toA- 
Xot o^imixoi, ti Tifxh ■)^r\<m!J%JoeiKi'7riha.Cw']o^ y^nm/jiiioty. Co»c«V. Ephel. p. i.f. 2$. \\ Although ©jotok®- maybe 
extended to fignifie as much as the Mother of God, becauje t'ikJhv doth fomitimes denote as much as •j^mv, and therefore it httb 
httntranflittd Dei Genitrix, as well as Deipara ; ytt thofe ancient Greek} which called the Virgin ©jotox®-, did not call her 
jUM^^fj: 'tS ^i* Bit the Latins tranfliti^ig ^iotok®-, Del genitrix, and the Qretk_s trinflating Dei genitrix ^iv /uHTnf, thiy 
both at tifl cilUd inr plainly ti)e Mother of God. Toe firjl which the Greek} obfervtd to fiile htrfo was Leo tlK Great, as was ob- 
ferved by Ephraim Patriarch oj Theopolis ; whofe words have been very much miflaS^en by two learned men, Dionyfius Petavius and 
Leo Allatius, who have produced thim to prove that he thougltt Leo Magnus was the firfl man which ever ujed the word ^torox©-. 
A flrange error tow mufi needs appear in fo great a Perfon as 1 Patriarch, and that oj tht Greel^ Church ; and indeed not imagina- 
ble, confidtring bow will he wis verfed in thofe Controvtrfles, and how be comptrtd the words oj Leo with thofe of the ancient Grit^ 
Fathers, and particularly oj S. Cyril. His words a^e thift in his Epiflle ad Zcnobium ; U^arQ- hi dyioit Atmi' i^/.»< ^■^tyaj'.' 
TaJ( KV^*ty,ri< tifntlf d-ti Siiy noiyia, 5€»tok0-, iV Vf/ ain't A\'\f my J\ci.Tr^XKnon fifxtci ijm nJo $au^ay That if, 
Leo wasthefi'jl who in plain terms catted the ^rojiK®-, that n Mary, tht Mother of God, whereas the Fathers bijtre i>im jpakf 
not the fame in exprefs words. Pctavius and Miami luve clearly miftaktn the Propofition, mal^ing'the Suhjeflthe I'redicatr, and 
the Predicate the SubjeH, as if he had firfl called tin Mother of God .Jiotox©-, whereas he is jaid firfl to call tht din'cK& Mo- 
tiicr of God, as appearttb by the article added to the Subjed, not to the Pttdicate. But ij that be not lu/ficiixt, /;;i meaning will 
appear by another paffage to the fame purpofe, in his Epiflliad Syntleticum ; "On fXHYig^ ■^larrfuroy ^ n 'ZhimCiT eLvtiiity, 
o* »1< ^'\yi, K(U-7r'o^iv /uoi t5t«, 'tyu-i ^/wTitf t« Kufi8/L/.K '/aSi) ct^Ajus ; mtipintsy i f|/«M«i' .uj toZto, tiI^ A = ^/f Tpa- 
T®- o»ii^ As»i' riitTai rrfiiytym. Tlunjore as he tool^ the \.oxdand God to be fynanymom \ jo he tbougijt V.\\zi3ah firfl 
fliltd Maty tiie Mother oj God, bicauje ibe called htr the mother of her Lord ; and ajter Elizabeth, Leo was tne (trjl who plainly 
flilid hir fo, that is, rb* Mother ofGoa. And that we may be yet farther afjuredojhis mind, he produrtth the words of hto tin Popr 
in his Epiflle to Leo the Empirour : 'A»i!t9s//a,7/^4c&o Nimt®-, ti'c fjta.x.xeia.v >^ StoToney Mafiay iyl n div, dyffdTn 5 
fiiyoy, Ti<rdiar t7) /i/nTif *. Tue fentence winch lie tranjlat/s is this, Anatheiiiatizetur ergo Ncllorius, qui beatam Virgineni 
Miriam non Dei, fed hominis tantuinirodo, credidit gcnitricem. Bpifl. 97. c.i. ;/ lure plainly genitrix Dei is iranjlated juiitm; 
5i«, tnd d««Toic©- is added by Ephraim out of cuflom in tlie SubjeH, being otlurwlfe not at all in Leo's words. It is thirefore cer- 
tain that firfl in ti>eGreekC^U''ch they termed tiie bliffed ^'irgin ^toToK©-, and the Latins from them Dei gcruttix, and mater 
Dei, and th; Greek} f'o'" f''^"' ^i'"' (^nTiif 5r7, upon tin a:itho>iiy 0] Leo, not taking notice of otinr Latins who (liled krfo 
before him. 

The ncceflity of believing our Saviour thus to be ^or» offhe Virgin Afar/, 
will appear both in rtfpeft of her who was the Mother, and of him who 
was the Son. 

In refpeft of her it was therefore necelTaryjthat we might perpetually pre- 
ftrvean efteem of her perfon proportionable to (b high a dignity. It was her 


Born 6ftheVirginMary. 179 

ewn preditlion, * From henceforth all generations {hall call me hkjfed; but the ' lul^e i. 43. : 
obligation is ours, to call her, to efteem her lb. '' If Eli:^aheth cried out with ^^^^^^^^f^^ 
ib loud a voice, BleJJed art thou among women, when Chriji was but newly cunftis, qnx 
conceived in her womb ; what expreffions of Honour and Admiration can genuicmijefta- 
we think fiifficient now that Chrijl is in Heaven, and that Mother with him ? ^Jw^iarxk- 
*Far be it from any Chriftian to derogate from that Ipecial priviledge grant- rkorm. . 
ed her, which is incommunicable to any other. We cannot bear too reve- " Helifabec & 
rend a regard unto tke Mother of our Lord, lb long as we give her not tliat doce^epoiTunc 
worfhip which is due unto the Lord himlelf. Let us keep the language of quamo interio- 
the Primitive Church : 11 Let her be honoured and efteemed, let him be '""fantB.Ma- 

f, . , , , , " ^ ' ri<E matri Do 

worlhipped and adored. mini Canftica- 

, . . ce,quA- confcia 

in fe habitJnc's Dei liberc proclamat, Ecce ergo ex he beatam me dicent omnes generatknes. S. Hier. adv. I'ciag. /. i = * Ablic ut 
quifquam S. Mai iam divin£ gratia' privilegiis ut fpeciali gloria fraudare conecur. || "H Mieia, kv rifM-, V-ijuQ- -rgfj-nuu- 

Epipll. Hiref. 79. E/ Xit/Ai'sn n Uafia, >t, lijia., xj tst/^ciimVh. «'^' "'" "t to Tf cfxiuiHiS^. Ib- 'Hmwj 'j ■PfJ' ^ ifvtJfiav 

tV oKtv 'sg/aKuMi^ iilv x) -jrali^, i^ Toe ofj'if't >t A.6j*r) >^ to ■7ra.ya,-}iiiv 'TrviZy.i., Thcod. Therapeiic. ?.. 
$ag. 302. 

In refpecl of him it was neceflary, firfl:, that we might be allured he was 
made, or begotten, of a woman, and confequently that he had from her the 
true nature of man. For he took not on him the nature of Angels, and tliere^ fieb. 2. i^. 
fore laved none of them, who, for want of a Redeemer, are referved in ever- 
lajltng chains under darknefs unto the judgment of the great day. And man 
once fallen had been, as delervedly , lb irrevocably, condemned to the 
iame condition, hut that he took upon him the/eed of Abraham. For being 
we are partakers of flefh and blood, we could expcft no Redemption but «.-*, 2. 14, 
by him who Ukewife took part of the fame. We could look for no ^^- \\vnderthatn<h 
deemer, but fiich a one who by confanguinity was our ]| Brother. And Hon did the ah. 
being there is but one Mediatour between Gcd and man, the Man Pjrifi 'ZnJ,^"'^/^ 
Jefus, we cannot be affured that he was the Chrijl, or is our Jefw, except f,fantb 'by the 
we be firft alTured that he was a Man. Thus our Redeemer, the Man ^»"««'«> Can- 
Chriji Jefus, was born of a woman, that he might * redeem both men and j^V-pj^^ 
women ; that both Sexes might rely upon him, who was ot the one, and ^ t^jn 
from the other. ■i7Jns 

. Secondly, it was neccffary we fhould believe our Saviour conceived and .js^?;^q 
born of fuch a woman as was a moft pure and immaculate Virgin. For as it anv; ua7 
behoved him in all things to be made like unto us ; lb in that great flmi- '~7K-iiz;n 
litude a diffimilitude was as neceflary, that he (hould be " without fin. Our ^ l^^Q^^ 
Paflbver is flain, and behold the Lamb that taketh away the fins of the ^^tyi 
World ; but the Lamb of the PalTover muft be without blemifb, VVhere- tv;n*« 
as then we draw fbmething of corruption and contamination by our le- t>«jnn 

minal traduction from the firft Adam ; our Saviour hath received the fame ^ns*' 
nature without any culpable inclination, becaufe born of a Virgin with- uh^„,iJcMefl 
out any feminal traduction. Our High-Prieft is feparate from Jinners not ai p,aii reveii 
only in the aftions of his life, but in the produftion of his nature. For as ''T^jlj.'^^^ t'^^ 
li Levi was in the loins of Abraham, and paid titlies in him, and yet Christ, j^y mo. him, 
thouch theSonof ^^r<T//4w, did not pay tithes in him, but receive them in TimfliaUbewi- 

^ . .... towd Brotheu 

*Hominfs liberatio in u'croque fcxu dcbuit apparerc. Ergo, quia virum opporcebac fiifcipcrc, qui fcxus iionorabjlior fift, 
conveniens cratut foeminei fcxus liberatio hinc apparcrcc, quod illc vir de foL-minanatiisc-rt. S. Aui^ufl.Qjtrii. I. 85. No- 
licc vos iplos concL-mncrc, vni, filius Dei viriiin ful'ccpit -. nolitc vos ipfascontemnqrc, {oeniini', filiusDei lutus cxfamina 
crt. idem de Agone Chriftu ' T/cA. 4. 15. Non cum in pcccatis mater ejus in utero aluic, qucm Virgo. conci.pic, Virgo 
pcpcrit. S. Auiuftin. Trail. 4. In Joh,w. Ergo ccce Agnus Dei, ^ on liabeat iftc tiadiiccm dc Adam •, carnem tantum fum- 
pfic dc Adam, pcccatum non airunipfit. Ibid. Vcrbum caro fartum in Similitudine.carnis pcccaca omn'a nollra lulccpit,. 
tiullum rcacus vitium fercns ex traduce pnivaricationis cxorcura. Joamu 4. £p;/?. ad Confi>mtinum. ||Lcvi in lumbis, 

A a 2 ^'^'^ 

,8o ARTICLE 111. 

Abralu' fuit fecuudum concupifccntiam carnakm, Chriftus autcni fecundum folam fubfidntiam corporakm. Ciiin erim fe 
in fcmine S: vil'ibilis corpulcntia & invifibiiis rario , ucrumouc c iicurrit tx Abralum, vcl c tiam ex ipfo Adam, uiqi ad cor- 
pus Maria', qui & ipfum co niodo conceptufi & cvortum en : Chriftus auceiii viiiLiicm carnii lubflantiam dc came Virginis 
Juinpliti ratio vcro conccpcionis ejus non a fimine viriii, fed longc aliccr ac delupcr vcnit, S. Augufi. dc Gen. ad lit. L lo. 
c. I p. 

Melchizedtck : ih though wc being in the loins ofi^dam may beallfaid to fin 
in him ; yet C/jnJ?, who defccndcd from the lame Jaam according to the 
fiefii, was not partaker of that fin, but an expiation for it. For he which is 
contained in tlie Icminal virtue of his Parent is fbme way under his natural 
power, and therefore may be in fbme manner concerned in his actions : but 
he who is only from liim by iiis natural lubrtance, according to a pafTive or 
obediential power, and 16 receivcth not his propagation from him, cannot 
be ib included in him as to be obliged by his aftions, or obnoxious to his 

Thirdly, it was necelTary that we flTOuld believe Chrijl born of that per- 
fbn, that Virgin Mary which was efpoufed unto Joftph,i\\dX thereby we might 
be allured that he was of the family of David. For whatlbever Promifes 
were made of the Me/Jtas were appropriated unto him. As the feed of the 
woman was Hrfl contracted to the feed oi' J Graham ^ ib the lecd of <^haham 
L«ke 1.5:.- ^vas next appropriated to the Son of D.ivid, He was to he cdltd the [on of 

* the Highefi, and the Lord God was to give unto him the throne of his f»th^ 
Mm. 22, 42. David. When Jefm asked the Pkirifes^ What think ye ofChrift ? rohofe jon is 

he ? they faid Hfito him, Thefon of David. When //«r(?^ demanded of the chief 
M.ut.2.^, 5. Prierts and Scribes where Chrifi jhould be born ; they jaid unto htm., In Bethlehem 
Luke 2. 4. ^fj'^^-^'^i becaulethat was the city of David^ whither Jofeph went up with 
Mary his efj:)0u(ed wife, becanfe he nui of the houfe and lineage of David. After 
LHkci.6^. John theBaptill, the forerunner of Chrifi, was born, ZachariM bltffed the 
Lord God of Ifratf who had raijed up an horn of falvation for m in the Houfe 
iratth. 15. 22. of his fervxnt David. The woman of Canaan., the blind men fitting by the vnayy 
and 23. 50. gj^ J tliofe other blind thciz follotved him , cried out, Havc mercy on u.<, Lord^ 
*"°^* ''" thofifon of David, l^he very children, out of whofc mouths God perfefted 
A/<f«/;.2i. 15. praife, were'cry/»^ in the Temple., and faying, Hofannah to thefon of David, 
juaith. 12. 23- And when the blind and dumb both fpake and fiw, all the people mre ama- 
z.ed, and f aid., is not this the fon of David? Thus by the publick and con- 
current tellimonies of all tire Jews, the promifed MeffiM was to come of the 
n Ails 2. 5c. lioufe and lineage of David; || for God hadfivorn with an oath to htm., that 
^"'■'s"ch"^ of the fruit of his loins according to the fefh he would raije up Chrifi to fit upon 
Hum inteiiigc- his throne. It vvas therefore neceffary we fhould believe that our Saviour 
re del.ehis t :: a ,p^j. ^^^^-g ^^ the feed of David according to the flc/h : of which we are alTured, 
tunicarn*aHgc- bccaufe Iic was born of that Tirgin Mary who defccndcd from him, and was 
ncrcobMarii cfpoulcd untojofeph, who dclcendcd from the fame, that thereby hisGc- 
SirDctoc' "ealogy might be known. 

enim promiiro The confideratiou of all which will at laft lead us to a clear explication of 
j;irariirini'iai- this latter Branch ofthc Article, whereby every Chrilfian may inform him- 
^fruHuvcil fclf what he is bound to [^rofelsjand beiii:; informed, fully cxprefs what is the 
trutmoihaibo objcft of his Faith in this particular, when he fiiith, I believe in left's C.hrilt 
MKim Tmui! which was born of the Virgin Mary. For hereby he is conceived to intend 
/.?. aJv. ^5ar- tlius much -• I aflent unto this as a mofl: certain and infallible Truth, That 

• '2"!'^'/',^^' ^'^^"^^ ^^ ''^ ^ certain woman, known by the name of Mary, efpoufed unto Jo' 
ftphoi N.izanth, which before and after her Kfpoufals was a pure and un- 

f potted Virgin, and being and continuing in the fjimc Virginity, did, by 
the immediate operation of tJie Holy Ghoft, conceive within her Womb the 
only-begotten Son of God, and, after the natural time of other women, 
brought him forth as her tiril:-born Son, continuing Hill a mofl: pure and im- 

' R?m. 1.3. 

Suffered. i8i 

maculate Virgin ; whereby the Saviour ofthe world was born of a Woman 
under the Lau', without the lead pretence of any original corruption, that 
he miglit deliv/cr us from the guilt of fin; born of that Virgin which was of 
the houle and lineage of David, that he might fit upon his throne,and rule 
for evermore. And- in this latitude I profeis to believe in Jefns C^rifi, born 
cfthe Virgin Mary, 

Article IV. 

^uffeteD mux i^ontius i^ilate, iCbas ctucifierr, 
ncaD, anD butiei)* 

THis Article hath alfo received fbme acceffion in the particular exprefi- 
fions ofChriJFs Humiliation. For the firfl: word of it, now generally 
ipeaking of his Paffion, in the moft ancient Creeds was no way dilfinguifh- 
ed from his Crucifixion ; for as we {ky^/itffered and crucified, they only, ]| C>»- licrudfixusfub 
cified n»der Ponttus Pilate : nor was his Crucifixion diftinguifhed from his &°""°uku'=^^°' 
Death, but where we read, crucified, dead, and buried, they only, crucified Ruffin.insymt. 
and buried. Becaufe the chief of his Sufferings were on the Crofs, and he c#''"'«*''^/»- 
gave up tlie Ghoft there ; therefore his whole Paffion and his Death were Cr'edimusTn e- 
comprehended in his Crucifixion. umquiiubPon 

tio I'ilato cru- 
cifixuseft &(cpultu6. 5'. Augufl. de Ficle(fy Symb.ify- de Trinitat. I. i.e. 14. Caput 'noftrum Chril'hjseft, crucifixum & fe- 
pultum, refufcitatum afcentlic in crlum. Idem in Pfal. 1^2. Qui fub Pontio Pilaco crucifixus eft & (cpulciis. Max. T.mrin. 
Chnfol.Edfeb Gallic. . Toy ^ Wovr'tK fl/xaTB rouyfaSii/ra, T«94»'7ct. Qui fub I'ontio I'ilato crucilixus eft & fepiiltus, 
J\lSs. Armach. And befide thefe, a wirneff rtitbout exception, Leo the Great ; Unigenitum Fill um Del crucifixum &: fepultum 
omncs etiam in Symbolo confitemur. Efifi. lo.cap.f,. Aftenvards the paffion was exfreffed : PalTus fub Pontio Pilato, cru. 
cifixus & fepultus. Ethcriw Vxam. And the Death: PalTus fub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, niortuus, & fep Itus. Author 
lib. deSymb. ad Cutechum. Kjt but both thefe were expreffed before in the Rule of Faith by TertuHian, but mthwt particular mention 
of the Cr:icifxion. Adv. Prax. c. 2. hunc pallum, liunc mortimm, &: fepultum : as Optatw, PafTus, mortuus, & fepultus re- 
furrexir. lib. 1. Pafliis, fepultus, & tenia die refurrexit. Capitul. Caroli 82. And generally the Ancients did underjland de- 
terminately hit Cruet fyingii) that more comprebenfive name of hi( Suffering, tor as Marcellus and S. Cyril have rojJ^a^kvrtt jtj 
TAp'irTdi, Eufcbius Midtijc Nicene Cvinciltothe fame purpofe have 7ra.i'oyTA only in their Creeds. As Clem. Alex. Psdag. I. 2. 
c. 5. rliji w< fiiiy TisTi'i t'm "»• Ttt? '/I'r* (tfj.o\oyia.v. Winch was farther enlarged afterwards by the Council of Conftantino- 
ple info i-tw^aQiyTn, >^ ■na.Q'oyrit, il, TcK^ivra. 

But again, being he fiiffered not only on the Crofs ; being it was poffible 
he miglit have been affixed to that curled Tree, and yet not have died ; 
therefore the Church thought fit to add the reft of his Sufferings, as antece- 
dent, and his death, as conlequent, to his Crucifixion. 

To begin then with his Paffion in general. In thofe words, He fuffered 
under Pontius Pilate, we are to confider part as Subftantial, part as Circum- 
ftantial. The Subftance of tliis part ofthc Article confifteth inourS-iviour's 
Paffion, We fitfered : the Circumftance of Time is added, declared by the 
prefcnt Govcrnour, under Pontius Pilate. 

Now for tlic explication of our Saviour's Paffion2Lsdi(\:inEi from thofe par- 
ticulars which follow in the Article, more I conceive cannot be required 
than that we fliew, W/jo it was that iuffered, Hoiv he fulTercd, IVhat it was 
he fuftcred. 

Firft, If we would clearly undcrftand him that fiiftbred in his fiill relation 
to his Paffion, we muft confider him both in his Office, and his Perlbn ; as 
'Jefns Chrifi, and as the only-begotten Son of God. In rclpeft of his Office, 
we believe that he which was the Chrifi: did fiiffer ; and lb wc make profcf- . 
fion to he iiivcd by Faith in a lijlYering Meffias. Of which that wc may give 
a ju(l account, Firft, we muft prove that the pronviled Meffia.i was to fuffer : 



I- f- ■ "■■■ " ' — - !■ I ..■■,. -, 

for if he were not, tlicn by profeffing that our Jtfus luflfcrcd, we fliculd de- 
clare lie was not Chifi. Secondly, we muft fliew that Jc/us, wlwm wc be- 
lieved to be the Mtl/i.ts, did really and truly iuffer: for if he did rot, then 
while we proved t!ie true Mtffias was to fufter, we (hould conclude our Jefus 
was not that Mtf/ias. Thirdly, it will farther be advantagious for the illu- 
llration of this truth, to manifell that the Sufferings ot the Mt// were de- 
termined and foretold, as thole by which hcfhould be known. And fourth- 
ly, it will then be necelTary to fhevv that our Jcfus did truly fiirfer whatfoe- 
ver was determined and foretold. And more than this cannot be neceflary 
to declare li'ho it was thit liiffcred, in relation to his Office. 
■ For the Hrfi: of thefe, that the promifed Mtjjias was to /«jfer, to all Chri- 
ftians it Is unquellionable ; becaufe our Saviour did condantly inftruft the 
' Marlig. 12. Apoftlcs ii) this truth, both » before his death, that they might expeft it, and 
'iHt^24. 25, b.^^-^^j.^ t{,jj ^]y^.y might be confirmed by it. And one part of the Docirine 
"* ■ which S.l^aul diiieminated through the world was this, ' that the Chrtjt mujl 

Cis I : 

>7ee^s have fuffend. 

Butbecauie theie Tellimonies w ill fatisfie only fuch as believe injefusyzhd 
our Saviour himfelf did refer the disbelieving Jews to the Law and the Fro- 
pIiL.s, as thole whoteftifiedof him; we will lliew from thence, even from 
fl^etfi'.lu '^'"'^ Oracles committed to thejf^iw, hoivit was written of the jHon of man, that 
he r/,uji ,':i{fer many things ; and how the Spirit cfChriji which was in the Pro- 
phets teftijied before-hand thefnffenngs ofChriJl. 

The fifty third Chapter or Efay is beyond all queftion a fad, but clear, de- 

fcription of a fufTering pcrfon : A man of forrows and acquainted with griefs 

oppreffed, and afflicted^ wounded and hruifed, brought to the /laughter, and cut ofj' 

out of the land of the living. But the perfon of whom that Chapter treateth 

ivAgtin.We was certainly the ^^/#<ii, as we have j] formerly proved by the confeffion 

tTw« ''If'lbe '^^^^^'^ "^°^ ancient jfeiTJ, and may farther be evidenced both from them, and 

tar^'um," the from the place it felf. For furely no man's foul can be made an offering for 

Bercfhich Rail- q^^ fas, but our Saviour's : nor hath God laid on any man the iniquity of 

draftilS^ «-f ^^-t but oh our Redeemer. Vpon no perfon but the Melfias could the 

>md h (f'e con- chaftifement of our peace be ; nor with any firipts could we be healed but his, 

nfn'iafciw '^ '^ "lufficicntly then demonftratcd by the Prophet,^that the fui^ering Perfon 

Molls rlfhcch, wJ)om he deicribes was to be thcChrisl^ in that he bare our grief s, and carried 

tkuthc amicnt ^^y f^rrOWS. 
Rabbms did m- ■' 

tcrfret that Chapter of the Jyteffi^ts ; which might feent a fufficieitt acknowledgment. But becaufe this is the moil carfidcralle controverfie 
between in and the Jens, it will notfeem imneceffary to prove the fame truth by farther Telhmonies. In the Talmud.Cod.Sanhedrin, to 
the quell ion, H' iithe name nfthe Meffiasi it is anfwered, t*«J"11Vn die Leper. And the reafm of the name « there rendred; 
IQNJV^, becaufe it ts jpokfn in this, Euy ^-i- 4. Surely he liath born our griefs, and carried our forrows: yctwedid cftcem 
him Orickcn, i.e. yUJ. And becaufe yj^n isufedofthe Leprofic, l.evit. 1 ^. i ^. therefore from y^JJ they concluded his name to 
be a l.cpcr, ar.J confequently didinterprct that place of the Mefias. In the refikta it is written, n V-CH T^Ctyj n^'H J»<^Sin 
God produced the foul of the McHias, and faid unto him, K tit thou redeem my fons after 6cco ye.'rs ? ffe anjwered, I will. 
Hilt thou bear the chaflifements to tal^- away their jins, >»HL'J tin >J^'7n ^DS 3^P3"1 ^<^^^^ as it is wt men, Ila. 55.4. 
Surely lie liatli born our griefs^ Andhe anfmered, I wi'Jbett) them with joy. Which is a cletn- tejiimony, confidering the Opinion 
cftbejews, that al! louls of men were cratedin the beginning, and fo the foulofihe Me^ias to fuffcr for tie rejl. The jhift of the 
j'ws, turning thefe exprefjions ujj from the Afeffias, and attributing of them to the P^ple at to one, if fomething ancient : for we 
pndihat Origen was iitg'd with that cxpofitioti in a difpuiaiion with the Jews. M'm.vnfj.aj Ji tots t» Tin -Ttf^i vs>i Myi- 
mV«« '7n£5* ItS'dloK naif Ui^inniTu t ■r^itiilfisut TiuJrsui ^nadu^^ ' »r' o1< 'ihi'^ 'Is/i-I^ , ToUTWiTeffnT^'- 

ajs-l^'aji 'ItJxinf tjTc -xcMsif 'ifinm. Thtisthi Jetvi interpreted thf'fe plates, Ifa. 52. 14. iiis vifagc was fp marred more than 
any man-, 5;. |-,. tliac uhitli had not been told thoni Ihall they fee i 5;. j.anunof forrow, and acquainted with grief: and 
applied tijsm to liie people o/Ifrael in the:r difpetfions. But Origcn did eafily refute him, by retorting other places of the tame Prophe- 
cy: «55-4. S;:rely he hath born our griefs and carried our forrows;^ 5. He was wounded for our tranfj^rtflions, he 
was bruifed for ov.r iniquities, and w ich his firipes are we htakd. Srt^w; yififV '-^' •' ^ ? a,(j.a.^'iaj< -j^uo/wj^i/oi, j^ }:-6iv}ff 
lf.Tir'Zainfa'T':irQi4ifcu, fir' ^•*' tk A«» iK»<»K, "75 ;^ 01 -im r^' k9vav, TiWTai Ktyun. But efpecialty heconjnui'dedthe 
JewwiththijewordsofiheZ.verfe, He ^\as cut olVoiit pf the land of tlie living; for the tranlgrcnions ot my people was he 
flricken. Mi'Xiai 3 icTo^^r/.V^Ai^McJiTB 7>i< ^ttjuvnt hVifiat Ti, '\-toff-'ii,voui'^v'ntf.a.»iA>ihyJi»^f ^aivaicy. '£< jS 

• Ttf®- m TTt^f fiO.iv'fii&u; Ti'j JfaT©* fifii Inffaf XeifBt; Origcnadv.Celfum I. 1. 


Suffered. 185 

ThisPredi£lionis fb clear, ever fmce tho Serpent was to l>ruife the heel of 
the Woman's feed, that tlie Jews, who were refblvcd to expeft a Meffias 
which fliould be only glorious, have been inforced to invent another, which 
fliould fuffer. And then they anfwer us with a dillinftion of their own in- 
vention ; That a Mcjjm was to redeem us, and a Mtffias was to fiafFer for 
us ; but the fame Mtfjks was not both to redeem us and to fuiicr for us. For 
they fay that there are || two feveral pcrfons promifed under the name of the \%7tfj''l 
Mijjias; one of the Tribe of Ephraim^ the other of the Tribe oi'Jndah; double .\icgiti, 
one the (on o(Jofeph, the other the Ton oi David; the one to precede, fight, ""^P '^_^*'^, 
and fuffer death, the other to follow, conquer, reign, and never to die. If Mcfl^asthe fo'n 
then our Saviour were a Chriff, we muft confeft he was a fuffering Mcl^as, of joicpii, ;/;? 
and confequently, according to their Doftrine, not a Saviour. For if he "'^'^'^ nn'^n 
were the fon of David, then, fay they, he was never to die; or if he ever Meffiastheibn 
died, he was not that Ale/fias which was promifed to fit upon the throne of cf David. jo f/j? 
David. And while we confefs our Saviour died, and withal alfert his defccnt J«J,SX£ 
from thehoufc o( David, we do, in their opinion, involve our lelves in a 4.5. I''in 
Contradiaion. TP^"2 

an£N 12 nWCI nn ">3 n'WD T'plSQ*? Two are thy deliverers which fliall deliver chee, Meflus the Ion of 
David, andMefllas tlie Son of Ephraim : and in the fame manner. Chap. 7. j. This that Paraphnilt, nothing [^ ancient as the. 
reft, is conceivedto have tal^en out of the Talmud ?n MalTeclieth Succa, where cap. 5, infcribed ■~?^'7nn, God faith to ^ effiasthe 
fon of David, iyp3Q ^~l^^4 no '"rX'^y Ask what thou wilt, (according to the fecond PfilmJ and I will gixe it theel 
jnnr^ "^OV jl rV^C^'-} TMayV^ JOD who feeing Mefllas the fon of Jo:eph which was riain, asked of God nothing 
bml'je. Tnwfrom t/v Talmud and the laterTargumthe Rabbins have generally taught a double Aeffias,or.e the fonof David,the 
other of jokph. ^r Solomon Jarchi, //rf. 24. 1 8. Z^c/;. 12. 10. Aben Ezra,2iJi./;. 9. <). AULich.-^.x. K\mk\,Zach,\ whom 
the later Jeivsconftantlyfolbrv. Ajid thi sMarc'ion the Hereticl^feemsto have learned of the Jews, and to have taught with fome 
alteration in favour of his own opinion. Conftituit Marcioii alium efle Chrift urn, qui Tiberianis temporibus a Deo q uondam ig- 
noto revclatus fit in falutem omnium gentium ; alium, qui a Deo creatore in reftitutionem Judaic! flatus fit" dcftinatus, 
quandoque venturus. Tertul. adver. Marcion, I. ^.c.6. 

But this Diftinftion of a double MeJJias is far from prevailing over our be- 
lief : firft, bccaufe it is in itlelffalfe, and therefore of no validity againft us; 
fecondiy, becaufe it was firft invented to counterteit the truth, and fb very 
advantageous to us. 

That It is in it felf falfe, will appear, becaufe the Scriptures never men- 
tion any Mtffias of the Tribe of Ephraim ; neither was there ever any 
promife of that nature made to any of the fons or off-fpring oijofeph. 
Befides, as we acknowledge but one Mediator between God and man, fb 
the Scriptures never mention' any Meffias but one. Under whatfbever 
title he is reprefented to us, there can be no pretence for a double per- 
fbn. Whether the feed of the woman, or the feed of Abraham, whether 
Shiloh, or the Son of David, ftill one perfon promifed ; and the ftile of 
the ancient Jews before our Saviour was, not they, but he \\ which is to iroJfxV-*- 
come. The qucftion which was asked him, when he profelTed himfelf ''®"' 
to be Chrili, was, whether it was he which- was to come, or whether they 
were to look for another ; not that they could look for him and for a- 
nother alfb. The objeftion then was, that Elias was not yet come, and 
therefore they expefted no Meffiis till Elias came. Nor can the diffe- 
rence of the Miffias's condition be any true reafon of imagining a double 
perfon, becaufe in the fame place the Prophets, fpeakingof the fame per- zacb.g.?. 
ion, indifferently reprefent him in cither condition. Being then, by the '^''' 9- *• 
confeffion of all the Jews, one Meffias was to be the fon of David, whom 
Elias wzs to precede; being by the tenure of the Scriptures there was ne- 
ver promife made of more Chrifls than one, and never the leaft mention 
of tlie Tribe of Ephraim with any fiich relation ; it followeth that that 
dillinftion is in it felf falfc. 

Again, that the fame DilVmftion, framed and contrived agiinft us, muft 




needs be in any different perfon's judgment advantageous to us, will appear, 
becaule the very invention of a double perfon isapIainconfefTionofa twoibla 
condition ; and the different relations, which they prove nor, are a convin- 
cing argument for thediftinft (XConomics,\vhich they deny not. Why Ibould 
they pretend to expeft one to die, and another to triumph, but that the true 
Mtffus was both to triumph and to die, to be humbled and to be exalted, to 
put on the rags of our infirmity before the robe of iMajefliy and Immortality ? 
Why lliould they tell us of one Mediator to be conquered, and the other to 
be viftorious, but that the Serpent was to bruife the heel of the Seed of the 
Woman, and the fame Seed to bruife his head ; Thus even while they en- 
deavour to elude, they confirm, our Faith; and as if they were flill under the 
cloud, their errour is but as a fhadow to give a lufi-re to our truth. And lb 
our firll Affertion remaineth firm, the Melji.ts was to fuffer. 

Secondly, that Jejus^ whom we believe to be Clmft, Ak\ fuffer, we fiiall 

net need to prove, becaufe it is freely confefled by all his enemies. The 

Gentiles acknowledged it, the \jews triumphed at it. And we may well take 

that for granted, which is fo far from being denied, that it is objei^ed. If 

hunger and thirft, if revilings and contempt, if forrows and agonies, if ffripes 

and buffctings, if condemnation and crucifixion, be Sufferings, Jefus fuffered. 

Ifthe infirmities of our nature, if the weight of our fins, if the malice of man, 

if the machinations of Satan, ifthe hand of God could make him fuffer, our 

Saviour fliffered. If the Annals of times, ifthe writings of liis Apofties, if 

the death of his Martyrs, if the confeffion of the Gentiles, if the feoffs uf the 

fl To^fe nhich 7^"'-^' be tcfiiimonies, jfe/«-f fuffered. Nor was there ever any which thought 

wcrelMcd% he did not really and truly fuffer, but 11 fuch as withal rationally pretended 

theOrcikj /io- jig ^^35 not really and truly man. 

xnisu itnd <ia,y ^ 

ToLina-riJ, rein taught that Chrifi was man fn!} putative, and came into the worldonly in phantafmatc, and cotifequently that hi did 
only putative pat!. Thefe were caOed A»r.iiTa-\ mt from their Authir, but from their Opinion, that Chtifl did all things nnh ^ j),. 
Ki^iTM, in appfarancc,nijt reality. Wf Clemens Alcxandrinus.TiTc eufinav wtJJL'iiti Jhynar^v i^9^oiiTffli'Tg;oaj*f<i'o»')a/, «f 
w ■^ Aoxiirjy. Strom. I. 7. w^. <,'} Jh<.'fiT» Xe'5B!'T=3«:'«p»S5 vwiA.aCoi'. Id. I. 6. Neque in rhanta(ia, id eft, abfque came, 
ficiit Valenrinus affcric, ticqucdc thefi, putative imaginatum, fed vcrum corpus. Gennad. dcEccl. Dogm.dif. 2. Where for 
de thefi, l fuppoferee jhiuld rend Jh'.ti^H. The original of thit train of Heretick_s ii to be fetched from Simon Magus, rvhofe affertion 
was, Chriftumncc venilTe, nee a JudaisquicquampertuIilTe. S. Aug. deHsxef. Wherefore makjng himfelfthe F.u her, Son, and 
Holy Ghoft, he affirmed, fe in Filii pcrfona putative apparuiffe, andfo that hefujfcred as the Son amongfl the Jews \ ttMiifia. uri 
rrtToy^iyv ^ a.n.i J)K\\(!n i/ofov. Damafc.dc Ha?ref. Nore what i\r!\onV\2^% faid of himfelfwhenhc made himfelfthe Scn^ 
that th^fe who followed ajfrmed of Cinift. As Satuminus, who taught Chriftum in fubftantia non fuilFc, & piiantafmate tantum 
quafi pafTum (uiiTe. Prsfc. adv. Hsret. cap. 46. l^tde Epiph. mutilum, Hxn 2 ;. c i . And Bafilidcs, who delivered, fl)-T 
Xe/^^ jttrT«ff7<i' o* TT'i 9ajit£l^. uii h) "5 ttr')p»Toi', //.nJi m.^Kt ti\t\zivtu.:ixi '^rtiJtv zsLrx-ff TETov9ircu> a.>Xei "Zlfjinta. 
To:- Kv^'mjojov. Epiph. Hsr. 24. c. 5. A [udiis non credunt Chriftum crucifixum, fed Simonem Cyrcnenfcm, qui angariatus 
fuftulitcruceniejiis. S.Aug.Htr. 4. Thm fAe Valcminians, r-ir/ini/iir/y ^KC\\%the Father of the Marcofian fli:) a7f (vr ; Marcus 
ctiamnefcio quisHirefim condidit, ncgans rciurrcftionem carnis, S: Chriftum non verc, fed puTativc, paffum alTeveracs. 
S.Au^. Hsr. 14. Thm Ccr<lon: Chriftum in fubftantia camisnegat, in phantafmate foIofuilTepronunciat, nee omnino paf- 
fum, fed quali paflum. Tertid. Frjifcc. si. Chriftum ipfum natum ex fosmina, neque hanuiffe carnem, ncc vere mortuum 
vclquicquam palTum, fed fimulafle pafljonem. S. Aug. tUr. :i. And f/.'?Manichecs, »r/'3f.w^/.'f Chriftum non fuilTc in came 
vera, fed riniiilatam fpecicni camis hidificandishumanis fcnfibuspr-Tbuiffe ; ubi non folum n-.ortcm, verum etiam refurrc- 
ftionem, mentirctur. Idem Hsr, 46. Winm Vinctntius Lirinenfis calls Piiancafia: prsdicatorcs, cap. 20. 

Thirdly, to come vet nearer to the particular acknowledgment of this 
truth, we Ihall farther lliew that the promifed Mtffias was not only engaged 
to fiifter for us, but by a certain and exprcfs agreement betwixt him and the 
Father, the meafure and manner of his Suftcrings were determined, in order 
to the Redemption it lelf which was thereby to be wrought ; and what was 
fo relblved, was before his coming in the flcfh revealed to the Prophets, and 
written by them, in order to the reception of the Mtffias, and the accepta- 
tion of the benefits to be procured by his Sufferings. 

That what the Mtffus was to undergo for us was predetermined and de- 
creed, appcareth by the timely acknowledgment of the Church unto the 
>tJ/4. ''7,:3. Father : Of a. truth., again fl thy holy child'jejiis, whom thou hifl anointtd., both 



F F E R E D. 


Herod and Pont tits Pilate , with the Gentiles and the people of Ifrael, mere ga- 
thered together \ For to do whatfoever thy hand and thy counfel determined be- 
fore to be done. For as when the two Goats were prcfentcd before the Lord, -^^f- 1^- »• 
that Goat was to be offered for a Sin-offering upon which the lot of the Lord 
fhould fall; and that lot of the Lord was lift up on high in the hand of the 
High-prieft, and then laid upon the head of the Goat which was to die: (b 
the hand of God is faid to have determined what fhould be done unto our 
Saviour, whofe Padion was typified by that Sin-offering. And well may 
we fay that the handoiQ^^. as well as his counfel determmedhis Pafllon, be- 
caufe he was delivered by the determinate counfel and foreknowledge of God. aus 2. 2?, 

And tliis determination of God's Counfel was thus made upon a Covenant 
or Agreement between the Father and the Son, in which it was concluded by 
them both what he fhould fuffer, what he fhould receive. For befide the 
Covenant made by God with man, confirmed by the blood of Chrifl,we muft 
confider and acknowledge another Covenant from eternity made by the Fa- 
ther with the Son .• which partly is exprefTed , If he fhall make his foul an ifa. 53. 10, 
offer ing for fin ^ he ^} all fee his fetd^ he fljall prolong his days; partly by the A- 
poftle, Then J aid I, Loe, I come, (Jn the volume of the book it is written of me) Hcb. 10. 7, 
to do thy will, God. In the Condition of making his foul an offering for fn^ 
we fee propounded whatfoever he fuffered ; in the acceptation, Loe, I 
come to do thy will, God, we fee undertaken whatfoever was propounded. 
The determination therefore of our Saviour's Paflion was m.ade by Cove- 
nant of the Father who fent, and the Son who fuffered. 

And as the Sufferings of the Meffias were thus agreed on by confent, and 
determined by the counfel of God ; ib they were revealed by the Spirit of 
God unto the Prophets, and by them delivered to the Church ; they were 
involved in the Types, and a£ied in the Sacrifices. Whether therefore we 
confider the Prophecies fpoken by God in the mouths of men, they clearly 
relate unto his Sufferings by proper predidion; or whether we look upon 
the Ceremonial performances, they exhibit the fame by an aQive reprefenta- 
tion. S. Paul\ Apology was clear, that ho faid none other things but thofe which ^ns 26. 2?. 
the Prophets and Mofes did fay fljouldcome^ Thtt Chrift fhould fuffer. The Pro- 
phets/i?/"^ in c-xprefs terms that the Me^^j, whom they foretold, fhould fuffer ; 
Mofes faid fb in thole Ceremonies which were infliiutcd by his Miniflry. 
When he caufed the Paffbver to be flain, he faid that Shiloh was the Lamb 
(lain before the foundations of the world. When he fet the brazen Serpent iip 
in the wildernefs, he faid, the Son of man fhould be lifted up upon theCrofs. 
When he commanded all the Sacrifices for fin, he faid, without effufion of 
blood there was no Remiflion, and therefore the Son of God muff: die tor the 
fins of men. When he appointed Jaron to go into the Holy of holies on the day 
of Atonement, hey4zW,C/'r//?, our High-pricft fhould never enter through the 
veil into the higheft Heavens to make expiation for us, but by his own Blood. 
If then we look upon the fountain,the eternal Counfel of the will of God,if we 
look upon the Revelation of that counfel, either in exprefsPrediftions or Ce- 
remonial Repre{cntations;wefhall clearly fee the trutli of ourthirdAlfercion, 
That the Sufferings of thePromifedMj/^<t^,wcre predetermined and foretold. 

Now all thefe fuffcrings which were thus agreed,determined and revealed 
as belonging to the true Meffias , were undergone by that lefts of Nazarith 
whom we believe to be the true Chrijl. Never was there any fufferingType 
which he out- went not, never PrediQion of any Paffion which he fulfilled 
not, never any cxpreffion of grief and forrow which he felt not. When the 
appointed time of his death approached, he faid to his Apofflcs, Behold, we uke i3. ji 
gQ Up to Jaufakm , and ail things that are written by the Prophets ccmdning 

B b ' thi 


the Son of man fl} all be accompl/jbed. When he dehvered them the blclTed Sa- 

Di{e 25. ;:. crament, the commemoration of his Death, he faid, Triilj the Son ofm.tngotth 

Ka]«Ti meif ^^^ jf j^jj determined. After his Refurreclion, he chaftiicd the dulnefs of his 

' Difcipies, who were fo overwhelmed with hisPaflion, that they could not 

LMke i\- ;■), look back upon the antecedent Predictions ; laying unco them, fools ^ and 

*^- Jlotv of heart to btlie'ue the Prophets have fpoken .' Ought not Chrtjl to 

have ftiffered thefe things, and to enter into his glory f After his Afcenfion, 

S. Pt:ttr matle this profeffion before the Jerps, who had thofe Prophecies, and 

Atls-i.\i. {aw his Sufferings; Thofe things which God before had fberved by the mouth of 

all his Prophets , that Chrifl fljould fujfer, he hath fo fulflkd. Wliatfbevcr 

therefore was determined by the Counfel of God, whatfbevcr was revealed 

by the Prophets concerning the Sufferings of the Mejfias^ was all fuIHllcd 

by that 'Jeftts whom we believe to be, and worfliip as the Chrifl. Whicli 

is the fourth and laft Affertion propounded to exprels our Saviour's Paflion 

in relation to his Office. 

Having confidered him that fnfftred in his Office, we are next to confider 
him in his Perfbn. And being in all this Article there is no perfon exprcfly 
named or defcribed, we muff look back upon the former, till we hnd hisde- 
fcription and his name. The Article immediately precedmg leaves us in the 
lame lufpcnfion s but for our fatisfaftion refers us to the former, where we 
find him named '^efus., and defcribed the only-begotten Son of God. 

Now this Son of God we have already fliewed to be therefore truly called 
the Only-begotten, becau(e he was from all eternity generated of the effence 
of tlie Father, and therefore is, as the eternal Son, lo alfb the eternal God. 
• r ** b'r'"' Wherefore by the Ji immediate coherence of the Articles, and neceflary con- 
ronncycLlnffe fequencc of the Creed, it plainly appeareth that the eternal Son of God, God 
Creed, rrhich of God, Very God of Very God, /ufered under Pontius Pi/ate, tvm crucifedy 
mfjCiTxc/Zl ^^'*'^' ^"^ buried. For it was no other perfbn which fujjered under Pontitts 
gainjl Ncfrori- Pilate than he which was born of the Virgin Mary, h.e which was born of the 
us Dc- incarn. Virgin Mary, was no other perfbn than he which was conceived by the Holt 
Ghofij he which was conceived by the Holy Ghofi was no other perfbn than our 
Lord, and that our Lord no other than the only Son of God .• therefore by 
the immediate coherence of the Articles it followeth, that the only Son of God, 
I Cor. 3. 8. our Lord, fuffered under Pontius Pilate. That Word which was in the be- 
Domfniim^'af- S^n^^^g, which then was with God, and was God, in the fulnefs of time be- 
fum Symbol! ing made flefh, cjid fuffer. For the Princes of this world crucified the Lord of 
tenet author!- glory ; and God purchaftd his Church with his own blood. That perlbn which 
ius'tra.iidif,d^ ^'^^ begotten of the Father before all worlds, and fb was really the Lord of 
ccns. Si cniin glory, and moft truly God, took upon him the nature of Man, and in that na- 
XTam^Do- ^^^^■> ^'^^"S ^^il^ ^^^^ ^ame Perfbn which before he was, did fuffer. When our 
rainum piotii Saviour faftcd forty days, there was no other Perfbn hungry than that 
crucifixiircnt. Son of God which made the World; when he fate down weary by the Well, 
'E^'tjih.ViJ'' ^here was no other perfon felt that thirll but he which was eternally begot- 
ten of the Father, the fountain of the Deity : when he was buffeted and 
fcourged, there was no other perfbn fenfible of thole pains than that eternal 
Word which before all worlds was impaffible; when he was crucified and 
died, there was no other perlbn which gave up theGhoft but the Son of him, 
and ib of the fame nature with him, who only hath immortality. And thus we 
conclude our firftConfidcration propounded, vtz,. Who it was w hich fuffer- 
ed j affirming that, in refpcft of his Office, it was the Meffias, in refpeft 
ot hib Perfbn, it was God the Son. 

But the perfe(fl probation and illuff ration of this truth requirethfirfta view 
of the fecond Particular propounded, How, or, hi what, he fuffered. For 


Suffered. i8-? 

while we prove the Perfon fuffering to be God, we may feem to deny the Pal- 
fion, of which the Perfeftion of the Godhead is incapable. The Divine na- 
ture is of infinite and eternal happinefs, never to be diiiurbed by the lead 
degree of infelicity, and therefore iubie6l to no fenle of mifery. Wherefore 
while we profcfb that the Son of God did futfer for us, we mull (b far explain 
our AlTertion, as to deny that the Divine nature of our Saviour fuffered. For 
being the Divine nature of the Son is common to the Father and the Spirit, 
if that had been the fubjeft of his Paffion, then mult the Father and the Spirit 
have fuffered. Wherefore as we afcribe the Paffion to the Son alone, fo rauft 
weattributeit to that Nature which is hisalone,thatis,thehumane.Andthen 
neither the Father nor the Spirit will appear to fuft'er, becaufe neither the 
Father nor the Spirit, but the Son alone, is Man,and ib capable of fuffering. 

Whereas then the Humanity of Chifi confifteth of a Soul and Body, thefe 
were the proper fubjefl: of his Paflion ; nor could he fuffer any thing but in 
both or either of thefe two. For as the IVord was made flejh^ tiiough the 
Word was || never made, (as being in the beginning God) but the flefh, that II [1 aS>©- 
is, the Humanity, was made, and the Word alfuming it became flefji ; lo faith •^]!"''*f "' 
S. Peter ^ ^Chrift fuffered for min thtfitfhfm. that nature of man wiiich he took il I* a4|^> 
upon him : and fb God the Son did fuffer, not in that nature in which he was ^ T"'?"'' '^.' 
begotten of the Father before all Worlds, but in that flefli which by his In- \ Xi%l%^ 
carnation he became. For he was '' put to death in the fltjjj, but qntckmd in ^ r ^^■Iv^dw 
theffirit ; fuffered in the weaknefs of his Humanity, but role by the power *"'^3*7o' ,^ 
of his Divinity. As he was made of the feed of Davtd according to the fltjh, in e'f «?'i' J ' ^e- 
the language of S. Paul; fo was he/>«? to death in thefejh^ in the language of ^' V^" ,"''' 
S. Peter : and as he was declared to be the f on of God with power, accordinq^ to s. "AtZnai'.ck 
the fpirit of holin'efs \ fb was he quickned by the Spirit, Thus the proper fub- ^"M'"''- 
jcQ: and recipient of our Saviour's Paffion, which he underwent for us, was b \ p"f *' \'2 
that Nature which he took i\ jm us. Adeo faiva'eft 

Far be it therefore from us to think that the Deity, which is immutable, utri',rque pro- 
could fuffer ; whjch only hath immortality, could die. The conjunQiion [i"f uc'fe Sp^ 
with Humanity could put no imperfctliun upon the Divinity : nor can that "tus resfuasc- 
I! infinite nature by any external acquifition be any way changed in its in- fj"V"vinu- 
trin fecal and effential pCi factions. ^ li the bright raies of the Sun are tes& operas; 
thought to infinuate into ihe mod noifome bodies without any pollution of ^8"?' ^ "■!" 
themlelves,how can that fpiritual effence contraft the leaif: infirmity by any funftaTc. cfu- 
union with Humanity? We muft neither harbour fb low an elHmation of ricnsfab pia- 
the Divine nature, as to conceive it capable of any diminution; nor fo ftb°samari"i! 
mean efteera of the effence of the Word, as to imagine it fiibjc6l to the dc, rtcns La- 
fuffcrings of the flelb he took ; nor yet fo groundlels an elHmation of the "rum, anxia 
great myftcry of the Incarnation, as to make the properties of one nature teni, denique 
mix in confufion with the other. Thefe were the wild coUeftions of the ^ mortuac/t. 
Ij Jrian and Jpoliinarian Hereticks, whom the Church hath long fince filen- ^pl^Jll'c'^tj"^' 
ced by a found and fbbcr Affertion, that all the Sufferings of our Mediator ctemem. Alex. 
were fubiefted in his humane nature. ^■*'^''^- '• '■ *^' 

II Ti yi (pijttt ci.p'iafjot' ^ acc^KoJ&jToi' «6'i TOfBToe SJir, i QuuA}Xott/;$/Jo>i r^ ttfrnni^ pi'fl'M, oTa» o» \,y.^\iv k«t' 
CiMitf^xM' -jl/Jtilaj. Greg. Nylk-n. £/)(/?. * 'Q( ij'' ha/«k.o ip'J]o( wiioiir riaiKllmt ri vcitli, •rAiifS'a-.:/, ly Qvfjt.a- 
TKv viK^uv It) B KdBa^av ipa-rryofj^Ai " Tf At) rr\iov I'l iawixa.1@- n ©tS S\ sr' ai' t*9o/ tIlu ii ji'cti , «'/' iur /S\a.- 
Chu (\fAci\Cv dL.mi\j.i.Tai gT<«ipM«Vi)- Eufeb. Demon. Evang. I. 4. c. 15. \\Tliif cLinger k the ratl.vr to be unflded , becuife 
it !smt generally iindcrjhoii. The Nerefie of hrius, as it was condemned b^ the Council 0)' Ukc , if l^noivn t) fill. Hut that he 
rn.idc the nature oj the Word to fuffer in the ficfl), is not fo frecjuently or delivered. This I'ha-badius ('f/jL' firft of the Ltitinc 
Church who wrote againfi the krum) chargeth them with. Dupliccm liiinc ftatum, non conjunftiim , fed cont'ufum, vul- 
tis videri i « etiaiii uiiius veftruin, id eft tpiftola Potami, qu<t ad Orientcm & Occidentcm tranliiiiiTa eft, qua allcric, car- 
ncSc fpiritu Chrilli coagulatii per langiiincni Mari.t, & in ununi corpus rcdartii, padi'iilcni Dtuin lartuni. Hoc idto, nc 
quis ilium ex co crcderet, qucm impafl'ibilcm fatis conftac. Lib. adv. Arianos, c. 7. And .1^1'' n : Non ergo eft fpiritiis caro, 
nee caro fpiTitus,quod ifti volunt cgrcgii Doftorcs.ucfaftusficfcilicctDominus&Deusnoftcrcx hac fubftanciarum pcrmix- 
pione paflibilis. Jdco autcni paflibilcm volunc did, nc ex impaflibili credatur. Cap 8. MxtUm ?y 'A(n»yai ?:t»li'3vlai, 

B b 2 C*i** 


Cafnitix' varo1(9tVVo' etcwXrjHcai -r ^u7vf^., tU ^ t^ t«9i!( I'si'ot* ^* tW tf^aS? 55oT)i7«t tfrajse;v7s< ««- 
.'^wf. S. Athan. lib. de Incarn. Oj this S. Hilary it to be underjiood: Scd corum omnis hie Icnlus, ut opincmur mctum mortis 
in Dei Fiiiuni incidiffc, qui aderunt non de acernicate prolacum, nequc dc infinicate pattrr i fubftantix exfiitiire, fed ex 
nuUo ilium qui omnia crcavit efttttum ; uc adumpcus ex nihilo fit , & ra-pcus ex opcrc, & confinratus ex tempore. Et 
idee incodoloris anxictas, idcofpiriius paflio cum corporis paHione^C«n. Sji. in ^atth. Wker, .'■^ke argues againfl ike 
Ariar.s. The ri^ht underfl.wding whereof is the ml) litie rva} to reconulc t'oj'e hnrjj.' f.yings of his, v. ' ,. '• trcubled tht: Mtjltr of 
the Senterxcs, and the whole Schools ever fitKe. 

Aiid now the only difficulty will conllft in this, how wc can reconcile the 
Perion fuflcring with tlic Subieft of his PafTion ; how we can fay that God 
(lid lijtfer, when wc profcls the Godhead fuffercd not. But this fceming 
difficulty will admit an cafic folution, if we confider the intimate conjundi- 
on of the Divine and humane nature, and their union in the Perfbn of the 
I Per indiiibia Son. For |, hereby thole Attributes which properly belong unto the one, are 
verbil"!^rni" gi^'^" ^0 '^'''^ Other ; and that upon good reaibn. For being the fame indi- 
omnia qui ' viuual perfon is, by the conjunftion of the nature of God and the nature of 
carnis fijit a- ^2i^^ really and truly both God and man ; it ncceflarily followeth, that it is 
verbo,quomo- ttuctolay, God u, and as true, Amm u (Jod : becaule in this particular 
do & qui vcr- he which is man is God, and he which is God is man. Again, being by rea- 
cantuH^n cjr- ^^ °^ ^^^^ Incarnation it is proper to fay, God is man, it followeth, unavoid- 
Tie.orig.inEp. ably, that whatfbever necefp'rily belongeth to the humane nature may be 
ad R^m. A/* fpoken of God ; otherwiK- tlieie u ould be a man to whom the nature of man 
1wJ\a.T>i( Tt did not belong, which were a contradiQion. And being by virtue of the 
rrcffhn^^iirM fame Incamation it is alfb proper to fay, A man is God, by the fame nccefTity 
"^'TKitBe^'"- of confequcncc we mufl: acknowledge, that all the elTential Attributes of the 
riK OHiTH7of, Divine nature may truly be fpoken of that man; otherwife there would be 
«i7/^i{tt7« one truly and properly God to whom the nature of God did not belong, 
J;^ TtJ «V which is a clear repugnancy. Again, if the properties of the Divine nature 
9f /t/k>v V may be truly attributed to that man which is God, then may thofe actions 
^^o'l- TO 1° ^^ l^ich flow from thofe properties be attributed to the fame. And being the 
9f a^iiu y.a75- properties of the humane nature may be alfb attributed to the eternal Son of^iAaj. Qod, thofe a£lions or pafTions which did proceed from thole properties may 
aJxhcoph. ^ be attributed to the iame Son of God, or God the Son. Wherefore as God 
XfH w^-To/ « the Son is truly man, and as man truly paffible and mortal ; ib God the Son 
jitiu a< V i- ^jjj j^yj , fy{^(.p 3,1 J jid (ruly die. And this is the only true *communicati- 
'saiH T* J>o- on or Properties. 

ff* *• . T''^'^" Not that the effcntial Properties of one Nature are really communicated 
*°ca!ie'd h'tbc to the Other Nature, as if the Divinity of Chrift were paffible and mortal, or 
Schools ordim- his Humanity of original Omnipotence and Omniprelence; but becaufe the 
Mtio°i'dioma- ^^"^^ ^^ ^^c Son was alfo the Son of man, he was at the fame time both 
turn, b) the an- mottal and eternal ; mortal, as the fbn of man, in rcfpeft of his Humanity ; 

"kes^-A^iijC ^^^^'^^^^ ^^ ^''^ S°" ^^ ^^'^j ^" refpeft of his Divinity. The Sufferings there- 
m , arJf'^mc- fore of the Meffitts were the Sufferings of God the Son : not that they were 
tin-es -Atfjifxi- the Sufferings of his Deity, as of which that was incapable; but the Sufferings 
T*ja57f. Qj? j^j^ Humanity, as unto which that Was inclincable. For although the hu- 
mane nature was conjoined to the Divine, yet it fuffered as much as if it 
Iiad been alone ; and the Divine as little fliftercd as if it had not been con- 
joyned : becaufe each kept their refpcftivc Properties diftin£t, without tie 
leafl confufion in their moll intimate conjunftion. From whence at lalf the 
Perfbn fiiffcringis reconciled to the Subjcft of his Paffjon : For God tlie Son 
being not only God, but alfb Man, fuffered, though not in his Deity, by rea- 
fbn of w hich he is truly God, yet in his Humanity, by whicli he who is tru- 
ly God, is as truly Man. And thus we conclude our two firfl; Difquifitions: 
Vyho it was that fuffered ; in refpeO: of his Office, the MeJ/i.u, in refpeft of 
his Perfbn, God the Son : How it was he fuffered ; not in his Deity, whicli 



F F E a E D. 


is impaffible, but in his Humanity, wliich he alTumed cloathed with our 

Our next enquiry is, What this God the Son did fuffer as the Son of man ; 
not in the latitude of all his fuftbrings, but ib far as they are comprehended 
in this Article : which firlf prefcindeth all the antecedent part by theexpref- 
fion of time under Pontitts Ptlate, who was not Governour of 'Jud.ex long 
before our Saviour's Baptifm ; and then takes oft his concluding Paflion, by 
adding his Crucifixion and his Death. Looking then upon the Sufferings 
of our Saviour in the timeof his preaching the Gofpel, and cipecially before 
hisDeatJi, we fliall bcif underftand them by confidering them in relation to 
the Subjcft or recipient of them. And being we have already fhewed his 
Paffion was wholly fubjefted in his humane nature, being that nature con- 
fifteth of two parts, the Soul and Body; it will be neceflary todeclare what 
he liiftered in the Body, what in the Soul. 

For tlie firft, As we believe the Son of God took upon him the nature of 
Man, of which the Body is a part ; ^o we acknowledge that he took a true 
and real Body, Ib as to become fiefh of our flefh, bone of our bone. This 
Body of Chrilf, really and truly humane, was alfo frail and mortal, as being 
accompanied with all thofe natural properties which neceffarily flow from 
the condition of a frail and mortal body : and though now the fame body, 
exalted above tiie higheft Heavens, by virtue of its glorification be put be- 
yond all pofTibility of Paflion; yet in the time of his Humiliation it was 
cloathed with no fuch glorious perfcftion ; but as it was fubjefl: unto, fb it 
felt, wearinefs, hunger and thirff. Nor was it only liable to thofe internal 
weakneffes and natural infirmities, but to all outward injuries and violent 
impreffions. As all our corporal pain confifts in that fenfe which arifeth 
from thefblutionofthat continuity which is connatural to the parts of our 
body ; fb no parts of his facred body were injurioufly violated by any out- 
ward imprefTion, but he was truly and fully fenfibleof the pain arifing from 
that violation. Deep was that fenfe and grievous was that pain which thofe 
Scourges produced, when the flowers plowed upon his back and made long their 
furrows : the dilaceration of thofe nervous parts created a moft fharp and 
dolorous fenfation. The coronary Thorns did not only exprefs the fcbrn 
of the impofers, by that figure into which they were contrived ; but did alfb 
pierce his tender and facred temples to a multiplicity of pains, by their nu- 
inerous acuminations. That Spear directed by an impertinent malice which 
opened his fide, though it brought forth water and blood, caufed no dolo- 
rous fenfation, becaufe the Body was then dead: but the Nails which pierced 
his hands and feet made another kind of impreffion, while it was yet alive 
and highly fenfible. Thus did the Body of the Son of man truly fuffer the 
bitternefs of corporal pains and torments inflidfed by violent external im- 

And our Saviour took upon him both parts of the nature of man, fb he Quifuicepita- 
f'tffcrcd in them both, that he might be a Saviour of the whole. In what pl["^i;„j,"p3^fl 
fenfe the Soul is capable of fuffering, in that he was fubjeftj:© animal Paffion. fioncm. s.Am- 
Evil apprehended to come tormented his Soul with Fear, which was as i>rof. de Fide i. 
truly in him in refpeft of what he was to fuffer, as Hope in reference to the ' '' '* 
recompence of a reward to come after and for his Sufferings. Evil apprehen- 
ded as prcient tormented the fame with Sadnefs, Sorrow and Anguifh of 
mind. So that he was truly reprefentcd to us by the Prophet, as a man of ifa. 5 j. 3. 
forrowsy and acquainted with grief \ and the proper fubjeft ot that Grief he 
hath fully exprelled who alone felt it, faying unto his Difciples, My foul is Mmh.26. 38. 
ejKceding forrowful^ even unto death. 



We ought not therefore to queftion whether he fiifFcred in his Soul or no; 
but rather to endeavour to reach it it were poflTible, the knowledge how 
far and in what degree he fuffered ; how bitter that grief, how great tiiat 
fbrrow and that anguifli was. Which though we can never fully and exactly 
meailirc ; yet we may infallibly know thus much, buJi from the expreffi- 
ons of the Spirit of God, and from the occalion of his Sufferings, that the 
griefs and (brrows which he felt, and the anguifli which he underwent, 
were moft incomparably far beyond all forrows of which any pcrfon here 
was ienfiblc or capable. 

The Evangelifts have in fuch Language exprefled his Agony, as cannot but 
jnaiih.26. 57. raife in us the highell admiration at the bitternefs of that Pafljon. He began 
A.-rfr^M. li. to be forrowfnl, faith S. M.tttherv; He began to he fore amazed, faith S. Mark ; 
and to be very heavy, (ay both : and yet thcfe words in our IVanflation come 
IhXZinture f^"" ^^ort of the 1| Original exprelTion, which render him liiddenly, upon a 
thcc,CjT^Sr^, prefent and immediate apprehenfion, polIelTed with fear, horror and amaze- 
u^a.'jCiiSK,, nient, encompafled with grief, and overwhelmed with Ibrrow, preffed down 
'Av^^^Ttl'e ^*•ith confternation anddejedion of mind, tormented with anxiety and dif- 
tirfl , H nf a quietudc of ipirit. 

<v»»*»;i ana or- * ' 

dinaryfyiificarion, but in tbU cafe it K to be raijed to the higbefl degree of its pifihle fgnificanc), as nffears by thejvords which 
yji/jB', •a^jAUTcf SJjc n vlfXii M"- For^ as the ancient Grammarians obfenc , i C*!!^] irg^^ini UnTOLsiv Svxci • ard again, 
>i[^'iy] rr^^ioK \iix£diijcci a.t7t -f [■ww!] x^ ^'oyy \3^i'in'i< j^ 'acn']'<i7n](^ ■, and therefore ^hurrQ- of it fetf 
fi^niie •imanpjjfejjed with an excefive grief; as in /Efchylus, tfc-Cct^M Kfi/©-, '.k^t is, according to the Scholiaji, -sSaor-v; 
/3<ju'. But bcfide this 0>eclinitation, here U to be ohfcrved a referer.r : to the words o/David, Pfal. 42.5. 'Int|« flfsi'/uT®- ^ i 
■i<j^'i fxs ; 'nnin>£/n no. So that it doth not onfyfignifie an excefs of forroxt: furrounding and encompafwg the Soul ; but alft 
fuch as brings a conflernation and dc]eflion of mind, bowing the Soul under the prej}-^)c and burthen of it. And if neither the miati- 
cn of theword nor the relation tn that place in the Pfalms did exprefs that forrow, )et the foUcming part ofourSaviour^swordi would 
jufficicntl: cvid:nce it, ia< .3-a!*Tii, it was a fonow which lil-e the pangs of death compared him, and like the pains of hell got 
hold upon him, I'Cal. 1 1 5. 5. Tr.efecond word ufed b) S. Mark alone, is i)i9i/:iC«(^, which with the Vulgar Latin U Favcre, but 
in the Language of the Orcelj bears a higher fen fe, ed/xCQ- mfxaim ¥ VxtXhS/c, fays Etymologus : and Hefycliios, edfxCQ-. 
^ajjlid, 'zK-r\ii^i(.Ghjf Vet. QiuC!$-, ftupor.Pliilcponus, p)f/enf(/i> Eufta'chius 'Ia. h'. @ifj.C& pL ii -.KThv^K; • ^t/x- 
€o( ;J KJr' o^Sav Tti.nit i IviKaytn- From vchence the Verb 0eLiJ.Cf<v, in termination ailive, in fignification paffive, pcrculfum 
ciTe, i;i Homer @±fjiCtinv A' 'Ax/A<i'< ' where it U the obfcrvation of Euftatliius, To i'^aiJ.C^mv wsf^HT/xer w ttaUfji ^Ti- 
ck k'k It^H • ^afj-CiiA^nt ^,df, tj i^i'^^iiflH. K, riBd.uCiitJLai, !j«w el /xS "Oun^-v '■ *"' "■" xniverfally true. For (as~ to^oiir 
fitr^^f:) we haie both the ufe and feife of this word in the Old Tejlament. As i Sam. 14. 1 v ^''^^H ^Jim, ly kBd'jLCnnf i 
•yS, and ilic earth quaked. And I'fal. 48. 5. in^P, A^uila ii:/iJ.CnSnami; Symtnachits "c/^tTAa'^Hoaf • as Ffal. 31. 22. 
'£■)« 3 •!■»■* e.» Til iit53VM|U.K, AquHa ^x^iCmci, Sym-nachm Ik'tKi'-^h. Vie like if alfo in the pajfive termination: as Daniel 
expreCfcs his i't a vifion, iflanifiiOtu/, xj Ti-rl*! 6ii rr^'aai-roy im, Dan. 8. 17. and the wicked are defcribed by tlx Wife 
inan^'ia.u£»'J^oi lma(, ^ \vJiLKuitnv LtJla-gyiai'm^oi, Sap. 17.5. From whence it appeanth th .t dtuCtiS)^ of it jelf figm^ 
fetk a hi^b degree of fear, horror .vid amaremcnt. Ohff. Vet. &ifj.C*yiaj, Obflupeo, ftupto, pavefco. And ly the addition of 
the prepofitim'ci^ the /ignification if augmented. 'Ek^v.ijlC©-, VktadjcJi^, Hcfvch. pajfively ; Breiav teCte'y )y %K.9itfj.Coy. 
Dan. 7. 7. aHively, i. c. Im.irKnK.liK'JV. Such an augmeiaation in this word is jujiifiable by that rule left m tn Euftachius ad Iliad. 
*'• *■ C"^S!I ''■(yO»»'< » uovav rbjl i^f-> /haoT ^inv, aWia C^f-'t^* ToM«V/f mfinhti. Of which he gives an example in Ik,vo- 
(jLiaf.uJedby Arillophanc; ri I'luto, though not named by kiw. And aj^ain, ad Ili.ld. v'.jj ['o^] irg^c9r(77< ^'T«<nc/i'Xo7, otoi- 
a.f K, riuLxKiso. • Ei«9y7xC«c3^ therefore U iid-hf^i ^dLiJ.C*iSl^, to be furpri^ed with horror in thehigheji decree, exen untoflupe- 
faHion. Ghjf.Vet. 'E/.S^MCS/ytai, oblbpefco. Ti}ethirdr»ord is"hJ^fjinfi¥,Vulg. LannAccc , in J.Mark, niocftus elTe in 
.C.Matthew: but it hath yet a firther fenfe. 'fiJ\iuoiS, iK»fiS, ii-javtu,fa)i Hcfych'wi. 'AjVju«v&i, t3 A/'ai' autb/l/oi, Sui- 
il.i;. I: fignitietb therefore griif and anguifli in excefs, as appcaretb alfo by the original ion of it. for, a/Ennatliiusoi/enp/, tk 
tttAi^oywK TjaTcTuiroi' dJiifiai' d^fi.ct'^, in Au'thj «< eta. K0.i Tly&- ttifn, i( aJ*@- >,\y!]eu, avetTi-rloKut. Iliad. 
a'. From etJCtt/pTJii dJ^uw, fom' a/ii/uoKw. It h.vh therefore in it the fignificationoj i.^Uu or Ktav, fatiety or ex- 
tremity. From, whence it is ordinarily f> expounded, as if it contained the confequence of the greateft fear or fonow, that is, anxiety 
cfmind, difquietnde andrelllefsnefs. 'A/yijiiriiv, tthvn* >h ^^{"^, <t//iix''i'";', Etymol, As Anton)' is exucffed by Plutarch, 
after the hfs of 8coc men, being in want cf all things neccjfary for the refi, VihitTrlT^f tntiidfJi, li^ ^ettSuuian: idt-iitnHv 
iiKui. So where the Neb. CDCVvyp it by the Lxx. tranjlated &K.7rA*>)if, by Symmaclius it is rendred tifyfjity'^f, Ec- 
tief. 7. 16. 


This he firft exprefTed to his Dilciples, faying. My [oul is exceeding forron- 
ful; and left they (hould not tiilly apprehend the excefs, adding, tven unto 
death \ 2l%'\{x.\\^ pangs of death had already encompafled him, and, as thcPfal- 
mift I'peaks, the pains ot Hell had got hold upon him. He rvtnt but a littlt 
farther before he exprcifed the Jame to his Father, falling on his face and 
fkb. 5. ". P''ay*lS> even with jlrong crying and tears, unto him th.xt nas ablt to Jave him 
from death. Nor were his cries or tears lufficient evidences of his inward 
Sufferings, nor could the forrows of his breaft be poured iorth either at his 




lips or eyes ; the innumerable pores of all his Body muft give a pafTage to 

more lively reprefentations of the bitter anguifhof his Soul : and therefore 

while he prayed more e.trneftly^ in that agony his frveat xvas as it were great 

drops of blood falli»g down to the ground. As the Plalmift had before declared ; 

I am poured out like water, and ail my bones are out ofjoynt : my heart is like Pfal.22.14, 

waXf it is melted in the mi dfi of my bowels. The heart of our Saviour was as 

it were melted with fear and aftonifbment, and all the parts of his^Body at 

the fame time inflamed with anguifli and agony ; well then might that melt- 

ing produce a Sweat, and that inflamed and rarified blood force a palTage 

through the numerous pores. 

And as the Evangelilis exprcffions, fo the Occafion, of the Grief will ma- 
nifefl: the height and bitternefs thereof. For God laid on his own Son the 
iniquities of us all; and as we are obliged to be fbrry for our particular SinSy 
fb was he grieved for the fins of us all. If then we confider the perfeftion ancl 
latitude of his Knowledge ; heunderftood all the fins of men for which he 
fuft'ered, all the evil and the guilt, all the offence againft the Majcfty, and 
ingratitude againfl: the Goodnefs of God, which was contained in all thole 
fins. If we look upon his abfolure Conformity to the will of God ; he was 
inflamed with mofl: ardent Love, he was mofl: zealous of his Glory, and moll 
ftudious to prelerve th^it Right which was fo highly violated by diole linb. If 
we look upon his Relation to the fbns of men 5 he loved them all far more 
than any did themfelves, he- knew thofe fins were of thcmlelves fufficient to 
bring eternal deftruftion on their Souls and Bodies, he confidered therri 
whom he fb K:uch loved as lying under the wrath of God whom he k) truly 
worfhipped. If we refleft upon thole Graces which were without meafure 
diffufed through his Soul, and caufed him with the greatefl" habitual detella- 
tion to abhoi all fin : If we confider all thele circumftances, we cannot won- 
der at that Grief and Sorrow. For if the true Contrition of one fingle fin- 
ner, bleeding under the fling of the Law only for his own iniquities, all 
which notwithftanding he knoweth not, cannot be performed without great 
bitternefs of fbrrow and remorfe ; what bounds can we fet unto that Grief, 
what meafures to that Anguifli, which proceedeth from a full apprehenfion 
of all the tranfgreflions of fb many millions of finners? 

Add unto all thefe prefent apprehenfions, the immediate hand of God 
preffing upon him all this load, laying on his fhoulders at once an heap of all 
the Sorrows which can happen unto any of the Saints of God ; that he, be- 
ing touched with the feeling of our infrmities, might become a merciful High- Neb. 2, :j,i8, 
priejl, able and willing tofuccour them that are. tetnpted. Thus may we behold 
and fe if there be akj forrow like unto that forrow which was done unto him, 
wherewith the Lord afflicted him in the day of his fierce anger. And from hence 
we may and muft conclude, that the Saviour of man, as he took the whole 
Nature of man, fb he fuffcred in whatfocver he took : m his Body, by in- 
ternal Infirmities and external Injuries; in his Soul, by Fears and Sor- 
rows, by unknown and inexprcffible Anguifhes. Which fnews us fully (if 
it can be fliewn) the third Particular propounded. What our Saviour fuf- 

That our Saviour did thus ftfftr, is mofl: necelTary to believe. Firft, that 
thereby we may be affured of the verity of his Humane Nature. For if he 
were not Man, then could not Man be redeemed by him ; and if that na- 
ture in which he appeared were not truly humane, then could he not be tru- 
ly Man. But we may be well affured that he took on him our nature, when 
we fie him fubjeft unto our infirmities. We know the Godhead is of infinite 
perteclion, and therefore is exalted far above all poflibility of moleftation. 


4. 15. 

Lam. 1. 139 


When therefore we fee our Saviour truly fufFer, we know his Divire Ef- 
fence fuffercd not, and thence acknowledge the addition of his Humane Na- 
ture, as the proper fubiccl of his PafTion. And from hence we may infalli- 
bly conclude, Surely that Mediator between God and Man was truly Man, 
as we arc men, who when he fafted was an hungry, when he travelled was 
thirfty and weary as we are, who being grieved wept, being in an agony 
fweat, being fcourged bled, and being crucified died. 

Secondly, it was ncccflary Chrift Ihould fuffer for the Redemption of lap- 
fed men, and their reconciliation unto God ; which was not otherwilc to be 
performed than by a plenary fatisfaftion to his will. He therefore was by 
all his fufferings made an Expiation, Atonement and Propitiation for all our 
fins. For Salvation is impolTible unto finners without RemifTion of fin ; and 
RemifTion in the decree of God impoflible without effufion of blood. Our 
Redemption therefore could not be wrought but by the blood of the Re- 
deemer, but by a Lamb flain, but by a iiitfcring Saviour. 

Thirdly, it behoved Chrift to fuffer, that he might purchafe thereby eter- 
nal Happinefs in the Heavens both for himfelf the Head, and for the mem- 
pfalxio. 7. ^ej.5 of his Body. He drunk of the brook in the way, therefore hath he lift uf his 
Luke 34. 26. head. Ought not Chrift to fuffer, and fo to enter into his ortn glory ? And doth 
he not by the fame right by which he entered into it, confer that glory 
upon us ? The recompence of the reward was fet before him, and tlirough 
an intuition of it he chearfully underwent whatfoever was laid upon him. 
He muft therefore neccifarily fuffer to obtain that Happinefs, who is there- 
fore happy bccaufe he fuffered. 

Fourthly, it was neceffary Chriil (hould fuffer, that we might be affurcd 
that he is truly affefted with a moft tender compaflionof ourafflidtions. For 
this end was he fubjefted to Miferyjthat he might become prone unto Mer- 
cy : for this purpofe was he made a Sacrifice, that he might be a compaf- 
fionate High-prieft : and therefore was he moft unmerciful to himfelf, that 
he might be moft merciful unto us. 

Fifthly, it was neceffary the Son of man fhould fuffer, thereby tofhew us 
that we are to fuffer, and to teach us how we are to fuffer. For tfthefe things 
were done to the green tree, what fball be done to the dry ? Nay, if God fpared 
not his natural, his eternal, his only-begotten Son ; how fhall he fpare his 
adopted fbns, who are beft known to be children becaufe they are chaftifed, 
and appear to be in his paternal affefticn becaufe they lie u