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Ij Princeton, N. J 

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By JOHN ^'0 W E N, D. D. 






Search the Scriptures. — John v. 39. 

VOL. I. 

h O N D O N : 

Printed for T. Pitcher, No. 44, Barbican ; 

And fold alfo by C. Dilly, Poultry; T. Parsons, PateinoO^ 
Row; and T. Mathews, Strand. 


[CntercD at ©tationet'g^rpallj 

( Jii ) 




HE Editor's Preface - - i_S 

Memoirs of Dr. Owen - - 9 — 42 



Concerning th^ Epijile to the Hebrews. 

ExER. I. The Epiftle to the Hebrews proved 

to be ll:ri£l]y canonical - 43 — 60 

ExER. 2. St. Pail,! the Aut;horof the Epiille to 

the Hebrews. -. - - 6z — 78 

ExER. 3. Of theTime when, and Language in 
which the Epiille to the Hebrews was writ- 
ten - - - 7S— S5 

ExER. 4. Of the Onenefs of the Church - 85 — 90 

ExER. 5. Of the Jewifh Writings - 90—104, 


CoHccrnhig the jMeJfiah, 

ExER. I. IMcfTiah, the Deliverer from Evil, 

promiicd of old - -v ^04 — 141 

A \ ExER. 



ExER. 2. Appearances of the Son of God un- 
der the Old Teflament - 141 — 152 

ExER. 3. The Faith of the Jews concerning 

the Meffiah _ - - 152 — 170 

ExER. 4. The promifed JMelTiah is long fince 

come . - - lyo — 188 

ExER. 5. Daniel's Prophecy explained and 

vindicated - - - 189 — 213 

ExER. 6. The Evalions of the modern Jews 

anfw-ered _ - « 214 — 223 

ExER. 7. Jefus of Nazareth the only true and 

promifed Meffiah _ _ _ 224 — 245 

ExER. 8. The Jews' Obje£lions againil the 

Chriflian Religion anfwered - 245 — 257 

PART in. 

Concerning the Prlejlhood of Chr'ijl. 

ExER. I. Of the Origin of Chrift's Priefl- 

hood - - - 258 — 293 

ExER. 2. The Neceffity of the Priellhood of 

Chrifl - - - 293 — 310 

ExER. 3. Of the Kingdom or Lordfhip of 

Chriil - - - 310 — 329. 


The Editor's Letter to Dr. Prieflley - 333 — 350 

The Editor's Letter to Mr. David Levi - 353 — 362 


Expofuion of the Epiftle to the Hebrews, 

Chap. T. - * ^ i — 1 17 

Chap. IL - ^ 117 — 241 

2 Chap. 



Chap. III. - - - 242 — 402 
Chap. IV. - - 402 — 513 


^xpqfition of the Epijlle to the Hebrews, 

Chap.V. - - - I — 93 

Chap. VI. - - 94 — 235 

Chap. VII. - - . 236 — 378 

Chap. VIII. - . - 378—463 

Chap. IX, - • - 464 — ^g^ 

V O L. IV. 

Expojitlon of the Epljlle to the Hehrcv:s, 

Chap. X. - - i — 102 

Chap. XI. - - , 103 — 259 

Chap. XII. - - 259 — 432 
Index to the whole. 
A Table of the Texts more or lefs illuflrated 

in this Work. 
Advertifement and Errata. 


editor's preface. 

A HE many encomiums that have been pafied upon 
Dr. Owen's theological works, by the beft judges in the 
laft and prefent century ; and the high efleem in which 
they are held by orthodox, judicious, and truly fpiritual 
Chriflians in the prefent day, are an inconteilable proof 
of their intrinfic value. He often difcovers, beyond dif- 
pute, great acutenefs of thought, profound fentiments, and 
efpecially a folid judgement, in reference to the unadul- 
terated Gofpel ; and, in the more practical and expe- 
rimental parts of his writings, an uncommon degree of 
devotion, an alarming or melting animation, and fpiritual 
fervour ; qualities in an author, it mufl be owned, equally 
rare and invaluable 1 

We find, however, that frequently thefe excellent ma- 
terials, (the fubftance and fpirit of his writings,) are ne- 
gligently drefled ; or, at leaft, when art is employed, it is 
employed according to the fafliion of the times in which 
he lived ; the effeft of which may be juflly termed a 
** cumbrous drapery," when compared with the '^ Jim^ 
plex miinditUs^''' the neatnefs and tafle in ftiJe and com- 
polition, on which modern authors pique themfelves : 
owing to this revolution in the mode of dreffing thought, 
the innumerable fcholallic divifions, the long fentences 
and involved parenthefes, the numerous quotations of 

Vol. I. B, Latia 


Latin and Greek in the body of a work, often caufe a 
modern eye to turn away in difgiift, and to negle£l a 
precious pearl that is lodged in fo unfafhionable a cabinet ; 
while, perhaps, the fame eye is charmed with another- 
prettier calket, which contains only gewgaws and trifles. 

. ImpartiaUty mufl alfo confefs, that Dr. Owen was 
■what we may a call a voluminous writer ; and in the per- 
fent day, the very idea of an expofitory work, confiiling 
of four volumes folio, on a iingle epiflle, is enough to 
frighten the fafhionable clafs of readers, who are never 
better pleafed, as one obferves, than when they perufe a 
book " brief, gaudy, and fuperficial." The difference 
between the tafte of the laft and prefent age, in this re- 
fped, is very flriking. As a fpecimen of the former, we 
might mention, befide the work under immediate notice, 
^' Caryl on Job ;" and as a portrait of the latter, the 
following remarks of a flirewd anonymous obferver, 
" Mc^^ /3/SA;oy ^cycc Kc^KOVf A great book Is a great 
evil^"^ is a maxim which was perhaps never more univer- 
fally aflented to than at prefent. With all the fondnefs 
for reading, now fo obfcrvable in every clafs of the com- 
munity, few are to be met with who will enter on la- 
borious difcuflions, or perufe voluminous performances. 
Unambitious of poilelling thofe genuine pearls of fcience, 
which mull be fought by diving to the bottom of the 
ocean which produces them, the generality of readers con- 
tent themfelves with the Ihells that are to be gathered from 
its fands and its fhallows. — -Many WTiters now employ 
themfelves in dealing out learning, as innkeepers do their 
liquors — in '•'' fmall quantities''* This is fatyrical. 

On the other hand, the art of reducing the hulk of 
books, when it avoids the fault of being fuperficial and 
defultory, is not to be condemned. If a large work, 
abounding with excellent thoughts, and a truly evange- 
lical fpirit, a work comparatively l)ut little known, too 
dear for the pockets, too voluminous for the courage and 
patience, and too unfafhionable for the tafte of the gene- 
rality of religious readers ; if, I fay, fuch a work may be 
fairly comp.efTed into about one third of the original lize, 



and exhibited in a form more modern, pcrfpicuous, and 
correal ; it may be prelumcd that fuch a prefent might 
not be unacceptable, but received v/ith gladnels by the 
religions public, as calculated to promote the real interelt 
of evangelical piety. Such, is the dciign of this publica- 
tion. — ** The world," fays an ingenious writer, " be- 
comes every day more and more convinced of the utility 
of abridgements. For {o great is the increafe of all kinds 
of knowledge, that the human mind finds herfelf incapable 
of taking in the whole ; and becomes fenfibJe of the nc- 
cellity of being afiifted in her choice of eifential and valu- 
able things."'* Hence the Cyclopoedias and Encyclo- 
pocdias, for which modern times are noted, and witii 
which the more enlightened countries (in point of fcience 
and arts) abound ; which yet are only abridgements of 
voluminous, inconvenient, or inacceflible works. And 
though the public is often groITly impofed upon by 
pompous titles prefixed to fuperficial contents, yet the 
Very attempt to impofe is a prefumptive argument, that 
fuch a plan well executed is valuable. To which we may 
add, that the method of publifhing large and valuable 
works abridged^ tends perhaps to avoid what might be 
thought a growing evil — the multiplication of modern 
authors, who but barely fland on the lift of mediocrity ; 
while the mofl valuable fentiments obtain a frefh and 
more vigorous circulation. 

But as the author juft mentioned farther obferves> 
-^* The fame caufe makes a good abridgement very difficult 
to compile. To omit nothing which is efjential^ and to 
infert nothing which is fupcrfluous, requires a thorough 
knowledge of the fubje£t, and a great difcernment; for 
to reduce much into little, is far more difficult than to 
enlarge little into much."t And, indeed, the talk be- 
comes more difficult in proportion as the bulk of the ori- 
ginal is reduced in the abridgement. The difficulty lies, 
in avoiding on the one hand, a mere cxtratl, which de- 
ferves not the name of an abridgement j and, on the 

* Formey's Ecclefiailical Hiflory. Preface* 
t Ut fupra, 

B 2 other, 


other, the injudicious crowding of too many ideas into a 
fmall compafs, which inllead of enlightening dazzle the 
mind, appearing like a number of fparks in the midil of 
fmoke, rather than a bright and pleafant flame ; inllead 
of engaging difcrafts, and inllead of alluring fatigues the 
attention^ In fuch a cafe the affedions, which ought to 
1be confulted by every writer who experts to profit by 
plealing (and he mull have an extraordinary invention, 
and no fmall fhare of aflurance, who expedls to profit by 
any other way) are prevented from operating, they have no 
room to play, their elallicity and expanfive force are either 
weakened or dellroyed. 

It may probably occur to fome, that, feeing four volumes 
o^az'o mufl needs contain much lefs matter than the ori- 
ginal work, which conliils of fo many {mall folios, much 
valuable matter is left out. To which I anfwer^ that 
though this be granted, we have no need to regret the lofs, 
when we obferve, that nothing is left out but what ap- 
peared either tvatologicai, redundant, digrefllve, and un- 
neceflariiy prolix ; or elfe what was fo plain to mofl 
intelligent readers, as by no means requiring a formal and 
long proof. The reader, who has no opportunity to- 
compare this edition with the original work, may depend 
upon it, that all the valuabJe, ufeful, and pertinent criti-^ 
clfms ; the moil forcible arguments in proof of any impor- 
tant point ; the moil evangelical and fublime fentiments 
and doctrines ; the moll ctofe, convincing, and edifying im- 
frovements ; the m.ofl animating and pathetic addrelTes and 
exhortations, contained in the other, are preferved in this. 
And this, I prcfume, vvili be deemed a fufficient apology 
tor reducing the lize. But after all, I wifh it may not 
be deemed by mofl flill too long, as 1 fuppofe there is 
notanother expoiition on this epilllc, the original excepted, 
fo full and large as this abridgement will be found. And 
1 cannot help thinking that, with the exercitations, it may 
be reckoned one of the moll: valuable fyflems of dodlrinal, 
pracUcal, and experimental divinity, tliat is to be met 
"With in the Englifh language. 



It is hardly needful to obferve, that it is the incum-* 
bent duty of every faithful abridgcr, as well as a faithful 
tranflator, to adhere fcrupuloufly to tht fenfe of his author, 
except Uie reafon to the contrary be univerfaily obvious, 
nor even then without apprizing the reader of it. Tlii* 
is what 1 have endeavoured throughout to pay the flri£left 
regard to. The reader of the enfuing pages will find in 
them the genuine thoughts and fcntiments of Dr. Owen, 
to the bell of my knowledge, and no other. Sometimes, 
indeed, the abridger thought it abfolutely necelTary, in 
difcharging his duty to his readers, to exchange an ex- 
prefiion, or to alter a phrafeology, for others that appear 
now more expreflive, or better underilood. And now 
and then he has taken the liberty, for a fimilar reafon, of 
infe-rting an expreffive or animating epithet, juftified by 
the connexion, or turned a fentence merely declarative 
into an awakening interrogation. Some may think that 
thefe liberties are after all too fcldom ufed, while others arc 
ready to entertain a jealoufy, when they apprehend that 
any freedom is taken with an author whom they fo much 
revere. To pleafe all is impoflible, while men's ideas of 
propriety and utility are fo various; and, thcicfore, to 
attempt it would be a fruitlefs toil, the offspring of folly, 
and the parent of difappointment. Suffice it to fay, that 
in the prefent undertaking the Editor has propofed as the 
end, the grcatell and moli: general good, and with depen- 
dance on the head of all gifts and graces — the blefied 
and adorable perfop., v/hofe glory in the falvation of his 
people is the fublime and delightful fubjcdl of thefe vo- 
lumes — he has purfued that end according to the bell of 
his judgement. And he cannot help indulging a pleafing 
hope, that the caufe of truth, the profitable knowledge 
of God our Saviour, the edification of bchevers, and the 
increafe of fervent love among brethren, will be pro- 
moted by the prefent attempt. 

Every one knows, that in all kinds of compofition, 
the article, of method is of confiderable moment ; and 
there appears to me two extremes into which we are apt 
to run. The one is the dry, fcholaflic mode of dividing 

* f H E E D 1 T O R's P RE F A C K. 

an'd fubdividing a difcourlbinto bits and crumbs, and of- 
ten for no other reafon than becaufe the fubjcct is capabh 
of being fo much divided, or merely becaufe the ideas 
cloathed have fome dcpcndance among tliemfelves ! And 
the other, which is at prefent much more in vogue, is 
that which afFe£ls to difcard all figns of order and divi- 
lion, and is content with a cryptic or hidden method. 
And here it mull be granted, that where the only or 
principal defign of an Author is to amufe and pleafe, the 
laft mode is well adapted to it ; but where the judgement, 
reafon, and memory are addrciled, as well as the imagina- 
tion and paffions, a moderate ufe of that method which 
is open and avowed feems necelTary, and more efpecially 
is it indifpenfably fo, in fuch a work as the enfuing ex- 
pofition. I have, therefore, attempted to avoid both 
extremes, by adopting a reconciling medium. He who 
is regardlefs of the heads and divilions, may pafs on, as 
a traveller who is regardlefs of the mile-floncs on his 
road, without any inconvenience ; while another, who 
is more obfervant, is gratified by marking his progrefs. 
The judicious and inquifitive will be pleafed, I prefume, 
with having the contents of each difcourfe at the head 
of it, as a curious traveller is pleafed with viewing a well 
proportioned map of a road which he has not travelled. 
And through the ufe q{ fedlons^ that ferve as marks and 
diftances on a map, any head of difcuffion may be found 
out with a glance, with the general delign and connec- 
tion of the whole. 

After all, my principal endeavour has been, as un- 
doubtedly it ought to have been, to preferve as much as 
poffible the excellent fpirit and unclion of the original; 
that no part of its light or heat be loft, but rather col- 
iedted, and, as it were, brought into a focus. Ta fuc- 
ceed ill fuch a defign effci-hmlly^ requires no fmall prepara- 
tion. I am convinced, that nothing fhort of a juft, 
confiftent, and comprehenfive acquaintance with thegof- 
pel ; — a difinterefted and earneft regard to the glory of 
God ; — a fervent love to the Redeemer, and the fouls of 
men for his fake ; — the coiuinual teaching and influences 




of the Spirit of all grace ,• — a moil fteady faith in the 
divine promifes ; — deep humility and diligent attention in 
learning the whole revealed will of God; — the fpirit of 
prayer end fublimc devotion; — an experimental foretaftc 
of heavenly blifs and glory ; — with a delightful mixture 
of patient hope, fubmifTive longing after the end of faith, 
and an unwearied profecutlon of that end in the ufe of 
appointed means : nothing but thefe qualifications ap- 
pear neccflary to keep pace, if I may fo exprefs myfelf, with 
the fpirit and undtion of Dr. Owen. Alas ! how 
fhort am I of fuch a flature ! However, according to the 
talent and meafure of faith received, the Lord be praifed, 
it is my lincere defire to ferve the beft interefls of im- 
.niortal fouls, to edify the body of Chrift in knowledge 
and faith, holy love and obedience, as the inflituted pre- 
paratives to the promlfed everlafting rcfl and glory. 

It has been well obfervcd, that " fentlments of ef- 
teem and veneration, combining with natural curiofitv, 
prompt n-; to inquire Into the h'ljlory of .thofe pien by 
whole writings we have been improved in w^ifdom and 
virtue." Therefore, the prefixing an account of the moft 
memorable particulars in the life and chara£ler of Dr. 
Owen, will no doubt be acceptable to all intelligent and 
inquifitlve readers of this performance. Though the 
Editor has availed himfelf of other fources and hints 
(which he thouglu it unnccefiary to refer to) yet, in compa- 
rifon, he has done little more than abridge the memoirs 
already drawn up, prefixed to the Doctor's pofthumous 
fcrmons and tra£ls ; reduced them to a method a little more 
diilinft and perfpicuous, with the addition of a few ob- 
vious refieflions, which he thought had a tendency to di- 
verfify, to enliven, and to improve the narrative. 

i have only to add, that from a conviction of the 
ntilitvofan abridged edition of Dr. Owen *' on the He-- 
brews," with the " preliminary difiertatlons," I have had 
the work in contemplation for fome years, (and I blefs 
the God of all grace for the pleafure and improvement 
the undertaking has been the means of affording me ;) 
that after I had made fome progreis therein, with a view 

2 t# 



to publifh it by fubfcription, I was applied to hy the 
publiflier of the Evangelical Library about its being fent 
into the world through the medium of that i^epofitory of 
valuable and fcarce divinity. And I own I was not 
averfe to fend it abroad in conipany with that venerable 
band of worthies, who, though dead, it is hoped will 
yet fpeak, with inereafing force, not only to the prefent, 
but alfo to future generations. But, like the other publi- 
cations in the Evangelical Library, the prefent work flands 
entirely detached from all preceding or future volumes, 
by the judicious mode adopted by the publilher of having 
double title pages. 

This performance is now launched into the world, 
with earneft prayer to the God of all grace, that both it 
and every other of the fame tendency, may be abundantly 
owned by him as a means of grace and falvation. 


March i8, 1789. 




JOHN O W E N, D. D. 

§ I. Introdu^'ion. § 2. "His -pedigree and parentage, § 3. 
His birth, education, and uncommon application to Jludies. 
§ 4. His youthful vanity. § 5. Hoiv fupportcd at College. 
§ 6. Forced to leave It. Ordained. § 7. His great con- 
vldions and dlfirefs. § 8. Dl [owned of his Uncle y 
he removes to London. § 9. i7oa; relieved. § 10. ///i 
afflUJions iifefnl. § I I • Settles at Fordham and Is mar- 
ried there. § 12. Removes to Coggefhall. § 13. ^^- 
comes more popular. § 14* His firft acquaintance with 
Fairfax and CromwelL Goes to Ireland. § 1 5* 'F'o 
Scotland. § 16. Made Vice-chancellor. § 17. His 
prudent and moderate condu^. § 18. IVlth due authority, 
§ 19. Is ho fpltahlc and generous. § 20. ///j exemplary 
diligence. § 21. Retires to Stadham. § 22. Is offered 
preferment. § 23. Tet perfecutcd. § 24. Calumniated. 
§ 25. Improves his liberty. § 26. Oppofes the conven^ 
tide bill. § 27. ISJotlced by King Charles II. § 28. 
Slcknefs and death. § 29. Character. §30- Epitaph. 

§ I. JJOCTOR John Owen, the celebrated Author 
of the following expofitory work, was a perfon confcCecUy 
of fupcrior talents, erudition, and piety. This is abun- 
dantly witnelTed by his cotenr»poraries, and corroborated 
by the conceffioas of thofe who were enemies to his theo- 
' Vol. I. C logical 


logical principles. It is to be lamented that the materials 
requifite to fill up his juil character are not more ample i 
particularly thole parts of his private condu£t^ -which 
could be known but to a few ; but which, neverthelefs, 
are the trueil indications of thofe motives that refleft a 
luilre on aftions, which othervvlfe may appear common. 
However, wx are furnilhed with as many fafts and cir- 
cumftances, of undoubted authenticity, in conne£lion 
with his writings, as prove h/m to bs an extraondinary 
perfon, whether we confider him as the profound fcholar 
and divine, or the experienced humble Chriftian. 

§ 2. He derived his pedig^ree from Lewis Ow^en, of 
Lki'x)!, near Dolgclle^ Merionethfhire, Efquire. * Grif- 
fith, the fifth fon of this gentleman, had a daughter 
named Susan, who was married to Humphrey, a branch 
of the fame family in another line. This Humphrey 

* This gentleman, who was heir to an eftate of about- 300I. 
fcr amiv.yn^ was lineally defcended (according, to Lewis Dynn's 
book of records relating to the antiquities of Wales) from a 
younger fon of Llewelyn [not Kewelyn, I prefume, as fome have 
written, it j ap Gwr gak,, Prince of Glaynorgan^ and Lord of Car- 
iliffe^ which w^as the laft family of the five royal tribes of Wales. 
He was Vice-chamberlain, and Baron of the Exchequer in North 
Wales, about the middle of the reign of Hen'ry the Eighth ; and 
continued in thofe honourable itations through vhe reigns' of 
Edward the Sixth, and Queen Mary, and until the eighth year 
of Queen Eliz.abeth, in great cuedit and authority. This ap- 
pears by the letters of thefe three royal perfonages to him and 
Tohn Wynxk ap Meredith, of Gwydir, Efq. in whofe 
fan:;jly thofe letters are kept, who- both jointly employed their 
power in apprehending felons and outlaws ; of whom there was 
a great number in thole parts during the wars betwixt the houfes 
of York and LancaJIcr. When Lewis Owen was High Sheriff 
of the county of Meiionethj. he had to attend Mmtgc^ntry alfiaes, 
(which opportuFiity he enibraced of treating with the Lord, of 
Monthrcy for his daughter in marriage with Jjohn his eldeft fon) 
but in his return he fell among fome outlaws, being feveral bro- 
thers called g'vAllieil cochion^ i. e. the veil robbers, at a place called 
Dn^ucd, near Mov:td\\, and was fliot through the head with an 
arrow. A plain crofs was erected to the Baron^s memory, upon 
the place when; he was murdered,- of which there are now no re- 
mains to be feen. ; but the gr.t^ which the aflalBns had made fall 
to obflruef his free palfagc, '}i to this day called Llidiart croes y 
Barouy i. e; The gate O'f th^ B-aron\- cr^fs. 


JOHN O W E N, D. D. rr 

had fifteen fons, and the youngefl, whole name was 

Henry, was our author*s father. * 

§ 3. John was his fccond fon, and was born at Stac/- 
hamy in Oxfordlhirc, ^////o Domini 16 16. He had his 
fchool learning at Oxford, and being a boy of fucli ex- 
traordinary genius and parts, he made fo quick a pro- 
iiciency, that he was admitted into Queen's College, under 
the learned Dr. B4RL0\5.% afterwards Bilhop of Lincoln^ 
at about twelve years of age ; and commenced IMafler of 
Arts when he was but nineteen, f He purfued his iludies 
with incredible dihgence, allowing himfelf, for feveral 
years, only about four hours fleep jn a night (which is 
Si clear proof of his conftitutional ftrength, as well as thirft 
for literature), fo that he foon had made a confiderable 
progrefs in learning. His youthful recreations were 
chiefly of the violent kind, as leaping, throwing the bar, 
ringing of bells, and the like ; which, though in him ex- 
prelfive pf more than ordinary vigour, are not to be re- 
.commended for imitation, efpecially to candidates for the 
facred miniflry ; for as, to moll conilitutions, fuch exer- 
tions are too violent to anfwer the purpofe of recreation, 
ip they are not the molt decent and inofFenfive to ferious 
minds ; which conlideration ought, undoubtedly, to have 

* Henry Owen- was bred a fcholar, and having palled 
through his academical fludies at Oxford^ \yas, after fome time, 
x:horen minifter at Stadham in that county. He was reckoned a 
^hict puritan tor his more than ordinary zeal i[i thofe early days 
of reformation. He married a piou§ womar,, had feveral children, 
and, after many years of reputation and fervice, died in a goqcl 
old age. 

f Literis natus, literis innutritus, totufcjue deditus ; 
Donee animata plane evafit bibliotheca : 
Authoribus clafficis, qua Gra^cis, qua Latinis, 
Sub. Edv. Sylvesiko, fchola? privatai Oxonii n;oderatpre, 
Operam naN a\ it iatis felicem : 
Feliciorem adhuc fludiis philofophicis, 
Magnofub Barlovio, go.U. reginalis, id tempus, focio. 
Thefe lines are taken from the Rev. Mr. T. Gilbert's larger 
epitaph, (for that which is intire at the clofe of thefe memoirs,, 
was compofed alfo by him) and for the fake of the learned reader, 
will be occalionally referred to v.hen it conveys any peculiar infor- 
^a^ation relative to our Author's hiftory or character. 

^2 m 


no fmall influence in regulating even our recreative cx- 

§ 4. During nearly all the time he continued at col- 
lege, being as yet in the days of his vanity, his whole aim 
and ambition was, in his indefatigable application to 
ftudy, to raife himfelf to fome eminence in church or 
ilate, to either of which he was then indifrerent ; and he 
was ready to confefs after, with fhame and forrow, that 
then, being totally under the influence of an afpiring 
mind, the love of popular applaufe, and the dcfire of fe- 
cular honour and preferment, the honour of God, or 
ferving his country, otiiervvife than he might thereby 
ferve himfelf, were moft remote from his intentions. And 
happy were it for feminaries of learning, if thefe motives 
in purfuit of literature were lefs prevalent in them every 
day ! How defirable for the intereil of true religion, that 
the conftraining love of Chriil, and a concern for precious 
fouls, reigned in the heart of every candidate for the facred 
fundion ! Then felf-applaufe, and other iiniiler and bafe 
motives, that difgrace the Chriilian miniftry, would be 
kept under, the love of learning and fcience would be duly 
regulated, and all the furniture acquired devoted to God, 
in ferving the immortal interefts of m.ankind. However, 
we may obferve and admire the wifdom of divine Pro- 
vidence, that ofte:i over-rules the natural genius and in- 
clination, as in the prefent cafe, for while our young 
fludcnt was a£luated by no higher motive than felf gra- 
tification, he was accumulating fuch a flock of learning 
and knowledge, as was afterwards confecrated to the 
very important and extenfive fervice of the church of 

§ 5. His father, being the youngefl of fifteen brothers, 
and having a large family, could not afford him any 
confiderable maintenance at the univcrfity ; but he was 
liberally fupplied by an uncle, one of his father's brothers, 
a gentleman of a fair eilate in Wales; who having no 
children of his own, intended to have made him his heir. 
He lived in tiie college until he was twenty-one years 


JOHN 'O W E N, D. D. 


©f ngc, from which time he met with extraordinary 

§ 6. About A. D. 1636, Dr, Laud, Archbifliop of 
Canterbury^ and Chancellor of Oxford^ Impofed feveral 
fuperftitious rites on the univcrfity, upon pain of cxpulfioii 
But Mr. OwEi^ had then received fuch light to difcover 
the rights of men and Ciiriilians, and to diftinguifli be- 
tween real and fpurious authority, that his confciencc 
would not fubrait to thofc arbitrary impofitions. How- 
ever temporal intereft might have pleaded for his com- 
pliance, yet other more weighty cordiderations of a reli- 
gious nature prevailed ; for by this time fuch gracious 
imprefTions were made upon his mind, as infpired him 
with ardent zeal for the purity of divine worfhip, and 
greater reformation in the church. This change of 
judgement foon difcovered itftlf ; his former friends for- 
fook him as one infe(?ted with puritanifm ; and, in fliort, 
he was become fo much the objeiTi of refentment from the 
Laudenjian party, that he was forced to leave the college. 
Soon after this, it is fuppofed, he took orders, and be- 
came chaplain to Sir Roe£rt Dormer, of Afcott, in 
Oxfordfhire, being tutor at the fame time to his eldeft 

§ 7. But we mufl here take a more particular furvey 
of his fpiritual exercifcs, a fcene which at firft appears 
very dark and gloom.y, but afterwards grows bright and 
pleafant. It may be previoully remarked, that when wc 
obfervc the feveral ftcps of Divine conduft towards him, 
through that remarkable part of his life, wherein the 
great and gracious change upon his foul was taking place, 
how he was fup^orted and carried on through amazing 
fleps of dejeftion and temptations ; it might be naturalK^ 
expected that he was deflined in the order of Providence 
(as Luther and many others were after the fevcreft 
exercifes of mind) for fome eminent fervices j as wc find 
in faft he afterwards proved one of the moll ufeful in- 
struments and brighteft ornaments in the church of God. 
We mull then know that as the fource of his troubles he 
was exercifed with many perplexing thoughts about his 



fplrltual Jiate, which, joined with outward difcourage- 
ments, threw him into a deep melancholy for three 
months ; during which time he could hardly be induced 
to fpeak a word, and when he did, it was with much ob- 
fervable diforder. And even when the violence of his dif- 
trefs was in fome meafure abated, he underwent no fmall 
trouble of mind, and grievous temptations, for near five 
years. But the all-wife and gracious God at lail 
brought forth " judgement unto victory ;" for this long 
night of trouble and mourning was afterwards fucceeded 
with lading light, ferenity, and joy. Thus, like Job, 
after " being tried, he came forth as gold," [Job 
xxiii. 10.] 

§ 8. When the civil \yar commenced, he openly 
avowed the Parliament's caufe, which his uncle, who had 
fupported him at college, being a zealous royalifl, fo 
vehemently refented, that he turned him at once out of 
his favour, fettled hi^ eflate upon another perfon, and left 
liim nothing in his wilh He now liv^d as chaplain with 
John Lord Lovelace, of Hurley, ii> Berklhire, who, 
though a royahfl, ufed him with great civility ; but his 
honourable friend going at length to the King's army, 
Mr. Owen went to London, where he was a perfed 
Uranger, and took lodghigs in Charter -Hon fe Yard. 

§ 9. He ftill laboured under his melancholy and fpir 
ritual troubles ; but the Lord's time was now come. And 
feeing the circumflances attending his recovery, and efta- 
blifhment in folid comfort, were fomewhat lingular, 
they deferve infertion. He went one Lord's day with 
Mr. Owen, a coufm of his, to Alder manhury church, 
with a view to hear Mr. Calamy ; but after waiting a 
long time, it was known that Mr. Calamy was prevent- 
ed from attending fervice by fome extraordinary occafion, 
xipon which many went out of the church. But Mr, 
OvvEN being well feated, and too much indifpofed for 
a farther walk, refolved to abide there, though his coufm 
would fain have perfuaded him to go and hear Mr. 
Jackson, then an eminent preacher in the city. At 
lai^ there came a countrv minifter, a ftranoer not onlv ta 

i Mr^ 

JOHN OWEN, D. D. 15 

Mr. Owen, but to the parlfli ; who, having fervently 
prayed, took for his text thefe words, * Why are ye fear- 
• ful, O ye of httle faith ?' [Matt, viii, 26.] The very read- 
ing of the words furprifed him, upon which he fecretly 
put up a prayer, that God would be pleafed by this dif- 
courfe, to fpeak to his condition; and his prayer was 
heard. For in that fernion, though a plain familiar dif- 
courfe, the minifler was dire£ted to anfwer thofe very ob- 
jections which Mr. OwESr had commonly formed againft 
himfelf : and though he liad formerly given the fame re- 
plies to hh own fcruples without any effeft, yet now the 
time was come, for God to fpeak comfmt to his foul, to 
remove all his doubts, and to lay the foundation of that 
folid peace which he afterwards enjoyed as long as he 
lived. And it is fomewhat remarkable that Mr. Owem 
could never come to the knowledge of this minifter, 
though he made the moft diligent inquiry. But it was a 
circumflance of no great moment that he fliould continue 
ignorant of the inilruments of the bleffing, while he had 
fo indubitable and fubflantial an evidence, that the work 
was of the Lord. And wc are hence furnifhed with an ob- 
vious reflexion, that faithful gofpel minifters may fome- 
times be of effential ufe in the church of Chrift, when 
they themfelves are not aware of it, and therefore enjoy 
neither the honour nor the pleafure of that ufefulnefs,^ 
until they are furpriied with the intelligence in glory^ 
when thofe perhaps they little thought of will appear as 
their crown and joy. 

§ 10. Thefe being his troubles, and his happy deli- 
verance, is it not worth our while to admire the gracious 
conduct of divine Wifdom in thus preparing him for that 
eminent fervice in the church, wherein he was a burn- 
ing and fliining light to the end of his days. The foun- 
dation of his experience was laid deep. His Divine 
deliverer from fo great a peril became infinitely precious 
to him. Having, like the mariner, efcapcd the ftorms and 
dangers of a long voyage, and fafely landed, he could 
i\ot eafily forget the Ikill and compalTion of his pilot. 
Here was a rich trcafurc of experience laid up, \Thich fur- 


niflied him with a peculiar ability to inftru£l others. He 
was particularly happy in giving proper advice and com- 
fort to fouls under ipiritual diilrcfs, " an interpreter, one 
among a thoufaiid, to (hew unto man his uprightnefs j'* 
ikilful to publilh to the fiillen race of Adam, the riches 
of the glory of that myftery contained in the gofpel^ 
which he found fo precious to his own foul. We may 
farther obferve, that by the uncoinmon diftrefies, and 
iiumiiiations he palled fhrongh, his natural vanity and 
ambition, of which he complained, were happily fubdued ; 
whereby he was brought to preach the gofpel in all 
plainnefs and fimplicity, which is the peculiar excellency 
of an evangelical miniller. And having thus enjoyed 
peace in believing, his bodily health alfo was reilored> 
which had been impaired by his deep diflrefs y though 
till then he fcarce knew what fickncfs was, being of a 
ilrong conftitution. 

§ II. Soon after this, and during hrs abode at the 
Charier-Houfc, he wrote his book entitled, *' J Difplay 
of Arminianifm.'''* It came out at a very feafonable tiniC» 
(A. D. 1643.) when the etrors he attacked had fpread 
themfelves pretty much in this nation ; fo that the book 
was the more taken notice of, and highly approved by 
many good judges. And, no doubt, a juil obfervatiou 
on the ftate of religious opinions, with the dangerous 
tendency of thofe he oppofed in this work, mufl have 
been a prevailing motive to undertake it. Through the 
whole performance, he has acquitted himfelf as a cham- 
pion in the caufe of truth, cutting in pieces the fine^vs 
or Arminianifm, and eflablifliing the pure gofpel do£trine 
with great force of argument. There were fome conii- 
derable perfons who entertained a juft fenfe of the value 
of this work, and did not fail to give real and particular 
marks of their refped to fo learned an author. For, 
foon after its publication, the committee for ejecting 
fcandalous minifters, paid fuch a regard to him on ac- 
count of it, that Mr. White, chairman of the comimittee, 
fent a fpecial meiTenger to prefent him with the living 
of Fordham in Ellex ; which oltcr he the more readily 


JOHN OWEN, D. D. 17 

embraced, as it gave hini" a favourable opportunity for 
the Hated cxercifc of his minifterial gifts. He contii)ued 
at this place about a year ^nd a half; where his preaching 
was fo acceptable, that people reforted to his miniilry 
from other parifhes ; and vilibly great was the faccefs of 
his labours. Soon after he came to Fordham^ he married * 
and had feveral children, all which furvived. It was now 
he publiflied his difcourfe, " Of the duty of pallors and 
people," in whicii he attempts to fecure to the facred 
calling its antient dignity, and to alfert the jqfl liberties 
of the people. 

§ 12. Upon a report that the fequeilered incumbent 
of Fordham was dead, the patron, who had no kindnefs 
for Mr. OwE^s pre Tented another to the living ; upon 
whicli the people at CoggeJhalU a market town about five 
miles from thence, earncPtly invited him to be their mi- 
n'lfter ; and the Earl of Warwick, the patron, very rea- 
dily gave him the living; which favour he thankfully ac- 
knowledged, as he had great reafon; for here he preached 
to a congregation more judicious and far more numerous, 
feldom fewer than two thoufand. A very fervent affec- 
tion was cultivated between minifter and people to their 
mutual fati3fa£lion and joy ; and here alfo he met with 
great fucccfs in his mjniilerial labours, wnth the univer- 
lal approbation oi the country round about. Hitherto 
Mr. Owen had follovyed the preibytcrian way ; but he 
•was now put upon a more diligent inquiry into the nature 
of church government and difcipline, and the refult was, 
that he was fully convinced the congregational plan was 
mod agreeable to the rule of the New Teflamcnt. And 
^vere his writings on this fubje-fl confaited without <par- 
tiahty, they may give to many a better opinicii of thi.s 
order of the gofpel church-es than they .perhaps entertain, 
and teach others not to flight, or, at leafc, not to revile what 

* Prima cptatis virilis cpnfors Maria, 
Rei domc-fticx pcrire ftuciiofa, 
Rebus Dei domus fe totum addicendi ; 
Copiara illi fecit gratiifimam. 

GiLB. Epi;t. 
Vol. I. D they 



they do not underftand. He formed a church at Cog- 
gejhall upon thele congregational principles, which con- 
tinued long a flourilhing church, and lubliils to this very 

§ 13. '^o eminent a light could not be concealed ; his 
reputation fpread through citv and country. He was now 
fent for to preach before the Parliament ; which he did 
April 29, 1646^ and feveral times afterwards; where he 
diilinguifhed himfelf by pleading for liberty of confci- 
ence, and moderation towards men of different perfuafions. 
Particularly his difcourfe on Jer. xv. 19, 20, preached 
the very day after the death of Charles I. deferves 
to be recorded as a perpetual monument of his integrity, 
modeftyj and wifdom. In the year 1648, he publiHied 
his book intitled " Salus Ele^orum, Sanguis Jeju'' or, 
*'- The Death of Death, in the Death of Chrift,'' which 
he dedicated to Robert Earl of Warwick. In his preface 
to the reader he tells us, *' That this performance was 
the refult of feven years ferious inquiry into the mind of 
God about thefe things, with a perufal of all which he 
could attain, that the wit of men in former or latter 
days hath publifned in oppofition to the truth.'* It is 
a noble undertaking, carried on with all the vigour of ar- 
gument and learning; and, indeed, of this he himfelf 
fcemed to be fully confcious, though one of the mofl 
humble and modeil of all writers ; for he fcrupled not to 
declare, that " He did not believe he fliould live to fee a 
folid anfwer given to it." And may we not add, that 
the event has more than verified the conjefture ? Does it 
not remain to our day without a folid anfwer ? 

§ 14. About this time Colchejicr was befiCged ; and 
Lord Fairfax, General of the Parliament forces, quar- 
tering at Gogge/hall fome days, became acquainted there 
with Mr. Owen. Soon after, alfo, he became known 
to Cromwell, who, having heard him preach, folicited 
his friendfiiip. The fermon that Cromwell Was fa 
much pleafed with, was that preached before the Houfe 
of Commons on the aSth of February 1649, being the 
day of humihation for the intended expedition to Ireland. 
I Our 

JOHN OWEN, D. D. 19 

Our preacher defigiied to go to his cure at Cogceshall 
within two clays, but thought himfelf obhged to make 
his compliments to General Fairfax firil:. While he 
'was waiting for admiffion, in comes Lieutenant Crom- 
well, who at fight of him came diredly up to him ; and 
laying his hand familiarly on his Ihoulder, faid, ** Sir, 
you are the perfon that I mufl be acquainted with." 
Mr. Owen modcftly replied, *' That will be more to my 
advantage than yours, Sir.'* " We fliall foo;i fee,'* 
fays Cromwell ; and, taking him by the hand, led h\in 
into Fairfax's garden, and from that time held a moll 
intimate friendfhip with him as long as he lived, He 
now acquainted Mr. Owen with his intended expedition 
into Ireland, and deiired his company there, to refide in 
the College of Dublin ; but he anfwered, that the charge 
of the church at Coggcjloall would not permit him to 
comply with his requeft. But Cromwell was not fa- 
tisfied with the objedion, nor would he take a denial ; 
and at laft, proceeding from defires to commands, he in- 
fijted upon his company ; at the fame time telling him, 
that his younger brother was to go as flandard-bearer in 
the fame army. He not only engaged his brother to 
perfaade him to a compliance ; but alfo wrote to the 
church at CoggcJhalU to defire leave that he might go ; 
which letter was read publicly amongil them, They 
were utterly unwilling to part with him on this occafion ; 
but at length Cromwell told them plainly, ^' He mufl 
and fhould go." With great reluftance, and after much 
deliberation, Mr. Owen complied, He went to DMblin^ 
(not with the army, but in a more private way) and con- 
tinued there about half a year, preaching and obferving 
the affairs of the college, Then with Cromwell's 
leave he returned into England, and went to his belove4 
charge at Coggcjhall^ where he was joyfully received. 

§ 15. He fcarcely had time to breathe there, before he 
was called to preach at pphitchall, which order he obeyed. 
And in September 1650, Cromwell requefted Mr. 
Owen to go with him into Scotland, but he being averfe 
\Q this journey alfo, the General procured an order of 

P z Par. 


Parliament, tvhich left no room for objecllons. He fcaid 
at Edinburgh about half a year, and then returning into. 
England, he went once more to his people at CoggcJhalU 
where he hoped to have fpent the remainder of his days: 
But God had prepared for him other work. 

§ 1 6. He m.ull now leave his beloved flock in the 
country, to fuperintend a college in Oxford. The firft 
intelligence he liad of this matter, was by one of the 
weekly newfpapers at Coggcjhall, w^here he read words to. 
this effeft ; " The Houfe taking into confideration the 
Worth and ufefiilnefs of Mr. John Owen, iludent of 
Queen's College, Mafter of Arts, has ordered that he be 
fettled in the Deanery of Chriil's College in Oxford, m 
the room of, &c." And foon after he received a letter 
from the principal ftudents of that college, iignifying their 
delire of his coming, and their great fatisfadion in the 
choice the Houfe had made of him to be their Dean. 
With the confent of his church he v^'ent to Oxford, and 
fettled there A. D. 1651 ; and in the following year 
(when alfo he Was diplomated D. D.) he was chofcu 
Vice-chancellor of that univerfity, in which office hq 
continued about five years. — This is the man — who, for 
his non-conformity, was deferted by his friends, difap- 
pointed of a good eilate, exercifcd with fpiritual trou- 
bles, and had to grapple with many other difficulties and 
hardiliips — that is now chofen to prefide over that uni- 
verfity, which, for confcience fake, he had been forced 
to quit. 

§ 17. It w^ovild be an inexcufable defe£l in this hiftory, 
not to take notice of that fingular prudence with which 
the Doclor (for fo we muft now call him) managed this 
honourable trufl:. Pie took care to rcllrain the vicious^ 
to encourage the pious, and to prefer men of induftry 
and learning. Urider his adminiflration the whole body 
of that univerf: ty was vifibly reduced to good order, and 
flouriflrcd v/ith a number of excellent fcholars and per- 
sons of diftinguiflied piety. When men are advanced 
to places of power and authority, they often difcover a 
magifterial air and a feverity of temper towards inferiors, 
"■ ^ - ' and, 



^nd generally incline to be pnicial in the difiribution of 
their favours ; but we lind a very difterent temper and 
condud in Do<^or Ov/en, while he fat in this chair of 
honour. Though hiirjelf an Independent, he difcovered 
great moderation both towards Prefbyterians and Epifco- 
palians ; to the former of whom he gave many vacant 
livings at his difpofal, and the latter he was very ready 
to oblige. A large congregation of tbefe flatedly cele- 
brated divine fervice very near him according to the 
liturgy of the chuf-ch of England-; and though he was 
often urged to it, yet he vyould never give them the leaft 
dillurbance ; and if at any time they met with oppoli-* 
tion or trouble on that account, it was from other hands, 
and always againft his mind. 

§ 1 8. This moderation and goodnefs in the exercifc 
of power gained him great love and refpecl. Yet wc 
mufl: obferye alfo, that he would not fufFer authority to 
be flighted v*iien there was 6ccaiion to alTert it, c^f 
which we may take the following anecdote as an inftance. 
When one of Trinity College, at an aft, declaimed iii 
^ very unbecoming and profane manner, contrary to 
llrift orders, the Doftor feveral times delired him to for- 
bear what rertecled fuch dilhonour on the univeriity j 
but notwithflanding this he v;ent on in the fame manner-. 
At length the Doctor feeing him obftinate, fent his bea* 
^les to pull him down, u. on which the fcholars inter- 
pofcd, and would not fuffer them to come near. Then 
the Doctor refolved to pull him down himfelf ; and while 
liis friends dilTuaded him from it, for fear any of the 
fcholars (for there were fome of them fons of Belial) 
Would do him fome mifch'ef ; he replied, *' I will not 
fee authority thus trampled on ;" and hereupon he pulled 
him down, and fent him to £ocar<^o, * the fcholars Hand- 
ing at a diilance amazed to fee his courage and refo- 

§ 19. But while he reftrained the loofe and diforderly, 
he failed not to Ihcw kindnefs to the fober and ingenious. 

t The name of a prifou in Oxford;, 



He was hofpitable in his houfe, generous in his favours, 
charitable to the poor, and efpecially to poor fcholars ; 
Ibme of whom he took into his family, and maintained 
at his own charge, giving them academical education. 
One time, for inllance, a poor fcholar prefented to him 
a Latin epiftle, which the Do£lor highly approving, he 
fent for him in, and afked him, if he wrote that letter ? 
he aihrmed he did ; *' Well, faid he, go into the next 
room and write me another as good, and I will not be 
wanting to encourage you ;" which he did to his great 
fatisfa^ion ; v>rhereupon he took him into his houle to 
teach his children ; and afterwards he became an excel- 
lent fchoohnailer and bred up feveral good fcholars. At 
another time, as he was hearing the fcholars difputing 
for their degrees, he took fpecial notice of one of Queen's 
College, who difputed very accurately, and difcovered 
more than ordinary parts and learning, with which the 
DoQor was very much pleafed ; and making inquiry, he 
xmderftood his circumflances were very low (though he 
made a conliderable figure afterwards in the world) and 
gave him a handfome prefent by way of encouragement, 
which that gentleman ever after gratefully acknowledged. 

§ 20. The government of a Vice-chancellor took up 
a great part of the Doftor*s time, together with other 
avocations which daily attended him in that ftation ; yet 
notwithftanding all, he redeemed time for his fludies, 
preached every other Lord's day at St. Mary's, and often 
at Stadha-m, and other places in the country, and wrote 
fome excellent books. In 1654, he publiflied his book, 
*' Of the Saints Perfeverance," in anfwer to Mr, John 
Goodwin's book, entitled, " Redemption Redeemed.'* 
It is a mafterly piece, full of clofe and ilrong reafoning, 
whereby he has enervated all the fubtle arguments, and 
anfwered all the objections of his opponent, and con- 
iirmed the truth by fcripture evidence. And in the 
whole of this performance, he exhibits to religious po- 
lemics an excellent example of a Chriilian temper iw tlie 
management of controverfy. In 1656, he publifhed his 
" l^indlcla^ EvajiT^.dia'-" or, ^' The Myftery of the Gofpel 

JOHN OWEN, D. D. ^3 

Vindicated,'* which was chiefly defigned againft John 
BiDDLE, a Socinian, who had publifhed two Sociiuau 
catechifms of the fame nature with the Racovlariy written 
by Valentinus Smalcius, which alfo the Doftor 
takes into examination, being willing to give a full con- 
futation to Socinian errors. It is an elaborate work, in 
which he has cut the finews of the caufe he oppofes, 
and (as his memorialifl expreflcs it) ** flabbed it to the 
heart." Soon after this he alfo publifhed that excellent 
book, entitled, *' Communion with God," which has 
ever lince recommended itfelf to the fpiritual talle of ju- 
dicious readers, and in which the author has given fuf- 
iicient evidence, that he was himfelf very intimately ac- 
quainted with a life of communion with Father, Son, 
and Spirit. 

§ 21. He continued Vice-chancellor of the univer- 
fity till 1657, when he gave place to Dodor Con ant, 
and in 1659, he was cafl out of his deanery, not long 
after Richard's being made prote£lor, and fucceeded by 
Dr. Edward Reynolds, afterwards Bifliop of Narivlch. 
Nor can we wonder at thefe changes happening to an in- 
dividual, when we confider the great alterations that took 
place in the whole government. Quitting his public 
llation at Oxford, he retired to Stadham, the place of his 
birth, where he pofTefTed a good eflate and lived privately, 
till the perfecution grew fo hot that he was obliged to 
move from place to place, and at length came to London, 
All which time he was not idle, but employed every mo- 
ment like a faithful fervant of Chrifl, in preaching as he 
had opportunity, and in waiting feveral valuable and ufe- 
ful books, to ferve the common interefl of religion and 
learning. In the year 1661, he publifhed that elaborate 
and learned ircatife, entitled, QsoTKoyovjjLSvcc : " De na- 
tuTYty ortUy pyogrcfjii^ et jlud'io vera Theologia^'' ** Concern- 
ing the nature, rife, progrefs, and fludy of true Theo- 
logy," which was afterwards reprinted at Bremen in Ger- 
many. This work muft have cofl him no fmall time and 
pains, as it evidently befpeaks a vafl compafs and variety 
of reading and learning. 

§ 22. 


' § 22. The next year (1660) came out a book, called 
*^ Fiat Lux,'^ written by John Vincent Lane, a 
Fraiicifcan ftiar i wherein, under the pretence of recom- 
mending moderation ?nd. tharity, he with a great deal of 
fubtiiity invites men over to the ehnrcli of Rome, as the 
only infallible cure of all church divifions. Two im- 
preffions of this book were printed off before the Do£lor 
iiad feen it ; at length it was ftnt him by a perfon of 
honour, who defired him to write an anfwer to it ; which 
he did in a very fliort time: the anfwer bears the title of 
*' AiVimadverfions on Fiat Lux, by a Proteflant ;" which 
being generally accepted, made the friar very angry, fo 
that he publiflied a Iheet or tvYO by way of reply, which 
produced the Doctor's anfwer, intitled, '* A Vindication 
of Animadvernons on Fiat Lux;'^ to which no reply wa§ 
given. "Inhere was feme difhculty in obtaining a licence 
tor this lait book, when the bifnops who were appointed 
hj a(!t of parliament to be the principal iicencers of di^ 
vinity books had examined it: at lafl: Sir E. Nicholas 
"procured the Bifliop of London s licence. This work re- 
commended him to theefceem of Lord Chancellor Hyde; 
who by Sir Bulstrode Whitlock fent for him, and 
alTared him, that " he had deferved the bell of any Eng- 
lifh proteflant of late vears, and that the church wa? 
bound to own and advance him ;" at the fame time of- 
fering him preferment, if he would accept it ; but he ex- 
preifed his furprife that fb learned a man fliould embrace 
the novel opinion of independency. The Doftor offered to 
prove that it was praclifed for feveral hundred years after 
Chriff, againff any bifliop his lordfliip lliould pleafe to ap- 
point. " Say you fo r" faid the chancellor, *' then \ am 
much miftaken.'^ They had fome further difcourfe, and 
particularly about hberty of confcience ; and to the 
Doctor's honour ht it mentioned, he ever held it a facre'd 
principle, whether in or out of power, that no peaceable 
perfonc, holding the foundation of the Chriilian faith, 
ought by the rule of lcri]>ture, or right reafon, to have 
anv violence offtied them for x\\i:\v profcffion of religion, 


JOHN OWEN, D. D, 25 

and their worfhippiiig of God according to the dictates of 
their confcieiices. 

§ 23. But notvvithftandjing all the good fervice he had 
done the church of England, and notwithftanding 
** he had deferved the beft of any EngHfh proteilant of 
late years," he was ftill perfecuted from place to place ; 
which perpetual trouble inclined him to think of leaving 
his native country, having received an invitation from 
his brethren in New England to the government of their 
tjniverfity ; but he was flopped by particular orders from 
the King. He was afterwards invited to be profelTor of 
divinity in the United Provinces, but he felt fuch a love 
for his native country, that he could not quit it fo long 
as there was any opportunity of being ferviceable in it.. 
About the time of his receiving thefe invitations from 
abroad, the nation was alarmed by the plague, that fwept 
away above one hundred thoufand perfons, and the la- 
/ mcntable fire that confumed fo great a part of the mctro-r 
polis. On account of thefe awful viiitations, there was a 
cefTation for fome time from profecuting the dilfenters, but 
the impreflions they made foon wore off; the temporary in- 
dulgence alarmed the high church party, who inilantly fled 
to Parliament for aid, left the daemon of perfecution fhould 
be fuffered to fleep too long. Nor were they difappoint- 
ed. About this time the Do(ftor, who had lived privately 
in London for fome years, went to vifit his old friends at 
Oxford, and to attend fome affairs of his own eftate not 
far from thence ; but, notwithftanding all his privacy, 
he was obllrved, and intelligence was given of the very 
houfe where he lay : upon which fome troopers came and 
knocked at the door ; the miftrefs of the houfe came 
down, and boldly opened the door, afking, <' What they 
would have f" Who thereupon inquired of her, ^' Whe- 
ther file had any lodgers in her houfe r" Inllead of giv- 
ing a direct anfwer to the queftion, llie alked, " Whe- 
ther they were feeking for Dodor Owen r" *' Yes," 
laid they ; fhc told them, " He went from my houfe this 
morning betimes." Then thev immediately went off; 
in the mean time the Do£lor, who fhe really thought 
Vol. I, E h;id 


had hccn gone, (as he told her he intended) arol'e and 
went into a field near the houfe, whither he ordered his 
horfe to be brought, and fo rode oiF immediately to 

§ 24. Nor did he efcape the tongyes and pens of ca- 
lumny and talie innuendos. His baffled antagoniil, the 
author of ** Fiat Lux," had charged the Doftor with 
having had a hand in the late troubles of the nation ; to 
this he replies, *' Let me inform you that the author 
of the " Animadverfions" is a perfon that never had a 
hand in, nor gave con lent to the railing of any war in 
thefe nations, nor to any political alteration in them ; 
110, not to any one that was amongft us during our revo- 
lutions : but he acknowledges that he lived and a£led 
under them the things wherein he thought his duty con- 
fifted, and challenges all men to charge him with doing 
the leaft perfonal injury to any man, prpfelling himfelt 
ready to give fatisfa£lion to any one that can juflly claim 
it.'* It had alfo been inlinuated, that it was through his 
influence, or rather by his doing, the fynod at the Savoy 
confented to have thefe articles — " That it is not faith but 
Chriil's righteoufnefs that we are juflified by — and that 
Chrift's righteoufnefs imputed is oiir fole righteoufnefs" 
— inferted in their confelhon. But this has been fufh- 
ciently confuted by Mr. John Griffith, who was 
fcribe to the fynod, by a Iblemn declaration made but a 
few weeks before his death, under his own hand, part ot 
which follows : " 1 declare upon my own certain know- 
ledge, having been a member of the Savoy meeting, and 
thoroughly acquainted with all matters of moment that 

paffed in it, from firll to laft^ that what Mr. fays 

about the two aforefaid articles being put into the Savoy 
confeflion by Dr. Owen's " doing," is altogether falfe, 
and that whoever made this report to him, has done a 
great injury to that affembly, wherein nothing was laid 
down as any part of their confeflion, which was not iirft 
debated, duly weighed, and approved, and agreed to by 
all, and more efpecially in the great and important doc- 
trine of jufl-ification. I thought it my duty to leave this 


J O H M O VV E N, D. D. 27 

atteftation, under my own hand, to clear the aforefald 
meeting of worthy miriifters, and faithful brethren, from 
fuch a foul afperlion. And this I do with the greateft regard 
to truth, as one daily expecting my change, and to (land 
before my Judge ; and, therefore, I hope, under no 
temptation to favour any party or pcrfualion of men 
through linful partiality." — To this we may add, that it 
ought to be mentioned (as one of his fucceflbrs obferves) 
to Doftor Owen's honour, that he feems to be one of 
the firft of our countrymen, who entertained juft and 
liberal notions of the right of private judgement and to- 
leration ; which he was honell and zealous enough to 
maintain in his writings, when the times were the leaft 
encouraging, for he not only publifhed two pleas for in- 
dulgence and toleration in 1667, when the difTenters 
were fufFering perfecution under Charles II. but took 
the fame fide much earlier, pleading very cogently againft 
intolerance, in an Eflay for the Praftice of Church Go- 
vernment, and a Difcourfe of Toleration, both which 
are printed in the Collection of his Sermons and Trafts ; 
and clearly appear to have been written, and were pro- 
'babiy firft publifhed, about the beginning of the year 
1647, when the Parliament was arrived at full power, 
and he was much in repute. 

§ 25. The Lord Chancellor Hyde having been im- 
peached and difcarded in 1667, and the Duke of Buck- 
ingham fucceeding him as chief favourite, the daemon of 
perfecution was fuffered once more to take a nap, or at 
leaft a momentary Humber. The nonconformifts in 
London w^ere connived at, and people went openly to their 
meetings w^ithout fear. This encouraged the country 
minifters to do the like in moft parts of England, and 
crowds of the moft religious people were their auditors. 
Now the Doftor had opportunity of preaching publicly 
and fetting up a lecture, to which, among others, many 
perfons of quality and eminent citizens reforted ; and his 
time was filled up with other ufeful ftudies, which pro- 
duced feveral books both learned and praftical. In the 
year 1668 he publillied his excellent "Expofition of the 

E 2 cxxxth 


cxxxtli Pfalm." This book is admirably calculated for the 
fervice of thofe who of all perfons in the world {land moft 
in need of compaffion, poor diftrelTed fouls in the depths 
of fpiritual trouble ; and contains as good an exemplifi- 
cation of the do£lrine of repentance and gofpel forgive - 
nefs as is any where to be met with. In this year alio he 
publiihed the firft volume of his " Expofition on the 
Epiftle to the Hebrews,^'' and the three other followed in 
their order, the lafl coming out in 1684. This is the 
work, together with the exercitations, which is now pre- 
fented to the public, and it is hoped, with regard to moft 
readers, at lealt, in a more acceptable and ufeful form. 
Of this work, the largeft and mofl elaborate he ever pub- 
liihed, he fpeaks in the following terras : " It is now 
fundry years {\\\z^ I purpofed in myfelf, if God gave life 
and opportunity, to endeavour, according to the meafure 
of the gift received, an Expolirion of the Epiftle to the 
Hebrews ; and in the whole courfe of my lludies have not 
been without fome regard thereunto : but yet I muft now 
fay, that after all fearching and reading, prayer and af- 
liduous meditations on the text have been my only re- 
ferve ; careful I have been, as of my life and foul, to 
bring no prejudicate fenfe to the w'ords, to impofe no 
meaning of my own, or other men's upon them, nor to 
be impofed on by the reafonings, pretences, or curiofities 
of any ; but always went nakedly to the w^ord itfelf, to 
learn humbly the mind of God in it, and to exprefs it as 
he fhall enable me." To this I fhall only fubjoin the 
following account of itj drawn up by the publilhers of his 
fermons and tradts, in their ** Memoirs of his Life" pre- 
fixed to that volume : "It is not eafy for us to give a full 
account of the value and ufefulnefs of this work ; it is 
filled with a great variety of learning, particularly rabbi- 
nical, which he has made ferviceable to give light unto 
the fubjed matter chiefly treated of in this Epiftle : with 
all he has taken care to adapt his Expofition to the fervice 
of the faith and comfort of Chriftians, and to recommend 
the practice of the fubftantial duties of religion ; fo that 
it is hard to fiiy, whether the fcholar or divine fiiine 
2 brightcft 

JOHN OWEN, D. D. 29 

bnghtell through this excellent work. Befides the Expo- 
fitioii itfelf, there are very learned exercitatioiis, wliich 
ferve to illullratc many difficult parts of fcripture, and to 
anivver the dciign of the whole work ; we fhall only far- 
ther obfervc, that here the Do<5lor has enumerated all 
the arguments, and anfwered all the main objcftions of 
the Socinians, overthrown entirely their whole fchemc, 
and driven them out of the lield ; fo that whoever reads 
this work needs fcarce any other for the ailailing of their 
pernicious errors." 

§ 26. When the Bill againft conventicles, drawn up 
in 1670 with the moft rigorous feverity, was fent up to 
the Houfe of Lords, and debates arofe upon it, the 
Do£lor was defired to draw up fome rcafons againft it, 
which he did ; and it was laid before the Lords by feve- 
ral eminent citizens and gentlemen of dittinftion. This 
paper is called " The State of the Kingdom, with refpecl 
to the prefent Bill againft Conventicles ;" but it did not 
prevail : the bill was carried, and palTed into an adl ; 
all the Bifhops were for it but two, viz. Dr. Wilkins, 
Bifliop oi Chcficr^ and Dr. Rainbow, Bilhop oi Cariiflt\ 
whofe names ought to be mentioned with honour for 
their great moderation. This was executed with fevcritv 
to the utter ruin of many perfons and families. To this 
period we may refer, among other learned and religious 
publications, his " Difcourfe of the Holy Spirit." At 
that time the oppolition to the Deity and Perfonalitv of 
the Holy Spirit, and all his gracious operations, rofc to 
a very great height ; and happy it w^as for the churcli of 
God, that this excellent perfon was railed to explain 2i\\^ 
^QitwA this do(^rine in io able a manner. One great ob- 
jedion againft the work of the Spirit in his illumination, 
fanctification, and fpiritual gifts, was, that thofe who 
plead for thole operations are enemies to rcafon^ and im- 
pugn the life of it in religion- Hence fome peeviililv af- 
tirmed, that it w\as caft on them as a reproach, " that 
they were rational divines^ On which the DocVor ob- 
ferves : ** As far as I can difccrn, if it bs fo, it is as 
Heirom was beaten by an angel for being a Ciceronian 



(in the judgement of fome) very undefervedly." To fol- 
low onr author tli rough all his pubhcations would require 
a moderate volume ; for one while we find him writing — 
a primmer for children, and catcchifms for youth ; ano- 
ther while rules for church fellowlhip, and an invefli- 
gation of the origin and nature of evangeHcal churches ; 
at one time affilling the wcakefl in the faith, and at ano- 
ther developing the fublimc myfteries of Chriflianity ; 
one while he turns his learned weapons againft the various 
troops of heretics that furround him, another while he 
contends for liberty and toleration, in oppofition to the 
perfecuting zeal of bigots. The following treatifes, how- 
ever, in addition to thofe already mentioned, muil not 
be left unnoticed as highly deferving the warm efteem of 
the evangelical world, viz. *' The Do£lrine of J unifica- 
tion by Faith through the Imputation of the Righteouf- 
nefs of Chrift, explained, confirmed, and vindicated," 
y^pKfjoKoyicc : Or, " A Declaration of the Glorious 
Myftery of the Perfon of Chrift, God, and Man." Such 
a ftrain of piety, zeal, and learning runs through the 
whole of this work, as reiiders it worthy of the moft feri- 
ous perufal of all, and efpecially minillers, and will en- 
dear his memory to all that love our Lord Jefus Chrift in 
lincerity. ^l>QovYiua> rov r.VcV^.ajog : Or, " The Grace and 
Duty of being fpiritually minded." It was compofed out 
of his own deep and fpiritual meditations, originally de- 
ligned for his own ufe, not long before his death ; and 
in it he breathes out the fentiments and devotion of a 
mind full of heaven. He obfcrvcd and bewailed the car- 
nal frames and lives of profeifors, and the prevalence of 
the world over their minds and affedlions, which, as it 
were, corrode the very vitals of true religion. This dif- 
courle, which has been judicioufly abridged by the Rev. 
Dr. Mayo, is dciigncd as an antidote againft this grow- 
ing evil, and calculated to promote a fpiritual and heaven- 
ly frame of mind, and it is earnefllv recommended to the 
diligent perufal of all Chriflians of the prefent day, where- 
in this dangerous difeafc of worldly mindednefs fo evi- 
dently abounds. In his *' Meditations on the Glory of 


JOHN OWEN, D. D. 31 

Chrift, jn two Parts," we have an ample teftlmony of 
that pious and heavenly frame, that clear and intimate 
knowledge of the glory of Chrift, aiid that fervent love 
to his divine Perfon, by which the Do£lor*s experience 
was eminently diilinguilhed ; there he thinks and writes 
like one that was in a full and near view of unveiled 

§ 27, ThG waitings which he thus continually pro- 
duced, drew upon him the admiration and refpeft of fe- 
veral perfons of honour, who were much delighted in his 
converfation ; particularly the Earl of Orrery, the Earl 
of Anglesea, Lord Willoughby, of Parha?ji, Lord 

* The excellent Mr. Hervey fpeaks of this piece in the fol- 
lowing terms : " To fee the Glory of Chrift, is the grand bleffing 
which our Lord folicits and demands for his difciples, in his laft 
folemn interceifion, [John xvii. 24.] — Should the reader defire' 
affiflance in this important work, I would refer him to a little 
Treatile of Dr. Owen's, intituled, " Meditations on the Glory 
of Chrill: :" it is litde in lize, not io in value. Was I to fpeak 
of it, in the claffical ftile, I Ihould call it, aureus, ocmmeus, vielli- 
iMs. But J would rather fay, it is richly repleniflied with that 
un6Hon from the Holy One, which tends to enlighten the eyes, 
and cheer the heart ; which fweetens the enjoyments of life, 
foftens the horrors of death, and prepares for the fruitions of 
eternity. Ther. and Aspasio, vol. iii. p. 75. Lond. 1767. — 
The fame writer, fpeaking of the Puritan Divines, places with 
propriety our Author as foremofi ; and as the other names he 
mentions are accompanied with fliort charaders, beautifully ex- 
preffive of their refpedive peculiar excellencies, the reader will be 
pleafed with them : " Dr. Owex, with his corre6t judgement, 
and an immenfe fund of learning. — Mr. Charnock, with his 
mafculine ftile, and an inexhauilible vein of thought. — Dr^ 
Goodwin, with fentjments eminently evangelical, and a mofb 
happy talent at opening, fitting, and difplaying the hidden riches 
of fcripture. — Thefe, I think, are the fii-fl three : — Then comes 
Mr. Howe, nervous and majeflic; with all the powers of ima- 
gery at his command. — Dr. Bates, fluent and poliflied ; with a 
never-cealing ftore of beautiful fnnilitudes. — Mr. Fla\ el, fer- 
vent and aftedionate ; with a niafterly hand at probing the con- 
fcience, and ftriking the paffions.- — Mr. Caryl, Dr. Manton, 
Mr. Pool, with many others; whofe works will Ipeak for them 
ten thoufand times better than the tongue of panegyric, or the pen 
of Biography. — Id. vol. i, p. 206. 



Wharton, Lord Berkley, and Sir John Trevor. 
When he was at Tnnbridge the Duke of York fent for 
him, and feveral tinaes difcourfed with him concerning 
the Diflenters, &c. and after his return to Z<?az(S^q;2 he was 
fent for by King Charles himfelf, who difcourfed with 
him two hours, affuring him of his favour and refpe£l, 
telling him that he might have accefs to him when he 
would : at the fame time he alTured the Do6lor he was for 
liberty of confcience, and w^as fenfible of the wrong that 
had been done to Diffenters, as a teflimony of which he 
gave him a thoufand guineas to diilribute among tliofe 
who had fufFered the moll. This he thankfully accepted, 
and faithfully applied. The Do£lor had fome friends 
alfo among the Bithops, particularly Dr. W ilk ins, 
Bidiop of Chejier^ and Dr. Barlow, Bifhop oi Lincoln^ 
formerly his tutor, who (when he had appUed to him on 
behalf of John Bunyan) promifed to '* deny him no- 
thing that he could legally do ;" though, in this particu- 
lar, he hardly fulfilled his word. The cafe was this ; 
Mr. Bunyan had been confined to gaol for twelve years, 
upon excommunication for non-conformity, and Dr. 
Owen was applied to on this occafion, in virtue of a law 
that admitted of a cautionarv bond to be offered to the 
l^iihop of the diocefe, and which admitted that the Bifhop 
may rcleafe the prifoner upon that bond ; and though 
Bifhop BARLOvy was fo obliging as to fay that he would 
Ihain a point to ferve Dr. Owen, yet he could not be 
prevailed upon to accept it. And, after all, they were 
obliged to move the Lord' Chancellor to iffue forth an 
order to the Bifliop to take the cautionary bond before 
Mr. Bi'xvAN was rcleafed. This Bifhop once afked the 
Doctor, " \v hat can you object to our liturgical wor- 
fhip wliich 1 cannot anfwer ?" The Do6\:or*s anfwer oc- 
calioned the Bilhop to make a paufe ; oil which the Do6lor 
iaid, '* Don't anfwer fuddenly, but take time till our 
next meeting," which never happened. His great worth 
procured him the clleem of many flrangers who reforted 
to him from foreign parts ; and many foreign divines 
lias ii^g read his Latin works, learned Englijh for the be- 

JOHN OWEN, D. D, 33 

nefit of the reft. His correfpondence with the learned 
abroad was great, among whom we may particularly men- 
tion that prodigy of genius and learning, Anna Maria 
A ScHURCHMAN ; and feveral travelled into England to 
fee and converfe with him. It is a lofs to the -public, 
much to be regretted, that none of thofe letters can be 

§. 28. His many labours brought upon him, as might 
be expected, frequent infirmities, the weight of which 
daily increafed, whereby he was taken off from his public 
fervice, though not rendered ufelefs, for he was continu- 
ally writing whenever he was able to fit up. At length 
he retired to Kenjington. As he was once coming froni 
thence to London^ two informers feized upon his carriage, 
but he was difcharged upon the interpofition of Sir Edm, 
Godfrey, a juftice of peace who happened to come by 
at that inftant. The Do£lor afterwards removed to a 
houfe of his own at Ealing, w^here he finiilied his courfe. 
He there employed his thoughts on the other world as 
one w^ho was drawing near it in full profpeft, which pro- 
duced his ^' Meditations on the Glory of Chrift," already 
mentioned, in which he breathed out the devotion of a 
foul continually growing in the temper of the heavenly 
ftate. Two days before his death he diftated a letter to 
a particular friend (Charles Fleetwood, Efq.) in. 
which are the following v^^ords : '* I am going to him 
wiiom my foul has loved, or rather who has loved me 
w^ith an everlafting love, which is the whole ground of 
all my confolations. The paflage is very irkfome and 
WTarifome, through ftrong pains of various forts, which 
are all iffued in an intermitting fever. All things were 
provided to carry me to London to-day, according to the 
advice of my phyficians ; but we were all difappointcd, 
by my utter difability to undertake the journey. I am 
leaving the fhip of the church in a ftorm, but whilft the 
great pilot is in it, the lofs of a poor under-rower will be 
jnconfiderable. Live and pray, and hope and wait pati- 
ently, and do lot defpond : the prom.ife {lands invincible 
|hat he will never " leave us or forfiike us," he. Mr. 

Vol. L F ?AYN£a 


Payne, who for feveral years kept an academy at Saffron 
Walden (at which feveral eminent diflenting minifters were 
educated) being intrufted by the Doftor to put his laft 
performance to the prefs, came in to fee the Doftor the 
morning of that day on which he died, and told him, 
Doftor, I have been juft putting your book *' On the 
Glory of Chrifl" to the prefs ; to which he anfwered, 
" I am glad to hear, that that performance is put to the 
prefs ;" and then lifting up both his hands and his eyes,, 
as in a kind of rapture, he faid, " But, O Brother Payne, 
the long looked-for day is come at lafl, in which I fhali 
fee that glory in another manner tlian I have ever done 
yet, or was capable of doing in tliis world." He died 
Auguft 24th 1683, aged 67. He was carried from £"<?- 
i'lng to the burying ground in Bunhill Fields^ his herfe be- 
ing attended by a very great number of noblemen's and 
gentlemen's coaches, and many gentlemen on horfe- 
back. He was interred in a new vault towards the 
eaft end of that burying place, with a monument of 
free Hone ereded over it, and a Latin Epitaph.* He 


* Though, in my opinion, the befl eulogium, and mofl: lafling 
monument, by which Dr. Owen's j nil merit is exhibited to pol- 
terity, are his own writings ^ yet, left it fliould be deemed a de% 
ficiency in this memoir to omit his epitaph, it is here fubjoined ; 
and Dr. Gibbons' tranflation of it, as a fummary conclufion of his 
chara6ter : 

Johannes Owen, S. T. P. 

Agro Oxonienli Oriundus ; 

Patre infigni Theologo, Theologus Ipfe Iniignior ; 

Et Secuiihujus Infigniifimis annumerandus : 

Communibus Humaniorum Literarum Suppetiis, 

Menfura pariim Commiini, Inflru6lus ; 

Omnibus, quafi bene Ordinata Ancillarum Serie, 

Ab illo jufiis Suae Famulari Theologiae ; 

Theologise Polemicae, Prafticae, et quam vocant Cafuum ; 

(Harum enim omnium qua magis Sua habenda erat, 


In ilia, Viribus plufquam Herculeis, Serpentibus tribus, 

Arminio, Socino, Cano, Venenofa, ilrinxit Guttura : 

In ifta Suo prior, ad verbi amuffim, Experfjs Pe6tore, 

Univerfam Sp. Scti. Oeconomiam AUiis tradidit : 

Et Miffis Caeteris, Coluit ipfe Senlitque, 


JOHN OWEN, D. D. 3; 

left behind him a mournful widow who had hved with 
him about fcven years : a gentlewoman of a conliderable 

family, being the daughter of Michael, Efq. of 

Kingjion Rufjel^ Dorfetfhire; flie was a perfon of very good 
kwic^ truly religious, very tender and affectionate to the 
Doftor ; Ihe furvived him many years, and was inter- 
red in the fame vault which fhe had eret^ed for him.f 

§. 29. His chara£ler may be briefly fummjed up as 
follows : 

As to his perfon, his ftature was tall ; his vifage grave, 
majeftic and comely ; his afpeCl and deportment, gen- 
teel ; his mental abilities incomparable ; his temper affable 
and courteous ; his common difcourfe moderately faceti- 
ous. He was a great malicr of his paflions, efpecially 
that of anger : and poffelTed great ferenity of mind, nei- 
ther elated with honour or eflate, nor depreffed with dif- 
ficulties; of great moderation in his judgements, and of a 
charitable fpirit, willing to think the bell: of all men he 
could, not confining Chrillianity to a party. A friend of 

Beatam, quam Scripfit, cum Deo Communionem : 

In Terris Viator comprehenlbri in Coelis proximus : 

In Cafuum Theologia, Singulis Oraculi inflar habitus ; 

Quibus opus erat, et Copia Confulendi ; 

Scriba ad Regnum Coelorum ulquequoque infhtutus ; 

Multis privates infra Parietes, a Suggeflo Pluribus, 

A Prelo Omnibus, ad eundem Scopum collineantibus, 

Pura Doftrinae EvangeliciE Lampas Praeluxit ; 

Et fenlim, non fine Aliorum, fuoque fenfu, 

Sic praelucendo Periit, 

Afliduis Infirmiratibus Obfiti, 

Morbis Creberrimis Impetiti, 

Durifque Laboribus potiiftmum Attriti Corporis 

(Fabricae, donee ita QualTata?, Spe6labilis) Ruinas, 

Deo ultra Serviendo inhabiles, Sanda Anima, 

Deo ultra Fruendi Cupida, Deferuit ; 

Die, a Terrenis Poteftatibus, Phirimis fado fatali ; 

Illi, a Coelefli Numine, Felici reddito ; 

Menlis Scilicet Augufti XXIV°, Anno aPartu Virginea 


f Dorothea Vice, non Ortu, Opibus, Ofticiifve, Secunda, 

Laboribus, Morbis, Senioque ipfo Elanguenti 

Indulgentilfimam etiam fe Nutricem prceftitit. 

Gilbert's /mailer Epi t. 
F 2 peace 


peace and a diligent promoter of it among Chrifllans.* 
In point of learning he was one of the brighefl ornaments 
of the Univerlity of Oxford. Even Mr. Ant. Wood, 
who feldom could drop any thing favourable of a pious 
non-conformift, thinks fit to own, that " He was a per- 
fon well {killed in the tongues, rabbinical learning, and 
Jewifli rites ; that he had a great command of his En- 
glifh pen, and was one of the fairefl and genteelell writers 
that appeared againft the church of England." His 
Chriftian temper in managing controverfy was admirable. 
He was well acquainted with men and things, and would 
Ihrewdly guefs a man's temper and deiigns on the firft 
acquaintance. His labours, as a miniiler of the gofpel, 
were incredible. He was an excellent preacher, having 
a good elocution, graceful and affe^lionate : and could 
on all occaiions, without any premeditation, exprefs him- 
felf pertinently on any fubjeft ; yet the fermons were 
moftly well iludied and digefted, though he generally 
ufed no notes in the pulpit. His piety and devotion 
wete eminent ; his experimental knov/Iedge of fpiritual 
things very uncommon. In every department, and in all 
relations of life, he condu6ted himfelf hke a great Chrif- 

* The following letter to a friend, which was never publifhed, 
tending in a meafure toiiluilrate this part of our author's charac? 
tery is deemed not umvorthy of iniertion here. 

" S I R, 

*' I A iM very forry to find that there is a difference arifen be- 
tween Mr. C and yourielf. Since the receipt of yours, I re-^ 

ceived one from Imn, with an account of the difference, and his 
thoughts upon it at lai-ge. I do riot therefore judge it meet to wTite 
any thing at prefent about it, until I am ready to give unto you 
both an account of juy thou gins, which by reafon of many avoca- 
tions I cannot nov/ do. All that I fliall therefore fay at prefent, is, 
That without mutual love and condefcenfion no interpolition of 
advice will iiTue the bufinefs to the glory of Chrifl and the gofpel. 
I pray God guide you both by that fpirit which is promiled to lead 
us into all truth. Upon the iirft opportunity you will have a far- 
ther account of his fenfe who is your 

Affedionatc brother," Sec. 
January 2d 1678-9. 

2 tian, 

J O H N O W E N, B, D, 37 

tian,* a faithful and loving huiband, a tender father^ a 
good mafler, a prudent governor in places of honour and 
trufl, and a very dutiful peaceable fubjeft.-^The follow- 
ing extradls from Mr. Clarkson's funeral fermon for 
Dr. Owen may be here fubjoincd, in juftice to his cha- 
racter : " A great light is fallen ; one of emincncy for 
holinefs, learning, parts and abilities ; a pallor, a fcholar, 
a divine of the firfl magnitude : holinefs gave a divine 
luftre to his other accomplifhmentS, it lliined in his whole 
courfe, and was diffufed through his whole converfation. 
It was his great defign to promote holinefs in the power, 
life, and exercife of it. — It was his great complaint that 
the power of it declined among profeflbrs. It was his 
care and endeavour to prevent or cure fpi ritual decays, in 
his own flock : he was a burning and fliining light, 

*' He was mafter of all parts of learning recjuifite to 
an accompliihed divine ; thole that underftood him, and 
will be jull, cannot deny him the reputation and honour 
of being a great fcholar ; and thofe that detraft from him 
in this, feem to be led by a fpiritof envy, that would not 
fuifer them willingly to fee fo great an ornament among 
thofe that are of another perfuaiion. Indeed he had 
farts able to mailer any thing he applied hijiifelf unto, 
though he reilrained himfelf to thofe fludics- which might 

* The following extraft from a letter to Sir John Hartopp, 
tvhich is not in print, may not be unacceptable, as a fpecimen of 
the Dodor's friendly correfpondence : — " My duty, my obliga^ 
tions, and my inclinations, do all concur in the efteein 1 have tor 
you both ; [Sir John and bis Lady] and 1 do make mention of 
you daily in my poor fupplications — and that with particular re- 
fpe6l unto the prefent condition of your Lady. That God who 
hath revealed himielf uuto us, as the God that heareth prayer, 
will yet glorify his name and be a prefent help unto her, in the 
time of trouble. In the mean time, let her, and you, and me, 
llrive to love Chrift more, to abide more with him, and to be lefs 
in ourfelves. He is our bed friend. I pray God with all my 
heart that I may be weary of every thing clfe but converfe and 
communion with him ; yea, of the beft of my mercies, (o far as at 
any time they may be hindrances thereof. — My wife prefents her 
humble fervice unto your Lady and yourielf, as fo doth alfo, Sir. 
vour mofl affectionate friend and fervant in our dear Lord, 

" John- Owhn/' 


render him moll ferviceable to Chrifl, and th^ fouls df 
men. — He was a paflionate lover of light and truth, of 
divine truth efpecially ; he purfucd it unvveariedly, through 
painful and waiting ftudies. — He was ready to fpend and 
he fpent for Chriil ; he did not bury his talent, with 
which he was richly furniflied, but fiill laid it out for the 
Lord who had intruded him. He preached while his 
flrength and liberty would ferve, then by difcourfe and 
writing. That he was an excellent preacher, none will 
deny who knew him, and knew what preaching w^as, and 
think it not the worfe becaufe it is fpiritual and evangeli- 
cal.* — If holinefs, learning and a mafculine unaife£led 
ftyle can commend any thing, his pra£lical difcourfes can- 
not but find much acceptation with thofe who are fenfi- 
ble of their foul concerns, and can relilh that which is 
divine, and value that which is not common or trivial. 
His excellent " Comment upon the Hebrews"t gained 
him a name and efleem, not only at home but in foreign 
countries. When he had finished it (and it was a merci- 
ful providence that he lived to finifli it) he faid, Now his 
work was done, it was time for him to die." 

§. 30. The late Rev. Do£lor Gibbons has given us, 
through the vehicle of the " Nonconformift's Memorial,'* 
an Engliili tranilation of the Latin epitaph above-men- 

* Tarn in Palseflra, quam Pulpito, Dominntus eft : 

In Pulpito, maxime Infirmi Corporis 

Prad'entia minime infirma : 

Geftu, Theatrica prccul Geiliculatione, 

Ad optimas Decori Regiilas coiripofito : 

S^rmone, a Contemptibili remotiiiimo ; CanorOy 

Sed non Stridulo : Siiavi, fed prorfiis virili ; 

Et Authoritatis quiddam Sonnnte : 

Pari, ii non &c Superiore, Animi Prcefentia; 

Concioniim, quas, ad verbmu, totas Chartis commifit, 

Ne verbum quidem, vel carptim & ftringente Oculo, 

Inter Prjedicandum Leftitavit : 

Sed Omnia, Suo primiim Imprefia altins Pecflori, 

Auditorum Animis, Cordibufque potentius Ingeffit : 

GiLB. Epit^ 
•f Cujus Pi-celuftri e multis unum Siifficiat Epitaphio : 
Author Qu/Vdripartiti in Ep. ad Kebr. commentarii^ 


JOHN OWEN, D. D. ^i^ 

tioncd, which, as it may gratify the curiofity and picafure 
of thofc in a peculiar manner who are not polTeircd of 
that work, or may not be verfed in the Latin language, 
fo the inferting of it here is highly proper as a jull tri* 
bute to the Dodor's memory, and a fuitablc recapitula- 
tion of thcfe memoirs : 

John Owen, D. D. 

Born in the county of Oxford, 

The fon of an eminent minifter, 

Himlelf more eminent, 

And worthy to be enrolled 

Among the iirft divines of the agcu 

Furnifhed with human literature 

In all its kinds, 

And in its higheft degrees, 

He called forth all his knowledge 

In an orderly train 

To ferve the interefts of religion. 

And minifter in the fanftuary of his God. 

In divinity, praftic, polemic, and cafuiftical, 

He excelled others, and was in all equal to himfelf. 

The ylrmlnian, Socinian, and Pop'ijh errors, 

Thofe Hydras, whofe contaminated breath 

And deadly poifon, infefted the Church, 

He, with more than Herculean labour, 

Repulfed, vanquifhed, and deftroyed. 

The whole oeconomy of redeeming grace, 

Revealed and applied by the Holy Spirit, 

He deeply inveftigated, and communicated to others^ 

Having firft felt its divine energy. 

According to its draught in the holy fcriptures, 

Transfufed into his own bofom. 

Superior to all terrene purfuits, 

He conftantly cherilhed, and largely experienced-. 

That blifsful communion with Deity 

He fo admirably defcribes in his writings. 

While on the road to heaven 

His elevated mind 



Almofl comprehended 

Its full glories and joys. 

When he was confulted 

On cafes of confcience 

His refolutions contained 

The wifdom of an oracle. 

He was a fcribe every way inflru^ted 

Jn the myileries of the Kingdom of God^ 

In converfation he held up to ma?iyy 

In his public difcourfes to more, 

In his publications from the prefs to all^* 


* A coinplete Catalogue of the Doctor^s Works. 

Fo L I o . pr.bcri puhUfosd, 

1. An Expofition of the Epiille to the Hebrews 

Vol. I^ London i568 

— ^ Vol. IL . — 1674, 

^ Vol, 111, 1680 

Vol. IV. - — 1684. 

2. Of the Saints Perfevt^ ranee 1654. 

3,. A Difcourie of the Holy Spirit ^^74 

4. A complete CoUetticn of his Sermons and Trads 172 1 


•s. A Difplay of Arminianifm 1643 

s. The Duty of Pallors and People diflinguiilied - 1644 

3. ^alus Elctlorum, Sanguis Jefu : OVy The Death of 

Death in the Death of Chrift 1648 

4. Of the Death of Chrift 

^. Findici^ EnmngcUca : Or, The Myller)' of the 

Gofpel vindicated, in aniwer to J. Bi dole - 16^5; 

i-)> Of Communion with God ; Father, Son, and Holy 

Spirit 1657 

7. GicXo-yc-jp-fya : Sive de Natura, Ortu, ProgreiTu, et 

Studio VeriE Theologize _ . — i66i 

5. An Expofition of the cxxxth Pfalm 1668 

9. The Doctrine of Juiliflcation by Faith, Stc. — 1677 

10. The Glorioas Myftery of the Perfon of Chriil 1679 

1 1 . The Grace and Duty of being Spiritually Minded 168 1 
i2. An Enquiry- into the Original, &c. of Evan. Churches i68r 

13. The True Nature of a Gofpel Church - 1689 

14. A Review of the Annotations of Grotius — 1656 

1 5. A Difcourfe concerning Liturgies ■ i(^(j2 
\ti. Indulgence and Toleration conndered in a Letter 1667 
J/. A Pegce Offering, or Plea for Indulgence — 1667 

io. 1 ne 

JOHN ^O W E N,. D. D. ^i 

Who were fet out for the celcftial Zion, 

The effulgent lamp of evangehcal truth 

To guide their iteps to immortal glory. 

While he was thus diiFufing his divine light, 

With his own inward fenfations, 

And the obfervations of his afflicted friends, 

His earchly tabernacle gradually decayed, 

J 8. The Church of Rome no Safe Guide 1679 

19. SomeConlideration about Union among Proteftants 1680 

so. Vindication of the Nonconformifts 1680 

z I. An Account of the Nature of the Proteftant Religion 1682 


1. Two Catechifms ■ 1641; 

2. Eflieol : Or, Rules for Church Fellowfliip — 1648 

3. Diatriba de Juflitia divina _— 1653 

4. Of the .N'Ortification of Sin in Believers . ■ . 1656 

5. A Difcovery of the True Nature of Schifm 1657' 

6. A Reveiw of the True Nature of Schifm, &c. 1657 

7. Of the Nature and Power of Temptation ■ — 1638 

8. A Defence of Cotton againft Cawdry . . 1658 

9. Exercitationes quatuor pro facris Scripturis — i6(j8 

10. The Divine Original and Authority of the Scriptures 16^9 

11. A Primmer for Children — 1660 

12. Animadverfions on Fiat Lux j66x 

13. Vindication of thofe Animadverfions ■ 1664 

1 4. A Brief hiftruftion in the Worfliip of God — 1667 

15. The Nature of IndwelHng Sin — ■ . . 1668 

16. Truth and Lmocence Vindicated 1669 

1 7. A Brief Vindication of the Do61rine of the Trinity 1669 

18. Diflertations on the Sabbath and Lord's-Day — 1674 

19. Of Evangelical Love, Church-Peace, and Unity ^^73 

20. A Vindication of his Book of Communion with God 

from the Exceptions of Dr. Sherlock — 1674 

21. The Nature of Apoftacy from the Profeffion of the 

Gofpcl 1676 

22. The Realbn of Faith in the Scriptures 1677 

23. Of L'^nderftanding the Mind of God in the Scriptures j6;-8 

24. An Humble Telhmony to the Goodnefs and Severity 

of God in his Dealing with Sinful Churches and 

Nations — 1681 

2;. The Work of the Holy Spirit in Prayer — — 1682 

26. Meditations on the Glory of Chrifl. Part I. 1684 

27. Part U. 1691 

28. Of the Dominion of Sin and Grace i689! 

29. Two Difcourfes of the Work of the Spirit — ^ J ^'93 

30. Evidences of the Faith of God's Ele6t — 1695 

Yqu I. G Tiii 


Tiil at length his deeply-fan£lified foul, 

Longing for the fruition of its God, 

Quitted the body : in younger age 

A mofi: coniely and majeftic form ; 

But in the latter ftages of life, 

Depreffed by conflant infirmities. 

Emaciated with frequent difeafes. 

And, above all, cruflied under the weight 

Of intenfe and unremitting fludies. 

It became an incommodious manfion 

For the vigorous exertion of the Spirit 

In the fervice of its God. 

He left the world on a day 

Preadful to the Church 

By the cruelties of men,* 

But biifsful to himfelf 

By the plaudits of his God, 

Auguft 24, 1683, aged 67. 

* The ever-memorable Bartholomew day, 1662, when tl^.e 
good minifters, to the mmiber oF 2000, were ejected from their 
livings, or filenced, for non-coirjpliance with the AtSt of Umfof- 

A N 






AND 1' H E 


Vol. I. H 



Concerning the Epijile to the Hebrews^ 



§ I. Of the term canonical. § 2. ^he marks of canonical 
authority. § 3. The Epiftle to the Hebrews frlfily cano- 
7iicaL § 4. (I.) By whom oppofed. § 5. The judge- 
ment of the Latin xhurch concerning It, § 6. (II.) Ob- 
je^lons anfwered* § 7. (Ill-) Its canonical authority 
proved from, I . Its general argument. § 8 . 2 . The par-r 
ilcular fubje^ matter of It. § 9. 3. Its end and defgn. 
§ 10 — 13. 4. The fiyle of It. § 14. 5. 1 he authority of 
Its principal author. § 15. 6. Its divine efficacy , § 16. 7* 
Catholic tradition. § 17 — 21. 8. Its not being liable td 
my folld exceptions, 

§ I. X HE canonical authority of the Epiftle to the 
Hebrews having been by fome called into queftion, ^ye 
muft previoufly lliew what we intend by fuch authority, 
and then prove, that this Epiftle is^ clearly intercfted 

H z The 


The Greek word (kccvc^v) which gives rife to the term 
* canonical,' feems to be derived from the Hebrew {nip) 
Kattch, which, in general, fignifies any reed whatever, 
[I. Kings, xiv. 15. Ifa. xUi. 3.] and particularly, a reed 
made into an inftrument, wherewith they meafured their 
buildings, containing fix cubits in length, [Ezek. xl. 7. 
xlii. 16.) and hence indefinitely it is taken for a rule or 
meafure. Befides, it figniiies the beam and tongue of a 
balance, [Ifa. xlvi. 6.] ' They weighed iilver on the cane -^"^ 
that is, faith the largum, * In the balance.' This alfo 
is the primary and proper fignification of the Greek w^ord.* 
Hence its metaphorical ufe, which is . moft common, 
wherein it ligniiies a moral rule. Ariftotle calls the law 
(K<%i/oy« Tr,g 7roXi]si(xg) ' the rule of the adminiftration.t' 
And hence it is, that the written word of God, being in 
itfelf abfolutely right, and appointed to be the rule of faith 
and obedience, is eminently called * canonical.' 

This appellation is of ancient ufe in the church. The 
fynod of Laodicea makes mention of it, as what was ge- 
nerally admitted ; for the fathers of it decree, *' That no 
private pfalms ought to be ufed in the church, nor any 
liyicanonical books ; but only the canonical ones of the 
Old and New Teilaments."! And thus AqJtinas him- 
felf confeiTeth, that the fcripture is called canonical ; " be- 
caufe it is the rule of our underftanding in the things of 

§ 2. Moreover ; as the fcripture is faid to be canoni- 
cal ; fo there is alfo a canon, or rule, to determine 
what books in particular are fuch. Two things are in- 
cluded in that expreflion : 

I. That any writing be (^^CTrvsvo^cg) " given by im- 
mediate infpiration from God." Without this, it can 
by no means have any interefl in that authority, which lays 
a foundation for receiving it into the canon. 

* Vid Schol. in Aiiistoph. in Ran. Ad III. Sc. k Aristot. 
de Anim. Lib. Cap. ult. 
t Polit. Lib. II. Cap. viii. 
:|: Concil, Laod. Can. (J9. 
\\ Aquin. inLTim, VL Led. L 

2. It 


2. It is requifitc, that any writing, or book, be clc- 
figncd by the Holy Ghoft, for the Catholic {landing ufe 
of the church. — In giving out the whole, ' holy men of 
* God fpake as they were moved by the Holy Ghofl/ 
[II. Pet. i. 21.] So that whatever different means God 
might make ufe of, in the communication of his mind and 
will to any of the facred penmen, it was this *' infpira^ 
tion of God," that rendered them infallible rcvealcrs 
thereof to the church. 

Some of the ancients, indeed, ufed the term *' canoni- 
cal" ambiguoufly; and, therefore, fometimes call books 
by this term, that abfolutely are not fo ; as not being 
written by Divine infpiration, nor given by the Holy 
Ghoft as a rule. But this does not affc£l our point ; for, 
according to our definition, if any book, or writing, have 
not the above-mentioned properties, it differs in the 
vjhole kind, and not in degrees only, from all thofe that 
have them ; fo, that it can be truth, at beft, only mate- 
rially, by virtue of its analogy, to that which is abfolute- 
ly, univerfally, and perfectly, fo. And this was well 
obferved by Lindanqs : " They defile themfelves (faith 
he) with the impiety of facrilege, who endeavour to 
bring iti, as it were, divers degrees into the body of the 
feriptures ; for by the impious difcretion of human fol- 
ly, they would caft the one voice of the Holy Ghoft into 
•various forms of unequal authority.*"* As then, what- 
ever difference there may be, as to the fubjecl, matter, 
manner of writing, and prefent ufefulnefs, between any 
of the infpired books, they are all equal as to their cano- 
nical authority, being equally interelkd in that which is 
the formal reafon of it ; fo, whatever ufefulnefs or refpe6l 
in the church, any other writings may claim, they can no 
way be interefted in that diftinguifliing formal reafon. 

§ 3. In the fenfe explained, we afRrm the Ep'i/ile to the 
He h-ews to be canonical ; that is, properly and RritSlly fo 
In confirmation of which, we fhall 

•* Panopl, Evang. Lib. III. Cap. iv. 
Vol. L 5 I. Ob- 


I. Obferve by whom it hath been oppofed or quef- 

IL Confidev what reafon they pretend, or ohje^ions 
urge, for fo doing ; which being removed out of our 
way, we fliall 

III. Infill on the arguments whereby the truth of our 
alTertion is evinced. 

§ 4. (I.) By whom oppofed. — We need not much in- 
lift on their madnefs who of old with a facrilegious Hcen- 
tioufnefs rejedled what portions of fcripture they pleafed. 
The Ebronites not only rejefted all the epiilles of Paul, 
but alfo reviled his perfon as a Greek, and an apoftate.* 
Their folly and blafphemy were alfo imitated by the He- 
lefcheitGe.f Marcion rejeded in particular this Epiftle 
to the Hebrews, and thofe alfo to Timothy and Titus. |. 
And to thefe, with refpe6l to the epiftle to the Hebrews, 
fome of the Jrians alfo may be joined, according to The- 
ODORET-ll Now through the folly of thefe perfons may 
be eafily repelled, as it is effectually done by Petrus 
Cluni.^nsis,** yet Jerome hath given us a fufficient rea- 
fon why we fhould not fpend time therein : *' They did 
not fo much as plead or pretend any caufc or reafon for the 
rejeflion of thefe epiftles, but did it upon their own au- 
thority ; fo they deferve neither anfwer nor confidera^- 

& 5. It is of more importance to obferve, that it was 
four hundred years at leaft, after the writing of this epiftle, 
before it was publicly received by the church of Rome \XX 

* Vid. Iren. Lib. I. Cap. ii. Epiphan. Hi^ref. XXX. Cap,. 


f EusEB. Lib. VI. Cap. xxxi. 

I Epiphan.' Haeref^XLIL Cap. ix., Hieron. Praef. in Com,, 
ad Titum. 

II Pr.'Ef. in Epif. ad Heb, 
-** Epif. ad Petrob. 

•j-f Hieron. ut fupra. 

tX EusEB. Lib. n. Cap. xxlv. Lib. IIL Cap. iii. Lib. VL 
Cap. xiv. Phot. Biblioth. Cod. xlviii. cxx. Hieron. Epif. 
cxxix. adDARDAN. Comment, in Ifa, Cap. viiii iu Zechar. Cap, 
yiii, in Matt. Cap. xxvi, 



and Baronius in vain labours to take olF this failure.* 
Nor does it appear that the Latin church did ever reje^ 
this cpiftlc ; yea, we find that many amongft them, even 
in thofe early days, reckoned it canonical, and owned St. 
Paul as the penman of it.f And this undeniably evin- 
ceth the injufticeof fome men's preteniions, that the Ro- 
man church is the only ^ro/)o/^r of canonical fcriptnre ; and 
that upon the authority of her propofal alone it is to be 
admitted. Four hundred years elapfed before flie herfelf 
publicly received it, or read it in her affemblies ; fo far 
was fhe from having propofed it to others ! And yet all 
this while was it received by all other churches in the 
world, as Jerome teftifies, and that from tlie days of the 
apoftles — to whofe judgement the Roman church itfelf at 
length fubynitted! 

Nor are the occafions of this heiitation of the weflerii 
church obfcure. The epiftle was written probably in 
Rome ; at leaft in fome part of Italy, [chap. xiii. 24.] 
There, no doubt, it was feen, and it may be, copied out 
before it was fer.t, by fome who ufed to accompany the 
apoftle, as Clemens, who not long after mentions divers 
things contained in it. J The original was without quef- 
tion fpeedily fent into Judea, being directed to the He- 
brews ; and that copies of it were by them, alfo, commu- 
nicated to their brethren in the Eafl, equally concerned 
in it with themfelvcs, cannot be doubted, unlefs we fup- 
pofe them grolHy negligent in their duty towards God 
and n)an, which we have no reafon to do. But the 
churches of the Hebrews, at that time, by reafon of fome 
peculiar obfervances, living in a manner feparate from 
thofe of the Gentiles, were not, probably, very forward 
in communicating this epiflle ; being written, as they'fup- 
pofed, about an efpecial concern of their own. By this 
means, it fcems to have been kept much within the com- 
pafs of the Hebrew churches, until after the deftruflion 

* Annal. Ecclef. ad aim. CLX. 

f EusEE. Ecclef. Hill. Lib. III. Cap. xxxvii, 

X Epif. ad Corinth. 

I 2 of 


of the temple ; when by their difperflon, and their coalef- 
cing with other churches in the Eaft, it came to be ge- 
nerally received amongft them.* But the Latin church, 
liaving loft that advantage of receiving it when firft written, 
was fomewhat flow in inquiring after it. Tliofe that 
fucceeded in that church, it is not unlikely, had their 
fcruples increaled ; becaufe thev found in not in common 
ufe among their predecelTors, like the reft of St. Paul's 
epiftles ; not confidering the occafion of it. To which 
we may add, that, by the time it had gradually made its 
progrefs in its return to tlie Weft, it began to evince its 
own authority, by the conqueft it obtained over the 'No* 
vatlans, and other oppofers. 

Some among the moderns, particularly Cajet AN, Eras- 
mus, Eniedinus, and a few more, have fcrupled its au- 
thoritv ; and the reafons they make ufe of in fupport of 
their conjectures, are amalTed together by Erasmus, [An- 
not. in Heb. xjii. 24.] We fliall, therefore, 

§ 6. Confider what reafons they pretend, or obje(^ions 
nrge, for fo doing. 

I. The iirft thing generally pleaded is, the uncertainty 
of, its penman. How groundlefs this pretence is, we 
fhall hereafter fully demonftrate ; but at prefent I Ihall 
only Ihew, that, in general, it is of no importance in this 
caufe. The author being certainly known, may indeed 
afford fome light to its nature and authority. Thus when 
h is confefted, that the penman of any book was divinely 
infpired, and that it was written for the ufe of the church, 
its authority is unqueftionable ; but when it is doubtful 
who the author was, nothing fatisfa£lory can t4ien be 
concluded on either fide ; and, therefore, it hath pleafed 
the Holy Ghoft to keep the names of many of the facred 
penmen in everlafting obfcurity. There is not, then, 
the leaft ftrength in this exception, unlefs it could be 
proved, that \\twas not divinely infpired ; which yet can- 
tiot be done, as we llial! abundantly prove. 

'" Vkl , III r R o N , Epif. ad Da u i^ an. 

2. It 

F.xER.i. to BE CANONICAL. 49, 

2. It is objeded, that the author of this cpiftle cites 
various things out of the Old I'cftamcnt, which are not 
therein contained ; as many of the y/or/Vi referred to chap, 
xi. and that in particular chap. xii. 21. where he affirms, 
that Mofes, terrified at the light that appeared to him, 
faid, * I exceedingly fear and quake/ But the author 
quotes no book of the Old Tcftament ; he only relates a 
matter oi fad^ and one circumilance of it, which he 
doubtlefs had by Divine revelation. It is an uncouth way 
of proving an author not to have written by Divine infpi- 
ration, bccaufe he writeth truths which he could no other- 
wife be acquainted with ! 

3. It is an obje6lion of more importance, that the 
writer citeth tefti monies out of the Old Teftament, that 
are not to his purpofe. Now, tv/o things mufl be fuppofed 
to give countenance to this objeflion : Firji, that thofe 
who make it, do better underftand the meaning of the 
teftimonies fo produced, than he did, by whom they arc 
alledged. How vain and prefumptuous this fuppolition is, 
needs little labour to demonllrate. Nay, it may much 
more rationally be fuppofed, that we are rather ignorant 
of God's utmoft intention in f^-^ry place of fcripture, than 
that we know it in all. There is a depth in the w^ord of 
God, becaufe hisy which we are not able to fathom. One 
fays, well ; '* The holy fcripturcs are as a rich over- 
flowing fountain, which the deeper you dig, the more 
you find it abounds with water : in like manner, the 
more carefully you fearch the facred volunie, the fuller 
you will find, are the veins of living water." ^ Secondly, 
they who objeft mufl take it for granted, that they are, 
beforehand, fully acquainted with the particular intention 
of the author, in producing thefe teflimonics. Neither 
is this fuppoiition lefs rafh and prefumptuous than the 
former; for thofe only, who bring their hypothelis and 
pre-concerted notions to the fcripture, with a wifh to have 
them confirmed, are apt to make fuch conclufions.. But 
thofe that come with humility and reverence, to learn of 

* Brent. Horn. XXXVI. in I. Sam. xi. 



the Supreme Majefty, his mind and will therein, will have 
other thoughts and apprehenlions. 

§ 7. Having removed thefe obje£tions out of our way> 
we Ihall now proceed 

(III.) To demonftrate the canonical authority of this 
cpiftle, taken in the ilrid and proper {tn^Q, before de- 
clared. — Now the fum of what we fliall plead in this 
caufe, amounts to this : that — whereas there are many 
{TcKU.riC.Lu) infallible evidences of any writings being given 
by Divine infpiration ; and fundry arguments w^iereby, 
books, vainly pretending to that original, may be dif- 
proved — of the former^ there is no one that is not appli- 
cable to this epiftle ; nor is it obnoxious to any one of the 
latter fort : fo that it ftands on the fame balis with th« 
whole, v/hich, atprefent, we fuppofe firm and immovea- 
ble. And, 

I. The general argument of it is the fame with that of 
the whole fcriptures. It treats of things which eye hath 
not feen, nor ear heard ; nor have they, by any natural 
means, ever entered into the heart of man ; and yet, in 
abfolute harmony with all other -unq-ueftionable revela- 
tions of the will of God. Human diligence, regulated by 
what is revealed elfewhere, is human Hill ; and can never 
free itfelf from thofe infeparable attendances, that manifefl 
it to be fuch. The truth of this confideration is deraon- 
Urable from every one of thofe books, commonly called 
apocryphal; not one of which is there, wherein human 
diligence doth not difcover itfelf to be its fountain and 

§ 8. 2. To the general argument, we may add the 
particular fubj eft matter, as farther confirming its Divine 
original ; wherein we have eminently four things : 

(i.) The principal things treated of are matters of the 
greateil importance, and fuch as concern the very foun- 
dation of faith. Such are the dodrines about the per- 
fon, offices, and facrifice of Chrill ; the nature of gof- 
pel worfhip, and our communion with God therein. In 
thefe confift the very vitals of our profefTion ; and they 
are all opened in a moil excellent and heavenly manner 
I ill 


ill this epifdc, in abfolute harmony with what is taught 
concerning them in other parts of holy writ. 

(2.) Some things of great moment to the faith and 
confolation of the church, which are but obfcurcly and 
fparingly taught elfcwhere, are here plainly, fully, and 
excellently taught and improved. Such, in particular, 
are the do6lrines of the pricflhood of Chrill, his facrificc, 
and intcrceliion ; and how thefe were typically reprcfentcd 
under the Old Teftamcnt oeconomy. He that underilands 
aright the importance of thefe things, their ufc and in- 
fluence and the fupport they afford under temptations 
and trials, will be ready to conclude — that the world 
may as well want the fun in the firmament, as the church 
this epiflle. 

(3.) God's way, in teaching the Old Teilament church, 
with the operofe pedagogy of Mofes, is here fully re- 
vealed, and fliewn to be full of wifdom, grace, and love. 
Here we fee, that the whole Aaronical prieflhood, with 
its duties and offices, are transferred to the ufe of behevers 
under the gofpel. How dark Mofaical inftitutions were 
in themfelves, is evident from the whole fiate of the church 
in the days of Chrlft and his apoflles, when they could not 
fee to the end of the things to be abolifhed. In their na- 
ture, they were carnal; in their number, many, as to 
their feafon, hidden ; in their obfervance, burdenfome ; and 
in their external appearance, -pompous. By all which 
they fo pofiTelTcd the minds of the church, that very few 
law clearly into their ufe, intention, and end ; but in this 
epiftle the veil is taken off from Mofcs ; the myflery of 
his dcligns laid open ; and a perfcft clew is given to bc^ 
lievers, to pafs fafelv through all the turnings and wind- 
ings of them, to reft and truth in Jefus Chrift. 

(4.) The grounds and manner of that great alteration 
which God caufed in his worlhip, aje here laid open ; 
and the greateil controverfy that ever the church of God 
was exerciled witli, is here fully determined. There was 
nothing in the iirfl: propagation of. the gofpel, and the 
planting of Chriftian churches, that fo much divided and 
ferplcxcd the profciTors of the truth, ^s the difference 



aboiit the continuation of Mofaical rites and ceremonies. 
The will of God, in this matter, before the writing of 
this epiftle, could only be collected from the nature and 
ftate of things in the church, upon the coming of the 
Meiiiah ; and conclulions, from that confideration, the 
believing Jews were very flow to admit. Now who was 
fit, who was able, to determine upon thefe various infti- 
tutions, but God himfelf ? to declare pofitively^ that all 
obligation from his former pofitive commands had now 
ceafed ; that the time allotted for their obfervance was ex- 
|)ired? Surely, this was no otherwife to be efredled, but 
by an immediate revelation from himfelf. And this we 
have here done \ not by a bare declaration of God's au- 
thoritative interpofition, but by a method marked with 
lingular wifdom. The whole nature and deiign of them 
are evidenced to be fuch, as that, having received their 
full end and accomphfhment, they of themfelves natu- 
rally expired. For my part, I can truly fay, that I know 
r.ot any portion of holy writ, that will more effedlually 
raife up the heart of an intelligent reader to an holy admi- 
ration of the goodnefs, love, and wifdom of God, thari 
this epiille. Suc-h, I fay, is the fubjcdi matter of it ; fo 
divine, fo excellent, fo lingular [ 

§ 9. 3. Con fonant to its general argument, and pecu- 
liar fubjed matter, is the defign and end of it. That the 
whole fcripture hath a fpecial end, peculiar to itfelf, and 
wherein no other writing fliares, but by way of conformi- 
ty, is evident to all who ferioufly confider ; and this end 
is fupremely and abfolutely the glory of that God, who 
is the author of it. This is the centre where all the 
lines of it meet ; the fcope and mark towards which all 
its contents are direded. It is true, God's works of power 
and providence all declare his glory — the glory of his eter- 
nal perfeflions and excellencies ; but the end of holy fcrip- 
ture is the glory of God in Chr'ift^ as he hath revealed him- 
felf, and " gathered all things into an head in him," to the 
manifeftation of that glory. The more clearly any />or//ow; 
of fcripture difcovers this end, and the more parts it 
inanifefteth of the ferm and orders of things, in their 




mutual conneiElion, dependence and fubferviency, where- 
by the laft end of God's glory is produced, the more fully 
doth it exprels this general end of tlie whole, and thereby 
evince its own intereft therein. Now herein doth this 
epifble come behind no other portion of fcripture what- 
ever ; nor does it betray the leail alloy or mixture of any 
by end of the writer ; nothing of his honour, reputation, 
advantage, or felf-pleafing, in any thing; but all runs 
evenly and fmoothly, to the general end propofed. And 
this alfo hath defervedly a place among the (jSKu/zipia^) 
infallible evidences of writings by Divine infplration. 

§ lo. 4. The Jlyle alfo of the facred fcripture is of 
deferved confideration. By the ftyle of any writing, we 
nnderlland both the propriety of the w^ords, with their 
grammatical conllru£lion, and that compofition of the 
whole, which renders it lit and decorous to effect the end 
propofed. I know fome have, with atheiftical boldnefs, 
defpifed the ftyle of the holy writers, as fimple and barba- 
rous ; among whom was Petrus Bembus, who could 
fcarce touch the fcriptures ; when his own epiflles, not 
one of thern excepted, are not free from folecifms in 
grammar. But be it obferved, that wherever there ap- 
pears to us an irregularity in the original languages, when 
compared with the arbitrary rules or ufages of other men, 
it much more becomes us to fufpe6l our own apprehenfions 
and judgement, than to refled the Icafl failure or millake 
on the infpired writers. The cenfure of Hein^sius, in. 
this matter, is fevere, but true : *' To rail at any thing 
in them, or to find fault therewith, as defeftive, is to aft 
the part, not of a learned man, but of a blafphemer, and 
an idler, who never confiders what is the condition of man, 
or how great the reverence and refpeft which are due to 
God, who difpofeth all things, and who does not require 
a judge y but a humble petitioner."^' 

§ II. Eloquence and propriety of fpeech, for their 
proper ends, are the gift of God, [Exod. iv. 10, 11.] 
and, therefore, it may well be expelled, that they ihoul4 

* Frolegom. Arillarch. Sacr. 
Vol. L K not 


not be wanting, if necelTary, in books written by his 
own infpiration. Nor, indeed, are they ; yet he who 
fnall expefl to find in the heavenly oracles a flourifh of 
painted words, artificial ornaments of fpeech, language 
calculated to entice, and to work upon weak and carnal 
aftedions, or fophiflical and captious ways of reafoning to 
deceive, or a finooth harmonious {l:rufture of periods, will 
be miflaken in his aim. Such things become not the 
authority, the majefly, the greatnefs and holinefs of the 
Divine Speaker. Even an earthly monarch, who ihould 
make ufe of them in his edifts, laws, or proclamation, 
would but proflitute his authority to contempt, and invite 
his fubje£ls to difobedience, by fo doing ; how much 
more unbecoming the declaration of His mind and will, 
who is the great PolTeflbr of heaven and eartli ! There - 
fore, the apoflle tells us, [I. Cor. ii. 5 — 7.] that the 
rejecting of this kind of oratory, in his preaching and 
writings, was in-difpenfably neceflary, that it might appear 
the effefts were the genuine produdions of the things 
themfelves, which he delivered. 

§ 12. That the proper excellency of fpeech, or ftyle, 
confifteth in (to 7rp^^77c>) the meet accommodation of 
words to things ; confidering the per/on uling them, and 
the end to which they are applied, all competent judges 
will confefs. And the flyle of the holy fcripture, we af- 
firm, is every way anfwerable to what may be rationally 
expecled from it. Hence it is, that, by its fmiplicity 
without corruption, gravity v/ithoutaffe6lation, and plain- 
nefs without alluring ornaments, it does not fo much en- 
tice, move, or perfuade, as conflrain, prcfs, and pierce, 
into the mind and afTedions, transforming them into a 
likenefs of the things delivered. " I dare aifert (faith 
St. Austin, fpeaking of the holy penmen) that whofo- 
ever rightly underftands what they fpeak, will alfo un- 
derfland, that they ought not to have fpoken other- 
\vife.''* Bodies pofTefTed of native beauty, and fymmetry 
pi parts, have more advantage by being cloathed in fit gar- 

:* P^ Dear. Chrift. Lib. IV. Cap. vi. 




inents, than by the ornaments of gay attire ; and the 
garb of plainnefs and limplicity is bell: adapted to the fpi- 
ritual native beauty of heavenly truths. Therefore, we fay 
with Austin, that *' nothing is delivered in fcripture, 
hut jufi as it ought to /^^."-•■- The flyle of the facred pen- 
men difcovers, in a manner pecuhar to itfelf, a gracious 
condefceniion, fuited to the capacity of thofe for whom 
principally their writings were defigned.f Befidcs, there 
is in it, as all who read it with faith and reverence, can 
witnefs, a fecret efficacious energy, fubje£ling the mind 
of the humble reader to its grand defign in all things. 

§ 13. What we have faid concerning the flyle of the 
facred fcripture in general, is eminently applicable to this 
■epijile in particular, as containing, in the moil confpi^ 
cuous maimer, the fame iimplicity, gravity, unaffefted- 
nefs, and fuitablenefs to its author, matter, and tndy 
which recommends the whole. If any where, as in the 
beginning of the firft chapter, the llyle feems to fwell in 
its current, above the ordinary banks of the New Tefta- 
ment writings, it is from the greatnefs and fublimitv of 
the matter treated of, which was not capable of any other 
kind of expreiTion. Does the author, for inflance, anv 
where ufe words or phrafes in any uncommon fenfe ? It 
is becaufe his matter is peculiar. Does he often fpeak in 
an Old Teftament dialeft, after it had been manumitted, as 
it were, from its typical import? It is from the confideration 
of their fcate and condition, with whom, in an efpecial 
manner, he had to do ; which is perfe6lly agreeable to 
the wifdom of the Holy Gholl in other portions of fcrip- 
ture. Moreover, 

§ 14 .5. Tht authority of its principal author exerts it- 
felf in the whole of it. Now this authority, as itrefpeds 
the minds of men, confifls, partly, in an exurgency, or 
forcible influence of the holy matter contained in it, and 
the heavenly manner wherein it is declared ; and, partly, 
in the ineffable emanation of Divine excellency, which is 

* Vid. Ortgen. contr. Gels. Lib. V. 
f Hilar, in Pfal. cxxvi. 

K a com- 


communicated to the word, as a diftinguifliing property of 
its relation to God. And this authority do all they who 
have their minds fpiritually exercifed, find and acknow- 
ledge in this epiflle. 

§ 15. 6. From this authority proceeds a ^/V/W f^(:^ry ; 
a powerful operation upon the foul and confcience ; a re- 
verence and awe of God. And humble readers find their 
minds efFe£lually brought into the pleafing captivity of uii- 
referved obedience. ' Is not my word as fire, faith the 

* Lord, and like a hammer, that brcaketh the rocks in 

* pieces?" [Jer. xxiii. 29.] It is * quick and powerful, 
' and fharper than any two-edged fword, piercing even to 

* the dividing afunder of the foul and fpirit, and of the 

* joints and marrow, and is a difcerner of thoughts and 

* intents of the heart,' [Heb. iv. 12.] A learned man 
faid, well, " The holy fcriptures do not fo much admo- 
iiiili, or perfuade, as compel, agitate, and forcibly in- 
fluence. You read therein plain and countrified words ; 
but they are living words ; they animate, they inflame, 
they fling, they penetrate into the inmofl foul, and trans- 
form the whole man, by their wonderful power."* 

Such is the nature, power, and efficacy of this epiflle 
towards believers. It fearches theii hearts, difcovers their 
thoughts, judges their aflions, fupports their fpirits, 
comforts their fouls, enlightens their minds, guides 
them in their hopes, directs them in all their communion 
with God, and finally leads them to enjoy him. When 
once they have obtained this experience of its Divine 
power, it is in vain for men or devils to oppofe its cano- 
nical authority, with their frivolous cavils and obje£lions. 
Neither is the experience merely fatisfadory to themfelves 
alone, but is alfo fairly pleadable even to others \ though not 
to rtheiflical fcofFers, yet to humble inquirers after facred 
I, § 1 6' 7* I'o thefe things we may add, that the ca- 

|li nonical authority of this epiflle is confirmed by Catholic tra- 

dition. But by tliis tradition I intend a general uninter- 
rupted fame, conveyed and confirmed by particular inflances, 

* Pic us IvIirandus ad Hermoi. Barbar. 


records and tcllimonies in all ages ; which is undoubtedly 
of great importance. And how clearly this may be pleaded 
in oUr prefent cafe, Ihall be manifefted in our inveftiga- 
tion of the penman of this epiille. 

§ 17. 8. Thus I hope we have made it evident; that 
it is not deilitute of any one of thofe (jiKiji'/ipioi) infaUible 
proofs and arguments, whereby any particular book of 
fcripture evinceth itfelf to the confciences of men, to be 
written by infpiration of God. It remaineth now to fhew, 
that it is not liable to any of thofe exceptions^ or argu- 
ments, whereby any book, pretending a claim to a divine 
original, and canonical authority, may be convicted, and 
manifefted to be of another extraft ; whereby, at length, 
its juft privilege will be on both Jides fecured. 

(i.) The firft confideration of this nature is taken 
from the author, or penman of any fuch writing. The 
books of the Old Teftament were all of them written by 
prophets, or holy men infpired of God. Hence Peter calls 
the whole of it ^prophecy,' [II. Pet. i. 21.] delivered hy- 
men at^ed or moved therein by the Holy Gholl. And 
though there be a diftribution made of the feveral books 
from their fubje£I matter, into the law, prophets, and 
pfalms, [Luke xxiv. 44.] and often into the law and 
prophets, on the fame account, [Ads xxvi. 22. Rom. iii. 
21.] yet their penmen being all equally prophets, the whole, 
in general, is afcribed to them and called ^prophecy,' [Rom. 
xvi. 26. Luke xxiv. 25. II. Peter i. 19.] 

So were the books of the Keiv Teftament written by apoj- 
ties, or men endowed with an apoftolical fpirit, and in their 
work equally infpired by the Holy Ghoft ; whence the 
church is faid to be ' built on the foundation of the pro- 
' phets and apoftles ; Jefus Clirift himfclf being the chief 
/ corner done,' [Ephef. ii. 20.] If then the author of 
any writing acknowledgeth himfelf to be, or may other- 
wife be convinced to have been neither prophet, nor apof- 
tle ; nor, indued, with the fame intallible fpirit with them, 
' his work, how excellent foever in other refpec^s, mull 
needs be eftecmed a mere fruit of !)is own fkill, diligence, 
2 and 


and wlfdom, and not any way to belong to the canon of 

Now this epi/ile is free from this exception : the penman 
of it doth no where intimate, directly or indireftly, that 
he wrote^by his own ability; which, if he had done fo, it 
mult have been incumbent on him to have declared, that 
he might not lead the church into a pernicious error, in 
embracing that as given by infpiration from God, which 
was but a fruit of his diligence and fallible endeavours. 
Bat on the contrary, he fpeaks as in the name of God, 
referring to him all that he delivers ; nor can he, even in 
any minute inftance, be convided to have wanted his af- 

^ i8. (2.) CircumJIanccs of the general argument of a 
book may alfo convince it to be of an human, or falli- 
ble original. But our epiftle is no way obnoxious to any 
exception of this nature. Yea, the Jiate of things in the 
churches of God, and among the Hebrews in p:irticular, 
did at that time adminifler fo jufl and full an occafion for 
a writing of this kind, as gives countenance to its being 
afcribed to the wifdom and care of the Holy Ghoft. For, 
if the corruption of the poifonous brood of heretieks, par-* 
ticulariy Cirinthus, gave occaiion to the writing of the 
gofpel, by St. John ; and if the diiTentions in the church 
of Corinth deferved two epiJJles^ and if the IcJJer differences 
between believers of the Jews and Gentiles had a remedy 
provided for them in the epiilles of St. Paul to them, is it 
not at leaft probable^ that the fame fpirit who moved the 
penmen of thofe books to write, and directed them in 
their fo doing, did alfo provide for removing the preju- 
dices, and healing the diftempers of the Hebrews^ which 
were fo great, and of fo great importance to all the churches 
of God ! 

§ 19. (3.) The moft manifeft eviftion of any writing, 
pretending to the privilege of Divine infpiration, may be 
taken from the fubjc£i matter of it. God himfelf being 
the firft, and only effential truths nothing can proceed 
from him, but what is abfolutely fo ; and truth being but 
om^ every way uniform and confonant to itfelf, there can 




be no difcrepancy in the branches of it, nor contrariety in 
the ilreanis that flow from that one fcuntai]!. God is 
alfo holy^ ' glorious in holinefs,' and nothing proceeds im- 
mediately from him, but what bears a ilamp of his holi- 
nefs, as well as his greatnefs and wifdom. If then, any 
thing in the fubjed matter of any writing be untrue^ hn- 
pious, light, or any way contradictory to the afcertatncd 
writings of Divine infpiration, all picas and pretences 
to that privilege mull ceafe for ever. We need no other 
proof to evince its original, than what itfe If affords. And 
by this means do thole books commonly called apocryphal^ 
to which the Romanifts afcribe canonical authority, de- 
ftroy their own pretenfions. They have, all of them^ on 
//j/i- account among others, long fince been cafl out of the 
limits of any tolerable defence. Now, that no one por- 
tion of fcripture is lefs obnoxious to any exception of this 
kind, .from the matter treated of, and do6lrines delivered 
in it, than this epiftle, we (hall, by God's alTiflance, ma- 
nifefl in our expofition of the whole. 

§ 2 0. (4.) ThQ Jlyle and method of a writing may be 
fnch, as to lay 2i juji prejudice againft its claim of canoni- 
cal authority. For though the matter may be good in the 
main, and generally fuited to the analogy of faith ; yet 
there may be in the manner of its compofure, fuch an of- 
tentation of wit, learning, or eloquence ; fuch an affetla- 
t'lon qf words and phrafes ; fuch rhetorical paintings of 
things inconfiderable, as may fufficiently demonflrate /?«- 
?7rrt« ambition, ignorance, pride, or defnx of applaufe, to 
have been mixt in the forming of it. Much of this Je- 
rome obferves in particular, concerning the book inti- 
tled the *' TVifdom of Solomon ;" written, as it is fuppofed, 
by Philo, an eloquent and learned Jew, (redolet Gra-cam, 
ehquentiam) it favours of Grecian eloquence.'"-' When, there- 
fore, thefe human failings and finful infirmities manifeft 
themfelves, they caft out the writings where they are, from 
that harmony and confcnt, which in general appears 
amongit all the books of Divine infpiration. Of the flyle 

* Prasf. in Prov. Solon;. 



of this epiflle we have fpoken before. Its gravity, iim- 
phcity, majefly, and abfolute fuitablenefs to the high, 
holy, and heavenly mylleries treated of in it, are, as far 
as I can find, not only very evident, but alfo acknowledged 
to be fo by all who are able to judge of them. 

§ 2 1. (5.) Want of catholic tradition in all ages of the 
church, from the firll giving forth of any writing, tefti- 
fying to its Divine original, is another impeachment of its 
pretence to canonical authority. And this argument 
arifeth fatally againft the apocryphal books before-men- 
tioned. The fufFrage of this kind given to our epiftle, 
we have mentioned before ; but we ihall give a farther 
confirmation of its Divine original, by proving it unde- 
niably to be written by the apoftle St, Paul, that eminent 
penman of the Holy Ghoft. 

Thus clear {lands the canonical authority of this epiflle. 
It is dcjiitutc of no evidence needful for the manifeflation of 
it ; nor is it obnoxious to anv jufl exception againfl its 
claim of that privilege. And hence it comes to pafs, that 
whatever have been the fears,, dc\ibts, and fcruples of 
fome ; the rajh objeftions, conjectures and cenfures of 
others ; the provident care of God over it, as a part of 
his moll holy word, co-operating with the prevailing evi- 
dence of its original implanted in it, and its fpiritual effi- 
cacy to all the ends of holy fcripture, hath obtained ai\ 
cbfolute conqueft over the hearts and minds of all that be- 
lieve, and fettled it in full poiTellion of canonical authority 
in all the churches of Chriit throughout the world. 


[ 6i 3 



§ I. Knoivledge of the penman not ahfolutely neccjjary^ yet 
of fome ufe. § 2. — '4. '^hat St. Paul was the author 
of this epifile appears, (I.) From the uncertainty of other 
fuppofitions. § 5. (II.) From the infufflciency of the ar^ 
gument \infflcd on to the contrary, (l.) DiJJimilltude of 
ftyle. § 6, 7. (2.) Its being unfubfcrlbed. § 8, 9, 
(III.) From the tejiirnony given it in other fcripturcs^ 
§ 10. (IV.) From conf derations taken from the writing 
itfef, compared with St. PauPs zvritings. § il. (V.) 
From the tefimony of the firfl churches. § 12. (VI.) 
From reafons and circumftances relating to the epifile 'it~ 

§ I. JL HE divine authority of the epifile having been 
vindicated, it is of no great moment to inquire 
puloully after its penman. Writings that proceed from 
divine infpi ration, receive no addition of authority from 
the reputation or eileem of them by whom they were 
written ; and this the Holy Ghofl hath fufficiently ma- 
iiifefled, by fliutting up the names of many of them from 
the knowledge of the church in all ages. Had any pre- 
judice to their authority enfued, this had not been. Nor 
were any eflccmed to be given by prophecy, becaufe 
their authors were prophets ; but they were known to 
be prophets by the word which they delivered. If not, 
they were fome other way known to be divinely in- 
fpired, as by the working of miracles ; or that they were 
in their days received 2i.s, fuch by the church. But neither 
of thefe can be afTerted : for as it is not known that any 
one penman of the Old Teflament, Mofes only excepted, 
^ver wrought any miracles, fo it is certain that mofl of 
Yql, I, X, them 


them were reje(Sled and condemned by the church in 
their days. The only way, therefore, whereby they 
were proved to be prophets, v^as by the word itfelf which 
they delivered and wrought ; and thereon depended the 
evidence and certainty of their being divinely infpired, 
[See Amos vii. 14 — 16. Jer. xxiii. 25 — 31.] 

But whereas there are not wanting evidences fuf- 
ficient to difcover who was the ^vyiter of this epiftle, where- 
by alfo the remaining exceptions made to its divine 
original may be finally obviated, they alfo Ihall be taken 
into conlideration.— ^We affirm, then, that the epiflle 
was written by St. Paul. And what I fhall offer in 
proof of the pofition may be reduced to thefe heads ; — 
The manifefl failure of all of them who have endeavoured 
to affign it to any other penman — the infufficiency of the 
arguments inlifled on to difprove our affertion — the tef-- 
iimony given it in otlier fcripturcs — conjiderations taken from 
the writing itfelf, compared with other acknowledged 
writings of Paul — the general fufFrage of antiquity, or 
ececleliaftical tradition — and, finally, reafons taken from 
fundry circum/Iances relating to the epiflle itfelf. 

§ 2. (I.) The «;z(:djr/<^/W^ of them who queflion whe- 
ther Paul was the writer of this epiflle, and their want 
of probable grounds in aifigning it to any other, hath 
Ibme inducement, or prefumptive reafon, why we fhould 
afcribe it to him, whofe of old it was efleemed to be. 

Origen, in EusEBius,* affirms, that fome fuppofed 
Luke to have been the author of it. But neither doth 
he approve their opinion, nor mention what reafons they 
pretend for it. He adds alfo, that fome efleemed it to be 
written by Clemens of Rome. Clemens of Alex- 
andria allows St. Paul to be its author ; but fuppofes it 
might be trajiflated by Luke, becaufe, as he faith, the 
fylc of it is not unlike his in the A6ls of the Apoflles. 
Grotius^ of late, contends for Luke to be the author, 
on the fame account \\ but the inflance he gives rathe? 

* Hift. Ecclef. Lib. VL Chap. xxvi. 
f Frasfat. in Annot. ad Epill. ad Heb« 

ExER. 2» O F T H E E P I S T L E. 63 

argues a coincidence of fome words and phrafcs, than a 
limilitude oi Jlyle, which things are very different. Je- 
rome alfo tehs us, " that it was fuppofed by fome to be 
written by Luke ;" * whicli he undoubtedly took from 
Clemens, Origen, and Eusebius. But none of them 
acquaint us who were the authors or approvers of this 
conjcdure^ nor do they give any credit to it themfelvcs. 
This opinion, then, may be well reje£led as a groundlefs 
gucfs of an obfcurc, unknown original, and not tolerably 
confirmed either by teflimony or circumftances. Gro- 
Tius alone, in reality, contends for Luke; and with this 
only argument, that fundry words are ufed in the fame 
Unk, by St. Luke and the writer of this epiftle. But I 
Ihall add one confideration, that will caft this opinion 
quite out of the limits of probability, viz. 

By general confent this epiflle was written, whilft 
James was yet alive, and prelided in the church of je- 
rufalem. Thefe were the Hebrews^ whole inllru£tion in 
this epiftle is principally intended, and, by their means, 
that of their brethren in the eafiern difperfion. Now is it 
reafonable to imagine, that any one, who was not aa 
opojilc^ but only a fcholar and follower of them, fliould be 
employed to write to that church, wherein fo great an 
apoflle, a pillar among them, [Gal. il. 9.] had his fpecial 
refidence, and did actually prelide ; and that in an ar- . 
gument of fuch importance, which reafons againft a 
a pra£Uce wherein they were all engaged ? Incredi- 

§ 3. Some have affigned the writing of this epiflle 
to Barnabas. Tertullian was the author of this 
opinion ; and it is reported as his by Jerome, f But 
Clemens, Origen, and Eusebius, make no mention of 
him. It is of late defended by Camero, (as the former 
concerning Luke by Grotius,) whofe conjedural rea- 

Scrip. Ecclef. in Paul. 

cit. Chap, XX, Hiron. Cat. Scrij 


t Tertull. de Pudicit, Chap, xx, Hiron. Cat. Scrip, in 
Paul et Barnab, 


fons are confuted by Spakhemius.* We add, the rea- 
foil before mentioned is of the fame validity againft this 
opinion as the other concerning Luke ; for Barnabas was 
not an apoftle, properly and ilriftly fo called, nor had he 
^n apo/iolicai ihiffion. or authority. f 

Many circiimftanccs alio concur to the removal of this 
conje^ure. The epifde now written in Italy, [chap, 
xiij. 24.] v/here it doth not appear that Barnabas ever 
was. Again, Timothy was the companion of the writer 
of this epiilie, [chap. xiii. 23.] a perfon, as far as ap- 
pears, unknown to Barnabas ; being taken into St. PauFs 
company after their difference and feparation, [A6ls xv. 
39. xvi. I.] This writer had alfo been in bonds or im-- 
prifonment, [Heb. x. 34.] whereof we cannot learn 
any thing concerning Barnabas, at that time ; but thofe 
of Paul are well known. And laflly, not long before 
the writing of this epiilie, Barnabas was fo far from 
that light into the nature, ufe, and expiration of Judai- 
cal rites, that he was eaiily mifled into a pradlical mif- 
carriage in the obfervance of them, [Gal. ii. 13.] and 
Ihall we fuppofe that he, 'who but a little before, upon 
the coming of fome few brethren of the church of Je- 
rufalem, from James, durfl not avouch and abide by his 
own perfonal liberty^ without fome blameable diflimulation ; 
[Gal. ii. 13.] that he, I fay, fhould now with fo much 
authority write an epiflle to that church (with St. James 
at the head of it) and all the Hebrews in the world con- 
curring with them in judgement and pra£lice, about that 
very thing in which himfelf, out of refpe£t to them, had 
particularly mifcarried ? This, certainly, was rather the 
office of St. Paul ; whofe light and conftancy in the 
doftrine delivered in this epiilie, with his engagements in 
the defence of it, above all the reft of the apoftles, is 
well known from the Hiltory of the Acts and his other 
invaluable writings. 

-* Camer. Quazf. in Epifl:. ad Heb. Span hem. de Auth. Epift. 
ad Heb. 

f Vid, Epipp^an. Hier. Lib. I. Cap. x. ErsEE. Ecclef. Hill, 
Lib, L Cap. xiii. 

§ 4- 

EXER. 2. O F T K E E P I S T L E. 6^ 

§ 4. ApoUos hath been thought by fome to be the 
penman ; becaufe it anfwers the charadler given of him, 
that he was an eloquent man, mighty in the fcripture, fer- 
vent in fpirit, and one that mightily convinced the Jews 
out of the fcripture itfelf, [A£ts xviii. 24. 28.] all which, 
things appear throughout this epilUe. But this conjec- 
ture hath no countenance from antiquity ; no mention 
being made of any epifllc written by ApoIIos, or indeed 
any other literary production, fo that he is not reckoned 
by Jerome amongft the ecclefiaftical writers ; nor is he 
reported by Clemens, Origen, or Eusebius, to have 
been by any efteemed the author of it. However, were 
not thefe quaHiications found in St. Paul in a more emi- 
nent manner and degree than in the other ? And therefore 
this conjecture is groundlefs. 

Erasmus, after fome others, hath taken up a report, 
concerning fome who afcribed it to Clemens Romanus ; 
but he hath not advanced any thing of reafon or tejiimony 
to confirm it ; and no ancient writer of any learning or 
judgement ever laid any weight on this conjefture. For 
what had he, who was a convert from among the Gen- 
tiles, to do with the churches of the Hebrews ? What 
authority had he to interpofe himfelf in that which was 
their peculiar concernment ? Whence may it appear, that 
he had that /kill in the nature, ufe, and end, of Mofaical 
rites and inftitutions, which the writer of this epiille dif- 
covers ? Neither doth that epiflle of Clemens to the 
church of Corinth, which is yet extant, though excellent 
in its kind, permit us to think that he wrote by divine 
infpiration. Befides, the author of this epijile had a deflrc 
and purpofe to go to the Hebrews , [chap. xiii. 23.] Yea, 
he defires to be rcftored to them as one that had been with 
them before. But as it doth not appear that this Cle- 
mens was ever in Falejilne^ fo, what reafon he fhould 
have to leave his own charge now to go thither, no man 
can imagine. 

From the uncertainty of thefe conjectures, with the 
evidence of reafon and circumllances, whereby they are 
difproYcd, two things we feem to have obtained : — FirJI, 


6& P A U L T H E A U T H O R Part L 

that no obje£lion on their account can arife againft our 
ajjertions \ and — Secondly^ that if St. Paul be not acknow- 
ledged to be the writer, the whole church of God is, and 
ever was, at a total lofs whom to afcribe it to. 

§ 5. ( II. ) The objcdlons that are laid by fome 
againft our affignation of it to Paul, are, according to the 
order propofed, next to be conlidered. 

I. DiJJimUltude 0/ y?j7^ and manner of writing from that 
ufed by him in his other epiflles, is principally infilled 
on ; and indeed it is the whole of what, with any co- 
lour of reafon, is made ufe of in this caufe. The ele- 
gance, propriety, and fometimes loftlnefs of fpeech that 
occur in the epiflle, diftinguifh it, they fay, from St. 
Paul's writings, ( Aozc/ ^xcv ^k clvoci IIc^uAj^ S/^ tov xap(ZK]vjpc/.) 
*' it feems not to be Paul's^ becaufe of the ftyle, or cha- 
radter of the fpeech,'* faith Oecumenius. For this 
caufe, Clemens of Alexandria fuppofed it to be 
written in Hebrew, and to be tranflated to Greek by St. 
Luke, the evangelifl ; the flyle of it, as he fays, being 
like to that which is ufed in the Acts of the Apofrles. 
And yet, the latter is acknowledged by all to be purely 
Greek, whereas the former is accufed of being full of 
Hebraifms ; fo little weight is to be laid on thefe critical 
cenfures, wherein learned men perpetually contradict one 
another ! 

The funi of this obje^lon is, That St. Paul was *' rude in 
fpeech," which is manifeft from his other epiflles; but the 
ftyle of this is pure, elegant, florid, fuch as hath no affi- 
nity with his, fo that he cannot be efleemed the penman 
of it. But this is of little force; for Paul in that place 
is dealing with the Corinthians about the falfe teachers 
who feduced them from the fimplicity of the gofpel, by 
their vain, affected eloquence, and flrains of rhetoric 
utterly unbecoming the work they pretended to be en- 
gaged in. Puffed up with this fingularity, they contem- 
ned St. Paul as a rude, unfkilful pcrfon, unable to rival 
tliem in their fine pompous declamations. In anfwer to 
tliis, he firfl tells them, that it became not him to ufe 
(cro|;/«> Ac;/5f, I, Cor. i. 7.) wlfdom cf words, or that 



kind of fpeech with which orators flour ilh ; or (oSocytji^g 
oi]/9pM7rLV'zg a-o^'bioig Koyi^g, I. Cor. ii. 13.J the words thai 
mans w'lfdom tcachcth, an artificial conipoiitioii of words 
to entice thereby ; which he calls (^viry^oyjiv KoyHy chap. 
ii. I.) excellency of fpeech ; and which, for many reafons, 
it did not become him to ufe for the fame ollentatious 
defign, as the feducers and falfe apoftles did. Again ; 
he anfwers only by conceffion, (si Si kc^i L^ioojyig too XoyoJ) 
* fuppofe I zvere rude or unfillful In fpeech,^ doth the mat- 
ter in quellion depend upon that ? Is it not manifeft to 
you that I am not fo in the knowledge and niyllery of 
the gofpel? " He doth not confefs that he Is fo, faith Aus- 
tin, but grants it for their convi6lion." And in this 
{m\(Q concur Oecumenius, Aq^tinas, Lyra, Catha- 
RiNUs, Clarius, and Capellus, with many others on 
the place. If, then, by [Xoyog) fpeech be intended that 
enticing rhetoric wherewith the falfe teachers entangled 
the affeftions of their unllcilful hearers, we may grant 
that St. Paul was unikilful in it, and are fure that lie 
would make no ufe of it ; and it is denied that any foot- 
Heps of it appear in this epl/Ue ; but if any thing of folid, 
convincing, unpainted eloquence be intended, it is evi- 
dent that he neither did, nor juftly could confefs himfelf 
unacquainted with it. He therefore only made a con- 
ceffion of the objeftion made againft him by the falfi 
teachers, to manifeft, that they could gain no manner of 
advantage thereby. 

Neither are his other epiftles written in fo low and 
homely a ftyle as is pretended. I fhall now only add the 
words of a perfon who was no incompetent judge in 
things of this nature : " When I well conlider," fays he, 
fpeaking of St. Paul, " the genius and character of his 
ftyle, I confefs I never found that grandeur in Plato 
himfelf, which I find in him, when he thundereth out 
tlie myfteries of God ; nor that gravity and vehemence 
in Demosthenes which I find in him, when he intends 
to terrify our minds with a dread of the divine judge- 
ment ; or when he would folemnly warn them, or draw 
^heai to the contemplation of his goodnefs, or exhort to 

I the 


the performance of the duties of piety and mercy. Nor 
do I find a more exaft method of teaching in thofe great 
and excellent mailers, Aristotle, and Galen, than 
in him."* Upon the whole, I Ihall confidently affert, 
that there is no manner of defeat in any of his writings ; 
and that every thing (confidering the matter and nature 
of it, in whofe name, and to whom he wrote) is ex- 
preffed as h ought to be for the end propofed. And hence 
it is, that there is fuch a variety in his way and manner 
of exprelHng himfelf in fundry of his epiflies. 

It may then be granted (though it be not proved) 
that there is fome dljjimilitude of Ityle between this and 
the reft of Paul's epifties, iince the argument treated of is 
diverfe from that of moft of the others ; many c'lrcum- 
Jiances in thofe to whom he wrote were lingular ; to 
which we may add, that the fpring and mode of his 
jeafonings are peculiarly fuited to the condition of thofe 
to whom he wrote. Befides, in the writing of this 
epiftle there was in him an efpecial frame and incita- 
tion of fpirit, occafioned by many occurrences rela- 
ting to it. His tntenfe love to them to whom he wrote 
(being his kinfmen according to the flelh) affectionately 
remembered by himfelf, and inimitably expreffed, [Rom. 
ix. I, 3.] did undoubtedly exert itfelf in his treating 
about their greateft and neareft concernment. The pre- 
judices and enmity of fome of them againft him, re- 
corded in feveral places of * the A6ts,' and remembered 
by himfelf in fome of his other epifties) lay alfo under 
his confideration. Much of Xht fubjeH he treated about 
was a matter of controverfy, which was to be debated 
from fcr'ipture, and according to which thofe with whom 
he dealt thought they might diffent from hnn, without 
any prejudice to their faith or obedience. Their cond'i- 
tion alfo muft needs greatly afFed him ; for they were 
now not only under prefent troubles, dangers, and 
fears, but {pojiti inter facrum et faxum) at the very door 
of ruin, if not delivered from the fnare of obftinate ad- 
herence to Mofaical infuiutions. Now they who know not 

* Ecz. Anijiot. ill II. Cor. xit. 6» 


what alterations in Jiyle^ and manner of writing, thefc 
things will produce, in thofc who have abihty to exprefs 
their conceptions, and the afFc(Slions wherewith they are at- 
tended, know nothing of this matter. Neitlier is it to be 
omitted, that there is fuch a coincidence in many phrafes 
in this ep'ijile^ compared with the reft of St. Paul's, as will 
not allow us to grant fuch a dlfcrepancy in Jiyle, as fome 
imagine. Many of them have been gathered by others. \ 
and, therefore, I fhall only point to the place from 
whence they are taken below.* 

§ 6. 2. It is obje£\ed, that the epiftle is {aviiriypo^^og) 
unfuhfcribcd \ and, indeed, this being once taken notice of, 
and admitted as an objc^icn, the reft were but men^s need- 
lefs diligence to give countenance to it. And the ftrength 
of it lies — not in its being zvithout infcriptlon ; for fo is the 
epiftle of St. John, concerning which it was never 
doubted, that he was the author of it ; but — in the con- 
ftant ufage of Paul, prefixing his name to all his other 
epiftles ; fo, that unlefs a J7ift reafon can be given, why he 
lliould divert from that cuftom, it may be fuppofed to be 
none of liis. 

Now, by the title which is wanting, muft be intended, 
either the mere titular fupcrfniptlon^ ' the epiftle of Paul 
* to the Hebrews^'' or the infcription of his riame^ joined 
with an apojhl'ical falutaiion^ in the epiftle itfelf. For the 
firji^ it is uncertain of what antiquity the titular fuper- 

* Sec chap. i. i^ compared with II. Cor. xiii. 3. chap. ii. 14. 
Gal. i. 16. Ephef. vi. 12. chap. ii. 2. ^vith Ephef. v. 26. chap, 
iii. I. with Phil. iii. 14. If. Tim. i. 9. chap. iii. 16, with Rom. 
v. 2. chap. V. 14. with I. Cor. xi. 6. Plnl. iii. 15. Ephef. iv. 
13. chap. V. 13. with I. Cor. iii. 2. chap. vi. 2. with Col. ii. 
3.. I. Thef. i. 5. chap. vii. 18. with Rom. viii. 3. Gal. iv. 9. 
chap. viii. 6. 9, with Gal. iii. 19, 20, I. Tim. ii. 5. chap. x. 
I. with Col. ii. 17. chap, X. 22. with II. Cor. vii. i. chap, x, 
23. a phrafe peculiar to St. Paul, and common with him, chap. 
X. 33. with 1. Cor. iv. 9. chap. x. 36. with Gal. iii. 22. chap. x. 
39. with I. Thef. V. 9. Jl.Thef. ii. 14. chap, xii. i. with I. Cor. 
ix. 24. chap. xiii. 10. with Ephef, iv. 14. 1. Cor. ix. 13. I. Cor. 
X. 18. chap. xiii. i^, 16. withRom. xii. I.Phil, iv. 8. chap, xiii, 
20. withRom. xv. 33. Rom. xvi. 20. II. Cor. xiii. 2. Phil. iv.. 
i^, I.Ther. V. 23, 

Vql. I. M fcription 



fcription of arty of the epiftles are ; but moft certain, that 
they did not originally belong to them, and are, therefore, 
deflitute of all authority. The tranfcribers, it may be, 
have at pleafure made bold with them, as with the fub- 
fcr'iption alfo of fome of them, as to the place from whence 
they were fent, and the perfons by whom. Though this, 
therefore, fhould be wanting, (and yet there is fome va- 
riety about it, both in ancient copies of the orlginaly and 
tranjlat'ions, the moft owning and retaining it) ; yet it 
would be of no moment, feeing we know not whence any 
of them are. The remainder of the obje£tion, then, is 
taken from the want of the ulual apoftolical falntation, as 
a part of the epiftlc. 

Some of the ancients, and principally Theodoret, in- 
fift, that, if in writing to the Hebrews, Paul had pre- 
fixed his name, he might have feemed to tranfgrefs the 
line of his allotment, as the apoftle of the Gentiles. But on 
this fuppofition it fecms he did what was not meet for him 
to do ; he entered on the charge of another, only he con- 
ceals his name, that he might not appear to be doing what 
was unwarrantable and unjuftifiable ! 

Others infift on the prejudices that many of the He- 
brews had againfl him. The perfecting party of the na- 
tion looked on him as an apoftate, a deferter of the caufe 
wherein he was once engaged, and one that taught apof- 
tacy from the law of Mofes ; yea, as they thought, that 
fet the whole world againft them and ail that they glofied 
hi, [A£ls xxi. 28.] and what enmity is.ufually ftirred up 
on fuch occafions all know, and his example is a fuffi- 
cient inllance of it. To which it has been juftly added, 
that he was no ordinary perfon, but a man of great and 
extraordinary abilities, which mightily increafed the pro- 
vocation. This being the {late of things in reference to 
St. Paul, and not of any other, the defe£l of infcription, 
as Beza well obferves, proves the epiflie to be his, rather 
than any other perfon's whatever. 

§ 7. But if we would know the true and juft caufe of 
the omijfions in queflion, we mufl confider what were the 
juji reafons of prefixing them to his other epiflles. The. 



real caufe, then, of prefixing the names of ajiy of the 
apoflles to their writings, was merely for the introdudioii 
of their titles, as the apoj^/cs ofjcfus Chrijl^ and therein aii 
intimation of that authority by which they wrote. This 
was the true and only reafon, why the apoftlc Paul in par- 
ticular prefixed his name to his epiflles. And hence it 
was, that — when fomething he had taught was called in 
queflion and oppofed, and he wrote in vindication of 
it, for eflabliihi ng in the truth thofe whom before he 
had inftrufled — he, at the entrance of his writings, Angu- 
larly and emphatically mentions his apoJloUcal authority, [Gal. 
i. I.] * Paul, an apoflle, not of men, neither by man, 

* but by Jcfus Chr'ijl ; and God, the Father, had raifed 

* him from the dead ;' thus intimating the abfolute obe- 
dience that was due to the do6lrine by him revealed. 

In this* dealing with the Hebrews, the cafe was far 
otherwife ; they who believed amongft them, never 
changed the old foundation^ or church Hate, grounded on 
the icriptures, though they had a uew addition of privi- 
leges by their faith in Chr'ift Jefus, as the MelTiah now ex- 
hibited ; and, therefore, he deals not with them as with 
thofe whofe faith was built abfolutely on apoftolkal autho- 
rity and revelation, but upon the common principles of the 
Old Tejiament, on which they flillftood, and out of which 
evangelical faith was educed. Hence the beginning of the 
epiflle, wherein he appeals to the fcnpture, as the founda- 
tion he intended to build upon, and the authority with 
which he would prefs them, fupplies the room of the ufuai 
intimation of his apojiolical authority^ and ferves to the 
very fame purpofe, viz. as the immediate reafon of their 
affent and obedience. This is the true and proper caufe, 
that renders the prefixing his apofollcal authority needlefs. 

§8. (in.) I. Amowg^ thQ arguments ufually infilled 
on, to prove this epiftle to have been written by St. Paul, 
the teflimony given to it by St. Peter deferyes confidera- 
tion in the firft place, and is indeed itfelf fufficient to de- 
termine the inquiry about it. His words arc, [11. Pet. iif. 
15, 16.] * And account that the long-fufFering of our 

* Lord is falvation ; even as o'wir beloved brother Paul 

U % * alfo, 


* alfo, according to the wifdom given unto him, hath 

* written unto you ; as alfo in all his epiftles fpeaking in 
f them of thefe things, in which are fome things hard to 

* be underflood, which they that are unlearned and unlla- 

* ble wreft, as they do alfo the other fcriptures, unto their 

* own deflrn£lion/ To clear this teilimony, fome few 
things mull be obferved. 

(i.) That Peter wrote his ytrijw^ epiflle to the fame 
churches and people to whom he wrote his firjiy [chap. 

iii. I.] 

(2.) Th^t Ins fiji ^/)/^'?/t' was written to the Jews , or 
Hebrews in the J/ian difperfion. Nov; it is plainly alTerted 
in this tcjiimony, that Paul w^rote a peculiar epiflle to them, 
to whom he wrote this ; that is, to the Hebrews \ * he hath 
' written to you, as alfo in all his epifiles.' Eefides his other 
^pifllcs to other churches and perfons, he hath alfo written 
to ycu. So, that if St. Peter's teflimony may be received, 
St. Paul undoubtedly wrote an epiftle to the Hebrews. But 
this may be, fay fome, another epiille, and not this. And 
they may as well fay, it is true, Mofes wrote five books, 
but they are lofl, and thofe we have under his name were 
written by another ! 

St. Peter declares, that St. Paul, in that epiflle which 
lie wrote to the Hebrews, had declared the long-fuffer'mg 
of God (whereof he had minded them) to be falvation. 
'There was no reafon why Peter fhould dire£l the Jews to 
the epiflles of Paul in p.rticular, to learn ' the long-fuf- 
' fering of God In general,' which is fo plentifully revealed 
in the whole fcriptures of the Old and New Teflament, 
and which is only occafionally at any time mentioned by 
liim. There was, therefore, an efpeclal long-fuffcrlng of 
God, which, at that time, he exercifed towards the Jews, 
and by which he v^aited for the converfion and gathering 
©f his eie£l before that total and final deftruftion, which 
they had deferved, fhould come upon them. This he 
compares to the * long-fufFering of God in the days of 
' Noah,* whilfl he preached repentance to the world, 
[I. Pet. iii. 2 O.J For, as thofe that \vere obedient to his 
preaching, his o\va kmily, were faved in the ^rk. from 



the general deflruftion that came upon the world by wa- 
ter ; fo, they that became obedient upon the preaching of 
thegofpel, during this new fealbn of God's efpecial long- 
fufFering, were to bs laved by baptlfm, or profeffional 
feparation from the unbelieving Jews, from that dcftruc- 
tion which was to come upon them by lire. This long- 
fufFering of God, the unbelieving Jev/s, not underftand- 
ing to be particular, fcofFed at, [II. Pet. iii. 4.] which 
caufeth the apollic to declare the nature and cud of this 
long- fufFering, which they were ignorant of, [ver. 9.] 

And thus was this particular lon^-fuffering of God to- 
wards the Jews, whilil the gofpel Vv^as preached to thcni 
before their final defolation, * falvaticu,' in that God 
/pared them, and allowed them to abide for a while in the 
obfervance of their old worjhip and ceremonies, granting 
them in the mean time biefled means of light and inflruc- 
tion, to bring them to falvation. * Even as our beloved 
' brother Paul alfo,* [ver. 15.] Not that this is for- 
mally, and in terms, the main do£lrine of our epiflle ; 
but that he efFeflually acquaints them with the intention of 
the Lord, in his long- fufFering towards them, and pecu- 
liarly fubferves that intention of Chrifl, in his inflruction 
of them. And, therefore — after he hath taught them 
the true nature, ufe, and end of. all the Mofaical inflltu- 
tions, which they were, as yet, permitted to ufe by the 
fpecial patience of God, intimated by St. Peter ; and con- 
vinced them of the neccflity of faith in Chrifl, and the 
profefFion of his gofpel — he winds up all his reafonings, 
in minding them cf the end which was to be put fliortly to 
that long-fufFering, [Heb. xii. 25 — 28.] So, that this 
note alfo is eminently characlcrijiical of this epiflle. 

§ 9. Peter fcems to afcribe to Paul an cmincncy of wif- 
dom, in the epiflolary writing he refers to, [II. Pet. iii. 
15.] * according to the wifdom given unto him.' As 
Paul, in all his other epiflles, exercifed great wijdom ; fo 
alfo in that which he wrote to the Hebrews. It is not 
Paul's fpiritual wifdom in general, in the k.nov;ledgc of the 
will of God and mylteries of the gofpel, which Peter 
here refers %o ; but that ^f««/. holy prudence which he 




cxercifed in compoling this epiflle, and maintaining the 
truth, about which he dealt with the Hebrews. And wliat 
an eminent charader this alfo is of the epiftle, we fhall 
endeavour, God affifting, to evince in our expoiition of it. 
His fpecial underfianding in all the myfleries of the Old 
Teftament, unfolding things hidden, from the foundation 
of the world ; his amplication of them to the myftery of 
' God manifefl in the flefh ;' his various beautiful inter- 
mixtures of reafonings and exhortations ; his adapting him- 
felf to their capacity, prejudices, and affc£lions, urging 
them confliantly with their own principles and conceffions ; 
thefe, I fay, among many other things, manifeft the Jin- 
gular w'lfdom which Peter iignifies to have been ufed. It 
may alfo be obferved, that — whereas Peter affirms, that 
among the things about which Paul wrote, there w^ere 
(tivcc ^vcrvo'i^loc) fome things hard to he iindcrjiood — Paul, in 
a fpecial manner, confelTeth, that fome of the things 
which he was to treat of in that epiftle, were {^va-c^^'/jvvjcx,) 
hard to be declared^ uttered, or unfolded ; and, therefore, 
CtYUitAy hard to be imderflcod^ [Heb. v. i i.] which, in our 
progrefs, we fhall manifeft to be fpoken, not without great 
and urgent caufe, in many inftances, efpecially that di- 
rcfted to by himfelf concerning Melchifedeck. So, that 
this alfo gives another characterifiical note of the epiftle tef- 
tilied to by Peter. 

I have inlifted the longer upon this teftimony, becaufe, 
in my judgement, it is fufficient of itfelf to determine the 
controverfy ; nothing of any importance, that I can meet 
with, being excepted to it. But becaufe we want not 
other confirmations of our aftertion, and thofe alfo, every 
vue of them lingly, overbalancing the conjectures that are 
advanced againft it, we fhali fubjoin them alfo in their 

^ 10. 2. The comparing of this epiftle with the others 
of the fame apoftle, gives farther evidence to our after- 
tion. I fuppofe it v/ili be confeftcd, that they only are 
competent judges of the argument, who are well exercifed 
in bis writings. To //7^/r judgement, therefore, alone we 
appeal. Now l\iQ JimUittide between this and other epif- 



lies of St.. Paul is threefold — Imvordsj phrafes, and man- 
ner of exprclTion ; — in the 777citicr or doctrines dehvered ; . 

and particularly in the fpirity ^emus, and manner of wrl^ 
tlng^ peculiar to this apojllc. Many things are required to 
enable any one to judge aright of this matter ; he mult, 
as Bernard fays, " drink of Paul's fpirit, who would 
underftand his writings." Without this fpir'it, they are 
fomevvhat obfcure, intricate, faplefs, and unfavoury ; 
■when, to them in whom it is, they are all fweet, gracious : 
in fome meafure opcn^ plain, and powerful. A great and 
conflant cxerc'ife to an acquaintance with his frame of fpi- 
rit in writing, is alfo neceffary. Unlefs a man have con- 
traded, as it were, a famiharity, by a conilant converfe 
with him, no critical fkill in words or phrafes, will ren- 
der him a competent judge. This enabled CiEsAR to 
determine aright concerning the writings of Cicero. 
And he that is fo acquainted with this apoflle, will be able 
to difcern his ^/r/^,. as Austin fays his mothei; Monica-^ 
did divine revelations, (nefcio quo faporc), by an inexprcffi^ 
hie fpiritual favour. ■ — Moreover, an experience of the power 
and efficacy of his writings is required. He, whofc 
heart is call into the 7ncld of the do^rinc delivered by him, 
will receive quick imprelTions from his fpirit exerting itfelf 
in any of his writings. He that is thus prepared to judge, 
will find, that heavenlinefs and perfpicuity in unfolding 
the deepell evangelical myfteries — that peculiar exaltation 
of Jefus Chrifl, in his perfon, office, and work — that 
fpiritual perfuafivenefs — that tranfcendent manner of arguing 
and reafoning — that wife infnuation and pathetical pref- 
ling of well-grounded exhortations — that love, tendernefs, 
and aftc^lion to the fouls of men — that %eal for God, 
and authority in teaching, — which enliven and adorn all 
his other epiflles, fhine in this in an eminent manner, 
from the beginning to the end. And this conlideration, 
whatever maybe the apprehenfion of others, concerning it, 
is what gives me fatisfadion above all that are pleaded in 
this caufe. 

§ II. 3. The teftlmony of the firji churches^ of whofe 
tcllimony any records are yet remaining, may alfo be 



pleaded in this caufe. Above thirty of the Greek fathers, 
and fifty of the Latin, have been reckoned up by the 
learned reporting this -primitive tradition. I fliail not 
trouble the reader with a catalogue of their names, nor the 
repetition of their words ; becaufe the whole of what in 
general we afiTert, is acknowledged by ;iie eaftcrn church 
where this epiftle was firfl made pnhlic ; and furely they 
could difcover the truth in this matter of faft, better than 
tlie wejlern church, or any in the following ages. 

§ 12. 4. The ^/^////^ i(/6'^difcovers the author feveral 
ways . 

(i.) The general argument and fcope of it declares it to 
ije Paul's. Hereof there are two parts : — The exaltation 
of the perfon, office, and grace of our Lord Jefus Chrifl, 
with the excellency of the gofpel, and its worfliip ; and — ► 
a'difcovery of the nature, ufe, and expiration of Mofaical in- 
Hitutions ; their prefent unprofitablenefs, and the cealing 
of their obligation to obedience. The Jirjl part, we may 
grant, was equally the defign of all the apoflles, though 
we find it, in a peculiar way, infifted on in the writings 
of Paul. The latter was his fpecial work and bufinefs ; 
partly ex inftituto-y and partly from the occaiional oppofi- 
?ion of the Jews. The apoflles of the circumcilion, fuita- 
bie to the nature of their work, accommodated themfelvcs 
to be the prejudicate opinion of the Jcvjs ; and the reji of* 
the apoftles had little occafion to deal with them or others 
on this fubject. Paul, in an eminent manner, bore the 
burden of that day ; having well fettled all other churches, 
who were troubled in this controverfy, by fome of the 
Jews, he at laft treats with themfelves directly, giving an 
account of what he had elfewhere preaehed and taught to 
this purpofe, and the grounds on which he proceeded j 
and this not without great fuccefs, as the burying of the 
Judaical controverfy not long after fully manifefls. 

(2.) The method of his procedure is the fame with 
that of his other eplflles, which alfo was peculiar to him. 
He firfl lays down the do^rinal myfleries of the gofpel, vin- 
dicating them from oppofitions and exceptions ; and then 
d^fcends to exhurtations to obedience deduced, from them>, 

3 wit.U 


with an enumeration of fuch moral duties as thofe to whom 
he wrote, flood in need to be minded of. 

(3.) His way of argument in this and his other epillles 
is the fame ; which is fublime and myjikalj accommodated 
rather to the fpirltual reafons of beHevers, than the artifi- 
cial rules of philofophers. That he fhould more abound 
with icjhmonies and quotations out of the Old Tcflament 
in this, than his other epiflles, is nothing more than the 
matter whereof he treats, and the perfons to whom he 
wrote, necelTarily required. 

(4.) Many things in this epiflle evidently manlfeft, that 
he who wrote it, was not only mighty in the fcripture, but 
alfo exceedingly well vcrfed and fkilful in the cujioms^ prac- 
tices, opinions, traditions, expoiitions, and applications of 
fcripture then received in the Jewifh church, as we Ihall 
fully manifefl in our progrefs. Now, who could this be 
but Paul? For, as he- was brought up under one of the 
befl and mofl famous of their mailers in thofe days, and 
profited 'u\ the knowledge of their religion above his equals ; 
fo, for want of this kind of learning, the Jews cfteemed 
the chief of the other apoflles, Peter and John, to be 
(ihc^fzi) ^ignorant and unlearned,' [A6ls iv. 13. J 

(5.) Sundry particulars towards the clofc of the epiflle 
openly proclaim Paul to have been the writer of it. As 
the mention that " he makes of his bonds, and the com- 
palfion that the Hebrews fhewed him in \\\s fufferi}igs, and 
whilfl he was a prifoner, [chap. x. 34.] and the men- 
tion of his dear and conflant companion, Timothy, [chap, 
xiii. 23.] who was at Rome with Paul, in his bonds, 
[Phil. i. 13, 14.] Now, furely it is fcarcely credible, 
that any other in Italy, where Paul then ivas, and newly 
releafed out of prifon, Ihould write to the churches of the 
Hebrews, and therein make mention of his o^vn bonds, and 
the bonds of Timothy, a man unknown to them, but by 
the means of Paul, and not once intimated any thing about 
his condition. Beiide, the confMnt fign and token of 
Paul's epiflles, which himfelf had publicly fignitied to be 
fo, [II.Thef. iii. 17, 18.] is fubjoined to this ; 'Grace 
be with yon all.'' That this originally was written with hii. 
■ Yql. I^ I^^ (^wn 


own hand, there is no ground to quellion, but rather ap- 
pears to be fo becaufe it was written ; for he affirms, that 
it was his cujiom to fubjoin that falutation with his own 

Now, this was an evidence to them to whom the origi- 
nal of the epiftle firfl came ; but not to thofe who had only 
tranfcribed copies of it. The falutation itfelf was their to- 
ken, being pecuhar to PauL And all thefe circumftances 
will yet receive fome farthej: force from the confideration, 
of the time wherein this epiftle was written. 



§ I. (I.) Of the time when the epiflle was written. It was 
after Paul's releafe out of Prifon ; before the death of 
James ; before the fecond of Peter. § 2. l^hc time of 
PauVs being font to Rome. § 3. I'he affairs of the Jews 
at that time ; and the martyrdom of James. § 4. The 

fiate of the Hebrew churches ; which were %ealoufly ad- 
dit^led to Mofaical inftitutions. § 5. The troubles of the 
Jews ; and the Chriftians warned to leave Jerufalem. § 6. 
Caufes of their unwilUngnefs to leave it, § 7. The occa- 

fion and fuccefs of the epifile. § 8. (II.) Of the language 
wherein it was written. Not written in Hebrew. § 9. 
Not tranflated by Clemens. § I O. But has firong marks 
of a Greek original. 

§ I. (I.) X HE time when the epiftles were written, often 
threw conliderable light on many paflages ; for inftance, 
we learn, that the fhipwreck at Mileta [Afts xxvii.] is 
not what St. Paul refers to, [II. Cor. xi.] when he fays 



he was a * night and a day in the deep ;' bccaufe that 
epiflJe was written fome years before his failing towards 
Rome. The time of Paul's imprifonmcnt at Rome was 
expired before the writing of this epiflle ; for he was not 
only abfcnt from Rome, in fome other part of Italy, when 
he wrote it, [chap. xiii. 24.] but alfo fo far at liberty, 
as to entertain a refolution of going into the Eaft, when 
Timothy fliould come to him, [chap. xiii. 23.] The 
date of it muil be alfo prior to the martyrdom of James 
at Jerufalem ; iince he affirms, that the Hebrew church 
had not yet refilled unto blood, [chap.xii. 4.] It is 
alfo certain, that it was not only written^ but vjcll known 
to the believing Jews, before the writing of the fecond 
epiftle of Peter, which was not long before the apoflle's 
death, which happened, as is generally agreed, in the thir- 
teenth year of Nero. 

§ 2. From thefe obfervations it appears, that our befl 
guide is Paul's being fent prilbner to Rome ; which was 
in the firft year of Festus, after he had been detained 
two years in prifon, at Ccefarea, by Felix, [A£ls xxiv. 
27. XXV. 26, 27.] and this mofl probably correfponds 
with the fourth or fftJj year of Nero, which was the 
fifty-ninth^ year from the nativity. Two years after, the 
fcvcnth of Nero, and fixty-firfl of our Lord, he obtained 
his liberty, which was about thirteen years after the de- 
termination of the controverfy about Mofaical infiitutionsy 
[Adts XV.] Now, prefently after his liberty, whilfl he 
abode in fome part of Italy, expe£ling the coming of Ti- 
mothy, before he had entered upon the journey he had 
promifed to the Philippians, [chap. ii. 24.] he wrote 
this epiflle, — The time being thus fixed, it may be pro- 
per to confidcr, 

§ 3. What was the general flate and condition of the 
Hebrews in thofe days r — That the church had a great 
fhare of fuffering, in the outrage and mifery of thofe days, 
about the death of Festus, who died in the province, 
and the beginning of the government of Albinus, who 
fucceeded liim, none can queflion, [vid. Joseph. Wars 
of the Jews, B- ii.] This is what the apoflle mentions, 
N 2 [chap. 


fchap. Jt. 31 — 34-'} * Te endured^ &c.' And this was 
the lot of all hoiiell and fober-miiided men in thofe days, 
it being not 2, fpccial perfecutkn, but a general calamity that 
the apoflle fpeaks of. For a dire^ attack upon the church 
was firil made by Ananus, who was a rafli young fellow, 
by fe£l a Saducee, and yet advanced to the prieflhood. 
During the interval between the death of Festus, and the 
fettling of Albinus, this cruel Saducee, placed in power 
by Agrippa, fummons James before himfelf and his alTo- 
ciates, where he is condemned, and immediately Honed. 

§ 4. The churches at this time in Jerufalem and Judea 
were very numerous. The oppreiTors, robbers, and fedi- 
tious of all forts, being wholly intent upon the purfuit of 
their own ends, filling the nation with tumults and difor- 
ders, the difciples of Chrill, who knew that the time of 
their preaching the gofpel to their countrymen was but 
fnort, and even now expiring, followed their work with 
dihgence and fuccefs, being not greatly regarded in the 
duft of that confulion which was raifed by the nation, 
while rufliing into its fatal ruin. 

All thefe churches were, together with the profefTion of 
the gofpel, zealoufly addicled to the obfervance of the 
Jaw of Mofes. Tht Jynod indeed at Jerufalem had deter- 
mined, that the yoke of the law fliould not be put on the 
necks of the Gentile cowNtxtSy [Acts xv.] but eight or nine 
years after that, when Paul came up to Jerufalem again, 
[chap xxi. 20- — 22.] James informs him, that the many 
thoufands of the Jews who believed, did all zealoufly 
obferve the law of Mofes ; and, moreover, judged that 
all thofe who were Jews by birth, ought to do fo alfo ; 
and on that account were like enough to afTemble in a 
diforderly multitude, to inquire into the practice of Paul 
himfelf, who had been ill-reported of amongft them. On 
this account they kept their alTemblies difl:in£l from thofe 
of the Gentiles, all over the world.* All thofe Hebrews, 
then, to w4iom Paul wrote this epiille, continiied in the 
■Jjfe and practice of Alcfaical worihip, as celebrated in the 

■" HiEJLON. m GaL k 



temple f ^nd in tht'ir fynngogues, with all other legal in- 
Hitutions whatever. Whether they did this out of an un- 
acquaintednefs with their liberty in Chrift, or ont of a per- 
tinacious adherence to their own prejudicate opinions, I 
ihall not determine. 

§ 5. From this time forward, the body of the Jewifh 
people faw not a day of peace and quietnefs ; tumults, fe- 
ditions, outrages, robberies, murders, increafed all over 
the nation. And thefe things, by various degrees, made 
way for that fatal war ; wiiich, beginning ^houtjtx or fe- 
ven years after the death of James, ended in the utter defo* 
lation of the people, city, temple, and worfhip, foretold 
fo long before by Daniel the prophet. This w^as that 
day of the Lord, the fudden approach of which the apoflle 
declares to them, [Heb. x. 36, 37.] * For ye have need 

* of patience ; that after ye have done the will of God, yc 
' may receive the promife ; for yet a little ivhilc, and he 

* that fhall come will come, and wHll not tarry/ (uizpcv 
ccrov c<rov) ' a very little while,* lefs than you think of. 
The manner of it he declares, [Heb. xii. 26 — 28.] And 
hy this means, be effeftually diverted them from a perti- 
nacious adherence to thofe things, whofe dilTolution, from 
God hirafelf, was fo nigh at hand ; which argument was 
alfo afterwards preffed by Peter, [IL Pet. iii.] 

Our blefled Saviour had long before warned his difciples 
of all thefe things ; particularly of the defolation that was 
to come upon the Jews, with the tumults, dillreifes, per- 
fecutions, and wars, which fhould precede it; dire(fling 
them to the exercife of patience in difcharging their duty, 
until the approach of the final calamity; and of which 
he advifed them to free themfelves by flighty or a timely 
departure out of Jerufalem and Judea, [Matt. xxiv. 15 — 
21.] This, and no other, was the oracle mentioned by 
EusEBius, whereby the Chriftians were warned to depart 
out of Jerufalem. It was given, as he fays, {loiq ^oKifjioig) 
to approved men amongft them. For, although the pro- 
phecy itfelf was written by the evangeliils, yet the fpecial 
meaning of it was not known and divulged amongft all. 
The leaders of them kept it ficret for a feafon, left ari 


&& OF THE TliME WHEN, PartL 

cxafperation of the people being^ occalioned thereby, they 
Ihould have been obilruded in the work which they had 
to do before its accomplilliment ; and this was the cafe 
relative to other things, [II. Thef. ii. 5, 6.] But now, 
when the prefent work of the church among the Jews was 
to come to its clofe, the ekd: being gathered out of them, 
and the final defolation of the city and people appearing to 
be at hand, by a concurrence of all the ligns foretold by 
our Saviour, thofe entrufted with the fenfe of that orack, 
warned their brethren to provide for that flight, whereto 
they were directed. That this flight and departure 
probably with the lofs of all their poiTeffions, was grievous 
to them, may be eafily conceived. 

§ 6. But what feems mofl efpecially to have perplexed 
them, was their relinquifhment of that worfhip of God, 
whereto they had been fo zealoufly addifted. That this 
would prove grievous to them, our Saviour had before in- 
timated, [Matt. xxiv. 20.] Hence were they fo flow in 
their obedience to that heavenly crack, although excited 
with the remembrance of what befell Lot's wife in the 
like tergiverfation. Nay, as it is likely, from this epiflle, 
many of them, who had made profelTion of the gofpel, ra- 
ther than they would now utterly forego their old worfhip, 
deferted the faith, and, cleaving to their unbelieving 
countrymen, perilhed in their apoilacy ; whom our apof- 
tie, in a fpecial manner, forewarns of their inevitable and 
fore deflrudion, by that fire of God's indignation which 
was fliortly to devour the advcrfariesy to whom they alTo- 
ciated themfelves, [Heb. x. 25 — 31.] 

§ 7. Paul, who had an inexprefiible zeal, and over- 
flowing afFeftion for his countrymen, being now in Italy 
— confidering the prefent condition of their affairs, how 
pertinacioufly they adhered to the Mofaical inflitutions, 
how near the approach of their utter abolition was, how 
backward they would be while they polTefTed that frame 
of fpirit, to fave themfelves by frying from the midfl of 
that perifhing generation ; what danger they were in to 
forego the profefiion of the gofpel, when it would not be 
retained without a relinquifhment of their former Divine 



fervice and ceremonies— writes this epiflle to them, 
wherein he flrikes at the very root of all their dangers 
and diftrelTcs. For, whereas all the danger of their abode 
in Jerufalem and Judea, and fo of flilling in the deftruftioii 
of the city and people ; all the fears the apoille had of their 
apollacy into Judalfm ; all their own difconfolations in 
reference to their flight and departure,— -arofe from their 
adherence to, and zeal for the law of Mofes ; by declaring 
to them the nature, ufe, end, and expiration of his ordi- 
nances and inflitutions, he utterly removes the ground 
and occalion of all the evils mentioned. 

This was the feafon wherein the epiftle was written ; 
and thefe are fome of the principal occafions (though it had 
other reafons alfo, as we ihall fee afterwards) of its being- 
written. And I no way doubt, (though the particular 
events of thofe days are buried in oblivion) but that 
through the grace of him, who moved and dire£led the 
apoftle to write, it was made fignally effectual towards 
the profelfing Hebrews^ both to free them from that yoke 
of bondage, wherein they had been detained ; and to pre- 
pare them with chcerfalnefs to the obfervance of evangelical 
worlhip, leaving their countrymen to periCi in their liii 
and unbelief. 

§ 8. (II.) Some, from a fuppofed diiUmilitude of flylc 
in this, compared with Paul's other epillles, and becaufe 
it was written to the Hebrews^ have thought, that it was 
originally written in Hebrew. — But if fo, 

1. Whence comes it to pafs, that wo copy o{\X.^ in that 
language, was ever feen or heard of, by the mofl diligent 
colledtors of all fragments of antiquity in the primitive 
times ? Had ever any fnch thing been extant, whence 
came it in particular, that Origen, that prodigy of in- 
dull ry and learning, fhould be able to attain no knowledge 
or report of it ? Again, 

2. If it were incumbent on Paul in writing to the 
Hebrews, to write in their oivn language, why did he not 
alfo write in Lathi to the Romans ? But, 

3. It is very improperly fuppofed, that the Hebrew 
tongue was then the common language of the Jews ; for 

I it 


it was known only to the learned amongfl them, and a 
corrupt Syriac was the common dialect of the people 
even at Jerufalem. 

4. It is, moreover, as unduly averred, that the He- 
hrew was the mother tongue of Paul himfelf, or that he 
was ignorant of the Greeks feeing he was born at Tarfus, 
in Cilicia, where the latter muft have been the language 
he was brought up in. 

5. The epiftle was written for the ufe of all the He- 
brews in their feveral difperlions, efpecially that in the 
Eail, as Peter witnelTeth, they being all alike concerned 
in the matter of it, though not fo immediately as thofe in 
Judea and Jerufalem. Now, to thofe the Greek language, 
from the days of the Macedonian empire, had been m 
ijulgar ufe, and continued to be fo. Nay, 

6. The Greek tongue was fo well known, and fo much 
"ufed in Judea itfelf, that it was called the vulgar amongft 
them ; fo tliat the pretence of fome of the Rabbins, con- 
cerning a prohibition againft learning the Greek tongue, is 
built on fuppoiitions evidently falfe ; and may be eafily 
convifted of felf- contradiction. 

& 9. Again, the epiftle is faid to be travjiatcdhy Cle- 
mens ; but where, or when, we are not informed. Was 
this in Italy before it was fent to the Hebrews ? To what 
end then was it written in Hebrew^ when it was not to be 
xjfed, but in Greek ? Was it fent in Hebrew before the 
fuppofed tranflation ? then in what language was it com- 
municated to others, by them ys\io firft received it? Cle- 
mens was never in the Eaft^ to tranflate it. And if all 
the fufc copies of it were difperfed in Hebrew, how came 
rhcy to be fo utterly loft, as that no report or tradition 
of anv one copy did ever remain ? Befides, \^ it were 
tranHated bv Clemens, in the J4eft^ and that tranflation 
alop.e prefervcd, how came it to pafs, that it was fo well 
kuov;n, and generally received in the Eafl^ before the 
Wcftcrn churches admitted it ; this tradition, therefore, 
is alio every way groundlefs and improbable. 

§ 13. Moreover, the ftyle is freer from i/r^r^/'/wi than 
could be expedted in a tranflation \ and it abounds with 

G reek. 


Greek elegances, that have no countenance given thcni 
by any thing in the Hebrew tongue, [fee chap. v. 8.] 
The word (ri'-m) Berlth being conftantly rendered by 
^i(x9y}Kyif and the words concerning Melchifedeck, [chap, 
vii. II.] llrongly mihtate againfl its Hebrew original. — 
When John reports the words of Mary, (p<%/S/2ifVi) Ral^- 
boni, and adds of his own (0 Ksyijcci,Kc) that is to 
fay, majler, \^]o\\i\. xx. 16.] doth any man doubt but that 
he wrote in Greek, and therefore fo rendered her Syriac 
cxprcffion ? And is not the fame thing evident concern- 
ing our apoftle, from the interpretation he gives of the 
Hebrew words ? And it is in vain to reply, that thefe 
words were added by the tranflator, feeing the very argu- 
ment of the author is founded in the interpretation of thofe 
words which he gives us. 

It appears, then, that the affertion, *^ that this epifllc 
was written in Hebrew," is altogether groundlefs ; the 
evidence for its Greek original being fuch as few other 
books of the New Teftament can afford concerning them- 
l^lves, fliould the fame queftion be made about them. 


§ I . Miftake of the Jews about the nature of the promfes. § 2 • 
I'he promife of the Alejfiah under the notion of a covenants 
the foundation of the church. § 3. The church confined to 
the pcrfon and pofter'ity of Abraham, who was called and 

feparated for a double end. § 4. Who properly the feed 
of Abraham. § 5. Miftakes of the Jews about the co^ 
venant. § 6. Abraham the father of the faithful, and 
heir of the world, on what account. § 7. The church 

Jlill the fame, § 8. Conchifion. 

§ I. X HE Jews, at the time when this cpiflls was 

written, (and their poflerity, in all fucceeding genera- 

VoL. I. O tions. 


tlons, follow tlieir example and tradition) were not a 
little confirmed in their obflinacy and unbelief, by a 
niifapprehenfion of the true fenfe of the Old Teftament 
-proniifes. For, finding many glorious promifes made to 
the church in the days of the MeiTiah, efpecially concern- 
ing the great accefs of the Gentiles to it, they looked 
upon themfelves the poflerity of Abraham, according to 
the flefn, as the firft, proper, and indeed only fubjefts of 
them ; to v/hom, in their accoinpiilliment, oihers were 
to be profelytcd and joined, the fubflance and foundatioa 
of the church remaining ftill with them. But the event 
anfwered not their expectation. Inflead of inheriting all 
the promifes merely upon their caj-nal intereft and pri- 
vilege, they found that themfelves muft come in on a 
new account^ to be Iliarers in common with others, or be 
rejected, whilft thofe others were admitted to the in- 
heritance. This filled them with wrath and envy, which 
greatly flrengthened their unbelief. They could not bear 
with patience an intimation of letting out the ' vineyard 
* to other hufbandmen.* With this principle and preju- 
dice of theirs, the apollle dealt directly in his epiftle to 
the Romans. [See chap. x. xi.] 

On the fame grounds he proceedeth v;ith them in this 
epiftle ; and becaufe his anfwer to their objection from 
the promifes lies at the foundation of many of his reafon- 
ings with them, the nature of it muft be here previoufly 

^ 2. Now, though the promife of the Meffiah given to 
Adam, an abfoluie promife proceeding from mere grace, 
was the fupport and encouragement of mankind to feek 
the Lord ; yet. as it was the foundation of the church, it 
included the nature of a covenant, virtually requiring a 
re-ftipulation to obedience. For the promife was given to 
this end, that men might have a new foundation of obe- 
dience, the firft covenant being difannulled. Hence, in 
the after explications of the promife, this condition of 
obedience is exprefsly added. So upon its renewal to 
Abraham, God required, that he fliould ^ walk before 
♦ him, and be upright.* This promife, then, as it hath 



the nature of a covo^mt, including the grace that God 
would fhew to linners in the Mciliah, and the obedience 
that he required from them, was, from the firfl giving 
of it, the foundation of the church and its worfhip. 
And to this church, thus founded on the covenant, were 
all the following promifes and privileges exhibited. On 
this account, the church, before the days of Abraham, 
though fcattered up and down in the world, and fubjeft 
to many changes in its worfhip, by the addition of new 
revelations, was flill but one and the fame ; becaufe found- 
ed on the fame covenant^ and interelled thereby in all 
its benefits. 

§. 3. In procefs of time, God was pleafed to confine 
this church, as to the ordinary vifible difpenfation of his 
grace, to the perfon and poflerity of Abraham. Upon 
this rcflri6tion of the church covenant and promife, 
it was, that the Jews of old managed a plea in their 
own juflification againfl the dodrine of the Lord Jefus 
Chrifl, and his apoflles. ' Vv^c are the children of Abra- 
* ham,* was their continual cry; on that account, they 
prefumed the promifes all belonged to them alone. Vvliich 
perfuafion hath cafl them, as we fhall f.e, upon a woe- 
ful and fatal miflake. — Two privileges did God grant 
to Abraham upon his fcparatlon to a fpecial interefl in 
the preceding promife and covenant. 

Firfl, that according to the flefh^ he fhould be the fa- 
ther of the Mefliah, the promifed feed ; who was the very- 
life of the covenant; the fountain and caufe of all the 
bleffings contained in it. That this privilege A\as tempo^ 
rary, having a limited feafon, the nature of the thing de- 
monflrates ; for, upon his natural exhibition in the flefli, 
it was neceffarily to ceafe. In purfuit of this were his 
pofterity feparated from the refl of the world, and pre- 
fcrved a peculiar people, that through them, according- to 
the fled), the promifed feed might be brought forth in 
the fulnefs of time. [Rom. ix. 5.] 

Secondly, together with this he had alfo another prl-- 
I'l/ege, namely, that his faith, whereby he was perfonally 
intererted in the covenant, fliould be the pattern of the faith 

O 2 of 


of the church in all generations. On this account he 
became the ^father of all believers ;' for * they that are 
* o^ faith ^ the fame are the children of Abraham/ [Gal. 
iii. 7. Rom. iv. 11.] and alfo, ^ heir of the world/ 
[ver. 13.] in that all who fhould believe throughout the 
world, being thereby implanted into the covenant made 
with him, fhould become h\s fpiritual children. 

§ 4. Anfwerable to this two-fold end of the fepara- 
tion of Abraham, there was a doul?Ie feed allotted to him. 
A feed according to the flefh^ feparated to the bringing 
forth of the Mefliah ; and a feed according to the promife^ 
fuch as by the righteoufnefs of faith fhould be interefled 
in the promife — all the ele^l of God. Not that thefc 
two feeds were always yw^yV^zw/y diverfe ; [Rom. ix. 10, 
II.] for fometimes the fame feed was the feed of Abra- 
ham, both according to the fiefh and according to the 
promife ; though fometimes thofe according to the flefh 
were not of the promife ; and fo on the contrary. Thus 
Ifaac and Jacob were the feed of Abraham, both accord- 
ing to the flefh and the promife ; and multitudes after- 
wards of the carnal feed of Abraham, feparated to bring 
forth the Meffiah, were not of the feed according to the 
promife, becaufe they did not perfonally believe. And 
rnany afterwards, who were not of the carnal feed of 
Abraham, were yet defigned to be made his fpiritual 
feed, by faith, that in them he might become heir of the 
vjorld^ and all nations of the earth be blefled in him. 

§ 5. And herein lay the great miftake of the Jews 
of old, wherein they are followed by their poflerity unto 
this day. They thought no more was needful to intercft 
them in the covenant of Abraham, but that they were 
his feed, ' according to the flefn.' And they conflantly 
pleaded the latter privilege, as the ground and reafon of 
the former ; not reflefting, that they can have no other 
privilege on that account, than Abraham himfelf had in 
the flelh ; which was, that he fhould be fet apart as the 
fpecial channel through whofe loins God would derive 
«he promifed feed into the world ; when the very na- 


ture of the thing llicws, the feparatlon and privilege were 
to ceafe. For to what piirpofe Ihould it be continued, 
when the end for which it was deiigned was fully ef- 
fefted ? Seeing, therefore, that this carnal privilege was 
come to an end, with all its attendant ordinances, by 
the a£lual corning of the Meiliah, to which they were fub- 
fervient ; if they did not by faith in the promi fed feed 
attain an intereft in the privileges of the fpiritual bUjfingy 
it is evident that they would on no account be cou« 
lidered as a£lual fharers in the covenant of God. 

§ 6. We have fcen, then, that Abraham was the father of 
all that believe, and heir of the world, on the account of 
h\s faith y and not of his feparation according to x\\q ftfh. 
And in the covenant made with him lies the foundation 
ef the church in all ages : wherefoever this covenant is, 
there all the promifes and privileges of the church are. 
Hence it was, that at the coming of the Meffiah there 
was not Qne church taken away, and another fet up in the 
room of it ; but the church continued the fame in thofe 
that were the children of Abraham according to faith. 
The Chriftian church is not another church, but the 
very fame that was before the coming of Chrift, having 
the fame faith, and interefted in the fame covenant. It 
is true, that the former carnal privileges of Abraham and 
his pofterity expiring, on the grounds before mentioned, 
the ordinances of worfhip which were fuited thereto, did 
nec^slTarily ceafe alio ; and this caft the Jews into great 
perplexities, and proved the lall: trial that God made of 
them. For — whereas both the carnal and fpiritual pri- 
vileges of Abraham's <:ovenant, which had been carried 
on together in a mixed way for many generations, came 
now to be feparated, and trial muft be made, [Mai. iii.] 
who of the Jews had intereft in both, and who in the 
one only — thofc who had only the carnal privilege con- 
tended for a fliare on that lingle account in the other aifo, 
that is, in all the promifes annexed to the covenant. But 
the foundation of their plea was taken away ; and the 
2 church 


church to which the promifes belong remained with them 
who were the heirs of Abraham's /^///^ only. 

§ 7. It remains, then, that the churchy founded in the 
covenant, abode at the coming of Chrift, and doth abide 
ever hnce, among thofe who are the children of Abraham 
by faith. The old church was not taken away, and a 
new one fet up ; but the fame church was continued ia 
thofe, only thofe, who by faith inherited the promifes. 
Great external alterations were indeed then made ; new 
ordinances of woriliip were appointed, fuited to the new 
light and grace granted then to the church, while the old 
were abolilhed ; and the Gentiles came in to the faith of 
Abraham, together with the Jews, to be fellow-heirs with 
them in his blefhng. But none of thefe, nor all of them 
together, made any fuch alteration in the church, but that 
it was llill ONE and the fame. The olive tree was the fame, 
though fome branches were broken of, and others grafted 
in ; the Jews fell oiFj and the Gentiles came in their 

§ 8. And this determines the difference between the 
Jews and the Chrijiians about the promifes of the Old Tef- 
tament ; they are all made to the church. No individual 
pcrfon can claim interefl in them but by virtue of his 
memberfhip therewith : this church is, and always was, 
one and the fam.e ; with v/homfoever it remains, the pro- 
mifes are th-irs dire£tly and properly ; and among thofe 
prom.ifes this is one, that God wTil be a God unto them 
and their feed for ever. 


§ 1. The prcfent Jeivifb notion about the written word and 
oral tradition. § 2. Their general diflrihution of the Old 
Teftament, §3. Their f mailer divifions, §4. The Maf- 
fora, § 5. 7keir pretended oral law. §6, 7. (I.) Jfhat 
they intend by it. § 8, 9. (II.) The whole difproved. 

§ 10. 


§ 10. Agreement of the Jews and Papljls about tradi^ 


§ I. X HE apollle dealing with the Hebrews about the 

revelation of the will of God made to their fathers, affigns 
it in general unto their fpeaking to them (iy joig Trpo/p'/j^ 
TO-ig) in the prophets, [chap. i. i.] This ^^«^/w^ to them 
the prefcnt Jews affirm to conflil of two parts : 

1. That which Mofes and the following prophets were 
commanded to zvrite for the public ufe of the church ; 

2. What was delivered only by word of mouth unto 
Mofes, and which, being continued by oral tradition un- 
til after the laft deflrudion of the temple, was afterwards 
committed to writing. — And becaufe thofe who would 
read our Expofition, or the epiftle itfelf, with profit, had 
need of fome inlight into the opinions of the Jews about 
thefe things, I fliall, for the fake of them who want either 
Ikill, leifure, or means to fearch after them elfewhere, 
give a brief account of their faith concerning thefe two 
heads of revelation, and therein dlfcover both the prin- 
ciple, nature, and means of their apofacy and infidelity. 

§ 2. The fcripture of the Old Tefiament tb-v call 
(i^ipD) mikra, the reading, and divide it into three -p drls-— 
The laiv — the prophets — the writings by divine infpiration, 
tifually called the Hagiographa, or holy zvritings. Thus R. 
Bechai, {m Cad Hackcmach) *' The law (i.e. the whole 
writing) is divided into three parts ; the laiu, the prophets^ 
and the holy writings,^' And that all are generally compri- 
zed under * the law,' thus they obferve, (in Midrafh Te- 
hillim, Pfalm Ixxviii. i.) " The Pfalms are the law, and 
the prophets are the law/' that is, the whole fcripture. 

This diftribution, intimated by our Saviour, [Luke 
xxiv. 27.] evidently arifes from the nature and fubjefl 
matter of the books themfelves, and it was the received 
divifion whilfl the Jewifh church continued. But the 
F oft -talmudical doctors overlooking, or wilfully neglecting, 
the true reafon of this diftribution, have fancied others, 



taken from the different manners and degrees of revelation 
by which they were given. Yea, in the eleven degrees of 
divine revelation affigned by Maimonides, (^Afor, Ncbii. 
Par. 11.) that by infpiration is call into the loweji place. 
How groundlefs and fanciful is this difti nation ! For, 
though God was pleafed to ufe various ways in reprefent- 
ing things to the minds of the prophets, it was in them 
all the infpiration of the Holy Ghoft alone that enabled theni 
infalliblv to declare the mind of God to the church. 
[II. Pet', i. 2iO . 

They make the Revelation to Mofcs the moft excellent ; 
and next in degree they place the fpirit of prophecy ; and 
of the iail fort they reckon the infpiration of the Holy 

The ' law,' or the books of Mofes, they call (ii^»o) 
the five, or the Pentateuch, from the number of the books. 
Thefe they divide into fedions^ whereof they read one 
every f2;bbath day in their fynagogues ; Genelis into twelve^ 
Exodus into eleven-, Leviticus into ten. Numbers into ten^ 
zxidi Deuteronomy into ten, which all make fifty-three ; 
whereby, reading one each day, and two on one day, 
they read through the whole in the courfe of a year, be- 
ginning at the feail of tabernacles. [See A£ls xv. 21.] 

The books given by the ' fpirit of prophecy,' they make 
of two forts : 

1. ^\\t former prophets, which are all \\\^ hiforicalhoo\.% 
written before the captivity, Ruth only excepted, that is, 
Jofliua, Judges, Samuel, Kings. 

2. The prophetical books, peculiarly fo called, Daniel only 
excepted, that is, Ifaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiei, and the twelve 
minor prophets. 

Thofe which, according to them, are written by the 
• infpiration of the Holy Ghofi,' are the poetical books, 
Pfalms, Job, Proverbs, Canticles, Lamentations, and Ec- 
clefiaftes ; to which they add Ruth, Daniel, and the hif- 
torical books written after the captivity. Chronicles, Ezra, 
and Nehemiah, which make up the canon of the Old Tef- 



Why fundry of thefe books, particularly Ruth and Da- 
niel, fhould be cafl into the laft fort, they caa give no 
tolerable account j and thofe written after the captivity 
are plainly of the fame nature with thofe which they 
call tlie former prophets : in fliort, they have not any 
reafon for this diftribution. 

§ 3. The * law' they divide into Icjjcr feBlom of two 
forts, Gpcn and clofe, which ha^fe their dillind marks iii 
their bibles ; and many fuperflitious obfervances they have 
about the beginning and ending of them.* They divide 
it, moreover, into 153 (amo) fedarim, dijiintllons ; of 
which Genefis contains 42, Exodus 29, Leviticus 23^ 
Numbers 32, Deuteronomy 27; which kind of difline^ 
tions they alfo obferve throughout the fcriptures.f 

Befides, they diftribute the prophets into what they call 
Haphters, that anfwer to the fedions which are read every 
fabbath day in their fynagogues ; which divilion thev af- 
firm to have been made in the days of Antiochus Epi- 
PHANES, (whom they call rir^in that wicked one) when the 
reading of the law was prohibited. 

§ 4. Having for a long feafon lofl the promlfe of the 
Spirit, and therewith all faving fpiritual knowledge of the 
mind and will of God in the fcripture, the bell of their 
employment about it hath been in reference to the words 
and letters of it ; wherein their diligence hath been of 
life in preferving the copies of it free from corruption : 
for — after the canon of the Old Teflament wa's comple- 
ted in the days of Ezra, and points or vowels added to the 
letters, to preferve the knowledge of the tongue, and fa- 
-cilitate the reading and learning of it — it is incredible 
what induilry and curiolity they have ufed about the let- 
ter of fcripture. The collection of their pains to this 
purpofe is called the MaJJora, begun, it may be, from 
the days of Ezra, and continued until the time of com- 

* Of the firil fort there are in Genefis 43, of the latter 4S, 
&:c. &c. 

t Befides, they obferve, that i in Jin J Lev. xi. 42. is the n:id^ 
die letter of the law; u^m Lev. X, 16. the middle ii^ord^ and Lev. 
xiii. 33. the middle "verje. 

Vol. L P pofing 


poflng the Talmud, with fome additional obfervations an- 
nexed to it lince. The compofers of this work they call 
(miDDn >Vj?l) the men or majlers of the Mojjora, whofe 
principal obfervations were gathered and publifhed by R. 
Jacob ChaiLm, and annexed to the Venetian bibles, 
whereas, before, the Mafjora was written in other books 
innumerable. In this their critical docirlne they give ns 
the number of verfes, words, and even letters in the bible, 
and how often each letter is feverally ufed, &c. the fum of 
which is gathered by Buxtorf, in his excellent treatife 
on that fubjeft. And herein is the knowlege of their 
mafters bounded ; but are more blind than moles in the 
fpiritual fenfe of it. And thus they continue an ex- 
ample of the righteous judgement of God, in giving them 
up to the counfeis of their own heart ; and an evident 
inilance how unable the letter of fcripture is to furnifli 
men with the faving knowledge of the will of God, while 
they enjoy not the fplr It promifed in the covenant made to 
the church, [Ifa. lix. 21.] 

§ 5. To that ignorance of the mind of God in the 
fcripture, they have added another prejudice againft the 
truth, in a flrange figm.ent of an oral law, which they 
make equal, yea, in many things fuperior, to the writ- 
ten law. The fcripture becoming with them a Ufclefs let-. 
ier, it was impoffible that they Ihould content themfelves 
with what it reveals. For as the word, whilft improved 
according to the mind of God, is found full of fweetnefs 
t^nd life, Vv^ifdom and knowledge ; fo, when it is enjoyed 
merely on an outward account, without a difpenfation 
of fuitable light and grace, it will yield men no fatisfac- 
tion ; which makes them turn afide to other means. 
This being eminently fo in the Jews, and the medium 
they have fixed on to fupply a fuppofed want in the 
fcripture, proving to be the great engine of their obfli- 
iiate infidehty ; I fnall 

I. Declare what it is that they intend by the m-al law ; 
and then, 

II. Briefly fhew the abfurdlty and falfenefs of their 
ptetenfions about it. 



§ 6. (I.) This oral law they affirm to be an unwrit- 
ten tradition and cxpofuion of the written law of Mofes, 
given to him on mount Sinai, and committed by him 
to Jolhua and the Sanhedrlniy to be by them dehvered by 
0)^1 tradition to thofe who Ihould fucceed them in the 
government of the church. It doth not appear, that in 
the days of Chrifl or his apoiiles, whilli the temple was 
yet Handing, there was any flated opinion amongft them 
about this oral law ; nay, it is evident there was no fuch 
law then acknowledged ; for the Sadduces, who utterly 
rejeftcd all the main principles of it, were not only 
tolerated, but alio in chief rule, one of them being high 
prieft. That they had multiplied many fuperftitious ob^ 
fervances under the name of traditions y is moft clear ; — > 
but it doth not appear that they knew whom to affign 
their original to, and therefore called them indefinitely 
* the traditions of the elders j* or, ' thofe that lived of old.' 
After the deil:ru6lion of their temple, when they had loll 
the life and fpirit of that worlhip which the fcripture 
revealed, betaking themfelves only to their traditional fig- 
ments, they began to bethink themfelves how they might 
give countenance to their apoilacy from the perfeftioii 
and doftrine of the written law. For this end they be • 
gan to fancy that thefe traditions were no le{s from God 
than the written laiv itfelf. For, when Mofes was forty 
days and forty nights on the mount, they fay, that in the 
day-time he wrote the law from the mouth of God, and 
in the night God inftruded him in the unwritten expo- 
fition of it, which they have received by tradition from 
him. For when he came down from the mount, after 
he had read to them the written law, as they fay, he re- 
pe'at^d to Aaron, Eleazer, and the Sanhedrim, all that 
fecret inftruftion which he had received, in the night from 
God, which it was not lawful for him to write ; and he 
committed the whole to Jofliua. Jofliiia did 
the fame to Eleazer ; as he alfo did to his fon Phincas ; 
after whom they give us a catalogue of feveral p'ophetbi 
that lived in the enfuing generations whom they employ 
iii this fervice. 

? -l The 


The lafl perfon, who, according to them, preferved 
the oral law abfolutely pure, was that Simeon, whom they 
call * the juji,^ mentioned by Jesus, the fon of Syrach; 
[chap, i.] And it is very obfervable, that the latter 
Jews have left out Simeon, the fon of Hillel, whom 
their ancient mailers placed upon the roll of the pre- 
fervers of this treafure, fuppofmg he might be that Si- 
meon who in his old age received our Saviour in his 
arms, v/hen he was prefented in the temple, [Luke ii 25.] 
a crime fufficient, among them, to brand him with per- 
petual ignominy. How happy were it, if they alone were 
concerned in *' turning men's glory into fhame !'* 

§ 7. After the deflrudion of the temple and city, 
when the evil hujhandmen were flain, and the vineyard 
of the Lord let out to others, the kingdom given to 
"another nation, and therewith the covenant fan£tified ufe 
of the fcripture ; the remaining Jews having wholly loft 
the- mind of God therein, betook themfelves vigoroufly 
to their traditions. A while after (about two hundred 
years after the deftruclion of Jerufalem) Rabbi Judah 
furnamed, The Prince and the Holy, took upon him to 
gather their fcattered traditions, and caft them into fome 
form and order, in writing, that they might be to the 
Jews a rule of life and worfliip for ever.* 

This colle£lion of his they call Mifhna, or Mijhnaioth^ 
being, as is pretended, a repetition of the law in an expo- 
lition of it ; whereas indeed it is a farrago of all forts 
of traditions, true and falfe ; with a monftrous mixture 
of lies and fables, ufelefs, foolifh, and wicked. The 
things contained in it are by themfelves referred to five 
heads : 

1. The oral law received by Mofes on mount Shial^ 
preferved by the means before declared. 

2. Oral conflltutlon of Alofes hi mfelf after he came down 
from the mount. 

3. Conflltutlons and orders drawn, by various ways of' 
arguing, out of the zvritten law. 

* Mai MO N. in J ad Cha%acha. The author of Sedar Olam, 
TzEMACH, David, &c. 

4. The 



4. The anfwers and decrees of the Sanhedrim, and 
other wife men In former ages. 

5. Immemorial cujloms^ whofe original being unknown, 
are fuppofed to be divine. 

The whole is divided into Jix parts, noted with the 
initial letter of the word which Signifies the chief things 
treated of in it.* To this ATiJhna of R. Judah they 
annex the 7'ajiphot, or additions of R. Chaiah, his fcho- 
lar, expounding many palTages in his mafter's works ; 
and to theni, moreover, is fub joined a more full expla- 
nation of the M'lJJma^ which they call Baracclot^ being ^ 
collection of fome Jnti-talmud'ical mailers. 

About three hundred years after the deilruftion of the 
temple, R. Johannan, compofed the Jerufalcm Talmud^ 
confiiling of expofitions, comments, and difputes upon 
the whole MiJjDjia, excepting the lail part about purifica- 
tions. An hundred years after that, or thereabouts, R, 
AsE compofed the Babylonian Talmud, or Gemara ; thirty- 
two years, they fay, he fpent in this work ; yet leaving it 
•unfiniflied ; feventy-one years after, it was completed by 
his difciples. And the whole work of both thefe Talmud: 
^lay be referred to five heads : 

1 . They expound the text of the Ml/hna. 

2. They decide queflions of right and fad. 

3. They report the deputations, traditions, and con- 
ftitutions of the dodors that lived between them and the 

writing of the Midina. 

* As follows : 

1. (t) Zeraimy feeds, divided into eleven MciJJichtot, or treatifes, 
containing in all feventy-five chapters. 

2. (d) Moad, appobited fcafis, divided into t'voche treatifc?, 
containing eighty-eight chapters. 

.3. (j) Napalm, oiyVomen^ diilributed into /i-w/v treatifes and 
feventy-one chapters. 

4. (J) Nezikhn, of Lojjes, divided into eight treatifes and fe^ 
<venty-four chapters. 

5. (p) Kodof/un, Oi San^ficatloris, containing ^/r-y^« books and 
ninety chapters. 

6. (:o) Tekaroth, of Purifications, in tv:che books and a hun* 
ircd and tx\:enty-fi.x chapters. 

4. They 


4. They give allegorical monftrous expofitions of the 
fcripture, which they call Afidra/Jjoth ; and 

5. They report itories of the like nature. 

This, at length, is their oral law grown into ; and, 
in the learning of thefe things confifcs the whole religion 
of the Jews ; there being not the mofl abfurd faying of 
any of their doctors in thofe huge heaps of folly and va- 
nity, that they do not equal, nay, that they are not 
ready to prefer, to the written word ; that perfed, and 
only guide of their church, whilfl God was pleafed with 
it. In the dull of this confulion, they dwell, *' lovhig 
this darhiefs more than light, becaufe their deeds are evil." 
Having, for many generations, entertained a prejudicate 
imagination, that thofe traditional figments, amongit 
which their crafty mailers have infer ted many filthy and 
blafphemous fables againil our Lord Chrifl and his gofpel, 
are of divine authGrky I and having utterly loft the fpiri- 
tual fenfe of the w^ritten word, they are by it fealed up in 
biindnefs and obduratenefs ; and fhall be fo until the veil 
be taken away, when the appointed time of their deli- 
verance fhall come. 

§ 8. (II.) A brief difcovery of the falfenefs of this 
fancy of their oral law, which is the foundation of all that 
huge building of lies and vanities that their Talmuds are 
compofed of, fnall put an end to this difcourfe. 

I. The very ftory of the giving of the law on mount 
Sinai fufficiently difcovers the folly of this imagination. 
The Jev^^s are ready, on all occaiions, not only to prefer 
their pretended oral law to that which is written ; but 
alfo openly profefs, that without it, the other is of no ufe, 
to them. I defire, then, to kno\y, — whence it is, that 
all tlie circurnfiances of giving and teaching the lefs neccjjary 
(as the written law is deemed) are fo exa£lly recorded ; 
but not one vjord is fpokcn of this oral law, either of God's, 
revealing it to Mofes, or of Mofes teaching it to Jofhua, 
or any others ? Strange ! that fo much Ihould be recorded 
of every circumftance of the lefs principal, llfelefs lazv, 
^nd not one word of either fubftance or circumftance of 
the other. How know they, that any fuch law was givei\ 


to Mofes, as they pretend ? What tcji'imony^ or record of 
it, was there made at the time of its giving, or for two 
thoafand years afterwards ? 

2. Did their forefathers, at any time before the capti- 
vity, tranfgrcfs the oral law, or did they not ? If they fay 
they did not, but kept it, we may then fee, that the moll 
flridl obfervance of it could not prefervc them from all 
manner of wickednefs. What a defpicable y>A/c<? mufl it 
have been to the written law ! If they Ihall fay that it 
was not kept, but broken by them ; I deiire to know 
whence it comes to pafs, that, whereas God, by his pro- 
phets, doth reprove them for all their other fins, and in 
particular, for their contempt of his written law, the ila- 
tutes, ordinances, and inilitutions of it, he no where 
once mentions their fuppofed greater guilt of defpiling the 
eral law ; but there is as univerfal aiilence concerning its 
tranfgrejfion, as there is of its Inilitution ? Can we have 
any greater evidence of its being fiflitious, than this ; that 
whereas it is pretended it is their main rule of obedience, 
God never reproved them for the tranfgreffion of it ; though, 
w^hilft he owMied them as his church and people, he fuf- 
fered none of their fins to pafs unreproved, efpecially not 
any of equal importance with this upon tiieir principle ? 

3. Mofcs was commanded to write the whole law that 
he received from God, which he accordingly did ; [Exod. 
xxiv. 3, 4. xxxiv. 28. Dcut. xxxi. 9 — 24.] but where 
was the oral law, which they fay was not to be written, 
when Mofes was commanded to write the whole law that 
he had received of God ? This new law was not then 
coined, being, indeed, nothing but the produ£l of tl^cir 
apoftacy from the law which was written. 

4. The folc ground and foundation of this oral law lies 
in the pretended imperfeftion of the written lavj. This is 
what they plead for the necelfity of it ; the written law ex- 
tends not to all neceifary cafes that occur in religion, 
many things are redundant, manv wanting, of which 
they gather numerous inftances ; fo that they will grant, 
that if the written law had been perfect, there had been no 
need of this traditional one. But whom, in this matter. 



Hiall we believe, a few ignorant Jews, or God himfelf, 
bearing witnefs, that his * law is perfe^,'' and requiring 
no more in his worfliip, but what is in this prefcribed ? 
[See Pfal. xix. 8. Prov. xxx. 5, 6. Deut. iv. i, 2.] and 
this perfection of the written law, though it be perfectly 
deflrudlive of their traditions, not only the Kar^i, 
among themfelves, earneftly contend for, but alfo fundry 
of their Gemarists acknowledge, efpecially when they 
forget to oppofe the gofpel. 

5. God every where fends his people to the written law 
of Mofes for the rule of their obedience. If there is fuch 
an oral law ^ it is one that God would not have any one to 
obferve ; nor did ever reprove any one for its trangref- 

§ 9. And yet this figment is the bottom of the prefent 
Judaical religion and obflinacy. When the apollle wrote 
this epiflle, their obflinacy had not yet arrived at this 
lock of offence ; fmce their falling on it, they have in- 
creafed their blindnefs, mifery, and ruin. Then they 
were contented to try their caufe, by what God fpake to 
their fathers in the prophets^ which kept open a door of 
hope, and gave feme advantages for their converfion ; 
but that door is now fliut up until God fhall take away 
this veil from their faces, that they may fee to the end of 
the things that were to be abolifned. 

By this means principally have they, for many genera- 
tions, both fliut out the truth, and fccured themfelves 
from conviction. For, whatever is taught in the fcrip- 
ture^ concerning the perfon, office, and work of the MeJ- 
Jiah — feeing they have that which they efleem a revelation 
of at lead equal authority ; teaching them a doctrine quite 
of another nature, and more fuited to their carnal princi- 
ples and expcftations — they readily difcard, and will ra- 
ther reft in any evalions, than yield to its teftimony. And 
whilft they have a firm perfuaiion, received by the tra- 
dition of many generations, that the written word is im- 
p'crfe^, but an half revelation of the mind of God — 
which yet is in itfelf unintelligible, and not to be under- 
flood; but according to their oral law now recorded in their 
1 Talmuds 


T'almudsy what can the moft plain and cogent teflimonies 
avail to their conviftion ? 

§ 10. And this hath been the fatal means of the grand 
fipoftacy of both churches, Jew'ijh and Chrijilan ; for the 
Roman church hath at length arrived at alnioll the fame if- 
fue, by the fame degrees. I fliall, therefore, uog sv TrocpCAj^oo) 
manifefl their agreement in this principle of their traditions, 
which have been the ruin of theni both. 

1. The Jews expreflly contend, tha.ttheiv or a Uaiv, their 
fnafs of traditions, was from God himfelf ; partly delivered 
to Mofes on mount Sinai, and partly added, by him, from 
Divine revelations, which he afterwards received.-^And 
this is the perfuafion of the Romanifts, about their cabal 
§f traditions ; they plead them all to be of a Divine origi- 
nal, partly from Chrift, and partly from his apoftles, by 
living tradition. Let one convention of their doftors de- 
termine, that images are to be adored ; another, that tran^ 
fubjiantieition is to be believed ; and a third, add a neuf 
creed \ let one do£lor advance the opinion of purgatory^ 
another of jujiijication by works ; all is one, thefe things 
are not then firft invented, but only declared out of that 
unfearchable treafure of traditions, which they have ia 
their cuftody. 

2. This oral law being thus given, the prefcrvation of 
it, feeing Mofes is dead long ago, mud be inquired after. 
Now the Jews affign a three-fold depolitory of it ; firft, 
the whole congregation ; fecondly, the Sanhedrim ; and 
thirdly, the high prieft. To this end they affirm, that 
what Mofes then received was three times repeated, upon 
the defcent of Mofes from mount Sinai ; and that his 
after additions had the fame promulgation. Firft, It was 
repeated by himfelf to Aaron \ fecondly, by them both to 
the elders \ and, thirdly, by the elders, to the whole con- 
gregation, — In the fame manner do the Romanifts lay up 
the flock of their traditions. In general they make the 
church the repolitory of them. To the Sanhedrim have 
councils conveniently fucceeded in the fame office. But the 
high prieft, the pope, is the principal confervator of this 
facrcd treasury of traditions ; and upon their fucceftion 

Vol. i. Q^ doth 


cloth the certainty of them depend. And whilft there is a 
Pope at Rome, the knowledge of the new oral law will not 
fail ; as the old one did not, whilft the Jews had an high 
priefl, though in the purfuit of it they crucified the Mef- 
fah^ and continue to rejed him to this day. 

3. The Jews, in favour of their traditions, affirm, that 
the written word without them is imperfc^y and not to be 
underftood, but as it is interpreted by them. — And the 
firll queftion of the Romanifts generally is, *' How do you 
know the fcriptures to be the word of God r" And theu 
they fail not to aflert, firft, that the fcripture is imperfed ; 
and, fecondly, that what is delivered therein can no way 
be rightly and truely underftood, but by the help of thofe 
traditions which they have in their cuftody. But although 
thefe are advantageous inventions, yet their advocates can- 
not be allowed the credit of their being the firft authorSj^ 
feeing they are exprellly borrowed from the Jews. 

4. When thefe tw^o laws, the laws of God and their 
own, come in competition, many of the Jew^s prefer that 
of their own invention before the other, both as to cer- 
tainty and ufe ; hence they make it the foundation of 
their church, and the only fafe means to preferve the 
truth. It feems they have at leaft lliewed themfelves 
more benign towards mankind, than they would allow 
God to be, inafmuch as they have committed this fecret 
law to writing. And to this purpofe is their confeffion, 
(in ntn naiD 7he golden altar) " It is impoftible for us 
to ftand, for abide) upon the foundation of our holy law, 
which is the written Uw ; unlefs it be by the oral law, 
which is the expofition thereof.'* Wherein they not only 
declare their judgements concerning their traditions, but 
alfo exprefs the reafon of their obftinate adherence to them ; 
which is, that without it they cannot maintain themfelves 
in their prefent Judaifm. And fo, indeed, is the cafe ; 
innumerable teftimonies of fcripture riling up diredly 
againft their infidelity, they were not able to keep their 
ftation, but by an horrible corrupting of them through 
their traditions. On this account it is a common thing 
ivith them, in the advice they give to their diiciples, to 



prefer the ftudy of the Talmud before the ftudy of the 
fcripture, and the fayings of their wife men before the 
fayings of the prophets ; and plainly exprefs an utter difre- 
gard of the written word, any farther than as they fup- 
pofe the fenfe of it explained in their oral law. — Neither 
are thty here forfaken by their aflbciates ; for the principal 
delign of all the books which have been lately publifhed 
by the Romanifls, (and they have not been a few) hath 
been to prove the certainty and fufiiciency of their tradi^ 
tlons in matters of faith and worlhip, above that of the 
written word. 

5. There are fome few remaining, among the Eajlern 
yews, who reje£l all this flory concerning the oral law, 
and profefledly adhere to the written word only. Thefc 
the mailers of their prefent religion brand as hereticks ; cal- 
ling them (cD't«^-ip) fcripturijis or hihUJisy while at the fame 
time the greateft part of their Talmud, the facred treafury 
of their oral law, is taken up with differences and difputes 
of their mailers among them/elves, with a multitude of va- 
rious and contradidory conceptions about their traditional 
reveries. — Thus deal the Romanifls alfo with their adver- 
faries ; this they charge them with : they are hereticksj 
they are hihUfls ; and, by adhering to fcripture alone, have 
no certainty among themfelves, but run into diverlities of 
opinions, as having deferted the unerring rule of their 
cabala ; when the world is filled with the noife of their 
ezvn confliHs, notwlthflandlng their pretended relief. And 
as the Jcw'ijh traditions have been committed to writing, 
fo the Rom'ijh are recorded in the refcripts of popes, decrees 
of councils, and cwftitutlons of the canon law, and the 
like facred means. But here the Jews deal far more in- 
genioufly than they ; for the former tell us plainly, that 
now their whole oral law is written, and that they have 
no referve of their authentic traditions undeclared. But 
here the Romanifls fail us ; for although they have given 
us * heaps upon heaps' of traditions, by the means be- 
'fore-mentioned, yet they plead, that they have ftill an /«- 
exhaujl'ihle treafure of them laid up~ in their church flores, 

Qji and 

m MESSIAH, PartH, 

and the breafl of their holy father, to be drawn forth at 
all times, as occalion may require. What a convenient 
xeferve I what an enviable privilege I 


Concerning the MeJJiah, 




§ I. 'The fuhjeSi Jtated. § 2. The original moral Jiatt 
of things, § 3. Of Jin and piml/hment entering into the 
world, § 4. The firji effc£i of Adarn s Jin was pun'i/I?- 
ment, § 5. The fecond effe^^ the moral corruption of 
■nature. § 6. Mart s manifold mifery on the entrance of Jin 
into the world, recapitulated. ^ 7. Men made the fuh^ 
jeds of mercy, and not angels. § 8. Evidences that there 
is a way provided for mati s recovery, § 9. Men^ s deli- 
verance not attainable by themfelves. § lO. Not by angels. 
§ II. Not by the law of Mofes, 12. Either moral or 
ceremonial \ but by a new covenant of grace, § 13. The 
firJi promije of grace, § 14. And the threatening annexed 
to it. § 15 The promife renewed to Abraham, § 16. 
Other Jcripiure tcjiimonies, in reference to a deliverer. § 17. 
This deliverer, the Messiah. § 18 — 22. Additional 
iejtimonies, chief y from the Targums. §23. Conclujion, 

§ r. VV E riow proceed to the hafis that the apoftle 
ilaiids upon, in tlie management of his whole delign. 



For in all paranctlcal difcourfes, as this epiflle for the 
moil: part is, there are always fome principles taken for 
granted, which give life and efficacy to the exhortations. 
And thefe are : 

FirJ}, That there was a Meffiah, or Saviour of man- 
kind from fin and punifhment, promifed upon the firft 
entrance of fin into the world ; in whom all acceptable 
worlhip of God was founded, and in whom all the reli- 
gion of the fons of men was to center. [Exercit. i — 3.] 

Secondly^ That this Meffiah, long before promifed, was 
aftually exhibited in the world, and had finifhed the 
work committed to him, when the apofile wrote this 
«piflle ! [Exercit. 4 — 6.] 

Ihirdly, That Jefus of Nazareth was the Mefliah, and 
that what he had done and fuffered, was the work and 
duty promifed of old concerning him. [Exercit. 7, 8.] 

There is not a line in the epiflle to the Hebrews, that 
doth not virtually begin and end in thefe principles ; not 
a dodlrine, not an exhortation, that is not built upon 
this triple foundation. They are alfo the great truths of 
the Chrijlian Religion, The confirmation and vindication 
of the firjl of thefe principles is what our prefent dif- 
courfe intends. 

§ 2. Theveryfirflapprehenfionsof the nature of God, and 
the condition of the univerfe, declare that man was formed 
free from yJ)/, which is his voluntary fubduftion of him- 
felf from under the government of his Maker ; and free 
from trouble, which is the effeft of his difpleafure on that 
fubdu6tion or deviation, (in which two the whole nature 
of evil confifleth) fo that it mufl have fome other ori- 

Furthermore, in this firfl cfFe£l of immenfe powder, 
God glorified himfelf, not only by the wifdom and good- 
nefs wherewith it was accompanied ; but alfo by that 
r'lghteoufnefs whereby, as the fupreme re6ior and governor of 
all, he allotted to his rational creatures the law of their 
obedience, annexing a reward thereto, confifling in a 
mixture of juflice and bounty. For, that obedience fiiould 
be rewarded is of juflice ; but that fuch a reward as the 



eternal enjoyment of God fhould be propofed to the tern- 
forary obedience of a creature, was of mere grace and 
bounty. And that mankind fhould have continued in the 
Hate and condition wherein they were created, fuppofing 
an accomphfhment of the obedience prefcribed to them, is 
manifefl from the very notions we have of the nature of 
God ; for we no fooner conceive that he is, but withal wjc 
alTent, that * he is the reivarder of them that dihgently 
• feek him,* [Heb. xi. 6.] it Ving infcparable from his 
nature, as the fovereign ruler of the works of his hands* 
And thus was the continuance of this blefled flate of the crea- 
tion provided for, and laid in a tendency to farther glory ; 
being abfolutely excluiive of any diltance between God and 
man, befides that which is natural, necelTary, and infi- 
nite from their beings. There was no fin on the one fide, 
nor difguft on the other. This fecured the order of the 
tiniverfe. For, what fliould caufc any confufion there, 
whilil the law of its creation was obferved, and which could 
not be tranfgreffed by brute and inanimate creatures. 

§ 3. That this fiate of things hath been altered from 
time immemorial ; that there is a corrupting fpring of fin 
and diforder in the nature of man ; that the whole world 
lieth in ignorance, darknefs, evil, and confufion ; that 
there is an afienation and difpleafure between God and 
mankind — God revealing his v/rath and judgements from 
heaven, whence, at firft nothing might be expelled but 
fruits of goodnefs, and pledges of love ; and man, natu* 
rally dreading the prefence of God, and trembling at the 
efFe£ls of it, which at firft was his life, joy, and refrelh- 
ment — reafon, itfeif, with prudent obfervation, will dif- 
cover. The whole creation groans out this complaint, a« 
the apoflle witneficth, [Rom. viii. 20, 21] and God 
makes it manifeft in his judgements every day, [Rom, 
i. 18.] 

That things w^ere not made at firfl in thatilate and con- 
dition wherein they are now; that they came not thus im- 
mediately from the hands of infinite wjfdom and good- 
nefs, is eafiiy difcernible. God made not man to be at a 
perpetual quarrel vi'ith him, nor to fill the world with tokens 



of his difpleafurc, becaufe of fin. This men faw of old, 
by the Ught of nature ; but what it ihould be that opened 
the floodgates to all that evil and fin, which they faw and 
obferved in the world, they could not tell. But what 
they could not attain to — and for the want of which they 
wandered in all their apprehenfions about God and them- 
felves, without certainty or coniiftency — we, by divine 
revelation, are clearly acquainted with. The fum of it 
is briefly propofed by the apofl:le, [Rom. v. 12.] * By 
* one man fin entered into the world, and death by fin.* 
Sin and death are comprehenfr'e of all that is evil in any 
kind. All that is morally fo, is fln ; all that is penally fo, 
is death. Whatever there is of diforder in the nature of 
things below ; wdiatever is irregular, horrid, unequal, or 
deftruftive in the univerfc ; w^hatever is penal to man in 
this life, or to eternity ; whatever the wrath of the holy 
righteous God, " revealing itfelf from heaven," hath 
brought, oreverfhall bring, on the works of his hands — - 
are to be referred to this head. 

Now, the work which we affign to the Mefliah is, the 
deliverance of mankind from this flate and condition. 

§ 4. The firft confequent and euc^^ of the fin of Adam 
was, the /)z/w//?>;72f«f wherewith it was attended, [Gen. ii. 
17.] ^'^ Dying thou Jh alt dic.^^ Neither can it be reafona- 
bly pretended to be lingly death to his own perfon, which 
is intended in that expreflion. The event fufliciently 
evinceth the contrary. Whatever is evil to himfelf and 
his whole pofterity, with the refidue of the creation, fo 
far as he or they might be any way concerned therein, 
hath grown out of this commination ; which is fuffi- 
ciently manifefled in the firil execution of it, [Gen. iii. 
16 — 19.] The malediBion was but the execution of the 
commination. It was not confident with the juflice of God 
to increafe the penalty (beyond what was threatened) after 
the fin was committed. The threatening, therefore, was 
the rule and meafure of the curfe. But this is here ex- 
tended by God himfelf, not only to all the miferies of 
man, (Adam and his whole pofl:erity) in this life — in la- 
bour, difappointment, fvveat and forrow, with death un- 
it der 



der the ciufe — but to the whole earth alfo, and confe- 
quently, to thole fuperior regions and orbs of heaven, by 
whofe influence the earth is, as it were, governed and dif- 
pofcd to the ufe of man, [Hof. ii. 21, 22.] 

It may be yet farther inquired, what was to be the dura- 
tion of this punilhment ? Now, there is not the leall in- 
timation of a term v/herein it Ihould expire, or that it 
fhould not be comraenfurate to the exiflence of the hnner. 
God (as the righteous judge) lays the curfe on man, 
and there he leaves him — leaves him for ever ' A mife- 
rable life he was to fpend, and then to dicww^tx this curfe 
of God, without hopes of emerging into a better condi- 

Suppofing, then, Jdam to die penally under the curfe 
of God (as without extraordinary relief he inevitably 
luuil have done) the righteoufnefs and truth of God being 
engaged for the execution of the threatening againft him, 
« — I defire to know% what fhould have been the Hate and 
condition of his foul ? Doth either revelation or reafon inti- 
mate, that he fliould not have continued for ever under the 
fame penalty and curfe, in aflate of death, orfeparation froiu 
God ? And if he fhould have done fo, then was death 
denial in the commination. This, which is termed by 
our apoftle, (-/; coy/i soxoijuv/j^ I. Thef. i. ic.) * the wrath 
• to conie,^ is v/hat the JMeffiah delivers from. — And what 
was inflifted on thofe who frji linned, all their pollerity 
are liable to. Are they not all fubjed to death, as was 
j^dam ? Are the miferies of man in his labour, or the 
forrows of women in child-bearing, taken away? Is the 
earth itfelf freed from the effefts of the curfe ? Do they 
not die who never finned after the iimilitude of Adam's 
tranfgreflion ? The Jews themfelves acknowledge that all 
death is pcyial i* that Adam was a common head to all 
mankind ;t ^^^^ ^o\x\^ of the moll fober of them, that his 

* R. Ame in 7'ahn. TraEl. Sahhat. citat. in Sepher Ikharhn, Lib^ 
iV. cap. xiii. Maimon\ More Nehuch. Par. III. cap. xvii. 

f Man ASS. Ben Israel, JDeFragilitatc^ et Be Termino Fit^e, 
Aben Ez?.a in Gen. iii. 22, 



•fill was imputed to all his poflerity.'^ llic latter mafters, 
I acknowledge, are in tliis whole matter lubricous and un- 
certain, cipecially ever fince they began to underftand the 
plea of Chrilliians, for the neceflity of fatisfiiflion to be 
made by the fufFerings of the MelTiah from the do£lrine of 
the fall. Hence AearbinelV in his commentary on Ifa. 
liii. exprellly argues againil thofe fufFerings of the Mef- 
liah, from the nonrneceflity of them, with reference to 
the fin of Adam. Some of them alfo contend, that it was 
not fo forely revenged, as we plead it to have been. ** Afk 
an Heretic (a ChnJIlanJ faith LiPMAN (in his Nizza- 
chonj how it can enter into their hearts to think that God 
Ihould ufe fuch great feverity againfl the iin ofAdam, 
that he fhould hold him bound forfo fmall a matter, namely, 
for the eating of an apple, that he Ihould deflroy him in 
this world and that to come, and not him only, but all 
his pofterity ?" — But the blind pharifee difputes not fo 
much againfl us, as againfl God himfelf. V/ho was it 
that denounced death in cafe he tranfgrelTed ? Who was 
it that pronounced him miferahle, and the world accur fed on 
the fame account ? Arc we to blame if the Jews are not 
pleafed with the ways of God ? Befides, although to eat 
an apple be in itfelf but a fmall thing, yet to difobey the 
command of the great God, is not fuch a fmall matter as 
the Jew fuppofeth. 

§ 5. The fecond confequent of the firfl fin of man is 
the moral corruptioit of nature, the fpring of all that evil of 
a£lual fin that is in the world. And herein we have a full 
confent from the Jews, delivered after their manner, both 
in the Targums, Talmuds, and private writings of their 
principal mafters. For, an evil concupifcencc in the heart 
of man, from his very conception, they generally acknow- 

* R. Menahem. Rnlianatenjis in Sed. Berejlnth, Sec, The 
following fentence is remarkable : "When he (Adam) finned, the 
whole ^vo^ld fnincd, whole Iin we bear and fufcr, which is not fo 
in the fin of his poilerity." Joseph Albo in Scher Itharim, Lib. 
L cap. xi. Targuffi) in Ruth iv. Vid, Lud. Cabell, in Annot, 
John iii. 

Vol. L R ledec. 

no M E S S I A H, FartIL 

ledge. The name they give it, is ( rnn nv> figmentutn 
malum) the evil figment of the heart, properly enough, from 
Gtw. vi. 5. " And God faw that the wickednefs of man was 
great in the earth ; and that the whole figment of the thoughts ^ 
or computation of his heart, was only evil, every day." 
Kence have they taken the above-mentioned term, which, 
perhaps, is a more proper name than that ufed by Chrif- 
tian divines, (originale peccatum) original fin. And it is a 
ludicrous ignorance in fome of the late Rabbins, who pro- 
fefs to deny original fin, and yet in the mean time grant 
this evil fi.gment in all mankind, which was not in Adam 
in his innocency. The l^argumlfs term it in the Chaldee 
tongue ,,(«iL^a t^nv>) to the fame purpofe. On Pfal. xci. 
12. " That thy foot ilumble not at the evil figment which, 
as like a {tone ;" that is, that it feducc thee not, 
that it caufe thee not to offend, to fcamble and fall in iin. 
[See James i. 14.] And Pfal. cxix. 70. they call it ab- 
folutely the figment, or evil foam of the heart. * The fig- 

* ment of their heart is made thick, as vi^ith fatnefs \ aa 
expreiiion not unufual in the fcriptures, to fet out impe- 
nitency and fecurity in fmning, [Ifa. vi. 10.] Moreover, 
they (^o not unfitly defcribe it by another property, [as 
Ecclef. ix. 14.] ' The evil figment, or concupifcence, 

* which is like to a great king ;' namely, becaufe of its 
foiver; on which accor.t, in the New Teftament, it is 
faid (f3a,cn/\SVSiy) to reign as a klng^ becaufe of the fubjec- 
tion of it, [sv loiig STTi^ouiaAc) in the lufs, or concupifcence 
of the heart, [Rom. vi. 12.] and (/a'^/c*JJ/y) to have domi- 
nion, [v. 14.] which is to the fame purpofe with that of 
the "Targumlft. And thus we have ample teflimony to 
this 7noral corruption of nature in the Tar gums, the moft 
ancient records now extant of the Judaical apprehenfions 
about thefe things. 

The %dmudifs have exprefied the fame thoughts about 
this inbred and indwelling fin ; and, to fet forth their eoli- 
cepticns about it, they have given it feveral names not un- 
fuitable to thofe defcriptions of it which are given us by 
the Holy Ghoil ia the New TeRament ; as (n malum) 

evil ; 


evil', a name, as they fay, given by himfelf,* [Gen. vHi. 
2 1.] and anfwerabiy it is termed in the New Teflament, 
(^/j a.ucy.LTioc) tJ?at Jin^ that evil thing that dwelleth in us, 
[R,om. vii.] They obferve that Mofcs calleth it (nVi:?) 
prc^puiium) wiclrcumc'ifion^ [Deut. x. 1 6.] and therefore 
(in Tratl. Sand. chap, xi.] to the queflion. When an 
infant may be made partaker of the world to come ? R. 
Nachman, the fon of Isaac, anfwereth^ " Prefently 
after he is clrcumclfcd \' circumcifion being admitted of 
old, as the fign of the taking away by grace of the natu- 
ral evil figment of the heart : and accordingly it is called 
by our apoftle (^a.Koof^vgicc) uncirciimcijion^ [Col. ii. 13.] 
Again ; they obferve that David calls it («Dio) an unclean, 
things [Pf. Ii. 10.] by the rule of contrarieties ; * Create 
* in me a clean heart, O God \ whence it appears that 
the heart of itfelf is unclean. And the apoftle gives it us 
under the fame name and notion, [I. Thef iv. 7. I. Cor, 
vii. 14.] I'hey alfo call it («JVi2^) an enemy or hater \ and 
to the fame purpofe it is called in the New Teftament 
(cy^^oi) enmity or hatred, [Rom. viii. 7.] Ifaiah calls it 
(/•trm) the offence, or the ftumbling block, [Ifa. Ivii. 17, 
See alfo Rom. v. 18. Jam. i. 14, 15.] The caufe of our 
ftumbling and falling. Ezekiel calls it (p«) a, [cliap, 
xxxvi. 26.] Nor doth any allufian better let out the na- 
ture of it from its effects ; {k-%q6icc G-yJ^Ji^^,] r^oti 0:^.1^ oi'jo',]-' 
log) * an hard and impenitent heart,' [Rom. ii. 5.] f 

But the [ix^rs ly) *' the nezu man, or good concupifcence, 
comes not on our nature uiuil the age of thirteen years ;" 
fo the AfulraJJ?, feeling in the dark after that fupply of 
grace, which is fo clearly revealed in the gofpel. So 
Manasseh Ben Israel ; " This vitiollty and conta- 
gion proceeding from the fin of our firli parents, hath in- 
vaded both faculties of our rational fouls, the underftand- 
ing and the will. J And for the continuance of this, or 

* R. Mosfis Haddarshan, a R. Jose, \\\ BereJJ/ith Rahha^ 
t Vid. Neve Shalom, Lib. X. Cap. ix. Mldra^flj Cohdeth in 

Ecclef. iv. 13. 

:;: Vrxf. i)e Fragility Wd, Traftat, Sandrim^ fo. 91. KiMKl, 

ia Pfal, h. 

E, 3. its 

m M E S S I A H. PartIL 

its abode In us, they exprefs it, (in Berejhith Rahba) " So 
long as the righteous live they wage war with their con- 
cupifcence." And they varioully fet forth the growth of 
it, where it is not correfted by grace. At firfl, they fay, 
it is like a fpider s thready but at laft like a cart-rope ; 
[from Ifa. lix. 5. and v. 18.] And again, in the begin- 
ning it is like 2i Jlranger^ then as a guejl^ but laftly as the 
majler of the houfe. [See Jam. i. 14, 15.]* 

§ 6. More teftimonies of this nature, from the wri- 
tings that are of authority amongft them, might be pro- 
duced, but that thefe are fufficient for our purpofe. What 
we aim at, is, to evidence their ccnvidicn of that mani- 
fold mifery which came upon mankind on the entrance of 
fm into the world. And in proof of two things have wc 
produced their fufFrage and confent. 

1. The change of the primitive condition of man, by 
his defedlion from the law of creation. This made him 
obnoxious in his whole perfon, and all his concernments, 
to the difpleafure and curfe of God, to all the evil 
which in this world he feels, or fears in another ; to 
death temporal and eternal : and hence did all the difor* 
der which is in the univerfe arife, which muft be ac- 
knowledged by ail men who will not brutifhly deny what 
their own confciences didate to them, and which the con- 
dition of the whole lower world proclaims, or irrationally 
afcribc fuch things to God as are utterly inconiiftent with 
his wifdom, goodnefs, righteoufnefs, and holinefs. And, 

2. We have manifefled their acknowledgement, that a 
principle of fin, or moral evil, hath invaded the nature 
of man ; or that from the iin of our firft parents there is 
an evil concupifcence in the heart of every man, conti- 
nually and incelTantly inclining the foul to all moral evil 

From both thefe it unavoidably follows, on the firfl 
notions of the righteoufnefs, holinefs, veracity, and faith- 
fulnefs of God, that mankind in this ellate and condition 
can juftly expeft nothing but a confluence of evil in this 
"u^orld, and at the clofe of their pilgrimage to perifh with 
a ruin commenfurate to their exiftence. For God in wif- 

* Berejlnth RaUa^ Sed. xxii. 


dom and righteoufnefs, as the fovereign Lord of his crea- 
tures, having given them a law, good and equal, and 
having appointed the penalty of death and his everlafting 
difpleafure to the tvanfgrcflion thereof; and withal having 
fufficiently promulgated both the law and the penalty ; 
the tranfgreffion prohibited actually enfuing, himfclf be- 
ing judge, it remains — either, that all this conftitu- 
tion of a law, and threatening of a penalty, was vain 
and ludicrous, as Satan in the ferpent pretended — or, that 
mankind is rendered abfolutely miferable and curfed, and 
that for ever. Now which of thefe is to be concluded, 
divine revelation, reafon, and the event of things, wiU 
readily determine. 

That God, without the leafl impeachment of his righ- 
teoufnefs or goodnefs, might have left all mankind reme^ 
d'llcfs in this condition, is manifell, both from what hath 
been difcourfed concerning the means whereby they v/erc 
brought into it, and his dealing with angels on the like 
occalion. The condition wherein man was created, was 
morally good and upright ; the flate wherein he was placed 
outwardly, happy and blefTed ; the lazu given him juft 
and equal ; the revjard propofed to him glorious and 
fure ; and his d^fcclion from this condition voluntary. The 
execution of a righteous fentence upon the z'oh^niary tranf- 
grellion o^ d. jiiji law hath no unrighteoufnefs in it. And 
this was the fum of what God did in this matter, as to 
the mifery that came on mankind ; and who fhould judge 
him, if he left man for ever to * eat of the fruit of his 
* own ways, and to be filled with his own devices ?* 

Hence Adam, when his ' eyes were opened'' to fee the 
nature of evll^ in that aftual fenfe which he had in 
his confcience of the guilt he had contracted, had not 
the leafl expeftation of relief and mercy. And the folly 
of the courfe he took in hiding himfelf, argues fufficiently 
both his prefent amazement, and that he knew of no- 
thing better to betake himfclf to ; therefore doth he give 
that account of the refilt of his thoughts, and what alone 
he now looked for ; 'I heard thy voice, and was afraid.' 
Nor would any revelation that God then had made of him- 

114 M E S S I A H, ParxII. 

felf, either by the vjorlcs of his power and wifdom, or by 
any iabred impreffion on the fouls of men concreatcd with 
them, give encouragement to them who had iinned againll 
him to expect relief. Befides, he /^^^ dealt thus with an» 
vels. Upon their firft lin he fpared them not, but at once, 
without hope of recovery, cafl them under the * chains 

* of darknefs, to be kept to the final judgem.ent of the 

* great day.' Now God dealt not unfuitably to any of 
the excellencies of his nature, when he left the apoflathlng 
angels to perifh without remedy. Had he dealt fo alfo 
with apojiatl'zrng mankind, who were drawn into a confpi- 
racy againfl: him by the head of the defection, had not 
his ways been holy and righteous ? 

^ 7. Yet doth not this great inftance of God's dealing 
with angels abfolutely conclude his leaving of mankind 
in remediiefs mifery. He might yw/?/y have done f o ; but 
thence it doth not follow that he necefjarily muil. And 
although the chief, and indeed only, reafon of his extend- 
ing grace and mcjcy to men, and not to angels, was his 
own fovereign will and pleafure, concerning which who can 
fay unto him, ' What doefl: thou r' Yet there was fnch a 
diftcrencc between thefc two original tranforclTors, as may 
manifefl a condeccncy or fuitablenefs to his righteoufnefs 
and goodnefs in his various proceedings with them : for 
there are fundry things that put an aggravation on the re- „ 
bellion of angels above that of men ; and fonie that ren- 
der their ruin lefs deftruciive to the glory of the univerfe, 
than that of mankind would have been. For, 

1, The angels were created in a flate and condition far 
fuperior to, and much more excellent than that of men. 
The place of their iirfi: habitation which they left, [Jude 
vi.l was the higheji heavens, the mofi glorious receptacle 
of created beings ; in oppofition to which they are faid to 
be call to the lo'-djcji hell, [H. Pet. ii. 4.] whereas man was 
placed on the earth, which, although then beautiful and 
cxcellentlv fuited to his condition, was yet every v;ay in- 
ferior to the glory and luflre of the other. 

2. Their feveral cmphyme^its alfo did greatly differ ; the 
work of angels was immediately to attend the throne oj- 

I Qod^ 


God, to minifler before him, to give lilm glory, and to 
execute the commands of his providence in the govern- 
ment of the works of his hands, [Pfahn ixviii. 17. Dan. 
vii. 10. Ezek. i. 5 — 7. Heb. i. 14. Rev. v. 11.] the 
higheft pitch of honour tliat a mere creature can be exal- 
ted to. Man, during his natural life, was to be employed 
in * tilling and drelTing the ground,' [Gen. ii. 15.] a la- 
bour that would have been cafy, ufeful, and fuitable to 
his condition ; but yet in honour, advantage, and fatif- 
fadion, unfpeakably beneath the duty of the others. 

3. Their enjoyments alio greatly differed. For the an- 
gels enjoyed the immediate glorious prefence of God with- 
out any external created refemblances of it, when man 
was kept at a greater diftance, aiid not admitted with fuch 
immediate communion with God, or enjoyment of his 
glorious prefence. Now all thefe, and the like confide- 
rations, although on the one fide they do not in the lead 
extenuate the fin of man in his apoilacy, yet they greatly 
aggravate the wickednefs, ingratitude, and pride of the 
fallen angels. 

4. Moreover they differed in their intellectual per fedions^ 
whereby they were enabled to difcover the excellencies, 
and to know the mind of God. For although man had 
all the light, knowledge, and wifdom concreated with him, 
and lb natural to him, which were any way needful to 
enable him to perform aright the obedience required of 
him, in the obfervance whereof he fhould have been 
brought to the enjoyment of God ; yet it came far Ihort 
of that excellency of underflanding, that piercing wifdom, 
which thofe fpirltual beings were endowed with, to fit 
them for that near contemplation of the glory of God 
whereunto they v*^ere admitted, and that ready apprehcn- 
lion of his mind which they were to obferve. 

5. There was likewife a difference in the mayincr of 
their defeftion. Our firfi: parents were [educed or deceived, 
[I. Tim. ii. 14. II. Cor. xi. 3.] and therefore calls Sa- 
tan their murderer, [ John viii. 44.] they were circum- 
vented by his craft and policy ; but tlie angels had no- 

fi6 MESSIAH, PartIL 

thing without them to excite them, or lay fnares for 

6. Although the condition of mankind, being to be 
propagated by natural generation from one common flock, 
made it necefTary that our firll parents fhould have a 
greater trulT: repofed in them — by reafon of their repre^ 

fenting their whole pofterity in that covenant wherein they 
llood before God — than any of the angels could have, 
feeing the latter flood every one for himfelf, yet they 
were but two perfons that adlually finned at firft, and 
tliofe one after another, one feduced bv another ; whereas 
the angels in multitudes inconceivable, by a joint confpi- 
racy at the fame inflant, combined together againft the 
authority and law of their creation, and, as it Ihould 
feem, appointed one among themfelves for the head of 
their apoflacy. Now although, as was faid, none of 
thofe things can in the leafl extenuate the fin of man, 
which was the product of inconceivable infidelity and 
ingratitude, yet they contain fuch aggravations of the 
lins of angels, as may evidence a condecency to divine 
wifdom and goodnefs in pafTmg them by in their fin and 
mifery, and. yet giving relief to mankind. 

7. We may add to what hath been faid, the concern- 
ment of the glory of God in the univerfe. For if man 
had been left for ever without relief, the whole human 
race, or kind of creatures partakers of human nature, 
had been utterly loft ; nothing of that kind could ever 
come to the enjoyment of God, nor could he ever have 
been glorified by them in a way of thankfulnefs and 
praife, which yet was the end why he made that fort of 
creatures ; for the %vhole race of them, as to the event, 
would have been mere obje£ls of wrath and difpleafure ; 
but in the fall of angels they were only a certain number 
of Individuals that finned, the whole kind was not loft as 
to the end of their creation ; angehcal nature was pre- 
ferved as to its orderly dependence on God, in thofe 
millions that kept their obedience and primitive condi- 
tion, which is continued to them with a fuperaddition of 
glory and honour. God, then, having made unto him- 


felf two families for his praife, amongft whom he would 
dwell, that above of angels, and this below of mankind, 
had finning man been utterly caft off, one family had been 
loft for ever, though fo great a remnant of the other was 
preferved ; wherefore, it feemed good to his infinite wif- 
dom, both to prefcrve that portion of his fuperior family 
which finned not, and to recover a portion of that below, 
and to make them up into one family, in one new head, 
his fon Jefus Chrift, in whom he hath now aflually ga- 
thered into one, all things that are in heaven and earth, 
to his praife and glory, [Ephef. i. lo.] 

§ 8. There is, then, no necejjaryrcafon inducing us to 
telicve, that God hath left all mankind to perifli under 
the curfe, without any remedy ; yea, there are, on the 
contrary, many evidences, that there is a way provided for 
their recovery; for, 

I. The glorious properties of the nature of God, which 
he defigns to manifeft and exalt, in all his external works, 
do in a \t\\{t require that there fliould be falvathn for JiJi* 
ners, God had, in the creation of all things, glorified his 
greatnefs^ power, wifdom, and goodnefs. His fove- 
reignty, righteoufnefs, and holinefs he had in like man- 
ner revealed in that holy law, which he had prefcribed to 
angels and men, for the rule of their obedience, and in the 
afiignation of their reward. Upon the fin of angels and 
men, he had made known his feverity and vindictive 
juftice, in the curfe and punifliment infiifted on them. 
But there were yet remaining Undifcovered, in the abyfs 
of his eternal effence, grace ^ aiid pardoning mercy, which 
in none of his works had as yet exerted themfelves, or ma- 
nifefted their glory. The creatures know nothing in God, 
but as manifefted in its effefts. His effence, in itfelf, 
dwells in light inaccefiible. Had never any ftood in need 
of grace or mercy, or had never been made partakers of 
them, it could not have been made known, that there was 
that kind of goodnefs in his nature, which yet it is his 
principal defign to glorify hinlfelf in. And there is no- 
thing in himfelf, which the Lord more requircth our con- 

"^'OL- I. S formity 

n5 M £ S ^ I A Hi ?ARtlI. 

formity to Kimfelf in, than iii this condefcenfion, good- 
•ncfs, grace, and readinefs to forgive j which manifefts how 
dear the glory of them is to him. 

2. To what end Ihall we conceive the providence and 
patience of God to be exercifed towards the race of mankind 
for fo long a feafon ? We fee what is the general event of 
the continuance of mankind in the world ; God faw it, 
and complained of it long ago, [Gen. vi. 5, 6.] Shall 
we now think, that God hath no other defign in his pa- 
tience towards the children of men for fo many genera- 
tions, but merely to fufFer them all without exception, to 
iin againft him, dilhonour him, provoke him, that fo he 
may at length everlaflingly dellroy them ? That this, in- 
deed, is the event with many, or even with the moll, 
through their own perverfe wickednefs, blindnefs, and 
love of finful pleafures, cannot be denied. But to fup- 
pofe that God hath no other delign, but merely by his 
patience to bear with them a while in their folly, and 
then to avenge himfelf upon them, is unfuitable to his 
wifdom and goodnefs. It cannot be, then, but that he 
would long fince have cut off the whole race (to prevent 
its propagation) if there were no way for them to be deli- 
vered out of this perilliing condition. 

3. That there is a way of deliverance for mankind, the 
event hath manifefled in two remarkable and undeniable 
inftances : 

(i.) In th2it findry perfons who were, as others, * by 
* nature children of wrath,' and under the curfe, have ob- 
tained an undoubted and infallible intereft in the love and 
favour of God, and this tejiimony, * that they pleafed 
*him.' Some perfons, in all generations, have enjoyed 
the friendfhip, love, and favour of God ; which they 
would never have done, unlefs there had been fome way 
for their deliverance out of the flate of fin and mifery, be- 
fore defcribed. For, therein every man, upon a juft ac- 
count, will find themfelves in the flate of Adam, who, 
when * he heard the voice of God, was afraid,* 



(2.) God hath been pleafed to require from men, a 
revenue of glory, by way of worfliip, prcfcribed them after 
the entrance of fin. This he hath not done to the an- 
gels that fmned ; nor could it have been done confiftently 
with righteoufnefs to men, without fuppofmg a pojjibility 
of dehverance from under his wrath. For in every prc^ 
icription of duty, God propofcth himfelf as a remarder^ 
which he is only to them that pleafe him ; and to pleafe 
God, without the deliverance inquired after, is impoffible. 
Deliverance, then, from this condition, may on juft 
grounds be expefled, Our next inquiry is, hozu it might 
be effeded. 

§ 9. The great relief mull be brought about — either by 
men themfelves, or by fome other for them. About what 
they can do themfelves, we may be quickly fatislied. The 
nature of the evils under which they fuffer, and the event 
of things in the world, fufficiently difcover the difability 
of men to be their own deliverers. Beiides, who fhould 
contrive the way of it for them ? one fjngle perfon, more, 
or all ? How eafily the impoffibility of it might be de- 
monllrated on any of thefe fuppofitions, is too manifell to. 
be infifted on. 

There are but two ways conceivable (fetting afide the 
conlideration of what fhall be afterwards fixed on) where- 
by mankind, or any individual amongfl them, may obtair^ 
deliverance from this evil : 

I, That God, without any farther conlideration, 
Hiotild remit it, and exempt the creation from under it. 
But although this way feems fojfible to fome, it is, indeed, 
utterly otherwife. Did not the fentence againfl this evil 
proceed from his righteoufnefs, and the eflential rectitude of 
his nature ? Did he not engage his truth and faithfulnefs, 
that it fliould be inflicted ? And doth not his holinefs and 
juflice require that it fliould be fo ? What ihould be- 
come of his glory; what fhould he do unto his great 
name, if now, without any caufe or reafon, he fhould, 
contrary to all thofe engagements of his holy perfedtions, 
wholly remit and take it off? nay, this would plainly 
S2 "juftify 

J20 MESSIAH, Part It 

jullify the ferpent in his calumny, that, whatever he pre- 
tended, yet indeed, that no execution could ever enfue. 
How alfo can it be fuppofed, that any of his future commi- 
nations fhould have a jufl weight upon men, if that firft 
great and fundamental one fhould be evacuated ? or what 
authority would be left unto his laiv^ when he himfelf 
fhould dilTolve the fan£tion of it ? Befides, if God Ihould 
do thus— which rcafon 5 revelation, and. the event of 
things manifeft, that he neither would, nor could (for be 
cannot deny himfelf) — it would have been His work, 
and not an acquisition of men themfelves. But this way 
of deliverance is, at befl, but imaginary. Therefore, 

2. There is no other way for man, if he w-ill not pe- 
TJfh eternally under the punifhment due to his apoilacy and 
rebellion, but to find out fpme way of commutation, or 
making a recommence for the evil of fin, to the law and 
xighteoufnefs of God. But herein his utter infufficiency 
<3uickly manifefts itfelf ; for whatever he is, or hath, or 
can claim any interefl in, lies no lefs under the curfe, than 
he doth himfelf; and that which is under the curfe can 
contribute nothing to its removal. That which is, in its 
whole being obnoxious to the greateft punifhment, can 
have nothing wherewith to make commutation for it ; for 
that mud firft be accepted for itfelf, which can either make 
Gtoncmenty or be received for any other in exchange. And 
this is the condition of every individual of mankind, and 
will be fo to eternity, unlefs relief arife from another quar- 
ter. It is farther evident, that all the endeavours of men 
muft needs be unfpeakably difprpportionate to the end 
simed at, from the concernment of the other parts of the 
creation, in the cw-fe againft fin. What can they do to 
xeftore the univerfe to its firft glory and beauty? How 
can they reduce the creation to its original harmony P 
Wherewith fhall they recompcnfc the great God, for the 
defacing of fo great a portion of that imprefs of his glory 
and goodnefs that he enftamped upon it ? In a word, 
they, who from their firji date, to their utmoji period, are 
always under the punifhment^ can do nothing for the total 



removal of it. The experience alfo of five thoufand years 
liath fufficiently evinced how ififufficient man is to be a fa* 
viour to himfelf. All the various and uncertain notions 
of Adam's pofterity in religion, from the extreme of 
athcifm, to that of facrificing themfelves and one ano- 
ther, have been defigncd in vain towards this end. Nor 
can any of them, to this day, find out a better, or a more 
likely way for . them to thrive in, than thofe wherewith 
their progenitors deluded themfelves. And in the iiTue of 
all we fee, as to what man hath been able of him fc if to do 
towards his ov/n deliverance, that both he, myfelf, and the 
whole world, are continued in the fame itate wherein they 
were upon the firft entrance of fin, cvmulatcdy as it were, 
with another world of confuiion, diforder, mifchief, and 
. mifery. The corrupt fpring of moral evil that is in man's 
nature, is luuverjal and endlefs : it mixeth itfelf with all, 
and every thing that man doth, or can do, as a moral 
agent, and that always, and for ever, [Gen. vi. 5.] It 
is, then, impofTible that it fhould have an end, unlefs it 
cither deflroy, or fpend itfelf; but ever Jinning, which 
man cannot but be, is not the way to difentanglc himfelf 
from fin. 

§ 10. If, then, any deliverance be ever obtained for 
mankind, it muft be by fome other, not involved in the 
fame mifery as themfelves. This muft be cither God 
himfelf, or good angels ; other rational agents, there arc 
none that we know of. If we look to the latter^ we muft 
fuppofe them to undertake this work, either by the ap- 
pointment of God, or of their own accord, without his 
previous command or dire£tion. The latter cannot be 
fuppofed. As remote as men are from all thoughts of reco- 
vering fallen angels, fo far were they from contriving the 
recovery of man. 

But it may be faid, that God himfelf might defgn them 
to work this deliverance. But this makes God, and not 
them, to be the Saviour, and them only the infirument of 
this work. But yet he has neither done fo in fa£V, nor 
were they meet to be fo employed. Whatever is purely 




penal in the mifery of man, is an efFed of the righteous 
judgement of God. This, therefore, could be no other* 
wife diverted from him, but by the undergoing of it by 
fome other in his flead. And two things are indifpenfa- 
bly required, to qualify any for that purpofe : F'lrji, that 
they were not themfelves obnoxious to it, either perfonally, 
or upon the common account ; ihould they be fo, they 
ought to look to their own concernment in the firft place. 
Secondly^ that they were iuch, as that their benefit oi under- 
going the penalty might, according to the rule of juftice, 
ledound to them, in whofe ftead they underwent it ; 
otherwife they would fufFer in vain. Now, although the 
angels might anfw^cr the former of thefe, in their perfonal 
immunity from obnoxioufnefs to the curfe ; yet the lattev 
they were totally unfuited for. They had no relation to 
mankind, except that they were the workmanjhip of the 
fame Creator. But this is not fufficient to warrant any 
fubftitution of that kind. Had angels been to be delivered, 
their redemption muft have been wrought in the angelical 
nature, as the apoille declares, [Heb. ii. 16.] But what 
juflice is it that man fhould fin, and angels fuffer ? or, 
from whence fhould it arife, that, from their fuffering, it 
would be righteous that he iTiould go free? by what no- 
tions of God could we have been inftruded in the wif- 
dom and righteoufnefs of fuch a proceeding r To which 
add, that this God hath not done ; and we iiiay fafely con-%. 
elude, that it lecame Him not fo to do. 

§11. But what need all this inquiry ? The Jews, 
with w^hom we have to do in this matter, plead conflantly, 
that God hath appointed for men, at leaft to themfelves^ 
a way o{ deliverance out of this condition ; and this is, ac- 
cording to them, by obferving the law of Moles. This 
they trufted in of old, [Rom. ix. 32.] this they continue 
to make their refuge at this day.-^ And whereas they 


* Anfwers to certain auefllons propofed to the Jews, publiflied^ 
by Brenius, [Queft. vt] — This gentleman, (and it would be 
well if he had no ?nodern imitators) in his reply, hath betrayed th« 



cannot deny, but that they fomctlmcs fin againft the mo- 
ral precepts of this law, and (o {land in need of help againll 
the Helper, tliey fix in this Cafe upon a double relief. 
The one is their own pcrfonal repentance ; and the othe rthe 
facrifices that are appointed in the law. But whereas they 
now are, and have been for many generations, deprived of the 
privilege, as they efteem it, of- offering facrifices according 
to the haw, they hope that their own repentance vvith their 
death, which they pray may be expiatory^ will be fufficient 
to obtain for \}citxn forg'rjenefs of Jin, Only they fay this 
might better, and more eafily, be efFedted, if they might 
enjoy the benefit of facrifices. But where do they find 
that \\\€\x facrifices WTre ever defigncd for this end, to ena- 
ble them the more eafily to obtain the remifiion of fins, by 
another means which they ufe ? For it was faid dire<Slly, 
that the facrifice on the day of expiation did expiate their 
lin, and make atonement for it, that they might not die ; 
and not that it helped them in procuring pardon another 
way. But this is now taken from them, and what fhail 
they do ? Why, rather than they will come to him, who 
was reprefented in that facrifice, and on whofe account 
alone it had all its efficacy, they will find out fome new- 
way of doing that, which their facrifices were appointed to 
effedt ; and this they muil do, or openly acknowledge that 
they all pcr'ijh eternally. 

If the remedy be only the obfcrvance of the law of Afofcsy 
as the Jews pretend, I defire to know what became of 
them ; what was their efiate and condition, who lived and 
died before the giving of that law r Not only the patriarchs 
before the flood, fome of whom had this teilimony, * that 
* they pleafed God,' and one of whom was taken alive to 
heaven, but Abraham alfo himfelf, who received the pro- 
mifes, muft, on this fuppofition, be excluded trom a par- 
ticipation of deliverance, and perifh eternally. — But the 

mofl important do6trines of the Chriftian religion. — When \vili 
men have done attempting, what is no lefs ungrateful than im- 
pious, to rob the Messiah of hif5 crown and Icepter, and then 
** recommend hiu* to the Jews f " 


224 M E S S I A Hj Part II 

contrary appears from this very confideration, and is un- 
deniably proved by our apoftle, in the inilance of Abra- 
ham, [Gal. ill. 17,] that he * received the promife^^ 
and was taken into covenant with God, four hundred and 
thirty years before the giving of the law. And that cove- 
nant conveyed to him the love and favour of God, with 
deliverance from fin and the curfe, as themfelves will not 
deny. There was, therefore, a remedy in this cafe pro- 
vided, long before the giving of the law on mount Sinai; 
and, therefore, the law was not given for that purpofe. If 
they fhall fay, they .had a way of deliverance, but God 
provided another afterwards ; as this would be fpokeii 
without v/arrant, or authority from fcripture, fo I defire 
to know both ivhat that Vv'ay was, and why it was rejec- 
ted. Of God's appointment it feems it was, and effec- 
tual it was to them that embraced it ; but why it fhould 
be laid afide, who can declare ? 

^ 12. Again, there are two parts of the law ; the mo- 
ra/ precepts of it, and he inflituted worjhip appointediii 
it. Unto this latter part do the facrifices of it belong. 
But neither of thefe are fuflicient to the end propofed ; nor 
jointly can they attain it; for, 

I. The moral precepts of it are the fame with thofe 
that were written in the heart of man, by nature, or the 
law of his creation, which he tranfgreifed in his firft re- 
bellion. And he mufl be delivered from that guilt, be- 
fore any new obedience can be accepted of him. His old 
debt mufl be fatisfied for^ before he can treat for a new re- 
ward, which infeparably follows all acceptable obedience. 
But this the precepts of the law take no notice of, nor di- 
reft to any way for its removah Hence our apoflle con- 
cludes, that It could not give life, but was weak and infuf- 
ficient in itfelf to any fuch purpofe. 

Befides, it could not abfolutely preferve men in its own 

obfervance ; for it required that obedience, which never 

any finner did, or could, in all things, perform ; as the 

fcriptures of the Old Teflament abundantly manifefl. For 

"they tell us. that * there is no man that finneth not,' 

a [/. Kings y 


[/. Kings vili. 46. IL Chron. vi. 36.] That, * if the 

* Lord Ihould mark iniquity, no man could fland,* [PfaL 
cxxx. 3.] And that, * if he enter into judgement (ac- 

* cording to the law) no man living can be juilified ia 

* his light,' [Pfal. cxliii. 2.] To this purpoft; fee the ex- 
cellent difcourfe, and invincible reafonings of our apoftles, 
[Rom. iii. and iv.] This the holy men of old confciled ; 
this the fcriptures bear teftimony to, and this experience 
confirms, feeing every tranfgreflion of that law was put 
under a curfe, [Dcut. xxvii. 26.] If, then, there is no 
man th^t JinNeth 7iot, and every iin is pat under a curfcf the 
preceptive part of the law can be no means of delivery. 
Neither is there any tclHmony given concerning any one 
under the Old Teftament, that he was any other way 
juftified before God, but hy faith and pardon of Jim ^ which 
are not of the w^orks of the law. This the Jews themfelves 
confefs concerning Abraham ; " Thou findell, that Abra- 
ham, our father, inherited not this world and the world 
to come, any otherwife than hy faith \ as it is laid he be- 
lievcd Godr^^ 

2. It remains, then, that the facrifices of the lazv muft 
yield the relief, or v/e are flill at a lofs in this matter. 
And thefe the Jews would willingly place their chief con- 
fidence in, as they did of old. Since, indeed, they have 
been driven from their obfervance, they have betaken 
themfelves to other helps, that they might not appear to 
be utterly hopelefs. And, therefore, being driven from 
all other hopes, f they trull, at length, to their own 
death ! (for in life they have no hope) making this one 
of their conftant prayers, " Let my death be the expiation of 
all fins.'' ^ But this is the curf^ and, therefore, is no 
means to avoid it. Omitting, therefore, thefe horrid 
follies of men under defpair, an effect of that ' v^rath, 

* which is come upon them to the uttermoft,' th; thing 
itfelf may be conceived, 

* Vid. etiam BereJJ?lth Ralha^ Seft. xxiv. 
•f- Vid» BuxTOHF, Synagog, Judaic, Cap, XX« 

VaL. I, T That 

>26 MESSIAH, PartIL 

That thefacrifices of the law, in themfelves, fhould be 
a means of deUvering men from the guilt of lin, and of 
reconciling them to God, is contrary to the light of na- 
ture — their own proper iife — and exprcfs teflimonies of the 
Old Teflament. For, can any man think it reafonable, 
that the blood of bulls and goats fhould, of itfelf, make 
an expiation of the lin of men ; reconcile them to God, the 
Judge of all ; and impart to them an everlailing righ- 
teoufnefs ? Our apoflle fuiiiciently declares the manifeft 
impoffibility of it, [Heb. x. 4.] They mufl have very 
mean and lov/ thoughts of God ; his holinefs, juilicc, 
and truth ; of the demerit of lin, of heaven and hell, who 
think them all to depend on the blood of a calf or a 
goat. The facriiice of them, indeed, might, by God's 
appointment, reprefent that to the minds of men, which 
is efFe£lual to the whole end of appeafing God's juflice, 
and of obtaining his favour ; but that they fhould them- 
felves efFe£l it, is impoflible. — Their primitive and pro^ 
fer ufe doth alfo manifeft the fame. For they were to 
be frequently repeated, and, in all the repetitions of them^ 
there was ftill new mention made of lin. They could 
not, therefore, by themfelves, take it away ; for, if they 
could, they would not have been reiterated. It is appa- 
rent, therefore, that their ufe was to reprejent, and bring 
to remembrance, that which did perfectly take away lin. 
Befides, the fcripture expreilly reje£ls all the facrifices of 
the law, when they are truftcd in for any fuch end and 
purpofe, which demonilrates, that they were never ap- 
pointed to that end. To which we may add, that during 
the obfervance of the whole law of Mofes, whilft it was 
in force by the appointment of God himfelf, he ftill di- 
re£led thofe who fought for acceptance with him, to 2inewi 
covenant of grace, the benefits of which they were then, by 
faith, made partakers of, and which was afterwards more 
fully to be declared. [See Jerem. xxxi. 31 — 34. HeJ). 
viii. 12, 13.] And this plainly overturns their w^hole 
foundation. For, to what purpofe fliould God call them 
from refting on the Sinai covenant, to. look for mercy and 



grace by another, if that had been able to give them the 
defircd help ? 

§ 13. The firft intimation that God g2.\t o^ redeey?ung 
grace is contained in the promife fubjoined to the curfe 
denounced againft our firft parents, and their poftcrity in 
them, [Gen. iii. 15.] * The feed of the woman fhall 
' bruife the ferpent's head, and the Icrpcnt ihall bruife his 
' heel.' If there be not a promife of deliverance exprelfed 
in thefe words, whence is it, that the execution of the 
fentence of death againfl fin is fufpended ? Unlefs we 
will allow an intervention^ fntisfaftory to the righteoufnefs 
and truth of God, to be exprelTed in thefe words, there 
would have been a truth in the fuggeflion of the ferpent, 
that notwithflanding v/hat God had faid, they were not 
to die. — The whole evil of fin, and its curfe, that man- 
kind then did, or were to fufFer, proceeded from iht friend - 
Jhip contra6led between the zvoman and tlie ferpent, and 
her fixing faith in him. God here declare*, that he will 
break that /<f^^?;^, and put enmity between them. But be- 
ing now, both of them, in the fame linful and accurfed 
condition, this could not be without a change of condi- 
tion in one of them. Satan is not divided againft him- 
felf ; nor is at enmity with them that are left wholly in 
this eftate. A change of condition, therefore, on the 
part of the %voman and her feed, is plainly promifed ; that 
is, by a deliverance from the ftate of fin and mifcry wherein 
they w^ere. Without this the eyimity mentioned could not 
have enfued. 

In purfuit of this enmity, the feed of the woman was 
to * bruife the head of the ferpent.' The head is the 
feat of his power and craft. Without the deftruftion of 
the evil and pernicious effe£ls, which by his counfel he 
had brought about, his head cannot be bruifed. 

Again, there is an intimation of the manner how this 
work is to be brought about. God takes it upon himfelf ; 
* I will put enmity ;' it is an ifTue of his fovereign wifdom 
and grace. But he will do it in and by the nature of man, 
the * feed of ths woman.* And this is the Messiah ; or, 
** Ggd joining with the nature of man," to deliver man- 

T 2 kind 

?ia8 M E S S 1 A I^, Part lU 

kind from fin and eternal mifery. By this relief God de- 
clared hitnfelf to be — *' a God of pardon, gracious, and 
tenderly merciful.'' If this be not acknowledged, it muft 
be confeiTed, that all the world — at leall to the flood, if 
not to the days of Abraham, in which time we have tefti- 
nionies concerning fome, that they walked with God, and 
pleafed him — were left without any certain ground of faith, 
-or hope of acceptance wich him. For, without fome 
knowledge of this mercy, and the provilion of a way for 
its exercife, they could have no fuch perfuafion. This, 
then, we have obtained — that God prefently upon the en- 
trance of fm into the world, and the breach of its public 
peace thereby, promifed a reparation of that evil in the 
whole extent of it, to be wrought by the feed of the wo- 
man ; that is, the Messiah. Many teftimonies of the 
Jike import might be collected out of Jevvilh writings, 
which may be deemed unnecelTary ;* and as to the Divine 
writings of the New Teftament, however explicit, [as II. 
Cor. xi. 3. II. Tim. ii. 14. Rom. v. 11 — 15. Heb. ii. 
14, 15. I.John iii* 8. Rev. xii. 9. and chap. xx. i— - 
3.] we forbear to prefs them upon the Jews. 

* That Satan accompanied the ferpent in tempting Eve, and 
was principally intended in the curfe, the Jews themfelves ac- 
knovv'ledge: Taj-gum Be^. Vzziel* Maimon. More Nebuch. P. 
II. Cap. XX. Bcrejhith Rahha, Seft. x. Midrajh Vaiikra^ Cap. 
xiii. 2. — Aden Ezra, Comment, in loc. cites the opinion of 
their Doftors, particularly R. Saadias Haggaon, and R. Sa- 
muel Ben Hophni; though he difputes their opinions on the 
weak pretence — " That Satan goeth not on his belly, nor eateth 
duft ;*' which pretence he is obliged to hold on the abfurd hypo-' 
thelis, — That the ferpent was deprived of 'voice and undcrfianditigy 
making him before a rational fuhfjlencc^ though expreflly reckoned 
among the hcajls of the field. — What will not a defperate caufe 
drive men to ? Rather than afcribe the fall of man to diabolical 
intrigue, and abide by its genuine confequences, they will not 
Icruple to admit — That a rational creature is metamorphofed into 
a Irute for tempting ! 

The two Targu?ns agree, that the words contain a remedy for 
the effeft of Satan's temptation, to be wrought by the Messiah. 
Vid. R. Bechai the elder, Commient. in loc. R. Judah, and 
the iUUiior of Caphtor Faparacl\ SiC, 

§ 14- 

Sker.i. the deliverer FROM EVIL. 239 

§ 14. Befides, it is moft evident from the thing itfelf ; 
fof, who can imagine, that this great alteration, which en- 
fued on the works of God — which caufed him to pro- 
nounce them accurfed, and to infiift fo great and fore a 
punifhment on Adam, and all his poftcrity — Ihould arife 
from the adings of a brute creature ? where is the glory of 
this difpenfation ? How can we attribute it to the wifdoin 
and greatnefs of God ? V^'hat is there in it fuitable to his 
righteoufnefs and holinefs ? What rule of jufticc will admit, 
that the acceflary fhould be punifhed with greater fuffer- 
ings than the principal? Neither doth this punifhment, 
as to its principal part, the ' bruiling of the head,' be- 
fall all ferpents — yea, comparatively but a few of them, 
perhaps, not one of a million — whereas all mankind were 
liable to the penalty denounced againft them. V/ere no 
more men intended herein than are '* bitten on the heel by 

ferpents,''^ the matter were otherwife ; but <Jeath is pafled 
upon all^ inafmuch as all have iinned. — This, therefore, 
is openly and plainly the deliverance inquired after; Mes- 
siah (hall defeat the counfel, and deflroy the work of 

Moreover, there is a declaration made, how this 'vlHory 
fliall be obtained, and this deliverance wrought ; vi%. by 
the ' feed of the woman,* which is twice repeated in the 
words, once expreflly, (and her feed) and it is included 
in the pronoun («in) it. And as by feed in the former 
place the pojlcrity of the woman — fome to be born of her 
race, partakers of human nature — may be intended, as the 
fubje£l of the enmity mentioned ; fo, in the latter fome 

fngle per/on, fome one of her pofterity or feed, that fhould 
obtain the vidory, is expreflly denoted. For, as all her 
feed in common do never go about this work, the 
greateft part of them continuing in a willing fubjcftion to 
Satan ; fo, if all of them fhould combine to attempt it, 
they would never be able to accomplilh it, as we have 
proved at large. Some one, therefore, to come of Her, 
with whom God would be prefent in an efpecial manner, 
is here expreflly promifed ; and this is tiie Messiah. 

I God 

i3€^ MESSIAH, PARtir;^ 

God having, in infinite wifdom and grace, provided 
this way of rehef, and given this intimation of it, that re-^ 
velation became the foundation and centre of all the religion, 
in the world. For, as thofe who received it by faith, and 
adhered to it, continued in the v/orfhip of the true God^ 
expreffing their faith in the facrijices, that he had appointed 
typically to reprefent and exemplify, before their eyes, the 
work itfelf, which, by the promifed feed, was to be ac- 
compli fhed ; fo alfo, all that faife vjorjhip, which the 
generahty of mankind apoftati%ed into, was laid in a gene- 
ral perfuafion, that there was away for the reco^jcry of the 
favour of God ; but what that was they knew not, and 
tlierefore wandered in woeful uncertainties. 

§ 15. But we have farther expoiitions of this firll pro- 
mife, and farther confirmations of this grace, in the fcrip- 
ture itfelf. For, in procefs of time, it was renewed to 
Abraham, and the accomplifliment of it confined to his 
family. For his gratuitous call from fuperllition and 
idolatry, with the feparation of him and his pofterity from 
all the families of the earth, was fuhfervient only to the 
fulfilling of the promife before treated of. The firft men- 
tion of it we have Gen. xii. i — 3. ' Now, the Lord 

* had faid to Abraham, get thee out of thy country, and 

* from thy kindred, and from thy father's houie, to a 

* land that I will (hew thee. And I will make of thee a 

* great nation, and I will blefs thee, and make thy name 

* great, and thou fhalt be a blefling. And I will blefs 

* them that blefs thee, and curfe them that curfe thee ; 

* and in thee fhalt all the families of the earth be blefied.' 
And this is again exprelTed, Gen. xviii. 18. * All the 

* nations of the earth fhall be blefied in him.' And chap, 
xxii. 18. ' And in thee fhall all the nations of the earth be 

* blefied'. And when he doubted of the accomplifliment 
of this promife, becaufe he was childlefs^ and faid, * be- 

* hold to me thou hafl given no feed,' as knowing that 
therein lay the promife, [chap. xv. 3.] God tells him, 
that he who fhould come * forth of his own bowels 

* fhould be his heir,' [ver. 4.] which was afterwards re- 
llrained to Ifaac, [chap. xvii. 21.] Thus he is called and 
feparated from his own family and kindred, and from all 



Other nations, and a peculiar portion of the earth affigncd 
him and his for their habitation. Now, the fpccial end 
pf this Divine diipenfation was, to be a means of accom- 
phfhing the former promifc, or the bringing forth of him 
who was to be the delhcvcr of mankind from the curfe ; 

1. It is faid, that Abraham hereupon fliould be (.13-11) 
a hlcjfing ; not only bleflcd thyfelf, but alfo the means of 
conveying bleffings, the great blcjjittg, unto others. And 
how was this done in Abraham ? it can be nothing, but 
that he v^?l^ feparatcd to be the pecuhar channel, by which 
the pro mi fed hlejftng feed fl:iould he brought forth into the 
the world. 

2. It is faid, that all the * families of the earth (i^mj) 

* Jhall be hlejjed in him,' [Gen. xii. 3.] that is, not in 
tiis perfon, but in his ^^^, [chap. xxii. 18.] the pro- 
niifed feed that fhould come of him. And [chap. xxii. 18. 
Vmnn] in HithpaeU * hlefs themfehes.'' And this is fpoken 
pf all nations, all families, the pofterity of Adam in ge- 
neral, and not any one nation exclufively. They are all 
gurfed in Adam, as hath been declared, and God here 
promifeth, that they fhall be blefled in the feed of Abra- 
ham, and by him, * the feed of the woman.' And this 
bleffing muft involve in it all the good things of which, by 
the curfe, they were deprived. In this promife was tho 
ore laid up, which, after many generations, was brought 
forth and flamped with the image of God. 

3. The curfe to Satan is here again renewed ; * I will 
' blefs them blefs thee, and I will curfe Him that 

* curfe thee.' The bleffing is to many ; but the curfe re- 
fpe^tcth one principally ; that is, Satan, as the fcripturc 
generally exprefleth the oppohtc apojlate power under that 
name. Neither is there any jufl caufe of the variation of 
the number, iinlefs we look on the words as a purfuit of 
the firft promife, which was accompanied with an efpecial 
jiialedi£lion on Satan, and who a6\s his enmity in all ob- 
loquy and curfing againil the bleiTed feed, and thofe that 
^re blelfed therein. 



^ 1 6. After the giving of this promife, the whole Old 
Tellameiit beareth witnefs, that a perfon was to be born of 
the pollerity of Abraham, in whom the nations of the 
earth fhould be faved ; that is, dehvered from fin and curfe, 
and made eternally happy. It is faid, (cD^m tynp» i^) ' ta 

* bim fhall be the gather ing of the people ;' the people of 
the world, diftin£l from Judah, fliall gather themfelves to 
him ; that is, for fafety and deliverance, or to be made 
partakers of the promifcd hlcjjing. Hence Balaam, among 
the Gentiles, propheiied of him, [Numb. xxiv. 17 — 19.] 
And Job, among the children of the Eafl, that were not 
of the poiterityof Ifaac, profeffed his faith in him, [Job. 
xix. 25.] * I know that my Redeemer liveth, or (»n) h 

* living ; and afterwards he fliall ftand on the earth,' or 
rife on the duft, He believed that there was (hi^i) a Re^ 
deemer promifed, one that fhould free him from fin and 
mifery. Though he was among the Gentiles, yet he believed 
the promife, and expefted his own perfonal redemption, by 
the blefTed feed. And thus, although God confineth the 
poflerity of Abraham after the flefh, to the land of Canaan, 
yet, becaufe in the promifed feed he was to be " heir of the 
worldy"^ he gives to the MelTiah, * the heathen to be his in- 

* heritance, and the uttermofl parts of the earth for his 

* pofleflion,' [Pfal. ii. 8.] And upon the accompUfhment 
of the work afligned him, he promifeth, that * all the 
< ends of the world fhall remember, and turn to the Lord ; 

* and all the kindreds of the nations fhall worfliip before 
'■ him,' [Pfal, xxii. 27.] a plain declaration of the Gen- 
tiles coming in for an interefl in the redemption wrought 
by him. [See Pfal. xlv. 16.] For thefe rebellious ones 
vv-as he to receive gifts, that the ' Lord God might dwell 
*- among them,' [Pfal.lxviii.i8.] fo, that by him * Egypt and 
*"■ Ethiopiawere to ilretch forth theirhands toGod,' [ver.31.] 
yea, ' all kings were to bow down to him, and all nations 

* to ferve him,' [Pfal. Ixxii. i i — 17.] In the laji days, 
the days of the Meffiah, many people, yea, all nations, 
are to be brought to the houfeof the Lord, and to wor- 
fhip him acceptably, [Ifa. ii. 2 — 4.] and expreffly, [chap, 
xi. 10.] The root of Jcffe^ which the Jews grant to be 



the Mefliah, is to ftand for an cnfigii to the people, and 
to it fhall the Gentiles fcek ; even for that falvatioii and de- 
liverance which he had wrought ; and they are preferred 
therein, before Ifrael and Judah, [ver. 12.J Egypt and 
^JJyy'ia ; that is, the other nations of the world are to be 
brought into the fame covenant of the MelTiah with Ifrael, 
[Ifa. xix. 25.] For all flcjh was to fee the glory of the 
Lord, and not the Jews only ; and the IJlcs, or the atmoil 
parts of the earth, were to wait for the law of the pro- 
mifed Mefliah, [chap. xlii. 4.] And the whole of what 
we aflert is fummed up, chap. xlix. 6. where God fpeaks 
to the promifed feed, and fays, '* It is a light tiling, that 
thou Hiouldfl be my fervant, to raife up the tribes of Ja- 
cob, and to reftore the preferved of Ifrael ; I will alfo give 
thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayell be my 
falvation to the end of the earth ;" where he is as fully 
promifed to the Gentiles^ to be their falvation, as ever he 
was to Abraham, or his poflerity. [See Ifa. li. 5. and liii, 
12.] And on this account doth God call to men in ge- 
neral, to come into his covenant ; promiiing to them an 
intercfl in the mercies of David^ becaufe he hath given 
this feed as a witnefs to them, as a leader and commander , or 
a captain of their falvation, [Ifa. Iv. i — 4.] 

§ 1 7. Thus do both the law and the prophets bear wit- 
nefs to the promifed Deliverer, and the deliverance to be 
wrought by him. And this is he, whom Jews and Chrif-r 
tians call (n»ir^D) Messiah, the Jnolnted, Thofe who 
were of old confecrated to God in the great offices of 
kings, priefls, and prophets, were by his appointment to 
be anointed ; at leaft fome of them on fpecial occafions 
were fo. Thence were they called (o'n'typ) anointed ones. 
And becaufe this anointing with oil was not appointed 
for its own fake, but for fomewhat fignified thereby, thofc 
who received the thing Signified, although not a^^ually 
and literally anointed with oil, are all called " anointed 
ones;" alfo, [Pfal. cv. 15.] Now, this promifed feed, 
this faviour or deliverer, being appointed of God, to per- 
form his work in the difcharge of a triple office, of king, 
prieft, and prophet to his people, and being furnifhed with 

VpL. L U thof^ 

534 MESSIAH, PartIIo 

thofe gifts and endowments which were fignified by the 
anointing oil is, by an antoncmajia^ called " the Meffiah." 
Or (n'lt^Dn ^V?d) " Meffiah the king." [Dan. ix. 25. 
TJJ n»t2;D] " Meffiah the prince,*' ruler, or leader ; and 
[ver. 26.] Mcjftah abfolutely. 

This name is but twice, or thrice at moft, ufed in the 
Old Teftament, dire£lly and immediately to denote the 
promlfed feed ; namely, Dan. ix. 25, 26. whereto, Pfal. 
ii. 2. may be added. But this name, on the reafons be- 
fore given, prevailing in the Judaical churchy it is fre- 
quently made ufe of in the Targumsy and feme other of 
their chief writings where he is treated of; although he be 
not expreflly named in the original. Eli as, (in his Me- 
thiirgamim) reckons up fifty of thofe places, whereunto 
cne and twenty more are added by Buxtorfius. A few 
liere follows : 

§ 18. On Gen. iii. 15. larg, Jqnath. *' The feed 
of the woman Ihall bruife the head of the ferpent, and 
they Ihall obtain healing, or a plainer for the heel, in 
the days of Messiah the king." — On Gen. xxxv. 21, 
^« Which is the place (/. e. Edar, which was ne^r Beth- 
lehem) from whence the king Messiah fhall be revealed 
* in the end of the days.' This tradition is taken from 
Mich, iv, 8„ — On Gtvi. xllx. i. " The time (/. e. the 
precife time) wherein the king Messiah was to come,, 
was hid from him, and therefore he faid. Come, and I will 
declare unto you, what fhall befall you in the end of the 
days j" becaufe the precfe time of his coming was hidden 
even from the befl of the prophets, unto whom the glory 
of the Divine Majcfy was in other things revealed. — Gen. 
xlix. 10. * Until Shlloh come.'* All the three Targums 
agree in the application of thefe meiLorable words to the 
Messiah, which is an illuftrious prophecy concerning 
him, and which the Jews, with none of their cavilling 
exceptions can evade. 

On Exod. xii. 42. Hierufal. Targ. " Mofes fhall come 
forth from the midft of the wildernefs, and the king Mes- 
«iah from the midll of Rome." That of the Messiah 



Coming out of Rome is T'al'mud'icdL And we may here, 
once for all, obfervc, that although they believe that their 
Melfiah is to be a mere man^ born after the manner of all 
other men, yet they never fpeak of his birth as a thing 
they looked for ; they only fpeak of his comings or moft 
commonly of his being revealed \ and their great expecta- 
tion and inquiry is, when he fhall be dlfcovcrcd and re^ 
veakd. And this proceedeth out of a fecret felf-convi£tion^ 
that he was bom long fince, even at the time promifed 
and appointed ; only that he is hidden from them, as, in- 
deed, he is, though not in the fenfe by them imagined* 
Put what connexion has the night of the pajfovcr with 
the coming of the Mefliah ? They cannot imagine, that 
he ihall come to them whilft they are celebrating that or- 
dinance, which is not lawful for thera, unlefs they were 
at Jerufalem, whither they believe they fliall never return 
until he come and go before them. It is, then, from 
fome tradition amongft them, that their deliverance out 
of Egypt was a type of the deliverance by the Messiah, 
whofe facrifice and fuffering were reprefented in the paf- 
cal lamb^ which gave occafion to this glofs. — Chap. xl. 9. 
Targ. JoNATH. '* The king Messiah, who fliall deliver 
Ifrael in the end of the days." — Numb, xxiii. 21. xxiv. 
7, 17, 20, 24. All the 'Turgums agree, that the Mes- 
siah is intended in thefe prophecies of Balaam. On 
thofe words, ' There fliall come a ftar out of Jacob, and 
' a fceptre out of Ifrael,' they jointly fay, *' A king fliall 
arifc out of Jacob, and the Messiah fliall be anointed." 
And an illuftrious prophecy it is, no doubt, concerning 
his coming and dominion, who is the " root and the offs- 
pring of David, the bright and morning fl:ar." — Likewife, 
Deut. xviii; 15 — 19. This place is an eminent pro- 
phecy concerning the Messiah, and his prophetical of- 
iice ; and from it, the Jews themfelves (in Midrafh Co- 
helethy Cap. i.) fay, *' The latter Redeemer is to be like 
the former." 

§ 19. Moreover, 1. Sam. ii, 20. Targ. " He fliall exalt 
the kingdom of this Messiah." — II. Sam. xxiii. 3. Targ. 
** He faid he would appoint to me a king, which is the 

U 2 Mfis- 


IVI £ S S 1 A H, PARtll* 

Messiah, who fhall arifeand rule in the fear of the Lord." 
. — Ruth iii. 15. '^arg, " It was faid in the prophecy, that 
fix righteous perfons fhould come of Ruth, David, and 
Daniel, with his companions^ and the king Messiah." 

§ 20. Again, Pfal. ii. 2. Targ. ** Againft his Mes- 
siah.'* The Talmudijis, in leveral places, acknowledge 
this pfalm to be a prophecy of the Messiah, and apply 
lundrypaiTages thereof to him. And thofe words, * Thou 
* art my fon, this day have I begotten thee,' are not amifs 
expounded by them, (in Traei. Succah. Cap. v.) *' I will 
this day reveal to men, that thou art my fon ;''* for fo are 
they applied by our apoflle, when deahng with the Jews» 
[A£ls xiii. 33. Heb. i. 5.] to his *' refurre«^ion from 
the dead,'* whereby he w^as declared the Son of God with 
power, [Rom. i. 4.] All the principal expoHtors amongft 
them, as Rashi, Kimchi, Aben Ezra, Bartenora, 
orR.OBODiA, acknowledge, that their ancient do£lor5 
and mailers expounded this pfalm concerning the Mes- 
giAH. — Pfal. xxi. I. Targ, " The king Messiah fhall 
rejoice;" and ver. 7. 7arg, "Messiah the king." — 
Pfal. xlv. 2. "Targ, " Thy beauty, O king MefTiah, is 
more excellent than that of the fons of men." — Pfal. 
Ixviii. and Ixix. 32. [in Shemoth Robba, Se£l. xxxv. j 
*' All nations Ihall bring gifts to the king Messiah.'* 
The fame expolition is given in Midrath^ EJiher, Cap. 
i. ver. I. and R. Obodia Haggaon on the place. — > 
Pfal. Ixxii. I. Targ. " Give the fentence of thy judge- 
ment to the king Messiah." And Rashi fays of ver^ 
16. *' Our majiers interpret this of the cates, or dainties 
in the days of the Messiah, and expound the whole 
pfalm concerning Meffiah the king." It is evident, that 
in this pfalm much light was communicated to the church 
of old, concerning the office, work, grace, eompaffion, 
and rule of the Meffiah, with the caUing and glorious 
accefs of the Gentiles to him.* — Pfal. Ixxx. 15. *' The 
vineyard which thy right hand hath planted ; and the 

* Yid. Midrajh^ on the title of Pfal. Ixx. and Aeen Ezra, 




branch thou haft made ftrong for thyfelf ;" fo our tranfla- 
tion ; but all old tranllations, as the Seventy, vulgar La- 
t'uiy and Syriac, interpret the Hebrew term (n) not in 
analogy to the preceding allegory of the vine, but from ver. 
17. and render it, {sttl viov a',^yCA)T.-^, fuper filium ho- 
minis) ^ and upon the iOii of man, whom thou madcll ftrong 
for thyfelf. Targ. *' And for the king Messiah, whom 
thou haft ftrengthened, or fortified, for thyfelf." And in 
ver. 17. he is expreflly called Jai^-p) '-'• the fon of man^ 
whom thou madeft ftrong for thyfelf." The Turgmn 
here alfo acknowledgeth the true Messiah, for whofe 
fake the church is bleffed, and by whom it is delivered ; 
though Aj^en Ezra fuppofes the words may rcfped ^y- 
Jiah Ben Ephraim, an idol of their own. 

§ 21. We are now entering on the prophets, who 
** teftified before-hand the fufFerings of Chrift, and the 
glory that was to follow," (L Pet. i. 11.) I defign only 
to report fome of the moft eminent places, concerning 
which, we have the common fuffrage of the Jews in their 
general application to the Meftiah. Among thefe, that of 
Isaiah ii. 2 — 4. occurs in the firft place : " And it 
fliall come to pafs in the laft days, that the mountain of 
the Lord's houfe Hiall be eftablifhed in the top of the 
mountains, and fliall be exalted above the hills, and all 
nations fliall flow unto it ; and many people fnall go and 
fay, Come ye, and let us go up unto the mountain of the 
Lord, to the houfe of the God of Jacob ; and he will 
teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths ; for 
out of Zion Ihall come forth a law, and the word of the 
Lord from Jerufalem. And he fhall judge among the na- 
tions, and fliall rebuke many people, and they fhall beat 
their fwords into plough-fhares." Kimcfii gives it for 
a rule, that the exprefTion, " in the latter days,'' always 
denotes the times of the Messiah, which I fuppofe is not 
liable to any exception. And as he giveth a tolerable expoli- 
tionofthe "eftabiifhingof the mountain of the Lord on the top 
of the mountains," afligning it to the glory of the wor- 
ship of God, above all the falfe and idolatrous worfliip of 
the Gentiles J which they obferved on the mountains and 
2 high 

f^S n E S S I A H, Part IT; 

high places ; fo, concerning thofe words, vef. 4. * H^ 

* fliall judge among the nations,' he faith, " This judge, 
or he that judgeth,- is the King Messiah." The hke 
faith Aben Ezra alfb on the fame place, and Jarchi 011 
the fame words in the prophecy of Micah, And as this is 
true, fo, whereas Jehovah alone is mentioned in the fore- 
going verfes, to whom and no other this expreffion can 
relate, how is it poffible for them to deny that the Mes- 
siah is the Lord, the God of Jacob alio ? For iTndeniably 
it is he concerning whom it is faid, ' that he fhall judge 
' among the nations ;' and by their confeffion that it is 
the Messiah who is the Shophet, the judge, here intend- 
ed, they are plainly convinced out of their own mouths, 
and their inhdelity condemned by themfelves. 

We have, then, evidently in thefe words three articles ; 
firfl^ that the Meffiah fhould be God and man ; the God 
of Jacob, who Ihould in a bodily prefence judge the people, 
and fend forth the law among the nations ; — -fecondly, that 
the Gentiles fhould be called to faith in him, and the 
obedience of his law ; — thirdly, that the worfhip of the 
Lord in the days of the Meffiah fliould be far more glo- 
rious than at any time whilil the firfl temple was {landing, 
—Again, Ifa. iv. 2. Targ, *' At that time fhall the Mes- 
siah of the Lord be for joy and honour." And this 
prophecy is alfo by the moil learned of the Rabbins ap- 
plied to the Messiah. Kimchi interprets (nm) the 
branch, by that of Jer. xxiii. 5. ' I will raife up to David 

* a righteous branch, a king Ihall reign and profper.' — 
Ifa. ix. 6. 7arg. " God the mighty one, abiding for ever^ 
Messiah, whofe peace fliall be multiplied unto us in his 
days." — Charp. xi. i. 7'arg. " And a king Ihall come 
forth from tlie fons of JeflTe, and Messiah fliall be 
anointed from the fons of his fons ;" i. e. his poflerity. — 
Ver. 6. Targ. *' In the days of the Messiah of Ifrael 
peace fliall be multiplied in the earth — and the wolf fliall 
dwell with the lamb." That this chapter contains a pro- 
phecy of the Meffiah and his kingdom, and that imme- 
diately and diredly, all the Jews confefs : hence is that 



part of their iifual fong la the evening of the fabbath.* 
Chap. xvi. I. Targ. ** They Ihall bring their tribute unto 
the Messiah of Ifrael." So alfo ver. 5. *' Then fhall 
the throne of the Messiah of Ifracl be prepared in good- 
ncfs.'* — Chap, xxviii. 5. 'Targ. *' The Messiah of the 
Lord of Hofts." — Chap, xliii. i. Targ. *' Behold my 
fervant the Messiah.'* And Kimchi on this place, 
*' Behold my fervant," adds, " lliat is, the King Mes- 
siAH." And Abarbinel confutes both R. Saadias and 
Aben Ezra with Hiarpnefs who were otherwife minded. 
' — Chap, xliii. 10. 7arg. " My fervant Messiah, in 
whom I reft." — Chap. lii. 13. T<^rg. '' Behold, my fer- 
vant the Messiah fhall profper." 

§ 22. Once more; Jer. xxiii. 5. Targ. *' And I will 
raife up to David, Messiah the righteous." l^his is he 
who in the next verfe is called " Jehovah our righteouf- 
nefs." The Jews generally agree that it is the Meffiah 
who is here intended. For the prefervation of the name 
of this righteous branch (upiy nin») ' Jehovah our rigli- 
teoufnefs,' we may blefs God for the original; for the 
old tranflations are either miftaken, corrupt, or perverted. f 
— Chap. xxx. 21. Targ. " Their king fliall be anointed 
from amongft them ; and their Messiah fhall be reveal- 
ed unto them." — Chap, xxiii. 13 — 15. Targ. " And the 
people fliall be yet gathered by the Messiah ;" and x 

'»ip i&i?D nrjnn ^ 

Which, with a little variation, may be thus rendered : 
Shake thyfelf from dull, arife. 
People cloath'd in glorious guife. 
For from Bethrhem JeiTe's ion 
Brings my foul redemption won. 
•f The Jews enclc:".vour to evade the teflimony, by producing 
inftances of the application of this name to other things ; as the 
altar built by Moles, the arch^ and the city of Jerufaiem. But 
jt is one thing to have the name of God called on a place or thing 
to bring the occalion of it to remembrance, but another to lay, 
that this is the name of fuch a perfon, ' Jehovah our righteouf- 
♦nefso? • 


|4o MESSIAH, e^c. Part 11; 

prophecy of him It is no doubt, as the 1 5th verfe makes 
it evident, where all the Jews acknowledge him to be in- 
tended by the branch of righteoufnefs, which fliall fpring 
"up to David. — Hof. iii. 5. Targ. *' And Ihall obey the 
Messiah, the fon of David, their king." — Chap. xiv. 8. 
iTarg. *' They fliall lit under the fhadow of the Mes- 
siah." — Micah jv. 8. 'Targ. " And thou Messiah of 
Ifrael, who a^t hid becaufe of the iins of the congrega- 
tion of Zion, to thee the kingdom fhall come." This 
glofs^ I confefs, draws upon the lees of Talmudtcal rahbi- 
vifin ; for they fancy that their Messiah was long lince 
born, even at the appointed t'lme^ but is kept hid, they 
know not where, becaufe of the fms of Ifrael.-^-Chap. 
V. 2. "Targ. *■ Qut of thee fhall the Messiah come forth 
before me to exerclfe rule over Ifrael." — Zech. iii. 8. 7arg, 
^' Behold I bring forth my fervant the Messiah, vvhp 
ihall be revealed." 

§ 23. I h?^ve not Iniifled on thefe places, as if they 
were all the tellimonies to the fame purpofe that might 
be taken out of the prophets, feeing they are a very fmall 
portion of the predinious concerning the perfon, grace, 
and kingdom of the Meiliah, and not ail thofe which are 
eminent in that kind ; but becaufe that they are fuch as 
wherein we have either the confent of all the Jews with 
^IS in their application, qr we have the fuffrage of the 
more ancient and authentic matters to reprove the per-* 
verfenefs of the modern rabbins. 

And this is he whom we niquire after. One wh© was 
was promifed from the foundation of the world to relieve 
inankind from under the Hate of fin and mifery whereunto 
they were cafl by their apoftacy from God. This is he 
who from the firft promife of him, or intimation of relief 
by hi.n, was the hope, defire, comfort, and expe<^atIon 
of all that aimed at reconciliation and peace with God. 
Upon whom all their religion, faith, and worfhip, was 
founded, and in whom it centered. He, for whofe fake, 
or for the bringing of whom into the world, Abraham 
and the Hebrews his pofterity were feparated to be a pe- 
culiar people dillind from all the nations of the earth ; 


E3CER. i. A P P E A R A N C E S, &c. 141 

in the faith of whom, the whole church from the days 
of Adam, that of the Jews efpecially, celebrated its myf- 
tical worfhip, endured perfecutiou and martyrdom, wait- 
ing and praying continually for his appearance. He 
whom all the prophets preached and promifcd ; defcribing 
before-hand his fufferings, with the glory that was to en- 
fue. He of whofe coming a catholic tradition was fprcad 
over the world, which the old ferpent, with all his fub-» 
tilty^ was never able to obliterate. 

ExERtlT. it. 


§ I . Ends of the promljes and prijphecles cdnccrnmg the Mef^ 

Jiah, Other ways of revealing him, § 2. JVhat meant 

in the I'argums by tHe word of god. § 3 — 8. Va^ 

Yious appearances of the Son of God to the patriarchs^ 

§ 9. Apprehenfons of the Jeivi/h mafiers on thisfubje^. 

§ i. W E liave {ttw how plentifully God inftru£led 
the church of old by his prophets, in the knowledge of 
the perfon, office, and work of the Melliah ; which he 
did, partly, that nothing might be wanting to the faith 
and eonfolation of believerSj and partly that his righteous 
judgements in the rejedion and ruin of thofe who obiti- 
nately refufed him, might be juflified and rendered glo- 
rious. Nor were thcfe promifes and predi^ion$ alone the 
means whereby God would manifefl him to their faith. 

There are two things concerning the Mefliah, which 
are the pillars and foundation of the church ; — his divine 
fiature ; and — his work of mediation in ihQ atonement for 

Vol. L X fin 


fin which he was to make by the facrifice of himfelf. For 
the declaration of thefe, to them who according to the pro- 
inife looked for his coming, there were two Ipecial means 
graciouily defigned of God. The one^ which referred to 
his atonement, was his inflitnted worJl:ip, and the vari- 
ous facrifices which he appointed to be obferved in the 
church, as types and reprefentations of that one perfect 
obiatioti which he was to offer in the fulnefs of time. 
The other way, which concerns his divine perfon, was by 
thefe vllions and appearances of the Son of God as the 
head of the church, granted to the fathers. In our in- 
quiry after the prognoftlcs of the AleJJiah's advent, we fliall 
manifeft, that a revelation was made of a dift in dl perfon in 
the Deity, who in a peculiar manner managed all the con- 
cernments of the church after the entrance of fm. 

^ 2. There is frequent mention in the ^argiimijis of 
f»n «nD'o) ' the vjord of the Lord \ and it fir 11 occurs in 
them on the firfc appearance of a divine perfon^ after the 
fm and fall of man, Gen. iii. 8. The text is ; ' And 
* they heard the voice (^ip the word) of the Lord God, 
(^"jnna) walking in the garden.' The participle * walking,^ 
may be as well referred to the * voice,' as to the Lord God ; 
{vocem domini Del ambulantem.) And although the word 
(Vip) which we render ''voiced mofl commonly fignifies 
(Koyov 7rQo(poprA,oVy verbiim prolatum.) the outward voice, and 
found thereof, yet, when applied to God* it frequently 
'denotes his (Xo/ov sv^iaJfjov) ijiternal vjord, his almighty 
power, whereby he effefts whatever he pleafeth. This 
expreffion therefore may alfo denote (rov Koyov t» B-a, 
ncfj' i^oyj^j) ' ^^^ "^^'^^^ °f ^^^'' ^' ^' ^^^ kimfef, his e£en- 
tial word, the perfon of the Son ; for our firfl parents 
heard this ' fVord walking in the garden,' before they 
heard the outward found of any voice or words whatever, 
[Gen. iii. 9-] The Chaldce paraphraft obfcrvlng that 
fome fpecial prefence of God is exprefled in the words, 
renders them, " And they heard the voice of the IVord of 
the Lord God walking in the garden." So all th« Tar- 
gums ; and that of Jerufalem begins the next verfe ac- 
cordingly : "And («nn'») the word of the Lord God 


ExER. 2. SON OF GOD, &c. 143 

called to Adam.'* And the exprcfTioii they afterwards 
make ufe of in places innumerable, and in luch a way as 
plainly to denote a difiin^l per/on in the Deity.* 

The Jews difcern that * walking'' in this place relates 
immediately to the voice, and not to the Lord God, and 
therefore endeavour to evade the force of it, but to no 
tolerable purpofe. 

It is therefore moji probable that in the great alteration 
which was now coming upon the whole creation of God, 
mankind being to be call out of covenant, the ferpent and 
the earth being to be curled, and a way of recovery for 
the ele£l of God to be revealed, that he, * by whom all 
* things were made,' and by whom all to be brought 
again to God were to be renewed, did, in an efpecial and 
glorious, appear to our firft parents, as he in 
v^^hom this whole difpenfation centered, and to whom it 
was committed. And as after the promife given he ap- 
peared (sy ULOoCpyi ccy9^M7riv'/j) in an human Jhape, to inflruft 
the church in the myftery of his future incarnation, and 
under the name oi angel, to fhadow out his office 2iS, fcnt 
unto it, and employed in it by the Father ; fo here, be^ 
fore the promife, he difcovered his diftind glorious per- 
fon, as the eternal voice or word of the Father. 

§ 3. Again, Gen. xviii. i — 3. the reafon why Abra^ 
ham fat * in the door of the tent,' given in the text, is, 

* Vid. Philon. De Confjijione Linguarum, That place Hof. 
\, 7. among others, is exprefs to this purpofe, where the words 
of the prophet are thus rendered by the Targuwift -, " I will fave 
(or redeem) them («-iD>Dn) by the ^Tw;Wof the Lord their God." 
And it is not unworthy confideration, that as the wifefl and moft 
contemplative of the ph'dofophers of old had many notions about 
(0 'koyo^ aiotoj) the eternal <rMord, which was with them, (^i/vci^atj 
in; oXnc KUa-iuj: 'ro'oir,rty.>i) the creati've poiver of the uninjerfe ; to 
which purpofe many fayings might be obferved out of Plato, 
Chalcidius, Proclus, Plotinus, and others, whofe exprellions 
are imitated by our own writers, Justix Martyr, Clemens, 
Athaxagoras, TatiAiVUs, and many more. And indeed the 
fame may be obfen'ed of the Mahometans themfelves ; for this is 
the name they give to Jefus in their Alcoran (n^^« hd'pd) the Word 
of God. So prevalent hath this notion of the Son of God been in 
tlie world. 

X 2 becaufe 


becaufe it was about the heat of the day, or as the day grew 
hot ; in oppofition to the time of God's appearance to 
Mam, which was in the cool air of the day. For as, when 
God comes to curfc, nothing Ihall refrefh the creature, 
however fuitable for the purpofe in its own nature ; it 
ihall wither in the cool of the day ; fo, when he comes to 
blefs, nothing ihall hinder the influence of it upon his 
creatures, however any thing in itfelf may, like the heat 
of the day, be troublefome or perplexing. 

He lift up his eyes and looked, and, * lo, three men 
• flood by him.' It feems to be z fudden appearance that 
was made to him ; he looked up and faw them ; and this 
fatisfied him that it was an heavenly apparition. 

The bufinefs of God with Abraham at this time was 
to renew unto him the promife of the bleffed feed, ^nd 
to confine it to his poflerity by Sarah ; even now when 
he was utterly hopelefs of it, and began to delire that 
Ifhmael might be the heir. To this fignal work of mer- 
cy was adjoined the intimation of an eminent cffed of 
vjindi^ive juflice, wherein God would fet forth an example 
©f it to all enfuing generations, in the deftruAion of Sodom 
and Gomorrha, And both thefe were the proper works 
of him, on whom the care of the church was in an efpecial 
manner incumbent, all whofe blelTednefs depended on 
that promife ; and to whom the rule of the world, the pre- 
fent and future judgement of it, is committed ; that is, 
the perfon of the Son. And hence in the overthrow of 
thefe cities, he who is to be their future judge, is faid to 
fet forth an enfample of his future dealings with ungodly 
men, [IL Pet. ii. 6.] 

A diflin£iion of perfons in the Deity, although not a 
precife number of them, is hence demonftrable. For it is 
evident that he of the three who appeared unto Abraham, 
and to whom he made his fupplication for the fparing of 
Sodom, was Jehovah, the judge of all the world, [Gen. 
xix. 2 2-— 25.] And yet all the three were fet upon the 
work, that one being the prince and head of the embafTy ; 
as he who is Jehovah, is faid to be fent by Jehovah, [Zech. 
ii, 8,9.] In the itory itfelf it is manifeil that they were 

EXER.2. SON OF GOD, &c. 14* 

all employed in the fame work ; one as Lord and prince^ 
the other two as his miniilering fervants. — And this is fur- 
ther cleared in that exprelTion of Moles, [Gen. xix. 24.] 

* The Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrha brimflone 

* and fire from the Lord, out of heaven/ 'I here is, there- 
fore., in this place, an appearance of God in an human. 
Ihape ; and of one d'ijiin£l perfon in the Godhead ; who now 
reprefented himfelf to Abraham in the form in which he 
would dwell amongft men, when of his feed ht would be 
niade flefh. This was one iignal means whereby Abra- 
ham * faw his day and rejoiced,'' which himfelf afcribes to 
l)is pre-ex'iftence, and not the promife of his co;«i;/^. [John 
viii. 56 — 58.] A folemn prelude it was to his taking flefh, 
a revelation of his divine nature and perfon, and a pledge 
of his coming in human nature, to converfe with men. 

§ 4. Gen. xxxii. 24, 26, 30. * And Jacob was left 

* alone,* &c. This llory is twice noticed in the fcripture 
afterwards ; once by Jacob himfelf, [Gen. xlviii. 15, 16.] 
and once by the prophet Hofea, [chap. xii. 3, 4.] In 
the firft place he is called a man ; * there appeared a man ;' 
ia the fecond, Jacob calls him an angel, ' the angel that re- 
"^ deemed me \ and in the third, he is expreflly faid to be 
God, * the Lord fhofis: 

Jacob was now palling with his whole family into the 
land of Canaan, to take feifure of it by virtue of the pro- 
i^iife, on the behalf of his poflerity. At the very entrance 
of it, he is met by his greatefl adverfary, with whom he 
had a fevere contefl about the promife and inheritance it- 
lelf. This was his brother Efau, who, coming againft 
l)im with a power, which he was in no way able to with- 
iland, he feared, would utterly dellroy both his perfon 
and poflerity, [ver. 11.] In the promife about which 
their contefl was, the blcfTed feed, with the whole church 
Hate and worfliip of the Old Teflament, was included ; fa 
that it \vas the greatefl controverfy, and had the greateft 
weight depending on it, of any that ever was amongfl the 
fons of men. Wherefore to fettle Jacob's right, to pre- 
ferve hira with his title and intereft, he who was princi- 
pally concerned i^ the whole matter, appeared to him. 



This man in appearance, this ongel in office, was in 
name and nature ' Go^ over all, bleilcd for ever.' For, 
in the flrft place, Jacob prays folemnly unto him for his 
blefling, [Gtn. xxxii. 26.] and refufes to let him go, or 
to ceafe making his earnefl fuppiications until he had 
blelTed him. Accordingly he blcjpth him, and giveth him 
a double token of it — the touch of his thigh, and the change 
of his name — giving him a name to denote his prevalency 
with God ; that is, with himfelf. From hence Jacob 
concludes that he had feen God ; and calls the name of 
the place, the face of God. In the fecond place, [Gen. 
xlviii. 16.] — befides that he Invocates th^ angel for his 
frefence Vv^ith, and blejfing on the children of Jofeph ; which 
cannot regard any but God himfelf, without grofs idola- 
try — it is evident that the angel who redeemed him, {ver. 
16.] is the fame with the God who fed him ■. that is, the 
God of his fathers. 

And this is yet more evident in the prophet ; for with 
regard to this {lory of his power over the angels, he fays, 

* he had power with GoD ;* and proves it becaufe he 
tad * power over the Angel, and prevailed/ And he 
fhews whereby he thus prevailed ; it was by * weeping 
' and making fuppiications unto him,* which he neither 
did, nor lawfully might do, to a created angel. Again, 
this angel was he whom h€ found, or ' who found him 

* in Bethel,' [Gen. xxviii. 20 — 22. and xxxv. i.] which 
was no other than He to whom facoh made his vow, and 
with whom he entered into folemn covenant, that he 
fhould be ' his God."* And therefore the prophet adds 
exprefily in the lail place, [Hof. xii. 5.] that it was the 
Lord God of hof s whom he intended. 

From what has been fpoken, it is evident, that he who 
appeared to Jacob, with whom he earneflly wreilled, by 
tears and fuppiications, was God \ and becaule he was fent 
3S the aytgeloiGod, it muft be fome diftinft pcrfon in the 
Deity, condefcending to that office; and appearing in the 
form of a man, he reprefented his future affuraption of hu- 
man natare. And by all this, did God inftrud the church 
in the my fiery of the ' perfon of the Messiah,' and 
% who 

ExE^.2. SON OF GOD, Sec. 147 

who it was that they were to look for in the blell^iig of the 
prom i fed feed. 

§ 5. Exod. ill. 2 — 6. * And \4ofes came to the moun- 
* tain, &c.' He who is here revealed, affirms of himfelf, 
that he is 'the God of Abraham/ [ver. 16.] and alfo 
defcribes himfcif by the glorious name — I am that I am, 
[ver. 14.] in whofe name and authority, Mofes dealt with 
Pharaoh in the deliverance of the people, and whom they 
were to ferve on that mountain, upon their comin"- out of 
Egypt. He, whofe (pvn) merciful good-will Mofes prays 
for, [Deut. xxxiii. 16.] And yet he is expreflly called an 
angel, [ver. 2.] namely, the angel of the covenant, the 
great angel of the pre fence of God, in whom was the name 
and nature of God ; and he thus appeared — that the church 
might know and confider ivho it was that was to work out 
their fpiritual and eternal falvation, of which that deli- 
verance was a type and pledge. 

§ 6. Exod. xix. 18 — 20. ' And mount Sinai was al- 

* together on a fmoak, 5cc.' As to him that prefided and 

ruled the whole aftion, fome Chrlflians think it was a 

created angel, reprefenting God, and fpeaking in his name. 

But if this be fo, we have no certainty of any thing that is 

affirmed in the fcripture, that it may be referred dire^lly 

and immediately to God ; but we may, when we pleafe, 

fubilitute a delegated angel in his room. For in no place, 

not in that concerning the creation of the world, is God 

himfelf more expreffly fpoken of. Befides, the pfalmiH 

[PfaL Ixviii. 17.] affirms, that when thofe chariots of 

God were on mount Sinai, Jehovah himfelf was in the midft 

of them. And this prcfence of God the Hebrews varioufly 

call (nnDH, njoti^, npj^O whereby they now underfland a 

majeftical and fanaifying prefence. In reality it intends 

him who is the * brightnefs of his Father's glory, and the 

' exprefs image of his perfon ;' who was delegated to this 

work, as the great angel of the covenant, giving the law 

in theftrength of the Lord, in the majeily of the name of 

the Lord his God. 

§ 7. Exod. xxiii. 20 — 2,2. * Behold I fend an angel,' 
&:c. The angel here promifed, is he who went in the midft 

143 APPEARANCES OF T K 15 I^artI^ 

of the people in the wildernefs, whofe glory appeared 
among them. It is faid to the people concerning him 
(vJa^ iDii^n) ^' beivare of him,''^ or rather, take heed to thy^ 
felf before him^ before his face, in his prefence. The 
verb (-)a^) in N'lphal, is fb'i cavit ; eave tib'i. And this 
is the caution that is ufually given to the people, requiring 
that reverence and awe which is due to the hoHnefs of the 
prefence of God. It is added, {^h'\\>'2. v^^^) *' and obey his 
vo'ice.^'* This is the great precept which is folemnly 
given, and fo often reiterated in the law, with referencei 
to God himfelf. Again, {yi non h)^) ^^ provoke himnot,^* 
or rebel not againft him. This is the ufual word whereby 
God exprefleth the tranfgrellion of his covenant ; a rebel- 
lion that can be committed only againft God alone. — Of 
thefe precepts a tivo-fold reafon is given, whereof the firji 
is taken from the fovereign authority of the angel ; * for he 

* will not pardon your tranfgreffions ;' that is, as Jofhua 

* afterwards tells the fame people, * he is an holy God, he 

* is a jealous God, he will not forgive your tranfgreffions, 

* nor your iins,' [Jofh. xxiv. 19.] namely, fins of re- 
bellion, that break and difannul his covenant. And who 
C2l\\ forgive fins but God? To fuppofe here a created an- 
gel, is to open a door to idolatry; for he, in whofe power 
it is absolutely to pardon iin and punifh it, muft certainly 
be worfhipped with religious adoration. Another reafon is 
taken from his namc^ ' for my name is in him.' A 
more excellent name than any of the angels enjoy, [Heb. i, 
4.] He is Godj Jehovah, that is his name, and his 
nature anfwercth thereto. Hence [ver. 22.] it is added, 

* if, indeed, thou obey his voice^ and do all that I fpeak.'' 
His voice is the voice of God, in his fpeaking God 
fpeaketh. Moreover, [Exod. xxxiii. 14, 15.] God fays, 
concerning this angel (♦-!£)) my prefence^ my face fhall go 
with thee ; which prefence Alofes calls his ^/orj, [ver. 18.] 
his ejjential glory, which was manifefted to him, [chap, 
xxxiv. 6.] though but obfcurely, in comparifon of what 
it was to them, who, in his human nature (wherein 
dwelt the * fulnefs of the Godhead bodily,' [Col. ii, 9.] 
beheld his glory, ' the glory as of the only begotten of 

* the 

ExER. «• SON OF GOD, &c, 149 

< the father,' [John i. 14.] For this face of God is he, 
whom if any one feeth, ♦ he feeth the Father,* [John 
xiv. 9.] becaufe he is ' the brightnefs of his glory, and 

* the exprefs image of his perfon,' [Heb. i. 3.] he who 
accompanied the people in the wildernefs, [I. Cor. x. 4.] 
and whofe merciful good pleafure towards them Mofes 
prayed for [Deut. xxxiii. 16.] that is, the * Father of 
*■ liglits, from whom defcendeth every good and perfect 
'gift,' [Jam. i. 17.] Thefe things evidently exprefs God^ 
and none other ; and yet he is faid to be an angel fent of 
God^ in his name, and to his work ; fo that he can be 
no other, but a certain perfon of the Deity, who accepted 
of this delegation, and was therein revealed to tlie church, 
as he who was to take upon him the feed of Abraham, and 
to be their eternal Redeemer. 

§ 8. Jofh. V. 13 — 15. * And it came to pafs,* &c. 
The appearance here is of a man» a man of war, as God is 
called, [Exod. xv. 3.] armed with his fword drawn ia 
his hand, as a token of the bulinefs he came about. At 
flrft fight Jofhua apprehends him to be a man only^ which 
occafioned his inquiry, Art thou for us, or for our adver-* 
faries ? which difcovers his courage and undaunted mag- 
nanimity ; for doubtlefs the appearance was augujl and glo* 
rious. But he anfwers to this whole queftion, («^) / am 
not ; that is, not a man either of your party, or of the 
enemy's, but quite another perfon, ' the prince of the 

• hoft of the Lord.' And this was another illuftrious 
manifeftation of the Son of God to the church of old, ac- 
jcompanied with many inftrudlive circumflances. As 

1. From the form wherein he appeared, namely, of a 
»f««, as a pledge of his future incarnation. 

2. The title that he aflumes to himfelf, * the Captain of 
' the Lord of hofts,' he to whom the guidance and condu6t 
of them to reft, not only temporal, but eternal, was com- 
mitted ; whence the apoftle, in alluiion to this place and 
title, calls him * the Captain of our Salvation/ [Heb. ii. 
10.] and 

3. The perfon to whom he fpake, when he gave him-? 
felf this title, was the * captain of the people,' at that 

Vol. I, Y time, 


time, teaching both him and them that there was another 
fup^cmc captain of their eternal deliverance. 

4. From the time and place of his appearance, which 
was upon the firft entrance of the people to Canaan, and 
the firft oppofition they met with ; fo engaging his pre- 
fence with the church in all things which oppole them in 
their way to eternal reft. 

5. From the adoration and worfhip which Jofhua gave 
him, which he accepted of, contrary to the duty and 
praflice of created angels, [Rev. xix. 10. and xxii. 8, 9.] 

6. From the prefcriptlon of the ceremonies expreffing reli- 
gious reverence, * put off thy fhoes,' w^ith the reafon an- 
nexed, * for the place whereon thou ftandeft («nrT u^np) it 
is hoUnefs, made fo by the prefence of God ; a precept 
limilar to that given to Mofes by the God of Abra- 
ham, Ifaac, and Jacob, [Exod. iii. 5.] — By all thefe 
things was the church inftrufted in the perfon, nature, 
and office of the Son of God ; even in the myftery of his 
eternal diftin£t fubfiftence in the Deity, his future incarna- 
tion and condefceniion to the office of being the head, and 
Saviour of his church. 

Thefe manifeftations of the Son of God to the chiarch 
of old, as the angel or meftenger of the Father, fublifting 
in his own Divine perfon, are all of them revelations of 
the promifed feed, the great and only Saviour and Deli- 
verer of the church in his eternal pre-exiftence, and 
pledges of his future incarnation, for the accomplifhment 
of the whole work committed to him. And many other 
inftances of the like nature may be added out of the for- 
mer and latter prophets, which, becaufe in moft impor- 
tant circumftances they are coincident with thefe, need 
Dot here particularly be infifted on. 

§ 9. One fignal inftance of the Jewifh mafters' appre- 
henfions, concerning the Divine appearances, as an evi- 
dence of the truth infifted on, Ihall be here related in the 
words of Moses Nechmanides Gerundensis, on 
Exod. xxiii. His words run thus : *' This angel, if we 
fpeak exa£lly, is the angel the Redeemer^ concerning whom 
it is written, my name, is in him^ [Exod. x:;iii. 21.] that 


fexER. «. SON OF GOP, &c* 3^1 

angel, I fay, who faid to Jacob, I am the God of Bethel, 
[Gen. xxxi. 13.] He, of whom it is faid, And God 
called to Mofes out of the bufti, [Exod. iii. 4.] And he 
is called an angel, becaufe he governeth the world. For 
it is written, [Deut. vi. 21.] The Lord our God brought 
us out of Egypt; and elfewhere, [Numb. xx. 16.] He 
fent his angel, and brought us out of Egypt. Moreover, 
it is written, [I fa. Ixiii. 9.] And the migel of his face 
(prcfence) faved them, namely, that angel who is the face 
of God ; of whom it is faid, [Exod. xxxiii. 14.] My face 
Ihall go before thee, and I will caufe thee to rell. Laflly, 
it is that angel of whom the prophet fpeaks, [Mai. iii, 
I.] And the Lord, whom ye feek, Ihall fuddenly ' come 

* to his temple ; the angel of the covenant, whom ye de- 

* light in.' His following words are to the fame purpofe : 
Mark diligently what is the meaning of thefe words, * My 
^face fhall go before thee.' For Mofes and the Ifraelites al- 
ways deiired the chief angel ; but who that was, they could 
not truely underfland ; for, neither could they learn of 
any others, nor obtain it by prophecy. But the face of 
Cod iiguifieth God himfelf\ as all interpreters acknow- 
ledge. But no man can have the leaft knowledge hereof, * 
except he be fkilled in the myfteries of the law." He 
adds, moreover, " My face fliall go before thee ; that is, 
the angel of the covenant, whom ye defire ; in whom my 
face fhall be feen ; of whom it is faid, in an acceptable 
time have 1 heard thee ; my name is iti him ; I will caufe 
thee to reft ; or caufe that he fhall be gentle and kind to 
thee ; nor fhall lead thee with rigour, but quietly and 
mercifully.'' — This R. Moses ear Nachman wrote 
about the year 1220, in Spain, and died at Jerufalem 
1260, and is one of the chief mafters of the Jews. There 
are many filings occurring in his writings, beyond the 
common rate of their prefcnt apprehenfions ; and in the 
places above cited, he plainly everts one of the principal 
foundations of their prefent infidelity. For he not only 
grants, but contends and proves, that the angel fpoken 
of was God, and being fent of God, as his angel, he mufl 
be a d'ljl'mn pcrfon in the Deity, as we have proved. The 

Y a rcafon, 


rcafoh, indeed, he fixeth on, why he is called an angel-^* 
becaufe he governeth the world — though true in itfelf, is 
not fo proper. For he is fo called, becaufe of his eternaL 
defignation, and actual delegation by the Father, to the 
work of faving the church, in all conditions, from iirll to 
jaft. And as he acknovvledgeth, that his being called 
the face of God^ proves ^im to be Gody fo it doth no lefs 
evidently evince his perfonal diftin£lion from him whofe 
face he is ; that is, * the brightnefs of his glory and the 
*'exprefs image of his perfon.* And what he adds of the 
tticfcy and benignity which, by the appointment of God, 
lie exercifeth towards his people, is remarkably fuitablc to 
the tendernefs and mercy which the great Captain of our 
falvation exercifeth, by God*s appointment, towards all 
thofe whom he leads and conduds to glory. 



I . Hhe fate and expe^ations of the Jews at the h'lrth ef 
Chr'ifl. § 2. The faith of their forefathers lofl among 
them. § 3. T^he reafon why the true Mejfah was reje^ed 
hy them. § 4: 7'heir fate after this. § 5. The things 
concerning the Mejfiah myfterious ; yet feeming inconffencies 
reconciled in the gofpel. § 6. The notion of the Jews ah^ut 
two Mcffahs. Mejpah Ben Jofeph. § 7. Mejftah Ben 
David. The faith and expe stations of the Jews concerning 
him. % 8. Their perplexity about the time of their coming. 
§ 9. u^' defcription of him and his kingdom^ out of Maimo- 
r.ides. § 10. Ground and reafon of their prefent i^ils- 
lief. I . Ignorance of their mijer able fate by nature. § 1 1 • 
2. Ignorance of acceptahie righteoufnefs, and of the judgC'^ 
ment of God concerning fm, § 12. 3. Of the nature 


and end of the law, § 13, 4. Carnal affcnlojis, § 14. 
5. Their envy agamjl the Gentiles, which is increajed by 
their oppreJJIons. § 15. Conclujion, 

§ I. W E \\2iWQ proved the promife of a pnfon to be 
born, and anointed to the work of relieving mankind 
from (in and mifery, and to bring them back to God. 
And what kind of perfon he was to be, we have alfo 
ihewed. It now remains, that we confider the faith of 
the Jews concerning him. That the minds of men were 
intently fixed on the coming of the Messiah, the laft of 
the prophets clearly teflifies, [Mai. iii. i.] * The Lord, 

* whom ye feek ; the angel of the covenant, whom you are 

* deiiring, fliall come fuddenly.' As the time of his 
coming drew nigh, this e.xpei:Jation was increafed and 
heightened ; fo that they continually looked out after 
him, as if he were to enter among them every moment. 
No fooner did any one make an appearance of fomething 
extraordinary, but inftantly they were ready to fay, Is not 
this the Messiah ? This gave advantage to various im- 
poflors, as Theudasy and Judas of Galilee, to deceive many 
to their ruin. Yea, the Jews had divulged fuch report 
of their expcilations, with the predictions and prophecies 
they were built upon, that the whole world took notice 
of it. This was the flate of the Jewilh church, not long 
before the deftrudion of the fecond temple. And fo 
fixed they were in their opinion, tiiat he was to come 
about that feafon, that during the laft defolating fiege of 
the city, they looked every day when he would come and 
fave them. 

§ 2. But, together with this carneft expe£^ation and 
defire, tliey had utterly loji the Jight ayid faith of their fore- 
fathers about the nature, work, and office of the pro- 
mifed Messiah. For, being grown carnal, and mind-» 
ing only things earthly and prefent, they utterly over- 
looked the fpiritual genealogy of the * {^td of the woman,' 
from the firft promife ; and wrefting all predictions to 
their ambitious, covetous, corrupt inclinations and ia- 



terefts> they fancied him to themfelves, as one that was 
to dehver them from outward troubles, and to fatisfy them 
with the glory and defirable things of this world, without 
refpe£l to Jin ^ or the curfe^ or deliverance from them* 
And hence the Sadduces, who denied the immortality of 
the foul, and confeciuently all rewards and punifhments 
in another world ; yet no lefs dejircd the coming of the 
Meiliah, than the Pharifees and their difciples. And the 
truth is, they had brought their principles to a better con- 
liflency than the others had done. For if the promifed 
Melliah was only to procure them the good things of th'n 
ivorld, and whilll: they lived in it^ it was in vain to look 
for another world to come, and the blelTings thereof* To 
look for eternal lifc^ and yet to confine the promife of the 
feed to the things of this life only, there was neither folid 
ground, nor colourable realon. So that the Pharifees laid 
down the principle, and the Sadduces naturally drew their 
eonclulion from it. Some, in the mean time, among 
them, God's favoured fecret ones, as Simeon, Anna, Jo- 
feph, Zecharia, and Elizabeth ; but efpecially the blefied 
Virgin, with many more, retained, no doubt, the ancient 
faith of their forefathers. But the body of the people, with 
their leaders, being either fiagit'ioufly wicked, or fuperjli^ 
tioujly proud, fancied a Meffiah fuited to their own lulls and 
deiires. And this prejudicate opinion of a terrene, out- 
ward, glorious kingdom, was that which — working in 
them a neg1e£l of thofe fpiritual and eternal purpofes for 
which he was promifed — hardened them to aji utter rejec- 
tion of the true Melliah when he came to them. 

§ 3. That this was the ground on which they reje£ted 
the promifed Meffiah, is evident from the ftory of the 
gofpel. But after they had done this, and murdered the 
Prince of Life, to juftify themfelves in their wickednefs 
ajid unbelief, they fliil with all earneftnefs looked after 
fuch a MefTiah as they had framed in their own imagina- 
tion : and herein they grew more earnell and furious 
than ever ; for they had not only their own falfe pre-con- 
ceived opinion llrengthened by their carnal interefts and 
defire of earthly things to adluate them, but alfo their 



reputation and pretence to the love and favour of God, 
to heighten them in their prefumptions. For this is the 
force of pride and carnal wifdom, to purfue thofe mif- 
carriages v^ith violence wherein they had been wickedly- 
engaged, and to lay hold on any pretence that may feem 
to juflify them in what they have done ; and on this ac- 
count they expofed themfelves as a prey to every feducer, 
who made the leail appearance of being fuch a MefTiah as 
they thought fit to receive. This at lail drove tliem to a 
fecond fhipwreck in the bufinefs of Barchocheba, who, 
pretending himfelf to be their MefTiah lent to dcHver them 
from the Roman yoke, and to fet up a kingdom amongft 
them,^^ drew them all the world over into that fedition, 
outrage, and war, which ended in an almofl univerfal ex- 
tirpation of them from the face of the earth. 

§ 4. From this time forward the remaining Jews, with 
their pofterity, utterly reje£led the faith of their father 
Abraham, and the reft of their progenitors, who thereby- 
obtained a good report^ * that they pleafed God.* A Mef- 
liah promifed to Adam, the common father of us all, oiic 
that fhould be 2l fpirUual Redeemer from fin and mifery, % 
QoeU or redeemer from death and wrath, a peace-maker 
between God and man ; one that fhould work out ever- 
lajllng fahation^ the great blefling in which all the nations 
of the earth were to have an intereft, 2i fph'iUial and eter- 
nal prophet, prieft, and king, God and man in one per- 
fon ; they neither looked for any more, nor defired. A 
temporal king and deliverer, promifed to themfelves alone^ 
to give them eafe, dominion, wealth, and power, they 
would now have, or none at all. They would not think 
it thankworthy towards God himfelf to fend them a Mef- 
liah to deliver them from fin. 

§5. Our apoftle tells us, [I.Tim, iii. x6.] ' That 

* without controverfy, great is tlie m^Jlery of godl'inefs^ God 

* was manifefled in the ilefh, juftified in the fpirit, feen 

* of angels, preached to the Gentiles, believed on in the 

* world, received up into glory.* All things which con-r 

.^ Vid. Tahn. Traa. Saned. Dift. Cheleck, 

2 cern 


cerii the Messiah, his perfon, office, and work, are ex- 
ceedingly myflerlous, as containing the principal efFe£l of 
the wifdom and goodnefs of God, and the facrcd depths 
ofthecounfel of his wilh Hence the things fpoken of in 
the Old Teflament are to carnal reafon ftill of fceming 
inconiiftencies ; as for inftance, it is promifed of him, 
that he fhould be the feed of the zuoma?i, [Gen. iii. 15.] 
of the feed of Jbraham, [Gen. xxii. 18.] and of the />o/?<f- 
rity of David \ and yet that his name Ihould be, the 
MIGHTY God, the everlasting Father, the 
Prince of peace, [Ifa. ix. 6.] and of him it is faid, 

* Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever,' [Pfal. xlv. 
6.] and that he is the ' Lord our righteoufnefs,' [Jer. 
xxiii. 6.] and that he is the ' Lord of holls,' [Zech. ii. 
8.] Moreover it is declared, that he fhall ' iit upon his 

* throne for ever,' and * reign, whilft his enemies are 

* made his footilool,' [Ifa. ix. 7. Pfalm ii. 7, 8. xlv. 6, 
7.] and yet, that he fhall be cut off, [Dan. ix. 26.] that 
he fhali be * pierced in his hands and feet,' [Pfalm xxii. 
16.] ^ fMin by the fword of God,* [Zech. xiii. 7.] and 
that ' in his death he jhaU have his grave made among the 

* wicked,* [Ifa. hii. 9.] Alfo, that he « fliall come with 

* great glory, and on the clouds of heaven^ j^Dan. vii. 13, 
14.] and that he * flaall come lowly , riding on an afs, 

* and a colt the foal of an afs,' [Zech. ix. 9.] That the. 
'^ foul of the Lord was well pleafed with him, and always 

* delighted in him,' [Ifa. xliii. i.] and yet that it * plea- 

* re4 him to bruife him, and put him to grief, [Ifa. liii. 
10.] * to foriake him,' [Pfal. xxii. i.] That he was to 
be a * king and prieft updn his throne,' [Zech. vi. 13,] 
and yet th'efe things were literally coniiileiit, the kingdom 
being annexed to the family of David, and the priefl- 
hood to the pofterity of Aaron, by divine conilitution ; 
that he fhould be honoured and worfhipped of all na- 
tions, [Pfalm xlv. II, 12. Ixxii. 10, Ji, 15.] and yet 
that he ihould be rejefted and defpifcd as one altogether 
tindcfirable, [Ifa. liii. 3.] That he * fhould lland and 

* feed, or rule in the name and majefly of God,' [Mic. 
Y. 4.] and ye^ complaiiis, * I am a worm, ancj no man, 

« a re- 


* a reproach of men, and defpifed of the people,' [Pfalm 
xxii. 6.] All which, with fundry others of the like na- 
ture concerning his office and work, are clearly reconciled 
in the New TcJJament, and their concurrence in the perfon 
of our Lord Jefus Chrift openly and fully declared. 

At the time of his coming, the Jews were generally as 
ignorant of thefe things as Nicodemus was of regeneration ; 
they knew not how they could be. And therefore when- 
ever our Saviour intimated to them his divine nature, thev 
were filled with rage and madnefs, [John viii. 58, 59.] 
They would flone him, becaufe, being a man, he declared 
himfelf to be God, [John x. 30, 31, 33.] and yet, when 
he proved it to them that the Messiah was to be fo, (in- 
afmuch as, being David's fon, David in the fpirit called 
him Lord) they were confounded, not being able to 
anfwer him a word. [Matt. Xxii. 42 — 46.] When he 
told them that the Son of Man, the Messiah, muft be 
'lifted up, that is, in his death on the crofs, they objedled 
to him out of the law, that ' Chrifl: abideth for ever,* 
[John xii. 34.] and they knew not how to reconcile thefe 
things. Hence Ibme of his own difciples thought he 
could not be the MeiTiah, when they faw that he died, 
[Luke xxiv. 20, 21.] and the befl of them feem to have 
(expe'£led an outward temporal kingdom. But of all thefe 
difficulties and fceming inconliftencies, there is a bleffed 
rcconciU-ation revealed in the gofpel, and an application 
hiade of them to the perfon of the Lord Jefus, the office 
he bore, and the work that he accomplifhed. 

§ 6. Whereas the fcripture hath declared to us fuch a 
Meiliah, as fhould have the natures of God and man in 
one perfon, wliich perfon fhould in the nature of man 
fuffer and die, and reign for fpiritual ends and purpofes ; 
they have rejeded the divine nature of this perfon, and 
fplit that which remalneth into tzvo perfons — to the one 
they affigned one part of his work, as to fiffer and die ; 
to the other, another part, to conquer and reign according 
to their carnal apprehenfions of thefe things — they have, 
I fay, feigned tzvo Afejpahs, between whom they have dif- 
tributed the whole work of him who is promifed, accor- 

Vo L.I. Z dmz 


ding to their grofs conception of it. And one of thefe h 
to come, they fay, before the other, to prepare his way 
for him. This firfl they call Mefliah Ben Joseph, be- 
caufe he is to be of the trilfe of Ephraim ; the other Mef- 
fiah, Ben David. And they dream, that one Armil- 
Lus Ihall conquer many nations, fight againft Jerufalem, 
Hay Melliah Ben Joseph, and afterwards be confumed 
with fire from heaven, through the power of Ben Da-^ 
viD* And this fhall be the end of Mefliah Ben Joseph, 
or Ephraim. — Thus do they at their pleafure difpofe of 
this creature of their own ; for having framed him them* 
felves, he is their own to do with him what they pleafe, 
alive or dead. 

We need ndt flay long in the removal of this Mormo 
out of our way ; fhould they invent twenty other Mef- 
fiahs, as they have done this, and which, on the fame 
grounds, and with as good authority, they may, the cafe 
would flill be the fame. Who gave them power to fub- 
ftitute tbemfelves in the place of God, to give new promifes, 
to appoint ncvj Saviours, and to invent new ways of deli- 
verance ? The fcripture is utterly filent of any fuch per- 
fon, nor have they any Antetalmudical tradition concerning 
him. And what their mailers have invented in the 'TaU 
muds, is of no more authority than what they coin every 
day themfelves ; the truth is, this whole ilory of Armil- 
LUS and Ben Joseph is a I'almiidical romance \ the one 
the giant, and the other the knight. But thefe fictions 
feria ducunt. Poor creatures are hardened by them, to 
their eternal deftru^lion. But is the world bound to be- 
lieve what every one, whom they are pleafed to call Rabbit 
can imagine, though never fo contrary to the principles 
of that religion, which themfelves pretend to own and 
proftfs ? So, indeed, fome of them feem to fay ; for 
they fcruple not to afTert, that if their mailers teach the 
** right hand to be the left \^ yea, '* heaven to be hell^'* yet 
their authority is not to be queflioned. But God, I hope, 
of his great goodnefs, will not fuffer poor mankind to be 
always fo deluded. All the promifes of God, all the pro- 
phecies from the foundatiou of tiie world, concern only 


one MeJJlah^ of the feed of Abraham, of the tribe of Ja- 
dah, and of the family of David. All the faith of the 
church of old, as we have proved, refpefted that one only. 
And v^ho will lay any weight upon what is fpokcn, or 
promifed, concerning him, if the Jews have power to 
invent another at their pleafure ? 

Again, their maflers have not only dealt difhoneftly and 
blafphemoufly, but foolijhly alfo in this matter, in that 
they have not fuited their own creature to the ends for which 
they had made him. The end, as was fhewed before, 
why they advanced this imagination, was, to give conti- 
nuance to what is fpoken in fcripture, or retained by 
themfelves in tradition, concerning the fufferings of the 
Melfiah. And it is fomewhat llrange to me, that having 
railed tip this Ben Joseph, they did not ufe him worfc 
than th 7 have done ; but by a fooliih pity have fpoilcd 
their own whole delign. They have a tradition among 
themfelves, that the Meffiah muft " bear a th'ird -part of the 
afflidions, or perfections, that ever were, or fhall be in 
the world." And what proportion doth a man's being 
Jla'in in battle^ where his army is victorious (which is all 
the hardihip this Ben Joseph is to meet with) bear to the 
affli£tions which befell the church in every age ? And it 
is mere loft labour, to compare the death of this warrior 
with what is delivered in fcripture, concerning the Mef- 
fiah. Every one, not judicially blinded, muft needs fee, 
that there is no affinity between them. 

The fifty-third chapter of Ifaiah is acknowledged by 
the Targum^ and fundry of the principal mafters of their 
faith, to be a prophecy concerning Him. Now, the per- 
fon there fpoken of, is one whom the Jews are to reje^ 
and defpife, whom God is to affiift and bruife, bv cauling 
the *' lins of the whole church to meet upon him." One, 
who by his fufFerings, is to fulfil the pleafure of the Lord, 
making his foul an offering for fin, juftifying the eled, 
and conquering Satan by his death. On the contrary, 
their fiftitlous Meffiah is to be honoured of all the Jews, to 
raife arms to fight a battle, and therein, after the manner 
of other men, to he flain. So that a ftory was never 

Z 2 worfc 


worfe told, nor to lefs purpofe. No other ufe can be 
made of it, that I know of, but only to confider in it the 
bliydnefs of poor obflinate iinners given up to hard- 
nefs of heart, and a fpirit of folly, for the rejeftion of him, 
whom God fealed, anointed^ and fent to be the Saviour of 
the world. Leaving him, therefore, in the embraces of 
this cloud, we may, 

§ 7. Confider the other expeded Messiah, whom 
they cal] Ben David, in whom principally they place 
their con:&dence. Firft, therefore, they contend, that he 
ihall be a mere man ; and there is nothing that they ftrive 
to avoid more than the teftimonies of fcripture, which 
iliew that the promifed Melfiah was to be God and man in 
one perfon. They contend alfo, that he fhall be born 
after the manner of all other men. About the place of his 
birth they are not fully agreed ; for although they all ac^ 
knowledge the prophecy of Micah, about Bethlehem^ to 
relate to him, [Mic. v. 2.] yet knowing that town now 
to have been defolate for many generations, and wafte 
without inhabitants (which would feem to prove that he rs 
come already) they contend, that it is faid he fhall be born 
at Bethlehem ; becaufe he is to fpring of David, who was 
born there ; for of the tribe of Judah, and family of Dar 
vid, he mufl proceed ; although they have neither diftinc- 
tion of tribes, nor fucceiiion of families, left ii^ the vvorld 
amongft them ! To relieve themfelves from that diffi- 
culty, they feign that he fhall reflore to them all their ge^ 

§ 8. About the time of his coming they are woefully 
perplexed. But many tokens they have of it, when it doth 
come ; for they heap up, out of feme allegorical palTages 
in the fcripture, fuch llupendous prodigies, as never 
were, nor fhall be in the world. One of the principal of 
them is * the founding of the great trumpet, which all 
* Ifrael fhall hear, and the world tremble at,' [from Ifa. 
xxvii. 13.] To this they add the ** finding of the ark and 
Jacred fire.^"* His office^ when he comes, is to be a k'lng^ 
to which he fhall be anointed by them, when they are ga- 
thered together. And the work he is to do, js — m war, 



to fight with Armillus, Gog, and Magog, to conquer 
the Edomites and Ifhmaelites ; that is, the Romifh Chrif- 
tians, and Turks or Saracens ; and in \'q doing, to ercd: 
a glorious kingdom at Jerulalem. — In peace he is to rule 
righteoufly, not only over IlraeJ, but alfo all the nations 
of the world ; who, if they have any diflerence amonglt 
them, Ihail refer all to his determination and umpiraf^c. — - 
Jn religion, he fhall build the third temple, mentioned by 
Ezekief ; reflore the facrifices, and caufe the law of Mofes 
to be moft llriftly obferved. But that which is the head 
of all, he fhall free the Jews from their captivity, reflore 
them to their own land, make princes and lords of them 
all, giving them the wealth of all nations, cither con- 
quered by him, or brought voluntarily to him ; feafl 
them on Behemoth, Zls, and the wine of paradife ; fo that 
they fhall fee want and poverty no more. 

This is the fubftance of their perfuafion, concerning 
his coming, perfon, office, and work. Jfljcn he ihall 
jcorae, whether he fhall live always, or die at an hundred 
years old ; whether he fhall have children, and if he have, 
whether they fhall fucceed him in his throne j whether 
the Jews that are dead, fhall rife at his coming, and their 
galgal, ox rolling in the earth, from all parts of the world, 
into the land of Canaan, fliall then happen or no ; whe- 
ther the general refurreilion Ihall not fucceed then im- 
mediately upon his reign, or at leall: within y^r/y years 
after ; or how long it will be to tlie end of the world, they 
are not at all agreed. But this is the fubflance of their 
perfuafion and expectation ; that he fliall be a mere man — 
that the deliverance which he fhall efFeft, Ihall be tnighty 
^ars, wlierein the Jews fhall be always victorious — and 
that, in the dominion and rule which they fliall have over 
all nations, the third temple fliall be built, the law of Mo- 
fes be obferved by him and them, and the Noachical pre- 
cepts be impofed on all others. As for any fpiritual faU 
nation from fin and the curfe of the law, of juftification 
and righteoufnefs by him, or the procurement of grace 
and ghji they utterly rejc6t all thoughts about them. 

§ 9. 


§ 9. With thefe opinions, many of them have mixeJ 
prodigious fancies^ rendering their eflate under the Mef- 
liah in this world not much inferior to that which Ma- 
homet hath promifed to his followers in another. And 
ibme of them, on the other hand, endeavour to pare ofF 
what fuperfluities they can fpare, and to render their 
folly as plaufibie as they are able. Wherefore, that it 
may appear what is the utmoji height of their conceptions in 
this matter, and v^hat the moll contemplative perfons 
amongft them fix upon, I fubjoin a defcription of him 
and his kingdom^ in the words of Maimonides, one of 
the wifeft and fobereft perfons that hath been amongft 
them, fince their laft fatal difperiion. Obfervi ng the fond 
and frivolous imaginations of their Talmudical mailers^ 
about the Mefliah, he gives many rules and inftructions 
about the right underflanding of their fayings, to free 
them from open impieties and contradi£lions ; to which 
he fubjoins, as he fuppofeth, the true notion of the Mes- 
siah and his kingdom, in the enfuing words: " As the 
days of the Meffiah, they are the time when the king- 
dom fhall be reftored to Ifrael, and they fhall return to 
Pakfi'me, And this king fhall be potent, the metropolis 
of whofe kingdom fliall be Sion ; and his name fhall be 
famous to the uttermoll: parts of the earth. He fhall be 
greater than Solomon, and with him fhall the nations 
make peace, and yield him obedience, becaufe of his juf- 
tice, and the miracles that he fhall perform. If any one 
fhall rife againft him, God fhall give him up into his 
hand to be deflroyed. All the fcripture declares his hap- 
pinefs, and the happinefs we fhall have by him. How- 
beit, nothing in the nature of things fhall be changed, 
only Ifrael fhall have the kingdom ; for fo our wife men 
fay exprefHy, There is no difterence between thefe days 
and the days of the Mefliah ; but only the fubduing the 
nations under us.'* So, indeed, fays R. Sai\!Uel, and 
fome others of them.^ — But he goes on, *' In thofe days 
vi6^uals fhall be had at an eafy rate, as if the earth brought 
forth cates and clothes." And afterwards ; *' The Mef- 
liah fhall die, and his fon^ and his fon's fon, fliall reign 

a after 


after him ; but his kingdom lliall endure long, and men 
Ihall live long in thole days ; lb that fome think his king- 
dom fhall continue a thoufand years. But the days of the 
Mefliah are not fo much to be delired, that we may have 
lloreofcorn and wealth, ride on horfcs, and drink wine 
with mufic ; but for the fociety and convcrlation of good 
men, the knowledge and righteoufnefs of the king, and 
that then, without wearifomnefs, trouble, or conllraint, 
the whole law of Mofes fhall be obfcrved."* 

This is the fum of the creed of the mo/i fobcr part of 
the Jews, concerning the Mefliah, whom they look and 
long for ; for the fame author tells us, that there were 
very few fo minded ; generally they look after nothing but 
dominion, wealth, and pleafure. But all of them own him 
a temporal k'lng^ a mighty warrior, fubduing the nations 
to the Jews ; a furious Camillus, or an Alexander, or 
a C^SAR ; of redemption from fin, death, and hell ; of 
pardon of fin, juftification, and righteoufnefs; o{ eternal 
falvation by him, they know nothing, they believe no- 
thing. Maimonides thinks, indeed, that his kingdom 
fhall long continue ; not like Manas se of late, who fup- 
pofeth, that it might not abide above forty ycars^ and 
thofe immediately preceding the day of judgement.—— 
When he comes ^ let them make their bell of him ; wc 
have already received the * Captain of our Salvation.^ 

§ 10. But what feduced them into thefe lovj^ carnal^ 
and earthly imaginations ? 

I . Ignorance of their mferahle condition hy nature, both as 
to fin and w^rath, juflly claims tlie firft place. The Mef- 
fiah, as we proved at large, was firfl piomifed to relieve 
mankind from that ftate, whereinto they were cafi: by the 
apoltacy of Adam, the common root and parent of them 
all. Such as are men's apprehenfions of that condition ; 
fuch alfo will be their thoughts concerning the Mefliah, 
who was promifed to be a deliverer from it. They who 
know themfelves to be caft out of the favour of God, by 
fin, made obnoxious to his eternal difpleafure, and difabled 

* Maimon, in Tra<5t, Saned. Cap. x. 


to do any thing that fhall pleafe liim" (as being caft into a 
ftatc of uriiverfal enmity againfl him) muft needs look on 
the Meffiah, proinifed through the grace, goodnefs, and 
wifdom of God, to be one that muft, by fuitable ways 
and means, free them from iin and v)rath ; procure for 
them the favour of God ; enable them to ferve him again 
acceptably, and fo bring them at length to therr thief end^ 
the everlalling enjoyment of himfelf. Upon the matter, 
the Jews know no mifery, but what conliits in poverty^ 
captivity, and want of rule and dominion'. And what 
Ihould a Jpiritual Redeemer do to thefe meii } What 
heauty and comelinefs can he have, for which he fhould 
be delired ? 

^ II. 2. Ignorance of the righteoufnefs of God, both as 
to what he requireth, that a man may be juflified before 
him, and of his judgement concerning the defert of iin", 
hath the fame effeft upon them, [Rom. :3t. 3, 4.] The great 
end for which the Meffiah was promifed, as we have in 
part declared, and fhall afterwards be farther evinced, was 
to make * atonement for lin,* and bring \\\ an ^ ever- 

* lafling righteoufnefs,' [Dan. ix. 24.] A righteouf- 
nefs was to be brought in, that might anfwer the juftice 
of God, and abide its trial. There is not any thing that 
more openly difcovers the miferable blindnefs of the pre- 
fent Jews, than the coniideration of what they inlifl upon 
as their righteoufnefs before God. The faith and obe- 
dience oi x\\€\x forefathers, the privilege of circumcifion, fomc 
outward obfervances o^AIofalcal precepts, with anxious fcru- 
pulous abftinences, felf maceration, prayers by tale and nurn-- 
her, and the like bodily exercifes, are the fum of what 
they plead for thenlfclves. Now, if thefe things, which 
are abfolutely in "their o\Vn power, will make up a 
righteoufnefs acceptable to God, cover all the lins whereof 
they knovNT themfelves to be guilty, to what end fhould 
they look for a Redeemer^ ' to bring in everlafting righteouf 

* nefs,'' or make atonement for iin ? Why ihould they look 
out for a relief in this cafe, feeing they have enough at 
home to ferve their turns ? Let them that are ' weary 

* and heavy leaden' feck after facli a Deliverer ; they have 



no need of him, or his falvation. According, therefore, 
as this building o'i felf-righteoufncfs went on and profpercd 
amongfl: them, faith in the Mcfllah, as to the true ends 
for which he was promifed, decayed every day more and 
more, until at length it was utterly loft. For, as our 
apoflle tells them, * if righteoufnefs were by the law, the 
* promifc of the Melliah was to no purpofe ;' and if the 
law made things perfetl^ the bringing in of another pricft- 
hood and facrifice was altogether needlefs. 

As to their judgement of God, concerning the defert 
of (in ; — their afflitl'ions and perfccutions, the death of 
their children, and their own death, efpecially if it be of 
a painful dijlemper, they fuppofe will make a fufficient pro- 
pitiation for all their fins. Such mean thoughts have they 
of the majefty, holinefs, and terror of the Lord ! Of 
late alfo, left there fhould be a failure on any account, 
they have found out an invention to give their lins to the 
Devil, by the facrifice of a cock, the manner of which is 
defcribed at large by Buxtorf.* Let the Meffiah pro- 
vide well for them in this world, and they will look well 
enough to themfelves, as to that which is to come. 

§ 12. 3. And hence arifeth alfo their igncrancc of the 
whole nature, ufe, and end of the Mofaical law, which alfo 
contributes much to the producing of the fame elFe£l upon 
them. They look upon the law and their obfervance of 
it, as the only means of obtaining righteoufnefs, and 
making atonement with God ; fo they did of old, [Rom. 
ix. 32 — 34.] In the obfervance of its precepts, they 
place all their righteoufnefs before God, and by the fa- 
crifices of it, they look for the atonement of all their fins. 
But, if righteoufnefs may be obtained, and atonement 
made without him, to what end ferves t!ie promfe con- 
cerning him ? The truth is, having thus taken from 
him the whole office and work to which he was de- 
figned of God, and that he might not be thought altoge- 
ther ufelefs, they have cut out for him the work and 
employment before-mentioned. For looking on righteouf- 

* Vid. BuxTORF. Synagog, Judaic, Cap. :>;j:. 
Vol. L A a nefs 


nefs and atonement, with the confequent of them, eter- 
nal faivation, as the proper efFedls of the law, they thought 
meet to leave to their Meffiah the work of procuring to 
them liberty, wealth, and dominion, which they found 
by experience the law was' not able to do. But, in- 
deed, had their eyes been opened in the knowledge of 
God and themfelves, they would have found the law no 
lefs infufficient to procure, by itfelf^ an heavenly^ than an 
earthly kingdom for them. 

But here, by the way, fome may poffibly inquire, how 
the Jews, if they look for atonement and the remillion of 
lins> by the facrifices of the law, can expeft to have their 
prefent iins pardoned, without which they cannot be eter- 
nally faved, feeing they are confejfcdly dejiltute of all legal 
facrifices whatever ? Have they found out fome other 
way, or do they utterly give over fceking after faivation ? 
This very qucfiion being put to one of them, he anfwers, 
*' That they now obtain the pardon of their iins by repen- 
tance and amendment of I'lfe^ according to the promifes 
rnade in the prophets to that purpofe ;" and concludes, 
*' Although there are now no facrifices, w^hich were a 
means (tanto facUiusJ the more eajily to obtain the forgive- 
nefs of fins, yet it may be obtained by repentance^ and a 
departure from evil ways." This is their hope, which, like 
that of the hypocrite, is as the giving up of the ghofl. 

(i.) Though repentance and amendment of life are re- 
quired in them who feek after the forgivenefs of their fins, 
and many promifes are made to them ; yet, is this all that 
God required, that fin might be forgiven ? They are 
fufficient, indeed, in their o%vn placc^ but are they fo ab- 
foluicly alfo ? Did not God, moreover, require and ap- 
point, that they lliould make ufe oi facrifices^ to make 
atonement for fin, without which it fliould not be done 
away? [See Lev. xvi.] And 

(2.) What is the meaning of that plea, that by facri- 
fices, indeed, remifiion of fins might be *' more eafly^ 
obtained, but an avowal that it may be obtained without 
them • Doth this, *' more eafilf refpe<Et God, or man ? 



If they fay it refpcfts God, I defire to know, if he can 
pardon fin without facrifices, why he cannot do it as eajlly 
as with them ? or what is he cafcd oi by facrifices ? If it 
refpeds themfclvcs, as indeed it doth, then it may be in- 
quired, what it is that they fhall be eafed of, in their ob- 
taining the pardon of fins by the ufe of facrifices, when 
again rellorcd to them ? Surely the prefent inconvenience 
of which they hope to be eafed, can be nothing but that 
which they now are forced to make ufe of, for that end 
and purpofe — repentance and amendment of life. If, then, 
they had their facrifices, the former might be fpared, or 
at leaft much might be abated of what, at prefent, is ne- 
cefTary. This, then, it feems, was the end why God in- 
Hituted facrifices — that thefe Jews might obtain pardon 
of fins without either repentance or amendment ! And this 
is that which they love as their fouls ; namely, that they 
may live in their fins, and be acquitted of all danger, by 
facrifices and outward fervices. But 

(3.) Atonement for fm is exprelTly neceffary, or elfe all 
the inflitutions o{ facrifices, for that end, were vain and 
ludicrous ; and, therefore, notwithflanding their pre- 
tence of repentance (which was always required) no Jew 
can, upon his own principles, now in the total cefTation 
of all facrifices, obtain either pardon of fin here, or fal- 
vation hereafter. But to proceed ; 

§ 13. 4. Their corrupt carnal affcBions have, more- 
over, greatly contributed to their obftinacy in their un- 
belief. Hence they have coined their felf-pleafing ima- 
ginations concerning the Mefliah, and the work that he 
hath to do. Wealth, eafe, liberty, dominion, or a fhare 
in power and rule, are the things that pleafc their carnal 
minds. But whilft they are obflinatefy fixed in the expec- 
tation of fuch things, to tell them of a fpiritual and hea- 
z'cnly kingdom, wherein the poorefl and mofl perfecuted 
perfon on the earth may have as good an interefl, and enjoy 
as much benefit by it, as the greatefl monarch in the 
world, and you do but cafl away your words into the 

A a 2 Sir.cq 


Since the propagation of the gofpel, and the fuccefs of 
it in the world, cnx;)\ another corrupt lull, againft the 
Gentile believers hath exceedingly perverted their minds 
in their notions about the Meffiah. They cannot endure 
that the Genilles Ihould be equal fharers with themfelves in 
the promife of the Meffiah. They would have him to 
themfelves alone, or not at all ; and this keeps up their 
defires and expectations of fuch a one as they have fan- 
cied for their own ends and purpofes. Again, 

§ 14. 5. Their envy againft the Gentiles is greatly in- 
creafed and excited by the opprcjjions and fuffenngs from 
them, which they undergo. I fpeak not now of their 
prefent and paft fufferings from nominal Chr'ijliam — 
which in many places have been unrighteous and inhuman^ 
and fo undoubtedly a great occalion of hardening them 
in their obftinacy- — but of their long-continued oppref- 
iions, under the power of the Gentiles in generaL Having 
been greatly harralTed and wafted by them in moft ages, 
and having a Deliverer promifed to them, they are 
Wrongly inclined to fancy fuch a deliverance, as, being 
peculiarly theirs, Ihould enable them to avenge themfelves 
on their old enemies and oppreflbrs. And how hard it is 
for them to lay alide thefe thoughts, unlefs they are freed 
by Divine grace, from the carnal afFe£lions now men- 
tioned, is not difficult to guefs. 

§ 15. This is the faith and expe£lation of the prefvnt 
yews all over the world, concerning the Messiah, in 
whom they place their confidence. A mere man he is to 
be ; a king over the Jews at Jerufalem, who fhall conquer 
many nations, and give peace, profperity, and plenty to 
ail the Ifraclites in their land. But what great matter Is 
there in all this ? Have not other men done as much, 
or more for their citizens and people ? Can they fancy 
that their Meffiah ffiould be more vidlorious than Alex- 
ander ? They dare not hope it. At a difput?.tion be- 
fore the Pope and Cardinals at Rome^ which they have re- 
corded in Sbebat Jchudah^ they openly profelTed that they 
never expefted fo great glory by their Meffiah, as that 
which they faw them attended with. But do thefe things 




anfwer the promlfes made concerning him, from the 
foundation of the world ? Is this the meaning of the pro- 
niife given to Jdam ? Was this the end of the call and 
feparation oi Abraham ? or the intention of the promifc 
made to him, that in ' his feed all the nations of the 
* earth fliould be blcjjcdf Is this only the import of it, 
that towards the end of the world many of them fliall be 
cofiquered ? Was this the intent of the oath made to Da- 
vid, and of the furc mercies confirmed to him and his 
thereby ? Do all the promifes in the prophets fct out irx 
words fo glorious and magnificent, end in a zuarrior^ in- 
ferior it may be to many of thofe whofe deftru£lion they 
prophefied of? Or, is not this rather a way to cxpofe the 
whole Old Tcilament to fcorn and reproach ? Was this 
the expedation of the fathers of old ? Is this that which 
they delired, prayed for, longed for, eflceming all the 
glory oi their prefent enjoyments as nothing in compari- 
fon of it ? What is there in this McJJiah, that he fhould 
be the hope and defire of all nations ? Did God fct him 
forth as the great effe6l of his love, grace, goodnefs, and 
faithfulnefs towards them, and then bring forth a military 
king P Was the church in travail for fo many genera- 
tions, to bring forth this fighter? Had they no eye of 
old to fpiritual and eternal things in the promife of the 
Mcffiah ? 

Wliat is become all this while, of the work every where 
in the fcripture aliigned to the true Meffiah ? Who fhall 
' break the ferpent's head ?' Who Ihall take away the 
curfe that entered as the infeparable attendant on fin ? Who 
Ihall be a hkjjing to all nations ? To whom Ihall the Gen- 
tiles be gathered for falvation ? Who Ihall be a priefl 
after the order oi Melchifedeck? Who lliall have a body 
prepared him to offer inftead of the ficrifices of the law? 
Who fhall have his hands and feet pierced in his fufFer- 
ings, aiid his veflure parted by lot? Who fliall make his 
foul an offering for lin ? Who fhall be bruifed^ grieved, 
and afHifled by God himfelf, bccaufe he fhall bear the 
iniquities of his people ? Who fhall make atonement for 
tranfgrefrors, and bring in an everlalling righteoufnefs ? 




Who fliall for ever make intcrceffion for tranfgrefTors ? Who 
ill all £t at the right hand of God in his rule over the 
whole world ? But thefe men, indeed, take a ready- 
way to. deftroy all religion, and to turn the whole bible to 
an idle ilory of earthly things, without either life, fpi- 
rit, or heavenly myftery in it. 



§ I. TnirodiiBion. Ihe time of the MeffiaFs comhig^ firji 
detCYmmed by the prophecy of Jacob, concerning Shilo. § 2 
■ — 4. The words of it briefiy explained, §5 — 8. The 
argument deduced from it, § 9. Haggai s prophecy con- 
cerning the glory of the fecond houfe. § 10. M^lmt houfe 
mt ended. § 11 — 13. fVhat the glory of it. § 14, 15. 
The argument from it, concerning the Meffiah, confirmed. 
/f parallel tefiimony from Malachi. 

% \. 1 HE SECOND great principle, fuppofed by the 
spoflle in all his epiftle to the Hebrews, and which he lays 
as the foundation of all his arguments, is, that the Mes- 
siah, whom wc have proved to have been promifed from 
the foundation of the world, was a^ually come, and had 
finiflied the work appointed for him, when he wrote that 

Now, this determination of time inquired after, was 
iirft made by Jacob, [Gen. xHx. 8 — 9.J But here we 
Biay remark, refpefting the line of fucceffion, that as, af- 
ter the promife given to Abraham, the Meffiah mjght have 
fprurg from any family whatever of his poilcrity, by Ifaac, 
until the limitation was made by Jacob to the perfon of 
Judnh ; and after that limitation, might have done fa 
from any family of his tribe or pofterity, until the confine-? 
ment 9f that privilege to the f^rfon of David; fo no re- 



{[ridiion being afterwards added, his produftion by any 
perfon of his pofterity, whether in an alHance nearer to, 
or farther from the rcignifig line, was all that was included 
in the promife. 

The great maficrs among the Jews are exceedingly per- 
plexed with the teflimony above quoted, and have, there- 
fore, invented endlefs ways for the enervating of it, openly 
and loudly contradinlng one another almofl about every 
word in the text. It were, therefore, not only endlefs 
to confider all their feveral expofitions, but alfo ufelcfs^ 
being fo fully confuted by each other.* 

2. The fubjeft here fpokcn of is Judah ; that is, the 
tribe oi ]\xd2i\\. Now, this tribe maybe conlidered either 
ahfolutcly in itfelf, as it was in a feparated ftate in the v/il-^ 
dernefs, without the mixture of any, not of his pofleritv ; 
or with refpcd to that accedion, which v/as afterwards 
made to it occaiionaliy from the other tribes. As, firft, 
from the lot of Simecn falling within its lot in the firft in- 
heritance of the land, [Jolh. xix. i.] whence that tribe, 
though ftili keeping its diftinct genealogy, was reckoned 
to Judah, and became one people with them. Secondly, 
by the cleaving of the tribe of Benjamin, whofe lot lay 
next to it, to the reigning houfe of David, in the fatal 
divifion of the people, [I. Kings xii. 20, 21,27.] upon 
which both thefe tribes were after called by the name of 
Judah, [ver. 20.] and the people of both called (amn'j 
Jews. Thirdly, by tlie falling off of the tribe Oi Levi to 
it, with multitudes of other good men, out of all the 
tribes of Ifrael, upon the idolatry and perfccution of Je- 
roboam, [II. Chron. xi. 13 — 17.] by which means that 
one tribe quickly became more nun,:rou3 and potent than 
all the refl. Laftly, by the mixture and addition of thole 
great numbers which, out of all the tribes of Ifrael, joined 
themfelv.s to them upon their return from Babylon, and 
the reflltution of the worfliip of God amongfl: them in 
its proper place. Now, it is Judah, with all thefe accef- 
Rom^ that is intended in this prophecy, and yet fo, as 

* Vid. A,R. Meii;, Aben Ezr^^, Targ, Onkel, &c. 


rj^ T H E M E S S I A H Part H^' 

that in the produ£lion of the Meffiah, the genuine oiF- 
fpring of Judah was flill to have the pre-eminence. 

§ 3. That which is foretold concerning this Judah, is, 
that it fhould have (tonir^) a fccpter, and (ppna) a laiv- 
giver, or a writer of laws, for others to obferve. What 
time this fhould come to pafs is not limited ; only thus far^ 
that after it once polTeffed this privilege, it was not to 
ceafe till the SniLOHcame. Political government in that 
tribe, the foundation itfelf of executing this promife, was 
not laid until about fix hundred and twenty years after 
this time ; when the kingdom was given to David. . Nor; 
is the kind of government exprelTed ; only that they fliould 
be a people having the principle of government among 
themfelves. Whilft they continued fuch, xht fccpter Vind. 
fcrihe departed not from them, whatever might be the va- 
riety in the outward form. Accidental alterations in the 
modes of governing make no elTential change in the flate 
of the people, or nature of the government. Thus the 
firft conilitution of rule in that tribe was abfolutely mo- 
narchical ; this being imprudently managed by Rehoboam, 
he loft the ten tribes, who would never afterwards fubmit 
to the royal family of Judah. Its retrieval, after the Ba- 
bylonifh captivity, was ducal, or by an honorary prefident, 
with a mixture of arifocracy and democracy. Upon the 
ceafing of thefe rulers, extraordinarily called, the arifto- 
cracy in Sanhedrim prevailed ; whereunto fucceeded a mixt 
monarchy in the Hafmoneans \ and their intereft being ruined 
bymteiline divifions, Herod, by craft and force, intruded 

Neither did this ufurpation make any eflential change in 
the polity of the nation ; for although the rule was not 
always in the hands of Jews, and Herod was a foreigner, 
and notwithilanding the turbulent government of the.He- 
rodians, with the interpofition of the Roman arms, the 
nation, and, what conftitutes a people, \X.s laws and polity ^ 
were ftill continued. In this Hate things continued 
amongft them, until the deftruftion of the common- 
wealth by Vespasian, and of the city and temple by 
Titus j only as a prefage of the departure of fcepter and 
,,v., I fcribe. 

lxER.4- LONG SINCE COME. 173? 

fcribe, the power of judgement, as to the lives of men, 
was fome years before taken from the Sanhedrim, [John 
xviii. 31.] 

By the fixation of rulc^ in general, in Judah, we arc 
freed from any concern in tlie difputes of learned men, 
about the precife time of the departure foretold.* And, 
indeed, if any thing more be intended in this prediftion, 
than that the tribe of Judah fhould continue in !l natural 
political ilate, with government in itfclf, it will be utterly 
impoifiblc to determine cxa6lly upon the accomplilTiment 
of this prophecy. 

§ 4. During the continuance of this fcepter and law- 
writer, it is promifed that the Shilo fhould come. The 
word (n^>t2?) Shilo, which comes from {^hvj) Jhala, to 
pro/per, or favc, is iifed only in this place, and Signifies a 
profperer, deliverer, or faviour \ that is, the Messiah. 
The Jews lay a double exception to the interpretation we 
give of the original particles ('d-ip) v/hich we render?*';////; 
iirfl, that the former (nj;) ligniiies /cr ever\ fo that the 
meaning is, that the fcepter and law-writer (hall not de- 
part from Judah yir ever, bccaufe the ' Shilo fhall come ;' 
the latter particle (o ) being often cafual. But although 
the former may fometimes fignify as much as ' for ever,'' 
(while moftly it iignifies adhuc^ yet, or as yet J it neither 
doth, nor can when it is joined, as here, with the other 
particle (o) which limits the duration intimated by the 
fobje^ and {t\\{c of the enfuing words they have a refped 
to. They except again, that (^v) is burdened with the 
accent jethib, which diflinguifheth the {cn(c, and puts a 
flop upon it. But of this they can gi\'e no inflancc 
when it hath athnac immediately preceding it, as in this 
place it hath. Befides, fcepter and laiv-^ivcr are long 
iince actually departed irom Judah, and in their judgement 
the Shilo not yet come; which perf2£lly deftroys the ve- 
rity of the predi£tion. 

* As Baronius, Scaltger, Casaueon, Bulltnger, 
Montague, Pererius, A. Lapidh, Capellus, Scultetus, 
RivETus, Spanhemius, &c. 

Vol. I. Bb § 5- 



§ 5. Having taken this brief view of the words, wc 
niay now draw our argument from them : " The Mes-» 
siAH, according to this prediftion, muft come whilft the 
rule and government of Judah were continued , or befoj^e 
they were utterly taken away ; but they are long fince taken 
awav, even iince the deflru£lion of the nation, city, and 
temple, by Titus ; and, therefore, the MelTiah is long 
fince colne." — To manifeft the uncontrouiable evidence 
of this teflimony, and our argument from it, there is no 
more neceflary, but that we demonfcrate ; 

Firu, that by fceptcr and laiu-wrltcr, rule and govern^ 
f?ient are intended. 

Secondly, that the promifcd Shilo is the Messiah. 

Thirdly, that all rule and national polity was utterly 
long Iince taken away from Judah, even in the deltruc- 
tion of the city and temple. The lafl being a matter of 
fa£^, muft be evinced from hiftory, and the ftate of things 
in the world, from thofe days, whereon there will be no 
rifnig againil this teflimony, by any thing but that per- 
tinacious obiYmacy, to which the Jews are judicially 
given up. 

§ 6. The firji thing propofed, that by y^t'^f^r and law- 
giver, rule and government are intended, is evident not 
only from the words themfelves, which are plain and ex- 
preflive, but from the context alfo. The dying patriarch 
Jacob, [Gen. xlix. 3 — 8.] foretelling, among other 
things, the ereftion of a rule and government amongft 
his pofterity, it might have been cxpefted, that of courfe 
it fhould have been fixed in Reuben, his firft-born, ac- 
cording to tlie line of its defcent from the foundation of 
the world ; but he deprives him of it, [ver. 4.] Though 
he w^as in the courfe of nature, *' the excellency of his dig- 
nity, and the excellency of his flrength," [ver. 3.] yet 
iie faith, ' thou fhalt not excell ;' fhalt not preferve 
that excellency in thy pofterity, nor have the pre-emi- 
nence of rule. In like manner he palTeth by the next in 
order, Simeon and Levi, taking from them all expeflation 
of that privilege. But coming to Judah, there he fixetli 
the feat cf rule, [ver. 8.] * Judah, thou art he whom 

* thy 


* thy brethren fliall pralfc,' alluding to his name ; thou 
(halt be exalted to that rule amongfl them, from the right 
of which the others fell bv their tranfgreffion. And this 
rule, faith he, fliall confill, as all prolperous dominions 
do, in two things : — Firft, In the regular obedience of 
thofe who dejure are fubje6l to it, ' thy father's children 
' Ihall bow down before thee ;' tliou (halt have the au- 
thority over the rell: of my pollerity. Secondly, In the 
conquefl of the enemies and adverfaries of the dominion 
itfelf ; ' thine hand fliall be in the neck of thine enemies; 

* as a lion's whelp thou art gone up from thy prey ;' to 
which the words infilled on are fubjoined ; * T^he fcepter 

Jhall not depart ; that is, the fcepter of rule amongfl thy 
brethren, and preyalency againft thine enemies ; how- 
ever, it may be weakened or interrupted, fhall not utterly 
depart, or be removed, v^vcC\V\\\t Shilo come. Thus the 
context (the principal guide of a true interpretation) ftands 
clear and perfpicuous. 

The Targumlfls'-^ have, with one confent, given us the 
fame account of the fenfe and import of thefe words ; nor 
was it ever denied, by any of the Jews, until they found 
themfelves neceffitated to it by their corrupt interefl ; 
and thofe who do obje6t, only cavil at w^ords and fylla- 
bles ; and even this will do them no fervice. 

The Hebrew word {p2'^) which wx render fcepter, is 
originally and properly a rod, or ftaff ; all other fignifi- 
cations of it are 7netaphorical. Among them the principal 
is that of fcepter, an enlign of rule and government. Nor 
is it abfolutely ufed in any other fenfe ; but in that very 
frequently, [Pfal. xlv. 6.] ^ K fcepter (tonu;) of upright- 

* nefs is the fcepter of thy kingdom.' — [Numb. xxiv. 17.] 

* A fcepter fhall arifc out of Ifrael ;' that is, a prince or a 
ruler ; ^argurn, " Chrilt fhall arifc out of Ifrael." And 
this fenfe of the words is made more evident by its con- 
junction with the word (ppna) lavj-givcr ; he that pre- 

* Thus Onkei.os : *' The ndcr (he that hath dominion) fliall 
not be taken from the houfe of judah." And thus Jonathan' : 
** Kings and rulers fliall not ceafe from the houfe of Judah." 

With which the Jerufalcm Targv.m agrees, 

E b 3 fcribesi 

176 T H ii MESSIAH Part Tu 

fcribes, and writes law with authority, [See Pfal. cxiii. 
8. Ifa. xxxiii. 22.] Thefe two v/ords, then, in conjunct 
iicn, abiblutely denote rule and dominion,'^ 

§ 7. Our fecond inquiry is, concerning the fubje^ of 
the promife under confideration, which is ** the Shilo^^^ 
whereby we fay the promifed feed is intended. Moft 
learned men look upon it as derived from the verb (nVtr>) 
to be quiet\ fafe, happy, profperous ;t whence alfo is [n'W 
Pfal. cxxii,] peace, fafety, profperity, and abundance. But 
the weight of our argument lies not in the precife etymo- 
logy and fignification of the word ; what we iniiil on, is, 
that it is the Messiah who is intended in that expref- 
iion. -For, 

I. This is manifeft from the context and words them- 
felves. The promife of the Messiah was the foundation 
of that nation and people ; the reafon of the call of 
Abraham, and of the ereftion of a kingdom and a ilate in 
his pofterity. This promife concerning him, and cove- 
nant founded in him, was always the chief matter of the 
patriarchal hcnedidions, when they blelTed their children 
and poilerity. Now, unlefs we grant him to be intended 
in this expreffion, there is no mention of him at all in 
this prophetical eulogy of Jacob. Besides, his pofterity be- 
ing now to be diftributed into twelve diflinft tribes, and 
each of them having his peculiar bleffing appropriated ta 
him — wherein it is certain and confeffed by all the Jews, 

* The cavils of a few modems, as Manasseh, Ben Israel, 
&:c. deferve not a refutation, being contrary to all found princi- 
ples of criticilm, and the authority of their own ancient Rabbins, 
and to hiftorical fafts. 

f To this etymology of the word agree Galatinus, Fagius, 
Melancthon, Pagninus, Drusius, Schindler, Buxtor- 
Fius, Amama \ and generally all the mofl learned in the Hebrew 
tongue. He that would be farther fatisfied about the import of 
the word may confult Reymandus, Porchetus, and Gala- 
tinus, in their diicourfes againft the Jews on the fubjecl ; Kim- 
ciii, Pagninus, Mercer, Schindler, Philip ab Aquino, 
and BuxTORF, ui their Lexicons; Munster, Fagius, Dru- 
sius, and Grotius, in their Annotations on the text ; Helvi 
cus, RivETus, Episcopius, Boetius, and Hoornleckius, 
ill their Difiertations on it. 



that this privilege of bringingforththeMEssiAHwashence* 
forth reftrifted to Judah — it mufl be done in place, or 
there is no footilep of It in the fcripture. And it is very 
ilrange, that Jacob, reckoning up the prhilcges and ad- 
vantages of Judah above his brethren, lliould omit the 
chief of them, from whence all the reft did flow. And 
the very tenour of the words manifefts this intention ; 
fixing on that which was the fountain and end of all 
bleffing in the promifcd feed, he paiTcth over his elder 
children, and determines on Judah, with the continua,nce 
of rule to the coming of it. 

2. That which in the text is affirmed, concerning this 
Shilob, makes it yet more evident who it was that is in- 
tended ; " And to him (o'di? nnp> i^i) the gathering of the 
people \^ (Sept. r^'^ocr^oKcia, c^vocv-, P^u!g, cxpciiatlo gentium) 

* the expeilation of the nations.'' — Onkelos ; '^ And him 
fhall the people obey," or to him they fliali hearken. 
Ben-Uzziel ; *' Becaufe of him the people fliall faint;'* 
that is, ceafe their oppolitlon, and fubmit to him. 1'arg, 
JerufaL " And to him fliall all the kingdoms of the 
earth be fubjeft." All to the fame purpofe. The noua 
(nnpO in conftruftion (from T\7\p'') is from the verb (np'') 
to hcar^ attend, obey. It is but once more ufcd in the 
fcripture, [Prov. xxx. 17.] where it is rendered doHrinCj 
or teaching given out v/ith authority, and, therefore, to 
be obeyed. So that primarily it may feem to denote obe- 
dience to do£lrines. That which in all thefe interpretations 
is aimed at, and in which they all agree, is, that the 
Gentiles, (people, heathen) fl^.ould be called and gathered 
unto the Shilo ; fhould hear h'ls do^rine, and be made fub- 
je£l to him. Now, as this was eminently contained in 
the great fundamental promifc, concerning the Melfiah, 
made to Abraham, namely, that ' in him all the tiations 

* of the earth fhould be blcfTed ;' fo, there is not any dc- 
fcription of him, in the following prophets, more emi- 
nent than this ; that unto him * the gathering of the peo- 

* pie Ihould be,' which, in many places, is made the cha- 
rafleriflic note of his perfon and kingdom. Now, he to 
v,hom the Gentiles fliall feek, whofe dodlrine they fhall 


$jt T H E M E S S I A K Part II; 

iearn^ whole law they fhall obey, to whom they fliall be 
fubje£V, in whom they fhall be blelTed, and to whom 
they fhall be gathered, for all thefe ends and purpofes, 
is the true and only Messiah, and this is the Shih here 

§ 8. It remaincth, thirdly, that we fliould alfo evidence, 
that all rule and polity is long lince taken away from 
Judah, and that for many generations there hath been no 
fuch thing as a trih of Judah, in any national or political 
condition cr conflitution in the world. And had we 
not here to do w^ith men obftinate to the laft degree, 
there would need very few words in this matter. But 
they mufl: have thai proved to them, which all the world 
fees and knows, and takes care to make good, and w^hich 
themfelves, as occalion ferves, confefs and bewail. Is it 
not known to ail the world, that for thefe fixtccn hundred 
years, lafl paft, they have been fcattered over the face of 
the earth, leading a precarious life, under the powers of 
princes, and of commonwealths, as their feveral lots in 
their difperjlon have fallen. (Sine Dea, Jine homine rege) 
caft out of God's efpecial care, they wander up and down 
without law, government, or authority. And, there- 
fore, if there be any truth in this prophecy, if there be 
a certainty in any thing in this world, it is certain that 
fcepter and law-giver are long fince departed from Judah. 

§ 9. We lliall now proceed to other facred teftimonies 
in proof of our pofition. The firft we fliali fix upon is, 
th^t of Haggai ii. 3 — 9. to which we fhall add Mai. iii. 
I. The occalion of the former w^ords muft be fought 
from the flory of thofe times in E%ra, and the whole dif- 
courfe of the prophet in that place. The people return- 
ing from their captivity with Zerubabel, in the days of 
Cyras, had laid the foundation of the temple ; but 
having begun their work, great oppofition w^as made 
againil it, and great difcouragements they met with. The 
kings of Per/m, who firfl encouraged them to this 
work, and countenanced them in it, [Ezra i. 7 
■ — 9.] being poifefTed with falfe reports and flanders, be- 
gan to withdraw their alhflance, as fhonld fccm in the 


<lays of Cyrus hlmfclf, [Ezra iv. 5.] and at lengtli ex- 
P^ilPy fo^'^^de their proceedings, cauling the whole work 
to cealb by force, [ver. 23.] Befidcs this outward oppo- 
tion, they were, moreover, greatly difcouragcd by their 
own poverty, and difabiHty for the carrying on their de- 
ligned work in any mcafurc, fo as to anfvvei the beauty 
and glory of their former houfe, built by Solomon. 
Hence the elders of the people, who had fecn the former 
houfe in its glory, wept with a loud voice when they faw 
the foundations of this laid, [Ezra iii. 12, 13.] as fore- 
feeing how much the fplendor and beauty of their worfhip 
would be eclipfed and impaired ; for, as the meafures of 
the fabric itfelf, affigned to it by Cyrus, [Ezra vi. 3.] 
did no way anfwer Solomon's {lru6lure ; fo they had no 
ability or means to make provilion for the ornaments of 
it, wherein its magnificence principally coniiiled. Being, 
therefore, thus hindered and difcouragcd, the work 
ceafed wholly, from the end of Cyrus's reign, to the fe- 
cond year of Darius Hyftafpes. For there is no reafon 
to fuppofe, that this intermiffion of the work continued 
to the reign of Darius Nothus. However, it is evident, 
that the old difcouragement was ftill preffing upon them. 
The former houfe was glorious and magnificent, famous 
and renowned in the world, and full of comfort to them, 
from the vifible pledges it contained of the Divine pre- 
fence. To remove this difcouragement, or to fupport 
them under it, the Lord, by his prophet, makes them a 
promife ; ' The glory of this latter houfe fhall be great 
* above that of the former,' [Hag. ii. 9.] 

To clear our argument intended from thefe words, we 
mull confider — what was this latter houfe? and — wherein 
the glory of it did confifl ? 

§ 10. We are to inquire, firft, what houfe it is whereof 
the prophet fpeaks ; now, this is mofi' evident in the 
context, (ntrr nnn) '* thh houfe" — faith he, pointing to 
it, as it were with his linger ; that which your eyes look 
upon, and which you fo much defpife in comparifon of 
the former — this houfe fliall be filled with glory. It is true, 
this temple was three hundred years after rebuilt by He- 

j rod. 

48o THE MESSIAH Part m 

rod, in the eighteenth year of his reign ; which yet hin- 
dered not but that it was ftill the fame temple. For the 
itruclure was never deftroyed, nor the materials of it at 
once taken down ; it, therefore. Hill continued one and 
the fame houfe, though much enlarged and beautified. 
And, therefore, the Jews, in the days of our Saviour, 
overlooked, as it were, the re-edification of the temple 
by Herod, and affirm, that that houfe, which was then 
ilanding, ' was forty-fix years in building,' [John ii. 
20.] as they fuppofed it to have httn upon the firf} re- 
turn from captivity ; for the whole work and building of 
Herod was finifhed within the fpace of eight years.* 

§ II. The glory promifed to this houfe is, in the 
next place, to be confidered. This is exprefled both ab- 
folutely and comparatively; abfolutely, [Hag. ii, 7.] 'I 

* will fill this houfe with glory ;' comparatively, with re- 
ference to the temple of Solomon, which fome of them 
had feen, [ver. 9.] ' The glory of this latter houfe fhall 

* be greater than that of the former.' — To underftand 
aright this promife, we muil refled a little upon the glory 
of the firfl houfe, which the glory of this fecond was to 

I. It was very glorious, from its principal architedl, 
which was God himfelf. He contrived the whole fabric, 
and difpofed of all the parts of it. For when David de- 
livered to Solomon the pattern of the houfe, and the whole 
worfhip of it, he tells him, ' All thefe things the Lord 

* made me underftand in writing, by his hand upon me, 
*- even all the work of this pattern,' [I. Chron. xxviii. 19.] 
God gave him the whole in writing ; that is, divinely and 
immediately infpired him, by his holy Spirit, to fet down 
the frame of the houfe, and all the concernments of it, 
according to his own appointment and difpofal. This 
rendered the houfe glorious, as anfwering the wifdom of 
bini by whom it was contrived. And herein it had the 

* Targ. JoKATH. Aeen Ezha, Kimchi, and others, inter- 
pret the words, as belonging to that hoife, which was built by 
Zerubabel and Jolhua ; nor do any of the ancient Jews dilTent. 

ad van- 


advantage above all the fabrics that ever were on earth ; 
and ill particular above the fecond temple, whofe builders 
had no fuch idea of their work given them by infpira- 

2. It was glorious in the greatnefs, {late, and magnifi- 
cence of the fabric itlclf. Such a building it was, as was 
never paralleled in tiie world, which fundry confiderations 
will make evident to us ; as, 

( I .) The grand and magnificent defign of Solomon, the 
wifeft and richeft king that ever was, in the building of 
it. When he undertook the work, and fent to Hyram, 
king of Tyre, for his alfiflance, he tells him, * that the 

* houfe he was to build was to be great, becaufe their 

* God was great above all Gods,' [1 [. Chron. ii. ^.] Nay, 
faith he, * the houfe which I am about to build, fhall be 

* wonderful and greatj* No doubt, he defigned the Uruc- 
ture to be magnificent to the utmoft that his wifdom and 
wealth would extend to. And what fliall he do that comes 
after the king ? What fhall any of the fons of men think 
to contrive and ere(ft, fo that it may furpafs in glory, that 
in which Solomon laid out his utmoft ? There can, 
doubtlefs, be no greater fondnefs, than to imagine, that 
it could, in any meafure, be equalled by what was done 
afterwards by Zerubabel, or Herod, 

(2.) The vafl and unfpeakable fums of treafure which 
were expended in the building and adorning of it. I know 
there is fome difference among learned men, about re- 
ducing the Hebrew fignatures of money to our prefent 
account. But let the eilimate be as low, as by any can 
reafonably be imagined (and fetting afide what Solo- 
mon expended of his own) the proviiion left by David to- 
wards the work — an hundred thoufand talents of gold, and 
a thoufand thoufand talents of filver i befides brafs and iron 
without weight, wi^th timber and itone, [I. Chron. xxii. 
14.] — on the ordinary computation and balance of coins, 
amounted to no lefs than — the gold, to 450,000,000!. 
and the filver to 3,750,000,000!. bcfidcs what was dedi- 
cated by his princes, and out of his peculiar treafure. He 
that would be fatisfied, what immenfe fums Solomon ad- 

VoL. L Cc dedi 

-tti THEMESSIAH Part H, 

ded of his own to this, may confult Villapandus on 
this fubjeft. And what might be the product of this ex- 
pence, wifely managed, is not eafy to be conceived. It 
feems to me, that the whole revenue of Herod vi^s fcarce able 
to find bread for Solomon's workmen ; fo unlikely is it, 
that his fabric fhould be equal to that other. It was 
furely a glorious houfe, that all this charge was expended 

(3.) It appears farther from the number of W(jr;^;«^;i 
employed in the flruflure. We need not augment the 
number by conjedures, feeing there is evident mention in 
fcripture * an hundred and four -f core ^ and three thoufand fix 
* hundred ;' befides the 7yria^.s that were hired, who, by 
their wage?, feem alfo to be a great number, [Il.Chron. ii, 
10.] There was an * hundred and fifty-three thoufand and 
'•fix hundred'' ftrangers of the pofterity of the Canaanites, 
[Il.Chron. IL 17, 18.] and thirty thoufand Ifraelites, 
[I. Kings V. 13.] Neither was all this multitude en- 
gaged in the work only for a few days or months, but 
for full feven year?, [I. Kings vi. 38. J And herein, as 
JosEPHUs obferves, the fpeed of the work was almofl as 
admirable as its mr.gnificence. And what a glorious flruc- 
ture might be raifed by fuch numbers of men, in fuch a 
fpace of time, when nothing was wanting to them, which, 
by the immenfe treafure before-mentioned, could be 
procured, may eafily be conceived. It doth not appear, 
that the whole number of the people^ rich and poor, who 
were gathered together under Zerubabel, after the return 
from the captivity, did equal the numbers of Solomon's 
huilders ; nor can it be imagined, that Herod employed fo 
many in the whole work, as Solomon had to overlook his 
labourers : 

3. The glory of the worfhip of this temple confummated 
its beauty. Now, this was principally founded on the glo- 
rious entrance of the Divine presence into it, upon its 
confecration by the prayer of Solomon. Hereof God gave 
a double pledge. 

(i.) The falling of the fire from heaven to confume 
the firfl offerings, and leave a fire to be kept alive perr 



petiially upon the altar, a type of the effe£lual operation 
of the Holy Spirit, making all our facrilices acceptable to 
God, [II. Chron. vii. i.] And this the Jews exprellly 
confefs to have been wanting in the fecond temple. 

(2.) The glory of the Lord^ as a cloud liilingtnc whole 
houfe, and refling upon it, [II. Chron. vii. 2, 3.] Tlvr§ 
foundation being laid, and attended with the facrifice of 
many thoiifands of cattle, the whole worfhip was gioriouily 
carried on, according to the inflitution revealed to David, 
by the fpirit of God. And the better to enable them to a 
right performance hereof, fome chief miniflers, as Heman, 
Ethan, and Jeduthan, were themlelves infpired with the 
fpirit of prophecy. So that plainly here we had the ut- 
moft glory, that a * wordly fan^uary and carnal ordinance^ 
could extend to. 

§ 12. Having taken this brief view of the glory of 
Solomon's temple, we may now inquire, What was the 
glory promifed to iX\\% fecond houfc^ concerning which the 
prophet affirms exprelHy, that it fhall excell the firfl. 
Though this houfe was built higher by Herod, yet it was 
ereiSled precifely on the old foundation. But not to en- 
ter at prefent into a confideration of the mcafures of the 
former flru£lure ; let the latter temple be tliought as wide 
and as long as the former, and fome cubits higher, does 
this give it a greater glory than the other ? a glory yc> much 
greater^ as to be thus eminently promifed to be brought in 
with the fliaking of heaven, earth, lea, and dry-land ? 
Can any thing more fondly be imagined ? It had not the 
hundredth -part of the glory of Solomon's houfe ; for, be- 
iides all the glorious golden vcjjcls and ornaments of it, be- 
fides all the treafures difpofed in it, befides fundry of the 
moft magnificent parts of the building itfelf, there were 
five things wanting in the laft, wherein the principal ^ov^ 
of the firft houfe confifted. — 7'he ark propitiatory and cheru- 
hims, — The Divine Majffij^'e^- pre fence ^ — The holy fpirit cf 
prophecy^ — Lhim and thummim, — Fire from heaven^ to kin- 
dle the everlafling fire on the altar. They that acknow- 
ledge all tliefe things to have been wanting in the fecond 
temple, as the Jews generally do, and the Tij/A/i^^,;^ exprefHy, 
C c 2 [ill 

2S4 t H E M E S S I A M ?art If* 

[in WDV Cap. v.] cannot well compare the glory of it 
with that of the other, feeing they were the moll eminent 
pledges of the prefence of God. 

§ 13. What then is the true glory promifed to this 
houfe, wherein it was to have the pre-eminence above the 
former? Now, this is expreflly faid, to be — the coming 
into it of the defire of all nations. ' The defire of all 

* nations fball come ; and I will fill this houfe with glory 
•^ — and the glory of this latter houfe fhall be greater than 
« that of the former, faith the Lord of hofls,' [Hag. ii. 7 
— 9.] This is dire£tly affirmed to be the glory pro- 
mifed, and nothing elfe is in the leaft intimated wherein 
it Ihould confifi. And there are three circumflances of 
this glory expreiTed in the text : — The way whereby it 
ihould be brought in ; * I will fhake the heavens, and the 

* earth, and the fea, and the dry land ; and will Ihake all 

* nations ;' — The feafon wherein this was to be brought 
about ; * Yet once, it is a little while ;' and — The event 
of it ; * And in this place will I give peace, faith the Lord 
< of hofls.' 

The Jews by thefe words — * the defire of all nations'— 
generally underfland the dejirahle things of the nations, 
their fiiver and gold, which above all things are to them 
mofl delirable. But, 

1 . This is direftly contrary to the context ; for it is the 
plain defign of the Holy Ghofl to take off the thoughts of 
the people from that kind of glory, which confifted fn a 
coacervation of ornaments of filver and gold, which, be- 
ing all of them always in his power, he could, at that 
time, have furniihed them with \ but that he would have 
them look for another glory. 

2. It is perfe£lly /^//^ as to the event ; for when was 
there fuch an outward Ihaking of all nations under the 
fecond temple, as that thereon they brought their filver 
and gold unto it, and that in fuch abundance, as to ren- 
der it more rich and glorious than the houfe of Solo- 
mon ? So to wrefl the words is plainly to aver, that thf 
promife was never fulfilled \ for nothing can be more ridi- 
culous than to make a comparifon between the riches and 



treafures of Solomon's temple, and tliofe which at that 
time were laid up in the fecond. 

3. Open force is offered to the 'u;ords thcmfches, for 
they are not, * All nations fhall bring their (mann) dii/i- 

* rabU things,"* but ' The (mD.i) defire of all nations fhall 

* come.' So woeful is the confideration of men rebelling 
againfl light, that they care not into what perplexities they 
run themfelves, fo as they may avoid it. 

§ 14. We fay, then, that thefe words contain a pro- 
phecy of the MelTiah, and of the real glory that fliould 
accrue to the fecond temple, by his coming to it whillt 
it was yet flanding. This is the import of the words 
(anjin ^3 niDn i«ni Fulg. Et veniet dejideratus cimtlis gen- 
tihui) and the dejire of all nations Jhall come. The original 
word (monn from nan) is properly [defiderium) dejire, but 
is no where ufed in the fcriptures, except for a thing or 
perfon dejired, or defirable, loved, valued, or valuable ; 
and it being faid here emphatically, that this defire fhall 
come, nothing but a deiired or delirable perfon can be in« 
tended thereby ; and this was no other but the Messiah, 
the bringing of whom into the world was the end of 
building that temple, and of the whole worfliip perform- 
ed therein ; and by his coming into it, the complement of 
its true glory was obtained. 

The promife of him of old to Abraham was, that in 
him ' all nations of the earth fhould be blelTed ;' he is 
therefore rightly called their dcJire — or he that, de Jure, 
ought to be dcjirable above all things to them — the dcfire 
of all nations \ for he in whom all their blelTcdnefs and 
deliverance were laid up, may be properly called their 

* delire,' becaufe containing all things trulv defirable, and 
becaufe, like defire fulfilled, it was perfedly fatisfaclory 
to them when enjoyed. 

The only difficulty in the Interpretation of the words 
lies in their unufual conflruflion : the verb (i«a venient) 
Jhall come, is of the plural number, and (mnn) the dejire, 
whereto we refer it, of the lingular ; {^dcjidcriian cmnium 
gentium venient.) But it is not unufual in the Hebrew 
tgngue, where two fubftantlves are joined in conllruc^, 



tion, that the verb agrees In number and perfon, not with 
that which it direftly and immediately refpe£ts, but with 
that by which it is regulated; [fo II. Sam. x. 9. fo Job 
XV. 20. and I. Sam. ii. 4. fo likewife Hof. vi. 5, he. &c.} 
This conftru£lion, then, though anomalous^ is in that lan- 
guage fo frequent, as not to create any difficulty in the 
words, and yet polTibly may not be without a farther 
fenfe, intimating the coming of the nations to Chrift upon 
his coming into the temple. 

' I will fhake the heavens and the earth, the fea and 
* dry land, and I will fliake all nations.* All agree that 
thefe words are to be interpreted figuratively ; yet it can- 
not be denied, that a great concuflion and fhaking of the 
world, and all the nations of it, is intended, otherwife 
nothing is fignified by them. And this mufl be with re- 
ference to that houfe, and the worfhip thereof, in a ten- 
dency to its glory. Now I defire to know, what work 
among the nations in the whole world it is, that was 
wrought with refpedl to the temple, which is here in- 
tended ? The nations came, indeed, under Atitiochus, and 
almoft ruined it ; under CraJJus, and robbed it ; under 
Fompey, and profaned it ; under Titus, and deftroyed it. 
But what tended all this to its glory P But refer thefe 
words to the coming of the Messiah, and all things in 
them contained v/ere clearly fulfilled. 

Take the words either literally or metaphorically and 
they fuit the event : take them literally ; and at his birth 
a ne%Q fiar appeared in the heavens ; angels celebrated his 
nativity, wife men came from the Eaft to inquire after 
him, Herod and all Jerufalem were fhaken at the tidings 
of him, and upon his undertaking the work, he wrought 
miracles in heaven, earth, fea, and dry land ; upon the 
whole creation of God. — Take them metaphorically^ as 
they are rather to be underftood, for the mighty change 
which God would work in his worfhip, and the ftirring up 
of the nations of the world to receive him and his doftrine, 
and the event is yet more evident. All nations under 
heaven w^ere quickly fhaken and moved by his coming. 
Some were flirted up to inquire after him, fome to op- 



pofe him, until the world, as to the greatcll and moft 
noble parts of it, was made fubjed to him. Evident it 
is, that fince the creation of all things, never was there 
fuch an alteration and concufTion in the world as that; 
wherewith the Messiah and his do£lrine was brought 
into it, and which is therefore fo expreiTed by the pro- 

§ 15. Concerning the work which God will thus do 

* once more ; it is faid to be ' a little while^ that is, a little 
while ere it be accomplilhed. It is not the nature of the 
work, but Xhtfeafon or time wherein it fhould be wrought, 
that is denoted in thefe words ; but this feafon is not 
called a little while abfolutely, but with refped to the for- 
rner duration of the people, or church of the Jews, either 
from the calling of Abraham, or the giving of the law 
to Mofes. And this fpace o^ four hundred years \^ com^ 
paratively but * a little while, fo termed, to ilir up be-, 
lievers to a continual expedlation of it, it being nov 
nearer to them than to their forefathers, who beheld tho 
time of its performance a very great way off. And this 
alfo ferves for the convi6lion of the Jews ; for whereas 
their forefathers of old did confefs, and themfelves at prc- 
fent cannot with any modefly deny, that the MeiTiah is 
here intended, whom they fuppofe not yet to be come, 
how can this fpace of time from the days of Haggai in 
any fenfe be called a little while, feeing it far exceeded all 
the fpace of time that went before, from the call of 
Abraham, which is the firll epocha of their privilege and 

The lafi: circumftance that favours our interpretation, 
of this place, is taken from the event \ * And in this place 

* 1 will give peace, faith the Lord of hofts.' Wc fay, 
then, that by peace, here, mull be underllood — either 
outward temporal peace, or fpiritual peace between God 
and man, and between Jews and Gentiles in their joint 
communion in the fame divine worfliip : if they fay the 

former, I deiire to know when this promife was accom- 
plifhed under the fecond temple ? In fhort, to fay that 


iS8 THE Ai; E S S I A H, &c. 

this was the peace intended, is to fay diredly, that God 
promifed what he never did or will perform. 

We have fufficiently proved, that the principal work 
of the Mefliah was to make peace between God and man, 
by taking away Jtn^ the caufe of dillance and enmity, 
this then is the peace here promifed : this God gave at 
Jernfalem while the fecond temple was {landing. For 

* he is our peace who hath made both one, and hath 
' broken down the middle wall of partition between us, 

* having abohfhed in his flefli the enmity, even the 

* law of commandments contained in ordinances for to 

* make in himfelf of twain, one new man, fo making 

* peace. And that he might reconcile both to God in 

* one body by the crofs, having flain the enmity thereby^ 

* and came and preached peace to them that were afar 

* off, and to them that were nigh.,' [Ephef ii. 14 — 17.]' 
Thus did God give peace at Jerufalem, both to the Jews 
and Gentiles, by him that was * the defire of all nations.* 

I fhall add yet farther ftrength to ilfram a parallel tefr 
ftmony ; ' Behold, I fend my MelTenger, and he IhaU 

* prepare the. way before me, and the Lord whom ye feek 
^Jhall fuddenly come to his temple, even the Meffenger of 

* the covenant, whom ye delight in ; behold, he fliall 
f_come, faith the Lord of hofts,* [Mai. iii. i.] Now 
that he fhould come whilft the temple Jio&d, is here con- 
firmed by a double prophetical teflimony, the temple 
being utterly and irreparably deflroyed now above 1600 
■years ago, it muft be acknowledged that the Messiah 
is long iince come, unlefs we will fay, that the word of 
God is vain, and his promife of T^nt effe£t« 


[ iS9 J 


dAniel's prophecy explained and vindicated. 

§ I . The fiihjc£l propofcd. § 2 . FrcJ'ifntnary remarks, and 

Jlatcmcnt of the fubje^, ' § 3. (I.) That the prophecy 

refers to the coming of the Mcffab, as appears § 4. f . 

From the context. § 5. 2. From the names and titles glvcit 

the perfon fpoken of. § 6. 3. Fr§m the work to be done 

in his day. § '7. To refrain tranfgreffon, § 8. To par^ 

don fns, § 9. 7^ make reconciliation for iniquity, § lO. 

To bring in everlafing right eoufncfs. •§ 1 1 . To feal vl» 

Jion and prophecy. § I2. Mcffiah fball be cut off, §I3« 

He fhall confirm the covenant, §14. ^nd caufe the fa- 

orifice to ceafc, § i^. 4. From the confeffon of the an* 

■cient^ and perplexities of the modern fewifh mafers, § 16. 

(II.) Chronological computation of the times determined itt 

DanieV s weeks. Some difficulty attending the fubje^, hovi 

accounted for, § ^ 7 • f^ithin whai limits the computation 

miift be fought. It mufi be included between the firfi 

. year of Cyrus, and the dcfrudion of the temple. § 18. 

The number of years contain^ in that f pace of time, § IQ* 

The end of the limited time, being clear in the prophecy^ 

Jhould regulate and fix the beginnmg. Not the dcflru£iion 

'cf the temple, but the cutting off of the Meffiah, the precifi 

end of DanieVs weeks, § 20. Hence it folloivs, that the 

. fi^'ft decree of Cyrus is not the precife BEGINNING of the 

weeks, § 21. Nor the decree of Darius, ^cither Hyfiaf 

pes or No thus, § 2 2. But it wds the decree of Aktax- 

ERXEs LdNGiMANUS, given unto Ezra, that was in-r. 

tindcd' by the angel \ which appears not only from its ex- 

A^lly anjwering to the time, but alfo fotn the circumfanas 

•f that decree, 

'§1. X HERE remains yet one place more giving clear 

and evident teftimony to the truth under demonflration, 

to be conndered" and vindicated. And this is the illuf- 

VoL. L Dd trious 

196 l!>ANIEL*s PROPHECY Part 11 

trious prediction and calculation of time granted to Da-* 
siiel, by the angel Gabriel, [Dan. ix. 24 — 27,] ' Se- 

* venty weeks are determined upon thy people, and upon 

* thy holy city, to finilh the tranfgreffion, and to make 

* an end of fins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, 

* an to bring in everlafting righteoufnefs, and to feal up 

* the vilion and prophecy, and to anoint the Mofl Holy, 

* Know, therefore, and underfland, that from the going 

* forth of the commandment, to reftore and build Jerufa- 

* lem, unto Meffiah, the Prince, fhall be feven weeks, 

* and tbree-fcore and two weeks, the flreet fhall be built 
' again, and the wall in troublous times. And after 

* three-fcore and two weeks Ihall Meffiah be cut off, 
' but not for himfelf ; and the people of the prince that 
' fhall come, fhall deflroy the city and the fanftuary; 
*■ and the end thereof fhall be with a flood, and to the 

* end of the war, defolations are determined. And he 

* fhall confirm the covenant with many for one week ; 

* and in the midft of the week, he fhall caufe the facriiice 
' and the oblation to ceafe, and for the overfpreading of 
' abominations he fhall make it defolate, even until the 

* confummation, and that determined, fhall be poured 

* upon the defolate.' 

§ 2. In treating of this illuflrlous prophecy, we 

I. Prove that it refers to the coming of the Meffiah, and 
the time wherein he fhould fo come. 

II. Afcertain the chronological computation of the time 
deiigned, in an exaft account of the fpace limited from 
the beginning to the end. 

§ 3. (I.) It is evident, in general, that here is given 
put, by the Holy Ghoft himfelf, a computation of the 
time wherein the Meffiah was to come, and to perform 
his allotted work ; which warrants the kind of argument 
we now infifl upon. No fmall part this was of the church's 
reafure of old, and a bleffed guide it would have been ta 
the faith and obedience of thofe, who were molt imme- 
diately concerned therein, had it been diligently attended 
to But having finfuUy negkdted it in its due feafon, 

2 thev 

ExER. 5. VINDICATED. 'x9x 

they have ever fince wickedly oppofed it. To Daniel, 
this information was granted as a great favour, and a 
fcafonable relief, upon his deep humiliation and fervent 
fupplications, as himfelf records; * Whilft, faith he, I 

* was fpeaking and praying, (with failing and fackcloth, 

* and allies, ver. 3.) and confeiling my iins, and the lins 

* of my people Ifrael, and prefenting my fupplications be- 

* fore the Lord my God, for the holy mountain of my 

* God ; yea, whilfl I was fpeaking in prayer, the man 
' Gabriel, whom I had feen in the vilion of the beginning, 
' being caufed to fly fwiftly, touched me about the time 

* of the evening oblation ; and he informed me, and 

* talked with me, and faid, O Daniel, I am now come 

* forth to give thee fls:ill and underilanding. At the be- 
' ginning of thy fupplications, the comraandiiieiu came 

* forth, and I am come to fliew thee, for thou art great- 

* ly beloved ; therefore, underftand the matter, and conii- 
' der the vifion, [evenly weeks,'' &c. [2C — 2 3. J This 
was the anfwer God gave him, upon his great and fervent 
prayer for the church, for his relief and fupport ; whence 
it is manifeft, that the great bleffing of the church was in- 
volved in it. And the computation of time mentioned 
was granted as a light to guide the Jews, that they might 
not be fhipwrecked at the appointed time. But udien 
that time drew nigh, they wholly difregarded it, being 
generally grown dead and carnal, and filled with preju- 
dices againll the proper work of the MelTiah. And fince 
the mifery that is come upon them, for not difcerning 
this time and judgement, mofl: of them cry out againft all 
computations of time about the Meffiah*s coming,* al- 
though they are plainly called and dire<5ted thereto by 
God himfelf. Neither can they conceal the vexaticr^ 
which from hence they receive, by finding the defign of 
the prophecy fo direftly againft them. Hence this place 
oF Daniel, with refpe£l to the //W of the Meffiah, and Ifa* 
liii. for his office and work, are generally efleemed the 

* Talm. Traa. Sanccir, Shehct, Jehuda. Maimon. in Jad, 
Chazekah, Traa. Dc Regih, Cap. xii. 

D d 2 racks 


racks and tortures of the Rahblns. — For the computatloa 
itfelf, the Jews univerfally acknowledge, that the Jevcns 
here denote /evens of years ; fo that the whole duratioii 
of the "JO /evens, comprifeth 490 years,"^' 

§ 4. But that it is the true Me/Jiah is here intended, ap^ 
pears from 

I . The context and fcope of the place, 

(I.) This whole revelation was granted to Daniel, for 
his relief in the profpeft that he had of the enfuing cala- 
jnities of the church : and was recorded by him, for ics 
encouragement and fupport in thofe diftrefles, as were alfo 
the prophecies of Haggai and Malachi, before iniifled on. 
Now, the only general prom/e which God, for the con- 
folation of the church of old, renewed unto them in all 
ages, was this concerning the MeJJlah, wherein all thei? 
blelTednefs was contained. 

(2.) Unlefs theMeffiah, and his blefTed work be here 
intended, there is not one word of com/ort or relief to the 
church in this whole prophecy. The context, therefore, 
evidently befpeaks the true Me/pah to be here intended. 

§ 5. 2. The names and titles given to the perfon fpoken 
of, declare who he is that is deiigned. He is called (n»ii^ja!) 
THE Messiah, the anointed, (ko^t s^oyf/jv^ ly way 0/ cmi^ 
nence, and abfolutely. The addition of [nuj n'u^o ver. 25.] 
Messiah THE Prince, makes it yet more evident. For 
as this word is often ufed to denote a fupreme ruler, one 
that ' goeth in and out before the people,' in rule and 
government, [as II. Sam. vii. 8. I. Kings i. 35. xiv. 
7, &c.] fo it is peculiarly affigned to the Messiah, [Ifa. 
Iv. 4.] ' Behold, I have given him a witnefs to the peoplca 
* a leader, (or prince) and commander to the people.*' 
And to afcribe this name of * AlcJ/iah the Prince^ abfo- 
lutely to any but the proml/ed feed, is contrary to the 
whole tenor of the Old Teftament. 

Moreover, he is called, (ver. 24. a^ii^np u^np) the 
vio/i holy, (fanflitas fanBliatum) in the abftraft, the holi- 
ne/s of holincf/es. The moft holy place in the tabernacle 

* R. Saadias Hagaon, Jarchi, Kimki, &;c. 


3i^ER; 5, VINDICATED: 19^ 

and temple was fo called, but that cannot be here in- 
tended. The time is limited (ni:>o'?) * to anoint (or make 
* a Mcjfiah of) the moll holy \ but by the Jews' confef- 
iion, the holy place in the Jecond temple was never 
anointed. It muft, therefore, be the pcrjon typified by 
the holy place, in whom the fulncfs of the Godhead was 
to dwell, that is here faid to be anointed^^^ 

§ 6. 3. The- wor;[' here aligned to be done in the days 
of the Meffiah, declares who it is that is intended ; as — > 
linilhing tranfgrcffion — the making an end of lin — making 
a reconciliation for inirjuity — the bringing in of ever- 
lading rightcoufnefs — the fealing up of the vilion and pro- 
phecy — his being cut off, and not for hrmfeff — confirming 
the covenant with many — caufing the facrificc and obla- 
tion to ceafe, [Dan. ix. 24 — 27.] All thefe, efpecially 
as coincident, demonflrate the perfon o'i the Meiiiah. He 
thatfhall call to mind what hath been evinced concerning 
the nature of the firji promifc ; the faith of the ancient 
Judaical church ; the perfon, office, and work of the 
Mefliah j will, upon the firfl confideration of thefc things, 
conclude that this is he. For we have in thefe things, 
the fubflance of ail the temple inflitutions, the center of 
all promifes, and a brief delineation of the whole work of 
the promifed feed. Wherefore, although it be not an 
expofition of the place that we have undertaken, but 
merely a demonftration of the concernment of the 
MefTiah therein ; yet, becaufe the confideration of the 
particular expreffions above-mentioned will corroborate 
the prefent argument, I fliall briefly explain them. 

§ 7. The firfl thing is (rir'sn «'7D^ ad cohibendum prie- 
varicationcm) * to rejirain, coerce, make an end of tranf^ 
grejfion.^ The verb («b) \s lo Jhiit, Mo Jlmt vp \ to for- 
bid, to refrain, to refrain. For the latter fenfc, we 
might refer to Pfalm cxix. 10 1. (»nfr^^D) * / hazjc re- 
^f rained, (or kept) my feet from every evil way.' [Pfal. xi. 

* The words of Nachmanides (hi loc.J are remarkable: 
*' This Holy of Holie^ is the M^ahi wh.o i.§ fiui^'tiiied from the 
fons of David." 




12.] * Thou, Lord («^Dn v^h) wilt not withheld, or re- 
* ftrain, thy mercy from me.* For the former^ to Jer, 
iii. 3. Hag. i. 10. L Sam. xxv. 33, 6cc.— r-Hence («^3 
career) a prifcHy wherein m.en are put under reftraint.—* 
From the liniilitude of letters, and found in pronuncia- 
tion, fome fuppofe it to have an affinity, in lignification, 
with the word {rh'2) to corijummate, to end, to finijh. 
But thei-e ir. no fufficicnt proof of this coincidence. For, 
although the latter fometimes may llgnify to rejlraln or 
Jbut 7>p, [as Pfal. Ixxiv. 11.] yet, the former no where 
£gnifies to conftimrrMte, or to finijh. 

The fhil thing, therefore, promifed with the Meffiah, 
and which he was to do at his coming, was, to reftrain 
iranfgrcjfion, to Jhut it up from overflowing the w^orld fo 
"univerfally as it had done. TranfgreJfio7t, from the day of 
its flrft entrance into the world, had paifed over the whole 
lowe^ creation, like a flood ; but God would now, by the 
Mefliah, coercively fet bounds to it- By his Spirit, by 
liis gi-ace, by bis do6lrine, and the efficacious power of his 
gofpei, he {tt bounds to the rage of wickednefs, rooted 
out the old idolatry of the world, and turned millions of 
the fons ')f Adam unto righteoufnefs. But the Jews, who 
deny h: coming, can give no inftance of any other re-' 
Jiraint hid upon the prevalency of tranfgreffion, wnthiii 
the time Hinited by the angel; and fo direftly deny the 
truth of the. prophecy, beeaufe they will not apply it tQ 
Him, fo whom alone it belongs. 

^ 8. ThQ fecond thing is (mi^ton csnnV) to feal up Jtns^ 
T -^ expreilion is metaphorical. To feal, is either to keep 
Jafc, or to hide and cover ; the former can have no 
place here, being perfe£lly inconliftent with what is fpoken 
immediately before, and what follows dire6lly after, in 
the text ; and the moft proper fenfe of the word is, to 
cover or conceal, and thence to fcal, beeaufe thereby a 
thiiig is hidden. Now, to hide lin or tranfgreffion, in 
the Old Tefcament, is to pardon it, or forgive it. As 
then the former expreffion refpecleth the retraining of 
the power and progrefs of fin, by the grace of the gofpel, 
[as Tit. ii. II, 12.] fo this expreffion refpecls the par- 


^on and removal of its guilty by the mercy proclaimed and 
tendered in the gofpel. Hence is God faid to ' call our 

* iins behind his back ; to cover them, and to call them, into 

* the bottom of the fea.' That this was no way to be done, 
but by the Melliah, we have before evinced. Neither 
can the Jews allign any other tvny of the accomplilhment 
of this part of the prediction, within the time limited. 
For, letting alide this only confideration of the pardoning 
of fin, procured by the mediation of the Meiiiah j and 
there was never any age wherein God did more feverely 
bring forth fin to judgement, as themfelves at large ex- 
perience. • 

§ 9. Thirdly, this feafon is dcfigncd (py ib3^) < to 
make reconciliation for iniquity y^ to make atonement. [Sec 
Heb. ii. 17.] 

When the word is appHed to God, as the agent, it Is 
to hide, to cover, to pardon fin, to be gracious to finners ; 
and when fo applied to men, in the ufc of any of his in- 
Hitutions, it is to propitiate, appeafe, atone, make atone- 
ment. This latter was the work for which he was pro- 
mifed to our firll parents. That he zvas to do it, we arc 
taught in the Old Teflament ; and how he did it, we 
learn in the gofpel. To expeft this work from any other, 
or to be wrought by any other ways or means, is fully 
to renounce the firft promife, and the faith of the holy fa- 
thers from the foundation of the world. 

§ 10. What is mentioned in xht fourth place anfwers 
the former (cd'd^j; p"iy t^onV) * to bring in evcrlafiing righ- 
* ieoufncfs.'* There was a legal righteoufnefs amcngil: tlie 
people before, confifting partly in their blamelefs oblcr- 
vance of the inflitutions, and partly \n their ritual atone- 
ments for fin, made annually and occafionaliy. But that 
neither of thefe could conftitute their lighteoufnefs ever^ 
lajVing, needs not a formal proof. Wherefore, an cvan- 
gelical righteoufnefs, which is abfolutc, perfect, and en- 
during for ever, is promifed to be brought in by the Mef- 
fiah ; the righteoufiiefs which lie wrought in his life and 
death, doing and fulFering the whole will of God, and 
which procureth, as well as terminates in — not a temporal 



deliverance, but— the * everlafting falvatlon' mentioned 
in Ifa. xlv. 17* To declare the nature, and the way of 
bringing in this righteoufnefs, is the great defign of the 
gofpel, [Rom. i. 16, 17.] And I defire to know of the 
Jews, how it was brought in within the time limited ? 
According to their principles, the time here determined 
was fo far from bringing in everlafting righteoufnefsj 
that by their own confeffion, it brought in nothing but a 
deluge of vj'ickednefs, by the abounding lins of their own 
nation, and the oppreflion of the Gentiles. This, there- 
fore, is the proper work of the Meffiah, foretold by tlic 
prophets, and expe6ted by all the fathers ; and he alone, 
whoever he be, that brings in this everlasting righ- 
teousness, is the pro7nifed fctd^ the true and only 

§ 1 1. The fifth particular here f0retold, is (pin annV 
^'3Jl) * to fial VI fion and prophet \ prophet {ox prophecy. The 
expreilion being metaphorical, is capable of a trtpplc in- 
terpretation, and every one of them proper to the Mef- 
iiah, his work, and the times wherein he came ; but ap« 
plicable to no other. 

I . To feal^ is to confummatc, to eflablifli, and con- 
firm, [Ifa. viii. 16. John iii. 33. Rom. iv^ ii.] In 
this fcnfe, vifion and prophecy were ftaled in the Meffiah; 
each one of them had a refped to the coming of the jufl 
one, the promifed feed. God had fpokenof him by the 
mouths of his holy prophets, from the foundation of the 
world. In the bringing of him forth, he fealed the truth 
of their predi£lions, by their a£lual accomplifliment. 
The law and the prophets were until John, and theiV 
they were to be fulfilled. This was the feafon wherein all 
vifion and prophecy centered ; and this the perfon, who 
Was the principal fubje£t and end of them j he, therefore, 
and his coming, is here foretold. 

■ 2. To feal, is to fii;ifh, conclude, and put an end to 
anything, [Ifa. xxix. 11.] Thus alfo were vifion mid 
prophecy then fiealed among the Jews. They were fhut up 

and finifhed. The privilege and ufe of them were no 
jnore to be .continued iu their church. And this alfo 


jRcER. -5. VINDICATED. 197 

fell out accordingly ; for by their own confeflion, from 
that day to this, they have not enjoyed either vifion or 

3. By Jealing the confirmation of the do£lrine con- 
cerning the Mclfiah, his perfon, and office, by vijion and 
prophecy^ may be intended. The vilions and prophecies 
that went before, by reafon of their darknefs and obfcu- 
rity, left the people, in fundry particulars, at great un^ 
certainty ; but now all things were cleared and confirmed. 
The fpirii cf prophecy accompanying the Messiah, and 
by him given to his difciples, as foretold by Joel, [chap. 
ii. 28, 29.] was, in his Revelations^ exprefs and clear> 
confirming all things belonging to his perfon and doc- 
trine. Neither had thefe words any other accomplifhment 
than what we contend ton 

§ 12. Sixthly, it is affirmed, that (n'li^o n-ia*) ^^ Mef- 
ftah Jhall he cut off,'' Not (occidetur) fhall be Jlain (as 
the Vulg. Latin renders the word) but (excidtturj fhali 
be cut off\ that is, pmally^ as one punifhed for lin. For 
the word (n^s) when it includes death, conflantly denotes 
a pcenal execlfion^ or cutting of^ for Jin. [See Gen* xvii. 14. 
Exod, xii. 15. Numb. xv. 30, &c.] This the Jews them- 
felves acknowledge to be the meaning of" the word.* It 
is then foretold, that the Meffiah fhall be cut off^ paenalh 
for fin, which he truly was, When he was made a curfc 
for fin^ all our iniquities meeting upon him. 

And this alfo is intimated in the enfuing particles 
(iV pt^i) ' and not to [ox for) h'lm^ For an objedlion is 
prevented, that might arife about the poenal excifion of 
the Meffiah ; for how could it be, feeing he was very juft 
and righteous ? To this it is anfwered, by way of con- 
ceffion, that it was not on his ovjti account, VioX. for him*' 
fcf^ but for us ; as it is at large declared, [Ifa. liii.] Or, 
' }ict to him^' may be a farther declaration of his flate and 
condition ; that, notwithftanding thefe carnal apprehen- 
fions, which the Jews would haVe of his outward fplendor 
and riches, he fhould have nothing in this world, not 

* Vid. R. Saadias Gaon, in H.smunothy Cap. viii. 
Vol. L E e « where 


* where to lay his head,' nor any to Hand up for him. 
And this is that part of the prophecy, for the fake of which, 
the Jews fo pertinacioufly contend, that the true Melliah 
is not intended in it ; for, fay they, he fhall not be 
paenally cut off. But who told them fo ? Shall we believe 
the angel, or them ? Will they not fufFer God to fend 
his Meliiah in his own way, but they muft interfere and 
tell him, that it muft not be fo ? To call away all pro- 
phecies, becaufe they fuit not men's carnal hearts, what 
is it elfe, but to rejedl all authority of God and his word ? 
That is what hath proved their ruin ; they will not re- 
ceive a Mefliah that fliall fufFer, and be cut off for fin ^ 
though God foretold them expreflly, that it muft be fo. 

§ 13. It is added, feventhly, concerning the perfon 
whofe coming is foretold, that (D»nn^ nnj Tn:n) ' he 
^ Jhall confii-m (or ftrengthen) the covenant with (or to) 

* manyJ* The covenant fpoken of, abfolutely, can be 
none but that everlafting covenant which God made with 
his eleft, in the promifed feed ; and the great promife of 
which was the foundation of the covenant with Abra- 
ham. And hence, God fays, that he will * give him for 

* a covenant to the people,' [Ifa. xlii. 6. and xlix. 8.] 
And the falvation which they looked for, through him God 
promifeth, * through the blood of the covenant,' [Zecli. 
ix. II.] This covenant was firengthened to many in the 
' weck^ wherein he fuiFered, even all that believed in him, 
and was ratified in his blood, [Heb. ix. 15.] And af- 
ter he had declared it in his own mimflry, he caufed it to 
be proclaimed by his gofpel. At the time here determi- 
ned, the fpecial covenant v^'iih. Ifrael and Judah was broken, 
[Zech. ix. 10.] and they were thereon cut off from being 
a church or people. Nor was there, at that feafon, as 
all know, any otlier ratification of the coveyiant, but only 
what was made in the death of the MelTiah. 

§ 14. Then alfo, e'l'yhthly, did he * caufe to ceafe 

* the facriiice and gift/ or offering. Firft, he caufed it 
to ceafe, as to force and ethcacy, or any ufe in the wor- 
fhip cf God, by his own accomplilhment of all that was 
prefigured and intended by iu Hereby it became as a 


HxER, 5. vindicated; 199 

dead thing, unprofitable, and made ready to dlfappear, 
[Heb. viii. 13.] And then, fhortly after, he caufed it 
utterly to be taken away, by a perpetual defolatlon brought 
upon the place where alone facrifices and offerings were 
acceptable to God, according to the law of Mofcs. — And 
this various work of his is our third evidence, that this 
prophecy belongs to the MelTiah. Moreover, 

§ 15. 4. Befides the confellion of the ancient Jews con- 
fenting to the truth contended for, we have, for our con- 
firmation therein, the woeful perplexities of their latter 
majhrs, in their attempts to invade the force of this tefti- 
mony. For fome ages they have abhorred nothing more, 
than that the true MciTiah fhould be thought to be here 
intended. For if that be once granted, they know that 
it brings an inflant ruin upon the pretences of their infi- 
delity ; and that not merely upon tlie account of his 
comings againfl which they have invented a forry relief, but 
principally on account of his being pcenally cut off, which 
can by no means be reconciled to their prefumptions and 
expedations. But if He be not here intended, it is in- 
cumbent on them to declare who is. For the utmofl ex- 
tent of the time limited in the prediction, being long 
fince expired, the prophecy hath certainly had accom- 
plifhmcnt in fome one or other ; or otherwife the whole 
angelical mefTage never was, nor ever will be, of any ufe 
to the church of God. 

But here our majicrs are by no means agreed amongft 
themfclves ; nor do they know what to anfwer to this in- 
quiry. And if they guefs at anyone, it is not becaufe they 
think it pofTible he fliould be defigned, but becaufe they 
think it impoflible for them to keep life in their caufe, 
without making fome reply when the fword of truth lies 
at the heart of it. Some of them, therefore, affirm the 
Meffiah fpoken of to be Cyrus, whom God calls his 
anointed, [Ifa. xlv. i.] But what the cutting off, or 
death of Cvrus, fliould make in this prediction, they 
know not. And if, becaufe Cyrus is once called the 
anointed of the Lord, he muft be fuppofed to be intended 
in that place, where no one word or circqmflange is ap- 
E ^ 2 j)licablc 


plicable to him ; they may as well fay, that it is Smd^ 
the King of Ifrael, who is fpoken of, feeing he is alfo 
called the * anointed of the Lord,' [I. Sam. xxiv. 6.] 
But that which calls this fancy beneath all confideratlon, 
is, the time allotted to the cutting of of the Meffiah. 

Abarbinel, and after him Manasse Ben Israei<, 
with fome others of them, fix on the younger Jgrippa, the 
Jaft King of the Jews, who, as they fay, with his fon Mo^ 
mbafius, was cut off, or flain at Rome, by Vejpa/tan. Nei- 
ther is there in this conceit any colour of probability. 
For neither was thatJgrippa properly ever king of the Jews, 
having only Galilee under his jurifdidion ; nor was he 
ever anointed to be their king, nor defigned of God to any 
ivork^ on the account of which he might be called his 
(tnointed; nor was he of the pofterity of Ifrael, nor did he 
any thing deferving an illuflrious mention in this pro-» 
phecy. Befides, in the laft fatal war, he was ilill of the 
Roman party, nor was he cut off, or ilain by Vejpaffan \ 
but after the war he lived at Rome in honour ; and in 
the third year of Trajan died in peace.* So that there 
is nothing of truth, no colour of probability in this def- 
perate figment, 

Their laft evafion is, that by * Meffiah the Prince,' 
the office of magijlracy and priejihood, and in them, all 
anointed to authority are intended. Thefe, they fay, were 
to be * cut off' in the deflruftion of the city, But this 
evafion, alfo, is of the fame nature with the former j yea, 
more vain than they, if any thing may be allowed to be 
fo. The angel twice mentioneth the Meffiah in his mef- 
fage ; firft, his coming and anointing, [ver. 25.] and then 
hk cutting off, [ver. 26.] If the fame perfon or thing be 
not intended in both places, the whole difcourfe is equi- 
vocal, no circumftance being added to diftinguifh between 
abem, who are called by the fame name in the fame place. 
And to fuppofe that the Holy Ghofl, by one and the 
fame name, within a few words, continuing his fpeech of 
the fame matter without any note of diftin^lion, Ihould 

* As JU5TEES, the Tiherian, aflures us in his Hiflory, whofe 
words are reported by Photius, in his Bihliotheca. 


JSxER, 5. V I N D I C A T E B. sof 

lignify things fo diverfe from one another, Is to leave no^ 
place for underflanding any thing that is fpoken by him. 
The Melliah, therefore, who was to come, and to be 
anointed and cut off^ is one and the fame individual per- 
fon. Now, it is expreflly faid, that there fliall be ityzxv 
weeks and lixty-two weeks ; that is, four hunared and 
e'ighty-thrc^ years from the going forth of the decree to 
Meffiah th? prince. I defire, therefore, to know, whe- 
ther that fpace of time was paiTed before they had any 
magijlrcites or priefis, to be afterwards cut off? This pre- 
tence, therefore, may pafs with the former. And this 
perplexity of the modern Jewsy in their attempts to ap- 
ply this prophecy to any other thing or perfon befides the 
TRUE Messiah, confirms our expofition and apphcation 
of it. There is no other that they can imagine, to 
whom any one thing here mentioned may feem to belong; 
much lefs can they think of any, in whom they fhould 
(ill center and agree. It is then the promifed Mefliah, the 
hope and expectation of the fathers, whofe coming and 
cutting off is here foretold. 

§ 16. (II.) More fully to demonllrate our aflertion, 
and to refcue this illuftrious prophetic teflimony from the 
withered grafp of prejudice, let us now advert to the com- 
putation of Daniel's weeks. That there is fome difficulty in 
finding out the cxa^ computation of time here limited, 
all chronologers and expofitors confcfs. Nor is it necef- 
fary to fuppofe, that Daniel himfelf exactly underftood 
the beginning and the end of the weeks mentioned. The 
hiding of the precife time intended was greatly fubfcrvient 
to the providence of God, in the work he had to do by 
the Meffiah, and what that people were to do to him. 
The general notation of it fufficed for the diredion of the 
godly, and the conviftion of unbelievers, as it doth to 
this day. And it may be, we lliall not find any compu- 
tation that will anfvver in all particulars and fradions toi 
a day, month, or even year. And that, either becaufe 
of the great darknefs and confufion of fome of the times 
faUing under the account, or elfe, becaufe perhaps it was 
not the mind of God, that ever the time ihould be fo 


«oft DANIEL'S PROPHECY Part 11, 

precifely concluded, or that any thing which he revealed 
for the flrengthening of ithe church's faith, fhould depend 
upon chronological niceties. It fl^all fuffice us, then, to 
propofe and confirm fuch an account of thefe weeks, which, 
while it infaUlbly comprifeth the fubftance of the pro- 
phecy, contains nothing in it contrary to the fcriptures, 
and is not hable to any jufl and rational exception. 

§ 17, In the firll place, we may wholly lay alide the 
confideration of thofe who would date the weeks from 
any time whatever before tht firji year of the reign, and 
Jirji decree of Cyrus. And of the like nature is the ac- 
count of Solomon Jarchj, among the Jews, who dates 
the time limited from the deilrudlion of the temple by 
tlie Chaldeans. But both thefe accounts are expreflly 
contrary to the words of the angel, who fixes the begin- 
jiing of the time defigned to the gomg forth of a decree for 
huildlng Jerufalcm, To thefe we may add all that would 
extend thefe weeks beyond the deftruftion of the city and 
temple by Titus, as fome of the Jews would do, with a 
view that the prophecy fhould coinprife their feeond fa^ 
tal deflrudion by Adrian, which is no • way concerned 
.in it. 

The feventy' weeks mentioned we muft then feek for, 
hctivecn the firft year of Cyrus, when the firf decree was 
made for rebuilding the temple, and the final dejhu^ion 
of it by the Romans. This fpace we are confined to by 
the text ; the feventy weeks are * from the going forth of 
*■ the word to caufe to return, and to build Jerufalem,' 
[ver. 25.] 

Now, the kingdom of Cyrus had a double firfl year ; 
the one abfolutely of his reign over Perjia^ the other of 
his rule over the Bahylonifh monarchy, which he had con- 
quered after the death of Darius Medus, Now, it is the 
iirfl year of the feeond date of the kingdom of Cyrus, 
which may have any relation to the time here hmited ; 
for whilil lie was king of Perfa only, he could have no- 
thing to do v/ith the Jews, nor make any decree for the 
building of the temple, both the people and place being 
then under the dominion of anothero Eelides, it being 



faid, [Ezra i. i.] that he made his decree in the firji year 
of his reign, himlelt' plainly declares, that he had ob- 
tained the Eaflern monarchy by the ccnquefl of Babylon. 

* The Lord God of Heaven hath given me the whole king- 

* doms of the earth,' [ver. 2.] which words can in no fenfe, 
be apphed to the kingdom of Ptrjiu, fuppoling the mo- 
narchy of Babylon Hill to continue. 

The whole fpace of time then here limited is fcvcnty 
weeks^ [ver. 24.] The beginning of thcfe feventy weeks 
is the going forth of the decree, or word to rejlore or build 
Jerufalem, [ver. 25.] The firft decree or command that 
could have any relation to this matter, was that made by 
Cyrus, in the firft year of his empire. We muft then, 
in the firft place, find out the direct fpace of time between 
the firft year of Cyrus, and the deftrudlion of the temple; 
and then inquire, whether the whole, or what part of it, 
is denoted by thefe feventy weeks. 

§ 18. It is generally agreed by all hiftorians and chro- 
nologcrs, thatCyrus began his reign o\tr Pcrjia in the firft 
year of the fifty-fifth olympiad; probably the fame year 
that Nabomd'usy .or Darius Mcdus began his reign over 
Babylon. And this was the year in which Daniel fct 
himfelf folemnly to feek the Lord for the delivery of the 
people out of captivity, he who was fo long before prophe- 
lied of to be their deliverer, being now come to a king- 
dom, [Dan. ix. i.] In the twenty-feventh year of his 
reign, or the firft of the fixty-fecond olympiad, having con- 
quered the Babylonian empire, he began the firil year 
of his monarchial reign, from whence Daniel reckons his 
third, which was his laji, [Dan. x. i.] And herein he 
proclaimed to the Jews, to return to Jerufalem, and to 
build the temple, [Ezra i. i.] The city and temple were 
deftroyed by Titus in the third year of the two hundred 
and eleventh olympiad. Now, from the firjl year of the 
fixty-fecond olympiad, to the third of tjie two hundred 
^nd eleventh olympiad, inclulive, are 599 years ; and 
within that fpace of time we are to inquire after the 490 
years here foretold. 

Of this fpace of time, the Pcrjian empire, from the 
twenty-feventh of Cyrus, or firft ot the whole monarchy, 

a and 

ie4 DANlEL^s PRO^ttEC^ PArt It* 

and the firll of the fixty-fecond olympiad, continued 
two hundred and two years, as is generally acknowledged 
by all ancient hiflorians, ending on the fecond year^ in- 
cluiive of the one hundred and twelfth olympiad, Which 
was the lafl of Darius Codemanus.* 

After his death, Alexander^ beginning his reign in the 
third year of the hundred and twelfth olympiad, ¥eigned 
fix years. From him there is a double account, by the 
two mofl famous branches of the Grecian empire. The 
iirll is by the Syrian, or ara of the Se/cucid^, which 
takes its date from the tenth year after the death of Alex^ 
ander, when, after fome bloody contcllSj Seleucus fettled 
his kingdom in Syria. f 

" For after this 

I. Cyrus reigned - - - 3 yearsi 

a, Cambyfes and Smerdes Magus - 8 

! 3. Darius Hifdalpes * * 34 

4. Xerxes and Artabanus * - 21 

^. Artaxerxes Longimanus - 41 

6. Darius Notbus * * 19 

7. Artaxerxes Mnemon * -. 43 

8. Ochus - - ■^ 23 

9. Arfes - * * 3 ^ 
lo, Darius Codomanus • * 7 

in all * * 20a 
-j> According to the Syrian account, 

I. Alexander reigned 

6 year?: 

2. From Alexander to Seleucus 


3. Seleucus 


4. Antiochus Soter 


5. Antiochus Theos 

^5 ' 

6. Seleucus Callinicus 


7. Seleucus Ceraunus - 

8. Antiochus Tvlagnus * 



9. Seleucus Philopater 


10. Antiochus Epiphanes 


11. Eupator - * 


12. Demetrius Soter 


13. Alexiuider Vales 


In all • * 179 



So that the time of the Grecian empire in Syria, from 
the death of Darius Codomanus, to the liberty of the Jews, 
and ereftion of the fupreme government amongft them, 
was one hundred and f evenly ^n'lne year 5^ which being added 
to the two hundred and two years of the Ferjian empire, 
makes up three hundred and eighty-one years. To the fame 
ifTuc comes alfo the account by the other brancli of the 
Grecian empire in Egypt /^ 

The rule of the Hafmoneans^ with the reign of Herod 
the Great, who obtained the kingdom by means of their 
divifion, continued until the birth of Chrift, one hundred 
(ind forty-eight years. For Jonathan began his rule in the 
fecond year of the hundred and fifty-feventh olympiad ; 
as may be feen by adding the Sellucian cera to the hundred 
and fourteenth olympiad, wherein Alexander died ; and 
our Lord Chrift was born in the fecond year of the hun- 
dred and ninety-fourth olympiad, in the laft year, or laft 
year but one, of Herod the Great. This fum, therefore, 
of a hundred and forty-eight years, being added to the 
forementioned, from the beginning of the empire of 
Cyrus, which is three hundred and eighty-one years, 
makes up, in all, five hundred and twenty-nine 

From the birth of our Lord Chrift, in the fecond year 
of the liundred and ninety-fourth olympiad^ to the de- 
flru£lion of the city and temple, in the third year of the 
two hundred and eleventh olympiad, are feventy years ,- 
which makes up the whole fum before-mentioned, of 

According to the Eg}'ptian account, 

I. Alexander 



2. Ptolemeus Lagi 


- 39 

3. Philadelphus 


- 38 

4. Evergetes 


- 24 

5. Philopater 


- 19 

6. Epiphancs 


- 23 

7. Phi!ometer 


- 3^ 

In all 

• i7y 




Vol. L F f fiv 

1106 DANIEL'S PROPHECY Part tt^ 

five hundred and ninety-nine years, from the firfl of the 
empire of Cyrus, to the deftruftion of Jerufalem.f 

Petavius and Mountacue reckon from the firft of 
Cyrus^ to the eighteenth of Tiberius^ wherein our Lord 
Chrill fuffered, five hundred and ninety-four years, 
which differs very httle from the account we have inflfled 
on ; and this being every way coniiftent with itfelf, and 
the fiated sras of the nations, and abridging the time to 
XhQ Jhorteft /pace t\\2it\^\\\ endure the trial, we fhall abide 
by it. Now, the number of nine hundred and ninety- 
nine years exceeds the time limited in the prophecy, by 
the fpace of a hundred and nine years. Hence it evidently 
appears, that the feventy weeks of Gabriel, (490 years) 
are not commenfurate to the whole fpace of time between 
the firil decree of Cyrus, in the firft year of his general 
empire, and the final defolation of the city and temple 
by Titus. One hundred and nine years muft be taken 
from it, either at the beginning, or at th^ end \ or partly 
at the one, and partly at the other. 

§ 1 9. We fliall firfl confider the end of them, which being 
clear in the prophecy, will regulate, fix, and ftate the 
heginnifig. Two things in general are infifled upgn in this 
prophecy : firfl: , the coming of the Mejjlah the prince, his 
anointing unto the work which he had to do, and his cut- 
ting off, as we before declared ; and fecondly, the ceafing 
of the daily facrifice^ with the deflrutSlion of the city and 
temple, by war, and a flood of defolation. Now, thefe 
things happened not 2^1 the fame tima \ for the city ai\d 
ianftuary were dcftroyed thirty-feven years after the cut- 
ting off, or death of the Melhah. We aire to inquire, 

-j- From Cyrus to Darius Codomanus - 202 years^i 

yrom Darius Codomanus, to Alexander Vales ; 1 

or, in the Egyptian line, to Philometer - j /" 
From Philometer, to the birthof Chrift ; or, during 1 r^ 

the Hafmonean rule, with Herod the Great j "^ 

rulalem - - - J ' 

From the birth of Chiift, to the dellrudipn of Je- 
rufalem . _ . 

From the firfl of Cyrus, to the deflrudion | rj, , 
of the city - - J -5"^ 


txER. i' VINDICATED,' b07 

therefore, which of thefc it was, that the time mentioned 
determined for. Now it is the coming, anointing, and 
cutting off of the Meffiah, that is the thing chiefly in- 
tended in this prophecy. This we have proved undenia- 
bly before ; manifefting that the vifion was granted to 
Daniel, and given out by him, for the confolatwn of iiim- 
felf and the church, as was the way of the Holy Ghoft ia 
all his dealings with the fathers of old. To this the de- 
folation and deflru£tlon of the city and temple was only a 
confequcnt of what was principally foretold. And it is 
doubtlefs unreafonable to expe<^ the duration of the time 
beyond the principal fubjeft matter treated of, and on the 
account whereof alone, the computation is granted, to that 
which is ou\j occajionally mentioned. Bciidcs, tlie compu- 
tation itfelf is pointed diredly by the angel to the Meiliah, 
and his cutting off. * Seventy weeks are determined upon. 

* thy people, know, therefore, that from the going forth 

* of the commandment, to Meffiah the prince fhall be,' 
&c. * And after lixty-two weeks fhall the Meffiah be cut 

* off.' But there is no reference of the time limited to 
the defolation of the city and fan^tuary^ 

Moreover, it is expreffly faid, that the time limited ex- 
tends itfelf only to the death of the Meffiah, or a very few 
years farther ; for he was to come after feven weeks and 
fixty-two weeks, which are the whole time limited within 
one week, or feven years. Now, his coming, here in- 
tended, is not the time of his incarnation, but that of his 
iin^ion at his baptifm, which fell out at the end of fixty- 
nine weeks. After thefe fixty-nine weeks, or feven and 
Jixty-two weeks, he is to be * cut off;' that is, in the 
middle, or towards the end of the hll week, when he had 
confirmed the covenant by preaching three years and a half 
of that ^e\tn years which remained. And if we fhall fay, 
that his un£lion was to be after the fixty-nine weeks, we 
niuft grant it to be in the firft or fecoiid vear of the laft 
week ; whereto add the three years and a half gf his 
preaching, and the remaining fratlion of one or two years 
can no way diflurb the account, there being nothing more 
frecpent than fuch an omiffion, for ^le fake of an intire 

F f 2 and 


and round number. Here, then, mull we fix the end of 
the four hundred and ninety years, vi-z. in the death of 
the MeiTiah ; and fo wholly lay afide the account of thofe 
who would extend the time determined to the defolation 
of the city and temple. 

§ 2 0. We muft, therefore, in the firfl place, abate 
from the whole account of five hundred and ninety-nine 
years before flated, the fum of thirty-fcvcn years, which 
enfued after the death of our Saviour, until the deflru£lion 
of Jerufalem ; and the remnant is five hundred and fix ty- 
two years ; which exceeds the number of feventy weeks 
by fieventy-two years. It appears, then, that the begin- 
ning of the weeks cannot be the decree of Cyrus ; for to 
name four hundred and ninety, for five hundred and lix- 
ty-two, would feem rather to be a rude conje6ture, than 
an exa6l prophecy ; nor is there any neceffity for fuch a 
fuppofition. JBefides, the word ufed by the angel (inn) 
plainly proves, that ^preclfie duration of time is intended ; 
for it fignifies to cut out^ or cut off; that is, to fet apart, 
limit, or dcierrninc. It is, therefore, a precife portion of 
time cut out, limited, and apportioned, for the accomplifh- 
ment of the work foretold, fubjed only to the inconfide- 
rable fra£lion before noticed.*' 

^2 1. Others there are, who, refolving to date thefe 
weeks from the firft of Cyrus, and to make four hundred 
and ninety years the exa£t meafure of the time from thence 
to the death of the MeiTiah, and not being able to difprove 
the computation from Alexander to that time, fall alfo 

* The Jewifli mode of attempting to folve the difficulty, by 
dating the vveeks from the deftru6tion of the temple, by the 
Chaldeans, and ending them in the defolation of the fecond houfe, 
is beneath farther notice ; as excluding in their computation thofe 
tranfaCiions v/liich are equally notorious to mankind, as that there 
ever vvas fuch a thing as the Ferlian empire. And to fuppofe that 
there were no more kings of Perfia than are mentioned in the 
books of Ezra and Nehemirih, is no lefs futile than it would be to 
lay, that there were never above three or four kings of the AJJy- 
rian empire, becaufe there are no more mentioned in fcripture. 
But if a full chronological account was not hitended in thofe books, 
this (av»o-1oj!riO-t») nori'infiertion in hifiory^ is beneath all confi dera- 



upon the Perfian empire, and cut it fliort above fifty years 
of the general account, to tit it to the place they have 
provided for it. To this end they rejed the account of 
the Chaldeans, Grecians, and Romans, concerning the 
time of its continuance, as fabulous, and give us a new 
arbitrary account of the reign of thofe kings whom they 
will allow. But independent of the extraordinary liberty 
required to warrant fuch a procedure, it is deftitute of all 
probability. The word decree^ or commandment, men- 
tioned to Daniel is, that for the building of Jerufalem ; 
that is, the rcfioring of it into a condition of rule ai^d 
government, and not merely the fetting up of houfes. 
Confcquent to this, their ' building of the walls' alfo, 
for the defence of the people is mentioned. Of this it 
is faid, that it fliould fall out in a troublcfomc time^ or a 
time of ftreights, as accordingly it fell out in the days of 
Nehemiah. In the whole, there is not the leaft men- 
tion of building the temple, which, had it been intended, 
could not, I fuppofe, have been omitted. Eut in the 
decree of Cyrus, the principal thing mentioned and aimed 
at is, the re-edification of the temple, the city, and the 
walls thereof, being not fpoken of, [Ezra i. paflim.j 
It feems, then, evident, that the decree mentioned by 
Daniel, for the building of the city and walls, and that 
given out by Cyrus, for the building of the temple, were 
divers. Bcfides, this decree of Cyrus, although foretold 
long before, and made famous, becaufe it v>ras the entrance 
into the people's return and fettlemcnt, took effect for fo 
fliort a fpace of time, being obflrufted within lefs thaa 
three years, and utterly frufcrated v/ithin four or five, 
that it is not likely to be the date of this prophecy, which 
feems to take place from fome good fettlcment of the peo- 
ple. That alone which is pleaded with any colour for 
this decree of Cvrus, is tliC predidion recorded, Ifa. xHv. 
28. It is prophefied of him, that he ihould fav to ' |e- 
* rufalem, thou Ihalt be built; and to the temple, thy 
' foundations fliall be laid.' But it is neither here fore- 
told, that Cyrus Ihould make any decree for the building 
of Jerufalem, or that it fliould be done in his days, as 

I indeed 

fiio DANIEL'S PRO^HSCY Far t it. 

indeed it was not until an hundred years after, as it is 
evident from the ftory in Nehemiah. The whole inten- 
tion of this prophecy is, that he ihould caufe the people 
to be fet at liberty from their captivity, and give them 
leave to return to Jerufalem, which he accordingly did, 
and thereupon, both the building of the city and temple 
enfued, though not without the intervention of other de- 
crees. The account, therefore, before laid down, being 
cflablifhed, it is certain enough, that the decree men- 
tioned by Gabriel, from the going forth whereof the fe- 
venty weeks are to be dated, was not that of the firfl of 
Cyrus, for the return of the captivity and building of the 
temple. We mufl, therefore, inquire for fome other ds- 
€ree, from whence to date the weeks. 

§ 22. The fecond decree of the kings of Perfia, in re- 
ference to the Jews, was that of Darius, made in his fe- 
cond year, when the work of the building of the temple 
was carried on through the prophecy of Haggai and 
Zechariah, mentioned in Ezra vi. granted by Darius, 
upon appeal made to him from the neighbouring gover- 
nors ; and it was a mere revival of the decree of Cyrus, 
the roll whereof was found in Achmetha, in the province 
of the Medes, [ver. 2. See Hag. i. 12. ii. 10. Zech, 

i. I.] 

Upon the roll of the kings of Perfia, we find three 
called by the name of Darius, as the Jews term him. 
(i.) Darius Hyfdafpes^ who fucceeded Cambyfes, by the 
election of the princes of Perfia, upon the killing of Smer- 
des Magus, the ufurper. (2.) Darius ISIothus, who fuc- 
ceeded A^rtaxerxes Longimanus. (3.) Darius CodomanuSy 
in whom the Perlian empire had its period, by Alexander 
the Great. That the laft of thefe can be no way concerned 
in the decree, is notorious ; the two others are difputed, 
Moft learned men grant, that Darius Hyfdafpes was the 
author, of this decree ; and indeed that it was foj at leaft, 
that it can be afcribed to no other Darius, we Ihall fooii 
undeniably prove. And it is not unlikely that he was 
inclined to this favour and moderation towards the Jews, 
by his general delign to relieve men from under the op- 



preffions that were upon them during the reign of Cam- 
byfes, and to renew the a£ls of Cyrus, their firfl empe- 
ror, who V7as renounced amongft them, to ingratiate him- 
self with mankind, and coniirm himfelf in that king- 
dom, whereto he came not by i'acccllion. And it is not 
improbable, that this was he who was the hufband of 
Efthcr. Now, Cyrus reigned after his firfl decree three 
years ; Cambyfes with Smerdes eight ; and Darius, be- 
fore he iffued out this decree, two years ; in all thirteen 
years. Now, deduct this from five hundred and fixty- 
two, and there yet remains five hundred and forty-nhic 
years, which exceeds the number of years inquired after 
by fifty-nine years. So that neither can this be the com^ 
mandment intended ; not to mention, that this command 
was a mere renovation, or a new acknowledgement of the 
decree of Cyrus, about the rebuilding of the temple ; and 
io^ doubtlefs, was not defigned as the fignal epocha of the 
time here determined. 

The great Scaugfr, who would date the weeks from 
this decree of Darius, knowing that the time would not 
fuit with the reign of Dar'ms Hyfdafpes, contends, that 
Nothus, who fucceeded Longimanus, was the author of it ; 
and extends the whole time to the deftru£lion of the city 
and temple ; that fpace of time, according to his compu- 
tation, being elapfed from the fecond year of Darius. But 
the truth is, as may be feen from our former account, 
that from the fecond year of Darius Nothus, to the de- 
flru£tion of the city, was but four hundred and eighty 
years. Befides, we have before proved from the text, 
that the time determined was to expire in the death of the 
JMessiah. Neither is it confiftent with the prophecy of 
yeremiah, that the temple fliould be waile fo long a fpace ; 
that is, about one hundred and feventy years. Again, 
Haggai plainly declares, that when the work of the tem- 
ple was carrying on, in tlie fecond year of Darius, many 
were yet alive, who had feen the firfl temple, [Hag. ii. 
3.] As multitudes were upon the laying of its foundation, 
in the days of Cyrus, [Ezra ii. 12.] But this was im- 
pollible, had it been in the days of Nothus, a hundred 



2nd fixty or feventy years after it was deilroyed,— It ap- 
pears, then, that Darius Nothus was not the author of the 
decree mentioned ; as alfo that the times of the weeks 
cannot be dated from the fecond year of Darius Hyflafpes, 
who was the author of it. 

§ 23. After this, there is mention made of two other 
commands, or decrees, relating to the temple and people, 
both granted by the fame JrtaxerxeSy one in the feventh 
year of his reign, to Ezra, [chap. vii. 7,] the other in 
the twentieth year of his reign, to Nehemiah, [chap. ii. i.] 
And from one of thefe mull the account inquired after 
be dated. Now, fuppoling that one of thefe decrees muft 
be intended, it is evident, that Longima?ius, and not Ale- 
mar, was the author of them ; for from the feventh year 
of Memor, which was the fecond of the ninety-fifth olym^ 
piad, to the eighteenth year of Tiberius Caefar, wherein 
our Saviour fulFered, being the third of the two hundred 
and fecond olympiad, are only four hundred and twenty- 
eight years, Jixty-two fhort of the whole. Now, thefe 
fixty-two years added to the beginning of the account, 
from the feventh of Memor, fall in exactly on iht fiventh 
of Longimanus ; from the feventh of Longimanus, then, 
to the feventh of Memor, are fixty-two years, and from 
the feventh of Vlemor, to the eighteenth of Tiberius, are 
four iiundred and twenty-eight ; in the whole four hun- 
dred and ninety, the number inquired after.* 

And there wants not reafon to induce me to fix on this 
decree, rather than any other, being, indeed, the moft 
famous, and moft ufeful to the people of all the reft. By 
what means it v/as obtained, is not recorded. Evident it 
is, however, that Ezra had great favour with the king. 

'^ From the feventh of Longimanus, to the fe- 1 , 
venth of Memor - - - J 

From the feventh of Memor, to the eighteenth 1 ^ 
of Tiberius - - - J 

Prom the going forth of the decree, in the feventh '\ 
year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, to the death > 490 
ofChrill - - "J 


and that he had convinced him of the greatnefs and 
power of that God, whom he fervcd, [Ezra viii. 22.] 
Befides it was not a mere podamaiion of liberty^ hke that 
of Cyrus, which was renewed by Darius ; but a dcocc^ a law 
made by the king and his feven counfellors, [Ezra vii. IJ..] 
the higheil and moil irrefragable legiflntivc power 
amongll the Medcs and Perfians. Moreover, together 
with the decree Ezra had a formal commijjion ; he is faid 
not only to have Icaijc to go, but to be '• fent* by the 
king and his counj'cl. Befides, the former decrees barely re- 
fpedled the temple ; and it feems, that in the execution of 
them the people had done little more than building the 
bare fabric ; all things, as to the true order of the worfhip 
of God, remaining in great confufion, and the civil ilate 
utterly neglcfted. But now, in this commiffion, Ezra is 
not only dire£lly to fet the whole worfliip of God in order, 
at the charge of the king, [Ezra vii. 16 — 23.] but alfo 
that he fhould appoint a civil government and magillpacy, 
with fupreme power, to be exercifed as occafion required, 
[ver. 25, 26.] This alone, and no other, was the 
building of the city, mentioned by Gabriel ; for it is not 
walls and houfes, but policy, rule, and government, that 
makes a city. 

And it is very confiderablc what a convi£lion of the 
ncceffty of this work was then put upon the fpirits of the 
governors of the Perfian empire ; for the king himfelf 
calls Ezra ' The fcribe of the law of the God of Heaven,,' 
and declares that he was perfuaded, that if this work was 
not done, * there would be wrath from heaven upon him- 
* M^ his kingdom, and his fon,' [ver. 23.] The fe- 
ven counfcllors alfo join in that law, [ver. 28.] So 
that no command that concerned that people, before or 
after, was accompanied with that folemnity^ or gave fuch 
glory to God as this did. Befides, the whole work of 
reforming the church, the reflitution of divine worffjip^ 
and the recognition of the facred oracles, by Ezra, make 
it manifeft, that ibis decree, and no other, was intended 
by the angel Gabriel. 

^»0L. I, G% EXERCIT. 

SI4 THE EVASIONS OF '?'HE Part. 11, 



§ I. ^hat the Mejfuih'' $ coming is delayed^ and their difperfion 
continued^ becaufe cf the Jins of their forefathers, anfwered. 
§ 2. Becaufe of their own Jins, anfwered. § 3. That the 
deliverance from Babylon was nothing but a trials whereby 
God would make an experiment, anfuuered. § 4. That the 
Meffah was horn the fame day that the fecond temple was 
deftroycd, confdered, § 5. That the promife of the Afcf 
fiah' s coming at the feafon we plead for, was not abfolute, 
but conditional^ anfwered. i . This militates againfl the pro- 
mife to the Gentiles, § 6. 2. Jgainfi Divine fore-know-- 
ledge. § 7. 3. Againfl its own pretenfons. § 8. 4, 
Agairf the nature of the promifcd covenant. § g. 5, 
jigainfl the Meffiah^s ever coming. 

§ I. JlSuT the Jews endeavour to evade the force of 
all this evidence, by various pleas ; and particuhirly by 
pleading, that it is for their fins the coming of the Mef- 
liah is prolonged, whereby they are left in their prefent 
long difperfion. We readily grant, in a fenfe, it is on 
on account of their fijis, that they have no Meffiah. But 
we muft inquire, what they intend thereby ? I afk, 
therefore, whether it be for the fins of their forefathers, 
w^ho lived before the laft final difperfion, or for their fins, 
who have fince lived in their feveral generations, that 
they are thus utterly forfaken r If they ihall fay, it is 
for the fins of their forefathers ; then I defire to know, 
whether they think God to be changed from what he was 
of old; or, whether he be not fiiill every way the fame, 
as to all the promifes of the covenant ? Suppofing they 
will fay, that he is ftill the fame, I defire to know, whe- 
ther he did not, in former times, in the days of their 
judges and kings, efpecially in the Babylonifli captivity, 
punifh them for their fins, with that contemperation of 

I juftice 


juflice and mercy, which was agreeable to the tenor of 
the covenant ? This, I fuppofe, they will not deny, 
the fcripturc fpeaking fuIJy to it, and tlie rightcoufnefs 
of God requiring it. I dcfire, then, to know, what 
were the fins of their forefathers^ before the deflrudlion o£ 
the fecond temple, and their final difperfion, which, ac- 
cording to the rules of the covenant, fo much exceeded 
the lins of them who lived before the defolation of the firfl 
temple, and the captivity that enfoed ? For we know 
that the fins of thefe former were punifhed only with a 
difperfion, which continued to more than feventy years ; 
after which they returned again to their own land ; 
whereas their prefent captivity and difperfion have now 
continued above twenty times feventy years. Now, of all 
the fins, which on the general account of the law of God, 
the fons of men can make themfelves guilty of, idolatry is 
doubtlefs the greatell ; the chufing oi other Gods is a complete 
renunciation of the true God, and therefore is this fin for- 
bidden at the very front of the law, as intimating, that if 
the command of owning the true God, and him alone, be 
not adhered to, it is to no purpofe to apply ourfelves to 
thofe that follow. Now, it is known to all, that this fin. 
of IDOLATRY abounded amongft them under the firfi 
temple, and that alfo for a long continuance, attended 
with violence, adulteries, perfecut'ion, and Opprelfion ; but 
that thofe under the fecond temple had contracted the guilt 
of this fin, the prefent Jews do not pretend ; and we know 
that they hated all appearance of it. Nor are they able to 
aflign any other fins whatever, wherein they went higher 
in their provocations, than their progenitors under the 
firft temple. What then is the caufe of the different events. 
and fuccefs between them ? It cannot be, but that either 
they have contrafted the guilt of fome fin, wherewith God 
was more difplcafed, than with the idolatry of their fore- 
fathers, or that the covenant made witli them is expired, 
or that there hath been a coincidence of both thefe ; and 
that, indeed, is the fa<ft. The Mefiiah came, in whorr 
the carnal covenant was to expire, and they reje^ed and 
G s 2 flsw 



flew him ; which has deferved their rejeftion from it, 
and their prefent difmheritance. 

§ 2. Sometimes they will plead, that it is for their 
own Jtns, and the fins of the generations that Jucceeded the 
deflru£tion of the fecond temple, that they are kept thus 
long in captivity. But we know, that they ufe this plea 
only as a covering for their obllinate blindnefs and'infide - 
iity. Take them from this difpute, and they are conti- 
nually boafting of their right eoufnefs and holinefs ; for they 
do not only afTure us, that they are better than all the 
world befides, but alfo much better than their forefathers; 
and that on the day cf expiation, that is, once a-year, 
they are as holy as the angels in heaven ! Then I would 
fain know — whereas it is a principle of their faith, that 
all Jews, excepting apojiates, are fo holy and righteous, 
that they ihall all be faved, iliall all have a portion in the 
blefiTed world to come — whence is it, that none of them 
are fo righteous as to be rcflored to the land of Canaan ? 
Is it not Urange, that the righteoufnefs which ferves the 
turn to bring them all to heaven, will not ferve to bring 
any one of them to Jerufalem ? this latter being more 
openly and frequently promifed to them, than the 

Again, repentance from their fins is a thing wholly in 
their own pov/er, or it is not ; if they fhall fay, it is in 
their own power, as generally they do, T defire to know, 
why they defer it ? The glorious imaginations they have of 
the levelling of moimtams, the ^iz;/V% of rivers, the finging of 
woods, and dancing of trees, and of coaches and chariots 
of kings to carry them ; as alfo the riding upon the 
fhoulders of their rich neighbours into Jerufalem, the con- 
aueil of the v/orld, the eating oi Behemoth, and drinking 
tile wine of Vayadife\ the riches, wives, and long Xii^ 
they fhall have in the days of the MefTiah — all thefe brave 
things make them, as they pretend, patiently to endure 
©11 their long exile and calamity. And w4'll not all thefe 
fine things prevail Vv'ith them for a little repentance, which 
they may perform when they plcafc ; and fo obtain them 
all in SI tjice? If they ave fo evidently blind, about 



what they look upon as their only great concernment in 
this world, have they not great caufe to be jealous, left 
tlieyare alfo equally blind in other things, and particu- 
larly in that wherein we charge them with blindncfs ? 
This, it feems, is the flate of things ; unlefs they repent, 
the Melliah will not come ; unlcls he come, they cannot 
be delivered out of their calamity, nor enjoy the promifes. 
To repent is" a thing in their own power, and yet they 
had rather endure all miferies, and forego all the promifes 
of God, than take in hand, and go through with it. And 
what fhall we fay to fuch a perverfe geiicration of men, 
who openly proclaim, that they will live in their fins, 
though they have never more to do with God to eter- 
nity ! 

§ 3. Some have aflerted, *' That the deliverance from 
Babylon was nothing but a trial, whereby God would 
make an experiment, whether, together with the reflitu- 
tion of their kingdom and temple, thofe enormous fins of 
adultery, murder, and idolatry, which they had commit- 
ted, could be cut off, and expiated ; but inftead of a dif- 
charge of their former arrears, which they were obliged to, 
they heaped up new debts by their fins." — But this is 
plainly a worthlefs ficlion ; as no man can produce one 
word from the fcripture, where it treats of thefe things, 
in the leaf! giving countenance thereto ; or can fliew, how 
this procedure is fuitable to the juftice of God ; either to 
the general notion that we have of it, or as to any other 
inftance recorded of it in the fcripture. On the contrary, 
the prophets that treated concerning that difpenfation of 
God, in places innumerable, plainly contradi£l this imagi- 

God punifheth not the fins of their fathers upon their 
children, unlets the children continue in the fins of their 
fathers. This he declareth at large, Ezek. xviii. Now, 
what were the fins of this people under the firft temple, 
before their captivity ? They reckon adultery^ murder^ 
and idolatry. It is, no doubt, but many of them were 
adulterers, and that fin among others was charged upon 
tliem by the prophets ^ but it is evident, that their prln- 


cipa^ ruining lins were their idolatry and perfecution of the 
prophets. Now, were the Jews, that is, the hdy of the 
feople, guilty of thefe fins under the fecond houfe ? It 
is known, that from all grofs idolatry they preferved them- 
felves, which had been in an efpecial manner, their ruin 
before ; and as for klllhig the prophets, they acknowledge 
that after A^Ialachi they had none, but thofe whom they 
"will not own to be prophets. 

Suppofe that all thofe under the fecond houfe conti- 
nued in the fins of their forefathers, v/hich yet is falfe, 
and denied by themfelvcs, as occafion requires ; yet what 
have the Jews done for fixtccn hundred ycars^ fince the 
dellru£lion of that houfe ? They plead themfelves to be 
holy, and (applying the prophecy, Ifa- lili. to themfelves) 
proclaim themfelves to be innocent and righteous ; at leaft 
they would not have us to think, that the generality of 
them are adulterers, murderers, and idolaters ; whence is 
it, then, that the puniihmentof their fathers' fins lies upon 
them fo loiig ? What rule of jufrice is obferved herein ? 
What inftance of the like difpenfation can they produce? 
For our parts, we affirm, that they ccntbwc to this day in 
th.t fa r^c Jin, for which their forefathers, under the fecond 
houfe, were rejefted and deflroyed ; and we know the 
righteoufnefs of God in their prefent captivity. 

They fay, they abhor the fins of their forefathers, re- 
pent of them, and obtain remifiion of their fins, through 
their obfcrving the law of Mofes ; wherein, then, is the 
faithfulnefs of God in his promifes to them ! Why arc 
they not delivered out of captivity ? Why not reltored 
to their land, according to exprefs tefiimonies of the cove- 
nant made with them to that purpofe ? There is no 
colour of truth nor reafon, therefore, in this evaficHy 
which thev invented, to preferve themfelves in their ob- 
flinate blindnefs and unbelief. 

§ 4. Being preffed with the teftimonies before infilled 
en, out of Haggai, concerning the glory of the fecond tem- 
ple, and the coming of the defire of all nations into it, they 
have a tradition, that theMefilahwas born the fameday, that 
the fecond temple was dsflroyed, ** Rabbi Joden, in 



the name of Rabbi Ibbo, faid, T^he Mejjlah was horn in 
the day that the houfe of the fan^uary was dcjlroyed^^ &c.^" 
Again, they have a tradition out of the fchool of one 
Eli AS, a famous mafler among them, of the Jannareif 
or Ante-Talmudical dodors, which they have recorded ia 
the T'almud, about the continuance of the world, which 
is as follows ; *' It is a tradition of Eli as, that the world 
fhall continue fix thoufand years ; two thoiifand void. 
(which the glofs of R. Solomon Jarchi reckons from 
the creation, to the call of Abraham) tivo thoufand of the 
law ('to the def!:ru£lIon of the fccond temple) and two 
thoufand for the days of the Mcfjiah.^'' It is incredible hov/ 
the latter Rabbins are perplexed with this tradition of their 
Mafers, which is recorded in the Tahnttd as facred.f 
But what is become of hiai all this while ? O " he was 
carried away by the fpur winds of heaven, and kept in 
the great fca four hundred years !" Is not this, you 
will fay, very ridiculous ? True ; but he who i^ of- 
fended with the citation of fuch things out of their Tal^ 
mudical dolors, is defired only to exercife patience, until 
he Ihall be able himfelf to report from them, things more 
ferious and of greater importance. And yet, from them 
muft we learn the perfuafions of the ancient Jews, or be 
ignorant of them. This evafion, therefore, needs no- 
thing better than itfelfto confute it, 

§ 5. They fometimes grant, that the time fixed on was 
determined for the coming of the Melliah ; but add withal, 
that the promife of his coming at that feafon was not ab^ 
folutc, but conditional; namely, on fuppolition, that the' 
Jews were righteous, holy, and worthy to receive him. 
And nothing is more common with them, than this con- 
dition : * if they dcferve it,' * if they repent,'' the Mefliah 
will come, * the time is already paft, but becaufe of our 

* fins he is not come.' * If Ifracl could repent but one 

* day he would come.* There was a time limited and 

* Tn\di. Bczaroth, Did in <^ Hajahorr. In Bcrcjlnth Rail a ^ on 
Gen. XXX. they have a long (lory to the fame purpofe. 
t Traa. Saned, Diftin^. Chelec. 



determined, they grant, for the coming of the Meffiah; 
this time is lignified in general in the fcripture to be be- 
fore the dellrudion of the fecond temple, and the utter de- 
parture of fcribe and law-giver from Judah ; but all this 
defignation of time, they add, was but conditional, and 
the accomplifhment of it had a refpe£l to their righteouf- 
nefs, repentance, good works, and merits ; but which 
faiihig, their Meffiah is not yet come. — -To this 
ifTue is their infidelity at length arrived. But there arc 
veafons innumerable, which expofe the vanity of this pre- 
tence. Some of them I ihall briefly infill upon: 

i» We have before proved, that not the Jews only, but 
the Gentiles alfo, even the whole world, was concerned in 
the coming of the Meffiah, The prophets every where 
declare, that the Gentiles, the nations of the world, were 
equally concerned with the Jews in the promife of the 
Meffiah's coming, if not principally intended, becaufe of 
their greatnefs and number. The time of exhibiting this. 
lemedy to them he promifed alfo, and limited, {lirring 
them up to an expeftation of its accomplifliment, as that 
whereon all their happinefs depended ; and fhall w^e now 
fuppofe, that all this love, grace, and mercy of God to- 
wards mankind, and his faithfulnefs in his promifes, were 
all fufpended on the goodnefs, righteoufnefs, merits, and 
repentance of the Jews ? Shall we fuppofe, that God, 
who fo often tefiifies concerning them, that they were a 
people, wicked, obltinate, ftubborn, and rebeUious, 
Should make them keepers of the everlafling happinefs of 
the whole world ? Shall we fuppofe, that he hath com- 
mitted the fountain of his grace and love, which he in- 
tended and promifed fhouid overflow the whole earth, 
and make all the barren wilderneflTes of it fruitful, to be 
flopped by them at their pleafure ? As if he fliould 
fay in liis promifes, " I am refolved, out of my infinite 
goodnefs and compaffion towards you, O ye poor mifera- 
"ble fons of Adam, to fend you a Saviour and a Deliverer, 
who, at fuch a time, fhall come and declare to you, the 
way of life eternal, ffiall open the door of heaven, and 
fiive you from the wrath that ygu have deferved ; but I 



will do it on this conditicn, that the Jews, an obfllnate 
and rebellious people, be good and holy, righteous and 
penitent, for unlels they be fo, the Saviour fhall not come, 
nor is it poffible it ihould, until they be fo.'* Is this wor- 
thy of the Mofl High ? 

§ 6. £. When God limited the time of the Mcffiah*s 
coming, he either forcfaw what woujd be the flate and 
condition of the Jews^ or he did not. If they fay he 
/^id not ; then, belides that, they deny him to be God, by 
denying thofe elTential attributes of his nature, which the 
very heathen acknowledge in their deities ; they alfo ut- 
terly overthrow all the predictions of the Old Teftament ; 
for there is not any of them, but depends upon a fuppofi^ 
tion of the prefence of God ; and this is nothing but 
to countenance their unbelief with perfect atheifm. If 
they fay he did forefee, that their conditions and manners 
would be according to the event, fo as to know that it 
was impolTible the Meffiah would come at the time de- 
termined ; I afk, to what end and purpofe doth he fo often, 
and at fo great a diHance of time, predi£l and pro- 
mife that he fhould come, and fo that not one word of Irij. 
predictions fliould be fulfilled? Why, I fay, did \\t fix 
en a tiriie and feafon, foretell it often, limit it by figns in- 
fallible, give out an exadt computation of the years, from 
the time of his predictions, and call all men to an expecta- 
tion of his coming accordingly ; when, it feems, by his forc- 
fight, he knew that, by rcafon of all the Jews wanting merit 
a nd repentance, no iuch thing could pofiibly take place ? This 
were not to promife and foretell in infinite veracity, but 
purpofely to deceive. The condition^ then, pretended, can- 
not be put upon the promife of the coming of the MeiTiah, 
without a direCt denial of fome, and, by jufl confequence, 
of all the effential properties of Jehovah. There is not 
in the whole fcripture the leail intimaition of fuch a con- 
dition, as that which they pretend the promife infilled on 
to be clogged with. It is no where laid, nowhere inti- 
mated, that if the Jews repented, and merited well, the 
AIessiaii fhould come at the time mentioned ; no where 
threatened, that if thev did not fo, his coming ihould be 

Vol. I. ' H h ^vx 


put off to an uncertain day. He was to coiiie to turn men 
from ungodlinefs, and not becaufe they were turned before 
his coming. 

§ 7. 3. The fuggcflion overthrows the rife of the pro- 
mife, and the whole nature of the thing promifed. The 
fpring of the promife was mere love, and fovereign grace ; 
there was not any thing in man, Jew or Gentile, that 
Ihould move the Lord to provide a remedy for them 
who had deftroyed themfelves. Now, to fufpend the 
promife of this love and grace, on the righteoufnefs and 
repentance of them to whom it was made, i^ perfedly to 
deflroy it, and to place the merit of it in man ; whereas it 
arofe purely from the grace of God. Again, it utterly de- 
Uroys the nature of the thing promifed, which is a falvatioii 
from lin and mifery. To fuppofe that this fliall not be 
granted, unlefs men, as a condition of it, deliver themfelves 
from their fins, is to aflert a plain contradi6lion, and 
wholly to deftroy the promife. He was not promifed to 
men, becaufe they were penitent and juft, but to make 
them fo. And to make the righteoufnefs of Jews and Gen- 
tiles, the condition of his coming, is to take his work out 
of liis hand, and to render both him and his righteoufnefs 
ufelefs^ The Jews, on feveral accounts, are f elf -con- 
demned, in the ufe of this pretence. Their great fins, 
they fav, are the caufe, why the coming of the Meffiah is 
retarded. But what thofe fi-ns are, they cannot declare. 
We readily grant them to be wicked enough ; but withal, 
we know tkeir great wickednefs to confifl, in that which 
they will not acknowledge ; not in being unfit for his 
coming, but in refufmg him when he came^ They in- 
ftance fometimes in \X\t\x hatred owt to another, their mu- 
tual animojilies, and frequent adulteries, and want of ob- 
ferving the fahbath, according to the rules of their pre- 
fent fuperilitious fcrupulofity. But take them from the 
rack of our arguments, and you hear no more of their 
conftilions, no more of their fins and wickednefs, but 
they are immediately all righteous and holy, all beloved 
c^f God, and better than their forefathers ; yea, as before 
hinted, on the day of expiation they are as holy^ if we be- 


lleve them, as the angels in heaven. There Is not one fin 
amongft them ! Is it not flrange, then, that the Mef- 
fiah did not, at one time or other, come to them on that 
day ? 

§ 8. 4. The vain plea is dire£lly contrary to the nature 
of the covenant, which God promifed to make at the 
coming of the Meffiah, or that which he came to ratify 
and eftablifh, and the reafon which God gives for the 
making of that covenant, [Jer. xxxi. 31 — 33.] The 
foundation of the new covenant hes in this, that the peo- 
ple had ' difanulled and broken the former made with 
* them.' Now, furely they do not difannul that cove- 
nant, if;thcyare righteous according to the tenor of it; 
and unlefs they are righteous, they fay, the Meffiah will 
not come ; that is, the new covenant fhall not be made, 
unlefs by them it be firfl made nccdlefs ! Again, the na- 
ture of the covenant lies in this, that God in it makes men 
righteous and holy, [Ezek. xi. 19.] So that righteouf- 
iiefs and holinefs cannot be the condition of making it,— 
unlefs it be of making it ufelefs. This, then, is the 
conteft between God and the Jews ; he takes it upon him- 
fclf to give men righteoufnefs, by the covenant of the Mef-r 
liah, and they take it upon themfelves to h righteous, that 
he may make that covenant with them. 

§ 9. 5. If the coming of the Meffiah depend on the 
righteoufnefs and repentance of the Jews, it is not only 
polhble, but very probable, that he may 7ievcr come. Seeing 
that they have not repented all this while, what ajfurance 
have we, nay what hope may wx entertain, concerning 
the remnant of future trial ? Greater calls to re- 
pentance from God, greater motives from themfelves and 
others, they are not Ukc to meet with. And what grounds 
have we to expe£t, that they who have withllood all thcfe 
calls, without any good fruit, by their own confeffions, 
will ever be any better ? Upon this fuppofition, then, it 
would be very probable, that the Meffiah fliould never 

Y{\\ % EXERCIT. 




§ I. Introduiflon and fuhjeB Jlated, § 2. (I.) Ihat Jefus 
came ivith'm the time limited. § 3. (11.) T'hat no other 
came within that fcafon, that could claim the chara£ier^ 
% 4 — 6. (Ill-) T^hat the fcriptiiral charaderijiic notes of 
cf the Mejftah belong to Jefus Chrif, and center in his 
f erf on. l. He came from the true flock. § 7. 2. 'The 
flace of his birth. § 8 — 13. 3. Born of a Virgin, 
§ 14, 15. 4. Mljat he taught. § 16 — 19. 5. JVhat 
he fufferc^. § 2 — 25. 6. His miracles. § 26. 7, 
^he fuccefs of his doctrine and religion^ 

§ I. xF, then, the Melliah, came not within the time 
limited, all expectation from the fcripture of the Old Tef- 
tament muft come to nought i nor can the Jews, on 
that fuppoiition, in any meafure defend the truth of it 
againft an infidel. And, indeed, the ridiculous fable of 
his being born at the time appointed, but kept hid to this 
day^ they know not where, is not to be pleaded, when 
they deal with men not bereaved of their fenfes, or judi- 
cially blind. We afk them, then, if Jefus of Nazareth 
be not the Messiah, where is he ? or who is he, that 
came in anfwer to the prophecies mfifled on r Three things 
then remain to be proved : 

I. That our Lord Jefus Chrill: came, lived, and 
died within the time limited for the coming of the Mes- 

II. That no other came within that feafon, that either 
pretended, with any colour of probability, to that dig- 
nity, or was ever owned to be fuch by the Jews them- 

III. That all the fcriptural chara£lerlftical notes of the 
Mefliah center in the perfon of our Lord Jefus. 

2 § ^. 


§ 2. (I.) That Jcfus came and lived In the time Ji- 
mited, fome fjioit fpace before the departure of flie fcep- 
ter and fcribe from Judah, the ceafmg of the 
daily facrifices, and iinal defolation of tlie fccond temple, 
we have all the evidence that a matter of fa^t fo long paflcd 
is capable of. The hiftories of the church are exprcfs, 
that he was born during the empire of Auguftus Casfar, \\\ 
the latter end of the reign of Herod over Judca, when Cy- 
rcnius was governor of Syria; that he liyed to the time 
when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, under Tibe- 
rius, about thirty-fix or thirty-feven years before the de- 
ilruftion of the nation, cit;y, and temple, by Titus. Nei- 
tjicrdid the moil malicious and fierce impugners of his re- 
ligion, fuch as Celsus, Porphyry, and Julian, ever 
once attempt to attack the truth of the flory, as to his real 
exiflence, and the Unie of it. So that herein we have as 
concurrent a fufFrage as. the whole world in any cafe is able 
to afford. The befl hiftorians of the nations, who lived 
near thofe times, give their teflimony to what is recorded 
in our gofpel. Corn. Tacitus expreffly affigns the 
time of his death to the reign ofTik?ius, and the govern- 
ment of Pilaic. The fame alfo is confirmed by Flay. 


§ 3. (II.) We fecondly affirmed, that no other per- 
fon came, within the time limited, that could pretend to 
be the MefTiah. This the Jews themfclves confefs ; nor 
can they think otherwife, without condemning them- 
fclves ; for if any fuch perfon came, feeing they received 
him not, nor do own him to this day, their guilt would 
be the fame that we charge upon them, for the refufing 
of our Lord Jefus. It remaineth, that either Jcfus is the 
true Melliah, as coming from God, in the feafon limited 
for that purpofe, or that the whole promife concerning the 
MelTiah is a mere figment, the whole Old Tertament a 
fable, and both the old and prefent religion of the Jews a 
delufion. At that feafon the Mefliah mufl come, or there 
is an end of all religion. If any came, then, whom they 

* J/itiij, Lib. xviii. Cap. 4. 



had rather embrace for their Meffiah, than our Lord Jefus, 
let them own him, that we may know who he was, 
and what he hath done for them. If none fuch there 
wa-s, as they v/ill not pretend there was, their obftinacy 
and blindnefs, in refuiing the only proniifed Meffiah, is 
fuel], as no reafonable man can give an account of, who 
doth not call to mind the righteous judgement of God, in 
giving them up to blindnefs and obllinacy, as a jull pu- 
niihment for their reject ion and murdering of his only 

§ 4. (III.) We come next to confider thofe chara^le-- 
r'ljiic noies that are given in fcripture concerning the Mef- 
iiah ; and to Ihew, that they ail agree to Jefus of Naza- 
reth, and center in his perfon. The principal of them 
we fhall now ftatc, and vindicate againfl the exceptions of 
the JevvS ; particularly, 

The ftock whereof 'le came — the place of his birth — • 
and manner of it — what he taught — what he did — and 
what he fufftred. And as thefe are the principal of thofe 
iigns and notes, that God gave out to difcover the Meffiah 
in his appointed time, being very fufficient for that pur- 
pofe ; fo, upon the matter, they comprize all the Iigns 
and tokens whereby any perfon may be pre-fignified. 

!• For, the fam'ii;^ or lineage whereof he was to come. 
After the promife had for a long time run in general, that 
he fnould be of the feed of the woman, it was rell:ri61:ed to 
the feed of Jbraham^ \^Qq\\, xv. 17.] and that alone, un- 
til God added that peculiar limitation to it, ' in Ifaac fhall 
* thy feed be called,' [Gen. xxi. 12.] After this, in the 
family of Ifaac, yacob peculiarly inherited the promife ; 
and his poflerity being branched into twelve tribes, the na- 
tivity of the Meffiah was confined to the tribe of Judah^ 
[Gqw, xlix. 10.] Out of that tribe God afterwards 
raifed the kingly family oi David, to be a type of the king- 
dom of the Meffiah ; and hereupon he retrained the pro- 
mife to that family, though not to any particular branch 
of it. After this, no other reftri^lion was ever afterwards 
added. It was not, then, at any time, made necelfary 
by promife, that the MelTiah fhould proceed from the royal 



branch of the houfe of David, but only thnt he jliculd 
be born of fomc of his poflcrity ; by what family foever, 
poor or rich, in power or fubje£lion, he derived his ge- 
nealogy from him. And by the fignal providence of God, 
no one fince the deftruflion of the city and temple, can 
demonftrate that original. And yet, for what end fhould 
this token of him be given forth to know him by, when 
all genealogies of the people being utterly loft, it is impof- 
fible it Ibould be of any ufe in the difcovery of him ? 

The genealogy of Chrift was written, and puhlillied to 
the world, by perfons of unqueftionable integrity, who 
had as much advantage to know the truth of the matter, 
about which they wrote, as any men ever had, or can 
have, in a matter of that nature. And their adverfarics 
would undoubtedly have excepted againft what they ad- 
vanced, had they not been overpowered with the convic- 
tion of its truth. Had they had the leaft fufpicion on the 
contrary, w^hy did they not, in fome of their confultations 
and rage againft him and his doftrine, once obje£l this 
to himfelf, or his followers, that he was not of the family 
of David, and fo could not be the perfon he pretended 
himfelf to be. Beiides, the perfons who wrote his ge- 
nealogy, fealed their teftimony not only with their Ihes^ 
but with their eternal coiidition ; and higher alTu ranee of 
truth can no man give. 

§ 5. Suppofe what fome obje£l be granted, that the- 
genealogy recorded by Matthew be properly the genealogy 
of Jofeph ; what madneft is it to imagine, that while, 
avowedly propofing in the title of his genealogy, to mani- 
feft Jefus Chrift to have been of the family of David, the 
Evangclift doth not prove and confirm what he had fo de- 
ligned, according to the laws of genealogies. No more is 
required for the accomplidiment of the promife, but that 
the Lord Jeftis Hiould be fo of the family of David, as it 
was required by the laws of families and genealogies, that 
any perfoi^ might belong to it. Now, this might be by 
the legal marriage of his mother, to him who was of that 
family ; for after that contra£t of marriage, whatever 
tribe or family Ihe was of before, flie was legally ac- 

t vaunted' 


counted to be of that family into which, by her efpoufals^ 
llie was engrafted. And of that family, and no other> 
was he to be reckoned, who was born of her after thofe 
efpoufals. Now, that th« reckoning of families and rela- 
tions among the Jews, by God's own appointment, did 
not always follow natural generations, but fometimes legal 
htftitutions^ is manifell: by the kiW of a man dying without 
iffue ; for when the next kinfm^n took the wife of the de- 
ceased, to raife up feed to him, he that was born of the 
woman, was, by law, not reckoned to be his fon by 
whom he was begotten, but was to be the fon, and fo 
cf the family of him that was deceafed, to bear his 
jiamc^ and inherit his eflate, [Numb, xxxvi. 6.] And 
this legal cognation, Luke feems to intimate, [Luke i. 
oy.] where he fays, * that the mother of Jefus was 

* efpopifed to a man, whofe name was Jofeph, of the fa- 

• mily ot" David ;* there being no apparent reafon to men- 
tion his family, but that the genealogy of his wife's foil 
was to relate ih.crtto. And if this was the law of ge- 
nealogies,, as it evidently was, Matthew, recording the 
genealogy of Jcftph^ to whom the blefled Virgin was 
cfpoufed, doth properly record that of her fon ^ according 
to the mind of liim who gave both law and promife ; 
and upon this krioivn rule of genealogies, and legal rela- 
tions, may Matthew proceed in his recital of the pedigree 
of Jo ft ph. 

§ 6. Luke dire<^ly, and of fet purpofe, gives us the 
genealogy of the blefied Virgin Mary, the mother of our 
Lord ; for the line of his progenitors, w^iich he derives 
from Nathan, is not at all the fame with that of 
Jofeph from Solomon, infilled on by Matthew. It 
is true, there are a Zerubbabel and Salathiel in both ge- 
nealogies, but this proves not both the lines to be the 
fame ; for the lines of Solomon and Nathan might by 
marriage meet in tlicfe perfons, and fo leave it indiffe- 
rent, which line was followed up to David ; and the 
lines of Jofeph and Mary might be feparated again in the 
pollerity of Zerubbabel, IVLitthew following one of them, 
and Luke the ether. This, I fay, is polfible, but the 


^tvi.f. THE TRUE MESSIAH. 229 

truth is (as is evident from the courfe of generations in- 
filled on) that the Zerubbabcl and Salathicl, mcntioneci 
ill Matthew, were not the fame perfons with thofc ot the 
fame name in Luke, thofe be'.» g of the houfe of Solo- 
mon, thefe of the houfe of Nathan. So that from Da- 
vid it is not the hne of Jofeph, but of the blefled Virgin, 
that is recited by Luke. And the words wherewith Luke 
prefaceth his genealogy, do no way impeach this affertion, 
(oug ivo^i(^ijo viog loa-^i^ th HAi) * as was fuppofcd the fon 

* of Jofeph the fon of Eli ;' for, whereas thefe words 
[oog cvou^i^flo) * as zvas fuppofed,' are ufually read in a pa- 
renthefis, the parenthefis may better be extended thus — 

* being (as was fuppofed the fon of Jofeph) the fon of 

* Heli.' — Or Jofeph may be faid to be the fon of 7:7/, bc- 
caufe his daughter was efpoufed to him, otherwife the 
true natural father of Jofeph was Jacob, as Matthew de- 
clares, Heli being the father of the blelTcd Virgin. So 
that both legally and naturally our Lord Jefus ChriH was a 
defcendant of the houfe of David, according to the pro- 
mife. And as this was unqueftionable among the Jews in 
the days of his converfation in the flefh ; fo the prefcnt 
Jews have nothing of moment to oppofe to thefe unquefti- 
onable records. This is the firfl charafteriftical note given 
of the Meffiah, whereby he might be known. And it is 
iignally corroborated by the providence of God, in that 
all genealogies among the Jews are now {o confounded, 
and have been fo for fo many generations, that it is ut- 
terly impofTible any one fhould rife amongft them, and 
manifeft himfelf to be of this or that particular family. 
The burning of their genealogies by Herod, the extirpa- 
tion of the family of David byVcfpafian, and their long 
difperfionj have put an utter end to all probability about 
the genealogies amongft them. 

§ 7. 2. Another characfleriftic note, pointing out the 
MefTiah in prophecy, was the place where he fliould be 
born ; which, added to the time and the family, evi- 
dently deligncd his perfon. This place of his nativity is 
foretold in Mich. v. 2. * And thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, 

* is it (or, it is) little for thee to be amongft the thou- 

VoL. L li faads 


< fands of Judah ; out of thee fhall come forth 

* unto me, he that fhall be a ruler in Ifrael, whofe 

* goings forth are from of old, from the days of eternity.' 
That of old this prophecy was underflood by the church of 
the Jews, to denote the pLtce of the Meffiah's birth, we 
have an illuflrious teflimony in the records of the Chrif- 
tian church, [Matt. ii. 5, 6.] Upon the demand of 
Herod, where the Meffiah fhould be born, the chief 
priefls and fcribes affirm, with one confent, that he was 
to be born at Bethlehem, confirming their judgement by 
this place of the prophet. And afterwards, when they 
fuppofed that he had been born in Galilee, becaufe he 
lived there, they made this an argument againft him, be- 
caufe he was not born, according to the fcripture, in 
Bethlehem, the town where David was, [John vii. 41, 


When we confider the occafion of Jofeph and Mary 
coming to Bethlehem, their being obliged to it by public 
authority ; and when we confider, that the decree for the 
enrolment was of great charge and trouble to the 
whole empire, and that no public ufe was ever made of 
that enrolment ; nor is it certain, that it was accom- 
plifhed in many other parts of the empire ; may we not 
reafonably infer, that the infinitely v/ife Governor of all 
the world puts this into the emperor's mind, and incites 
him thus to fet mankind into a motion, that two perfons 
of low condition might be brought out of Galilee into 
Bethlehem, that Jefus, according to this prophecy, might 
be born there. Had they gone of their own accord, it 
might have given advantage to the Jews, to fay that the 
inother of Jefus went to Bethlehem only with a view to be 

* It is remarkable that the ChaUce paraphrafe renders the 
words, * Out of thee fhall come forth to me the ruler,' thus: 
"Out of thee iliall come forth to me the Messiah, who lliall have 
the dominion." R. Solomon expounds the place thus : " Little to 
be in the thoufands of Judah ; that is, thou deferveft to be fo, 
becaufe of the profanation of Ruth, the Moabitefs, who was in 
thee ; out of thee fhall come forth to lue the Messiah, the fou 
©f David," 




delivered, that fhe might better report her {on to be the 
Messiah. But by this admirable providence, all fucli 
objeftions are removed ; their minds are determined by 
an authority not to be refilled ; a journey they muft make, 
at a time very unfeafonable for the holy Virgin, being fo 
near the time of her delivery, and be publicly enrolled of 
the family of David, upon the command of him who 
never knew ought of that bufmefs, and which none but 
himfelf could be inftrumental to accomplilh. Not long 
after this, that town of Bethlehem was utterly dcfiroyed -, 
nor hath it been for a thoufand and fix hundred years, 
either great or fmall among the thoufands of Judah, 

§ 8. 3. The manner of the McfTiah's birth, that he 
fliould be horn of a Virg'iny is a third chara£leriilical note 
given of him. The firft promife fufficiently intimated that 
he was not to be brought into the world according to the 
ordinary courfe of mankind, but was to be (oiocKofjiKujg) 
in a dillinguifliing manner thQ feed of the woman, to the 
excluiion of man. To make this delign yet the more, 
evident, God gives it forth dire£lly in a word of promife, 
[Ifa. vii. 10—16.] ' Moreover the Lord fpake to Ahaz, 

* faying, ailc thee a lign of the Lord thy God, afk it 

* either in the depth, or in the height above ; but Ahaz 

* i^iid, I will not afk, neither will I tempt the Lord. 

* And he faid, Hear ye now, O houfe of David, is it a 

* fmall thing for you to weary men, but ye will weary 
' my God alfo ? Therefore, the Lord himfelf will give 

* you a {igw. behold, a Virgin fhall conceive and bear a 

* Son, and call his name Emanuel ; butter and honey 

* fhall he eat, that he may know to refufe the evil, and 

* chufe the good ; for, before the child fliall know to re- 

* fufe the evil, and chufe the good, the land that thou. 
' abhorreft, fliall be forfaken of both her kings/ This 
is the prophetic promife, the accomplifliment whereof ia 
our Lord Jefus we have recorded, Matt. i. 22, 23. * All 
' this was done, that it might be fulfilled, which was fpo- 

* ken bv the prophet : Behold, a Virgin fliall be with 

* child, and fhall bring forth a Son, and they fliall call 

* hi^ name Immanucl.* Now, this being a thing utterly 

I i 2 above 


above the courfe of nature, it is an infallible evidence, and 
demorijh-ative note of the true MelBah. He, and he alone, 
was to be born of a Virgin ^ and Jefus of Naz^areth alone 
was a(ftually fo ;. therefore, Jefus alone is the Mefliah. 

§ 9. The Jews being greatly prefled with this frophecy^ 
and its accomplijhment, try all means to efeape, by break- 
ing through one of them. And we might expe£l that they 
would principally attempt the flory of the evangelift ; but 
circumftances on that fide being fo cogent againfl them, 
they are very faint in that endeavour. For, if it was fo 
indeed, that Jefus was not born of a Virgin, as it is re« 
corded, and his difciples profelTed, why did they not 
charge them with an untruth ? But though they infifl 
not much upon the denial of the truth of the record • 
yet, to relieve themfeives, they contend, that the w^rds 
of the prophet are not applicable to the birth of our Lord 
Jefus, which the evangelill reports them prophetically to 

We have formerly evinced, that the foundation and 
end* of the Judaieal church and ftate, and of the preferva- 
lion of the Davidical family, was folely the bringing forth 
of the promifed MeiTiah. And tliis the event hath fully de- 
monflrated in their utter rejeflion afterthe accomplifhraent 
of that end. And on account of the temporal concern- 
ment of that people in the coming of the Meffiah, the 
promife of him was oftentimes mixed^ and interwoven 
with the mention of other things, that were ai prefent vfi 
and advantage to them ; fo that it was not eafy fometimes 
to diftinguifli the things that are properly fpoken with re* 
ference to him, from thofe other things which refpe£led 
what was prefent ; feeing both of them are together fpoken 
of to the fame general end and purpofe. Upon thefc 
principles we may ealily drfcover the true fenfe and im- 
port of this prophetical prcdiftion. 

§ 10. Upon the infidelity of Ahaz, and the generality 
of the houie of David with him, refnfing a fign of deli- 
verance tendered to them, God tells them by his pro- 
phets, that they bad not only wearied his m.eirengers by 
their unbelief and hypocrify^ but riiat they were ready to 



iveary lilmfelf alfo, [ver. 13.] with their manifold pro- 
vocations, during that typical fi ate and condition wherein 
he kept them. Plowever, for the prcfait^ he had pro- 
mifed them deliverance ; and akhoiigh they refufed to afk 
a fign of him, according to his command^ yet he would 
preferve them from their prefent fears, and utter ruin, 
and in his due time accomplilh his great and wonderful 
intendment, miraculoufly by caufing a Virgin to conceive 
and bring forth that Son, on whofe account they Ihould 
be preferved from utter deftruc^ion, as a church and Hate, 
until his coming. But how may it appear that it was the 
Messiah who fhould be thus born of a Virgin? This 
the prophet afiures them, by telling them what he fhall he^ 
and accordingly he called: ' He fliall be called Imma- 

* NUEL,' or God with iis^ both in refpedl of his per/on 
and ojjce ; for he Ihall be God and man, and he fliall re^ 
conclle God and man, taking away the enmity and diflance 
caufed by fin ; a defcription of the AlelTiah, whereby he 
might be fufFiciently know^n. And the prophet farther 
aifures them, that this Immanuel ihall be born truly 
a man, and dwell amongfi them, being brought up with 
the common food of the country, until he came, as other 
men, to the years of difcretion : ' Butter and honey fliall 

* he eat, until he know to chufe the good, and rcfufe the 

* evil.' And this was enough for the confolation of be- 
lievers, as alfo for the fecurity of the people from the 
defolation feared. 

But yet, becaufe all this prophetical declaration was 
occafioned by the war raifed againft Judah by the kings 
of Ifrael and Damafcus, God is pleafed to add to the 
promife of their deliverance, a threatening of judgement 
and deftruflion to their adverlaries ; and becaufe he 
would limit a certain feafon for the execution of his 
judgement upon them (as he had declared the fafety and 
prefeyjatlon of Judah to depend on the birth of Imma- 
nuel of a virgin, in the appointed feafon) he declares tliat 
their enemies Ihould be cut off before the time that any 
fhlld not yet born could come to the years of difcretion, 
to chufe the good, or refufe the evil, [ver. 16.] Now, 


5^34 JESUS OF NAZARETH Fart, it 

that this is the true import and meaning of the prophe- 
cy, will evidently appear in our vindication of it from 
the exceptions of the Jews againfl its application by 
Matthew to the nativity of Jefus Chriil* 

§ II. Firfl, they except that it is not a ■z;/Vo-/;z that 
is here intended by the original word, (na'^i^) which they 
lay lignifles any young %uoman. The whole controverfy 
from this place depending on the determination of this 
point ; I fliall therefore fully clear the truth of what 
■we ailert ; and the Jews themfelves will not deny, but 
that if the conception of a virgin be intended, it mull 
refer to fome other than any in thofe days. 

1. The word (nn^j;) here ufed, is from the root {rzihv) 
to hidC) or (czD^^j) in niphal, hidden, rcferved. Hence 
tlie name of virgins ; partly, from their being unknown 
by man, and partly, from the univerfal cuflom of the 
Eaft, w^ierein thofe virgins who were of any account, 
were kept referved from all public or common conver- 
fation. Hence, by the Grecians alfo, they are called, 
(Ka](ZK?.-ic:i) Jhut up, or rsclufcs, and their iirft appear* 
ance in public they termed (a,va-KCiiXv7fl''/ipi(x) * the fea- 
fon of bringing them out from their retirements,^ The 
ariginal fignification of the word then denotes a virgin 

2. The conjiant ufc of the w^ord directs us to the 
lame fignification. It is [even times ufed in the Old 
'J'eftament, and in every one of them doth ftill denote 
a virgin, or virgins^ either in a proper, or metaphorical 
ibnfc. Only one place is controverted by the Jews, 
[Frov. XXX. .19.] ' And the way of a man with a maid.^ 
But it is ufed here peculiarly with the prefix, {-nthvi) 
whence it is recorded by the Seventy in the abftracl, 
{cv VzO\'^l) ' the way of a man in in his youth ;' which 
it\\{<t Jerom follows, (' viam viri in adolefentia ;') and 
it may thus fee m to be differenced from the fame w^ord 
in all other places. But in reality, the meaning of the 
VvMfe man is evident; (nD^rn IIJ Iit) * the way that a 
man taketh to corrupt a virgin,^ which is fecret, full of 
fnarcs and emls. And when by fubtk wicked ways the 

a fcducer 


feducer prevaileth againft her chaftlty, iht afterwards (as 
experience but too often teaches) becomes a common 
proftitate. And this I take to be the genuine meaning 
of the place ; though it is not altogether improbable, tliat 
the wife man proceedeth [ver. 20.] to another injiance of 
things fee ret 3 lince the particle (jn) often fignifies as 
much as, fo alfo, 

3. It is plainly fome marvellous thing that is here fpo- 
ken of. It is called, (m«) a Jlgnal prodigy^ and is given 
by God himfelf, as fomething greater, and more marve- 
lous than any thing that Ahaz could have, afked, either 
jn heaven above ^ or in earth beneath^ had he made his 
choice according to the tender made unto him. ' The 
* Lord God himfelf Ihall give you a fign/ The empha- 
fis ufed in giving the promife, denotes the greatnefs and 
marvelloufnefs of the thing promifed. TIk^ Jews cannot 
aflign either virgin or fon, that is here iiitendcd; whence 
it appeareth, that none can poflibly in this promife be 
intended, but he whofe birth was a miraculous Jign^ as 
being born of a virgin^ and who being born, was God 
with us, 

§ 12. The Jews obje6^, in the fccond place, that the 
birth of the child here promifed was to be a Jign to Ahaz, 
and the houfe of David, of their deliverance from the 
two kings who then winged war againft them. But we 
do not fay, that this was given them as a peculiar Jign of 
their prefent deliverance ; for Ahaz himfelf had before 
refufed fuch a fign. God therefore affigns a reafon in 
general, why he would not utterly caft them off, although 
they wearied him, but would yet deliver them, as at other 
times, vi'z. becaufe of that great work which he had to 
accomplilh among them, which was to be iignal, marvel- 
lous, and truly miraculous. And many inftances we have 
of things promifed for figns^ which were not adually to 
exift until after the accomplifhment of the things whereof 
they were a fign, [as Exod. iii. 12. I. Sam. x. 3, 4. Ifa. 
xxxvii. 30. I. Kings, xxii. 25.] Befides, thisyf^;z hath the 
truth and force of a promife^ although it was not imme- 
diately to be put ill execution. Their ajjurancc, therefore, 


ff36 J^SUS OF NAZARETH Part.1I, 

coiilifted in this ; that on God's declaration, as furely 
as he would accomplifh the great promife of bring- 
ing forth the MefTiah, and that he fhould be born of a 
virgin, fo certain fliould be their prefent deUverance^ 
which they fo defired. 

§ 13. It is farther urged, that the deliverance pro- 
mifed was to be brought about hcfove the child fpoken of 
Ihould know to refufe the evil, and chitfe the good ; or lllould 
come to years of difcretion, [ver. 16.] and what was this 
to him, that was to be born fome hundreds of years after ^ 
but it doth not appear, that (VJn) the child mentioned, 
[ver. 16.] is the fame with the [yz) Jon promifed, [ver. 
14.] The prophet, by the command of God, when he 
went unto the king vvith his melTage, took with him 
Shear jaJhuU his fon, [ver. 3.] This certainly was for 
fome fpecial end in the melTage he had to deliver, the 
child being then but an infant, and of no ufe in the 
whole matter, unlefs to be made an inflance of fome- 
thing that was to be done. It is, therefore, probable, 
that he was (i:;jn) the young child defigncd, [ver. 16.] be- 
fore whofe growing up to difcretion, thole kings of Da- 
niafcus and Samaria were deflroyed. Or the expreffion 
may denote the time of any child being born, and coming 
to maturity of underflandin.g, and confequently the pro- 
mifed child. In as (hort a fpace of time, as this promifed 
child, when he Ihall be born, lliall come to know to re- 
fufe the evil, and chufe the good, lliail this deliverance 
be wrought. 

§ 14. (IV.) Another dcfcnpilve note of the MefTiah, 
is, what he was to teach. This Mofes defcribes, [Deut, 
xxviii. 18, 19.] * I will raife them up a prophet from 
* among their brethren, like unto thee,' &c. This is 
that fjgnal teftimony concerning the Meifiah, which Phi- 
lip urged to Nathaniel, [John i. 45.] which Peter not 
only applies to him, but declares that he was folely in- 
tended in it, [A£Is iii. 22, 23.) and Stephen feais that 
ippHcation with his blood, [A£\s vii. 37.] Nor do the 
Jews deny that the Mefiiah was to be a prophet^ or that 
he was promifed in thcfc wordi. It is evident from this 



paflage, that, in the ordinary courfe of God*s deah'ng 
with the Jewifh church, there was no prophet like to 
Mofes. Hence, Maimonides with his followers con- 
clude, that nothing can ever be altered in their law, be- 
caufe no prophet was ever to arife with authority equal 
to him, who was their law-giver. But the words of the 
text are plain : the prophet here foretold, was to * be like 
*" to him^ that is, he was to be a law-giver to the houfe 
of God, as our apoflle fliews, [Heb. iii. i — 5.] The 
words of the author of Sephcr Ikkarim [Lib. iii. cap. x.] 
are remarkable : ** It cannot be, that there fhould not at 
fome time arife a prophet like unto Mofes, or greater than 
he ; but thus, thefe words, ' there arofe none like him/ 
ought to be interpreted, not as if none fhould ever be like 
him, but that none fhould be like him, as to fome particu- 
lar quality, or accident ; or that in all the fpace of time, 
wherein the prophets followed him, until prophecy ceafed, 
none fhould be like to Mofes ; but hereafter there fhall 
be one like him, or rather greater than he." Such a 
prophet was the Melllah to be, a law-giver, fo as to 
abolifh the old, and to inftitute 7icw rites of worfhip. 
This riling up of the prophet, like to Mofes, declares 
that the whole will of God, as to his worfhip, and the 
church's obedience, was not yet revealed. Had it been. 
fo, there would have been no need of a prophet like to 
Mofes, to lay new foundations, as he had done. But 
being invefted with that authority, it is declared, that 
whofoever refufeth to obey him, fhould be exterminated^ 
and cafl out from the privileges of being reckoned among 
the people of God. 

§ 15. Wc are, then, in the next place, to confider 
the accomplifhment of this promlfe, in the perfon of y^ - 
/us of Nazareth, Now, that he was a prophet, and {o 
efteemed by the Jews themfelves (until, through the envy 
of the Scribes and Pharifecs, and their own unwilling- 
nefs to admit of the purity and holinefs of his do£trine, 
they were ftirred up to oppofc and pcrfecute him, as 
they had done all other prophets, who, in thoir fcveral 
gcnerationsj foretold his coming) that he was, I fay. 
Vol. L K k a pro- 


a prophet, is evident from the record of the evangelical 
ilory ; [See Matt. xxi. 46. Mark vi* 15. Luke vii. 16. 
xxiv. 19. John ix. 17. vi. 14. A£ts iii. 22, 23*] and 
their prefent obftinate denial of this fa£l is a mere con- 
trivance to juHify themfelves in their reje£lion and mur- 
der of him. But this is not all ; he was not only a pro- 
phet in general, but he was that prophet foretold by Mofes 
and all the prophets, who was to put the laft hand to 
divine revelations, by a full declaration of the whole 
counfel of God, the peculiar work of the Messiah. 

1. The nature of this prophet's do£lrine confirms our 
alTertion. Whatever characters of divine truth that can 
rationally be conceived, are eminently imprinted on the 
do£lrine of Jefus Chrifl. Whatever tends to the glory 
of God as the firfl caule and laft end of all things ; what- 
ever is fuitabJe to excite and improve that which is good 
in man, in the notions of his mind, or inclinations of 
his will ; whatever difcovers his wants and defe£ls, that 
he may not exalt himfelf in his own conceit above his 
real condition, or is needful to point out to him his end 
or his way, his happinefs, or the method of attaining 
it ; whatever may teach him to be ufeful in fociety, in 
all thofe relations in which he may ftand ; whatever is 
ufeful to deter him from evil, or even to fupprefs the 
hidden feeds of it, without the leaft indulgence ; what- 
ever in fliort, may contribute to ftir up and direft him in 
the piaftice of what is true, honourable, juft, pure, 
lovely, and of good report, is clearly revealed by this 
prophet, and in the moft heavenly manner. 

2. The removal of types, carnal ordmances, clouds 
and fhades, with which the Mofaical difpenfation abound- 
ed, with a clear explanation of the nature, reafon, and 
life of all thofe inilitutions, was a work no lefs glorious 
than the very firft revelation of the promife itfelf ; and 
this was what was referved for the great prophet, the 
Messiah. For that God would prefcribe ordinances 
and inftitutions for his church, whofe full nature, ufe, 
and end ihould be eveilaftingly unknown to them^ is un- 



reafonable to Imagine. But Chrift unveiled the mind of 
God in all thefe inftitiitions ; and we may alTert, that 
there is not the meaneft Chriftian, who is inflrufted in 
the dodtrine of the gofpei, but can give a better account 
of the nature, ufe, and end of the Mofaical injiitntions, 
than all the profound Rabbins in the world cither can or 
ever could do ; he that is ' lead in the kingdom of 
* God/ being greater in this light and knowledge thaa 
John the Baptlft himfelf, who yet was not behind any 
of the prophets that went before him. 

3. The event confirms the charadler of that promifed 
prophet to the Lord Jefus ; for whoever fhould not re- 
ceive the word of the prophet, God threatens to require 
it of him, that is, as they themfelves confefs, to exter- 
minate them from among the number of his people, or 
to rejecl them from being fo. Now this was done by 
the body of the Jewi/h nation ; they received him not, 
they obeyed not his voice ■ and what was the end of this 
their difobedlence? "Theyivho^ for their defpifing, perfe- 
cutlng, and killing the former prophets were o*.ily chaf- 
tcned, affli£led, and again quickly recovered, out of the 
worfl and greatefl of their troubles, arc^ upon their re- 
jedlon of him, and difobedlence to his voice, cut off, de- 
Uroyed, exterminated from the place of their folemn wor- 
Uiip, and utterly rejefted from being the people of God, 
Whatever may be conceived to be contained in the com- 
mination agalnft thofe who fliould difobey the voice of 
that prophet promifed, is all of it to the full, and its 
whole extent, come upon the Jews, upon their difabe-. 
dience to the doftrine of Jefus of Nazareth ; which, ad- 
ded to the foregoing conliderations, undeniably prove hini 
to be that prophet, 

§ 16. 5. There is yet another charafter given of 
the Mefhah In the Old Teftament, in what he was to fuf- 
fer in the world, in the difcharge of his work and oificei^ 
This being that wherein the main foundation of the 
whole was to conilft, and that which God knew would 
he mod contrary to the apprehenlions and expe£lation of 
that carnal people, is, of all other defaipilve notes of him, 
K k 2 moll 

ft40 JESUS OF NAZARETH Fart 11. 

moft clearly and fully afferted. The firft evident teflU 
mony given hereto, is in Pfal. xxii. 1—22. It would 
be eafy to evince, by a critical examination of every part, 
that it is the Meffiah, and he alone, who is ultimately and 
abfolutely intended in this Pfalm ; and the whole was fo 
exa£lly fulfilled in Jefus of Nazareth, that it appears to 
be fpoken dire6lly of him, and no other. The manner 
of his fufFerings is fcarcely more clearly exprefled in 
the {lory of it by the evangelifts, than it is her? foretold 
by David in prophecy, and therefore many pafTages out 
of this Pfalm are expreffed by them in their records. He 
it was, who prelTed with the fenfe of God*s dereliction, 
cried out, * My God ! my God 1 w^hy haft thou for- 

* faken me ?' He it was that was accounted * a worm, 

* and no man,' and who w^as reviled and reproached ac- 
cordingly ; at him did men * wag their heads,* and him 
did they reproach with his truji in God y his * bones were 

* drawn out of joint,' by the manner of his fufFerings ; 
his hands and feet v^ere pierced, and upon his vefcure they 
ijid caft lots ; upon his fufFerings were the truth and pro- 
mifes of God declared and preached to all the world. 

§ 17. We have yet another fignal teflimony to the 
fame purpofe, [Ifa. lill.] As the outward manner of the 
Mefiiah's fufFerings, with their aftings who were inflru- 
mental therein, is principally confidered in Pfal. xxii. fo 
ibe imiard nature^ together with the important end and 
cfFe^is of them, are declared in this prophecy. Nor is 
there any prophecy that fills the prefent Rabbins with 
more perplexities, or drives them to more abfurdities 
and contradidions. That it is the MefFiah, and none 
other, we have not only the evidence of the text and con- 
text, and the nature of tlie fubje£l matter treated of, with 
the utter impoflibility of applying the thing fpoken of to 
any other perfon, without the overthrow of the whole 
faith of the ancient church, but alfo all the advantage 
from the confefiion of the Jews that can be expeft^d, or 
need to be defired, from adverfaries.— For 

I. The mofl ancient and beft records of their judge- 
ment exprtfsly affirm the perfon to be the Meffiah, 



This Is the Targum on the place, which themfelves efteem 
to be of unqueilionable, if not of divine, authority. 
The fpring and rife of tlie whole prophecy, as the fe- 
rjes of the difcourfe manifefls, is in chap. Hi. 13. and 
there the words, ' Ec'hold my fervant fhall profper, or 

* deal wifely,' are rendered by Jonathan; ** Behold my 
fervant, the Messiah fhall profper." And among 
others, [chap. liii. 5.] is fo paraphrafed by him, as that 
none of the Jews will pretend any other to be intended. 
liWhQ Talmud \tk\^, {Saned.Tr^6\.7it. Cbelck.) among other 
names they afTign to the Meffiah, («'^in) cbolia is one ; 
becaufe it is faid in this place, * that truly he bore (ij'^n) 

* our infirmity.^ We have tht'ix atic'icnt Rabbins making the 
fame acknowledgement. To this purpofe they fay, (in 
Berejhith Rabba, on Gen. xxiv. 17.) *' This is Meffiah 
the king, who Ihall be in the generation of the wicked, 
and ihall reje£t them. — And he fhall fet his heart to 
feek mercy for Ifrael, to fail, and to humble himfelf 
for them, as it is written Ifa. liii. he was wounded for 
our tranfgrejjions. And when Ifrael finneth, he feeketli 
mercy for them, as it is faid again, and by his Jiripes 
we are healed,''* And, not to repeat more particular 
teflimonies, we have their full confeffion in Aljhecky on 
the place : *' Behold our majiers of bleffed memory with 
one confent determine according as they received by tra^ 
ditlgnj that it is concerning Messiah the king thefe words 
are fpoken." And therefore Abarbinel himfelf, who 
of all his companions hath taken mofl pains to corrupt 
and pervert this prophecy, confeffeth, that all their an- 
cient wife men confented with Ben-Uzziel in his T^r- 
gum. So that we have as full a fuffragc to this charac- 
ter of the Meffiah, from the Jews themfelves, as can be de- 
iired or expe£led. 

2. To apply this to the Jewifh people as a body, is 
contrary, not only to their Targum and Talmud^ and their 
chief writers, but alfo, to the exprefs words of the text, 
plainly defcribing one individual perfon. Contrary to the 
conte:ity diflinguifhing the people of the Jews from him 
^hat was to fuffer for them, [ver. 3-— 6.] Contrary to 

I every 


every particular afTertlon and paffage in the whole pro- 
phecy, no one of them being applicable to the body of 
the people. Hence Johannes Isaac confeffeth, that 
the confideration of this place was the means of his con- 
verfion. Again, 

3. The whole work promifed from the foundation of 
the w^crld, to be accomplilhed by the Mefliah, is here 
afcribed to the perfon treated of, and his fuiferings. 
Peace %viih God is to be made by his chaftifement, and 
healing of our wounds by iin is from his ftripes. He 
hears the iniquity of the church, that they may find accep- 
tance with God. In his hand xh^ pleafure of the Lordy 
for the redemption of his people, was to profper ; and he 
is to j^fi'ify them for whom he died. If thefe, and the 
like things here mentioned, may be performed by any 
other, the Meffiah may flay away, there is no work for 
him to do in this world. But if thefe are the things 
which God hath promifed that he Ihall perform ; then 
he, and none other, is here intended. 

§ 18. They yet urge farther thefe words, fver. 10. J 
* He {hall fee his feed, he fhall prolong his days.' This, 
fay they, is not agreeable to any, but thofe who have 
children of their bodies begotten, in whom their days are 
prolonged. I anfwer, 

1. It were well if they would consider the words fore-^ 
going ; of his making his foul an offering for fin ; that 
is, dying for it ; and then tell us, how he that doth fo, 
can fee his carnal feed afterwards, and in them prolong 
his days. 

2. He that is here fpoken of is direftly diftlnguifhed 
from the feed -^ that is, the people of God ; {o thdii they 
cannot be the fubjed of the prophecy. 

-:;. It is not faid, that he fliall prolong his days in hisi 
feed, but he himfelf fliall prolong his days after his death ; 
that is, upon his refurreftion he fliall live eternally, 
which is called length of days. 

4. The feed here, are the feed fpoken of, Pfal. xxii. 
30. * A feed that fhall ferve the Lord,' and be all ac- 
counted to him for a generation j that is^ a fpirituaj 

feed J 

ExER. 5- ^^^ TRUE MESSIAH. 243 

feed, as the Gentiles are called, the * children of Sioii 
' brought forth upon her travailing.' [Ifa. Ixvi. 8.] Be- 
lides, how the Melliah fliall obtain this feed, is expreffed 
in the next verfc ; ' by his knowledge Ihall my righ- 

* teous fervant juflify many,' they are fuch as arc con- 
verted to God by his do£lrine, and juilified by faith in 
him. And that difciples fhould be called the feed, the 
effspring, the children of their mafters and inftru61:ors, is 
fo common among the Jews, and fimiliar to them, that 
no phrafes are more in ufe. [See Ifa. viii. 18.] 

^ 19. We may yet add fome other teflimonies to the 
fame purpofe. Daniel tt\h us, chap. ix. 25. (n'l^'Q nD') 

* Mcjfiah Jhall be cut off\ i. e. from the land of the liv- 
ing, ' and that not for himfelf.' * And Zech. ix. 9. it is 
faid, that he Ihall be ('JP ) ^ pooy\ and in his beft con- 
dition, * riding on an afs,' which place is interpreted by 
SoLOiMON, Jarchi, and others, of the Mcfflah. He 
was alfo to be pierced^ [Zech. xii. lO.] being tht J/Jep- 
herdy [chap. xiii. 7.] " The klng^ as the Targum, that 
was to be fmitten with the fword of the Lord." Agreea- 
ble to thefe teflimonies, the Jews themfelves have a tradi- 
tion about the fuffcrings of the Meffiah, which fome- 
times breaks forth amongft them. In M'ldraJJy Tehillim^ 
on Pfal. ii. " R. Hana, in the name of R. Idi, fays, 
That the Melliah mufl bear the third part of the afflic- 
tion that fliall ever be in the world." And R.Machir, in 
Abkath Hochel, affirms, that God inquired of the foul of 
the Meffiah, at the beginning of the creation, whether 
he would endure fufferings and afflictions for the purging 
away of the fin of his people ; to which he anfwered, 
*' That he would bear them with joy." And thefe fuf- 
ferings of the Meffiah are fuch, as that, without the con- 
iideration of them, no rational account can be given df 
any of their fervices or facrifices. Now, thefe teflimo- 
nies, it is evident, concerning the meannefs, poverty, 
perfecutions, and fufferings in this world, afcribed to the 
Mefliah, flrongly confirm the truth of our faith, as be- 
Uevers on Jefus. 



§ 20. Unto tbefe chara£lers given of the Meffiah, it 
would be eafy to fubjoin fundry invincible arguments, 
proving our Lord jefus Chfift to be the identical per/on 
promifcd ; pprticalar^y, v.e might infifl on the mira- 
cles he wrought,* which we might plead, 'not only from 
our own records, but alfo from the notoriety of the fa£ls, 
— miracles exceeding thofe wrought by Mofes, whether 
we coniider their number^ or their nature ; whether we 
conlider the refident ptizver of working them, or the con- 
tinuance of that power ; and efj>ecially when we refle£l on 
the communication and extent of that power ; and we might 

* The pretence of the Jews, to preferve themfelves from the 
force of that conviction, which a conlideration of Chrift's miracles 
extorts, is fo perfectly inonftrous, nnd fo full of ridicvAous jigmentSy 
that nothing but a de'fign to expofe their prefent naked defperate 
folly and childilli endeavours to cover themfelves from the light of 
their own conviftion, can give countenance to the repetition of it. 
The ftory they tell us is briefly this : " There was a Jlone in 
the SanBum SanHorum^ under the ark, wherein was written *•*• Shem 
Hamphorajh^'" (fo the Cahalijls call the name Jehovah) and he 
that could learn this name, might, by the virtue of it, do what 
miracles he pleafed. Wherefore, the wife men fearing what might 
enfue thereon, made two brazen dogs, and fet them on two pillars 
before the door of the fanftuary ; and it was fo, that when any 
one went in and learned that name, thofe dogs^ as he came out, 
harked fo horribly, that they frighted him, and made \{\m forget 
the name that he had learned. But Jefus of^ Nazareth going in, 
wrote the name in parchment, and put, it within the Ikin of his 
leg, and clofed the fkin upon it ; fo that though he loft the re- 
membrance of it at his coming out, by the barking of the brazen 
dogs, yet he recovered the knowledge of it again out oixhQ parch- 
vient in his leg ; and by virtue whereof he wrought miracles, wal- 
ked on the fea, cured the lame, raifed the dead, and opened the 
eyes of the blind." We fliall only remark, that if the miracles of 
Chrift had not been openly performed, and undeniably attefted, 
no creatures that ever had the Jlmpe of men, or any thing more 
of modefty, than the brazen dogs they talk of, would have betaken 
themfelves to fuch monftrous foolifli figments, to countenance 
the rejeftion of him. He that fhould contend, that the fun did 
not fliine all the laft year, and fhould give this reafon of his af- 
fertion, becaufe a certain man of his acquaintance climbed up to 
heaven by a ladder, and put him in a box, and k' pt him clofe in 
jfis chamiber all that while, would fpeak to the full, with as much 
probahility and appearance of truth, as the ^rand rabbins do in 
rhis tale. 


l:xER. 8. I'HE JEWS* OBJECTIONS, &c. 245 

alfo iniift 011 the fuccefs of his doftrine, which would 
fhew us, were we to attend to all the circumftaiicss, that 
it is utterly improbable on any other principle, but that 
which he and his difciplcs conftantly maintained, viz^ 
That he was the promifcd Mefliah. But thefc things hav- 
ing been by others largely, and particularly infilled on, 
we need only to mention them. And, indeed, the bare 
propofal of them is fufficient to caufe all the ycwiJJj ex~ 
ccptions to vanifli out of the minds of fober and reafona- 
ble men. We, therefore, conclude the third part of 
our general Thefis concerning the Meffiah — That Jefus of 
Nazareth, whom Paul preached was He. 



"§ It Introduci'ion^ and the fubjefl ftatcd, § 2. (I.) Cer- 
tain unqiiefiionahle principles^ to guide us in the interpreta- 
tion of the promlfcs, which the Jews urge againjl the Chrif- 
tian religion. § 3. (II.) Ihe promifes referred to certain 
general heads, are foewn to be conflflent with the Chrljlian 
religion, and eminently fulfilled by it. 'The promifes of 
univerfal peace. § 4 — 6. Concerning the dcfiru^lon of 
idolatry. § 7. Concerning themfhes. 

§ I. VV HAT remaineth for a clofe to thefe difTerta- 
tions, is, a brief confidcration of thofe objections 
and arguments, wherewith the prefent Jews endeavour, 
and their forefathers, for many generations, have 
laboured to defend their unbelief. But here let us 
not forg-et that it is about the coming of the Afef- 
ftah limply, that we are difputing ; this we aflert to be- 
VoL. I. LI long 


long fince paft ; the Jews deny him to be yet come, liv- 
ing in the hope and expectation of him, which at prefent 
is in them, but as the * giving up of the Ghoft.' And 
the method whereby this dying deceiving hope is fupported 
in them, is principally by this one general argument ; 
*' That the promifcs made and recorded to be accom- 
plifhed at the coming of the Meffiah, are not fulfilled \ 
and, therefore, the MeiTiah is not yet come." This 
iills up their books of controveriies, and is conftantly 
made ufe of by their expofitors, when occalion oiFery. 
The Meffiah, fay they, was promifed of old. Together 
with him, and to be wrought by him, many other things 
were promifed. Thefe things they fee not at all ful- 
filled ; nay, not thofe which contain the only work and 
bufinefs that he was promifed for; and, therefore, they will 
not believe that he is come. On the contrary, we fay 
and demonftrate, that all the promifcs^ concerning the 
coming of the Meffiah^ are aBually fulfilled ; and thofc 
which concern his grace and kingdom, are in part al- 
ready accompli (bed. To evidence the truth of this an- 
fwer, I lb all, 

I. Lay down certain unqueftionable principles, that will 
guide us in the interpretation of the promifes concerning 
the Meffiah. 

II. Shew, that the promifes the Jews refer to in 
their objedtions, are perfeftly confiftent with the Chrif- 
tian religion. 

§ 2. (I.) I. Among thofe unquellionable principles is" 
this ; that the promifes concerning the Meffiah principally 
Ytfyc^ fpiritual thirigSy and that eternal fahation which he 
was to obtain for his church. This we have proved at 
large before ; and this the very nature of the thing itfelf, 
and the words of the promifes, abundantly manifeft. There 
is not one promife concerning grace, pardon, the love of 
God, and eternal bleffiednefs by the Meffiah, which con- 
tain the whole of his dircft and principal work, but they 
are all, * yea, and amen in Chrifl Jefus,' are all exactly 
made good and accomplifhed. And this is teftified unto- 
hj millions of fouls now in the unchangeable fruition of 



God, and all that ferloufly believe in him, who are yet 

2. Hence it follows, that all promifes concerning tem- 
poral things, at, or by his coming, are but accejjary and 
occafional ; fuch as do not diredly appertain to his prin- 
cipal work, and the main deiign of his coming. Thofe which 
concerned the fending of the MefTiah, for the accom- 
plifliment of his principal work, were ahfolute^ and de- 
pended not upon any thing in the fons of men. The 
whole of it w^as a mere eire(ft of fovereign grace. He was, 
therefore, infallibly to come at his appointed feafon. 
But thofe that concern the difpenfation of God's provi- 
dence in temporal things^ may all of them be conditional. And 
evident it is, that they have one condition annexed to the fulfil- 
ling of every one of them ; and that is, that thofe who would 
partake of them, do fiibmit themfelves to the law and ruk 
of the MefTiah. * The nation and kingdom that will not 

* ferve thee fliall perifli ; yea, thofe nations Ihall be 

* utterly wafled,' [Ifa. Ix. 12,] The real kingdom of 
Chrift being to continue through many generations^ evea 
from his coming in the flefli to the end of the world, 
and in fuch a variety of ilates and conditions, as God 
faw conducing to his own glory, and the exercife of his 
people's faith and obedience, the accomplilhment of thefe 
promifes in fcveral ages and feafons, according to the 
counfel of the Divine will, is exceedingly fuited to the 
nature, glory, and exaltation of it. And this one ob- 
fervation may be eaflly improved to the fruflrating of all 
the objeftions of Jews from the pretended non-accomplljhment 
of thefe promifes. 

3. Whereas fpiritual things have the principal place 
and confideration in the work and kingdom of the Melliah, 
they are oftentimes promifed in words, whofe firil figni- 
fication denotes things temporal. All men know the 
worth and ufefulnefs of the precious things of the crea- 
tion, gold, filver, precious flones ; of the defirable things 
of natural life, health, ftrength, long life ; of the good 
things of men in civil converfation, wealth, riches, liberty, 
rule, dominion, and the like. Men know fomewhat of 

L 1 2 the 


the worth of thefe things, whofe excellency they are fa 
well acquainted with, and whofe enjoyment they fo much 
delire. And yet, can any man be fo llupidly fottilh as 
to think, that in the days of the Meffiah hills fhall leap, 
and trees clap their hands, and wafte places fing, and 
Iheep of Keder, and rams of Nebaioth, be made minif- 
ters, and Jews fuck milk from the breafts of kings, and 
little children play with cockatrices, literally and pro- 
perly ? And yet thofe things, with innumerable of the 
like kind, are promifed. Do they not openly proclaim, 
to the meaneft comprehenfion, that the exprelnons of 
them are metaphorical, and that fome other thing is to be 
fought for in them ? 

4. By the feed of Abraham, by Jacob and Ifrael, in 
many places of the prophets, not their carnal feed, at 
leaft not all their carnal feed, is intended ; but the chil- 
dren of the faith of Abraham, who are the inheritors of 
the promife. And this we have proved before, in our 
diflertation about the Onenefs of the Church of the Old and 
New Teftament. 

5. By all people, all nations, the Gentiles, all the Gen- 
tiles, or the like ; not all abfolutely, efpecialiy at any one 
time, or feafon, are to be underflood ; but either the moji 
eminent and moft famous of them, or elfe thofe in whom 
the church, by reafon of their vicinity, is more efpecialiy 
concerned. God oftentimes chargeth the Jews of old, 
that they had worfbipped the Gods of all the nations ; 
whereby not all nations abfolutely, but only thofe that 
were about them, with whom they had commerce and 
communication, were intended. And thofe which, in 
an efpecial manner, feem to be deiigned in thofe prophe- 
tical expreffions, are that collection of nations, whereof 
the Roman empire was conllituted, which obtained the 
common appellation of the whole world, being, for the 
main of them, the poflerity of Japhet, who were to be 
perfuaded to dwell in the tents of Shem. 

6. It mufl be obferved, that whatever is to be effe£led 
by the fplrit, grace, or power of the MelTiah, during the 
continuance of his kingdom in the world, is mentioned 



in the promlfes, as that which was to be accompli llied, 
at, or by his coming. But here, as we before ol^ferved, lieth 
the raillake of the Jews ; whatever is fpoken about his 
work and kingdom, they expect to liave fulfilled, as it 
were, in a day, which, neither the nature of the things 
themfelves will bear, nor is it any way fuited to the glory 
of God, or the duration of this kingdom in the world. 
Indeed, all the things that are foretold about the king- 
dom of the MelTiah, are referred to his coming, becaufe 
before that they were not wrought, and they are pro- 
duced by his fpirit and grace, and the foundation of them 
all was perfectly and unchangeably laid in what he did 
and efFefted upon hia lirfl coming. 

7. It is granted, that there ihall be a time, during the 
continuance of the Mefiiah's kingdom in this world, 
wherein the generality of the nation of the Jews all the 
world over Ihall be called and effedually brought to the 
knowledge of the Melfiah, our Lord Jcfus Chrift, with 
which mercy they fliall receive deliverance from their 
captivity, reiloration into their own land, with a bleiTcd, 
iiourifhing and happy condition therein. But by whom 
Ihall thefe things be wrought for them ? By their M^^- 
liah, fay they, at his coming. But fliall he do all thefe 
things for them, whether thev bellcuelixm or no ; whether 
they obey him or rejecft him, love him or curfe him ? 
Is there no more required to this delivery, but that he 
Ihould come to them P Is it not alfo required, that they 

JJjQuld come to him ? Here then lies the only difference 
betvveen us. They are in expeftation that the Meffiah 
will come to them ; we, that they will come to the Mef- 

8. Suppofe that there fliould be any particular pro- 
mife or promifes relating to the times and kingdom of 
the Mefliah, either accompliilied, or not yet accomplifli- 
cd, the full, clear, and perfedl i^^^wi^ and intendm.ent of 
which we are not able to difcover; Ihall we therefore 
rejeft that faith and perfuafion which is built o\\ fo 
many clear, certain, undoubted teilimonics of the fcrip- 
ture itfelf, and manifefl in the event, as if it were with the 



beams of the fun ? For as fucli a proceeding could arife 
from nothing but a foolilh conceited pride, that we are 
^ble to find out God to perfection, and to difcover all 
the depths of wifdom that are in his word ; fo, being 
applied to other affairs, it would overthrow all alfurance 
and certainty in the world. What then we underftand 
of the mind of God, we faithfully adhere to ; and what 
we cannot comprehend, we humbly leave the farther re- 
velation of it to his divine Majefly. 

§ 3. (II.) We Ihall Ihew the perfed confiftency of 
the promifes referred to by the Jews, with the Chriiliari 

Firfi, then, they infill: upon that universal peace 
in the whole world, which they take to be promifed 
in the days of the Mefiiah. To this purpofe they urge, 
Ifa. ii. 2 — 4. * yVnd it fhall come to pafs in the laft 

* days, that the mountain of the Lord's houfe fhall be 

* eflabliihed in the top of the mountains,' &c. We 
agree with the Jews, that this is a prophecy of the Mef- 
liah, and of his kingdom in this world ; but we differ 
from them in the expofition of the * mountain of the 

* houfe of the Lord ;' they take it to be mount Mor'iah^ 
we, the worfnlp of Gcd itfelf. And whereas both of us 
are neceffitated to depart from the letter, and allov/ a 
metaphor in the words — for they will not contend that 
^he hill Moriah fliall be plucked up' by the roots, and 
taken and fet on the tops of otiier mountains they know 
not where, nor can they tell to what purpofe- — ^fo, our 
interpretation of the words, which admits only of the 
uioft ufaal figurative exprefiion, the place being taken for 
the worfnip performed in it, on the account whereof 
alone it was ever of any efteem, is far more eafy and 
natural than any thing they can make of the remainder 
of the words, fuppofing mount Moriah to be literally 
underflood. And in this {twf^ we affirm the firft part 
of the prophecy to be long fince accomplifiied, really 
and to the full. For, 

I. The temporal outward peace of the world, (if any 
fucU thing be here intended) is not the principaj part or 



fubjeft of the promife ; but rather the fpiritual worfliip 
of God, which is evidently and openly t'ulhilcd. That 
which is temporal, as to the times and feafons of it, is left 
to the fovereign will and wifdom of God for its accom- 
plilhment. Neither is it nccelTary that it fliouid be ful- 
iilled arnongft all nations at once, but only amongft them 
who at any time, or in any place, effectually receive the 
laws of God from the Mcffiah. 

2k That the words are not to be underftood ahfolutcly^ 
according to the ItriiSlnefs of the letter, is evident froin 
that part of the predidion in Micah, * Every one fhall 
' ik under his own vine, and under his iig-tree,' there 
being many, not only perfons but great nations in the 
world, that have neither the one nor the other. 

3. The Jews themfelves do not expeft fuch peace upon 
the coming of the Melhah. War, great and terrible, 
with Gog and Magog, they look for. But 1 fay, 

4. That Chrift at his coming wrought perfe^ peace 
between God and man, flaying the enmity and difference 
wliich, by reafon of fin, was between them. This alone 
abfolutely and properly is peace. And where this is, no 
wars and tumults can hinder, but that the perfons en- 
joying it fliall be preferved in perfccl peace. 

5. He hath alfo wrought true fpiritual peace and love 
between all that fincerely believe in him, ail his eledt ; 
which, although it frees them not from outward troubles, 
perfecutions, oppreflions, and afRiftions in the earth, and 
that from fome alfo that may make profefTion of his 
name ; yet, they having peace with God, and among 
themfelves, they enjoy the promife to the full fatis- 
fadlion of their fouls. And this peace of the cU^ ijjith 
God, and among themfehes, is the real intent of this 
predidlion ; though cxprefTed in terms of outward peace 
in the world. 

6. The Lord Chrift by his do£lrine hath net only 
proclaimed and offered peace with God to all nations, but 
alfo given precepts of peace and jclf -denial, directing and 
guiding all the fon.s of men to live in peace among them- 
ftlves i whereas the Jews of old had ex^refs command 



for vjary and deftroying the nations among whom they 
were to inhabit, wliich gives a great foundation to the 
promifes of peace in the days of the Meiliah. 

7. Let it be fuppofed (though not granted) that it is 
general outward peace, profpenty^ and tranquillity that is 
here promifed ; yet, even then, the preclfe time of its ac- 
complifnment is not here determined. If it be efFe£ted 
during the kingdom and reign of the Meinah in the worlds 
as we are given to expecl, the prophecy is verified. Take 
then this prophecy in what {zwio. foever it may be lite- 
rally expounded ; there is nothing in it that gives the 
leaf): countenance to the judicial pretence from the 

§. 4. The fecond collevSion of promifes which is in- 
filled upon, is of thofe which intimate the dell:ru6lion of 
IDOLATRY and fahe worlhip in the world, with the 
abundance of the knoivlcdge of the Lord taking away all di- 
verlity in religion that (hall be in the days of the Mef- 
liah. Such is that of Jer. xxxi. 34. * They (hall teachno 

* more every inan his neighbour,' &c. Zeph. iii. 9. * I will 

* turn to the people a pure language, that they may call 

* on the nanie of the Lord, to ferve him with one con- 

* fent.' [Zach. xiv. 9.] * And the Lord fhall be king 

* over all the earth,' &c. But for the prefent we fee, 
fay they, the contrary prevailing in the world. Idolatry is 
Hill continued ; dlverfitlcs of religion abound ; nor can 
the Jews and Chrlft'ians agree in this very matter about the 
Meffiah ; all which make it evident, that he who is pro- 
mifed to put an end to this ilate of things,^ is not yet 
come. We ani\ver, 

I. That thefe things are not fpoken abfilutely but 
comparatively ; namely, that in thofe days there fhall be 
fuch a plentiful efFuiion of the fpirit of wifdom and 
grace, as fhall caufe the true faving knowledge of God 
to be more eafily obtained, and much more plentifully to 
abound, than it did in the time of the law ; when the 
people, by an hard yoke, and infupportable burden of 
carnal ordinances, were bat obfcurely, and with difficulty, 
inllrucled in fome part of the. knowledge of God.- And 
2 * that 


that the words are thus to be interpreted, the many pro-^ 
mifes that are given concerning the inilrnftion of the 
church, in the days of the Melliah, and his own office 
of being the great prophet of the church, wiiich the 
Jews acknowledge, do undeniably evince. 

2. That the terms of all pcoplt and nations are necef- 
farlly to be underflood as before explained, for tnany na- 
tions, thofe in an cfpecial manner in whom the church of 
Chrifl is concerned ; neither can any one place be pro- 
duced, where an ahfolute untverfality is intended. 

3. That the feafon of the accomplishment of thcfe 
and the like predictions is not limited to the day or 
year of the Mcjjiah' s comings as the Jews, amongft other 
impolfible fiftions, imagine ; but extends itfelf to the 
whole duration of the kingdom of the Meffiah, as hath been 
fliewed before. 

4. That God fometimes is faid to do that, for the 
efFe£li ng of which he maketh provilion of outward means, 
though as to fome perfons and times they may be fruf- 
trated of their effe£t, or genuine tendency, which the 
Jews not only acknowledge^ but alfo contend for in other 

§ 5. Thefe things being fuppofed, we may quickly fee 
what was the events as to thofe promifes, upon the com- 
mg of the true and only Meffiah ; for, 

iv It is known to all, and not denied by thofe witli 
whom we have to do, that at the coming of Jcfus of Na- 
zareth, fetting alide that knowledge and worfhip of God 
which was in Judea^ a little corner of the earth, and that 
alfo, by their own confciiion, then horribly defiled and pro- 
faned, the whole world was utterly ignorant of the true 
God, and engaged in the worfliip oi idols and devils from 
time immemorial. 

2. Although the Jews had taken great pains j and com- 
pa{led fea and land, to make profclytes, yet they were very 
few, and thofe very obfcure perfons, whom they could at 
any time, or in any place, prevail with to receive the know- 
ledge, or give up themfelvcs to the worihip of the God 
-Vol. I. * Mm of 


of Ifrael ; but of converting people or nations to his obe- 
dience, they never entertained the leaft hopes. 

3. It is manifeft to all the world, that upon the comv g 
of Jefus, and by virtue of his gofpel, all the old idolatry of 
the world was deftroyed ; and that the whole fabric of fu- 
perftition, which Satan had been fo many ages engaged in 
ere£ling, was call to the ground, and thofe Gods of the 
earth, which the nations worfhipped, utterly familhed. 
Hence it is come to pafs at this day, that no people or 
nations under heaven continue to worfhip thofe dunghill 
gods, which the old empires of the world adored as their 
deities, and in whofe fervice they waged war againil the 
God of Ifraely and his people. And had it not been for 
Jefus Chrift and his gofpel, the true God had been, moft 
probably, no more owned in the Gentile world, at this 
day, than he was at his coming in the flefh ; and yet 
thele poor blinded creatures can fee no glory in him, nor 
in his minifiry, 

4. The Lord Jefus Chrift, by his fpirit and word, did 
not only deflroy idolatry 2J\A falfe worfhip in the world, but 
alfo brought the greatcft and moll potent nations of it to- 
the knowledge of God\ fo that, in comparifon of what 
was pail, * it covered the earth as the waters cover the 
* fas: 

5. The way whereby this knowledge and worfhip of tl^ir* 
true God was difperfed over the face of the earth, fpread- 
ing itfelf like an inundation of faving waters over the 
world, was, by fuch a fecret energy of the fpirit of 
Chriil, accompanying his word and the miniftration of it, 
thatit wholly differed from the operous, burdenfome, and, 
for the moll part, ineffectual way of teaching, which was 
\ifed by the priefls, Levites, and fcribes of old ; there be* 
ing much more of the efficacy of grace, than of the pains 
of the teachers, i'een in the effecls produced, according to 
the words of promife, Jer. xxxi. 34. 

6. In thi^J dlftufion of the knowledge of God there 
was way made for the Bnion, and joint confent in wor- 
ship, of thofe that fhould receive it. For the partition 
^vail between Jews and Gentiles was removed, and an 

a holj 


holy and plain way of fpiritual worfhip was prefcribed 
to all that Ihould embrace the law of tiie Mclfiah. 

7. Notwithftand'ing all that hatli been already accom- 
pHfhed ; yet there is flill room and time remaining for 
they^r/^d-r accomplifhment of thefe predial ions ; fo that 
before the clofe of the kingdom of the Mefliah, not one 
tittle of them fhall fall to the ground. And thns aifo 
the open event, known to all the world, manifefls the due 
and fail accomplifhment of thefe promifcs, making it un- 
queftionable, that the MelTiah is longfincc come, and hath 
fulfilled the long-defigned work. 

§ 6. Neither are the exceptions of the Jews of any 
force to invalidate our application of thefe promifes. We 
have fhewed already, that thefe and the like prcdiftions 
are to have a gradual accomplifliment, not all at once, 
in every place. It is fuificient, that there is an everlaft- 
ing foundation laid for the deftruftion of all falfe wor- 
fliip, which having had a confpicuous and glorious effeft 
in the moil eminent nations of the world, fufficient to 
anfwer the intention of the prophecy, fliall yet farther, 
in the appointed feafons, root out the remainder of all 
fuperflition and apoftacy from God. For what concerns 
Chriftians themfelves, it cannot be denied, but that ma- 
ny who are Jo called have corrupted themfelves, and con- 
traded the guilt of that horrible iniquity which they 
charge upon them. But this being the crime of fome 
certain perfons, and not of the profellbrs of Chrijiianity at 
Jarge, ought not to be objected to them. And I defire 
to know, by what means the Jews fuppofe that themfelves 
and the nations of the world fhall be kept from idolatry 
and falfe worfhip in the days of the Meffiah ? If it be, 
becaufe their Meffiah fhall give fuch a perfe£l law, and 
fuch full inftrudions concerning the mind and will of 
God, that all men may clearly knoiv their duty ; we fay, 
that this is already done in the highefl degree of perfec- 
tion conceiveable. But what if, notwithftandhig this, 
men will follow their own vain rcafonings and imagina- 
tions, and fall from the rule of their obedience into will- 
worjh'ip and fuperflition, what remedy have they provided 

Mm 2 againft 


againft fuch back-fliding ? If they fay, they have none 
but only an endeavour to prefs upon them their duty to 
the words and inllitutions of God ; we reply, that we 
have the fame, and do make ufe of it to the fame im- 
portant end. If they fhall fay, that their Meffiah v/ill kill 
them, or flay them with the fword ; we confefs, that 
curs is not of that mind ; and we defire them to take 
heed, left, in the room of the holy, humble, merciful 
king, promlfed to the church, they look for a bloody ty- 
rant^ that fliall exercife force over the minds of men, 
and execute his unhallowed revenge on thofe whom he 
likes not. And with refpe£l to the multitude o{ fc^s^ 
which every where fpring up, we reply, that as all agree 
in the worfnip of the God of Ifrael, by Jefus Chrift the 
Meffiah, which contains the fum of their religion ; fo, 
their profeilion itfelf is not to be meafured by the doc- 
trines and conceptions of forae amongfl them, but by the 
fcripture, which they all receive and acknowledge. 

§ 7. Thirdly, they inlift upon the promifes which con- 
cern THEMSELVES, and thefe, of all others, they moft 
mind, and urge againft their adverfaries. Nothing, they 
fay, is more certain and evident in the fcripture, than 
that the people of Ifrael fliall be brought into a blelled 
and profperous condition b>f the Meffiah, at his coming, 
and in particular, that by him they Ihali be brought home 
into their own land. But now, fay they, inflead of this, 
that whole people is fcattered over the face of the earth, 
under great mifery and oppreffion for the moft part, with- 
out the leaft intereft in the country promifed to them. 
And from hence it is, that they moft obftinately conclude, 
that the Meffiah is not yet come ; for until they are richy 
wealthy, and powerful, they will not believe that God is 

In the confideration of tliefe promifes, we muft care- 
f jlly diftinguifh between thofe which had their /////, at leail 
their principal accomplifhment in the return of the people 
from the captivity of Babylon, and thofe which have a 
dire6l regard to the days of the Meffiiah. It is known, 
that the prophets do very ufually fet out that mercifi:! 



deliverance in metaphorical cxprefflcns, in order to fet ofF 
the greatnefs of the mercy itfelf. But the prefent Jews, 
who look for the accomplifiiing of all the moft ftraincd 
allegories in a literal fenfc, do wrcfl the rn all to the times 
of the MefTiah, when tlicy hope they Ihall receive them 
in full meafure ; for they reckon of all things according 
to their outward gain and proiit, and not according to 
the manifeilation of the glory and love of God therein. 

But let them know, that whatever is foretold and pro- 
niifed, concerning themfches in the days of the Meffiah, 
they have no colour of reafon to expect, until they receive 
him, own and fubmit to him, v/hich, to this day, they 
have not done. When JMofes went out to vifit tiiem of 
old in their diftrefs, and flew tiie Egyptian that fmote 
one of them ; yet, bccaufe they rcfufed him, and v/ould 
not underfland, that it was by him God would deliver 
them, and endeavoured to betray him todeatli, their bon- 
dage was continued forty years longer. Neverthelefs, at 
length, by the fame Mofes were they delivered. In like 
manner, although the Jews have refufcd and reje^led him 
who was promifed to be the Saviour, and fo continue to 
this day in their captivity, fpiritual and temporal ; yet it 
is He, by whom, in the time appointed, they fhall be 
delivered from the one and the other. But this Ihall not 
be done until they own and receive him ; and when God 
fliall give them hearts to do it,, they will quickly find 
the blelled fuccefs thereof. But all this, we fay, muft 
come to pafs, when the veil fliall be taken from before 
their eyes, and they fhall look on him whom they have 
pierced, and joyfully receive him whom they have iinfully 
rejefted for fo many generations. And when, by his 
fpirit and grace, they fliall be turned from ungodlinefs, 
and have their eyes opened to fee the myltery of the grace, 
wifdom, and love of God, in the blood of his Son, then 
fhall they obtain mercy from the God of their forefathers, 
and returning again into their own land, Jerufalem JJmll 
Iff inhabited again. 


( 2S« ) 

P A p. T III. 

Concerning the Frlejihood of Chrijl. 



\. 7^<? doHr'ine of Chrtji^s prUJihood is more fp^^ingly 
taught in other parts of fcripture, hut profejjedly in the Epif 
ile to the Hehrcivs, § 2. The importance of the fubje^iy 
and the oppoftioji made to it, jufiify a particular difcuJjion„ 
§ 3- Signification of the word priest. § 4. Melchife- 
deck the firft prief, A facrificer. Corruption of the Tar^ 
gum. Legal injiitution of a prieflhood, in reference to the 
Meffiah. § 5. The origin of ChrifT s priefthood. The 
fate of innocency could have no priefthood properly fo called, 
§ 6 . This farther proved. § 7 . 'Nor could it have any 
proper facrifice. § 8. If man had not finned^ the Son of 
God would not have taken our ?iature upon him. § g. Of 
the nature of the Divine counfels. The end of God in his 
ivorks in general ; and in the creation of man in particular, 
§ 10 — 13. (I.) Versoissal tranfacf ions in the holy Tri- 
nityy concerning man, Gen. i. 26. § 14 — 18. The fame 
truth farther revealed and confirmed, Prov. viii. 22 — 31. 
^ 19. The fame truth exprejjcd, Pfal. ii. 7. § 20„ 
(II.) Federal tranfatlioyis between the Father and Son^ 
about the work of redemption. §21. Explanation of terms. 
Covenants hoxv ratified of old. § 2 2. A complete and pro- 
per covenant, ivhat it requires. § 23. Of covenants^ 
with refpctl to perfonal fervices. § 24. The covenant he ^ 
tween Father and Son exprefs, § 25. CounfeL § 26. 


ExER. r. CONCERNING THE, &c. n^^ 

fflll. §27. 7hc things difpofed of in the power of the 
parties. § 28. Ala tier, § 29. E?id, § 30. Condi- 
tions and limitations^ § 3 ' • Conclujion. 

\ I. x\MONGST the many excellencies of this epif- 
tle to the Hebrcwsy which render it as ufeful to the church, 
as the fun in the firmament is to the world ; the revela- 
tion that is made therein, concerning the nature, fingular 
pre-eminence, and ufe of the priefthood of our Lord Je- 
lus Chrifl, may well be efteemed to deferve the prin- 
cipal place. The fubjefl, indeed, as to the fubfiance of 
it, is delivered in fome other palTages of the New Tefla- 
ment ; but yet more fparingly than, perhaps, any- 
other truth of the like importance. The Holy Ghofl re- 
ferved it for this, as its proper place ; where, upon the 
confideration of the Old Tefamcnt inflitutions, and their 
removal out of the church, it might be duly reprefented, 
as that which gave an end to them in their accomphfhment, 
and life to thofe ordinances of evangelical worfhip, which 
were to fucceed in their room. 

When our Lord Jefus fays, that he came * to give 
* his life a ranfom for many,' [Matt. xx. 28.] he had 
a refpeft to the facrifice that he had to offer, as a prieil. 
The fame alfo is intimated, where he is called the Lamb of 
God, [John i. 29,] Our apoftle alfo mentioneth his y^/cr/- 
fice, and his o^mw^ of himfelf unto God, [Ephef. v. 2.] 
On which account he calleth him a propitiation^ [Rom. iii. 
25.] and mentioneth alfo, his interccffion with the benefits 
thereof, [Rom. viii. 34.] The cleareft teftimony to this 
purpofe is, that of the apoflle John, who puts together 
both t'.ie general a6ls of his facerdotal office, and intimates 
wi hal, their mutual relation, [L John ii. 2.] for his 
interccffion as our advocate with his Father, refpe^ls his 
oblation as he was a propitiation for our fins. So the 
fame apoftle tells us, that ' he waftied us in his own 
' blood,' [Rev. i. 5.] when he expiated our fins by the 
facrifice of himfelf. But for the principal acquaintance 
we have with thefe and fundry other evangelical myfteries, 


fc6o G O N C E k N I !\' G THE Part ih 

efpccialiy in reference to the nature and ufe of Afofaical 
hjlitutiom, which make fo great a part of the fcripture, 
we are entirely obhged- to the revelation made in this 

§ 2. And this doftrine concerning the Fncfthood of 
Chriil, and the facrifice that he offered, is, on many ac- 
counts, deep and myflerious. This our apoftle plainly 
intimates in fundry pafHiges of this epiftle. With refpedt 
liereunto,' he faith, the difcourfe he intended was (oucrcp- 
'iJ.r{'jK.-of6l:Y hard to he utterrcd^ or rather hard to be under^ 
JioodWhzn uttered, [chap. V. ii.] As alfo another apof- 
tle. that there are in this epljlle (Ivirvc^^d t//^, II. Pet. 
liL TO.) fome things hard to be under fiobd. Hence it is re- 
quired, that thofe who attend to this dodrihe, lliould 
be part living on milk only^ or be contented with the firll 
rudiments and principles of religion ; and that they may 
be able to digeft /?r5//^ meat^ by having " their fenfes ex- 
ercifed, to difcern good and evil," [chap. v. 12 — 14.] 
And when he refclves to proceed in the explication of it, 
he declares that he is leading them on to perfections [chap. 
vi. I.] or the higheft and moil perfed dodriiie in the 
myfteries of the Chriftian religion. 

Moreover, the doftrine concerning the prlefthood^ arid 
facrifice of the Lord Chrift, which contains the principal 
foundation of the faith and comfort of the church, hath 
in all ci'res, by the craft and raahce of Satan, been either 
diredly oppofed, or varioufly corrupted. But there is a 
generation of men whom the craft of Satan (who envies 
the Jirong confolation of the church, v/hich he knows pro- 
ceeds in a great meafure from this truth) hath llirred up 
in this and the foregoing age, who have made it a great 
part of their prepofterous and pernicious endeavours to 
overthrow this zvhole office of the Redeemer, and the effi- 
cacy of the facrifice of himfelf depending on that ofHce. 
This thev have attempted with much fubtlcty and. dili- 
gence, introduchig a metaphorical, or imaginary priejlhood 
and facrifice in their room ; and fo, robbing the church 
of its principal treafure, they pretend to fupply the w^ant 
of it with their own fancies. And there are moic rea- 



fons than one, why I could not omit a ftrift examination 
of their reafonings and obj colons againil th-is great part of 
the myftery of the gofpel, 

§ 3. Our Lord Jefus Chriil is, in the Old Teflament, 
called (jn3) Cohen, [Pfal. ex. 4.] ' Thou art Cohen for 

* ever.* Alfo it is faid of him, [Zech. vi. 13.] * He 

* (hall be Cohen upon his throne.' We render it in both 
places a prieji (ispsvg, facerdos.) In this epiftle he is fre- 
quently faid to be (tspsvg and ccp%izpsvg, Pontifex, Pontifex 
Maximus) a prieji and high pricji. The meaning of thefe 
words mufl be iirft inquired into. 

The verb (jna) is ufed only in pihil, cihcn i and it 
fignifies (is^a^ysiv, facerdotio fungi, or munus facerdotale ex* 
ercerej to be a prieji, ov to exercifc the office of the prieji hood, 
Tlie Septuagint moflly render it by {i^oocJc-voCf facerdotio 
fungor) to exercife the prieji ly office. Some would have the 
word to be ambiguous, and to lignify (officio fungi, aut 
minjirare in facris aut po lit ids J to dif charge an office, or to 
minijier in things facred or political. But no inftance can 
be- produced of its ufe to this purpofc. The word is, 
therefore, facred \ or is ufed properly only in a facrecj 

The Arabic (jhd) Cahan, is, to divine, to prognofticate, 
to be 2. foothfayer, to foYetell\ and Caahan is a diviner, a 
prophet, 2i\\ ajirologer, Vi figure-cajier. This ufe of it came 
np after the priefls had generally taken themfelves to fuch 
arts, as were partly curious, partly diabolical, by the infti* 
gation of the falfe gods to whom they miniftered, 

§ 4. He who was firfl called (jhd) a prieji in the 
fcripture, probably in the world, was Mclchijcdcck, [Gen. 
xiv. t8.] Sometimes, though rarely, it is applied to 
exprefs a ^r/r/f of falfe gods ; as oi Dagon, [I. Sam. v. 5.] 
and oi Egyptian deities, [Gen. xli. 45.] * Jofeph marrie4 

* the daughter of Potipherah, prieji of On ;' that is, of 
Heliopolis, the chief feat of the Egyptian religious worfhip. 
It is confelTed, that this name is fometimcs ufed to lignify 
fccondary princes, or princes of a fecond rank ; but the 
Jews, after the Targum, offer violence to Pfal. ex. 4. 
\vhere they v:ould have Melchifedeck to be called Cohen, 

Vol. I. N n becauf^ 


hecaufe he was a prince ; for it is expreffly faid of him, he 
was a king, of which rank none is, on account of his of- 
fice, ever called Cohen. I fay, therefore, that Cohen is 
properly (Svlvig) a facr'ificer ; nor is it otherwife to be 
tindcrflood, unlefs the abufe of the word be obvious, and 
a metaphorical fenfe neceflary. The Targiimifts make a 
great difference in rendering the word. Where it intends 
a priefl of God properly^ they retain it ; where it is apphed 
to a prince^ or ruler, they render it by («nn) rahba ; and 
where applied to an idolatrous priefl, by (h^iDiD) comara^ 
But in this matter of Melchifedeck, [Gen. xiv. i8.] they 
are peculiar : ' And he was (ii^nn^Q) mejhamejh, a minifler 

* before the high God.' And by this word they expreis 
the miniflry of the priells, [Exod. xix. 22.] ' The priefls 

* who draw nigh (MU??it:^V) to mhiijier before the Lord i* 
whereby it is evident, that they underftood him to be «^ 

facred. officer^ or a pr'icjl unto God. But in Pfal. ex. 4. 
where the fame word occurs again to the fame purpofe, 
they render it by (s^n) a prince, or great ruler : ' Thou 

* art 2i great ruler, like Melchifedeck ;' which is a part of 
their open corruption of that pfalm, with a deiign to ap- 
ply it unt9 David ; for the author of that Targum lived 
after they knew full w^ell how the prophecy in that Pfalm 
was in our books, and, by Chriflians, applied to the Mef- 
iiah, and how the cealing of their law and worfhip was^ 
from thence, invincibly proved in this epiflle. This 
made them malicioufly to pervert the words in their para-% 
fhrafe, although they durft not violate the facred text it- 
felf. But the text is plain ; * Melchifedeck was Cohen to 

* the high God ;' a priejl, one called to the office of fo- 
lemn facr'ificing to God ; for he that ofFereth not facrificc 
to God, is not a prieft to him ; for this is the principal 
duty of his office, and from which the whole receives its 
denomination. But, \\\z\. Melchifedeck \S2.'S> by office a y2?- 
crificcr, appears, from Abraham's delivering up unto him, 
[Gen. xiv. 20.] ' The tenth of all / that is, as our apof- 
t!c interprets the place (^tmv oiKPo9iyioov) of the fpoils he 
had taken ; among which, there is no quellion but there 
were many clean bcajis meet for facrifice. For in their 

' ■ • ' " herds. 


herds and cattle confided the principal parts of the riches 
of thofe days, and thefc were the principal fpoils of war, 
[See Numb. xxxi. 32, 33.] Abraham, therefore, de- 
livered thefe fpoils to Melchifcdeck, as the pricji of the 
high God, to offer in facrlficc for him. And it may be, 
there was fomewhat more in it, than the mere pre-emi- 
nence of Mclchifedeck — whereby he was the firft and only 
py'ieji in office, by virtue of fpecial Divine call — namely, 
that Abraham himfeif coming immediately from the 
{laughter of many kings, and their numerous armies, was 
not yet prepared for this facred fervice. 

Sacrificing had been hitherto left at liberty ; everyone 
who was called to perform any part of folemn religious 
worfhip, was allowed to difcharge that duty alfo. But 
it plealed God, in the reducing of his church into peculiai: 
order, the more confpicuoufly to reprefent v/hat he would 
afterwards really effect in Jefus Chrifl, to creft among 
them a peculiar office of prieilhood ; whereby an inclofure. 
of facrlficlng was made to the office of the priefts ; that 
is, fo foon as there was fuch an office, by virtue of fpe- 
cial inflitution, it belonged exclujively to that office. 

Whereas, therefore, it is prophefied, that the MeJJiah 
fhould be a -priejl, the principal meaning of it is, that he 
fhould be a facrificer ; one that had a right, and was ac- 
tually called to offer facrifice unto God. This is the 
general and real notion of a -prieji amongfl all men 
throughout the world. 

§ 5. We have feen that Jefus Chrifl is a prlefl ; life 
was prophefied of under the Old Teflament, and declared to 
be fo in the New. The ultimate orinn of this office lies 
in the eternal counfels of God ; but our prefen.t defign is, 
to trace thofe difcovcries, which God linth made of his 
eternal counfels in this matter, through the feveral de- 
grees of Divine revelation. 

Our firfl condition under the law of creation was a con- 
dition of innocency and natural righteoufnefs ; and, there- 
fore, God had not ordained an ef\abh"fhment in it of either 
prieft or facrifice. — They vrould have been of no ufe In 
that flate ; for there was nothing fuppQfed, which miglit 
N n 2 be 

i64 CONCERNING T H £ Part Uli 

be prefigured or reprefeiited by them. Wherefore God 
did not pre-ordain the prieflhood of Chrift, with any re- 
fjpect to the obedience of man under the law of creation ; 
nor fhould any fuch have been upon a fuppoiition of its 

There is an indiflbluble relation between prieflhood 

an^ facrifice ; they mutually aflert or deny each other. 

Where the one is proper^ the other is fo alfo ; and where 

the one is metaphorical, fo is the other. Thus, under the 

Old Teflament, the priefls who were properly fo by office, 

had proper carnal facri£ces to offer ; and under the New 

Teflament, believers being made priefls unto God ; that 

is, fpiritually and metaphorically, fuch alfo are their fa- 

erifices, fpiritual and metaphorical. Wherefore, arguments 

againft either of thefe conclude equally againfl both. 

Where there are no priefls, there are no facrifices j and 

where there are no facrifices, there are no priefls. We 

may, therefore, conclude — that there was no prieflhood 

to be in the flate of innocency ; whence it will follow, 

that there could be no facrifice. And — that there was to 

be no facrifice properly fo called ; whence it will equally 

follow, that there was no prieflhood therein, — That 

which enfues on both, is, that there was no counfel 

of God concerning either prieflhood or facrifice in that 


§ 6. ' For every high prleji taken from among men, is 

* ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he 

* may offer both gifts 'and facrifices for fins,' faith our 
apoftle, [Heb. v. i.] What is here affirnred of the high 
priejl is true, in like manner, concerning every priejl \ 
only the high priefl is here mentioned by way of emi- 
nence ; becaufe by him our Lord Chrifl, as to his office, 
and the difcharge of it, was principally reprefented. 
Every priefl is, therefore, one * taken from among men;' 
he is (natures humance particeps) partaker of human nature 
in common with other men ; and antecedently to his af- 
fumption of his office, he is one of the fame rank with 
other men ; he is takcn^ or feparated from among them, 

1 and 


and is vefted with his office, by the authority and accord- 
ing to the will of God. 

This office, therefore, is not a thing which is common 
to all, nor can it take place in any Itate or condition, 
wherein the whole performance of divine fervicc is equally 
incumbent on all individually ; for none can be taken from 
among others, to perform that which thofe others are 
every one obliged perfonally to attend to. But every 
prieft, properly fo called {zc69i(fjc^oii vtt-^ (xv^^mttcajv) is 
ordained, or appointed, to aH for other men. He is fet over a 
work in the behalf of thofe other men, from among whom 
he is taken, that he may take care of, and perform {-Tcf. 
m-Dog Toy Os&v) things pertaining to God; or do the things 
that in behalf of men are to be done with God; that is, 
( o'n^«n Vid) to pacify God, to make atonement and recon- 
ciliation, by offering (loc^a xaA 9vcnccg) various forts of 
gifts and facrifices, according to God's appointment. This 
office, therefore, could have no place in the {late of inno- 
ceficy ; for it will not bear an accommodation of any part 
of this elTential charafter of priefthood. I acknowledge, 
that in the ftate of uncorrupted nature, there wOuld have 
been fome (uTTi^ tj^ 0.-^^, icx, iv^oq tov av^^'jor.ov) to deal 
with others for God ; for fome would have been warranted 
and deiigned, in virtue of natural relations, to inflru^l 
others in the knowledge of God, and his will. They were 
to be (vTTS^ 0ij^) for God, or in his flead to them, to in- 
ftrudl them in their duty fuitable to the law of their creation. 
But every one thus inftru(^ed, w^as, in his own name and 
perfon, to attend to the things of God, or what was to be 
performed on the behalf of men ; for in reference to God, 
there would have been no common root or principle for 
men to fland upon. Whilft we were all in the loins of 
Adam, we flood all in him, and we alfo fell all in him ; 
but (5(p' 00 ivc^vl-q YiiJMflov, Rom. v. 12.) fo foon as any 
one had been born into this world, and fhould have a 
perfonal fubfiflence of his own, he was to J?a?id by him- 
fef, and to be no more, as to his covenant intereft, 
concerned in the obedience of his progenitors. Every 
one was in his own perfon to difcharge all duties of wor- 



Ihip towards God. Nor is it conceiveablci l^ow any on® 
could be taken out from the relidue of men, to difcharge 
the works of religion officially towards God for them, 
without its being to the prejudice of their right, and the 
hindrance of their duty. It follows, therefore, that the 
office of a prieft, adting for men towards God, was im- 
pollible in that flate. 

§ 7. This is alfo the cafe, with reference to facrijices ; 
becaufe of the relation between them and the priellhood. 
Hence is that faying (in Berejhith Rabb.) " ^s is the altar 
for facrifice, fo are the piejis belonging to it." By facri- 
fice^ in this inquiry, we underftand thofe that are pro- 
perly fo ; for that which is proper^ in every kind, is firft. 
Nor is there any place for that which is improper^ or me- 
taphorical, unlefs Jomething proper^ from whence the de- 
nomination is taken, have preceded ; for in allufion 
thereunto, doth the metaphor confill. Now, in the ilate 
of innocency nothing went before, with refpecl to 
which any thing might be fo called ; as now our fpirl- 
tual worfhip is, with refped to them, under the Old 

Concerning thefe facriiices, we may confider their na- 
ture, and their end, A facrifice is (nnr, Ovcnoif vMma ; 
facrificium maHatum \) a Jla'in or killed offering ; yea, the 
firil proper flgnification of the verb (nnt) is (madavit^ 
jugulavlty decollavlt, occidet) to kill, to Jlay by effufion of 
blood, and the like. The fubflantive alfo (nn, ma£latioy 
jugulatio, occijioj conveys the fame meaning. It is, there- 
fore, evident, that there neither is, nor can be, any fa- 
crifice, properly fo called, but what is made by the k'll- 
ling ox flaying of the thing facrificed. And the offering of 
inanimate things under the law, as of flour, or wine, or 
the fruits of the earth, were improperly fo called, by vir- 
tue of their conjunction with fuch as were properly fo. 
They might be {rrhvj ) offerings, or afcenfons ; but (o'nnt ) 
facrifices they were not. And the nature of a facrifice 
principally confifts — not in the ading^ of the facrificer, 
but — in the bringing of it to be {lain, and in the faying 



ttfelf\ all that followed, belonging to the religious man-' 
ner of teftifying thereby faith and obedience. 

This alfo difcovers the proper an'd peculiar end of fa- 
orifice, properly fo called ; efpecially fuch as might prefi- 
gure the facrifice of Chrift, to which our prefent dif- 
courfc is confined. All fuch facrifices muft refped 7?«, 
and an atonement to be made for it. There never was, 
\\ox ever can be, any other leading end of the effufion of 
blood in the fervice of the living God. This the nature 
of the a£tion, and the whole feries of divine inllitutions 
in this matter, fully manifefl. For to what end fhould a 
man take another creature, in his power and pofTellion, 
which alfo he might ufe to his advantage ; and, flaying 
it, offer it up unto God, if not to confefs a guilt of his 
own, or fomewhat for which he dcferved to die ; and to 
reprefent a commutation of the punifliment due unto him, 
by the fubftitution of another in his room, according to 
the will of God ? 

§ 8. Some have maintained, that if man had not fin- 
ned, yet the Son of God fliould have taken our nature 
on him. In anfwer to which, we fhall here only fay, that 
the aflertion is [oiy^oc'pov) unwritten ((z^yj lypccpov) contrary 
to what is written, and (ccKoyov) dcjlitute of any folid 
fpiritual reafon, for the confirmation of it ; and, there- 
fore, mufl needs be falfe. I fay, that to afcribe to God a 
purpofe of fending his Son to be incarnate, without refpeft 
to the redemption and falvation of finners, is to enervate 
and contradift the whole dcfign of revelation, and parti- 
cular teftimonies without number. Origen obferved 
this ; " If fin had not been, there would have been no 
neceflity, that the Son of God fliould be made a lamb ; 
but he had remained what he was in the beginning, (Dens 
vcrbum) GoD the word. But becaufe fin entered into 
the world, and flood in need of a propitiation^ which 
could not be but by a facrifice, it was neccffary that a 
facrifice for fin Ihould be provided."* 

* HomiU xxlv. in Nv.mer. 


^8 C O N C E R I\ I N e THE Tart III. 

From what hath been fpoken, it appears, that there 
was no decree, no counfel of God, concerning either 
pneji or Jacrifice^ with refpeft to the law of creation, and 
the ftate of innocency. A fuppolition, therefore, of the 
entrance oi fin^ and what enfued thereon, the curfe of 
the law, lie at the foundation of all real prieflhood and 
facrifice. Having made thefe previous remarks, it re-^ 
mains, that we proceed to declare tht fpecial origin of the 
prieflhood of Chrill: in the counfel of God. 

§ o. From what hath been dififourfed, it is manifeft^ ^ 
that the counfel of God, concerning the prieilhood »an4 
facrifice of his Son to be incarnate for that purpofe, had 
Tefpe£t to fiiy and the dclrjcrance of the eled from it. 
That which now lies before us, is, to inquire more ex- 
preilly into the naturt of the counfels of God in this matter, 
and their progrefs in execution. And as, in this endea- 
vour, we fhall carefully avoid all curiojity, or v^in attempt$ 
to be * wife above what is written ;* fo, on the other 
hand, ftudy with fober diligence to improve what is re^ 
vealed, to the end that we fliould fo increafe in know- 
ledge, as to be eftablifhed in faith and obedience. 

God, in the creation of all things, intended to manifeft 
his nature in its being, exiftence, and eflential proper* 
ties ; and the things themfelves that were made, had, in 
their nature and order, fuch an imprefs of Divine wif- 
dom, goodnefs, and power, as made manifeft the ori- 
ginal caufe from whence they proceeded, [Rom. i. 19 
— 21. Pfai. xix. I, 2, 5cc.] Wherefore the vifible works 
of God, man only excepted, were defigned for no other 
end, but to declare in general, the nature, being, and 
exiflencp of God. But in this nature (as we learn from 
his word of grace) there are three perfons diflin£tly fub- 
iifting. And herein confifis the moft incomprehenfible 
and fublime perfeilion of the Divine Being. This, there- 
fore, was deiigned to be manifefted and glorified in the 
creation of man : herein God would glorify himfelf, as. 
fubfifting in three difiintl perfons, and himfelf in each of 
thefe perfons difiinaiy. And as this w^as not defigned 
immediately in other parts of the vifible creation, but in 



this, whu:h was the complement and pcrfe£lion of them i 
therefore, the firft exprefs mention of a plurality of per- 
fons in the Divine nature, is in the creation of man. 
And therein alfo are the perfonal tranfatliom intimated, 
concerning his prefent and future condition. 

§ 10. (I.) This, therefore, is what, in the firft 
place, we fhall evince — " That there were from all eter- 
nity, PERSONAL tranfa^lons in the Holy Trinity, con- 
cerning mankind, in their temporal and eternal con- 
dition, which tirll manifelled thcmfelves in our crea- 

The flrft relation of the counfels of God, concerning 
this matter, we have, Gen. i. 26. (di« nt:»:;j cdm^s^ -jd-^'I 
n")n unimD "iJdV:;!) ^ Jnd God /aid, let us make M^'t:i in 

* OUR image accordivg to OUR likenefs ; and let THEM hava 

* dominion.' This was the counfcl of God concerning 
the making of (t=nb<) j^dam ; that is, not that individual 
perfon who was firll created, and fo called ; but of 
the /pedes of creature which, in him, he now pro- 
ceeds to create ; for the word * Adam' is ufed in this, 
and the next chapter, in a three-fold fenfe : — Firji, for 
the name of the individual man who was firft created. 
He was called Adam from Jdama, the ground, from whence 
he was taken, [chap. ii. 19 — 21. I. Cor. xv. 47.] Se- 
condly, it is taken indefinitely for the man fpoken of, chap, 
ii. 7. And 'the Lord created (ai«n) man\ not he, 
vvhofe name was Adam, for the He Hajediah is never pre- 
fixed to any proper name ; but the man indefinitely of 
whom he fpeaks. thirdly, it denotes the /pedes of man- 
kind ; as in this place ; for the reddition is in the plurai 
number: .'And let //;(rw have dominion ;' the multitude 
of individuals being included in the exprefTion of the^^- 
des \ hence it is added, [ver. 27.] ' So God created w^« 

* in his own image, in the image of God created he him, 
' male and female created he them ' which is not fpoken 
with refpeft to Eve, who was not then made, but to the 
kind, or race of men, including both /exes. 

Concerning them, God faith, (nir^rj) let us make in the 

plural number i and io are the following exprellions of 

Vol. L Co God 

ft^o CONCERNINC^ THE Part lit. 

God in llie fame work (iJoVri) * m our image, ("i^niniD) 

* according to OUR Ukenefs.^ This is the firji time that 
God fo expreffeth himfelf ; as to all other parts of the 
creation, we hear no more but (D»n^« -it)«n) ' and God 

* /aid ;* in which word alfo I will not deny, but refpe£l 
may be had to the plurality of perfons in the Divine ef- 
fence, as the Spirit is exprellly mentioned, chap. i. 2. 
But here that myflerious truth is clearly revealed. 

. § II. It is an eafy way, which fome have taken in. 
the expoHtion of this place, to folve the feeming difficul- 
ty : God, they fay, fpeaks in it plurally (more regio) in 
n kingly manner, ^^ It is the manner of the Hebrews, faith 
Grotius, to fpeak of God as of a king 5 and kings tranf- 
a£l important matters with the counfcl oi the chief men 
about them, [L Kings xii. 6.. II. Chron. x. 9. I. Kings 
xxii. 20.]" But the queilion is not about the manner 
of fpeaking among the Hebrews (of which yet no inftancc 
can be given to this purpofe) but of the words of God 
liimfelf, concerning himjelf; and of the reafon of the 
change of the expreliion ufed conftantly before. God is 
king of ail the world, and if he had fpoken more regio^ 
would he not have done it, with refpeft to the whole crea- 
tion, equally, and notfignally with refpe£t to man ? Be- 
fidrf, this mos regius is a cuftom of much later date ; and 
that which then ivas not, was not alluded to. And the 
reafon added, why this form of fpeech is ufed — becaufc 
♦* kings do great things on the counfel of their principal 
attendants" — requires, in its application, tliat God fhould 
eonfult with fome created princes, abx>ut the creation of 
man, which is an ^;2^i-yrr/^/«r^?/ figment. 

The ancients unanimoufly agree, that a plurality of per- 
fons in the Deity is here revealed and afierted ; yea, the 
counfel of Syrmium, tlwugh dubious, though Ariani^zing 
in their confeffion of faith, denounced an anathema to any 
tiiat fhail deny thefe words, * Let us make man^ to be 
the words of the Father to the Son, (Sacrat. Lib. II. Cap, 
XXV.) Chrysostom lays the weight of his argument, 
for it, from the change in the manner of exprefiion before 
ufed, as he jufll^ and foiidlj might. Ambrose obferves, 


ExER. I. :PRIESTH00D of CHRIST. ayt 

(Apparet concUio trlnltatis crcatumeflchominem) " it appears 
that man was created by a counfel of the Trinity^ Nor 
have any of thofe, who of late have efpoufed this evafion, 
anfv/ered the arguments of the ancients in favour of this 
Catholic k\\(i:, nor replied with any likelihood of reafon 
to their exceptions againil the contrary interpretation 
Theodoret (in Qiief. xx. in Gcv;.) urgcth, that if God 
nfeth this manner of fpeech, concerning himfelf, merely 
to declare his mind more rggh^ he would have done it 
always, at leafl he would have done it often. However, 
it would unavoidably have been the form of fpeech ufed 
in that kingly ad of giving the law at Sinai ; for that, if 
any thing, required the k'lngly fiyle pretended. But the ab- 
folute contrary is obfervcd, God, in that whole tranfac- 
tion with his peculiar people and fabje6ts, fpeaks of him- 
felf constantly in the Jingular number. 

There are two forts of perfons, who, with all their 
ilrength and artifices,- oppofe our expofition of this place ; 
namely, the Jevjs and the Sodniatis, with whom we have 
to do perpetually, in whatever concerns the perfon and 
Gfflce of Chrifl the MelTiah. 

The Jews are at no fmall lofs, as to the intention of 
the Holy Ghofl, in this cxpreffion. Philo (de Opifich 
Mun.) knows not on what to fix, but after a pretence of 
fome fatisfadory reafon, adds ; " The true reafon hereof 
is known to God alone.'* The reafon which he efteems 
mod probable, is taken out of Plato, in his Timaus ; 
for whereas, he faith, that there was to be in the nature 
of man a principle of r^v/, it was necefHiry that it fhould 
be from another author, and not from the moll high (jod. 
Such woeful miftakes may be pafled over in Plato, who 
had no infallible rule to dire<^ him in his difquifitlon af- 
ter truth ; but in him who had the advantage of the fcrip- 
tures of the Old Teftament, it cannot be excufed, feeing 4 
this figment rifeth up in oppofitlon to the. whole dcfign 
of them. — Some feek an evafion in fuppofing the verb 
fntt^rj) to be the firft perfon Jingular in Niphal \ and not 
the firft perfon plural in Kal ; (homo, fci^us eji) man, or 
^daniy was made m our image and likenefs ; that is, of 
O o 2 Mofci 


Mofes and other men. Of this expolition Aben-Ezra 
fays plainly, '* It is an interpretation for a fool ;" and 
well refutes it from thefe words of God himfelf, Gen. ix. 
6. Joseph Kimki would have it, that God fpeaks to 
himfelf^ or the earth, or the four elements. Some of thern 
affirm that God, in thefe words, confulted *' with his 
family above ;" that is, the angels. Others fay it is God 
and *' his' houfe of judgement." Other vain and foolifU 
conjectures of their*s, in this matter, I fhall not repeat. 
Thefe inllances are fufficient ; for hence it is evident into 
what uncertainty they call themfelves, who are refolved 
upon an oppolition to the truth. They know not what 
to iix upon, nor wherewith to relieve themfelves. Al- 
though they all aim afthe fame, yet, what one embra- 
ceth another condemns, and thofe that are wifeft reckon 
up all the cQnjeftures they think of together, but fix on no. 
one, as true, or as deferving to be preferred before others. 
For error is no where ftable or certain, but fluctuates like 
the fabled ifle of Dslos, beyond the Ikill of men or devils, 
to give it a fixation. 

§ 12. Georgius Eniedinus, whofe writings, indeed, 
gave the firfl countenance to the Jntitrlmlarlan caufc, 
urges fevcrail objei^ions (in his ExpUcatlones locorum Fetc- 
rls h Novi TefiamentiJ moftly borrowed from the Jews, 
invented by them out of hatred to the Chriflian faith. 
But thefe gentlemen always think it fufficient to their 
caufe, to put in cavilling exceptions to the clearefl evidence 
of any Divine tcjiimony, without caring to give any fenfe 
of their own, by which they will abide as the true expo- 
fition of them. 

He, therefore, firfl pleads : "'If there is any ilrength 
ia this argument, it only proves that there are man-/ 
Gods." Sophiflical and vain cavil ! Is not the unity 
of the Divine nature always fuppofed in our difquifitioa 
concerning the perfons fubfifling therein ? Nor do we 
plead for three diflinft perfons in the Trinity, from this 
place. What we contend for here is, that there is a plu^ 
rality offubjijiencies in the Divine nature; but that thefe 
are Three, neithex; more nor lefs, w^e prove from other 



places of fcripturc, without number. Without a fuppo- 
iition of this plurality of perfonsy we fay, no tolerable ac- 
count can be given of the rcafon of this allcrtion, by 
any who acknowledge the unity of the Divine nature. 
And we defign no more, but that there is implied mutual 
counfel^ which, without a diilinftion of perfons, cannot 
be imagined. This whole pretence, therefore, founded 
pn vain and falfe fuppofition, that the teflimony is uled 
to prove a certain number of perfons in the Deity, is al- 
together vain and frivolous. It is granted, thcit one Jpeaks 
thefe words, not more together ; but he fo fpeaks them, 
that he takes thofe to whom he fpeaks into the fociety of 
the fame work with himfelf ; nor is the Divine Speaker 
Otherwife concerned in, * let us make,' and * in our 

* likenefs,' than thofe to whom he fpeaks. And, indeed, 
it is not the /peaking of thefe words before many con- 
cerned, that Mofes exprefleth, hut Xht concurrerice oi rc\?iny 
to the fame work, with the fame intereft and concern- 
ment in it. And whoever is concerned (whether fpeak- 
ing, or fpoken to) in the firft word, * let us make,' is* 
no lefs refpeded in the following words : * in our image 

♦ and likenefs.' They mufl:, therefore, be of one. and the 
fame nature, which was to be reprefented in the creature 

to be made in their image. 

Again, he objcdls, " That writers often introduce a 
perfon deliberating and debating with himfelf." But the 
whole of this, and what he would insinuate by it, is mere-* 
ly pethio princlpil, accompanied with the negleft of the 
argument which he pretends to anfwcr. For he only fays, 
that '* One may be introduced, as it were, deliberating 
and confulting with himfelf," whereof yet he gives no 
parallel inftance, either from fcripture, or other fober '' 
writer ; but he takes no notice that the words diredlly in- 
troduce more than one confulting and deHberating among 
themfelves, about creating man in their image. 

Again, \yhat he concludes from his arbitrarv fuppofi- 
tion — that hence " it doth not follow, that God took, 
counfel with others befidcs himfelf," — is nothing to the 
argument ia band; for do we ever plead hence, that 



God confulted with others hejides himfelf? But this the words 
evince, that he who then confulted with himfelf, is, in 
Jome refpeil^ more than one. But to invent exceptions 
againft our interpretation of any teflimony of Icripture, 
and i^ver care to give one of their own which they wiU 
adhere to and defend, is contemptibly pcrverfe. 

He next appeals to Ifa. i. ' Hear, O heavens, and 

* give ear, O earth !' But in fuch rhetorical apojirophesy 
tJiey are, in truth, men that are fpoken to, and that 
Jcheme of fpeech is ufed merely to make an impreffion on 
them of the things that are fpoken. Apply this to the 
words of God, in the circumilances of the creation of 
man, and it will appear fliamefuUy ridiculous. The 
fcripture expreflly denies, tliat ' God took counfel with any 

• heJidcs himfelf \\\ the whole work of the creation,* [Ifa, 
Ix. 12 — 14.] Creation is a pure aft of infinite monar^ 
ehical fovereignty, wherein there v/as no ufe of any in- 
termediate in/lnimcntal caufe.s ; nor can God be reprefented, 
as confulting with any creatures in that fcupendous work, 
without a difturbance of the true notion of it. 

Again, man was made in the image and likenefs of 
him that fpeaks, and all that are, as it were, conferred 
with. * Let us make man in our image ;' but man was 
made in the image and likenefs of God alone, as it is ex» 
preffed in the next verfe. And the image here men- 
tioned doth not denote that which is made to anfwe? 
another thing, but that which another is to anfwer 
to. * Let us make man in our image ;' that is, confor- 
mable to our nature. Now, God, and any other beings, 
as angels, have not one common nature, that fhould be the 
example, and prototype in the creation of man ; their na- 
ture and properties are infinitely diftaiU ; and that likenefs 
which is between angels and men, doth no way prove, that 
man was made in the image of angels, although angels 
Ihould be fuppofed to be made before them. For more 
is required to that end than latrt fimilitude \ as an egg 
is like another, but not the image of another. A defiga 
of conforming one to another, with its dependance on that 
other, is required ; and y© was man .made in the imago 
of God alone. I Thi^ 


This opponent makes no inquiry why, feeing in aU 
the antecedent work of creation, God is introduced fpeak- 
ing conftantly in thejingular number, the phrafc of fpeccli 
is here changed, and God fpeaks as confulting, or delibera- 
ting in the plural number. And he fays, not only, * let 
' us make,' but adds, ' in our image, and in our like- 
* nefs.' To imagine this to be done without fome pecw 
iiar reafon, is to dream, rather than to inquire into the 
fenfe of fcripture. And it is not enough to prove, that 
a plural word may be ufed in a lingular {QwiQ, except it 
be alfo fliewn to be fo in this place, feeing the proper im- 
port of it is otherwife. Nor can fuch an expreffion, 
concerning God, be ufed honoris gratia, feeing it is no 
honour to him to be fpoken as many Gods ; for his glory 
!S, that he is one only. It hath, therefore, another re- 
fpeft, VIZ. to the pcrfons in the unity of the fame na- 

§ 13. The foundation of our defign from this place 
being thus eftabhllied, we may fafely build upon it; and 
that which hence we intend to prove, is, that in the fra- 
ming and producing of the things which concern mankind, 
there were pecuHar internal personal tranfanions be- 
tween the Father, Son, and Spirit. The fcheme of fpeecli 
here ufed is (in genere deliherativo) by way of confultation ; 
but as this cannot direftly and properly be afcribed to 
God, an anibropopathy muil be allowed in the words. The 
mutual diflinft a£lings, and concurrence of the feverai 
perfons in the Trinity, is expreifed by way of deliberation, 
becaufe we can no otherwife determine, or a£l. And 
this was peculiar in the work of the creation of man, be- 
caufe of an efpecial delignation of him to the glory of 
God, as I'hree in One. This, therefore, I have only laid 
down and proved, as the general principle which wc 
proceed upon. Man was peculiarly created to the glory 
of the Trinity ; l:i€nce, in all things concerning him, 
there is not only an intimation of thofe diftind fubjiftcncesy 
but alfo of their diftin^ aHings, with rcfpeA to him. 
And as his creation w^^i eminently the efictSl of fpecial 



counfel, much more fhall we find this fully exprefled, 
with refpe£t to his reftoration by the Son of God. 

§ 14. The fame truth is farther revealed and con- 
firmed, Prov. viii. 22 — -31. ' The Lord pofTefled me in 
* the beginning of his way, before his works of old,' 
&c. It is Wifdom that fpeaks, and is fpoken of. This 
we believe to be He^ who is the wifdom of God, even 
his eternal Son. This the Brians, &c. w^ill not grant, 
although they are not agreed what it is that is intended. 
A property y fay fome, of the EH vine nature ; the cxerclfe of 
Divine wifdom in making the world, fay others ; the wif- 
dom that is in the law, fay the Jews ; or, as fome of them, 
tlie wifdom that was given to Solomon ; and of their 
mind have been fome of late. 

The conftant ufe of the verb {r\y^) is either to acquire 
and obtain, or to poffefs and enjoy. That which any one 
Iiath, which is with him, which belongs to him, and is 
his own, he is (Tilp) the poffejjor of it. So is the Father 
faid to pojjefs wfdom ; becaufe it was his, with him, even 
his eternal Word or Son. No more is intended hereby, 
but what the apoftle more clearly declares, John i. 1,2. 
(jiv a^y^qo 7^oyog ViV Tr^og tov QcOv) in the beginning the Word 
vjas with God. 

It is an intelligent perfon that is here intended ; for all 
forts of perfonal properties are afcribed to it, as almoft 
every verfe in the whole chapter fhews. For inftance^ 
ferfonal authority and power are affumed by it, [ver. 1 5, 
16.] * By me kings reign, and princes decree juflice ; by 

* me princes rule, and nobles, even the judges of the 
' earth.* Perfonal prcmifes, upon duties to be performed 
towards it, due to God himfelf, [ver. 17.] 'I love them 

* that love me, and thofe that feek me early fhall find me ;* 
which is our unalienable refpeft to God. Perfonal a^ions^ 
[ver. 20, 21.] 'I lead in the way of righteoufnefs, in 
' the midfl of the paths of judgement ; that I may caufc 

* them that love me to inherit fubftance, and I will fill 

* their treafures ;* [ver. 30, 31.] * I was daily his delight, 

* rejoicing always before him, and my delights were with 
' the fons of men.' Perfonal proper ties^ as eternity ^ [ver. 



23.] * I was fet up from everlafling> from the beginning, 
* or ever the earth was,' [ver. 24, 25.] Wifdoniy [ver. 
14.] Counfel is mine, ?iwd found wifdom, 1 have under^ 
Jlanding^ and Jiringth. — Again, the things here fpoken of 
wifdom are, all of them, or at leall the principal, ex- 
prefily elfewhere attributed to the Son, [John i. 2, 3, &c. 
Col. i. 15 — 17.] — Moreover, the ;7:/^//o;/ of this wifdom 
that fpcaks to God, declares it to be his eternal Word or 
Son, ' I was daily his delight, rejoicing before him ;' as 
he did in whom his foul is always well pleafed. And lafl- 
ly, as we fliall farther fee, they are the eternal tranfa^ions 
of the Father and Son that are here defcribed, which arc 
capable of no other fair and folid interpretation. 

§ 15. It is not my dcfign to plead here at large, the 
eternal exiftence of the Son of God, antecedent to his in- 
carnation ; but becaufe the faith thereof is the foundation 
of what I fhall farther offer, concerning the origin of his 
prieflhood, the teftimonics produced to that purpofc muft 
be vindicated from the exceptions of the profefled adverfa- 
ries of that fundamental truth. 

Eniedinus (who may be deemed the Goliah of the 
Antitrinitarian caufe) contends, *' that ivifdom is peifoni- 
fied by a profopopeia." This profopopeia, or fidion of a 
perfon, is of great ufe to the Jntitrinitarians. By this 
one engine they prefume they can defpcil the Holy Ghoft 
of his deity and perfonality. Whatever is fpoken oi hint 
in the fcripture, they fav, it is by a profopopeia ; thofe 
things being ailigned to a quality^ or an accident, which 
really belong to a perfon only. But as to what concerns 
the Holy Spirit, I have elfewhere taken this engine out of 
their hands, and cafl it to the ground ; fo that none of 
them alive will ereft it again. Here they make u(c of 
it againfl the deity oi Chrift ; as they do alfo on other oc- 
caiions. — I acknowledge there is fuch a fcheme of fpcech 
iifcd by rhetoricians and orators, whereof fome examples 
occur in fcripture. That is fometimes afcribcd to 2. things 
which is, indeed, proper only to a perfon ; or a perfon 
who is dead, or abfent, maybe introduced as prefent and 
fpeaking. But yet Ql^intilian, the great mailer of the 

Vol. I. Pp orato- 


oratorial art, denies, that by this figure, fpeech can be 
afcrlbed to that which never had it, (Nam certe fermo 
fiiigi non potefl, ut non perfono' fermo fingatur,) " If 
you feign fpeech, you mull feign it to be the fpeech of 
a per/on ;" or one endowed with the power of fpeaking. 
A profopopeia is a figure quite diilind from all forts of 
allegories, pure, mixed ; apologues, fables, parables ; where- 
in, when the fcheme is evident, any thing may be intro- 
duced fpeaking, like the trees in the difcourfe of Jotham^- 
[Judg. ix.] The inftance of mercy and peace looking 
down from heaven, and killing each other, is a mixed 
figure, the foundation of which is a metonymy of the caufe 
for the elFedt ; or rather of the adjunft for the caufe, 
and the profopopela, which is evident. But that a perfon 
Ihould be introduced fpeaking in a continued difcourfe, 
afcribing to himfelf all perfonal properties, abfolute and 
relative ; all forts of perfonal anions, and thofe the very 
fame which, in fundry other places, are afcribed to om 
certain per/on, (as all things here mentioned are to the 
Son of God) who yet is no perfon, never was a perfon, 
nor reprefenteth any perfon, without the leaft intimation 
of any figure therein, or any thing inconfiltent with the 
nature of things and perfon« treated of, and that, in a dif- 
courfe didactical and prophetical, is fuch an enormous 
monftrous fi£tion, as nothing, in any author, much lefs 
in the Old or New Tellament, will give the leaft coun- 
tenance to. 

There are, in thd fcripture allegories, apologues, pa- 
rables ; but all of them fo plainly and profelTedly fuch, 
and fo unavoidably requiring a figurative expofition from 
the nature of the things themfelves (as where ftones are 
faid to hear, and trees to fpeak) that there is no danger 
of any millake about them, nor difference concerning their 
figurative acceptation. And the only fafe rule of afcrib- 
ing a figurative fenfe, is, when the nature of things will not 
bear that which Is proper; as where the Lord Jefus calls 
himfelf a door, and a vine; and fays, 'that bread is his 
body. But to make allegories of fuch difcourfes as this, 
foujided on the feigning of perfoiis, is a ready w^ay to 

2 turn 


turn the whole bible into an allegory, which may be done 
with equal eafe and probability of truth, as this pafTage. 
Befides, there is a prophetical fiheme in the words. It is 
here declared, not only what Wifdom then did, but efpc- 
cially what it fhould do in the days of the gofpcl \ for the 
manner of the prophets is to exprefs things future, as pre- 
fent or paft, becaufe of the certainty of their accomplifla- 
ment. And thefe things they fpeak of the coming of 
Chrift in the flcfh. [See I. Pet. i. 11,12.] 

But utterly to remove this pretence of profopopeias and 
figures, it need only to be obferved, which none will deny, 
that the wifdom that fpeaks here, [chap, viii.] is the fame 
that fpeaks chap. i. 20 — 23. And if wifdom there be 
not a perfon, and a divine perfon, there fccms to me to 
be none in heaven ; for to whom, or what elfe can thefe 
words be afcribed, which wifdom fpeaks ? " Turn ye at 
my reproof; behold I will pour out my fpirir unto you, 
I will make known my words unto you ; becaufe I called, 
and ye refufed ; I have ilretched out my hand, and man 
regarded ; but ye have fet at nought all my counfel, and 
would have none of my reproof; I alfo will laugh at your 
calamity, I will mock when your fear cometh. — Then fhall 
they call upon me, but I will not anfwer ; they fhall feek 
me early, but they ihall not find me ?" If thefe things 
exprefs not a perfon, a Divine Perfon, the fcripture gives 
us no due apprehenfion of any thing whatever. Who is 
it that *' pours out the Holy Spirit?" Who is he that 
*' men fin againfl," in refufing to be obedient? Who is 
it that in their ** diftrefs they call upon," and feek early 
in their trouble ? The whole fcripture declares to whom, 
and to whom alone, thefe things belong, and may be 
afcribed. — This being the whole of what the enemies of 
the SACRED Trinity have to object to our application 
of this difcourfe to the eternal Word, or Son of God ; and 
having removed their objeftions, we may now proceed, 

§ 16. To the improvement of this teftimony to our 

prefent defign. And we find here fully exprefled " A per^ 

fonal tranfa^ion before the creation of the world, between 

the Father aiid the Son, afting mutijally by their one fpi- 

P p :i lit. 


rit, concerning the flate and condition of mankind, with 
refpeft to Divine love and favour." For the IVifdom^ or 
IVord of God, having declared his eternal exiftence v;ith 
the Father, and diil:in£tion from him, manifefts withal his 
joint creation of all things ; efpecially his prefence with 
God, when he made " The highefl part of duts of the 
habitable world ;" that is, " the lirft Adam," as Jarchi 
interprets it, and that not improbably. Then he declares, 
that he was ( 1^V« ) hy him^ with him, before him, (^TT^og 
TOi/ 0cov, John, i. I, 2.) And he was with him, (Jia«, 
fiutritus) One brought up with him, of the mafculine gen- 
der, th6ugh it refers to the feminine (noDn) wifdom, be- 
caufe a perfon is intended. 

But in what fenfe is this fpoken of the Son, with re- 
fpe£l to the Father ? The foundation of the allufon lies 
in the eternal mutual love that is between the Fatlier and 
the Son, to which is added the confideration of the natural 
dependence of the Son on the Father ; compared to the 
love of a Father to the Son, and the dependence of a Son 
on his Father. Therefore, mofl tranflations, w^ith re- 
fpe£t to this allufion, fupply as to the words, *' Ai one 
brought up." Again, (jiDi^, alumnus) one brought up, is 
always fo with refpedl to fome fpecial end or purpofe ; 
or to fome work and fervice, which is principally here in- 
tended. It is with refpeft to the work that he had to 
accomplifli, that he is called alumnus patris, one brought 
up of the Father. And this was no other but the work 
of redemption, and the falvation of mankind, tlie counfel 
whereof was then between the Father and the Son. la 
the carrying on of that work, the Lord Chrill everywhere 
commits himfelf and his undertaking to the care, love, af- 
Hftance, and faithfulnefs of the Father, whofe efpecial 
grace was the original thereof, [Pfal. xxii. 9, 11, 19, 
20. Ifa. 1. 7 — 9.] And in anfwer to this the Father 
promifeth him to fland by him, and carry him through 
the whole of it ; becaufe it was to be accompli flied in fuch 
a nature, as ftood in need of help. Wherefore, with re- 
fped to this work, he is faid to be " before hiniy^ as one 



whom he would take care of, and {land by, with love 
and faithfulntfs in the profecution of the arduous work. 

§ 17. With rcfpect hereunto, he adds, ^ Jyid was de- 
lights every day^^ [ver. 30.] There are ineffable mutual 
delights and joys between the perfons of the facred Tri- 
nity, ariling from that infinite fatisfaftion and compla- 
cency, which they have in each other from their refpe(^ivc 
m-bcing^ by the participation of the fame nature, wherein 
no fmall part of the bleilednefs of God doth confifl. And 
by this word, that peculiar delight which a Father hatli 
in a Son, is expreffed. Jer. xxxi. 20. (D»j?vi>i?tz^ nV') a 
picafant child^ a child of delights. But the delights here 
intended, have refpedl to the works of God ad extra ; as 
a fruit of that eternal fatisfac^ion, which arifeth from the 
counfel of God, concerning the fons of men. This the 
next verfe [31.] makes manifeft ; * rejoicing in the ha- 

* bitable part of his earth, and my delights with the fons 

* of men.* For after he had declared the prefence of wif- 
dom with God before the firft creation, which is a nota- 
tion of eternity, and its co-operation with him therein, 
he defcends to manifeft the fpecial defign of God and Wif- 
dom with refpedt to the children of men. And here fuch 
an undertaking, on the part of the Son, is intimated, as 
that the Father undertakes the care of him, and his pro- 
teftion, when he was to be humbled into the * form of a 

* fervant,' in the profpeft whereof he delighted in him 
continually. So he expreffeth it, Ifa. xlii. i — 7. * Be- 

* hold, my fervant whom I uphold, mine ele£l, in whom 
.* my foul delighteth,' &c. This is the delight of the Fa- 
ther, and his prefence with the Son in his work, an eter- 
nal profpe£l of which is here rcprefented. In anfwer to 
it, the Son delights in him whofe delight he was, ' rc- 

* joicing with exaltation,' with an outward exprejjion of 
inward delight; the natural overflowings of an abounding 
joy. And what this delight of the Son is, in anfwering 
the delight of the Father in him, with refpefl to the work 
he had to do, the Pfalmift declares, Pfal. xl. 7, 8. * Then 

* I faid, lo I come, in the volume of thy book it is written 

* gf me, I delight to do thy will, O my God , yea, thy 

* Ja\T 


^ law IS within my heart.' This (nsD n^jo) 'volume of 
the book, which our apoflle calls {}i-/i(^oc?\.i^oi (^i[^Ki^) the 
beginnings or the head of the bcok, [Heb. x. 7.] is no other 
but the coiinfel of God concerning the falvation of the elect 
by Je'fus Chrift, enrolled as it were in the book of life ^ 
and thence tranfcribed into the beginning of the book of 
truths in the firft promife given to Adam after the fall. 
This counfel being eilabliflied between Father and Son, 
the Son with refped thereto * rejoiceth continually before 

* God,' on the account of that delight which he had 
to do and accomplifh his will, and in our nature to 
anfwer the law of mediation, which was prefcribed to him. 

§ 18. For this being dv-clared to be the mutual frame 
of God and his Wifdom towards one another, Wifdorn 
proceeds to manifeft with what refpe£l towards outward 
things it was, that they were io mutually affected, [ver. 
31.] ' Rejoicing in the habitable parts of his earth, and 

• my delights were with the fons of men.' That the 
things here fpoken of were tranfa6led in eternity, or be- 
fore the creation, is evident in the context. Th^ counfels^ 
therefore, of God and FPlfdom, with refped to the fons of 
men, are here exprefled. The PFord was now ordained, 
even before the foundation of the world, to the work of 
mediation and redemption, [I. Pet. i. 20.] And many of 
the fons of men were chofen in him, to grace and glory, 
[Ephef. i. 4.] and the bringing of them to that glory, 
whereto they were chofen, was committed to him, as the 
captain of their falvation. This work, and the contem- 
plation thereof, he now delights in, becaufe of that eter- 
nity of Divine glory, which was to enfue thereon. 

And thefe things are revealed for our confolation, and 
the flrengtliening of our faith ; for if there were fuch 
mutual delights between the Father and the Son, in the 
Divine counfel, concerning the work of our redemption ; 
and if the Son fo rejoiced in the profpeft of his own un- 
dertaking to that end, we need not doubt, but that he will 
powerfully and effedually accomphfli it ; for all the diffi- 
culties of it lay open and naked under his eye, yet he re- 
joiced in the thoughts of his engagements to remove and 



conquer them. He now faw the law of God eftablifhed 
and fulfilled, the juftice of God fatisfied, his glory re- 
paired, Satan under his feet, and his works dcltroyed. 
Here we place the firft fpring of the pricjlhood of Chrift, 
which is expreiTed by the mutual delight of the Father and 
Son. It was founded on love and grace, though in its ex- 
crcife it refpe6ls holinefs and jujlice alfo. 

§ 19. The fame truth alfo feems to be cxpreffcd, Pfal. 
ii. 7. * I will declare the decree the Lord hath faid unto 
' me, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.* 
From this place the ancient dolors'--' conllantly acknow- 
ledge, that the Mefliah was to be the Son of God ; or ra- 
ther, that the Son of God was to be the MefTiah. Hence 
was the inquiry of the high piiefl, Matt. xxvi. 63. *■ I 

* adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whetlier 

* thou be the Chrifl, the Son of God.' According to 
the faith of their church, he takes it for granted, that the 
Chr'ift and the Son of God was the fame. The fame con- 
fefiion, on the fame principle, Nathaniel made, John i. 
49. ' Thou art the Son of God^ thou art the king of IfracL* 
And Peter's confeffion, [Matt. xvi. 16. John vi. 69.] 

* Thou art that Chrifi the Son of the I'rj'mg God^ was no- 
thing but a due application of the faith of the Juda'ical 
church to the perfon of our Saviour, which faith of their's 
was principally built on this teftimony, where God ex- 
prellly calls the Mcjfiah his Son, There is, therefore, an 
illuftrious teflimony in thefe words, given to the eternal 
prc-exificnce of the Lord Chrifl, in his Divine nature, be- 
fore his incarnation. And this caufeth the advcrfaries of 
that facred truth, to turn themfelves into all fliapes, to 
avoid the force of it. 

What Eniedinus fays, *' That none of thefe things 
belong to Jcfus Chrill:," is above the rate of ordinary 
confidence. Jll the apoftlcs do not only jointly, and with 
one accord, apply the things here fpoken to the Lord Je- 

* So jMaimonides, Jar CHI, and Ktmchi confefs. The 
words of Jar CHI are plain and remarkable: *' Our Mailers ex- 
pounded this pfalm concerning the king Melfiali," 



fus, but alfo give a clear expofition of the words, as a 
ground of that application ; a thing feldom done by the 
facred writers, A(fls iv. 24 — 28. ' They hfted up their 

* voice to God with one accord, and faid, Lord, thou art 

* God, which haft made heaven and earth, and the fea, 

* and all that in them is ; who, by the mouth of thy fer- 

* vant David haft*faid, Why did the Heathen rage, and 

* the people imagine vain things ? , The kings of the 

* earth ftood up, and the rulers were gathered together 

* againft the Lord, and againft his Chrift. For of a truth 

* againft thy holy child Jefus, whom thou haft anointed, 

* both Herod and Pontius Pilate^ with the Gentiles and the 

* people of Ifrael, were gathered together to do whatfoever 

* thy hand and thy counfel determined before to be done.' 
In their judgement, Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the 
Romans, the great rulers over the world, were the kings 
and rulers intended in this pfalm. And fo alfo the (o'lj) 
Heathen, thev took to be the Gent lies, who adhered to Pi- 
late in the execution of his Gentile power; and the (d')d«!?) 
people mentioned to be the people of Ifrael, — It appears, 
therefore, that there were eternal tranfadlions between the 
Father and the Son, concerning the redemption of man- 
kind, by his interpoiition and mediation, 

§ 20. (11.) Our next inquiry relates to thofe eternal 
tranfadions, which may be considered under the notion of 
a COVENANT between the Father and the Son. I fliall, 
therefore, firfl, manifeft the exiftence of fuch a cove- 
nant ; and then, fecondly, infift on that part of it, which 
refers to the Redeemer's priefthood. 

We muft diftinguiih between God's covenant to meny 
concerning Chrift, and that made with his Son, concerning 
men. The former is commonly termed the covenant of 
grace ; which hath fubiifted, under various forms of ex- 
ternal adminiftration, ever fmce the fall, and fhall conti- 
nue in full force to the confummation of all things. The 
latter, which is now the fubjedt of inquiry, is the pcrfonai 
compaei, which the holy fcriptures reprefent to have taken 
place betN^qen the Father and the Son, before all worlds. 

^ 21. 


§ 2 1. Before we proceed, it may be proper to confider 
briefly the name and nature of a covenant in general. The 
Hebrews call a ** covenant" (rinn) bcrithy the Greeks 
((rvv9yiK-/i9 and the Latins f'wdus.) Solemn covenants, efpc- 
cially between God and his people, were confirmed by 
facriiice. [See Pfal. I. 5.] which appears highly probable 
from what is recorded of Adam and Eve being cloathed 
with (kins ; and is abundantly clear from the hiftory of 
Noah and Abraham, [Gen. ix. 15.] Whereby we learn, 
that no covenant could take place between God and man, 
after the entrance of lin, but in virtue of that facrifice of 
our High Prieit, which thefe reprefented. Hence fome de- 
rive the Latin word {focdus Tifcrundo) from Jinking ; and 
alfo a cuftom which prevailed among the idolatrous Hea- 
thens, who, in making a covenant cut a bcajl in pieces^ 
laying one half over againft another, and fo pafling be* 
tween them ; which farther denoted an imprecation, as 
it were, upon themfelves, that they might be fo cut in 
piecesy if they flood not to the covenant terms. — The 
Greek word [o-vv^yji]) is conftantly ufed in all good au- 
thors, for a folemn covenant between nations and per- 
fons ; but the Scptuagint tranflators, obferving that beritb 
in the Hebrew, was of a larger iignification, have ren- 
dered it conftantly by another Greek word (hiotr/jy^'/i^. 

The word bcrith is varioufly ufed in the Old Tcfta- 
ment ; nor are learned men agreed about its derivation. 
However, all covenants are either between the conqueror 
and the conquered — or between enemies in equal power — 
or between thofe who were never at variance ; and the 
end of all is mutual peace and fecurity. Hence Job v. 
23. ' Thy covenant fhall be with the ftones of the field ;' 
that is, mctonymically^ thou Ihalt have no hurt from them ; 
bccaufe peace and concord are the end of covenants. The 
law, written on the two tables of ftone, was called a ' co- 
venant,' [Exod. xxxiv.] by a fyncchdoche \ for no mere 
precept, or even promife, can be a covenant properly fo 
called. Again, the term is ufed for an abfolutc promife ^ 
Ifa. lix. 21. * As for me, this is v^-^ covenant "^'iXh them, 
* faith the Lord ; my Spirit that is upon tliee, and my 

A'OL. L Q^q * word:. 


* words, which I have put into thy mouth, fhall not de- 

* part out of thy mouthy' &c. And God alfo calls the 
appointment of day and night his covenant, [Jer. xxxiii. 
20.] Hence it appears that the word is ufed in various 

fenfesf which mufl be fought from the connection ; feeing 
there is no precept, or promife of God, but many be fo 
called* And it is worthy our notice, that though no out- 
ward figns ever belonged to the effence of a covenant, 
God never made a covenant with men, but he always 
gave them a token, and vifible pledge thereof. And who- 
Ibever is interefled in the covenant itfelf, hath an un- 
doubted right to the Divinely-^appointed token. 

§ 22. An abfolute complete covenant is, " a volun- 
tary agreement between diflind perfons, about the difpo- 
fal of things in their power, to their mutual concern and 
advantage." D'iftin£i perfons are required in a covenant; 
for it is a mutual compaft ; it mufl be voluntary, with re- 
ipe£l to the terms, this being the foundation of all folemii 
covenants ; and the matter of it mull be of things in the 
power of them who covenant. 

§ 23. As all thefe things concur In every equal com- 
padl, fo there is an efpecial kind of covenant depending 
folely on the perfonal undertakings and fer vices of one party ^ 
in order to the common ends of the covenant, or the mu- 
tual fatisfadlion of the covenanters. And fuch covenants 
have — A propofal of fervice, — ^a promife of reward, and 
- — an acceptance of the propofal, with a reflipulation of 
obedience out of refpeft to the reward ; and this indif- 
penfably introduceth an inequality and fubordination in 
the covenanters, as to the common end of the covenant ; 
however, on other accounts they may be equal. For he 
who prefcribes the duties which are required in the cove- 
nant, and giveth the promife of either affiftance in them, 
or a reward upon them, is, in that refpe£l, and fo far, 
fuperior to him who obferveth his prefcriptions, and 
trufteth to his promifcs. Of this nature is that Divine 
tranfa£tion that was between the Father and the Son about 
thg redemption of mankind. There was in it, a pre- 
l fcriptioa 


fcription of perfonal fervices, with a promile of reward ; 
comprehending alfo the other conditions of a complete 
covenant before laid down. 

§ 24. The eternal tranfa^lions before-mentioned were 
federal tranfa6lions ; this is what the fcripture intends, 
where God, that is, the Father, is called by the Son his 
God\ and where he fays, that he will be unto him a God 
and Father. For this expreffion of being a God to any 
one is declarative of a covenant, and is the word whereby 
God conftantly declares his covenant relation to any, [ Jer^ 
xxxi. 33. and xxxii. 38. Hof. ii. 23.] For God de- 
claring that he will be a God to any, engageth himfelf 
to the exercife of his holy properties, which belong to him 
^s God, for their good. And this is not without an en- 
gagement of obedience from them. Now, this declara- 
tion the fcripture abounds in, Pfal. xvi. 2. < Thou haft 

♦ faid unto the Lord, thou art my Lord ;' thefe are the 
words of the Son to the Father, as is evident from ver. 9 
— II. Pfal, xxii. I. * My God, my God.' Pfal. xl. 8. 

* I delight to do thy will, O my God.' Pfal. xlv. 7. 
*■ God, thy God, hath anointed thee.' Mich. v. 4. ^ He 

* iTiall {land and feed in the ilrength of the Lord, in the 

• majefly of the name of the Lord his God.' John xx. i 7. 

* I afcend to my Father, and your Father ; to my God, 

♦ and to your God.' Rev. iii. 12. 'I will make him a 

• pillar in the temple of mv God j and I will write upon 

♦ him the name of my God, and the name of the city of 
*■ my God.' All which expreffions argue both a covenanty 
and a fuh ordination therein. And on this account it is, 
that our Saviour fays his * Fatlicr is greater than he,' 
John xiv. 28. This place, I confefs, the ancients ex- 
pound of his human nature only, but the inferiority of the 
human nature to the Father is a thing fo unqucftionablc, 
as needed no folemn atteflation ; and the mention of it 
is no way fuited to the defign of the place. But our Sa- 
viour fpeaks with refpe6t to the covenant engagement tliat 
was between the Father and himfelf, as to the work which 
lie had to do. 

0.^2 § 2,c. 


§ 25. Again, the fame important truth is propofed, 
Zech. vi. 1 3. (pn>:iy Ja di^u^ ni^vt) the caunfeL about ^^^c^- 
w^/^i«^ between God and man, was between them both ; that 
is, the two perfons fpoken of, the Lord Jehovah^ and He 
who was to be the (n?Dy) branch. And this was not fpoken 
of him abfolutely as a man ; for fo there was not properly 
(nvr) a coinifcl between God and him ; ' For who hath 
*■ known the mind of the Lord, or who hath been his 

* couyifellor f [Rom. xi. 34.] And befides, the Son, in 
his human nature, was merely the fervant of the Father, 
to do his will, [Ifa. xlii. i.] But God takes this coun- 
fel w^ith him, as he was iiis eternal wifdom, Vr^ith refpe£t to 
his future incarnation. 

Hereunto regard is alfo had to his names, wonderful^ 
counfcllor^ &;c. for thefe titles do not abfolutely denote pro- 
perties of the Divine nature, though they are fuch Divine 
titles and attributes, as cannot be afcribed to any, but to 
him who is God. There is in them a refpcdl to the work 
which he had to do, as he was to be a child born and 
nven unto us. And on the fame account he is called the 
cverlajiing Father \ 3. name not proper to the perfon of tlie 
Son, with a mere refpe£t to his pcrfonality ; there is, 
therefore^ a regard in it to the w-ork he had to do, which 
was, to be a father to all the ele^ of God. 

On the fame account, God fpeaking of him, fays, 

* my companion^ and the man rny fellow ^ [Zech. xiii. 7.J 
with whom he had fiiveetenedy and rejoiced in fecret coun- 
fcU [as Pfal. Iv. 14. Prov. viii. 30, 31.] 

Particularly, the will of the Father and Son concurred 
in this matter, which was neceffary, that the covenant 
might be voluntary^ and of choice, The original of the 
whole is referred to the will of the Father conflantly. 
Hence our Lord Jefus Chrift, on all occaiionSj declared 
folemnly, that he came to do the will of the Father \ ' Lo, 

* I come to do thy will^ O God, [Pfal. xl. 7. Heb. x. 
5 — 10.] For in the agreement, the Prefcriber ^nd Pror 
mifer, whofe will, in all things, is to be attended to, is 
the Father ; and his will was naturally at perfed liberty 
from, engaging in that way pf falyation, which he accom- 



plifhed by Chrifl. He was at liberty to have left all man- 
kind under fin and the curfe, as he did all the angels that 
fell. He was at liberty to have utterly deftroyed the race 
of mankind that fprang from Adam in his fallen ftate ; 
either in the root of them, or in the branches when mul- 
tiplied (as he almoft di<l in tlie flood) and have created 
another race of them to his glory. And hence the afting 
of his will herein is exprefled by grace \ which hfrcc, or 
clfe it is not grace; and it is faid to proceed from love, 
adting by choice, all arguing the highell liberty in the will 
of the Father, [John iii. i6. Ephef. i. 6.] Now, he 
both fent his Son and feaied him, and gave him commands, 
which are all a£ts of choice, proceeding from fovcreigntv. 
Let none, then, once imagine, that this work of entering 
into covenant about the falvation of mankind was abfo- 
lutely neceffary to God, or that it was required by virtue of 
any of the ejfent'ial propcrt'ies of his nature. God was 
herein abfolntely free, as he was alfo in his making all 
things of nothing. And this we maintain in perfe£l con- 
liflency with the necejfity of fatisfa^llony on fuppofition of 
this covenant. The ivill of the Son alfo is diltinftly con- 
cerned, to demonftrate, that the things he underwent in 
his human nature, were juft and equal ; and to manifcfl, 
that thofe very a£l:s, which he had in command from his 
Father, were no. lefs the a£ts of his own will. Wherefore, 
as it is faid, that the Father loved us, and gave his Son 
to die for us ; fo alfo it is faid, that the Son loved us, and 
gave himfelf for us, and wafhed us in his blood. And 
whatever is exprefled in fcripture, concerning the zvUl of 
the human nature of Chrifl, it is but a reprefentation of 
the will of the Son of God^ when he engaged into this work 
from eternity. Whereas, therefore, he had a fovereigii 
and abfqlute power over his own human nature when af- 
fumed, whatever he fubmitted to was no injury to him, 
nor injuftice in God to lay it on him. 

§ 26. If it be obje£lcd, that the will is a natural pro- 
perty, and therefore, in the Divine effcnce, it is but one; 
and hov/, then, can it be faid, that the will of the Father, 
^nd the will of the Son, did concur diflindly in the 



making of this covenant ? We reply, that this difficiilty 
may be folved from what hath been already declared. For, 
if they fuk/yi diilinftly ; if fuch is the diflindion of the 
perfons in the unity of the Divine eiTence, that they ad 
in natural and effential a6ls reclpro,cally one towards ano^ 
ther, as in underilanding, love, and the like ; what im- 
propriety to fuppofe that they ail diflindly in thofe works, 
which are of external operation ? The will of God, as 
to the peculiar aclings of the Father in this matter, is the 
will of the Father ; and the will of God, with regard tq 
the peculiar aftings of the Son, is the will of the Son ; 
not by a diftinclion of fundry wills, hut by a diftinct ap- 
plication of the fame will to its dijHn^^ a^s, in the perfons 
of the Father and Son. And in this refpeft, the cove- 
nant whereof we treat, differeth from a pure decree ; an4 
by virtue of it, were all believers fayed from the founda- 
lian of the world, 

^27. Moreover, a covenant mufl be about the difpor 
fal of things in the power of them that enter into it, other- 
wife it is null or fraudulent. To do good to mankind, 
to bring them to the enjoyment of himfelf, was abfolutely 
in the power of the Father, And it was in the power of- 
the Son to afflime human nature, which becoming thereby 
peculiarly his own, he might difpofe of it to what end he 
pleafed, ftill preferving the indiilbluble union. Again, 
ibme things are made lawful or good, or fuited to the ho- 
nour, or fatisfadion and complacency of them that make 
the covenant, by virtue of fomewhat ariling from the co- 
Tenant itfelf. Such was the penal fuffering of the human 
nature of Chrili, under the fentence and curfe of the law, 
This, abfolutely conlidered, without refped to the ends 
of the covenant, would neither h^ve been good in itfelf, 
nor have had any tendency to the glory of God. For 
Tivhat excellency of the nature of God could have been de- 
monfiratcd in the penal fufferings of one abfolutely, and ii\ 
all refpeds, innocent ? Nay, it was utterly impoffible, 
that an innocent perfon, confidered abfolutely as fuch, 
Ihould iuffer poenally, under the fentence and curfe of the 
law ; for the law denounceth punilhnaent to no fuch per- 


foil. Guilt and puniflimciit are related, and where the 
one is not (real, or fuppofed, or imputed) the other can- 
j)Ot be. But now, in the terms of this covenant, leading 
to the limitations and ufe of thefe fuffcrings, they are made 
gQcd^ and tend to the glory of God. So the pardoning 
and faving of iinners abfolutcly could have had no ten- 
dency to the glory of God ; for what evidence of rlghtcouj- 
nefs would there have been herein, that the great Ruler of 
all the world fhould pafs by the offences of men without 
animadverting upon them ? What juftice would have 
appeared, or what demonftration of the hoUnefs of the na* 
ture of God would there have been therein ? Belides, it 
was impoflible, feeing * it is the judgement of God, that 
* they who commit fin, are worthy of death.' But, through 
the terms and conditions of this covenant, this is rendered 
righteous, holy, and good, and eminently conducing to 
the glory of God. 

§ 28. The matter of this covenant in general is the 
faving of finners, byways and means fuited to the mani- 
feftation of the Divine glory. To declare this defign of 
God, is the principle defign of the whole fcripture. 

§ 29. The end^ both of the covenant, and the difpo- 
fal of all things thereby, was the fpecial glory both of the 
one and the other. God doth all things for hhnfclf. He 
can have no ultimate end in any thing but himfelf alone, 
•unlefs there fhould be any thing better than himfelf, or 
above himfelf. But yet, in himfelf, he is not capable of 
any acceflion of glorv, by any thing he doth, or intcndeth ; 
his end thereof mull be, not the obtaining of glory to him- 
Jeif, but the manifeftation of the glory that is in himfelf. 
And thofe properties of the Divine nature, which arc 
peculiarly engaged in it, are wifdom^ jifice, and grace. 
That the covenant fprang from thefe properties of the Di- 
vine nature, that the execution of it is the work and ef- 
fect of them all, and that it is defigned to manifcfl and 
glorify God by them to eternity, the fcripture fully de* 

The peculiar honour if the Son two- fold, viz. what 
He had conjunct with the Father, as he is of the fame 



tiature with him, over all, God bleiTed for ever ; Snd like- 
wife, as the Mediator of the covenant of grace, that pecu- 
liar glorious exaltation, which, in his human nature, he 
received upon the accomplifhment of the terms and con- 
ditions of this covenant. 

§ ^o. This covenant had alfo its conditions and limitations ^ 
as it had a refped to a prefeription of perfonal obedience 
and promifes of reward. The promifes made to the Son 
were various ; fuch as all neceifary allillance in his ardu- 
ous work, as the incarnate Mediator, and the glory which 
was to enfue upon the accomplifhment of it ; and parti- 
cularly the acceptance of his work with God. There was^ 
indeed, in the nature of the things themfelves, a proper- 
tmt between the obedience of Chriil the mediator, and 
tlie falvation of believers ; but this is not the next founda- 
tion of merit, though an indifpenfable condition,- for 
there muft not only be a proportion, but a relation alfo be- 
tween the things, whereof the one is the merit of the 
other. And the relation in this cafe is not natural, or 
necelTary, ariiing from the nature of the things them- 
felves, but arofe from a compaB between the Father and 
the Son to this purpofe, and the promifes wherewith it 
was confirmed. Suppole, then, a proportion in difiri" 
butrje jujiice, between the obedience of Chrift, and the 
falvation of believers ; then add the refped and relation 
that they have one to another, by virtue of this covenant^ 
and in particular, that our falvation is engaged by pro- 
mife to Chriil, and it gives us the true nature of his 

The conditions required, or prcfcriptions made to the un- 
dertaker, in this covenant, were — that he Ihould ajjume 
the nature of thofe Vv hom he was to bring to God ; — that 
in his nature alTamed, he lliould be t\\t fervant of the Fa- 
ther, and yield univerfal obedience to him, both according 
to the general law of God ohY\g\ng all mankind, and according 
to the fpecial law of the church under which he was, and;, 
moreover, according to the fngular law of that compad, 
[Ifa. xhi. r. chap. xlix. 5. Phil. ii. 6 — 11.] and, that 
he Ihould make atonement for fn^ by means of our natur« 




afTumed. And thus we are come to the well-head of fal- 
vation. Here lieth the immediate facred foundation of 
the pr'iejlhood of Clirift, and of the facrifice of himfelf, 
which, in the difcharge of that office, he offered to 

§ 31. And when God came to reveal and reprefcnt to 
his church this counfel of his will, he did it by the in- 
stitution of priejihood and facrifices ; for the priefthood 
and facrifices of the law were not the original exemplar of 
thefe things, but a tranfcript of what was done in heaven 
itfelf, in counfel and covenant, as well as a type of what 
ihould be afterwards accomplifhed on the earth. And 
the very names of prlcjls and facrifices were but impro- 
perly afcribed to them who were fo called, being only 
obfcure reprefentations of what was pail, and types of 
what was to come. 

ExERciT. 2. 


§ I. 7'he fubje^ propofed, § 2. The righteoufnefs of God, 
what; as reftdent in the Divine nature. § 3. j^s to its 
exercife. § 4. What this pre-fuppofeth. § 5. That the 
righteoufnefs of God ncccfjarily requires the punijhment .of 
fin, § 6. The ohjedion that mercy prevents the exercife of 
jufiice, anfwered. §7. That fin cannot be pardoned with-' 
out fatisfadion^ argued from the holincfs of God. § 8 . The 

• foregoing branches of the argument recapitulated. § 9, lO, 

That jufiice and mercy are properties of the Divine nature^ 

and 7iot mere external a5ls. § ii, 12. The objcaiony 

That Chrifi could not endure the penalty due to us, ati- 

Vol. I. R r M'-^^ 



fwered. § 13 — 15. Other ohjeiilons anfwered, § 16, 
17. Additional arguments^ in confirmation of the general 

§ I. VxN this fuppolition, that God in his infinite 
grace and love would fave iinners by the interpoiition of his 
Son, there was fomething in the manner of it indifpenfa* 
ble and neceiTary, viz, that he fhould do it by undergo- 
ging the punijhment that was due to them, who fhould be 
faved, or offer himfelf a facrifice^ to make atonement and 
reconciliation for them. 

This being a matter of great importance, and fl:renu- 
oufly oppofed by the Sociniansy and the defence of it de- 
ferted by fome otherwife adhering to found dodtrine in 
the main of our caufe, I fhall the more particularly infill 
upon it. 

§ 2. Whereas we afTert the necejjity of the priejihood of 
Chrift to depend on the righteoufnefs of God, it is re- 
quifite, that fomething be premifed concerning it. The 
righteoufnefs of God is taken two ways, viz. abfolutely in 
itfelf, as it is refident in the Divine nature ; and — with 
refpe^: to its exercife^ or the actings of God, in a manner 
fuitable to that holy property of his nature. In the firfl 
acceptation, it is nothing but the univerfal reditude of the 
Divine nature, whereby it is necelTary to God, to do all 
things rightly, juflly, equally, anfwerably to his own 
wifdom, goodnefs, holinefs, and right of dominion, 
[Zeph. iii. 5.] ' The jufl Lord in the midfl thereof; he 

* will do no iniquity, morning by morning doth he bring 

* his judgement to light.' I fay, it is the ejjential, natural 
readinefs and difyoGtion of the holy nature of God, to 
do all things juftly and decently, according to the rules 
of his wifdom, and the nature of things, with their relation 
one to another. And this virtue of the Divine nature 
confidered abfolutely, doth not confifl in a habitude of 
mind {Tr^og fjs^cv) with refpeft to another^ as all juftice in 
men doth, but is the infinite effential redlitude of God in 
his being. Hence it fo prefides over all the works of God 

z that 


that there is none of thern, though proceeding immediately 
from mercy and goodnefs on the one hand, or from feve- 
rity or faithfulnefs on the other, but that God is faid to 
be righteous therein, and they are all rcprcfented as afts of 
righteoufnefs in him. And this, not only becaufe they 
are his ads and works, who can do no evil, but alfo be- 
caufe they proceed from, and are fuited to that holy ab- 
folute univerfal re£titude of his nature, wherein true 
righteoufnefs doth coniift. 

For between the confideration of this righteoufnefs of 
God, and the adlual exercife of it towards his creatures, 
there muft be intcrpofed a confideration of the right of 
God, or that which we call Jus Domini^ a right, power, 
and liberty of rule or government. For it is not enough, 
that any one be righteous to enable him to aft righteoufly, 
with refpecl to others, but moreover he mufl have a right 
fo to a£l ; and this right in God is fupreme and fove- 
reign, ariling naturally and necelTarily from the relation 
of all things to himfelf ; being all placed in an univer- 
fal, indifpenfable, and abfolutely unchangeable dependence 
on him, according to their natures and capacities. 

The right of God, therefore, to rule over us, is wholly of 
another kind and nature, tlian any thing is or can be among 
the fons of men ; for it is a fovereign right to deal with 
us, and a6l towards us, according to the infinite, eternal 
re£litude of his nature. And as he hath a right fo to do, 
fo he cannot do otherwife, fuppofing the flate and condi- 
tion wherein we are made and placed, with the nature 
of our relation to, and dependence on God ; for God 
can aft no otherwife towards us but according to what 
the efTential reftitude of his nature doth direft and require ; 
which is the foundation of what we plead in the cafe be- 
fore us, concerning the necefTity of the prieflhood. 

§ 3. Again, the righteoufnefs of God may be confi- 
dered with refpeft to its exercife, which fuppofeth the 
right of God before declared. For, fuppofe the creation 
of all things, and it is as natural and eflential to God 
to be the ruler over them, as it is to be God. Now, the 
exercife of the righteoufnefs of God, in purfuit of his 

R r 2 right 


right of rule, is either abfolute and antecedent, or refpeflivt 
and confequential. In the former refped it is exercifed 
in his laws and promifes ; in virtue cf the latter, he dif- 
tributes rewards and punifhments to his creatures accord- 
ing to their work. And one part of this confifls in the 
punifhing of fin, as it is a tranfgreffion of his law ; and 
this is that wiierein, at prefent, we are concerned ; for 
we fay, that the righteoufnefs of God, as he is the fu- 
preme rulerof the world, doth require, neceffarily, that lin 
be punifhed, or the tranfgreffion of that law, which is 
the inflrument of his rule, be avenged. 

§ 4. The exercife of this righteoufnefs in God pre-fup- 
pofeth — the creation of intelligent rational creatures in a 
moral dependence on himfelf, capable of being ruled by 
ai law, in order to his glory and their own bleffednefs ; — 
the nature of the law given to thofe creatures, as the 
means and inflrument of their moral orderly dependence 
on God, which order the breach of that law would diflurb; 
— the eternal, natural, unchangeable right that God hath 
to govern thefe creatures, according to the tenor of that 
law ; — the Jin of thefe creatures, which was deflrudtive 
of all that order of things, which enfued on the creation, 
and the giving of the law; for it was deflrudive of the 
principal end of the creation, and of the dependence of 
the creatures upon God ; and was iyitroduBory of a flate 
of things utterly oppofite to the univerfal reditude of the 
pi vine nature. 

We fay, then, that upon a fuppofition of all thefe ayite^ 
cedaneous free a^s^ and of the neceffary continuance of 
God's righteoufnefs of rule and judgement, it was ncccf-^ 
fary that the finning creature fhould be punifhed accord- 
ing to the fentence of the law. 

Hence the necefiity and fpecial nature of the prieflhood 
of Cbrifl. Deligned it was in grace^ as w^e have before 
proved, on fuppofition that God would fave finners, 
but it was this jufilce that made it neceffary^ and deter- 
mined its nature. For this was that, which indifpenfa- 
bly required the punijhment cf fin, and, therefore, was it 
Tidi^effary, that he who would favc fmners ihould undergo 


Ejcer.2. priesthood OF CHRIST. 


for them the puniHimeut that was due to them. But be- 
caufe this could not be done by men fuffering or enduring 
punijhment, which is a thing in its own nature indifferent, 
the will and obedience of Chrift, in the manner of under- 
going it, was alfo required. This made his prieflhood 
neceffary ; whereby, whilll he underwent the punillimcnt 
due to our fms, ' he offered himfelf an acceptable facri- 
' fice,' for their expiation. 

§ 5. What is now di{lin£llypropofed to confirmation, 
IS, " That the juftice, or righteoufnefs of God, as exer- 
cifed in the rule and government of his rational creatures, 
did indifpenfably and necelfarily require, that fin commit- 
ted fhould be punifhed ;" whence arifeth the fpecial nature 
of the prieflhood of Chrifl. But we fliall premife a few 
obfervations, which tend to the right explication of tlie 

1. There are feme attributes, as the wlfdom and power 
cf God, which do not find, but produce the objects of 
their firfl adings ad extra, Thefe, therefore, in thefe 
adlings, mufl needs be abfolutely and every way free, be- 
ing limited and dire^led only by the fovereign will and 
pleafure of God. But there are properties of the Divine 
nature, which cannot a6l according to their nature, with- 
out a fuppofition of an antecedent objeft, and that qua- 
lified in fuch, or fuch a manner. Such is his vindi^h-c 
jultice, and pardoning mercy; for if there be wo Jinncrsy 
none can be punifhed or pardoned. 

2. The rule of God's adling from his ijindiclivc jufiice, 
is not a mere free att of his %vHl, but the natural domi- 
nion and rule which he hath over finning creatures, in 
anfwer to the re£litude and holincfs of his own nature. 
Neither does he punifli fin as he can ; that is, to the ut- 
niofl of his power, but as the rule of his government, and 
the order of things in the univerfe difpofed to his glory, 
do require. 

3. This jiifice exerted itfelf in one fignal ad antecedent 
to the fin of man ; namely, in the prefcription of a pcenal 
law ; that is in the annexing of the poenalty of death, to the 
tranfgreffion of the law. This God did not merely be- 



caufe he would do fo, nor becaufe he could do fo ; but be-» 
caufe the order of all things, with refpeft to their dependence 
upon himfelf, as the fupreme Ruler of all, did fo require. 
For had God only given men a law of the rule of their de- 
pendence on, and fubjedion to him, and not infeparably 
annexed a penalty to its tranfgreffion, it was poflible, 
that man, by fin, might have cafl off all his moral de- 
pendence on God, and fet himfelf at liberty from his rule* 
And having broken and difannulled the fole law of his 
dependence, what fhould we have had more to do with 
him I But this cafe was obviated by the jujilce of God, 
in pre-difpofing the order of punifhment, to fucceed in 
the room of the order of obedience, if that were broken. 
And that this provifion fhould be made, the nature of 
God indifpenfably required. 

4. This juftice of God, I fay, required a pumjhment of 
fin, as a punifhment ; but the way and degree, the time, 
feafon and manner of it, belong to his fovereign will and 
wifdom ; and I fay not that God puniflieth fin necejjarily^ 
as the fun gives out light and heat, or as the fire burns, 
Qr as heavy things tend downward by neceflity of nature ; 
he doth it freely^ exerting his power by a free aft of 
his will. For the neccjfity alTerted doth only exclude an 
antecedent mdiffcrcnce upon all the fuppofitions laid down. 
It denies, that on thefe refpefts \t is, abfolutely indifferent 
with God, whether fin be punilhed, or no. Such an in- 
difference, I fay, is oppofite to the nature, law, truth, 
and rule of God ; and, therefore, fuch a neceffity as ex- 
cludes it, mufl herein be alTerted. But herein God is a 
free agent, and a£ls freely in what he doth. Suppofe the 
determination of his will, and the Divine nature neceffarily 
requireth an acting fuitable to itfelf. It is altogether free 
to God, whether he. will fpeak to any of his creatures or 
no ; but fuppofing the determination of his will, that he 
will fo fpeak, it is abfolutely neceffary, that he fpeak truly ; 
for truth is an effential property of his nature ; whence he 
is God, that cannot lie. It was abfolutely free to God, 
whether he would create this world or no ; but on fuppo- 
fition that he would create it, he could not but create 


it omnipotently and wifely; for fo his nature doth require, 
becaufe he is effentially omnipotent, and infinitely wife. 
So there was no abfoiute necelTity in the nature of God, 
that he ihould punifh iin ; but on fuppofition that he 
would create man, and would permit him to fin, it was 
necefTary that his iin fhould be avenged ; for this his 
rightcoufnefs and dominion over his creatures did re- 

§ 6. It is objeded, ** That on the fame fuppofition, 
it will be no lefs necefTary that God fhould pardon fin^ 
than that he fliould punifh it ; for mercy is no lefs an ef- 
fential property of his nature, than juji'ice.'''' But thofe 
by whom the fubflitution of the Son of God to anfwer 
Divine juflice is denied, can give no tolerable account, 
why all are not condemned^ feeing God is infinitely 
righteous ; or, all are not pardoned^ feeing he is infinitely 
merciful. But the truth is, there is not the fame reafon 
of the aftual exercife of juftice and mercy. For upon 
the entrance of fin, as it refpe£ts the rule of God, the 
Jirji thing that refpe£ls it, is jujlice, the province of 
which is, to preferve all things in their dependence on 
God, which without the punifhment of fin, cannot be 
done. But God is not obliged to the exercife of mtrcyj 
nor doth the forbearance of fuch an exercife any way in- 
trench upon the holinefs of his nature, or the glorv of 
his rule. It is true, mercy is no lefs an efTentlal property 
of God, than juflice ; but neither the law, nor the ftate 
and order of things wherein they were created, nor their 
dependence on God, as the fupreme Governor of the 
whole creation, raife any natural rcfpctl^ or obligation 
between mercy and its obje£l. God, therefore, can exe- 
cute the punifhment that his juflice requireth, without 
the leafl impeachment of his mercy; for no a£l of juftice 
is contrary to mercy. But abfolutely to pardon, where 
the interefl of juflice is to punifh, is contrary to the nature 
of God. 

But, moreover, we deny that fin and mifery do confll- 
tute the proper objed of mercy. It is required, that 
every thing contrary to the nature of God in iin, and 



the finner, be taken out of the way, or there is no proper 
cbje£l for raercv. Such Is the guilt of lin unfatisfied for. 
And SociNUS himfelf acknowledgeth, that it is contrary 
to the nature of God to pardon impemnent iinners. And 
even mercy itfelf, on the account of an antecedent recon- 
ciliation, will be jufily exercifed* 

§ 7. That it is neceflary fin fliould be punifhed, or 
not be ahjoluiely pardoned^ without refpe£l to fatisfaftioa 
given to the redoral jujlice of Gody appears from the con- 
fideration of his holy nature, God, the ruler of the world, 
is of fo holy a nature^ as that he cannot but hate and pu- 
nifh every fin, and, therefore, fo to do belongs to his ab- 
folute perfedion ; for what is the purity and holinefs of 
God, but that univerfal perfedion of his nature, which is 
accompanied with a difpleafure againft fin, and a hatred 
of it, whence he will punilh it according to its defert ? 
Heb, i. 13. * Thou art of purer eyes than to behold 

* evil, and canfl not look on iniquity.' Not to be able 
to behold iniquity, exprefTeth the moft inconceivable de- 
tellation of it. ' He cannot ;' that is, becaufe of the ho- 
linefs of his nature, to which fuch an a£lion would be 
contrary, ' look upon ;' that is, to pafs by, fpare, or 
connive at iniquity ; for that is the rule of what God can 
do, or cannot do. He can do every thing that is not con- 
trary to himfelf; that is, the eflential properties of his na- 
ture. He can do nothing that is contrary to, or incon- 
fiflent with his truth, holinefs, or righteoufnefs. 

Hence this holinefs of God is fometimes exprefled by 
jeahufy, where he would inflrud men in his feverity, in 
the punifhing of iin, [Exod. xx. 5.] For the nature of 
jealoufy is not to fpare, [Prov. vi. 34.] nothing but the 
executing of vengeance will fatisfy it. And this is that 
■which God intended in the revelation of himfelf, which he 
made by the proclamation of his name before Mofes, 
[Exod. xxxiv. 7.] * That will by no means clear the 

* o^uilty ;' namely, for whom no atonement is made. 
And it is to inftru£l us herein, that this holinefs of God 
is expreffed by fire, [Heb. xii. 29.] * Our God is a con- 
' fuming fire.* Devouring fire and everlafling burnings, 



[tfa. xxxiii. 14.] If v"" may not learn thence, that as 
eventually fiye will burn any combuftible thing that is 
put into it, fo the holinefs of God requires, that all fin 
be as aflTurcdly punifhed, we know not what to learn from 
it. If the pumjhlng of fin depend upon a mere free ail 
of the will of God, which might, or might not be with- 
out any difadvantage to his nature, there is no reafon why 
his holinejs and righteoufnefs fhould be fo often mentioned 
as thofe which induce him thereto, and indifpenfably re- 
quire it. 

Again, God in the fcripture is propofed to us as the 
fuprcm^ Judge of all, ading in rewards and punilliments 
according to his own righteoufnefs, or what the re^'itudt 
and holy properties of his own nature require. That 
God Ihould have any external rule or law in his govern- 
ment of the world, is abfolutely and infinitely impoffible. 
But hh law and rule is the holinefs and righteoufnefs of his 

§ 8. The whole of what hath been thus far pleaded, 
may be reduced to the enfuing heads : 

1. God is naturally and necefjarlly the fupreme Governor 
of his rational creatures, with refped to their utmofl 
end, which is his own glory. Upon the fuppofition of 
his being and their' s^ an imagination to the contrary would 
imply all forts of contradidions. 

2. The law of obedience to fuch creatures arifeth na- 
turally and necefiarily from the nature of God, and their 
own ; for this original law is nothing but that refpe«^, 
which a finite dependent creature hath upon an abfolutc, 
infinitely wife, holy, and good Creator, faitable to the 
principles of the nature with which it is endowed ; there- 
fore, it is indifpenfably necelfary. 

3. The annexing of a penalty to the tranfgreflion of 
this law, was nothing but what the righteoufnefs of God, 
as the fupreme Ruler of his creatures, did make necefiaiy ; 
as that, without which, the glory and holinefs of his rule 
could not be preferved upon the entrance of fin. 

4. The infiliution of pmilfJment anfwereth to the 
fatiflion of the law, is an aft of jufiice in God, and 

Vol. I. S s . necef- 


necefTary to him, as the fupreme Governor of the uni^ 

§ 9. SociNUs contends,* that the righteoufnefs We here 
plead for is contrary to that mercy^ whereby God forgiveth 
lins ; and therefore, that they cannot be -properties of his 
nature^ but only external a^ts of his will and power. But 
we reply, that abfolutely and eflentially, they are the fame; 
nor are their eifedts contrary to each other, though divers. 
To puni(h, where punifhment is deferved, is not con- 
trary to mercy ; but to punifh, where punifhment is not 
deferved, i$ cruelty. And yet, to punifh without de- 
fert, is more oppofite to jujike Itfelf, than to mercy. And 
fo it is where punifhment exceeds guilt, or where proceed- 
ings are not according to an equal flandard. Nor is 
* to fpare* by mercy, contrary to juflice ; for if to fpare 
and pardon be not for the good of the whole, for the 
prefervation of order, and the end of rule, it is not mercy 
to pardon or fpare, but facility, remijjnefs in governmejit, 
or foolifli pity. Secure thofe things in rule and govern- 
ment, which juflice takes care of and provides for, and 
then to fpare in mercy , is in no way contrary to it. If 
thefe things be not provided for, to fpare is not an a6l of 
mercy, but a defe(5l in juflice. And if thefe things were 
not fo, it would be impofTible that any one could be jvfi 
and mercful alfo ; yea, or do any a£l either of juflice or 
mercy ; for if he punifh, he is unmerciful ; that is. 
Wicked, if punifhment be contrary to mercy ; and if he 
fpare, he is not jufl, if fparing be oppofite to juflice. And 
on this fuppofition, upon an alike a6l of the will of God, 
lln might have been made to be virtue, and obedience fin ; 
and fo it might have been the duty of man to have hated 
God, and to have oppofed him to the utmofl of his power. 
For all the merely free a6ls of God's will might have been 
dtherwife, and contrary to what they are. And if you 
fay it could not be fo in this cafe, becaufe the nature of 
God, and his righteoufnefs required it fhould be others 
wife, you grant all that is contended for. 

* De Jefu Chriflo Servatorc, Lib. I. Cap. i. Lib. UL Cap. i. 


Eker.2. priesthood of CHRIST. 303 

Moreover, actually to pardon is no way opposite to 
juflice, where fatisfa(5tion is made ; nor is to puni/h oppo- 
fite to mercy, where the law of obtaining an intereft ia 
that fatisfV6lion is not obferved. And all that God de- 
clares in the fcripture, concerning his juftice and mercy, 
with the excrcife of thcni towards iinners, is grounded on 
the fuppolition of the interpofitlon and fatisfadtion of 
Chrift ; where that is not, as in the cafe of the angeii 
that finned, no mention is made of mercy mere or lefs, 
but on!y of judgement, according to their defert. 

§ 10. That juftice and mercy are properties of the Di' 
vine nature^ contrary to the Socinian creed, we may even 
argue from the light of nature ; as not only teaching us 
by the condu6i: of right reafon, that there is a lingular 
perfection in thefe things, which muft, therefore, be found 
in him, who is fo the author of all goodnefs and limited 
perfections to all others, as to contain clTentially and emi- 
nently all goodnefs and perfcdtion in himfelf ; but alfo, it 
iSl not difficult to evince the adlual confent of all man- 
kind who acknowledge a Deity, to this principle, That 
God Is juji and merciful^ with that juflice and mercy 
which have refpecSt to the fins and offences of men. 
When God fhewed to Mofes his glory, and made a decla- 
ration of himfelf by his name, he did it not by calling 
over the free afis of his will, or ihewing what he would 
or could do if he pleafed ; but defcribed his jiaturc to him 
by the elTential properties of it, that the people might know 
who and what he was with whom they had to do, [Exod. 
xxxiv. 6, 7.] And yet among them is that mercy reckoned, 
which is exerted in the pardoning of iniquity, tranfgref- 
fion, and fin. The fame is to be faid concerning //////V^-; 
for this vindictive juflice is nothingbutthe abfolute reflitudc 
of the nature of God, with refpe£l: to fome outward ohjedls, 
'uiz. fm and finners. Had there never, indeed, been any 
fin or finners, God could not, in any ontivard affs have 
cxercifed either vindictive juflice, or fparing mercy; but 
yet he had been notwithftanding eternally juj} and mcr^ 
eifid. To fay that God may forego this right or remit of 
it, is to fay, that he may, at his pleafure, ce^fe to be our 
S s 2 Lprd 


Lord and God ; for the fame nature of God, which ne- 
ceflTarily requireth our obedience, doth indifpenfably require 
the punifameut of our difobedience. 

§ II. SociNUs and Crellius objeft, ** That Chrifl 
neither did, nor could undergo the penalty due to us, be- 
caufe that was eternal death '^ But we reply, 

1. That Chrifl underwent the punifhment, which, in 
the juftice or judgement of God, was due to fin. 

That the juftice of God did require, that fm fhould be 
punifhed with a meet and due recorapence of reward, we 
have proved already; and to fatisfy this juftice it was that 
Chrifl fufFered ; and, therefore, he fuffered what juflice 
required. We fhould have undergone no more, but 
what, in the jujiice of God was due to fin. This Chrifl 
"underwent, and therefore he underwent what we Ihould 
have undergone. Nor can it be fuppofed, that in the 
juflice of God there might be two forts oi penalties due to 
fin, one of one kind, and another of another. If it be 
faid, that becaufe it was undergone by another^ it was not 
the fame ; I grant it was payment, which our fuffering 
would never have been ; it was fatisfa^iGn, which we, 
by undergoing any penalty, could not make ; but yet he 
fufFered the fame penalty which we fhould have done. In. 
Jhort, the Lord Chrifl underwent that punifhment, which 
was due to our fins ; and the juflice of God required no 

2. That which was due to fin was, all of it, compre- 
hended in the curfe of the law ; for in the curfe, God 
threatened the breach of the Jaw with all that punifh- 
ment which was juflly due to it ; for the curfe of the 
law is nothing but an expreffion of that punifhment which is 
due to the breach of it, delivered in ^ way of threatening. 
But now Jefus Chrifl underwent the curfe of the law, by 
which I know not what to underfland, but that very pu- 
nifhment which the tranfgrefTors of the law fhould have 
\indergone. Hence our apoflle fays, * That he was made 
* a curfe for us,' [Gal. iii. 13.] becaufe he underwent the 
penal fentence of the law. And there were not two kinds 
of punifhment contained in the curie of the law ; one 



that the iinner bimfelf fhould undergo, another that 
ihould fall oa the Mediator ; for neither the law, nor its 
curfe had any refpe£l to a Mediator. The interpolation of 
a Mediator depends on other principles and reafons thaa 
any the law was acquainted with. It was, therefore, the 
fame puni/Jmicnt, in the kind of it, which was due to us, 
that the Lord Chrill was to undergo. 

3. It is faid exprellly, that God, * caufed all our jm^ 

* quities to meet on him,' [Ifa. liii. 6.] or hath laid on 
hini the iniquities of us all, that he * bare our fins ;* 
[ver. 10.] Or, * bore our lins in his own body on the 

♦ tree,* [I. Pet. ii. 24.] w^hereby he who * knew no lin, 
^ was made lin for us,* [II. Cor. v. 21.] 

4. Chrift fuffered in our Jiead \ for he was our 
{ocvji\^v%og) fubjlitiite, [See Rom. v. 6 — 8.] When one 
would fubftitute himfelf in the room of another, who 
was obnoxious to punifliment, he that was fo fubftituted 
was always to undergo that very penalty, whether by lofs 
of limb, liberty, or life, that the other fhould have un- 
ilergone. And in like manner, if the Lord Chrift fuf- 
fered in our /]cad, as our substitute^ he fuffered what 
we fliould have done. 

§ 12. It is flill obje£led, *' That the punifliment which 
we fnould have undergone, was death eternal.'^ 

Death, as eternal, was in the punifliment due to our 
iin ; not dire£lly, but confequentially \ and that a natura 
fubjefli, not a natura caufo' ; for that the punifliment of 
fin Ihould be eternal, arofe not from the nature and or- 
der of all things, viz. of God, the law, and the finner ; 
but from the nature and condition of the Jinner only. This 
was fuch, as that it could no otherwife undergo a punifli- 
ment proportionable to the demerit of fin, but by an eter- 
rial continuance under it. This, therefore, was not a ne- 
ceflary confequcnt of guilt ahfolutely, but of guilt with 
xefpeft to fuch a fuhje£l. And if it be faid, " That the 
admiflioii of one to fuffer for another, who could dif- 
charge the debt in much lefs time than the offender could, 
is not the fame that the law required ;'* we anfwer, that 
it is true the law re<juires no fuch thing as one to fuffer 

3g6 the necessity OF THE PartIIL 

ffnr another, nor abfolutely confidered, doth admit of k j 
but the fubftitution was from God's gracioully dilpenfing 
with the law, as the fupreme Lord and Ruler over all. 
The law takes notice only of offenders, nor doth it include 
any fuppofition, that the offenders mull fuffer, * or a me- 
diator' m their {lead. But, notwithftanding, it is infepa- 
rable from the law, that this kind of punjfhment is due to 
the tranfgrelTion of it ; and by God's gracious fubftitution of 
Chrifl in the room of linners, there was no relaxation 
made of the law, as to the punilhment it required. 

§ 13. It is yet farther pleaded, *' That if the fame be 
paid in a flrift fenfe, then deliverance would have followed 
ipfo fafio ; for the releafe immediately follows the pay- 
ment of the fame." Howfoever we allow of that ex- 
prefHon of " paying the fame," it is only fuffering the 
fame for which we contend. Chrift underwent the fame 
punilhment that the law required, but that his fo doing 
Should be a payment for us, depended on God^s fovcreign 
difpenfation ; yet fo, that when it was paid, it was the 
fame which was due for us. This payment, therefore, as 
fuch, and the deliverance that enfued thereon, depended 
on a previous compa^ and agreement, as muft all fatisfac- 
tion of one for another. Deliverance, therefore, doth 
not naturally follow on this fatisfaclion, and therefore was 
not to enfue ipfo fado, but (jure fasderis) in the way and 
order difpofed in that covenant. The adual deliverance of 
all the perfons for whom Chrift fuffcred, to enfue tpfo 
fa^o upon his fuffering, was abfolutely impofhble ; for 
mofl of them vjere not when he fuffercd. And that the 
whole of the time, way, and manner of his deliverance 
dependeth on compaS, is evident from them who were de- 
livered a£lually from the penalty, long before the aftual 
fufferings of Chrifl, merely upon the account of his fuf- 
ferings, which ihould afterwards enfue. Deliverance is no 
end of punilhment confidered merely as fuch, none is pu- 
nifhed properly that he may be delivered : however, the 
celTation of punilhment may be called a deliverance. Mere 
deliverance was not the whole end of Ch rill's fufferings 
for us ; but fuch a deliverance as is attended with a flate 

2 and 


and condition of fuperaddcd blcffedncfs. And the duties 
of faith, repentance, and obedience, which are prefcribed 
to us, are not enjoyed only, or principally, with refped. 
to deliverance from pnnilhinent, but with refpe£t to the 
attaining of thofc other ends of the mediation of Chrift, 
in a new fpiritual life here, and eternal life hereafter. 
And with refpeft to thofc ends- may they juftly be required 
of us, though Chriil fuffered and paid the fame which we 
ought. No deliverance ipfo fafio, upon a fuppofition of 
fufFering or paying the fame, was neceffary ; but only 
the a^iial d'lfcharge of him who made the payment, as aa 
Undertaker for others. Accordingly, Chrift, immediately 
on his fufFerings as our furety, was difcharged. 

§ 14. But it may be farther objedled, *' That it is im- 
poffible to reconcile the freenefs of remilTion, with the 
full payment of the very fame that was in the obligation." 
To fay, that God freely remitted our fins^ abrogating the 
law, and the curfe of it, requiring no punifhment, no fa* 
tisfaftion, neither from ourfelves, nor from the Mediator, 
hath at firfl view an appearance of royal grace and clemency^ 
until being examined, it is found utterly inconfiflent 
with the truth and holincfs of God ; and in reality, is 2 
conceit that hath no countenance in fcripture. But to 
fay, that God required the execution of the fentence and 
curfe of the law, in the undergoing of the punilhraent 
due to fin ; but yet, out of his love and infinite grace, 
fent his Son :o undergo it for us, (fo, to comply with his 
JioUnefsy to fatisfy his jnfilce, and fulfil his truth and law, 
that he might freely pardon finners) this the fcripture 
every where declares ; and is dcmonftrably confident with 
all the perfe<?dons of the Divine nature. Wherefore the 
abfolute freedom of pardon to us is abfolutcly confiflent 
with Chrift fuiteriiig xXit fame penalty which was due to our 

§ 15. And whereas it is pleaded, " Th^t foii.fa^Io/$ 
and remif/ion muil refped the fame perfon ;" the fcripture 
is clear, thzlfatifafilon was made by Chrifl:, and rcmif- 
fion is made to us ; that he fuffered, the juil for the ua- 
jufl^ that we may go free. Now, God is faid to do that 




freely for us, which he doth of grace ; and whatever he 
doth of grace, is done for ms freely. Thus the love and 
ffrace of God, in fending Jefus Chrift to die for us, were 
free and therein lay the foundation oi free remiffion for 
\is. This conjihution of the Redeemer luffering the fame 
funlfhment which was due to our fins, as the furety and 
Mediator of the new covenant, was free, and of mere 
grace, depending on the compa£l or covenant between 
the Father and Son before explained. The imputation of 
cur fin to him, or the making him to be fin for us, by 
his own voluntary choice and confent, was in like man- 
•gi^r free. The conftitution of the. new covenant, and 
therein of the way to partake of the benefits procured by 
the fufferings of Chrift, was alfo/r^^, and of grace. The 
communication of the Holy Spirit to us, enabling us to 
believe, and to fulfil the condition of the covenant, is 
abfolutely free. And there is nothing here inconfiftent 
with Chrift fuffering the fame that we fhould have done, 
or his paying the fame debt which w^e owed, in the fenfe 
before explained. 

^ i6. In confirmation of our general thefts, befidcs 
vrhat hath been infilled on, we may plead the common 
fuj^rage of mankind in this matter. For what all men 
have a prefumption of, is not free, but necejjary ; proceed- 
ing from a principle, which knows only what is, and not 
what may be, or may not be. Of the latter there can be 
no common or innate perfuafion among men : fuch are 
all the free afis of the will of God ; they might he, or might 
not be, otherwife were they not free a6ls. If, therefore, 
God's punifhing of fin were merely an effect of a free adl 
of his will, without refpcft to any efiential property of 
his nature, there could never have been any general pre- 
fumption of it in the minds of men. But this there is, viz. 
that God is righteous, with that kind of righteoufnefs 
which requires that fin be punilhed. Hence our apoftlr^ 
fpeaking of the generality of the Heathen, affirms, that 
they knew it ' was the judgement of God, that they who 
* committed fn were zvorthy of ^eath,' [Rom. i. 32.] That 
fuch punifliraentisdue tofin, they were fuificiently con 





vinced of by the teftimonies of their own confcieftccs, 
[Rom, ii. 14, 15.] and whereas confcicncc is nothing but 
the judgement which a man maketh concerning himfelf 
and his adions, with refpeft to the fupcrior judgement of 
God ; a fenfc of the eternal ri^hteoufncj] of God was there 

And this fenfe of avenging jujllce they exprefTed in all 
their facr'ifices, wherein they attempted to make fome 
atoneriient for the guilt of fin. What was the voice of 
nature in thofe a6lings, wherein it offered violence to its 
own in-bred principles and inclinations ? It was this 
alone ; the Governor over all is juft and righteous, and 
we are guilty ; he will not fuffer us to live, vengeance 
will overtake us, if fome way or other-be not found out 
to appeafe him, to fatisfy his jaftice, and to avert his 
judgement, [Mich. vi. 6, 7.] 

§ 17. Again, it is neceffary that God fhould do every- 
thing that is requilite to his own glorv ; this the per- 
fedion of his nature requires. It is ncccjjliry^ therefore, 
that nothing fall out in the univerfe, which Ihould abfo- 
lutely impeach the glory of God, or contradift his defigii 
of its manifeflation. Now, fuppofe that God fhould let 
lin go unpunifhed, where would be the glory of his 
righteoufnefs, as he is the fupreme Ruler ? For to omit 
what juftice requireth, is no Icfs a difparsgement to it, 
than to do what it forbids, [Prov. xvii. 15.] And where 
would be the glory of his holinefs ? Where w^ould be 
thaty^-^r and reverence which is due to him ? Where that 
fenfe of his terror ? Where that facred awe of him, which 
ought to be in the hearts and thoughts of men, if once 
he were looked on to be fuch a God, fuch a Governor, 
to whom It is a matter o^ mere choice and liberty, whe- 
ther he will inflid p.unifhment on fm or no, as being 
not concerned in point of righteoufnefs or holinefs fo to 
do ? Nothing can tend more than fuch a perfuaiion to 
ingenerate an apprehenlion in men, that * God is alto- 
gether fuch a one as themfelves,' [Pfal. 1. 21.] 

Thus having inveftigated the original of the prleflhood 
of Chrift, and demonilrated the nccejfity of it, we fhould 

Vol. I. T t pro- 


proceed to handle the nature of this office, were it not fully 
done in the expofitory part of the work, to which the 
reader is referred. 



§ 1 . 7he grant of dominion to the MsJJlah foretold in the Old 
Tejlament, § 2. Jfjeried in the Nezu. § 3. This is a 
fpring of comfort to the Church, § 4. Of terror to the 
wicked, § 5. Chrjft the heir and Lord of all pcrfons^ 
and all things. 6. (I.) Perfons. Firfly Angels ; and 
efpecially, i . GoQd angels. § 7 , ^e original right of this 
grants § 8, Its gracious ends, § 9. 2. Bad angels^ 
§ 10. Secondly^ (ill mankind, § ii.i. The ele^, § 12. 
2. The reprobate, § I 3 — 1 8. (II.) Things. Firfi, fpi- 
ritual things. § 19. Secondly, eccleftajlical. § 20, 
Thirdly^ political. & 21, Fourthly^ the rcjiduis of the 

§ T. JL HE grant of dominion in general to the Mes- 
siah is intimated in the firft promife of him, [Gen. iii, 
15.] His vi^ory over Satan was to be attended with 
rule, power, and dominion, [Pfal. Ixviii. 18. Ifa. liii. 12.] 
This was confirmed in the renewal of that promife to 
Abraham, [Gen. xxii, 17, 18.] for in him it was, that 
Abraham was to be heir of the world, [Rom. iv. 13.] 
As alfo to Judah, whofe feed was to enjoy the fcepter 
9nd law-giver, until He came, who was to be Lord of 
all, [Gen, xlix. 10.] Baalam alfo faw the ftar of Ja- 
cob, with a fcepter for rule, [Numb, xxiv. 17 — 19.J 

* In the original work, this difcoiirfe forms a digrejfion on 
^hap, i« I, 2, See vol, ii. p. 17. of this abridgement. 


Ixnti.s- LORDSHIP OF CHRIS-T. 314 

This kingdom was fully revealed to David, and is ex- 
prelTcd by him Tlal. ii. throughout. [See alio Pfal. xlv. 
3 — 8. Pfal. Ixxxix. 19 — 24, and clxxii. 6—9. Plal. 
ex. I — 3.] And the fame iniportaiit fubjcdt is dif- 
playcd in all the following prophets. [Sec Ifa. xi. i, 2, 
and ix. 6, 7, and liii. 12. and Ixiii. i — 3. Jer, xxiii. 

5, 6. Dan. vii. 13, 14, &c.] 

§ 2. As this was foretold in the Old Tefiamenty fo the 
accompli Qiment of it is exprcflly affertcd in the New. 
Upon his birth he is proclaimed to be * Chrift the Lord,* 
[Luke \u II.] And the firft inquiry after hiax 
is, where is he that is born King P [Matt. ii. 2, 

6. ] And this teftimony doth he give concerning 
himfeif; namely, that all judgement was his, and 
therefore all honour was due to him, [John. v. 22, 
23.] and that all things Were delivered unto him, or 
given into his hand, [Matt. xi. 15.] yea, all power \t\ 
heaven or earth, [Matt, xxviii. 18. Him who was cru- 
cified^ did God make both Lord and Chrijl, [A£ts ii. 36.] 
exalting him at his right hand, to be a prince and a fa* 
viour, [Acls v. 31*] He is highly exalted, having ^ 
name given him above every name, [Phil. ii. 9-^11.] 
being fet at the right hand of God in heavenly places 
far above, &c. [Ephef. i. 20 — 2a.] where he reigns for 
ever, [I. Cor. xv. 2^.] being the king of kings, and 
Lord of Lordsy [Rev. xix. 16.] for he is Lord of quick 
and dead, [Rom. xiv. 7 — 9.] 

§ 3. And this is the fpring of the churches glory, com* 
forty and affurance. He is our head, huiband, and elder 
brother, who is glorioufly vefted with all this power. Our 
neareil relation, our befl friend, is thus exalted to ail 
abiding, an evcrlajting rule and dominion over the wholci 
creation of God» And it is but a little while before he 
will dlfpel all thole clouds and (hades, which at prefent 
interpofc thcmfelves, and eclipfe his glory and nipjefty 
from them that love him. He, who in the days of hia 
flefli was reviled, reproached, pcrfecuted, and cruciiled 
for our fakes, that fame Jefus is thus exalted^ and made a 
• j^rincc and a favkjur,' having a name given him above 
T t 2 evcr^ 


every name, &c. for thoagh he was dead^ yet he is allvef 
and lives for ever, and hath the keys of hell and death. 

§^ 4, The confederation of it is alfo fuited to llrike ter-* 
ror into the hearts of ungodly men that oppofe him in 
the world. Whom is it they defpife ? Againft whom 
do they magnify themfelves, and lift up their horns on 
high ? Whofe ordinances, laws, and inftitutions do they 
contemn ? Whofe gofpel do they refufe obedience to ? 
Whofe people and fervants do they revile and perfecute ? 
Is it not He, are they not his, who hath all power in hea- 
ven and earth committed to him ? in whofe hands are the 
lives, the fouls, all the concernments of Jiis enemies ? 
Ccefar thought he had fpoken with terror^ when, threaten- 
ing with death one who llopd in his way,, he told him, 
*' Young man, he fpeaks it, to whom it i;s as eafy to d« 
it." He fpeaks to his adverfaries, who Hand in the way 
of his interefl, to deal no more fo proudly, "who can, in 
a moment, fpeak them into ruin, and that eternal. [Sec^ 
Rev. vi. 14 — 17.] 

§ 5. He is Lord, or heir ('TTocflccv, Heb. i. 2.) ofall% 
that is, ofallperfons, znd. of all things. 

(I.) Fcrfonsy or rational fubliftences, both angeh and 
men ; for it is evident, that he is exempted, who hath fub- 
jetfled all things unto him, [I. Cor. xv. 27.] 

(II.) Things ; which are either fpiritual, ecdefiajlical^ 
political, or natural, 

^ 6. (I.) Persons. Thofe perfons affigned as part of 
the inheritance of Chrill, are, 
Firfi, the angeh, and efpecially 

I, The good angels. This pre-eminence above theftl 
is aiferted by the apoltle in chap. i. 4. And as he is 
exalted above them, fo, by way of grant, and by the au- 
thority of God the Father, they are m.ade fubje^ unto 
him. [See I. Pet. iii. 22. . Ephef. i. 22. PfaL viii. 6. 
I. Cor. XV. 27.] and, to evidence the univerfality of thia 
fubjeftion, they adore and worlbip him ; the higheil a£t 
of obedience, and mod abfolute fubjedion. This they 
have in command, [Heb. i. 6.] ' Let all tlie angels of 
* God worfhip him/ [PfaL xcvii. 7. Iinrii^ii-] vjorjh}^ 



him with proflration, felf-abafement, and all poffible fub- 
jection to him. Their practice anfwcrs the, command^ 
[Rev. V. II — 14.] aU the angels round about his 
throne fall down and afcribe blelling, and honour, and 
glory, and power unto him, as we are taught to do in our 
deepeft acknowledgement of the majefty and authority oC 
God, [Matt. vi. 13.] and as to outward obedience^ they 
are in all things ready to receive his commands, [Rev. L 
I.] And for this purpofe they always attend his throne, 
[Ifa vi. 1,2. 'I faw the Lord upon his throne, and 

* about it flood the feraphims ;' this Ifaiah fpake of 
him when he faw his glory, [John xii. 39, 40.] He 
was upon his throne, when he fpake with the church ia 
the wildernefs, [A6ts vii. 38.] that is, in mount Sinai, 
where the angels attending him, ready to receive his com- 
mands, were twenty thoufands, even thoufands of an- 
gels, [Pfal. Ixviii. 19. Ephef. iv. 8.]- or thoufand thou- 
fands, and ten thoufand times ten thoufand, as another 
prophet exprefleth it, [Dan. vii. 10.] and fo attended 
fhall he come to judgement, [IL Thef. i. 7.] when he 
fhall be revealed from heaven with the angels of his 
power ; which was foretold- concerning him from the be- 
ginning of the world, [Jude 14, 15.] 

§ 7. Thus his Lordfliip over angels is wiherfal znd ab- 
folute, and their fubjedion to him is anfvverable there- 
unto. The original right and equity of this grant, with 
the ends of it, are now only to be intimated. 

I. The X2i6\Q2i\ fundamental equity of this grant lies in 
his Divine nature, and his creation of angels, over whom, 
as Mediator, he is made Lord. Unto the general afler- 
tion of his being made heir of all the apoftle, [chap i, 
2.] fubjoins that general reafon, manifefting the rife of 
its equity in the will of God that it fhould be fo : * By 

* whom alfo he made the worlds ;' which reafon is parti- 
cularly applicable to every part of his inheritance, and is 
efpecially pleaded in reference to angels, [Col. i. 15, 16.] 

* Who is the image of the invisible God, the lirfl-born of 

* every creature ;' that is, the heir and Lord, of them all ; 
and the reafon is, <* becaufe by him were all things created 


^3>4 ®F rut. KINGDOM, OR Part IlL 

that are in heaven^ and that are in earth, viiible and invl-^ 
fible ; whether thrones, or dominions, or principaHties^ 
or powers, all things were created by hirn, and for him." 
This creating of thofe heavenly powers is the foundation 
t)f his heirihipj or lordfhip over them. — This is the firji 

JoundatiQn of the equity of this grant of all power over the 
angels unto the Lord Chriil ; in his Divine nature he 
made them, and in thatrefped they were before, his own; 
as on the fame account when he came into the world, he 
is faid to come, [John i. ii. £/- rcc loioc) to hh own^ 
or the things he had made. 

2. It is founded in that ejlahlijhment in the condition 
of their creation, which they received by his interpolition 
to recover what was loft by lin ; and to preferve the un- 
tainted part of the creation from ruin. In their own 
rights in the rule of their obedience, and the example o£ 
thofe of their number and fociety, who apoftatized from 
God, they found thenifelves in a ftate not absolutely im* 
pregnable : their confirmation^ w^hich was alfo attended 
with that exaltation, which they received by their i^ew re^ 
latlon to God, in and through him, they received by his 
means ; God gathering up all things to a conjijhncy^ and 
permanency in him, [Ephef. i. lo.] And hence alfo it 
became equals that the rule and power over them fhould 
be committed to him, by whom they were — -although not 
like us recovered ixom ruin, •ytX.—prefcrved from all danger 
of ruin. So that in their fubjeftion unto him confifts 
their principal honour, and all their fafcty. 

§ 8. And as this a£l of God in appointing Chrifl Lord 

.of Angels hath thefe equitable foundations, fo it hath 
alfo fundry glorious ends, 

I. It was an addition to that glory that was fct before 
himy in his undertaking to redeem finners. A kingdom 
was of old promifed unto him, and to render it exceedingly 
glorious, the rule and fcepter of it is extended not only to 
his redeemed ones, but to the holy angels alfo ; and the 
ibvereignty over them is granted him as a part of his re-, 
ward, [Phil. ii. 8—11. Ephef. i. 2.0, 21.] 

a 2. God 


2. God hereby gathers up his whole family, at firft 
diftinguifhed by the law of their creation into two fpecial 
kinds, and then differenced and fet at variance by iin, into 
one body, under one head, reducing tliem that origuially 
were twain, into one entire family, [Ephef. i. 10.] * In the 

* fuhiefs of time he gathered together in one all tilings in 

* Chrift, both which are in heaven, and in earth, even in 

* him.* Before this, the angels had no immediate created 
head, for themfelves are called (a'n'?^^) Gods, [Pfal. 
xcvii. 7. I. Cor. viii. 5.] whoever is the head mufi: be 
(cD>n^« mV« ) the God of Gods, or Lord of Lords, which 
Chriil alone is ; and in him, or under him, as one head, 
is the whole family of God united. 

3, The church militant on the earth, whofe condu6b 
into eternal glory is committed unto Chrift, ftands in need 
of the minifiry of angels ; and, therefore, hath God granted 
rule and power over them unto him, that nothing might 
be wanting to enable him to fave, unto the uttcrmolt, them 
that came to God by him. They are all of them his 

fervants, * the fellow fervants of them that have the tefti- 
*" mony of Jefus.' And as fome men do wilfully caft them- 
felves, by their religious adoration of angels, under the 
curfe of Canaan, to be the * fervants of fervants,^ [Gen. 
yiii. 25.] fo it is the great honour and privilege of true 
believers, that in their worfhip of Chriil they are admit- 
ted into the fociety of an innumerable company of angels, 
[Heb. xij. 22. Rev. v. 11, 13.] for they are not ania- 
med to efleem them their fellow-fervants, whom their Lord 
and king is not alhamed to call his brethren. And herein 
confilts our communion with them, tiiat we have one 
common head and Lord. 

§ 9. 2. There is another fort of angels, who by fin 
left their primitive flation, and fell otf from God, of 
whom, their fin, fall, malice, wrath, bufinefs, craft in 
evil, and final judgement, the fcripture *reateth at large, 
Thefe belong not, indeed, to the fc^fl^ifon or Ciirift, as 
lie is the heir, but they belong to his dominion, as he is the 
J-ord, Though he be not a king and head unto them, 



yet he is a Judge and ruler over them, ' All things being 
given into his hand, they alfo arefubjeded to his power. 

(i.) This right, as before, is founded in his Divine 
nature, by virtue whereof he is ^t for* this dominion* 
He made thefe angels alfo ; and, therefore, as God, hath 
an abfolute dominion over them. The creatures cannot 
call oft the dominion of the Creator by rebellion ; though 
they may lofe their moral relation to God, as obedient crea^ 
im-eSf yet their natural relation cannot be diflblved. God 
will be God llill, be his creatures ever fo wicked ; and if 
they ob-ey not his will, they fhali bear his juflice. And 
this dominion of Chrift over fallen angels, as God. makes 
the grant of rule over them to him, as Mediator, jull and 

(2.) The immediate and peculiar foundation of his 
right to rule over the fallen angels^ rendering the fpeciai 
grant cf it equal and righteous, is laix-ful conqueji. This 
gives a fpeciai right, [Gen. xlviii. 22.] Now, that 
Chrift fbould conquer fallen angels, was promifed from 
the foundation of the world, [Gen. iii. 15.] The {ted. 
of the woman, the Meffiah, was to break the ferpent's 
head, defpoil him of his power, and bring him into fub- 
jettion ; which he performed accordingly, [Col. ii. 15.] 
* He fpoiled principalities and powers,' divefted fallen an- 
gels of all that title they had got to the world, by the fin 
of m?.n ; triumphing over them as captives, to be difpofed 
at his pleafure. He flilled, or made to ceafe, as to his 
power, this enemy (ap^DDi) and felf-avenger^ leading 
captivity captive, breaking in pieces the head over the 
Jarge earth, [Pfal. ex. 6.] binding the flrong man armed, 
and fpoiling his goods. And the fcripture of the New 
Teftament is full of inilances, as to his executing his 
power and authority over evil angels ; they take up a good 
part of the hiftorical books of it. Man having finned by 
the inftigation of Satan, he was, by the juft judgement 
of God, delivered up to his power, [Heb. ii. 14.] The 
Lord Chrift undertaking to recover loft man from under 
bis power, by deftroying his works, [I. John iii. 8.] and 
to bring them again into favour with God, Satan, with 


Exer;3. lordship OF ^PhRIST. 


ajl his might fets himfelf to oppofe him in his work ; 
and faihng in his enterprizc, being utterly conquered, he 
became abfolutely fubjefted unto him, trodden under 
his feet, and the prey he had taken dehvered from him. 
They are fubjefted unto him as to their prefent adings 
and future condition ; he now rules them, and will here- 
after finally judge them. Wherein he fuffcrs them in his 
holinefs and wifdom to aft in temptations, fedu£lions, 
and perfecutions, he binds and limits their rage and ma- 
licious aftings, difpofing all events to his own holy and 
righteous ends, and keeping them under chains for the 
judgement of the great day, when, for the full manifefta- 
tion of his dominion over them, he' will caiife the mean- 
efl of his fervants to fet their feet on the neck of thefc 
conquered kings. 

(3.) The ends of this Lordfhip of Chrift are various ; 
as — his own glory ^ [Pfal. ex. i.] the church's fafety^ [Mat. 
xvi. 18. Rev. xii. 7 — 9.] the exerciling of his wrath and 
vengeance upon his flubbbrn enemies. 

§ 10. Secondly^ All mankind (the fecond fort of intel- 
lectual creatures) belong to the lordfhip and* dominion of 
Chrift. All mankind was in the power of God, as one 
niafs out of which all individuals are made, [Rom. ix. 2 i.J 
fome to honour, fome to difhonour ; the (70 ccvto ^v- 
accLLO.) the fame lump, not denoting the fame fubftance, 
but one common condition ; and the making of individuals is 
not by temporal creation, but eternal deiignation. So that 
all mankind made out of nothing, and out of the fame con- 
dition, are deftined to fever al ends for the glory oF God ; 
tlie d"/^^, or veiTels from the common mafs, unto honour; 
and reprobates, or velfels from the common mafs, unto dif- 
honour ; to both is the lordfhip of Chrift extended, and 
to each of them refpe£lively. He is Lord over all Jlcjh, 
[John xvii. 2.] both living and dead, [Rom. xiv. 9. Phil. 
ii. 9, 10.] particularly, 

§ I -I. I. He is Lord over all the eleSf \ and, belldts 
the general foundation of the equity of his authority and 
power in his Divine nature, and creation of all things, 
the grant of the Father to him as Mediator to be their 

Vol. L U u Lord, 


Lord, is founded in other fpecial acls both of Father 
and Son ; for they were given to him from eternity in 
design and by compact, that they fhould be his pecuhar 
portion, and he their Saviour, [John xvii. 2.] Of the 
(^Trcio-yjg (roipxcg) all fiejh^ over which he hath authority, 
there is {ticcv Su4^K-5J an unlverfality of them, whom the 
Father gave him in a fpecial manner ; of whom he fays, 
* Thine they were, and thou gaveft them me,' [ver. 6.] 
They are a portion given him to fave, of which he takes 
the care, as Jacob did of the fheep of Laban, when he 
ferved him for a vi'ife ; this was an a(ft of the will of the 
Father in the eternal covenant of the Mediator. His z^a^ii 
is ftrengthened by redemption^ purchafe, and acquifition. 
Thefe thus given him of the Father, and redeemed by 
him, are of two forts : 

(i.) Such as are atlually called to faith in him and 
iinion with him. Thefe are further become h'ls^ upon 
ijiany other fpecial accounts : they are his in all relations 
of fubjeftion ; his children, fervants, brethren, difciples, 
his houfe, his fpoufe. He ftands towards them in all re- 
lations of authority ; is their father, mafier, elder brother, 
teacher, king, lord, ruler, judge, hufband ; ruling in them 
by his fpirit and grace, over them by his laws in his word, 
preferving them by his power, chaflening them in his care 
r^ndlove, feeding them out of his {lores, trying them and 
delivermg them in his wifdom, bearing with their mif- 
earriages in his patience, and taking them for his portion 
and inheritance ; in his Providence railing them at the 
lail day, taking them to himfelf in glory, every v/ay 
avouching them to be his, and himfelf to be their Lord 
and mailer, 

(2.) Some of them are always uncalled^ until the whole 
number of them be completed. But before this happy 
event they belong, on the former accounts, to his lot, 
care, and rule, [John x. 16.] they are already his fheep 
by grant and purchafe, though not yet fo by grace and 
holinefs ; they are not yet his by prefent obediential lub- 
je£lion, but they are his by eternal defignation, and real 
apquifition, Now the power that the Lord Jefus hath 



over this fort of mankind is univcrfal, unlimited, abfolute, 
and exclufive ot aJl other power over them, as to thti 
thjjigs peculiarly belonging to his kingdom. He is their 
king, judge, and law-giver ; and in things of God, pure- 
ly Ipirjtuai and evangelical, other they have none. It is 
true, he takes them not out of the ivoiid, and therefore as 
to (to:. fliMTiKCc) the things of this iife^ they are fuhject to 
t)ie laws and rulers of the world ; but as to the tilings of 
God, he is the only La^v-giver^ who is able to kill and 
make alive. 

§ 12. 2. His dominion extends alfo to the repyohates 
and finally impenitent. They are not exempted from 
that * allflejh^^ which he hath power over ; nor from 
thofe * quick and dead ^^ over whom he is Lord, [Rom. xiv. 
9.] nor from that ' wsr/^/' which he fhall judge, [A<5ts 
xvii. 31.] And there are two fpecial grounds that are 
peculiar to this grant and authority over them : 

(i.) His interpofiiion upon the entrance of iin againft 
the immediate execution of the curfe. This fixed the 
world under a difpenfation of forbearance and patience, 
of goodnefs and mercy. That God, who fpared not the 
angels when they finned, but immediately cafl them into 
chains of darknefs, fhould place finners of the race of 
Adam under a difpenfation of forbearance and goodnefs ; 
that he (liould fpare them v/ith much long fufferi ng during 
their pilgrimage on the earth, and fill their hearts with 
food and gladnefs, with all thofe fruits of kindnefs which 
the womb of Providence is llill bringing forth for their 
advantage, is thus far on account of the Lord Chrifl, viz. 
that though thcfe things, as relating to reprobates, are no 
part of his efpecial purchafe a3 mediator of the everlafting 
covenant of grace, yet they are a neceffary confequent of* 
liis interpofition againll the immediate execution of the 
whole curfe upon the llrft entrance of fm, and of his un- 
dertaking for his elc^l. 

(2.) He makes a conqucf over them ; it was promifed 

that he Ihould do {o, [Gen. iii. i^.] and tliongh ths 

work itfelf feems to us long and irkfome, though the ways 

of accompliihing it be unto us obfcure, oftentimes invi- 

U u a Cible, 


lible, yet he hath undertaken it, and will not give it over 
until they are every one brought to be his footftool, [Pf. 
ex. 1. I. Cor. XV. 25.] And the dominion granted on 
thefe grounds is — Sovereign and abfolute ; they are in his 
hand, as the Egyptians were in Jofeph's, when he had 
purchafed both their perfons and ellates to be at his arbi- 
trary difpofal ; and he deals with them as Jofeph did with 
thofe, {o far as any of the ends of his rule and lordfhip 
are concerned in them. And — Judiciary, [John v. 22, 
23.] as he hath power over their perfons, fo he hath re- 
gard to Xh^'n Jins ; and this power he varioufly exercifeth 
over them, even in this world, before he glorioufly exerts 
it m their eternal ruin : for he enlightens them by thofe 
heavenly fparks of truth and reafon, which he leaves un- 
cxtinguifhed in their own minds, [John i. 9.] Strives- 
with them by his fpirit, [Gen. vi. 3.] fecretly exciting: 
their confciences to rebuke, bridle, and aiiiicl them, [Rom. 
ii. 14, 15.] And on fome of them he a£ls by the power 
and authority of his word, whereby he quickens their 
confciences, galls their minds and afFe£lion3, reftrains their 
lulls, bounds their converfations, aggravates their fins, 
(in a fcripture fenfe) hardens their hearts, and finally 
judges their fouls. 

And thus Chrifl is Lord over perfons \ angels and men. 
§ 13. (II.) Things. The fecond part of the heir- 
fnip and dominion of Chriil conflfleth in his lordfhip 
over all things befides, v/hicb, added to the former, com- 
prize the whole creation of God. And, in fpeaking of 
' things^ we fhall confider, 

First, fplrltual things ; which are alfo of two forts : 
— temporal., and eternal. 

Firji, te?nporal, or fuch as in this life we are made par- 
takers of And this may be reduced to two heads ; for 
tliey are ail of them either grace or gifts, and Chrifl is 
Lord of them all. 

I. Grace; — pardon of fin — the regenerating of the 
peffon of a dead Inmer — prefervation in a condition of 
acceptance with God, and holy obedience to the end — 
adoption, with all the privileges that fiow from it. All 




the (lores of this grace and mercy that arc in heaven for 
finners, are given into his hand, and refigncd up to his 
fovereign difpofal, [Col. i. 19.J * It pleafed the Father 
* that in him fhould all fulnefs dwell.' All the grace and 
mercy that are in the heart of God as a father to beflovr 
upon his children, are all given into the hand of Chrift, 
and are his, or part of his inheritance. In particular, 

(i.) All pardoning grace for the acceptance of our per- 
fons, and the forgi vends of our lins ; he is the Lord of 
it ; [A£ts V. 31.] He is made a prince and a faviour to 
give repentance and the forgivenefs of lins ; nor doth any- 
one receive it but out of his ilores. And what is the do- 
minion of ten thoufand worlds, in comparifon of this in- 
heritance ? Surely he fhall be my God and King who hath 
all forgivenefs at his difpofal. 

(2.) All regenerating, quickening, fan£^ifying, aflifting, 
perfevering grace is his; [John v. 21.] He quickenetb 
whom h€ will; he walks among dead fouls, and fays to 
whom he pleafeth, Live ; and he fanftiiieth by liis Spirit 
whom he pleafeth. All the living waters of faving grace 
are committed to him, and he invites men unto them 
freely, [Cant. v. i. i. John iv. i^}.. Rev. xxi.] 
All grace adually affifling us in any duty, is his alfo, for 
without him we can do nothing; [Johnxv. 5.] it is he 
alone that gives out fuitable help at the time of need, 
[Heb. iv. 16.] and all the gracious privileges whereof wc 
are made partakers in our adoption are his alfo, [John i. 
12.] No man was ever quickened, purified, or ftrength- 
«ned, but by him ; nor can one dream of any grace to be 
obtained but out of his treafures — his unfearchable riches — 
and exceeding excellency ; which being communicated by 
him to all the fabjeds of his kingdom, make every one 
of them richer than all the potentates of the earth who 
have no interefl in him. 

§ 14. The fpecial foundation of all this truft is in an 
eminent manner exprelTed Ifa. liii. 10 — 12. His fufrer- 
ing and purchafe make it juft and righteous that he fliould 
enjoy this part of his inheritance. 


322 OF THE KINGDOM, OR PArt lit 

♦* The Father fays unto him, ** Seefc thou thefe poor 
*« wretched creatures, that he perilhing in their blood, 
« and under the curfe ? They had once my image glo- 
<« rioufly enilamped upon them, and were every way meet 
<« for my fervice ; but behold the mifery that is com© 
»' upon them by their fin and rebelHon : fentence is gone 
«' forth againft them upon their fni ; and they want no- 
<« thing to fhut them up under everlailing ruin, but the 
*' execution of it. Wilt thou undertake to be their Sa- 
*' viour and Deliverer, to fave them from their fms, and 
«' the wrath to come ? Wilt thou make thy foul an 
<« offering for their f^ns ; and lay down thy lifs a ranfora 
<* for them ? Hafl thou love enough to wafli them in 
<« tliine own blood, in a nature to be taken of them, be- 
<« ing obedient therein unto death, even the death of the 
<« crofs ?" Whereunto he replies : '' I am content to 
«* do thy will, and will undertake this work, and that 
*« with joy and delight. Lo, I come for that purpofe, 
« my delight is with the fons of men, [Pfal. xl. 8. Prov. 
'* viii. 3.] What they have taken, I will pay. What is 
*' due from them, let it be required at my hand. I am 
« ready to undergo w^ath and curfe ior them, and to 
^«« pour out my foul unto death." — '' It fhall be" (faith 
the Father) *' as thou hafl fpoken, and thmi fhalt fee of 
<' the travail of thy foul, and be fatisfied. And I will 
** give thee for a covenant and a leader unto them, and 
<* thou fiialt be tlie captain of their falvation. To this 
•' end take into thy power and difpofal all the treafures 
«t of heaven, all mercy and grace, to give out to them 
«* for whom thou haft undertaken. Ijehold, here are un- 
«* ftarchable hidden treafures, not of many generations, 
*< but laid up from eternity ; take all thefe riches into 
«» thy power, and at thy difpofal lliall they be for 
<« ever." 

^ 15. 2. All gifts that are beftowed on any of the 
fons of men, whereby they are differenced from, or made 
ufeful to others, belong alfo to the inheritance and king- 
dom of Chrift. Thcfc are either naiural ov fpirltual. 


(i.) Natural gifts are fpeclal endowments on the per- 
fons or minds of men, in relation to things appertaining 
to this life ; as wifdom, learning, ikill in arts and fci- 
ences. I call them " natural," in refpeft of the objeds 
about which they are exercifed, which are {toc (SicJjiKcc) 
things of this life, as alfo in refpeft of their end and ufc. 
They are not always lb, as to their rife and fpring; but 
may be immediately infufed, as wifdom was into Solomon, 
for civil government ; and ikill for all manner of mecha- 
nical operations, into Bezaleel, [Exod. xxxi. 2, 3, 6.] 
But how far thefe gifts are educed in an ordinary courfe 
of Providence, out of their hidden feeds and principles in 
nature, in a juft connexion of caufes and eftefts, and fo 
fall under a certain law of acquilition, or what there may 
be of the interpohtion of the Spirit of God, in an cfpe- 
cial manner, immediately conferring them on any, falls 
not under our prefent confideration. Nor yet can we 
infift on their ufe, which is fuch, that they are the great 
inilrument in the hand of God, for the prefervation of 
human fociety, and to keep the courfe of man's life and 
pilgrimage from being vvholly brutifh. I defign only to 
fhew, that even they alfo belong (though more remotely) 
to the lordfhip of Jefus Chrifl:. 

The very ufe of men's reafon, and their natural facuN 
ties, as to any good end or purpofe, is continued to them 
■gpon the account of his interpolition, bringing the 
world thereby under a difpenfation of patience and for- 

He is endued with power and authority to ufe them in 
whatfoever hand they lie, whether of his friends or ene- 
mies, to the efpecial ends of his glory, in doing good 
to his church. And, indeed, in the efficacy of his Spi- 
rit and power upon tliefe gifts of the mind — exciting, 
difpoling, and enabling men to various aftings and ope- 
rations by them ; controlling, over-ruHng, entangling 
each other, and themfelves in whom they are — his wif- 
dom and care, in reference to the government, chaf- 
tifement, and deliverance of his church, are mod con- 

* (a.) 


(2.) Spiritual gifts, which principally come under that 
denomination, are of two forts ; extraordinary and or- 
dinary. Th.& former are immediate endowments, exceed- 
ing the whole fyflem of nature, in the exercife whereof 
they are mere inftruments of him who bellows them. 
Such, of old, were the gifts of miracles, tongues, healing, 
predi£lion, and infallible infpiration, given out by the 
Lord Chrifl to fuch as he was pieafed to ufe in his 
gofpel fervice, in an extraordinary manner. The latter 
fort are furnitures of the mind, enabling men to compre- 
hend fpiritual things, and the management of them for 
fpiritual ends and purpofes. Such are wifdom, know- 
ledge, prudence, utterance, aptnefs to teach ; in general, 
abilities to manage the things of Chriil and the gofpel to 
their own proper ends. And as they are the fpring and 
foundation of office, fo they are the great and only means 
of the church's edification. And there is no member but 
hath its gift ; which is the talent given, or rather lent, to 
trade with. Now, of all thefe, Chrifl is the only Lord ; 
they belong to his kingdom, [Pfal. Ixviii. i8.] when he 
afcendcd on high, he took, or received gifts for men ; he 
took them into his own power and difpofal, being given 
him of his Father, as Peter declares, [A£ls ii. 33.] ad- 
ding, that he received the Spirit, by whom all thefe gifts 
are wronght. And this inveiliture, with power over all 
gifts, he makes the ground of that apoftle's million, 
[Matt, xxviii. 18.] this he had as a fruit of his fuffer- 
ing, as a part of his purchafc, and it is a choice part of 
his lordfliip and kingdom. 

§ I 6. The end alfo, why all thefe gifts are given into 
his pov/er and difpofal, is evident. 

I. The propagation of his gofpel, and confequently the 
fetting up of his kingdom in the Vv'orld, depends upon 
them. Thefe are the arms that he furnilhed his melTen- 
gers with, when he fent them forth to fubdue the world to 
himfelf; and by thefe they prevailed. By that Spirit of 
wifdom and knowledge, prayer and utterance, where-, 
with they were endowed, attended when needful, with 
the extraordinary gifts before-mentioned, did they accom-^, 
2 • ^ plilll 


plifh the amazing work committed to their charge. Now, 
the Lord, Chrifl having a right to a kingdom and inheri- 
tance given him, which was a<ftuall)^iinder the polTcf- 
fion of liis adverfary, it was necelTary, that all tholb arms 
wherewith he was to make a conqucfl of it, fhould be 
given to his difpofal, [II. Cor. x. 4.] Thefe were th(? 
weapons which, through God, were fo mighty to call* 
down the ftrong-holds of lin and Satan. Thefe are the 
flings and flones before which the Goliah of earth and' 
hell did fall. This was that power from above, v/hich he 
promifed his apoflles to furnifh them with, when they 
fhould addrefs themfclvcs to the conqueft of the world, 
[Ads i. 8. J With thefe w^eapons, this furniture for their 
warfare, a few perfons, dcfpifed in the eyes of the w^orld, 
went from Judea to the ends of the earth, fubduing all 
things before them, to the obedience of their Lord and 
Mafler. And, 

2. By thefe the church is edified \ and to that end 
doth he continue to beftow them to the end of the world, 
[1. Cor. xii. 7, 13, 14. Ephef. iv. 8 — 13. Rom. xii. 6 
— 8.] And for any to hinder their growth or exercife 
is, what in them lies to pull down the church oi Chrift, 
and to let themfelves againfl the teftimony which he gives 
in the world, that he is yet aiive, and that he takes care of 
his difciples, being prefent with them, according to his 

3. And by thefe means and ways is God glorified in him 
and by him ; which is the great end of his Lordfhip over 
all the gifts of the Spirit. 

§ 17. That we may a little, by the way, look into 
our fpecial concernment in thefe things, their order and 
fubferviency one to another may be briefly confidered , 
for as natural gifts are the foundation offpiritual, and lie 
in an cfpecial fubordination to them ; fo are fphitual gifts 
enlivened, made effciflual and durable by grace. The 
principal end of Chrift's bellowing gifts is, the erection 
of a minillry in his church, for the ends before-men- 
tioned ; and where all thefe, in their order and mutual 
fubferviency to one another, are received by any, there 

Vol. I. X X and 

p(> dF THE KllNODOiM, OR PartIIL 

and there alone, is a competent furniture for the work 
of the minillry received ; and where any of them, as to 
their ivbo/e kind, are wanting, there is a glaring defe^ in 
the perfon, if not a nullity as to tlie office, l^atural gifts 
and endowments of mind are fo neceflary a foundation for 
any man that looks towards the work of the minillry, that 
without fome competent meafure of them, it is folly and 
niadnefs to entertain thoughts of any progrefs. Unlefs 
unto thefe fpiritual gifts are fuperadded, the other will be 
never of any ufe for the edification of the church, as having, 
in their own nature and feries, no fpecial tendency to that 
end. Nor will thefe fuperadded fpiritual gifts enable any 
man to difcharge his duty unto all well-pleafing before 
God, unlefs they are alfo quickened and feafoned by grace : 
and where there is an interceffion of this feries and order, 
th$ defe£l will quickly appear. Thus we fee many of ex- 
cellent natural endowments in their firil fetting forth in the 
World, and in their endeavours on that fingle flock, pro- 
railing great ufefulnefs and excellency in their way ; who, 
when they come to engage in the fervice of the gofpel, evi- 
dence tbemfelves to be altogether unfurnilhed for the em- 
ployment they undertake ; yea, and to have loll what be- 
fore they feemcd to have received. Having gone to the 
titmoil length and bounds that gifts merely natural could 
carry them, and not receiving fuperadded fpiritwal gifts, 
they faint in the way, wither, and become utterly ufelefs. 
And this, for the moll part, falleth out, when men have 
either abufed their natural gifts to the fervice of their lulls, 
and in oppofition to the limplicity of the gofpel ; or, when 
tliey fet upon fpiritual things, and pretend to the fervice 
of Chrill, merely in their own ftrength^ without depen- 
dance on him for abilities and furniture ; or, when they 
have fome fixed corrupt end to accomplifh by a pretence of 
the minillry, without regard to the glory of Chrill, or 
Gompaffioji to the fouls of men ; to which the Lord Chrill 
will not prollitute tlie gifts of his Spirit. And fundry 
other caufes of this failure may be alfigned. It is no other- 
wife, as to the next degree in tiiis order, in reference to 
fpiritual gifts and faving gr«acc. When thefe gifts, in 



the good pleafure of their fovcrelgn difpenfer, are fuper- 
added to the natural endowments above-mentioned, they 
carry on thofe who receive them cheerfully, comfortably, 
and ufefully in their progrefs. The former arc increafed, 
heightened, ilrengthened, and perfc<^cd by the latter, to- 
wards that fpecial end, whereunto thenifclves are de- 
signed ; — the glory of Chrift in the work of the gofpcl. 
But if thefe alio are not in due feafon quickened by faving 
grace ; if the heart be not moillened and made fruitful 
thereby, even they alfo will wither and decay. Sin and 
the world, in procefs of time, will devour them, whereof 
wq have daily experience in this world. A:id this is the 
order wherein the great Lord of all thefc gifts hath laid 
them in a fubferviency, one kind to another, and all of 
them to his glory. 

§ 18, Secondly^ To clofe our confiderations of this part 
of the Lordfhip of Chrift, there remains only, that we 
Ihew him to be the Lord oi ^\\ fpiritiwhtemal th'wgSy which 
in one word, we call glory. He is himfelf the ' Lord of 
< glory ^"^ [I, Cor, ii. 8.] and the Judge of all, in the dif- 
^harge of which office, he gives out glory as a reward to 
his followers, [Matt. xxv. 32, &c. Rom. xiv. 10.] Glory 
is the reward that he will give at the laft day as a crov^^n, 
[II. Tim. iv. 8. John xvii, 2.] And, that he might be 
Lord oi it, he hath purchafcd it, [Heb. ix. 12.] taken 
adlual fojjejjlon of it in his own perfon ; and alfo as the 

forerunner, in behalf of thofe on whom he will bcftow^ it, 
[Heb. vi. 20.] And this is a fhoyt view of the Lordlliip 
of Chrift, as to things fpir'ituaL, 

§ 19. Secondly, Ecclcjiaflical things., or things that 
concern church inftitutions, rule, and power, belong alfo 
to his doininion : he is the only Head, Lord, Ruler, and 
Law-giver of his church. There was a church ftate ever 
lince God created man on the earth, and there is the fame 
reafon of it in all its alterations, as to its relation to the 
Lord Chrift. Whatever changes it underwent, ftill Chrift 
was the Lord of it, and of all its concernments. But, by 
way of inftance and eminence, we may c^nfidcr the Mo- 

faiQal church ftate imder the Old Teftanjent^ and th.e-^ 

2,2% OF THE KINGDOM, OR Part 111. 

Evangelical church flate under the New. Chrift is Lord 
of both. 

1, He was Lord of the Old Teflament church flate, and 
he exercifed his power and Lordlhip towards it. — Its iw/?i- 
ttition and ere£lion, he made, framed, fet up, and ap- 
pointed that church flate, and all the worfhip of God 
therein obferved. He it was who at firft appeared unto 
Mofes, who gave them the law on mount Sinai, and con- 
tinued with them in the wildernefs ; by prefcribing to it a 
complete rule of worfhip and obedience. And the fame 
power he exercifed by way of reformation, when it was 
decayed ; and by way of amotiony or taking down and re- 
moval of what he himfelf had fet up, becaufe it was fo 
framed, as to continue only for a fcafon^ [Heb. ix. lO. 
Deut. xviii. 1 6 — 18. Hag. ii. 6, 7. Ifa. Ixv. 17, 18. 
IL Pet. iii. 13.] which part of his power and Lordfhip 
is abundantly proved againft the Jews in the expofition. 

2. Of the New Teftament evangelical chuxch ftate alfo 
be is the only Lord and Ruler ; yea, this is his proper 
kingdom, on which all other parts of his dominion do 
depend ; for he is given to be Head over all things to the 
church, [Ephef. i. 22.] For, he is \X\^ foundation of 
this church flate, [L Cor. iii. 11.] the whole deiign and 
plat-form of it being laid in him, and built upon him. 
And he ere^s this church flate upon himfelf, [Matt, 
xvi. 18.] 'I will build my church ;' the Spirit and Word 
whereby it is done being from him alone, and ordered 
by his wifdom, power, and care. And he gives laws 
and rules of worfhip and obedience to it, when fo built by 
and upon himfelf, [Heb. iii. 2 — 6.] And, finally, he 
is the everlafling, conflant, abiding Head, Ruler, King, 
and Governor of it, [Ephef. i. 22. Col. i>. 19. Heb. 
iii. 6.] 

§ 20. Thirdly, He is Lord 2l]{o of political things ; 
of all the governments of the world that are fet up and 
exercifed for the good of mankind, and the prefervation 
of focicty, according to rules of equity and righteoufnefs. 
He alone is the cibfolute potentate ; the highefl on the 
earth are in fubordinatioii to him. That he is defigned 

I unto, 


unto, [Pfal. Ixxxix. 27.] and accordingly he is made 
Lord of lords, and King of kings, [Rev. xvii. 14. and 
xix. 16. I.Tim, vi. ^5.] and he exercifeth dominion an- 
fwerable to his title ; and hath hence a right to fend his 
gofpel into all nations of the world, attended with the 
worfhip by him prcfcribed, [Matt, xxviii. 18. Pfal. ii. 
9 — 12.] which iione of the rulers or governors of the 
world have any right to refufe or oppofe, but upon their 
ntmoft peril. And all kingdoms fhall at length be brought 
into a profcffcd fubjs^ion to him and his gofpel, and have 
all their rule difpofed of to the inerefl of his church and 
faints, [Dan. vii. 27. Ifa. Ix. 12. Rev. xix. 16 — 19.] 

§ 2 I. Fourthly, The laft branch of this dominion of 
Chriil conlifts in the refidue of the creation of God ; hea- 
ven and earth, fca and land, wind, trees, and fruits of 
the earth, and the creatures of fenfe. As they are all un- 
imder his feet, [Pfal. viii. 7, 8. Ephef. i. 22. I. Cor. 
XV. 27.] fo the cxcrcifc of his power feverally over them is 
well known from the gofpel hiflory. And thus we have 
glanced at this Lordfhip of Chrifl, in fome of the general 
parts of it ; and how fmall a portion of his glorious- power 
are we able to declare, or even to comprehend .' 













pO m m i . . ^,ML . .yy , 


T O 

Dr. priest L E Y 

Concerning the Data reqiiijite for a rational hi- 
vejligation of difpiited points in theology^ and the 
Opinions of fallible men^ as a guide for th^ 
purpofe of interpreting the holy fcriptures. 

§ I. Introdunlon, l^he WrUcr'*s motive. § 2. Succefs in 
our inquiries, after truth depends on method as well as in^ 
duftry and perj eve ranee. § 3. Some common principles re- 
quijite as Data. JDr. P.'s what. Requejied to be ex* 
plicit on this head. § 4. His appeal from fcripture to 
hiforical evidence of early OY\^\Oi<i% unjujiifiable. Not a 
good guide, bccaufe, I . Not calculated to lejjen the difficulty^ 
as it pretends, but rather incr cafes it. § 5. 2. 'The preca^ 
rioufncfs and infufficiency of it appears from confiant expe^ 
rience. § 6. 3. // has been folidly refuted long ago, by 
Protejiants in the Popifh controverfy ; and to revive it tends 
to fuperfition. § 7. 4. It is plainly reproved by Jfus 
Chrijl. § 8. 5. Highly untheological in its jufl confe- 
quences, § g, 6. j^lfo illogical, the conclufon being gra- 

Vol,, I. Yy t}iitoufIj 

334 ^ LETTER TO Appen. 

tuitoujly affumed, \ lo. 7. If we have no hetter guide 
than this, we are left a prey to perpetual fcepticfm, it 
being infufficient from its very nature to fettle the mind. 
§11. Divine revelation the only true data^ becaufe this 
alone affords objedive certainty. § 12. l^he obje^ion^ 
*That a diver fity of opinion fill obtains among thofc who are 
agreed in their data and method of inquiry^ anfiuered. §13. 
The plan of Dr, OwEN in this work. His reafoning not 
eafly confuted. § 14. This Epi/lle to the Hebrews ut- 
terly overthroivs Dr. P.'s grand argument, taken from 
the hiftorical evidence of early opinions concerning Chrifi. 

Rev. and Dear Sir, 

§ I. X O a gentleman who has claimed, for a number 
oi years, and in various kinds of refearches, the laudable 
pretenfion of impartially inquiring after truth, no other 
apology is requifite, in foliciting his attention for a few 
minutes, than the folemn avowal of a iimilar motive 
and defign, in profecution of the fame important end. 

But though I flatter myfelf that, for the reafon now 
mentioned, no farther apology is necelTary for making an 
cpiflolary addrefs to you, yet it may be expe£led, by your- 
felf and the public, that I affign my reafon for doing it in 
the prefent form. It is not v/ith a view to folicit any pub- 
lic notice of it from your pen ; this is neither delired nor 
deprecated ; but it comes principally to requell a greater 
favour — a candid, unprejudiced attention to the contents 
of the volumes to which this letter is joined, of which I 
beg your friendly acceptance. 

Indeed, when I conlider the religious fentlments con- 
tained in thefe volumes, the quantity of reading though 
fo miUch abridged, and your various other engagements, 
I can hardly expe£l your compliance ; but on the other 
hand, when I refledl on your art in improving time, 
and quick difpatch in perufing larger works, in connec- 
tion with your known candour, and my author's unquef- 


Appei:. dr. PRIESTLEY. 335 

tlonable chara£ler for erudition and piety, I am not with- 
out hope that my requeft will be complied with. 

§ 2. Having thus, dear Sir, explained my chief reafon 
for addreliing you in this way, I Ihall take the liberty of 
fuggeiling a few things of another nature ; and particularly 
of teflifying in how commendable a light I view your per- 
fevering induflry in a profelfed fcarch after religious truth. 
And yet I mull obferve, what you well know, that fuc- 
cefs in obtaining the obje<^ of our purfuit, very much de- 
pends on the mode of inquiry : if this be not happily 
chofen, the more perfevering we are the farther we recede 
from the defired mark. Two philofophers, or divines, 
may be equally induflrious and perfevering, perhaps (at 
Jeaft in a fcnfe) equally fincerq, in making lovely truth 
the end of their lludious toil, but if ncvcrthclefs they 
difagree in their data and method of inveftigation, the 
farther they advance the more remote may be their con- 

§ 3. Hence then arifes the neceflity, among difpu- 
tants, of fixing on fome common principles ^ which may be 
called DATx\. Without this there can be little or no hope 
of bringing any difpiited point to a fair iffae. Without 
this, when clofely urged, they will be for ever fliifting 
fides, and running from the fpot to which they ought to be 
confined, as their fkill in fophiftry may tempit, or the life 
of their caufe require. 

Confidering the matter in this light, vvhile occaiionally 
attending to the motions of the controverfial war in which 
you have been fo long engaged, I have been induced to 
paufe and put the queflion — What are the data of thefc po- 
lemic champions, on which to Hand and from which to ar- 
gue ? Is not this the reafon that they are fo feldom brought 
to a ciofe encounter, and are feen hedoring one another at 
a diftance, fpending fo much time and breath in the fruit - 
lefs (not to fay impertinent) work of ellimating the abilities 
and qualifications of each other ? I have fometimes wifhed 
to know, in particular, but have yet to learn, what thofe 
\ommon principles are on which you build your differing 
fvflem. How far, for inflance, you can travel in com- 

Y y 2 pany 

^3^ A LETTER TO Appeit. 

pany with a Calvlmjl in the high road that leads to the 
temple of truth, and where precifely is the fpot on which 
you mufl flop and fay — I can go no farther, here I mull 
le^ve you, our road now parts? It would gratify my cu- 
rioiity much, and perhaps affifl my inquiry, to meet with 
a candid, unequivocal folution of fuch difficulties. For I 
am hitherto of opinion, that if there be not fome in- 
fallible obje^ive certainty on which we may depend as a 
foundation, Chriflian theology is but an empty name. 

§ 4. Though I have fought in vain for your polemi- 
cal data — whether it is revelation or fomething elfe, and 
if the former, whether the whole of the common canon 
or only a part, and if a part, what it is, and where is the 
line of difference — though I have beenunfuccefsful in this 
inquiry, I am furnifhed with better means of informa- 
tion refpeding your method of inveftigating the points of 
difference, as it is laid before the pubhc in yo«r various 
writings, and which is briefly fnmmed up by yourfelf in 
the following words : " Chriflians are not agreed in the 
interpretation oi fcripture language; but as all men are 
agreed with refpeft to the nature of h'lflorical evidence^ I 
thought that V7e might perhaps better determine by hiflory 
what was the faith of Chriflians in early times, indepen- 
dently of any aid from the fcripture ; and it appeared to 
be no unnatural prefumption, that whatever that Ihould 
appear to be, fuch was the dodrine of the apoflles, from 
whom their faith was derived ; and that by this means -^ 
we fhould be pofTeiTed of a pretty good guide for difcovering- 
the true fenfe of the fcriptures."* 

Now after having thought, dear Sir, pretty deliberately, 
on the method here propofed, viewed it in different lights, 
and endeavoured to trace its genuine confequences, it al- 
ways, and in various refpe£ls, appears to me a ' very bad 
' guidcy for feveral reafons. For, 

I. The propofed method is not calculated to lefjen the 
diflSculty, which it pretends to remove, but rather z«- 
t'reafes it ; lince men will no lefs differ about hiflorical 

* Defences of Unitax. for 1788 and 1789, p. 83. 


Appen, dr. PRIESTLEY; 537 

evidence than the meaning of fcripture. It increafes the 
toil without improving the fiuit. By avoiding a vilio- 
nary Scylla we are driven on a real Charybdis. 

* ChrijTians are not agreed in the interpretation of fcripture^ 
True ; and what is there almoft in the whole compals of 
literature, where mathematical denionflration is wanting, 
in the interpretation of which men are all agreed ? One 
well obferves : *' So wild and extravagant have been the 
notions of a great part of philofophers, both ancient and, 
modern, that it is hard to determine, whether they have 
been more diilant in their fentiments from truth, or from 
one another ; or have not exceeded the fancies of the 
mofl fabulous writers, even poets and mythologies.'* 
And yet, notwithftanding all their jars and blunders, wc 
cannot juftly fay that there is no true fyjlem of nature. 
But what Ihould we fay of a reformer in philofophy, who 
Ihould propofe to rectify our notions of the fyflem of the 
univerfe by fetting before us a train of ' hiftorical evidence,* 
of what was the ' opinion' of the ancients about it ? 
While he urged their opinions^ had we not a right to de- 
mand rather the prineiples and arguments ? If it be faid 
that the cafe is not parallel, becaufe Thales, Pythago- 
ras, Aristotle, &c. were fallible teachers, but that 
Matthew, John, Paul, he, were infallible ; this docs not 
alter the cafe ; it is fufficient for my purpofe that the 
* opinion^ formed of the one or the other \s fallible. And 
therefore the opinion of Ebion is no more to be confided 
in than that of Calvin. And there were falfe opinions 
concerning Chriil in the apoilolic age as well as in the 
prefent. Had you taken therefore the other fide of the 
<jue{ltion the impropriety would have been all one ; for 

the fault lies in the very nature of the medium of proof. 

* But all men are agreed with refpe^i to the Jiature of hifio- 
' rical evidence,^ By no means ; for if I miftakc not faft 
lies diredly againfl it. Chriilian Proteflants, almoft 
unanimoufly, echo the maxim of Chillingworth. — • 
** That the Bible alone (as oppofed to tradition and hifto- 

*- RowNiNc's Compend. Syft, Introd. 


33^ A L E T T E R T O ArrEw; 

rical evidence, &c.) is the religion of Proteftants, and a 
fafe way to falvation" and divine truth. But let me not 
niifunderfland the pofition, which is fomewhat equivocal ; 
for the words — ' with refpedt to the nature of hiiloricai 
• evidence' — may refer either lofa^ or to right ; either, 
what it is that adlually conflitutes the evidence, fo that 
all are agreed about the real meaning of teflimonies of the 
ancients, and the quantum of evidence they contain for 
and againft, fuppofing their opinion to be in its own na- 
ture admifTible and of moment ; or what influence fuch 
evidence ought to have towards finally determining our 
judgement in favour of the controverted point. But it 
does not appear to me that the pofition is admiffibie in 
cither fenfe. Not the former ; for daily llubborn fa^ls 
prove, that what one admits as * hiflorical evidence/ ano- 
tlier does not ; whom yet charity compels us to regard 
as intelHgent, learned, pious, and impartial. They are 
as much divided in their judgements about the meaning 
of the ancient fathers, as about the fenfe of the apoflles. 
Not to mention the incomparable difadvantage of this 
new method of interpreting fcripture, arifing from its in- 
evitable tedioufnefs, fuppofing all the neceffary materials 
at hand. Not the latter \ for the rational inquirer will 
deem it quite unfatisfaftory to infer, that becaufe a. party 
»of men hcid heard the apoflles^ or their immediate fuccef- 
fors, therefore the opinions they formed in religious 
matters were jujl. This he can no more admit than if 
one fhould fay, That the Unitarian hypothefis mufl needs 
be true^ becaufe the Unitarians have read the writings of 
the apoftles : or, becaufe all the Chriflian focieties in 
England, in the year one thoufand feven hundred and 
ninety, have in ufe the fame verfion of the Bible, there- 
fore their religious opinions muft be the fame. Nay, we 
cannot fafcly conclude concerning the major part of thofe 
in England this day, who may be fliledyit/^rw adherents to 
Galviniftic doctrines, that therefore their religious opinions 
arc Cahinijiic. In fhort, that all men are not agreed, 
* with refpe£t to the nature of hiftorical evidence,' any 
how underftood, is but too palpably evident in the ftorms 


Apfen'. dr. PRIESTLEY. 33^ 

of furious difputations, and the din of paper wars. 
Hence I conclude, that the method you propofe is not 
calculated to kikn the difficulty, but rather to increafc 

§ 5. 2. The prccarioufnefs and Infufficiency of it ap- 
pears from experience. As a fpecimen of the truth of this 
remark, let one fad fuffice in/?ar omnium. It refpe6ls a 
writer of the prefent day — a writer of erudition, of ex- 
teniive learning and knowlege, and who can boall of an 
intimate acquaintance with the recondite treafures of ec- 
clefiaflical antiquity, and who can alfo boafl of being 
* much at home' in the learned languages. Dr. 
HoRSLEY, then Archdeacon of St. Jlbansy now Bifliop 
of St. David's, took upon him (in 1786) to eftablifh as x 
faft — " The decline of Calvinifm amounting almoft to 
a total extin^ion of it among our Englifh diflenters ; who 
no long time iince, were generally Calvinifts."* He 
adds ; *' I believe however that the truth is, and is pretty- 
notorious, that Calvinifm is gone among the diflenters of 
the prefent times. "f And again ; *' I coniider it as the 
reproach of the diflenters of the prefent day, that a genu-' 
hie Calviniji is hardly to be found \ except in a fc6V, confpi- 
cuous only for the encouragement, which the leaders of 
it feem to give to a diforderly fanaticifm."J: Were not 
the writer already known, one might be induced, on pe- 
rufing this account, to exclaim. Did this extraordinary- 
declaration proceed from fome " ihioolriq'' of the eighteenth 
century ? Did the writer relide in fome remote corner of 
the world, taking his information at fecond hand from 
incompetent vouchers ? Was the * religious opmion' of 
which he gives an account fo remote from his own, that 
he could hardly be thought fufficiently intercfl:ed in it to 
make a due inquiry? Nothing lefs. Confefl!edly fenfible 
and learned, near the metropolis at the time, himfeU a 
Calvinill, and while he laments the decline of Calvinifm, 

* Trads in Centre verfy with Dr. Priestley, p. 386, 
t Ibid. p. 397. 
X Ibid. p. 400. 


^,0 A LETTER TO AppeS^ 

Jhe utters the above declaration ; nay, be undertakts pro^ 
ft'ljcdly to eflablilh it as a fad. You know, Sir, too well 
the flate of the real fa£l to need a comment j and tiie ufe 
I think we fhould make of this and limilar miftakes that 
we fo often meet with, is. That we fliould be peculiarly 
circumfpeft in admitting * hiftorical evidence' for the 
flate of religious opinions, whether in later or in earlier 
times. To illuftrate this matter we will fuppofe a cafe ; 
Vi%, that fome ages" hence there will appear a learned col^ 
lector of the flate of religious opinions in the eighteenth 
century ; and that the ravages of time will deflroy all 
monuments of counter-evidence to invalidate the above 
iilertion ; how could the hillorical colledlor choofe but 
admit for fad, though nothing in reality be lefs fo ? 
What ! might the hillorian fay, fhall I tax the veracity, 
or impeach the knowledge of fuch a writer, and a writer 
fo advantageoufly circumflanced for all necelTary informa- 
tion, as to hefitate in my conclufion ? The application is 
in promptu. And it is a matter that we muft not forget, 
that the late Dr. Worthington, and other eminent 
characters now living, allure us, that the "wovXd grows bet- 
ter, and therefore that the ancients are lefs entitled to our 
credit and coniidcnce than the moderns. Again, 

§ 6. 3. The attempt to " determine by hi/idry what 
was the faith of Chriftians in early times, independently 
of any aid from the fcripture, that we may thereby gather 
"wl^at was the dodrines of the apofdes,'* has been long 
zgo falidly refuted, and juftly exploded by the great Chil* 
LINGVVOB.TH, and other eminent Protellants, in their 
controverfy with the Papifls. There is no admitting of 
it but at the expence of one of the nobleft principles, and 
flrongeft pillars of the reformation from popery — " That 
the fcripture is the only rule whereby to judge of controver- 
sies ;'' and it ?.ppears to me that the revival of it into 3 
rule would diredly tend to reilore the poplfh privilege of 
rendering blind obedience to our fpiritual guides. For 
every attempt to explain fcriplure by fcripture principles, 
would be checked as wrong and dangerous, whije the un- 
learned, that is, the body of the Chriilian church, 
1 would 

Appen. dr. PRIESTLEY. 


would be called upon to embrace, on the word of a few- 
learned, and every Chriftian church on the ipfe dixit of its 
paftor, however unqualified to make a fair report, to fub- 
mit to the opinions of the ancient church for their guide ; 
which leads at once to impolition and impofture on the 
one hand, and to blind obedience, fuperllition, and an 
abje6l deference to human authority in matters of conlci- 
ence on the other. Befides, 

§ 7. 4. The above method of proceeding is plainly 
reproved by Jefus Chriji in the New Teftament. For it is 
the fame principle muft give it life as was adopted by the 
Jewi/h dofiors, which taught them to appeal, on every 
occafion, from revealed evidence to human traditions, or 
a pretended oral law ; the fayings and opinions of their anci- 
ents, which they reckoned a good guide for the right under- 
flanding of the Mofaic writings. But this pretended guide, 
inflead of being honoured and recommended, is by our 
Lord oppofed and reproved, [Matt. xv. Mark vii. &c.] 
Nor does it make any difference, in the prefent argument, 
\vhether the human traditions and opinions be written ox 

§ 8. 5. The fcheme propofed is, moreover, liighly 
untheologlcal in its confequence ; for it is inconfiflent not 
only with human fallibility, but alfo with free agency and 
accountablenefs. In phyiicks, indeed, we may often with 
certainty infer the caufe from the effeft ; but in ethicks 
and religion, where the morality of an act, or the truth ot 
an opinion, is in debate, it is abfurd to fay, that becaufe 
a fallible creature a<fts or thinks in this or that manner, 
he therefore ought to do fo ; nay, it is fo untheological 
that it ftrikes at the root of all religion, natural and re- 
vealed. For if men confefTedly imperfc6l and uninfpired arc 
not always Uahle to err, they are wot free, and therefore not 
accountable. Therefore the ' opinions' of fuch perfons, 
though they lived in the apoilohc age, and fuppofmg thenx 
to be exactly afcertained, can be no fafe medium of proof. 
They are utterly incapable of affording us any objeftive 
certainty, any more than ours to thofc who fhall come after 
VS. Their antiquity makes no difference, becaufe that does 
Vql. I. Z z ^o^ 

34^ A LETTER TO Appex; 

not alter their nature ; nor does it much matter, for the 
fame reafon, whether they are few or many. Where- 
fore without better materials, whether orthodox or hetero- 
dox, the controverfial warrior will do little execution on 
a reflecting judicious mind, though he fhould charge his 
* cannon with them, together v/ith his * fmall arms.' 

§ 9. 6. I fliall venture a Hep farther, and profefs to 
you, dear Sir, that the method you propofe for fettling 
our opinions, appears to me illogical ;. as teaching us to 
infer the truth of the premifes from the fa6l of the con- 
clufion. In other v;ords, it makes the concluiions of 
men, who were fallible and fickle as ourfelves, and which 
they pretended to draw from the premifes of Revelation, 
to be a fafer guide by which to form our judgement, than 
Revelation compared with itfelf, the premifes from v^^hich 
they profeifedly inferred their conclufion ; that is, we are 
led by it to aifume a fallible conclufion, and from the 
gratuitous aflTumption to pronounce upon the truth of the 

§ 10. 7. Once more ; if we have no better guide than 
this, we are expofed as a prey to perpetual fcepticifm, it 
being infufficient from its very nature to fettle the mind. 
If this guide leads any one to the temple of truth, it is by 
accident, and not becaufe it was ever deiigned for that end ; 
w^e cannot, therefore, put any confidence in it while we are 
following its footfteps ; the event would always appear du- 
bious, and the profped of fuccefs would never be fuffi- 
cient to counter-balance the toiL In Ihort, it dire£lly 
tends (fuppoling the fole motive of the inquirer to be the 
love of truth) it diredly tends to retard the pace of in- 
duflry, and to clip tlie wing of genius ; and, therefore, 
can be no genuine friend to free inquiry. 

I think, Sir, that thus far I have flood on firm ground 
in my reafoning ; there is no theological truth to be found, 
in which we may put any confidence, without fome data, 
forae firfl principles of this Divine fcience, pofiefTed of 
ohjc^'ivc certainty ; but the foundation you have chofen for 
your polemical building is an uncertain one, and x\\€ guide 
you recommend is, in my apprehenfion, a " very bad''' 

one a 

Appen. dr. PRIESTLEY. 


©ne ; Teeing it is fo far from lefTening our difficulties, as 
Chriilians and theologians, that it coniiderably increafes 
them ; — it is found to be infufficicnt from the experience 
of all ages, and undeniable fa£ts ; — it is what our mod 
eminent reformers from Popery, and Proteftant polcmicks, 
have folidly refuted in their oppolition to l)lind obedience, 
church authority over confciencc and arl^itrary power; — • 
it is reproved and condemned, in its principle, by our 
Lord himfclf; — is untheological, as incompatible with 
the moral flate of man in this life of fallibility and imper- 
fedion ; — is contrary to the rules of juft reafoning, by 
gratuitoufly affuming the conclulion of the pradical fyl- 
logifm included in it ;— and, finally, is deferving of a 
charge of no fmall magnitude, its being of a fceptical 
tendency. What weight my arguments have in oppolition 
to X\\Q fundamental principles of your controverfial and hif- 
torical writings againll the orthodox faith, is left to your 
candid examination, and the verdift of the impartial 

§ II. Having jfhown the neceffity of /ow^" principles, as 
data peculiar to the fcience of which w^e treat, and en- 
deavoured to fhew the infufficiency of what you fubftitute 
for that purpofe, it may naturally be expelled, that I 
lliould be explicit in avowing what Is it that I judge de- 
ferving of that important claim ; and this I very wil- 
lingly do, but with the greateft brevity ; feeing it would 
feem impertinent to defend in form^ what you have not in 
form attacked. My ^c7/fl then are, Divine Revelation, 
and that only^ and the whole of it. And it appears to me, 
on the maturefl refleflion, that if Divine revelation fclf- 
comparcd doih not aniwer that purpofe, nothing elfe will ; 
and that whatever elfe is fet up for that purpofe, is de- 
monftrably fallacious. *' The pofitive evidence of fcripture 
(as I have obfcrved elfewherc) holds the fame rani: in 
theology, as experimented evidence does in reference to any 
hypothelis in philofophy. As, in the latter cafe, there is 
no difputing in favour of a fyftcm againft fafts, pheno- 
mena, and experiments ; fo, in the former cafe, no rea- 
foning can be valid in oppofition to pofitive evidence^ or 
Z z 2 cxprefs 

^44 ALETTfiRTO AppeiT* 

exprefs dlfceriiible authority.'^* Common fenfe, right 
rcafon, the opinions of the good and great, &c. have 
their ufe, and an important ule, in their proper places ; 
but they are no data in Chriftianity. As to the order of 
inveftigation, preceding revelations, and Divinely-authen- 
ticated fads, are the only fafe rule by which we ought to 
examine any particular part offcripture. Y,ytxy foregoing 
difpenfation of religion, and indeed, every revealed faft 
is, I may fay, a torch lighted in heaven, to illuminate 
thofe that follow, until we come to the *' fealing of pro- 
phecy," or the end of the canon ; and every fucceeding 
one, to the lafl, refle£ts a flill more abundant light on all 
that went before. Wherefore, let all that revere the au- 
thority of heaven, all the friends of revelation and rational 
inquiry, attend more to this light that fhineth in a dark 
place, and not (I mean as the principal, and only fafe 
means) not to the falfe Hghts of human opinions (early 
or late) in the church, by following which we expofe 
ourfelves to wandering and danger every Hep of our road, 
while in purfuit of truth and happinefs. 

§ 12. If it be objected, That a diverfity of opinions 
ftill obtains among thofe, who are agreed in their data^ 
and method of inquiry, I would briefly reply in the fol- 
lowing particulars : 

1. To urge this objection is the fame as to urge that 
men do not form their opinions mechanically ^ but freely; 
and that fome of them reafon falfely. But what tlien ? 
Shall I depreciate and rejed a rule, concluding it is not 
a good one, becaufe I know not how to ufe it ? 

2. The obje£^ion implies, as far as it has any force» 
that men are not accountable for their miftakes, nor liable 
to make any, provided their means are fufficient ; which 
amounts to little lefs than feIf-contradi£lion. It is much 
the fame as to object againft an experiment — an accurate 
experiment — in phiiofophy, becaufe the confequences, 
which the learned draw from it, are various. 

* Antipedob, Examined. Chap. III. § 2. 

3. While 

Afpen. dr. PRIESTLEY. 


3. While men are free and accountable, it is no Ief3 
neceflary, that the difpofition of the njind be right, than 
that the principle be well chofen. Free inquiry of itfelf 
will never infure fuccefs, without a right ufe of that free- 
<Jom. This is the only way, that I know of, to avoid 
bad confequenccs, and any other, fliort of this, muft prove 

But let us not forget, that the good difpofiuon which we 
need for this purpofe, is not only to be cultivated by the 
ufe of means, but alfo is to be recrivcd, in the habits of 
it, from the Divine favour, as a matter of gofpel promife. 
If there is any thing of a fpiritual nature promifed in 
the word of God, there is the promife of a Divine wjluence 
to be obtained by a/king for it ; that is, importunate feek- 
ing in God's appointed way. [See Luke xi. i — 13. 
Jam. i. 5 — 8.] And this is fo far from being incon- 
liftent with moral agency in this our ftate of trial for eter- 
nity, that the trial eminently confifts, with refpe(5t to 
thofe to whom the promife is given, in their fubmitting, 
pr not fubmitting, to its gracious import. In fliort, for 
* the heart to be eflabliflied with graced [Heb. xiii. 9.] 
is the beft preparative for ufing our freedom well, and the 
beft prefervative in the line of truth. And if after all, 
qur pretenfions to fincerity and teachablenefs, the love of 
truth and impartiality in feeking it, are equal, and yet 
our fentiments differ, there is no remedy in thh world ; 
to our common Mafler we fland or fall; our own judge- 
ment of ourfelves, as well as that of our fellow-creatures 
concerning us, muft be equally fubmitted to the Judge of 
the whole earth. * Every way of man is right In lis 
^ own eyes; but the Lord pondereth the heart,' [Prov. 
xxi. 2.] 

I mufl confcfs, dear Sir, that I was much grieved, 
when I pcrufed the following fentence, which you not 
only fufFered to drop from your pen, but to be publifh- 
cd to the world : ** If, to your arguments you can 
even add miracles, the do£lrine you propofe (/. e. per- 
fojial diflindions in the Deity ) could not be re- 
l celvcd.'"* 

546 A L E T T E R T O A?PEsr. 

ceived."* What a refle£lioa upon the Chriflian church ; 
and upon millions of the moft diflinguiflied pious cha- 
racters in every age ! But though the cxprefTions arc 
flrong, and your convi£tion fuch as they reprefent it to 
be, yet you mufl allow, that it is pojfible you may be in a 
miflake ; for fuch have been the convMons of many per- 
fons in favour of an erroneous fentiment, as to fland firm 
againfl a£lual miracles^ repeated miracles, performed in 
proof of a contrary fentiment* Your own obferVation 
will juflify and illullrate this remark : *' The prejudices 
of fome perfons againfl the cleareft and moft important 
truths may be fo flrong (as we fee in the cafe of the 
Scribes and Pharifees of our Saviour's time) that no evi- 
dence will co7ivince ihem.'^ f 

§ 13. If you condefcend^ Sir, to perufe thefe volumes, 
you will find that the Author, who, for depth of erudi- 
tion, and extent of knowledge, proper for an accomplifhed 
divine, has been excelled by few, if any; you will find, 
that he undertakes no Icfs a tafk than to demonilrate, 
that this Epiftle to the Hebrews teaches dodrines and fa£ts, 
•which utterly overthrow the opinions you efpoufe con- 
cerning the perfon and priefthood of Chrift. His foun- 
dation is not laid upon the furface ; he firft demonftrates 
the canonical authority of the epiftle, before he proceeds 
to inveftigate the contents of it; and the latter he does in 
the light of preceding revelations^ and a very enlarged ac* 
quaintance with Judaifm, both ancient and modern, in its 
pure and corrupted ftate. His expofition, reafoning, and 
do£lrines, are all along founded on the general fcope of 
the palTage he is upon ; and it will not be eafy for any one 
to convift him of miftake, without fhewing, that he has 
raiftaken the main dejign of the epiftle itfelf, which, in 
niv opinion, would be a Herculean taflc. 

§ 14. Before I conclude, I have one remark to make, 
which, I prefume, is not altogether unwarthy your atten- 

* Defences of Unitar. for 1788 and 1789, p. 176. 

f Sermon on the proper condu;^ of Diflenters, with refpe^^l to 
the Teft Ad, p. 10. 




tlon. It is this : If the Nazarencs and Ehlonites were 
what you have reprefeiued them to be — Jewllh Chriflians, 
who held the mere humanity of Chrill, and who may- 
be traced to the very age of the apoftics — the plain in- 
ference is, that this Epillle to the Hebrews was intended, 
by the Author of it, and by him who is Head over all 
things to the church, as an antidote to countcradt fuch 
an opinion in the mofl dired manner : and were tl^c 
hiflorical evidence of the poiitions you have advanced. 
Sir, concerning the perfon and offices of the MeiTiah, a 
thoufand times more clear than it is, or is likely to be, 
the irrefragable conclufion is — that the writer of this epif- 
^le, and ail who embraced his do6trine, were difplcafcd 
with them, in that very thing for which you feem to ca- 
refs them. And if any of the Nazarenes themfclvcs fub- 
mitted to what it plainly inculcates, they muft have aban^ 
^oned the fentiments you afcribe to them ; or if they did 
not, their oblimatc refafal Hands condemned by it in 
every page. 

But ** Paul often reafons inconclusively ;" a bold 
charge I and a charge dellitute of proof. Now, fup- 
pofing, without granting, that " he wrote as any other per- 
fon of his turn of mind and thinking, and in his litua- 
tion, would have written without any particular infpira- 
tion.'* It is but reafonable to fay, that the number of 
bis converts, and of the churches founded by him, was 
very coniiderable ; and that they imbibed his fentiment* 
to a great degree, at leaft, appear from his writings ad- 
drefifed to many of them ; now, upon what principle of 
reafon and equity can we gather, that Eb'ion and his ad- 
herents, holding contrary opinions, deferve the honour 
of being better qualified to redlify our judgements con- 
cerning points of the grcateft importance in Chriftianity, 
in preference to Paul, and the churches founded by him ? 
Were the Nazarenes infallible ? or did Ebian ever reafon 
inconcluiively ? Was the church at Jerufalem infallible ? 
cr were their paflors more conclujive reafoners than Paul ? 
If they were, upon what principle ; if not, why impeach 
his apoftolic teaching in particular (ia ^yhich wc may 


548 A LETTER TO Appett, 

■ptefmne he fonietimes reafoned) and degrade his abilities ? 
The truth is, St. Paul was a wife mafter-builder, who 
laid the fou'hdation of many churches, and edified them 
in the moll holy faith, by his preaching and his pen. 
'From Jerufalem, and round about unto liliricum, ht fully 
preached the gofpel of Chrill ; he was fent by Chrift 
himfelf to open men* s eyes., and to turn them from dark- 
nefs to light, through mighty iigns and wonders, by ths- 
■power of the Sp'ir'it.oi God ; he was an apollle (not of men, 
neither by man, but by Jefus Chrift, and God the Father) 
and certified his converts, that the gofpel he preached was 
ROt after man ; for he faith, " I neither received it of 
man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Je- 
fus Chrift/' 

Upon the whole, for any one to prefer a few obfcure 
accounts of a few obfcure perfons, to the accounts we 
have of the commifiion, authority, principles, and rea- 
fonings of this Man of God, by which to form our 
judgements concerning true Chriftianity, appears to me, 
like a perfon who fhould prefer a heterogeneous mixture 
of Iron and clay, to pure gold ; and then, to make his 
wifdom appear more confummate, that he fhould, after 
having once made the choice, rummage all the mufty fcrapa 
of antiqtiity for fomething that may help to ftam.p a cur- 
rent value on it, and to depreciate what has been thus re- 
nounced. In reality, the Nazarenes Were tgnorant of the 
true nature of the gofpel ; whatever inftrunlons they were 
favoured with, they had made little proficiency in the 
ichool of Chrift ; elfe why Ihould they be fo tenacious of 
what all the apoflcs laboured to difpoftefs them of? Why 
attempt to build again, what they had unanimoufly, and 
by Divine direftion, been pulling down ? — f forbear en- 
larging ; but difinterefted obfervers of what is going on 
among us, will be ready to exclaim — '* Surely we may 
congratulate the humility (if we cannot the wifdom) of 
iliB eightei^nth century, fo famous for many other intereft- 
ing and' memorable exploits, while we behold its " moft; 
rational divines," after ftruggling for liberty, and im- 
jircving fcience, commencing^ with no fmall compla- 


Appeit. J) R. PRIESTLEY* 349 

cency, the obfequious difclples of tliefe obfcure, ignorant, 
anti-apoflolic Nazarenes and Ebionitcs."* 


* The following paflage, from a late learned and acute. Re* 
^viewer, of the " Hiiloiy of Corruption," &c. appears to me fo 
juft, and fo much to the purpoi'e, that I cannot forbear tran- 
fcribing it : " But an indifferent reader m:iy, perhaps, Hop the 
difputants in this career oicontroverfy, and alk them, of what im- 
portance it is to the main objedt of the debate between them, to 
know what the opinions of thefe Nazarenes were ; efpecially as it 
is a point agreed upon between both, that thefe Nazarenes, what- 
ever their principles of faith might have been, were ignorant and 
bigotted obfei-vers of the Mofaic law, which both the Orthodox 
and Heretics acknowledge to have been abrogated by the death of 
Chrifl } Do they ftand lb high in the fcale of authority, that we 
ihould appeal to them in the decifion which refped'ted the nature 
and perfon of Jefus Chrift ? What is gained on the one hand, 
and what is loft on the other, by fettling this difpute, fuppoling it 
capable of being fettled at all? — A very proper queilion ! and the 
anfwer we fliall make to it is this : That though the believers in 
the pre-exiftence of Chrift have a thoufand teftimonies to appeal 
to, in proof of their faith, yet this fcems to be the laji re fort of 
the Socinian, when he is called on to produce authority for hia 
principles in the primitive ages. Deprive the Socinian of this 
t'wig of antiquity^ and he is ready to make the fame lamentable out* 
cry, that was made by Micah in old times : " You have taken 
away my gods, in whom I trufted, and what have I more?" 

*' The argument drawn out in form is the following: The firll 
Chriftians were called Nazarenes, Thofe \vho afterwards went by 
that name, were their genuine followers ; but thefe fucceedlng 
Nazarenes did not believe, that Jefus Chrift had a pre-exiftent na- 
ture ; therefore^ it was not a do6lrine believed by the firft Chriftians, 
becaufe the later Nazarenes tranfmitted their opinions (at leaft on 
this head) in their oriinnal purity, without the adulterations of 
thofe who were afterwards called Orthodox. 

** There are many things in this argument which may be 
doubted, and Ibme which may be denied. If the Nazarenes 
were the members of the original church of Chrift, and the ge- 
nuine followers of the apoftles, how came they fo far to counter- 
aft the deftgn of the Chrift ian inftitution, as to mix with the ordi- 
nances of the gofpel, the abrogated ceremonies oi the Mofaic law ? 
Was fuch conduct, in any relpeft, authorized by the New Tefta* 
ment ? Was it not in direct oppoiition, both to the condudt and 
inftruftions of the apoftle Paul ? We know what fuch a Naza- 
rene as Toland would fay on this fubject ; but what would Dr. 
Priestley fay? — If the Nazarenes were people of fuch low and 
^arnal fentiments, fo weak in their underftandings, and fo fuper- 

VoL, I, Aaa iliiiou% 


Wifhing that you may poflefs an abundant meafure 
of the Divine teaching, promifed in the facred ora- 
cles, to lead you into all truth — that you may have 
peace in believing — that you may be found in Chrift 
Jefus, not having your own righteoufnefs, which is 
c{ the law-— and finajly, that you may be replenished 

Ilitious in their pra^lices, can we deem them fit authorities to be 
appealed to, in contradiction to the concurrent teftimony of the 
moll eminent lights of the primitive church j If, in points of 
practice, in which the laws delivered for their dire6lion were fo 
clear and definite, they Hill pertinacioiilly adhered to old and ex- 
ploded cuftoms, which the gofpel had rendered total^ly ufelefs, is 
It a matter of any furprife, that theyfliould have fallen into fome 
errors of faith, and maintained, with an obftinacy peculiar to their 
race, feme of the falfe prejudices of the Jews, relating to the na- 
ture and qualifications of the Meffiah ? 

" For our part, we are ready to confefs, that if theNazarenes 
^vere, with the Ebionites, given up to the Socinians, who are fo 
<?ager to claim them as their elder brethren, we do not per- 
ceive the very great advantage they would gain by fuch an ac- 

'^ Dr. Priestley is not ahvays careful to keep clear of gra- 
iultous aflertion. It is a compendious method of argument ; but 
unlefs it comes from an oracle^ we have a right to admit, or re- 
je6l: it, jufl as we pleafe, *•■ No perfon, fays he, can, I think, 
xefleft upon this fubje6t with proper ferioufnefs, without thinking 
it a little remarkable, that the Jewifh Chriftians, in fo early an age as 
they areipoken of, fhould be acknowledged to believe nothing either 
cf the divinity, or even of the pre-exiflence of Chrift, if either 
of thofe do6trines had been taught them by the apoftles.* On 
the fame mode of reafoning, and with equal propriety, we might 
fay,— It is a little extraordinary, that the Jewifh Chriflians fhould 
have continued fuch adherents to the rituals of the Mofaic law, if 
they had been explicitly taught, that they were abrogated by the 
death of Chrill:, Can we fuppofe any who owned the truth of the 
gofpel, tp have remained ignorant of the grand defign of its. 
promulgation, if that defign had been properly delineated and 
explained ? Or could they have perfevered in an obflinate refifr 
tance to it, if it had been enforced by proper authority ? — Thefe 
\vere the ftandards of ancient Jimplkity ! — ^at leafi: fimplicity of 
^hriftian doclrlne ; though the veil of Mofes was over their face8j 
•^jid the yoks of the old law fettered their necks • " 

Month. Rev, Vol. Ixix, p. %i(^^ &c. 


Appen. dr. PRIESTLEY- 351 

pleniflied with the fpirlt of power^ and of love, and of a 
found mind, 

I am, Reverend Sir, 

Your mofl obedient 

humble Servant, 


Ofuuejiry^ Fd. 179^ 

a a 2 



T O 


'Recommending this JVork to hh candid and atten- 
the PerufaL 

Dear Sir, 


HAT I obferved to your late antagonift, Dn 
Priestley, in my preceding letter to him, refpefting 
my principal motive in addrcfling him in the manner I 
have done, is applicable alfo in general to the prefent 
addrefs. It is not intended to provoke your polemic pen, 
but to folicit a favour. Since you profefs a Uncere love 
of truth, and an opennefs to conviction, your candid and 
attentive perufal of the volumes herewith fent you, is ami- 
cably requefted. 

The Epiftle here commented upon was originally dejigned 
for your nation, the Hebrews ; not only for the edifica- 
tion of thofe who had embraced the gofpel, but alfo for 
the convidioii of fuch as continued to rejed it. This 

* being 

Appen. to MRi DAVID LEVI. 


being its primary defignation, and it being, as 1 firmly 
believe, Divinely revealed, I can no lefs than importu-^ 
nately and affedlionately recommend it to you and your 
friends, as an inftrument chofcn by infinite Wifdom, ad- 
mirably calculated, when rightly underflood, to fubferve 
your beft and cverlailing intereft. 

The Writer of it was a Hebrew of the Hebrews ; in the 
former part of his life zealous for the law, in your view 
of its import : he was a ftrift Pharifee, and no fmall pro- 
£cient in the learning of the Jews, as well as their religion. 
Nor did he embrace the Chriflim faith, which I ven- 
ture to call the accomplifliment and pcrfetl'ion of the JewiHi, 
but upon the cleareft evidence and llrongeft convidtion that 
the mind of man, in matters of this nature, is, perhaps, 
capable of. He was well qualified to form an eftimate of 
both; and the refult was, upon the moil; deliberate re- 
view, that he counted all things but lofs for the excellency 
of the knowledge of Chrifl Jefus, his Lord. This, it is 
true, brought upon him the odium of his countrymen, 
as if he were an apoftate from the religion of their fore- 
fathers ; whereas, in reality, no man, after his embracing 
the gofpel, better underflood wherein the life and glory 
of that religion coniiiled. No man had a higher venera- 
tion for the Divine authority of the Hebrew Scriptures, and 
the exalted character of Mofes. What he before thought to 
be quite inconfiflent — the legiflation of Mofes, and the 
MefTiahfhip of Jefus Chrifl — appeared now, as indeed 
they are, perfe£lly reconcileable. 

His writings in general, as well as this epiflle, are cha- 
ra£terifed not only by a depth, compadnefs, and force o{ 
argument, but alfo by an admirable fpirit of henevolcnc:. 
So powerfully did this Divine principle operate in his vir- 
tuous and holy mind, that it breaks forth into language 
inimitably flrong and pathetic. [See Rom. ix. i — 5.] 
Left any fhould imagine that his adherence to the Chrif- 
tian caufe w^s the efteft of bigotry ; that he was only a 
violent party man, he declares in the moil: folemn terms, 
that for the lore he bore to his brethren, his kinfmen 
according to the flelh, he could even fubmit, w^ere that 

% vail- 


A LETTER TO App2^r, 

available, to the fame treatment from the Ghriftian churchy" 
as he had received from the Jewifh. 

The fubjed of this Epiftle is peculiarly interefting. It 
treats of a religious controverfy of great magnitude ; in- 
deed, I may fay, the greateft controverfy that ever exifted 
in the church of God, and in which you and your breth- 
ren are concerned in a dire£l and immediate manner. 
This is another reafon that induces me to folicit youf at-, 
tention to this work, in your profefTed capacity of an im- 
partial inquirer* 

But there is reafon td fear that we are very liable to 
mlflake the true nature of this controverfy ; and while wd 
labour under that miftake, it is no wonder that our pre- 
judices are flrengthened in favour of our own tenets, right 
or wrong, while affronted truth, indignant, eludes our 
difappointed grafp. Though the queflion — Whether 
Jefus Chrift be the true MeiTiah — be to Jews and Chrif-^ 
tians, if properly weighed, infinitely momentous ; yet, in 
my apprehenfion, it is a queflion too complicated, or not 
fufficiently radical, for an accurate inquirer to begin with. 
If I may prefume to offer my thoughts on this important 
fubje^l, the previous queflion ought to be — not whether 
any part of the Old Teflament ought to be attacked and 
renounced, as if not given by Divine authority, but—* 
M/ljat is the TRUE IMPORT of the Old Tejiament fyjiem ? 
Was it given with a fubordinate defign ; with a view to 
introduce a difpenfation of a more fpiritual form, or was 
it not ? Are the MefTiah's kingdom, and its grand blef- 
fings, as reprefented in the ancient promifes, and by the 
fpirit of prophecy, of a temporary and perifhing, or of a 
permanent and eternal nature ? Before we can, therefore, 
properly agitate the queflion about the perfon of the Mef- 
fiah, we ought, as regular invefligators and controvertifls^ 
for the fake of leffening the labour, to come to a previous 
ilTue concerning — What kind of a Meffiah the ancient re- 
cords hold forth ? What is the nature of the work there 
affigned for him ? Do his offices relate only to this tran* 
fitory life, or do they refped redemption from moral evil 


Apfen. M!t. DAVID LEVI. 


and eveilafllng mifcry ? If the former, you are in th« 
right ; but if the latter, v/c bid fair for being (o. 

I may here obfcrve, that you flaud, in a fcnfe, the 
reprefentative of your Englifh brethren, while pubHlhing 
and defending that fenfc of the Old Tcflament writings 
which this epiftle undertakes to prove is the zvrong kn^c 
of them. St. Paul's interpretation of the holy fcripture, 
and your^s, are diametrically oppofite. Thi? coniideratioii 
alfo, in connexion with my idea of Paul's knowledge, 
difpofition, and abilities, induces me to call your clofefl 
attention to his different method of explaining the facrcd 
oracles. And may the God of all grace lead you into all 
truth I By the knowledge of his merciful and fovereiga 
pleafure in his various difpenfations, may you cffedually 
Jearn wherein confiils the true kingdom of God ! 

With refpe6l to the Expojition of this epiftle, by the 
learned and pious Dr. Owen, together with the Exerci- 
tations, they contain, in my opinion, a full reply to every- 
thing of moment contained in your late publications in 
favour of Judaifm. Without reflcfting on what others 
have done, I am inclined to think, that this work enter* 
more into the merits of the caufe, than any thing you 
feem to be acquainted with, as far as T can judge from 
your writings. Will you excufe me if I here add — that I an^ 
fatisfied, from the idea I have of the general tendency of 
this work, and a truly religious charafter, that were your 
progenitor Abraham on the land of the living, to perufe it^ 
he would fubjoin his hearty amen. 

When I confider your notion of the Mefliah's king- 
dom, and of the unanimity of his fubjc£ls, I am aware of 
your being ready to objeft to every propofal from a Chrif- 
tian, be it what it may, as in your firft letters : '* To 
convert a nation, fuch as the Jews to Chriftianity, the 
profeffors thereof ought to be unanimous^ in what the 
work of faivation confills ; othcrwife, they might be de- 
terred therefrom, by reafon of the difficulty attending the 
|3:]aking a proper choice of that which is right."* That 

^^ * J-etters to Dr. Priestley, p. 71. 

3^6 A L E T T E R TO Apfei** 

is, if there be any force in the obje£lion, you will be 

Tight in rejeding Chriflianity, becaufe Chriilians differ 
in their judgement about the particulars of their rehgion. 
But how unreafonable, how prepofterous the requifition I 
Do any Chriflians differ about Jefus being the Meffiab? 
No : give us then the meeting thus far before you objeft 
to lefs general differences. If you expe£i fuch unanimity 
among uninfpired men in the prefent ftate, before you 
grant them leave to recommend their religion to their fei- 
|ow-aien, as of Divine original, you muft fuppofe them 
to be mere machines, that do not ad by free choice. Oa 
this principle it is impoffxble that there ever ihould be una- 
jiimity among men. For juft with the fame reafon may 
every individual obje£t, of whatever religion, Chriflian, 
JewiHi, Mahometan, or Heathen. It is the fame as to 
fay, I will never embrace truth until all who profefs it; 
aft a worthy part ; I will never aim at being truly reli- 
gious until all others are fo firfl ; I will have nothing to 
do with any truth but what afts mechanically on all whor 
profefs it, producing in them an uniform good effe£l whe- 
ther they will or no ! — But, dear Sir, you feem toexpeft: 
among the fubjecis of King Meffiah, what will never be 
jn this world, and which God has never promifed. That 
thofe of the fame general denomination are not '* agreed 
among themfelves" in fome particulars, is fo far from 
being a charaderiftic mark of a falfe religion, that it is 
in reality, no more than the natural, and in the prefent 
imperfeft ftate, the unavoidable refult of human free* 
dom. It is acknowledged by yourfelf, that " confcience 
ought to be free ;*' that, is, I prefume, in every flate, un- 
<3er the reign of the Meffiah not excepted. Men, in the 
prefent ilate, are fallible and accountable ; confequently 
no mere profeffion of the fublimeft truths conceivable can 
enfure unaniinity. Modern Judaifm is either right or 
wrongs notvvithftanding the petty jars among its proteflbrs; 
and the fame is true of Chriflianity. 

ReHefting farther on your views of religion, liberty of 
<:onfcience, and charity, I can eafily conceive how unin- 
teiefling muft appear to you, any attempt at converlion, 


Appek. MR. DAVID LEVI. 357 

whether by Jews or Chriftians. *' We do not, fay you, 
think, ourfelves bound, as the Chriflians, to propagate our 
rehgion," not even '* by arguments^' Singular and fri- 
gid fentiment ! and not Id's lingular the ground on which 
it flands ; for concerning mankind, who are not Jews, 
you obferve : *' If they do but keep the lavj of nature; 
that is, the fcven precepts of the fons of Noah, or Noa- 
chides, we maintain, that they thereby perform all that 
God requires of them, and will certainly hy this fervlce, 
render themfelves acceptable to him."* Thefe you call 
the pious of the nations of the world, who will be partar 
kers of eternal life ! The (gwcw precepts are thefe • ** Firji, 
Not to commit idolatry. Seeoiid, Not to blafpheme. 
Third, To appoint and conflitute juft and upright judges; 
that juftice may be maintained, and impartially adminif- 
tered to all. Fourth, Not to commit incell. Fifth, Not 
to commit murder. Sixth, Not to rob, or ileal, 6cc. Se- 
venth, Not to eat a member of a living creature." Alas ! 
alas ! if Noah and his fons had 7io better ground of hope 
of eternal life, than arofe from their performance of this 
fervice, they could no more have quieted the accufations 
of confcience, or abated the horrors of an eternal exifr 
tence with a holy and juft God, than they could avert 
the llroke of death, or fufpend the lav/s oi nature ! Is 
this your view of religion, and the Divine difpenfations 
The abfurdlty is almoft unparalleled, and wants a name. 
BlefTed be God for the gofpel ! 

** If you are really in earned," fay you to Dj. Priest-* 
LILY, " and wifh to convert the Jews, to what you call 
Cliriftianity, I think you muft produce more fubftantial 
proofs in fupport of your hvpothefis, than v;hat you have 
yet done. And, if I might prefume to offer my opi- 
nion in fo weighty a caufe, I think that the fairell: method, 
and that which is the likelieft to lead to convidion on 
either lide is, to take a review of all the prophecies con- 
cerniiig the Meffiah, from Mofcs to Malachi, and com- 
pare them, with the acls of Jefus, recorded in the New 

* Uf fupra, p. 12.^ 
Vol. J. B b b Tefta-^ 

35S A LETTER TO. Appen. 

Teftament, to fee whether or no they have been fulfilled 
in his perfon."* I muft confefs, that this method, as. 
far as it goes (for it includes only the prophetic part of 
the ancient oracles) appears to me, under the limitations, 
before obferved, a good one ; and doubt not but that it 
meets with the approbation of all liberal Chriflians. Nay, 
Jefus himfelf recommends it: " Search the Scriptures, for. 
they are they that teftify of me." And as you announce 
fuch a defign, it may be of fervice to you, to weigh 
very carefully v/hat Dr. Owen has done this way in the 
Exercitations ; and if you fliould think him not fufficiently 
minute in the abridgement, you would do well to confuU 
the original edition. But excufe me, dear Sir, if on 
this occahon I drop a monitory hint, vit^. that you deal, 
fairly i and draw no conclufions which are not jullified by 
a thorough knowledge of the fubjeft, and a comprehtn- 
five view of it. Without this we cannot be faid to Invef-. 
i'lgate the meaning of Scripture, but to trifle with it to our 
ov/n ruin. Happy were it for us all, if nothing but the 
clear evidence of truth, arifmg from an acquaintance fuf- 
ficiently extenfive with any controverted fubjedt, deter- 
mined our choice. The happy eifedls would be, more 
humility (that valuable though old-fafliioned virtue) more 
moderation, and lefs premature triumph in difputants, 
more induflry in feeking, and peace in enjoying truth. 

But to what end is it to examine prophecies, while you 
examine them by the following flandard. ? " We hold tht 
perpetuity of the law of Mofes, and to which nothing is to 
be added or diminiflied by any fucceeding prophet what- 
ever."t If this were granted you as an axiom (but which 
I call a fundamental error) you would make quick work 
with all the prophecies as well as the gofpel. But while 
you hold this opinion, you hold what I think can never 
be proved, what the law neither requires nor hitends, 
what is highly affronting to God himfelf, and deflrudive 
to the fouls of men. Were Mofes upon earth, he would, 
perhaps, be the firll to contradict your interpretation of 

Ibid. p. 90. . t Second Letters, p. 56. 


Appeno MR. DAVID LEVI. 35,; 

his words. We maintain with Paul, what is, I think, 
demonftrated in the following Epiflle and Expolition, that 
it is not by a different authority from that which enacted 
the law, that it is repealed : and furely it muft be abfurd 
to contend (while his own declarations do not oblige) that 
a local, ceremonial inftitution cannot be abrogated by the 
fupreme Lawgiver. That the ** apoilles inculcated the 
abolijhment of the Mofaical difpenfation," is very true ; 
and it is equally true, that it was at iirft given with that 
defign. And has not Providence inconteftably confirmed 
their doftrine ? Has it not rendered the obfcrvance of 
the Mofaic law abibkitely impoffible ? If we hold with 
the apoflles, " that the law of Mofes cannot effcdt the 
juflification of mankind," it is, becaufe we believe and 
prove that it was never given for that end, never effeacd 
for that purpofe, and is, in its own nature, incapable of 
it We do not rejea: the law, nor did the apoflles, as if 
it were not holy, juft, and good in its proper place \ it 
is good as a fchoolmafler, but not as a faviour ; as a mir- 
ror of the Divine will, and the rule of human obedience, 
for the time, and to the end of its appointment. And we 
confidently add, that the Mofaic law is more truly and 
eire£lually honoured by every true Chriflian, than by any 
Jew in the world : for if the grand end of it, in its co- 
venant form, be anfwered in the life and death of Chrill, 
and if the ceremonial part of it be repealed by the united 
voice of the gofpel, and of Providence (both which wc 
maintain to be fa£ls) our conduft mufl be more honour- 
able to the law and the Law-giver, than youi's can be. 
And obftinately to adhere to a repealed law, is but a llen- 
der proof of refpeft to the Icgiflative authority. Befides, 
the apoflles were taught this very do£lrine from the words 
of Jeremiah, [chap. xxxi. 31 — 34.] and other prophe- 
tic teflimonies, as well as from the nature of the Jewilh 
ceconomy and Divine dlredion. That " God never con- 
tradi6ls himfslf," we reatliiy believe, which is a flrong 
reafon, among others, obliging us to receive Jcfus as the 
Chrifl of God ; for we think that if he is not the AI<ffuih, 
Jive have nothing left us but a heap of coiUradidion^, as 
B b b 2 ' the 

36<> ALETTERtd AppeJj* 

the venerable author here recommended to you abundantly 
iliews. Onyourfuppo(ition, we think, neither promifes^ 
prophecies, facrifices, charadteriflic notes of the Meffiah, 
of his principal offices — to fave from fin and mifery — have 
any meaning ; and we apprehend that your interpretation 
muft be at every ftep fubverfive of itfelf. 

You, indeed, frankly acknowledge, that *' if Chrifl^s 
dknmty is falfe, and he did not come to fuffer for the re- 
demption of mankind, as Chriftians hold — he came for 
nothing."* When we hear fuch language, we cannot 
help inquiring, What better work have you for your ex- 
pefted Meffiah ? Or in what better manner can you con- 
ceive of a redemption to be brought to men, than that 
which is exhibited in the New Teftament ? Is there 
any enemy worfe than^zw, or any better method of deli- 
verance from it, than what we maintain ? If motives are 
required, what can we defire, or even conceive of, more 
forcible and engaging ? And that the Mediator of the new 
covenant does not authorize external force to procure uni- 
formity of fentiments and worfhip, is {o far from being a 
defeat, that it muft appear to every confiderate mind per- 
fe6lly confiflent with all jufl views of human nature, man's 
delignation in this ftate of trial, and the Divine perfec- 
tions. If men a£t a part unworthy of the beft means, 
while they profefs an adherence to them, this no more 
argues the deficiency ofthofe means, than it would argue 
the badnefs of the feventh command, and the Mofaic le- 
giflation, bccaufe a profeiTed Jew commits adultery. As 
to the insinuation, that the New Teftament recommends 
our going after other Gods — becaufe the divinity of Chrift, 
as you juflly contend, is taught by the apoftles ; or, that 
he is God manifeft in the flefh — as if the apoftles and their 
followers taught another God than the God of Abraham, is 
a calumny that muft be anfwered for before him, who 
fays, " Thou (halt not bear falfe witnefs againfl thy neigh- 


Second Letter?, p. ?2» 


Appen. MR. DAVID LEVI.* '^tit 

You are pleafcd to fay, that you are " a Jew by choice, 
and not becaufe you are born a Jew. "•■'•' And I am happy 
to fay, that I am a ChrlJUan by choice, and not becaufe- 
1 was born a Chriftian. But one of us mull be-certainlv 
^urong with refpeft to the poiiit of diflercnce, which, iV 
there be any truth in religion at all, is a point of infinite 
importance. While our views of religion arc lb direcllv 
oppofite, both of us cannot have clear evidence that we arc 
right. How^ dear your religion is to you 1 cannot tell - 
but this I can fay, that, according to my habitual fcelin<^s» 
1 would not exchange for ten thoufand worlds, were they 
at my difpofal. I would not exchange my prefent peace 
of mind ^ which is the pure eiFed of tlie religion I em- 
brace, as held forth in the New Teftamcnt, independent 
of the eternal weight of glory it exhibits to be enjoyed here- 
after, for all the advantages that your moil fanguine hopes 
can imagine, as attending the appearance of another Mef- 
iiah. And my fatisfa6tion is derived as well from the Old 
Teftament as the New ; the writings of Mofes, as well as 
thofe of Paul ; for the mercy of God, through the Me- 
diator and his atoning facrifice, explicit or implied, Hiincs 
in every page ; in both I find pardon, peace, rightcouf- 
i\t{^^ and life ; grace reigning through righteoufncfs, 
unto eternal life by Jefus Chrifl, whom God hath fct 
forth a propitiation for fm, in order to declare his ri^h- 
teoufnefsf that he might be jufl^ and the Jufifer of him 
who believcth in Jefus. And Dr. Owen undertakes, in 
this performance, to demonllrate, that for any of Adam's 
race to be pardoned and made happy w^ith God for ever, 
without fuch a provillon, is utterly inconfiflent (even 
taking the O.d Teilament only for our dataj utterlv in- 
confiflent with all jufl: apprehe^ifions of the attributes of 
Jehovah ; and we defy all the world fairly to difprove his 
conclufion. But alas ! what a light and inlignificant 
thing is the dcmonjlratlon of a Chriflian in the fcalcs of 
a Jew 1 I can eafily conceive, that the human mind 
(fuch is the darknefs and degeneracy of our fallen nature) 

^■•- Letters, p. 91. 


S^ft ABETTER, Zed AppEsf; 

IS capable of admitting the bare opinms of friends to be of 
greater weight and authority than the demonjlratiom of 
others. Hence we may learn to adOre the fovereignty of 
Divine grace in every inflance of a cordial fubmiflion to 
the truth of God. If men hear not Mofes and the pro- 
phets, in their teftimony for Jefus, neither will they be 
perfuaded though one rofe from the dead — a^ he has a^w-- 
ally done. 

Dear Sir, my heart's deiire and prayer to God for Ifrael 
is, that they might be faved ; may the God of Abraham, 
of Ifaac, and of Jacob, the God and Father of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift, by his efFe£tual grace, bring you to know 
his eternal truth ! How differently would you then judge 
of the evil and demerit of fin, and of the need of a real 
atoning facriiice to fecure the honour of the Divine go- 
vernment ! How infinitely defireable would then appear, 
a Saviour from the power and love of iniquity, and 
from a fatal fecurity under its dominion and deceitful- 
nefs ! With what concern w^ould you then regard the 
folly of that interpretation of the lively oracles which con- 
fines the work of the promifed Meffiah to this fliort life, 
the life of a mere mortal, and a fmall fpot of this globe ! 
Serioufly refle£l, dear Sir, how unworthy of God, how 
inadequate to the real wants of an immortal mind, and 
how inconfiflent with the whole tenour of Divine revela- 
tion, as well as abfolutely contrary to the cleareil paf* 
fages, mull fuch an interpretation be. 

I am, Dear Sir, 

Your fincere wellwiflier, 


0/ivejlry, Feb. 179C. 







DEMCO 38-297 | 

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v«. - 



An exposition of the Epistle to the 

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