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The Expositors Greek Testament is intended to do for 
the present generation the work accomplished by Dean 
Alford's in the past. Of the influence of Dean Alford's 
book there is no need to speak. It is almost impossible 
to exaggerate the success and usefulness of Dean Alford's 
commentary in putting English-speaking students into 
possession of the accumulated results of the labours of 
scholars up to the time it was published. He made the 
best critical and exegetical helps, previously accessible only 
to a few readers, the common privilege of all educated 
Englishmen. Dean Alford himself would have been the 
first to say that he undertook a task too great for one 
man. Though he laboured with indefatigable diligence, 
twenty years together, from 1841 to 1861, were occupied 
in his undertaking. Since his time the wealth of material 
on the New Testament has been steadily accumulating, 
and no one has as yet attempted to make it accessible 
in a full and comprehensive way. 

In the present commentary the works have been 
committed to various scholars, and it is hoped that the 
completion will be reached within five years from the 
present date, if not sooner. As the plan of Alford's 
book has been tested by time and experience, it has been 
adopted here with certain modifications, and it is hoped 
that as the result English-speaking students will have a 
work at once up to date and practically useful in all 
its parts. 



It remains to add that the commentators have been 
selected from various churches, and that they have in 
every case been lett full liberty to express their own 
views. The part of the editor has been to choose them, 
and to assign the limits of space allowed to each book. 
In this assignment the judgment of Dean Alford has 
appeared to be sound in the main, and it has been generally 



In this Commentary on the Synoptical Gospels I give to the 
public the fruit of studies carried on for many years. These 
Gospels have taken a more powerful and abiding hold of me 
than any other part of the Scriptures. I have learnt much 
from them concerning Christ in the course of these years ; 
not a little since I began to prepare this work for the press. 
1 have done my best to communicate what I have learned to 
others. I have also laid under contribution previous com- 
mentators, ancient and modern, while avoiding the pedantic 
habit of crowding the page with long lists of learned names. 
I have not hesitated to introduce quotations, in Latin and 
Greek, which seemed fitted to throw light on the meaning. 
These, while possessing interest for scholars, may be passed 
over by English readers without much loss, as their sense is 
usually indicated. 

In the critical notes beneath the Greek Text I have aimed 
at making easily accessible to the reader the results of the 
labours of scholars who have made the text the subject of 
special study ; especially those contained in the monu- 
mental works of Tischendorf and Westcott and Hort. 
Readers are requested to peruse what has been stated on 
that subject in the Introduction, and, in using the com- 
mentary, to keep in mind that I have always made what I 
regard as the most probable reading the basis of comment, 
whether I have expressly indicated my opinion in the critical 
notes or not. 

In these days one who aims at a competent treatment 
of the Evangelic narratives must keep in view critical 


methods of handling the story. I have tried to unite some 
measure of critical freedom and candour with the reverence 
of faith. If, in spite of honest endeavour, I have not suc- 
ceeded always in realising this ideal, let it be imputed to the 
Wk of skill rather than of good intention. 

I rise from this task with a deepened sense of the wisdom 
and grace of the Lord Jesus Christ. If what I have written 
help others to a better understanding of His mind and heart, 
I shall feel that my labour has not been in vain. 

I enjoyed the benefit of Mr. MacFadyen's (of the Free 
Church College, Glasgow) assistance in reading the proofs 
of the second half of the work, and owe him earnest thanks, 
not only for increased accuracy in the printed text, but for 
many valuable suggestions. 

The works of Dr. Gould on Mark and Dr. Plummer on 
Luke, in the International Critical Commentary^ appeared too 
\ate to be taken advantage of in this commentary. 






Section I. The Connection. 

I . The three first Gospels, bearing the names of Matthew, Mark 
and Luke, have, during the present century, been distinguished by 
critics from the fourth by the epithet synoptical. The term implies 
that these Gospels are so like one another in contents that they can 
be, and for profitable study ought to be, viewed together. That such 
is the fact is obvious to every reader. A single perusal suffices to 
shew that they have much in common in contents, arrangement and 
phraseology ; and a comparison with the fourth Gospel only deepens 
the impression. There everything appears different — the incidents 
related, the th/^ughts ascribed to Jesus, the terms in which they are 
expressed, the localities in i'jie Great Personage who is the 
common subject of all the four narratives exercised His remarkable 
teaching and healing ministries. 

2. Yet while these three Gospels present obtrusive resemblances, 
they also exhibit hardly less obtrusive differences. The differences 
are marked just because the books are on the whole so like one 
another. One cannot help asking : Seeing they are so like, why are 
they not more like ? Why do they differ at all ? Or the question 
may be put the other way : Seeing there are so many idiosyncrasies 
in each Gospel, how does it come about that notwithstanding these 
they all bear an easily recognisable family likeness ? The idiosyn- 
crasies, though not always so obvious as the resemblances, are un- 
mistakable, and some of them stare one in the face. Each Gospel, 
e.g., has some matter peculiar to itself ; the first and the third a 
great deal. Then, while in certain parts of their narratives they 
follow the same order, in other places they diverge widely. Again, 
one cannot but be struck with the difference between the three 
records in regard to reporting the words of Jesus. Mark gives com- 


paratively few : Matthew and Luke very many, and these for the 
most part very weighty and remarkable, insomuch that one wonders 
how any one undertaking to write a history of Christ's life could 
overlook them. Matthew and Luke again, while both giving much 
prominence to the words of Jesus, differ very widely in their manner 
of reporting them. The one collects the sayings into masses, 
apparently out of regard to affinity of thought ; the other disperses 
them over his pages, and assigns to them distinct historical occasions. 

3. These resemblances and differences, with many others not 
referred to, inevitably raise a question as to their cause. This is the 
synoptical problem, towards the solution of which a countless num- 
ber of contributions have been made within the last hundred years. 
Many of these have now only a historical or antiquarian interest, 
and it would serve no useful purpf-se to attempt here an exhaustive 
account of the literature connected with this inquiry. While not in- 
sensible to the fascination of the subject, even on its curious side, as 
an interesting problem in literary criticism, yet I must respect the 
fact that we in this work are directly concerned with th2 matter 
only in so far as it affects exegesis. The statement vierefore now to 
be made must be broad and brief. 

4. All attempts at solution admit of being classified under four 
heads. First may be mentioned the hypothesis of oral tradition. 
This hypothesis implies that before our Gospels there were no 
written records of the ministry of Jesus, or at least none of which 
they made use. Their only source was the unwritten tradition of 
the memorabilia of that ministry, having its ultimate origin in the 
public preaching and teaching of the Apostles, the men. who had 
been with Jesus. The statements made by the Apostles from time 
to time, repeated and added to as occasion required, caught up by 
willing ears, and treasured up in faithful memories : behold all that 
is necessary, according to the patrons of this hypothesis, to account 
for all the evangelic phenomena of resemblance and difference. The 
resemblances are explained by the tendency of oral tradition, 
especially in non-literary epochs and peoples, to become stereotyped 
in contents and even in phraseology, a tendency much helped by the 
practice of catechetical instruction, in which the teacher dictates 
sentences which his pupils are expected to commit to memory.^ 
The differences are accounted for by the original diversity in the 
memorabilia communicated by different Apostles, by the measure of 

* On the function of catechists as helping to stereotype the evangelic tradition 
vide Wright, The Composition of the Four Gospels, 1890. Mr. Wright is a 
thorough believer in the oral tradition. 


fluidity inseparable from oral tradition due to defective memory, 
and of course in part also by the peculiar tastes, aims and indi- 
vidualities of the respective evangelists. This hypothesis has been 
chiefly in favour among English scholars, though it can likewise 
boast of influential supporters among continental critics, such as 
Gieseler and Godet. It points to a vera causa, and cannot be 
wholly left out of account in an endeavour to explain how written 
records of the evangelic tradition arose. There was a time doubt- 
less when what was known of Jesus was on the lip only. How 
long that primitive phase lasted is matter of conjecture ; some say 
from 30 to 60 a.d. It seems probable that the process of trans- 
ferring from the lip to the page began considerably sooner than the 
later of these dates. When Luke wrote, many attempts had been 
made to embody the tradition in a written form (Luke i. 1). This 
points to a literary habit which would naturally exert its power 
witho>^t dxilay in reference to any matter in which men took an 
absorbing interest. And when this habit prevails writers are not 
usually content to remain in ignorance of what others have done in 
the same line. They want to see each other's notes. The pre- 
sumption therefore is that while oral tradition in all probability was 
a source for our evangelists, it was not the only source, probably 
not even the chief source There were other writings about the 
acts, and words, and sufferings of Jesus in existence before they 
wrote ; they were likely to know these, and if they knew them they 
would not despise them, but rather use them so far as serviceable. 
In Luke's case the existence of such earlier writings, and his 
acquaintance with them, are not mere presumptions but facts ; the 
only point on which there is room for difference of opinion is how 
far he took advantage of the labours of his predecessors. That he 
deemed them unsatisfactory', at least defective, may be inferred from 
his making a new contribution ; that he drew nothing from them is 
extremely improbable. Much can be said for the view that among 
these earlier writings known to Luke was our Gospel of Mark, or a 
book substantially identical with it in contents, and that he used it 
very freely. 

5. The last observation naturally leads up to the second hypo- 
thesis, which is that the authors of the synoptical Gospels used each 
other's writings, each successive writer taking advantage of earlier 
contributions, so that the second Gospel (in time) borrowed from 
the first, and the third from both first and second. Which borrowed 
from which depends of course on the order of time in which the 
three Gospels appeared. Six permutations are possible, and every 


one of them has had its advocates. One of the most interesting, in 
virtue of tlie course it ran, is : Matthew, Luke, Mark. This arrange- 
ment was contended for by Griesbach, and utilised by Dr. Ferdinand 
Christian Baur in connection with his famous Tendency-criticism. 
Griesbach founded on the frequent duality in Mark's style, that is to 
say, the combination of phrases used separately in the same connec- 
tion in the other synoptical Gospels : e.g., "at even when the sun did 
set" (i. 32). In this phenomenon, somewhat frequently recurring, 
he saw conclusive proof that Mark had Matthew and Luke before 
him, and servilely copied from both in descriptive passages. Baur's 
interest in the question was theological rather than literary. Accept- 
ing Griesbach's results, he charged Mark not only with literary 
dependence on his brother evangelists, whence is explained his 
graphic style, but also with studied theological neutrality, eschewing 
on the one hand the Judaistic bias of the first Gospel, and on the 
other the Pauline or universalistic bias of the third ; both charac- 
teristics, the literary dependence ana the studied neutrality, implying 
a later date. Since then a great change of view has taken place. 
For some time the prevailing opinion has been that Mark's Gospel 
is the earliest not the latest of the three, and this opinion is likely to 
hold its ground. Holtzmann observe^ that the Mark hypothesis is 
a hypothesis no longer,^ that it is an established fact. And 
he and many others recognise in Mark, either as we have it or in an 
earlier form, a source for both the other synoptists, thereby acknow' 
ledging that the hypothesis of mutual use likewise has a measure of 

6. The third hypothesis is that of one primitive Gospel from 
which all three synoptists drew their material. The supporters of 
this view do not believe that the evangelists used each other's 
writings. Their contention is that all were dependent on one original 
document, an Urevangelium as German scholars call it. This 
primitive Gospel was, ex hypothesi, comprehensive enough to cover 
the whole ground. From it all the three evangelists took much in 
common, hence their agreement in matter and language in so many 
places. But how about their divergencies ? How came it to pass 
that with the same document before them they made such diverse 
use of it ? The answer is : it was due to the fact that they used, not 
identical copies of one document, but different recensions of the 
same document. By this flight into the dark region of conjectural 
recensions, whereof no trace remains, the Urevangelium hypothesis 

* Hand-Commentary p. 3. 


was self-condemned to oblivion. With it are associated the honour- 
able names of Lessing and Eichhorn. 

7. The fourth and last hypothesis was propounded by Schleier- 
macher. He took for his starting-point the word 8ti]Yi)oris in the intro- 
duction of Luke's Gospel, and found in it the hint that not in one 
primitive Gospel of comprehensive character was the source ex- 
ploited by our Gospels to be found, but rather in many Gospelets con- 
taining a record of some words or deeds of Jesus with which the 
writer had become acquainted, and which he specially desired to 
preserve. Each of our evangelists is to be conceived as having so 
many of these diegeses or Gospelets in his possession, and construct- 
ing out of them a larger connected story. In so far as they made 
use of copies of the same diegesis, there would be aj»rcement in con- 
tents and style ; in so far as they used Gospelets peculiar to their 
respective collections, there would be divergence ; and of course 
diversity in the order of narration was to be expected in writings 
compiled from a handful of unconnected leaflets of evangelic tradition. 
In spite of the great name of its author, this hypothesis has found 
little support as an attempt to account for the whole phenomena of 
the Gospels. As a subordinate suggestion to explain the presence 
in any of the synoptists of elements peculiar to himself, it is 
worthy of consideration. Some of the particulars, e.g., peculiar to 
Luke may have been found by him not in any large collection, but in 
a leaflet, as others may have been derived not fron. \,yitten sources 
large or small, but from a purely oral source in answer to local 

8. None of the foregoing hypotheses is accepted by itself as a 
satisfactory solution of the synoptical problem by any large number 
of competent critics at the present time. The majority look for a 
solution in the direction of a combination of the second and third 
hypotheses under modified forms. To a certain extent they recog- 
nise use of one Gospel in another, and there is an extensive agree- 
ment in the opinion that for the explanation of the phenomena not 
one but at least two primitive documents must be postulated. In 
these matters certainty is unattainable, but it is worth while making 
ourselves acquainted with what may be called the most probable 
working hypothesis. With this view I offer here a brief statement 
as to the present trend of critical opinion on the subject in question. 

9. It is a familiar observation that, leaving out of account the 
reports of the teaching of Jesus contained in the first and third 
Gospels, the matter that remains, consisting of narratives of actions 
and events, is vei-y much the same in all the three synoptists. Not 


only so, the remainder practically consists of the contents of the 
second Gospel. It seems as if Matthew and Luke had made Mark 
the framework of their story, and added to it new material. This 
accordingly is now believed by many to have been the actual fact. 
The prevailing idea is that our Mark, or a book very like it in 
contents, was under the eye of the compilers of the first and third 
Gospels when they wrote, and was used by both as a source, not 
merely in the sense that they took from it this and that, but in the 
sense of adopting it substantially as it was, and making it the basis 
of their longer and more elaborate narratives. This crude statement 
of course requires qualification. What took place was not that the 
compters of the first and third Gospels simply transcribed the 
second, page by page, as they found it in their manuscript, reproduc- 
ing its contents in the original order, and each section verbatim. If 
that had been the case the syn\,ptical problem would have been 
greatly sinplified, and thefj would hardly have been room for 
difference of opinion. As the case stands the order of narration is 
more or less disturbed, and there are many variations in expression. 
The question is thus raised : On the hypothesis that Mark was a 
source for Matthew and Luke, in respect of the matter common to 
all the three, how came it to pass that whe writers of the first and 
third Gospels deviated so much, and in different ways, from their 
common source in the order of events and in style ? The general 
answer to the question, so far as order is concerned, is that the 
additional matter acted as a disturbing influence. The explanation 
implies that, when the disturbing influence did not come into play, 
the original order would be maintained. Advocates of the hypothesis 
try to show that the facts answer to this view ; that is to say, that 
Mark's order is followed in Matthew and Luke, except when 
disturbance is explicable by the influence of the new material. One 
illustration may here be given from Matthew. Obviously the 
•'Sermon on the Mount" exercised a powerful fascination on the 
mind of the evangelist. From the first he has it in view, and he 
desires to bring it in as soon as possible. Therefore, of the incidents 
connected with the commencement of the Galilean ministry reported 
in Mark, he relates simply the call of the four fisher Apostles, as if 
to furnish the Great Teacher with disciples who might form an 
audience for the great Discourse. To that call he appends a general 
description of the Galilean ministry, specifying as its salient 
features preaching or teaching and healing. Then he proceeds to 
illustrate each department of the ministry, the teaching by the 
Sermon on the Mount in chapters v.-vii., the healing by a group of 


miracles contained in chapters viii. and ix., including the cure of 
Peter's mother-in-law, the wholesale cures on the Sabbath evening, 
and the healing of the leper, all reported in the first chapter of Mark. 
Of course, in regard neither to the sermon nor to the group of 
miracles can the first Gospel lay claim to chronological accuracy. 
In the corresponding part of his narrative, Luke follows Mark closely, 
reporting the cure of the demoniac in the synagogue of Capernaum, 
of Peter's mother-in-law, of many sick people on the Sabbath 
evening, and of the leper in the same order. There is only one 
deviation. The call of Peter, which in Luke replaces that of the 
four, Peter and Andrew, James and John, comes between the 
Sabbath evening cures and the cure of the leper. 

The variations in style raise a much subtler question, which can 
only be dealt with adequately by a detailed comparative exegesis, 
such as that so admiraHy exemplified in the great work of 
Dr. Bernhard Weiss on the Gospel of Mark and its synoptical 
parallels.^ Suffice it to say here th?** it is not difficult to suggest 
a variety of causes which might lead to literary alteration in the use 
of a source. Thus, if ^'he style of the source was peculiar, markedly 
individualistic, colloquial, faulty in g\ amma", one can understand a 
tendency to replace these characteristics by smoothness and elegance. 
The style of Mark is of the character described, and instances of 
literary correction in the parallel accounts can easily be pointed out. 
Another cause in operation might be misunderstanding of the mean- 
ing of the source, or disinclination to adopt the meaning obviously 
suggested. Two illustrative instances may be mentioned. In 
reporting the sudden flight of Jesus from Capernaum in the early 
morning, Mark makes Him say to the disciples in connection with 
the reason for departure, "to this end came I forth," i.e., from the 
'own. In Luke this is turned into, "therefore was I sent," t.<;., into 
ihe world.^ In the incident of the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, 
Mark makes Jesus bid the two disciples say to the owner of the colt, 
' straightway He (Jesus) will send it back," i.e., return it to its owner 
fvhen He has had His use of it. In Matthew this is turned into, 
" straightway he (the owner) will send them (the ass and her colt) ".* 
Yet another source of verbal alteration might be literary taste acting 
instinctively, leading to the substitution of one word or phrase for 
another, without conscious reason. 

10. Thus far of the matter common to the three Gospels, or what 
may be called the triple tradition. But Matthew and Luke contain 

' Das Marcusevangelium unci seine synoptischen Parallelen, 1872. 
» Mark i. 38, Luke iv. 43. » Mark xi. 3, Matthew xxi. 3. 


much more than this, the additional matter in both consisting mainly 
of words and discourses of Jesus. Each Gospel has not a little 
peculiar to itself, but there is a large amount of teaching material 
common to the two, and though this common element is very 
differently reproduced as to historic connection and grouping, yet 
there is such a pervading similarity in thought and expression as to 
suggest forcibly the hypothesis of a second source as its most 
natural explanation. Assuming that the first and third evangelists 
borrowed their narrative of events from Mark, and that what needs 
accounting for is mainly the didactic element, it would follow that 
this hypothetical second source consisted chiefly, if not exclusively, 
of sayings spoken by the Lord Jesus. Whether both evangelists 
possessed this source in the same form, and had each his own way 
of using it, as dictated by his plan, or whether it came into their 
hands in different recensions, formed under diverse influences, and 
meant to serve distinct purposes, are questions of subordinate 
moment. The main question is : Did there exist antecedent to the 
composition of our first and third Gospels a collection of the words 
of Christ, which both evangelists knew and used in compiling their 
memoirs of Christ's public minl.rtry? Modern critics, such as 
Weiss, Wendt, Holtzmann, Jiilicher, concur in answering this 
question in the affirmative. /he generki result is that for the 
explanation of the phenomena presented by the synoptical Gospels, 
modern criticism postulates two main written sources : a book like 
our canonical Mark, if not identical with it, as the source of the 
narratives common to the three Gospels, and another book contain- 
ing sayings of Jesus, as the source of the didactic matter common to 
Matthew and Luke. 

IL These conclusions, which might be reached purely by internal 
inspection, are confirmed by the well-known statements of Papias, 
who flourished in the first quarter of the second century, concerning 
books about Christ written by Mark and Matthew. They are to this 
effect : " Mark, being the interpreter of Peter, wrote carefully, 
though not in order, as he remembered them, the things spoken or 
done by Christ". "Matthew wrote the Logia in the Hebrew 
language, and each one interpreted these as he could."* The state- 
ments point to two books as the fountains of evangelic written tradi- 
tion, containing matter guaranteed as reliable as resting on the author- 
ity of two apostles, Peter and Matthew. The first of the two books is 
presumably identical with our canonical Mark. It is not against this 

1 Eusebii, Historia Ecclesiastica, lib. iii., c. 39. 


that Papias represents Mark's work as including things spoken as 
well as done by Christ. For this is true of canonical Mark. Though, 
by comparison with Matthew and Luke, Mark is extremely meagre 
in the didactic element, yet he does report many very remarkable 
sayings of Jesus. But what of the other book ? Is it to be identi- 
fied with our Matthew ? Prima facie one would say no, because 
the Matthew of Papias is a book of Logia, which we naturally take 
to mean a book of oracles, or weighty words spoken by the Lord 
Jesus. But, on the other hand, it might be argued that Logia is 
simply a designation from the more prominent or characteristic part, 
and by no means excludes such narratives of events as we find in 
canonical Matthew. Indeed, it might be said that it would be diffi- 
cult to compile a collection of sayings that should be interesting or 
even intelligible without the introduction of more or less narrative, 
if it were only by way of preface or historical setting. Granting that 
the leading aim was to report words, a minimum amount of narrative 
would still be necessary to make the report effective. And it might 
be added that it is, in many instances, only a minimum of narrative 
that we find in canonical Matthew, his historic statements being 
generally meagre in comparison with those in Mark and Luke. 
Hence, not a few cri' ics and apologists still hold by the old tradi- 
tion which practically 'dentifieu the Logia of Papias with the 
Matthew of the New Testament. But the Logia, according to 
Papias, was written in Hebrew, and our canonical Matthew is in 
Greek which does not wear the aspect of a translation. This diffi- 
culty defenders of the old v'^^w do not find insurmountable. Yet 
the impression left on one's mind by such apologetic attempts is that 
of special pleading, or perhaps, one ought to say, of an honourable 
bias in favour of a venerable tradition, and of a theory which gives 
us, in canonical Matthew, a work proceeding directly from the hand 
of an apostle. If that theory could be established, the result would 
be highly satisfactory to many who at present stand in doubt. 
Meantime we must be content to acquiesce, provisionally, in a hypo- 
thesis, according to which we have access to the apostle Matthew's 
contribution only at second hand, in a Gospel from another unknown 
author which has absorbed a large portion, if not the whole, of the 
apostolic document. Even on this view we have the satisfaction of 
feeling that the three synoptists bring us very near to the original 
eye and ear witnesses. The essential identity, amid much diversity 
in form, of the words ascribed to our Lord in the two Gospels which 
draw upon the Logia, inspires confidence that the evangelic reports 
of these words, though secondary, are altogether reliable. 


12. We cannot but wonder that a work so precious as the Logia 
of Matthew was allowed to perish, and earnestly wish that, if 
possible, it might even yet be restored. Attempts at gratifying this 
natural feeling have recently been made, and conjectural reconstruc- 
tions of the lost treasure lie before us in such works as that of 
Wendt on the Teaching of jfesus,^ and of Blair on the Apostolic 
Gospd.^ A critical estimate of these essays cannot here be given. 
Of course they are tentative ; nevertheless they are interesting, and 
even fascinating to all who desire to get behind the existing records, 
and as near to the actual words of our Lord as possible. And, 
though an approach to a consensus of opinion may never be reached, 
the discussion is sure to bear fruit in a more intimate acquaintance 
with the most authentic forms of many of our Lord's sayings. As 
another aid to so desirable a result, one must give a cordial welcome 
to such works as that of Resch on Extracanonical Parallel Texts to 
the Gospels.^ Resch believes it pos:^ble, through the use of Codex 
Bezae, the old Latin and Syriac versions, and quotations from the 
Gospels in the early fathers, to get behind the text of our canonical 
Gospels, and to reach a truer reflection in Greek of the Hebrew 
original in the case of many sayings recorded in the Logia of 
Matthew. There will be various estimates of the intrinsic value of 
his adventurous attempt Personally, I am not sanguine that much 
will come out of it. But one cannot be sorry that it has been made, 
and by one who thoroughly believes that he is engaged in a fruitful 
line of inquiry. It is well to learn by exhaustive experiment how 
much or how little may be expected from that quarter. 

13. Among those who accept the hypothesis of the two sources 
a difference of opinion obtains on two subordinate points, viz., first, 
the relation between the two sources used in Matthew and Luke, 
and, second, the relation between these two Gospels. Did Mark 
know and use the Logia, and did Matthew know Luke, or Luke 
Matthew ? Dr. Bernhard Weiss answers the former question in the 
affirmative and the latter in the negative. From certain pheno- 
mena brought to light by a comparative study of the synoptists, he 
thinks it demonstrable that in many parts of his narrative Mark leans 

* Wendt, Die Lehre jfesu, Erster Theil. This part of Wendt's work has not 
been translated. His exposition of Christ's words has been translated by Messrs. 
T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 

' The Apostolic Gospel, with a Critical Reconstruction of the Text, by J. Fulton 
Blair, 1896. Mr. Blair's critical position differs widely from Wendt's, and his 
Apostolic Gospel contains much more besides sayings. 

• Aussercanonische Paralleltexte xu den Evangelien, 


on an older written source, whose accounts of evangelic incidents are 
reproduced in a more faithful manner in the companion Gospels, and 
especially in Matthew. This source he takes to be the Logia of the 
apostle Matthew. It follows from this, of course, that the Logia 
was not a mere collection of sayings, but a book containing histories 
as well, such narratives, e.g., as those relating to the palsied man, 
the feeding of the 5000, and the blind man at Jericho. The pheno- 
mena on which Weiss rests his case are of two kinds. One group 
consists of minute agreements between Matthew and Luke against 
Mark in narratives common to the three, as, e.g., in the use of the 
words iSoii and eirl K\irr|s in the opening sentence of the story of the 
palsied man. The inference is that these phrases are taken from the 
Logia, implying of course that the story was there for those who 
chose to use it. The other group consists of sayings of Jesus found 
in Mark's Gospel, and reproduced also in Matthew and Luke in 
nearly identical form, yet not taken, it is held, from Mark, but from 
the Logia. The contention is that the close similarity can be 
accounted for only by the assumption that Mark, as well as his 
brother evangelists, took the words from the Logia. An instance in 
point may be found in the respectiv<i accounts of the reply of Jesus 
to the charge of being in league with Beelzebub. Wendt dissents 
from the inference of Weiss in bof.J classes of cases. The one group 
of facts he explains by assuming that Luke had access to the first 
canonical gospel ; in the second group he sees simply accidental 
correspondences between independent traditions preserved respec- 
tively in the Logia and in Mark.^ 

Sectiok II. Historicity. 

1. The Gospels primd facie wear the aspect of books aiming 
at giving a true if not a full account of the life, and more especially 
of the public career, of Jesus Christ, the Author of the Christian 
faith. For Christians, writings having such an aim must possess 
unique interest. There is nothing an earnest believer in Christ 
more desires to know than the actual truth about Him : what He 
said, did, and experienced. How far do the books, the study of 
which is to engage our attention, satisfy this desire ? To what 
extent are they historically reliable ? 

2. The question has been recently propounded and discussed: 

^ Die Lehre Jesu, Erster Theil, pp. 191-3. On the question whether the third 
evangelist used canonical Matthew, vide the Abhandlung of Edward Simons, 
Bonn, 1880. 


\\'h;it interest (.lid tlic apostolic ai;c take in the evangelic history? 
and the conclusion arrived at that the earthly lile of Jesus inter- 
ested it very little.' Now, there can be no doubt that, comparing 
that age with the present time, the statement is true. We live in an 
age when the historical spirit is in the ascendant, creating an insati- 
able desire to know the origins of every movement which has affected, 
to any extent, the fortunes of humanity. Moreover, Christianity 
has undergone an evolution resulting in types of this religion which 
are, on various grounds, unsatisfactory to many thoughtful persons. 
Hence has arisen a powerful reaction of which the watchword is — 
" Back to Christ," and to which additional intensity has been given 
by the conviction that modern types of Christianity, whether eccle- 
siastical, philosophical, or pietistic, all more or less foster, if they do 
not avow, indifference to the historic foundations of the faith. We 
have thus a religious as well as a Rcientific reason for our desire to 
know the actual Jesus of history. lu the primitive era, faith was 
free to follow its native tendency to be content with its immediate 
object, the Risen Lord, and to rely on the inward illumination of the 
Holy Spirit as the source of all knowledge necessary for a godly life. 
This indifference might conceivably pass into hostility. Faith might 
busy itself \n transforming unwelcome farts so as To make the his- 
toiy serve its purpose. For the historic interest and the religious 
are not identical. Science wants to know the actual facts ; religion 
wants facts to be such as will serve its ends. It sometimes idealises, 
transforms, even invents history to accomplish this object. We are 
not entitled to assume, a priori, that apostolic Christianity entirely 
escaped this temptation. The suggestion that the faith of the primi- 
tive Church took hohd of the story of Jesus and so transfigured it 
that the true image of Him is no longer recoverable, however scepti- 
cal, is not without plausibility. The more moderate statement that 
the apostolic Church, while knowing and accepting many facts about 
Jesus, was not interested in them as facts, but only as aids to faith, 
has a greater show of reason. It might well be that the teaching of 
Jesus was regarded not so much as a necessary source of the know- 
ledge of truth, but rather as a confirmation of knowledge already 
possessed, and that the acts and experiences of Jesus were viewed 
chiefly in the light of verifications of His claim to be the Messiah. 
It does not greatly matter to us what the source of interest in the 
evangelic facts was so long as they are facts ; if the primitive 
Church in its traditions concerning Jesus was simply utilising and 

^ Vide Von Soden's essay in the Theologische Abhandlungen, Carl von VVeis- 
tdcker Geteidmet, 1892. 


not manufacturing history. There is good reason to believe that in 
the main this is the true state of the case. Not only so, there are 
grounds for the opinion that the historic spirit — interest in facts as 
facts — was not wanting even amid the fervour of the apostolic age. 
It may be worth while to mention some of these, seeing they make 
for the historicity of the main body of the evangelic tradition con- 
cerning the words, deeds, and sufferings of Jesus as these are re- 
corded, e.g., in the Gospel of Mark. 

3. In this connection it deserves a passing notice that there 
existed in the primitive Church a party interested in the fact-know- 
ledge of Jesus, the knowledge of Christ "after the flesh " in Pauline 
phrase, a Christ party. From the statement made by St. Paul in 
the text from which the phrase just quoted is taken, it has been in- 
ferred that the apostle was entirely indiffb.-ent to the historical 
element.^ The inference seems to me hasty ; but, be this as it may, 
what I am now concerned to point out is that, if St. Paul under- 
valued the facts of the personal ministry, there were those who did 
not. There was a party who made acquaintance with these facts a 
necessary qualification for the apostleship, and on this ground denied 
that St. Paul was an apostle. The assumption underlying the Tubin- 
gen tendency-criticism is that there were two parties in the apostolic 
Church interested in misrepresenting Jesus in different directions, 
one virtually making Him a narrow Judaist, the other making Him a 
Pauline universalist, neither party being worthy of implicit trust. 
This hypothesis presents a somewhat distorted view of the situation. 
It would be nearer the truth to say that there was a party inter- 
ested in facts and another interested chiefly in ideas. The one 
valued facts without seeing their significance; the other valued 
ideas without taking much trouble to indicate the fact-basis. To the 
bias of the former party we might be indebted for knowledge of many 
facts in the life of Jesus, the significance of which was not under- 
stood by the transmitters of the tradition. 

4. Even within the Pauline party there were those who were 
interested in facts and in some measure animated by the historical 
spirit. So far from regarding Paulinists in general as idealists, we 
ought probably to regard St. Paul, in his passion for ideas and 
apparent indifference to biographic detail, as an exception ; and to 
think of the majority of his followers as men who, while sympathising 
with his universalism, shared in no small measure the common 
(Jewish realism. Of this type was Luke. The absence from his 

^ 2 Corinthians v. 16. 


Gospel of even the rudiments of a doctrine of atonement, so con- 
spicuous a topic in the Pauline epistles, will be remarked on here- 
after ; meantime I direct attention simply to its opening sentence. 
That prefatory statement is full of words and phrases breathing the 
fact-loving spirit : ncir\T)po4)opT]fi^>'WK it pay fidroiv, dir' dpxtjs auToirrai Kai 
i5Tn]p£Tai, dKpiPws, d(r<j)dX€ia»'. The author wants to deal with facts 
believed ; he wishes, as far as possible, to be guided by the testimony 
of eye-witnesses ; he means to take pains in the ascertainment of the 
trutli, that the friend for whose benefit he writes may attain unto 
certainty. The question here is not how far he succeeded in his 
aim; the point insisted on is the aim itself, the historical spirit 
evinced. Luke may have been unconsciously influenced to a con- 
siderable extent by religious bias, preconceived opinion, accepted 
Christian belief, and therefore not sufficiently critical, and too easily 
satisfied with evidence ; but he honestly wanted to know the historic 
truth. And in this desire he doubtless represented a class, and 
wrote to meet a demand on part of Christians who felt a keen 
interest in the memorabilia of the Pounder, and were not satisfied 
with the sources at command on account of their fragmentariness, 
or occasional want of agreement with each other.^ 

5. The peculiar character of the apostle who stood at the head 
of the primitive Jewish Church has an important bearing on the 
question of historicity. For our knowledge of Peter we are not 
wholly dependent on the documet^ts whose historicity is in question. 
We have a rapid pencil-sketch of him in the epistles of St. Paul, 
easily recognisable as that of the same man of whom we have a 
more finished picture in the Gospels. A genial, frank, impulsive, 
outspoken, generous, wide-hearted man; not preoccupied with 
theories, illogical, inconsistent, now on one side, now on the other ; 
brave yet cowardly, capable of honest sympathy with Christian 
universalism, yet under pressure apt to side with Jewish bigots. 
A most unsatisfactory, provoking person to deal with for such a man 
as St. Paul, with his sharply defined position, thorough-going 
adherence to principle, and firm resolute will. Yes, but also a very 
satisfactory source of first-hand traditions concerning Jesus; an 
excellent witness, if a weak apostle. A source, a copious fountain of 
information he was bound to be. We do not need Papias to tell us 
this. This disciple, open-hearted and open-mouthed, must speak 
concerning his beloved Master. It will not be long before everybody 
knows what he has to tell concerning the ministry of the Lord. 

* Von Soden, in the essay above referred to, takes no notice of Luke's preface, 


Papias reports that in Mark's Gospel we have the literary record of 
Peter's testimony. The statement is entirely credible. Peter would 
say more than others about Jesus; he would say all in a vivid way, 
and Mark's narrative reflects the style of an impressionable eye- 
witness. If it be a faithful report of Peter's utterances the general 
truth of its picture of Jesus may be implicitly relied on. For Peter 
was not a man likely to be biassed by theological tendency. What 
we expect from him is rather a candid recital of things as they 
happened, without regard to, possibly without perception of, their 
bearing on present controversies ; a rough, racy, unvarnished story, 
unmanipulated in the interest of ideas or theories, which are not in 
this man's line. How far the narratives of the second Gospel bear 
out this character will appear hereafter. 

6. The other fact mentioned by Papias, viz., that the apostle 
Matthew was the source of the evangelic tradition relating to the 
words of Jesus, has an important bearing on historicity. Outside 
the Gospels we have no information concerning this disciple such as 
we have of Peter in the Pauline letters. But we may safely assume 
the truth of the Gospel accounts which represent him as having been 
a tax-gatherer before he was called to discipleship. The story of his 
call, under the name of Matthew or Levi, is told in all the three 
synoptists, as is also the significant incident of the feast following at 
which Jesus met with a large company of publicans. There is 
reason to believe that in calling this disciple our Lord had in view 
not merely ultimate service as an apostle, but immediate service in 
connection with the meeting with the publicans ; that, in short, Jesus 
associated Matthew with Himself that He might use him as an 
instrument for initiating a mission to the class to which he had 
belonged. But if the Master might call a fit man to discipleship for 
one form of immediate service, He might call him for more than 
one. Another service the ex-publican might be able to render was 
that of secretary. In his old occupation he would be accustomed to 
writing, and it might be Christ's desire to utilise that talent for 
noting down things worthy of record. The gift would be most in 
demand in connection with the teaching of the Master. The 
preservation of that element could not be safely trusted to memories 
quite equal to the retention of remarkable healing acts, accompanied 
by not less remarkable sayings. The use of the pen at the moment 
might be necessary. And of all the members of the disciple-circle 
the ex-publican was the likeliest man for that sen'ice. We are not 
surprised, therefore, that the function assigned to Matthew in con- 
nection with the evangelic tradition is the preservation of the Logia. 



That is just the part he was fitted to perform. As little are \vc 
surprised that Mark's Gospel, hased on Peter's recollections, contains 
so little of the teaching. Peter was not the kind of man to take 
notes, nor were discourses full of deep thought the kind of material 
he was likely to remember. What would make an indelible impres- 
sion on him would be, not thought, but extraordinary deeds, 
accompanied by striking gestures, original brief replies to embarrass- 
ing questions and the like ; just such things as we find reported in 
the second Gospel. 

From Matthew the publican might be expected not only a record 
of Christ's teaching as distinct from His actions, but an impartial 
record. We should not suspect him any more than Peter of 
theological bias; least of all in the direction of Judaism. As a 
Galilean he belonged to a half-Gentile community, and as a pub- 
lican he was an outcast for orthodox Jews. It was probably the 
humane spirit and wide sympathies of Jesus that drew him from the 
receipt of custom. If, therefore, we find in the Login any sayings 
ascribed to Jesus of a universalistic character we do not feel in the 
least tempted to doubt their authenticity. If, on 'he other hand, we 
meet with words of an apparently opposite character we are not 
greatly startled and ready to exclaim, Behold the hand of an inter- 
polator ! We rather incline to see in the combination of seemingly 
incongruous elements the evidence of candid chronicling. It is the 
case of an honest reporter taking down this and that without asking 
himself whether this can be reconciled with that. That a deep, 
many-sided mind like that of Jesus might give birth to startling 
paradoxes is no wise incredible. Therefore, without undertaking 
responsibility for every expression, one may without hesitation en- 
dorse the sentiment of Jiilicher, " that Jewish and anti-Jewish, 
revolutionary and conservative, new and old, freedom and narrow- 
ness in judgment, sensuous hopes and a spiritualism blending 
together present and future, meet together, by no means weakens 
our impression that Jesus really here speaks ".^ 

7. The mere fact of the preservation of Mark's Gospel is not 
without a bearing on the question of historicity. In its own way it 
testifies to the influence of the historic as distinct from the religious 
spirit in the early period of the Christian era. It would not have 
been at all surprising if that Gospel had fallen out of existence, 
seeing that its contents have been absorbed into the more compre- 
hensive Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Assuming the correctness 

* EinUitung in das Neue Testament, p. 231. 


of modern critical views, the Logla of the Apostle Matthew has dis- 
appeared; how did it come about that the second Gospel did not 
disappear also, especially in view of its defects, as they would be re- 
garded, comparing it with the longer narratives of the same type ? 
Whether the authors of the first and third Gospels aimed at super- 
seding the Logia and Mark is a question that need not be discussed. 
From Luke's preface it might plausibly be inferred that he did 
aspire at giving so full and satisfactory an account of the life of 
Jesus as should render earlier attempts superfluous. If he did, he 
was not successful. The Gospel without the story of the infancy, 
and the Sermon on the Mount, and the detailed appearances after the 
resurrection, survived. It might be undervalued. There is evidence 
of preference and partiality for one Gospel as against another in 
Patristic literature. Clement of Alexandria, true to his philosophy, 
undervalued all the synoptists as compared with the fourth Gospel, 
because they showed merely the body of Jesus, while the fourth 
Gospel showed His spirit. Augustine regarded Mark as a mere 
pedissequus to Matthew, en laqnais, as D'Eichthal irreverently but 
not incorrectly renders the word.^ Still Mark held his place, mere 
lackey to Matthew though some supposed him to be. The reason 
might be in part that he had got too strong a hold before the com- 
panion Gospels appeared, to be easily dislodged, and had to be 
accepted in spite of defects and apparent superfluousness. But I 
think there was also a worthier reason, a certain diffused thankful- 
ness for every scrap of information concerning the Lord Jesus, 
especially such as was believed to rest on apostolic testimony. 
Mark's Gospel passed for a report of St. Peter's reminiscences of 
the Master ; therefore by all means let it be preserved, though it 
contained no account of the childhood of Jesus, and very imperfect 
reports of His teaching and of the resurrection. It was apostolic, 
therefore to be respected; as apostolic it was trustworthy, there- 
fore to be valued. In short, the presence of the second Gospel in 
the New Testament, side by side with Matthew and Luke, is a wit- 
ness to the prevalence in the Church of the first century of the 
historical spirit acting as a check on the religious spirit, whose in- 
stinctive impulse would be to obliterate traces of discrepancy, and to 
suppress all writings relating to the Christian origins which in their 
presentation of Jesus even seemed to sink below the level of the 
Catholic faith, 

8. The foregoing five considerations all tend to make a favour 

* Vide his work Les EvangileSy p. 66. 


able impression as to the historicity of the evangelic tradition in 
general. More special CDnsiderations are needful when the tradition 
is broken up into distinct divisions. The tradition consists of three 
layers. Faith would make three demands for information concern- 
ing its object : what did He teach ? what did He do ? how did 
He suffer ? Some think that the first and most urgent demand 
would be for information concerning the teaching, and that only in 
the second place would there grow up a desire for narratives of facts 
and experiences. According to Holtzmann the order was : first the 
Logia, then the passion-drama, then the anecdotes of memorable 
acts.^ I should be inclined to invert the order of the first two items, 
and to say : the Passion, the Logia, the memorable incidents. But 
the more important question is : how far can the evangelic records 
concerning these three departments of the tradition be trusted ? 
Only a few hints can be given by way of answer here. 

9. The narratives of the Passion, given in all the four Gospels 
with disproportionate fulness, have lately been subjected to a 
searching analysis in a sceptical spirit rivalling that of Strauss. 
Dr. Brandt,2 after doing his utmost to shake our faith in the trust- 
worthiness of these pathetic records, still leaves to us eight par- 
ticulars, which even he is constrained to recognise as historical. 
These are : betrayal by one of the twelve ; desertion by all of them ; 
denial by Peter; death sentence under the joint responsibility of 
Jewish rulers and Roman procurator; assistance in carrying the cross 
rendered by Simon of Cyrene ; crucifixion on a hill called Golgotha ; 
the crime charged indicated by the inscription, " King of the Jews " ; 
death, if not preceded by a prayer for the murderers, or by the 
despairing cry, " My God, my God," at least heralded by a loud 
voice. In these particulars we have the skeleton of the story, all that 
is needful to give the Passion tragic significance, and even to form 
a basis for theological constructions. The items omitted, the 
process before the Sanhedrim, the interviews with Pilate and 
Herod, the mockery of the soldiers, the preferential release of 
Barabbas, the sneers of passers-by, the two thieves, the parting of the 
raiment, the words from the cross, the preternatural accompaniments 
of death, are all more or less of the nature of accessories, enhancing 
greatly the impressiveness of the picture, suggesting additional 
lessons, but not altering the character of the event as a whole. 

But even accessories are important, and not to be lightly given 

* Vide Hand-Commentar, pp. 13-17. 

• Die Evangelische Geschichte und der Ursprung des Christentkums, 1893. 


over to the tender mercies of sceptical critics. Tlie reasons assigned 
for treating them as unhistoric are not convincing. They come 
mostly under three heads: The influence of Old Testament prophecy, 
the absence of witnesses, and the bias manifest in the accounts of 
the trial against the Jews and in favour of the Gentiles. By 
reference to the first a whole group of incidents, including the cry, 
" Eli, Eli," are summarily disposed of. Texts taken from Psalm xxii. 
and Isaiah liii. created corresponding facts. This is a gratuitous 
assumption. The facts suggested the prophecies, the prophecies did 
not create the facts. The facts were there, and the primitive 
disciples looked out for Messianic oracles to suit them, by way of 
furnishing themselves with an apologetic for the thesis, Jesus is the 
Christ. In some cases the links of proof are weak; no one could 
have thought of the texts unless the facts had been there to suggest 
them. The plea of lack of witnesses applies to what took place 
between Jesus and the various authorities before whom He appeared : 
the High Priests, Pilate, Herod. Who, it is asked, were there to 
see or hear? Who likely to be available as witnesses for the 
evangelic tradition ? We cannot tell ; yet it is possible there was 
quite sufficient evidence, though also possible, doubtless, that the 
evangelists were not in all cases able to give exact verifiable informa- 
tion, but were obliged to give simply the best information obtainable. 
This, at least, we may claim for them, that they did their best to 
ascertain the facts. As to the alleged prejudice leading to unfair 
distribution of blame for our Lord's death between the Jewish 
authorities and the Roman governor, we may admit that there were 
temptations to such partiality, arising out of natural dislike of the 
Jews and unequally natural desire to win the favour of those who 
held the reins of empire. Yet on the whole it may be affirmed that 
the representation of the evangelists is intrinsically credible as in 
harmony with all we know about the principal actors in the great 

10. With regard to the teaching, it is of course obvious that all 
recorded sayings of Jesus do not possess the same attestation. Some 
words are found in all three synoptists, some in two, and not a few 
in only one. Yet in many instances we can feel as sure of the 
authenticity of sayings found in a single Gospel as of that of sayings 
occurring in all the three. Who can doubt, e.g., that the word, " the 
Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath," emanated 
from the great Master ? It is well in this connection to have before 
our minds the rules by which judgment should be guided. The 
following canons may legitimately be relied on : — 


(rt) Sayings supported by full synoptical attestation may be 
regarded as in substance autlieiitic. 

(b) Sayings unsupported by full synoptical attestation may be 
regarded as authentic when their absence from a particular Gospel 
can be explained by its plan, or by the idiosyncrasy of its author. 
This covers not a few omissions by Luke. 

(c) Sayings found only in a single Gospel may be accepted as 
authentic when they sympathise with and form a natural complement 
to other well-attested sayings. This remark applies to the sayings in 
Luke vii. 47, xv. 7, concerning the connection between little forgive- 
ness and little love, and about the joy of finding things lost, which 
are complementary to the saying in all three synoptists : " the whole 
need not a physician ; " the three sayings together constituting a full 
apology for the relations between Jesus and the sinful. 

(d) All sayings possess intrinsic credibility which suit the general 
historical situation. This applies to Christ's antipharisaic utterances, 
an element very prominent in Matthew, and very much restricted in 

(e) All sayings may be accepted as self-attested and needing no 
other attestation which bear the unmistakable stamp of a unique 
religious genius, rise above the capacity of the reporters, and are 
reported by them simply as unforgettable memories of the great 
Teacher handed down by a faithful tradition. 

The chief impulse to collecting the sayings of Jesus was not a 
purely historical interest, but a desire to find in the words of the 
Master what might serve as a rule to believers for the guidance of 
their life. Hence may be explained the topical grouping of sayings 
in Matthew and Luke, especially in the former, e.g., in the tenth 
chapter, whose rubric might be : a directory for the mission work of 
the church ; and in the eighteenth, which might be headed : how 
the members of the Christian brotherhood are to behave towards 
each other. The question suggests itself, Would the influence of 
the practical aim be confined to grouping ? Would it not extend to 
modifications, expansions, additions, even inventions, that the words 
of the Master might cover all present requirements and correspond 
fully to present circumstances and convictions ? On this topic 
Weizsacker makes the following statement : " From the beginning 
the tradition consisted not in mere repetition, but in repetition 
combined with creative activity. And from the nature of the case 
this activity increased as time went on. Elucidations grew into te.xt. 
The single saying was multiplied with the multiplication of its uses, 
or the words were referred to a definite case and correspondingly 


modified. Finally, words were inserted into the text of Jesus' 
sayings, especially in the form of instances of narrative, which were 
only meant to make His utterances more distinct.*" This may 
seem to open a door to licence, but second thoughts tend to allay our 
fears. The aim itself supplied a check to undue freedom. Just 
because disciples desired to follow the Master and make His words 
their law, they would wish to be sure that the reported sayings gave 
them the thoughts of Jesus at least, if not His ipsissima verba. 
Then there is reason to believe that the process of fixing the 
tradition was substantially completed when the memory of Jesus was 
recent, and the men who had been with Him were at hand to guide 
and control the process. Weizsacker remarks that very little of the 
nature of accretion originated elsewhere than in the primitive church, 
and that the great mass of the evangelic tradition was formed under 
the influence of the living tradition.' That is to say, the freedom of 
the apostolic age was controlled by knowledge and reverence. It 
was known what the Master had taught, and great respect was 
cherished for His authority. If there was no superstitious concern 
as to literal accuracy, there was a loyal solicitude that the meaning 
conveyed by words should be true to the mind of Christ. 

11. The incidents of the Healing Ministry, which form the bulk 
of the narrative of events, are complicated with the question of 
miracle. Those for whom it is an axiom that a miracle is impossible 
are tempted to pronounce on that ministry the summary and sweep- 
ing verdict, unhistorical. This is not a scientific procedure. The 
question of fact should be dealt with separately on its own grounds, 
and the question of explicability taken up only in the second place. 
There are good reasons for believing that the healing ministry, mir- 
aculous or not miraculous, was a great fact in the public career of 
Jesus. Healing is associated with teaching in all general notices of 
our Lord's work. Nine acts of healing, some of them very remark- 
able, are reported in all the synoptical Gospels. The healing element 
in the ministry is so interwoven with the didactic that the former 
cannot be eliminated without destroying the whole story. This is 
frankly acknowledged by Harnack, who, if he does not doubt the 
reality of miracles, attaches very little apologetic value to them.' 
The occasional notices in the Gospels of contemporary opinions, 
impressions, and theories regarding Christ's actions speak to some- 
thing extraordinary over and above the preaching and teaching. 

I The Apostolic Age, vol. ii., p. 62. * ■'^*"^- 

» History of Dogma, vol. f., p. 65, note 3. 


Mark's graphic report of the impression produced by Christ's first 
appearance in the sj'nagoi»up of Capernaum may be cited as an 
instance. " What is this? A new teaching !— with authority He 
commandeth even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him."i This 
is a veritable reminiscence, and it points to a double surprise created 
by an original style of preaching, and by an unprecedented power. 
Still more significant are the theories invented to explain away 
the power. The Pharisees accounted for it, as displayed in the 
cure of demoniacs, by the suggestion of an alliance with Beelzebub. 
Herod said : " It is John whom 1 beheaded risen from the dead and 
exercising the power of the spirit world ". The one theory was 
malevolent, the other absurd, but the point to be noticed is the 
existence of the theories. Men do not theorise about nothing. 
There were remarkable facts urgently demanding explanation of 
some sort. 

The healing acts of Jesus then, speaking broadly, were to begin 
with facts. How they are to be explained, and what they imply as 
to the Person of the Healer, are questions for science and theology. 
It is not scientific to neglect the phenomena as unworthy of notice. 
As little is it scientific to make the solution easy by under-statement 
of the facts to be explained, as, e.g., by viewing demoniacal possession 
as an imaginary disease. Demoniacal possession might be an 
imaginary explanation of certain classes of diseases, but the dis- 
eases themselves were serious enough, as serious as madness and 
epilepsy, which appear to have formed the physical basis of the 

Finally, it is not to be supposed that these healing acts, though 
indubitable facts, have no permanent religious value. Their use in 
the evidences of Christianity may belong to an antiquated type of 
apologetic, but in other respects their significance is perennial. 
Whether miraculous or not, they equally reveal the wide-hearted 
benevolence of Jesus. They throw a side light on His doctrine of 
God and of man, and especially on His conception of the ideal of 
life. The healing ministry was a tacit but effective protest against 
asceticism and the dualism on which it rests, and a proof that 
Jesus had no sympathy with the hard antithesis between spirit and 

12. Before leaving the topic of historicity, it may be well here to 
refer to a line of evidence which, though not worked out, has been 
suggestively sketched by Professor Sanday in his Bampton Lectures 

' Mark i. 27. 


on Inspiration. The thesis to be proved is " that the great mass of 
the narrative in the first three Gospels took its shape before the 
destruction of Jerusalem, i.e., within less than forty years of the 
events ".^ " Was there ever," asks Dr. Sanday, " an easier problem 
for a critic to decide whether the sayings and narratives which lie 
before him came from the one side of this chasm or the other ? " 
Among the instances he cites are such as these : " If, therefore, 
thou art offering thy gift at the altar, and then rememberest that 
thy brother hath aught against thee," etc. " Woe unto you, ye blind 
guides, which say, whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing,' 
etc. " See thou tell no man, but go thy way, show thyself to the 
priest," etc. That is to say, the altar, the temple, the priesthood 
are still in existence. This is not decisive as to the date of our Gos- 
pels, but it is decisive as to much of the material contained in them 
having assumed fixed shape, either in oral or in written form, before 
the great crisis of Israel. 

13. Historicity, be it finally noted, is not to be confounded with 
absolute accuracy, or perfect agreement between parallel accounts. 
Harmonistic is a thing of the past. It was a well-meant discipline, 
but it took in hand an insoluble problem, and it unduly magnified the 
importance of a solution, even if it had been possible. Questions as 
to occasions on which reported words and acts of Jesus were spoken 
or done, as to the connections between sayings grouped together in 
one Gospel, dispersed in the pages of another, as to the diverse 
forms of sayings in parallel reports, are for us now secondary. The 
broad question we ask as to the words of Jesus is : have we here, in 
the main, words actually spoken by Jesus, once or twice, now or 
then, in this connection or in that, in separate aphorisms or in con- 
nected discourse, in the form reported by this or that evangelist, or 
in a form not exactly reproduced by any of them, yet conveying a 
sense sufficiently reflected in all the versions ? Is the Lord's prayer 
the Lord's at whatever time given to His disciples ? Is the "Sermon 
on the Mount" made up of real utterances of Jesus, whether all 
spoken at one time, as Matthew's report seems to imply, or on 
various occasions, as we should infer from Luke's narrative ? Did 
Jesus actually say: " I came not to call the righteous, but sinners," 
whether with the addition, " to repentance," as it stands in Luke, or 
without, as in the genuine text of the same Logion in Matthew and 
Mark? Did He speak the parable of the lost sheep— whether in 
Matthew's form or in Luke's, or in a form differing verbally from 

» Page 283. 


both — to disciples, to Pharisees, or perhaps to neither, but to pubH- 
cuns, yet conveying in some form and to some audience the great 
thought that there was a passion in His heart and in the heart of 
God for saving lost men? It is greatly to be desired that devout 
readers of the Gospels should be emancipated from legal bondage to 
the theological figment of inerrancy. Till this is done, it is impos- 
sible to enjoy in full the Gospel story, or feel its essential truth and 


Section T. Contents. 

1. The second Gospel has no account of the birth and infancy of 
Jesus. The narrative opens with the prelude to the public ministry, 
the preaching and baptism of the prophet John ; and the sequel 
consists of a rapid sketch of that ministry in a series of graphic tab- 
leaux from its commencement in Galilee to its tragic close in Jerusa- 
lem. This fact alone raises a presumption in favour of Mark's claim 
to be the earliest of the three synoptical Gospels. Other considera- 
tions pointing in the same direction are its comparative brevity and 
the meagreness of its account of Christ's teaching. This Gospel 
wears the aspect of a first sketch of the memorable career of one 
who had become an object of religious faith and love to the circle of 
readers for whose benefit it was written. As such it is entitled to 
precedence in an introduction to the three synoptists, though, in our 
detailed comments, we follow the order in which they are arranged in 
the New Testament. It is convenient to take Mark first for this 
further reason, that from its pages we can form the clearest idea of 
the general course of our Lord's history after He entered on His 
Messianic calling. In none of the three Gospels can we find a 
definite chronological plan, but it is possible from any one of them to 
form a general idea of the leading stages of the ministry, and most 
easily and clearly from the second. 

2. The first stage was the synagogue ministry. After His bap- 
tism in the Jordan and His temptation in the wilderness, Jesus 
returned to Galilee and began to preach the " Gospel of the King- 
dom of God".^ The synagogue was the scene of this preaching. 
The first appearance of Jesus in a synagogue was in Capernaum, 
where He at once made a great impression both by His discourse 
and by the cure of a demoniac.'* This was simply the commence- 

» Mark i. 14. * Mark i. 27. 


meiit of a preaching* tour in the synagogues of Galilee. Jesus made 
no stay in Capernaum. He left the town the day after He preached 
in its synagogue, very early in the morning.' He left so early in 
the day because He feared detention by the people. He left in such 
haste because He knew that He could preach in the synagogues 
only by the consent of the authorities, which might soon be with- 
held through sinister influence. This synagogue preaching naturally 
formed the first phase in Christ's work. The synagogue presented 
a ready opportunity of coming into contact with the people. Any 
man might speak there with the permission of the ruler. But he 
could speak only so long as he was a persona grata, and Jesus, con- 
scious of the wide cleavage in thought and feeling between Himself 
and the scribes, could not but fear that He would not remain such 
long. It was now or never, at the outset or not at all, so far as the 
synagogue was concerned. 

3. How long this synagogue ministry lasted is not expressly in- 
dicated. A considerable period is implied in the statement : " He 
preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee 'V It is not 
necessary to take this strictly, especially in view of the populousness 
of Galilee and the multitude of its towns large and small, as indi- 
cated by Josephus.^ But the statement must be taken in earnest 
so far as to recognise that Jesus had a deliberate plan for a 
synagogue ministry in Galilee, and that He carried it out to a con- 
siderable extent. It is not improbable that it was interrupted by the 
influence of the scribes, whom we find lying in wait for Him on His 
return from the preaching tour to Capernaum.* 

4. With the anecdote in which the scribes figure as captious 
critics of Jesus a new phase in the story begins. The keynote of 
the first chapter is popularity ; that of the next is opposition. In 
this juxtaposition the evangelist is not merely aiming at dramatic 
effect, but reflecting in his narrative a real historical sequence. The 
popularity and the opposition were related to each other as cause 
and effect. It is true that having once entered on this second topic, 
he groups together a series of incidents illustrating the hostile atti- 
tude of the scribes, which have a topical rather than a temporal 
connection, in this probably following the example of his voucher, 
Peter. These extend from chap. ii. 1 to chap. iii. 6, constituting the 

' Mark i. 35. * Mark i. 39. 

• Josephus gives the number of towns at 204, the smallest having 15,000 inhabi- 
tants. Vide bis Vita, chap. xlv. , and Bell, jfnd., iii., 2, 3. 

* Chap. ii. I. 


second division of the story, chap. i. 14-45 being the first. The two 
together set before us the two forces whose action and interaction 
can be traced throughout the drama, and whose resultant will be 
the cross : the favour of the people, the ill-will of their religious 

5. Within the second group of anecdotes illustrating the hos- 
tility of the scribes, a place is assigned to an incident which ought 
not to be regarded as a mere subordinate detail under that general 
category, but rather as pointing to another phase of our Lord's 
activity co-ordinate in importance with the preaching in the 
synagogues. I refer to the meeting with the publicans, and in con- 
nection with that the call of Levi or Matthew.^ That action of 
Jesus had a decisive effect in alienating the scribes, but meantime 
this is not the thing to be emphasised. We have to recognise in 
this new movement a second stage in the ministry of Jesus. First, 
preaching in the synagogues to the Jews of respectable character 
and good religious habit ; next, a mission to the practically excom- 
municated, non-synagogue-going, socially outcast part of the com- 
munity. Mark, more than his brother evangelists, shows his sense 
of the importance and significance of this new departure, especially 
by the observation : " there were many (publicans and sinners), and 
they followed Him ".'' That is to say, the class was large enough to 
demand special attention, and they were inviting attention and 
awakening interest in them by the interest they on their side were 
beginning to take in Jesus and His work. Without doubt this 
mission to the publicans bulked much larger in fact than it does in 
the pages of the evangelists or in the thoughts of average readers of 
the Gospels, and it must be one of the cares of the interpreter to 
make it appear in its true dimensions.^ There is nothing in the 
Gospels more characteristic of Jesus, or of deeper, more lasting sig- 
nificance as to the nature and tendency of the Christian faith. 

6. The third stage in the ministry of Jesus was the formation of 
a disciple-circle. Of the beginnings of this movement Mark gives us 
a glimpse in chap. i. 16-20, where he reports the call of the four 
fishermen, Peter and Andrew, James and John ; and in the words 
Jesus is reported to have spoken to the first pair of brothers there 
is a clear indication of a purpose to gather about Him a band of men 
not merely for personal service but in order to training for a high 
calling. Levi's call, reported in chap, ii., is another indication of 

^ Chap. ii. 13-17. ' Chap. ii. 15. 

* Vide notes on this section in Matthew and in Mark. 


the same kind. But it is in the section of the Gospel beginning at 
chap. iii. 7, and extending to chap. vi. 13, that the disciples pro- 
perly come to the front. An intention on the part of the evangelist 
to give them prominence is betrayed in the pointed way in which he 
refers to them in iii. 7 : " And Jesus with the disciples withdrew 
towards the sea "} A little further on in the same chapter we read 
of the retirement of Jesus to the mountain with a band of disciples, 
out of which He selects an inner circle of twelve.'* And at various 
points in this division of the Gospel the disciple-band is referred to 
in a way to indicate that they are assuming a new importance to the 
mind of Jesus.' 

7. This importance was due in part to dissatisfaction with the 
result of the general ministry among the people. Jesus had preached 
often, and healed many, in synagogue and highway, and had become 
in consequence ihe idol of the masses who gathered in increasing 
numbers from all quarters, and crowded around Him wherever He 
went, as we read in chap. iii. 7-12. But this popularity did not 
gratify Him ; it rather bored Him. He did not weary in well-doing, 
but He was disappointed with the outcome. This disappointment 
found expression in the parable of the sower, which was really a 
critical estimate of the synagogue ministry to this sad effect : much 
seed sown ; little fruit. From this comparatively fruitless ministry 
among the many, Jesus turned with yearning to the susceptible few 
in hope to find in them a good soil that should bring forth ripe fruit, 
thirty, sixty, or even an hundred fold. After a long enough time had 
elapsed to make it possible to form an estimate of the spiritual 
situation. He judged that in a disciple-circle lay His only chance of 
deep permanent influence. Hence He naturally sought to extricate 
Himself from the crowd, and to get away from collisions with un- 
sympathetic scribes, that He might have leisure to indoctrinate the 
chosen band ir the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven. Leisure, 
quiet, retirement — that more and more was His aim. 

8. This desire for opportunity to perform the functions of a 
master is made more apparent by Mark than by the two other 
synoptists. He comes far short of them in his report of Christ's 
teaching, but he brings out much more clearly than they Christ's 
desire for undisturbed intercourse with the twelve, the reasons for 
it, and the persistent efforts of the Master to accomplish His object. 
It is from his pages we learn of the escapes of Jesus from the crowds 

^ ftera rSiy fiaOrjrwy Stands before avex'^PV'ff >" ^^ best texts. 
" Chap. iii. 13. * Vide iii. 31-35 ; iv. 10-25 I ^' 7-I3' 


and from the scribes. These escapes, as reported by Mark, take 
place in all directions possible for one whose work lay on the 
western shore of the Sea of Galilee : towards the hill behind, 
towards the eastern shore, towards the northern borderland. Five 
in all are mentioned : one to the hill ; ^ two to the eastern shore, 
first in an eastward,^ then in a northerly direction ; ' two to the 
north, first to the borders of Tyre and Sidon,* next to the neigh- 
bourhood of Caesarea Philippi.* All had the same end in view : the 
instruction of the disciples. It was in connection with the first that 
the " Sermon on the Mount," or the Teaching on the Hill, though 
not mentioned by Mark, was doubtless communicated. The second 
and third attempts, the flights across the lake, were unsuccessful, 
being frustrated in the first case by an accidental meeting with a 
demoniac, and in the second by the determination of the multitude 
not to let Jesus get away from the* *. Therefore, to make sure, the 
Master had to retire with His lisciples to the northern limits of the 
land, and even beyond them, into Gentile territory, that there He 
might, undisturbed, talk to His disciples about the crisis that He 
now clearly perceived to be approaching. 

9. These last flights of Jesus take us on to a point in the story 
considerably in advance of the end of the third section, chap. vi. 13. 
The material lying between this place and chap. viii. 27 shows us the 
progress of the drama under the ever-intensifying influence of the 
two great forces, popularity and hostility. The multitude grows 
ever larger till it reaches the dimensions of 5000,* and the enmity of 
the scribes becomes ever more acute as the divergence of the ways 
of Jesus from theirs becomes increasingly manifest, and His ab- 
horrence of their doctrines and spirit receives more unreserved 
expression.' After the encounter with the scribes occasioned by 
the neglect of the disciple-circle to comply with Rabbinical customs 
in the matter of ceremonial ablutions, Jesus felt that it was a mere 
question of time when the enmity of His foes would culminate in an 
effort to compass His death. What He had now to do therefore 
was to prepare Himself and His disciples for the end. Accord- 
ingly, Mark reports that after that incident Jesus went thence 
into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, desiring that no one should 
know.* He could not be hid even there, and so to make sure 
of privacy He seems to have made a wide excursion into heathen 
territory, through Tyre and Sidon, possibly across the moun- 

' Chap. iii. 13. ' Chap. iv. 35. * Chap. vi. 30. * Chap. vii. 24. 

* Chap. viii. 27. ^ Chap. vi. di. ' Chap. vii. 1-23. • Chap. vii. 24. 


tains towards Damascus, and so through Decapolis back to 
Galilee.* Then followed, after an interval, the excursion to 
Caesarea Philippi, for ever memorable as the occasion on which 
Peter confessed his belief that his Master was the Christ, and the 
Master began to tell His disciples that He was destined ere long to 
suffer death at the hands of the scribes." 

10. From that point onwards Mark relates the last scenes in 
Galilee, the departure to the south, with the incidents on the way, 
the entry into Jerusalem, with the stirring incidents of the Passion 
Week, and, finally, the tragic story of the crucifixion. Throughout 
this later part of his narrative it is evident that the one great theme 
of conversation between Jesus and His disciples was the cross: His 
cross and theirs, the necessity of self-sacrifice for all the faithful, 
the rewards of those who loyally bear their cross, and the penalties 
appointed for those whose ruling spirit is ambition." 

Section II. Characteristics. 

1. The outstanding characteristic of Mark is realism. I have in 
view here, not the graphic, descriptive, literary style which is gene- 
rally ascribed to Mark, but the unreserved manner in which he pre- 
sents the person and character of Jesus and of the disciples. He 
states facts as they were, when one might be tempted not to state 
them at all, or to exhibit them in a subdued light. He describes 
from the life, avoiding toning down, reticence, generalised expression, 
or euphemistic circumlocution. In this respect there is a great con- 
trast between the second Gospel and the third, and it is only when 
we have made ourselves acquainted with the peculiarities of the two 
Gospels that we are able fully to appreciate those of either. The 
difference is this. Luke's whole style of presentation is manifestly 
influenced by the present position of Jesus and the disciples : Jesus 
the risen and exalted Lord, the disciples Apostles. For Mark Jesus 
is the Jesus of history, and the disciples are simply disciples. Luke 
writes from the view-point of reverential faith, Mark from that of 
loving vivid recollection. It is impossible by rapid citation of in- 
stances to give an adequate idea of these distinguishing features ; 
all that can be done is to refer to a few examples in explanation of 
what I mean. In Mark's pages, Jesus before He begins His public 
career is a carpenter} At the temptation He is driven by the Spirit 

* Chap. vii. 31. ' Chap. viii. 27-33. 

• Vide chap. ix. 33-50 ; x. 23-43. * Chap. vi. 3. 


into the wilderness.^ His first appearance in the synagogue of 
Capernaum is so remarkable that people say to each other: "What 
is this ? A new teaching ! With authority commandeth He even 
unclean spirits, and they obey Him."^ Early the following morning 
He makes what has the aspect of an unaccountable and undignified 
flight from Capernaum.* By-and-by, when He is fully engrossed 
in His teaching and healing ministries, His relatives come to 
rescue Him from His enthusiasm, deeming Him beside Himself.* 
On the day of the parable-discourse from the boat He makes 
another flight, He saying to the disciples : Let us go over to the other 
side ; they promptly obeying orders suddenly given and carrying 
Him off from the crowd, even as He was.* Towards the end, on the 
ascent to Jerusalem, Jesus goes before the disciples, and His 
manner is such that those who follow are amazed." When He 
sends for the colt on which He rides into the Holy City, He bids 
the two disciples promise to the owner that the colt will be re- 
turned when He has had His use of it.'' 

2. The realism of Mark makes for its historicity. It is a 
guarantee of first-hand reports, such '\s one might expect from 
Peter. Petei* reverences his risen Lord as much as Luke or any 
other man. But he is one of the men who have been with Jesus, 
and he speaks from indelible impressions made on his eye and 
ear, while Luke reports at seco«^d-hand from written accounts for 
the most part. The same realism is a strong argument in favour of 
Mark's priority. It speaks *'j an early date before the feeling of de- 
corum had become controlling as it is seen to be in Luke's Gospel. 
Mark is the archaic Gospel, written under the inspiration not of 
prophecy like Matthew, or of present reverence like Luke, but of 
fondly cherished past memories. In it we get nearest to the true 
human personality of Jesus in all its originality and power, and as 
coloured by the time and the place.^ And the character of Jesus 
loses nothing by the realistic presentation. Nothing is told that 
needed to be hid. The homeliest facts reported by the evangelist 
only increase our interest and our admiration. One who desires to 
see the Jesus of history truly should con well the pages of Mark 
first, then pass on to Matthew and Luke. 

3. By comparison with the companion Gospels Mark lacks a 
conspicuous didactic aim. The purpose of the writer seems to be 

1 Chap. i. 12. 2 Chap. i. 27. '^ Chap. i. 35-38. ■• Chap. iii. 21. 

" Chap. iv. 35. * Chap. x. 32. ^ Chap. xi. 3. 

' Vide Holtzmann, Hand Commentar, p. 7. 



mainly just to tell what he knows about Jesus. Some have tried 
to show that this Gospel is an endeavour to read into the evangelic 
history the ideas of Paulinism.' Others have maintained that the 
purpose of the writer is to observe a studied, calculated neutrality 
between Paulinism and Judaism.^ These opposite views may be 
left to destroy each other. Others, again, have found in the book 
a contribution towards establishing Christians in the faith that 
Jesus was the Messiah, when that faith was tried by a delayed 
second coming.' A didactic programme has been supposed to be 
hinted at in the opening words : "The beginning of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God,"' and atten^-^ts have been made to 
show that in the sequel this programme is steadily kept in view. 1 
am by no means anxious to negative these last suggestions ; all 1 
say is that the didactic purpose is not prominent. The writer 
seems to say, not : " These are written that ye may believe that 
Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God," but more simply : *• These are 
written that ye may know Jesus". This also makes for the histori- 
city and early date of the archaic Gospel. 

4. Among the more obvious characteristics of Mark's literary 
style are the use of dual phrases in descriptive passages, a liking 
for diminutives, occasional Latinisms, the frequent employment of 
euOu's in narrative and of the historical present, both tending to 
vividness and giving the impression of an eye-witness. The rough 
vigour and crude grammar frequently noticeable in Mark's reports 
strengthen this impression. The style is colloquial rather than 
literary. To this in part is due the unsatisfactory state of the 
text. Mark's roughness and originality were too much for the 
scribes. They could not rest till they had smoothed down every- 
thing to commonplace. Harmonising propensities also are re- 
sponsible for the multiplicity of variants, the less important Gospel 
being forced into conformity with the more important. 

Section III. Author, Destination, Date. 

1. The Gospel itself contains no indication as to who wrote it. 
That the writer was one bearing the name of Mark rests solely on 
an ecclesiastical tradition whose reliableness there has been no 
disposition to question. The Mark referred to has been from the 

^ So Pfleiderer in his Urchristenthum. 

^ So Baur and other members of the Tiibingen school. 

' So Bernhard Weiss, vide Das Marciisevangclium, Einleitung, p. 23. 


earliest times till now identified with the Mark named in Acts xii. 12, 
as the son of a Mary ; in xiii. 5, 13, as the attendant of Paul and 
Barnabas on their mission journey ; and in xv. 39, as the travelling 
companion of Barnabas alone after he had separated from Paul ; 
also, in Colossians iv. 10, as the cousin (di/eijdos) of Barnabas ; and, 
finally, in 2 Timothy iv. 11, and Philemon 24, as rendering useful 
services to Paul. 

2. The explanations of Jewish customs, e.g., ceremonial washings 
(chap. vii. 3-4), and words such as Talitha cumi and Ephphatha, 
and the technical term "common" or "unclean" (v, 41, vii. 34, 
vii. 2), point to non-Jewish readers; and the use of Latinisms is 
most naturally accounted for by the supposition that the book was 
written among and for Roman Christians. 

3., The dates of the Gospels generally have been a subject of 
much controversy, and the endless diversity of opinion means that 
the whole matter belongs largely to the region of conjecture. The 
vevy late dates assigned to these writings by the Tubingen school are 
now generally abandoned. By many competent critics the Synopti- 
cal Gospels are placed well within the first century, say, between 
the years 60 and 80. To condescend upon a precise year is im- 
possible. One cannot even determine with absolute confidence 
whether the earliest of them, i.e., Mark, was written before or after 
the destruction of Jerusalem. The point of practical importance 
is not the date at which a Gospel was composed, but the historical 
value of its materials. In this respect the claims of Mark, as we 
have seen, stand high.^ 

'■ On the Appendix ot Mark, chap. xvi. q-20, vide Notes ad loc. 



Section I. Contents. 

1. As has been stated in chap, i., the bulk of Mark's narrative 
is substantially taken up into Matthew's longer story. But to that 
narrative of the archaic Gospel is added much new material, con- 
sisting mainly of the teaching of our Lord. This teaching as 
reproduced in the first Gospel consists not of short pregnant sen- 
tences such as Mark has preserved, but of connected discourses of 
considerable length — the longest and the most important being that 
familiarly known as the "Sermon on the Mount". Whether this 
connected character is due to the Teacher or to the evangelist has 
been disputed, the bias of critical opinion being strongly in favour 
of the latter alternative. Extreme views on either side are to be 
avoided. That Jesus uttered only short pithy sayings is a gratuitous 
assumption. In connection with deliberate efforts to instruct the 
disciples, the presumption is in fa\^ur of continuous discourse. On 
the other hand, in some of the discourses reported in Matthew, e.g., 
that in chap. x. on apostolic duties and tribulations, agglomera- 
tion is apparent. To what Jesus said to the twelve in sending them 
forth on their Galilean mission the evangelist, naturally and not 
inappropriately, adds weighty words which bear on the more mo- 
mentous mission of the apostles as the propagandists in the wide 
world of the Christian faith. A similar instance of editorial com- 
bination of kindred matter only topically connected may be found 
in the parabolic discourse (chap. xiii.). Matthew's seven parables 
were doubtless all spoken by Jesus, but not that day. The parables 
spoken from the boat were probably all of one type, presenting together 
a critical review of Christ's past ministry among the people. On the 
other hand, I am inclined to think that the contents of chaps, xviii. 
and xxiii. for the most part belong to the respective occasions with 
which they are connected in the Gospel. The call for careful 
admonition to the twelve at Capernaum was urgent, and the Master 


would have much to say to His offending disciples. Then nothing 
could be more fitting than that Jesus should at the close of His 
life deliver a final and full testimony against the spurious sanctity 
which He had often criticised in a fragmentary way, and which was 
now at last to cause His death. 

2. The main interest of the question now under consideration 
revolves around the " Sermon on the Mount ". That a discourse 
of some length was delivered on the mountain Luke's report proves. 
Luke, even in this case, breaks up much of Matthew's connected 
matter into short separate utterances, but yet he agrees with 
Matthew in ascribing to Jesus something like an oration. Though 
much abbreviated, his report of the discourse is still a discourse. 
The only question is which of the two comes nearer the original in 
length and contents. Now, the feeling is a very natural one that 
Jesus could hardly have spoken so long a discourse as Matthew 
puts into His mouth at one time, and to a popular audience. But 
two questions have to be asked here. Did Jesus address a popular 
audience ? Did He speak all at one time in the sense of a con- 
tinuous discourse of one hour or two hours' length ? I am strongly 
inclined to answer both questions in the negative. Jesus addressed 
Himself to disciples ; His discourse was teaching, not popular 
preaching — Didache, not Kerygma. And the time occupied in com- 
municating that teaching was probably a week rather than an hour. 
Matthew's report, in chaps, v.-vii., in that case will have to be 
viewed as a summary of what the Great Teacher said to His dis- 
ciples in a leisurely way on sundry topics relating to the Kingdom 
of Heaven, during a season of retreat on the summit of the hills to 
the west of the Galilean Lake. Instead of calling it the Sermon 
on the Mount, we should more properly designate it the Teaching on 
the Hill?- 

3. The insertion of great masses of didactic matter into the 
framework of Mark's narrative weakens our sense of the progress 
of the history in reading Matthew. The didactic interest over- 
shadowed the historical in the evangelist's own mind, with the 
result that his story does not present the aspect of a life-drama 
steadily moving on, but rather that of a collection of discourses 
furnished with slight historical introductions. The " Sermon on 
the Mount" comes upon us before we are prepared for it. To 
appreciate it fully we must realise that before it was spoken Jesus 

1 For further remarks on this point vide Notes on the Sermon at the beginning 
and throughout. 


had preached in many synagogues and to many street crowds, and 
that a long enough time had elapsed for the Preacher to feel that 
His ministry had been to a large extent fruitless, and that to 
establish and perpetuate His influence He must now devote Himself 
to the careful instruction of a disciple-circle. The miscellaneous- 
ness of the parable-collection in chap. xiii. hides from us the fact 
that that day Jesus was sitting in judgment on His own past 
ministry and pronouncing on it the verdict : Much seed, little fruit ; 
so justifying Himself for attending henceforth less to the many and 
more to the few. 

4. While the connections of Matthew's discourses are topical 
rather than temporal, and the sense of progress in his narrative is 
comparatively weak, there is a manifest correspondence between 
the discourses he imputes to Jesus and the whole circumstances of 
the times in which Jesus lived. This remark applies especially to 
the criticism of Pharisaism, which occupies so prominent a place in 
the first Gospel, as compared, e.g., with the third, in which that 
element retires comparatively into the background. Keen conflict 
between our Lord and the Scribes and Pharisees was inevitable, and 
the amount of controversial material in the first Gospel speaks 
strongly in favour of its fidelity to fact in this part of its record, 
even as the unique quality of the anti-Pharisaic sayings ascribed to 
Jesus bears witness to their originality. In the Teaching on the 
Hill the references to Scribism and Pharisaism are, as was fitting, 
the criticised parties not being present, didactic rather than 
controversial, but there can be little doubt that Jesus would take 
occasion there to indicate the difference between His religious ideas 
and those in vogue at the time. Here it is not Matthew that adds, 
but Luke that omits. 

5. It has been maintained that Matthew's account of our Lord's 
teaching is not uniform in character — is, indeed, so discrepant as to 
suggest different hands writing in diverse interests and with con- 
flicting theological attitudes. D'Eichthal, e.g., is of opinion that the 
primitive Matthew was the earliest written Gospel, and that its 
contents were much the same as those found in canonical Mark ; 
but that, through being the earliest, it had exceptional authoritj', 
and was therefore liable to be added to with a view to furnishing it 
with support in the teaching of Christ for developing Christianity.^ 
D'Eichthal counts as many as fortj'-five "Annexes" gradually in- 
troduced in this way, including the history of the infancy, many 

• Les Evangiles. 


parables, numerous passages bearing on the Person of Christ, the 
Church, the Resurrection, the Second Advent, etc. From this 
questionable honour of becoming " a place of deposit " for new 
material, as Dr. Estlin Carpenter calls it,* Mark, according to 
D'Eichthal, was protected by its greater obscurity and inferior 
authority ; hence its modest dimensions and superior reliableness 
in point of fidelity to actual historic truth. 

This theory is plausible, and we are not entitled to say a priori 
that it has no foundation in fact. Additions to the Gospels might 
creep in before they became canonical, as they crept in afterwards 
through the agency of copyists. The sayings about the indestructi- 
bility of the law (v. 17-19) and the founding of the Church (xvi. 18, 19) 
might possibly be examples in point. But possibility is one thing, 
probability another. To prove diversity of hand or successive 
deposits of evangelic tradition by men living at different times, 
and acting in the interest of distinct or even opposing tendencies, 
it is not enough to point to apparently conflicting elements and 
exclaim : ♦' Behold a Gospel of contradictions ".- On this topic I 
may refer readers to what has been already stated in discussing 
the subject of the historicity of the Gospels. And \ may here add 
that it would not be difficult to conceive a situation for which the 
Gospel might have been written by one man, as it now stands. 
Dr. Weiss, indeed, has successfully done this in his work on the 
Gospel of Matthev^? and its parallels in Luke. He conceives the 
Gospel, substantially as we have it, to have been written shortly 
after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish State, when the 
faith of Jewish Christians in the Messiahship of Jesus would be 
sorely shaken by the events : the promised Messianic Kingdom 
passing away irretrievably from Israel and Vrfking up its abode 
among Gentiles. The Gospel that was to meet this situation would 
have to show that Jesus was indeed the JV^essianic King, in whose 
history many prophetic oracles found their fulfilment ; that He did 
His utmost to found the kingdom in Israel, but was frustrated by 
the unbelief of the people, and especially of its rulers ; that, there- 
fore, the kingdom was driven forth from Jewish soil, and was now 
to be found mainly in the Gentile Church, and there L^d been left 
to Israel only an inheritance of woe; that though Jesus had pre- 
dicted this doom He nevertheless loved His people, had loyally and 

1 The First Three Gospels, p. 370. 

2 Dr. Estlin Carpenter, in the above work, p. 363, remarks : '• Truly has the 
Srst Gospel been called a ' Gospel of contradictions ' ". 


lovingly sought her good, had spoken with reverence of her God- 
given law (wliile treating with disrespect Rabhinical traditions), and 
honoured it by personal observance. This hypothesis fairly meets 
the requirements of the case. It covers the phenomena of the 
Gospel, and it is compatible with unity of plan and authorship.' 

Suction II. Chauacteristics. 

1. The most outstanding characteristic of the first Gospel is that 
it paints the life-image of Jesus in prophetic colours. While in 
Mark Jesus is presented realistically as a man, in Matthew He is 
presented as the Christ, verified as such by the applicability of many 
prophetic oracles to the details of His childhood, His public ministr}', 
and His last sufferings. 

2. If the realism of Mark makes for the historicity of this Gospel, 
the prophetic colouring so conspicuous in Matthew need not detract 
from the historicity of its accounts. This fp'^ture may be due in 
part to the personal idiosyncrasy of the writer and in part to his 
didactic aim. He may have set himself to verify the thesis, Jesus 
the Christ, for his own satisfaction, or it may have been necessary 
that he should do so in order to strengthen the faith of his first 
readers. In either case the presumption is that the operation he 
was engaged in consisted in discovering prophetic texts to answer 
facts ready to his hand, not in first making a collection of texts and 
then inventing facts corresponding to them. The facts suggested 
the texts, the texts did not create the facts, though in some instances 
they might influence the mode of stating facts. In this connection 
it is important to note that the evangelist applies his prophetic 
method to the whole of his material, including that which is common 
to him with Mark. He has his prophetic oracles ready to be attached 
as labels to events which Mark reports simply as matters of fact. 
Thus Mark's dry statement, "they went into Capernaum,"^ referring 
to Jesus and His followers proceeding northwards from the scene of 
the baptism, in Matthew's hands assumes the character of a solemn 
announcement of an epoch-making event, whereby an ancient oracle 
concerning the appearing of a great light in Galilee of the Gentiles 
received its fulfilment.* Again, Mark's matter-of-fact report of the 
extensive healing function in Capernaum on the Sabbath evening is 
in Matthew adorned vi'ith a beautiful citation from Isaiah's famous 

' Vide Weiss, Das Matthaus-Evangelium und seine Lucas-paralleleyi, p. 39, 
* Mark i. 21. * Matt. iv. 12-17, 


oracle concerning the suffering servant of Jehovah.^ Once more, 
to Mark's simple statement that Jesus withdrew Himself to the sea 
after the collision with the Pharisees occasioned by the healing on 
a Sabbath of the man with a withered hand, the first evangelist 
attaches a fine prophetic picture, as if to show readers the true 
Jesus as opposed to the Jesus of Pharisaic imagination.'* From 
these instances we see his method. He is not inventing history, 
but enriching history with prophetic emblazonments for apologetic 
purposes, or for increase of edification. Such is the fact, we observe, 
when we have it in our power to control his statements by compari- 
son with Mark's ; such we may assume to be the fact when we 
have not that in our power, as, e.g., in the narrative relating to the 
birth and infancy of Jesus, in which prophetic citations are unusually 
abundant. The question as to the historicity of that narrative has 
its own peculiar difficulties, into Vv'hich ' do not here enter. The 
point I wish to make is that the numerous prophetic references cast 
no additional shadow of doubt on its historicity. Here too the 
evangelist is simply attaching prophe'^'C oracles to what he regards 
as historic data. If invention has been at work it has not been in 
his imagination. This is manifest even from the very weakness of 
some of the citations, such as " Out of Egypt have 1 called my Son," 
" Rachel weeping for her children," and " He shall be called a 
Nazarene ". Who could ever have thought of these unless there 
had been traditional data accepted by the Christian community (and 
by the writer of the Gospel) as facts ? The last citation is especially 
far-fetched. It is impossible to say whence it is taken ; it could 
never have entered into the mind of any one unless the fact of 
the settlement in Nazareth had been there to begin with, creating a 
desire to find for it also, if at all possible, some prophetic antici- 

These prophetic passages served their purpose in the apologetic 
of the apostolic age. For us now their value is not apologetic, 
except indeed in a way not contemplated by the evangelist. Their 
occasional weakness as proofs of the Messiahship of Jesus can be 
utilised in the m.anner above hinted at in support of the historicity 
of the evangelic tradition. But the chief permanent value of these 
citations lies in the light they throw on the evangelist's own con- 
ception of Jesus. We see from them that he thought of Jesus as 
the Light of Galilee, the sympathetic Bearer of humanity's heavy 
burden, the Beloved of God, the Peacemaker, the Friend of weak- 

i Matt. viii. 17. * Matt. xii. 15-21. Cf. Mark iii. 7. 


ness, the Man who had it in Him by gifts and graces to perform a 
Christ's part for all the world. Truly a noble conception, which 
lends perennial interest to the texts in which it is embodied. 

3. In the foregoing remarks I have anticipated to a certain 
extent what relates to the question of didactic aim. That the first 
Gospel has such an aim is obvious from the careful manner in which 
the prophetic argument is elaborated. The purpose is to confirm 
Jewish Christians in the faith that Jesus is the Christ. The purpose 
is revealed in the very first sentence and in the genealogy to which 
it forms a preface. "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, 
the Son of David, the Son of Ahrahaiii." The Son of David first, 
because on that hangs the Messianic claim ; the Son of Abraham 
likewise, because that makes Him a Jew, a fellow-countryman of those 
for whose benefit the Gospel is written. The genealogy is the first 
contribution to the apologetic argument. The logic of it is this : 
"The Psalms and Prophets predict the coming of a great Messianic 
King who shall be a descendant of the house of David ; this genealogy 
shows that Jesus possessed that qualification for Messiahship. He 
is the rod out of the stem of Jesse." Whoever compiled the 
genealogy did it under the impression that physical descent from 
David was indispensable to Jesus being the Christ. But it does not 
follow that the genealogy was manufactured to serve that purpose. 
The descent from David might be a well-known fact utilised for an 
apologetic aim. For us, though a fact, it is of no vital consequence. 
Our faith that Jesus is the Christ does not rest on any such external 
ground, but on spiritual fitness to be tKj world's Saviour. We 
reverse the logic of the Jewish Church. They reasoned: because 
David's Son, therefore the Christ. We reason : because the Christ, 
therefore David's Son, at least in spirit.^ 

4. In speaking of the literary characteristics of Matthew it is 
necessary to keep in mind that some of these may come from the 
Logia of the apostle Matthew, and that others may be due to the 
evangelist. Critics ascribe to the apostolic source certain phrases 
of frequent recurrence, such as Kal LBou, d/jirji' Xeyu viilv, 6 -narrip 6 iv 
Tois oopacois. Among the features of the evangelist's own style they 
recognise the frequent use of such words as t6t€, Xeyuc, irpoacXOcii', 
0X.X01, diroKpiG€i9, dcaxwpeii') \ey6iJ.€vos, and such phrases as ri ctoi Sokci, 
aup.pouXioi' Xap.j3dveii', Kar' oi'ap, iy cKeifw tw KUipw.^ By comparison 
with Mark, the style of this Gospel is smooth and correct. 

' Vide notes on Matt. i. * Vide Weiss, Matthdus-Evangeliitm, pp. 23-4. 


Section III. Author, Destination, Date. 

1. If the views of modern critics as to the relation of the first 
Canonical Gospel to the Logia, compiled by the apostle Matthew, be 
well founded, then that apostle was not its author. Who the 
evangelist was is unknown. That he was a Jew is highly probable, 
that he was a Palestinian Jew has been generally assumed ; but 
Weiss calls this in question. That he wrote in Greek is held to be 
proved by the use which he makes of the Septuagint in his citations 
of Old Testament prophecy, and by traces of dependence on the 
Greek Gospel of Mark. But the view that our Greek Gospel of 
Matthew is a translation by some unknown hand from a book with 
the same contents in the Hebrew tongue still has its advocates, 
among whom may be mentioned Schanz, of Tubingen.'^ 

2. The destination of the Gospel was in all probability to a 
community of Jewish Christians, whose faith it was designed to 
strengthen. How it was fitted to serve this end has been indicated 
in Section I. § 5. 

3. The probable date is shortly after the destruction of the 
Jewish State. Some things have been supposed to imply a much 
later date, e.g., the commission to the disciples in chapter xxviii. 18, 
with its explicit Trinity, its pronounced universalism, and its doctrine 
of a spiritual presence. On these points the reader is referred to 
the commentary. 

* Vide his Commentai iiber doi E-yangeliiimdei heiligen Matthdus: Einleitung. 



Section L Contents. 

1. Luke's Gospel includes much of the narrative of i\1ark and 
large portions of the didactic matter contained in Matthew. There 
are numerous omissions in both departments, but on the other 
hand also considerable additions, especially in the didactic element. 
The third evangelist has greatly enriched the treasure of the 
parables, for it is in this important division of our Lord's teaching 
that his peculiar contribution ciij'efly lies. The amount of new 
matter suffices to raise the question as to its source. It can hardly 
be thought that the author of the first Gospel would have omitted 
so much valuable material, had it lain before his eye in the Logia. 
The hypothesis of a third source, therefore, readily suggests itself 
— a collection of reminiscences distinct from Mark and the book of 
Logia, whence Luke drew such beautiful parables as the Good 
Satnaritan, the Selfish Neighbour and the Unjust ^udge, the 
Prodigal So}i, the Unjust Steward, Lazarus and Dives, and the 
Pharisee and Publican. The chapters on the infancy and on the re- 
surrection, so entirely different from the corresponding chapters in 
Matthew, might suggest a fourth source, unless we suppose that 
the third included these. 

2. The distribution of the material in this Gospel arrests atten- 
tion. In the early part of the history, from chapters iv. 31 to vi. 16, 
the author follows pretty closely in the footsteps of Mark. Then 
comes in a digression, extending from vi. 17 to viii. 3, containing a 
version of the Sermon on the Mount, the stories of the Centurion 
and the Widow of Nain, the Message of the Baptist with relative 
discourse, and the woman in Simon's house. Thereafter Luke's 
narrative again flows in Mark's channel from the parable of the 
Sower onwards to the end of the Galilean ministry, as reported in 
the second Gospel (Mark iv. 1 to ix. 50. Luke viii. 4 to ix. 50), only 


that the whole group of incidents contained in Mark vi. 45 to viii. 26 
is omitted in Luke. Then at ix. 51 begins another longer digression, 
extending from that point to xviii. 14, consisting mainly of didactic 
matter, and containing the larger number of Luke's peculiar con- 
tributions to the evangelic tradition. Thereafter our author joins 
the company of Mark once more, and keeps beside him to the end 
of the Passion history.^ 

3. This lengthy insertion destroys the sense of progress in the 
story. The stream widens out into a lake, within which any move- 
ment perceptible is rather circular than rectilinear. It is a dog- 
matic section, and any indications of time and place it contains are 
of little value for determining sequence or pointing out the suc- 
cessive stages of the journey towards Jerusalem mentioned in ix. 51. 
It may be affirmed, indeed, that throughout this Gospel the interest 
in historic sequence or in the causal connection of events is weak. 
Sometimes, as in the incident of Christ's appearance in the syna- 
gogue of Nazareth, the author, consciously and apparently with 
deliberate intention, departs from the chronological order.^ What- 
ever, therefore, he meant by KaGe^TJs in his preface, he cannot have 
intended to say that he had made it a leading aim to arrange his 
material as far as possible in the true order of events. Still less 
can it have been his purpose so to set forth his story that it should 
appear a historic drama in which all events prepare for and 
steadily lead up to tne final catastrophe. When at ix. 22 we 
find Jesus announcing for the first c^me that " the Son of Man must 
suffer many things," it takes us by surprise. No reason has appeared 
in the previous narrative why it should come to that. It has indeed 
been made clear by sundry indications — at chapter v. 21 ; v. 30, 33 ; 
vi. 7-11 ; vii. 34, 50 — that there was not a good understanding be- 
tween Jesus and the Scribes and Pharisees ; but from Luke's 
narrative by itself we could not have gathered that matters were so 
serious. Two important omissions and one transposition are largely 
responsible for this. Luke leaves out the collision between Jesus 
and the Pharisees in reference to the washing of hands (Mark vii. 
1-23. Matt. XV. 1-20), and the demand for a sign (Mark viii. 11. 
Matt. xvi. 1) ; and he throws the blasphemous insinuation of a league 
with Beelzebub into chapter xi., beyond the point at which he 
introduces the first announcement of the Passion. Therefore, the 

1 In the main, that is to say ; for Luke's Passion history contains a number of 
peculiar elements. 

2 Chap. iv. 16-30; vide v. 23. 


necessity (8ei) of that tragic issue is not apparent in the sense that 
it is the inevitable result of causes which have been shown to be in 
operation. For Luke the Sei refers exclusively to the prophetic 
oracles which predicted Messiah's sufferings. Jesus must die if 
these oracles are to be fulfilled. And for him it is a matter of course, 
and so he treats it in his narrative. The announcement of the 
Passion is not brought in as a new departure in Christ's communi- 
cation with His disciples, as in the companion narratives, with 
indication of the place and solemn introductory phrase : " He 
began to teach them ". It is reported in a quite casual way, as if 
it possessed no particular importance. In connection with this it 
may be noted that Luke gives a very defective report of those 
words of our Lord concerning His death which may be said to 
contain the germs of a theory as to its significance. For particulars 
readers are referred to the notes- 

Section II. Characteristics. 

1. One very marked feature of this Gospel is what, for want of 
a better word, may be called the idealisation of the characters of 
Jesus and the disciples. These are contemplated not in the light 
of memory, as in Mark, but through the brightly coloured medium 
of faith. The evangelist does not forget that the Personages of 
whom he writes are now the Risen Lord, and the Apostles of the 
Church. Jesus appears with an aureole round His head, and the 
faults of the disciples are very tenderly handled. The truth of this 
statement can be verified only by -a detailed study of the Gospel, 
and readers will find indications of proof at appropriate places in 
the notes. It applies equally to the Master and to His disciples, 
though Von Soden, in the article already referred to, states that the 
tendency in question appears mainly in the presentation of the 
conduct of the disciples ; drawing from the supposed fact the pre- 
carious inference that the Apostolic Church cared little or nothing 
for the earthly history of Jesus.^ The delicate treatment of the 
disciples is certainly very apparent. Luke, as Schanz remarks, ever 
spares the twelve ; especially Peter. The stern word, " Get thee 
behind me," is not in this Gospel. The narrative of the denial is an 
interesting subject of study in this connection. But the whole body 
of the disciples arc treated with equal consideration. Their faults — 
ignorance, weak faith, mutual rivalries — are acknowledged, yet 

* Vide Thcologische Abhandlungen, p. 138, 


touched with sparing hand. Some narratives in which these faults 
appear very obtrusively, e.g., the conversation about the leaven of 
the Pharisees, the ambitious request of James and John, and the 
anointing in Bethany, are omitted, as is also the flight of all the 
disciples at the apprehension of their Master. The weak faith of 
the disciples is very mildly characterised. " Where is your faith ? " 
asks Jesus in the storm on the lake, in Luke's version of the story, 
instead of uttering the reproachful word : " Why are ye cowardly ? 
Have ye not yet faith ? " Their failure to watch in the garden of 
Gethsemane is apologetically described as sleeping for sorrow. In 
his portraiture of the Lord Jesus the evangelist gives prominence to 
the attributes of power, benevolence, and saintliness. The pictorial 
effect is brought out by omission, emphasis, and understatement. 
Among the omissions are the realistic word about that which 
defileth, about ♦' dogs " in the story of tb-^ woman of Canaan which 
is wholly wanting, and the awful cry on the Cross : " My God, my 
God ! " Among the things emphasised are those features in acts of 
healing which show the greatness of Christ's might and of the benefit 
conferred. Peter's mother-in-law suffers from a great fever ; and 
the leper is full of leprosy. The hand restored on the Sabbath is the 
right hand, the centurion's servant is one dear to him, the son of 
the widow of Nain is an only son, the daughter of Jairus an only 
daughter, the epileptic boy at the hill of Transfiguration an only 
child. The holiness of Jesus is made conspicuous by the prominence 
given to prayer in connection with critical occasions, and by under- 
statement where the incidents related might to ill-instructed minds 
seem to compromise that essential characteristic. Luke's narratives 
of the cleansing of the temple and the agony in Gethsemane may be 
referred to as striking illustrative instances of the latter. To the 
same category may be referred the treatment by Luke of the anti- 
Pharisaic element in Christ's teaching. Much is omitted, and what 
is retained is softened by being given, much of it, not as spoken 
about, but as spoken to, Pharisees by Jesus as a guest in their 

2. The influence of the Christian consciousness of the time in 
which he wrote is traceable not only in Luke's presentation of the 
characters of Jesus and His disciples, but in his account of Christ's 
teaching. He seems to have in view|throughout the use of the Lord's 
words for present guidance. Weizsacker has endeavoured to 
analyse the didactic element in the third Gospel into doctrinal 

^ Luke vii. 36-50 ; xt. 37-52 ; xiv. 1-24. 


pieces bearin.q on definite religious questions and interests of the 
primitive Church. ^ This may be carried too far, but the idea is not 
altogether baseless. In this Gospel the so-called " Sermon on the 
Mount" is really a Sermon {Kerygma not Dldache) delivered to a 
Christian congrcj'ation v^^ith all the local and temporary matter 
eliminated and only the universal and perennial retained. The same 
adaptation to present and general use is apparent in the words, 
(ca9' r\]}.lp(xv, added to the law of cross-bearing (ix. 23). 

3. The question may be asked whether this adaptation of the 
matter of the evangelic tradition to present conceptions and needs 
is to be set down to the account of Luke as editor, or is to be 
regarded as already existing in the documents he used. On this 
point there may be room for difference of opinion. J. Weiss in his 
commentary on Luke (Meyer, eighth edition) inclines to the latter 
alternative. Thus, in reference to Luke's mild version of Peter's 
denial, he remarks : " A monstrous minimising of the offence if 
Luke had Mark's account before him " ; and he accordingly thinks 
he had not, but used instead, a Jewish Christian source, giving a 
mitigated account of Peter's sin. Of 3uch a source he finds traces 
throughout Luke's Gospel, following in the footsteps of Dr. Paul 
Peine, who had previously endeavoured to establish the existence of 
a precanonical Luke, i.e., a Grst attempt to work up into a single 
volume the evangelic traditions in Mark, the Logia, and other 
sources, after the manner of the third Gospel. ^ This may be a 
perfectly legitimate hypothesis for solving certain literary problems 
connected with this Gospel, and the argument by which Peine seeks 
to establish it is entitled on its merits to serious consideration. But 
I hardly think it suffices to account for all the traces of editorial 
discretion in Luke's Gospel. It does not matter what documents 
Luke used ; he exercised his own judgment in using them. If he 
did not, his relation to the work of redacting the memoirs of Jesus 
becomes so colourless that one fails to see what occasion there was 
for that imposing prefatory announcement in the opening sentence. 
A primitive Luke was ready to his hand, and he did not even 
contribute to it the colour of his own religious personality. Inten- 
tion, bias, purpose to utilise the material for edification of believers 
were all there before he began. He did what ? Added, perhaps, a 

^ Vide his Umtersuchuiigcn uber die Evangelische Gcschichte, and his Apostolic 
Age, vol. ii. 

^ Eine vorkanonische Uberliefernng des Lukas in EvangcUum tind AposteU 
geschichte, 1891. 


few anecdotes and sayings gleaned from other sources, oral or 
written ! 

4. Notwithstanding this pervading regard to what mav he cciii- 
prehensively called edification, the author of the third Gospel cannot 
justly be charged with indifference to historic truth. He professes 
in his preface to have in view acribeia, and the profession is to be 
taken in earnest. But he is writing not as a mere chronicler, but as 
one seeking to promote the religious welfare of tnose for whom he 
writes, and so must strive to combine accuracy, fidelity to fact, with 
practical utility. The task is a delicate one, and execution without 
error of judgment not easy. Even where mistakes are made, they 
are not to be confounded with bad faith. Nor should it be for- 
gotten that Luke's peculiarities can be utilised for the apologetic 
purpose of establishing the general credibility of the evangelic 
tradition. Luke omits much. But it does not follow that he did 
not know. He may omit intentionally what he knows but does not 
care to report. Luke often understates. What a writer tones down 
he is tempted to omit. By simply understating, instead of omitting, 
he becomes a reluctant and therefore reliable witness to the 
historicity of the matter so dealt with. Luke often states strongly. 
Either he adds particulars from fuller information or he exaggerates 
for a purpose. Even in the latter case he witnesses to the truth of 
the basal narrative. A writer who has ideas to embody is tempted 
to invent when he cannot find what will suit his purpose. Luke 
did not invent but at most touched up stories given to his hand 
in trustworthy traditions. 

5. The author of the third Gospel avowedly had a didactic aim. 
He wrote, so it appears from the preface, to confirm in the faith 
a friend called "most excellent (KpaTiare) Theophilus," expecting 
probably that the book would ultimately be useful for a wider circle. 
But there is no trace of a dominant theological or controversial aim. 
The writer, e.g., is not a Paulinist in the controversial sense of the 
word. He is doubtless in sympathy with Christian universalism, as 
appears from his finishing the quotation from Isaiah beginning with, 
'' The voice of one crying in the wilderness," and ending with, 
"All flesh shall see the salvation of God" (iii. 6). Yet, in other 
places, e.g., in the history of the infancy, the salvation brought by 
Jesus is conceived of as belonging to Israel, the chosen people 
(tw Xaw auTou, i. 68; cf. ii. 10; vii. 16; xiii. 16; xix. 9). The author 
is not even Paulinist in a theological sense, as the absence from his 
pages of most of the words of Jesus bearing on a theory of atone- 
ment, already remarked on, sufficiently proves. He appears to be an 



eclectic, rather than a man whose mind is dominated by a great 
ruling idea. Distinct, if not conflicting, tendencies or religious types 
find houseroom in his pages : Pauline universulism, Jewish par- 
ticularism, Ebionitic social ideals, the blessedness of poverty, the 
praise of almsgiving. Geniality, kindliness of temper, is the personal 
characteristic of the evangelist. And if there is one thing more 
than another he desires to inculcate on his readers it is the 
graciousness of Christ. " Words of grace " (iv. 22) is his compre- 
hensive title for the utterances of Jesus, and his aim from first to 
last is to show the Saviour as the friend of the sinful and the social 
outcast, and even of those who suffer justly for their crimes (vii. 36- 
50; xix. 1-10; xxiii. 39-43). 

6. The literary aspect of this Gospel is a complex phenomenon. 
At times, especially in the preface, one gets the impression of a 
writer having at his command a knowledge of Greek possible only 
for one to whom it was his native tongue- an expert at once in the 
vocabulary and the grammatical structure of that language. But 
far oftener the impression is that of a Jew thinking in Hebrew and 
reflecting Hebrew idiom in phrase and construction. Hebraisms 
abound, especially in the first two chapters. Two explanations are 
possible : That the author was really a Jew, that his natural style 
was Hebrew-Greek, in which case it would have to be shown that 
the preface was no such marvellous piece of classicism after all; 
or that he was a Gentile well versed in Greek, but somewhat slavish 
in his copious use of Jewish-Christian sources, such as the primitive 
Luke for which Peine contends. 

Section III. Author, Destination, Date. 

1. The author of the third Gospel was also the author of the 
Acts of the Apostles, as appears in chap. i. 1 of the latter work, 
where the name of Theophilus recurs. Neither book bears the 
name of the writer, but uniform ancient tradition ascribes it to Luke, 
the companion of Paul, and by occupation a physician (Col. iv. 11). 
From the preface to the Gospel we gather that he had no personal 
knowledge of Jesus, but was entirely dependent on oral and written 

2. From the prefaces of the Gospel and the book of Acts we 
learn that the author wrote for the immediate benefit of a single 
individual, apparently a man of rank, say a Roman knight. It is 
not necessary to infer that a larger circle of readers was not con- 
templated either by the writer or by the first recipient of his work 


3. The date cannot be definitely fixed. Opinion ranges from 
A.D. 63 to the early years of the second century. As late a date as 
say A.D. 90 is compatible with the writer being, in his younger 
years, a companion of St. Paul in his later missionary movements. 
The still later date of a.d. 100 or 105 would be required if it were 
certain, which it is not, that the writer used the Antiquities of 
Josephus, which were published about the year 93-94. Dr. Sanday, 
in his work entitled Inspiration, expresses the view that Acts was 
written about a.d. 80, and the Gospel some time in the five years 



Section I. The Text. 

The Greek text given in this work is that known as the Textus 
Receptus, on which the Authorised Version of the New Testament 
is based. Representing the Greek text as known to Erasmus in the 
sixteenth century, and associated with the names of two famous 
printers, Stephen and Elzevir, whose editions (Stephen's 3rd, 1550, 
Elzevir's 2nd, 1633) were published when the apparatus at command 
for fixing the true text was scanty, and when the science of textual 
criticism was unborn, it may seem to be entirely out of date. But 
it is an important historical monument, and it is the Greek original 
answering to the English Testament still largely in use in public 
worship and in private reading. Moreover, while the experts in 
modern criticism have done much to provide a purer text, their 
judgments in many cases do not accord, and their results cannot 
be regarded as final. It is certain, however, that the texts prepared 
by such scholars as Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort, and 
the company of experts to whom we are indebted for the Revised 
Version, are incomparably superior to that of Stephen or of Elzevir, 
and that they must be taken into account by every competent com- 
mentator. That means that to the text must be annexed critical 
notes showing all important various readings, with some indication 
of the documentary authority in their favour, and of the value 
attached thereto by celebrated editors. This accordingly has been 
done, very imperfectly of course, still it is hoped sufficiently for 
practical purposes. Variations not affecting the sense, but merely 
the spelling or grammatical forms of words, have been for the most 
part disregarded. There are many variations in the spelling of 
proper names, of which the following are samples : — 


Na^ap^T Na^apeO rc0crT)|j.aK^ rc0(7i]/jiaf€i 

MarGaios MaGGaios 'lotdw-qs 'la)dia)s 

AaPiS AaueiS 'kpixw 'kpcixu 

HXtas 'HXeias Muai^s Muucrf); 

KaircpcaoujA Ka<}>api'aoufi FliXdros fleiXaTOS 

Among other insignificant variations may be mentioned the presence 
or absence of v final in verbs (eXcye, cXeyev) ; the omission or in- 
sertion of fi (XY^vj/ojiai, XTi/x»(/ofiai) ; the assimilation or non-assimilation 
of iv and ativ in compound verbs {(rulr]T€.ly, o-uv^t)T€i>' ; eKKaKcif, ivKa- 
Kcii') ; the doubling of |i, y, p or the reverse (jxap.piwi'as, i>.afxtavas ; 
y4vvt]ixa, yeVrjiAo : eirippdiTTei, ciripaTrrci) ; the conjunction or disjunction 
of syllables (ouk Iti, ouke'ti) ; outws for outw ; the aorist forms ^l-noy, 
TJXOof, etc., replaced by forms in o (dirav, r\\Oay) ; single or double 
augment in certain verbs (dSoi'dfiTjv', r\%wdin]v ; cp-eXXoK, r^jjieXXoK). 

Section II. Critical Landmarks. 

1. Up till 1831 editors of the New Testament in Greek had been 
content to follow in the wake of the Textus Receptus, timidly adding 
notes indicating good readings which they had discovered in the 
documents accessible to them in their time. Lachmann in that year 
inaugurated a new critical era by printing a text constructed 
directly from ancient documents without the intervention of any 
printed edition. It is not given to pioneers to finish the work they 
begin, and Lachmann's effort judged by present-day tests was far 
from perfect. " This great advance was marred by too narrow a 
selection of documents to be taken into account, and too artificially 
rigid an employment of them, and also by too little care in obtaining 
precise knowledge of some of their texts" (Westcott and Hort's 
New Testament, Introduction, p. 13). Tischendorf in Germany and 
Tregelles in England worthily followed up Lachmann's efforts, and 
made important contributions towards the ascertainment of the 
true text by adopting as their main guides the most ancient MSS., 
in place of the later documents which had formed the basis of the 
early printed editions. The critical editions of the Greek New 
Testament by these scholars appeared about the same time ; 
Tischendorf's eighth edition (the important one which supersedes 
the earlier) bearing the date 1869, and the work of Tregelles being 
published in 1870. The characteristic feature of Tischendorf's 
edition is the predominant importance attached to the great Codex 
Sinaiticus (t^), with the discovery of which his name is connected. 



The defect common to it with the edition of Tregellrs is failure to 
deal on any clear principle with the numerous instances in which 
the ancient texts on which they placed their reliance do not agree. 
All goes smoothly when Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus (B) 
and Codex Bezae (D) and the most ancient versions bear the same 
testimony ; but what is to be done when the trusted guides follow 
divergent paths ? 

2. It is by the answer which they have given to this question 
that Westcott and Hort have made an epoch-making contribution 
to the science of Biblical Criticism in the first volume of their 
monumental work, The New Testament in the Original Greek, 
published in 1881. Following up hints thrown out by earlier in- 
vestigators, like Bengel and Griesbach, they discriminated three 
types of text prevalent in ancient times, before the period of eclectic 
revision which fixed to a great extent the character ot the text in 
actual use throughout the Middle Ages and on to the dawn of 
modern criticism. To these types they gave the names Western, 
Alexandrian, and Neutral. The last epithet is to be understood 
only when viewed in relation to the other two. The Western and 
Alexandrian types of text had very well-marked characteristics. The 
Western was paraphrastic, the Alexandrian literary. The tendency 
of the one was to alter the primitive tex> by explanatory additions 
with a view to edification, made by men who combined to a certain 
extent the functions of copyist and commentator. The tendency 
of the other was to improve the text frona a literary point of view by 
scholarly refinements. The neutral text is neutral in the sense of 
avoiding both these tendencies and aiming steadily at the faithful 
reproduction of the exemplar assumed to approach in its text as 
near as possible to the autographs. A text adhering honestly to 
this programme ought to be the most reliable guide to the original 
Greek Testament as it proceeded from the hands of the writers, 
making due allowance for errors in the exemplar and for mistakes 
in transcription. The result of investigation has been to justify 
this expectation. 

3. The main representative of the Western text is Codex Bezae 
(D), containing the Gospels and the Acts. Of the Alexandrian text 
there is no pure example. This divergent stream broke up into rills, 
and lost itself as a mere element in mixed texts, like those of Codex 
Sinaiticus and Codex Ephraemi (C). It is important to note by 
the way that these names do not denote local prevalence. The 
Western text was not merely Western. This divergent stream 
overflowed its banks and spread itself widely over the Church, 



reaching even the East. Hence traces of its influence are to be 
found not merely in the old Latin versions, but also in the Syriac 
versions, e.g., in what is called the Curetonian Syriac, and in the 
recently discovered Syriac version of the Four Gospels, which may 
be distinguished as the Sinaitic Syriac. Of the neutral text, the 
great, conspicuous, honourable monument is Codex Vaticanus (B), 
containing the Gospels, Acts, and Catholic epistles, and the epistles 
of St. Paul, as far as Heb. ix. 14; and being, especially in the 
Gospels, a nearly pure reproduction of a text uninfluenced by the 
tendencies of the Western and Alexandrian texts respectively. To 
this MS., belonging like Codex Sinaiticus to the fourth century, 
Westcott and Hort, after applying to it all available tests, assign 
the honour of being on the whole the nearest approach to the 
original verity in existence, always worthy of respect and often 
deserving to be followed when it stands alone against all comers. 
A very important conclusion if it can be sustained. 

4. In recent years a certain reaction against the critical results 
of Westcott and Hort has been manifesting itself to the effect of 
imputing to them an overweening estimate of Codex B, analogous 
to that of Tischendorf for Codex fc^. Some scholars, such as Resch 
in Germany and Ramsay in this country, are disposed to insist 
that more value should be set on Codex D ; the former finding in it 
the principal witness for the text of the Gospels in their precanonical 
stage, the assumption being that when the four-Gospel canon was 
constructed the text underwent a certain amount of revision. The 
real worth of :.his Codex is one of the unsettled questions of New 
Testament textual criticism. Interesting contributions have been 
made to the discussion of the question, such as those of J. Rendel 
Harris, and more may be expected. 

Section III. Critical Tests of Readings. 

1. The fixation of the true text is not a simple matter like that 
of following a single document, however trustworthy, like Codex B. 
Every editor may have his bias in favour of this or that MS., but 
all editors recognise the obligation to take into account all avail- 
able sources of evidence — not merely the great uncial MSS. of 
ancient dates, but the cursives of later centuries, and, besides Greek 
MSS. of both kinds containing the whole or a part of the New 
Testament, ancient versions, Latin, Syriac, Egyptian, etc., and 
quotations in the early Fathers. The evidence when fully adduced 
is a formidable affair, demanding much space for its exhibition 


(witness Tischendorfs eighth edition in two large octavos), and the 
knowlcdi^c of an expert for its appreciation. In such a work as the 
present the space cannot be afforded nor can the knowledge be 
expected even in the author, not to say in his readers. Full know- 
ledge of the critical data through first-hand studies belongs to 
specialists only, who have made the matter the subject of lifelong 
labour. All one can do is to utilise intelligently their results. But 
because all cannot be specialists it is not profitless to have a 
juryman's acquaintance with the relative facts. It is the aim of the 
critical notes placed beneath the Greek text to aid readers to the 
attainment of such an acquaintance, and to help them to form an 
intelligent opinion as to the claims of rival readings to represent the 
true text. Fortunately, this can be done without adducing a very 
long array of witnesses. 

2. For it turns out that there are certain groups of witnesses 
which often go together, and whose joint testimony is very weighty. 
Westcott and Hort have carefully specified these. They may here 
be indicated : — 

For the Gospels the most important and authoritative group is 
S^BCDL 33. 

In this group L and 33 have hitherto not been referred to. L 
(Codex Regius), though belonging to the eighth century, represents 
an ancient text, and is often in agreement with ^^ and B. 33 
belongs to the cursive class (which are indicated by figures), but 
is a highly valuable Codex, though, like all cursives, of late date. 
In his Prolegomena to Tischendorfs New Testament, Dr. Caspar 
Rene Gregory quotes (p. 469) with approval the opinion of Eichhorn 
that this is the "queen of the cursives". In the above group, it 
will be noticed, representatives of the different ancient types — 
Western, Alexandrian, Neutral (D, t^, C, B) — are united. When they 
agree the presumption that we have the true text is very strong. 

When D falls out we have still a highly valuable group in 
«BCL 33. 

When DC and 33 drop out there remains a very trustworthy 
combination in i^BL. 

There are, besides these, several binary combinations of great 
importance. The following is the list given by Westcott and Hort 
for the Gospels : — 

BL, BC, BT, B=, BD, AB, BZ, B 33, and for St. Mark Ba. 
In these combinations some new documents make their appearance. 

T stands for the Greek text of the Graeco-Thebaic fragments of 
St. Luke and St. John (century v., ancient and non-Western). 


= = fragments of St. Luke (cent, viii., comparatively pure, though 
showing mixture). 

A is the well-known Codex Alexandrinus of the fifth century, a 
chief representative of the " Syrian " text, that is, the revised text 
formed by judicious eclectic use of all existing texts, and meant to 
be the authoritative New Testament. This Codex contains neariv 
the whole New Testament except Matthew as far as chapter xxv. 5. 
For the Gospels it is of no independent value as a witness to the 
true text, but its agreements with B are important. 

A = Codex Sangallensis, a Graeco- Latin MS. of the tenth century, 
and having many ancient readings, especially in Mark. 

To these authorities has to be added, as containing ancient read- 
ings, and often agreeing with the best MSS., Codex Purpureus Ros- 
sanensis (z), published in 1883, edited by Oscar Von Gebhardt ; of the 
sixth century, containing Matthew and Mark in full. Due note has 
been taken of the readings of this MS. 

The foregoing represent the chief authorities referred to in the 
critical notes. In these notes I have not uniformly indicated my 
personal opinion. But in the commentary I have always adopted as 
the subject of remark the most probable reading. Reference to 
modern editors has been chiefly restricted to Tischendorf, and West- 
EOtt and Hort, meaning thereby no depreciation of the work done by 
others, but simply recognising these as the most important 

MSS. were corrected from time to time. Corrected copies are 
referred to by critics by letters or figures: thus, t^* (4th cent.), t^"^ (6tb 
cent.), i^c (7th cent.), B^ (4th cent), B^ (10th cent). 

Besides the above-named documents the following uncials are 
occasionally referred to in the critical notes : — 

E cod. Basiliensis. 8th century (Gospels nearly entire). 

G cod. Seidelii. gth or loth century (Gospels defective). 

I cod. palimps. Petropolitanus. 5th and 6th centuries (fragments of Gospels). 

K cod. Cyprius. gth century (Gospels complete). 

M cod. De Camps, Paris, gth century (Gospels complete). 

N cod. Purpureus. 6th century (fragments of all the Gospels). 

P cod. Guelpherbytanus I. 6th century (fragments of all the Gospels). 

Q cod. Guelpherbytanus II. 5th century (fragments from Luke and John). 

R cod. Nitriensis, London. 6th century (fragments of Luke). 

S cod. Vaticanus 354. loth century (four Gospels complete). 

U cod. Nanianus Venetus. gth or loth century (Gospels entire). 

V cod. Mosquensis. gth century (contains Matt, and Mk., and Lk. nearly complete). 

X cod. Monacensis. gth or loth century (fragments of all the Gospels). 

Z cod. Dublinensis. 6th century (fragments of Matthew). 

r cod. Oxoniensis et Petropolitanus. 10th century (four Gospels, Matthew and 

Mark defective). 

A cod. Oxoniensis Tisch. gth century (Luke and John entire), 

n cod. Petropolitanus Tisch. gth century (Gospels nearly complete). 

4> cod. 5th century (Matthcv/ and ?.Iark v.-ith lacunae). 


The following list of works includes only those chiefly consulted. 
Many others are occasionally referred to in the notes. 

1. To the pre- Reformation period belong — 

Origen's Commentary on Matthew. Books x.-xvii. in Greek (Matt. xiii. 36— 
xxii. 33), the remainder in a Latin translation (allegorical method of inter- 

Chrysoriom's Homilies on Matthetv. The Greek text separately edited in three 
vols, by Dr. Field (well worth perusal). 

Jerome's Commentarius in Matthaeum (a hasty performano;, but worth consulting). 

Augustine. De Sermone Domini in monte. 

Theophylactus (i2th century, Archbishop in Bulgaria). Commentarii in quatuor 
Evangclistas, Graece. 

EtJTHYMius ZiHABENUS (Greek monk, i2th century). Commentarius in quatuoi 
Evangelia, Graece et Latine. Ed. C. F. Matthaei, 170^ (a choice work). 

2. From the sixteenth century downwards — 

Calvin, Commentarii in HarmoniarK jx Evangelistis tribus . . . compositam. 
Beza. Annotationes in Novum Testamentum. 1556. 

Maldonatus. Commentarii in qnatuor EvMtgelislas (Catholic). 1390. 

Pricaei (Price). Commentarii in varios N. T. libros (including Matthew and Luke; 

philological, with classical examples, good). 1660. 

Grotius. Annotationes in N. T. (erudite and still worth consulting). 1644. 

LiGHTFOOT. Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae. 1644. 

Heinsius. Sacrurum exercitationum ad N. T. libri xx. 1665. 

Raphel. Annotationes Philologicae in N. T., ex Xenophonte, Polybio, Arriano et 

Hcrodoto. 1747' 

Olearius. Observationes sacrae ad Evangelium Matthaei, ^7^5- 

Wolf. Curae philologicae et criticae in N. T. Five vols. I74i» 

Schottgen. Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae in N. T. 1733' 

Wetstein. Novum T^s/awjt-nfwm Gra^fimt (full of classic citations). 1751- 

Bengel. Gnomon Novi Testamenti (unique). 1734- 

Palairet (French pastor at London, t 1765)- Observationes philologico-criticae in 

aacros N . T. libros, 1752. 


Kypke. Observafiones sacrae in N. T. libros. 1755. 

Elsner. Observationes sacrae in N. T. libros (the three last named, liVe Pricaeus, 
abound in classic examples). i7<57. 

LoESNER. Observationes ad N. T. e Philone Alexandrino (of the same class as 
Raphel). 1777. 

KuiNOEL. Commentarius in libros N. T. histnricos. 1807. 

Frit^SCHE. Evangelism Matthaei recensuit. 1826, 

Fritzsche. EvangcUum Marci recensuit (both philological). 1830. 

De Wette. Kurzgefasstes exegetischcs Handbuch zum N. T. 1S36-48. 

Bornemann. Scholiae in Lucae EvangcUum. 1S30. 

Alford. The Greek Testament. Four vols. 1849-61. 

Field. Otium Norvicense. 1864. 

Bleek. Synoptische Erkldrung der drei ersten Evangelien. 1862. 

Meyer. Commentary on the New Testament. Sixth edition (T. & T. Clark). 

Meyer. Eighth edition by Dr. Bernhard Weiss (Matthew and Mark, largely 
Weiss). 1890-92. 

Meyer. Eighth edition by J. Weiss (son of Bernhard Weiss ; Luke, also largely 
the editor's work). 1892. 

Weiss. Das Marcusevangelium und seine synoptischen Parallelen (a contribution 
to comparative exegesis in the interest of his critical views on the synoptical 
problem). 1872. 

Weiss. Das MatthdusevangcUum und seine Lucas-parallelen (a work of similar 
character). 1876. 

LuTTEROTH. Essui d' Interpretation de quelques parties de VEvangile scion Saint 
Matthieu. 1S64-76. 

ScHANz. Commentar uber das Evangelium des heiligen Matthdus. 1S79. 

ScHANZ. Commentar iiber das Evangelium des heiligen Marcus. t88i. 

ScHANZ. Commefitar iiber das Evangelium des heiligen Lucas (these three com- 
mentaries by Schanz, a Catholic theol^-^ian, are good in all respects, specially 
valuable for patristic references). 1883. 

GoDET. Commentaire sur VEvangile de Saint Luc, 3"^= edition. 1888-89. 

Hahn. Das Evangelium des Lucas. Two vols. 1892-94. 

HoLTZMANN. Die Synoptiker in Hand-C^Mmentar zum Nencn Testament (advanced 
but valuable). 1002. 

The Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges; Matthew, Mark, and 

Luke. 1891-93. 

The well-known lexical and grammatical helps, including Grimm, Cremer, 

Winer, and Buttman, have been consulted. Frequent reference has been made to 

Burton's Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament (T. & T. Clark, 1S94), 

both because of its excellence and its accessibility to students. 

A new edition of Winer's Grammatik (the eighth) by Schmiedel is in course of 

publication ; also oi Kiihner by Blass. 

In the notes, the matter common to the three Gospels is most fully treated in 

Matthew, the notes in the other two Gospels being at these points supplementary 

and comparative. 

The marginal references to passages of Scripture are simply supplementary to 

those in the notes. 

It is hoped that most abbreviations used will need no special explanation, but 

the following table may be helpful : — 


Mt. = Matthew 
Mk. = Mark. 
Lk. = Luke. 
O. T. = Old Testament 
N. T. = New Testament. 
Sept. = Septuagint. 
A. V. = Authorised Version. 
R. V. = Revised Version. 
C. N. T. = Cambridge New Testament. 
Tisch. = Tiachendorf. 
Treg. = Tregelles. 
W. H. = Westcott and Hort. 

Ws. = Weiss (Dr. Bernhard). 
Egypt. = Egyptian versions {vie., the two following). 
Cop. = Coptic (called Memphitic by W. II.). 
Sah. = Sahidic (called Thebaic by \V. H.). 
Syrr. = Syriac versions. 
Pesh. = Peshito (= .Syrian Vulgate). 
Syr. Cur. = Curetonian S>Tiac. (For Greek equivalent z/:t/^ B leth 

gen's Evangelicnfragmente.) 
Syr. Sin. = Sinaitic Syriac (recently discovered). 
Latt. = Latin versions. 

Vulg. = Vulgate (Jerome's revision of old Latin version). 
Vet. Lat. = Vetus Latina (Old Latin, referred to also as It. = Itala). 
The codices of the old Latin are distinguished by 
the letters a, b, c, etc. 
Minusc. = Minusculi (Codices), another name for cursives. 


I. I. •BIBAOI '' vei'eaEcus 'IHIOY XpicrTou, * utoG AaGi'S' uiou » ^'^"- "■ ♦• 

' O JL 'OV'' v;, J V Mk.xii.26. 

Appaau.. 2. Appadji, iyivvnae roe 'icraciK • 'laadic 8e iyivvnat tov Lk. iii. 4; 

' ' XX. 42. 

„ .. b ver. 18. 

Gen. XXXI. 13; xxiu. 9. Lk. 1. 14. Jas. 1. 23; iii, 6. c xii. 33; .\xi. 9; xxii. .12. 

^ The title in T.R. (as above) is late. J^B have simply Kara MaOeaiov. Other 
expanded forms occur. 

* AapiS is found only in minusc. ^B have AaveiS. This is one of several 
variations in spelling occurring in the genealocry, among which may be named Poo£ 
(ver. 5) = po€s in W.H. ; flpi^S (ver. 5) = lup-rjS, VV.H. ; MarSav (ver. i5) = Mae3ai/, 
W.H. For a list of such variations in the spelling of names in the three first 
Gospels vide p. 53. 

The Title. The use of the word ei- 
o.Y^iK\.ov in the sense of a book may be as 
old as the Teaching of the twelve Apostles 
(Didache, 8, 11, 15. Vide Sznda^y, Bnmp- 
ton Lectures, 1893, p. 317, n. i). The 
word passed through three stages in the 
history of its use. First, in the older 
Greek authors (Horn., Od. |, 152, i65), a 
reward for bringing good tidings ; also a 
thank-offering for good tidings brought 
(Arist., Eq. 656). Next, in later Greek, 
the good tidings itself (2 Sam. xviii. 20, 
22, 25, in Sept. In 2 Sam. iv. 10, tv- 
ayyeXia occurs in the earliest sense). 
This sense pervades the N. T. in re- 
ference to the good news of God, 'he 
message of salvation. Finally, it came 
very naturally to denote the books in 
which the Gospel of Jesus was presented 
in historic form, as in the Didache and in 
Justin M., Apol. i. 66, Dial. con. Tryp. 
100. In the titles of the Gospels the 
word retains its second sense, while sug- 
gesting the third, tvayy Kara M. means 
the good news as reduced to writing by 
M; KOTolSTTOt^of, nor KafarWaf^diov 
= MttTfiaiov, as if the sense were : The 
book called a " Gospel " written by Mat- 
thew. (Vide Fritzsche against this the 
older view, supported by Kuinoel.) 

Chapter I. The Genealogy and 
Birth of Jesus, — The genealogy may 

readily appear to us a most ungenial 
beginning of the Gospel. A dry list of 
names ! It is the tribute wliich the 
Gospel pays to the spirit of Judaism. 
The Jews set much store by genealogies, 
and to Jewish Christians the Messiah- 
ship of Jesus depended on its being 
proved that He was a descendant of 
David. But the matter can hardly be 
so vital as that. We may distinguish 
between the question of fact and the 
question of faith. It may be that Jesus 
was really descended from David — many 
things point that way; but even if He 
were not He might still be the Christ, 
the fulfiller of O. T. ideals, the bringer-in 
of the highest good, if He possessed the 
proper spiritual qualifications. What 
although the Christ were not David's 
son in the physical sense ? He was a 
priest after the order of Melchisedec, 
though dyeveaXoYiiTos ; why not Messiah 
under the same conditions ? He might 
still be a son of David in the sense in 
which John the Baptist was Elijah — in 
spirit and power, realising the ideal of 
the hero king. The kingdom of pro]ihecy 
came only in a spiritual sense, why not 
also the king ? The two hang together. 
Paul was not an apostle in the legitimist 
sense, not one of the men who had been 
with Jesus ; yet he was a very real apostle. 



'laKuP. 'laKte)^ 81 lyivyr]cre rhv *lou8ac Kai Toug d8eX<t>ou9 auToo. 

const, in 3- louoas at €y(.vvr]a€ tok vapcs Kai T0>' Zapa €k ttjs Oap.ap • 
Cml iv. 4, 

23, 'i3. 

' 4>ap£9 Sc ^Y^^*^^' "f^^ *Eapu^ * Eapwfji Se ^y^enfjae TOk 'Apdfi. 

So mit;ht Jesus be a Christ, though not 
descended from David. St. Paul writes 
(Gal. iii. 29) : " If ye be Christ's, then are 
ye Abraham's seed". So might we say : 
If Jesus was lit to be the Christ in point 
of spiritual equipment, then was He of 
the seed of David. There is no clear 
evidence in the Gospels that Jesus Him- 
self set value on Davidic descent; there 
are some things that seem to point the 
other way : e.g., the question, " Who is 
my mother ? " (Matt. xii. 4.S ; Mk. iii. 33), 
and the other, " What think ye of the 
Christ, whose son is He ? " (Matt. xxii. 
^2, et par.). There is reason to believe 
that, like St. Paul, He would argue from 
the spiritual to the genealogical, not vice 
versa : not Christ because from David, 
but from David, at least ideally, because 
Christ on otb~r higher grounds. 

Ver. I. ^ipXos yivicrtm k.t.X. How 
much does this heading cover : the whole 
Gospel, the two first chapters, the whole 
of the first chapter, or only i. 1-17 ? All 
these views have been held. The first 
by Euthy. Zigab., who argued: the birth 
of the God-man was the important point, 
and involved all the rest ; therefore the 
title covers the whole history named 
from the most important part (dir6 tov 
KvpiwTepov |xepovs). Some moderns 
(Ebrard, Keil, etc.) have defended the 
view on the ground that the correspond- 
ing title in O. T. (Gen. vi. 9 ; xi. 27, 
etc.) denotes not merely a genealogical 
list, but a history of the persons whose 
genealogy is given. Thus the expression 
is taken to mean a bonk on the life of 
Christ (liber de vita Christi, Maldon.). 
Against the second view and the third 
Weiss-Meyer remarks that at i. iS a 
new beginning is made, while ii. i runs 
on as if continuing the same story. The 
most probable and most generally 
accepted opinion is that of Calvin, Beza, 
and Grotius that the expression applies 
only to i. 1-17. (Non est haec inscriptio 
totius libri, sed particulae primae quae 
velut extra corpus historiae prominet. 

*It)o-o{) XptaToi. Christ here is not an 
appellative but a proper name, in accord- 
ance with the usage of the Apostolic 
age. In the body of the evangelistic his- 
tory the word is not thus used ; only in 
the introductory parts. [Vide Mk. i. i ; 
John i. 17.) 

vlou A., vlov A. Of David first, because 
with his name was associated the more 
specific promise of a Messianic king ; of 
Abraham also, because he was the 
patriarch of the race and first recipient 
of the promise. The genealogy goes 
no further back, because the Gospel is 
written for the Jews. Euthy. Zig. 
suggests that David is placed first 
because he was the better known, as the 
less remote, as a great prophet and a 
renowned king, (airb tov ■Yv<upi.|ji,<oT€po« 
fxaXXov dp^cLfiEVOS, i-rcX tov TraXaiOTtpov 
dviiXOev.) The word vtov in both cases 
applies to Christ. It can refer gram- 
matit-lly to David, as many take it, but 
the other reference is demanded by the 
fact that ver. i forms the superscription 
of the following genealogy. So Weiss- 

Vv. 2-16. The genealogy divides 
into three parts : from Abraham to 
David (w. 2-6a) ; from David to the cap- 
tivity (w. 6b-ii) ; from the captivity to 
Christ. On closer inspection it turns out 
to be not so dry as it at first appeared. 
There are touches here and there which 
import into it an ethical significance, 
suggesting the idea that it is the work 
not of a dry-as-dust Jewish genealogist, 
but of the evangelist ; or at least worked 
over by him in a Christian spirit, if the 
skeleton was given to his hand. To 
note these is the chief interest of non- 
Rabbinical exegesis. 

Vv. 2-6a. Ktti Tovs aSeXcjjovs avToiJ. 
This is not necessary to the genealogical 
line, but added to say by the way that 
He who belonged to the tribe of Judah 
belonged also to all the tribes of Israel. 
(Weiss, Matthausevang.) . . . Ver. 3. 
TOV 4>ap€s Kai tov Zapd : Zerah added 
to Perez the continuator of the line, to 
suggest that it was by a special provi- 
dence that the latter was first born (Gen. 
xxxviii. 27-30). The evangelist is on the 
outlook for the unusual or preternatural 
in history as prelude to the crowning 
marvel of the virgin birth (Gradus 
futurus ad credendum partum e virgine. 
Grot.). — «K Ttjs 6(i)xap. Mention of the 
mother wholly unnecessary and un- 
usual from a genealogical point of view, 
and in this case one would say, primd 
facie, impolitic, reminding of a hardly 
readable story (Gen. xxxviii. 13-26). It 
is the first of four references to mothers 




4. 'Apoifi. Se eyeVi/Tjac toc 'Afxii'aSdP • 'Ajjin'aSaP 8e iyivvt]<Te Tot' 
Naaoraoji'- tiaacraw Ze eyivvr]oe tov laK^uv. 5. laXjiwv' 8e cye't'criae 
TOf Bool^ eK TTJs 'PaX<*P ' B^oj^ 8e lycvvr\cfe toc 'ftjSrjS ck ttjs 'Pou9 • 
'ftjjYjS 8e eyt'wqo-e toc 'leaaai • 6. 'ico-aal Sc eyecct^ac toc AaPl8 
TOC PaaiXea. Aa(3l8 Se 6 ^aaiXeus ^ eyeVcTjo-e toc ZoXo|j,(ijrra -^ eK 
TTJs Tou Oupi'ou • 7. IoXop.wc 8e cy^ccTjCTc TOC 'PopodjA • 'PoPod/i 
he eyeVcTf^ffe toc *Apid • 'APid 8e eyeVcT^ffe toc 'Acrd • 8. 'Aad 8c 
eytVcTjae toc lojo-a4)dT • 'lwo-a4»dT Se eyc'ccTjae toc 'lupd|JL ■ 'iwpdiA 
81 eye'ccTjae toc 'Oj^i'ac • 9. 'O^ias 8c cye'ccrjorc toc MwdSafA • 'iwdOau 
8e eyeccY]ac Toc^Axa^ • 'Axa^ 8e cye'cctjae toc "Ei^cKiac • 10. 'E^CKi'as 

1 o Pao-iXcv9 omitted in ^B, found in C% Most modern editors omit. 
* So in A. ZoXofxcova in BCL and most uncials. 

in the ancestry of Jesus, concerning 
whom one might have expected the 
genealogy to observe discreet silence : 
Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, Bathsheba; three 
of them sinful women, and one, Ruth, a 
foreigner. Why uje they mentioned ? 
By way of defence against sinister mis- 
construction of the birth of Jesus ? So 
Wetstein : Ut tacitse Judaeorum objec- 
tioni occurreretur. Doubtless there is a 
mental reference to that birth under some 
aspect, but it is not likely that the evan- 
gelist would condescend to apologise 
before the bar of unbelief, even though 
he might find means of doing so in the 
Jewish habit of glorying over the mis- 
deeds of ancestors (Wetstein). Much 
more probable is the opinion of the 
Fathers, who found in these names a 
foreshadowing of the gracious character 
of the Gospel of Jesus, as it were the 
Gospel in the genealogy. Schanz follows 
the Fathers, except that he thinks they 
have over-emphasised the sinful element. 
He finds in the mention of the four 
women a hint of God's grace in Christ 
to the sinful and miserable: Rahab and 
Bathsheba representing the one, Tamar 
and Ruth the other. This view com- 
mends itself to many interpreters both 
Catholic and Protestant. Others prefer 
to bring the four cases under the cate- 
gory of the extraordinary exemplified by 
the case of Perez and Zerah. These 
women all became mothers in the line of 
Christ's ancestry by special providence 
(Weiss-Meyer). Doubtless this is at least 
part of the moral. Nicholson (Neiv 
Comm.) thinks that the introduction of 
Tamar and Ruth is sufficiently explained 
by Ruth iv. 11, 12, viewed as Messianic; 
of Rahab by her connection with the 
earlier Jesus (Joshua), and of Bathsheba 

because she was the mother of a second 
line culminating in Christ, as Ruth of a 
first culminating in David. — Ver. 6a. 
tov AapiS tov PaaiX^a, David the Kifig, 
the title being added to distinguish him 
from the rest. It serves the same pur- 
pose as if David had been written in 
large letters. At length we arrive at the 
great roy»l name I The materials for 
the first part of the genealogy are taken 
from Ruth iv. 18-22, and i Chron. ii. 


Vv. 6b-io, Ik rrjs tov Ovpiov, vide 
above. The chief feature in this second 
division of the genealogical table is the 
omission of three kings between Joram 
and Uzziah (ver. 8), viz., Ahaziah, Joash, 
Amaziah. How is the omission to 
be explained ? By inadvertence, or by 
intention, and if the latter, in what view ? 
Jerome favoured the second alternative, 
and suggested two reasons for the inten- 
tional omission — a wish to bring out the 
number fourteen (ver. ly) in the second 
part of the genealogy, and a desire to 
brand the kings passed over with the 
stamp of theocratic illegality. In effect, 
manipulation with a presentable excuse. 
But the excuse would justify other omis- 
sions, e.g., Ahaz and Manasseh, who, 
were as great offenders as any. One can, 
indeed, imagine the evangelist desiring to 
exemplify the severity of the Gospel as 
well as its grace in the construction of 
the list — to say in effect : God resisteth 
the proud, but He giveth grace to the 
lowly, and even the low. The hypo- 
thesis of manipulation in the interest of 
symbolic numbers can stand on its own 
basis without any pretext. It is not 
to be supposed that the evangelist was at 
all concerned to make sure that no link 
in the line was omitted. His one concern 



t ngain g^ tyivvY](Tt rov Mavaaffi] • Mai'aaai)9 8c ty<.i'yi](ie Toi' A|jicj»' • Ajiwc 

ver. 17. 81 tvo'i'Tio'e TO*' '\u)(TLav • II, luaias Sc iyivvriae to^ 'kvov'ta*' Kai 

Also in 2 ' ' ' ' '^ 

Kings jo^Q dSeXAous auToiJ, tirl ttis * ixcToiKcaias BaSuXwfoq. 12. Mera 

:ixiv. 16; 1 ' J 

Cliion. V. 8^ j^y p.£ToiKC(Tia»' BttPoXwcos, 'l£xo*'ias cyei't'riac toc laXaOn^X ' 

verb (af T- jaXaSiiiX Se evevj'Tjae tok ZopoPdpcX * 13. ZopoPdiPtX 8e eyivvqae 
oiKis'u)) in 
Acts vii. 4, 43. 

would be to make sure that no name 
appeared that did not belong to the line. 
He can hardly liave imagined that his 
list was complete from beginning to end. 
Thus N ahshon (ver. 4) was the head of the 
tribe of Judah at the Exodus (Num. i. 7), 
yet between Hezron and him only two 
names occur — four names for 400 years. 
Each name or generation represents a 
century, in accordance with Genesis xv. 
13-16. The genealogist may have had 
this passage in view, but he must have 
known that the actual succession em- 
braced more links than four (vide Schanz 
on ver. 4). The hypothesis of inadver- 
tence or error in consulting the text 
of the O. T., favoured by some 
modern commentators, is not to be sum- 
marily negatived on the ground of an 
a priori theory of inerrancy. It is pos- 
sible that in reading i Chron. iii. 11 in 
the Sept. the eye leapt from 'Oxo^ias to 
'Ottag, and so led to omission of it and 
the two following names. ('A^apias, not 
'O^ias, is the reading in Sept., but Weiss 
assumes that the latter, Azariah's original 
name, must have stood in the copy used 
by the constructor of the genealogy.) 
The explanation, however, is conjectural. 
No certainty, indeed, is attainable on the 
matter. As a curiosity in the history of 
exegesis may be mentioned Chrysostom's 
mode of dealing with this point. Having 
propounded several problems regarding 
the genealogy, the omission of the three 
kings included, he leaves ihis one un- 
solved on the plea that he must not ex- 
plain everything to his hearers lest they 
become listless (iva p.T) avaire'o-rjTc, Horn. 
iv.). Schanz praises the prudence of 
the sly Greek orator. 

Ver. II. 'lojo-ias iyev, rov 'Uxoviav, 
There is an omission here also : Eliakim, 
son of Josiah and father of Jeconiah. 
It was noted and made a ground of 
reproach to Christians by Porphyry. 
Maldonatus, pressed by the difhculty, 
proposed to substitute for Jeconiah, Jeho- 
iakim, the second of four sons ascribed 
to Josiah in the genealogist's source (i 
Chron. iii. 14), whereby the expression 
T0u9 dSe\(j>ous avTou would retain its 
natural sense. But, while the two names 

are perhaps similar enough to be mis- 
taken for each other, it is against the 
hypothesis as a solution of the difficulty 
that Jehoiakim did not share in the cap- 
tivity (2 Kings xxiv. 6), while the words 
of ver. n seem to imply that the descen- 
dant of Josiah referred to was associated 
with his brethren in exile. The words 
^iri TTJs p-cToiKcaias BaPuXcivos probably 
supply the key to the solution. Josiah 
brings us to the brink of the period of exile. 
With his name that doleful time comes 
into the mind of the genealogist. Who 
is to represent it in the ime of succession ? 
Not Jehoiakim, for though the deporta- 
tion began in his reign he was not 
himself a captive. It must be Jeconiah 
(Jehoiakin), his son "vt the second re- 
move, who was among the captives (2 
Kings xxiv. 15). His " brethren " are his 
uncles, sons of Josiah, his grandfather; 
brethren in blood, and brethren also as 
representatives of a calamitous time — 
(vide Weiss-Meyer). There is a pathos 
in this second allusion to brother- 
hood. " Judah and his brethren," par- 
takers in the promise (also in the sojourn 
in Egypt) ; " Jeconiah and his brethren," 
the generation of the promise eclipsed. 
Royalty in the dust, but not without 
hope. The omission of Eliakim (or 
Jehoiakim) serves the subordinate pur- 
pose of keeping the second division of the 
genealogy within the number fourteen. — 
McToiKecrias ; literally chancre of abode, 
deportation, "carrying away," late Greek 
for jjicToiKiaor p.€ToiKT|(ris. — BapvXuJi'os : 
genitive, expressing the terminus ad quern 
(vide Winer, § 30, 2 a, and cf. Matt. iv. 
15, 6S6v 9aXdo-erTjs, x. 5, oSov fQvoiv). — lirl 
T. p,., "at the time of, during," the time 
being of some length ; the process of de- 
portation went on for years. Cf. Mk. ii. 
26, €Trl 'APidOap, under the high priest- 
hood of Abiathar, and Mk. xii. 26 for a 
similar use of iirl in reference to place: 
CTTi Tov pdrov — at the place where the 
story of the bush occurs. Mtrd t. p. in 
ver. 12 means after not diirim^, as some 
have supposed, misled by taking pexoi- 
Kco-ia as denoting the state of exile. Vide 
on this Fritzsche, 

Vv. 12-15. I" ^^^ ^^^^ division the 

II— ly. 



TOf 'AjStouS • 'APiouS Se iyivvmre jov 'EXtaKeip, • 'EXtaKeip, 8e 
iytvv(]a-e rov 'M,tx)p • 14. A^wp 8e iyivvf\(ye lov ZaSoitc • 2a8u)K 8e 
l.yivv(\ae. tov 'Axei'p. ' 'Axeif^ 8€ eyeVi'Tjae tov 'E\iou8 • 15. 'eXiouS 
8e cyeVkTjffe tok 'EXed^ap • 'EXed^ap Se eyeVi/Tjcre lov HaT^av • 
M \TQa.v Se eyeci'rjCTe toi' laKco^ • 1 6. laKoj^ 8e iy4.vv<\fif. TOk* 'lwarj4), f s 
Tov ai'Spa Mapias, €^ >is lyei/k'rjSr] ''iTjaous 6 X£Ydu.€kos Xpiaros, 

17. nSaai GUI' ai yei'eal aTro 'Appaap, ews AaPi'S, yet'eal SeKar^or- c jesus 

\ 5 \ 4 r>^c =* ^ 'rfcOX"^ ^ called the 

crapes • Kai airo Aapto eus tyjs p.eTOiKeo-ias BapuXojv'os, yeceai Christ ). 

same ex- 
in xxvii. 

17, 22 

genealogical table escapes our control. 
After Zerubbabel no name occurs in 
the O. T. We might have expected 
to find Abiud in i Chron. iii. 19, where 
the children of Zerubbabel are given, but 
Abiud is not among them. The royal 
family sank into obscurity. It does not 
follow that no pains were taken to pre- 
serve their genealogy. The priests may 
have been diligent in the matter, and re- 
cords may have been preserved in the 
temple (Schanz). The Messianic hope 
would be a motive to carefulness. In 
any case we must suppose the author of 
the genealogy before us to give here what 
he found. He did not construct an 
imaginary list. And the list, if not guar- 
anteed as infallibly accurate by its inser- 
tion, was such as might reasonably be 
expected to satisfy Hebrew readers. 
Amid the gloom of the night of legjism 
which broods over all things belonging to 
the period, this genealogy included, it is 
a comfort to think that the Messiahship 
of Jesus does not depend on the absolute 
accuracy of the genealogical tree. 

Ver. 16. MaKcoP . . . ibv 'l<i)(r^(J>: the 
genealogy ends with yoseph. It is then 
presumably his, not Mary's. But for 
apologetic or dogmatic considerations, 
no one would ever have thought of 
doubting this. What creates perplexity 
is that Joseph, while called the husband 
(tov dvSpa) of Mary, is not represented 
as the father of Jesus. There is no 
€y€vvi]«r€ in this case, though some sup- 
pose that there was originally, as the 
genealogy came from the hand of some 
Jewish Christian, who regarded Jesus as 
the Son of Joseph (Holtzmann in H. C). 
The Sinaitic Syriac Codex has " Joseph, 
to whom was betrothed Mary the Vir- 
gin, begat Jesus," but it does not alter 
the story otherwise to correspond with 
Joseph's paternity. Therefore Joseph 
can only have been the legal father of 
Jesus. But, it is argued, that is not 
enough to satisfy the presupposition of 
the whole N. T., viz., that Jesus was the 

actual son of David (xaro, ordpKa, Rom. i. 
3) ; therefore the genealogy must be that 
of Mary (Nosgen). This conclusion can 
be reconciled with the other alternative 
by the assumption that Mary was of the 
same tribe and family as Joseph, so that 
the genealogy was common to both. 
This v/as the patristic view. The fact 
may have been so, but it is not indicated 
by the evangelist. His aim, undoubtedly, 
is to set forth Jesus as the legitimate son 
of Joseph, Mary's husband, at His birth, 
and therefore the proper heir of David's 
throne. — £| -^s €y6vvr|0T] 'I. The peculiar 
manner of expression is a hint that 
something out of the usual course had 
happened, and prepares for the following 
explanation : o Xeyd(ievos Xpio-ros ; not 
implying doubt, but suggesting that the 
claim of Jesus to the title Christ was 
valid if He were a legitimate descendant 
of David, as the genealogy showed Hin 
to be. 

Ver. 17. The evangelist pauses to point 
out the structure of his genealogy : three 
parts with fourteen members each ; sym- 
metrical, memorable; irderai does not 
imply, as Meyer and Weiss think, that in 
the opinion of the evangelist no links 
are omitted. He speaks simply of what 
lies under the eye. There they are, 
fourteen in each, count and satisfy your- 
self. But the counting turns out not to 
be so easy, and has given rise to great 
divergence of opinion. The division 
naturally suggested by the words of the 
text is : from Abraham to David, termi- 
nating first series, 14 ; from David, head- 
ing second series, to the captivity as 
limit, i.e., to Josiah, 14 ; from the 
captivity represented by Jeconiah to 
Christ, included as final term, 14. So 
Bengel and De Wette. If objection be 
taken to counting David twice, the 
brethren of Jeconiah, that is, his uncles, 
may be taken as representing the con- 
cluding term of series 2, and Jeconiah 
himself as the first member of series 3 
(Weiss-Meyer). The identical number 



R Ik. i. 27, gf^f^f^^o^jxpjg . ,{(11 ^,,^0 Tfj5 jitcTOiKeata? BaPoXwi'05 cc'- to'j 

h I-k. xvii. XpiaToG, Y€»€al hfnarf.aaapi^. 

18. I Cor. r ' I ^ ^ ^ „ , 

iv. 2. 18. TOY §€ 'liiaou ' XpiCTTOu « yivvncrts ' outws ^i*. ' ufiicfTeu- 

i apain in ^ o - ^ 1 ~ / i > 

xxiv. 19 06i(TT]S Y"P """^^ fA^Tpos aoToC Mttpias Tw 'l(oav^(f>, Trplc r\ ouceXSeiv 

I/K.XX1.23. ^ . ^ ^ %, J , e / 

j Mt. XX. 4. aoTOos, €upe0t] (<■ yaarpi ^yovaa, ex rii'eup.aTO? Aviou. IQ 

Mk. vi. 20. ^ ^ c.\c,» >- e/ X \\n» 

Lk.xx.2o. lu(rTi(|> 0£ 6 di'i^p auT*is, ^ oiKaios otv, Kai utj 0e'\a»f aorrii' irapa- 
Rom. V. 7. 

• J> iiivcTls the ouKr of the names (X, I.). I. X. in ^CL, etc. Wc-iss (Meyer, 
bth ed.) remarks that B has a preference for " Christ Jesus ". 

' The best old MSS. read -yevca-is . . . 'ytvvqo-is is doubtless a correction of the 
scribe to bring the text into conformity with iytvvr\a-t in the genealogy. 

' Y<^p omitted in t^BC, etc. The sense is clearer without it. 

in the three parts is of no importance in 
itself. It is a numerical symbol uniting 
three periods, and suggesting comparison 
in other respects, e.g., as to different 
forms of government — judges, kings, 
priests (Euthy. Zig.), theocracy, mon- 
archy, hierarchy (Schanz), all summed 
up in Christ ; or as to Israel's fortunes : 
growth, decline, ruin — redemption ur- 
gently needed. 

Vv. 18-25. The Birth of Jesus. 
This section gives the explanation which 
^ ■fjs ry«vvT;9T) (ver. 16) leads us to expect. 
It may be called the justification of the 
gcnealo<iv (Schanz), showing that while 
the birth was exceptional in nature it 
yet took place in such circumstances, 
that Jesus might justly be regau'ed as 
the legitimate son of Joseph, and there- 
fore heir of David's throne. The position 
of the name Tov Se I. X. at the head of 
the sentence, and the recurrence of the 
word yivta-1%, point back to ver. I ; •yt'v'fcris, 
not -ytwrioris, is the true reading, the 
purpose being to express the general idea 
of origin, ortits, not the specific idea of 
generation (6 eva-yYeXtorTTjs tKaivord- 
fir]<r€ TO Kara, (fivcriv ovojxa ttjs ■ytwi'io-- 
6WS, yiveiriv air^v KcXtVas. Euthy. 
Zig. on ver. 1). 

Ver. 1 8. (ivT)o-T£v;G€i(5-T)S . . . auTOfls 
indicates the position of Mary in relation 
to Joseph when her pregnancy was dis- 
covered. Briefly it was — betrothed, not 
married. flplv i\ arvviXQAv means before 
they came together in one home as man 
and wife, it being implied that that would 
not take place before marriage. crvveK^dv 
might refer to sexual intercourse, so far 
as the meaning of the word is concerned 
(Joseph. Antiq. vii. 9, 5), but the evange- 
list would not think it necessary to state 
that no such intercourse had taken place 
between the betrothed. That he would 
regard as a matter of course. Yet most 

of the fathers so understood the word ; 
and "ime, Chrysostom, e.g., conceived 
Josepn and Mary to be living together 
before marriage, but sine eoncnhitn, be- 
lieving this to have been the usual 
practice. Of this, however, there is no 
satisfactory evidence. The sense above 
assigned to o-tiveX. corresponds to the 
verb irapaXaPetv, ver. 20, 'n-ttp6'Xap€, ver. 
24, which means to take home, dumum 
dueere. The supposed reason for the 
practice alleged to have e.xisted by Chry- 
sost jm and others was the protection of 
the betrothed (81' dcr<j>ttX«Lav, Euthy.). 
Grammarians (vide Fritzsch*) say that 
irplv ii is not found in ancient Attic, 
though often in middle Attic. For other 
instances of it, with infinitive, vide Mk. 
xiv. 30, Acts vii. 2 ; without ■i^, Mt. 
xxvi. 34, 75. On the construction of 
•n-pYv with the various moods, vide Her- 
mann ed. Viger, Klotz ed. Devarius, and 
Goodwin's Syntax. — eipe'Qr) . . . 'iyjava-a.: 
tviptGrj, not rjv. (So Olearius, Uhserv. 
ad Ev. Mat., and other older inter- 
preters.) There was a discovery and a 
suri rise. It was apparent (de Wette) ; 
Sitt TO airpoa-S6xr|Tov (Euthy.). To 
whom apparent not indicated. Jerome 
says : " Non ab alio inventa est nisi a 
Joseph, qui pene licentia niaritali futurae 
uxoris omnia noverat ". — ei< trv. ay. This 
was not apparent ; it belonged to the 
region of faith. The evangelist hastens 
to add this explanation of a painful fact 
to remove, as quickly as possible, all 
occasion for sinister conjecture. The 
expression points at once to immediate 
divine causality, and to the holy character 
of the effect: a solemn protest against 
profane thoughts. 

Ver. ig. I. 6dvf|p: proleptic, imply- 
ing possession of a husband's rights and 
responsibilities. The betrothed man had 
a duty in the matter — SCKaios . • . Ssi-yjia- 




SeiyfiaTtfjai,^ €|3ouXi]9if] XdOpa '^ ' aTroXuaat auT^c. 20. Taura 81 '^ ^Y- 31.32; 

auTOu ' ti'9up.T]0ei'TOS, 180U, ayyeXos Kupi'ou " Kax' ok-ap e<})di'T] auTu, ¥''■ ^- J' 

Xe'YWf, " 'lwffii4>> uios AapiS, ju,t] <})0J3t]9t]S " irapaXaPeii' Mapiujj. ^ h- *dT 

TT)>' yui'ttiKCi aou • TO yap ef aurfj yei'i'Tjdei' ck rifeufiaros eaTii^ ' "^^^P- ''i;4- 

Aviou. 21. Te'lexat 8e oloc, Kal "KaXe'creis to oi-oua auTOo '[■ndouv '2, 13, 19, 
' ' ' 22; xxvii, 

auTos ydp acoaci toi^ \abv auToG diro twc daapTiw!/ auTwi'. ' 22. '9- 

' "^ n again ver, 

TouTO 8e oXof yiyoviy, Iva irXifipwGf] to ''pTiOei' utto tou ■* Kupiou 8id 2.1. 

• ' li II I 1 I Q Lk. i. 13; 

ii. 21. 
pchap. ii. 15; iii. 3; xxii. 31 

1 B and ^'^ have the simple verb (SeiyjAaTio-ai). 

2 XaGpa in W.H. 

•'' Mapiav in BL (W.H. text). The Mapiaji of the T. R. probably comes from the 
history of Christ's birth in Luke i., ii. 
* The article toaj before Kvpiow is omitted in the best MSS. 

vC<rai. He was in a strait betwixt two. 
Being 8£Kaios, just, righteous, a respecter 
of the law, he could not overlook the 
apparent fault ; on the other hand, loving 
the woman, he desired to deal with her 
as tenderly as possible: not wishing to 
expose hfr (avr^v in an emphatic posi- 
tion before 8«iy|j.aTCo-at — the loved one. 
Weiss-Meyer). Some (Grotius, Fritz- 
sche, etc.) take 8CKaios in the sense of 
bonitas or benignitas, as if it had been 
iyaOos, so eliminating the element of con- 
flict.— ePovXf,9ii . . . avpTT|v. He finally 
resolved on the expedient of putting her 
away privately. The alternatives were 
exposure by public repudiation, or quiet 
cancelling of the bond of betrothal. 
Affection chose the latter. SeiyiiarCo-ai 
does not point, as some have thought, to 
judicial procedure with its penalty, death 
by stoning. Xa,9pa before diroXvcrai is 
emphatic, and suggests a contrast be- 
tween two ways of performing the act 
pointed at by diroXvo-ai. Note the 
synonyms 0^Xo)v and sPo^jXtjOt]. The 
former denotes inclination in general, 
the latter a deliberate decision between 
different courses — maluit (vide on chapter 
xi. 27). 

Vv. 20-21. yoseph delivered from his 
perplexity by angelic interposiiioti. How 
much painful, distressing, distracting 
thought he had about the matter day and 
night can be imagined. Relief came at 
last in a dream, of which Mary was the 
subject. — TttvTa . . . €v9x)|ATi0evTos : the 
genitive absolute indicates the time of 
the vision, and the verb the state of 
mind : revolving the matter in thought 
without clear perception of outlet. 
ravxa, the accusative, not the genitive 
with vipi : €v9. irepL xivos = Cogitare de 
re, €v9. Ti = aliauid seciim reputare. 

KiJhner, § 417, g. — 18ot5 : often in Mt 

after genitive absolute ; vivid introduc- 
tion of the angelic appearance (Weiss 
Meyer). — Kax* ovap (late Greek con- 
demned by Phrynichus. Vide Lobeck 
Phryn., p. 423. ovap, without pre- 
position, thq classic equivalent), during a 
dream reflecting present distractions. — 
vios AapfS : the angel addresses Joseph 
as son of David to awaken the heroic 
mood. The title confirms the view that 
the genealogy is that of Joseph. — p,T] 
<j)oPri9f)s : he is summoned to a .supreme 
act of faith similar to those performed by 
the moral heroes of the Bible, who by 
faith made their lives sublime. — xi^v 
yuvaiKa (Toti : to take Mary, as thy wife, 
so in ver. 2^ — rh . . . ayCov : negativing 
the other alternative by which he was 
tormented. The choice lies between 
two extremes : most unholy, or the holi- 
est possible. What a crisis ! — ver. 21. 
xtjexai — 'lTi<ro{iv: Mary is about to bear 
a son, and He is to bear the significant 
name oiyesus. The style is an echo of 
O. T. story, Gen. xvii. ig, Sept., the 
birth of Isaac and that of Jesus being 
thereby placed side by side as similar in 
their preternatural character. — KaXeo-frt? } 
a command in form of a prediction. But 
there is encouragement as well as com- 
mand in this future. It is meant to 
help Joseph out of his doubts into a mood 
of heroic, resolute action. Cease from 
brooding anxious thought, think of the 
child about to be born as destined to a 
great career, to be signalised by His name 
Jesus — Jehovah the helper. — avixbs 
ydp . . . d|xapxiwv a-uxwv: interpretation ol 
the name, still part of the angelic speech. 
atixo5 emphatic, he and no other, apapr., 
sins, implying a spiritual conception of 
Israel's need. 



I. 23—25. 

q Is. vii. 14. TOU TrpO(|>1)TOO, XcYOk-TOS, 23. *• " 'I80U, 1^ TTapOcVoS iv yaCTTpl 'iitl Kttl 

W^erai oioc, Kal KaX^aouai ^ to ovofia auTOu 'Ep./iat'oui'jX," o eari 
r Mk. V. 41 ; ' ijieQepu.Tii''OJ', MeG' -nixiov 6 Oeog. 24. AtevepSels ^ 8e 6 ^ 

XV. SJ, 34. , ^ V - „ , / 

John 1.42. lu(D)({> dTro TOU uTTk'ou cTTOiTjcrcc u)S irpoffeTajec auTw 6 ayy^^os 
• Lk. i. 34. Kupi'ou • Kol TrapAa|3e ttjc yufaiKa auToG, 25. Koi oiiK ' iyivuxTKiv 
ouT*']^, ew9 ou ■* cTeKe to*'' ulow aurfjs TOk TrpuToroKOi'""' Kal ^KaXeae 
rh oi'op.a auToC 'iHZOYN. 

' D has KttXso-tis as in Sept. ver. of Is. vii. 14. 

' Here again, as in ver. 19, the simple verb rytpOtis is used instead of the com- 
pound of T. R. in the best texts (^BCZ). 
' o omitted in ^ZA al., bracketed in W.H. 
•* ov is omitted in B and bracketed in W.H. 

* Instead of the words rev viov avrrjs tov irpwroroKov, If^BZ i, 33, some old Latin 
MSS., the Egyptian versions and Syr. Cur., have simply mov. The expanded 
phrase of T. R., found in many copies, is doubtless imported from Lk> ii. 7. 

Vv. 22-23. The prophetic reference. 
As it is the evangelist's habit to cite 
O. T. prophecies in connection with 
leading incidents in the life of Jesus, it 
is natural, with most recent interpreters, 
to regard these words, not as uttered 
by the angel, but as a comment of 
the narrator. The ancients, Chry., 
Theophy., Euthy. , etc., adopt the for- 
mer view, and Weiss-Meyer concurs, 
while admitting that in expression they 
reveal the evangelist's style. In support 
of this, it might be urged that the sug- 
gestion of the prophetic oracle to the 
mind of Joseph would be an aid to faith. 
It speaks of a son to be born of a virgin. 
Why should not Mary be that virgin, and 
her child that son ? In favour of it also 
is the consideration that on the opposite 
view the prophetic reference comes in 
too soon. Why should not the evangelist 
go on to the end of his story, and then 
quote the prophetic oracle ? Finally, if 
we assume that in the case of all objec- 
tive preternatural manifestations, there 
is an answering subjective psychological 
state, we must conclude that among the 
thoughts that were passing through 
Joseph's mind at this crisis, one was 
that in his family experience as a " son 
of David," something of great importance 
for the royal race and for Israel was 
about to happen. The oracle in question 
might readily suggest itself as explaining 
the nature of the coming event. On all 
these grounds, it seems reasonable to 
conclude that the evangelist, in this case, 
means the prophecy to form part of the 
angelic utterance. 

Ver. 22. TovTo 8^ . . . Hva "irXT^pwOf). 
Iva. is to be taken here, and indeed al- 

ways in such connections, in its strict 
telic sense. The interest of the evan- 
gelist, as of all N. T. writers, in prophecy, 
was purely religious. For him O. T. 
oracles had exclusive reference to the 
events in the life of Jesus by which 
they were fulfilled. The virgin, rj 
irapOevos, supposed to be present to the 
eye of the prophet, is the young woman 
of Nazareth betrothed to Joseph the 
carpenter, now found to be with child. — 
'ISoi) . . , *E|i.)iavo\nf)X : in the oracle 
as here quoted, %i {cf. ^xovera, ver. 18), 
is substituted for \i]\|f€Tai, and /caXt'oreis 
changed into the impersonal KaXe'o-ovo-t. 
Emmanuel = " with us God," implying 
that God's help will come through the 
child Jesus. It does not necessarily im- 
ply the idea of incarnation. 

V*', 24-25. Joseph hesitates no more: 
immediate energetic action takes the 
place of painful doubt. Euthymius 
asks : Why did he so easily trust the 
dream in so great a matter ? and an- 
swers : because the angel revealed to 
him the thought of his own heart, for he 
understood that the messenger must 
have come from God, for God alone 
knows the thoughts of the heart. — 
€7€p0els . . . KvpCov : rising up from 
the sleep (tot) iiirvov), in which he had 
that remarkable dream, on that memor- 
able night, he proceeded forthwith to 
execute the Divine command, the first, 
chief, perhaps sole business of that day. 
— Kal irapt'XaPev . . . aurov. He took 
Mary home as his wife, that her off- 
spring might be his legitimate son and 
heir of David's throne. — Ver. 25. Kal 
ovK iyCvuKTKev . . . vtov : absolute habitual 
(note the imperfect) abstinence from 

11. 1. 



II. 1. Tou 8e ^IrjCToG yei-n-iOeVTOS Iv BrjGXeejj. ty]s 'looSaias, cvo again in 

♦j^e'pais 'HpciSou tou ^acriXeus, i8ou, ' fjidyoi d-rro '' dvaroXw^ (bis). Acts 

xiii. 6, 8. 
b chap. viiL 11 • xxiv. 27. Lk. xiii. 39 

marital intercourse, the sole purpose of 
the hastened marriage being to legitimise 
the child. — ?«s : not till then, and after- 
wards ? Here comes in a qucestio vexata 
of theology. Patristic and catholic 
authors say : not tili then and never at 
all, guarding the sacredness of the virgin's 
womb. ?ws does not settle the question. 
It is easy to cite instances of its use as 
fixing a limit up to which a specified 
event did not occur, when as a matter of 
fact it did not occur at all. E.g., Gen. 
viii. 7 ; the raven returned not till the 
waters were dried up ; in fact, never re- 
turned (Schanz). But the presumption is 
all the other way in the case before us. 
Subsequent intercourse was the natural, 
if not the necessary, course of things. 
If the evangelist had felt as the Catholics 
do, he would have taken pains to prevent 
misunderstanding. — vtdv : the extended 
reading (T. R.) is imported from Luke 
ii. 7, where there are no variants. 
irptoTOTOKOv is not a stumbling-block to 
the champions of the perpetual virginity, 
because the first may be the only. 
Euthymius quotas in proof Isaiah xliv. 6 : 
" I am the first, and I am the last, and be- 
side Me there is no God." — Kal iKaXccrev, 
he (not she) called the child Jesus, the 
statement referring back to the command 
of the angel to Joseph. Wiinsche says 
that before the Exile the mother, after 
the Exile the father, gave the name to 
the child at circumcision (Neue Beitrdge 
zur Erlduterxmg der Evangelien, p. 11). 

Chapter II. History of the In- 
fancy CONTINUED. The leading aim of 
the evangelist in this chapter is not to 
give biographic details as to the time 
and place of Christ's birth. These are 
disposed of in an introductory subordinate 
clause with a genitive absolute construc- 
tion : " Jesus being born in Bethlehem 
of Judaea in the days of Herod the 
King " : that is all. The main purpose 
is to show the reception given by the 
world to the new-born Messianic King. 
Homage from afar, hostility at home ; 
Ibreshadowing the fortunes of the new 
~Ta1th : acceptance by the Gentiles, re- 
jection by the Jews ; such is the lesson 
of this new section. It is history, but 
not of the prosaic sort : history with a 
religious bias, and wearing a halo of 
poetry. The story forms a natural 
sequel to the preceding account. The 

Z\ in ver. i, as in i. 18, is adversative 
only to the extent of taking the attention 
off one topic and fixing it on another 
connected and kindred. This, according 
to Klotz, who regards 8i as a weak form 
of 89|, is the original force of the particle. 
He says (in Devarius, p. 355): "Ilia 
particula earn vim habet, ut abducat nos 
ab ea re, quae proposita est, transferat- 
que ad id quod, missa ilia priore re, jam 
pro vero ponendum esse videatur ". 

Vv. 1-12. Visit of the Magi. Ver. 
I. iv BTjOXseji: The first hint of the 
birthplace, and no hint that Bethle- 
hem is not the home of the family. — 
tt)s 'lou8aCas : to distinguish it from 
another Bethlehem in Galilee (Zebulon), 
named in Joshua xix. 15. Our Bethle- 
hem is called Bethlehem-Judah in i 
Sam. xvii. 12, and Jerome thought it 
should be so written here — Bethlehem 
of Judah, not of Judaea, taking the latter 
for the name of the whole nation. The 
name means "house of bread," and 
points to the fertility of the neighbour- 
hood ; about six miles south of Jerusalem. 
— €V Ti|i«pais, " in the days," a very 
vague indication of time. Luke aims at 
more exactness in these matters. It is 
enough for our evangelist to indicate 
that the birth of Jesus fell within the 
evil time represented by Herod. A name 
of evil omen ; called the Great ; great in 
energy, in magnificence, in wickedness; 
a considerable personage in many ways 
in the history of Israel, and of the world. 
Not a Jew, his father Antipater an 
Edomite, his mother an Arabian — the 
sceptre has departed from Judah — 
through the influence of Antony ap- 
pointed King of Judaea by the Roman 
senate about forty years before the birth 
of Christ. The event here recorded 
therefore took place towards the close 
of his long reign ; fit ending for a career 
blackened with many dark deeds. — l8oii 
(xd-yoi. : " Behold 1 " introducing in a 
lively manner the new theme, and a 
very different class of men from the 
reigning King of Judaea. Herod, Magi ; 
the one representing the ungodly ele 
ment in Israel, the other the best element 
in the Gentile world ; Magi, not kings 
as the legend makes them, but having 
influence with kings, and intermeddling 
much by astrological lore with the for- 
tunes of individuals and peoples. The 




c Acts xiii. • iraprytVok'TO €is '!cpoCToXup,a, 2. X^yokTes, " flou icntv 6 t€x6ciS 
same PaCTiXcus Twc 'louSai'wv ;' ydp auTou tov "' dare'pa iv tq 
d w. 7, 9, I'l ; xxiv. 29. i Cor. xv. 41. 

homage of the Gentiles could not be 
iilVered by worthier rcpreseiuatives, in 
whom ]iower, wisdom, and also error, 
superstition meet. — ^.01^01. dirb dvar. 
irapeY., Magi from the east came — so 
the words must be connected : not 
" came from the east " ; from the east, 
the land of the sunrise ; vague indication 
of locality. It is vain to inquire what 
precise country is meant, though com- 
mentators have inquired, and are divided 
into hostile camps on the point: Arabia, 
Persia, Media, Babylon, Parthia are 
some of the rival suggestions. The 
evangelist does not know or care. The 
east generally is the suitable part of the 
world for Magi to come from on this 
errand. — ti% 'lepocroXvjia : they arrived 
at Jerusalem, the capital, the natural 
place for strangers to come to, the precise 
spot connpcted with their errand to be 
determinea by further inquiry. Note 
the Greek form of the name, usual with 
Matthew, Mark and John. In Luke, 
the Hebrew form ' Upovo-aXT^p. is used. 
Beforehand, one would have expected 
the first evangelist writing for Jews to 
have used the Hebrew form, and the 
Pauline evangelist the Greek. 

Ver. 2, "irov . . . 'iovSaCtov: the in- 
quiry of the Magi. It is very laconic, 
combining an assertion with a question. 
The assertion is contained in T€x,9€ls. 
That a king of the Jews had been born 
was their inference from the star they 
had seen, and what they said was in 
effect thus : that a king has been 
born somewhere in this land we know 
(rom a star we have seen arising, and 
we desire to know where he can be 
found : " insigne hoc con^isae orationis 
exemplum," Fritzsche. The Messianic 
hope of the Jews, and the aspiration 
after world-wide dominion connected 
with it, were known to the outside 
world, according to the testimony of 
non-Christian writers such as Josephus 
and Tacitus. The visit of the Magi in 
quest of the new-born king is not in- 
credible. — ei8o|xev , . . £V TT) dvaroXt], we 
saw His star in its rising, not in the east, 
as in A. V., the plural being used for 
that in ver. i. Always on the outlook, no 
heavenly phenomenon escaped them ; it 
was visible as soon as it appeared above 
the horizon. — dcrrepa, what was this 
celestial portent ? Was it phenomenal 

only ? an appearance in the heavens 
miraculously produced to guide the wise 
men to Judaea and Bethlehem ; or a 
real astronomical object, a rare con- 
junction of planets, or a new star 
appearing, and invested by men addicted 
to astrology with a certain significance ; 
or mythical, neither a miraculous nor a 
natural phenomenon, but a creation of 
the religious imagination working on 
slender data, such as the Star of Jacob 
in Balaam's prophecies ? All these views 
have been held. Some of the fathers, 
especially Chrysostom, advocated the 
first, viz., that it w •* star, not «}>vcr€i, 
but 6y\i(i pdvov. H. 'asons were such 
as these : it moved from north to south ; 
it appeared in the daytime while the 
sun shone ; it appeared and disappeared ; 
it descended down to the house where 
the child lay, and so indicated the spot, 
which could not be done by a star in 
the sky (Horn. vi.). Some modern com- 
mentators have laid under contribution 
the investigations of astrononiers, and 
supposed the Ao-Ti]p to have been one 
of several rare conjunctions of planets 
occurring about the beginning of our 
era or a comet observed in China. Vide 
the elaborate note in Alford's Greek 
Testament. The third view is in favour 
with students of comparative religion 
and of criticism, who lay stress on the 
lact that in ancient times the appearance 
of a star was expected at the birth of 
all great men (De Wette), and who 
expect mythological elements in the 
N. T. as well as in the Old. {Vide 
Fritzsche, Strauss, L. y., and Holtzmann 
in H. C.) These diverse theories will pro- 
bably always find their abettors ; the first 
among the devout to whom the mirac- 
ulous is no stumbling-block, the second 
among those who while accepting the 
miraculous desire to reduce it to a min- 
imum, or at least to avoid its unneces- 
sary extension, the third among men of 
naturalistic proclivities. I do not profess 
to be able to settle the question. I 
content myself with expressing general 
acquiescence in the idea thrown out by 
Spinoza in his discussion on prophecy 
in the Tractatus theolog-ico-paliticus, that 
-in the case of the Magi We have an 
instance of a sign given, accommodated 
to the false opinions of men, to guide 
them to the truth. The whole system 




" oi'ttToXfi, Kal viXdouec irpovKui^aai auTw." •;. 'AKOuaas 8e '^ ^gain ver. 
. '■ If t J 9. and in 

'Hpw8r)s o PaaiXeus^ erapax^il) Kal -n-acra 'lepoff6Xu|j.a fier' auTOu • J-i-i/S(iu 

4. Kal * auvayayujv TrdvTas tous dpxi.ep£is Kal toO Xaou, o^ "sing). 

. >5~~<L "11 f chap. xiv. 

€iru>'0a>'eTO Trap aurwc, irou o Xpioros vet'kdTai. c. 01 8e elitov'^ 26- Lk.i. 

'..,,. 12- I Pet. 

lu. 14. g chap. xxii. 10. John xi. 47. Acts xiv. a?. h C/. Acts xxiii. ao (tI irepi tikos). 

* o pao-iXcus Hpw8r]s in fc^BDZ. In the T. R. the order of the words is conformed 

to that in ver. i. 

2 ciirav in ^B. All such forms have been corrected in tlie text which the T. R. 
represents and need not be further noticed. 

of astrology was a delusion, yet it might 
Een[rse3"byTf6vrdence"to~guT3e' seekers 
after God. The expectation of an epoch- 
making birth was current in the east, 
spread by Babylonian Jews. That it 
might interest Magians there is no wise 
incredible ; that their astrological lore 
might lead them to connect some un- 
known celestial phenomenon with the 
prevalent expectation is likewise credible. 
On the other hand, that legendary ele- 
ments might get mixed up in the Chris- 
tian tradition of the star-guided visit 
must be admitted to be possible. It 
remains to add that the use of the word 
6.0-T-qp, not dcrrpov, has been supposed 
to have an important bearing on the 
question as to the nature of the phe- 
nomenon. ao-Ti^p means an individual 
star, aorrpov a constellation. But in the 
N. T. this distinction is not observed. 
{Vide Luke xxi. 25 ; Acts xxvii. 20 ; Heb. 
xi. 12 ; and Grimm's Lexicon on the two 

Ver. 3. 6 Bao-iXeis ' HpwSvis irapa.\dr\ : 
pacriXevis beiore the name, not after, as 
in ver. i, the emphatic position suggest- 
ing that it was as king and because king 
that Herod was troubled. The foreigner 
and usurper feared a rival, and the 
tyrant feared the rival would be wel- 
come. It takes little to put evil- 
doers in fear. He had reigned long, 
men were weary, and the Pharisees, 
according to Joseph (A. J. xvii. 2-4), 
had predicted that his family would 
ere long lose its place of power. His 
fear therefore, though the occasion may 
seem insignificant, is every way cred- 
ible. — Ktti irdo-a L, doubtless an exag- 
geration, yet substantially true. The 
spirit of the city was servile and selfish. 
They bowed to godless power, and cared 
for their own interest rather than for 
Herod's. Few in that so-called holy 
city had healthy sympathies with truth 
and right. Whether the king's fears 
were groundless or not they knew not 
nor cared. It was enough that the iears 

existed. The world is ruled not by truth 

feminine here, or is 'q iroXis understood? 
or is it a construction, ad sensum, of the 
inhabitants ? (Schanz). 

Ver. 4. Herud's measures. — Kal 
<ruva"^'a'ywv - . . ToiJ Xaou. Was this a 
meeting of the Sanhedrim ? Not likely, 
as the elders are not "nentioned, who 
are elsewhere named as the repre- 
sentatives of the people, vide xxvi. 
3, " the chief priests, scribes and elders 
of the people ". Here we read only 
of the ciiief priests and scribes of the 
people. The article is not repeated 
before •ypo''lJF-*T«is, the two classes being 
joined together as the theological ex- 
perts of the people. Herod called 
together the leading men among the 
priests and scribes to consult them as to 
the birth-place of Messiah. Holtzmann 
(H. C), assuiic./ig that a meeting of the 
Sanhedrim is meant, uses the fact as an 
argument against the historicity of the 
narrative. The Herod of history slew 
the Sanhedrists wholesale, and did his 
best to lull to sleep Messianic hopes. It 
is only the Herod ot Christian legend 
that convenes the Sanhedrim, and makes 
anxious inquiries about Messiah's birth- 
place. But the past policy of the king 
and his present action, as reported by 
the evangelist, hang together. He dis- 
couraged Messianic hopes, and, now that 
they have revived in spite of him, he 
must deal with them, and his first step 
is to consult the experts in as quiet away 
as possible, to ascertain the whereabouts 
of the new-born child — eiruvSdveTo, etc. : 
it is not a historical question he submits 
to the experts as to where the Christ 
has been born, or shall be, but a theo- 
logical one : where, according to the ac- 
cepted tradition, is His birth-place? 
Hence Y«vvo.Tai, present tense. 

Vv. 5-6. The answer oj the experts. — 
ol SJ ilirov, etc. This is not a Chris- 
tian opinion put into the mouth oi the 
scribes. It was the answer to be ex- 




J itf Hcb"vn. '^"^'t*' " "^*' ^^l^^'^^M' ''■^1? 'louSaias- outw y°^P Y^YP"''''''^'*'' ^'■^ ^°^ 
5^""^'^'"""^irpo4)i]Tou, 6. ' Kai au, BrjOXetfi., yT 'louSa, ' ouSa/xws cXaxioTT) cT 

^ ^"^'rr Lk ^^ ^**^^ iiY€)i,6an' 'lou'Sa • £k o-ou y^P e'^eXcucreTai ^ i^yo'^M'^''05> 
xxii. 26. ooTts ' TTOi.p.arer rov \a6y p,ou toc 'lo-paiiX.'" 7. Tore 'HpwSrjs, 
16. Acts Xa0pa 1 KaXe'cra? tous jiaYous, " T|Kpi'PwCTe Trap' auxwi' t6>' xP°*'o*' 

Pet. V. 2. TOO <j)airou,eVou dar^pos, 8. Kal irefuj/as aureus ciS BTiOXeep, eiire, 
m here and 

in ver. 16. " nopeuOeVres ° dKpiSis " e^erdcraTc " irept tou iraiStou • ' iirav 8e 
n Lk. i. 3. ^ , ^, \ > AX 

Actsxviii. eopT)T€, aTraYY^'-^^'''^ P'O'j oirws Kdyu) eXow;' TrpocrKUfi^abi auTw." 

ThesB, V. 3 ochap. X. II. John \xi. i:. p IJ<. xi. 22, 34 (with aor. sub.)- 

^ Xa0pi^ as in i. 19 in W.H. 

* c|cTao-aTc aKpi^co; in ]}^BCD, which accords with Mt.'s usual order. 

pected from them as reflecting the current 
opinion of the time. The Targum put 
upon the oracle in Micah a Messianic 
interpretation (Wetstein, and Wunsche, 
Bcitnige). Yet with the Talmudists the 
Messiah was the one who should come 
forth from a strange, unknown place 
(Weber, Die Lehrcn dcs Talmud, p. 342). 
Vide on this point Schanz, who quotes 
Schegg as denying the statement of 
V\'etstein, and refers to Celsus as object- 
ing that this view ^bout Messiah's birth- 
place was not cuivent among the Jews. 
(Origen, c. Cclsutu, i. 51. Cf. John vii. 
27, and 42.) — ovToj yo.pyiy^ta.TtTO.if&tc.: 
The Scripture proof that Messiah's 
birth-place was Bethlehem is taken from 
Micah V. 2. The oracle put into the 
mouth of the experts consulted by Herod 
recei\es its shape from the hand of the 
evangelist. It varies very considerably 
both from the original Hebrew and 
from the Sept. The "least" becomes 
"by no means the least," "among the 
thousands " becomes " among the 
princes," and the closing clause, "who 
shall rule my people Israel,' departs 
from the prophetic oracle altogether, 
and borrows from 2 Sam. v. 2, God's 
promise to David ; the connecting link 
apparently being the poetic word de- 
scriptive of the kingly function common 
to the two places— iroifjiavti in Micah 
v. 3, TToijAaveis in 2 Sam. v. 2. 
The second variation arises from a 
different pointing of the same Hebrew 

word 1S7i«^l. "^Cb^il = among the 

thousands, "^57^5^ = among the heads 

of thousands. Such facts are to be 
taken as they stand. They do not cor- 
respond to modern ideas of Scri^iture 

Vv. 7, 8. Herod's next step. — t<5t€ 
'HptoSvis . . . ao-repos : tot€, frequent 
formula of transition with our evangelist, 
cf. vv. 16, 17; iv. I, 5, II, etc. Herod 
wished to ascertain precisely when the 
child the Magi had come to worship was 
born. He assumed that the event would 
synchronise with the ascent of the star 
which the Magi had seen in its rising, 
and which still continued to be seen 
((jjaivoftc'vov). Therefore he made par- 
ticular inquiries (■^KpiP&jo-e) as to the 
time of the star, i.e., the time of its first 
appearing. This was a blind, an affec- 
tation of great interest in all that related 
to the child, in whose destinies even the 
stars were involved. — Ver. 8. Kal Tr£(x\j/as 
. . . aviTw : his hj'pocrisy went further. 
He bade the strangers go to Bethlehem, 
find out the whereabouts of the child, 
come back and tell him, that he also 
might go and worship Him. Worship, 
i.e., murder ! " Incredible motive ! " 
(H.C.). Yes, as a real motive for a 
man like Herod, but not as a pretended 
one, and quite likely to be believed by 
these simple, guileless souls from the 
east. — Trep.\j/as wre : the sending was 
synchronous with the directions accord- 
IhgtoTJe Wefte, prior accordingto Meyer. 
It is a question of no importance here, 
but it is sometimes an important ques- 
tion in what relation the action expressed 
by the aorist participle stands to that 
expressed by the following finite verb. 
The rule certainly is that the participle 
expresses an action going before : one 
thing having happened, another there- 
after took place. But there is an impor- 
tant class of exceptions. The aorist 
participle " may express time coincident 
with that of the verb, when the actions 
of the verb and the participle are prac- 
tically one". Goodwin, Syntax, p. 52, 
and vide article there referred to by 



Q. Ol 8e dKouaavTcs too SaaiXe'ws ii^opevQincrav • Kai i8ou, 6 cicttiip, ^ ^^- ^- 32' 
Ol' eiooi' ei' ttj draxoXfj, * irpoiiYci' aureus, ews eX9wc eaxT] ^ ' eirdfw '^"'^ °^- 

^ ^ ^ 5C ' TOl-W.H.) 

ou T)i' TO iraiOioc. lo. lOokTes Se toi' daxe'pa, i)(^dp-f\(Tav )^apav ^ ^^: ''■ H ' 

li.cya.\r]v •a<j)68pa" II. nal e\6ovTes eis ttii/ oiKiai', eijpoi'^ to xxHi. i8. 

•^ s Ch. xvii. 6, 

83 ; xviii. 31 ; xix. 25 ; xxvi. 22 ; xxvii. 54. 

1 €(rTa0Ti in J«^BCD. 

2 ciSov in all uncials, eupov only in minusc. Came in probably from ver. 8 (€vpi]T€). 

Prof. Ballantine in Bibl. Sacra., 1884, 
on the application of this rule to the 
N. T., in which many instances of the 
kind occur. Most frequent in the Gospels 
is the expression ctiroKpiGels tlire, which 
does not mean " having first answered 
he then proceeded to say," but "in 
answering he said". The case before 
us may be one of this kind. He sent 
them by saying " Go and search," etc. 

Vv. 9, 10. The Magi go on their 
errand to Bethlehem. They do not know 
the way, but the star guides them. 
l8ot» 6 do-Tt'jp : looking up to heaven as 
they set out on their journey, they once 
more behold their heavenly guide. — ov 
elSov c. T. avaroX^ : is the meaning 
that they had seen the star only at its 
rising, finding their way to Jesus with- 
out its guidance, and that again it 
appeared leading, them to Bethlehem ? 
So Bengel, and after him Meyer. Against 
this is <{>aivop,EVov, ver. 7, which implies 
continuous visibility. The clause Sv 
elSov, etc., is introduced for the purpose 
of identification. It was their celestial 
guide appearing again. — ttpor^yiv : it 
kept going before them (imperfect) all 
the way till, arriving at Bethlehem, it 
took up its position (lo-Taflr]) right over 
the spot where the child was. The star 
seemed to go before them by an optical 
illusion (Weiss-Meyer) ; it really, in the 
view of the evangelist, went before and 
stopped over the house (De Wette, who, of 
course, regards this as impossible in fact). 
Ver. 10, iSdvTes 8^ . . . x^^pdv (itYaXirjv 
a4)d8pa: seeing the star standing over 
the sacred spot, they were overjoyed. 
Their quest was at an end ; they had 
at last reached the goal of their long 
journey. (r4>dSpa, a favourite word of 
our evangelist, and here very appropriate 
after |Ae7aXif)v to express exuberant glad- 
ness, ecstatic delight. On the convoy of 
the star, Fritzsche remarks : •' Fuit certe 
stellae pompa tam gravi tempore digna ". 
Some connect the seeing of the star in 
ver. 10 with the beginning of the journey 
from Jerusalem to Bethlehem. They re- 
joiced, says Euthy. Zig. ws evpdvT€S tov 
a.'4'€ij8€<rTaTOv oS'tj'ydv 

Ver. II. The Magi enter and do homage. 
— Kal €. e. t, olKtav : the house. In Luke 
the shepherds find the holy family in a 
stable, and the holy child lying in a man- 
ger ; reconcilable by assuming that the 
_Magi arrived after they had found refuge 
in a friend's house (Epiphan. Theophy.). 
— cISov T. IT. . . . a-uTov : tI8ov better than 
evpov, which seems to have been intro- 
duced by the copyists as not only in itself 
suitable to the situation, but relieving the 
monotony caused by too frequent use of 
elSov (vv. 9, 10). The child with His 
mother, Joseph not mentioned, not in- 
tentionally, that no wrong suspicions 
might occur to the Gentiles (Rabanus 
in Aquin. Cat. Aiir.). — Kal irecrovres • , . 
«rpvpvav. They come, eastern fashion, 
with full hands, as befits those who enter 
into the presence of a king. They open 
the boxes or sacks (Oqa-avpovs, some 
ancient copies seem to have read infipas 
= saccules, which Grotius, with proba- 
bility, regards as an interpretative gloss 
that had found its way into the text, vide 
Epiphanius Adi'. Haa: Alogi., c. 8), and 
bring forth gold, frankincense and myrrh, 
the two latter being aromatic gums dis- 
tilled from trees. — XiPavov: in classic 
Greek, the tree, in later iSreek and 
N. T., the gum, rh 6u(ii<opevov = 
XiPavwTos, vide Phryn. ed. Lobeck, p. 
187. The gifts were of three kinds, hence 
the inference that the Magi were three in 
number. That they were kings was de- 
duced from texts in Psalms and Prophe- 
cies {e.g.. Psalm Ixxii. 10, Isaiah Ix. 3), 
predicting that kings would come doing 
homage and bringing gifts to Messiah. 
The legend of the three kings dates as far 
back as Origen, and is beautiful but base- 
less. It grew with time ; by-and-by the 
kings were furnished with names. The 
legendary spirit loves definiteness. The 
gifts would be products of the givers' 
country, or in high esteem and costly 
there. Hence the inference drawn by 
some that the Magi were from Arabia. 
Thus Grotius : " Myrrha nonnisi in 
Arabia nascitur, nee thus nisi apud 
Jabaeos Arabum portionem : sed et auri- 
iera est felix Arabia ". Gold and incense 



t C/. vi. ig- 

ai. Lk. 

xii. 33. 

Heb. xi. 

36 { = co>i- 

u Rev. xviii. 

V John xix. 

wlic. X. 6. 
Acts xviii. 
31. Heb. 
xi. 15- 

Z W. 14, 22 ; 
iv. is; ix. 
24; xii. 15. 

traiSio*' ficTci Mapiag ttjs )jir)Tp6s auroO, Kal hcuouks iijJoacKoi'Kjaak' 
aurw, Ktti d^oi^a^res toOs Oijaaopouc aujlhv 'iTpoa)]t'eYKai' aurw 
Sipa, xpuo'oc Kal "Xi^acoi' Kal " afxupvav. 12. Kal xP^l/Ji'ttTurOeVTts 
Kar oj'ap jatj " di'aK(ip.v|/ai irp&s 'HpciSrii', 81' aXXtjs 680G * dfcxupiivaw 
CIS T!)»' xwpaw auTa>»'. 

13. Avax(iipr]advT<,iy Se aoTW*', i8ou, ayyeXos Kupiou <|)ai»'eTai 
Kar ok'ap^ tw 'iwai]^), X^yojk', "'EyepSels iraptiXaPe to TraiSiov Kai 
■n)v piYjT^pa auTOu, Kal (Jjeuye els AtyuTTTOc, Kal ia9i inii e«s fi^ 
eiirw aoi • p.(fXX£i ydp 'HpwSi^s ^■*iT€r»' to iraiSiov, too dTToX^orai 
auTo. 14. O 8e eyepOelg irapeXajSe to TratSiok Kal tt)»' jj.r|Tc'pa 
aoToG I'UKTOS, Kal di'exojp^^CTek els AiyuTTTOk, 15. Kal i\v ckel e'ws 

' 15 has KCT ovap epcvr) as in i. 20 (VV.IL margin). 

(XiPavog) rientioned in Isaip.h !\. 6 
among the <;irts to be brought to Israel 
in the good time coming. The fathers 
delighted in assij;i;ing to these gifts of the 
Magi mj'stic meanings : gold as to a 
king, incense as to God, myrrh as to 
one destined to die ((is (ieXXovn ytvcra- 
<r6ai Oavdrov). Grotius struck into a 
new hne : gold = works of mercy ; incense 
= prayer ; myrrh = purity — to the dis- 
gust of Fritzsche, who thought such 
mystic interpretations beneath so great 
a scholar. 

Ver. 12. Their pious errand fulfiUed, the 
Magi, warned to keep out of Herod's way, 
return home by another road. — XPIH--'-''''-'''" 
9tVT£s points to divine guidance given in 
a dream (Kar fivap) ; rcsponso accepto, 
Vulg. The passive, in the sense of a 
divine oracle given, is found chiefly 
in N. T. (Fritzsche after Casaubon). 
Was the oracle given in answer to a 
prayer for guidance ? Opinions differ. 
It may be as.sumed here, as in tlie case of 
Joseph (i. 20), that the Magi had anxious 
thoughts corresponding to the divine 
communication. Doubts had arisen in 
their minds about Herod's intentions. 
They had, doubtless, heard something of 
his history and character, and his man- 
ner on reflection may have appeared 
suspicious. A skilful dissembler, yet not 
quite successful in concealing liis hidden 
purpose even from these guileless men. 
Hence a sense of need of guidance, if not 
a formal petition for it, may be taken for 
granted. Divine guidance comes only to 
prepared hearts. The dream reflects the 
antecedent state of mind.— [it) dva.Ka.|xi|/ai, 
not to turn back on their step.s towards 
Jerus. and Herod. Fritzsche praises the 
felicity of this v/ord as implying that 
to go by Jerusalem was a roundabout 

for travellers from Bethlehem to the east. 
Apart from the question of fact, such a 
thought does not seem to be in the minti 
of the evangelist. Me is thinking, not of 
the shortest road, but of avoiding Herod 
— dvex.ioptio-av, they withd-'ew not only 
homewards, but away from Herod's 
neighbourhood. A word of frequent 
occurrence in our Gospel, four times in 
this chapter (vv. 13, 14, 22). 

Vv. 13-23. Flight to Egypt, massacre in 
Bethlehrm, return to Nazareth. These 
three stories have one aim. They indi- 
cate the omens which appear in begin- 
nings -ow/wa principiis inesse solent 
(Ovid). The fortunes of Christianity 
foreshadowed in the experiences of the 
holy child : welcomed by Gentiles, evil 
entreated by Jews. " The real contents 
of these sections embody an ideal aim " 

Vv. 13-15. Flight to Egypt. Ver. 13. 
(}>aiv«Tai : assuming that this is the cor- 
rect reading, the flight to Egypt is 
represented as following close on the 
departure of the Magi ; the historic 
present, vividly introducing one scene 
after another. A subjective state of 
anxiety is here also to be presumed. 
Whence arising we can only conjecture. 
Did the Magi give a hint, mentioning 
Herod's name in a significant manner ? 
Be that as it may, Joseph also gets the 
necessary direction. — 'EyepBtls . . . cis 
AiyviTTOV : Egypt — near, friendly, and 
the refuge of Israel's ancestors in days 
of old, if also their house of bondage.—, take with a view to taking 
care of {cf. John i. 11, "His own re- 
ceived Him not," irape'Xa ^ov) ; benigne, 
Ftitzsc'ne-iws . . . croi: either gene- 
rally, till I give thee further orders 
(Fritzsche) ; or till I tell thee to return 

12 — 17. 



TT]s ^Tf.XeuTi']? 'HpciSou • IVa TrXT|pw0r] to pr\Qkv uiro toC ^ Kupiou 

Sid Tou TTpo:})i]Tou, XeYoiTos, " 'E| AtyuirTou eKaXewa tov uio»' |aou.' 

1 6. Tore 'HpoiSirjs, iSwi' on * ei'€irai)(0T] iiiro tQ)v \idy(i)v, * e0up.oi0T] 

Xiai', Kol diTOCTTeiXas *" dceiXe irdi'Tas tous TraiSas tous e** BT^GXeep, 

Kal ec traai TOis ' opiois auTTJs, diro ** Sierous Kal narwrepw, Kara 

Toi' xpoi'o*' o'' T|Kpi|3a>cre Trapd toji' p.dYWf. 17. Tore CTrXifjpojGr] to 

Gen. XXX. 2. b Lk. xxii. 2 ; xxiii. 32 (Acts often). c Ch. iv. 13 ; viii. 34 ; xv. 22 ; xix. 
only. C/. Acts xxiv. 27. 

1 t^BCD, etc., omit tov. 

(Meyer, Schanz) ; sense the same ; the 
time of such new direction is left vague 
(fiv with sub.). — [le'XXei -ydp : gives reason 
of the command. — tov airoX«'(rai avTo : 
Herod's first purpose was to kill Mary's 
child alone. He afterwards killed many 
to make sure of the one. The genitive 
of the infinitive to express purpose 
belongs to comparatively late Greek. 
It occurs constantly in the Sept. and 
in N. T. — Ver. 14. 6 8^ iytpQels: Joseph 
promptly executes the command, vvktos, 
before the day, indicating alarm as well 
as obedience. The words of the com- 
mand in ver. 13 are repeated by the 
evangelist in ver. 14 to emphasise the 
obedient spirit of Joseph. — Ver. 15. Kal 
^v eK€i, etc. : the stay in Egypt cannot 
have been long, only a few months, 
probably, before the death of Herod 
(Nosgen). — I'va irXT^pwGTJ : another pro- 
phetic reference, this time proceeding 
directly from the evangelist ; Hosea xi. 
I, given after the Hebrew, not the Sept., 

which for '']33, has re'icva a-uroii. The oracle 

states a historical fact, and can therefore 
only be a typical prophecy. The event 
in the life of the infant Jesus may seem 
an insignificant fulfilment. Not so did 
it appear to the evangelist. For him all 
events in the life of the Christ possessed 
transcendent significance. Was it an 
event at all ? criticism asks. Did the 
fact suggest the prophetic reference, or 
did the prophecy create the fact ? In 
reply, be it said that the narratives in 
this chapter of the Infancy all hang 
together. If any one of them occurred, 
all might occur. The main question is, 
is Herod's solicitude credible ? If so, 
then the caution of the Magi, the flight 
to Egypt, the massacre at Bethlehem, 
the return at the tyrant's death to 
Nazareth, are all equally credible. 

Vv. 16-18. The massacre. ToTt; 
ominous then. When he was certain 
that the Magi were not going to come 
back to report what they had found at 

y here only 
in N. T. 
xxvii. 2) 


z Ch. XX. ig; 

xxvii. 41, 

a here only 

in N. T. 
I. d here 

Bethlehem, Herod was enraged as one 
who had been befooled (Iveiraix^Oi]). Mad- 
dened with anger, he resolves on more 
truculent measures than he at first in- 
tended : kill all of a certain age to make 
sure of the one — such is his savage order 
to his obsequious hirelings. Incredible ? 
Anything is credible of the man who 
murdered his own wife and sons. This 
deed shocks Christians ; but it was a 
small affair in Herod's career, and in 
contemporary history. — ev Bt]9. Kal Iv 
•ffdori Tois optots avTTjs, in Bethlehem, and 
around in the neighbourhood, to make 
quite sure. — dirb Sierovs Kal KaTWTe'pw : 
the meaning is clear— all children from 
an hour to two years old. But Sierovs 
may be taken either as masculine, agree- 
ing with irai86s understood = from a two- 
year-old child, or as a neuter adjective 
used as a noun = from the age of two 
years, a bimatu as in Vulg. There are 
good authorities on both sides. For a 
similar phrase, vide i Chron. xxvii. 23, o-rrJ) 
clKoo-aeToOs. Herod made his net wide 
enough ; two years ensured an ample 
margin. — KaTo. t. x- • • • lAd^wv. Euthy. 
Zig. insists that these words must be con- 
nected, not with SieTOus, but with KttTw- 
T€p(i>, putting a comma after the former 
word, and not after the latter. If, he 
argues, Herod had definitely ascertained 
from the Magi that the child must be 
two years old, he would not have killed 
those younger. They made Mary's child 
younger ; Herod kept their time and 
added a margin : irXaTo? ?T«pov avT^s 
irpoo-e'GriKC. It does not seem to matter 
very much. Herod would not be very 
scrupulous. He was likely to add a 
margin in either case ; below if they 
made the age two years, above if they 
made it less. — Ver. 18 : still another pro- 
phetic reference, Jerem. xxxi. 15, freely 
reproduced from the Sept. ; pathetic and 
poetic certainly, if the relevance be not 
conspicuously apparent. The evangelist 
introduces the prophetic passage in this 
case, not with iva, but with totc (ver. 17), 




pT]0e>' jStto ^ 'kpe^iou tou iTpo4>i']Tou, Xe'yoi'TOS, 1 8. " ^ijivf] iv Pap.a 

c Cfa. xili. T|Koua9T], 6pT]t'os Kai^ * KXauGfAos Kal '68upfj.os TToXus, 'PaxT|X 

4J. 50, al. . , ^ , , „ > > xfl \ a \ a- " » 

fa Cor. vii. * KXaiouaa xa rcKV'a auTT]s ' tai ouk Titfe/vt" TrapaK\r)WT]»'ai., on ouk 

g with ace. ciCTi." 19. TcXtu-n^aarros 8« tou 'HpoiSou, i8ou, ayycXos Kupiou 

here only. >« , r a/^>i\i>*>' \' a >f- a ^ 

Kax ok'ap <pai>'eTai * tw IwcttjcJ) €y AiyuiTTU), 20. Ktyuiv, bYcpt'Ci'S 

iT-apaXa^c to iraiSioc Kal tt)*' fjLir)T£'pa aoTou, Kal -iropcuou cis y^y 

h Rom. xi. 3. 'iCTpaViX • TcOkrJKao-i y^^P o^ ' ^r]ToOrrcs ttji' <|/oxV tou TratSiou." 

i Rev. V. 10 2 I . 'O 8c eyepOels TrapeXape to iraiSioi' Kal ty]v \ir\ripa auxou, Kal 

and geno! TJXfleJ' * CIS YH*' Ifp^il^- 22. dKOUffttS 8c oTi 'Ap)(€'Xaos 'Pao-iXeuei 

1 8ia in i>5BCD ; viro not ace. to style of Evang. (Weiss in Meyer). 

- Opiivos Kttt cm. ^BZ ; probably introduced to correspond with Sept. 

* Ti0e\Ti<r£ in DZ. 

'* 4>aivcTai. Kar ovap, ^BDZ. 

» ei<rTiXe«v in ^BC. 

suggesting a fulfilment not regarded as 
exclusive. The words, even in their 
original place, are highly imaginative. 
The scene of Rachel weeping for her 
children is one of several tableaux, which 
passed before the prophet's eye in a 
vision, in a dieam which, on awaking, 
he felt to be sweet. It was poetry to 
begin with, and it is poetry here. Rachel 
again weeps over her children ; hers, 
because she was buried there, the pro- 
phet's Ramah, near Gibeah, north of 
Jerusalem, standing for Bethlehem as far 
to the south. The prophetic passage 
did not create the massacre ; the tradition 
of the massacre recalled to mind the 
prophecy, and led to its being quoted, 
though of doubtful appositeness in a strict 
sense. Jacob's beloved wife seems to 
have occupied an imaginative place also 
in Rabbinical literature. Wiinsche quotes 
this from the Midrasch : " Why did Jacob 
bury Rachel on the way to Ephratah or 
Bethlehem ? (Gen. xxxv. 16). Because 
he foresaw that the exiles would at some 
future time pass that way, and he buried 
her there that she might pray for them " 
(Beitrdge, p. 11). Rachel was to the 
Hebrew fancy a mother for Israel in all 
time, sympathetic in all her children's 

Vv. 19.21. jfoseph's return. TcXcvr- 
•joravTos Si T. 'Hp: Herod died in 750 
u.c. in his 70th year, at Jericho, of a 
horrible loathsome disease, rotten in 
body as in soul, altogether an unwhole- 
some man {vide Joseph, Bell, i. 33, 
1-5 ; Antiq., xvii. 6, 5 ; Euseb., H. E., i. 
6, 8). The news of his death would fly 
swiftly, and would not take long to 
reach Egypt. There would be no need 

of an angel to inform Joseph of the fact 
But his anxieties would not therefore be 
at an end. Who was to succeed Herod ? 
Might he not be another of the same 
type ? Might disorder and confusion 
not arise ? Would it be safe or wise to 
return to Palestine ? Guidance was 
again needed, desired, and obtained. 
— ISoii ayyeXos . . . Xe-ywv : the guid- 
ance is given once more in a dream 
(Kar' ivap). The anxious thoughts of 
the daytime are reflected in the dream 
by night, and the angelic message comes 
to put an end to uncertainty. — ver. 20. 
'EycpOels . . • 'lerpaT)X: it is expressed in 
the same terms as those of the message 
directing flight to Egypt, except of 
course that the land is different, and 
the order not /lee but return. "Arise, 
take the child and His mother." The 
words were as a refrain in the life of 
Joseph in those critical months. — tcGvtj- 
Kao-i yap ; in this general manner is the 
death of Herod referred to, as if in 
studious avoidance of the dreaded name. 
They are dead. The plural here (oi 
£t)TovvT€s), as often, expresses a general 
idea, a class, though only a single person 
is meant (vide Winer, § 27, 2, and 
Exodus iv. 19). But the manner of ex- 
pression may indicate a desire to dissi- 
pate completely Joseph's apprehensions. 
There is nothing, no person to fear : go ! 
Ver. 21. 6 il cyepOcls . . . 'lo-paiiX: 
prompt obedience follows, bat vvktos 
(ver. 14) is omitted this time. Joseph 
may wait till day ; the matter is not 
so urgent. Then the word was <{>c€Ye. 
It was a flight for life, every hour or 
minute important. 

Vv. 22-23. Settlement in Nazareth in 

l8 22. 



eirl^ TTJs 'louSaiag arrl 'HpwSou tou Traxpos auTou,^ e<f)o|3i]dT) ' ckci j for ^xtiat . 

, ^fl■^ 0^«^ '» ' ' .^k' ~ Ch. xvil. 20. 

aTreAoeiK* xpi1H''^T"'''^''S oe ftotT ocap, acex^prjaec 6i$ ra |i.epT] tt)s Johnxi.8; 

xviii. 3. 
k Ch. XV. 21 ; xvi. 13. Mk. viii. lo. 

1 Omit eirt ^B and several cursives. With eiri the usual construction ; therefore 
its omission here probably correct. 

^ ^BC place HpwSov after t. irar. a\n-ov. 

Galilee. Joseph returns with mother 
and child to Israel, but not to Judaea 
and Bethlehem. — aKovo-as . . . 'HpcoSov: 
Archelaos reigns in his father's stead. 
A man of kindred nature, suspicious, 
truculent (Joseph., Ant., 17, 11, 2), to be 
feared and avoided by such as had cause 
to fear his father. — (3ao-iX.£vei, reigns, not 
in the strict sense of the word. He 
exercised the authority of an ethnarch, 
with promise of a royal title if he con- 
ducted himself so as to deserve it. In 
fact he earned banishment. At Herod's 
death the Roman emperor divided his 
kingdom into four parts, of which he 
gave two to Archelaus, embracing 
Judaea, Idumaea and Samaria ; the other 
two parts were assigned to Antipas and 
Philip, also sons of Herod : to Antipas, 
Galilee and Peraea ; to Philip, Batanea, 
Trachonitis and Auranitis. They bore 
the title of Tetrarch, ruler of a fourth 
part (Joseph., Ant., 17, 11, 4). — €<{)oPi]9tj 
fKel dTr€\6eiv. It is implied that to 
settle in Judaea was the natural course to 
follow, and that it would have beer, 
followed but for a special reason. 
Schanz, taking a hint from Augustine, 
suggests that Joseph wished to settle in 
Jerusalem, deeming that city the most 
suitable home for the Messiah, but that 
God judged the despised Galilee a better 
training school for the future Saviour of 
publicans, sinners and Pagans. This 
hypothesis goes on the assumption that 
the original seat of the family was 
Nazareth. — tKet : late Greek for eKcitrE. 
In later Greek authors the distinction 
between trol irov, 01 ov, oiroi ottov, 
€K€i and cK€i<r£ practically disappeared. 
Rutherford's New Phrynichus, p. 114. 
Vide for another instance, Luke xxi. 2. 
Others explain the substitution as a case 
of attraction common in adverbs of 
place. The idea of remaining is in the 
mind = He feared to go thither to abide 
there. Vide Lobeck's Phryn., p. 44, and 
Fritzsche. — xP'nF'''''''"''*'^*''^ ttjs FaXtXaias: 
again oracular counsel given in a dream, 
implying again mental perplexity and 
need of guidance. Going to Galilee, 
Judaea being out of the question, was 
not a matter of course, as we should 

have expected. The narrative of the 
first Gospel appears to be constructed on 
the assumption that Nazareth was not 
the original home of the holy family, 
and to represent a tradition for which 
Nazareth was the adopted home, Beth- 
lehem being the original. " The evan- 
gelist did not know that Nazareth 
was the original seat of the family." 
Weiss, Matt, cvang. p. 98. 

Ver. 23. KaT<>)Ki]ar€v. KaroiKeiv in 

Sept. is used regularly for ^tlj'^ in the 

sense of to dwell, and with Iv in Luke and 
Acts (Luke xiii. 4 ; Acts i. 20, etc.) in the 
same sense. Here with eU it seems to 
mean going to settle in, adopting as a 
home, the district of GaUlee, the parti- 
cular town called Nazareth. — el? iroXiv is 
to be taken along with KaW. not with 
IXdbiv. Arrived in Galilee he transferred 
his family to Nazareth, as afterwards Jesus 
migrated to Capernaum to carry on there 
His ministry (iv. 13, where the same form 
of expression recurs). — Na^apeT, a town 
in lower Galilee, in the tribe of Zebulon, 
nowhere mentioned in O. T. or Josephus. 
— Sirtos ■jtXtjpuStj, etc. : a £nal prophetic 
reference winding up the h^tory of the 
infancy, ottms not iva, as usual, but with 
much the same meaning. It does not 
necessarily imply that a prophetic oracle 
consciously influenced Joseph in making 
his choice, but only that the evangelist 
saw in that choice a fulfilment of pro- 
phecy. But what prophecy ? The reference 
is vague, not to any particular prophet, 
but to the prophets in general. In no 
one place can any such statement be 
found. Some have suggested that it 
occurred in some prophetic book or 
oracle no longer extant. " Don't ask," 
says Euthy. Zig., " in what prophets ; 
you will not find : many prophetic books 
were lost " (after Chrys.). Olearius, in 
an elaborate note, while not adopting, 
states with evident sympathy this view 
as held by others. Jerome, following 
the Jewish scholars (eruditi Hebraeorum) 
of his time, believed the reference to be 
mainly to Isaiah xi., where mention is 

made of a branch (n!^j) that shall 




I with f ;?. FaXiXatas, 23. Kal tXGdjc ' KarwKijaei/ €is TroXif XeyojAet'r,!' Naj^ape'r' 
Acts vii ., oTTots irXiipajflt] TO pT]0ek' 8id Tuv ■rrpo(j)i]TWK, "Oti Nal^wpaios kXi]0i']- 

' This spelling is found in ^BDL and adopted by W. FI. 
forms occur. 

Na^apce in CZ. OiIk 

spring out of Jesse's root. This view is 
accepted by most modern scholars, 
Catholic and Protestant, the name oi" the 
town being viewed as a derivative from 
the Hebrew word (a feminine form). The 
epithet No^upaios will tlius mean : " the 
man of Nazareth, the town of the off- 
shoot ". De Wette says : " In the spirit of 
the exegetical mysticism of the time, and 
applying what the Jews called Midrasch, 
deeper investigation, the word is used in 
a double sense in allusion at once to 

"^2^j Isaiah xi. i, sprout, and to the 

name of Nazareth ". There may be 
something in the suggestion that the 
reference is to Judges xiii. 7 : on Kat^p- 
oiov OeoO '4cnai, and the idea : one living 
apart in a secluded town. (So Furrer 
in Die BedcuUing der bibl. Geographie 
Jiir d. bib. Excgcse, p. 15.) 

This final prophetic reference in the 
history of the infancy is the weakest link 
in the chain. It is wasted effort to try 
to show its value in the prophetic argu- 
ment. Instead of doing this, apologists 
would act more wisely by frankly recog- 
nising the weakness, and drawing from 
it an argument in favour of historicity. 
This may very legitimately be done. Of 
all the incidents mentioned in this 
chapter, the settlement in Nazareth is 
the only one we have other means of 
verifying. Whether it was the original 
or the adopted home of Jesus may be 
doubtful, but from many references in 
the Gospels we know that it was His 
home from childhood till manhood. In 
this case, therefore, we certainly know 
that the historic fact suggested the 
prophetic reference, instead of the pro- 
phecy creating the history. And the 
very weakness of the prophetic reference 
in this instance raises a presumption 
that that was the nature of the connec- 
tion between prophecy and history 
throughout. It is a caveat against the 
critical theory that in the second chapter 
of Matthew we have an imaginary his- 
tory of the infancy of Jesus, compiled to 
meet a craving for knowledge on the 
subject, and adapted to the requirements 
of faith, the rudiments of the story 
consisting of a collection of Mes.''ianic 

prophecies — the star of Jacob, princes 
bringing gifts, Rachel weeping for her 
children, etc. The last of the pro- 
phetic references would never have 
occurred to any one, whether the evan- 
gelist or any other unknown source of 
the tradition, unless there had been a 
fact going before, the settlement in 
Nazareth. But given the fact, there 
was a strong desire to find some allusion 
to it in the O. T. Faith was easily 
satisfied ; the faintest allusion or hint 
would do. That was in this case, and 
presu'~^ably in most cases of the kind, 
the problem with which the Christian 
mind in the Apostolic age was occupied ; 
not creating history, but discovering in 
evangelic facts even the most minute, 
prophetic fulfilments. The evangelist's 
idea of fulfilment may provoke a smile, 
but it might also awaken a feeling of 
thankfulness in view of what has been 
stated. It is with the prophetic re- 
ferences in the Gospels as with songs 
without words. The composer has a 
certain scene or state of mind in his 
view, and writes under its inspiration. 
But you are not in his secret, and cannot 
tell when you hear the music what it 
means. But let the key be given, anj 
immediately you find new, meaning in 
the music. The prophecies are the 
music ; the key is the history. Given 
the prophecies alone and you could with 
difficulty imagine the history ; given the 
history you can easily understand how 
religious fancy might discover corres- 
pondingprophecies. That the prophecies, 
once suggested, might react on the facts 
and lead to legendary modifications is of 
course not to be denied. 

Chapter III. The Ministry of 
THE Baptist, and the Baptism of 
Jesus. This chapter and part of the 
next, containing the narrative of the 
temptation (iv. i-ii), form the prelude to 
the public ministry of Jesus. John, of 
whom we have not heard before, appears 
as consecrating Jesus to His Messianic 
calling by baptism, and firom the baptism 
Jesus passes to the scene of moral trial. 
In what year of Christ's life these events 
happened is not indicated. The new 
narrative begins with the vague phrase, 


III. i_3. 



III. I. '^'Ei' Se Tais ■pfjiepais '^exetVats '' TrapaviVerai 'Iojciki'Tis oiiC/ 

Q ' c ' , - , , - >. c ' ^ . ^ / "•-3- Is- 

paiTTicrTTjs, KTjpuo-acjjc ec tt) epr)p,oj tt]s loubaias, 2. Kai ^ Xevwi', xxxviii. i. 
u ij - d " y ' ^ n \ ' - , - » ' b C/. Heb. 

Merai'oeiTe • t^yY'-'*^ Y*P T paaiAeia tojc oupa^'w^'. 3. Outos 't- " for 
i ■••«... A -r . . .. ... same ab- 

.'olute use. c passim in Mt. Mk. & Lk. m ref. to the kingdom of God. C/. Ex. xxxH. 5. d Cf, 
iyyi^oixev, Heb. vii. 19, and eyyuo?, ver. 22 ( = one who keeps us near to God). 

' Kai omitted in jf^B and Egypt, verss. 

" in those days ". But it is obvious 
from the contents that Jesus has now 
reached manhood ; His thoughts and 
experiences are those of mature years. 
From childhood to manhood is an ab- 
solute blank in our Gospel. The evange- 
list gives a genesis of Christ's body, but 
no genesis of His mind. As we see it 
in the sequel, it is a miracle of wisdom. 
It too, doubtless, had its genesis and 
history, but they are not given or even 
hinted at. Christ is ushered on the 
scene an unexplained prodigy. One 
would like to know how He reached this 
unprecedented height of wisdom and 
grace (Luke ii. 52). The only pos°'ble 
source of knowledge is reasoning back 
from the outcome in the full-grown man. 
Jesus greiv. and the final result may 
reveal in part the means and process of 
growth. The anti-Pharisaic spirit and 
clean-cut descriptions of Pharisaic ways 
imply antecedent study, perhaps in 
Rabbinical schools. The parables may 
not have been so extempore as Ciey 
seem, but may be the ripe fruit of 
long brooding thought, things new and 
yet old. 

Vv. 1-6. yohn the Baptist appears 
(Mark i. 1-6, Luke iii. 1-6). Ver. i. 
ev 8^ Tais '^ijiepai,; EK£ivai; : the time 
when most vaguely indicated. Luke's 
narrative here (iii. i) presents a great 
contrast, as if with conscious intent to 
supply a want. John's ministry is there 
dated with reference to the genera, 
history of the world, and Christ's age at 
His baptism is given. Luke's method is 
more satisfactory in a historical point ot 
view, but Matthew's manner of narra- 
tion is dramatically effective. He passes 
abruptly to the new theme, -nd leaves 
you to guess the length of the interval. 
A similarly indefinite phrase occurs in 
the story of Moses (Ex. ii. 11). There 
has been much discussion as to what 
period of time the evangelist had in 
view. Some say none, except that of 
the events to be related. " In those 
days," means simply, "in the days 
when the following events ha/pened " (so 
Euthy. Zig.). Others suggest explana- 
tions based on the relation of our Gospel 

to Its sources, e.g., use of a source in 
which more was told about John, or 
anticipation of Mark i. 9, where the 
phrase is used in reference to Christ's 
coming to be baptised. Probably the 
best course is to take it as referring back 
from the apostolic age to the great 
creative epoch of the evangelic history = 
" In those memorable years to which we 
look back with wistful reverent gaze ". — 
irapaYiveToi 6 I. : John appears on the 
stage of history — historical present, used 
" to give a more animated statement of 
past events" (Goodwin's Syntax, p. n), 
John 6 PoTTTiaTiiis, well known by this 
epithet, and referred to under that de- 
signation by Josephus (Antiq., xviii. 5, 2, 
on which vide Schiirer ; Jewish History, 
div. i., vol. ii., p. 23). Its currency 
naturally suggests that John's baptism 
was partly or wholly an originality, not 
to be confounded with proselyte baptism, 
which perhaps did not even exist at that 
time. — KTjpvao-uv, preachiiiif, as well as 
baptising, heralding the approach of the 
Kingdom of Heaven, standing especially 
in N. T. for proclam.ation of the good 
news of God, distinct from SiSao-Kuv (iv. 
23) : a solemn word for a momentous 
matter. — iv ttj ipr\\>.io t. 'iovSaia; : scene 
of the ministry, the pasture lands lying 
between the central range of hills and 
the Jordan and the Dead Sea, not all 
belonging to Judaea, but of the same 
character; suitable scene for such a 

Ver. 2. X^yuiv introduces the burden 
of his preaching. — (xeTavoeiTe, Repent. 
That was John's great word. Jesus 
used it also when He began to preach, 
but His distinctive watchword was 
Believe. The two watchwords point to 
different conceptions of the kingdom. 
John's kingdom was an object of awful 
dread, Jesus' of glad welcome. The 
message of the one was legal, of the other 
evangelic. Change of mind John deemed 
very necessary as a preparation for 
Messiah's ad\ent. — tj (3acri\Eia tuv ov- 
pavuv, the Kingdom of Heaven. This 
title is peculiar to Matthew. In the 
other Gospels it is called the Kingdom 
of God. Not used either by John or by 




c Is. xl. 3. vap earif 6 mi6els utto ^ 'Ho-aioo too irpoAiiTou, \iyovTO^, "•4'wi'ti 
f here ami _ ^ 1 t 1 > i j> i 

in par.iU. Poii'Tos CK TT) epr^uu), ' 'ETOiuaaaxc ttik 686>' Kupi'ou • euOeias iroieiTe 

Id sense \ t 'o > ~ » »i 

of a worn xas Tpipous auTou. 4. AoTos 8e 6 '\u)dvvr\s eive to •li'Suu.a 

path (Tpi- ,„,, _ ,. x/c. ' \ 

^«). auTou OTTO rpixwf KajXTjXou, Kai ^ufT]i' oepp.axicTj*' irepi ttik 6a<^\jv 

f Ch. xxii. ,, ,„, ,^,oh, /c V rvi- 

;i, xxvm. auTou • r) oe rpotpir] aurou t|I' ^ dKpibes Kai ueXi aYpiof. 

3 ; cloth- 
ing generally in Mt. vi. 23, aS. h Mk. i. 6. Rev. ix. 3, 7. i Mk. i. 6. Jude 13 (fierce). 

* viro here as in ii. 17, instead of 8ia in ^BCD. 

' (iivTOv after tiv in ^BCD. The T. R. is suspiciously smooth. 

Jesus, says Weiss, but to be ascribed to 
the evangelist. There does not seem to 
be any urgent reason for this judgment. 
In Daniel ii. 44 the kingdom is spoken 
of as to be set up by "the God of 
heaven," and in the Judaistic period 
previous to the Christian era, when a 
transcendent conception of God began 
to prevail, the use of heaven as a syno- 
nym for God came in. Custom might 
cause it to be employed, even by those 
who did not sympathise with the con- 
ception of God as transcendent, outside 
and far off from the world {vide note in 

H. C, p. 55)-, 
Ver. 3. ovItos yip Itmv, etc. : the 

svangelist here speaks. He finds in John 
the man of prophecy who proclaims in the 
desert the near advent of Jehovah coming 
to deliver His people. He quotes Isaiah 
only. Mark (i. 2) quotes Malachi also, 
identifying John, not only with the vaIcc 
in the desert, but with Elijah. Isaiah's 
herald is not merely a type of John in 
the view of the evangelist ; the two are 
identical. The quotation follows the 
Sept., except that for tov 0£oO -qfiuv is 
substituted a\iTov. Note where Matthew 
stops. Luke, the universalist, goes on to 
the end of the oracle. The mode of 
introducing the prophetic citation is 
peculiar. " This is he," not " that it 
might be fulfilled ". Weiss (Meyer) 
thinks this an indication that the passage 
is taken from " the apostolic source ". 

Ver, 4. avTos 8^ 6 M. The story 
returns to the historical person, John, 
and identifies him with the herald of 
prophecy. " This same John." Then 
follows a description of his way of life — 
his clothing and his food, the details con- 
veying a life-like picture of the manner 
of the man : his habits congruous to his 
vocation. — to evSvfj.a oirb rpix"'' Ka(ii]- 
Xow : his characteristic (aiirov) piece of 
clothing was a rough rude garment woven 
out of camel's hair, not as some have 
thought, a camel's skin We read in 
Heb. xi. 37, of sheep exins and goat 

skins worn by some of God's saints, but 
not of camel skins. Fritzsche takes 
the opposite view, and Grotius. Euthy., 
following Chrysostom, says: "Do not 
ask who wove his garment, or whence 
he got his girdle ; for more wonderful is 
it that he should live from childhood to 
manhood in so inhospitable a climate". 
John took his fashion in dress from 
Elijah, described {2 Kings i. 8) as " an 
hairy man, and girt with a girdle of 
leather about his loins". It need not 
be doubted that the investment is histori- 
cal, not a legendary creation, due to the 
opinion that John was Elijah redivivus. 
The imitation in dress dees not imply a 
desire to pass for Elijah, but expresses 
similarity of mood. — -fj ti rpo^r] : his 
diet as poor as his clothing was 
mean. — aKpiSes : the last of four kinds of 
edible locusts named in Le.'. xi. 22 
(Sept.), still it seems used by the poor 
in the east ; legs and wings stripped off, 
and the remainder boiled or roasted. 
"The Beduins of Arabia and of East 
Jordan land eat many locusts, roasted, 
boiled or baked in cakes. In Arabia 
they are sold in the market. They 
taste not badly" (Benzinger, Hehraische 
Archciologie). Euthy. reports to the 
same effect as to his own time: many 
eat it in those parts TtTaptxfvp.evov 
(pickled). Not pleasant food, palatable 
only to keen hunger. If we may trust 
Epiphanius, the Ebionites, in their aver- 
sion to animal food, grudged the Baptist 
even that poor diet, and restricted him 
to cakes made with honey (eYKptSas Iv 
(jieXiTt), or to honey alone. Vide Nichol- 
son's Gospel according to the Hebrews, p. 
34, and the notes there ; also Suicer's 
Thesaurus, sub. v. ciKpis. — fJie'Xi aypiov: 
opinion is divided betv.een bee honey 
and tree honey, i.e., honey made by wild 
bees in trees or holes in the rocks, or a 
liquid exuding from palms and fig trees. 
(On this also consult Nicholson, Gospel 
of Hebrews, p. 35.) Both were used as 
food, but our decision should incline to 




5. T<5Te e|eTropcueTO irpos auToi' 'icpoffoXojio Kal irao'a il^ 'louSaiaj Gen. xiii. 
Kal irdaa i^ ^ircptxwpos toG 'lopStii'ou • 6. teal cPairTt^ovTO ^ iv j(o phrase). 
'lopSdfT) ^ UTT* auToO, ^ e^oixoXoYOup-cfoi rds d|i,apTias auTuty. 7. 35. Mk. 
'iSwf 8e TToWous Twj' <l>aptCTaiwi/ Kal laSSouKaiwt' ipyo^iivou^ em to k here and 

Jd-rm(ru,a auTou," ctirci' au.ois, Tcv'viip.aTa exio''<^»'> tis uireocigei/ = to con- 
fess sin. 

1 Cb. xii. 34 ; xxiii. 33. Lk. iii. 7. 

in Mk. 

= tO C( 

fess sir 
m Lk. iii. 7 (same 

Similar sense in Acts xix. 18. James ▼. i6. 
const, and sense). 

1 Some copies (C 33) have iravrts after ePairr. 

* J«5BCA al. have iroTapica after lop. which the scribes may have omitted as 

' avTOV omitted in jf^B and by Origen. 

vegetable honey, on the simple ground 
that it was the poorer food. Bee honey 
was a delicacy, and is associated with 
milk in Scripture in descriptions of a 
fertile land. The vegetable product 
would suit best John's taste and state. 
" Habitatori solitudinis congruum est, 
non delicias ciborum, sed necessitatem 
humanae carnis explere." Jerome. 

Vv. 5-6. Effects of John's preaching. 
Remarkable by his appearance, his mes- 
sage, and his moral intensity, John made 
a great impression. They took him for 
a prophet, and a prophet was a novelty 
in those days. His message appealed to 
the common Messianic hope, and pro- 
claimed fulfilment to be at hand. — Tort, 
then, general note of time, frequent in 
this Gospel €|eT7opev£To imperfect, de- 
noting continued action. The movement 
of course was gradual. It began on 
a small scale and steadily grew till 
it reached colossal dimensions. Each 
evangelist, in his own way, bears 
witness to this. Luke speaks of 
crowds (iii. 7), Mark and Matthew 
give graphic particulars, similar, but 
in diverse order. "All Judaea and all 
the Jerusalcmites," su}S Mark, "Jeru- 
salem, Judaea and the Jordan country," 
Matthew. The historical order was 
probably the reverse of that in Matthew's 
narrative. First came those from the 
surrounding country — people living near 
the Jordan, on either side, in what is 
now called El-Ghor. Then the move- 
ment extended in widening circles into 
Judaea. Finally it affected conservative, 
disdainful Jerusalem, slow to be touched 
by new popular influences. — 'UpocrdX-u- 
p.a: the Greek form here as in ii. 3, and 
generally in this Gospel. It is not said 
all Jerusalem, as in Mark. The remark- 
able thing is that any came from that 
quarter. Standing first, and without the 
"all," the reference means even Jerusa- 

lem. The iraora in the other two clauses 
is of course an exaggeration. It implies, 
not that every human being went to the 
Jordan, but that the movement was 
general. The evangelist expresses him- 
self just as we should do in a similar 
case, ndg with the article means " the 
whole,'' without, "every". — Ver. 6. Kal 
ipaTrTi^ovTO ; the imperfect again. They 
were baptised as they came. — Iv Toi 'lop. 
iroTap,(o. The word irorapol, omitted in 
T. R., by all means to be retained. Dull 
prosaic scribes might deem it superfluous, 
as all men knew the Jordan was a river, 
but there is a touch of nature in it which 
helps us to call up the scene. — vnr' ovtoO, 
by him, the one man. John would not 
want occupation, baptising such a crowd, 
one by one.^ — €^op.oXoYovp.£voi: confes- 
sion was involved in the act of sub- 
mitting to baptism at the hands of one 
whose preaching had for its burden, 
Repent. But there was explicit confes- 
sion, frank, full (4k intensifies), on the 
part of guilt-burdened men and women 
glad to get relief so. General or special 
confession ? Probably both: now one, 
now the other, according to idiosyncrasy 
and mood. Confession was not exacted 
as a conditio sine qua non of baptism, 
but voluntary. The participle means, 
while confessing ; not, provided they 
confessed. This confession of sins by 
individuals was a new thing in Israel. 
There was a collective confession on the 
great day of atonement, and individual 
confession in certain specified cases 
(Numb. v. 7), but no great spontaneous 
self-unburdenment of penitent souls — 
every man apart. It must have been a 
stirring sight. 

Vv. 7-10. Words of rebuke and warn- 
ing to unwelcome vistors (Luke iii. 7-9). 
Ver. 7. 'I8wv Si, etc. : among those 
who visited the Jordan were some, 
not a few, many indeed (ttoXXovs) of the 




n Cj. Is ijiiK ■ 4 

xlviii. ao. 

Mk.xvi. 8. a§lOU9 ' 
o for the 

idea of " the comiug wrath," vidt Rom. ii. 5. 
Lk. iii. 8. C/. Ps. iv. 5 ; x. 6 ; xiv. i. 

tiytiv' ttwo * TT]s (leWouCTKjs opYTJs ; 8. iroiiiaaTe axiv Kapirous 

TTJs |X€Ta»'oias • 9. ical fXTj ''86§Y]Te "Xeyen' ef ^aoTOis, 

I The**, i. 10. p Ch. vi. 7; xxvi. 53. q Ch. iz. 31. 

' Kapirov o^iov in ^BCD and many other uncials. The reading in T. R. (found 

in L) may have come in from Lk. iii. 8, where it is undisputed. 

Pharisees and Sadducebs. The first 
mention of classes of whom the Gospels 
have much to say, the former being the 
legal precisians, 7'iiiiios! in religion, the 
latter the men of affairs and of the 
world, largely belonging to the sacer- 
dotal class (consult Wellhausen, Die 
Pharisder und die Sadducder). Their 
presence at the scene of John's ministry 
is credible. Drawn doubtless by mixed 
motives, as persons of their type gene- 
rally are, moral simplicity not being in 
their line ; partly curious, partly fasci- 
nated, partly come to spy ; in an am- 
biguous state of mind, neither decidedly 
in sympathy nor pronouncedly hostile. 
In any case they cannot remain in- 
different to a movement so deep and 
widespread. So here they are ; coming 
to (lirl) John's baptism, not to be bap- 
tised, nor coming against, as some 
(Olearius, e.g.) have thought, as if to put 
the movement down, but coming to wit- 
ness the strange, novel phenomenon, and 
form their impressions. John did not 
make them welcome. His spirit was 
troubled by their presence. Simple, 
sensitive, moral natures instinctively 
shrink from the presence of insincerity, 
duplicity and craftiness. — ISwv : how did 
they come under his observation ? By 
their position in the crowd or on the 
outskirts of it, and by their aspect ? How 
did he identify them as Pharisees and 
Sadducees ? How did the hermit of the 
desert know there were such people ? 
It was John's business to know all the 
moral characteristics of his time. These 
were the matters in which he took 
supreme interest, and he doubtless had 
means of informing himself, and took 
pains to do so. It may be assumed 
that he knew well about the Essenes 
living in his neighbourhood, by the 
shores of the Dead Sea, somewhat after 
his own' fashion, and about the other 
two classes, whose haunts were the 
great centres of population. There 
might be Essenes too in the crowd, 
though not singled out, the history other- 
wise having no occasion to mention 
them. — Y€vvi]|i,aTa cxiSvwv : sudden, ir- 
repressible outburst of intense moral 

aversion. Why vipers ? The ancient 
and mediaeval interpreters (Chrysos., 
Aug., Theophy., Euthy.) had recourse in 
explanation to the fable of the young 
viper eating its mother's womb. The 
term ought rather to be connected with 
the following words about fleeing from 
the coming wrath. The serpents of all 
sorts lurking in the fields flee when the 
stubble is set on fire in harvest in pre- 
paration for the winter sowing. The 
Baptist likens the Pharisees and Sad- 
ducees to these serpents fleeing for their 
lives (Furrer in Zeitschrift fiir Missions- 
kunde und Religionsivissenschaft, i8go). 
Professor G. A. Smith, Historical 
Geography of the Holy Land, p. 495, 
suggests the fires among the dry scrub, 
in the higher stretches of the Jordan 
valley, chasing before them the scorpions 
and vipers, as the basis of the metaphor. 
There is grim humour as well as wrath 
in the similitude. The emphasis is not 
on vipers but on fleeing. But the felicity 
of the comparison lies in the fact that 
the epithet suits very well. It implies 
that the Pharisees and Sadducees are 
fleeing. They have caught slightly the 
infection of repentance ; yet John does 
not believe in its depth or permanence. — 
Tis xiTTc'Seilev: there is surprise in the 
question. Can it be possible that even 
you have learned to fear the approaching 
crisis ? Most unlikely scholars. — i|)vyciv 
airo : pregnant for " flee and escape 
from " (De Wette). The aorist points to 
possibility, going with verbs of hoping 
and promising in this sense (Winer, 
§ xliv. 7 c). The implied thought is 
that it is not possible = who encouraged 
you to expect deliverance ? The aorist 
further signifies a momentary act : now 
or never. — ttjs ^cX. ^p-yi);, the day 
of wrath impending, preluding the 
advent of the Kingdom. The idea of 
wrath was prominent in John's mind: 
the coming of the Kingdom an awful 
affair ; Messiah's work largely a work of 
judgment. But he rose above ordinary 
Jewish ideas in this : they conceived of 
the judgment as concerning the heathen 
peoples ; he thought of it as concerning 
the godless in Israel — Ver. 8. vovf^vaT* 

8— II. 



riarepa €)(0|X£k t6»' 'A|3pad)i • Xeyu y^P "^■^►'j oti 8ui/aTai 6 ©eos ' ""^ ""■ ^ 
CK Twi' XiQwi' TOuTwi' cycipai TEKV'a Tw 'APpacifi.. 10. ■»i8t) 8e ^S-""'*^ 
Kal^ t] d|icT) irpos TTji' pij^ai' Twf 8^v'8pu»' kcitoi • itav ouv Zey^pov if*"'.'"'. 
fiTj 'iroiouK KapTToc KaXoi' •cKKOTTTCTai Kttl CIS TTup PdWcTai. II. aneye.etc, 
'Eyw fiev pairri^w ufxas '^ iv uSari C19 (AeTacoiai' • 6 Sc oTriao) (aou tivoj, 
ep)(6p,£>'os loxuporepos fAOU cotik, oiJ ouk elul ' iKaco; to. uTro8i](ji,aTa 24- 

Lk. Hi. 16. iCor. XT. 9. a Cor. iii. j (=fit with inf.). a Cor. ii. 16 (irpdt n ) 

^ K« omitted in ^BCDA and by most modern editors. 
* PairTi{(i> vnos inverted in i^B i, 33. 

ovv, etc. " If, then, ye are in earnest 
about escape, produce fruit worthy of 
repentance ; repentance means more 
than confession and being baptised." 
That remark might be applied to all 
that came, but it contained an innuendo 
in reference to the Pharisees and 
Sadducees that they were insincere even 
now. Honest repentance carries amend- 
ment along with it. Amendment is not 
expected in this case because the repent- 
ance is disbelieved in. — Kapirov, collec- 
tive, as in Gal. v. 22, fruit ; the reading 
in T. R. is probably borrowed from 
Luke iii. 8. The singular is intrinsically 
the better word in addressing Pharisees 
who did good actions, but were not 
good. Yet John seems to have incul- 
cated reformation in detail (Luke iii. 
10-14). It was Jesus who proclaimed 
the inwardness ot true morality. Fruit : 
the figure suggests that conduct is the 
outcome of essential character. Any one 
can do (woi-qo-aTe, vide Gen. i. 11) acts 
externally good, but only a good man 
can grow a crop of right acts and habits. 
Vv. 9-10. Protest and warning. Kal 
|j.T) So|t]tc . . . t. 'Appadjji: the meaning is 
plain = do not imagine that having Abra- 
ham for father will do instead of repent- 
ance—that all children of Abraham are 
safe whatever betide. But the expression 
is peculiar : do not think to say within 
yourselves. One would have expected 
either : do not think within yourselves, 
or, do not say, etc. Wetstein renders : 
" ne animum inducite sic apud vosmet 
cogitare," with whom Fritzsche sub- 
stantially agrees = do not presume to 
say, cf. Phil. iii. 4. — irarepa, father, in 
the emphatic position = we have as father, 
Abraham ; it is enough to be his children : 
the secret thought 01 all unspiritual Jews, 
Abraham's children only in the flesh. 
It is probable that these words (w. 9, 
10) were spoken at a different time, and 
to a difterent audience, not merely to 
Pharisees and Sadducees, but to the 

people generally. Vv. 7-12 are a very 
condensed summary of a preaching 
ministry in which many weighty words 
were spoken (Luke iii. 18), these being 
selected as most representative and most 
relevant to the purpose of the evangelist. 
Vv. 7-8 contain a word for the leaders of 
the people ; w. 9-10 for the people at 
large; w. 11-12 a word to inquirers 
about the Baptist's own relation to the 
Messiah. — Ver. 10. tjSrj 8i iq a$ivt| . . . 
Kcirai : judgment is at hand. The axe 
has been placed (Kei)xat = perfect passive 
of ti6t|(i.i) at the root of the tree to lay it 
low as hopelessly barren. This is the 
doom of every non-productive fruit tree. — 
«KicdirT€TOL : the present tense, expressive 
not so much oi the usual practice 
(Fritzsche) as of the near inevitable 
event. — (jit] iroiovv Kapirov KaXov, in case 
it produce not (|xt] conditional) good 
fruit, not merely fruit of some kind, 
degenerate, unpalatable. — els Tfup pdX- 
Xexai : useless for any other purpose 
except to be firewood, as the wood of 
many fruit trees is. 

Vv. II, 12. jfohn defines his relation 
to the Messiah (Mark i. 7-8 ; Luke iii. 
15.17). This prophetic word would 
come late in the day when the Baptist's 
fame was at its height, and men began 
to think it possible he might be the 
Christ (Luke iii. 15). His answer to 
inquiries plainly expressed or hinted 
was unhesitating. No, not the Christ, 
there is a Coming One. He will be here 
soon. I have my place, important in its 
own way, but quite secondary and sub- 
ordinate. John frankly accepts the posi- 
tion ot herald and forerunner, assigned 
to him in ver. 3 by the citation of the 
prophetic oracle as descriptive of his 
ministry. — lyw p.€v, etc. lyu emphatic, 
but with the emphasis of subordination. 
My tunction is to baptise with water, 
symbolic of repentance. — 6 Si 0. |i. 
cpxop'Cvos. He who is just coming 
(present participle). How did John know 




u Lk. iii. 17. Paordaai • auT09 ufjia; pairrio^ei ei* RfeujiaTi 'Aytw Ka). wopi. 12.; ou to ' tttuov iv Ttj X^'P'^ auTou, Kai ' SiaKaOapiei ttji* aXu^a auToG, 
xiii. 30. , ,. v'~ j-»> vwjA' i\o\^ 

Lk.xii. 18. Kai auv-a^ei Toi' aiToc aoTOU cis Tr]v dirooTjK'r]!',^ to 06 axupor 

X Mk. ix.43. KaTaKauaci irupl * daP^aTU." 
Lk. iii. 17. 

^ BL have ovrov after airoOrfKi^v (W.H. marg.). L omits avroxj after o-itov. 

the Messiah was just coming? It was 
an inference from his judgment on the 
moral condition of the time. Messiah 
was needed ; His work was ready for 
Him ; the nation was ripe ior judgment. 
Judgment observe, for that was the 
function uppermost in his mind in con- 
nection with the Messianic advent. These 
two verses give us John's idea of the 
Christ, based not on personal knowledge, 
but on religious preconceptions. It 
differs widely from the reality. John 
can have known little of Jesus on the 
outer side, but he knew less of His 
spirit. We cannot understand his words 
unless we grasp this fact. Note the 
attributes he ascribes to the Coming 
One. The main one is stnyii^tli — Icrx'"- 
p(5Tcpo; fully unfolded in the sequel. 
Along with strength goes dignity— ov 
ovK elp,i, etc. He is so great, august a 
personage, I am not fit to be His slave, 
carrying to and from Him, for and after 
use. His sandals (a slave's office in Judaea, 
Greece and Rome). An Oriental magnifi- 
cent exaggeration. — a-iiTos vfias ^ax- 
Tio-<i : returns to the Power of Messiah, as 
revealed in His work, which is described 
as a baptism, the better to bring out 
the contrast between Him and His 
humble forerunner. — kvKvvi^o.Tia.yliOKfjX 
TTvpL Notable here are the words, 'tv 
-irvevfJiaTi a-yito. They must be interpreted 
in harmony with John's standpoint, not 
from what Jesus proved to be, or in the 
light of St. Paul's teaching on the 
Holy Spirit as the immanent source of 
sanctification. The whole baptism of 
the Messiah, as John conceives it, is 
a baptism of judgment. It has been 
generally supposed that the Holy Spirit 
here represents the grace of Christ, and 
the fire His judicial function ; not a few 
holding that even the fire is gracious as 
purifying. I think that the grace of the 
Christ is not here at all. The irvevjia 
&710V is a stormy wind of judgment ; 
holy, as sweeping away all that is light 
and worthless in the nation (which, after 
the O. T. manner, is conceived of as the 
subject of Messiah's action, rather than 
the individual). The fire destroys what 
tJie wind leaves. John, with his wild 

prophetic imagination, thinks of three 
elements as representing the functions 
of himself and of Messiah : water, wind, 
fire. He baptises with water, in the 
running stream of Jordan, to emblem 
the only way of escape, amendment. 
Messiah will baptise with wind and fire, 
sweeping away and consuming the im- 
penitent, leaving behind only the right- 
eous. Possibl}' John had in mind the 
prophetic word, " our iniquities, like the 
wind, have taken us away," Is. Ixiv. 6 ; 
or, as Furrer, who I find also takes 
"Trv€v(Aa in the sense of " wind," suggests, 
the "wind of God," spoken of in Is. xl. 
7 : the strong east wind which blights 
the grass [Zeitschrift fiir Missionskiinde 
und Religionswissefischaft, i8go). Carr, 
Cambridge G. T., inclines to the same 
view, and refers to Is. xli. 16 : " Thou 
shalt fan ihem, and the wind shall carry 
them away". Vide also Is. iv. 4. 

Ver. 12. This ver. follows up ver. 11, 
and explains the judicial action emblemed 
by wind and fire. — ov to tttvov k. r. y. 
avTov. The construction is variously 
understood. Grotius takes it as a Hebra- 
ism for kv ov x^'-P'' TO TrTvov. Fritzsche 
takes iv t. yj^ip\ avTov as epexegetical, 
and renders: "whose will be the fan, 
viz., in His hand". Meyer and Weiss 
take ov as assigning a reason : " He 
(avTos of ver. 11) whose fan is in hand 
and who is therefore able to perform the 
part assigned to Him ". Then follows an 
explanation of the modus operandi. — 
SiaKa9api€t from SiaKadapi^w, late for 
classic SittKaOaipo). The idea is: He 
with His fan will throw up the wheat, 
mixed with the chaff, that the wind may 
blow the chaff away ; He will then collect 
the straw, axvpov (in Greek writers 
usually plural Td axvpo, vide Grimm), 
and burn it with fire, and collect the 
wheat lying on the threshing floor and 
store it in His granary. So shall He 
thoroughly (8to intensifying) cleanse His 
floor. And the sweeping wind and the 
consuming fire are the emblems and 
measure of His power ; stronger than 
mine, as the tempest and the devastating 
flames are mightier than the stream 
which I use as my element.- aXwv, a place 

la — 15. 



13. ToTc Trapayit'eTai 6 'irjaous dTro ttjs faXiXaias tirl TSf y here only ; 

'iC' \\>ir --o n" ij-.- -~. for force 

lopoaKT)!' TTpos Toi' luaccT))', TOO pa7rTiCT0T)i'ai OTT auTou. 14. 6 8e of tense 

IwawKiis '■ ' OieKwAuej' auroK, Xeyuv, Eyw XP^''"^' «X" "'"'o o'O" 59- Acts 

aiT-Ti<rtfi]cai, Kai ctu epxij irpos |J.e; 15. AiroKpiGeis oe 6 Irjaous i Ch. xiv. 

etire irpos auTOi',^ ""Aijjes 'apri- outw ydp ** irpe'-n-oi' iarXv -qiuv xiii. 1° ° 

const.). a John xlii. 37. x Cor. xiiL la (now, opp. to fut. time). b Heb. u. 10. With ace. and 

inf., I Cor. zi. 13. 

^ l«avvT]s omitted in ^B sah. vers. (W.H. omit.) 

* For irpos avrov B and it. vg. cop. versions have avro*. Though weakly attested 
this reading accords best with the usage of the Evangelist. W.H. adopt it. 

in a field made firm by a roller, or on a 
rocky hill top exposed to the breeze. — 
aiToB-qKr] means generally any kind of 
store, and specially a grain store, often 
underground. Bleek takes the epithet 
acr^itTTio applied to the fire as signifying : 
inextinguishable till all the refuse be 
consumed. It is usually understood 

Vv. 13-17. jfesus appears, His baptism 
and its accompaniments (Mark i. g-ii ; 
Luke lii. 21-22). Ver. 13. T6t€ Trapa. 6 
'I. . . . PaXiXaias: ^//t«, after John had de- 
scribed the Messiah, appears on the scene 
{TrapayiveTtti, the historical present again, 
as in ver. i, with dramatic efiect) from 
Galilee, where He has lived since child- 
hood, y«MS, the real Christ; how widely 
different from the Christ conceived by 
the Baptist we know from the whole 
evangelic history. But shutting off know- 
ledge gathered from other sources, we 
may obtain significant hints concerning 
the stranger from Galilee from the present 
narrative. He comes kitX riv I. irpos toy 
'tbiav., ToO PaTrTto-OTjvai -uir' aiiTov. These 
words at once suggest a contrast between 
Jesus and the Pharisees and Sadducees. 
They came to the baptism as a phenome- 
non to be critically observed. Jesus 
comes to the Jordan (^l), towards the 
Baptist (irpos) to enter into personal 
friendly relations with him (vide John i. 
I, irpos Tov Otdv), in order to be baptised 
by him (genitive of the infinitive express- 
ing purpose). Jesus comes thoroughly 
in sympathy with John's movement, 
sharing his passion for righteousness, 
fully appreciating the symbolic signifi- 
cance of his baptism, and not only 
willing, but eager to be baptised ; the 
Jordan in His mind from the day He 
leaves home. A very different person 
this from the leaders of Israel, Pharisaic 
or Sadducaic. But the sequel suggests 
a contrast also between Him and John 

Vv. 14-15. jfohn refuses. It is in- 
structive to compare the three synoptical 
evangelists in their respective narratives 
of the baptism of Jesus. Mark (i. 9) 
simply states the fact. Matthew reports 
perplexities created in the mind of John 
by the desire of Jesus to be baptised, 
and presumably in the minds of Chris- 
tians for whom he wrote. Luke (iii, 
21) passes lightly over the event in 
a participial clause, as if consoious that 
he was on delicate ground. The three 
narratives exhibit successive phases of 
opinion on the subject, a fact not with- 
out bearing on the dates and relations of 
the three Gospels. Matthew represents 
the intermediate phase. His account 
is intrinsically credible. — Ver. 14. 
8i£K(o\vev : imperfect, pointing to a 
persistent (note the 8id) but unsuccess- 
ful attempt to prevent. His reason was 
a feeling that if either was to be baptised 
the relation ought to be inverted. To 
understand this feeling it is not necessary 
to import a fully developed Messianic 
theology into it, imputing to the Baptist 
all that we believe concerning Jesus as 
the Christ and the sinless one. It is 
enough to suppose that the visitor from 
Galilee had made a profound moral im- 
pression on him by His aspect and con- 
versation, and awakened thoughts, 
hopes, incipient convictions as to who 
He might be. Nor ought wc to take too 
seriously the Baptist's statement: "I 
have need to be baptised of Thee ". 
Hitherto he had had no thought of being 
baptised himself. He was the baptiser, 
not one feeling need to be baptised ; the 
censor of sinners, not the sympathetic 
fellow-sinner. And just here lies the 
contrast between John and Jesus, and 
between the Christ of John's imagina- 
tion and the Christ of reality. John 
was severe ; Jesus was sympathetic. 
John was the baptiser of sinners ; Jesus 
wished to be baptised, as if a sinner 




cLk.iii. 91. irXripuaai iraaaK SiKaioffuk'Tjc." Tore d(f)iT]aii' auTi$>'. l6. Kai 
Acts X. n PaTTTiffOels ^ 6 'lT)aou9^i] cu9us^ diro Tou uSaxos • Kal i8ovj, 

(with Sia, , f. HJ-d's ' ^■^e vr^i- »_.« 

Acts vii. a>'cu>x"ilo^ci'' ciuTw* 01 oupai'oi, Kai eioe to l^vev^t.a tou ©cou koto- 


> Pairriorflcis 8f in t^BC vg. sah. cop. 
' For avt^r\ euBvs fc^B have «8ws ovcptj. 

* B has tivcwx^Tiffav. 

♦ ^B omit •vro». 

Himself, a brother of the sinful. In the 
light of this contrast we are to under- 
stand the baptism of Jesus. Many ex- 
planations of it have been given (for 
these, vide Meyer), mostly theological. 
One of the most feasible is that of Weiss 
(Matt. -Evan.), that in accordance with 
the symbolic significance of the rite as 
denoting death to an old life and rising 
to a new, Jesus came to be baptised in 
the sense of dying to the old natural 
relations to parents, neighbours, and 
earthly calling, and devoting Himself 
henceforth to His public Messianic voca- 
tion. The true solution is to be found 
in the ethical sphere, in the sympathetic 
spirit of Jesus which made Him main- 
tain an attitude of solidarity with the 
sinful rather than assume the position of 
critic and judge. It was impossible for 
such an one, on the ground of being the 
Messiah, or even on the ground of sin- 
lessness, to treat John's baptism as a 
thing with which He had no concern. 
Love, not a sense of dignity or of moral 
faultlessness, must guide His action. 
Can we conceive sinlessness being so 
conscious of itself, and adopting as its 
policy aloofness from sinners ? Christ's 
baptism might create misunderstanding, 
just as His associating with publicans 
and sinners did. He was content to be 

Ver. 15. The reasoning with which 
Jesus replies to John's scruples is char- 
acteristic. His answer is gentle, re- 
spectful, dignified, simple, yet deep. — 
"A^ies apri — deferential, half-yielding, 
yet strong in its very gentleness. Does 
apTi imply a tacit acceptance of the 
high position assigned to Him by John 
(Weiss- Meyer) ? We may read that 
into it, but I doubt if the suggestion 
does justice to the feeling of Jesus. — 
ovTco Yap irpiirov : a mild word when a 
stronger might have been used, because 
it refers to John as well as Jesus : fitting, 
becoming, congruous; vide Heb. ii. 10, 
where the same word is used in reference 
to the relation of God to Christ's suffer- 
ing*. " It became Him." — ira<rav Sixai- 

ooniJvtjv: this means more than meets 
the ear, more than could be explained to 
a man like John. The Baptist had a 
passion for righteousness, yet his concep- 
tion of righteousness was narrow, severe, 
legal. Their ideas of righteousness sepa- 
rated the two men by a wide gulf which 
is covered over by this general, almost 
evasive, phrase : all righteousness or 
every form of it. The special form 
meant is not the mere compliance with 
the ordinance of baptism as administered 
by an accredited servant of God, but 
something far deeper, which the new era 
will unfold. John did not understand 
that love is the fulfilling of the law. But 
he saw that under the mild words of 
Jesus a very aarnest purpose was hid. 
So at length he yielded — t6t€ a(}>iT](riv 

Vv. 16, 17. The preternatural accom- 
paniments. These have been variously 
viewed as meant for the people, for the 
Baptist, and for Jesus. In my judgment 
they concern Jesus principally and in the 
first place, and are so viewed by the 
evangelist. And as we are now making 
the acquaintance of Jesiis for the first 
time, and desiring to know the spirit, 
manner, and vocation of Him whose 
mysterious birth has occupied our 
attention, we may confine our comments 
to this aspect. Applying the principle 
that to all objective supernatural experi- 
ences there are subjective psychological 
experiences corresponding, we can learn 
fi-om the dove-like vision and the voice 
from heaven the thoughts which had 
been passing through the mind of Jesus 
at this critical period. These thoughts 
it most concerns us to know; yet it is 
just these thoughts that both believers 
and naturalistic unbelievers are in danger 
of overlooking ; the one through regard- 
ing the objective occurrences as alone 
important, the other because, denying 
the objective element in the experience, 
they rush to the conclusion that there 
was no experience at all. Whereas the 
truth is that, whatever is to be said as to 
the objective element, the subjective at 

i6 — 17. 



^aivov iael * itcpiaripav, kuI^ epxcficvoc eir' auroK. 17. Kal iSou, d Ch. x. 16; 

(pufT] eic Tuv oupavitiv Acyouva, Outos eaxii' o oios (aou o ayaTrrjTos, Lk. ii. 24. 
3 r a >^ ' >> o. eCh.xii. iS; 

EK u euooKtio-a. "* xvii. 5. i 

Cor. X. 5. 
Heb. s. 38 (all with tv and dat). 

' ^B omit KM. 

' J^CL have i]v8ok., which Tischendorf follows. W,H. as in T. R. 

all events is real : the thoughts reflected 
and symbolised in the vision and the 

Ver. 16. eiOifS may be connected 
with PairTiordcis, with avi^-q, or with 
iQv«C[»x0T]o-av in the following clause by a 
hyperbaton (Grotius). It is commonly 
and correctly taken along with aveprj. 
But why say straightway ascended ? 
Euthy. gives an answer which may be 
quoted for its quaintness : " They say 
that John had the people under water up 
to the neck till they had confessed their 
sins, and that Jesus having none to con- 
fess tarried not in the river ". Fritzsche 
laughs at the good monk, but Schanz 
substantially adopts his view. There 
might be worse explanations. — xal ISov 
rjve<j)xflT]arav, etc. When Jesus ascended 
out of the water the heavens opened and He 
(Jesus) saw the spirit of God descending 
as a dove coming upon Him. According 
to many interpreters, including many of 
the Fathers, the occurrence was of the 
nature of a vision, the appearance of a 
dove coming out of the heavens. 6 
£vaYY«XtorTT]s oiric eiTrcv on Iv ^viT€i 
Trepiorxepas, aXX* iv tiSei irepio'Tcpas — 
Chrys. Dove-like : what was the point 
of comparison ? Swift movement, accord- 
ing to some ; soft gentle movement as it 
sinks down on its place of rest, according 
to others. The Fathers insisted on the 
qualities of the dove. Euthy. sums up 
these thus : 4>''^<^*'^p('''''o*' Y<^P ^cti Kal 
avE|iKaKOV • dTro(rT£povjj.«vov yap tmv 
veoaauv inrs3\i.4vei, xai oviS^v tjttov tows 
aTroarepovvTas irpoorieTOi. Kai KaOa- 
pwraTov ioTTi, teal T'q eitiSia \aipii. 
Whether the dove possesses all these 
qualities — philanthropy, patient endur- 
ance of wrong, letting approach it those 
who have robbed it of its young, purity, 
delight in sweet smells — I know not ; 
but I appreciate the insight into the 
spirit of Christ which specifying such 
particulars in the emblematic significance 
of the dove implies. What is the O. T. 
basis of the symbol ? Probably Gen. 
viii. 9, 10. Grotius hints at this without 
altogether adopting the view. Thus we 
obtain a contrast between John's con- 
ception of the spirit and that of Jesus as 

reflected in the vision. For John the 
emblem of the spirit was the stormy 
wind of judgment ; for Jesus the dove 
with the olive leaf after the judgment by 
water was past. 

Ver. 17. ovTos lo-Tiv : " this is," as if 
addressed to the Baptist; in Mk. i. g, av 
el, as if addressed to Jesus. — Iv c5 cuSok. : 

a Hebraism, ; 21 VDH- — «vi8dKT)a-a,aor- 

ist, either to express habitual satisfac- 
tion, after the manner of the Gnomic 
Aorist {vide Hermann's Viger, p. 169), or 
to denote the inner event = my good 
pleasure decided itself once for all for 
Him. So 8chanz ; cf. Winer, § 40, 5, on 
the use of the aorist. cvSokciv, according 
to Sturz, De Dialecto Macedonica et Alex- 
andrina, is not Attic but Hellenistic. The 
voice recalls and in some measure echoes 
Is. xlii. I, " Behold My servant, I uphold 
Him ; My chosen one, My soul delights 
in Him. I have put My spirit upon Him." 
The title " Son " recalls Ps. it. 7. 
Taking the vision, the voice, and the 
baptism together as interpreting the 
consciousness of Jesus before and at this 
time, the following inferences are sug- 
gested, (i) The mind of Jesus had been 
exercised in thought upon the Messianic 
vocation in relation to His own future. 
(2) The chief Messianic charism appeared 
to Him to be sympathy, love. (3) His 
religious attitude towards God was that 
of a Son towards a Father. (4) It was 
through the sense of sonship and the 
intense love to men that was in His 
heart that He discovered His Messianic 
vocation. (5) Prophetic texts gave direc- 
tion to and supplied means of expression 
for His religious meditations. His mind, 
like that of John, was full of prophetic 
utterances, but a different class of oracles 
had attractions for Him. The spirit of 
John revelled in images of awe and ter- 
ror. The gentler spirit of Jesus delighted 
in words depicting the ideal servant of 
God as clothed with meekness, patience, 
wisdom, and love. 

Chapter IV. The Temptation, and 
THE Beginning of the Galilean 
Ministry. It is in every way credible 
that the baptism of Jesus with its con- 




a Lk. ii. aa; IV. I. Tore o ' lT](roiis ai'ir]X^1 ^'■5 ''"'1*' cp^fAO*' 6tto TOU Fl t'evp.aTOS , 
iv. 5. Acts A-. < \ - c o <\ <• ' t f I 

ix. 39. Cf. 7TeipaaDT)k'ai, utto tou oiapoXou. 2. Kai VrjaTeoaas i^p.cpas Tecffopa- 
Rom. X.7. 

Heb. xiii. 30 (to lead up from the dead). b besides parall. i Cor. vii. 5. i Tbets. iii. j (same 

lense). c Cb. vi. il>-ib; ix. 14. Acts xiii. a. 

' B omits o ; bracketed in W.H. 

nected incidents should be followed by a 
season 01 moral trial, or, to express it 
more generally, by a period of retirement 
for earnest thought on the future career 
so solemnly inaugurated. Retirement 
for prayer and meditation was a habit 
with Jesus, and it was never more likely 
to be put in practice than now. He had 
left home under a powerful impulse with 
the Jordan and baptism in view. The 
baptism was a decisive act. Whatever 
more it might mean, it meant farewell to 
the past life of obscurity and consecration 
to a new, high, unique vocation. It re- 
mained now to realise by reflection what 
this calling, to which He had been set 
apart by John and by heavenly omens, 
involved in idea, execution, and experi- 
ence. It was a large, deep, difficult sub- 
ject of study. Under powerful spiritual 
constraints Jesus had taken a great leap 
in the dark, if one may dare to say so. 
What wonder if, in the season of reflec- 
tion, temptations arose to doubt, shrink- 
ing, regret, strong inclination to look 
back and return to Nazareth ? 

In this experience Jesus was alone 
inwardly as well as outwardly. No 
clear, adequate account could be given of 
it. It could only be faintly shadowed 
forth in symbol or in parable. One can 
understand how in one Gospel (Mk.) no 
attempt is made to describe the Tempta- 
tion, but the fact is simply stated. And 
it is much more important to grasp the 
fact as a great reality in Christ's inner 
experience than to maintain anxiously 
the literal truth of the representation in 
Matt, and Luke. In the fight of faith 
and unbelief over the supernatural ele- 
ment in the story all sense of the inwaid 
psychological reality may be lost, and 
nothing remain but an external, miracu- 
lous, theatrical transaction which utterly 
fails to impress the lesson that Jesus 
was veritably tempted as we are, severely 
and for a length of time, before the open- 
ing of His public career, in a representa- 
tive manner anticipating the experiences 
of later date. All attempts to dispose 
summarily of the whole matter by refer- 
ence to similar temptation legends in the 
case of other religious initiators like 
Buddha are to be deprecated. Nor 

should one readily take up with the 
theory that the detailed account of the 
Temptation in Matt, and Luke is simply 
a composition suggested by O. T. 
parallels or by reflection on the critical 
points in Christ's subsequent history. 
(So Holtzmann in H. C.) We should 
rather regard it as having its ultimate 
source in an attempt by Jesus to convey 
to His disciples some faint idea of what 
He had gone through. 

Vv. i-ii. The Temptation (Mk. i. 12, 
13 ; Luke iv. 1-13). Ver. i. T(Jt€; then, 
implying close connection with the events 
recorded in last chapter, especially the de- 
scent of the Spirit. — aviix^'H! was led up, 
into the higher, more solitary region of the 
wilderness, the haunt of wild beasts (Mk. 
i. 13) rather than of men. — iiro tov 
irvevjiaros. tTht* (]jvinp j^pjrit has to do 
with our darker experiences as well as 
with our bright, joyous ones. He is wUh 
-the sons of God in their conflicts with 
doubt not less than in their moments 
of noble impulse and heroic resolve. 
The same Spirit who brought Jesus 
from Nazareth to the Jordan afterward 
led Him to the scene of trial. The 
theory of desertion hinted at by Calvin 
and adopted by Olshausen is based on a 
superficial view of religious experience. 
God's Spirit is never more with a man 
than in his spiritual struggles. Jesus 
was mightily impelled by the Spirit at 
thts time {cf. Mk.'s cKpaWei). And as 
the power exerted was not physical but 
moral, the fact points to intense mental 
preoccupation. — Treipaa-OTJvai, to be temp- 
ted, not necessarily covering the whole 
experience of those days, but noting a 
specially important phase : to be tempted 
inter alia. — irctpd^u : a later form for 
ircipdw, in classic Greek, primary meaning 
to attempt, to try to do a thing (vide for 
this use Acts ix. 26, xvi. 7, xxiv. 6) ; then 
in an ethical sense common in O. T. 
and N. T., to try or tempt either with 
good or with bad intent, associated in 
some texts (e.g., 2 Cor. xiii. 5) with Soki- 
(jia^o), kindred in meaning. Note the 
omission ol tov before infinitive. — viro 
T. SiapoXou : in later Jewish theology 
the devil is the agent in all temptation 
with evil design. In the earlier period 




KOfTa ^ Ktti ruKTas TCfffftipaKOk'Ta,-' uorjepov eTreivaae. 3. koi irpoaeX- d 6 nttp. ai 
. .-.Bdc ^» ■» Hic'^^v ■^ ~ ~5\o c 

6wK auTw' o Treipa^wv eiirev'," Ei uios ei too Geoo, enre tfa 01 iThess. 

\i0oi ouTOi apToi yeVwv'Tai." 4. 'O 8e diroKpiOels clire, " re'YpoTiTOi, eC/.Mk. ix. 

'OuK eir' apTw [aow l^i^aexai* av-Opwiros, dW cm^ irai'Tl * pi^p-aji, f Ch. xvii, i. 

, / c > ' ^ ~ • »» - -i-i f \ D» > V g<i.T. again 

eKTropeuofJiet'w ota aTO|jiaTos Qeoo. 5* Tore irapa\a|j.pat'ei auToe ch. xxvU. 

6 SidjSoXos CIS TT)*' * ayiav iroXii', Kal iffTrjati' " auTOC cttI t6 xl j. 

^ T€(r<r€p. both places in ^BCL. 

' Tt(ro-ap. before vvKxas in ^D (Tisch.). 

' fc<5B omit this owt» and ^BD insert one after «nrev (D with Kai before nirtv). 

* ^BCD, etc., insert o before ovGpwiros. 

* CD have tv ; ciri in Sept. and retained by Tisch. and W.H. 

® ta-T-\]<r€v in ^BCDZ i, 33, 209 (Tisch., W.H.). The reading in T. R. conforms 
to irapaXap-Pavci. 

the Hne of separation between the divine 
and the diabolic was not so carefully de- 
fined. In 2 Sam. xxiv. 11 God tempts 
David to number the people; in i Chron. 
xxi. I it is Satan. — ver. 2. Kai vy\<r- 
T€iJoras. The fasting was spontaneous, 
not ascetic, due to mental preoccupation. 
In such a place there was no food to be 
had, but Jesus did not desire it. The 
aorist implies that a period of fasting pre- 
ceded the sense of hunger. The period 
of forty days and nights may be a round 
number. — lircivaaev. He at last felt 
hunger. This verb like 8ii|/d(ii contracts 
in a rather than t) in later Greek. Both 
take an accusative in Matt. v. 6. 

Vv. 3-4. First temptation, through 
hunger. Ver. 3. irpoereXBuv, anot! tr of 
the evangelist's favourite words, implies 
that the tempter is coiiceived by the 
narrator as approaching outwardly in 
visible form. — eiTrt Xva : literally " speak 
in order that ". Some grammarians see 
in this use of iva with the subjunctive 
a progress in the later Macedonian 
Greek onwards towards modern Greek, 
in which va with subjunctive entirely 
supersedes the infinitive. Buttmann 
(Gram, of the N. T.) says that the chief 
deviation in the N. T. from classic 
usage is that ivo appears not only after 
complete predicates, as a statement of 
design, but after incomplete predicates, 
supplying their necessary complements 
{cf. Mk. vi. 25, ix. 30). ciirJ here may 
be classed among verbs of commanding 
which take iva after them. — oi Xi9oi, 
ovToi, these stones lying about, hinting 
at the desert character of the scene. — 
aproi 7ev., that the rude pieces of stone 
may be turned miraculously into loaves. 
Weiss (Meyer) disputes the usual view 
that the temptation of Jesus lay in the 

suggestion to use His miraculous power 
in His own behoof. He had no such 
power, and if He had, why should He 
not use it for His own benefit as well as 
other men's ? He could only call into 
play by faith the power of God, and the 
temptation lay in the suggestion that 
His Messianic vo cation was doubtful it 
liod did not come. tQ_Iii&_bVLp._at thja 
"trrne.~T"his seems a refinement. Hunger 
represents human wants, and the 
question was : whether Sonship was to 
mean exemption from these, or loyal 
acceptance of them as part of Mes- 
siah's experience. At bottom the issue 
raised was selfisljrie'ss or self-sactificsr 
Selfishness would have. been, shown 
either in the use of personal power ox in 
the vvish that God would use it. — Ver. 4. 
6 Sk o-iroK. tlirtv : Christ's reply in this 
case as in the others is taken from 
Deuteronomy (viii. 3, Sept.), which 
seems to have been one of His favourite 
books. Its humane spirit, with laws even 
for protecting the animals, would com- 
mend it to His mind. The word quoted 
means, man is to live a life of faith in 
and dependence on God. Bread is a 
mere detail in that life, not necessary 
though usually given, and sure to be 
supplied somehow, as long as it is desir- 
able. Zt)v eirl is unusual, but good 
Greek (De Wette). 

Vv. 5-7. Second temptation. tot6 
'TTapaXap,. . . . tot) Upov : Tore has the 
force of "next," and implies a closer 
order of sequence than Luke's Kal (iv. 5). 
•7rapaXap,pav«i, historical present with 
dramatic effect ; seizes hold of Him and 
carries Him to. — tt)v aYiav iroXiv : 
Jerusalem so named as if with affection 
(vide v. 35 and especially xxvii. 53, 
where the designation recurs).-- to 




n here and '' TrTepuYiOK Tou Icpou, 0. kuI Xevtt ^ auTui, *' El oios cl Tou eeou, 
in Lk. iv "^ ' ^ , , ' ^ ,' - , ,x , - 

9. paXe CTcauToi' Karu • yeypaTrTai y"P> ' O^i TOis ayytXcis auTou 

i Ch. ivil. 9. ' tKTeXeixai irepi trou, Kal ^m xcipu^ dpouai <t€, |Xi]TroT6 xpocrK6v}(T)S 

Heb. xi.aa. Tvpos Xi0OK TOf iroSa aoC " 7. "Et})!) auTw 6 'lTjffous> " fldXii' 

j Lk. X. as. Y'YP''^^'^''^''' *0"'' ' eicTreipdaeis Kupioj' toj* eeoK ctou.' " 8. fldXn' 

TrapaXa)jipd>'et auxov" 6 SidjSoXos eis opos u(|/r]X6»' \iav, Kal SeiKk'uo-if 

k Ch. vi. 39. ,», ^o^' -- -^k<;'* '-^ ^ 

Lk.zii.a7. ''lUTw Tvacras xas paaiXeias tou Koap-ou Kai Trji* oogav' aurwi', 9. Kai 

^ For Xryct Z has (iircv. 

TTTtpvytov Tov Upov I somc part of the 
temple bearing the name of " the 
winglet," and overhanging a precipice. 
Commentators busy themselves discuss- 
ing what precisely and where it was. — 
Ver. 6. pd\c o-cavrov koLtu : This 
suggestion strongly makes for the" 
symbolic or parabolic nature of the 
whole representation. The mad pro- 
posal could hardly be a temptation to 
such an one as Jesus, or indeed to any 
man in his senses. The transit through 
the air from the desert to the winglet, 
like that of Ezekiel, carried by a lock of 
his hair from Babylon to Jerusalem, 
must have been " in the visions of God " 
(Ezek. viii. 3), and the suggestion to 
cast Himself down a parabolic hint at a 
class of temptations, as the excuses in 
the parable of the Supper (Lk. xiv. 16) 
simply represent the category of pre- 
occupation. What is the class repre- 
sented ? Not temptations through 
vanity or presumption, but rather to 
reckless escape from desperate situa- 
tions. The second temptation, like the 
first, belongs to the category of need. 
The Satanic suggestion is that there can 
be no sonship where there are such 
inextricable situations, in proof of which 
the Psalter is quoted (Ps. xci. 11, 12). — 
YCYpaTTTat, it stands written, not precisely 
as Satan quotes it, the clause tov 
SiacjivXalai arc ev irdaais rats 6801s <rov 
being omitted. On this account many 
commentators charge Satan with 
mutilating and falsifying Scripture. — 
Ver 7. Jesus replies by another quota- 
tion from Deut. (vi. 16). — TrdXiv, on the 
other hand, not contradicting but 
qualifying : " Scriptura per scripturam 
interpretanda et concilianda," Bengel. 
The reference is to the incident at 
Rephidim (Ex. xvii. 1-7), where the 
people virtually charged God with bring- 
ing them out of Egypt to perish with 
thirst, the scene of this petulant outburst! 
receiving the commemorative name of 
Massah and Meribah because they 

tempted Jehovah, saying: "Is Jehovah 
among us or not ? " An analogous 
situation in the life of Jesus may be 
found in Gethscmane, where He did not 
complain or tempt, but uttered the sub- 
missi ve^^JllIf^it be possible ". The leap 
dow n at that crisis would liave consisted 
m seeTaiTg~escape from the cross at the 
c'ost of duty. ' The physical fall from the 
pinnacle is an emblem of a moral fall. 
Before passing from this temptation I 
note that the hypothesis that it was an 
^"appea^ to vanity presupposes a crowd at 
the foot to witness the performance, of 
which there is no mention. 

Vv. 8-10. Third temptation. cU 
opos i\|»TjX6v Xiav: a mountain high 
enough for the purpose. There is no 
such mountain in the world, not even in 
the highest ranges, " not to be sought 
for in terrestrial geography," says De 
Wette. The vision oi all the kingdoms 
and their glory was not physical. — tov 
K<S<7-(jiov. What world ? Palestine merely, 
or all the world, Palestine excepted? 
or all the world, Palestine included ? 
All these alternatives have been sup- 
ported. The last is the most likely. 
The second harmonises with the ideas 
of contemporary Jews, who regarded 
the heathen world as distinct from the 
Holy Land, as belonging to the devil. 
The tempter points in the direction of a 
universal Messianic empire, and claims 
power to give effect to the dazzling 
prospect. — Ver. 9. lav Treo-wv Trpoor- 
Kvvi]<riQS (101. This is the condition, 
homage to Satan as the superior. A 
naive suggestion, but pointing to a subtle 
form of temptation, to which all am- 
bitious, self-seeking men succumb, that 
-fif-gaixiiQg._E2.wej by compromise with 
.evil--. The danger is greatest when the 
_end js. g^oo^j_ "The end sanctifies the 

_meaos." Nowhere is homage to Satan 

more common than in connection wiib 

J sacred causes, the interests , of trutb. 

_fighteousness^ and.God. ..Nothing tests 

purity oi motive so thoroughly as tempta- 




Xeyei^ aorw, " TaCra iziivTa ctoi ' Sojo-w, eai' Treo-wi/ irpoaKui/^crYjs 1 very freq. 

p.01." 10. Tore Xeyei auTw 6 'It)ctous, "''YTrayCj^ larava ■ yeYpaTrxai alwaysin- 

'<i^' >^' H » \._.«. . trans. 

yap, Kopioj' tov 0eo>' ctou " TrpoffKuv'Tjoreis, Kai aurw fioj'u) ' Xarpeo- m with ace. 

treis.'" II. T6t6 d<J>iY]orii' airbv 6 SidPoXos • Kal iSou, ayyeXoi inLk.^°v. 
irpofffjXGov' Kal •SiTjKot'ouK auru. ^5*° '" 

12. AKOYIAI 8e 6 'iTjaous* on 'ludi'infjs *iTapE860r], dj'exwpTjaei' ° i^^'jVliv.s. 
CIS TTjK raXiXaiaK- 13. Kal ' KaTaXiiroii' tV Natape'r, cXOwk p ch.' x.'i^g. 
KaruKtiarfv eis KoTr6pi'aou|i ^ ttjk ' TrapaGaXaCTffiaK, iy opiois q Heb.'xL*' 

r here only in N. T., in Sept. («.«■., a Chxon. viiL 17). 

^ ^BCDZ have aircv (most mod. edd.). 

' iravra <roi tr. ^BCZ with several cursives. 

* Some MSS. (DLZ) insert oirio-u |iow, obviously imported Irom xvi. 23. 

* o I. omit ^BCDZ ; probably the insertion is due to ver. 12 commencing a lesson 
in Lectionaries. 

^ This name is spelt Ka<f>«p. in the older MSS. (MBDZ), which is adopted through- 
out by W.H. 

tions of this class. Christ was proof 
against them. The prince of the world 
found nothing of this sort in Him (John 
xiv. 30). In practice this homage, if 
Jesus had been willing to render it, 
would have taken the form of conciliating 
the Pharisees and Sadducees, and pander- 

JTng to the prejudices of the people. He 
took His own path, and became a Chtist, 

"nrreither after the type imagined by the 

' ~~&a ptist, nor according to the liking of 

the Jews and their leaders. So He 

■ gamed universal empire, but at a great 
cost. — Ver. 10. Ciraye orarava. Jesus 
passionately repels the Satanic sug- 
gestion. The vTra-ye o-. is true to His 
character. The suggestions of worldly 
wisdom always roused in Him passionate 
"aversion. The 6irio-w jjiov of some MSS. 
does not suit this place ; it is imported 
from Matt. xvi. 23, where it does suit, 
th e agent of Satan in a temptation of 
the same sort being a disciple. Christ's 
final word to the tempter is an absolute,^ 
peremptory Begone. Yet He con- 
descends to support His authoritative 
negative by a Scripture text, again from 
Deut. (vi. 13), slightly adapted, 
irpoo-Kvvijo-cis being substituted for 
4>opT)0yj(r{] (the |i6vo> in second clause is 
omitted in Swete's Sept.). It takes the 
accusative here instead of dative, as in 
ver. 9, because it denotes worship proper 
(Weiss-Meyer). The quotation states a 
principle in theory acknowledged by all, 
but how hard to work it out faithfully in 

Ver. II. t<5t« d(j>iT)o-tv : then, when 
the peremptory viraYc had been spoken. 

Nothing was to be made of one who 
would not do evil that good might come. 
— Kal 180W aYY^Xoi. The angels were 
ministering to Him, with food, pre- 
sumably, in the view of the evangelist. 
It might be taken in a wider sense, as 
signifying that angels ministered con- 
stantly to one who had decidedly chosen 
the path of obedience in preference to 
that of self-pleasing. 

Vv. 12-25. Beginningsof the Galilean 
ministry (Mk. i. 14, 15 ; Lk. iv. 14, 15). 
In a few rapid strokes the evangelist 
describes the opening of the Messianic 
work of Jesus in Galilee. He has in 
view the great Sermon on the Mount, 
and the group of wonderful deeds he 
means thereafter to report, and he gives 
first a summary description of Christ's 
varied activities by way of introduction. 

Vv. 12, 13. aKovcras 81 . . . foXiXaiav: 
jiote of time. Jesus returned to Galilee 
_^on hearing that John was delivered up, 
i.e., in the providence of God, into the 
hands of his enemies. Further particu- 
lars as to this are given in chapter xiv. 
Christ's ministry in Galilee began when 
the Baptist's came to an end ; how long 
after the baptism and temptation not in- 
dicated. Weiss (Meyer) thinks that in 
the view of the evangelist it was im- 
mediately after, and that the reference 
to John's imprisonment is meant simply 
to explain the choice of Galilee as the 
sphere of labour. — Ver. 13. Na^aper. 
Jesus naturally wentto Nazareth first, but 
He did not tarry there. — kutoIktio-cv <U 
KaTTepvaovfi, He went to settle (as in 
ii. 2-^) in Capernaum. This migration to 




• Ch. X. 5. ZaPouXwt' Kai Ne4>6aXeip., I4. tea irXiripuOfj t6 ptiOcf 81A 'Haaiou 

u Ch. xiii. 6. TQo ■iTpo(})i)Tou, XeyoKTOs, 1 5. "Til ZaPouXwk Kal y^ Ne4>6aXci|x, 

James i. ' 68o>' QuXdcrcrns Tripav tou 'lopSciv'ou, TaXiXaia twk eOcon', 16. 6 
II (all in- ^ ^ , , , \ ■, , 9 , V - 

trans.). Xaos 6 ica0nu.€»'os tv aKOTtt ' ei8e Aws fAe'va, Kai toIs KaGriu.ej'ois 
V Ch. xi. 7, \ t ~ » - » \ > - »« 

Mk. iv. 1. '^ f^; ,»>.,- , V . , 

Lk.iii.8e* i7. AiTO TOTC 'T]p5aTo 6 Itjctous KTjpuoacn' Kai Xcvcij', " McTai'oeiTC • 
a/. (enforce ^ yn.ox'-. -»> o -c^«' -^4 

of this iiYYtK€ yap T| pacriXcia TWk' oupafajc lo. ritpnraTOJt' be o Itjctous 
word vide ^ \ n ,\ ~ \\' ^tc'^CNi' ' ^ 

Grimm's " Trapa TTik oaXaaffac tt)s ra\i\aias eioe buo aoeAepous, zifjiwi'a xot' 

w again xiii. XeYOH'^*'°*' rieTpoK, Kal 'Ai'Spcai' rhv d8£X4»6i' aurou, pdXXorras 

I. Mk. V. 
ai. Cf. Acts X. 6. 

^ (TKOTia, BD. 

3 4>ws before €i8€V in ^BCI (W.H.). 

' Tlie Syr. vSin. and Cur. omit fi.eTavoeiT€ before t)77iK€. 

* o I. found in ELA; omit ^BCD (beginning of a new lesson).. 

Capernaum is not formally noted in the 
other Gospels, but Capernaum appears 
in all the synoptists as the main centre 
of Christ's Galilean ministry. — tt)v 
irapaGaXao-aiav, etc. : sufficiently defined 
by these words, " on the sea (of 
Galilee), on the confines of Zebulun and 
Naphthali ". Well known then, now 
of doubtful situation, being no longer in 
existence. Tel Hum and Khan Minyeh 
•ompete for the honour of the site. 
The evangelist describes the position not 
to satisfy the curiosity of geographers, 
but to pave the way for another prophetic 

Vv. 14-16. Jesus chose Capernaum 
as best suited for His work. There He 
was in the heart of the world, in a busy 
town, and near others, on the shore of a 
sea that was full of fish, and on a great 
international highway. But the evan- 
gelist finds in the choice a fulfilment of 
prophecy — iva TrXTjpwO-jj. The oracle is 
reproduced from Is. viii. 22, ix. i, freely 
following the original with glances at 
the Sept. The style is very laconic : land 
of Zebulun and land of Naphthali, way of 
the sea (68bv absolute accusative for 

'^'y^ = versus, vide Winer, § 23), 

Galilee of the Gentiles, a place where 
races mix, a border population. The 
clause preceding, " beyond Jordan," is 
not omitted, because it is viewed as a 
reference to Peraea, also a scene of 
Christ's ministry. — Ver. 16. ev o-kotCc}.: 
the darkness referred to, in the view of 
the evangelist, is possibly that caused 
by the imprisonment of the Baptist 
(Fritzsche). The consolation comes in 
the form of a greater light, <j)ws H-*'7°-> 

great, even the greatest. The thought 
is emphasised by repetition and by 
enhanced description of the benighted 
situation of those on whom the light 
arises : " in the very home and shadow 
of death " ; highly graphic and poetic, 
not applicalile, However, to the land of 
Galilee more than to other parts of the 
land ; descriptive of misery rather than 
of sin. 

Ver. 17. onro Tore . . . KT)pijo-o-€tv. 
After settling in Capernaum Jesus began 
to preach. The phrase diro rdxe offends 
in two ways, first as redundant, being 
implied in •qp|aTO (De Wette) ; next as 
not classic, being one of the degeneracies 
of the KOivi]. Phrynichus forbids Ik Tore, 
and instructs to say rather c^ cKtivov 
(Lobeck's ed., p. 45). — KTjpiVtreiv, the 
same word as in describing the ministry 
of the Baptist (iii. i). And the message 
is the same — MeTavoeiTe, etc. " Repent, 
for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." 
The same in word but not in thought, as 
will appear soon. It may seem as if the 
evangelist meant to represent Jesus as 
simply taking up and continuing the 
arrested ministry of the Baptist. So He 
was in form and to outward appearance, 
but not in spirit. From the very first, 
as has been seen even in connection 
with the baptism, there was a deep- 
seated difference between the two 
preachers. Even Euthy. Zig. under- 
stood this, monk though he was. Repent, 
he says, with John meant "in so far as 
ye have erred " = amendment ; with 
Jesus, " from the old to the new " (airb 
TTJs iraXaias lirl tt|v Kaiviiv) =a change 
from within. For the evangelist this 
was the absolute beginning of Christ's 




* d|x4)i|3XinCTTpoK CIS TTjK Qd\a(T<Tav • rjaak yap ' dXieis.^ 19. Kai 
Xe'yei auToiS) " * AeuT€ diriao) fiou, Kal Troiyjaw ujias dXieis avQpdi-Kiiiv." 
20. Oi 8e eiiQibiS a^ivres Ta SiKTua TjKoXo68r]CTa»' auTw. 21. Kal 
TT-poPds eKelOei', etSei' aXXou9 Su'o d8eX<})0U5, 'iciKwpoi' tov toG Ze^€- 
Saiou Kal 'lit)dvvr]y toc dSeXc^oi/ auTOu, ev tw irXoiw fierd ZcPeSaiou 
Tou irarpos auTwi', Karapri^oi'Tas rd SiKTua auTcok • Kal iKokeaev 
auTOus. 2 2. »l 8e €u0eu9 d<j)eiT€s to TrXoIok kui TOf Traxe'pa auTwi' 
iriKoXou0r]aai' aurw, 

23. Kal 'TrepiTJye*' oXrji' ttji' raXiXata>' 6 'lr]o-ous,^ SiScictkuv Ic rais 
crui'aywyais avruv, Kal KTjpuoraojv' to coayyeXtoK rfjs PaatXeiag, Kal 

X here onl» 

in N. T., 

verb in 

Mk. i. 16. 

in Sept. 
y Mk. i. 16 

17. Lk.v.a. 
z Ch.xi.28; 

XXV. 34. 
a with ev 

here only 

(true text); 

with ace. 

of place 

i't- 35; 

xxiii. 15. 

Mk. vi. 6. 

^ ^C have oXecis, B oXcieis. 

2 i^BC have ev o\-t\ tt] TaXiXaia. The ace. (T. R. as in D, etc.) is the more 
usual construction, hence preferred by ancient revisers. B omits o Itjo-ovs. 

ministry. He knows nothing of an 
earlier activity. 

Vv. 18-22. Call of four disciples. 
The preceding very general statement is 
followed by a more specific narrative 
relating to a very important department 
of Christ's work, the gathering of dis- 
ciples. Disciples are referred to in the 
Sermon on the Mount (v. i), therefore 
it is meet that it be shown how Jesus 
came by them. Here we have simply a 
sample, a hint at a process always going 
on, and which had probably advanced a 
considerable way before the sermon was 
delivered. — trepiTrarStv Se : 8J simply 
introduces a new topic, the time is inde- 
finite. One day when Jesus was walk- 
ing along the seashore He saw two men, 
brothers, names given, by occupation 
fishers, the main industry of the locality, 
that tropical sea (Soo feet below level of 
Mediterranean) abounding in fish. He 
saw them, may have seen them before, and 
they Him, and thought them likely men, 
and He said to them, ver. 19 : Acwe . . . 
dvOpuTrcov. From the most critical point 
of view a genuine saying of Jesus; the 
first distinctively individual word of the 
Galilean ministry as recorded by Matthew 
and Mark. , Full 01 significance as a self- 
revelation of the speaker. Authoritative 
yet genial, indicating a poetic idealistic 
temperament and a tendency to figurative 
speech ; betraying the rudiments of a 
plan for winning men by select men. 
AciJT* plural form of Sevpo = Seijp' irt, 
Seijpo, being an adverb of place with the 
force of command, a verb of command- 
ing being understood : here ! after me ; 
imperial yet kindly, used again in Matt. 
ti. 28 with reference to the labouring and 
heavy-laden. 8cut« and aXicIg (= sea- 

people) are samples of old poetic words re- 
vived and introduced into prose by later 
Greek writers. — Ver. 20. The effect wag 
immediate : cvd^us d<J>evTes. This seems 
surprising, and we naturally postulate 
previous knowledge in explanation. But 
all indications point to the uniquely 
impressive personality of Jesus. John 
felt it ; the audience in the synagogue of 
Capernaum felt it on the first appearance 
of Jesus there (Mk. i. 27) ; the four fisher- 
men felt it. — SiKTua: a\k^\,^\r[(Trpov in 
ver. 18. In xiii. 47 occurs a third word 
for a net, irayqvi] ; Siktuov (from SikcXv, 
to throw) is the general name ; dp<j>i- 
pXTjarpov (dp(j>ipdXX(i)), anything cast 
around, e.g., a garment, more specifically 
a net thrown with the hand ; a-ayrfvr], a 
sweep-net carried out in a boat, then 
drawn in from the land (vide Trench, 
Synonyms of N. T., § 64). — Ver. 21. 
aXXovs 8-jo, another pair of brothers, 
James and John, sons of Zebedee, the 
four together an important instalment of 
the twelve. The first pair were casting 
their nets, the second were mending 
them, (KaxapTi^ovTes), with their father. 
— Ver. 22. oi Se tvBt'uis d<|)e'vTts. They 
too followed immediately, leaving nets, 
ship, and father (vide Mk. i. 20) 

Vv. 23-25. Summary account of the 
Galilean ministry. A colourless general 
statement serving as a mere prelude to 
chapters v.-ix. It points to a ministry in 
Galilee, varied, extensive, and far-famed, 
conceived by the evangelist as antecedent 
to the Sermon on the Mount ; not 
necessarily covering a long period of 
time, though if the expression " teaching 
in their synagogues" be pressed it must 
imply a good many weeks (vide on Mk.). 



IV. 24 — 25. 

bCb. ix. 35: dcpaircuwf iraaaK v6irov xai iraaaf ^liaXaKiay iv tu \a&. 24. Kai 

X. X. ' * 

c Ch. xiv. 1 ; dirfiX0£>' ^ i\ * Akot) auTou els oXt]»' ttjk Zupiai' • itai it pQ<xr\v€yKav 

xxiv. 6. ,», \ d - - '\ » ^.n» 

d Ch. viii. auTw TTavras toOs KttKws exokras, iroiKiKais Koaois Kai pcurai'ois 

a/.' aukexofitVoos, Koi ^ Saijjio^i^ofji^kous, Kai 'acXT]^ia|^ofj,eVous, Kai 

eLk.zvi.t3, \ r ^ ja ' . r ^ . \ >a 

38. irapaAuTiKOu; * KUi cucpaTTCuacf auTOUs. 25. xai T|Ko\ou6T]aai^ 

■ auTw oxXoi TToXXol diro ttjs faXiXaia; Kai AcKair^Xcus Kai 'icpo- 

voXufiWK Kai 'louSaias, koI ir^paK tou 'lopSd^ou. 

1 So in BD (W.H.), ^XOiv in ^C. 

• BC omit Kai, which is in CD. The force of Kai = and especially. 

The ministry embraced three functions : 
SiSdaKMV, KT)pvao-MV, Ocpaircvwv (ver. 
23), teaching, preaching, healing. Jesus 
was an evangelist, a master, and a healer 
of disease. Matt, puts the teaching 
function first in accordance with the 
character of his gospel. The first gospel 
is weak in the evangelistic element com- 
pared with the third : SiSaxii is more 
prominent than Ki]pv7p,a. The healing 
function is represented as exercised on a 
large scale : irao'av vdo'ov Kai irewrav 
paXaKiav, every form of disease and 
ailment. Euthy. Zig. defines vdcos as 
the chronic subversion of health {r\ 
Xpovia irapaTpoirT) Ttjs tov <rii\Laroi 
f 5«ws). p-aXaKia as the weakness in which 
it begins (ipXT X*'*'*'"*''**'' o-tS/iaTos, 
irpoaYY*Xos vocrov). The subjects of 
healing are divided into two classes, ver. 
(4. They brought to Him irovTas t. 
X. «x* 'ToiKiXois vdffoi9i all who were 
Afflicted with various diseases (such as 
fever, leprosy, blindness) ; also those 
Paadvois o-uvexoP'«*'<»'*'Si seized with dis- 
eases of a tormenting nature, of which 
three classes are named — the Kai in T. 
R. before 8ai|iov. is misleading ; the follow- 
ing words are epexegetical : 8ai|iiovito|Jic- 
kovs, aeXiivtoJoptvovSi irapaXvTiKoijg = 
demoniacs, epileptics (their seizures 
following the phases of the moon), 
paralytics. These forms of disease are 
graphically called torments, (^da-avos. 
first a touch-stone, hpis Lydius, as in 
Pindar, Pythia, x. 105 : rieipwvTi Si Ka\ 
Xpvo-os Iv Paadvo) irpEirci Kai v6o% 6p6os ; 
then an instrument of torture to extract 
truth ; then, as here, tormenting forms of 
disease.) The fame, y] olkot), of such a 
marvellous ministry naturally spread 
widely, els oXt]v ttjv Zvpiav, throughout 
the whole province to which Palestine 
belonged, among Gentiles as well as 
Jews. Crowds gathered around the 
wonderful Man from all quarters : west, 
east, north, south ; Galilee, Decapolis 
on the eastern side of the lake, Jerusalem 

and Judaea, Peraea. With every allow 
ance for the exaggeration of a popular 
account, this speaks to an extraordinary 

Chapters V.-VII. The Sermon on 
THE Mount. This extended utterance 
of Jesus comes upon us as a surprise. 
Nothing goes before to prepare us to 
expect anything so transcendently great. 
Tne impressions made on the Baptist, the 
people in Capernaum Sjmagogue (Mk. i. 
27), and the four fishermen, speak to 
wisdom, power, and personal charm, but 
not so as to make us take the sermon 
as a thing cf course. Our surprise is all 
the greater that there is so little ante- 
cedent narrative. By an effort of 
imagination we have to realise that 
much went before — preaching, teaching, 
interviews with disciples, conflicts with 
Pharisees, only once mentioned hitherto 
(iii. 7), yet here the leading theme of 

The sermon belongs to the didache, 
not to the kerygftna. Jesus is here the 
Master, not the Evangelist. He ascends 
the hill to get away from the crowds 
below, and the disciples, now become a 
considerable band, gather about Him. 
Others may not be excluded, but the jAa- 
Otjtoi are the audience proper. The dis- 
course may represent the teaching, not of 
a single hour or day, but of a period of 
retirement from an exciting, exhausting 
ministry below, and all over Galilee ; 
rest being sought in variation of work, 
evangelist and teacher alternately. A 
better name for these chapters than the 
Sermon on the Mount, which suggests a 
concio ad populnm, might be The Teach- 
ing on the Hill. It may be a combina- 
tion of several lessons. One very 
outstanding topic is Pharisaic righteous- 
ness. Christ evidently made it His 
business in one of the hill lessons to 
define controversially His position in 
reference to the prevailing type of piety, 
which we may assume to have been to 

V. 1—3. 



V. I. lAfiN 8^ Toys oxXous * avi^r] els to opos • Kal '' KaOiCTavTOS » sa™e 

auTou, irpocrqXSot' auTw ^ oi [jiaorjTai auTOu • 2. Kai at'oifas to ch. xiv. 

(TTOiJia auTOu, eSiSatrKci' auTous, \iy<av, 3. ""MaKapioioi 'TrTw^ol Mk. iii.13. 

b here and 
in xiii. 48. Mk. ix. 35. Lk. iv. ao ai., intrans.,aIso Heb. i. 3 ; trans. 1 Cor. vi. 4. Eph. ii. 6 fffucoc). 
c frequent in Gospp. and Acts, nowhere else in N. T. d again in ziiL 35. e Ch. xi. 6; ziii. 16. 

Lk. i. 45 ; X. 23. t Ch. xi. 5. Lk. iv. 18. 

1 B omits avTw ; bracketed as doubtful in W.H. 

Him a subject of long and careful study 
before the opening of His public career. 
The portions of the discourse which bear 
on that subject can be picked out, and 
others not relating thereto eliminated, 
and we may say if we choose that the 
resulting body of teaching is the Sermon 
on the Mount (so Weiss). Perhaps the 
truth is that these portions formed one 
of the lessons given to disciples on the 
hill in their holiday summer school. The 
Beatitudes might form another, instruc- 
tions on prayer (vi. 7-15) a third, 
admonitions against covetousness and 
care (vi. 19-34) a fourth, and so on. As 
these chapters stand, the various parts 
cohere and sympathise wonderfully so as 
to present the appearance of a unity ; 
but that need not hinder us from regard- 
ing the whole as a skilful combination 
of originally distinct lessons, possessing 
the generic unity of the Teaching on 
the Hill. This view I prefer to that 
which regards the sermon as a com- 
pendium of Christ's whole doctrine (De 
Wette), or the magna charta of the 
kingdom (Tholuck), though there is a 
truth in that title, or as an ordination 
discourse in connection with the setting 
apart of the Twelve (Ewald), or in its 
original parts an anti-Pharisaic manifesto 
(Weiss-Meyer). For comparison of 
Matthew's version of the discourse with 
Luke's see notes on Lk. vi. 20-49. 

Chap. v. 1-2. Introductory statement 
by evangelist. 'ISuv Si . . . sis to 
opos. Christ ascended the hill, accord- 
ing to some, because there was more 
room there for the crowd than below. I 
prefer the view well put by Euthy. Zig. : 
"He ascended the near hill, to avoid 
the din of the crowd (Oopv^ovs) and to 
give instruction without distraction ; for 
He passed from the healing of the body 
to the cure of souls. This was His habit, 
passing from that to this and from this 
to that, providing varied benefit." But 
we must be on our guard against a 
double misunderstanding that might be 
suggested by the statement in ver. i, 
that Jesus went up to the mountain, as 
if in ascetic retirement from the world, 

and addressed Himself henceforth to His 
disciples, as if they alone were the 
objects of His care, or to teach them an 
esoteric doctrine with which the multi- 
tude had no concern. Jesus was not 
monastic in spirit, and He had not two 
doctrines, one for the many, another for 
the few, like Buddha. His highest 
teaching, even the Beatitudes and the 
beautiful discourse against care, was 
meant for the million. He taught 
disciples that they might teach the 
world and so be its light. For this 
purpose His disciples came to Him when 
He sat down (KaGicravros airoii) taking 
the teacher's position {cf. Mk. iv. i, ix. 
35, xiii. 3). Lutteroth (Essai d'lnterpre- 
tation, p. 65) takes KaSio-avTos as mean- 
ing to camp out (camper), to remain for 
a time, as in Lk. xxiv. 49, Acts xviii. 11. 
He, I find, adopts the view I have 
indicated of the sermon as a summary 
of all the discourses of Jesus on the hill 
during a sojourn of some duration. The 
hill, TO opos, may be most naturally 
taken to mean the elevated plateau 
rising above the seashore. It is idle to 
inquire what particular hill is intended. — 
Ver. 2. avo(|as to CTojxa : solemn 
description of the beginning of a weighty 
discourse. — eSiSao-Kcv, imperfect, imply- 
ing continued discourse. 

Vv. 3-12. The Beatitudes. Some 
general observations may helpfully intro- 
duce the detailed exegesis of these 
golden words. 

1. They breathe the spirit of the scene. 
On the mountain tops away from the 
bustle and the sultry heat of the region 
below, the air cool, the blue sky over- 
head, quiet all around, and divine 
tranquillity within. We are near heaven 

2. The originality of these sayings 
has been disputed, especially by modern 
Jews desirous to credit their Rabbis 
with such good things. Some of them, 
e.g., the third, may be found in sub- 
stance in the Psalter, and possibly many, 
or all of them, even in the Talmud. But 
what then ? They are in the Talmud as 
a few grains of wheat lost in a vast heap 



g the name tw TrrtuiiaTi • oTi auTuk' tcTTLv in * SaaiXcia Toiv * oupacuc. 4. 
for the k. ' ^ '^ „ , \ , , 

of G. in uaKapioi ' 01 irek'OoGi'Tes • on auToi irapaKXiriGiicrovTai. 5. lAaKapioi 
Mt., put 

into the Baptist's moutb, in iii. a. His, not Christ's, ace. to Weiss el al. b Ch. ix. 15. 

' The 2nd and 3rd Beatitudes (w. 4, 5) are transposed in D, most old Latin texts, 
and in Syr. Cur. Tisch. adopts this order. 

of chaff. The originality of Jesus lies in 
putting the due value on these thoughts, 
collecting them, and making them as 
prominent as the Ten Commandments. 
No greater service can be rendered to 
mankind than to rescue from obscurity 
neglected moral commonplaces. 

3. The existence of another version of 
the discourse (in Lk.), with varying 
forms of the sayings, has raised a 
question as to the original form. Did 
Christ, e.g., say "Blessed the poor" 
(Lk.) or " Blessed the poor in spirit " 
(Matt.) ? This raises a larger question as 
to the manner of Christ's teaching on 
the hill. Supiiose one day in a week of 
instruction was devoted to the subject 
of happiness, its conditions, and heirs, 
many things might be said on each lead- 
ing proposition. The theme would be 
announced, then accompanied with 
expansions. A modern biographer 
would have prefaced a discourse like 
this with an introductory account of the 
Teacher's method. There is no such 
account in the Gospels, but there are 
incidental notices from which we can 
learn somewhat. The disciples asked 
questions and the Master answered them. 
Jesus explained some of His parables to 
the twelve. From certain parts of His 
teaching, as reported, it appears that He 
not only uttered great thoughts in 
aphoristic form, but occasionally en- 
larged. The Sermon on the Mount 
contains at least two instances of such 
enlargement. The thesis, " I am not 
come to destroy but to fulfil " (ver. 17), 
is copiously illustrated (w. 21-48). The 
counsel against care, which as a thesis 
might be stated thus: " Blessed are the 
care-free," is amply expanded (vv. 25-34). 
Even in one of the Beatitudes we find 
traces of explanatory enlargement ; in 
the last, " Blessed are the persecuted ". 
It is perhaps the most startling of all the 
paradoxes, and would need enlargement 
greatly, and some parts of the expansion 
have been preserved (w, 10-12). On 
this view both torms of the first 
Beatitude might be authentic, the one as 
theme, the other as comment. The 
theme would always be put in the lewest 
possible words ; the first Beatitude there- 

fore, as Luke puts it, MaKapioi ol 
TTTuxot, Matthew preserving one of the 
expansions, not necessarily the only one. 
Of course, another view of the expansion 
is possible, that it proceeded not firom 
Christ, but from the transmitters of His 
sayings. But this hypothesis is not a 
whit more legitimate or likely than the 
other. I make this observation, not in 
the spirit of an antiquated Ilarmonistic, 
but simply as a contribution to historical 

4. Each Beatitude has a reason an- 
nexed, that of the first being " for theirs 
is the kingdom of heaven ". They vary 
in the different Beatitudes as reported. 
It is conceivable that in the original 
themes the reason annexed to the first 
was common to them all. It was under- 
stood to be repeated like the refrain of a 
song, or like the words, " him do I call a 
Brahmana," annexed to many of the 
moral sentences in the Footsteps of the 
Law in the Buddhist Canon. " He who, 
when assailed, does not resist, but speaks 
mildly to his tormentors — him do I call a 
Brahmana." So " Blessed the poor, for 
theirs is the kingdom of heaven", 
"blessed they who mourn, for," etc.; 
"blessed the meek, the hungry, for," etc. 
The actual reasons annexed, when they 
vary firom the refrain, are to-be viewed as 
explanatory comments. 

5. It has been maintained that only 
certain of the Beatitudes belong to the 
authentic discourse on the mount, the 
rest, possibly based on true login of Jesus 
spoken at another time, being added 
by the evangelist, true to his habit of 
massing the teaching of Jesus in topical 
groups. This is the view of Weiss (in 
Matt. Evan., and in Meyer). He thinks 
only three are authentic — the first, third, 
and fourth — all pointing to the righteous- 
ness of the kingdom as the summum 
bonum : the first to righteousness as 
not yet possessed ; the second to the 
want as a cause of sorrow ; the third to 
righteousness as an object of desire. 
This view goes with the theory that 
Christ's discourse on the hill had refer- 
ence exclusively to the nature 01 true and 
lalse righteousness. 

6. A final much less important ques* 




01 'irpacis' OTi auTol KXT|po»'OfiT]aouo'i. r^v yi\v. 6. fiOKcIpioi oiiCb. zi. ag; 

ireicwkxes Kai oi(|/u^Tes ttjk oiKaioauinr)K • oTi auroi y^ppTaadriaoyrai. Pet. jii. 4. 

j Ch. XXV. 
34. Heb. vi. la. k Ch. xiv. ao. 

tion in reference to the Beatitudes is that 
which relates to their number. One 
would say at a first glance eight, counting 
ver. 10 as one, vv. 11, 12 being an en- 
largement. The traditional number, 
however, is seven — vv. 10-12 being re- 
garded as a transition to a new topic. 
This seems arbitrary. Delitsch, anxious 
to establish an analogy with the Deca- 
logue, makes out ten — seven from ver. 3 
to ver. 9, ver. 10 one, ver. 11 one, and 
ver. 12, though lacking the iiaKapioi, the 
tenth ; its claim resting on the exulting 
words, xaiptTe koL a,ya\\i,a<rd€. This 
savours of Rabbinical pedantry. 

Ver. 3. (laKapioi.. This is one of the 
words which have been transformed and 
ennobled by N. T. use ; by association, 
as in the Beatitudes, with unusual con- 
ditions, accounted by the world miser- 
able, or with rare and difficult conduct, 
e.g., in John xiii. 17, " if ye know these 
things, happy (jiaKapioi) are ye if ye do 
them ". Notable in this connection is 
the expression in i Tim. i. 11, "The 
Gospel of the glory of the happy God". 
The implied truth is that the happiness 
of the Christian God consists in being a 
Redeemer, beairing the burden of the 
world's sin and misery. How different 
from the Epicurean idea of God ! Our 
word " blessed" represents the new con- 
ception of felicity. — ol tttjoxoI : 'irT«x<5s 
in Sept. stands for 'JVHi^ Ps- cix. i6, or 

^35^ Ps. xl. i8: the poor, taken even in 

the most abject sense, mendici, Tertull. 
adv. Mar. iv. 14. ittwxos and irevrjs 
originally differed, the latter meaning 
poor as opposed to rich, the former 
destitute. But in Biblical Greek itTutxoi, 
ir«vt)T€s, irpaeis, raireivoi are used indis- 
criminately for the same class, the poor 
of an oppressed country. Vide Hatch, 
Essays in Biblical Greek, p. 76. The 
term is used here in a pregnant sense, 
absolute and unqualified at least to begin 
with ; qualifications come after. From 
iTTwo-o-crt, to cower in dispiritment and 
fear, always used in an evil sense till 
Christ taught the poor man to lift up his 
head in hope and self-respect ; the very 
lowest social class not to be despaired of, 
a future possible even for the mendicant. 
Blessedness possible for the poor in every 
sense ; they, in comparison with others, 
under no disabilities, rather contrari- 

wise—such is the first and fundamental 
lesson. — TO) irvevfittTi. Possibilities are 
not certainties ; to turn the one into the 
other the soul or will of the individual 
must come in, for as Euthy. Zig. quaintly 
says, nothing involuntary can bless {ovZkv 
rStv airpoatp^Twy fjiaKapio-rdv). " In 
spirit " is, therefore, added to develop 
and define the idea of poverty. The 
comment on the theme passes from the 
lower to the higher sphere. Christ's 
thought includes the physical and social, 
but it does not end there. Luke seems 
to have the social aspect in view, in 
accordance with one of his tendencies and 
the impoverished condition of most mem- 
bers of the apostolic Church. To limit 
the meaning to that were a mistake, but 
to include that or even to emphasise it 
in given circumstances was no error. 
Note that the physical and spiritual lay 
close together in Christ's mind. He 
passed easily from one to the other (John 
iv. 7-10 ; Lk. X. 42, see notes there). 
Tw irv. is, of course, to be connected with 
TTTwxo'', not with {xaKapioi. Poor in spirit 
is not to be taken objectively, as if spirit 
indicated the element in which the 
poverty is manifest — poor intellect : 
"homines ingenio et eruditione parum 
florentes" (Fritzsche) = the vtjttioi in 
Matt. xi. 25 ; but subjectively, poor in 
their own esteem. Self-estimate is the 
essence of the matt«,r, and is compatible 
with real wealth. Only the noble think 
meanly of thamsilvcs. The soul ot 
goodness is in tVje lUan who is really 
humble. Poverty Liid to heart pass« 
into riches. A high Vdeai of life li-e 
beneath all. Ai d vhat ideal is the tiisk 
between the social and the spiritual. 
The poor man pat sew ir to Ihe l<lessedness 
of the kingdom £s soon as he realises 
what a man is or ought to be. Poor in 
purse or even in characttr, no man is 
beggared who has a vision t>f Mian's chief 
end and chief good. — avs'wv, emphatic 
position : ;/;</ri', note it well. t?o in the 
following verses a-urol and aviruv. — soti, 
not merely in prospect, but in present 
possession. The kingdom of heaven is 
often presented in the Gospels apoca- 
lyptically as a thing in the future to be 
given to the worthy by way of external 
recompense. But this view pertains 
rather to the form of thought than to the 
essence of the matter. Christ speaks ot 
the kingdom here not as a known quan- 




I Heb. li. 17. 7. fiUKcipioi 01 eXetjiioKcs • on auToi t\e^]6r)aoKTai. b. |jk.aK(ipioi 
n Rom. xi. , «>- ^/o .\v ^o' ' 

30, 31. I 01 " Kaoapoi TTJ Kapoia • on auTOi tok ©cow oi|/orrai. 9. fiaKapioi 

Tim. i. 13. 

16. o 1 Tim. i. 5; ::Tim. ii. 22. o Ilcb. .\ii. i.| (seeing God). 

tity, but as a thing whose nature He is in 
the act of defining by the aphorisms He 
utters. If so, then it consists essentially 
in states of mind. It is within. It is our- 
selves, the true ideal human. 

Ver. 4. ol ir(vQovvTt%. Who are 
they ? All who on any account grieve ? 
Then this Beatitude would give utterance 
to a thoroughgoing optimism. Pessimists 
say that there are many griefs for which 
there is no remedy, so many that life is 
not worth living. Did Jesus mean to 
meet this position with a direct nega- 
tive, and to affirm that there is no 
sorrow without remedy ? If not, then 
He propounds a puzzle provoking 
thoughtful scholars to ask: What grief 
is that which will without fail find com- 
fort ? There can be no comfort where 
there is no grief, for the two ideas are 
correlative. But in most cases there 
is no apparent necessary connection. 
Necessary connection is asserted in this 
aphorism, which gives us a clue to the 
class described as oi irsvBovvTes- Their 
peculiar sorrow raust be one which com- 
forts itself, a grief that has the thing it 
grieves for in the very grief. The com- 
fort is then no outward good. It lies in 
a right state of soul, and that is given 
in the sorrow which laments the lack of 
it. The sorrow reveals love of the good, 
and that love is possession. In so far as 
all kinds of sorrow tend to awaken re- 
flection on the real good and ill of human 
life, and so to issue in the higher sorrow 
of the soul, the second Beatitude may be 
taken absolutely as expressing the tend- 
ency of all grief to end in consolation. — 
■jrapaKXTjSiio-ovTai, future. The comfort 
is latent in the very grief, but for the 
present there is no conscious joy, but 
only poignant sorrow. The joy, how- 
ever, will inevitably come to birth. No 
noble nature abides permanently in the 
house of mourning. The greater the 
sorrow, the greater the ultimate gladness, 
the "joy in the Holy Ghost " mentioned 
by St. Paul among the essentials of the 
Kingdom of God (Rom. xiv. 17). 

Ver. 5. ol Trpacis: in Sept. for CliJ]^ 

in Ps. xxxvii. 11, of which this Beatitude 
is an echo. The men who suffer wrong 
without bitterness or desire for revenge, 
a class who in this world are apt to go to 
the wall. In this case we should have 
expected the Teacher to end with the 

common refrain : theirs is the kingdom 
of heaven, that being the only thing 
they are likely to get. Jean Paul 
Richter humorously said : " The French 
have the empire of the land, the English 
the empire of the sea ; to the Germans 
belongs the empire of the air ". But 
Jesus promises to the meek the empire of 
the solid earth — KXT]povo|jii^(rovo-i ttjk 
Y'ijv. Surely a startling paradox ! That 
the meek should find a foremost place in 
the kingdom of heaven is very intel- 
ligible, but " inherit the earth "—the land 
of Canaan or any other part of this 
planet — is it not a delusive promise ? 
Not altogether. It is at least true as a 
doctrine of moral tendency. Meekness 
after all is a power even in this world, a 
"world-conquering principle " (Tholuck). 
The meek of England, driven from their 
native land by religious intolerance, 
have inherited the continent of America. 
Weiss (Meyer) is quite sure, however, 
that this thought was far (ganz fern) 
from Christ's mind. I venture to think 
he is mistaken. 

The inverse order of the second and 
third Beatitudes found in Codex D, and 
favoured by some of the Fathers, e.g., 
Jerome, might be plausibly justified by 
the affinity between poverty of spirit and 
meekness, and the natural sequence of 
the two promises : possession of the 
kingdom of heaven and inheritance of 
the earth. But the connection beneath 
the surface is in favour of the order as it 
stands in T. R. 

Ver. 6. If the object of the hunger 
and thirst had not been mentioned this 
fourth Beatitude would have been parallel 
in form to the second : Blessed the 
hungry, for they shall be filled. We 
should then have another absolute affir- 
mation requiring qualification, and 
raising the question : What sort of 
hunger is it which is sure to be satisfied ? 
That might be the original form of the 
aphorism as given in Luke. The answer 
to the question it suggests is similar to 
that given under Beatitude i. The 
hunger whose satisfaction is sure is that 
which contains its own satisfaction. It 
is the hunger for moral good. The 
passion for righteousness is righteous- 
ness in the deepest sense of the word. — 
•rrcivwvTcs koi 8i\|/«vt£s. These verbs, 
like all verbs of desire, ordinarily take 
the genitive of the object. Here and in 


7 — lo. 



01 Petpini'OTroioi • oti auxoU ''uiol 0eou KXinGino-oi'Tai. lO. uaKapiot p here only. 

^ ' ' ' ' , , The verb 

ol SeSicjyP'EVoi. eveKev 8iKaiocrufT]s • oti aurwv icrriv r] PaaiXeia twc Col. i. 20. 

Lk. XX. 36. Rom. viii. 14, 19. Gal. iii. 26. 

^ avroi omitted in ^CD it. vul. syr,, bracketed in W.H. It may have been 
omitted by homceoteleuton and it seems needed for emphasis. 

other places in N. T. they take the accusa- 
tive, the object being of a spiritual 
nature, which one not merely desires to 
participate in, but to possess in whole. 
Winer, § xxx. 10, thus distinguishes the 
two constructions : Sixl^av ((>iXoa-o(|>ias = 
to thirst after philosophy ; 8t\|r. 
4>tXo<70(|>iav = to thirst for possession 
of philosophy as a whole. Some have 
thought that 8ia is to be understood 
before 8ik., and that the meaning is : 
" Blessed they who suffer natural hunger 
and thirst on account of righteousness ". 
Grotius understands by Sik. the way or 
doctrine of righteousness. 

Ver. 7. This Beatitude states a self- 
acting law of the moral world. The 
exercise of mercy (IXeos, active pity) 
tends to elicit mercy firom others — God 
and men. The chief reference may be 
to the mercy of God in the final awards 
of the kingdom, but the application need 
not be restricted to this. The doctrine 
of Christ abounds in great ethical prin- 
ciples of universal validity : "he that 
humbleth himself shall be exalted," " to 
him that hath shall be given," etc. This 
Beatitude suitably follows the preceding. 
Mercy is an element in true righteous- 
ness (Mic. vi. 8). It was lacking in 
Pharisaic righteousness (Matt, xxiii. 23). 
It needed much to be inculcated in 
Christ's time, when sympathy was killed 
by the theory that all suffering was 
penalty of special sin, a theory which 
fostered a pitiless type of righteousness 
(Schanz). Mercy may be practised by 
many means; "not by money alone," 
says Euthy. i^ig., " but By word, and if you 
have nothing, by tears" (Sua SaKp-uwv). 

Ver. 8. ol Ka9apoi ttj KapSio. : t. KapS. 
may be an explanatory addition to indi- 
cate the region in which purity shows 
itself. That purity is in the heart, the 
seat of thought, desire, motive, not in 
the outward act, goes without saying 
from Christ's point of view. Blessed 
the pure. Here there is a wide range of 
suggestion. The pure may be the spot- 
less or faultless in general ; the continent 
with special reference to sexual indul- 
gence—those whose very thoughts 
are clean ; or the pure in motive, the 
single-minded, the men who Kek the 

kingdom as the summum bonum with 
undivided heart. The last is the most 
relevant to the general connection and 
the most deserving to be insisted on. 
In the words of Augustine, the mundunt 
cor is above all the simplex cor. Moral 
simplicity is the cardinal demand in 
Christ's ethics. The man who has 
attained to it is in His view perfect 
(Matt. xix. 21). Without it a large 
numerical list of virtues and good habits 
goes for nothing. With it character, 
however faulty in temper or otherwise, 
is ennobled and redeemed. — rbv Oeov 
6\j/ovTai : their reward is the beatific 
vision. Some think the reference is not to 
the faculty of clear vision but to the rare 
privilege of seeing the face of the Great 
King (so Fritzsche and Schanz). " The 
expression has its origin in the ways of 
eastern monarchs, who rarely show them- 
selves in public, so that only the most 
intimate circle behold the royal counten- 
ance " (Schanz) = the pure have access 
to the all but inaccessible. This idea 
does not seem to harmonise with Christ's 
general way of conceiving God. On the 
other hand, it was His habit to insist on 
the connection between clear vision and 
moral simplicity ; to teach that it is the 
single eye that is full of light (Matt. vi. 
22). It is true that the pure shall have 
access to God's presence, but the truth 
to be insisted on in connection with this 
Beatitude is that through purity, single- 
ness of mind, they are qualified for seeing, 
knowing, truly conceiving God and all 
that relates to the moral universe. It is 
the pure in heart who are able to see and 
say that " truly God is good" (Ps. Ixxiii. 
i) and rightly to interpret the whole 
phenomena of life in relation to Pro- 
vidence. They shall see, says Jesus 
casting His thought into eschatological 
form, but He means the pure are tht 
men who see; the double-minded, the 
two-souled (8i\[/vxos, James i. 8) man \r 
blind. Theophyiact illustrates the con- 
nection between purity and vision thus : 
oJairep -yap to KaroirTpov, eavjj KaOapov 
TOT£ Se'xtTai Ta9 €|x<j)acr€is, oijtu Kat r\ 
Kadapa tj/vxT) Se'xtTai oi|/iv Qtov, 

Ver. g. 01 eip-qvoTroioi : not merely 
those who have peace in their own soula 




rRom.ix. I. oupaKUf. II. u.aK(ipioi i<TTt, OTac ^ceiSiawaiK duds Kal Siu^oicri, 

Heb. vi. , , ^ > . - 1 A« t - 

i8. Kai eiTTwai irdi' iroyyipoy pfjfia' Kaw ufiw*' •^ ' \j(eu86fiecoi,'* IvcKev 

t Lk. z. 31. ,„ , v.>\\~A«.t A\t-> \\i 

'.ver. 46. cfioo. 12. x^iiip^Te Kai dyaWiaaue, on o p,iaaos' iroXOs cf 

Ch- vi. I, , , . „ i •!:' t ^ X' » V . - 

2, 5, etc. Tois oupafois • ouT(i) yap eOKOgaK tous iTpo(})r)Tas tous irpo ofiwK. 

1 This word (in CAZ) is omitted in ^BD. 
sense clear. 

' K06 v|iwv before irav in D. 

» Omitted in D ; found in ^BC al. 

It may have been added to make the 

through purity (Augustine), or the peace- 
loving (Grotius, VVetstein), but the active 
heroic promoters of peace in a world full 
of alienation, party passion, and strife. 
Their efforts largely consist in keepin'^ 
aloof from sectional strifes and the 
passions which beget them, and living 
tranquilly for and in the whole. Such 
men have few friends. Christ, the ideal 
peace-maker, was alone in a time given 
up to sectarian division. But they have 
their compensation — viol Otov tcXt|6ii- 
(TovToi. God owns the disowned and 
distrusted as His sons. They shall be 
called because they are. They shall be 
called at the great consummation ; nay, 
even before that, in after generations, 
when party strifes and passions have 
ceased, and men have come to see who 
were the true friends of the Divine 
interest in an evil time. 

Vv. 10-12. ol 8c8io>7p.^voi £. 81K. The 
original form of the Beatitude was pro- 
bably: Blessed the persecuted. The 
added words only state what is a, matter 
of course. No one deserves to be called 
a persecuted one unless he suffers for 
righteousness, oi SeSitoY. (perf. part.) : 
the persecuted are not merely men who 
have passed through a certain experience, 
but men who bear abiding traces of it in 
their character. Thev are marked men, 
and bear the stamp of trial on their faces. 
It arrests the notice of the passer-by: 
commands his respect, and prompts the 
question, Who and whence ? They are 
veteran soldiers of righteousness with an 
unmistakable air of dignity, serenity, and 
buoyancy about them. — avTwv Itrriv r\ p. 
T. ovp. The common refrain of all the 
Beatitudes is expressly repeated here to 
hint that theirs emphatically is the 
Kingdom of Heaven. It is the proper 
guerdon of the soldier of righteous- 
ness. It is his now, within him in 
the disciplined spirit and the heroic 
temper developed by trial. — Ver. 11. 
{xaK^pioi loT«. The Teacher ex- 
patiates as if it were a favourite theme, 
giving a personal turn to His further re- 

flections — " Blessed are ye. " Is it 
likely that Jesus would speak so early 
of this topic to disciples? Would He 
not wait till it came more nearly within 
the range of their experience ? Nay, is 
the whole discourse about persecution 
not a reflection back into the teaching of 
the Master of the later experiences of the 
apostolic age, that sufi"ering disciples 
might be inspired by the thought that 
their Lord had so spoken ? It is possible 
to be too incredulous here. If it was not 
too soon to speak of Pharisaic righteous- 
ness it was not too soon to speak of 
suffering for true righteousness. The 
one was sure to give rise to the other. 
The disciples may already have had ex- 
perience of Pharisaic disfavour (Mk. ii., 
iii.). In any case Jesus saw clearly what 
was coming. He had had an apocalypse 
of the dark future in the season of tempta- 
tion, and He deemed it fitting to lift the 
veil a little that His disciples might get 
a glimpse of it. — oxav oveiSio-bxriv . . . 
lv6Kcv c|i.ou: illustrative details pointing 
to persistent relentless persecution by 
word and deed, culminating in wilful, 
malicious, lying imputations of the gross- 
est sort — irav irovripov, every conceivable 
calumny — \|;€v8o|x€voi, lying : not merely 
in the sense that the statements are 
false, but in the sense of deliberately 
inventing the most improbable lies ; their 
only excuse being that violent prejudice 
leads the calumniators to think nothing 
too evil to be believed against the objects 
of their malice. — eveicev t\i.ov ; for Him 
who has undertaken to make you fishers 
of men. Do you repent following Him ? 
No reason why. — Ver. 12. xaLptrt ical 
ay. In spite of all, joy, exultation is 
possible — nay, inevitable. I not only 
exhort you to it, but I tell you, you cannot 
help being in this mood, if once you 
throw yourselves enthusiastically into 
the warfare of God. 'AyaXXiaa is a 
strong word of Hellenistic coinage, from 
ayav and oXXofiai, to leap much, signify- 
ing irrepressible demonstrative gladness. 
This joy is inseparable from the heroic 

II— 13- 



13. " Vjieis eoTc TO ■ aXas tt^s y^? ' eak Se to aXas ' fioipafflfj, u Mk. ix. 50/ 

cf Tivt * dXiafir^aerai ; eis ou8ec ia)(uei en, el jjir) pX^f)^Ti^'al ^ e^oj, ;i4. Col. 

IV. 6. 
V Lk. xiv. 34. Rom. i. 22. i Cor. i. 20. w here and in Mk. ix. 49. 

^ pXt^P V in ^BC I, 33, Origen, which carries along with it the omission of Kai 
after 4w- 

temper. It is the joy of the Alpine 
climber standing on the top of a snow- 
clad mountain. But the Teacher gives 
two reasons to help inexperienced dis- 
ciples to rise to that moral elevation, — 
Sri 6 | . . . ovpavois. For evil 
treatment on earth there is a com- 
pensating reward in heaven. This hope, 
weak now, was strong in primitive 
Christianity, and greatly helped martyrs 
and confessors. — ovtws yap e. tovs 
•irpo<|>iiTas. If we take the yap as giving 
a reason for the previous statement the 
sense will be : you cannot doubt that the 
prophets who suffered likewise have 
received an eternal reward (so Bengel, 
Fritzsche, Schanz, Meyer, Weiss). But 
we may take it as giving a co-ordinate 
reason for joy = ye are in good com- 
pany. There is inspiration in the 
" goodly fellowship of the prophets," 
quite as much as in thought of their 
posthumous reward. It is to be noted 
that the prophets themselves did not get 
much comfort from such thoughts, and 
more generally that they did not rise to 
the joyous mood commended to His 
disciples by Jesus ; but were desponding 
and querulous. On that side, therefore, 
there was no inspiration to be got from 
thinking of them. But they were 
thoroughly loyal to righteousness at all 
hazards, and reflection on their noble 
career was fitted to infect disciples with 
their spirit. — rois •rrpo vy.u>v : words skil- 
fully chosen to raise the spirit. Before you 
not only in time but in vocation and 
destiny. Your predecessors in function 
and suffering ; take up the prophetic 
succession and along with it, cheerfully, 
its tribulations. 

Vv. 13-16. Disciple functions. It is 
quite credible that these sentences 
formed part of the Teaching on the 
Hill. Jesus might say these things at a 
comparatively early period to the men 
to whom He had already said : I will 
make you fishers of men. The functions 
assigned to disciples here are not more 
ambitious than that alluded to at the 
time of their call. The new section 
rests on what goes before, and postulates 
possession of the attributes named in 
the Beatitudes. With these the disciples 

will be indeed the salt of the earth and 
the light of the world. Vitally important 
functions are indicated by the two 
figures. Nil sole et sale utilius was a 
Roman proverb (Pliny, H. N., 31, g). 
Both harmonise with, the latter points 
expressly to, a universal destination of 
the new religion. The sun lightens all 
lands. Both also shov/ how alien it was 
from the aims of Christ to be the teacher 
of an esoteric faith. 

Ver. 13. aXas, a late form for SXs, 
aXos, masculine. The properties of salt 
are assumed to be known. Com- 
mentators have enumerated four. Salt 
is pure, preserves against corruption, 
gives flavour to food, and as a manuring 
element helps to fertilise the land. The 
last mentioned property is specially 
insisted on by Schanz, who finds a 
reference to it in Lk. xiv. 35, and thinks 
it is also pointed to here by the expres- 
sion tt)s yhs. The first, purity, is a 
quality of salt per se, rather than a con- 
dition on which its function in nature 
depends. The second and third are 
doubtless the main points to be insisted 
on, and the second more than the third 
and above all. Salt arrests or prevents 
the process of putrefaction in food, and 
the citizens of the kingdom perform the 
same function for the earth, that is, for 
the people who dwell on it. In Schanz's 
view there is a confusion of the 
metaphor with its moral interpretation. 
Fritzsche limits the point of comparison 
to indispensableness = ye are as 
necessary an element in the world as 
salt is ; a needlessly bald interpretation. 
Necessary certainly, but why and for 
what ? — TT)s Y»js might mean the land ol 
Israel (Achelis, Bergpredigt), but it is 
more natural to take it in its widest 
significance in harmony with KocrfJiov. 
Holtzmann (H. C.) sets K6ar^ov down to 
the account of the evangelist, and thinks 
yfj? in the narrow sense more suited to 
the views of Jesus. — Ver. 14. (toipavS-jj. 
The Vulgate renders the verb evanuerit. 
Better Beza and Erasmus, infatiiatin 
fuerit. If the salt become insipid, so as 
to lack its proper preserving virtue — 
can this happen ? Weiss and others 
reply: It does not matter for the point 




"^ ^'^ *!.': ^ Kai ^ * KaTaTraxeiaGai utto rCty dt'GpoirrwK. 14. 'Y|i.€ls tare to <t)ws 

Heb.x.ig. joo Koafiou • ou Su^arai ttoXis Kpu^fji'ai ^Trd^'u opous kciijicVy] ■ 15. 

ID Lli- J"!' ouSe ' KaiouCTt Xuyv'ov koI xiOe'aaiK aurot' utto t6>' n68io>', dXX' iitl 
3j. Heb. "^ r- ' . 

xii. 18 al. 

' Omitted in MSS. named in preceding note. 

of the comparison. Perhaps not, but it 
does matter for the felicity of the 
metaphor, which is much more strikingly 
apt if degeneracy can happen in the 
natural as well as in the spiritual sphere. 
Long ago Maundrell maintained that it 
could, and modern travellers confirm his 
statement. Furrer says : " As it was 
observed by Maundrell 200 j'ears zgc, so 
it has often been observed in our time 
that salt loses somewhat of its sharpness 
in the storehouses of Syria and Palestine. 
Gathered in a state of impurity, it under- 
goes with other substances a chemical 
process, by which it becomes really 
another sort of stuff, while retaining its 
old appearance " (Ztscht. fur M. und 
R., i8go). A similar statement is made 
by Thomson (Land and Book, p. 381). 
There is no room for doubt as to whether 
the case supposed can happen in the 
spiritual sphere. The " salt of the earth " 
can become not only partially but 
wholly, hopelessly insipid, losing the 
qualities which constitute its conservative 
power as set forth in the Beatitudes and 
in other parts of Christ's teaching (e.g., 
Mat. xviii.). Erasmus gives a realistic 
description of the ciuses of degeneracy 
in these words : " Si vestri mores fuerint 
amore laudis, cupiditate pecuniarum, 
stijdio voluptatum, libidine vindicandi, 
metu infamiae damnorum aut mortis 
infatuati," etc. (Paraph, in Evan. Matt.). 
— Iv rLvi aXis : not, with what shall the 
so necessary salting process be done ? 
but, with what shall the insipid salt be 
salted ? The meaning is that the lost 
property is irrecoverable. A stern state- 
ment, reminding us of Heb. vi. 6, but 
true to the fact in the spiritual sphere. 
Nothing so hopeless as apostate disciple- 
ship with a bright past behind it to which 
it has become dead — begun in the spirit, 
ending in the flesh. — els ovSev, useless 
for salting, good for nothing else any 
more («ti). — cl ftT) pXi^GJv, etc. This is a 
kind of humorous afterthought : except 
indeed, cast out as refuse, to be trodden 
under foot of man, i.e., to make foot- 
paths of. The reading pXT)0ev is much 
to be preferred to pXTjStjvai, as giving 
prominence to KaTairaTcto-Oou as the 
main verb, pointing to a kind of use 
to which insipid salt can after all be put. 

But what a downcome : from being 
saviours of society to supplying materials 
for footpaths 1 

Ver. 14. rh 4>us t. k., the light, the 
sun of the moral world conceived of as 
full of the darkness of ignorance and 
sin. The disciple function is now viewed 
as illuminating. And as under the figure 
of salt the danger warned against was 
that of becoming insipid, so here the 
danger to be avoided is that of obscuring 
the light. The light will shine, that is 
its nature, if pains be not taken to hide 
it. — ovi Svvarai irdXis, etc. As a city 
situate on the top of a hill cannot be 
hid, neither can a light fail to be seen 
unless it be expressly prevented from 
shining. No pains need to be taken to 
secure that the light shall shine. For 
that it is enough to be a light. But 
Christ knew that there would be strong 
temptation for the men that had it in 
them to be lights to hide their light. It 
would draw the world's attention to 
them, and so expose them to the ill will 
of such as hate the light. Therefore He 
goes on to caution disciples against the 
policy of obscuration. 

Ver. 15. A parabolic word pointing 
out that such a policy in the natural 
sphere is unheard of and absurd. — KaL- 
ov<ri, to kindle, accendere, ordinarily 
neuter = urere ; not as Beza thought, a 
Hebraism ; examples occur in late Greek 
authors (vide Kypke, Obser. Sac). The 
figure is taken from lowly cottage life. 
There was a projecting stone in the wall 
on which the lamp was set. The house 
consisted of a single room, so that the 
tiny light sufficed for all. It might now 
and then be placed under the tnodius, an 
earthenware grain measure, or under the 
bed (Mk. iv. 21), high to keep clear of 
serpents, therefore without danger of 
setting it on fire (Koetsveld, De Ge- 
lijkenissen, p. 305). But that would be 
the exception, not the rule — done occa- 
sionally for special reasons, perhaps dur- 
ing the hours of sleep. Schanz says 
the lamp burned all night, and that when 
they wanted darkness they put it on the 
floor and covered it with the " bushel ". 
Tholuck also thinks people might cover 
the light when they wished to keep it 
burning, when they bad occasion to leave 

14 — 16. 



TT)k XuXftClC KOI ■X<I|i1T«l irSffl TOIS ^^ Tjj OIKIOI. 16. OOTU Xa|Jn)/aTa) z Lk. xvii 

TO <}>(<ls ofx.wk' iy.Trpo(TQev twc dfOpcuTrui/, oirus iSoxric ofiwc tcL * icaXol Actsxii.7. 

epva, Ktti So^dauo'i toc iraWpa uiiw;' Toy iv TOis oupavois. 6. 

. a C/. Mt. 

XXVI. 10. Mk. liv. 6, for an example 0/ a " good work ". 

the room for a time. Weiss, on the 
other hand, thinks it would be put under 
a cover only when they wished to put it 
out (Matt;-Evan., p. 144). But was it 
ever put out ? Not so, according to 
Benzinger (Heb. Arch., p. 124). 

Ver. 16. ovTu. Do ye as they do in 
cottage life : apply the parable. — Xafi- 
y\iaru, let your light shine. Don't use 
means to prevent it, turning the rare 
exception of household practice into the 
rule, so extinguishing your light, or at 
least rendering it useless. Cowards can 
always find plausible excuses for the 
policy of obscuration — reasons of pru- 
dence and wisdom : gradual accustom- 
ing of men to new ideas ; deference to 
the prejudices of good men ; avoidance 
of rupture by premature outspokenness ; 
but generally the true reason is fear of 
unpleasant consequences to oneself. 
Their conduct Jesus represents as dis- 
loyalty to Goi— Jiirws, etc. The shining 
of light from the good works of disciples 
glorifies God the Father in heaven. 
The hiding of the light means withhold- 
ing glory. The temptation arises from 
the fact — a stern law of the moral world 
it is — that just when most glory is likely 
to accrue to God, least glory comes to 
the light-bearer ; not glory but dishonour 
and evil treatment his share. Many are 
ready enough to let their light shine 
when honour comes to themselves. But 
their " light " is not true heaven-kindled 
light; their works are not KoXa, noble, 
heroic, but irovTjpa (vii. 17), ignoble, 
worthless, at best of the conventional 
type in fashion among religious people, 
and wrought often in a spirit of vanity 
and ostentation. This is theatrical 
goodness, which is emphatically not what 
Jesus wanted. Euthy. Zig. says : ov 
KcXcuei OeaTpCJeiv tt|v dptTTjv. 

Note that here, for the first time in the 
Gospel, Christ's distinctive name for God, 
"Father," occurs. It comes in as a 
thing of course. Does it presuppose 
previous instruction ? (So Meyer.) One 
might have expected so important a topic 
as the nature and name of God to have 
formed the subject of a distinct lesson. 
But Christ's method of teaching was not 
scholastic or formal. He defined terms 
hy dt ^criminating use; Father, e.g., as a 
name for God, by using it as a motive to 

noble conduct. The motive suggested 
throws light on the name. God, we 
learn, as Father delights in noble conduct; 
as human fathers find joy in sons who 
acquit themselves bravely. Jesus may 
have given formal instruction on the 
point, but not necessarily. This first use 
of the title is very significant. It is full, 
solemn, impressive : your Father, He 
who is in the heavens ; so again in ver. 
45. It is suggestive of reasons for faith- 
fulness, reasons of love and reverence. 
It hints at a reflected glory, the reward 
of heroism. The noble works which 
glorify the Father reveal the workers to 
be sons. The double-sided doctrine of 
this /!';,'/()« of Jesus is that the divine is 
revealed by the heroic in human conduct, 
and that the moral hero is the true son 
of God. Jesus Himself is the highest 
illustration of the twofold truth. 

Vv. 17-20. Jesus defines His position. 
At the period of the Teaching on the Hill 
Jesus felt constrained to define His ethi- 
cal and religious position all round, with 
reference to the O. T, as the recognised 
authority, and also to contemporary 
presentations of righteousness. The 
disciples had already heard Him teach in 
the synagogues (Matt. iv. 23) in a manner 
that at once arrested attention and led 
hearers to recognise in Him a new type 
of teacher (Mk. i. 27), entirely different 
firom the scribes (Mk. i. 22). The sen- 
tences before us contain just such a 
statement of the Teacher's attitude as 
the previously awakened surprise of His 
audiences would lead us to e.tpeci. 
There is no reason to doubt their sub- 
stantial authenticity though they may not 
reproduce the precise words of the 
speaker ; no ground for the suggestion of 
Holtzmann (H. C.) that so decided a 
position either for or against the law was 
not hkely to be taken up in Christ's time, 
and that we must find in these w. an 
anti-Pauline programme of the Judaists. 
At a first glance the various statementb 
may appear inconsistent with each other. 
And assuming their genuineness, they 
might easily be misunderstood, and give 
rise to disputes in the apostolic age, or 
be taken hold of in rival interests. The 
words of great epoch-making men gene- 
rally have this fate. Though apparently 
contradictory they might all proceed 



b with oTt 17, " MJ) * ►'OuiCTTiTe oTi TiXOoK * KaTaXuffai rhv v6u.oy ft tous 

here and ^ jtxa \- wv - o 

in I. 34 7rpo(j)i)Tas ■ ouK ■»)X0ov' KarnXutrai, dXXa. TrXijpwaai. 1 8. dfATjf yop 

Boy), Xeyu) 6fAt^', ews &»' ** irapfXOi] 6 oupafos Kai i] yi], * iwra €>' t] fiia 

oftener . , ,^ rvA>'\'«/ n* , , 

with inf. K€paia ou fiT| TraptXoT] airo tou vo\iou, ews o.v irdi'Ta yeyy]ra{,. 

or an 

accus. with inf. c in same sense Acts v. 38, 39. Rom. xiv. ao. d Ch. xxiv. 34. Lk. x»i. 17. a 

Cor. y. 17. James i. 10. e here only. t Lk. xvi. 17 (xrpc'a in both pi. W.H.). 

from the many-sided mind of Jesus, and 
be so reported by the genial Gahlean 
pubUcan in his Logia. The best guide to 
the meaning of the momentous declara- 
tion they contain is acquaintance with the 
generaJ drift of Christ's teaching [vide 
Wendt, Die Lehre Jesu, ii., 330). Verbal 
exegesis will not do much for us. We 
must bring to the words sympathetic 
insight into the whole significance of 
Chriit's ministry. Yet the passage by 
itself, \\cll weighed, is more luminous 
than at first it may seem. 

Ver. 17. Mt) vo|AicrriT€ : These words 
betray a consciousness that there was 
that in His teaching and bearing which 
might create such an impression, and 
are a protest against taking a surface 
impression for the truth. — KaraXvo-ai, to 
abrogate, to set aside in the exercise of 
legislative authority. What freedom of 
mind is implied in the bare suggestion 
of this as a possibility I To the ordinary 
religious Jew the mere conception would 
appear a profanity. A greater than the 
O. T., than Moses and the prophets, is 
here. But the Greater is full of rever- 
ence for the institutions and sacred 
books of His people. He is not come 
to disannul either the law or the pro- 
phets. ■?) before t. Trpo<|i. is not = icat. 
"Law" and "Prophets" are not taken 
here as one idea = the O. T. Scriptures, 
as law, prophets and psalms seem to 
be in Lk. xxiv. 44, but as distinct parts, 
with reference to which different atti- 
tudes might conceivably be taken up. 
^ implies that the attitude actually taken 
up is the same towards both. The pro- 
phets are not to be conceived of as 
coming under the category of law 
(Weiss), but as retaining their distinc- 
tive character as revealers of God's 
nature and providence. Christ's attitude 
towards them in that capacity is the 
same as that towards the law, though 
the Sermon contains no illustrations 
under that head. "The idea of God 
and of salvation which Jesus taught bore 
the same relations to the O. T. revelation 
as His doctrine of righteousness to the 
O. T. law " (Wendt, Die L. J., ii., 344). 
— TrXrjpucrai : the common relation is ex- 
pressed by this weighty word. Christ 

protests that He came not as an abro- 
gator, but as afuljiller. What role does 
He thereby claim ? Such as belongs to 
one whose attitude is at once free and 
reverential. He fulfils by realising in 
theory and practice an ideal to which 
O. T. institutions and revelations point, 
but which they do not adequately ex- 
press. Therefore, in fulfilling He neces- 
sarily abrogates in effect, while repudi- 
ating the spirit of a destroyer. He 
brings in a law of the spirit which 
cancels the law of the letter, a kingdom 
which realises prophetic ideals, while 
setting aside the crude details of their 
conception of the Messianic time. 

Vv. 18-19. These verses wear on first 
view a Judaistic look, and have been 
regarded as an interpolation, or set down 
to the credit of an over-conservative 
evangelist. But they may be reconciled 
with ver. 17, as above interpreted. Jesus 
expresses here in the strongest manner 
His conviction that the whole O. T. is 
a Divine revelation, and tliat therefore 
every minutest precept has religious 
significance which must be recognised 
in the ideal fulfilment. — 'Ap.rjv, formula 
of solemn asseveration, often used by 
Jesus, never by apostles, found doubled 
only in fourth Gospel. — eWs av ■t?api\QJ^, 
etc. : not intended to fix a period after 
which the law will pass away, but a 
strong way of saying never (so Tholuck 
and Weiss). — Iwra, the smallest Letter in 
the Hebrew alphabet. — xcpaia, the little 
projecting point in some of the letters, 
e.g., of the base line in Beth ; both 
representing the minutiae in the Mosaic 
legislation. Christ, though totally op- 
posed to the spirit of the scribes, would 
not allow them to have a monopoly of 
zeal for the commandments great and 
small. It was important in a polemical 
interest to make this clear. — ov p.Ti ir., 
elliptical = do not fear lest. Vide Kijhner, 
Gram., § 516, 9 ; also Goodwin's Syntax, 
Appendix ii. — lu? av ir. yev., a second 
protasis introduced with fws explanatory 
of the first Iws av irapeXO-Q ; vide 
Goodwin, § 510; not saying the same 
thing, but a kindred : eternal, lasting, 
till adequately fulfilled ; the latter the 
more exact statement of Christ's tbouglu. 

17— ao. 



IQ. Sc eac oij*" 'Xuari liiav rdv ^ iyrokdy TouTOJf Twf eXavtaTwi', Kai gjohnv. j8; 

, vii. 23 ; I. 

SiSa^ri ouTw Tous ut-Gpcjirous, IXeixifTOs KXT]6T)a€Tai iv Ttj ^aaiXcta 35- 

Tciv oupafuc • OS af Troiir]CT|] Kai oioa^T), ouro9 p-eyas KX'»]8T|0'eTai xix.17; 

, J „' .,' \ t " a , \ \ xxii. 40. 

ec TTJ PaaiXeia twv' oupai/wK. 20. Xeyw ycip w^A'■^'> on eav fXTj Lk. i. 6. 

.' c'c- 't~i\- -I ' > John lih. 

ivepio'creuaYj 1^ otKatoo-ufTj ofiwi/ ^ ir\€iof twc ^ ypafijAaTewi/ Kai 34. 

,',.,rin > \0\' ~ ,«i with TCapa 

^apitraiuy, 00 fit) ctoeXoTjTe eis ttjk paaiXeiac twk oupavui'. in Eccles. 

iii. ig. cy. 
Rom. Y. 15. j sim. ellipt. const, i lobn ii. 2. 

1 vfuov before t)8tK. ( = your righteousness) in ^BLA al. T. R. as in SUS. 

Ver. 19. 8s ^av ovv Kva~^, etc. ; ovv 
pointing to a natural inference from what 
goes before. Christ's view being such 
as indicated, He must so judge of the 
setter aside of any laws however small. 
When a religious system has lasted long, 
and is wearing towards its decline and 
fall, there are always such men. The 
Baptist was in some respects such a man. 
He seems to have totally neglected the 
temple worship and sacred festivals. He 
shared the prophetic disgust at formal- 
ism. Note now what Christ's judgment 
about such really is. A scribe or Phari- 
see would regard a breaker of even the 
least commandments as a miscreant. 
Jesus simply calls him the least in the 
Kingdom of Heaven. He takes for 
granted that he is an earnest man, with 
a passion for righteousness, which is the 
key to his iconoclastic conduct. He 
recognises him therefore as possessing 
real moral worth, but, in virtue of his 
impatient radical-reformer temper, not 
great, only little in the scale of true 
moral values, in spite of his earnestness 
in action and sincerity in teaching. John 
the Baptist was possibly in His mind, 
or some others not known to us from 
the Gospels. — os S' S.v toltiot] Kai 8iSd|'{), 
etc. We know now who is least : who 
is great ? The man who does and 
teaches to do all the commands great 
and small ; great not named but under- 
stood — oOtos jt^yas. Jesus has in view 
O. T. saints, the piety reflected in the 
Psalter, where the great ethical laws and 
the precepts respecting ritual are both 
alike respected, and men in His own 
time living in their spirit. In such was 
a sweetness and graciousness, akin to 
the Kingdom as He conceived it, lacking 
in the character of the hot-headed law- 
breaker. The geniality of Jesus made 
Him value these sweet saintly souls. 

Ver. 20. Here is another type still, 
that of the scribes and Pharisees. We 
have had two degrees of worth, the little 
and the great. This new fype gives us 

the moral zero. — X^yw yap. The yap is 

somewhat puzzling. We expect ii, 
taking our attention off two types de- 
scribed in the previous sentence and 
fixing it on a distinct one. Yet there 
is a hidden logic latent in the yap. It 
explains the IXaxio-ros of the previous 
verse. The earnest reformer is a small 
character compared with the sweet 
wholesome performer, but he is not a 
moral nullity. That place is reserved 
for another class. I call him least, not 
nothing, for the scribe is the zero. — 
irXciov Tuv yp. k. <}>., a compendious 
comparison, tJjs StKaiotruvTjs being 
understood after irXtiov. Christ's state- 
ments concerning these classes of the 
Jewish community, elsewhere recorded, 
enable us to understand the verdict He 
pronounces here. They differed from 
the two classes named in ver. 18, thus : 
Class I set aside the least command- 
ments for the sake of the great ; class 2 
conscientiously did all, great and small ; 
class 3 set aside the great for the sake 
of the little, the ethical for the sake of 
the ritual, the divine for the sake of the 
traditional. That threw them outside 
the Kingdom, where only the moral has 
value. And the second is greater, higher, 
than the first, because, while zeal for 
the ethical is good, spirit, temper, dispo- 
sition has supreme value in the Kingdom. 
These valuations of Jesus are of great 
importance as a contribution towards 
defining the nature of the Kingdom as 
He conceived it. 

Nothing, little, great : there is a higher 
grade still, the highest. It belongs to 
Christ Himself, the Fulfiller, who is 
neither a sophistical scribe, nor an im- 
patient reformer, nor a strict performer 
of all laws great and small, walking 
humbly with God in the old ways, with- 
out thought, dream or purpose of change, 
but one who lives above the past and the 
present in the ideal, knows that a change 
is impending, but wishes it to come 
gently, and so as to do full justice to all 




k Rotn. ix. 21. *HKOuaaT€ on ^ eppt'Ot] ^ tois ' dpxai'ois, Ou 4>o*'«"<'^*iS ' ^S ^ ^*' 

12. ^ ^ tt « 

1 Bgain ver. i^iokeucn], " ct'o^os eoTui TTJ " Kpiaei • 22. ^y*** ^^ X^yw ufiif, on irus 
33- Lk.ix. ', » ,5 V ,,'.-.,- o » » . ^ * c>> 

8, 15. Acts o opyij^ojiekos tw doeAipu) auTOu eiKij - efO)(OS eoTtti ttj Kpiaci • 09 

Pet. ii. 5.&V eiTTY) Tw d86\4)w auTou, 'PttKci,^ tfoxos iarai tw " auj'cSpiu) • 05 


2 Cor. V. 17. m with dat. here four times; with gen. of punisht. Ch. xxvi. 66. MU. xiv. 64. 
D of the tribunal, here only. o Ch. xxvi. 59. Mk. xiv. 55. I.k. .•^xii. iiii Often in Acts. 

1 «PP»i6t1 in BD ; text in ^LMA al. pi. (W.H.). cpptOr] was more usual in later 

' RIO] is an ancient gloss found in many late MSS. but omitted in ^B, Origan, 
Vulgate, and in the best modern editions. 

» paxa in ^*D abc (Tisch.); text in ^bBE (W.H.). 

that is divine, venerable, and of good 
tendency in the past. His is the unique 
greatness of the reverently conservative 
yet free, bold inaugurator of a new time. 
Vv. 21-26. First illustration of ChrisVs 
ethical attitude, taken from the Sixth 
Commandment. In connection with 
this and the following exemplifications of 
Christ's ethical method, the interpreter 
is embarrassed by the long-continued 
strifes of the theological schools, which 
have brought back the spirit of legalism, 
from which the great Teacher sought to 
deliver His disciples. It will be best to 
ignore these strifes and go steadily on 
our way. — Ver. 21. 'HKOvtrart. The 
common people knew the law by hearing 
it read in the synagogue, not by 
reading it themselves. The aorist ex- 
presses what they were accustomed to 
hear, an instance of the " gnomic " use. 
Tholuck thinks there may be an allusion 
to the tradition of the scribes, called 
Shema. — tois opxaiois might mean : in 
ancient times, to the ancients, or by the 
ancients. The second is in accord with 
N. T. usage, and is adopted by Meyer, 
Weiss and Holtzmann (H. C). How far 
back does Christ go in thought ? To 
Moses or to Ezra ? The expression is 
vague, and might cover the whole past, 
and perhaps is intended to do so. There 
is no reason a priori why the criticism 
should be restricted to the interpretation 
of the law by the scribes. Christ's 
position as fulfiller entitled Him to point 
out the defects of the law itself, and we 
must be prepared to find Him doing so, 
and there is reason to believe that in the 
sequel He actually does (so Wendt, L. J., 
ii., 332). — Ov <fov£vcreis . . . KpCo-ci. 
This is a correct statement, not only of 
the Pharisaic interpretation of the law, 
but of the law itself. As a law for the 
life of a nation, it could forbid and punish 
only the outward act. But just here lay 
its defect as a summary of human duty. 

It restrained the end not the beginning 
of transgression (Euthy. Zig.).— fvoxos = 
Jvcx<Sp.cvos, with dative of the tribunal 
here. — Ver. 22. eyoi Zl Xc-yot xip.iv. 
Christ supplies the defect, as a painter 
fills in a rude outline of a picture 
(o-Kia'Ypa<|>iav), says Theophy. He goes 
back on the roots of crime in the feel- 
ings : anger, contempt, etc. — iras . . . 
aiiToD. Every one ; universal interdict 
of angry passion. — d8€X<|>^:not in blood 
(the classical meaning) or in faith, but 
by common humanity. The implied 
doctrine is that every man is my brother ; 
companion doctrine to the universal 
Fatherhood of God (ver. 45). — cIkt) is of 
course a gloss ; qualification of the 
interdict against anger may be required, 
but it was not Christ's habit to supply 
qualifications. His aim was to impress 
the main idea, anger a deadly sin. — 
Kpicrci, here as in ver. 21. The reference 
is to the provincial court of seven (Deut. 
xvi. 18, 2 Chron. xix. 5, Joseph. Ant. iv. 
8, 14) possessing power to punish capital 
offences by the sword. Christ's words 
are of course not to be taken literally as 
if He were enacting that the angry man 
be tried as a criminal. So understood 
He would be simply introducing an ex- 
tension of legalism. He deserves to go 
before the seven. He says, meaning he is 
as great an offender as the homicide 
who is actually tried by them. 

'PttKa : left untranslated in A. V. and 
R. V. ; a word of little meaning, rendered 
by Jerome " inanis aut vacuus absque 
cerebro ". Augustine says a Jew told him 
it was not properly a word at all, but an 
interjection like Hem. Theophy. gives 
as an equivalent <rv spoken by a Greek 
to a man whom he despised. And the 
man who commits this trivial offence (as 
it seems) must go before, not the pro- 
vincial seven, but the supreme seventy, 
the Sanhedrim that tried the most heinous 
offences and sentenced to the severest 




S' 8,1' eiirv), Mbipi, Ij'OXOS lorai cis tt)i' yievvav toO Trop<5s. 23. p «x«"'"if. 
'Eav our iTpoCT<j)epT]s to SwpoK <rou eiri to GuaiatTTr^pioc, KciKei Mlc.xi.25. 
p.i'T]CT0rjs OTi 6 d8€X<|>6s o-ou 'ex^ ''"'^ kutA o-qG, 24. a<j)es eK€i to C/. Acts 
Zit>p6y crou eixTrpoa8e>' toG 0offiooTT)piou, Kai urcayc, TrpwTOf ' SiaXXd- (irposTii'a). 

Yif]6i Tw doEX4)u crou, Kai tote eKQuv TrpocrJjtepe to owpoc aou. 25. in N. T. 

rxoa'j- '-tj c '■" • ♦' -.5- ,r:<rOiwith 

lo-pi cufowj' Tw •a^'TlOlKU aou Tax", ewg otou ci er tj) oow |jl€t part. Lk. 

aoToO,^ li-nTTOTe ae * TrapaSfi 6 drri8iK0s tw Kpirfi, Kal 6 KpiTi]s 0-6 1 here only 

in N. T. 
t Lk. xii. 58 ; xviii. 3. i Peter r. 8. u cMt otov = while, here only. v nva nvi here and Ch. xviii 
34; XX. 18; xxvii. 2, etc. 

^ (iCT ovTov before ev r. o8w, ^BDL. 

penalties, e.g., death by stoning ! Trivial 
in appearance, the offence is deadly in 
Christ's eyes. It means contempt for a 
fellow-man, more inhuman than anger— 
a violent passion, prompting to words 
and acts often bitterly regretted when 
the hot temper cools down. Mcdp^, if a 

Greek word, the equivalent for 733 = 

T T 

fool, good for nothing, morally worthless. 
It may, as Paulus, and after him Nosgen, 

suggests, be a Hebrew word, H'^'it^ 

(Num. XX. 24, Deut. xxi. 18), a rebel 
against God or against parents, the most 
worthless of characters. Against this 
Field {Otium Norviccnsc) remarks that it 
would be the only instance of a pure 
Hebrew word in the N. T. In either 
case the word expresses a more serious 
form of contempt than Raca. Raca ex- 
presses contempt for a man's head = you 
stupid 1 More expresses contempt for 
his heart and character = you scoundrel. 
The reckless use of such opprobrious 
epithets Jesus regarded as the supreme 
offence against the law of humanity. — 
tvoxos . . . irvp<5s. He deserves to go, 
not to the seven or the seventy, but to 
hell, his sin altogether damnable. 
Kuinoel thinks the meaning is : He 
deserves to be burned alive in the valley 
of Hinnom : is dignus est qui in valle 
Hinnomi vivus comburaiur. This in- 
terpretation finds little approval, but it is 
not so improbable when we remember 
what Christ said about the offender of 
the little ones (Matt, xviii. 6). Neither 
burning alive nor drowning was actually 
practised. In these words of Jesus 
against anger and contempt there is an 
aspect of exaggeration. They are the 
strong utterance of one in whom all 
forms of inhumanity roused feelings of 
passionate abhorrence. They are of the 
utmost value as a revelation of character. 
Vv. 23, 24. Holtzmann (H. C.) regards 

these verses, as well as the two following, 
as an addition by the evangelist. But 
the passage is at least in thorough 
harmony with what goes before, as well 
as with the whole discourse. — *E5iv ovv 
irpotr^ipXi^, if thou art in the very act of 
presenting thine offering (present tense) 
at the altar. — koikci p,vvjo-6f)s . . . Kara 
ffov, and it suddenly flashes through thy 
mind there that thou hast done some- 
thing to a brother man fitted to provoke 
angry feeling in him. What then ? Get 
through with thy worship as fast as 
possible and go directly after and make 
peace with the offended ? No, interrupt 
the religious action and go on that 
errand first, — a<}>es 4k«i. Lay it down on 
the spur of the moment before the altar 
without handing it to the priest to be 
offered by him in thy stead. — Kal vtcayi 
irpwTov. The xpuTov is to be joined to 
viraye, not to the following verb as in A, 
V. and R. V. (irpwTov stands after the 
verb also in chaps, vi. 33, vii. 5). First 
go : remove thyself from the temple, 
break off thy worship, though it may 
seem profane to do so. — SiaXXdyTiSi . . . 
Kal t<5t£ . . . wp^atjjtpe : no contempt 
for religious service expressed or implied. 
Holtzmann (H. C.) asks, did Jesus offer 
sacrifice ? and answers, hardly. In any 
case He respected the practice. But, 
reconciliation before sacrifice: morality 
before religion. Significant utterance, 
first announcement of a great principle 
often repeated, systematically neglected 
by the religion of the time. Placability 
before sacrifice, mercy before sacrifice, 
filial affection and duty before sacrifice ; 
so always in Christ's teaching (Matt. ix. 
13. J^v. 5). 'irp(5tr<|)tpt : present ; set about 
offering : plenty of time now for the 
sacred action. 

Vv. 25, 26. There is much more 
reason for regarding this passage as an 
interpolation. It is connected only ex- 
ternally (by the references to courts of 



mvtTSi. wanaSw ^ t<S uTrnp/TY), Kal €19 <fcuXaKTi>' SXiiSiitrn. 26. dii^i' X/vu 
Ch. x\iii. ' , ' - I ' »i r I I 

95; xxii. aoi, ou fif) e^A0r]s eK€l0€^', foj? &►• * 0.^08019 to*' fctyutoc " KoSodtOTii'. 

xiii. 7. 27. HKOuaaT€ oTi €ppt'0Ti T019 dpxaioi9, O' ,i.otx6uo-ti9 • 2^. evtu 

I Mk. xii. .-, -^ ' r,\ ' - » v,fl- .-8 

43. 0£ Aeyoj opiv, on Tra9 o (5\€TTe«»i' Yi'*'cii'<ci Trpos ro eiriOufiTjffai aoTtjs 

* This second o-€ ir«p. is omitted in J<^B. 

Luke's text may have suggested the 

' Tois apxawis is wanting in MSS. except LMA. 

' £-7rieufii]o-aL without pronoun, ^* (Tisch.) ; with avTTjv, BDL al. (VV.H. 
brackets). MZ have avTTjs. avrrjv is probably the true reading. 

law) with what goes before, and-^ it is out 
of keeping with the general drift of the 
teaching on the hill. It occurs in a 
different connection in Luke xii. 58, 
there as a solemn warning to the Jewish 
people, on its way to judgment, to re- 
pent. Meyer pleads that the logion 
might be repeated. It might, but only 
on suitable occasions, and the teaching 
on the hill does not seem to offer such 
an occasion. Kuinoel, Bleek, Holtzmann, 
Weiss and others regard the words as 
foreign to the connection. Referring to 
the exposition in Luke, I offer here only 
a few verbal notes mainly on points in 
which Matthew differs from Luke. — tcrOi 
cvvowv, be in a conciliatory mood, ready 
to come to terms with your opponent in 
a legal process (ovrfSiKos). It is a case 
of debt, and the two, creditor and debtor, 
are on the way to the court where they 
must appear together (Deut. xxi. 18, xxv. 
i). Matthew's expression implies will- 
ingness to come to terms amicably on 
the creditor's part, and the debtor is 
exhorted to meet him half way. Luke's 
8bs ipyaa-iav throws the willingness on 
the other side, or at least implies that the 
debtor will need to make an effort to bring 
the creditor to terms. — irapaS^, a much 
milder word than Luke's Karaonjp^j, which 
points to rough, rude handling, dragging 
an unwilling debtor along whither he 
would rather not go. — vnrripeTi), the officer 
of the court whose business it was to 
collect the debt and generally to carry 
out the decision of the judge ; in Luke 
irpaKTop. — KoSpavTTiv = quadrans, less 
than a farthing. Luke has Xc-tttov, half 
the value of a koS., thereby strengthening 
the statement that the imprisoned debtor 
will not escape till he has paid all be 

Vv. 27-30. Second illustration, taken 
from the seventh commandment. A 
grand moral law, in brief lapidary style 
guarding the married relation and the 
sanctity of home. Of course the Hebrew 
legislator condemned lust after another 

man's wife ; it is expressly prohibited in 
the tenth commandment. But in practical 
working as a public law the statute laid 
main stress on the outward act, and it 
was the tendency of the scribes to give 
exclusive prominence to this. Therefore 
Christ brings to the front what both 
Moses and the scribes left in the back- 
ground, the inward desire of which 
adultery is the fruit — Ver. 28. — 6 pXcTrcov : 
the looker is supposed to be a husband 
who by his look wrongs his own wife. — 
YvvaiKa: married or unmarried. — vpo%rh 
cTTiOviiTio-ai. The look is supposed to 
be not casual but persistent, the desire 
not involuntary or momentary, but 
cherished with longing. Augustine, a 
severe judge in such matters, defines the 
offence thus : " Qui hoc fine et hoc animo 
attenderit ut eam concupiscat ; quod 
jam non est titillari delectatione carnis 
sed plene consentire libidini " (De ser. 
Domini). Chrysostom, the merciless 
scourge of the vices of Antioch, says : 
6 cavTu TTjv ^TTiStip.iav (TuWiytav, i 
p.T]8€v6s ava-yKaJovTog to dT]piov €'Trei<r- 
aytiiv T|pep.ovvTi tu XoYi'<''fi.o>. Hom. 
xvii. The Rabbis also condemned 
unchaste looks, but in how coarse a 
style compared with Jesus let this 
quotation given by Fritzsche show : 
" Intuens vel in minimum digitum 
feminae est ac si intueretur in locum 
pudendum ". In better taste are these 
sayings quoted by Wiinsche (Beitrage) : 
" The eye and the heart are the two 
brokers of sin " ; " Passions lodge only 
in him who sees". — avTrjv (bracketed as 
doubtful by W. H.) : the accusative after 
eiriO. is rare and late. — We cannot but 
think of the personal relations to woman 
of One who understood so well the subtle 
sources of sexual sin. Shall we say that 
He was tempted in all points as we are, 
but desire was expelled by the mighty 
power of a pure love to which every 
woman was as a daughter, a sister, or a 
betrothed : a sacred object of tendei 
respect ? 

26 — 3*- 



f\hi] ifLoi\eufT€y afir^K Ir ttj KapSia auTou.^ 29. ci 8e 6 6<J)0aXfx<5s y 
(Tou 6 Sc|i6s 'oKavSaXi^ei <t€, ^ e^eXe auToi' Kal ^dXe diro crou • 
^aufjL<|>^pei ydp (xot 11*0 dTtroXijTai !»' twc fxcXuc aoo, Kal piTj oXoi' to 
(ra>|xd aou PXt]6t] els yievvav. 30. kui cL i^ Se^id aou ^eip o^Ka*'- 
SaXi^ei (re, ckkovJ'oi' auTTji' Kal pdXe diro aou • CTojJKJse'pet ydp ctoi tva 
diT6XTjTai Ir toIk fJieXuK aou, Kal |xt) oXot* to awpid aou ^Xir]0^ eis 

31. " 'Eppe'0T) 8^, OTi^ St &y diroXuaT) t^i* yui/aiKa auTou, Sotu 

Ch. xviii. 

6, 8, parall. 

1 Cor.viii. 

13 ( = 


Ch.xv. la; 

xvii. 27(to 



Ch. xviii. 


Ch. xviii. 


Ch.xix. 10 

with inf. 

* B has cavrov. 

' For the reading in text ^B have cis ytevvav aw€\0T). The T. R. has doubtless 
been conformed to the reading in ver. 29. Had it stood here in the copies used by 
the scribes they would not have substituted the reading in ^B, 

"' ^BDL omit oxt. 

Vv. 29, 30. Counsel to the tempted, 
expressing keen perception of the danger 
and strong recoil from a sin to be shunned 
at all hazards, even by excision, as it 
were, of offending members ; two named, 
eye and hand, eye first as mentioned 
before. — o 6<j>. 6 Selio; : the right eye 
duemed the more precious (i Sam. xi. 2, 
Zech. xi. 17). Similarly ver. 30 the right 
hand, the most indispensable for work. 
Even these right members ot" J^ body 
must go. But as the remaining ieft eye 
and hand can still offend, it is obvious 
that these counsels are not meant to be 
taken literally, but symbolically, as ex- 
pressing strenuous effort to master 
sexual passion [vide Grotius). Mutila- 
tion will not serve the purpose ; it may 
prevent the outward act, but it will not 
extinguish desire. — aKav8aX{SEi, cause 
to stumble; not found in Greek authors 
but in Sept. Sirach, and in N. T. in a 
tropical moral sense. The noun aKov- 
SaXov is also of firequent occurrence, a 
late form for aKav8dXT)9pov, a trap-stick 
with bait on it which being touched the 
trap springs. Hesychius gives as its 
equivalent l|t,iroSi,ap,(i9. It is used in a 
literal sense in Lev. xix. 14 (Sept.). — 
o-v|x4>£pei . . . tva ciTroX. : Zva. with sub- 
junctive instead of infinitive [vide on 
ch. iv. 3). Meyer insists on tva having 
here as always its telic sense and praises 
Fritzsche as alone interpreting the 
passage correctly. But, as Weiss ob- 
serves, the mere destruction of the 
member is not the purpose of its ex- 
cision. Note the impressive solemn 
repetition in ver. 30 of the thought in 
ver. 29, in identical terms save that for 
JXyjOxj is substituted, in the true reading, 
iir/XOij. This logioii occurs again in 

Matthew (xviii. 8, 9). Weiss (Marc- 
Evang., 326) thinks it is taken here 
from the Apostolic document, i.e., 
Matthew's book of Logia, and there firom 
Mark ix. 43-47. 

Vv. 31-32. Third illustration, sub- 
ordinate to the previous one, connected 
with the same general topic, sex rela- 
tions, therefore introduced less formally 
with a simple eppe6T| hi. This instance 
is certainly directed against the scribes 
rather than Moses. The law (Deut. 
xxiv. i) was meant to mitigate an existing 
usage, regarded as evil, in woman's 
interest. The scribes busied themselves 
solely about getting the bill of separation 
into due leg^ form. They did nothing 
to restrain the unjust caprice of 
husbands ; they rather opened a wider 
door to licence. The law contemplated 
as the ground of separation a strong 
loathing, probably of sexual origin. The 
Rabbis (the school of Shammai excepted) 
recognised whimsical dislikes, even a 
fancy for another fairer woman, as 
sufficient reasons. But they were 
zealous to have the bill in due form that 
the woman might be able to show she 
was free to marry again, and they 
probably flattered themselves they were 
defending the rights of women. Brave 
men! Jesus raised the previous question, 
and asserted a more radical right of 
woman — not to be put away, except 
when she put herself away by unfaithful- 
ness. He raised anew the prophetic 
cry (Mai. ii. 16), I hate putting away. It 
was an act of humanity of immense signi- 
ficance for civilisation, and of rare cour- 
age ; for He was fighting single-handed 
against widely prevalent, long - estab- 
lished opinion and custom. — airoXvo^: 



b here and auTjj dirooTilaiOK • 32. iyij 8c Xcyw ufxik", on 05 Sk AiroXuaY] ^ t^v 
XIX. 7. Y'J*''^^'^*^ auTou, "TrapcKTOs Xoyoo TropKeias, iroiei outtji' p.oi)(a(T0ai ^ • 
29. aCor. Kai 05 iav aiT0A6\u)i.tnf)»' y'^H-^'ni' H'OtX^''''^'^- 33' fldXii' ifJKOu<raT€ 

d here only OTl ippi&T] TOIS dpxaiOlS, OuK * 6TTlOpK1ia€lS, ATToSoiCTeiS 8e TW KuOlO) 
ID N. T., , . . » C> \ / . - r . , , ox ' . 

twice in Tous opKOU9 <rou • 34. eyu be A^yw op.ik juit) •ofioaai oXws • fir|T€ ec 
e Ch. iiiii. TW oupaKw OTl Opov-os ^orrl toG Qeou • 35. jii^Te ck ttj yfj, on 

It'>-22(with f , '^ 1 ' - C-> » " / J e, ,» B «* /» 

«»). Heb. •^■''■0''fO"'°*' ^''^'^ Twj' TTOOui' auTOo • fii^TC eis l6poaoXu|xa, on ■TroXts 

l^/h ^<rrl Tou fiEydXou ^aaiX^us • 36. jxi^Te iy Tjj ite<}>aXt] aoo 6fA<5crj)s, on 


35 (with fJs). fLk. XX. 43. Heb. i. 13. g this title for J. here and in Ps. xlvii. 3 

' ■!ras o airoXvtov in ^BLA al. Text in D al. 
" i«^BD have jwix^^^^voi. 

* The clause Kai os cov . . . jioixaTai is wanting in D and bracketed in W.H. 
In B it runs o airoXiXv|ievTiv ya|iTj(ras. 

the corresponding word in Greek 
authors is aTroir€p.irttv. — airoo-Tcitriov 
= PiPXiov aTrotTTao-iou in Deut. xxiv. 
The husband is to give her her dismissal, 
with a bill stating that she is no longer 
his wife. The singular form in lov is to 
be noted. The tendency in later Greek 
was to substitute lov for la, the plural 
ending. Vide Lobeck, Phryn., p. 517, 
— irap. X. TTopvEias : a most important 
exception which has given rise to much 
controversy that will probably last till 
the world's end. The first question is : 
Did Christ really say this, or is it not 
rather an explanatory gloss due to the 
evangelist, or to the tradition he 
followed? De Wette, Weiss, Holtz- 
mann (H, C.) take the latter view. It 
would certainly be in accordance with 
Christ's manner of teaching, using 
strong, brief, unqualified assertions to 
drive home unfamiliar or unwelcome 
truths, if the word as He spoke it took 
the form given in Lk. xvi. 18 : " Every 
one putting away his wife and marrying 
another committeth adultery". This 
was the fitting word to be spoken by one 
who hated putting away, in a time when 
it was common and sanctioned by the 
authorities. A second question is: What 
does tropvtlo. mean ? Schanz, a master, 
as becomes a Catholic, in this class of 
questions, enumerates five senses, but 
decides that it means adultery committed 
by a married woman. Some, including 
Dollinger (Christenthumund Kirche : Tke 
First Age of Christianity and the Church, 
vol. ii., app. iii.), think it means fornica- 
tion committed before marriage. The 
predominant opinion, both ancient and 
modern, is that adopted by Schanz. A 
third question is : Does Christ, assuming 
the words to have been spoken by Him, 

recognise adultery as a ground of absolute 
divorce, or only, as Catholics teach, of 
separation a toro et mensa ? Is it possible 
to be quite sure as to this point ? One 
thing is certain. Christ did not come to 
be a new legislator making laws for 
social life. He came to set up a high 
ethical ideal, and leave that to work on 
men's minds. The tendency of His 
teaching is to create deep aversion to 
rupture of married relations. That 
aversion might even go the length of 
shrinking from severance of the tie even 
in the case of one who had forfeited all 
claims. The last clause is bracketed by 
W. H. as of doubtful genuineness. It 
states unqualifiedly that to marry a dis- 
missed wife is adultery, Meyer thinks 
that the qualification ".unjustly dis- 
missed," i.e., not for adultery, is under- 
stood. Weiss (Meyer) denies this. 

Vv. 33-37. Fourth illustration: con- 
cerning oaths. A new theme, therefore 
formally introduced as in ver. 21, -rrdXtv 
points to a new series of illustrations 
(Weiss, Mt.-Evan., p. 165). The first 
series is based on the Decalogue. Thou 
shalt not swear falsely (Lev. xix. 12), 
and thou shalt perform unto the Lord 
thy vows (Num. xxx.3; Deut. xxiii. 22) — 
what is wrong in these dicta ? Nothing 
save what is left unsaid. The scribes 
misplaced the emphasis. They had a 
great deal to say, in sophistical style, of 
the oaths that were binding and not 
binding, nothing about the fundamental 
requirement of truth in the inward parts. 
Again, therefore, Jesus goes back on the 
previous question : Should there be any 
need for oaths? — Ver. 34. oXws: 
emphatic = TravTfXus, don't swear at 
all. Again an unqualified statement, to 
be taken not in the letter as a new law. 




ou Sut'ao'ai \i.iay Tpixot XcoK^jf f\ jiAaii'av' iroiTjo-ai.* 37. I<7T(o ' 8c h a Cor. i. 

6 XeJyos uuwf, "^ cat vat, ou ou • to 8e Trepio-aof toutwi' ck tou James v. 

ironripou iariv. 38. 'HKOuo-are oti ippiQii, ^'O^Qa\u.ov diTi 6<j)0aX- iEx. xxi. 24. 

Lev. xxiv. 
ao. Deut. ziz. 31. 

^ i^BL place ironf)«roi before rj ficXaivav. The T. R. represents an effort by the 

scribes to give a smoother reading. 

2 For £<rTo) (t<5DL a/.) Bl have ctrrai,, which expresses the injunction in the 
strongest way and is to be preferred (W.H. on margin). 

but in the spirit as inculcating such a 
love of truth that so far as we are con- 
cerned there shall be no need of oaths. 
In civil life the most truthful man has to 
take an oath because of the untruth and 
consequent distrust prevailing in the 
world, and in doing so he does not sin 
against Christ's teaching. Christ Him- 
self took an oath before the High Priest 
(Mt. xxvi. 63). What follows (w. 34- 
6) is directed against the casuistry which 
laid stress on the words rif Kvpiif, aiid 
evaded obligation by taking oaths in 
which the divine name was not 
mentioned : by heaven, earth, Jerusalem, 
or by one's own head. Jesus points out 
that all such oaths involved a reference 
to God. This is sufficiently obvious in 
the case of the first three, not so clear in 
case of the fourth. — Xcvktjv {j n^Xaivav : 
white is the colour of old age, black of 
youth. We cannot alter the colour of 
our hair so as to make our head look 
young or old. A fortiori we cannot 
bring on our head any curse by perjury, 
of which hair suddenly whitened might 
be the symbol. Providence alone can 
blast our life. The oath by the head is 
a direct appeal to God. All these oaths 
are binding, therefore, says Jesus; but 
what I most wish to impress on you is : 
do not swear at all. Observe the use of 
(«.TJT« (not jATiSe) to connect these different 
evasive oaths as forming a homogeneous 
group. Winer, sect. Iv. 6, endorses the 
view of Herrmann in Viger that ovre and 
p,i]Tc are adjunctival, oiSe and fxtiS^ dis- 
junctival, and says that the latter add 
negation to negation, while the former 
divide a single negation into parts. 
Jesus first thinks of these evasive oaths 
as a bad class, then specifies them one 
after the other. Away with them one 
and all, and let your word be vat voi, 
ov ov. That is, if you want to give 
assurance, let it not be by an oath, but 
by simple repetition of your yes and no. 
Grotius interprets: let your yea or nay in 
word be a yea or nay in deed, be as good 
as your word even unsupported by an 

oath. This brings the version of Christ's 
saying in Mt. into closer correspond- 
ence with Jas. v. 12 — TiTto TO Nai vai, 
Ktti TO Ov ov. Beza, with whom Achelis 
{Bevgpredigt) agrees, renders, "Let your 
affirmative discourse be a simple yea, 
and your negative, nay". — to Se irepio-- 
aov, the surplus, what goes beyond these 
simple words. — Ik tov "rrovijpov, hardly 
" from the evil one," though many 
ancient and modern interpreters, including 
Meyer, have so understood it. Meyer 
says the neuter " of evil " gives a very 
insipid meaning. I think, however, that 
Christ expresses Himself mildly out of 
respect for the necessity of oaths in a 
world full of falsehood. I know. He 
means to say, that in certain circum- 
stances something beyond yea and nay 
will be required of you. But it comes of 
evil, the evil of untruthfulness. See that 
the evil be not in you. Chrysostom 
(Horn, xvii.) asks: How evil, if it be 
God's law ? and answers : Because the 
law was good in its season. God acted 
like a nurse who gives the breast to an 
infant and afterwards laughs at it when 
it wants it after weaning. 

Vv. 38-42. Fifth illustration, firom the 
law of compensation. Ver. 38 contains 
the theme, the following w. Christ's 
comment. — 'O(j>0aX.(iov . . • iSdvTOS. An 
exact quotation from Ex. xxi. 24. Christ's 
criticism here concerns a precept from the 
oldest code of Hebrew law. Fritzsche 
explains the accusatives, i<t>0a\|jiov, 
A80VTO, by supposing elvai to be under- 
stood : " Ye have heard that Moses wrote 
that an eye shall be for an eye ". The 
simplest explanation is that the two 
nouns in the original passage are under 
the government of Suo-ci, Ex. xxi. 23. 
(So Weiss and Meyer after Grotius.) 
Tersely expressed, a sound principle 01 
civil law for the guidance of the judge, 
acted on by almost all peoples: Christ 
does not condemn it : if parties come 
before the judge, let him by all means 
give fair compensation for injuries re- 
ceived. He simply leaves it on one side. 

1 12 



I Ch. xxvi. jioo, ical iSorra drrl 656t'Tos • 39. iyii Se \iy<t> ufxl*' |x?| dmoTTjKai tw 

Hosea xi. TTorqpu) ■ dXX* OC7T19 <T€ ^ pairKTci ^TTi ^ Tr\y he(,i.dv CTOu ^ cnay6ya,^ 

k Lk. vi. 2^. (TTpi^oy aoTw Kal Tqc aWrji' • 40. Kal Tto QfKovTi ctoi KpiOrji/at xal 
(Hose« XI. ^ - y ' \ o • - , , ~ X V 'c , X „ 

4). Tov )(iTU)t'a aou Aapeiv, a<pes auTw Kat to iiiaTtok • 41. Kai oorns ore 

* For pairio-d erri i>^BI have pairijei (pres.) tis. The eiri of the T. R. confonns 
to the parall. in Luke. 

' For o-ov oaa^ova BD have o-ia'yova o-ow. Tisch. (with ^) omits arov. W.H. 
bracket it. 

" Though the judge must give redress 
when demanded, you are not bound to 
ask it, and if you take My advice you 
will not." In taking up this position 
Jesus was in harmony with the law itself 
which contains dissuasives against vin- 
dictiveness, e.g.. Lev. xix. 18: "Thou 
shalt not avenge nor bear any grudge 
against the children of thy people". 
The fault of the scribes did not lie in 
gainsaying this and introducing the jus 
talionis into private life, but in giving 
greater prominence to the legal than to 
the ethical element in the O. T. teaching, 
and in occupying themselves mainly with 
discussing the casuistry of compensation, 
e.g., the items to be compensated for in 
a case of wounding — the pain, the cure, 
the loss of time, the shame, etc., and the 
money value of the whole. Jesus turned 
the minds of His disciples away from 
these trivialities to the great neglected 
ethical commonplace. 

Ver. 39. |iT) dvTi<rr>)vau : resist not, 
either by endeavouring to prevent injury 
or by seeking redress for it. — ruirovtjptp, 
not the devil, as Chrys. and Theophy. 
thought ; either the evil doer or the evil 
doing or done. Opinion is much divided 
between the last two meanings. The 
sense is the same in either case. The 
A. V. takes irovrjpy as neuter, the 
R. V. as masculine. The former is on 
the whole to be preferred. Instances 
of injury in various forms are next speci- 
fied to illustrate the general precept. 
These injuries have been variously dis- 
tinguished — to body, and property, and 
freedom, Tholuck ; exemplum citatur in- 
juriae, privatae,forensis, curialis, Bengel ; 
injuries connected with honour, material 
good, waste of time, Achclis, who points 
out that the relation of the three, Ex. in 
w. 39-41, is that of an anti-climax, in- 
juries to honour being felt most, and 
those involving waste of time least. — octtis 
. . . oXXtjv. In the following instances 
there is a climax : injury proceeds from 
bad to worse. It is natural to expect 
the same in this one. But when the right 

cheek has been struck, is it an aggrava- 
tion to strike the left ? Tholuck, Bleek, 
and Meyer suggest that the right cheek 
is only named first according to common 
custom, not supposed to be struck first. 
Achelis conceives the right cheek to be 
struck first with the back of the hand, 
then the left with a return stroke with 
the palm, harder than the first, and ex- 
pressing in a higher measure intention to 
insult. — pairi^w in class. Greek = to beat 
with rods ; later, and in N. T., to smite 
with the palm of the hand ; vide Lobeck, 
Phryn., p. 175. — Ver. 40, Kpi0T)vai = 
Kpivco-Oai in i Cor. vi. i, to sue at law as 
in A. V. Grotius takes it as meaning 
extra-judicial strife, while admitting that 
the word is used in the judicial sense in 
the Sept., e.g.. Job ix. 3, Eccles. vi. 
10. Beza had previously taken the same 
view. — x^Tuva, IjicLtiov. The contention 
is supposed to be about the under gar- 
ment or the tunic, and the advice is, 
rather than go to law, let him have not 
only it but also, Kal, the more costly 
upper robe, mantle, toga. The poor 
man might have several tunics or shirts 
for change, but only one upper garment, 
used for clothing by day, for bed-covei 
by night, therefore humanely forbidden 
to be retained over night as a pledge, Ex. 
xxii. 26. 

Ver. 41, aYYCip£vcrci: compel thee to 
go one mile in A. V. and R. V. Hatch 
[Essays in Biblical Greek, p. 37) thinks it 
means compel thee to carry his baggage, 
a very probable rendering in view of the 
history of the word as he gives it. A 
Persian word, originally, introduced into 
the Greek, Latin, and Rabbinic languages, 
it denoted first to requisition men, beasts, 
or conveyances for the courier system 
described in Herod, viii. 98, Xen. Cyr. 
viii. 6, 17 ; next in post-classical use 
under the successors of the Persians in 
the East, and under the Roman Em- 
pire, it was applied to the forced trans- 
port of military baggage by the inhabit- 
ants of a country through which troops 
were passing. Hatch remarks : " The 




' dvYCipeuaei " u.iXiOk' tv, " oTravc iier' aiiroG 8uo. 42. Tw * aiToCk'Ti 1 Ch. xxvii. 

^ / o ' _ 3J. Mk. 

a€ 8180U ^ • Kttl Tov SAoi'Ta diro ctoO SaweiaacrOai * ia?| d7rocrTpa4>fJ5. xv. 21. 

^ ^ m here only. 

43. 'HKouo-aT€ oTt ippiQx], 'AYairi'io-eis toi' ^ Tr\i]cnoy aou, kui fiiori]CT€is n foliow-;d 

roc ex^po^ ^^" ' 44- ^Y*^ ^^ Xeyw u}ai>'> aYCiTraTC tous e)(0pous u|j,ajv, and gen. 
, t - \ - - \ - here and 

suXoyeiTe tou9 KaxapwfieVous ujxds, xa\<js iroietTe TOU9 iiicroui'Tas in Lk. xii. 

ijp,as,^ Kul Trpoa£ux€<^0€ uirep twv cirr^pea^iSiawv' up.ds, Kai * Siwicdt'Twi' ma 

o with ace. of person asked here, Ch. vi. 8, Lk. vl. 30. p Ch. lix. 19. Lk. x. 2; 

» 80s in t^BD. 8180U (T. R.) conforms to Luke (vi. 30). 

* W.H. give Savicrao-eai after ^B*DA. 

* One of the more important various readings occurs here. From ^Xoycit* to 
vfias is omitted in t^B, some ancient versions (including Syr. Sin.), and some 
cursives. The omitted part may be regarded as an importation in a harmonistic 
spirit from Lk. vi. 27. It is left out by most modern editors. 

* Twv ein]pt«5ovTft»v vjias Kai also wanting in ^B, and also imported from Lk. 
(vi. 28). 

extent to which this system prevailed is 
seen in the elaborate provisions of the 
later Roman law : angariae came to be 
one of those modes of taxing property 
which, under the vicious system of the 
empire, ruined both individuals and com- 
munities ". An instance in N. T. of the 
use of the word in this later sense occurs 
in Mt.x3cvii. 32, Mk. xv. 21, in reference to 
Simon compelled to carry Christ's cross. 
We may conceive the compulsion in the 
present case to proceed from a military 
man. — |xtXiov, a Roman mile, about 1600 
yards, a late word. — 8vo, in point of time, 
the additional mile = two, there and 
back, with proportional fatigue, a 
decided climax of hardship. But it is 
not merely a question of time, as Achelis 
thinks. The sense of oppression is in- 
volved, subjection to arbitrary military 
power. Christ's counsel is : do not sub- 
mit to the inevitable in a slavish, sullen 
spirit, harbouring thoughts of revolt. Do 
the service cheerfully, and more than you 
are asked. The counsel is far-reaching, 
covering the case of the Jewish people 
subject to the Roman yoke, and of slaves 
serving hard masters. The three cases 
of non-resistance are not meant to foster 
an abject spirit. They point out the 
higher way to victory. He that mag- 
nanimously bears overcomes. 

Ver. 42. This counsel does not seem 
to belong to the same category as the 
preceding three. One does not think of 
begging or borrowing as an injury, but 
at most as a nuisance. Some have 
doubted the genuineness of the logion as 
a part of the Sermon. But it occurs in 
Luke's redaction (vi. 30), transformed 
indeed so as to make it a case of the 


sturdy beggar who helps himself to what 
he does not get for the asking. Were 
there idle, lawless tramps in Palestine in 
our Lord's time, and would He counsel 
such treatment of them ? If so, it is the 
extreme instance of not resisting evil. — 
|XT) a,iroo~rpa<})^s with tov fieXovra in 
accusative. One would expect the geni- 
tive with the middle, the active taking an 
accusative with genitive, e.g., 1 Tim. iv. 
4, TT)v aKOTjv diro ttjs dXtjOeias. But the 
transitive sense is intelligible. In turn- 
ing myself away from another, I turn 
him away from me. Vide Heb. xii. 25, 2 
Tim. i. 15. 

Vv. 43-48. Sixth and final illus- 
tration : from the Law of Love. To an 
old partial form of the law Jesus opposes 
a new universal one. — Ver. 43. r\Kovva.Ti 
Sti lppiBt\ : said where, by whom, and 
about whom ? The sentiment Jesus 
supposes His hearers to have heard is not 
found in so many words in the O. T. 
The first part, " Thou shalt love thy 
neighbour," occurs in Lev. xix. 18. The 
contrary of the second part is found in 
Ex. xxiii. 4, where humanity towards 
the straying or overburdened beast of an 
enemy is enjoined. It is to be hoped 
that even the scribes did not in cold blood 
sin against the spirit of this precept by 
teaching men to love their private friends 
and hate their private enemies. Does 
ir-Xfio-tov then mean an Israelite, and 
i\Qp6v a Gentile, and was the fault of 
the traditional law of love that it con- 
fined obligation within national limits ? 
The context in Lev. xix. 18 gives irX. that 
sense : " Thou shalt not bear any grudge 
against the children of thy people ". On 
the other hand, the tendency of Israel's 




qtrmnsitlve- uuas • 45. OirwS V^nflffOc uloi TOU TTaTDOS UUUW TOO iv OUOa^OlS, OTl 
ly here v«v ,« , \ \ ,> 

only in N. To>' rjXioi' auToG ' dk'aTAXei iiTi ironrjpous koi dyaSous, Kai "^ Pp^)(ci 

Gen. iii. eiri oiKaious kqi doiKOu;. 46. iay ydp dyaTrt^ffTiTC toos dYairuiKTas 


t Lk. vii. ^s, ufxas, Tika fxiaooK c^cTC ; ouxi xai 01 T€K<j)vai to au 
44 ; xvii. 
39. Jas. V. 17. 

' Some editors, following DZ, prefer ovtcjs to to avTo. W.H., while retaining 
TO avTo, which has the support of Jj^BL, put ovtus (I^^) i'l tl^t- inar;;in. 

election, and of certain texts {vide Ex. 
xxiii., Dcut. vii.), was to foster aversion 
to the outside nations, and from Ezra 
onwards the spirit of Judaism was one of 
increasing hostility towards the goyivi — 
vide Esther. The saying quoted by 
Jesus, if not an exact report of Rabbinical 
teaching, did no injustice to its general 
attitude. And the average Jew in this 
respect followed the guidance of his 
teachers, loving his own countrymen, 
regarding with racial and religious 
aversion those beyond the pale. — Ver. 
44. ^x®P°"5 "^^y ^* taken in all senses ; 
national, private, religious. Jesus abso- 
lutely negatives hatred as inhuman. 
But the sequel shows that He has in 
view the enemies whom it is most diffi- 
cult to love — 8iwK<5vT«v : those who 
persecute on account of religion. The 
clauses imported into the T. R. from 
Luke have a more general reference to 
enmities arising from any cause, although 
they also receive a very emphatic mean- 
ing when the cause of alienation is 
religious differences. There are no 
hatreds so bitter and ruthless as those 
originating therein. How hard to love 
the persecutor who thinks he does God 
service by heaping upon you all manner 
of indignities. I3ut the man who can 
rejoice in persecution (ver. 12) can love 
and pray for the persecutor. The 
cleavage between Christians and un- 
believers took the place of that between 
the chosen race and the Gentiles, and 
tempted to the same sin. 

Vv. 45-47. Characteristically lofty in- 
ducements to obey the new law ; like- 
ness to God (ver. 45) ; moral distinction 
among men (w. 46, 47). — viol tov 
■iraTpos tifiwv : in order tha^^ ye may be 
indeed sons of God : noblesse oblige ; 
God's sons must be Godlike. " Father " 
again. The new name for God occurs 
sixteen times in the Sermon on the Mount ; 
to familiarise by repetition, and define 
by discriminating use. — oti, not = Ss, but 
meaning " because " : for so your Father 
acts, and not otherwise can ye be His 
sons. — av. -eXXsi, sometimes intransitive, 

as in Mt. iv. 16, Lk. xii. 54, here 
transitive, also in Sept., Gen. iii. 18, 
etc., and in some Greek authors (Pindar. 
Isth. vi., 110,^.^.) to cause to rise. The 
use of Ka((iv (ver. 15) and avaT^XXeiv in 
an active sense is a revival of an old 
poetic use in later Greek (exx. of the 
former in Elsnerj.^Pp^x**' = pluit (Vulg.j, 
said of God, as in the expression -uovtos 
TOV Aios (Kypke, Observ. Sac.). The 
use of this word also in this sense is a 
revival of old poetic usage. — xovt]povs, 
ayaOovs ; SiKaCovs, clSCkov;, not mere 
repetition. There is a difi'crence between 
aya6(S9 and SiKaio; similar to that 
between generous and just. TrovT)povs 
may be rendered niggardly — vide on vi. 
23. The sentiment thus becomes : *' God 
makes His sun rise on niggardly and 
generous alike, and His rain fall on just 
and unjust ". A similar thought in 
Seneca, De benif. iv. 26 : " Si deos 
imitaris, da et ingratis beneficia, nam et 
sceleratis sol oritur, et piratis patent 
maria ". The power of the fact stated 
to influence as a motive is wholly 
destroyed by a pantheistic conception of 
God as indifferent to moral distinctions, or 
a deistic idea of Him as transcendent, 
too far above the world, in heaven, as it 
were, to be able to take note of such 
differences. The divine impartiality is 
due to magnanimity, not to indifference 
or ignorance. Another important re- 
flection is that in this word of Jesus we 
find distinct recognition of the fact that 
in human life there is a large sphere 
(sun and rain, how much these cover !) 
in which men are treated by Providence 
irrespectively of character ; by no means 
a matter of course in a Jewish teacher, 
the tendency being to insist on exact 
correspondence between lot and charac- 
ter under a purely retributive conception 
of God's relation to man. — Ver. 46. pi.cr9ov: 
here, and three times in next chapter ; one 
of several words used in this connection of 
thought — trtpwraov (ver. 47), TeXeioi (ver. 
48) — having a legal sound, and capable 
of being misunderstood. The scribes 
and Rabbis had much to say about merit 




47- Kal iaf ' (li/iraffr^o-fle Tois ASeX<J)oos * vfiCjy \i6voy, Ti irepiaaoy » Ch. r. 12. 
TroieiT€ ; oux^t ^ai 01 TcXwi'ai outw' Troiouaic ; 48. eaeffSe o3>' ufieis c". Heb. 

«_ • «« \«-<f» -» -<4/>>> ll. 13 (sal- 

T6Aeioi, uairep ° o TraTTjp ujxuk o iv tois oupacois xeXeios eori. uting the 

t Cb. xix. 21. Jamw i. 4 ; iii. a. Heb. v. 14. 

' Many copies have ^iXovs, bat «8(X<^ous is the reading of ^BDZ. 

^ t^BDZ have cdviKoi instead of T€X«0vai and to auTo for ovtw. See below. 

* o>s in ^BLZZ. wtrrrip possibly a literary refinement of the scribes. 

* o ovpavios instead of o <v r. ovpavois in ^BD^LZI. 

and reward — vide Weber, Dif Leliren dis 
Talmud, c. xix. { 59, on the idea of 
Sechuth (merit). Totally opposed to 
Rabbinism, Jesus did not lose His 
balance, or allow Himself to be driven 
into extremes, after the usual manner 
of controversialists (Protestants and 
Catholics, e.g.). He speaks of }ii(r9os 
without scruple {cf, on Lk. vi. 32). — 
TcXwvai (tc'Xos, tax, <S>, first men- 
tion of a class often referred to in the 
Gospels, unpopular beyond their deserts ; 
therefore, like women unjustly treated by 
husbands, befriended by Jesus ; the 
liumble agents of the great farmers of 
taxes, disliked as representing a foreign 
yoke, and on account of too frequent 
acts of injustice, yet human and kindly 
within their own class, loving those that 
loved them. Jesus took advantage of 
this characteristic to win their love by 
friendly acts. — Ver. 47. aairao-rjaBt, 
" Salute," a very slight display of love 
from our Western point of view, a mere 
civility ; more significant in the East ; 
symbolic here of friendly relations, hence 
Tholuck, Bleek and others interpret, '* to 
act in a friendly manner," which, as 
Meyer remarks, is, if not the iignijicatio, 
at least the adsignijicatio. — Trtpiaerov, 
used adverbially, literally *' that which is 
over and above " ; A. V., " more " ; here, 
tropically = distinguished, unusually good 
= " quid magnum, eximium, insigne " 
(Pricacus), so in Rom. iii. i. In Plutarch, 
Romulus, xi., of one who excelled in cast- 
ing horoscopes. Christ would awaken 
in disciples the ambition to excel. He 
does not wish them to be moral 
mediocrities, men of average morality, 
but to be morally superior, uncommon. 
This seems to come perilously near to 
the spirit of Pharisaism (cf. Gad. i. 14, 
irpotKOTTTov), but only seems. Christ 
commends being superior, not thinking 
oneself superior, the Pharisaic charac- 
teristic. Justin, Apol. i. 15, mixes w. 
46 and 47, and for irepKro-bv puts Kaivbv, 
and for TcXwvai, or IOvikoI, iropvoi ; " If 

ye love those who love you what new 

thing do ye ? for even fornicators do 
this." — 46viKoi, here as elsewhere in tha 
Gospels associated with rcXuvai (Mt. 
xviii. 17). A good many of the publicans 
would be Gentiles. For a Jew it was a 
virtue to despise and shun both classes. 
Surely disciples will not be content to 
be on a moral level with them 1 Note 
that Jesus sees some good even in 
despised classes, social outcasts. 

Ver. 48. Concluding exhortation, olv, 
from an ancient form of the participle of 
the verb elvai (Klotz, Devar.) = " things 
being so ; " either a collective inference 
from all that goes before (w. 21-47) of 
as a reflection on the immediately pre- 
ceding argument. Both come to the 
same thing. Godlike love is commended 
in w. 44-47, but the gist of all the six 
illustrations of Christ's way of thinking 
is : Love the fulfilling of the law ; 
obviously, except in the case of oaths, 
where it is truth that is enjoined. But 
truth has its source in love ; Eph. iv. 15 : 
iXirj6<vovT€s Iv a-yaifQ, " truthing it in 
love". — €(r£o-0«, future, "ye shall be" = 
BE.— -ifisls, vc, emphatic, in contrast with 
T«X. and 46v., who are content with 
moral commonplace and conventional 
standards. — TeXeioi 1 in general, men who 
have reached the end, touched the ideal, 
that at least their purpose, not satisfied 
with anything short of it. The tA.cioi are 
not men with a conceit of perfection, but 
aspirants — men who seek to attain, like 
Paul : 81WKW el Kal KaTaXa^ot, Phil. iii. 
12, and like him, single-minded, their 
motto: tv Zi. Single-mindcdness is a 
marked characteristic of all genuine 
citizens of the kingdom (Mt. vi. 33), 
and what the Bible means by perfection, 
All men who attain have one great 
ruling aim. That aim for the disciple, 
as here set forth, is Godlikeness — us 6 
iraTTjp . . . TcXeios ecmv. God is what 
His sons aspire to be ; He never sinks 
below the ideal : impartial, benignant, 
gracious love, even to the unworthy ; for 




• followed \ I. I. " 'nPOZEXETE ^ T))i' eXcrjfiOCTuirjk'- ujjlwi' fiij iroieir e'jji- 

wiih inf. irpocrBev jdv di'OpojTraic, Trpoc to ''0£a6rn'ai aurois " ti 8e fii'iYC, uiCTOof 

hereby »j<- ^ ' ' ... , „ , 

iroT. with OUK fX''''' "ft^ptl Tip TraT|)l up.Wf Tu> iv Toi? '' OUpttk'OLS. 2. oiai' GUI' 

xxi. 34. TTOiTJs "^Xerjinoaui'Tic, p.^ * aaXTriat]? einrpocrOiv aoo, ucrirep ol Airo- 
b Ch. x.xiii. , . . '„ , -,.- 

5. Mk. KpiTai iroiouCTiK £K Tat9 aufayuYais Kai iv rais pufJiats, ottws 

c same 8o§aCT0WCTi»' OTTO TWK dkOpuTTO)*' ' dfi^v X^y*' "JJ^^^'j dire'xouai rhv 
phrase in 

Sir. vii. 10. Tobit iv. 7. Acta x. a; i.xiv. 17. d i Cor. «v. 52 »nd several times in Revel. « Lk 
xiv. «i. Acts ix. II ; xii. 10. 

^ 8< after irpoc-fx^TC in t^LZ, inserted by Ti.^ch. and 1)v W.II. widim hiackcls. BD 
have no 8«. It might have fallen out by similar ending (t«) ; on the other hand, 
it would stand here appropriately as a connecting particle of transition. 

' i^BD have SiKaioo-vvriv ; doubtless the true reading, as a general caution against 
counterfeit righteousness was to be looked for first ; then particular examples : alms, 
prayer, fasting. 

* Tisch., on the authority of ^D i, 33, omits tois. 

that, not all conceivable attributes, is 
what is in view, ut, not in degree, that 
were a discouraging demand, but in 
kind. The kind very necessary to be 
emphasised in view of current ideas and 
practice, in which holiness was dis- 
sociated from love. The law " Be holy 
for I am holy " (Lev. xi. 44) was taken 
negatively and worked out in separation 
from the reputedly sinful. Jesus gave it 
positive contents, and worked it out in 
gracious love. 

Chapter VI. The Sermon Con- 
tinued. From Scribe law, the main 
theme of vv. 21-48, the Teacher passes to 
speak of Pharisaic practice. Ver. i 
describes the general character of 
Pharisaic righteousness. Then follow 
three special examples : alms, w. 2-4 ; 
prayer, w. 5-6 ; fasting, w. 16-18. The 
transition from the one theme to the 
other was almost inevitable, and we may 
be sure that what follows formed part of 
the instruction on the hill. 

Ver. I. irpocexcTc (tov vovv under- 
stood), to attend to ; here, with p.T) 
following, take heed, be on your guard 
against. — StKaioo-uvi^v, not eXerjuoo-vvijv 
(T. R.), is the reading demanded in a gene- 
ral introductory statement. Alms formed 
a very prominent part of Pharisaic right- 
eousness, and was in Rabbinical dialect 

called righteousness, np"!}? {vide Weber, 
p. 273), but it was not the whole, and it 
is a name for the whole category that is 
wanted in ver. i. If Jesus spoke in 
Aramaic He might, as Lightfoot (Hor. 
Hebr.) suggests, use the word tsedakah 
both in the first and in the following 
three verses ; in the first in the general 

sense, in the other placea in the special 
sense of alms. — cftirpoa0cv r. dv6pu7r«av. 
In chap. V. 16 Christ commands 
disciples to let their light shine before 
men. Here He seems to enjoin the 
contrary. The contradiction is only 
apparent. The two places may be com- 
bined in a general rule thus : Show 
when tempted to hide, hide when 
tempted to show. The Pharisees were 
exposed, and yielded, to the latter 
temptation. They did their righteous- 
ness, irpbs rh 6£aOfjvai, to be seen. 
Their virtue was theatrical, and that 
meant doing only things which in 
matter and mode were commonly ad- 
mired or believed by the doers to be. 
This spirit of ostentation Christ here and 
elsewhere represents as the leading 
feature of Pharisaism. — cl Sk pr^yc, a 
combination of four particles frequently 
occurring in the Gospels, meaning: if at 
least ye do not attend to this rule, then, 
etc. ye is a very expressive particle, de- 
rived by Klotz, Devar. ii. 272, from TEfl, 
i.e., EAJQ, or from oye, and explained as 
meant to render the hearer attentive. 
Baumlein, dissenting from Klotz's 
derivation, agrees substantially with his 
view of its meaning as isolating a thought 
from all else and placing it alone in the 
light (Untersuchungen uber Griechische 
Partikeln, p. 54) r= «' Mark my words, 
for if you do not as I advise then," etc. — 
piadbv oxpic ex^Tc : on piaSbv, vide v, 46. 
The meaning is that theatrical virtue 
does not count in the Kingdom of God. 
Right motive is essential there. There 
may be a reward, there must be, else 
theatrical religion would not be so 
common ; but it is not irapa t^ irarp^. 

«— 4. 



fjnaddc auTuJK. 3. oroG 8e iroioGrros Aerjfxoffutajc, fi?) yKUTO) ^J 

dpicTTcpd aou ti iroici i?i 8£^i<£ ctou, 4. oirws 'H "tou t) ^Xerjp.offui'T] ^ ^i* 

Tw ' KpuTTTu • Kal 6 TTaTT^p ffoo 6 pXe'iTwi' iv Tw KpuTiTw, auTos " f R"'" " 29 
' ' ' ' (phrase). 

^ Tisch. has i] <rov €XeTjfio<rvvii t|, following ^D (ij <r. cXc. i\). Most modern 
editors as in text. 

" t^BL omit avTos, which is found in D. 

Vv. 2-4. Almsgiving. Ver 2. cXsrjfio- 
o-Tjvtjv, mercy in general, bnt specifically 
alms, as a common mode of showing 
mercy. Compare our word charity. — 
o-oXtritfT|s : to be understood metaphori- 
cally, as there is no evidence of the 
literal practice. Furrer gives this from 
Consul Wctstein to illustrate the word. 
When a man (in Damascus) wants to do 
a good act which may bring a blessing 
by way of divine recompense on his own 
family, e.g., healing to a sick child, he 
goes to a water-carrier with a good 
voice, gives him a piece of money, and 
says " Sebil," i.e., give the thirsty a 
fresh drink of water. The water-carrier 
fills his skin, takes his stand in the 
market, and sings in varied tones : " O 
thirsty, come to the drink-offering," the 
giver standing by, to whom the carrier 
says, as the thirsty drink, " God forgive 
thy sins, O giver of the drink" {Zsckt. 
fur M. und R., i8go. Vide also his Wand- 
erungen d. d. H. L., p. 437). — viiroKpixol, 
stage-players in classics, used in N. T. 
in a moral and sinister sense, and for the 
Christian mind heavily burdened with evil 
connotation— /j^/ocri<« / What a deep- 
ening of the moral sense is implied in 
the new meaning 1 The abhorrence of 
acting for effect in religion is due to 
Christ's teaching. It has not yet quite 
banished the thing. There are religious 
actors still, and they draw good houses. 
— <ruvttYW7ats : where alms were col- 
lected, and apparently also distributed. — 
^ij|iais, streets, in eastern cities narrow 
lanes, a late meaning; in earlier Greek = 
impetus — onset. Vide Rutherford's New 
Phryn., 488. Cf. irXaTciwv, ver. 5. 
•irXaT€itt, supp. 680s = a broad street. — 
So|a(r9uo-iv : in chap. v. 16 God is 
conceived as recipient of the glory ; 
here the almsgiver, giving for that 
purpose. — a|AT|v : introducing a solemn 
statement, and a very serious one for 
the parties concerned. — airexovxri, they 
have in full; they will get no more, 
nothing from God : so in Lk. vi. 24, 
Phil. iv. i3 (vide on Mk. xiv. 41). The 
hypocrite partly does not believe this, 
partly docs not care, so long as he gets 

the applause of his public. — Ver. 3. (j,t) 
yvuTM : in proverbial form a counsel to 
give with simplicity. Let not even thy 
left hand, if possible even thyself, know, 
still less other men ; give without self- 
consciousness or self-complacency, the 
root of ostentation. — iv T&i Kpvirr^ : 
known to the recipient, of course, but 
to no other, so far as you are concerned, 
hardly even to yourself. " Pii lucent, et 
tamen latent," Beng. — 6 pXeTrcov I. r. k., 
who seeth in the dark. " Acquainted 
with all my ways." Ps. cxxxix., a 
comfort to the sincerely good, not to 
the counterfeits. — aTroSuaci <roi : a cer- 
tainty, and not merely of the future. 
The reward is present ; not in the form 
of self-complacency, but in the form of 
spiritual health, like natural buoyancy, 
when all physical functions work well. 
A right-minded man is happy without 
reflecting why ; it is the joy of living 
in summer sunshine and bracing moun- 
tain air. The iv r^i <{)avep<ji here and in 
w. 6 and iS, a gloss by some superficial 
copyist, ignores the inward present re- 
ward, and appeals in a new form to the 
spirit of ostentation. 

Vv. 5-6. Prayer, ws ol diroKpirai, 
as the actors. We shrink from the 
harshness of the term " hypocrite ". 
Jesus is in the act of creating the new 
meaning by the use of an old word in 
a new connection. — (piXovai stands in 
place of an adverb. They love to, are 
wont, do it with pleasure. This con- 
struction is common in classics, even in 
reference to inanimate objects, but here 
only and in Mt. xxiii. 6-7 in N. T.— 
io-TWTcs, ordinary attitude in prayer. 
orTr]vai and ica0TJ(r9ai seem to be used 
sometimes without emphasis to denote 
simply presence in a place (so Pricaeus). 
— cruva-ytj^ats, -yuviais t. TrXar. : usual 
places of prayer, especially for the 
" actors," v/here men do congregate, in 
the synagogue for worship, at the 
corners of the broad streets for talk 01 
business ; plenty of observers in both 
cases. Prayer had been reduced to 
system among the Jews. Methodising, 
with stated hours and forms, began after 




gCh. xrl.jy. •diToSwcrei aoi iy t<L ^avepio.^ 5. Kai otoi' irpooreoxtl, o6k ?ot) ' 

1 Ch. xxiii. wcnrrep ^ 01 uTTOKpiTQi, on ^^iXouai*' ly rals aurayuyais koi iv rais 
6. Lk. XX. , - \ - . - ' a 1 « A . - 

^6. yuKiais TWK ■»r\aT€iw»' Cotwtcs 7rpoaeuxccr9ai, oirus af * ^acuai Tois 

dKOpuTTOi; ' dpi^i' \<^Y<^ •'H'l*'* on' dire'xouai Tof p.i(r06^ auruf. 6. 

I Ch. XXJT. »c.. , »\fl»xl ~> A y s. ' 

26. Lk. cru oi, oraK irpo(T«u)(Ti, £i(re\0£ eis to TajAieioj''* o-oo, Kai xXciaas 
xii. 3, i<. ,n> ,'j.. / .,„ „ ,, 

Sir. xxix. TTjf WupoK ffou, irpoaeu^ai tu) irarpi aoo tw ck tw KpUTrrw • Kai o 

Sept. iraTTip (tou 6 PX^TTWK c*- tw KpuirTw dTToScJaci aoi ^k tw ^avepu.'' 

' If^BD omit. This time L goes with the MSS. which have this reading. 
Doubtless a gloss, vide below. 

* For irpoo-cuxi] ovk io-rj t^B have irpo<rivxn<''6< ovk €<r«r6«, adopted by W.H. and 
other editors. 

» OS in t^BDZ. 

* av omitted in i>^BDL. 
» OTi omitted in t^BDZ. 

« Ta|i€vov in W.H, So in t^BDL (rojiiov, ^^D;, 

' ^BDZ omit «v t« «J'*''*P'*> followed by most modern editors. 

Ezra, and grew in the Judaistic period ; 
traces of it even in the later books of 
O. T., e.g., Dan. vi. 10, 11 {vide Schultz, 
Alt. Theol.). Tlie hour of prayer might 
overtake a man anywhere. The " actors " 
might, as De Wettc suggests, be glad 
to he overtaken, or even arrange for it, 
in some wcll-frcquented place. — ottu; 
^avucriv r. a. in order that they may 
appear to men, and have it remarked : 
how devout ! Ver. 6 : true prayer in 
contrast to the theatrical type.— tru 8i, 
thou, my disciple, in opposition to the 
" actors ". — Sxav, when the spirit moves, 
not when the customary hour comes, 
freedom from rule in prayer, as in 
fasting (Mt. ix. 14), is taken for 
granted,— ri Tap-eiov, late form for 
Ta|xi£tov (Lobeck, Phryn., 493), first a 
store-chamber, then any place of privacy, 
a closet (Mt. xxiv. 26). Note the aov 
after rafi. and 6vpav and irarpL, all em- 
phasising isolation, thy closet, thy door, 
thy Father. — KXeio-as, carefully shutting 
thy door, the door of thine own retreat, 
to exclude all but thy Father, with as 
much secrecy as if you were about a 
guilty act. What delicacy of feeling, 
as well as sincerity, is implied in all 
this ; greatly to be respected, often 
sinned against.— ^G iv t^ Kp\«rT^, He 
who is in the secret place ; perhaps 
with allusion to God's presence in the 
dark holy of holies (Achelis). He is 
there in the place from which all fellow- 
men are excluded. Is social prayer 
negatived by this directory ? No, but 
it is implied that sociail prayer will be 

a reality only in proportion as it pro- 
ceeds from a gathering of men accus- 
tomed to private prayer. 

Vv. 7-15. Further instruction in 
prayer. Weiss (Mt.-Evan.) regards 
this passage as an interpolation, having 
no proper place in an anti-Pharisaic dis- 
course. Both the opinion and its ground 
are doubtful. As regards the latter, it is 
true that it is Gentile practice in prayer 
that is formally criticised, but it does 
not follow that the Pharisees were not 
open to the same censure. They might 
make long prayers, not in ignorance, 
but in ostentation (Lutteroth), as a dis- 
play of devotional talent or zeal. But 
apart from the question of reference to 
the Pharisees, it is likely that prayer 
under various aspects formed one of the 
subjects of instruction in the course of 
teaching on the hill whereof these chap- 
ters are a digest. 

Ver. 7. PaTToXoY'n<rrjT« : a aira^ Xry. 
in N. T., rarely used anj'where, and of 
doubtful derivation. Some (Erasmus, 
e.g.) have thought it was formed from 
Battus, the stammerer mentioned by 
Herod, (iv. 155), or from a feeble poet of 
the name who made long hymns full of 
repetitions (Suidas, Lexicon), but most 
now incline to the view that it is onoma- 
topoetic. Hcsychius (Lex.) takes this 
view of the kindred word PaTTap((civ 
(cfiol p,2v SoKci Kara ^l^i\tn.v Tr\% <^«*vt]; 
TTCiroifjaBai). It points to the repetition 
without end of the same forms ot words 
as a stammerer involuntarily repeats the 
same syllable, like the Baal worshippers 




7- npoaeux<5ji€i'oi hk ji^j PaTToXoyi^aTiTe,^ woTrep 01 ^iQyiKoi-^} Ch. v. 47 
c~ ,o,«vx/ .-fc. A, o» (incritical 

OOKOucri yap on ^v tt] -noKuKoyia aoTwk eiaaKOuaoTJaoKrai. 0. fiT| notes); 

• Ic A- »- «>^ \c \ * t ^ 9 „. >» xviii. 17. 

ouf op.oiu0T)Tc auTois • oioe y^ip o ■n-aTTjp ' ufi(av wf XP^'-"*' ^X"^' ^ Lk. i. 13. 

^■^e'.>>^ 1/ <r 9 /A<-^ ActSX. JI. 

■nrpo Tou ufxas aiTT](Tai aoxoK. 9. outus ouk Trpoaeuxeo-oe ufieis • iCor.xiv. 

21. Heb. 
▼. 7. 1 Ch. vil J4, 26 ; xHi. 34. m Ch. ix. u ; xxi. 3. 

^ t^B have poTTtt., which Tisch. and W.H. follow. L as in text. D has ^XarroX. 

* B and Syr, Cur, have vrroKpixai. 

* ^B Sah. version have 6tot before o irai-qp (W.H. within brackets). 

.shouting from morning till noon, " O 
Baal, hear us " (i Kings xviii. 26, cf. 
Acts xix. 34, " Great is Diana of the 
Ephcsians "). This repetition is charac- 
teristic of Pagan prayer, and when it 
recurs in the Church, as in saying many 
Aves and Paternosters, it is Paganism 
redivivus. — iOviKol, the second of three 
references to Pagans (v. 47, vi. 32) in the 
.Sermon on the Mount, not to be wondered 
at. The Pagan world was near at hand 
for a Jew belonging to Galilee with its 
mixed population. Pagan customs would 
be familar to Galileans, and it was 
natural that Jesus should use them as well 
as the theory and practice of scribes and 
Pharisees, to define by contrast true piety. 
— iroXvXoYia, epexegetical of PaTTaXoy. 
The Pagans thought that by endless 
repetitions and many words they would 
inform their gods as to their needs and 
weary them ( " fatigare deos " ) into 
granting their requests. Ver. 8, ovv, 
infers that disciples must not imitate the 
practice described, because it is Pagan, 
and because it is absurd. Repetition 
is, moreover, wholly uncalled for. — 
olScv yap : the God whom Jesus 
proclaims — " your Fatner " — knows be- 
forehand your needs. Why, then, pray 
at all ? Because we cannot receive un- 
less we desire, and if we desire, we will 
pray ; also because things worth getting 
are worth asking. Only pray always as 
to a Being well informed and willing, in 
few words and in faith. With such 
thoughts in mind, Jesus proceeds to give 
a sample of suitable prayer. 

Vv. 9-13. The Lord's Prayer. Again, 
in Lk. xi. 1-4 — vide notes there. Here 
I remark only that Luke's form, true 
reading, is shorter than Matthew's. 
On this ground Kamphausen {Das Gebet 
des Herrn) argues for its originality. 
But surely Matthew's form is short and 
elementary enough to satisfy all reason- 
able requirem.ents I The question as to 
the original form cannot be settled on 
such grounds. The prayer, as here given, 

is, indeed, a model of simplicity. Be- 
sides the question as to the original form, 
there is another as to the originality of 
the matter. Wetstein says, " tota haec 
oratio ex formulis Hcbraeorum concin- 
nata est ". De Wette, after quoting 
these words, asserts that, after all the 
Rabbinical scholars have done their ut- 
most to adduce parallels from Jewish 
sources, the Lord's Prayer is by no 
means shown to be a Cento, and that it 
contains echoes only of well-known O. T. 
and Messianic ideas and expressions, 
and this only in the first two petitions. 
This may be the actual fact, but there is 
no need for any zeal in defence of the 
position. I should be very sorry to think 
that the model prayer was absolutely 
original. It would be a melancholy 
account of the chosen people if, after 
thousands of years of special training, 
they did not yet know what to pray for. 
Jesus made a new departure by inaugu- 
rating (i) freedom in prayer ; (2) trustful- 
ness of spirit ; {3) simplicity in manner. 
The mere making of a new prayer, 
if only by apt conjunction of a few 
choice phrases gathered from Scripture 
or from Jewish forms, was an assertion 
of liberty. And, of course, the liberty 
obtains in reference to the new form as 
well as to the old. We may use the 
Paternoster, but we are not bound to use 
it. It is not in turn to become a fetish. 
Reformers do not arise to break old 
fetters only in order to forge new ones. 

Ver. 9. ovTftts, thus, not after the 
ethnic manner. — itpocrt^ixtfrie. : present, 
pray so habitually. — v^icls : as opposed 
to the Pagans, as men (i.e.) who believe in 
an intelligent, willing God, your Father. 
The prayer which follows consists of six 
petitions which have often been elabor- 
ately explained, with learned discussions 
on disputed points, leaving the reader 
with the feeling that the new form is any- 
thing but simple, and wondering how it 
ever came into universal use. Gospel 
has been turned into law, spirit into 




I Pet. iii. riuTep ^\iCiy A if Tois oupai-ois, "dyiaa&i^TW rh ovop,d aoo • lo. 
xiii. 13.) l\9tTit) t] paaiXeia aou • •yekTjOi^Tu t6 6AT|p,(i <roo, ''ws Iv oupai'u, 
43. Acts xxi. 14 (same phrase). p Acts vii. 31 («t «■(). 

letter, poetry into prose. Wc had better 
let this prayer alone if we cannot catch 
its lyric tone.-- Tlarfp. In Luke's form 
this' name stands impressively alone, 
but the words associated with it in 
Matthew's version of the address arc 
every way suitable. Name and epithet 
together — Father, in heaven — express 
reverential trust. — 'Ayioo-Stitw t. o. <rov : 
first petition— sanctified, hallowed be 
Thy name. Fritzschc holds that o-ov in 
this and the next two petitions is empha- 
tic, <rov not aov enclitic. The suggestion 
gives a good direction for the expositor = 
may God the Father-God of Jesus be- 
come the one object of worship all the 
world over. A very natural turn of 
thought in view of the previous reference 
to the Pagans. Pagan prayer corre- 
sponded to the nature of Pagan deities 
— indifferent, capricious, unrighteous, 
unloving ; much speaking, iteration, dun- 
ning was needed to gain their ear. How 
blessed if the whole pantheon could be 
swept away or fall into contempt, and 
the one worshipful Divinity be, in fact, 
worshipped, i>% Iv ovipavu Kai €Tri 7t]S; for 
this clause appended to the third petition 
may be conceived as common to all the 
first three. The One Name in heaven 
tlie One Name on earth, and reverenced 
on earth as in heaven. Universalisin is 
latent in this opening petition. We 
cannot imagine Jesus as meaning merely 
that the national God of Israel may be 
duly honoured within the bounds of His 
own people. 

Ver. 10. 'E\6^Tw r\ ^aoriKela arov : 
second petition. The prayer of all Jews. 
Even the Rabbis said, that is no prayer 
in which no mention of the kingdom is 
made. All depends on how the kingdom 
is conceived, on what we want to come. 
The kingdom is as the King. It is the 
kingdom of the universal, benignant 
Father who knows the wants of His chil- 
dren and cares for their interests, lower 
and higher, that Jesus desires to come. 
It will come with the spread of the wor- 
ship of the One true Divine Name; the 
paternal God ruling in grace over believ- 
ing, grateful men. Thus viewed, God's 
kingdom comes, is not always here, as 
in the reign of natural law or in the 
moral order of the world. — Y**''n^'i'''" ''■• ^' 
tr.: third petition. Kamphausen, bent 
on maintaining the superior originality of 

Luke's form in which this petition is 
wanting, regards it as a mere pendant to 
the second, unfolding its meaning. And 
it is true in a sense that any one of the 
three first petitions implies the rest. 
Yet the third has its distinct place. The 
kingdom, as Jesus preached it, was a 
kingdom of grace. The second petition, 
therefore, is a prayer that God's gracious * 

Vill may be done. The third, on the 
other hand, is a prayer that God's com- 
manding will may be done ; that the 
right as against the wrong may every- 
where prevail. — us Iv ovp. Kai tiri yy\<i • 

fThis addendum, not without application 
to all three petitions, is specially appli- 
cable to this one. Translated into 
modern dialect, it means that the divine 
will may be perfectly, ideally done on 
this earth: as in heaven, so also, etc. 
The reference is probably to the angels, 
described in Ps. ciii., as doing God's 
commandments. In the 0. T. the angels 
are the agents of God's will in nature as 
well as in Providence. The defining 
clause might, therefore, be taken as 
meaning : may God's will be done in the 
moral sphere as in the natural ; exactly, 
always, everywhere. 

The foregoing petitions are regarded 
by Grotius, and after him Achelis, as pia 
desideria, tvxai, rather than petitions 
proper— alTiiixara, like the following 
three. The distinction is not gratuitous, 
but it is an exegetical refinement which 
may be disregarded. More important 
is it to note that the first group refers to 
the great public interests of God and 
His kingdom, placed first here as in vi. 
33, the second to personal needs. There 
is a corresponding difference in the mode 
of expression, the verbs being in the 
third person in Group I., objective, im- 
personal ; in the second in Group II., 
subjective, personal. 

Ver. II. Fourth petition, tov aprov 
'^(jiwv : whatever the adjective qualifying 
apTov may mean, it may be taken for 
granted that it is ordinary bread, food 
for the body, that is intended. All 
spiritualising mystical meanings of 
liTiova-iov are to be discarded. This is 
the one puzzling word in the prayer. It 
is a aira| kiy., not only in O. and N. T,, 
but in Greek literature, as known not 
only to us, but e\en to Origen, who 
(De Oratione, cap. xxvii.) states that it 



KOI. €TTl TTJS ' Y^5 ' ^^' ""^^^ apTOC T]Ji.Wk' TO»' ' eiTlOUfflOf 8&5 TJU.IV q here and 

ai]fi€poi' ' 12. Kat a<|>€S T/J'^ii' to ocpeiXrifxaTa Tjfiwf, ws ftai tjficis 3 (not 

found in 
Greek literature). r Rom. iv. 4. 

^ i^BZA and some cursives omit TTjg. So most modern editors. 

is not found in any of the Greeks, or 
used by private individuals, and that it 
seems to be a coinage (eoiKt TreirX.aaOai) 
of the evangelists. It is certainly not 
likely to have proceeded from our Lord. 
This one word suffices to prove that, if 
not always, at least in uttering this 
prayer, Jesus spoke in Aramaean. He 
would not in such a connection use an 
obscure word, unfamiliar, and of doubt- 
ful meaning. The problem is to account 
for the incoming of such a word into the 
Greek version of His doubtless simple, 
artless, and well - understood saying. 
The learned are divided as to the deriva- 
tion of the word, having of course 
nothing but conjecture to go on. Some 
derive it from itrX and ovcria, or the parti- 
ciple of elvai ; others from eirieVai, or iq 
lirtovora = the approaching day (rmcpa 
understood). In tlie one case we get a 
qualitative sense — bread for subsistence, 
bread needed and sufficient (ri 8«ovTa 
»cai avTapKTj. Prov. xxx. 8, Sept.) : 
in the other, a temporal — bread of the 
coming day, pattern quotidiatium (Vulg., 
Lk., xi. 3), " daily bread ". Either 
party argues against the other on gram- 
matical grounds, e.g., that derived from 
ovaia the word should be lirovo-ios, and 
that derived from cTrioiiaa it should be 
^iriovo-aios. In either case the dis- 
putants are ready with their answer. 
Another source of argument is suitable- 
ness of the sense. Opponents of the 
temporal sense say that to pray for 
to-morrow's bread sins against the 
counsel, '* Take no thought for the 
morrow," and that to pray, " Give us 
to-day our bread of to-morrow," is 
absurd {ineptius, Suicer, Thesaurus, s.v. 
ciriovo-ios). On the other side it is said : 
Granting that the sense " sufficient " 
can be got from iirX, otieria, and granting 
its appropriateness, how comes it that 
a simpler, better-known word was not 
chosen to represent so plain a meaning ? 
Early tradition should have an important 
bearing on the question. Lightfoot, in 
the appendix on the words tiriovo-ios 
and TTcpiovo-ios, in his work " On a fresh 
Revision of the N. T.," summarises the 
evidence to this effect; Most of the 
Greeks follow Origen, who favoured 
derivation from ovaia. But Aramaic 

Christians put for iiriovo-tos Mahar =. 
crastinum. (Jerome comm. in Mt.) 
The Curetonian Syriac has words mean- 
ing, ' ' our bread continual of the day give 
us ". The Egyptian versions have 
similar readings. The old Latin ver- 
sion has quotidionum, retained by Jerome 
in revision of L. V. in Lk. xi. 2, while 
siipersubsiantiahm is given in Mt. 
vi. II. The testimony of these early 
versions is important in reference to the 
primitive sense attached to the word. 
Still the question remains: How account 
for the coinage of such a word in Greek- 
speaking circles, and for the tautology : 
give us to-day ((ri]|Atpov, Mt.) or daily 
(to Ka8* -^fi^piiv, Luke), the bread of 
to-morrow ? In his valuable study on 
" The Lord's Prayer in the early 
Church " (Texts and Studies, i8gi), 
Principal Chase has made an important 
contribution to the solution of this diffi- 
culty by the suggestion that the coinage 
was due to liturgical exigencies in con- 
nection with the use of the prayer in 
the evening. Assuming that the original 
petition was to the effect : " to us give, 
of the day, our bread," and that the 
Greek equivalent for the day was t| 
eiriovffa, the adjective eirioijcrios was 
coined to make the prayer suitable 
at all hours. In the morning it 
would mean the bread of the day now 
begun, in the evening the bread of 
to-morrow. But devotional conserva- 
tism, while adopting the new word as 
convenient, would cling to the original 
"of the day"; hence arrni.(pov in Matt. 
and TO tcad' \]\iipav in Luke, along with 
I'Triovo-ios. On the whole the temporal 
meaning seems to have the weight ol 
the argument on its side. For a full 
statement of the case on that side vide 
Lightfoot as above, and on the other 
the article on cirtovaios in Cremer's Bib. 
Theol., W. B., yte Aufl., 1893. 

Ver. 12. Fifth petition. 6c|>6iXi^|AaTo, 
in classics literal debts, here moral debts, 
sins (afiapTias in Lk. xi. 4). The more 
men desire God's will to be done the 
more conscious they are of shortcoming. 
The more conscious of personal short- 
coming, the more indulgent towards the 
faults of others even when committed 
against themselves. Hence the added 




•^^*'j,i^^"',Y A+iffJ^**'* Tois *64)eiX^Tais rffj.Q>v - 13. teal fATj * citrei/tYKT]? i^fi-Ss els 

Lk. xiii. 4 TTcipaaucJK, AXXd puaai ^ixas diro too irompoO. on ctoG iariy ■}\ 
(morali. 1 1 1 n ir 1 

G»l. V 3 fiacriXcia Kal -fi Sukouis Kal i] Sofa €is tous niui'as. &iir\v.^ 14. 
(logical r^ I ^ 

oblica- 'E<iv< y^p d<^i^Te tois dvOpoj-rrois rd ° TrapaTrrwji.aTa aiiTuiv, d({»i]o-€i 

' M^k^'-*' '^°''' ^^^*' ^ '"'■''^''^P "[^"►' 6 oupdk'ios • 15. edK §€ fiT) d<j)fiT6 ToIs dkrOpu- 

Rom. V. TTois Td irapaTTTcjiiaTa auTwv',* cuBe 6 iraT^p up.uf d<|>^a'ci rd irapa- 

Gal. vi. i. Trrw)jLaTa up.wv. 16. Orac Se iTjorcuTjTe, fi^ ytcccrSc waTrcp ^ 01 

r Lk. xxiv. oTTOKpiTal ' aKuOpwTTOL • ' d^ak'i^ouai ydp rd irp^auira auTwi',* 

w yv. 19, 20. oirws <|)ai'wffi toZs dvOpuTroi; vi\(n€\jovTi% • dp,^i' XeY<>> 'if^i^'j Sri" 

ActR xiii. 

41. James iv. 14. 

^ i«iBZ have a4>TiKopi£v, adopted by modern editors. cufkicjMv (T. R.) has probably 
come in from Luke (xi. 4). 

^ The Doxology ore oro« . . . ofiT]v is wanting in Jr^BDZ and is regarded by most 
modern critics as an ancient liturgical insertion. It is found in LAI al. 

3 ra TrapoTrTwuaTa avTwv wanting in ^D, omitted by Tisch., bracketed by W.H., 
though found in I3L. 
* ws in i^BDA. 
' For avTwv B has eairr«*v. 
« T. R. has oTi with L nl. ^BD omit. 

words : «s Kal r], a.<}>-i]Ka|itv, etc. It is 
natural and comforting to the sincere 
soul to put the two things together, ws 
must be taken very generally. The 
prayer proceeds from child-like hearts, 
not from men trained in the distinctions 
of theology. The comment appended 
in w. 14, 15 introduces an element of 
reflection difficult to reconcile with the 
spontaneity of the prayer. It is pro- 
bably imported from another connection, 
^.^., Mt. xviii. 35 (so Weiss-Meyer). 

Ver. 13. Sixth petition : consists of two 
members, one qualifying or limiting the 
other. — (iT| . . . ireipao-|i(5v, expose us 
not to moral trial. All trial is of doubt- 
ful issue, and may therefore naturally 
and innocently be shrunk from, even by 
those who know that the result may be 
good, confirmation in faith and virtue. 
The prayer is certainly in a different key 
from the Beatitude in V. 10. There 
Jesus sets before the disciple a heroic 
temper as the ideal. But here He does 
not assume the disciple to have attained. 
The Lord's Prayer is not merely for 
heroes, but for the timid, the inex- 
perienced. The teacher is considerate, 
and allows time for reaching the heights 
of heroism on which St. James stood 
when he wrote (i. 2) iratrav xopav 
Ti'Yilo'acrdc, dSeX({>oi (lov, orav Trcipaapoig 
Tr«pi'jr€VT)T€ iroiKiXoi;. — dXXa, not purely 
adversative, cancelling previous clause, 
but confirming it and going further 

{Schanz, in accordance with original 
meaning of dXXa, derived from aXXo or 
aXXa, and signifying that what is going 
to be said is another thing, aliud, in 
relation to what has been said, Klotz, 
Dfvnr. ii., p. 2) = Lead us not into 
temptation, or so lead us that we may 
be safe from evil : may the issue ever 
be beneficent. — pvo-ai onro, not ^k ; the 
latter would imply actual implication in, 
the former implies danger merely. Both 
occur in N. T. (on the difference cf. 
Kamphausen, Das G. des H.). — tow 
irovTjpov, either masculine or neuter, 
which ? Here again there, is an elaborate 
debate on a comparatively unimportant 
question. The probability is in favour 
of the mascuUne, the evil one. The 
Eastern naturally thought of evil in the 
concrete. But we as naturally think of 
it in the abstract ; therefore the change 
from A. V. in R. V. is unfortunate. It 
mars the reality of the Lord's Prayer on 
Western lips to say, deliver us from the 
evil one. Observe it is moral evil, not 
physical, that is deprecated. — 8tv cow 
loTiv . . . A|ii]v : a liturgical ending, 
no part of the original prayer, and tend- 
ing to turn a religious reality into a 
devotional form. 

On w. 14-15 vide under ver. 12. 

Vv. 16-18. Fasting. Ver. 16. irar 
Si : transition to a new related topic. — 
(TKvOpwiroi, of sad visage, overdone of 
course by the " actors ". Fasting, like 




i,7ti)^ovcTi Thv fiiaQov airoiv. 1 7. aii 8e K-rjcrreuwi' ^ aXcuj/ai cow tJji' 
nei^aK-qv, Kal to ■zrpocruiroi' aou vl^ai- 1 8. ottws [at] <}>a)n]s Tois 
di'OpwTTOts nfjoreouK,^ dXXd tw Traxpi ctou tw cc tw KpuTrrw ^ Kal 6 
irariip ctou 6 pXeirwK 4i' tw KpuiiTu '' diroSwaei aoi €»' tw 4>cik'€pw.^ 

19. " Mt] ' ©Tjcraopi^eTC ojxtK 8T)o-aupoLls eirl tt)s YT?, orrou avj? ical 
^puai; d<j)aKi^€i, Kal ottou KXeirrai ' Siopuaaoucri Kai KXeirrouai • 

20. 0T]aaupi^eT€ 8s firjcraupous ^v oupa>'w, ottoo oure trrjs oure 
ppwais d<|>a>'i^ci, Kal oitou KXeirrai ou Stopucrorouo-if ouSt KXe'irrouort*'. 

21. ottou ydp coTiv 6 6T)<raup6s 6fiwi',* ckci eorat Kal* 1^ KapSi'a 
ufAWK.* 22, 'O Xux^'os Tou (TfjifAaTos coTic 6 6^0aXji,6s ' • iiuf ouv i 

1 B places vrjorrcvtuv before toii; ayOptnrovs. 

' Kpv4iaiM in fc«^BD. 

' ^BDL omit «v tw (^avcpu. 

* ^B have a-ov, which makes the reflection more pointed. 

• B omits Kal. 

^ B adds crov. 

z Mk. vi. 13 
46. janies 

y Lk. xii. 2J. 
Rom.ii. 5. 
1 Cor. ivi. 

z Cb. zxir. 
43. Lk 
xii. 39. 

prayer, was reduced to a system ; twice a 
week in ordinary Pharisaic practice : 
Thursday and Monday (ascent and 
descent of Moses on Sinai), artificial 
gloom inevitable in such circumstances. 
In occasional fasting, in circumstances 
of genuine affliction, the gloom will be 
real (Lk. xxiv. 17). — a4>avi£ovo-iv — 8ir«« 
-^avuo-iv, a play upon words, may be 
endered in English " they disfigure 
ihat they may figure ". In German : 
Unsichtbar machen, sichtbar werden 
(Schanz and Weiss). — Ver. 17. iXtuf^ai, 
v(ij/ai : not necessarily as if preparing 
for a feast (Meyer and Weiss), but 
performing the usual daily ablutions 
for comfort and cleanliness, so avoiding 
parade of fasting by neglect of them 
(Bleek, Achelis). 

The foregoing inculcations of sincerity 
and reality in religion contribute in- 
directly to the illustration of the divine 
name Father, which is here again defined 
by discriminating use. God as Father 
desires these qualities in worshippers. 
All close relations (father, son : husband, 
wife) demand real affection as distinct 
from parade. 

Vv. 19-34. Counsels against covetous- 
ness and care (reproduced in Lk. xii. 22- 
34, with exception of w. 22-23, which 
reappear in Lk. xi. 34-36). An inter- 
polation, according to Weiss. Doubtless, 
if the Sermon on the Mount was ex- 
clusively an anti- Pharisaic discourse. 
But this homily might very well have 
formed one of the lessons on the hill, in 
connection with the general theme of 

the kingdom, v/hich needs to be defined 
in contrast to worldliness not less than 
to spurious types of piety. 

Vv. 19-21. Against hoarding. 
Oi^cravpovs iir\ Ttjs 71)5, treasures 
upon earth, and therefore earthly, 
material, perishable, of whatever kind. — 
o-T]s, moth, destructive of costly garments, 
one prominent sort of treasure in the 
East.— Ppwtris, not merely "rust," but a 
generic term embracing the whole class 
of agents which eat or consume valuables 
(so Beza, Fritzsche, Bleek, Meyer, etc.). 
Erosionem seu corrosionem quamlibet 
denotat, quum vcl vestcs a tiaeis vel 
vetustate et putredine eroduntur, vel 
lignum a cossibus ct carie, frumentum a 
curculionibus, quales Tpuyas Graeci 
vocant, vel metalli ab aerugine, ferrugine, 
eroduntur et corroduntur (Kypke, Obs. 
Sac). — Siopvacrovcriv, dig through (clay 
walls), easier to get in so than through 
carefully barred doors (again in Matt. 
xxiv. 43). The thief would not find 
much in such a house. — Ver. 20. 6tj<r. iv 
ovpav4i : not = heavenly treasures, saya 
Fritzsche, as that would require rovs 
before ir. Grammatically this is correct, 
yet practically heavenly treasure is 
meant. — Ver. 21. ottow di\(r, . . . Ik«i 
Kap8(a. The reflection goes back on 
the negative counsel in ver. 19. Do not 
accumulate earthly treasures, for then 
your heart will be there, whereas it 
ought to be in heaven with God and the 
Kingdom of God. 

Vv. 22-24. Parable of the eye. A 
difficult passage ; connection obscure, 




1 Lk. xl. 34. i4>9ci^|^<^$ 0^00 * dTrXous r\,^ oKov rb crwiid aou *■ (hwTciv'Si' earai • 2X. 

bCh.Xvii. 5. y e.^ , n r 

Lk.xi.n,iav 06 6 6<})9aXfi6s aou Tvofr^pis t], oXo»' to awud aoo •aK0Tel^'6K 
36. » > » 

c Lk. xi. 34, earai. ci ouf to ^us t^ iv ctoi aKOTOS ^<rrt, to ctkotos TV<5ffov ; 

dLk. xvi.13. 24. OuSeis oui'aTat Suol Kupioi; SouXcoeif f\ yap tok Iva utarjaei, 
I Thesa. ^^„ , , ^ 1 \ a y n it- \ " t 1 

V. 14. KQi TOK tTepof ayaTrTJafei ■ fj <»'os dt'oescTOi, kui too CTtpoo " KOTa- 

e Ch. xviii. <|>po''i1o^f'' o" SuraoOc Stw SouXeucik- xai ' ^ap.f^ui'^.^ 25. Sid 
10. Lk. 
xvi. 13. Rom. ii. 4 al. t Lk. zvi. 13. 

^ T) before o o<|>8aX|xos orov airXov<; in ^B. 
' (lafiwva in all uncials. 

and the evangelic report apparently 
imperfect. The parallel passage in 
Luke (xi. 33-36) gives little help. The 
figure and its ethical meaning seem to 
be mixed up, moral attributes ascribed 
to the physical eye, which with these 
still gives light to the body. This con- 
fusion may be due to the fact that the 
eye, besides being the organ of vision, 
is the seat of expression, revealing inward 
dispositions. Physically the qualities 
on which vision depends are health and 
disease. The healthy eye gives light for 
all bodily functions, walking, working, 
etc. ; the diseased eye more or less fails 
in this service. If the moral is to be 
found only in last clause of ver. 23, all 
going before being parable, then airXov; 
must mean sound and -jrovTipbs diseased, 
meanings which, if not inadmissible, one 
yet does not expect to find expressed by 
these words. They seem to be chosen 
because of their applicability to the 
moral sphere, in which they might suit- 
ably to the connection mean " liberal " 
and " niggardly ". airXoTrjs occurs in 
this sense in Rom. xii. 8, and Hatch 
(Essays in B. G., p. 80) has shown that 
irovripos occurs several times in Sept. 
(Sirach) in the sense oi niggardly, grudg- 
ing. He accordingly renders : " The 
lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore 
thine eye be liberal thy whole body shall 
be full of light ; but if thine eye be 
grudging, thy whole body shall be full 
of darkness." Of course this leaves the 
difficulty of the mixing of natural and 
moral untouched. The passage is 
elliptical, and might be paraphrased 
thus: The eye is the lamp of the body: 
when it is healthy we see to do our 
daily work, when diseased we are in 
darkness. So with the eye of the soul, 
the heart, scat of desire : when it is free 
from covetousness, not anxious to hoard, 
all goes well with our spiritual functions 
— we choose and act wisely. When 
sordid passions possess it there is dark- 

ness within deeper than that which 
afflicts the blind man. We mistake the 
relative value of things, choose the 
worse, neglect the better, or flatter our- 
selves that we can have both. 

Ver. 24. Parable of the two masters. 
OvSeis : In the natural sphere it is im- 
possible for a slave to .lerve two masters, 
for each claims him as his property, and 
the slave must respond to one or other of 
the claims with entire devotion, either 
from love or from interest. — fi yap . . . 
|iia-i]cr(i . . . oyairi^a*!. : We may take this 
clause as referring to the case of honest 
preference. A slave has his likes and 
dislikes like other men. And he will not 
do things by halves. His preference will 
take the form of love, and his aversion 
that of hate. — rj evos avBe'lcrai, etc. : 
this clause may be taken as referring to 
the case of interest. The slave may not 
in his heart care for either of the rival 
masters. But he must seem to care, and 
the relative power or temper of one as 
compared to the other, may be the 
ground of his decision. And having 
decided, he attaches himself, dvdc^cTai, 
to the one, and ostentatiously disregards 
the other. In ordinary circumstances 
there would be no room for such a com- 
petition of masters. But a case might 
occur in time of war when the conquered 
were sold into slavery. — oi Suvao-Oe, etc. 
Application of the parable to God and 
earthly possessions. — najAuvij, wealth per- 
sonified=Plutus, a Chaldee, Syriac, and 
Punic word ("lucrum punice mammon 
dicitur," Aug. de S. D.) derived from 

VOV^ = to conceal or '!^^ to trust 

(vide Buxtorf, Lex. Talm., p. 1217). 
The meaning is not, " ye cannot serve 
God and have riches," but "ye cannot 
be faithful to God and make an idol of 
wealth ". " Non dixit, qui habet divitias, 
sed qui servit divitiis," Jerome. 

Vv. 25-34. Cnutisels agaimt care. 
More suitable to the circumstances of the 

23— a?- 



TOUTO Xe'yw ijilv, |i?j ■ fi€pifxv'aTe rfj ^j*ox!J ^[kuv, Tt (Jx^Y^'''^ '^^'- ^ """^ ^ 9^ *• '9; 

TTITITC • UTlSe TW awiXttTl UfJLWf, Tl * CvSuCTTJoSs. OUvl in 4"JX^1 "T^eiOC xii. 25. 

£«TTi Tn9 TpoAfjs, fcat TO awiia tou et'Oufxaros ; 20. e}JipXev|/aTC eis (various 

. . X ~ . - . . k ' »«^ kfl 'V >>iv tonst.). 

Tot ' 7rcTei>'a tou oupat'oo, oTi ov ffTreipouffii', ouoe Wept^outrii', ouoe h Ch. xiii. 

>. .€-€>» /, .,ii- Mk. i. 

o-umYOuorii' CIS diro&ijitas, kui o iraTT^p up.wi' o oupai/ios Tpe(})€t aura • o. Rom. 

oux ufieis p.aWof 0itt4)epeT€ outwk ; 27. tis oe £§ o/iwi' fiEpifxcuv cuca- 

iThess. V. 
3 (last three exx. meUphorKil). i Acts i. 11 (with eU). j Ch. viii. ao; xiii. 4. Lk. viii. 5. Acts 
X.12. kjohniv.36, 37. ICh. X. 31 ; xii. 12. Lk. xii. 24 (with fioAAoK). 

' Tj Tl iriTjT* in B. This clause is wanting in ^, omitted by Tisch., and bracketed 
by W.H. 

feed themselves at the farmer's expense, 
an additional source of anxiety to him. 
And the cynic unbeliever in Providence : 
yes, in summer ; but how many perish in 
winter through want and cold I Jesus, 
greatest of all optimists, though no 
shallow or ignorant one, quietly adds : 
ov\ vficts (Aa.\Xov Siac|>epeT€ axniov : do 
not ye differ considerably from them ? 
They fare, on the whole, well, God's 
humble creatures. Why should yon fear, 
men, God's children ? 

Ver. 27. Tis8J,etc. The question means: 
caie is as bootless as it is needless. But 
there is much difference of opinion as to 
the precise point of the question. Does 
it mean, who by care can add a cubit to 
his height, or who can add a short space 
of time, represented by a cubit, to the 
length of his life ? '^XiKia admits of 
either sense. It means stature in Lk. 
xix. 3 ; age in John ix. 21, Heb. xi. ii. 
Most recent commentators favour the 
latter interpretation, chiefly influenced 
by the monstrosity of the supposition as 
referring to stature. Who could call 
adding a cubit, ij feet, to his height a 
very small matter, the expression of Lk. 
(iXaxioTov, xii. 26) ? The application of 
a measure of length to length of days is 
justified by Ps. xxxix. 5 : " Thou hast 
made my days as handbreadths ". But 
Dr. Field strongly protests against the 
new rendering. Admitting, of course, 
that iqXiKia is ambiguous, and that in 
classic authors it oftener means age than 
stature, he insists that -n-fjxvs is decisive. 
•' irtjxvs," he remarks (Ot. Nor.), " is not 
only a measure of length, but that by 
which a man's stature was properly 
measured." Euthy. on this place 
remarks: " ical p.T)v ovSe criTi6afi.if]v (half 
a cubit) ovSs SaKTvXov (a 24th part) : 

XofTTOV OVV TTTixUV tllTe, SlOTl KVpiU9 

LieTpov Tiv -qXiKioiv 6 ittjxi^s cctti. Thus 
a short man is Tpiirn^X'*'?' ^ tall man 
T£TpdirT)xvs." But how are we to get 
over the monstrosity of the supposition ? 

disciples than those against amassing 
treasures. " Why speak of treasures to 
us who are not even sure of the neces- 
saries of life ? It is for bread and cloth- 
ing we are in torment" (Lutteroth). — 
Ver. 25, Sia tovto: because ye can be 
unfaithful to God through care as well as 
through covetousness.— (XT) p.£pi|jivaTe : 
fi.£ from (XEpiSi jJi.£piE<<>, because care 
divides and distracts the mind. The 
verb is used in N. T. in various construc- 
tions and senses ; sometimes in a good 
sense, as in i Cor. vii. 32 : " The un- 
married care for the things of the Lord," 
and xii. 25 in reference to the members 
of the body having the same care for 
each other. But the evil sense predom- 
inates. What is here deprecated is not 
work for bread and raiment, but worry, 
" Labor exercendus est, solicitudo toll- 
enda," Jerome. — oix^ •fj ^I'vx'H • • • ivSv- 
(xaTos ; the life not the soul ; the natural 
life is more than meat, and the body more 
than the clothing which protects it, yet 
these greater things are given to you 
already. Can you not trust Him who 
gave the greater to give the less ? But 
a saying like this, life is more than meat, 
in the mouth of Jesus is very pregnant. 
It tends to lift our thoughts above materi- 
alism to a lofty conception of man's 
chief end. It is more than an argument 
against care, it is a far-reaching principle 
to be associated with that other legion — 
a man is better than a sheep (Matt. xii. 
12). — Ver. 26. £jjipX£i|/aT€ els, fix your 
eyes on, so as to take a good look at (Mk. 
X. 2i,xiv. 67). — Ta ir£T£iva T. ov., the birds 
whose element is the air ; look, not to 
admire their free, careless movements on 
the wing, but to note a very relevant 
fact — oTi, that without toil they get their 
food and live, — om-£ipowo-iv, Qtpitovari.v, 
iTvva.yova-1 ». h. : the usual operations 
of the husbandman in producing the staff 
of life- In these the birds have no part, 
yet your Father feedeth them. The 
careworn might reply to this : yes ; they 




■ Lit. xii. Jf^^ TTpoaOctvai ^irl Tf)*" i^XiKia^ aoTou " Trfi)(Uf Iva ; 28. Kai ircpi 

xxi. i. e\'8ufAaT09 xi p.cpifxkdrc ; KaTa|i(i0eT€ rd " KpiVa toO dypou, irais 

•7- aufdvei ^ • ou kottiS,^ ou8e KiiOet * • 20. Xe'vw 8e uuik, on ouSe ZoXo- 

oLk. 111.37. „ 

r. 31 fAwK ^K TTciffT] rp So^T] auTou • irepiepdXcTO is cv toutuk. 30. el St 

t.xiia;. TOK ** x^pTO*' TOO dypou, (rqfiepoi' orra, itai aopiok eis ' KXipaj'OK 

19. Lk.'ov, 6 Seos outws ' &\i^iivvu<nv, oil ttoXXw fl,dXXo^' up.ds, 
xii. j8. , ^ ^ , ' ' , / * 

Us. i. 10 ' oXiYOTTtoToi ; 31. |iT| ovy fiepi}H'T)aT)T£, XeyoKres, Ti 9^Y'^H-'*'> M 
(of grass). 

Ch. xiii. 26. Mk. ir. j8 (of er«in). I Cor. iii. la (of hay). q here »nd Lk. xil. a8. f Ch. xl. 8. 

E Ch. viii. 26; xiv. 31 ; xvi. a. Lk. xii. aS. 

* t^B have plurals (W.H.). The singulars are a grammatical correction (icpiva 
neut. pi. nom.) wholly unnecessary. The lilies are viewed singly. 

o ver 


p Ch. xiv 

Lutteroth helps us here by finding in the 
question of jesus a reference to the 
growth of the human body from infancy 
to maturity. By that insensible process, 
accomplished through the aid of food, 
Gods adds to every human body more 
than one cubit. " How impossible for 
you to do what God has done without 
your thinking of it I And if He fed you 
during the period of growth, can you not 
trust Him now when you have ceased to 
gro\\' ? " Such is the thought of Jesus. 
Vv. 28-30. Lesson from the jiowers. 
KOTa|id6«T€, observe well that ye may 
learn thoroughly the lesson they teach. 
Here only in N.T., often in classics. 
Also in Sept., e.g., Gen. xxiv. 21 : The 
man observed her (Rebekah), learning 
her disposition from her actions. — ra 
Kpiva, the lilium Persicum, Emperor's 
crown, according to Rosenmiiller and 
Kuinoel ; the red anemone, according to 
Furrer (Zscht. fiir M. und R.) growing 
luxuriantly under thorn bushes. All 
flowers represented by the lily, said 
Euthy. Zig. long ago, and probably he 
is right. No need to discover a flower 
of rare beauty as the subject of remark. 
Jesus would have said the same thing of 
the snowdrop, the primrose, the bluebell 
or the daisy. After dypow should come 
a pause. Consider these flowers 1 Then, 
after a few moments' reflection : iris, 
not interrogative (Fritzsche), but ex- 
pressive of admiration ; vague, doubtful 
whether the giowth is admired as to 
height (Bengel), rapidity, or rate of mul- 
tiplication. Why refer to growth at all ? 
Probably with tacit reference to question 
in ver. 27. Note the verbs in the plural 
{vide critical note) with a neuter nomi- 
native. The lilies are viewed individ- 
ually as living beings, almost as friends, 
and spoken of with affection (Winer, § 
58, 3). The verb av|dvcd in active voice 
is transitive in class., intransitive only in 

later writers. — KotriilxTiv, vrfQovaiv: " il- 
lud virorum est, qui agrum colunt, hoc 
mulierum domisedarum " (Rosenmiiller). 
The former verb seems to point to the 
toil whereby bread is earned, with back- 
ward glance at the conditions of human 
growth ; the latter to the lighter work, 
whereby clothing, the new subject of 
remark, is prepared. — Ver. 29. Xtyw Si : 
the speaker is conscious He makes a 
strong statement, but He means it. — ovSs, 
not even Solomon the magnificent, most 
glorious of the kings of Israel, and on 
state occasions most gorgeously attired. 
— tv TovTwv : the lilies are in view, and 
one of them is singled out to vie with 
Solomon. — Ver. 30. cl Si rov x6pTov. 
Application. The beautiful flowers now 
lose their individuality, and are merged 
in the generic grass : mere weeds to be 
cut down and used as fuel. The natural 
sentiment of love for flowers is sacrificed 
for the ethical sentiment of love for 
man, aiming at convincing him of God's 
care. — icXipavov (Attic KpiPavos, vide 
Lobeck, Phryn., 179), a round pot of 
earthenware, narrow at top, heated by a 
fire within, dough spread on the sides ; 
beautiful flowers of yesterday thus used 
to prepare bread for men 1 iXiytJiricrrot. : 
several times in Gospels, not in classics ; 
not reproachful but encouraging, as if 
bantering the careworn into faith. The 
difficulty is to get the careworn to con- 
sider these things. They have no eye 
for wild flowers, no ear for the song of 
birds. Not so Jesus. He had an in- 
tense delight in nature. Witness the 
sentiment, " Solomon in all his glory," 
applied to a wild flower 1 These golden 
words are valuable as revealing His 
genial poetic nature. They reflect also 
in an interesting way the holiday mood 
of the hour, up on the hill away firom 
heat, and crowds, and human misery. 
Vv. 31-33. Renewed exhortation 




Ti mcii|j,eK, ^ Ti wcpiPaXwiieOa ; 32. Trdrra yd.p raOra rh c0n] t Lk. xii. ^a 
'eiriJtjTci^* otSe yap 6 irarrip up.wt' 6 oipdnoq on " xPli^^^^ toutw;' Heb. li. 

dTTdicTWt' • •? 1, tTlT€lT€ Sc TTpWTOt' TTIK PafflXctaf TOU eeOU KOI TTJV u Lk. xi. 8 

o - \ - > A / t - \ Rom. xvi. 

Sixaioau'ntiv' aiiTou, jcal Taura trdyra ' irpooTeOTjo-eTai ujjin' • 34. firj a (gen. of 

ovv liepiimfionriTe cis ttik aupiov • tj yap aupiow ftcpijxvTjaEi to eauTTjs." Cor. iii. 1. 

' dpKCTOf rn r\ii.ipa tj * KUKia auTtjs. Lk.xii.31. 

' Heb. xii. 

19. w Ch. I. J5. I Pet. iT. j x here only in N. T. in •en»e of trouble. Sept. Ecd. vii. 15 ; xii. 
I. Amoa iii. 6. Sir. xix. 6. 

^ Another grammatical correction (neut. pi. nom. Wvtj). jj^B have e-Kil^ravai. 
' i>^B omit Tov Beov, and B transposes the nouns and has tijv Sik. Kai Tt)y fiaa. 
avTov. Tisch. and W.H. retain the order as in T. R., omitting tow dtov. 
» Ta eavTTjs in EI (A Ta irepi avTTjs), B*L have simply avT^s. 

against care. Ver. 31. ovv, goes back 
on ver. 25, repeating the counsel, re- 
inforced by intervening argument. — Ver. 
32. TO. e9vT), again a reference to 
heathen practice ; in vi. 7 to their " bat- 
tology" in prayer, here to the kind of 
blessmgs they eagerly ask (liriJiiTooo-tv) : 
material only or chiefly ; bread, raiment, 
wealth, etc. I never realised how true 
the statement of Jesus is till I read the 
Vedic Hymns, the prayer book and song 
book of the Indian Aryans. With the 
exception of a few hymns to Varuna, 
in which sin is confessed and pardon 
begged, most hymns, especially those to 
Indra, contain prayers only for material 
goods : cows, horses, green pastures, 
good harvests. 

To wifeless men thou givest wives, 
And joyful mak'st their joyless lives ; 
Thou givest sons, courageous, strong, 
To guard their aged sires from wrong„ 
Lands, jewels, horses, herds of kine. 
All kinds of wealth are gifts of thine. 
Thy friend is never slain ; his might 
Is never worsted in the fight. 
—Dr. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. v., p. 137. 

— oIScv yap 6 iraTTip v. : Disciples must 
rise above the pagan level, especially as 
they worship not Indra, but a Father in 
heaven, believed in even by the Indian 
Aryans, in a rude way, under the name 
of Dyaus-Pitar, Heaven-Father. yap 
explains the difference between pagans 
and disciples. The disciple has a Father 
who knows, and never forgets, His 
children's needs, and who is so regarded 
by all who truly believe in Him. Such 
faith kills care. But such faith is 
possible only to those who comply with 
the following injunction. — Ver. 33. 
CutcXtc irpuTov. There is considerable 
variation in the text of this counsel. 
Perhaps the nearest to the original is 
the reading of B, which omit<i tov 9tov 

with t^, and inverts the order of Pa«r. 
and SiKat. Seek ye His (the Father's) 
righteousness and kingdom, though it 
may be against this that in Luke (xii. 31) 
the kingdom only is mentioned, irpuToy 
also being omitted: Seek ye His king- 
dom. This may have been the original 
form of the logion, all beyond being in- 
terpretation, true though unnecessary. 
Seeking the kingdom means seeking 
righteousness as the summum bonum, 
and the -irpwTov is implied in such a 
quest. Some (Meyer, Sevin, Achelis) 
think there is no second, not even a 
subordinate seeking after earthly goods, 
all that to be left in God's hands, our 
sole concern the kingdom. That is in- 
deed the ideal heroic attitude. Yet 
practically it comes to be a question of 
first and second, supreme and subordi- 
nate, and if the kingdom be indeed first 
it will keep all else in its proper place. 
The -TTptoTov, like the prayer against 
temptation, indicates consideration for 
weakness in the sincere, — irpocrreSrio-tTai, 
shall be added, implying that the main 
object of quest will certainly be secured. 
Ver, 34, Final exhortation against 
care. Not in Luke's parallel section, 
therefore regarded by Weiss as a re- 
flection appended by the evangelist, not 
drawn fi-om apostolic doctrine. But it 
very fitlj' winds up the discourse. In- 
stead of saying. Care not about food and 
raiment, the Teacher now says finally. 
Care not with reference to to-morrow, 
els TT)v avpiov ('^piEpav understood). It 
comes to the same thing. To restrict 
care to to-day is to master it absolutely. 
It is the future that breeds anxiety and 
leads to hoarding. — |icpi|*vi]o-ci : future, 
with force of an imperative = let it, with 
genitive (avTTJs, W,H.) like other verbs of 
care ; in ver, 25, with accus. — dpiccToy : & 




' Rom'ii'" VII. I. " MH " KpicGTC, iVa p) Kpi6r|TS ■ 2. ei' w Y'lp Kpifxaxi Kpi- 
^^1. 2/; i<cTe, Kpifit'io-caOe • kuI tV J fxtrpw /xcTpeiTe, ucTifAeTpiiSYjo-eTai ' up.Li'. 
Ins. ly. 11. J Ti 8e pXtTTeis TO '' Kdp4)09 TO cV Tw o4>0aXp.a) ToG d8eX4)Ou ctou, 


* Most uncials have the simple pfrpi^OTjo-frai. The compound (T. R.) is in 
minusc. and I. Doubtless it came in originally from Lk. (vi. 38), being there the 
most probable reading. 

neuter adjective, used as a noun ; a 
sufficiency. — i-ji T|p,(p(|i,for each successive 
day, the article distributive.— t| KaK^a, 
not the moral evil but the physical, the 
misery or affliction of life (not classical 
in this sense). In the words of Chrys. 
H. xxii., KaKiav 4>T)(ri, ov Tt)v irovTipiav, 
jxT) yivoLTo, aXXa tt)v raXaiirupCav, Kal 
Tov irovov, Ktti TOLS (rvp.4>6pa;. Every day 
has some such troubles : " suas afflic- 
tiones, quas nihil est nccesse mctu con- 
duplicare". Erasmus, Para^A. Fritzschc 
proposes a peculiar arrangement of the 
words in the second and third clauses. 
Putting a full stop after (t«pip,vi]cr<i, and 
retaining the ra of T.R. before eavTTJs, 
he brings out this sense : The things of 
itself are a sufficiency for each day, viz., 
the evil thereof. 

Chapter VII. The Sermon Con- 
tinued AND Closed. The contents of 
this chapter are less closely connected and 
more miscellaneous than in the two pre- 
ceding. In w. 1-12 the polemic against 
Pharisaism seems to be continued and 
concluded. Vv. 6-1 1 Weiss regards as 
an interpolation foreign to the connec- 
tion. It seems best not to be too 
anxious about discovering connections, 
but to take the weighty moral sentences 
of the chapter as they stand, as embody- 
ing thoughts of Christ at whatever time 
uttered, on the hill or elsewhere, or in 
whatever connection. Section 1-5 
certainly deals with a Pharisaic vice, 
that of exalting ourselves by disparaging 
others, a very cheap way of attaining 
moral superiority. Jesus would have 
His disciples rise above Pagans, 
publicans, Sadducees, Pharisees, but not 
by the method of detraction. 

Vv. 1-5. Against judging, Ver. i, 
fi.T| KpCvcTc, judge not, an absolute pro- 
hibition of a common habit, especially 
in religious circles of the Pharisaic type, 
in which much of the evil in human 
nature reveals itself. " What levity, 
haste, prejudice, malevolence, ignorance ; 
what vanity and egotism in most of the 
judgments pronounced in the world " 
(Lutteroth). Judge not, said Christ. 
fudge, it is your duty, said the Dutch 

pietists of last century through a literary 
spokesman, citing in proof Matt, xxiii. 
33, where the Pharisees are blamed for 
neglecting "judgment". Vide Ritschl, 
Geschichte des Pietistnus, i., p. 328. 
How far apart the two types 1 — iva jt^ 
KpiBTJTf : an important, if not the highest 
motive ; not merely a reference to thr. 
final judgment, but stating a law of the 
moral order of the world ; the judger 
shall be judged ; to which answers the 
other: who judges himself shall not be 
judged (i Cor. xi. 31). In Rom. ii. i 
St. Paul tacitly refers to the Jew as 
6 Kpivtav. The reference there and here 
defines the meaning of Kpivtiv. It 
points to the habit of judging, and the 
spirit as evinced by the habit, censorious- 
ness leading inevitably to sinister judging, 
so that Kpivciv is practically equivalent to 
KaraKptvci-v or KaraSiKatciv (Lk. vi. 37). 
— Ver. 2. €v o5 -yap, etc. : Vulgatissimum 
hoc apud Judaeos adagium, says Light- 
foot (Hor. Heb.). Of course; one would 
expect such maxims, based on ex- 
perience, to be current among all 
peoples (vide Grotius for examples). It 
is the lex talionis in a new form : 
character for character. Jesus may have 
learned some of these moral adages at 
school in Nazareth, as we have all when 
boys learned many good things out of 
our lesson books with their collections of 
extracts. The point to notice is what 
the mind of Jesus assimilated — the best 
in the wisdom of His people — and the 
emphasis with which He inculcated the 
best, so as to ensure for it permanent 
lodgment in the minds of His disciples 
and in their records of His teaching. 

Vv. 3-5. Proverb of the mote and 
beam. Also current among Jews and 
Arabs {vide Tholuck). — itdp<|>os, a minute 
dry particle of chaff, wood, etc. — 8ok(5s, 
a wooden beam {let in, from 8«xopai) or 
joist, a monstrous symbol of a great 
fault. A beam in the eye is a natural 
impossibility; cf. the camel and the 
needle eye. The Eastern imagination 
was prone to exaggeration. This is a 
case of tu quoque (Rom. ii. 2), or rather 
of " thou much more ". The faults may 




TT)!' 8c iv T« <Tw o4>6a\|Ji(>) ' 80KOV ou * Karafocls ; 4. f\ ttws tpeis tw c Lk. vi. 41, 

dScX(()w <Tou, ''A<|>£s €K)3d\a> to Kdipc^os Atto ^ tou 6(j)0aX|jiou aou • Kai d 41; 

180U, 1^ SoKos ei' TW o4>6aX)Xw aoo ; 5, uiroKpni, eK^aXc trpunoy tt)v Acta'xxviL 

SoKov 6K tou o<{)0aX|j,ou o-ou,^ Kal t<5t€ • 8tapX^v|/€is eKpaXeii/ rh K(ip<j>09 Lk.xi1.14, 

eK tou 64>6aXp.ou tou dSeX^ioJ trou. 6. Mt) 8ut6 to ayiov toIs kucti • fv. 19. ""^ 

jiTjSc pdXtjTe Tous fiapyapiTas ujawi' cfjurpoadcf twk xoipwi', fii^iroTe * 25. Lk! 

vi, 42. 
f Ch. xiii. 45. I Tim. IL 9. ReT. xvii. 4 ; xviii. 16 ; xxi. 31. 

^ t*^BI have ck, which is preferred by most modern edd. Weiss suspects con- 
formity to the £ic in €KpaX<«>. 

' {»^BC place ik tov o<^0. crov before ttiv Sokov, so giving to the censor's own eye 
due emphasis. 

be of the same kind : Kdp<{>os, a petty 
theft, 8oK<$s, commercial dishonesty on 
a large scale—" thou that judgest doest 
the same things" (Rom. ii. 2) ; or of a 
different sort : moral laxity in the 
publican, pride and inhumanity in the 
Pharisee who despised him (Lk. xviii. 9- 
14). — ^Xeitci;, oil Karavotis : the contrast 
is not between seeing and failing to see, 
but between seeing and not choosing to 
see; ignoring, consciously overlooking. 
The censorious man is not necessarily 
ignorant of his own faults, but he does 
not let his mind rest on them. It is more 
pleasant to think of other people's faults. 
— Ver. 4. iKpdXo), hortatory conjunc- 
tive, first person, supplies place of im- 
perative which is wanting in first person ; 
takes such words as aye, ^ipe, or as 
here acfxs, before it Vide Goodwin, 
section 255. For a^e% modern Greek 
has as, a contraction, used with the 
subjunctive in the first and third 
persons (vide Vincent and Dickson, 
Modern Greek, p. 322). — Ver. 5. 
viiTOKpiTtt : because he acts as no one 
should but he who has first reformed 
himself. " What hast thou to do to 
declare my statutes ? " Ps. 1. 16.— 8ia- 
p\€'i^/€is, thou will see clearly, vide Mk. 
viii. 24, 25, where three compounds of 
the verb occur, with avd, Sid, and Iv. 
Fritzsche takes the future as an im- 
perative and renders : se componere ad 
aliquid, curare; ».«., set thyself then to 
the task of, etc. 

Ver. 6. A complementary counsel. 
No connecting word introduces this 
sentence. Indeed the absence of con- 
necting particles is noticeable throughout 
the chapter: w. i, 6, 7, 13, 15. It is 
a collection of ethical pearls strung 
loosely together. Yet it is not difficult 
to suggest a connecting link, thus : I 
have said, -'Judge not," yet you must 
know people, else you will make great 

mistakes, such as, etc. Moral criticism 
is inevitable. Jesus Himself practised 
it. He judged the Pharisees, but in the 
interest of humanity, guided by the law 
of love. He judged the proud, pre- 
tentious, and cruel, in behalf of the weak 
and despised. All depends on what we 
judge and why. The Pharisaic motive 
was egotism ; the right motive is de- 
fence of the downtrodden or, in certain 
cases, .ri7/-defence. So here. — -KaTa- 
iraTi]o-ovo-i : future well attested, vide 
critical note, with subjunctive, pi^|<o(rt, 
in last clause ; unusual combination, 
but not impossible. On the use of the 
future after jxijiroTe and other final 
particles, vide I3urton, Syntax of the 
Moods and Tenses in N. T. Greek, § 
199- — TO eiYiov, Tovs jxapyapiTas : what 
is the holy thing, and what are the 
pearls ? In a moral aphorism special 
indications are not to be expected, and 
we are left to our own conjectures. The 
"holy" and the "pearls" must define 
themselves for each individual in his own 
experience. They are the things which 
are sacred and precious for a man or 
woman, and which natural feeling teaches 
us to be careful not to waste or expose to 
desecration. For this purpose knowledge 
of the world, discrimination, is necessary. 
We must not treat all people alike, and 
show our valuables, religious experiences, 
best thoughts, tenderest sentiments, to 
the first comer. Shyness, reserve, goes 
along with sincerity, depth, refinement. 
In all shyness there is implicit judgment 
of the legitimate kind. A modest woman 
shrinks from a man whom her instinct 
discerns to be impure ; a child from 
all hard-natured people. Who blames 
woman or child ? It is but the instinct 
of self-preservation. — kvctiv, xoipcov. The 
people to be feared and shunned are 
those represented by dogs and swine, 
regarded by Jews as shameless and 




g Ch. ix. 17. KaTa-iTaTT)awcrik' ^ aurous Iv toIs TroaiK aoTwc, Kai OToaA^KTCs 

Mk. ix. :8. ^ ^ , . ^ r x > 

Lk. ix. 42. « pT)§wai»' ofids. 7. AiT€iT£, Kai 8o0r)(T€Tai oiiif • ttiTeiTC, koi 

Gal. iv. 27 , , h ' » ' ' « - 1 

(to break £upi]acT€ • KpoucTC, Ktti uvoiYTtreTai iifxlv. 8. Trds vap 6 acTUK 

out into »o, V..-,' V. 

joy). AaiJipacei, Kai o l,r\TU)v eupiaKct, kci tw KpouotTi dvoiviiaeTai.' 

b Lk. Xi. 9, «>, R>A'->A * j^ A y , 

Io;xii.36. 9. TJ TIS COTH' " e^ Up,tUf at'OpCJTTOS, OC cdf* aiTTJtTT) o oios aUTOU 

16. Rev. apTOK, fiT| X160V '^TTiSwaet aurio ; 10. Kai ^d^ ix^o>' aiTii<rj],' p,^ 
ill. 20. 
i Lk. xi. II ; xxiv. 30, 4a. Acts xv. 30; xxvii. 15. 

1 KaTairaTTjo-owcriv in BCLXI. Weiss against most critics thinks this combina- 
tion of the fut. ind. with the subj. (pT)|uj<riv) impossible. He ascribes the reading 
ov to a confusion of ov with u. Vide below. 

- avoiYcrai in B Cop. Syr. Cur. W.H. in margin. Weiss decides for this reading. 

' BL omit ctTTiv, and among modern editors Treg. and W.H. 

* For ta.v at-rrjcrn ^I5CLA have ai.TT]<r€i. Tisch. and W.fl. adopt this. 

* For Kai tav amjo-i] fc^BC have rj Kai aiTr)o-ci, which modern critics generally 

unclean animals. There are such people, 
unhappily, even in the judgment of 
charity, and the shrewd know them and 
fight shy of them ; for no good can come 
of comradeship with them. Discussions 
as to whether the dogs and the swine 
represent two classes of men, or only 
one, are pedantic. If not the same they 
are at least similar ; one in this, that 
they are to be avoided. And it is gratu- 
itous to limit the scope of the gnome to 
the apostles and their work in preaching 
the gospel. It applies to all citizens of 
the kingdom, to all who have a treasure 
to guard, a holy of holies to protect from 
profane intrusion. — fniiroxe, lest per- 
chance. What is to be feared? — koto- 
iraTrjtrova-iv, p'qlbxriv : treading under 
foot (Iv T. TT., instrumental, with, de 
Wctte ; among, Weiss) your pearls 
(avTovs), rending yourselves. Here 
again there is trouble for the com- 
mentators as to the distribution of the 
trampling and rending between dogs and 
swine. Do both do both, or the swine 
both, or the swine the trampling and the 
dogs the rending ? The latter is the 
view of Theophylact, and it has been 
followed by some moderns, including 
Achelis. On this view the structure of 
the sentence presents an example of 
lirdvoSos or vnrTepiio-is, the first verb 
referring to the second subject and the 
second verb to the first subject. The 
dogs — street dogs, without master, living 
on offal — rend, because what you have 
thrown to them, perhaps to propitiate 
them, being of uncertain temper at the 
best, is not to their liking ; the swine 
trample under foot what looked like peas 
or acorns, but turns out to be uneatable. 

Before passing from these verses (1-6) 
two curious opinions may be noted, (i) 
That a-yiov represents an Aramaic word 
meaning ear-ornaments, answering to 
pearls. This view, once favoured by 
Michaelis, Bolten, Kuinoel, etc., and 
thereafter discredited, has been revived 
by Holtzmann (H. C). (2) That A<})eaX- 
fids (v\'. 3, 5) means, not the eye, but a 
village well. So Furrer. Strange, he 
says, that a man should need to be told 
by a neighbour that he has a mote in his 
eye, or that it should be a fault to propose 
to take it out 1 And what sense in the 
idea of a beam in the eye ? But translate 
the Aramaic word used by Jesus, well, 
and all is clear and natural. A neighbour 
given to fault-finding sees a small im- 
purity in a villager's well and tauntingly 
offers to remove it. Meantime his own 
boys, in his absence, throw a beam into 
his own well (Zeitsch. fiir M. unci R. 
Vide also Wandertingen, p. 222). 

Vv. 7-11. Admonition to prayer : pre- 
supposes deferred answer to prayer, 
tempting to doubt as to its utility, and 
consequent discontinuance of the practice. 
A lesson more natural at a later stage, 
when the disciples had a more developed 
religious experience. The whole subject 
more adequately handled in Luke xi. 
1-13. — Ver. 7. AIt£it«, t,r)r(lre, KpoveTc, 
threefold exhortation with a view to 
impressiveness ; first literally, then twice 
in figurative language : seek as for an 
object lost, knock as at a barred door, 
appropriate after the parable of the 
neighbour in bed (Lk. xi. 5-8). The 
promise of answer is stated in corre- 
sponding terms. — So6r\(rfrai, tvp-qvere, 
avotYT]a€Tai. — Ver. 8, iteration in form 



oAif ETTiSojo-Ei aoTw ; II. 6t ovv uueis, irocTipol orres, ' oTSarc j Lk. xii. 36, 
' 2 Pet. ii. g. 

' Souara dvaOd 8i86t'ai toIs T^Kk'ois diiw, iroaw aciXXoi' 6 iraTTip (vide be- 
. ^ - - .^ , nx - . - r , low, also 

v^iStv 6 €1' TOIS oupaKOis ocSaci dyaoa tois aiTootrii' auTOt'; 12. Udvra Mt. xxviL 

GUI' ocra &v ^ 0eXT]Te ii'a ' iroioicrii' u^uv 01 awOpwirot, outw Kal uficis k Lk. xi. 13, 

1 - ,- . ,, ./,x. ,- Eph.iv.8 

TTOieiTc auTois • 0UT09 Y^p eoriK o voikos Kai 01 7rpo<pT)Tai. Phil. v. 

1 Ch. xviii. 35; XX. 32; xxi. 4o;_xxv. 40, 45. Mk. v. ig, 20. Lk. L 49 al. (with dat. of person in all 
cases cited. Not usual in classics). 

^ For av ^C have €av, which has been adopted by Tisch. and VV.H. 

of a general proposition : iris vap, for 
every one, etc. — Ver. g. ^ answers to a 
state of mind which doubts whether God 
gives in answer to prayer at all, or at 
least gives what we desire. — t£s ii vjtwv 
d»'. : argument from analogy, from the 
human to the divine. The construction 
is broken. Instead of going on to say 
what the man of the parable will do, the 
sentence changes into a statement of 
what he will not do. Well indicated in 
W.H.'s text by a — after aprov. The 
anacolouthon could be avoided by 
omitting the itrri of T. R. after tis and 
(IT) before XWov, when the sentence 
would stand : tCs ^i v(xwv av., 6v airijo-ei 
& ■oios avTov apTO*', X£6ov liriSwcci 
aiiTtj). But the broken sentence, if 
worse grammar, is better rhetoric. — (atj 
X. lirtSciaet, he will not give him a stone, 
will he ? Bread, stone ; fish, serpent. 
Resemblance is implied, and the idea is 
that a father may refuse his child's 
request but certainly will not mock him. 
Grotius quotes from Plautus: "Altera 
manu fert lapidem, panem ostentat al- 
tera ". Furrer suggests that by ocjuv is 
meant not a literal serpent, but a scale- 
less fish, therefore prohibited to be eaten 
(Lev. xi. 12) ; serpent-like, found in the 
Sea of Galilee, three feet long, often 
caught in the nets, and of course thrown 
away like the dogfish of our waters. — 
Ver. II, Trov-qpoi, morally evil, a strong 
word, the worst fathers being taken to 
represent the class, the point being that 
hardly the worst will treat their children 
as described. There is no intention to 
teach a doctrine of depravity, or, as 
Chrysostom says, to calumniate human 
nature (oii SiapaXXwv ttjv ov6po>ir(vT)v 
<|)\j<riv). The evil specially in view, as 
required by the connection, is selfish- 
ness, a grudging spirit : " If ye then, 
whose own nature is rather to keep what 
you have than to bestow it on others, 
etc." (Hatch, Essays in B. Gr., p. 81). — 
otSare 8i8(5vo(, soletis dare, Maldon. 
Wetstein ; rather, have the sense to 
give; with the infinitive as in Phil. v. 

12, I Tim. iii. 5. Perhaps we should 
take the phrase as an elegant expression 
for the simple 8(8otc. So Palairet. — 
86fi.aTa, four times in N. T. for the attic 
8wpov, S(i>pT]p,a ; 80^1. d'yaOa, gifts good 
not only in quality (bread not stone, etc.) 
but even in measure, generous, giving 
the children more than they ask. — ircJatj) 
p.d\Xov, a fortiori argument. — 6 iraTTip, 
etc., the Father whose benignant nature 
has aheady been declared, v. 45. — d-ya6d, 
good things emphatically, insignia dona, 
Rosenm., and only good (Jas. i. 17, an 
echo of this utterance). This text is 
classic for Christ's doctrine of the Father- 
hood of God. 

Ver. 12. The golden rule. ovv 
here probably because in the source, cf. 
Kal in quotation in Heb. i. 6. The con- 
nection must be a matter of conjecture — 
with ver. 11, a, " Extend your goodness 
from children to all," Fritzsche ; with 
ver. II, b, " Imitate the divine good- 
ness," Bengel ; with vii. 1-5, w. 6-11 
being an interpolation, Weiss and Holtz. 
(H.C). Lk. vi. 31 places it after the 
precept contained in Matt. v. 42, and 
Wendt, in his reconstruction of the login 
(L. J., i. 61), follows that clue. The 
thought is certainly in sympathy with 
the teaching of Matt. v. 38-48, and 
might very well be expounded in that 
connection. But the meaning is not 
dependent on connection. The sentence 
is a worthy close to the discourse begin- 
ning at v. 17. " Respondent ultima 
primis," Beng. Here as there "law and 
prophets". — iva with subjunctive after 
6«Xtjtc, instead of infinitive.— iravxa oxiv 
. . . TToieiTe a-iiTois. The law of 
nature, says Rosenmiiller. Not quite. 
Wetstein, indeed, gives copious instances 
of something similar in Greek and 
Roman writers and Rabbinical sources, 
and the modern science of comparative 
religion enables us to multiply them. 
But recent commentators (including 
Holtz., H.C.) have remarked that, in 
these instances, the rule is stated in 
negative terms. So, e.g., in Tobit, 




m (with i.a 13- " " EiaAOexe 8ia rris * (rrck'f]? ttuXt|s ' oTi •irXaTCto tj ttoXk],' 
and ^cn. 
of way). Kttl " eupu^wpos ^ 686s T] dirdyouaa <is tt)c diruXeiaf, Kftl iroXXoi 

Lk. xiii. , ,, , ^>'-, o \ t i\ >> \ A\ 

14. John eiaif 01 eicrepxofxekoi 81 aoTi)9 • 14. on (TTecT) r] iruXifj/ Kai ' xeoXiji- 

n Lie. xiii. fiti^ "^ 686s ^ dirdyouaa cis Tr|>' ^wrjv, Kal oXiyoi 61(tIi' ol cupiaKOCTES 

o here only in N. T., several times in Sept p here only in N. T., Sept. Ps. ciii. (iv.) 25. q here 
only in the sense of contracted. 

* 1) iruXtj is wanting in ^ and many Fathers (Clem. Orig.), and omitted by W.H. 
and bracketed by Tisch. Weiss thinks it very susjncious. 

' Some copies have n for on and omit tj ttvXtj, but the- text as it stands is 
approved by W.H. Tisch. brackets ■r\ irwXri. 

iv. 15, & fiiacis, (iTiStvi iroiTioTis, quoted 
by Hillel in reply to one who asked him 
to teach the whole law while he stood on 
one leg. So also in the saying of Con- 
fucius : " Do not to others what you 
would not wish done to yourself," Legge, 
Chinese Classics, i. 191 f. The negative 
confines us to the region of frstice ; the 
positive takes us into the region of gener- 
osity or grace, and so embraces both law 
and prophets. We wish much more 
than we can claim — to be helped in need, 
encouraged in struggles, defended when 
misrepresented, and befriended when 
our back is at the wall. Christ would 
have us do all that in a magnanimous, 
benignant way; to be not merely SiKaios 
but d-ya6d9' — vdjjios Kal Trpo<j)f)Tai : per- 
haps to a certain extent a current phrase 
= all that is necessary, but, no doubt, 
seriously meant ; therefore, may help us 
to understand the statement in v. 17, 
" I came not to destroy, but to fulfil ". 
The golden rule was Law and Prophets 
only in an ideal sense, and in the same 
sense only was Christ a fulfiller. — Vide 
Wendt, L. J., ii. 341. 

Vv. 13, 14. The two ivays (Lk. 
xiii. 23-25). From this pomt onwards 
we have what commentators call the 
Epilogue of the sermoni introduced with- 
out connecting particle, possibly no part 
of the teaching on the hill, placed here 
because that teaching was regarded as 
the best guide to the right way. The 
passage itself contains no clue to the 
right way except that it is the way of the 
few. The allegory also is obscure from 
its brevity. Is the gate at the beginning 
or end of the way, or are gate and 
way practically one, the way narrow 
because it passes through a narrow door- 
way ? Possibly Christ's precept was 
simply, " enter through the narrow gate " 
or "door" (Ovpa, Luke's word), all the 
rest being gloss. ^TrvXr)?, the large en- 
trance to an edifice'or city, as distinct 
from dvpa, a cunimon door; pcihaps 

chosen by Lk. because in keeping with 
the epithet <rT€VTJs.^oTi, f;tc. : explana- 
tory enlargement to unfold and enforce 
the precept. — t| 68bs : two ways are con- 
trasted, either described by its qualities 
and end. The "way" in the figure is a 
common road, but the term readily 
suggests a manner of life. The Christian 
religion is frequently called "the way" 
in Acts (ix. 2, xix. g, etc.). The v/rong 
road is characterised as TrXareia and 
evpvxwpos, broad and roomy, and as 
leading to destruction (oLTruXeiav). The 
right way (and gate, t| irvXTi, is to be 
retained in ver. 14, though omitted in 
ver. 13) is described as artvT) Kal 
T«0Xipfj.einr|, narrow and contracted, and 
as leading to life. — ?w">iv, a pregnant 
word, true life, worth living, in which 
men realise the end of their being — the 
antithesis of airwXeia. The one is the 
way of the many, iroXXoi €ioriv ol clcrep. ; 
the other of the few, 6X1701 . . . ol 
€vpi<rKovTes. Note the word "finding". 
The way is so narrow or so untrodden 
that it may easily be missed. It has to 
be sought for. Luke suggests the idea 
of difficulty in squeezing in through the 
very narrow door. Both points of view 
have their analogue in life. The practi- 
cal application of this counsel requires 
spiritual discernment. No verbal direc- 
tory will help us. Narrow ? Was not 
Pharisaism a narrow way, and the mon- 
astic life and pietism with its severe rules 
for separation from the " world " in 
amusement, dress, etc. ? 

Vv. 15-20. Warning against pseudo- 
prophets. Again, without connecting 
particle and possibly not a part of the 
Sermon on the Mount. But the more 
important question here is : Does this 
section belong to Christ's teaching at all, 
or has it been introduced by the Evangelist 
that false teachers of after days appear- 
ing in the Church might be condemned 
under the authority of the Master ? 
(Holtz., H.C.). What occasion had 

t3— 19- 



auTTjK. 15. ripooexeTc 8e ^ Atto twk (|/cuBo7rao(}>T]To)k', oiTikcs r Ch. x. 17 ; 

cpxorrai irpos ufJiSs ei^ ekOULLaai TrpopaTOJi', eauoei/ oe cicti Xukoi Lk.xx.46 
» iTjx" --.-<-' /A./ , (all with 

apirayes- 10. dTTo tojv' Kapirojc txMTiiiv tTrtYi'wtreaoe auTous • (aiiti iirdxivos). 

y \\ ' >^> fl« i\'9»>v n >\ " * ''''• "5^- 

aoWeyouati' aTTO GKawflwi' aTa(|)u\T)f,*' ii] diro TpipoXwv auKa ; 17, 11,240/. 

c. -C'C 'a^ ^ \^ -8^«^W x * ActS XX. 29 

ouTw iraf Oet'opoi' ayawoi' Kapirou; Ka\ous iroiei " • to be trairpoc trop.,io\n 

Sei'Spoi' KapiTOus TTOKTjpous iroiet. l8. 06 SuKarai SeVSpoe aYaSoc v. 6 a/. 

KapTTOus irot'Tjpous iroieii',* ouSe SeVSpoK aairpov' KapTrous kqXous v Ch! xiii. 

TTOietJ'.* 19. ■jrai' SeVSpov jatj ttoiouk KapTroK Ka\6f cKKOirrerai Kal (with «). 

xiii 48. Eph. iv. 09. 

i i^B omit 8« (so W.H.). 

^ t^BC have arTa<}>vXas. The sing, comes from Lk. (vi. 44). 

' B has iroiei KaXovs (W.H. margin). 

• For iroieiv ^ has evevKeiv (Tisch. both places, W.H. ist place). 

Christ to speak of false prophets ? The 
reference can hardly be to the Pharisees 
or the Rabbis. They were men of tradi- 
tion, not prophetic, either in the true or 
in the false sense. But, apart from 
them, there might be another class of 
men in evidence in our Lord's day, who 
might be so characterised. It was a 
time of religious excitement; the force of 
custom broken, the deep fountains of the 
soul bursting forth ; witness the crowds 
who followed John and Jesus, and the 
significant saying about the kingdom of 
heaven suffering violence (Matt. xi. 12). 
Such times call forth true prophets and 
also spurious ones, so far in religious 
sympathy with prevalent enthusiasms, but 
bent on utilising them for their own 
advantage in gain or influence, men of 
the Judas type. If such men, as is 
likely, existed, Jesus would have some- 
thing to say about them, as about all 
contemporary religious phenomena. 

Ver. 15. npo(r€X€T€ dirb, take heed 
to and beware of. — otrives, I mean, such 
as. — €V cvSv|xacri irpopdrwv. Grotius, 
Rosenm. and Holtz. (H.C.) take this as 
referring to the dress worn [iv |jLT|XwTai;, 
Heb. xi. 37) as the usual badge of a 
prophet, but not without reference to 
the plausible manner of the wearer ; 
deceptive and meant to deceive (Zechar. 
xiii. 4) ; gentle, innocent as sheep ; 
speaking with " unction," and all but 
deceiving " the very elect ". The manner 
more than the dress is doubtless in- 
tended. cawGcv Se : manner and nature 
utterly different ; within, Xvkoi apiraYCS ; 
greedy, sometimes for power, ambitious 
to be first ; often for gain, money. The 
Didache speaks of a type of prophet 
whom it pithily names a xp"'"»'€p.iropos 
(chap, xii.), a Christ-merchant. There 

have always been prophets of this type, 
" each one to his gain " (Is. Ivi. 11), 
Evangel-merchants, traders in religious 
revival. — Ver. 16. airo t. Kapiruv. 
By the nature of the case difficult to 
detect, but discernible from their fruit. 
— eiriYvuaeaSe. Ye shall know them 
through and through (€Tri) if ye study 
carefully the outcome of their whole 
way of life. 

Vv. 16-20. An enlargement in parabolic 
fashion on the principle of testing by 
fruit. Ver. 16. (117x1, do they perhaps, 
Ti suggesting doubt where there is 
none = men never do collect, or think 
of collecting, grapes from thorns or figs 
from thistles. And yet the idea is not 
absurd. There were thorns with grape- 
like fjruit, and thistles with heads like 
figs (Holtz., H.C). But in the natural 
sphere these resemblances never de- 
ceived ; men saw at a glance how the 
matter stood. — Ver. 17. Another illus- 
tration from good and bad trees of the 
same kind. ayaOov, sound, healthy; 
(ra-irpbv, degenerate, through age or bad 
soil. According to Phryn., aairpd; was 
popularly used instead of alcrxpo9 in a 
moral sense (cairpdv oL iroXXol dvTi tov 
alcrxpav, p. 377). Each tree brings forth 
fruit answering to its condition. — Ver. 

18. oi SvvttTai, etc. Nothing else is 
possible or looked for in nature.— Ver. 

19. Men look on this as so certain that 
they do not hesitate to cut down and 
burn a degenerate tree, as if it were 
possible it might bring forth good fruit 
next year. — jit) iroiovv, if it do not, that 
once ascertained. Weiss thinks this 
verse is imported from iii. 10, and foreign 
to the connection. — Ver. 20. apaYc: final 
inference, a very lively and forcible com- 
posite particle; again with similar effect 




X Ch xii so '^^ TTup pdXXcTai. 20. apayc drro jCtv Kap-nC>v aoTwc in^iyi liatadf 

xxi. ii ul. auTOUS. 
jf Ch. XXIV. 
36, Lit. X. 21. " Oi iras 6 \iy<Jiy fioi, Kupic, Ku'pie, EiaeXeuaerai cis T^i* 

These, i. ^aaiXciac TWK oupawoiv' • dXX' 6 * iroidji' to OeXrjjJia tou Traxp^s Jaoo 

I Mk. ix. 38. Tou ^k* ^ oopai'ois. 22. iroXXol ^pouai p.01 iv ^ iKeiyY\ xtj rju^pa, 

■John i. JO. Kupi€, Kupie, ou Tw aw oi'op.aTt Trpo€<J)i]Tcu(rap.€>',^ Kal "rij) aw ocoiiaTi 

13 (rifi Ti 8atp.6^'la e^ePdXop.e*', Kal tw aw 6c6p.aTi Sok'dfAeis iroXXds eiroii^- 

xxiv. 14). aappec; 23. Kal totc * 6y.o\oyf\<T(3i auxois, oxi ouS^ttotc eyviav Afias * 

' t«^BC have tois before ovpavois, which T. R., following many MSS., omits. 
't^BCLZ have the augment at the beginning (•'Trpo(}>.) ; adopted by modern 

in Matt. xvii. 26. The yt should have 
its full force as singling out for special 
attention ; " at least from their fruits, if 
by no other means ". It implies that to 
know the false prophet is hard. Ver. 
22 explains why. He has so much to 
say, and show, for himself: devils cast 
out, souls saved, spiritual if not physical 
miracles done. What other or better 
" fruit " would you have ? What in 
short is the test ? Doctrine, good moral 
life ? Is the false prophet necessarily a 
false teacher or an immoral man ? Not 
necessarily though not unfrequently. 
But he is always a self-seeking man. 
The true prophet is Christ-like, i.e., 
cares supremely for truth, righteousness, 
humanity ; not at all for himself, his 
pocket, his position, his life. None but 
such can effectively preach Christ. This 
repetition of the thought in ver. 16 is not 
for mere poetical effect, as Carr (Camb. 
G. T.), following Jebb (Sacred Litera- 
ture, p. 195), seems to think. 

Vv. 21-23. False discipleship. From 
false teachers the discourse naturally 
passes to spurious disciples. Luke's 
version contains the kernel of this 
passage (Luke vi. 46). Something of 
the kind was to be expected in the teach- 
ing on the hill. What more likely than 
that the Master, who had spoken such 
weighty truths, should say to His 
hearers : " In vain ye call me Master, 
unless ye do the things which I say " ? 
As it stands here the logion has pro- 
bably, as Weiss suggests (Matt. Evang., 
p. 219), undergone expansion and 
modification, so as to give to the title 

" Lord," originally = "^C Teacher, the 
full sense it bore when applied to Christ 
by the Apostolic Church, and to make 
the warning refer to false prophets 
of the Apostolic age using Christ's 

name and authority in support of anti- 
Christian tendencies, such as anti- 
nomianism (avo^iav, ver. 23). — Ver. 21. 
6 \iy(ov, 6 irotuv: Of all, whether disciples 
or teachers, the principle holds good with- 
out exception that not saying " Lord " 
but doing God's will is the condition of 
approval and admittance into the king- 
dom. Saying " Lord " includes taking 
Jesus for Master, and listening to His 
teaching with appreciation and admira- 
tion ; everything short of carrying out 
His teaching in life. In connection 
with such lofty thouglits as the Beati- 
tudes, the precept to love enemies and 
the admonition against care, there is a 
great temptation to substitute senti- 
mental or sesthetic admiration for heroic 
conduct. — TO OeX-qfitt tov iraTpds fiov. 
Christ's sense of His position as Master 
or Lord was free from egotism. He 
was simply the Son and Servant of the 
Father, whose will He and all who 
follow Him must obey ; my Father here 
for the first time. — Ver. 22. kv Ikcivx] 
T^ -^ficpq., the great dread judgment 
day of Jehovah expected by all Jews, 
with more or less solemn awe ; a very 
grave reference. — tu acji ovofiaxi : thrice 
repeated, the main ground of hope. 
Past achievements, prophesyings, exor- 
cisms, miracles are recited ; but the 
chief point insisted on is : all was done 
in Thy name, honouring Thee, as the 
source of wisdom and power. — Ver 23. 
t<5t<. When they make this protesta- 
tion, the Judge will make a counter- 
protestation — op.oXo'Y'qau) aviTois, I will 
own to them. Bengal's comment is : 
aperte. Mzgnz potestas hujus dicti. But 
there is a certain apologetic tone in the 
expression, " I will confess " (" profess," 
A.V. and R.V.), as if to say : I ought to 
know men who can say so much for 
themselves, but I do not. — oti, recita- 


20 26. 



^ diToxwpeiTe dir* cfxou 01 * epYa|^<5(j,6Kot tJjk '' di'OfiiuK. 24. Fids ou>' b Lk. ix. 39, 
1 11 \ \. f /i\ -<, Acts xiii. 

ocrris aKouei jiou tous Aoyous toutous, Kai iroiei aureus, opoiwcrw 13. 

»^2^C^•i ' 1 ' <^ r \ , r >»<i,».C Ch. Xxvi. 

auTOJ' •* acopi <|>pocip,b), ooris u»KooofAT]CT6 TT)f oiKiaK auTou ^ €Tri Tr)i/ la 
■jreTpaj'- 25. Kai KaW^i] i^ ^poxt) Kal tJXOo*' ot iroTafAol Kal 41. ija 

TcfieiieXtwTO ydp em tt)k Trerpak. 26. Kal irSs 6 dKOuuK |Jioo toos 


eirv€ucrav oi di/6)xot, Kai ' •jrpoore-ircoroi' rfj oiKia ckeiio], koI ouk eireae • e Ch.^x. 16; 

xxiv. 45 ; 
XXV. 2, 4. 

Xoyous TOUTOUS Kal fi^ iroiwi' outous, 6fjioiu8T)o-eTat dkSpl • p,u>pw, h *" 

f here only 
in sense of beat against. g Ch. xxiii.17, ig; xxv. z, 8. 

' B omits TovTo«s, which is bracketed by W.H. It seems needed, and may have 

fallen out by homcEOt. 

^ t^BZ have opioio>0T)<rcTai for opLoiucrbi avrov. So W.H. 

■* ovTou before rqv oikiuv in fc^BCZI, so giving the pronoun due emphasis — hii 

tive, the exact words directly reported. — 
ovSeTTOTe, never: at no point in that 
remarkable career when so many wonder- 
ful things were done in my name. — 
a-n-oxcop£iT€, etc. : an echo of Ps. vi. 9, 
and sentence of doom, like Matt. xxv. 41. 

Vv. 24-27. Epilogue (Lk. vi. 47-49, 
which see for comparative exegesis). 
ovv, ver. 24, may be taken as referring to 
the whole discourse, not merely to w. 
21-23 (Tholuck and Achelis). Such a 
sublime utterance could only be the 
grand finale of a considerable discourse, 
or series of discourses. It is a fit ending 
of a body of teaching of unparalleled 
weight, dignity, and beauty. The toi5- 
rovs after Xoyotjs (ver. 24), though 
omitted in B, therefore bracketed in 
W. H., is thoroughly appropriate. It 
may have fallen out through similar 
ending of three successive words, or have 
been omitted intentionally to make the 
statement following applicable to the 
whole of Christ's teaching. Its omission 
weakens the oratorical power of the 
passage. It occurs in ver. 26. 

Ver. 24. rias ooTTis. Were the read- 
ing 6)ioiu<r<i> adopted, this would be a 
case either of attraction iras for -sravTa 
to agree with So-ris (Fritzsche), or of a 
broken construction : nominative, with- 
out a verb corresponding, for rhetorical 
effect. (Meyer, vide Winer, § Ixiii., 2, d.) 
— ciKovei, iroici : hearing and doing, both 
must go together ; vide James i. 22-25, ^O'' 
a commentary on this logion. " Doing " 
points generally to reality, and what it 
means specifically depends on the nature 
of the saying. " Blessed are the poor in 
spirit " ; doing in that case means being 
poor in spirit. To evangelic ears the 
word has a legal sound, but the doing 
Christ had in view meant the opposite 

of legalism and Pharisaism.— 6(1010)671- 
(TCTai: not at the judgment day (Meyer), 
but, either shall be assimilated by his 
own action (Weiss), or the future passive 
to be taken as a Gerund = comparandus 
est (Achelis). — (|>povip.a> : perhaps the best 
rendering is " thoughtful ". The type of 
man meant considers well what he is 
about, and carefully adopts measures 
suited to his purpose. The undertaking 
on hand is building a house — a serious 
business — a house not being meant for 
show, or for the moment, but for a 
lasting home. A well-selected emblem 
of religion. — ttjv ■nirpav : the article used 
to denote not an individual rock, but a 
category — a rocky foundation. 

Ver. 25. What follows shows his 
wisdom, justified by events which he had 
anticipated and provided for ; not abstract 
possibilities, but likely to happen every 
year — certain to happen now and then. 
Therefore the prudence displayed is not 
exceptional, but just ordinary common 
sense. — Kal : observe the five Kal in 
succession — an eloquent polysyndeton, 
as grammarians call it; note also the 
rhythm of the sentence in which the war 
of the elements is described: down came 
the rain, down rushed the rivers, blew 
the winds— sudden, fell, terrible. — Trpotr^ 
ireaov, they fell upon that house ; rain on 
root, river on foundation, wind on walls. 
And what happened ? Kal ovk tTretrev. 
The elements fell on it, but it did not 
fall. — reOefieXieuTo yap : for a good reason, 
it was founded on the rock. The 
builder had seen to that. 

Vv. 26-27. |X(i>p&j, Jesus seems here to 
offend against His own teaching, v. 22, 
but He speaks not in passion or con- 
tempt, but in deep sadness, and with 
humane intent to prevent such folly. 



VII. 27 — 29. 

h Lt. ii. 34. ooTis WKo86p.Tja€ rfjv oiKiaf aoTou ^ eirl rriv ap|io»' • 27. Kal KaWPir] 
. i^l; " .. T PpoX'l '*'*'^ rjXflok' ol iroTaixol Kal eivieuo-aK 01 akciAOt, Kal irpoa^- 

I Ch. xxii. .»->/,, r- ' 1 ^ 

33. ML. i. Kovj'a*'' TTJ oiKia CKeifTi, Kal e-ireac Kal 'icin ^iTTwais auTtis ueYdXri." 
2a ; xi. 18. \ , / « 

Lk. iv. 31 28. Kai iyiycTo ore CTUk'crAeae*' ^ 6 'ItictoJs tous Xovous tootous, 
(all in ref. (,>», <"\ \~ 

toChrist's cleTrXi^cro'Ok'TO 01 0^X01 iiTi Tn SiSaxfl auTou • 20. rtv vap SiS(i(TKb>i» 
doctrine). > r , i ,1 t „ ^ , 

j Mk. i.22. auTous W9 «50UCTiai' ex<^^> •^'*'' oux ws 01 ypO'H'P'ttTeis.* 

^ avTov before ttiv oiKiav in ^BZZ as in ver. 24. 
' Some copies have -Trpoo-cppTjIav. 
» CTcXetrtv in ^^BCZZ. 

* After Ypa|x(xaT£is ^BAI have avTwr (W.H. and other editors). Some copies 
add Kai 01 ^xipicraioi (\V.H. margin). 

Wherein lay the second builder's folly ? 
Not in deliberately selecting a bad 
foundation, but in taking no thought of 
foundation ; in beginning to build at 
haphazard and anywhere ; on loose sand 
(afiftog) near the bed of a mountain 
torrent. His fault was not an error in 
judgment, but inconsiderateness. It is 
not, as is commonly supposed, a question 
of two foundations, but of looking to, 
and neglecting to look to, the foundation. 
In the natural sphere no man in his 
senses commits such a mistake. But 
utterly improbable cases have to be 
supposed in parables to illustrate human 
folly in religion. — Ver. 27. Kal . . . avcfioi: 
exactly the same phrases as in ver. 25, to 
describe the oncome of the storm. — 
irpo<r€'ico\j/av : a different word for the 
assault on the house— struck upon it 
with immediate fatal effect. It was not 
built to stand such rough handling. The 
builder had not thought of such an 
eventuality. — cirto-ev, Kai f\v -q -jmlia-is 
aiiTvjs p-rYdXi] : not necessarily implying 
that it was a large building, or that the 
disaster was of large dimensions, like the 
collapse of a great castle, but that the 
ruin was complete. The fool's house 
went down like a house of cards, not one 
stone or brick left on another. 

Allegorising interpretation of the rain, 
rivers and winds, and of the foundations, 
is to be avoided, but it is pertinent to 
ask, what defects of character in the 
sphere of religion are pointed at in this 
impressive parabolic lof^ion ? What kind 
of religion is it that deserves to be so 
characterised ? The foolish type is a 
religion of imitation and without fore- 
thought. Children play at building 
houses, because they have seen their 
seniors doing it. There are people who 
play at religion, not realising what 
religion is for, but following fashion, 

doing as others do, and to be seen of 
others (Matt. vi. i). Children build 
houses on the sea sand below high-tide 
mark, not thinking of the tide which will 
in a few hours roll in and sweep away 
their houselet. There are men who have 
religion for to-day, and think not of the 
trial to-morrow may bring. 

Ver. 28. Concluding statement as to 
the impression made by the discourse. 
A similar statement occurs in Mk. i. 22, 
27, whence it may have been transferred 
by Matthew. It may be assumed that 
so unique a teacher as Jesus made a pro- 
found impression the very first time He 
spoke in public, and that the people 
would express their feelings of surprise 
and admiration at once. The words 
Mark puts into the mouth of the audience 
in the synagogue of Capernaum are to 
the life (vide comments there). They 
saw, and said that Christ's way of speak- 
ing was new, not like that of the scribes 
to which they had been accustomed. 
Both evangelists make the point of 
difference consist in "authority". 

Ver. 29. (1)9 cfovaiav ty^tiiv : Fritzsche 
supplies, after «x*^''> '•"''^ Si8oorK«iv, and 
renders, He taught as one having a right 
to teach, because He could do it well, 
"scite et perite," a master of the art. 
The thought lies deeper. It is an ethical, 
not an artistic or aesthetical contrast that 
is intended. The scribes spake by 
authority, resting all they said on tradi- 
tions of what had been said before. 
Jesus spake with authority, out of His 
own soul, with direct intuition of truth; 
and, therefore, to the answering soul of 
His hearers. The people could not quite 
explain the difference, but that was what 
they obscurely felt. 

Chapters VIII., IX. The Healing 
Ministry of Jesus. These two chap- 
ters consist mainly of miracle narratives, 

VIII. 1-3. 



VIII. I. KATABANTI 8e aoTw ^ diro too opous, T|Ko\oo0T]aav auTw « Ch. x. 8; 

o)(\oi iroXXoi • 2, Kat iSou, 'Xeirpos eXOwk*' irpoacKuvci auTw, Xeyw*', 6. Lk. iv. 

It V ' ' ^ fl '\ 5 ' ' b fl ' »» ly V • > ' N '7 ; xvii. 

Kupie, €a^• oeATjs, ou>'aaai fie KaOapiaai. 3. Kai CKTCivas tt]>' 12. 

^etpa, -Tivj/aTO auTou 6 'Itjctous,^ Xeyw*', " eeXw, Ka9api<j0T)Ti." Kal xi. 5. Lk 

iv. 87 ; 
xvu. 14, 17. c with -rnv x^'tp<i often in Sept. «nd frequently in the Gospels (Ch. xii. 13, 49, etc.). 

^ For KttTapavTi S« ovtw (the reading of }>^ al. adopted by Tisch.) ^"^BC have 
<aTa3avTos 8s avTov. Z has the gen. also (Kai Kar. av,). The dative is a gram- 
matical " improvement ". 

' For €X6uv (in CKL, etc.) ^BAI have irpocrt\0mv. The wpos has probably 
fallen out through homoeot. (Xe-rrpos). 

* ^BCZ omit o lT|(rovs, which T. R. often introduces. 

the greater number being reports of 
healing acts performed by Jesus, nine in 
all, being the second part of the pro- 
gramme sketched in chap. iv. 23-25. 
These wonderful works are not to be 
regarded, after the manner of the older 
apologists, as evidential signs appended 
to the teaching on the hill to invest it 
with author ity. That teaching neede d 
no exte '""nl r'"'''^""t'"''^° ; _it_s poke for 
itself then as now. These histories are 
an integral part of the self-revelation of 
l esus by word and deed; they are de.r 
monstrations no t merel y of Hig'"power|. 
but above all, of His slnrl i. Therein lies 
their chief permanent interest, which is 
entirely independent of all disputes as 
to the strictly miraculous character of 
the events. This collection is not 
arranged in chronological order. The 
connection is topical, not temporal. 

Chapter VIII. 1-4. The leper (Mk. 
i. 40-45 ; Lk. v. 12-16). This is the first 
individual act of healing reported in this 
Gospel, chap. iv. 23-24 containing only 
a general notice. It is a very remarkable 
one. No theory of moral therapeutics will 
avail here to eliminate the miraculous 
element. Leprosy is not a disease of 
the nerves, amenable to emotional treat- 
ment, but of the skin and the flesh, 
covering the body with unsightly sores. 
The story occurs in all three Synoptics, 
and, as belonging to the triple tradition, 
is one of the best attested. Matthew's 
version is the shortest and simplest here 
as often, his concern being rather to re- 
port the main fact and what Christ said, 
than to give pictorial details. Possibly 
he gives it as he found it in the Apostolic 
Document both in form and in position, 
immediately after Sermon on Mount, so 
placed, conceivably, to illustrate Christ's 
respectful attitude towards the law as 
stated in v. 17 (c/. viii. 4 and vide Weiss, 
Matt. Evan., p. 227). 

Ver. I. KaraPavTOS avrov (for the 

reading vide above). Jesus descended 
from the hill towards Capernaum (ver. 5), 
but we must beware of supposing that 
the immediately following events all 
happened there, or at any one place or 
time. Mark seems to connect the cure 
of the leper with the preaching tour 
in Galilee (i. 40), and that of the palsied 
man with Christ's return t.hereftom (iIZi)- 

"Jesus had ascended the hill to escape the 
pressur e of human need. He descends, in, 

,Matt.'s r ^rrative, to encounter it agam — 
iqicoAo-u(JTio-av, large crowds gather about 
and follow Him. — ISoti, the sign mark of 
the Apostolic Document according to 
Weiss ; its lively formula for introducing a 
narrative. — Trpo<r€KTJv«i, prostrated him- 
self to the ground, in the abject manner 
of salutation suitable from an inferior to 
one deemed much superior, and also to one 
who had a great favour to ask. — Kvpie: 
not implying in the leper a higher idea 
than that of Master or Rabbi. — €av 
Be'Xijs : the leper's doubt is not about the 
power, for he probably knows what mar- 
vellous things have been happening of late 
in and around Capernaum, but about the 

jvill^a douht natiiral in one suffering 
riroiTi aToathsonie dise ^iit!. ppgJHpg mgn 
more easily believe in miraculous pnwf r 
Ihan inm iraculous lov e. OcX-fis, present 
subjunctive, not aorist, which would ex- 
press something that might happen at a 
future time (vide Winer, § xlii., 2, b). — 
KaOapicrai — of course the man means to 
cleanse by healing, not merely to pro- 
nounce clean. This has an important 
bearing on the meaning of the word 
in next ver. — TJxJ/aTo, touched him, not 
to show that He was not under the 
law, and that to the pure nothing is un- 
clean (Chrys., Horn, xxv.), but to evince 
His willingness and sympathy. Jjhe 
stretching out of the hand do i^g not mpan 

that, in touchin g^ Hi* might hf acfarnffi^s. 




d here and tuQiois iKaBaoiaQi) ^ auTOU T) ■* XtVpo. 4. Kttl X^vct ouTw 6 'linaous, 

e Ch. xviii. " * Opa u.t]0€>'i ciTTiis ' aK\ oTTavc, acaoToi' Sel^oK tw Up€i, Kai 
10. Heb. 9 V c - ' « , t- - f . , ' r - f. 

viii. 5. irpoaeveyKe ^ to owpoi' o irpocrtTasc Mwcrqs, €is fxaprupiov aurois. 

f Ch. 1.18; >\A> ^\-.» -oj / -\n > 

xxiv. 14. 5. EiCT£\9ok'Ti 06 TO) lT]aoL ^ €19 KttTTept'aoufi, TrpoCTT]X0ct' aoTw 

Heb. iii. 5. , , \ - » » /: v \ / rr f < ■« ' 

K ver. 11; eicaTOJ'Tapxos irapaKa\(o>' aurov, 6. Kai Kiyutv, Kupie, o irais p.ou 

vii. 30. ' Pe'pXi^Tui iv T^ oiKia TrapaXuTiKo;, ** Scifus Pa<Tavi.t,6^ievo^.' 
h Lk. xi. 53. 

^ BLXI have the less correct, but none the less likely, cKa9ept.(rdT). 

-' BC have irpoo-evryicov. ^ as in T. R. 

' The dative is here also a correction. J^BCZ have the gen. as in ver. i. 

possible to avoid defilement and infection 
(Weiss-Meyer). It was action suited to 
the word. — Ot'Xco, " I will," pronounced 
in firm, cordial tone, carefully recorded 
by all the evangelists. Ka6apio-0r)Ti, 
naturally in the sense of the man's 
request. But that would imply a real 
miracle, therefore naturalistic interpre- 
ters, like Paulus and Keim, are forced to 
take the word in the sense of pronounc- 
ing clean, the mere opinion of a shrewd 
observer. The narrative of Matthew 
barely leaves room for this hypothesis. 
The other evangelists so express them- 
selves as to exclude it. — iKaOapicrST) : 
forthwith the leprosy disappeared as if by 
magic. The man was and looked per- 
fectly well. 

Ver. 4. Spa, see to it 1 Look you ! — 
imperative in mood and tone (vide 
Mark's graphic account). Christ feared 
the man would be content with being 
well without being officially pronounced 
clean — physically healed, though not 
socially restored. Hence pT|Scvl eiTrios, 
aXX* -uTraYe, etc. : speak of it to nobody, 
but go at once and show thyself (8ei|ov), 
T<j) tcpei, to the priest who has charge of 
such matters. What was the purpose of 
this order ? Many good commentators, 
including Grot., Beng. and Wetstein, say 
it was to prevent the priests hearing of 
the cure before the man came (lingering 
on the road to tell his tale), and, in spite, 
declaring that he was not clean. The 
truth is, Jesus desired the benefit to be 
complete, socially, which depended on 
the priest, as well as physically. If the 
man did not go at once, he would not go 
at all. — TO Swpov: vide Lev. xiv. 10, 21 ; 
all things to be done according to the 
law ; no laxity encouraged, though the 
official religion was little worthy of re- 
spect [cf. Matt. v. 19). — els p-aprvpiov, as 
a certificate to the public (avirots) from 
the constituted authority that the leper 
Aras clean. The direction shows Christ'i 

confidence in the reality of the cure. 
The whole story is a picture of character. 
Thi> ^g uch reveals sympathy : the ir """!- 
panying word, " I will, be clean," 
prompt, cordial, laconic, immense energy. 
.and vitality ; the final order, rc ya rence^ 
for existing institutions, fearlessness, 
humane solicitude for thp snffei^ -ffr'sfiitiir y 
well-being m every se nse [vidt- on Mk.). 
Vv. 5-13. The centurion's son or 
servant (Lk. vii. i-io). Placed by both 
Matthew and Luke after Sermon on 
Mount, by the latter immediately after. 
— Ver. 5. €loreX6(JvT09, aorist participle 
with another finite verb, pointing to 
a completed action. He had entered 
Capernaum when the following event 
happened. Observe the genitive ab- 
solute again with a dative of the same 
subject, avT^, following irpocrfiXOev. 
iKaTOVTapxos : a Gentile (ver. 10), pro- 
bably an officer in the army of Herod 
Antipas. — Ver. 6. Kvpie again, not 
necessarily expressing any advanced 
idea of Christ's person. — irais may mean 
either son or servant. Luke has SovXo;, 
and from the harmonistic point of view 
this settles the matter. But many, in- 
cluding Bleek and Weiss (Meyer), insist 
that irais here means son. — Pe'p\T]Tai, 
perf. pointing to a chronic condition ; 
bed-ridden in the house, therefore not 
with the centurion. — -n-apaXvTiKcSs : a 
disease of the nerves, therefore emotional 
treatment might be thought of, had the 
son only been present. But he could 
not even be brought on a stretcher as in 
another case (Matt. ix. i) because not 
only irapaX., but Scivus Pa(ravi^(5p.cvos, 
not an ordinary feature of paralysis. — 
Ver. 7. This is generally taken as an 
offer on Christ's part to go to the house. 
Fritzsche finds in it a question, arranging 
the words (T. R.) thus : koI, Xeyci, a. 6 
'I., 'Eyo) cXOwv depaircvaw avT<Jv; and 
rendering: "And," saith Jesus to him, 
"shall I go and heal him?" '=■ is that 

1 -lO. 



7. Kal^ Xe'yci auTU 6 'iTjaous,* "'Eyw iXQuv depaTrcucru aoT<5t'." 

8. Kal diroKpiGeis ^ o cKaTorrapxos e<})Tj, " Ku'pie, ouk eifj.1 * iKaj'os i»'a i with ;. -. 
ftou UTTO TT]k' oreyT)*' eiaeXQ^s • dWd /xokoc ciire Xoyoi/,* Kal laSt)- ilTLk'vii 
ffcrat 6 irais fioo. 9. Kal ydp eyw ak-Opwirds €tpi 'utto e^ouatai',^ Mt.7n^*! 
ex"*' utt' e^auToc orpariwras • Kal Xeyo) toutw, nopeuOrjTi, Kal ^ ^''' ^"' ^' 
TTopcuerai • Kal dXXw, "Epxou, Kal epxerai • Kal tw SouXu p,oo, 
floLTjaov TouTO, Kol 110161." lo. 'AKOuaag 8e 6 'Itjctous e8auu,ao-e, 

Kttl ciTTC TOis dKoXouOouai;/, "'A|ji^»' Xe'yw ufxij', ooSe iv tu 'icrparjX 

^ B and many vers, (including Syr. Sin. and Cur.) omit the Kai, so giving an 
expressive asyndeton. 

" ^B, Syr. Sin. omit o Itjctous. 

" aTTOKpiOcig Se in jfi^B 33. 

"* I^BC have Xoyw, adopted by both Tisch. and W.H., and to be preferred. 

• ^B al. add Taoorofievos, adopted within brackets by W.H. " Manifestly out of 
i,k.," Weiss in Meyer. 

what you wish ? The following verse 
then contains the centurion's reply. 
This is, to say the least, ingenious. — 
Ver. 8, iKavos: the Baptist's word, chap, 
iii. II, but the construction different in 
the two places, there with infinitive, 
here with Xva : I am not fit in order 
that. This is an instance illustrating 
the extension of the use of Xva in later 
Greek, which culminated in its super- 
seding the infinitive altogether in modern 
Greek. On the N. T. use of tva, vide 
Burton, M. and T., §§ 191-222. Was it 
because he was a Gentile by birth, and 
also perhaps a heathen in religion, that 
he had this feeling of unworthiness, or 
was it a purely personal trait ? If he 
was not only a Gentile but a Pagan, 
Christ's readiness to go to the house 
would stand in remarkable contrast to 
His conduct in the case of the Syro- 
Phoenician woman. But vide Lk. vii. 5. 
— elire Aoytf), speak (and heal) with a 
word. A bare word just where they 
stand, he thinks, will suffice. — Ver. 9, 
Kal yap eyu : he argues from his own 
experience not with an air of self- 
importance, on the contrary making 
light of his position as a commander — 
v-TTo e^ovcriav, spoken in modesty. He 
means: I also, though a very humble 
person in the army, under the authority 
of more important officers, still have a 
command over a body of men who do 
implicitly as I bid them. Fritzsche 
rightly suggests that avBpuiros virb 
^|ovo-iav does not express a single idea 
= "a man under authority". He re- 
presents himself as a man with authority, 
though in a modest way. A comma 

might with advantage be placed after 
«l|xi. The centurion thinks Jesus can 
order about disease as he orders his 
soldiers — say to fever, palsy, leprosy, 
go, and it will go. His soldiers go, his 
slaves do (Carr, C. G. T.). 

Ver. 10. In ver. 13 we are told that 
Jesus did not disappoint the centurion's 
expectation. But the interest of the 
cure is eclipsed for the evangelist by the 
interest of the Healer's admiration, 
certainly a remarkable instance of a 
noteworthy characteristic of Jesus : His 
delight in signal manifestations of faith. 
Faith, His great watchword, as it was St. 
Paul's. This value set on faith was not 
a mere idiosyncrasy, but the result of 
insight into its nobleness and spiritual 
virtue. — Kal elirf : Christ did not conceal 
His admiration ; or His sadness when 
He reflected that such faith as this 
Gentile had shown was a rare thing in 
Israel. — 'Ap,T)v: He speaks solemnly, not 
without emotion. — irap' oviScvl : this is 
more significant than the reading of 
T. R., assim.ilated to Lk. vii. g. The 
ovSl implies that Israel was the home of 
faith, and conveys the meaning not even 
there. But irap' ovScvl means not even 
in a single instance, and implies that 
faith in notable degree is at a discount 
among the elect people. Such a sentiment 
at so early a period is noteworthy as show- 
ing how far Jesus was from cherishing 
extravagant hopes of setting up a theo- 
cratic kingdom of righteousness and 
godliness in Israel. 

Vv. 11-12. This logion is given b^i 
Luke (xiii. 28-29) •" a different connec- 
tion, and it may not be in its historical 




k Ch. xiv. -,oi;aoTi]f Tri<rTiK ^ cupof. 1 1 \iyu> hi ofiiK, on iroXXoi diro dc<i- 
Lk. xiii. ToXwk Kal SuaiiUK rifoucn, koi ** dvaKXiOriaoio-at ixerd 'Afipa&u, Kal 

29 (parall. ^ 1 1 - ' 1^ 1 t-r 1- 

to this 'laaaK xai 'laKu^ iv rfj (SaaiXeta Twt' oupavwr- 12. ol 8e uiol Ttjs 
1 Ch. xxii. ^aaiXcias c'ttPXriOrjaov'Tai €is 'to aKOTOs to e^wrcpoi' • ^Kei corai 

13; XXV. ^ ^ „ , »» ' 

30 (same " 6 xXauOiios Kal 6 Bpuvuos rS>y oSoi'tuk. i "i. Kai elirfv 6 'inaous 

phrase). _ , , , ,, , , ^, „ 

m Ch. xiii. Tw «KaT0»'Tapj(a), " Y-irayc, KOt * ws tTriaTcuaas ycKKjoviTw oroi. 

XXV. 30 Kai laoT) o irais auTou ' ev ri\ wpa eKeirrj.-' 

(same »j\a\«« »>\ >> » *c>\ i> 

phrase). 14- Kai cXouK o iTjaous CIS TTji' oiKiac dcTpou, €iOe Tr]f ircvOepdf 

n parall. > ~ o o\ / ^ / ^ • ■ 

John iv. auToo pep\T]p,EKT]K Ktti iropcCTcrouCTak', 15. Kai TJt|/aTO tt|S X*'P°5 

52. Acts ,» y ,,^ , y , a t \ , , n xc / 

xxviii. 8. auTi}S, Kai a<fi]Ktv auTTjf o iruptTos • Kai TjyepoT), Kai Oit]kocci. 

1 Authorities are much divided between the reading tvit «v tw I. . . . rupov 

(T. R.), which is found in J^CLAJ al. (Tisch.), and irap ovS£vi Too-aurrjv TricrTtv cv 
T« I. evpov, found in B, old Latin verss., Syr. Cur., Egypt, verss., and several cursives 
(W.II.). The former has probably come in from Lk. vii. 9. 

" ^B omit Kai. Vide below; 

•'' ^B omit avTov, also superfluouft. 

* oiro TTjs copas tKtiviqs in CA1 3 ;. 

place here. But its import is in thorough 
harmony with the preceding reflection on 
the spiritual state of Israel. One who 
said the one thing was prepared to say 
the other. At whatever time said it 
would give offence. It is o p*^ "f ^ho 
heavy burdens of the nm phpt that hf 
cannot be a mere patriot, or say com- 
"plimentary things ahnnt h '"' n^*^?'-'" <•"• hJR 
TJhurch. avaKXi6ii<rovTai : Jesus ex- 
presses Himself here and throughout 
this logion in the language of His time 
and people. The feast with the 
patriarchs, the outer darkness, the weep- 
ing and the gnashing of teeth (observe 
the article before o-kotos, KXav9p.6s, 
Ppvyp-bs, implying that all are familiar 
ideas) are stock phrases. The imagery 
is Jewish, but the thought is anti-Jewish, 
universalistic, of perennial truth and 

Ver. 13. . vvayt, etc. : compressed im- 
passioned utterance, spoken under 
emotion = Go, as thou hast believed be 
it to thee ; cure as thorough as thy faith. 
The Kai before ws in T. R. is the addition 
of prosaic scribes. Men sneaking under 
emotion discard expletives.? 

Weizsacker (Untersttckungen uber die 
Evang, Gesch., p. 50) remarks on the 
felicitous juxtaposition of these two 
narratives relatively to one another and 
to the Sermon on Mount. " In the first 
Jesus has to do with a Jew, and demands 
of him observance of the law. In this 
respect the second serves as a com- 
panion piece, the subject of healing 

being a heathen, giving occasion for a 
word as to the position of heathens. 
The two combined are happily appended 
to a discourse in which Jesus states His 
attitude to the law, forming as comple- 
ments of each other a commentary on 
the statement." 

Vv. 14-15. Cure of a fever : Peter's 
mother-in-law (Mark i. 29-31 ; Luke iv. 
38, 39). This happened much earlier, at 
the beginning of the Galilean ministry, 
the second miracle-history in Mark and 
Luke. Mark at this point becomes 
Matthew's guide, though he does not 
follow implicitly. Each evangelist has 
characteristic features, the story of the 
second being the original. — Ver. 14. 
IXOuv, coming from the synagogue on a 
Sabbath day (Mark i. 29) with fellow- 
worshippers not here named. The story 
here loses its flesh and blood, and is cut 
down to the essential fact. — tls t. o. 
rieTpov : Peter has a house and is 
married, and already he receives his dis- 
ciple name {Simon in Mark). — ircvdepciv. 
It is Peter's mother-in-law that is ill. — 
^cpXT)p.£vr]v Kal irvpeo-aovaav, lying in 
bed, fevered. Had she taken ill since 
they left to attend worship, with the 
suddenness of feverish attacks in a 
tropical climate ? PcpXi]p,£VT)v is against 
this, as it naturally suggests an illness 
of some duration ; but on the other 
hand, ii she had been ill for some time, 
why should they need to tell Jesus after 
coming back from the synagogue ? (Mark 
i. 30). irvpt(r<r. docs uut necessarily 

II — ig. 



auTois.^ 16. ''Oij/ias 8e y€voiJ.4vr,^ irpoariyeyKav auTw SatfAocil^o- ° 

fx^cous TToXXous * Kal e$e)3aXe xd TrvcujAara Xoyw, Kal irdj'Tas tous 

KOKus e)(o^'Tas eOepaTreuorei' • 17. ottus ttXtjpcoOtj to pT]Qev 8id 

Hctuiou toG 'irpo4>i[]TOu, XiyovTos, ' Autos Tas ^ da^evems i^p.Si' 

IXctPc, Kai TC15 j'oo'ous ePdcrTac7si'.' 

18. 'iSoJi' 8e 6 *lr](rou9 ttoXXous oxXou; ^ irepl aoToi', eKeXeoaef 

dircXOctf ' eis to ' ■rrepai'. 19. Kal TrpoaeXQojv' €15 Ypap,|.iaTeus ciTve*' 

in Mt. and Mk. (ver. a8, Ch. xiv. 22. Mk. 

* avTu in ^BCI al. owrois (in LA) has come in from parall. 

• B has oxXov ; ^ oxXovs, which once introduced was enlarged into 
oxXovs (^"^CLAZ al.), not a usual expression in Mt. 

Ch. xiv. 
15- 23; 
xxvii. 57, 
and John. 
Lk. V. 15; 
viii. 2. 
xxviii. g. 
I Tim. 
V. 23. 
phr. freq. 
iv. 35 al.). 


imply a serious attack, but vide Luke iv. 
38. — Ver. 15. ^\|/aTo. He touched her 
hand ; here to cure, in Mark to raise her 
up. — TJYe'peirj, SiTjKovei : she rose up at 
once and continued to serve at the meal ; 
all present but Jesus only referred to 
here (axiTcji, plural in Mark, but in- 
appropriate here). Not only the fever 
but the weakness it causes left her. 
" Ordinarily a long time is required for 
recovery, but then all things happened 
al once " (Chryst., Hom. xxvii.). Not a 
great miracle or interesting for anything 
said ; but it happened at an early 
nine and in the disciple circle ; Peter 
the informant ; and it showed Christ's 
synipathr (ver. 17), the main point for Mt. 
Vv. 16-17. Events of that Sabbath 
evening (Mark i. 32-34 ; Luke iv. 40, 41). 
A general statement, which, after iv. 
23 f., might have been dispensed with ; 
but it is in the source (Mark) in the same 
context, and it gives our evangelist a 
welcome opportunity of quoting a pro- 
phetic text in reference to Christ's heal- 
ing work. Ver. 16. 'Oij/ias YcvofxsVitjs : 
vague indication of time on any day, but 
especially a Sabbath day. There were 
two evenings, an early and a late (Ex. 
XXX. 8). Which of them was it ; before 
or after sunset ? Mark is more exact. — 
Sa(.|t,ov. iroXXovs : why a crowd just then, 
and why especially demoniacs brought 
to be healed ? For explanation we must 
go to Mark. The preaching of Jesus in 
the synagogue that Sabbath day, and the 
cure of a demoniac (Mark i. 21-28), had 
created a great sensation, and the result 
is a crowd gathered at the door of Peter's 
house at sunset, when the Sabbath 
ended, with their sick, especially with 
demoniacs. — Ver. 17. Prophetic cita- 
tion, apposite, felicitous ; setting Christ's 
healing ministry in a true light ; giving 
prominence not to the ihaumaturgic but 

to the sympathetic aspect ; from the 
Hebrew original, the Sept. making the 
text (Is. liii. 4) refer to sin. The 
Hebrew refers to sicknesses and pains. 
It is useless to discuss the precise mean- 
ing of eXapev and ipdo-Tao-sv: took and 
bore, or took and bore away ; subjective 
or objective ? The evangelist would 
note, not merely that Jesus actually did 
remove diseases, but that He was minded 
to do 5o : such vvas~HTs tent. 

Vv. 18-34. Excursion to the eastern 

shore with its incidents (Mark iv. 35 v. 

20; Luke viii. 22-39). These narratives 
make a large leap forward in the history. 
As our evangelist is giving a collection 
of healing incidents, the introduction of 
w, 18-22, disciple interviews, and even 
of w. 23-27, a nature miracle, needs an 
explanation. The readiest is that he 
found these associated with the Gadara 
incident, his main concern, in his source 
or sources, the whole group in the Apos- 
tolic Document (so Weiss). We must 
not assume a close connection between 
§ 18-22 and the excursion to the eastern 
shore. Luke gives the meeting with the 
scribe, etc.. a different setting. Possibly 
neither is right. The scribe incident 
may belong to the excursion to the north 
(XV. 21). 

Ver. 18. 'ISiiv . . . trepl avrov. The 
evangelist makes a desire to escape from 
the crowd the motive of the journey. 
This desire is still more apparent in 
Mark, but the crowd and the time are 
different. The multitude from which 
Jesus escapes, in Mark's narrative, is 
that gathered on the shore to hear the 
parable-discourse from a boat on the 
lake. — sKsXevo-ev dircXSeiv. Grotius thinks 
this elliptical for : tKeXevcre irdvTa eroi- 
^dcrai els to air. Beza renders: indixit 
profectionem. = He ordered departure. 
Tovs fiaS-rj-rds is undcistood, not men- 




r Lk. ix. 38; auTU), "AtSdaKaXc, dKoXou0i'|au aoi, oirou ihv dTT^p)(T]." 20. Kal 

■ Lk. IX. 58. X^vci aoTw 6 'iriaous, " Ai 'dXuircKcs ' AwXcoOs evouai, Kal to, 

tLk. ix. 58. ' , 1 . , . , . ^T c^ . « , 

n Ch. xix. 8. ircTcifd Tou oupa^ou KaraaKT^k'ucrcis * o 0€ uios tou at'opuTrou ouk 

Lk-viii. „ „, i\v\'" « c.\.^ A i~i 

32 (with €X*''' ''^^^ ^W x-^<fo.Ki)v KKiyri. 21. Erepos oe ro)v ixaoriTuk auTou ' 

Cor. xvi. il-ntv auTw, " Kupic, " iiT'iTpe\\i6v p.01 irpwToi' dirtXAeiK Kal ' 0d\j/ai TOk- 

3 (absol.). iraWpa fiou," 22. 'O 8c 'Itjctous '^ ciTret' ^ auTw, " 'AkoXouGci fioi, 
▼ Ch. xiv. 
la. Lit. ix. 59 i »'''• »»• 

' i^B omit avTov, which here as often elsewhere occurs in T. R., where it is not 
* On the authority of ^, Tisch. omits o Itjo-ovs found in BCLA al. 
» Xryei in b^BC 33- 

tioned because they alone could be 
meant. — Ver. 19, «ts, either " 07ie, a 
scribe " (Weiss and very decidedly Meyer, 
who says that tts never in N. T. = tis), 
or "Si certain scribe," indefinite reference, 
so Fritzsche, falling back on Suicer, 
I., p. 1037, and more recently Bleek 
and others. Vide Winer, § xviii. 9, who 
defends the use of els for tis as a feature 
of later Greek. — -YpafAjAaTt-us, a scribe I 
even one of that most unimpressionable 
class, in spirit and tendency utterly op- 
posed to the ways of Jesus. A Saul 
among the prophets. He has actually 
become warmed up to something like 
enthusiasm. A striking tribute to the 
magnetic influence of Jesus. — dtcoXov- 
6i]a-(tf: aheady more or less of a disciple — 
perhaps he had been present during the 
teaching on the hill or at the encounter 
between Jesus and the scribes in re 
washing (xv. i f.), and been filled with 
admiration for His wisdom, moral 
earnestness and courage ; and this is 
the result. Quite honestly meant, but. 
— Ycr. 20, Xe'vei avrw 6 I. Jesus dis- 
trusted the class, and the man, who 
might be better than the average, still 
he was a scribe. Christ's feeling was 
not an unreasoning or invincible pre- 
judice, but a strong suspicion and aversion 
justified by insight and experience. 
Therefore He purposely paints the pro- 
spect in sombre colours to prevent a 
connection which could come to no 
good. — al aXwTrcKts, etc. : a notable say- 
ing; one of the outstanding logia of 
Jesus, in style and spirit characteristic ; 
not querulous, as if lamenting His lot, 
but highly coloured to repel an undesir- 
able follower. Foxes have holes, and 
birds resting places, roosts (not nests, 
which are used only for breeding), but — 
6 8^ vlos Tov dv8p(ij~ov : a remarkable 
designation occurrmg here for the first 

time. It means much for the Speaker, 
who has chosen it deliberately, in con- 
nection with private reflections, at whose 
nature we can only guess by study of 
the many occasions on which the name 
is used. Here it seems to mean the 
man simpliciter (son of man := man in 
Hebrew or Syriac), the unprivileged Man: 
not only no exception to the rule of 
ordinary human experience in the way of 
being better off', but rather an exception 
in the way of being worse off' ; for the 
rule is, that all living creatures, even 
beasts, and still more men, have their 
abodes, however humble. If it be Mes- 
sianic, it is in a hidden enigmatical way. 
The whole speech is studiously enigma- 
tical, and calculated to chill the scribe's 
enthusiasm. Was Jesus speaking in 
parables here, and hinting at something 
beyond the literal privations of His life 
as a wanderer with no fixed home ? The 
scribe had his spiritual home in Rabbinical 
traditions, and would not be at ease in 
the company of One who had broken with 
them. Jesus had no place where He could 
lay His head in the religion of His time 
[vide my With Open Face, chap. ix.). 

Vv. 21-22. Another disciple. 'Erepos, 
another, not only numerically (aXXos), 
but in type. The first was enthusiastic ; 
this one is hesitating, and needs to be 
urged ; a better, more reliable man, 
though contrasting with his neighbour 
unfavourably.— ^iv (*a0TjTwv : the ex- 
pression seems to imply that the scribe 
was, or, in spite of the repellent word of 
Jesus, had become, a regular disciple. 
That is possible. If the scribe insisted, 
Jesus mii^ht suff'er him to become a 
disciple, as He did Judas, whom doubtless 
He instinctively saw through from the 
beginning. But not likely. The in- 
ference may be avoided by rendering with 
Bleek : " another, one of the discip'cs". — 




Kal a(|>CS ToOs KeKpOI^S 6(l<|/ai TOlks ^aUTUf KCKpOtis-" 23. Kal where only 

^ft^dcTi aoTw els t6 ^ irXoioi', i^KoXouGrjcrai' auxw 01 (iafiirjTal auTOu. Ch. xxiv. 
24. Kai loou, CTCiCTfios fAeY**? ey^^^'''*' ^*' ""^S "ciXaarcrT), wore to 54 a/. 

irXoiot' * KaXuirretrSai uiro twc KUficiTuv' • auTos 8e eKciOeuSe. 25. quake). 

\ »/./ « Ax».^2» >/», X Lk. viii. 

Kttt irpoo-eMJokTes 01 fiaoi^Tai auTou ■* TiYcipav aurov, XeyoKTcs, i6(TiTtii). 

Ch. X. 26! 
2 Cor. iv. 3 (hide from knowledge). 

1 TO omitted in ^bBC 33. 

* 01 }xadT]Tai avTov wanting in ^B ; added for clearness, but not needed. 

eTriTp£\}/dv fjioi : he wished, before setting 
out from home to enter on the career 
of discipleship, to attend to an urgent 
domestic duty ; in fact to bury his 
iather. In that chmate burial had to 
take place on the day of death. Per- 
mission would have involved very little 
delayof the voyage, unless, with Chrysos- 
tom, we include under 0dx|/ai all that 
goes along with death and burial, ar- 
ranging family affairs, distribution of 
inheritance, etc. There would not pro- 
bably be much trouble of that sort in the 
case of one belonging to the Jesus- 
circle. — Ver. 22. 'AkoXovOei. (lot.: the 
reply is a stern refusal, and the reason 
apparently hard and unfeeling— a(|)€s 
Totis vtKpois . . . vcKpovs : word for 
word the same in Luke (ix. 60), an 
unforgettable, mystic, hard saying. The 
dead must be taken in two senses = let 
the spiritually dead, not yet alive to the 
claims of the kingdom, bury the naturally 
dead. Fritzsche objects, and finds in 
the saying the paradox : " let the dead 
bury each other the best way they can," 
which, as Weiss says, is not a paradox, 
but nonsense. Another eccentric idea of 
some commentators is that the first 
vcKpovs refers to the vespilhnes, the 
corpse-bearers who carried out the bodies 
of the poor at night, in Hebrew phrase, 
the men of the dead. Take it as we 
will, it seems a hard, heartless saying, 
difficult to reconcile with Christ's de- 
nunciation of the Corban casuistry, by 
which humanity and filial piety were 
sacrificed on the altar of religion (Matt. 
XV. 3-6). But, doubtless, Jesus knew to 
whom He was speaking. The saying 
can be understood and justified ; but it 
can also very easily be misunderstood 
and abused, and woe to the man who 
does so. From these two examples we 
see that Jesus had a startling way of 
speaking to disciples, which would create 
reflection, and also give rise to remark. 
The disciple-logia are original, severe, 
fitted to impress, sift and confirm. 
Vv. 23-27. Storm on the lake (Mk. 

iv. 35-41, Lk. viii. 22-25). Ver. 23, 
Ifi^avTi avT^ might be called a dative 
absolute ; if taken as dative after '^koXov- 
9T]<rav, the airy after this verb is 
superfluous. This short sentence is 
overcharged with pronouns (a-uTov after 
jiaOTjTai). — T^ irXoiov (to omitted in Lk.), 
the ship in readiness in accordance with 
previous instructions (ver. 18). Ver. 24, 
ISoti indicates sudden oncome. — crcio-ii^s 
£v T. 6., literally an earthquake of the 
sea, the waters stirred to their depths by 
the winds referred to in vv. 26, 27 ; 
XatXa\|/ in Mark and Luke = hurricane. — 
wo-T£, here with infinitive, used also with 
finite moods (e.g.. Gal. ii. 13). In the 
one case S><m indicates aim or tendency, 
in the other it asserts actual result [vide 
Goodwin, p. 221, also Baiimlein, Schul- 
grammatik, §§ 593, 594). Klotz, Devar., 
ii. p. 772, gives as the equivalent of 
o><rT€, with infinitive, ita ut ; with in- 
dicative, itaque or quarc). — KaXvirreaOai, 
was covered, hidden, the waves rising 
high above the boat, breaking on it, and 
gradually filling it with water (cf. Mark 
and Luke). — avTosSseKo.Se'uSev: dramatic 
contrast = but He was sleeping (im- 
perfect), the storm notwithstanding. 
Like a general in time of war Jesus 
slept when He could. He had fallen 
asleep before the storm came on, pro- 
bably shortly after they had started (Lk. 
viii. 23, irXedvTciiv a-uTuv d(|>v'irvb>o'cv : 
while they sailed He went off to sleep), 
soothed by the gliding motion. It was 
the sleep of one worn by an intense life, 
involving constant strain on body and 
mind. The mental tension is apparent 
in the words spoken to the two disciples 
(vv. 20-22). Words like these are not 
spoken in cold blood, or without waste 
of nervous power. Richard Baxter de- 
scribes Cromwell as "of such vivacity, 
hilarity, and alacrity as another man 
hath when he hath drunken a cup too 
much" [Reliquiae Baxt.). "Drunken, 
but not with wine," with a great epoch- 
making enthusiasm. The storm did not 
wake the sleeper. A tempest, the sublime 




> Mk. iv. 40. " Kupie, aCiaoy riiias,'^ dTToXXuWOa." 26. Kal X^vei auTots, "Ti 
Key. ixi. ^ •! , , ,. , v , 

s. ^ ociXoi. ifTTf, iXiyoTrioToi ; T<5t« evcpOeis ' £TrcTiut](7e xois 

r here and \ * a 

par.ill. of d^-cfAois KOI tt] OaXaorcrr), Kat cy^KeTo "vaXi'ii'v] uevaXi). 27. 01 8e 
the wind „ . .a ' \*; / b / > » o •« « 

and sea ayupuitoi tvavaacrav, Xevorrcs. RoTaTros corn' outos,. oti kui 01 

(Fs. cv. 9)- 

a here and aKCfAOi Kal iq 0dXao-cra uiraKOuouaif auTW ; " * 

b Mk. xiii. I. Lk. i. ag; rii. 39. i John iiL i. 

1 Tjfias, another addition for clearness, wanting in ^B ; more expressive witbouf. 
' J>^B transpose vwaK. avrm (so Tisch., W.H,), 

in nature, ii-^ fl UlHa^y tO ft gT^flt SP'*''^^ 
The Fathers viewed the sleep and the 
storm theologically, both arranged for 
beforehand, to give time for cowardice 
to show itself (Chrys., Horn, xxviii.), to 
let the disciples know their weakness and 
to accustom them to trials (Theophyl.). 
A doceiic Christ, an unreal man, a 
theatrical affair! — Ver. 25. 'trpoo-tX6<JvT«s : 
one of our evangelist's favourite words. — 
■>]Y*^p«^*' ■ they would not have waked H im 
it they coul d ha ve helped it. They v/ere 
geriuinely territied, tno u gti experien ced 
"sailors acc ustom ed_to_rbiighr weather. — • 
KiJpi*^ a-utrov . . . airoXA.vp,«6a : laconic 
speech, verbs unconnected, utterance 
of fear-stricken men. Luke's ^Trio-Taxa, 
eirwrrdTa is equally descriptive. Who 
could tell exactly what they said? All 
three evangelists report differently. — -Ver. 
26, SeiXoi, oXiydTrio-Toi, He chides fh irm 
firs t, t hen the wi nds, the chiding meant 
to calm fear. Cowards, men of little 
faith ! harsh in tone but kindly meant ; 
expressive realiy of pers onal fea rlessness, 
1 6 gairt asCfetldenc y over pa nic^tricke n 
spirits {cf. Luke). — Tdrt iytpOtis : He nad 
uttered the previous words as He lay, 
then with a sudden impulse He rose and 
spoke imperial words to the elements: 
animos discipulorum prius, deinde mare 
composuit (Bengal). — dvcp.ois, 9aXa<rcrQ : 
He rebuked both. It would have been 
enough to rebuke the winds which caused 
the commotion in the water. But the 
speech was impassioned and poetic, not 
scientific. — yo^Xtjvtj p.£YdXTj : antithetic to 
(Tcia-pos pc'yas, ver. 24. — Ver. 27, ol 
av9p<uiroi : who ? Naturally one would 
say the disciples with Jesus in t'ne boat, 
called men to suit the tragic si tuation. 
But many think others are referred to, 
men unacquainted with Jesus : " quibus 
nondum innotuerat Christus " (Calvin); 
either with the disciples in the boat, and 
referred to alone (Jerome, ? Aeyer) or 
jointly (De Wette, Bleek), or ' »-ho after- 
■vards heard the story (Hilar y, Euthy., 
Fritzsche: "homines, quote yyot hujus 

portenti nuntium acceperant," and 
Weiss). Holtzmann (H. C.) says they 
might be the men in the other ships 
mentioned in Mk. iv. 36, but in reality 
the expression may simply point to the 
contrast between the disciples as men 
and the divine power displayed. — irora- 
■tr6% . . . ovTos, what manner of person ? 
The more classic form is iroSairos = firom 
what land ? where born ? possibly from 
TTov and Siro, with a euphonic 8 (Passow). 
TTOTaircJ?, in later use, = of what sort ? 
vide Lobeck, Phryn., p. 56. — This story 
of the triple tradition is a genuine re- 
miniscence of disciple life. There w as a 

_^"rrPi JfiRHR "Vpt. thfi dinnplP" nv.LllE'', 
Him in terr or. He rebuked the w inds 

~ and waves, and they tortliwith subsided. 
The only escape of naturalism from a 
miracle of power or Providence (Weiss, 
Leben Jesu) is to deny the causal 
sequence between Christ's word and the 
ensuing calm and suggest coincidence. 
The storm sudden in its rise, equally 
sudden in its lull. 

Vv. 28-34. The demoniacs of Gadara 

~(Mk. V. 1-20, Lk. viii. 26-39). This 
narrative raises puzzling questions of all 
sorts, among them a geographical or 
topological one, as to the scene of the 
occurrence. The variations in the read- 
ings in the three synoptical gospels 
reflect the perplexities of the scribes. 
The place in these readings bears three 
distinct names. It is called the territory 
of the Gadarenes, the Gerasenes, and the 
Gergesenes. The reading in Mk. v. i 
in B, and adopted by W.H., is repoonrjvwv, 
and, since the discovery by Thomson 
[Land and Book, ii. 374) of a place 
called Gersa or Kersa, near the eastern 
shore of the lake, there has been a grow- 
ing consensus of opinion in favour ol 
Gerasa (not to be confounded with 
Gerasa in Gilead, twenty miles east ol 
the Jordan) as the true name of the 
scene of the story. A place near the sea 
seems to be demanded by the circum- 
stances, and Gadara on the Hieroinxx 

26 2Q. 



28. Kal i\Q6tfTi auTw^ eis to irepay els ttjc x^pac rSty repyevr]^!!}^,^ c Ch. xxviii 
c«' >-«'« V' .- /,>, 9- Lk.viii. 

uTrriKTTjaaj' auTw ouo oaijioi'i^ofjicj'oi ck twc p,k'-r]jxeiwv £§epx°M-^''oi 27; "iv. 

XaXcTTOi \iac, ware /it) icrxuciv th'u -nrapeXoeii' ota tt)9 oOou eK£ict]s • hostile 

29. Kal 1800, £Kpa^a>', \iyoyT€i, "'Ti •l\iuv koI ctoi, 'irjaou,^ ule tou "hereanda 

Tim. iii. i 
(Isa. zviii. 2). e Mk. i. 24. Lk. iv. 34. 

' Dat. again by way of grammatical correction for the gen. abs. found in Jn^bBC 
and adopted by Tisch., W.H., etc. 

' So in ^"^C'L al., Memph. vers., Origen. faSapTivuy in BCMAI al., adopted 
by Tisch., Treg., W.H., Weiss. Vide below. 

' iTjcrov is wanting in ^BCL. Comes in from Mk. Modern editors omit. 

was too far distant. The true reading 
in Matthew (ver.2S) nevertheless is FaSa- 
pr]ywv. He probably follows Mark as 
his guide, but the village Gerasa being 
obscure and Gadara well known, he 
prefers to define the locality by a general 

fierce exceedingly ; Xiav, one of our 
evangelist's favourite words. These 
demoniacs were what one would call 
dangerous madmen ; that, whatever 
more ; no light matter to cure them, say 
by "moral therapeutics". — wart p,T| 

reference to the latter. The name Ijrvveiv: again aJart with infinitive {with 
/-. _ »:^„ .^f r»,;„^„'„ ..^ r .:.._\ ti :_ ^ • ^.^^.1 

Gergesa was a suggestion of Origen's 
made incidentally in his Commentary on 
John, in connection with the place 
named in chap. i. 28, Bethabara or 

Bethany, to illustrate the confusion in ^ __— 

the gospel in connection with names , came riear their lairJjy^ccL dp"t, but T^ 
His words are : ripyio-a, a«j>' rjs ol would not hav e been_s careH tY 
fcp-yeo-aioi, '»r<5XLS apxaia ircpi tt)v yvv' had known ol t fieir presence. 

HT) for negative). The po int is not that 
nobody passed that way, "but that the 
presence of the madmen tended to make 
it a place to be shunned as dangerous. 
Nobody cared to p^o near th<»m Chrjj^t 

KaXoV|J,€VTJV Tlp€ploSa Xip.VT)V, TTtpl TJV 

KpT]|j.vo9 TrapaK€ifJi£i'OS T-jj Xip.vf), d<j>' oil 
SciKvvTai Tovs x'"'P°^' vTrb twv SaijAtJvwv 
KaTapepXTJo-Gai (in Ev. loan., T. vi. c. 
24). Prof. G. A. Smith, Historical 
Geography, p. 459, note, pronounces 
Gerasa " impossible ". But he means 
Gerasa in Decapolis, thirty-six miles 
away. He accepts Khersa, which he 
identifies with Gergesa, as the scene of 
the incident, stating that it is the only 
place on the east coast where the steep 
hills come down to the shore. 

Ver. 28. 8vo, two, in Mark and Luke 
one. According to some, e.g., Holtz- 
mann (H. C), the two includes the case 
reported in Mk. i. 23-27, Lk. iv. 31-37, 
omitted by Matthew. Weiss' hypothesis 
is that the two is an inference from 
the plurality of demons spoken of 
in his source (vide Matt. -Evan., p. 
239). The harmonists disposed of the 
difficulty by the remark that there might 
be two, though only one is spoken of in 

Ver. 29. I80U cKpa^av : sudden, start- 
ling, unearthly cry, fitted to shock weak 
nerves. But not the cry of men about 
to make an assault. The madmen, whom 
all feared and shunned, were subdued 
by the aspect ox" the stranger who had 
arrived in the neighbourhood. To be 
taken as a fact, however strange and 
mysterious, partly explained by the fact 
that Jesus was not afraid of them any 
more than He had been of the storm. 
They felt His power in the very look of 
His eye. ti tijiXv Kai aoi : an appropri- 
ate speech even in the mouth of one 
demoniac, for he speaks in the name of 
the legion of devils (Mk. v. 9) by which 
he conceives himself possessed. Identi- 
fying himself with the demons, he 
shrinks from the new comer with an 
instinctive feeling that He is a foe. — vU 
Tov 6eov : 6 £7105 t. 6. in the Capernaum 
synagogue case ; strange, almost incred- 
ible divination. _ Yet " insanity is much 
nearer the kingdom 01 uod than worldly- 

the other accounts, perhaps because h*-; ni'"^'''^"^''' Th^rf^ was, doubtless, 
was the more violent of the two (so something in the whole aspect and man- 
Augustine and Calvin). — €k tuv p.vT]p.€iMv: ner of Jesus which was fitted to produce 
the precipitous hills on the eastern shore almost instantaneously a deep, spiritual 
are a limestone formation lull of caves, impression to which child-like, simple, 
which were doubtless used for burying ingenuous souls like the Galilean fisher- 
the dead. There the demoniacs made men, sinful, yet honest-hearted men 
iheir congenial home.— x°'^*'"'°'«' ^i**". I'l^c those who met at Matthew's feast, 





i tame phr. 6eou ; T]Xdcs wSt 'irpo 'Kaipou ^aaayicrai r\^Las ; " 30. *H»' Se fjiaKp&r 

5 (Sir. drr' auTu»' • dyAr] y^oipuiv iroXXw*' '' PocTKojieVT). 31. 01 8c Saijiowes 

J 'here and irapeKciXou*' ai)T6v, Xeyorres, " Et cK^dXXeis 'HfAcis, £TTiTp£v|»OK r\f).ly 

h Mk. V. 14. direXSeck ^ eiS tt|1' dyArji' twj' xoi'pwi'." 32. Kal eiTrcK auTOis, 

« ; XV. 15. " 'YTrdycTC. Ol 8e c^eXOorres dirf)X0of els tt)»' dyA.^i' Twi' 

John XXI. '2 »'C'1» - ' ■> r\ -. '01 V 

15. 17- X°^P*^*' ■ •'<^i i^ou, wpp.T)crc iracra rj ayeXifj twc x^'-P*^'' •'<*'''d 
i parall. and ~ j ^ , y n >\ ^ . »a j ■> .f. 

Acts xix. Tou KprjfiKOu CIS TTjf OaXaaattK, Kai dTreQai'oi' ^v tois ^Oaaiv. 
aj (Acts 
vii. 57, iwi Tifo). j parall. 

' For the reading (TTirpt\\iov tjhiv a-ireXOciv in T. R. ^B have airoo-TtiXov ; adopted 
by modern editors. The T. R. conforms to Lk. (viii. 32). 

* For CIS TTjv ayeXT]v twv \oLpmv ^)BC have tovs xo^po^S (Tisch., W.H.). 

' ^BCAZ omit t«v xo^puv. 

readily surrendered themselves. Men 
with shattered reason also felt the 
spell, while the wise and the strong- 
minded too often used their intellect, 
under the bias of passion or prejudice, to 
resist the force of truth. In this way 
we may account for the prompt recogni- 
tion of Jesus by the Gadarene demoniac. 
All that is necessary to explain it is the 
Messianic hope prevalent in Gadara as 
elsewhere, and the sight of Jesus acting 
on an impressionable spirit" (Bruce, The 
Miraculous Element in the Gospels p. 
187). — Trpo Kaipov : before the appointed 
time of j'",dgment. The article wanting 
here before k. as in other phrases in 
N. T., e.g., cv Kttipoi, Matt. xxiv. 45. — 
^ao-avio-ai, to torment with pain in 
Hades, described as a place of torment 
in Lk. xvi. 28, cf. ver. 23. 

Ver. 30. (laKpoLv : the Vulgate renders 
nan longe, as if ov had stood in the Greek 
before |iaK. But there are no variants 
here. Mark and Luke have €k«i, which 
gives rise to an apparent discrepancy. 
Only apparent, many contend, because 
both expressions are relative and elastic : 
at a distance, yet within view ; there, in 
that neighbourhood, but not quite at 
hand. Eisner refers to Lk. xv. 20 : 
(jiaKpav, " et tamen in conspectu, ut, 
Luc. XV. 20 : "Etu hi avrov p.aKpav 
iirc'xovTOS, cISev a-uTov 6 TraTi^p ". On 
1k€i he remarks : " docet in ea regione 
et vicinia fuisse, nee distantiam descri- 
bit ". Weiss against Meyer denies 
the relativity of jxaKpav, and takes it as 
meaning " a long way off," while visible. 
— PoaKO(X€v>] : far removed from i^v, and 
not to be joined with it as if the feeding 
were the main point, and not rather the 
existence of the herd there. The ill 
attested reading PocrKop,ev(>>v brings out 
the meaning better : a herd of swine 

which were feeding in the hill pastures. 
The swine, doubtless, belonged to Gen- 
tiles, who abounded in Persea. — Ver. 
31. 01 8aiuov£9 : unuf,aal designation, 
commonly oaip.(Svia. — irapSKaXovv : the 
request was made by the possessed in the 
name of the demons. — air^o-reiXov : the 
reading of the T. R. (eirtTpcxI/ov airfXdciv) 
taken from Luke expresses, in a milder 
form,. Christ's share of responsibility in a 
transaction of supposed doubtful charac- 
ter. The demoniac would have no 
scruple on that score. His request was: 
it you are to cast us out, send us not 
to hell, but into the swine. — Ver. 32. 
virayere : Christ's laconic reply, usually 
taken to mean : go into the swine, but 
not necessarily meaning more than "be- 
gone ". So Weiss, who holds that 
Jesus had no intention of expressing 
acquiescence in the demoniac's request. 
(Matt. Evan, and Weiss-Meyer, " Hin- 
weg mit euch ".) — oi 8e . . . x°ipo'»'S- '^he 
entrance of the demons into the swine 
could not, of course, be a matter ol 
observation, but only of inference from 
what followed. — l8ou, introducing a sud- 
den, startling event — cjpp.T]crev iracra r\ 
ay^Xr) — the mad downrush of the herd 
over the precipice into the lake. Assum- 
ing the full responsibility of Jesus for the 
catastrophe, expositors have busied them- 
selves in inventing apologies. Euthy. 
gives four reasons for the transaction, 
the fourth being that only thereby could 
it be conclusively shown that the devils 
had left the demoniacs. Rosenmiiller 
suggests that two men are worth more 
than ever so many swine. The lowest 
depth of bathos in this line was touched 
by Wetstein when he suggested that, by 
cutting up the drowned swine, salting the 
meat or making smoke-dried hams {/um- 
osas pernas), and selling them to Gen- 

30— 34. 



33. 01 8e PoffKOkTes l<|>UYO»', Kal direXGot'Tes £ts ttji/ itokiv airr]yy€i\av 
TTcit^a, Kal rd twi/ SatjAOi'i^op.evwi'. 34. Kal iSou, iraffa r] iroXis 
e|r)\0ef eis (Tvva.\'Tr](Jiv ^ tw - 'irjaoG • Kal iSokTes auToc, irapeKaXeaai/ ^ xii.'/'xv.' 
OTTWS^ ''p-^TaPTJ ttTTO tQ)v opioiv auTui'. ^9 ty ^ 

1 For <rvvavTT]o-iv (CLAI) ^B i, 33, have viravTrjaiv (Tisch., W.H.), a preferable 

word. Vide below. 

2 For Tu (B) i^^C have tov, adopted by Tisch. and put in margin by W.C. 
^ For oxus B has iva. 

tiles who did not object to eat suffocated 
animals, the owners would escape loss. 
But the learned commentator might be 
jesting, for he throws out the suggestion 
for the benefit of men whom he describes 
as neither Jews, Gentiles, nor Christians. 
Vv. 33-34. The sequel, t^vyov : the 
swineherds fled. No wonder, in view of 
such a disaster. If the demoniacs, in 
the final paroxysm before return to 
sanity, had anything to do with bringing 
it about, the superstitious terror with 
which they were regarded would add to 
the panic. — onniYYei-Xav : they reported 
what had happened to their masters and 
to everybody they met in the town. — 
irdvTa, what had befallen the swine. — 
Kal TO. T. Za,n>.ovit,o\i4vQ)V : they could 
not know the whole truth about the 
demoniacs. The reference must be to 
some visible connection between the 
behaviour of the madmen and the 
destruction of the herd. They told the 
story from their own point of view, not 
after interviewing Jesus and His com- 
pany. — Ver. 34. Tracra r] ttoXis : an ex- 
aggeration of course, cf. accounts in 
Mark and Luke. — els vTTa.vrr\(riv ... I., 
to a meeting with Jesus. The noun 
occurs again in Matt. xxv. i, and John 
xii. 13 ; in Matt. xxv. 6 diravTirjo-iv is 
used instead of it. els dirav. occurs in 

Sept. for Jnt^np7. The two nouns 

are little used in Greek authors. The 
change from one to the other in Matt. 
xxv.1,6 impliesaslight difference in mean- 
ing ; vTravTT](ris = accidental chance, or 
stealthy meeting ; diravTTjcris =^ an open 
designed meeting. The stealthy charac- 
ter of the meeting implied in -uiro is well 
illustrated in ■uTri^vTirjcrav, ver. 28, of this 
narrative. The statement that the whole 
city went out to meet Jesus implies a 
report laying the blame of the occurrence 
on Him. But Matthew's account is 
very summary, and must be supple- 
mented by the statements in Mark and 
Luke, from which it appears that some 

came from the town to inquire into the 
matter, " to see what had happened," 
and that in the course of their inquiries 
they met Jesus and learned what they 
had not known before, the change that 
had come over the demoniac. It was 
on their giving in their report to their 
fellow-townsmen, connecting the cure 
with the catastrophe, that the action re- 
ported in ver. 34 took place. — Ver. 34. 
irapeKclXeo-av : same word as in ver. 31 
in reference to the demoniacs. They 
did not order or drive Him out. They 
besought in terms respectful and even 
subdued. They were afraid of this 
strange man, who could do such wonder- 
ful things ; and, with all due respect, 
they would rather He would withdraw 
from their neighbourhood. 

This would be an oft-told tale, in 
which different versions were sure to 
arise, wherein fact and explanation of 
fact would get mixed up together. The 
very variations in the synoptical accounts 
witness to its substantial historicity. 
The apologist's task is easy here, as 
distinct from that of the harmonist, 
which is difficult. The essential outline 
of the story is this. A demoniac, alias 
a madman, comes from the tombs in the 
limestone caves to meet Jesus, exhibiting 
in behaviour and conversation a double 
consciousness. Asked his name, he 
calls himself Legion. In the name of 
the " Legion " he begs that the demons 
may enter the swine. Jesus orders the 
demons to leave their victim. Shortly 
after a herd of swine feeding on the 
hills rushed down the steep into the sea 
and were drowned. Tradition connected 
the rush of the swine with the demons 
leaving their former victim and entering 
into them. But, as already remarked, 
the causal connection could not be a 
matter of observation but only of in- 
ference. The rush might, as Weiss 
suggests, be caused by the man, in his 
final paroxysm, chasing them. But 
that also is matter of conjecture. The 




« Ch. xl». IX. 1. KM ^fipcLs <is ri ' irXorok 'SicWpoac xai yjXOck cis •rfji' 

▼. ai ; VI. "^ lOiaK iroXiK. 2. Kai loou, irpoai^epoy auTU 7Tapa\uTiK0k' eiri k\ikt]s 

iW. a6. Pc^Xifjp.^t'O)' ' Kal iSwc 6 'itjaoGs t})k iriorif auTUK cIttc tw irapa- 

(inv»rious XuTiKoi, " * Qdooti, WKi'Of, dt^^urrai ' aoi aX dtxapTiai aoo." ' 
c again ver. aa. Ch. ziv. tj (plur., to the la). Mk. z. 49. 

> TO omitted by J^BLX. 

• ^B have the form a4>icvTai (Tisch., W.H.). 

^ The reading a4>c<>>vTai <roi ai a^x.. <rov in T. R. is from Lk. (v. ao). t^B have 
crov ai apiap. D has troi ai apt. 

real cause of the catastrophe is a mystery. 
Rosenmiiller suggests that at a hot 
season of the year one in a herd of swine 
might undergo a morbid seizure, begin 
to run wildly about, and be followed 
sequaciously by the whole flock. He 
mentions an occurrence of the kind at 
Erfurt, recent when he wrote. Lutteroth, 
no rationalist, suggests ♦' vertigo," per- 
mitted by Jesus to befall the swine, that 
the demoniac might have in their be- 
haviour a sensible sign of deliverance, 
and so be rid of his fixed idea {vide 
his Essai D'Interp., 3en>c Partie, p. 27, 
note). On the nature of demoniacal 
possession, vide my Miraculous Element 
in the Gospels, pp. 172-igo ; vide, also 
notes on Mark. 

Chapter IX. The Healing Ministry 
Continued. Vv. 1-8. The palsied man 
(Mark ii. i-i2 ; Luke v. 17-26). Ver. i. 
^pL^as : Jesus complied with the request 
of the men of Gerasa, who had inti- 
mated so plainly that they did not want 
any more of His company. Whatever 
His purpose in crossing over to the 
eastern shore may have been, it was 
frustrated by an event which in some 
respects was an unexpected disaster. 
Was it rest only or a new sphere of 
work He was seeking there ? Vide notes 
on Mark. — els t. I8(av v. : entering the 
boat which had been moored to the 
shore, Jesus returned with His disciples 
to His own city, to distinguish it from 
Gerasa, the city that shut its gates 
against Him ; so named here only. 
When precisely the following incident 
happened cannot be ascertained. Luke's 
indication of time is the vaguest possible ; 
" on one of the days ". Matthew and 
Mark give it in different sequence, but 
their narratives have this in common, 
that they make the incident occur on 
arrival in Capernaum after an excursion ; 
in either case the first mentioned, though 
not the same in both. Vide notes on 

Ver. 2. Kal ISov : usual formula for 

introducing an important incident. — 
TTpoo'^^epov, the imperfect, implying a 
process, the details of which, extremely 
interesting, the evangelist does not give. 
By comparison with Mark and Luke the 
narrative is meagre, and defective even 
for the purpose of bringing out the 
features to which the evangelist attaches 
importance, e.g., the value set by Jesus 
on the faith evinced. His eye is fixed 
on the one outstanding novel feature, 
the word of Jesus in ver. 6. In 
view of it he is careful, while omitting 
much, to mention that the invalid in this 
instance was brought to Jesus, iirl 
icXivt); PcPXt]|j.evov, lying on a couch. 
To the same cause also it is due that a 
second case of paralysis cured finds a 
place in this collection, though the two 
cases have different features : in the one 
physical torments, in the other mental 
depression. — ir£<mv aviruv, the faith of 
the men who had brought the sick man 
to Him. The common assumption that 
the sick man is included in the airJiv 
is based on dogmatic grounds. — 9apo-€i, 
T^Kvov : with swift suie diagnosis Jesus 
sees in the man not faith but deep 
depression, associated probably with sad 
memories of misconduct, and uttering 
first a kindly hope-inspiring word, such 
as a physician might address to a 
patient : cheer up, child 1 He deals first 
with the disease of the soul. — d(j>icvTai: 
Jesus declares the forgiveness of his 
sins, not with the authority of an ex- 
ceptional person, but with sympathy and 
insight, as the interpreter of God's will 
and the law of the universe. That law 
is that past error need not be a doom ; 
that we may take pardon for granted ; 
forgive ourselves, and start anew. The 
law holds, Jesus believed, both in the 
physical and in the moral sphere. In 
combining pardon with healing of bodily 
disease in this case, He was virtually 
announcing a general law. " Who 
forgiveth all thine iniquities, who healeth 
all thy diseases," Ps. ciii. A* 




3. Koi 180U, Tifcs Ttar vpafiftaTewc enroK iv 4auTois, Outos pXaa- d Ch. xxvi. 

- »> \ >o\ 1 c > -^ \ ■ 1 A > * ^5- Mk. ii. 

({>T] 4. Kai iouiv ^ o Itjaou; rds cfOufti^aeis auTUK cittck, 7 (W. H.) 

rrf«i 'e'^9»A"A \> ** o' c / used 

Iraxi ujAcis evpuiJieiawe irovTjpa ec rais Kapoiais ufjiwc ; 5. ti absolutely. 

,, ,, , >-»»•/ »« i«c / .eCh. lii. 25. 

yap €<mv ' euKOTruTcpov, ciircii', AcpEWKrai ° <roi * ai afiapriai • tj Heb. ir. 

eiTTCic, "Eycipai * Kal ircptirdTei ; 6. iko Se €i8'i]Tc, on c^ouaiaw €)(€i f Ch. xxviL 

6 olos Tou di'OpcjTrou em ttJs y'HS A<|>i^*'Cii d|xapTias," (t6t€ X^yct tw xiii. 7. i 

TTapaXuTiKw,) "'EyepOels" ap6v aou Ty]v kXictji', Kal uTraye eis t6>' g Mk^ H. 9.* 

oiKOi' aou." 7. Kal eyepGels dirT]X0€K eis t6v oikok aurou. (within^) 

Mt. xix. 
24. Lk. xvi. 17 (with ace. and inf.). 

1 For iSwv (^CD, Tisch.) BM have ciSus. The tendency of the scribes would be 
to use the same word as in ver. 2. W.H. has (i8w« in text but bracketed, iSwr in 

2 t^BCD omit v^Ltl^. 

* a<|>ievTai ^'^B. 

* o-ov in i^BCDL. 
» €7€ipe t^BCDLI, 

° ryeipc in B and D with Kat; the more forcible word. 

Ver, 3. TtvJs T. Ypapp.oWci>v : some 
scribes present on this occasion. Ominous 
fact duly introduced by ISov ; its signifi- 
cance still more distinctly recognised by 
Luke, who gives it prominent mention 
at the beginning of his narrative (ver. 17). 
Sure sign of the extent, depth, and 
quality of Christ's influence.— pXa(r<j>Tjfi.€i : 
of course ; the prophet always is a 
scandalous, irreverent blasphemer from 
the conventional point of view. The 
scribes regarded forgiveness purely under 
the aspect of prerogative, and in self- 
defence Jesus must meet them on their 
own ground. His answer covers the 
whole case. There is more than preroga- 
tive in the matter ; there is the right, 
duty, privilege, and power of every man 
to promote faith in pardon by hearty 
proclamation of the law of the moral 
world. This is dealt with first. — Ver. 4. 
6v9v(ii](r€is : Jesus intuitively read their 
thoughts as He read the mental state of 
the sick man. — iva ti : elliptical for iva 
Ti Y*''''l'''ai understood = in order that 
what may happen, do you, etc. (vide 
Baumlein, Schul. Gram., § 696, and 
Goodwin's Syn., § 331). — Ver. 5. 
cvKoiruTcpov (from €v and KiSiros, whence 
evKotros ; in N.T. (Gospels) only the 
comparative neuter is found, as here). 
The question as to ability,, is 
first disposed of ; which is easier — 
clirEiv : they are both alike easy to 
say; the vital matter is saying with 
effect. Saying here stands for doing. 
And to do the one thing was to do the 

other. To heal was to forgive. It is 
implied that it is easier to forgive than 
to make a palsied man strong. Christ 
means that the one is ordinary, the 
other extraordinary ; the one is within 
the power of any man, the other belongs 
only to the exceptional man ; there is no 
assumption in declaring pardon, there is 
pretension in saying "arise and walk ". — 
Ver. 6. iva Sk clStjrc ; transition tc the 
other aspect, that of l|ov(ria, the point 
raised by the scribes when they looked a 
charge of blasphemy.— 6 vl6s toO av., 
Iirl TTJs -yrls : these two phrases point at 
supposed disabilities for forgiving. " For- 
giveness takes place in heaven, and is 
the exclusive prerogative of God," was 
the thesis of the scribes. " It may be 
exercised even on earth, and by the Son 
of Man," is the counter thesis of Christ. 
Therefore " Son of Man " must be a 
title not of dignity but of humiliation. 
Here = one whom ye think lightly of ; 
even He can forgive. — t(5t« X^yei. Jesus 
stops short in His speech to the scribes 
and turns to the sick man, saying : 
cYcipc, etc., also in ver. 6, intransitive. 
The reading fyeipav in T.R., ver. 6, is a 
correction of style, the use of the active 
intransitively being condemned by 
grammarians. Hence this various read- 
ing always occurs. (Vide Suidas, s.v., 
and Buttmanii, Gramm., p. 56.) — tt)v 
kXivyjv, a light piece of furniture, easily 
portable. — virixyt : all three actions, 
arising, lifting, walking, conclusive 
evidence of restored power. — Ver. 




h ver. 1-j 8. i8(5rres Se oi o)(Xoi ^Oaufiaaai',* Ktti e?)6^a(ra»' tok ee^K, tok 86iTa 
(with , , , rt , 

ticfieer). ^^oucriak' Toiaurt]*' rots dvOpwirois. 

1 Cor. vii. ,,^ ,, _,.. tc^»fl tti ?' 

31 ( = 9. Kai TrapdyuK o It)o-ous eKetoec cio€k at'Wpwiroj' KaBr||ie»'0»' ciri 

[laaseth \i\/ a- \' ^\? >-rt>.\'n 

away). TO TeAcjj'ioi', MaToaiot' Aeyofjiej'o*', Kat \eyei auxw, AkoAouWei 
i here and in „ \i,',>\/a <>>- \ ■> t >- 

parall. fioi. Kai ' dcaoras T|Ko\ouoT](r€i' ■* auTu. 10. Kai cyefCTO aurou 

j Mk. ii. 14- ^ . , q , - > / ^ 4 >c / \'\ ^ \ - > < \ ' 

Lk. V. 28. di'aKeifiej'ou ° ev tt] oiKia, Kai* loou, ttoAKoi rcAwkai Kat a|j.apTO)Aoi 


<<]iom ; c/. Num. xxii. so). k Ch. zxii. 10 ; xxvi. 7, 30. Mk. xir. 18. Lk. zxii. 27. 

1 €<}»oPrjOt)o-av in t^BD (Tisch., W.H.) (CLA al.) gives a commonplace 
idea more to the taste of the scribes. 

- TiKoXovflti in ^D (Tisch.). 

' avaKci|xcvov avrov in ^ C, as in text in most MSS. 

* Kai omitted in J>^D. 

7. Said, done ; a convincing ar- 
gumentum ad hominem. Who would 
dispute the right to forgive to one v^^ho 
could do that, or persist in the charge of 
blasphemy against Him ? At least those 
who do will get little sympathy from the 
mass of spectators. — Ver. 8. 18(Jvt«s 
ol ox^oi. The people are free from the 
petty jealousies and pedantic theories of 
the professional class ; broad facts settle 
the matter for them. They probably 
had no scruples about the forgiving, but 
if they, liadthe miracle would put an end 
to them : the manifest authority and 
power a witness of the non-apparent 
(iroitiTai TT)v 4>av€pav [elovaiav] T£K|ji-q- 
piovTTJs a({>avoi)s. Euthy.). — 6(|>oPi^0T]<rav, 
they feared ; may point to a change of 
mind on the part of some who at first 
were influenced by the disapproving 
mood of the scribes. The solemn frown 
of those who pass for saints and wise 
men is a formidable thing, making many 
cowards. But now a new fear takes the 
place of the old, perhaps not without a 
touch of superstition. 

Vv. 9-13. The publican feast (Mk. 
ii. 13-17 ; Lk. v. 27-32). The point of 
interest for the evangelist in this narra- 
tive is not the call of the publican disci- 
ple, but the feast which followed, a 
feast of publicans and "sinners" at 
which Jesus was present proclaiming 
by action what He formerly proclaimed 
by word : a sinful past no doom. The 
story, though not a miracle-history, 
finds a place here because it follows 
the last in Mark, in whose Gospel the 
incident of the palsied man forms the 
first of a group serving one aim — to show 
the beginnings of the conflict between 
Jesus and the religious leaders. The 
same remark applies to the next section. 

Ver. 9. ■na.po.^wv ckciOcv : passing 

along from the scene of the last incident, 
Jesus arrives at the custom-house of 
Capernaum (T£X«viov).^eI8ev . . . Mar- 
6aiov Xcy. : there He saw a man named 
Matthew. (On the identity of Matthew 
with Levi in Mark and Luke, vide 
Mark.) Capernaum being near the 
boundary and on the caravan road be- 
tween Egypt and Damascus, Matthew 
would be a busy man, but, doubtless, 
Christ and he have met before. — *Ako\- 
ovOei fioi : Jesus acted on His own plans, 
but the recent encounter with the scribes 
would not be without influence on this 
new departure — the call of a publican. 
It was a kind of defiance to the party 
who cherished hard thoughts not only 
about pardon but about those who 
needed pardon. An impolitic step the 
worldly-wise would say ; sure to create 
prejudice. But those who are too 
anxious to conciliate the prejudices of 
the present do nothing for the future. — 
dvacTTas T|KoXo-u0T]a-€v : prompt compli- 
ance, probably with some astonishment 
at the invitation. 

Ver. 10. Kat iyivtro, etc. The narra- 
tive of this incident in all three Syn- 
optists is condensed, and the situation 
not clear. What house is meant (tv T-fj 
OIK.), and why so many (iroXXoi) ? 
" There were many," Mark remarks, 
emphatically (ii. 15), and the l8ov here 
implies that something important took 
place. Luke infers (for we need not 
suppose independent information) that it 
is a fea^t (Sox»jv), and, doubtless, he is 
right. But given by whom ? Levi, 
according to Luke. It may have been 
so, but not necessarily as the prime 
mover ; possibly, nay, probably, as the 
agent of his new Master. Our thoughts 
have been too much biassed by the 
assumptiop. that the call of M.ilthr-'- in 






iSorres 01 4>apiaaioi eiTrov ^ tois p.a0T)Tais auxoo, " Aiari ftcrd tC>v 

TcXwj'wt' Kal dfAapTwXwK e(T0ici 6 SiSdaKaXos ufiww , " 12. 'O 8e 

>. „o.» ♦ >"8f<r»> ' " t , , 1 Mk. ix. la 

iTjaous ciKouaas eiirei' aorois, Ou xp^'^''^*' cx°"°''^'' °'- i-<^»ovTes Lk. viii. 9. 

laTpou, dW 01 KaKus ey^ovrcs- 1 3. iropeuOe'rres 8e |j,(£0€T€ ti 'eorii', ( = means). 

'"■"EXcoi'* OAu), Kol ou 6uaia»'-' ou y^P ■qXOoK KaX^aoi SiKaious, ch.^'xii.'; 

dXX' dfiapruXous eis /ierdKoiac." '^ vi'. y. 

1 cXcyov ^BCL (Tisch., W.H.). eiirov in D ai. 
"^ i<BD omit Itjo-ovs (Tisch., W.H.). 
» i^BCD omit avTois (Tisch., W.H.). 

* i>^BCD have eXco9. eXeov is a gram. cor. 

* eis (isTovoiav is wanting in ^BDA2. It is a clear case of harmonising assimila- 
tion. Vide on Lk. v. 32 for its effect on the sense. 

this section is the main thing, and the 
feast an accompanying incident, a fare- 
well feast of Matthew's in which Jesus 
passively partook. The truth, probably, 
is that the call was a preliminary to the 
feast, the first step in the working out of 
a plan. Jesus aims at a mission among 
the reprobated classes, and His first step 
is the call of Matthew to discipleship, 
and His second the gathering together, 
through him, of a large number of these 
classes to a social entertainment ; the 
place of meeting being, possibly, not a 
private house, whether Christ's or Mat- 
thew's, but a public hall. If Matthew's 
house or Simon's (in which Jesus pro- 
bably had His home, vide Mark) was 
large enough to have a quadrangular 
court, the gathering might be there, 
where, according to Faber, Avchiiologie 
der Hebrder, p. 408, meetings of various 
sorts were held. In any case it was a 
great affair — scores, possibly hundreds, 
present, too large for a room in a house, 
a conventicle meeting, so to speak ; a 
meeting with such people in the Syna- 
gogue not being possible. For further 
remarks vide on Mark. — reXuvai icol 
d|j.apTci>Xol : publicans naturally, if Mat- 
thew was the host, but why d|xap. ? He 
was a respectable man ; are the dp.ap. 
simply the TtXuvot as viewed from the 
outside, so named in anticipation of the 
Pharisaic description of the party ? If 
Jesus was the inviter, they might be a 
distinct class, and worse, very real sin- 
ners, for His aim was a mission among 
the social Pariahs. 

Ver. II. ISovTcs 01 ♦ap. Here was a 
g9od chance for the critics, really a 
scandalous affair ! — tois |i.a9iiTais. They 
spoke to the disciples, possibly, as Euthy. 

Zig. suggests, to alienate them from the 
Master, possibly lacking courage to attack 
Him face to face. 

Ver. 12. 6 8J a. tlirtv: to whom? 
Were the fault-finders present to hear ? 
— oil \pi'\,a.v, etc. : something similar can 
be cited from classic authors, vide in- 
stances in Grotius, Eisner, and Wetstein. 
The originality lies in the application = 
the physician goes where he is needed, 
therefore, I am here among the people 
you contemptuously designate publicans 
and sinners. The first instalment, this, 
of Christ's noble apology for associating 
with the reprobates — a great word. 
Ver. 13. irop«v9€VT€s pdOcre : a common 
expression among the Rabbis, but they 
never sent men to learn the particular 
lesson that God prefers mercy to sacri- 
fice. — Kol ov, does not imply that sacri- 
fice is of no account. — eXeos (eXeov in T. 
R., a correction by the scribes), accusa- 
tive neuter. Masculine nouns of 2nd de- 
clension are often neuter 3rd in N. T. and 
Sept. — TJXOov : Jesus speaks as one having 
a mission. — dp-aprcoXovs : and it is to the 
sinful, in pursuance of the principle em- 
bodied in the prophetic oracle — a mission 
of mercy. The words i<rxiJovT«s, ver. 
12, and SiKaiovs, ver. 13, naturally sug- 
gest the Pharisees as the class meant. 
Weiss, always nervously afraid of allegor- 
ising in connection with parabolic utter- 
ances, protests, contending that it is 
indifferent to the sense of the parable 
whether there be any " whole " or 
righteous. But the point is blunted if there 
be no allusion. KaXeVai here has the 
sense of calling to a feast. 

Vv. 14-17. The fast-question (Mk. 
ii. 18-22; Lk. v. 33-39). T<5t€. Our 
evangelist makes a temporal connection 




■ in parall. 14. ToT€ irpoff^pYOKTai aUTU Ol uaOTITal 'lajdlfVOU, X^VOWTtS, 

Viilf also , , - > . - ' 7 N , 1 . \ \ 

Tobit vi. "Aiaxt i]fi€is Kai oi <t>apiaaioi nr|(TT€uop.e>' iroXXci,* 01 8e p.aOnjTOi 

o 2 Pet. i. 13 aou ou i'T^oTeuooCTi ; 1 5. Kal ciire*' aurois 6 'lT)(rous, " Mi| 

(same cf\ .^> - n^aii* i,~ 

phrase). oui'Oi'Tai Ol uiot TOO >'up.<|>b>kos Tvevdeiy, i<^ octov fxer aoTwk' corii' 6 

p in parall. , ,»> e\c; • n> A'.>>>»e •/ 

and Ch. Kofi^ios *' eXcooroj'Tai be i^f/.epai ora^ ' ciTrapuT) air auTuc o KUfitpios, 

John ii. 9; Kal t6t€ vr\crT€ucrovcnv. 16. ouSeis Se ' eTviPdWei ' CTTiPXTjfio 

Rev. xviii. paKous dyi'a^oo €iri ijyiaTia> iraAaiw • aipei yap to 7r\TJpw|xa 

q here and in parall. r here, in parall., in same sense. C/. MIt. xi. 7. 8 here and in parall. 

C same phr. in Mk. ii. 31. u without object here and in Mk. ii. ai. 

• iroXXa is in a large number of uncials, including ^"^CDLAI. Yet it looks like a 
gloss and is wanting in ^*B 27, 71. Tisch. and W.H. omit. 

out of what in Mark is merely topical, 
another of the proup of incidents showing 
Jesus in conflict with current opinion 
and practice. Where it happened can- 
not be determined, but it is brought in 
appositely after the feast of the publicans, 
serving with it to illustrate the free 
unconventional life of the Jesus-circle. — 
irpo(r€pxovTai . . . ot p.a9. Iwdvvov. The 
interrogants here are John's disciples ; 
in Mark, unknown persons about John's 
disciples with the Pharisees ; in Luke, 
who treats this incident as a continuation 
of the last, the fault-finders are the same 
as before (01 8e). Mark probably gives 
the true state of the case. Some persons 
unknown, at some time or other, when 
other religious people were fasting, and 
the Jesus-circle were observed not to be 
fasting, came and remarked on the dis- 
sidence. — Siax^ : the interrogants wanted 
to know the reason. But the important 
thing for us is the fact, that Jesus and 
His disciples did not conform to the 
common custom of religious people, in- 
cluding the disciples of the Baptist. It 
is the first instance of an extensive 
breach with existing religious usage. — 
ow vT]<rT€vov«ri : the broad patent fact ; if 
they did any fasting it was not apparent. 
Ver. 15. Kai «l7r€v : The question 
drew from Jesus three pregnant para- 
bolic sayings: bright, genial, felicitous 
impromptus ; the first a happy apology 
for His disciples, the other two the 
statement of a general principle. — ol viol 
TOW wp.4>wvo9. The mere suggestion of 
this name for the disciples explains all. 
Paranymphs, friends of the bridechamber, 
companions of the bridegroom, who act 
for him and in his interest, and bring the 
bride to him. How can they be sad (jitj 
Sivavrai -KevBtiv) ? The point to note is 
that the figure was apposite. The life 
of Jesus and His disciples wa<; like a 

wedding feast— they the principal actors. 
The disciples took their tone from the 
Master, so that the ultimate fact was the 
quality of the personal piety of Jesus. 
Therein lay the reason of the difference 
commented on. It was not irreligion, as 
in the case of the careless ; it was a 
different type of religion, with a Father- 
God, a kingdom of grace open to all, 
hope for the worst, and spiritual spon- 
taneity. — eXei'o-ovrai iqpe'pai. While the 
Bridegroom is with them life will be a 
wedding feast ; when He is taken from 
them it will make a great difference ; 
then (xtJTe) they will grieve, and therefore 
fast : a hidden allusion to the tragic end 
foreseen by Jesus of this happy free life, 
the penalty of breaking with custom. 

Vv. 16, 17. The substitution of vtjo- 
Tevov<riv for irevfletv, in the close of ver. 
15, implicitly suggested a principle which 
is now explicitly stated in parabolic 
form : the great law of congruity ; practice 
must conform to mood ; the spirit must 
determine the form. These sayings, 
apparently simple, are somewhat ab- 
struse. They must have been over the 
head of the average Christian of the 
apostolic age, and Luke's version shows 
that they were diversely interpreted. 
Common to both is the idea that it is 
bootless to mix heterogeneous things, 
old and new in religion. This cuts two 
ways. It defends the old as well as the 
new; the fasting of John's disciples as 
well as the non-fasting of Christ's. Jesus 
did not concern Himself about Pharisaic 
practice, but He was concerned to defend 
His own disciples without disparagement 
of John, and also to prevent John's way 
and the respect in which he was justly 
held from creating a prejudice against 
Himself. The double application of the 
principle was therefore present to His 
mind. — Ver. 16, otiScls . . . iraXaii. No 




auTou diro tou i|AaTiou, koi x^cipoc oxio-fia yicrrai. 1 7. ouSe ^ PdX- y here, 

Xouaii' oiKOJ' I'^oi' CIS dcTKous iroXaioos • ei 8e fi.r\y€, prjyj'UKTai 01 John xiii 

doTKOi, KOI 6 oti'os cKxeiTai, Kal 01 daKol diroXouiTai ^ • dXXd pdX- liquids). 
\ ♦ />>\ / \ } • ' 9w ~ Ch. xxvi 

Aouaii' oii'DK I'eoi' eis aaKOos koikous, Kai d|x<t>oTcpa ' <TuvTr\pouyTai. la {ini 

18. TauTtt aoTou XaXoorros auTois, iSou, ap)(wi' eXOwK^ irpoffeKucci w 7,k! V 38 

auTw, X^ywc, "'Oti ij 6oydTi(]p p.ou dpri 6TeX£UTi(]o-e»' • dXXd eXOwc x Mk. ' 

j8. Acta 

'eiriOcs TT|i' X"P*^ "■o" ^'"' auTTJv, Kal '^r](r€Tai." 19. Kal lyepOels jx. 17 

6 'lT]aous ^KoXou0T]CT€K * auTw Kal 01 |xa67)Tal avrou. 

y Mk. xvi. 
n. John V. as. Acts ix. 41. Rom. xiT. g. 

^ For the future, in most MSS., t^B have airoXXwraL (Tisch., W.H.). 

* All uncials have afji<^oTcpoi. 

* The reading is in confusion here. B has after apxuv,*; irpooreXOwv, probably 
the true reading out of which all variants arose (xis for cis ; cts om. ; eXOuv for irpoa. ; 
CIS cX0(ov, cXOuv.)* 

* t^CD have the imp. B as in text. 

one putteth a patch of an unfulled, raw 
piece of cloth (paKOs from prfyvvp.!) on 
an old garment. — rb irXtjpwpa avTOv, the 
filling, the patch which fills; of it, i.e., 
the old garment, not of the unfulled cloth 
(Euthy., Grotius, De W., etc.). — aipei 
d-iro, taketh from = tears itself away by 
contraction when wetted, taking a part 
of the old garment along with it. — Kal 
. . , y£v€Tai, and so a worse rent takes 
place. This looks in the direction of an 
apology for John and his disciples (so 
Weiss) = they and we are in sympathy 
in the main, but let them not assimilate 
their practice to ours ; better remain as 
they are ; imitation would only spoil a 
good type of piety. What is to be done 
with the unfulled cloth is not indicated, 
but it goes without saying. Let it 
remain by itself, be fulled, and then 
turned into a good new garment. 

Ver. 17. The new parable of the 
wine and wine-skins is introduced, net 
merely because the Speaker is full of 
matter, but because it enables Him aptly 
to show both sides of the question, the 
twofold application of the principle. — 
ovSi pdXXo-u<riv : nobody puts new wnne 
into old skins ; v^os applied to wine, 
Kaiv^S to skins (ao-Kovs Kaivovs). vf'os 
is new in time, Kaivos in quality. That 
which is new in time does not necessarily 
deteriorate with age ; it may even im- 
prove. That which is new in quality 
always deteriorates with age, like skins 
or cloth, vide Trench's Synonyms, Ix. — ■ 
£1 8e p-tiye {vide ad\\. i) : two disastrous 
consequences ensue : skins burst, wine 
spilt. The reason not stated, assumed 
to be known. New wine ferments, old 

skins have lost their toughness and 
stretchableness. " They have become 
hard leather and give no more" (Koets- 
veld, De Gelijkenissen, p. 99). That is 
the one side — keep the old to the old. — 
dXXa pdXXov(ri . . . «r«VTTjpoi)vTai : this 
is the other — the new to the new ; new 
wine in fresh skins, and both are pre- 
served as suiting one another. With 
reference to the two parables, Schanz 
remarks that, in the first, the point of 
comparison is the distinction between 
part and whole, in the second form and 
contents are opposed to each other. 
So after him, Holtzmann in H.C. 
Weiss takes both parables as explaining 
the practice of John's disciples, Holtz- 
mann as giving reasons why Christ's 
disciples differed from all others. The 
truth as above indicated lies between. 

Vv. 18-26. The daughter of yairus, 
with interlude (Mk. v. 21-43 ; Lk. viii. 
40-56). Given by Matthew in immediate 
connection with the discourse on fast- 
ing, but by Mark, and Luke following 
him, in connection with the return from 
the eastern shore, after the story of the 
demoniac. Ver. 18. iSov . . . X^yuv: 
exactly the same formula as in viii. 2. — 
dpxuv, an important person, a rulei 
of synagogue, accordiog to Mark. — tl% : 
peculiar here, but taken from Mark 
where it is intelligible, the suppliant 
being there described as 0ne of the rulers 
of the synagogue. The word puzzled 
the scribes, and gave rise to many variants 
{vide crit. note). — apn cTcXeuTTjcrev : this 
statement of Matthew, compared with 
those of Mark and Luke, which ni.ike 
the father say his daughter was dying. 




I here only 20. Kal i8ou, yvvi] ' al|i,oppooCaa SuScKa trr), TrpoaeXOooaa 
Lev. XV. 33. oTT-KTOec, T]\|faTO Tou " KpaoTT^ou TOO i|xaTiou auTou. 21. eXcye y^p 

* Ch. xiv. - ,, »_v / Of - « ' > ~ A/ " 

36; xxiii. €»' eauTT], EaK fioj'oi' ai|/(i>fJLai tou ifiaTiou auToo, awWricrofiai. 22. 

56. Lie.' 'O 8e 'h^aous tiricrTpa4>els ^ Kal iSwt' aurt]*' ciire, " ©dpcrei, fluyaTcp" 

(Nuin*xv. '«i TTioTis o-ou ac'awK^ CTe." Kal eawOt) i^ yok-ri Airo rfis wpas eKcivt]?. 

^ 23. Kal ^XGojK 6 Irjaous ciS ttjc oiKiaK tou ap^orros, Kal iSwt' Tois 

1 <rrpa<J>€is «BDI (Tisch., W.H.). 

has created work for the harmonists. 
The patristic view (Chrys., Theophy., 
Euthy.), that the statement was an 
inference from the condition in which he 
left her, or a natural exaggeration, has 
been adopted by many. Probably it is 
an inaccuracy of the evangelist's due to 
abbreviation. The girl was dead when 
Jesus arrived ; that was all he cared 
about. The ruler thought Jesus could 
do anything short of raising from the 
dead, save even in articido mortis. But 
our evangelist gives him credit for more 
faith ; that Jesus can bring back from the 
dead, at least when death has just taken 
place.— £Tio-«Tai, not remain living, but 
revive, come to life again (Fritzsche). — 
Ver. 19. lyepOels apparently refers back 
to ver. 10, implying close sequence — 
feasting, fasting, dying; such is life 

Vv. 20-22. The story is suspended at 
this point by an interlude. — Ver. 20, Kal 
l8ow:a new applicant for help appears on 
the scene, on the way to Jairus' house. — 
yvvT) . . . €T7), a woman who had suffered 
for twelve years from some kind of bloody 
flux.— oirio-Oev : realistic feature ; from 
womanly shame or the morbid shrinking 
of chronic ill-health, or out of regard to 
the law concerning uncleanness (Lev. 

XV.). — Kpao-ir^Sov, Hebrew Jl^^^ (Num. 

XV. 38), fringes at the four corners of the 
outer garment, to remind of the com- 
mandments. In dress Jesus was not 
nonconformist. His mantle, lp.aTiov, 
had its KpatrircSa like other people's. — 
TJ\|/aTo, touched one of the tassels ; the 
least possible degree of contact enough 
to ensure a cure, without notice ; faith, 
superstition and cunning combined. 
Ver. 21. cXryc yap tv tavr-Q : such was 
her little private scheme. Ver. 22, 6 
82 I. <rTpa<j)eis Kal ISwv. Matthew's 
narrative here is simple as compared 
with that of Mark and Luke, probably a 
transcript from Apostolic Document, 
concerned mainly about the words of 
Jesus. So far as our evangelist is con- 

cerned the turning round of Jesus might 
be an accident, or due to consciousness 
of a nervous jerk instinctively understood 
to mean something. — dap(rci., Qiyanp, 
again as in ix. 2, a terse, cordial sym- 
pathetic address ; there child to a man, 
here daughter to a mature woman. — 
TTicTTis. no notice taken of the super- 
stition or the cunning, only of the good 
side ; mark the rhythm : y\ ttio-tis <ron 
<ria-<aKiv <rt, again in Lk. vii. 50, where, 
with noptiov els elp'j^vqv, it forms a 
couplet. — «recra>K€v, perfect, not future, 
to convey a feeling of confidence = you 
are a saved woman. — Kal f(r<I>6r\, and so 
she was from that hour. A true story in 
the main, say Strauss and Keim, strictly 
a case of faith-cure. 

Vv. 23-26. The narrative returns to 
the case of Jairus' daughter. Ver. 23, 
IXOuv . . . Kttl iSujv, circumstantial 
participles leading up to what Jesus 
said, the main fact. — tovis avXrjTas, etc. : 
the girl was only just dead, yet already 
a crowd had gathered about the house, 
brought together by various motives, 
sympathy, money, desire to share in the 
meat and drink going at such a time (so 
Lightfoot, Hor. Heb., ut ederent et 
bibcrettt), and of course making a con- 
fused din. — OopvPovfAEvov, the part. = a 
relative with finite verb = the crowd 
which was making a din. The crowd, 
besides the aiXTjrai, tibicines, flute- 
players, would include some hired 
mourning women (Jerem. ix. \']),-prcBficce., 
whose duty it was to sing nania in praise 
of the dead. Mourning, like everything 
else, had been reduced to system, two 
flutes and one mourning woman at the 
burial of a wife incumbent on the 
poorest man (Lightfoot, Hor. Heb.). 
The practice in Greece and Rome was 
similar ; proofs in Grotius, Eisner, Wet- 
stein. Vide also Marquardt, Handbuch 
der Rom. Altcrthiimer, vol. vii., p. 341, 
where it is stated that by the twelve 
Tables the number of tibicines was 
limited to ten, and that before the Punic 
war, at least, prafica were employed. — 

!0— 31. 



' aoXifjTds Kttl Tof oxXoi' ' SopuPoufiEKoi', 24. Xeyei auxoi?/ " 'Ava- 
XwpeiTC • ou Y"^P fiirt'Oakc to Kopdaioi/, dXXd ^ KaOeuBet." Kal 
KaTcyeXwi' auToG. 25. Ore 8c * i^e^\r]Qi] 6 o)(Xos, eiaeXQwt' 
' EKpciTTjo-c TTJs X^''P°5 auTr]s, Kal r]yipQri to KOpdaiOf. 26. Kal 
e^TJXflek' r\ '<j3TJ|xr) auTTj els oXtjv' Tr\v yT^K iKeivr^v. 

27. Kal TrapdyoKTi iKcidev tu 'lT]aou, TiKoXouflTja-af auTw 8uo 
TO(})Xoi, Kpd^orres Kal Xeyoi'TCS, "^'E\ii]aov "^fxas, ote ^ Aa^iZ." 
28. 'EXGocti 8e CIS TT)v oiKiav, TrpoCTTJXSov auTw 01 tu<J)Xoi, Kai Xe'yci 
aoTois 6 'lT]aous, " nioreucTC on Sucafiiai touto TrotriCTai; " Ae'youo-ii' 
auTu, " Nai, Kopic." 29. T6t€ rjij/aTO tC)v 6<})0aXfxi»' auruv, Xe'ywK, 
" KttTd TTif TTioTiK ufiui' yevr\6-f]T<ii u|JLt^'. 30. Kal\<Tav ^ 
auTWJ' 01 6<|>0aXp.oi • Kal ' et'ePptfATicraTO * auTois 6 '|t]o-oGs, Xe'ywk, 
"'OpdTC fiTjScls yn'fcJO'KeTw.' 31. Ol 8c c|eX66rrcs ^ SicfJuiixiaaK 
auTOK iv oXt) Ttj yfj CKCirr]. 

c Mk. V. 39. 
Acts xviL 
J ; zz. 10. 

d z Thess. V. 
10 (= to 
be dead). 

eCh. zxi. 12. 

f Mk. i. 31. 

g Lk. iv. 14. 

h Ch XV. 2a; 
XX 30. 

i Mk. i. 43. 

j Ch. xxviii. 
15. Mk. i. 

^ For Xeyei avTois h^BD have cXrycv. 

^ For vie B has vtos. 

^ Tjvcwx- in BD. 

* evifipi\t.r\6r\ in ^B, a less usual form avoided by scribes. 

Ver. 24. dva^wpeiTe, retire 1 Hired 
mourners distasteful to Jesus, who 
gladly avails Himself of this opportunity 
of dismissing them. — ov yap aireOave: no 
need of you yet, for the maid (Kopdo-iov, 
dim. for Kopt], but = puella in late 
Greek) is not dead. A welcome word 
to naturalistic commentators, giving a 
plausible basis for the hypothesis of an 
apparent death or swoon (Schleier., Keim, 
etc.), not to be taken prosaically as 
meant to deny death. Yet Carr (C. G. 
T.) thinks it open to question whether 
it ought not to be taken literally, and 
doubtful whether Koip.a«r6ai, is ever used 
in a metaphorical sense in the N. T. or 
elsewhere. The derisive laughter of the 
crowd (KaTeye'Xwv) is good evidence to 
the contrary. — €$«pXiieT] : not to be 
pressed as implying physical force, 
non vi et manibus, sed voce jussuqtte 
(Fritzsche), a tone and manner not to 
be resisted, the house therefore soon 
cleared of the noisy crowd. — Ver. 26, 
ilfjXOev i\ <})., against the wish of Jesus, 
who did not desire raising the dead to be 
regarded as a part of His ordinary work. 
Perhaps that was why He said : " she 
sleepeth" (Weiss, L. J., Marcus-Evang.). 
— TTjv yTJv £K€ivT|v I Weiss thinks the ex- 
pression implies that the evangelist is a 
stranger to Palestine (Weiss- Meyer). 

Vv. 27-31. Two blind mtn.— This 
miracle-narrative and the next 

paratively colourless and uninteresting. 
They bring under notice two new types 
of disease, blindness and possession 
accompanied with dumbness. The 
interest in both cases, however, lies not 
so much in the cures as in the words 
spoken. — Ver. 27. t-u(JjXoi : blindness 
common from limestone dust in the air 
and changing temperature. — vios A., 
Messianic appellation, first time ad- 
dressed to Jesus, a point of interest for 
the evangelist ; not welcome to Jesus, 
who feared the awakening of false ex- 
pectations. Therefore He took no notice 
of them on the way to His house, whither 
He retired after the last incident. — Ver. 
28. tXOdvTi €15 T. o. trpo<rr\\9oy : they 
follow, and Jesus at last takes notice of 
them, asking if they have faith in His 
power. His previous conduct might 
throw doubt on His willingness, but that 
is dispelled by speaking to them.— vat: 
a prompt glad "yes " is their answer. — 
Ver. 30. TJveu'xSiio-av, a Hebraism. The 
Jews thought of blind eyes as shut, and 
of seeing eyes as open. — kve.^pi^-r\Q-f\, 
sternly enjoined [vide Mk. i. 43). The 
paraphrase of Euthy. Zig. gives a vivid 
idea of the meaning, "looked severely, 
contracting His eyebrows, and shaking 
His head at them, as they are wont to 
do who wish to make sure that secrets 
will be kept ". — Ver. 31. ev oXtj t. y. Ik. 
{vide remarks on ver. 26). 




kCh. xH. »a. 32. AutSiv 8c ii€pxo}iivuv, iSou, TTpooT^feyKai' auTw avBpto-noy^ 

31. I Cor. ^ Kbx^ok' 8ai.fioi'i^6fic^o»'. 33. Kal eK^XT]6^rro$ tou Saipofiou, 

21 (^«nie AdXtjaef 6 Koxfxis ■ Kal eOaupaffaf ol o)(\ot, X^yoi'Tes, " On ^ 

v«./« also ooS^OTC ^4*^^^ ooTus iv Tw 'lapai]X. 34. Ol 8e <t>apiaaioi 

4, XXX. 13). eXeyo*', "' Ey tu ' apxorri twi' Saip.oKiwi' ^KPdXXei rd 8ai)Ji<5»'io." "* 
mCh. iv. 23, .^..m - c». ~\ f\ • \ \ > 

but there 35' KAI iT€pii]Yek' o lT]aou9 Tds TToXcts iraaas Kai ras KCiifxas, 
tntrans., cc/ i*^ '^>'^ * / i>/\ 

here with oiociCTKWf iv Tais ffut'ttywYaiS auTwc, Kat KTjpuaawK to euayycMOk 

TT)S paCTi\eia$, Kai ucpaTreuwf itaaav Koaof Kat iraaat' piaAaKiat' ev 

^ ^13 omit avGpioTTOv. - ^BCl) omil oti. 

' D, a, k, Syr. Sin. omit ver. 3.4 ; W.H. bracket. 

Vv. 32-34. The dumb demoniac (Lk. 
xi. 14). A slight narrative, very meagre 
in comparison with the story of the Gera- 
Bcne demoniac, the interest centring in 
the conflicting comments of spectators 
which probably secured for it a place in 
the Logia of Matthew. Ver. 32. Avtwv 
l%tfX.o^ivii)v : while the two blind men are 
going out they bring another sufferer to 
the great Healer; an incessant stream of 
applicants for aid flowing towards His 
door. — Koxfi&v : dumbness the apparent 
s>'mptom. Theword literally means blunt, 
and in Homer {II., ii. 390) is applied to a 
weapon. In N. T. it is used with refer- 
ence to the senses and faculties, here the 
faculty of speech (ver. 33, eXdXrjo-tv), 
in xi. 5, that of hearing.— Saifiovi^dftevov: 
the inferred cause. It was known that 
the dumbness was not due to any physi- 
cal defect. Speech seemed to be prevent- 
ed by some foreign spiritual power ; the 
mental disease, possibly, melancholy. — 
Ver. 33. AaXii<r£v: that cured, speech 
followed. — ^Oavp.a<rav: the crowd present 
wondered, hearing one speak whom they 
had so long known to be dumb. — oiSeiroTc 
f <|>dvi), etc. : thus they expressed their 
surprise ; the like was never seen in 
Israel. e<})avij is impersonal, the refer- 
ence being to the change in the man ; 
the manner of expression is colloquial, 
"nd it is idle to discuss the precise mean- 
ing of oCtws, and what nominative is to 
be supplied to ^(Jxivn). It is more to the 
purpose to inquire why this seemingly 
minor miracle should make so great an 
impression. Perhaps we should not 
isolate it, but take it along with the other 
marvels that followed in quick succession 
as joint causes of admiration. The 
people were worked up into a high 
measure of astonishment which, at last, 
found vent in these words. So in effect 
Euthy., also Rosenmiiller (" tot signa, tam 
admirabilia, tam celeriter, neque con- 
tactu tantum, sed ct verbo, et in omni 

morborumgenere"). — Ver. 34. ol8^<t>ap. 
fXryov. The multitude admired, but the 
Pharisees said. They are watching 
closely the words and acts of Jesus and 
forming their theories. They have got 
one for the cures of demoniacs. — iv t^ 
apxovTi T. 8 : He casts out demons in 
the power of the prince of demons. 
Probably they did not believe it, but it was 
plausible. How differently men view 
the same phenomenon {vide on Matt. 
xii. 22 f.). 

Vv. 35-38. These verses look both 
backwards and forwards, winding up the 
preceding narrative of words and deeds 
from chap. v. onwards, and introducing 
a new aspect of Christ's work and experi- 
ence. The connection with what follows 
is strongest, and the verses might, with 
advantage, have formed the commence- 
ment of chap. X. Yet this general state- 
ment about Christ's teaching and healing 
ministry (ver. 35) obviously looks back to 
iv. 23, 24, and, therefore, fitly ends the 
story to which the earlier summary 
description of the ministry in Galilee 
forms the introduction. It is, at the 
same time, the prelude to a second act 
in the grand drama (chap. ix. 35 — xiv. 
12). In the first act Jesus has appeared 
as an object of general admiration ; in 
the second He is to appear as an object 
of doubt, criticism, hostility. 

Ver. 36. ISwv Zk tovs oxXovs: in the 
course of His wanderings Jesus had 
opportunities of observing the condition 
of the people, and at length arrived at a 
clear, definite view as to the moral and 
religious situation. It was very sombre, 
such as to move His compassion (cVirXaY- 
Xv£<rflr), post classical, in Gospels only). 
The state of things suggested two 
pictures to His mind : a neglected flock 
of sheep, and a harvest going to waste 
for lack of reapers. Both imply, not 
only a pitiful plight of the people, but 
a blameworthy neglect of duty on the 

32— 38. 



Tw Xafi.* 36. iSwK Zk Tois o)(\ous, ° e<nrXaYX*'i<'^''l ircpi auTUK, n here only 

»'♦' '\\»9 x> /«e^ /o v« withirepl; 

OTt iiaav eKAe\up.£>'oi ^ Kat eppi|A(iekot " waei Trpopara firj 6)(orra with em., 
TTOifieka. 37. TOT€ \eYCi TOis fiaOrjrais auTOu, O fiev ^EpicriJios 14. Mk. 

iroXus, ol Be IpytiiTai. oXiyoi • 38. SeiQQTjTe ouv tou Kupiou tou Oepia- viii. 2'oi. 

~ " D ' o^\ ' ' » > a » , » .1 o Ch. xiii. 

fiou, OTTus £Kpd\T) cpyaTas eis tov Oepia^iOf auTou. 30, 30. 

Mk. IV 2c) 
Lk. X. 7. p Lk x 2. John x. 4 

1 ev T(o Xaw brought in probably from iv. 23. BCDAI omit (Tisch., W.H.). 
^ ckXeXvixcvoi (T. R.) is a very weakly-supported reading, having only one im- 
portant uncial, L, on its side. ^BCDAZ al. have co-kvX|X6voi — the true reading. 

" The variation here is simply a matter of spelling : ep. in ^BCL (Tisch., W.H.), 
€pp. (T. R.) TA, pep. D. 

part of their religious guides — the shep- 
herds by profession without the shep- 
herd heart, the spiritual husbandmen 
without an eye for the whitening fields 
and skill to handle the sickle. The 
Pharisaic comments on the Capernaum 
mission festival (ix. 11) were sufficient to 
justify the adverse judgment. Their 
question on that occasion meant much, 
and would not be forgotten by Jesus. — 
i<rKv\)3.ivoi, cpip.p.£voi, graphic words, 
clear as to general import, though 
variously understood as to their precise 
meaning. The former may mean 
"flayed" (from o-kvXov, Holtz., H. C), or 
"hunted" and tired out (Weiss-Meyer), 
the practical sense is " exhausted by 
long, aimless wandering, foot-sore and 
fleece-torn ". The other points to the 
natural sequel — lying down, scattered 
about (piiTTw), here one, there another, 
on the hill side, just where they found 
themselves unable to go a step further. 
A flock can get into such a condition 
only when it has no shepherd to care for 
it and guide it to the pastures. 

Vv. 37, 38. eepio-jAOs : a new figure 
coming in abruptly in the narrative, but 
not necessarily so close together in 
Christ's mind. The one figure suits the 
mood of passive sympathy ; the other, 
that of the harvest, suits the mood of 
active purpose to help. It would not be 
long in the case of Jesus before the one 
mood passed into the other. He could 
not be a mere pitying spectator. He 
must set on foot a mission of help. 
The Capernaum feast was the first stage ; 
the mission of the twelve the second. 
The word " harvest " implies spiritual 
Busceptibility. Weiss protests against 
this inference as allegorising interpre- 
tation of a parabolic saying which simply 
points to the want of suitable labourers 

{vide L. J,, ii. 119). So also Schanz 
maintains, against Euthy., that not sus- 
ceptibility but need is pointed to. But, 
as against Weiss, it is pertinent to ask : 
what suggested the figure of a harvest 
if not possibilities of gain to the 
kingdom of God, given sympathetic 
workers ? This hopeful judgment as to 
the people of the land, contrasted with 
Pharisaic despair and contempt, was 
characteristic of Jesus {vide my Kingdom 
of God, chap. v.). — ipydrai oXiyoi: pro- 
fessional labourers, men busying them- 
selves with inculcation of moral and 
religious observances, abundant; but 
powerless to win the people because with- 
out sympathy, hope, and credible accept- 
able Gospel. Their attempts, if any, 
only make bad worse — (sub legis on- 
ere asgrotam plebem, Hilary). "Few" 
— as yet only one expert, but He is train- 
ing others, and He has faith in prayer for 
better men and times. — Ver. 38. Sci^Otjtc : 
the first step in all reform — deep, devout 
desire out of a profound sense of need. 
The time sick and out of joint — God 
mend it I — oirws eKPaXyj, etc. The pray- 
er, expressed in terms of the parabolic 
figure, really points to the ushering in of 
a new era of grace and humanity — 
Christian as opposed to Pharisaic, legal, 
Rabbinical. In the old time men thought 
it enough to care for themselves even in 
religion ; in the new time, the impulse and 
fashion would be to care for others. 
^kPciXt), a strong word (cf. Mk. iv. 29, 
airoo-TeXXci), even allowing for the 
weakened force in later Greek, implying 
Divine sympathy with the urgent need. 
Men must be raised up who can help the 
time. Christ had thorough faith in a 
benignant Providence. Luke gives this 
logion in connection with the mission of 
the .scN'ftnty (x. 2). 




■ Ch.xii.43. X. I. Kol TrpoaKaXcadu.cj'os tous ScSScKa u,a9iiTols auTOu, eSuKCK 

Mk. i- 93, , „ , , 

26; iii. II. auTois tjouaiaj' iTccou.aTa)K ' dKaoapTwc, wort tic|3d\\ct.i', auxd, Kai 

Lk. iv. 33, , ^ ^ > ^ X / 

36 al. (in SepaTTeueik iraffai' t'otroj' xai Traaa*''. 2. Twk 8e SwScKa 

rel. to . , , , , , - ^ / c X > 

demons.). aTTOOToXwf TO ot'OfiaTtt coTi TauTO ' TTpuTos Zip.ojf o Xcyop.ei'os 
b once only »»t. c>c\i< »<»»/ nie nc' 

iuMt. and n expos, KOt AcopEas o do€\<)>os auTOU ' IdKCijpos o Tou Zepeoaiou, 

30), often Kol lud^cT]; 6 dSeX<)>&9 auTou • 3- *l*tXnnTos, Kal Bap0oXop.atos ' 
6(>)|xas, Kal MarSaios 6 TeXwt'i]9 • 'ldK(u|3os 6 tou A\4>aiou, Kal 

' ^B have Kai before laKw^os. 

Chapter X. The Galilean Mission. 
The beginnings of the mission to the 
neglected " lost " sheep of Israel may be 
found in the Capernaum feast (ix. 10). 
As time went on Jesus felt increasingly 
the pressure of the problem and the need 
for extended effort. Matthew's call was 
connected with the first stage of the 
movement, and that disciple was Christ's 
agent in bringing together the gathering 
of publicans and sinners. He is now 
about to employ all the intimate dis- 
ciples He has collected about Him and 
through them to spread the movement 
all over Galilee. They will be a poor 
substitute for Himself, yet not wholly 
useless like the scribes, for they have 
heard His teaching on the hill and 
imbibed somewhat of His spirit of love. 

Vv. 1-15. The Twelve: their tiames, 
mission, and relative instructions (Mk. 
iii. 14-19, vi. 7-13, Lk. ix. 1-6). 

Ver. I. Trpoo-KaX«ordfj.£vos : this does 
not refer to the call to become disciples, 
but to a call to men already disciples to 
enter on a special mission. — tovs SwScKa, 
the Twelve. The article implies that a 
body of intimate disciples, twelve in 
number, already existed. The evangelist 
probably had Mk. iii. 14 in view. He 
may also reflect in his language the 
feeling of the apostolic age to which 
the Twelve were familiar and famous. 
Hitherto we have made the acquaintance 
of five of the number (iv. iS-22, ix. 9). 
Their calls are specially reported to 
illustrate how the body of twelve grew. — 
c^ovcriav, authority, not to preach, as we 
might have expected, but to heal. The 
prominence given to healing in this 
mission may surprise and disappoint, 
and even tempt to entertain the suspicion 
that the exalted ideas concerning the 
Twelve of after years have been read into 
the narrative. This element is certainly 
least prominent in Mark. Yet to some 
extent it must have had a place in the 
mission. The people in Galilee had all 
beard of Jesus and His work, and it was 

no use sending the Twelve unless they 
could carry with them something of His 
power. — ■jrvevp.a.Twv a., genitive objective, 
as in John xvii. 3, Rom. ix. 21. Sxm 
€K . . . icai Oepaircveiv, dependent also 
on ii,ov<rla.v [cf. 1 Cor. ix. 5), wtrrc with 
infinitive indicating tendency of the 
power, iraaav voorov, etc., echo of iv. 


Ver. 2. T«v 8^ SciS. onroo-rdXwv : etc, 
the evangelist finds here a convenient 
place for giving the names of the Twelve, 
called here for the first and last time 
d-irdo-ToXoi, with reference at once to the 
immediate minor mission (from airoa-xeX- 
X€iv, vide ver. 5) and to the later great 
one. One half of them are for us mere 
names, and of one or two even the names 
are doubtful, utterly obscure, yet, doubt- 
less, in their time and sphere faithful 
witnesses. They are arranged in pairs, 
as if following the hint of Mark that they 
were sent out by two and two, each pair 
connected with a Kal (so in Luke, not in 
Mark). — irpoiros: at the head of the list 
stands Peter, first not only numerically 
(Meyer) but in importance, a sure matter 
of fact, though priestly pretensions based 
on it are to be disregarded. He is first 
in all the lists. — 6 Xey. flcTpos: a fact 
already stated (iv. 18), here repeated 
probably because the evangelist had his 
eye on Mark's list (iii. 16) or possibly to 
distinguish this Simon from another in 
the list (No. 11). Ver. 3. Bap0oXop.oios, 
the 6th, one of the doubtful names, com- 
monly identified with Nathanael (John 
i. 46). — MarSaios 6 reXiiviis, one of four 
in the list with epithets : Peter the Jirst, 
Simon the zealot, Judas the traitor, 
Matthew the publican ; surely not with- 
out reason, except as echoing ix. g 
(Meyer). Matthew stands second in his 
pair here, before Thomas in Mark and 
Luke. Position and epithet agree, 
indicative, Euthy. suggests, of modesty 
and self-abasement. — Ver. 4. Xipwv i 
Kavavaios : Luke gives rbv KaX. ZtjXwttj* 
= the zealot, possibly a piece of in- 




laKapi(i>TT)s o Kii • irapaSous auToc. c again in 

5. T0UTOU9 Tous SuSeKU a-nicneiXiv 6 Irjaoos, TTapaYyeiXas auTois, Judas, 
X^Y'^*'* " Eis 686f eOfwi' (XT) direXOrjTe, kuI els ir<5Xiv 1a\iapiiT(iJv jitj 15; xxvii! 
€tacX0Y)Te • 6. TTopeclcaQe 8e p.dXXok' irpos to, ''irpoPaTa to, ^ diroXw-d Ch!xv. 24. 
X^ra • oiKOu 'icrpaif^X. "J. iropEu6|i,c»'Oi 8e KTjpuCTffeTe, Xcyoirreg, "Oti e ch. xv. 24. 
T]YYtKCf 1^ Pao-iXcia twc oupaviay. 8. do-Qcfoorras OepaTTcdeTc, vii.^^ 

^ D has Ae^Paios (cos) alone. J<^B have 6a88aios alone. The reading in T. R. 
as above is simply a conflate reading combining the two by a connecting phrase, 


* BCDL have Kavavatos, probably the true form. 

* o before lo-Kop. in ^BDA. 

formation based on an independent 
reliable source, or his interpretation of 

the Hebrew word "^^t^^p. The form 

Kavavatos seems to be based on the idea 
that the word referred to a place. Jerome 
took it to mean "of Cana," " de vico 
Ghana Galilaeae ". 'iovSa; 6 Mo-KapiwTrjs : 
last in all the lists, as Peter is first. The 
epithet is generally taken as denoting the 
place to which he belonged : the man of 
Issachar (Grotius) ; but most render : the 
man of Kerioth (in Judah, Joshua xv. 25, 
Jer. xlviii, 41) ; in that case the one non- 
Galilean disciple. The ending, -«t»)s, is 
Greek ; in Mark the Hebrew ending, -«0, 
is given. 

Vv. 5-15. Instructions to the missioners. 
Ver. 5. ToitTovs t. 8w8: These, the Twelve, 
Jesus sent forth, under the injunctions 
following (trapaYY^^Xas). — «ls 6S6v €0. p.T| 
aTr€\0TjT€. This prohibition occurs in 
Matthew only, but there is no reason to 
doubt its authenticity except indeed that 
it went without saying. The very pro- 
hibition implies a consciousness that one 
day the Gospel would go the way of the 
Gentiles, just as Mt. v. 17 implies con- 
sciousness that fulfilling, in the speaker's 
sense, would involve annulling.— 686v 
«6vuiv, the way towards (Meyer), the 
genitive being a genitive of motion 
(Fritzsche, Kiihner, § 414, 4), or a way 
within or of, parallel to iroXiv XapapEiTwv 
in next clause. — els "t. lap., not even in 
Samaria should they carry on their 
mission. The prohibition is total. 
iroXtv does not refer to the chief city 
(Erasmus, Annot., metropolis) or to the 
towns as distinct from the rural parts 
through which at least they might pass 
(Grotius). It means any considerable 
centre of population. The towns and 
villages are thought of as the natural 

sphere of work (ver, 11). The reason of 
the double prohibition is not given, but 
doubtless it lay in the grounds of policy 
which led Christ to confine His own 
work to Israel, and also in the crude 
religious state of the disciples. — Ver. 6. 
a-iroXcoXdra, "the lost sheep," an ex- 
pression consecrated by prophetic use 
(Jer. 1. 6, Swete b ed., xxvii. 6), the epithet 
here first introduced, often occurring in 
Gospels, was used by Jesus not in blanif 
but in pity. " Lost " in His vocabulary 
meant "neglected" (ix. 36), in danger 
also of course, but not finally and hope- 
lessly g;iven over to perdition, salvabk 
if much needing salvation. The term is 
ethical in import, and implies that the 
mission had moral and religious improve- 
ment mainly in view, not mere physical 
benefit through healing agency; teaching 
rather than miraculous acts. — Ver. 7. 
iropevdpevoi Ki]pviTcr€T£, as ye go, keep 
preaching; participle and finite verb, 
both present. Preaching first in the 
Master's thoughts, if not in the evangel- 
ist's (ver. i). — ■^YY'''**'' T Pa«''''^«t«i t. o.: 
the theme is, of course, the kingdom 
longed for by all, constantly on the lipa 
of Jesus. The message is : It has come 
nigh to you and is here. Very general, 
but much more, it may be taken for 
granted, was said. The apprentice 
apostles could as yet make no intelligent 
theoretic statement concerning the King- 
dom, but they could tell not a little about 
the King, the Master who sent them, the 
chief object of interest doubtless for all 
receptive souls. It was a house mission 
(not in synagogue) on which they were 
sent (ver. 12). They were to live as guests 
in selected dwellings, two in one, and 
two in another, for a time, and their 
preaching would take the form of familiar 
conversation on what they had seen and 



( Rom iii. XcTTpOlks Ka0api^€T€, I^CKpOUS CyCipCTC,^ Sai^^ClU €Kp(i\X6T6. ' SwpcAl' 

t Lk. xviii. eXa|3eT€, Swpedc Sore. 9. M^ * Kxi'iaTjaGc xpuaot', p.r]8€ apyopoK, 
10.' Actsi. fXTjSe x^Xkoc els Tcis ^uk'as ujiwc, 10. fit] Trr|pa>' cis 686f, fiTjSe 8uo 

ao; xxii. X''"'"'^^**'' M'^^' uTro8i]|iaTa, fiT)8e ^d^Soe * a^ios y^^P ^ ^PY*^T *"!' 


' v€Kpov5 cycipcT* is wanting in L, but well attested by ^BCDZ. The position 
varies in MSS., after Saip,. ck^cAX. in PA, before Xcir. KaOap. in ^BCDZ. 

heard Jesus do and say. They would 
talk by the hour, healing acts would be 
very occasional, one or two in a village. 
Ver. 8. vcKpous tytipere. This clause 
is wanting in several Codd., including L, 

80 often associated with j^B in good read- 
ings. It is, however, too well attested to 
be omitted. It must either have found a 
place in the autograph, or it must have 
crept in as a gloss at a very early period. 
The evangelist's aim seems to be to 
represent Christ as empowering the 
disciples to do the works He is reported 
to have done Himself in chaps, viii., ix. 
That purpose demands the inclusion of 
raising the dead as the crowning miracle 
of the group (raising of daughter of 
Jairus). Yet it is hard to believe that 
Jesus would give power to the disciples 
to do, as an ordinary part of their 
mission, what He Himself did only on 
one or two exceptional occasions. The 
alternatives seem to be either an early 
gloss introduced into the text, or an 
inaccuracy on the part of the evangelist. 
Meyer takes the former view, Weiss 
apparently the latter. We cannot take 
the phrase in a spiritual sense, the other 
clauses all pointing to physical miracles. 
This clause is not in the accounts of 
Mark and Luke. The seventy on their 
return (Luke x. 17) make no mention of 
raising the dead. 

Ver. g. |xt) Krr^(ry]a-6( : Vulgate : nolite 
possidere. But the prohibition is directed 
not merely against possessing, but 
against acquiring (KeKTi]p,ai, perfect = 
possess). The question is as to the scope 
of the prohibition. Does it refer merely to 
the way, or also to the mission ? In one 
case it will mean : do not anxiously pro- 
cure extensive provision for your journey 
(Meyer) ; in the other it will mean, more 
comprehensively: do not procure for the 
way, or during the mission, the things 
named. In other words, it will be an 
injunction to begin and carry on the 
mission without reward. Though the 
reference seems to be chiefly to the 
starting point, it must be in reality to 
iheir conduct during the mission. There 

was no need to say : do not obtain gold 
before starting, for that was practically 
impossible. There was need to say: 
do not take gold or silver from those 
whom you benefit, for it was likely to be 
offered, and acceptance of gifts would be 
morally prejudicial. That, therefore, is 
what Jesus prohibits, true to His habit 
of insisting on the supreme value of 
motive. So Jerome (condemnatio avari- 
tiae), Chrys., Hilary, etc. So also 
Weiss. Holtz. (H.C.), while concurring 
in this interpretation, thinks the pro- 
hibition suits better the conduct of the 
Christ-merchants in the Didache than 
the circumstances of the disciples. — 
Xpv«rbv, apyvpov, x*^"^*' • ^n anti- 
climax, not gold, not silver, not even a 
copper. — cU Ttts ^cSvas, in your girdles, 
used for this purpose as well as for 
gathering up the loose mantle, or in 
purses suspended from the girdle. " It 
was usual for travellers to carry purses 
((|>acrK(oXi,a) suspended from their girdles, 
in which they carried the pence " (Euthy.). 
— Ver. 10. irijpav, a wallet for holding 
provisions, slung over the shoulder 
(Judith xiii. 10, iriipav twv PpcofidTuv). — 
8vo x^Tcovas : not even two under-gar- 
ments, shirts ; one would say very neces- 
sary for comfort and cleanliness in a hot 
climate, and for travellers along dusty 
roads. In Mark the prohibition seems 
to be against wearing two at the same 
time (vi. 8) ; here against carrying a 
spare one for a change. Possibly we 
ought not to take these instructions 
too literally, but in their spirit. — vcttoSii- 
{lara : this does not mean that they 
were to go barefooted, but either without 
a spare pair, or without more substantial 
covering for the feet (shoes) than the 
light sandals they usually wore— mere 
soles to keep the feet off the hard road. 
Lightfoot [Hor. Heb.) distinguishes 
between the two thus : " usus delicatoris 
fuerunt calcei, durioris atque utilioris 
sandalia". He states that there were 
sandals, whose soles were of wood, and 
upper part of leather, the two joined by 
nails, and that they were sometimes 
made of rushes or the bark of palms. 

g— 14. 



Tpo<j>T]s auToG eoTif.^ II. Eis r\v 8' &v iroXif r\ K{a\i.r\v ci<7€\9if]T€, 

*" e^cTciCTaTe tis ef aurfj a|i6s icrrt, • KdKci ^cicaxE, Iws fii* e|e\0r)T€. h Ch. ii. 8. 
, , c\>\>' > f a 1 r i>\ Johu xxi. 

12. €icrepxo|Ji,€i'Oi be eis tt]1' oiKiar, do-irao-acrWe auT-Qf. 13. koi eac 12. 

fi€f T] ■q oiKia d^ta, eXOcTU i^ eipr^nr) u|j,«i' eir' aoTi^i'' ecu* 8e jiT] t] i Ch. xii. 44. 
,*/'c>/ e~ >c~i' i» (»>voyi Pet. ii. 

agio, ■q eiprji't) upwi' irpos up-as CTriorpaipriTW. 14. Kai os eac '' jat) 25. 

S^lrjTac up,as, p.T]8e dicouo-j) tous Xoyous up.wi', e^ep^Oficcoi ^ ttjs x. n.'^Acts 

j»,>^ >\ 5' > />■ \i \4.» c- xiii. 51 ; 

oiKias r\ TT]s TTo\6ws cKetcTis, eKTifagaTe toi' ^ KOt'topTO/ " tw;' Troowt' xxii. 23. 

^ ^BCL omit eo-Tiv. * av in fc^BDL. ^ ^bD add e|<o. 

^ ^C add €K (Tisch.). BD omit (with T. R.). W.H. have it on margin. 

— pdipSov : not even a staff ! That can 
hardly be meant. Even from the 
romantic or picturesque point of view 
the procession of pilgrim missioners 
would not be complete without a staff 
each in their hand. If not a necessity, 
at least, it was no luxury. Mark allows 
the staff, creating trouble for the har- 
monists. Grotius suggests : no second 
staff besides the one in hand ! Glassius, 
quoted by Fritzsche in scorn, suggests a 
staff shod with iron (scipio) for defence. 
Ebrard, with approval of Godet, thinks 
of two different turns given to the 

Aramaic original HtO^ Di^ ^3 = 
either " if you take one staff it is 
enough," or "if, etc., it is too much". 
Really the discrepancy is not worth all 
this trouble. Practically the two ver- 
sions come to the same thing : take only 
a staff, take not even a staff; the latter 
is a little more hyperbolical than the 
former. Without even a staff, is the 7te 
plus ultra of austere simplicity and self- 
denial. Men who carry out the spirit of 
these precepts will not labour in vain. 
Their life will preach the kingdom better 
than their words, which may be feeble 
and helpless. " Nothing," says Euthy., 
' ' creates admiration so much as a simple, 
contented life " (Pios aaKevos Kal dXi- 
YapKiis). — a|ios . . . T. Tpo<j)fis : a 
maxim universally recognised. A labourer 
of the type described is not only worthy 
but sure of his meat ; need have no con- 
cern about that. This is one of the few 
sayings of our Lord referred to by St. 
Paul (i Cor. ix. 14), whose conduct as 
an apostle well illustrates the spirit of 
the instructions to the Twelve. 

Vv. 1 1- 15. €|£Ta<raTe (Ik iraXfi>, from 
CTEOS, true ; to inquire as to the truth of 
a matter). A host to be carefully sought 
out in each place : not to stay with the first 
who offers. — a|i.os points to personal 
moral worth, the deciding consideration 
to be goodness, not wealth (worth so 

much). The host to be a man generally 
respected, that no prejudice be created 
against the mission (ne praedicationis 
dignitas suscipientis infamia deturpetur, 
Jerome). — |j,EivaTE : having once secured a 
host, abide with him, shift not about 
seeking better quarters and fare, hurting 
the feelings of the host, and damaging 
your character, as self-seeking men. — 
Ver, 12. TT|v oiKiav, the house selected 
after due inquiry. — donrdo-ao-Oe, salute it, 
not as a matter of formal courtesy, but 
with a serious mind, saying: "peace be 
with you," thinking the while of what 
peace the kingdom can bring. — Ver. 13. 
edv |A£v !1 T o. djia : after all pains have 
been taken, a mistake may be made ; 
therefore the worthiness of the house 
is spoken of as uncertain (^, in an 
emphatic position, so \i.y\ ^, in next 
clause). — eXBtTw t\ clprjvTi . . . eirwr- 
Tpa(|>iJTa). The meaning is : the word of 
peace will not be spoken in vain ; it will 
bless the speaker if not those addressed. 
It is always good to wish peace and good 
for others, however the wish may be 
received. There is a tacit warning 
against being provoked by churlish treat- 
ment. Ver. 14. OS Idv fXT) Sc'^YiTai : Christ 
contemplates an unfavourable result of 
the mission in the host's house, or in the 
town or village generally. The con- 
struction of the sentence is anacolouthi- 
stic, beginning one way, ending another : 
rhetorical in effect, and suitable to emo- 
tional speech ; cf. Lk. xxi. 6 : " these 
things ye see — days will come in which 
not one stone will be left upon another" 
{vide Winer, § 63, on such constructions). 
— clepXOfAevoi : when an unreceptive 
attitude has once been decidedly taken 
up, there is nothing for it but to go 
away. Such a crisis severely tests the 
temper and spirit of promoters of good 
causes. — e^KTiva^are tov Kovioprov : a 
symbolic act practised by the Pharisees 
on passing from, heathen to Jewish soil, 
the former being regarded as unclean 




k Ch. xi. 22, ofiw*-. 15. d^T)K Xcycj v\uy, ^ decKTorepok' eoroi y^ ZoB<5fiwf KtU 

12, 1^. ro^K^ppUC CK TlfA^pO. KplCreWS, t] TTJ TToXci CKCinT). 

I Ch. XI. 10; •p./''l r\\ - '> > r 

\xiii. 34. 16. " loou, eyi} dirooreXXu up,as is irpoPaTa ey aiab} Xukwc • 

Rom. X. 15. , „ , . t t » > in ) ' « ' ' 

m Uoin. xyi. yiveave ouv <t>poi'ifjioi us 01 o^cis, Kai dKcpaioi ws ai irepiaTcpau 

ii. 15. I7> ° Trpocrc'xcTc Be diro t«i' dt'OpoSirwi' • -irapaSwaouai yoip 6|ias cis 

DiiJeatCh. ,5. . . - ~ . - o , . ~ 

vii. 15. (Tuveopia, Ktti CK xais cruf aywyais aurwc liaaTiywaouaif u|Jias • 
oCh. XX. 19; 

xxiii. 34. Mk. z. 34. Lk. xviii. 33. John xiz. I. Heb. xii. 6. 

(Light., Hor. Heb.) : Easy to perform, 
not easy to perform in a right spirit ; too 
apt to be the outcome of irritation, dis- 
appointment, and wounded vanity = they 
did not appreciate me, I abandon them 
to their fate. Christ meant the act to 
symboHse the responsibility of the in- 
habitants for the result = leave the place, 
feeling that you have done your duty, 
not in anger but in sadness. The act, 
if performed, would be a last word of 
warning (els (Aapriiptov avrois, Mark and 
Luke). Grotius and Bleek understand it 
as meaning : "we have nothing more to 
do with you ". — Ver. 15. y^ 2. Kai f. : 
Aodom and Gomorrah, a bj^word for 
great iniquity and awful doom (Is. i. 9), 
YO, land for people. — dveKTcJTepov : yet 
the punishment of these wicked cities, 
tragic though it was, or the punishment 
still in store, more endurable than that 
of city or village which rejects the 
message of the kingdom. This may 
seem an exaggeration, the utterance of 
passion rather than of sober judgment, 
and a dangerous thing to say to raw 
disciples and apprentice missionaries. 
But the principle involved is plain : the 
greater the privilege rejected the greater 
the criminality. The utterance reveals 
the high value Jesus set on the good 
tidings He commissioned the Twelve to 

Vv. 16-39. Prophetic picture 0/ future 
apostolic tribulations. An interpolation 
of our evangelist after his manner of 
grouping login of kindred import. The 
greater part of the material is given in 
other connections in Mark, and especially 
in Luke. No feeling of delicacy should 
prevent even the preacher from taking 
this view, as it destroys all sense of the 
natural reality of the Galilean mission 
to suppose that this passage formed part 
of Christ's instructions to the Twelve in 
connection therewith. Reading into the 
early event the thoughts and experiences 
of a later time was inevitable, but to get 
a true picture of the life of Jesus and His 
disciples, we must keep the two as 
distinct as possible. There may be a 

doubt as to ver. 16. It stands at the 
beginning of the instructions to the 
Seventy in Luke (x. 2), which, according 
to Weiss (Matth. Evang., p. 263), are 
really the instructions to the Twelve 
in their most original form. But it is 
hard to believe that Jesus took and 
expressed so pessimistic a view of the 
Galilean villagers to whom He was 
sending the Twelve, as is implied in the 
phrase, " sheep among wolves," though 
He evidently did include occasional un- 
receptivity among the possible experiences 
of the mission. He may indeed have 
said something of the kind with an 
understood reference to the hostility of 
Pharisaic religionists, but as it stands 
unqualified, it seems to bear a colouring 
imported from a later period. 

Ver. 16. ISov, something important is 
going to be said. — iyi), emphatic: Jesus 
is conscious that connection with Him 
will be a source not only of power, but 
of trouble to the Twelve. — iv y-itru : not to 
wolves (irpbs Xvkovc, Chrys.). They were 
not sent for that purpose, which would 
be a mission to destruction, but on an 
errand of which that would be an inci- 
dent, iv is used here as often, especially 
in later Greek writeis, with a verb of 
motion to indicate a subsequent chronic 
state, " the result of a love of concise- 
ness " (Winer, § 50, 4, a). — yiveaOc . . . 
Trepio-Ttpat. The serpent, the accepted 
emblem of wisdom (Gen. iii. i ; Ps. Iviii. 
5) — wary, sharp-sighted (Grotius) ; the 
dove of simplicity (Hos. vii. 11, "silly 
dove," avovs, Sept.). — axcpaioi (a, Kcpdv- 
w|i.i), unmixed with evil, purely good. 
The ideal resulting from the combina- 
tion is a prudent simplicity ; difficult to 
realise. The proverb seems to have 
been current among the Jews. " God 
says : ' with me the Israelites are simple 
as the dove, but against the heathen 
cunning as the serpent'" (Wunsche, 
Beitrdge). — Ver. 17. t&v dvOpwiruv : 
Weiss, regarding ver. 17 as the beginning 
of an interpolation, takes tuv generi- 
cally = the whole race of men conceived 
of as on the whole hostile to the truths 




18. KOI em i^yefioi'as 8e Kai PaaiXcis d)(9i]aea6c ek'enet' cfiou, eis p Ch. xx.25. 

jiapTupiot' auTois Kai T019 eOfeffiK. 19. oraK 0£ irapaoiouaii' ^ ufxas, la. 2 Cor. 
V / - A > \ \ • D«fl' ,,-,,, iv. II (same 

jiY] jj.epip,>nr]a-T)T€ irws ^ xt AaAT)crr]T€ • *^ ooorjaeTai yap ujxif ck €K£l^'r) phrase). 

-• '\\' 9 Jre-> txx« ixxv'' Mk. xiii. 

TTj wpa Ti AaAr)(r€T€^- 20. ou yap Ufi6i9 eoTc 01 \a\ourres, dWa 12. (Deut. 

TO n^€up.a ToC irarpos \i^^v to XaXout' kv iJp.ik'. 21. ' HapaSuaEi Se MicahvH. 

dSeXefios d8eX<^6i' '' eis Odj'aTOc, Kai iTaTT)p tcki'oi' • Kai ' eirai'aaTri- s Ch. xxvi. 

(TOWTai TeKt'a eirl yoi'ds, Kai ' daKaTuo-ouaiv auxoos. 22. Kat laeaGe if'a^Cor. 

fiiaou^ecoi uir6 TrdKrwc 8id t6 oco/jid jiou • 6 8e ' uirop.Eii'as * tts t Ch.^ xxiv. 

13. Rom. 
xii. la. n Ch. xxiv. 13. Lk. xviii. 5. John xiii. i. 

' ^B have irapaSwo-tv (Tisch., W,H.). 

* If^BC have XaX-qoTjxe = what ye ought to speak. The fut. ind. (T. R.) = what 
ye will speak. The former is to be preferred. DL omit the whole clause from 
8o6Tjo-£Tai to XaXT]o-TiT€, an error of similar ending. 

K(icr(tos in the fourth Gospel (xv. 19 ; 
xvii. 14). It seems more natural to find 
in it a reference to the Xvkoi of ver. 16. 
Beware of the class of men I have in 
view. So Eras., Eisner, Fritzsche. — 
o-vv^Spia, the higher tribunals, selected 
.0 represent courts of justice of all grades, 
to denote the serious nature of the 
danger. — o-uvay»yats. The synagogue 
is referred to here, not merely as a place 
of worship, but as a juridical assembly 
exercising discipline and inflicting penal- 
ties (Grotius). Among these was scourg- 
ing (ua<rTiy«i<rovo"iv, vide Acts xxii. ig ; 
xxvi. II ; 2 Cor. xi. 24). — Ver. 18. 'qycftci- 
vas, provincial governors, including the 
three degrees : Propraetors, Proconsuls, 
and Procurators. From the point of 
view of the evangelist, who conceives the 
whole discourse as connected with the 
Galilean mission confined to Jews, 
the reference can only be to Roman 
governors in Palestine. But in Christ's 
mind they doubtless had a larger scope, 
and pointed to judicial tribulations in the 
larger, Gentile world. — eU (laprvpiov. 
The compensation for the incriminated 
will be that, when they stand on their 
defence, they will have an opportunity 
of witnessing for the Master {ivtKtv 
€)Aov) and the Cause. Observe the com- 
bination Kai Zi in first clause of this 
verse, Kai before ^irl r\yefi.6va%, 8J after 
it. It introduces a further particular 
under a double point of view, with Kai 
so far as similar, with Si so far as different 
(Baumlein, Schulgram., § 675, also Gr. 
Partikeln, 188, g). A more formidable 

Vv. ig-22. |iT| (i.«^ontjT«, etc. : a 
second counsel against anxiety (Matt. 
vi. 25), this time not as to food and 
raiment, but as to speech at a critical 

hour. With equal emphasis : trouble not 
yourselves either as to manner or matter, 
word or thought (Trcis r\ ti). — So6i]a-cTai: 
thought, word, tone, gesture — every- 
thing that tends to impress— all will be 
given at the critical hour {Iv tKiivj] t^ 
wpqi). In the former instance anxiety 
was restricted to the day (Matt. vi. 34). 
Full, absolute inspiration promised for 
the supreme moment. — ov yap vficis, etc.: 
not you but the divine Spirit the speaker. 
ov, aXXtt, non tarn quam, interprets 
Grotfus, followed by Pricaeus, Eisner, 
Fritzsche, etc. = not so much you as ; 
as if it were an affair of division of 
labour, so much ours, so much, and 
more, God's. It is, however, all God's, 
and yet all ours. It is a case of 
immanent action, ri XaXovv Iv v(j.iv, 
not of a transcendent power coming in 
upon us to help our infirmity, eking 
out our imperfect speech. Note the 
Spirit is called the Spirit toO irarpos 
ifAwv, echo of vi. 32. Some of the 
greatest, most inspired utterances have 
been speeches made by men on trial for 
religious convictions. A good con- 
science, tranquillity of spirit, and a sense 
of the greatness of the issue involved, 
make human speech at such times touch 
the sublime. Theophy. distinguishes 
the human and the divine in such utter- 
ances thus : ours to confess, God's to make 
a wise apology (ri 6|xoXoyciv y\^i- 
Tcpov, TO 8i tro(|>ws airoXoy€io-6ai 6cov). 
— Ver. 22. cU Tc'Xos, to the end (of the 
tribulations) described (w. 21-22) ; to the 
end, and not merely at the beginning 
(Theophy., Beza, Fritzsche, Weiss, etc.). 
No easy thing to do, when such in- 
humanities and barbarities arc going on, 
all natural and family affections out- 
raged. But it helps to know, as is here 



23. orav 8e hiuKuariv u|xas iv tt] iroXei 

" in?he°°''' ■'^°5, OOTOS awOiiacTOi. 
sense of jauTJ), 4>*"Y^'''* *'' '^'^ a\Xt)l'.^ 
Similar ▼ TeX^aTjTt Ttts ir<5\eis Toi ' 'lapai]X, Iws S** ' tXflr] 6 utos too 
Greek and iyQputrou. 24. OuK IffTi p,a6i)r}|$ fiiTcp xii' SiSdaxaXoK, ouSe 


1 cTtpav in t^B (W.H. 
' BD omit the article. 

iXXtjv in margin). 

* t^BX omit mr. 

indirectly intimated, that there will be 
an end, that religious animosities will 
not last for ever. Even persecutors and 
guillotineers get weary of their savage 
work. On «U WX09 Beza remairks : 
declarat neque momentaneam neque per- 
petuam banc conditionem fore.— ovtos 
(rw0i)O'CTai, he, emphatic, he and no 
other, shall be saved, in the day of final 
award (James i. 12, "shall receive the 
crown of life ") ; also, for the word is 
pregnant, shall be saved from moral ship- 
wreck. How many characters go miser- 
ably down through cowardice and lack 
of moral fibre in the day of trial ! 

Ver. 23. oTov 8i : the thought takes 
a new comforting turn, much needed 
to reconcile disciples to the grim 
prospect. With courage and loyalty 
effort for self-preservation is quite 
compatible. Therefore, when they per- 
secute here flee there. — iv r^ ir^Xct 
Tav-q], in this city, pointing to it, this 
standing for one. — t^cvycTc, flee, very un- 
heroic apparently, but the bravest 
soldier, especially an old campaigner, 
will avail himself of cover when he can. 

els tV iripav: the reading of fc«^B is 

to be preferred to aXXtjv of the T.R., the 
idea being: flee not merely to another 
city numerically distinct, but to a city 
presumably different in spirit (vide vi. 24 
and xi. 16), where you may hope to 
receive better treatment. Thus the 
flight, from being a mere measure of 
self-preservation, is raised to the dignity 
of a policy of prudence in the interest of 
the cause. Why throw away life here 
among a hostile people when you may do 
good work elsewhere ? — A|XT)VYap: reason 
for the advice solemnly given ; an im- 
portant declaration, and a perplexing 
one for interpreters. — ov \l^, have no 
fear lest, ye will certainly not have 
finished — reX^o-ijTt. In what sense ? 
" gone over " (A.V.) in their evangelising 
tour, or done the work of evangelising 
thoroughly ? (ad fidci et evangelicae vir- 
tutis perfectionem — Hilary). The former 
is the more natural interpretation. And 
yet the connection of thought seems to 

demand a mental reference to the quality 
of the work done. Why tarry at one 
place as if you were under obligation to 
convert the whole population to the 
kingdom ? The thing cannot be done. 
The two views may be combined thus : 
ye shall not have gone through the 
towns of Israel evangelising them in 
even a superficial way, much less in a 
thorough-going manner. Weiss takes 
the word tcX. as referring not to mission 
work but to flight = ye shall not have 
used all the cities as places of refuge, i.e., 
there will always be some place to flee 
to. This is beneath the dignity of the 
situation, especially in view of what 
follows. — tmi IXflx) 6 wiJs t. 4. Here 
again is the peculiar title Son of Man : 
impersonal, but used presumably as a 
synonym for " I ". What does it mean 
in this connection ? And what is the 
coming referred to ? The latter ques- 
tion can be best answered at a later 
stage. It has been suggested that the 
title Son of Man is here used by Christ 
in opposition to the title Son of David. 
The meaning of ver. 23 on that view is 
this : do not think it necessary to tarry 
at all hazards in one place. Your work 
anywhere and everywhere must be very 
imperfect. Even success will mean 
failure, for as soon as they have re- 
ceived the tidings of the kingdom they 
will attach wrong ideas to it, thinking of 
it as a national kingdom and of me as 
the " Son of David ". No thorough 
work can be done till the Son of Man 
has come, i.e., till a universal Gospel for 
humanity has begun to be preached 
(Lutteroth). This is a fresh suggestion, 
not to be despised, on so obscure a sub- 
ject. We are only feeling our way as to 
the meaning of some of Christ's sayings. 
Meantime, all that we can be sure of is 
that Christ points to some event not far 
off that will put a period to the apostolic 

Vv. 24, 25 point to another source of 
consolation — companionship with the 
Master in tribulation. A hard lot, but 
mine as well as yours ; you would not 
expect to be better ofl^ than the Master 




8ouXo$ iiirep rhv Kipiov afirou. 25. 'dpnerot' tw fjia9if)r{) "Jko Y<f»''>)Tai w vide Ch. 
us 6 SiSacTKaXo; auTOu, Kal 6 SouXo; &s 6 Kupio; auTOu. ci to»' x i>'a after 

' OlKoSco-TTOTTJI/ ' BctX^CpOuX CKtiXcaat',^ Tr6(T<j) fiSXXoi' TOO? OlKiaKOUS^ Similar 

>» ^»j\»iOA'> •/ sC'^ /> \ phrases in 

aoTou; 20. Mr| ouy ^opr]Vr\Tt auTOu; * ouoei' yap eori KCKaXup.- Ch. v. 29, 

fi^coK, o ouK d-iroKaXu(t>9ii^(rcTai * Kal KpinrToc, o ou YKwaOrjo-eTai. ^Lk^'xvii. 2 

27. 8 X^Y« fifAic ec T^ 'o-KOTia, eiirare ck t$ '(Jxuti' Kal o *€is roy ch. xx. i, 

z Lk. xii. 3. a Lk. i. 44. Acts xi. 22. 

' B has oiKoSto-iroTTi (dat.). W.H. put this reading in the margin. 

* cvcKaXco-av in ^ BCAT a/., adopted by most editors. J^ has the middle voice. 

" B has the dative here also. 

and Lord. — Ver. 25. apKcrov, not as in 
vi. 34 a neuter adjective used as a noun, 
but a predicate qualifying the clause iva 
yev., etc., as noun to verb ia-ri under- 
stood, iva yevtjrai instead of the infini- 
tive ; 6 SovXos instead of ry SovXi* de- 
pendent like TM p.a9r)TQ on apKtrov, by 
attraction of the nearer word y^vtjTai 
{vide Winer, § 66,5). — olKoSc<rTrdTT|y (-tq, 
B.) points to a more intimate relation 
between Jesus and the Twelve, that of a 
head of a house to a family, implying 
greater honour for the latter, and suggest- 
ing an added motive for patient endur- 
ance of the common lot. — oiKoZtav6ri\% 
is a late form. Earlier writers Baid 
oiK(as 8€<rir<5TT]9, Lob., Phrjm., p. 373. 
— BecX^c^ovX : an opprobrious epithet ; 
exact form of the word and meaning of 
the name have given more trouble to 
commentators than it is all worth. Con- 
sult Meyer ad loc. Weiss (Meyer) re- 
marks that the name of the Prince of the 
demons is not yet sufficiently explained. 
A question of interest is : did the enemies 
of Jesus call Him Beelzebul (or Beelze- 
bub), or did they merely reproach Him 
with connection with Beelzebub ? Weiss, 
taking ver. 25 b as an explanatory gloss 
of the evangelist, based on ix. 3, xii. 24, 
adopts the latter view; De Wette and 
Meyer the former. The reading of Co- 
dex B, oiKoSeenroTn, favours the other 
alternative. The dative requires the 
verb eireKaXeo-av to be taken in the sense 
of to cast up to one. Assuming that 
the evangelist reports words of Jesus 
instead of giving a comment of his own, 
they may quite well contain the informa- 
tion that, among the contemptuous 
epithets applied to Jesus by His enemies, 
was this name. It may have been a 
spiteful pun upon the name, master 
of the house. — Tr<5<r<j» p.aXXov implies that 
still worse names will be applied to the 
Twelve. Dietis respondeteventus,temasku 

Grotius, citing in proof the epithets 
y6r^ra.9, impostores, applied to the apos- 
tles and Christians by Celsus and Ulpian, 
and the words of Tacitus : convictos in 
odio humani generis, and the general use 
of o9«oi as a synonym for Christians. — 
olKiaKovs (again in ver. 36), those belong- 
ing to a household or fiamily (from oIk£o, 
whence also the more common oIkcio; 
bearing a similar meaning). 

Vv, 26, 27. |ii| owv <(>opYj9^T« : •• fear 
not," and again " fear not " in ver. 28, 
and yet again, 31, says Jesus, knowing 
well what temptation there would be to 
fear, oviv connects with w. 24, 25 ; fear 
not the inevitable for all connected with 
me, as you are, take it calmly, yap sup- 
plies a reason for fearlessness arising out 
of their vocation. It is involved in the 
apostolic calling that those who exercise 
it should attract public attention. There- 
fore, fear not what cannot be avoided if 
you would be of any use. Fear suits not 
an apostle any more than a soldier or a 
sailor, who both take coolly the risks of 
their calling. — K€KaXvp.p.€vov, airoKa\v(|>- 
6t^<r€Tai ; tcpv-irTor, yvwo-Oi^o-cTai : the two 
pairs of words embody a contrast be- 
tween Master and disciples as to relative 
publicity. As movements develop they 
come more under the public eye. 
Christ's teaching and conduct were not 
wholly covered and hidden. There was 
enough publicity to ensure ample criti- 
cism and hostility. But, relatively, His 
ministry was obscure compared to that 
of the apostles in after years to which the 
address looks forward. Therefore, more 
not less, tribulation to be looked for. The 
futures diroKaX. yvw<r. with the relative' 
virtually express intention ; cf. Mk. iv. 
22, where tva occurs ; the hidden is hidden 
in order to be revealed. That is the law 
of the case to which apostles must recon- 
cile themselves. — Ver. 27. <ncoTt^, ihc 
darkness of the initial stage ; the begin- 



b Ch. ixiv. oils dKOUCTC, KK^pu^aTC tlTl tS)V ^ iitlfldTdlV. 28. Kal fl^ ' 4*0^1)67) J"6 ' 

xiii. 15. diro TwK diroKTCivorrtH' ^ to aup-a, tt)k 8e »|»uxt)V fi^ Sui/afA^t-wp 
xvii. 31. ' diroKTcIt'ai • <})oPi]9T]Te ^ 8e ficiXXok' rbv Sufdp.ei'Oi' Kat v|'U)(t)v Kai 

c with (in'o. ^ y \ f > r >rC'd t\' > ' 

Lk. xii. 4. awfAa diTo\eo-at €y yeefKr], 29. ouxt ouo orpouoia daaaptoo 
d Lk. xii. 6, »- i« >>.><>> - >>.^e» 

7. iruAeiTai; koI £»» eg auTwv ou ircaeiTai €iri tt)k yT*" **•'«" tou 

' 1 ; iv. 9"' TT-aTpos op.wi' * 30 vfiSiV 8c Kai 01 Tpi'xcs Tt^s K€<|>a\TJs iroo-ai 

Rev.^Jl!.9;'T|pi'0fA'>lH'e'»'ai cio-i. 31- H^^ ouv (jioP-rjOrJTe * • iroXXwi' CTTpouOiwf 8ia- 

1 So in DSI, adopted by W.H. ^BCLA al. hsve i^o^ncrdt (Tisch.). 
- ^CDAl have the Alexandrian form aTroKxevvovTwv. 

* ^o^€ia-Qt here in ^^BC against D. 

* <|>opeio-e£ in t^BDL (Tisch., W.H al.). 

nings of great epoch-making movements 
always obscure. — ^arl, the light of pub- 
licit)', when causes begin to make a noise 
in the wide world. — eU rh ovs : a phrase 
current among Greeks for confidential 
communications. For such communica- 
tions to disciples the Rabbis used the term 

\jjp|^ to whisper. XaXT)Oev may be 

understood = what ye hear spoken into 
the ear.— S(op,dTwv, on the roofs ; not a 
likely platform from our western point 
of view, but the y?a<roofed houses of 
the East are in view. Swfxa in classics 
means house ; in Sept. and N. T., the 
flat roof of a house ; in modern Greek, 
terrace. Vide Kennedy, Sources of N. T. 
Greek, p. 121. — KTjpv^aTf, proclaim with 
loud voice, suitable to your commanding 
position, wide audience, and great theme. 
Vv. 28-31. New antidote to fear 
drawn from a greater fear, and from the 
paternal providence of God. <|)oPi]6TjTt 

airo like the Hebrew Yf^ i^T, ^^^ 

also one of several ways in which the 
Greeks connected this verb with its 
object. — TO o-w|Jia: that is all the persecu- 
tor as such can injure or destroy He 
not only cannot injure the soul, but the 
more he assails the physical side the 
safer the spiritual. — tov Svvanevoy Kal 
\j/. Kal or. Who is that ? God, say 
m.ost commentators. Not so, I believe. 
Would Christ present God under this 
aspect in such close connection with the 
Father who cares even for the sparrows ? 
What is to be greatly feared is not the 
final condemnation, but that which leads 
to it — temptation to forsake the cause of 
God out of regard to self-interest or self- 
preservation. Shortly the counsel is: 
fear not the persecutor, but the tempter, 
not the man who kills you for your fidel- 
ity, but the man who wants to buy you 

oflF, and the devil whose agent he is. — Ver. 
29 o-Tpov9(a, dim. for <rTpov96%, small 
birds in general, sparrows in particu- 
lar. — ao-o-apCov, a brass coin, Latin as, 
-^ of a Spaxp.yi = about |d. The small- 
nessofthe price makes it probable that 
sparrows are meant (Fritzsche). We are 
apt to wonder that sparrows had a price 
at all. — tv . . . ov looks like a. Hebra- 
ism, but found also in Greek writers, 
" cannot be called either a Graecism or a 
Hebraism ; in every case the writer 
aims at greater emphasis than would 
be conveyed by ovSc^s, which properly 
means the same thing, but had become 
weakened by usage" (Winer, § 26). — iirX 
TT)v yrjv. Chrys. paraphrases : sis iraY^Sa 
(Hom. 34), whence Bengcl conjectured 
that the primitive reading was not ytjv 
but irayTjv, the first syllable of a little 
used word falling out. But Wetstcin 
and Fritzsche have pointed out that lirl 
does not suit that reading. T'le idea is 
that not a single sparrow dies from any 
cause on wing or perch, and falls dead 
to the earth — S.vtv t. waTpis v. Origen 
{(•. Cchiiin, i. 9) remarks: "nothing use- 
ful among men comes into existence 
without God " (oflcet). Christ expresses 
a more absolute faith in Providence : 
" the meanest creature passes not out of 
existence unobserved of your Father". — 
Ver. 30. v^iav, emphatic position : your 
hairs. — Tp£x*s : of little value all together, 
can be lost without detriment to life or 
health. — iracrai, all, every one without 
exception.— -Tjpi0p,irip^vai, counted. Men 
count only valuable things, gold pieces, 
sheep, etc. Note the perfect participle. 
They have been counted once for all, and 
their number noted ; one hair cannot go 
amissing unobserved. — Ver. 31, ir. a, 
8ia4>cpcTc : once more, as in vi. 26, a 
comparison between men and birds as 
to value : ye of more worth than many 




4>^peT€ uiieis. 32. ria? GUI' ooris * ouoXoyirjo-ci iv caoi eu.irpoaOe*' galsoinLw 
->/»/ .\/ ,»»,»» A ~ / lii. 8(wi(h 

Tuiv ayQpdiTTbiv, ofAoXoyqcru Kdyu ^y auTw cfiirpoffBeK tou irarpos p.ou »i/ and 

-N»ij - • ^>«h>' ' w n- dat.)- 

TOO cf ' oupacois. 33- oans ai' apk-ricrTjTai fit einrpoCTyec twv h Ch. xxvi 
dvOpwiTwc, dp^aojxai auTov' Kdyw ^ eji-jrpoor9cK tou irarpos fou tou xi'i. 9. 
€v ^ oupacois. 34- Mt| VQ\ii<rT\re oti ^\9of ' PaXeiK f.lp'f\vii]v cttI Tf]v i John xx 
vTJi'- ooK Ti\9ov paXeic €ipi]»'T)i', dXXcl }i.d\aipav. 35. TJXOof 3. Kev. 

8t)(a<rai ai^opuTroK Kara tou Trarpos auTOu, xat euyctTcpa Kara tt|s 
fiTjrpos aurrjsj Ka'i vup.4)T]f Kara rr^s irevQepas aurrjs • 36. ical e;(9pol 
tou dc6puirou 01 oiKittKol auToO. 37' O (^iXwk uarepa ^ p.Y\r4pa 
vTTep £jX€, ouK loTi p.ou a|i09 ■ KOI 6 4*1'^^^ "101' T Ouyarepa uirep 

' Tois before ovpavots in 6CZ. ' tcayw avrov in ^BDAZ. 

' Tois before ovp. in BX (W.H. adopt the art. both in i and in 3). 

sparrows ; one hair of your head as much 
worth to God as one sparrow. " It is a 
litotes to say that there is a great 
difference between many sparrows and 
a human being" (Holtz., H.C.). There 
is really no comparison between them. 
It was by such simple comparisons that 
Jesus insinuated His doctrine of the 
absolute worth of man. 

Vv. 32, 33. Solemn reference to the 
final yudgment. ouv points back to 
ver. 27, containing injunction to make 
open proclamation of the truth. — iras 
oo-Tis : nominative absolute at the head 
of the sentence. — Iv lp.o\, kv oiptw : 
observe these phrases after the verb in 
ver. 32, compared with the use of the 
accusative p.t, ovirof in the following 
verse : " confess in me," " deny me," 
" confess in him," " deny him ". Chry- 
sostom's comment is : we confess by the 
grace of Christ, we deny destitute of 
grace. Origen (Cremer, Catenae, i. p, 
80) interprets the varying construction 
as indicating that the profit of the faith- 
ful disciple lies in fellowship with Christ 
and the loss of the unfaithful in the lack 
of such fellowship. (opa SI, tl p.r\ t6 
ir\€oveicTT]|i,a tov Iv avroi ojioXoyovv- 
Tos, T]8if) ovTcjs Iv XP'-""''^ SrjXovTai, 
Ik tou, " Kayu iv aiiroi " 6fio\oYeiv • to 
8i KttKOV TOU dpvovp.Ewov, Ik Toi p.Ti 
0T;vT|<|)9ai. rfj apv-qirei -rh " iv lp.ol," f\ 
rh "ev avTOj ".) 

Vv. 34-39. The whole foregoing dis- 
course, by its announcements and con- 
solations, implies that dread experiences 
nre in store for the apostles of the faith. 
To the inexperienced the question might 
naturally suggest itself, why ? Can the 
new religion not propagate itself quietly 
and peaceably ? Jesus meets the ques- 
tion of the surprised disciple with a de- 

cided negative. — Ver. 34. p.i] vo}il<n\Te, do 
not imagine, as you are very likely to do 
(c/. V. 17). — T]\9ov ^aXeiv : the use of the 
infinitive to express aim is common in 
Matt., but Christ has here in view result 
rather than purpose, which are not 
carefully distinguished in Scripture. For 
^aXcIv Luke has Sovvai, possibly with a 
feeling that the former word does not 
suit eipTi]vr\v. It is used specially with re- 
ference to |xaxaipav. The aorist points 
to a sudden single action. Christ came 
to bring peace on earth, but not in an 
immediate magical way ; peace at last 
through war (Weiss, Matt. Evang.). — 
p-axo-ipa-v : Luke substitutes 8iap.Epio-|ji.<Sy. 
The connecting link may be that the 
sword divides in two (Heb. iv. 12). 
Grotius says that by the word there 
should be understood : " non bellum sed 
dissidium ". — Ver. 35. Description of 
the discord. — Six<3i<''ai., to divide in two 
(Sixtt), to separate in feeling and in- 
terest, here only in N.T. ; verifies the 
truth of Grotius' comment as to the 
" sword ". — avOpcoTTOV Kara tov "rrarpos 
auTov. In this and the following 
clauses it is the young that are set 
against the old. " In all great revolu- 
tions of thought the change begins from 
the young" (Carr, Cambridge Gr. T.). — 
vvp-^^v, a young wife, here as opposed 
to irtvGepas, a daughter-in-law. — Ver. 36. 
ExOpol : the predicate standing first for 
emphasis ; enemies, not friends as one 
would expect, the members of one's 
family (oiKiaKol, as in ver. 25). The 
passage reproduces freely Micah vii. 6. — 
Ver. 37. Such a state of matters imposes 
the necessity of making a very painful 
choice between relatives and truth. — 
({>iXwv : this verb denotes natural affec- 
tion as distinct from dya-irdw, which 



X. 38-42, 

ifii, ooK ?oTi fiou a^ios • 38. Kai 8s ou Xafi^dfci rhv oraupot' 
adroG Kai dKoXouOci oiriao) p,ou, ouk coti fiou a^ios- 39. 6 cupup 
TTiK «j;oxV aoToo diroX^aei auTi^f • Kai 6 diroX^aas ttjc »|»u)(t)»' auToG 
IveKty cfxoO eupt^aei auTi^*'. 40. 'O 8e)(6p,€fos ujiSs €p.€ 8^j(€Tai • 
xviii. 20. Kai 6 cii€ ScYoiicfos ScYerai rot' diroaTciXarrd ixe. 41. 6 Seyo- 

kChXXV.35, .,,,, , flv ,N, 

37,^2; p.ei'os Trpo9r|TT)»' ' €is Ofop.a •iTpo<j>T)Tou jiktBok Trpo^^iiTOu Xr^vj/cTOi • 

Lk. xiii. 15. Kai 6 8cx<5p.€i'09 SiKaioK cis ot'op.a Sikuiou p.iaOoi' SiKatou Xii»|/eTai • 
Rom. xii. %*>\ik /« ~ « / , 1, 

20. 42. Kai OS COC ' irOTlOTf) era TWl' pUKpOJI' TOUTW*' TTOTI^piOf «|»0)(pOU 

15 (here fi(5voK CIS ofop,o fiaGrjToG, d/iY)i' Xtyu ifiiK, ou firj diroXcai] to^ 
only = ax ' ~ " 

cold water). p.lffvO*' auTOU. 

* OS or in BD 33. 

points to love of an ethical kind. The 
distinction corresponds to that between 
amare and diligere. Vide Trench, Syno- 
nyms, and Cremer, s. v., dyairau. — 

|jlOti alios. Thf! Masfcr U p^r^mptnry ; 

^ hsolutely demand s prefergprr of Hip 
cause to all c l aims of earthly relatione. 
— Ver. 38. (rravpov. There is here no 
necessary allusion to the death of Jesus 
Himself by crucifixion, though one 
possessing such insight into the course 
of events, as this whole discourse indi- 
cates, must have known quite well 
when He uttered the words what 
awaited Himself, the worst possible pro- 
bable if not certain. The reference is to 
the custom of the condemned person 
carrying his own cross. Death by cruci- 
fixion, though not practised among the 
Jews, would be familiar to them through 
Roman custom. Vide Grotius for Greek 
and Roman phrases, containing figura- 
tive allusions to the cross. This sentence 
and the next will occur again in this 
Gospel (Matt. xvi. 24, 25). — Ver. 39. 
cvpuv . . . airoX^(rci, airoX^<ras. • • • 
cvpT)<rci: crucifixion, death ignominious, 
as a criminal — horrible ; but horrible 
though it be it means salvation. This 
paradox is one of Christ's great, deep, yet 
ever true words. It turns on a double 
sense of the term ^IruxT as denoting now 
the lower now the higher life. Every 
wise man understands and acts on the 
maxim, " dying to live ". 

Vv. 40-42. The following sentences 
might have been spoken in connection 
with the early Galilean mission, and are 
accordingly regarded by Weiss as the 
conclusion of the instructions then given. 
Luke gives their gist (x. 16) at the close 
of the instructions to the seventy. After 
uttering many awful, stern sayings, Jesus 
takes care to make the last cheering. 
He promises great rewards to those 

who receive the missionaries, thereby 
" opening the houses of the whole world 
to them," Chrysos. — Ver. 40. i\Lk S^x*'''*'^ • 
first the principle is laid down that to 
receive the messenger is to receive the 
Master who sent him (Matt. xxv. 40), as 
to receive the Master is to receive God. 
— Ver. 41. Then in two distinct forms 
the law is stated that to befriend the re- 
presentative of Christ and God ensures 
the reward belonging to that representa- 
tive. — CIS ovofia, having regard to the 
fact that he is a prophet or righteous 
man. The prophet is the principal object 
of thought, naturally, in connection with 
a mission to preach truth. But Christ 
knows (vii. 15) that there are false 
prophets as well as true ; therefore from 
vocation He falls back on personal 
character. Here as every^vhere we see 
how jealously He made the ethical in- 
terest supreme. " See," says Chrys., 
commenting on ver. 8, " how He cares 
for their morals, not less than for the 
miracles, showing that the miracles 
without the morals arc nought " (Horn. 
32). So here He says in effect : let the 
prophet be of no account unless he be 
a just, good man. The fundamental 
matter is character, and the next best 
thing is sincere respect for it. To the 
latter Christ promises the reward of the 
former. — 6 S^x'^P'tvo; SCxaiov . . . jiiaBov 
8. XT^vj/tToi: a strong, bold statement 
made to promote firiendly feeling towards 
the moral heroes of the world in the 
hearts of ordinary people ; not the utter- 
ance of a didactic theologian scientifi- 
cally measuring his words. Yet there is 
a great principle underlj'ing, essentially 
the same as that involved in St. Paul's 
doctrine of justification by faith. The 
man who has goodness enough to 
reverence the ideal of goodness approxi- 
mately or perfectly realised in another, 


XI. 1—3. 



XI. I. Kal iyiycro ore creXcaei' 6 'lr](yoos hiaTdaauv tois SwScko 

fiafiifjTais aoTou, ' jxctcPt) cKcIdcK too SiS<i7K£ii' Kal KTjpuaaeik' ei/aCh. xii. 9; 
- t\ J ^ XV. 20 (with 

TaiS TT0\€<7ll' aUTOiV. tKiieey). 

2. 'O AE '\(i)dvvr]s aKOuaas iv Tw ** Scafiwrripiw ra epya too b Acts v.21, 

V -^ 'I S'i~ fl" >~^ r' »-4t,-x 23;xvi. 86. 

XpiOTOo, irejiyas 000' twi' \iatii\T<i>v aoroo, 3- enrei' auTio, lo 

' ^BCDAZ have Sia. Zvo is a harmonistic assimilation to Lk. 

though not in himself, shall, in the 
moral order of the world, be counted as 
a good man. — Ver. 42. The last word, 
and the most beautiful ; spoken with 
deep pathos as an aside ; about the 
disciples rather than to them, though 
heard by them. "Whosoever shall do 
the smallest service, were it but to give 
a drink to one of these little ones (fva 

Tuiv lAlKpWV TOVTWV, cf. Matt. XXV. 40) 

in the name of a disciple, I declare 
solemnly even he shall without fail have 
his appropriate reward." — \|fvxpov : ex- 
pressive word for water, indicating the 
quality valued by the thirsty ; literally a 
cup of the cool, suggesting by contrast 
the heat of the sun and the fierce thirst 
of the weary traveller. No small boon 
that cup in Palestine I " In this hot 
and dry land, where one can wander for 
hours without coming on a brook or an 
accessible cistern, you say ' thank you ' for 
a drink of fresh water with very different 
feelings than we do at home " (Furrer, 
Wanderungen durch das Heilige Land, 
p. 118). — Fritzsche remarks on the 
paucity of particles in w. 34-42 as indi- 
cating the emotional condition of the 

Chapter XI. Jesus Judged by and 
Judging His Contemporaries. We 
are not to suppose any close connection 
in time between the events related in this 
chapter and the Galilean mission. The 
reverse is implied in the vague introduc- 
tory statement, that when Jesus had 
completed His instructions to the Twelve 
He went away on a teaching and preach- 
ing tour among the towns. The impor- 
tant thing is to realise that all that is re- 
lated here must have taken place after 
there had been time for the methods, 
aims, spirit, and way of life of Jesus to 
maniiest themselves, and so to become 
the subject of general remark. It was a 
matter of course that a man of such 
depth, originality, unconventionality, 
energy and fearless independence would 
sooner or latter provoke criticism of all 
shades ; from mild, honest doubt, to de- 
cided reprobation. However popular at 
first, He must become at last compara- 

tively isolated. By the time the events 
here related occarred, the reaction had 
fully set in, and the narrative shows how 
extensive it was, embracing within its 
sphere of influence the best in the land 
represented by the Baptist ; the com- 
mercial class represented by three cities 
named ; the professional class — the " wise 
and understanding " ; and the zealots in 

Ver. I. 8tc IrcXeo'ci' Siarao-truv. The 
participle here with a verb signifying to 
cease as often with verbs signifying to 
begin, continue, persevere, etc., vide 
Goodwin, § 879. €ic£i0€v, from that place, 
the place where the mission was given to 
the Twelve. Where that was we do not 
know ; probably in some place of retire- 
ment (dans la retraite, Lutteroth).— ^<J 
XccriK avTwv: the pronoun does not refer 
to the disciples (paOTjrais) as Fritzsche 
thinks, but to the people of Galilee. 
While He sent out the Twelve to preach, 
He continued preaching Himself, only 
avoiding the places they visited, " giving 
room to them and time to do their work, 
for, with Him present and healing, no 
one would have cared to go near them," 
Chrysos., Horn. 36. 

Vv. 2-6. Message from the Baptist 
^Lk. vii. 18-23). Ver. 2. 8e(rfi<i>TT)pi<^ 
(from Scirp.<S(d, 8€o-p.os, a bond), in prison 
in the fortress of Machaerus by the Dead 
Sea(Joseph., Antiq.,18,5, 2), a fact already 
alluded to in iv. 12. By this time he has 
been a prisoner a good while, long 
enough to develop a prison mood.— Lkov- 
o-as: not so close a prisoner but that 
friends and followers can get access to 
him (cf. Matt. xxv. 36, 43). — ri cpya tov 
XpKTTov : this the subject in which the 
Baptist is chiefly interested. What is Jesus 
doing ? But the evangelist does not 
say the works oi Jesus, but o{ the Christ, 
i.e., of the man who was believed to be 
the Christ, the works which were sup- 
posed to point Him out as the Christ. 
In what spirit reported, whether simply 
as news, with sympathy,or\v:th jealousy, 
not indicated. — irep,\j/as : the news set 
John on musing, and led to a message of 
inquiry — Sia t. fia6i]Tu>i' avrov, by his 




cjobnvl. el 6 * €p)(op€i'os, fj tTcpov * TrpoffSoKwfitk' ; 4, Kal dtroKpifiels 6 
X. 37; 'lT]aoo9 eiTTeK aoTOis, " nopeuOeVrcs dTrayYciXarc 'iwat'i'D, & dKouexe 

d Lk. '• " i ^ o\ ' \ < • J 0\ ' \ 1 ~ 

vii. 19; Ktti p\tTT€T€ • 5. TU(|)Xoi * di'apXeTrouCTi, Kat* x'jjXoI TrcpnraTouCTi • 

Acts X. 24. Acirpoi KaOapi^orxai, Kai Kwtpoi aKooouat ■ >'€Kpoi cvcipoi'Tai, Kai 

7. Pet. iii. 

12, 14 (all with accus.). e Cb. xx. 34. Mk. x. 51. Lk. xviii. 41 (:= to recover sit;ht). 

' The texts show some unimportant variations in ref. to the xai in this and the 
following clauses. In the best MSS. there is a Kai before vcicpoi. 

disciples, possibly the same men who 
brought the news. There would be con- 
stant coming and going between Galilee 
and Machaerus. The construction is 
Hebraistic = sent by the hand of. — Ver. 
3. ilirev a-uTw, said to Jesus, by them, 
of course. — 1v cl : the question a grave 
one and emphatically expressed : Thou, 
art Thou 6 €pxo[x«vos ? Art Thou He 
whom I spoke of as the One coming after 
me when I was baptising in the Jordan 
(iii. 11) ? It is a question whether Jesus 
be indeed the Christ. Lutteroth, basing 
on the hypothesis that for popular Jewish 
opinion the Christ and the coming One 
(a prophet like Moses) were dififerent per- 
sons, interprets the question thus : " Art 
Thou, Jesus, whom I know to be the 
Christ, also the coming Prophet, or must 
we expect another to fill that role ? " — f[ 
{rcpov, not aWov, which would have 
been more appropriate on Lutteroth's 
view = a numerically distinct person. 
It. suggests a different kind of person. — 
-irpoaSoKwficv : may be present indicative 
(for future) as Beza and Fritzsche take it, 
or present subjunctive deliberative = 
ought we to look ? (Meyer-Weiss, Holtz. , 
H.C.), the latter preferable. What was 
the animus or psychological genesis of 
the question ? Doubt in John's own 
mind, or doubt, bred of envy or jealousy, 
in the minds of his disciples, or not doubt 
on Baptist's part, but rather incipient 
faith ? Alternative (2), universal with 
the fathers (except TertuUian, vide de 
preescrip., 8, de baptis., 10) ; (i) common 
among modern commentators ; (3) fav- 
oured by Keim, Weizsacker, and Holtz., 
H.C. : "beginnende Disposition zum 
Glauben an Jesu Messianitat ". The 
view of the fathers is based on a sense of 
decorum and implicit reliance on the 
exact historical value of the statements 
in fourth Gospel ; No. (3), the budding 
faith hypothesis, is based on too scepti- 
cal a view as to the historic value of even 
the Synoptical accounts of John's early 
relations with Jesus ; No. (i) has every- 
thing in its favour. The effect of con- 
finement on John's prophetic temper, the 

general tenor of this chapter which obvi- 
ously aims at exhibiting the moral isola- 
tion of Jesus, above all the wide differ- 
ence between the two men, all make for 
it. Jesus, it had now become evident, 
was a very different sort of Messiah from 
what the Baptist had predicted and de- 
siderated {vide remarks on chap. iii. 11- 
15). where were the axe and fan and 
the holy wind and fire of judgment ? 
Too much patience, tolerance, gentle- 
ness, sympathy, geniality, mild wisdom 
in this Christ for his taste. 

Vv. 4-6. Answer of yesus. Ver. 4. 
a-iraYy«iXaTc I. : go back and report to 
jfohn for his satisfaction. — a ax. teal 
pX^ircTf, what you are hearing and see- 
ing, not so much at the moment, though 
Luke gives it that turn (vii. 21), but 
habitually. They were not to tell their 
master anything new, but just what they 
had told him before. The one new ele- 
ment is that the facts are stated in terms 
fitted to recall prophetic oracles (Isaiah 
XXXV. 5, Ixi. i), while, in part, a historic 
recital of recent miracles (Matt, viii., ix.). 
Probably the precise words of Jesus are 
not exactly reproduced, but the sense is 
obvious. Tell John your story over again 
and remind him of those prophetic texts. 
Let him study the two together and draw 
his own conclusion. It was a virtual in- 
vitation to John to revise his Messianic 
idea, in hope he would discover that after 
all love was the chief Messianic charism. 
— Ver. 5. avapXcirovo-iv : used also in 
classics to express recovery of sight. — 
Koxfiol, heie taken to mean deaf, though 
in ix. 32, 33, it means dumb, showing that 
the prophecy, Isaiah xxxv. 5, is in the 
speaker's thoughts. — "pttwxo^ : vague 
word, might mean literal poor (De W.) 
or spiritual poor, or the whole people in 
its national misery (Weiss, Matt. Evan.), 
best defined by such a text as ix. 36, and 
such facts as that reported in ix. 10-13. — 
€iiayy«Xt£ovTai : might be middle = the 
poor preach, and so taken by Euthy. 
Zig. (also as an alternative by Theophy.), 
for " what can be poorer than fishing 
(aXuwTucrjs) ? " The poor in that case = 



irrwxoi cuaYYeXtJorroi • 6, koi |jiaK<ipi6^ tanv, 05 cAf^ u,y] 'orKai'Sa- f Heb. iv. a 
\fl->>'" f <\\ / «f> (1 ~ (passive 

\i<t9tj ec t|Ji,oi. 7' TouTUi' oe iropeuofjici'wi', Tjpfaro o Irjo-ous also). 

\ I - " \ >>, » rf'>A-/\A 3 \>» S Ch. xiii. 

K^yiiv T019 o)(\ois TTcpi Iwaccou, Ti ejrjAQeTe €is tt|k ip't]\i.ov 57 ; xxvi 

A , A ii '\ c V , , i \ > o >\\ ^ ' 31- 

oeao-aavai ; KaAajxot" uiro a^cixou craAcuop.efOk' ; o. dWa Ti 3. Lk. vii. 

elr^XOeTe iScik; a»'6p*inroi' iv fiaXaKoIs ifiariois ' ■f\fi.^i€afi€vov ; w^ith €1-). 

1800, 01 Ta p.aXaKd ' ^opourrcs cf TOis otKots twv ^atriKioiv eiviv ^ 20 (Is 

9 dXXa Ti c|iiX0eT€ iSeii'; ■Kpo^r]-n]v* ; val, Xeyoj', koi ire pi a- Lk'vii.24. 

xlii. 3). 
Lk. vii. ; 
, i Ch. xxiv. 

(Torepov irpo4»r)TOu • I o. oijT05 ydp ^ iari irepi oij yeypairTai, ' 'iSou, ' jn,' parail. 

iyo) dirooTeXXw toc ayyeX^j' p,ou irpo irpoCTwiTou o-ou, 05 Kara- 27* ' *"' 

j John rix.5. 
Rom. xiii. 4. 1 Cor. xv. 49. Jas. ii. j. 

1 av in BD (W.H.). 

' ^BDZ omit ifjiaTiois, which has come in from Lk (vii 25). 

* ^B omit SLcriv. 

* i>^BZ have irpo(^T)Ti]v iStiv forming a 2nd question. So Tisch. and W.H. 

' i<^BDZ omit yap, which has been introduced to clear the sense which it rather 

the Twelve sent out to preach the king- 
dom. That, too, was characteristic of 
the movement, though not the character 
istic intended, which is that the poor, the 
socially insignificant and neglected, are 
evangelised (passive, as in Heb. iv. 2). 
— Ver. 6. p.aKapios (vide v. 3), possessed 
of rare felicity. The word implies that 
those who, on some ground or other, did 
not stumble over Jesus were very few. 
Even John not among theml On o-Kav- 
SaXC^b) vide ad. v. 29, ev tjjioC, in any- 
thing relating to my public ministry, as 
appearing inconsistent with my Messianic 

Vv. 7-15. yudgmeiit of Jesus concern- 
ing the Baptist (Lk. vii. 24-30). Charac- 
teristically magnanimous, while letting it 
be seen that He is aware of John's limits 
and defects. Ver. 7. rovTiov Zk irop- 
evop,^V(dv : while John's messengers were 
in the act of going, Jesus began at once, 
without any delay, to make a statement 
which He deemed necessary to prevent in- 
jurious inferences from the message of 
the Baptist, or the construction He had 
put on it as implying doubt regarding 
Himself.— Tois Sx^ois : the interrogation 
had taken place in presence of many. 
Jesus was always in a crowd, except 
when He took special steps to escape. 
The spectators had watched with interest 
what Jesus would say about the famous 
man. Therefore, more must be said ; a 
carefiil opinion expressed. — ti iir{kQi-rt 
. . . 6cdo-a(rdai : it might be taken for 
granted that most of them had been there. 
The catechetical method of stating His 

opinion of John lively and impres- 
sive to such an audience. They had 
gone to see as well as hear and be bap- 
tised , curiosity plays a great part in 
popular religious movements. — KaXa^iov. 
Plenty of reeds to be seen. " What a 
vast space of time lies between the days 
of the Baptist and us I How have the 
times changed I Yet the stream flows 
in the old bed. Still gently blows the 
wind among the sighing reeds." — Furrer, 
Wanderutigen, 185. Many commenta- 
tors (Grot., Wet., Fritzsche, De W.) in- 
sist on taking xaX. literally = did ye go, 
etc., to see a reed, or the reeds on the 
Jordan banks shaken by the wind ? This 
is flat and prosaic. Manifestly the indi- 
vidualised reed is a figure of an incon- 
stant, weak man ; Just enough in John's 
present attitude to suggest such a 
thought, though not to justify it. — Ver. 
8. aXXa assumes the negative answer 
to the previous question and elegantly 
connects with it the following = " No ; 
well, then, did you, etc. .' "— ev |iaXaKOis, 
neuter, ijiaTiois not necessar^' : in preci- 
ous garments of any material, silk, 
woollen, linen; the fine garments sugges- 
tive of refinement, luxury, effeminacy. — 
I80V ol T. p.. (|>opo{ivTcs : I80V points to a 
well-known truth, serving the same pur- 
pose as 81] here ; those accustomed to 
v/ear, ^op., frequentative, as distinct from 
<()€povT€s, which would mean bearing 
without reference to habit. — oiKoig t. 
Pao-., in palaces which courtiers frequent. 
Jesus knows their flexible, superfine ways 
well ; how different from those of the 




k Ch. zxlv. tTKevdtrei r^v 6%6r vou (\nrpoa6iy cou.' I T. *Afif|^ \ly(t> ifiiv, odn 
-■-' ■' *■ eyi'iyepTai kv ' ycKrrjTois yMva.\.v.viV fici^oif 'luiii'i'ou toC PaTrTiorou • 

vii. i6. 

John vli. . 5.^ „ , . . p . , „ . , ,- . - . 

52. o 06 |jLiKpoT€pos CK T^ paaiAcia TWK oupavtn^u;' auTOu eoTii' ' 

m Ch. 

1 here and in 
Lk. vii. 38. 

Mk. It. 31. Lk. vH. 28; Ix. 48. 

rudely clad and rudely mannered, un- 
compromising Baptist 1 — Ver. 9. A.\Xa 
t( \%.\ one more question, shorter, abrupt, 
needing to be supplemented by another 
(Weiss-Meyer) — why then, seriously, 
went ye out ? irpo^nJTTjv I8«iv ;— to see 
a Prophet ? — vai, yea I right at last ; a 
prophet, indeed, with all that one expects 
in a prophet — vigorous moral conviction, 
integrity, strength of will, fearless zeal 
for truth and righteousness ; utterly free 
from the feebleness and time-serving of 
those who bend like reeds to every 
breath of wind, or bow obsequiously be- 
fore greatness.— Ktti irepiao-oTcpov ir., 
a prophet and more, something above the 
typical prophet (vide on v. 47). The 
clause introduced by va(, as Xiytt vfiiv 
shows, expresses Christ's own opinion, 
not the people's (Weiss). — Ver. 10. 
evTOf . . . Y€7pairTai. The irtptcra^- 
Tcpov verified and explained by a pro- 
phetic citation. The oracle is taken 
from Malachi iii., altered so as to 
make the Messianic reference apparent — 
(low changed into <rov. By applying the 
oracle to John, Jesus identifies him with 
the messenger whom God was to send to 
prepare Messiah's way. This is his dis- 
tinction, iripicro-oTfpov, as compared with 
other prophets. But, after all, this is an 
external distinction, an accident, so to 
speak. Some prophet must be the fore- 
runner, if Messiah is to come at all, the 
last in the series who foretell His coming, 
and John happens to be that one — a 
matter of good fortune rather than of 
merit. Something more is needed to 
justify the irepiaaoTepov, and make it a 
proper subject for eulogy. That is forth- 
coming in the sequel. 

Vv. II -1 2. This is the further justifi- 
cation of the irepio-o-. desiderated. Ver. 
II. dp.T)v Xeyu vp.iv. First Christ ex- 
presses His personal conviction in 
solemn terms. What follows refers to 
John's intrinsic worth, not to his historic 
position as the forerunner. The latter 
rests on the prophetic citation. Christ's 
aim now is to say that the Baptist's 
character is equal to his position : that 
he is Jit to be the forerunner. For 
Christ, being the forerunner is no matter 
of luck. God will see that the right 
man occupies the position ; nay, none 
but the right man can successfully per- 

form the part. — otic JYi^ycprai, there 
hath not arisen ; passive with middle 
sense, but the arising non sine numine, 
" surrexit divinitus, quomodo existunt 
veri Prophctae," Eisner; cf. Mt. xxiv. 
II, Lk. vii. 16, vide also Judges ii. 18, 
iii. 9. — Iv Y**'»'TiT0is yvvokiKmv = among 
mankind, a solemn way of expressing 
the idea. The meaning, however, is not 
that John is the greatest man that ever 
lived. The comparison moves within 
the sphere of Hebrew prophecy, and 
practically means : John the greatest of 
all the prophets. A bold judgment not 
easily accepted by the populace, v/ho 
always think the dead greater than the 
living, Christ expresses Himself strongly 
because He means to say something 
that might appear disparaging. But He 
is in earnest in His high estimate, only 
it is not to be understood as asserting 
John's superiority in all respects, e.g., 
in authorship. The point of view is 
capacity to render effective service to the 
Kingdom of God. — i 8i p,iKpiSTEpos. 
Chrysostom took this as referring to 
Jesus, and, connecting Iv t. p. t. oip. 
with p,€C£uv, brought out the sense : He 
who is the less in age and fame is greater 
than John in the Kingdom of Heaven. 
The opinion might be disregarded as an 
exegetical curiosity, had it not been 
adopted by so many, not only among 
the ancients ^Hilar., Ambr., Theophy., 
Euthy.), but also among moderns (Eras., 
Luth. , Fritzsche). In the abstract it is 
a possible interpretation, and it expresses 
a true idea, but not one Jesus was likely 
to utter then. No doubt John's in- 
quiry had raised the question of Christ's 
standing, and might seem to call for 
comparison between questioner and ques- 
tioned. But Christ's main concern was 
not to get the people to think highly of 
Himself, but to have high thoughts of 
the kingdom. What He says, therefore, 
is that any one in the kingdom, though 
of comparatively little account, is greater 
than John. Even the least is ; for 
though p.iKpdTcpos, even with the article, 
does not necessarily mean p,i.KpdTaTo$ 
(so Bengel), it amounts to that. The 
affirmative holds even in case of the 
highest degree of inferiority. The im- 
plication is that John was not in the 
kingdom as a historical movement (a 



12. diro 8e t5>v ■nv.epStv '\u(ivvou tou BaTTiOTOu eois apri, n SaaiXcia n here and 

> o « . . / / inLk.xvi. 

Tiitv QupavHv ° Ptd^exai, Kai ptaorai " dpTrd^ouaii' aunrji'. 13. TTdfTes i6imiddle 

c ~ » f / o > » > \ there). 

yap 01, TTpo^TJTai icai o I'Oixos ews [uayyou irpoet^iQTeuaak ^ * 14. xai o c/. Phil. il. 

6 (opTray- 

' ^BCDZ have the augment at the beginning (cirpo^*.)- A has no augment. 

simple matter of fact), and the point of 
comparison is the dominant spirit. The 
moral sternness of John was his great- 
ness and also his weakness. It made 
him doubt Jesus, kept him aloof from the 
kingdom, and placed him below any one 
who in the least degree understood 
Christ's gracious spirit, e.g., one of the 
Twelve called in x. 42 "these Uttle ones ". 
Ver. 12. The statement just com- 
mented on had to be made in the in- 
terests of truth and the Kingdom of God, 
but having made it Jesus reverts with 
pleasure to a tone of eulogy. This verse 
has created much diversity of opinion, 
which it would take long to recount. I 
find in it two thoughts : one expressed, 
the other implied, (i) There has been a 
powerful movement since John's time 
towards the Kingdom of God. (2) The 
movement derived its initial impetus 
from John. The latter thought is 
latent in areh Bl rwr y\\i. ludv. The 
movement dates from John ; he has the 
credit of starting it. This thought is 
essential to the connection. It is the 
ultimate justification of the tftpivaoTtpov 
(ver. g). The apostle Paul adduced as 
one argument for his apostleship, called 
in question by Judaists,iMcc«s, which in 
bis view was not an accident but God- 
given, and due to fitness for the work 
(2 Cor. ii. 14, iii. 1-18). So Christ here 
in effect proves John's fitness for the 
position of forerunner by the success of 
his ministry. He had actually made 
the kingdom come. That was the true 
basis of his title to the honourable 
appellation, " preparer of the way " ; 
without that it had been an empty title, 
though based on any number of pro- 
phecies. That success proved fitness, 
adequate endowment with moral force, 
and power to impress and move men. 
This being seen to be Christ's meaning, 
there is no room for doubt as to the 
animus of the words Pid^cTai, Piaorrai. 
They contain a favourable, benignant 
estimate of the movement going on, not 
an unfavourable, as, among others, 
thinks, taking the words to point to a 
premature attempt to bring in the king- 
dom by a false way as a political crea- 
tion (Weiss-Meyer). Of course there 

were many defects, obvious, glaring, in 
the movement, as there always are. 
Jesus knew the^ well, but He was not 
in the mood just then to remark on 
them, but rather, taking a broad, 
generous view, to point to the move- 
ment as a whole as convincing proof of 
John's moral force and high prophetic 
endowment. The two words Pia{|., 
Piaor. signalise the vigour of the move- 
ment. The kingdom was being seized, 
captured by a storming party. The 
verb might be middle voice, and is so 
taken by Beng., "sese vi quasi obtrudit," 
true to fact, but the passive is demanded 
by the noun following. The kingdom 
is forcefully taken (^laius KparciTai, 
Hesychius) by the Ptao-Tal. There is 
probably a tacit reference to the kind of 
people who were storming the kingdom, 
from the point of view, not so much of 
Jesus, as of those who deemed themselves 
the rightful citizens of the kingdom. 
" Publicans and sinners" (ix. 9-12), the 
ignorant (xi. 25). What a rabble ! 
thought Scribes and Pharisees. Cause 
of profound satisfaction to Jesus (ver. 25). 
Vv. 13-15. Conclusion of speech about 
John. Ver. 13. The thought here is 
hinted rather than fully expressed. It 
has been suggested that the sense would 
become clearer if w. 12 and 13 were 
made to change places (Maldonatus). 
This inversion might be justified by 
reference to Lk. xvi. 16, where the two 
thoughts are given in the inverse order. 
Wendt (L. J., i. 75) on this and other 
grounds arranges the verses 13, 14, 12. 
But even as they stand the words can 
be made to yield a fitting sense, har- 
monising with the general aim, the 
eulogy of John. The surface idea is 
that the whole O. T., prophets of course, 
and even the law in its predictive aspects 
(by symbolic rites and foreshadowing in- 
stitutions) pointed forward to a Kingdom 
of God. The kingdom coming — the 
burden of O. T. revelation. But what 
then ? To what end make this observa- 
tion ? To explain the impatience of the 
storniers : their determination to have 
at last by all means, and in some form, 
what had so long been foretold ? (Weiss). 
No ; but to define by contrast John's 




ci OiXere S^^acrOai, aoxos ♦ori*' 'H\ias 6 |i^X\w^' tp^tadai. 15. A 
ey^uv (Sra dKOuciv',^ aKOUETu. 16. Tm 8c op.oiuo'a) tt]»' y^*''^^ 
xauTT)*'; ojjioia ecrri iroiSapiois ^ iv dyopai?'ots,* Kai Trpoa- 
(^wvouat Tois ^Taipois auxdiw, 1 7. Kal Xeyouaif,' Ho\i^<rafi€i' ujiit', 
Kai ouK top^iio-aorOc • €0pT]>'i]aafjiek' ufAiK,* icai ouk cKOij/acrfie. 

' BD omit aKoveiv, which has come in from Mk. and Lk. where the addition of 
this word to the phrase is usual. 

* -iraiSioi; in all uncials. 

' Kaeiifitvois before «v in t^BCDL, etc., with rais before a-yopais in ^BZ. 

* ^BDZ have a irpo«r<^wvovvTa . . . XeYov«riv, and for craipois BCDLAZ al. 
have CTcpois. (Tisch., W'.II.). 

' j^BDZ omit vfuv, which may have been added to assimilate with first clause. 

position. Observe lus !• goes not with 
the subject, but with the verb Prophets 
(and even law) till John prophesied. The 
suggestion is that he is not a mere con- 
tinuator of the prophetic line, one more 
repeating the message : the kingdom 
will come. His function is peculiar and 
exceptional. What is it ? Ver. 14 ex- 
plains. He is the Elijah of Malachi, 
lierald of the Great Day, usherer in of 
the kingdom, the man who says not 
merely " the kingdom will come," but 
" the kingdom is here " ; says it, and 
makes good the saying, bringing about a 
great movement of repentance. — el 0«X«t€ 
S«|aar9ai : the identification of John with 
Elijah to be taken cum grano, not as a 
prosaic statement of fact. Here, as 
always, Christ idealises, seizes the 
essential truth. John was all the Elijah 
that would ever come, worthy to repre- 
sent him in spirit, and performing the 
function assigned to Elijah redivivus in 
prophecy. Some of the Fathers dis- 
tinguished two advents of Elijah, one in 
spirit in the Baptist, another literally at 
the second coming of Christ. Servile 
exegesis of the letter. Sc'^ao-Oai. has no 
expressed object : the object is the state- 
ment following. Lutteroth supplies 
" him " = the Baptist. In the itktrt 
Weiss finds a tacit allusion to the im- 
penitence of the people : Ye are not 
willing because ye know that Elijah's 
coming means a summons to repentance. 
— Ver. 15. A proverbial form of speech 
often used by Jesus after important 
utterances, here for the first time in 
Matt. The truth demanding attentive 
and intelligent ears (ears worth having ; 
taking in the words and iheir import) is 
that John is Elijah. It implies much — 
that the kingdom is here and the king, 
and that the kingdom is moral not 

Vv. 16-19. jfudgment of Jesus on 
His religious contemporaries (Lk. vii. 
31-35). It is advisable not to assume as 
a matter of course that these words were 
spoken at the same time as those going 
before. The discourse certainly appears 
continuous, and Luke gives this utter- 
ance in the same connection as our 
evangelist, from which we may infer 
that it stood so in the common source. 
But even there the connection may 
have been topical rather than temporal ; 
placed beside what goes before, because 
containing a reference to John, and 
because the contents are of a critical 
nature. Ver. 16. rivi 6p.oi.ucrw : the 
parable is introduced by a question, as if 
the thought had just struck Him. — ttiv 
Ycvcav ravTijv. The occasion on which 
the words following were spoken would 
make it clear who were referred to. Our 
guide must be the words themselves. 
The subjects of remark are not the 
^lao-Tal of ver. 12, nor the oxXoi to 
whom Jesus had been speaking. Neither 
are they the whole generation of Jews 
then living, including Jesus and John 
(Eisner) ; or even the bulk of the Jewish 
people, contemporaries of Jesus. It was 
not Christ's habit to make severe 
animadversions on the " people of the 
land," who formed the large majority of 
the population. He always spoke of 
them with sympathy and pity (ix. 37, 
X. 6). ytvta might mean the whole body 
of men then living, but it might also 
mean a particular class of men marked 
out by certain definite characteristics. 
It is so used in xii. 39, 41, 42, 45 ; xvi, 
4. The class or " race " there spoken of 
is in one case the Scribes and Pharisees, 
and in the other the Pharisees and 
Sadducees. From internal evidence the 
reference here also is mainly to the 
Pharisees. It is a class who spoke of 

15— ig. 



1 8. *HX6£ yip 'l(«)(£t'rrjs |LiiiTe ifyQlotv }ir)Te trivdtv, Kal Xcyouai, 
Aain6yioy e^^ci. 19. vjXQei' 6 016s toO di^Spwirou caQiuv Kal irivojv, 
Kttl Xlyouaii', 'I80U, afOpcuTTOs '' (j)dyos Kai ' oicottottjs, tcXwcuc p|. 34, 
i^iXos Kal d.|i,apTw\wc. Kai c8tKaiw0Y) x] ao^jta diri twc tekcoji' ^ 

^ ^B have epywvi which Tisch. and W.H. adopt. Though supported by a great 
array of MSS. (including CDL) tckvuv may be suspected of assimilation to the 
reading in Lk. 

Jesus as reported in ver, 19. Who can 

they have been but the men who asked : 
Why does He eat with publicans and 
sinners (ix. 11) ? These vile calumnies 
are what have come out of that feast, in 
the same sanctimonious circle. Luke 
evidently understood the Pharisees and 
lawyers (vo|iiK0i) to be the class referred 
to, guided probably by his own im- 
pression as to the import of the passage 
{vide Lk. vii. 30). — iraiSiois . . . 
dyopais : Jesus likens the Pharisaic 
ycved to children in the market-place 
playing at marriages and funerals, as He 
had doubtless often seen them in Naza- 
reth, The play, as is apt to happen, has 
ended in a quarrel. — -Trpoo-cj). rols ercpois 
. . . \iyovariv. There are two parties, 
the musicians and the rest who are ex- 
pected to dance or mourn according to 
the tune, and they are at cross purposes, 
the moods not agreeing : ertpois, the 
best attested reading, may point to this 
discrepancy in temper = a set differently 
inclined. — t]vXir]o-a[ier : the flute in this 
case used for merriment, not, as in ix.23, 
to express grief. — i9pj\v^a- a)iiv : we have 
expressed grief by singing funeral dirges, 
like the mourning women hired for the 
purpose (vide ad ix. 23). — tK(J\|/aa-9€ : and 
ye have not beat your breasts in re- 
sponsive sorrow. This is the parable to 
which Jesus adds a commentary. With- 
out the aid of the latter the general 
import is plain. The ysved animadverted 
on are like children, not in a good but 
in a bad sense : not child-like but childish. 
They play at religion ; with all their 
seeming earnestness in reality triflers. 
They are also fickle, fastidious, given to 
peevish fault-finding, easily offended. 
These are recognisable features of the 
Pharisees. They were great zealots and 
precisians, yet not in earnest, rather 
haters of earnestness, as seen in different 
ways in John and Jesus. They were hard 
to please : equally dissatisfied with John 
and with Jesus ; satisfied with nothing 
but their own artificial formalism. 
They were the only men in Israel of 
whom these things could be said with 
emphasis, and it may be taken for 

granted that Christ's animadversions 
were elicited by pronounced instances of 
the type. — Ver. 18. The commentary on 
the parable showing that it was the 
reception given to John and Himself that 
suggested it. — utits iaB. jii^re -riv. : eat- 
ing and drinkino;, the two parts of diet ; 
not eating nor drinking = remarkably 
abstemious, ascetic, that his religious 
habit ; fi.i]T€ not ovt«, to express not 
merely the fact, but the opinion about 
John. Vide notes on chap. v. 34. — Sai- 
(tdviov ex«^ • '8 possessed, mad, with 
the madness of a gloomy austerity. 
The Pharisee could wear gloomy airs in 
fasting (vi. 16), but that was acting. The 
Baptist was in earnest with his morose, 
severely abstinent life. Play for them, 
grim reality for him ; and they disliked it 
and shrank from it as something weird. 
None but Pharisees would dare to say 
such a thing about a man like John. 
They are always so sure, and so ready to 
judge. Ordinary people would respect 
the ascetic of the wilderness, though they 
did not imitate him. — Ver. 19. 6 vlbs t. 
d. : obviously Jesus here refers to Him- 
self in third person where we might have 
expected the first. Again the now famil- 
iar title, defining itself as we go along bj' 
varied use, pointing Jesus out as an ex- 
ceptional person, while avoiding all con- 
ventional terms to define the exceptional 
element. — ivdliDV KoX triviitv: the "Son 
of Man " is one who eats and drinks, i.e., 
non-ascetic and social, one of the marks 
interpretative of the title = human, frater- 
nal. — ical Xiyovari, and they say : what ? 
One is curious to know. Surely this 
genial, friendly type of manhood will 
please I — ISoi, lo ! scandalised sancti- 
moniousness points its finger at Him 
and utters gross, outrageous calumnies. — 
^dyos, olvoTrdTTjs, <|)iXos, an eater with 
emphasis = a glutton (a word of late 
Greek, Lob., Phryn.,434), 3. wine-bibber ; 
and, worse than either, for 4>iXos is used 
in a sinister sense and implies that Jesus 
was the comrade of the worst characters, 
and like tliem in conduct. A malicious 
nickname at first, it is now a name of 
honour : the sinner's lover. The Son of 




f Mk. xvi. afiTTis. 20. T<Jt« Tip^oTO ' ^feiSi^cif tAs ir<5Xeis, ef ats iytvovro 
14 (with c - o ~ • 

•ccue. of ai TrXciorai oui/dp.eis auTou, on 00 fi€T€v6r\crav. 21. " Ouai aoi, 

I Lk. X. 13 Xopa^i*', ouai aoi, PrjOaaiSdi', on ei ck Topu teal IiSon'i ev^corro 

(long ago). .5., , , ••-••\'*'ty 

2 Cor. xii. ai Oufaficts ai yck'Ofjick'ai ck ofii*', ira\at &v ev ordKKu Kai 
this time," * OTToSw ii.€Tev6r\aav. 22. "TrX^K Xeyw ifiiv, TiJpw koI IiSufi (IkcktcS- 
t Lk. X. 13 Ttpot' eorai iv ■fnilpa Kpiaeus, ?J ilfii*'- 23. Kai atj, KaTrepcaoup,, 
^). "1^^ eojs ToG oupakou uvlxodeiaa,^ ews aSou icaTapij3aCT6ii<rr) ^* 5n €i ec 

7; xxvL loSopois eyekOKTo' ai 8uf(,$ at yev6^€vai iv aoi, Ip.eii'aK^ &v 
(frequent in Lk.). 

^ ^BCDL Syr. Cur. read y.r\ fws ovpavov vt|/tij9T|(rrj, which recent editors adopt. 
Weiss thinks it has no sense, as prj implies a negative answer, and gives as the true 
reading rj £<i»s ovp. v»j/<i6iis. 

* BD have Kara^i]<rt] (W.H.). 

» If^BCD have rytvTjeTjo-av (Tisch., W.H.). 

♦•jittvn'in t^BC33 (W.H.). 

Man takes these calumnies as a thing of 
course and goes on His gracious way. 
It is not necessary to reflect these char- 
acteristics of Jesus and John back into 
the parable, and to identify them with 
the piping and wailing children. Yet 
the parable is so constructed as to ex- 
hibit them very clearly in their distinctive 
peculiarities by representing the children 
not merely employed in play and quarrel- 
ling over their games, which would have 
sufficed as a picture of the religious Jews, 
but as playing at marriages and funerals, 
the former symbolising the joy of the 
Jesus-circle, the latter the sadness of the 
Baptist-circle (vide my Parabolic Teach- 
ing of Christ, p. 420). — icai l8iKaiw9i], 
etc. This sentence wears a gnomic or 
proverbial aspect (" verba proverbium 
redolere videntur," Kuinoel, similarly, 
RosenmuUer), and the aorist of ISik. may 
be taken as an instance of the gnomic 
aorist, expressive of what is usual ; a law 
in the moral sphere, as elsewhere the 
aorist is employed to express the usual 
course in the natural sphere, e.g., in 
James i. 11. Weiss-Meyer strongly 
denies that there are any instances of 
such use of the aorist in the N. T. (On 
this aorist vide Goodwin, Syntax, p. 53, 
and Baumlein, § 523, where it is called the 
aorist of experience, " der Erfahrungs- 
wahrheit ".) — airi, in, in view of {vide 
Buttmann's Gram., p. 232, on airo in 

N.T.).— ?pYwv : the reading of ^B, and 

likely to be the true one just because 
T€Kvti>v is the reading in Luke. It is an 
appeal to results, to fruit (vii. 20), to the 
future. Historical in form, the state- 

ment is in reality a prophecy. Resch, 
indeed (Agrapha, p. 142), takes cSik. as 
the (erroneous) translation of the Hebrew 
prophetic future used in the Aramaic 
original = now we are condemned, but 
wait a while. The ical at the beginning 
of the clause is not = " but ". It states a 
fact as much a matter of course as is the 
condemnation of the unwise. Wisdom, 
condemned by the foolish, is always, of 
course, justified in the long run by her 
works or by her children. 

Vv. 20-24. Reflections by jfesus on 
the reception given to Him by the towns 
of Galilee (Lk. x. 13-15). Ver. 20. totc, 
then, cannot be pressed. Luke gives 
the following words in instructions to the 
Seventy. The real historical occasion is 
unknown. It may be a reminiscence 
from the preaching tour in the syna- 
gogues of Galilee (Mt. iv, 23). The 
reflections were made after Jesus had 
visited many towns and wrought many 
wonderful works (8vvd(X€i,s). — ov (lert- 
v6r\<r<xv : this the general fact ; no deep, 
permanent change of mind and heart. 
Christ appearing among them a nine 
days' wonder, then forgotten by the 
majority preoccupied with material inter- 
ests. — Ver. 21. Xopa^^v, BT]6o-a'iSdv : the 
former not again mentioned in Gospels, 
the latter seldom {vide Mk. vi. 45, viii. 
22 ; Lk. ix. 10), yet scenes of important 
evangelic incidents, probably connected 
with the synagogue ministry in Galilee 
(iv. 23). The Gospels are brief records 
of a ministry crowded with events. 
These two towns may be named along 
with Capernaum because all three were 
in view where Christ stood when He 

it/j— 25. 



}ievpi TTjs OTjuepok'. 24. ttXtji' Xvyo) uiiic, on yn loSoiiui/ aj'CicTO- v Ch. xxviii. 
„ > , ( / J, / .. > J / 15 (same 

T€pov carai ev i^fxepa Kpttrews, tj aoi. 25. Ek CKeifu tw Kaipw phrase). 

airoKpiuets o lif]CT0U9 eiiree, EsofioAoYOUfxai aoi, iraTep, Kupie 3B;xv. 15; 

rou oupa^ou Kai rrjs YT5> °'''' direKpuiJ/as xaoTO diro ' aofuc Kai (in sense 

of begin- 
ning to speak). xLk^x. 21. Rom. ziy. II ; zv. 9. y Lk. z. 21 (Jewish). Mt. zziii. 34 (Christian). 
[ Cor. i. 26 (Pagan). 

^ ^BD have the simple «Kpv\)ras. 

uttered the reproachful words, say on 
the top of the hill above Capernaum : 
Bethsaida on the eastern shore 01 Jordan, 
just above where it falls into the lake ; 
Chorazin on the western side on the road 
to Tyre from Capernaum (Furrer, Wan- 
deritngen, p. 370). They may also have 
been prosperous business centres selected 
to represent the commercial side of 
Jewish national life. Hence the refer- 
ence to Tyre and Sidon, often the subject 
of prophetic animadversion, yet not so 
blameworthy in their impenitence as the 
cities which had seen Christ's works. — 
£v aaKKip Kai cnroS^: in black sackcloth, 
and with ashes on the head, or sitting 
in ashes like Job (ii. 8). — Ver. 22. 
irXT)v : contracted from irX^ov = more- 
over, for the rest, to put the matter 
shortly ; not adversative here, though 
sometimes so used. — Ver. 23. The 
diversity in the reading |jit) or if| tus, etc., 
does not affect the sense. In the one 
case the words addressed to Capernaum 
contain a statement of fact by Jesus; in 
the other a reference to a feeling prevail- 
ing in Capernaum in regard to the facts. 
The fact implied in either case is dis- 
tinction on some ground, probably be- 
cause Capernaum more than all other 
places was favoured by Christ's presence 
and activity. But there may, as some 
think (Grotius, Rosen., De Wette, etc.), 
be a reference to trade prosperity. 
" Florebat C. piscatu, mercatu, et quae 
alia esse solent commoda ad mare sitar- 
um urbium" (Grot.). The reference to 
Tyre and Sidon, trade centres, makes 
this not an idle suggestion. And it is 
not unimportant to keep this aspect in 
mind, as Capernaum with the other two 
cities then become representatives of the 
trading spirit, and show us by sample 
how that spirit received the Gospel of the 
kingdom. Capernaum illustrated the com- 
mon characteristic most signally. Most 
"srosperous, most privileged spiritually, 
and — most unsympathetic, the population 
being taken as a whole. Worldliness 
as unreceptive as counterfeit piety re- 
presented by Pharisaism, though not so 


offensive in temper and language. No 
calumny, but simply invincible indiffer- 
ence. — ews ciipavov, lus aSow : proverbial 
expressions for the greatest exaltation 
and deepest degradation. The reference 
in the latter phrase is not to the future 
world, but to the judgment day of Israel 
in which Capernaum would be involved. 
The prophetic eye of Jesus sees Caper- 
naum in ruins as it afterwards saw the 
beautiful temple demolished (chap. xxiv. 


Vv. 25-27. yesus worshipping (Lk. 

X. 21, 22). It is usual to call this golden 
utterance a prayer, but it is at once 
prayer, praise, and self-communing in a 
devout spirit. The occasion is unknown. 
Matthew gives it in close connection 
with the complaint against the cities 
{iv cKcivb) Tb> Kaip^), but Luke sets it in 
still closer connection (ev avxYJ tq &p({.) 
with the return of the Seventy. Accord- 
ing to some modern critics, it had no 
occasion at all in the life of our Lord, 
but is simply a composition of Luke's, 
and borrowed from him by the author 
of Matthew: a hymn in which the 
Pauline mission to the heathen as the 
victory of Christ over Satan's dominion 
in the world is celebrated, and given 
in connection with the imaginary mis- 
sion of the Seventy {vide Ptleiderer, 
Urchristenthum, p. 445). But Luke's 
preface justifies the belief that he 
had here, as throughout, a tradition 
oral or written to go on, and the 
probability is that it was taken both 
by him and by Matthew from a com- 
mon document. Wendt (L. J., pp. go, 
91) gives it as an extract from the 
book of Logia, and supposes that 
it followed a report of the return of 
the disciples (the Twelve) from their 

Ver. 25. airoKpi9€is, answering, 
not necessarily to anything said, but 
to some environment provocative of 
such thoughts. — l^op.oXo'yovpai <roi ( = 

S niin Ps. Ixxv. 2, etc.). In iii. 6 

this compound means to make full con- 




t Lk. X. ai. (TuvtTutv, Ktti direKuXoij/a? aura k-ijiriois. 26. foi 6 Trarrjp, OTi 

ActSxiii.7. „>, ,,o»l» t\f C..A 

I Cor. i 19. ouTws tyet'eTo euooKia ^ €p.TTpocr8eK ctoo. 27. flacTa jjloi TrapeooPT] 

i I Cor. ii. , , . , > jc ^ d ' / , < , , V , 

10. rhil. UTTO TOO iraTpOS flOU • Kttl OUOeiS iinyU'LiVKil TOC UIOC, £1, fill 

iii. 15. , ,», 

b Lk. X. 21. TTarrip • ouOe 
Kom. ii. 20. 
I Cor. iii. i. Heb. r. 13. 

TO*' iraTepa Tts eTriyit'waKei, et jxt] o uios, kui ^ €a» 
c Eph. i. 5,9. Phil. ii. 13. d i Cor. xiii. la. 

' cvSoKia €7€V€T0 in ^B 33, makiiiL; evSoKia more emphatic. 

fession (of sin). Here it = to make 
frank acknowledgment of a situation in 
a spirit partly of resignation, partly of 
thanksgiving.— fKpv\|/as. The fact stated 
is referred to the causality of God, the 
religious point of view ; but it happens 
according to laws which can be ascer- 
tained. — Tttvra ; the exact reference un- 
known, but the statement holds with 
reference to Christ's whole teaching and 
healing ministry, and the revelation of 
the kingdom they contained. — <ro4>h>v 
kqI (tvvctuv : the reference here doubt- 
less is to the Rabbis and scribes, the 
accepted custodians of the wisdom of 
Israel. Cf. tro(^6<i Kal liri<mjp,b>v in 
Deut. iv. 6 applied to Israel. The ren- 
dering " wise and prudent " in A. V. is 
misleading ; " wise and understanding " 
in R. V. is better. — vtittiois (fr. vr\ and 
firos, non-speaking) means those who 
were as ignorant of scribe-lore as babes 
(cf. John vii. 49 and Heb. v. 13). Their 
ignorance was their salvation, as thereby 
they escaped the mental preoccupation 
with preconceived ideas on moral and 
religious subjects, which made the scribes 
inaccessible to Christ's influence (vide my 
Parabolic Teaching, pp. 333, 334). Jesus 
gives thanks with all His heart for the 
receptivity of the babes, not in the same 
sense or to the same extent for the non- 
receptive attitude of the wise (with De 
Wette and Bleek against Meyer and 
Weiss). No distinction indeed is ex- 
pressed, but it goes without saying, and 
the next clause implies it. — Ver, 26. vaC 
reaffirms with solemn emphasis what 
might appear doubtful, viz., that Jesus 
was content with the state of matters 

s (vide Klotz, Devar., i. 140). Cf. ver. g. — 
irariip ; nominative for vocative. — oti, 
because, introducing the reason for this 
contentment. — ovrws, as the actual facts 
stand, emphatic (" sic maxime non aliter," 
Fritzsche). — cvSoKCa, a pleasure, an 
occasion of pleasure ; hence a purpose, 
a state of matters embodying the Divine 
Will, a Hellenistic word, as is also the 
verb cv8oK^<i> (cf. i Cor. i. 21, where the 
whole thought is similar). Christ re- 
signs Himself to God's will. But His 

tranquillity is due likewise to insight 
into the law by which new Divine 
movements find support among the 
viJTTiot rather than among the cro^oi.. — 
Ver. 27. -TravTa, all things necessary 
for the realisation of the kingdom (Holtz., 
H.C.). The ■n-avra need not be restricted 
to the hiding and revealing functions 
(Weiss, Nosgen). Hiding, indeed, was 
no function of Christ's. He was always 
and only a revealer. For the present 
Jesus has only a few babes, but the 
future is His : Christianity the coming 
religion. — 7rap£8(idT], aorist, were given. 
We might have expected the future. It 
may be another instance of the aorist 
used for the Hebrew prophetic future 
(vide ad ver. 19). In Mt. xxviii. 18 
cSoOi] again to express the same thought. 
The reference probably is to the eternal 
purpose of God ; on the use of the 
aorist in N. T., vide note on this pas- 
sage in Camb. G. T. — eiri-yivwo-Kci, 
thoroughly knows. — tov vlhv . . . irariip, 
Christ's comfort amid the widespread 
unbelief and misunderstanding in re- 
ference to Himself is that His Father 
knows Him perfectly. No jone else does, 
not even John. He is utterly alone in 
the world. Son here has a Godward 
reference, naturally arising out of the 
situation. The Son of Man is called an 
evil liver. He lifts up His heart to 
heaven and says : God my Father knows 
me. His Son. The thought in the first 
clause is connected with this one thus : 
the future is mine, and for the present 
my comfort is in the Father's know- 
ledge of me. — oiiii tov iraT^pa ... 6 
vlis : a reflection naturally suggested 
by the foregoing statement. It is igno- 
rance of the Father that creates mis- 
conception of the Son. Conventional, 
moral and religious ideals lead to mis- 
judgment of one who by all He says and 
does is revealing God as He truly is and 
wills. The men who know least about 
God are those supposed to know most, 
and who have been most ready to judge 
Him, the "wise and understanding". 
Hence the additional reflection, Ko.t <i 
iav £ov\T)Tai 6 v. d-iroKaXv\tai. Jesus 




PouXtjrai *6 uios dTrotcaXu\(/ai. 28. Aeure irpos u.6 viivTt^ 01 e o vio? 

here and 
in Ch. 

XJtiv. 36; 3cxviii. 19. Mk. xiii. 32. f vide Ch. iv. 19. g here and in John iv. 6. Rev. ii. 3 (with 

the sense of weariness, c/. Is. xl. 31, oii xoirtao-ouai. Sir. li. a?, ixoniaaa). h i Cor. xvi. 18. 

Philem. 20 (Sir. li. 27, the noun). 

*KOTriw;'T€S Kal ire<j»opTta(JLei'oi, Kdyu) '* di/aTrauacu ujids. 29. dpare 

here asserts His importance as the re- 
vealer of God, saying in effect : " The 
wise despise me, but they cannot do 
without me. Through me alone can 
they attain that knowledge of God 
which they profess to desire above all 
things." This was there and then the 
simple historic fact. Jesus was the one 
person in Israel who truly conceived 
God. The use of PovXTjxai is noticeable : 
not to whomsoever He reveals Him, but 
to whomsoever He is pleased to reveal 
Him. The emphasis seems to lie on 
the inclination, whereas in Mt. i. 19 
deXcov appears to express the wish, and 
c^ovXi^Bt] rather the deliberate purpose. 
Jesus meets the haughty contempt of 
the "wise" with a dignified assertion 
*hat it depends on his inclination whether 
Aey are to know God or not. On the 
distinction between povXo|xai and 6^X(i>, 
vide Cremer, Worterbuch, s. v. Pov- 
Kopiai. According to him the former re- 
presents the direction of the will, the 
latter the will active (Affect, Trieb). 
Hence PovX. can always stand for OeX., 
but not vice versd. 

Vv. 28-30. The gracious invitation. 
Full of O. T. reminiscences, remarks 
Holtz., H.C., citing Isaiah xiv. 3 ; xxviii. 
12; Iv. 1-3; Jer. vi. 16; xxxi. 2, 25, 
and especially Sirach vi. 24, 25, 28, 29 ; 
li. 23-27. De Wette had long before 
referred to the last-mentioned passage, 
and Pfleiderer has recently (Urch., 513) 
made it the basis of the assertion that 
this beautiful logion is a composition out 
of Sirach by the evangelist. The passage 
in Sirach is as follows : lYY^o-aTt irpo« 
p,^ CL-n-a^SevTOi, Kai a-uXiardtiTe Iv oiKtp 
vaiSeias. Sioti. tio-TspeiTe iv tovtois, 
Kal al rj/TJXttl v\i.u>v Biy\tCi<Ti a4)68pa ; 
{jvoi^a TO 0-Top.a iiov, Kal eXaXi^aa, 
KTi]crao"9e eavTOis avev dp-yvpiou. tok 
TpaxTlXov vp.b>v •UTToOeTC ■UTTo ^vyov, Kat 
eiriSe^acrSdj -q 4"'X'') ^\'-'^v iraiSeiav • 
€7Yus eoTTiv eipeiv axiTi^v • iSere Iv 
&(j>daXp.ois vp,b>v OTi o\i-yov CKOTriatra, 
Kal €vpov lp,avTo) iroXXrjv dvairavtriv.* 

There are unquestionably kindred 
thoughts and corresponding phrases, as 
even Kypke points out (" Syracides magna 
similitudine dicit "), and if Sirach had 
been a recognised Hebrew prophet one 
could have imagined Matthew giving 
the gist of this rhetorical passage, pre- 
faced with an " as it is written ". It is 
not even inconceivable that a reader of 
our Gospel at an early period noted on 
the margin phrases culled from Sirach as 
descriptive of the attitude of the one 
true a-01^6^ towards men to show how 
willing he was to communicate the know- 
ledge of the Father-God, and that his 
notes found their way into the text. 
But why doubt the genuineness of this 
logion ? It seems the natural conclusion 
of Christ's soliloquy ; expressing His 
intense yearning for receptive scholars 
at a time wnen He was painfully con- 
scious of the prevalent unreceptivityT 
"The words do not smell of the lamp. 
They come straight Irom a saddene d 
yet t enderly altectionate, unembittered 
ne art ; simple, pathetic, smcere. He 
may have known Sirach from boyhood, 
and echoes may have unconsciously 
suggested themselves, and been used 
with royal freedom quite compatibly with 
perfect originality of thought and phrase. 
The reference to wisdom inver. 19 makes 
the supposition not gratuitous that Jesus 
may even have had the passage in Sirach 
consciously present to His mind, and 
that He used it, half as a quotation, half 
as a personal manifesto. The passage 
is the end of a prayer of yesus, the Son 
of Sirach, in which that earlier Jesus, 
personating wisdom, addresses his fellow- 
men, inviting them to share the benefits 
which a'oc|>ia has conferred on himself. 
Why should not Jesus of Nazareth close 
His prayer with a similar address in the 
name of wisdom to those who are most 
likely to become her children — those 
whose ear sorrow hath opened ? This 
view might meet Martineau's objection 
to regarding this logion as authentic, that 

* Of the above the R.V. gives the follow- 
ing translation: "Draw near unto me, ye 
unlearned, and lodge in the house of in- 
struction. Say wherefore are ye lacking in 
these things, and your souls are very thirsty? 
I opened my mouth and spake. Get her 

for yourselves without money. Put your 
neck under the yoke, and let your soul 
receive instruction. She is hard at hand to 
find. Behold with your eyes how that 1 
laboured but a little, and found for ujyself 
much rest,'' 



XI. 30. 

iActsxv. 10. Toi' ' ^uyoi' fioo e<^ ufias, nai fxaOere Slit cjiou, on irpdos ' €ip,i Kal 

) Ch. xii .43. TaiT€ii'o5 TTJ KapSia • KUi tiipr](j€T€ ^ ivdirauaLv xais 4<u)(ais u^ui'. 
Rev xiv. . y r I ' k t ^ix' '\j.'» 

n (Wis 30. o Y<*P LuY"' f*°" XP1'"'°5> tai TO (popriok' jaou cAa<ppok' tcTTtk'. 
dom iv. 7). 
k W. vi. vj. Rom. li. 4. 

' irpavs in fc^bCD (Tisch., W.H.). 

it is not compatible with the humility of 
Jesus that He should so speak of Y\^\vn- 
seU {Sc-at 0/ Authority, p. 583). Why 
should He not do as another Jesus had 
done before Him : speak in the name of 
wisdom, and appropriate her attributes ? 
Ver. 28. AcvTC : vide ad iv. ig, again 
authoritative but kindly. — Koiriivrts ical 
ir€(J>opTi<rfi€Voi, the fatigued and bur- 
dened. This is to be taken metaphorically. 
The kind of people Jesu8 expects to be- 
come "disciples indeed " are men who. 
have sou,< ^ht lonp. earnestly , bqt in vamT 
for the summum honum, the knowledge of 
God. \ There is no burden so heavy as 
that of truth sought and not found . 
acnolars Ot the T^ahhis, like Sa^il of 
Tarsus, knew it wel l. In corning thence 
Jo Christ's school they^ would find res^" 
by passing from letter to spirit, from 
torm to reality, from hearsay to cer - 
tainty, frorn traditions of the past to th ie 
present voice of G od. — Kayib, and /, em- 
phatic, with side glance at the reputed 
" wise " who do not give rest (with 
Meyer against Weiss). — Ver. 29. ^vySv: 
current phrase to express the relation of 
a disciple to a master. The Rabbis 
spoke of the " yoke of the law ". Jesus 
uses their phrases while drawing men 
away from their influence. — )i,a.Qert air* 
efxoi; : not merely learn from my example 
(Buttmann, Gram., p. 324: on, that is, 
from the case of), but, more compre- . 
hensivcly, get your learning from me : 
take me as your Master in religion. The 
thing to be learned is not merely a m oral 
Tesson, humility , buFlthe, w.bQlfi__t£Uth 
about God ajid righteousness. Bu t 
the mood of~M aster and schol ar must 
correspo nd, rie" meek as they have be^ 
come by sorrowful experience. Hence 
OTt irpaiSs . • . TJ) KttpSt^ : not that, 
but for I am, etc ! WEat connection 
is there between ih'is spirit and know- 
ledge of God ? This : a proud man 
cannot know God. God knoweth the 
proud afar off (Ps. cxxxviii. 6), and 
they know God afar off. God giveth 
the grace of intimate knowledge of 
Himself to t he lowly. — gydTravg- iv : rest. 

such as come s through fin ding the 
"tr ue God, oT th rough ' satTsiac lion o t_ 
desire, ot the Hunger "onBe soul. — Ver. 

30. xPT1<^'^s». kindly to wear. Christ's 
doctrine fits a nd satisfies _ Qur whole 
spiritu al natu re — reason, h-Cait.. con- 
science, " the swee t reasonableness of 
Clmst ". — 4*op'''^<»'< the burden of obliga- 
tion. — jXa<|>p6v : in one respect Christ's 
burden is the heaviest of all because His 

naQralJiieM_is_th£Jiighest^ But just on 

that account it is light. Lofty, noble 
ideak ms^ire an d attract ; vuTgar' id gals 
aire oppressive. ~ _ CFrist's c ommandment 
fedirticult, but not like that of the Rabbis, 
grievous. (Vide With Open Face.) 

Chapter XII. Conflicts with the 
Pharisees. This chapter delineates the 
growing alienation between Jesus and 
the Pharisees and scribes. The note of 
time {iv ikeLvii ra Kaip4>, ver. i) points 
back to the situation in which the prayer 
xi. 25-30 was uttered (vide ver. 25, where 
the same expression is used). All the 
incidents recorded reveal the captious 
mood of Israel's "saints and sages". 
They have now formed a thoroughly bad 
opinion of Jesus and His company. 
They regard Him as immoral in life 
(xi. 19) ; irreligious, capable even ol 
blasphemy (assuming the divine pre- 
rogative of forgiving sin, ix. 3) ; an 
ally of Satan even in His beneficence 
(xii. 24). He can do nothing right. 
The smallest, most innocent action is 
an offence. 

Vv. 1-8. Plucking ears of com on the 
Sabbath (Mk. ii. 23-28 ; Lk. vi. 1-5). 
, Sabbath observance was one of the lead- 
ing causes of conflict between Jesus and 
the guardians of religion and morality. 
This is the first of several encounters 
reported by the evangelist. According 
to Weiss he follows Mark, but with say- 
ings taken directly from the Apostolic 

Vv. I, 2. <rdppao-LV : dative plural, as 
if from o-dppaT-os, other cases (genitive, 
singular and plural, dative, singular, 
accusative, plural) are formed from sra.^- 
pttTOV (vide ver. 2). — Sid. rwv <rTTopi\i.u>v 
might mean through fields adapted for 
growing grain, but the context requires 
fields actually sown ; fields of corn. — 
eTreivatrav : for the form vide iv. 2. 
This word supplies the motive for the 
action, which Mark leaves vague. — 

XII. 1—5. 


XII. I. 'EN EKeifW Tw Kaipw €iropeu0Y) 6 'lif)o-ous tois adppaai 
8ia TWK ' tnropip.ui' • oi 8c |j,a0r]Tal aoToO i-neivaaay, Kal T^p^afTO 
''tiWcii' ^oTax"<iS Kal iaQUiv. 2. ol 8e <}>apiCTaroi iSot'Tes cltrov 
auTw, "'l8ou, 01 p.a0T]Tai aoo irotouaii', o ouk e^ecxTt iroicii' et' 
(jaPPdro)." 3. 'O 8e eiTrer auTois, "Ouk '* dfeyKUxe rt eiroiTjae 
Aa|3i8, 0T6 iiveivaaiv auTos^ KOi 01 ficr' auToC ; 4. irws eio-fjXOef 
€is Toi' oIkoc tou 6cou, Kal ToOs aprous 'ttjs irpoSecreajs e4)aY£f,^ 
ous ^ OUK e^ov' TJf auTw •^ayeii', ou8e tois fxer auTou, el p.Y) rolg 
tepeuai fioi'ois ; 5. "H ouk dt'eyrwre iy tw cop.*;), on Toi? aaPPaaii/ 

a here and 

in parall. 
b here and 

in parall. 
c here, 

parall. and 

Mk. iv.28. 
d Ch. xix. 4 ; 

xxi. 16,42; 

xxiv. 15 ni. 
e Heb. ix. 2. 
f Acts xxiv. 

6 (often in 

g here and 

in ver. 7. 

01 icpcis cf Tw i€p(j) 10 aappaToc 


ouCTi, Kai • aj'aiTioi ciffi ; 

^ The avTos (LI) conies from Mk. (ii. 25) ; it is omitted in ^BCDA al. 

' €<j)a"yov in J«^B — probably the true reading. 

* o in BD. The reading of T. R. (c<^aYcv ovs) is from Mk. 

»]p^avTO : perhaps emphasis should be 
laid on this word. No sooner had they 
begun to pluck ears than fault was found. 
Pharisees on the outlook for offences. 
So Carr, Camb. G. T.— Ver. 2. S ovk 
i^tcTTiv IT. c. o-aPPdiTcp. The emphasis 
here lies on the last word. To help one- 
Belf, when hungry, with the hand was 
humanely allowed in the Deuteronomic 
law (Deut. xxiii. 25), only to use the 
sickle was forbidden as involving waste. 
But according to the scribes what was 
lawful on other days was unlawful on 
Sabbath, because plucking ears was 
reaping. " Metcns Sabbato vel tantillum, 
reus est " (Lightfoot rendering a passage 
from the Talmud). Luke adds \|;ux'"''''«s> 
rubbing with the hands. He took the 
offence to be threshing. Microscopic 
offence in either case, proving pritnd 
facie malice in the fault-finders. But 
honest objection is not inconceivable to 
one who remembers the interdict placed 
by old Scottish piety on the use of the 
razor on Sabbath, We must be just 
even to Pharisees. 

Vv. 3-8. Christ's defence. It is two- 
fold, (i) He shields disciples by examples: 
David and the priests ; to both the fault- 
finders would defer (vv. 3-5) ; (2) He 
indicates the principles involved in the 
examples (w. 6-8). The case of David 
was apposite because (a) it was a case of 
eating, {b) it probably happened on 
Sabbath, (c) it concerned not only David 
but, as in the present instance, /o//ow*rs ; 
therefore ol (ler' a-urov, ver. 3, carefully 
added, {b) docs not form an element in 
the defence, but it helps to account for 
the reference to David's conduct. In 
that view Jesus must have regarded the 
act of David as a Sabbatic incident, and 

that it was may not unnaturally be in- 
ferred from I Sam. xxi. 6. Vide Light- 
foot, ad /oc. —This was probably also the 
current opinion. The same remark 
applies to the attendants of David. 
From the history one might gather that 
David was really alone, and only pre- 
tended to have companions. But if, as 
is probable, it was usually assumed that 
he was accompanied, Jesus would be jus- 
tified in proceeding on that assumption, 
whatever the fact was {vide Schanz, ad 
loc). — Ver. 4. tlcTTjXOev, c<j>aYov, he 
entered, they ate. Mark has t(|>aY«v. 
Weiss explains the harsh change of sub- 
ject by combination of apostolic source 
with Mark. The two verbs point to two 
offences against the law : entering a holy 
place, eating holy bread. The sin of the 
disciples was against a holy time. But 
the principle involved was the same = 
ceremonial rules may be overruled by 
higher considerations. — 8 ovik i^ov rjv. 
ovs in Mark and Luke agreeing with 
apTovs, and here also in T. R., but S 
doubtless the true reading ; again pre- 
senting a problem in comparative exegesis 
(vide Weiss-Meyer). S ought to mean 
"which thing it was not lawful to do," 
but it may be rendered " which kind of 
bread,'' etc. — el p-q, except; absolutely un- 
lawful, except in case of priests. — Ver. 5. 
This reference to the priests naturally 
leads on to the second instance taken 
from their systematic breach of the 
technical Sabbath law in the discharge 
of sacerdotal duty. — f\ ovk aviyvuTtt 
have ye not read ? not of course the 
statement following, but directions on 
which such a construction could be put, 
as in Numb, xxviii. g, concerning the 
burnt offering of two lambs. They had 




h itrrif - 6. XcVU OC Ulllv, OTl TOO ItpOU iktltuv ' €QJiV iSc. '7, ft Se CYJ'U- 

»!</« LU. K€iTe Tc €(7Ti>', EXcot' " 6eX(i» Kai ou Oucrtay, ouk fij* ' xaTtSiKotraT* 
viii. J, 11.^ , o' '■• \9« 

i Lk. VI. 37. Tous dk-aiTious. 8- Kupios yap tart Kai ^ tou (ra^^drou 6 uius too 
Jas. V.6 

(the pass. aft7p(ulT0U. 
in ver. 37). 

' (xciCov in t>^BD al. ^ci^mv (LA) is a misjudged attempt at correction. 
' This is another grammatical correction (vide ix. 13), cXfos in i<^BCD33. 
•* Kai omitted in ^BCD, etc. It comes in from the parall. 

read often enoogh, but had not under- 
stood. As Euthy. Zig. remarks, Jesus 
reproaches them for their vain labour, as 
not understanding what they read (jxtj 
i-Kiyivufj-Kovcriv & dvaYiyuaKovori). — pe- 
^T^Xovo-i, profane, on the Pharisaic view 
of the Sabbath law, as an absolute pro- 
hibition of work. Perhaps the Pharisees 
themselves used this word as a technical 
term, applicable even to permissible 
Sabbath labour. So Schanz after Schdtt- 

Vv. 6-8. The principles involved. The 
facts stated raise questions as to the 
reasons. The Pharisees were men of 
rules, not accustomed to go back on 
principles. The passion for minutiae 
killed reflection. The reasons have 
been already hinted in the statement of 
the cases : ore eirtivaaev, ver. 3 ; ev tu 
Upw, ver. 5: hunger, the temple; human 
needs, higher claims. These are referred 
to in inverse order in w. 6-7. — Ver. 6. 
Xe'Yu 8e vp.iv : solemn affirmation, with 
a certain tone in the voice. — tov Upov 
^ilt^ov. Though they might not have 
thought of the matter before, the claim 
of the temple to overrule the Sabbath 
law would be admitted by the Pharisees. 
Therefore, Jesus could base on it an 
argument a fortiori. The Sabbath must 
give way to the temple and its higher 
interests, therefore to something higher 
still. What was that something ? Christ 
Himself, according to the almost unani- 
mous opinion of interpreters, ancient and 
modern ; whence doubtless the pei^btv of 
T. R. But Jesus might be thinking 
rather of the kitigdom than of the king; 
a greater interest is involved here, that 
of the kingdom of God. Fritzsche takes 
(teijov as = teaching men, and curing 
them of vice then going on. It may be 
asked : How did the interest come in ? 
The disciples were following Jesus, but 
what was He about ? What created 
the urgency ? Whence came it that the 
disciples needed to pluck ears of standing 
corn ? We do not know. That is one 
of the many lacuna in the evangelic 
history. But it may be assumed that 

there was something urgent goin'j on 
in connection with Christ's ministry, 
whereby He and His companions were 
overtaken with extreme hunger, so that 
they were fain to eat unprepared food 
(oKaTcpYoo-Tov criTov, Euthy. Zig. on 
ver. 7). — Ver. 7. The principle of human 
need stated in terms of a favourite pro- 
phetic oracle (ix. 13). — cl 8^ tYvwKtixt 
. . . ovK av KaTcSiKaaare : the form of 
expression, a past indicative in protasis, 
with a past indicative with av in apodosis, 
implies that the supposition is contrary 
to fact (Burton, N. T. Moods and Tenses, 
§ 248). The Pharisees did not know 
what the oracle meant ; hence on a pre- 
vious occasion Jesus bade them go and 
learn (ix. 13). If their pedantry blinded 
them to distinctions of higher and lower 
in institutions, or rather made them 
reckon the least the greatest command, 
minutiae testing obedience, it still more 
deadened their hearts to the claims of 
mercy and humanity. Of course this 
idolatry went on from bad to worse. 
For the Jews of a later, templeless time, 
the law was greater than the temple 
(Holtz., in H.C., quoting Weber). — 
avaiTiov9 : doubly guiltless : as David 
was through imperious hunger, as the 
priests were when subordinating Sabbath, 
to temple, requirements. — Ver. 8. This 
weighty logio)i is best understood when 
taken along with that in Mark ii. 27 = 
the Sabbath for man, not man for the 
Sabbath. The question is : Does it 
merely state a fact, or does it also con- 
tain the rationale of the fact ? That 
depends on the sense we give to the 
title Son of Man. As a technical name = 
Messiah, it simply asserts the authority 
of Him who bears it to determine how 
the Sabbath is to be observed in the 
Kingdom of God. As a name of humility, 
making no obtrusive exceptional claims, 
like Son of David or Messiah, it suggests 
a reason for the lordship in sympathy 
with the ethical principle embodied in 
the prophetic oracle. The title does not 
indeed mean mankind, or any man, 
homo quivis, as Grotius and Kuinoel 

6— II. 



9. Kal ' fJieTa|5cis cKctOek', TJXOek' eis ttj^ crui'aYWY^i' auTwf. lo.jCh. xl. i. 

Kal iSou, avGpwTTOS t^i* ttjk^ X^^P* tj^wc ^ ^rjpdi' • Kal eTnfjpoSri^CTai'kparail.and 
> ' \' a r-> »£ - 'DO A , o .» „ John V. 3. 

auTOi/, XcYOi'Teg, Ei egecrTi tois orappacri Uepa-n-cueiv '• ; iva Kavt]- 

yopriCTcoCTiv auTou. II. 'O 8e elirev auTots, "Tts eorai ^ i^ ufituK 

afOpwiros, OS e'C^i Trpoparoi' ei*, Kal iav efAire'crj) touto tois o-aPPao-ic 

^ t^BC omit T)v TT]v. The text of Mt. as in T. R. has been influenced by that in 
Mk. (iii. i). 

2 So in BC (W.H.), eepairtvaai in Jn^DL (Tisch.). 

' corral is omitted in CLXI, and bracketed in W.H. ; it is found in ^BA al. 

think. It points to Jesus, but to Him not 
as an exceptional man (" der einzigartige," 
Weiss), but as the representative man, 
maintaining solidarity with humanity, 
standing for the human interest, as the 
Pharisees stood for the supposed divine, 
the real divine interest being identical 
with the human. The radical anti- 
thesis between Jesus and the Pharisees 
lay in their respective ideas of God. It 
is interesting to find a glimpse of the 
true sense of this logion in Chrysostom : 
TTtpi eavToi) Xcytov. 'O 8e MapKOS teal 
irepi TT\% KOivqs <|)v<rec>)s avrbv toSto 
€lpT|Ke'vai (|)T]{riv. Hom. xxxix. — Kvpios, 
not to the effect of abrogation but of in- 
terpretation and restoration to true use. 
The weekly rest is a beneficent institu- 
tion, God's holiday to weary men, and 
the Kingdom of Heaven, whose royal law 
is love, has no interest in its abolition. 

Vv. g-14. A Sabbath cure (Mk. iii. 
1-6; Lk. vi. 6-11) : not necessarily 
happening immediately after. Matthew 
and Luke follow Mark's order, which is 
topical, not historical ; another instance 
of collision as to Sabbath observance. — 
Ver. g. koI pLeTa^as . . . ovituv. The 
avTwv seems to imply that our evangel- 
ist takes the order as one of close tem- 
poral sequence (Mark says simply " into 
a synagogue," iii. i). In that case the 
atiToiv would refer to the fault-finding 
Pharisees of the previous narrative, 
piqued by Christ's defence and bent on 
further mischief (vide Weiss-Meyer). 
The narrative comes in happily here as 
illustrating the scope of the principle of 
humanity laid dov/n in connection with 
the previous incident. — Ver. 10. Kal 
ISov, here, as in viii. 2, ix. 2, introducing 
in a lively manner the story. — |T)pav, a 
dry hand, possibly a familiar expression 
in Hebrew pathology (De Wette) ; use- 
less, therefore a serious enough affliction 
for a working man (a mason, according 
to Hebrew Gospel, Jerome ad loc), 
especially if it was the right hand, as 

Luke states. But the cure was not 
urgent for a day, could stand over ; 
therefore a good test case as between 
rival conceptions of Sabbath law. — cTTTjptt- 
TTiorav. The Pharisees asked a question 
suggested by the case, as if eager to 
provoke Jesus and put Him to the proof. 
Mark says they observed Him, waiting 
for Him to take the initiative. The 
former alternative suits the hypothesis 
of immediate temporal sequence. — el 
€|£(rTiv, etc. After \iyovTf.<i we expect, 
according to classic usage, a direct ques- 
tion without «L The €1 is in its place in 
Mark (ver. 2), and the influence of his 
text may be suspected (Weiss) as ex- 
plaining the incorrectness in I\Iatthew. 
But el in direct questions is not un- 
usual in N. T. (Mt. xix. 3; Lk. xiii. 
23, xxii. 49), vide Winer, § 57, 2, and 
Meyer ad loc. In Mark's account 
Christ, not the Pharisees, puts the ques- 

Vv. II, 12. Christ^s reply, by two 
home-thrusting questions and an irre- 
sistible conclusion. — tis . . • avOpwiros. 
One is tempted here, as in vii. g, to put 
emphasis on avOpu-iros : who of you not 
dead to the feelings of a man ? Such 
questions as this and that in Lk. xv. 4 
go to the root of the matter. Humanity 
was what was lacking in the Pharisaic 
character. — irpoPaxov ev : one sheep 
answering to the one working hand, 
whence perhaps Luke's y\ Se^ia (vi. 6). — 
lov £p.Treo"n. The case supposed might 
quite well happen ; hence in the protasis 
I0.V with subjunctive, and in the apodosis 
the future (Burton, N. T. Moods and 
Tenses, § 250). A solitary sheep might 
fall into a ditch on a Sabbath; and that 
is what its owner would do if he were an 
ordinary average human being, viz., lift 
it out at once. What would the Pharisee 
do ? It is easy to see what he would be 
tempted to do if the one sheep were his 
own. But would he have allowed such 
action as a general rule ? One would 




I Ch. zv. 14- CIS ^q9uvov, o\j\\. KpaT<)(rei auTO Kai evcpci ; I2. iroao) ouk Sia4>cpci 

Lk. *!• S<3- , « , • Mf, - ,nn '\ - - " 

m here aiid a»'9pwTTOs TTpopaxou ; woTC efccTTi TOis (rappaai KaXws Troieik. 
in p«rall > \ » - > a / it-r- « - » 1 " ^ • 

in same 1 3. Tore K^yti Ta> dkOpwiTO), EKT£ti")f TT]i' X'^P*^* <Tou. Kai 

sense. Ch. ,^ , ^ m ^ ' 'a « « ^ c - xn \ «,« e « 

xvii. u. egeTCiKC, Kat aTroKarecTTaor) * oyiT]? ws rj aWrj. 14. Oi Ot 

(torestore ♦apieraioi " CTOfJiPouXiOK " eXaPov Kar' auTOu e^eXOoi'Tes ' orrws auToi' 


state). Heb. ziii. ig (to friends). n Ch. zzii. 15; zxrii. 1,7; zsviii. 13. 

' ^BL have crov before ttjv x^I'P*^- 

- aiTiK. in ^Bl.AI al. D has airoK. as in T. R. 

' ^liCDI place «5«^6ovt€S at the beginning of the sentence (Z with km before 


infer so from the fact that Jesus argued 
on such questions ex concesso. In that 
case the theory and practice of con- 
temporary Pharisees must have been 
milder than in the Talmudic period, when 
the rule was : if there be no danger, 
leave the animal in the ditch till the 
morrow (vide Buxtorf, Syn. jud., c. xvi.). 
Grotius suggests that later Jewish law 
was made stricter out of hatred to 
Christians. — Ver. 12. -iriSo-ci) ovv 8ta(j)epei, 
etc. This is another of those simple yet 
far-reaching utterances by which Christ 
suggested rather than formulated His 
doctrine of the infinite worth of man. 
By how much does a human being differ 
from a sheep ? That is the question 
which Christian civilisation has not even 
yet adequately answered. This illustra- 
tion from common life is not in Mark 
and Luke. Luke has something similar 
in the Sabbath cure, reported in xiv. 1-6. 
Some critics think that Matthew com- 
bines the two incidents, drawing from his 
two sources, .Mark and the Logia. — wore, 
therefore, and so introducing here rather 
an independent sentence than a depen- 
dent clause expressive of result.— KaXiis 
iroifiv : in effect, to do good = tv voulv, 
i.e., in the present case to heal, dcpa- 
TTcvEiv, though in Acts x. 33, i Cor. vii. 
37, the phrase seems to mean to do the 
morally right, in which sense Meyer and 
Weiss take it here also. Eisner, and 
after him Fritzsche, take it as = praclare 
agere, pointing to the ensuing miracle. 
By this brief prophetic utterance, Jesus 
sweeps away legal pedantries and 
casuistries, and goes straight to the 
heart of the matter. Beneficent action 
never unseasonable, of the essence of 
the Kingdom of God ; therefore as per- 
missible and incumbent on Sabbath as 
on other days. Spoken out of the 
depths of His religious consciousness, 
and a direct corollary from His benignant 

conception of God (vide Holtz., H. C, 
p. 91). 

Vv. 13, 14. The issue : the hand 
cured, and Pharisaic ill-will deepened. 
Ver. 13. t6ti X^y*^- ^^ heals by a 
word: sine contactu sola voce, qtiod ne 
speciem quidem violati Sabbati habere 
poterat (Grotius). — •''EKTfiv<5v o-ov t. x* 
Brief authoritative word, possessing both 
physical and moral power, conveying 
life to the withered member, and in- 
spiring awe in spectators. — Kai i|^T. Kai 
aircKar. The double Kai signifies the 
quick result (" celeritatem miraculi," 
Eisner). Grotius takes the second verb 
as a participle rendering : he stretched 
out his restored hand, assuming that not 
till restored could the hand be stretched 
out. The healing and the outstretching 
maybe conceived of as contemporaneous. 
— vyiTis «« 'H oXXt] : the evangelist adds 
this to dirtKar. to indicate the complete 
ness. We should have expected this 
addition rather from Luke, who ever 
aims at making prominent the greatness 
of the miracle, as well as its benevolence. 
— Ver. 14. l%i\96vrf% : overawed for the 
moment, the Pharisaic witnesses of the 
miracle soon recovered themselves, and 
went out of the synagogue with hostile 
intent.— oTifipovXiov eXa^ov, consulted 
together = trupPovXEveaOai. — Kar* avrov, 
against Him. Hitherto they had been 
content with finding fault ; now it is 
come to plotting against His life — a 
tribute to His power.— oirus, etc. : this 
clause indicates generally the object of 
their plotting, viz., that it concerned 
the life of the obnoxious one. They 
consulted not how to compass the 
end, but simply agreed together that it 
was an end to be steadily kept in 
view. The murderous will has come to 
birth, the way will follow in due course. 
Such is the evil fruit of Sabbath contro- 



6.tro\4am<Tiy. 15. 'O Se 'itjaous ycous dkexoipTjacf cK«i8eK • •cai*'^^^'^^^ 
rJKoXouOrjaa*' auTw oxXoi ^ iroXXoi, ical iQepdireuaev auTOus TrdfTas • '^''/^^j"h 

16. Kal •eTreTi'jXY] tree auTOis« •^►'a fA^ *4>'*''€po*' auToi' " Troti^auaii' • ;;;'')• ^^ 

17. oirus '^ irXr^pwflfj to p'qSe*' 8id 'H<ratou toG 'irpo4>r|Tou, Xe'yoi'Tos, (^^thi"" 

18. ''1800, 6 TraTs LLoo, of tipexiaa • 6 dvaTrriTos wou, eis of ^ p here and 

« y ■> , \ I Mk.iii. 12 

"• ed86Ki(](T6>' iq '{'"XT H'"" ' ^°''" '''o T't'cujJid p,ou eir auTot', Kai Kpio'ii' q with 

/ e C* \ fs V 3CCUS. flS 

Tots eOv'caii' OiitayyeKci' 19. ouk ' eptcrei, cube ' Kpauydcret • ouoe here (W 

dKouaei ns «»' tois irXareiais ttic qxui^i' aurou. 20. Ka\a|j,oi' x.6, 8. 

. , , ,t ^x" i' 'O' »'■ '^"'^ °"'>' 

trufT£Tpt|Ji|J.e»'oi' ou KaTeagci, kui \n'Ot' TU<po|ji,ek'oc ou apeaei • ew? s John ,\i 

&v "cKpaXti CIS KiKOS TriH koktii'. 21. Kac ec* tw oi-ouaTi aurou xxii 23. 

„ ,- ; , t Mk. V. ^ ; 

eOinr) eXiriouai. siv. 3. Lk 

ix. 39. 
o ver. 35. Ch. xHi. 52. John x 4 

1 fc<^B omit oxXoi, which is inconsistent with iravxas. ' i^BCD have ivo. 
• ^B have simply ov. * Most uncials omit ev, which is found in D it. vg. 

Vv. 15-21. jfesiis retires; prophetic 
portraiture of His character. Verses 15 
and 16 are abridged from Mk. iii. 7-12, 
which contains an account of an ex- 
tensive healing ministry. The sequel of 
the Sabbatic encounter is very vague. 
The one fact outstanding and note- 
worthy is the withdrawal of Jesus, con- 
scious of having given deep offence, but 
anxious to avoid tragic consequences 
for the present. It is to that fact mainly 
that the evangelist attaches his fair 
picture of Jesus, in prophetic language. 
It is happily brought in here, where it 
gains by the contrast between the real 
Jesus and Jesus as conceived by the 
Pharisees, a miscreant deserving to die. 
It is not necessary to suppose that the 
historical basis of the picture is to be 
found exclusively in w. 15, 16, all the 
more that the statement they contain is 
but a meagre reproduction of Mk. iii. 
7-12, omitting some valuable material, 
e.g., the demoniac cry: "Thou art the 
Son of God ". The historic features 
answering to the prophetic outline in 
the evangelist's mind may be taken from 
the whole story of Christ's public life as 
hitherto told, from the baptism onwards. 
Luke gives his picture of Jesus at the 
beginning (iv. 16-30) as a frontispiece, 
Matthew places his at the end of a con- 
siderable section of the story, at a 
critical turning point in the history, and 
he means the reader to look back over 
the whole for verification. Thus for the 
evangelist ver. 18 may point back to 
the baptism (iii. 13-17), when the voice 
from heaven called Jesus God's beloved 
Son ; ver. 19 to the teaching on the hill 

(v.-vii.), when the voice of Jesus was 
heard not in the street but on the 
mountain top, remote from the crowd 
below ; ver. 20 to the healing ministry 
among the sick, physically bruised reeds, 
poor suffering creatures in whom the 
flame of life burnt low ; ver. 21 to such 
significant incidents as that of the cen- 
turion of Capernaum (viii. 5-13). Broad 
interpretation here seems best. Some 
features, e.g., the reference to judgment, 
ver. 20, second clause, are not to be 

The quotation is a very free repro- 
duction from the Hebrew, with occasional 
side glances at the Sept. It has been sug- 
gested that the evangelist drew neither 
from the Hebrew nor from the Sept., but 
from a Chaldee Targum in use in his 
time (Lutteroth). It is certainly curious 
that he should have omitted Is. xlii. 4, 
" He shall not fail nor be discouraged," 
etc., a most important additional feature 
in the picture = Messiah shall not only 
not break the bruised reed, but He 
shall not be Himself a bruised reed, but 
shall bravely stand for truth and right 
till they at length triumph. Admirable 
historic materials to illustrate that pro- 
phetic trait are ready to our hand in 
Christ's encounters with the Pharisees 
(ix. 1-17, xii. 1-13). Either Matthew has 
followed a Targum, or been misled by 
the similarity of Is. xlii. 3 and 4, or he 
means ver. 20 to bear a double reference, 
and read : He shall neither break nor he 
a bruised reed, nor allow to be quenched 
either in others or in Himself the feeble 
flame : a strong, brave, buoyant, ever- 
victorious hero, helper of the weak. Him 




22. Tore Trpoa'qwt'xST) ' auTw 8aifAoct^ofA€i'Os to4<Xos Kat it«j<^6s ■ 

Kai eOepdireotrck' aoTot', wore toi' tu<J)X6»' Kat ^ KW(j>6v kui XaXcik' Kai 

» Mk il. la. PX^TTciv'. 23. Kat 'c^ioTan-o irdrrcs ol oxXoi Kai eXEYOK, " Mt^ti 

s6. Acts oIjtos eoTit' 6 olos AaPiS ; 24. Oi Se <t>apiaaioi dKouoravTes €ittoc, 

■ '* ' ■ " OiJTos ouK eK^aXXei to. Saijj.ot'ta, ei jxt) eV tw BeeXi^ejSouX apxov'Ti. 
w I Cor. i. _ c , It -,^y c> ! »• - » ^ » n ' . - 

13; vii. ,(. TWk' OaifAOl'lUt'. 25. tlOuJS OC It)<70US ° TaS «»'OU(XT](T€lS auTwc 

Rcv..xvii. eiTTCt' auTOis, " ndcra PaaiXeia * (xepiaOelaa Ka9' eauTfjs '' cpTjfAouTai' 

16; xviii. »« ^\*'' a ' fl's~ > a' 

16. Kat iraora ito\is r\ otKia ficpio-Weiaa KaU eaoTTjs, 01; 0TaWT)ff€Tat, 

^ B Cur. Syr. Cop. have •n-poa~r\vtyKav with 8at|jiovt^op.cvov tv<|)\ov Kat kw^ov. 
Most MSS. as in T. R. W.II. adopt the reading of B, putting T. K. in the margin. 

^ ^BD and some versions omit tv<})Xov Kat, also the Kat before \aX«tv. 

* t^BD omit o It]o-ovs. 

self a stranger to weakness. — •npeTtaa 
(ver. i8), an Ionic form in use in Hellen- 
istic Greek, here only in N. T., often 
in Sept. = aip€ Hesychius under 
•r|p£Twra|jLT]v gives 'sequivalents-qYainura, 
eTrt6vpT]<ra,Tq9c'Xi]o-a,i^pacrOT]v. — KpaviYa- 
orei (ver. ig), late form for Kpd^co. Phry- 
nichus, p. 337, condemns, as illiterate, '■ 
use of Kpavyatrfio? instead of KCKpayjAOS. 
On the words ovSe Kp. Pricaeus remarks : 
" Sentio clamorem intelligi qui nota est 
animi commoti et effervcscentis". He 
cites examples from Seneca, Plutarch, 
Xenophon, etc. — aKO\;o-ei is late for 
aKovo-6Tai. Verbs expressing organic 
acts or states have middle forms in the 
future {vide Rutherford, Xf7c Plirynicliiis, 
PP- 1381 376-412).— lus, ver. 20, followed 
by subjunctive, with av, as in classics, in 
a clause introduced by eojs referring to a 
future contingency. — tu 6v<5p.aTi, ver. 
21, dative after IX-Triovo-tv ; in Sept., Is. 
xlii. 4, with Itti. This construction here 
only in N. T. 

Vv. 22-37. Demoniac healed and 
Pharisaic calumny repelled (Mk. iii. 
22-30; Lk. xi. 14-23 — cf. Mt. ix. 
32-34). The healing of a blind and 
dumb demoniac has its place here not 
for its own sake, as a miracle, but 
simply as the introduction to another 
conflict between Jesus and the Pharisees. 
It is a story of wicked calumny repelled. 
The transition from the fair picture of 
the true Jesus to this hideous Pharisaic 
caricature is highly dramatic in its effect. 

Vv. 22, 23. Tu^iXos Kat K<j)^6i, blind 
as well as dumb. The demoniac in ix. 32 
dumb only. But dumbness here also is 
the main feature ; hence in last clause 
K(i><f)bv only, and XaXeiv before pXc'iretv. — 
wcTTe with infinitive, expressing here not 
merely tendency but result. — Ver. 23. 
if^io'TavTO ; not implying anything ex- 

ceptionally remarkable in the cure ; a 

standing phrase (in Mark at least) for 
the impression made on the people. 
They never got to be familiar with 
Christ's wonderful works, so as to take 
them as matters of course. — p.iiTi im- 
plies a negative ansv/er : they can 
hardly believe what the fact seems to 
suggest = can this possibly be, etc. ? 
Not much capacity for faith in the 
average Israelite, yet honest-hearted 
compared with the Pharisee. — i vi6s 
AaptS : the popular title for the Messiah. 
\'er. 24. 01 Sc <}>apicraXot. They of 
course have a very ditlcrent opinion. 
In Mark these were men come down 
from Jerusalem, to watch, not to lay hold 
of Jesus, Galilee not being under the 
direct jurisdiction of the Sanhedrim 
then (vide on Mark). — OvTosovK^K^aXXci, 
etc. : theory enunciated for second time, 
unless ix. 34 be an anticipation by the 
evangelist, or a spurious reading. What 
diversity of opinion 1 Christ's friends, 
according to Mark, thought Him " beside 
himself " — mad, Messiah, in league with 
Beelzebub 1 Herod had yet another 
theory : the marvellous healer was John 
rcdivivus, and endowed with the powers 
of the other world. All this implies that 
the healing ministry was a great fact. — 
ovK ... el (IT) : the negative way of 
putting it stronger than the positive. 
The Pharisees had to add «i p,Tj. They 
would gladly have« said ; " He does not 
cast out devils at all ". But the fact was 
undeniable ; therefore they had to in- 
vent a theory to neutralise its signifi- 
cance. — apxovTt, without article, might 
mean, as prince, therefore able to com- 
municate such power. So Meyer, Weiss, 
et at. But the article may be omitted 
after BeeX^c^ovX as after Poo-tXei's, or 
on account of the following genitive. 

22 — 2& 



26. Kai 61 6 ZaTOi'ds tov ZaTavak cKpdXXei, c4>' eauxot' 6)j.epia0rj • irws 

out' o-Ta6i]ff€Tai iq paaiXeia aurou ; 27. Kat €i ey^ ^'' BeeX^ePouX y Rom i>; 

. O '\\ ^ C ' . . N . ~ . / » O '\\ c V - 31-2 Cor. 

cKpaWu Ta oaifjioi'ia, ot otoi ufxcjc ec tlvl eKpaAA.ouCTi ; oia touto x. 14. 1'hil. 

'^ 20. 61 06 eyw ev ni'€u|xaTi 0eou ^ iXhess. ii. 

a '■> e - « o \ ' - <=. ~ i6(inall^ 

uaaei' e(p ufjias t) pa(7i\cia tou 3eou. to reach) 

auTOi ufxcdf eaovrai KpiTai. 
eK^aXXco Ta SaijJLovia, apa 

' i^BD have Kpirai fo-ovrai vfiojv. 

* Most uncials have ryw after tv rivcvixaTL Osov, on which the emphasis ought to lie 

So Schanz. Whether the Pharisees 
believed this theory may be doubted. It 
was enough that it was plausible. To 
reason with such men is vain. Yet Jesus 
did reason for the benefit of disciples. 

Vv. 25-30. The theory shown to 
be absurd. — Ver. 25. elSws ras «v9v- 
|jii](rcis* Jesus not only heard their 
words, but knew their thoughts, the 
malicious feelings which prompted their 
words, and strove so to present the case 
as to convict them of bad faith and dis- 
honesty. — irao-a ^acriXeia, etc. : state- 
ment of an axiom widely exemplified in 
human affairs : division fatal to stability 
in kingdoms and cities. — aTaBi^crcTai : 
ist future passive with an intransitive 
sense, vide Winer, § 38, i. — Ver. 26 
applies the axiom to Satan. «i, intro- 
duces a simple particular supposition 
Without reference to its truth. — i^t.tpLa^r\ : 
the aorist has the force of a perfect. 
Satan casting out Satan means self- 
stultification ; i/5o/(7c<o, self-division re- 
sults. Against the argument it might be 
objected : Kingdoms and cities do 
become divided against themselves, re- 
gardless of fatal consequences, why 
not also Satan ? Why should not that 
happen to Satan's kingdom which has 
happened even to the Christian Church ? 
Jesus seems to have credited Satan with 
more astuteness than is possessed by 
states, cities, and churches. Satan may 
be wicked. He says in effect, but he is 
not a fool. Then it has to be considered 
that communities commit follies which 
individuals avoid. Men war against 
each other to their common undoing, 
who would be wiser in their own affairs. 
One Satan might cast out another, but 
no Satan will cast out himself. And 
that is the case put by Jesus. Some, 
e.g., De Wette and Fritzsche, take 6 
Zaravas t. Z. ckPoLXXci as = one Satan 
casting out another. But that is not 
Christ's meaning. He so puts the case 
as to make the absurdity evident. Ex 
hypothesi He had a right to put it so ; 
for the theory was that Satan directly 
empowered and enabled Him to deliver 

men from his (Satan's) power. — Ver 27. 
To the previous convincing argument 
Jesus adds an argtimentum ad homincm, 
based on the exorcism then practised 
among the Jews, with which it would 
appear the Pharisees found no fault. — ol 
■ulol v\k€)v, not of course Christ's disciples 
(so most of the Fathers), for the Pharisaic 
prejudice against Him would extend to 
them, but men belonging to the same 
school or religious type, like-minded. 
By referring to their performances Jesus 
put the Pharisees in a dilemma. Either 
they must condemn both forms of dis- 
possession or explain why they made a 
difference. What they would have said 
we do not know, but it is not difficult tc 
suggest reasons. . The Jewish exorcists 
operated in conventional fashion by use 
of herbs and magical formulae, and the 
results were probably insignificant. The 
practice was sanctioned by custom, and 
harmless. But in casting out devils, as 
in all other things, Jesus was original, 
and His method was too effectual. His 
power, manifest to all, was His offence. — 
Kpirai. Jesus now makes the fellow- 
religionists of the Pharisees their judges. 
On a future occasion He will make John 
the Baptist their judge (xxi. 23-27). Such 
home-thrusts were very inconvenient. 

Ver. 28. The alternative : if not by 
Satan then by the Spirit of God, 
with an inevitable inference as to the 
worker and His work. — Iv irveviiaTi 8eov. 
Luke has kv SaKrvXtfi 6. The former 
seems more in keeping with the connec- 
tion of thought as defending the ethical 
character of Christ's work assailed by 
the Pharisees. If, indeed, the spirit of 
God were regarded from the charismatic 
point of view, as the source of miraculous 
gifts, the two expressions would be 
synonymous. But there is reason to 
believe that by the time our Gospel was 
written the Pauline conception of the 
Holy Spirit's influence as chiefly ethical 
and immanent, as distinct from that of 
the primitive apostolic church, in which 
it was charismatic and transcendent, 
bad gained currency (vide my St. Paul's 




29. f| irws Sufarai tis eiaeXOeii' eis J^v oiKiaK toO lo^upou Kai xa 
aKcuT] auToG SiapTvciaai,^ cdv p.^ TrpwroM SrjoT) t6>' icrj^upoi' ; koi 
TOTC Tr]v oiKiac auToG Siapirdaei.'' 30. 6 p,T) ttv pLer' cp.ou, Kar' ep.ot 

' BCXI liave the simple apiroo-ai. 
Mk. or to the next clause. 

' ^1)1 (Tisch.) have Siap-irao-i). 

Siapiraaai (^"^DLA al.) conforms either tc 
BCL al. pi. have 8iapirao-ci, as inT.R. (W.II ). 

Conception of Christianity, chap. xiii.). 
A trace of the new Pauline view may be 
found in Mt. x. 20; " It is not ye that 
speak, but the Spirit of your Father 
speaking in you ". The influence is 
within, and the product is not unintelli- 
gible utterance, like that of the speaker 
with tongues (i Cor. xii., xiv.), but wise, 
sincere apology for the faith. But why 
then did Luke not adopt this Pauline 
phrase ? Because one of his main aims 
was to bring out the miraculousness of 
Christ's healing works ; that they were 
done by the very finger of God (Exod. 
viii. ig). — t(j)0a(r€V. Fritzsche takes this 
word strictly as signifying not merely : 
the kingdom of God has come nigh you 
(■fJY7iK€v, Lk. x. g), but : has come 
nigh sooner than you expected. The 
more general sense, however, seems 
most suitable, as it is the usual sense in 
the N. T. The point at issue was: do 
the events in question mean Satan's 
kingdom come or God's kingdom come ? 
It must be one or other ; make up your 
minds which. — Ver. zg. To help them 
to decide Jesus throws out yet another 
parabolic line of thought. — ^ I if all that 
I have said does not convince you con- 
sider this. The parable seems based on 
Is. xlix. 24, 25, and like all Christ's 
parabolic utterances appeals to common 
sense. The theme is, spoiling the 
spoiler, and the argument that the enter- 
prise implies hostile purpose and success 
in it superior power. The application 
is : the demoniac is a captive of Satan ; 
in seeking to cure him I show myself 
Satan's enemy ; in actually curing him 
I show myself Satan's master. — rot) 
lo-xvpov : the article is either generic, 
or individualising after the manner of 
parabolic speech. Proverbs and parables 
assume acquaintance with their charac- 
ters. — (TKeijTj, household furniture (Gen. 
xxxi. 37) ; apirao-ai, seize (Judges xxi. 
21) — Siapirdo-ei, make a clean sweep of 
all that is in the house, the owner, 
bound hand and foot, being utterly help- 
less. The use of this compound verb 
points to the thoroughness of the cures 
wrought on demoniacs, as in the case of 
the demoniac of Gadara: quiet, clothed. 

sane (Mk. v. 15). — Ver. 30. One begins 
at this point to have the feeling that 
here, as elsewhere, our evangelist groups 
sayings of kindred character instead of 
exactly reproducing Christ's words as 
spoken to the Pharisees. The connec- 
tion is obscure, and the interpretations 
therefore conflicting. On first view 
one would say that the adage seems 
more appropriate in reference to luke- 
warm disciples or undecided hearers than 
to the Pharisees, who made no pretence 
of being on Christ's side. Some accord- 
ingly {e.g., Bleek, after Elwcrt and 
UUmann) have so understood it. Others, 
including Grotius, Wetstein, De Wette, 
take the lyw of the adage to be Satan, 
and render : he who, like myself, is not 
with Satan is against him. Kypke, Ob- 
serv. Sac, says : " Prima persona posita 
est a servatore pro quacunque alia, pro- 
verbialiter, hoc sensu : qui socius cujus- 
dam bella cum alio gerentis non est, is 
pro adversaria censeri solet. Cum igitur 
ego me re ipsa adversarium Satanae esse 
ostenderim, nulla specie socius ejus potero 
vocari." This certainly brings the say- 
ing into line with the previous train of 
thought, but if Jesus had meant to say 
that He surely would have expressed 
Himself diiTerently. The Fathers (Hilary, 
Jerome, Chrys.) took the lyut to be Jesus 
and the 6 pT) tav to be Satan. So under- 
stood, the adage contains a fourth con- 
cluding argument against the notion of 
a league between Jesus and Satan. Most 
modern interpreters refer the 6 p. w. to the 
Pharisees. Schanz, however, under- 
stands the saying as referring to the 
undecided among the people. The only 
serious objection to this view is that it 
makes ihe saying irrelevant to the situa- 
tion. — (rKop^i(ei. : late for the earlier 
a-KeSdvwpi, vide Lob., Phryn., p. 218. 
As to the metaphor of gathering and 
scattering, its natural basis is not 
apparent. But in all cases, when one 
man scatters what another gathers their 
aims and interests are utterly diverse. 
Satan is the arch-waster, Christ the 
collector, Saviour. 

Vv. 31, 32. yesus changes His font 
from argument to solemn warning. Ver. 




coTi. Kal 6 u.i\ aoi'divoiK uer' cuou, ' crKoomX^fx. XI. Aid toCto z Lk. xi. 23. 

/\ ' ar - ■, n I John X. 11; 

X^vw uiLiv, riaara daapTia Kat * pXaor4>Ti|xia d4>e9i]or€Tai TOig avdpoj- xvi 32. i 

TTOi? • lii 8€ Tou rii'euu.aTOs p\aa<{»T)uta ouk d.(J>e9r)o-eTai Tois d>'0pw- a Ch. xv. ig. 
1 x^»a«» \' ' ... ->a' Mk.iii.38; 

TTOi-s- 32. icai 09 at' * eiTTYi XoyoK Kara tou uiou too ai'opwiTOu, vn. 22. 

d4)€0i]a€Tai auTw • 05 8' Sk eiirr] KaT^, tou nK€u'|iaT09 tou 'Ayiou, 31 (evil 

,,.A, 3i^ » > ' " '- » » - /w speaking 

OUK a4>e6i[]acTai^ auTW, out€ €v toutu tw aiwt'i outc €v tw ^eWorri.. generally). 

Ch. xxvi. 
65. Mk. ii. 7; xiv. 64. John X. 33 (against God). 

' {>^B omit Tois avOpuirois, which seem to be simply an echo of t. av. in the 
previous clause. 
" 05 cav in most uncials. D has os av, as in T. R. 
* For OUK a(f>£9T|or6Tai found in most uncials B has ov |at{ aj^tdj], which W.H. 

place in the margin. 

31. 8itt tovto connects not merely with 
preceding verse, but with the whole 
foregoing argument. Mark more im- 
pressively introduces the blasphemy- 
logion with a solemn dfi,T)v Xtyco vjiiv. — 
irdo-Q c.|xapT(a, etc. A broad preliminary 
declaration of the pardonableness of 
human sin of all sorts, and especially of 
sins of the tongue, worthy and charac- 
teristic of Jesus, and making what 
follows more impressive. — i^ 8i t. FI. 
pXao*. oiic d(j)€6iior€Tai : pointed, emphatic 
exception. Evidently the Spirit here is 
taken ethically. He represents the 
moral ideal, the absolutely good and 
holy. Blasphemy against the Spirit so 
conceived, unpardonable — that is our 
Lord's deliberate judgment. —pXa<r4>r]fj,ia, 
injurious speech (from pXawTM and <j>t]|at)), 
in such a case will mean speaking of the 
holy One as if He were unholy, or, in 
the abstract, calling good evil, not by 
misunderstanding but through antipathy 
to the good. — Ver. 32. So serious a 
statement needs to be carefully guarded 
against misapprehension ; therefore Jesus 
adds an explanatory declaration. — X6yov 
Kara r. v. t. dvOpwirov. Jesus dis- 
tinguishes between a word against the 
Son of Man and a word against the Holy 
Ghost. The reference in the former is 
to Himself, presumably, though Mark at 
the corresponding place has " the sons 
of men," and no special mention of a 
particular son of man. Christ gives the 
Pharisees to understand that the grava- 
men of their offence is not that they have 
spoken evil of Him. Jesus had no ex- 
ceptional sensitiveness as to personal 
offences. Nor did He mean to suggest 
that offences of the kind against Him 
were more serious or less easily pardon- 
able than such offences against other 
men, say, the prophets or the Baptist. 
Many interpreters, indeed, think other- 

wise, and represent blasphemy against 
the Son of Man as the higher limit of 
the forgiveable. A grave mistake, I 
humbly think. Jesus was as liable to 
honest misunderstanding as other good 
men, in some respects more liable than 
any, because of theexceptional originality 
of His character and conduct. All new 
things are liable to be misunderstood 
and decried, and the best for a while to 
be treated as the worst. Jesus knew this, 
and allowed for it. Men might there- 
fore honestly misunderstand Him, and 
be in no danger of the sin against the 
Holy Ghost (e.g., Saul of Tarsus). On 
the other hand, men might dishonestly 
calumniate any ordinary good man, and 
be very near the unpardonable sin. It 
is not the man that makes the difference, 
but the source of the blasphemy. If the 
source be ignorance, misconception, ill- 
informed prejudice, blasphemy against 
the Son of Man will be equally pardon- 
able with other sins. If the source be 
malice, rooted dislike of the good, selfish 
preference of wrong, because of the ad- 
vantage it brings, to the right which the 
good seek to establish, then the sin is 
not against the man but against the 
cause, and the Divine Spirit who inspires 
him, and though the agent be but a 
humble, imperfect man, the sinner is 
perilously near the unpardonable point. 
Jesus wished the Pharisees to understand 
that, in His judgment, that was their 
position. — ovTc, ovtc analyse the nega- 
tion of pardon, conceived as affecting 
both worlds, into its parts for sake of 
emphasis (vide on V. 34-36). Dogmatic 
inferences, based on the double negation, 
to possible pardon after death, are pre- 
carious. Lightfoot (Hor. Heb.) explains 
the double negation by reference to the 
Jewish legal doctrine that, in contrast 
to Other sins, profaning the name of God 




33. *H Troii'iaaTc to S^cSpor KaXof, Kat tok Kapirok auroG KaXo*', r\ 

ivon')(raT€ to 8^i'8pof cra'iTp6v, tcai tov Kapnov auTOu aaTrpoi' ■ €K yap 

ToC KapiTOu TO SeVSpcv yiP'tuaKCTai. 34.. rcvnjiiaTa t)(t8i'wv, iris 

b Lk. vi. 45. Su^aaOc dyadct XaXeif, TToi'rjpol oktcs ; €k yap tou ** TT€picracuu,aTOS 
Mk. viii. , , ^ , v»- c,nyvrt , 

y. 2 Cor. TT]S Kapoias to OTOfxa XaXei. 35. o ayaGos as opuiros ck tou dyaSou 

c Ch. xiii. GtjaaupoO Tijs KapSias* 'tRPdiXXei Ta* dyaGd • Kal 6 ■iroi'i]p69 dv8pw- 

35 (in same iros 6K Tou iTonfjpou 6r]craopoo eK^ciXXci TTOciipd. 36. Xe'yw Se ujaik, 

sense). „ „,« , , «>v\\' B'^o d ■• ^ r 

d Lk. xvi. 7. OTL -nav pr\ii.a apyov, o edc Aa\iiCTW(Tii' " 01 acDpwTrot, tnroowffouai 
Acts xix. V3~0\' '«/ ' ' .«»> 

40. I Pet. Tvepi auTou Aoyoc ev T]p,epa Kpiaeug. 37. ex yap Twi* Xoywi' <tou 

8iKaia)0i]OT[i, Kal 6k tCjv Xoyojv' aotj KaToSiKaaOiiar]." 

' Most uncials omit tt]s KopSias. It comes from Lk. (vi. 45). 
^ BD III. omit Ttt, which, however, is found in ^CLAI and retained by W.H. on 
the margin. 

' For o eav XaXijo-wo-iv ^BC have o XaXrjaovo-iv, D XaXovciv. 

could be expiated only by death, un- 
pardonable in this life. Blasphemy 
against the Holy Ghost, says Jesus, in 
conscious antithesis, pardonable neither 
here nor there : " neque ante mortem, 
neque per mortem". 

Vv. 33-37. Kindred Lo^a. With the 
word concerning blasphemy the self- 
defence of Jesus against Pharisaic 
calumny reached its culmination and 
probably (as in Mark's report) its close. 
The sentences following seem to be 
accretions rather than an organic part of 
the discourse. They substantially re- 
produce sayings found in Sermon on 
Mount (vii. 16-20), there directed against 
false prophets, here against false re- 
ligionists. Ver. 35 is found in Luke's 
version of the Sermon (vi, 45). They 
might have been remarks made to the 
disciples about the Pharisees, as in 
xvi. 6, though in their present form 
direct address is implied {vide ver. 34). 
Their essential import is that the nature 
or heart of a man determines his speech 
and action. Given the tree, the firuit 
follows. — Ver. 33. ironio-aT* = eiTraTc 
(Euthy. Zig.), judge, pronounce; call 
both tree and fruit good, or evil ; they 
must both be of one kind, in fact and 
in thought (vide Kypke, ad loc). The 
reference of the adage has been 
much discussed : to the Pharisees or to 
Christ ? Kypke replies : to Christ if 
you connect with what goes before, to 
the Pharisees if with what follows. As 
an adage the saying admits of either 
application. The Fathers favoured the 
reference to Christ, whom Meyer follows. 
— Ver. 34. revvi]|ioTa exiSvuv, vide iii. 
7. John and Jesus agree in thinking 

the Pharisees a viper-brood. Both con- 
ceive them as niorally hopeless. The 
Baptist wonders that they should comi 
to a baptism of repentance. Jesus thinks 
them far on the way to final impeni- 
tence. But the point He makes here is 
that, being what they are, they cannot 
but speak evil. The poison of their 
nature must come out in their words. 
— Ver. 35. 6 dyaO^s d. : good in the 
sense of benignant, gracious, kindly, the 
extreme moral opposite of the malignant 
viper-nature. — 6T)cravpov : in ver. 34 the 
heart is conceived as a fountain, of 
which speech is the overflow, here as a 
treasure whose stores of thought and 
feeling the mouth freely distributes. — 
cK^dXXci suggests speech characterised 
by energy, passion. There was no lack 
of emphasis in Pharisaic comments on 
Jesus. They hissed out their malevolent 
words at Him, being not heartless but 
bad-hearted. But cf. texts referred to on 
margin. — Ver 36. irdv p. dpyov : speech 
being the outcome of the heart, no word 
is insignificant, not even that which is 
dpydv, ineffectual (a, cpyov), insipid, 
" idle ". It is an index of thoughtless- 
ness if not of malice. This verse con- 
tains an important warning, whether 
spoken at this time or not. — Ver. 37. ek 
ydp T. Xoytov (rov. Judgment by words 
here taught ; in Mt. xxv. 31-46 
judgment by the presence or absence of 
kind deeds. No contradiction, for words 
are viewed as the index of a good or bad 
heart: bad positively, like that of the 
Pharisees, who spoke wickedly ; bad 
negatively, like that of the thoughtless, 
who speak senselessly. On the teaching 
of this passage cf, James iii. 




38. T6Te dTreKpi0T]aa»' ^ Tik-es twv ypafijjLaWwi' Kttl ♦opicraiui'^ 
\iyovres, "AiSaaKaXe, 9eXo)X6i' diro aoG o-Tjfieioi' i8ei»'." 39. 'O Si 
diToxpiOels eiTrei' auTOis, " fet'td iTOfY)pd Kai * jioixaXls (r1r)fX6lo^ 
' eTrt(^T|Tet • teat JTrjiAeiof ou BoS/jocrat aurf), el fxtj to <nf)p.eioi/ 'iwm 
Tou ■irpo<|)T)TO0. 40. wCTirep yap rji' 'iwt'as £f T'p KOiXia toG ki'^tou? 
Tpeis i^fie'pas ital rpeis futtras, outw? eorat 6 utos tou dvGpwTTOU ev 
TT] KapSia TTjs yi^S rpeis i^fiepas Kal Tpcis I'uKTas. 41. "Ai/Spes 
NifeoiTai dfacmjiTorrai iv rrj Kpiaei fierd ty]S y^''^^? TaurrjSj Kal 
KaTaKpicouaif aiiTqif • on p.eTci'O'qcrai' eis to Ki]puYp,a 'loii'd • Kal 

' ^BCDLI insert avroi before Tives. 

« Ch. xvi. 4. 

Mk. viii. 

38. J as. 

iv. 4. 
{ vide ntCh 

vs. 32. 

Vv. 38-45. A sign asked and re/used, 
with relative discourse (Lk. xi. 16, 
29-36). Both Matt.'s and Luke's re- 
ports convey the impression that the 
demand for a sign, and the enunciation 
of the Satanic theory as to Christ's 
cures of demoniacs, were synchronous. 
If they were, the demand was impudent, 
hypocritical, insulting. Think of the 
men who could so speak of Christ's heal- 
ing ministry wanting a sign that would 
satisfy them as to His Messianic claims! 
— Ver, 38. o"»)n.€iov : what kind of a 
sign ? They thought the cure of de- 
moniacs a sign from hell. Elsewhere 
we read of their asking a sign from 
heaven (xvi. i). From what quarter was 
the sign now asked to come from ? 
Perhaps those who made the demand 
had no idea ; neither knew nor cared. 
Their question really meant : these signs 
won't do ; if you want us to believe in 
you you must do something else than 
cast out devils. The apparent respect 
and earnestness of the request are 
feigned : " teacher, we desire from you 
(emphatic position) to see a sign ". It 
reminds one of the mock homage of the 
soldiers at the Passion (xxvii. 27-31). — 
Ver. 39. yev£a, as in xi. 16, a moral class, 
" quae in omni malitia et improbitate 
vivit," Suicer, s. v. ycvcd. — |i,oixaXls, un- 
faithful to God as a wife to a husband, 
apt description of men professing godli- 
ness but ungodly in heart. — eiri^ijTei, 
hankers after, as in vi. 32 ; characteristic ; 
men that have no light within crave ex- 
ternal evidence, which given would be of 
no service to them. Therefore : ov 
8o9t]o-«Tai : it will not be given either by 
Jesus or by any one else. He declines, 
knowing it to be vain. No sign will 
convince them; why give one? — el fi-f), 
etc. : except the sign of Jonah the 
prophet, which was no sign in their 
sense. What is referred to ? But for 

what follows we should have said ; the 
preaching of repentance by Jonah to the 
Ninevites. So Lk. xi. 30 seems to 
take it. Jonah preached repentance to 
the men of Nineveh as the only way of 
escape from judgment. Jesus points to 
that historic instance and says : Beware 1 
Jonah was not the only prophetic 
preacher of repentance ; but, as Nineveh 
is held up as a reproach to the persons 
addressed, to single him out was fitting. 
— Ver. 40 gives an entirely different 
turn to the reference. The verse cannot 
be challenged on critical grounds. If it 
is an interpolation, it must have become 
an accepted part of the text before the 
date of our earliest copies. If it be 
genuine, then Jesus points to His re- 
surrection as the appropriate sign for an 
unbelieving generation, saying in effect : 
you will continue to disbelieve in spite 
of all I can say or do, and at last you 
will put me to death. But I will rise 
again, a sign for your confusion if not 
for your conversion. For opposite views 
on this interpretation of the sign of 
Jonah, vide Meyer ad loc. and Holtzmann 
in H.C. — Ver. 41. Application of the 
reference in ver. 39, The men of 
Nineveh are cited in condemnation of 
the Jewish contemporaries of Jesus. Cf. 
similar use of historic parallels in xi. 
20-24. — irXetov Mcova, more than Jonah, 
cf. ver. 6 ; refers either to Jesus per- 
sonally as compared with Jonah, or to 
His ministry as compared with Jonah's. 
In the latter case the meaning is : there 
is far more in what is now going on 
around you to shut you up to repentance 
than in anything Jonah said to the men 
of Nineveh (so Grotius). — Ver. 42. 
Pao-£Xi<ro-a vdrov is next pressed into 
the service of putting unbelievers to 
shame. The form ^avCXicra-a was con- 
demned by Phryn., but Eisner cites in- 
stances from Demosthenes and otliei 




B I.k. xl. 31. 
Acts viii. 

17. Rev. 
xviii. 7. 

h Lk. xi. 31. 
Rum. X. 

18. Hcb. 
vi. 1 6. 

i Lk. xi. 24. 

3 Pet. ii. 

17. Jude 

••I Cor. vii. 

5 (to have 


1800, ttXcio*' '\(t)ya <LS«. 42. * ^aaiXiaaa foTOu ^ycpOi'jaeTai iv Tf\ 
KpiCTCi |i.£Ta Tiis Y«>'€tt9 Tttijrqs, Kttl KaraKptKci aoTTjw • oxi f|\6£>' ^k 
TWK *" irepciTU*' TTJs Y'H^ <iKoGaai tt)I' ao4iiaK ZoXojj.ut'Tos Kut iSoiJ, 
TrXeiOf ZoXofiuJTOS wSc. 43. 'Otov Sc to dKcxOaproK TrfEUfxa t^e'XOr] 
AiTO TOO dfOpuTTOu, Si^pxtTai 81' ' di'u8p(i)>' TOTr(jj>', ^rjToui' di'dirauaii', 
Kal ou)( cupiCTKCi. 44. t6t€ X^yci, ETTiorpevj/w els Tok oiitok )XOu,^ 
oOcf ^|t|X6o»' • ical ^X66f copiCTKCi ^ or)(oXdl^ok'Ta, '' acaapwficVoi' Kal 
k Lk. xi. 3J ; sv. 8. 

' i^BDZ read €i« tov oikov |iov tirurrpt^nt. 

to Lk. (xi. 24). 

The reading in T. R. is assimilated 

good vvTiters. J. Alberti also (Observ. 
Philol.) cites an instance from Aiheiueus, 
lib. xiii. 595 : ^ao-iXiao-* eo-ci Ba^vXwvos. 
The reference is to the story in i Kings 
X. and 2 Chron. ix. concerning the 
Queen of Sheba visiting Solomon. — iK 
Tuv irepaTwv ttjs yrjs. Eisner quotes in 
illustration the exhortation of Isocrates 
not to grudge to go a long way to hear 
those who profess to teach anything 
useful. — irXetov Z., again a claim of 
superiority for the present over the great 
persons and things of the past. On the 
apparent egotism of these comparisons, 
vid^ my Apologetics, p. 367 ; and re- 
member that Jesus claimed superiority 
not merely for Himself and His work, 
but even for the least in the Kingdom of 
Heaven (xi. 11). 

Vv. 43-45. A comparison. Cf. Lk. 
xi. 24-26. Formerly Jesus had likened 
the evil race of Pharisaic religionists to 
children playing in the market-place (xi. 
16-19). Now He uses expelled demons 
to depict their spiritual condition. The 
similitude moves in the region of popular 
opinion, and gives a glimpse into the 
superstitions of the time. We gather 
from it, first, that the effects of the arts 
of exorcists were temporary; and, second, 
the popular theory to explain the facts : 
the demon returned because he could 
not find a comfortable home anywhere 
else. On this vide Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. 
The parable was naturally suggested by 
the cure of the demoniac (ver. 2t). — 
Ver. 43. 8t' avvSpuv toituv: the haunts 
of demons, as popularly conceived, were 
places uninhabited by men, deserts and 
graveyards. The demon in Toliit viii. 3 
flies to the uppermost parts of Egypt ; 
and in Baruch iv. 35 a land desolated by 
fire is to become tenanted by demons. — 
Stt'pxsTaL ^T|Tovv : the spirit keeps moving 
on in quest of a resting place ; like a 
human being he feels ill at ease in the mo- 
notonous waste of sand.— ovK EupiaKii: 

in Luke cvpto-Kov. The change firom 
participle to finite verb is expressive. 
The failure to find a resting place was an 
important fact, as on it depended the re- 
solve to return to the former abode. — 
Ver. 44. orxoXdJovTa a. Kai k. = un- 
tenanted and ready for a tenant, invit- 
ing by its clean, ornamented condition. 
The epithets simply describe in lively 
pictorial manner the risk of repossession. 
But naturally commentators seek spiritual 
equivalents for them. Ornamented how ? 
With grace, say some (Hilary, Chrys., 
Godet), with sin, others (Orig., Jer., 
Euthy., Weiss, etc.). The ornamenta- 
tion must be to the taste of the tenant. 
And what is that ? Neither for sin nor 
for grace, but for sin counterfeiting 
grace ; a form of godliness without the 
power ; sanctity which is but a mask fot 
iniquity. The house is decorated re- 
putedly for God's occupancy, really foi 
the devil's.. — <r€<rap(i>fie'vov ; <rapovv is 
condemned by Phryn. ; " when you hear 
one say <rapaKrov bid him say irapa- 
K^pi^irov ". — Ver. 45. eiTTa €T€pa irvev- 
(xara, etc. This feature is introduced 
to make the picture answer to the moral 
condition of the Pharisees as conceived 
by Jesus. The parable here passes out 
of the region of popular imagination and 
natural probability into a region of 
deeper psychological insight. Why 
should the demon want associates in 
occupancy of the house .' Why not 
rather nave it all to himself as before ? — 
ovTus ecrrai, etc. Ethical application. 
The general truth implied is : moral and 
religious reform may be, has been, 
succeeded by deeper degeneracy. The 
question naturally suggests itself: what 
is the historical range of the application ? 
It has been answered variously. From 
the lawgiving till the present time (Hil., 
Jer.) ; from the exile till now (Chrys., 
Grotius, etc.) ; from the Baptist till now 
(Weiss, etc.). Christ gives no hint of 

♦ -J 50- 



' KSKocriirniivov. 45. tcStc Tropeu'erai Kal " irapaXafiPdk'ei p.€0' lauToG 
^Trrd CTcpa Trc6up.aTa "TTOk'TipoTepa eauToO, kuI elaeKQayja KaroiKei 
«Kei • Kal yiyerai to, ecr^ara tou ayQpijjTtou ckciwou )(etpoca twi' 
TTpwTwt'. ouTus eo-Tai Kal TTJ yevea xauTT] ttj TrokT]pa. 46. "Eti Se^ 
auTou XaXoukTOS tois oxXots, l8ou, 1^ f^iriTTip Kai ol d8e\<j>0L auroo 
etcmiKeicra*' £|w, "^TjroCt'Tes aoxw XaXTJcrai. 47. elTre Be tis auxw, 
"'iSoUj 1^ fi^TTlP fou Kal ol dSeXcjjOt aoo c^o) eoTT^Kaai, ^TjToOcTe's 
j^oi XaXT]CTat." ^ 48. 'O Se d7roKpi6els etire tw eiTron-i ' auxw, " Tis 
«(mv 1^ fJiilTTIP fAOU ; <til xices cialc ol d8«X4>ot p.ou ; 49. Kal 
/ktcikos tt)k X^^P** oiuToG * eirl xous |Ji.a9T]xds auxou eXirey, " l8ou, r] 
\i-t\Tf\p )xou Kal ol dSeXtfjoi p,ou. 50. octxis y^P ^'' ironiCTT| x6 OeX-rjiJia 
roo iraxpos p,oo xoo iv oupuKoIs, aoxos fAoo d8£X<()6s Kal d8eX4>T) Kal 
jAiqTT]p eoTii'." 

1 fc^B omit 8« (Tisch., W.H.). 

'The whole of ver. 47 is wanting in ^BT. and is omitted by W.H. Tisch. puts 
it within brackets. It is an explanatory j^Kjss. 

' XeyovTi in ^BDZ. 

* t^DI omit avTov (Tisch.). BC retain it (VV'.il. within brackets). 

1 Lk. xi. as. 
Cb. xxiti. 
29 (of 

ID Ch. xvii. 

n compar. 
here and 
in Lk. xi. 

o Ch. xxi. 
46. Mk. 
xii. 12. 
Lk. V. 18. 
John V. 18 
(with inf. 
= to en- 

what period was in His thoughts, unless 
,ve find one in the epithet p.oixaXls 
(ver. 39), which recalls prophetic charges 
of unfaithfulness to her Divine Husband 
against Israel, and points to the exile as 
the crisis at which she seriously re- 
pented of that sin. It is not at all likely 
that Christ's view was limited to the 
period dating from John's ministry. 
Moral laws need large spaces of time for 
adequate exemplification. The most in- 
structive exemplification of the degene- 
racy described is supplied by the period 
from Ezra till Christ's time. With Ezra 
ended material idolatry. But from that 
period dates the reign of legalism, which 
issued in Rabbinism, a more subtle and 
pernicious idolatry of the letter, the 
more deadly that it wore the fair aspect 
of zeal for God and righteousness. 

Vv. 46-50. The relatives of jfesiis 
(Mk. iii. 31-35 ; Lk. viii. 19-21). 
Matthew and Mark place this incident 
in connection with the discourse occa- 
sioned by Pharisaic calumny. Luke 
gives it in a quite different connection. 
The position assigned it by Matthew 
and Mark is at least fitting, and through 
it one can understand the motive. Not 
vanity : a desire to make a parade of 
their influence over their famous relative 
on the part of mother and brethren 
(Chrys., Theophy., etc.), but solicitude 
on His account and a desire to extricate 
Him from trouble. This incident should 

be viewed in connection with the state- 
ment in Mk. iii. 21 that friends thought 
Jesus beside Himself. They wished to 
rescue Him from Himself and from men 
whose ill-will He had, imprudently, 
they probably thought, provoked. — Ver. 
46. a8€X<j>ol, brothers in the natural 
sense, sons of Mary by Joseph ? Pre- 
sumably, but an unwelcome hypothesis 
to many on theological grounds.— 
elo-TiiK€icrav, pluperfect, but with sense 
of imperfect (Fritzsche). They had 
been standing by while Jesus was speak- 
ing. — «|w, on the outskirts of the crowd, 
or outside the house into which Jesus 
entered (Mk. iii. 19). — Ver. 47 (wanting 

in J«^BL) states what is implied in ver. 

48 (tu Xeyovri), that some one reported 
to Jesus the presence of His relatives. — 
Ver. 48. Tis iarriv t| (itixTjp jaov. One 
might have expected Jesus, out of deli- 
cacy, to have spoken only of His 
brethren, leaving the bearing of the 
question on His mother to be inferred. 
But the mention of her gave increased 
emphasis to the truth proclaimed. The 
question repels a well-meant but ignorant 
interference of natural affection with the 
sovereign claims of duty. It reveals a 
highly strung spirit easily to be mistaken 
for a morbid enthusiasm. — Ver. 49. 
EKTtivas X. x- • ^n eloquent gesture, 
making the words following, for those 
present, superfluous. — tSov, etc. There 





• Ch. xxvii. XIII. I. 'en 8e ^ rf] 'Hpepa ^kcikt) ^leXduf 6 'iTjaous Airft * xris 
iv. I ; vi. oiKia9 ^Ka0i)TO irapa. r})!' OdXaaorai' • 2. ical ' avvr]y^Qr](jav Trpos auTot' 

(with ;rp6? 0)(\oi TToXXoi, WOTC auTOW €IS TO ' irXoiOC CfAJBcil'Ta KaSfjffOat • Kal 

' t^BI omit Sc, which the ancient revisers seem to have inserted regularly as a 
transitional particle. 

- ^Z have ck (Tisch.). B has neither ck nor airo (W.II. omit airo and have ck in 

't^BCLZZomii to. 

are idealists, promoters of pet schemes, 
and religious devotees whom it would 
cost no effort to speak thus ; not an ad- 
mirable class of people. It did cost 
Jesus an effort, for He possessed a 
warm heart and unblighted natural 
affections. But He sacrificed natural 
affection on the altar of duty, as He 
finally sacrificed His life. — Ver. 50. 
Definition of spiritual kinsmanship. The 
highest brotherhood based on spiritual 
affinity. — octtis 7oip av Troiijo-r] : a general 
present supposition expressed by the sub- 
junctive with av followed by present in- 
dicative. — TO 0AT)|xa T. iraxpiSs p. t. ^v 
ovrpavois : this probably comes nearest to 
Christ's actual words. In such a solemn 
utterance He was likely to mention His 
Father, whose supreme claims His filial 
heart ever owned. Mark has " the will 
of God"; Luke "those who hear and 
do the word of God " — obviously second- 

Chapter XIII. Jesus Teaching in 
Parables. The transition from the 
sultry, sombre atmosphere of chap. xii. 
into the calm, clear air of Christ's 
parabolic wisdom would be as welcome 
to the evangelist as it is to us. Yet even 
here we do not altogether escape the 
shadow of unbelief or spiritual insus- 
ceptibility. We read of much good seed 
wasted, bad seed sown among good, fish 
of all sorts caught in the net. The 
adoption of the parabolic method of 
teaching, indeed, had its origin in part 
in disappointing experiences ; truths 
misapprehended, actions misunderstood, 
compelling the Teacher to fall back on 
natural analogies for explanation and 
self-defence. All the synoptists recog- 
nise the importance of this type of teach- 
ing by their formal manner of introducing 
the first of the group of seven parables 
contained in Matthew's collection. Cf. 
Mt. xiii. 3 ; Mk. iv. 2 ; Lk. viii. 4. 
Matthew's way of massing matter of the 
same kind most effectually impresses us 
with the significance of this feature in 
Christ's teaching ministry. That Jesus 

spoke all the seven parables grouped 
together in this chapter at one time is 
not certain or even likely. In the cor- 
responding section Mark gives only two 
of the seven (Sower and Mustard Seed). 
Luke has the Sower only. The Sower, 
the Tares, and the Drag net may have 
formed a single discourse, as very closely 
connected in structure and import. 
Perhaps we should rather say had a 
place in the discourse from the boat, 
which seems to have been a review of 
the past ministry of Jesus, expressing 
chiefly disappointment with the result. 
Much besides parables would be spoken, 
the parables being employed to point the 
moral ; much seed, little fruit, and yet 
a beginning made destined to grow; the 
situation to be viewed with patience and 
hope. Just how many of the parables 
reported by the evangelists were spoken 
then it is impossible to determine. 

Vv. 1-9. T/ie Parable of the Sower 
(Mk. iv. 1-9; Lk. viii. 4-8). Ver. i. 
Iv T^ "np^ptit €Keivn. The parable stands 
in the same connection in Mark (not in 
Luke), but not as following in immediate 
temporal sequence. No stress should 
be laid on Matthew's phrase "on that 
day". — <|£X9u>v ttjs oiKia? : the house 
in which Jesus is supposed to have been 
when His friends sought for Him, 
though Matthew makes no mention of 
it {vide Mk. iii. 19). — IkciOtjto : as at 
the teaching on the hill (v. i), suggestive 
of lengthened discourse. The Teacher 
sat, the hearers stood. — Ver. 2. oxXoi 
TToXXoi, great numbers of people in all 
the accounts, compelling the Teacher to 
withdraw from the shore into the sea, 
and, sitting in a boat, to address the 
people standing on the margin. Much 
interest, popularity of the Teacher still 
great, and even growing ; yet He has 
formed a very sober estimate of its value, 
as the parable following shows. — Ver. 3>< 
ev irapaPoXais : this method of teaching 
was not peculiar to Jesus — it was 
common among Easterns — but His use 
of it was unique in felicity and in the 



iras 6 ©xXos cm rhv ^ alyiakhv ctorniKci. 3. Kai eXATjaef afirois ** j^'j;^**;^,^! 

TToXXA iy °-n-apapoXais, Xe'ywv', " 'l8ou, e|T]X6€f 6 cnreiput' tou ffircipcii'. +-^. ^!^'^ 

4. Kai iy Tw aTvetpen' auT<5i', & p.ei' e-ireae irapa ttji/ 686*' • Kai •qX0c ^ »tvii. 39. 

Tot TTiTeivd, Kai "* icaT€4)aYCf aurd. 5. aXXa Sc cireffci' iirl Ta'='^"^"=°''" 

•■ireTpojSr], ottou ouk el\e yr\y iroXXi^i' • Kai eu0^ws e^ai'^TCiXc, 81A to ?I"^,'" 

ftTj e)(€iv (3dOos ^ Y^5 ' ^* 'nXioi' 8e dcaTciXacTos ' eKaujxaTiaOif), Kai 9; ^'-'g- 

81C1 TO fJ.Tj iX^iv pi^ac, *e|irjpdf0T]. 7. aXXa 8c lircacv' lirl Tcis John ii. 17. 

dKdi'Gas, Kai dc^Srio-av al UKafGai, Kai dir^irt'i^ai' ^ aurd. 8. aXXa Mk. iv. 5, 

8e CTTCffCi' cttI rriy yrty rhv KaXiii', Kai e8(,8ou Kap-irov, o aey lKaT(5>', f Mk. iv. 6. 

o 8€ c^i^KOi/Ta, o 8e TpidKOkTa. g. 6 i\<ay wTa dKoueti' * aKoucTU. 8, 9. 

10. Kai irpocrcXO^i'Tes ol u,a0T]Tal ciiroc auTW, " AiaTi iy irapajSoXais 19,20. 

Jas. i, II. 

1 B has tXOovra ra irtTetva KaTC<|>aYfv, which W.H. put in the text, placing ijXOov 
T. ir. Kai in the margin. 

2 B has TTjs before yt]s. 

» ^D have eirvi^av (Tisch.). BCZI al. and many min. have airfirfi^av (W.H. 
with firvilav in margin). 
* t«^BL omit ttKoveiv, which comes from parall. 

importance of the lessons conveyed. 
Abstract a priori definitions of the word 
serve little purpose ; we learn best what 
a parable is, in the mouth of Jesus, by 
studying the parables He spoke. Thence 
we gather that to speak in parables 
means to use the familiar in nature or in 
human life (in the form of a narrative or 
otherwise) to embody unfamiliar truths 
of the spiritual world. 

Vv. 3-9. The Parable.— Ver. 3. 6 
oTTcipiov : either 6 generic, or the Sower 
of my story. — rov a-trtipeiv : the infinitive 
of purpose with the genitive of article, 
very frequent in N. T. and in late Greek. 
— Ver. 4. TTapa ttjv 68(5v : not the 
highway, of which there were few, but 
the footpath, of which there were many 
through or between the fields.— Ver. 5. 
tiri Tci -neTpoSSi], upon shallow ground, 
where the rock was near the surface (oiik 
etx«v yT]v -vroWriv). — Ver. 6. ^Kavpa- 
Tia0ii, it was scorched (by the sun) {cf. 
Rev. xvi. 8), which had made it spring 
earliest : promptly quickened, soon 
killed. — Ver. 7. tirl tois 6.Ka.vda.s. 
Fritzsche prefers the reading lis because 
the seed fell not on thorns already 
sprung up, but on ground full of thorn 
seeds or roots. But the latter idea, 
which is the true one, can be expressed 
also by tiri- — avi^r^vav : the thorns 
sprang up as well as the corn, and grow- 
ing more vigorously gained the upper 
hand.— eirvi^av. Euthy. Zig. finds this 
idea in a-vi^rjo-av, for which he gives as 

synonym inT(pi(r\va-av. — Ver. 8. KaXTjv, 
genuinely good land free from all the 
faults of the other three: soft, deep, 
clean. — l8{8ov, yielded. In other texts 
(iii. 8, 10 ; vii. 17) iroitiv is used. — 
JKaT(Sv, l|TJKOVTa, TpiaKovra : all satis- 
factory ; 30 good, 60 better, 100 best 
(Gen. xxvi. 12). — Ver. 9. & «x'"' "Ta ok. 
OIK. An invitation to think of the hidden 
meaning, or rather a hint that there was 
such a meaning. The description of the 
land in which the sower carried on his 
operations would present no difficulties 
to the hearers : the beaten paths, the 
rocky spots, the thorny patches were al! 
familiar features of the fields in Palestine, 
and the fate of the seed in each case was 
in accordance with common experience. . 
But why paint the picture ? What is 
the moral of the story ? That Jesus left 
them to find out. 

Vv. 10-17. The disciples ask an ex- 
planation. There is some difficulty in 
forming a clear idea of this interlude. 
Who asked ? The Twelve only, or they 
and others with them, as Mark states 
(iv. 10) ? And when ? Immediately 
after the parable was spoken, or, as was 
more likely, after the teaching of the day 
was over ? The one certain point is that 
an explanation was asked and given. — 
Ver. 10. Siaxi Iv irapapoXais : Matthew 
makes the question refer to the method 
of teaching, Mark and Luke to the 
meaning of the parables spoken. The 
two questions were closely connected. 

I 90 



XcXeis aoTois ; 1 1 . 'O Be diroKpiGcis elirek aoTois, "'Oxi ualv 

S^SoTGi Y'''»'*'Cii TO. jxoari^pia tt)S pacnXcias tojx oupaKui', ^KCifois 8e 

ou SeSorai. 12. oirris yap iX€i, 8o0T]a£Tai auTw Kai irepiffacwflr')- 

fferat • ocrns 8e ouk «X'^» "^"^^ ^ ^X^*^' OLpQ-qaiTai dir' auroo. 13. 

h Gal. vi. a. 8id touto iv irapaPoXais auToIs XaXw, oTi pX^iTO>'T€S ou pXeTrouai, 

iActsxxviii. ical dKouoi'Tes ouk dtcouooai*', ouSe auciouai. 14. Kal ** dcairXripouTai 

jActsxxviii. ^ir* ^ auTois t) Trpo(|)T)T6ia 'Haatoo, iq X^vooaa, *'Akotj dKouaere, Kal 

k Acts OU fXT) auk-fiTC • Kai pXe'irofTcs )3Xei[;€Te, Kal ou jjltj iST]Te. 15. 

xxviii. 27- I , , A V , Q./ ., . , , ^ - , V I « , 

1 Mk. iv. la. €Traxui'"T) Y<ip 'H Kapoia tou Aaou toutou, koi tois uctl ' papcus 
Lk. xxii. , , , , „ X X , . k , , , ^-, 

32. Acts TjKoocrac, Kat T003 oepWaAjious auroji' eKajj.p.uCTa*' • ^ir^Ttore lOuari tois 

xxviii. 27 6(j)9aXfAors, Kai rots tiaic dKoucrwai, Kal -nj KupSia au>'wcn, Kal 
(absol. = i5 /. \ i f 9«/» /:«», ^ox » c 

reform). einaTpevJ/ojai, Kat laaw/xat ' auTous- 10. Yp.wk' oe p,aKapioi 01 

1 J>^BC omit eirt, which may have been added by the grammanaiis to make the 
const, clearer. 

' ia< in most uncials. Reading of T. R. in XA. 

and both doubtless in the minds of the 
disciples. A more serious difficulty 
arises in connection with Christ's answer 
to their question, which seems to say 
that He adopted the parabolic method in 
order to hide the truths of the kingdom 
from unspiritual minds. Nothing is 
more certain than that Jesus neither did 
nor could adopt any such policy, and if 
the evangelists ascribed it to Him, then 
we should have no alternative but to 
agree with those who, like Holtzmann 
(H. C.) and Julicher (DieGuianu^^teden 
Jesu, pp. 131, 149, vide also his 
Einleitung in das N. T., p. 22S), main- 
tain that the evangelists have mistaken 
His meaning, reading intention in the 
light of result. It is much better to 
impute a mistake to them than an in- 
human purpose to Christ. 

Ver. II. TO, ixvcTTiipia : the word, as 
here used, might suggest the idea of a 
mysterious esoteric doctrine concerning 
the Kingdom of God to be taught only to 
a privileged inner circle. But the term 
in the N. T. means truths once hidden 
now revealed, made generally known, 
and in their own nature perfectly in- 
telligible. So, e.g., in Eph. iii. 9, Col. i. 
26. Jesus desired to make the truths of 
the kingdom of God known to all ; by 
parables if they could not be understood 
otherwise. His aim was to enlighten, 
not to mystify. — Ver. 12. This moral 
apothegm is here given only in Matt. 
It contains a great truth, whether spoken 
or not on this occasion. For the con- 
struction, vide at X. 14. — TrepicrcrtTjOii- 
o-€Tai: again in Mt, xxv. 29, where 

the saying is repeated. This use of the 
passive in a neuter sense belongs to late 
Greek. — Ver. 13. 8ia toOto oti. Mark 
and Luke have Xva, the former assigning 
a reason, the latter ascribing a purpose. 
In Matt. Jesus says: I speak in parables 
because seeing they do not see, etc. ; 
which ought naturally to mean : they are 
dull of apprehension, therefore I do my 
best to enlighten them. — Vv. 14, 15. 
The prophetic citation, given as such by 
!?.Iatthew only, may be due to him, though 
put into the mouth of Jesus. It is con- 
ceivable, however, that Jesus might use 
Isaiah's words in Isaiah's spirit, i.e., 
ironically, expressing the bitter feeling 
of one conscious that his best efforts to 
teach his countrymen would often end 
in failure, and in his bitterness repre- 
senting himself as sent to stop ears and 
blind eyes. Such utterances are not to 
be taken as deliberate dogmatic teach- 
ing. If, as some allege, the evangelists 
so took them, they failed to understand 
the mind of the Master. The quotation 
exactly follows the Sept. The verb 
Kafifjiiju (ver. 15, <Kdp.}ji.vcrav) is con- 
demned by Phryn. as barbarous, the 
right word being Kaxap-veiv. — Vv. 16, 17. 
In Mk. (iv. 13) Jesus reproaches the 
disciples for their ignorance ; here He 
congratulates them on their faculty of 
seeing and hearing (spiritually).— ufAwv : 
in emphatic position, suggesting contrast 
between disciples and the multitude. — 
uaKapioi, vide on chap. v. 3. — on PX., 
because, not for what, they see. — dfjiTjy 
yap Xt'Yoj : introducing an important 
statement. — irpotJifjTai koI SiKaioi, same 



6(j)0aXfiOl, OTl PX^TTOUCTl • Kttl TO. WTtt UfJLOJC,^ OTl d.KOO€l.^ 1 7. dflTJK 

yap \4y(t) iip.iv, oti ttoXXoI •irpO(})TjTai Kal SiKaioi eTicGupiTjaac ISeic S 
PXeTrere, Kal ouk elSoi' • Kal dKoocrat. d dKouere, Kal ouk i^Koocrai'. 
18. 'Yp.6ts ovv dKou(raT6 Trjf irapapoXTjc tou crireipoi'Tos.^ 19. flatn'o? 
dKOuofTos Toi' Xoyo*' Tr]s PawiXeias Kal jjir^ cruvievTO^, ?p)(CTai 6 
TTOi'Tjpos, Kal " dpird^ci to eoTrapixccoi' €i' ttj KapSia auToG • outos m Acts viii. 
eoTiv 6 Trapd tt]>' 686>' o"irap6is. 20. 'O Be cm rd TTCTpwST} airapeis, 
ouT<5s ioTiv 6 Toc Xoyoj' dKOuuf, Kttl cuGus ficxd x^'P^S XaiaPcii/wc 

1 B omits vfi.o>v (bracketed in W.H.). 

"^ oKo-jovcri. in ^BCDXJ. a.i<otj«L a s^ranimaticai correction (neut. pi. nom. wra). 

•* o-TTfipavToc; in ^BX.33. uirt^.-ovTos conforms to ver. 3. 

cdmbination as in x. 41. Tlie felicity 
now consists in the things seen and 
heard. The perceiving senses and the 
things to be perceived imply each other, 
neither by themselves yield enjoyment. 
This passage is given by Lk. (x. 23, 24) 
in a more suitable connection (report on 
their mission by the Seventy). Here it 
creates an exaggerated impression as 
to the extent of the new departure. 
The parabolic teaching of Jesus, as 
exemplified in the Sower and other 
parables here collected, was not an 
absolutely new feature. He had always 
been speaking more or less in parables 
(" Fishers of Men," iv. 19 ; " Salt of the 
Earth," "City on a Hill," v. 13, 14; 
"Two Builders," vii. 24-27; "Whole 
need not a Physician," ix. 12 ; " New 
Garment and New Wine," ix. 16, 17, 
etc.). Some of the parables in this 
connection, the Treasure and the Pearl, 
e.g., may be gems preserved from some 
otherwise forgotten synagogue dis- 
courses, say those delivered in the 
preaching tour through Galilee. 

Vv. 18-23. Interpretation 0/ the Sower 
(Mk. iv. 14-20; Lk. viii. 11-15). Ver. 18. 
t)|jL€is, emphatic, ye privileged ones. — 
ovv referring to the happiness on which 
they have been congratulated. — Ver. iS. 
aKovaarf t. ir. : not, hear it over again, 
but, what it means. — o-ireCpavTos, aorist, 
of the man who sowed in the story just 
told. — Ver. 19. iravrbs aKovovTos, in 
the case of any one who hears, " for the 
classical Idv ns olkovo-i) " (Camb. G. T.). 
It may be a case of interrupted construc- 
tion, the sentence beginning with the 
intention to make the genitive de- 
pendent on an Ik ttjs KapSCas before 
apird^et (so Weiss). — tov X670V riis ^a- 
o-iXEia; : the Sower, unlike the other 
parables in this chapter, contains no 
hint that it concerns liie kingdom. But 

in Christ's discourses that almost went 
without saying. — fiT) <rvvi€VTos : " not 
taking it in," a phrase which happily 
combines the physical fact of the parable 
with the iigurative sense. — 6 irovr\p6%, 
the evil one, Satan, represented by the 
innocent birds of the parable. What a 
different use of the emblem from that in 
vi. 26 1 — Iv T'n KapSiq:: we should hardly 
say of truth not understood that it had 
been sown in the heart. But heart is 
used in Scripture in a wide sense, as the 
seat of intellect as well as of feeling. 
The word in the case supposed is in the 
mind, as the seed is in the ground : on 
it, if not in it ; in it as words, if not as 
truth. — ovTos ItTTiv, etc., this is he 
sown, etc., said of the man, not of the 
seed. Sign and thing signified iden- 
tified, cf. " this is my body ". Properly, 
the seed sown, etc., represents the case 
of such a man. So throughout the in- 
terpretation. — Ver. 20. ftera x(^pa« X. : 
this is the new feature in the second type 
added to the hearing of the first ; hearing 
and receiving with joy characteristic of 
quick emotional shallow natures, but not 
of them only. Deep earnest natures 
also have joy in truth found, but v.-ith a 
difference. — Ver. 21. ovk e'xei: instead 
of the participle f\ti>v under the influence 
of Mk.'stext (Weiss). — irpdo-Kaipos. tem- 
porary, cf. 2 Cor. iv. 18. — Ver. 22. aKovuv, 
hearing alone predicated of the third 
type, but receiving both intellectually 
and emotionally implied ; everything 
necessary present except purity of heart, 
singleness of mind. Hearing is to be 
taken here in a pregnant sense as distinct 
from the hearing that is no hearing (ver. 
13). — |jL£pi[j.vaT. a.jdiraTT) t. it. : together 
= worldliness. Lust for money and 
care go together and between them 
spoil many an earnest religious nature. 
— aKapiro; may refer either to the man 




o Mk. iv. 17. auT($k - 21. ouK e)(€i 8e (iil,av t^' ^auTw, dXXa ' Ttp6fTKaip6^ ivm' 
18. Heb. Y€>'0|j,^i'i)S 8^ 6Xiv)(€WS Y| SiwyfAoO 8ia TOc X^yoK, €u6us aKa»'8aXiJeTat. 

o Lk. viii. 22. 'O Bt eis Ta9 dK((i'0as (rrrapeis, outos icrriv 6 tok Xoyoc dKOuui/, 

34.' a Cor. Kal 1^ ° p.^pipca TOO aiaJKos toutou ' Kal i] " i.-ndrr] toG uXoutou 

P Mk. iv. 19. orop.TTi'iYCt To»' Koyov, KQi aKapTTo? yivtrai. 23. O o« eirt tt)»' yr]!' 
Knh., \ x ' • » » < > \ / j ' v » B 

Col. ii. 8. 'n]k' KaXr)*' ' aTrapetS) 0UT09 toTiv o toc Koyov dKouwi/ Kat ctu>'iwi' " • 

ii. 10. lieb. ^S ' 8t} Kapiro^jopcl, Kttl TTOici 6* fxtk ^KaT<5c, 6 hi e^Y^Korra, 4 8e 
iii. n. 9 , » 

Pet. li. TpmKorra. 

q here and in Lk. il. 15. Acts xiii. a ; xv. 36. i Cor. vL ao. 3 Cor. xii. 1 (?). Heb. ii. 16 (with mvi 

^ t^BD omit TovTov, which is an explanatory addition of the scribes. 

' ^BCLAT have cm tt|v KaXrjw yrjv instead of the reading in T.R., which cchn«ii 
ver. 8. 
' (Tvvicis in t^BD. * Vide below. 

(Meyer) or to the word (XtJyov just 
before ; Bengel, Weiss) ; sense the same. 
There is fruit in this case ; the crop does 
not wither in the blade : it reaches the 
green ear, but it never ripens. — Ver. 23. 
ttKovoov Kal <rvvu£s. The specific feature 
of the fourth and alone satisfactory type 
is not brought out either in Mt. or in 
Mk. but only in Lk. by his happy 
phrase : iv Kap8(<;i •'"^'D '"'■^ dyaG-p. 
The third type understands (Mt.) and 
receives into the heart (Mk.), but the 
fourth in addition receives into a clean, 
i.e.. a "good and honest," heart. — 8s 8t): 
8t) occurs here for the first time in Mt., 
and only a few times altogether in the 
N. T., but always with marked expres- 
siveness. According to Passow and 
BaiJmlein (Grammatik, § 66g, and Unter- 
suchungen iiber G. Partikeln, p. g8), 
connected with BiiXos in origin and 
meaning, and signifying that the thing 
stated is clear, specially important, 
natural in the given circumstances. — Ss 
8t| here = who, observe, or of course. 
Given such conditions, fruitfulness cer- 
tainly results. — Kapiro(j>op€i, bringeth 
forth fruit such as is desired : ripe, use- 
ful. — 6 in last clause may be pointed 
either 6 jiev, 6 8i (T. R.) or 8 jjlJv, 8 8J 
(W. H.). In the former case the meaning 
is: this man brings forth 100 fold, that 
man, etc. ; in the latter, 8 is accusative 
neuter after woict, and refers to the fruit. 
Opinion very much divided, sense the 

This interpretation of the Sower raises 
two questions : Was it needed ? Does it 
really explain the parable ? which is in 
effect to ask: Does it proceed from 
Jesus? As to the former: could not 
even the general hearer, not to speak of 

the Tv/elve, understand the parable well 
enough ? True, no hint that it related 
to the kingdom was given, but, as already 
remarked, that might go without saying. 
Jesus had all along been using similitudes 
explaining His meaning rather than need- 
ing explanation. Then parabolic speech 
was common even in Rabbinical circles, 
a source at once of entertainment and of 
light to hearers. In Mt.'s report the 
disciples do not even ask an explanation, 
so that that given comes on us as a 
surprise (Holtz. in H. C). Christ's 
audience might at least carry away the 
general impression that He was dis- 
satisfied with the result of His ministry, 
in many cases in which His teaching 
seemed to Him like seed cast on unpro- 
ductive places. It might require further 
reflection, more than the majority were 
capable of, to comprehend the reasons 
of failure. Self-knowledge and observa- 
tion of character were needed for this. 
As to the interpretation given, it has 
been objected (Weiss, Jiilicher, etc.) 
that it is allegorical in method, and 
that, while going into details as to the 
various persons and things mentioned in 
the parable and their import, it fails to 
give the one main lesson which it, like 
every parable, is designed to teach ; in 
short, that we cannot see the wood for 
the trees. As to this it may be remarked: 
(i) There is a tangible difference between 
allegory and parable. Allegory and inter- 
pretation answer to each other part by 
part ; parable and interpretation answer 
to each other as wholes. (2) Christ's 
parables are for the most part not 
allegories. (3) It does not follow that 
none of them can be. Why should the 
use of allegory be interdicted to Him ? 

21 — 25. 



24. 'a\Xt)I' TrapaPoX^k "■ Trapc'0TjKev auTOis, \4yu)v, " 'flfioiuj0iri 1^ r again ver 
^aaiXcia Twk oupai'Wf dfOpoSiru) crrrcipotTi ^ KaXoi' CTTr^p)j,a eV tw 
dypw aoTOu • 35. iv Sc tw KaGeuSeii' toos dp'Opwiroos, 'r|X0ei' aoTou 6 a Mk. vii. 
eX^P05 '^''^^^ €cnr€ip€ ^ j^ij^d^ia * dvA ji^aoi' too o-itou, Kai diTTjX0€K. vii. 17. 

' ^BMXAni have aireipavTi. 

' B^b it. vg. several ciusives have the compound eTreo-rrttptv (Tisch., W.H.). 

May the Sower not be an exception ? 
That it is has been ably argued by Peine 
in jfahrbucher fur Prot. Theologie, 1888, 
q. V. (4) The exclusion of so-called 
allegorising interpretation may be carried 
to a pedantic extreme in connection w^ith 
all the parables, as it is, indeed, in my 
opinion, especially by Weiss. Thus we 
are told that in the saying " the whole 
need not a physician," Jesus did not 
mean to suggest that He was a physician 
but only to hint the special claims of a 
class on His attention. But the question 
may be asked in every case : What was 
the genesis of the parable ? ?Iow did it 
grow in Christ's mind ? The Sower, 
e.g. ? Was it not built up of likenesses 
spontaneously suggesting themselves 
now and then ; of Himself to a sower, 
and of various classes of hearers to 
different kinds of soil ? In that case 
the " allegorical " interpretation is simply 
an analysis of the parable into its genetic 
elements, which, on that view, have more 
than the merely descriptive value assigned 
to them by Weiss. (5) As to missing 
the main lesson amid details : is it not 
rather given, Eastern fashion, through 
the details : the preaching of the kingdom 
not always successful, failure due to the 
spiritual condition of hearers ? That 
is how we Westerns, in our abstract 
generalising way, put it. The Orientals 
conveyed the general through concrete 
particulars. Jesus did not give an 
abstract definition of the Fatherhood of 
God. He defined it by the connections 
in which He used the title Father. That 
Jesus talked to His disciples about the 
various sorts of hearers, their spiritual 
state, and what they resembled, I think 
intrinsically likely. It is another ques- 
tion whether His interpretation has 
been exactly reproduced by any of the 

Vv. 24-30. The Tares. This parable 
has some elements in common with that 
in Mk. iv. 26-29, whence the notion of 
many critics that one of the two has been 
formed firom the other. As to which is 
the original, opinion is much divided. 
{Vide Holtz., H. C.) Both, I should say. 

The resemblance is superficial, the lesson 
entirely different. — The Sower describes 
past experiences ; the Tares is prophetic 
of a future state of things. But may 
it not be a creation ^f apostolic times 
put into the mouth of Jesus ? No, 
because (i) it is too original and wise, 
and (2) there were beginnings of the 
evil described even in Christ's lifetime. 
Think of a Judas among the Twelve, 
whom Jesus treated on the principle laid 
down in the parable, letting him remain 
among the disciples till the last crisis. 
It may have been his presence among 
the Twelve that suggested the parable. 

Ver. 24. ■n-ap^e-iiKev, again in ver. 31, 
usually of food, here of parable as % 
mental entertainment; used with refer- 
ence to laws in Ex. xxi. i, Deut. iv. 44. 
— «a|xoi(i0T], aorist used proleptically for 
the future ; cf. i Cor. vii. 28. — avBpwTry, 
likened to a man, inexactly, for : " to 
the experience of a man who," etc., 
natural in a popular style.— crirefpavTi, 
aorist because the seed had been sown 
when the event of the parable took place. 
— KaXov, good, genuine, without mixture 
of other seeds. — Ver. 25. Iv tw KaGevSetv 
= during the night. — a. 6 ex^P"?, ^is 
enemy. Weiss (Matt.-Evang., 347) thinks 
this feature no part of the original parable, 
but introduced to correspond with the 
interpretation (ver. 39), no enemy being 
needed to account for the appearance of 
the " tares," which might grow then as 
now from seed lying dormant in the 
ground. Christ's parables usually com- 
ply with the requirements of natural 
probability, but sometimes they have to 
depart from them to make the parable 
answer to the spiritual fact ; e.g., when 
all the invited are represented as refusing 
to come to the feast (Lk. xiv. 16-24). 
The appearance of the "tares" might 
be made a preternatural phenomenon 
out of regard to the perfect purity of the 
seed, and the great abundance of bad 
men in a holy society. A few scattered 
stalks might spring up in a natural 
way, but whence so many ? — tWo-n-eipcv, 
deliberately sowed over the wheat seed 
as thickly as if no other seed were there. 




t Mk. iv. 27. 
Heb. ix.4. 
Jas. V. 18. 

B Ch.xv. 13, 
]ude 12. 

T nerc and 
in ver. 30 

w here and 
in Exod. 
xii. 32. 

26. ore Be * ^pXdorTr^aec 6 )(6pT09, Kal Kaptri^v ^itoitjctc, rire i^dvr] 
Kal Ta I^L^dk'ia. 271, TrpoacXGorTCS St 01 SouXoi tou oiKoSetnroTou 
ciTTO*' auTU), Kupi€, ou\i KaXov' OTr^p|i.a ecnreipas iv tw aw dypuj ; 
it606>' ouv f\ei To,^ ^i^dria ; 28. 'O 8e e<j)T] auTois, 'ExOpos ai'Gpw- 
TTOS TouTO itvot.r]<Tcv. 01 8c SouXot eiTTOc auTw,^ OtKits oui' d-jTeXSocTes 
auXX^^aj|;.ci' aiixd ; 29. 'O Se «<|>t},^ Ou • fi-TjiroTc cruXX^y^''''''? """^ 
^i^di'ta, "£Kpi^wcrif]T6 a|xa auTOis tow aiTOf. 30, a<})£TC cruvau^dveaQai 
dfKjjOTepa fAe'xpt '' ToG 0epio-p.ou • Kal ^c tw * Kaipw tou Oepiajiou epu 
ToTs ^ QepioTals, JuXX^^aTt TrpwTOC Tck. ^ij^dfia, ical SrjffaTe auxd 
£19 ^ ^ SeVftas Trpos to KaTaKauaai auTci • toc 8e o'Itoi' aui^aydyf xf ' 
£iS Ti)i' diroO-i^Kr]!' fiou. 

' The art. ra in T.R. (^LX) is wanting in ^bRCD al. 

' B omits SovXoi (W.H.) and BC have avxo) Xcyovcriv for tirrov avrw (T.R.) 
t»^D have Xcy. avxo* (Tisch.). 
' <j)T]criv in i^^HC. 

* BD have €us, which W.H. adopt, putting axpi and ftexpi- in margin. 
' xo) (in t^CL) is omitted in most uncials. 
' £15 omitted in LXA and bracketed in W.H. 
' B has trvivayexf (W.H. with a-uvayayixe in margin). 

— titavia =: bastard wheat, darnel, lolium 
trmutciituvt, common in Palestine (Furrer, 
Watiiicrungcii, p. 293), perhaps a Semitic 
word. Another name for the plant in 
Greek is alpa (Suidas, Lex.).— Ver. 26. 
x<5xe l^avr] : not distinguishable in the 
blade, not till it reached the ear, then 
easily so by the form, the ear branching 
out with grains on each twig (Koetsveld, 
Df Gelijk., p. 25). — Ver. 27. ovxi k. o". 
?o-7r£tpas, etc.: the surprise of the work- 
people arises from the extent of the 
wild growth, which could not be ex- 
plained by bad seed (with so careful a 
master) or natural growth out of an 
unclean soil. The tares were all over 
the field. — Ver. 28. cx^pos av. : an 
inference from the state of the field — 
fact not otherwise or previously known. — 
6A€is . . . fTvWilui^iv, deliberative sub-^ 
junctive in ist person with 6«Xsis, 2nd 
person ; no ivaused in such case (Burton, 
M. and T., § 171). The servants propose 
to do what was ordinarily done, and is 
done still (vide Stanley, Sinni and Pales- 
tine, p. 426, and Furrer, Wandcruitgen, 
293: "men, women and children were 
in many fields engaged in pulling up 
the weeds," in which he includes "den 
Lolch "). — Ver. 29. oiJ, emphatic ; 
laconic " no," for good reason. — p.i]- 
•iroT£ : the risk is that wheat and 
"tares" may be uprooted together. — 
aua, with dative (aiixois) but not a pre- 

position, the full phrase is Sfia «rvv : 
"at the same time with," as in i Thess. 
iv. 17, v. 10. On this word vide Bos, 
EUip. Graec, p. 463, and Klotz, Devar., 
ii. 97. The roots being intertwined, and 
having a firm hold of the soil, both wheat 
and tares might be pulled up together, 
— Ver. 30. JvXXe'^axe irpoixov: before or 
after cutting down the crop? Not said 
which; order of procedure immaterial, 
for now the wheat is ripe. — 8i]<raxe els 
Stasias; the els, omitted in some MSS., 
is not necessary before a noun of same 
meaning with the verb. Fritzsche thinks 
the expression without preposition more 
elegant. Meyer also omits, with appeal 
to KiJhrier on verbs with double accusa- 
tives. — y .his parable embod ies the great 
principle of had mt^n hpuip "foTer.qtprl for, 
"t he sake of the good. It r elegates to the 


poranes ol Jesus, including the Baptist, 

end the jud gment which the contem- 
Is, including the Baptist, 
5¥ginning of the Messianic 
kingdom (Weiss-Meyer). 

Vv. 31-35. The Mustard Seed and the 
Leaven (Lk. xiii. 18-21 (both) ; Mk. iv. 
30-32 (Mustard Seed)). A couplet of 
brief parables of brighter tone than the 
two already considered, predicting great 
extensive and intensive development of 
the Kingdom of God ; from Luke's narra- 
tive (xiii. 10), apparently part of a 
synagogue discourse. It is intrinsically 
probable that Jesus in all His addresses 




Sl.'A\\r]y irapapoXV T^api6r]K€y aurols, X^y""' " 'Ofiola ccttIi' ^ ^°- ^k. 
x] Pao-iXcia Tuv oupavwi' " kokkw (Tiyaizeus, w \a^u>v o.vQpu>T70s ^^^'^^ 
laTTeipec iv tw dypw aiJ^oC • 32. o fxiKporepoc p,eV com irarrwv Tw^' P^j^^^^^^'j; 
oTTcppidTwv' • orav' &€ auCrjOfj, ficlioc Twi' ^XaxdfWK i<ni, Kal yii'erai ^*-^^^^,^", 
SeVSpoc, wore eXeeIc ra ivcTCiKa tou oupakou, Kal ' KaTaaKTiKOui' ^ iv ^ «^ord)^ 
TOLS KXdSois auTOu. 

33. ''AXXt)>' irapapoXtji' eX(lXT]o-ev auTois,2"'Op.oia ecrrif i^ PaaiXeia ^ 2 
Tw»' oupat/ic '^uVr], tji/ »'Xa|3oGo-a yun] eceKpui^ec els dXcu'pou adra ^c^'^^ljj^^ 
Tpia, £W9 ou « e^upoieT) oXov'." ^ ^ ^ a'chlxvi'.e, 

34. TaoTtt Trdi'Ta i\aKr]cr€v 6 'It^ctoGs eV irapaPoXais tois oxXois, iji^^^jj; 
(tal X'^p'^^ irapaPoXT]9 ouk^ cXdXet auToIs * 35- ottus TrXTjpojGfj to i,^- ?^''- 
pr\Qkv Sid TOO 7rpc<|)i]Tou, XeyovTos, ' 'Ai/oi^w ei' irapaPoXals to orofia iCor.v.6. 
jxou • ep€u^o| tc6Kpup.p.€Va diro KttTapoXtjs Koafiou.* 

IV. 32. 
I l(. xi. 42. 
Kom. xiv. 


b same use of word in ver. 31. c i Cor. v. 6. Gal. v. 9. 

1 KaTacri<:T]voLv in BD. - D, Syr. Sin. and Cur. omit eX. avrois. W.H. bracket. 
^ ovSev in ^BCA; ovk in Mk. iv. 34, hence here in T.R. 

^ B (and ^h) omits koo-(xo\j. So Tisch., W.H. al. Weiss suggests that the 
omission in B is an oversight. 

in the synagogue and to the people used 
more or less the parabolic method. To 
this extent it may be literally true that 
" without a parable spake He not unto 
them " (ver. 34). 

Ver. 31. o-ivairtus ; from o-Cvairi, 
late for vdirv in Attic, which Phryn. re- 
commends to be used instead (Lobeck, 
288). — Ver. 32. 8, neuter, by attraction 
of onrcpp.drajv, instead of ov in agree- 
ment with KOKKO), masculine. — p.iKp(5- 
Tepov, not less perhaps than all the seeds 
in the world. An American correspondent 
sent me a sample of the seeds of the 
cotton tree, which he thinks Christ would 
have made the basis of His parable had 
He spoken it in America. — peijov twv 
Xaxdvuv, greater than (all) the herbs. 
The comparison implies that it too is 
an herb. There would be no point in 
the statement that a plant of the nature 
of a tree grew to be greater than all 
garden herbs. This excludes the mus- 
tard tree, called Salvadora Persica, to 
which some have thought the parable 
reiers. — S^vSpov, not in nature but in 
size ; an excusable exaggeration in a 
popular discourse. Koetsveld remarks 
on the greatly increased growth attained 
by a plant springing from a single seed 
with plenty of room all round it {De 
Gelijk., p. 50). — wcTTC here indicates at 
once tendency and result, large enough 
to make that possible, and it actually 
happened. The birds haunted the plant 

like a tree or shrub. Mark refers only 
to the possibility (iv. 32). — KaTao-KT)vovv 
{cf. KaTacrKT|v<ocr£is, viii. 20), notniditlari, 
to make nests (Erasmus), but to " lodge," 
as in A. V. The mustard plant is after 
all of humble size, and gives a very 
modest idea of the g^o^vth of the king- 
dom. But it serves admirably to ex- 
press the thought of a gro\vth beyond ex- 
pectation. Who would expect so tiny a 
seed to produce such a large herb, a 
monster in the garden ? — Ver. 33. opoia 
. . . £vpi), like in respect of pervasive 
influence. In Rabbinical theology leaven 
was used as an emblem of evil desire 
(Weber, p. 221), Jesus had the courage 
to use it as an emblem of the best thing 
in the world, the Kingdom of God coming 
into the heart of the individual and the 
community. — ^v€Kpv\};«v, hid by the pro- 
cess of kneading. — €<os ov l^vpcuOT] : f.ut% 
with the indicative, referring to an 
actual past occurrence. 

Both these parables show how 
thoroughly Jesus was aware that great 
things grow from minute beginnings. 
How different His idea of the coming of 
the kingdom, from the current one of a 
glorious.mightyempire coming suddenly, 
full grown ! Instead of that a mustard 
seed, a little leaven ! 

Vv. 34, 35 contain a reflection more 
suitable for the close of the collection of 
parables in this chapter, brought in here 
apparently because tin' cvangi^hsf has 




il xame 
phrase ill 
Ch. \iii. 


e ver. 49. 
Ch. xxiv. 
3; xxviii. 
20. Heb. 
ix. 16. 

f Ch. xvi. 

23 ; xviii. 

7. Rom. 

xiv. 13. 
R Rev. i. 15 

ix. 2. 

36. T<5t€ (i<|)£ls Tous o)(Xoo9, ^X0£»' eis ti^i' oiKi'a*' 6 'irjaous ^ ' Kal 
Trf)j<ri]X9o»' auTw 01 fiadTjral aoToG, X£'Y0^'T£9, '^' <i>pdaov '^ 'HH-i*' ■'"^*' 
TrapaPoXr)*' twk t,it,avi(tiv toG dypoG. 37. 'O Sfi diroKpiOfls etirev 
ooTois,' " 'O <mtip(i>y to KaX6>' cnrfpfia ^cttIk 6 uios tou iiV&pu-nou • 
38. 6 &£ aypos i<rT\.v 6 Koerpos ' to Be KaXo»' orrEppa, ootoi '^ ^latv 01 
olol TTJs PaffiXcias ■ tA Be ^t^d>'id eiaiv' 01 uloi toG irov'rjpoG • 39. 6 
8e ^x®po5 ° cnrfipas auT<i £OTtk 6 SidPoXos • 6 Be depiafios ' aovT^cta 
TOU * atwk'os £aTi»' • 01 Be GfptoTai dyyEXoi ciatk. 40. wcnrfp oZv 
aoXXfi'YETat Tol ^i^di'ia, koX irupl KaTaxaicTai outws corai ei' ttj 
aorreXcia toC aiukos toutou.° 4I. diroaTcXci 6 016s tou dfOpwirou 
Toi>s dyyAous auTOu, Kal auXX^IouciK Ik tt]? jSaaiXEias auTOu TrdfTa 
Td 'crKakSaXa Kal Toiis TroioufTas T?)f d^'opta^', 42. Kal PaXoGan* 
auTods CIS TT)»' ^ K&\t.ivov TOU irup69 • ^keT Eorai 6 KXauOpo; Kal 6 

* t*)BD omit o I. * ^B have SiacracfiTicrov. <|>pa<row probably comes from xv. 15. 
' ^BD omit avTOLs. * fc^l^I) omit rov. * b^BD omit tovtou. 

under his eye Mark's narrative, in which 
a similar reflection is attached to the 
parable of the mustard seed (iv. 33-34). — 
Ver. 34. X"P^S irapaPoXTJs, etc. : if this 
remark apply to Christ's popular preach- 
ing generally, then the parables reported, 
like the healing narratives, are only a 
small selection from a large number, a 
fragrant posy culled from the flower 
garden of Christ's parabolic wisdom. — 
cXdXci : imperfect, pointing to a regular 
practice, not merely to a single occasion. 
— Ver. 35. Prophetic citation from Ps. 
Ixxviii. 2, suggested by irapa^oXais in 
Sept., second clause, free translation 
from Hebrew. — jp€v$o)jiai in Sept. for 

J^^Sn in Ps. xix. 2, etc. (not in Ixxviii. 

2), a poetic word in Ionic form, bearing 
strong, coarse meaning ; used in softened 
sense in Hellenistic Greek. Chief value 
of this citation : a sign that the parabolic 
teaching of Jesus, like His healing 
ministry, was sufficiently outstanding to 
call for recognition in this way. 

Vv. 36-43. Interpretation of the Tares. 
Not in Apostolic Document ; style that 
of evangelist ; misses the point of the 
parable — so Weiss (Matt.-Evang., p. 
351). But if there was any private 
talk between Jesus and the Twelve as to 
the meaning of His parables, this one 
was sure to be the subject of conversa- 
tion. It is more abstruse than the Sower, 
its lesson deeper, the fact it points to 
more mysterious. The interpretation 
given may of course be very freely re- 
produced.-^ Ver. 36. (^pacrov (8ieur- 

a4>T]aov i<5B) again in xv. 15 : observe 
the unceremonious style of the request, 
indicative of intimate familiar relations. 
Hesychius gives as equivalents for 
4ipd£(i, Seikvvei,, (rT]p.a(vEi, X^ysi, etc. — 
Siaadij). in Deut. i. 5 = make clear, a 
stronger expression. — Ver. 37. 6 o-iteC- 
p«v : identified here with the Son of man 
(not so in interpretation of Sower). — 
Ver. 38. 6 Koo-jj-os, tlic wide %vorld ; uni- 
versalism. - o-T7ep)jia, not the word this 
time, but the children of the kingdom. — 
Ji^dvia, the sons of the wicked one (rov 
'Kovi\pov, the devil). — Ver.. 39. o-wvte'Xeio 
alwvos, the end of the world ; phrase 
peculiar to this Gospel. — OEpurrai 
aYYEXoi. Weiss thinks this borrowed 
from Mt. xxiv. 31, and certainly not 
original. Perhaps not as a dogmatic 
interpretation, but quite possibly as a 
poetic suggestion. — Ver. 40. This and 
the following verses enlarge on the final 
separation. — Ver. 41. diroo-TEXEi : cf. 
chap. xxiv. 31. — jtuXXe'^ovctiv, collect, 
and so separate. — to. o-KcLvSaXa : abstract 
for concrete ; those who create stumbling 
blocks for others. — koI, epexegetical, 
not introducing a distinct class, but ex- 
plaining how the class already referred 
to cause others to stumble. — TroiovvTas 
T. ovo|iiav : cf. vii. 23, where for ttoi. 
stands cpYa^dp.cyoi. Has dvofitav here the 
technical sense of religious libertinism, 
or the general sense of moral trans- 
gression ? Assuming the former alterna- 
tive, some critics find here the sign-mark 
of a later apostolic time.— Ver. 42. ^kci 
lo-TaL. etc. ; held to be inappropriate 




^puyi^os Tw;' oSoi'Twi'. 43. t<5t6 01 SiKoioi €KXdp,\J/ou(riK is 6 fjXios 
iy TTj PttCTiXeta too irarpos auTWK. 'O ey^utv wra dKooeii' ^ dKOue'rw. 

44. "ndXif^ OjJiota eoTii' t^ PacriXeia twc oupak'uv 9t]o-aupw 

K€Kpup.p,£V<j) iv TW dypW, S** iUpiiV Sl'OpOJTVOS €KpU\j/€ , Kai dlTO TqS 

)(apas auTou oirdyci, Kal TtdvTa oaa €)(£i irwXei,* ital dyopd^ei rbv 
dypoi' eKelvov. 

45. " ndXiK ouoia coTiK t^ PttCTiXcia jdv oupavStv di'Opwirw * (4 tur.c^;. 

' ^*«^fi«'l\' ijohnxii. 3. 

efjiiropw, JrjTOuvTi KaXous p.apyapiTas * 46. os eupwi' ° eva iro\o- i Pet. i. 7 

TifAoc jJi.apyaptTT])', direXOwi' ir^iTpaKe irdvra ooro €ixe> tal '^ycSpaaei' c/. Ch. 

, , rxvi. 7 

aoTOl'. (ySapvT.). 

1 ^B omit ttKovetv. ' BD omit iraXiv. 

' iruXei before iravTa in Ji^D, B gives iruXei the same position but omits travra. 
So W.H. with iravTa in margin. 
* ^B omit. W.H. relegate to margin. 
'' £vpu>. 5t ill ^BDL verss. (Tisch., W.H.). 

here, because the gnashing of teeth is 
caused by cold, not by fire (Holtz. , H. C.) ; 
appropriate in viii. 12, where the doom 
is rejection into the outer darkness. — 
Ver. 43. €KX(i|xi];ouori: vide Dan. xii. 2, 
which seems to be in view ; an ex- 
pressive word suggestive of the sun 
emerging from behind a cloud. The 
mixture of good and evil men in this 
world hides the characters of both. 

Vv. 44-53. Three other parables: 
the Treasure, the Pearl, the Net. Ver. 
36 would seem to imply that the 
evangelist took these as spoken only 
to disciples in the house. But as the 
Net is closely connected in meaning 
with the Tares, it is more probable that 
these parables also are extracts from 
popular discourses of Jesus, which, like 
all the others, would gain greatly if seen 
in their original setting. The Treasure 
and the Pearl would have their fitting 
place in a discourse on the kingdom of 
God as the highest good (Mt. vi. 33). 
— Ver. 44. iv ri dypu : the article may 
be generic, indicating the field as the 
locality, as distinct firom other places 
where treasures were deposited. — €Kpv\|/€, 
he hid orice more what some one had 
previously hidden ; the occurrence 
common, the occasions various.— xapas 
aixov, in his joy rather than through 
joy over it, as many take the genitive, 
though both are admissible. The joy 
natural in a poor peasant ; not less so 
the cunning procedure it inspired ; 
ethically questionable, but parables are 
not responsible for the morality of their 
characitrs.-v-na.Yti., truiXti, etc., four 

historic presents one after the other, in 
sympathy with the finder, and with lively 
effect. — irdvTa 8«ra:all required for the 
purpose, yet the all might not amount 
to much: the field minus the treasure 
of no great value. Worth while, the 
treasure being a pure gain. The point 
of the parable is that the kingdom of 
heaven outweighs in value all else, 
and that the man who understands 
this will with pleasure part with all. 
It helps to show the reasonableness 
of the sacrifice for the kingdom Jesus 

Ver. 45. ifi.'ir6p(f J. k. p.. A pearl 
merchant who went to the pearl fisheries 
to purchase from the divers, of course 
selecting the best ; a connoisseur in 
valuables. — Ver. 46. iroXvTiiAov: precious 
because exceptionally large, well-shaped, 
and pure ; such rare, but met with now 
and then.— direXOiv: he is taken by sur- 
prise, has not as much with him as will 
purchase it on the spot, sees it is worth 
his whole stock, agrees to buy and 
promises to return with the price. — 
Treirpaice, •^•ydpaorev, a perfect with an 
aorist. Not to be disposed of by saying 
that the former is an " aoristic" perfect 
(Burton, § 88).— ir^irpaKe points to 
a momentous step, taken once for all 
and having lasting effects. A great 
venture, a risky speculation. The 
treasure in the field was a sure gain 
for the finder, but it remained to be 
seen what the pearl merchant would get 
for his one pearl. After the sale of his 
stock the purchase of the one pearl was 
a matter of courbc. In the fonner of 




I here only 
in N.T. 

k here only. 

1 here only 

(a vy '<>>•• 
Ch. XXV. 
4), vide 
note I. 

m vide 
below and 
at Ch. 
xxvii. 57. 

47- riaXii' 6p.oia iarty tj ^aaiXeiu rdn' nipafCyv aavi'^i'T) 
pXTjOeiiTT] €is Trfv QaKacrarav, Kal ^k irat'Tos yi\'ous (T0»'ayo,YOu<T7) • 
48. rn>, ore iirX^piLQr], ^ di'a|3ip{i(Tarr6s ^irl rbv aiyiaXo*', Kai 
KaStaaiTCS, aui'Ac^ac to. KaXd eis ' dyyeia,^ to, 8e (rairpd e^w 
epoKov • 49. 0UTW9 ecrrai iy Tjj curreXeia ToG aiwi/os • c^eXeuaoi'Tai 
ot fiyycXoi, Kal d^iopiouai TOU9 irovi^poos ck ix^cou Twt' SiKaiui', 
50. Kai ^aXouaif aoTOi>s cis ttjc Kdjiivoc toG irup6s • €kci eorai 6 
KXaudpo; Kal 6 Ppuyjxos tw»' oSoi'tu*'." 51. Ae'yei auTois 6 
'ItjctoGs,^ "lunjKaTe TauTtt irdrTa;" Ae'youati' aoxui, "Nai, Kupie."'^ 
c;2. 'O 8e €i7T€»' auTois, "Aid toGto Trds ypap-fiaxeus "' fiaOr]- 
reuGels els tt]>' PaCTiXeiat" ' Twt' ovpaydy ofxoi<5s effTic d^0p(u7ro> 
olKoSecnTorj), ooris cKpdXXet ^k toG GrjaaupoG auToG Kcii'd Kal 

1 ayyij in t^BC. ' t^BD omit Xcysi a. o. I., also Kvpte after' vai. 

' J<^BC1 have -nj PaaiXeia. The reading in T.R. is a grammatical correction. 

these two parables the Kingdom of 
Heaven appears as the object of a glad 
though accidental finding of a sure 
possession ; in the latter as the object of 
systematic quest and venturesome faith. 
The difference between seekers and 
finders must not be exaggerated. The 
pearl merchant was also a nnder. No 
one would set out on a journey to seek 
one unique pearl (Koetsveld). The 
spiritual class he represents are seekers 
after God and wisdom, finders of the 
Kingdom of God, of a good beyond their 
hope. Such seekers, however, are on 
the sure way to find. 

Vv. 47-50. The Net. Krayr^v^Q, vide 
on iv. 21. — Ik travTos ye'votis cruv. : a 
matter of course, not intended but in- 
evitable ; large movements influence all 
sorts of people. — Ver. 48. KaOio-avres 
truve'Xelav : equally a matter of course ; 
a thing to be done deliberately, of which 
the sitting attitude is an emblem. There 
is a time for everything ; the time for 
sorting is at the end of the fishing.— 
craTrpa, vide on vii. 17. Vv. 49, 50 con- 
tain the interpretation in much the same 
terms as in 41, 42. 

Vv. 51, 52. Conclusion of the parabolic 
collection.— Vei. 52 contains an im- 
portant logion of Jesus preserved by 
Matthew only, and connected by him 
with the parabolic teaching of Jesus. 
In this connection Kaiva Kal iraXaid of 
course points to the use of the old familiar 
facts of nature to illustrate newly revealed 
truths of the kingdom. But we should 
not bind ourselves too strictly to this 

connection, keeping in mind Matthew's 
habit of grouping; all the more that, as 
Wendt has pointed out {Die Lehre jfesu, 
ii. 349), the idea expressed by ypa(Xfi.aTtv;s 
does not get justice. It naturally point? 
to acquaintance with the O. T., and 
combined with (laOi^TtvOels t. r. p. teaches 
that that knowledge may be usefully 
united with discipleship in the lore of 
the kingdom. In Wendt's words : "One 
remains in possession of the old, recog- 
nised as of permanent value, yet is not 
restricted to it, but along with it possesses 
a precious new element ".^(jia6TjT£i5«iv is 
here used transitively as in xxviii. 19, 
Acts xiv. 21. — eK^aXXci points to free 
distribution of treasures by the house- 
holder. He gives out new or old 
according to the nature of the article. 
The mere scribe. Rabbinical in spirit, 
produces only the old and stale. The 
disciple of the kingdom, like the Master, 
is always fresh-minded, yet knows how 
to value all old spiritual treasures of 
Holy Writ or Christian tradition. 

Vv. 53-58. Visit to Nazareth (Mk. vi. 
1-6, cf. Lk. iv. 16-30). In Mk. this is 
the next section after the parables, 
deducting what had previously been 
reported in Mt. (chaps, viii. and ix.), a 
pretty sure sign that our evangelist has 
Mk. under his eye. We can here see 
how he handles his source — substantial 
reproduction of the contents, no slavish 
copying of style, editorial discretion in 
reporting certain details. No attempt 
should be made to connect with tjie 
foregoing passage, except perhaps by 




53. Kai «Y^v€TO ore iriktaev 6 'Itjctous tois TrapaPoXcis Tuoras, 
jj.CTripcv' £K«I0ek' • 54, Kttl i\Qi)y els Trie ''iraTpiSa auToG, eStSaaxei' 
auTOus et* TTJ (Tuyayuyfi aindv, wore CKTrXi^TTCCTflai. ^ aoTOus Kctt 
Xcyeik, *'n6fle»' toutw i^ ao4>ia aurrj kuI al Suk'dfJicis ; 55. oux outos 
i(my 6 tou t^ktokos ulos; 00^1 'f\ p^ilTtjp auToG X^y^'''**^ Maptap., kui 
01 d8eX<J>ol auToO 'laKu^os Kai 'iwo-qs ^ »tal Zip.wi' Kal 'louSas ; 5^- 
ical al d8eX<j>al auToO ouxl iTao'at irpos 'Hftas do"!- ; •n-60e>' ouc tootw 
TOUTtt irdtTa; 57. Kal co-KaKSaXij^orro iv auTw. O 8e IrjaoGs etirec 
auToIs, "OuK eoTi Trpo(}>iiTTf)S "dTtj*,os, el p.^ c>' TJj TrarpiSi auxoG ^ 
Kal CK TTJ oIkio, aoTOu.** 58. Kal ouk eiroiifjaei/ eitci 8ui/dp.eis iroXXds, 
Sid TT)C dTTicrrtai' aiirCty. 

D here and 

I. 4. 

Lk. iv. 23, 

24. John 

iv. 44. 

iieb. xj. 14. 

o Mk. vi. 4. 
I Cor. iv. 
10; All. 23. 

1 £KirXTi<r<r. in most uncials. 
" lw<rT)4> in BCI. la)orT)s is probably from Mk. 

^ BD omit auToij. ^Z have tSia before TrarpiSi, which Tisch. and W.H. place 
in margin. L omits Kat ev t. olk. avrov. 

the general category of prevalent un- 
receptivity to which also the following 
narrative (xiv. 1-12) may be relegated. — 
Ver. 53. ptTTJpev : in classics to transfer 
something from one place to another. 
Hellenistic, intransitive = to remove one- 
self; one of Matthew's words (xix. i). — 
Ver. 54. irarpiSa, in classics father- 
land. Here and in parallels evidently = 
native town, home. Vide ver. 56 and 
Lk. iv. 16. — <rvvaY<i>-y-Q, singular, not 
plural, as in Vulgate. One syn. index 
of size of town (Grotius). — Sorre, with 
infinitive : tendency and actual result. 
They were astonished and said : it66€v 
. . . SvvapEis, wisdom and marvellous 
works ; of the latter they had heard, of 
the former they had had a sample. 
Whence ? that is the question ; not 
from schools, parentage, family, 
social environment, or mere surround- 
ings and circumstances of any kind. — 
Ver. 55. 6 T. T4KT0V0S vi6<i : Mk. has 
6 TeKTtajy, which our evangelist avoids ; 
the son of the carpenter, one only in the 
town, well known to all. — Mapiap . . . 
laKuPos, etc., names given of mother 
and brothers, to show how well they 
know the whole family. And this other 
man just come back is simply another of 
the family whose name happens to be 
Jesus. Why should He be so different ? 
It is an absurdity, an offence, not to be 
commonplace. The irritation of the 
Nazareans is satisfactory evidence of the 
extraordinary in Jesus. — Ver. 57. Proverb, 
not Jewish merely, but common property 
of mankind ; examples from Greek and 
Roman authors in Pricacus and v'.'etbtein, 

including one from Pindar about fame 
fading at the family hearth (Olymp. Ode, 
xii. 3). — Ver. 58. Here also editorial 
discretion is at work. Mark states that 
Jesus was not able to work miracles in 
Nazareth, and that He marvelled at their 
unbelief. Matthev/ changes this into a 
statement that He did few miracles there 
because of their unbelief, and passes 
over the marvelling in silence. 

Chapter XIV. Death of the 
Baptist : Commencement of a New 
Division of the Evangelic Histoky. 

Vv. 1-12. Death of the Baptist (Mk. 
vi. 14-29, Lk. ix. 7-9). This section 
might with advantage have been given 
as a short chapter by itself, and a new 
start made with the feeding of the 
thousands which forms the first of a 
series of narratives together giving the 
story of the later Galilean ministry (xiv. 
13 — XX. 16). In this section (1-12) 
Matthew still has his eye on Mark, the 
story of the fate of the Baptist being 
there the next after the section in 
reference to mother and brethren, 
excepting the mission of the Twelve 
(Mk. vi. 7-13) already related in Mt. (x. 
5-15). Indeed from this point onwards 
Matthew follows Mark's order. In the 
foregoing part of this Gospel the 
parallelism between it and Mark has 
been disturbed by the desire of the 
evangelist to draw largely on his other 
source, the Logia, and introduce teach- 
ing materials bearing on all the topics 
suggested in his introductory sketch of 
Christ'searly Galilean ministry: Didache, 
cliaps. V. vii. ; apostolic mission (iv. i.^- 




bCh '"i.^ XIV. I. 'en ^Ktu'O) Tw Katpili T^KOuaei' 'HpwSr^s 6 TCTpdpx^S * tJ|v 
^^^"j|"'- * aKof)»' It](TOu, 2. Kai eiire tois trniali' auTou. " Outo5 iajiv '\u)dvvr\% 
jj.^"'- . A BaTTTiorTijs • auTos ^i\yipQr\ &it6 rdv fCKpwi', Kal 8iA toGto ai 
G«l. V. 6. 5uj,,(jjtji5 ^^ccpyoCaii' iv aoTw." 3. 'O yelp 'HpuSt^s Kparn^aas "rbv 

<• Ch. xxii. '\Q}dyvr]v t.Zr\a€y aurhv"^ Kol eflcTO iv <(>uXaKYJ,^ Sid 'HpwSidSa ttjc 

vi. t8. 1 yu^'aiKa ♦iXiTTTTou Tou d8€\<})ou auToo. 4. eXcyc ydp auTw 6 

vii. 2, 39. *lwdKKT]s>* "OoK e^conri aoi "^ ev^ii' ^ aoTi^v'." <• '^''^'^ OeXwi' auTOK 
eCh.xxi. 26. 
46. Mk.xi diroKTeiJ'ai, e4)op)]9T} rbv o)(\of, on us " •irpo<j>i]Tif]i' auTok €l)^of, 

ii. 29. 

1 TCTpaapxT]S in J^CZA. So Tisch. and W.H., though BD spell as in T.R. 

' ^B omit avTov, which is an undisputed reading in Mk., whence it may have 
been imported. 

' ^B read tv (JjuXaKTj a-n<6eTo, which Tisch. and W.H. adopt. 

* fei^D omit art. before I. and BZ place avru after U 

22), chap. X. ; Baptist (chap, iii.), chap. 
xi. ; Pharisees (chap. iii. 7-9), chap. xii. ; 
popular preaching (iv. 23), chap. xiii. 
Chaps, viii., ix. disturb the order by 
grouping incidents illustrating the heal- 
ing ministry. 

Ver. I. ^v Ikc(v(|> ry icaip^i- Mk. 
connects with return of Twelve from 
their mission (vi. 14), Mt. apparently 
with immediately preceding section. But 
the phrase recalls xi. 25, xii. i, and it 
may be the evangelist is thinking 
generally of a time of prevailing in- 
susceptibility (Weiss-Meyer). — 'HpujS-rjs : 
Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and 
Peraea for many years (4-39 a.d.), married 
to the daughter of Arctas, king of Arabia; 
like his father Herod the Great in 
cunning, ambition, and love of splendour 
in building and otherwise, whereof the 
new city of Tiberias was a monument 
(Schiirer, Gesch.,i. 359). — aKOTjv, vide iv. 
24. The fame of Jesus penetrated at 
last even into the royal palace, where 
very different matters occupied the atten- 
tion, ordinarily. — Ver. 2. Traiffiv aiirov : 
not his sons, but his servants, i.e., the 
courtiers, great men in their way, not 
the menials in the palace. The king 
would propound his odd theory in 
familiar talk, not in solemn conclave. — 
oixos to-Tiv, etc. It is this theory we 
have to thank for the narrative following, 
which in itself has no special connection 
with the evangelic history, though doubt- 
less Christians would naturally read with 
interest the fate of the forerunner of 
Jesus. The king has the Baptist on the 
brain ; and remarkable occurrences in 
the religious world recall him at once to 
mind. It is John 1 he (auxb^) is risen ; 

theory begotten of remorse ; odd enough, 
but better than Pharisaic one begotten 
of malevolence ; both witnessing to the 
extraordinary in Christ's career. — Sia 
TovTo : the living John did no miracles, 
but no saying what a dead one redivivus 
can do ? — ^vepyovaiv, not : he does the 
mighty works, but : the powers (8vvdp,€is) 
work in him, the powers of the invisible 
world, vast and vague in the king's 

Ver. 3. yap implies that the following 
story is introduced to make the king's 
theory intelligible. " Risen " implies 
previous death, and how that came about 
must be told to show the psychological 
genesis of the theory. It is the super- 
stitious idea of a man who has murder 
on his conscience. — KparYJora?, etc. : fact 
referred to already in iv, 12, xi. 2 ; here 
the reason given. Of course Herod 
seized, bound, and imprisoned John 
through his agents. — Sta 'HpuSiaSa : a 
woman here, as so often, the cause of 
the tragedy. — yi/vaiKa 4>. : vide on Mk. 
— Ver. 4. tXeye ^ap 6 I. The pro- 
gressive imperfect, with force of a 
pluperfect. John had been saying just 
before he was apprehended (Burton, 
Moods and Tenses, § 29). -otJk t^eorriv : 
doubly unlawful ; as adultery, and as 
marriage within prohibited degrees (Lev. 
xviii. 16, XX. 21). — Ver. 5. QiXutv : cf. 
i. 19. Mark gives a fuller statement as 
to Herod's feelings towards John. No 
injustice is done Herod here by ascribing 
to him a wish to get rid of John. There 
are always mixed feelings in such cases. 
Compare the relations of Akibiades to 
Socrates as described by Plato (Ivn- 
iroffiov). c<j>opi^6iri T. i. ; that lot one 



6. ' Yet'eCTiwc 8e dyoiJieVwi' ^ too 'HpwSou, u)p)(TJ(TaTO 1^ OuyaTjjp ttjs^ C/, Gen. 
'HpwStdSos iv Tti fAe'cw, Kal r^peae tw 'HpwST) • y. oQ^v p,60* opKou rn^-'poi 

' \ ' > - 5 -' * ■>^ 2 '' ' ' Q 'LI 5^ « O ■yfeV'.'-S. 

wp.oAoYT)(7€f ciuTTJ ooui'ai o eav aiTTjcrTjTat. o. ri oe • Trpopi- g Acts iix. 
Oft- c V - X . - « A ' " A ' « ♦t > » ^3{(rvy-ia 

paa(7€iaa oiro tt|s jiirjTpos auTT]5, Aos fiot, <j)H]cnt', woe eirt W. H.). 

^ TTtkaKi TT)i' KC(})aXT]i' '\(i}dvvou ToO BaiTTiCTToG. 9. Kal cXutti^Otj ' 6 h Lk. xi. 39. 

PacriXeus, 8ia 8e * tous opKOus Kal tous aucak'ttKeipeVous eKeXeuwe 

SoOfji'ai • 10. Kal Tr€(jn|/as 'dTr€Ke<|)dXiCTe TOk* 'lojdi'k'T]!' iv ttj ({>uXaKTJ. i Mk. vi. 16, 

II. Kal f\\'i^Qr\ -f] K€<\)aKr] auToC eul irivaKi., Kal e860T) tw Kopacriw • 9. 

Kal rji'tyKe ttj fitjTpl auTTJs. 12. Kai TrpooeXQorres 01 fjia0T]Tal 

auToG Tjpai' to awfia," Kal c6a\)/ai' auT(5 ' • Kal IKQoyjes dTn^YyeiXaf 

1 J«^BDLZ have the dat. yevccriois and y€vofi«voi5 for ayoficvuv ; the reading in 
T.R. is a grammatical correction. 

2 ov in BD. 

' BD have XvirtjOeis and omit Se. The reading of the T.R. is an attempt hy 
resolution of the construction to make the meaning clear. 

* ^BZ omit Tov. 

* ^BCDLZ several cursives have irTti>|Aa, for which o-coixa has been substituted as 
more delicate. 

* ^B have avTov. avTo in Mk. (vi. 29). 

thing ; also feared God and his con- 
science a little, not enough. It is well 
when lawless men in power fear any- 
thing. — on . . . elxov : they took John 
to be, regarded him as, a prophet. — 
elxov does not by itself mean to hold in 
high esteem {in pretio habere, Kypke). 
The point is that John for the people 
passed for a prophet, belonged to a 
class commanding religious respect (so 
Fritzsche, Meyer, etc.). Vide xxi. 46. 

Ver. 6. ytvecriois yevoiie'vois : one ex- 
pects the genitive absolute as in T.R., 
which just on that account is to be sus- 
pected. The dative of time. But cf. 
Mk. vi. 21, where we have y€vo|X£vr]s 
and yevecrtois occurring together, and 
vide Weiss, Mk.-Evang., p. 221, on the 
literary connection between the two 
texts. Most commentators take yevecriois 
as referring to Herod's birthday. Some, 
e.g., Grotius, think of the anniversary of 
the accession to the throne = birthday 
oihi& reigjt. In classic Greek it means 
a feast in honour of the dead on their 
birthday, yeve'OXia being the word for a 
birthday feast, vide Lobeck, Phryn., 103. 
Loesner, Observ. ad N. T. e. Phil. Alex., 
cites instances from Philo of the use of 
both words in the sense of a birthday 
feast. — T) BvyaTTjp t. 'HpwS. : Salome by 
name. — Iv t<jj (AfVo), implies a festive 
assembly, as fully described in Mk.— Ver. 
7. faifjioX6yT)crcv, confessed by oath ; 
obligation to keep a promise previously 

given. Cf. Mk. vi, 22, where the fact is 
more fully stated. The account in Matt, 
seems throughout secondary. — Ver. 8. 
TrpoPiPao-Seio-a : not " before instructed," 
as in A. V., but " brought to this point " ; 
urged on. It should require a good deal of 
" educating " to bring a young girl to make 
such a grim request. But she had learnt 
her lesson well, and asked the Baptist's 
head, as if she had been asking a favour- 
ite dish (is irepi rivos «SeVp.aTOS StaXc- 
yofxevT], Chrys., Hom. xlviii.). Kypke cites 
two instances of the rare use of the word 
in the sense of instruction. — uSc here and 
now, on the spot, «|axiTt)s in Mk. That 
was an essential part of the request. No 
time must be left for repentance. If not 
done at once under the influence of wine 
and the momentary gratification given 
by the voluptuous dance, it might never 
be done at all. This implies that the 
Baptist was at hand, therefore that the 
feast was at Machaerus, where there was 
a palace as well as a fortress. — Ver. 9. 
Xvir-qOtis : participle used concessively, 
though grieved he granted the request , 
the grief quite compatible with the 
truculent wish in ver. 5. — ^ao-iXevs : 
only by courtesy.— opKovs, plural, sin- 
gular in ver. 7 ; spoken in passion, more 
like profane swearing than deliberate 
utterance once for all of a solemn oath, 
— Ver. 10. airsKCjjidXKrc : expressive 
word, all too clear in meaning, though 
not found in Attic usage, or apparently 




Tw 'Irjaoo. 13. Kal dKouaas ^ 6 'Itjcjous 6.v€)^u)p-(]aev iKtlBev iv ttXoiw 

CIS epT^fiOf TOTTOk' pcar' iSia*'. xal dKOuaafTcs 01 o)(\oi riKoXouflrjaai' 

i Mk. y|. 53. auTw ^ ire^tj ' citto twk tt^Xcwk. 

14. Kal ^^eXdwK 6 'lijaous • cI8« iroXili' oxXok, Kal i<rn\ay)(yiaQr] 

k Mk. vi. 5, Itt' aoTou's,'* ical eOepaTTCuac tous ^ dppwarouQ auTui'. I";. 'Ovl/ias 
13; xvi. 18. ^ ' ' ' J T 

I Cor. xi. Be ye^'OH''*^?, Trpo(rfiX6ok' aoTw ot fia9T]Tal auTou ' Xeyorrcs, ""EpTjjxos 
I .\cts xxvii. ^orni' 6 TOTTOS, Kal -fi upa t^St) 'irapYjXflet' • dfroXuaok'* tous oyXous, 

9 (same o>\a» .y, , ~ n >> ■ 

sense). i^a dTTcXOoKTes cis Tas KW|Jias dyopaawan' ^auxcHS pp(i>|j.aTa. 16. 
'O 8e 'It|<toGs ciircK auTois, ** Oo XP'^**'' ^XOu<j\,y direXOeif • 86t« 

' aKovo-as 5c Jv^BDLZ. » ireCoi t^JLZ. » t<^BD omit o I. 

* avTois in most uncials; tir awrov? only in minusc. ; from Mk. 

* ^BZ omit avTov. * b^CZ add ovv, which W.H. place in margin. 

much used at all ; a plebeian word, 
according to Salmasius cited by Kypke, 
who gives instances from late authors. — 
Ver. II. r\vix^i], not expressly said 
" there and then," but all points to im- 
mediate production of the head on a 
platter in the banqueting hall before the 
guests ; gruesome sight 1 — ^ScSStj, rivtyKt : 
what a nerve the girl must have had I 
her mother's nature in her ; the dancing 
and the cool acceptance of the horrible 
gift well matched. — Kopacriy: not to be 
taken strictly ; a young unmarried 
woman, say, of twenty (Holtz., H. C). 
The dancing of a mere girl would have 
been no entertainment to the sensual 
revellers. The treat lay in the indecency. 
— Ver. 12. irTwiia : carcase, used abso- 
lutely in this sense only in late writers. 
Earlier writers would say -n-Tw^a vcKpov. 
Lobeck, Phryn., 375. 

Vv. 13-21. yesus retires ; feeding of 
thousands (Mk. vi. 30-44 ; Lk. ix. 10-17). 
—Ver. 13. dKOTJtras, having heard of the 
fate of John from John's disciples (ver. 
12). —avix<^p^o-tv kKtldiv: withdrew from 
where He was when the report reached 
Him ; locality not indicated. Mark con- 
nects the retirement with the return of 
the Twelve from their mission, and the 
report they gave, and assigns as motive 
rest for the missionaries. The two 
events might synchronise, arid escape 
from Herod's dangerous neighbourhood 
might be a joint motive for retirement. 
But against this is the speedy return 
(ver. 34). — £v irXoiw : naturally suggests 
a place near the sea as starting-point. 
But it may be rather intended to indi- 
cate in what direction they were going — 
to the eastern side of the lake. — 6is «. t. 
Kar' ISiav. These phrases have cer- 
tainly more point in Mk. as referring to 

a multitude from which they wished to 
escape.— ot oxXoi : no previous mention 
of the crowds, and no hint that Jesus 
wished to get away from them ; looks 
like a digest of a fuller narrative, such as 
that in Mk. — Trc^fi (or ire^oi), on foot, but 
not implying that all literally walked; 
there were sick among them who could 
not. The contrast is between going by 
!-La and going by Uind. Cf. Acts xx. 13. 
Classical instances in philological com- 
mentaries (Wetstein, Kypke, Eisner, 
etc.). — Ver. 14. c^tXAuv, in this place, 
naturally means going forth from His re- 
treat, in Mk. (vi. 34) going out of the 
ship, the crowd having arrived on the 
spot before Him. To escape from the 
people always difficult, now apparently 
more than ever. Evidently a time of 
special excitement, popularity at its 
height, though according to Fourth Gos- 
pel about to undergo a speedy decline. 
— ^cnrXayxvio-OT), deponent passive, 
pitied ; Hellenistic, and based on the 
Hebrew idea of the bowels as the seat of 
compassion ; used by Symmachus in 
translation of Deut xiii. g. — lOcpdircvac : 
Mark gives prominence to the element of 
instruction ; healing alone mentioned 

Vv. 15-21. The feeding.— Yer. 15. 
6\|/Cas -ycvo|xcvT]s : might mean sunset as 
in viii. 16, but from the nature of the 
case must mean afternoon from 3 to 6, 
the first of the " two evenings ". — 6pY]p.os, 
comparatively uninhabited, no towns 
near. — ■^ uipa ■qS-rj TraprfXQev.the meaning 
not clear. Mk. has : tiStj uipas ttoXXtjs 
= already the hour is advanced. Various 
suggestions have been made : eating 
time (Grot.), healing and teaching time 
(Fritzsche), daytime (Meyer) is past. 
Weiss, with most probability, take^ uJ^a 

13— as- 



fluTois ufiels (^ayelv." 17. Ol Se Xcyouo-iv auTw, " OuK e)(Ofxei/ wSe 
t'l ^1] TT^wTe dpTous KOI 8uo IxOuas." 18. 'O Se etirc, "♦e'peW (ioi 
auToos fclSe." ^ 19. Kal KeXeuaas tou9 o)(Xous dvaKXiflTJcai eiri tous 
X^prous,' Kal* Xa^wi' tous irevTC aprous Kal tous 8uo IxOuas, 
d>'aPX^<J/as CIS TOK oopafoc, "* cuXoyrjcrc • Kal " KXdaas cScjkc tois 
>ia0T)Tais TOUS aprous, ol &€ )xa6Y]Tal tois oxXois- 20. Kal etfjayoi' 
itd^res, Kal i)(pprd(T6r]crav ■ Kal tjpav to irepiaaiOov tCiv KXaCTficiTwv, 
SwScKa KO({)iKous irXiipcis. 21. ol Be eaGtorrcs r\cTav avSpes uxiei 
Tr€i'TaKi<rxiXiot, X*^P^^5 yui'aiKoii' Kal iraiStui'. 22. Kai cuOeus 
•■^►'dyKao-ci' 6 'lr]crous* tous fiaOr^Tcis auToO * t'lJijBricai €is to® ivXoiok, 
Kal " irpodiyeii' auTov eis to irepav, Iws ou diroXiJOT] Tois oxXous. 
23. Kal diroXuaas Tois oxXous, &vi^r\ els to opos Kar* 1810K 

i!i Ch. \\\i. 

26. I Cor. 

X. i6. 
n Ch. xxvi. 

26. Acts 

ii. 46 al. 

o Acts xxvi. 

II. Gal. ii. 

3. 14- 
p Ch. xxi. 

31 ; xxvi. 

32. Mk. 

X. 3a. 

^ o)Se avTovs in J^BZ. ^ i^BC have c-n-i tow x^P^ov ; D the sing, also, but accus. 

* BLAI omit Kai. * o I. wanting in ^BCDAI. 

" Most uncials omit, but BXI retain avrow. 

^ B and several cursives (i, 33, 124) omit to. W.H. place in margin. 

= time for sending them away to get 
food. — ttir(5Xvffov : though late for the 
purpose, not too late ; dismiss them forth- 
with. — Ver. 16. ov xP*^*'' ex"^"''-'' 
a'TTcXOciv, etc. : even if, as some think, 
what happened was that under the 
moral influence of Jesus the people 
present generously made the provisions 
they had brought with them available for 
the company at large, the character of 
Jesus appears here in a commanding 
light. No situation appears to Him 
desperate, no crisis unmanageable. No 
need to go. Give ye them to eat, 
resources will be forthcoming (cf. Exod. 
xiv. 15). And they were, how we cannot 
tell. The story is a fact supported by 
the testimony of all four evangelists, not 
a baseless legend, or a religious allegory. 
— Ver. 17. TT^vTf apTovis k. S. Ix- ^ 
very modest supply even for the disciple 
circle. They seem, under the influence 
of Jesus, to have been a care-free com- 
pany, letting to-morrow look after itself. 
" Learn the philosophy of the Twelve, 
and how they despised food. Being 
twelve they had only so much, and they 
readily gave up these" (Chrysos., H. 
xlix.). Five loaves and two fishes, all 
that was known to be in that vast 
gathering. — Ver. 18. <j>Ep{TC, etc. : 
Christ's imperial way in critical situa- 
tions often arrests attention. " Stretch 
forth thine hand " (xii, 13). " Bring 
them hither to me." — Ver. ig. KcXcvo-ag, 
Xa^uv, avapX€'\|/as, participles without 
copula all leading up to tviXd7T)cr€v, the 
central chief action : rapid, condensed 


narrative, briefly, simply, recounting an 
amazing event.— tviXdyricrcv with accusa- 
tive (apTovs) understood. He blessed 
the loaves and fishes. — Kal KXacras 
eSojKev, then dividing them gave them to 
the disciples, who in turn gave to the 
multitude. — t<S k6ytf Kal r^ cvXoy^i^ 
av^wv Kal Tr\r)9T3v(i)v avTovs, Origen. — 
Ver. 20. SuScKa ko^. -irX. is in appos. 
with TO iTipicra-tvov r. k. They took 
the surplus of the broken pieces to the 
extent of twelve baskets. — ko({>ivov;, 

answering to the Rabbinical ^Q'^p, a 

basket of considerable size (" ein grosses 
Behaltniss," Wiinsche). Each of the 
Twelve had one. The word recalls the 
well-known line of Juvenal (Sat. iii. 14); 
" Judaeis, quorum cophinus foenumque 
suppellex," on which and its bearing on 
this place vide Schottgen (Hor. Tal.) and 
Eisner. — Ver. 21. irevTaKio-xCXioi, 5000 
men, not counting women and children. 
This helps us to attach some definite 
meaning to the elastic words, oxXos, 
oxXoi, so frequently occurring in the 
Gospels. Doubtless this was an excep- 
tionally great gathering, yet the inference 
seems legitimate that oxXos meant 
hundreds, and ttoX-us ©xXos thousands. 

Vv. 22-36. The return voyage (Mk. 
vi. 45-56). — Ver. 22. TJvdyKaircv : a 
strong word needing an explanation not 
here given, supplied in John vi. 15. Of 
course there was no physical compulsion, 
but there must have been urgency on 
Christ's part, and unwillingness on the part 
of disciples. Fritzsche objects to specia) 





ivi. 14 

irpoacu^aaSai. '0«|<ia9 Se yivof).ivr\s, fi6vo^ r\v iKtl. 24. tA 8« 

q Mk. vi. 48 itXoiok tiBti u.6<xov Ttis OaXdacms tic ^ ^ Ba(ravit6ii€voy invb rOiy 
(there 01 ^ ■ 

the men, Kufj-druy • r\w ydp ivavrio^ 6 accjxos. 25. TcrcipTi] 8c ^uXaKn 

the »hip). Tr]s cuKT&s diT'qXdc ^ irpos aoTois i 'Itjotous,' irepiiraTwi' tirl tt)S 

OaXtlacnrjs.* 26. Kal i8<5rres auToc ot fiaGTjTai * eirl t^c fldXaaoraK ' 

' fw h' *' ■"■cpiiraTooKTa irapd')(Qr]aav, X^yorre?, "'Oti ' ^(irra(7p.d ^orri.' 

Kai diTO Tou 4*<^^ou cKpa^ac. 27. eud^u; ^ 8c AdXTjorec auTOis i 

Mrjaous,* X^ywc, " eapaciTC • lyu cifjii, )i,T) ^o^elcrQe." 28. 'AiroKpi- 

0CIS 8c auT£) 6 ricTpos dire ' " Kupic, el cto ct, K^cuatSc p,c irp6s <re 

eXadc 1° cm Toi iI8aTa." 29. 'O 8c eiTre*', "'EX0c." Kal KaTa^a? 

diTo TOU ttXoiou 6 ^^ n^Tpos ircptctrdnicrcK ^ttI to, uSara, cXOcif ^^ irpos 

' For p.£o-ov . . . T)v B, some verss. and minuss. have here araSiovs ttoXXovs airo 
TTjs yTjs air£ix«v, which ^^^H. adopt, putting in margin the reading of T.R., which 
is the undisputed reading in Mk. 

- Tj\9€v in J^BI verss. 3 Omit o I. i^BCD. 

"• ^BA several cursives have the accus. here. ' 01 Be p.a6. i8ovt€s a. in BD. 

• Ttjs 6a\acr(rr)« in ^BCD. 

' evOvs in t^BD here as always in Mk., whence it may have come. In Mk, this 
is a standing variation. It need not be again referred to. 

" o I. before avrois in B, omitted in ^D, bracketed in W. H. 

^ The order of words varies here. W.H., after B, have airoK. 8t o fl. tiirtv a. 
'" J«^BCDA1 many cursives have cXOttv irpo« trt. 
" Art. omitted in ^BD. " icai i]\9(v in BD. 

emphasis, and renders : " auctor fuit 
discipulis, ut navcm conscenderent ". — 
?<o5 ov aiToXvo-[), subjunctive, here used 
where optative would be used in classic 
Greek. Cf. xviii. 30, and vide Burton, 
5 324. — Ver. 23. a.v4^y] els t6 opos. 
After dismissing the crowd Jesus retired 
into the mountainous country back from 
the shore, glad to be alone— Kar' I8(av, 
even to be rid of the Twelve for a season. 
— 7rpo<Ttv^aa-9ai : " Good for prayer the 
mountain, and the night, and the soli- 
tude (fiovoioris), affording quiet, freedom 
from distraction (to aTr€pi<nracrTov), and 
calm" (Euthy. Zig.). — 6\|>ias ycv. refers, 
of course, to a later hour than in ver. 15. 
— Ver. 24. p.^<rov, an adjective agreeing 
with irXolov (Winer, § 54, 6), signi- 
fies not merely in the middle strictly, 
but any appreciable distance from shore. 
Pricaeus gives examples of such use. 
But the reading of B, probably to be pre- 
ferred, implies that the boat was many 
stadii (25 or 30, John vi. ig = 3 to 4 
miles) from the eastern shore. — vnro twv 
KvpaTuv : not in Mk., and goes without 
saying; when there are winds there will 
be waves. — IvavTios o avcpo; : what 
wind ? From what quarter blowing ? 

What was the starting-point, and the 
destination? Holtz. (H. C. ) suggests 
that the voyage was either from Beth- 
saida Julias at the mouth of the upper 
Jordan to the north-western shore, or 
from the south end of the plain EU 
Batiha towards Bethsaida Julias, at the 
north end, citing Furrer in support of 
the second alternative, vide in Mk. — Ver. 
25. TCTopT^j ^vX. = 3 to 6, in the early 
morning, irpwt. — l-irl r. fl. : the readings 
in this and the next verse vary between 
genitive and accusative. The sense is 
much the same. The evangelist means 
to represent Jesus as really walking on 
the sea, not on the land above the sea level 
(Paulus, Schenkel). Holtz. (H. C), re- 
garding it as a legend, refers to O. T. 
texts in which God walks on the sea. — 
Ver. 26. <j)avTatrp.a : a little touch of 
sailor superstition natural in the circum- 
stances ; presupposes the impression that 
they saw something walking on the sea. 
— Ver. 27. eXdXT)cr€v: Jesus spoke; the 
words given (OapcrciTC, etc.), but the 
mere sound of His voice would be 

Vv. 28-33. Peter episode, peculiar to 
Mt. The story is true to the chaiactei 

«4— 3«. 



Toi' '\r\aoOy. 30. fiXivuv Be toc aKCfiOK lorxup^f ^ ^^oPi]9t) • Kal 
dp^dixccos ^ KaTairorri^eaOai cKpafe, XcywK, " Kupie, CTucrii' (xc. ' 
31. 'Eu9e(i)s §€ 6 'Itjctous €KT€ivas tt)*' X^^P^ cireXdPeTO aurou, Kal 
X^yei auTu, " 'OXiYotricrre, els ti * cStorroaas ; " 32. Kal cfiPaKTWc ^ 
auTuf els TO irXoiot', " cK^iravei/ 6 acefios ' 33. 01 Se iy tw irXoiw 
eXflcJrres^ TrpoacKOj'TjaaK auTw X^yonres, "'AXtjOus ©eou ulos cl." 

34. Kal SiairepdcravTes ^XOok els ttji' yTJf* TeKKYjaape'T. 35. Kal 
ciriyi'orrcs outok 01 acSpcs toG tottoo ^Keifou dire'crreiXa*' els oXrjk 
TTjK irepixwpoi' iK€!.yr\v, Kal irpocnrji'syKaj' auTu rtdvras toos KaKws 
exon-as • 36. Kal irapeKdXouc aiiTov, i^a p.^fof a\{/(urrai tou 
Kpacrrre'Sou tou l^ariou aurou • Kal octoi 'pijraKTO, ' Sieawflrjaai'. 

■ Ch. xviii 
6 only. 

t Ch. xzviii. 

17 only, 
u Mlc. iv. 39 ; 

vi. 51. 

V Lk. vii. i 
Acts xxiiL 
24 ; xxviL 

43. 44 ; 

xxviii. i,x, 
I Pet. iiL 

1 Omitted in ^B 33. ' avaPavxwv in i^BD 33- 

* ^BD al. have eiri instead of ci« and omit ti)v yi)f. 

• Wanting in ^BI. 

of Peter. — Ver. 30, pXeirwv tov avc|Jiov, 
seeing the wind, that is, the effects of it. 
It is one thing to see a storm from the 
deck of a stout ship, another to see it in 
midst of the waves. — KaraiTovriT,taBai : 
he walked at first, now he begins to sink ; 
so at the final crisis, so at Antioch (Gal. 
ii. 11), so probably all through. A strange 
mixture of strength and weakness, bravery 
and cowardice ; a man of generous im- 
pulses rather than of constant firm will. 
" Peter walked on the water but feared 
the to ind : such is human nature, often 
achieving great things, and at fault in 
little things." — (iroXXaKis ra iicydXa 
KaropOovaa, Iv toIs IXdrToori IXeyxcTai, 
Chrys., H. 1.) — Ver. 31. eSicrxao-as: 
again in xxviii. 17, nowhere else in N. T., 
from 8is, double, hence to be of two 
minds, to doubt (cf. Sl^-uxos, James i. 8). 
— Ver. 32. avapdvTuv aviTuv : Jesus and 
Peter. — cKO'Trao-cv : used in narrative of 
first sea-anecdote by Mk., iv. 39 = ex- 
hausted itself (from kottos). — -Ver. 33. ol 
fv Tu irXoicj) : cf. ol avOpuTroL in viii. 27; 
presumably the disciples alone referred 
to. — dX-rjOois 6. V. et, a great advance on 
TTOTairos (viii. 27). The question it im- 
plies now settled : Son of God. 

Vv. 34-36. Safe arrival.— Siairtpd- 
aavres, having covered the distance 
between the place where Jesus joined 
them and the shore. — lirl ttjv yrjv : they 
got to land ; the general fact important 
after the storm. — «ls rewTjo-ap^r, more 
definite indication of locality, yet not 
very definite ; a district, not a town, the 
rich plain of Gennesaret, four miles long 
and two broad. — Ver. 35. Kal liriyvov- 
T«s, etc. : again popular excitement with 
its usual concomitants. The men of the 

place, when they recognised who had 
landed from the boat, sent round the 
word : Jesus has come ! They bring 
their sick to Him to be healed. — Ver. 36. 
-irapEKaXovv, etc. : they have now un- 
bounded confidence in Christ's curative 
powers ; think it enough to touch (pdvov 
a\|;<i>vTai) the hem of His mantle. — Sico-w- 
9i]crav : they are not disappointed ; the 
touch brings a complete cure (8ta in com- 
position). The expression, So-oi tjij/avro, 
implies that all who were cured touched : 
that was the uniform means. Mk.'s 
expression, 80-01 &v ij., leaves that open. 

Chapter XV. Washing of Hands ; 
Syrophcenician Woman; Second Feed- 
ing. The scene changes with dramatic 
effect from phenomenal popularity on the 
eastern shore, and in Gennesaret, to 
embittered, ominous conflict with the 
jealous guardians of Jewish orthodoxy 
and orthopraxy. The relations between 
Jesus and the religious virtuosi are be- 
coming more and more strained and the 
crisis cannot be far off. That becomes 
clear to Jesus now, if it was not before 
(xvi. 2l). 

Vv. 1-20. Washing of hands {Mk.wii. 
1-23). — Ver. I. T^T« connects naturally 
with immediately preceding narrative 
concerning the people of Gennesaret 
with unbounded faith in Jesus seeking 
healing by mere touch of His garment. 
Probably the one scene led to the other : 
growing popular enthusiasm deepening 
Pharisaic hostility. — Trpoo-cpxovTat (ol) 
a. 'I. If ol be omitted, the sense is that 
certain persons came to Jesus from Jeru- 
salem. If it be retained, the sense is : 
certain persons belonging to Jerusalem 
came from it, the preposition iv being 




"(wit'hdirb? XV. 1. TOTE Trpoa^p)(orrai tw '\r\aou ol ^ ivb 'lepoaoXufiUK 

b Mk. vii. 3, Ypaji^aT(i5 Kol 4>apiaaioi,^ X^yocTcs, 2. "Aiaxi ol fiaOTjTat aou 

- G iN '^'*P'^^''^^*'°"°^'^ ^*' '' '''■**P'^So«''i*' Twc irpcorPoWpw*' ; ou ydp I'lTrroKTai 

M- ^°'- Tols x^^P'^S auTwK,' SraK apro*' ^o'Stwaik'." 3. 'O Sc dTroKpiOels €t-ir«K 

Theai. H. auTois, " AittTi Kal uficis TrapaPaiVeTC tt)>' ^rroXrji' tou ecoG 8ia T})^' 

c Mk. yii. irap(i8oai»' 6u,wk ; 4. 'O vAp ©cos ^KCTciXaro, X^vwi',* ' Ttixa rhv 

10; IX. 39. » II \ ■ / c ' ' ' r 

Actixix.g. iraT^po aoG,° Kai t^v ftTjWpa • Kat, ''O •KaKoXoywf iraTc'pa If) 
26 ; xxvH. ^T]Wpa OacciTCi) tcXcutcItu • ' 5. u;i6is 8e Xeyere, *0s &k cittt] tw 

a6j Heb. irOTpl tj TTJ flTjTpi, AupOK, S ^Ak ^5 ^IIOC "^ W<|>€XTJ0fis, Kal' ou I4T) 

xiii. 9 al. ' 

^ ^BD omit ou ' ♦op. icat ypap,. in fc^BD. * NBA Orig. omit avruv. 

* For €VfT€tXoTo Xrywv BD have simply ti-mtv. ' ^BCD omit «roti. 

' ^BCD omit Ktti, which affects the construction ; vide below. 

changed into a-n-i by attraction of the 
verb.^-4»ap. Kal yp., usually named in 
inverse order, as in T.R. Our evangelist 
makes the whole party come from Jeru- 
salem ; Mk., with more probability, the 
scribes only. The guardians of tradition 
in the Capital have their evil eye on Jesus 
and co-operate with the provincial rigor- 
ists. — Ver. 2. Siari ol p.a0. trov irapa^. : 
no instance of offence specified in this 
case, as in ix. 10 and xii. i. The zealots 
must have been making inquiries or 
playing the spy into the private habits 
of the disciple circle, seeking for grounds 
of fault-finding {cf. Mk. vii. 2). — irapa- 
^aCvovo-i : strong word (Mk.'s milder), 
putting breach of Rabbinical rules on a 
level with breaking the greatest moral 
laws, as if the former were of equal 
importance with the latter. That they 
were, was deliberately maintained by the 
scribes (vide Lightfoot). — tt)v irapdSoo-iv 
T. IT. : not merely the opinion, dogma, 
placitum, of the elders (Grotius), but 
opinion expressed ex cathedra, custom 
originated with authority by the ancients. 
The " elders " here are not the living 
rulers of the people, but the past bearers 
of religious authority, the more remote 
the more venerable. The " tradition " 
was unwritten (aypa<|>os SiSao-KaXCa, 
Hesych.), the " law upon the lip " 
reaching back, like the written law (so it 
was pretended) , to Moses. Baseless asser- 
tion, but believed ; therefore to attack the 
TrapdSoo-is a Herculean, dangerous task. 
The assailants regard the act imputed as 
an unheard-of monstrous impiety. That 
is why they make a general charge before 
specifying the particular form under which 
the offence is committed, so giving the 
latter as serious an aspect as possible. — 
ov yap viiTTOvTai, etc. : granting the fact 

it did not necessarily mean deliberate 
disregard of the tradition. It might be 
an occasional carelessness on the part of 
some of the disciples (rivas, Mk. vii. 2) 
which even the offenders would not care 
to defend. A time-server might easily 
have evaded discussion by putting the 
matter on this ground. The Pharisees 
eagerly put the worst construction on the 
act, and Jesus was incapable of time- 
serving insincerity : thus conflict was 
inevitable. — viirTctrBai, the proper word 
before meat, oirovC"irT€o-9at, after, 
Eisner, citing Athenaeus, lib. ix., cap. 
18. — opTOv car6io>o-iv, Hebrew idiom for 
taking food. The neglect charged was 
not that of ordinary cleanliness, but of the 
technical rules for securing ceremonial 
cleanness. These were innumerable and 
ridiculously minute. Lightfoot, referring 
to certain Rabbinical tracts, says : " lege, 
si vacat, et si per taedium et nauseam 

Vv. 3-6. Christ's reply ; consists of a 
counter charge and a prophetic citation 
(w. 7-9) in the inverse order to that of 
Mk. — Ver. 3. icai vifitls : the retort, if 
Justifiable, the best defence possible of 
neglect charged = " we transgress the 
tradition because we want to keep the 
commands of God : choice lies between 
these ; you make the wrong choice ". 
Grave issue raised ; no compromise 
possible here. — Sia t. ir. vfiuv : not rules 
made by the parties addressed (Weiss- 
Meyer), but the tradition which ye 
idolise, your ^xtcioM?, paradosis. — Ver. 4. 
h yap 6f6s : counter charge substantiated. 
The question being the validity of the 
tradition and its value, its evil tendency 
might be illustrated at will in connection 
with any moral interest. It might have 
been illustrated directly in connection 

I— 9- 



riji,t]crr] ^ r6y iraWpa auToG ij T^f fiTjrepa auTou • 6. koI *i^KupuaaT€ eMk. vil. 13. 

TTji' ivro\i]V^ ToO ©eoO Bid Trji' TrapdSoaif ufiuf. 7. 'YiroKpirai, f Mk. vii. 6; 

'KaXws irpoei^iiTeuo-e * irepi up.wi' 'Haaias, X^ywK, 8. ' 'Eyyit^t fioi 6 Lk. xx.39. 

\aos ooTOS T<j> oTojiaTi auTdiy, kui tois X^'^^"''' I*^ Tifia * t) Oe Iromcalljr 

-, »«'> >/ >>»-> 1/ ov/o ' inMk. vii. 

Kapoia auTuK iroppu dircxei cfr cftou. 9. ' \i.aTr\v oe acpoio'ai |Jie, g. 2 Cor. 

li. 4. 
g here and in Mk. vil. 7 (from Is. xxix. 13). 

^ ^BCDAl have TijATjaei.. Tt|JiTj<rT| answers to ciiri], and being made dependent 
on OS av by Kai is part of the protasis. 

^ TOK Xoyov in BD (W.H.) ; tov vo(*ov in ^C (Tisch., W.H. marg.). 

' Augment at beg., cirpo4>, in ^BCDL. 

* The T.R. gives the quotation in full. ^BDL have o Xaos ovtos tois xo^Xcci 
u« Ti(ia: Tisch., W.H. (ovtos o Xaos and a-yainj for Ti(ia in margin). 

with moral purity versus ceremonial. 
The actual selection characteristic of 
Jesus as humane, and felicitous as ex- 
ceptionali'f clear. — rlftf . , . TcX«vTdTw : 
fifth commandment (Ex. xx. 12), with its 
penal sanction (Ex. xxi. 17). — Ver. 5 
shows how that great law is compro- 
mised. — vficXs 8^ Xry. : the emphatic 
antithesis of vfitis to dtbt a pointed re- 
buke of their presumption. The scribes 
rivals to the Almighty in legislation. 
"Ye say": the words following give 
not the ipsissima verba of scribe-teaching 
or what they would acknowledge to be 
the drift of their teaching, but that drift 
as Jesus Himself understood it = " This 
is what it comes to." — " Aupov " = let it 
be a gift or offering devoted to God, to 
the temple, to religious purposes, i.e., a 
Corban (Mk. vii. n) ; magic word re- 
leasing from obligation to show honour 
to parents in the practical way of contri- 
buting to their support. Of evil omen 
even when the " gift " was bond fide, as 
involving an artificial divorce between 
religion and morality ; easily sliding into 
disingenuous pretexts of vows to evade 
filial responsibilities ; reaching the lowest 
depth of immorality when lawmakers 
and unfilial sons were in league for 
common pecuniary profit from the 
nefarious transaction. Were the fault- 
finders in this case chargeable with re- 
ceiving a commission for trafficking in 
iniquitous legislation, letting sons off for 
a percentage on what they would have to 
give their parents ? Origen, Jerome, 
Theophy., Lutteroth favour this view, 
but there is nothing in the text to justify 
it. Christ's charge is based on the 
practice specified even at its best : honest 
pleading of previous obligation to God 
as a ground for neglecting duty to 
{Kirents. Lightfoot (Hor. Heb.) under- 
stands the law as meaning that the word 

Corban, even though profanely and 
heartlessly spoken, bound not to help 
parent.s, but did not bind really to give 
the property to sacred uses. " Ad 
dicanda sua in sacros usus per haec 
verba nullatenus tenebatur, ad non 
Juvandum patrem tenebatur inviola- 
biliter." — ov prj Ti,p,T]o-€i, he shall not 
honour — he is exempt from obligation 
to : such the rule in effect, if not in words, 
of the scribes in the case. The future 
here has the force of the imperative as 
often in the Sept. {vide Burton, M. and 
T., § 67). If the imperative mean- 
ing be denied, then oi p,T| t. must be 
taken as a comment of Christ's. Ye say, 
" whosoever," etc. ; in these circum- 
stances of course he will not, etc. As 
the passage stands in T.R. the clause 
Kttl oi (XT) Tip.ii<7~j), etc., belongs to the 
protasis, and the apodosis remains un- 
expressed = he shall be free, or guiltless, 
as in A. V. — Ver. 6. TJKvpucraTe, ye in- 
validated, by making such a rule, the 
aorist pointing to the time when the rule 
was made. Or it may be a gnomic 
aorist ; so ye are wont to, etc. The 
verb dKvp6ta> belongs to later Greek, 
though Eisner calls the phrase " bene 
Graeca ". — Sio, . . . vp,wv : an account 
of your tradition, again to mark it as 
their idol, and as theirs alone, God 
having no part in it, though the Rabbis 
taught that it was given orally by God to 
Moses. — Ver. 7. woKpiTaL no thought 
of conciliation ; open war at all hazards. 
" Actors," in their zeal for God, as illus- 
trated in the case previously cited. God 
first, parents second, yet God not in all 
their thoughts.^ — icaXws, appositely, to the 
purpose. Isaiah might not be thinking 
of the Pharisees, but certainly the quo- 
tation is very felicitous in reference to 
them, exactly describing their religious 
character. Mt. follows Mk. in quoting ; 




h here »nd 8i8({(X(corr£s ^ SiSouTKaXias, ' ^rriXfiaTa dkOpoSirwy.' " lo, Kai 
J° '-'O'PP irpoaKaX«a<ifi«>'os t^k oxXo»', ciTref auTOi$, "'Akouctc koI aoj'icTC. 

in Paul. ii_ Q^ T^ eiCT€pY6u.€»'0»' CIS T^ OT(5ll,a KOIKOI TOK avBoUiTTOV • dXX& 
I Mlc. vu. 7. r/vr- r ^ r 

Col. ii. M TO iKTropeu6uL€voy ck too oroaaTos, toGto koi^'oi rbv afGpuiroK." 

(not in ' ^ _ ' 

profane 12. Tore ■npo(Tf.\Q6trrts 01 iiaOnTal auTou ^ fltroy^ auTW, "OlSas OTi 

author*). ^ . , ; , , '„ 

j here only ol ♦apiCTaioi dKouaarrcs roy X^vov eorKak'SaXiaOrjaaK ; 13. *0 8e 

in N.T. A V ♦ « I / « / 

k Ch. xxiii. diroKpi6ci.s eiTTC, " ndaa ^ 4*uTcia, tjk ouk e4>uTcuae>' 6 iraTTJp fi.00 6 

Acts i. 16. oupdfios, ^Kpi^a)9i]!T€Tai. 14. d<})CT€ auTOus 'oSrjyoi cIcti tu4)XoI 

1 here only TUI^XuK * • Tu4)XoS 8c T0<j)X6»' ihv o8T)YiJ, <iP'4"5T€pOl CIS P66o»'OK 

xiii 36, ircCTOUKTai." 15. *ATroKpi6cis 8c 6 fl^Tpos ctircK auTw, "'♦pdaoy 

1 i»5BD and several cursives omit avrov. ' Xryotio-iv in BD. 

' Instead of oST|-yoi . . . tv(|>Xmv BDLZ have Tv^XoicurioSiiYoi (W.H.). t<) hai 
the same inverted, 08. €iai ru^. 

neither follows closely the Sept. (Is. xxix. 
13).— Ver. 8. r] Si KapSia, etc. : at this 
point the citation is particularly apposite. 
They were far from the true God in 
their thoughts who imagined that He 
could be pleased with gifts made at the 
expense of filial piety. Christ's God 
abhorred such homage, still more the 
hypocritical pretence of it. 

Vv. 10, II. Appeal to the people: a 
mortal offence to the Pharisees and 
scribes, but made inevitable by publicity 
of attack, the multitude being in the back- 
ground and overhearing all. — aKovcrc 
Kai trvvltrt : abrupt, laconic address ; a 
fearless, resolute tone audible. — Ver. 
II. Simple direct appeal to the moral 
sense of mankind ; one of those emanci- 
pating words which sweep away the cob- 
webs of artificial systems ; better than 
elaborate argument. It is called a 
parable in ver. 15, but it is not a parable 
in the strict sense here whatever it may 
be in Mk. {vide notes there). Parables 
are used to illustrate the ethical by the 
natural. This saying is itself ethical : to 
EKirop(vd)xevoy ix tov vroiLOLTO^ refers 
to words as expressing thoughts and de- 
sires (ver. 19). — ovi TO eicrcp. els to crTd|j.a: 
refers to food of all sorts ; clean ; od taken 
with unclean hands, and food in itself 
unclean. The drift of the saying there- 
fore is : ceremonial uncleanness, how- 
ever caused, a small matter, moral un- 
cleanness the one thing to be dreaded. 
This goes beyond the tradition of the 
elders, and virtually abrogates the 
Levitical distinctions between clean and 
unclean. A sentiment worthy of Jesus 
and suitable to an occasion when He 
was compelled to emphasise the supreme 
importance of the ethical in the law — 

the ethical emphatically the law of God 
(TT|r ivToXtjv tov 6tov, ver. 3). 

Vv. 12 14. Disciples report impression 
made on Pharisees by the word spoken to 
the people. Not in Mark. — Ver. la. 
^a-Kav8aXCa6T]<rav : double offence — (i) 
appealing to the people at all ; (2) uttering 
suchz word, revolutionary in character. — 
Ver. 13. 6 8i airoKpi6elc, etc. : the 
disciples were afraid, but Jesus was in- 
dignant, and took up high ground. — 
<^vT((a for ^vTcvpa, a plant, " not a 
wild flower but a cultivated plant " 
(Camb. G. T.), refers to the Rabbinical 
tradition ; natural figure for doctrine, 
and so used both by Jesus and Greeks 
{vide Schottgen and Kypke). Kypke re- 
marks: "pertinet hue parabola irtpi tov 
•rircCpovTOs ". — 6 iraTiip (lov : the state- 
ment in the relative clause is really the 
main point, that the tradition in question 
was a thing with which God as Jesus 
conceived Him had nothing to do. This 
is an important text for Christ's doctrine 
of the Fatherhood as taught by dis- 
criminating use of the term iraTijp. The 
idea of God implied in the Corban tradi- 
tion was that His interest was antago- 
nistic to that of humanity. In Christ's 
idea of God the two interests are coinci- 
dent. This text should be set beside 
xii. 50, which might easily be misunder- 
stood as teaching an opposite view. — 
JKpitwdifo-cTau This is what will be, 
and what Jesus wishes and works for: 
uprooting, destruction, root and branch, 
no compromise, the thing wholly evil. 
The response of the traditionalists was 
crucifixion. — Ver. 14. a<|>cTe : the case 
hopeless, no reform possible ; on the 
road to ruin. — tv<^Xoi tUriv oStjyoi : the 
reading in B is very laconic = blind men 



TJfiii'TTjK TTapa^oX^K TawTtjK." ^ 16. 'O Sc 'li^aous ^ <iTrei', " " 'AKfi^>'"'^*'^*°°'y- 
Ktti ufiEis ' icruveroi itrrt ; 17. outtw' coeire, on ttSk t6 eicnropeu^- ?j; ^-.JS- 

U6K0V €is TO oToiia els ri]v KoiXiac xuptl, koI els dieSpwKa ckBcIX- 21- Lk. U. 

\ o X <^^ > I 2-1 ' - c 35;ix-47; 

\€Tat; 10. Ta oe ciciTopeuofiCi'a eic tou (TToaaTos €k tt]9 Kaooias xxiv. 38. 

efepxerai, KaKet^a koicoi tov afopwTroi'. 19. ^k yap ttjs Kapotas 20. Jas. 

i^ipy^ovTai * SiaXoyicrfiol iroKTipoi, '''<|)0K0i, ''p.oixciai, iropKciai, KXoirai, p These are 

tf'cuSofiaoTupiai, ^Xaa^ir^jAiai. 20. raord cori tA Koicourra tov words 
»a \t>\3' \i~j «\j«A »» common 

avUpdJiTov • TO be ai'tirrois X'P°^'' 4*'*Y"^'' °" KOiKOt to»' aj-opwirov. to this list 

21. Kai e|eX0u»' iKelBiv 6 *li)aous dKcxwptJcreK eis rd fi^prj Topou in Gal. v. 

10: both 
doubtful there. 

'ov in BDZ33. 

' ^BZ omit TaDTT|v and Irjo-ovs (D also omits I.). 

are the leaders, the suggestion being: 
we know what happens in that case. 
The point is the inevitableness of ruin. 
What follows expresses what has been 
already hinted. — •ru«|)\os Si t. i. 68. : if 
blind blind lead ; iStjy^, subjunctive, 
with lav as usual in a present general 
supposition. — ajA^xSrepoi, both : Rabbis 
or scribes and their disciples. Christ 
despaired of the teachers, but He tried to 
rescue the people ; hence w. 10, ii. 

Vv. 15-20. Interpretation 0/ saying in 
ver. II. — Ver. 15. flcTpos, spokesman 
as usual (& 9cp)Ji6s koX iravraxov 
TrpocfjOdvoiv, Chrys., Horn. li.). — vapa- 
Po\i]v, here at least, whatever may be 
the case in Mk., can mean only a dark 
saying, otkotcivos Xdyos (Theophy, in 
Mk.), "oratio obscura" (Suicer). The 
saying, ver. i r, was above the understand- 
ing of the disciples, or rather in advance 
of their religious attainments ; for men 
often deem thoughts difficult when, 
though easy to understand, they are 
hard to receive. The Twelve had been 
a little scandalised by the saying as well 
as the Pharisees, though they did not 
like to say so (kuI avxol Tjpc'pa dopv^ov- 
p,evoi, Chrys.). — Ver. 16. aKpT)v, accusa- 
tive of aKpT), the point (of a weapon, 
etc.) = KaT' aKpT)v \p6vov, at this point 
of time, still ; late Greek, and con- 
demned by Phryn., p. 123 (dvri rov rri). 
— d<rvvcToi €<rT€. Christ chides the 
Twelve for making a mystery of a plain 
matter (" quare parabolice dictum putet 
quod perspicue locutus est," Jerome). 
Very simple and axiomatic to the Master, 
but was it ever quite clear to the 
disciples ? In such matters all depends 
on possessing the requisite spiritual 
sense. Easy to see when you have eyes. 
— Ver. 17. d<|i(Spuva: here only, pro- 
bably a Macedonian v/ord = privy ; a 
vulgar word and a vulgar subject which 

Jesus would gladly have avoided, but He 
forces Himself to speak of it for the sake 
of His disciples. The idea is : from food 
no moral defilement comes to the soul; 
such defilement as there is, purely 
physical, passing through the bowels 
into the place of discharge. Doubtless 
Jesus said this, otherwise no one would 
have put it into His mouth. Were the 
Twelve any the wiser? Probably the 
very rudeness of the speech led them to 
think. — Ver. ii8. JKiroprviipcya : words 
representing thoughts and desires, 
morally defiling, or rather revealing 
defilement already existing in the heart, 
seat of thought and passion. — Ver. 19. 
^droi, etc. : breaches of Sixth, Seventh, 
Eighth, and Ninth Commandments in 
succession. — Ver. 20. Emphatic final 
reassertion of the doctrine. 

Vv. 21-28. Woman of Canaan (Mk. 
vii. 24-30). This excursion to the north 
is the result of a passionate longing to 
escape at once from the fever of popu- 
larity and from the odium theologicum of 
Pharisees, and to be alone for a while 
with the Twelve, with nature, and with 
God. One could wish that fuller details 
had been given as to its duration, extent, 
etc. From Mk. we infer that it had a 
wide sweep, lasted for a considerable 
time, and was not confined to Jewish 
territory. Vide notes there. 

Ver. 21. &vcxupT|o-cy, cf. xii. 15. — 
cU Ta pcpi) T. Kal Z. : towards or into ? 
Opinion is much divided. De Wette cites 
in favour of the latter, Mt. ii. 22, xvi. 13, 
and disposes of the argument against it 
based on airo TtJv opiwv ckcivuv (ver. 22) 
by the remark that it has force only if 
opia, contrary to the usage of the evan- 
gelist, be taken as = boundaries instead 
of territories. On the whole, the con- 
clusion must be that the narrativs leaves 
the point uncertain. On psychological 




Kal IiSwi'O';. 2 2. Kai i8ou, yvvr] Xafavaia dirS xwk 6pia>K ckcicwk 

^^eXOouaa tKpau'yaae*' ^ auT<Ii,' X^youira, "'EXtTjadc fie, Kupie, uic * 

AaPiS • 1^ 6uydrr]p jjioo kokws SaiiJioKi^eTai." 23. 'O 8e oSk 

iTTeKpiOv] auTTJ XoyoK. Kal irpocreXOoi'Tes ot iiaGriTat auTOu TJpwTW*'* 
q Lk. xziii. , , » , ' <f > /\ . > « , » 

26 (with aoTo>', XeyoKTcs, AiroXuaoy auTTjc, on Kpci^et ' oiriadcf iqu.wi'. 

here). 24. 'O Be diroKpiOcis clirek, " Ouk dTrecrTdXr](' ei fit) els xd irpoPara 
r Mk. ix. 21, > » \ \> » 1, »\ " « c \ IN /I - 

24. Acts Ta QTVoAwAora oikou lapar)A. 25. H be eXoouaa ■jrpoffeKoi'ei qutw, 

a8. 2 Cor. Xe'youtra, " Kupie, ' Poi^Gei p.01." 26. 'O 8e d-rroKptGeis eiiref, "Ouk 
vi.a. Heb. „ \^6^o-'» -/ ^D\--'• /.. 

ii. 18. '0^1 KQAok" Kapeiv TOk aproK twj' tckkw^, kui pa\ei»' rots KUfapiois. 

» «Kpatev in BDI (W.H.). The aor. »Kpo5«v in ^Z (Tisch. and W.H. marg.). 
The imperfect is truer to life. 

» ^BCZI omit avTo). ^ V109 in BD. < ■qpuTOvv in J^BCDX. 

• ovK eo-Ti KaXov is so weightily supported (all the great uncials with exception 
of D) that one can hardly refuse to accept it as the true reading. Yet the readin:^ 
of D, OVK «|t«m, has strong claims, just on account of the severity it implies and 
because the other reading is that of Mk. 

grounds the presumption is in favour of 
the view that Jesus crossed the border 
into heathen territory. After that inter- 
view with sanctimonious Pharisees who 
thought the whole world outside Judea 
unclean, it would be a refreshment to 
Christ's spirit to cross over the line and 
feel that He was still in God's world, 
with blue sky overhead and the sea on 
this hand and mountains on that, all 
showing the glory of their Maker. He 
would breathe a freer, less stifling atmo- 
sphere there. — Ver. 22. Xavavaia : the 
Phoenicians were descended from a 
colony of Canaanites, the original in- 
habitants of Palestine, Gen. x. 15 (vide 
Benzinger, Hib. Arch., p. 63). Vide 
notes on Mk. — IX. p,c, pity me, the 
mother's heart speaks. — vU A. The title 
and the request imply some knowledge 
of Jesus. Whence got ? Was she a 
proselyte? (De Wette.) Or had the 
fame of Jesus spread thus far, the report 
of a wonderful healer who passed among 
the Jews for a descendant of David ? 
The latter every way likely, cf. Mt. iv. 
24. There would be some intercourse 
between the borderers, though doubtless 
also prejudices and enmities. — Ver. 23. 
6 ii oviK dir. : a new style of behaviour 
on the part of Jesus. The role of in- 
difference would cost Him an efl'ort. — 
fipwTwc (ovv W. and H. as if contracted 
from ip<i>Tt<i»), besought ; in classics the 
verb means to inquire. In N. T. the 
two senses are combined after analogy of 

7^XJ7. The disciples were probably 

surprised at their Master's unusual 

behaviour ; a reason for it would not 
occur to them. They change placet 
with the Master here, the larger-hearted 
appearing by comparison the narrow- 
hearted. — diroXvCTov, get rid of her by 
granting her request. — on Kpdjei : they 
were moved not so much by pity as by 
dread of a sensation. There was far 
more sympathy (though hidden) in 
Christ's heart than in theirs. Deep 
natures are often misjudged, and shallow 
men praised at their expense. — Ver. 24. 
OVK dTreo-TaXi^v : Jesus is compelled to 
explain Himself, and His explanation is 
bond fide, and to be taken in earnest as 
meaning that He considered it His duty 
to restrict His ministry to Israel, to be a 
shepherd exclusively to the lost sheep of 
Israel (to. irp^Para t. d., cf. ix. 36), as 
He was wont to call them with affec- 
tionate pity. There was probably a 
mixture of feelings in Christ's mind at 
this time ; an aversion to recomrnencc 
just then a healing ministry at all — 
a craving for rest and retirement ; a 
disinclination to be drawn into a ministry 
among a heathen people, which would 
mar the unity of His career as a prophet 
of God to Israel (the drama of His life to 
serve its purpose must respect the limits 
of time and place) ; a secret inclination 
to do this woman a kindness if it could 
in any way be made exceptional; and last 
but not least, a feeling that her request 
was really not isolated but representative 
= the Gentile world in her inviting Him, a 
fugitive from His own land, to come over 
and help them, an omen of the transference 
of the kingdom from Jewish to Pagan soil. 

ii — 31. 



27. 'H 8e E11T6, **Nai, Kupie ' Kal y^P ^ '''°- Kumpia iaGUi citto t5>v 
^^i)(iu)v Tuv * TTiirTiJiTWi' oLtto ttjs ' TpaTTeX^S tS>v Kupitav auToii'. " s Mk. vii. 
. ToTC aTTOKpiOEis o lT]aou$ eiTTCC aoTT), Q yuj-ai, p.€Ya\T) aou xvi. 21 

TJ TTIOTIS • yCKTjfll^Ta) tTOt (US 6AeiS." Kal iddr] iq OuyClTTIp aUTTJS t same phr - 
><««,/ in Lk. xvl 

6,1(6 TT^S WpaS CKCll'TJS. 21. 

29. Kol fAeraPas ^KelSeK 6 'itjaoGs ^\9e Trapd ttjc QoKaauav tt^s 
FaXiXaias " Kal d^'a^ds ets to opos, eKaOrjTO ckci. 30. icai 
•jrpo(7TJX0oi' auTW o)(^\oi iroXXoi, exorres jxe9' eauTliik' x'^^ouSj tu<j>- 

XOUS, Kb)(f>OUS) ° KuXXouS,^ Kal CTc'pOUS TToXXoUS, Kal Ippilj/aK aUT0U9 11 Ch xviii 
^ X /« - >i - s > >fl y . / • " Mk. ix 

irapa tous irooas tou Irjaoo ** Kai eocpdircuo'eK aoTous • 31. (dotc 43. 
ToAs ©xXous* Oaufidcai, pXeironros ku4)ous XaXourras,^ kuXXoos 
uyi€is,' X"^°"5 TTcpiiraTourras, ical Tu4>Xoiks pXeiroinras • xal 

* B omits yop, which therefore W H. bracket. As Weiss suggests it may have 
fallen out per incuriam. It seems needed, vide below. Yet vide Mk. 

' The order in which these four words (x<oXoijs, etc.) are given varies. 15 has 
KvXXovs before tv<{)Xovs, which W.H. adopt. The order of T.R. is supported only 
by late MSS. 

' avTov tor Tov I. in ^BOL, * tov oxXok in ^CDA. 

* B has aKovovras. • i«^ omits this clause. 

Vv. 25-28. Entreaty renewed at close 
quarters with success. — Ver. 25. ^ ii 
tXOovcra, eic. Probably the mother read 
conHict and iriesoiution in Christ's face, 
and thence drew encouragement. — Ver. 
26. ovK €<rTiv KaXov, etc. : seemingly a 
hard word, but not so hard as it seems. 
First, it is not a simple monosyllabic 
negative, leaving no room for parley, 
but an argument inviting further dis- 
cussion. Next, it is playful, humorous, 
bantering in tone, a parable to be taken 
cum grano. Third, its harshest word, 
iruvapiois, contains a loophole. Kvvdpia 
does not compare Gentiles to the dogs 
without, in the street, but to the house- 
hold dogs belonging to the family, which 
got their portion though not the chil- 
dren's. — Ver. 27. vai, Kvpie ■ Kal yap, 
etc. : eager assent, not dissent, with a 
gleam in the eye on perceiving the 
advantage given by the comparison = Yes, 
indeed. Lord, for even, etc. Kypkc cites an 
instance from Xenophoii of the combina- 
tion vai Kal ■yap in the same sense. - 
»(/iXi<">') dimin- iruir. ij/i§, a bit, crumb, 
found only in N. T. (here and Mk. vii. 28, 
Lk. xvi. 21 T. R.), another diminutive 
answering to Kwcipta = the little pet 
dogs, eat of the minute morsels. Curi- 
ously felicitous combination of ready 
wit, humility and faith : wit in seizing 
on the playful Kuvdpia and improving on 
it by adding ■i{;ixi°'> humility in being 
content with the smallest crumb;;, faith 

in conceiving of the healing asked as 
only such a crumb for jesus to give. — 
Ver. :<:8. Immediate compliance with 
her request with intense dehght in her 
faith, which may have recalled to mind 
that of another Gentile (Mt. viii. 10). 
w yvvai: exclamation in a tone enriched 
by the harmonies of manifold emotions. 
What a refreshment to Christ's heart to 
pass from that dreary pestilential tradi- 
tionalism to this utterance of a simple 
unsophisticated moral nature on Pagan 
soil ! The transition from the one scene 
to the other unconsciously serves the 
purposes of consummate dramatic art. 

Vv. 29-31. Return to the Sea oj 
Galilee (Mk. vii. 31-37). — Ver. 29. irapa 
T. 6. T. faX., to the neighbourhood of 
the Sea of Galilee ; on which side ? 
According to Mk., the eastern, ap- 
proached by a circuitous journey through 
Sidon and Decapolis. Weiss contends 
that Mt. means the western shore. The 
truth. seems to be that he leaves it vague. 
Mis account is a meagre colourless re- 
production of iMk.'s. Mc takes no interest 
in the route, but only in the incidents at 
the two termini. He takes Jesus north 
to the borders of Tyre to meet the woman 
of Canaan, and back to Galilee to feed 
the multitude a second time. — els to 
opos, as in v. i, and apparently for the 
same purpose : eKaO-rjTo e., sat down 
there to teach. This ascent of the hill 
bordering the lake is not in Mk. — Ver. 




' (^a,p2I', ' *^°^'^'^'^'' ^^^ ®^°*' ''<^P^^- 32- 'O §€ 'iTjaous TrpoaKoX€a{i|iCK05 
[^"'^7**'tous fiaOriTcls aoToC ctirc, " lTrXaYX>'itoF"*i ^"Ti t^k ©xXof, on r^Sri 
J""'.'- ''^- '^ -qfiipas ^ Tpeis * irpoorfji^t'ooo-i (ioi, Kal ouk e^ouai ti 4x^7*^'^'" "**' 
Acts V. 7 (i-jT-oXGo-ai aoToos " kt)ot€is ou OAu, jiTJiroTC tRXudwaif eV ttj 68u»." 

" ^''■/"'' 33- Kal XcyouaiK auTw 01 |xa6T]Tai aoTOu,'^ " floOec iifiiK e** cprjfAio 
^'•..-3; aproi TOffouToi, wcttc xoprdaat o)(Xo>' ToaouTOK;" 34. Kai Xeyei 

Tim. T. 5. auTOis 6 'Itjo-ous, " rioCTOus apToos €X«Te ; " Ol 8c flirov, " 'ETrT<£, 
xMW. viii. 3. ,,,,., \ 

y Mk. viii. 7. Kal ^Xiva '^ iY6u8ia. 35. Kai cKcXcuae tois oyXois ' ' Ava-n^atlv 
z Mk. vi. 40 ^ ^ ^ \ \. a\ £ \ n • \ 

(absol.) ; eiri TTi*' yr\v • 36. Kai Xapwf * toos lirra aprous Kal tou$ lY^uas,* 

(^ttI ni? ■)-.)■ cuYapioTTjcras CKXaae, xai eSupce" tois fAaOTjTais auToC/ ol 8e 
Lk. xi. 37 
(=ii'ouc\f»'Ofioi). John xxi. ao oi. 

1 T)(i,epai in most uncials. J«) and Origen have the accus. (T]|j.cpas T.R.), 
obviously a grammatical correction. 

^ ^B omit avTov. * For ckcX, tois ox- ^^BD have irapaYYciXas t<i» oxXw. 

* For Kai Xa^uv i^BD have cXa^c. * i^BD insert Kai before e-vxapioTtjcras. 

« cSiSov in t^BD. '' t^BD omit avTov. 

30. x"^°^5' ^'^- • *^* people wanted 
healing, not teaching, and so brought 
tlieir sick and suffering to Jesus. — «p- 
pi\|/av : they threw them at His feet 
either in care-free confidence, or in haste, 
because of the greatness of the number. 
.\mong those brought were certain classed 
as KvXXovs, which is usually interpreted 
"bent," as with rheumatism. But in 
v:viii. 8 it seems to mean "mutilated". 
Eu thy. takes kvXXoi = ol axcip<Si and 
Grotius argues for this sense, and infers 
that among Christ's works of healing 
were restorations of lost limbs, though 
we do not read of such anywhere else. 
On this view •uy'-"'' '^^^- 3^' ^'^' mean 
apTiovs, intcgros. — Ver. 31. XaXovvTas : 
this and the following participles are used 
substantively as objects of the verb pXe- 
■irovTas, the action denoted by the parti- 
ciples being that which was seen. — 
3.8d|otrov T. 6. *l<rpaiiX. The expression 
suggests a non-Israelite crowd and seems 
to hint that after all for our evangelist 
Jesus is on the east side and in heathen 
territory. But it may point back to ver. 
24 and mean the God who conferred 
such favours on Israel as distinct from 
the heathen (Weiss-Meyer). 

Vv. 32-38. Second feeding (Mk. viii. 
i-g). — Ver. 32. oTrXayxviSofiai, with 4irl 
as in xiv. 14, Mk. viii. 2, with irepi in ix. 
36. In the first feeding Christ's com- 
passion is moved by the sickness among 
the multitude, here by their hunger. — 
T)p.e'pai Tpeis: that this is the true reading 
is guaranteed by the unusual construction, 
the accusative being what one expects. 

The reading of D adopted by Fritzsche, 
which inserts clcri sal after Tpels, though 
not to be accepted as the true reading, 
may be viewed as a solution of the 
problem presented by the true reading 
vide Winer, § 62, 2. — vtjo-tcis, fasting 
(vTj, lirBiut similar to vi^irios from vtj, 
ciros), here and in parallel text in Mk. 
only. The motive of the miracle is not 
the distance from supplies but the ex- 
hausted condition of the people after 
staying three days with Jesus with quite 
inadequate provision of food. Mk. states 
that some were far from Jiome (viii. 3), 
implying that most were not. But even 
those whose homes were near might faint 
(ckXvOuo-i, Gal. vi. 9) by the way through 
long fasting. — Ver. 33. Toaovroi, Sxttc 
XopTacrai. &<rT* with infinitive may be 
used to express a consequence involved 
in the essence or quality of an object or 
action, therefore after too-ovtos and 
similar words ; vide Kiihner, § 584, 2, aa. 
— Ver. 34. irio-oTJs apTovs : the disciples 
have larger supplies this time than the 
first, after three days, and when the 
supplies of the multitude are exhausted : 
seven loaves and several small fishes. — 
Ver. 36. (vxapi(rTi]<ras, a late Greek 
word (" does not occur before Polybius 
in the sense oi gr alias agere'' — Camb. 
N. T.), condemned by Phryn., who 
enjoins x^ifnv eiScvai instead (Lobeck, 
p. 18). Eisner dissents from the judg- 
ment of the ancient grammarians, citing 
instances from Demosthenes, etc.— Ver. 
37. cTTTo airvp(8as : baskets different 
in number and in name. Hesychius 

ja— 39- XVI. I. 



p,aOT]Tai Tw oxXw.^ 37. Kol €4)aY0c irdrres, Kai i\opTd(TQr\(ray • 

Kol ^pai- '^ TO TreptCT(T€uo»' TWK KXao-fidTwi', e-irrci '<nrupi8as TrXVipeis. « 

38. 01 8c 6o-0iorre5 tjctoj' rerpaicioxiXioi aj-Spes, X"pi5 y"'''*"*"'' "^"^^ ?°- *'^'* 


39. Kal diro\u(Tos rods ©xXous ivifiri €is to itXoiok, koi TiXOeK cis 
Tol opia MaySaXd.^ 

XVI. I. Kal irpocrcXOorres 01 ♦apicraioi koi laSSouKaloi ircipd- 
(oKTCS iirnp(aTn(Tav * aurSi' <n\\i€iov eic Tou oupacou eTrioei|ai auTOis. 

* Tois oxXoLs in ^BL al. ^ Upav after KXao-ftaTuv in BD. 

» MayaSav in t^tJD, adopted in Tisch., W.H., etc., and doubtless the true 
reading. Ma^SaXa is a known substituted for an unknown. 

* tirripwTMv in J«^ (Tisch. and W.H. marg.). 

defines <nrvp(« : rh t«v irvpwv £7705 = 

wheat-basket; perhaps connected with 
<nrc(pw, suggesting a basket made of 
rope-net; probably larger than k^<|>ivos, 
for longer journeys (Grotius). Or does 
the different kind of basket point to 
different nationality; Gentiles? Hilary 
contends for Gentile recipients of the 
second blessing, with whom Westcott 
{Characteristics of Gospel Miracles, p. 
13) agrees. — Ver. 39. MayttSar: the 
true reading, place wholly unknown, 
whence probably the variants. 

Chapter XVI. Sign Seekers : 
Cabsarea Philippi. Again a dramati- 
cally impressive juxtaposition of events. 
First an ominous encounter with ill- 
affected men professedly in quest of a 
sign, then in a place of retreat a first 
announcement in startlingly plain terms 
of an approaching tragic crisis. 

Vv. I- 12. Demand for a sign (Mk. 
viii. 11-21). — Ver. i. irpooreXOovres : 
one of Mt.'s oft-recurring descriptive 
words. — <t>ap. Kal Ia88. : a new com- 
bination, with sinister purpose, of classes 
of the community not accustomed to act 
together ; wide apart, indeed, in social 
position and religious tendency, but 
made allies pro tern, by common dislike 
to the movement identified with Jesus. 
Already scribes by themselves had asked 
a sign (xii. 38). Now they are joined by 
a party representing the priestly and 
governing classes among whom the 
•* Sadducees " were to be found (Well- 
hzuscn, Die Pharisder und die Sadducder). 
Mk. mentions only the Pharisees (ver. 
11), but he makes Jesus refer to the 
leaven of Herod in the subsequent con- 
versation with the disciples, whence 
might legitimately be inferred the 
presence of representatives of that 
leaven. These Mt. calls " Sadducees," 

probably the better-known name, and 
practically identical with the Herod 
leaven. The " Herodians " were, I 
imagine, people for whom Herod the 
Great was a hero, a kind of Messiah, 
all the Messiah they cared for or believed 
in, one who could help worldly-minded 
Israelites to be proud of their country 
(vide Grotius on Mt. xvi. 6). It was 
among Sadducees that such hero- 
worshippers were likely to be found. — 
6irnpwTTi<rav : here like the simple verb 
(xv. 23) = requested, with infinitive, 
iiri8ci|ai, completing the object of 
desire. — «rnp.eior Itt tow ovpavov : before 
(xii. 38) only a sign. Now a sign from 
heaven. What might that be ? Chrys. 
(Horn, liii.) suggests; to stop the course 
of the sun, to bridle the moon, to pro- 
duce thunder, or to change the air, or 
something of that sort These sugges- 
tions will do as well as any. Probably 
the interrogators had no definite idea 
what they wanted, beyond desiring to 
embarrass or nonplus Christ. 

Vv. 2-4. Reply of fesus. — Vv. 2 and 
3, though not in B and bracketed by W. 
H., may be regarded as part of the text. 
Somewhat similar is Lk. xii. 54-56, On 
some occasion Jesus must have con- 
trasted the shrewd obser\'ation of His 
contemporaries in the natural sphere 
with their spiritual obtuseness. — Ver 2. 
cv8(a, fine weather 1 (cv, Ai<Ss genitive of 
Zcv«). — vvppdLCct yap h h. : that the sign 
= a ruddy sky in the evening (irv^pC^eiv 
in Lev. xiii. 19, 24). — Ver. 3, x<^C^<^*'< a 
storm to-day ; sign the same, a ruddy 
sky in the morning. — orvyvo Jcuv, late but 
expressive = triste caelum. No special 
meteorological skill indicated thereby,only 
the average power of observation based 
on experience, which is common to man. 
kind. Lightfoot credits the Jews with 




« Sir Hi. 13. 2. 6 hi diTOKpiOcis ctiTCK aoTOis, "'Oil/ia?^ yevo\t.itni]s X^y*"""** 'Eu8ia< 

b Aiisxxvii. iroppd^ei ydp 6 oupawos. 3' "^'^ Trpwi, Ii')/xepo>' ** )(€ip.w>' • iruppdl^ci 
j<' (same , . /» c . / c / 9 » > » 

sense). y'^P orroyKa^w*' o oupak6s< uiroKpixai, to ftec irpoawTroK tou 
Ch. xxiv. , ^ , , -„ -'t'fll 

20 (winter) oupafou yifuaKCTC oiaKpifcif, ra 06 orj^eia Tutv Kaiput' ou ouyacrve, 

tMk. X. aa. 4- ycfta TronfjpA Kai fioixaXls (rqfieloy ^Tri^TjTei • koI <rT)fjicioi' ou 

SoOl^OrCTOt aUTTJ, el p.^ to (TKJfieiOK 'iwcd tou 1Tpo4)TJTOU. " ^ Kai 

d MIc. viii. KaraXiirbti' auTOus, dirTiXOc. 
14 (with ^ , . 

inf.). Heb. e , Kai eXSoKTcs oi u.a6TiTai auTou * ets to -ndpav ** tTreXdSoi'TO 
vi. 10; ^ ^ ^ ' 

xiii. 2, 16 apTOus XaSeik. 6. 6 Be 'Iriaous ciTret' aoTois, " 'Opaxe Kai TrpocrcYeTC 

(with^en). \ ^ , ^ , ^ ^c, , ,, . v , 

Phil. lii. 13 dtro rnc tuuns tuk <^apiaaiojK Kai ZaooouKaiu^. 7. Oi Se SieXovi- 
(accus.). I => r I r / j 

1 From o\|«ia« to SuvoaOi, end of ver. 3, is bracketed as doubtful by ujodein editor!- 
The passage is wanting in t^BVXf, Syr. Cur., and Syr. Sin., Orig., etc. 

' DLA omit. ' ^liDL omit tov Trpoij.rjTou. * ^IX'D omit avrov. 

special interest in such observations, and 
Christ was willing to give them full 
credit for skill in that sphere. Mis com- 
plaint was that they showed no such 
skill in the ethical sphere ; they could 
not discern the signs of the times (twv 
Kaipuv : the reference being, of course, 
;hiefly to their own time). Neither 
Pharisees nor Sadducees had any idea 
that the end of the Jewish state was so 
near. They said cvSia when they should 
have said xt\.\i<l>v. They mistook the 
time of day ; thought it was the eve of 
a good time corning when it was the 
morning of the judgment day. For a 
historical parallel, vide Carlyle's French 
Revolution, book ii., chap, i., Aslraea 
Redux. — Ver. 4. Vide chap. xii. 39. 

Vv. 5-12. The one important thing 
in this section is the reflection of Jesus 
on what had just taken place. The 
historical setting is not clear. Jesus left 
the sign seekers after giving them their 
answer. The disciples cross the lake ; 
in which direction ? With or without 
their Master ? They forget to take 
bread. When ? On setting out or after 
arrival at the other side ? iX6ovTts «ls 
T. v., ver. 5, naturally suggests the 
latter, but, as Gtotius remarks, the verb 
(IpXecrBai in the Gospels sometimes 
means ire not venire (vide, e.g., Lk. xv. 
20). Suffice it to say that either in the 
boat or after arrival at the opposite side 
Jesus uttered a memorable word. — Ver. 
6. opaTf Kai 7rpo<rcx<T( : an abrupt, 
urgent admonition to look out for, in 
order to take heed of, a phenomenon of 
very sinister import ; in Scottish idiom 
" see and beware of ". More impressive 
still in Mk. ; Sparc, pXiirerc, a duality 

giving emphasis to the command 
(dva8i7r\w<7is> i\L^a.i.vovKra ^-iriracriv 
TTJs TrapayycXias, Euthy. ). t;i'p.T|s, 

leaven, here conceived as an evil in- 
tluence, working, however, after the same 
manner as the leaven in the parable (xiii. 
33). It Is a Kpirit, a Zeitgeist, insinuat- 
ing itself everywhere, and spreadmg 
more and more in society, which Jesus 
instinctively shrank from in horror, and 
from which He wished to guard His 
disciples. — rwv 4>ap. Kai 2a8. : one 
leaven, of two parties viewed as one, 
hence no article before 2a8. Two 
leavens separately named in Mk., but 
even there juxtaposition in the warning 
implies affinity. The leaven of Pharisaism 
is made thoroughly known to us in the 
Gospels by detailed characterisation. 
Sadducaism very seldom appears on the 
stage, and few words of Jesus concerning 
it are recorded ; yet enough to indicate 
its character as secular or " worldly ". 
The two classes, antagonistic at many 
points of belief and practice, would be 
at one in dislike of single-hearted 
devotion to truth and righteousness, 
whether in the Baptist (iii. 7) or in 
Jesus. This common action in reference 
to either might not be a matter of 
arrangement, and each might come 
with its own characteristic mood : the 
Pharisee with bitter animosity, the 
Sadducee with good-natured scepticism 
and in quest of amusement, as when 
they propounded the riddle about the 
woman married to seven brothers. Both 
moods revealed utter lack of appreciation, 
no friendship to be looked for in either 
quarter, both to be dreaded. — Ver. 7. iv 
tavTois : either each man in his own 



JoiTO iv lauTOis, X^yoires, ''"Oti aprous ouk e\dPo|j.e>'." 8. rKoos 

Sc 6 'Itjctous ctirec auTois,^ '' Ti SiaXoyi^effOe iv eaurois, oXiyoirioTOW 

OTt aprous OUK eXd^ere^; 9. ouiru J'oeire, ooSe * /Jinfi(x,oi'eu€Te tous e i Thess. ii. 

nivTi apTOus twc ircKTaKKrxtXicjK, Kal it6(T0vs Ko<|)tvous cXdPere ; u. 8. Rev. 

5C\ > c \ » /^ \' \ I '5 i? xviii. 5 

10. ouoe T0U9 CTrra aprous tuc rerpaKitrxiAiw*', Kai iroo-as o-irupioas (with 

>\/o /^J-•w 3 \» it e" » accus.). 

cXaperc ; II. trws ou rocire, on ou irepi aprou * ciiroi' ujin' irpoo-e- Gal. ii. 10. 

\ei.v^ diro rfjs ^ufiT|S tojk ♦apto-aiwi' Kai ZaSSouKaiuK ; 12. Tore Heb. xi. 

auKTJKai', on ouk etire irpoaeyjeiy diro ttjs Su|i.t]S tou aprou,' dXX' (^.j'th"'"' 

diro rrjs SiSaxTJ? twi' 4>apiaai(>>i' Kal laSSouKaiuK. ^"'•^' 

» If^BDLAI rt/. omit ovrois. * i«5BD have €x<Te (W.H.). 

* o-<}>vpiSa9 in BD. * apruv in ^BCL. 

* For irpoo-ex«iv ^BCL have trpoarfxtrt 8c. • tcuv aprtov in BL. 

mind (Weiss), or among themselves, 
apart from the Master (Meyer).— on 
may be recitative or = " because ". He 
gfives this warning because, etc. ; sense 
the same. They take the Master to 
mean : do not buy bread from persons 
belonging to the obnoxious sects ! or 
ratiier perhaps : do not take your direc- 
tions as to the leaven to be used in 
baking from that quarter. Vide Light- 
foot ad loc. Stupid mistake, yet pardon- 
able when we remember the abruptness 
of the warning and the wide gulf between 
Master and disciples : He a prophet with 
prescient eye, seeing the forces of evil 
at work and what they were leading to ; 
they very commonplace persons lacking 
insight and foresight. Note the solitari- 
ness of Christ. — Ver. 8. 6\iY<Jiri<rT0i : 
always thinking about bread, bread, 
instead of the kingdom and its fortunes, 
with which alone the Master was 
occupied. — Vv. 9, 10. And with so little 
excuse in view of quite recent experiences, 
of which the vivid details are given as if 
to heighten the reproach. — Ver. 11. 
irpoo-^X^Te, etc. : warning repeated with- 
out further explanation, as the meaning- 
would now be self-evident. — Ver. 12. 
(TvvTJKav, they now understood, at least 
to the extent of seeing that it was a 
question not of loaves but of something 
spiritual. One could wish that they had 
understood that from the first, and that 
they had asked their Master to explain 
more precisely the nature of the evil 
influences for their and our benefit. 
Thereby we might have had in a sentence 
a photograph of Sadducaism, e.g. — 
SiSax^js, "doctrine"; that was in a 
general way the import of the t,v^r\. 
But if Jesus had explained Himself He 
would have had more to say. The 

dogmas and opinions of the two parties 
in question were not the worst of them, 
but the spirit of their life : their dislike 
of real godliness. 

Vv. 13-28. At Caesarea Philippi (Mk. 
viii. 27 — ix. I ; Lk. ix. 18-27). The 
crossing of the lake (ver. 5) proved to be 
the prelude to a second long excursion 
northwards, similar to that mentioned in 
XV, 21 ; like it following close on an en- 
counter with ill-affected persons, and 
originating in a kindred mood and 
motive. For those who regard the two 
feedings as duplicate accounts of the 
same event these two excursions are of 
course one. " The idea of two journeys 
on which Jesus oversteps the boundaries 
of Galilee is only the result of the 
assumption of a twofold feeding. The 
two journeys are, in truth, only parts of 
one great journey, on which Jesus, 
coming out of heathen territory, first 
touches again the soil of the holy land, 
in the neighbourhood of Caesarea 
Philippi." Weiss, Leben fesu, ii. 256. 
Be this as it may, this visit to that 
region was an eventful one, marking a 
crisis or turning-point in the career of 
Jesus. We are at the beginning of the 
fifth act in the tragic drama : the shadow 
of the cross now falls across the path. 
Practically the ministry in Galilee is 
ended, and Jesus is here to collect His 
thoughts and to devote Himself to the 
disciplining of His disciples. Place and 
time invite to reflection and forecast, 
and afford leisure for a calm survey of 
the whole situation. Note that at this 
point Lk. again joins his fellow-evan- 
gelists in his narrative. We have missed 
him from xiv. 23 onwards {vide notes on 

Ver. 13. 'EXOutf : here again this verb 




13. 'EXOwi' Se 6 'irjaous €iS xd fieprj Kaiaapcias t»]S ♦iXiinrou 
TJpura T0U9 fxnOijTas auToO, \iy(i>v, " Tiv'a fic ^ Xeyouaiv' ol avQpufnot, 
flvai, Tov' otoK Tou dfGpojTTOo ; " 14. Ol Se eltiov, " Oi iief '\udvvii\v 
TOK BaiTTKmiK • aWoi Sc 'HXiav • Ircpoi 8« 'lcpc|iiaK, <J ira r<ay 

' ^B and most versions omit fi€, which has probably come in from the parallels. 
The omission of jxc requires the , after «tvoi to be deleted. 

may mean not arriving at, but setting 
out for, or on the way: unterwegs, Schanz. 
So Grotius : cum proficisceretur, non cum 
venisset. Fritzsche dissents and renders : 
postquam venerat. Mk. has «v tj\ hhia to 
indicate where the conversation began. 
On the whole both expressions are 
elastic, and leave us free to locate the 
ensuing scene at any point on the road 
to Caesarea Philippi, say at the spot 
where the city and its surroundings came 
into view. — Kaiaapctas t. <t>. : a notable 
city, romantically situated at the foot of 
the Lebanon range, near the main 
sources of the Jordan, in a limestone 
cave, in the province of Gaulonitis, ruled 
over by the Tetrarch Philip, enlarged 
and beautified by him with the Herodian 
passion for building, and furnished with 
a new name (Paneas before, changed 
into Caesarea of Philip to distinguish 
from Caesarea on the sea). " A place of 
exceedingly beautiful, picturesque sur- 
roundings, with which few spots in the 
holy land can be compared. What a 
rush of many waters ; what a wealth 
and variety of vegetation 1 " Furrer, 
Wanderungen, 414. Vide also the de- 
scription in Stanley's Sinai and Palestine, 
and in Professor G. A. Smith's Historical 
Geography of the Holy Land. — riva 
Xe'7ov<rtv, etc. : with this grand natural 
scene possibly or even probably (why 
else name it ?) in view, Jesus asked His 
disciples a significant question meant to 
lead on to important disclosures. The 
question is variously reported by the 
synoptists, and it is not easy to decide 
between the forms. It would seem 
simpler and more natural to ask, " whom 
do, etc., that / am ? " {y.t tlvai, Mk. and 
Lk.). But, on the other hand, at a 
solemn moment Jesus might prefer to 
speak impersonally, and ask: "whom 
. . . that the Son of Man is ? " (Mt.). That 
title, as hitherto employed by Him, 
would not prejudge the question. It 
had served rather to keep the question 
who He was, how His vocation was to 
be defined, in suspense till men had 
learned to attach new senses to old 
words. It is intrinsically unlikely that 
He would combine the two forms of the 

question, and ask : " whom, etc., that I, 
the Son of Man, am ? " as in the T. R. 
That consideration does not settle what 
Mt. wrote, but it is satisfactory that the 
best MSS. leave out the ^c. The ques- 
tion shows that Jesus had been thinking 
of His past ministry and its results, and 
it may be taken for granted that He had 
formed His own estimate, and did not 
need to learn fi-om the Twelve how He 
stood. He had come to the conclusion 
that He was practically without reliable 
following outside the disciple circle, and 
that conviction is the key to all that 
follows in this memorable scene. How 
the influential classes, the Pharisees, and 
the priests and political men = Sadducees, 
were affected was apparent. Nothing 
but hostility was to be looked for there. 
With the common people on the other 
hand He had to the last been popular. 
They liked His preaching, and they took 
eager advantage of His healing ministry. 
But had they got a definite faith about 
Him, as well as a kindly feeling towards 
Him ; an idea well-rooted, likely to be 
lasting, epoch-making, the starting-point 
of a new religious movement ? He did 
not believe they had, and He expected 
to have that impression confirmed by the 
answer of the Twelve, as indeed it was. 

Ver. 14. Reply of disciples : the 
general effect being : opinions of the 
people, favourable but crude, without re- 
ligious definiteness and depth, with no 
promise of future outcome. — 'ludv., 
'HXiav., 'Icpcfji. Historic characters, 
recent or more ancient, redivivi — that 
the utmost possible : unable to rise to 
the idea of a wholly new departure, or a 
greater than any character in past his- 
tory ; conservatism natural to the common 
mind. All three personages whose re- 
turn might be expected ; the Baptist to 
continue his work cut short by Herod, 
Elijah to prepare the way and day of the 
Lord (Mai. iv. 5), Jeremiah to bring back 
the ark, etc., which (2 Maccab. ii. 1-12) 
he had hid in a cave. Jeremiah is 
classed with the other well-known 
prophets (rj eva t. it.), and the supporters 
of that hypothesis are called ertpoi, as 
if to distinguish them not merely numeri- 



13— 17- 



•irpo4>i1T<i)i'." 15. A^Y" auTois, "'Yp.cis Sc rij'a (i€ Xfyrre eiKai ; " f Ch. xxvi. 

J ,, , ««\»e >te\ - ^3- Heb. 

10. AiroKpiOeis oe liy^w FleTpos ciirc, lo ei o Xpioros, o uios tou iii. 12; ix. 

©coo TOU *^wrros." l"]. Kal diroKptdels ^ 6 'Irjo-ous eXiriv auTw, (an attri- 

"MttKapios et, ZifxuK Bap Muwa, on *o-ap5 koI ^aifia ouk ^direKciXo^j/^ God). 

g I Cor. xr. 
JO. Gal. i. 16. Eph. vL 13. Heb. u. 14 (the tame phrase in all). h Ch. xi. 25. Gal. i. ib. 

^ airoKpiOcis Sc in t^BD, cursives. 

cally (oXXoi) but generically : a lower 
type who did not connect Jesus with 
Messiah in any way, even as forerunner, 
but simply thought of Him as one in 
whom the old prophetic charism had 
been revived. 

Vv. 15, 16. New question and answer. 
— Ver. 15. xip.€is 8i, and you ? might 
have stood alone, perhaps did originally. 
Jesus invites the Twelve to give Him 
their own view. The first question was 
really only introductory to this. Jesus 
desires to make sure that He, otherwise 
without reliable following, has in His 
disciples at least the nucleus of a com- 
munity with a definite religious con- 
viction as to the meaning of His ministry 
and mission. — Ver. 16. Ztp.(dv H^rpos : 
now as always spokesman for the Twelve. 
There may be deeper natures among 
them (John ?), but he is the most ener- 
getic and outspoken, though wnthal 
emotional rather than intellectual; strong, 
as passionate character is, rather than 
with the strength of thought, or of a will 
steadily controlled by a firm grasp of 
great principles : not a rock in the sense 
in which St. Paul was one. — <rv «t . . . 
Tov t«vTos : " Thou art the Christ, the 
Son of the living God," in Mk. simply 
"Thou art the Christ," in Lk. "the 
Christ of God ". One's first thought is 
that Mk. gives the original form of the 
reply ; and yet in view of Peter's 
vehement temperament one cannot be 
perfectly sure of that. The form in Mt. 
certainly answers best to the reply of 
Jesus, vide on ver. 17. In any case the 
emphasis lies on that which is common to 
the three reports : the affirmation of the 
Christhood of Jesus. That was what 
differentiated the disciples from the 
favourably disposed multitude. The 
latter said in effect : at most a forerunner 
of Messiah, probably not even that, only 
a prophet worthy to be named alongside 
of the well-known prophets of Israel. 
The Twelve through Peter said : not 
merely a prophet or a forerunner of the 
Messiah, but the Messiah Himself. The 
remainder of the reply in Mt., whether 
spoken by Peter, or added by the evan- 

gelist (to correspond, as it were, to Son 
of Man in ver. 13), is simply expansion 
or epexegesis. If spoken by Peter it 
serves to show that he spoke with 
emotion, and with a sense of the gravity 
of the declaration. The precise theo- 
logical value of the added clause cannot 
be determined. 

Vv. 17-19. Solemn address of y esus to 
Peter, peculiar to Mt., and of doubtful 
authenticity in the view of many modern 
critics, including Wendt (Die Lehre 
jfesu, i., p. 181), either an addendum by 
the evangelist or introduced at a later 
date by a reviser. This question cannot 
be fully discussed here. It must suffice 
to say that psychological reasons are in 
favour of something of the kind having 
been said by Jesus. It was a great 
critical moment in His career, at which 
His spirit was doubtless in a state of 
high tension. The firm tone of con- 
viction in Peter's reply would give Him 
a thrill of satisfaction demanding ex- 
pression. One feels that there is a 
hiatus in the narratives of Mk. and Lk. : 
no comment on the part of Jesus, as if 
Peter had delivered himself of a mere 
trite commonplace. We may be sure 
the fact was not so. The terms in which 
Jesus speaks of Peter are characteristic 
— warm, generous, unstinted. The style 
is not that of an ecclesiastical editor lay- 
ing the foundation for Church power 
and prelatic pretensions, but of a 
noble-minded Master eulogising in im- 
passioned terms a loyal disciple. Even 
the reference to the " Church " is not 
unseasonable. What more natural than 
that Jesus, conscious that His labours, 
outside the disciple circle, have been 
fruitless, so far as permanent result is 
concerned, should fix His hopes on that 
circle, and look on it as the nucleus of a 
new regenerate Israel, having for its 
raison d'etre that it accepts Him as the 
Christ ? And the name for the new 
Israel, £KKXtj<r(a, in His mouth is not an 
anachronism. It is an old familiar name 
for the congregation of Israel, found in 
Deut. (xviii. 16; xxiii. 2) and Psalms 
(xxii. 26), both books well knovvm to 




ihere«ndin aoi, dXX iraTtip iioo 6 ev TOis ^ oupafoi;. 1 8. KAvw %4 croi X^vw, 
iviii. I7in „,, >,\, » >e.» 

Cospels. on oru €i flcTpos, Kai ciri xaurj) ttj ireTpa oiKooou.'t^o'w iiou tt)|» 
j Lk. xxi. 36 1 , » , > /\ "c > I ' ' » ' , . , > , c 

(W.H.); cJCKXtjaiaK, Kai iruXai ooou ou ' KaTi(rj(u<rouCTtK aurris, 19. Kai'^owaw 

V Lk. xi. 52. (Tol Tas ^ kXcls ' Tr]s PttCTiXeias xwf oupacwK • Kai 8 ^ac * ' Si^cnjs ^irl 
Rev. i. 18; . » , cc/ J - > - \ * y\ K. i\ > * t \ 

iii. 7; ix. TT^S Y'i'' *<"'<*i oeoefACKOK CK Tois oupacois ' Kai eai''* Xo(rj]s eiri 
I ; XX. I. 

1 Cb. xviii. 18. 

* B omits Tois, which W.H. bracket. 

» KX«i8as in t^BL (W.H.). * o cv in BD. 

» fc^BD omit Kai. (W.H.). 
' o av in D. 

Jesus. — Ver. 17. (laK^pios : weighty 
word chosen to express a rare and high 
condition, virtue, or experience (" hoc 
vocabulo non solum beata, sed etiam 
rara simul conditio significatur," Beng.). 
It implies satisfaction with the quality of 
Peter's faith. Jesus was not easily satis- 
fied as to that. He wanted no man to 
call Him Christ under a misappre- 
hension ; hence the prohibition in ver. 
20. He congratulated Peter not merely 
on believing Him to be the Messiah, 
but on having an essentially right con- 
ception of what the title meant. — I. 
Bapiwva : full designation, name, and 
patronymic, suiting the emotional state 
of the speaker and the solemn character 
of the utterance, echo of an Aramaic 
source, or of the Aramaic dialect used 
then, if not always, by Jesus. — o-ap5 Kai 
alfxa : synonym in current Jewish speech 
for " man ". " Infiniti frequcntii banc 
formulam loquendi adhibent Scriptores 
Judaici, eaque homines Deo opponunt." 
Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. Vide ver. 23. 
There is a tacit contrast between Peter's 
faith and the opinions of the people just 
recited, as to source. Flesh and blood 
was the source of these opinions, and 
the fact is a clue to the meaning of the 
phrase. The contrast between the two 
sources of inspiration is not the very 
general abstract one between creaturely 
weakness and Divine power (Wendt, 
Die Begriffe Fleisch und Geist, p. 60). 
" Flesh and blood " covers all that can 
contribute to the formation of religious 
opinion of little intrinsic value — tradition, 
custom, fashion, education, authority, 
regard to outward appearance. Hilary, 
and after him Lutteroth, takes the re- 
ference to be to Christ's flesh and blood, 
and finds in the words the idea : if you 
had looked to my flesh you would have 
called me Christ, the Son of David, but 
higher guidance has taught you to call 
me Son of God. — 6 iraTt]p p.ou : this is 
to be taken not in a merely ontological 
sense, but ethically, so as to account for 

the quality of Peter's faith. The true 
conception of Christhood was inseparable 
from the true conception of God. Jesus 
had been steadily working for the trans- 
formation of both ideas, and He counted 
on the two finding entrance into the 
mind together. No one could truly con- 
ceive the Christ who had not learned to 
think of God as the Father and as Hii 
Father. There were thus two revelations 
in one : of God as Father, and of Christ 
by the Father. Peter had become a 

Ver. 18. K&Y** '• emphatic, something 
very important about to be said to Peter 
and about him. — ir^rpos, irerp^, a happy 
play of words. Both are appellatives to 
be translated "thou art a rock and on 
this rock," the two being represented by 

the same word in Aramaean (b5D*'j). 

Elsewhere in the Gospels FlcTpos is a 
proper name, and irerpa only is used in 
the sense of rock (vii. 24). What 
follows is in form a promise to Peter as 
reward of his faith. It is as personal 
as the most zealous advocates of Paj'al 
supremacy could desire. Yet it is as 
remote as the poles from what they 
mean. It is a case of extremes meeting. 
Christ did not fight to death against one 
form of spiritual despotism to put 
another, if possible worse, in its room. 
Personal in form, the sense of this 
famous logion can be expressed in 
abstract terms without reference to 
Peter's personality. And that sense, if 
Christ really spoke the word, must be 
simple, elementary, suitable to the 
initial stage ; withal religious and ethical 
rather than ecclesiastical. The more 
ecclesiastical we make it, the more we 
plaj' into the hands of those who main- 
tain that the passage is an interpolation. 
I find in it three ideas : (i) The cKKXTjo-^a 
is to consist of men confessing Jesus to 
be the Christ. This is the import of ^irl 
T. T. IT. olKoSop,-qcr<i> fLov T. cK. Pcter, 
believing that truth, is the foundation, 

t8— 21. 



rTJs Y^5' ^*'^*i XcXuii^coi' If Tois oupaKOis." 20. T6t€ SteffTeiXaro* 
TOis fJta^TjTais auTOu ' Iva fi,r]%ev\ eTttwo-h', oti aurds eoriK 'iTjaous' 6 

21. "'Airo t6t€ T]p|aTo 6 'iTjaoCs* SeiKfueic tois fAa6ir)TaIs aoToC, mCh.iT.17, 

• e.~>\»\A« »t /\ K V \\\ /»~>x~ XX vi. 16. 

OTI oei auTov aireKQeiy cis IcpoaoXoiia," xai iroWa iraoeii' diro rav Lk. xvi. 16. 
irpeCT|3uT€puf Kal apxicp^toc xal Ypcipf^^T^uc, Kal diroKTavG^cai, Kal 

1 eireriiJiTjo-ev in BD, W.H. place it in text with Steo-TtiXaro in margin. Mk. 
has €ir€Ti|xiio-«v in the corresponding place. 

* ^BCD omit avrov, which so often stands in T. R. where the best texts want it. 
» fc^BLXrA omit Itjo-ovs. 

* For o Itjo-ovs t^B, Cop. have Itjo-ovs Xpiaros ; D It]o-ovs without the art. 
Vide below. 

" CIS I. before a-jrcXOeiv in ^BD cursives. 

and the building is to be of a piece with 
the foundation. Observe the emphatic 
position of jaov. The iKKXTjo-ta is Christ's ; 
confessing Him as Christ in Peter's 
sense and spirit = being Christian. {2) 
The new society is to be = the kingdom 
realised on earth. This is the import of 
ver. 19, clause i. The keys are the 
symbol of this identity. They are the 
keys of the gate without, not of the doors 
within. Peter is the gate-keeper, not 
the olKovdfxos with a bunch of keys that 
open all doors in his hands (against 
Weiss) — kXciSoVjxoi' fp^ov rit tWaynv, 
Euthy. Observe it is not the keys of the 
church but of the kingdom. The mean- 
ing is : Peter-like faith in Jesus as the 
Christ admits into the Kingdom of 
Heaven. A society of men so believing 
= the kingdom realised. (3) In the new 
society the righteousness of the kingdom 
will find approximate embodiment. This 
is the import of ver. 19, second clause. 
Binding and loosing, in Rabbinical 
dialect, meant forbidding and permitting 
to be done. The judgment of the 
Rabbis was mostly wrong: the reverse 
of the righteousness of the kingdom. 
The judgment of the new society as to 
conduct would be in accordance with the 
truth of things, therefore valid in heaven. 
That is what Jesus meant to say. Note 
the perfect participles SeSefi^vov, 
XeXv(x^vov = shall be a thing bound or 
loosed once for all. The truth of all 
three statements is conditional on the 
Christ spirit continuing to rule in the 
new society. Only on that condition is 
the statement about the injXot aSo-u, 
ver. 18, clause 2, valid. What precisely 
the verbal meaning of the statement is — 
whether that the gates of Hades shall 
not prevail in conflict against it, as 

ordinarily understood ; or merely that 
the gates, etc., shall not be stronger 
than it, without thought of a conflict 
(Weiss), is of minor moment ; the point 
is that it is not an absolute promise. 
The iKKXTjoria will be strong, enduring, 
only so long as the faith in the Father 
and in Christ the Son, and the spirit of 
the Father and the Son, reign in it. 
When the Christ spirit is weak the 
Church will be weak, and neither creeds 
nor governments, nor keys, nor ecclesi- 
astical dignities will be of much help to 

Ver. 20. Suo-reiXaro (T. R.), "charged " 
(A. V.) not necessarily with any special 
emphasis = graviter interdicere, but = 
monuit (Loesner and Fritzsche). Cf. 
Heb. xii. 20, where a stronger sense 
seems required. For tirerinTjo-* in BD 
here and in Mk. Euthy. gives kutti- 
o-4>aXio-aTo = to make sure by injunc- 
tion. — Tois |Jia6T)Tais: all the disciples 
are supposed to say amen to Peter's 
confession, thinking of God and of Jesus 
as he thought, though possibly not with 
equal emphasis of conviction. — iva . . . 
6 Xpio-T(Js : no desire to multiply hastily 
recruits for the new community, supreme 
regard to quality. Jesus wanted no man 
to call Him Christ till he knew what he 
was saying : no hearsay or echoed con- 
fession of any value in His eyes. — avrtis, 
the same concerning whom current 
opinions have just been reported (ver. 
14). It was hardly necessary to take 
pains to prevent the faith in His Messiah- 
ship from spreading prematurely in a 
crude form. P'ew would call such an 
one as jfesus Christ, save by the Holy 
Ghost. The one temptation thereto lay 
in the generous beneficence of Jesus. 
Vv. 21-28. Announcement of the 





n Mk. viii. T]g TpiTj] i^fA^poi ^ycpGfji'ai. 22. Kat " TrpoCT\aP<5/i«»'os afirSc i FI^Tpos 

Acts xvii. T^p^aTO ^TTiTifJ.a*' aoTU) X^ywi',' "* iXcfaSs aoi, Kupie ■ oo \ii) larai aoi 

j6. touto. 23. O 0€ arpaipeis eiire tw lleTpw, Yiraye OTriaw ^ou, 

viii. la. laraj'd, o-KciKSaX^K p.ou il"^ • on 00 *'<|)po>'«is ra toG 0eou, dXXa ra 
p Mk. riii. 
53. Koin. viii. 5. Phil. ii. 5; iii. 19. 

' For T]p. firtTiiiaf a. Xryuv, which conforms to Mk., B has Xfyci a. tvirifi^v 
(W.H. marg.). 

' fi iftov in i«^B (Tisch., W.H.). 

Passion with relative conversation (Mk. 
viii. 31 — ix. I ; Lk. ix. 22-27). — ^^^- ^i- 
airo T<iT€ riploTo {vide iv. 17) marks 
pointedly a new departure in the form of 
explicit intimation of an approaching 
final xnd fatal crisis. Time suitable. 
Disciples could now bear it, it could not 
be much longer delayed. Jesus could 
now face the crisis with composure, 
having been satisfied by Peter's con- 
fession that His labour was not going to 
be in vain. He then began to show, 
etc., for this was only the first of several 
communications of the same kind. — 

Xpiaris after Itjo-oOs in ^B is an in- 
trinsically probable reading, as suiting 
the solemnity of the occasion and greatly 
enhancing the imprcssiveness of the 
announcement. Jesus, the Christ, to be 
crucified 1 But one would have expected 
the article before Xp. — ttoXXoi Tra0«iv, the 
general fact. — airi . . . Ypap,(jLaT€<i>v, the 
threeconstituent parts of the Sanhedrim — 
elders, priests, scribes. — airoKravGi^vai : 
one hard special fact, be killed. — 
^YcpOTJyai : this added to make the 
other fact not altogether intolerable. 

Ver. 22. Peter here appears in a new 
character ; a minute ago speaking under 
inspiration from heaven, now under in- 
spiration from the opposite quarter. — 
rjplaTO, began to chide or admonish. He 
did not get far. As soon as his meaning 
became apparent he encountered prompt, 
abrupt, peremptory contradiction. — tX- 
cws (Toi : Eisner renders sis bono placi- 
doque animo, but most (Erasmus, Grotius, 
Kypke, Fritzsche, etc.) take it = absit I 
God avert it 1 Vehement utterance of a 
man confounded and horrified. Perfectly 
honest and in one sense thoroughly 
creditable, but suggesting the question : 
Did Peter after all call Jesus Christ in 
the true sense ? The answer must be : 
Yes, ethically. He understood what 
kind of man was fit to be a Christ. But 
he did not yet understand what kind of 
treatment such a man might expect firom 
the world. A noble, benignant, really 

righteous man Messiah must be, said 
Peter ; but why a man of sorrow he 
had yet to learn. — ov )it) lo-xai, future 
of perfect assurance : it will not, cannot 
be. — Ver. 23. vira-ye <4. p.. Z. : tremendous 
crushing reply of the Master, showing 
how much He felt the temptation ; calm 
on the surface, deep down in the soul a 
very real struggle. Some of the Fathers 
(Origen, Jerome) strive to soften the 
severity of the utterance by taking 
Satanns as an appellative = dvTiKcCpevos, 
adversarius, contrarius, and pointing out 
that in the Temptation in the wilderness 
Jesus says to Satan simply v-iraye = 
depart, but to Peter vir. dirio-u jiov = 
take thy place behind me and be fol- 
lower, not leader. But these refinements 
only weaken the effect of a word which 
shows that Jesus recognises here His 
old enemy in a new and even more 
dangerous form. For none are more 
formidable instruments of temptation 
than well-meaning friends, who care 
more for our comfort than for our 
character.— oTKeivSaXov : not " offensive 
to me," but "a temptation to me to 
offend," to do wrong ; a virtual apology 
for using the strong word larava. — ov 
({>povcis TO., etc., indicates the point of 
temptation = non stas a Dei partibus 
(Wolf), or ^povciv, etc. = studere rebus, 
etc. (Kypke), to be on God's side, or to 
study the Divine interest instead of the 
human. The important question is: 
What precisely are the two interests ? 
They must be so conceived as not 
entirely to cancel the eulogium on Peter's 
faith, which was declared to be not of 
man but of God. Meyer's comment on 
Toi T. d. — concerned about having for 
Messiah a mere earthly hero and prince 
(so Weiss also) — is too wide. We must 
restrict the phrase to the instinct of self- 
preservation = save your life at all 
hazards. From Christ's point of view 
that was the import of Peter's suggestion ; 
preference of natural life to duty = God's 
interest. Peter himself did not see that 
these were the alternatives ; he thought 

22 — a8. 



Twi/ avQpuTroiv." 24. Tire 6 'Itjo-ous eiire toTs p,a&YjTats aoToO, 1 ^''- ^'j^'- 

" El Tis OeXei 6iT4ct<i) fioo eXOeii', ' diraprrjo-daOw cauTo*', xal dpdrw ^^^p^f^j.., 

TOf 'oraupof aorou, Kal dKoXooOetrw fioi. 25. os y^'^P ^•' ^ ^^11 ch"'"'' s 

■rijc ij/uxYif auToG awtrat, diroX^aei aoTi^r • os 8' fie ' aTroX^ar] rrji' ^^1^- ^'"i 

»j/u)(T)i' auToG iv€Key i^l.ov, eup-i^aei auri]!' • 26. Ti ydp a)4)eXeiTai^ 7l^''' 

av'OpwTTOs, ^df TOK * K<JcrfAOf ' oXok- KepSTJoT), Tr\y 8e <J/uxt)>' auToC xiv. 27. 

' ^T]p,iw0TJ ; ^ Ti SucEi dcOpwiros drrdXXayfjia ttjs 'I'ux-qs auTou ; Mk. via. 

2 7 . aeXXet ydp 6 ulos toG d>'6pwirou €p)(€cr0ai ei' ttj 86§t) toC irarpos xvii. 33. 
, - X - > /\ . - ^ I ' S ' J ' , t Ch. xxvi. 

auTOu ficTa tw>' dyyeXwi' auTOu • xai totc airoowcrei eKaoTW Kara 13. Rom. 

■n]v ''irpfi^ii' auToO. 28. *AfiTj>' X^yw ufiic, etai xtfcs twk oiSe u Mk. viii. 
< ,00 . > w / fl ' " u 'S V 36. Lk.ix. 

eonjKOTWK/ oiTiwcs ou fiT) yeuo-wrrai Wai'aTou, ews a" lowcri xov 25(eo,/T.ii). 

uiof TOO dcOpwTTOu ^ ip)(6ii€vov iv TTJ PacTtXcia auToG.' 5, ' ^ds 

xix. 18. 
Rom. viii. ij. w John viii. 5a. Heb. ii. 9. i: Lk. xxiii. 42. 

€av in fc^BC. ' «<^«Xr]OTi<r«Toi in |>^BL cursives. 

eo-TwTCDv in ^BCDLI. 

the two opposite interests compatible, 
and both attainable. 

Vv. 24-28. General instruction on the 
subject of the two interests. — Ver. 24. 
elirc Tois jiaO. : in calm, self-collected, 
didactic tone Jesus proceeds to give the 
disciples, in a body, a lesson arising out 
of the situation.— tt tis OAei: wishes, 
no compulsion ; oi ^iaX,o^o,\,, Chrys., 
who remarks on the wisdom of Jesus in 
leaving every man free, and trusting to 
the attraction of the life : avrtj tov irpay- 
p.aTos T i^vais iKavT) l<j>cXK'ua'a(r9ai. — 
avapvi^crao'dw cavTov : here only, m- 
timates that discipleship will call for 
self-denial, or self-subordination. Chrys. 
illustrates the meaning by considering 
what it is to deny another = not to 
assist him, bewail him or suffer on his 
account when he is in distress. — rhv 
o-ravpoK looks like a trait introduced 
after Christ's passion. It need not be, 
however. Punishment by crucifixion 
was known to the Jews through the 
Romans, and it might be used by Jesus 
as the symbol of extreme torment and 
disgrace, even though He did not then 
know certainly that He Himself should 
meet death in that particular form. It 
became a common expression, but the 
phrase apdru t. or. would sound harsh 
and startling when first used. Vide on 
Mt. X. 38. — Ver. 25. Vide x. 39. The 
Caesarea crisis was the most appropriate 
occasion for the first promulgation of 
this great ethical principle. It was 
Christ's first contribution towards un- 
folding the significance of His suffering, 
setting it forth as the result of a fidelity 
to righteousness incumbent on all. 

Ver. 26. 1 his and the following verses 
suggest aids to practice of the philo- 
sophy of " dying to live ". The state- 
ment in this verse is self-evident in the 
sphere of the lower life. It profits not 
to gain the whole world if you lose your 
life, for you cannot enjoy your possession ; 
a life lost cannot be recovered at any 
price. Jesus wishes His disciples to under- 
stand that the same law obtains in the 
higher life : that the soul, the spiritual 
life, is incommensurable with any out- 
ward possession however great, and if 
forfeited the loss is irrevocable. This is 
one of the chief texts containing Christ's 
doctrine of the absolute worth of man as 
a moral subject. For the man who grasps 
it, it is easy to be a hero and face any 
experience. To Jesus Christ it was a 
self-evident truth.— j;T)p,i«0-Q, not suffer 
injury to, but forfeit. Grotius says that 
the verb in classics has only the dative 
after it = mtilctare morte, but Kypke and 
Eisner cite instances from Herod., Dion., 
Hal., Themis., etc., of its use with accus- 
ative. — avraXXaYjia : something given in 
exchange. Cf. i Kings xxi. 2, Job xxviii. 
15 (Sept.), a price to buy back the life 
lower or higher ; both impossible. — Ver. 
27. (jicXXei points to something near and 
certain ; note the emphatic position. — 
(pX«TOa\, iv T. 8., the counterpart ex- 
perience to the passion ; stated objec- 
tively in reference to the Son oj Man, 
the passion spoken of in the second person 
(ver. 21). In Mk. both are objectively 
put; but the disciples took the reference 
as personal (Mk. viii. 32). — Ver. 27. 
This belongs to a third group of texts 
to be taken into account in an attempt 




a Mk. ii. t. XVII. I. KAI fxeO iqfA^pas e^ TrapaXafiPdcti 6 Itjaous toc n^Tpof 

51 (T.R.). Kai laKupok' Kai luarnf^k' tok doeAcpok' auTou, Kai avai^ipci, auTOus 
b Mk. ix. a. , K < 1 \ » 1 >c ' < b i /a » n > - 

Kom. xii. €is opos u4'T]^o^' KttT lOiac. 2. itai p.6T£p,op<pwDTj efiTrpooocK aoTwc, 
a. a Cor. v„ , , '-«i<'\ «5<.» ,~ 

ill. 18. Kai e\a|jLv|/E to irpoauTTOf auTOu us iQAios, ra oc ifxaria aurou 

to fix the import of the title — those which 
refer to apocalyptic glory in terms drawn 
from Daniel vii. 13. — rdxc diroSutrei : 
the Son of Man comes to mnkc final 
awards. The reference to judgment 
comes in to brace up disciples to a 
heroic part. It is an aid to spirits not 
equal to this part in virtue of its intrinsic 
nobleness ; yet not much of an aid to 
those to whom the heroic life is not in 
itself an attraction. The absolute worth 
of the true life is Christ's first and chief line 
of argument ; this is merely subsidiary.— 
Ver. 28. A crux interpretum, supposed 
by some to refer to the Transfiguration 
(Hilary, Chrys., Euthy., Theophy., etc.) ; 
by others to the destruction of Jerusalem 
(Wetstein, etc.) ; by others again to the 
origins of the Church (Calvin, Grotius, 
etc.). The general meaning can be 
inferred with certainty from the purpose 
to furnish an additional incentive to 
fidelity. It is : Be of good courage, 
there will be ample compensation for 
trial soon ; for some of you even before 
you die. This sense excludes the Trans- 
figuration, which came too soon to be 
compensatory. The uncertainty comes 
in in connection with the form in which 
the general truth is stated. As to that, 
Christ's speech was controlled not merely 
by His own thoughts but by the hopes 
of the future entertained by His disciples. 
He had to promise the advent of the 
Son of Man in His Kingdom or of the 
Kingdom of God in power (Mk.) within 
a generation, whatever His own forecast 
as to the future might be. That might 
postulate a wider range of time than 
some of His words indicate, just as some 
of His utterances and His general spirit 
postulate a wide range in space for the 
Gospel (universalism) though He con- 
ceived of His own mission as limited to 
Israel. If the legion concerning the 
Church (ver. 18) be genuine, Jesus must 
have conceived a Christian era to be at 
least a possibility, for why trouble about 
founding a Church if the wind-up was 
to come in a few years ? The words of 
Jesus about the future provide for two 
possible alternatives : for a near advent 
and for an indefinitely postponed advent. 
His promises naturally contemplate the 
former; much of His teaching about the 
kingdom easily fits into the latter. — 

Y«v<rwvTai 0. : a Hebrew idiom, but not 
exclusively so. For examples of the figure 
of tasting applied to experiences, vide 
Eisner in Mk. For Rabbinical use, vide 
Schottgen and Wetstein.— €o>s av tSua-i, 
subjunctive after k. av as usual in classics 
and N. T. in a clause referring to a 
future contingency depending on a verb 
referring to future time. 

Chapter XVII. The Transfigura- 
tion ; The Epileptic Boy ; The 
Temple Tribi;te. Three impressive 
tableaux connected by proximity in 
time, a common preternatural aspect, 
and deep moral pathos. 

Vv. I -13. The Transfiguration (Mk. 
ix. 2-13, Lk. ix. 28-36). — Ver. i. y.t6' 
TipL^pas l|. This precise note of time 
looks like exact recollection of a strictly 
historical incident. Yet Holtzmann 
(H. C.) finds even in this a mythical 
element, based on Exodus xxiv. 16: the 
six days of Mt. and Mk. and the eight 
days of Lk., various expressions of the 
thought that between the confession of 
the one disciple and the experience of the 
three a sacred week intervened. Of these 
days we have no particulars, but on the 
principle that in preternatural experience! 
the subjective and the objective corre- 
spond, we may learn the psychological 
antecedents of the Transfiguration from 
the Transfiguration itself. The thoughts 
and talk of the company of Jesus were 
the prelude of the vision. A thing in 
itself intrinsically likely, for after such 
solemn communications as those at 
Caesarea Philippi it was not to be ex- 
pected that matters would go on in the 
Jesus-circle as if nothing had happened. 
In those days Jesus sought to explain 
from the O.T. the 8ei of xvi. 21, showing 
from Moses, Prophets, and Psalms (Lk. 
xxiv. 44) the large place occupied by 
suffering in the experience of the 
righteous. This would be quite as help- 
ful to disciples summoned to bear the 
cross as any of the thoughts in xvi, 25- 
28. — n^T., laK., Ibidv. : Jesus takes with 
Him the three disciples found most 
capable to understand and sympathise. 
So in Gethsemane. Such differences 
exist in all disciple-circles, and they 
cannot be ignored by the teacher. — 
dva4>£pei,, leadeth up ; in this sense not 
usual ; of sacrifice in Jas. ii. 21 and in 

I— e. 



lylvero \cuKa ws rb 4)ai9- 3- Kal l8ou', w4>0T)aaf ^ aoToIq M'^t^'HS "^ ^j'^"J 
Ktti 'HXtas, ficr' auTOo "^ auXXaXoGi'Teq.'' 4. diroKpiOei? he 6 HeTpo? ]J|^"'/^ ^ 
clirc Tw 'Itjctou, " Ku'pic, * xaXiJk' e'oriv iqfxds wSc eti'ai • el 0e'Xei9, ^^ji'^'^"' 
TTOi'^o-wfiev ^ w8e rpcis (rKr]vd<5, aoi jiiav, koI Mworfj p.iai', Kal fiiav f^^'-^' '^^• 
'HXi'a." q. "Eti auToC XaXoun-os, i8ou, ►'cAeXTi (^wTfit-Ti eircaKiaaeK ("^.p"? «'\- 

1 -J / . 1 ■ AljAOWs). 

aoTou's • Kal tSou, (fxuio) eK rps v-eifiATis, Xc'youo-a, " Outos i(niv 6 d Ch. xviii. 
ol<5s iiou 6 dvaimTOS, iv w euSoKTiaa • auxou dKouere." * 6. Kal xxvi. 24. 

■^ I I ' I I Rom. xiv. 

ai. I Cor. vii. 8; ix. 15. 

1 <i)<j)97] i^BD, which, the verb coming before the two nom., is legitimate. 
T. R. is a grammatical correction of ancient revisers. 

"^ ^H place |A€t' avrov after <n;\XaXovvTt9. 

« iroiTjo-o) in ts^BC. 7z<f^ below. * atiovere avrov in ^BDss- 


Heb. vii. 27, xiii. 15. — 8po« v\|rT)Xov : 
Tabor the traditional mountain, a tradi- 
tion originating in fourth century 
with Cyril of Jerusalem and Jerome. 
Recent opinion favours Hermon, All 
depends on whether the six days were 
spent near Caesarea Philippi or in con- 
tinuous journeying. Six days would 
take them far. " The Mount of Trans- 
figuration does not concern geography " 
— Holtz. (H. C). — Ver. 2. }t,€Tcp,op<i>u0T), 
transfi^uratus est, Vulgate ; became 
altered in appearance. Such trans- 
formation in exalted states of mind is 
predicated of others, e.g., of lamblichus 
(Eunapius in I. Vita 22, cited by Eisner), 
and of Adam when naming the beasts 
(Fabricius, Cod. Pseud. V. T., p. 10).— 
€(i,'7rpo(r0€v avTwv, so as to be visible 
to them, vide vi. i. Luke's narrative 
seems to imply that the three disciples 
were asleep at the beginning of the 
scene, but wakened up before its close. 
— Kal €Xan4/€ . . . <|)cis : these words 
describe the aspect of the transformed 
person ; face sun-bright, raiment pure 
white. — Ver. 3. Kal l8ov introduces a 
leading and remarkable feature in the 
scene : w<{)6tj avrois, there appeared to 
the three disciples, not necessarily an 
absolutely real, objective presence of 
Moses and Elias. All purposes would 
be served by an appearance in vision. 
Sufficient objectivity is guaranteed by 
the vision being enjoyed by all the three, 
which would have been improbable if 
purely subjective. Recognition of Moses 
and Elias was of course involved in the 
vision. For a realistic view of the 
occurrence the question arises, how was 
recognition possible ? Euthy. Zig. says 
the disciples had read descriptions of 
famous men, including Moses and Elias, 
in old Hebrew books Another sugges- 

tion is that Moses appeared with the law 
in his hand, and Elias in his fiery 
chariot. — crvXXaXoiivTes (*. a., convers- 
ing with Jesus, and, it goes without 
saying (Lk. does say it), on the theme 
uppermost in all minds, the main topic 
of recent conversations, the cross ; the 
vision, in its dramatis personcB and their 
talk, reflecting the state of mind of the 
seers. — Ver. 4. diroKpiOcl; 6 fl. Peter 
to the front again, but not greatly to his 
credit. — KaX<Jv icrrw, etc., either it is 
good for us to be here = the place is 
pleasant— so usually ; or it is well that 
we are here — we the disciples to serve 
you and your visitants — Weiss and 
Holtzmann (H. C). Pricaeus, in illus- 
tration of the former, cites Anacreon : 
Papa Tt)v o-KiTjv B(i8vX\c 
Kd0t<rov • KoXbv to Se'vSpov. 
T£s dv ovv opuv TrapAOoi 
KoTa-yioYtov toiovtov. 

— Ode 22. 
This sense — anioenus est, in quo corn, 
moremur, locus, Fritzsche — is certainly 
the more poetical, but not necessarily on 
that account the truer to the thought of 
the speaker, in view of the remark ol 
Lk. omitted in Mt., that Peter did not 
know what he was saying. — iroiriaw, 
deliberative substantive with OeXci,; pre- 
ceding and without tva ; the singular — 
shall I make ? — suits the forwardness of 
the man ; it is his idea, and he will 
carry it out liimsclf. — rpcis o-ktjvos : 
material at hand, branches of trees, 
shrubs, etc. Why three ? One better 
for persons in converse. The whole 
scheme a stupidity. Peter imagined 
that Moses and Elias had come to stay. 
Chrys. suggests that Peter here in- 
directly renews the policy of resistance 
to going up to Jerusalem (Horn. Ivi.). 
Vv. 5-8. vt^i\-t\ 4>6jT€i,vTj, a luminous 




e Ch. xxvl. dKoJaarres o'l |xa0r)Tai iirecroy itrX irp6a<ifnov ainCyv, Kal ' i^Q^r\- 

12; xvii, Bricrav cr^6hpa. 7- •<<^i TTpoaeXOu)*' ^ 6 'Itjctou? Tjvj/ajo aiirwy, Kai 
j6 (same ^ 1, > , n \ -a»>o> tv\ 

const.), enrey, EyepGr^Te Kai 'fir) 4>oP€rcr0e. 8. EirclpavTcs oe toos 

fCh. xxvii. J « -^ ,. ,- .5. >xv> ~ f 

54. O(poa\p,ou9 avTuiv, ouocfa clooc, ei fir) Tof lT]aou»' pioi'o*'. 

g Ch. ixviii. „i,xk Q' ,,,vo„» , ~ ,- 

5, 10. 9- '^*^'- KciTapaivov'Twv auTajk* aTTO ^ Tou opous, e»'€T€i\aTO auT0i5 

h Ch. viii. i. , , ~ \> It K. <t ^ ' if - ...V 

(witharr,,, Itjctous, \iyiiiv, Mr]0€^'l cnrTjTe to opapia, cus 01/ o uios too 

more com- ,a, , «, «»'s .x^> / ,^c 

monly a>'Wpwn-oo eK fCKpuK dcaoTTJ. " 10. Kai eTTTjpwnjaai' auTOK 01 

with tK, as o^>'«4\/ j(_/»« -\/ « 

herein nauTjTai auTou, AcyoKTcs, Ti GUI' 01 yP'''P'H''<'''''€is Kiyo\i(Tiv, on 

i here only in Gospels and in Acts (vii. 31, etc.). 

* irpocTiXOcv o I. Kai in ^BD ; ai|/apicvos avTttiv ci'ir«y in ^B. 

* £K in ^BCD al. ; oiro in I. 

^ eYcpOT] in BD ; ava(rTT| in ^C. W.H. place the former in the text and the 
latter in margin. 

* avTov in BCD but wanting in ALZ33. 

cloud, still a cloud capable of casting a 
shadow, though a faint one {" non 
admodum atram," Fritzsche). Some, 
thinking a shadow incompatible with 
the light, render ^ireo-Kfao-tv tegehat, cir- 
cumdabat. Loesner cites passages from 
Philo in support of this meaning. — 
avTovf . Whom ? the disciples ? Jesus, 
Moses, and Elias ? all the six ? or the 
two celestial visitants alone ? All these 
views have been held. The second the 
more probable, but impossible to be 
certain. — koX l8ov, again introducing a 
main feature : first the visitants, now 
the voice from heaven. Relation of the 
ear to the voice the same as that of the 
eye to the visitants. — ovtos : the voice 
spoken this time about Jesus ; at the 
baptism to Him (Mk. i. 11), meant for 
the ear of the three disciples. The voice 
to be taken in connection with the 
announcement of the coming passion. 
Jesus God's well-beloved as self-sacrific- 
ing. — aKovcTc avTov : to be taken in the 
same connection = hear Him when He 
speaks to you of the cross. Hunc audite, 
nempe solum, plena fide, perfectissimo 
obsequio, universi apostoli et pastores 
praesertim, Eisner. — Ver. 6. ical Akov- 
oravT£s, etc. : divine voices terrify poor 
mortals, especially when they echo and 
reinforce deep moving thoughts within. 
— Ver. 7. a\}/ap.evos . . . flirev : a touch 
and a word, human and kindly, frotn 
Jesus, restore strength and composure. — 
Ver. 8. And so ends the vision. — 
lirapavTCS T. 4., etc., raising their eyes 
they see no one but Jesus. Moses and 
Elias gone, and Jesus in His familiar 
aspect ; the dazzling brightness about 
face and garments vanished. 

Vv. 9-13. Conversation while de- 
scending the hill. — Ver. g. p.T)8cvl tiirirjTc : 
injunction of secrecy. The reason of the 
injunction lies in the nature of the ex- 
perience. Visions are for those who are 
prepared for them. It boots not to re- 
late them to those who are not fit to 
receive them. Even the three were 
only partially fit ; witness their terror 
(ver. 6). — ri opa|jia, the vision, justifying 
the view above given of the e.xperience, 
held, among others, by Eisner, Herder, 
Bleek and Weiss. Herder has some 
fine remarks on the analogy between the 
experiences of Jesus at His baptism and 
on the Mount, six days after the 
announcement at Caesarea Philippi, and 
those of other men at the time of moral 
decisions in youth and in the near pre- 
sence of death (vide his Vom Erloser der 
Menschen, §§ 18, 19). — Jus ov, followed 
by subjunctive without av ; in this case 
(cf. xvi. 28) one of future contingency at 
a past time. The optative is used in 
classics {vide Burton, § 324). Not till 
the resurrection. It is not implied that 
Jesus was very desirous that they should 
then begin to speak, but only that they 
could then speak of the vision intelli- 
gently and intelligibly. Christ's tone 
seems to have been that of one making 
light or the recent experience (as in Lk. 
X, 20).— Ver. 10. t£ ovv, etc. : does the 
ovv refer to the prohibition in ver. 9 
(Meyer), or to the appearance of Moses 
and Elias, still in the minds of the three 
disciples, and the lateness of their coming 
(Euthy., Weiss), or to the shortness o) 
their stay ? (Grotius, Fritzsche, Olsh., 
Bleek, etc.). Difficult to decide, owing 
to fragmentariness of report ; but it ij 




xii. 13. 

'HXia»' 5)ei A0€t»' irpwToi' ; " II. 'O 8e 'Iyjctou? ^ diTOKpiOeU elTrei' 
auToTs,'- " 'HXlos ^l.ey epxerat irpu)Toy,^ Kai ' dTroKaTa(TTt](T£i irdfTa • j «";^« at Ch 
12. \iyti} 8e ujiif, oTi HXia5 r\hr] r\Kde, Kttl ouk iTziyvfjitrav auTo>'> 
dW iTrotr\(Tav iv auTu oaa fjO^rjaaf • outw Kal 6 uios toO di'Opwirou 
ficXXei trdcry^iiv uir auTwt'. 13. Tore crvvr^Kay ol p,a6T)Tai, on 
TTcpi 'Iwdvv'oo TOO BaimcTTOu eiTrcf auTois. 

14. Kal i\Q6vT(i)v auTwv * trpos toi' o^Xoi', irpooT]X0ci' aurut (JTcflpw- 

1 ^BDLZ •mit li)o-ovs. • BD omit avrois. 

' i^BD omit irpwTov, which probably has come in from ver. 10. 
* t^BZ sah. omit avTwv. 

most natural to take oiiv in connection 
v/ith preceding verse, only not as re- 
ferring to the prohibition of speech pro 
tern., but to the apparently slighting tone 
in which Jesus spoke. If the recent 
occurrence is not of vital importance, 
why then do the scribes say etc. ? To 
lay the emphasis (with Weiss) onirpwrov, 
as if the disciples were surprised that 
Moses and Elias had not come sooner, 
before the Christ, is a mistake. The 
adventwould appear to them soon enough 
to satisfy the requirements of the scribes- 
just at the right time, after they had re- 
cognised in Jesus the Christ = Thou art 
the Christ we know, and lo 1 Elias is 
here to prepare the way for Thy public 
recognition and actual entry into 
Messianic power and glory. The sudden 
disappearance of the celestials would tend 
to deepen the disappointment created by 
the Master's chilling tone, so that there 
is some ground for finding in ovv a 
reference to that also. — Ver 11. cpxerai : 
present, as in ii. 4, praesens pro futuro, 
Raphel {Annotationes in S. S.), who cites 
instances of this enallage temporis from 
Xenophon. Wolf {Curae Phil.), referring 
to Raphel, prefers to find in the present 
here no note of time, but only of the 
order of coming as between Elias and 
Christ. It is a didactic, timeless present. 
So Weiss. — airoKaraKTrriird iravTa. This 
word occurs in Sept., Mai. iv. 5, for which 
stands in Lk. i. 17: liriorTp€\|;ai ; the 
reference is to restitution of right moral 
relations between fathers and children, 
etc. Raphel cites instances of similar 
use from Polyb. The function of Elias, 
as conceived by the scribes, was to lead 
Israel to the Great Repentance. Vide 
on this, Weber, Die Lehren des T ., pp. 
337-8. — Ver. 12. Xe'yu Si : Jesus finds 
the prophecy as to the advent of Elias 
fulfilled in John the Baptist, so still 
further reducing the significance of the 

late vision. The contrast between the 
mechanical literalism of the scribes and 
the free spiritual interpretation of Jesus 
comes out here. Our Lord expected no 
literal coming of Elijah, such as the 
Patristic interpreters (.Hilary, Chrys., 
Theophy., Euthy., etc.) supposed Him 
to refer to in ver. 11. The Baptist was 
all the Elijah He looked for. — ovk Itri- 
7v<i»<rav : they did not recognise him as 
Elijah, especially those who profes- 
sionally taught that Elijah must come, 
the scribes. — a\X* «iroiT)<rav kv avrw, 
etc. Far from recognising in him Elijah, 
and complying with his summons to 
repentance, they murdered him in re- 
sentment of the earnestness of his 
efforts towards a moral airoKaTaorrao-is 
(Herod, as representing the Zeitgeist.). — 
€v a^Tu : literally, in him, not classical, 
but similar construction found in Gen. 
xl. 14, and elsewhere (Sept.). — ovtws ; 
Jesus reads His own fate in the Baptist's. 
How thoroughly He understood His 
time, and how free He was from 
illusions 1 — Ver. 13. t<Jt£ cruvrJKav : the 
parallel drawn let the three disciples see 
who the Elijah was, alluded to by their 
Master. What a disenchantment: not 
the glorified visitant of the night vision, 
but the beheaded preacher of the wilder- 
ness, the true Elijah ! 

Vv. 14-21. The epileptic hoy (Mk. 
ix. 14-29 ; Lk. ix. 37-43). — Very brief 
report compared with Mk. — Ver. 14. 
«X6<5vTwv : the avrwv of T. R. might 
easily be omitted as understood from 
the connection. — yovvttctuv, literally, 
falling upon the knees, in which sense it 
would naturally take the dative (T. R., 
avTy) ; here used actively with accusa- 
tive = to beknee him (Schanz, Weiss). — 
Ver. 15. o-iXTivid^eTai, he is moon- 
struck ; the symptoms as described are 
those of epilepsy, which were supposed 
to become aggravated with the phases 0/ 




tc with Tiva 
here (W. 
H.)and in 
Mk. X. 17; 

Tll'OC, Ch. 

xxvii. jg. 
IPhil. ii. 15. 


xxxii. 5). 
m Mk. Ix.19. 

Lk. ix. 41. 

2 Cor. xi. 

19. Eph. 

iv. a. Col. 

iii. 13 (.ill 

with Ren., 
accus. more 

in classics). 

TTOS ^ yovuirtTuv auxw,^ Kal Xiyuv, 15. " Ku'pie, i\iy]a6v fiou toi* ui6v, 
oTt <T£\T]i'id^€Tai Kal KOKws Trd(T)(ci ' • rroXXdiKis yhp Triirrei tis to 
TTop, Ktti TroXXdiKis €is TO uSojp. t6. Kol Trpo(TY)f cyKa aiiToy tois 
fxaGr^Tais o-ou, Kal ook riSuniGrjorak aurof 6epaTr€u<Tai." 17. 'Atto- 
Kpidels Se 6 'lT)(rous ciTTCk, "'fi ycj'ed aTricrros Kal ' 8i€0Tpafi.|A^>'T], 
Iws ir(5T£ l(TO|ULai fiefl' upicij' ^ ; ews TrtSTC " dkc^opiai ujiuk ; ^iptj^ 
fiot auTOK iLSe." 18. Kal £Tr€Ti|iT)<7€i' auTw 6 'irjaoCs, Kal e^TJXOcv 
dir aoTou to Satfiofioc, Kal ^OepaireijOr] 6 iral? diro Tr]s (Spas €Keinf]s. 
19- T«5tc irpocreXOotTe? 01 p.a0T)Tal tuj 'irjcrou Kar' IStaf eiiro*', 
" Aiaxi Tf]fji£i9 ouK T|8ufi^0T))i,e»' fK^aXei^ auTo ; " 20. 'O Be 'iTjaoCs* 
eiTrfc* aoTOis, "Aid TT)^' dirioriaf ** upiuf. dfiTjf y^ip X^yu 6|ai>', 

' avrov in nearly all uncials, atirw is a " mechanical repetition " (Weiss) of the 
previous ovrw. 

2 €xti in j><^BLZ ; as the more usual word it is to be suspected. W.H, intioduce 

it with hesitation. 

* (i€9 v[io)i' eaofiai in jJ<^BCDZ3j. * J>^BD 33, omit lijaovs. 

* ^^BD 33, etc., have Xfy«u 

* oXiyoTTiaTiav in ^B cursives, and adopted by most editors, though airio-Ttav 
in CD and other uncials, as involving a severer reflection, has much to recommend 
it. The tendency would be to tone down. 

the moon (cf. iv. 24). — KUKois iraaxei 
(ex€i W. H. text), good Greek. Raphel 
(Annoi.) gives examples fromPoiyb. = 
suffers badly. — Ver. 16. tois p.a6iiTais : 
the nine left behind when Jesus and the 
three ascended the Mount. The fame of 
Jesus and His disciples as healers had 
reached the neighbourhood, wherever it 
was. — oviK T|8vv)i6T]<rav : the case baffled 
the men of the Galilean mission. — Ver. 
17. i y£V€a : exclamation of impatience 
and disappointment, as if of one weary 
in well-doing, or averse to such work 
just then. Who are referred to we can 
only conjecture, and the guesses are 
various. Probably more or less all pre- 
sent : parent, disciples, scribes (Mk. ix. 
14). Jesus was far away in spirit from 
all, lonely, worn out, and longing for the 
end, as the question following (Iws 
iroTE, etc.) shows. It is the utterance of 
a fine-strung nature, weary of the dul- 
ness, stupidity, spiritual insuscepti- 
bility (airicTTOs), not to speak of the 
moral perversity (Si€orTpa}i.|AevT)) all 
around Him. But we must be careful 
not to read into it peevishness or un- 
graciousness. Jesus had not really 
grown tired of doing good, or lost 
patience with the bruised reed and 
smoking taper. The tone of His voice, 
gentlj' reproachtul, would show that. 
Perhaps the complaint was spoken in an 
undertone, just audible to those near. 

and then, aloud : 4>('pcTc p.01 : bring him 
to me, said to the crowd generally, there- 
fore plural. — Ver. 18. to 8aip.dviov : the 
first intimation in the narrative that it is 
a case of possession, and a hint as to 
the genesis of the theory of possession. 
Epilepsy presents to the eye the aspect 
of the body being in the possession of a 
foreign will, and all diseases with which 
the notion of demoniacal possession was 
associated have this feature in common. 
" Judaeis usitatissimum erat morbos 
quosdam graviores, eos praesertim, 
quibus vel distortum est corpus vel mens 
turbata et agitata phrenesi, malis 
spiritibus attribuere." Lightfoot, Hor. 
Heb., ad loc. The avTw after Iitcti- 
|iT)<r€v naturally refers to the demon. 
This reference to an as yet unmentioned 
subject Weiss explains by the influence 
of Mk. 

Ver. 19. kut' ISiav : the disciples 
have some private talk with the Master 
as to what has just happened. — 8iaT( 
ovK iQ8vvi]6rip.£v : the question implies 
that the experience was exceptional ; in 
other words that on their Galilean 
mission, and, perhaps, at other times, 
they had possessed and exercised healing 
power. — Ver. 20. 8iq ttjv 6XiyoiriaTiov, 
here only, and just on that account to be 
preferred to airio-xiav (T. R. ); a word 
coined to express the fact exactly : too 
little faith for the occasion (cf. xiv. 31) 




iav ext^TC irioru' is k^kkok o-iKdircws, cpcirc tw opci toutw McrdPirjOi 

" erreuOei' ^ •«€!, Kal jierapi^creTai • Kai ouSek ' dSut'aTi^aci ujiit'. n f.flfi- (W 

2 1. TooTO 8e TO yeVos outc eKiropEucTai, ci u.t) ^f -npoaeuYr] Kal andinLk 

r It n ' "Vi. 26 

»nf)(rr€ta. •^ (nJe 

, at\j5 \\/» 3- critical 

22. ANAITPE4>0MENQN *' 0€ aurCjv €v tt] TaXtXaia, ciirci' aoTois notethere). 

I'l "^iiarvN c«\ ■<5A/ c^'PA > "■ oriJeCh. ii. 

iTjaous, MeWei o U109 too afopwTrou irapaotooCToai cis xeipas 22 for 
>A/ \, ., ,, \ ~ f < f t nr similar use. 

avvptDTTtav, 23. Ktti airoKTccouCTii' cutok, kqi t^ TpiTg i^jiicpa cyepoTJ- p Lk. i. 37 

"4 IX » 3\ 'a i /c * ' (Gen. jtviii. 

orcTai. ' Kat iKuTTr]Vr\(rav atpoOpa. 14). 

' (icraPa in ^B ; evGcv in ^BD. 

'^ This whole verse is wanting in ^B 33, some Latin verss., Syrr. verss. (Cur. 
Hier. Sin.). CDLA2 and many other uncials have it. It is doubtless a gloss 
foisted into the text. 

* Js^B I it. vg. have truarpe^oyLit'wv ; changed into the more easily understood 
avao-Tp. (T. R.). 

* B has ttvaaTT)o-«Tai (W.H. margin). 

That was a part of the truth at least, 
and the part it became them to lay to 
heart. — ap.Tiv, introducing, as usual, a 
weighty saying. — eav exT*"*' 'f Y^ have, 
a present general supposition.^ — kiSkkov 
orivairtojs proverbial for a small quantity 
(xiii. 31), a minimum of faith. The 
purpose is to exalt the power of faith, 
not to insinuate that the disciples have 
not even the minimum. Schanz says 
they had no miracle faith (" fides miracu- 
lorum"). — Tu opci rovrio, the Mount of 
Transfiguration visible and pointed to. 
— (Atripa (-Pt]6t T. R.), a poetical form 
of imperative like ava^a in Rev. iv. i. 
Vide Schmiedel's Winer, p. 115. — fvOtv 
^Kei for ivrtvdev ckcio-e. — p.€TaPi]or€Tai : 
said, done. Jesus here in effect calls 
faith an "uprooter of mountains," a 
phrase current in the Jewish schools for 
a Rabbi distinguished by legal lore or 
personal excellence (Lightfoot, Hor. 
Heb., ad Mt. xxi. 21, Wiinsche). — 
dSvvarijcrei used in the third person 
singular only in N. T. with dative = to 
be impossible ; a reminiscence of Mk. 
ix. 23 (Weiss). — Ver. 21. Vide on Mk. 
ix. 29. 

Vv. 22-23. Second announcement of 
the Passion (Mk. ix. 30, 31; Lk. ix. 44, 
45). — Ver. 22, (rucTpcttioixevcov a., while 
they were moving about, a reunited band. 
— Iv T. r. : they had got back to Galilee 
when the second announcement was 
made. Mk. states that though returned 
to familiar scenes Jesus did not wish to 
be recognised, that He might carry on 
undisturbed the instruction of the 
Twelve. — ixcXXci, etc. : the great engross- 
ing subject of instruction was the 

doctrine of the cross. — «-apa8(8oa6at : a 

new feature not in the first announce- 
ment. Grotius, in view of the words tis 
Xeipas avOpti-Trojv, thinks the reference is 
to God the Father delivering up the Son. 
It is rather to recent revelations of dis- 
affection within the disciple-circle. For 
if there were three disciples who showed 
some receptivity to the doctrine of the 
cross, there was one to whom it would 
be very unwelcome, and who doubtless 
had felt very uncomfortable since the 
Caesarea announcement. — TrapaS. con- 
tains a covert allusion to the part He is 
to play. — Ver. 23. l\vtrrfQr\<rav a(^o8pa, 
they were all greatly distressed ; but no 
one this time ventured to remonstrate or 
even to ask a question (Mk. ix. 32). The 
prediction of resurrection seems to have 
counted for nothing. 

Vv. 24-27. The temple tax. — In Mt. 
only, but unmistakably a genuine historic 
reminiscence in the main. Even Holtz- 
mann (H. C.) regards it as history, only 
half developed into legend. — Ver. 24. ci$ 
Kair. : home again after lengthened wan- 
dering with the satisfaction home gives 
even after the most exhilarating holiday 
excursions. — Ver. 24. irpoo-fjXGov 01, etc. : 
home-coming often means return to 
care. Here are the receivers of custom, 
as soon as they hear of the arrival, de- 
manding tribute. From the Mount of 
Transfiguration to money demands 
which one is too poor to meet, what a 
descent 1 The experience has been often 
repeated in the lives of saints, sons of 
God, men of genius. — to. 8i8paxp.a : a 
8(8paxpov was a coin equal to two Attic 
drachmae, and to the Jewish half shekel 




q here only 24. 'EX6(5vtwi' Be auTtof CIS KaiTcpraoujji, irpocrfjXOok' 01 tu 

Frequent "• 8i8pax|Jia XafiPdrovTC? tw n^xpo), Kol cIttoc, "'O SiSciaKaXos 
in Sept. for ^ , . r \ - \ 1 c 'c ' ••' ' •> \ m 

\ ■ op.wk' ou Tc\€i Ttt ' oiOpa)(p.a ; 25. Aeyei, Nat. Kai ore 

'' . €icniX9ci' - els ttiv otKiac, ■ aurof 6 'ItjctoCs, X/vo)*', " Ti 
r Kom. xiii. ' ' ' 

6- (Toi SoKCi, IiawK ; 01 fiaaiXci? rris Y^S iTro Ttcui/ ^ XauSai'Ouai 

8 Ch. xxii. _' „.«. ,,. 

17. Mk. tAt] ^ "Krik-aov; diro Tw>' uloic aoTwi', r\ duo Twv ' AXXoTpiwf ; ' 

tjohnx. 5. 26. A^vci auTw 6 n^rpos,'* " 'Airo twk dXXoTpiWK." "Ecbn auTu 6 
Acts vii. ■ . • 1 r I 4 

6. Heb. xi. 9, 34- 

1 ^D omit TO here (Tisch.) ; BC retain it (W.H.). 

" ti<r«X9ovTa in ^ (-ti. D) ; cXOovra in B. Tisch. adopts the former ; W.H. the 
latter, with «io-fXOovTa in margin. 

' B has Tivos, which W.H. place in the margin. 

« For Xfyti . , . n. i^BCL have ciirovTos Se (Tisch., W.H.). The T, R. is a 
grammatical correction. The adoption of «nrovTos requires a comma before e^ij 
instead of a full stop as in T. R. 

= about fifteen pence ; payable annually 
by every Jew above twenty as a tribute 
to the temple. It was a tribute of the 
post-exilic time based on Exodus xxx. 
13-16. After the destruction of the 
Temple the tax continued to be paid to 
the Capitol (Joseph. Bel. I. vii. 6, 7). The 
time of collection was in the month 
Adai (March). — T<p Fl. Peter evidently 
the principal man of the Jesus-circle for 
outsiders as well as internally. — oi 
TcXei. The receivers are feeling their 
way. Respect for the Master (SiSao-KaXos) 
makes them go to the disciples for in- 
formation, and possibly the question was 
simply a roundabout hint that the tax 
was overdue. — Ver. 25. vaC ; this 
prompt, confident answer may be either 
an inference firom Christ's general bear- 
ing, as Peter understood it, or a state- 
ment of fact implying past payment. — 
IX0<5vTa I. r. 6. The meeting of the tax 
collectors with Peter had taken place 
outside ; it had been noticed by Jesus, 
and the drift of the interv'iew instinctively 
understood by Him, — ■npol<^da<r€v, antici- 
pated him, here only in N. T. Peter 
meant to report, but Jesus spoke first, 
having something special to say, and a 
good reason for saying it In other 
circumstances He would probably have 
taken no notice, but left Peter to manage 
the matter as he pleased. But the 
Master is aware of something that took 
place among His disciples on the way 
home, not yet mentioned by the evan- 
gelist but about to be (xviii. 1), and to be 
regarded as the key to the meaning of 
this incident. The story of what Jesus 
said to Peter about the temple dues -s 

really the prelude to the discourse follow- 
ing on humility, and that discourse in 
turn reflects light on the prelude. — tiTctoi 
SoKti ; phrase often found in Mt. (xviii. 
12, xxi. 28, etc.) with lively colloquial 
effect : what think you ? — rtX-r) tj KTJv<rov, 
customs or tribute ; the former taxes on 
wares, the latter a tjix on persons = in- 
direct and direct taxation. The question 
refers specially to the latter.— aXXoTpiwv, 
foreigners, in reference not to the nation, 
but to the royal family, who have the 
privilege of exemption. — Ver. 26, apaye 
on the force of this particle vide at vii. 
20. The yt lends emphasis to the 
exemption of the vlot.. It virtually 
replies to Peter's vat = then you must 
admit, what your answer to the collectors 
seemed to deny, that the children are 
free. The reply is zjeu d^ esprit. Christ's 
purpose is not seriously to argue for 
exemption, but to prepare the way for 
a moral lesson. 

Ver. 27. tva |at| o-KavSaX., that we may 
not create misunderstanding as to our 
attitude by asking exemption or refusing 
to pay. Nosgen, with a singular lack of 
exegetical insight, thinks the scandal 
dreaded is an appearance of disagree- 
ment between Master and disciple ! It 
is rather creating the impression that 
Jesus and His followers despise the 
temple, and disallow its claims. And 
the aim of Jesus was to fix Peter's 
attention on the fact that He was 
anxious to avoid giving offence thereby, 
and in that view abstained from insist- 
ing on personal claims. Over against 
the spirit of ambition, which has begun 
to show itself among His disciples, He 




'inorous, ""Apave iXevQepoi clcriK 01 oloi. 27. t^a 8e uti aKai'Sa-n here only 
\i(T(j>u.ev ' auToos, iropeoOcls eiS ttic " 0dXa<r(rai/, paXe * avKiffTpoc, v here only 
Kttl Toi' di'aParra irpwToi' l)(96>' apoi' • kui d^oi^as to orofia auTou, vp c/. ivTi 
€upi]CT€i9 ^crrarfipa' ckcikoc Xapwv bos auTois a»Ti €p.ou Kat aou. Ch. xx. 28, 

1 o-KavSaXitwjxtv in ^LX, adopted by Tisch. and placed in marg. by W.H. 
' Many uncials (^BLAa/.) omit nir. 

sets His own spirit of self-effacement 
and desire as far as possible to live 
peaceably with all men, even with those 
with whom He has no religious affinity. 
— iropcvOeis t. 9. Generally the instruc- 
tion given is : go and fish for the money 
needfial to pay the tax. — aYKio-rpov, a 
hook, not a net, because very little would 
suffice ; one or two fish at most. — 
irpwTov IxBvv : the very first fish that 
comes up will be enough, for a reason 
given in the following clause. — avoC^as 
. . o-ra-niptt: the words point to some- 
thing marvellous, a fish with a stater, 
the sum wanted, in its mouth. Paulus 
sought to eliminate the marvellous by 
rendering tvprjaeis not " find " but 
" obtain," i.e., by sale. Beyschlag (Das 
Leben Jesu, p. 304) suggests that the 
use of an ambiguous word created the 
impression that Jesus directed Peter to 
catch a fish wdth a coin in its mouth. 
Ewald {Geschichti Christus, p. 467) 
thinks Jesus spoke very much as re- 
ported, but from the fact that it is not 
stated that a fish with a coin in its 
mouth was actually found, he infers that 
the words were not meant seriously as a 
practical direction, but were a spirited 
proverbial utterance, based on rare 
examples of money found in fishes. 
Weiss is of opinion that a simple direc- 
tion to go and fish for the means of pay- 
ment was in the course of oral tradition 
changed into a form of language imply- 
ing a miraculous element. This view 
assumes that the report in Mt. was 
derived from oral tradition (vide Weiss, 
Das Leben Jesu, ii. 47, and my Miraculous 
Element in the Gospels, pp. 231-5). In 
any case the miracle, not being reported 
as having happened, cannot have been 
the important point for the evangelist. 
What he is chiefly concerned about is to 
report the behaviour of Jesus on the 
occasion, and the words He spoke re- 
vealing its motive. — avrl Ijiov ko\ o-ov : 
various questions occur to one here. 
Did the collectors expect Jesus only to 
pay (for Himself and His whole com- 
pany), or did their question mean, does 
He also, even He, pay ? And why pay 

only for Peter along with Himself? 
Were all the disciples not liable : 
Andrew, James and John there, in 
Capernaum, not less than Peter ? Was 
the tax strictly collected, or for lack of 
power to enforce it had it become prac- 
tically a voluntary contribution, paid by 
many, neglected by not a few ? In that 
case it would be a surprise to many that 
Jesus, while so uncompromising on 
other matters, was so accommodating in 
regard to money questions. He would 
not conform to custom in fasting. 
Sabbath keeping, washing, etc., but He 
would pay the temple tax, though refusal 
would have had no more serious result 
than slightly to increase already existing 
ill-will. This view sets the generosity 
and nobility of Christ's spirit in a clearer 

Chapter XVIII. Moral Training 
OK THE Disciples. In this and the 
next two chapters the centre of interest 
is the spiritual condition of the Twelve, 
and the necessity thereby imposed on 
their Master to subject them to a stern 
moral discipline. The day of Caesarea 
had inaugurated a spiritual crisis in the 
disciple-circle, which searched them 
through and through, and revealed in 
them all in one form or another, and in 
a greater or less degree, moral weak- 
ness : disloyalty to the Master (xvii. 22), 
vain ambition, jealousy, party spirit. 
The disloyal disciple seems to have 
taken to heart more than the others the 
gloomy side of the Master's predictions, 
the announcement of the Passion ; his 
more honest-hearted companions let 
their minds rest on the more pleasing 
side of the prophetic picture, the near 
approach of the kingdom in power and 
glory, so that while remaining true to 
the Master their hearts became fired with 
ambitious passions. 

Vv. 1-14. Ambition rebuked (Mk. ix. 
33-50 ; Lk. ix. 46-50, XV. 3-7, xvii. 1-4). — 
Ver. I. iv iK. r. fipcj., in that hour ; the 
expression connects what follows very 
closely with the tax incident, and shows 
that the two things were intimately asso- 
ciated in the mind of the evangelist.— 




• Ch.xl. ii; XVIII. 1. *EN ^KticT) rjj (Spa TrpoaT^Xfloc oi (ia0T)Tai tw 'It]ctou, 

lAk.ix.3.\ Xlyoyre^, "lis apa "iiei^wc ^<rrt»' iv rrt BaoiXeia tC»v oiipavCyv ; 

b John xii. 2. Kat'os 6 Inaous iraiSioi' ii/TTiaci' auxo tf u^au 

40 (frr.oT. ,,,,,, _ ' 

T.R.). auTwK, 3. Kttt cnret', " Ap.r)c \iyu up.!*', ^lii' piT] ** (TTpa<j>TiTe Kai 

39. y4yr]ade ws to. iraiSia, ou p,T) eiCTcXGriTe eis ttjc paaiXeiac Twf 

c Ch. xxiii. ,^ « », /orv,, c./ 

la. Lk. oupak'wk. 4. ooTis ouf xaTreu'wffT) ' eauro>' ws to iraioiok' touto, 

xviii. li. ouT<5s eoTiK 6 lACi^uK ^i* T^ jSaaiXcioi Tu)v oupavS>v. 5. Kal 05 iav 

d Ch. xxiv. 5^f>. c-/ ... «Ad^^'o9/ / «\c«# 

parall. 0£5i]Tai TTaiOioc ToiouToi' ev" eiri tw ovofj-ari pou, ep.e oe^exai • 

^ fci^BL al. omit o I. * Taircivuaci in all uncials. 

' ev before iraiSiov in BDLZ ; toiovto in ^BLA for the more usual toiovtov in 
T. R. (ev TraiSiov toiovto in Tisch. and W.H.), 

Tis apa pei^wv : who then is greater, etc. ? 
The Spa may be taken as pointing back 
to the tax incident as suggesting the 
question, but not to it alone, rather to it 
as the last of a series of circumstances 
lending to force the question to the 
front : address to Peter at Caesarea 
Philippi ; three disciples selected to be 
with the Master on the Hill of Trans- 
figuration. From Mk. we learn that 
they had been discussing it on the way 
home. — iv t. Patr.T. ovp.,iiUhe Kingdom 
of Heaven ; this Is wanting in Mk., 
where the question is a purely personal 
one ; who is the greater (among us, 
now, in your esteem) ? In Mk. the 
question, though referring to the present, 
who is, etc., points to the future, and 
presents a more general aspect, but 
though it wears an abstract look it too 
is personal in reality = which of us now 
is the greater for you, and shall there- 
fore have the higher place in the king- 
dom when it comes ? It is not necessary 
to conceive every one of the Twelve 
fancying it possible he might be the 
first man. The question for the majority 
may have been one as to the respective 
claims of the more prominent men, 
Peter, James, John, each of whom may 
have had his partisans in the little band. 
— Ver. 2. iraiSiov : the task of Jesus is 
not merely to communicate instruction 
but to rebuke and exorcise an evil 
spirit, therefore He does not trust to 
words alone, but for the greater im- 
pressiveness uses a child who happens to 
be present as a vehicle of instruction. 
The legendary spirit which dearly loves 
certainty in detail identified the child 
with Ignatius, as if that would make 
the lesson any the more valuable I — 
Ver. 3. lav pT| (rTpa(j>TJT€ : unless ye 
turn round so as to go in an opposite 
direction. " Conversion " needed and 

demanded, even in the case of these men 
who have left all to follow Jesus! How 
many who pass for converted, regenerate 
persons have need to be converted over 
again, more radically 1 Chrys. remarks: 
" We are not able to reach even 
the faults of the Twelve ; we ask not 
who is the greatest in the Kingdom of 
Heaven, but who is the greater in the 
Kingdom of Earth ; the richer the more 
powerful " (Hom. Iviii.). The remark is 
not true to the spirit of Christ. In His 
eyes vanity and ambition in the sphere 
of religion were graver offences than the 
sins of the worldly. His tone at this 
time is markedly severe, as much so as 
when He denounced the vices of the 
Pharisees. It was indeed Pharisaism 
in the bud He had to deal with. Resch 
suggests that crTpa<}>TJT« here simply re- 
presents the idea of becoming again 
children, corresponding to the Hebrew 

idiom which uses 'y!\'Q^ = iraXiv {Ausser- 
canonische Paralleltexte xu Mt. and Mk., 
p. 213). — i>% TO iroiSca, like the children, 
in unpretentiousness. A king's child 
has no more thought of greatness than a 
beggar's. — ov p-f} i\.<Ti\9r\Tt, ye shall 
not enter the kingdom, not to speak of 
being great thert Just what He said to 
the Pharisees (v.le on chap. v. 17-20). — 
Ver. 4. Taircivua-et eavTov: the most 
difficult thing in the world for saint as 
for sinner. Raphel {Annot. in S. S.) dis- 
tinguishes three forms of self-humiliation : 
in mind (Phil. ii. 3), by words, and by 
acts, giving classical examples of the latter 
two. It is easy to humble oneself by 
self-disparaging words, or by symbolic 
acts, as when the Egyptian monks wore 
hoods, like children's caps (Eisner), but to 
be humble in spirit, and so child-like I^ 
6 peifuv. The really humble man is as 
great in the moral world as he is rare. 




6. OS 8 &y (TKayhaXicn] eva tu)V fiiKpwk' toutwc tuw iriffTeuorroH' e Cf. i\axi- 
CIS €11^, (ruu,<j»€pc(, auTw, Lva Kpe|Jia<r9T) fAij\os ot'ucos eTtrt * tov Ch. xxv. 
Tpdx^^ot' ctuToG, Kttl ^ KaraTrofTicrflTJ iv tw *" TreXdyet t»]S 6a\a<r(nr)S. f Ch. v. ag, 

7, Ouai Tw K6cr) diro Twc trKacSdXwc • dfdyKT] ydp icrriv ^ i\Qeiv g here and 

X , t« 'x \ » . ^ ~ > fl ' > ' 3 « > • ^ ' s \ in Ch. xiv, 

Ta CTKdt'oaXa. ttXtjc ouai tw di'Ppunrw eKciKW/ 01 00 to CTKa»'oa\o»' 30. 

h here and 
Acts xxvii. J. The phrase iv r. ir. t. Sa\d<ray)<; here only 

• For eirt ^BLZ have irepu 

« Omitted in BL (W.H.) ; found in )j^D (Tisch.). 

' cKcivu wanting in i^DLI ; found in B but not adopted by W.H. It looks 
like an echo of xxvi. 24, yet it answers well to the solemn tone of our Lord's 
utterance on this occasion. 

Vv. 5-7. — Ver. 5. S^S^Tai : the dis- 
course passes at this point from being 
child-like to gracious treatment of a 
child and what it represents. — tv -rraiSiov 
ToiovTO : the real child present in the 
room passes into an ideal child, repre- 
senting all that the spirit of ambition in 
its struggle for place and power is apt to 
trample under foot. So in effect the 
majority of commentators ; a few, in- 
cluding Bengel, De Wette, Bleek, 
Weiss, hold that the reference is still to 
a real child. In favour of this view is 
Luke's version : " Whoso receiveth this 
child,'' etc. (ix. 48). But the clause «irl 
T^ dv(5|iaTi (lo-u raises the child into the 
ideal sphere. The reception required 
does not mean natural kindness to 
children (though that also Christ valued), 
but esteeming them as fellow-disciples in 
spite of their insignificance. A child 
may be such a disciple, but it may also 
represent such disciples, and it is its 
representative function that is to be em- 
phasised. — Ver. 6. (TKavSaXforx) : the 
opposite of receiving ; treating harshly 
and contemptuously, so as to tempt to 
unbelief and apostasy. The pride and 
selfish ambition of those who pass for 
eminent Christians make many infidels. 
— €va T. |i.. T. : one of the large class of 
little ones ; not merely child believers 
surely, but all of whom a child is the 
emblem, as regards social or ecclesias- 
tical importance. Those who are caused 
to stumble are always little ones : 
" majores enim scandala non recipiunt," 
Jerome. One of them : " frequens unius 
in hoc capite mentio," Bengel. This is 
the one text in which Jesus speaks of 
Himself as the object of faith {vide The 
Kingdom of God, p. 263). — av|i<f>ep6i . . . 
two: vide on v. 29. Fritzsche finds 
here an instance of attraction similar to 
that in x. 25 — «ai 6 SovXos, ii% 6 k. a. 
Instead of saying a~u\k^pt\. a. Kpc(i.a- 

(rOfjvai . . . tva KOTairovTKrO'g, the 

writer puts both verbs in the subjunctive 
after iva. — fxvXos 6viKb9. The Greeks 
called the upper millstone ovos the ass 
(6 dvuTcpos X160S, Hesychius), but they 
did not use the adjective iviKos. The 
meaning therefore is a millstone driven 
by an ass, i.e., a large one, as distinct 
from smaller -sized ones driven by the 
hand, commonly used in Hebrew houses 
in ancient times. " Let such a large 
stone be hung about the neck of the 
offender to make sure that he sink to 
the bottom to rise no more " — such is 
the thought of Jesus ; strong in con- 
ception and expression, revealing intense 
abhorrence. — ^v r^ TreXdysi t. 6. : in 
the deep part of the sea. So Kypke, 
who gives examples ; another signifi- 
cantly strong phrase. Both these ex- 
pressions have been toned dowm by 
Luke. — KarairovTiaO-Q : drowning was 
not a form of capital punishment in use 
among the Jews. The idea may have 
been suggested by the word denoting 
the offence, aKavSaXCcrg. Bengel re- 
marks : " apposita locutio in sermone de 
scandalo, nam ad lapidem offensio est " = 
" let the man who puts a stone in the 
path of a brother have a stone hung 
about bis neck," etc. Lightfoot suggests 
as the place of drowning the Dead Sea, 
in whose waters nothing would sink 
without a weight attached to it, and in 
which to be drowned was a mark of 
execration. — Ver. 7. o-iial r^ Koo-p,(o, 
woe to the world, an exclamation of 
pity at thought of the miseries that 
come upon mankind through ambitious 
passions. Some (Bleek, Weiss, etc.) 
take K^o-fios in the sense of the ungodly 
world, as in later apostolic usage, and 
therefore as causing, not suffering from, 
the offences deplored. This interpreta- 
tion is legitimate but not inevitable, and 
it seems better to lake the word in the 




?pX<Tai. 8. El 8e 1^ x*^P "^o" ^ ^ irous aou crKafSaXij^ei ere, cKKO^for 

qutA ^ Kai ^dXc diri ctou • KaX^c aoi ^oti*' eicTeXOeic cts tt)»' t,ti>r]v 

XwXok' ?J KoXX<5»','^ ^ 8uo xeipcis ^ 8u'o iroSas e\oyTa pXT)0T)»'ai els t^ 

irup TO aluviov. 9. koI ei 6 64)6aXfi6s crou o-Kat'SaXil^ei at, e^eXe 

i here and in auT^v Kal P<iXe 6.1x6 aoC • KaX<5>' aoi £OTi ' ^o»'<i(t>6aX|io»' els tth' ^wtji' 
Mk. ix. 47. 

j Mk. V. s- eltreXOeiK, ?] 8uo 64>6aX}j,oi>s exorra pXt]6TJKai els Tr]y y^^''''**^ '''°" 
53.Act8ii. Trupis- 10. 'Opare piT) KaTa(j)poi''qair]Te ivbs rS>v |jiiKpa>K toutww • 
XI. 10 at. X^Y*^ Y^P '^f^^*'' °'^'- °^ ayYcXoi auTwt' ^f oupavois ^ 81A ^ Trarros 

^ ovTov in ^BDLZ. avra a grammatical correction. 
' KvXXov T) x«Xov in ^^B (Tisch., W.H.). 

more general sense of humanity con- 
ceived of as grievously afflicted with 
" scandals " without reference to who is 
to blame. They are a great fact in the 
history of mankind, by whomsoever 
caused.— airo t. <r. : by reason of; points 
to the ultimate source of the misery. — 
Twv o-KttvSdXwv : the scandals ; a general 
category, and a black one. — dvaYK-rj y*P • 
they are inevitable ; a fatality as well as 
a fact, on the wide scale of the world ; 
they cannot be prevented, only deplored. 
No shallow optimism in Christ's view of 
life. — irXTjv : adversative here, setting 
the woe that overtakes the cause of 
offences, over against that of those who 
suffer from them. Weiss contends that 
it is not adversative here any more than 
in xi. 24, but simply conducts from the 
general culpability of the world to the 
guilt of every one who is a cause of 
scandal, even when he does not belong 
to the world. 

Vv. 8, 9. These verses are one of 
Mt.'s dualities, being found with some 
variations in the Sermon on the Mount 
(w. 29-30). Repetition perhaps due to 
use ot two sources, but in sympathy 
with the connection of thought in both 
places. Since the offender is the greater 
loser in the end, it is worth his while 
to take precautions against being an 
offender. — Ver. 8. X^^P> 'tovs : men- 
tioned together as instruments of 
violence. — KaXdv . . . ^ : the positive 
for the comparative, or ^ used in sense 
of magis quam. Raphel and Kypke cite 
instances of this use from classics. It 
may be an imitation of Hebrew usage, 
in which the comparative is expressed 
by the positive, followed by the preposi- 
tion min. " A rare classical usage tends 
to become frequent in Hellenistic Greek if 
it be found to correspond to a common 
Hebrew idiom " (Csur, in Camb. N. T.). 
— KuXXiv : with reference to hand, muti- 

lated ; wanting one or both hands. — 
X«oX<Jv : in a similar condition regarding 
the feet [cf. xi. 5 ; xv. 30). — Ver. 9. 
6<j>9aXfi,(is, the eye, referred to as the 
means of expressing contempt ; in chap. v. 
29 as inciting to lust. — |jiovii(j>9aXpLov, 
properly should mean having only one 
eye by nature, but here = wanting an 
eye, for which the more exact term is 
cTep(i({>6aXp,os, vide Lobeck, Phryn., p. 


Vv. 10-14. Still the subject is the 
child as the ideal representative of the 
insignificant, apt to be despised by the 
ambitious. From this point onwards 
Mt. goes pretty much his own way, 
giving /of'/rt of Jesus in general sympathy 
with the preceding discourse, serving the 
purpose of moral discipline for disciples 
aspiring to places of distinction. — Ver. 
10. opdrc pT) KaTa<^. : pt) with the 
subj. in an object clause after a verb 
meaning to take heed ; common N. T. 
usage ; vide Matt. xxiv. 4 ; Acts xiii. 
40, etc. — tvos, one, again. — Xcyu yap : 
something solemn to be said. — ol 
oyycXoi. avTwv, etc. In general abstract 
language, the truth Jesus solemnly 
declares is that God, His Father, takes a 
special interest in the little ones in all 
senses cf the word. This truth is ex- 
pressed in terms of the current Jewish 
belief in guardian angels. In the later 
books of O. T. (Daniel), there are guar- 
dian angels of nations ; the extension of 
the privilege to individuals was a further 
development. Christ's words are not to 
be taken as a dogmatic endorsement of 
this post-exilian belief exemplified in the 
story of Tobit (chap. v.). The same 
remark applies to the passages in which 
the law is spoken of as given through 
angelic mediation (Acts vii. 53 ; Gal. iii. 
19 ; Heb. ii. 2). The Xtyw ydp does not 
mean " this belief is true," but " the 
idea it embodies, God's special care for 

8— 16. 



p\iitou(Ti rh irpodunrov too TrarpcJs fAO" tou iv oupaKOis.^ II. k this phrase 
... \t«> ~>A» - >>\\/9 ft" here only 

f]\0€ yap o uios TOO dvopwirou ffwcrai to diroXojXos. 12. Ti u|xik 

SoKcI; edc Y^VrjTat Tict dfSpuiiru) eKaTOk irpoPara, Kal irXafTjOfj Ik* 'Acts xx. 16 

i^ auTWJ' • ouxi d4)els ' rd iyvev-qKovraevvia, em xd opiq * iropeuGeis (same 

^ .^ ,^ I , c" f const. 

^•Kjxei TO irXafwuei/oi' ; 13. Kai edi' Yei/TjTat eupcii' auTO, du,T)i' X^yu with inf. 

.~« / ,>,..K-x\ *,v~, , ~ as here, 

upiLf, oTi x^tp^i *■"■ auTw jxaWoj', i] eiri Tois i.vy€vi]KovTa€vvia tois c/. in ver, 

fiT) 7reirXai/T)|Jiefois. 14. outus ouk Ioti 0A.if]fia " Ifixpoarfiei' tou m Ch. li. 26. 

TTUTpos ufiwk *• tou iv oupai'Ois, tea airo\T]Tat eis twi' p.iKptoi' toutwi/. 

15. 'Ed>' 8e djJiapTi^oTf) els tre '^ 6 d8€X<}>6s o^ou, uirayc Kal ^ " eXey^oc i Tim. v. 

aoTOK fiETa^o (TOU Kul auTou fi^foo. edv aou ditoucrT), " eK^pStjaas o i Cor. ix 

tok d8€X(j)6v (TOU • 16. cdK 8e ft^ dKOutrj^, -rrapdXajSe p.€Td crou eTi If a pet. iii. i, 

* B has €v Tci) ovpavo) (W.H. margin, bracketed). 

* Ver. II is wanting in fc^BL, i, 13, 33, Egyptian verss., Syrr. Jerus. Sin., Orig., 
etc. ; doubtless imported from Lk. xix. 10. 

* a<{>T)cr£i in BL (Tisch., W.H.); D has a(|iiT]o-iy. * Kai after oprj in BL. 

* piov in B al. * tv in ^BDL. ci; is a grammatical correction. 
' t^B omit «ts <ru ' i^BD omit Kai. 

the little, is true ". This is an important 
text for Christ's doctrine of the Father- 
hood. It teaches that, contrary to the 
spirit of the world, which values only 
the great, the Father-God cares specially 
for that which is apt to be despised. — 
pXt'irovo-i T. irp. In Eastern courts it is 
the confidential servants who see the 
face of the king. The figure is not to be 
pressed to the extent of making God like 
an Eastern despot. — Ver. 11 an inter- 
polation from Lk. xix. 10, q. v. 

Vv. 12-14. Parable of straying sheep 
(Lk. XV. 4-7) ; may seem less appropriate 
here than in Lk., but has even here a 
good setting, amounting to a climax = 
God cares not only for the lowly and 
little but even for the low — the morally 
erring. In both places the parable 
teaches the precious characteristically 
Christian doctrine of the worth of the 
individual at the worst to God. — Ver. 12. 
tL VI. 80KCI as in xvii. 25. — kav yevTjTat t. 
d. k. irpcJpaTa : if a man happen to have 
as large a number, yet, etc. — Kal it. Iv : 
only one wanderer, out of so many. — 
iropevOels t'HTci : does he not go and 
seek the one ? — Ver. 13. Kal . . . avr6 : 
if it happen that he finds it. In Lk. he 
searches till he finds it. — tt|A7jv Xiy<i> : 
specially solemn, with a view to the 
application to the moral sphere of what 
in the natural sphere is self-evident. — 
Ver. 14, application of the parable less 
emphatic than in Lk. — 9Ai]|Aa, a will, 
for an object of will. — e\i.irpo<r0€v r. tr. 
u. : before the face of — for, etc. 

Vv. 15-17. How to deal with an 
erring brother. — The transition here is 
easy from warning against giving, to 
counsel how to receive, offences. The 
terms are changed : fniKpbs becomes 
d8cX4><is, giving offence not suiting the 
idea of the former, and for o-KavSaXi^eiv 
we have the more general dp,apTdvctv. 
— Vv. 16 and 17 have something 
answering to them in Lk. xvii. 3, coming 
in there after the group of parables in 
chaps. XV. and xvi., in which that of the 
Shepherd has its place ; whence Wendt 
recognises these verses as an authentic 
looioii probably closely connected with 
the parable in the common source. Ver, 
17 he regards as an addition by the 
evangelist or a later hand. Holtzmann 
(H. C.) regards the whole section (15-17) 
as a piece of Church order in the form of 
a /o.§7'oH of the Lord. 

Ver. 15. afxapnio-D : apart from the 
doubtful cU o-£ following, the reference 
appears to be to private personal offences, 
not to sin against the Christian name, 
which every brother in the community 
has a right to challenge, especially 
those closely connected with the offender. 
Yet perhaps we ought not too rigidly to 
draw a line between the two in an ideal 
community of love. — ficTa^v a: k. a. fi. : 
the phrase implies that some one has 
the right and duty of taking the initia- 
tive. So far it is a personal affair to 
begin with. The simpler and more 
classical expression would be fttivos 
fidvov. — dKovcrt], hear, in the sense of 




fj SiJo, i^o ItzX (rr<5p.aT0S 8uo ijLapTupwv t] Tpiwf o-raOrj TraK prifjia. 
p here only 17. lay §€ *" irapaKouffTi auTatf, clire rn ^KKXrio-ia ■ e'di' 8e Kal ttis 

(Efthcr , \ , , . , n ^ 

iii, 3, 8). eKKXtjaias TrapaKOuerj], torw aoi oJOTrep 6 ^ut'iKos Kat 6 TeXcSitjs. 

18. A\xriv \iy(ji iin'.v, oaa iav hr]<Tt^r€ cttI tt]s y^S> ecrrai SeSc/ieVa 

q Ch. XX. a, CI* Tw ^ oupaku) • Kal oaa i^v \u<rT)T€ ^m t»]9 YT^j ccrrat XeXup.^^a 

36. Acts e** Tw ^ odpai'w. 19. irdXiv'^ Xeyw ufiif, on iav 8uo 6|aoj»' ' aup,(|>wni- 

ij. awan' ■ €in ttjs y>]s irepi. irarros TrpaypiaTos ou ed^ aiTT|o-wKTat, 

1 B omits Tu first time and ^B second time. 

* B and many other uncials add op,Tjv after iraXiv (W. H. in brackets). 

* <rv\i.^ittvr]<rov(riv in ^BDLA (Tisch.). 

submitting to admonition. — ^K^pSTjoras : 
gained as a friend, as a fellow-member 
of the Kingdom of God, or as a man = 
saved him from moral ruin ? All three 
alternatives find support. Is it necessary 
or possible to decide peremptorily 
between them ? — Ver. i6. ^av Sc jxtj 4. 
After a first failure try again, with added 
influence. — irapaXope . . . Ivo r\ Svo. 
This bears a juridical aspect (Schanz), 
but it does not really pass out of the 
moral sphere : ethical influence alone 
contemplated; consensus in moral judg- 
ment carries weight with the conscience. 
— iva cTfl aTd|iaTOs, etc. : reference to 
the legal provision in Deut. xix. 15 in a 
literary rather than in a legal spirit. — 
Ver. 17. iav ik ir. d. Try first a mini- 
mum of social pressure and publicity, and 
if that fail have recourse to the maximum. 
— (ivi T-Q £icKXT)o-iq, : speak to the 
" Church " — the brotherhood of believers 
in the Christ This to be the widest 
limit for the ultimate sphere of moral 
influence, as ex hypothesi the judgment 
of this new community will count for 
more to its members than that of all the 
world beyond. — fo-rw o-ot, etc. : this 
failing, the offender puts himself outside 
the society, and there is nothing for it 
but to treat him as a heathen or a pub- 
lican ; which does not mean with in- 
difference or abhorrence, but carefully 
avoiding fellowship with him in sin, and 
seeking his good only as one without. 
There is no reference in this passage to 
ecclesiastical discipline and Church cen- 
sures. The older interpreters, in a 
theologico-polemical interest, were very 
anxious to find in it support for their 
developed ideas on these topics. The 
chief interest of historic exegesis is to 
divest it of an ecclesiastical aspect as 
much as possible, for only so can it suit 
the initial period, and be with any pro- 
bability regarded as an utterance of 

Jesus. As such it may be accepted, 
when interpreted, as above. If, as we 
have tried to show, it was natural for 
Jesus to speak of a new community of 
faith at Caesarea, it w?s equally natural 
that He should return upon the idea in 
the Capernaum lesson on humility and 
kindred virtues, and refer to it as an in- 
strument for promoting right feeling and 
conduct among professed disciples. — 
Ver. 18. Renewed promise of power to 
bind and loose, this time not to Peter 
alone, as in xvi. ig, but to all the 
Twelve, not qua apostles, with ecclesias- 
tical authority, but qua disciples, with 
the ethical power of morally disciplined 
men. The Twelve for the moment are 
for Jesus = the ecclesia : they were the 
nucleus of it. The binding and loosing 
generically = exercising judgment on 
conduct ; here specifically = treating sin 
as pardonable or the reverse — a particu- 
lar exercise of the function of judging. 

Vv. 19, 20. Promise of the power and 
presence of God to encourage concord. — 
Ver. ig. iraXiv a|iT]v : a second amen, 
introducing a new thought of parallel 
importance to the former, in ver. 18. 
— «av 8vo : two ; not the measure of 
Christ's expectation of agreement among 
His disciples, but of the moral power 
that lies in the sincere consent of even 
two minds. It outweighs the nominal 
agreement of thousands who have no 
real bond of union. — <ru)i<|>ii)vi^o'(i>(riv ; 
agree, about what ? not necessarily only 
the matters referred to in previous con- 
text, but anything concerning the King- 
dom of God. — ircpi iravTo? Trpa-y^aros : 
concerning every or any matter, offences 
committed by brethren included of 
course. — -yeyTJo-cTai : it shall be ; what 
absolute confidence in the laws of the 
moral world ! — Trapa t. tt. y,. : from my 
Father. The Father-God of Jesus is 
here defined as a lover of peace and 




\€vr\<T€Tai aoTots irapa toG iraTpos u,ou tou iv oupavotq, 20. ou r Ch. xxviii 
• ' ' ^ _ ^ 10. Acts 

yap €tai Suo r\ xpei? o-ut'r]Yfie»'oi 'eis to e|Jiov ocojia, inel eijil tV vii. 16; 

ueau auTwk'. ^ f-or- '• i=, 

, ^ , ~ c , ■» / (allofbap 

21. Tote irpoaeXOwi' auTw 6 FIcTpos etire, " Kupic, •■itoct(£kis tism into 

d|i.apTrjo-£i els ep-^ ° d8eX<j)6s f^oo, Kal d<})i^(TU auTw ; ecos *eiTTdKts .' " name\. 

, ,-<». ~ (^j\/ ■» 'c > 5\\>«. 8 Ch. xxiii. 

2 2. Aeyct aoTW o Iyjitous, Ou Acyw aoi eus eirTaKis, aKK ews 37. Lk. 

xiii. 34. 
t Lk. xvii. 4. 

' This verse in Codex Bezae runs "for there are not (ovk «to-iv yap), etc., with 
whom (trap* ois) I am nr* in the midst of them ". Syr. Sin. has a similar reading. 

^ avTu after enrt in BD (Tlsch., W.H., bracketed). ^ omits aurw. 

fraternal concord. In this verse we 
have a case of attraction, of the main 
subject into the conditional clause. 
Resolved, the sentence would run : irdv 
Trpaypa, 6 «av alrr^auo'iv, «av crvp4"^- 
VT|irovcrivTr€pi aviTov, YevT|(7£Tat aviTOig. — 
Ver. 20. Svo f\ Tpeis. Jesus deals in 
small numbers, not from modesty In His 
anticipations, but because they suit the 
present condition, and in jealousy for the 
moral quality of the new society. — 
(TvvTiYpevoi eU, etc., not gathered to con- 
fess or worship my name, but gathered 
as believers in me. It is a synonym for 
the new society. The ecclesia is a body 
of men gathered together by a common 
relation to the name of the Christ : a 
Christian synagogue as yet consisting of 
the Twelve, or as many of them as were 
really one in heart. — Ikci elp.1 Iv, etc. : 
there am I, now, with as many of you, 
my disciples, as are one in faith and 
brotherly love ; not with any more even 
of you : far away from the man of am- 
bitious, not to say traitorous, mind. 
There am I in reference to the future. 
His presence axiomatically certain, 
therefore expressed as a present fact, 
even with reference to a future time — a 
promise natural from One looking forward 
to an early death. Similar in import to 
Mt. xxviii. 20. For similar sayings of 
the Rabbis concerning the presence of 
the Divine Majesty, or the Shechinah, 
among two or three sitting in judgment 
or studying the law, vide Lightfoot and 

Vv. 21, 22. Peter's question about for- 
giving. — The second of two interpella- 
tions in the course of Christ's discourse 
{vide Mk. ix. 38-41 ; Lk. ix. 49, 50). 
Such words touch sensitive consciences, 
and the interruptions would be wel- 
comed by Jesus as proof that He had 
not spoken in vain. — Ver. 21. irooaKis, 
etc. : the question naturally arose out of 
the directions for dealing with an oifend- 


ing brother, which could only be carried 
out by one of placable disposition. Their 
presupposition is that a fault confessed is 
to be forgiven. But how far is tnis to 
go ? In Lk. xvii. 3 the case is put of 
seven offences in a day, each in turn re- 
pented of and confessed. Is there not 
reason for doubting the sincerity of 
repentance in such a case ? Or is this 
not at least the extreme limit? Such 
is Peter's feeling. — d(j.apn^cr£L, a^-qa-ui : 
two futures instead of irocr. a|xapT6vTi 
a(J»T|orco : Hebrew idiom instead of Greek. 
— £0J5 ewTOLKis : Peter meant to be 
generous, and he went considerably 
beyond the Rabbinical measure, which 
was three times (Amos i. 6) : " quicunque 
remissionem petit a proximo, ne ultra 
quam ter petat," Schottgen. — Ver. 22. 
ovi : emphatic " no " to be connected 
with Icds cirraKis. Its force may be 
brought out by translating : no, I te41 
you, not till, etc. — dWi c. i. I. : Christ's 
reply lifts the subject out of the legal 
sphere, where even Peter's suggestion 
left it (seven times and no more — a hard 
rule), into the evangelic, and means : 
times without number, infinite placability. 
This alone decides between the two 
renderings of cP8op.i]KovTdKi9 cirrd : 
seventy-seven times and seventy times 
seven, in favour of the latter as giving a 
number (490) practically equal to infini- 
tude. Bengel leans to the former, taking 
the termination -ki? as covering the 
whole number seventy-seven, and re- 
ferring to Gen. iv. 24 as the probable 
source of the expression. Similarly 
some of the Fathers (Orig., Aug.), De 
Wette and Meyer. The majority adopt 
the opposite view, among whom may be 
named Grotius and Fritzsche, who cite 
the Syriac version in support. On 
either view there is inexactness in the 
expression. Seventy times seven re- 
quires the termination -kis at both words. 
Seventy-seven times requires the -kis at 





u here only ° ipSoiiTjKOtTclKis itrri. 23. Ai3i TouTO wuioioj&ri i\ PaviXeia twv 
(Cien iv. ^ _ . , , , 

24). oupayuti' Ai'6pwiT(i) paaiXei, os i|St'XT]oe ' (Tut'ttpat Xoyoc fierd t!i>v 

V here and ^ ^_^' r.^,- > 

inCh x\v. oouXwk- auToG. 24. dp^afi^cou oe auTou aufaipeic, ■iTpoaif|>'«)(Or) ^ 
19 (same ,-»9>.v/ 'wN.^ ^» c<.^ 

const). aoTui CIS'' 09ei\eT»js ^upiuK TttAdi'TW*'. 25. |iT) c^ok'Tos Oe auToo 

w here and ' _ .54/ • - 8 o- v v 

inCh.xxv. ttTTooout'ai, iKtK€u<T€y aoTOK Kopios auTou " Trpat/TJi'ai, Kai TTjf 

X Lk. xviii. yuf aiKa auTou ■* Kai to. TtKva, Kai TTdyra o<ra e'x^ * "•^'^ ^''''oSoOfji'ai.. 

7. I Cor. , V ■»'C-\ ' .-\> ly-'ei 

xiii. 4. 20. TrccTWk' GUI' o ooo/vos irpo<T€Kuy€i auTo), Atyui', Kupie, p,aKpo- 
' Oufj.Tjo'ot' ^ir' ^fioij ical irat^Ta aoi® diroSuaw. 27. aTtrXayj^k-iaOels 8€ 

» wpoo-TixeTi in BD (W.H.) ; as in T. R., i^LA al. (Tisch.) 

* eis avTw in ^B (Tisch., W.H.). * ^BDL omit avrov. 

* ^B omit this avrov also (Tisch., W. H.). 

^ H has cx<ii ^vhich, just because of its singularity as a present among preterites, 
is to be preferred to tix*' though found in most uncials. 

* BD omit. '' DL have fir' qxc. * o-oi after airo8a>o-<u in ^BL. 

the end of the second word rather than 
at end of first : either cttto kcI cpSo . . . 
Kiq, or ^p8o|jL ... TO cirTaKis. 

Vv. 23-35. Parable 0/ unmerciful ser- 
vant. — Ver. 23. 8ia tovto suggests 
that the aim of the parable is to justify 
the apparently unreasonable demand in 
ver. 22 : unlimited forgiveness of in- 
juries. After all, says Jesus, suppose 
ye comply with the demand, what do 
your remissions amount to compared to 
what has been remitted to you by God ? 
— avOpcjiro) ^ao-iXei : a man, a king; 
king an afterthought demanded by the 
nature of the case. Only a great 
monarch can have such debtors, and 
opportunity to forgive such debts. — 
<ruvapai \6yov (found again in xxv. 19), 
to hold a reckoning. — SovXuv ; all alike 
servants or slaves in relation to the 
king. So human distinctions are 
dwarfed into insignificance by the dis- 
tance between all men and God. — Ver. 
24. tls : one stood out above all the 
rest for the magnitude of his debt, who, 
therefore, becomes the subject of the 
story. — 6(|)«iX^TT)s |i. t. : a debtor of, or 
to the extent of, a thousand talents — an 
immense sum, say millions sterling ; 
payment hopeless ; that the point ; exact 
calculations idle or pedantic. It may 
seem to violate natural probability that 
time was allowed to incur such a debt, 
which speaks to malversation for years. 
But the indolence of an Eastern monarch 
must be taken into account, and the 
absence of system in the management 
of finance. As Koetsveld {De Gelijk., 
p. 286) remarks : " A regular control is 
not in the spirit of the Eastern. He 
trusts utterly v/hen he does trust, and 

when he loses confidence it is for ever." 
— Ver. 25. TTpaSrjvai , . . €X€i : the 
order is given that the debtor be sold, 
with all he has, including his wifi and 
children ; hard lines, but according to 
ancient law, in the view of which wife 
and children were simply property. 
Think of their fate in those barbarous 
times 1 But parables are not scrupulous 
on the score of morality. — Kai oiroSo- 
O^vai : the proceeds of sale to be applied 
in payment of the debt. — Ver. 26. p-aic- 
po6vp.r](rov : a Hellenistic word, some- 
times used in the sense of deferring 
anger (Prov. xix. 11 (Sept.), the corre- 
sponding adjective in Ps. Ixxxvi. 15 ; cf. 
I Cor. xiii. 4 ; i Thess. v. 14). That sense 
is suitable here, but the prominent idea 
is : give me time ; wrath comes in at a 
later stage (ver. 34). — iravra diroScoo-w : 
easy to promise; his plea: better wait 
and get all than take hasty measures 
and get only a part. — Ver. 27. tnrXay- 
xvi<r6«is : touched with pity, not un- 
mixed perhaps with contempt, and asso- 
ciated possibly with rapid reflection as 
to the best course, the king decides on 
a magnanimous policy. — aire'Xvcrcv, ri 
Savciov d<})T)K€v : two benefits conferred ; 
set free from imprisonment, debt abso- 
lutely cancelled, not merely time given 
for payment. A third benefit implied, 
continuance in office. The policy adopted 
in hope that it will ensure good be- 
haviour in time to come (Ps. cxxx. 4) ; 
perfectly credible even in an Eastern 

Vv. 28-34. The other side of the pic- 
ture. — Ver. 28. Ivo T. «ruv8ovX«v d. : a 
fellow-s\2ive though a humble one, which 
he should have remembered, but did not. 




6 Kupi09 ToG Sou'Xou ^KCiJ'oo ^ onTeXuffCv auTOc, Kal to ^ Zdvuov aSrtKev y here only 

(Deut. XV. 
auTu. 28. 'E^cXSoji' Se 6 SouXo; ^KCii'os ^ eijpef iva riav aocSouXut' 6; xxiv. 

auTou, og («j<|)ei\€>' aoTU) CKaroi' OTji'dpia, Kai KpaTr)cras auToi' eirciYC, z here and 

\iyti)v, 'AttoSos |J.oi ^ o ti ^ 64>eiXei9. 29. Trecrwi/ ouc 6 crui'SouXos 13 (of 

auToO eis T0i)9 iroSas auToG * irapeKdXet auxoi', Xcyut', MaKpoGufiTjaoK ing). 

ctt' €)xot,* Kal "ndwra '^ diroSuCTO) ctoi. 30. 6 8e ouk rjCeXec, dXXd 

d'ir€X9wk' e'PaXci' aoTov els (f'^^'"^'^''!''' ^^^ °" ^ drroSw to d<J)ei.X6p.ei'oi». 

3/. i86tT£s 8e * 01 orui'SouXoi aoTOo rd y€y6ii.€va i\uTrr\Qr\<Tay (r4>68pa* 

^ B omits cKtivov here (W.H. in brackets) and ckcivos in ver. 28. 

* ^BDL omit fjiou 

* ^BCD and other uncials have ei tu o ti (T. R.) only in minus., rejected by 
modern editors. 

* «is T. ir. avTov omitted in ^BCDL and by modern editors. 

* So in ^ii and many uncials. CDL have eir' £p.e. 

^ iravra is feebly attested and unsuitable to the case. 
T €ws in ^BCL. « ovv in ^BD 33 e. 

— iKaTov 8i]vdpia: some fifty shillings; 
an utterly insignificant debt, which, 
coming out from the presence of a king, 
who had remitted so much to him, he 
should not even have remembered, far 
less been in the mood to exact. — 
Kparrjaas a- cirviy* '. seizing, he choked, 
throttled him, after the brutal manner 
allowed by ancient custom, and even by 
Roman law. The act foretokens merci- 
less treatment : no remission of debt to 
be looked for in this quarter. — dir<i8os ci 
Ti 6<j>. In the ei ti some ingenious com- 
mentators (Fritzsche, e.gjj have dis- 
covered Greek urbanity I (" Non sine 
urbanitate Graeci a conditionis vinculo 
aptarunt, quod a nulla conditione sus- 
pensum sit.") Weiss comes nearer the 
truth when he sees in it an expression 
of " merciless logic ". He will have 
payment of whatever is due, were it 
only a penny. — Ver. 29. (jLaKpoOunrjaoK, 
etc. : the identical words he used him- 
self just a few minutes ago, reminding 
him surely of his position as a pardoned 
debtor, and moving him to like conduct. 
—Ver. 30. oiiKT)9£X€v: no pity awakened 
by the words which echoed his own 
petition. " He would not." Is such 
conduct credible? Two remarks may 
be made on this. In parabolic narra- 
tions the improbable has sometimes to be 
resorted to, to illustrate the unnatural 
behaviour of men in the spiritual sphere, 
e.g., in the parable 01 the least (Lk. xiv. 
16-2-1) '^^'^ refuse; how unlikely I But 
the action ol the pardoned debtor is not 
so improbable as it seems. He acts on 

the instinct of a base nature, and also 
doubtless in accordance with long habits 
of harsh tyrannical behaviour towards 
men in his power. Every way a bad 
man : greedy, grasping in acquisition of 
wealth, prodigal in spending it, un- 
scrupulous in using what is not his own. 
— Ver. 31. IS^vTCS ol or. Aviri]6i](rav ; 
the other fellow-servants were greatly 
vexed or grieved. At what ? the fate of 
the poor debtor ? Why then not pay 
the debt ? (Koetsveld). Not sympathy 
so much as annoyance at the unbecoming 
conduct of the merciless one who had 
obtained mercy was the feeling. — 8ico-a- 
«j)T](rav : reported the /nc^s (narraverunt, 
Vulg.), and so threw light on the charac- 
ter of the man (cf. Mt. xiii, 36, W. and 
H.). — ry K. €avT«v, to their own master, 
to whom therefore they might speak on 
a matter aiTecting his interest. — Ver. 32. 
S. irovTipe : the king could understand 
and overlook dishonesty in money 
matters, but not such inhumanity and 
villainy. — ir. t. 4(j)eiXTjv. i. : huge, un- 
countable. — lirti irapcKaXcads fjic, when 
you entreated me. In point of fact he 
had not, at least in words, asked re- 
mission but only time to pay. Ungenerous 
himself, he was incapable of conceiving, 
and therefore of appreciating such mag- 
nificent generosity. — Ver. 33. o(ik eSti ; 
was it not your duty ? an appeal to the 
sense of decency and gratitude. — Kal a\ 
. . . TjXeTjora. There was condescension 
in putting tht two cases together as 
parallel. Ten thousand acts oi lorgive- 
ness such as the culprit was asked to 



XVI 1 1. 32-35. 

Kai tXoofTCS oiEad<}>'r]aa^ tui Kupio) auTwc ' ndt'Ta tq y^^'^M'^*'''^- 

32. ToT€ irpouKaXeadii.ev'OS auTok' o Kupios auToG Xtyet auTui, AouXe 

ft Koin. xiii. TTo>'Y|pt, irdaai' Tiy * 64>ciXi)f tKciki]*' d4>v)Kd aoi, tTrel irapcKaXcads 

7 " Cor. „ ., > "5 X X ,» . , / c \ ' e " i ' 

vii. 3. P^ ■ 33- ^"'^ '"^' '*''^'- °^^ cAcTjo-ai Toc (TuvoouKoy aou, us Kai cyu at 

■f\\ir\aa ; 34. itai ipyiaOels 6 Kupios auToG irap^SojKej' auTof tois 

b here ouly ' pacraKicrrais, tws ou dtroSw irav to 64)£LX6fi€>'Oi' auTw.^ 315. Outw 

icai 6 TraTi]p p.ou 6 tiroupdvios ^ iroii^orei op.u', eon' |xt) di^rJTC eKaonros 

Tu dSeXifx^ auToG dTto Twi' KapStuf up.wi' rd irapaTrTwjiaTa auTwv. " * 

» cavTwv in ^l^C. D has avrtov as in T. R. Vide below. 

" avTU) omitted in BD (W.H.). 

' ovpavio; in )f^BDL. cirovparios is not found elsewhere in Mt. 

* TO "H-ap. avTMv are wanting in ^BDLJ and most editors omit them. 

perform would not have equalled in 
amount one act such as he had got the 
benefit of. The fact in the spiritual sphere 
corresponds to this. — Ver. 34. ipyKrOcls : 
roused to just and extreme anger. — ^ao-a- 
vio-Tais : not merely to the gaolers, but 
to the tormentors, with instructions not 
merely to keep him safe in prison till the 
debt was paid, but still more to make 
the life of the wretch as miserable as 
possible, by place of imprisonment, 
position of body, diet, bed, etc., if not by 
instruments of pain. The word, chosen 
to suit the king's mood, represents a 
subjective feeling rather than an objective 

Ver. 35. Application. — ovtus : so, 
mutatis mutandis, for feelings, motives, 
methods rise in the moral scale when 
we pass to the spiritual sphere. So in 
general, not in all details, on the same 
principle ; merciless to the merciless. — 
6 iraTi^p p.. 6 oip. : Jesus is not afraid to 
bring the Father in in such a connection. 
Rather He is here again defining the 
Father by discriminating use of the 
name, as One who above all things abhors 
mercilessness. — p.ow : Christ is in full 
sympathy with the Father in this. — 
ipiv : to you, my own chosen disciples. 
— cKao-Tos : every man of you. — airo 
Tcjv KapSioiv : from your hearts, no sham 
or lip pardon ; real, unreserved, thorough- 
going, and in consequence again and 
again, times without number, because 
the heart inclines that way. 

Chapter XIX. Farewell to Gali- 
lee. In Mt.'s narrative the journey of 
Jesus to the south, reported in ver. i, 
marks the close of the Galilean ministry. 
Not so obviously so in Mk.'s (see notes 
there), though no hint is given of a return 
to Galilee. It is not perfectly clear 

whether the incidents reported are to be 
conceived as occurring at the southern 
end of the journey, or en the way within 
Galilee or without. The latter alterna- 
tive is possible (vide Holtz., H.C., p. ■21^). 
The incidents bring under our notice 
a variety of interesting characters : 
Pharisees with captious questions, 
mothers with their children, a man in 
quest of the sutnmum bonum, with words 
and acts of Jesus corresponding. But 
the disciplining of the Twelve still holds 
the central place of interest. Last chap- 
ter showed them at school in the house, 
this shows them at school on the way. 

Vv. I, 2. Introductory, cf. Mk. x. i. — 
Ver. I. KallycvcTo . . . Xdyovs tovtows; 
similar formulae after important groups 
of logia in vii. 28, xi. i, xiii. 53. — 
pcT^ptv : also in xiii. 53, vide notes 
there ; points to a change of scene 
worthy of note, as to Nazareth, which 
Jesus rarely visited, or to Judaea, as here. 
— cLtto t. faXiXaias. The visit to 
Nazareth was a movement within Gali- 
lee. This is a journey out of it not 
necessarily final, but so thought of to all 
appearance by the evangelist. — clsTaopia 
T. 'I.TT. T. '!. : indicates either the desti- 
nation = to the coasts of Judaea beyond 
the Jordan ; or the end and the way = 
to the Judaea territory by the way of 
Peraea, i.e., along the eastern shore of 
Jordan. It is not likely that the writer 
would describe Southern Peraea as a 
part of Judaea, therefore the second 
alternative is to be preferred. Mk.'s 
statement is that Jesus went to the 
coasts of Judaea and (Kai, approved read- 
ing, instead of 8ta toO in T. R.) beyond 
Jordan. Weiss thinks that Mt.'s version 
arose from misunderstanding of Mk. 
But bis understanding may have been a 

XIX. 1—5. 



XIX. I. KAI iyivero ore tTtXeo-cv u 'It]ctous Tois X<5yous toutous, 
* fA€rJ]p€i' diTO TTJs faXiXaias, xal TJXOei' eis rh opia tt]S 'louSaias aCh.xiii.53. 
''irepai' too 'lopSdKOU. 2. Kal T|KoXou8T)cra>' auTw oxXoi ttoXXol, Kal b Ch. iv. 15. 
idepdireudiv auroug ckci. 3. Kai TrpooTjXGok auxw 01 ^ <frapi(Taioi 
ireipci^orres aoTOf, Kal Xeyorres auTw,^ '* Ei c|€otii' dK0p(uiTw ' 
diroXiKT-ai T^c y^''^^^'^'* auTou Kaxd irdcrak alriai' ; " 4. 'O 8e 
diTOKpiOels elireK au'rois,* " Ook d.viyv(t)TS on 6 irofqaas '^ dir' 
dpxTJs apvev xal 0r]Xu eTroiTjo-cf adrou's, 5. Kal eiirev, '"EveiceK 
TouTou KaTa\en4/ei avopojiros Toi' Traxepa Kai tt)v p.T]Tepa • Kai, 
■irpoaKoXXT)6r|CTeTai ^ t^ yuvaiKl auroG, Kal eaoKTai ol 8uo cis ordpKa a^ 

' 01 omitted in BCLA al " ovtoj omitted in ^BCLZ al. D has it. 

^ ^BL omit avSpojiTQ). ■• ^BDL omit avroi;. 

' KTicras in B, i, 22, 33, 124, sah. cop. (W.H.). 

' The simple KoXXiiOT^o-eTai in BD al. (modern editors). The compound (T.R.) is 
from the Sept. 

true one, for Mk.'s statement may mean 
that Peraea was the first reached station 
(Holtz., H. C), implying a journey on the 
eastern side. The suggestion that the 
writer of the first Gospel lived on the 
eastern side, and means by irepav the 
western side (Delitsch and others), has 
met with little favour. — Ver. 2. i^koXov- 
0T|aav : the crowds follow as if there 
had been no interruption, in Mt. ; in 
Mk., who knows of a time of hiding 
(ix. 30), they reassemble (x. i). — eOcpd- 
ir€vcr£v a. Ikei : a healing ministry com- 
mences in the south ; in Mk. a teaching 
ministry {x. i). 

Vv. 3-9. The marriage question (Mk. x. 
2-g). — Ver. 3. <t>. ireipd^ovTcs : Pharisees 
again, tempting of course ; could not ask 
a question at Jesus without sinister 
motives. — tl cIcottiv : direct question in 
indirect form, vide on xii. 10. — aTroXiiaai 
. . . Kara, iracav alriav ; the question 
is differently formulated in the two 
accounts, and the answer differently 
arranged. In Mk. the question is abso- 
lute = may a man put away his wife at 
all ? in Mt. relative = may, etc. ... for 
every reason ? Under the latter form 
the question was an attempt to draw 
Jesus into an internal controversy of the 
Jewish schools as to the meaning of 
Deut. xxiv. I, and put Him in the 
dilemma of either having to choose the 
unpopular sideof the school ofShummai, 

who interpreted "^I'l ^1^13^ strictly, 

or exposing Himself to a charge of 
laxity by siding with the school of 
Hillel. It was a petty scheme, but 

characteristic. Whether the interrogants 
knew what Jesus had taught on the sub- 
ject of marriage and divorce in the 
Sermon on the Mount is uncertain, but 
in any case all scribes and Pharisees 
knew by this time what to expect from 
Him. For Kara in the sense oi propter, 
vide instances in Hermann's Viger, 632, 
and Kypke. — Ver. 4. ovk dv^YvojTs : the 
words quoted are to be found in Gen. i. 
27, ii. 24. — 6 KTicras : the participle with 
article used substantively = the Creator. 
— dir' dpxtjs goes along with what 
follows, Christ's purpose being to em- 
phasise the primitive state of things. 
From the beginning God made man, male 
and female ; suited to each other, need- 
ing each other. — apo-cv Kal Qr(Kv : " one 
male and one female, so that the one 
should have the one ; for if He had 
wished that the male should dismiss one 
and marry another He would have made 
more females at the first," Euthy. — 
Ver. 5. Kal elirev : God said, though the 
words as they stand in Gen. may be a 
continuation of Adam's reflections, or a 
remark of the writer. — cvckcv tovtov : 
connected in Gen. with the story of the 
woman made from the rib of the man, 
here with the origin of sex. The sex 
principle imperiously demands that all 
other relations and ties, however inti- 
mate and strong, shall yield to it. The 
cohesion this force creates is the greatest 
possible. — ol 8vo : these words in the 
Sept. have nothing answering to them 
in the Hebrew, but they are true to the 
spirit ol the original.— tts o-dpKa p.£ov : 
the reference is primarily to the physical 




ftiaf;* 6. wore ook^ti ctai 8uo, dXXcL aap^ fiia • 8 oij** 6 Stos 
H nere 4nd *" <ru>'£^eu|ei', a»'0p«iros fii) X'^P'^^'"'*^' 7* Atyouaif aiirw, "Ti oui» 

in M!.. X. _ ^ • n rt\ ' 1 ' < .. ' i , i •> 

9. MwoTJs iv€Tf.iKaTO ooufai pipXiOK dirocTTaCTiou, Kai dTToXuffai aurrj*' ; 

e Mk. X. j;8. f\tyf.i auTOis, " Oti Mwarjs irpos Tr]v * aKXi^poKapSiac ufiol*' tir^- 

(Deut. X. Tpevl/Ck ifiic diToXuaai rds y'^*'''^'**? i)\>.Civ • dir' dpxrjs 8e 00 yeyofcv 

xvi. 10) ouTO). 9. X^Y*^ ^' uH^i''> oTi ^ OS if diToXuaTj TT)k' vuraiKa auroO, ei 
fjohnxviii. . , x ' 9 » ' »\\ - ' > < ^ \ \ . 

14 (accus. fAT| €iri TTopkeia," Kai yap^crT) a\\T)i', jioixaxai • Kai a^ToX€Xu|J^,t^'r)f 
and inf.). , ., .t- ., >.,c Av»~f,, 1 

a Cor. lii. yotfiTiCTns fAOixarai. * 10. Aeyouo-ii' auxw 01 fiaor]Tai aurou," Ei 

I (inf. as. 3^«»'_-ifl' \~ ' >f , t 

here). ouTw? ccrTif t] aiTia Tou di'opwTroo perd tt)s yui'aiKos, 00 ffufxtpepci 

' ^DLZ omit ttVTTjv. ' BDZ old Lat. verss. omit on. 

'• fiTj for (I p.n in most uncials. The explan