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§ 1. The Mission to Thessalonica. — The Christian inhabitants of 
Thessalonica were mainly Greeks by birth and training (i. 9, cf. ii. 14 ; 
Acts xiv. 15, XV. 19), who had been won over from paganism by the 
efPorts of Paul, Siivanus (Silas), and Timotheus (Timothy), during an 
effective campaign which lasted for a month or two. It had opened 
quietly with a three weeks' mission in the local synagogue. Luke, 
who by this time had left the trio, enters into no details about 
its length or methods, adding merely that some of the Jews 
believed, while a host of devout Greeks and a considerable number 
of the leading women threw in their lot with the apostles. Luke is 
seldom interested in the growth or fortunes of individual churches. 
But, as the subsequent membership of the church, its widespread 
influence and fame, its inner condition, and the resentment caused 
by the success of the Pauline mission (continued from the house of 
Jason, Acts xvii. 5) all imply, a considerable interval must have 
elapsed before the time when the apostles were forced prematurely 
to quit the place. Their stay was prolonged to an extent of which 
Acts gives no idea ; for Paul not only supported himself by working 
at his trade but had time to receive repeated gifts of money ^ from 
his friends at Philippi, a hundred miles away, as well as to engage 
perhaps in mission work throughout Macedonia (i. 7) if not as far 
west as Illyricum (Rom. xv. 19, cf. Lightfoot's Biblical Essays, 237 
f.). Two or three months possibly may be allowed for this fruitful 
mission at Thessalonica. 

When the local woXiTdpxai, at the instigation of Jews who were 
nettled at the Christians' success, finally expelled Paul and his 
companions, the subsequent movements of the latter were governed 
by a desire to keep in touch with the inexperienced and unconsoli- 
dated Christian community which they had left behind them. The 
summary outline of Acts xvii. 10-15 requires to be supplemented and 

^ Probably this was one of the reasons which led to the imputation of mercenaiy 
motives (ii. 5, 9). 


corrected at this point by the information of 1 Thess. ii. 17-iii. 6. 
According to Luke, Silas and Timotheus remained at Beroea, under 
orders to rejoin Paul as soon as possible. They only reached him at 
Corinth (Acts xviii. 5), however. Now since Timotheus, as we know 
from Paul, visited Thessalonica in the meantime, we must assume 
one of two courses, (a) Leaving Silas at Beroea, Timotheus hur- 
ried on to Paul at Athens, was sent back (with a letter ?) to Thessa- 
lonica, and, on his return, picked up Silas at Beroea ; whereupon 
both joined their leader, who by this time had moved on suddenly to 
Corinth. This implies that the plural in iii. 1 is the pluralis majesta- 
ticus or auctoris (see on iii. 5), since Silas was not with Paul at 
Athens. But the possibility of that plural meaning both Paul and 
Silas, together with the silence of Acts, suggests {b) an alternative 
reconstruction of the history, viz., that Timotheus and Silas jour- 
neyed together from Beroea to Athens, where they met Paul and 
were despatched thence on separate missions, Silas ^ perhaps to 
Philippi, Timotheus at an earlier date to Thessalonica, both rejoining 
Paul eventually at Corinth. In any case the natural sense of iii. 1, 2 
is that Paul sent Timotheus from Athens, not (so e.g., von Soden, 
Studien u. Kritiken, 1885, 291 f.) that he sent directions from Athens 
for his colleague to leave Beroea and betake himself to Thessalonica 
(£. Bi., 5076, 5077). 

From no church did Paul tear himself with such evident reluct- 
ance. His anxiety to get back to it was not simply due to the feel- 
ing that he must go on with the Macedonian mission, if at all 
possible, but to his deep affection for the local community. The 
Macedonian churches may almost be termed Paul's favourites. 
None troubled him less. None came so near to his heart. At Thessa- 
lonica the exemplary character of the Christians,'-* their rapid growth, 

^ This mission, or a mission of Silas (cf. iii. 5) after Timotheus to Thessalonica 
itself, though passed over both by Luke and Paul, must be assumed, if the statement 
of Acts xviii. 5 is held to be historical, since the latter passage implies that Paul was 
not accompanied by Silas from Athens to Corinth. The alternative is to suppose 
that he left Silas behind in Athens, as at Beroea. A comparison of i Thess. with 
Acts bears out the aphorism of Baronius that epistolaris historia est optima historia ; 
Luke's narrative is neither clear nor complete. 

"Renan (S. Paul, 135-139) praises the solid, national qualities of the Mace- 
donians, " un peuple de paysans protestants ; c'est une belle et forte race, laborieuse, 
s^dentaire, aimant sons pays, pleine d'avenir ". It was their very warmth of heart 
which made them at once so loyal to Paul and his gospel, and also so liable to 
unsettlement in view of their friends' death (iv. 15 f.). Compare the description 
of the Macedonian churches in von Dobschiitz's Christ. Life in the Primitive Churchy 
pp. 81 f. 


their exceptional opportunities,^ and their widespread reputation, 
moved him to a pardonable pride. But, as he learnt, they had 
been suffering persecution since he left, and this awakened sympathy 
as well as concern for its effects on their faith. Unable to return 
himself, he had at last sent Timotheus to them ; it was the joyful 
tidings (iii. 6) just brought by him which prompted Paul to send off 
this informal letter, partly (i.) to reciprocate their warm affection, 
partly (ii.) to give them some fresh instructions upon their faith and 

§ 2. The First Epistle. — This two-fold general object determines 
the course of the letter, which was written from Corinth ^ (Acts xviii. 
11). It begins with a hearty thanksgiving for the success of the 
mission at Thessalonica (i. 2-10), and this naturally passes into an 
apologia pro vita sua (ii. 1-12) against the insinuations which he had 
heard that local outsiders were circulating vindictively against the 
character of the apostles. The Thessalonian church knew better 
than to believe such sordid calumnies I The second reason for 
thanksgiving is (ii. 13 f.) the church's brave endurance of hard- 
ship at the hands of their townsmen. " Would that we could be 
at your side 1 Would that we could uphold you and share the good 
fight! But we cannot. It is our misfortune, not our fault." Paul 
now gives a detailed apologia pro absentia sua (ii. 17 f.), which ends 
with praise for the staunchness of his friends during his enforced 
absence. The latter part of the letter (iv. 1 f.) consists of a series 
of shrewd, kindly injunctions for the maintenance of their position : 
Trepl dyiacrfiou (iv. 3-8), irept 4>iXaS€X4>ias (9 f.) irepl rStv KOip.OL'p.eVui' 
(13-18), ircpi Toil' yijpQvuiv Kal twc Kaipui' (v. 1-11). With a handful of 
precepts upon social and religious duties, and an earnest word of 
prayer, the epistle then closes. Its date depends on the view taken 
of Pauline chronology in general ; that is, it may lie between 48 and 

^ " Nature has made it the capital and seaport of a rich and extensive district" 
(Finlay, Byzantine Empire, book ii., chap. i. 2). One of its great streets was part of 
the famous Via Egnatia, along which Paul and his companions had travelled S.W. 
from Philippi ; thus Thessalonica was Imked with the East and with the Adriatic 
alike (cf. i. 7, 8), while its position at the head of the Thermaic Gulf made it a 
busy trading centre for the Egean. Hence the colony of Jews with their synagogue. 
It was a populous, predominantly Greek town, of some military importance, with 
strong commercial interests throughout Macedonia (cf. i. 8) and even beyond. On 
the far horizon, south-west, the cloudy height of Mount Olympus was /isible, no 
longer peopled by the gods, but, as Cicero put it, occupied merely by snow and 
ice (cf. i. g). 

*This is proved not by iv 'AOTJvais (iii. i, cf. 1 Cor. xv. 32, xvi. 8) but by the 
reference to Achaia in i Thess. i. 7, 8. 


53 A.D., probably nearer the latter date than the former. The 
epistle itself contains no reference to any year or contemporary 
event, which would afford a fixed point of time. An ingenious at- 
tempt has been made by Prof. Rendel Harris {ExpJ' viii. 161 f., 
401 f. ; cf. B. W. Bacon's Introd. to N.T., 73 f. and his Story of St. 
Paul, 235 f.) to show that Timotheus had previously taken a letter 
from Paul to the church, and that the canonical epistle represents 
a reply to one sent from the church to Paul ; the hypothesis is ten- 
able, but the evidence is rather elusive. The use of Kal, e.g., in 
ii. 13, iii. 5, is not to be pressed into a proof of this : oiSarc is not an 
infallible token of such a communication ( = " you have admitted in 
your letter," which Timotheus brought), and dirayyAXcTe ^ is an un- 
supported conjecture in i. 9. 

•^ 3. The Position of the Local Church. — The occasion and the 
significance of this epistle to the Christians of Thessalonica thus 
become fairly clear. 

(a) Paul and his friends had left them the memory and inspira- 
tion of a Christian character. The epistle came to be written 
because the legacy had been disputed. 

The insinuations of some local Jews and pagans ^ against Paul's 
character were like torches flung at an unpopular figure ; they simply 
served to light up his grandeur. Had it not been for such attacks, at 
Thessalonica as at Corinth, we should not have had these passages 
of indignant and pathetic self-revelation in which Paul opens his very 
heart and soul. But this is the compensation derived by a cool and 
later age. At the moment the attack was more than distasteful to 
Paul himself. He resented it keenly on account of his converts, for 
his enemies and theirs were trying to strike at these inexperienced 
Christians through him, not by questioning his apostolic credentials 
but by calumniating his motives during the mission and his reasons 
for not returning afterwards. To discredit him was to shake their 
faith. To stain his character was to upset their religious standing. 
The passion and persistence with which he finds it needful to re- 
pudiate such misconceptions, show that he felt them to be not simply 

' The ordinary reading gives quite a good sense : a ^ap avrovs ^ptjv irap* i^fxwv 
OLKOvctv, TavTa avrol irpoXa^dyTcs \iyov<ri (Chiysostom). It is both arbitrary and 
fanciful of Zahn (Einleitung, § 13) to mould such allusions into a theory that the 
news had reached Asia, and that Paul was now in personal touch with envoys from 
the churches of Galatia, to whom he wrote Galatians before Silvanus and Timotheus 
rejoined him at Athens. 

^ It is unreal to confine the calumnies to the one or to the other, particularly to 
the pagans (so e.g., von Soden, pp. 306 f. ; Clemen, Paulus, ii. 181 f.). 


a personal insult but likely to prove a serious menace to the interests 
of his friends at Thessalonica. The primary charge against the 
Christian evangelists had been treason or sedition ; they were ar- 
raigned before the local authorities for setting up pao-iX^a IrepoK (Acts 
xvii. 6-8). But during his enforced absence (thanks to the success of 
this manoeuvre), further charges against Paul's personal character 
were disseminated. He was just a sly, unscrupulous, selfish fellow ! 
He left his dupes in the lurch I And so forth. Naturally, when he 
comes to write, it is the latter innuendoes which occupy his mind. 
The former charge is barely mentioned (ii. 12, God's own kingdom, cf. 
II., i. 5). 

Paul's vindication of his character and conduct, which occupies 
most of the first part of the epistle, is psychologically apt. He was 
the first Christian the Thessalonians had ever seen. He and his 
friends practically represented the Christian faith. It had been the 
duty of the apostles to give not only instruction but a personal 
example of the new life to these converts ; thus their reputation 
formed a real asset at Thessalonica. Kai ujieis p.t|XTjTai T^jiuK eyen^OTjTe 
icai ToO Kupiou.^ If the local Christians were to lose faith in their 
leaders, then, with little or nothing to fall back upon, their faith 
in God might go (c/. iii. 5). It was this concern on their behalf ^ 
which led Paul to recall his stay among them and to go over his 
actions since then, with such anxious care (see notes on i. 4 f., 
ii. 1-11, 17 f., iii. 1-13). 

(b) In addition to this, the Thessalonian community possessed 
definite irapaSoo-cis, in the shape of injunctions or regulations as to 
the faith and conduct of the Christian life (ii. 11, iv. 1, 12; cf. 
2 Thess. ii. 5, 15, iii. 6). These were authoritative regulations, ^ as 
the other epistles indicate {cf. e.g., 1 Cor. iv. 17) which had the sanc- 

1 On the ethical function of this self-assertion, as a means of inspiration and 
education, see Exp. Tt., x. 445 f. The young Italian patriots who died, as they had 
lived, confessing their faith in " God, Mazzini, and Duty." are a modern case in 
point. The example of tov icvpiov implies that the Thessalonians were familiar with 
the earthly trials and temptations of Jesus. 

'The language of li. i-io must not be taken as if Paul had been blaming him- 
self for having appeared to leave his friends in the lurch. It is not the sensitiveness 
of an affectionate self-reproach but the indignant repudiation of local slanders which 
breathes through the passage. The former would be a S3.61y post factum defence. 

• The epistle itself (cf. v. 27) takes its place in the series ; this verse (see note) 
is perfectly intelligible as it stands and need not be suspected as the interpolation of 
a later reader to emphasise the apostolic authority of the epistle (so Schmiedel and 
others), much less taken (as e.g., by Baur, van der Vies, 106 f., and Schrader, der 
Apostel Paulus, 36) to discredit the entire epistle. There is no hint of any clerical 
organisation such as the latter theory involves. 


tion of apostolic tradition, and must have been based, in some cases, 
upon definite sayings of Jesus. It is the Christian halacha of which 
the later epistles give ample if incidental proof. 

This suggests a further question. To what extent do the Thessa- 
lonian epistles reveal (c) an acquaintance on the part of Paul and 
the local church with the sayings of the Lord ? The evidence 
cannot be estimated adequately except in the light of the corrobora- 
tive facts drawn from an examination of the other epistles, but it 
is enough to bear the general consideration in mind, that no preoccu- 
pation with the risen Christ and his return could have rendered Paul 
absolutely indifferent to the historical data of the life of Jesus. ^ 
When he told the Thessalonians that Jesus was the Christ, they 
could not believe without knowing something of Jesus. The wsath 
of God they might have reason to fear. But 6 puoixccos ? Who was 
He to exercise this wonderful function? Where had He lived ? Why 
had He died ? Had He risen ? And when was He to return ? Some 
historical content ^ had to be put into the name Jesus, if faith was to 
awaken, especially in people who lived far from Palestine. The 
Spirit did not work in a mental vacuum, or in a hazy mist of apoca- 
lyptic threats and hopes. Hence, a priori, it is natural to assume 
that such historical allusions to the life and teaching of Jesus may 
be reflected in Paul's letters, as they must have been present in his 
preaching. This expectation is justified. 

The coincidence of ii. 7 and Luke xxii. 27 is not indeed sufficient 
to warrant any such inference, while the different meanings of KaXeic 
in ii. 12 and in the parable of Luke xiv. 15 f. {cf. ver. 24) prevent any 
hypothesis of a connection. On the other hand ii. 14-16 certainly 
contains a reminiscence of the logia preserved in a passage like Luke 
xi. 48 f. = Matt, xxiii. 32-34 (see the full discussion in Resch's Parallel 
Texte, ii. 278 f., iii. 209 f.), and, while the thought of iii. 36-4 {cf. 
i. 4-6) only resembles that of Luke ix. 22-24, just as iii. 13 may be 
derived from an O.T. background instead of, necessarily, from syn- 
optic logia like those of Mark viii. 38 = Matt. xvi. 27, a sentence such 
as that in iv. 8 distinctly echoes the saying in Luke x. 16 (" I'allusion 

^This idea dominates von Soden's brilliant essay in Theol. Abhandlungen C. von 
Weizsdcker gewidmet (1892), pp. 1 13-167. More balanced estimates are to be found 
in Keim's yesus of Nazara, i., pp. 54 f. ; Titius, der Patilinismus unter dem Gesichts- 
punkt der Seligkeit (1900), pp. 10-18, and M. Goguel, UApotre Paul et Jesus 
Christus (1904), PP- 67-99. The English reader may consult Sabatier's Paul, pp. 
7b f., and Dr. R. J. Knowling's Witness of the Epistles (1892) where, as in his 
Testimony of St. Paul to Christ (1905), the shallows as well as the depths of the 
relevant literature are indefatigably dredged. 

2C/. Prof. Denney in DCG, ii. 394 f. 


est d'une nettete parfaite," M. Goguel, p. 87). The well-known Xoyos 
Kupiou of iv. 16 f. cannot be adduced in this connection without hesi- 
tation (see note). But no possible doubt attaches to the evidence of 
V. 1-3. The saying of Jesus which is echoed here has been preserved 
in Luke xii. 39 (6 KX^irnqs epxerai) ^ and xxi. 34 {\i.-f\ irore . . . cmCTTfj 
c<})' ofxas c(|>i'i8ios 1^ TQfie'pa Ikcii'T) ws irayis), but the common original 
seems to have been in Aramaic or Hebrew (so Prof. Marshall, Exp.* 
ii. 73 f.), since Paul's wtnrep i^ wSic and Luke's <Ls Trayts must reflect a 

phrase like ^3j-|(3)' which might be rendered either as ^'^H (snare) 
or as 7I2n (travail), the latter echoing the well-known conception of 
dpxT) wSii'cii' (c/. Mark xiii. 8). A further echo of the primitive evan- 
gelic tradition is to be heard possibly in v. 6 (Matt. xxiv. 42), cer- 
tainly in V. 13 (cf. Mark ix. 50). But the connection of v. 21 with 
the agraphon, yivcaOe 8(5Kifj.ot Tpairctirai, is curious rather than vital. 

In the second epistle, apart from coincidences like i. 5 ( = Luke 
XX. 35) and iii. 3 ( = Matt. vi. 13), the allusions to the teaching of 
Jesus are less numerous, although Resch hears the echo of a logion 
in iii. 10 {Paulinisnius, 409 f.), on most inadequate grounds. The 
apocalyptic passage, ii. 1-10, contains several striking parallels to the 
language of Matt. xxiv. {cf. H. A. A. Kennedy, St. Paul's Conception 
of the Last Things, 55 f., 96 f.), but no literary relationship can 
be assumed. 

(d) Finally, before Paul left, he arranged for a kind of informal 
organisation. An ordination of irpeo-puTcpoi is not to be thought of, 
but probably the earliest converts, or at any rate those who had 
natural gifts, assumed an unofficial superintendence of the com- 
munity, arranged for its worship and internal management, and 
were careful that the sick and poor and young were looked after. 
Otherwise, the movement might have been dissipated. Wesley, in his 
journal (Aug., 1763), writes : " I was more convinced than ever that 
the preaching like an apostle, without joining together those that are 
awakened, and training them up in the ways of God, is only begetting 
children for the murderer. How much preaching has there been for 
these twenty years all over Pembrokeshire 1 but no regular societies, 
no discipline, no order or connection ; and the consequence is, that 
nine in ten of the once-awakened are now faster asleep than ever." 
Paul was alive to the same need. He was a practical missionary, 

1 With Luke's iriveiv Kal |ii.edv(rK6(r6ai (45) and fi.^9i) (xxi. 34) compare the ol 
pic9vo-K6p.cvoi of I Thess. v. 7. Contrast also the eK<f>vYciv of xxi. 36 with Paul's 
ov jAT] cK(j>iJY(»o'i'V (v. 3). The phrase sons of light may well have been common 
among the early Christians (cf. Abbott's jfohannine Vocabulary, 1782-1783). 


and, as these epistles show {cf. I., v. 12 f., II., iii. 6 f.), he knew better 
than to leave his young societies with nothing more than the vague 
memory of pious preaching. The local organisation was, as yet, 
primitive, but evidently it was sufficient to maintain itself and carry 
on the business of the church, when the guiding hand of the mission- 
ary was removed {cf. Clem. Rom. xlii.), though the authority of the 
leaders still required upon occasion the support and endorsement of 
the apostles (see on v. 12). 

§ 4. The Character and Setting of the Second Epistle. — In 
the second and shorter epistle, after congratulating the local 
Christians especially on their patient faith (i. 1-4), Paul explains 
that the trials and troubles which called this virtue into exer- 
cise were but the prelude to a final relief and vindication at the diro- 
KdXu\j»is ToO Kopiou 'itjcroO (4-12). As the ardent expectation of this had, 
however, produced a morbid excitement in some quarters, he sets him- 
self (ii. 1-12) to weed out such mistakes and mischiefs by reminding 
the church of his previous warning that the end could not come 
until the fiuor^pioi' tt]? di'ofiias attained its climax in a supernatural 
and personal embodiment of evil, which would vainly challenge the 
authority and provoke the interposition of the Lord. He then con- 
cludes (ii. 13-17) with an expression of confidence in them, an appeal 
for loyalty to his teaching, and a brief prayer on their behalf. Asking 
their prayers, in return, for himself, he renews his expression of con- 
fidence and interest (iii. 1-5); whereupon, with a word upon the 
maintenance of discipline and industry, the epistle ends (iii. 6-18). 

Assuming both epistles to have come from Paul,^ we may unhesi- 
tatingly place 2 Thess. after 1 Thess. The evidence for the opposite 
order, advocated by Grotius in his Annotationes (ii. 715 f., based on 
an antiquated chronology), Ewald {Jahrb. fiir bihl. Wiss. 1861, 
249 f., Sendschreiben des Paulus, 19 f.), Laurent {Studien u. Kriti- 
ken, 1864, pp. 497 f., N.T. Studien, 49 f.), and J. S. Chamberlain 
{The Epp . of Paul the Apostle, 1907, 5 f.), breaks down upon examina- 
tion. It is unnatural to find a reference to II. iii. 6-16 in I. iv. 10-11 ; 
besides, as Bornemann points out (p. 495), if 2 Thess. is held to 
betray all the characteristics of a first letter (Ewald), what about 
II. ii. 15 ? There is no reason why such a criterion of genuineness 

^ On the hypothesis that both are post-Pauline, Baur {Paulus, Eng. tr., ii. 336 f. 
and van der Vies {de beiden brieven aan de Th., 1865, pp. 128-164) argue for the 
priority of 2 Thess., the latter separating the two by the fall of Jerusalem ; van Manen 
(Onderzoek naar de Echtheid van P. tweeden Brief an die Thess., 1865, pp. 11-25) 
refutes both critics. The arguments for the canonical order are best stated by von 
Hofmann (365), LUnemann {160 f.), and Bornemann (492 f.) in their editions. 


as that of II. iii. 17, should have occurred in the earliest of Paul's 
letters ; in view of ii. 3, its appearance, after the composition of 
1 Thess. and even of other letters, is psychologically valid. The 
comparative absence of allusions in 2 Thess. to 1 Thess. (c/. however, 
II. ii. 1 = 1. iv. 17, etc.) is best explained by the fact that in the 
second letter Paul is going back to elaborate part of his original oral 
teaching in the light of fresh needs which had emerged since he 
wrote the first epistle. In this sense, and in this sense only, 2 Thess. 
anticipates the other letter. Finally, while I. ii. 17-iii. 6 does not 
absolutely exclude the possibility of a previous letter, it cannot be 
taken to presuppose one of the character of 2 Thess., least of al 
when the letter is dated from Beroea (Acts xvii. 10, Ewald and 

§5. Its Authenticity. — Since Paul Schmidt's edition (see be- 
low) and von Soden's essay [Studien u. Kritiken, 1885, pp. 263- 
310), with which the English reader may compare Jowett's proof 
(vol. i., pp. 4-17), it is no longer necessary to discuss the 
authenticity of the first epistle, or even its integrity. Almost 
the only passage where a marginal gloss may be reasonably 
conjectured to have crept into the text is ii. 16. ^ The second 
epistle, however, starts a real problem, both on the score of its resem- 
blance to the first epistle and of its divergence from the style and 
thought of that or indeed of any other Pauline letter. Paul is still with 
Silvanus and Timotheus (i. 1) at Corinth (iii. 2, reff. ; 1 Thess. ii. 15 f.), 
writing presumably not long after the despatch of the former epistle 
(ii. 15). Fresh information has reached him (iii. 11),^ and his aim is 
to repudiate further misconceptions of his teaching upon the Last 
Things, as well as to steady the church amid its more recent ana- 
baptist perils. Hence he writes in substantially the same tone and 
along the same lines as before ; anything he has to communicate is 
practically a restatement of what he had already taught orally 
(ii. 5, 15), not a discussion of novel doubts and principles. If any 
change has taken place in the local situation, it has been in the 

1 The terminus ad quern for the composition of the epistle, if it is genuine, is his 
next /isit to Thessalonica (Acts xx. i, 2) ; most probably it was despatched before 
Acts xviii. 12. Corinth is the only place where we know the three men were to- 
gether at this period. 

^ How, we are not told. Possibly Paul had been asked by the local leaders ta 
exert his influence and authority against pietistic developments in the community 
(iii. 14). The situation demanded an explicit written message; probably no visit of 
Silvanus or Timotheus would have sufficed, even had they been able to leave Corinth. 
Spitta's theory (see below) implies that Timotheus had been in Thessalonica since 
I Thess. was written {?ti, ii. 5), but of this there is no evidence whatever. 


direction of shifting the centre of gravity from fears about the dead 
to extravagant ideas entertained by the living. Hence, for one 
thing, the general similarity of structure and atmosphere in both 
epistles^ and, upon the other hand, the sharper emphasis in the 
second upon Paul's authority. 

Both features have raised widespread suspicion and elicited a 
variety of reconstructions of the epistle's date and object (c/. His- 
torical New Testament, 142-146). The common ground of all such 
theories is the postulate that 2 Thess. is the work of a later Paulinist, 
during the age of Nero or of Trajan, who has employed 1 Thess. in 
order to produce a restatement of early Christian eschatology, under 
the aegis of the apostle, or to claim Paul's sanction for an onslaught 
upon Gnostic views. This is a fair hypothesis, which at first sight 
seems to account adequately for several of the variations and resem- 
blances between the two writings. When it is worked out in detail, 
however, it becomes rather less convincing. Some chastening facts 
emerge. Why, e.g., should such a writer fix on 1 Thess., and labori- 
ously work on it ? Then (i.) one serious preliminary obstacle is that 
while pseudonymous epistles addressed ostensibly to individuals 
{e.g., the pastorals) or to Christendom in general {e.g., 2 Peter) are 
intelligible enough, the issue of such an epistle, addressed to a 
definite church which had already a genuine letter of the apostle, 
involves very serious difficulties. These are not eased by the light- 
hearted explanation (so Schmiedel and Wrede ^) that the epistle was 
really meant not for Thessalonica at all, but for some other community I 
This is to buttress one hypothesis by another. Furthermore (ii.) the 
style and vocabulary offer no decisive proof of a post- Pauline origin. 
Of the aira^ cupT]|X€Va, which are comparatively few, one or two, like 
dirooraaia (ii. 3), Sikt] ( = punishment, i. 9, cf. Sap. xviii. 11, etc. Jude7), 
€i'So|d|^ (i. 10, 12), iyKau-j^^auQai. (i. 4 Pss.), Tii'd) (l. 9), irepiEpyd^ofiai 
(iii. 2, cf. Sir. iii. 23), crePao-jxa (ii. 4, cf. Sap. xiv. 20), and (rtjfjictouo-doi 
(iii. 14), may be fairly ascribed to the influence of the LXX - upon 

' In pp. 38 f. of his able pamphlet on Die Echthiit des zwciten Th. (1903). Wrede 
knocks on the head (pp. 96 f.) the earlier theories (best represented by Schmiedel) 
which dated the epistle in the seventh decade of the first century, but he does not 
succeed better than Holtzmann or Hollmann in presenting any very satisfactory 
theory of its origin c, 100 a.d. His essay is carefully reviewed by Wernle (Gott, 
Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1905, 347 f.), who adheres to the Pauline authorship, as does 
Clemen (Paulus, i., pp. 115-122). Klopper's article in defence of the epistle against 
the older attacks {Tkeol. Studien u. Skizzen aus Ostpreussen, i88g, viii., pp. 73-140) 
is almost as difficult to read as it is to refute. 

* The absence of any explicit quotation from the LXX only throws into relief the 
extent to which, especially in i. 5 f., O.T. language and ideas have been woven into 
the tissue of the epistle (Acts xvii. 2, 3, airi twv Ypa<^wv). 


the writer's mind. Similarly with eiXaro (ii. 13) and toxus (i. 9), The 
occurrence of em^xifcia (ii. 8), elsewhere only in the pastorals, is cer- 
tainly striking, and were there more of these words, the case for a 
later date would be reinforced. But there are not. Besides, the 
construction of ^m<j>. here is different from those which occur in the 
pastorals, and the latter are as likely to have copied 2 Thess. as vice- 
versa, if any literary relationship has to be assumed. The vocabulary 
thus, as is generally recognised, permits of no more than a non liquet 
verdict. The style, upon the whole, has quite a Pauline ring about 
it ; and, while this may be due to imitation, it would be uncritical to 
assume this result without examining (iii.) the internal relation of the 
two epistles. It is on this aspect of the problem that recent critics 
are content to rest their case {so e.g., Wrede, 3-36, H. J. Holtzmann, 
in Zeitschrift fiir die neutest. Wissenschaft, 1901, 97-108, and HoU- 
mann, ibid., 1904, 28-38). The so-called (a) discrepancies need not 
detain us long. The different reasons given by Paul for having sup- 
ported himself {cf. on I. ii. 9; II. iii. 7) are not contradictory but 
correlative ; both are psychologically credible, as expressions of a 
single experience. Greater difficulty attaches to the apparent change 
of front towards the second advent. In I. v. 2, the advent is unexpected 
and sudden;^ in II. ii. 3 f., it is the climax of a development. But 
this discrepancy, such as it is (cf. on I. v. 3), attaches to almost all 
the early Christian views of the end ; to be instantaneous and to be 
heralded by a historical prelude were traits of the End which were 
left side by side not only by Jesus {cf. Matt. xxiv. 3 f., 23 f., 32 f.) 2 
but by later prophets {cf. Rev. iii. 3 = vi. 1 f.). In any case, Paul 
was more concerned about the practical religious needs of his readers 
than about any strict or verbal consistency in a region of thought 
where Christian expectation, like the Jewish tradition to which it 
generally went back, was as yet far from being homogeneous or 
definite. The inconsistencies of the two Thessalonian epistles are 
at least as capable of explanation when they are taken to be varia- 
tions of one man's mind at slightly different periods as when they are 

^ Not simply for unbelievers, but for Cbristians. It is hardly fair to explain the 
difference between the two epis.les by confining the suddenness of the advent to the 
former. Hollmann is right in maintaining this against JUlicher and others, but the 
pseudonymity of 2 Thess. is by no means a necessary inference from it (see note 
on V. 3). 

' This argument is not affected by the recognition of a small synoptic apocalypse 
in this chapter ; even so, the primitive and genuine tradition of the words of Jesus on 
the end presents the same combination as the Thessalonian letters show. On the 
general attitude of Paul to the political and retributory elements in the current or 
traditional apocalyptic, cf. Titius, der Paulinisimus (1900), pp. 47 f. 


held to denote the revision and correction of Paul's ideas by a later 
writer who had to reconcile the apparent postponement of the Advent 
with the primitive hope. This Baur himself is forward to admit 
(Paulus, Eng. Tr., ii. 93). " It is perfectly conceivable that one and 
the same writer, if he lived so much in the thought of the Trapooaia as 
the two epistles testify, should have looked at this mysterious sub- 
ject in different circumstances and from different points of view, and 
so expressed himself regarding it in different ways." This verdict 
really gives the case away. Such variations are hardly conceivable 
if both epistles emanated from a later writer, but they are intelligible, 
if Paul, living in the first flush and rush of the early Christian hope 
is held to be responsible for them, (b) The numerous and detailed 
similarities between the two epistles might be explained by the 
hypothesis that Paul read over a copy of 1 Thess. before writing 
2 Thess., or that his mind was working still along the lines of thought 
voiced in the former epistle, when he came to write the latter. The 
first hypothesis is not to be dismissed lightly. The second can be 
illustrated from any correspondence. It is true that apart from 
ii. 1-12 the fresh material of 2 Thess. consists mainly in i. 5-12, ii. 15, 
iii. 2, 13, 14 f., and that there is throughout the letter a certain 
poverty of expression, a comparative absence of originality, a stiffness 
in parts, and a stereotyped adherence to certain forms.^ But in the 
treatment of a subject like this it was inevitable that some phrases of 
self-repetition should recur, e.g., the 6\i»|»ts-group (i. 4-6), the irioris- 
group (i. 4, 10, 11, ii. 11-13, iii. 2, 3), ipydle(T6ai, etc. Parts of the 
letter are unlike Paul. That is practically all we can say. But parts 
are fairly characteristic of him, and these not only outweigh the 
others, but dovetail into the corresponding data of 1 Thess. Such 
incidental agreements are too natural and too numerous to be the 
artificial mosaic of a later writer. 

The internal evidence of ii. 3-12 is no longer adduced as a crucial 
proof of the un-Pauline origin of 2 Thess. Indeed most recent critics 
have given up this argument as primary. Fresh investigations into 
the origins of gnosticism and of the semi-political variations in 
primitive eschatology have undermined the older hypothesis which 
relegated this prophecy to the latter part of the first or the opening 
part of the second century, and it is only necessary to determine 
which of the possible reconstructions is most suitable to the age of 
Paul himself. On the whole, no solution of the apocalyptic prophecy 

' The severer tone (iii. 6-15), as well as the more official tinge, of the letter were 
as necessary now for the Thessalonians as they were soon to be for the Corinthians 
(i Cor. iv. 21, V. 3-5). 


III ii 3 f. fits in with the data so well as the early theory that 6 
Karc'xwk' and to KaTe'xo*' denote, not the episcopate as a restraint against 
gnosticism (Hilgenfeld and others), but the Emperor and imperial 
power of Rome ("quis nisi Romanus status?" Tertullian, de Resurr., 
xxiv.). Paul had ample experience of the protection afforded by the 
polity of the empire against the malevolence of the Jews, and he 
apparently anticipated that this would continue for a time, until the 
empire fell. But how could the fall of the empire be expected ? 
The answer lies not so much in any contemporary feelings of panic 
and dismay, as in the eschatological tradition, derived from a study 
of Daniel, which was evidently becoming current in certain Jewish 
and early Christian circles, that the empire represented the penulti- 
mate stage in the world's history. " And when Rome falls, the 
world." Hence the tone of reserve and cryptic ambiguity with 
which Paul speaks of its collapse, "ne calumniam incurreret, 
quod Romano imperio male optauerit, cum speraretur aeternum " 
(Aug., Civ. Dei., xx. ; so Jerome on 2 Thess. ii. 6). The idea of 
Rome's downfall could not be spoken of, or at least written about, 
openly. All that a Christian prophet could do was to hint that this 
future Deceiver or pseudo-Messiah would prove too strong even for 
the Restraining Empire, and that King Jesus would ultimately inter- 
vene to meet and to defeat him. An entire change came over the 
spirit of the dream, when, nearly half a century later the imperial 
cultus in Asia Minor stirred the prophet John to denounce Rome as 
the supreme antagonist of God. The empire, on this view, was no 
providential restraint on to juio<mi)pio»' ■n\s dwfiios, but was herself 
fjLuoxqpioK (Rev. xvii. 5), loathsome and dangerous and doomed. This 
altered prospect lay far beyond the horizon of Paul. The imperial 
worship had not yet become formidable, and to him the empire, with 
its administrative justice, stood for a welcome, even though a tem- 
porary, barrier agamst the antagonistic forces of Judaism. The 
kingdom of God was not the opponent of the empire, but simply the 
final conqueror of a foe who would prove too strong even for the 
restraining control of Roman civilisation. 

This interpretation of the restraining power ^ implies that the 
supernatural antagonist issues from Judaism (so especially Weiss, 
N.T. Theologie, § 63). Here again patristric tradition seems to cor- 

1 Cf. Neumann's Hippolytus von Rom (Leipzig, 1902), pp. 4 f. The Kar^wv is 
not to be associated with any special emperor, not even with Claudius, whose name 
has a curious resemblance to it. The theories which identify the Restrainer with 
Vespasian (as a check on Nero Redivivus), Antichrist, or Domitian. depend on 
a prpQri- conceptions of the epistle's origin and aim. 


roborate it. Both Irenaeus (adv. Haer., v. 25, i. 30, 2) and Hip- 
polytus (de Antichristo, v'u, xiv.) expressly state that antichrist is to 
be of Jewish descent, and the later echoes of the tradition are as pro- 
nounced {cf. Bousset's Antichrist, pp. 24 f., 127 f., 182 f. ; E. Bi., 
179 f.).^ Antichrist is to set up his kingdom in Judah ; his reign is 
from Jerusalem, and the Jews are the dupes of his miraculous influ- 
ence. - The diro<rrao-ia, which Paul anticipates, implies a relation- 
ship to God which could not be postulated of Christians, much less 
of pagans in general who, ex hypothesis, " knew not God " (i. 8). The 
only deliberate anti-Christian movement, which Paul and his friends 
had already experienced (tJStj ckcpYctTai), was Jewish fanaticism ; its 
professed zeal for the Law was really d^ofiia, as the apostle puts it 
with a touch of scathing irony. 

Paul is plainly operating with a Beliar(l)-saga ^ in this passage. 
If one could only be certain that Sibyll. iii. 63-73 represented a pre- 
Christian Jewish fragment, as its context indicates, or that any 
Christian interpolations were confined to minor phrases like eit Be 
lePaoTTicwf, we should have one clear trace of this saga. Belial there 
works many signs (as in Sibyll. ii. 37, koX ^cXiap 0' ^^ei ical oT^fiaTa 
•noXXo, iToii]a6i di'OpwTrois), seduces many even of elect believers within 
' udaism (iroXXous irXat'riCTCi, iriorous t' eKXcKTOus 6' 'EPpaious, dcojioos re 
K<xu aXXous dKt'pas, oiTii'es outtoj 6cou Xoyoi' fx<jr\KOMaav), and is finally 
I urned up, together with his adherents. The suspicions of this pas- 
sage s Jewish character seem unjustified; it may be taken, with- 
out much hesitation, as one reflection of the tradition which was in 

^ Bousset often exaggerates the independence of patristic eschatological tradi 
tion ; he fails to allow enough for the luxuriant fancies of a later age, which applied 
the N.T. text arbitrarily to contemporary life. But on this point the evidence is fairly 
decisive, viz., that the early fathers were not merely building on the text of 2 Thess. 
ii. 3-6, when they spoke of Antichrist being a seducer whose false worship was set up 
within a reconstructed temple at Jerusalem. 

' Professor Warfield (Expos.^ iv. 40 f.) regards the Jewish state as the divine 
restraint upon the revelation of Rome's self-deification. This view is more sensible 
than that of the Restrainer as Christianity or the church (c/. Reimpell, Stud'cn u. 
Kritiken, 1887, 711-736), but it is difficult to see how Judaism could be said to im- 
pose any check upon the imperial cultus ; besides, is it likely that Paul would 
have subtly combined a polemic against the obstinate antagonism of the Jews with 
a theory of their unconscious protective services to the church ? 

*See R. H. Charles' edition of Ascensio Isaiae (pp. Ixii.-lxiii.) and M. Fried- 
lander's Religiosen Bewegungen mnerhalb des yudaitums im Zcitalter Jesu (1905, 
pp. 50 1.). This would be corroborated if Beliar were shown to be, as the latter 
writer argues (in his Der Antichrist, 1901), a pre-Christian embodiment of the Jewish 
antinomian sect D^i''0* ^^^ * possible source of such traditions in Paul's case 
cf. 2 Tim. iii. 8. 


Paul's mind when he wrote 2 Thess. ii. 2 f. Belial is not indeed 
named here, as he is in 2 Cor. vi. 15. But he is the opponent of 
Jesus the true messiah. He appears in human form {cf. Asc. Isa., 
iv. 2 : " Beliar the great ruler, the king of this world will descend 
... in the likeness of a man, a lawless king") as the arch-emissary 
or agent of Satan. The latter, whom Paul here as elsewhere (in 
consonance with Jewish tradition) keeps in the background, is the 
supreme opponent of God ; but as God's representative is the Lord 
Jesus Christ, so Satan's active representative is this mysterious 
figure, whose methods are a caricature of the true messiah's (see 
notes below on the passage). This is borne out by the contemporary 
sense of BeXiaX as ayyeXos T»is dcoixias [Asc. Isa., ii. 4, etc.) or di/opiia 
(diroaraCTia) in LXX. The man of lawlessness, whom Paul predicts, 
is thus one of whom Belial is a prototype. Only, the apostle fuses 
this irapdi'ofj.os with the false messiah, originally a different figure, 
who is represented as the incarnation of Satan, the devil in human 
embodiment. That he expected this mysterious opponent to rise 
within Judaism is not surprising under the circumstances. He was 
in no mood, at this moment of tension, to think hopefully of the 
Jews. They were a perpetual obstacle and annoyance to him, 
dToirot Kal irorripol. He had already denounced them as OcJ fiT| 
dpco-KcJn-uj' (I., ii, 15), and from this it was but a step to the position, 
suggested by the tradition perhaps, that their repudiation of God's 
final revelation in Jesus would culminate in an dirooTa(ria, which wel- 
comed the last rival of Jesus as God's messiah. His prophecy thus 
embodies a retort.^ "You Jews hate and persecute us as apostates 
from God ; you denounce our Jesus as a false messiah. But the 

^ In Dan. viii. 23 f. when the cup of Israel's guilt is full (irXT]pov|xcv<ov twv 
a|jiapTiwv avTuv), the climax of their punishment came in the person of Antiochus 
Epiphanes, the presumptuous {y\ KapSia axiTov vxl/uOrjo-cTai, cf. 2 Thess. ii. 4) and 
astute (to \|f€v8os Iv x^P""^^ avrov . . . Kal Z6\iif a<{>aviet iroXXovs, cf. 2 Thess. 
i. 9, 11). Paul, like the rest of the early Christians, still looked for some immediate 
fulfilment of this prophecy. In the contemporary malevolence of the Jews towards 
the gospel he saw a sign of its realisation, as the allusion in i Thess. ii. 16 (eis to 
avairX'qpwa'ai avTuv tos a|iapT£os) indicates. The penal consequence of this atti- 
tude must have also formed part of his oral teaching at Thessalonica, but he does 
not mention it till local circumstances drew from him a reminder of the final Deluder 
who must soon come (2 Thess. ii. 3 f.). It is important to notice this underlying 
tradition, or application of tradition, in the apostle's mind, on account of its bearing 
upon the general harmony of the eschatology in the two epistles. Furthermore, 
since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, the book of Daniel had made self-deification 
a note of the final enemy. Any vivid expectation of the End, such as that cherished 
by a Jewish Christian of Paul's temperament, instinctively seized upon this trait of 
the false messiah. 

VOL. IV. 2 


false messiah will come from you, and his caieer will be short-lived 
at the hands of our Christ." To the Christian the prophecy brought 
an assurance that, while the coldest and darkest hour must precede 
the dawn, the dawn was sure to come, and to come soon. Thus 
in both epistles, but particularly in the second, the reader can 
see the torch of apocalyptic enthusiasm, streaming out with smoke as 
well as with red flame, which many early Christians employed to light 
up their path amid the dark providences of the age. Paul is pro- 
phesying — none the less vividly that he does so ex fi^pous. 

Attempts have also been made, from various sides, to solve 
the literary problem of the writing by finding in it (a) either a Pauline 
nucleus which has been worked over, (b) or a Pauline letter which 
has either suffered interpolation or (c) incorporated some earlier 
apocalyptic fragment, possibly of Jewish origin, (a) According to Paul 
Schmidt {Der erste Thess. nehst einem Excurs iiher den zweiten gleichn. 
Brief, 1885, pp. Ill f.), a Paulinist in 69 a.d. edited and expanded a 
genuine letter = i. 1-4, ii. l-2a, ii. 13-iii. 18. But, apart from other 
reasons, the passages assigned to Paul are not free from the very 
feature which Schmidt considers fatal to the others, viz., similarity 
to 1 Thess. And the similarities between ii. 3-12 and the apo- 
calypse of John are very slight. The activity assigned to the editor 
is too restricted; besides, ii. 3 12 is so cardinal a feature of the 
epistle, that the latter stands or falls with it — so much so that it 
would be easier, with Hausrath, to view the whole writing as a scaf- 
folding which rose round the original Pauline nucleus of ii. 1-12. 
Finally, the literary criteria do not bear out the distinction postu- 
lated by both theories. (6) The strongly retributive cast, the 
liturgical swing, and the O.T. colouring, of i. 6-10 have suggested the 
possibility of interpolation in this passage (McGiffert, E. Bi., 5054, 
Findlay, p. Ivii.), either as a whole or in part. This is at any rate 
more credible than the older idea that ii. 1-12 embodies a Montanist 
interpolation (J. E. C. Schmidt, Bibliothek fiir Kritik u. Exegese der 
N.T., 1801, 385 f.) or ii. 1-9 a piece of Jewish Christian apocalyptic 
(Michelsen, TheoL, Tijdschrift, 1876, 213 f.). Finally (c) the large 
amount of common ground between the Jewish and tha primitive 
Christian conceptions of eschatology is enough (see on ii. 5) to invali- 
date Spitta's lonely theory [Offenharung des jfoh., 497 f., and Zur 
Gesch. und Litt. des Urchristentums, i. 139 f.) of a Caligula-apo- 
calypse, due in part to Timotheus.^ in ii. 2-12, or the idea of Pierson 

* Cf. Prof. G. G. Findlay's refutation in Expos.^ ii. 255 f., and Bornemann's 
paragraphs (pp. 492, 529 f.). 


and Naber (Verisimilia, 1886, 21 f.) that a pre-Christian apocalypse 
(i. 5-10, ii. 1-12, iii. 1-6, 14, 15) has been worked up by the unknown 
Paul of the second century whom the Holland critics find so pro- 
lific and indispensable. 

The second epistle is inferior, in depth and reach, to the first, 
whatever view be taken of its origin, but both are especially valu- 
able as indications of the personal tie between Paul and his churches, 
and as samples of the new literary form which the religious needs of 
early Christianity created in the epistle. Dryden has hit this off in 
his well-known lines upon the apostles and their communities : — 

As charity grew cold or faction hot, 
Or long neglect their lessons had forgot, 
For all their wants they wisely did provide, 
And preaching by epistles was supplied. 
So great physicians cannot all attend. 
But some they visit and to some they send. 
Yet all those letters were not sent to all, 
Nor first intended, but occasional — 
Their absent sermons. 

The Thessalonian epistles were written to supply the lack of further 
personal intercourse and to supplement instruction already given. 
They were not treatises designed to convey the original teaching of 
the apostles ; they imply that, and they apply it along special lines, 
but they are not protocols of doctrine (c/. note on 1 Thess. iv. 4). 
At the same time, " occasional " must not be taken to mean casual 
or off-hand. Paul dictated with some care. His ideas are not im- 
promptu notions, nor are they thrown out off-hand ; they represent 
a prolonged period of thought and of experience. Even these, the 
least formal of his letters, though written for the moment's need, 
reflect a background of wide range and fairly matured beliefs. 
Nevertheless, they are hardly " absent sermons ". " Letters mingle 
souls," as Donne remarked, and 1 Thessalonians in particular is the 
unpremeditated outpouring of a strong man's tender, firm, and wise 
affection for people whom he bore upon his very heart. It is the 
earliest of Paul's extant letters, and it delivers the simpler truths of 
the Christian faith to us with all the dew and the bloom of a personal 
experience which not only enjoined them but lived to impart them. 
Both epistles show, as Jowett puts it, how Paul was " ever feeling, 
if haply he may find them, after the hearts of men ". " He is not a 
bishop administering a regular system, but a person dealing with 
other persons out of the fulness of his own mind and nature. . . . 
If they live, he lives ; time and distance never snap the cord of 


sympathy. His government of them is a sort of communion with 
them ; a receiving of their feelings and a pouring forth of his own." 

§ 6. External Evidence, Text, and Literature of both Epistles. — 
As both epistles are included not only in the Muratorian canon 
but in Marcion's strictly Pauline collection (Tert. adv. Marc. 
V. 15; Epiph., Haer. xlii, 9), they must have been known and circu- 
lated by the first quarter of the second century, although quotations 
(mainly of the eschatological sections) do not emerge till Irenseus 
and Ter uUian. Both Clement of Alexandria and Origen used them, 
and other evidence of their existence will be found in any text book 
of the N.T. Canon. But the so-called allusions to 1 Thess. in the 
earlier apostolic fathers are, for the most part, scanty and vague ; 
e.g., of i. Sand iv. 2 in Clem., Rom. xlii. 3. Hermas, Vis. iii. 9, 10 
(etpTiKeueTe iv aurois) might go back to Mark as easily as to Paul (cf. 
on V. 13), though there is a similarity of context, while the general 
correspondence of outline betw en iv. 14-16 and Did. xvi. 6 (revela- 
tion of the Lord, trumpet, resurrection) may imply no more than a 
common use of tradition, if not of Matt. xxiv. The use of the epistle 
in the correspondence of Ignatius is probable, but far from certain ; 
e.g., i. 6 in Eph. x. 3 (pp,T|Tal 8e toG Kupiou <nrouhdl,u)\i.€v ilvai, different 
context) ; ii. 4 in Rom. ii. 1 (ou BlKa ufjias A»'9puTrapc<rKTiCTai, dXXci Oew), 
and V. 17 in Eph. x. 1 (dSiaKciirTws irpoaeuxco-flc, si vera lectio). There 
is but one parallel in Barnabas, iv. 9 = Barn. xxi. 6 {y^veaQs hk fieo- 
SiSaKTot, diiferent context). This scarcity of allusions is not surpris- 
ing. The comparative lack of doctrinal interest in the first epistle, 
and its personal, intimate contents, would prevent it from being so 
often read and cited as the other Pauline letters. The second epistle, 
however, was evidently known to Justin Martyr {Dial, xxxii., ex., 
cxvi.) as well as to Polycarp who not only alludes to iii. 15 (in xi. 4, 
"et non sicut inimicos tales existimetis ") but misquotes i. 4 (in 
quibus laborauit beatus Paulus, qui estis in principio epistulae eius, 
de uobis enim gloriatur in omnibus ecclesiis) as if it were addressed 
to the Philippians {cf. Wrede, 92 f.) ; and such data prove the circu- 
lation of 1 Thess. as well. The echoes of 2 Thess. in Barnabas (2 
Thess. ii. 6 = Barn, xviii. 2; ii. 8, 12 = xv. 5) indicate rather more 
than a common basis of oral tradition (so Rauch in Zeitschriftfiir die 
Wissensch. Theologie, 1895, 458 f.), and, like tht apocalypse of John, 
it appears to have been circulated in Gaul before the end of the 
second century {cf. letter from churches of Lyons and Vienne, Eus. 
H.E.,\. 1). 

The text printed in this edition agrees generally with that of most 
critical editors. To save space, all textual notes have been cut out, 


except where a variant reading bears directly on the exposition, or 
possesses some independent interest. Since Alford published his 
edition, the chief foreign commentaries have been those of von Hof- 
mann (1869), Reuss (1878-9), Lunemann (Eng. tr., 1880) and Borne- 
mann (1894) in Meyer's series, Schafer (1890), Zockler (1894), 
Zimmer's Theologischer Commentar (1891), Schmiedel {Hand Com- 
vientar, second edition, 1892, incisive and thorough), S. Goebel (second 
edition, 1897), B. Weiss (second edition, 1902), Wohlenberg (in 
Zahn's Kommentar, 1903; sec, ed. 1908), and Lueken (in Die Schrif- 
ten des N.T., 1905) ; in English, those of Eadie (1877), Alexander 
[Speaker's Comm., 1881), Dr. Marcus Dods {Schaff's Comm., iii., 
1882), Dr. John Hutchinson (1884), Dr. J. Drummond {Internal. 
Hdbk. to N.T., ii., 1899), and Dr. Adeney {Cefitury Bible, n. d.), with 
three recent and able editions of the Greek text by Lightfoot {Notes 
on Epp. of St. Paul, 1895, pp. 1-92), Prof. G. G. Fm6\3iy {Cambridge 
Greek Testament, 1904), and Dr. G. Milligan (1908). Of the older 
works, the editions of L. Pelt (1830), H. O. Schott (1834), and A. 
Koch (on the first epistle, second edition, Berlin, 1855), in German, 
together with those of Ellicott (fourth edition, 1880) and Jowett 
(third edition, 1894), deserve special notice. Dr. Denney's terse ex- 
position {Expositor's Bible, 1892), Lightfoot's essay {Biblical Essays, 
251-269), and E. H. Askwith's Introduction to the Thessalonian 
Epistles (1902), together with the articles of Lock (Hastings' D.B., 
iv. 743-749) and A. C. McGiffert {E. Bi., 5036-5046), and Dr. W. 
Gunion Rutherford's translation (1908), will furnish the English 
student with all necessary material for a general study of the epistles. 
Zimmer's monograph (Der Text der Thess. Brief e, 1893) and article 
on 2 Thess. {Zeits. f. wiss. TheoL, xxxi. 322-342) give a competent 
survey of the textual data. 

The abbreviations are for the most part familiar and obvious; 
e.g., Blass = Neutest. Grammatik, Burton = Moods and Tenses 
(1894), Deissmann = D.'s Bible Studies (Eng. tr., Edinburgh, 1901), 
DCG = Hastings' Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels (1907-1908), 
E. Bi. = Encyclopcedia Biblica, Field = Otium Norvicense, part 
iii. (1899), Moulton = J. H. Moulton's Grammar of N.T. Greek, 
vol. i. (1906), Viteau = Viteau's Etude sur le grec du N.T. (1893, 
1896), Win = Schmiedel's edition of G. B. Winer's Grammatik 
(Gottingen, 1894 f.). With regard to the references to Sap. {i.e.. The 
Wisdom of Solomon), it must be remembered that Paul in all likeli- 
hood knew this writing at first hand. 


I. I. riAYAOZ Kol ■ IiXouai'os Kal Tifiodeos xrj cKKXirjaia ©cacaXo- • ^Z- o"? * 
viKiay iv ** 6cw iroTpl Kal Kupiu *lT|<rou Xpioru • ' X'^P''^ "f*^'' •''*'' '' *^" *'"' 
€ipnKn. article, 

2. Euxapi(rT0U)ii6i' tw ©efi '■irdiTOTe ircpl •irdrrwi' up-uc, p.i'ciav' §§ 46- e, 
iroioupLccoi 'cirl tuk irpoo-cuxwi' ■jjfwii' 3. ' dSiaXeiirrws, iikTjfiofcu- c See on i 

and Eph. 

d So Col. i. 3. 

e Eph. V. 20. 

f Eph. i. 16. 

g V. 17; Rom. i.g 

Chapter I. — Ver. i. Greeting. — As 
any trouble at Thessalonica had arisen 
over Paul's character more than his 
authority, or rather as his authority had 
been struck through his character, he 
does not introduce his own apostolic 
rank or that of his colleagues (ii. 6) in the 
forefront of this letter, which is intimate 
and unofficial throughout. Silvanus is 
put before Timothy as an older man and 
colleague, and also as Paul's special co- 
adjutor in the local mission. Acts never 
mentions Timothy in the Macedonian 
mission till xvii. 14, where he appears 
beside Silvanus. This does not mean 
(Bleek) that Timothy took no part in the 
work at Thessalonica ; his intimate rela- 
tions with the church forbid this supposi- 
tion. Probably he is left unnoticed as 
being a junior subordinate, till the time 
comes when he can act as an useful agent 
of his leaders. — ^kkX. a pagan term ap- 
propriated by Christianity. An implicit 
contrast lies in the following words (so 
in ii. 14): there were iKKXTjo-iai at Thes- 
salonica and elsewhere (cf. Chrysostom 
and Orig., Cels. III. xxix.-xxx.) which had 
not their basis and being Iv . . . XpiaTw* 
The latter phrase is a suggestive and 
characteristic periphrasis for " Christian," 
and the omission of the iv before Kvp(<|>, 
as of Tji before Iv, is enough to show 
that the seven words form a unity instead 
of a double antithesis to "pagan" and 
" Jewish " respectively. — Kvpi<f 'Itjo-ov 
Xpio-Tu, a new Kvpios (= dominus) for 
people like the Thessalonians who were 
hitherto familiar with the title as applied 
to Claudius (cf. Wilcken's Griechische 

Ostraka, 1899, s.v.) the emperor, or to 
the God of the Jews {cf. Knowling's Wit- 
ness of the Epistles, 260 f.). bee the 
ample discussion in Kattenbusch, das 
Apost. Symbol, ii. 596 f., with his note 
(pp. 6gi f.) on lKKXir)o-(a. The hope and 
help of God implied that Christians must 
hold together, under their Kvpios. "No 
Christian could have fought his way 
through the great dark night of idolatry 
and immorality as an isolated unit ; the 
community was here the necessary con- 
dition for all permanent life " (Wernle, 
Beginnings of Christianity, i. i8g). 

Vv. 2-10. Thanksgiving for the origin 
and achievements of the church. — Ver. 2. 
Wlenever Paul was at his prayers, he 
remembered his friends at Thessalonica ; 
and whenever he recalled them his first 
feeling was one of gratitude to God (see 
iii. 9) for the Christian record which, as 
individuals and as a church (iravTwv) they 
displayed of active faith (i.4-10, ii. 13-16), 
industrious love (iv. 9 f.), and tenacious 
hope (v. i-ii). And not Paul alone. The 
plural implies that all three missionaries 
prayed together. — ciixapio-Tovpcv. The 
greeting is followed, as in ordinary letters 
of the period, by a word of gratitude and 
good wishes, evx. is common in votive 
inscriptions, in connection with thanks- 
giving to a god. But while Paul, in dic- 
tating his letter, starts with a conven- 
tional epistolary form, the phrase imme- 
diately expands loosely into p.vqp. . . . 
6eov (pveiav ir. as frequently in ethnic 

Ver. 3. dSiaX. Neither distance nor 
fresh interests make any difference to hi* 




h See on 2 
Cor. ii. 4 
and Heb. 
vi. lo-ii. 
gen. as 
Rom. V. e; 
cf. Win. 
§30. la, e. 

i Cf. iii. 9, 
13 and 
other side 
in II. i. 4. 

k Cf. iii. 5. 

1 II. ii. 13. 
See Col. 
iii. 12 
and Deut. 

p " At most 
§ 1, i; "• 

OIT6S v[i.S>v ToO epyou ttjs iriffTews Kai toO koitou T^is dyairTjs koi 
TTJs uirofioi'Tis Tr]s ^ cXiriSos tou Kupiou ruiStv 'irjaoG Xpiorou, * cp," 
irpoCTGef TOU 0€ou Kal irarpos i^p.wj'* 4. ''cLSotcs, d8eX<)>oi ' Tjyain]- 
Hiyoi uiro ©eoC, T^f cKXcyrji' up.wi' • 5« oTi to eoayycXioi' ^p.uii' ook 
" ^ycKi^Oif) " els u[Jias ^i* ° X<5yw [i.6vov dXXol Kal Ic " Sucdfici Kal ^ ^>' 
nveufiaTi 'Ayiu Kal ' irXif)po<j>opia itoXXtj, Kadus oT8aT6 oioi iyevriQi]- 
fiiv iv ufxii' Si* up,as. 6. Kal up.eis ' p.i|XT]Tal ^p-uK iyevr\Qy]Te ' Kai 
TOU Kupiou, ' Se^dp.ei'oi rhv \6yov iv " dXiv|/ci iroXXfj p,€Td * x^'P^? 

xxxiii. 12. m Blass, § 20, i. n Gal. iii. 14. o Cf. i Cor. ii. 1-4, iv. 19-20. 

of rlietorical value" (Sx. Lang. N.T. 158). qClem. Rom. xlii. 3. r Cf. Introd. 

13-14, and on 2 Cor. xi. 4. si Cor. xi. i. t Rom. xiv. 17 ; Gal. v. 22. 

affection ; his life is bound up with their 
welfare ; his source of happiness is 
their Christian well-being {cf. ii. 17-20, 
iii. 7-10). The adverb (a late Greek for- 
mation, cf. Expos., 1908, 59) goes equally 
well with the preceding or with the fol- 
lowing words ; better with the former, on 
the whole, as the participles then open 
the successive clauses in 2, 3 and 4. — 
-up-wv is prefixed for emphasis to the three 
substantives which it covers, while the 
closing £p,7rpo<r6cv . . . Tipuv (cf. Vv. 19) 
gathers up the thought of ^vi\y.ov. — 
Faith in one sense is a work, but Paul 
here (as in Gal. v. 6) means faith that 
does work {opus opponitur sermoni inani, 
Bengel), by producing a change of life 
and a cheerful courage under trials. It 
would be no pleasure to recall a merely 
formal or voluble belief, any more than a 
display of Christian love {cf Col. i. 4) 
which amounted simply to emotions or 
fitful expressions of goodwill, much less 
a hope which could not persist in face 
of delay and discouraging hardships. 

Ver. 4. The practical evidence of the 
Spirit in their lives showed that God had 
willed to enrol them among His chosen 
people (note the O.T. associations of be- 
loved by God and election), just as the 
same consciousness of possessing the 
Spirit gave them the sure prospect of 
final entrance into the Messianic realm — 
an assurance which (ver. 6) filled them 
with joy amid all their discomforts. The 
phenomenon of the Spirit thus threw 
light backwards on the hidden purpose 
of God for them, and forwards on their 
prospect of bliss. — Recollections depend 
on knowledge; to be satisfied about a 
person implies settled convictions about 
his character and position. The apostles 
feel certain that the Thessalonian Chris- 
tians had been truly chosen and called by 
God, owing to (a) the genuineness and 

effectiveness of their own ministry at 
Thessalonica, where they had felt the 
gospel going home to many of the in- 
habitants, and {b) the genuine evidence 
of the Thessalonians' faith ; (a) comes 
first in ver. 5, (b) in w. 6 f. In ii. i f. 
Paul reverts to (o), while in ii. 13-16 {b) 
is again before his mind. As the divine 
iKXoyi] manifested itself in the Christian 
qualities of ver. 3, Paul goes back to their 
historical origin. 

Ver. 5. oTi = "inasmuch as". — to 
evayy. iqpwv, the gospel of which the 
apostles, and by which their hearers, 
were convinced. As the Ka6ws clause in- 
dicates, irXtipoc^. must here denote per- 
sonal conviction and unfaltering confi- 
dence on the part of the preachers. The 
omission of the Iv before irXtip. throws 
that word and irvcvpari together into a 
single conception, complementary to 
Svvdpci, which here has no specific refer- 
ence to miracles, but to the apostles' 
courage (ii. 2), honesty and sincerity 
(4,5), devotion (7, 8), earnestness (9), and 
consistency (10). The effect of the Spirit 
on the preachers is followed up (in ver. 
6) by its effect on the hearers ; and 
this dual aspect recurs in ver. 9 (we and 
you). lv(om. Blass) vptv = " among you". 

Ver. 6. 6X(ij/€i . . . x°'P^S> <^f- for this 
paradox of experience, Mazzini's account 
of his comrades in the Young Italy move- 
ment : " We were often in real want, but 
we were light-hearted in a way and smil- 
ing because we believed in the future ". 
The gladness of the primitive Christian 
lay in the certainty of possessing soon 
that full salvation of which the Spirit at 
present was the pledge and foretaste. 
In view of Ps. Ii. 13, 14 it is hardly correct 
to say, with Gunkel {Wirkungen des 
heiligen Geistes, 71), that this connection 
of joy and the Spirit was entirely foreign 
to Judaism. 

4— lo. 



rii'eufi.aTos 'Ayiou, 7. wore ytviuQai ujias ° TuiroK ^ iraai Tois irioreu- u 1 Pet. v. 
ou<nv iy tt] MaKcSocia Kal iv t^ 'Axaia. 8. d^' ujAWf yAp ^ cl'pxT- P^^^- ">• 
Tai 6 Xoyos toC Kupiou 00 y.6vov iv xtj MaKeSocia Kal 'A)(aia " dXXci v ajr. xey., 

, X y , . y ' c - c * % V r.'» >t\'\ fl " f/. Joel 

CK iraiTi TOTTw 1^ ' irioTis ujiwc t) irpos toi' ©cok €5cAt|\uW€»', uoTj m. 14 

^, »» c~\\- ^»><\ ^bt-i (LXX); 

fiT) xpciaK cxeiK iQfJias AaAcii' Ti, 9. auToi y**P ircpi tj^k oit- 3 Mace. 
ayYeXXouaiK oiroiai' " ciaoSoK etr^ofiiv irpos ufifis ital irws "^CTreoTpcxJfaTC w Blass, § 
* irpos Toy ©eoc diro tuk clScjXuk, SouXciieiv 06w ' ^ukti Kai * dXi^difu x c/. 1 Cor. 

10. Kol '''Cii' Tov ui6>' auTou '^k twc oupai'uK, ot' r^Ycipci' ck xViii. if. 

« '•'i - vki' A'>i~i'-'»» / y Rom, i. 8: 

Tuc fCKpuK, Itjcoui', TOf puofici'ot' TJiJias CK Tr)s opYT)s TTjs cpxojicmfjs. Clem. 


XXXV. 5, 
Philemon 5 : = " the fact of your faith in God ". z iv. 9, v. i. a " people, wherever we go ". 
b i.e., us, apostles. c C/. Ps. cxx. (cxxi.) 8 ; LXX. d See on Acts xiv. 15. C/. Jer. iii. 32 

(LXX). e Cf. Eph. ii. 12. f See on Rev. vii. 2. gSee on John vi. 57; Rev. iii. 7, etc. 

Only here in Paul. h Isa. lix. 11, 20; ^sch., Eum., 243. i Phil. iii. 20. k Cf. Burton, 

M.T. 429, and on a Cor. i. 10. 1 Rom. v. 9; cf. below, v. g (negat. side o{iK\oyij). 

1 For Tvirovs (t^ACGKLP, g, syr.P, Chrys., Theod., etc., Calvin, Schott, 
Alexander, Koch, Wohl., Zim.), conformed to vfias, read tvitov with BD* vss. 

Ver. 8. tj irCcTTis . . . i^t\. (Rom. x. 
18), by anacoluthon, reiterates for em- 
phasis d({>' v|jiwv ... KvpCov (6 XtSyos 
T. K. depending for its effectiveness on 
the definite testimony of Christians). 
Paul is dictating loosely but graphically. 
The touch of hyperbole is pardonable 
and characteristic (cf. Rom. i. 8 ; i Cor. 
iv. 17 ; Col. i. 6) ; but the geographical 
and commercial position of Thessalonica 
see Introd., p. 5) must have offered 
ample facilities for the rapid dissemina- 
tion of news and the promulgation of the 
faith, north and south, throughout Euro- 
pean Greece (Encycl. Bibl.,\. 22). The 
local Christians had taken full advantage 
of their natural opportunities. Through 
their imitation of the apostles (see Introd., 
p. 7) and of Christ (here as in i Peter 
ii. 19-21, in his sufferings), they had be- 
come a pattern for others. The Iv -rg is 
omitted before 'A\alt{. here because M. and 
A. are grouped together, over against 
ir. T. — 5<rT€ . . . Y*P» ^^^ reputation of 
the apostles rested upon solid evidence. 

Ver. g. The positive and negative as- 
pects of faith : " Videndum est ut ruinam 
errorum sequatur aedificium fidei " (Cal- 
vin). — &Xt)6i.v4> = " real " as opposed to 
false in the sense of "counterfeit". — 
^uvTi, as opposed to dead idols (see 
above, p. 5) impotent to help their 
worshippers. Elsewhere the phrase {cf. 
I Tim. iii. 15 ; Heb. iii. 12) " implies a 
contrast with the true God made prac- 
tically a dead deity by a lifeless and 
rigid form of religion " (Hort, Christian 
Ecclesia, 173). Nothing brings home 
the reality of God (».^,,as Father, vv. 1-3) 

to the Christian at first so much as the 
experience of forgiveness. 

Ver. 10. In preaching to pagans, the 
leaders of the primitive Christian mission 
put the v^Tath and judgment of God 
in the forefront (cf. Saba tier's Paul, 98 
f.), making a sharp appeal to the moral 
sense, and denouncing idolatry (cf. Sap., 
xiv., 12 f., 22 f.). Hence the revival they 
set on foot. They sought to set pagans 
straight, and to keep them straight, by 
means of moral fear as well as of hope. 
Paul preached at Thessalonica as he did 
at Athens (Acts xvii. 29-31 ; see Har- 
nack's Expansion of Christianity, i. 108 f.) 
and the substance of his mission-message 
on the wrath of God is preserved in Rom. 
i. 18 — ii. 16. The living God is mani- 
fested by His raising of Jesus from the 
dead. His awakening of faith in Chris- 
tians, and His readiness to judge human 
sin in the hereafter. Seeberg (der Kate- 
chismus der Urchristenheit, 82-85) finds 
here an echo of some primitive Christian 
formula of faith, but his proofs are 
very precarious. — rhv vihy avrov. This 
marked them out from Jewish proselytes, 
who might also be said to have turned 
from idols to serve the living God. The 
quiet combination of monotheism and a 
divine position of Jesus is striking (cf. 
Kattenbusch, op. cit., ii. 550 f.). — Ik twv 
oiipavuv ... Ik T. vcKpwv, both the hope 
and the historical fact lay outside the 
experience of the Thessalonians, but both 
were assured to them by their experience 
of the Spirit which the risen Jesus had 
bestowed, and which guaranteed His final 
work. Were it not for touches like the 


nP02 eE22AA0NIKE12 A 


• = "re- II. I. AuTol Y&p * oiSare, dSeX^oi, ttji' eio-oSoc il]p,UK ttji' irpos ufias, 
oTi ^ ou K€i^ yiyovev 2. dXXd irpoiraOon-es Kal u^piaOerres, xaOus 
oiSare, iv " ♦iXiinrois, ** cirappTjaiaadficOa ^k tw ©cw ' -q|xui' XaXtjaai 
irpos ufifis TO euayyiKiov tou ©cou Ii/ iroXXu ' dyuvi. 3. ii Y°^P 
' -irapdKXirjais i^/xur '' ofiK ^k irXdi'Tjs, ou8e i^ dKaOapaias, ou8e ^ ^f 
8(SX(d, 4. dXXd KaO^s ''SESoKifido-p.eOa uTTo TOU ©cou ^-irioTEu6TJi'ai 

as I Cor. 
i. 16 (e/. 
b C/. i. 5, 
and I 
Cor. XV. 

c See on 

Acts xvi. 

19 f. 
d See on Eph. vi. 20 and Acts ix. 26 ; on form cf. Win. § 5. 26 b. e iii. 9 ; II. i. 11-12. f Cf. 

Phil. i. 30. g "appeal" (cf. Polyb. iii. log, 6). h Sc. to-riV, cf. a Cor. vi. 8. i 3 Cor. iv. 3 

and xii. 16. k 2 Mace. iv. 3. 1 Cf. Gal. ii. 7. 

1 The second ovSc (t^ABCD*GP, min., etc., edd.) [cf. II. iii. 7-8] is preferable to 
the V. I. OVT6 (Pelt, Hofm., Wohl.) ; for aKa9apo-ias, Bentl. conj. " forte e| dv. 
apco'Kias" [i.e. avSpuirapccKias]. 

deeper sense of SovXcveiv, the celestial 
origin of Jesus, and the eschatological 
definition of ipyq, one might be tempted 
to trace a specious resemblance between 
this two-fold description of Christianity 
at Thessalonica and the two cardinal 
factors in early Greek religion, viz., the 
service of the Olympian deities (Oepa- 
ircveiv) and the rites of aversion (airo- 
irop.irat) which were designed to depre- 
cate the dark and hostile powers of evil. 
Paul preached like the Baptist judgment 
to come. But his gospel embraced One 
who baptised with the Spirit and with 
the fire of enthusiastic hope {cf, i Cor. i. 7). 

Chapter II. — Vv. 1-12. An apologia 
pro vita et labore sua. 

Ver. I. avToi, as opposed to the a. 
of i. 9. — Y^Yovev k.t.X., our mission was 
a vital success, as its results still show. 
For its motives and methods were genuine 

Ver. 2. " Though we had suffered — aye 
and suffered outrage" in one town, yet 
on we went to another with the same 
errand ; a practical illustration of Matt. 
X. 23. 

Ver. 3. Yop: Our mission (whatever 
that of others may be) is not the 
outcome of self-seeking, otherwise it 
would readily be checked by such un- 
toward circumstances. Our confidence 
is in God, not in ourselves ; our work is 
not self-appointed but a sacred trust or 
commission, for which we are respon- 
sible to Him (4). Hence, discourage- 
ment and hesitation are impossible. 
Paul argues that the very fact of their 
cheerful perseverance at Thessalonica, 
after their bad treatment, at Philippi, 
points to the divine source and strength 
of their mission ; what impelled them 
was simply a sense of lasting respon- 
sibility to God, upon the one hand, and 
an overpowering devotion to men upon 

the other {cf. the 81* vp-os oi i. 5), for the 
gospel's sake. Had the apostles yielded 
to feelings of irritation and despondency, 
giving up their task in Macedonia, after 
the troubles at Philippi, or had they con- 
ducted themselves at Thessalonica in such 
a way as to secure ease and profit; in 
either case, they would have proved their 
mission to be ambitious or selfish, and 
therefore undivine. As it was, their cour- 
age and smcerity were at once the evid- 
ence and the outcome of their divine 
commission. — irXavrjs, " error " {cf. Ar- 
mitage Robinson on Eph. iv. 14). Their 
preaching did not spring from some delu- 
sion or mistake. Paul was neither fool 
nor knave, neither deceived nor a deceiver 
(8($X({>). Nor was his mission a sordid at- 
tempt (oLKaGapo-ias) to make a good thing 
out of preaching, the impure motive being 
either to secure money {cf. irXcove|{as 
ver. 5, and ver. 9), or to gain a position 
of importance (ver. 6) and popularity. 
Cf. Tacit., Annal., vi, 21 (of Tiberius' 
attitude to astrologers) " si uanitatis aut 
fraudum suspicio incesserat ". Both 
features were only too familiar in the 
contemporary conduct of wandering so- 
phists, apcraX^yoi, and thaumaturgists 
{e.g., Acts xiii. 10, and Clemen's article 
in Netie Kirchl. Zeitsckrift, 1896, 151 f.) 
whose practices would also explain the 
literal interpretation of &.k. {= sensual- 
ity). But the context favours the associ- 
ations of greed {cf. Eph. v. 3), as in the 
case of irXcovE|Ca. On the persuasive- 
ness of sincerity in a speaker, ».«., the 
extent to which his effectiveness depends 
upon his hearers' conviction of his own 
earnestness and honesty, see Aristotle's 
analysis of t]9ikt| irto-ris {Rhet., ii. i) and 
Isocrates' description of cvvoCos Svvapis 
{Orat., XV. 278, 279). 

Ver. 4. " As God, who tests our 
hearts, has attested our fitness to be 




rb tuayyikiov, oJtu XaXouftEV, oux ™ 6s dKOpcSirois "dpetrKOKTcs, dXXdm Causal 
" Qiw Tw SoKifid^OKTi TCis KapSitts i^fMJC. 5. OUT6 ydp TTOTC €»' X^yu eau, i. 
'' KoXaKctas iye\n\6r]\iiv, i a ws oiSarc, oure ei' ' Trpo<}>d<Tci irXcofelias • n G°al.'i. lo; 
ecos /idpTus • 6. 0UT6 J^TjToOrrcs H &vQp<aTruy ' Solaf, outc d«|>' ujioiK ^^th ptc. 
ouT€ • dir' dXXuf, * SuKdfiEcoi iv ^dpci ctkai us Xpiorou dirooroXoi • if 231.°" 
7. dXX' iynn^Qruiev "fjirioi ^i/ fi^aw ufiCtv, ws ^^di* Tpo<}>6s ©dXin) rd ** verl'isf * 
eauTTJs TCKj'a • ^ 8. outws op.etpojxci'ot ufjiwi' " euSoKoup.Ec * fiETaSoufai lap. 1! 
opK ' ou pofof TO euayYcXioj' toG &eov dXXd Kal rds Iootwk ^u^ds, „ ^^reonly 

Win.-Schm. § v. 13c. q "any pretext," cf. on 2 Cor. zi. 12, ii. 17; 2 Pet. ii. 3. r C/. John 

viii. 50, V. 41-44. s e.g. i. 9. t Cf. 1 Cor. ix. if. u of a father (ver. 11) in e.g. Horn. 

Iliad, xxiv. 770, Odyssey, ii. 234. v = orav (Viteau, i. 217). wiii. i ; see on Rom. xv. 26: 

= "we were right willing". xRom. i. 11. So. 2 Cor. viii. 5 (force of this example). Y Cf. 

Burton, M.T. 481. 

^ The important variant vrjirioi, which is even better attested {cf. WH ii. 128), 
and is adopted, e.g., by Bentley, Lachm., Schrader, Jowett, Zimmer, Bisping, WH, 
Lgft., and Wohl., probably arose from a not uncommon dittography of the final N in 
the preceding word : T)irios " properly implies the kindness of a superior " (Liddell 
and Scott s.v,), whereas vrjirios has usually associations of immaturity in Paul. 

entrusted with the gospel," a character- 
istic play on the word. The definite 
commission of the gospel excluded any 
weak attempt to flatter men's prejudices 
or to adapt oneself to their tastes. 
Hence the Uiought of the following verse. 

Ver. 5. " Never did we resort to 
words of flattery " (in order to gain 
some private end) ; cf. Arist., Etk. Ntk., 
iv. 6. As self-interest is more subtle 
than the desire to please people (which 
may be one form of self-interest), the 
appeal is changed significantly from k. o. 
to 6c&s fjidprvs (Rom. i. g) : " auaritia aut 
ambitio, duo sunt isti tontes ex quibus 
manat totius ministerii corruptio " (Cal- 
vin). Cf. Introduction, § i — on 6c<Ss and 
6 6e6s, cf. Kattenbusch, das Apost. 
Symbol, ii. 515 f. 

Ver. 6. To put a full stop after 
aXXuv, and begin a new sentence 
wdth Svvdnevoi (so e.g., Vulgate, Cal- 
vin, Koppe, Weizsacker, H. J. Gibbins, 
Exp. Ti., xiv. 527), introduces an awk- 
ward asyndeton, makes dXXa follow a 
concessive participle very awkwardly, and 
is unnecessary for the sense, 

Ver. 7. Iv pdpci €ivai = " be men 
of weight," or " be a burden " on 
your funds. Probably both meanings 
are intended, so that the phrase (cf. 
Field, 199) resumes the ideas of irXcov. 
and dv6. 8(i|av (self-interest in its mercen- 
ary shape and as the love of reputation) 
which are reiterated in vv. 7-12, a defence 
of the apostles against the charges, cur- 
rent against them evidently in some 
circles (probably pagan) at Thessalonica, 

of having given themselves airs and un- 
duly asserted their authority, as well as 
of having levied or at any rate accepted 
contributions for their own support. — 
d-)r<iaToXoi were known to any of the local 
Christians who had been Jews (cf. Har- 
nack's Expansion of Christianity, i. 66 f., 
409 f.), since agents and emissaries (dirdo-- 
ToXoi) from Jerusalem went to and fro 
throughout the synagogues : but d. Xpur- 
Tov was a new conception. The Chris- 
tian dir6(rToXoi had their commission 
from their heavenly messiah. — TJirioi (a 
Tim, ii. 24) ; as Bengel observes, there 
was nothing ex cathedra about the 
apostles, nothing selfish or crafty or 
overbearing. All was tenderness and 
devotion, fostering and protecting care, 
in their relations to these Thessalonian 
Christians who had won their hearts. 
To eschew flattery (5) did not mean any 
indifference to consideration and gentle- 
ness, in their case; they were honest 
without being blunt or masterful. — rpo- 
4>(iSi a nursing mother (cf. Hor., Ep. i. 
4, 8). " In the love of a brave and laith- 
fiil man there is always a strain of 
maternal tenderness ; he gives out again 
those beams of protecting fondness which 
were shed on him as he lay on his 
mother's knee " (George Eliot). Ruther- 
ford happily renders : *' On the con- 
trary, we carried ourselves among you 
with a childish simplicity, as a mother 
becomes a child again when she fondles 
her children". 

Ver. 8. 6p,cip(S|xcvoi (cf. Job iii. 21, 
LXX ; Ps. Ixii. 2, Symm.) = " yearning 




r 0/. I Cor. 8i(5ti * dyamiTol t]|jiii' iy€vf\6ii]Te. 9. \]}iove6€T€ y^P? A8cX4>oi, 
a C/. n. iii. Toi' * Koitov ■^{iwi' Kal Toi' * ii.6xQov kOKTOs Kttl iQfji^pas *■ epYtt£<5{A6Voi 

8 and 2e.yy,ain-^' c»i ;> >C>^^> 

Cor. xi. irpos TO (IT) c7ripapT]0'ai TiKa ufiuc, eKTipu^afxec cis ufias to euay- 
b c/ Acts y^ioK Tou ©coO. 10. up,Eis * p,dpTup£9 Kal 6 0e<5s, 6s ' oaiws Kal 
c C/.'" Cor. SiKaiws Kal '^djx^fnrTws uj*'''' '^°^5 iriaTcuouo'ti' cyci'ifiOrjfjiei', II. Ka0- 

constr.""^ direp oiSaTC, 6s "^ ei'a iKaoTot* up.cji', ws iraTTip TCKi'a eauTou, ' irapa- 

u.'s. °^' KaXoOiTcs up.a9 Kal ' irapaixuGoufiefoi 12. Kal ^ fiapTopop.cj'Oi ^ els to 
'xif.*^;' ' ireptiraTcii' ujjias ' d^tus tou ©€oG tou "" KaXourros ujias eis ttji' 

SI'aAs'' ^«"Tou patTiUiav Kal " h6iav. 

f Oniy^here '3- ^''■^'- ^''°' "tOUTO Kal l^fiClS euxapiOTOUfJlCl' TW 0€W 'dSiaXciTTTWS, 

='^ ious- °''"*' TTapaXaP^nrcs ** X6yov dKO'qs irap' T^p.ui' 'tou ©€0u •68^|aCT06 ou 

^ph iv Xoyof di'OpoSTrwi' dXXd Ka6(us ^orii' dXirjOois Xoyoi' ©60u, 'os Kal 


g C/. V. 23 
(Clem. Rom. xliv. 4). h See on Acts xx. 31. i C/. iv. i and on i Cor. xiv. 3, with 2 Mace. 

XV. 8-9. k Eph. iv. 17; see on Acts xx. 26 and Gal. v. 3. 1 See on Phil. i. 27; ethnic phrase 

(Deissm. 248). m See on Rom. viii. 28. ix. 11 and Gal. v. 8. n Cf. II. ii. 14. o As well 

as i. 2 f. p i. 3. q Cf. Heb. iv. 2. ok. = id quod auditur. r With \6yov, cf. Win. § 30. i2d. 

s Cf. i. 6. t i.e. the word. 

1 fjLaprvpofi.cvoi (J^BDbcHKL, 17,47, Chrys., Dam., etc., edd.) is preferable to the 
passive variant |AapTvpovp.cvoi, a corrupt western reading which has been conformed 
to irapap,. 

for, or, over ". cvSok., for absence of 
augment cf. W. H., ii. 161, 162. — SmSti 
causal (" for as much as "), almost = yap 
(as in Modern Greek). 

Ver. g. " Paul means by the phrase, 
night and day, that he started work be- 
fore dawn; the usage is regular and fre- 
quent. He no doubt began so early in 
order to be able to devote some part of 
the day to preaching" (Ramsay, Church 
in Roman Empire, p. 85). Paul, to the 
very last (cf. Acts xx. 29 f.), seems to 
have been sensitive on this point of 

Ver. ID. " We made ourselves yours " 
{cf. 8), the dative going closely (as Rom. 
vii, 3) with the verb, which is qualified 
(as in I Cor. xvi. 10) by the adverbs ; 
so Born., Findlay.- v\ k.t.X. (dative 
of possession). Paul had met other 
people at Thessalonica, but only the 
Christians could properly judge his real 
character and conduct. 

Ver. II. KuOaircp, sharper than KaOus. 
Viteau (ii. iii) suggests that k. o. is a 
parenthesis, and ws a causal introductory 
particle for the participles (" hearten- 
ing," " encouraging," " adjuring ") which 
in their turn depend on vfi.iv . , . ey€\nq- 
6t)|xcv, but the likelihood is that in the 
rush of emotion, as he dictates, Paul 
leaves the participial clause without a 
finite verb (so e.g.. 2 Cor. vii. 5). — u; 

iranip k.t.X. (cf. us lav rpot^ds, 7). The 

figure was used by Jewish teachers of 
their relationship to their pupils. Cf. 
e.g., the words of Eleazar b. Azarja to his 
dying master, " Thou art more to Israel 
than father or mother ; they only bring 
men into this world, whereas thou guid- 
est us for this world and the next". 
Catullus, Ixxii. 4 (dilexi turn te non tan- 
tum ut uulgus amicam, sed pater u1 
natos diligit et generos). 

Ver. 12. d|Cb>s in this connection (see 
references) was a familiar ethnic phrase. 
C. Michel (in his Recueil d^ inscriptions 
grecques, 1900, 266, 413) quotes two pre- 
Christian instances with twv flewv. — cl$ 
rh, K.T.X., grammatically meaning either 
the object or the content of the solemn 
charge (cf. Moulton, 218 f.). The ethic 
is dominated by the eschatology, as in 
iii. 13, V. 23. 

Vv. 13-16. Furthet thanksgiving for 
their endurance of trial. 

Ver. 13. " And for this we also render 
thanks, viz., that ;" the Ka(, by a loose but 
not unusual (cf. iii. 5; Rom. iii. 7, v. 3, etc.) 
construction, goes not with the pronoun 
but with the verb, or simply emphasises 
the former (e.g., Soph., Oed. Col., 53, 
520, etc.). — Tov 6eoi) comes in so awk- 
wardly that one is tempted to regard it, 
with Baljon and some other Dutch critics, 
as a scribal gloss. 




cj'cpycirai ev ufiiK tois Triorcuouaii'. 14. uftcis yap u.i)it]Tai u " Is made 

cyciofjSrjTC, dScXi|>oi, twi' cKKAtjaiwj' tou 0eou twj' ouauf ck ttj tive"(c/. 
,_, „, ..o X t \ ■> fA \c-t\~' Robin- 

louoaia ev XpioTb) Itjctou, oti ra avra cTrduETC Kai ufxcis uiro tu)k sons 

>c' I ' i \ - T flx X . X . X ~ ., s ' - -« ^ Epkes. 

ioiav (TUfKpuAeTUii', '^ KaOus Kai auToi uiro tuc louoaiuc, i5' tuc Kai pp. 241 f.). 
x„/ , / , - XNi ./ l»'»»j^ Proof and 

Toi' KupioK diroKTcii'dKTui' lt]<rooi' Kai tous irpo^rjTas Kai Tip,a9 €k- result of 

Kofdnrui/ Kai 0cu) p,T] dpeaKorrui' Kai iraaiK dfcpuirois efamui', toiT 

,£ c \ ' c ^ - iQ \\~ b" fl" d> \wGal. i.S2; 

10. KuXuoin-wi' ri}ias tois eOcco'i Aa\T]aai ica ctwdwcth', eis to aCor.i. x. 

• dcairXiripcjaai aoTWK to? dpapTias ■irdiTOTc[- ' E<|>6ao'e 8c cir' auTous ^ in n.t!'^" 

Vopyrj^'EisT^os]. ^ ^ ;,;;«•»■. 

1 7. 'Hfteis 8^, d8cX4>oi, ' dirop<}>ai'io-0ciTes d<}>' ufiuc irpos Kaipot' ^ ^att^v' 
upas (^ irpoawTTW ou Kap8ia) ' irEpiacroT^pus i(mou%daafU€V to irpoa- '*• "j,"'* 

a So Lk.xi. 
49 (Acts xvii. 5-14). Cf. 2 Cor. xi. 24, 26. b 1 Cor. %. 33. C/. on Eph. ii. 12. c Lk. xi. 52; 

Acts xvii. 5, xxii. 22. d Cf. Burton, M.T. 411 and Moult, i. 219. e 3 Mace. vi. 14. Cf. Sap. 

xii. 27 and Gen. xv. 16. f Cf. Phil. iii. 16, etc. g Lk. xiv. 21, xxi. 23. Cf. on Rom. i. 18. 

h " Utterly, colnpletely " (Ps. Sol. i. i, ii. 5; Joseph. B. J. vii. 8, i), " 

(Abbott, Joh. Gratnm. 2322). i Here only (N.T.) : 

3 ; 2 Cor. V. 12. 1 Gal. i. 14; 2 Cor. i. 12. 

aim. ="to the bitter end' 
" bereft," cf. Field 199 f. k i Cor. v. 

^ Om. the Syrian interpolation iSiovs with ^ABD*GP (min.), sah., cop., arm., 
aeth., Orig., Euth., edd., as an insertion by Marcion (Tert., cf. Nestle's Einf. 253) 
before irpo<^T)Tas. 

Ver. 14. p,ip,i)Tat, and soon helpers 
(Rom. XV, 26). The fact that they 
were exposed to persecution, and bore 
it manfully, proved that the gospel was 
a power in their lives, and also that 
they were in the legitimate succession 
of the churches. Such obstacles would 
as little thwart their coiu-se as they 
had thwarted that of Jesus or of his 
immediate followers. (rv|x4>' might in- 
clude Jews (Acts xvii. 6), but Gentiles 
predominate in the writer's mind. — The 
KaC after Ka6w$ simply emphasises the 
comparison (as in iv. 5, 13). As Calvin 
suggests, the Thessalonians may have 
wondered why, if this was the true re- 
ligion, it should be persecuted by the 
Jews, who had been God's people. «r. 
is racial rather than local, but the local 
persecution may have still been due in 
part to Jews (cf. Zimmer, pp. 16 f.). 

Ver. 15, " The Lord, even Jesus " (cf. 
Acts ii. 36). vpo«^. may go either with 
airoKT. or with iKSiw|avTuv. 

Ver. 16. KwXviivTcdv k.t.X., defining 
(Luke xi. 52) from the Christian stand- 
point that general and familiar charge 
of hatred to the human race (IvovtCwv 
K.T.X.) which was started by the exclu- 
siveness of the ghetto and the synagogue. 
— ccjiOao-c K.T.X., " the Wrath has come 
upon them," apparently a reminiscence 
of Test. Levi. vi. 11. This curt and 
sharp verdict on the Jews sprang from 
Paul's irritation at the moment. The 
apostle was in no mood to be concilia- 

tory. He was suffering at Corinth firom 
persistent Jewish attempts to wreck the 
Christian propaganda, and he flashes 
out in these stern sentences of anger. 
Later on (Rom. ix.-xi.) he took a kinder 
and more hopeful view, though even this 
did not represent his final outlook on the 
prospects of Judaism. Consequently, it 
is arbitrary to suspect w. 14 {15)- 16 as a 
later interpolation, written after 70 a.d. 
(cf. the present writer's Hist. New Testa- 
ment, pp. 625, 626). But the closing sen- 
tence of ver. 16 has all the appearance of 
a marginal gloss, written after the tragic 
days of the siege in 70 a.d. (so e.g., 
Spitta, Pfleiderer, Primitive Christianity, 
i. 128, 129, Schmiedel, Teichmann, die 
Paul. Vorstellungen von Auferstehung 
u. Gericht, 83, Drummond, etc.). The 
Jews, no doubt, had recently suffered, 
and were suffering, as a nation in a way 
which might seem to Paul, in a moment 
of vehement feeling, a clear proof of con- 
dign punishment (so e.g., Schmidt, 86- 
90). But neither the edict of Claudius 
nor the bloody feuds in Palestine quite 
bear out the language of this verse. And 
6pYi) is surely more than judicial har- 
dening (cf. Dante's Paradise, vi. 88-93) \ 
its eschatological significance points to 
a more definite interpretation. 

Ver. 17-CHAPTER IIL Ver, 13. Paul's 
apologia pro absentia sud. 

Ver. 17. irpos k. &., as we both ex- 
pected, but, as it turned out, for much 
longer, irpoa. oi k., "not where I 


nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A 

II. i8 — 19. 

m Win. § 5, uiroi' ufiUK IScii' iv iroXXrj €iTi6u|xia. 18. " Sioti '^0e\i]aa}i€i' eXOeif 

on ii. 8. irpos ojicis, cvw " wei' riauXos Kal " fiiral Kal ° 8is, Kal ^ iviKO^tv 
n = " For I „ t „ , „ X 

mypart";i^fids o Zaracas. 19. Tis Y°^P ill^'Wi' cXiris t] *• j(apd t] ' OT€<})ai'os 
on ab- , ./>«>% \c-\»> A t f c t> ~ 

senceof KauxTJaeus (r] ooxi Kai u/i€is} €)unrpoo-0eK toO Kupiou i^fiuc \ir\aou 

Bl'ass, ^i* TTJ auTOu -irapouaia; 20. ufxcis ydp lore "i^ ^ So^a i^)tuK Kal iq 

§ 77. 12- » 

O ="MoreX^P**- 
once " 

(Phil. iv. 16). p Cf. Gal. v. 7; Rom. xv. 22. q Phil. iv. i. r C/. Prov. xvi. 31 

(LXX). s Blass, § 77, 11. t C/. Kattenbusch: das Apost. Symbol, ii. 597 f. u Win. § 18, 

8, d. V 2 Cor. viii. 23, cf. 2 Cor. i. 14. 

breathe ; but where I love, I live " (South- 
well, the Elizabethan Jesuit poet, echo- 
ing Augustine's remark that the soul 
lives where it loves, not where it ex- 
ists) ; cf. Eurip., Ion, 251. The next 
paragraph, ii. 17-iii. 13, starts from a 
fresh imputation against the apostles' 
honour. Paul, it was more than hinted 
by calumniators at Thessalonica, had 
left his converts in the lurch [cf. 18) ; 
with him, out of sight was out of mind ; 
fresh scenes and new interests in the 
South had supplanted them in his affec- 
tions, and his failure to return was inter- 
preted as a fickle indifference to their 
concerns. The reply is three-fold, (a) 
Paul's continued absence had been un- 
avoidable (17 f.) ; he had often tried to 
get back. In proof of this anxiety (b) he 
had spared Timothy from his side for 
a visit to them (iii. 1-5), and(c) Timothy's 
report, he adds (iii. 6 f.) had relieved a 
hearty concern on his part for their wel- 
fare ; he thus lets them see how much 
they were to him, and still prays for a 
chance of re-visiting them (11). He was 
not to blame for the separation ; and, so 
far from blunting his affection, it had 
only whetted (ircpiaaorcpus) his eager- 
ness to get back. 

Ver. 18. " We did crave to reach 
you," 8i<5ti ( = because) not being re- 
quired with the English stress on did. 
The whole verse is parenthetical, syn- 
tactically. — Kal . . . Zaravas. The 
mysterious obstacle, which Paul traced 
back to the ultimate malice of Satan, 
may have been either (a) an illness 
{cf. 2 Cor. xii. 7, so Simon, die Psycho- 
logic des Apostels Paulus, 63, 64), (b) local 
troubles, [c) the exigencies of his mission 
at the time being (Grotius), or {d) a move 
on the part of the Thessalonian poli- 
tarchs who may have bound over Jason 
and other leading Christians to keep the 
peace by pledging themselves to prevent 
Paul's return (Ramsay's St. Paul the 
Traveller, 23of.,Woodhouse, E. Bi., 5047, 
Findlay). Early Christian thought re- 

ferred all such hindrances to the devil as 
the opponent of God and of God's cause. 
The words Iv 'Aei^vais (iii. i) rule out 
Zimmer's application of (i) to the emer- 
gency at Corinth, while the silence of 
Acts makes any of the other hypotheses 
quite possible, though {d) hardly fits in 
with the ordinary view of the Empire in 
II. ii. 2 f. and renders it difficult to see 
why the Thessalonians did not under- 
stand at once how Paul could not return. 
The choice really lies between (a) and 
(c). Kabisch (27-29), by a forced ex- 
egesis, takes ver. 20 as the explanation 
of this Satanic manoeuvre. Satan pre- 
vented us from coming, in order to rob 
us of our glory and praise on the last 
day, by wrecking your Christian laith; 
he was jealous of our success among you. 
Ver. 19. Of course we wanted to come 
back, for (7<ip), etc. The touch of fine 
exaggeration which follows is true to the 
situation. Pauls absence from the young 
church was being misinterpreted in a 
sinister way, as if it implied that the 
Achaian Christians had ousted the Thes- 
salonians from his affections. You it 
is, he protests, who but you (Kal super- 
fluous after ^, as in Epict. i. 6, 39 ; Rom. 
xiv. 10, but really heightening the follow- 
ing word, as in Rom. v. 7 ; almost = 
" indeed " or " even ") — you are my pride 
and delight ! — o-T^<{>avos, of a public 
honour granted (as to Demosthenes and 
Zeno) for distinguished public service. 
The metaphor occurs often in the inscrip- 
tions (cf. also Pirke Aboth, iv. 9). Paul 
coveted no higher distinction at the ar- 
rival of the Lord than the glory of having 
won over the Thessalonian church. Cf. 
Crashaw's lines to St. Teresa in heaven : 

"Thou shalt look round about, and see 
Thousands of crown'd souls throng to be 
Themselves thy crown ". 

riapovo-ia = royal visit {cf, Wilcken's 
Gnech. Ostraka, i. 274 f.), and hence 
applied {cf. Matt, xxiv.) to the arrival of 
the messiah, though the evidence for the 


III. I. Aio liTiiceTi <rr^YO»n"es, 'tiuSoKiio'auei' *" KaTaXei<J>0Ti»'ai 61*3 t.«. Paul 

> ,j \e\v<- ^ ^""^ Silva- 

Adi^cais fiofoi 2. Kai iiri^i^anev Tip,o9eof TOf doEX(j>of T]fiwk' Kai nus, c/. ii. 
<Tuy€pyby ° tou 3eou ^ iv tu cuayY^^^*;^ tou Xpionrou, els to arqpi^ai b Acts xxv, 
ufios Kal ^ irapaKaXe'aoi * UTrep tt)s Triorews up.oii', 3. ' to p,T]Seca c 2 Mace, 
* aaiKcadai ^ iv rais 0Xii)/€(ri raurais • auTol yhp oiSarc oTi 6is ''touto etc.i Cor. 
'Kcifxeda- 4. Kal y^P ore ''irpos o/xds ^fief, irpoeXcYOfiEi' ujaic oTid 11. ii. 17; 

fi^Xoixef dXi^Eo-Oai, KaOb)$ Kal iyiv^TO koI otSarc • 5. 81A. touto veV. 13. ' 

"" Kdyw p.T]K^Ti oTcywi' €iT6(X\j/a " CIS TO yySivai t^v irioTic up.cji', jit] * UAi.i-' 

TTus " circipoaei' ufi&s 6 -rrEipd^ui' Kal •" cis kei'oi' " y^nfjrai 6 kottos pi° ui's ' 

xxxix. e). 

f Cf. Viteau, i. 272; Blass, § 71, 2, opposition to preceding clause (c/. iv. 6). g Here only (N.T.), 

= " allured, beguiled " or " disturbed " (Diog. Laert. viii 43 : ol Sk aaivonevoi Toli Xeyoixtvon e&aKpvov). 

h t.f. TO eAi^eo-flat, c/. i. 6, II. i. 5. i Phil. i. i6. k = "with " II. iii. i, 10, etc. 1 " We 

Christians." m Cf. on ii. 13. n Cf. on ii. i6. o Unrealised purpose, see Gal. ii. 2, 

iv. II, for mood; also Burton, M.T, 227. p Win. § 29, 2, b. q deliberative conjunctive. 

^ For -nfJLwv Kai StaKovov t.9. Kai, trvvcpyov ir)|i(i>v (DcKL, syr.sch, Chrys., Theod., 
Dam., e c ), or T]p,uv Kat 8.T.O. (J^^AP, min., vg., cop., syr.ptxt, arm., aeth., Euth., 
etc., Ti., I'r., Bj., Zim.) read the original and harder Western text r\}i.uv Kai crvvcpyov 
T.e. (D*, d, e, 17, Amb. [B om. r.9. so Weiss, Findlay], Lach., Al., Ell., WH 
marg., Born., Schm., Wohl., Peine), from which the variants seem to have sprung. 
Later scribes are more likely to have stumbled at t.O. after crvvcpyov than to have 
inserted it by a reminiscence of i Cor. iii. g. 

^ For p,. a-aivt<r6ai {cf. Zahn, Einl. § 14, 2), Lach., Ernesti, and Verschuis (so 
Alexander) conj. pY]8cv ao-aivcaOai (= xaXciru; <j)€p€iv), a more than dubious passive 
form of ao-aw, Beza and Bentley p,T)8€va o-aXcvco-Oai (v.l. o-evccrOai, Bentl.), and 
Holwerda pr^Scv avaivecOai (= repent or be ashamed of) ; if any change is required 
(but cf. Koch's full note, 233-237), it would be in the direction of oneivca-Oai 
( = (riaivco-0ai, to be disheartened, unnerved), the attractive reading of FG which is 
preferred by Sophocles (Lex., s.v.), Reiske, and Nestle {Exp. Ti. xviii. 479, Preuschen's 
Zeitschrift, vii. 361-62, cf.. Mercati, ibid. viii. 242). G elsewhere {cf. Rom. xi. 26, 
xii. 17) confuses ci, and ai. 

use of the term in pre-Christian Judaism Ver. 4. Cf. Acts xvii. 3, 6, 13 f. 
is scanty (Test. Jud. xxii. 3 ; Test. Levi. Ver. 5. Resuming the thought of iii. 
viii. 15 ; for the idea ot the divine " com- 1-30, after the parenthetical digression 
ing" cf. Slav. En., xxxii. i, xlii. 5). This of 36, 4, but adding a fresh reason for the 
is the first time the terra is used by Paul, mission of Timothy, viz., the apostle's 
but it was evidently familiar to the desire to have his personal anxiety about 
readers. Later on, possibly through the Thessalonians relieved. It is need- 
Paul's influence, it became an accepted less to suppose (with Hofmann and 
word for the second advent in early Spitta) that iii. 5 refers to a fresh mes- 
Christianity. sr iger or a letter (Wohl.) despatched by 

Chapter IIL — Ver. i. |itjk., instead Paul on his own account. As in ii. 18, 

of ovK., to bring out the personal motive. Paul passes to the singular, to emphasise 

— (TT^yovres "able to bear" (cf. Philo, his personal interest in the matter ; the 

Flacc, § g, p,T]K^Ti vriytiv 8vvap.cvoi ras change of number, especially after the 

Iv8c(a9), sc. the anxiety of ii. 11 f. — Iv generic use of the plural in 3, 4, does not 

*A. p,6voi. Paul shrank from loneliness, necessarily prove that the plural of ver. 

especially where there was little or no i means Paul alone. The dominating 

Christian fellowship ; but he would not anxiety of Paul was about their faith (5- 

gratify himself at the expense of the 10). He was overjoyed to hear that they 

Thessalonians. Their need of Timothy retained " a kindly remembrance " of 

must take precedence of his. himself, and he reciprocates their desire 

Ver. 3. Cf. Artemid. , Oneirocritica ii. for another meeting ; but, while this un- 

II, aXX<STpioi Zi Kvvcs <raivovT«s j*Jv doubtedly entered into their general 

SiSXovs Kal lv^8pas vir6 irovnpuv avSpuv Christian position, it is the former on 

[cf. 2 Thess. iii. 2] 4^ yvvaiKuv [cf. Acts which unselfishly he dwells {cf. the 

xvii. 4] (rr)|Aa(vov(riv. transition in loa and 106). — irCo-Tiv 

32 nP02 eE22AA0NlKEI2 A 111.6-13. 

r ="A •fni.Civ. 6. 'apri 8c A06rros TifioO^oo irpos t]|xds d^' v\i.C)v kui 

ago; €uayy€\i(Ta}i4vou il|xiv ttji' iriaTii' Kai rfji' dYdinjf ufxuK Kal on 

B C/. Lk. i. e^ere fi.V€Lav i^uuf dyaSTic TrdkTOTt, ^TmroQourres ^fias tScii', ' Ka0- 
19 ; in un- , ^t-« e\'» \»nc. / 

technical aiTcp Kai TJixcis ufids, 7. " oia touto -irapeKXT]dT]', docX<|>oi, 'e<j>' 
classical ,„,, w->» ^ w a\ ' 1 «-t> t » 

sense of uy-iv iiTL Trao-j) TT) dKdYKTj Kai 6\i<{/£i i^^ui' oia tt|5 uixwc irior- 

;* bring- q o ' - x'v ~ »>>«-*' = ix ' ' 

inggood eus' o. oTi KOI' ^wfiej', ' ca>' up,cis o-ttjkctc ck Kupiu. 9, Ti^a 

news". ra. 'e»n ~^~. c- '\<-.v 

t Cf. ii. II, Y^P €oxopioTiai' oucapcOa tw ©€w aKrairoooucai ircpi up,(iiv, cm 

u resump- "ffdoTj Tg X^P? 11 X'^^P^M'^'' ^'■' "H'^S c/iTrpoorOei' too ©cou iqp.d>c, lO* 

tWs goo/ •'UKTos icai ^fi^pas *" UTrcpcKircpio-o-oo Scofxcf 01 " eis to iSeiK ** up.wt' 
news". \» \ / i.«'_~' i~ 

V C/.2Cor. '''O irpoo-cjiroc Kai KarapTKrai to uoTcpT))jiaTa tt]? iriorcws upuK; II. 

w^ob'xv. *Aot6s 8c '6 ecos Kal iraTTjp r\iiMV Kal 6 Kupios rutStv *It)o-ous * kot- 
"we'wM^e 6"®"*'<*'' TT}*' oSo*' ^H'*'*' ■'fpos ujids* 12. ufids 8€ 6 Kupios ''irXcoi'daai 
?y^^"j.°|> Kal ^ircpicro-eoCTai Tjj dYdTTT) cis dXXi^Xous Kal els irdrras (KaOdirep 
yoiT*'' " ""^ '"^H'^^5 '''^S up.ds) 13. CIS TO 'oTTjpi^ai '"ufiS)v Tds Kap8ias °dp,c'p,- 

* jo^^o^vs ittous ^i' " &yua(T6vri, cp,irpoa6ev tou ©cou Kal irarpos •fifuoy iy tq 
VI. 9, xiii. irapouaia too Kopiou i]pi>K 'lijcroG |ACTd '' irdrrwj' TS>y ** dYibif ootoo. 

mus, hoc 

est recte ualemus " (Calvin). y = orav, ii. 7. z II. ii. 15, late form, cf. Blass § 65, 4J; 

Win. § 5, 19; Burton, M.T. 447, and Moult, i. 168. a Cjf. on Acts xxiv. 3. b Cf. Dan. 

iii. 23 (Theod.) and V. 13 below. c II. ii. 2; constr. as in ii. 12. d See note on v. 23. 

e Cf. iv. 16, and contrast ii. 18. f Cf. Win. § 18, 7, Moult, i. 179. g II. iii. 5, Lk. i. 79. 

h Transit, as Num. xxvi. 54 (LXX), etc. i Transit, as 2 Cor. ix. 8; cf. for thought Phil. i. 9. 

k Sc. " abound in love ". 1 Cf. above, ver. a. m See note on v. 23. n Proleptic {cf. 

Viteau, II. 275), as v. 23; cf. Phil. ii. 15, Clem. Rom. xliv. 6, Sap. ii. 22. o Cf. 2 Cor. vii. i. 

p Cf. iv. 17, ^ft€is . . . avv avTols. q Jude 14, cf. Everling: die paul. Angelohgie (78-7^). 

k.t.X. " Initium omnium malarum ten- faith. As this was impracticable in the 

tationum inconstantia animi est et parua meantime, he proceeds to write down 

ad Deum confidentia " (De Imit. Christi, some kindly admonitions. Thus 106 

i. 13, 5). — lircCpaaev, with success, it is forms the transition to the second part of 

implied. the letter ; Paul, as usual, is wise enough 

Ver. 8. The news put life and spirit to convey any correction or remonstrance 

into him. — o-n^Kcrc, for construction cf. on the back of hearty commendation. In 

Mark xi. 25 and Abbott's 3^oAan. Gramm., the prayer which immediately follows, 

2515 (i). loo is echoed in 11, lob in 12, 13, for the 

Ver. 10. Another adaptation of ethnic maturing of the Thessalonian's faith does 

phraseology, cf. Griechische Urkunden, not depend on the presence of their 

i. 246, 12, wkt6s Kal -qficpas Ivrvyx*''** apostles. Whatever be the answer to 

T^ 6*^ virip vp,wv (a pagan papyrus from the prayer of 11, the prayer of 12, 13 can 

second or third century, a.d.). The con- be accomplished. 

nection of Sc^fjicvoi k.t.X. with the fore- Ver. 11. xaTcvdvvai (optative), as al- 
going words is loose, but probably may ready (Acts xvi. 8-10, xvii. i). The 
be found in the vivid realisation of the singular (cf. II., ii. 16, 17) implies that 
Thessalonians called up before his mind God and Jesus count as one in this con- 
as he praised God for their constancy, nection. The verb is common {e.g., Ep. 
Timothy had told him of their loyalty, Arist., i8, etc.) in this sense of providence 
but had evidently acquainted him also directing human actions, 
with some less promising tendencies and Vv. 12, 13. The security and purity ol 
shortcomings in the church ; possibly the the Christian life are rested upon its 
Thessalonians had even asked for guid- brotherly love (so Ep. Arist., 229) ; all 
ance on certain matters of belief and breaches or defects of ayioxrvvt), it is im- 
practice (see below). Hence Paul's eager- plied, are due to failures there (cf. iv. 
ness to be on the spot again, not merely 3, 6) ; even sensuality becomes a form of 
for the sake of happy fellowship (Rom. i. selfishness, on this view, as much as im- 
11), but to educate and guide his friends, patience or resentment. This profound 
supplying what was defective in their L'^airi\ " is an ever-fixed mark That looks 

IV. 1—3. 



IV. I. 'AoiTTOK ouK, dSe\({>oi, •* epuTUfiei' ujias Kal irapaKaXoufici' a "Locutio 

iv Kupio) 'lT]aoO, i^a Ka9u>s irapeXdPcTC irap' r\\ut)y "to irois Sei ujiS? antis ad 

ircpnraTen' Kat * dpeaKCit' ©cw, Ka9(09 Kai ircpiiroTeiTC, iva irepia- (Grotiu»), 

/ ~XN »c ' / \' 'S / c - Test. 

aeutjTC p.a\Aoi' • 2. oioare y<^P ti^os irapaYYcAiciS eouKafici' ufiii' Reub. v. 

8iA Tou Kupiou *lT]aou. 3. 'touto Y^iip tori '6A.T](ia too 6€oC, 6 2'cor. 

xiii. II, 
and Jan- 

naris in Exp.^ viii. 429 f. b Phil. iv. 3. c On article in indir. questions, see Blass, § 47. 

5, Viteau, I. 13a, Win. § 18, a. d And so (result). e Contr. ii. 15. f v. i8, Ps. xxix. 5, etc. 

on tempests and is never shaken ;" it 
fixes the believing man's life in the very 
life of God, by deepening its vital powers 
of growth ; no form of aYi(i><n3viij which 
sits loose to the endless obligations 
of this ayaiTT) will stand the strain 
of this life or the scrutiny of God's 
tribunal at the end. — vjaEs 8J, what 
ever becomes of us. — ayiuv, either (a) 
"saints" (as II., i. 10, De Wette, Hof- 
mann, Zimmer, Schmidt, Everling, Ka- 
bisch, Findlay, Wohl.), or (6) " angels " 
(Ex. i. 9; Ps. Sol. xvii. 49, etc. Hiihn, 
Weiss, Schrader, Titius, Schmiedel, 
Lueken), or (c) both (cf. 4 Esd. vii. a8, 
xiv. 9 ; Bengel, Alford, Wohl., Askwith, 
Ellicott, Lightfoot, Milligan). The remini- 
scence of Zech. xiv. 5 (LXX) is almost de- 
cisive for (b), though Paul may have put 
another content into the term ; wav- 
Tciiv must not be pressed to support (c). 
In any case, the phrase goes closely with 
irapov(ri(^ The £7101 are a retinue. 

Chapter IV.-Ver. i -Chapter V.-Ver. 
II. Spectal instructions (iv. 1-12) on 
chastity, etc. 

Ver. I. Resuming the thought of ii. 
II, 12 as well as of iii. 10-13. Q/- ^ P^e- 
Christian letter in Oxyrh. Papyri, iv. 294 
(13 cp<i>Tu «r€ ovv iva p.T|, 6 f. IpwTw <re 
Ktti irapaKaXw o-e). The iva, repeated 
often for the sake of clearness, is sub-final 
(so II., iii. 12) = infinitive, cf. Moulton, 
i. io6 f. Paul meant to write ovrcas Kal 
irepnraTTjTe, but the parenthesis of praise 
(k. Kal ir.) leads him to assume that and 
to plead for fresh progress along the 
lines already laid down by himself. 

Ver. 2. Almost a parenthesis, as 
Bahnsen points out in his study of 1-12 
(Zeitschriftf. wiss. Theol., 1904,332-358). 
The injunctions (irapayYcXCat in semi- 
military sense, as 1 Tim. i. 18) relate to 
chastity (3-8) and charity, (9, 10), with a 
postscript against excitement and idle- 
ness (11, 12). — irapayy. for the cognate 
use of this term {cf. ver. 8) in the inscrip- 
tions of Dionysopolis (TrapayY^'XXu iraatv 
p.T| KaTa({>pov€iv Tov 6«ov) cf. Exp. Ti., 
X. 159. — 8ia K.T.X., the change from the 
iv of ver. i does not mean that the Thes- 

salonians before their conversion got such 
injunctions from Paul on the authority 
of Christ, while afterwards they simply 
needed to be reminded of the obligations 
of their union (Iv) with the Lord. No 
strict difference can be drawn between 
both phrases {cf. Heitmiiller's Im Namen 
yesu, 71 f.), though the 8id lays rather 
more stress on the authority. For Jesus 
to command 8ia the apostles seems to 
us more natural than to say that the 
apostles issue commands 8ia tov KvpCov, 
but the sense is really the same. The 
apostles give their orders on the authority 
of their commission and revelations from 
the Lord whom they interpret to His fol- 
lowers {cf. Rom. XV. 30, xii. 2). But this 
interpretation must have appealed to 
the sayings of Jesus which formed part 
of the irapd8o(ris {cf. Weizsacker's 
Apostolic Age, i. 97, 120, ii. 39). Thus 
8a is an echo of the saying preserved in 
Luke X. 16. 

Ver. 3. a7iao-p.(Ss (in apposition to 
TovTO, OAtiiia without the article being 
the predicate) = the moral issue of a life 
related to the "Ayios {cf. ver. 8), viewed 
here in its special and negative aspect of 
freedom from sexual impurity. Tha 
gospel of Jesus, unlike some pagan cults, 
e.g., that of the Cabiri at Thessalonica 
{cf. Lightfoot's Biblical Essays, pp. 
257 f.), did not tolerate, much less foster, 
licentiousness among its worshippers. 
At Thessalonica as at Corinth Paul found 
his converts exposed to the penetrating 
taint of life in a large seaport. As the 
context indicates, ay- vp-wv = " the per- 
fecting of you in holiness " (oy. in its 
active sense, vy.wv genitive objective : so 
Liinemann, Ellicott, Bahnsen). The ab- 
sence of any reference to 8i.Kaioo~uvT) is 
remarkable. But Paul's dialectic on justi- 
fication was occasioned by controversies 
about 6 v($|xos which were not felt at 
Thessalonica. Besides, the "justified" 
standing of the believer, even in that 
synthesis of doctrine, amounted practi- 
cally to the position assured by the posses- 
sion of the Spirit to the Christian. In his 
uncontroversial and eschatological mo- 


nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A 


g Acts zv. 

30; infin. 


tion, as 

Acts XV. 

28; Sap. 

ii. 16. 
h I Pet. iii. 

i See Tob. 

viii. 4-9, 

and I Cor. 

on ii. 14. 

S 20, 3 b). 


dyioaftos ufiMW, ' &-ni\€a6ai ufids diro Tijs ' iropi'cias • 4. ' ctS^cai 
CKaoTOf ufiCty to cauToo ^ <7Kcuo$ KTda6ai iv ' dyiao-fiw koI '' Tifit], 
5. p.T) cf 'irdOei ^ €iri0oji,ias, Kafldirep " Kal rd I0nrj "rd (itj elSora 
Tov ©c^M • 6. °To ''fiTj u-n'cp^aiKEic Kttl ir\€ov€KT€ii' * iv Tw ' irpdyfiaTi 
Tor dSeX<{>oi' auToG • 8i6ti ' IkSikos Kupios ircpi iravruv toutui', 

vii. 39. k See Heb. xiii. 4 and Ignat. ad Polyk. v. 2. 1 4 Mace. 1. 35. m Cf. 

n From Jer. X. 25 ; c/. Il.i. 8: "whose characteristic is iterance of God" (Win. 
o sc. TLva from iiKaarov (4). p Cf. iii. 3, for the accus. infin. with neg. to denote 

q Cf. on 2 Cor. vii. 11. r Ps. xciv. i, cf. Sir. v. 3 ; Rom. xii. 19, and xiii. 4. 

ments, Paul taught as here that the ex- 
perience of the Spirit guaranteed the 
believer's vindication at the end {cf. i. 9, 
10) and also implied his ethical behaviour 
during the interval. The comparative 
lack of any allusion to the forgiveness 
of sins {cf. e.g., iii. 5, 10, 13) does not 
mean that Paul thought the Thessa- 
lonians would be kept sinless during the 
brief interval till the parousia (so Wernle, 
der Christ u. die Sunde bei Paulus, 25- 
32) ; probably no occasion had called 
for any explicit teaching on this common- 
place of faith (i Cor. xv. 3, ii). 

"Ver. 4. Paul demands chastity from 
men ; it is not simply a feminine virtue. 
Contemporary ethics, in the Roman and 
Greek world, was often disposed to con- 
done marital unfaithfulness on the part 
of husbands, and to view prenuptial un- 
chastity as a8id4>opov or at least as a 
comparatively venial offence, particularly 
in men {cf. Lecky's History of European 
Morals, i. 104 f., ii. 314 f.). The strict 
purity of Christ's gospel had to be learnt 
(clS^vai). — (TKCvos (lit. " vessel ") = 
" wife ;" the rendering " body " {cf. Barn, 
vii. 3) conflicts with the normal meaning 
of KTacrOai, ("get," " acquire ; " of mar- 
riage, LXX. Ruth iv. 10; Sir. xxxvi. 
29, Xen., Symp., ii. 10). Paul views mar- 
riage on much the same level as he does 
in I Cor. vii. 2, 9 ; in its chaste and 
religious form, it is a remedy against 
sensual passion, not a gratification of 
that passion. Each of you (he is ad- 
dressing men) must learn (clSevau = know 
[how] to, cf. Phil. iv. 12) to get a wife of 
his own (when marriage is in question), 
but you must marry Iv ay*'''^*''!^^ (^^ a 
Christian duty and vocation) ital Tijjfn 
(with a corresponding sense of the moral 
dignity of the relationship). The two 
latter words tend to raise the current 
estimate, presupposed here and in ver. 6, 
of a wife as the o-kcvos of her husband ; 
this in its turn views adultery primarily 
as an infi-ingement of the husband's 
rights or an attack on his personal pro- 

perty. Paul, however, closes by an em- 
phatic word on the religious aspect (6-8) 
of the question ; besides, as Dr. Drum- 
mond remarks, "is it not part ot 
his greatness that, in spite of his own 
somewhat ascetic temperament, he was 
not blind to social and physiological 
facts ? " It is noticeable that his eschat- 
ology has less effect on his view of mar- 
riage here than in i Cor. vii. Even were 
KTotrdai, taken as = " possess," a usage 
not quite impossible for later Greek {cf. 
Field, 72), it would only extend the idea to 
the duties of a Christian husband. The 
alternative rendering ("acquire mastery 
of," Luke xxi. 19) does not justify the 
" body " sense of o-kcvos. 

Ver. 6. Compare the saying of rabbi 
Simon ben Zoma (on Deut. xxiii. 25) : 
"Look not on thy neighbour's vineyard. 
If thou hast looked, enter not ; if thou 
hast entered, regard not the fruits ; if 
thou hast regarded them, touch them 
not ; if thou hast touched them, eat them 
not. But if thou hast eaten, then thou 
dost eject thyself from the life of this 
world and of that which is to come " 
(quoted in Bacher's Agada der Tannaiten, 
2nd ed., 1903, i. 430). There is no 
change of subject, from licentiousness 
to dishonesty. The asyndeton and the 
euphemistic Iv t!^ irpaYftciTi (not t<|> = 
Tiv£, Win. § 6 4^) show that Paul is still 
dealing with the immorality of men, but 
now as a form of social dishonesty and 
fraud. The metaphors are drawn from 
trade, perhaps as appropriate to a trading 
community. While tnr«ppa£v€iv may- 
be intransitive (in its classical sense of 
" transgress "), it probably governs aScX- 
<|><Jv in the sense of " get the better of," 
or " overreach ;" irXeoveKTciv similarly = 
" overreach," " defraud," " take advant- 
age of" (2 Cor. vii. 2, xii. 17, 18 ; Xen., 
Mem., iii. 5, 2; Herod, viii. 112). Com- 
pare aKadapa-ias irdo"r|9 Iv irXcovc|i<^ 
(Eph. iv. 19). The passage (with ver. 8) 
sounds almost like a vague reminiscence 
of Test. Asher, ii. 6 : i itXcovcktuv tov 

4— II. 

nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A 


xaOus Kal * irpoeiirafxcf u\i,lv koI * Sicfiaprupd/xeOa. 7. od yap »Cf. Win. 

€Kd\€(T€v -fnias o ©€05 "cirl ^dKaOapaia dW *ck ayiaafiM. 8. *toi- t = "Sol- 

yapoCf 6 dderuK ook dt'Opuirov dOerei dXXd toi' 0601/ tok SiSdn-a to testified" 

riKcufxa auTou to 'Ayioi' 'els ufias. 9. ircpl Sc Ttjs ' <^i\a8e\<|>ias v. 21). 

>a / X . f , c~i»\\c~b/JC'c 'J 1" With a 

ou )(peiav ex^"""^ yP'^9^'''' "H"''*' ' ^uroi yap u|i6is OeooioaKTOi eoTC view to " 

•els TO dyairdi' dXXr^Xous • 10. Kal ydp iroieiTe auTo els irdvTas tous il.'io): ' 
dSeX^ious ** ef oXt) rg MaiceSoKia. irapaKoXoup.ei' 8e ufids, d8eX<}>oi, and''* 
•irepiacreueii' jxaXXoi' II. Kal *<j>iXoTt}tei<rflai 'Tjauxd^cic Kal ''irpdor-y '*s?xual 

vice " (as 
Col. iii. 5, Eph. v. 3), Test. Jos. iv. 6. w = els (i Cor. vii. 15; Eph. iv. 4; Win. § 50, 5). 

X Heb. zii. i. y As in Ezek. xxxvii. 14 (LXX). z See on Rom. xii. 10. a Blass, § 69, 5; 

3 Cor. ix. i; Heb. v. 12. b Elaborated in Rom. v. 5; 3 Cor. v. 14, cf. Bam. xxi. 6; Isa. liv. 

13 ; Ps. Sol. xvii. 35. c Epexegetic infinitive, (Moult. 318-319) of object. d Philippi, 

Berea, etc. e Active side of lii. I3. f See on 3 Cor. v. 9 and Rom, xv. 3o = " be distin- 

guished for a quiet life," " strive to be quiet". g Cf. II. iii. 12. h = " attend to yoiu: own 

business," cf. Dem. Olynth. ii. 16. 

^ ov X" ex*'''* 7P«n^civ vjiiv (^*ADc, etc, edd.), an irregular but not uncommon 
turn ("you have no need of anyone to write you' ), corrected in ^cD*G, vg., Chrys., 
etc., to cxof'Ev K.T.X. (so Lunem., Lachm., Blass, cf. i. 8), and in B to cixo|acv k.t.X. 
(Weiss, Bahnsen), as in H to ypai^eadai k.t.X. (from v. i). 

irXTi<riov irapopyi^ei t6v ©€<5v ... t^v 
IvToXea tov v6|xov Kvpiov a6cTci. Only 
riv dv9. here is not the wronged party 
but the apostles who convey God's 
orders. — 8i<Jti k.t.X. = " since {cf. ii. 8) 
the Lord is the avenger (from Deut. xxxii. 
35 ; cf. Sap. xii. 12 ; Sir. xxx. 6 ; i Mace, 
xiii. 6, IkSikt^cw irepi ; 4 Mace. xv. 29) in 
all these matters " (of impurity). How, 
Paul does not explain {cf. Col. iii. 5, 6). 
By a premature death (i Cor. xi. 30) ? 
Or, at the last judgment (i. 10) ? not in 
the sense of Sap. iii. 16, iv. 6 (illegitimate 
children evidence at last day against their 
parents) at any rate. 

Ver. 8. Elsewhere (i. 5, 6) ayiov simply 
denotes the divine quality of itvtv^a, as 
operating in the chosen a-yioi of God, 
but here the context lends it a specific 
value. Impurity is a violation of the 
relationship established by the holy God 
between Himself and Christians at bap- 
tism, when the holy Spirit is bestowed 
upon them for the purpose of consecrat- 
ing them to live His life {cf. 1 Cor. iii. 
16, vi. 19). The gift of the Spirit here 
is not regarded as the earnest of the 
future kingdom (for which immorality 
will disquality) so much as the motive and 
power of the new life. — SiSovTa = " the 
giver of," not implying continuous or 
successive impartation ; present as in ch. 
V. 24 ; Gal. V. 8. He not only calls, but 
supplies the atmosphere and energy re- 
quisite for the task. — a6£Twv k.t.X. {cf. 
ii. 13) = contemns by ignoring such in- 
junctions (2-6) in practical life, deliber- 
ately sets aside their authority. Cf. Isa. 
xxiv. 16, 17 f., oicil TOW afleTownv ol 

aOcTOvvTCS t6v v6^ov, (fxi^os Kal ^ddwos 
Kal -irayls i^' (nor shall any escape : 
cf. below on v. 3). In 2 Sam. xii. 9 f. 
Nathan fixes on the selfishness of David's 
adultery and charges him especially with 
despising the commandment of the Lord. 

Vv. 9-10. vEpl ^iXaSeXt^ias. One 
might have expected that adultery, 
especially when viewed as selfish greed 
{cf. ver. 6), would have come under 
^., but the latter bears mainly here on 
charity and liberality, a Christian impulse 
or instinct which seems to have come 
more naturally to the Thessalonians than 
ethical purity. " A new creed, like a new 
country, is an unhomely place of sojourn, 
but it makes men lean on one another 
and join hands " (R. L. Stevenson). 

Ver 10. Their ay dirt) was no paro- 
chial affection, but neither was it to be 
fussy or showy, much less to be made an 
excuse for neglecting their ordinary busi- 
ness (11, 12); this would discredit them 
in the eyes of the busy outside public 
(irpos = in intercourse or relations with) 
and sap their own independence. Such 
seems the least violent way of explaining 
the transition in Kal (j>iXoTi(xciardat k.t.X. 
The church was apparently composed, for 
the most part, of tradesmen and working 
people (x«p<rlv vfiuv, cf. Kenan's S. Paul, 
246 f.) with their families, but there may 
have been some wealthier members, 
whose charity was in danger of being 
abused. Cf. Demos., Olynth., iii. 35 : ovk 
?<rTiv Sirov (jit)8^v ly« iroioi)<riv to, twv 
iroiovvTov elirov is 8ei vcp,civ, ovrS* a-ur- 
ovs |Jiiv apyciv Kal (rxoXd^Eiv Kal diropciv. 

Ver. II. ^iXoT. iq(rvxd(civ (oxy- 




i See on aeif t& iSia Kal ^pydl^eadai rais x^P^''^^'' v^^.S)v, KaOus upiii' irapTiYYCi- 

XIV. 40. \a|X€f ■ 12. ifa TrEpiiTaTTJTC eucrxTip^ocus irpos |Tous €§(11 xai jit]- 

k See on - ^ / „ 

I Cor. V. 0€KOS XP^i**'' ^XT*"** 

Neuter I3> ou OeXop.Ei' Se ujxds dYKOclK, dScXi^oi, irepl tuc KOifXUfx.^i'UK, 

12, etc.). i*'0' H-T Xuin]o-0e Ka9u>s "xal 01 "Xoittoi °ol fXTj Ixonres cXiriSa. 14. 

on ii?i4? ci yAp •iriOTeuo|ic»' on 'Itjcroos dTrc9ac€ Kal 6,vi<rn\, '^outw Kal 6 6c6s 

n i.e. pa- 
gans as in 

Eph. ii. 3, c/. Sap. ii. if. o C/. Theogn. 567, //>/». i4«/. 1350, Sap. ii. 33, iii. 18. p i.e. 

" then it follows that **. 

moron). The prospect of the second ad- 
vent (iv. 13 f., V. i-io) seems to have 
made some local enthusiasts feel that 
it was superfluous for them to go on 
working, if the world was to be broken 
up immediately. This feverish symptom 
occupies Paul more in the diagnosis of 
his second letter, but it may have been 
present to his mind here. For instances 
of this common phase in unbalanced 
minds compare the story of Hippolytus 
{Comtn. Dan., iv. 19) about a Pontic bishop 
in the second century who misled his 
people by prophesying the advent within 
six months, and also a recent outburst of 
the sam2 superstition in Tripoli {West- 
minster Gazette, Nov., 1899) where " the 
report that the end of the world will 
come on November 13 " produced " an 
amazing state of affairs. The Israelites 
are sending their wives to pray in the 
synagogues, and most workmen have 
ceased work. Debtors refuse to pay their 
debts, so that trade is almost paralysed." 
— Kal irpdarfrtiv toi iSia. Plato uses a 
similar expression in his Republic, 496 D 
(•^(Tux^*'' «X**'' ■*"■'• """^ avTOv wpaTTcov) ; 
but of the philosopher who withdraws in 
despair from the lawlessness of a world 
which he is impotent to help (see also 
Thompson's note on Gorg., 526c). 

Vv. 13-18. ircpl Twv Koip.up,cvuv. 

Ver. 13. 8 J, after oti 6Aop,ev as a 
single expression. — Affection for the liv- 
ing has another side, viz., unselfish solici- 
tude for the dead. Since Paul left, 
some of the Thessalonian Christians had 
died, and the survivors were distressed by 
the fear that these would have to occupy 
a position secondary to those who lived 
until the advent of the Lord, or even that 
they had passed beyond any such par- 
ticipation at all. At Corinth some of 
the local Christians felt this anguish so 
keenly, on behalf of friends and relatives 
who had died outside the church, that 
the)' were in the habit of being baptised 
as their representatives, to ensure their 
fiiiAJl bli^ (l Cor. XV. 29). The concern 

of the Thessalonians, however, was for 
their fellow-Christians, in the intermedi- 
ate state of Hades. As the problem had 
not arisen during Paul's stay at Thessa- 
lonica, he now offers the church a reason- 
able solution of the difficulty (13-18). — 
ov OeXofxcv 8J vp-as aYvoeiv, contrast the 
oiSarc of iv. 2, v. 2, and compare the 
ordinary epistolary phrases of the papyri 
(Expos., 1908, 55) such as YcivwaKciv <r£ 
9i\(j» (commonly at the beginning of a 
letter, cf. Col. ii. i ; Phil. i. 12 ; 2 Cor. 
i. 8, and with 3ti, but here, as in i Cor. 
xii. I, with irepC). — twv KOipwp^vuv = 
the dead in Christ (16), a favourite Jew- 
ish euphemism (Kennedy, St. Paul's Cone, 
of Last Things, 247 f , and cf. Fries in 
Zeitschtift fur neutest. Wiss. i. 306 f.), 
not unknown to Greek and Roman litera- 
ture. — ol Xoiirol, K.T.X., cf. Butcher's 
Some Aspects of the Greek Genius, pp. 
153 ^M 159 f- Hope is the distinguishing 
note of Christians here as in Eph. ii. 12 ; 
CoL i. 22, etc. 

Ver. 14. Unlike some of the Corin- 
thians (i Cor. XV. 17, 18), the Thessa- 
lonians did not doubt the fact of Christ's 
resurrection (el of course implies no 
uncertainty). Paul assumes their faith 
in it and argues from it. Their vivid and 
naive belief in Christ's advent within 
their owm lifetime was the very source 
of their distress. Paul still shares that 
belief (17). — 8ta tov 'Itjo-ov is an unusual 
expression which might, so far as gram- 
mar is concerned, go either with t. k. 
(so. e.g., Ellic, Alford, Kabisch, Light- 
foot, Findlay, Milligan) or a|ci. The 
latter is the preferable construction (so 
most editors). The phrase is not needed 
(cf. 15) to limit T. K. to Christians (so 
Chrys., Calvin), for the unbelieving dead 
are not before the writer's mind, and, 
even so, iv would have been the natural 
preposition (cf. 16) , nor does it mean 
martyrdom. In the light of v. 9 (cf. 
Rom. V. 9 ; I Cor. xv. 21), it seems to 
connect less awkwardly with a|ci, though 
not = "at the intercession of Jesus" 

x»— 15. 



•tous KoifATjQeWas 8iA toG 'Itjctou 'S|€i (rhv aurw. 

fi/iiK XEyoixef • ^1' Xoyu * Kupiou, on i^fieis oi ^urres ot * -irepiXciiro- 

15. toOto vApl ="^ose 
•^ • r ^ijo have 

, , / «. » » asleep " 

ficfoi eis TTjK -irapouaiac tou Kupiou " ou |jit) ' (ftddo-bi^K toOs koiutj- (Moult, i. 

r C/. Heb. 
i. 6 and Asc. Isa. iv. 16. 8 LXX of i Kings xx. 35, " Domini nomine et quasi eo loquente " 

(Beza). t 3 Mace. i. 31, viii. 14, etc. u " by no means " (c/. i Cor. viii. 13). v Sap. vi. 13, etc. 

(Rutherford). Jesus is God's agent oi 
the final act, commissioned to raise and 
muster the dead (cf, Stahelin, yahrb. f. 
deut. Theol., 1874, 189 f., and Schettler, 
Die haul. Pnrnutl " riurrh Chrixtu.':" rncT. 
57 f.). The divine mission of the Christ, 
which is to form the climax of things, 
involves the resurrection of the dead 
who are His (v. 10). Any general resur- 
rection is out of the question (so Did., 
xvi. 6 : avacTao'is vckowv • ov iravTwv 
Si, aXX' us IppcOr), tjlct 6 Kvpios Kal 
iravT€s oi £7101 |X€t* avTov). 

Ver. 15. Kvpiov. On the tendency of 
the N.T. writers to reserve Kvpios, with 
its O.T. predicates of divine authority, for 
Jesus, cf. Kattenbusch, op. cit., ii. 522. 
Paul's use of the term goes back to 
Christ's own claim to Kvpios in the higher 
sense of Mark xii. 35 f. — \4yo\i.fv. Con- 
trast the oiSarc of v. 2 and the language 
of iv. 1. Evidently Paul had not had 
time or occasion to speak of such a con- 
tingency, when he was with them. — iv 
\6y<f Kvpiov may mean either (a) a quota- 
tion (like Acts xx. 35) from the sayings of 
Jesus, or (b) a prophetic revelation vouch- 
safed to Paul himself, or to Silvanus {cf. 
Acts XV. 32). In the former case (so, 
among modern editors, Schott, Ewald, 
Drummond, Wohl.), an aYpa({>ov is cited 
(Calvin, Koch, Weizsacker, Resch, Paul- 
inismus, 238 f. ; Ropes, die Spruche Jesu, 
153 f. ; M. Goguel; van der Vies, 15-17; 
O. Holtzmann, Life of yesus, 10 ; von 
Soden) but it is evidently given in a free 
form, and the precise words cannot (even 
in ver. 16) be disentangled. Besides we 
should expect tivi to be added. Unless, 
therefore, we are to think of a primitive 
collection (Lake, Atner. Joum. Theol., 
1906, 108 f.) or of some oral tradition, 
(6) is preferable. The contents of Matt. 
xxiv. 31 (part of the small apocalypse) 
are too dissimilar to favour the conjecture 
(Pelt, Zimmer, Weiss) that Paul was 
thinking of this saying as current per- 
haps in oral tradition, and the O.T. an- 
alogy of X(i-yo8 Kvpiov ( = God's pro- 
phetic word), together with the internal 
probabilities of the case (Paul does not 
remind them of it, as elsewhere in the 
epistle) make it on the whole more likely 

that Paul is repeating words heard in a 
vision [cf. 2 Cor. xii. 9; so Chryst., 
Theod., etc., followed by Alford, de 
Wette, EUicott, Dods, Liinemann, Go- 
det, Paret : Paulus und Jesus, 53 f., 
Simon : die Psychologie des Ap. Paulus, 
IOC, Findlay, Lightfoot, Milligan, Lue- 
ken). Cf. the discussion in Knowling's 
Witness of the Epistles, 408 f. , and Feine's 
yesus Christus u. Paulus, 178, 179. Later 
in the century a similar difficulty vexed 
the pious Jew who wrote Fourth Esdras 
(v. 41, 42 : / said, But lo, O Lord, thou 
hast made the promise to those who shall 
be in the end: and what shall they do 
that have been before us ... ? And He 
said to me, I will liken my judgment to a 
ring ; as there is no slackness of those 
who are last, so shall there be no swiftness 
of those who are first). His theory 
is that the previous generations of Israel 
will be as well off as their posterity in the 
latter days. Further on (xiii. 14 f.) he 
raises and answers the question whether 
it was better to die before the last days 
or to live until they came (the phrase, 
those that are left, " qui relicti sunt," vii. 
28 = Paul's 01 ircpiXei'TTopcvoi). His 
solution (which Steck, in yahrb. fur 
prot. Theol., 1883, 509-524, oddly regards 
as the Xiyos k. of i Thess. iv. 15 ; see 
Schmidt's refutation, pp. 107-110) is the 
opposite of Paul's : those who are left are 
more blessed than those who have died. 
If this difficulty was felt in Jewish circles 
during the first half of the century, it 
may have affected those of the Thessa- 
lonian Christians who had been formerly 
connected with the synagogue, but the 
likelihood is that Paul's language is 
coloured by his own Jewish training {cf, 
Charles on Asc. Isa., iv. 15). The mis- 
understanding of the Thessalonians, 
which had led to their sorrow and per- 
plexity, was evidently due to the fact 
that, for some reason or another, Paul 
had not mentioned the possibility of any 
Christians dying before the second ad- 
vent (so sure was he that all would soon 
survive it), coupled with the fact that 
Greeks found it hard to grasp what ex- 
actly resurrection meant {cf. Acts xvii. 
32) for Christians. 



IV. i6— 18. 

w C/. Hi. Biyra^ • l6. on ''auros 6 Kupiog iv KcXeuV/iaTi, iv ^(jivri * dpxayY^o" 

angels as Kal ^1* ^ (rdXiTiyyi 6eou, KaraPi^CTeTai Att' oupacoG, koI ' oi ccKpol * iv 

xxiv. 31. 'XpioTw di'aaTno-oi'Tai irpciTOj' • 17, ''eireiTa 'nixeis 01 tw/res, oi 
X Judeg: x , ^ / , 

to sum- TrcpiAcnrojiei'oi, ajia auv aurois dpirayTjaoLieOa ci' ce(}>Aais €is 
mon the , •«'>>» 

angels? dTTdrnfjaii' tou Kupiou eis dcpa, koi outw irdiTOTe auv Kupiu ^<to- 

y 1 Cor. XV. )J.€0a. 18. wore ' irapaKaXeiTC d\Xi]Xous ^iy tois X<Jyois 'toutois. 

52, from 
Joel ii. I 

(LXX) ; cf. 4 Esd. vi. 23, etc. z i Cor. xv. 15. a Blaas, § 47, 7. b i Cor. xv.7, 23. 

c V. 10, II. i. 7 ; 2 Cor. iv. 14. d Post-classical form, Win. § 13, 10 cf. Sap. iv. 10. e Genitive 
as in Mt. xxv. i. f Burton, M.T. 237. g v. 11., ii. u. h Instrumental, as i Cor. iv. 

31, etc. i ».«. I5-I7- 

Ver. 16. KcXcvo-fjiaTi = the loud sum- 
mons which was to muster the saints (so 
in Philo, De praem. et poen., 19 : KaOdirep 
ovv dvOpuirovs Iv lo-xaTiats dircpKicrpk- 
ivov% ^(}.Sibis Evl KcXevo-fxaTi a-vva.ya.yo\. 6 
6eos airb ircpdrwy els 8 ti av deXijcrji 
Xop^ov), forms, as its lack of any genitive 
shows, one conception with the <|>. a. 
and the <r. 9. {cf. DCG, ii. 766). The 
archangel is Michael, who in Jewish 
tradition not only summoned the angels 
but sounded a trumpet to herald God's 
approach for judgment (e.g., in Apoc. 
Mosis, xxii.). With such scenic and real- 
istic details, drawn from the heterogene- 
ous eschatology of the later Judaism, 
Paul seeks to make intelligible to his 
own mind and to that of his readers, in 
quite.,an._Qrigin_al .fftshi.Qn {cf. Stahclin, 
yahrb. f. deut. Theol., 1874, pp. igg- 
218), the profound truth that neither death 
npr.any. cosmic crisis in the future ^yill 
make any essential difference to the close 
relation between the ChristJ^ A and his 
Lord. OvTio iravTOTc orvv Kvpi<|> eo-<Sp.e9a 
{cf. V. 11; 2 Cor. V. 8; Phil. i. 20) : this is all 
that remains to us, in our truer view of 
the universe, from the naive XfJyos KvpCov 
of the apostle, but it is everything. 
Note that Paul says nothing here about 
any change of the body (Teichmann, 
35 f.), or about the embodiment of the 
risen life in its celestial 8<i|a. See 
Asc. Isa., iv. 14-15 : "And the Lord will 
come with His holy angels and with the 
armies of the holy ones from the seventh 
heaven . . . and He will give rest to 
the godly whom He shall find in the 
body in this world." 

Ver. 17. Iv vecfiAais, the ordinary 
method of sudden rapture or ascension to 
heaven (Acts i. g, 11; Rev. xi. 12; Slav. 
En. iii. I, 2). — apiraYno-oixeOa. So in 
Sap. iv. II, the righteous man, cvdpeo-TOs 
T^j 6e^ (i Thess. iv. i) ycvciiJievos TJYa- 
'Trr\9'f\ (i Thess. i. 4), is caught up 
(■^pTToiYr)). — ap,a <rviv ovtois . . . <rvv 
Kvpt^, the future bliss is a re-union of 

Christians not only with Christ but with 
one another. — els oiravTijo-vv, a pre- 
Christian phrase of the koine {cf. e.g., 
Tebtunis Papyri, rgo2, pt. i., n. 43, 7, 
irapcYCvi^Orifjiev els aTravTrjo-iv, k.t.X., and 
Moulton, i. 14), implying welcome of a 
great person on his arrival. What fur- 
ther functions are assigned to the saints, 
thus incorporated in the retinue of the 
Lord (iii. 13; cf. 2 Thess. i. 10), — 
whether, e.g., they are to sit as assessors 
at the judgment (Sap. iii. 8 ; i Cor. vi. 2, 
3 ; Luke xxii. 30) — Paul does not stop to 
state here. His aim is to reassure the 
Thcssalonians about the prospects of 
their dead in . relation to the Lord, not., 
to giyeanycomplete programme of the 
future (so Matt. xxiv. 31 ; Did. x., xvi.). 
Plainly, however, the saints do not rise 
at once to heaven, but return with the 
Lord to the scene of his final manifesta- 
tion on earth (so Chrysost., Aug., etc.). 
They simply meet the Lord in the air, on 
his way to judgment— a trait for which 
no Jewish parallel can be found. — Kal 
ovTus iravTOTe avv Kvpicp l(rop.e9a (no 
more sleeping in him or waiting for 

Ver. 18. Iv Tois X^yois TovTois. Paul 
had an intelligible word upon the future, 
unlike the Hellenic mysteries which 
usually made religion a matter of feel- 
ing rather than of definite teaching 
(Hardic's Led. on Classical Subjects, 
pp. 53 f.). A pagan letter of consolation 
has been preserved from the second 
century {Oxyrh. Papyri, i. 115) : " Eirene 
to Taonnophris and Philon good cheer ! 
I was as grieved and wept as much over 
Eumoiros as over Didymas, and I did all 
that was fitting, as did all my family. 
. . . But still we can do nothing in such 
a case. So comfort yourselves. Good- 
bye." One of Cicero's pathetic letters 
{ad. Fam., xiv. 2), written from Thessa- 
lonica, speaks doubtfully of any re-union 
after death (" haec non sunt in manu 
nostra "). 

V. 1-5. 



V. I. ricpl 8e Tuv '^\p6v<i)v Kal twk 'Kaipuc, dS6X<t>oi, ou ^-j^peiav a See on 

„ ,« /in b>^^a>r> xc oh/ Acts i. 7. 

€\eTe ufj,i.y ypaqiecrvai. ■ 2. auToi y^p aKpipws oioare on rjficpa b C/. iv. 9. 
ix'*<\/ > \<» >» f€» i\/ cC/. on 

Kupiou (1)9 KXeimrjs iv i'okti outus cpxcrai * 3. orac ^ Xcycoci)" Actsxviii 

"'Eipr\vii] Kttl dac^dXeia," 'totc '^ aii^cLSios aurois ' cmorarai ''oXc-d Without 

a 1« cinio »> ^3' ^n9\>i' article as 

Opos uo-irep tj woii' tt) ck yaoTpi €\ou(rd, Kai 00 jjitj cKcpuYUCii'. in Phil. i. 

c ^^N>^\|/ i > ^90 / DC ec/ nc*^ e 6) ^0, ii. 

4. up.€i.s oe, aocA9oi, ouk core ec CKOTei *^ ifa tj Tjfjiepa ^ u|jias wt; ig. 

KX^Trras ^ KaraXd^Tj • 5. irdrres y^p o/ieis ' uioi <^a>T<is core Kal uio'^ * scence of 

saying ia 
Lk. xii. 

39; cf. Rev. iii. 3, xvi. 15. f C/. i Cor. xv. 54. g Ezek. xiii. 10. h Lk. xxi. 34. i Win. 

!S 5, 10, c. ; Sap. vi. 5. k "Destruction" (II. i. g). 1 C/. En. Ixii. 4. m On form, c/. 

Win. § 9, 10. n iv. 15; cf. Ps. Sol. xv. 9, and above on iv. 8. o Rom. ii. 19; cf. Horn. 

Iliad, ill. 10, (cAe'iTTjf 6«' re wktos a^eiVu. p Conceived result (c/. Burton, M.T., 218-219) ="80 

that". q Emphatic. r From Lk. xvi. 8 (cf. En. cviii. 11)? 

' To the original asyndeton of orav (^*AG, 17, 44, 47, 179, d, e, f, g, Syr.sch, 
arm., aeth., Tert., Cyp., Jer , Orig., etc. ; so edd.), either yap (KLP, vg. Euthal., 
Dam.), or 8c (J«^cBD, cop., Syr.P, Eus., Chrys,, Theod., Schott, Findlay, WH marg.) 
has been subsequently added. For wo-irc p tj w8iv, Bentl. conj. (o<rircpci uSivcs- 

"^ KXcirras (AB cop., so Bentl., Grot., Koch, Ewald, Kenan, Jowett, Rutherford, 
Lach., WH, Lgft), seems to be smoothed away in the strongly attested variant and 
correction KXeirr-qs (from ver. 2). Field (200-201) cites instances from Plutarch (e.g., 
Vit. Crassi, xxix., rov 8e Kpao-o-ov "njMpa KarcXa^cv) and Pausanias, to illustrate 
nocturnal operations being surprised by the advent of the dawn. " The echo of the 
word (KXeim)?) is still in his ears ; to avoid repetition, he changes its use. Lastly, 
the reading KXc-irras gives a point to moi (^wtos " (Jowett). For another instance of 
AB preserving the original reading, cf. Eph. i. 20. 

Chapter V, — Vv. i-ii. irepi tAt 
XP<Sv(i>v Kal Twv Kaipwv. 

Ver. I. The times and periods are not 
" simply the broad course of time, of 
which the ^ Kvpiov constitutes the 
closing scene " (Baur) ; Kaipos denotes 
a section of time more definitely than 
Xpiivos, in Greek usage. "No nation 
has distinguished so subtly the different 
forms under which time can be logically 
conceived. Xpdvos is time viewed in its 
extension, as a succession of moments, 
the external framework of action. . . . 
Kaipcis, a word, which has, I believe, 
no single or precise eqivalent in any 
other language ... is that immediate 
present which is what we make it ; time 
charged with opportunity " (Butcher, 
Harvard Led. on Gk. Subjects, pp. 117- 
119). In the plural, especially in this 
eschatological outlook, the phrase is little 
more, however, than a. periphrasis for 
" when exactly things are to happen ". 
Paul thought he needed to do no more 
than reiterate the suddenness of the Last 
Day. But, not long afterwards, he found 
that the Thessalonians did require to have 
the \p6voi Kal Kaipot explained to them 
in outline (IL, ii. 2 f.). 

Ver. 2. oi8aTc, referring to the teach- 
ing of Jesus on this crucial point, which 
Paul had transmitted to them (see Intro- 

Ver. 3. Srav, k.t.X., when the very 
words, " All's well," " It is all right," are 
on their lips. — lirio-TaToi, of an enemy 
suddenly appear ng (Isocrat., Evag., 
§ 58 lirl TO ^aaiXciov iirurris, Herod, 
iv. 203). — avTois, i.e., while the Day 
comes suddenly to Christians and un- 
believers alike, only the latter are sur- 
prised by it. Christians are on the alert, 
open-eyed ; they do not know when it 
is to come, but they are alive to any 
signs of its coming. Thus there is no 
incompatibility between this emphasis 
on the instantaneous character of the 
advent and the emphasis, in II., ii. 3 f., 
on the preliminary conditions. 

Ver. 4. From the sudden and unex- 
pected nature of the Last Day, Paul 
passes, by a characteristic inversion of 
metaphor in KXeirras, to a play of thought 
upon the day as light. A double sym- 
bolism of r\pLipa, as of Koi|xa<rflai, thus 
pervades 4-8. Lightfoot cites a very 
striking parallel from Eur., Iph. Taur., 

Ver. 5. The present age is utter night 

(TV^^^ i^St^), ^s contemporary 

rabbis taught ; the age to come is all day. 
Meantime faith is to be held fast through 
this night [cf. passages quoted in Schlat- 
ter's die Sfrache u. Heimai des vierten 
Evangelislen, 17, 18). viol ^. Kal v. 




s II. 3, 
t C/. II. ii. 

15 ; cf. I 

Rom. V. 

18, etc. 
u Cf. on 

V iv. 13. 
w Cf. on I 

Cor. xvi. 

13; Mt. 

xxiv. 42. 
X See on i 

Pet. V. 8. 
y Win. § 

z Eph. vi. 

M. 17; 

Rom. xiii. 

II f. 
B Constr. ; 

cf. Win. § 
e Emphatic 

as in II. ii 
k iv. 18. 

VifA^pas • ofiK lafJicc kuktos " ouSc CKtSrous. 6 "Apo * oBi' ^ " Ka6- 
cuS&ijxeK is ol * Xoiiroi dXXd " YpTiyopuijJieK xai * cii^xojjiei'. 7. 01 
yap KadcuSorres cuktos KaGcuSouat • ical 01 ^ p.eOuaKcSfici'oi i'uktos 
fxeOuouaiK • 8. * t]p,€i$ 8c * i^p,^pa9 orrcs n^ifwufiCK, ** IkSuo-dp.ev'oi 
°6(6paKa -irioT6(i)S Kal dyi^^iTTis Kal ir6piKc<)>a\aiai' IXiriSa auTTjpias' 
9. oTi ouK ^ 60CTO 'i^fjias 6 ©eos els ^h^>ci\v dXX' €is ' irepiiroiTjaiK 
a(i>TT]pias Sid ToD Kupiou x\^v 'Itjo-ou XpioTOu, 10. ToG diroOav- 
6vTQ% uTTep i^fJiuk, tea ^cire yp^lY^P^P'^*') ^''^^ KaOeuSufieK, 'afjia adn 
auTu ^i^aup-Er. II. Sio '' irapaKaXei'^v dXXiqXous Kal oiKoSofieiTC 
' CIS Toc cka, KaO^s Kal iroiciTc. 

30, II, b. b Isa. lix. 17. c Cf. on Eph. vi. 14=" coat of mail ". d i Pet. H. 8. 
as opposed to oi Aoittoi. f i. 10. g Cf. on Eph. i. 14 ; here active (= possess.) 

. 14. Heb. X. 39. h Cf. for syntax, Rom. xiv. 8; Burton, M.T., 252-253. i iv. vj, 

1 unclassical, Blass, § 45, 2 ; cf. i Cor. v. 6. 

'^|x^pas is a stronger and Semitic way of 
expressing the thought of " belonging 
to " {cf. ver. 8). 

Ver. 6. To be alert, in one's sober 
tenses (vi]<J>eiv), is more than to be 
merely awake. Here, as in verse 8, the 
Christians are summoned to live up to 
their privileges and position towards the 
Lord. " There are few of us who are 
not rather ashamed of our sins and follies 
as we look out on the blessed morning 
sunlight, which comes to us like a bright- 
winged angel beckoning us to quit the 
old path of vanity that stretches its 
dreary length behind us" (George Eliot). 
In one of the Zoroastrian scriptures 
(Vendidad, xviii. 23-25) the cock, as the 
bird of the dawn, is inspired to cry, " Arise, 
O men ! . . . Lo here is Bushyasta com- 
ing down upon you, who lulls to sleep 
again the whole living world as soon as 
it has awoke, saying, ' Sleep, sleep on, 
O man [and live in sin, Yaskt, xxii. 41] I 
The time is not yet come.* " 

Ver. 7. Cf. Plutarch, De Iside. vi., 
Olvov 8^ ol (aJv kv "HXiov irdXei, 9cpa- 
irevovTCS tov 0e6v ovik €l(r<|>€poi;«riv TOira- 
pdirav els to lcp(Sv, us otr Trpoo-TJKOV r\V.l- 
pas irivciv, TOV Kvpiov Kal ^airiXcws 


Ver. 8. lv8v(rdp,cvoi 6«SpaKa k.t.X., 
the thought of ii. 12. 13 ; the mutual love 
of Christians, which forms the practical 
expression of their faith in God, is their 
true fitness and equipment for the second 
advent. Faith and love are a unity ; 
where the one goes the other follows. 
They are also not merely their own coat 
of mail, requiring no extraneous protec- 
tion, but the sole protection of life against 
indolence, indifference and indulgence. 
They need simply to be used. If they 

are not used, they are lost, and with them 
the Christian himself. The transition to 
the military metaphor is mediated (as in 
Rom. xiii. 12, 13) by the idea of the 
sentry's typical vigilance. 

Ver. 9. The mention of the future 
cruTTjp^a starts Paul off, for a moment, 
on wnat it involves (9, 10). 

Ver. 10. Life or death makes no dif- 
ference to the Christian's union and 
fellowship with Jesus Christ, whose death 
was in our eternal interests (cf. Rom. xiv. 
7-9). For this metaphorical use of yprjy. 
«lTe KaO. (different from that in 6), Wohl. 
cites Plato, Symp., 203a : SidrovTov (i.e. 
Eros) iroo-a Io-tiv r\ 6p,i\ia Kal '^ 8id- 
XcKTos Ocois irpos dvOpuTTovs, Kal cypt)- 
yopdcri Kal KaOcvSovcriv, as a possible 

Ver. II. The modification in the 
primitive attitude of Christians to the 
Parousia of Jesus is significant. Instead 
of all expecting to be alive at that blessed 
crisis, the inroads of death had now forced 
men to the higher consolation that " it 
did not make the least difference whether 
one became partaker of the blessings of 
that event in the ranks of the dead or of 
the living. The question whether the 
Parousia was to happen sooner or late"- 
was no longer of paramount importance. 
The important thing was to cultivate 
that attitude of mind which the writer 
of this epistle recommended" (Baur). — 
olKo8op.cXTC, the term sums up all the 
support and guidance that a Christian 
receives from the fellowship of the church 
{cf. Beyschlag's N.T. Theology, ii. 232). 
— KaObis Kal iroieiTc, another instance 
(cf. iv. I, 10) of Paul's fine courtesy 
and tact. He is careful to recog- 
nise the Thessalonians' attainments, 

6 — 17. 

nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A 


12. " 'EpajTUfieK 8c ujjias, dSeXcJiol, "clS^i'ai tous ° KoiriuiTas Ii' m iv. i, II 

u/iiK Kal ^ irpoiaTafJL^j'oos uftwi' cf Kupiu Kal ** I'OuOcTOUi'Tas ujaSs, 13- '^ C/. ^s. 

Ktti "■ T^Yeifffio'' auToiis oTTcpcKircpio-ffus ^i' dyciirT) Sid to cpyof auTui'. i Cor. 

'ciPTii'€u€Te CI* *louToic. 14. " ivapaKaXouu.ei' 8e uuas, A8eX<t>oi, Ign. 

""' a-a\»)ni' i 1 Smym.ix. 

j'ouOcTciTe TOUS ' dTdKTOUS, ' irapaixueeiCT0e toOs oXivotl/oxous, &yrrt- o Gal. iv. 

A- \ / .«,/ii;i Cor. 

Xeffflc TW daOci'wt', ' fj,OKpo0up,€iT6 irpos irain-as. 15. opaTC ^i] xv. 10. 

Tis * KaKoi' dn-l KaKou tik diroSw • dXXd irdin-OTC t6 *" dyaOoi' 8ic5- Rom. 

K6T£ els dXXi]Xous Kal CIS irdrras. 16. irdi'TOTe 'x**^P*t^> '7- A8ia-qSeeon 

Acts XX. 

31 ; 1 Cor. 

iv. 14. r Phil. ii. 3; c/. Thuc. iv. 5, etc. s Mk.; 2 Cor. xiii. 11. t =oXXi)Aots. 

(so Plato, Gorg. 465 c). u C/. ii. 11. v Xen. Mem. III. i. 7. w ii. 11 ; Joh. xi. 19. 31. 

X 9; Isa. Ivii. 15; Sir. vii. 10, and Ps. Sol. xvi. 11. y See on i Cor. xiii. 4. z Object. 

clause (Burton, M.T. 209). a Prov. xx. 22 (Matt. v. 44); Rom. xii. 17. b ="Whatiskind 

and helpful." c Paul's practice, 3 Cor. vi. 10; cf. Phil. iv. 4; Rom. xii. 12, and Col.i. 11. 

d i. 3; cf. Ign. Eph. x.; Herm. Sim. ix. 11,7 ; Ep. Arist. 226 (Tbc ©eov cTriKixAoi; Stairavros). 

even while stirring them up to further 

Vv. 12-22. General instructions for 
the church. 

Ver. 12. These irpoio-Tdp,cvoi are not 
officials but simply local Christians like 
Jason, Secundus, and perhaps Demas (in 
whose houses the Christians met), who, 
on account of their capacities or position, 
had informally taken the lead and made 
themselves responsible for the welfare 
and worship of the new society. The 
organisation is quite primitive, and the 
triple description of these men's functions 
is too general to permit any precise de- 
lineation of their duties [cf. Lindsay's 
The Church and the Ministry in the Early 
Centuries, pp. 122 f.). KoiriuvTas denotes 
the energy and practical interest of these 
people, which is further defined by irpoi- 
aTap,cvovs (a term with technical associa- 
tions, to which Iv Kvpicp is added in order 
to show that their authority rests on re- 
ligious services) and vovfleTovvras ( = the 
moral discipline, perhaps of catechists, 
teachers and prophets). An instinct ot 
rebellion against authority is not confined 
to any one class, but artisans and trades- 
men are notorious for a tendency to suspect 
or depreciate any control exercised over 
them in politics or in religion, especially 
when it is exercised by some who have 
risen from their own ranks. The com- 
munity at Thessalonica was largely re- 
cruited from this class, and Paul, with 
characteristic penetration, appeals for 
respect and generous appreciation towards 
the local leaders. 

Ver. 13, " Regard them with a very 
special love for their works' sake " (so 
thorough and important it is). " Be at 
peace among yourselves " (instead of 
introducing divisions and disorder by any 
insubordination or carping). 

Ver. 14. The particular form of in- 
subordination at "Thessalonica was idle- 
ness (for the contemporary use of ot. in 
this sense, see Oxyrh. Papyri, ii. 1901, 
p. 275). Similarly, in Olynth. iii. 11, 
Demosthenes denounces all efforts made 
to shield firom punishment tovs droK- 
TovvTas, i.e., those citizens who shirk ac- 
tive service and evade the State's call for 
troops. — 6XiYoi|/vxo'us = "faint-hearted" 
(under trial, i. 6, see references), avri- 
X€o-8e (cleave to, put your arm round), 
do-Ocvwv (i.e., not in health only but 
in faith or position. Acts xx. 35), p,aK. 
IT. irdvTas = do not lose temper or 
patience with any (of the foregoing 
classes) however unreasonable and exact- 
ing they may be {cf. Prov. xviii. 14, LXX). 
The mutual services of the community 
are evidently not to be left to the irpoior- 
Tdp,€yoi, for Paul here urges on the rank 
and file the same kind of social duties as 
he implies were incumbent upon their 
leaders (cf. vov0€t. 12, 14). If dScX<{>o£ 
here meant the irpoioTdiAevoi, it would 
have been more specificially defined. 
An antithesis between 12 and 14 would 
be credible in a speech, not in a letter. 

Ver. 15. The special circumstances 
which called for forbearance (ver. 14) were 
likely to develop a disposition to retaliate 
upon those who displayed an ungenerous 
and insubordinate spirit (e.g., the Sto- 
KToi) ; but the injunction has a wider 
range (els irdvTas. including their fellow- 
countrymen, ii. 14). 

Ver. 16. To comment adequately upon 
these diamond drops (16-18) would be to 
outline a history ol the Christian experi- 
ence in its higher levels, ir. x"-^?^"^^} ^f 
Epict, i. 16 (" Had we understanding, 
ought we to do anything but sing hymns 
and bless the Deity and tell of His bene- 
fits ? . . . What else can I do, a lame 



V IV, 

w r 

t C/^il ii ^^f'y irpoacuxcaOe, 1 8. * iv irarrl ' €U)(api(j-T€iTe • 'touto yap 
Rorn^v^ iy^°' ®^°" ^^ XpiOTw 'ItjcoO ''els u|xds. 19. to iri'eup.a ' fiTj 

u cf/ o'*^ YOeVf UTC, 20. -n'po(|>T]T6ias (at) c^ouOei/eiTe • 2 1 . irdKTa ^ 8c 'SoKifia^crc, 

I'P'*^*^*''' o " KaXoK KaWx^Te • 22. ° diro iracTos " eiSous ironfipou ^ a-nexeaQt. 

23. 'Autos Sc 6 0c6s tt]S elpVjKtjs dyidaai ujxds 'oXoTcXeis* Kal 

o 'V. 3. 

h For ab- 
sence of article in this constr. see Field, 59-60 on the similar usage in Lk. vii. 30. i "Give 
over " : /u.ti with pres. imper. implies action already begun Moult, i. 122 f. k Contrast 2 Tim. 
i. 5, and cf. i Cor. xiv. i. 1 ii. 4 ; i Jo. iv. i. m 2 Cor. xiii. 7 ; Phil. i. 10. n Like Job 
(Job i. I, 8, ii. 3). o ="form " or "sort " (so Jos. /4«i. x. 3). P iv. 3 ; cf. Did. iii. i. 

q lii. 11, iv. 16. r Only here (N.T.), = oXovs (through and through). 

' After iravra edd. add the disjunctive 8e (with almost all MSS. and vss., also 
Clem., Alex., Paed. iii. 12, 95, exc. ^*A, cop., sy.sch), which became absorbed by 
the first syllable of the following word. Blass (after K, min., etc.) SoKiftatovTcs. 

old man, than sing hymns to God ? . . . 
I exhort you to join in this same song.") 
There is a thread of connection with the 
foregoing counsel. The unswerving aim 
of being good and doing good to all men, 
is bound up with that faith in God's un- 
failing goodness to men which enables 
the Christian cheerfully to accept the 
disappointments and sufferings of social 
life. This faith can only be held by 
prayer, i.e., a constant reference of all 
life's course to God, and such prayer must 
be more than mere resignation ; it im- 
plies a spirit of unfailing gratitude to 
God, instead of any suspicious or rebel- 
lious attitude. 

Ver. 17. " Pray always, says the 
Apostle ; that is, have the habit of prayer, 
turning your thoughts into acts by con- 
necting them with the idea of the redeem- 
ing God " (Coleridge, Notes on the Book 
of Common Prayer), cp. iii. ii, v. 23. 

Ver. 18. Chrysostom, who wrote : rh 
del St)Xov<iTi EvxapicTTcXv, tovto (^iXotrd- 
^ov i|«vxT)S> gave a practical illustration 
of this heroic temper by repeating, as he 
died in the extreme hardships of an en- 
forced and painful exile, 86|a r^ Oew 
irdvTwv ^vcKa. For thanksgiving even 
in bereavement, cf. Aug., Conf, ix. 12 ; 
and further, ibid., ix. 7 (tunc hymni et 
psalmi ut canerentur, secundum morem 
Orientalium partium, ne populus maeroris 
taedio contabesceret, inatitutum est). 

Ver. 19. TovTO k.t.X. The primary 
reference is to tvxapio-reiTE, but the pre- 
ceding imperatives are so closely bound 
up with this, that it is needless to exclude 
them from the scope of the OcXT]p.a. — Iv 
X. 'I. This glad acceptance' of life's rain 
and sunshine alike as from the hand of 
God, Jesus not only exemplified {cf. con- 
text of |ii|iY)Tal . . . Tov Kvp(ov, i. 6) 
but also enabled all who keep in touch 
with him to realise. The basis of it 

is the Christian revelation and experi- 
ence; apart from the living Lord it is 
neither conceivable nor practicable (cf. 
R. H. Hutton's Modern Guides of English 
Thought, pp. 122 {.). 

Ver. 20. As cixopio-reiv was a special 
function of the prophets in early Chris- 
tian worship {cf. Did. x. 7), the transition 
is natural. The local abuses of ecstatic 
prophecy in prediction (2 Thess. ii. 2) or 
what seem to be exaggerated counsels 
of perfection (ver. 16 f.) must not be al- 
lowed to provoke any reaction which 
would depreciate and extinguish this vital 
gift or function of the faith. Paul, with 
characteristic sanity, holds the balance 
even. Such enthusiastic outbursts are 
neither to be despised as silly vapouring 
nor to be accepted blindly as infallible 
revelations. The true criticism of irpo- 
+t)T€(o comes (ver. 21) from the Christian 
conscience which is sensitive to the KaXtiv, 
the <ru)jk^cpov, the oiKo8op,i], or the 
dvaXoy^a ttjs tria-rtus {cf. Weizsacker's 
Apost. Age, ii. 270 f.). But this criticism 
must be positive. In applying the stand- 
ard of spiritual discernment, it must sift, 
not for the mere pleasure of rejecting the 
erroneous but with the object of retaining 
what is genuine. 

Ver. 22. A further general precept, 
added to bring out the negative side of 
KOT€x«Te, K.T.X. — TTovTjpov ncut. abstract 
= "of wickedness," as Gen. ii. 9 (tov 
clScvai •yvwo-Tov xaXov Kal iroviipov). — 
iravTos K.T.X., perhaps an allusion to the 
manifold ways of going wrong (Arist., 
Nik. I Eth., ii. 6 14, t6 y.ev dp,apTdvciy 
iroXXaxws ifrriv . % . rh 82 KaTopOovv 

Ver. 23. elpi]VT)s, with a special allu- 
sion to the breaches of harmony and 
charity produced by vice {cf. connection 
of iii. 12, 13 and iv. 3 f.), indolence, im- 
patience of authority or of defects in one 




• 6X($kXi)pok fifiwi' TO irveufxa xal r\ ^u\i] ital rh ' <T(S}i.a dfxc'/xirrt ^^s iv m iv. i, II 
TTJ -irapoutria too Kupiou 'ItjctoG XpicrroO TTjpTj06iT|. 24. " tC 13- ° ^f.:^^- 
Tos 6 ^ KaXuf uixas, os Kal * iroiinaei. 'W- ^ 9°'v, 

■^ ' ^ , XVI. 18 

25. 'A8€\<|>oI, * Trpo<TCox€a0€ ircpl t^uuk. 26. doirdaoaOe to6s < l6°- 
dSeX^oi); irdrros ^f ' <^tXiifiaTi * &yi<a. t Q. . •• '^• 

27. ^j'opKiJtij ^ ufias ' Tov Kdpioj', '' dk'oyi'wcrOTji'oi ttjk * ^ttiotoXtji' u see 

" i c \ i - above on 

irao-i TOis docAipois. iii_ 13^ 

28. iq X'^P'-^ '''°^ Kopiou TJfxuK 'Irjaou Xpiorou jacO' ufxcjK. io_ 

T See on i 
Cor. i. 9. 
w As Num. xxiii. ig; Ps. xxxvii. 5 (LXX). x Ver. 17, II. iii. 1. y See on Rom. xvi. 16; 

I Cor. xvi. 30; and Justin's Apol. i. 65. z Clem. Alex. Paed. III. ii. 81. a For constr. cf. 

Acts xix. 13. b Lk. iv. 16; Acts xv. 31 ; 3 Cor. iii. 15 ; Col. iv. 16. c II. ii. 15. 

^ Read cvopici^u [only here N.T., = "adjure," strengthened form of opKi^w] with 
ABD*, min., Euth., Dam. (edd.). But om. aYiois before aScXc^ois with J^*BDG, 
min., d, e, f, g, aeth., Euth., Amb., Cassiod. (edd., exc de Wette, Koch, EUic, 
Weiss) ; the addition of 0^1019, like the omission of ira<ri, "entspringt vielleicht dem 
hierarchischen Interesse, die Bibel nicht Allen zuganglich zu machen " (Zimmer). 

another (v. 13 f.), retaliation (v. 15), and 
differences of opinion (v. 19 f.) Such 
faults affect the 0-up.a, the tl'vx^ ^"^ ^^^ 
irvcvft,a respectively, as the sphere of that 
pure and holy consciousness whose out- 
come is clpi^vT). — vpuv, unemphatic geni- 
tive (as in iii. 10, 13, cjf. Abbott's yohan- 
nine Grammar, 2559a) throwing the em- 
phasis on the following word or words. 
irvcvp,a is put first, as the element in 
human nature which Paul held to be 
most directly allied to God, while ^xh 
denotes as usual the individual life. The 
collocation of these terms is unusual but 
of course quite untechnical. — a|j.ep,irTws 
has almost a proleptic tinge = " preserved 
entire, (so as to be) blameless at the ar- 
rival of," which has led to the substitu- 
tion, in some inferior MSS., of cvpcBE^T) 
for n]pT)9eCT| (cf. textual discussion in 
Amer. Jour. Theol., 1903, 453 f.). The 
construction is rather awkward, but the 
general sense is clear. With the thought 
of the whole verse compare Ps. Sol. xviii. 
6 : KaOapio'ai 6 6eos 'lo-paTjX . . . cU 
^^^pav IkXcyhs cv ava|ci XpKrrov avrov, 
silso the description of Abraham being 
preserved by the divine ao^ia in Sap. 
X. 5 (irrfp-qfrtv avT&v ap.cpirTOv dcy). 

Ver. 24. The call implies that God 
will faithfully carry out the process of 
aYid^co-Oat and TT)pci(r6ai (cf. Phil. i. 6), 
which is the divine side of the human 
endeavour outlined in the preceding verse. 

Vv. 25-27. Closing wordb of counsel 
and prayer. 

Ver. 26. Neither here, nor above at 
ver. 14, is there any reason to suppose 
that Paul turns to address the leaders of 
the local church (so e.g., Bornemann, 
Ellicott, Alford, Askwith, Zimmer, Light- 

foot, Weiss, Findlay) as though they 
were, in the name of the apostle(s), to 
convey the holy {i.e. not of convention or 
human passion) kiss, which betokened 
mutual affection [cf. Renan's S. Paul, 
262, DCG. i. 935, and E. Bi. 4254) in the 
early Christian worship. This greeting 
by proxy is not so natural as the ordinary 
sense of the words ; the substitution of 
T. a. -IT. for the more common aXXijXovs 
is intelligible in the light, e.g., cf. Phil, 
iv. 21 ; and it would be harsh to postulate 
so sharp a transition from the general 
reference of v. 25 and v. 28. Even in 
ver. 27 it is not necessary to think of the 
local leaders. While the epistle would 
naturally be handed to some of them in 
the first instance, it was addressed to the 
church; the church owned it and was 
held responsible for its public reading at 
the weekly worship. — irao-iv, like the 
iravras of ver. 26, simply shows Paul's 
desire to prevent the church from becom- 
ing, on any pretext, a clique or coterie. 
But the remarkable emphasis of the in- 
junction points to a period when such 
public reading of an apostolic epistle 
was not yet a recognised feature in the 
worship of the churches. Paul lays 
stress upon the proper use of his epistle, 
as being meant not for a special set, but 
for the entire brotherhood (i.e., at Thes- 
salonica, not, as Flatt thinks, in Mace- 
donia). See that every member gets a 
hearing of it at some meeting or other 
(avaY., timeless aor.), and thus knows 
exactly what has been said. So Apoc. 
Bar. Ixxxvi. : " when therefore ye receive 
this my epistle, read it in your congre- 
gations with care. And meditate thereon, 
above all on the days of your fasts." 



a Cf. I. i. X. I. r. • riAYAOI KOi ZiXouafos Kai TiiioOeos tt) ^KKXtiaia eeaaaXo- 
b Cf. I Cor. ^ , ^ „ , , r ^ ^ , 

viKiuv iv 6€u irarpi r\^(iiv Kai Kupiu lT]aou Xpioru * 2. X^P''^ "f^*'*' 

Kal 'eipTJnf] ''diro 0cou irarpos ^ koI Kupiou 'Irjaou ^ Xpiorou. 

3. " €vyapiartiv * 6<|)€i\o/jici' tw 0ew irdi/TOTC ircpl u|xwi', dS€X<}>oi, 

(kuOus ^ a^tov ioTiv) on * UTrepauldcei i^ ttiotis 6p.UK Kal * irXeoi/d^ei 

rj ' dydiTK] Ikos eKdcrrou irdvTUiv u\i(2v els dXXi^Xous • 4. wore aureus 

'^ T]p.ds iv fifiiK ' eY'^<^"X^<^^°^'' ^•' '^"■^^ ' eKKXtjaiais tou 6€0u, uirep 

i. 3, etc. 
c ii. 13; 

I John 

iii. 16, iv, 

d See on i 

Cor. xvi. 

4 and ^e /^c~ \ ' >~ ~c ~t~ \ 

Phil. i. 7. TT|S UTrop,ovT]s up-uc Kai irioTcws ck iraai Tois oiwyP-oiS vfioiy Kai 
e Only here 

in N.T. 
f 2 Pet. i. 8. e In answer to prayer of I. iii, 12, iv. g-io. b As well as others (I. i.8); Stvr* 

with inf. as in 1. 1. 7. i See 3 Cor. ix. 3. k i.e. of Achaia, etc. Cf. I. i. 3. 

^ Om. t]p,ci)v after irarpos with BDP, 17, 49, 71, d, e, Theoph., Pelag. (Al., Lachm^ 
WH, Findlay, Milligan, etc.), as a scribal addition from ver. i. 

Chapter I. — Vv. 1-8. The address 
(i. I, 2) is followed first by a thanksgiving 
(3-10) which passes into a prophetic piece 
of consolation, and then by a brief 
prayer (11, 12). 

Ver. 3. irepl vpwv : Your thankless 
situation (4 f.) only throws into more 
brilliant relief your personal character 
and bearing under adverse circumstances. 
8rt is best represented by our colloquial 
♦' because," which includes both the 
causal and the objective senses of the 
word; what forms matter for thanks- 
giving is naturally the reason for thanks- 
giving. aYaTTT) K.r.X., a period of strain 
tires mutual gentleness (see on Rev. ii. 4) 
as well as patience towards God (ver. 4), 
since irritation and lack of unselfish con- 
sideration for others {cf. iii. 6 f.) may be 
as readily produced by a time 01 tension 
and severe anxiety as an impatient 
temper of faith. Paul is glad and grate- 
ful that suffering was drawing his friends 
together and binding them more closely 
to their Lord, instead of stunting the 
growth of their faith and drying up 
the flow of their mutual charity. Praise 
comes as usual before blame. Paul is 
proud of his friends, because suffering 
has not spoiled their characters, as suffer- 

ing, especially when due to oppression 
and injustice, is too apt to do. — &<f ci\op,cv 
(so Cic. ad. Fam., xiv. 2, gratiasque 
egi, ut debui ; Barn. v. 3, vii. i), the 
phrase is unexampled in Paul, but not 
unnatural (cf. Rom. xv. i, etc.) ; " the 
form of duty is one which all thoughts 
naturally take in his mind" (Jowett). 

Ver. 4. The single article groups 
•uirojAovT) and iricrris as a single concep- 
tion = faith in its special aspect of 
patient endurance (cf. on Rev. xiii. 10), 
faithful tenacity of purpose. M. Geb- 
hardt, in his L'ltalie Mystique (pp. 318 f.), 
observes that " the final word of 1 -ante's 
belief, of that 'religion of the heart' 
which he mentions in the Convito, is given 
in the 24th canto of the Paradiso. He 
comes back to the very simple symbol of 
Paul, faith, hope and love ; for him as for 
the apostle faith is at bottom simply 
hope." Faith is more than that to Paul, 
but sometimes hardly mo: e. The Thessa- 
lonians are not to fear that they are hold- 
ing a forlorn outpost. Neither man nor 
God overlooks their courage (cf. Plato's 
Theaet., xxv., avSpiKus tiirop.civai Kal p^ 
avavSpws (^cv^civ). Their founders and 
friends at a distance are watching with 
pride their resolute faith ; while in God's 

I. 1—8. 



Tals &Ki^e<Tiv at? dc^xcode, 5' " ci'SeiyfAO ttjs SiKaias Kpiffcws Toul Attract. fir 

6eou, " CIS TO " KaTa5i(t>air]i'ai ujias tt]$ paaiXeias tou 0eou, uircp tjs (Win. § 

Kai TrdaxcTC • 6. •'ciirep ^ SLKaioc -irapd 0cw ' dkTairoSoGi/ai tois m Only here 

dXl^OUO-lf 0Xl<|»l»' 7- Kai UJilt' tois dXl^OfiCfOlS * dkCO'll' ' ficO* for idea,' 
c»,-u, >/, «„/., -,>. ~ »'rv see Phil. 

i^fjiuc ei* TT) airoKaXuvl/ci tou Kupiou iTjaou air oupacou [iCT oyYcXuv i. 27-28 

8uKd|X£b>S aUTOU 8. ^ iv TTUpl 4>XoYOS> 8180KTOS * CkSiKTJO'II' * TOIS (AT) jij. 3 f. ' 

ciSoai Qebv xai tois jjit) ' uiraKOuouai xw ' cuayyeXiu tou Kupiou j^' 

o See on 
Acts V. 41 
and ziv. 23. p See on Rom. iii. 30, viii. 9, 17 » " since". q Exod. zziii. 22 ; see on Rom. 

u. 5-6. 9, viii. 17; 2 Cor. iv. 17 f. r Frons Isa. Ixvi. 2 (LXX). s C/. 2 Cor. ii. 13 ; Asc. 

Isa. iv. 15 (quoted on I. iv. 16). t i Thess. ii. 15 ; see below, iii. 2. " We need it too, God 

knows!" u I Cor. i. 7; Rom. ii. 5. v Cf. LXX of Exod. iii. 2; Isa. xxix. 6, Ixvi. 6, 15 f. 

and on i Cor. iii. 13. A Hebraism. w Ezek. xxv. 14 (LXX); Jer. xxv. 12; Deut. vii. g. 

S Cf. I. iv. 5 (Jer. x. 33 ; Ps. Ixxviii. 6). y Cf. Rom. x. 16. Acts vi. 7 ; Clem. Rom. xlii. 4. 

sure process of providence that fiilin has 
a destiny of its own, since it is bound up 
with His eternal designs. Hope is only 
mentioned once (ii. i6, cf. iii. 5) in this 
epistle, for all its preoccupation with the 
future. Faith covers almost all its con- 
tents here. — OXixj/ciriv more general than 
SiwY^AOis. — vtrip, as in I., iii. 2, is equiva- 
lent to irepi, with a touch of personal 
interest (Abbott's yohannine Grammar, 
p. 559 ; Meisterhans, Gramm. d. attischen 
Inschriften, 182). 

Ver. 5. cv8eiY|jia, in apposition to the 
general thought of the preceding clause ; 
it does not matter to the sense whether 
the word is taken as an elliptic nominative 
or an appositional accusative. " All this 
is really a clear proof of (or points to) 
the equity of God's judgment," which 
will right the present inequalities of life 
(Dante, Purg., x. 109 f.). AiKaia Kpio-is 
is the future and final judgment of 6-10, 
whose principle is recompense (Luke xvi. 
25) ; there is a divine law of compensa- 
tion which will operate. This throws 
back light upon the present sufferings of 
the righteous. These trials, it is as- 
sumed, are due to loyalty and innocence 
of life ; hence, in their divine aspect (ver. 
5), they are the necessary qualification or 
discipline for securing entrance into the 
realm ol God. They are significant, not 
casual. Paul begins by arguing that 
their very infliction or permission proves 
that God must be contemplating a suit- 
able reward and destiny for those who 
endured them in the right spirit. cl« rh 
k.t.X., is thus a loose expansion (from 
the common rabbinic phrase, cf. Dalman's 
Worte jfesu, 97 f. ; E. Tr., 119) of one 
side of the 8ik. icp(<ris. The other side, 
the human aspect of 6Xi\)>is> then emerges 
in ver. 6. Since the Thessalonians were 
suffering at the hands of men (rotis 0Xi- 
povras, Isa. xix. 20), the two-handed 

engine of retribution (so Lam. iii. 64 f. ; 
Obad. 15 ; Isa. lix. 18, for dvrairoS.) must 
in all fairness punish the persecutors (cf. 
Sap. xi. 9, 10). This is the only passage 
in which Paul welcomes God's vengeance 
on the enemies of the church as an ele- 
ment in the recompense of Christians. — 
virip ^s Kai -irdcrxeTe : to see an intelli- 
gible purpose in suffering, or to connect 
it with some larger movement and hope, 
is always a moral stay. " God gave 
three choice gifts to Israel — the Torah, 
the Land of Promise, and Eternal Life, 
and each was won by suffering " (Bera- 
choth, 5a). 

Ver. 7. After noting the principle of 
recompence (5-7a), Paid proceeds (76-10^ 
to dwell on its time and setting, especi- 
ally in its punitive aspect. He consoles 
the Thessalonians by depicting the doom 
of their opponents rather than (gc, 10) 
their own positive relief and reward. The 
entire passage breathes the hot air of the 
later Judaism, with its apocalyptic antici- 
pation of the jus talionis applied by God 
to the enemies of His people ; only, Paul 
identifies that people not with Israel but 
with believers in Christ Jesus. He ap- 
propriates Israel's promises for men and 
women whom Israel expelled and perse- 
cuted. — The aYYcXoi are the manifesta- 
tion of Christ's, as the £7101 
(saints not angels) are of his 8«5|a (ver. 10) ; 
the position of dyY. (cf. Win., § 80, 126) 
tells against Hofmann's interpretation of 

8w. = "host" (fc^l^, so LXX). Here 

and in the following verses the divine 
prerogatives {e.g., fiery manifestation and 
judicial authority) are carried over to 

Ver. 8. Those who know not God are 
of course not pagans as such but im- 
moral pagans, in the sense of Rom. i. 
28 f. Those who refuse obedience to the 


nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B 

r 4 Mace. ■ffflStV 'iTjaOO • 9. OlTll'eS SlKT)!/ Tl<TOUO-lK, ' oXcSpOl' 'aiUKlOK, 'dTTO 

a From Isa. irpoacjirou Tou Kupiou Kal diro tt]s S6|t]S Tt]s laxuos auTOU, lO. oraK 
ai(LXx'). ""cXOt] " ^i'8o|ao-0r]>'ai iv tols dyiois auToG Kal ^ 0aufi,ao-0T]cai ec Trfiai 

II • Lk. TOis irioTeuo'aCTii' (on iiriaTo50T] ^ to * fiapTupiof i^ixuf c<j>' up,ds) ' iv 

xiii. 27, _2./,/ ,,K>** ^fl ' N.~ 

etc. Tg Tlficpa CKCiiq). II. *eis o xai irpoo'Euxop.cOa iraiaoTC -rrepi up-uc, 

b = fut. hv <«J>/ /^ \/ ^_^C/^ \\ / 

perf. it'o ofias dsiwcrj] Tir|S KAi^aews o ©eos T^fiaJK Kai Tr\T)p<i)(rTi iraaaK 

c Only here in N.T., cf. Ex, xiv. 4; Sir. xxxviii. 6, etc. ; Isa. iv. 3 f., xlix. 3. d Reminiscence 

of Ps. Ixviii. 36; Ixxxix. 8 (LXX). C/. Sir. xxxviii. 3:4 Mace, xviii. 3. e C/. i Cor. i. 6. f From 
Isa. ii. II (17). g Cf. Col. i. 29. " It is to this our thoughts turn as we pray, etc. " (Ruther- 

ford), h Equivalent, as e.^. in LXX of Exod. ix. 16. 

^ For cirio-TcvOt) Markland and Hort conj. cirKTrwOtj (so 31, 112), as if "the 
Christian testimony (vv. 4-5) of suffering for the faith had been confirmed and sealed 
upon the Thessalonians " (cf. Ps. xcii. 4 f, LXX, 0av|Jia<rTos ev vv)rr]Xoi,s o Kvpios * xa 
(iapTvpia <rov tiria-To>di\<rav o-«{>o8pa). irwrToiOrjTci) is used (as here with ciri) of the 
divine word in i Chron. xvii. 23 (cf. 2 Chron. ii. 9). The MSS. reading throws 
cirioTTtvOi) to the front for emphasis, but it must go with c4> T)p,a9. The point of the 
sentence, as Lgft. admits, leads us to expect "a direct connexion between the 
Thessalonians and a belief in the gospel rather than between the Thess. and the 
preaching of the gospel," so that p,apTvpiov is less vital to e4> T) No satisfactory 
parallel can be quoted for either construction of eirioTCvftT), however, and the likelihood 
upon the whole is that it represents a primitive and natural corruption of ciri<rTb>Oi]. 

gospel are, as the repetition of the article 
suggests, a different class of people, per- 
haps drawn both from Jews and pagans. 
But as Paul never seems to contemplate 
the idea of any Jew failing to hear the 
gospel {cf. Rom. x. 16 f.), the description 
here applies principally to them. — «v •jrupl 
^Xo-ydsi one of the most favourite real- 
istic traits of the last judgment, in 
apocalyptic Judaism {cf. passages in 
Volz's yudische Eschatologie, 285, 286) ; 
here it is simply a descriptive touch, 
which Paul does not pause to elaborate 
{cf. I Cor. iii. 13). The rather " broad 
and inflated" language (Weizsacker) of 
the whole passage is probably due to the 
subject, more than to Paul's employ- 
ment of Silvanus, himself a prophet {cf. 
Acts XV. 32 and i Thess. ii. 12-16), as his 

Ver. 9. The overwhelming manifesta- 
tion of the divine glory sweeps from be- 
fore it (pregnant diri) into endless ruin 
the disobedient (Ps. Ixxvi. 7) men who 
(see Moulton, 91 f.) shall pay the penalty 
of (see Prov. xxvii. 12, LXX) eternal de- 
struction (the common apocalyptic belief, 
see Volz, jfiid. Eschat., 286 £). 

Ver. 10. Jiri(rTu9T), like the variant 
iiriirrev9i\, is suggested by iriaTevovtriv 
(cf. a similar instance in iii. 3). The 
abrupt parenthesis ("you included — for") 
shows how Paul was thinking of the 
Thessalonians especially, while he de- 
picted the bliss of the saints in general. — 
lv8o|., in one sense they were to be a 

credit and honour to their apostles 
(L, ii. 19 f.) ; in another, they were a 
glory to Christ Himself, by their ripened 
character — a Johannine touch (cf. John 
xvii. 10, and ver. 12 of this chapter ; the 
parallel between epYov ir^o-rcus and John 
vi. 29 is verbal). — Oavp.. = to be wondered 
at (by whom ? cf. Ezek. xxxix. 21, Eph. 
iii. 10 ?) in (i.e., by reason of, on account 
of) believers ; for a partial parallel to the 
phrase see Isa. Ixii. 6 (Kal Iv tw -irXovTu 
avTwv 6avpao-Oi]o-ca-0c). If on . . . 
vpas had been meant to give the reason 
for Oavpao-Orjvai (so Zimmer, Wohl.), 
Paul would probably have put God's wit- 
ness instead of our witness, and expressed 
the idea unambiguously ; the transition 
from the -irdaiv to the special case of the 
Thessalonians becomes, on this construc- 
tion, an anti-climax. The rhythmical 
swing of 76-10 suggests a reminiscence 
or quotation of some early Christian lit- 
urgical hymn, perhaps one of the pro- 
phetic t|/aXpoC which he had heard at 
Corinth (i Cor. xiv. 15, 26). 

Ver. II. Kal k.t.X.« we pray as well 
as render thanks (ver. 3) for you. Un- 
able any longer to give the Thessalonians 
their personal example and instructions — 
the time for that had passed (l-irio-TciBTj)— • 
Paul and his colleagues can still pray for 
them. The duties of a preacher or 
evangelist do not cease with the utter- 
ance of his message. d|iifl>o~g : one 
proof that God deemed them worthy of 
His kingdom lay in the discipline of 

II — 12. II. I — 2. 

nP02 eE22AA0NIKEr2 B 


' euSoKiai' ^ dyaGaKnjnfjs koI Ipyof iriorews ^ iv Suv(ifA£i * 12. ^ oirois i Contrast 

" efSolaadT] to ° Ofop.a toG Kupiou f\p.u>v '\r\aou iv u\uv, 'koI ujxeis ^'' on Rom. 

auTu, Kara Tqv X**P''*' ""tou 0cou ^r\\uav Kai '' Kupiou Itjcou Xpiorou. i. 5. 

11. I. EpcuTup-ec oc ujxas, doc\<poi, uirep Tr|s irapouaias tou Rom. zv. 

Kupiou ^ 'iTjaou Xpi(7Tou Kai '*T]fioii' " ^TriffuwaywyTis cir' auTOf, 2. "* eis Eph.v. g. 

TO p.T) 'Taxcus 'aaXcuOtji'ai upds diro tou koos p.T]8€ * 0po€i<r6ai, m c/. LXX; 

fiTjTC Sid TTfeuiiaTos, \>-'f\Te 8id Xoyou, hi^t< Si* ** lirtgToXTJs (ws * 81 tt jv is, 

Ixvi. 5; 
Mai. i. 11; 
Ezek. zzziz. 31. n = Person or character (c/. on Phil. ii. 9-10). o John xvii. i, 10, 21 f. 

p So ver. II. q For k. without article, cf. Win. § 19. 13 d, J 18. 7. a "with regard to," = 

ircpi (an lonism, cf. Meisterhans, Gramm. a. attiscH. Inschrift. 182). b See on i. 7. c Cf. Matt. 
zziv. 31 ; 2 Mace. ii. 7, etc. d I. iii. 10. e Gal. i. 6 = " hastily". f See Acts xvii. 13: 

Sap. iv. 4. g Elsewhere in N.T., only in Matt. zziv. 6 ( = Mk. ziii. 7). h Forged? cf. 

Jos. Vit. id., ZZZV. i Sc. yrypafifieVTit. 

1 Om. Ti(i«v after Kvpiov, with B, syr. (WH, Weiss, Findlay). 

suflfering by means of which He developed 
their patient fjaith (4, 5), but Paul here 
finds another proof of it in their broader 
development of moral character and vital 
religion (cf. 10). ircUrav includes cpyov 
as well as cvSoKiav; the prayer is for 
success to every practical enterprise of 
faith as well as for the satisfaction of 
every aspiration and desire after moral 
excellence. Compare Dante's Paradiso, 
xviii, 58-60. kXtjo-is is *' the position 
you are called to occupy," " your voca- 
tion," as heirs of this splendid future — a 
not unnatural extension (cf. Phil. iii. 14) 
of its ordinary use ( = i Cor. i. 26, etc.). 
This implies that a certain period of 
moral ripening must precede the final 
crisis. In ii. i-iii. 5, Paul proceeds to 
elaborate this, in order to allay the fever- 
ish excitement at Thessalonica, while in 
iii. 6 f., he discusses the further ethical 
disorders caused by the church's too 
ardent hope. The heightened misery of 
the present situation must neither break 
down their patience (4 f.), nor on the 
other hand must it be taken as a proof 
that the end was imminent. 

Ver. 12. Here at any rate it is im- 
possible to take x*^P^^ •" ^ universalistic 
sense (so Robinson, Ephesians, pp. 225 f.), 
as though it implied that Christians were 
put on the same level as O.T. saints. 
The idea is the merciful favour of God, 
to the exclusion of human merit. The 
main topic of the letter is now brought 
forward ; ii. 1-2 gives the occasion for the 
\<Syos irapaKXi^o-Ews (3-12) which follows. 

Chapter II. — Ver. i. Iiritruv., a term 
whose verb was already in use for the 
muster of saints to the messianic reign. 
— <raX. " get unsettled ". Epictetus uses 
airoaaXevccrdai for the unsettling of the 
mind by sophistries (iii. 25), and the 

nearest equivalent for vovs here is our 
" mind ". This mental agitation (aor.) 
results in 6po€i<r6ai = nervous fear 
(Wrede, 48 f.) in prospect of the immin- 
ent end. 

Ver. 2. us 81' 'n|«.uv, "purporting to 
come from us," goes with iirioToXtis 
alone, for, while Xoyos (Lunemann) 
might be grouped under it, irvcvp.a can- 
not. A visionary would claim personal, 
not borrowed, authority for his revela- 
tion. If d>s 8. y\. went with the preceding 
verbs (so Dods, Askwith, 92 f., Wohl. = 
"we are the true interpreters of Paul's 
meaning "), an active (as in ver. 3) not a 
passive turn might have been expected 
to the sentence.— IveoTTfiKtv = "were al- 
ready present". The cry was, 6 Kvpios 
irdpccTTi. The final period had already 
begun, and the Thessalonians were pro- 
bably referred to their sufferings as a 
proof of this. Paul could only guess the 
various channels along which such a 
misconception had flowed into the local 
church ; either, e.g., irvei5|i,aTos, the hal- 
lucination of some early Christian pro- 
phet at Thessalonica ; or X<Jyov, oral 
statement, based in part perhaps on some 
calculation of contemporary history or 
on certain logia of Jesus ; or iirio-ToXTJs, 
t.*., the misinterpretation of some passage 
in I Thess. or in some lost letter of Paul. 
P ossibly Paul imagined an epistle h ad 
been forged purporting to come fromTim 
or his companions, but we have no means 
of knowing whether his suspicion was 
well-founded or not , in any case the 
allusion is quite credible within his life- 
time. Such expectations may have been 
excited in a more or less innocent fashion, 
but Paul peremptorily (ver. 3) ranks 
them all as dishonest; he is concerned 
not with their origin but with their mis- 




k C/. 3 Cor. lijftUK),^ * 6s ^OTi ^ ivi<TTt]K€y t] r\fi.ipa toG Kupiou. 3. tA-f\ ns ufias 

the effect " ^|airan]<n) Kari jiTjS^i'a rpoirov • on " ikv jit) cXOtj " r\ dirooracria 

1 Rom. viii, ^ irpuToi' Kal ' diroKa\u<j)0f] 6 avQpoiTtos ttjs dco/jLias,^ 6 oios ' tt]s 

m Aor.conj. diruXcias, 4. 6 drriKeifiei'OS nal u7r6paip6p,e^os cirl ' irdiTa \ey6- 

Cor. xi. p.cfoi' ^ ' 0601' 7] * a^^aafxa, uorrc auToi' '^ eis toi' kaoj" tou Gcou KaOiaai, 

xvl. II. ' ' diroSciKfurra cauToe on corl Ocos. 5. ou p.inf|p,ofeuET6 on In 2»k 
n Sc. "it 
shall not 

come" (ellipsis, as in. ver. 7). o "The well known." p = irporepov (I. iv. 16). q Matt- 

xxiv. 12. r Win. § 30, 6^ b; cf. Deissm. 163; Tub. x. 3. si Cor.viii. 5. t Elsewhere 

in N.T., only in Acts xvii. 23 (Sap. xv. 17). u Matt. xxiv. 15. v By deeds as well as words, 

cf. Acts ii. 23 ; here = " proclaim ". 

^ On us 81 t|(Ki)v Field {202) writes : " Perhaps the apostle wrote «s Srj ruiav, as 
pretending to be ours," adding instances from Ast. Lex. Plat, to justify the latter's 
statement that " cum irrisione quadam plerumque ponitur ci>s Stj ". 

^ The avo(j.ias of ^B min., cop., arm., Euth., Dam., Tert., Amb. (Ti., Tr., WH, 
Zim., Bj., Findlay, Lgft.), is preferable to the Western paraphrastic afxapnas (Alford, 
EUic, Wohl., Weiss). 

^ Bentl. conj. tiri irav to Xeyoiievov. 

chievous effects upon the church (c/. 
Matt. xxiv. 4). Probably his suspicions 
of misinterpretation were due to his 
recent experiences in Galatia, though 
the Macedonian churches seem to have 
escaped any infusion of the anti-Pauline 
propaganda which soured Corinth not 
long afterwards. 

Ver. 3. Ktti airoK., the apostasy and 
the appearance (so of Beliar, Asc. Isa., iv. 
18) of the personal anti-Christ or pseudo- 
Christ form a single phenomenon. From 
the use of i\ airoo-rao-ia as a Greek 
equivalent for Belial (LXX of i Kings 
xxi. 13, A, and Aquila), this eschatolo- 
gical application of the term would natur- 
ally flow, especially as 7J^"'7^ tlJ^t^ 
might well be represented by 6 av9po>iros 
TTJS dvo(Ji£as on the analogy of 2 Sam. 
xxii. 5 (LXX) = Ps. xvii. (xviii.). 4. 
Lawlessness was a cardinal trait in the 
Jewish figure of Belial, as was persecu- 
tion of the righteous (i. 4, ii. 7, see Asc. 
Isa., ii. 5, etc.). The very order of the 
following description (dircuXeias set be- 
tween dvo|i(as and 6 avTiKcifxevos, etc., 
unchronologically, but dramatically) sug- 
gests that this incarnation of lawlessness 
was a doomed figure, although he chal- 
lenged and usurped divine prerogatives. 
He is another Antiochus Epiphanes 
(Dan. xi. 36, Kal vi|rci>9i]o-eTai lirl iravTa 
0COV Kal lirl Tov Oehv tuv Oeuv c|a\Xa 
XaXi]o-Ei, though Paul carefully safe- 
guards himself against misconception by 
inserting XcY<i|'>cvov in his quotation of 
the words). Thi& conception of a super- 
natural antagonist to Jesus Christ at the 
end is the chief element of novelty intro- 

duced by Paul, from Jewish traditions, 
into the primitive Christian eschatology. 
The recent attempt of Caligula to erect a 
statue of himself in the Temple at Jeru- 
salem may have furnished a trait for 
Paul's delineation of the future Deceiver ; 
the fearful impiety of this outburst had 
sent a profound shock through Judaism, 
which would be felt by Jewish Christians 
as well. But Paul does not identify the 
final Deception with the Imperial cultus, 
which was far from a prominent feature 
when he wrote. His point is that the 
last pseudo-Messiah or anti-Christ will 
emaody all that is profane and blasphem- 
ous, every conceivable element of im- 
piety ; and that, instead of being repudi- 
ated, he will be welcomed by Jews as 
well as pagans {cf. Acts xii. 21, 22). 

Ver. 5. It was no after-thought, on 
Paul's part (the singular rules out 
Spitta's idea that Timothy wrote this 
apocalyptic piece). Nor was it an idio- 
syncrasy of his teaching. Especially 
since the days of Antiochus Ep;phanes 
(Dan. vii., xi. ; cf. GnnkeVs Schopfung u. 
Chaos, 221 f.), a more or less esoteric 
and varied Jewish tradition had pervaded 
pious circles, that the last days would be 
heralded by a proud uprising against 
God. The champion of this movement 
was no longer the Dragon or cosmic op- 
ponent of God, as in the older mythology 
(though traces of this belief still linger), 
but an individual (6 avo|ios) who incor- 
porates human wickedness (to |xvaTiipiov 
TTJS dvojjktas) and infernal cunning in his 
own person, and who essays to supplant 
and suppress the worship of the true God, 
by claiming divine honours for himself. 

3— lo. 

nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B 


irpos u^as, Toora IXcvoc uiiiv ; 6. Kol vvv rh * Kar^YOf * oiSarc €is w = kuXuov 

X. \.o-> jx>-i~T - XX > (Chrys.). 

TO a'iroKa\u9(7T)fai outoc iv tw auTou ' icaipw. 7. to yap (xoo-rppioK x Matt.xiii. 

»c > - I - > ' a ' « /' X .. , / II, etc. 

tjOT] CKcpYciTai TTjs afO|xias, fioKoc o KaTcxuf apTi ews «< ficCTOo y " Ap- 

Y^njTOf 8. ''Kal TOTe diroKaXu^0i]a€Tai 6 acop.os, oc 6 Kupios season" 

>l-^c>^~d'^ ' -.; d>-x« ' (a* Dan. 

iTiaous dfEAci TW irccufiaTi tou orojiaTos aurou Kai icaTapYT|o-€i xi.2g,35). 

_sJi/» / J.^ *3 e / 'Z Epexeg. 

TT) cTTDpafeia ttjs Trapoucias auTou • 9. 00 €<mv rj -irapouaia kot genit. 

iKcpYciaf TOU ZaTaca iv Ttdaj] Sucdfici Kal ' arT]p,Eioi$ Kal T^paai * <j/eiJ- ^ common 
Sous 10. Kal iv irdo-r) dirdTt] *dSiKias ""tois ' diroXXufji^i'ois, "rmuVa 
^ &vQ' &v ttjk 6Ly6.Trr\y tt]s dXT)6cias ouk 'cBt'^aJTO els to audrjkai -v^V^cV 

c Post- 
classical, Win. J 13, 5. d From Isa. xi. 4 (LXX), copied in Ps. Sol. xvii. 37, 41 ; cf. Job iv. g, 
4 Esd. xiii. 38. e See on i Cor. i. 28. f Cf. on 2 Cor. xii. 12 ; Matt. xxiv. 24. g Gen. 
of origin. h Dat. incommodi (Blass, § 37, 2), as in 1 Cor. i. 18; cf. Moulton, 114-115 ("strongly 
durative though the verb is, we see perfectiTkjr in the fact that the goal it ideally reached"), 
i Cf. on 2 Cor. ii.15. k See on Acts xii. 23. 1 Contrast I. i. 6, ii. 13. 

He is Satan's messiah, an infernal cari- 
cature of the true messiah. Cf. Asc. Isa., 
iv. 6, where it is said that Belial "will 
do and speak like the Beloved and he will 
say, I am God and before me there has 
been none ". 

Ver. 6. Well now, you know what 
restrains him from being manifested (com- 
ing fully into play and sight) before his 
appointed season. Nvv probably goes with 
oiSarc, not with rh kot^x"*" (^^ e.g., in 
John iv. 18, so Olshausen, Bisping, Wie- 
seler, Zahn, Wrede), and Kal vvv is not 
temporal, but "a mere adverb of pas- 
sage " (Liinemann, Alford) in the argu- 
ment (so with oI8a in Acts iii. 17). Were 
vvv temporal, it would mean (a) that dur- 
ing the interval between Paul's teaching 
and the arrival ot this letter fresh circum- 
stances (so Zimmer) had arisen to throw 
light on the thwarting of the adversary. 
But of this there is no hint whatsoever 
in the context. Or (6), preferably, it 
would contrast with the following iv 
ry avTov Kaip^, as an equivalent for 
"already" (Hofmann, Wohl., Milligan, 

Ver. 7. Y*P» explaining oiSarc. The 
RttT^X*'*' is a fact of present experience 
and observation, which accounts for the 
dvopia being as yet a pvan^piov, opera- 
ting secretly, and not an airoKoLXvij/is. 
Paul does not say by whom (the avouos 
himself?) the restraint is removed. — 
ftovov, the hiatus must be filled up with 
some phrase like " it cannot be mani- 
fested ". Its real character and full 
scope are not yet disclosed. For apTi 
= vvv, cf. Nageli's note in der Wort- 
schdtz des Apostels Paulus (36, 37), and 
for omission of ov, Blass, § 65, 10, 

Ver. 8. 8v, k.t.X., his career is short 
and tragic. The apparition (cf. i Tim. 

vi. 14, etc., Thieme, Die Inschriften von 
Magnesia, 34 f.) of Jesus heralds his 
overthrow. — iiri^avtltf = sudden appear- 
ance of a deity at some crisis (cf. Diod., 
Sicul., i. 25), as the god in 2 Mace. ii. 21, 
iii. 24, etc, " In hieratic inscriptions the 
appearing of the god in visible form to 
men is commonly expressed by the same 
word" (Ramsay, £;r^, Ti., x. 208). This 
passage, with its fierce messianic antici- 
pation of the adversary's doom interrupts 
the description of his mission which is 
resumed (in ver. 9) with an account of 
the inspiration (Kara), method (iv) and 
results (ver. 10), of this evil advent. 
Galen (de facult. nat., 1. 2, 4-5) physio- 
logically defines Ivipyeia, as the process 
of activity whose product is Ipyov. The 
impulse to ev^pYcia is Svvapis. The 
8vva|iis of this supernatural delusion is 
specially manifested in signs and wonders. 
The power of working miracles in order 
to deceive people (ver. 11) was an ac- 
cepted trait in the Jewish and early 
Christian ideas of such eschatological 
opponents of God (cf. on Rev. xiii. 13, 
and Friedlander's Geschichte d. jud. 
Apolog., 493 f.). 

Ver. 10. aYairtj (cf. ver. 12) here, as 
Luke xi. 42, with obj. gen. Cf. Asc. 
Isa., iv. 15, 16 : " And He will give rest 
[above, ch. i. 7] to the godly whom He 
shall find in the body in this world, and to 
all who because of their faith in Him 
have execrated Beliar and his kings ". 
aXi^Scio, not =" truth" in the general 
sense of the term (Liinemann, Lightfoot, 
Zimmer) but = " the truth of the gospel " 
(as usual in Paul) as against &8iKia and 
\|rEv8os (Rom. i. 15 f., ii. 8). The apostle 
holds that the refusal to open one's 
mind and heart to the gospel leaves life 
a prey to moral delusion ; judicial infatua- 


nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B 


wSee auTous' II. Kal 8iA TooTO "ir^fiirei auTois 6 eeos ^v'^pycioi' "irXtlrrjs, 

24-25, and CIS TO irtoTCuo-ai auTOug Tw \j»€u8ci • 12. iva " KoiQiixTi irdiTcs 01 u.^ 

Rom. i. , ,' , 

24, 26, 28, irioTcucrai'Tcs rfj ''dXTjOcia dXX ' €u8oKi]o-a»'Tcs Tjj •'dSiKia. 13. 

n Sap. V. Hficis 8e ' oc^eiXofXEf cuxapioreiK tw ©ew TrdiTore ircpl u|X(i>i', * dScX- 

o = Karaxp. <|>ol TJYamjfi^i'oi uTTO Kupiou, OTt ' ciXaTO u/xSs 6 ©66s " dirapx^i' ^ CIS 
(as Heb. />tc ~t / >' >\«> >w« 

xiii. 4, o'WTripiai' ci* ayiacrixu irfcufxaTos icai irioTci d\i]6cias, 14. eis 

P See on CKdXcacc ufias Sici ToG ^cuayYcXtou * i^fiwi', els ' ircpnroiTio'H' 86|tjs 

and I Cor. TOO Kupiou i^fidii' 'irjaou XpicrroG. 15 > 'apa GUI', dSeXijjoi, *■ arrf\K€Te 

q Contrast ^^^ KpttTciTC xds '' irapaSiSaeis &S c8i8dx0T)Te, cire 8id Xoyou citc 81*, 
i. II. 

r >• 3- . 8 C/. I. i. 4 (in similar connexion). t Alexandrian form (Win. § 13, 13) ; cf. Deut. 

xxvi. 18. u Rom. xi. 16, xvi. 5 ; i Cor. xv. 20, etc. ; v I. iv. 7-8. w i.e., general 

position reflected in ver. 13. x C/. 2 Cor. iv. 3. y C/. I. v. g. z C/. I. v. e; resumes 

tiiought of ii. 1-2. a Cf. I. iii. 8 and 1 Cor. xvi. 13. b See iii. 6 and i Cor. xi. 2. 

^ The singular variant airapxTlv, adopted by Lach., WH marg., Weiss (Lgft. ?) 
from BGgrP, min., f. vg., syr.p, Euth., Dam., etc., is preferable to the strongly 
supported air apxT)S (Pauline air. evp., in historical sense of PhiJ. iv. 15, Ac. xv. 7, 
etc.). The ThessaJonians or Macedonians are first-fruits, as contrasted with others 
yet to follow (cf. iii. i, and i. 4). 

tion is the penalty of disobedience to the 
truth of God in Christ. 

Ver. II. An echo of the primitive 
Semitic view (still extant, cf. Curtis's 
Prim. Sent. Religion To-Day, pp. 69 f.), 
that God may deliberately lead men 
astray, or permit them to be fatally in- 
fatuated, as a penal discipline {cf. Ps. 
Sol. viii. 15 ; Test. XII. Patr. Dan. ix,). 
A modern would view the same pheno- 
menon as wilful scepticism issuing in 
superstition, or in inability to distinguish 
truth from falsehood. Delusions of this 
kind cannot befall believers (cf. Mark xiii. 
22; Test. Issach. iii.). In Test. Napht. 
iii. 3, idols are irvevftaro irXavT)9 {of. 
Test, Levi. iii. 3. etc.). 

Ver. 12. Like the prophet John half 
a century later (xiii. 2 f.), Paul distin- 
guishes his anti-Christ or antitheistic 
hero from the Satan whose campaign he 
executes; but, unlike John, the apostle 
has nothing to say about the fate of 
Satan. The tools and the victims of 
Satan are destroyed, and they alone. — 
cvSoK. not with Iv as usual, but with the 
less common (cf. e.g., i Mace. i. 43, Kal 
iroXXol airo 'lcrpaT)X i)ii8iSKT]<rav t^ Xar- 
plq, avTov) dative. " And the greater 
number of those who shall have been 
associated together in order to receive 
the Beloved he [i.e., Beliar] will turn 
aside after him " {Asc. Isa., iv. 9). 

Ver. 13-CHAPTER Ill.-Ver. 5. Thanks, 
prayers and counsels. 

Ver. 13. God has chosen you (ciXaro, 
another LXX expression, implying that 
Christians had now succeeded to the 
cherished priviliges of God's people) to 

be saved, instead of visiting you with a 
deadly delusion (10, 11) which ends in 
judgment (12) ; your discipline is of sanc- 
tification (contrast 126) and belief in what 
is true (contrast 11, 12a), these forming 
the sphere and the scope (cf. i Tim. ii. 
15, and for Iv otYiao*}!.^ in this sense Ps. 
Sol. xvii. 33) for salvation being realised. 
Those who are sanctified and who truly 
believe shall be saved. Cf. ver. 14 and 
Apoc. Bar., liv. 21 : " in fine enim saeculi 
uindicta erit de iis qui improbe egerunt, 
iuxta improbitatem eorum, et glorificabis 
fideles iuxta fidem eorum". — irvcvftaros 
may be either (a) = " wrought by the 
(holy) Spirit " (cf. 1 Peter i. 2), the divine 
side of the human iriorrei, or (b) = " of 
the spirit " (cf. I. v. 23 ; 2 Cor. vii. i), as 
of the heart (I., iii. 13). The absence of 
the article is not decisive against the 
former rendering, but the latter is the 
more probable in view of the context; 
the process of aYiao-pKis involves a love of 
the truth and a belief in it (i.e., in the 
true gospel) which is opposed to religious 
delusions [cf. ii. 2). 

Ver. 14. To be saved ultimately (12) 
is to possess or rather to share the glory 
of Christ (cf. I., ii. 12). 

Ver. 15. The divine purpose does not 
work automatically, but implies the co- 
operation of Christians — in this case, a 
resolute stedfastness resting on loyalty to 
the apostolic gospel. In view of pass- 
ages like I Cor. xi. 23, xv. 5, it is gratui- 
tous to read any second-century passion 
for oral apostolic tradition into these 
words or into those of iii. 6. 

II-I7. III. 1-5- nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B 


'iirioToXtis ^fiwi'. 16. ''auTos 8e 6 Kupios Tniiuc 'iTiaoos Xpioros c I. v. 27. 

Ac c \ ^ \ t J \ d For order, 

Kal 6 ©COS 6 iraTTjp rnJMV, 6 dyaTn^aas ^ftas *Kai, 000s •irapaicXT)an' cf. 2 Cor. 

'aiaviav Kal cXTriSa dyaOriK "^ ^i' X'^P'^''''' ^7- ' irapaKaXeaoi ujiwi' e C/. Rom. 

rds KapSias icai ' <rTTjpi|ai ^ iy iraKTi epyw "ol 'Xoyw 'dyaOw. f See'ona 

III. I. 'To Xoiirov, ^ Trpo(T€6x€crQe, iheK^oi, irepi ''•qnuK, iKa'o 3-7." 

\/ -•ir' d / v«c /-jf /i^ ^ f » « ~ -. g Contrast 

Xoyos TOO *Kupiou TpcxT) Kai •oo5atT|Tai Ka9b>s icai irpos ufxas, 2. i. 9. 

Kal Xva ' puorOufxeK diro T(av ^ drcSiruK Kal "^ ironfjpwK * &vQpwir(av • ^ ou ciously." 

ydp Ttdyrav -fi irioris. 3. 'irioros 8^ ^crrii' 6 Kupios, os ""onrjpi^ci* 11,13.*' 

<'^ ^Ill^/> 3\ '^ ^ .0 'A c^ii^'l^i Cor. i. 5i 

ofias Kai (pu^'^^sC'' **'"'° Tou ironfjpou. 4. irciroioaftci' oe ck iCupiW) c/.Lk. 

" €<!»' upds, oTi & Trapayy^Xofief iroieiTe ' Kal iroiiio-cTe. 5* ^ ^^ Th'uc.'f.' 

Gad, vi. I. a I. iv. i ; Eph. vi. 10. b I. v. 25. c I. i. 8. d Ps. cxlvii. 15, etc. (LXX), 
contrast 2 Tim. ii. 9. e In sense of Acts xiii. 48. f I. iii. 4. g Cf. Rom. xv. 31 ; 2 Ti. iv. 17; 
Ps. Sol. iv. 27. h See on Acts xxviii. 6; Isa. xxv. 4 (LXX); and on I. Hi. 3, "misguided and 

unprincipled" Rutherford). i e.g., in Corinth; c/. Acts xviii. 6 f . 2 Ti. iii. 13. k c/. Rom. 

X. 16 with Acts xvii. 12, 34. 1 C/. i. 10, Acts xviii. 9 f. m ii. 17. naTi.iv. 18. o 2 Co. 
ii. 3. p Cf. I. iv. 10. 

Ver. 16. avrhi Sk, perhaps with a 
slight implicit apposition to the you or 
we of the previous sentence. — ayairqo-as 
Kal 80VS, K.T.X., connection as in John 
iii. 16. — irapaKXiiaiv lor this world, 
IXiriSa for the world to come ; all hope 
is encouragement, but not vice-versa. 

Ver. 17, in contrast to the disquiet and 
confusion of ii. 2. cpyv as in i. 11, iii. 4, 
7 f., \6yif as iii. i, 15 ; I., i. 8. See the 
ftilsome pagan inscription of Halicar- 
nassus, which after giving thanks for the 
birth of Augustus, o'o>TTipa tov koivov 
T«v dvdpuiTbJV yevovs, declares that men 
now are lull of IXirtSuv ^l.iv XP'')*'^**'' 
irpos rb (icXXov, ciiOvp.ias Sk els t& vap^v. 
Contrast also the Kevrj i\iri% of the im- 
pious in Sap. iii. 11. 

Chapter III. — Ver. i. In addition to 
offering prayers on their behalf, Paul asks 
them to pray for the continued success of 
the gospel (" may others be as blest as 
we are"!) and (ver. 2), for its agents' 
safety (Isa. xxv. 4, LXX, a reminiscence 
of). The opponents here are evidently 
(ii. 10 f.) beyond hope of conversion ; 
preservation from their wiles is all that 
can be expected. For a speedy answer 
to this prayer, see Acts xviii. 9 f. The 
repeated use of 6 Kvpios in w. 1-5, brings 
out the control of God amid the plots and 
passions of mankind. — arAiruv. The 
general sense of the term is given by 
Philo in his queer allegorising of Gen. iii. 
9 {Leg. Alleg., iii. 17, axoiros Xfycrai 
clvai 6 <|>aijXos) ; commonly it is used, as 
elsewhere in the N.T., of things, but here 
of persons, either as = " ill-disposed," or, 
in a less general and derivative sense = 
"perverse" {cf. Nageli, der Wortschatz 

des Paulus, p. 37), or " froward ". The 
general aim of the passage is to widen 
the horizon of the Thessalonians, by en- 
listing their sympathy and interest on 
behalf of the apostles. They are not the 
only sufferers, or the only people who 
need prayer and help. — ov iravros dvBpis 
els K6piv66v lo-6* 6 irXovs, so ran the 
ancient proverb. Paul writes from Cor- 
inth that while everyone has the chance, 
not all have the desire, to arrive at the 
faith. y\ itIotis is the faith of the gospel, 
or Christianity. By a characteristic play 
upon the word, Paul (ver. 3), hurries on 
to add, " but the Lord is faithful". 
(for which Bentley and Baljon plausibly 
conjecture 'nt*''^^) shows how lightly his 
mind rests on thoughts of his own peril 
as compared with the need of others. It 
is impossible to decide, either from the 
grammar or from the context, whether 
Tov irovT)pov is neuter or masculine. 
Either sense would suit, though, if there 
is a reminiscence here of the Lord's 
prayer (so Feine, "jfesus Christus «. 
Paulus, 252 f., and Chase, Texts and 
Studies, i. 3. 112 f.), the masculine would 
be inevitable, as is indeed more probable 
for general reasons (so e.g., Hofaiann, 
Everling, Ellicott, etc.) 

Ver. 4. ircirol9a|jicv ( = we have faith), 
still playing on the notion of itIotis. 
Paul rallies the Thessalonians by remind- 
ing them, not only of God's faithfulness, 
but of their friends' belief in them. 

Ver. 5. KartvBvvai, k.t.X. Paul no 
longer (I., iii. 11) entertains the hope of 
revisiting them soon. " God's love and 
Christ's patient endurance " {i.e., the 
VTOfiovi] which Christ inspires and re- 


nP02 eE2:2:AAONIKEI2 B 


q I Chron. Kupio; *• KanuQuvai uixuc rds KapSias cis ttii' ' dYdirtu' ToG ecou Kal 
xxix. i8 , ^ y ^ ^ III 

(LXX), eis uirofiOKT]^ tou XpiaToC. 

xii.j5,etc. 6. * FlapayY^^OH'^*' 8e ufiiv, dScX(|>oi, *^v' 6i'6/xaTi too Kupioo 

c/.Abbot't, 'Itjctou XpioTou, " oT^Xeo-Gai ufiSs diro irarros d8eX<})oO ^ draKTUs 

Gramm. TTcpiiraTOuiTos Kal fiT) Kara ttji' -irapdSoaii' ^i* irapcXd^CTc ^ irap' t^ixwk. 

'033 b-_ »>i»'t "C-w ~nt-> o J» ' 

iC/. Ignat. 7' ttuToi yap oioaT€ irws oei p,ip.ei.aoai i^p,as* on ouk T|TaKT/icrap.€K 
J '>> ufiiJ', 8. * ooSe Sbipedi/ dproi' ^4>dY0fJi£i' irapd Tifos, dXX' ' ev Koirot 

1 Cor. i. '^"■i K^^X^H* •'"•'"'■OS ital i^p.^pas ipyal,6]i€yoi Trpos to fir\ ' eiriPapT]o-ai 
u See on a Tii'a up.oJt' • 9. 'ou^ oTi ouK c)(op,et' iiouaiav, dXX' ik'a eauToiis 

2 °/ ^"' '"tuttoi' SdJficj' ufiiK ets to ** fii|ji£io'6ai T]p,ds. lo, Kal ydp otc r^[i.€v 
^ 14 " a^' '"■pos uftds, TouTO -irapTiYY^XXofiEc ifuv, oti * ei tis ou Oe'Xei ^pytil- 

loafer " 

(Rutherford). w C/. I. i. 6, ii. 14, and on i Cor. iv. 16. x I. ii. 3, v. 3. y C/. I. ii. 

9, 2 Cor. xi. 27, Herm. Sim. v. 6, 2, etc., " toiling and moiling " (Rutherford). z I. ii. 9 (with a 

different motive). a See on i Cor. ix. 3-18, and 2 Cor. i. 24. b See on Phil. iii. 17. c Did. 
xii. 3. 

1 Read iraptXaPere, with BG, 43, 73, 80, g, goth., syr.p, arm., etc. (so Lach., Tr., 
WH, Bj., Weiss), or irapcXapoo-av (cXa^oo-av D*) with ^*A, d, e, 17, etc. (Ti., 
Al., Zim., Lgft., Wohl., Findlay [Tr., WH, Lach., all in marg.]). 

quires, cf. Ignat. ad. Rom., last words) 
correspond to the double experience of 
love and hope in ii. 16. It is by the 
sense of God's love alone, not by any 
mere acquiescence in His will or stoical 
endurance of it, that the patience and 
courage ot the Christian are sustained. 
Cf. Ep. Arist., 195, inX ruv KaWlfrrw 
irpa|c(dv ovK avTol KaTcvduvofxcv tol 
PovXcv6^VTa • Oeo% Sc TcXcioi toi -irdvTuv. 
Connect with ver. 3 and cf. Mrs. Brown- 
ing's line, " I waited with patience, which 
means almost power ". 

Vv. 6-16. Injunctions upon church- 
life and order. 

Ver. 6. How necessary it was to pro- 
mote virofjiovi] with its attendant virtues 
of diligence and order at Thessalonica, is 
evident from the authoritative (iv iv. t. 
Kvptov) tone and the crisp detail of the 
following paragraph. Flapayy., like drd- 
KTiDS, has a military tinge (cf. on I. iv. 2, 
and Dante's Paradiso, xii. 37-45). otcXX., 
for his own sake (ver. 14), as well as for 
yours : a service as well as a precau- 
tion. The collective action of his fellow- 
Christians, besides preserving (i Cor. v. 
6) themselves from infection — and no- 
thing is so infectious as an insubordinate, 
indolent, interfering spirit — will bring 
home to him a sense of his fault. Light- 
foot aptly cites the irapdYYcXfia of Ger- 
manicus to his mutinous troops : " dis- 
cedite a contactu, ac diuidite turbidos : id 
stabile ad paenitentiam, id fidei uinculum 
erit " (Tacit. Annul., i. 43). — The araKroi 
of 6-ia are excitable members who " break 

the ranks '' by stopping work in view of 
the near advent, and thus not only dis- 
organise social life but burden the church 
with their maintenance. The apostles 
had not been idle or hare-brained en- 
thusiasts, and their example of an orderly, 
self-supporting life is held up as a pattern. 
Insubordination of this kind is a breach 
of the apostolic standard of the Christian 
life, and Paul deals sharply with the first 
symptoms of it. He will not listen to 
any pious pleas for this kind of conduct. 

Ver. 8. Paul's practice of a trade and 
emphasis upon the moral discipline of 
work are quite in keeping with the best 
J ewish traditions of the period. Compare 
e.g., the saying of Gamaliel II. (Kiddusck. 
i. 11) : " He who possesses a trade is 
like a fenced vineyard, into which no 
cattle can enter, etc." — Swpcdv = " for 
nothing, gratis ". 

Ver. 9. The apostles had the right to 
be maintained by the church, but in this 
case they had refused to avail themselves 
of it. The Thessalonians are not to mis- 
construe their action. 

Ver. 10. Precept as well as example 
(DCG, ii. 2). As is perhaps implied in 
Sti, cl . . . ifrBUrv is a maxim quoted 
by the apostle, not from some unwritten 
saying of Jesus (Resch) but from the 
Jewish counterparts, based on Gen. iii. 
19, which are cited by Wetstein, especi- 
ally Beresch. rabba, xiv. 12: *'ut, si non 
laborat, non manducet". Cf. Carlyle's 
Chartism, chap iii (" In all ways it needs, 
especially in these times, to be proclaimed 

6— 16. 

nP02 eE22AA0NIKE12 B 


€<T6a^, firi^k iaOUru. II. ' dKouoiiee ydp Tifas ircpiiraTOUKTas ^k d " We are 
c - / c \ informed" 

ufiiK draKTuS) lATjoec' ^pya^oficVous dXXd * irepiepya^ofi^fous. 12. (ai i Cor. 

Tois oc ToiouTois TTopaYY^Xofiei' xat irapaKaXoufiCK €V Kupiu Itjaou e For the 
V •«»• \hc ' > ■>/ vt "» >n/ parono- 

ApuTTw • iKa fxcTd TjcTUXias cpyaj^ofi ef 01 toi' eaoTiuK oproK eaaiuan'^ masia.sea 

13. uficis 8c, dSeXi^oi, fi^ '^KaKi]crr)Te ^ KaXoiTOiouKTCS. 14. ei 8^ 82, 4, and 

_ >€ / ~\> ««e>l-^j \- " m Deissm. 

Tis oux uiraKouei tw Aoyw TjfMJC oia tt)s cirioToXTjs, tootoi' (rT]fiei- 225. 

ooaOe, JIT) o-UKacap.iycuauai auTu, iko errpOTrj) • 15. Kai |1t] wSgC/. onl. 

eX^po*" ''iiyeiaOe, dXXd ' kouGctcitc ws d8€X(}>o>'. 16. auTos 8e Ohc/. on 

Kupios TT]s eipi]n]S ' 8«tj ufiiK ttji' €ipi]nfj»' * 8id irorros ck irarr'' is!'* ^'' 


Eph. Hi. 
k Only here in N.T. 1 i.e., not i The88.(so Lunemann, Schniiedel, Scbafer) but (so Pelt, Lgft., 

Findlay, etc.) the present. Win. 5 18, 4. m Only here in N.T. n C/. i Cor. v. 9 f. o C/. 

Tit. ii. 8. p C/. Job xix. 11 (LXX). q c/. I. v. 14, i Cor. iv. 14, and 2 Cor. ii. 7. r Opt. 
without av, as in i Peter i. a; Hellenistic opt.. Win. § 14, 10. s =s "continually" Lk. xxiv. 

S3, Ps. Sol. ii. 40, etc. 

aloud that for the idle man there is no 
place in this England ... he that will 
not work according to his faculty, let him 
perish according to his necessity "). The 
use of iv Kvpiif here and in i Cor. xi. 11 
{cf. Matt. xix. 4 f.) proves, as Titius argues 
(der Paulinismus unter dem Gesichtspunkt 
der Seligktit, 1900, p. 105), that the 
original divine ideas of the Creation are 
fulfilled and realised in the light of 
Christ's gospel ; the entire process of 
human life culminates in the faith of 
Christ, and therefore no unqualified anti- 
thesis can be drawn between ordinary life 
and Christian conduct. 

Ver. II. The yap goes back to ver. 6. 
" Whereas I am told that some of your 
number are behaving in a disorderly 
fashion, not busy but busybodies," fussy 
and officious, doing anything but attend- 
ing to their daily trade. " Ab otio ualde 
procliue est hominum ingenium ad curi- 
ositatem" (Bengel). The first persecu- 
tion at Thessalonica had been fostered 
by a number of fanatical loungers (Acts 
xvii. 5). On the sensible attitude of the 
primitive church to labour, see Har- 
nack's Expansion, i. 215 f. M. Aurelius 
(iii. 4) warns people against idle, fussy 
habits, but especially against t& ircpi- 
cpyov KoX Ko.K6y\9t%, and an apt parallel 
to this use of araKTw^ lies in Dem. 
Olynth., iii. 34 : i<ra (funds or food) ovtos 
ardicTtAS vvv Xap^avuv (i.e., takes with- 
out rendering personal service in the 
field) ovK w^eXcX, ravT* iv ia^ rd^ci 

Ver. 12. They are not directly ad- 
dressed (contrast 6, 13). — (tera 'qo-uxiast 
in the homely sphere of work. The three 
causes of disquiet at Thessalonica are (a) 

the disturbing effect of persecution, (i) 
the tension produced by the thought of 
the advent of Christ, and (c), as an out- 
come of the latter, irregularity and social 
disorganisation in the community. 

Ver. 13. v|ici« 8^, whoever else drops 
out of the ranks of industrious, steady 
Christians. — |tT| iytt., implying that they 
had not begun to grow slack (Moulton, 
122 f.). Perhaps with a special allusion 
to the presence of people who abused 
charity ; generous Christians must not 
forego liberality and help, arguing that it 
is no use to succour any because some 
will take advantage of the church's 

Ver. 14. 8ia t. Iir., implying that the 
matter ends with this letter (Weiss) ; Paul 
has spoken his last word on the subject. 
With this and tiie following verse, cf. 
Did. XV. 3 (eXeyxere Bk aXXTjXovf jjiti iv 
^PYD 4XX* €V clpi]V'{], ws ex*'''* ^'' Ty 
cvayycXicg) • Kai iravTi aoToxovvTi Kara 
Tov cTcpov pTjScis XaXciTw ii.r\Zi irap' 
v\Luv aKovcTM, l(i>s ov pcTavoi^crQ). — 
Ivrpoirg, " be ashamed " ( = alScurdu 
as often). 

Ver. 15. Disapproval, as a means of 
moral discipline, loses all its effect if the 
offender does not realise its object and 
reason (vovOctcitc), or if it is tainted with 
personal hostility. — ws aScX^<Sv. Com- 
pare the fine saying of Rabbi Chanina 
ben Gamaliel on Deut. xxv. 3, that after 
the punishment the offender is expressly 
called brother, not sinner. 

Ver. 16. €lpiivT)v, as opposed to these 
fears and troubles of the church. Kvpiot 
is probably, in accordance with Paul's 
usual practice, to be taken as = Jesus 
Christ, but the language of ver. 5 and of 



III. 17—18. 

t Emphatic: 
the cen- 
sured as 17 
well as ^ 
the steady eTriOToXtj 

6 Kupios ^€Toi ^rrdvTfav u\t,wv. 

6 " d(nraa|xo9 xfj ejiTJ x^<'P^ FlauXou, o i<m (rqfietov iv irdoTj 
ouTO) ypd^a. 

u C/. on I 18. 1^ X'^P''^ '''°" Kupioo r\}i.uv 'Itjo-ou Xpiorou fi€T& *'ir<£KT<iiK u^Qv. 

Cor. xvi. 

31, and 2 

Cor. xiii. i^. v Autograph as means of recognising authentici^, ef, Abbott, Joh. Gram. 

2691, and Cicero's Catil. iii. 5, Plautus, Bacch. iv. 4, 78, etc. 

I., V. 23, makes the reference to God quite 

Vv. 17, 18. Conclusion. Paul now 
takes the pen from his amanuensis, to 
add the salutation in his own handwrit- 
ing lor the purpose of authenticating the 
epistle (otherwise in i Cor. xvi. 21). 
This, he observes, is the sign-manual of 
his letters (c/. ii. 2), i.e., the fact of a 
personal written greeting at the close, 
not any form of words (like ver. 18), or 
the use of the word " grace," or " certum 
quendam nexum literarium" (Grotius). 

The precaution is natural, in view of his 
suspicion about unauthorised communica- 
tions. Compare "the o-c(rT|(*ci(i>)iiai (gener- 
ally contracted into orccn)) with which so 
many of the Egyptian papyrus-letters 
and ostraca close" (Milligan, p. 130), or 
the postscript in one's own handwriting 
(|v|xPoXov) which guaranteed an ancient 
letter (Deissmann : Licht vom Osten, 105). 
|i€Ta (cf. ver. 16), the divine presence is 
realised through the experience of Christ's 




Those who propose to read this exposition of the Pastoral Epistles 
may find it convenient to be apprised at the outset of the conclusions 
assumed in it concerning the genuineness and integrity of the Letters. 
After a careful review of the arguments adduced by the traditionalists 
and the anti-traditionalists, and after the devotion of considerable 
thought to a minute study of the Epistles themselves, the present 
writer finds it easier to believe that St. Paul was the author of them, 
as they have come down to us, than that a Paulinist (assuming that 
there ever was a special school of Pauline thought), sometime 
between 90 and 120 a.d., worked up a few fragments of genuine 
letters of his master into 2 Timothy and Titus, and then composed 
1 Timothy in imitation of his own style. This second alternative 
represents, broadly speaking, the theory of the anti-traditional school 
of critics. 

The only serious difficulties which preclude an unhesitating 
acceptance of these letters, as they stand, as the composition of St. 
Paul, lie in (1), the style, which, although fundamentally not un- 
Pauline, presents undeniably certain obvious peculiarities which are 
not found in any of the ten other Pauline letters, and (2) in the 
writer's outlook on religion — in particular, the relations of God and 
Christ respectively to man's salvation, and the place of faith and 
works in the spiritual life — which seems to be that of one who had 
travelled on the Pauline road (assuming that there was a public 
highway that could be so described), further than we should have 
deemed it possible in the years — few at most — which separate the 
close of St. Paul's life from the date of the Epistles of the first 
Roman captivity. The main features of the landscape are the same, 
but the distances are different. 

On the other hand, this altered theological outlook, as well as 
the writer's concern about Church institutions, is responsible for the 


peculiar religious phraseology in so far as it does indeed differ from 
features common to the earlier groups of letters ; so that whatever 
considerations help us to account for the former change will also 
aid in the solution of the problem of style and vocabulary. 

The other arguments against the Pauline authorship, based on : 
(3) the impossibility of fitting into the Acts of the Apostles the 
personal and local references in the Pastorals, (4) the all. ged marks 
of the second century in the heresy which is combated, and (5) 
the allegation that the details of Church organisation reflect the 
policy of the dominant party of the early second century — are, it is 
believed, assumptions for which there is no foundation. And, in 
fact, (4) and (5) are not now insisted on by many of the anti- 
traditional school, and will not be dealt with in this introduction. 

Before passing on to a brief discussion of the style and the 
historical setting of the Epistles, it will not be amiss to suggest 
some considerations which may help, not indeed to solve the problem 
before us, but to enable us to believe that it would not be a problem 
at all could we only know a little more about the personal history 
of St. Paul, and of the inner life of the Christian Church in the 
first century. In the first place, we must remember that it was a 
period of intensely vigorous and rapidly developing Church life. We 
are so much accustomed to regard as normal Christian communities 
in which nine-tenths of the professed adherents are spiritually only 
half alive, that we find it difficult to realise what manner of thing 
Church life was when every one took a keen interest in his religion, 
and the spiritual life of every Church member was full and strong, 
even if not always consistent. The years that elapsed between 
Pentecost and 100 a.d. represent the infancy of the Church ; and we 
all know how momentous in their after consequences are a child's 
experiences during the first five or six years of its life. But the 
first century was even more significant for the subsequent history of 
the Church than is infancy in the case of a human being. The 
development of the Church, as we experience it, at least in Europe, 
is slow ; looking back thirty years we can indeed perceive some 
change ; but in the first century a year wrought what it now takes 
a generation to effect. What we know of the rapid development in 
applied science in our own day supplies us with an experience 
somewhat analogous to the growth of the Christian Church — 
doctrinally and institutionally — in the first century. We have seen 
in the space of ten, or even five, years a complete revolution in men's 
notions as to what is possible and reasonable in the rate of travel 
on the high road or in the air. 


It was while the Church was thus rapidly taking shape that St. 
Paul came into it ; and, if we may judge from the extant evidence, 
he quickly became the most powerful constructive force in it. But 
there were other agencies at work, human, as well as Divine and 
divinely inspired, and St. Paul was himself wrought on and shaped 
as much, or more, than he shaped others. Always a student but 
never a recluse, he shared to the full the common life of the un- 
exclusive early Church. He did not " dwell apart," though always 
conscious that his innermost life was "hid with Christ in God". 
And not only did his life move with the Church's life, but it was 
brought into close touch with every possible human experience — 
except those of domestic life — to a degree rarely equalled by any 
other man. The label that correctly describes the contents of a 
given human personality to-day may be, in some cases, not misleading 
five or ten years hence ; but St. Paul was not one of these constant 
quantities. His personality was not that of a Milton, self-determining, 
holding on its course " like a star," unaffected by the storms of the 
lower atmosphere; he was as sympathetic, and therefore open to 
impressions from without, as if he had been a weak man. Of this 
impressionableness and craving for sympathy we have abundant 
evidence in the Epistles that are universally acknowledged to be 
genuine. Such a man is likely to undergo changes in mental outlook, 
to become possessed by fresh ideals and conceptions, so as to be- 
wilder less agile minds; and, of course, new thoughts require for 
their expression words and phrases for which the man had no use 
before. In the case of St. Paul, this is no imaginary supposition. 
The difference between the Paul of Philippians and the Paul of 
1 Timothy is not greater than, perhaps not as great as, between the 
Paul of Thessalonians and the Paul of Ephesians. The fact just 
noticed should put us on our guard against the easy assumption that 
the normal Pauline presentation of the relations between God and 
man is that found in the central group of his Epistles: Romans, 
1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians. 

There is, however, a difference between the Pastorals and the 
earlier letters for which the lapse of time alone cannot account, and 
that is a diminution in force. The letters to Timothy and Titus are 
certainly of apostolic quality; the ordinary reader, and still more 
the student, who compares them with the best of the sub-apostolic 
literature, can at once perceive the difference between what is inspired 
and what is merely interesting, edifying, and even noble. Neverthe- 
less, we miss in the Pastorals the exuberant vigour, the reserved 
strength of the earlier letters. The explanation of this may well be 


that before St. Paul wrote these letters he had ceased to be an 
elderly, and had, perhaps rapidly, become an old man. There is 
nothing impossible in this supposition. The surprising thing is that 
it has not been more generally recognised as a probable factor in the 
solution of the problem presented by the Pastorals. When we think 
of the intensity with which St. Paul had lived his life — always at 
high pressure — and what a hard life it had been, it would be a 
marvel indeed if old age with its diminished powers had not come 
suddenly upon him. 

We hold then that the author of the Pastorals was Paul ; but 
" Paul the aged " ; much more aged, and more truly so, than when 
he penned his note to Philemon. We may observe, as a sign of old 
age, a certain inertia which makes him satisfied to express his meaning 
in habitual, almost stereotyped, words and phrases ; words and phrases 
which are only open to the objection — in itself unreasonable — that 
we have heard them quite recently. The brain no longer responds 
to the will to utter " words that burn " ; and it seems as fitful in the 
origination of "thoughts that breathe". It is not that St. Paul is 
not truly inspired in the Pastorals. These letters satisfy the practical 
test of inspiration, viz., their yield of matter for thought is never 
exhausted by study. There are, moreover, several passages in them 
that have touched the hearts of Christians in every age as nearly as 
anything the apostle ever wrote. But even in these, perhaps more 
in these than in less striking paragi'aphs — for ordinary details of 
Church life must be dealt with in ordinary language — we detect a 
failing of power in comparison with the Paul of the earlier letters : 
the inspiration is as true, but it is not as strong ; the heart and 
arteries and veins do their duty, but the blood does not course so 
quickly as in the days of youth. To put it quite plainly : the difficulties 
that meet the student of the Pastoral Epistles lie rather in the 
logical connexion of the paragraphs than in the profundity of the 
thoughts expressed in them ; and whatever obscurity there may be 
in some of the expressions used is due in nearly every case to the 
meagreness of our information concerning the circumstances of the 
writer and of the Church. 

In the earlier epistles, on the contrary, it often happens that the 
apostle's thoughts and conceptions are too great for expression. He 
does not, indeed cannot, formulate them precisely ; he gives them 
the most adequate expression he can ; and the Holy Spirit has 
ever since been leading the Church to a constantly increasing com- 
prehension of them. But in the Pastorals we do not meet any such 
struggles between thought and language We are never conscious 


that we are present at the birth of some mighty principle which can 
reach maturity only at the end of time. Great theological statements 
concerning man's salvation — not of the relation of Christ to the 
universe — are formulated, not daringly sketched ; the conceptions of 
the mutual relations of God and man which are involved in these 
statements are not new to the author ; he has mastered them com- 
pletely, and presents them with a finished expression which leaves 
the reader satisfied. Take, for example, the statement of the wide- 
ness of God's saving purposes in 1 Tim. ii. 4-6 ; the summary of the 
working out of the Incarnation in 2 Tim. i. 9, 10 ; the analysis of 
the saving process in Tit. iii. 4-7. Here we have theological principles 
in their classical expression ; they do not need exegesis, they only 
demand to be " marked, learned, and inwardly digested ". 

Again, the apostle, in these letters is not only not creative ; he 
is displayed to us as receptive of the thoughts of other makers of 
Christian theology, his contemporaries. When St. Paul wrote the 
Pastoral Epistles, his own work as an originating constructive 
theologian had come to an end ; and there comes into clear view — 
what had been hitherto veiled — the effect on him of the action of 
the religious life of the communities in which he lived. It is a truth, 
obvious when stated, yet sometimes ignored, that the thoughts about 
religion current in the Christian Society of the first century, had not 
been generated only by St. Paul, but by St. John and St. Peter and 
others whose names and achievements we can only conjecture. 
When we were young, we used to picture the Palestine of the 
patriarchs as a land in which no person or thing except Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob and their flocks were of any significance; they 
dominated the landscape as do the saints in medieval pictures. 
When we grew older, it was almost disturbing to one's faith to realise 
that to the busy merchants and peasants of Palestine, Abraham, 
Isaac and Jacob were not persons of unusual importance. Yet, as 
always happens, the truer account, unpalatable at first, is found to 
be more suggestive and helpful than the older fancy. In like manner, 
a realisation that St. Paul did not dominate the Church of his time, 
as his history in the Acts and his epistles so largely dominate the 
New Testament, will be found a helpful consideration. 

The Church is a greater thing than the greatest saint or theologian 
in it ; and St. Paul could not have helped, even if he would, being 
influenced by the Christianity, as actually lived, of the men and 
women around him ; and that in three ways at least. (1) His own 
theology came back to him not quite the same as it had come from 
his brain. It is not only the elements of matter that are subject to 


reaction in consequence of fusion ; the same natural law operates in 
the interaction of the thoughts of a thoughtmaker with the minds of 
those to whom his thoughts are communicated. And, if we may 
carry on the same analogy, the Church of St Paul's time was unable 
to take up, to hold in solution, the whole of the Pauline theology ; 
a considerable amount of it was held in suspension to be absorbed 
gradually by the Church in the course of the ages. (2) Again, as 
has just been pointed out, the religious thought of the Christian 
Society in which St. Paul lived was fed and stirred by other apostles, 
of whom we can name St. John and St. Peter. It is surely not 
unreasonable to suppose that these apostles spoke before they 
wrote, that what they published was the most perfect expression 
attainable by them of what they had been speaking about during the 
whole of their ministry ; that, in fact, Johannine literature was, for 
the Church of the first century, the final presentation, not the 
origination, of Johannine thought and expression. Is it too much to 
expect that those who study the writings contained in the New 
Testament should cease to think of the authors of them as solitaries 
who had no other means but books of acquiring ideas or a vocabulary, 
and who, in turn, only influenced the thought and phraseology of 
the men of their time by books or treatises composed at the close 
of their lives. It is strange that men cannot see the Church, the 
Society which conditioned, was not conditioned by, St. Paul, St. John 
and St. Peter. This consideration is intended to prepare the reader 
to be not astonished or perplexed by the occasional Johannine turns 
of phrase that occur in the Pastorals, and which are noted in the 
course of the exposition. (3) Furthermore, it must not be thought 
strange that the Providence of God, the Holy Spirit Who guides 
the Church, should have called the apostle Paul almost wholly away 
from thoughts of the Church's place in history and in the universe 
to the administration of, and provision for, the daily needs of the 
Church as actually experienced by man. Our own generation has 
not been without examples of men summoned from the library of the 
" great house " into less obviously inspiring chambers, which serve 
the more material, but not less necessary, needs of the household. 
Christians who think of the Church as a visible Divine Society with 
a life on earth continuous to the end of time, cannot think that St. 
Paul as reflected in the Pastorals is less worthy of admiration than 
St. Paul as reflected in Romans. Nor will they be off'ended if they 
find that his new preoccupation with ordinary Church life has left 
a trace on his idiom ; if, it may be, he has caught some of the current 


phrases of ordinary religious society. He is not less intelligible to 
Timothy, or less truly himself. 

The Style of the Letters. 

It was noticed in the beginning of this Introduction that the con- 
sideration of most weight against the Pauline authorship of the 
Pastoral Epistles is the style of the composition, which differs from 
that of any of the groups of the other ten Pauline letters — the 
genuineness of which is here assumed — by (a) the recurrence in them 
of certain, almost stereotyped, forms of expression, (6) by a general 
difference in the structure of sentences, and (c) by the absence from 
them of alleged characteristic Pauline words. These three sorts of 
variation are here enumerated in the order of tbeir importance. No 
fair-minded traditionalist will be disposed to minimise the gravity of 
the problem presented by these indisputable facts. On the other 
hand, these acknowledged peculiarities must not be allowed to obscure 
the equally undoubted fact that the Epistles present not only as 
many characteristic Pauline words as the writer had use for, but 
that, in the more significant matter of turns of expression, the style 
of the letters is, as has been stated before, fundamentally Pauline. 
This will be evident from an inspection of the references. Perhaps it 
is true to say that the positive stylistic peculiarities of the letters — the 
large number of unusual words,^ the recurrent phraseology — deprive 
of its just weight the counter argument based on its admittedly 
Pauline element, just because this is normal, and does not strike the 
eye. It is at least a strong argument on the traditionalist side, that the 
un- Pauline style of the Pastorals was not commented on by the early 
Greek Christian critics, as was the un- Pauline style of Hebrews, and 
the un-Johannine style of the Apocalypse. On the other hand, the 
peculiarities of expression are not such as a clever imitator of St. 
Paul's style would introduce. 

Taking up, in the first place, the recurrent words, terms and 
phrases, it will be convenient to divide them into three categories. 

A. Terms, or phrases, of the religious life of the Christian Society. 

B. Polemical phraseology in reference to false teaching. 

C. Favourite terms, or expressions, of the author's. 

It is not pretended that this classification can be carried out con-, 
sistently ; but it seemed to be worth attempting. In particular it 

^ Dean Bernard, Past. Epp., p. xxxvi., notes that the fiirof \ey6ii.eva amount to 
176, a number " proportionately twice as great as in any other of St. Paul's letters," 


may deserve consideration whether we have not presented to us, in 
the style of the Pastorals, a new, but not the less true, aspect of St, 
Paul as a writer, no longer creating a Christian terminology, but 
freely making use of the pnraseology he heard around him, towards 
the formation of which he had been a principal, bui not the only, con- 
tributor. On the other hand, in so far as this supposition is true it 
precludes our making use of the occurrence of certain phrases and 
words in extant early writings, as proofs that the authors of those 
writings had read the Pastoral Epistles. 

In the following list of terms and phrases, a = 1 Timothy ; b = 2 
Timothy; c = Titus; the numbers indicate the number of occurrences 
of the term or phrase in the epistle. When the term or phrase is 
not peculiar to the Pastorals, a reference is given to its occurrence 
elsewhere, or "etc." is added. 

Terminology of the Christian Society. 
a, b, c. 

1^ dXTJOeia, in a technical sense : a, 3 ; b, 4 ; c (2 Cor. iv. 2, etc.). 

r\ SiSaaKaXia : A, The body of doctrine ; absolutely, or with epithets 
(see uyiaii'ouaa) : a, 4 ; b, 2 ; c, 3. 

iq SiSaaKaXia: B, The act of teaching : a, 3; b, c (Rom. xii. 7). 

1^ Tritrns, fides quae creditur : a, 8 ; b, 2; c, 3. 

moTis [k.] dYdirT) : a, 4 ; b, 2 ; c (1 Thess. iii. 6, v. 8). 

irio-Tis, &y6,Tn], u-irofjLOfi] : a, [b], C. 

T] uyiaii'ouo'a SiSacrKaXia : a, b, c, 2. uyiaii'ocTes Xoyoi : a, b. uyiai- 
I'df TTJ iricTTei : C, 2. Xoyos uyii^s : C. Cf. vocriov : a ; ydyypaii'a : b. 

ImycwCTis dXt]0€tas and ^■rriyn'oJo-Keti' t. dXrjGetac : a, 2 ; b, 2 ; C. 
(Heb. X. 26 ; cf. Philem. 6). 

[i^] Euo-e^eia : a, 7; b. Kar' eixre^ciav : a, C. cuctePo); t''}^' b, C. 
euo-ejSeli': a (Acts, 4; 2 Pet. 5). 

trdii^pfov : 2L, c, 3. or&)<(>poi'€ii' : c (Mark v. 15 ; Rom, xii, 3 ; 2 Cor. v. 
13). (T(ti<^povi(Tp.6s '. b. acj4>po»'i^eii' : C. (Tox^povuts '. c. o-(i><j>poo'uioi) : a, 2 
(Acts xxvi. 25). 

6 yOy aiiay : a, b, C. 

^iri4)cij'eia : a, b, 3 ; c (2 Thess. ii. 8) (ircK^aiyeiv : c, 2 ; Luke i. 79 ; 
Acts xxvii. 20 ; cf. Acts ii. 20). 

a)(|>€Xifxos •' a, 2 ; b, c. 

SidPoXoi, adj. : a, b, c. 

dpi'ciaOat: a, b, 4 ; c, 2, etc., but not Paul. 

a, b. 
crui/ciSTiCTis Ka9ap(£ : a, b (aui'eiS. dyaOi] : a, 2 ; Acts xxiii. 1 ; 1 Pet. 
iii. 16, 21). 


KaOapa KapSia : a, b. 

iriOTlS dt'UTTOKpiTOS : 3., D. 

TrioTis K. dydTrr) r] iv Xpiarw 'Irjaou : a, b. 

TTtoTis t] c** XpioTw 'Itjctou : a, b ) ctc. 

KttXos '. qualifying adj. (not incl. KaXoi' epyof) : a, 9 ; b, 3 (esp. 
koXt) orpaTeta, a, or orpaTiuTTjs, b, KaXos dywi', a, b) ; etc., but not 

irayls : a ; Tou Sia^oXou : a, b. 

4>euYe • SiwKe 8e SiKaioaunf]!' . . . tciariv dYdTnjK : a, b. 

dyufi^ rov KaXoi' dyoif a : a, b. 

Trapa9i]KT)»' <}>uXd(ro-€H' : a, b, 2. 

irapaKoXouOeif SiSaaKaXia : a, b. 

d>'0p(i)Tros [t.] 0eou : a, b. 

a, c. 

KaXoc Ipyoi', KaXoi epya : a, 4 ; c, 4 ; etc., but not Paul. 

acjjii'os : a, 2 ; c (Phil. iv. 8) ; or o-c(jikott]s : a, 2 ; c. 

(TOJTTip (of God the Father, not incl. Tit. ii. 13) : a, 3 ; c, 3. 

b. c. 

€ts irdi' Ipyoi' dyaOoc r\ro\.^a(T^ivov '. b. 
irpos » » » eltjpTia/i^i'os : b. 

„ „ „ „ dSoKifioi : C. 

„ „ „ „ iToifioos: c. 

Peculiar to one Letter, 

diroScKTOf Ivtaitiov t. 6eoG : a, 2. 

(Xias yucaiKos &\rf\p : a, 2 (ei'os dt'Spos yuvi\ '. a,). 

eiTiXaP^aOai ttjs ^wtjs : a, 2. 

p.aKdpios (of God) : a, 2. 

TO fi.UCTTiipioi' TTJs iriorews, Or tt]S cuacpcias : a, 2. 

irioTis K. dyaTTT] k. dyiaapo;, or dyi'Eia : a, 2. 

tiratoxui'co-Oat ti or rim : b, 3 (Rom. i. 16, and five other ins.). 

cKcinf] y\ ^/xe'pa (Last Day) : b, 3 (Matt. 2; Luke, 3; 2 Thess. 1). 

KaXuf IpvuK irpotoraadai : C, 2. 

Polemical Phraseology. 

dXT]6€ia : d7rearTcpT]fji^i'(i)i/ tt]s dXr^Oeias '. a. irepl t^v dXt^Ociac ^<rr<5x'»J<''a»' t 
b. ixcTdfoiaf CIS CTTiyi'UCTii' dXT]6eias : b. |i,if]S^iroT€ cis eiriyt'waii' dXtjO. 
IXOcif Su^dficca : b. d»'0i<rra»Tai Ttj dXT)Oeia : b. diro Ttjs dXTjOeiati T. 
dKor]!/ dTroaTpe^fouaic : b. aTro(rrpe<{>op.eV(>)i' ttji* dXi]9eiai' : C, 
VOL. IV. 5 


foGs ' hi€^6ap\j.iv(av , . . r. fouf : 3.. KaretftOapfiefoi t. voGv : b. 
fi,E|Aij,rrai auTuK ... 6 I'ous ^ C. 

TTiaris : ircpl t. iricrrii' ivaudyr](Tav : a. ircpl t. ^^LCTTt^' i^crr6;^Y)aai' : a. 
dS6Ki|xoi irepl t. iriaTik : b. Airofrr-qaovTai rices t. Triarews • a. dircTrXai'i]- 
©Tjo-ac diro t. iriorTeus '• a. C/. 1 Tim. i. 5, 19. 

(roceiSYjo-is : KeKauonrjpiaaiieV&jf ttji' iStac o-occiSTjaic : a. ficp.iat'Tai 
auTutf . . . iQ (TUceiSr^ats '. C. C/. 1 Tim. i. 5, 19. 

a.(rro\elv '. a, 2 ; b. See dXrideia and irtoris. 

dcaTpeiroucrii' rriy ticuc irtorii' : b. oXous oikous dKaTp^irouaiK : C. Cf. 
ivL KaTao-Tpo(J>TJ twk dKOuon-ui', b. 

Pc'PtjXos : a, 3; b (Heb. xii. 16). O^^tjXoi K€fo«|>wi'iai : a, b). 

YeceaXoyiai : a, c. 

^K^T]TTi<reis or ^TjTi](j-cis : a, 2 ; b, c. (p.bipai ixiTrio-eis : b, c.) 

Xoyojiaxeic and XoYop.axLa : a, b. 

ftaraioXoyia and jjiaraioXoYOs : a, C. Cf. ^r\T(\aei% . . . fidraioi, C. 

epiS : a, C. 

fidXT : b, c. 

fiCeos: a, 2; b, c (2 Pet. i. 16). 

fojjios : a^ 2 ; co|jlik69 : c ; KO|jio8iSdaKaXos : a. 

Iirl TrXeiof -n-poicctj/ouaic dac^cias : b. ou irpoKoilfouaif cm irXeiof : b, 
irpoK6<|(Ouaik eirl to )(elpov : b. 

Author's Favourite Terms. 
a, b, c. 
TTioTos 6 Xoyos I a, b, c. 

iricTTos 6 Xoyos tc. xrdoTrjs diroSox'ijS d^ios : a, 2. 
irapaiTou : a, 2 ; b, c. 

oIkos (household) : a, 5; b, 2; c (1 Cor. i. 16, etc.). 
ircpi with accusative : a, 3 ; b, 2 ; c (Phil. ii. 23, etc.). 

a, b. 
xapic Ix" ; ^» ^ (Luke xvii. 9 ; Heb. xii. 28). 
Siap.apTupo|xai ckUTrioc t. @cou, or t. Kuptoo : a ; b, 2. 
CIS o IWOtjk ^y^ KTJpul K. dirooToXos . . . Si,8<iaKaXo$ : a, b. 
Xdpis, IXeos, 6ipi]n(] : a, b. 

uv idTLV I a j b, 2. 

a, c. 

wo-auTws '• a, 4 ; c, 2. 

o ^TrtoreuOif)!' cyw ; a, C. 

Kaipois iSiois '• a, 2 ; c. 

Sia^e^aioua-Oai ircpi tikos : a, C. 

■jrpoac'xcu' : a, 5 ; c. {irpoaix^iv p,u0ots ; a, C.) 


b, c. 

o-irouSao-oK : b, 3 ; c. (<nrou8a<rov eXOeif : b, 2 ; C.) 

■ircpu(7Ta<ro ". b, C 

81' T)K aiTiaK : b, 2 ; c (Luke viii, 47 ; Acts xxii. 24 ; Heb. ii. 1 1). 


<TvyKaKOTtdQj](Tov : b, 2. 

The second difference in style by which the Pastoral Epistles are 

marked off from the earlier letters may be given in the words of 


The Syntax. 

(a) " It is stiffer and more regular than in the earlier Epistles, 
more jointed and less flowing. The clauses are marshalled together, 
and there is a tendency to parallelism." 

e.g., 1 Tim. i. 9, ii. 1, 2, iii. 16, iv. 12, 13, 15, v. 10, vi. 9, 11, 
12, 13, 15, 18; 2 Tim. ii. 11, 12, iii. 1-8, 10-13, 16, iv. 2, 
4, 5, 7 ; Tit. i. 7, 8, 9, ii. 7, 12, iii. 1-3. 

(b) "There is a greater sententiousness, an abruptness and 
positiveness of form. Imperative clauses are frequent. 

e.g., 1 Tim. iv. 11, 15, 16, v. 7, 8, 22-25, vi. 2, 6, 11, 20; 2 
Tim. i. 13, 14, ii. 1, 3, 7, 8, 14, 19, 22, 23, iii. 1, 5, 12, 16." 

(Biblical Essays, p. 402.) 

These differences in syntax are not unconnected with the small 
variety and paucity of particles which are a negative feature of the 
Pastorals. But neither characteristic is very astonishing, since in 
point of fact, the Epistles are of the nature of episcopal charges, 
authoritative, not argumentative ; enforcing disciplinary regulations, 
not unfolding theological conceptions, or vindicating personal claims. 

We come, in the last place, to state and consider the problem 
presented by the purely negative characteristic of the style of 
the Pastoral Epistles, the fact that we do not find in them 
certain alleged characteristic Pauline words. Those who urge this 
as a serious argument against the traditional belief as to the author- 
ship of these letters do not seem to make allowance for the fact that 
they are ex hypothesi dealing with a real man — not a machine; a 
man who had travelled much, and had read much ; who was con- 
stantly coming into contact with fresh people, constantly confronted 
with fresh problems of practical life. The vocabulary of such a man 
is not likely to remain unaffected in its contents or use. Add to this, 


that each of the other letters which are ascribed to him arose out of 
special circumstances, and deals almost exclusively with those 
special circumstances, and that the circumstances which called 
forth the letters to Timothy and Titus were, confessedly, quite 
different from those out of which any of the other Pauline letters 
arose. When these obvious facts are considered, it is difficult to 
treat seriously an argument which assumes that St. Paul was 
provided with only one set of words and terms ; unalterable, no 
matter to whom, or on what subject, he was writing. 

It is not thus that non-Biblical compositions are critically 
examined. We do not demand that Shakespeare's Sonnets or 
Cymbeline should exhibit a certain percentage of Hamlet words. 
And the argument becomes all the more unreasonable when one 
thinks how very small in extent is the extant literary work of St. 
Paul : less than 150 small octavo pages in Westcott and Hort's 
edition, and of these the Pastorals occupy only fifteen. If we had 
been privileged to hear St. Paul's sermons, or to listen to his con- 
versation, how many Pauline words, as shown in a concordance, 
should we have heard ? 

Antecedently, we should not expect that an author's favourite 
expressions would be distributed over the pages of his book like the 
spots on a wall-paper pattern ; nor is this notion confirmed when 
we examine the list of Pauline words missing from the Pastorals, 
as given by Holtzmann {Pastoralbriefe, p. 98, sqq.) and less fully by 
von Soden (Hand-Conimentar, p. 177 5^^.). 

In the complete list of verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs, fifty 
in all, as printed below, each group of cognate words, bracketed 
together, is for argument's sake, treated as a unit. And the numbers 
indicate the number of times the word occurs in St. Paul's Epistles. 
The words that are spaced are those, which after an examination 
of a concordance, can be plausibly claimed as characteristically 
Pauline ; that is to say, they are of comparative frequent occurrence, 
and are found in at least three groups of his Epistles. It must be 
allowed that the absence of all of these is surprising. The simplest ex- 
planation is that some of them had passed out of St. Paul's ordinary 
vocabulary ; and that, in the case of others, the subject matter of 
the Pastorals did not demand their use. Some of them, obviously, 
belong to the vocabulary of certain theological conceptions, others 
to that of a writer's temperament and teYnper. 

For the purpose of analysis, it will be convenient to think of 
the other ten epistles of St, Paul as falling into four groups, 
viz. : — 


(i.) 1 and 2 Thessalonians. 

(ii.) Rom., 1 Cor., 2 Cor., Gal. 

(iii.) Eph., Col., Philem. 

(iv.) Philippians, which though it is one of group iii., as being one 
of the epistles of the first Roman captivity, yet inasmuch as it was 
written somewhat later, may be considered apart. 

aSiKOs, 3, dKaOapaia, 9, aKpo^ucrria, 19, (diroKaXuiTTeii', 13, 
diroK(iXu<|>is, 13), dTToXuTpuCTis, 7,y vui p i1,€iv, 18, SiaOi^KT], 9 (SiKaioCf, 
27, SiKaiatp,a, 5), SiKaioaunr) 6€oG, 9, 8oK€if, 18, eKatrros, 42, (eXcuOcpia, 
7, eXcudcpos, 1 6, eXeuOepouf, 5), (^ivd py e t. a, 8, iv £ py el v, 17, iv e pyr] \i a, 
2, iv€pyr\s, 2), llcCTTif, 5, cpya v6p.ou, 9, Kdytij, 27, KaTapyciv, 25, 
KaTepyd^ccrdai, 20, (Kauxacrdai, 35, k a 6 -j^^t] p. a, 10, Kaux^fiS, 10), 
Kpeicrauv, 4,^oji', 4, p,iKp6s, 4, pxapla, 5, (ojxotouc, 1, 6|ji,oiup.a, 5), 6p,oioi)s, 

4, 6 p d f, 10, oupafos, 21, irapciSocris, 5, irapaXafiPdvcii', 11, TraTT|p 
r\ p.Civ,7, outside salutations, -rveiOeiv, 2, (Trcptao-eia, 3,T:€pLcr ae6 i iv, 
26, ircpio-CTeufia, 2, ircpiao-os, 2, irepiao-oTepos, 6), tt c p i- 
irareii', 32, (TreTroiOcVai, 12, Treirot0r](ns, 6), irXeoi'd^eif, 8, (TrXcoi/eKTeiv, 

5, ■n\eoviKTii]s, 4, -irXeofelia, 6), oi iroXXoi, 8, (irp a y fi a, 4, irp d 1 1 s, 3, 
IT p d a a e I K, 18), <nrXdy)(i'a, 8, (aui'epyeii', 3, aoi'cpyos, 1 2), ata p,a, 
91, (raTreiKOS, 3, Taireicoue, 4), (tAcios, 8, TeXctoTT}?, 1, tcXcioui', 1), 
uioOeaia, 5, U169 T. 6 e o u, 17, (uTraKor^, 11, uTraKOueic, 11), {<^pov€lv, 
24, <|>p6i'T)|xa, 4, <{>p6nf]ais, 1, <|>po»'i/i05, 5), (jxjats, 11, x<^P^^£<'^<'i<') 16> 
XprioTos, 3. 

Of the fifty characteristically Pauline words no less than eleven 
do not occur in groups i., iii., iv., viz., SSikos, StKaioui', SiKaioaufT] 06oo, 
e^tiTTiv, cpya v6p.o\j, pcil^ui/, p.iKpo$, fxojpca, 6p,oia>s, ireiBeiv, 01 iroXXoi. 01 
these, dSiKos is not found in 2 Cor. or Gal. ; SiKaiouf not in 2 Cor. 
though twice in the Pastorals ; while SiKaiujia only occurs in Rom. , 
BiKttioaoj'Tj 0€oG not in 1 Cor. or Gal. ; lleortv not in Rom. or Gal. , 
Ipya fojiou not in 1 Cor. or 2 Cor. ; p.eilav not in 2 Cor. or Gal. ; 
pKpos not in Rom. ; fiupia only in 1 Cor. (while p.wp6s, also in 1 Cor. 
(4), occurs in the Pastorals twice) ; ojioius not in 2 Cor. or Gal. ; 
ireiGeiK not in Rom. or 1 Cor. ; 61 iroXXoi not in Gal., but five times 
in Rom. It is obvious, from these facts, that these eleven words 
are not characteristically Pauline. 

Of the others, four do not occur in groups i. and iii., viz., 8oic€ii', 
Kpeiaauf , ojxoiouf , TaTTCii'Os. Of these, SoKCif not m Rom. ; Kpcicro-u not 
in Rom., 2 Cor. or Gal. ; 6/jiotoOi' not in 1 Cor., 2 Cor. or Gal. ; and 
TaiTcifos not in 1 Cor. or Gal. 

Seven do not occur in groups i. and iv., viz., dKpoPuaria, dTToXorpu- 
ais, 8ia6i]KT), eXcuOcpia, oloOcffia, <}>uai9, xpi1<'T0S. Of these, aKpo^ucTTia 
not in 2 Cor. ; diroXuTpwats not in 2 Cor. or Gal. Of the eXeuOcpio 


group, ^Xcudcpog and ^XeuOepoGi' are not in 2 Cor., and EXcudepouf is not 
in 1 Cor. uloOeo-ia not in 1 Cor, or 2 Cor. ; <|>u<ns not in 2 Cor. ; 
XPtjot6s not in 2 Cor. or Gal. ; leaving SiaGi^KT] (once in iii.) and 
AcuOcpia (twice in iii.) as the only words that are evenly distributed 
in group ii. 

Among those which do not occur in group i., viz., yvupit,£iv, 
KaTcpyd^ecrOai, o-irXdyxKa, t^cios, <l)poi'€ii', xc^pi^^o'^ah we notice that of 
the twenty instances of KaTcpydJcaOai seventeen occur in Rom. and 
2 Cor.; tnrXciYxi'a, not found in Rom., 1 Cor. or Gal., occurs three 
times in Philem. ; none of the r^Xeios group is found in 2 Cor. or 
Gal., while TeXcioGi' and TcXeionfjs are absent from Rom. and 1 Cor. 
Of the thirty-four instances of the <|>poi'eii' group, one of which is 
1 Tim. vi. 17, Rom. and Phil, account for twenty-five; <|>p6nr)fia is 
only found in Rom., (^p6n]cris only in Eph., <|>poi'ip,os only in Rom., 
1 Cor., and 2 Cor. ; leaving yvwpiieiy and xapil^o^^oi fairly repre- 
sentative words. 

It remains to notice a few of these characteristically Pauline words 
which are not found in Philippians, viz. : dKa0ap<n'a, KaTapyeif, opav, 
irapdSoais, irXcoi'eKTeri', and uios t. OcoG. dxaOapaia is not found in 
1 Cor. ; Karapycii' does, in point of fact, occur in 2 Tim. ; 6paK, found 
in 1 Tim. iii. 16, does not occur in 2 Cor. or Gal., irapdSoorts not in 
Rom. or 2 Cor. ; none of the ttXcokcktcii' group is found in Gal., while 
irXcoi'CKTeri' and irXeoKclia are both absent from 1 Cor., and irXcof^KTtjs 
from 2 Cor. Of the seventeen places where our Lord is called utos 
[t. 0eoO,] eleven are found in Rom. and Gal. 

In the whole list, then, there are twenty-seven words, or more 
than half, the absence of which from the Pastorals obviously need 
call for no remark. The following facts with regard to the distribution 
of some of the others are suggestive ; and diminish, if they do not 
wholly remove, the difficulty of the problem before us. cKacrros (42) 
occurs twenty-two times in 1 Cor.; of the ivipyeia group (29) three 
members are not found in Rom., 2 Cor., or Gal., i.e., Ii'^pycia, 
ci'e'pyifjp.a, cccpyi^s ; neither is ivipy^ia found in 1 Cor. Of the twenty- 
seven occurrences of KdyoS, more than half, nineteen, are found in 
1 Cor. and 2 Cor. Of the KauxdaOai group (55) more than half, 
twenty-nine, occur in 2 Cor; TrapaXafj.pdceii' (11) is not found in Rom. 
or 2 Cor. iraTrjp i^fiuc, apart from its common use in salutations, 
is found three times in 1 Thess., twice in 2 Thess., and once each in 
Gal, and Phil. Of the -n-cpiaaeia group (39), none is found in Gal. ; 
three not in 1 Cor., i.e., ircpiaacia, ircpKraos and -irepio-o-eufxa ; two not 
in Rom., i.e., iTcpiao-cup,a and ircpiao-oTepos. On the other hand, nearly 
half, seventeen, of the total is found in 2 Cor. (which has also irepio-o-o- 


T^pus seven times), seven occur in 1 Cor. and five in Phil. Neither 
TreiToiO^kai nor ircTToiOTjo-ts occurs in 1 Cor, ; irciroiOTjo-is not in Rom. or 
Gal. Here again seven cases belong to 2 Cor. and seven to Phil. 
Of the TTpdyfJ-a group (25), thirteen belong to Rom., which has ten 
out of the eighteen occurrences of irpddaeiv. Neither of the aufepyelv 
group (15) occurs in Gal. ; yet its distribution is otherwise fairly 
even. The distribution of aoip,a (91) is remarkable. Just more than 
half, forty-six, of its occurrences are found in 1 Cor. ; chap. vi. having 
eight, chap, xii., eighteen, chap, xv., nine. Neither fiiraKori nor 
uiraKoo'cii' occur in 1 Cor. or Gal. ; uiraKoueu' not in 2 Cor. 

An analysis of the list of Pauline particles that are not found in 
the Pastoral Epistles yields the same general result ; that is to say, 
the great majority of them are confined to group ii. of the Epistles ; 
and that is explained by the fact that that group is the most argu- 
mentative and controversial, and the subject matter demands the 
employment of inferential and similar particles. Thus fipa (15), ckckck 
(6), i8€ (1) 180U (9, of which 6 are in 2 Cor.), iroC (10, 8 of which are 
in 1 Cor.), -nrapd, acc. (14), are not found outside group ii. ; lirciTa (11, 
7 of which are in 1 Cor.), fti^irws (10), oure (34, of which 22 are in 4 
verses), are only in group ii. and in 1 Thess. The following also 
do not occur in groups i and iii : axpi (ii. 12, iv. 2), outtw (ii. 2, iv. 1) 
irdXiK (ii. 25, iv. 3). The following do not occur in group iii.. Sioti (10 : 
i. 3, ii. 6, iv. 1), efiirpwreeK (7: i. 4, ii. 2, iv. 1), en (15: i. 1, ii. 13, 
iv. 1). The distribution of the others is as follows : dn-i (5 : i, 2, ii. 
2, iii. 1), clpa oiv (12: i. 2, ii. 9, iii, 1), 8mJ (27, i. 2, ii. 18, iii. 6, 
iv. 1), oirws (9: i. 1, ii. 7, iii. 1), oukc'ti (15: ii. 13, iii. 2), iy iravri (16: 
i. 1, ii. 11, of which 10 are in 2 Cor.; iii. 2, iv. 2), iroTt (does occur 
in Tit., otherwise 19: i. 1, ii. 8, iii. 9, iv. 1), oiinrcp (14: i. 1 ii. 13), 
wjv (38: i. 4, ii. 21, iii. 9, iv. 4). There are twenty-four char- 
acteristically Pauline particles in the above enumeration. Of these, 
ten are not found in group i., fifteen are not found in group iii., and 
in fact, in the epistles of the first Roman captivity (groups iii. and 
iv.), which are about half as long again as the Pastoral Epistles, 
particles are very sparingly used ; 8i<5, iv iravTi and ctuc alone being at 
all common. It may be proper to note here in connexion with the 
absence of trvv from the Pastorals, that twice, in 2 Tim. iv. 1 1 and Tit. 
iii. 15, ficrd is used where the other Pauline letters have auv, other 
wise the usage of fieri in the Pastorals does not differ from that of 
St. Paul elsewhere. Another noteworthy feature in the Pastorals 
is the absence of the article, especially before common Christian 
terms. This peculiarity, and also the deficiency in particles, may 
be possibly due to the amanuensis employed by St. Paul at this 


time. See Dean Bernard, Past. Epp. p. xli., and Milligan, Thessa- 
lonians, p. 126. 

Historical Setting of the Epistles. 

It is altogether unneccessary for any one now to restate the 
arguments which prove that the references to persons and places in 
the Pastorals cannot be accommodated to the history of St. Paul and 
of his companions as given in the Acts. The " historical contra- 
dictions " are marshalled with crushing force by Lightfoot in his 
Biblical Essays, p. 403 sqq. Critics of the anti-traditional school 
who accept, as genuine Pauline fragments, those sections of the 
Pastorals in which the personal and local references occur are 
obliged to allocate these references to different parts of the Acts ; 
and, even so, the explanations given are forced and unconvincing. 
It must then be clearly understood that our claim of the Pastorals 
for St. Paul is based on the assumption that his ministry was pro- 
longed for at least two years beyond the date of the close of the 
Acts. If St. Paul was martyred immediately, or very soon, after the 
expiration of the two years' confinement mentioned in Acts xxviii. 
30, then he did not write the Pastoral Epistles or any portion of 
them. This is a vital point ; and demands at least a brief discussion 
of the main arguments in favour of the traditional opinion. Sup- 
posing that the Pastorals were not in our hands, and the question 
were asked, Was the two years' confinement in Rome mentioned 
in Acts xxviii. 30, followed by St. Paul's execution, or by his re- 
lease? — the answer must be that all the positive evidence available 
is in favour of the latter alternative. There are three lines of argu- 
ment : (1) the way in which the Acts ends; (2) the evidence of the 
epistles written during, or towards the end, of those two years ; (3) ex- 
ternal testimony. 

(1) It ought to be unnecessary to observe that the author of the 
Acts knew what happened at the end of those two years. We can 
only guess why he stopped where he did ; yet some guesses have 
more probability than others. There were limits to the size of books 
in those days. On the supposition that St. Luke knew of a sub- 
sequent ministry of his master's, the close of the Roman captivity 
would be a suitable point at which to bring vol. i. of the Acts to a 
conclusion, whether . regard be had to considerations of space, or of 
literary fitness; the arrival at Rome being the fulfilment of the 
apostle's intention announced in Acts xix. 21. On the other hand, 
if St. Luke knew that St. Paul's two years' confinement had been 
followed at once by his execution, the historian's omission to mention 


it cannot be accounted for. A brief record would have been all that 
was necessary, and this would not have added unduly to the length 
of the book. 

Salmon's explanation (Introduction, p. 312) that "why St. Luke 
has told us no more is, that he knew no more ; and that he knew no 
more, because at the time nothing more had happened — in other 
words, that the book of the Acts was written a little more than two 
years after Paul's arrival at Rome," will not commend itself to many 
scholars. It seems more natural to suppose that both the Gospel 
and the Acts were published after St. Paul's death. Literary men 
do not always succeed in completing their designs before they die ; 
and the later the date we assign to Acts, the greater is the probability 
that St. Luke died before he had reduced to literary form his memories 
of the Apostle's post-Roman-captivity history. 

Passing now to an examination on this point of the third group 
of St. Paul's Epistles, the evidence afforded by them is distinctly 
favourable to the supposition that St. Paul was released after the 
two years of Acts xxviii. 30. We must of course avoid the error 
into which some fall, of imagining that every foreboding or declared 
intention recorded in a narrative, or preserved in a published letter, 
would have been suppressed by the editor if it had not been realised. 
And accordingly we can only infer from the tone of Philippians and 
Philemon that, in St. Paul's judgment, when he wrote these letters, 
the prospect of his release was favourable. No other inference can 
be drawn from " I know that I shall abide, yea, and abide with you 
all, for your progress and joy in the faith " (Phil. i. 25) ; " I trust in 
the Lord that I myself also shall come shortly " (ii. 24) ; " Prepare 
me also a lodging : for I hope that through your prayers I shall be 
granted unto you " (Philem. 22). Contrast with these passages the 
tone of 2 Timothy, which is that of a man who knew that his days 
were numbered, and that the end was not far off. 

What seems to be a natural conclusion from the internal evidence 
of Acts xxviii. and of Philippians and Philemon is confirmed by the 
tradition of the early Church as it is expressed by Eusebius, H. E., 
ii., 22 : " Paul is said (Xoyos cxci), after having defended himself to 
have set forth again upon the ministry of preaching, and to have 
entered the same city a second time, and to have there ended his 
life by martyrdom. Whilst then a prisoner, he wrote the Second 
Epistle to Timothy, in which he both mentions his first defence, and 
his impending death." It is to be noted that there is no contrary 
tradition ; nor is it easy to see what end could have been served by 
the invention of this one. 


There are two passages in earlier writers which are adduced as 
proof that St. Paul at one time visited Spain. Since it is impossible 
to find room for such a journey within the period covered by the 
Acts, these passages, if accepted as proofs of the expedition to Spain, 
are therefore proofs of a missionary activity of St. Paul subsequent 
to the date of the close of the Acts, In the Letter of Clement of 
Rome to the Corinthians, § 5, the writer speaks of Peter and Paul 
as contemporary martyrs ; and Paul he describes as KTJpo^ y^^'°M'^''o? ^*' 
T€ r^ di'aToXTJ Kal i\> tjj Suaci . . . SiKaioaunrji' SiSa^as oXoc TOk Kotr^iov Kai 
^irl TO T^pp,a TTJs Suacus ^XdcSf. 

It is difficult to believe that a native of Rome, writing from Rome, 
would speak ot the world's capital as r\ Suais or t6 r^pjia rfjs Su'crcws ; nor 
did Corinth lie so far to the east of Rome as to justify such a rhe- 
torical expression (see Lightfoot's note in loc). Nor can we argue 
from the opening of the following chapter — " Unto these men of holy 
lives was gathered (<Tunf]0poia0T)) a vast multitude " — that Clement 
meant to date the fury of Neronic persecution as subsequent to the 
martyrdom of St. Paul. Writing about thirty years after " the great 
tribulation," he mentions the martyrs in order of dignity. In any 
case, he mentions Peter's death before that of Paul ; yet this was 
never considered an argument against the tradition that the two 
apostles were martyred together ; nor would it be felt as a serious 
objection to the recent theory that St. Peter outlived St. Paul by 
many years. 

The following passage from the Muratorian Canon, in its obscure 
simplicity, reads like a fragment of a genuine tradition rather than 
a literary figment based on Rom. xv. 28 : " Acta autem omnium 
apostolorum sub uno libro scripta sunt. Lucas optime Theophilo 
comprendit, quia sub praesentia eius singula gerebantur, sicuti et 
semote passionem [perh. semota passione] Petri euidenter declarat, 
sed et profectionem [perh. profectione] Pauli ah urbe ad Spaniam 
proficisccntis " (text as given by Westcott, Canon. N.T., p. 535). The 
argument is unaffected even if the words from " passionem " be de- 
rived from the early second century Actus Petri cum Simone. See 
James, Apocrypha Anecdota, ii., xi., and Dean Bernard, Pastoral Epp., 
p. XXX. These considerations force us to the conclusion that the as- 
sumption that St. Paul's life ended where St. Luke's history termin- 
ates is arbitrary, and contrary to the evidence that is available. It 
remains to present to the reader a conjectural outline (based on 
Lightfoot's Biblical Essays, p. 223) of St. Paul's movements between 
his release and his second Roman imprisonment. 

(1) A journey from Rome to Asia Minor. It is natural to suppose 


that he visited Philippi and Colossae, in accordance with the intima- 
tions cited above from Phil, and Philem. Perhaps he now visited 

(2) A journey to Spain ; perhaps passing through Dalmatia and 
Gaul (?) (2 Tim. iv. 10). Possibly on this journey he became aware 
of the convenience of Nicopolis in Epirus as a centre for work. 

(3) Last journey Eastward. Visits Ephesus (1 Tim. i. 3). The 
dispute with Hymen^us and Alexander the smith, and the services 
of Onesiphorus (1 Tim. i. 20; 2 Tim. i. 18, iv. 14) perhaps now took 
place. Leaves Timothy in charge of the Church at Ephesus. Visits 
Macedonia (1 Tim. i. 3). 

[1 Timothy.] 
Visits Crete ; leaves Titus in charge ; returns to Asia (as hoped in 
1 Tim. iii. 14, iv. 13). 

Passes through Miletus (2 Tim. iv. 20), Troas (2 Tim. iv. 13), 
where perhaps he was arrested, Corinth (2 Tim. iv. 20). In any 
case he never reached Nicopolis as anticipated in Tit. iii. 12. It is 
here assumed that the winter mentioned in 2 Tim. iv. 21, is the same 
as that of Tit. iii. 12. 

[2 Timothy.] 

External Evidence. 

With regard to the external attestation to the Pastoral Epistles, it 
must be acknowledged that some early heretics, who acknowledged the 
genuineness of the other letters attributed to St. Paul, rejected these 
Basilides, who flourished in the reign of Hadrian (117-138 ad.), is 
the first who is said to have done so. Clement Al. (Strom, ii. 11) 
states that some, Gnostics apparently, were actuated in this decision 
by dislike of the expression i^ 4'eu8wi'U|ji,os y>'wo'is in 1 Tim. vi. 20: uiro 
TOUTTis eXcyxop.ei'oi tt]s <j''«"^S ol diro Twt' alpia-€<av rds -irpos Ti|Jio0€Of 
dGeTouCTH' ciriorToXds- On the other hand, the extant fragments of 
another Gnostic, Heracleon, contain an allusion to 2 Tim. ii. 13 : 
dpin^craaOai lauToi' ouSc'iroTc Sui'aTai (Clem. Al., Strom, iv. 9). The 
Canon of Marcion, which contained only his own edition of the 
Gospel according to St. Luke and ten of St. Paul's epistles, of course 
did not include the Pastorals; but Tatian (died about 170) did not 
wholly follow him in this, since he regarded Titus as certainly 
genuine. " Hanc vel maxime Apostoli pronuntiandam credidit, parvi 
pendens Marcionis, et aliorum qui cum eo in hac parte consentiunt, 
assertionem " (Jerome, Prol. in Tit.). In the same context, St. 


Jerome declares that these adverse judgments were not critical in 
any true sense, but merely arbitrary : " cum haeretica auctoritate 
pronuntient et dicant, Ilia epistola Pauli est, haec non est ". How- 
ever that may be, there is at least no trace in the writings of the 
Church controversialists of arguments of a critical nature ; whereas 
in the dispute as to the authorship of Hebrews, Clement Al. and 
Origen were compelled to discuss the problem presented by its un- 
Pauline style. In any case, the fact that the rejection of the Pastorals 
by some heretics was noted amounts to a positive testimony in their 
favour by the contemporary Church. 

From the time of Irenaeus, Clement Al. and Tertullian ^ — that is, 
practically from the time that N.T. books are quoted by their 
author's names — until the year 1804, when Schmidt in his Intro- 
duction denied the genuineness of 1 Timothy, no one, Christian or non- 
Christian, doubted that the Pastoral Epistles were genuine letters of 
the Apostle Paul. They are included in all MSS., Versions and 
Lists of the Pauline Epistles without exception, and in the same 
order {i.e., 1 Tim., 2 Tim., Tit.). An interesting exception as regards 
the order meets us in the Muratorian Fragment : " Uerum ad Phile- 
monem unam, et ad Titum unam, et ad Timotheum duas pro affectu 
et dilectione ; in honore tamen ecclesiae catholicae in ordinatione 
ecclesiasticae disciplinae sanctificatae sunt ". The composer of this 
catalogue here arranges the groups of four personal letters of St. 
Paul in rough chronological order. As 2 Tim. was obviously the last 
letter that St. Paul wrote, the two to Timothy are placed last, Titus 
being joined to them as evidently dealing with kindred topics. 

It remains that the reader should have placed before him the 
traces, more or less distinct, of the Pastoral Epistles in the writings 
of the Apostolic Fathers, and of the pre-Irenzeus period. 

Clement of Rome. Ad Cor. 1. (a.d. 95.) 

§ 1 (1 Tim. vi. 1). &<n €. to . . . ofOfta up,u»' jXEya^us P X ao'4>1)- 
fJl v) vj f a i. 

§ 1 (1 Tim. v. 17). Tifi^K TT)f KaOi^KooCTaK d.Troi'efAoi'Tes tois . . . 

§ 1 (1 Tim. ii. 9, 11 ; Tit. ii. 4). y*'*'<^^^^*' • • • ffTcpyouaas 
KadriKOfTus Tous a»'8pas eauTwi' Ik T€ tw KafOfi ttjs UTrorayTS 
uirapxouaas to, KaToi rhv oIkok acficus oiKoupYeif ^SiSdcKcrc, -Kavu 

^ e.g., Irenaeus, Haer. Praef. : i. i6, 3; ii. 14, 7; iii. 3, 3; iii. 3, 4; iv. 16. 3. 
Clem. Al., Strom, i. p. 350. Tert., de Praescr. 6, 25. Adv. Marcion. v. 21 


§ 2 (1 Tim. vi. 8). toIs E<t>oSiois toG 6cou apKOup-eKOi. 

* § 2 (Tit. iii. 1). I t o i p, o i cis irdf cpyoc dyciOoj'. 

§ 7 (1 Tim. vi. 12; 2 Tim. iv. 7). 6 auxos TfAi*' dyuj' c-iriKcirai. 
§ 7 (1 Tim. ii. 3, v. 4). iSufxef . . . tI irpoo-S c k t o i* Ecu-irioi> 
T o G TToii^CTaKTOs 'i]| 

* § 26 (Tit. ii. 10). aurw SouXeocdrrwi' kv TreTroi9(]aci iriarcu; 
dyaOT) s- 

§ 29 (1 Tim. ii. 8). Trpoa-cX0u)Ji€i' ouk auru iv octiottjti tl/uxTJS, 
dycds Kal djiiaKTOus x^^P**? aipoi'Tes irpo? auroc. 

* § 32 (Tit. iii. 5-7). Trdn-cs ouk €8o|d(T0Tj(Ta»' . . . ou 8i' auruf x\ tuc 
epywc auTcii' t] tt]S SiKaioirpayias ^S Kareipydaai'To, dWd 8id tou 0eXif]fi,aTOs 

* § 37 (1 Tim. i. 18). arpaTcuo'up.eOa oiJi' . . . c f tois d|uiu|xois'ii' auTOu. 

§ 42 (1 Tim. iii. 10). KaSiarai/oi' tcLs dirapxcis aurui', SoKifAda- 
aKTCS Tw irccufAaTi, eis ciriaKOTTOus Kal SiaKOcou;. 

* § 45 (2 Tim. i. 3). tuc iv Kadapd <ruk'ei8i^o-ci Xarpeu- 

O K T 0) K. 

§ 47 (1 Tim. vi. 1). wore Kai pXaa4)T)p,ias c-n-i(t>cp€aOai tw 

§ 55 (2 Tim. ii. 1). yu^aiKcs eKSuKaixudelaai 8id Tr\% x<^pi- 
T o s TOU 6eou. 

§ 55 (1 Tim. i. 17). ecov -xw ai<dK(i>f. 

§ 61 (1 Tim. i. 17). jSaaiXcG Tuf alcSfUK. 

To these we may add, perhaps, the prayer for Kings in i^§ 60, 61, 
in conformity with the direction given in 1 Tim. ii. 2 ; Tit. iii. 2, and 
in those places only of the N.T. 

On a review of these passages, it must in candour be admitted 
that those marked with an asterisk seem to be the only ones that 
suggest a literary dependence on the Pastorals. The others, it may 
be plausibly maintained, are simply illustrations of that current re- 
ligious phraseology which the Pastorals themselves reflect. Taken all 
together, they prove that Clement's mind was at home in the 
religious world to which the Pastorals belong ; but while the present 
writer believes that Clement was as familiar with these letters as he 
was with 1 Cor., he cannot affirm such a position to be wholly free 
from uncertainty. 

Ignatius (circ. a.d. 110). 

* Magn. § 8 (Tit. i. 14, iii. 9). (j,tj irXafdaOc Tais ^TcpoSo^iais fitjS^ 
p.uOcufJiaaii' TOis iraXaioIs df(i>(^€Xcaif ouaif - ei ydp fx^XP*- ^^ 
KaTd louSaiafiOf "l^^^v^ op-oXoyouixcK X'^P''^ V-^ ciXT|f|>eVai. 


§ 11 (1 Tim. i. 1). ircirXiripoilxSpiricrde iy Tjj y^""!! «'■«'• k. t. irdOei k. t. 
di'aaTciaci ttj yevofi^JO) ck Kaipu ttjs iQY^f^<»'^as (Ioi'tiou FliXaTOu • Trpax9^VTa 
dXif]doi)S K. ^e^aius uiro *lT)<rou XpiaroC, ttjs eXiriSos i^p,ci)c. 

Trail. Inscr. and § 2 have also Jesus Christ our hope. 

Polyc. § 2 (2 Tim, ii. 25). tous Xoip,OT^pous iv irpaiJTifjTi uiro- 

*§2 (2 Tim. iv. 5; ii. 5; i. 10; i. 5, 12). vr\^^, is 0eoO 
ddXT]Ti]s TO Qi\i.a. d4>6ap(ria xal ^cjt) aiu>'io9, -irepl r\% Kal au 

§ 3 (1 Tim. i. 3, Vl. 3). iTepoSiSao-KaXoCfTcs \i.r\ o-e Kara- 

* § 3 (2 Tim. ii. 12). IccKCf ©eoC irdKra uirofieVeic ii^p,ds 8ei, Xva Kal 
auTos ilfids uTTOfxeiKT]. 

§ 3 (1 Tim. i. 17). tov dopaTOf. 

* § 4 (1 Tim. vi. 1, 2). SouXous Kal SooXas p.T| uTrepTj<j)dvci • 
dXXd fiTjSc auTol ({>uaiou(i'6uaai', dXX' els S^^ai* ©eoG irXioK SouXco- 

€ T (I) (T a f. 

* § 6 (2 Tim. ii. 4). dpeo-Kcrc J aTpaxeoecrOc, d<))' oij Kal 
rd oij/uKia KO|xi^€ar66. 

§ 7 (Tit. iii. 1; 2 Tim. ii. 21). lToip,oi ktne. cis euiroitaK 
66U dn^KOuaai'. 

The echoes of the Pastorals are especially remarkable in the 
Epistle to Polycarp ; and it is peculiarly worthy of remark that in 
this letter, which was admittedly a personal communication from 
Ignatius to Polycarp, the writer passes from exhortations to Polycarp 
himself — and those too of a very delicate nature — to general ex- 
hortations addressed to the whole Church. Contrast e.g. § 5 with 
§ 6 ; and in the middle of a section addressed to the whole Church 
he interposes a personal appeal to Polycarp. This illustrates admir- 
ably a feature in the Pastorals which has been alleged as a serious 
objection to their acceptation as genuine letters ; i.e. the interming- 
ling of personal matter with directions and exhortations addressed to 
the Church. 

Polycarp. Ad Phil, (circ. a.d. 110). 

♦§ 4(1 Tim. vi. 10, 7). dpx^ 8c TrAvTotv xO'^^'"^^^ <|)iXop- 
Y u p I a. elSoTcs GUI' on ouSck eiar] v ky Kafiev eis toc k6(t fiov, 

dXX' OuSc ^^CKCyKCll' Tl Ixop'C*'' 

§ 5 (2 Tim. ii. 12); cdc iroXiTCuaupieda dlius auroO, Kal o'u|x^a<r- 
iXcoaofici' auTw. 

§ 8 (1 Tim. i. 1). TrpoCTKaprcpwp.ei' rfj iXiriSi ijjioji' . . . os 
itrri XptaTos 'lT|ffous. 


* § 9 (2 Tim. iv. 10). ou y^P fov vuv ^y i-KiiiT av alu^a. 

*§ 12 (1 Tim. ii. 2, iv. 15), Orate etiam pro regibus et potest- 
atihus et principibus . . . ut fructus vester nianifestus sit in omnibus. 

The Acts of Martyrdom of Polycarp (a.d. 155 or 156). 

§ 10 (1 Tim. ii. 2 ; Tit. iii. 1). SeSiSdy^cOa yAp dpxais Kal ^|ouaiais 
fiiro ecou TeTayfieVais tijitjc . . . airoc^fjieif. 

There can be no question that in the Letter of Polycarp to 
t»ie Philippians we have express citations from 1 and 2 Timothy. 
It is, to say the least, difficult to believe that a man like Polycarp, 
who had been a disciple of the Apostle John, and who, when he 
wrote this letter, was bishop of Smyrna and in full vigour of life, 
would have made such honourable use of letters which had been 
compiled by an unknown Paulinist a few years before. We regard 
the evidence of Polycarp as a fact of capital importance ; for it 
removes any possible doubt that may hang over inferences drawn 
from Ignatius; and it supports us in our belief that the Pastoral 
Epistles were also known to Clement of Rome. For the sake of 
completeness, we may add echoes of the Letters in other extant 
second century Christian Literature. The three passages cited 
from the Epistle of Barnabas are not of necessity based on our 
Letters ; and the same may be said of the four quotations from 
Justin Martyr, with the possible exception of that from Dial. § 47. 

The So-called Second Epistle of Clement of Rome 
(circ. 120-140 A.D.). 

§ 7 (2 Tim. ii. 4, 5). dyut'i.acjp.eda, ci86t69 oTi . . . ou irdrrcs 
OTC<f>a»'ourrai., ci fit] oi iroXXd Koiridvavres Kal KaXu; dyucKj-diJicfoi . . . 
6 TOK 4>d<iP'ro>' dyufa dyuci^ofxcvos, iav cupcOTJ ^dcipuf . . . I^u ^dXXcTai 
Tou oraSiou. 

§ 8 (1 Tim. vi. 14, 12). Ttjpi^aaTC tt)»' adpKa dyi^K xal tt]i» 
<r(t>payiSa d a ir i X o f , iKa ttjk ^w^f d-iroXd^ufxec. 

§ 17 (Tit. ii. 12). (ji^ dmirapeXKuiJicOa diro rStv KovfiiKuf 
iir id u y,iio y. 

§ 20 (1 Tim. i. 17). r& fi6ytf deu dopdru . . . t] So|a k.t.X. 

T/fE So-called Epistle of Barnabas (a.d. 70-132). 

§ 7 (2 Tim. iv. 1). ei ouk 6 ulos toC 6eoG, Sty Kupios Kal )&^XX&}i» 
K p Iv €iy ^Ctyra^ Kal Kcxpous, CTraOcf. 

§12(1 Tim. iii. 14). t] irapd^aais Sid tou o^cws ^f E u a iyiytTo. 
§ 12 (1 Tim. iii. 16). ulos tou 6cou . . . iy aapxl ^afcpudcis* 


The Epistle to Diognetus {circ. a.d. 150). 

* § 4 (1 Tim. iii. 16). to 8c rr]? iSias aoTWK Ocoac^eias fiua- 
T 11 p I o f fiT) irpoaSoKiio-rjs SucaaSat. -irapd dk'dpojTrou p-aOciK. 

* § 9 (Tit. iii. 4). ■qX0e 8c 6 Kaipos ov Seos irpoe'dcTO Xonroi' <|>a>'cpucrai 
TT)i' cauToO xP'HO'TiSTTjTa Kal 8uvap,if (u» rrjs uirep^aXXoucn]; (^iXa^Opu- 
ir I a s Kal oiYtiinjs tou ©coG), ouk i^iiar\(Tev i^ftds . . . c X c u c auTos tAs 
TJjxcWpas afxaprias d»'e8e|aT0, auTos toc i8to»' uloc dirc8oTO Xurpof uirep TJp.ui'. 

§ 11 (1 Tim. iii. 16). [p.a9T]Tais] ols i^avip<i)(T€v 6 Aoyos <|>avcis. 
This and the following section do not really belong to the Epistle. 

Justin Martyr (circ. 140 a.d.). 

Dial. § 7 (1 Tim. iv. 1). rd tt\s irXdi'Tjs irt'cufiaTa Kal 
Saip.cSfia So^oXoyoucriK. 

§ 35 (1 Tim. IV. 1). ck too toioutous cit'ai d»'8pas, ofioXoyoutTas eauTous 

ciKai XpioTiai'ous Kal . . . '\-f\(TOuv op-oXoyeii' • . . XpioTOk', Kal |xt] rd CKCifou 

SiSdyP'aTa 8i8daKorras dXXd Ta dTro r (av ttJs irXdvTjs iri'eup.dTcji'. 

*§ 47 (Tit. iii. 4). t) y^^P XP1<'"^o''"n5 •^'^'^ "h 4>tXa»'0pwiTta tou 

6eou Kal to dficTpof tou ttXoutou auToC t6»' ftcTacoourra . . . ws 8iKaio>' 

• • • «Xei- 

§ 118 (2 Tim. iv. 1). oti KpiTf)s J,(!ivTti>v Kal kCKpuf dirdt'TUf auTos 
oijTos 6 XpioTOs, ciTTOi' iv TToXXois. 

T//E Acts of Paul and Thecla (not later than 170 a.d.). 

* § 14 (2 Tim. ii. 18). Xeyci oijtos di'doTao-ii' yc>'£o-0ai, oti t)8ti 
yc'yoj'ei' c<}>' ots cxojxcc t^kcois. Note also the use in this work of the 
names Demas and Hermogenes as uTroKpi'acws ycjAOfTcs, § 1, and Onesi- 
phorus as seeking Paul, § 2. 

Athenagoras {circ. 176). 

LegatiOy 16 (1 Tim. vi. 16). irdrra ydp 6 Ocos i<mv auTos auTw, <}>aJs 

* 37 (1 Tim. ii. 2). toGto 8' i<ni Kal Trpos ^ip-u*', ottws TjpcfAOi' Kal 
ijaux''^'' PiOKSidyoiixcc. 

Theodotus {Excerpta ex Scriptis Theodoti, Clem. Al. p. 350). 
(1 Tim. vi. 16). xal 6 ^kv ^!a% dirp6<riTOK eipTjTai. 

The Epistle of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons (circ. 180). 

* Euseb. H.E. v. L (1 Tim. iii. 15), lvi(TKt\if<£.v tj dpyr) ... els 
ATTaXoi' ncpyap.TjKoi' tw y^fci, axuXoc Kal ^Spaiufia ttav et^auOa 

del yeyoi'OTa. 


* (1 Tim. vi. 13). 6 8e . . . noOciKos . . . cm t6 Pr^jxa eaupeTO 
... us auTou o(Tos Tou XpioTou, dircSiSou Ti^i' koX^k jxapTupiac. 

Euseb. H.E. v. 3 (1 Tim. iv. 3, 4). 6 'AXKipid8T]s, jat] yis>iii\i.€VQ% 
Tois KTiap-atri tou 9£ou . . . TrciaOcls 8e 6 'AXki^i(£8t]s TtavTbiv 
avi'ii\v ficTcXdfi^ai'c Kal i\i>\api(n ^i tw 0cu. 

Theophilus op Antioch {circ. 181). 

* ad Autol. i. 1 (2 Tim. iii! 8). <}>pd(ns eucinjs T^p\Jn»' irape'xet . . . 
dfOpuiTois ex°"'^'' '"'o*' I'oui' KaTe4>0apfici'oi'. 

* ad Autol. ii. 16 (Tit. iii. 5 ; 1 Tim. ii. 4 (?)). en fiTjK Kal coXoyiiOT 
OTTO TOU 0eoo tA ^k Tclf uSaTCiiK YC>'Of^c>'<i) OTTWS r^ Kal TOuTo CIS 8eiY|ia tou 
fi^Xcif \a,\i^6,vnv tous dfOpoiirous |iicTdi'oiat' Kal a({>co-ii' dfiapTiuf 8id uSaTos 
Ktti Xourpou iraXiyyct'ctTias ira'vTas tous irpo<Tioi'Tas tt] 
d X T] 6 c I a. 

ad Autol, iii. 14 (Tit. iii. 1 ; Tim. ii. 2). cti |XT|f Kal -rrcpl tou 6 it o- 
TatracaOai dp^ais Kal ^|ouariais, Kal euxecrOai uirep auTwi' kcXcuci 
i^fids 6 Oeios Xoyos, oirus '•ipefioi' Kal r\(T u\\.ov ^lov'. 

The Integrity of the Letters. 

It is scarcely too much to say that but for the difficulty presented 
by their style, and the assumption that St. Paul never left Rome 
alive, no one would have suspected these letters of being a com- 
pilation. But inasmuch as no one has been found to deny the 
bona fide Pauline character of some sections of them — at least in 2 
Timothy — those who impugn the genuineness of the letters as they 
have come down to us have been compelled to exercise much 
ingenuity in attempts to apportion the matter of the letters betv/een 
St. Paul and the compiler or compilers. For an account of their 
schemes the student is referred to the articles on these epistles in 
Hastings D. B., and the Encyclopcedia Biblica, and for a fuller 
account, to Moffatt's Historical N. T. 

To those who agree that the problem presented by the style and 
the historical setting of the Pastorals is unsolved, but not insoluble, 
all attempts to decompose these letters will seem unprofitable. 
There is sound sense in the old scholastic maxim : " Entia non sunt 
multiplicanda praeter necessitatem ". The case of the Pastorals is 
not like that of 2 Corinthians, in which plausible reasons may be 
alleged for theories of dislocation. There is no difficulty in presenting 
such an outline of 1 Tim. or 2 Tim. or Tit. as will show it to be a 
single letter, with as much unity of purpose as a bona fide letter — 
not a college essay — can be expected to have. 
VOL. IV. 6 


But even were we to grant, one moment, that the style and 
historical considerations must preclude a Pauline authorship for 
them, yet, the next moment, we find ourselves confronted by more 
serious objections to the theory of compilation. To begin with, the 
historical difficulty presented by the personal and local references in 
the admittedly Pauline sections is insurmountable, on the hypothesis 
that the whole of St. Paul's history is contained in the Acts. 

Again, without using violent language about " forgery," it is not 
easy to explain why the alleged compiler should pretend to be St. 
Paul. The ascription of a book to an honoured name was not a 
precedent condition to its acceptance or acceptability in the primitive 
Church. Hebrews, and the so-called Epistle of Barnabas, and the 
Epistle to Diognetus do not claim anyone as their authors. Whoever 
it was that produced the Pastorals, he was just as good a practical 
Christian as St. Paul himself; and he had no compelling reason to 
hide his identity. The case of 2 Peter is different. That epistle, 
whoever wrote it, was always reckoned a disputed book. 

Again, how are we to explain the honourable use, certainly by 
Polycarp, and probably by Clement of Rome and Ignatius, not to 
mention other later second century writers, of a work which only ap- 
peared, ex hypothesi, not earlier than 90 a.d. ? And, further, if these 
epistles are due to a compiler, he must have been an extraordinarily 
clever man, and quite capable not only of supplementing the Pauline 
fragments, but of editing them. Now by the year 90 a.d. Timothy's 
name had become venerated in the Church. Is it likely that a 
Churchman of that time, writing too, as is alleged, with an ecclesi- 
astical bias, would have permitted the publication of letters which 
certainly give the impression of Timothy as a not very heroic per- 
son ? The treatment of Linus (2 Tim. iv. 21) raises a similar question. 
A tradition, which no one has ever questioned, names Linus as the 
first bishop of Rome ; the subordinate position he occupies in this 
letter is, as Salmon has noted [Introd. N.T. p. 41 1), quite intelligible 
if St. Paul was the author of it. It is, on the other hand, extremely 
unlikely that an editor of the year 90 a.d., who had no scruple in 
writing in St. Paul's name, would not have given Linus a more pro- 
minent place. 

These are a few of the difficulties which may be urged on the 
traditional side in this " contest of opposite improbabilities ". 


Analysis of 1 Timothy. 
" Guard the Deposit." 

A. i. I, 2. Salutation. 

B. i. 3-20: The Crisis, and the Men — Paul and Timothy. 

(a) The Crisis: 3-11. 

(i) 3-7. The motive of the letter is to provide Timothy with a memoran- 
dum of previous oral instructions for the combating of those who 
mischievously and ignorantly endeavour to oppose the Law to the 

(2) 8-II. This opposition is really factitious ; inasmuch as the Law and 
the Gospel are, both of them, workings of law, God's law, the final 
cause of which is right conduct. 

(b) The Men : 12-20. 

(i) 12-17. Paul's own spiritual history illustrates the fundamentally iden- 
tical moral basis of the Law and the Gospel. Paul had been "faith- 
ful," trustworthy, while under the Law; therefore Christ pardoned 
his violent opposition to the Gospel, because it was due to ignorance, 
though a sinful ignorance. Moreover, this whole transaction — the 
triumph of Christ's long-suffering over Paul's sinful antagonism — has 
an enduring value. It is an object lesson to encourage to repentance 
sinners to the end of time. Glory be to God 1 

{2) 18-20. The present charge to Timothy, although its immediate excit- 
ing cause is the recent action of HymenjEUS and Alexander and their 
followers, ought not to be new in its substance to Timothy. It is 
practically identical with what the prophets gave utterance to at his 

C. ii., iii. The foundations of Sound Doctrine. 

False teaching is most effectually combated indirectly ; not by controversy, 
with its negations, but by quiet, positive foundation work on which true views about 
God and Man can be based. We begin then with : — 

(a) ii. I — iii. i o. Public Prayer, 

(i) ii. 1-7. Its universal scope; and the Divine sanction for catholicity in 

human sympathy. 
(2) ii. 8 — iii. i a. The Ministers of Public Prayer : men, not women ; with 

a judgment as to the true function of Woman in the Church and in 


(b) iii. I fc-i6. The Ministry of the Divine Society. 

(1) I b-j. The qualifications of the episcopus. 

(2) 8-10, 12, 13. The qualifications of the deacons. 

(3) II. The qualifications of women Church-workers. V 

(4) 14-16. Caution to Timothy lest he should be tempted to think these 
details trivial, in comparison with more obviously spiritual things. 
The importance of rules depends on the importance of that with 
which they are concerned. The Church, for whose ministers rules 
have been just laid down, is the greatest Society in the world : human, 
yet divinely originated and inspired ; the House of God ; an extensio»x 
of the Incarnation. 



D. iv. A fresh word of prophecy (see i. i8) addressed to Timothy in his present 

(a) 1-5. The false teaching more clearly defined as a spurious asceticism. 
This is condemned, a priori, by considerations (i) of the declared charac- 
ter and object of the material creation, and (2) of the purifying effect of 

(b) 6-16. The spurious asceticism, however, as it manifests itself in practice, 

is best combated (i), 6-10, by the Church teacher showing an example 
in his own person of genuine holiness, and (2), 11-16, by active pastoral 
care, courageous outspokenness and the diligent cultivation of all God- 
given min-isterial graces. 

E. V. I — vi. 19. This naturally suggests the specification of directions for ad- 
niinistration of the Church by a Father in God. 

(a) v. I, 2. He must not deal with his people «t masj«, but individually. He 

cannot treat alike old men and young men, elder women and younger 

(b) V. 3-16. There is one class of the laity in particular which, because they 
have a special claim on the Church, need a discriminating care : the 
widows. The Church cannot afford to support all widows, nor would it 
be right to relieve their relatives, if they have any, of responsibility for 
them. Consequently, none can be entered on the list for relief but those 
over a certain age, and who have a good record for consistent Christian 
lives. Young widows had better marr>- again. 

(c) V. 17-25. The questions of Church finance and discipline, as they con- 

cern widows, suggest recommendations on the same subjects, as they 
concern the presbyters: (i) 17, 18, finance; (2) 19-25, discipline, with, 
23, a parenthetical personal counsel to Timothy, suggested by the word 
pure in 22. 

(d) vi. I, 2. Ruling principles for the conduct of Christians who are slaves, 
towards heathen and Christian masters respectively. 

{e) vi. 3-19. A right judgment in all these matters which affect our daily 

life depends on right basal convictions as to the true values of things 

material and spiritual. 

(i) 3-10. The false teachers reverse the true order : they regard religion 

as a sub section of the world ; whereas the world has its own place — 

an honourable place — as subordinate to religion. 

(2) 11-16. A solemn adjuration to Timothy to adhere to the principles just 

laid down ; and 

(3) 17-19. to urge the observance of them upon the well-to-do members 
of the Christian Society. 

F. vi. 20-21. Final appeal, summing up the perennial antagonism between 

character (the natural fruit of the faith) and mere intellectualism. 

Analysis of 2 Timothy. 
Sursum Corda. 

A. i. I, 2. Salutation. 

B. i. 3 — ii. 13. Considerations which should strengthen Timothy's moral 
courage (a, b, c, d, e), interspersed with appeals to his loyalty (o, j8, 7, 5, t). 


(a) 3-5. Paul's thoughts of, and prayers for, him ; and Paul's recognition of 

Timothy's faith. 

(b) 6, 7. An objective fact in Timothy's own spiritual history : his ordination ; 

since when there is available for his use, Power, Love, and Discipline, 
the gifts of God. 
(o) 8-10. An appeal based on thoughts of the Gospel, as the power of 

(c) II, 12. Paul's own steadfastness. 

(j8, 7) 13, 14. Appeals based onloyalty to the human teacher, and to the 
Divine Spirit. 
(</) 15. The deterrent example of the disloyal of Asia. 
{e) 16-18. The stimulating example of Onesiphorus. 

(5) ii. I, 2. An appeal for the provision of a succession of loyal teachers. 
(e) ii. 3-13. An appeal based on " the Word of the Cross " ; i.e.. Suffering 
is the precedent condition of glory. This is exemplified in the earthly 
analogies of the soldier, the athlete, and the field-labourer ; in the actual 
experiences of Jesus Christ Himself, and of Paul. 

C. ii. 14-26. General exhortations to Timothy as a Church teacher, as regards 
(a) 14-18, the positive and negative subject-matter of his instructions ; (b) 19-21, the 
true and optimistic conception of the Church in relation to all teachers, true and 
false ; (c) 22-26, the personal equipment of the true teacher, and his treatment of the 

D. iii. I — iv. 8. A word of prophecy setting forth — 

(a) iii. 1-9. The practical shortcomings of the false teachers. 

(b) iii. 10-17. A recalling of Timothy's past spiritual history : (i) 10-13, the 

conditions under which his discipleship began ; (2) 14-17, the holy per- 
sons by whom, and the sacred writings on which, his youth had been 

(c) iv. 1-8. A concluding solemn adjuration to play the man while there is 

time. As for Paul, the contest is over, the crown is in sight; there is a 
crown for Timothy, too, if he takes Paul's place. 

E. iv. g-22. Personal details : Instructions, 9, 11, 13, 21 ; News about other 
members of the Pauline comradeship. 10, 11, 12, 20; A warning, 14, 15 ; A reminis- 
cence and a confident hope, i6>i8 ; Salutations and greetings, ig, 21 ; Final 
benediction, 22. 

Analysis of Titus. 
" Maintain Good Works." 

A. i. 1-4. Salutation. 

B. i. 5-16. The position of affairs in Crete, which (a), 5-9, necessitates that 
the foundation of Church organisation — the presbyterate — be well and truly laid ; in 
view of (6), 10-16, the natural unruliness and bad character of the people, aggra- 
vated by Jewish immoral sophistries. 

C. ii. I — iii. II. Heads of necessary elementary moral instruction for the Cretan 

(a) ii. I -10. For aged men and aged women; for young women and young 
men — and what is said about these latter applies also to Titus — and 


(6) ii. 11-15. The eternal sanction for this insistence on the practice of ele- 
mentary virtues is the all-embracing scope of the Gospel of God's Grace ; 
which has been visibly manifested, with its call to repentance, its assur- 
ance of help, and its certain hope. 

(c) iii. I, 2. Obedience to the civil authority is also a Gospel virtue. 

(<f) iii. 3-7. These instructions are not given in a spirit of superiority. We 
ourselves were once in as bad moral condition as are the Cretans, if 
not worse, until we came to know, and test the love of God, unmerited 
and saving. 

(e) iii. 8-11. In conclusion, the sum of all is: Let the people maintain good 
works, and shun useless speculations. Let Titus not be lax in dealing 
with leaders of the false teaching. 

D. iii. 12, 13. Personal instructions. 

E. iii. 14. Concluding summary, repeating the teaching of 8-11. 

F. iii. 15. Final salutation. 

The Text. 

The text which is printed above the exposition is in the main 
that of Westcott and Hort. In a very few cases other readings have 
been adopted in this text (see e.g. 1 Tim. ii. 8 ; Tit. ii. 4, iii. 9) ; and 
in some places their punctuation has been modified. 

The apparatus criticus is based on that of Tischendorf's eighth 
edition. The readings of the Old Latin fragments, r. Cod. Frisin- 
gensis, have been added, and the references to m (Speculum) have 
been given according to the edition by Weihrich in the Vienna 
Corpus Script. Eccles. Lat. Of the uncial MSS. cited by Tisch., Eg 
(Cod. Petropolitanus, or Sangermanensis, ix. or x.) has not been 
noted, since it is merely a transcript of D.^. On the other hand, it 
has been thought best to cite both F., and Gg, since it is not certain 
that the latter is a copy of the former, though both are derived from 
one exemplar. 

Only the most important cursives are mentioned in these notes. 
The reader will understand that the attestation of KLP carries with 
it, in most cases, that of the great bulk of the cursive MSS. Neither 
has it been thought advisable to cite the more obscure versions. 
Even if their readings were critically ascertained they would not 
carry much weight. For a similar reason patristic citations are 
sparingly used. Subjoined is a list of the authorities cited in the 
critical notes. 

j,^. Cod. Sinaiticus, iv. St Petersburg. 

A, Cod. Alexandrinus, v. London. 

C, Cod. Ephraemi rescriptus, v. Paris. It does not contain 1 

Tim. i. 1-iii. 9, (AoaTtj | pioK. 
D (Dg), Cod. Claromontanus, vi. Paris. 


P (F2), Cod. Augiensis, ix. Trinity College, Cambridge. 

G (G3), Cod. Boernerianus, ix. Dresden. 

H (H3), Cod. Coislinianus, vi. Fragments. Those that contain 
portions of the Pastorals are in Paris and Turin. It only con- 
tains : 1 Tim. iii. 7-13, vi. 9-13; 2 Tim. ii. 1-9; Tit. i. 1-3, 15— 
ii. 5, iii, 13-15. 

I (1=^), Cod. Tischendorfianus (Petropolitanus, Tisch.), v. St. 
Petersburg. Contains only Tit. i. 1-13. 

K (Kg) Cod. Mosquensis, ix. Moscow. 

L (Lg), Cod. Bibliothecae Angelicae, ix. Rome. 

P (P2), Cod. Porphyrianus, ix. St. Petersburg. 

Of the Old Latin MSS. cited, d, e, f, g are the Latin portions of 
the bilingual uncials, Dg, E3, F^ and G3 respectively, m is the treatise 
entitled Speculum, practically a catena of texts or testimonia, formerly 
ascribed to St Augustine, r is the Cod. Frisingensis, v. or vi. 
(Munich) fragments, containing inter alia, 1 Tim. i. 12 — ii, 15 ; v. 
18— vi. 13. 

The only MSS. of the Vulgate cited are Cod. Amiatinus (am.), 
A.D. 716, Florence, and Cod. Fuldensis (fuld.) a.d. 541-546, Fulda 
in Germany. 

The other versions are indicated as follows : — • 

syrpesh (Tisch., syr^ch) = Peshitto Syriac. 

syphci (Tisch., syrp) = Harkleian Syriac. 

syrr = both Syriac Versions. 

boh (Tisch., cop.) = Bohairic Egyptian. 

sah = Sahidic Egyptian. 

arm = Armenian, 

go = Gothic. 

For a complete bibliography of the Pastoral Epistles the reader is 
referred to the articles, " Timothy, Epistle to," and " Titus, Epistle to," 
by W. Lock, in Hastings' D.B., vol. iv., pp. 775, 785, and the articles 
" Timothy and Titus (Epistles)," by J. Moffatt, in the Encyclopcedia 
Biblica. To the articles themselves — the former temperately con- 
servative, the latter, uncompromisingly anti-traditional — the present 
writer is much indebted. Diligent use has also been made of the 
labours of the following commentators on the continuous text: St. 
Chrysostom's Homilies, full of good sense and practical wisdom j 
Bengel, pithy, direct and spiritual ; Ellicott, a sound grammarian 
from the classical Greek standpoint, and therefore useful as a warn- 
ing against possible pitfalls, but very dry ; Alford, still most service- 
able as the variorum edition of a.d. 1865 ; J. H. Bernard {Cambridge 
Greek Testament) whose notes on the ethical language of the Epistles 


are most illuminating, and H. von Soden, in the Hand-Commentar, 
remarkable for subtle verbal analysis ; but his exegesis is vitiated by 
his critical position as to the authorship and date of the letters. 
Suspicion and half-heartedness do not make for profound exposition. 

Plummer's large treatment of certain sections, in the Expositor's 
Bible, has been found helpful and suggestive. Field's Notes (alas, too 
few 1) on Trans. N.T. are indispensable ; and H. P. Liddon's analysis 
of 1 Timothy is masterly. 

On the general subject of the Epistles, Salmon's Introduction 
N.T. (p. 397 sqq.), Lightfoot's Biblical Essays (xi., xii.), Wace's In- 
troduction in the Speaker's Commentary, J. H. Bernard's Introduc- 
tion (Cambridge Greek Testament), Holtzmann, Die Pastoralbriefe, 
and Hort's ^udaistic Chistianity and Christian Ecclesia have been 
largely made use of. It has not, however, been thought necessary, 
especially when space had to be considered, to specify in every case 
the authority for the sentiment expressed, or the explanation adopted. 
In any case, the Church, in the long run, acts on the counsel of 
Thomas k Kempis : " Non quaeras quia hoc dixerit : sed quid dicatur 
attende " {De Imit. Christi, i. 5). 

September, 1909. 


I. I. riAYAOI 'dirooToXos * XpioroC ''Itjctou ^ ''kot' * ^iriTaYTjf ^ a zCor. i. i, 

0COU •a<i)TT]pos "'fniiav Kal^ Xpiorou Mirjaou * t>]S tXmSos i^>i/. Col. i. i,' 

2 Tim. i. 

Cor. i. I, Tit. i. i. 
ii. lo, iii. 4. 

b Rom. xvi. 26, Tit. i. 3. 

I. cf. I 
c Jnde 25, cf. 1 Tim. ii. 3, iv. 10, 1 it. i. 3, 

^So ^DFGP, 80, one other, d, f, g, fuld., boh., syrhcl; 'Irio-. Xpio-r. AKL, am., 
syrpesh, arm. 

^ tirayYcXiav ^. 

^ Ins. Kvpiov ^DcKL ; om. AD*FGP, 17, 31, seven others, d, f, g, vg., go., syrr., 
sah., boh., arm. 

* So AD*FGP, 17, five others, d, f, g, am., fuld., go., sah., syrr. ; *ltj<r. 
XpwTT. ^DcKL, boh., arm. 

Chapter I. — Vv. 1-2. Salutation. — 
Ver. I. airooToXof Xp. *lir]«r. The use 
of this official title is an indication that 
the Pastoral Epistles were not merely 
private letters {ctr. RavXcs ScVptos Xp. 
Mtjo"., Philem. i), but were intended to 
be read to the Churches committed to 
the charge of Timothy and Titus re- 
spectively. The phrase means simply 
one sent by Christ, not primarily one 
belonging to Christ. Cf. Phil. ii. 25, 
where Epaphroditus is spoken of as vp,wv 
dirtJoT., and 2 Cor. viii. 23, dir<5oT. 
JKKXT]<riuv. a.v6irr, Xp. 'Itjor. is also 
found in 2 Cor. i. i, Eph. i. i. Col. i. i, 
2 Tim. i. I ; diriiarT. Mt)<r. Xp. in i Cor. 
i. I, Tit. i. I. The difference in the use 
jfesus Christ and Christ jfesus seems to 
be this : in each case the first member 
of the compound name indicates whether 
the historical or the notional idea of the 
Person is chiefly in the writer's mind. 
Jesus Christ briefly expresses the pro- 
position, " Jesus is the Christ " ; it em- 
bodies the first theological assertion 
concerning Jesus ; it represents the 
conception of the historical Jesus in 
the minds of those who had seen Him. 
St. John, St. Peter and St. James employ 
this name when speaking of our Lord. 
But in Christ Jesus, on the other hand, 
the theological conception of the Christ 
predominates over that of the actual 
Jesus Who had been seen, felt and 


heard by human senses. Accordingly 
we find C hrist Jesus in every stage of 
the Pauline Epistles ; and, as we should 
expect, more frequently in the later than 
in the earlier letters. In almost every 
instance of the occurrence of Jesus 
Christ in the Pastoral Epistles the 
thought of the passage concerns the 
humanity, or historical aspect, of our 
Lord. Thus in Tit. i. i, *' a servant of 
God and an apostle of Jesus Christ," 
we could not substitute Christ Jesus 
without weakening the antithesis. See 
note there. St. Paul, here as elsewhere, 
claims to have been as truly sent by 
Christ as were those who were apostles 
before him. 

Kar' ^iriTayqv : in obedience to the 
command. The full phrase Kar' iiriT. 
0. <r. ^fxwv occurs again (tov <ruT. ^fi. 
Otov) in a similar context in Tit. i. 3 ; 
Kar' ^iriT. tov alwviov 6. in Rom. xvi. 
26. In I Cor. vii. 6. 2 Cor. viii. 8, Kar" 
liriT. is used in a different sense. 

St. Paul more commonly refers the 
originating cause of his mission to the 
will of God (i Cor. i. i ; 2 Cor. i. i ; 
Eph. i. I ; Col. i. i ; 2 Tim. i. i). He 
would hardly say through the will 
of Christ, 6AT)pa being used of the 
eternal counsel of the Godhead ; but in- 
asmuch as the command is the conse- 
quent of the will, he can speak of his 
apostleship as being due to the command 



d Phil.iv.3, 2. Ti[tod^(u "*Yi'T|<riu •t^ki'w ' iv '"iriorei- X'^P''^> * cXcos, eipi^i'Ti diro 

c/. 2 Cor. eeoG riaTpos^ Kal Xpiorou 'iricrou toG Kupiou iqaoii'. 3. KaGuJS 

viii. b, 

Phil. ii. 

20, Ecclus. vii. 18. e i Cor. iv. 17, ver. i8, 2 Tim. i. 2, ii. i, Tit. i. 4. Pbilem. 10, 3 John 4. 

Ver. 4, 1 Tim. ii. 7, Tit. iii. 15. g 2 Tim. i. 2, 2 John 3, Jude 2. 

^ Ins. ■^fi.wv ^cDcKLP, syrr., sah. 

of Christ Jesus, as well as of God the 
Father. In this matter Jesus Christ is 
co-ordinated with God the Father in 
Gal. i. i; while in Rom. i. 4, 5, Paul's 
apostleship is " through Jesus Christ 
our Lord " only. On the other hand, in 
Tit. i. 3, St. Paul says he was intrusted 
with the message " according to the 
commandment of God our Saviour ". 
Here it is to be noted that the command 
proceeds equally from God and Christ 
Jesus. This language could hardly have 
been used if St. Paul conceived of Christ 
Jesus as a creature. Moulton and Milli- 
gan {Expositor, vii., vii. 379) com- 
pare St. Paul's use of liriraYi] as a 
Divine command with its technical use 
in heathen dedicatory inscriptions. We 
cannot, with Chrys., narrow the " com- 
mandment of God " to the specific date 
of St. Paul's commission by the Church, 
whether in Acts xiii. 2 or on an earlier 
occasion. St. Paul claimed that he had 
been " separated from his mother's 
womb " (Gal. i. 15). 

Ocov acitTfjpos 'qfiuv : Westcott on i 
John iv. r4 has an instructive note on 
the Biblical use of the term awnip. 
" The title is confined (with the excep- 
tion of the writings of St. Luke) to the 
later writings of the N.T., and is not 
found in the central group of St. Paul's 
Epistles." It may be added that in the 
Lucan references (Luke i. 47, of God ; 
ii. II, Acts V. 31, xiii. 23, of Christ) the 
term o-co-nip has not primarily its full 
later evangelical import, and would be 
best rendered deliverer, as in the con- 
stant O.T. application of the term to 
God. Perhaps the same is true of Phil. 
iii. 20, and Eph. v. 23, where it is used 
of Christ. On the other hand, apart 
from 6 o-uTTip t. KiScrftov (John iv. 42 ; i 
John iv. 14), the conventional evangeli- 
cal use is found : of God the Father in 
(a) I Tim. i. i, Jude 25, Ocis o-wttjp 
<^|t.uv; (b) I Tim. ii. 3, Tit. i. 3, ii. 10, 
iii. 4, 6 (TWTTip y\\i.av Oe^s ; (c) i Tim. iv. 
10, o-»T>]p in apposition ±0 6e<Js in the 
preceding clause; of Christ, in (a) 2 
Tim. i. 10, 6 cruTtip 'fj|xwv Xpio-rbs 
'It)o-ovs ; [b) Tit. i. 4, iii. 6, Xp. Mtjo-. 6 
(TtdTTip 'qp.wv ; (c) 2 Pet. i. 11, ii. 20, iii. 
18, 6 Kvpiot i\\i.&v Kal triaTrfp 'lY)(r. Xp. ; 

(d) 2 Pet. iii. 2, 6 Kvpios Kal artorrip. 
To the (c) class belong, perhaps, Tit. li. 
13, 2 Pet. i. I, 6 [fxcyas] dth% [■f\\iiov] Kal 
orwTTjp [f||A«i»v] 'Irjo-. Xp. ; but see note on 
Tit. ii. 13. 

In the text, there is an antithesis be- 
tween the offices of God as our Saviour 
and of Christ Jesus as our hope. The 
one points to the past, at least chiefly, 
and the other to the future. In speaking 
of the saving action of God, St, Paul 
uses the aorist 2 Tim. i. 9, Tit. ii. 11, 
iii. 4, 5. He saved us, potentially. See 
further on ch. ii. 3. God, as the Council 
of Trent says (Sess. vi. cap. 7), is the 
efficient cause of our justification, while 
Jesus, " our righteousness," besides 
being the meritorious cause, may be 
said to be the formal cause; for "the 
righteousness of God by which He 
maketh us righteous" is embodied in 
Jesus, Who '• was made unto us . . . 
righteousness and sanctification " (i 
Cor. i. 30). We advance from salvation 
to sanctification ; and accordingly we 
must not narrow down the conception 
Christ jfcsus our hope to mean " the 
hope of Israel " (Acts xxiii. 6, xxviii. 20) ; 
but rather the historical manifestation of 
the Son of God as Christ Jesus is the 
ground of our " hope of glory " (Col. i. 
27). Our hope is that " the body of our 
humiliation will be conformed to the 
body of His glory" (Phil. iii. 20, 21). 
See also Eph. iv. 13. Our hope is that 
" we shall be like Him" (i John iii. 2, 
3). See also Tit. ii. 13, irpoirBfx6\i.tvoi 
TTjv |xaKap(av IXirCSa. For this vivid 
use of an abstract noun compare Eph, 
ii. 14, avxbs ■yop loTtv ifj clpi^vr) f|p,&v. 

Ignatius borrows this noble appella- 
tion : Magn. 11; Trail, inscr., "Jesus 
Christ Who is our hope through our 
resurrection unto Him " ; Trail. 2, 
" Jesus Christ our hope ; for if we live 
in Him, we shall also be found in Him ". 
See also Polycarp, 8. 

Ver. 2. YVTjcri«j> qualifies the compound 
TCKV((> Iv ir(<rT«i, just as in Tit. i. 4 it 
qualifies t€kvjj) Kara koivt|v ir£<mv. As 
in the relation of the heavenly Father to 
those who are His children by adoption 
and grace, some are " led by the Spirit 
of God," and so are genuine sons of 



-irapcKclXcord ae ' irpoaficiJ'ai iv 'E(j)co'w, -iropeuofxeio; els MaKC-hi Cor.xvi. 

SociaK, ifa ^ irapayYEiXTjs Tio'li' p.T) ' iTcpoSiSaaKaXeif, 4. )tT]Se viii. 6, iz. 

5, xii. 18. 
i Matt. XV. 
33 = Mark viii. 2, Acts zviii. 18. k t Cor. vii. 10, xi. 17, i Thess. iv. 11, 3 Tbess. iii. 4, 6, 10 

12, 1 Tim. iv. II, v. 7, ri. 13, 17, 1 I Tim. vi. 3 only, not LXX. 

God, SO in the filial relationships of 
earth — physical, spiritual, or intellectual 
— some sons realise their vocation, others 
fail to do so. yvqtrios (and Y>^<''tu9, 
Phil. ii. 20) is only found in the N.T. in 
Paul. See reff. It might be rendered 
lawful, legitimate, as yvvii Yvijaia means 
"lawful wife" (Moulton and Milligan, 
Expositor, vii., vi. 382). Dean Bernard 
(comm. in loc.) cites an interesting parallel 
from Philo (de Vit. Cont. p. 482, ed. 
Mangey), where " the young men among 
the Therapeutae are described as minis- 
tering to their elders Ka6direp vioi 
Yvi]<rioi." TCKvylvirioTci: The parallel 
from Tit. i. 4 quoted above proves that 
ir£<rTis here is the faith, as A.V. Absence 
of the article before familiar Christian 
terms is a characteristic of the Pastorals. 
Cf. I Cor. iv. 15, "In Christ Jesus I 
begat you through the gospel ". See 
also Gal. iv. 19, Philem. lo; and, for 
the term xeicvov as applied to Timothy, 
see reff. ^t. Paul " begat him through 
the gospel" on the first missionary 
journey. He was already a disciple in 
Acts xvi. I. Nothing can be safely 
inferred from the variation aYairr|T^ 
in 2 Tim. i. 2 for -yvrjo'itp. The selection 
from among these semi-conventional 
terms of address is influenced by passing 
moods of which the writer is not wholly 
conscious ; but a pseudepigraphic author 
would be careful to observe uniformity. 

cXcos as an element in the salutation 
in addition to X'^^P''^ ^^^ ^^P'H*^ '^ only 
found, in the Pauline Epistles, in i and 
2 Timothy. See reff. " Mercy " is used 
in an informal benediction, Gal. vi. 16, 
" Peace be upon them, and mercy". Ben- 
gel notes that personal experience of the 
mercy of God makes a man a more effici- 
ent minister of the Gospel. See w. 13, 
16, I Cor. vii. 25, 2 Cor. iv. i, Heb. ii. 17. 
See also Tobit vii. 12 (^) h Kvpios . . . 
iroii]o-ai. i^' vp,as SXcos k. clpTJVT)v and 
Wisd. iii. 9, iv. 15, X'^P''^ •*• ^^eos tois 
IkXcktoIs avTov. If one may hazard a 
conjecture as to what prompted St. Paul 
to wish mercy to Timothy rather than to 
Titus, it may be a subtle indication of 
the apostle's anxiety as to Timothy's 
administrative capacity. Another varia- 
tion in the salutation in Titus is the 
substitution of Saviour for Lord. This 
calls for no comment. 

Note the anarthrous Oebs -ira-n/jp as 
in all the Pauline salutations, with the 
exception of i Thess., where we have 
simply x'^pt'S ip.Xv k. clpiqvT). In Colos- 
sians the blessing is only from God the 
Father, -qfiwv is added to irarpos except 
in 2 Thess. and the Pastorals. 

Vv. 3-7. The Motive of this Letter: 
to provide Timothy with a written memo- 
randum of previous verbal instructions, 
especially with a view to novel specu- 
lations about the Law which sap the 
vitality of the Gospel ; the root of which 
is sincerity, and its fruit, love. 

Ver. 3. KaOcds : The apodosis supplied 
at the end of ver. 4 in the R.V., so do I 
now, is feebler than the so do of the A.V. 
We need something more vigorous. St. 
Paul was more anxious that Timothy 
should charge some, etc., than that he 
should merely abide at Ephesus. This 
is implied in the A.V., in which so do = 
stay there and be a strong ruler. 

An exact parallel occurs in Mark i. 2. 
Similar anacolutha are found in Rom. 
v. 12, Gal. ii. 4, 5, 6, Eph. iii. i. 

irapcKoXco'd crc : It is far-fetched to 
regard this word as specially expressive 
of a mild command, as Chrys. suggests. 
irapaKaXeiv constantly occurs, and with 
very varying meanings, in the Pauline 
Epistles. 8t.cTa|ap,T|v is used in the cor- 
responding place in Tit. i. 5, because 
there the charge concerns a series of 

irpoo-f&civat : ut remaneres (Vulg.). 
The word (see Acts xviii. 18) naturally 
implies that St. Paul and Timothy had 
been together at Ephesus, and that St. 
Paul left Timothy there as vicar apostolic. 

iropcv<$p,cvos refers to St. Paul, not to 
Timothy, as De Wette alleged. The 
grammatical proof of this is fully gone 
into by Winer- Moulton, Gram. p. 404, 
" If the subject of the infinitive is the 
same as that of the finite verb, any attri- 
butes which it may have are put in the 

It is unnecessary here to prove that it 
is impossible to fit this journey of St. 
Paul to Macedonia, and Timothy's stay 
at Ephesus connected therewith, into 
the period covered by the Acts. 

Twriv : Tiv€9 is intentionally vague. 
The writer has definite persons in his 
mind, but for some reason he does not 



m Acts viii- " irpoor^x*'''' " M-oOois Kal ° vct'caXoyiais ' direpdiTOiSj aiTii'es ' Ik- 

6, 10, II, ^ ^ \\ < » ' y ~ t » t ' 

xvi. 14, 1 ^TiTTiaeis ^ "^ TrapcYouCTi u.aXXoi' ti * oiKOf ou.iai' ©eou ttji/ iv iriorei. 

Tim. iii. 
8,iv. 1, 13. 

Tit. i. 14, Heb. ii. i, vii. 13, 2 Peter i. ig. n i Tim. iv. 7, a Tim. iv. 4, Tit. i. 14, 2 Pet. i. 16, 

Wisd. xvii. 4, Ecclus. xx. 19. o Tit. iii. 9 only, not LXX. p Here only, N.T., Job xxxvi. 26, 3 
Mace. ii. 9. q Here only, not LXX, see i Tim. vi. 4. r i Tim. vi. 17, Tit. ii. 7, etc. 

B I Cor. ix. 17, Eph. i. 10, iii. 2, g, Col. i. 25. t See ver. i. 

1 So ^A, 17, three others; ^TjTTioreis DFGKLP. 

^ So ^AFGKLP, boh., syr^cl-txt, arm. ; olicoSofjiCav Dc, 192, Dam. tJct ; olKoSofiTJv 
D*, Iran., go., syrpcsh and hcl-mg; aedificationem d, f, g, m5o, vg. See Eph. iv. 29. 

choose to specify them. To do so, in 
this case, would have had a tendency to 
harden them in their heresy, "render 
them more shameless " (Chrys.). The 
introduction of the personal element into 
controversy has a curiously irritating 
effect. For this use of rives see i Cor. 
iv. 18, 2 Cor. iii. i, x. 2, Gal. i. 7, ii. 12, 
I Tim. i. 6, 19, v. 15, vi. 10, 21, 2 Tim. 
ii. 18. 

|XT| eTcpoSiSacTKaXciv : This compound 
occurs again in i Tim. vi. 3, and means 
to teach a gospel or doctrine different 
from that which I have taught. Irepos 
certainly seems to connote difference in 
kind. Gal. i. 6, Irepov eviayy^Xiov, 8 
ovK itrriv aXXo, and 2 Cor. xi. 4, illus- 
trate St. Paul's language here. The 
heresy may have been of recent origin, 
and not yet completely systematised— 
heresy of course does not aim at finality 
— ^but St. Paul does not mean to deal 
gently with it. It was to him false and 
accursed {cf. Gal. i. 8, g). His forebod- 
ings for the church in Ephesus (Acts xx. 
29, 30) were being' fulfilled now. Hort 
{jfudaistic Christianity, p. 134) compares 
the SiSaxais TroiKCXais Kal ^^vais of 
Heb. xiii. g. 

St. Paul elsewhere uses compounds 
with cTcpo, e.g., 2 Cor. vi. 14, krepolv- 
yeiv ; and more remarkably still, when 
quoting Isa. xxviii. 11 in i Cor. xiv. 21, 
he substitutes Iv IrepoyXaxra-oii for 810. 
yXuo-otjs erepas of the LXX. The 
word is found in Ignat. ad Polyc. 3, oi 
80KOVVTCS dlidirio'TOi clvai Kal Irepo- 

Ver. 4. |xii8i irpoo-^x*'''' • '*<"' '^ P'^y 
attention to. This perhaps refers 
primarily to the hearers of the Irepo- 
SiSdo-KaXoi, rather than to the false 
teachers themselves. See reff. 

(xvOois Kal YevcaXoYiai9 direpdvTois : 
" Polybius uses both terms in similarly 
close connection. Hist. ix. 2, i " (Ell.). 
Two aspects of, or elements in, the one 
aberration from sound doctrine. 

Some light is thrown upon this clause 
by other passages in this group of letters 

(i Tim. i. 6, 7, iv. 7, vi. 4, 20; 2 Tim. ii. 
14, 16, 23, iv. 4; Tit. i. 10, 14, iii. 9). 
The myths are expressly called Jewish 
(Tit. i. 14), and this affords a good 
argument that vo|JioSi8d(rKaXoi andvd|ji.o^, 
in I Tim. i. 7, 8 and Tit. iii. 9, refer to 
the Mosaic Law, not restricting the term 
Law to the Pentateuch. Now a con- 
siderable and important part of the 
Mosaic legislation has relation only to 
Palestine and Jerusalem ; it had no 
practical significance for the devotional 
life of the Jews of the Dispersion, with 
the exception of the community that 
worshipped at Hierapolis in Egypt. 
There is a strong temptation to mystics 
to justify to themselves the continued 
use of an antiquated sacred book by a 
mystical interpretation of whatever in it 
has ceased to apply to daily life. Thus 
Philo {De Vit. Contempt. § 3) says of 
the Therapeutae, " They read the holy 
Scriptures, and explain the philosophy 
of their fathers in an allegorical manner, 
regarding the written words as symbols 
of hidden truth which is communicated 
in obscure figures". Those with whom 
St. Paul deals in the Pastoral Epistles 
were not the old-fashioned conservative 
Judaisers whom we meet in the Acts and 
in the earlier Epistles; but rather the 
promoters of an eclectic synthesis of the 
then fashionable Gentile philosophy and 
of the forms of the Mosaic Law. ftvOoi, 
then, here and elsewhere in the Pas- 
torals (see reff.), would refer, not to the 
stories and narrative of the O.T. taken 
in their plain straightforward meaning, 
but to the arbitrary allegorical treatment 
of them. 

YcveaXoY^ai may similarly refer to the 
genealogical matter in the O.T. which is 
usually skipped by the modern reader; 
but which by a mystical explanation of 
the derivations of the nomenclature 
could be made to justify their inclusion 
in a sacred book, every syllable of which 
might be supposed antecedently to 
contain edification. This general inter- 
pretation, which is that of Weiss, is 




5. T6 8c tcXos TTJ9 " irapayyeXias ivrlv 6.y6,irr\ Ik ' KaOapds ^ Kap-u Actsv. 28, 
Bias Kol * auKciSi^acbis " dyaOT]? Kal ^ iriorcws * ' di'uTroKpiTou • 6. w Thess.'iv. 

,,, , »>*> Jh \ ' n r\ 2, ver. 18, 

Tii'cs aoTOxiio"aia'€s efcTpairno-ai' eis liaTaioXoyiai', 7. 0e\oia-cs not LXX. 

V Ps. I. (li.) 
12, Matt. 
V. 8, 2 Tim. ii. 22. w Acts xxiii. i, i Tim. i. 19, i Pet. iii. i6, 21. x 2 Tim. i. 5. y Rom. 

xii. g, 2 Cor. vi. 6, Jas. iii. 17, i Pet. i. 22. z i Tim. vi. 21, 2 Tim. ii. i8 only, N.T., Ecclus. 

vii. ig, viii. 9. a i Tim. v. 15, vi. 20, 2 Tim. iv. 4, Heb. xii. 13. b Here only, not LXX' 

cf Tit. i. 10. 

supported by Ignat. Magn. 8, " Be not 
seduced by strange doctrinea nor by 
antiquated fables (IrepoSoliais ftT)8e 
^ Tois iraXaiois), which are 
profitless. For if even unto this day we 
live after the manner of Judaism (Kara 
lovSaurfxbv \S)^iv), we avow that we 
have not received grace." Hort main- 
tains that yevcaXoy^ai, here has a derived 
meaning, "all the early tales adherent, 
as it were, to the births of founders " 
(see jfudaistic Christianity, p. 135 sqq.). 
On the other hand, Irenaeus (Haer. 
Praef. i and TertuUian {adv. Valentin. 
3 ; de Praescript. 33) suppose that the 
Gnostic groupings of aeons in genealo- 
gical relationships are here alluded to. 
It was natural that they should read the 
N.T. in the light of controversies in 
which they themselves were engaged. 

aircpavTois : endless, interminatis 
(Vulg.), injinitis (m.), because leading 
to no certain conclusion. Discussions 
which do not concern realities are inter- 
minable, not from their profundity, as 
the ocean is popularly speaking un- 
fathomable in parts, but because they 
lead to no convincing end. One end or 
conclusion is as good as another. The 
choice between them is a matter of taste. 

aiTives : qualitative, they are of such 
a kind as, the which (R.V.). 

IkCtit^io-cis : Questionings to which no 
answer can be given, which are not 
worth answering. See reff. on vi. 4. 
Their unpractical nature is implied by 
their being contrasted with olKovo|jiCa 
flcov. Life is a trust, a stewardship, 
committed to us by God. Anything that 
claims to belong to religion, and at the 
same time is prejudicial to the effectual 
discharge of this trust is self-condemned. 

irap^ovo-t : irapExu is used here as in 
the phrase Kdirovs irap^u. 

It will be observed that olKovofiia is 
here taken subjectively and actively {the 
performance of the duty of an olKov(Sp,os 
entrusted to a man by God; so also in 
Col. i. 25) ; not objectively and passively 
{the dispensation of God, i.e., the Divine 
plan of salvation). The Western reading 
oIko8o|X'<)v or olKoZo\Liav,aedifcationem,is 
easier; but the text gives a deeper meaning. 

TT|v €v irCoTCi : This is best taken as in 
the faith; cf. ver. 2, ii. 7, Tit. iii. 15. 
The trust committed to us by God is 
exercised in the sphere of the faith. 

The aposiopesis at the end of ver. 4 is 
due to an imperative need felt by St. 
Paul to explain at once, and develop 
the thought of, olKovofjiia 0£ov. The 
true teaching — that of the apostle and of 
Timothy — would be the consequence of 
the charge given by Timothy and would 
issue in, be productive of, an oiKovopia 
0COV. This oIkovo|1. 9. is the object 
aimed at, tcXos> of the charge; and is 
further defined as love, etc. 

This is the only place in Paul in which 
tA^os means the final cause. In every 
other instance it means termination, re- 
sult, i.e. consequence. i Peter i. 9 is 
perhaps an instance of a similar use. 

The charge is referred to again in ver. 
18. See also i Thess. iv. 2. The ex- 
pressed object of the charge being the 
comprehensive virtue, love, it is strange 
that EUicott should characterise this 
exegesis as " too narrow and exclusive ". 
Bengel acutely observes that St. Paul 
does not furnish Timothy with profound 
arguments with which to refute the 
heretics, because the special duty of a 
church ruler is concerned with what is 
positively necessary. The love here 
spoken of is that which is " the fulfilment 
of the law " (Rom. xiii. 10) ; and its 
nature is fiirther defined by its threefold 
source. Heart, conscience, faith, mark 
stages in the evolution of the inner life 
of a man. Heart, or disposition, is 
earlier in development than conscience ; 
and faith, in the case of those who have 
it, is later than conscience. 

KaOapa KapSia is an O.T. phrase. See 
reff. o-vvciSijo-is is KaOapd in i Tim. iii. 
9, 2 Tim. i. 3 ; it is dyaOrj in reff.; KaX^ 
in Heb. xiii. 18 ; it occurs without any 
epithet in i Tim. iv. 2, Tit. i. 15. ir£<ms 
dwrr^KpiTOs occurs again 2 Tim. i. 5 ; 
and the adj. is applied to dydirT], Rom. 
xii. 9, 2 Cor. vi. 6. See other reff. It is 
evident that no stress can be laid on 
the choice of epithets in any particular 

Ver. 6. &v : i.e., the disposition, con- 



cLukey. 17, cli'ai * KoppoSiSdcTKaXoi, firj fooufTCS fi^TC & Xcyooaii', fii^TC ircpi 

not LXxIticwi' ** SiaPePaiouKTai. 8. OiSajiec 8c on kuXos 6 fop-os cdc rts 
d Tit. iii. 8, >».' ~i >c\ -. a ^ > i > 

not LXX. auTW I'OfiifJLus xpnTai ^ • 9. eiou; touto, oti oiKaiu KOfios ou 
e 2 Tim. ii. 

5, 4 Mace. vi. 18 only. 

1 So t^DFGKL ; xP^«^tov AP, 73. 

science, and faith as qualified, rivis : 
see note on ver. 3. aaTOXT|o-avT«s : 
(aberrantes, Viilg. ; recedentes, m' ; 
excedentes, m*"). in the other passages 
where this word occurs the A.V. and 
R.V. have erred ; here siverved. They 
missed the mark in point of fact. It may 
be questioned whether they really had 
aimed at a pure heart, etc. But having 
missed, being in fact "corrupted in 
mind " vi. 5 ; " branded in their con- 
science," iv. 2 ; and " reprobate con- 
cerning the faith," 2 Tim. iii. 8, they 
did not secure as their own love, prac- 
tical beneficence, but its exact opposite, 
empty talking, vaniloquium. Tit. i. 10. 
The content of this empty talking is 
analysed in Tit. iii. 9. 

It is more natural to suppose that «v 
is governed by ao-TOXTi<ravTes (Huther, 
Grimm, Alf.) than by E$CTpdirT)o-av (Elli- 
cott). atrroxetv is used absolutely with 
ir€p£ elsewhere in the Pastorals ; but in 
Ecclus. it governs a genitive directly. 
^KTp^ir€<r6ai, governs both gen. and ace. ; 
the latter in vi. 20. 

Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, vii., 
vii. 373, quote examples of ao-rox^w from 
papyri (ii. b.c. ii. a.d.) in the sense " fail " 
or " forget," e.g., oo-TOXTjcavTes tow 
KaXws ?x<'^'''°5' ^leTpairrjo-av introduces 
a new metaphor : they had turned aside 
out of the right path. — fxaraioXoYia : 
Here only ; but ixaTaioXcSyoi, occurs, Tit. 
i. 10. See vi. 20 : " Vanitas maxima, ubi 
de rebus divinis non vere disseritur, 
Rom. i. 21 " (Bengel). 

Ver. 7. voftoSiSdo-KaXoi, : The Mosaic 
or Jewish law is meant. See Tit. iii. 
9. The term is used seriously, of official 
teachers of the law, in reff. 

p,T| voovvTct, K.T.X. '. Though they 
understand neither, etc. The participle 
is concessive, and |ic is here subjective, 
as usual, expressing St. Paul's opinion 
about them. For the sentiment cf. 
vi. 4, I Cor. viii. 2. X^yovo-iv refers to 
the substance of their assertions, while 
SiapcPaiovvTOi (affirmant, see Tit. iii. 
8) is expressive of the confident manner 
(R.V.) in which they made them. They 
did not grasp the force either of their 
own propositions (hence resulted P^^TjXoi 
Kcvo^wvCai), or the nature of the great 

topics — Law, Philosophy, etc. — on which 
they dogmatised, hence their inconsist- 
encies, avTiOEorcis Tov \)/cv8wvvp.ov 
yvucrcws (vi. 20). On the combination 
of the relative and interrogative pro- 
nouns in one sentence, see Winer-Moul- 
ton. Grammar, p. 211. 

Vv. 8-1 1., And yet this alleged an- 
tagonism of the Law to the Gospel is 
factitious : the Law on which they insist 
is part of law in general ; so is the 
Gospel with which I was entrusted. The 
intention of both is to a large extent 
identical : to promote right conduct. 

Ver. 8., as in Rom. vii. 14, 
I Cor. viii. i, 4, introduces a concession 
in the argument. KaXbs 6 v(ip.os was a 
concession made by St. Paul, Kom. vii. 
16, also Rom. vii. 12, 6 p,^v v(ip,os ayios* 
It is possible that it had been objected 
that his language was inconsistent with 
his policy. It may be questioned whether 
KaXds, in St. Paul's use of it, differs 
from dyadds, as meaning good in appear- 
ance as well as in reality. For the use 
of KaXd; in the Pastorals, see notes on 
i. 18 and iii. i. tis has no special re- 
ference to the teacher as distinct from 
the learner. The law is KaXdg in its 
own sphere ; but Corruptio optimi pes- 
sima ; " Sweetest things turn sourest 
by their deeds ". vop,i|i,(i>9 here means 
in accordance with the spirit in which 
the law was enacted. It does not 
mean lawfully in the usual acceptation 
of that term. St. Paul impresses the 
word into his service, and does it vio- 
lence in order to give an epigrammatic 
turn to the sentence. In 2 Tim. ii. 5, 
vo|ji(|i(d9 has its ordinary meaning in 
accordance with the rules of the game. 
XpilTai : In Euripides, Hipp. 98 vdp,ois 
Xp'tjo-Oai means " to live under laws ". 

Ver. 9. elSws refers to tis, as know- 
ing this (R.V.). For the expression cf. 
oloas TowTo, 2 Tim. i. 15 and Eph. v. 5. 
vdfios : Although v6p.os when anarthrous 
may mean the Mosaic Law, the state- 
ment here is perfectly general (so R.V.). 
The Mosaic Law does not differ in the 
range of its application, though it may 
in the details of its enactments, from 
law in general, of which it is a sub- 
division. Law is not encuted for 

7 — lo. 



KEirai, ' dfOfiOis Se Kal ' dKUiroTcLicTois, '' dacP^o-i '' ical *" dfxapTuXoi^, f Mark xv. 

di/oaioi9 Kol ^ PePrjXois, ' irarpoXwais Kal ™ |XT]TpoXuais, ° dkSpo- Luke 

4>o^ois, lo. iropv'ots, ° dpacKOKoirais, '' di'SpairoSiarats, *• 4*^00x015, Is. liii. is, 

r./ ^» «. ~ic '.ac \' y ' Actsii.23, 

eiriopKois, KOI ci Ti eTcpoK tjj UYiaicouat] oioaaKaAia an-iKeirai, 1 Cor. ix. 

21 (4)1 2 
Thess. ii. 
8, 2 Pet. ii. 8. g Tit. i. 6, 10, Heb. ii. 8, not LXX. h Prov. xi. 31, 1 Pet. iv. 18. i 2 Tim. 

iii. 2, only, N.T. k i Tim. iv. 7, vi. 20, 2 Tim. ii. 16, Heb. xii. 6 only, N.T. 1 Here only, 

not LXX. m Here only, not LXX. n Here only N.T., 2 Mace. ix. 28. o i Cor. vi. 9, 
not LXX. p Here only, not LXX. q Rom. iii. 4, Tit. i. 12, Rev. xxi. 8? John (2), i John (5). 
r Here only N.T., cf. Matt. v. 33. s 2 Tim. iv. 3, Tit. i. 9, ii. 1, cf. 1 Tim. vi. 3, 2 Tim. i. 13, 

Tit. ii. 8, Tit. i. 13, ii. 2. 

of Deut. chap. v.). There is therefore no 
necessity to give varpoXtpas the weak 
rendering smiter of a father (R.V. m.) in 
order to make the word refer to normal 
breaches of the Fifth Commandment, 
It can, of course, both by derivation and 
use, be so rendered, The Greek word, 
like parricide in Latin and English, may 
be applied to any unnatural treatment of 
a parent. 

The apostle is here purposely specify- 
ing the most extreme violations of law, 
as samples (xal ci ti crcpov) of what 
disregard of law may lead to. The 
healthy, wholesome teaching of Christ 
is of course in opposition to such enor- 
mities ; it is also in opposition to the 
false teachers ; these teachers have failed 
to attain to a pure heart, etc. Conse- 
quently, although professing to teach 
the Law, they find themselves in op- 
position to the essential spirit of law. 
Let them, and those who listen to them, 
take care lest their teaching inevitably 
issue in similar enormities. 

Ver. 10. dvSpairoSiaTais, plagiariis 
(Vulg.), includes all who exploit other men 
and women for their own selfish ends ; 
as ir^pvois and dp<revoKoiTai« include all 
improper use of sexual relations. 

SiSao-KaX^a means the body of doc- 
trine, the apostolic Summa Theologia. 
The noun is used absolutely, i Tim. vi. 
I, or with varying epithets : vYiaivovo'a, 
Sana (here, 2 Tim. iv. 3 ; Tit. i. 9, ii. i) ; 
KaXi], bona (i Tim. iv. 6) ; kvt' fvtri- 
Pciav, secundum pietatem (i Tim. vi. 3) ; 
y.ov (2 Tim. iii. 10) ; tov «r<i)TT]pos T|p.«i>y 
0COU (Tit. ii. 10). 

It means the act of teaching in Rom. 
xii. 7, XV. 4, I Tim. iv. 13, 16, v. 17, 2 
Tim. iii. 16, Tit. ii. 7. The term occurs 
fifteen times in the Pastoral Epistles in 
a technical Christian sense. This is in 
the writer's mind even in i Tim. iv. i, 
8i,8a<rKaXiai9 8aip,oviwv. It is found 
four times in the other Pauline Epistles. 
Of these Rom. xii. 7 is the nearest ap- 
proach to the special connotation here. 

With v7ia(vov«ra (see reff.) compare 

a naturally law-abiding man (dative 
of reference). SiKaios is used here in 
the popular sense, as in "I came not to 
call the righteous". It is unnecessary 
to suppose that St. Paul had his theory 
of justification in his mind when writing 
this ; though of course those who " are 
led by the Spirit " are Sixaioi of the 
highest quality, Kara twv toiovtmv ovk 
&mv vd|xo9 (Gal. v. 18 sqq., 23). The 
enumeration of those whom legislators 
have in view when enacting laws natur- 
ally begins with avop,oi, of whom the 
dwirdraKToi, unruly, those who deli- 
berately rebel against restriction of any 
kind, are the extreme type. There is no 
special class or quality of crime involved 
in the terms avop,os and dwir<iTaKTos. 
As the series advances, the adjectives 
indicate more definite and restricted 
aspects of lawlessness: the first three 
pairs represent states of mind ; then 
follow examples of violations of specific 
enactments. Since St. Paul is here 
dealing with the law of natural religion, 
it is not safe to deepen the shade of 
do-e^rjs, K.T.X. by looking at the concep- 
tions they express in the light of the 

o daePT|« Kal dfiapTuXos is a pair of 
epithets familiar from its occurrence in 
Prov, xi. 3r (quoted i Pet. iv. 18. See 
also jude 15). The do-cPi]s is one whose 
mental attitude towards God Himself is 
that of deliberate irreverence ; the Pc^t)- 
Xos acts contumeliously towards recog- 
nised expressions or forms of reverence 
to God. 

Alford and Ellicott, following a hint 
from Bengel, suppose that in the series 
commencing irarpoXi^ais St. Paul is 
going through the second table of the 
Decalogue. It is an argument against 
this that when St, Paul is unquestion- 
ably enumerating the Commandments, 
Rom. xiii. 9, he places the command 
against adultery before that against 
murder (so Luke xviii. 20; Jas ii. 11 ; 
Philo, De Decalogo, xxiv. and xxxii. ; 
T Pudic, v., all following LXX (B) 



tiTim. vi. II. Kard TO cuaYYAiof Ttis 8«>^t|s tou * fj,aKapiou 0eou, o " tiri- 
uKom, iii. <rTeuQii]V iyd. I2. ^ * Xdpii' '^ exw tw * ci'8uca|iOJo-ai'Ti - |ji€ Xpiorrw 

ix.t7,Gal.'lT]<rou TW Kupiw i^p.wi', OTi ''irioToi' fie '^ r]yr]aaTO, Qifiivos el? 

ii. 7» I 

Thess. ii. 

4, Tit. i. 3- V Luke xvii. g, 2 Tim. i. 3, Heb. xii. 28. w Acts ix. 22, Rom. iv. 20, Eph. vi. 10, 

Phil. iv. 13, 2 Tim. ii. i, 2 Tim. iv. 17. z Heb. xi. u, ef. Acts xxvi. 2, Phil. ii. 3, i Thess. v. 13, 

2 Thess. iii. 15. 

1 Ins. KaV DKL, d, go., syrr. ; om. ical ^AFGP, 17, 31, 67**, 80, 238, five others, 
*i g, vg., boh., arm. 

' lv8vva|xovvTi. ^*, 2, 17, three others, Thphyl. 

t»YiaivovT€9 \6yof, (i Tim. vi. 3 ; 2 Tim. 
i. 13), Xiyos V7iif|s (Tit. ii. 8), and 
vYiaiveiv (cv) xg ir^arei (Tit. i. 13, ii, 2). 

The image is peculiar to the Pastoral 
Epistles; but it is not therefore un- 
Pauline, unless on the assumption that 
a writer never enlarges his vocabulary 
or ideas. Healthy, wholesome admirably 
describes Christian teaching, as St. Paul 
conceived it, in its complete freedom 
from casuistry or quibbles in its theory, 
and from arbitrary or unnatural restric- 
tions in its practice. The terms vo(rwv 
as applied to false teaching (i Tim. vi. 
4), and possibly ■yd-y-ypaiva (2 Tim. ii. 17) 
were suggested by contrast. See Dean 
Bernard's note on this verse. 

Ver. II. Kara to ciiaYY^Xiov, k.t.X., 
refers to the whole preceding sentence 
and is not to be connected with SiSao-- 
Ka\i<;^ only, which would necessitate rg 
Kara, k.t.X. This reading is actually 
found in D,* d,f, g, Vg., Arm., quae est 
secundum, etc. Von Soden connects 
with 8i.Ka(((> V(S|X09 ov KCiTai. 

Inasmuch as unsound teaching had 
claimed to be a evaYYt'Xiov (Gal. i. 6), 
St. Paul finds it necessary to recharge 
the word with its old force by distinguish- 
ing epithets. cva^Y^Xiov had become 
impoverished by heterodox associations. 
The gospel with which St. Paul had 
been entrusted was the gospel of the 
glory of the blessed God. Cf "the 
gospel of the glory of Christ," 2 Cor, iv. 
4. The gospel concerning the glory, etc., 
which reveals the glory. And this glory, 
although primarily an attribute of God, 
is here and elsewhere treated as a blessed 
state to which those who obey the gos- 
pel may attain, and which it is possible 
to miss (Rom. iii. 23, v. 2, xv. 7. See 
Sanday and Headlam on Rom. iii. 23). 
The phrase is not. as in A.V., an expan- 
sion of "The gospel of God," Mark i. 
14, etc., " the gospel of which God is the 
author," Tr)? 8<S$t|« being a genitive ot 
quality =^/onoM5. (Compare Rom. viii. 
21, 2 Cor. iv. 6 ; Eph. i. 6, 18 ; Col. i. 11, 
27; Tit. ii. 13). 

p,aKapiov: Blessed as an epithet of 
God is only found here and in vi. 15, 
where see note. Grimm compares the 
pLciKapcs 6eoi of Homer and Hesiod. But 
the notion here is much loftier. We 
may call God blessed, but not happy ; 
since happiness is only predicated of 
those whom it is possible to conceive of 
as unhappy. 

t iiTi<rr(vBi]v iyu : This phrase occurs 
again Tit. i. 3. Cf. Rom. iii. 2, i Cor. 
ix. 17, Gal. ii. 7, i Thess. ii. 4. St. 
Paul does not here allude to his particu- 
lar presentation of the gospel, as in Gal. 
ii. 7 ; nor is he thinking specially of 
God's goodness to him in making him a 
minister, as in Rom. xv. 16, Eph. iii. 8, 
Col. i. 25 ; he is merely asserting his 
consistency, and repudiating the charge 
of antinomianism which had been brought 
against him. 

Vv. 12-14. I cannot mention my part 
in the furtherance of the gospel without 
expressing my gratitude to our Lord for 
His forgiveness of my errors and His 
confidence in my natural trustworthi- 
ness, and His grace which gave me 
strength to serve Him. 

Ver. 12. This parenthetical thanks- 
giving, which is quite in St. Paul's 
manner, is suggested by & lirurTev6T|v 
iyu. Cf. I Cor. xv. 9 sqq., Eph. iii. 8. 

Xapiv ^x" • see note on 2 1 im. i. 3. 
cv8vvap.uo-avTi : The aor. is used be 
cause the writer's thoughts pass back to 
the particular time when he received 
inward strength increasingly, Acts ix. 
22. In Phil. iv. 13 the present participle 
is appropriate, because he is describing 
his present state. The word Iv- 
8vvap.ovo-6ai is only found in N.T. in 
Paul and Acts ix. 22. Is it fanciful to 
suppose that Luke's use of it in Acts 
was suggested by his master's account 
of that crisis ? Sti : because. 

tntrr6v : trustworthy, as a steward is 
expected to be, i Cor. iv. 2. See ref. 
There is. as Bengel remarks, a touch of 
av0pa>iroird6eia, of anthropomorphism or 
accommodation, in irurrdv i&c ^YnoraTO. 

II— 15. 



SiaKOfiac, 13. t6 ^ TrpoTcpoi' orra^ ' PX(£<r«})T]fioi' Kal 'Siojkttji' KalyaTim. iiL 

^u^pi(rTr\v dXXci T|XeT]9T)i', on &yvo(av eirotirjo-a if dTriorta • 14. zHereonly 

'' uircpeirXeoKaaEK 8^ i^ X'^P''^ * """O" " Kupiou * ruiMV ^crd ** ' irioreus xv. 9, Gai. 

**Kal ■^'dydirifis ''tt]? ** ^k ^Xpwrrw ^'irjaou. 15. 'nioros^ '6 Phi^Uui'., 

6, not 
a Rom. i. 30 only (N.T.). b Here only, not LXX. c a Tim. i. 8, Heb. vii. 14, 2 Pet. iii. 15, 

Rev. xi. 15. d 2 Tim. i. ij. e Col. i. 4, i Thess. iii. 6, v. 8, i Tim. ii. 15, vi. n, 2 Tim. ii. 23, 

Tit. ii. 2,cf. Gal. v. 6, Eph. vi. 23, i Tim. iv. is, Rev. ii. 19. f i Tim. iii. i, iv. 9, 3 Tim. ii. 11, Tit. 
iii. 8, c/. Tit. i. 9, Rev. xxi. 5, xxii. 6. 

1 So fc<AD*FGP, 17, 47, 67**, 80, three others; rhv DcKL. 

2 Ins. |i,€ A, 73, g. 

^Humanus r, Latin MSS. known to Jerome, Ambrst., Julian pel., Aug. 

The Divine Master knew that His 
steward Paul would be trustworthy. 
Paul, not unnaturally, speaks as if God's 
apprehension of him were of the same 
relative nature as his own hope of final 

OefiEvos €l9 SiaKoviay : The fact that 
Christ employed Paul in His service was 
a sufficient proof of His estimate of him. 
SidKovos and SiaKovia are used in a gen- 
eral sense of St. Paul's ministry also in 
Rom. xi. 13, I Cor. iii. 5, 2 Cor. iii. 6, iv. 
I, v. 18, vi. 3, Eph. iii. 7, Col. i. 23, 25. 
C/. I Tim. iv. 6, 2 Tim. iv. 5, ii. The 
nature of it is exactly defined in Acts xx. 
24, " to testify the gospel of the grace 
of God". 

Ver. 13. Svra: concessive: " though I 
was," etc. pXao-<{>i]|xov : a blasphemer. 
The context alone can decide whether 
pXacr({>T]petv is to be rendered rail or 
blaspheme. It was against Jesus per- 
sonally that Paul had acted (Acts ix. 5, 
xxii. 7, xxvi. 14). This brings into 
stronger relief the kindness of Jesus to 
Paul, ippwrnis, rendered insolent (R. V.), 
Rom. i. 30, covers both words and deeds 
of despitefulness. Injurious is sufficiently 
comprehensive, but, in modern English, 
is not sufficiently vigorous. 

aXXa r\\€Ti6i]v : Obtaining mercy does 
not in this case mean the pardon which 
implies merely exemption from punish- 
ment ; no self-respecting man would value 
such a relationship with God. Rather St. 
Paul has in his mind what he has ex- 
pressed elsewhere as the issue of having 
received mercy, viz., to have been granted 
an opportunity of serving Him whom he 
had injured. Cf. i Cor. vii. 25, xv. 10, 
2 Cor. iv. I. 

a-yvouv i'iroli]<ra : A possible echo of 
the Saying from the Cross recorded in 
Luke xxiii. 34, ov -yap otSacriv rl iroiovcriv. 
See also John xv. 21, xvi. 3, Acts iii. 17, 
xiii. 27, I Cor. ii. 8. There is a remark- 
able parallel in The Testaments of the 

Twelve Patriarchs (Judah xix. 3, i^X^tjo-^ 
|i,c Stl Iv aYV(i>(ri(]^ tovto iTroCiia-a) dated 
by Charles between 109-106 b.c. 

Iv dtri<rTi9, does not so much qualify 
ayvouv, as correct a possible notion that 
all ignorance must be excusable. St. 
Paul declares, on the contrary, that his 
was a positive act of sinful disbelief; 
but "where sin abounded, grace did 
abound more exceedingly," virepcirepio-- 
o-cvcrcv ■q x*?"-'' ^om. v. 20. 

Ver. 14. ■uirepirXtovatetv only occurs 
here in N.T. ; but St. Paul constantly 
uses compounds with vircp. The com- 
parative force of the (nrep — grace out- 
weighing sin — is brought out in Rom. v. 
15 sqq. In these passages at least it is not 
true, as Ellicott maintains, that vire'p has 
a superlative (abound exceedingly) force. 

Tov Kvptov iq(jiwv : The expression our 
Lord (without the addition of jfesus 
or jfesus Christ), common in modern 
times, is rare in N.T. See reff. In 2 
Peter iii. 15 it is not certain if the refe- 
rence is to Christ, the Judge, or to the 
Father who determines the moment of 
His coming. In Rev. xi. 15 God the 
Father is meant. 

Faith and love which is in Christ 
jfesus occurs again in 2 Tim. i. 13. In 
both places the singular relative is im- 
properly used for the plural. It is one 
of the writer's habitual phrases; and 
therefore we cannot suppose any special 
relevance to the context in either of its 
constituent parts, though here Bengel 
contrasts faith with the unbelief; and 
love with the blasphemer, etc., of ver. 13. 
Faith and love, are the inward and 
outward manifestations respectively of 
the bestowal and realisation of grace. 

ir£o-Tis Iv Xp.'lTjo-. occurs Gal. iii. 26, 
I Tim. iii. 13, 2 Tim. iii. 15. irlvris and 
o-ydirTj are also associated (in this order) 
in the first six reff. 

Vv. 15-17. The dealings of Christ with 
me, of course, are not unique. My ex- 



g I Tim. iv. * XcSyos Kal Tr<i<7T)s ' dTroSoxTjs a|ios, on Xpioros 'itjaoGs '' riXOci' '' els 

not LXX. ^ Toy ^ K6a\u}v djiapruXous auaai * uy irpwT<S$ ei|xi iyta. 1 6. dXXd 

lii. ig, vi. 

14, iz. 39, zi. 37, zii.146, zvi. 38, zviii. 37. 

perience is the same in kind, though not 
in degree, as that of all saved sinners. 
Christ's longsuffering will never under- 
go a more severe test than it did in my 
case, so that no sinner need ever despair. 
Let us giorify God therefor. 

Ver. 15. irnrris 6 X^-yos: The com- 
plete phrase, iriaris • • • altos recurs 
in I Tim. iv. 9 ; and irwrros i Xoyos in 
I Tim. iii. i, 2 Tim. ii. 11, Tit. iii. 8. 

The only other places in the N.T. in 
which irio-T^s is applied to Xtiyos in the 
sense of that can be relied on are Tit. 
i. 9, a.vTex6\i.fvov tow Kara tt|v SiSax'^v 
iriaTov Xoyov ; Rev. xxi. 5, xxii. b, ovroi 
ol X($-yok iricTTol Kal aXT)6ivoi. 

In Tit. i. 9 the itiotos Xoyos cannot 
mean an isolated saying, but rather the 
totality of the revelation given in Christ. 
Of the other five places in which the 
phrase occurs there are not more than 
two in which it is possible to say with 
confidence that a definite saying is re- 
ferred to, i.e., here, and perhaps 2 Tim. 
ii. II. In the other passages, the ex- 
pression seems to be a brief parenthetical 
formula, affirmative of the truth of the 
general doctrine with which the writer 
happens to be dealing. See notes in 
each place. 

ircurt)s airoSoxTJs a|io$ : Field {Notes 
on Trans. N.T. p. 203) shows by many 
examples from Diodorus Siculus and 
Diog. Laert. that this phrase was a com- 
mon one in later Greek. He would render 
airoSoxi) by approbation or admiration. 
See also Moulton and Milligan, Exposi- 
tor, vii., vi. 185. airoScKTOs occurs i 
Tim. ii. 3, v. 4 ; airoS^x**''®''^'' ^^ Luke and 

Other examples in the Pastorals of the 
use of iras ( = summits) with abstract 
nouns (besides ch. iv. 9) are i Tim. ii. 2, 
II, iii. 4, V. 2, vi. I, 2 Tim. iv. 2, Tit. ii. 
10, 15, iii. 2. 

Xp. '11)0*. TiX0cv — cr»<rai : This is quite 
evidently a saying in which the apos- 
tolic church summed up its practical be- 
lief in the Incarnation, ^px'*''®'*^^ *^^ '''^^ 
K6<r\u>v, as used of Christ, is an expres- 
sion of the Johannine theology ; see reff. 
It is the converse of another Johannine 
expression, aireoreiXev 6 6«6s ... (or 
& iraTTjp) els tov Koo'piov: John iii. 17, 
X. 36, xni. 18, I John iv. 9. clo'cpxo|tevos 
els TOV K<io-p,ov is used in the same asso- 

ciation, Heb. X. 5. €Uripxe<rdai els t^v 
K6<r[iov is used of sin, Rom. v. 12 ; 
HipXea-iai els t. k. of false prophets in 
I John iv. I, 2 John 7. 

When we say that this is a Johannine 
expression, we do not mean that the 
vn-iter of this epistle was influenced by 
the Johannine literature. But until it 
has been proved that John the son of 
Zebedee did not write the Gospel which 
bears his name, and that the discourses 
contained in it are wholly unhistorical, 
we are entitled, indeed compelled, to 
assume that what we may for conveni- 
ence call Johannine theology, and the 
familiar expression of it, was known 
wherever John preached. 

With r)X9ev . . . o-wo-ai cf. Luke 
xix. 10, TJXdev . . . o-waai to airoXwXds* 
For the notion expressed in a)iapTwXovs 
aiia-ai cf. Matt. i. 21, ix. 13 ; see also 
John xii. 47, tjXOov . . . tva auxru tov 
icdarfiov ; John i. 29, 6 aipwv tt)v a|JMip- 
Tiav TOV K6<r\Lov ; and i John ii. 2. 

The pre-existence of Christ, as well as 
His resistless power to save, is of course 
assumed in this noble summary of the 

uv irpwTcis clfii lyu : In the experi- 
ences of personal religion each indivi- 
dual man is alone with God. He sees 
nought but the Holy One and his own 
sinful self (cf. Luke xviii. 13, p.01 Ty 
a|iapTuX^). And the more familiar a 
man becomes with the meeting of God 
face to face the less likely is he to be 
deceived as to the gulf which parts him, 
limited, finite, defective, from the Infinite 
and Perfect. It is not easy to think of 
anyone but St. Paul as penning these 
words ; although his expressions of self- 
depreciation elsewhere (i Cor. xv. 9, 
Eph. iii. 8) are quite differently worded. 
In each case the form in which they are 
couched arises naturally out of the con- 
text. The sincerity of St. Paul's humility 
is proved by the fact that he had no 
mock modesty ; when the occasion com- 
pelled it, he could appraise himself; 
e.g.. Acts xxiii. i, xxiv. 16, 2 Cor. xi. 5, 
xii. II, Gal. ii. 6. 

Ver. 16. aXXd : This is not adversative, 
but rather continues from ver. 13, and 
develops the expression of self-deprecia- 
tion. The connexion is : "I was such a 
sinner that antecedently one might doubt 

i6 — 17. 



Slot TOUTO r]\€-fiBriv, Iva iv ^fiol irptSru ' ck8ci|i)Tai Xpwrr&s 'itjaoOs ^ « (of God) 
*k" k />' \icf ~ \\/ Rom. ii, 

TTjc airaaaf jiaKpoOufiiai', irpos uiroToir&Hrii' TWf ftcAAorni)'' 17, 22. 

irioTCUEiK ^tt' auTu CIS " JwTji' "olui'iot'. 17. Tw 8e "PaaiXei "Twfk 2 Tim. iv! 

° aidivuy, ' &^QdpT<a,^ " dopdru, ' /jwJkm ^ 6€w, Tip,^ Kol 86|a eis toOs *' //, see ' 

a Tim. iii. 
-.. ^o. 

a Tim. i. 13 onlj;, not LXX, ax John iv. 14, 36, vi. ay, xii. 25, Acts xiii. 48, Rom. t. ai, i Tim. 

vi. 12, Tit i. a, lii. 7, etc. n Tob. xiii. 6, 10, Enoch ix. 4, Rev. xv. 3, cf. 1 Tim. vi. 15. o Wisd. 
xii. I, xviii. 4, Rom. i. 33. p Col. i. 15, Heb. xi. 37. q John v. 44, Jude 95. 

1 So AD, 17, 47, 80, six others, d, f, r, vg., go,, sah. ; Mijo-. Xpi<rT. ^KLP, 37, 
syrr., boh., arm. 

* a0avdT<(> D*, inmortali d, f, r, vg., go., syrhcl-mg ; FG, g, r (incorruptibili) add 
aOavary after iopariy. 

3 Ins. (ro<^ ^cDbcKLP, go., syrhd (from Rom. xvi. 27) ; om. <ro^ ^*AD*FG, 
I7i 37j one other, Latt., sah., boh., syrpesh. 

whether I could be saved or was worth 
saving. But Christ had a special object 
in view in extending to me His mercy." 

Sia TovTO, followed by ivo and refer- 
ring to what follows, occurs in Rom. iv. 16, 
2 Cor. xiii. 10, Eph. vi. 13, 2 Thess. ii. 
II, Philem. 15. See also Rom. xiii. 6. 
iv lp.01 is used as in Gal. i. 16, 24, and 
as iv 'nP'^v in i Cor. iv. 6. / was an 
object lesson in which Christ displayed 
the extent of His longsuflfering. 

irpwTcp : Alford correctly says that the 
foil. p.eXX«5vT«DV proves that St. Paul here 
combines the senses first (A.V.) and as 
chief (R.V.). 

TT)v airacrav p,aKpoOvp,Cav : the utmost 
longsuffering which he has (Blass, 
Grammar, p. 162). Here r renders 
p.aKpo6. longanimitatem. Chrys., fol- 
lowed by Alf. and Ell., explains, " Greater 
longsuffering He could not show in any 
case than in mine, nor find a sinner that 
so required all His longsuffering ; not a 
part only". If there had been only one 
soul of sinful man to save, it would have 
needed the Incarnation to save that soul. 
In St. Paul's case, conversion had been 
preceded by a long internal struggle on 
his part, and patience on Christ's part : 
" It is hard for thee to kick against the 
goad ". airas only occurs in the Pauline 
epistles again in Eph. vi. 13. Its use 
" is confined principally to literary docu- 
ments " (Moulton and Milligan, Exposi- 
tor, vii. vi. 88). 

irp^s viroTvirwcTiv t«v (icXX^vtwv : 
The use of the genitive here is paralleled 
exactly in 2 Peter ii 6, vir<S8eiYP'a H^«X- 
X<5vTwv acrcPeiv, " an example unto those 
that should live ungodly " ; and i Cor. 
X. 6, TavTtt 8e rviroi i\^(av lyt}rf\9-r\ira.v', 
also I Tim. iv. 12, where see reff. It 
does not mean as R.V. {an ensample of 
them), that St. Paul was the first speci- 

men of Jesus' work of grace, but rather 
as A.V. (a pattern to them), that no 
one who ever afterwards hears the gra- 
cious invitation of Christ need hang back 
from accepting it by reason of the great- 
ness of his sin, when he has the example 
of St. Paul before him (so Chrys.). The 
woTuirwo-is, of course, is the whole 
transaction of St Paul's conversion in 
all its bearings, ad informationem eorum 
qui credituri sunt illi (Vulg.). Bengel 
compares Ps. xxxii. 5, 6, " Thou forgavest 
the iniquity of my sin. For this let 
every one that is godly pray unto thee," 

irwTTeveiv kit' avT^ : irKrrcvciv is us- 
ually followed by els and the ace, or the 
simple dat. But iici with ace, and Iv 
are also found. The construction in the 
text is due to an unconscious recollection 
of Isaiah xxviii. 16 (also quoted Rom. ix. 
33, X. II, I Peter ii. 6) ; and no other 
explanation need be sought. The only 
other certain instance of the same con- 
struction is Luke xxiv. 25. The critical 
editors reject it in Matt, xxvii. 42. 

Ver. 17. This noble doxology might 
be one used by St. Paul himself in one 
of his eucharistic prayers. It is signifi- 
cant that in the Jewish forms of thanks- 
giving D^'ii^n ^yO is of constant 

occurrence. See reff., and Ocis twv 
Ecclus. xxxvi. 22. Bengel's suggestion 
(on ch. i. 4) that there is a polemical 
reference to the aeons of Gnosticism is 
fanciful and unnecessary. ^aaiXcvs, as 
a title of God the Father, is found in vi. 
15 and Rev. xv. 3, a passage of which 
Swete says (comm. in loc), "The thought 
as well as the phraseology of the Song 
is strangely Hebraic ". Cf. Ps. ix. 37 
(x. 16) 

a^OapT<{p : The three adjectives d4>6(Si- 




^ Seeder- 5. aiwi/as rS)v aiiafav ' d|xi^c. 18. TauTTjK t^v 'TrapoYY^^io'''' *'"■*?'*- 
48, xxiii. Ti9ep,ai, (Toi, * riKvov Tifi606€, kutA tois " -irpoaYouo-as em (re irpo<|>it]- 

4O1 Acts 

XIV. aj, 

zz. 32, a Tim. ii. 2, i Pet. iv. ig. 

t See ver. a. u 1 Tim. v. 24. 

prif, aopdT<|i, \jk6vff are co-ordinate epi- 
thets of Oc4>> to God immortal, invisible, 

a<^0apTOS, immortal, as an epithet of 
God, occurs Rom. i. 23 (cf. Wisd. xii. i, 
t6 •y*''P a<j>0oipT<5v <rov . , . irvEvixd Itrriv 
iv irao-iv, and Moulton and Milligan, 
Expositor, vii., vi. 376). It is expanded in 
vi. 15 sq., who only hath immortality, 
just as dopdT(|> becomes whom no man 
hath seen, nor can see (for the thought, 
see John i. 18, Col. i. 15, Heb. xi. 27, 
I John iv. 12), and \i6va becomes the 
blessed and only potentate. For the 
epithet povos, used absolutely, see reff. 
and also Ps. Ixxxvi. 10, John xvii. 3, 
Rom. xvi. 27. 

Tip^ Kal 8(5|tt : This combination in a 
doxology is found Rev. iv. g, 8u(rovo-iv . . . 
8(i|av Kal Ti.pT)V ; V. 13, 'q Tipr) Kai -q 8d|a. 
In St. Paul's other doxologies (Gal. i. 5, 
Rom. xi. ^6, xvi. 27, Phil. iv. 20, Eph. 
iii. 21, I Tim. vi. 16, 2 Tim. iv. 18), with 
the exception of i Tim. vi. 16 (ripT) Kai 
KpdTos)i Tipii is not found; and he 
always has ■q 8<5|a (see Westcott, Addi- 
tional Note on Heb. xiii. 21). 

Vv. 18-20. The charge that I am giving 
you now is in harmony with what you 
heard from the prophets at your ordi- 
nation. It only emphasises the funda- 
mental moral relations of man to things 
unseen and seen. The rejection of these 
principles of natural religion naturally 
issues in a perversion of revealed religion, 
such as caused the excommunication of 
Hymenaeus and Alexander. 

Ver. 18. Tov-niv tt|v irapayvc^^O'V is 
partly resumptive of ver. 3 ; it is the 
positive aspect of what is there nega- 
tively expressed; but as it concerns 
Timothy directly, it has a reference for- 
ward to iva OTparevYlj k.t.X., and to the 
general contents of the epistle. Bengel 
refers it to irapayyeXias, ver. 5. Peile 
to irio-TOs 6 Xd-yos, k.t.X. 

irapariOEpat coi. : The use of this 
word, as in Luke xii. 48, 2 Tim. ii. 2, 
suggests that the irapayycXCa is more 
than an injunction of temporary urgency, 
that it is connected with, if not the same 
as, the Trapadi^KT) (depositum) of i Tim. 
vi. 20, etc. 

T^Kvov TifidOce: There is a pecuHar 
affectionate earnestness in this use of 
the p^sonaJ name, here and in the con- 

clusion of the letter (vi. 20). Cf. Luke 
X. 41, Martha, Martha; xxii. 34, Peter; 
John xiv. 9, Philip; xx. 16, Mary. For 
TeKvov see note on ver. 2. 

Kara ras . . . 'irpo<{>T)T€ias, k.t.X. : By 
the prophecies, etc., are meant the utter- 
ances of the prophets, such as Silas (and 
not excluding St. Paul himself) who 
were with St. Paul when the ordination 
of Timothy became possible ; utterances 
which pointed out the young man as a 
person suitable for the ministry, led 
the way to him (R.V.m.). So Chrys. 
There is no need to suppose that any 
long interval of time elapsed between 
the first prophetical utterances and the 
laying on of hands. In any case, similar 
prophecies accompanied the act of ordi- 
nation. This explanation agrees best 
with the order of the words, and is in 
harmony with earlier and later references 
to the extraordinary function of prophets 
in relation to the ministry in the apos- 
tolic church. Thus in Acts xiii. i, 2, the 
imposition of hands on Paul and Barna- 
bas — whether for a special mission or to 
a distinct order it matters not — was at 
the dictation of prophets. And Clem. 
Alex. {Quis Dives, 42) speaks of the 
Apostle John, KXi^pCf) ?vo yi riva kXt]p- 
(ixrwv Twv iirh toO flvcvparos o-7]paivo- 
pcvcDV. In the same sense may be under- 
stood Clem. Rom. ad Cor. i. 42: ol 
aTrdcTToXoi . . . KaOicrravov tois airap- 
Xois avTwv, 8oKipd<ravTCS f^ irvevpaTi, 
cls ilTKTKOlTOV^ Kal 8iaK(ivovs. 

It is evident from iv. 14 that the pro- 
phecy accompanying the laying-on of 
hands was considered at least contribu- 
tory to the bestowal of the charisma ; it 
is natural to suppose that it was of the 
nature of a charge to the candidate. St. 
Paul here says that his present charge 
to Timothy is in accordance with, in the 
spirit of, and also in reinforcement of 
(ivo CTTpaTev-o iv ovTais) the charge he 
had originally received on an occasion of 
peculiar solemnity. This is a stimulat- 
ing appeal like that of 2 Tim. iii. 14, 
" knowing of whom thou hast learned 
them ". 

Ellicott disconnects irpoaYovtras from 
irrX a-i; but " forerunning, precursory," 
is pointless as an epithet of predictions, 
though quite appropriate [as applied to 
IvToXi] in Heb. vii. 18 : and the notion 

i8 — 20. 



T€ias, ii'a ' orpaTcoT) ^ iv ainals ri]v KaXTjc ' orrpaTeiai', 19. €}(<av v 1 Coi. ix. 

' «x>avT 't a vi » • \.» 7i2 Cor. 

irioTii' KOI ayaOTji' * aoi'eiOT|<ni', ■^k tii'cs '^ dirwo-aficvoi "TTcpi 'ttjc x. 3, 2 

• moTii' ' cmudyrjo-av • 20. we ecrrlk 'YjxeVaios Kal 'AXe'^avSpos, ous w 2 Cor. i. 

-irape'SuKa ""tw ''larai'a ij'a ' iraiScuduo'i /jlt) * p\a<T<|>T]ficri'. xSee ver.5, 

z I Tim. vi. ai, 2 Tim. iii. 8. a 3 Cor. xi. 25 only, not LXX. 

22, xxii. 3, 1 Cor. xi. 32, 2 Cor. vi. 9, 2 Tim. ii. aj, Tit. ii. la. 
xxvi. 65, John x. 36, Acts xiii. 45, xviii. 6, xxvi. 11. 

^ «rrpaTCvo-Q t^*D*. 

y Acts xiii. 

b I Cor. V. 5. c Acts vii. 

d Matt, ix, 3= Mark ii. 7, Matt. 

of " prophecies uttered over Timothy at 
his ordination . . . foretelling his future 
zeal and success " is unnatural. 

iva orpaTeij-r) . . . ttjv Ka\T|v orpa- 
T€iav : The ministry is spoken of as a 
tear/are, militia, " the service of a 
o-TpaTurtTtjs in all its details and par- 
ticulars " (Ell.). See reff., and an in- 
teresting parallel in 4 Mace. ix. 23, Upav 
K. €V7£VT) o-TpaTcCav (TTpaTcvo-aadc -Trepi 
TTJs cvcePcias* 

Iv avTais : in them, as in defensive 
armour. (Winer Moulton, Grammar, p. 
484). Cf. Eph. vi. 14, 16, for a similar 
use of Iv. 

KaX<is is characteristic of the Pastorals, 
in which it occurs twenty-four times as 
against sixteen times in the other 
Pauline Epistles. It has a special 
Christian reference in such phrases as 
the present, and as qualifying o-rpa- 
ticSttjs, 2 Tim. ii. 3 ; d-yuv, i Tim. vi. 
12, 2 Tim. iv. 7 ; SiSao-KaXia, i Tim. iv. 
6 ; 6p.oXoYia, i Tim. vi. 12, 13 : irapa- 
Ot^KT), 2 Tim. i. 14 ; SidKovos, i Tim. iv. 
6. Moreover, the use of the word in 
these epistles is also different from that 
found in the earlier epistles : (a) it is 
used as a qualifying adjective twelve times 
in the Pastorals (excluding KaXov Epyov, 
KaXa Epya) viz., in addition to the reff. 
already given, i Tim. iii. 7, 13, vi. 19. 
This use is not found in the other Pauline 
Epistles. (6) As a predicate it occurs twice, 
viz., I Tim. i. 8, iv. 4, as against once 
elsewhere in Paul, Rom. vii. 16. On the 
other hand, xi KaX(Jv is not found in the 
Pastorals, though five times elsewhere 
(Rom. vii. 18, 21 ; 2 Cor. xiii. 7; Gal. vi. 
9 ; I Thess. v. 21) ; nor KaXd (Rom. xii. 
17 ; 2 Cor. viii. 21) ; nor KaX6v (Rom. xiv. 
21 ; I Cor. v. 6, vii. i, 8, 26, ix. 15 ; 
Gal. iv. 18) ; but tovto KaXdv occurs 
chap. ii. 3 (Tit. iii. 8) as well as in i 
Cor. vii. 26. See also note on chap. iii. 

Ver. 19. «x"'' • ^t is best perhaps to 

suppose that the metaphor of warfare is 

' not continued beyond <rrparelav ; else 

we might render, holding faith ^a a 

shield, cf. Eph. vi. 16. But Iv avrais 
implies that the prophecies included 
every piece of defensive armour. So 
exwv here simply means possessing, as 
in I Tim. iii. 9, 2 Tim. i. 13, iii, 5, 
Rom. ii. 20, I Cor. xv. 34, i Pet. iii. 16. 
orwveiStjo-iv : see note on ver. 5. 

Tives : see note on ver. 3. 

dir<>>(rdp,evoi : The indictment against 
the moral standard of the false teachers 
is here expressed more severely than 
above in ver. 6. There they are said to 
have "missed" or "neglected" faith, 
etc. ; but here that they thrust ii from 
them (R.V., cf. Acts xiii. 46) when it im- 
portuned for admittance into their hearts. 
" Recedit invita. Semper dicit, Noli me 
laedere " (Bengel). 

"TTcpl Tf|v irio'Tiv lvovdYT]<rav : Another 
change of metaphor : they suffered moral 
shipwreck, so far as the faith is con- 
cerned. " When the life is corrupt, it 
engenders a doctrine congenial to it " 
(Chrys.). We are not justified in inter- 
preting suffered shipwreck as though it 
meant that they were lost beyond hope 
of recovery. St. Paul himself had suf- 
fered shipwreck at least four times (2 
Cor. xi. 25) when he wrote this epistle. 
He had on each occasion lost everything 
except himself. For the construction, 
cf. ircpl TTJV irioTiv [dXi^Seiav] i\(rT6y^i\- 
o-av, I Tim. vi. 21, 2 Tim. ii. 18; 
a86Ki|xoi irept Tr\v irCoxiv, 2 Tim. iii. 8. 
irepi with ace. is used in a somewhat 
similar sense in Mark iv. 19, Luke x. 40, 
41, Acts xix. 25, Phil. ii. 23 (the only in- 
stance in Paul outside the Pastorals) i 
Tim. vi. 4, Tit. ii. 7. 

Hymenaeus and Alexander were the 
ringleaders of those who had suffered ship- 
wreck. There is no sufficient reason to 
suppose that this Hymenaeus is different 
from the heretic of the same name in 2 
Tim. ii. 17, where his error is more pre- 
cisely defined. The identification of 
Alexander with Alexander the smith of 
2 Tim. iv. 14 is more precarious. 

Ver. 20. ov« irap^ScdKa t$ Zaravf : 
I have delivered (A.V.) expresses more 


nP02 TlMOeEON A 


a Rom. xii. H. i. * riopaKaXw ^ 'ooi' TToStTov irdrrwi' '' iroieiaOai '"Sciio-cis, 

I. I Cor. , d r 

iv. i6, irpoaEUYiiS) * iiT€u|eis, cuYaptoTias, uirep irdrruf dfOpwirwK 

Eph. iv. I. 
b Lukev. 33, 
Phil. i. 4. c 3 Mace. iv. 8, i Tim. ir. 5. d i Cor. xiv. 16, PhiL iv. 6. 

* vapaKaXf I, obsecra, D*FpG, d, g (not r), sah. 

accurately than I delivered (R.V.) the 
force of the aorist followed by the sub- 
junctive : they were still under sentence 
of excommunication (see Field in loc). 
The theory of the relation of the Church 
to non-Christians which underlies this 
phrase is expressed in i John v. 19, iK 
Tov 9eov 4<, Kal 6 K6(rp>s 8Xos Iv 
T^ irovTip^ Kcirai. The l|ov(r(a tov 
Zarava was " the darkness " over against 
"the light" of the Kingdom of God 
(Acts xxvi. 18). The conception is not 
popular among modern Christians. The 
two kingdoms, if there are two, have 
interpen etrated each other. The phraseo- 
logy, here and in the parallel, i Cor. 
V. 5, is based on Job ii. 6, ISov irapa8i8u|Ji£ 
«roi avTov. The name Zarava; also 
occurs in chap. v. 15 and in eight other 
places in the Pauline Epistles. 

iva irai8cv0wo-t : The apostolic severity 
was not merely punitive ; it was also 
corrective. The intention, at least, of 
excommunication was tva rh irvcv|xa 
o-w6{, I Cor, V. 5. So Chrys. We 
must not therefore render here, sarcastic- 
ally, that they may learn, A.V., but 
that they might be taught or in- 
structed. At the same time, it is un- 
natural to assume with Bengel that the 
raiScia was intended to keep them from 
blaspheming at all ; St. Paul hoped that 
it might prevent a repetition of the sin. 
The term has more of the association of 
discipline here and in i Cor. xi. 32, 2 
Cor. vi. 9, than in the other references. 

pXao-^Tifxctv : It is absurd to suppose 
that St. Paul here refers to a railing 
disparagement of his own apostolic 

Chapter II. — ^Vv. 1-7. In the first 
place, let me remind you that the 
Church's public prayers must be made 
expressly for all men, from the Emperor 
downwards. This care for all becomes 
those who know that they are children 
of a Father who wishes the best for all 
His children. He is one and the same 
to all, and the salvation He has provided 
in the Atonement is available for all. My 
own work among the Gentiles is one in- 
stance of God's fetching home again His 
banished ones. 

Ver. I. irapaKaXw ovv : This is re- 

sumptive of, and a further development of 
the irapaYYcXia of i. 18. See reff. St. 
Paul here at last begins the subject 
matter of the letter. The object of 
irapaKaXu is not expressed; it is the 
Church, through Timothy. 

irpuTov irdvTwv is to be connected with 
irapaKaXu : The most important point in 
my exhortation concerns the universal 
scope of public prayer. The A.V. con- 
nects irpwT. iravT. with iroicurOai, as 
though the framing of a liturgy were in 

iroieicrOai. is mid. The mid. of iroieiv 
is not of frequent occurrence in N.T. ; 
it is found chiefly in Luke and Paul. 
For the actual expression Sci^trcis iroieto-- 
rai, see reff., and Winer-Moulton, Gram- 
mar, p. 320, note, and Deissmann, Bible 
Studies, trans, p. 250. 

There is of course a distinction in 
meaning between 8ci](rci$, irpoacvxas> 
lvTCv$cis> supplications (in special 
crises) prayers, petitions; that is to 
say, they cannot be used interchangeably 
on every occasion ; but here the nuances 
of meaning are not present to St. Paul's 
mind : his object in the enumeration is 
simply to cover every possible variety of 
public prayer. This is proved conclu- 
sively by the addition cvixapitrrias, 
which of course could not be, in any 
natural sense, for all men. But every 
kind of prayer must be accompanied by 
thanksgiving, Phil. iv. 6, Col. iv. 2. On 
i!vTcv|is, see Moulton and Milligan, Ex- 
positor, vii., vii. 284, and Deissmann, 
Bible Studies, trans, p. 121. The reten- 
tion of thanksgivings in the reference to 
this verse in the opening of the Anglican 
prayer For the whole state of ChrisVs 
Church is scarcely justified by referring it 
to God's triumphs of grace in the lives of 
the faithful departed. Less unnatural is 
the explanation of Chrysostom, that " we 
must give thanks to God for the good 
that befals others ". 

irpoo-fvx'H and 8^t)o-is (in this order) 
are combined, Eph. vi. 18, Phil iv. 6 ; 
and in chap. v. 5 in the same order as 

vTT^p iravToiv avSpuirwv : The blessed 
effects of intercessory prayer on those 
who pray and on those for whom prayer 



2. uircp SaaiX^ui' Kal Trdtrnay tuv iy * {nr€po)m ovriav, ifa 'flpeooK' aMacc.iii. 
y . , , r. , , k>o' Ni ' II, I Cor. 

KOI ' -fiavxi-ov Biov oidywiieK iv irda-n cuaEpcia icat orcu.j'onjTi • ii. i. 

f E». iiL 13 
( I Pet. iii. 4. h Luke viii. 14, a Tim. ii. 4, 1 John ii. 16. i Ecclus. zxxviii. 27, a Mace. xii. 

38, 3 Mace. i. 3, iv. 8, vi. 35, Tit. iii. 3. k Aets iii. is, i Tim. iii. 16, iv. 7, 8, vi. 3, 5, 6, 11, 
s Tim. iii. 5, Tit. i. i, a Pet. i. 3, 6, 7, iii. 11. 1 « Mace. iii. 13, 1 Tim. iii. 4, Tit. ii. 7. 

is made is urged with special reference 
to the circumstances of tne early Church 
by Polycarp, Phil. 12 ; Tert. Apol. § 30 ; 
ad Scapulam, § 2 ; Justin Martyr, Apol. i. 
17 ; Dial. 35. " No one can feel hatred 
towards those for whom he prays. . • . 
Nothing is so apt to draw men under 
teaching, as to love and be loved" 

Ver. 2. wtp ^ao-iXcW: Prayer for 
all men must be given intensity and 
directness by analysis into prayer for 
each and every sort and condition of 
men. St. Paul begins such an analytical 
enumeration with kings and all that 
are in high place ; but he does not pro- 
ceed with it. This verse 2 is in fact an 
explanatory parenthesis, exemplifying 
how the prayer "for all men" is to 
begin. The plural kings has occasioned 
some difficulty ; since in St. Paul's time, 
Timothy and the Ephesian Church were 
concerned with one king only, the Em- 
peror. Consequently those who deny 
the Pauline authorship of the Pastorals 
suppose that the writer here betrays his 
consciousness of the associated emperors 
under the Antonines. But, in the first 
place, he would have written t«v 
pao-iX^uv : and again, the sentiment was 
intended as a perfectly general one, ap- 
plicable to all lands. St. Paul knew of 
kingdoms outside the Roman empire to 
which, no doubt, he was sure the Gospel 
would spread; and even within the 
Roman empire there were honorary 
Pao-iXcif whose characters could seriously 
affect those about them. The plural is 
similarly used in Matt. x. 18 and parallels. 

On the duty of prayer for kings see 
Jer. xxix. 7, Ezra vi. 10, Bar. i. 11, i 
Mace. vii. 33, Rom. xiii. i. Tit. iii. i, i 
Pet. ii. 13. 

Such prayer was a prominent feature 
in the Christian liturgy from the earliest 
times to which we can trace it (e.g., 
Clem. Rom. ad Cor. i. 61). It is speci- 
ally noted in the Apologies as a proof of 
the loyalty of Christians to the Govern- 
ment, e.g., Justin Martyr, Apol. i. 17 ; 
Tert. Apol. 30, 31, 39 ; Athenagoras, 
Legatio, p. 39. Origen, Cant. Cels. viii. 

Iv vircpox^ : in high place (R.V.). 
The noun occurs in an abstract sense. 

Ka0' vircpoxT|v Xdyov tj o-0(^ias, i Cor. ii. 

I ; but the verb is found in this associa- 
tion : Rom. xiii. i, l|ovcriai9 vTrcpcxov- 
o-ais; I Pet. ii. 13, paaiXct **« 
virepixoyri,. The actual phrase t«v iv 
wirepox'D ovTwy is found in an inscription 
at Pergamum " after 133 B.C." (Deiss- 
mann, Bible Studies, trans, p. 255). 

tva f^p€^l,ov : This expresses not the 
reason why prayer was to be made for 
kings, but the purport of the prayer 
itself. C/. Tert. Apol. 39, "Oramus 
etiam pro imperatoribus, pro ministeriis 
eorum ac potestatibus, pro statu seculi, 
pro rerum quiete ". So Clem. Rom. ad 
Cor. i. 60, 86$ 6p.(Svoiav Kal clptjvtiv 
i^p,tv . . . [uoTTC cu^eo'dai mias] tKirT]K^ovs 
Yivo|JLevov9 . . . T019 apxov(riv xal 
iqYov|i^vois :qp,wv lirl T»is Yn5> ^"d esp. 
§61. Von Soden connects tva, k.t.X. 
with irapaKaXw. 

TJpc|iios and 'q(rux''<*^> tranquil and 
quiet (R.V.), perhaps refer to inward 
and outward peace respectively. See 
Bengel, on i Pet. iii. 4. -qcrvx^a also 
has an external reference where it occurs 
in N.T., Acts xxii. 2, 2 Thess. iii. 12, i 
Tim. ii. 11, 12. Tjpcp,ccd is found in a 
papyrus of ii. a.d. cited by Moulton and 
Milligan, Expositor, vii., vii. 471. 

Sidycd is used in the sense of passing 
one^s life, absolutely, without piov ex- 
pressed, in Tit. iii. 3. 

Iv iraaji €Vfr€^fl<f. k. o-cp.v(iTi)Ti : with as 
much piety and earnestness or seriousness 
as is possible. This clause, as Chrys. 
points out, qualifies the prayer for a 
tranquil and quiet life. cvo-cPcia and 
<r€\Lv6'n\^, piety and seriousness, belong to 
the vocabulary of the Pastoral Epistles, 
though ever, occurs elsewhere; see refF. 
In the Pastorals cvo-ePeta is almost a 
technical term for the Christian religion 
as expressed in daily life. It is used 
with a more general application, religious 
conduct, in i Tim. vi. 11 and in 2 Peter. 
It and its cognates were " familiar terms 
in the religious language of the Imperial 
period" (Deissmann, Bible Studies, 
trans, p. 364). <rcp,v(JTris is rather gravi- 
tas, as Vulg. renders it in Tit. ii. 7, than 
casiitas (Vulg. here and i Tim. iii. 4) 
just as <rtfi.v6i is a wider term than pudi- 
cus as Vulg. always renders it (Phil, 
iv. 8 ; I Tim. iii. 8, 11 ; Tit. ii. 2). The 


nP02 TlMOeEON A 


miCor.vii. — •». " tooto ^ " icaXoK Kal ° diToSeKTOi' ° cfwiriOK °toO •* awTripos 

26,C/.Tit. \ ^ ^ A A V , 

iii. 8. •" i^Liui» ** P 0€ou, 4. OS irdn^as dKapuirous o^Kei o-wGni'ai Kai cis 
n I Tim. v. <, .\ a ' >\ a •^ » » » \ ' 

4 only, ' eTTiyi'cijaii' ' aXirjoeias eXdEif. 5. Eis yap Qeo<;, eis koi ' fico-iTinS 

not LXX. 
o Rom. xiv. 

22, I Cor. i. 29, 2 Cor. iv. 2, vii. 12, Gal. i. 20, i Tim. v. 4, ai, vi. 13, 2 Tim. ii. 14, iv. i, cf. Rom. iii 

20, 2 Cor. viii. 21. p See i Tim. i. i. q 2 Tim. ii. 25, iii. 7, Tit. i. i, Heb. x. 26, c/. i Tim. 

iv. 3. r Gal. iii. 19, 20, Heb. viii. 6, iz. 15, xii. 24. 

^ Ins. yap ^cDFGKLP, d, f, g, mioi, r, vg. (enim), go., syrr., arm. ; om. yap 
^*A, 17, 67**, boh., sah. 

A.V. honesty is an older English equiva- 
lent for seemliness. <ri\i.v6i and o'cp.v^'rris 
connote gravity which compels genuine 

Ver. 3. TovTo : i.e., prayer for all 

KaXov : not to be joined with ivutriov, 
but taken by itself, as in raff. See note 
on i. 18. air6ScKT0v Iviititiov rov 6«ov 
occurs again, v. 4. Prayer for all men 
approves itself to the natural conscience, 
and it is also in accordance with the re- 
vealed will of God. 

6eov is almost epexegetical of <r«i>TTJpos 
^fi,uv. Our Saviour, if it stood alone, 
might mean Christ; but it is God the 
Father that is the originating cause of 
salvation. See note on i. i. 

Ver. 4. " The grace of God hath ap- 
peared, bringing salvation to all men " 
(Tit. ii. 11) as was foreshadowed in the 
O.T. ; e.g. Ps. Ixvii. 2, " Thy saving 
health among all nations ". God is, so 
far as His inclination or will is con- 
cerned, " the Saviour of all men," but 
actually, so far as we can affirm with 
certainty, "of them that believe" (i 
Tim. iv. 10). These He saved, brwo-cv 
(2 Tim. i. 9; Tit. iii. 5). i.e., placed in a 
state of being saved. But here St. Paul 
does not say Oc'Xei crwo-ai., but O^Xci, 
aruSijvai ; for by His own limitation of 
His powers, so far as they are perceived 
by us, the salvation of men does not 
depend on God alone. It depends on 
the exercise of the free will of each 
individual in the acceptance or rejection 
of salvation (so Wiesinger, quoted by 
Alf. ; and, as Bengel notes on IXdciv, 
non coguntur), as well as on the co- 
operation of those who pray for all men ; 
and, by so doing, generate a spiritual 
atmosphere in which the designs of God 
may grow. 

It is also to be observed, that since 
salvation means a state of being 
saved, there is no difficulty in the 
knowledge of the truth following it 
in the sentence, as though it were a 
consequence rather than a precedent 

condition. This is indeed the order in- 
dicated in the Last Commission : " bap- 
tising them . . . teaching them " (Matt, 
xxviii. 19, 20). So that there is no need 
to suppose with Ell., that Kal «ls . . . 
cXOeiv was " suggested by . . . the enun- 
ciation of the great truth which is con- 
tained in the following verse ". 

els c'TTiyvuo'iv aXT]6cias JX6civ : This 
whole phrase recurs in 2 Tim. iii. 7. 
For ciriyvwo-is aXT]9cias see reff. In 
Heb. X. 26 both words have the article. 
It has been shown by Dean Armitage 
Robinson (Ephesians, p. 248 sqq.) that 
liriyvtiKTis is not maior exactiorque cog- 
nitio ; but, as distinguished from yvwais 
" which is the wider word and expresses 
' knowledge ' in the fullest sense, liri- 
yvwais is knowledge directed towards a 
particular object, perceiving, discerning, 
recognising ". Cf. 2 Mace. ix. 11, TJplaro 
. • . els liriyvoxriv cpxco'dai,. dXTjOcia 
occurs fourteen times in the Pastorals ; 
and often with a special Christian refer- 
ence, like 080s and cvio'cpeia. See e.g. in 
addition to this place, i Tim. iii. 15, iv. 3, 
vi. 5, 2 Tim. ii. 15, 18, iii. 8, iv. 4, Tit. 
i. 14. It is a term that belongs to the 
Johannine theology as well as to the 

Ver. 5. This emphatic statement as to 
the unity of the Godhead is suggested 
by the singular o-cuT'Jjpos just preceding. 
The els neither affirms nor denies any- 
thing as to the complexity of the nature 
of the Godhead ; it has no bearing on 
the Christian doctrine of the Trinity; 
it simply is intended to emphasise the 
uniqueness of the relations of God to 
man. The use of one, with this inten- 
tion, is well illustrated by Eph. iv. 4-6, 
Iv 0-wp.a, K.T.X. The current thought of 
the time was conscious of many o-uTtjpes. 
In contrast to these, St. Paul emphasises 
the uniqueness of the o-io-nip and 6e<Js 
worshipped by Christians. The contrast 
is exactly parallel to that in i Cor. viii. 
6, clcrlv 6eol ttoXXoC, ical Kvpioi iroXXoC * 
dXX' ' els 0eos 6 iranjp . . . Kal els 
Kvpios Mtjo-. Xp. The question as to the 




©6OU Kal dcGpojTTWi', acOpuTTOs XpioTOS 'Itictous, 6. 6 • Sous ' cauTor 8 Gal. i. 4, 
e V y ' 1 - .o' w > Tit. ii. 14. 

di'TiXuTDOi' uirep ■n&vrtav, to ° u.aprupioi' ^ ^Kaipois ^ lOiois, 7. eis t Here only- 

not LXX 
u Acts iy. 
33, 1 Cor. i. 6, ii. i, 2 Thess. i. 10, 3 Tim. i. 8. ▼ i Tim. vi. 15, Tit. i. 3. w 3 Tim. i. 11, 

cj. I Pet. ii. 8. 

^ Om. T^ ftaprvptov A ; Kal ftapr. ^* ; o5 t& (jiapT. Kaip. 18. IS^Ot] D*FgrG, d, 
g, Ambrst., datum est; 67**, 80, 115 ins. ovi. [Lucas Brug. : "Testimonium 
temporibus suis. His verbis nee praeponendum est cuius, nee postponendum con- 
firmatum est : haec enim consulto a patribus omissa sunt ". One at least of MSS. 
of vg. reads confirmatum est."] 

mutual relations of the Persons of the 
Godhead had not arisen among Chris- 
tians, and was not present to the writer's 
mind. Indeed if it had been we could 
not regard the epistle as a portion of 
revealed theology. Revealed theology 
is unconscious. The prima facie distinc- 
tion here drawn between el? 9^6% and els 
)xeo-tTT)s would have been impossible in a 
sub-apostolic orthodox writer. 

Again, the oneness of God has a bear- 
ing on the practical question of man's 
salvation. It is possible for all men to 
be saved, because over them there are 
not many Gods that can exercise pos- 
sibly conflicting will-power towards 
them, but one only. See also Rom. iii. 
30. One Godhead stands over against 
one humanity ; and the Infinite and the 
finite can enter into relations one with 
the other, since they are linked by a 
|t,eo-iTT)s who is both God and man. 
It is noteworthy that (i.eo-i'nris Oeoii k. 
avOpuTTuv is applied to the archangel 
Michael in The Test, of the Twelve 
Patriarchs, Dan. vi. 2. 

avOpuTTos explains how Christ Jesus 
could be a mediator. He can only be an 
adequate mediator whose sympathy with, 
and understanding of, both parties is 
cognisable by, and patent to, both. 
Now, although God's love for man is 
boundless, yet without the revelation of 
it by Christ it would not be certainly 
patent to man; not to add that one of 
two contending parties cannot be the 
mediator of the differences (Gal. iii. 20). 
See also Rom. v. 15. Again, we must 
note that avOpwiros {himself man, R.V., 
not the man, A.V.) in this emphatic 
position suggests that the verity of our 
Lord's manhood was in danger of being 
ignored or forgotten. 

Ver. 6. 6 Sovs eavrcSv : The Evangel- 
ists record our Lord's own declarations 
that His death was a spontaneous and 
voluntary sacrifice on His part, Matt. 
XX. 28 = Mark x. 45, Sovvoi Tf|v v|/vxtiv 
avTov XvTpov oivtI itoXXwv. Cf. John 
X. 18 ; and St. Paul affirms it, Gal. i. 4, 

Tov SdvTOs ia,vThv virkp twv ap.apTiuv 
T||xuv ; Tit. ii. 14, 8s ^SuKev eavTov virip 
Tip-wv K.T.X. (irapaSiSup-i is used in Gal. 
ii. 20, Eph. V. 2, 25). We may note that 
this statement necessarily implies not 
only the pre-existence of our Lord, but 
also His co-operation in the eternal 
counsels and purpose of the Father as 
regards the salvation of man. 

Alford is prooably right in saying that 
Sovvai eavTov, as St. Paul expresses it, 
suggests more than Sovvai ttjv ^x^'' 
avTov. The latter might naturally be 
limited to the sacrifice of His death ; the 
former connotes the sacrifice of His life- 
time, the whole of the humiliation and 
self-emptying of the Incarnation. The 
soundness of this exegesis is not im- 
paired by the probability that tt|v ^I^x^Iv 
aiiTov may be nothing more than a 
Semitic periphrasis for eavriiv. See 
J. H. Moulton, Grammar, vol. i. p. 87, 
who compares Mark viii. 36, ^T]p,iu6T)vai 
TTiv ■>|''«x'»iv avTOv, with Luke ix. 25, 
eavT^v 8^ diroXco'as ^ £t])ii<d9eis> 

avriXvTpov ■uirJp irdvTwv : If we are 
to see any special force in the LvtI, we 
may say that it expresses that the XvTpov 
is equivalent in value to the thing pro- 
cured by means of it. But perhaps St. 
Paul's use of the word, if he did not coin 
it, is due to his desire to reaffirm our 
Lord's well-known declaration in the 
most emphatic way possible. Xvrpov 
dvTi merely implies an exchange ; dvTi- 
XvTpov xiWp implies that the exchange 
is decidedly a benefit to those on whose 
behalf it is made. As far as the sugges- 
tion of vicariousness is concerned, there 
does not seem to be much difference 
between the two phrases. 

rh p.apTvpiov, as Ellicott says, "is an 
accusative in apposition to the preceding 
sentence," or rather clause, & 8oi(s . . . 
irdvTwv. So R.V, Bengel compares 
IvSeiYfia, 2 Thess. i. 5 ; cf. also Rom. 
xii. I. The great act of self-sacrifice is 
timeless ; but as historically apprehended 
by us, the testimony concerning it must 
be made during a particular and suitable 




')|/ — *SiSdaKaXos iQvuv ^ iy ^ iricrTet, xal dXT]6eia. 8. ' Bou- 

y John viii 

Rom. ix. I, cf. 3 Cor. zii. 6. 
I Tim. i. 3. c 3 Cor. i. 

z Rom. iz. I, 2 Cor. zi. 31, Gal. i. ao. 
17, Phil. i. IS, I Tim. ▼. 14, Tit. iii. 8. 

a 3 Tim. i. xi. 


^ Add iv Xpi7T^ (from Rom. ix. i) ^*DcKL, 17, 37, many others, go., arm. 

period of history, i.e., from the descent 
of the Holy Spirit upon the apostolic 
company (Acts i. 8) until the Second 
Coming (2 Thess. i. 10). The temporal 
mission of the Son of God took place 
"when the fulness of the time came" 
(Gal. iv. 4) ; it was an olKovo)i.(a tov 
irXT]pw|xaTos Tuv Kaipuv (Eph. i. 10). 
The testimony is of course borne by God 
(i John V. 9-1 1), but He uses human 
agency, the preachers of the Gospel. 

Kaipoi9 ISiois : See reff. The analogy 
of Gal. vi. g, Kaip4> yap i8i<t> Ocpitrop.ev, 
suggests that we should render it always 
in due season. The plural expresses 
the fact that the bearing of testimony 
extends over many seasons; but each 
man reaps his own harvest only once. 
In any case, the seasons relate both to 
the Witness and that whereof He is a 
witness : " his own times " and *' its own 
times" (R.V.). 

The dative is that "of the time where- 
in the action takes place," £11., who 
compares Rom. xvi. 25, xp<^fois alwviois 

Ver. 7. els & : scil. rh iiaprvpiov, or 
TO cvayycXiov, as in the parallel passage, 
2 Tim. i. II. 

The phrase els S «t€6t]v e-yw K^pv| k. 
airiSarToXos [kuI] SiSao-KaXos is repeated 
in 2 Tim. i. 11, as aXt^dciay . . . \j/cv8o|iai 
occurs again Rom. ix. i ; but there we 
have the significant addition [Xi^wJ Iv 
XpuTTu. For similar asseverations of 
the writer's truthfulness see Rom. i. 9, 
2 Cor. xi. lo, xii. 19, Gal. i. 20. 

There is nothing derogatory from the 
apostle in supposing that the personal 
struggle in which he had been for years 
engaged with those who opposed his 
gospel made him always feel on the 
defensive, and that his self-vindication 
came to be expressed in stereotyped 
phrases which rose to his mind when- 
ever the subject came before him, even 
in a letter to a loyal disciple. 

KTJpvl is used in the N.T. of a preacher 
here, and twice elsewhere ; see reff. 
But Ki}pvYp.a and Ktipvcraw are con- 
stantly used of Christian preaching. Cf. 
esp. Rom. x. 15, irws 82 KTipv|ci)o-tv lav 
(iT] airotrraXbio-iv ; Bengel takes it in the 
sense of ambassador ; cf. 2 Cor. v. 20. 

SiSdo-KaXos : SiSdaKaXoi, in the tech- 
nical Christian sense, are mentioned in 
Acts xiii. I, I Cor. xii. 28, 29. Eph. iv. 11. 
Here and in 2 Tim. i. 11 the term is used 
in a general signification. St. Paul does 
use 8i8do-Kci,v of his own ministerial func- 
tions : I Cor. iv. 17, Col. i. 28, 2 Thess. 

iv iria'TCi Kal aXir]6ci(|i. : It is best to 
take both these words in connexion with 
SiSdcKaXos, and objectively, in the faith 
and the truth (see on ch. i. 2). It is 
no objection to this view that the article 
is not expressed; the anarthrousness of 
common Christian terms is a feature of 
these epistles. Others, with Chrys., take 
both terms subjectively, faithfully and 
truly. Ellicott " refers ttio-tis to the 
subjective faith of the apostle, dXi]9. to 
the objective truth of the doctrine he 
delivered ". This does not yield a natural 

Harnack notes that the collocation of 
dird<rToXos, SiSdo-KoXos is peculiar to 
the Pastorals and Hermas {Sim. ix, 15, 
16, 25 ; Vis. iii. 5, " The apostles and 
bishops and teachers and deacons"). 
Harnack opines that "Hermas passed 
over the prophets because he reckoned 
himself one of them ", But the opinion 
of Lietzmann, which he quotes, seems 
sounder: Hermas "conceives this irpo^- 
t)T€i3eiv as a private activity which God's 
equipment renders possible, but which 
lacks any official character " (Mission 
and Expansion of Christianity, trans, 
vol. i. p. 340). 

Vv. 8 — iii. 10. The ministers of public 
prayer must be the men of the congre- 
gation, not the women. A woman's 
positive duty is to make herself con- 
spicuous by good works, not by per- 
sonal display. Her place in relation to 
man is one of subordmation. This is 
one of the lessons of the inspired narra- 
tives of the Creation and of the Fall. 
Nevertheless this does not affect her eter- 
nal position. Salvation is the goal alike 
of man and woman. They both attain 
supreme blessedness in the working out 
of the primal penalty imposed on Adam 
and Eve. 

Ver. 8. povXo|jiai ow: ovv is resumptive 
of the general topic of public worship 




Xop,ai GUI' ** -irpocrEuxccOai tous avSpas * iv * irorrl * T<5Tru, * l-iraipoin-a; d 1 Cor. xi. 
' oaious X^^P'^S ^ X"P^S * opyTJs Kal '' SiaXoyicrfioC,^ 9. ^ worauTus ^ ^ xiv.'i4,'i5, 

yufaiKas iy " KaTourroX^p ° Koapiu * jictcI ° aiSous Kal • aw4>poauKi]s a Cor. ii. 

14. 1 
,^ , Tbe8s.i.8 

f Luke XXIV. 50. g Tit. i. 8, Heb. rii. 36, Rev. xv. 4, xvi. 5. h Phil. ii. 14, i Tim. v. ai. 

Mark iii. 5, Rom. xii. 19, xiii. 4, 5, Eph. iv. 31, Col. iii. 8, Jas. i. 19, 20. k Rom. xiv. i, Phil. 

11. 14- 1 I Tim. iii. 8, 11, v. 35, Tit. ii. 3, 6. m Here only NLT., Isa. Ixi. 3. n Ecdcs. 

xu. 9, I Tim. iii. a. o Here only N.T., 3 Mace. i. 19, iv. 5. p Acts xxvi. 35, ver. 15. 

*So ^"ADKLP, d, f, ma5.8i, r, vg., go., sah., arm.; 8uiXoYi(r|iwv ^cFgrG, 
'7« 47» 67**, 80, nineteen others, g, boh., sjrr. 

' Ins. Kal ^cDFGKL, d, f, g, m8i, r {autem et), vg., go., sah., boh., gyrr., 
om Kal J^*AP, 17, 71. 

» Ins. Tos DbcKL. * KwryLUa ^cDgr*FG, 17. 


from which the writer has digressed in 
^^- 3-7' PovXonai ovv is found again in 
V. 14. In both places, PovXo|i,ai has the 
force of a practical direction issued after 
deliberation. See also reff. On the con- 
trary, 6cXw 8^ is used only in reference to 
abstract subjects. See Rom. xvi. 19, i 
Cor. vii. 7, 32, xi. 3, xiv. 5. irpo«r€vx- 
ccrdai Tovs avSpas : that the men should 
conduct public worship. Perhaps Bengel 
is right in understanding i Peter iii. 7 
in the same sense. See reff. for irpoo*- 
cvxco-6ai in this special signification. 
Tovis avSpas : the men of the community 
as opposed to the women, ver. g (R.V.). 
There is no specific restriction of the 
conduct of worship to a clergy. 

Iv iravrl T<Jir«|» : to be connected with 
what precedes : the directions are to 
apply to every Church without excep- 
tion; no allowance is to be made for 
conditions peculiar to any locality ; as it 
is expressed in i Cor. xiv. 33, 34, us Iv 
ireUrais rais iKKXtjo-iais tuv olyCuv, at 
yuvaiKcs Iv rats iKKXTjaiai; (riyir<a<ray. 
The words do not mean in any place, 
as though fixed places for worship were 
a matter of indifference ; neither is there 
any allusion, as Chrys. explain it, to the 
abolition by Christ of the restriction of 
worship to one place, Jerusalem, as in 
John iv. 21. iiralpovrai 6o-(ovs x'^P**'^ ■ 
This is not directly intended to enjoin a 
particular gesture appropriate to prayer, 
but merely avoids the repetition of 
vpotr€xixt<r9'^*" To uplift the hands in 
prayer was customary : i Kings viii. 22, 
Ps. xxviii., 2 etc., Isa. i. 15, Clem. Rom. 
ad Cor. i. 29. The men that are to have 
the conduct of the public worship of the 
Church must be upright men who have 
clean hands, hands that are holy (Job. 
xvii. 9 ; Ps. xxiii. (xxiv.) 4 ; Jas. iv. 8). 
For 00-ios as an adj. of two terminations, 
compare Luke ii. 13, Rev. iv. 3. See 
Winer Moulton, Grammar, p. 80. 

X^pls ipYns i**^^ SiaXoYio-fiov : This 
indicates the two conditions necessary to 
effectual prayer : freedom from irritation 
towards our fellow-men (Matt. vi. 14, 
15, Mark xi. 25), and confidence towards 
God (Jas. i. 6 ; Luke xii. 29). 8iaXoYk(r|i,(is 
has the sense of doubt in Rom. xiv. i. 
This sense (A.V. doubting) is that given 
to the term here by Chrysostom (a|ji,({>i- 
poX(a) and Theodoret (iri<rTcvcav Sri 
X'H'I'T))' The rendering disputing (R.V.) 
disceptatio (Vulg.) merely enlarges the 
notion conveyed in ipYij. The reff. to 
ipxh ^^ places where it is spoken of as 
a human affection. 

Ver. 9. Having assigned to the men 
the prominent duties of the Church, St. 
Paul proceeds to render impossible any 
misconception of his views on this sub- 
ject by forbidding women to teach in 
public. But he begins by emphasising 
what is their characteristic and proper 
glory, the beauty of personality which 
results from active beneficence. 

The essential parts of the sentence are 
wcravTus Y"^*^^*'*^^ * * * KOtrficiv cavras 
... 81' ^pywv ayaOuv. Both irpoo'cvx**''' 
9ai and kociiciv cavras depend on 
povXop,ai, as does wcravrus, which intro- 
duces another regulation laid down by 
the apostle. In the Christian Society, 
it was St. Paul's deliberate wish that 
the men should conduct public worship, 
and that the women should adorn the 
Society and themselves by good works. 
This verse has no reference to the de- 
meanour of women while in Church. It 
is inconsistent with the whole context 
to supply irpoa€i5x«o^ai after yvvaiKas. 

The connexion of Iv KaTao-ToX-Q — 
<rw<^po(ruvt]s has been disputed. Ellicott 
takes it as " a kind of adjectival predica- 
tion to be appended to yMvaiKas," stating 
what is the normal condition of women, 
who are to superadd the adornment of 
good works. But it is more natural to 




q Tit. ii. 10, « Koaficii' lauTcis, p,^ iv ^ irkiy^iacnv Kal^ ' •jf^puuli^ ^ ^ fjiapyc^P^Tais ?j 
5- ^ IfiaTiCTiAO) " iroXuTeXei, lo. dW — o ^ irpeTTei yuvaiilv "^ iirayyeWo- 

r Here only, i a >o c. > >» v n > 

not LX X ixci^ais 6coo'cp€iai' — oi 'cpYwv 'dvaowc. ii. rocT) iv "inauYia 

• iPet. iii. [^ , b. cvc>, ex \ 

3, Rev. (xacoacETa) iv irao-T) uTTOTavT). 12. oiSdo'Kcii' oc vu^aiKi^ ouk 

xvii. 4. I . » 

t Luke vii. 

25, ix. 29, John xix. 24, Acts xx. 33. u Mark xiv. 3, i Pet. iii. 4. v Eph. y. 3, Tit. ii. i, 

Heb. ii. lo, vii. 26. w i Tim. vi. 21, Tit. i. 2. x Here only N.T., cf, John ix. 31. y i Tim. v. 

10, 2 Tim. ii. 21, iii. 17, Tit. i. 16, iii. i. z Acts xxii. 2, 2 Thess. iii. i*. a i Cor. xiv. 35. 

b Wisd. zviii, 16, 2 Cor. iz. 13, Gal. ii. j, i Tim. iii. 4. 

1 ^ DcKL, f, mSi, r, vg., go., sah., syrhcl. 

" So AFGP, 17, 31, 47, 80, a few others; xpvtri^ ^DKL. 

^ Y**^* S^ SiSdcTK. KL. 

connect it directly with Kotrpiciv, with 
which Iv irXcY|ia<riv, k.t.X. is also con- 
nected as well as 81' £p-y<iiv oYaOwv ; the 
change of preposition being due to the 
distinction between the means em- 
ployed for adornment and the resultant 
expression of it. The effect of the prac- 
tice of good works is seen in an orderly 
appearance, etc. 

oio-avTus is a word of frequent occur- 
rence in the Pastorals. See reff. Except 
in V. 25, it is used as a connecting link 
between items in a series of regulations. 
The use of it in Rom. viii. 26, i Cor. xi. 
25 is different. 

KaTao-ToXi], as Ellicott says, " conveys 
the idea of external appearance as prin- 
cipally exhibited in dress". It is "de- 
portment, as exhibited externally, whether 
in look manner or dress ". The com- 
mentators cite in illustration Josephus, 
Bell. yud. ii. 8, 4, where the KaTaaToXt) 
K. o'X'fiP'a o-upaTos of the Essenes is de- 
scribed in detail. The Latin habitus is 
a good rendering, if we do not restrict 
that term to dress, as the Vulg. here, 
habitu ornato, seems to do. But ordinate 
(r) hits the meaning better. 

K<S(rp,ios is applied to the episcopus in 
iii. 2. It means orderly, as opposed to 
disorderliness in appearance. Kotrpius 
(see apparat. crit.) would be a aira| Xty. 
both in Old and New Testament, pera 
alSovs : with shamefastness and self- 
control or discreetness : the inward char- 
acteristic, and the external indication or 
evidence of it. 

For o-b>(|>po(rvvi], see Trench, Synonyms, 
N.T. The cognate words o'<i><|>pov(£eiv, 
Tit. ii. 4 ; tru^povifrfi.6^, 2 Tim. i. 7 ; 
o-(i>4>p(^vcdS, Tit. ii. 12 ; orw^pcov, i Tim. 
iii. 2, Tit. i. 8, ii. 2, 5, are in N.T. pecu 
liar to the Pastoral Epistles ; but o-ci><|>po 
vciv. Tit. ii. 6, is found also in Mark, 
Luke, Rom., 2 Cor. and i Pet. See Dean 
Bernard's note here. 

Iv irXcYpao-iv, k.t.X. : The parallel in 
I Pet. iii. 3, 6 c^uOcv IpirXoKTJs Tpf,\Siv 
Kal ircpiOcVccos XP'*'"'^'"'' 'H IvSvcreu; 
IpaTicov Koo-pos, is only a parallel. The 
two passages are quite independent. The 
vanities of dress — of men and women — is 
common topic. 

Ver. 10. dXX' 8 irpt'irei : It has been 
assumed above that 81* 'ipyuv a^aOuv is 
to be connected with Koo-peiv. In this 
case 8 irpeirei — 6co<r€Peiav is a parenthe- 
tical clause in apposition to the sentence. 
It is, however, possible, though not so 
natural, to connect 81* tpyuv aYaOolv with 
iTrayy. Ocoo*. So Vulg., promittentes 
pietatem per bona opera. Then 8 would 
mean Ka6' 8, or Iv tovtw o (Math.), and 
the whole clause, aXX' 8 — oyaOwv, would 
be an awkward periphrasis for, and repeti- 
tion of, Iv KttTao-ToX'jj — (rcix^pocrvvT];. 

lirayyeXXeordai usually means to pro- 
mise as in Tit. i. 2 ; but here and in vi. 
21 to profess. 

Oeoorepcia : oir. Xcym but the adj. 6«o<re- 
Pijs occurs John ix. 31. 

8id is instrumental, as in iv. 5, 2 Tim. 
i. 6, 10, 14, iii. 15, iv. 17, Tit. iii. 5, 6, 
not of accompanying circumstances, as 
in I Tim. ii. 15, iv. 14, 2 Tim. ii. 2. 

cp-ywv Lya.iS>v : see note on chap. iii. i. 

Ver. II sqq. With these directions 
compare those in i Cor. xiv. 33-35. 

Iv irdo-d viroTa.y% '■ with complete sub- 
jection [to their husbands]. Cf. Tit. ii. 5. 

Ver. 12. 8i8daKciv : This refers of 
course only to public teaching, or to a 
wife's teaching her husband. In Tit. ii. 3 
St. Paul indicates the natural sphere for 
woman's teaching. In i Cor. women are 
forbidden XaXciv in the Church. The 
choice of terms is appropriate in each 

otiGevreiv divSpds : dominari in vir- 
um, to have dominion over (R.V.). " The 
adj. av6cvTiK(is is very well established 
in the vernacular. See Nageli, p. 49 

lo — 15, 



^TTiTpeiru, ooSe "auOeiTeii' dfSpiSs, dXX* elcai iv 'i]auxioi 
ASdfJi Y^P irpuTOS ^ EirXdaOr], etra Eua 
fiiraTqdt], tj Be yut^ ' e|airoTif)9eiaa ^ iv * irapa^do-ci yiyover 

f Rom. vii. 11, zri. 18, i Cor. iii. 18, a Cor. xi. 3, 3 Tbess. ii. 3. 
iii. 19, Heb. ii. 3, ix. 15. 

^ aTraTTiOcio-a ^cDb ? cKL. 

I'?, c Here only 

, r notLXX 

14. Kai Aodu OUK d Gen. ii. 7, 

Rom. ix. 

15. 20. 

e Eph. V. 6, 

Jas. i. 36. 

g Rom. ii. 83, ir. 15, v. 14, Gal 

. . . the Atticist warns his pupil to use 
avToSiKciv because atiOcvTctv was vulgar 
(Koiv(iTcpov) . . . av0^vTT)9 is properly 
one who acts on his own authority, 
hence in this context an autocrat" 
(Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, vii., vi. 


dXX' ctvai: dependent on some such 
verb as implied, as opposed to 
oviK liriTp^iru. 

Ver. 13. It would not be fair to say 
that St. Paul's judgment about the rela- 
tive functions of men and women in the 
church depended on his belief as to the 
historicity of the Biblical story of the 
Creation. He certainly uses this account 
in support of his conclusions ; yet suppos- 
ing the literal truth of the early chapters 
of Genesis, it would be possible to draw 
quite other inferences from it. The first 
specimen produced of a series is not al- 
ways the most perfect. The point in 
which Adam's superiority over Eve 
comes out in the narrative of the Fall is 
his greater strength of intellect; there- 
fore men are better fitted for the work of 
public instruction. " The woman taught 
once, and ruined all" (Chrys.). Eve's 
reasoning faculty was at once overcome 
by the allegation of jealousy felt by God, 
an allegation plausible to a nature swayed 
by emotion rather than by reflection. 
The Tempter's statement seemed to be 
supported by the appearance of the fruit, 
as it was rendered attractive by hopes of 
vanity to be gratified. Adam's better 
judgment was overcome by personal 
influence (Gen. iii. 17, "Thou hast 
hearkened unto the voice of thy wife ") ; 
he was not deceived. But the intel- 
lectual superior who sins against light 
may be morally inferior to him who 
stumbles in the dusk. 

'ASap, irpuTos lirXd(rdT| : The elder 
should rule. A more profound statement 
of this fact is found in i Cor. xi. 9, ovk 
iKTitrOt] dvT)p Sia tJ|v y'>'*'<'^^*'(^> dXXa 
YUVT) 8ia T&v avSpa. 

irXdo-oreiv is the term used in Gen. ii. 7 
and expresses the notion of God as a 
potter, Rom. ix. 20. (am here has 

Ver. 14. VI Si yy^ '• St. Paul says ^ 
yvvri ra*^her than E5a, emphasing the sex 
rather than the individual, because he 
desires to gives the incident its general 
application, especially in view of what 
follows. So Chrys. 

l|airaTT)9€io-a : It is doubtful if we are 
entitled to render this, as Ell. does, being 
completely deceived. In 2 Cor. xi. 3 St. 
Paul says 6 o<|)is l^r]Tra'rt\(rev Evav, where 
there is no reason why he should not 
have used the simple verb. St. Paul uses 
the compound verb in five other places, 
the simple verb only once (see reff.). 
So that the simplest account that we 
can give of his variation here, and in 
2 Cor. xi. 3, from the 6 o(j>is VjirdTTio-^v 
pc of Gen. iii. 13, is that the compound 
verb came naturally to his mind. 

iv irapapdo-ci ycyovcv : Inasmuch as 
irapd^ao-i; is used of Adam's transgres- 
sion in Rom. v. 14, it may be asked, 
What is the force of St. Paul's apparent 
restriction here of the phrase to Eve ? 
Might it not be said of Adam as well, 
that he Iv irapa^. yiyovtv ? To which 
St. Paul would perhaps have replied that 
he meant that it was woman who Jirst 
transgressed, in consequence of having 
been deceived. atrh yvvaiKh^ dpx'H 
dpaprCas, Kal 81' avTr)V diroOvijo'Kopcv 
•irdvT€s. Ecclus. xxv. 24. This notion 
of coming into a state of sin at a definite 
point of time is well expressed by Y^Yovev. 
For yiv(.fT9o.\. iv cf, i\ 8iaKov(a . . . 
iyivrfiy\ iv So^-j] (2 Cor. iii. 7) ; iv \6yuf 
KoXaKias iyivrfii\ (i Thess. ii. 5). 

Ver. 15. <r<o0Ti<r€Tai hi Sia ttjs tckvo- 
Yovias : The penalty for transgression, 
so far as woman is concerned, was ex- 
pressed in the words, " I will greatly 
multiply thy sorrow and thy conception ; 
in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children" 
(Gen. iii. 16). But just as in the case of 
man, the world being as it is, the sen- 
tence has proved a blessing, so it is in 
the case of woman. " In the sweat of 
thy face shalt thou eat bread " expresses 
man's necessity, duty, privilege, dignity. 
If the necessity of work be " a stumbling- 
block," man can " make it a stepping- 
stone" (Browning, The Ring and the 




b Here auOnaeTai 8e Sicl Ttis ** reKCOvoi'ias 
only, not . J ' ' ' 

LXX, c/. aydirr^ Kai dyiaa/xu jjictA 

14. *\<5yos. 

i John viii. 
31, zv. g, 

10, 3 Tim. iii. 14, i John ir. 16, a John 9. k See i Tim. i. 14. 

I Thess. iv. 3, 4, 7, 3 Thesi. ii. 13, Heb. xii. 14, 1 Pet. i. s. 

III. I. 'nicrrosi 6 

I Rom. ri. 19, 32, i Cor. i. 30, 
m Ver. 9. a See i Tim L 15. 

^ &vOpwiri,vos D*, humanus d, m47, g {humanus t fidelis), Ambrst., Sedul. Simi- 
larly humanus is the rendering in chap. i. 15 in r, Aug., JulianpeUg apud Aug. 
Jerome comments adversely on this rendering (Ep. 24 ad Marcell.). 

Book, The Pope, 413), Nay, it is the only 
stepping-stone available to him. If St. 
Paul's argument had led him to empha- 
sise the man's part in the first transgres- 
sion, he might have said, " He shall be 
saved in his toil," his overcoming the 
obstacles of nature. 

So St. Paul, taking the common-sense 
view that childbearing, rather than public 
teaching or the direction of affairs, is 
woman's primary function, duty, privilege 
and dignity, reminds Timothy and his 
readers that there was another aspect 
of the story in Genesis besides that of 
woman's taking the initiative in trans- 
gression : the pains of childbirth were her 
sentence, yet in undergoing these she 
finds her salvation. She shall be saved 
in her childbearing (R.V.m. nearly). 
That is her normal and natural duty; 
and in the discharge of our normal and 
natural duties we all, men and women 
alike, as far as our individual efforts can 
contribute to it, "work out our own 

This explanation gives an adequate 
force to (r<i)6t]o-CTai, and preserves the 
natural and obvious meaning of tck- 
voyovia., and gives its force to ttj?. 8ia 
here has hardly an instrumental force 
(as Vulg. per filiorum generationem) ; it 
is rather the Sia of accompanying cir- 
cumstances, as in I Cor. iii. 15. 
o-uOt^o-crai . . . Sea inip6s. It remains 
to note three other explanations : — 

(i) She shall be " preserved in the 
great danger of child-birth ". 

(2) Women shall be saved if they bring 
up tneir children well, as if t€kvoyov£o = 
TCKvoTpo(|>(a. So Chrys. 

(3) She shall be saved by means of 
the Childbearing "of Mary, which gave 
to the world the Author of our Salvation " 
(Liddon). " The peculiar function of 
her sex (from its relation to her Saviour) 
shall be the medium of her salvation " 
(Ellicott). The R.V., saved through the 
childbearing, is possibly patient of this 
interpretation. No doubt it was the 

privilege of woman alone to be the 
medium of the Incarnation. This mira- 
culous fact justifies us perhaps in pressing 
the language of Gen. iii. 15, " thy seed," 
and in finding an allusion (though this is 
uncertain) in Gal. iv. 4, ycvo^icvov kK 
YvvaiK^9 ; but woman cannot be said to 
be saved by means of a historic privilege, 
even with the added qualification, " if 
they continue," etc. See Luke xi. 27, 
28, " Blessed is the womb that bare 
thee. . . . Yea, rather, blessed are they 
that hear the word of God," etc. 

lav (AcCvcixruv : This use of |x^v6iv with 
iv and an abstract noun is chiefly Johan- 
nine, as the reff. show. 

The subject of (leivwo-iv is usually 
taken to be yuvoiKss ; but inasmuch as 
St. Paul has been speaking of women 
in the marriage relation, it seems better 
to understand the plural of the woman 
and her husband. Compare i Cor. vii. 
36 where yafteiTuo-av refers to the irap- 
6^vos and her betrothed, whose existence 
is implied in the question of her marriage. 
If this view be accepted, then iricms, 
dYairt), and dYia(rp,iSs refer respectively 
to the duties of the man and wife to God, 
to society, and to each other : faith to- 
wards God, love to the community, and 
sanctification in their marital relations. 
See chap. iv. 12 where these three 
virtues are again combined. See ver. 
9 for (TCKftpocruvT). 

Chapter III. — Ver. i. -iriaris 4 
XiJyos : This refers to the exegesis of 
Genesis which has preceded. (So 
Chrys.). We may compare Barnabas, 
§ 9, where, after an allegorical explana- 
tion of Abraham's 318 servants, the 
writer exclaims, ovSeis Y'^*''''**'''€pov 
cftadcv dir' k^ov \6yov * dXXd oXSa Sti 
a|io£ {(TTc vfjiets- See note on i. 15. 

Vv. I i-13. The qualifications of the 
men who are to be ministers ; and first 
(a) of the episcopus (i b 7) secondly (b) 
of the deacons (8-13) with a parentheti- 
cal instruction respecting womep QhUTCh* 
workers (11). 



EiTts cTTKTKOirTJs "op^yeTai, "*KaXou ^Ipyou •^iriOufJiei. 2. 'Sci *ouv b Here only 

\/ /\ *hk Vive-i ^^ this 

TOK 6Tri<TKOiro>' ' di'ciriXTjimToi' eli'ai, uicts vucaiKos ai'Opa, i'T)(b(£- sense, 

Acts i. »o. 

c I Tim. vi. 

10, Heb. xi. i6. d i Tim. v. lo, as, vi. i8, Tit. ii. 7, 14, iii. 8, 14. e Here only in Pastorals. 

f Acts i. 21. g I Tim. v. 7, vi. 14, not LXX. h Ver. 12, Tit. i. 6. i i Tim. iii. u, Tit 

ii. 2, not LXX. 

ei Tis lirKrKoirrjs, k.t.X. : Having given 
elementary directions concerning the 
scope of public prayer, and the ministers 
thereof, St. Paul now takes up the 
matter of Church organisation. He 
begins with the office of the episcopus, 
or presbyter, because that is of the very 
essence of Church order. On the ques- 
tion as to the terms presbyter and 
episcopus, it is sufficient here to state 
my own conclusion, that they represent 
slightly different aspects of the same 
office, pastoral and official ; aspects which 
came naturally into prominence in the 
Jewish and Greek societies respectively 
which gave birth to the names. This 
seems the obvious conclusion from a 
comparison of Acts xx. 17, 28 ; Phil. i. i ; 
Tit. i. 5, 7 ; I Tim. iii. i, 2, 4, 5, v. 17 ; 
I Pet. V. I, 2 ; Clem. Rom. i Cor. 44 ; 
Polycarp, 5 ; Clem. Al. Quis Dives, § 42. 

6p4ytra\, , . . liri0v)t,cX : The R.V. 
(seeketh . . . desireth) indicates to the 
English reader that two distinct Greek 
words are used ; a fact which is con- 
cealed in the A.V. {desire . . . desireth). 
So Vulg. has desiderat in both places; 
but m*'', cupit . . . desiderat. 6piyf<r9ai, 
which occurs again in vi. 10 of reaching 
after money, is not used in any deprecia- 
tory sense. Field (in loc.) notes that 
"it has a special application to such 
objects as a man is commonly said to 
aspire to". The sanity of St. Paul's 
judgment is nowhere better seen than in 
his commendation of lawful ambition. 
A man may be actuated by a variety of 
motives ; yet it is not inevitable that 
those that are lower should impair the 
quality of the higher ; they need not in- 
terpenetrate each other. In any case, 
St. Paul credits the aspirant with the 
noblest ideal : He who aspires to be an 
episcopus desires to perform a good work, 
" Est opus ; negotium, non otium. Acts 
XV. 38, Phil. ii. 30 " (Bengell. 

KaXot) cp-yov : KaX&v epyov and KaXa 
?P7a (see reff.) are not peculiar to the 
Pastorals (Matt. v. 16, xxvi. 10= Mark 
xiv. 6 ; John x. 32, 33) ; but, as the refer- 
ences show, the phrase is found in 
them only of the Pauline Epistles. On 
the other hand, «p7o &Ya6a occurs six 
times in the Pastorals. See reff. on 
chap. ii. 10. We perceive in the use 
of it a qualification of the earlier de- 

preciation of the works of the Law, 
induced by a natural reaction from the 
abuse of that teaching. 

Ver. 2. With the qualifications of the 
episcopus as given here should be com- 
pared those of the deacons, ver. 8 sqq., 
and those of the episcopus in Tit. i. 
6 sqq. 

8ci ovv . . . avcir(XT))jiirTov cXvai. The 
lirio-Koirrj being essentially a good work, 
" bonum negotium bonis committendum" 
(Bengel). The episcopus is the persona 
of the Church. It is not enough for 
him to be not criminal ; he must be one 
against whom it is impossible to bring 
any charge of wrong doing such as could 
stand impartial examination. (See 
Theodoret, cited by Alf.). He must be 
without reproach (R.V.), irreprehensible 
(Trench), a term which involves a less 
exacting test than blameless (A.V.) ; the 
deacon (and the Cretan episcopus) must 
be a,viyK\i\To^, one against whom no 
charge has, in point offctct, been brought. 

No argument can be based on the 
singular rbv lir£o-Koirov, here or in Tit. 
i. 7, in favour either of the monarchical 
episcopate or as indications of the late 
date of the epistle ; it is used generically 
as r\ xf[po.t ch. v. 5 ; SovXov Kvp£ov, 2 
Tim. ii. 24. 

The better to ensure that the episcopus 
be without reproach, his leading charac- 
teristic must be self-control. In the first 
place — and this has special force in the 
East — he must be a man who has — 
natural or ^acquired — a high conception 
of the relations of the sexes : a married 
man, who, if his wife dies, does not 
marry again. Men whose position is less 
open to criticism may do this without 
discredit, but the episcopus must hold up 
a high ideal. Second marriage, which 
is mentioned as a familiar practice (Rom. 
vii. 2, 3), is expressly permitted to Chris- 
tian women in i Cor. vii. 39, and even 
recommended to, or rather enjoined upon, 
young widows in i Tim. v. 14. 

p,ias yuvaiK&s avSpa, of course, does 
not mean that the episcopus must be, or 
have been, married. What is here for- 
bidden is digamy under any circum- 
stances. This view is supported (a) by 
the general drift of the qualities required 
here in a bishop ; self-control or temper- 
ance, in his use of food and drink, pos- 




k Tit. i. 8, XiOK, ^adi^pova, ' Koo-jjuof, "({jiXo^ej'OK, ''8i,8aKTiK<5i', 3. fi^ •irdpon'Oi', 

1 See I Tim. fiTj ° irXi^KTTjc,^ dXXol '' ^iTieiKTJ, "^ afjiaxoc, ' d(|>iXdpYupo^, 4. toG ISiou 

m Tit. i. 8, 1 oiKou • KaXus ' irpoiordp.cKOf , riKva €■)^pvTa iv " uiroTaYfj fxerd irdoTjs 
Pet. iv. 9, 
not LXX, 

cf. Rom. xii. 13, Heb. xiii. 2. n s Tim. ii. 24, not LXX. o Tit. i. 7, not LXX. p Phil 

iv. 5, Tit. iii, 2, Jas. iii. 17, i Pet. ii. 18. q Tit. iii. 2, not LXX. r Heb. xiii. 5, not 

LXX. s Ver. 12, i Tim. v. 17. t Rom. xii. 8, i Thess. v. 12, i Tim. iii. la, v. 17, cf. Tit 

iii. 8, 14. u See i Tim. ii. 11. 

^ Ins. |iT| alo-xpoKcpSi] 37, very many others. 

sessions, gifts, temper ; (6) by the corre- 
sponding requirement in a church widow, 
V. 9, Ivbs avSpos vvvii, and (c) by the 
practice of the early church (Apostolic 
Constitutions, vi. 17; Apostolic Canons, 
16(17); Tertullian, ad Uxorem, i. 7: de 
Monogam. 12; de Exhort. Castitatis, cc. 
7, 13; Athenagoras, Legat. 33; Origen, 
in Lucam, xvii. p. 953, and the Canons of 
the councils, e.g., Neocaesarea (a.d. 314) 
can. 7. Quinisext. can. 3). 

On the other hand, it must be conceded 
that the patristic commentators on the 
passage (with the partial exception of 
Chrysostom) — Theodore Mops. Theo- 
doret, Theophylact, Oecumenius, Jerome 
— suppose that it is bigamy or polygamy 
that is here forbidden. But commenta- 
tors are prone to go too far in the eman- 
cipation of their judgments from the pre- 
judices or convictions of their contempo- 
raries. In some matters "the common 
sense of most" is a safer guide than the 
irresponsible conjectures of a conscien- 
tious student. 

vT]({>dXiov : temperate (R.V.). A.V. has 
vigilant here, following Chrys. ; snber in 
ver. II, and Tit. ii. 2, with vigilant in 
maigin. As this quality is required also 
in women officials, ver. 11, and in aged 
men, Tit. ii. 2, it has in all probability a 
reference to moderate use of wine, etc., 
and so would be equivalent to the p.T| 
oiv<i> iroXXm irpoae'xovTas of the diaconal 
qualifications, ver. 8. lYKpa-ri) is the 
corresponding term in Tit. i. 8. The adj. 
only occurs in these three places; but 
the verb vi^(|>civ six times ; in i Thess. 
V. 6, 8, and in i Peter iv. 7, it is used of 
the moderate use of strong drink. 

o-(o(f>pova: soberminded (R.V.), serious, 
earnest. See note on ii. 9. Vulg., pru- 
dentem here and in Tit. ii. 2, 5 ; but 
sobrium in Tit. i. 8. Perhaps$s 
(ver. 8) is the quality in deacons that 
corresponds to o-io({>pci)v and K<ia-p.ios in 
the episcopus. 

Kd<rp,iov : orderly (R.V.), perhaps dig- 
nified in the best sense of the term. 
ordinatum (m""). " Quod a<o({>puv est 
mtus, id Kiicr|xi.os est extra " (Bengel). 
The word is not found in Titus. 

(j>iXo|£vov: This virtue is required in 
the episcopus also in Tit. i. 8, but not of 
the deacons, below; of Christians gene- 
rally, I Peter iv. 9, i Tim. v. 10 {q.v.), 
Rom. xii. 13, Heb. vi. 10, xiii. 2, 3 John 5. 
See Hermas, Sim. ix. 27 (" Bishops, hos- 
pitable persons (<{>u\(55evoi), who gladly 
received into their houses at all times the 
servants of God without hypocrisy"). 
This duty, in episcopi, " was closely 
connected with the maintenance of ex- 
ternal relations," which was their special 
function. See Ramsay, Church in the 
Roman Empire, p. 368. 

SiSaKTiKov, as a moral quality would 
involve not merely the ability, but also 
the willingness, to teach, such as ought 
to characterise a servant of the Lord, 2 
Tim. ii. 24. The notion is expanded in 
Tit. i. 9. The deacon's relation to theo- 
logy is passive, ver. 9, 

Ver. 3. p,T) irdpoivov [no brawler, R.V., 
quarrelsome over wine, R.V.m.), and p.T| 
it\r\KTi\v are similarly coupled together 
in Tit. i. 7. -irapoiv^a means violent 
temper, not specially excited by over- 
indulgence in strong drink. In the time 
of Chrysostom and Theodoret manners 
had so far softened that it was felt 
necessary to explain the term ttXijktt)? 
figuratively, of " some who unseasonably 
smite the consciences of their brethren". 
But see 2 Cor. xi. 20. 

aXX* Itticikt), ap,axov : gentle, not con- 
tentious. This pair, again, of cognate 
adjectives is repeated in the general 
directions as to Christian conduct. Tit. 
iii. 2. Compare 2 Tim. ii. 24 (of the 
servant of the Lord). The corresponding 
episcopal virtues in Titus (i. 7) are p.T| 
avOdST], p,T] 6pYiXov. 

a<j>iXdpYvpov: In Titus the correspond- 
ing episcopal virtue is p.T| alo-xpoKcpSTJ. 
See note on ver. 8 and Tit. i. 7. 

Ver. 4. TOW I810V oiKov : Although 
tSios commonly retains in the N.T. the 
emphatic sense own, yet there can be no 
doubt that examples occur of the later 
weakened sense in which it means simply 
avTov, e.g., I Cor. vii. 2. We are not 
therefore justified in insisting on the em- 
phatic sense, own, here or in ver. 12. 




' OrCHKOnjTOS, 5. 61 8^ TIS TOO iSlOO oTkOU * irpOOTT) Kai OUK oIBcK, TTcis ^ See I 

* lKKXT)(rias ' 6eou * 4TrifieXT](r€Tai ; — 6. fit) ' Keo(t>uTOK, lya y,^ ' ru^ia- w Ver. 15', 

see note 
z Luke X. 34, 35. jr Here only, N.T. z i Tim. vi. 4, 2 Tim. iii. 4, not LXX. 

vi. I, Tit. ii. 5, 9. See J. H. Moulton 
Grammar, vol. i. p. 87 sqq., and Expositor, 
vi., iii. 277, and Deissmann, Bible Studies, 
trans, p. 123 sq. oIkos also means house- 
hold, I Cor. i. 16 and in the Pastorals. 

irpourra^Levov : irpottrrao-Oai. is per- 
haps used, here and in ver. 12, because 
it would naturally suggest church govern- 
ment. See reff., and Herraas, Vis. ii. 4 ; 
Justin Martyr, Apol. i. 65. A different 
use is found in Tit. iii. 8, 14, KaXuv 
cpyuv irpotirrao-dai, where see note. The 
domestic qualification, as we may call it, 
of the episcopus, also applies to deacons 
(ver. 12) and to the Cretan episcopus 
(Tit. i. 6). 

TtKva ?x«>»^» '• Alford cannot be right 
in supposing that riKva is emphatic. 1 1 
would be absurd to suppose that a man 
otherwise suited to the office of an epis- 
copus would be disqualified because of 
childlessness. The clause is parallel to 
|jiias YwaiKos avSpa : if the episcopus be 
a married man, he must not be a diga- 
mist ; if he have children, they must be 
Iv ■uiroTa'Y'n* 

«v vTroTayn — o'«p,v<5T»jTOS : with the 
strictest regard to propriety, see note on 
chap. ii. 2. Most commentators join 
these words closely together. The 
orcpviiTT); of the children in their extra- 
family relations being the outward and 
visible expression of the virora-Yij to 
which they are subject in domestic life. 
This is a more natural reference of 
<rcp.viiT. than to the general household 
arrangements, " ut absit luxuria " (Ben- 
gel). On the other hand, there is much 
force in Dean Bernard's remark that 
" aepvoTTjs is hardly a grace of child- 
hood." He connects i\ovra (Jtcra irao*. 
(rE|xv. This seems to be supported by 
ver. 8, SiaKovovs wvavrus 0-cpvovs and 
ver. II. Von Soden takes a similar view. 

Ver. 5. The argument is akin to that 
stated by our Lord, Luke xvi. 10. " He 
that is faithful in a very little is 
faithful also in much, etc." It is 
all the more cogent inasmuch as the 
Church is the house of God. The point 
is resumed in ver. 15. Alf. quotes a 
sentence from Plato in which both 
irpoo'Tfjvai and liri^cXcivOai are used of 
the government of a family ; nevertheless 
it is not fanciful to suppose that we have 
heie a deliberate interchange of terms, 

irpo«rrijvai being, as we have seen above, 
almost a technical term to express 
Church government ; while eiri|jt,cX. ex- 
presses the personal care and attention 
of a father for his family. See the use 
of the verb in Luke x. 34, 35, and of 
l-iri|JicX€ia in Acts xxvii. 3. 

lKKXT]cria 6cov is also found in ver. 15. 
lKKXT|<ria Tov Oeov occurs nine times in 
Paul (i Thess. ; 2 Thess. ; i Cor.; 2 
Cor. ; Gal.). The omission of the article 
before Qeov is characteristic of the Pas- 
torals The phrase is found also in St. 
Paul's apostolic charge to the episcopi 
of Ephesus in Acts xx. 28. 

Ver. 6. Verses 6 and 7 have nothing 
corresponding to them in Titus, or in 
the qualifications for the diaconate in 
this chapter. 

(iT| ved<^vTov K.T.X. : not a recent con- 
vert. vEo^vTos in O.T. is used literally 
of a young plant (Job xiv. 9 ; Ps. cxxvii. 
(cxxviii.) 3 ; cxliii. (cxliv.) 12; Isa. v. 7). 
For its use in secular literature, see 
Deissmann, Bible Studies, trans, p. 220. 

The significance of this qualification 
is apparent from its absence in the 
parallel passage in Titus. It is evident 
that Church organisation in Crete was 
in a very much less advanced state than 
in Ephesus. On the first introduction of 
the Gospel into a country, the apostles 
naturally " appointed their first fruits to 
be bishops and deacons " (Clem. Rom. i. 
§ 42 ; Acts xiv. 23), because no others 
were available; and men appointed in 
such circumstances would have no 
temptation to be puffed up any more 
than would the leaders of a forlorn hope. 
But as soon as there came to be a 
Christian community of such a size as 
to supply a considerable number of men 
from whom leaders could be selected, 
and in which office might be a natural 
object of ambition, the moral risk to 
vc3<^vT0i of early advancement would be 
a real danger. It is difficult to avoid at 
least a passing attack of rv^oKriSi ii 
you are promoted when young. 

Tv4>u9c^s : Tu<f>(ib> comes from tv^os, 
the primary meaning of which is smoke 
or vapour, then conceit or vanity which 
befogs a man's judgment in matters io 
which he himself is concerned. The 
R.V. always renders it puffed up. Vulg. 
here, in superbiam elatus. 





* I "Tira. vi Sets 6is Kpifio * c/xWoT] ToG '' Sla^6\ou. 7. 8ei 8c ^ Kal ' {jtaprupiai* 
31. . KttXV «X*i»' Atto "^ Toil' * e|(i)9€K, ifa (JIT) eis * oceiSio-jjioi' ' l|X7rEo-T) xal 

vi. II, I '''iraviSa 'tou '"'SiaSoXou. 8. AiaKoi/ous *■ <&<TaoT«s 'oreucoJs,^ 

Tim. iii.7, "^ 

2 Tim. ii. 

26. c Tit. i. 13 only, in Paul. d Mark iv. 11, i Cor. v. 12, 13, Col. iv. 5, i Thess. iv. 12. 

e Rom. XV. 3 (Ps. Ixix 10), Heb. x. 33, xi. a6, xiii. 13. f Rom. xi. 9 (Ps. Ixix. 23), i Tim. vL 9. 

g a Tim. ii. 26. h See i Tim. ii. 9. i Phil. iv. 8, i Tim. iii. 11, Tit. ii. 2. 

^ Ins. avrhv DKLP, d, f, m47, vg. 

KpCfta Ifkiria^ rov 8iap<iXov : KpCfjia is 

best taken in the sig. condemnation, as in 
Rom. iii. 8, Rev. xvii. i, and tot) 
Sia^oXov as objective genitive: "Lest 
he be involved in the condemnation which 
the devil incurred" or, the judgment 
pronounced on the devil, whose sin was, 
and is, pride. See Ecclus. x. 13, 2 Pet. 
ii. 4. So most commentators, especially 
the ancients. On the other hand, tov 
Sia^ciXov in ver. 7 is the subjective geni- 
tive, a snare laid by the devil ; and it 
is possible to render KpCfJia t. Sia^. the 
accusation brought by the devil, or o 
judgment effected by the devil, who 
may succeed in this case, though he 
failed in that of Job. This is however 
not a natural translation ; and it is to be 
observed that IjiiriirTeiv in reff. expresses 
a final doom, not a trial, such as that of 
temptation or probation. Dean Bernard 
takes TOW Sia^tiXov as subjective genitive 
in both verses ; and in the sense of slan- 
derer : the judgment passed by the 
slanderer; the snare prepared by the 

TOV Sia^ciXov : St. Paul uses this name 
for the Evil Spirit three times in the 
Pastorals and twice in Eph. (see reff.) ; 
h irovupos in Eph. vi. 16; 6 ZaTavds 
elsewhere eight times. SidPoXos, with- 
out the article, means slanderer in ver. 
II and reff. there. 

Ver. 7. T«iv ?|o>6€v : 01 e^w in Mark 
iv. II (c|<oOcv, W.H. m.) means those 
who came into contact — more or less 
close — with Jesus, but who were not His 
disciples. In the Pauline use (see reff.) 
it means the non-Christian Society in 
which the Church lives. St. Paul's atti 
tude towards them that are without is 
one of the many proofs of his sanity of 
judgment. On the one hand, they are 
emphatically outside the Church ; they 
have no locus standi in it, no right to 
interfere. On the other hand, they have 
the law of God written in their hearts ; 
and, up to a certain point, their moral 
instincts are sound and their moral 
judgments worthy of respect. In the 
passage before us, indeed, St. Paul may 

' Om. (TCfjivovS ^*, three cursives. 

be understood to imply that the opinion of 
" those without " might usefully balance 
or correct that of the Church. There is 
something blameworthy in a man's char- 
acter if the consensus of outside opinion 
be unfavourable to him ; no matter how 
much he may be admired and respected 
by his own party. The vox populi, then, 
is in some sort a vox Dei ; and one can- 
not safely assume, when we are in an- 
tagonism to it, that, because we are 
Christians, we are absolutely in the 
right and the world wholly in the wrong. 
Thus to defy public opinion in a superior 
spirit may not only bring discredit, 
&vci.8io-p,os, on oneself and on the 
Church, but also catch us in the devil's 
snare, viz., a supposition that because 
the world condemns a certain course of 
action, the action is therefore right and 
the world's verdict may be safely set 

We cannot infer with Alford and von 
Soden, from the absence of another pre- 
position before iraYiSa, that 6v£iSio-p.dv 
also depends on tov Sia^oXov. It would 
not be easy to explain satisfactorily &vei8. 
T, Sia^dXov. 

Ver. 8. 8iaK(!vov9 woravTus : s.c. 8ci 

For b)o-avT(i>9, see on ii. 9. 

o-cjAvovs : grave. " The word we 
want is one in which the sense of gravity 
and dignity, and of these as inviting 
reverence, is combined " (Trench). See 
note on ver. 2. The term is used in 
reference to women workers and old 

(IT) 8iX(i7ovs : Persons who are in an 
intermediate position, having in the 
same department chiefs and subordinates, 
are exposed to a temptation to speak of 
the same matter in different tones and 
manner, according as their interlocutor 
is above or below them. So Theodoret, 

iTCpa [klv TOVT<[> iTcpa 82 ^Kc(v<p 
Xc'yovtcs. Polycarp (§ 5) has the same 
phrase of deacons. Lightfoot there 
suggests the rendering tale-bearers. Per- 
haps insincere, Cf. SC-yXbMro-os, Prov 
xi. 13, etc. 

7 — II. 



(IT) ''SiXoyous, fi.T) ^oXva ^iroXXu '^ trpoaiy^ovra^, (at| ° oicrxpoKepSeTs, kHere only, 

/ « r» A cv / not l-<A.^ 

9. cx°'^**S TO ** fiuoTi^ptoi' TT]? irwrrcus ev ' Kaoapa ^ auveiOT]o-Ei. 10. 1 Tit. ii. 3, 
Kai ouTOi 0€ ' ooKifiaj^co-oojo-oi' TTpwTOi', eira oiaKocciTOKrai', afcy- v. 23. 

X 3f '^ he/ i /\tcri'\ ^ See I 

icXT|Toi ojTes. II. Y"*'**'''"'''* wtrauTus ae|xms, p.T) oiapo\ous, Tim. i. 4, 

n Tit. i, 7, 

not LXX, 

cf. Tit. i. II, 1 Pet. V. 2. o Ver. 16, i Cor. ii. 17, iv. i, Eph. vi. 19, Col. 1. 26, 27, ii. 2, iv. 3. 

p 2 Tim. i. 3. q : Cor. xi. 28, xvi. 3, 2 Cor. viii. 22, xiii. 5, i Thess. ii. 4. r Acts xix. 22, ver. 

13, I Pet. iv. II, not LXX. s 3 Mace. v. 31, i Cor. i. 8, Col. i. 22, Tit. i. 6, 7. t 2 Tim. iii. 

3, Tit. ii. 3. 

(jiT| oivcp iroXX^ vpoa-ixovTa^ : Less 
ambiguously expressed than v'(]<j>dXios in 
the case of the episcopus. A similar 
direction is given about women, Tit. ii. 
3, |i.T) oiv. TToX. 8£8ovX(i>p.€vas. 

p,T| alo-xpoKcpScis : This negative 
qualification is demanded of the epis- 
copus in Tit. i. 7. See reff. The ren- 
dering not greedy of filthy lucre is 
unnecessarily strong ; the ai<rxp6TT)s 
consists, not in the source whence the 
gain comes, but in the setting of gain 
before one as an object in entering the 
ministry. Not greedy of gain expresses 
the writer's meaning. The Kc'pSos be- 
comes alcrxptSv when a man makes the 
acquisition of it, rather than the glory 
of God, his prime object. On the other 
hand, the special work of deacons was 
Church finance ; and no doubt they had 
to support themselves by engaging in 
some secular occupation. They would 
thus be exposed to temptations to mis- 
appropriate Church funds, or to adopt 
questionable means of livelihood. If 
such circumstances were contemplated, 
not greedy of filthy lucre might be an 
allowable rendering. In Crete, the epis- 
copus would seem to have also performed 
the duties of the deacon; consequently 
he is required to be (xYJ alcrxpoKcpSi];. 

cxovTas : See note on chap. i. 19. 

Ver. g. rb p,vcrTT]piov ttjs irio-Tfws : 
the faith as revealed, is the same as t6 
TTJs ciicrepEias p.vaTiipi.ov, ver. 16. In the 
earlier epistles of St. Paul ri p,i«mipiov 
is a revealed secret, in particular, the 
purpose of God that Jew and Gentile 
should unite in one Church. The notion 
of a secret is still prominent, because the 
revelation of it was recent ; but just as 
revelation passes from a phase of usage 
in which the wonderful fact and manner 
of the disclosure is prominent to a stage 
in which the content or substance of 
what has been revealed is alone thought 
of, so it was with (Avimfpiov ; in the 
Pastorals it means the revelation given 
in Christ, the Christian creed in fact. 
See Dean Armitage Robinson, Ephesians, 
p. 234 sqq., and Lightfoot on Col. i. 26. 

It was not the function of a deacon to 
teach or preach ; it was sufficient if he 
were a firm believer, iv. KaO. <ruvci8. is 
connected with exovTas. Hort (Chris- 
tian Ecclesia, p. 201) approves of the 
expl. given by Weiss of to p.v<rr. r. 
irioT., " the secret constituted by their 
own inner faith ' . This seems unnatural. 

Ver. 10. 8oKip,aSco-6u(rav : Chrys. notes 
that this corresponds to the provision |i,t| 
ve<J<J>vTov in the case of the episcopus. 
This testing of fitness for the office of 
deacon may have been effected either by 
(a) a period of probationary training, — 
if the injunction in v. 22, " Lay hands 
hastily on no man," has reference to 
ordination, it is another way of saying 
8oKip.aSc<r0(i>a'av irpbtrov, — or by (b) the 
candidates producing what we should 
call testimonials of character. Such 
testimonials would attest that a man was 
av€-ytcXtjToSi i.e., that no specific charge 
of wrong-doing had been laid against 
him {unblamed is Hort's rendering). 
Until a man has proved his suitability 
for a post by administering it, this is the 
most that can be demanded. Each step 
subjects a man's character to a fresh 
strain. If he comes out of the trial un- 
scathed, he is entitled to be called dvciri- 
Xtj^.tttos. It is sign ficant that in Tit. i. 
6, 7, where the ordination of presbyters, 
or episcopi, with no antecedent diaconate 
is contemplated, this elementary and 
superficial test, that they should be 
av£YKXT)Toi, is mentioned. See note on 
ver. 2. In a normal condition of the 
Church, episcopi are chosen from those 
whose fitness is matter of common 

8iaKovciTb>(rav : For instances of this 
absolute technical sense of the word see 

Ver. II. Y^voiicas: Sc. 8c i clvai, not 
governed by exovras (ver. 9). These are 
the deaconesses, minis trae (Pliny, Ef. x. 
97) of whom Phoebe (Rom, xvi. i) is an 
undoubted example. They performed for 
the women of the early Church the same 
sort of ministrations that the deacons did 
for the men. In confirmation of this 




o Seever. t. * KT)^aXious, iriarAs iy TrSiviv. 12. SidKOKOi lorwaof ^ pas ^ yui^aiK^s 

Tit. i. 6. ' OkSpCS, WkKUC ' KaXwS * irpOlOTduCKOl Kal TWf iSlCJK OlKUk • I'Z, 01 
wSeever.4. .»„xe f n n \ «. 

X See vcr. y^P KoXws oiaKom^aamrcs ' pa6|jioi' lauTOis xaXoK * irepiiroiouKTai 

7 Here onlyi 

N.T. X Lake xnL 33, Acts xx. 08, x Mace Ti. 44, etc. 

view it should be noted that bxravrus is 
used in introducing a second or third 
member of a series. See on ii. 9. The 
series here is of Church officials. Again, 
the four qualifications which follow cor- 
respond, with appropriate variations, to 
the first four required in deacons, as re- 
gards demeanour, government of the 
tongue, use of wine, and trustworthiness. 
And further, this is a section dealing 
wholly with Church officials. These 
considerations exclude the view that 
women in general, as R.V. apparently, 
are spoken of. If the wives of the 
deacons or of the clergy were meant, as 
A.V. , it would be natural to have it un- 
ambiguously expressed, e.g., by the addi- 
tion of avTwv. 

Sia^iSXovs: slanderers. While men 
are more prone than women to be 
SiXoyoi, double-tongued, women are 
more prone than men to be slanderers. 
See Tit. ii. 3. The term is predicated in 
2 Tim. iii. 3, not of men, but as charac- 
terising the human race, avOpwiroi, in 
the last days. 

VT]i^aXiov« : see note on ver. 2. 

irio-Tcis Iv iroo-iv: It may be that, as 
Ell. suggests, this has a reference to the 
function of deaconesses as almoners, a 
possible inference from Constt. Apost. iii. 
16. But more probably it is a compre- 
hensive summary with a general refer- 
ence, like iraorav itCctiv lv8ct.KW|i.^vovs 
o,yafir\v. Tit. ii. 10. 

Ver. 12. As the episcopi were natur- 
ally drawn from the ranks of the deacons, 
the diaconate was a probation time, in 
the course of which the personal moral 
qualifications for the ittwrKtytrf^ might be 
acquired. See notes on w. 2 and 4. 

Ver. 13. From what has been noted 
above on St. Paul's teaching in relation 
to men's lawful aspirations, it will appear 
that it is not necessary to explain away 
the obvious meaning of this clause in 
accordance with a false spirituality which 
affects to depreciate the inducements 
of earthly rewards. The parable of the 
talents (Matt. xxv. 21), implies Christ's 
approval of reasonable ambition. Nor is 
this to be answered by a statement that 
" the recompense of reward " to which we 
are permitted to look is heavenly and 
spiritual. For the Christian, there can 

be no gulf fixed between the earthly and 
the heavenly; at least in the category 
of things which are open to him, as a 
Christian, to desire. The drawing of such 
distinctions is akin to the Manichaean dis- 
paragement of matter. 

The ^aOft^v KaX<iv which the man 
may acquire who has served well as a 
deacon is advancement to the presbyter- 
ate or episcopate. So Chrys. The R.V., 
gain to themselves a good standing, does 
not necessarily imply an advance in rank, 
but an assured position in the esteem of 
their fellow-Christians. We know that 
among the many who possess the same 
rank, whether in church or state, some 
from their character and abilities gain a 
standing that others do not. 

Some modern commentators follow 
Theodoret in giving a purely spiritual 
force to Pa6p,(iv, i.e., iv tw fte'XXovri ^lip, 
"a good standing place, viz., at the 
Great Day" (Alf.) ; " the step or degree 
which a faithful discharge of the SiaKovia 
would gain in the eyes of God" (Ell.). 
Alf. lays emphasis on the aor. part, as 
viewing the SiaKovia from the stand- 
point of the Day of Judgment; but it is 
equally suitable if the standpoint be that 
of the day on which they receive their 
advancement. There is more force in 
his emphasis on the present, irepiiroiov- 
vTai, they are acquiring. This interpre- 
tation does not seem to be in harmony 
with the context. The qualifications 
that are noted in ver. 12 have relation 
to the effectual administration of the 
Church on earth. It would be harsh to 
affirm that one who was a digamist and 
who could not keep his household in 
order would suffer for it in the Day of 
Judgment, however unsuitable he might 
be for office in the church. 

iroXXT|v irappT)o-(av : a Pauline phrase. 
See reff. In these passages irapp. means 
confidence, without reference to speech. 

Although Ell. renders the clause 
"great boldness in the faith that is in 
Christ Jesus," he explains the boldness 
as resting on faith in Christ Jesus, and 
as descriptive of the believer's attitude 
in regard to, and at, the Day of Judg- 
ment. See I John iv. 17. If we reject 
his explanation of ^aOpdv, it would be 
natural to interpret irapp., k.t.X., of a 




itai ' iroXX^i' ' iTappi]<riav iv ** iriorei * tQ ** ct* •* Xpioru * *lT]<rou. 14. « a Cor. iiL 

Taurd aoi YP(i<^(>>, cX-iri^uf ^XdciK irp^s ae ^ ' iv "rdxc^^ 15- ^Ak 8c Philem.8 

PpaSuKW, lya eiS^gs irws Set ^ iy oTkw QeoS * dcaorpe^cadai, "qns 15, c/. a 

^oTii' 'lKKXT]7ia '6eou ^wrros, otuXos koI 'ISpaiujia riis dXi]6€ias. c Rom. xvf 

30, Luke 
. .. .. xviii. 8, 

Acts xu. f, XXII. 18, XXV. 4, Rev. i. i, xxji. 6. da Pet iii. 9 only, N.T. e 3 Cor. i. la 

Eph. ii. 3, Heb. x. 33, xiii. 18, i Pet. i. 17, a Pet. iL 18. f See ver. 5. g Here only, not LXX 
tf. I Cor. vii. 37, XV. 58, Col. i. 83. 

^ Om. irp6s o-i FgrGgr, 67**, two others, arm ; f, g ins. after cito. 
*iv Toxei ACD'P, 17, two others; xdxiov ^DcFQKL. 
* Ins. <r€ D*, d, f, vg., arm. 

confident public expression of the faith, 
such as would belong to an experienced 
Christian who had gained a good 
standing, and had, in consequence, no 
temptation to be 81X070$. Von Soden 
connects iv irCorci with ircpiiroiovvrai, 
cf. 2 Tim. i. 13. 

Vv. 14-16. These general directions 
will serve you as a guide in the adminis- 
tration of the Church until you see me. 
Your charge is one of transcendent im- 
portance. The Church is no human in- 
stitution : it is the household of God, and 
also the means whereby the power of the 
Incarnation is available for man's use. 

Ver. 14. This verse makes it clear that 
Timothy's position was a temporary one ; 
he was acting as St. Paul's representative 
at Ephesus to ' ' put them in remembrance 
of his ways which be in Christ " (i Cor. 
iv. 17). 

Tovra has a primary reference to the 
preceding directions regarding public 
prayers and Church officers; but it na- 
turally includes the following supple- 
mentary remarks. Forthisuseof Ypd<|><i>, 
in place of the epistolary aorist, see es- 
pecially 2 Cor. xiii. 10, also i Cor. xiv. 
37, 2 Cor. i. 13, Gal. i. 20. 

IXiri^uv . . . PpaSvvc* is parenthetical; 
and expresses at once an excuse for the 
brevity and incompleteness, from one 
point of view, of the directions, and also 
an expectation that they are sufficient to 
serve their temporary purpose. 

iv rdxci': raxiov, which is read by 
Tisch., is, according to Blass (Grammar, 
pp. 33, 141, 142), an instance of the in- 
tensive or elativt use of the comparative : 
cf. ^iXriov 2 Tim. i. 18. This view is 
rejected by Winer-Moulton (Grammar, 
p. 304) and Ellicott ; but their explana- 
tions are far-fetched : ' ' More quickly, 
sooner, than thou wilt need these in- 
structions," "sooner than I anticipate". 
See also J. H. Moulton, Grammar, vol. i. 
PP- 78, 79. 236. 

Ver. 15. tva elS'gs . . . ava<rrp4^t<r9ai : 

It is a matter of indifference whether we 
render how men ought to behave them- 
selves (R.V.), or how thou oughtest to 
behave thyself (A.V. ; R.V. m.). It was 
Timothy's duty to carry out the apostle's 
directions, directions relating to the 
life, ava(rTpo<{>i], of the Church. His 
ava(rTpo<{>i] would necessarily react on 
that of the Church. See the Western in- 
terpolation in apparat. crit. 

oiKC)) 9cov : the household, perhaps, 
rather than the house, of God. In view 
of the prevailing paucity of articles in 
these Epistles, one cannot lay stress on 
the absence of ry before oiKcp, so as to 
render, a house of God such as is the 
Church, etc. oIkos tov 6cov is al- 
ways found elsewhere. The Church is 
God's oIkos, Heb. iii. 6 ; God's Karoi- 
Ki)Tt]piov, Eph. ii. 22 ; a vaos ayios, 
Eph. ii. 21 ; vais Ocov, i Cor. iii. 16, 2 
Cor. vi. 16 ; a ^.67(1X1) oUCa, of which 
God is the 8«<nrdT»js, 2 Tim. ii. 20; an 
oIkos irvcvfxaTiKds, i Pet. ii. 5. 

The body oi the Church, rh (rwfjia 
vftuv, is a vais aYiov irv€i5p,aTos (i Cor. 
vi. 19) ; and the human body of Jesus 
was a vads (John ii. 21) ; but it is not in 
accordance with Scriptural language so 
to describe the body of any individual 

oiKy . . . rJTis : " The noun which 
forms the predicate in a relative sen- 
tence, annexed for the purpose of expla- 
nation (8s . . . ktrrLv), sometimes gives 
its own gender and number to the rela- 
tive, by a kind of attraction" (Winer- 
Moulton, Grammar, p. 206). 

Ocov CwvTos : A constant phrase, oc- 
curring again iv. 10. 

(TTvXos Kal jSpa((i>)ia k.t.X. : The view 
of Gregory Nyssen and Greg. Naz. that 
CTvXos here refers to Timothy does not 
need refutation, although an early refer- 
ence to this passage in the Letter of the 
Churches of Lyons and Vienne (Eus. 




1 6. Kal ^ ofxoXoyoofieVws H-^Y'* ^OTi*' to ttjs ' cuaePcia? ^ fiuori^pioi' • 

b Here only, 

N.T., 4 « , , ,- , 

Mace. (3). OS ^ t^avepoidt] ev capKi, 
i See I 

Tim. ii. 2. 
k See note. 1 John i. 31. Heb. ix. 26, i Pet. j. 20, i John i. 2, iii. 5, 8. m Ps. 1. (li.) 6, Matt. 

xi. 19 = Luke vii. 35, Luke vii. ag. n Luke xxiv. 34, Acts ix. 17, xiii. 31, xxvi. 16, i Cor. xv. 5, 

6, 7, 8, Heb. ix. 28. 

^ So ^*cA*C*FgrGKr, 17, 73, 181, sah., boh., syrhcl-mg, go.,, Epiph., TheoA 
Mops., Cyr. Al. Liberatus Diaconus (circ. 560 a.d.), Breviarium causae Nest, et 
Eutych., 19, says, " Hoc tempore Macedonius Constantinopolitanus episcopus, ab 
imperatore Anastasio dicitur expulsus, tanquam evangelia falsasset, & maxime 
illud apostoli dictum: qui apparuit in came, justificatus est in spiritu. Hunc enim 
immutasse, ubi habet 85^ id est, qui, monosyllabum graecum, littera mutata O in 
© vertisse, & fecisse, 0C, id est deus, ut esset Deus apparuit per carnem''^ ; a 
relative is found in syrpesh, syrhcl-txt, arm., all Latin Fathers ; t D*, quod, d, f, g, 
vg. ; ec6s ^e(xii/)CcDcKLP, Chrys., Thdrt., Euthalius, Damasc, Thphl., Oec, 
Didymus, Greg. Nyss. 

H. E. V. i) applies cttuXos Kai I8patwp,a 

to the martyr Attalus. otvXos has of 
course a personal reference in Gal. ii. 9 ; 
cf. also Rev. iii. 12; but it is childish to 
suppose that metaphors have a constant 
value in the Bible. Holtzmann's sug- 
gestion that (TTvXos is in apposition to 
flcov is rightly rejected by von Soden. 

The clause is, of course, in apposition 
to IkkXtio-Cu which is by a kindred meta- 
phor called in 2 Tim. ii. 19 6 o-repeos 
0cp^Xio9 Tov 0COV. This latter passage 
suggests that we should here render 
cSpa(b>p.a ground or basis rather than 
stay (R.V. m.). ISpaios is rendered 
steadfast elsewhere. See reflF. and es- 
pecially Col. i. 23 (T€0ep,€XlCi)p£VOl Kol 

cSpaioi), ctr. Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 
p. 174. 

The truth, i\ aXii6«ia, has, as has been 
already stated, a technical Christian con- 
notation in the Pastorals, and has not a 
wider reference than the Christian reve- 
lation, which is the truth in so far as 
it has been revealed. The Church, of 
the old covenant or of the new, is the 
divinely constituted human Society by 
which the support and maintenance in 
the world of revealed truth is conditioned. 
Truth if revealed to isolated individuals, 
no matter how numerous, would be dis- 
sipated in the world. But the Divine 
Society, in which it is given an objective 
existence, at once compels the world to 
take knowledge of it, and assures those 
who receive the revelation that it is in- 
dependent of, and external to, themselves, 
and not a mere fancy of their own. 

Bengel puts a full stop at ^uvtos and 
removes it after aXT)96ias, making rh . . . 
p,vo-TT]piov the subject of the sentence, 
and cTTvXos . . . ^iyo. the predicate, 
The mystery, etc., is the pillar, etc., 
and confessedly great," fi^a being used 

as in I Cor. ix. 11, 2 Cor. xi. 15, the whole 
expression being equivalent to itio-tos 6 
Xdyos Kai irao-Tjs diroSox'ns a^ios. He 
quotes from Rabbi Levi Barcelonita and 
Maimonides parallel expressions con- 
cerning precepts of the Law, "funda- 
tnentum magnum et columna valida 
legis," and a striking phrase from Iren- 
aeus, Haer. iii. 11, 8, Columna autem 
et firmamentum ecclesiae est evangelium, 
CTvXos hk Kal (TTi^piYP'O' iKicXTjarias to 

Ver. 16. The connexion of thought 
lies in a feeling that the lofty terms in 
which the Church has been just spoken 
of may demand a justification. The 
truth of which the Church is o-tvXos Kal 
I8pa((i>p.a is not a light thing nor an in- 
substantial fabric ; the truth is, more 
expressly, rb ttjs evio-epeias p,v(rTi]piov, 
the revelation to man of practical reli- 
gion ; and, beyond yea or nay, this 
truth, this revelation, is great. Whether 
you believe it or not, you cannot deny 
that the claims of Christianity are 

^iya.% is rare in Paul : (Rom. ix. 2 ; i 
Cor. ix. II, xvi. 9 ; 2 Cor. xi. 15 ; Eph. v. 
32 ; I Tim. vi. 6 ; 2 Tim. ii. 20 ; Tit. ii. 13). 
The nearest parallel to the present pas- 
sage is Eph. V. 32, T^ p.v<rTi]piov towto 
p^ya itrrLv. See note on ver. g. On 
cwcPeia, see chap. ii. 2. 

If we assume that 8s is the right read- 
ing, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion 
that what follows is a quotation by St. 
Paul from a primitive creed or summary 
of the chief facts to be believed about 
Jesus Christ. And one is tempted to 
conjecture that another fragment of the 
same summary is quoted in i Pet. iii. 18, 
OavaTcoOels piv capKl £(ooiroiT]Oels Si 
TTvcvpaTi. os> then, does not form part of 
the quotation at all ; it is simply intro- 

15— 16. 



" cKTjpuxOi] " iv " iQv€CTiy, ^TTicrreu^T] iv K<Sap.(>>, ' di'eXrifJi4>9T] ^ ei* o Gal. it. 2, 

cf. 2 Cor. 
, i. 19, Col. 

«. 83. p Mark xvi. 19, Acts i. 3, 11, 2a. q Luke ix. 31, i Cor. xr. 43, Phil. iv. ig, Col. iii. 4, 

ductory, and relative to the subject, 
Jesus Christ, whose personality was, in 
some terms, expressed in an antecedent 
sentence which St. Paul has not quoted. 

As the passage stands, there are three 
pairs of antithetic thoughts : (i) (a) the 
flesh and (6) the spirit of Christ, (2) (a) 
angels and (b) Gentiles — the two ex- 
tremes of the rational creation, (3) (a) 
the world and (b) glory. In another 
point of view, there is a connexion be- 
tween 2 o and 3 b, and between 2 b and 
3 a. Again, we may say that we have 
here set forth (i) the Incarnation in 
itself, (2) its manifestation, (3) its conse- 
quence or result, as affecting man and 

The antithesis between the crdpl and 
irvevfta of Christ is drawn, in addition to 
I Pet. iii. 18, also in Rom. i. 3, 4. tov 
yevo\i.4vov ck o-TrcpixaTos AavelS Kara 
crapKa, tov opiaOe'vTos iilov 6eov iv 
8vvdp,ct. Kara irvevfjia o.YibKT'uv'qs. We 
cannot leave out of account in discussing 
these passages the parallel in i Pet. iv. 
6, tls TovTO yap Kai vcKpoIs €xiT]YY*X'<^^'n 
iva Kpi6(i>(ri (lev Kara avOpuirovs aapKi 
Jwai 8J Kara 6e6v irv€V|xaTU. The 
irvcvfiia of Christ, as man, in these pas- 
sages means His human spirit, the natur- 
ally permanent spiritual part of a human 
personality. See also i Cor. v. 5. 

I(^avcpu6-r) iv o-apKi : He who had 
been from all eternity " in the form of 
God " became cognisable by the limited 
senses of human beings, Iv 6|xoi«SfJiaTL 
o-apKos afiapTias (Rom. viii. 3), became 
manifest in the flesh, o-ap| iyivtro (John 
i. 14). <|>avcpo{)v is used in connexion 
with Christ in four associations in the 
N.T. :— 

(i) as here, of the objective fact of the 
Incarnation: John i. 31 (?), Heb. ix. 26, 
I Pet. i. 20, I John i. 2 (bis), iii. 5, 8. 

(2) of the revelation involved in the 
Incarnation : Rom. xvi. 26, Col. i. 26, iv. 
4, 2 Tim. i. 10, Tit. i. 3. N.B. in Rom. 
and Col. the verb is used of a (ivo-nipiov. 

(3) of the post-resurrection appear- 
ances of Christ, which were, in a sense, 
repetitions of the marvel of the Incarna- 
tion, as being manifestations of the 
unseen : Mark xvi. 12, 14, John xxi. i 
(bis), 14. 

(4) of the Second Coming, which will 
be, as far as man can tell, His final 
manifestation : Col. iii. 4, i Pet. v. 4, i 
John ii. 28, iii. 2. 

ISiKaiwOt) Iv irvc-ujiaTi : proved or 
Pronounced to be righteous in His higher 
nature. The best parallel to this use of 
SiKaiovv is Ps. 1. (li.) 6, oirws av SiKaiw- 
frjjs iv Tois XiJ-yois o-ov, also Matt. xi. 19 
= Luke vii. 35. We are not entitled to 
assume that the Iv has the same force 
before irvevjiaTi that it has before o-apKi; 
the repetition of the preposition is due 
to a felt need of rhythmic effect. If we 
are asked, When did this 8iKaiwo-is take 
place ? we reply that it was on a review 
of the whole of the Incarnate Life. The 
heavenly voice, Iv o-ol cv8dKT]ara, heard 
by human ears at the Baptism and at the 
Transfiguration, might have been heard 
at any moment during the course of those 
" sinless years ". He was emphatically 
6 8iKaios (Acts iii. 14, xxii. 14 ; i John 
ii. I. See also Matt. iii. 15 ; John xvi. 
10.) It is enough to mention without 
discussion the opinions that irvtvjiari 
refers (a) to the Holy Spirit, or (i>) to 
the Divine Personality of Christ. 

St^9i\ ayy^Xois : EUicott points out 
that in these three pairs of clauses, the 
first member of each group points to 
earthly relations, the second to heavenly. 
So that these words S>^Qi\ oyyAois 
refer to the fact that the Incarnation 
was " a spectacle to angels " as well as 
" to men " ; or rather, as Dean Bernard 
notes {Comm. in loc), w<t>9T) and cKTjpvx^'n 
mark the difference in the communica- 
tion of the Christian Revelation to 
angels — the rational creatures nearest to 
God — and to the Gentiles — farthest from 
God. " The revelation to Gentiles is 
mediate, by preaching . . . ; the revela- 
tion to the higher orders of created 
intelligences is immediate, by vision." 
It was as much a source of wonderment 
to the latter as to the former. See i 
Pet. i. 12. The angels who greeted the 
Birth (Luke ii. 13), who ministered at 
the temptations (Matt. iv. 11, Mark i. 
13), strengthened Him in His agony 
(Luke xxii. 43), proclaimed His Resur- 
rection and stood by at the Ascension, 
are only glimpses to us of " a cloud of 
witnesses " of whose presence Jesus was 
always conscious (Matt. xxvi. 53). 

S)^9ii\ is usually used of the post- 
resurrection appearances of Christ to 
men. See reff. 

lirio-TevOrj Iv k6<t^^ : This was in 
itself a miracle. See 2 Thess. i. 10, 
John xvii. 21. 




•Here only, "*8o|tj. IV. I. Tb 8c nccufia 'ptjTus X^yci OTi iv ''uoT^pois Kaipols 

not Ldj^A,» # * / J 

b Matt. XXi. * dTTOOTTlCTOKTai TIKCS TT]S Jn(TT£U%, TTpOO'eYOl'TCS TTWCUIiaat * TfXdl'OlS '■ 

31 Otliy. f rK I 

N.T. Kal SiSao-KaXiais SaiuoKiuK 2. ^f ' uiroKpio-ei ' (IfEuSoXovuf, ^ KEKau- 

c Luke viii. 
13,2 Tim. 

ii. 19, Heb. iii. 12. d See i Tim. i. 4. e Here only as adj., cf. 2 John 7, Eph. iv. 141 

2 Thess. ii. 11. f 2 Mace. vi. 25, Gal. ii. 13, Matt, xxiii. 28, Mark xii. 15, Luke xii. i, i Pet. ii. i- 

g Here only, not LXX. h Here only, not LXX. 

1 ir\dvT)« P, 31, 37, twenty-four others, vg. (erroris), go., arm. 

Winer-Moulton notes (Grammar, p. 
326) that iiria-TfvQy] cannot be referred 
to TTi.trrtveiv Xy but presupposes the 
phrase iritrT. X6v. Cf. 2 Thess. i. 10. 

&ve\i]fi,<(>d'(] kv 86|i) : This is the verb 
used of the Ascension. See reff. Cf. 
avdXT)fj.\|;is Luke ix. 51. 

iv 8o|x) : ^v has, in this case, a preg- 
nant sense, els SiJ^av ical Iottiv kv 8o|x) 
(Ell.). See also reff., in which iv 86|xi 
is a personal attribute of the glory that 
surrounds and transfigures a glorified 
spiritual person ; but in this place 8d|a 
means the place or state of glory ; cf. 
Luke xxiv. 26, cSci . . . t^v Xpicrdv 
. . . cl(rcX6eIv els tt]v 8d|av avTov. 

Chapter IV. — Vv. 1-5. Over against 
the future triumph of the truth, assured 
to us by the finished work of Christ, we 
must set the opposition, grievous at pre- 
sent, of the Spirit of error. His attacks 
have been foreseen by the Spirit of holi- 
ness. They are just now expressed in a 
false spirituality which condemns God's 
good creatures of marriage and food. 

Ver. I. rh ik wcvfjia : The Apostle 
here passes to another theme, the mani- 
festation of religion in daily life. The 
connexion between this section and the 
last is as indicated above. There is a 
slightly adversative force in the connect- 
ing 8^. 

The Spirit is the Holy Spirit Who 
speaks through the prophets of the New 
Dispensation, of whom St. Paul was 
one. Here, if the following prophetical 
utterance be his own, he speaks as if 
Paul under the prophetic influence had 
an activity independent of Paul the 

Iv xicTT^pois Kaipots : The latter times, 
of course, may be said to come before the 
last days, ccrxarai. '^p.epai (Isa. ii. 2, 
►Acts ii. 17, Jas. v. 3, 2 Pet. iii. 3; Kaip^s 
eo^aros, i Pet. i.5 ; earx- xpdvos, Jude 18). 

But a comparison with '2 Tim. iii. i, 
a passage very similar in tone to this, 
favours the opinion that the terms were 
not so distinguished by the writers of 
the N.T. In this sort of prophetical 
warning or denunciation, we are not in- 

tended to take the future tense too 
strictly. Although the prophet intends 
to utter a warning concerning the future, 
yet we know that what he declares will 
be hereafter he believes to be already 
in active operation. It is a convention 
of prophetical utterance to denounce 
sins and sinners of one's own time (rives) 
under the form of a predictive warning. 
Cf. 2 Tim. iv. 3, carai -y^p icaipos, k.t.X. 
It gives an additional impressiveness to 
the arraignment, to state that the guilty 
persons are partners in the great apos- 
tacy, the culmination of the world's 
revolt from God. 

Tives is intentionally vague. See note 
on I Tim. i. 3. It is not used, as in 
Rom. iii. 3, of an indefinite number. 

■irvev|xa(ri. irXdvois : As the Church is 
guided aright by the Spirit of truth. He 
is opposed in His beneficent ministra- 
tions by the Spirit of error, to irvevfxa ttjs 
irXdvT)s (i John iv. 6), who is to irvcvfia 
Tov K6(r^ov, whose agents work through 
individuals, the "many false prophets 
who have gone out into the world" (i 
John iv. i). 

8i.8ao'KaX(ais 8aip,ov{(i)v must be, in 
this context, doctrines taught by de- 
mons, a (ro<|>ia 8ai,|xoviw8T)S (Jas. iii. 
15). See Tert. de Praescr. Haeret. 7. 
The phrase does not here mean doc- 
trines about demons, demonology. Still 
less are heresiarchs here called demons. 
This is the only occurrence of 8ai|xdviov 
in the Pastorals. In Acts xvii. 18 the 
word has its neutral classical meaning, 
" a divine being," see also ver. 22 ; but 
elsewhere in the N.T. it has the LXX 
reference to evil spirits. For 8i8a(rK. 
see note on chap. i. 10. 

Ver. 2. Iv viroKpio-ei xj/€-u8oX<5ywv : The 
three genitives \|>ev8o\. KeKavcrr. kwX. 
are coordinate, and refer to the human 
agents of the seducing spirits and demons. 
Iv viroKpto-ei, depends on irvevp,ao-t and 
SiSao-KaXCais. The spirits work, and the 
teachings are exhibited, in the hypocrisy 
of them that speak lies ; and this hypo- 
crisy finds detailed expression in regula- 
tions suggested by a false asceticism. 




<m\pia(Tiiivoiv t^v ISiaf (r\iv€lhr\<Tiv, 3. kuXuoctuk yaiielv, ' i,TTi^e(TQai i Acts xv. 

^ ^puikdrav &, 6 Qeos eKTurev eis ^ |xeTdXT]fA\|/ic jxercl evxapiorias Tois Thess. i 

3_, 1 Pet. 

k Rom. xiv. 15, 20, i Cor. viii. 8, 13, Heb. xiii. 9. 

Although the i|r6vSo\<iYoi are included 
in the tlvcs . . . vpoirixovTei, yet there 
is a large class of persons who are merely 
deceived ; who are not actively deceiving 
others, and who have not taken the initi- 
ative in deceit. These latter are the 
t|/cv8oXoYoi. For this reason it is better 
to connect Iv viroKpio-» with irpo<r€xovT€s 
(Ell., von Soden) rather than with 
airoo-njo-ovTttt (Bengel, Alf.), though no 
doubt both verbs refer to the same class. 

cv uiroKpio-ci of course is not adverbial 
as A. v., speaking lies in hypocrisy. This 
could only be justified if vlfcvSoXdYuv 
referred to 8aip.ovi(dv. The absence of 
an article before viroKptcrci need cause 
no astonishment. 

tj/cvSoX^Yuv : This word expresses per- 
haps more than \|rcv(rTT)s the notion of 
definite false statements. A man might 
be on some occasions and on special 
points a tlrevSoXtSyos, a speaker of that 
which is not true, and yet not deserve to 
be classed as a »|/€vaTTjs, a liar. 

KCKavoTTjpioo-ficvuv Tr|v ISiav <rvyeL- 
St)o-tv : These speakers of falsehood are 
radically unsound. They are in worse 
case than the unsophisticated heathen 
whose conscience bears witness with the 
law of God (Rom. ii. 15). The con- 
science of these men is perverted. 
KCKavcTT. may mean that they are past 
feeling, a-]rT|XYT)K($TCs (Eph. iv. 19), that 
their conscience is callous from constant 
violation, as skin grows hard from sear- 
ing (A. v., R.V. m., so Theodoret); or it 
may mean that these men bore branded 
on thetr conscience the ownership marks 
of the Spirit of evil, the devil's seal (ctr. 
2 Tim. ii. 19), so perhaps R.V. ; as St. 
Paul " bore branded on his body the 
marks of Jesus" (Gal. vi. 17), as " Christ's 
bondservant" (i Cor. vii. 22). (So 
Theophylact). Either of these interpre- 
tations is more attractive than that of 
Bengel, followed by Alford, who takes it 
to mean that the marks of crime are 
burnt into them, so that they are self- 
condemned. See Tit. i. 15, iii. 11. 

There is no special force in ISiav (see 
on chap. iii. 4), as though a course of 
deceiving others should, by a righteous 
judgment, result in a loss to themselves 
of moral sensitiveness. 

Ver. 3. K(i>Xv(ivTwv y'^K''^*' • Spurious 
asceticism, in this and other departments 
of life, characterised the Essenes (Joseph. 

11. II. 
1 Here only, not LXX. 

Bell. Jud. ii. 8, 2) and the Therapeutae 
(Philo Vit. Contempi. § 4), and all the 
other false spiritualists of the East; so 
that this feature does not supply a safe 
ground for fixing the date of the epistle. 
At the same time, it is not likely that this 
particular heresy was present to St. Paul's 
mind when he was writing i Cor. vii. 
25-40; see especially 38, & |it| ya^i%iov 
Kpci<rcrov iroit]o'ci ; but similar views are 
condemned in Col., see especially Col. ii. 
16, 21, 22. See also Heb. xiii., iv. St. 
Paul had come to realise how tyrannous 
the weak brother could be ; and he had 
become less tolerant of him. 

airexco'Sak : The positive kcXcvcSvtuv, 
commanding, must be supplied from the 
negative kcXcvovtcdv (iij, commanding not 

= Ku\v6vTlilV, 

d. i. g. Vulg. preserve the awkward- 
ness of the Greek, prohibentinm nubere, 
abstinere a cibis. But Faustus read 
abstinentes, and Origen int. et abstinentes 
se a cibis. Epiphanius inserts irapaY' 
YcXXovo'iv after ^puji., and Isidore in- 
serts Kttl KcXevovTuv before airex., which 
was also suggested by Bentley. Theo- 
phylact inserts similarly o-vp,povXev6vTci>v. 
Hort conjectures that airix^trBai is a 
primitive corruption for i\ airTco-0ai or 
Kal ytvurOai. He maintains that " no 
Greek usage will justify or explain this 
combination of two infinitives, adverse 
to each other in the tenor of their sense, 
under the one verb kuXvovtuv ; and their 
juxtaposition without a conjunction in a 
sentence of this kind is at least strange". 
Blass, however (Grammar, p. 291) alleges 
as a parallel kwXvo-ci, IvcpYciv Kal [sc. 
iroiTJo-€i] £t])jiiovv from Lucian, Charon, 
§ 2. Another instance of zeugma, though 
not so startling as this, is in ii. 12, ovk 
liriTpc'irw . . . elvoi iv rjcrvxCqi. See 
also I Cor. x. 24, xiv. 34 (T.R.). For 
aircxcaOai, as used in this connexion, see 

a 6 Otis tKTiaev, k.t.X. : It has been 
asked why St. Paul does not justify by 
specific reasons the use of marriage, as 
he does the use of food. The answer 
seems to be that the same general argu- 
ment applies to both. The final cause 
of both is the same, i.e., to keep the race 
alive; and man is not eniitled to place 
restrictions on the use of either, otber 
than those which can be shown to be in 
accordance with God's law. 




mC/.iTim. TTioTOis nai " cTreyi'WKcStn ™ri]V "dXi]06iai'. 4. on irSc ° ktic/jlo 

n jas. i. 18. QeoO KaXoi', Kal ouSef ° diroPXtiTOi' aerd euYapicrTias ^ Xau,|3ai'6u,ei'0>' • 

Rev. V. 13 

viii. 9. ' 5. dyidi^eTai ydp 8id Xoyou ©eoG Kal ** en'Eu^eus. 6. TaOra 
o Here only, 

not LXX. 
p Mark xv. 33, John xiii. 30, six. 30, Acts ix. 19, Rev, xxiL ij, q See i Tim. ii. i. 

|xcTaXT)fi\|>iv |iCTa ciixapio'T^as is one 
complex conception. This expresses the 
ideal use, truly dignified and human, of 
food. See Rom. xiv. 6, 6 i<rdl<av Kvpitf 
iirOUi, €vxapiaT«t yap r<f Oe^ ; and i Cor. 
X. 30, cl iy(i> x<ipiTU (*€Tex«» Ti p\ao'<^T]- 
(lovfiiai viircp ov iyit evxapicrru ; St. 
Paul of course does not mean that 
believers only are intended by God to 
partake of food. His argument is an 
d fortiori one. " Those that believe," 
etc., are certainly included in God's in- 
tention. He who makes His sun to rise 
on the evil is certainly well pleased to 
make it rise on the good. 

Again, St. Paul does not merely desire 
to vindicate the use of some of God's 
creatures for them that believe, but the 
use of all of God's creatures, so far as 
they are not physically injurious. " God 
saw every thing that he had made, and 
behold, it was very good," KaXo. XCav 
(Gen. i. 31). 

For the association of |jieT(iXT)p,t)ns 
compare the phrase p.6TaXap,pdvci.v Tpo- 
<j>TJs, Acts ii. 46, and reff. on 2 Tim. ii. 6. 

Tois Trio-Tots : dat. commodi, as in Tit. 
i. 15, where see note. 

TTjv dXijOciav means, as elsewhere in 
these epistles, the Gospel truth in gene- 
ral, not the truth of the following state- 
ment, -irav KxCo-fjia, k.t.X. 

Ver. 4. oTi irav KTio-p,a: This is the 
proof of the preceding statement, con- 
sisting of (a) a plain reference to Gen. i. 
31, (b) a no less clear echo of our Lord's 
teaching, Mark vii. 15 (Acts x. 15), also 
re-echoed in Rom. xiv. 14, Tit. i. 15. 

XapPavdfjievov : This verb is used of 
taking food into one's hand before eat- 
ing (in the accounts of the feeding of the 
multitudes, Matt. xiv. 19 = Mark vi. 41; 
Matt. XV. 36= Mark viii. 5, also Luke xxiv. 
30, 43) as well as of eating and drinking. 
See reff. Perhaps it is not fanciful to 
note its special use in connexion with 
the Eucharist (i Cor. xi. 23 ; Matt. xxvi. 
26 (bis) 27; Mark xiv. 22, 23; Luke xxii. 

Kol ov82v aiT6^\r\Tov : The statement 
of Gen. i. 31 which is summed up in 
Every creature of God is good might be 
met by the objection that nevertheless 
certain kinds of food were, in point of 
fact, to be rejected by the express com- 

mand of the Mosaic Law. St. Paul 
replies that thanksgiving disannuls the 
Law in each particular case. Nothing 
over which thanksgiving can be pro- 
nounced is any longer included in the 
category of things tabooed. It is evident, 
from the repetition of the condition, pero. 
evx<>>pt<rTCas Xap^., that St. Paul re- 
garded that as the only restriction on 
Christian liberty in the use of God's 
creatures. Is it a thing of such a kind 
that I can, without incongruity, give 
thanks for it ? 

Field regards ovS^v a.'K6^\i\Tov here 
as a proverbial adaptation of Homer's 
saying {II. V. 65) : ovtoi dir(5pXT|T' Itrrl 
Oewv IpiKtiSca Supa. 

For KT^o-pa see reff. KTitrig is found 
in Rom. (7), 2 Cor. (i), Gal. (i). Col. (2) ; 
but in these places creation is the best 
or a possible rendering. KTio-pa means 
unambiguously thing created. 

Ver. 5. oiYia^cTai : The use of the pre- 
sent tense here supports the explanation 
given of ver. 4, and helps to determine 
the sense in which XtSyos Oeov is used. 
The food lying before me at this moment, 
which to some is dirdpXrjTos, is sanctified 
here and now by the €wx'"'P"'<^'''ia. See 
I Cor. X. 30. 

XiSyos 6eov and &tcv|is (see note 
on ii. i) are in some sense co-ordinate 
(almost a hendiadys), and together form 
elements in a ivxa.p\,(rria.. If St. Paul 
had meant by Xoyos Seov, the general 
teaching of Scripture, or the particular 
text, Gen. i. 31, he must have said 
iqyCooTai. At the same time, the written 
word was an element in the notion of 
the writer. Xciyos 6«ov has not here 
merely its general sense, a divine com- 
munication to man ; it rather determines 
the quality of the £vt£v|is, as a scriptural 
prayer ; a prayer in harmony with God's 
revealed truth. The examples that have 
come down to us of grace before meat 
are, as Dean Bernard notes here, " packed 
with scriptural phrases ". 

The best commentary on this verse 
is the action of St. Paul himself on the 
ship, when, having " taken bread, he 
gave thanks to God in the presence of 
all ; and he brake it, and began to eat " 
(Acts xxvii. 35). 

Although there is not here any direct 




' uiroTiO^fieeos tois d8€X<j>oT5 KaXos eoTr) SiaKOcos Xpiorou 'Itictou,^ r Here only 

• > .> -\» -/ 'x^ ^-c^c■ x/ (NT.) in 

€yTp€<pop.€vo^ TOIS \oYois Ti]s TTio-TCus uai TT)s Ka\T]s oioao-Ka\ias this 

n' *irapT]KoXou0TiKas.^ 7. tous Be " 8c8n\ous Kal ' vpacSScis 1 Here only, 


_. ... „ ™. . ' Luke i. 3, 

3 Tun. uu 10. u See i Tun. 1. 9. t Here only, not LXX 

* 'Irjor. Xpwrr. Dc, 17, 31, 47, many others, am., syipcsh. 

' ^s A, 80, one other. 

»So ^ADKLP; irapTiKoXoverio-as CFG. 

reference to the Sacrament of the Eucha- 
rist, it is probable that thoughts about it 
have influenced the language ; for the 
Eucharist is the supreme example of 
all benedictions and consecrations of 
material things. And if this be so, the 
passage has light thrown on it by the 
language of Justin Martyr and Irenaeus 
about the Prayer of Consecration ; e.g., 
Justin, Apol. i. 66. "As Jesus Christ 
our Saviour, by the word of God (8ia 
\6yov 6cov) made flesh, had both flesh 
and blood for our salvation, so we have 
been taught that the food over which 
thanks have been given by the word of 
prayer which comes from him {jy\v 81* 
evx'HS X«Jyov tov irap' avTOv ruxapMrTT|- 
Oeurav Tpo<^i)v) — that food from which 
our blood and flesh are by assimilation 
nourished — is both the flesh and the 
blood of that Jesus who was made flesh". 
Similarly Irenaeus (Haer. v. 2, 3), "Both 
the mingled cup, and the bread which 
has been made, receives upon itself the 
word of God, and the Eucharist becomes 
the body of Christ" (ciriSexcrai rhv 
\6yov TOV 0COV, Kal YivcTai r\ ciixapio^ta 
o^p,a XpioTov). Perhaps by the word 
of prayer which comes from him Justin 
means a formula authorised by Christ. 
It must be added that the Prayer Book 
of Serapion, bishop of Thmuis in Egypt, 
circ. A.D. 380, contains an epiclesis in 
which we read, " O God of truth, let thy 
holy Word come to sojourn on this bread, 
that the bread may become Body of the 
Word, and on this cup, that the cup may 
become Blood of the Truth" (Bishop 
J. Wordsworth's trans.). 

A comparison of these passages sug- 
gests an association in the thought of 
the primitive Church of the Holy Spirit 
and the XiS^os tov 6cov. 

Vv. 6-10. The spread of these mis- 
chievous notions among the brethren is 
most effectively discouraged by a demon- 
stration in the person of the minister 
himself of the positive teaching of the 
Gospel as to practical life. We are as- 
sured, and declare our confidence by our 

lives, that Christianity differs essentially 
from theosophy in that it has respect to 
the eternal future, as well as to the pass- 
ing present. 

Ver. 6. TovTo : repeated in ver. 11, 
refers to all the preceding directions, but 
more especially to the warnings against 
false asceticism. 

'inroTi9^p,cvo9 : {remind, sugf^est) is a 
somewhat mild term, as Chrys. points 
out ; but in some circumstances sugges- 
tion is more effectual than direct exhor- 

Sidieovos Xp. Mtjo-. seems emphatic, a 
deacon, not of the Church, but of Christ 
Jesus, who is the Chief Pastor. 

cvTpc<^o|*cvos : The present tense is 
significant, "meaning to imply constancy 
in application to these things " (Chrys.), 
"ever training thyself" (Alf.). "The 
present . . . marks a continuous and 
permanent nutrition " (EII.). The pro- 
cess begun from his earliest years, 2 
Tim. i. 5, iii. 15, was being still main- 

i\ irCoTis and tj SiSacrxaXCa denote 
respectively the sum total of Christian 
belief, conceived as an ideal entity, and 
the same as imparted little by little to 
the faithful. See note on i. 10. 

lj irapt)KoXovOT)Kas : There is a similar 
use of this verb in 2 Tim. iii. 10, where 
see note. Alford attempts to give the 
word here the same force as in Luke i. 3, 
by rendering the course of which thou 
hast followed. The A.V., whereunto 
thou hast attained, expresses also the 
sense of achievement which we find in 
Luke I.e. It seems better, however, to 
associate the word with the notion of 
discipleship ; so R.V., doctrine which 
thou hast followed until now. 

Ver. 7. W. H. place a comma after 
vapT]KoXov0T]Ka« and a full stop after 
irapaLTov; so R.V. nearly. But as 
irapatTov is an imperative, as in reff. in 
Pastorals, it is best taken as antithetic 
to yv\i.valt. 

YpawSeis: The fivOot, in addition to 
their profane nature, as impeaching the 




w See I 'jioOous '^ irapaiToO, ^^yufii'a^e 8e treavTov irpos ' eudi^eiav • 8. ■f\ 
X I Tim. V. yip * aufxaTiKT] ^ y^'H-^''^'''^^ " "fpos " 6\iyov ccttIi' * a»<|)eXi|i,os ' y\ 8e 

II, 2 ritn. - rt3/\f» ftfs \' «v 

ii. 33, Tit. euaepEia irpos irdi'Ta u><{>A.i.p.os eorti', cirayyeXiai' exouaa 
Heb. xii. ' SwTJS TT]S Kuf ital r^s ficXXouoKjs. 9. ' Triorros '^ 6 * Xoyos ' Kal 

y 2 Mace. X. * irdaTjs ' diroSoxTJs 'a|ios. lo. eis tooto ydp ^ *• K0'iri(ii|i6i' Kal 

15, Heb. 

V. 14, xii. 

II, 2 Pet. ii. 14. t See i Tim. ii. a. a 4 Mace. i. 32, iii. i, Luke iii. 22. b 4 Mace. xi. so 

only. c Jas. iv. 14. d 2 Tim. iii. 16, Tit. iii. 8, not LXX. e C/. Different use in 2 Cor. 

vii. I, Heb. vii. 6. f 2 Tim. i. i. g See i Tim. i. 15. h Matt. xi. 28, Col. i. 29, Phil. 

ii. 16, c/. I Tim. v. 17. 

1 Ins. ical FgrGKL. 

goodness of the Creator, were absurd, 
unworthy of a grown man's considera- 
tion. See note on chap. i. 4. Hort's 
view {Judaistic Christianity, p. 138) 
that pc^i^Xovs here merely means " the 
absence of any divine or sacred char- 
acter" docs not seem reasonable. 

irapaiTov : refuse, turn away from, as 
n Heb. xii. 25. Alf. renders excuse 
thyself from, as in Luke xiv. 18 (bis), 
19. Decline would be a better rendering. 
In addition to the reflf. given above, 
n-apaiWop,ai occurs in Mark xv. 6, Acts 
XXV. II (a speech of St. Paul's), Heb. xii. 

YUftva^c : There is here an intentional 
paradox. Timothy is to meet th e spurious 
asceticism of the heretics by exercising 
himself in the practical piety of the 
Christian life. See chap. ii. 2. The 
paradox is comparable to <^i,XoTip.cicr0ai, 
i\trvxa.l,i\.v of i Thess. iv. 11. The true 
Christian asceticism is not essentially 
o-ufiaTiicn, although the body is the 
means by which the spiritual nature is 
affected and influenced. Although it 
brings the body into subjection (i Cor. ix. 
27), this is a means, not an end in itself. 

Ver. 8. orcojioTiKT) yv^vaa-ia. : The 
parallel cited by Lightfoot (Philippians, 
p. 2qo) from Seneca (Ep. Mor. xv. 2, 5) 
renders it almost certain that the primary 
reference is to gymnastic exercises (as 
Chrys., etc., take it) ; but there is as cer- 
tainly in o-wfiaTiKT) yvp.vao-ia a connota- 
tion of ascetic practices as the outward 
expression of the theories underlying 
the fables of ver. 7. irapaiTov elsewhere 
in the Pastorals is followed by reasons 
why the particular thing or person 
should be avoided. The teaching is 
identical with that in Col. ii. 23. St. 
Paul makes his case all the stronger by 
conceding that an asceticism which ter- 
minates in the body is of some use. The 
contrast then is not so much between 
bodily exercise, commonly so called, and 
piety, as between />ie<|>' (which includes a 

discipline of the body) and an absurd 
and profane theosophy of which discipline 
of the body was the chief or only prac- 
tical expression. 

irpos iXtyov: to a slight extent; as 
contrasted with irpos iravra. irpos 
AXiyov means for a little while in Jas. 
iv. 14. This notion is included in the 
other. The R.V., for a httle is am- 
biguous; perhaps intentionally so. In 
view of the genuine asceticism of St. 
Paul himself, not to mention other ex- 
amples, it is unreasonable to think him 
inconsistent in making this concession. 

eirayyeXiav €xov<ra %iar\^ ; If we take 
lirayycXia to signify the thing promised 
(as in Luke xxiv. 49, Acts i. 4, xiii. 32), 
rather than a promise, we can give an 
appropriate force to the rest of the 
sentence. A consistent Christian walk 
possesses, does not forfeit, that which 
this life promises ; in a very real sense 
" it makes the best of both worlds ". 
exw will then have its usual meaning ; 
and £coT)s is the genitive of possession, as 
in Luke xxiv. 49, Acts i. 4 (lir. Toti 
iraTp<5s). It is not the genitive of apposi- 
tion, piety promises lije. That which is 
given by life to Christians is the best 
thing that life has to give. Von Soden 
compares iravra vpwv, i Cor. iii. 21 sq. 
Bacon's saying " Prosperity is the bless- 
ing of the Old Testament ; Adversity is 
the blessing of the New" is only half a 
truth. If religion does not make us 
happy in this life, we have needlessly 
missed our inheritance (see Matt. vi. 33 ; 
Mark x. 30). On the other hand, though 
piety does bring happiness in this 
life, the exercise of it deliberately with 
that end in view is impious ; as Whately 
said, " Honesty is the best policy, but 
the man who is honest for that reason is 
not honest". 

Ver. 9. irioTos — a|ios : This is paren- 
thetical and retrospective. The teaching 
of ver. 8 is the XiJyos. So Chrys. 

Ver. 10. yap, as in the parallel 2 




' 6,y(l}Vll,6^J.tQa,^ oTi ^ ■qX-iriKafjiei' ^ em 6cw I^wkti, os eariv * cruT^jp i i Cor. ix. 
'>/»/ »\ '»\\ \ ^5' Col. i. 

irarrcjK di'Opu'n'UK, p-aXiora irioTwi'. II. ™ FlapayYeXXe Tauxa icai 29, i Tim. 

SiSao-Ke. 12. p,T]S£is (Tou TT]S i/eoTTjTOS KaTa<t>poi'6iTw, dXXct " Tuiros Tim.iv.7. 

k John V. 45, 
2 Cor. i. 
10, 1 Tim. V. 5, vi. 17. 1 See i Tim. i. i. m See i Tim. i. 3. mi Cor. z. 6, Phil. iii. 17, 

I Thess. i. 7, a Thess. iii. g, Tit. ii. 7, i Pet. v. 3. 

1 So ^*ACFgrGgrK, 17, 31, 47, five others ; iveiSitojxeOa fc^cDLP, d, f, g, vg., go., 
syrr., boh., arm. 
^ riKieLfrafi.ey D*, 17. 

Tim. ii. 11, introduces a statement in 
support of the judgment, irio-rbs 6 Xd-yos. 

els TovTo : i.e., with a view to the ob- 
taining the promised blessings of hfe. 
The best commentary on this is what 
St. Paul said in an earlier epistle, " As 
sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing ; as poor, 
yet making many rich ; as having no- 
thing, and yet possessing all things " 
(2 Cor. vi. 10). 

Koiriw|iev Kal aY(i>vi£d|xcOa express St. 
Paul's personal experience of what the 
profession of Christianity involved. It 
was then an almost universal experience, 
see Acts xiv. 22 ; but is not of necessity 
a concomitant of the exercising of one- 
self to godliness. The two words are 
similarly combined Col. i. 29, els 8 Kal 
KOTriw a-ywvi£d|xevos. Koiriav is usually 
used by St. Paul of ministerial labours : 
his own, I Cor. xv. 10, Gal. iv. 11, and 
those of others, Rom. xvi. 12, i Cor. 
xvi. 16, I Thess. v. 12, i Tim. v. 17; 
but this restriction is not necessary, nor 
would it be suitable here. See reff. 

For 6veiSi£(i|jic0a (var. lect.) cf. Matt. 
V. ii = Lukevi. 22; i Pet. iv. 14. 

8ti '^XiriKa^cv, k.t.X. : This was at 
once an incentive to exertion, and thus 
correlative to eira-yveXia Swtjs, and in 
itself a part of the thing promised, the 
lirayycXia. A consciousness that we 
are in an harmonious personal relation 
with the living God lifts us into a sphere 
in which labour and striving have no 
power to distress us. 

-!rjXiriKap,cv : we have our hope set on 
(R.V.). The same use of the perfect 
of this verb, " expressing the continu- 
ance and permanence of the IXiris " 
(Ell.), is found in the reff. In addition, 
cXir^tw is also followed by liri with the 
dat. in Rom. xv. 12 (Isa. xi. 10) and i 
Tim. vi. 17 ; by kici with the ace. in i 
Tim. V. 5, I Pet. i. 13 ; by cU with an 
ace. in John v. 45, 2 Cor. i. 10, i Pet. 
iii. 5 ; and by Iv followed by the dat. in 
I Cor. XV. 19. 

6cu (wvTi : As indicated above, this is 
Baid in relation to liraYYcXtav (wt]S. To 

know the living God is life eternal (John 
xvii. 7.). 

OS co-Tiv truTTjp iravTcov, k.t.a. : 
Saviour of all (tov iravTwv awTrjpa) 
occurs in Wisd. xvi. 7. Cf. Saviour of 
the world, John iv. 42. 

The prima facie force of (xaXiara cer- 
tainly is that all men share in some 
degree in that salvation which the irio-roi 
enjoy in the highest degree. Compare 
the force of piaXicTa in Acts xxv. 26, 
Gal. vi. 10, Phil, iv, 22, i Tim. v. 8, 17, 
2 Tim. iv, 13 ; Tit. i. 10. 

The statement is more unreservedly 
universalist in tone than chap. ii. 4 and 
Tit. ii. II ; and perhaps must be quahfied 
by saying that while God is potentially 
Saviour of all, He is actually Saviour of 
the irnTToi. It is an argument a minori 
ad majus (as Bengel says) ; and the un- 
qualified assertion is suitable. If all 
men can be saved, surely the irio-Toi are 
saved, in whose number we are included. 
It is better to qualify the statement thus 
than, with Chrys. and Bengel, to give to 
o-<i)Ti7p a material sense of God's relation 
to all men, as the God of nature ; but a 
spiritual sense of His relation to them 
that believe, as the God of grace. See 
notes on ch. i, i ; ii. 4. 

Vv, 11-16. Silent example or mild 
suggestion will not do in every case. 
There are many occasions when it will 
be necessary for you to speak out, with 
the authority given to you at your or- 
dination. At the same time, do not 
forget that the charismatic gift will 
die if it be neglected. Give yourself 
wholly to the cultivation of your char- 
acter ; so will you save yourself and 
those committed to your charge. 

Ver. II. irapayyeXXc : In point of 
time, teaching precedes commanding. 
The tone of command can only be used 
in relation to fundamentals which have 
been accepted, but are in danger of being 
forgotten. Similar directions recur in 
v. 7 and vi. 3. 

Ver. 12. p.T|Sc(s — Kara^povcCTM 

(" Libenter idfaciunt senes inanes," Ben- 




o Gal. i. 13, ylvou tS>v irioTwi' iv \6y<a, iy " dcaorpoc^TJ, iv ^ dydin),^ iv ^ iriorei, 

22, Heb. iy ' dycia. 13. lus cpxo|xai ' irpdo-cxe ttj * &vayvb>(T€i, rfj irapa- 

Ja8.iii.13, KAT^aei, T^ oioaaKaXia. 14. fiT) dfieXei toC ^k aoi " x'^pi'i'H'^'''^^' ° 

2 Pet. (2)! 
p See I Tim. i. 14. q i Tim. v. 2 only, N.T. r See i Tim. i. 4. 8 Acts ziii. 15, 2 Cor. iii. 14. 

t Heb. iL 3. a Rom. i. 11, xii. 6, i Cor. i. 7, vii. 7, xii. 4, 9, 28, 30, 31, 2 Tim. i. 6, i Pet. iv. 10. 

^ Add iv trvcvfiaTi KLP. See 2 Cor. vi. 6. 

gel). Many, probably, of the Ephesian 
presbyters were older than Timothy. 
For fiT)8c(s in this position, cf. i Cor. 
iii. 18, X. 24 ; Eph. v. 6 ; Col. ii. 18 ; 
Tit. ii. 15 ; Jas. i. 13. Karat^povcw 
connotes that the contempt felt in the 
mind is displayed in injurious action. 
(See Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, 
vi., viii. 432). The meaning of this 
direction is qualified by the following 
dXXa Tviros yivov, k.t.X. It means, 
Assert the dignity of your office even 
though men may think you young to 
hold it. Let no one push you aside as a 
boy. Compare the corresponding direc- 
tion Tit. ii. 15, p,T)8cis crov ircpi<{>povc(TM. 
On the other hand, St. Paul shows 
Timothy " a more excellent way " than 
self-assertion for the keeping up of his 
dignity : Give no one any ground by any 
fault of character for despising thy 

o-ov depends on ttj? vccJtijtos. Field 
supports this by an exact parallel from 
Diodorus Siculus. The two genitives do 
not, in strict grammar, depend on 
Karai^pov., despise thee for thy youth. 

TTJs vedTtjTos : St. Paul had met 
Timothy on the second missionary jour- 
ney, dated by Harnack in a.d. 47, and by 
Lightfoot in a.d. 51. About the year 57, 
St. Paul says of Timothy, " Let no man 
despise him" (i Cor. xvi. 11). i Tim. 
may be dated not more than a year before 
St. Paul's martyrdom, which Harnack 
fixes in a.d. 64, and Lightfoot in a.d. 67. 
The question arises, Could Timothy's 
v€<5ttjs have lasted all that time, about 
fifteen or sixteen years ? We must 
remember that we have no information 
about Timothy's age when he joined St. 
Paul's company. But if he had been 
then fifteen or sixteen, or even seventeen, 
veoTTjs here need cause no difficulty. 
Lightfoot (Apostolic Fathers, Part IL 
vol. i. p. 448) adduces evidence from 
Polybius and Galen to show that a man 
might be called v^os up to the age of 
thirty-four or thirty-five. In any case, 
the terms " young " and " old " are used 
relatively to the average age at which 
men attain to positions in the world. 

Forty is reckoned old for a captain in 
the army, young for a bishop, very young 
for a Prime Minister. In an instructive 
parallel passage, Ignatius commends the 
Magnesians (§ 3) and their presbyters 
for not presuming upon the youth of 
their bishop. For Timothy's compara- 
tive youth, cf 2 Tim. ii. 22, ras Si 
vcwTcpiKas eiri6vp,ias <{>cvyc. 

Tuiros yivov : For the sentiment, com- 
pare refF. and i Cor. iv. i6, Phil. iv. 9. 

ttJitos is followed by the genitive of 
the person for whose edification the 
Tviros exists in i Cor. x. 6, i Pet. v. 3. 

In the following enumeration, Xo-yos is 
coupled with ava<rTpo<t>i] as words with 
deeds (Rom. xv. 18 ; Col. iii. 17). These 
refer to Timothy's public life ; while 
love, faith and purity refer to his private 
life, in reference to which they are found 
in conjunction in ii. 15. 

Ver. 13. I(i>s epxofxai : For lus with 
present indie, instead of fut. see Winer- 
Moulton, Grammar, p. 370. Cf. Luke 
xix. 13, John xxi. 22, 23. 

avayvoxris, irapaKXTjo-igt 8i8a<rKaXia 
are the three elements in the ministry of 
the word : (a) reading aloud of Scripture 
(Luke iv. 16 ; Acts xiii. 15 ; 2 Cor. iii. 14, 
see Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, vii., 
V. 262) ; (b) exhortation based on the 
reading, and appealing to the moral sense 
(2 Tim. iv. 2 ; Justin Martyr, Apol. i. 67) ; 
(c) tecuhing, appealing to the intellect, 
see note on chap. i. 10. Exhortation 
and teaching are similarly joined in 
Rom. xii. 7, 8, and i Tim. vi. 2. 

Ver. 14. (iTj ap,cXei,: J. H. Moulton 
(Grammar, vol. i. p. 122 sqq.), distingui- 
shes (a) 1*1] with the pres. imperat, " Do 
not go on doing so and so," e.g., i Tim, 
V. 22, 23, from (b) p,ij with the aor. sub- 
junctive, " Do not begin to do it " (i Tim. v. 
I ; 2 Tim. i. 8). In this case, p,T) afxAci 
is equivalent to irdvTOT€ p,cXcTa. 
Timothy's x'^P^<''P'<^ l^y i" his commis- 
sion to rule and in his powers as a 
preacher. The y(a.p\.<r^a. was given by 
God; in this particular case the formal 
and solemn assumption of its use was 
accompanied by the indication of proph- 
ecy addressed to the ear, and by the 

13— 16. V. I. 



, ^ \»j/ xAw ,18, 2 Tim. 

irpeo-puTcpiou. 15. Taora ^ ficXera, ev tootois ictoi, ii'a ctou i^ i. 6, Heb. 
' irpoKOTTT) " <|>a>'cpd "^ •{] '^ irao'ii'. 16. ^ €TTe\€ (reauTia xal Tjj SiSaa- w Here only 

■V/b>' .'- - i - v'v) xi° this 

Ka\ia • eiriixd'e auTois • touto yap iroioji' Kai acauToc auaeis Kai sense. 

^ , , , X Acts iv. 25 

Tous dKOuon-as aou. (Ps. ii. i). 

V. I. npEcr^uTcpu fji^ *iirnrXii|T|s, dXXd irapaKciXei <&s iraWpa, 25.' ' 

z Rom. i. 19, 
Gal. V. 19, 
I John iii. 10. a Luke xiv. 7, Acts iii. 5, zix. 22. b Acts xiii. 43 (T.R.)i Rom. vi. i, xi. 22, 23, 

Col. i. 33. a Here only, not LXX. 

1 Ins. iv DcKLP. 

laying on of hands addressed to the eye. 
See Acts xiii. 1-3. 

Winer-Moulton notes, p. 471, that the 
instrument, as such, is never expressed 
by (jLcra in good prose. Here, with, 
amid imposition of hands (conjointly 
with the act of imposition). \Lera. is 
here equivalent to 8ia in the sense given 
above, i.e., of accompanying circum- 

2 Tim. i. 6 is usually reconciled with 
this passage by saying that the body of 
presbyters was associated with St. Paul 
in the laying on of hands. But there is 
no reason to suppose that the same trans- 
action is referred to in both places. 
Here the charismata refer to preaching 
and teaching; but in 2 Tim., to the ad- 
ministrative duties committed to Timothy, 
as it is reasonable to suppose, by St. 
Paul alone, when he appointed him his 
representative. Note that 8id is used of 
St. Paul's imposition of hands (2 Tim. i. 
6), (jLCTci ot that of the presbyters, here. 
This suggests that it was the imposition 
of hands by St. Paul that was the in- 
strument used by God in the communica- 
tion of the charisma to Timothy. 

irpea-^vripiov : elsewhere in N.T. 
(Luke xxii. 66; Acts xxii. 5) means the 
Jewish Sanhedrin ; but Ignatius uses the 
term, as here, to indicate the presby- 
ters in a local Church (Trail. 7, 13; 
Philadelph. 7, etc.). 

Ver. 15. TavTa: i.^., reading, exhorta- 
tion, teaching. |icX.^Ta : practise, exercise 
thyself in, rather than meditari. So 
R.V., Be diligent in. (Bengel compares 
YvfAva^c ver. 7.) Cf. Psal. i. 2, Iv tw 
v6\L<f avTov iicXcn^oTEi, " In his law will 
he exercise himself," P.B.V,, quoted by 
Prof. Scholefield. 

Iv TovTois io-6i : To the parallels 
cited by Wetstein, Iv tovtois 6 Kaiirap 
. . . TJv (Plut. Pomp. p. 656 b), " Omnis 
in hoc sum" (Horace Epistles, i. i, 11) and 
Alford: "Totus in illis " (Horace, Sat. i. 
9, 2), we may add Iv 4>(iPv Kvp(ov toOi, 

Prov. xxiii. 17. Timothy's progress mani- 
fest to all would secure his youth from 
being despised: cf. Matt. v. 16. 

t^avcpa ■^ : This expression is quite 
Pauline ; see reff. ; but St. Paul more 
frequently has ^avcpos ycvEo-Oai, i Cor. 
iii. 13, xi. 19, xiv. 25, Phil. i. 13. 

Ver. 16. eirex* o-eavru, k.t.X. : The 
teacher must needs prepare himself be- 
fore he prepares his lesson. A similar 
thought is conveyed by the order of the 
words in Gen. iv. 4, " The Lord had 
respect unto Abel and to his offering". 
Iire'xeiv (see reff. and Moulton and Mil- 
ligan, Expositor, vii., vii. 377) has a quite 
different signification in Phil. ii. 16. Cf. 
Acts XX. 28, irpoo-exeTe eavTois. 

Tfl SiSao-KaXiq. : Thy teaching (R.V.). 
The doctrine (A.V.) can take care of 
itself. See note on i. 10. ovtois is 
neuter, referring to the same things as 
Tavra; not masc, "Remain with the 
Ephesians," as Grotius supposed, a view 
tolerated by Bengel. 

o-cavT^v (Tuo'cis : cf. Ezek. xxxiii. 9. 

Chapter V. — ^Vv. 1-16. The wise 
Church ruler must understand how to 
deal with his people individually. Each 
age and condition needs separate treat- 
ment : old men, young men ; old women, 
young women. Widows in particular 
need discriminating care ; since some of 
them may have to be supported by the 
Church ; and we must not let the Church 
be imposed on, nor give occasion for 
scandal. Accordingly Church widows 
must be at least sixty years old, and be 
of good character. 

Ver. I. irpEo-pvWpip is best taken as a 
term of age, seniorem (Vulg.). This 
view is supported by the ws irar^pa, 
irpecrPvT^pas, vEwWpas. The term 
vecdTEpovs might possibly refer to a sub- 
ordinate Church officer. In Acts v. 6 it 
is susceptible of that meaning; but in 
the subsequent narrative (Acts v. 10) ol 
vcwTcpoi who are in attendance on the 
Apostles are merely vcavioKOi. 




b Here only, fcuT^pous u9 dSeX4>ous, 2. '' irpeo'PuWpas is (XTjWpas, vetaripas W9 
c See I Tim. d8eX4>cis ^i* Tr«i<n| " dyj'eia. 3. Xrjpas Tip,a rds ** otn-ws XTP*^?- 4- 
d Mark xi. €1 8^ Tis X'HP''' T^Kka ^(j * CKyoca c)(€t, iiavQaveToxrav ^ irpoiTOi' tok 

32, I Tim. „» , fJO~ ^Bi o^ »*C' ■'h ' 

V. 5, 16, loiOK oiKOf euo'epeii' Kai * dfioipas aTrooioocai tois irpoyoi'ois • 

e Here only, TOOTO ydp ioTLV^ ' diTcSScKTOi' ^ ivutiTiov "^ Tou ^ 6€Oo. 5. ifj 8c ' orrws 

f 4 Mace. 
(5), Sus. 64, Acts xvii. 23. g Here only, N.T., not LXX. h 2 Tim. i. 3 only, N.T. i i Tim. 
ii. 3. k See i Tim. ii. 3. 1 See ver. 3. 

1 |jiav6av^Tu two cursives, d, f, m82, vg. (except am* = discant). 
" Ins. KaXov Kal 37, many others, boh., go., arm. See chap. ii. 3. 

have a claim for support, (2) those who 
conform to certain moral and spiritual 
requirements detailed below. 

Ver. 4. cKYOva : offspring ought to be 
the best rendering of this. It has a 
wider connotation than children and 
narrower than descendants. 

|i,av6av£Tci>o-av : It ought not to be 
necessary to say that the subject of this 
verb is riKva rj cKyovs^ only that Chrys. 
Theod, Vulg. and d agree in referrmg it 
to the class x^P*^*-* ('Requite them in 
their descendants, repay the debt through 
the children," Chrys.; " Discat primum 
domum suam regere." See critical note.) 
Similarly Augustine says of his mother 
Monica, " Fuerat enim unius viri uxor, 
mutuam vicem parentibus reddiderat, 
domum suam pie tractaverat " {Confes- 
siones, ix. g). This can only be regarded 
as a curiosity in exegesis. 

irpuTov : The first duty of children is 
filial piety. oIkov, which is usually cor- 
relative to parents rather than children, 
is used here " to mark the duty as an act 
of family feeling and family honour " 
(De Wette, quoted by Ell.). 

cvo-c^eiv \domum pie tractare, m**) 
with a direct accusative is also found in 
reff. Ellicott supplies an appropriate 
illustration from Philo, de Decalogo, § 23, 
" where storks are similarly said cvcc^civ 
and yi]porpo^eiv" . 

irpo-yiivois : When the term occurs 
again, 2 Tim. i. 3, it has its usual mean- 
ing forefather. It is usually applied to 
forbears that are dead. Here it means 
parents, grandparents, or great-grand- 
parents that are living ; and this use of 
it was probably suggested by ''Kyova, a 
term of equally vague reference. Plato, 
Laws, xi. p. 932, is quoted for a similar 
application of the word to the living. 

TovTO Yap, K.T.X. : Besides being en- 
joined in the O.T., our Lord taught the 
same duty, Mark vii. 16-13 = Matt. ^cv. 
4-6. See also Eph. vi. i, 2. 

Ver. 5. tjXiriKcv irri: hath her hope set 
on. See on iv. 10, the analogy of 

liriirXij^yjs : Treat harshly. The more 
usual iiriTiftav occurs 2 Tim. iv. 2. 
■irapaKaX«i us trarcpa : Respect for age 
must temper the expression of reproof of 
an old man's misdemeanours, vcwrcpovs 
and the following accusatives in ver. 2 
are governed by some such verb as treat, 
behave towards, deal with, implied in 
liriirXi]|'{]s and irapaKaXci. 

Ver. 2. iv iracrn ayvif: with the 
strictest regard to purity, or perhaps 
propriety. Christians, Athenagoras tells 
us {Legat. 32), considered other Chris- 
tians, according to their age, as sons and 
daughters; brothers and sisters; fathers 
and mothers. Ellicott quotes Jerome's 
maxim, " Omnes puellas et virgines 
Christi aut aequaliter ignora aut aequa- 
liter dilige" (Epist. 52, 5, p. 259). Com- 
pare de Imitatlone Christi, i. 8, " Be not 
a firiend to any one woman, but recom- 
mend all good women in general to God ". 

Ver. 3. Tt|ia: It is difficult to fix pre- 
cisely the force of ripow in this con- 
nexion. On the one hand, the passage 
(w. 3-8) is a part of the general direc- 
tions as to Timothy's personal relations 
to his flock. Respect, honour, would, 
then, render the word adequately. On 
the other hand, vv. 4 and 8 show that 
the question of widows' maintenance, 
as a problem of Church finance, was 
in the apostle's mind; and he goes on, 
in ver. 9, to lay down regulations for 
the admission of widows to the number 
of those who were entered on the Church 
register for support. Perhaps respect 
was first in the writer's mind, while the 
term used, Tip,a, easily lent itself to the 
expression of the notion oi support, which 
immediately suggested itself Similarly 
Chrys. (ttjs t«v avayKaioiv Tpoj^ijs), 
comparing ver. 17, where. r\.p.r{ has the 
sense of pay, of. Ecclus. xxxviii. i. Matt. 
XV. 4-6, Acts xxviii. 10. Honora benefciis 
is Bengel's comment. 

Tas ovTctfs : Those who really deserve 
the name of widows are (i) those who 
have no younger relatives on whom they 

a— 9. 



X^pa Kol " }iep.QV(t)fi,itri^ " t^X-iriKCf eirl ^ Qebv * Kal " irpoo'p.^i'ci rais m Here 
oeT)or€aii' Kai rais irpoacuxais »'oktos Kai i^|Ji€pas • o. tj oc '^ oTraxa- LXX. 

\-»- rn \ ~ a /\\OT>'\ ° ^*^^ ' Tim. 

\<t)(ra i,ui(Ta T€vyT]K€y. 7. Kai Taura ' irapaYYcXXc, ii'a aveTriXrjfjnrTOi iv. 10. 

♦ o>c» .~.>c' N/\ it>' Ja o Wisd. iii. 
walk. a. ei 0€ tis twk ioiuk Kai fiaAiora '' oiKeiwc ou irpoi'o- 9, Actsxi. 

~4\T' T«» ^>r >/ ' ^/ 23, Xiii.43. 

ei,' TTji' irioTH' T]pnr|Tai Kai cotik airiorou x^^'P*^''- 9- Xi^pa p Ecclus. 

* KaTaXry^adu ji^ cXorroi' irCtv e^Korra yeyovula, ivbs dkSpos Ezek. xri. 

49, Jas. V. 

q See i Tim. 13. r See i Tim. iii. 2. s John i. 11, xiii. i, Acta iv. 23. t Gal. vi. 10, Eph. 

ii. 19. u Rom. xii. 17, 2 Cor. viii. 21. v Rev. ii. 13. w 3 Tim. iii. 5, Tit. ii. 12, cf. alao 

3 Tim. ii. 12, 13, Tit. i. 16. x Here only, N.T. 

1 Ins. T^v Jn^cADKL ; om. rhv t^*CFGP. 

2 So ^cACKLP, d, e, f, ra25. 82, no, vg. ; Kvptov i^*Dgr*. 
'Ins. TivCDbcKLP. 

* So J^^cACDcLF ; 'rpovociToi 1>^*D*FGK, one cursive. 

which favours the omission of the article 

-irpoorfievci : She is like Anna, vrjo-rei- 
ais Kal 8€i](rco'iv Xarpevovora vvKra Kai 
■t\\iepav (Luke ii. 37). irpoo-Kaprcpciv is 
more usual in this connexion, e.g., Rom. 
xii. 12, Col. iv. 2. 

Ell. notes that Paul always has the 
order vvkt. Kal r\\i.. as here. Luke has 
also this order, with the ace, but i]fi. Kal 
vvKT. with the gen. In Rev. the order is 
iqfji. Kal vvkt6s. 

Ver. 6. oTTaTaXciKra : The modern term 
fast, in which the notion of prodigality 
and wastefulness is more prominent than 
that of sensual indulgence, exactly ex- 
presses the significance of this word. 
The R.V., she that giveth herself to plea- 
sure, is stronger than the A.V. A some- 
what darker force is given to it here by the 
associated verb in ver. 11, KaTa<rTpT)vid- 
o-ttxriv. The Vulg. is felicitous. Quae in 
deliciis est, vivens mortua est. The ex- 
pression is more terse than in Rev. iii. 
I, "Thou hast a name that thou livest 
and thou art dead ". Cf. Rom. vii. 10, 
24, Eph. iv. 18. Wetstein quotes in 
illustration from Stobaeus (238), as de- 
scriptive of a poor man's life of anxiety, 
WvTjs airoOavbtv (|>povTi8(ov oirT]XXay»|> 
iav ^ap te6vt)kc. 

Ver. 7. ravTo is best referred to ver. 
4, with its implied injunctions to the 
younger generation to support their 

aveTiXijiJiirToi : i.e., all Christians 
whom it concerns, not widows only. 

Ver. 8. The Christian faith includes 
the law of love. The moral teaching of 
Christianity recognises the divine origin 
of all natural and innocent human affec- 
tions. The unbeliever, i.e., the born 
heathen, possesses natural family affec- 
VOL. IV. 9 

tion ; and though these feelings may be 
stunted by savagery, the heathen are not 
likely to be sophisticated by human per- 
versions of religion, such as those de- 
nounced by Jesus in Mark vii. Ell. says. 
" It is worthy of notice that the Essenes 
were not permitted to give relief to their 
relatives without leave from their ivi- 
Tpoiroi, though they might freely do so 
to others in need ; see Joseph. Bell. Jud. 
ii. 8, 6." 

The Christian who falls below the best 
heathen standard of family affection is 
the more blameworthy, since he has, 
what the heathen has not, the supreme 
example of love in Jesus Christ. We 
may add that Jesus Himself gave an 
example of providing for one's own, 
when He provided a home for His 
mother with the beloved disciple. 

ol iSioi are near relatives : 01 oIkcioi, 
members of one's household. One of the 
most subtle temptations of the Devil is 
his suggestion that we can best comply 
with the demands of duty in some place 
far away from our home. Jesus always 
says. Do the next thing ; " Begin from 
Jerusalem ", The path of duty begins 
from within our own house, and we must 
walk it on our own feet. 

olKctuv : The omission of the article 
in the true text before oIkciwv precludes 
the possibility of taking the word here in 
the allegorical sense in which it is used 
in Gal. and Eph. : " the household of the 
faith " ; " the household ol God ". 

irpovoci : This verb is only found else- 
where in N.T. in the phrase irpovocurOai 
KaXd, Rom. xii. 17, 2 Cor. viii. 21 (from 
Prov. iii. 4, irpovoov KaXa ivwiriov 
Kvpfov Kal dvdpwiruv). 

Ver. g. KaTaXc-y^crOw : St. Paul passes 
naturally from remarks about the duty of 


nP02 TiMOeEON A 


y Acts vi. 3, yun], lo. ' iv ' Ipyois * KaXois ' (lapTupouji^cT), €i " ir€KV0Tp6^r\v€y, 

12, Heb. €t *■ l^efo86x'»](rei', ci 6.yi(tiv iroSas ivi^tv, el * OXi^ou^i'ois * ^irqpiceaei', 

xi. 2, 39. 
zSeei Tim. 
iii. I. a Here only, not LXX. b Here only, not LXX. c a Cor. i. 6, iv. 8, vii. 5, i Thess. 
iii. 4, 3 Thess. i. 6, 7, Heb. xi. 37. d i Mace. (3), ver. 16 only. 

Church members to their widowed rela- 
tives to specific rules about the admis- 
sion of widows to the roll of Church 
widows (see Acts vi. i). The x^P"" o^ 
this ver. is 4] ovtws x^P*^ °f ^^' 3 ^^'^ 5> 
who was to receive consideration and 
official recognition. These widows had 
no doubt a ministry to fulfil — a ministry 
of love, prayer, intercession, and giving 
of thanks (Polycarp, 4) ; but it is difficult 
to suppose that St. Paul, or any other 
practically minded administrator, would 
contemplate a presbyteral order of wi- 
dows, the members of which would enter 
on their duties at the age of 60, an age 
relatively more advanced in the East 
and in the first century than in the West 
and in our own time. We may add that 
the general topic of widows' maintenance 
is resumed and concluded in ver. 16. 

In the references to widows in the 
earliest Christian literature outside the 
N.T. (with the exception of Ignatius 
Smyrn. 13) they are mentioned as objects 
of charity along with orphans, etc. (Ig- 
natius, Smyrn. 6, Polyc. 4; Polycarp, 
4; Hermas, Vis. ii. 4, Mand. viii., Sim. 
I. V. 3, ix. 26, 27; Justin, Apol. i. 67). 
None of these places hints at an order of 
widows. The subject cannot be further 
discussed here; but the evidence seems 
to point to the conclusion that the later 
institution of widows as an order with 
official duties was suggested by this pas- 
sage. The history of Christianity affords 
other examples of supposed revivals of 
apostolic institutions. 

Ell., who follows Grotius in seeing 
in this verse regulations respecting an 
ecclesiastical or presbyteral widow, ob- 
jects to the view taken above that it is 
" highly improbable that when criteria 
had been given, ver. 4 sq., fresh should 
be added, and those of so very exclusive 
a nature: would the Church thus limit 
her alms ? " 

But ver. 4 sq. does not give the criteria, 
or quahfications of an official widow; 
but only describes the dominant charac- 
teristic of the life of the "widow indeed," 
viz., devotion ; and again, the Church of 
every age, the apostolic not less than 
any other, has financial problems to deal 
with. Charity may be indiscriminating, 
but there are only a limited number of 

widows for whose whole support the 
Church can make itself responsible ; and 
this is why the limit of age is here so 
high. At a much younger age than 60 
a woman would cease to have any tempt- 
ation to marry again, 

Lightfoot has important notes on the 
subject in his commentary on Ignatius, 
Smyrn. §§ 6, 13 {Apost. Fathers, part ii. 
vol. ii. pp. 304, 322). See also, on the 
deaconess widow, Harnack, Mission and 
Expansion of Christianity, trans, vol. i. 
p. 122. The opinion of Schleiermacher 
that deaconesses are referred to here is 
refuted (i) by the provision of age, and 
(2) by the fact that they have been dealt 
with before, iii. 11. 

According to Bengel, the gen. irStv 
depends on x'lip''') K'T tXaxTov being an 
adverb, " of 60 years, not less ". 

YCYovvia : It is best to connect this 
with the preceding words, as in Luke ii. 
42, Kal OTC iyivvro irStv SuScKa. In 
favour of this connexion is the conside- 
ration that in the parallel, iii. 2, (xias 
yvvaiK^S avSpa stands alone, and that it 
YCYowia were to be joined with what 
follows, it would most naturally follow 
ywvlj. As a matter of fact, this trans- 
position is found in P. ; and this con- 
nexion is suggested in D, two cursives, 
d, f, g, m^^i, Vulg. (quaeftierit (gfuerat) 
unius viri uxor) go, boh, syrr, Theodore 
Mops., Theodoret, and Origen. 

evos avSp^s yvvr^ : The Church widows 
must conform to the same ideal of the 
married life as the episcopi. See Tert. 
ad uxor em, i. 7, " Quantum fidei de- 
trahant, quantum obstrepant sanctitati 
nuptiae secundae, disciplina ecclesiae et 
praescriptio apostoli declarat, cum diga- 
mos non sinit praesidere, cum viduam 
allegi in ordinem [al. ordinationem], nisi 
univiram, non concedit." 

Ver. 10. Ivcpyois KaXots |xapTvpovp,^vT|: 
Iv with fiapTvpcicOai means in respect 
of. See reff. and Moulton and Milligan, 
Expositor, vii., vii., 562. 

It is characteristic of the sanity ot 
apostolic Christianity that as typical ex- 
amples of "good works," St. Paul in- 
stances the discharge of commonplace 
duties, " the daily round, the common 
task ". For cpya KaXd see on chap. iii. i. 
cl iTCKvoTpd^Tjo-ev : As has been just 



ei iran-l'lpyw 'dyaOw ' ^injKoXoiJ0Tjaei'. 11. yeonipa^ Sc X^pas e See i Tim 
'iropaiTou* OTaf yelp * KaTaoTpijt'i<£o'OKrn' ^ toG Xpicrrou, yoiicli' f Josh. xir. 

iv. 7. 


g Sec I Tim. 
h Here only, not LXX. 

^ So ^CDKL; KaTooTptivioo-ovo-iv AFGP, 31. 

explained, the cl is not so much depen- 
dent on KarakeyiirBco as explanatory of 
Iv cpyois KoX. fxapT. The rendering of 
the Vulg., d, f, g, Amb., flios educavit, 
is better than that of m^*^, nutrivit, or 
Ambrst. enutrivit. It is not child-birth 
so much as the " Christianly and virtu- 
ously bringing up of children," her own 
or those entrusted to her charge, that St. 
Paul has in his mind. Tert. de Virg. vel. 
9, alluding to this passage, says, " Non 
tantum univirae, id est nuptae, aliquando 
eliguntur, sed et matres et quidem edu- 
catrices filiorum, scilicet ut experimentis 
omnium afFectuum structae facile norint 
ceteras et consilio et solatio iuvare, etmt 
nihilominus ea decucurrerint, per quae 
femina probari potest ". The later Church 
widows, among other duties, had the 
care of the Church orphans {cf, Hermas 
Mand. viii. ; Lucian, de morte Peregrini, 

4|evo8<$x'n<rcv : Hospitality is a virtue 
especially demanded in a condition of 
society in which there is much going to 
and fro, and no satisfactory hotel ac- 
commodation. The episcopus must be 
4ilX<$|cvos (iii. 2, where see note). 

cl ayCwv irdSa; c vi\|;cy : If the strangers 
were also " saints," members of the 
Christian Society, they would naturally 
receive special attention. The mistress 
of the house would act as servant of the 
servants of God (cf. Gen. xviii. 6 ; i Sam. 
XXV. 41). Unless we assume the un- 
historical character of St. John's Gospel, 
it is natural to suppose that the story 
told in John xiii. 5-14, and the Master's 
command to do as He had done, was 
known to St. Paul and Timothy. The 
absence of an article before ir<i8as "is 
due to assimilation to ayiuv" (Blass, 
Grammar, p. 151, note 2). 

cl iravTi — lir»jKoXov6Ti<rcv cuts short 
any further enumeration of details, if 
in short, she has devoted herself to good 
works of every kind. There is an exact 
paraUel to this use of ciraKoXovOew in Josh, 
xiv. 14, 810 rh avTov [Caleb] liraKoXov- 
Otjaai Tw irpoaTOYlAOTi Kvp£ov 0eot) *l<r- 
pai^X. The word also means to " check " 
or " verify " an account. In Mark xvi. 20, 
" the signs • endorse ' the word " (Moul- 
ton and Milligan, Expositor, vii., vii. 376). 

So here it may connote sympathy with, 
and interest in, good works, without 
actual personal labour in them. 

Ver. II. There are two main factors 
in the interpretation of this verse : (i) a 
general Church regulation — not laid 
down by St. Paul but found in existence 
by him — that a widow in receipt of 
relief should be cvbs av8pos yuvrj ; and 
(2) his determination to make provision 
that no scandal should arise from broken 
vows. The notion was that there was 
a marriage tie between Christ and the 
Church widow. This would be her first 
faith, her earliest and still valid plighted 
troth. Cf. Rev. ii. 4, ttiv a.yvKi\v crov 
T»|v irpwTTiv d«^TJKcs (of the Church at 

vcofTcpas may be rendered positively, 

irapaiTov : reject. This verb is used 
of "profane and old wives' fables" (iv. 
7), of " foolish and ignorant question- 
ings " (2 Tim. ii. 23), of " a man that is 
heretical" (Tit. iii. 10); so that, at first 
sight, it seems a harsh term to use in 
reference to "young widows ". But the 
harshness is explained when we remem- 
ber that St. Paul is speaking, not of the 
widows in themselves, but as applicants 
for admission to the roll of specially 
privileged Church widows. In a Church 
still immature as to its organisation and 
morale the authorities would be only 
courting disaster were they to assume 
the control of young widows, a class 
whose condition gave them independ- 
ence in the heathen society around them. 
KaTaoTpifviao-cMriy : Cum enim 

luxuriatae fuerint [in deliciis egerint, 
m "»] in Christo (Vulg.). 

The word denotes the particular char- 
acter of their restiveness. It was under- 
stood with this sexual reference in Pseud. 
Ignat. ad Antioch. 11, al X''ip''^>' V-^ 
o^iraTaXaTwcav, tva (lt) KaTotrrpTjvido'wo'i 
TOW XiSyov. orprjvos (over-strength), 
wantonness or luxury occurs Rev. xviii. 
3; (TTpYjvidw, Rev. xviii. 7, 9, to wax 
wanton, live wantonly, or luxuriously. 
The preposition Kara, with the genitive, 
has the sense against, of opposition, as 
in KaTa^pa^cvw, KaraycXdu, KaTa8iKa{i*. 
KaTaKavxdofiai, KaraKpCvw, etc 




Markvii. OAouaif, 12. exoucroi Kpi|J.a on ttik irpun]!' irioTii' ^ i\6i'n\vray. 
vji. 30, 13. '^ fifjio ^ Be ^ Kal ' dpyal fiavQdvoutTiv, ™ iT€pi,€p\6\i.€vai tAs oiKias, 

iii. 13, ou u.6vov 8e dpval dXXd Kal '^ 4*\uapoi Kal ° irEpicpyoi, XaXouaai ^ rd 

k Acts zxiv. 
26, Col. iv. 3, Philem. 23. 1 Matt. xii. 36, xx. 3, 6, Tit. i. 12, Jas. ii. 20, 3 Pet. i. 8. m Acts 

xix. 13, Heb. zi. 37. n Here only, N.T. ; see note. o Not LXX ; see note. p Tit. i. 11. 

For Srav with the subjunctive or in- 
dicative, see Winer Moul ton, Grammar, 
p. 388. The subjunctive, as in the text, is 
the normally correct way of expressing a 
contemplated contingency. 

Tov Xpicrrov : Here only in the Pas- 

Yap.6iv O^Xovo-i: OeXciv has here an 
emphatic sense, as in John vii. 17 ; and 
its association here supports the view 
that it " designates the will which pro- 
deeds from inclination,' as contrasted 
with ^ovXcpai, " the will which follows 
deliberation " (Thayer's Grimm, s.v.). 
7a|Aetv is used of the woman also, ver. 
14, Mark x. 12 ; i Cor. vii. 28, 34. 

Ver. 12. cxowai KpCfiia: deserving 
censure. There is no special force in 
cxovo-ai, as Ell. explains, " bearing about 
with them a judgment, viz., that they 
broke their first faith". This seems 
forced and unnatural. ex€iv Kp(p.a is 
correlative to Xap.pdve(r9ai KpC|xa (Mark 
xii. 40; Luke xx. 47; Rom. xiii. 2; Jas. 
iii. i). They have condemnation be- 
cause, etc., habentes damnationem quia 
(Vulg. m). Kpip,a of course by itself 
means judgment ; but where the context, 
as here, implies that the judgment is a 
sentence of guiltiness, it is reasonable so 
to translate it. 

TTjv irpwTTjv iriomv : This has been 
already explained. On the use of irpwros 
for irpi^Tcpos see Blass, Gram. p. 34. 

iQ6eTTj<rav : annulled, irritam fecerunt 
(Vulg. m). 

Ver. 13. ap,a 8i Ka£ is Pauline. See 

It is best to assume an omission of 
clvai, not necessarily through corruption 
of the text, as Blass supposes {Gram. p. 
247). On the example cited by Winer- 
Moulton, Gram. p. 437 from Plato, 
Euthyd. p. 276 b, ot dp,a0cis apa o'o<j>ol 
pavOdvovo-iv, and Dio. Chrys. Iv. 558, 
Field notes, " Although the reading in 
Plato may be doubtful, there is no doubt 
of the agreement of St. Paul's construc- 
tion with later usage ". Field adds two 
from St. Chrysostom T. vii. p. 699 a : rl 
ovv; &v iraXat(rTT|9 p,avOdv^s ; T. ix. p. 
259 b : cl larp&s (x^XXois pavSdveiv. He 
notes that the correlative phraseology, 
liSd|ai (or 8iSd|aar9ai) riva TtKT4v<>i<i 

XaXK^a, linr^a, ^iJTopa, is to be found in 

the best writers. 

It is impossible to connect fiavO. 
ircpicpx< as Vulg. , discunt circuire domos ; 
for, as Alf. says, " pav6dvci> with a parti- 
ciple always means to be aware of, take 
notice of, the act implied in the verb ". 
Here, e.g., the meaning would be " they 
learn that they are going about," which is 
absurd. Bengel's view, that p.av6dvov(ri. 
is to be taken absolutely, is equally im- 
possible : " being idle, they are learners," 
the nature of the things they learn to be 
inferred from the way they spend their 
time. Von Soden connects p.av0. with 
Ta pT| S^ovra ; suggesting that they learnt 
in the houses referred to in 2 Tim. iii. 6 
what was taught there (a p,Tj 8ei, Tit. i. 

ircpicpx^|itcvai ras olK^as: These last 
words may possibly refer to the house to 
house visitation, going about (R.V.), 
which might be part of the necessary 
duty of the Church widows ; but which 
would be a source of temptation to young 
women, and would degenerate into 
wandering (A.V.). 

oil p<$vov Si . . . aXXa kolI is a Pauline 
use of constant occurrence. See Rom. 
V. 3, II, viii. 23, ix. 10 ; 2 Cor. vii. 7, 
viii. 19 ; Phil. ii. 27 [ov ... Si p,<ivov] ; 
2 Tim. iv. 8. Also in Acts xix. 27, 3 
Mace. iii. 23. 

apyaL, c^Xvapoi, irepCcpYoi : A series 
of natural causes and consequences. 
The social intercourse of idle people is 
naturally characterised by silly chatter 
which does not merely affect the under- 
standing of those who indulge in it, but 
leads them on to mischievous interfer- 
ence in other people's affairs. 

4>Xvapoi : (^Xvapciv is found in 3 John 
10, prating. 4>Xvapos is an epithet ot 
4>i.Xoaro4>(a in 4 Mace. v. 10; and in 
Prov. xxiii. 29 (^c) ^Xvapfai opiXiai 
Ivi^iXdviKoi are among the consequences 
of excessive wine-drinking. 

ircpicpYoi: See 2 Thess. iii. 11, pT)8iv 
jpYa^op^vovs aXXa ircpicp-ya(opcvov«. 
In Acts xix. 19 TO. ircpicpYa, curious arts, 
means the arts of those who are curious 
about, and pry into, matters concealed 
from human knowledge, impertinent tq 
ma,n'§ lawful needs. 

la— 16. 



'fi^ ""S^OKTO. 14. ' PouXofioi GUI' i^cuT^pas y^'H^^i*'* ' rsKvoyovelv, q 
' oiKoSeoTTOTCii', fiTiSefxiac "'d<^pfji^i' " SiSoi'oi tw * diTiKcip-^wM *Xoi-r 
Sopias ^ X'^P'-v ' 15' ^^T V^P TiKes ' cIcTpdinjo-ai' ^ diriffu tou larafa* 
16. €1 Tis ^ irioTT) cx^'' X'lP'** * eirapKeiTu ^ aurais, Kal j*^ * PapeiaOu s 
tJ ^KicXTjaia, lya rals ** orrus x'HP'^''^ liropK^o-j). t 

a Cor. xi. 12, Gal. v. 13. u 2 Cor. v. 12. v 3 Thess. ii. 4, cf. Luke xiii. 17, xxi. 15, 
9, Phil. i. 28. w I Pet. iii. 9 only, N.T. x Luke vii. 47, Gal. iii. 19, Eph. iii. i, 

S, II, I John iiL 12, Jude 16. y See z Tim. i. 6. z See ver. 10. a See note. b 

^ ilcTpair. Tiv€s AFgrG, g. 

^ Ins. irio-ris rj DKL, d, fuld., syrr. 

3 So CDKLP ; lirapKeio-e« Jf.5A[FG], 17. 

See I Tim. 
ii. 8. 

Here only, 
not LXX, 
cf. 1 Tim. 
ii. 15. 
Here only, 
not LXX. 
Luke xi. 
54, Rom. 
vii. 8, II, 
I Cor. xvi. 
14, Tit. i. 
See Tcr. 3. 

XaXovcak to |it] S^ovra expresses the 
positively mischievous activity of the 
(^Xvopoi, as irepicpyot. Compare Tit. 
i. II, SiSoo-KovTCs a pT| Set. In both 
passages jii] is expressive of the impro- 
priety, in the writer's opinion, of whatever 
might conceivably be spoken and taught ; 
whereas to ov Scovto would express 
the notion that certain specific improper 
things had, as a matter of fact, been 
spoken. See Winer-Moulton, Gram. p. 

Ver. 14. PovXo|Aoi ovv: See note on 
I Tim. ii. 8. 

vc(i>T€pos: The insertion of X'HP*' ^^" 
fore vcwT^pos in about 30 cursives, Chrys. 
Theodoret, John Damasc, Jerome, is a 
correct gloss (so R.V.). The whole 
context deals with widows, not with 
women in general, as A.V. and von 

vopciv: There is nothing really incon- 
sistent between this deliberate injunc- 
tion that young widows should marry 
again, and the counsel in i Cor. vii. 8, 
that widows should remain unmarried. 
The widows here spoken of would come 
under the class of those who " have not 
continency " ; not to mention that the 
whole world-position of the Church had 
altered considerably since St. Paul had 
written i Cor. 

olKo8c<nroTCiv : well rendered in Vulg., 
matres-familias esse. The verb is only 
found here in the Greek Bible, but oUo- 
8€«nr<5Ttjs frequently occurs in the Synop- 
tists. It is the equivalent of olKovpYovs, 
Tit. ii. 5. 

rif &vTiKCi|Uvy : The singular (see ref.) 
does not refer to Satan, but is used gene- 
rically for human adversaries. The 
plural is more usual, as in the other reff. 
Cf. 6 ii IvovTios, Tit. ii. 8. 

XoiSopios x'^P''^ '^ connected of course 
with a(^opp,r)v, not with povXoftai, as 
Mack suggests, " I will ... on account 

of the reproach which might otherwise 
come on the Church ". 

For the sentiment cf. vi. i, Tit. ii. 5, 8, 
I Peter ii. 12, iii. 16. In all these places 
the responsibility of guarding against 
scandal is laid on the members of the 
Church generally, not specially on the 
Church rulers. The construction of 
Xopiv here is not quite the same as in 
Gal. iii. 19, Tit. i. 11, Jude 16. Here it 
is an appendage to the sentence, expla- 
natory of a<^oppT)v Si8(ivai. 

Ver. 15. Tivts : See note on i. 3. 

i^irpa-rrriarav otrifroi tov J.. : This is a 
pregnant phrase, meaning They have 
turned out of the way [of life and light] 
and have followed after Satan ". " The 
prepositional use of iirto-ti), which is 
foreign to profane writers, takes its origin 

from the LXX (Hebr. ''"^nt^) " (Blass, 

Gram. p. 129). The primary phrase is 
cpxccrdoi. [also okoXovOciv or iropeiJco-601] 
6iriar(o Ttv(Js. For d-irio-w in an unfavour- 
able sense cf. Luke xxi. 8, John xii. 19, 
Acts V. 37, XX. 30, 2 Peter ii. 10, Jude 7, 
Rev. xiii. 3. The phrase, no doubt, refers 
to something worse than a second mar- 

Ver. 16. ci Tis irwrn^: This is one of 
those difficulties that prove the bona fide 
character of the letter. We may explain 
it in either of two ways: (i) It not un- 
frequently happens that the language in 
which we express a general statement is 
unconsciously coloured by a particular 
instance of which we are thinking at the 
moment. St. Paul has some definite 
case in his mind, of a Christian woman 
who had a widow depending on her, of 
whose support she wishes the Church to 
relieve her, or (2) the verse may be an 
afterthought to avoid the possibility of 
the ruling given in w. 4, 7, 8 being sup- 
posed to refer to men only. Von Soden 
explains it by the independent position 



c See I Tim. 17. Ol * KaXus ' wpocoTtiTes wpcaPuTcpoi SnrXTJs Tip,^s ** d^iou- 

d Heb. iii. 3, aQoiaav, ^dXicrra 01 * KoiriStyres iv Xoyu Kol SiSacKaXia • 18.' X^yei 

X. 29. ' ' 

e See note 
on I Tim. iv. 10. f Rom. ix. 17, z. zi, cf. Mark xv. 28. 

of married women indicated in ver. 14 
and Tit. ii. 5. The phrase ix^ti xifipo.^ 
may be intended to include dependent 
widowed relatives, aunts or cousins, who 
could not be called irpoY^voi. 

Papc(<r6cii. Compare the use of pdpos, 

1 Thess. ii. 6, Svvd|xcvoi Iv pdpci cXvat ; 
of liri^ap^u, I Thess. ii. 9, 2 Thess. iii. 
8; tcarapap^w, 2 Cor. xii. 16; d^apTJs, 

2 Cor. xi. 9. 

This verse proves that the KaToXoYos 
of widows here in view was primarily at 
least for poor relief. 

Vv. 17-25. What I have been saying 
about the support of widows reminds me 
of another question of Church finance: 
the payment of presbyters. Equity and 
scriptural principles suggest that they 
should be remunerated in proportion to 
their usefulness. You are the judge of 
the presbyters; in the discharge of this 
office be cautious in accusing, and bold 
in rebuking. I adjure you to be im- 
partial. Do not absolve without deli- 
berate consideration. A lax disciplinarian 
is partner in the guilt of those whom he 
encourages to sin. Keep yourself pure. 
I do not mean this in the ascetic sense ; 
on the contrary, your continual delicacy 
demands a stimulant. But, to resume 
about your duties as a judge, you need 
not distress yourself by misgivings ; you 
will find that your judgments about men, , 
even when only instinctive, are generally 

Ver. 17. The natural and obvious 
meaning of the verse is that while all 
presbyters discharge administrative func- 
tions, well or indifferently, they are not 
all engaged in preaching and teaching. 
We distinguish then in this passage 
three grades of presbyters: (1) ordinary 
presbyters with a living wage; (2) effi- 
cient presbyters (koviwvtcs, i Thess. v. 
12) ; (3) presbjrters who were also 
preachers and teachers. Cf. Cyprian 
{Epist. 29), presbyteri doctores. It must 
be added that Hort rejects the distinction 
between (2) and (3) (Christian Ecclesia, 
p. 196). ^ 

& SiSdoTKuv and 6 irapaKaXwv were 
possessors of distinct and recognised 
charismata (Rom. xii. 7 ; i Cor. xii. 8, 
28, 29, xiv. 6). 

irpo6o-TO)T€s : See note on i Tim. iii. 4. 

SiirXTJs Tip,T)«: Remuneration is a 
better rendering of Ttpii) than pay, as 

less directly expressive of merely mone- 
tary reward. Liddon suggests the 
rendering honorarium. On the one 
hand, SiitXtjs certainly warrants us 
in concluding that presbyters that 
ruled well were better paid than those 
that performed their duties perfunctorily. 
Bengel justifies the better pay given to 
those that " laboured in the word, etc.," 
on the ground that persons so fully oc- 
cupied would have less time to earn their 
livelihood in secular occupations. On 
the other hand, we must not press the 
term double too strictly (cf. Rev. xviii. 
6, SiTrXttcraTC ra SiirXa). ttXciovos 
Ttp.Tjs (Theod.) is nearer the meaning 
than " double that of the widows, or of 
the deacons, or simply, liberal support " 
(Chrys.). The phrase is based, according 
to Grotius, on Deut. xxi. 17; in the 
division of an inheritance the first-born 
received two shares, cf. 2 Kings ii. 9. 
The custom of setting a double share of 
provisions before presbyters at the love 
feasts {Constt. Ap. ii. 28) must have 
been, as De Wette says, based on a mis- 
understanding of this passage. 

a|iovo-6wo-av implies that what they 
were deemed worthy of they received. 

KoiriwvTcs : There is no special stress 
to be laid on this, as though some 
preachers and teachers worked harder in 
the exercise of their gift than others. 

\.6yu : The omission of the article, 
characteristic of the Pastorals, obscures 
the reference here to the constant phrase 
speak, or preach the word, or the word 
of God. 

Si8ao-KaXt<|^ : See note on chap. i. 10. 

Ver. 18. If this verse is read without 
critical prejudice, it implies that in the 
writer's judgment a quotation from Deut. 
XXV. 4 and the Saying, a^ios, k.tA. 
might be coordinated as r\ 7pa<^ ; just 
as in Mark vii. 10, Acts i. 20, and Heb. i. 
10, two O.T. quotations are coupled by 
a Ka(. For this formula of quotation, in 
addition to the reff., see John xix. 37; 
Rom. iv. 3, xi. 2; Gal. iv. 30; Jas. ii. 
23. iv. 5- 

The question then arises. Is a^ios, 
K.T.X. a proverbial saying carelessly or 
mistakenly quoted by St. Paul as ^ 
Ypa(|>ii ? or, Was St. Paul familiar with 
its presence in a written document, an 
early gospel, the subject of which was so 
sacred as to entitle it to be called ^ 

17— ig. 



ydp T) YP<^<t*n) BouK dXodiKTa ou '4>ipi(iKrEis ^ ■ Kai, A^ios o tpy6.Tr\s S C/. Matt. 

rou fiiaOou outou. 19. Kara irpecrpuTepou KaTT)Yopiav ut) -irapa- ^, Mark 

I. 25. >▼• 
39, Luke 
>^- 3Si I P*^ u- 15- ii John zviii 29, Tit. L 6, not LXX. i Acts zxii. li 

iflv (^i|i. Povv oXo. ACP, 17, 37, 80, five Others, f, vg., boh., sjrrpesh, arm. 

Ypa(j>i] ? The question has been pre- 
judged by supposed necessary limitations 
as to the earliest possible date for a 
gospel ; and many have thought it safest 
to adopt Stier's statement that a$i,o«, 
K.T.X. was a common proverb made use 
of both by our Lord (Luke x. 7 ; Matt. x. 
10), and by St. Paul. In that case, it is 
difficult to avoid the conclusion that St. 
Paul forgot that it was not -q Ypa(|>ij ; for 
here it is not natural to take a|ios, k.t.X., 
as a supplementary or confirmatory 
statement by the writer in the words of 
a well-known proverb. The proverb, if 
it be such, is rather the second item in 
4\ Ypcufti^, just as in 2 Tim. ii. ig, the 
" seal " consists of (a) " The Lord 
knoweth them that are his," and (b) 
" Let every one that nameth," etc. Our 
Lord no doubt employed proverbs that 
were current in His time,, Luke iv. 
23, John iv. 37. In both these cases 
He intimates that He is doing so; but 
He does not do so in Matt. x. 10, or Luke 
X. 7. Besides, while the variation here be- 
tween Matt, (ttjs Tpo<j»^s) and Luke (tov 
|ii(rdov) is of the same degree as in other 
cases of varying reports of Sayings from 
Q common to Matthew and Luke, yet 
such variation in wording is not likely in 
the case of a well-known proverb. We 
may add that it is difiicult to know to 
what ruling of Christ reference is made 
in I Cor. ix. 14 if it be not this Saying. 
Critical opinion has recently grown in- 
clined to believe that much of the gospel 
material which underlies the Synoptists 
was put into writing before our Lord's 
earthly ministry closed. (See Sanday, 
The Life of Christ in Recent Research, 
p. 172.) The only question, therefore, is 
not. Could St. Paul have read the Evan- 
gelic narrative ? but, Could he have co- 
ordinated a gospel document with the 
written oracles of God, venerated by 
every Hebrew as having a sanctity all 
their own? The question cannot be 
considered apart firom what we know to 
have been St. Paul's conception of the 
person of Jesus Christ. We may readily 
grant that it would be a surprising thing 
if St. Paul thought of the writings of 
any contemporary apostle as " Scripture," 
as 2 Pet. iii. 16 does; but since he be- 
lieved that Christ was " the end of the 

Law" (Rom. x. 4), it would be surprising 
were he not to have esteemed His words 
to be at least as authoritative as the 
Law which He superseded. 

The order in Deut, xxv. 4 is ov ^i|ju 
povv aXo. The same text is quoted, i 
Cor. ix. g in the form ov icT)|x«Mrcis Povv 
dXo. (B*D»FG). St. Paul's treatment 
of the command, as pointing to an analogy 
in the life of human beings, does not need 
any defence. Our just repudiation of the 
spirit in which he asks in i Cor., "Is it 
for the oxen that God careth?" must 
not blind us to the large element of truth 
in his answer, " Yea, for our sake it was 

Ver. ig. The mention of KaXus 
irpoeoTwres irpco-pvrcpoi, and of what 
was due to them, naturally suggests by 
contrast the consideration of unsatisfac- 
tory presbyters. Yet even these were to 
be protected against the possibility of 
arbitrary dismissal. They were to have 
a fair trial in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the Old Law, Deut. xix. 15 
(see also Deut. xvii. 6, Num. ixxxv. 30. 
This requirement of two or three wit- 
nesses is used allegorically in 2 Cor. xiii. 
I. Cf. John viii. 17, Heb. x. 28.) It has 
been asked. Why should this, the or- 
dinary rule, be mentioned at all ? The 
solution is to be found in a consideration 
of the private, unofficial, character of the 
Christian Church when this epistle was 
written. The Church was altogether a 
voluntary society, unrecognised by the 
state. The crimes of which its governors 
could take cognisance were spiritual ; or 
if they were such as were punishable by 
the ordinary state law, the Church was 
concerned only with the spiritual and 
moral aspect of them, that is to say, so 
far as they affected Church life. There 
were then no spiritual courts, in the 
later sense of the term. No Church 
officer could enforce any but spiritual 
punishments. In these circumstances, 
the observance of legal regulations would 
not be a matter of necessity. Indeed a 
superintendent who was jealous for the 
purity of the Church might feel himself 
justified in acting even on suspicion, 
when the question arose as to the dis- 
missal of a presbyter. 

JKT&s cl fi,TJ : This phrase arises from a 




k I Cor. xiv- 8^xo"> ^ CKTOS ^ €1 ^fir] iirl 8uo 'q rpiui' fiapTupuK.^ 20. Toos ^ 
1 Acts xix. diiapTdfoiTas ' ivumiov ' tTdvTtav cXevYC, t^a Kal ol Xoiirol d>66o»' 

19, xxvii. ^ in ' T f- 

35. evojaii'. 21. "" AiaixapTupouai ' iv<Liriov " toO " 6cou Kal * Xpiorou 

m 2 Tim. "• », « ^ , » , n « » ~ > ^ 

14, iv I. lr]<Tou * Kai Tuf "eKAeKTwi' dyYAwc, ii'a raura •* ({joXdl-ns '^X'^P''^ 

n See I Tim. ' 

ii. 3. 
o 1 Pet. i. I, ii. 6, g, 2 John i. 13. p Matt. xix. 20 (= Mark x. 20 = Luke xviii. 21), Luke xi. 28, John 

xii. 47, Acts vii. 53, xvi. 4, xxi. 24, Rom. ii. a6. Gal. vi. 13, i Tim. vi. 20, 2 Tim. i. 14. q Phil. 

ii. 14, I Tim. ii. 8. 

^ Om. cKT^s-iiaprvpuv Latin MSS. known to Jerome, also apparently Cyp. and 

^ Ins. 82 AD*, d, f, g, autem (not r), go. ; ins. 8« after ap,apT. FG. 

2 Ins. Kvp£ov DcKLP, go., syrr. * 'lija. Xpurr. DcFKLP, go., syrr., arm. 

blend of el pij and Iktos cl. Examples of 
its use are cited from Lucian. Alford 
notes that similar " pleonastic expres- 
sions such as x<^P^^ <^> '^^ <^ H^'n> ^^^ 
found in later writers such as Plutarch, 
Dio Cassius, etc.". Deissmann cites an 
instructive example for its use in the 
Cilician Paul from an inscription of Mops- 
uestia in Cilicia of the Imperial period 
{Bible Studies, trans, p. 118). See reff. 
Iirl . . . papxvpuv : This seems an 
abbreviation for iirX o-Toparos papT. 
So R.V. C/. 2 Cor. xiii. i, Hebr. 

*li^ '^B~7^ . It is a different use from 
liri in the sense of be/ore (a judge), 
Mark xiii. 9, Acts xxv. 9, 10. See Blass, 
Gram. p. 137. 

Ver. 20. Tot»s apapTovovTas : It 
cannot be certainly determined whether 
this refers to offending presbyters only or 
to sinners in general. In favour of the 
first alternative, is the consideration that 
it seems to be a suitable conclusion to 
ver. 19; and the vehemence of the ad- 
juration in ver. 21 receives thus a justifica- 
tion. It demands greater moral courage 
to deal judicially with subordinate offi- 
cials than with the rank and file of a 

On the other hand, the sequence of 
thought in these concluding verses of the 
chapter is not formal and deliberate. Al- 
though it has been shown above that vv. 
17-25 form one section, marked by one 
prominent topic, the relation of Timothy 
to presbyters, it cannot be maintained 
that the connexion is indisputably obvious; 
and the use of the present participle sug- 
gests that habitual sinners are under dis- 
cussion. One is reluctant to suppose 
that such men would be found amongst 
the presbyters of the Church. 

evcuiriov irarrwv: At first sight this 
seems opposed to the directions given by 
our Lord, Matt, xviii. 15, " Shew him 

his fault between thee and him alone " ; 
but the cases are quite different : Christ 
is there speaking of the mutual relations 
of one Christian with another, as brothers 
in the household of God ; here St. Paul 
is giving directions to a father in God, a 
Christian ruler, as in 2 Tim. iv. 2, Tit. i. 
13, ii. 15. Moreover, as Ell. points 
out, Christ is speaking of checking the 
beginning of a sinlul state, St. Paul is 
speaking of persistent sinners. 

tva Kal ol Xoiirol, k.t.X. : Cf. Deut. 
xiii. II. 

Ver. 21. SiapapTvpopat : It is easy to 
see that St. Paul had not perfect confi- 
dence in the moral courage of Timothy. 
He interjects similar adjurations, vi. 13, 
2 Tim. iv. I. In i Thess. iv. 6 we can 
understand Siepapi-vpapeOa to mean that 
purity had been the subject of a strong 
adjuration addressed by the apostle to 
his converts. 

T«v IkXcktwv oyy^Xwv: The epithet 
elect has probably the same force as 
holy in our common phrase, The holy 
angels. Compare the remarkable par- 
allel, cited by Otto and Krebs, from 
Josephus, B. y. ii. 16, 4, paprvpopai. Si 
iyi> piv vpwv to. aYia Kal T0ti9 icpovs 
ayy^Xovs tov Ocov kqI irarpiSa tt|v 
Koivqv, and Testament of Levi, xix. 3, 

pdpTVS icTTl KUpiOS, K. pdpTVpCS ol 

ayyikoi avTOv, k. pdpTvpes iipcXs. The 
references to angels in St. Paul's 
speeches and letters suggest that he had 
an unquestioning belief in their benefi- 
cent ministrations; though he may not 
have attached any importance to specu- 
lations as to their various grades. 
We are safe in saying that the elect 
angels are identical with "the angels 
which kept their own principality" (Jude 
6), " that did not sin " (2 Pet. ii. 4). 

Ellicott follows Bp. Bull in giving 
Ivuiriov a future reference to the Day of 
Judgment, when the Lord will be at- 




' irpoKpifiaTos, {j-TiS^K iroiuc Kara ' itp6<TK\i<riv.^ 2 2. Xeipas * rax^ws r Here only, 

c»5'A c\ t \\' V °°^ LXX. 

ItTiocKi eiriTioci, fiijoe "koicu^ci dfiapriais ^dWorpiais* aeauTOK s Here only, 

not LXX. 
t 2 Thess. 
ii. a. u 3 John 11. r Rom. ziv. 4, zv. 30, 2 Cor. x. 15, 16, Heb. ix. 23. 

^ So ^FGK, 47**, 67**, many others, d, f, g, r, vg. ; irpoo-icXT)<riv ADLP, 17, 31, 
37, 47*, 80, more than fifty- four others. 

tended by "ten thousands of His holy 
ones " (Jude 14). But this seems an eva- 
sion due to modern prejudice. Ivwiriov 
implies that the solemnity of the charge 
or adjuration is heightened by its being 
uttered in the actual presence of God, 
Christ, and the angels. Perhaps one 
may venture to suppose that these are 
thought of as in three varying degrees 
of remoteness from human beings, with 
our present powers of perception. God 
the Father, though indeed " He is not far 
from each one of us," " dwells in light 
unapproachable " ; Christ Jesus, though 
in one sense He dwells in us and we in 
Him, is for the most part thought of as 
having His special presence at the right 
hand of the Majesty in the heavens ; but 
the angels, though spiritual beings, are 
akin to ourselves, creatures as we are, 
powers with whom we are in immedi- 
ate and almost sensible contact, media 
perhaps through which the influences of 
the Holy Spirit are communicated to us. 

TttVTo refers to all the preceding dis- 
ciplinary instructions. 

irpoKp(|iaTos : dislike, praejudicium. 

irpocricXurtv : partiality (nihil faciens 
in aliam partem declinando, Vulg.). 

Clem. Rom., ad Cor. 21, has the phrase 
Kara trpocncXia-cts. The reading irpoo*- 
kXi|o-iv is almost certainly due to itacism. 
It could only mean " by invitation, i.e., 
the invitation or summons of those who 
seek to draw you over to their side" 
(Thayer's Grimm). 

Ver. 22. Our best guide to the meaning 
of x^^P*'^^ • • • iffvrL^u is the context, 
and more especially the following clause, 
pt)8i . . . oXXoTpCais. p.i]8^ constantly 
introduces an extension or development 
of what has immediately preceded ; it 
never begins a new topic. Now the in- 
junction Be not partaker of other men's 
sins is certainly connected with the 
disciplinary rebuke of sin, and refers of 
course to definite acts of sin committed 
in the past, as well as to their conse- 
quences or continuation. The whole 
procedure is outlined : we have the accu- 
sation in ver. ig, the conviction and sen- 
tence in ver. 20, and — in the true Pauline 
spirit — repentance and reconciliation in 

this verse; and the topic of ministerial 
treatment of sin is resumed and continued 
in ver. 24 sq. We can hardly doubt that 
St. Paul had in his mind Lev. xix. 17, 
" Thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour 
and not bear sin because of him," Kai ov 
Xi7p\|rQ 8t' avT^v apapriav. To witness 
in silence an act of wrong-doing is to 
connive at it. If this is true in the 
case of private persons, how much more 
serious an offence is it in the case of 
those to whom government is committed? 
See 2 John 11, 6 Xcyuv "yap avT^ x°'^P^*'^ 
KOtvuvci TOis cpYois avTov tois irovt)- 

XeXpas . . . liriTiOei is then best re- 
ferred to imposition 01 hands on recon- 
died offenders, on their re-admission to 
Church communion. Eusebius (H. £., 
vii. 2), speaking of reconciled heretics, 
.•ays, "The ancient custom prevailed 
with regard to such that they should 
receive only the laying on of hands with 
prayers," yt6vQ xp'')'''^*'^^ ""^ ^** x*'P*''' 
itri94<r€t»9 ruxt* See Council of Nicea, 
can. 8, according to one explanation 
of \(ipo6€TovfUvovst and Council of 
Aries, can. 8. 

This was used in the case of penitents 
generally. So Pope Stephen (ap. Cy- 
prian, Ep. 74), " Si qui ergo a quacunque 
haeresi venient ad vos, nihil innovetur 
nisi quod traditum est, ut manus illis 
imponatur in paenitentiam ". See Bing- 
ham, Antiquities, xviii. 2, i, where the 
15th Canon of the Council of Agde (a.d. 
506) is cited : " Poenitentes tempore quo 
poenitentiam petunt, impositionem ma- 
nuum et cilicium super caput a sacerdotc 
consequantur." The antiquity of the 
custom may be argued from the consider- 
ation that imposition of hands was so 
prominent a feature in ordination, that it 
is not likely that its use would have been 
extended to anything else if such exten- 
sion could not have claimed unquestioned 
antiquity in its favour. If the explana- 
tion of this verse given above — which is 
that of Hammond, De Wette, Ellicott, 
and Hort — be accepted, we have here the 
first distinct allusion to the custom of 
receiving back penitents by imposition of 




«r 2 Cor. xi. dyK&K * Ti^pei. 2$. |Jir)ic^Ti * 68poir<STei, dWck. oicw ^Xiyw ' XP<^ ^'^ 

27, c/. I TOK ■ oTOixayoc ^ Kal rds * iruKf d$ orou ^ daOck'cias. 24. TiJ'oij' « , . , ,., N / . d J . ' 

14, 3 Tim. dKOpcinruK ai dp,apTiai 'irpooTiXoi ciorii', TrpodYOucrai eis Kpuxiv, 

IV. 7. 

z Here only 
N.T., Dan. i. 12. LXX. y Here only (N.T.) of food. z Here only, not LXX. a Here 

only, N.T^ as adj. b Matt viii. 17, Luke v. 15, viii. 2, xiii. 11, 12, John v. 5, xi. 4, Acts xxviii. 9, 
I Cor. ii. 3, Gal. iv. 13. c Vv. 44, 25, Heb. vii. 14, Judith viii. 29, 2 Mace. iii. 17, xiv. 39. 

d J Tim. i. 18. 

^ Ins. <rov DcFGKL, f, g, vg., go., sah., boh., syrr., ann. ; om, <rov ^AD*P, 17, 
d, r. 

Timothy is bidden to restrain by deli- 
berate prudence the impulses of mere 
pity. A hasty reconciliation tempts the 
offender to suppose that his offence can- 
not have been so very serious after ail ; 
and smoothes the way to a repetition of 
the sin. " Good-natured easy men " 
cannot escape responsibility for the dis- 
astrous consequences of their lax admini- 
stration of the law. They have a share 
in the sins of those whom they have 
encouraged to sin. Those who give 
letters of recommendation with too great 
facility fall under the apostolic condem- 

On the other hand, the ancient com- 
mentators — Chrys., Theod., Theoph., 
Oecumen. — refer xctpas iiririOti, to hasty 
ordinations; and in support of this, 
the generally adopted view, it must be 
granted that Iiri0c(ris x'^P''^ undoubtedly 
refers to ordination in iv. 14, 2 Tim. i. 6. 
If we assume the same reference here, 
the intention of the warning would be 
that Timothy will best avoid clerical 
scandals by being cautious at the outset 
as to the character of those whom he 
ordains. The clause in iii. 10, Kal ovtoi 
8e SoKi|AaSc<rO«0crav vpwrov, would, in 
this case, have the same reference ; and 
we should explain a^tapriai aXXdrpiai 
as possible future sins, for the commis- 
sion of which a man's advancement may 
give him facilities, and responsibility for 
which attaches, in various degrees of 
blameworthiness, to those who have ren- 
dered it possible for him to commit them. 

ariavTov is emphatic, repeating in brief 
the warning of the previous clause. 

a,yv6v : The context demands that the 
meaning should not be chaste [castum 
Vulg.), as in Tit. ii. 5, 2 Cor. xi. 2 ; but 
pure in the sense of upright, honourable, 
as in 2 Cor. vii. 11, Phil. iv. 8, Jas. iii. 17. 

Ver. 23. p.T|K^Ti vSpoirdrci: An ade- 
quate explanation of this seemingly ir- 
relevant direction is that since there is 
a certain degree of ambiguity in ayv6%, 
St. Paul thought it necessary to guard 
against any possible misunderstanding 

of Keep thyself pure : "I do not mean 
you to practice a rigid asceticism ; on 
the contrary, I think that you are likely 
to injure your health by your complete 
abstinence from wine; so, be no longer 
a water-drinker, etc." So Hort, who 
thinks that this is " not merely a sanitary 
but quite as much a moral precept" 
{yudaistic Christianity, p. 144). This 
explanation is preferable to that of Paley 
who regards this as an example of " the 
neghgence of real correspondence . . . 
when a man writes as he remembers: 
when he puts down an article that occurs 
the moment it occurs, lest he should 
afterwards forget it" (Horae Paulinae). 
Similarly Calvin suggested that a-tavThv 
— atrOcvcias was a marginal note by 
St. Paul himself. Alford's view has 
not much to commend it, viz., that 
Timothy's weakness of character was 
connected with his constant ill health, 
and that St. Paul hoped to brace his 
deputy's will by a tonic. 

For this position of |iT]K^Tt, cf. Mark 
ix. 25, xi. 14, Luke viii. 49, John v. 14, 
viii. II, Rom. xiv. 13, Eph. iv. 28; and 
see note on chap. iv. 14. 

810 TO o~r6|i,axov: Wetstein's happy 
quotation from Libanius, Epist. 1578 
must not be omitted : ireirrwKe Kal -qitiv 
o <m$|jiaxof Tais <rvvcx^<riv v8poiro(r(ai.s. 

Ver. 24. The connexion of this general 
statement is especially with ver. 22. The 
solemn warning against the awful conse- 
quences of an ill-considered moral judg- 
ment on those condemned was calculated 
to overwhelm a weak man with anxiety. 
Here the apostle assures Timothy that in 
actual practical experience the moral diag- 
nosis of men's characters is not so per- 
plexing as might be supposed anteced- 
ently. The exegesis of irpodYovcrai, and 
jiraKo\ov6ov(rtv depends on the view we 
take of Kpio-is ; vis., whether it refers to 
a judgment passed by man in this world, 
or to the final doom pronounced by God 
in the next. Kpio-is is used of such a 
judgment as man may pass, in John viii. 
16, 2 Peter ii. 11, Jude 9; though the 

2i — 25. VI. I. 



Tialf 8e Kal * ciroKoXouflouaii' • 25. ' <io-ouT<i»s ^ Kal tA 'IpYO 'tAc Mark xvi 
'KaXcl'^ * irpoStiXa,^ Kal rd '' aXXus exorra Kpu^TJcai ou Sui'oiTai.* ii.'ai, c/. 
VI. I. 'Oaoi claiK "uiro "Joyoi' SouXoi tous iSious '' 8c<nroTasf Seeixim. 

irdcnris TipiTJs d|ious * T^yeicrObKraK, ** iKa ^ p.T) to oKopa tou 6eou icai g See i Tim. 

iii. I. 
h Hereonly, 
N.T. a Ecclus. li. 26, Zech. iii. 9, Jer. xzxiv. (zxvii.) 8, 11. b Luke ii. 29, i Tim. vi. i, 

3, 3 Tim. ii. 21, Tit. ii. g, i Pet. ii. 18, 3 Pet. ii. i. c See i Tim. i. 12. d Tit. ii. s, Rom. ii. 

34 (Isa. Iii. 5). 

1 Ins. 8i AFG, f, g, go. ^ .^^ ^^Xa Ipyo KL. 

•Add i<rri KL; add el«rl DFGP, 17, 67*, five others. 

* So ADP, 17, 47, 67, more than thirty-five others ; Svvarai i«^FGKL. 

word is more frequently used of the 
Great final Judgment. If, as is generally 
allowed, these verses, 24 and 25, are 
resumptive of ver. 22, the Kpiais here 
indicated is that of the Church ruler, 
Timothy in this case, deciding for or 
against the admission of men to com- 
munion (or to ordination). It is evident 
that the final Judgment of God, which 
no one can certainly forecast, cannot 
help or hinder a decision made in this 
life by one man about another. The 
meaning, then, of the clause is as fol- 
lows: In the case of some men, you 
have no hesitation as to your verdict ; 
their sins are notorious and force you to 
an adverse judgment. With regard to 
others, your suspicions, your instinctive 
feeling of moral disapproval, comes to be 
confirmed and justified by subsequent 
revelation of sins that had been con- 
cealed. This is, in the main, the expla- 
nation adopted by Alford. 

irp($8T]Xoi : Not open beforehand (A.V.), 
hntevident (R.V.), manifesta sunt (Vulg.) 
as in Heb. vii. 14 (neut.). The irpo is not 
indicative of antecedence in time, but of 
publicity, as in irpocYpdc^, Gal. iii. i. 

irpoayo'uo'ai : It is best to take this in 
a transitive sense, as in Acts xii. i, xvii. 
5, XXV. 26, of bringing a prisoner forth 
to trial. Here the object of the verb is 
understood out of tivwv avBpwirwv. The 
men are in the custody of their sins, 
which also testify against them. In the 
other case, the witnesses — the sins — do 
not appear until the persons on trial 
have had sentence pronounced on them. 
We supply cU itp(<riv after eiraKoXow- 


Ver. 25. wravTuf here, as in chap. ii. 
9, naturally introduces an antithesis to 
what has gone before; and this deter- 
mines the meaning of ra oXXus exovra ; 
not as tpya which are not KaXa, but as 
cpYa KaXd which are not irp68T)\a ; and 
justifies the R.V. rendering, Thtrt' are 

good works that are evident. The next 
clause is parallel to the corresponding 
part of ver. 24: Sins and good works 
alike cannot be successfully and indefi- 
nitely concealed; they follow — are dis- 
closed some time or other in justification 
of — the KpCo-ts of men. The literal ren- 
dering in R.V. m.. The works that are 
good are evident, could only be de- 
fended by laying emphasis on KaXd, 
" good in appearance as well as in 
reality " ; but KaXoi Jpya is of frequent 
occurrence in these epistles without any 
such special signification ; see on iii. i ; 
and this rendering deprives wtravTus of 
any force. Von Soden thinks that we 
have here a reference to the sayings in 
Matt. V. 14-16, 

Chapter VI. — Vv. 1-2. The duty of 
Christian slaves to heathen and Christian 
masters respectively. 

Ver. I. The politico-social problem of 
the first ages of Christianity was the 
relation of freemen to slaves, just as the 
corresponding problem before the Church 
in our own day is the relation of the 
white to the coloured races. The grand 
truth of the brotherhood of man is the 
revolutionary fire which Christ came to 
cast upon earth. Fire, if it is to minister 
to civilisation, must be so controlled as to 
be directed. So with the social ethics of 
Christianity; the extent to which their 
logical consequences are pressed must be 
calculated by common sense. One of 
the great dangers to the interests of the 
Church in early times was the teaching 
of the gospel on liberty and equality, 
crude and unqualified by consideration of 
the other natural social conditions, also 
divinely ordered, which Christianity was 
called to leaven, not wholly to displace. 

The slave problem also meets us in 
Eph. vi. 5, Col. iii. 22, Tit. ii. 9, Philem. 
I Pet. ii. 18. In each place it is dealt 
with consistently, practically, Christianly, 

The difficulty in this verse is inc^ 


nP02 TlMOeEON A 


e Ps. Ixxvii. ij StSoaxaXia ^ |3Xa(r(|>T)p,TiTai. 2. oi 8c iTi<rroi>s exorrcs * Seo-iroras 

II, Wisd. liT) KaTa<bpoi'6iT(i)0'a>', oti dSeX^oi tlaiv • dXXcl u.aXXoi' SouXeu^Tuaaf. 

xvi. u,24, „ , , ^ X c ~ / « 

a Mace. oTi irioTOi ciaif xai dyaiTTjTOi oi ttjs * euepYeaias drriXa^^aK^ftcKOi* 

26, 4 

Mace. viii. 17, Acta iv. 9. f i Mace. ii. 48, a Mace. xiv. 15, Luke i. 54, Acts zx. 33. 

Ivy6v. The contrast in ver. 2, 01 Se irnrr. 
€x. StoTT. seems to prove that a SovXos 
viro tvyov is one that belongs to a heathen 
master. The R.V. is consistent with 
this view, Let as many as are servants 
under the yoke. The heathen estimate 
of a slave differed in degree, not in kind, 
from their estimate of cattle ; a Christian 
master could not regard his slaves as viri 

Tovis ISiovs Sco-irtSras: The force of 
1810s was so much weakened in later 
Greek that it is doubtful if it amounts 
here to more than avrwv. See on iii. 4. 

Sco-iroTTjs is more strictly the correla- 
tive of 8ov\o9 than is Kvptos, and is used 
in this sense in reff. except Luke ii. 29. 
St. Paul has Kvpios in his other epistles 
(Rom. xiv. 4; Gal. iv. i; Eph. vi. 5, 9; 
Col. iii. 22, iv. i) ; but, as Wace acutely 
remarks, in all these passages there is a 
reference to the Divine Kvpios which 
gives the term a special appropriateness. 

■Trdo-»)S TijtTJs a^iovs, worthy of the 
greatest respect. 

tva |XTj — pXa«r<^T)|iii]Tai : The phrase 
" blaspheme the name of God " comes 
from Isa. Hi. 5 (cf. Ezek. xxxvi. 20-23). 
See Rom. ii. 24, 2 Pet. ii. 2. See note 
on v. 14. The corresponding passage in 
Tit. ii. 10, tva ttiv SiSaaKaXiav Tr|v tov 
(Tu-rijpos iqp.wv 6eov Koo-pwcriv, supports 
Alford's contention that the article here is 
equivalent to a possessive pronoun, His 
doctrine. On the other hand, the phrase 
does not need any explanation ; the doc- 
trine would be quite analogous to St 
Paul's use elsewhere when speaking of 
the Christian faith. For SiSoo-KaXCa, see 
note on i. 10. 

Ver. 2. A Christian slave would be 
more likely to presume on his newly 
acquired theory of liberty, equality and 
fraternity in relation to a Christian 
master than in relation to one that was 
a heathen. The position of a Christian 
master must have been a difficult one, 
distracted between the principles of a 
faith which he shared with his slave, and 
the laws of a social state which he felt 
were not wholly wrong, i Cor. vii. 22 
and Philem. 16 illustrate the position. 

|ta\Xov SovXcv^Toxrav : serve them all 
the more, magis serviant (Vulg.). 

For this use of (loXXov cf. Rom. xiv. 

13, I Cor. v. 2, vi. 7, 9, Eph. iv. 28, v. 
II. Ignat. Polyc. 4 says of Christian 
slaves, ^rfii avrol K^vtriovaObxrav, aXX' 
els 8<i|av 6cov irXcov SovXcvcTwo'av. 

8ti irioToi, K.T.X. : The Christian 
slave is to remember that the fact of his 
master being a Christian, believing and 
beloved, entitles him to service better, 
if possible, than that due to a heathen 
master. The slave is under a moral ob- 
ligation to render faithful service to any 
master. If the spiritual status of the 
master be raised, it is reasonable that the 
quality of the service rendered be not 
lowered, but rather idealised. " The 
benefit is the improved quality of the ser- 
vice, and they that partake of or enjoy it 
are the masters" (Field in loc). So 
Vulg., qui beneficii participes sunt. 

cvcp7C(ria has its usual non-religious 
signification, as in Acts iv. 9. It does 
not indicate the goodness of God in 
redemption, as suggested in A.V., in- 
fluenced no doubt directly by Calvin and 
Beza, though the explanation is as old 
as Ambr., because they are faithful and 
beloved, partakers of the benefit. On 
the other hand, it is more natural to use 
cvcpYc<r(a of the kindness of an employer 
to a servant or employee, than of the ad- 
vantage gained by the employer firom his 
servant's good-will. Accordingly Chry- 
sostom takes it here in the former sense, 
the whole clause referring to the slaves. 
Von Soden, taking cvep7C(ria similarly, 
renders, as those who occupy themselves 
in doing good. No doubt the best reward 
of faithful service is the acquisition of a 
character of trustworthiness and the grate- 
ful love of the master to whom you are 
invaluable ; but it is rather far-fetched to 
read this subtle meaning into the passage 
before us. In support of the view taken 
above, Alford quotes from Seneca, De 
Beneficiis, iii. 18, a discussion of the query, 
" An beneficium dare servus domino pos- 
sit ? " which Seneca answers in the 
affirmative, adding further: "Quidquid 
est quod servilis officii formulam excedit, 
quod non ex imperio sed ex voluntate 
praestatur, beneficium est ". See Light- 
foot, Philippians, 270 sqq., St. Paul and 

avTtXap,pav<Sp,cvoi : avTiXap,pdv«(r6ai 
properly means to lay hold of, hence 

'— 4- 



TaCra SiSao-KE Kal irapaKdXci. 3. cT ns ' ^TcpoSiSaaKaXci xai p,^ g See i Tim. 

irpoCT^pXCTai ^ ' uyi.alvou<Ti ' XoyoiS, tois tou Kupiou r\y.<ay '\i\aou h See note. 

XpiOToG, Kai * TTJ ^ kot' ^ ' eiai^aav SiSao-KaXia, 4. " TeTu4>uTai, y, see i 

fiijScK ■ ^TrioTiifiEKOs, dXX& " koauc ircpl ^ Jif]Triffeis itol *• XoYop,axias, k Tit. i. i. 

1 See I Tim. 
ii. 3. 
m See i Tim. iii. 6. n Mark xiv. 68, Acts (9), Heb. xi. 8, Jas. iv. 14, J[ude 10. o Wisd. xvii. 

8 {bis) only. p John iii. 25, Acts zv. 2, 7, xzv. 20, 2 Tim. li. 33, Tit. iii. 9, not LXX. q Here 

only, not LXX, c/. 2 Tim. ii. 14. 

* vpoo-cxcTai ^*. So Bentley conj. from Latin adquiescit. 

to help, as in reff. ; and the Harclean 
Syriac gives that sense here. Like our 
English word apprehend, it passes from 
an association with the sense of touch to 
an association with the other senses or 
faculties which connect us with things 
about us. Field {in loc.) gives examples 
of the use of avTiXaf*Pavcardai as expres- 
sive of a person being sensible of anything 
which acts upon the senses, e.g., the 
smell of a rose. The Peshitta agrees 
with this. Alford renders mutually 
receive, by which he seems to intend the 
same thing as Ell., who suggests that ovtC 
has " a formal reference to the reciprocal 
relation between master and servant ". 
Field rejects this because " receive in ex- 
change " is avTiXap.pavei,v, and the ex- 
amples cited by Alf. are middle only in 

8iSao-Kc Kal -n-apaKoXct, : See note on 
iv. 13. 

Vv. 3-21. Thoughts about the right 
use of wealth are suggested by the slave 
problem, a mischievous attitude towards 
which is associated with false doctrine. 
If a man possesses himself, he has 
enough. This possession is eternal as 
well as temporal. This is my lesson for 
the poor, for you as a man of God (and I 
solemnly adjure you to learn and teach 
it), and for the rich. 

Ver. 3. JTcpoSiSao-KaXci : See note on 
>. 3- 

Kal (iT| : Blass {Gramm. p. 514) notes 
this case of p.ii following cl with the in- 
dicative (supposed reality) as an abnor- 
mal conformity to classical use. The 
usual N.T. use, cl . . . ov, appears in 
I Tim. iii. 5, v. 8. In these examples, 
however, the ov is in the same clause as 
«l, not separated from it, as here, by a 

irpoo^epxeTai : assents to. The noun 
irpooTiXvTos, proselyte, " one who has 
Bome over," might alone render this use 
>f irpoo-cpxopat defensible. But Ell. 
pves examples of this verb from Irenaeus 
ind Philo ; and Alf. from Origen, which 
lompletely justify it. The reading irpo- 

cexsTtti, which seems to derive support 
from the use of irpoo-c'xeiv, i. 4, Tit. i. 14, 
has not exactly the same force ; " to give 
heed," or " attend to," a doctrine foils 
short of giving in one's adhesion to it. 
vYiaivovo'i Xi$Yoi9 : See on i. 10. 
Tois Tov Kvpiov : This is in harmony 
with St. Paul's teaching elsewhere, that 
the words spoken through the prophets 
of the Lord are the Lord's own words. 
It is thus we are to understand Acts xvi. 
7, " The Spirit of Jesus suffered them 
not," and i Cor. xi. 23, " I received of 
the Lord," etc. The words of Jesus, 
" He that heareth you heareth me " 
(Luke X. 16) have a wider reference than 
was seen at first. 

TQ Kar' ctKrc^eiav StSacrKaXt^ : See 
ref. and notes on i. 10, ii. 2. 

Ver. 4. T€Tv4>«Tai: inflatus est (d, 
m'", r) ; superbus est (Vulg.). See on iii. 6. 
voo-wv: morbidly busy (Liddon), Ian- 
guens (Vulg.), aegrotans (m'"). His 
disease is intellectual curiosity about 
trifles. Both doting and mad after (Alf.) 
as translations of voo-uv, err by excess of 
vigour. The idea is a simple one of sick- 
ness as opposed to health. See on i. 10. 
ircpl : For this use of ircp( see on i. 19. 
ftji-^o-cts : See on i. 4. 
XoYop,ax^as: It is not clear whether 
what is meant are uiordy quarrels or 
quarrels about words. The latter seems 
the more likely. There is here the 
usual antithesis of words to deeds. The 
heretic spoken of is a theorist merely ; he 
wastes time in academic disputes; he 
does not take account of things as they 
actually are. On the other hand, it is 
interesting and suggestive that to the 
heathen, the controversy between Chris- 
tianity and Judaism seemed to be of this 
futile nature (see Acts xviii. 15, xxiii. 29, 
XXV. ig). 

^O^vos, ip\.% are similarly juxtaposed 
Rom. i. 29, Gal. v. 20, 21, Phil. i. 15. 

The plural ?pcis is a well-supported 
variant in Rom. xiii. 13, Gal. v. 20. In 
Tit. iii. 9 it is the true reading; but 
in other lists of vices (i Cor. iii. 31 




' Hew only, ^g &y yit'CTai ^6<Sko$, 2pis,^ ^Xaar^T]fJiiai, "^ oiroi'Oiai ironfipai, 5. 

I Here only, * SioTraparpiPal ^ ' 8i€4>6apu,^KWi' &v6p<a-niav rbv I'oui' Kal " dTreaTepTJ- 
not LiXX. « ^ # - .1 

t Here only fiefwi' TTJs dXirjOeias, ' KOfit JoiTwi' " iroptap.oi' eli'ai ttji' cucr^Peiai'.^ 
metaph,, ^ »»»> « / 

c/. Luke 6. EoTiK 0€ * iTopio-fios (Aevas T^ ^^ euorcpcia iiera * aurapKcias • 7. 
xii. 33, a 
Cor. IV. 

16, Rev. viii. 9, xi. t8. u Mark x. 19, i Cor. vi. 7, 8, vii. 5, Jas. v. 4 (?). v Matt. (3), Luke 

(2), Acts (7), I Cor. vii. 26, j6. w Wisd. xiii. 19, xiv. 2 only; verb, Wisd. xv. 13 only. x See 

ver. 5. y See i Tim. ii. 2. z a Cor. ix. 8, cf. Phil. iv. 11. 

1 So j>.^AKsiiP, 17, many others, syrpesh, sah., boh., arm. ; epeis DFGL, 47, some 
others, d, f, g, m5o, r, vg., go., syrhcl. 

* irapaSioTpiPal a few cursives. 

'Add d^tdrratro d-iro twv toiovtwv DgrcKLP, m5o, Discede ab eiusmodi, syrr., 

2 Cor. xii. 20, Phil. i. 15) the singular is 

. pXao-<{>T)pia also occurs in a list of sins, 
/"^Eph. iv. 31, Col. iii. 8. 
/ virovoiai irovtjpai : Wcivoia (only here 
in N.T., but virovoew in Acts xiii. 25, 
XXV. 18, xxvii. 27, all in neutral sense, to 
suppose) has sometimes the sense of sus- 
picion. See examples given by Ell. The 
phrase here does not mean wicked or un- 
worthy thoughts of God — the class of 
mind here spoken of does not usually 
think about God directly, though an un- 
worthy opinion about Him underlies their 
life — but malicious suspicions as to the 
honesty of those who differ from them. 

Ver. 5. : The force of 
the 8id is expressed in the R.V., wran^- 
lings, which denotes protracted quarrel- 
lings, perconfricationes (r), conjiictationes 
(d, Vulg.). Field {in loc.) comparing 
Siapdx€<r0ai, 8ia({>iXoTipcta'6ai, etc., 
prefers the sense of reciprocity, mutual 
irritations, gallings one of another 
(A.V.m.), "as infected sheep by contact 
communicate disease to the sound " 
(Chrys.). irapaSiarpiPaC {^ .K.), perverse 
disputings, is given a milder sense by 
Winer-Moulton, Gram. p. 126, "mis- 
placed diligence or useless disputing". 

8ic<j>9appcvb>v T^v vovv: cf. Karci^O- 
appc'voi Tov vow, 2 Tim. iii. 8, the ace. 
being that of the remoter object. Cf., for 
the notion, rhv iraXaiov av9p«irov t6v 
4>9ci,p($pevov Kara tos liriOtipCas ttjs 
dirdTi]s, Eph. iv. 22, also i Cor. xv. 33, 
2 Cor. xi. 3, Jude 10. 

dirEo-TepT]p^v(av : privati. d-irooTep^w 
conveys the notion of a person being 
deprived of a thing to which he has a 
right. See reff. This is expressed in 
R.V., bereft of. The truth was once 
theirs ; they have disinherited themselves. 
The A. v., destitute of, does not assume 
that they ever had it. 

vopi^tSvTuv, K.T.X. : since they sup- 
pose. For this use of the participle 
Bengal compares Rom. ii. 18, 20, 2 Tim. 
ii. 21, Heb. vi. 6. 

iropio-pdv : a means of gain, quaestus. 
The commentators quote Plutarch, Cato 
Major, § 25, 8010-1 KtxP'n*''^'^'' povois 
■Tropio-poiS} ycupyCtji Kal <|>ei8oi. 

TTjv cw^Peiav : not godliness in gene- 
ral, /i^to^^w (Vulg.), but the profession of 
Christianity, culturam Dei (m^"). See 
ii. 2. Allusions elsewhere to those who 
supposed that the gospel was a means 
of making money have usually reference 
to self-interested and grasping teachers 
(2 Cor. xi. 12, xii. 17, 18; Tit. i. 11; 2 
Pet. ii. 3). Here the significance of the 
clause may be that the false teachers de- 
moralised slaves, suggesting to slaves 
who were converts, or possible converts, 
that the profession of Christianity in- 
volved an improvement in social position 
and worldly prospects. The article be- 
fore cvo-cp. shews that the A.V. is wrong, 
supposing that gain is godliness. 

Ver. 6. The repetition of iropio-pds in 
a fresh idealised sense is parallel to the 
transfigured sense in which vop(pci>9 is 
used in i. 8. 

atirapKcCas : not here sujfficientia 
(Vulg.), though that is an adequate ren- 
dering in 2 Cor. ix. 8. St. Paul did not 
mean to express the sentiment of the 
A.V. of Eccles. vii. 11, " Wisdom is good 
with an inheritance ". Contentment does 
not even give his meaning. Contentment 
is relative to one's lot ; avrapKcia is 
more profound, and denotes indepen- 
dence of, and indifference to, any lot ; a 
man's finding not only his resources in 
himself, but being indifferent to every- 
thing else besides. This was St. Paul's 
condition when he had learnt to be 
avrdpKtjs, Phil. iv. 11. "Lord of him- 
self, though not of lands" (Sir. H. WoU 




ouScK ydp ci<n)f^Y'^afiCK els rbv K6<Ty,oy,^ on o68e {^ei/eYKCiK TtaiMaccvi 
Sufdficda- 8. exorres Se 'Siarpo^As* Kol '' aKCTr<£o-/iaTa, toutois b K[e°eonW, 

• dpKEadT}o-op,eOa. 9. ol Sc ^ouXop.ecoi irXoureii' ^ iy.TTiTrrov(nv els c Luke iii. 
ireipao-p.of Kal * irayiSa ^ koI Iiri6u)xias iroXXAs ' di'OTjTOus * Kol xlii. 5! ' 

* ^Xa^epds, aiTifes ^ PuOtJoucn toOs di'Opwiroos els * oXeOpoi' Kal iufe. 

U._a6. f Luke xxiv. 25, Rom. i. 14, Gal. iii. i, 3, Tit iii. 3. g Prov. x. 36 only, 
xii. 4, Luke v. 7 only. i 1 Cor. v. 5, i Thess. v. 3, 2 Thess. i. 9 only, N.T. 


e I Tim. iii. 
3 Tim. 
3 Mace. 

^ Ins. SijXov ^cDbcKLP ; ins. dXt|6^9 D*, verum {quoniam) d, verum {quia) mgS, 
haud dubium {quia) f, vg., [h^aut dubium, verum tatnen fuld., verum Cyp., go., syir.; 
om. S-rjXov Jn^'AFG, 17, g, r, vgsome MSS, sah., boh., arm. 

' So ^AL, f, vg. ; SiaTpo<|>T)v DFGKP, d, g, mpS, r {victum). 

' Ins. Tov Sia^oXov D*FG, 37™e, 238, d, f, g, 0198 (not r), vg. (not am.), go. 

* dvdvtjTovs 2, two others, d, f, g, vg., Cyp., Ambrst. {inutilia) 0198 {quae nihil 
prosunt) r (stulta). 

ton). See chap. iv. 8. The popular as 
opposed to the philosophical use of 
avrapKcia, as evidenced by the papj^i, 
is simply enough. See Moulton and 
Milligan, Expositor, vii., vi. 375. 

Ver. 7. The reasoning of this clause 
depends on the evident truth that since a 
man comes naked into this world (Job. i. 
21), and when he leaves it can "take 
nothing for his labour, which he may 
carry away in his hand " (Eccles. v. 15 ; 
Ps. xlix. 17), nothing the world can give 
is any addition to the man himself. He is 
a complete man, though naked (Matt. vi. 
iJS ; Luke xii. 15 ; Seneca, Ep. Mar. Iii. 25, 
" Non licet plus efferre quam intuleris "). 

Field is right in supposing that if 
StjXov, as read in the Received Text, is 
spurious, yet "there is an ellipsis of 
SijXov, or that 8ti is for SijXov 8ti. L. 
Bos adduces but one example of this 
ellipsis, I John iii. 20: Srt lav tcara- 
Ytvwcriq] liixuv y\ KapSia, Sti ficf^uv jo-rlv 
6 6c6s T>]S KapSias r^p.wi' ; in which, if an 
ellipsis of SijXov before the second on. 
were admissible, it would seem to offer 
an easy explanation of that difficult text." 
Field adds two examples from St. Chry- 
sostom. Hort's conjecture that " 8ti is 
no more than an accidental repetition of 
the last two letters of KiSo-fnov, ON being 
ead as OTI " is almost certainly right. 

Ver. 8. rxovTcs 8^: The 8^ has a 
slightly adversative forcr, Jfuarding against 
a too literal conclusion fkom ver. 7. It is 
true that " imaccommodated man " {Lear, 
iii. 4) is " a man for a' that," yet he has 
wants while alive, though his real wants 
are few. 

o-Kcirdo-paTa : may include clothes 
and shelter, covering (R.V.), tegumen- 
*im {i\, quibus tegamur, as the Vulg. well 

puts it ; but the word is used of clothing 
only in Josephus {B. y. ii. 8. 5 ; Ant. xv. 
9, 2). So A. v., raiment, d, vestitum (so 

Jacob specifies only " bread to eat and 
raiment to put on " (Gen. xxviii. 20) ; 
but the Son of Sirach is more indulgent 
to the natural man (Ecclus. xxix. 21, 
xxxix. 26, 27). 

oLpKcadijo-dpcOa : This future is impera- 
tival, or authoritative, as Alf. calls it. 
He cites in illustration. Matt. v. 48, 
laccrOc ovv vp,ci« tAcioi. From this 
point of view, the R.V., We shall be 
therewith content, cf. reff., is preferable 
to his rendering (which is equivalent to 
R.V. m.). With these we shall be suffi- 
ciently provided [cf. Matt. xxv. g ; John 
vi. 7 ; 2 Cor. xii. 9). 

Ver. g. ol 8i PovXd|*cvot : St. Chry 
sostom calls attention to the fact that 
St. Paul does not say. They that are 
rich, but They that desire to be rich 
(R.V.), they that make the acquisition of 
riches their aim. The warning applies to 
all grades of wealth : all come under it 
whose ambition is to have more money 
than that which satisfies their accustomed 
needs. We are also to note that what is 
here condemned is not an ambition to 
excel in some lawful department of human 
activity, which though it may bring an 
increase in riches, develops character, 
but the having a single eye to the ac- 
cumulation of money by any means. 
This distinction is drawn in Prov. xxviii. 
20: "A faithful man shall abound with 
blessings: But he that maketh haste to 
be rich shall not be unpunished ". 

lp,ir£irTovo-iv. Wetstein notes the 
close parallel in the words of Seneca: 
" Dum divitias consequi volumns in mala 




k Matt. vii. ^ diruXeiaf. lo. ^ij^a y^P irdrruK rStv KaKUf i(n\v x\ ' ^iXapyupia * 

vii'i. 20, TJs TiKcs " &p€y6jievoi. " dir€Tr\anrj9r](j'a»' dTro ttjs "triorews Kal laurous 

22, Heb. • irepicircipaj' ''oSuj'ois iroXXais. 1 1. '2i '8^, & d»^pwirc ^ 6eou, 

X. 39, Rev. 

xvii. 8, II 

(all with ci;). 1 4 Mace. i. 26, ii. 15 (?), cf. 2 Tim. iii. 2. m See i Tim. ilL i. n Mark. 

ziii. 22. o Here only, not LXX. p Rom. ix. 2 only, N.T. q Rom. zi. 17, 20, ziv. 10, 

3 Tim. iii. 10, 14, iv. 5, Tit. ii. i. 

1 Ins. Tov all except ^*A, 17. 

multa incidimus" (Ep. 87). Cf. also 
Jas. i. 2, ircipao-fiois irepiireo-ijTe 
itoikCXois. ircipa(r|i6v refers rather to 
the consequencess of one's money-grub- 
bing spirit on others, iraYiSa to its 
disastrous effect on one's own character. 

avoi]Tovs Kal pXa^epas : The desires 
in question are foolish, because they can- 
not be logically defended ; they are hurt- 
ful, because they hinder true happiness. 
See Prov. xxiii. 4, " Weary not thyself to 
be rich ". 

aiTiv€s : qualitative, such as. 

PvOi^ovtriK: The word is found in its 
literal signification in Luke v. 7. Moul- 
ton and Milligan (Expositor, vii., vi. 381) 
illustrate its use here from a papyrus of 
cent. I B.C., aw€X(<ri iroX^p,ois Kara- 
Pv0i.(r6ci[o'av] ttiv ir6\iv. Bengel notes 
on IftiriiTT. ^vdi^., " incidunt : mergunt. 
Tristis gradatio." We must not lose sight 
of cl«. Destruction and perdition are not, 
strictly speaking, the gulf in which the 
men are drowned. The lusts, etc., over- 
whelm them ; and the issue is destruction, 
etc. See reff. on airtdXeiav. 

Ver. lo. pi^a, ic.T.\. : The root of all 
evils. The R,V., a root of all kinds of 
evil is not satisfactory. The position of 
^ila in the sentence shows that it is em- 
phatic. Field {in loc.) cites similar ex- 
amples of the absence of the article 
collected by Wetstein from Athen»us, 
vii. p. 280 A (apxT) Kai pi^a iravTOS 
ayaOov f\ rrjs yatrrph^ ■qSovi]), and Diog. 
Lasrt. vi. 50; and adds five others from 
his own observation. It is, besides, un- 
reasonable in the highest degree to expect 
that, on the ground of his inspiration, St. 
Paul's ethical statements in a letter should 
be expressed with the precision of a text 
book. When one is dealing with a de- 
grading vice of any kind, the interests of 
virtue are not served by qualified asser- 

^iXapyvpia: avaritia (r) rather than 
cupiditas (d, m, Vulg.). The use of this 
word supports the exposition given above 
of ver. 9. Love of money, meanness 
and covert dishonesty where money is 
concerned, is the basest species of the 
genus irXcovc|£a. 

■qs : In sense the relative refers to 
apyvpiov, understood out of (^iXapyupta, 
with which it agrees in grammar. The 
meaning is clear enough ; but the expres- 
sion of it is inaccurate. This occurs 
when a man's power of grammatical ex- 
pression cannot keep pace with his 
thought. Alf. cites as parallels, Rom. 
viii. 24, IXiris pXeiro|ji^vT|, and Acts xxiv. 
15, IXiriSa . . . {|v icai avrol ovtoi 

Tives : See note on ch. i. 3. 

6pey6\i.€voi : reaching after (R.V.) ex- 
presses the most defensible aspect of 
coveting (A.V.). 

air€'jrXavi]Oti<rav : peregrinati sunt (r) 
erraverunt (d, Vulg.). The faith is a 
very practical matter. Have been led 
astray (R.V.) continues the description 
of the man who allows himself to be the 
passive subject of temptation. Chrys. 
illustrates the use of this word here from 
an absent-minded man's passing his des- 
tination without knowing it. 

ir£pi€-ircipav : inseruerunt se. The 
force of -irepi in this compound is inten- 
sive, as in irepiaiTTw, ircpiKoXvirTu, ire- 
ptKpaTi]s> ircpiKpvirTci), -rrcpiXinros* 

68vvai$ iroXXais : There is a touch of 
pity in this clause, so poignantly descrip- 
tive of a worldling's disillusionment. 

Vv. 11-16 are a digression into a per- 
sonal appeal. Cf. 2 Tim. ii. i, iii. 10, 
14, iv. 5. 

Ver. II. w av9pc«irc Ocov : It argues 
a very inadequate appreciation of the 
fervour of the writer to suppose, as 
Theod. does, that this is an official title. 
The apostrophe is a personal appeal, 
arising out of the topic of other-worldliness 
which begins in ver. 5. Timothy, as a 
Christian man, had been called to a 
heavenly citizenship. He was a man of 
God, i.e., a man belonging to the spiritual 
order of things with which that which is 
merely temporal, transitory and perishing 
can have no permanent relationship. 
The term occurs again, with an admit- 
tedly general reference, in 2 Tim. iii. 17. 
In any case Man of God, as an official 
title, belonged to prophets, the prophets 
of the Old Covenant ; and we have nq 



Toora "■ <^eoyc • ' Siukc Se SiKaioo-uiT]!', * euad^nav, " ttiotik, " i,ydTrr]v, r i Cor. vi. 

^ VTtOfioyr\y, ' irpauTtdBiav.^ 12. ^ dyuvijou 'tok ' KoKoy ^ dywi'a 3 xfm!!!. 

TTjs moTcus * 'cmXapoC tt]? 'alwt'iou "Jwris, els r^v^ ckXi^Otis, KaisRom. ix. 

" wfioXoyrjo-os t^»' koX^k " oixoXoyiai/ iyuttriov iroKKdv iiapTupcji/. Jslxiv.^gi 

I Cor.xiv. 
~. .. ,T ■ ■• T^ ••• „ i.iXhess 

V. 15, 2 Tim. u. 22, Heb. xu. 14, i Pet. lu. ii. t See i Tim. ii. 2. u See i Tim i 14 

V Rom. V. 3, a Cor. vi. 4, xii. 12, Col. i. 11, 2 Tim. iii. 10, Tit. ii. 2, 2 Pet. i. 6, etc. w Here only 

not LXX. X Sec i Tim. iv. 10. y 2 Tim. iv. 7, cf. Phil. i. 30, Col. ii. i, i Thess. ii. 2, Heb! 

xu. I. z 1 Tim. vi. 19. a See i Tim. i. 16. b John i. 20, ix. 22, xii. 42, Acts xxiii. 8, 

Rom. X. 9, 10, Tit. i. 16, Heb. xi. 13, xiii. 15, etc. c Heb. iii. i, iv. 14, x. 33. 

» So ^♦AFG[P]; irp«j<JTiiTa [^^cD*] DcKL, [31]. 
* Ins. Kat 37, some others, syrhcl c* 

proof that Timothy was a prophet of the 
New Covenant, though he was an evange- 
list (2 Tim. iv. 5), and possibly an apostle 
(i Thess. ii. 6). 

Tavra: i.e., ^\.\a,pyvpia. and its at- 
tendant evils. Love of money in minis- 
ters of religion does more to discredit 
religion in the eyes of ordinary people 
than would indulgence in many grosser 

It is to be noted that (^evyc • SiotKc 8c 
8iKa(.o<rvvi)v, iriOTiv, dya-injv recurs in 2 
Tim. ii. 22. The phraseology is based 
on Prov. XV. g, SiuKovras 8^ 8i,Kaio(ruvT)v 
ayair<^, and is thoroughly Pauline, as 
the reff, prove. The six virtues fall per- 
haps into three pairs, as Ell. suggests : 
" 8iKaioa-. and evo-e^. have the widest 
relations, pointing to general conformity 
to God's law and practical piety [cf. 
(Tw^povws K. SiKaCus K. cv<rcPus, Tit. ii. 
12]; irio-Tis and ayaini are the funda- 
mental principles of Christianity ; vxopi. 
and irpavir. the principles on which a 
Christian ought to act towards his gain- 
sayers and opponents ". As a group, 
they are contrasted with the group of 
vices in v\'. 4 and 5 ; but we cannot 
arrange them in pairs of opposites. We 
may add that ttio-tis results in virofiovt) 
(Jas. i. 3 ; Rom. v. 3 ; 2 Thess. i. 4 ; 2 
Tim. iii. 10 ; Tit. ii. 2 ; Heb. xii. i), as 
aydiTrr) does in irpavirddeia. virop.ovii is 
sustmentia (r here, and Vulg. in i Thess. 
i. 3) rather than patientia (d and Vulg. 

irio'Tis, iydiri), and viro|fcovi] are also 
combined in Tit. ii. 2 ; cf. 2, Tim. iii. 10, 
also 2 Pet. i. 5-7, where cva^^cia, with 
other virtues, forms part of the group. 

Ver. 12. dyuv^Cov . . . dyuva : There 
is evidence that dyciiv^^oftai ayuva had 
become a stereotyped expression, perhaps 
from the line of Euripides : kuCtoi KoXdv 
y* &v r6vZ' aywv' VjyuvCor» {Alceitis, 648 
or 664). See an Athenian inscription 
quoted by Moulton and Milligan, Ex- 
VOL. IV. I( 

positor, vii., vi. 370. Nevertheless the 
metaphor has its full force here, and in 
2 Tim. iv. 7: Engage in the contest 
which profession of the faith entails ; it 
is a noble one. Allusions to the public 
games are notoriously Pauline (i Cor. ix. 
24; Phil. iii. 12). The present impera- 
tive indicates the continuous nature of 
the dyeltv, while the aor. liriXa^ov ex- 
presses the single act of laying hold of 
the prize (so ver. 19). It does not seem 
an insuperable objection to this view that 
KaraXaitpdvu is the word used in i Cor. 
ix. 24, Phil. iii. 12. On the other hand, 
Winer-Moulton (Gram., p. 392) argues 
from the asyndeton (cf. Mark iv. 39) that 
liriXapov, K.T.X. forms one notion with 
dywvitov; that "it is not the result of 
the contest, but itself the substance of 
the striving". Yet in ver. ig (tvo ^iriXd- 
Pwvrai TTJs ovTws Cutis) there is nothing 
in the context suggestive of struggle. 

els ^v IicXii9t|s : We are called to eter- 
nal life (i Cor. i. g ; i Pet. v. lo) ; it is 
placed well within our reach ; but it is not 
put into our hands ; each man must grasp 
it for himself. 

Kal w|jioXiiYnc*^^> K.T.X. : This clause 
has no syntactical connexion with what 
has preceded. It refers to aywva, the 
contest on which Timothy entered at his 
baptism, when he was called, enrolled as 
a soldier in the army of Jesus Christ (a 
Tim. ii. 4; I Cor. ix. 7), and professed 
fidelity to his new Leader (his response to 
the divine call) before many witnesses. 
6|xoXoy(a is perhaps best referred to a 
formal profession of faith, here as in the 
reff. Cyril Jer., when recalling the bap- 
tismal ceremonies to the newly baptised, 
says in reference to their profession of 
belief in the Trinity, w|*oXoYiio'aTc ry\v 
<ruTi)piov dfioXoyCav (Cat. xx. 4). 

In the primitive Church the baptism of 
an individual was a matter in which the 
Church generally took an interest and 
part. The rule laid down in The Didacht, 


nP02 TlMOeEON A 


dSeeiTim. ij. ** nopayyeXXa) <70i ^ * efoiiriOK 'tou^ * 06Oo toO ' Jwoyoi'OUKTOS * 

e See 1 Tim. rd irdrra Kal XpicrroO 'Itjctou "* tou ' fioprupiiaaKTOS ciri Florriou 

I Sam. ii. 
6, Luke zvii. 33, Acts vii. 19. g John v. 33, i John v. 10, with ace. 

1 Om. o-oi ^*FG, 17 [g, praecipio tibi t contestor]. 

* So ADFGP, 17, 31, four others ; {uoiroiovvTos ^^KL. 

* So ADKLP, 17, 31, 37, many others, d, vg., go., syrhcl, 
J^FG, more than five cursives, f, g, syrpesh, sah., boh., armed. 

' Om. Tov ^. 

armcodd ; *It|<r. Xpwrr. 

7, shows this : " Before the baptism let 
him that baptizeth and him that is bap- 
tized fast, and any others also who are 
able ". Also Justin Martyr, Apol. i. 61, 
•f\y.£tv <rvvtvxo\i,ivutv Kal irvvvr\(mv6vT<j>v 
avToi9. These passages explain "the 
many witnesses " of Timothy's good 
confession. It is not so natural to refer 
the good confession to a crisis of persecu- 
tion, or to his ordination. The epithet 
KaXijv here and in the tollowing verse 
does not characterise the particular act 
of confession made by Timothy or by 
Christ, but refers to the class of confes- 
sion, its import, as Ell. says. 

Ver. 13. irapayyeXXw <roi: St. Paul 
passes in thought from the past epoch in 
Timothy's life, with its human witnesses, 
among whom was the apostle himself, to 
the present probation of Timothy, St 
Paul far away ; and he feels impelled to 
remind his lieutenant that there are Wit- 
nesses of his conduct whose real though 
unseen presence is an encouragement as 
well as a check. See on v. 21. 

(woyovovvTos : This word has the sense 
preserve alive, as R.V. m. See reff. A 
good example from O.T. is i Sam. ii. 6, 
Kvpios Oavaroi Kal (uoyovci. The word 
has here a special appropriateness. Ti- 
mothy is stimulated to exhibit moral 
courage by an assurance that he is in the 
hands of One whose protective power is 
universal, and by the example of One 
who, as Man, put that protective power 
to a successful test, and was " saved out 
of death" (Heb. v. 7). 

TT|v KaXTjv 6p.o\oYUiv must have the 
same reference here as in the preceding 
verse. We have seen that in the case of 
Timothy, it means his baptismal profes- 
sion of faith in God as revealed by Jesus 
Christ. In the case of Jesus Himself it 
is best understood of His habitual sense 
of His heavenly Father's presence and 
protection, which found its supreme ex- 
pression on the Cross (Luke xxiv. 46). 

l^aprvpTJcravTos : Although Jesus, as 
Man, and His followers make the same 
ifioXoYia, yet their respective relations 
to it are different, (laprvp^w indicates a 

power of origination and authentication 
which ofioXoYc'c* does not. The utter- 
ances and acts of Jesus, as Man, are 
human ; yet He spoke and acted as 
no other man ever did. Matt. xvii. 27 
(" That take, and give unto them for me 
and thee," not "for us") and John xx. 
17 (" I ascend imto my Father and your 
Father," etc. not our Father or our God) 
illustrate very well this difference be- 
tween Jesus and His brethren in relations 
which they share alike. This is why 
St. Paul does not here use 6\Lo\oy4u 
6p.o\oYiav of Christ, but employs instead 
the unusual papTvpcto 6p,oXoYiav. Jesus 
is 6 (jidpTvs 6 irio-Tos, Rev. i. 5, 6 fiapr. 
6 irio-r. Kal dXT]9ivos, Rev. iii. 14. Ben- 
gel suggests that the two verbs indicate 
the attitudes 01 the bystanders in each 
case : " con/essus est, cum assensione 
testium : testatus est, non assentiente 
Pilato". The Vulg. treats tt|v KaX. 
ofiioX. as an ace. of closer specification, 
qui testimonium reddidit sub Pontio 
Pilato, bonam confessionem. 

lir\ riovTiov (IciXaTov : With the ex- 
planation of the opoXoYia of Jesus which 
has just been given, it would be natural 
to render this, with the Vulg., under 
Pontius Pilate ; and this view is fa- 
voured by the change from Ivuwiov, ver. 
12, to lir£, and by the likelihood that this 
is a fragment of a creed. Yet the render- 
ing before Pontius Pilate (Chrys., etc.), is 
not inconsistent with the notion that the 
op^oXoYia in one sense was made all dur- 
ing our Lord s ministry ; for undoubtedly 
from one point of view it was when Jesus' 
life was hanging in the balance, depend- 
ing on the decision of Pontius Pilate, that 
His trust in the protective love of His 
Father was most tried. His calm repose 
of soul on the assurance of God's wise 
and good disposition of events is well 
illustrated by His words as recorded in 
John xix. n, "Thou wouldest have no 
power against me, except it were given 
thee from above". Until it has been 
been proved that the Fourth Gospel is 
not a record of facts, it is reasonable to 
suppose that St. Paul and his contem- 




nciXdroo i^v Ka.\r\v '' ofioXoYiak, 14. 'njptjaai ce t^i* ^wtoXtji' h See ver. 

^ ao-iriXof ' di'CTriXTjp.irroi' lic'xpi ttjs " e7ri(|>aK6ias tou Kupiou r\\tMV i a Tim. iv. 

li)<rou XpioTOu * 15. f^y °KaipoIs " iSiois Sei^ei 6 °fiaKdpios xal note. 

k Jas. i. 27, 
I Pet. i. 
i^, 3 Pet. lu. 14, not LXX. 1 See i Tim. iii. 2. m 2 Thess. ii. 8, a Tim. i. 10, iv. i, 8, Tit, 

ii. 13. n See i Tim. ii. 6. 01 Tim. i. 11. 

poraries were acquainted with the general 
account of the trial of Jesus as therein 

Ver. 14. TTjpTJo-ai k.t.X. : The phrase 
TTjpeiv TTiv IrroXiiv, ras evToXds or tov 
Xoyov, Tovis X670VS is a common one ; 
found in Matt. xix. 17, and especially in 
the Johannine writings ; but wherever it 
occurs it means to obey or observe a 
command or a saying; whereas here 
it means to preserve intact. Perhaps 
the two meanings were present to the 
apostle's mind; and no doubt in actual 
experience they merge one into the other ; 
for a tradition is only preserved by obedi- 
ence to the demand which it makes for 
observance. This use of the verb and the 
similar ttiv iritrriv TtnipTiKa, 2 Tim. iv. 
7, mutually illustrate each other. tt|v 
4vtoXt)v Tupetv is probably equivalent to 
TTjv irapaOi] KT)v <^vXda-o-eiv, understand- 
ing the tradition or deposit in the most 
comprehensive moral and spiritual sense, 
in which it is nothing else than " the law 
of the Gospel {cf. y\ irapaYY^Xia, i. 5), 
the Gospel viewed as a rule of life " (so 
Ell. and Alf.). St. Paul would not have 
distinguished this from the charge given 
to Timothy at his baptism. Cyril Jer. 
(Cat. v. 13), in quoting this passage, sub- 
stitutes Ta-OTTjv TT)V irapa8c8o{xcvi]v iri<mv 
for lvToXi]v. This interpretation is per- 
missible so long as we do not divorce 
creed from character. 

acnriXov aveirCXilfAirTov : These epithets 
present a difficulty somewhat similar to 
that presented by Tr\pi\<rai. a<ririXos is 
a personal epithet (though applied to 
ovpav(Ss, Job. XV. 15, Symm.) ; and so is 
ttve'iriXr)(i'irTOS. See reff. on both. Al- 
ford shows, after De Wette, by examples 
from Philo and Plato, that dvciriX. may 
be applied to impersonal objects, such as 
'•^X'''*!* '•■* Xe76|t€vov. Nevertheless al- 
though it would be intolerably awkward 
to refer the adjectives to <rt — the ordinary 
construction with -njpeiv being that the 
qualifying adj. should belong to its ob- 
ject, e.g., I Tim. v. 22 ; Jas. i. 27 ; 2 Cor. 
xi. 9 (Alf.) — yet St. Paul had the personal 
reference to Timothy chiefly in his mind 
when he chose these words as qualifying 
IvToX'qv; and the R.V., which places a 
comma after commandment, possibly is 

intended to suggest a similar view. The 
man and the word are similarly identified 
in the parable of the Sower (Matt. xiii. 
19, etc.). If Timothy " keeps himself un- 
spotted " (Jas. i. 27) and "without re- 
proach," the IvtoXt|, so far as he is 
concerned, will be maintained flawless. 

The Ancient Homily which used to be 
attributed to Clem. Rom. contains a sen- 
tence written in a similar tone (§8), 
TrjpTJcraTe tt|V o-dpKa d-yvT)v itai tt|v 
o-<f>paYX8a ao-ffiXov, ivo Ttjv Swt]v airoXd- 

\iixpi Tfjs «'iri<})aveias, k.t.X. : Death 
may mark the close of our probation 
state; but we shall not render the ac- 
count of our stewardship until the 
C7ri(|>dvet.a. When the Pastorals were 
written the ^'iri(|>dvcia had in men's 
thoughts of it receded beyond each man's 
death. At an earlier period Christians 
set it before them as men now set death. 
In 2 Thess. ii. 8 the compound phrase 
occurs CTTK^dv. Tijs irapovcrias avTov. 
liri.(|>dvEia is the term used in the Pas- 
toral Epistles (see veff.) ; but the Second 
Coming of Christ is called irapovo-ia in 
I Cor. XV. 23 ; i Thess. ii. 19, iii. 13, iv. 
15, V. 23, 2 Thess. ii. i. In 2 Tim. i. 
ig, ciri<j>dvcia includes the first manifesta- 
tion of Christ in the flesh; and this ap- 
plication of the term is in exact 
correspondence with its use in heathen 
sacred associations, where it denoted "a 
conspicuous appearance or intervention 
of the higher powers on behalf of their 
worshippers". The title iiri^avrfs, as- 
sumed by the Seleucidae, meant a claim 
to be worshipped as an incarnation of 
Zeus or Apollo, as the case might be (see 
Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, vii., 
vii. 380). 

Ver. 15. Kaipois lS(ois : See note on ii. 
6. In due season may refer primarily 
either to the appropriateness of the occa- 
sion of the lirt^dvcia or to the supreme 
will of the SwvdoTqs. The wording of 
the discouragement given by Jesus, in 
Acts i. 7, to those who would pry into 
the future makes it natural to suppose 
that this latter notion chiefly was in St 
Paul's mind here (Kaipovs ows 6 iraTTjp 
iitTo iv TQ iSl<f iiova-i<{.). We may per- 
haps put it thus : A devout mind recog- 




Ecclus. liOKOs Auvdtrrns, 6 ' BaaiXcus twk paaiXeuoKTui' Kai Kupios tuk 

xlvi. 5, 16, /■ t f » a ' « t > - ' 

2 Mace. ' Kupi€uorr(i>»', 16. 6 fiOfos i\(ov ' dOafacnac, <\)CiS oikwk ° dirpoaiTof, 

Mace. (4). ov clSec ouSeis av6p(x>Tt<av ouSe iSeic Sui'aTai ' u tiuti Kal ^ Kodros 
q C/. I Tim. , , , V » r- I 

i. 17. aiui'to^' ■ dfiT]f. 
r Luke xxii. ^„ . , »«»»-->- > w \tci 

25. 17. Tois irXouo-iois ci' tu Kuf auovi irapayycXXe |itj ' o«|/tj- 

s Here only 


Wisd. (5), 4 Mace. (2). t Rom. (4), i Cor. (3). u Here only, not LXX. v i Pet. iv. n 

V. II, Jude 25, Rev. i. 6, v. 13. w 2 Tim. iv. 10, Tit. ii. la. x See 1 Tim. L 3. y Here 

only, not LXX, c/. Rom. xi. 20, xii. 16. 

nises the providential ordering of past 
events as having taken place at the time 
best fitted for them, and shrinks from the 
presumption of guessing the appropriat^e 
time for future events. Thus there is no 
presumption in saying " When the fulness 
of the time came, God sent forth his 
Son " ; and when the time is ripe, He 
wiil send Him again (Acts iii. 20). 

8ci|ci : Ell. well explains the force of 
this verb from John ii. i8, ti <rTjfi.«Xov 
SeiKvueis Tlf-^^ > 1'^^ '^^^ eiri(|idv6ia will be 
the final proof offered by God to the 
human race. 

The terms of this magnificent char- 
acterisation of God are an expansion of 
the epithets in the doxology in i. 17 q.v. 

[xaKapios : See on i. 11. Philo {de 
Sacrific. Abelis et Caini, p. 147) has the 
remarkable parallel, ircpl Ocov tov 
aytvv^rov, ical d(f>9dpT0v, xal dTp^iTTOv, 
Kal ayiov, Kal p<ivov paKapiov. 

8vvdo-rr|s is found as a title of God in 
the Apocrypha. See reff., esp. 2 Mace, 
iii. 24, 6 . . . Svvaemjs liri<^aviav 
p.e7aXi]v lirotT|(rcv. It occurs in the 
ordinary sense, Luke i. 52, Acts viii. 
27. The choice of the phrase p.<ivos 
Svv. here was perhaps suggested by 
the thought of His absolute and irre- 
sponsible power in arranging the times 
and seasons for the affairs of men. 
It is unnecessary to seek any special 
polemical object in (xovos, as exclusive of 
dualism. As has been already suggested 
(on i. 17), the predications of glory to 
God that occur in these epistles are prob- 
ably repeated from eucharistic prayers 
uttered by St. Paul in the discharge of 
his prophetic liturgical functions. 

6 pao-iXcvs, K.T.X. : The Vulg. renders 
rather inconsistently. Rex regum et 
Dominus dominantium. So also in Rev. 
xix. 16. It is not quite obvious why the 
phrase is varied from the usual Pao-tXrirs 
patriX^uv (2 Mace. xiii. 4 ; Rev. xvii. 14, 
xix. 16) and Kvpios [t«v] Kvp(ci>v (Deut. 
X. 17 ; Ps. cxxxvi. 3 ; Enoch ix> 4). Per- 
haps the participle gives new Vigour to a 
phrase that had lost its freshness. 

Ver. 16. 6 |ji(ivos ex*'^ aSavairiav : 

God the Father is the subject of this 
whole attribution ; and it is Uie Catholic 
doctrine that He alone has endless exist- 
ence as His essential property. (ovo-£(|t 
dOavaros oti pcTovcrCtii, Theod. Dial. iii. 
p. 145, quoted by Ell.). God the Son 
and God the Holy Spirit are co-eternal 
with the Father ; but Their life is derived 
from and dependent on His. This is 
expressly declared by Christ of Himself, 
" As the Father hath life in himself, even 
so gave he to the Son also to have life in 
himself" (John v. 26). On thisWestcott 
notes : " The Son has not life only as 
given, but life in Himself as being a 
spring of life. . . . The tense (gave) 
carries us back beyond time ". Accord- 
ingly, the creed of Caesarea, which formed 
the basis of that adopted at Nicea, spoka 
of the Son as Zci)T|v €k Zwtjs ; a doctrine 
sufficiently expressed in the other phrase, 
♦cis Ik ♦wtoSj which has survived. 

<|>us oIkwv dirpo'<riTov : This is a 
grander conception than that in Ps. civ. 
2, " Who coverest thyself with light as 
with a garment". Here, if one may 
venture so to express it, the Person of 
God is wholly concealed by His dwelling, 
which is light ; and this dwelling is itself 
unapproachable. Josephus, Ant. iii. 5. i, 
says that God was thought to dwell in 
Mount Sinai, ^o^epov xal dirpoViTOV. 
(See also Philo, de Vita Mosis, ii. [iii.] 2 
cited by Dean Bernard). 

8v cIScv oviScls avdpcinruv: None 0/ 
men ; only the Son (John i. 18 ; Matt. xi. 
27, etc.). 

Kpdros : For this word in doxologies 
see reff. 

Ver. 17. Iv rtf vvv alwvi: It is the 
present contrast, not that between riches 
in this world and riches in the world to 
come (as Chrys.), that the apostle has in 
mind. Those who have money may, as 
well as those " that are poor as to the 
world," be "rich in faith, and heirs of the 
kingdom, etc." (Jas. ii. 5). The passage 
indicates that the Church had affected 
Society more widely in Ephesus than it 

i6 — 19. 



Xo<{>pomi',^ |X1I]S6 * iqXiriKci'ai ^irl itXoutou * d8T|X<5TTjTi, dXX* cm ^ ^ x See i Tim- 

eew^Tw '' irap^x"'^'' iij/ii»' ^ irdrra 'irXouaius^ ciS ** dTroXaocii', 18. a Here only, 

• dYaOocpYcic, irXouTeif iv ' epyois ' KaXoTs, * cu|jieTa86Tous eli'ai, b i Tim' i. 

** Koikui'iKOus, 19. ' diroOifjaaupiJorros eaurois ^©cfiAioi' KaXd^'^els vii. 4, 


xxviii. 2, 

Col. iv. I. 

c Col.iii. 16, 

Tit. iii. 6, 2 Pet. i. 11, not LXX. d 3 Mace. vii. 16, Heb. xi. 25 only. c Acts xiv. 17, not 

LXX. f See I Tim. iii. I. g Here only, not LXX. h Here only, not LXX. i Ecclus. 

iii. 4 only. k Rom. xv. 20, i Cor. iii. iOj_ii, 12, Eph. ii. 20, 2 Tim. ii. 19, Heb. vi. i. 1 Luke 

xiii. 9. 

TO ^ jxAXoK, Iva "" liriXd^ui'Tai Tfjs " ovras ^ SuTJS' 

m I Tim. vi. 12. n See i Tim. v. 3. 

^ v\|n]\a <|>povciv ^. ^Iv DcKL. 

' Ins. T^ ADcKLP ; om. t^ ^D*FG, three cursives arm. 

* Ins. [T^]t(uvTi DKL, d, e, ma2, vg. (am. not fuld*), syrr, 

' In.s. Ttt A, 37, a few others. 

^ irXovo-Ccds irdvTa a few cursives. '' alcaviov DcKLP. 

had at Corinth when St Paul viTote, 
" Not many mighty, not many noble, are 
called" (i Cor. i. 26). It is to be ob- 
served that the expression 6 vvv alwv is 
only found in N.T. in the Pastoral 
Epistles (see reff.). 6 alwv ovtos is the 
expression elsewhere in N.T. (Matt. xii. 
32 ; Luke xvi. 8, xx. 34 ; Rom. xii. 2 ; i 
Cor. i. 20, ii. 6 (bis), 8, iii. 18; 2 Cor. iv. 
4; Eph. i. 21). Both represent the Rab- 
binic j^^j-j q'^IJ^, the present age, as 
contrasted with M*2pr dS"1Vj the age 
to come. St. Paul also has 6 K6cr\L0^ 
ovTos in I Cor. iii. 19, v. 10, vii. 31, and 
i vvv Kaipds in Rom. iii. 26, viii. 18, xi. 
5, 2 Cor. viii. 14. See Dean Armitage 
Robinson's note on Eph. i. 21. It does 
not follow that because these are render- 
ings of the same Hebrew expression, 
they meant the same to a Greek ear. In 
the three places in which 6 vvv alciv 
occurs it has a definite material physical 
sense ; whereas 6 alwv ovtos has a more 
notional ethical force. 

i)XiriK^vai lirC : have their hope set on. 
See note on iv. 10. For the thought 
compare Job. xxxi. 24, Ps. xlix. 6, Iii. 7, 
Prov. xi. 28, Mark x. 24. 

i^XiriK. irrX irXovTow d8T]XoTT)Ti : This 
vigorous oxymoron is not quite parallel 
in form to Iv KaivoTT|Ti (cd'^s, Rom. vi. 4, 
as Ell. suggests. There Swrjs is a further 
definition of the KaivoTt)s, the prominent 
notion. This is a rhetorical intensifying 
of riches which are uncertain ; irXovrov 
is the prominent word. " When the 
genitive stands before the governing noun, 
it is emphatic " (Winer- Moul ton, Gram. 
p. 240). For the thought cf. Prov. xxiii. 
5, xxvii. 24. 

&XX' iirl deu : God who cannot change, 
who abides faithful, is contrasted with the 
uncertainty of riches which are unreal. 

Ty xapex^ iravTa irXovaius : cf. Acts 
xiv. 17. 

els airdXavciv : This is a greater con- 
cession to the sensuous view of life than 
the els p.eTdXTi|i\|/iv of iv. 3. It ap- 
proaches the declaration of the Preacher 
that for a man to " eat and drink, and 
make his soul enjoy good in his labour 
... is from the hand of God " (Eccles. 
ii. 24), "the gift of God" (Eccles. iii. 13, 
V. 19). No good purpose is served by 
pretending that God did not intend us to 
enjoy the pleasurable sensations of phy- 
sical life. After all, things that have 
been enjoyed have served their purpose ; 
they have " perished," yet " with the 
using" (Col. ii. 22). Obviously, they 
cannot take God's place as an object of 

Ver. 18. 6.ya9otpyelv : corrects any 
possible misunderstanding of els airo- 
Xavaiv. irXotn-eiv iv cp70is KaXois : see 
note on iii. i. Cf. els 6e6v irXovTwv, 
Luke xii. 21. 

ev|xeTaSdTO'us : facile tribuere (Vulg.), 
ready to impart {cf. the use of 
|xcTa8C8<i)fj.i in Luke iii. 11; Rom. i. 11, 
xii. 8; Eph. iv. 28; i Thess. ii. 8). 

KoivuviKovs : This does not mean soci- 
able (A.V. m.), ready to sympathise (R.V. 
m.), as Chrys., and Thdrt. explain it, but 
rais xP'^o^i'f '1'^*' byCwv Kotvwvovvrcs, 
Rom. xii. 13 (cf. Gal. vi. 6; Phil. iv. 
15). A good illustration of the general 
sentiment is Heb. xiii. 16, tBs 8i 
ciiroitas Kal KoivuvCas \Li\ liriXavOavc<r9<. 
Von Soden notes that the thought in 
evfueraS. is of the needs of others, in 
Koivwv. of the imparting of one's own. 

Ver. 19. diroOTjo-avplJovTas : The true 
hoarding produces, as its first result, a 
good foundation, which will entitle a 
man to grasp the prize, which is true 
life, the only life worth Ulking about. 




o2Tim.i. 20. *Q TifjioOcc, T^v 'irapa9r|KT]»' ^ " ^ «|)uXa|o»', ' ^Kxpeirofj-cfos 
Lev. vi. a, TOls "^£^1^X00$ * ' KCi'o<}>u)»'ias '^ icai " dcTiOcCTCts ttjs '^ if/euSuKufAOU 

Mace. iii. 10, 15. p See i Tim. v. 21. q See i Tim. 1. 6. r See i Tim. i. g. s 2 Tim. 

ii. 16. t 3 Tim. ii. 16, not LXX. u Here only, not LXX. v Here only, not LXX. 

^ irapaKaTa6i)icT)v many cursives. 

- Kaivo(|>«>v(as FG, a few cursives, d, e, f, g, m5o, vg. (vocum novitates). 

Stability is the essential characteristic of 
a (oundation. There is a contrast im- 
plied between the shifting uncertainty of 
riches, as a ground of hope, and the firm 
and permanent foundation of a Christian 
character. (So, nearly, Theod.) 

Ingenious conjectures have been sug- 
gested for Ocp.cXiov ; but it is safe to say 
that the mixture of metaphors — due to 
the condensation of language — does not 
distress those who read in a devout 
rather than in a critical spirit. For the 
sentiment cf. Matt. vi. ig, 20. There is 
some support given to the conjecture of 
Lamb-Bos, 6^(ia X(av, by the parallel 
from Tobit iv. 8 sq. cited by Bengel, 
fiT) (^o^ov iroieiv IXfrjfiocruvtjv • Ocfxa y*P 
ayaObv O-qo-avpi^cis acovTw «ls ■qpepav 
ava^KT];. See, on the other hand, what 
Ecclus. i. 15 says of Wisdom, p,cTa 
avOponruv 6cp,eXiov aluvo; cvocrcrevo'ev. 
6cpcXio$ is used metaphorically also in 
reff. It is to be observed that in 2 Tim. 
ii. 19 there is again a confusion of imagery: 
the foundation has a seal. 

els TO pc'XXov is found in a slightly 
different sense {thenceforth), Luke xiii. 9. 

eiriXaPuvrai : See on ver. 12. 

TTjs ovT«i)s (wr); : the life which is life 
indeed, an expression which is one of tbe 
precious things of the R.V. It is "the 
life which is in Christ Jesus " (2 Tim. i. i). 

For ovTCDS see v. 3. 

Ver. 20. As Ell. points out, this con- 
cluding apostrophe, like the last para- 
graph in 2 Cor. (xiii. 11 sqq,), is a sum- 
mary of the whole epistle. 

On the intensity of the appeal in the 
use of the personal name see on i. 18. 

TTjv irapa6i]in]v: depositum. The term 
occurs in a similar connexion with (t>vXa- 
a-<r<a, 2 Tim. i. 14, and also in 2 Tim. i. 
12, where see note. Here, and in 2 Tim. 
i. 14. it means, as Chrys. explains, ■^ 
ir£<msj t6 Ki7pv'Y|iia ; so Vincent of 
Lerins, from whose Commonitorium (c. 
22) Alf. quotes. " Quid est depositum ? 
id est. quod tibi creditum est, non quod a 
te inventum; quod accepisti, non quod ex- 
cogitasti ; rem non ingenii, sed doctrinae ; 
non usurpationis privatae, sed publicae 
traditionis . . . catholicae fidei talentum 

inviolatum illibatumque conserva. . . . 
Aurum accepisti, aurum redde : nolo mihi 
pro aliis alia subjicias : nolo pro auro aut 
impudenter plumbum, aut fraudulenter 
aeramenta supponas." That the "de- 
posit " is practically identical with the 
"charge," ch. i. 5, 18, "the sound doc- 
trine," i. 10, "the commandment," vi. 14, 
is indicated by the use of the cognate 
verb irapaTt9Ep,ai in i. 18, 2 Tim. ii. 2, 
and the correlative irapcXaPes, Col. iv. 17, 
and even more by the contrast here be- 
tween it and " the knowledge falsely so 
called ". 

lKTpcir(i|xcvos : turning away from, 

Ttts PePi^Xovs Kcvo({>o)vias : In 2 Tim. 
ii. 16 the Vulg. has vaniloquia. The 
rendering vocum novitates found here in 
Vulg. and O.L. represents the variant 
Kaivo({>uvias. The term does not differ 
much from p.aTaioXo7ia, i. 6, which is 
also rendered vanilaqmum. 

avTtOc'creis : In face of the general an- 
arthrous character of the Greek of these 
epistles it is not certain that the absence 
of an article before arriO. proves that it 
is qualified by pcPi^Xovs. The meaning 
of avTiO. is partly fixed by Kcyo<|>o>vias, 
to which it is in some sort an explanatory 
appendix ; but it must finally depend 
upon the signification we attach to 
ttIs i}/«v8(i)vvp,o'o yvfStvtta^. The epithet 
\|/cvS(i>v. is sufficient to prove that Yvwirts 
was specially claimed by the heretics 
whom St. Paul has in his mind. That it 
should be so is in harmony with the other 
notices which we find in these epistles 
suggestive of a puerile and profitless 
intellectual subtlety, as opposed to the 
practical moral character of Christianity. 
We are reminded of the contrast in i 
Cor. viii. i, " Knowledge puffeth up, but 
love buildeth up". Hort (yudaistic 
Christianity, p. 139 sqq.) proves that 
yvucris here and elsewhere in N.T. 
(Luke xi. 52; Rom. ii. 20 sq.) refers to 
the special lore of those who interpreted 
mystically the O.T., especially the Law. 
Knowledge which is merely theoretical, 
the knowledge of God professed by those 
who " by their works deny Him " (Tit. i. 



yvwrtb)^, 21. T^K Tii'es 

cirayyeXXojiei'oi " irepl " ttjk " iriorii' ' ^aT(J- w i Tim. ii. 

X I Tim. i. 
19, 2 Tim. 
iii. 8. 
y See 1 Tim. 
i. 6. 

^ So ^AFgrGP, 17, g (vobiscum t tecum) boh. ; (xcto. <ro5 DKL, d, e, f» vg., syrr., 
arm. ; sah. om. i\ xap» — vjawv; add dfiijv ^cDbcKLP, e, f, vg., syrr., boh. 

^, 17 add irpos Ti^oOcov a. To this D adds, jirXr]pu>OT] • apxcrai irpos Tip,<J6eov 
P, similarly FG. A, etc., have irpis TifioOeov a cYpd(f>T) airo AaoSiKcCas ; to which 
K adds, TJTis 1<tt\ p.-r]Tp(iiro\is ♦pvyias t^s flaKariavtis, similarly L. P has a sub- 
scription like that of A, substituting NiKo-irdXcws for AaoSiKcias. 

16), is not real knowledge. The dvriO^- 
acis then of this spurious knowledge 
would be the dialectical distinctions and 
niceties of the false teachers. Perhaps 
inconsistencies is what is meant. For an 
example of dvTCOcros in this sense, see 
Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, vii., v. 
275. Something more definite than (a) 
oppositions, i.e., objections of opponents 
(so Chrys. Theoph. and von Soden, who 
compares avTi,8iaTi6ep,^vovs> 2 Tim. ii. 
25) is implied; but certainly not (6) the 
formal categorical oppositions between 
the Law and the Gospel alleged by 

Ver. 21. Tive« : See note on i. 3. 

lira-yYcXXofievoi : See note on ii. 10. 

irepl TTjv vla-Tiv i^oToxtjcrav : See notes 
on i. 6, 19, and reff. 

(«,e9* vuwv : An argument in support of 
the |xcTa aov of the Received Text is 
that )ic6' v|*wv is indisputably the right 

reading in the corresponding place in 
2 Tim. and Tit., and might have crept 
in here by assimilation. Ell. has reason 
on his side when he maintains that the 
plural here is not sufficient to prove that 
the epistle as a whole was intended for 
the Church. " The study of papyri letters 
will show that the singular and the plural 
alternated in the same document with 
apparently no distinction of meaning" 
(Moulton, Expositor, vi., vii. 107). The 
colophon in the T.R., "The First to 
Timothy was written from Laodicea, 
which is the chiefest city of Phrygia 
Pacatiana," has a double interest : as an 
echo of the notion that this is the Epistle 
from Laodicea (Col. iv. 16), a notion 
sanctioned by Theophyl. ; and the men- 
tion of Phrygia Pacatiana proves that the 
author of the note lived after the fourth 
century, towards the close of which that 
name for Phrygia Prima came into use. 


• See I Tim. I. i. HAYAOI ' dirooToXos 'Xpiorou ''ItjctoO^ *8icl •" fleXTJuaTOs 

b Rom. XV. *0€ou kot' "cTrayycXiai' "^JwTjs ttjs ""eK^Xpurrw *'lifjcrou 2. TiftoOeu 

1.1,3 Cor. •dyaiTTjTw •tckku' x^P^^' 'cXcos, €ipi]nri diro ©eou flarpos Kai 
i. I, viii. „ ,' - 2 ' - ix ' ■ - 

5, Eph. XpiaTou \r\aou •* tou Kupiou r\\uav. 

3. * Xdpif * 6x<i> Tw ©€«,' J '' XaTpeucj diro ' irpoy6y(ay iv ^ Ka6apa 

i. I, Col. 

c 1 Tim. iv 

d Rom. viii. 2. e i Cor. iv. 14, ly, Eph. v. i, see i Tim. i. 2. f See 1 Tim. i. 2. g See i Tim- 

i. 12. h Acts xxiv. 14, xxvii. 23, Rom. i. 9, Phil. iii. 3. i See i Tim. v. 4. k i Tim. iii. 9. 

^ Mtjo-. XpKTT. AL, 37, most others, vg., go., syrlicl, arm. 

' So ^cADFGKL, d, f, g, vg., go., sah., boh., syrhcl, arm. ; Kvpiov Mtjot. Xpurr. 
i^*» i7> 37 (so also two cursives, syrpesh, which om. foil, tov Kvpiov tuxuv). 
3 Add |4ov D*, 17, one other, d, e, fuld., go., sah. 

Chapter I. — Vv. i, 2. Salutation. 

Ver. I. airdcrroXos Xp. Mtjc. See note 
on I Tim. i. i. 

Sia 6cXi]paTos Ocov : This formula is 
found also in i and 2 Cor. Eph. and Col. 
See note on i Tim. i. i, where it is 
pointed out that while the same iiriroyi] 
may be said to be issued by God the 
Father and God the Son, OeXTjiia is al- 
ways used of the Father's eternal purpose 
as regards the salvation of man (Rom. ii. 
18, xii. 2 ; 2 Cor. viii. 5 ; Gal. i. 4 ; Eph. 
i. 5, 9, II ; Col. i. 9, iv. 12 ; I Thess. iv. 
3, v. 18, etc.). St. Paul believed that his 
own commission as an apostle was a part 
of God's arrangements to this end, one 
of the ways in which the Will manifested 

Kar eiroyycXiav ^wijs, k.t.X. : To be 
connected with diro'<rToXos. His apostle- 
ship was for the accomplishment of the 
promise, etc. See Rom. i. 5, cXd^op,cv 
. . . airo<rToX'}|v els viraKOTiv irioTtws Iv 
Troo-iv TO IS €9veo"iv. For the force of Kara 
with ace. see Winer- Moulton, Gram. 
p. 502. The notion is more largely ex- 
pressed in the corresponding passage of 
Tit. (i. 2), lir* IXiriSi Swtjs alwvCov ^v 
lirTjYyeCXaTO . . . 6eos. We must not 
suppose that there is any limitation 
in the reference of the expression here. 
The mention of " the promise of the life 
which is in Christ Jesus" (Gal. ii. 19, 

20) is not intended as a consolation to 
Timothy (as Chrys., Bengel), nor was it 
even specially suggested by his own near 
approaching death. The preciousness of 
that promise is never wholly absent Irom 
the minds of Christians ; though of course 
it comes to the surface of our conscious- 
ness at crises when death is, or seems to 
be, imminent. 

Ver. 2. dYairTjT« : On the variation 
here from Yvrjcriw, which occurs in i Tim. 
i. 2 and Tit. i. 4, see the note in the 
former place. Ver. 5 ("the unfeigned 
faith that is in thee ") proves that St. 
Paul did not v/ish to hint that Timothy 
had ceased to be his yvrianov tc'icvov. 
Timothy is St. Paul's tckvov oYairrjTov 
also in i Cor. iv. 17. dyairTiTds is com- 
plete in itself: it does not require the 
explanatory addition, Iv ir(«rr€i, or xara 
KOivT|v »i«mv. 

xdpis* K.T.X. : See note on i Tim. i. 2. 

Vv. 3-7. I know that your weak point 
is deficiency in moral courage. Be 
braced, therefore, by the assurance that 
I am constantly thinking with thankful- 
ness and prayer about your genuine and 
inborn faith ; and by the fact that the 
gift of the Holy Spirit which you re- 
ceived at ordination was that of power 
and love and discipline. 

Ver. 3. X*P'''' *X** • Th^ expression of 
thanksgiving in the exordium of an 

I. 1-5. 



'' aufciSnaci, &i ' ASidXcnrTOK " exw t^k irepl cou " ° ufciac 4k rats 1 ^o™- »*• »> 

\ A~ >c> "> not LXX. 

heqaecriy ^ou koktos Kai T])i^pas, 4. " c-irnrooaiv "ore ° locn', ** (xcfinf)- m i Thess. 
iteVos <roo Tuc SaKpucaf, iKa x^^^P^S ' irXTjpwOw, 5. ' uTr6|AKt)<rii' Xa^uii' ^ n Rom. i. g, 

Eph. i. 16, 

Phil. i. 3, 

I Thess. i. 2, iii. 6, Philem. 4. o Rom. i. ii, Phil. ii. 26, i Thess. iii. 6. pi Cor. xi. 2, Matt. 

(3), Luke (6), Joha (3), Acts (2), Heb. (4, of which 3 are O.T.), 2 Pet. (i), Jude (i), Rev. (i). q Here 

only in Pastorals. r Ps. Ixx. (Ixxi.) 6, Wisd. xvi. 11, 2 Mace. vi. 17, 2 Pet. i. 13, iii. i only. 

1 Xa|iPavo>v ^cDKL. 

cpistle is usually prefaced by St. Paul 
with cvxapicTTu (Rom. i. 8, 1 Cor. i. 4, 
Phil. i. 3, Philem. 4; evxapwrrovftev 
Col. i. 3, I Thess. i. 2; oi Tavo^ai 
cvxapuTTuv, Eph. i. 16; €vx<^pi<mlv 
6<|>(i\op,ev, 2 Thess. i. 3). A comparison 
of these passages makes it evident that 
X<ipiv €x<» is to be connected with 
vTro'p,vT|(nv Xa^wv, k.t.X. ; ws a8i.aXciir- 
Tov — irXYipuSu being a parenthetical 
account of St. Paul's state of mind about 
his absent friend, while p.c|ivi)pevos — 
SaKpvcuv is also a parenthetical clause. 
The thanksgiving is for the grace of God 
given to Timothy {cf. esp. i Cor. 1.4;! 
Thess. i. 2 ; 2 Thess. i. 3) ; and the ex- 
pression of thankfulness is called forth 
whenever St. Paul calls him to mind, un- 
ceasingly in fact. The use of x^^pi-^ tX** 
in I Tim. i. 12 is not a parallel case to 
this. The phrase is quoted from the 
papyri by Dean Armitage Robinson, Ephe- 
sians, p. 283. 

u Xarpevb) airo irpcyovuv k.t.X. : 
Two thoughts are in St. Paul's mind: 
(a) the inheritance of his religious con- 
sciousness from his forefathers, and (6) 
the continuity of the revelation of God; 
the same light in the New Covenant as 
in the Old, only far brighter. 

If St. Paul had been asked, When did 
you first serve God? he would have 
answered, Even before God separated 
me from my mother's womb for His ser- 
vice. St. Paul was conscious that he 
was the result of generations of God- 
fearing people. His inborn, natural 
instincts were all towards the service of 
God. (See Acts xxii. 3, xxiv. 14 ; Rom. 
xi. I ; 2 Cor. xi. 22 ; Phil. iii. 5). 

Moreover St. Paul always maintained 
that the Gospel was the divinely ordained 
sequel of Judaism; not a new religion, 
but the fulfilment of " the promise made 
of God unto our fathers " (Acts xxvi. 6 ; 
see also xxiii. 6, xxiv. 14). 

cv Ka9apql <ruv€i8i](r6i : Compare the 
claim he makes. Acts xxiii. i, xxiv. 16 ; 
I Cor. iv. 4; 2 Cor, i. 12 ; i Thess. ii. 
10 ; and for the language here see note 
on I Tim. i. 5. us is best rendered as 

(Winer-Moulton, Gram. p. 561, where 
Matt. vi. 12, Gal. vi. 10 are cited in 
illustration). The R.V. how (so Alf.) 
implies that the cause for thankfulness 
is the unceasing nature of St. Paul's 
remembrance of Timothy ; the A.V. 
that (quod, Vulg.) refers the cause to the 
remembrance itself. Rom, i. g is not a 
parallel instance of ws. 

aSiaXciiTTOV — Sci7aeo-iv pov : A regular 
epistolary formula, as is evidenced by 
the papyri ; though no doubt in St. 
Paul's case it corresponded to reality. 
See his use of it in reff, and Dean Armi- 
tage Robinson, Ephesians, pp, 37 sq., 275 
sqq. esp. p. 279, sq. on the formula pvciav 
iroici(r9ai, from which this passage is a 
remarkable variation, 

vvKT^s Kal '^pc'pas is connected by the 
R.V. with Jiriirofiiwv. In i Thess. ii, g, 
iii. 10, the phrase unquestionably is con- 
nected with what follows. On the other 
hand, in i Tim, v, 5 it comes at the end 
of a clause ; and in this place the A.V. 
connects it with raXs Seijcrccriv pov. This 
is certainly right, on the analogy of i 
Thess. iii. 10, where see Milligan's note, 
Alf. and Ell. connect it with aSiaXciirrov 

eiriirofldiv at ISciv : a Pauline expres- 
sion. See refif. ISciv is not expressed 
in 2 Cor. ix. 14, Phil. i. 8, ii. 26. 

Ver. 4. pcpvT]p6vos — SaKpvuv : Paren- 
thetical. St. Paul's longing was made 
keener by his recollection of the tears 
Timothy had shed at their last parting. 
So Chrys. fixes the occasion. We are 
reminded of the scene at Miletus, Acts 
XX. 37. Bengel, comparing Acts xx. 19, 
thinks that reference is rather made to an 
habitual manifestation of strong emotion. 
At that time, and in that society, tears 
were allowed as a manifestation of emo- 
tion more freely than amongst modern 
men of the West. 

Xapas trXrfpuBu : For irXiipou with a 
genitive, cf. Rom. xv, 13, 14, It takes a 
dat., Rom. i. 29, 2 Cor. vii. 4, cf. Eph. 
V. 18 ; an ace, Phil, i, 11, Col, i. 9. 

Ver, 5. viropvtjo-iv Xa^wv : Having 
been reminded. Not to be connected 



sSeeiTim. T^S iy aoi * di'uiroKpiTOU Trioreus, ^ns ^ iv(aKii\<reir irplarov iv rn 

t See note. " fiduuT] aoo AuiSi Kal Trj M-TiTpi ctou EufiKTi, " ■ 8c on Kal 
u 4 Mace ''z-ws.w-w*.' X. '' y.» 

XVI. 9 €y aoi. o. 01 Tjc aiTiac di'a|iip,nr]0'K(i> ae ' ava^onrupeiv to 
V Rom. viii. 
38, xiv. i^, zv. 14, ver. i2. w Luke viii. 47, Acts xxii. 24, a Tim. i. 12, Tit. i. 13, Heb. ii. 11. 

X 1 Cor. iv. 17. y Gen. xlv. 27, i Mace. xiii. 7 only. 

with the clause immediately preceding, 
as R.V.m. viro)j,vi](ris, a reminder, i.e., 
an act of recollection specially excited 
by a particular person or thing, thus 
differs from avd^vT)(ris, which is self- 
originated (so Ammonias Grammaticus, 
quoted by Bengel). Ell. compares for 
the thought Eph. i. 15. For this use of 
Xafi.pdvb>, cf. Rom. vii. 8, 11 (a4>op^T]v 
X.). Heb. ii. 3 (apxT)v X.), xi. 29, 36 
(ireipav X.), 2 Pet. i. 9 (XtiOtiv X.). The 
fact that St. Paul received this reminder 
of Timothy's faith suggests that there 
were other aspects of his conduct — pos- 
sibly as an administrator — which were 
not wholly satisfactory. His unfeigned 
faith made up for much. 

'fJTis lv(|>KT]<rev K.T.X. : ivoiK4m is used 
in Rom. viii. 11 and 2 Tim. i. 14 of the 
indwelling of the Holy Spirit ; and in 
Col. iii. 16 of the Word of Christ. In 2 
Cor. vi. 16, ivoiK^orti is added in the 
quotation from Lev. xxvi. 12 to cvircpi- 
irarrla-u}. Tisch. and W.H. read 
cvoiKOvo-a for olKovcra in Rom. vii. 17. 
Timothy's faith was hereditary as St. 
Paul's was. irpwrov does not mean 
that Lois was the first of her family to 
have faith, but that it dwelt in her, to St. 
Paul's knowledge, before it dwelt in 
Timothy. It is to be observed that it is 
implied that the faith of God's people be- 
fore Christ came is not different in kind 
from faith after Christ has come. 

pappXI • an infantile equivalent in 
early Greek for piJTT|p, is used in later 
Greek for rrfir\t grandmother. It occurs, 
e.g., in 4 Mace. xvi. g, ovk o«|ro|i,ak vpuv 
T^Kva, ovhi pappi] KXT)Oei<ra paKapiordi]- 
cropai.. See also Moulton and Milligan, 
Expositor, vii., vii. 561. 

AwiSi : Since Timothy's father was a 
Greek, and his mother a Jewess (Acts 
xvi. i), we 'may conclude that Lois was 
the mother of Eunice (see art. in Hast- 
ings' D. B.). 

EvvCkt) : See art. in Hastings' D. B., 
where Lock notes that the curious read- 
ing of cursive 25 in Acts xvi. i, vibs 
yvvaiKos Tivos 'tovSaia; x^P'*^^> ^^'^ the 
substitution of X'HP'^^ for 'louSaias in 
Gig., fuld. " may embody a tradition of 
her widowhood ". 

ircircurpai. : The other examples of St. 

Paul's use of this word (see reff.) give no 
support to the notion ol Thdrt. (followed 
by Alf.) that ir^-ireiapai, here has the 
force of our / am sure, I am certain, 
when we wish to hint gently that we 
desire reassurdnce on the point about 
which we express our certainty. In all 
the places in which St. Paul uses 
ircircitrpai he is anxious to leave no 
doubt as to his own certitude. Never- 
theless, in this case, it was quite possble 
for him to be perfectly certain that un- 
feigned faith animated Timothy, and at 
the same time to have misgivings (ver. 7) 
as to (Timothy's moral courage in deal- 
ing withi men. We supply Ivoikci after 

Ver. 6. 8k' Ijv alriav : not so much 
" because I am persuaded of thine un- 
feigned faith " (Theoph., Thdrt.), as, 
" because this faith does of a surety 
dwell in thee ". We are most fruitfully 
stimulated to noble action, not when we 
know other people think well of us, but 
when their good opinion makes us recog- 
nise the gifts to us of God's grace. P'aith, 
as well as salvation, is the gift of God, 
Eph. ii. 8. Except in this phrase (see 
reff. and Acts xxviii. 20), alria is not 
found elsewhere in Paul. It is common 
in Matt., Mark, John, and Acts. 

ava(ci)irvpciv : In both places cited 
in reff. — the only occurrences in the 
Greek Bible — the verb is intransitive: 
his, or their, spirit revived. Chrys. well 
compares with the image suggested by 
availcinrupciv (" stir into flame,") " quench 
not the Spirit," i Thess. v. 19, where by 
" the Spirit " is meant His charismatic 
manifestations of every kind. It is in- 
teresting to note in this connexion that 
ava^uirvpcXv ^avratrla% is opposed to 
o-^vvvfat in M. Antoninus, vii. 2 (quoted 
by Wetstein). 

TO xapt'<''p(^ Tov 6cov : This expression 
refers to the salvation of the soul by 
God's grace, in Rom. vi. 23, xi. 29. The 
narrower signification, as here, of a gift 
given to us to use to God's glory is X'^P*'' 
o-pa Ik dcov, i Cor. vii. 7, or more usually 
simply xapifTfLa. The particular nature 
of the gift must be determined by the 
context. In this case it was a charisma 
that was exercised in a spirit not of fear- 

fr— 8. 



'^^dpitraa "too *ecoO o imv iv ot>i Bid ttjs ' eiriOcaeoJS 'Tw»"SeeiTinj. 

^ , iv. 14, and 

* X^ipuK ftou ' 7. ou yap ISukci' r\ 6 ecos irvcofui SeiXias,^ dXXci note here. 
C' ^, y , , -^ o ■>■ * d ■> fl-* ^" ' Tim. 

oui'a^cus Kai dYaTrrjs koi aw^povia\Lov. o. Mt) out' eirai(r)(OK0T)s iv. 14. 
_i. / f-f.y' fc- e«>N<ce' »- bHereonly, 

TO fUipTUplOf TOU KupiOU TJfiWl' )lT]Oe €fie TOK • OCO-fllOK aUTOU • N.T. 

c Here only, 
not LXX, 
d Mark viiL 38=Lake iz. 26, Rom. i. 16, a Tim. L 16, Heb. zL 16, c/. ver. 12. e See i Tim. iL 6. 

See I Tim. i. 14. g See note. 

' SovXcia« 238, two others, Didymus, Clem. AL, Chrys., by a confused recollec- 
tion of Rom. viii. 15. 

fulness. We can scarcely be \vrong, 
then, if we suppose the charisma of 
administration and rule to be in St. 
Paul's mind rather than " the work of an 
evangelist " (ch. iv. 5). So Chrys., " for 
presiding over the Church, for the work- 
ing of miracles, and for every service ". 

Sia Tijs ciri.6c(re««s — jiov : See note on 
I Tim. iv. 14, where it is pointed out 
that we have no right to assume that 
hands were laid on Timothy once only. 
Thus Acts ix. 17 and xiii. 3 are two such 
occasions in St. Paul's spiritual life. 
There may have been others. 

Ver. 7. ow yap cSukcv "qf^Iv : The yap 
connects this statement with the exhorta- 
tion preceding m such a w^y as to sug- 
gest that God's gift " to us " of a spirit 
of power is in the same order of being 
as the charisma imparted to Timothy by 
the laying on of St. Paul's hands. The 
question is, then, To whom is reference 
made in -qpiv ? We can only reply, The 
Christian Soaety, represented by the 
apostles on the Efeiy of Pentecost. {The 
aor. cS«*Kcy points to a definite occasion). 
Then it was that the Church began to 
receive the power, Svvapis, which had 
been promised (Luke xxiv. 49; Acts i. 8) 
by the Lord, and realised by the aposdes 
collectively (Acts iv. 33 ; i Cor. iv. 20, v. 
4), and individually (Acts vi. 8 ; i Cor. ii. 
4 ; 2 Cor. vi. 7, xii. 9), ^^'hatever special 
charismata are bestowed on the ministers 
of the Church at ordination, they are a 
part of the general stream of the Pente- 
costal gift which is alwaj's being poured 
out by the ascended Lord. 

■wvtvfLa SciXCaf : It is simplest to take 
wcvfia here as a comprehensive equiva- 
lent to xapiayLOj as in i Cor. xiv. 12, 
ttiXciKrai ccrrc wrufiaTuv. God did not 
in/use into us fearfulness, etc. The gen. 
after irvcv|jia, in this and similar cases, 
Rom. viii. 15 (SovXcios, vloBcatas), xi. 8 
(Karavv^cids), I Cor: iv. 21, Gal. vi. i 
(•rpavTTjTos), 2 Cor. iv. 13 (iri<rTe«i>s), 
Eph. i. 17 ((ro4>(as, k.tA.), expresses the 
prominent idea, the term irvcv|La adds 
the notion that the quality spoken of is 

not self-originated. The personal Holy 
Spirit is not meant unless the context 
names Him unambiguously, as in Eph. 
i. 13. 

SciXXa: fearfulness, timidity, titnor. 
This is the right word here, as SovXcias is 
the right word in Rom.viii.15. It is curious 
that in Lev. xxvi. 36, where B has SovXciav 
A &c have SciXiav. See apparat. crit. 
There was an element ol SciXia in 
Timothy's natural disposition which must 
have been prejudicial to his efficiency as 
a Church ruler. For that position is 
needed (a) force of character, which if 
not natural may be inspired by conscious- 
ness of a divine appointment, (b) love, 
which is not softness, and (c) self-discip- 
line, which is opposed to all easy self- 
indulgence which issues in laxitj' of 
administration. tnt^poYurY.ov:sobrietatis. 
Better active, as R.V., discipline, first of 
self, then of others. See Blass, Gram- 
mar, p. 61. 

Vv. 8 — ii. 2. The leading thoughts in 
this section are (a) the Day of reward 
and judgment which is surely coming 
(12, 18), (6) the unreasonableness there- 
fore of cowardly shame (S, 12, 16), and 
(c) the necess ty that Timothy should 
guard the deposit and hand it on (14- 
ii. 2). 

Be not ashamed, therefore, of the Gos- 
pel to which our Lord was not ashamed 
to testify; nor be ashamed of me, who 
am m prison because of testimony borne 
to Him and it. Share our sufferings in 
the strength given by God, whose power 
is displayed in the Gospel of life of which 
I was appointed a preacher. This is the 
direct cause of my present lot ; but I am 
not ashamed; for I know the power of 
Him to whom I have committal myself 
in trust. Do you imitate His faithfulness : 
guard the deposit committed to you. I 
am not ask ng you to do more than some 
others have done. You know Onesi- 
phorus and his work as well as I do. 
When all turned their backs on me, he 
was not ashamed to make inquiries for 
me; and, finding me in prison, he con- 



h a Titn. ii. dXXd *" o'ui'KaKOTrd0T|o-oi' tw euayyeXiw Kara Sui'afiiK ©cou, 9. tou 

LXX. coxTarros tjfias Kai KaAeaacTos K\T|aei ayia, ou Kara rd cpya rjfjwoi', 
i Rom. viii. ,.^, »>o/ 1 »a \ . v'^n- e-3 ~ 

38, ix. II, dWa Kara loiac irpoveaiy Kai X^P''*' '^^*' oo3c'^<''ai' 'HH'^i' ^^ Xpioru 
£ph. i. II; 
iii. II. 

stantly cheered me by his visits. May 
God bless him and his ! Do you, then, 
welcome the strengthening grace of 
Christ, and provide for a succession of 
faithful teachers to preserve intact the 
sacred deposit of the faith. 

Ver. 8. (JLT) ovv iiraia-xyvO^^ '• The Say- 
ing of Jesus (Mark viii. 38 = Luke ix. 26) 
was probably in St. Paul's mind. He 
alludes to it again, ii. 12. The aor. subj. 
with (iT| forbids the supposition that 
Timothy had actually done what St. 
Paul warns him against doing (Winer- 
Moulton, Grammar, p. 628, and J. H. 
Moulton, Grammar, vol. i. p. 122 sq.). 
See note on i Tim. iv. 14. Personal ap- 
peals are a feature of this epistle cf. ver. 
13, ii. 3, 15, iii. 14, iv. i, 2, 5. 

rh fiapTvpiov t. Kvplov : Testimony 
borne by our Lord, His words, His ethi- 
cal and spiritual teaching, by which 
Christianity has influenced the ideals 
and practice of society. The gen. after 
|i,apTvpiov is best taken as subjective. 
See I Cor. i. 6, ii. i ; 2 Thess. i. 10. 

Tov KvpCov iqp.€Sv : See note on i Tim. 

i- 14- 

i\i.k T^v SecTfJuov atiTov : This does not 
mean one made prisoner by the Lord, but 
one who belongs to the Lord and is a 
prisoner for His sake. There is nothing 
figurative about S^o-fjuos. St. Paul calls 
himself 6 S^o-p,. t. Xp. *lT)<r. in Eph. iii. 
I, ScVfx. Xp. *It]o-. Philem. i and g. 
The idea is more clearly expressed in 
6 S^orp.. Iv Kvp((d Eph. iv. i. He is a 
prisoner; he is also "in Christ". The 
expression also suggests the thought 
that his earthly imprisonment is ordered 
by the Lord, not by man. The present 
captivity is alluded to again in ver. 16 
and ii. g. It is not the same figure as in 
2 Cor. ii. 14, " God which always leadeth 
us in triumph in Christ " as His captives. 
See Lightfoot on Col. ii. 15. 

(rvvKaKO'irddT]a'ov tu etioYyeXio) : yoin 
us [the Lord and me] in our sufferings 
for the GospeVs sake. More than once 
m this epistle St. Paul declares that he is 
suffering (iracrxw, ver. 12 ; KaKOTaOw, ii. 
9). He has said, " Be not ashamed . . . 
of me"; but he has just coupled the 
testimony of the Lord with his own ; and 
further on (ii. 8) Jesus Christ is noted as 
the great illustration of the law, " No 
cross, no crown ". See note there. It is 

best then to give a wider reference than 
fjioi to the a-uv in ovvKaKOTrdO. The 
R.V., Suffer hardship with the gospel 
is needlessly harsh. The dat. t^ evay- 
ycXlcd is the dativus commodi. 

Kara 8vvap.iv Scov must be connected 
with (TuvKaKoirdd. ; and this suggests that 
the power of God here means power 
given by God, as in 2 Cor. vi. 7, i Pet. 
i. 5, "the power that worketh in us" 
(Eph. iii. 20), the assured possession of 
which would brace Timothy to suffer 
hardship. Alf. and Ell., following Bengel, 
take it subjectively : the power of God 
displayed in our salvation (as in Rom. 
i. 16 ; I Cor. i. 18, 24, ii. 5 ; 2 Cor. xiii. 4). 
But St. Paul could scarcely exhort Tim- 
othy to display a degree of fortitude com- 
parable to God's active power. The next 
verse, tov croicravTOS, k.t.X., is not a 
detailed description of God's power to 
save, but a recalling of the fact that 
Timothy had actually experienced God's 
saving grace in the past. This consider- 
ation would stimulate Timothy to play 
the man. 

Ver. 9. TOV «r«<ravTos, k.t.X. : The 
connexion, as has been just remarked, is 
that our recognition at our baptism of 
God's saving and calling grace — He 
saved us and called us at a definite point 
of time (aor.) — ought to strengthen our 
faith in the continuance in the future of 
His gifts of power to us. On the insist- 
ence in this group of epistles on God's 
saving grace, see notes on i Tim. i. i, ii. 4. 

KaX^aavTos kXi]o'£i ay^q. : To a holv 
calling, i.e., to a life of holiness, is less 
ambiguous than with a holy calling, 
which might mean " a calling uttered by 
a Holy One," or "in holy language". 
kXtjo-is does not here mean the invitation 
(as in Rom. xi. 2g), but, when qualified 
as here by an adj., it means the condition 
into which, or the purpose for which, we 
have been called (so r\ avat kX., Phil. iii. 
14, lirovpdvios kX., Heb. iii. i ; and cf. 
I Cor. vii. 20). We have been "called 
to be saints," Rom. i. 7, "called into the 
fellowship of God's Son," i Cor. i. g. 

ov Kara to. Ipya : The sentiment is 
more clearly expressed in Tit. iii. 5, 
ovK l| cpyuv . . . a liroiijo'apcv ijpctf. 
There is an echo in both places of the 
controversy, now over, concerning works 
and grace. Perhaps KaToL is used in this 

9 — 12. 



\r\<Tou ^ irpo ^ )(^p6vu>v ^ aioivlav, 10. ^ ^avepbtQelaav 8e vuv 8ici tt]? k Tit. i. 2, 

eTri(})afeias °TOu awTTJpos "T^fiwc " Xpiorou " Irjaou/ ° KaTapvTi- xvi. 25. 
» n , 1 See note 

aarros /xec rhv " Odi'aTOf •* ({xoTio-acTOS oc ^utji' Kal "^ d(|>9ap(riai' 8id on i Tim. 

TOu cuayyeXioo, II. 'cis 'o ^ kTi^-r\v 'cy^ '^•^''ip"^ 'Kal dircScrroXo? m See i 

Kal 'SiSdo-KaXos.^ 12. "81' •fjK "aiTiai' Kal raura ^irdoxw dW 14. 

>n» > t^ \ * t \ t t «° Tit. i. 4, 

ouK ciraicrxucofxai • oioa yap a> irETrurrcuKa, Kai ircireiafjiai on ii. 13, ili, 

"Soi/oTos 'eoTii' TTji' *'irapa0i]KTii' fxou ^ (f>uXd|ai eis '^kciktji' 'ttj^ o i Cor. xv. 

26, Heb. 

_ . . "• 14- 

p I Cor. IV. 5, Eph. iii. g. q Wisd. (2), 4 Mace. (2), Rom. ii. 7, i Cor. xv. 42, 50, 53, 54, Eph. vi. 34. 

r See i Tim. ii. 7. s See ver. 6. t Here only in Pastorals. u Pa. cxviii. (cxix.) 6, cf. ver. 8. 

V See ver. 5. w Luke xiv. 31, Rom. iv. 21, xi. 23, Tit. i. 9, cf. Heb. xi. 19, Jas. iii. 3. x See 

I Tim. vi. 20. y 2 Thess. i. 10, 2 Tim. i. 18, iv. 8. 

1 So J^*AD*, d, e, sah. ; 'Irjo-. Xpierr. ^cCDcFGKLP, all cursives, f, g, vg., go., 
boh., syrr., arm. 

^ Add I6VWV (from i Tim. ii. 7), all except i^*A, 17. 

clause to mark more vividly the antithesis 
to the next, Kara 18. irpoO., in which its 
use is more normal. See Eph. ii. 8, owk 

l| Vp.WV, 0EOV TO SupOV. 

a\Xa Kara ISiav irpoOccrkv, k.t.X. : 

The grace in which the divine purpose 
for man expresses itself was given to 
mankind before times eternal ; mankind, 
sons of God, being summed up, concen- 
trz^ted, in the Son of God, whom we 
know now as Christ Jesus. In Him was 
present, germ-wise, redeemed humanity, 
to be realised in races and individuals in 
succeeding ages. 

We have here the same teaching about 
the Church and Christ as is more fully 
given in Ephesians and Colossians (see 
especially Eph. i. 4). In Rom. xvi. 25 
the antithesis between a reality veiled in 
the past and now unveiled, or manifested, 
is expressed in language very similar 
to that of the passage before us : Kara 
diroKdXv\|/tv (xvtrrqpiov xpovois alcoviois 
crco-iYrif&^yov <^avcpbi9^vT09 Sc vvv. 

irp^ yjfivwi/ aluvluv : expresses the 
notion of that which is anterior to the 
most remote period in the past conceiv- 
able by any imagination that man knows 

Ver. 10. <|iavcpu9eIo'av : See note on 
I Tim. iii. i5. Bengel calls attention to 
the fit juxtaposition of illustria verba: 
<^avcpci>dct(rav, ciri.({>avc(as, ({xoTlcravTo;. 

8ia ttIs l'iri<{>avctas, k.t.X. : See on i 
Tim. vi. 14. The iiri^iveia here must 
not be referred to the Incarnation, con- 
sidered as having taken place at a parti- 
cular moment in time. It includes it ; 
the iTrKJxivcia began then ; and will 
be continued, becoming ever brighter 
and clearer, until its consummation, to 
which the term lirt^dvcia is elsewhere 

KaTapY«i«»"avTos : We cannot, because 
of the absence of an article before the 
participles, safely translate, when he 
brought to nought, rather than, who 
brought to nought. Abolished does not 
express the truth. Christians all " taste 
of death " as their Master did (John viii. 
52, Heb. ii, 9), though they do not 
"see" it; and they are confident that 
they too will be "saved out of death" 
(Heb. v. 7). Death for them has lost its 
sting (Heb. ii. 14, 15). It need not cause 
any difficulty that here the undoing of 
death is spoken of as past, whereas in 
I Cor. XV. 26, 54, it is " the last enemy 
that shall be abolished" (see Rev. xx 
14). We have a parallel in John xvi. 
II, "The prince of this world hath been 
judged ". 

Tov OavaTov: Alf., following Bengel, 
sees a special force in the art. — "as if he 
had said Orcum ilium ". 

<{><<>TUravTos : To be connected with 
8ia TOV evayyeXCov. The Gospel is that 
by which the presence of Christ, the 
light, is apprehended. That light does 
not create life and incorruption : it dis- 
plays them. 

lai]v Kal a^9ap(r(av: Immortality or 
Incorruption defines the life more clearly. 

Ver. II. els S ItsOiiv, k.t.X. : See i 
Tim. ii. 7, where these words are also 
found, and the note on i Tim. i. 11. 

Ver. 12. 8t* fly aWov: i.e., because I 
am a preacher of the Gospel. Cf. Gal. 

V. II. 

ovK lira\,<rxvvo\ : Non confundor. I 
am not disappointed of my hope, as in ref. 

ir«irt(rT€VKo . . . ir«irei<rp,ai : The per- 
fects have their usual force. For ir^ireio-- 
p,ai see Rom. viii. 38 and note on ver. 5. 

TT)v irapa6'i]KT]v fjiov is best taken as 
that which I have deposited for safe 



xSeeiTim-^ rffiipav. 1 3. * 'YiroTuirucrii' tye * uyiaivcStTui' "Xoyt'"' <*>v irop* 
• SeeiTim. Efiou YJKOUcras £>' '"ttlcttci ** Kal '' dydin] ''rfj ^ iv '^ Xpiarw ^'lT|(rou. 
biTim. i. I4. TTji* KaXrji' ' TTapaQr\Kr]v ^ ""^ <)>uXa^oc 8id n>'€UfiaTOs 'Ayioo too 

c See I Tim. • €i'OiKou»'T09 iv ■f] 1 5. OtSas TouTO OTi ' direCTTp(i<|)ir)ad»' fie 

vi. 20. 
dSee I Tim. 

V. 21. e Rom. viii. 11. f Matt. v. 42, 2 Tim. iv. 4, Tit. i. 14, Heb. xJi. aj. 

^ irapaKaTaOi]icT|V 47, many others. 

keeping. Cf. the story of St. John and 
the robber from Clem. Alex. Quis Dives, 
§ 42, quoted by Eus. H. E. iii. 23, ttjv 
irapaKaTa9t]Knv a-iroSos 'Hpiv. Here it 
means "my soul" or "myself," cf. Ps. 
XXX. (xxxi.) 6, els x^^P^^S orov irapaBil]aro- 
|tai TO irvEvpd pov, Luke xxiii. 46, i Pet. 
iv. 19, I Thess. v. 23. This explana- 
tion of irapaOrjKTjv harmonises best with 
liraio-xvvopai,, ircnLfrrevKa, and <t>v\d|ai. 
The whole verse has a purely personal 
reference. Nothing but a desire to give 
■irapaOi^Ki] the same meaning wherever 
it occurs (i Tim. vi. 20, q.v.; 2 Tim. i. 14) 
could have made Chrys. explain it here 
as " the faith, the preaching of the Gos- 
pel ". So R.V.m., that which he hath 
committed unto me. " Paulus, decessui 
proximus, duo deposita habebat: alterum 
Domino, alterum Timotheo committen- 
dum," Bengel. This exegesis compels 
us to refer u to God the Father. 

€ls Ikcivt]v tt)v '^p^pav: The day of 
judgment and award, i Cor. iii. 13. 

Ver. 13. -uiroTTJirwo-iv €x«: A resump- 
tion of the exhortation which was broken 
off in ver. 9. This command is strictly 
parallel to that which follows : vTror. 
vyittiv. — T]Kovaas corresponds to, and 
is the external expression of, ttiv KaX. 
irapadi^KT)v; «x« corresponds to i|>vXa|ov ; 
and Iv irtoTei — 'lijiroti to 8ia — ^ptv. 

tiiroTvirwcriv vYiaivovTuv Xoyuv : The 
gen. is that of apposition : a pattern, 
sc. of faith, expressed in sound words. 
The phrase marks an advance on the 
pop(^b>o-is TTJs yvcdcrcwf (Rom. ii. 20) or 
[Lop^. cvo-c^eCas (2 Tim. iii. 5). It hap- 
pily suggests the power of expansion 
latent in the simplest and most primitive 
dogmatic formulas of the Christian faith. 

«X* has the same strengthened signifi- 
cation as in I Tim. i. 19, where see note. 

vy\,aiv6vTav Xoyaiv : See note on i 
Tim. i. 10. 

uv . . . 4JKov<ras : Alf. notes that the 
use of iv rather than ^v shows that 
iyiaiv. Xoy. and not viroTwir. is the chief 
thing in St. Paul's mind. It is obvious 
that Timothy could not have heard the 
woTviruo-ts, which is a concept of the 

mind expressed in many sound words 
heard on various occasions. As to the 
translation, von Soden agrees with Hort, 
who insists on " the order, the absence 
of TTjv, and the use of ex* " ^s compelling 
us to render, " Hold as a pattern," etc. 
This rendering would favour Hort's con- 
jecture that "iiN is a primitive corrup- 
tion for ON," i.e., "Hold as a pattern 
of sound words the word which thou hast 
heard," etc. But the absence of the 
article is such a marked feature in the 
Pastorals that no argument can be based 
on it here. 

Bengel calls attention to the change 
in order in ii. 2. Here, irap' epov tJkov- 
o-as> the emphasis being on St. Paul's 
personal authority; there, TJK0v<ras irop* 
ipov, because of the antithesis between 
T]K0vo-as and xapdOov. 

iv irio-Tei, k.t.X. : See note on i Tim. 
i. 14. This clause must be joined with 
ex*) not with TlKOvcras, nor with vyiaiv. 
Xdy. only : as given in faith, etc. (von 

Ver. 14. TTJV KaXT]v irapaOi^Kijv: The 
faith, which is a viroTvirwo-is in relation 
to the growing apprehension of it by the 
Church, is a irapaOiJKT), deposit, in the 
case of each individual. On the constant 
epithet KaXos see i Tim. i. 18, and on 
irapa9i]KT) i Tim. vi. 20. There is a 
special force in KaXi]v here, as distin- 
guishing the precious faith from t»|v 
TrapadiJKTiv pov of ver. 12. 

(fivXa^ov 8i,a flvcvpaTOs'Aylov: c^vXaa- 
<reiv is more than exetv: it implies here 
final perseverance ; and that can only be 
attained through the Holy Spirit. God 
must CO operate with man, if man's 
efforts are to be successful. Cf. " Work 
out your own salvation . . . for it is God 
which worketh in you " (Phil. ii. 12, 13). 

rivevpaTos 'Aylov : This verse and Tit. 
iii. 5 are the only places in the Pastorals 
in which the Holy Spirit is mentioned. 

Ver. 15. olSas tovto : There is a per- 
sonal appeal for loyalty in this reminder. 
The whole paragraph, with its examples 
cited of disloyalty and loyalty, was in- 
tended as an object lesson to Timothy. 


nP02 TlMOeEON B 


irdrrcs 01 iv rfi 'Actloi • Sty i<n\v ♦uycXos Kal 'Epfioyc^S' 16. *8wtj gDeut. xiiL 
* IXcos 6 Kupios Tw 'Oinf)ai<}>6pou oiKw • on iroXXciKts fie ^ ave^u^ev josh. xi. 
Kai Tr]y aXudi' fiou ouk €-nai(r)(uvQ7\,'^ 1 7. aXXd yc^'oP'^^o^ tc xlvii. 6, 
'PiijftT) ' (nrouSaicdS ^ il^r\-n\(Tiy fxe xal eupey • — 18. 8wt) auTw 6 13, xlix.' 

(xlii.) la, 
vii. 30. h Here only, N.T. i Eph. vi. ao, k See ver. 8. 1 Luke vii. 4, Phil. ii. a8, Tit. iii. 13. 

^ iirQiTxvvQri ^*K. ^ o"irov8aioT€pov DcKL ; cnrovSaioTcpcos A, two cursives. 

airea-Tpaij>-r]a'dv p.c : The reff., with the 
exception of chap. iv. 4, are parallel to 
this use of the verb. 

iravT€s must not be pressed : it is the 
sweeping assertion of depression. If it 
had been even approximately true, Timo- 
thy would have had no church to admini- 
ster. On the other hand, something less 
serious than apostasy from the faith may 
be alluded to, such as personal neglect of 
the apostle {cf. iv. 16, irdvTes fic iyKar{- 
Xciirov, and the contrast of Onesiphorus' 
conduct with theirs in the next verse), a 
thing which to us who see St. Paul throutjh 
the halo of centuries of veneration seems 
painfully hard to understand. But it is 
abundantly plain that apostles did not 
during their lifetime receive that univer- 
sal and unquestioning reverence from 
their fellow-Christians which we would 
have antecedently supposed could not 
have been withheld from them. Cf. 3 
John 9. 

01 Iv TQ 'A<rlt^ : Asia means the Roman 
province, which included Mysia, Lydia, 
Caria, great part of Phrygia, the Troad, 
and the islands off the coast. 

This statement is most naturally ex- 
plained of a defection in Asia of natives 
of Asia. Plummer conjectures that St. 
Paul had applied by letter from Rome for 
help to some leading Asiatic Christians, 
and had been refused. Of course it is 
possible that St. Paul refers to something 
that had taken place in Rome (so Bengel, 
who compares char. iv. 16). But all who 
are in Asia would be a strange way of 
referring to some Asiastics who had been 
in Rome and had returned to Asia ; and 
though olSas tovto is naturally under- 
stood as mentioning something of which 
Timothy had knowledge only by report, 
we cannot be sure that St. Paul intended 
here to distinguish olSas from yivwo-Kcis. 
Perhaps the defection had taken place 
during an absence of Timothy from Asia. 
Nothing else is known certainly of Phy- 
gelus and Hermogenes. 

Ver. 16. S<jiT| cXcos, k.t.X. : SiSw^i 
cXeos, like evpUrKw eXcos, is a Hebraism. 
See reff. The correlative, Xafi^dvcii cXcos 

occurs Heb. iv. 6. iroiciv cXcos p,€T« 
Tivos (Luke i. 72, x. 37 ; Jas. ii. 13) is a 
similar phrase. Here, we should say, 
May God bless so and so. 'Xcos does 
not correspond to any special sin. 

T^ *0v. oiK<p : This household is saluted 
in iv. 19. It is most natural to suppose 
that Onesiphorus himself was dead, both 
from this expression and from the pious 
wish in ver. i8. Prayer for living friends 
is normally and naturally in regard to 
objects which will be realised here in 
earth. The evidence of 2 Mace. xii. 44, 
45, proves that an orthodox Jew of our 
Lord's time could have prayed for the 
dead. A full discussion of the question 
must embrace a consideration of the 
final cause of prayer, and of the nature of 
that which we call death. See reff. to 
recent literature on this subject in Mil- 
ligan's art. Onesiphorus in Hastings' 

avci)ru|cv : The comprehensive term 
refresh expresses the notion admirably. 
They are " the blessed of God the 
Father " to whom the King shall say, 
" I was in prison, and ye came unto 
me " (Matt. xxv. 36. See Heb. x. 34, 
xiii. 3). For St. Paul's appreciation of 
the pleasures of friendly intercourse, see 
Rom. XV. 32, I Cor. xvi. 18, 2 Cor. vii. 
13, Philem. 7, 20. 

liraKTxvvfttj : For other examples of the 
absence of the temporal augment cf. 
Luke xiii. 13 (avopOufrij A B D, etc.) ; 
xxiv. 27, John vi. 18, Acts ii. 25, 
Rom. ix. 29 (6|ioiw9T](jiev A F G L P). 

Ver. 17 ycvoficvos ev 'P<i|xij : The 
reference is most likely to the apostle's 
first Roman imprisonment, Eph. vi. 20. 
Whichever it was, iroXXaKis implies that 
it had lasted some time. 

Ver. 18. It is immaterial whether we 
explain 6 Kvpios, in this verse, of God 
the Father, the source of judgment, or of 
God the Son, the instrument of judg- 
ment. It is far-fetched to suppose that 
the repeated Kvpios . • . Kvpiov refer to 
different divine Persons. Huther's expl., 
followed by Alf., seems the best, that 8<j>tj i 
Kvpios had become so completely a for- 




m Gen. xix. Kupios " tupeiv " eXcos irapcl Kupiou ^ 4k " ckcicti " ''T) " ^H'^'p? — *^^*- 

xi. 15, o<Ta If 'E<j>^<ro) " SiTiK^nfjtreK, P^tiok ao yivuxTKeis. 

iudc> vi. * 

17, Dan. II. I. lit Quv, ^riKVOv fiou, '' eKSurafioG iv rfj x'^P''"'"'' ^fj ^*' 

^^(TH. XpioTO) iTjaou * 2. Kai a riKOUo-as irap cp,ou oid ttoWojk p.apTupui' 

m.38), ix. -'./A ~2fl' » d«^>• ^ 

3. TauTa irapdOou -iriorois dcOpuTrois oitik6S iKaKOi eaoKrai Kai 

n See ver. 

o I Pet. i. 12, iv. 10, with ace a See i Tim. La. b See i Tim. L 13. c See i Tim. i. 18. 

d I Cor. zv. 9, a Cor. ii. 16, iii. 5. 

1 Btif D*. d, e. 

mula that the recurrence did not seem 

Kai 8(ra k.t.X. : This clause is an 

8iT)Ko'vt]orev : The verb is used with a 
perfectly general reference here, as in 
Heb. vi. 10. 

^eXriov : The comparative here is in- 
tensive or elative. See Blass, Grammar, 
pp. 33, 141, 142. Other examples are in i 
Tim. iii. 14 (Tisch.) and in the Received 
Text of ver. 17 of this chapter. 

Chapter II. — Ver. i. <n5 : emphatic, 
as in I Tim. vi. 11 andch. iii. 10 ; but the 
appeal is not primarily that Timothy 
should imitate Onesiphorus, or learn by 
the example of Phygelus and Hermo- 
genes, but rather marks the intensity of 
the apostle's anxiety for the future con- 
duct of Timothy in the Church ; and 
similarly oviv is resumptive of all the 
considerations and appeals for loyalty in 
chap. i. 

Wkvov : See note on i Tim. i. 2. 

IvSvvapiov iv, K.T.X. : The thought is 
resumed from i. 8, 9, and expanded in w. 
3-13. The closest parallel is that in 
Eph. vi. 10, ^v8vva|jiovi(r6e iv Kvpla, 
K.T.X. See note on i Tim. i. 12 and 
reff., esp. Rom. iv. 20, Phil. iv. 13. 
Although the verb is passive, as indicated 
in the R.V., those who are, or who are 
exhorted to be, strengthened are not 
merely passive recipients of an influence 
from without. The act of reception in- 
volves man's co-operation with God. 
Compare " Abide in me, and I in you" 
(John XV. 4). The perfection of God's 
power is conditioned by the weakness of 
man (2 Cor. xii. 9). 

XQ xapiri T^ iv Xp. 'Irjo". : The two 
passages, 2 Cor. xii. 9, and Eph. vi. 10, 
alluded to in the last note, explain this. 
Grace here has its simplest theological 
meaning, as the divine help, the un- 
merited gift of assistance that comes 
from God. 

Ver. 2. St. Paul is here contemplating 
an apostolical succession in respect of 

teaching rather than of administration. 
It is natural that in the circumstances of 
the primitive Church the building up of 
converts in the faith should have occupied 
a larger place in the Christian conscious- 
ness than the functions of an official 
ministry; but the historical continuity 
of the ministry of order is of course in- 
volved in the direction here. St. Paul 
would have been surprised if any other 
conclusion had been drawn irom his 
words. In any case, the Providence of 
God sees further than do His servants. 
& TJKovo-as irap* i\i.ov : See note on i. 

13- ^ 

Sia iroXXuv (xaprvpcov : not per multos 
testes (Vulg.), but coram multis testibus 
(Tert. de Praescript. 25). The usual 
Greek for " in the presence of witnesses " 
is iirX (laprupuv ; but Sia Ocuv papTvpuv 
is quoted from Plutarch (see Field, in 

The 8ia is that of accompanying cir- 
cumstances. The reference is to a 
solemn traditio of the essentials of the 
faith on the occasion of Timothy's or- 
dination, rather than his baptism. The 
former reference seems clear from the 
parallel drawn between St. Paul's com- 
mittal of the faith to Timothy and 
Timothy's committal of it to others. 
On the other hand, a comparison of i 
Tim. vi. 12 favours the view that this 
refers to a formal public instruction at 
baptism. Reasons have been already 
suggested against the identification of 
the laying-on of hands of i Tim. iv. 14 
with that of 2 Tim. i. 6. Otherwise it 
would be natural to suppose that the 
many witnesses were the members of 
the presbytery who were joined with St. 
Paul in the ordination of Timothy. But 
there is no reason why the reference 
should be thus restricted. The action 
was a public one, " in the face of the 
Church ". So Chrys., " Thou hast not 
heard in secret, nor apart, but in the 
presence of many, with all openness of 
speech ". The view of Clem. Alex. 

I— 6. 



ETcpous 8iS(£|ai. 
XpioTou 'lT]<roo.^ 

3. * 1\}VKaKOTrd,Qr]<rov ^ &% KaXos 'arpaTicjTitjseSeeaTim. 


' 6|JiirX^KETai Tais TOu f Here only 
- , in Paul. 
5. iav OcgSeeiTim. 

fOixifAUS " a6XT)(n). 6. h 2 Pet. ii. 
« >< ro'-^ « 'NDNor 30 only, 

Toy Koiriurra yeupYoi' 0€i irpuTOf twi' KapiruK ' ficTaXap.pdi'eii'. n.t. 

i See I Tim. 

4. ouocis *'Os 
'^lou ^ irpoyp,aTiois, i*'a tu ' oTpoToXoYTJaam dp^ori). 
Kal " ddX^ Tis, ou " aTe<|>ai'ouTai eAk (i^ 

k Here only, N.T. 
ii. 7, 9 only, N.T. 

I Here only, not LXX. 
o See I Tim. i. 8. 


m Here only, not LXX, cf. Heb. x. 32. n Heb. 
p Acts. ii. 26, xxvii. 33, 34, Heb. vi. 7, zii. xo. 

1 <rw ovv KaKOirdO. CcDcKL, syrhcl-txt, go. 

' Mtjor. XpiOT. DcKL, syrpe«h. 

(Hypot. vii. ed. Potter, ii. p. 1015) that 
the iroXXol |idpTvpcs mean testimonies 
from the Law and the Prophets is only a 
curiosity of exegesis. 

irapdOov : See note on i Tim. 18. 

irioTTois : trustworthy , carries on the 
figure of the faith as a deposit. It is 
possible, as Bengel suggests, that the 
injunctions in w. 14-21 have reference to 
these ministers. 

iKavoC : qualified. See reif. Swaros, 
in Tit. i. g, expresses capability as proved 
by experience. 

Vv. 3-13. The condition of all success 
is toil; toil which may involve pain. 
Think of the price of a soldier's victory, 
the conditions of an athlete's crown, of 
a field-labourer's wage. Our Lord Jesus 
Himself, as man, is the great Exemplar 
of this law. I am another. This is a 
faithful saying ; and therefore we sing, 
" We shall live with Him because we 
died with Him, etc.". 

Ver. 3. (ruvKaKoird6T]<rov : Take thy 
part in suffering hardship (R.V.m.). 
This general reference is better than to 
supply uoi, as R.V. See note on i. 8. 
<rTpaTi«i)T»js : cf. «rvvoTpaTi«iSTT|S, Phil, 
ii. 25, Philem. 2. 

Ver. 4. <rTpaTcvofLevos : militans Deo 
(Vulg.). Soldier, in the sense of a person 
belonging to the army, not soldier on 
service, as R.V., which makes the same 
error in Luke iii. 14 marg. (See Expositor, 
vi., vii. 120). 

ip.irX^KCTai : itnplicat se (Vulg.). The 
verb is used in a similar metaphor, 2 
Pet. ii. 20, but in a more adverse sense 
than here. A soldier, who is bound to 
go anywhere and do any thing at the 
bidding of his captain, must have no ties 
of home or business. The implied coun- 
sel is the same as that given in i Cor. 
vii. 26-34, with its warnings against c'is- 
traction between the possibly conflicting 
interests of the Lord and of this life. 
Note the use of dpco-Ku in i Cor. vii. 

VOL. IV. i: 

dpc<r|) : that he may be of use to (see 
Milligan on i Thess. ii. 4). 

Ver. 5. The sequence of images 
here — the soldier, the athlete, the field- 
labourer — affords an interesting illustra- 
tion of repetition due to association of 
ideas. The soldier and the field- labourer 
are combined in i Cor. ix. 7-10 ; the 
athlete appears in i Cor. ix. 24 sqq. And 
the present passage has light thrown 
upon it from the earlier epistle, in which 
the various figures are more fully de- 

The connexion between the thought of 
the soldier and the athlete lies in the 
word vo)ii)jiws (see note on i Tim. i. 8) ; 
and the exact force of vop,C|JM>s will ap- 
pear from a reference to i Cor. ix. 25, 
" Every man that striveth in the games 
is temperate in all things ". No one 
can be said to comply with the rules of 
the contest who has not undergone the 
usual preliminary training. One illustra- 
tion from those cited by Wetstein will 
suffice, that from Galen, comm. in 
Hippocr. i. 15 : ol YV|iva(rTai Kal ol 
vo|xip.(i>s dOXovvTc;, cTri fkkv tov dpicTTOv 
Tov dpTov povov iaSiowLV, ciri 8c tov 
ScCirvov TO Kpeas. 

Ver. 6. The difficulty in this verse is 
that the principle here laid down seems 
to be employed in i Cor. ix, 7, 9, as an 
argument from analogy in support of the 
liberty of Christian ministers to enjoy 
some temporal profit from their spiritual 
labours ; whereas here St. Paul is urging 
a temper of other-worldliness. It is suf- 
ficient to say that there is no practical 
inconsistency between the two passages ; 
•' each man hath his own gift from God, 
one after this manner, and another after 
that ". There is a time to insist on one's 
liberty to "use the world," and there is a 
time to warn ourselves and others that 
self-repression is necessary to keep our- 
selves from " using it to the full ". The 
main connexion here lies in the word kovi- 
wvTa, which is emphatic; while irpwTOv, 




qMarkxil. 7. viei t^ \4yo ' 8<uo-ei ^ vdp aoi 6 Kupios 'aui'tCTH' iy 
j3, Luke ^ ' ,^v, ,, -. 

li. 47, I Tratriv. 8. "■ jiKrjixok'cue lT]<rooi' XpiaroK £YTJY^PM''*'0'' ^^ fCKpwK, ck 

Eph.iii.4i <nr^p|xaTos AauelS, ' kutA 'to * cuayYc^iof ' p.ou • g. iv a ^ KaKOiroow 

ii. 2. ' v-^XP^ * ScaiAwj' (US ' KaKoupyos • aXXd 6 XiJyos toC eeoG ou S^Scrai. 

r Matt. xvi. 

p, I Thess. 

li. 9, Rev. xviii. 5 (with ace). s Rom. ii. 16, xvi. 25. t Jonah iv. 10,2 Tim. iv. 5, Jas.v. i3,only. 
B Acts XX. 23, xxvi. 29, Phil. i. 7, 13, 14, 17, Col. iv. 18, Philem. 10, 13. v Luke xxiii. 32, 33, 39. 

1 So ^*ACFgrGP, 17, g go., syrpesh ; & ^cDKL, d, c, f , vg., boh., syrhcl, arm. 
■' Sytj CcKLP. 

which is also emphatic, expresses in the il- 
lustration from the Ycwpyo's the idea cor- 
responding to T^i a-rpar. dpco-Q, and to 
orTC({>avovTai in the others respectively. 
The labourer receives his hire, no matter 
how poor the crop may be : his wages are 
the first charge on the field. C/. yh • • • 
riKTOva-a ^oTavt\v evOctov Ikcivois 81' 
ovs Kal 7€0)pY£iToi (Heb. vi. 7) ; his 
reward is sure, but then he must really 
labour. "The fruits" are the reward of 
faithful labour in the Lord's vineyard, 
the "well done!" heard from the Cap- 
tain's lips, " the crown of glory that 
fadeth not away ". We must not press 
all the details of an allegory. 

Ver. 7. vdei & Xcyco: Intellige quae dico 
(Vulg.), Grasp the meaning, cautionary 
and encouraging, of these three similes. 
Cf. " I speak as to wise men ; judge ye 
what I say" (i Cor. x. 15), and the use 
of the verb in i Tim. i. 7. 

Sucrci, K.T.X. : If you have not sufii- 
cient wisdom to follow my argument, 
" ask of God, who giveth to all men liber- 
ally " (Jas. i. 5). 

p.vT)p.Jvcvc Mtjotovv XpioT^v — AavciS : 
These words form rather the conclusion 
of the preceding paragraph than the be- 
ginning of a new one. St. Paul in press- 
ing home his lesson, passes from figures 
of speech to the great concrete example 
of suffering followed by glory. And as 
he has, immediately before, been laying 
stress on the certainty of reward, he gives 
a prominent place to kyic\ytpY-^vov Ik 
vcKpwv. Jesus Christ, of the seed of 
David, "Himself man" (i Tim. ii. 5), 
is the ideal soldier, athlete, and field- 
labourer ; yet One who can be an ex- 
ample to us. It is not the resurrection 
as a doctrinal fact (A.V.) that St. Paul 
has in mind, but the resurrection as a 
personal experience of Jesus Christ, the 
reward He received, His being " crowned 
with glory and honour, because of the 
suflenng of death" (Heb. ii. 9). It is 
not Tov Mtjo-owv Kal ttjv dvdoTa«riv (Acts 
xvii. ]8), but Mrjo-oOv lynYepjievov, the 

perfect (as in i Cor. xv. 4, 12, 13, 14, 16, 
17, 20) prt serving the notion of the perma- 
nent significance of that personal experi- 
ence of Jesus. In the other passage, 
Rom. i. 3, in which St. Paul distinctly 
alludes to our Lord's human ancestry, 
the phrase tov ytvoy-ivov ck vircpp,aTos 
AavclS has a directly historical and pole- 
mical intention, as expressing and em- 
phasising the human nature of Christ in 
antithesis to His Divinity. Here Ik 
inrcpp,. A. merely expresses the fact of 
His humanity. We cannot affirm with 
certainty that the phrase has the Mes- 
sianic import that Son of David has in 
the Gospels. 

KaTo. TO ciiayY^Xiov p,ov : The Gospel 
preached by me. See reff., and t^ eii. rh 
€va77€Xio-6€v w* Ifjiov (Gai. i. 11 ; i Cor. 
XV. i), which of course is identical in 
substance with rh tii. . . . h lirioTevflrjv 
lyw (i Tim. i. 11). The verity both of 
Christ's humanity and of His resurrection 
was emphasised in the Gospel preached 
by St. Paul. This is brought out by the 
punctuation of R.V. 

Ver. 9. Iv <^ KaKOiraOu : in which 
sphere of action, cf. Rom. i. 9, 2 Cor. x. 
14, Phil. iv. 2. The connexion seems to 
be that St. Paul is now indicating that 
he himself, in his degree, is an imitator 
of Jesus Christ. 

us KaKoOpyos (see reff.) : malefactor 
(R.V.). Evil doer (A.V.) does not so 
vividly express the notion of criminality 
implied in the word. Ramsay notes that 
the use of this word here marks " exactly 
the tone of the Neronian period, and . . . 
refers expressly to the fiagttia, for which 
the Christians were condemned under 
Nero, and for which they were no longer 
condemned in a.d. 112" {Church in the 
Roman Empire, p. 249). Compare i Pet. 
iv. 15. 

dXXd — ov ScScTai : We have the same 
contrast between the apostle's own re- 
stricted liberty and the unconfinable 
range of the Gospel in Phil. i. 12, 14, and 
2 Tim. iv. 17. There is no reference, as 

7 — 12. 



10. Sid TOOTO ttdvra dirou^yw 81A tous "eicXeKTOus, if a Kai owtoiw See note. 

' f > t> fi- > ' t ^ Luke XX. 

auTT]pi,as ^TvyutTiv Tijs iv Xpioru lT|(rou fierd '^8o|t]s 'aiwfiou. 35. Acts 

11. * TTioTos * 6 ' Xoyos • €1 vdp ' crui'aircOdi'Oixei', Kal "* aoi'^i^aojiCK • xxvi. 2a, 

>« , . n \ t Jd> 'AO'- XXvii. 3, 

12. CI uTTop.ei'Ofxei', koi cruKpa(n\€uo'0|X€i' • 6i apiajaojicoa,^ KaKciKOs Heb. viii. 

6, xi. 35. 
y I Pet. V. 10. 
X See 1 Tim. i. 15. a Ecclus. xix. 10, Mark xiy. 31, a Cor. vii. t only. b Rom. vi. 8, 

2 Cor. vii. 3, not LXX. c i Esd. viii. 26, i Cor. iv. 8 only. d See i Tim. ▼. 8. 

1 ovpavCov f, vg., syrhcl-mg, arm. 

Chrys. supposes, to the liberty permitted 
to St. Paul to preach the kingdom of 
God in his prison, as during the first 
imprisonment (Acts xxviii. 30, 31). The 
clause here is a natural reflective paren- 
thetical remark. 

Ver. 10. 8ia tovto: The knowledge 
that others had been, and were being, 
saved through his ministry was regarded 
by St. Paul as no small part of his reward. 
Thus, the Churches of Macedonia were 
his "crown," as well as his "joy" (Phil, 
iv. I, I Thess. ii. 19). He had already 
in sight his " crown of righteousness ". 
This consideration suggests that we 
should refer 8ia tovto to what follows 
rather than to what immediately precedes 
(6 Xo'yos . . . Se'ScTai). So Alf., who cites 
in illustration Rom. iv. 16, 2 Cor. xiii. 10, 
I Tim. i. 16, Philem 15. On this view, 
we have completely displayed the con- 
formity of Jesus Christ and of St. Paul 
to the conditions of success exemplified 
in the soldier, the athlete, and the field- 

iravTa iiro^Uw : as Love does, i Cor. 
xiii. 7. Ellicott rightly points out that 
Christian endurance is active, not passive: 
pain is felt as pain, but is recognised as 
having a moral and spiritual purpose. 

Sia Tov; IkXcktovs: St. Paul was 
much sustained by the thought that his 
labours and sufferings were, in the provi- 
dence of God, beneficial to others (2 Cor. 
i. 6, xii. 15 ; Eph. iii. i, 13 ; Phil. ii. 17 ; 
Col. I. 24; Tit. i. i). "The elect" are 
those who, in the providence of God's 
grace, are selected for spiritual privileges 
with a view directly to the salvation of 
others, as well as of themselves. The 
absolute phrase as here is found in Matt. 
xxiv. 22, 24= Mark xiii. 20, 22 ; oi IkXcktoI 
avTov in Matt. xxiv. 31 = Mark xiii. 27(?), 
Luke xviii. 7 ; IkXcktoI Otov in Rom. viii. 
33, Col. iii. 12, Tit. i. i ; i IkXcktos iv 
Kvpiff in Rom. xvi. 13. 

Kcl atiToi : they also (as well as I). It 
would be no Paradise to St. Paul "to 
live in Paradise alone ". Compare his 
supreme expression of selflessness in 
Rom. ix. 3. 

!» apvovfieea ^cDKLP, d, e. 

<r«>TT]p(a9 |icTd S((|i)s alwv^ov: Salva- 
tion may be enjoyed in part in this life; 
it vnll be consummated in eternal glory. 
See ref., and 2 Cor. iv. 17. 

Ver. II. irwrris 6 X<$-yos : The teach- 
ing or saying referred to is "the word 
of the cross " as set forth by simile and 
living example in the preceding verses, 
4-1 1. So R.V.m. This is an exactly 
parallel case to i Tim. iv. 9. Here, as 
there. Yap introduces a reinforcement of 
the teaching. 

cl yap (rvvair€6avopcv, k.t.X.: The 
presence of -yap does not militate against 
the supposition that we have here a frag- 
ment of a Christian hymn. A quotation 
adduced in the course of an argument 
must be introduced by some inferential 
particle; see on i Tim. iv. 10. On the 
other hand, it is questionable if cl apvi]- 
<ro|iicda, k.t.X. is suitable in tone to a 
hymn; and St. Paul's prose constantly 
rises to rhythmical cadences, e.g., Rom. 
viii. 33 sqq., i Cor. xiii. We have here 
contrasted two crises, and two states 
in the spiritual life : <rvvaircddvopcv and 
apvYjac^pcSa point to definite acts at defi- 
nite times ; while virop^vopev and dirto-- 
Tovpcv indicate states of being, more or 
less prolonged. 

cl o^vaire9dvop«v Kal irvv^ijaroficv : 
The two verbs are coupled also in 2 Cor. 
vii. 3 ; but the actual parallel in thought 
is found in Rom. vi. 4, 5, 8. We died 
(aor., R.V.) with Christ at our baptism 
(Rom. vi. 8 ; Col. iii. 3), which, as normally 
administered by immersion, symbolises 
our burial with Christ and our rising 
again with Him to newness of life (Rom, 
vi. 4; Col. ii. 12). The future, «n»vgij- 
o-oficv, must not be projected altogether 
into the resurrection life ; it includes and 
is completed by that ; and no doubt the 
prominent notion here is of the life to 
come ; but here, and in Rom. vi. 8, it is 
implied that there is a beginning of eter- 
nal life even while we are in the flesh, 
viz. in that newness of life to which we 
are called, and for which we are enabled, 
in our baptism. 

Ver. 12. cl Woficvopcv Kal a~uv^atn- 




e Tit. iii. I, ^ apKi^acrai rjfias • 13. ei airiOTOUfiCK, iKcifOS irwrros fUv€i' opnfj- 
26, a Pet. aatrOai y^P ^ eauT^c ou Sufarai. 

5. ' 14. Taura *uirofii)Ani]aK6, ' SiafiapTuptSf&CKOS '^rtiirioc 'toO '6€o8,' 

f See I Tim. ,|,» " 9 1 » a. to\ i > 3»k ,^« 

V. 21. |iT) Aoyofiaxeit') ew * ouOeK XP''1'''''H'*'*'> *'"''■ "aToorpo*!)^ twi' 
g See I Tim. 

h Here only, not LXX, cf. i Tim. vi. 4. 

i Here only, N.T. 

k 3 Pet. ii. 6 only. N.T. 

1 Om. yap ^^K, d, e, vg., go., syrhcl, arm. 

"So ^CFG, 37, 67*, 80, 238, and about thirteen other cursives, f, g, boh., 
gjrrhcl-mg, arm.-ap.-Gb., Chrys., Thphyl., Amb., Pelag. ; Kvpiov ADKLP, most 
cursives, d, e, vg., go., syrpesh et hcl-txt, arm.-ap.-Treg., Chrys., Euthal., Thdrt., 
Dam., Thphyl., Ambrst., Prim. 

»XoYO|iax€i AC*, d, e, f, g, vg. * els ^cDKL. 

XcvcoiMv : See Matt. xxv. 34 ; Luke xxii. 
28, 29 ; Acts xiv. 22 ; Rom. viii. 17 ; 2 
Thess. i. 5 ; Rev. i. 6, xx. 4. 

cl apvT)o-d|xc9a, k.t.X. : An echo of our 
Lord's teaching, Matt. x. 33. See also 
2 Pet. ii. I ; Jude 4. " The future con- 
veys the ethical possibility of the action " 

(^"•) .. - 

Ver. 13. cl airi<rTot)(Aev : It is reason- 
able to hold that the sense of airio-Tcw 
in this place must be determined by the 
antithesis of iriaros p^veu. Now irwrros, 
as applied to God, must mean faithful 
(Deut. vii. 9) ; one who " keepeth truth 
for ever " (Ps. cxlvi. 6 ; 2 Cor. i. 18 ; 
I Thess. V. 24 ; 2 Thess. iii. 3 ; Heb. x. 
23, xi. 11). There is the same contrast 
in Rom. iii. 3, " Shall their want of faith 
(airKTTia) make of none effect the faith- 
fulness (irio-Tiv) of God ? " But while 
we render airio-Toi)p.€v, with R.V., are 
faithless, we must remember that un- 
reliability and disbelief in the truth were 
closely allied in St. Paul's conception of 

apv'i](ra(rOai, yap — ov Svvarai : Being 
essentially the unchangeable Truth, He 
cannot be false to His own nature, as we, 
when airiTTovftcv, are false to our better 
nature which has affinity with the Eter- 
nal, A lie in word, or unfaithfulness in 
act, is confessedly only an expedient to 
meet a temporary difficulty ; it involves 
a disregard of the permanent element in 
our personality. The more a man real- 
ises the transitory nature of created 
things, and his own kinship with the 
Eternal, the more unnatural and unneces- 
sary does falsity in word or deed appear 
to him. It is therefore inconceivable 
that God should lie (Num. xxiii. 19 ; i 
Sam. XV. 29 ; Mai. iii. 6 ; Tit. i. 2 ; Heb. 
vi. 18). The application of the clause here 
is not that " He will not break faith with 
us " (Alf.), but that the consideration of 
our powerlessness to affect the constancy 

of God our Father should brace us up to 
exhibit moral courage, as being His 
" true children ". 

Vv. 14-26. Discourage the new false 
teaching by precept and example. There 
is no need, however, that you should 
despair of the Church. It is founded 
upon a rock, in spite of appearances. 
Take a broad view of the case : the 
Church is not the special apartment of 
the Master from which things unseemly 
are banished ; it is a great House with 
places and utensils for every need of 
life. This great House differs from 
those of earth in that provision is made 
for the promotion of the utensils from 
the basest use to the Master's personal 

Ver. 14. TttVTa has special reference 
to the issues of life and death set out in 
w. 11-13. There is no such prophylactic 
against striving about words as a serious 
endeavour to realise the relative import- 
ance of time and of eternity. "He to 
whom the eternal Word speaks is set at 
liberty from a multitude of opinions " 
{De Imitatione Christie i. 3^. 

virop(pKT)(rKc : sc. avrovs, as in Tit. 
iii. I. 

Siap.apTvpopcvos : See on i' Tim. v. 

Ivvnrvov tov fleoS : It is an argument 
in favour of this reading that 4vwiriov 
Kvptov only occurs once in Paul (in a 
quotation), in 2 Cor. viii. 21. 

XoYopax«iv : See on i Tim. vi. 4. 

kir' ovS^v xpr[(r\.^ov and ktrX KaraoT- 
po<|>'g TMV oKovovToiv are coordinate, and 
describe the negative and the positive 
results of Xoyopaxta. The subject of 
this XoYopaxCa is probably identical with 
that of the paxai vopiKa( of Tit. iii. 9, 
which were " unprofitable and vain ". 

Iirl KaTao-Tpo(|>'Q, k.t.X. : contrast Xd-yos 
. . . ciYaO^s vpos olKo8opf|v tt)s xp<^*^<> 
Eph. iv. 29 ; and compare the antithesis 

13 — 16. 



aKOudKruf. 15. ' cnrouSouroj' veainhv ^ SoKifioK ' irapooTf]<roi rwlaTim. iy. 

eew, epydiTTji' ° dveiraiajfuvrov, ^ opGoTOfiouKra tok X^yoK ttis aXrjSeias. iii. 12, 

16. Tots 8e *'^€P'i]\ous ' KeKOi^ucias ^ ' irepiioraao • * * lirl " ' irXeioK Gal. (i). 

Eph. (I), 
I Tbess. 
(i), Heb. (i), a Pet. (3). m Rom. xiv. 18, xvi. 10, i Cor. xL 19, 3 Cor. x. 18. xiii. 7, Jas. i. 12. 

n Matt. xxvi. 53, Luke ii, 22, Acts i. 3, ix. 41, xxiii. 33, Rom. vi. 13, 16, 19, xii. i, 1 Cor. viii. 8, 2 Cor. 
iv. 14, xi. 2, Eph. V. 27, Col. L 22, 28. o Here only, not LXX. p Prov. iii. 6, xi. 5 only. 

^ I Tim. vi. 20, see i Tim. L 9. r Tit. iiL 9. s Acts iv. 17, xx. 9, xxiv. 4. t 2 Tim. 

ill. 9. 

' Koivo^wv^as FG, novitates vocum or verborum d, e, g, mso. See i Tim. vi. 20. 

between Kadaipccris and olKoSop,'^ in 2 
Cor. xiii. 10. 

It should be added that lir' oiSiv 
Xpii<ri.p.ov is connected closely with«iv (or by Cyr. Alex., 
Clem. Alex., and the Bohairic version. 
The Clementine Vulg. renders unam- 
biguously, ad nihil enim utile tst ; so 
F.G. add yap. 

In addition to the weight of adverse 
textual evidence against the reading 
XoYop.dxci, it is open to the objections 
that TavTtt — OeoO, disconnected with 
what follows, is a feeble sentence ; and 
that p, and 8iap,apTvpop,ai in 
Paul are always followed and completed 
by an exhortation, e.g., Eph. iv. 17 ; i 
Tim. V. 21 ; 2 Tim. iv. i. 

Vcr. 15. (nrov8ao-ov: Give diligence 
to present thyself (as well at thy work) 
to God, approved. 

&vciraC<rxvvTov : Chrys. takes this to 
mean a workman that does not scorn to 
put his hand to anything ; but it is better 
explained as a workman who has no 
cause for shame when his work is being 
inspected. In any case, the word must 
be so explained as to qualify Ip-yaTtis 
naturally ; and therefore it cannot be in- 
terpreted by a reference to i. 8 (|i,t) 
lirai<rxvvfl-ns), of the shame that may 
deter a man from confessing Christ. 

&pOoTO|iovvTa : 6p6oTop^<i> is found in 
reff. as the translation of "^^jj^ (P'cl) 
direct, make straight, make plain. " He 
shall direct thy paths," "The righteous- 
ness of the perfect shall direct his way ". 
This use of the word suggests that the 
metaphor passes from the general idea of 
a workman to the particular notion of 
the minister as one who " makes straight 
paths" (rpoxias ipOds) for the feet of 
his people to tread in (Heb. xii. 13). 
The word of truth is " The Way " (Acts 
ix. 2, etc.). Theodoret explains it of a 
ploughman who drives a straight furrow. 
Similarly R.V. m. (i). Holding a straight 
course in the word of truth. Chrys., of 
cutting away what is spurious or bad. 
Alf. follows Huther in supposing that 

the idea of cutting has passed out of this 
word, as it has out of KaivoTop.ctv, and ren- 
ders, rightly administering, as opposed 
to " adulterating the word of God " 
(2 Cor. ii. 17). Other examples of words 
which have wholly lost their derivational 
meaning are vpdo-^aTos and o-uKo^avTcw. 
The imagery underlying the A.V., R. V.m. 
(2), rightly dividing, is either that 
of the correct cutting up of a Levitical vic- 
tim (Beza), or a father (Calvin), or steward 
(Vitringa), cutting portions for the food 
of the household. The R.V., handling 
aright, follows the Vulg., recte tractan- 
tem, and gives the general sense well 
enough. The use oi &p6oTap,(a in the 
sense of orthodoxy, in Clem. Al. Strom. 
vii. xvi., and Eus. H. E. iv. 3, is probably 
based on this passage. 

Ver. 16. Kcvo^wvtas : See on i Tim. 
vi. 20. Here, as Bengel suggests, kcvo- 
is contrasted with oXTjdcias, ^vias with 

ircpiCtrracro : shun, devita, " Give them 
a wide berth " (Plummer), also in Tit. 
iii. Q. In these places irepiioTao-flai 
has the same meaning as iKxpcirccrdai, i 
Tim. vi. 20. In fact Ell, cites from 
Lucian, Hermot. § 86, licTpairija' xal 
ircpurTiio-o|Jiai, where the two verbs are 
evidently used as indifferent alternatives. 
Where ircpii<rnr|)fci elsewhere occurs 
(N.T.), viz., John xi. 42, Acts xxv. 7, it 
means " to stand around ". 

iirl irXeiov, k.t.X. : Those who utter 
" babblings " (subject of irpotcdtj/ova-iv) 
are not, as is sometimes supposed, 
merely negatively useless; they are 
positively and increasingly mischievous. 
In iii. 9, ov irpoKi$t|/ov<riv eieX irXciov, the 
situation is different. When a man's 
avoia has become manifest to all, he has 
lost his power to do mischief to others ; 
on the other hand there is no limit to 
the deterioration of " evil men and im- 
postors " in themselves, irpoKd\jrovo-iv 
eiri TO xctpov (iii. 13). 

do-e^cias : genitive after Iirl irXeiov. 
The commentators compare Joseph. Bell, 
yud. vi. 2, 3. irpovKo^av els Totrovrov 

1 66 



u Luke ii. yAp *"'irpoK<J»|/ou<rii' ''a<r€Peias • 1 7. Kal 6 Xciyos auriav ws "ydyYpaii'a 
xiii. 12, ' i/oix^f £|ei • «v coTii' 'YiieVaios icai <I>i\tit6s, 18. oiTii/es Trepl tti'' 

Gal. i. 14, . \ 

a Tim.iii. aXriOciai' ^ 'r](rr6\r]<Tav, X^yocres ^ di'doraCTii' yiSt) yeyoc^vai, Ka^ 
Lxx. ' dvaTpiirouaiv Tnv riviav itimy. lo. 6 * aein-oi * orcpeos * OcaAioc 

vRom.i. 18, « ^ „ „ ^ N d . ^«e> , • , > 

xi. 26, Tit. TOO ©cou i<m\K€v, e\(av tt)k o-^payioa Taurrji', Eycu Kupios tous 

ii. i2,Jude 
15, 18. 
w Here onlyi not LXX. x John x. 9 only, N.T. y See i Tim. i. 6. z John ii. 15, Tit. 

i. II only, N.T. a John (5), Jas. ii. 8. Jude 8. b Heb. v. la, 14, 1 Pet. v. 9. c See i Tim. 

vi. 19. d Rom. iv. 11, i Cor. ix. a. Rev. ix. 4, etc. 

^ Ins. TT)v ACDKLP, and almost all other authorities ; om. ttjv i<^FG, 17. 

irapavofiCas. Charles thinks irpoKiSt]/ov- 
«riv lirl KaKu Iv irXeoveliij, Test. 0/ Twelve 
Patriarchs, Judah, xxi. 8, the source of 
this phrase ; but it is merely a parallel. 

Ver. 17. is ydyypai-vo vopT)v f|ei: 
spread, R.V.m., ut cancer serpit, Vulg. 
Ell. compares Ovid. Metam. ii. 825, 
" solet immedicabile cancer Serpere, et 
illaesas vitiatis addere partes ". Alf. 
supplies many illustrations of voji'^j as 
"the medical term for the consuming 
progress of mortifying disease ". 

Harnack (Mission, vol. i., pp. 114, 115) 
illustrates copiously this conception of 
moral evil from the writings of the early 

'Y|i,^vaios Kal ♦iXr]Tos. This Hymen- 
aeus is perhaps the same as he who is 
mentioned in i Tim. i. 20. Of Philetus 
nothing is known from other sources. 

Ver. 18. oiTivcs implies that Hymen- 
aeus and Philetus were only the more 
conspicuous members of a class of false 

TTtpl — i?i<rT<JxT^*v : See notes on i 
Tim. i. 6, ig. 

Xe'-yovres, k.t.X. : There can be little 
doubt that the false teaching here alluded 
to was akin to, if not the same as, that 
of some in Corinth a few years earlier 
who said, " There is no resurrection of 
the dead " (i Cor. xv. 12). What these 
persons meant was that the language of 
Jesus about eternal life and a resurrec- 
tion received its complete fulfilment 
in our present conditions of existence, 
through the acquisition of that more ele- 
vated knowledge of God and man and 
morahty and spiritual existence gener- 
ally which Christ and His coming had 
imparted to mankind. This sublimest 
knowledge of things divine is, they said, 
a resurrection, and the only resurrection 
that men can attain unto. These false 
teachers combined a plausible but false 
spirituality, or sentimentality, with an 
invincible materialism ; and they at- 
tempted to find support for their material- 

istic disbelief in the resurrection of the 
body in a perverse misunderstanding of 
the Christian language about " newness 
of life" (Rom. vi. 4; Col. ii. 12, iii. i). 
" Esse resurrectionem a mortuis, agni- 
tionem ejus quae ab ipsis dicitur veritatis" 
(Irenasus, Haer. ii. 31, 2; cf. Tert. de 
Resurr. 19) ; an achieved moral experi- 
ence, in fact ; not a future hope. The 
heresy of Marcion, on the other hand, 
while denying the future resurrection of 
the body, affirmed positively the immor- 
tality of the soul ; cf. Justin Martyr, Dial, 
80. " Marcion enim in totum carnis 
resurrectionem non admittens, et soli 
animae salutem repromittens, non quali- 
tatis sed substantiae facit quaestionem " 
(Tert. adv. Marcionem, v. 10). 

Tivwv : See note on i Tim. i. 3. 

Ver. 19. " We will not fear. The city 
of God . . . shall not be moved " (Ps. 
xlvi. 2, 4 ; cf. Heb. xii. 28). The Church 
of the New Covenant is like the Church 
of the Old Covenant : it has an ideal 
integrity unaffected by the defection of 
some who had seemed to belong to it. 
" They are not all Israel, which are of 
Israel. . . . All Israel shall be saved" 
(Rom. ix. 6, xi. 26). " They went out 
from us, but they were not of us ; for if 
they had been of us, they would have 
continued with us " (i John ii. ig). The 
Church, as existing in the Divine Know- 
ledge, not as apprehended by man's in- 
tellect, is the firm foundation of God 
(R.V.), i.e., that which God has firmly 
founded. It is called here 0€p,e\ios tov 
6eov rather than oIko« t. Ocov, so as to 
express the better its immobility, unaf- 
fected by those who avaTpcirovcri, k.t.X.; 
cf. o-TvXos Kal l8pa((opia ttjs aXtjOeCas (i 
Tim. iii. 15). There can hardly be an 
allusion to the parable with which the 
Sermon on the Mount closes, Luke vi. 
48^49. With (TTcpeds compare the use 
of o-Tcpeiiw, Acts x/i. 5, and of 0-Tcp^wu.a, 
Coj. ii. 5. 

€x<ov Tijv o-4>P<^Y^S<'^ • ^t was noted on 

17 — 20. 



oiTos aoTou, Kal * 'AiroonqTW diro aSiKias iras 6 ' oKOfi.d^ui' to ' ot'op.a e See i Tim. 
Kupiou.^ 20. ei' ^Eyd^TI ^^ oiKif ouk eaTif fiofoi' axeuT] )(puad Kal f Acts xix. 
dpvupd dXXd Kal '^uXika xai ^ darpdKii'a, Kal d ucf els tiut]^ d Se xv. 30, 

Eph. i. II. 
g Rev. ix.20 
h 2 Cor. iv. 
* XpioTov a few cursives. 7- 

I Tim. vi. 19 that in the two places in 
which 6cfi^X.ios occurs in the Pastorals, 
there is a condensation of expression 
resulting in a contusion of metaphor. 
Here the apostle passes rapidly from the 
notion of the Church collectively as a 
foundation, or a building well founded, 
to that of the men and women of whom it 
is composed, and who have been sealed 
by God (see reff. and also Ezek. ix. 4 ; 
John vi. 27 ; 2 Cor. i. 22 ; Eph. i. 13, 
iv. 30; Rev. vii, 3, 4, 5-8). They are 
marked by God so as to be recognised 
by Him as His ; and this mark also serves 
as a perpetual reminder to them that 
"they are not their own," and of their 
consequent obligation to holiness of life 
(i Cor. vi. 19, 20). There is no allusion 
to the practice of carving inscriptions 
over doors and on pillars and foundation 
stones (Deut. vi. 9, xi. 20; Rev. xxi. " \). 
The one seal bears two inscriptions, two 
mutually complementary parts or aspects: 
(a) The objective fact of God's superin- 
tending knowledge of His chosen ; (b) 
the reco£;nition by the consciousness of 
each individual of the relation in which 
he stands to God, with its imperative call 
to holiness. 

"Eyvw Kvpios K.T.X. : The words are 
taken from Num. xvi. 5, lir^o-KcirTai Kol 
hfya 6 0«os tovs ovtos airov, "In the 
morning the Lord will shew who are 
His ". The intensive use of know is 
lilustrated by Gen. xviii. 19, Ex. xxxiii. 

12, 17, Nah. i. 7, John x. 14, 27, i Cor. 
viii. 3, xiii. 12, xiv. 38, R.V.m., Gal. iv. 9. 

'AirocmiTfti k.t.X. : The language is 
perhaps another echo of the story of 
Korah : 'Airo«rxio-9TjTe diri twv o-ktjvwv 
Twv avtfpiiSircdv tUv crKXt]pwv tovtmv . • • 
(IT) (TwvairoXiierBe €v irdcrj) t^ ap.apTia 
avTwv. Kal dir^o'TTjcrav airo ttjs <rKtjvYJs 
K6pf (Num. xvi. 26, 27). But Isa. lii. 11 
is nearer in sentiment, d'7r(5<rTtjT£ air^<r- 
Tr\Tf, i^iXdart iKtldev Kal aKaddpTOV 
|fcT| d^(r6c, . . . ol <j)e'povT€s rd o-K«vti 
Kvpio-u, cf. Luke xiii. 27. Also Isa. xxvi. 

13, Kvpic, Ikt6s (tov dXXov ovk oi8ap,cv, 
rh ovop,d (TOV &vopa{|op.ev. The spiritual 
logic of the appeal is the same as that of 
Gal. V. 25, " If we live by the Spirit, by the 
Spirit let us also walk". Bengel thinks 
that dir^ d8tK(a« is equivalent to air& 

oSCkuv, the abstract for the concrete ; cf. 
ver. 21, "purge himself from these". 

Ver. 20. Although the notional Church, 
the corpus Christi verum, is unaffected 
by the vacillation and disloyalty of its 
members, nevertheless (8i) the Church 
as we experience it contains many un- 
worthy persons, the recognition of whom 
as members of the Church is a trial 
to faith. The notional Church is best 
figured as a foundation, which is out of 
sight. But the idea of the superstructure 
must be added in order to shadow forth 
the Church as it meets the eye. It is a 
house, a Great House too, the House of 
God (i Tim. iii. 15), and therefore con- 
taining a great variety of kinds and qual- 
ity of furniture and utensils. On oIkio^ 
a whole house, as distinguished from 
oIko9, which might mean a set of rooms 
only, a dwelling, see Moulton in Ex- 
positor, vi., vii. 117. There are two 
thoughts in the apostle's mind, thoughts 
which logically arc conflicting, but which 
balance each other in practice. These 
are : (i) the reality of the ideal Church, 
and (2) the providential ordering of the 
actual Church. Until the drag-net is full, 
and drawn up on the beach, the bad fish 
in it cannot be cast away (Matt. xiii. 47, 
48). This is the view of the passage 
taken by the Latin expositors, e.g., Cy- 
prian, Ep. Iv. 25. The explanation of the 
Greek commentators, that by the " great 
house " is meant the world at large, 
is out of harmony with the context. It 
is to be observed that St. Paul expresses 
here a milder and more hopeful view of 
the unworthy elements in the Church 
than he does in the parallel passage in 
Rom. ix. 21, 22. There " the vessels un- 
to dishonour" are "vessels of wrath 
fitted unto destruction ". Here they are 
all at least in the Great House, and all 
for some use, even if for less honourable 
purposes than those served by the vessels 
of gold and silver; and the next verse 
suggests that it is perhaps possible for 
that which had been a " vessel unto dis- 
honour " to become fit for honourable use 
in the Master's personal service. We 
are reminded of the various qualities of 
superstructure mentioned in i Cor. iii. 12, 
" gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, 

1 68 



1 1 Cor. ▼. 7. £15 (XTiiiiof. 21. idiv ouy Tis ' eKKaOdpri iauTov dirh Tourav, <l<rrax 
k Prov. ^ > V I 

xxzi. 13, cKeuos els TiiAT^c, rfyia(Tp.4yov,^ 60xpTj<rro»' tw ScoTr^Tif], cis "troi' 

xiii. 13, a ™ Ipyof " aYa96i> " ■qroniatrfikvov. 22. jds 8e ° fcurepiK^s ^-iri6up,ias 

11,^ '*4**oYe' ''SiwKe Be SiKaioaunf]!', 'itiotik, 'dydirr)*', eipi^nrjf fierd^ 

II only. TUK ' ^iriKaXoufi^KUK rbv Kupioi' ^k * KaOapds * KapSias. 23. rds 8^ 

vi. I. * fiupds KOI " diraiScuTous * ' JrjTiiaeis * iropaiTOu, €iSa>9 on yecKwcn 
m 2 Tim. iii. 

17, Tit. i. 

16, iii. I, see i Tim. ii. 10. n Rev. ix. 7, 15, with els; cf. Tit. iii. i. 03 Mace. iv. 8 only, 

p See I Tim. vi. ii. q See i Tim. i. 14. r Acts vii. 59, ii. zi, iz. 14, 31, zzii. j6, Rom. x. 12, 

13, 14, 1 Cor. i. 2, I Pet. i. 17. s See i Tim. i. 5. t Tit. iii. 9. u Here only, N.T. 

V See I Tim. vi. 4. w See i Tim. iv. 7. 

1 Ins. Kol ^cC*DbcKLP, f, vg., sah., syrhcl, arm. 

2 Ins. iravTwv ACFgrG, 17, 31, 73, three others (FG, 73 om. foil, twv), g, sah., 
syrhcl. See i Cor. i. 2. 

stubble ". See also Wisd. xv. 7. Field, 
Notes, in loc, suggests that 8e«r7r<jT»js 
here is best rendered the owner. See 
notes on i Tim. iii. 15 and vi. i. 

Ver. 21. St. Paul drops the metaphor. 
The general meaning is clear enough, 
that a man may become " heaven's con- 
summate cup," o-Kcvos IkXoytjs (Acts ix. 
15), if he " mistake not his end, to slake 
the thirst of God". When we endue 
the vessels with consciousness, it is seen 
that they may " rise on stepping-stones 
of their dead selves to higher things ". 
The Tis has been, it is implied, among 
the " vessels unto dishonour ". " Paul 
was an earthen vessel, and became a 
golden one. Judas was a golden vessel, 
and became an earthen one " (Chrys.). 
Bengel supposes that the ii.v tis is an 
exhortation to Timothy himself. This is 
suggested in R.V. of ver. 22, " But flee," 
etc. The reference in tovtwv is not 
quite clear. It is best perhaps to ex- 
plain it of the false teachers themselves, 
•' vessels unto dishonour," rather than of 
their teaching or immoral characteristics, 
though of course this is implied. The 
thoroughness of the separation from the 
corrupting environment of evil company 
is expressed by the Ik- and dird. Where 
iKKaOaCpw occurs again, i Cor. v. 7, the 
metaphor (leaven) also refers to the re- 
moval of a corrupting personal element. 
There the person is to be expelled ; here 
the persons are to be forsaken, ^yia- 
«rn.€vov is the equivalent in actual experi- 
ence of the simile <riccvos els tiji-i^v, as 
els irav — y\ToiY.o.a-y.iyov is of evxp'ncrTOV 
T^ SecTTriTTij. Compare i Cor. yi. n, "And 
such were some of you : but ye were 
washed [lit. washed yourselves], but ye 
were sanctified" (•^yudo^Te). 

'^^vov : " Even though he do 
not do it, he is fit for it, and has a capa- 

city for it" (Chrys.). Cf. Eph. ii. 10, 
KTicrOcvTCS. . . ^irl cpyois ayaOois ots 
irpoT)Toip,aacv 6 6ebs tva iv avTois irepu- 
iroTq<rup,€v, and reff. 

Ver. 22. vcuTcpiKois Iiri6vp.ias : 
" Every inordinate desire is a youthful 
lust. Let the aged learn that they ought 
not to do the deeds of the youthful ". 
(Chrys.). This is sound exegesis ; yet it is 
reasonable to suppose that Timothy was 
still of an age to need the warning in its 
natural sense. See i Tim. iv. 12. He 
has just been cautioned against errors of 
the intellect; he must be warned also 
(8i) against vices of the blood. 

<|>ciIyc ■ SCuKc S^, K.T.X. : See note on i 
Tim. vi. II. 

A^r\yn\v : to be joined closely with the 
following words, cf. Heb. xii. 14. While 
avoiding the company of evil men, he is 
to cultivate friendly relations with those 
who are sincere worshippers of the same 
God as himself, ol liriKaXoviicvoi tov 
Kvptov, i.e., Christ, is almost a technical 
term for Christians. See reff. It comes 
ultimately from Joel ii. 32 (iii. 5). 

Ik Kadapas KapSias is emphatic. See 
Tit. i. 15, 16. 

Ver. 23. diraiScvTovs : ignorant. An 
ignorant question is one that arises from 
a misunderstanding of the matter in dis- 
pute. Misunderstandings are a fruitful 
source of strife. Cf. 1 Tim. vi. 4. 

irapaiTov : refuse, i.e.. Such questions 
will be brought before you : refuse to 
discuss them. The A.V., avoid might 
mean merely. Evade the necessity of 
meeting them. 

yevvwo-i : There is no other instance 
of the metaphorical use of this word in 
the N.T. 

p,dxas : in the weaker sense of conten- 
tion, quarrel, as in 2 Cor. vii, 5, Tit. iii. 
9; but not Jas. iv. i. 

21 — 26. III. I. 



* fj,(ixas- 24. SouXoi' 8c Kupiou ou Set p,d\€(r6a{,, dXXd ' ■Jjirioi' et^ai x 2 Cor. vU. 
irpos irdrras, * SiSaKTiKoc, * d>'€|iKaKoi', 25. iy ^ TcpauTt]Ti ° iraiSeuoKTa 9, Jas. iv. 

Tois ** dtTiSiariflefi^coos, pT irore Scut) ^ adrois 6 6eos * jxcTdi'Oiai' y i Thess. 

* » » > ' t i\ a ' £ ^ *\ /I > » k X h e "-7. °ot 
CIS ciriycaMrij' dArjOcias, 26. xai • dva»Tr)\(»a)(nK ck tt)s "tou oia- LXX. 

^oXou '^TraytSos, ' ^JuyptjfieVoi uir' afirou els to Ikcikou 6eXT]fJia. 2, not 

III. I. TooTO 8e yifwaKC ^ on iv 'loxdrois *T]fi^pais *" CKOTi^croKTai a Here only, 

not LXX, 
cf. Wisd. 
ii. 19. b I Cor. iv. 21, 2 Cor. x. i, Gal. v. 23, vi. i, Eph. iv. 2, Col. iii. 12, Tit. iii. 2, Jas. i. 21, 

iji. 13, 1 Pet. iii. 15. c See i Tim. i. 2a d Here only, not LXX. e Rom. ii. 4, 2 Cor. 

vii. 9, 10 (Paul). f See i Tim. ii. 4. g Here only, not LXX. b i Tim. iii. 7. i Luke 

V. 10 only, N.T. a Acts ii. 17 (Joel iii. i), Jas. v. 3, 2 Pet. iii. 3. b 2 Thess. ii. 2, cf. Rom. 

viii. 38, I Cor. iii. 22, vii. 26, Gal. i. 4, Heb. iz. 9. 

1 8 ^^cDcKLP, 17, many others. 

2 yivwo-KCTc A [FfG, 17, one other yivcSo-Kcrai], 238, two others, g. 

Ver. 24. SovXov Si KvpCov: here is 
used in its special application to the 
ministers of the Church. On the general 
teaching, see i Thess. ii. 7, i Tim. iii. 3, 
Tit. iii. 2. 

TJirios, as Ell. notes, implies gentleness 
in demeanour, irpavnjs meekness of dis- 
position. " Gentle unto all men, so he 
will be apt to teach ; forbearing towards 
opponents, so he will be able to correct " 

Ver. 25. Tovs dvTiSiaTidep^vovs : They 
who err from right thinking are to be 
dealt with as tenderly and considerately 
as they who err from right living. Cf. 
Gal. vi. I, KarapT^tlcTe tov toiovtov Iv 
wcij|*aTt irpaiSTtiTos. See also chap. iv. 
2, and reff. Field takes avTiSiarCOco-dai 
as equivalent to Ivavrccits 8iaTi0c<r6ai, 
" to be contrariwise or adversely af- 
fected ". Similarly Ambrosiaster, eos 
qui diversa sentiunt. Field notes that 
" the only other example of the compound 
verb is to be found in Longinus ir«pi 
{Itj/ovs, xvii. I ". The A.V, and R.V. take 
the word here as middle, them that oppose 
themselves, eos qui resistunt [veritati] 
(Vulg.), von Soden finds in this word the 
key to the meaning of avriS^o-eis, i Tim. 
vi. 20. 

(MliroT€ (not elsewhere in Paul) = 

8ciiJ : The subjunctive seems a syn- 
tactical necessity. See J. H. Moulton, 
Grammar, vol. i. pp. 55, 193, 194, Blass, 
Grammar, p. 213. On the other hand, W. 
H. text, and Winer- Moulton, Grammar, p. 
374, read SjpTj, optative. 

ItCTcLvoiav : It is certainly implied 
that false theories in religion are not un- 
connected with moral obliquity and faulty 
practice. See Tit. i. 15, 16, iii. 11. 

Ver. 26. dvavii\|/<i>o-iv is to be con- 
nected with els t6 Ikcivov 6At)|ia. Com- 

pare iKvr\\^aTt 8iKaiuS) i Cor. xv. 34. 
iKtLvov then refers to 6 Ocos, and OcXT)p.a 
will have its usual force as the Will of 
God (see i Pet. iv. 2) : That they who 
had been taken captive by the devil may 
recover themselves (respiscant, Vulg.) out 
of his snare, so as to serve the will of 
God. This is Beza's explanation and 
that of von Soden (nearly), who com- 
pares alxftaXurCSovTcs, 2 Cor. x. 5. It 
has the advantage of giving a natural 
reference to avrov and Ikc(vov respec- 
tively, which are employed accurately in 
iii. 9. The paradoxical use of ^oiyp^w in 
Luke V. 10 must not be taken as deter- 
mining the use of the word elsewhere. 
Of the other explanations, that of the 
A V. and Vulg., which supposes an in- 
elegant but not impossible reference of 
both ahrov and iKtivov to tov Sia^iSXov, 
is preferable to the R.V., following Wet- 
stein and Bengel, which refers avrov 
back to SovXov Kvpiov, and dissociates 
l(wYpT]p,^voi from iray(Sos, with which it 
is naturally connected. The reference of 
avTov and Ikcivov to the same subject, as 
given in the A.V. , is paralleled by Wisd. 
i. 16, <rvvQ'f\Kr\v cOcvto irp&s avrdv, Sn 
a|io^ clo-iv Tfjs Ikcivov ficp^Sos clvai. 

Chapter III. — Vv. 1-9. Evil timei 
are upon us ; we have indeed amongst 
us specimens of the perennial impostor, 
worthy successors of Jannes and Jam- 
bres. The shortlived nature of their 
success, will be, however, patent to all. 

Ver. I. Iv IcrxaTais -qixlpais Ivanjaov- 
rai: Although St. Paul had abandoned 
his once confident expectation that the 
Lord would come again during his own 
lifetime, it is plain that here, as in i 
Tim. iv. I, he regards the time now pre- 
sent as part of the last days. See diro- 
Tp^irov . . . elciv 01 lv8vvovT€s, w. 5, 6. 
The prophetical form of the sentence is a 


nP02 T1MO0EON B 


' Matt. Tiii. KOipol "x^^^'TOi* 2. IcTOVTai Y^P oi acOpwiroi * ^iXooTot, * 4>tX<lp- 
^•J- .. Y"P°''> 'ttXoJoves, ' uTrepi^<^OKOi, ' pX(lff(}>Tj}ioi, y°''*"°''^'' 'iTreifle^S, 
19, xvii. * dx<ipioToi, ' i,v6<Tioi, 3. " aoTopyoi, " aoTroj'Soi, ° Sid^oXoi, ^ dxpa- 
Isa. xviii. Teis, '^ aKTjficpoi, "■ d<^iXaYa0oi, 4. " irpoooTai, TrpoTTCTCis, Texucpw- 

(3), 4 ' fJi^KOi, ^ 4*''XV)Soi'oi praXXoK ^ ■* (|>iX69eoi, 5. ex'*'''''*? ' p.6p<t>(i>aiK 

Mace. (3). 
d Here only, 

not LXX. e Luke xvi. 14, 4 Mace. iL 8 only. 

Rom. i. 30, Jas. iv. 6 = i Pet. v. 5 (Prov. iiL 4). 

iii. 3. k Luke vi. 35, Wisd. (i), Ecclus. (2), 4 Mace. (i). 1 See i Tim. i. 9. ' m Rom. 1. 

31, not LXX. n Here only, not LXX. o See i Tim. iii. 11. p Prov. xxvii. 20 only. 

q Here only, not LXX. r Here only, not LXX, cf. Tit. i. 8. s Luke vi. 16, Acts vii. 52. 

t Acts xix. 36, Prov. x. 14, xiii. 3, Ecclus. ix. 18. u See 1 Tim. iii. 6. v Here only, not LXX. 

w Here only, not LXX. x Rom. ii. 20 only, not LXX. 

f Rom. i. 30 only, N.T. g Luke i. 51, 

h I Tim. i. 13. i Rom. i. 30, cf. Tit. L 16, 

rhetorical way of saying that things are 
going from bad to worse. The same ac- 
count is to be given of 2 Pet. iii, 3 ; Jude 
18. St. John says plainly, " It is the last 
hour" (i John ii. 18). See note on i 
Tim. iv. I. 

lv<rTi]<rovTai : will be upon us, insia- 
bunt (Vulg.). 

XaXeiroi : grievous (R.V.) ; but not 
necessarily perilous (A.V.) to those who 
feel their grievousness. 

Ver. 2. ol avSpwiroi : mankind in gene- 
ral, not ol avSpcs- This list of human 
vices should be compared with that given 
in Rom. i. 29 sqq.; aXa£6vcs> viirepijc^avoi, 
■yoveticnv dirciOcvs, acTTop-yot are common 
to both passages. (t>iXavTot appropri- 
ately heads the array, egoism or self- 
centredness being the root of almost 
every sin, just as love which *' seeketh 
not its own " (i Cor. xiii. 5) is " the 
fulfilment of the law" (Rom. xiii. 10). 
<j>iXavTia is used favourably by Aris- 
totle in the sense of self-respect {Nic. 
Eth. ix. 8. 7). But " once the sense of 
sin is truly felt, self-respect becomes an 
inadequate basis for moral theory. So 
Philo {de Prof. 15) speaks of those who 
are 4>£XavToi 8t| (taXXov {) i^tX<i0eoi" 
(Dean Bernard, in loc). 

<^iXap7vpoi: covetousness (irXcovc$ia, 
Rom. i. 29) naturally springs from, or is 
one form of, selfishness ; but we cannot 
suppose with Chrys. that there is a simi- 
lar sequence intended all through. 

Other compounds of <j)iX— in the Pas- 
torals, besides the five that occur here, 
are <{>i,Xa7aOoc, Tit. i. 8, i^iXavSpos, 
()>iX($TCKVos, Tit. ii. 4, 4»'XavOp(»iria, Tit. 
iii. 4, ^iXo|cvos, I Tim. iii. 2, Tit. i. 8. 

&Xa{($ves, vircpiji^avot : elati, superbi. 
The aXa{|cdv, boastful, betrays his char- 
acter by his words; the vircptf^tavos, 
haughty, more usually by his demeanour 
and expression. 

pXa<r^T)p,oi, : abusive, railers (R.V.); 
not necessarily blasphemers (A.V.). 

Yovcvtriv airciBcis and axapurroi. natur- 
ally go together ; since, as Bengel ob- 
serves, gratitude springs from filial duty. 

Ver. 3. ao'TopYoi: without natural 
affection, sine affectione. This and the 
three preceding adjectives appear to have 
teference to domestic relations. 

acrirovSoi,: implacable, sine pace {ab- 
sque foedere, Rom. i. 31) ; not truce- 
breakers (A. v.), which would be ao-vv- 
dcToi, Rom. i. 31 ; the acrirovSos refuses 
to treat with his foe at all. 

SidpoXoi : A.V.m. here and in Tit. ii. 3, 
has makebates. See note on i Tim. iii. 

aKparets : without self-control (R.V.) 
rather than incontinent (A.V.). The 
latter word has a purely sexual refer- 
ence, ^"ijereas aKparctSi as Chrys. notes, 
is U" -wi "with respect both to their 
tongue, and their appetite, and everything 
else ". It is naturally coupled with 
aKi]p.cpoi, fierce, immites. " Simul et 
molles et duri " (Bengel). 

a<{>iXaYa9oi : No lovers of good 
(R.V.), the good being " things true, 
honourable, just, pure, lovely, and of 
good report" (Phil. iv. 8). The positive 
^tXayados, Tit. i. 8, has the same refer- 
ence. It is a characteristic of the hea- 
venly Wisdom (Wisd. vii. 22). The 
A.V. in both places narrows the reference 
to persons : Despisers of those that are 
good ; A lover of good men. The 
Vulg. sine benignitate, benignum, does 
not express the active positive force of 
the Greek. 4*''^<^Y<''^°^ ^^<^ a<|>iXdpYvpos 
are applied to the Emperor Antoninus in 
a papyrus of ii. a.d. which also uses the 
term a^JiXoKayaOia (perb. = dt^iXoKaXo- 
Ka.ya.8ia) of Marcus Aurelius (Moulton 
and Milligan, Expositor, vii., vi. 376). 

Ver. 4. irpoSoTai : has no special re- 
ference to persecution of Christians. 

T€Tv4)wn£voi : See note on i Tim. iii. 

Ver. 5. fxovTfs (see note on i Tim. i. 

a— 8. 



euac^Eias TT]c S^ '%uvaiuy outtjs ^ i\pvr\u.ivoi. • ical toutous * diro-ySeeiTim. 

ii. 2. 
Tpe'irou. 6. €K TouTOJi' Y<£p eurif ot ' ivhuvovres eis tAs oiKias ical z i Cor. ii. 

aixixaXodTi^oKTEs ^ • yucaiKcipia ' acawpeufieVa dfjiapTiais, ' dyojjiei'o 20, i 
h>/t'ki /N _/ nr 'C' k» Thess. L 

CTTitJufjiiais iroiKi\aiSj 7- irai/TOTC fiai'OdvoKTa Kai /ATjoeTrore €is 5, Heb. 

^iitiyviMTiv ^dXT)0€ia9 ^ eXOeii' Sui/dficvo. 8. ov Tp<5iroi' Sc 'lafi^S aSeeiTim. 

V. 8. 

b Here only, 

N.T., 4 Mace. i. 33, etc c Here only, N.T. d Luke zzi. 34, Rom. vii. 23, z Cor. z. 5. 

e Here only, not LXX. f Prov. xxv. 22, Judith xv. 11, Rom. xii. 30. g Rom. ii. 4, viii. 14, 

I Cor. xii. 2, Gal. v. 18. h Tit. iii. 3. i Matt. iv. 24 (ir. >'o<rois) » Mark i. 34 = Luke iv. 

40, Heb. iL 4, xiii. 9, Jas. i. 3, i Pet. i. 6, iv. 10. k See i Tim. iL 4. 

^ alxitaXcATcuovTcs [Eph. iv. 8] DcKL ; add t^ a few cursives. ' 

ig) fjiop<^cd<riv, K.T.X. : Habentes speciem 
quidem pietatis. We have an exact 
parallel in Tit. i. 16, Btbv op,oXoYov<riv 
clSe'vai, Tois 8^ ^pyois apvovvrai. They 
were professing Christians, but nothing 
more ; genuine Christians must also be 
professing Christians. This considera- 
tion removes any difficulty that may be 
felt by a comparison of this passage with 
Rom. ii. 20, where it is implied that it is 
a point in the Jew's favour that he has 
TT)v piop(j>w<riv Tt)s yvuartv% Kal ttjs 
dXTjOeia; ev tu v6[i.<f. The p-cip^oMris* 
embodiment, is external in both cases, 
but not unreal as far as it goes. The 
ineffectiveness of it ari-es from the co- 
existence in the mind of him who ' holds" 
it of some other quality that neutralises 
the advantage naturally derivable from 
the possession of the p,iip^wa-is in 
question. In this case, it was that 
they of whom St. Paul is speaking had a 
purely theoretical, academic apprehen- 
sion of practical Christianity (cvo-c^cio, 
see I Tim. ii. 2), but a positive disbelief in 
the Gospel as a regenerating force. Com- 
pare what St. John says of the rulers 
who believed on Jesus but did not con- 
fess Him (John xii. 42, 43). They too 
were (t>tXi^8ovoi, ftaXXov ff <^iX(S0cot. In 
Romans the case is similar : the posses- 
sion of an admirable moral code did not 
make the Jew's moral practice better than 
that of the Gentile (see Sanday and 
Headlam on Rom. ii. 20). There is 
therefore no necessity to suppose with 
Lightfoot that " the termination -wcrif 
denotes the aiming after or affecting the 
|jiop(^i^ " (youmal of Class, and Sacr. 
Philol. (1857), iii. 115). 

8vvap,iv: the opposition between 
p,(Sp(j><i>(ris and 8vva|xis here is the same 
as that between 8vva|jiis and <ro<f>ia in i 
Cor. ii. 5, or X^Yost i Cor. iv. 19, 20, i 
Thess. i. 5 ; see also Heb. vii. 16. 

TJpvT)p,Evoi, : To deny a thing or a per- 
son involves always more than an act of 

the mind ; it means carrying the negation 
into practice. See on i Tim. v. 8. 

Ka.i : perhaps refers back to ii. 22, 23. 

Ver. 6. ivivvovrts : who insinuate 
themselves into houses [which they over- 
throw], Tit. i. II. " Observe how he 
shows their impudence by this expres- 
sion, their dishonourable ways, their 
deceitfulness " (Chrys.). irapci,o-^8vT|<rav 
(Jude 4) and irapeKTTJXOov (Gal. ii. 4) are 
similar expressions. 

YvvaiKapia : Mulierculas. Chrys. 
acutely implies that the victims of ^e 
crafty heretics were " silly women " of 
both sexes : "He who is easy to be 
deceived is a silly woman, and nothing 
like a man ; for to be deceived is the 
part of silly women ". St. Paul, how- 
ever, refers to women only. 

o-co-upcvp-cva ap.apTiais : overwhelmed, 
rather than burdened (pePapT||i^va) 
(Field). Is there any contrast implied 
between the diminutive, indicating the 
insignificance of the women, and the load 
of sins which they carry? De Wette 
(quoted by Alf.), notes that a sin-laden 
conscience is easily tempted to seek the 
easiest method of relief. 

iroiK^Xais : There is no great dif- 
ficulty in diverting them from the right 
path, for they are inconstant even in vice. 

Ver. 7. irdvTOTc p.av9dvovTa : They 
have never concentrated their attention 
on any spiritual truth so as to have 
learnt it and assimilated it. They are 
always being attracted by " some newer 
thing," Tt KaiviiTepov (Act! xvii. 21), and 
thus their power of comprehension be- 
comes atrophied. 

p,T)8^iroTC : For negatives with the 
participle, see Blass, Grammar, p. 255. 

els lirCyvwo-iv dXi)9cta« : See on i Tim. 
ii. 4. 

Ver. 8. The apostle now returns 
from the y^'^'ti'Kdpia to their seducers, 
whom he compares to the magicians 
who withstood Moses and Aaron, both 




1 Acts xiii. KOI *la|x^pT]s ^ ' drr^oTtjaoi' Muucrci, oSrots Kol oStoi ' AvQiarravroA 

Rom. ix. TTJ dXnOeia, avQpaitoi "* KaT£<j>dapu,^i'oi r^y I'oui', ° dSoKiuoi * ircpl 

ip, xiii. *, .\ , '' , ■ ' I ^ ^1 

Gal. ii. II, TTji' ° TTioTH'. 9. dXX ou ^ •irpoic6\|;ouo-ii' * i-rri ''irXeioi', •A yap 

Eph. vi. 

13, 2 Tim. ** acoia auTuy 'IkStjXos lorai iraaiK, is Kai tJ iK€ivt>y cyeVcTO. 

m Here lo. *2i> 'Be *irapr)KoXou0T)o-ds ' )&ou Ttj SiSaaKaXif, rg ' dywylij 

only, * 

N.T., cf. 

I Tim. vi. 5. n Rom. i. 38, i Cor. iz. 37, 3 Cor. xiii. 5, 6, 7, Tit. i. 16, Heb. vi. 8. 01 Tim. i. 

i^, vi. 31. p See 2 Tim. ii. 16. q Wisd. zv. 18, xix. 3, etc., Luke vi. 11 only, N.T. r 3 Mace. 

iii. 19, vi. 5 only. s See i Tim. vi. 11. t See i Tim. iv. 6. a Here only, N.T., Esth. 

(3), 3 Mace. (3), 3 Mace. (i). 

^ Map.Ppi]S FG, d, e, f, g, m5o, vg., go. 

*So ^AC [FG, i^KoXov6T)o-as], 17; irapT)KoXov0T|Ka« DKLP. 

See I Tim. iv. 6. 

in their hostility to the truth and in their 
subsequent fate. St. Paul is the earliest 
extant authority for the names ; but of 
course he derived them from some 
source, written (Origen), or unwritten 
(Theodoret), it is immaterial which. But 
the former theory is the more probable. 
The book is called by Origen (in Matt. 
p. gi6, on Matt, xxvii. 8), yannes et Mam- 
bres liber, and is perhaps identical with 
Pcemtentia jfamnis et Mambrae con- 
demned in the Decretum Gelasii. Pliny, 
whose Natural History appeared in a.d. 
77, mentions Jannes along with Moses 
and Lotapis (or Jotapis) as Jewish Magi 
posterior to Zoroastes (Hist. Nat. xxx. 
i). He is followed by Apuleius, Apol. c. 
90. Numenius (quoted by Eusebius 
(Prep. Ev. ix. 8) mentions Jannes and 
Jambres as magicians who resisted 
Moses. In the Targ. of Jonathan on 
Ex. vii. II, the names are given as 

D'''^^Q*>1 D"'!3*'> J^"'s and Jamberes; 

but in the Talmud as ^^■^^7:21 i^in"^' 
Jochana and Mamre. It is generally 
agreed that Jannes is a form of Jochan- 
an (Johannes), and that Jambres is from 

the Hiphil of HID *° rch^l For the 
legends associated with these names, see 
art. in Hastings' D. B. 

iivri<rTr\(rav : The same word is used 
of Elymas the Sorcerer, Acts xiii. 8. The 
ovTws refers rather to the degree of their 
hostility than to the manner in which 
it was expressed, i.e., by magical arts. 
At the same time, it is possible that 
magic was practised by the false teachers ; 
they are styled impostors, ycJtjtcs, in ver. 
13 ; and Ephesus was a home of magic. 
See Acts xix. 19. 

KaTe<^Oapp,^voi rhv vovv :. cf. I Tim. vi. 
5, Sic^Oapi*. T^v vovv. This is the 
Pauline equivalent for the Platonic " lie 
in the soul ". Karci^O. is not coordinate 
with a8(iK. ; the latter is the exemplifica- 
tion of the former. 

aSt^Kipoi : reprobate. The A.V.m. 
gives the word here, and in Tit. i. 16, an 
active force, of no judgment, void of 
judgment. For irepC with the ace. see 
on I Tim. i. 19. 

Ver. 9. ov irpoK<$\|;ovo-iv lirl irXeiov; 
There is only a verbal inconsistency be- 
tween this statement and those in ii. 16 
and iii. 13, where see notes. The mean- 
ing here is that there will be a limit to 
the success of the false teachers. They 
will be exposed, found out ; those to 
whom that fact is apparent will not be 
imposed on any more. In ii. 16, the in- 
creasing impiety of the teachers and the 
cancerous growth of their teaching is 
alleged as a reason why Timothy should 
avoid them. In ver. 13, irpoK6\^ovtriv 
iirX rh x*'?**' does not indicate success 
in gaining adherents, but simply advance 
in degradation. " Saepe malitia, quum 
late non potest, profundius prohcit " 

avoia : dementia (m'*) is nearer the 
mark than insipietitia (Vulg.). 

ws Kal fi iKtivuv lycvcTo : "Aaron's 
rod swallowed up their rods" (Ex. vii. 
12) ; they failed to produce lice (vi.i. 18). 
"And the magicians could not stand be- 
fore Moses because of the boils ; for the 
boils were upon the magicians " (ix. 
11). During the plague of darkness, 
" they lay helpless, made the sport of 
magic art, and a shameful rebuke of their 
vaunts of understanding " (Wisd. xvii. 7). 

Vv. 10-17. ^ •'™ r^o' really uneasy 
about your steadfastness. You joined 
me as a disciple from spiritual and moral 
inducements only. The persecutions 
you saw me endure you knew to be typi- 
cal of the conditions of a life of godliness. 
Stand in the old paths. Knowledge of 
the Holy Scriptures on which your grow- 
ing mind was fed is never out of date as 
an equipment for the man of God. 

Ver. 10 : irapT]KoXovdT]o-as : See on i 
Tim. iv. 6. Thou didst follow (R.V.) 




T^ *Trpo9^<7€i, Ttj irurrei, t^ ' noKpo9u|Aia, rg dyd-irr), tq * 6iro|ioirp, vActsxi. 

II. TOis 'SiuyfAOis, TOis iraOrniaaiv, old jaoi iyivsTO iy 'AiTioxeia, 13! 

CK 'Ikokio), ci* Auorpois, olous 'Siuyfiois 'uTn^KeyKa' koI Ik itdvrtiiv Tim. i. 16, 

fie ""cpuo-aTO 6 Kupios. 12. koI irdrres 8e 01 O^orres "'tt*' 6,Ga.\.v'. 

°*6U(T£Pus^ * ^y •XpioTw •'itjo'oO ' 8iwx0'n<''O*^tt*' ^S' Ttoyr\po\ 8e iv.'a, CoL 

i. II, iti. 
la, 3 Tim 
ivi 3, Heb. 
▼i. 13, Jaa. 
V. 10 (of 
X See I Tim. ri. 11. y Acta xiii. 50, KOm. viii. 35, 3 Cor. xil 10, 3 Thess. i.4. z Rom. viii. 

18, 3 Cor. i. 5, 6, 7, Phil. iii. 10, Col. i. 34, Heb. ii. 10, x. 32, i Pet. iv. 13, v. 9, etc., not LXX. 
a 1 Cor. X. 13, I Pet. ii. 19, only, N.T. b Matt. vi. 13, Rom. xv. 31, 2 Cor. i. 10, 3 Thess. iii. 2, 

3 Tim. iv. 17, 18, 2 Pet. ii. 7, 9. c Tit ii. i3. d 4 Mace. vii. 31 only. e Rom. vi. ii, 

cf. Gal. ii. 20. f Matt. v. 10, 11, John xv. 30, i Cor. iv. i3, 2 Cor. iv.9. Gal. v. 11, etc. g Here 

only, not LXX. h See 3 Tim. ii. 16. i Matt xxiv. 4, 5, n, 34 (= Mark xiii. 5, 6), i John 

L 8, ii. 36, iii. 7, Rev. (7), etc. k Matt, xviii. 12, Tit iii. 3, Heb. v. 3, i Pet ii. 35, etc. 1 See 

X Tim. vi. 11. m See i Tim. ii. 15. n Here only, N.T. 

1 So fc^AP, 17, 37, two others ; cv<rcPws l%v CDFGKL. 

akdpuiroi Kal 'yorjTcs ' irpoKtS^lrouotc ittX to x^^po^'j 'irXoKun-es Kal 
^ TrXat'wfiei'ot. 14. ^ ffO ' Be " 'Ukc " iv ois cfiaOes Kal " iiTiaT<iQr\s, 

s susceptible of the meaning " Thou 
wert attracted as a disciple to me on 
account of". It is not necessarily im- 
plied that Timothy had copied his master 
in all these respects. The A.V., Thou 
hast fully known, follows the A.V. of 
Luke i. 3. This translation fails to bring 
out the appeal to Timothy's loyalty 
which underlies the passage. The aorist 
is appropriate here, because St. Paul is 
recalling to Timothy's recollection the 
definite occasion in the past when the 
youth cast in his lot with him. He 
is not thinking, as in i Tim. iv. 6, 
of Timothy's consistent discipleship 
up to the moment of writing. Bengel 
quotes aptly 2 Mace. ix. 27, irapaKoXov- 
Bovvra tq lp.-[j irpoaipco-ci. (So cod- 
Venetus : A has o-uvoTaOevTa for irapa- 
•coX..) This limitation of the reference 
explains why St. Paul mentions only the 
places in which he suffered on his first 
missionary journey. 

SiSao-KaXCqi : See note on i Tim. i. 10. 

dywyn : conduct (R.V.). The A.V., 
manner of life has perhaps reference 
to guiding principles of conduct rather 
than to the external expression of them, 
which is meant here. 

irpo9^(rci : For irpiidcoris in this sense 
of numan purpose see reff. Here it 
means what St. Paul had set before him- 
self as the aim of his life. In Rom. viii. 
28, ix. II, Eph. i. II, iii. 11, 2 Tim. i. 9 
the word is used of God's eternal purpose 
for man. 

viropoirg : See on i Tim. vi. 11. 

Ver. II. 'AvTioxcCf. : Acts xiii. 14, 45, 
50 ; 'Ikov(<^ : Acts xiv. i, 2, 5 ; AvcTpois : 
Acts xiv. 6, 19. 

oiovs SiuYpovs : There is no necessity 
to supply, with Alf., " Thou sawest ". 

Ka( : and yet. The verse is aii echo 

of Ps. xxxiii. (xxxiv.) 18, 6 Kvpios . . . 
^K iracruv tcIiv 9X(i|rcuv avTuv ^pvvaTO 
avTovs. See also reff. 

Ver. 12. This verse is an interesting 
example of the effect of association of 
ideas. St. Paul's teaching after his per- 
secutions at Antioch, etc., had strongly 
emphasised this topic St. Luke (Acts 
xiv. 22) actually repeats the very words 
used by the preachers, " Through many 
tribulations we must enter into the king- 
dom of God". Consistency in the life 
in Christ must necessarily be always op- 
posed by the world. S^Xovtcs is em- 
phatic, as Ell. notes, " whose will is ". 
Cf. Luke xiv. 28, John vii. 17. 

cvae^ws of course qualifies C^v, as in 
Tit. ii. 12. There is a similar extension 
of thought, from self to all, in iv. 8. 

Ver. 13. irovT)pol 8i: The antithesis 
seems to be between the apparent dis- 
comfiture of those who wish to live in 
Christ (their persecution being after all 
almost a means conditional to their at. 
taining their desire), and the paradoxical 
success of evil men ; they advance in- 
deed ; but only in degradation ; proficient 
in peius (Vulg.). See notes on ver. 9 and 
.ii. 16. 

V y6r]Tts, impostors (R.V.), seductores, 
exactly expresses the term. ywi|TcCa 
occurs 2 Mace. xii. 24, where it means 

irXavtipcvoi ; cf. Tit. iii. 3. Those 
who deceive others impair, in so doing, 
their sense of the distinction between 
truth and falsehood, and thus weaken 
their power of resistance to self-deceit, 
and to imposition by others. 

irpoK<St|;ovo'iv iiri t& x'^P"*' ■ ^^^ ^^ 
ver. 9. 

Ver. 14. «rv 8^ peve : Both o-u and fkivt 
are in strong contrast to the irovT|pol 




oEcdus. ei8<i)s iraph, Tivuy^ EfiaOes, 15. xal on diro " ^p^(t>ous ''icpA 

Mace. (I), *> Ypt^f-fJ-ara oiSas to. Zuvdfitvd ae ^ tro^iaai 'els *<ra)rr)piai' 8id 

(I), 3 *irioT€«s *TTis * iv *Xpi(rTW ''Itictou. 16. irdaa vpaibT] " Oeoirfeooros 
Mace. (I), r I I ir t 1 

4 Mace. 

(I), Luke (5), Acts vii. 19, i Pet. ii. a. pi Cor. ix. 13 only, N.T. q John vii. 15, Acts xxvi. 24, 

r Ps. xviii. (xix.) 7, civ. (cv.) 23, cxviii. (cxix.) 98. s Phil. i. 19, 2 Thess. ii. 13, i Pet. i. 5, ii. 2, c/. 

Rom, j. 16, x. I, 10, 2 Cor. vii. 10, Heb. ix. 28, xi. 7. t i Tim. iii. 13. u Here only, not LXX, 

^ So ^AC*FgrGP, 17, one other, d, e, g ; tCvos CcDKL, f, vg., go., boh., syrr., 

" Ins. Toi AC*DcKLP; om. tA i^CbD*FG, 17, arm. 

avOpwirot and irpoKi$i|/ov(riv of ver. 13. 
The exhortation is illustrated by 2 John 
9, iraf 6 irpodyuv, Kai p.T| fi^vuv iv 
TQ SiSax'Q TOW XpioTov Oebv ovik exci. 

The conservatism here enjoined concerns 
more especially the fundamental ethical 
teaching common to the Old Covenant 
and the New. For the idiom, see note 
on I Tim. ii. 15. 

iv ols cfxaOes Kal Iitio-tcjOt]; : a, sup- 
plied out of Iv ols, is the direct object of 
cp,a9es, and remoter object of lirio-TtSOtjs. 

i-irioTwOT)? : The Latin versions blun- 
der here, quae . . . credita sunt tibi. 
This would be the translation of liritrx- 
cij9t)s. iricrTiSop,aC Ti means to have re- 
ceived confirmation of the truth of a' 
thing. Bengel, rendering " fidelis et 
firmus es redditus," compares Ps. Ixxvii. 
(Ixxviii.) 8, ovK Ittio-tuOt) {acto. tov 
6€oi) T^ irvc\)p,a ovttjs, and 37, ovS^ lititr- 
Tci6T](rav Iv T'g SiaOrJK'j) avTOv. 

clSw9 irapa tivwv IfiaOcs : It has to be 
remembered that St. Paul is speaking of 
moral, not intellectual, authority. The 
truths for which St. Paul is contending 
were commended to Timothy by the 
sanction of the best and noblest person- 
alities whom he had ever known or heard 
of. The characters of Timothy's revered 
parent and teachers — of Eunice, Lois, 
the prophets, and Paul, to enumerate 
them in the order in which they had 
touched his life — had been moulded in a 
certain school of morals. Their charac- 
ters had admittedly stood the test of life. 
What more cogent argument could Tim- 
othy have for the truth and reasonable- 
ness of their moral teaching ? 

Ver. 15. Kal on : dependent on clSus. 
For the change of construction, von Soden 
compares Rom. ix. 22, 23 ; i Cor. xiv. 5. 
Timothy's knowledge of things divine 
was derived not merely from persons, but 
from sacred writings; and, perhaps, as 
Theophylact notes, the two points are 
emphasised : (a) that the persons were of 
no ordinary merit, and (6) that his know- 
ledge of Scripture was conterminous with 

the whole of his conscious existence. 
He could not recall a period when he had 
not known sacred writings. This is the 
force of the hyperbolic ol-tto Pp^<{>ovs. 

Icpa 'Ypdp.p.ara : sacras litteras, sacred 
writings (R.V.). For this use of vpdp" 
fiara see John vii. 15, and Moulton and 
Milligan, Expositor, vii., vi. 383. The 
force of this pecuHar phrase is that 
Timothy's ABC lessons had been of 
a sacred nature. The usual N.T. equi- 
valent for the Holy Scriptures (A.V.^ 
is al Ypa(|>a( or i\ Ypa(f>ij (once YP'^'t*''^'^ 
ayiai, Rom. i. 2) ; but St. Paul here deli- 
berately uses an ambiguous term in order 
to express vigorously the notion that 
Timothy's first lessons were in Holy 
Scripture, to. Upa 7pdpip.aTa is found 
in Josephus, Antiq. Prooem 3 and x. 10, 
4, and elsewhere. Cf. irapavaYvovs ttjv 
tepav ^i^Xov (2 Mace. viii. 23). There 
may be also an allusion to -ypdp,p,aTa of 
the false teachers which were not t«pd. 
See on next verse. 

a-o^ia-ai : instruere, cf. Ps. xviii. (xix.) 
8, i\ fxapTvpia KvpCov irio"n], o-o4>i£ov(ra 
vf\iria.. Also Ps. civ. (cv.) 22, cxviii. 
(cxix.) 98. The word is chosen for its 
O.T. reference, and also because of its 
strictly educational association. 

cU (r(i>TT)p(av : a constant Paulme 
phrase. See reff. 

8ia iri<rT€«s : to be joined closely with 
(ro<j>C(rai. Cf. de Imitatione Christi, 
iii. 2, " Let not Moses nor any prophet 
speak to me; but speak thou rather, O 
Lord God, who art the inspirer and en- 
lightener of all the prophets; for thou 
alone without them canst perfectly in- 
struct me, but they without thee will 
avail nothing. They may indeed sound 
forth words, but they do not add to them 
the Spirit. . . . They shew the way, but 
thou givest strength to walk in it," etc. 

Ver. 16. In the absence of any extant 
Greek MS. authority for the omission of 
KaL before u(|>Aip.os, we may assume 
that the early writers who ignored it did 
so from carelessness. Thjq ^emt^oce then 

15 — 17- IV. I. 

nP02 TlMOeEON B 


icai ^ ' u^Ai|Jios irp&s SiScuTKaXiaK, irpos * Acyfioi',' irpos ^ ciracop- v See i 

Quuiv, irpos 'iraiSciaf *t^i' '^i* " SiKatoo-uKTj • 17. Iva * aprios t] 6 w Here 

TOO Geou acOpcjTTos, '' irpos ** ttSlv ^ Ipyot' '' dyadoK * c^ijpriap.^i'os. N.T.' 

IV. 1. • AiafiapTupop,ai ' *" iviiiTriov "* tou * ecoG Kal * Xpicrrov 'iTjaoO,* viii. 52, i 

34 only. 
yEph. vi. 4, Heb. xii. 5, 7, 8, It. x Tit. iii. 5, f/. Eph. iy. 24. a Here only, not LXX. bSee 
3 1 im. ii. 31 and i Tim. it. 10. c Ezod. xxviii. 7, Acts zzi. 5 only. m See i Tim. v. 31. 

b See I Tim. ii. 3. 

^ Om. Kai bef. w4^|ji.os f, vgde. boh., syrpesh, 
'So i^ACFG, 31, 80, two others; eXcyxov DKLP. 
» Ins. ovv 4yw DcKL, syrhd. 

* Ins. Tov Kvpiov DcKL, go., syrpesh and syrhd c.* 

• *It]o-. XpioT. DcKL, vgcle, syrr., arm. 

is best taken as a repetition and expan- 
sion of that which has just preceded; 
6e<Jirv€v<rTos corresponding to Upa, and 
w4>cXi)ios, K.T.X., to co^iirai, k.t.X. : 
Every writing which is inspired by 
God is also profitable, ypcu^i) of course 
has exclusive reference to the definite 
collection of writings which St. Paul 
usually designates as i\ ypa4>i) or al 
Ypa^ai ; but it is used here in a partitive, 
not in a collective sense. A parallel case 
is John xix. 36, 37, r\ ypa^ . . . iripa 
ypa<^i]. Hence the rendering writi7tg or 
passage is less free from ambiguity than 
scripture (R.V.). The nearest parallel 
to this ascensive use of Kai, as EUicott 
terms it, is Gal. iv. 7, cl hi vl6«, xal 
KXi)povd|ji.os. See also Luke i. 36, Acts 
xxvi. z6, xxviii. 28, Rom. viii. 29. 

0€<Jirv€vo-Tos : If there is any polemical 
force in this adj., it is in reference to 
heretical writings, the contents of which 
were merely intellectual, not edifj-ing. 
In any case, the greatest stress is laid on 
w^^Xipos. St. Paul would imply that 
the best test of a ypac^i) being 9e<Sirr- 
€vo-Tos would be its proved serviceable- 
ness for the moral and spiritual needs of 
man. See Rom. xv. 4, 2 Pet. i. 20, 21. 
This, the R.V. explanation of the pas- 
sage, is that given by Origen, Chrys., 
Thdrt., syrr., the Clementine Vulg., 
Omnis scripttira divinitus inspirata utilis 
est ad docendum etc. [The true Vulg. 
text, however, is insp. div. et utilis ad 
doc] The other view (A.V., R.V.m.), 
which takes ical as a simple copula. 
Every Scripture is inspired and profitable, 
is open to the objection that neither in the 
antecedent nor in the following context 
is there any suggestion that the inspira- 
tion of Scripture was being called in 
question ; the theme of the passage be- 
ing the moral equipment of the man of 
Cod. For this view are cited Greg. 

Naz., Ath. It is to be added that it is 
possible to render iraa-a -Ypa4>ii, the 
whole of Scripture, on the analogy of 
Matt. ii. 3, iraaa *UpiS(roXvp,a (Eph. 
ii. 21 cannot be safely adduced as a case 
in point) ; but it is unnecessary and un- 

SiSao-KaXCav (see notes on i Tim. i. 
10) and JXeyiiov represent respectively 
positive and negative teaching. Simi- 
larly ^iravdp6w<rkv and iraiSeCav have re- 
lation respectively to " the raising up of 
them that fall," and the disciplining the 
unruly ; ad corrigendum, ad erudiendum 

T^jv Iv SiKaMorvKg : a iraiScCa which 
is exercised in righteousness. Compare 
the dissertation on the iraiScia Kvpiov, 
Heb. xii. 5 sqq. iraiScia in reff. is used 
in relation to children only. 

Ver. 17. aprtos: perfectus, completely 
equipped for his work as a Man of God. 
WXcios would have reference to his per- 
formance of it. 

6 Tov 9eov avdpu^of : see on i Tim. vL 
II. The Man of God has here a primary 
reference to the minister of the Gospel. 

irpis irav, k.t.X. : see ii. 21 ; and, for 
this use of irpds, i Pet. iii. 15, 2 Cor. 
ii. 16, X. 4, Eph. iv. 29, Heb. v. 14 
and on l|apTi(w, Moulton and Milligan, 
Expositor^ vii., vii. 285. 

Cf. the use of KaTapr^tM, Luke vi. 40, 
2 Cor. xiii. 11, Heb. xiii. 21, i Pet. v. la 

Chapter IV. — Vv. 1-8. I solemnly 
charge you, in view of the coming judg- 
ment, to be zealous in the exercise of 
your ministry while the opportunity lasts, 
while people are willing to listen to your 
admonitions. Soon the craze for novelty 
will draw men away from sober truth to 
fantastic figments. Do you stand your 
ground. Fill the place which my death 
will leave vacant. My course is run, my 
crown is awaiting me. " My crown " did 




cSeeiTim. ToG (lAXoi'Tos Kpiveiv^ t,!ayras Kol yeKpous, ital' t^i' * 4in<t>(ii'eiav 

d Luke (7), auTOu Kal Tr]v ^afriKeiav auTofl • 2. Kripu^oK tSk X^yof, ^ ciriaTijfli 

I Theas.' *€UKaip(i>s ' dxaipus, cXcySo^'j ' ^iriTifjnrjCTOi', irapaKclXco-oi',' iv ^ irdari 

Tirn.iv.6. 'ftatpoOufiia Kal SiSaxfj. 3. eoroi ycip Kaipos Stc ttjs ^ UYiaicouoT]; 

e Ecclus. 

f Ecdut. XXXV. (xxxii.) 4, only. cf. Phil. It. 10. g Matt. 

Xvill. 23, 

Mark xiv. 11 only, cf. l Cor. xvi. la. 

(7), Mark (9), Luke (is), Jude 9. h See i Tim. i. 16 and a Tim. iii. 10. i z Tim. i. 10 (q.v.). 

Tit. i 

9 11. X. 

1 Kptvai FG, 17, 67**, six others. " Kara ^cDcKLP, vgcle, go., syrr., arm. 

* iirixCp,. irapaKaX. ^cACDgrKLP, syrhcl, arm. ; irapaKa'X. liriT(|t. J^*FG, 37, 
one other, d, e, f, g, vg., go., boh. ; om. irapaKoLX. syrpeah. 

I say ? Nay, there is a crown for you, 
too, and for all who live in the loving 
longing for the coming of their Lord. 

Ver. I. Aiap.apTvpop,ai : See on i Tim. 
V. 21. As the adjuration follows imme- 
diately on warnings against a moral 
degeneration which had already set in 
and would increase, it is appropriate that 
it should contain a solemn assurance of 
judgment to come. 

Xpwrrow *lri<rov, tov (aAXovtos Kpiveiy; 
This was a prominent topic in St. Paul's 
preaching (Acts xvii. 31 ; Rom. ii. 16 ; 
I Cor. iv. 5). Kpivai is the tense used 
in the Creeds, as in i Pet. iv. 5. (Tisch. 
R.V.). See apparat. crit. 

Cwvras Kal vcKpovs : To be understood 
literally. See i Thess. iv. 16, 17. 

TTjv IwK^aveiav: per adventum ipsius 
(Vulg.). The ace. is that of the thing 
by which a person adjures, as in the case 
of opK^^b) (Mark v. 7 ; Acts xix. 13 ; cf.i 
Thess. V. 27). The use of 8iap,apTvpo|Aai 
with an ace. in Deut. iv. 26, xxxi. 28, is 
different, 8iap,apT. v|iiv (rt]p,cpov r6v rt 
ovpav6v Kal tt)v ytjv. " I call heaven 
and earth to witness against you." 
Heaven and earth can be conceived as 
personalities, cf. Ps. 1. 4; not so the 
appearance or kingdom of Christ. On 
liri(|>dvei,a see note on i Tim. vi. 14. 

PacriXeCav : The perfected kingdom, 
the manifestation of which will follow 
the second ^TricfxivEia. 

Ver. 2. KTipv|ov: In i Tim. v. 21 
8iap,apT. is followed by tvo with the 
subj. ; in 2 Tim. ii. 14 by the inf. Here 
the adjuration is more impassioned ; 
hence the abruptness ; this is heightened 
also by the aorists. 

lirCo-njOi: Insta, Be at hand, or Be 
ready to act. ^iritrr. cvk. &k. qualifies 
adverbially Ki^pv^ov ; while the follow- 
ing imperatives, IXcy^ov, k.t.X., are vari- 
ous departments of " preaching the 

cvKaCpus &Ka(pcos : opportune, impor- 

tune (Vulg.). So few KaipoC remain 
available (see next verse), that yo,u must 
use them all. Do not ask yourself, " Is 
this a suitable occasion for preaching ? " 
Ask rather, " Why should not this be a 
suitable occasion?" "Have not any 
limited season ; let it always be thy sea- 
son, not only in peace and security and 
when sitting in the Church " (Chrys.). 

Similar expressions are cited by Ben- 
gel, e.g., digna indigna ; praesens absens ; 
nolens volens. We need not ask whether 
the reasonableness, etc., has reference to 
the preacher or the hearers. The direc- 
tion is to disregard the inclinations of 

IXrylov : Taking this in the sense 
convict, Chrys. comments thus on the 
three imperatives, " After the manner 
of physicians, having shown the wound, 
he gives the incision, he applies the 
plaister ". 

iitiTi^i\<rov : " The strict meaning of 
the word is ' to mete out due measure,' 
but in the NT. it is used only of cen- 
sure". So Swete (on Mark i. 25), who 
also notes that with the exceptions of 
this place and Jude g, it is limited to the 

irapaKaXco-ov : See on i Tim. iv. 13. 

kv iracTQ |*aKpoOvp.i9, Kal SiSaxT) : This 
qualifies each of the three preceding im- 
peratives ; and irooTj belongs to SiSax'n 
as well as to p>aKp., with the utmost 
patience and the most painstaking in- 

SiSax'n • " (teaching) seems to point 
more to the cu:t, SiSairKaX^a (doctrine) 
to the substance or result of teaching " 
(Ell.). In the only other occurrence of 
SiSax^ in the Pastorals, Tit. i. g, it 
means doctrine. 

Ver. 3. vyiaivovo-Tis SiSao-KaXCas : See 
note on i Tim. i. 10. 

ISias : iSios here, as constantly, has 
merely the force of a possessive pronoun. 
See on i Tim. iii. 4. 




SiSavKoXias ouK ^ iviiovrai, dXXd xard t^s ISias iiriBufilas ^ 
^auTois ^ ciriaupcuaouo'if SiSaaKdXous "^ Kyr\Q6[Levoi tt)i' " dKoi^c, 4. 
Kai diro fiky ttjs dXtjOcias ji\v ° dKOT]f " dTrooTp^<|'0"<^''''> ^'"■^^ ^^ tous 
'fiuOoos ' eKTpainitrorrat. 5. "^ao ' 8c * rf]<t>€ ^k irdo-iK, ' KaKOirdGir)- 
trov, cpyoK iroitjaoK "^ €uayy€\i<rTOu, tt|1' SiaKOfiaK aoo ^-irXi]po<{>opT)o'OK. 
6. ^Y^ Y^P ^^1 * OTr^J'Sojioi, Kal 6 xatpos ttjs ^ dKaXuaccSs p,ou ^ 

Thess. ii. 13, Heb. iv. 2, v. 11, 2 Pet. ii. 8. o See 2 Tim. i. 15. p See 

q See i Tim. 1. 6. r See i Tim. vi. 11. s i Thess. v. 6, 8, i Pet. i. 13, iv. 7, v. ! 

t See 2 Tim. ii. 0. u Acts xxi. 8, Eph. iv. 11 only, not LXX. v Luke i. i, 2 

w Phil. ii. 17 only, N.T. x Here only, not LXX. 

k Heb. xiii. 
22, etc. 

1 Here only, 
not LXX. 

m Here 
only, not 

n Matt. xiii. 
14 = Acts 
xxviii. 26 
I Cor. xii. 
17. I 

I Tim. i. 4. 

i, not LXX. 

Tim. iv. 17. 


' liriOv|i.(as Tcis ISias KL. 

Iiricrupeijarovaiv: coacervabunt (Vulg.). 
" He shews the indiscriminate multitude 
of the teachers, as also their being elected 
by their disciples " (Chrys.). 

KVT)6<i|xcvoi TTiv a.KO'f^v : prurientes auri- 
bus (Vulg.). The same general idea is 
expressed in irdvTOTe p.av6dvovTa (iii. 7). 
Their notion of a teacher was not one 
who should instruct their mind or guide 
their conduct, but one who should gratify 
their aesthetic sense. Cf. Ezek. xxxiii. 
32, " Thou art unto them as a very lovely 
song of one that hath a pleasant voice, 
&c." The desire for pleasure is insati- 
able, and is increased or aggravated by 
indulgence ; hence the heaping up of those 
who may minister to it. Ell. quotes ap- 
propriately from Philo, Quod Det. Pot. 
21, diroKva{ovo-i 'y**^*' ['>*• o'o<^urTal] 
Tfliuv Ta wTa. 

Ver. 4. The ears serve as a passage 
through which the truth may reach the 
understanding and the heart. Those 
who starve their understanding and heart 
have no use for the truth, and do not, as 
they would say, waste hearing power 
on it. 

p.v9ov9 : See note on i Tim. i. 4. 

Ver. 5. v^<j>€: Be sober (R.V.). So- 
brius esto (d). vigila (Vulg.) [but Vulg. 
Clem, inserts sobrius esto at end of verse]. 
So A. v., watch, and Chrys. Sober is 
certainly right in i Thess. v. 6, 8 ; but in 
I Pet. i. 13, iv. 7, and perhaps v. 8, to be 
watchful or aleri seems more appropriate. 

epyov ruaYY«Xi<rTov : The oflfice of 
evangelist is mentioned Acts xxi. 8, 
Eph. iv. II. The evangelist was an 
itinerant preacher who had not the 
supervising functions of an apostle, nor 
the inspiration of a prophet ; though both 
apostle and prophet did, inter alia, the 
work of evangelist. This was in all like- 
lihood the work to which Timothy had 
originally been called. St. Paul here 
reminds him that in the faithful perform- 

VOL. IV. i: 

^ l(JitJ9 avoXvacus DKL. 

ance of what might seem to be subordi- 
nate duties lies the best preservative of 
the Church from error. Note, that the 
office of an episcopus is also an cpyov, 
I Tim. iii. i, cf. i Cor. xvi. 10, Phil. ii. 
30, Eph. iv. 12, I Thess. v. 13. 

TT)V SiaKoviav (rov irXT]po<j>(ipT]0'ov : 
fulfil. According to Chrys., this does 
not differ from irXijpwo-ov. See Col. iv. 
17, Acts xii. 25. For SiaKovia, ministry 
or service in general, see i Tim. i. 12. 

Ver. 6. The connexion from ver. 3 
seems to be this : The dangers to the 
Church are pressing and instant; they 
can only be met by watchfulness, self- 
sacrifice, and devotion to duty on 
the part of the leaders of the Church, 
of whom thou art one. As for me, 
I have done my best. My King is 
calling me from the field of action to 
wait for my reward ; thou canst no longer 
look to me to take initiative in action. 
This seems to be the force of the em- 
phatic iya and the connecting YcLp. 

^8tj <r7rcv8o)xai : jam delibor (Vulg.). 
The analogy of Phil. ii. 17, cnr^vS. IttX 
Tfl dvcriqi Kal XciTovpYti^ (where see 
Lightfoot's note), is sufficient to prove 
that St. Paul did not regard his own 
death as a sacrifice. There the Ovcria is 
the persons of the Philippian con- 
verts (cf. Rom. xii. i, xv. 16) ren- 
dered acceptable by faith, and offered up 
by their faith. Here the nature of the 
Ovo-fa is not determined, possibly not 
thought of, by the writer. The reason 
alleged by Chrys. for the absence here of 
the term 6vo-(a is ingenious : " For the 
whole of the sacrifice was not offered 
to God, but the whole of the drink-offer- 
ing was." It is immaterial to decide 
whether the imagery is drawn from the 
Jewish drink-offerings, or heathen liba- 
tions. Lightfoot quotes interesting 
parallels from the dying words of Seneca : 
" stagnum calidae aquae introiit resper- 




y Seever.a.'^^^oTifjKei'. 7. ' rbv * KaXoi' * dydii'a ^ * i\y<ayt,<Tfuii, tok '*'8p<5(M)K 

vi. 12 and '"' TerAcKa, T^v irioTii' ^TCTj^oTiKa* 8. •Xoiirof 'dTroKcirai uoi 6 
I Tim. iv. ^^ ^ »e «/ h' 

'°- ""15 oiKaiocru»nf|s ' otc<|>oi'OS, oi* diroOcSaci fioi o Kupio$ iv Ixein] 

25. '^ TTJ ^ i^p,^pa, 6 * SiKaios ' Kpiri]s • 00 p,6kOK 8c ^p,ol dXXd Kai irdo-ti' 

b Acts XX. „ , / _x k . X y . ~ 

c Matt. X. 
23, Luke 

xii. 50, xviii. 31, xxii. 37, John xix. 28, 30, Acts xiii. ag, 2 Cor. xii. 9, etc. d See i Tim. v. m 

and vi. 14. e a Cor. xiii. 11, i Thess. iv. i. f Col. i. 5, etc. g i Cor. ix. 25, Jas. i. 12, i Pet. 
V. 4, Rev. ii. 10. b See 3 Tim. i. 12. i Pi. vii. 11, 2 Mace. xii. 6, 41. IcSee i Tim. vi. 14. 

^ dY'**'*'^ "^^ KaXbv DKLP. 

gens proximos servorum, addita voce, 
libare se liquorem ilium jfovi Liberatori " 
(Tac. Ann, xv. 64), and from Ignatius, 
" Grant me nothing more than that I be 
poured out a libation ((nrov8t.<r9T]vai) to 
God, while there is yet an altar ready " 
{Rom. 2). 

TTJs dvaXv<rc««s : There is no figure of 
speech, such as that of striking a tent or 
unmooring a ship, suggested by dvd- 
Xvo-is> It was as common a euphemism 
for death as is our word departure. 
See the verb in Phil. i. 23, and, besides the 
usual references given by the commenta- 
tors, see examples supplied by Moulton 
and Milligan, Expositor, vii., v. 266. 
The Vulg. resolutionis is wrong. Dean 
Bernard calls attention to the " verbal 
similarities of expression" between this 
letter to Timothy and Philippians, writ- 
ten when Timothy was with St. Paul, 
viz., cnr^vSofiiai, dvdXvo-is here and 
dvaXvo-ai, Phil. i. 23, and the image of 
the race ; there (Phil. iii. 13, 14) not 
completed, here finished, v. 7. 

l^iim\K(.v : instat (Vulg.), is come 
(R.V.), is already present, rather than is 
at hand (A.V.), which implies a post- 
ponement. For similar prescience of 
approaching death compare 2 Pet. i. 14. 

Ver. 7. rhv KaXov dyuva ViYuvKr^iai : 
See note on i Tim. vi. 12. The follow- 
ing t6v 8p<i|i,ov, K.T.X., makes this refer- 
ence to the games hardly doubtful. 

thv Spdfvov tctAcku : cursum consum- 
mavi (Vulg.). What had been a purpose 
(Acts XX. 24) was now a retrospect. To 
say " My race is run," is not to boast, 
but merely to state a fact. The figure is 
also found in i Cor. ix. 24, Phil. iii. 12. 
The course is the race of life ; we must 
not narrow it, as Chrys. does, to St. 
Paul's missionary travels. 

Trjv wfoTiv TCTi^ptiKa : As in ii. 21, St. 
Paul passes from the metaphor to the 
reality. For the force of ttjp^u here, 
•ee note on i Tim. vi. 14 ; and cf. Rev. 

Xiv. 12, ol TT)pOVVTCS TOS IvToXoiS TOV 

Ocov Kal TT|v irtffTiv Mtjctov. The faith is 
a deposit, irapaOi]KT), a trust which the 
Apostle is now ready to render up to 
Him who entrusted it to him. There is 
no real inconsistency between the tone 
of this passage and that of some in 
earlier epistles, e.g., Phil. iii. 12, sqq. 
St. Paul is merely stating what the grace 
of God had done for him. A man does 
well to be distrustful as regards his use 
of the years of life that may remain to 
him ; but when the life that he has lived 
has been admittedly lived " in the faith 
which is in the Son of God" (Gal. ii. 
20), mock modesty becomes mischievous 

Ver. 8. XoiiTiSv : For what remains. 
The R.V. renders it besides in i Cor. i. 
16, moreover in i Cor. iv. 2. The notion 
of duration of future time is not in the 
word any more than in the French du 
reste. St. Paul means here " I have 
nothing more to do than to receive the 
crown ". XoiiriSv has the sense of in 
conclusion in 2 Cor. xiii. 11, i Thess. iv. 
I, and does not differ firom to Xoiirov as 
used in Phil. iii. i, iv. 8, 2 Thess. iii. i ; 
or TOV Xoiirov as used in Gal. vi. 17, 
Eph. vi. 10. The meaning of Ti \o\.it6v 
in I Cor. vii. 29, Heb. x. 13 is henceforth. 

&ir($Kci.Tai : reposita est (Vulg.). Cf. 
Col. i. 5, 8ia TTjv jXiri8a ttjv diroKcip.^vT)v 
v|xiv iv Toi« ovpavoX«, and, for the senti- 
ment, I Pet. i. 4. 

& Tt}s 8iKaio«rvvT]S crr^t^avos : The 
whole context demands that this should 
be the possessive genitive. The crown 
which belongs to, or is the due reward of, 
righteousness, the incorruptible crown 
of I Cor. ix. 25. The verbal analogies of 
(rT^<t>. TTJs CcdTjs, James i. 12, Rev. ii. 10, 
and vri^. tt)S 8(i|t)s, i Pet. v. 4, sup- 
port the view that it is the gen. of 
apposition ; but it is difficult on this sup- 
position to give the phrase an intelligible 
meaning. " Good works, which are the 

7— II. 



9. ' " ZirouSaffOi' " ^XSeiv ""irpos " (ac raxcws • 10. Arjfxas ydp Sees Tim 
(jic ° iyKariknTev ^ dYcnrilo'oiS ** toi' ° vGv " alufa, Kal eiropeuOr] els m T it. iii. 
eeaaaXociKTji', Kpi^cKTis els raXaTiai',^ Titos els AaXfiaTiaK ^ • II. n Josh. i. 5, 

Ps. XV. 
(xvi.) 10, 
xzi. (xxii.) I, Isa. i. 4, 2 Cor. iv. g, Heb. x. 25, 2 Tim. iv. 16. o See I. Tim. vi. 17. 

1 So ^[D*] Ksil. most cursives ; kyKOLriXtfatv ACDbcFGLP, 17, 47*, one other. 
^ PaXXiav ^C, 23, 31, 39, 73, 80, am*, Eus., H. E. iii. 4, 8. 
* AeXixarCav C, 2, 67**, eleven others ; Acpfxariav A. 

fruits of Faith and follow after Justifica- 
tion . . . are pleasing and acceptable to 
God in Christ " (Art. xii.). It is to be 
noted that are^. Ttjs 8ik. is applied to 
the golden fillet worn by the high priest 
in the Tests, of Twelve Patriarchs^ Levi, 
viii. 2. 

diro8uo-ci : reddet (Vulg.). As long as 
we agree to the statement that Moses 
aWpXEircv els Ti\v p.KrOairoSoo'iav (Heb. 
xi. 26), it seems trifling to dispute the 
retributive force of aire- in this word. Of 
course " the reward is not reckoned as of 
debt, but as of grace ". St. Paul could say, 
" It is a righteous thing with God to 
recompense (avTairoSovvai) ... to you 
that are afflicted rest with us" (2 Thess. i. 
6, 7), see also Rom. ii. 6. 

Iv cKcivg Ttj inH'^PI^ • see on i. 12. 

6 SiKaios KpiTtjs : The notion expressed 
in this phrase goes back to Gen. xviii. 
25. For the actual words, see reff. 

ov p.dvov 8^ . . . aXXa KaC : see on i 
Tim. V. 13. 

Tots ■r\ya.tri\K.6a'\. r^v liri(^avciav ovtov : 
The £-7ri()>dv€t.a here meant is the Second 
Coming of Christ. Those who love it do 
not fear it, for " there is no fear in 4ove " 
(i John iv, 18) ; they endeavour to make 
themselves increasingly ready and fit for 
it (i John iii. 3) ; when they hear the 
Lord say, " I come quickly," their hearts 
respond, '• Amen ; come, Lord Jesus " 
(Rev. xxii. 20). The perfect tense is 
used because their love will have con- 
tinued up to the moment of their receiving 
the crown, or because St. Paul is thinking 
of them from the standpoint of the day 
of crowning. 

Vv. 9-12. Come to me as speedily as 
you can. I am almost alone. Some of 
my company have forsaken me ; others 
I have despatched on business. Bring 
Mark with you. I have use for him. 

Ver. 9. Taxc'ios : more definitely ex- 
pressed in ver. 21, " before winter". 

Ver. 10. Demas had been a loyal 
fellow-worker of the apostle (Philem. 
24 ; Col. iv. 14). Chrys. supposes that 
Thessalonica was his home. It is futile 
to discuss the reality or the degree of 

his blameworthiness. Possibly he alleged 
a call to Thessalonica. All we know is 
that St. Paul singles Wai out among the 
absent ones for condemnation. 

l-yKax^Xiirev : dereliquit (Vulg.), for- 
sook, not merely left. See reff. The 
aorist points to a definite past occasion 
now in St. Paul's mind. 

d,Ya'Tn]<ras tov vvv aluva: See i Tim. 
vi. 17. It is just possible that Bengel is 
right in seeing an intentional deplorable 
contrast (" luctuosum vide antitheton ") 
between this expression and ver. 8. 

cl9 ©£o-<raXoviKT]v : Lightfoot (Biblical 
Essays, p. 247) alleges other reasons for 
the supposition that Demas hailed from 
Thessalonica, viz.. He " is mentioned 
next to Aristarchus, the Thessalonian in 
Philem. 24, and . . . the name Demetrius, 
of which Demas is a contract form, 
occurs twice among the list of politarchs 
of that city ". 

Kpi]o-KT]s els PaXarCav : so. ciropEvOT). 
Crescens and Titus are not reproached 
for their absence. This passage, with 
the variant faXXiav (see apparat. crit.), 
is the source of all that is said about 
Crescens by later writers. 

TaXariav : That this means the Roman 
province, or the region in Asia Minor (so 
Const. Apost. vii. 46) is favoured by the 
consideration that all the other places 
mentioned in this context are east of 
Rome. On the other hand, if we assume 
that St. Paul had recently visited Spain 
(Clem. Rom. i Cor. 5 ; Muratorian 
Canon), it would naturally follow that 
he had visited Southern Gaul en route , 
and Crescens might plausibly be sup- 
posed to have gone to confirm the 
Churches there. So Euseb. H. E. iii. 4, 
Epiph. Haeres. li. 11, Theodore and 
Theodoret, h. 1. 

Titos els AaX|iaT£av : This statement 
suggests that Titus had only been a tem- 
porary deputy for St. Paul in Crete. On 
the spelling of the name Dalmatia m 
apparat. crit., see Deissmann, Bible 
Studies, trans, p. 182, 

Ver. II. AovKcls : Nothing can be 
more natural than that " the beloved 




MapKOK ' dt'aXa^uf aye ^ fj-cri 
12. ToxiKot' 8e 

p Acts XX. AouKas corrii' uokos M.€t' cuoC. 

xxiii. 31. aeauTou • etrriv ydp jioi ^ €U)(pT)(rros cis oiaKOf lac. 
q See 2 Tim. ,,»ji, \ t \ > « n •) »e. 

ii. 21. dircaTciXa eis Ei^caoK. 13. tok <(>eXonr)i' ok * dTrcXnroi''' ^»' Tpwdoi 
r Here only, ,, , %\ton\' »% 

notLXX. irapa Kdp-iru cpxofickos 9cpe, Kai rd pipAia, fiaXiora ras p^cp'- 
s 2 Tim. iv. 

ao, Tit. i. 

5, Jude 6. t Luke iy. 17, 30, John zx. 30, xxi. 35, Gal. iii. 10, etc. u Here only, not LXX. 

^ ayayc A, 31, 47, 238, five others. 

• So ^DKsil., many cursives ; dirAcivor ACFGLP. 

physician " and historian should feel 
that he of all men was in his place beside 
St. Paul when the end was to nearly 
approaching. The \i.6vo% is relative to fel- 
low-labourers in the gospel. St. Paul had 
many friends in Rome (ver. 21). 

MapKov: St. Paul was now completely 
reconciled to John Mark who had, be 
fore Col. iv. 10 was written, vindicated 
and justified the risk Barnabas had run 
in giving him a chance of recovering his 
character (see Acts xiii. 13, xv. 38). 
avaXa^wv : assume (Vulg.). Take up on 
your way. Assumere is also the Latin 
in Acts XX. 14, xxiii. 31, but suscipere in 
XX. 13. It is implied that Mark was 
somewhere on the line of route between 
Ephesus and Rome ; but we do not know 
the precise place. 

ayf. |iETa crcavTov : This phrase is 
illustrated from the papyri by Moulton 
and Milligan, Expositor, vii., v. 57. 

cvxp^iirros els SiaKovCar : As Mark 
was the lpp,rjv£VTi]s of St. Peter, render- 
ing his Aramaic into Greek, so he may 
have helped St. Paul by a knowledge of 
Latin. SiaKovia, however, does not ne- 
cessarily include preaching. It is char- 
acteristic of St. Paul that he should not 
regard " the ministry which he had re- 
ceived from the Lord Jesus" as " accom- 
plished " so long as he had breath to 
" testify the gospel of the grace of God " 
(Acts XX. 24). 

Ver. 12. TvxiKiv 8^, k.t.X. : The 8^ 
does not involve a comparison of Tychi- 
cus with Mark, as both evxpTjerroi (so 
Ell.) ; but rather distinguishes the cause 
of Tychicus' absence from that of the 
oth ers. D emas had forsaken the apostle ; 
and Crescens and Titus had gone, per- 
haps on their own initiative ; Tychicus 
had been sent away by St. Paul himself. 
For Tychicus, see Acts xx. 4, Eph. vi. 
21, 22, Col. iv. 7, 8, Tit. iii. 12 ; and 
the art. in Hastings' D. B. 

els 'E^eo-ov : If the emphasis in the 
clause lies on aWoTciXa, as has been 
Just suggested, the difficulty of harmonis- 
ing els ''E«j>carov with the common belief 

that Timothy was himself in chief autho- 
rity in the Church at Eph^us is some- 
what mitigated. St. Paul had mentioned 
the places to which Demas, etc., had 
gone ; and even on the supposition that 
St Paul knew that Tychicus was with 
Timothy, he could not say, " I sent away 
Tychicus " without completing the sen- 
tence by adding the destination. This 
explanation must be adopted, if we sup- 
pose with Ell. that Tychicus was the 
bearer of First Timothy. If he were the 
bearer of Second Timothy, air^o-TciXa 
can be plausibly explained as the epis- 
tolary aorist. On the other hand, there 
is no reason why we should assume that 
Timothy was at Ephesus at this time. 
Other local references, e.g., i. 15, 18, and 
iv. 13 are quite consistent with a belief that 
he was not actually in that city. Perhaps 
" Do the work of an evangelist " (iv. 5) is 
an indication that he was itinerating. 

Ver. 13. I want my warm winter cloak 
and my books. 

Tov i|>eX($vt)v : The <f>EX6vT]s, or (|>ai,- 
X<Jvt|s» by metathesis for <|>aiv6\T|s, was 
the same as the Latin paenula, from 
which it is derived, a circular cape which 
fell down below the knees, with an open- 
ing for the head in the centre. (So 
Chrys. on Phil. ii. 30 ; Tert. De orat. 
xii.). The Syriac here renders it a case 
for writings, a portfolio, an explanation 
noted by Chrys., to '^\<MTa-6Ko\Lov «v6a 
TO Pi^Xia cKciTo. But this is merely a 
guess suggested by its being coupled with 
pi^Xla and p,cpPpdvas. 

Tpa>d8i : Even if Timothy was not in 
Ephesus, he was in Asia, and travellers 
thence to Rome usually passed through 
Troas. Perhaps St. Paul had been ar- 
rested at Troas, and had not been allowed 
to take his cloak, etc. This is a more 
plausible supposition than that he was 
making a hurried flight from Alexander, 
as Lock conjectures, Hastings' D. B., 

iv. 775. a- 

Kdpircp : See art. in Hastings' D. B. 

TO, Pt^Xia would be papyrus rolls in 
use for ordinary purposes, while the 

12 — 16. 



Ppdva<s- 14. 'AX^foKSpos 6 'x^^^"^^"? iroXXd fioi kokoi *eKc8ci^aTO 'THereonly 

— diroSuaci ^ auTw 6 Kupios Karcl tA epva auTou • — 15. Sk Kal ctiI wGen.l. 15, 

' 17, etc., 2 

' ({tuXdo-o-ou, ''Xiaf yop ' &VT^om\ ^ rols 'n/i.eTepois X^yois- 16. 'Ei' Cor. yiii. 

tQ irpcSrrj u,oo * diroXovia ouSeis (Aoi ** irapey^weTO,^ dXXd irdn-es 10! iii. 2, ' 
' Heb. yi. 

10, II. 
X Luke xii. 15, Acts xxi. 25, 2 Pet. iii. 17. y Matt. (4), Mark (4), Luke (i), 2 John 4, 3 John 3. 

z See 2 Tim. iii. 8. a Acts xxii. i, xxv. 16, i Cor. ix. 3, 3 Cor. rii. 11, Phil. i. 7, i6. i Pet. iii. ij. 

b Acts v. 21, xxi. z8, zxiii. 35, xxiv. 24, xxv. 7. 

1 So ^ACDFG, 17, 31, 37, 67**, 80, 108, nine others, f, g, vgclenu, go., syrpesh, 
boh. arm. ; airoScpi) DcK(8«€i)L, most cursives, d, e, am., fulA 

2 dve^o-TT|Kc ^cDcKLP. s aKnirape-ye'veTO ^cDKLP. 

more costly ficfx^pdvai contained, in all 
likelihood, portions of the Hebrew Scrip- 
tures, hence p,dXi(rra (see Kenyon, 
Textual Crit. of N. T. p. 22). We 
know that St. Paul employed in study the 
enforced leisure of prison (Acts xxvi. 24). 
We may note that, like Browning's 
Grammarian, he did not allow his normal 
strenuous life to be affected or diverted 
by the known near approach of death. 

Vv. 14, 15. Beware of Alexander the 

Ver. 14. 'A\^|avSpos 6 x'''^''^'"^ • ^^ 
is probable that this is the Alexander 
mentioned in i Tim. i. 20, and it is pos- 
sible that he may be the Jew of that 
name who was unwillingly prominent in 
the riot at Ephesus (Acts xix. 33, 34). 

XaXxevs : does not mean that he 
worked only in copper. The term came 
to be used of workers in any kind of 
metal (see Gen. iv. 22, LXX). 

iroXXl U.01, KaKO. IveSeilaro : Multa 
mala miht ostendit (Vulg.). His odium 
theologicum expressed itself in deeds as 
well as in words. For this use of ky- 
ScCKvvfiai, compare reff. Moulton and 
Milligan {Expositor, vii., vii. 282) cite 
from a papyrus of ii. a.d. irao-av irioTiv 
|ioi IvSeiKvvp.^vi]. 

diroSciSo-ci, : The future indie is cer- 
tainly attested by a greater weight of 
external evidence than the optative. 
The moral question raised by the clause 
is quite independent of the mood and 
tense used: it is. Was the future punish- 
ment of Alexander, which St. Paul con- 
sidered equitable, a matter of more 
satisfaction than distress to the apostle ? 
The answer would seem to be. Yes. And, 
provided that no element of personal 
spite intrudes, such a feeling cannot be 
logically condemned. If God is a moral 
governor ; if sin is a reality ; those who 
know themselves to be on God's side 
cannot help a feeling of joy in knowing 
that evil will not always triumph over 

good. The sentiment comes from Dent- 
xxxii. 35, as quoted in Rom. xii. 19, tyit 
dvTairoSwo-u. The exact wording is 
found in Ps. Ixi. (Ixii.) 13, <rv diroSwo-cis 
lKd(rT(|> Kara to, epya ovtov. Cf. Ps. 
xxvii. (xxviii.) 4 ; Prov. xxiv. 12. 

Ver. 15. 4>vXdo-(rov : For this sense 
of <j>vXdo-<rw with a direct object, see reff. 
We infer that Alexander was in Timothy's 

'^p.cT^pois XiSyois : The Xdyoi were 
expressions of doctrine common to all 
Christians with St. Paul ; hence ■qjie- 


Vv. 16-18. I have spoken of my pre- 
sent loneliness. Yet I have no justifica- 
tion for depression ; for since I came to 
Rome I have had experience, at my pre- 
liminary trial, that God is a loyal protec- 
tor when earthly friends fail. And so I 
have good hope that He will bring me 
safe through every danger to His hea- 
venly kingdom. 

Ver. 16. The reference in my first 
defence seems at first sight somewhat 
uncertain, since ver. 17 states the issue of 
that " defence " to have been that " the 
message was fully proclaimed, and all the 
Gentiles heard it ". This would agree 
with the circumstances of the trials before 
Felix and Festus, a direct result of which 
was that Paul was enabled to " bear wit- 
ness also at Rome " (Acts xxiii. 11). On 
this view, the apostle would be recalling 
a signal past instance in which God had 
overruled evil for good. On the other 
hand, it is a fatal objection to this refer- 
ence of the phrase that when he was at 
Caesarea he seems to have been kindly 
treated by his friends as well as by the 
officials. And, moreover, the sentence 
reads like a piece of fresh information. 
This latter consideration is also an argu- 
ment against referring it to the first 
Roman imprisonment (as Euseb. H. E. 
ii. 22), though the very similar sentiments 
of Phil. i. 12, 13, render the identification 



IV. * cyKaTeXiiTOi' ^ fji^ auTOis ^XoyiffflciTj. — 1 7. 6 8c Kupio) fioi 

d Rom. ii. . , \f5t> / oc>5~i\»» h\ 

26, iv. • irapeo-nr) Kai ev€Ouva\i.<a(T€v fie, ika 01 cjioo "to • Ki^poyjia ir\T)po- 

passim., 2 . \ , / 0/ \ i/\ \ i ^ t n 9 ' 

Cor.v. 19, <j>opT]0r] KOI dKOUCTOJO-n''^ TTarra TO con] * Kai epo(rOT]i' eic orofiaxos 

Gen. XV. ., « ot/ ' six' J^ \k» k ~ 

6, Ps. Xcoi^os. lo. pu<7€Tai (J.6 Kupios diro irarros epyou iroi'Tjpou 

(xxxii.) 2. 
e Acts xxvii. 23, Rom. xvi. a. f See 1 Tim. i. la. g i Cor. i. 21, Tit L 5. h See t«. 

i See 2 Tim. iii. 11. k John iii. 19, vii. 7, Col. i. 21, i John iii. 12. 

1 So ^D*Ksil., most cursives; lyKariXMrov ACDbcFGLP, 
« iKovoTi KL. 3 Ins. ical DcFgrQKLP, g, syrr. 

plausible. But in this latter case again 
the language of Philippians has no traces 
of forsakenness. We decide therefore 
that St. Paul is here referring to the 
preliminary investigation {prima actio) 
which he underwent after he arrived at 
Rome a prisoner for the second time, 
and which resulted in his remand. He 
was now vinriting to Timothy during the 
interval between his remand and the 
second, and final, trial. But if we thus 
explain " my first defence," how are we 
to interpret tva 8i' epiov, k.t.X. ? The 
explanation will be suggested by a com- 
parison of such passages as Rom. xv. 19, 
" From Jerusalem, and round about even 
unto lUyricum, I have fully preached the 
gospel of Christ " ; Col. i. 23, " The 
gospel which . . . was preached in all 
creation ". We annex a territory by the 
mere act of planting our country's flag 
on a small portion of its soil ; so in St. 
Paul's thought a single proclamation of 
the gospel might have a spiritual, almost 
a prophetical, significance, immeasurably 
greater than could be imagined by one 
who heard it. " Una saepe occasio max- 
imi est momenti " (Bengel). It is to be 
noted too that iropeo-TTj and Ivc8vvap,b>(rev 
refer to the occasion of the " first de- 
fence," and St. Paul does not say that 
the Lord set him free ; so that we are 
obliged to explain Iva 81' IjaoG, k.t.X. of 
St. Paul's bold assertion of his faith in 
Christ on that occasion, which however 
was a public one, not like his previous 
private teaching to those who came to 
him "in his own hired dwelling" (Acts 
xxviii. 30). 

irapcy^vcTo : adfuit (Vulg.), supported 
me as " advocatus ". The verb is used of 
appearing in a court of justice in reff. It 
simply means to come or arrive in i Cor. 
xvi. 3. This complaint is difficult to 
reconcile with ver 21. Perhaps here St. 
Paul is referring to old friends on whom 
he had a special claim. 

Ver. 17. irap^o-Ttj : The Lord was my 
" patronus," cf. Rom. xvi. 2. But the 

word is used in a purely local sense of 
the felt presence of a Divine Being in icS. 
in Acts. 

lvc8vvafi,«*o-ey : See note on i Tim. i. 

irXtjpoi^opTiO'n : impleatur (Vulg.). As 
long as there had been no public procla- 
mation of the gospel by Paul himself in 
Rome, the function of Ki]pv| had not 
been completely fulfilled by him. 

ipv<rdy\v ck <rT6\i.aro^ XeovTos : This is 
most naturally understood as an echo of 
Ps. xxi.(xxii.) 22, a-iiia-6v [it iK <rr6^i.aTOS 
XEOVTOS. pvtrat occurs in the verse pre- 
ceding. And what follows in the LXX 
seems to point to the most satisfactory 
explanation of the apostle's meaning, 
Kai airo KCpdruv |j.ovoKcpb>Tuv ttjv 
Tatrtlvaariv jf-ov. 8i'()Y>1<'', to 6vop,a 

VOV TOIS aOEX({>ots p>OV, K.T.X. If St. 

Paul had not been strengthened to com- 
plete his Ki^pvyixa, his failure would have 
been his Taircivucts. As it was, he was 
delivered from that calamity, and enabled 
to declare God's name to the Gentiles. 
It is impossible, in view of tJ8tj (rircvSop,ai 
(ver. 6), to suppose that delivery fi-om 
death is implied, irpwru (ver. 16) proves 
that the apostle was aware that a second 
trial was awaiting him, the issue of 
which he knew would be his execution. 
It is still more inipossible to suppose 
that literal wild beasts are meant. Paul's 
Roman citizenship secured him from that 
degradation. The Greek commentators 
take " the lion " to mean Nero, " from his 
ferocity " (Chrys.). Cf. Esth. xiv. 13, of 
Ahasuerus; Joseph, ^wrt^. xviii. 6, 10, of 
Tiberius. It is no objection to this 
exegesis that the article is omitted before 
XEOVTOS, since, as we have seen, there is 
none in the Psalm. But deliverance 
from that lion's mouth would be equiva- 
lent to acquittal by the Roman govern- 
ment ; and it is evident that St. Paul 
was well aware that his sentence had 
been only deferred. 

Ver. 18. epyov irovrjpov : The form of 
the clause may be modelled on the peti- 


^^ — 21. 



ital awo-Ei CIS TTjK ^aaiXeiaf adrou t^k ^iroupdi'ioi' • w rj 86^0 els 1 See ver. 13. 
Tous alufas Twi' aXiiiViav • dfiTJc. Tim.ii.x5. 

19. "Aairaaai FlpiffKai' Kal 'AKiiXac Kol rbv '0»ntj<ri<|>opou oiKOi'. 
20. "EpaoTos Ifteicei' iy KopieOu • Tp6<|)ip.oi' 8c ' dirA.iiroi' ^ iK 
MiXi^Tu dcrOci'oGin-a. 21. " <nrou8a<j-oi' irp6 x^''^^''^^ iXOcii'. 

^ So ^DFGKsil., most cursives; dir^ciirov CLP, 17, 31, 47*, one other. 

tion in the Lord's Prayer, pvo-ai 'nf^as 
efiro Tov irovT]pov ; but the addition of 
Ipyov proves that the deliverance spoken 
of is not from an external Evil Personality, 
but from a possible evil deed of the 
apostle's own doing. The expression 
has always a subjective reference. See 
reif. This exegesis is in harmony with 
the view taken above of " the mouth of 
the lion ". Failure to be receptive of the 
strengthening grace of the Lord would 
have been, in St. Paul's judgment, an 
"evil deed," though others might easily 
find excuses for it. Chrys. takes a similar 
view of cpyov irovtipov, but gives it a 
wider application : " He will yet again 
deliver me from every sin, that is, He 
will not suffer me to depart with con- 
demnation ". This view is also sup- 
ported by what follows, cwo'ci, k.t.X. 
At one moment the apostle sees the 
crown of righteousness just within his 
grasp, at another, while no less confi- 
dent, he acknowledges that he could not 
yet be said " to have apprehended ". 

(Twaci. cU : shall bring me safely to, 
salvum faciei (Vulg.). "Dominus est 
et Liberator, i Thess. i. 10, et Salvator, 
Phil. iii. 20 " (Bengel). 

^aaiXcCav . . . Iirovpdvior : That the 
Father's kingdom is also the Son's is 
Pauline doctrine. Ivovpavios became a 
necessary addition to ^ao-iXcia as it be- 
came increasingly evident that the king- 
dom of heaven which we see is very 
different from the kingdom of heaven to 
be consummated hereafter. It is difficult 
not to see a connexion between this 
passage and the doxology appended in 
primitive times to the Lord's Prayer, 8ti 
o-ov loTiv r\ ^aaiXcCa Kal i] 8vvap,is xal 
r\ S<i|a els TOtis aluvas. 

<^ y\ 8<i|a : The doxology, unmistakably 
addressed to Christ, need only cause 
a difficulty to those who maintain that 
•• God blessed for ever " in Rom. ix. 5 
cannot refer to Christ, because St. Paul 
was an Arian. Yet Rom. xvi. 27, i Pet. 
iv. II, not to mention 2 Pet. iii. 18, Rev. 
i. 6, V. 13, are other examples of doxo- 
logies to the Son. 

Vv. 19-22. Final salutations. 

Ver. 19. ripicKav Kal 'AKvXav: The 

same unusual order, the wife before the 
husband, is found in Rom. xvi. 3, Acts 
xviii. 18, 26, but not in Acts xviii. 2, 
I Cor, xvi. 19. " Probably Prisca was of 
higher rank than her husband, for her 
name is that of a good old Roman family 
[the Acilian gens]. Aqulawas probably 
a freedman. The name does indeed occur 
as cognomen in some Roman families ; but 
it was also a slave name, for a freedman of 
Maecenas was called (C. Cilnius) Aquila " 
(Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller, pp. 268, 
269 ; see also Sanday and Headlam, 
Romans, p. 118 sqq.). 

t6v *OvT|«ri«{MJpov otKov: Their names 
are inserted after 'AKvXav from the Acts 
of Paul and Thecla, by the cursives 46 
and 109 : A^KTpav tt|v yuvalKO avirov 
Kal Zifiatav Kal Zi^vwva tovs vlovs 

Ver. 20. "Epao-Tos 6(tcivev : The name 
Erastus is too common to make probable 
the identification of this companion of St. 
Paul's and the olKoviSp.os, treasurer, of 
Corinth, who joins in the apostle's salu- 
tation in Rom. xvi. 23. It is not ante- 
cedently likely that a city official could 
travel about as a missionary. On the 
other hand, it is probable that this Eras- 
tus is the same as the companion of 
Timothy mentioned in Acts xix. 22. It 
is to be observed that St. Paul here re- 
sumes from ver. 12 his explanation of 
the absence from Rome of members of 
his company whose presence with their 
master at this crisis would have been 
natural. It is possible that Erastus and 
Trophimus were with St. Paul when he 
was arrested the second time, and that 
they remained in his company as far as 
Miletus and Corinth respectively. 

Tp(i^i|i,ov : See Acts xx. 4, xxi. 29, and 
the art. in Hastings' D. B. 

d<rOevovvTa: Paley's remark is never 
out of date, " Forgery, upon such an 
occasion, would not have spared a 
miracle " (Horae Paul. Philippians 2). 
Chrys. notes, " The apostles could not 
do everything, or they did not dispense 
miraculous gifts upon all occasions, lest 
more should be ascribed to them than 
was right ". 

Ver. 21. irpi x^'^F^*'^''^ • "That thou 

1 84 


IV. 22. 

'A(nr(i^€Tai ere Eu^ouXos xal PIouStis koI Aivos Kal KXauSia Kal ol 
dSeX^toi irdn-es.^ 22. 'O Kupios ^ fierd tou iri'cijp.a'nSs aou. i) 
Xdpis fj-ed' u^iUi'.^ 

' Om. irovT€s J«^*, 17. 

'So, 6 Kvpios, ^*FgrG, 17, one other, g; ins. Mtio-ovs A, 31, one other; ins. 
*ltjo-ovs XpKTTos ^cCDKLP, d, e, f, vg., syrr., boh., surm. 

* Ins. a)i.rfv ^cDKLP, d, e, vg., syrr. ; add irphs TipcJOeov ^C. 17 ; irpis T. 
P' iTrXripwdT] D ; IreX^crOtj -irp. T, P' FG ; irp. T. P' |-yp''^<f>''l °''"'° AaoSiKeCas A ; irp. 
T. P' ^Ypc^'t'^'' ^'""^ 'Pwptjs P ; irp. T. Zevripa • ttjs 'E^eaiuv iKKXtjo-ias iiria-KOVov 
XcipoTovqOevTa • lYpdi^T) airb 'Pup-qs, ot€ Ik ScvWpov Tap^vrt) DavXos t^ KaCorapi 
'Pwprjs Ncpwvi K, many cursives, similarly L. 

be not detained," sc. by storm (Chrys.). 
This seems less urgent than tox€ws of 
ver. 9, and we may infer that St. Paul 
did not expect his final trial to take place 
for some months. 

EvpovXos: Nothing else is known of 
this good man. 

novS-qs Kal ACvos Kai KXavSCa : Light- 
foot (Apostolic Fathers, part i. vol. i. 
pp. 76-79) has an exhaustive discussion 
of the various ingenious theories which, 
starting with the assumption that Pudens 
and Claudia were man and wife — a sup- 
position opposed by the order of the 
names — have identified them with (i) 
Martial's congenial friend Aulus Pudens, 
to whom the poet casually " imputes the 
foulest vices of heathenism," and his 
bride Claudia Rufina, a girl of British 
race {Epigr. iv. 13, xi. 53), (2) "a doubt- 
ful Pudens and imaginary Claudia" who 
have been evolved out of a fragmentary 
inscription found at Chichester in 1722. 
This appears to record the erection of a 
temple by a Pudens with the sanction of 
Claudius Cogidubnus, who is probably 

a British king who might have had a 
daughter, whom he might have named 
Claudia, and who might have taken the 
name Rufina from Pomponia, the wife 
of Aulus Plautius, the Roman commander 
in Britain. This last supposition would 
identify (i) and (2). It should be added 
that in Const. Apost. vii. 46 she is mother 
of Linus. See also arts. Claudia and 
Pudens in Hastings' D. B, 

Linus is identified by Irenaeus with 
the Linus whom SS. Peter and Paul 
consecrated first Bishop of Rome {Haer, 
iii. 3). See also art. in Hastings' D. B. 

Ver. 22. pcTo. Tot) irvcvpaT<Js «rov : 
This expression, with vpwv for orov, 
occurs in Gal. vi. 18, Philem. 25 ; but in 
both those places it is " The grace of our 
Lord Jesus Christ be with," etc. Here a 
very close personal association between 
the Lord and Timothy is prayed for. Dean 
Bernard compares the conclusion of the 
Epistle of Barnabas, 6 Kvpios ttjs 8<55t)s 
Kal 7rd«rT)s x'^pi'Tos (Jtera tov irvcvp.aTO$ 

(tcO* vfiuv : See note on i Tim. vi. 2Z. 


I. I. riAYAOI SoCXos 6£oC, 'dTrooroXos 8c ''lT|oroO 'Xpioroo ^ aSeeiTim 

Karol iriaTic ** cKXeKTuc ^ @cou Kal " iiriyvttxriv " dXT|6Eia9 ^ttjs ^ icar' b Rom.viii. 

' * cuo'c'Peiai' 2. cir' 'cXiriSi ''j^wqs '*aiw>'iou, f^v cin(]YYCiXaTO 6 iii! 12. 

cSeei Tim. 

d I Tim. ri. 3. 

e See i Tim. ii. 3. 

f Tit. iii. 7. 

K See I Tim. 1. 16. 

^ XpioT. 'Itjct. a, 108, two Others, fuld., boh., syrhd ; om. 'lt]o-ov Dgr*. 

Chapter I. — Vv. 1-4. Salutation, in 
which the place of the Gospel in eternity 
and in time is largely expressed. 

Ver. I. SovXos 6eov: The only parallel 
to this phrase in the opening lormula of 
any other epistle in the N.T. is James i. 
I ; but there it is, " James, a servant of 
God and of the Lord Jesus Christ." It 
is no less obvious than necessary to note 
that this variation from St. Paul's formula 
SovXos "It|o-. Xp. (Rom. i. i ; Phil. i. i) 
would not be likely in a pseudepigraphic 

air(S<rToX.os 8i 'lj\trov Xpicrrov : See 
note on i Tim. 1. i. The 8^ is not 
merely copulative, as in Jude i ; but 
marks the antithesis between the two 
aspects of Paul's relationship to the 
Supreme : between God as known to his 
fathers, and as recently manifested in the 
sphere of history. 

Kara tricmv k.t.X. : to be connected 
with dir<5o-ToXos only. It is natural to 
suppose that Kara has the same force 
here as in 2 Tim. i. i, Kar' eiraYyeX^av 
(wfis, where see note. His apostleship 
was for the confirmation of the faith of 
God's elect, and for the spreading of the 
knowledge, etc, etc. We take Kara as 
= for or in regard to ; and expand 
it according to the exigencies of the 
context. Here God's elect does not 
mean those whom God intends to select ; 
but those who have been externally 
selected, and who consequently possess 
faith. See reff. and Acts xiii. 48. They 
do not need that it should be generated 
in them, but that it should be fostered. 
See note on 2 Tim. ii. 10. Contrast 
aTiooToXTjv eU vttokotiv ir^aTCws iv 

ireuriv to is cOvccriv, Rom. i. 5, where 
the Gospel-propagation function of his 
apostleship is indicated. 

The rendering here of the Vulg. and 
of the English versions, according to 
the faith, etc., secundum fidem, pre- 
serves the common meaning of Kara, 
but does not stand examination. St. 
Paul's office as apostle was not depen- 
dent in any way on the faith or know- 
ledge of human beings, as it was on 
the will or command of God or Christ. 
The final cause of it was the faith and 
knowledge of men. 

liciyvuxriv aXT]6cia9 : See on i Tim. 
ii. 4. 

cuor^Pciav : See on i Tim. ii. 2. 

Ver. 2. kit' cXiriSi k.t.X. : This is best 
taken in connexion with the preceding 
clause, Kara irioriv . . . cixrcpeiav. The 
faith and the knowledge there spoken of 
have as their basis of action, or energy, 
the hope of eternal life. Cf. i Tim. i. 
16. Compare the use of eir* cXiriSt in 
Actsxxvi. 6; Rom. iv. 18, viii. 20; i Cor. 
ix. 10. On the other hand, we must 
not exclude a remoter connexion with 
oirdoToXos. A comparison of the parallel 
passage in 2 Tim. i. i suggests that the 
succession of clauses here, KaTo, irio-Tiv 
. . . KT]pvY)iiaTi, is a full and detailed 
expansion of icaT* lirayYcXiav . . . iv 
Xp. "Itjo". 

af|rev8i]s : qui non mentitur. See note 
on 2 Tim. ii. 13. 

liTTiyyeiXaTo : See Rom. i. i, iv. 21; 
Gal. iii. 19. 

JirT)YY<^XaTO . . . irpo xpt^vuv aluvCuv, 
^^av^puo-cv 8^: The same antithesis is 
expressed in 2 Tim. i. 9, 10 {q.v.) ; Rom. 

1 86 


h Wisd. vii. ^ d<l/euSf)$ Bibq 'irpo * xP'^J'Wf ' aluKiuK, 3. ^ ii>avipfaartv Sc ' Kaipots 

17 only. >t/ . ~ » 

i See 2 Tim. ' loiois TOi' X<5yo»' auToC ^i' "" KTjpuyixoTi 8 ° cttiotcuOkji' ^yu " Kax 

1. 9. 
k Rom. xvi. ' ^iTiTay^i' Tou '' a(i)TT]po$ '' T]p.uK ^ 660u, 4. Titw ** yntjaiw ' WKfa) 

26, Col. i. , \^^/^^*-^ \ V 

26, 2 Tina. KOTO. KOlKT)K TTlOTlf ' X°'P'-'» tai ^ Cipi^fT] dlTO ©€00 flaXpOS Kai 

i. 10, see , „ , ^„ „ . , « - 

iTim.iii. XpiOTOu lT)<rou ' TOU awTTJpos TJptti'. 

See I Tim. 5- 'Toutoo *' xdpiv ^&iriKnr6¥^ crt iv Kp'^TTj, Iva xd ^Xeiiron-a 

ii. 6. 
m See 3 
Tim. iv. 17. n See I Tim. i. 11. o See i Tim. i. i. p See i Tim. i. i. q See i Tim. 

i. 2. r See i Tim. i. 2. s See 2 Tim. i. 10. t £ph. iii. i, 14, see i Tim. ▼. 14. u See 

3 Tim. iv. 13. V Luke xviii. 22, Tit. iii. 13, Jas. i. 4, 5, ii. 15. 

1 SXcos ACbKL, syrhcl. « Kvpiov 'Itjo-. Xpurr. DcFGKLP, f, g, syrr. 

« KaT^Xiiro'v Ji^cDcK[LP, KaTAfiirov]. 

xvi. 25 ; Col. i. 26. From different points 
of view, one may say that eternal life 
was promised, and given, to man in 
Christ before times eternal ; though the 
revelation of this purpose and grace 
could not be made until man was 
prepared to receive it, KaipoXs* at 
seasons, occasions, epochs of time as 
relative to man's comprehension. 

Ver. 3. c<|>av^puo-cv t^v X^yor: For 
4>avcp<Sw see note on i Tim. iii. 16. We 
must observe that no N,T. writer speaks 
of a manifestation of the gift of eternal 
life (i John i. 2 refers to the personal 
Incarnate Life). God's message con- 
cerning it, which is the revelation of a 
divine secret purpose, is manifested. 
See Col. iv. 4 in addition to the last reff. 
given on iirqyytiXaTo. irepl rjs may be 
supplied bef. i^avepw<rev (von Soden). 

Kaipois ISiois ■ -ee on i Tim. ii. 6 and 
vi. 15. The rendering his own seasons 
suits the context here. 

rbv \6yov otiTov iv KT|pvyp,aTi : Note 
the distinction here indicated between 
the substance of the revelation (XcSyos) 
given by God, and the form of it as ex- 
pressible (Ki]pvyp,a) by the human prea- 
cher. It is parallel to the use of X<5yos 
and XaXta in John viii. 43. 

t i7ti<rT€v6i\v lytS has rh ciiayy^Xiov 
K.T.X. as its antecedent in i Tim. i. 11, 
where see note. 

Kar' liriTay^iv tov camjpos r\\t.av 9tov: 
See note on i Tim. i. i. There the 
order is 6cov <rwTr\poi ■f\p,Siy. Here Ocov 
is epexegetical of <r<i>TT)pos ^pwv, as 
Xpio-Tov '\-t\<rov is in chap. ii. 13. kut" 
liriToyTjv is to be taken with t lirio-TevOTiv 
iyoi, which is another way of expressing 
the notion of airdo-roXos. On aurt^p as 
a title of God, see notes on 1 Tim. i. i, 
ii. 4, 

Ver. 4. yvi\ai(f riKvtf : See note on i 
Tim. i. 2. 

Kard koik}|v trUmvt like Iv irCcrrci in 

I Tim. i. 2, qualifies Wkv<p, but is less 
ambiguous than iv iriarcu It must not 
be restricted to a faith shared only by 
St. Paul and Titus ; but, like the koivt| 
<rtiTr\pla (Jude 3), it is common to all 
Christians who " have obtained a like 
precious faith with us " {2 Pet. i. i). 

Xapis K.T.X. : See on i Tim. i. 2. 

o-wTtjpos : for the more usual Kvpiov, 
I Tim. i. 2, 2 Tim. i. 2. The Father 
and the Son are here co-ordinated as 

Vv. 5-9. As I left you in Crete to carry 
out completely the arrangements for the 
organisation of the Church there, which 
I set before you in detail, let me remind 
you of the necessary qualifications of 
presbyters [since the presbyter is the 
basal element in the Church Society]. 

Ver. 5. oir^Xiirov: The force of diro- 
XcCiru here will be apparent if we com- 
pare 2 Tim. iv. 13, 20. It means to 
leave behind temporarily something or 
someone ; KaToXciircii is often used of a 
permanent leaving behind. St. Paul's 
language favours the supposition that 
the commission given to Titus was 
that of a temporary apostolic legate 
rather than of a permanent local presi- 

lirL8iopO(o(r[) : It is possible that lirt 
has here its original force, so as to imply 
that St. Paul had begun the correction 
of deficiencies in the Cretan Church, and 
that Titus was to carry it still further. 
(So Bengel.) It seems to have been 
taken in this sense by A.V.m., which 
renders rd Xefirovra things that are left 
undone. If we may judge from this 
letter, Christianity was at this time in a 
very disorganised state in Crete. Titus 
is to ordain presbyters, as the foun- 
dation of a ministry ; whereas the task 
committed to Timothy at Ephesus was to 




ciriSiopOiixni,* Kai ttOTaoTTjcrns kotA ' ir<5Xii» irpeo-^UT^pous, ws ^ **«"■« 
,, .t'>, /r»'j »5>\ h h only, not 

eyw aoi oi€Ta|ajxT]K ■ 0. ei tis eoriK di'CYK\T]Tos, fiids yuj-aiKog LXX. 
b>/ , X \\.« 'd' '*•> / * Matt. 

aKT)p, TCKKa ej^uc iriora )xtj ef Kanjyopia ocuTias t) ai'uiroTaKTO. xxiv. 45, 

7. 8*1 Y*^P Toi' ^iriaKoiroK ' dt'^yKXrjToi' eiKai us 6€Ou ' oiKoi'op.oi', 
(1^ 'auOdSif), fiT) ''fipyiXoi', (i^ ' irdpon'OK, /it) 'irX'picTTji', p,T) '^ aiorxpo- 
KcpSr), 8. dXXci ' <|>iX6|e>'ok, " <j>iXdya9oi', "(rcS^poca, SiKaiOK, "oaioi', 


uke xii. 

XXV. 31, 

23, Acts 
VI. 3, Heb. 
V. I, vii. 
28, viii. 3. 
a See i Tim. iii. 10. 
. .- e XV. 13. e See 

I Tim. i. 9. f I Cor. iv. i, 2, i Pet. iv. 10. g 2 Pet. ii. lo only, N.T. h Here only, N.T. 

i See I Tim. iii. 3. k See i Tim. iii. 8. 1 See i Tim. iii. 2. m Wisd. vii. 22 only, cf. 2 Tim. 
iii. 3. n See i Tim. iii. 2. o See i Tim. ii. 8. 

y Luke viii. i, 4, Acti xv. 21, xx. 23. z i Cor. vii. 17, ix. 14, xi. 34, xvi. i 

b I Tim. iii. 2, 12. c See i Tim. v. 19. d Eph. v. 18, i Pet. iv. 4, c/. Luke xv. 13 

^ liri8i.op9wo-QS AD*FG (D* 4vavop9w(rT)s ; FG 8€iop9ci)«n)s) 

continue the organisation of presbyters 
(episcopi) and deacons which was already 
in full working order. It is significant 
that KaOi(mi)p.i is used of the institution 
of a new order of ministry in Acts vi. 3. 
Kai introduces the chief point in the 

Kara iriJXiv : in every city. See reff. 
The number of presbyters is not speci- 
fied; the meaning is that the order of 
presbyters should be established all over 
the island. 

<roi 8tcTa|dp.T]v : disposui tibt (Vulg.), 
appropriately used of a number of specific 
directions on one general subject. Com- 
pare Acts xxiv. 23, where the verb is used 
in reference to three distinct instructions 
given to the centurion in reference to 

Ver. 6. &v^kXt)tos : See notes on i 
Tim. iii. 2, 10. 

|jiia« yvvaiK^S arqp : See on i Tim. 
iii. 2. 

riKva, irwrrd: It must be supposed 
that a Christian father who has unbeliev- 
ing children is himself a recent convert, 
or a very careless Christian. The fact 
that St. Paul did not think it necessary 
to warn Timothy that such men were 
not eligible for the presbyterate is a 
proof that Christianity was at this time 
more firmly established in Ephesus than 
in Crete. 

\t.i\ kv KaTT]YOp(«j|i ocwrCas f\ awic6- 
TaKTa: It is significant that the moral 
requirements of the pastor's children are 
more mildly expressed in i Tim. iii. 4, 5, 
12. There it is the father's power to 
keep order in his own house that is em- 
phasised; here the submission of the 
children to discipline and restraint. 

Ver. 7. rhv iirla-Kovov: On the use of the 
singular as a generic term see on i Tim. 
iii. 2. Here, where the thought is of 
the various official functions of the minis- 
ter, the official title is appropriate. 

aviyKki]roy : See notes on i Tim. iii. 2, 


fleov olKovdp,ov: a steward appointed 
by God (Luke xii. 42; i Cor. ix. 17), in 
the house of God (i Tim. iii. 15), to dis- 
pense His mysteries and manifold grace 
(i Cor. iv. I ; i Pet. iv. lo). Ocov is 
emphatic, suggesting that the steward 
of such a Lord should conform to the 
highest ideal of moral and spiritual 

av6d8T) : self-assertive, arrogant. 
Vulg. has here superbum, but more accu- 
rately in 2 Pet. ii. 10, sibi placentes. 

ipyiXov: passionate, iracundum (Vulg.). 
The ^pyiXos is one who has not his pas- 
sion of anger under control. 

irdpoivov, irXiiKniy: See on i Tim. 
iii. 3. 

p^T) alirxpoKcpSi) : This negative qua- 
lity is required in deacons, i Tim. iii. 8. 
Persons who are concerned in the ad- 
ministration of small sums must be such 
as are above the commission of petty 
thefts. There are no regulations here 
laid down for deacons ; so we are entitled 
to conclude that in Crete, at this time, 
presbyters performed the duties of every 
Church office. Hence they should have 
the appropriate diaconal virtue. See 
note on i Tim. iii. 8. On the other 
hand, it may be objected against this 
inference that in i ^et. v. 2 prj aloxpo- 
Kcp8«l)s is used of the spirit of the ideal 

Ver. 8. ^iXdlcvov : See on i Tim. iii. 2. 

^iXdyadov: In Wisd. vii. 22, the 
irvcvpa which is in (ro<^Ca is ^iXdyaOov, 
loving n hat is good. The epithets which 
immediately precede and follow <^iXd- 
yaOov in Wisd. have no reference to 
persons, with the exception of <|>iXdv6- 
pb^rov. It seems best, with the R.V., to 
give the words as wide a reference as 
possible; see on &<^iXdya9oi, 2 Tim. 
iii. 3' 

1 88 


pHereonly. P^yKpaTTJ, 9. •d,n-€xofJi€>'o»' Tou Kard, r^v hihay^^v ^iturrov ^\6yov. 

Acts xxiv. tea ' Suvaros ' tq Kal irapaKaXeif ^k TJj * SiSaaKaXia tt] * uYiaivouoij 

23! a Pet. Kttl Tous ' dmX^yoj'Tas i\iy\eiv. lo. Eictik y^P iroXXol ^ " dvu- 
i. 6, 1 Cor. , ^ ., \T, > /\ 9T'T3T-a 

vii. 9, ix. TTOTaKTOi, fjiaTaio\oyoi Kai 9pe»'aTraTai, fiaAio-ra '' ' 01 ' ck ' Trjs 

Q Matt. vi. ^ ir€piTOfiT)s, II. ous Set "^eii', oiTii/cs oXous oiKOUS 'di'O- 
24 =:Lake 
xvi. 13, I 

Thess. V. 14, Isa. Ivi. 4. r See i Tim. i. 15. s See a Tim. i. 12. t i Tim. i. 10 (q.v.), 

2 Tim. iv. 3. Tit. ii. I. u Acts xiii. 45, xxviii. 19, 22, Tit. ii. 9. v See i Tim. i. 9. wHere 

only, not LXX, cf. i Tim. i. 6. x Here only, not LXX, but cf. Gal. vi. 3. y Acts x. 45, xi. 

2, Gal. ii. 12, Col. iv. 11. z Here only, not LXX. a See 2 Tim. ii. 18. 

1 Ins. Kal DFGKL, d, e, f, g, vg. a Ins. Sk CDgr. 

» So t^CD*, I, 17, one other ; om. Ttjs ADcFGKLP. 

(rw<(>pova: See notes on i Tim. ii. 9 
and iii. 2. 

cYKpaTT) : The noun lyKparcia occurs 
Acts xxiv, 25 ; Gal. v. 23 ; 2 Pet. i. 6, 
where to the rendering temperance 
the R.V.m. gives the alternative self- 
control. The verb cYKparcuo^ai in i 
Cor. vii. 9 is to have continency , but in 

1 Cor. ix. 25 to be temperate generally. 
The word differs from (ru4>pcdv as having 
a reference to bodily appetites, while 
irci>(|>pcov has reference also to the desires 
of the mind. c-yKpar. concerns action, 
(r«>({>p. thought. 

Ver. 9. lavTcxofitvov: holding firmly 
to. avTixo^ai is stronger than exciv, as 
used in a similar connexion, 1 Tim. i. 
19, etc., etc. The R.V. holding to cor- 
rectly suggests the notion of withstand- 
ing opposition, which is not so clearly 
felt in the A.V. holding fast. " Hav- 
ing care of it, making it his business " 

8vvaT<Js : See note on 2 Tim. ii. 2. 

Tov Kara ttjv 8i8ax'»)v irnrTov X^yov : 
the faithful word which is in accord- 
ance with the teaching. It is indi- 
cative of the weakening of the phrase 
"irioTos XoYos that St. Paul strengthens 
and defines it here by Kara tt|v SiSaxTjv. 
It was noted on i Tim. i. 15 that ttiottos 
X^Yos here means the totality of the re- 
velation given in Christ ; and t| SiSaxi] is 
to be taken passively, as equivalent to 
'fj 8i8a<rKaX{a, as employed in these 
epistles. It is tautological to take it 
actively, the word which is faithful 
as regards the teaching of others ; for 
that is expressed in what follows. 

irapaKaXciv — IX^yX*^'' • ^f 2 Tim iv, 

2 for this combination. The shepherd 
must be able to tend the sheep, and to 
drive away wolves. 

vyiaivovo-j) : See on i Tim. i. 10, 
SiSao-KaXia here, as frequently, is a body 
of doctrine. So R,V,, in the sound 

doctrine. The A.V., by sound doctrine, 
would refer to the faith as applied in its 
various parts to particular needs. 

Tovs avTiXe'YovTas : It is only a coin- 
cidence that where this word occurs in 
Acts it is in reference to Jewish oppon- 
ents of the Gospel. 

Vv. 10-16, I have just mentioned 
rebuke as a necessary element in a presby- 
ter's teaching. This is especially needful 
in dealing with Cretan heretics, in whom 
the Jewish strain is disagreeably pro- 
minent. Alike in their new-fangled 
philosophy of purity, and in their preten- 
sions to orthodoxy, they ring false. 
Purity of life can only spring from a pure 
mind ; and knowledge is alleged in vain, 
if it is contradicted by practice. 

Ver. 10. The persons spoken of here 
were Christian Jews, ot Ik ircpiTO^Tis 
(without TTJs, see crit, note) has this 
meaning in reff. (in Acts x, 45 it is 
qualified by the addition of iriaroC), Rom, 
iv, 12, is not really an instance of the 
phrase. That they were at least nomin- 
ally Christians is also implied by the 
epithet avviriJTOKTOi. We cannot call 
those persons unruly on whose obedience 
we have no claim. 

p.aTaioX(iYoi : ^araioXoY^a occurs in 
I Tim. i. 6, 

(|>pevairaTai : seductores. The verb 
occurs in Gal, vi, 3, 

lidXiora : it is probable that there 
were very few false teachers who were 
not " of the circumcision ", 

Ver, II, ovs 8ci lirio-TOfxC^civ : quos 
oportet redargui, whose mouths must be 
stopped by the unanswerable arguments 
of the orthodox controversialist. This is 
the result hoped for from the " convic- 
tion," of ver. 9. 

SXovs oiKovs avaTp^irovo-iv : pervert 
whole families (Alf.) ; Moulton and 
Milligan give an apt illustration from a 
papyrus of second cent, b,c., ttjs itot- 




Tp^iroucti' SiSdcKovres 



12. ciirci'^ T19 e| auTuc, '1810s 'auTwi' Trpo<j)i]Titjs, Kpr]Tes delciCor. xi. 

fi« \ n ' r ■b 1 ' ei /e»^' ^i^' 35> 

yeuo-Ttti, KaKOl 0T]pia, yaffTepes opyai. 13. 1^ fiaprupia auTtj Eph. v. 
itnlv oIXtjOt^s. ^81' '^i' ^ aiTiai' cXcyxe auTous ' diroTojius, Iva Tim. Hi. 

** UYiaiKuaif ™ cc ^ " rp ™ irtorei, 14. firj " ■irpoa^x°*^^S 'loo8aiKOis 2! 

d Phil. i. 21, 

t See I Tim. v. 14. f Mark xv. 20 (Tisch.), 2 Pet. iii. 3. 

V. 13. i See 1 Tim. iii. 7. k See 2 Tim. i. 6. 

xi. 22 only. m Tit. ii. 2, see i Tim. i. 10. 

lu. 7. 
g See I Tim. i. 10. h See i Tim. 
1 Wisd. V. 22, 2 Cor. xiii. 10, cf, Rom. 
n See i Tim. i. 4 

1 Ins. 82 ^^*G, f, g, boh ; ins. Yoip 115. 

' Om. Iv ^*, 47, one other. 

piKTJs oiKias . . . €Tt evirpocrOev apSTjv 
[d]vaT6TpappcvT)9 8i* do-[co]Tias {Ex- 
positor, vii., V. 269). This suggests the 
rendering upset. The whole family 
would be upset by the perversion of one 
member of it. 

a ptj 8ci : Normally, ov is used in rela- 
tive sentences with the indicative. Other 
exceptions will be found in 2 Pet. i. 9, i 
John iv. 3 (T.R.). It is possible that 
the force of pij here is given by translat- 
ing, which {we think) they ought not. 
If the teaching had been absolutely in- 
defensible by any one, he would have 
said, d ov 8ci. See Blass, Grammar, p. 


ala\pov KcpSovs xdpiv : The three reff. 
on al(rxpov, the only other occurrences in 
N.T. of this adj., are instances of the 
phrase al(rxp<iv Ioti. The reference is to 
the claim to support made by itinerating 
or vagrant prophets and apostles such as 
are referred to in the Didache, cc. 11, 12, 
and alluded to in 2 Cor. xi. 9-13. All such 
abuses would exist in an aggravated form 
in Crete, the natives of which had an evil 
reputation for alo-xpoKEp8cia, according to 
Polybius, 5o-T€ irapd p,(Svois Kpif|Toi6v<ri 
Tuv dirdvTwv dvOpuiruv p'(]8€v alo^pov 
vopi^€o-6ai Kcp8o9. {Hist. vi. 46. 3, cited 
by Ell.). They get a bad character also 
from Livy (xliv. 45), and Plutarch {Paul. 
Aemil. 23). The Cretans, Cappadocians, 
and Cilicians were rpCa Kairira KaKicrra. 

Ver, 12. irpo<|>TiTT]S : It is possible 
that St. Paul applies this title to the 
author of the following hexameter line 
because the Cretan false teachers were 
self-styled prophets. There was a 
Cretan prophet once who told plain 
truths to his countrymen. The whole 
line occurs, according to Jerome, in the 
irepl xp^cpwv of Epimenides, a native of 
Cnossus in Crete. The first three words 
are also found in the Hymn to Zeus by 
Callimachus, who is the prophet meant 
according to Theodoret ; and the rest has 
a parallel in Hesiod, Theogon. 26,iroip^vc9 

dypavXoi, KaK' i\e.y\to., ya<TTepi% oXov* 

It is generally agreed that St. Paul was 
referring to Epimenides. This is the 
view of Chrys. and Epiph., as well as of 
Jerome. It was Epimenides at whose 
suggestion the Athenians are said to 
have erected the "anonymous altars," 
i.e., 'A-yvtio-Tft) 0e« (Acts xvii. 23), in the 
course of the purification of their city 
from the pollution caused by Cylon, 596 
B.C. He is reckoned a prophet, or pre- 
dictor of the future, by Cicero, de Divin. 
i. 18, and Apuleius, Florid, ii. 15, 4. 
Plato calls him Ocios dvijp {Legg. i. p. 
642 D). 

^cv(rrai: The particular lie which 
provoked the poet's ire was the claim 
made by the Cretans that the tomb of 
Z^eus was on their island. Here, the 
term has reference to fiaraioXoYot., etc. 

Yao-Tcpes dpyaf : The R.V., idle glut- 
tons, is more intelligible English than 
the A. v., slow bellies, but does not so 
adequately represent the poet's mean- 
ing. He has in his mind the belly, as it 
obtrudes itself on the beholder and is a 
burden to the possessor, not as a recep- 
tacle for food. Alf. quotes aptly Juvenal, 
Sat. iv. 107, " Montani quoque venter 
adest, abdomine tardus ". 

Ver. 13. 81' TJv alriav : See on 2 Tim. 
i. 6. 

diroT<$pw9 : severely. The noun diro- 
TopCa, severitas, occurs Rom. xi. 22. 
See Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, 
vii., vi. 192. 

tva vyiaivwaiv : See note on i Tim. i. 
10. The intention of the reproof was 
not merely the securing of a controversial 
triumph, but " to bring into the way of 
truth all such as have erred, and are 
deceived". tva expresses the object 
aimed at in the reproof, not the substance 
of it. 

Ver. 14. -irpocr^x*"^*' • ^^^ ^^ "^ Tim. 
i. 4. The word implies the giving one's 
consent, as well as one's attention. 

'lov8aiKot9 : This determines the 



I.15— 16 

01 Tim. i.4' 
p See 2 Tint' 

i. 15- 
q Luke xi. 

41, Rom. 

xiv. 20. 
r Johnxviii, 

28, Heb. 

xii. 15, 

Jude 8. 
8 See I Tim, 

vi. 12. 
t See I Tim, 

V. 8. 


*ftu0ois KOI ^n-oXais 6.vBp<aitb)v ^ dirocrrpe^ofievuir ■u]v aXi^Oeiaj'. 
15. 'irdrro^ 'KaOapck. tois KaOopois • rots 8e ' |XEfi,iafj,|x^i'ois Kai 
dirioTTOis ovhkv Kadapof, dXXd 'p.ep.ian'ai aurStv Kal 6 cous Kal 
ij (TuceiStjais. l6. ©€01' * dfioXoyooo-ic elSefai, tols 8c epyoi? 

* dpcouvTai, " ^SeXuktoI onrcs Kal ' d-irciOeis Kal irpos " irai' * epyo*' 

* dyadot' * * aS^Kifioi. 

u Prov. xvii. 15, Ecclus. xli. 5, 2 Mace. i. 27 only. v Luke i. 17, 2 Tim. iii. •, Tit. 

w See 2 Tim. ii. 2i and i Tim. ii. 10. x See 2 Tim. iii. 8. 

^ Ins. (i4v Ji^cDcKL, syrhcl ; ins, yap boh, syrpesh. 

nature of the p.vOoi referred to in these 
epistles. See on i Tim. i. 4. 

lvToXai9 dvOpwTTcov airoarTpC(^op,€V(i>v : 
We are naturally reminded of Mark vii. 
7, 8, with its antithesis between the 
ivToXfiara dvOpuiruv and IvtoXy)v tov 
Oeov, and Col. ii. 22, where the same 
passage of Isaiah (xxix. 13) is echoed. 
But here the antithesis is not so strongly 
marked. The commandments are de- 
preciated, not because their authors are 
men, but because they are men who 
turn away from the truth, impure men 
(In I Tim. iv. 3 " they that believe and 
know the truth " are men whose thoughts 
are pure). The truth here, as elsewhere 
in the Pastorals, is almost a Christian 
technical term. It can hardly be doubted 
that the IvroXai referred to were of the 
same nature as those noted in Col. ii. 22, 
arbitrary ascetic prohibitions. 

Ver. 15. iravTa KaOapa k.t.X. : This 
is best understood as a maxim of the 
Judaic Gnostics, based on a perversion of 
the Saying iravra KaOapa vpiv ccrriv 
(Luke xi. 41. Cf. Rom. xiv. 20 ; Mark 
vii. 18.). St. Paul accepts it as a truth, 
but not in the intention of the speaker ; 
and answers, tois Bk pcfiiapp^vois k.t.X. 
The passage is thus, as regards its form, 
parallel to i Cor. vi. 12 sqq., where St. 
Paul cites, and shows the irrelevancy of, 
two pleas for Hcence : " All things are 
lawful for me," and " Meats for 
the belly, and the belly for meats ". 
Tois Ka6apols is of course the dat. 
commodi, for the use of the pure, in 
their case, as in the parallels, Luke xi. 
41, I Tim. iv. 3 ; not in the judgment 
of the pure, as in Rom. xiv. 14. 

TOIS Zi pcpiapp^voiSy K.T.X. : The order 
of the words is to be noted : their moral 
obliquity is more characteristic of them 
than their intellectual perversion. The 
satisfaction of natural bodily desires (for 
it is these that are in question) is, when 
lawful, a pure thing, not merely innocent, 

in the case of the pure ; it is an impure 
thing, even when lawful, in the case of 
" them that are defiled ". And for this 
reason : their intellectual apprehension 
(vovs) of these things is perverted by 
defiling associations ; " the light that is in 
them is darkness ; " and their conscience 
has, from a similar cause, lost its sense 
of discrimination between what is inno- 
cent and criminal. That any action with 
which they themselves are familiar could 
be pure is inconceivable to them. " When 
the soul is unclean, it thinks all things 
unclean " (Chrys.). The statement that 
the conscience can be defiled is signifi- 
cant. While conscientious scruples are 
to be respected, yet, if the conscience be 
defiled, its dictates and instincts are un- 
reliable, false as are the song-efforts of 
one who has no ear for music. 

Ver. 16. Oebv opoXoyovo-iv clScvai, : 
"We know God"; that was their pro- 
fession of faith. They " gloried in God," 
Rom. ii. 17. This is an allusion to the 
Jewish pride of religious privilege. 
Weiss points out that this phrase alone 
is suflScient to prove that the heretics in 
question are not the Gnostics of the 
second century (Hort, Judaistic Chris- 
tianity, p. 133). See the use of the phrase 
in Gal. iv. 8, i Thess. iv, 5. Compare 2 
Tim. iii. 5, " Holding a form of godli- 
ness, but having denied the power there- 
of"; also I John ii. 4. There is here 
the constant antithesis between words 
and deeds. 

TOIS Si cpyoLs apvovvTai : Their lives 
give the lie to their professions ; " They 
acted as if this Supreme Being was a 
mere metaphysical abstraction, out of all 
moral relation to human life, as if He 
were neither Saviour nor Judge " (J. H. 
Bernard comm. in loc). 

irp^s irav epyov ayaSov : See note on 
2 Tim. iii. 17. 

a8(SKipoi: worthless, unfit. See note 
on 2 Tim. iii. 8. 




II. I. '16 '8« XtiXei & ^ TtpiTrei Tjj " oyiaiJ'oiJoT] * SiSowrKaXio. a See i Tim. 
2. *irpcff Boras * vn^aKious eXyai, ' (Ttavous, ' ^Tia^pova^ ' '' uviaicoi'- b See i Tim. 

h h I i e - k n ' ^ ii. 10. 

Tos T^ "xurrei, t^ &.yairri, t^ 'uiropotn]. 3. irpeCTpuTibas c i Tim. i. 
'iaauTws ^»' " Karao-nifiaTi ° Upoirpeireis,^ fit) *8ia^6Xou$, fitjSe ^ 2 Tim.jv. 

'oij'w •'iroXXw *> SeSouXufi^ms, ' icaXo8i8aaK(£Xoos, 4. ifo * aw<}>po d Luke i. 18, 

' ' Philera.g. 

e See i Tim. 
iii. 2. f See 1 Tim. iii. 8. g See i Tim. iii. 2. h Tit. i. 13, see i Tim. i. 10. i See 

I Tim. vi. II. k 4 Mace. xvi. 14 only. 1 See i Tim. ii. 9. ma Mace. v. 45 only. n 4 Mace, 
ix. 25, xi. 20 only. o See i Tim. iii. 11. p See i Tim. iii. 8. q Rom. vi. 18, 22, i Cor. vii. 
15, ix. 19, Gal. iv. 3, 2 Pet. ii. 19. r Here only, not LXX. a Here only, not LXX. 

1 Upoirpcirci CH**, 17, 31, 37, two others, d, e, fi g, mSi, vg. (in habitu sancto), 
boh., syrr. (but not syrhd-mg), arm. 

a So fe^'AC, 73 ; |ii) J^cDFGHKLP, vg. S«5e i Tim. iii. 8. 

Chapter II. — ^Vv. i-io. In the face 
of this immoral teaching, do you con- 
stantly impress the moral duties of the 
Gospel on your people of every age and 
class. There is an ideal of conduct ap- 
propriate to old men and old women 
respectively — the latter have moreover 
special duties in the training of the 
young women — and young men. En- 
force your words by personal example. 
Slaves, too, must be taught that they 
share in responsibility for Uie good name 
of the Gospel. 

Ver. I. <rv Si : See reff., and note on 
I Tim. vi. II. Titus is to be as active in 
teaching positive truth as the heretics 
were in teaching evil. 

XaXci : emphasises the importance of 
oral teaching. 

TQ vYiaivoviTQ SiSaaKoXCf : See on i 
Tim. i. 10. 

Ver. 2. The heads of moral instruc- 
tion which begin here are more unmis- 
takably intended for the laity than are 
the similar passages in Tim. That it 
should devolve on the apostle's legate 
to give popular moral instruction is per- 
haps another indication of the less- 
developed state of the Church in Crete 
than in Ephesus and its neighbourhood. 

irpco'PvTas : senes ; sc. irapaicaXci 
(ver. 6). 

Ki]^aXiovs : sober, sobrii ; temperate 
(R.V.) in respect of their use of strong 
drink. Chrys. explains it to be vigilant, 
as does the S)^iac, and A.V. m. ; but the 
homely warning seems more appropriate. 
See note on i Tim. iii. 2. 

<rcu,vovs : see note on i Tim. iii. 8. 

o-u(t>povas : see notes on i Tim. ii. g, 
and iii. 2. For vYiaCvciv followed by 
dat. see i. 13. ir£<rTis, aYdirt), wofiov^ 
are constantly grouped together (see 
on I Tim. vi. 11) ; and this suggests that 
vuTTig here is subjective, not objective, 

as in the similar phrase i. 13. See note 
on I Tim. i. 10. 

Ver. 3. irpca^vTiSas : correlative to 
irpca^vrast as irpcc^vTcpas is to -rpctr- 
PvTcp(|> in I Tim. v. i, 2. 

uo-avTus : See on i Tim. ii. g. 

bf KaTa7Tijp.aTi tcpoTpeircis : reverent 
in demeanour, R.V. KaroirroXi] in i Tim. 
ii. g has an almost exclusive reference to 
dress. Demeanour (R.V.) is better than 
behaviour (A.V.), which has a wide re- 
ference to conduct, in all respects and 
on all occasions. Deportment, which 
includes a slight reference to dress, 
would be the best rendering, only that 
the word has become depreciated. 

lcpoirpcTci« perhaps = t irp^irci ywaillv 
liraYycXXofMvais dcoW^ciav (i Tim. iL 
10) ; but in itself the word does not 
guarantee more than the appearance of 
reverence. Wetstein gives, among other 
illustrations, one from Josephus {Ant. xi. 
8, 5), describing how Jaddua, the high 
priest, went out in procession from Jeru- 
salem to meet Alexander the Great, 
Icpoirpcin) Kal 8ia<^£povo'ay tuv oXXuv 
I6vb>v iroiovp.cvos ttiv virdvTTj<riv. 

p.T) Sia^oXovs : See on i Tim. iii. 11, 
and 2 Tim. iii. 3. 

ScSovXwfUvas : The A.V., not given 
to much wine, makes no difference be- 
tween this and iefoa-ixovra.%, which is 
the verb in the corresponding phrase, 
in the list of moral qualifications of 
deacons, i Tim. iii. 8. It is proved by ex- 
perience that the reclamation of a woman 
drunkard is almost impossible. The 
best parallel to this use of SovXiSm is 2 
Pet. ii. ig, ip ydp tis tJ-mriTai, tovt^ 
ScSovXidTai. Cf. also the other reff. 

KaXoSiSacTKaAovs : Not only " by dis- 
course at home," as Chrys. explains, but 
by example. 

Ver. 4. au^povitovoriv. The only 
other examples of tva with a pres. indie. 




t Positive yllouviy ^ tAs * via^ ° «j)iXd»'8pous ilvai, " ^ikoriKvou^, K. * ad^oovas, 
here only , /oxjfl'yc , -..c 

in this dv^iis, * oiKoupvoos, dyaOas, ^ uiroTao-trop.ej'as ' tois ' lOiois ^ di'- 

u Here only, Spaaif, * iJ'tt * fi^ o Xoyos Tou 0eou p\ao-4)T]p,T]Tai. 6. toos v£i»- 

notLXX. , . , , y\ b i - > f V 

V 4 Mace. Tcpous toCTauTws TrapaKa\ei auippoKeii' • 7. ircpi irarra ceauToi' 

$iXoT«(c'- ' * irapcx'iH'ti'os ^ tottok * KaXwc * ^pyuty, iv T»j SiSaaKaXia ' d4>6opiaK,^ 

ri'a also 4 

Mace, (s) 
only. w Here only, not LXX. x Matt. xx. 15, Rom. v. 7, i Pet. ii. 18. y Eph. v. aa, Col. iii. 
18, I Pet. iii. I, 5, cf. I Cor. xiv. 34, Eph. v. 24. z See 1 Tim. vi. i. a See 1 Tim. ii. 9. 

bMark V. 15 ( = Luke viii. 35), Rom. xii. 3, 2 Cor. v. 13, i Pet. iv. 7, not LXX. c See i Tim. 

i. 4, also Acts xvii. 31, xxii. 2, xxviii. 2. d See i Tim. iv. it. e See i Tim, iii. i. f Haggai 
ii. 18 (17) only. 

iSo Ji^'AFGHP, two cursives; o-co<j)povtg(i)ori ^cCDKL. 
"So t^*ACD*FG; oUovpovs i^cDcHKLP, syrhcl-mg-gr. 
* d8ia<j>6op{av ^cDcL, syrhcl-mg-gr ; a<|>doviav FG. 

in Paul are i Cor. iv. 6 (^ivo-iovaOc) and 
Gal. iv. 17 (ttjXoCTc). These may be 
cases of an unusual formation of the 
subj., both being verbs in -<5w. -yivwo-- 
KOfxcv, I John v. 20, is another instance. 
Train is the excellent rendering of 
the R.V. The A.V., teach . . . to be 
sober, although an adequate rendering 
elsewhere, leaves 4*iXav8povs clvai dis- 
connected. Timothy is bidden (i Tim. 
v. 2) irapaxaXciv . . . vcwrcpas himself; 
but this refers to pastoral public moni- 
tions, not to private training in domestic 
virtues and duties, as here. 

Tois veas : There is no other instance 
in the Greek Bible of v^os, in the posi- 
tive, being applied to a young person ; 
though it is common in secular litera- 
ture. There is possibly a certain fit- 
ness in the word as applied here to 
recently married women, whom the 
apostle has perhaps exclusively in view. 

({>tXdv8povs : " This is the chief point 
of all that is good in a household" 
(Chrys.). One of the three things in 
which Wisdom " was beautified" is "a 
woman and her husband that walk to- 
gether in agreement" (Ecclus. xxv. i). 

({>iXoT^Kvovs : " She who loves the 
root will much more love the fruit " 
(Chrys.). (t>iXav8p(p Kal ^iXorcKvcf is 
cited from an " epitaph from Pergamum 
about the time of Hadrian " by Deiss- 
mann, who gives other references to 
secular literature. {Bible Studies, trans. 
p. 255 sq.). 

Ver. 5. olKovpyovs : workers at home. 
Field says that " the only authority for 
this word is Soranus of Ephesus, a 
medical writer, not earlier than the 
second century," olKovpyov Kal KaO^Spiov 
Siayctv 3£ov; but the verb is found 
in Clem. Rom., ad Cor. i. i, yvvaiiCv . . . 
rii, Kara t6v oIkov <rc|*v«i>s olKovpYCiv 

eSiSdcTKCTe. olKovpovs, keepers at home, 
domum custodientes (d m^^) domus curam 
habentes (Vulg.), though constantly found 
in descriptions of virtuous women, is a less 
obviously stimulating epithet. Mothers 
who work at home usually rind it a more 
absorbing pleasure than " going about 
from house to house" (i Tim. v. 13). 
But the "worker at home" is under a 
temptation to be as unsparing of her 
household as of herself; and so St. Paul 
adds ayaOds, benignas, kind (R.V.), rather 
than good (A.V.). For this force of 
ayaO^s, see reff. 

ISiois : iSios (se : on i Tim. iii. 4) is 
not emphatic : it is simply, their hus- 
bands. The 1810S merely differentiates 
husband from man. 

tva p.T) 6 Xdyos tov 6cov pXao'^T)p,'f|- 
Tai : For Xdyos, as used here, the more 
usual word is ovofita (from Isa. Iii. 5). 
See reff". on i Tim. vi. i ; and also Jas. ii. 
7, Rev. xiii. 6, xvi. 9. iq 68os rfis oXtj- 
Oeias, in 2 Peter ii. 2, is equivalent to o 
Xo'yos Tov Ocov here. The practical worth 
of a religion is not unfairly estimated by 
its effects on the lives of those who pro- 
fess it. If the observed effect of the 
Gospel were to make women worse wives, 
it would not commend it to the heathen ; 
" for the Greeks judge not of doctrines 
by the doctrine itself, but they make the 
life and conduct the test of the doctrines " 
(Chrys.). See note on i Tim. v. 14. 

Ver. 6. wo-oiiTcos : see on i Tim. ii. 9, 

Ver. 7. irepl Travra is joined with the 
preceding words by Jerome and Lucifer 
(m^ pudici \sobrii'\ sint in omnibus), fol- 
lowed by Tischendorf and von Soden. 
For this use of ircpi, see on i Tim. i. 19. 
St. Paul's usual phrase is Iv iravxi (fifteen 
times in all ; ten times in 2 Cor. ; not in 
Pastorals), or Iv iraaiv (ten times, five of 
which are in the Pastorals: i Tim. iii. 

6 — 10. 



' (TCfxv'OTTjTa,^ 8. XcSyoi' * uyiT] * aKaTdyKUCTTOK, i^a 6 ''c^ ^ ^•'aKTiosKSeeiTim. 

errpairfj jxt]Sc»' i)(<itv 

Xc'yeii' ^ irepl iQfjicjf ^ 

'4>auXoi'. 9. SouXous h See I Tim. 

'dmX^yojTOS, lo. fiTj ' 

1S1019 "ScoTTOTais* ijiroTdo-aeoflat iv ttmiv, " euap^orous elvOLi, ftf) i 2 Mace. ir. 

5 *> Ko<7<|)i^o)X€Vous, dXXA ' irdaai' ' irioTii' ^ k Mark xv. 

39 (di£fer- 
ent appli- 
cation). 1 2 Thess. iii. 14. mjohn iii. 20, t. 29, Rom. ix. ii, 2 Cor. v. lo, Jas. iii. 16. 
n See i Tim. vi. i. o Rom. xiv. 18, 2 Cor. v. 9. p See Tit. i. 9. q Acts v. 2, 3. r i Cor. 
xiii. 2. 

1 Ins. d4>0apo-iav DcKL, 37, more than thirty others, syrhcl-mg gr, arm ; ins. 
ayvciav C, 80, three others, syrhd, arm. 

'^ Xeyeiv bef. 4>avXov KL. ' vjawv A, many cursives, boh. 

^ S€<nr. 18. ADP, 238, four others, d, e, f, vg. « fLi\ii CbDgr*FgrGgr, 17. 

* iritrr. iroo". KL ; tracr. IvScik. irltrr, Fg'G g ; om. irioTiv ^*, 17. 

11; 2 Tim, ii. 7, iv. 5 ; Tit. ii. 9, 10) ; 
also ei9 iravTa, 2 Cor. ii. 9 ; Kara xavra, 
Col. iii. 20, 22. 

ceavTov 'irap€x6\Ltvo9 rvirov : The 
middle is appropriate with atavrov ; see 
reif. given by Deissmann, Bible Studies, 
trans, p. 254; but with a<^9op{av, etc., 
the active would seem more natural, as 
in reff. For rvirov, see i Tim. iv. 12, 
and for KaXa ^pya, see i Tim. iii. i. 
This exhortation, following vct«T^povs 
K.T.X., and also ver. 15, suggest that 
Titus was comparatively young. 

SiScuTKoX^a here is not doctrine (A.V.), 
but teaching; thy doctrine (R.V.), in- 
cluding the person of the teacher as 
well as what he says. See note on i 
Tim. i. 10. 

a4>6opiav, <rcp,voTT)Ta, sincerity . . . 
impressiveness, tntegritatem . . . grci- 
vitatem. See on i Tim. ii. 2. These 
refer respectively to the principles and 
the manner of the teacher, while Xoyov, 
K.T.X., describes the matter of his teach- 

Ver. 8. oLKaTdyvuirTov : to which no ex- 
ception can be taken. See Deissmann, 
Bible Studies, Trans, p. 200. vyii) 
implies the conformity of the doc- 
trine taught with the Church's stan- 
dard (see note on i Tim. i. 10), while 
oKarayviiMrTov has reference to the man- 
ner of its presentation to the hearer. 

6 l| IvavTias : The heathen opponent, 
official or unofficial, 6 avriKcifievos (i 
Tim. V. 14), ol avTi8iaTi6^p.cvoi (2 Tim. 
ii. 25), not the Devil himself (Chrys.). 

Ivrpair-Q : vercatur (Vulg.) ; but con- 
fundatur, as in 2 Thess. iii. 14, would be 
a better rendering here. An antagonist 
who finds that he has no case " looks 
foolish," as we say. 

^avXov : usually applied to actions. 
See reff. The clause means having no- 
thing evil to report concerning us : not, 

as the English versions, having no evil 
thing to say, which might be explained 
as, "being unable to abuse us". 

Ver. 9. SovXovs : sc. irapaKaXci, ver. 6. 
For the general topic, and the term 
BtffTrdTTjs, c/. I Tim. vi. i. 

£v TToo-iv : joined as in text by Jerome, 
Ambrosiaster and m** with viroTao-a. It 
is in favour of this that iv iraaiv else- 
where in the Pastorals (see note on ver. 
7) is at the end of a clause ; also that in 
similar contexts we have Iv iravri (Eph. 
V. 24) and Kara irdvra (Col. iii. 22) 
joined with vnroToo'O'b) and viraKOvw. 

evapc'crrovs : A Pauline word. Alf. 
notes that it is a servant's phrase, like 
the English " to give satisfaction ". 
This acute remark brings the present 
passage into harmony with St. Paul's 
usage in the reff., in which it is used 
of persons, of men in their relation to 
God. cvdpccTTOv is used of a sacrifice, 
"acceptable," in Rom. xii. i, Phil. iv. 
18 ; cf, Heb. xii. 28 ; rb cudpetrrov, " that 
which is well pleasing," in Rom. xii. 2, 
Eph. v. lo, Col. iii. 20, Heb. xiii. 21. 
Jerome's view that riiap. is passive, 
" contented with their lot," is not satis- 

|iT| avTiXfyovras ; non contradicentes 
(Vulg.). Ell. thinks that more is im- 
plied than pert answers (A.V. answering 
again) ; rather " thwarting their masters' 
plans, wishes, or orders ". See ch. i. g. 
This is the connotation of gainsaying 
(R.V., A.V.m.). 

Ver. 10. (XT) vo(r({>i(op.cvavs : non frau- 
dantes (Vulg.), not purloining. The par- 
ticular form of theft implied is the 
abstraction or retention for oneself, of a 
part of something entrusted to one's 

ircUrav irCtrriv IvSciicwfii^vovs ayaOi^v : 
displaying the utmost trustworthiness. 
There is a similar phrase in ch. iii. 2, 




BSeeaTim.'^KSeiKfufi^Kous d.yaQ-f]V,^ ii/o ttjj' SiSacrKaXiav ■rtji»' toG *a<i»Tfipos 

t See 1 Tim. ' ■f^fiStv * 0€ou " KoafiSiaiv iv iraaii'. 

uSeeiTim. H. ' *ETr€<}>drir] yap i^ * X'^P''? "'■oO 0eou^ ' awnipios * irdaii' 

V Luke i. 79, dcOpciirois 12. ' Trai8cuou<ra i]|ia$, Tea " 6.pvir\ardfi.€voi ttji' 'da^Peiai* 

xxvii. 20, Kal tAs ** xoajxiKds liridup,ias " crux^poytas koI SiKaius Kal * euae^Cjs 
Tit. iii. 4. 
w 2 Cor. 
viii. 9, X Here only, N.T., Am. v. 22, Wisd. i. 14, 3 Mace. (2), 4 Mace. (2) only. y See i Tim. 
i. 20. z See i Tim. v. 8. a See 2 Tim. ii. 16. b Heb. ix. i, not LXX. c Wisd. ix. 11 

only. d See a Tim. iii. 12. 

1 TToLcrav IvScik. aYa9T)v ^* ; ircUr. IvScik. 6Lyairi\v 17. 

« Om. TTjv KLP. 3 Ins. •^ CcDbcKLP. 

*<ra>TTipos ^*. TOW <r«>TT]po9 i\^uv FG, f, g, vg. (am. om. i\\i.C»v), boh. 

iraorav IvSeik. irpavTT)Ta. See note on 2 
Tim. iv. 14. On this use of iras, see on 
I Tim. i. 15. irioTiv has a qualifying 
adj. elsewhere, e.g., dwiroKpiros (i Tim. 
i. 5 ; 2 Tim. i. 5. Cf. ch. i. 4. 2 Pet. i. ; 
Jude 20), but the addition of another adj. 
after -ttoLs is unusual. In Clem. Rom. 
I Cor, 26 irioTis dyaOi] is rendered by 
Lightfoot Ao»«f /atf/j ; but honest fidelity 
would be an odd expression. Von Soden 
would give oiYadi] here the sense of kind, 
wishing well, as in ver. 5, and as a con- 
trast to avTiXry., as ttiotiv is to voo-<j). 
W.H. suggest that the original reading 
here was irdo-av evSciKvvfx^vovs dYairrjv. 
See apparat. crit. 

SiSao-KaXiav : See note on i Tim. i. lo. 

©eov refers to God the Father. See 
i. 3. Von Soden takes it here as objective 
genitive ; the 8i,8ao-Ka\(a being set forth 
in w. H-14. 

Koo-fxwo-iv : cf. I Tim. ii. 9, KO<rpeiv 
lavrds ... St' cpyuv dyaOwv. The 
SiSao-KaXia, though really practical, can 
be plausibly alleged to be mere theory ; 
it must then, by good works, be rendered 
attractive to them that are without. Cf. 
Matt. V. 16, Phil. ii. 15. 

Vv. 11-15. The justification of this in- 
sistence on the universal necessity for 
right conduct is the all-embracing scope 
of the saving grace of God, which has 
visibly appeared as a call to repentance, 
a help to amendment of life, and a stimu- 
lus to hope. Christ's gift of Himself 
for us constrains us to give ourselves 
wholly to Him. Insist on these things, 
as authoritatively as possible, in every 
department of your teaching. 

Ver. II, The emphatic word is ordo-iv. 
The connexion is with what has immedi- 
ately preceded. No rank or class or type 
of mankind is outside the saving influence 
of God's grace. Chrys. concludes a 
striking picture of the adverse moral 

environment of slaves with, " It is a 
difficult and surprising thing that there 
should ever be a good slave ". 

lir€<|>dvT) : See note on i Tim. vi. 14. 
The grace of God (also iii. 7) is His 
kindness and love of man (iii. 4). It 
appeared (iii. 4) (a) as a revelation, in 
the Incarnation, and also (b) in its visible 
results; and so it is both heard and 
recognised (Col. i. 6). Accordingly 
Barnabas could see it at Antioch (Acts 
xi. 23). It is possible to standfast in it 
(i Pet. v. 12), and to continue in it (Acts 
xiii. 43). It is given to men, to be dis- 
pensed by them to others (Rom. i. 5, 
Eph. iii. 2. 7) ; and if men do not respond 
to it, they are said to fall short of it 
(Heb. xii. 15). Here it is described in 
its essential power and range, o-wn^pios 
ird<riv dvdp., . . . appeared, bringing 
salvation to all men (so R.V. ; A.V.m). 
This connexion of the words is favoured 
by the fact that iire^a.vf\ is used abso- 
lutely in iii. 4. 

Ver. 12. iraiScvovca. erudiens (Vulg.), 
corripiens (d). Grace is potentially 
cwTTipios as regards all men ; actually 
its efficacy is seen in the disciplining of 
individuals one by one ; 'Hftds, to begin 
with. See notes on i Tim. i. i, ii. 4, iv. 
10. So Chrys. makes Iva depend on 
Jire<^dvT) more directly than on iraiSevo- 
v<ra : " Christ came that we should 
deny ungodliness." The connexion, 
then, is iire^avq . . . Xva . , . ^ijo' 
" The final cause of the Revelation in 
Christ is not creed, but character " (J. H. 
Bernard). It is of course possible (and 
this is the view usually held) to join 
iraiScvovcra ivo ; the tva introducing the 
object {instructing us, to the intent thai, 
denying, etc., R.V.), not the content 
{teaching us that denying, etc, A.V.) 
of the iraiScia. 

dpvT)crd|xcvoi . . . {|i]7w|icv ... irpo<r- 






^ t,'^(T(3)fi€v iv •tw ' yuv •aiwi'i, 13. ' TrpoaSexop-efoi ttji' jiaKopiOK e See i Tim. 

^XttiSo Kal ' iiriitdviiay ttis SoItis tou aevaXou ©coo Kal '^ orwrnpos f Mark xv. 

43, Luke 
ii. 25. 38. 
xii. 36, xxiii. 51, Acts xxiii. 21, xxiv. 15, Heb. xi. 35, Jude 31. (It means receivt in Luke xv. a, 

Rom. xvL a, Phil. ii. 29, Heb. x. 34.) g See i Tim. vi. 14. h See 2 Tim. i. 10. 

8cxo|i'evoi represent three successive 
stages in the Christian life. The force 
of the aorist participle must not be lost 
sight of, though it may be pedantic to 
mark it in translation. apvrjo-aficvoi 
K.T.X., synchronises with the " death 
unto sin" which precedes the definite 
entry on newness of life, while irpoo-Sc- 
Xop,evoi expresses the constant mental 
attitude of those who are living that new 

apytjcrdfjievoi : This indicates the re- 
nunciation of the Devil, of the vanity of 
this world, and of all the sinful lusts of 
the flesh. means here to re- 
pudiate, renounce all connexion with. 
Cf. diro9^p,€voi, I Pet. ii. i. See on i 
Tim . V. 8. 

TT)v aore'Peiav: cva^^cia being Chris- 
tian practice (see below, rixrc^ws C'no-w- 
(4€v), ao-EPeia is heathen practice, the 
non-moral life. 

rds KOo-fxiKois liriOvpiCas : saecularia 
desideria (Vulg.), " the desires of the 
flesh and of the mind" (Eph, ii. 3), 
" the lusts of men " (i Pet. iv. 2) ; op- 
posed to o-u({>p. Kai SiKaCus ; such as 
have relation to no higher sphere than 
that of the visible world. They are 
analysed in i John ii. 16. 

o-<i>({>pdvb>s : The reference of the three 
adverbs is well explained by St. Bernard : 
" sobrie erga nos ; juste erga proximos ; 
pie erga Deum ". 

Ver. 13. irpoo-Sex^t^cvoi k.t.X., as al- 
ready stated, describes the glad expect- 
ancy which is the ruling and prevailing 
thought in the lives of men looking for 
their Lord's return (Luke xii. 36), irpo<r- 
8cx(>p>cvot T^ cXcos Tov Kvptov ■t\\k£>v 
'Itjctov XpioTTOv (Jude 21). Cf. Rom. viii. 
19 ; I Cor. i. 7 ; Phil, iii. 20 ; i Thess. 
i. 10 ; Heb. ix. 78 ; 2 Pet. iii. 12. Isa. 
XXV. 9 is the basal passage. Cf. Acts 
xxiv. 15, IXirtSa *x**'' '^5 ''■^'' 0*dv, f\v 
Kal avTol ovTot irpocScxovTai. In this 
quotation IXiriSa is the mental act, 
while the relative ^v is the realisation of 
the hope. ^Xir^9 is also passive — the 
thing hoped for — in Gal. v, 5 ; Col. i. 5 ; 
I Tim. i. I. 

Iirii^dvciav ttjs 8o|t)s : The Second 
Coming of Christ will be, as we are as- 
sured by Himself, " in the glory of His 
Father " (Matt. xvi. 27 ; Mark viii. 38). 

" We rejoice in the hope of the glory of 
God " (Rom. V. 2, a passage which sup- 
ports the view that 8o'|t]s here is depend- 
ent on IXiriSa as well as on liri<^dvc(.av). 
von Soden takes «iri<})dv£tav as epexegeti- 
cal of eXir£Sa. The Second Coming of 
Christ may, therefore, be regarded as an 
liri<|>dveia ttjs 8d|Tjs Qtov, even though 
we should not speak of an €iri<j)dveia tov 
riaTpds, while liri<j)dveia Mtjo-ov Xpiorov 
is normal and natural (see on i Tim. vi. 
14). TTJs Sd|T)s having then an intelli- 
gible meaning, we are not entitled to treat 
it as merely adjectival, the glorious ap- 
pearing (A. v.). The genitival relation 
does not differ in this case from Tg 
liri,<^avci<}, Ttjs irapov<rias avTov in 2 
Thess. ii. 8. See also note on i Tim. 
i. II. Again, there does not seem any 
reason why tov awTTJpos, k.t.X., here 
should not depend on Eiri<^dvciav, on the 
analogy of 2 Tim. i. 10. This may be 
thought too remote. In any case, the 
conception of the Second Coming as an 
occasion of manifestation of two 8d|ai, 
that of the Father and of the Son, is 
familiar from Luke ix. 26, Brav eXO'g iv 
TQ Soli] avTOv Kal tov irarpos, k.t.X. 
On the whole, then, we decide in favour 
of the R.V.m. in the rendering of this 
passage, appearing of the glory of the 
great God and our Saviour yesus Christ. 
The grammatical argument — " the iden- 
tity of reference of two substantives 
when under the vinculum of a common 
article " — is too slender to bear much 
weight, especially when we take into 
consideration not only the general ne- 
glect of the article in these epistles but 
Sie omission of it before <rwTijp in i 
Tim. i. I, iv. 10. Ellicott says that 
" iirydXov would seem uncalled for if ap- 
plied to the Father ". To this it may 
be answered that (a) the epithet is not 
otiose here ; as marking the majesty of 
God the Father it is parallel to the &« 
cScoKCv lavTiv, K.T.X., which recalls the 
self-sacrificing love of the Son ; both 
constituting the double appeal — to fear 
and to love — of the Judgment to come. 
(b) Again, St. Paul is nowhere more 
emphatic in his lofty language about 
God the Father than in these epistles ; 
see I Tim. i. 17, vi. 15, 16. 
This is the only place in the N.T. in 




i See I Tim. •" Tl]fi,u»> '^ XpioToO ''*lif)aou,^ 14. Ss ' eSuKci' ' ^auTOf fiirep ^laStv, Iva 

ii. 6. . 

k Luke XuTpcjoTfiTai tjufis diro irdcrns dt'oixia;, Kal Kadapicni lauTU \aw 

xxiv. ai, I n i 

1 Pet. i. 

18. 1 Acts XV. 9, 2 Cor. vii. i, Eph. v. a6 Keb. ix. 14, Jas. iv. 8, i John i. 7, 9. 

» So i^*FgrG, g, boh. ; Mt]<r. Xpwrr. Jj^cACDKLP, all cursives, d, e, f, vg., syrr. 

which p^^as is applied to the true God, 
although it is a constant predicate of 
heathen gods and goddesses, e.g.. Acts 
xix. 28. (See Moulton and Milligan, 
Expositor, vii., vii. 563). In view of the 
fact that the most probable exegesis of 
Rom. ix. 5 is that 6 «v itri -iravTcov, 6co9 
evXcYTjTOs, K.T.X. refers to Christ, it 
cannot be said that 6 pc^as Ocosi as 
applied to Him, is un-Pauline. But the 
proofs that St. Paul held Christ to be 
God Incarnate do not lie in a few disput- 
able texts, but in the whole attitude of 
his soul towards Christ, and in the doc- 
trine of the relation of Christ to mankind 
which is set forth in his epistles. St. 
Paul's " declarations of the divinity of 
the Eternal Son " are not studied, as 
Ellicott admits that this would be if the 
R.V. rendering {our great God and 
Saviour, Jesus Christ) be adopted. To 
this it may be added that the Versions, 
with the exception of the Aethiopic, agree 
with R.V.m. Ell. cites on the other 
side, of ante-Nicene writers, Clem. 
Alex., Protrept. §7, and Hippolytus, 
— quoted by Wordsworth — besides the 
great bulk of the post-Nicene fathers. 
The text is one which would strike the 
eye of a reader to whose consciousness 
the Arian controversy was present ; but 
it is safe to say that if it had read tov 
o-<i)TTJpos, the pcYcLXov would have ex- 
cited no comment. Consequently the 
papyri (all vii. a.d.) cited by J. H. Moul- 
ton {Grammar, vol. i. p. 84) "which 
attest the translation our great God and 
Saviour as current among Greek-speak- 
ing Christians " are too late as guides to 
St. Paul's meaning here. The similar 
problem in 2 Peter i. i must be discussed 
independently. At least, even if it be 
granted that the R.V. there is correct, 
and that 2 Peter i. i is an example of the 
transference to Christ of the language 
used of deified kings " in the papyri and 
inscriptions of Ptolemaic and Imperial 
times," it does not follow that the same 
account must be given of Tit. ii. 13. 

Ver. 14, Ss c8(dK£v eawTov k.t.X. : 
see note on i Tim. ii. 6. As already 
observed, this is an appeal from the con- 
straining love of Christ to the respond- 
ing love of man. 

XvTpwoTf)Tai : deliver. The language 
is borrowed from Psalm cxxix. (cxxx). 8 
avTOS XvTptSaeTai tov 'l(rpaT)X Ik iroawv 
Twv oivopibiv oviTow. The material sujv 
plied by this passage for a discussion of 
the Atonement is contained ineSuKcv . . . 
'^qpuv, not in XvTpworjToi. See Dean 
Armitage Robinson's note on Eph. i. 14. 

avopias : Lawlessness is the essence 
of sin (i John iii. 4), self-assertion as op- 
posed to self-sacrifice which is love. 
Love, which is self-sacrifice, is a dissol- 
vent of self-assertion or sin. And to 
what degree soever we allow the love of 
Christ to operate as a controlling prin- 
ciple in our lives, to that degree we are 
delivered from avopia, as an opposing 
controIHng principle. 

icaOap^o-'Q tavTw Xa(5v : This is a preg- 
nant expression for " purify and so make 
them fit to be his people ". St. Paul has 
in mind Ezek. xxxvii. 23, " I will save 
them out of all their dwelling places, 
wherein they have sinned, and will 
cleanse them : so shall they be my people, 
and I will be their God", pvaopai, 
a-iiTOvs OLiro iro<rwv t»v avopiuv avTwv 
uv '^pdpTOO'av Iv avTai9, Kal KaOapiw 
avTo-us Kai ctrovrai poi els Xaov, k.t.X. 
There is in KaOapicn] an allusion to 
Holy Baptism, which is explicit in iii. 5. 
Cf. Eph. v. 26, tva avTTiv 0171010-1) Ka6a- 

ptOraS TU XoVTp^ TOV vSaTOS Iv pTjpaTi. 

Xaov ■Ktpf.ova-iov: populum acceptabilem 
(Vulg.). A people for his own possession 
(R.V.) is the modern equivalent of a pecu- 
liar people (A.V.). Xaos ircpiovtrtos is 
the LXX for xh^D UV,- ^h^D 
means " a valued property, a peculiar 
treasure" {peculium), and occurs first in 
Exodus xix. 5, "Ye shall be a peculiar 
treasure unto me." Here the LXX inserts 
Xa(Ss> possibly from the references in 

Deut., in which the combination HT'^D 
Q^ is found. Hv^D alone occurs in 
Malachi iii. 17 (el? ircpi-iro^Tjo-iv) and in 
Ps. cxxxv. 4 (€15 irepiovaiao-pdv). The 
LXX of Mai. iii. 17 is echoed in Eph. i, 
14, els diroXvTpucriv ttjs ircpiiroiTJa-cws> 
(where see Dean Armitage Robinson's 
note) and i Pet. ii. g, Xaos els ircpiiroiT)<riv, 
in which Xa^s is a reminiscence of the 

14—15. HI. 1-3. 



" irepioucriot', ° ^l^"''^*' " KaXwj' "cpYuc. 15. rauTO XdXci KalmExod. 
irapaKdXei Kal eXeyxe ftCTA irdurtjs " CTriTayTJs* p,T]Scis o"ou ' -ircpi- xxiii. 23, 

^pOCClTO). 6, xiv. 2, 

TTT »•» / J>bj -IbllJ/- ' c t XXVi. l8. 

111. I. Tiro|ii|xiT()(rKC auT0U9 dpxats esouaiats uiroTacrcre- n Acts xxi. 

o-flai, ''•jreiOapxcri', "'irpos ' itav '^epYOK •'dyaOoi' 'ctoi|xous eifai, iCor. xiv! 

2. fXT]Seva pXao-(t>T|fXElc, ** d^d^ous etcai, '' ^iriciKeis, irao'aj' 'ckScik- i^] i Pet. 

vv^ivQ\i% ^ irpaiJTTjTa irpos irdiTos dj^poSiroos. 3. 'Hjxei' ydp iroTe o See i Tim 

Kal y\Y.€\.% ' df^TjTOi, ™ dirciOcis, " irXoi'oJji.CKOi, " 8ouXcuo»n-£9 •" cttiOu- p i cor. vii. 

6, 3 Cor. 
viii. 8. 
q 4 Mace. vi. 9, xiv. i only. a See 2 Tim. ii. 14. b Luke xii. 11, xx. 20. c Luke xxiii. 7, 

Rom. xiii. i, 2, 3. d Acis v. 29, 33, xxvii. 31. e See 2 Tim. ii. 31. f 1 Pet. iii. 15. g See 
1 Tim. ii. 10. h See i Tim. iii. 3. i See 3 Tim. iv. 14. k See 2 Tim. ii. 25. 1 See 

I Tim. vi. 9. m 2 Tim. iii. 2, Tit. i. 16, etc. n See 2 Tim. iii. 13. o Kom. vi. 6. 

p 2 Tim. iii. 6. 

1 Ins. Kai DcKLP, d, e, f, m94, vg., syrr., boh., arm. 

LXX of the passages in Exod. and Deut. 
Perhaps ircpiov<n.os refers to the treasure 
as laid up, while ircpiiroiir)(ris refers to it 
as acquired. 

(t|Xutt|v KaXwr cpywv : See Eph. ii. 10 ; 
I Pet. i. 15 ; Heb. x. 24. 

Ver. 15. See on i Tim. iv. 12. 

TavTo is best connected with XdXct 
only, and referred to the positive instruc- 
tions of chap, ii., " the things which befit 
the sound doctrine " ; while -irapaKaXci 
and tXeyx* represent the two main func- 
tions of the pastor. See i. 9. 

IwiToyris : authority, xmperio ; iraoTjs 
liriT*: in the most authoritative manner 
possible ; not to be connected with cXryx< 

|tT)8cis <rov ircpi^povc(Ti« : another way 
of saying \i,era, iroaTijs liriTayfjs. Do 
not permit thine authority to be despised, 
Be consistent. See i Tim. iv. 12. 

Chapter III. — Vv. 1-2. As your 
Cretan folk are naturally intractable, 
be careful to insist on obedience to the 
constituted authorities, and on the main- 
tenance of friendly relations with non- 

Ver. I. With these instructions as to 
duty towards civil authority, compare 
Rom. xiii. i sqq., i Pet. ii. 13 sgq. It is 
perhaps significant of the difference be- 
tween Crete and the province of Asia, as 
regards respect for law, that in i Tim. 
ii. 1-3, reasons are given why we should 
pray for rulers, while here the more ele- 
mentary duty of obedience is enjoined. 
Polybius (vi. 46. g) remarks on the sedi- 
tious character of the Cretans. 

viro|i(p,vT]arKc : See note 00 2 Tim. ii. 

&pxais : apx<^^ ^i^d l|ovor(ai are 
coupled in this sense in Luke xii. 11 ; 

apX^ ^^^ llovcria in the abstract, Luke 
xx. 20. The two words are coupled 
together as names for ranks of angels in 
Eph. iii. 10, vi. 12, Col. i. 16, ii. 10, 
15 ; with Svyap,is, i Cor. xv. 24, Eph. i. 
31 ; apxaC, alone, Rom. viii. 38. 

ir€i6apx«iv: (dicto obedire) is best 
taken absolutely, and with a wider refer- 
ence than the preceding clause : i.e., 
as R. v., to be obedient, rather than merely 
to obey magistrates (A.V.). 

irpos irav Ip-yov dyadtSv. See reff. 

Ver. 2. ap,dxovs . • • ^irieiKcis : 
coupled as qualifications of the episco- 
pus, I Tim. iii. 3. 

ireUrav irpai5TT)Ta : the greatest possible 
meekness. Compare Eph. iv. 2 ; i Pet 
iii. 15. 

Vv. 3-7. Cretans who hear this epistle 
need not feel hurt as though I were 
thinking of them with exceptional 
severity. We were such ourselves until 
we came to know the love of God, un- 
merited and saving and sanctifying and 

Ver. 3. ^Y-t-v yap wore Kal '^fteis : 
The connexion is: you need not sup- 
pose that it is hopeless to imagine 
that these wild Cretan folk can be re- 
claimed. We ourselves are a living 
proof of the power of God's grace. 
Eph. ii. 3 sqq. is an exact parallel. Cf. 
also I Cor. vi. 11, Eph. v. 8, Col. iii, 7, 
I Pet. iv. 3. 

av<$T]Toi : insipientes, foolish, in the 
sense in which the word is used in 
Proverbs {e.g. xvii. 28), without under- 
standing of spiritual things. 

irXav(iip.Evoi. : The analogy of 2 Tim. 
iii. 13 suggests that this is passive, 
deceived, not neuter, errantes (Vulg.), 
though of course there are many ex- 




q Luke viii. liiais KOI "^ n8o>'ais '"TroiKiXais, iv ' KaKia Kal 'AOoj'w "Sidvoi^cs, 

l4.JaS.JV. ' /» ,, u'vc,\. 

I, 3, 2 oTuyrjToi, " fiiaourrcs ° dXXi^Xous. 4. ore Se i] ' xpTjoTOTTjs Kai i^ 
rRom.i.29, *<|>iXa»'0pwTTia * eir€<j>(£nf) tou ^CTurfjpos ^i^p.wi' '^©eou, 5. ouk c^ epywi' 
8 See I Tim. Twc ii* SiKaioCTUMT] S. ^ CTTOii^o-afAei' i^)i€is dXXd * Kard *to * aoTou 

t Here only, * eXeos ^ €<T<t)(Tev 'i]fids 8id "^ ' XouTpoO '' TraXiryekeCTias Kal 'di-aKai- 
not LXX. 

10. V Rom. ii. 4, xi. 22 Ur., Eph. ii. 7 (Paul elsewhere 4 times). w Acts xxviii. 2 only, 

N.T., Esth. (i). 2 Mace. (2), 3 Mace. (2). x See Tit. ii. n. y Sec i Tim. i. i. z i Pei. 

i. 3. a Eph. V. 26 only, N.T., Cant. iv. 2, vi. 5, Ecclus. xxxi. (xxxiv.) 25. b Matt. xix. 28 

only, not LXX. c Rom. xii. 2 oijly, not LXX, cf. 2 Cor. iv. 16, Col. iii. 10. 

1 &V CbDcKLP. 

^ Tov . . . 2Xf ov I>bcKL, 

' Ins. TOW A. 

amples of this latter sense in the 

iroiK^Xaif : See note on 2 Tim. iii. 6. 

StdyovTcs : sc ^iov, as in i Tim. ii. 2. 

<m>Y»\roL k.t.X. : odibiles, odientgs 
invicem (Vulg.). This marks the stage 
of degradation, before it becomes hope- 
less : when vice becomes odious to the 
vicious, stands a self-confessed failure to 
produce happiness. 

Ver. 4. \pi\<rr6'n\^ Kal (|>i.\avOponr£«. : 
{henignitas . . . humanitas) is a con- 
stant combination in Greek. See many 
examples supplied by Field. Here it ex- 
presses the notion of John iii. 16, ovt««s 
Yflip TJYa"irTjo-€v 6 6«os tov K6o-p,ov k.t.X. 
and of Eph. ii. 4-6. Perhaps also, as 
von Soden suggests, the kindness of God 
is here contrasted with the unkindness of 
men to each other ; cf. Eph. iv. 31, 32. 

XpticrrdTTis is a Pauline word, used of 
God also in reff. x^kXavOpuirta is especi- 
ally used of the beneficent feelings of 
divine beings towards men ; more rarely 
of the relations between man and man, 
as in Acts xxviii. 2. Diogenes Laert., 
quoted by Alf., distinguishes three kinds 
of <t>iXav9p. (i) geniality of manner, 
(2) helpfulness, (3) sociability. 

cTretfxxvT) : See note on i Tim. vi. 14. 

TOV irwTTJpos r^fiMv 6cov : Ocov, as in i. 
3, ii. 10, is epexegetical of o-uT'ijpos. 

Ver. 5. The '^p.cis and -nixas refer to 
the same persons as those mentioned in 
verse 3, i.e., the apostles and those who 
have had a similar experience. The 
verse may be paraphrased as a state- 
ment of fact thus ; — God saved us by 
Baptism, which involves two complemen- 
tary processes, (a) the ceremony itself 
which marks the actual moment in time 
of the new birth, and (b) the daily, 
hourly, momently renewing of the Holy 
Spirit, by which the spiritual life is sup- 
ported and fostered and increased. And 
the moving cause of this exceeding kind- 
ness of God was not any merits of our 
own, but His mercy 

ovK 1 1 epYwv : Ik here, as in Rom iii. 
30, expresses the source. See also the 
emphatic repetition in Gal. ii. 16 of ovk 
i^ cpyuv vdftov. The SiKaioo-vvT) here 
is that which we can call our own, r\ Ik 
v6\t,ov (Phil. iii. 9). Its existence as 
SiKaioo~uvT) must not be denied ; but 
it does not pass as current coin in the 
kingdom of God. It has indeed no 
saving value whatever. Accordingly 
there is no question here as to whether 
we did, or did not do, works which are 
Iv SiKaioo-vvx). " Not the labours of my 
hands can fulfil Thy law's demands." 
See note on 2 Tim. i. g. 

Bengel, comparing Deut. ix. 5, refers 
the negative to each term in the clause : 
we had not been Iv 8ik. ; we had not 
done (pY^ Iv Sik. ; we had no works 
through which we could be saved. But 
this exegesis is too much affected by the 
controversies of the sixteenth century. 
The A. v., which we have done, con- 
fuses the thought by a suggestion that 
the works referred to are those "after 
justification ". 

TMV Iv 8iKai,ovvv]Q : SiKaioorvvT) IS thc 
sphere in which the works were done, 
and to which they are related. 

Kara . . . eXcos : The phraseology 
is borrowed from Ps. cviii. (cix.) 26, 
amv6v p.c Kcra to y-iyoL eXcos cov. A 
remarkable parallel is furnished by i 
Pet. i. 3, 6 KaTo. t^ iroXv avTov tXcos 
avaY^vvi^o-as "qfiias ; and also by 2 Esdr. 
viii. 32, " For if thou hast a desire to 
have mercy upon us, then shalt thou be 
called merciful, to us, namely, that have 
no works of righteousness ". 

cvuorcv ^(ikoLs : The N.T. seldom 
diverts attention from the main lesson 
to be taught from time to time by not- 
ing qualifications, even necessary ones. 
Here St. Paul is speaking only about the 
efficient and instrumental and formal 
causes of salvation, without any thought 
of man's part in co-operation with God. 
It is as when teaching the principles of 

4 — 8. 



fuaeus ^ ricEufxaTOS 'Ayiou, 6. oi5 "^ c|fc'x€ei' c(}>' il]}ias * irXouai&is 8ia d Acts ii. 17, 
''It)o-ou 'XpioToC 'tou 'auTTJpos 'f\}'-'^y, 7- ^*'°- * SiKaiuOenrcs *t^ (=J°6^ 

'cKcikou '\dpiTi ^ KXT]pof6)xoi Yenf)9wp,6»' "^ Kar ' cXiriSa ' ^ ^cjtjs e See i Tim. 
'^aiufiou. 8. ' riurros *6 'Xoyos* ical irepl toi}t(i)>' "" PouXo/iai ae f See 2 f im. 

i. 10. 
g Rom. 
iii. 24. b Rom. iv. 14, viii. 17, Gal. iii. 29, iv. 7, Heb. vi. 17, Jas. ii. 5. i Tit. La. k See 

I Tim. i. 16. 1 See i Tim. i. 15. m See 1 Tim. ii. 8. 

» Ins. 8ia D»FG, d, e, ^. 

mechanics, we do not confuse the be- 
ginner's mind by making allowances for 
friction, etc. Here, as in Rom. vi. and 
I Pet. iii. 21, it is assumed that man co- 
operates with God in the work of his 
own salvation. On the force of the 
aorist, co-waev, see note on i Tim. ii. 4. 

81A Xovrpov : the washing: \ovrp6y 
may mean the water used for washing, 
or the process itself of washing. The 
R.V.m. laver would be Xovn]p. See 
Dean Armitage Robinson's note on Eph. 
V. 26. 

iroXiv^cveo-ias : This defines the na- 
ture of the \ovrp6v which God employs 
as His instrument in effecting the salva- 
tion of man ; not any Xovrpov whatever, 
but that of new birth. It is sufficient 
to observe here that much of the con- 
troversy about regeneration might have 
been avoided had men kept before them 
the analogy of natural birth, followed as 
it is immediately, not by vigorous man- 
hood, but by infancy and childhood and 

avaKaivuo-eus : The genitive avaKai- 
vwo-cws depends on 8ia (which is actually 
inserted in the Harclean Syriac; so 
R.V.m., and through renewing), not 
on Xovrpov, as apparently Vulg., per 
lavacrum regenerationis et renovationis 
Spiritus Sancti, L Boh. Arm., fol- 
lowed by R.V. The XovTp<Jv, the wash- 
ing, secures a claim on the Holy Spirit 
for renewing, just as birth gives a child 
a claim on society for food and shelter ; 
but unless we are compelled to do other- 
wise, it is best to keep the two notions 
distinct. Birth, natural or spiritual, must 
be a definite fact taking place at a par- 
ticular moment ; whereas renewing is 
necessarily a subsequent process, con- 
stantly operating. Without this renew- 
ing the life received at birth is at best in 
a state of suspension. The references 
to dvaKaivwcis and avaicaivovv, and the 
similar passage, Eph. iv. 23, show that 
the terms are always used of those who 
are actually living the Christian life. 

Ver. 6. ofi ^le'xeev : Joel iii. i (ii. 28) is 
the passage alluded to. Cf. in addition 

>7cvwpeea ^cDcKL. 

to reff. given above, Acts x. 45, Rom. v. 
5, Gal. iv. 6. The ov refers of course 
to irv€vp,ttT. ay. by attraction, not to 
avaKaivcdo-eus. All gifts of the Holy 
Spirit that come through Jesus Christ are 
a continuation of the Pentecostal out- 
pouring. The aorist is due to the 
Apostle's thought of that occasion, al- 
though the "np.ds shows that the im- 
mediate reference is to the experience of 
St. Paul and other Christians. 

8i,d *lTi«rov XpioTov : to be connected 
with i^extev. See John xv. 26, Acts ii. 
33. The finished work of Jesus Christ 
was the necessary pre-condition to His 
effusion of the Holy Spirit. 

Ver. 7. iva, K.r.X. : It is not quite 
certain, whether this expresses the object 
of l|ex€€v or of eo-worev. The former 
connexion brings out best the climax of 
the passage. icXT)povdp,oi marks the 
highest point to which man can attain 
in this life. See reff. The two pre- 
ceding stages are marked by Xovrpov 
iraXivycveo'ias and avaKaivwcris, while 
SiKaiwOevres . . . x'^P*'''''' i^ ^^ expression 
in theological language of the simpler 
Kara ro avrov cXcos ia-f^a-ev ■f\\ The 
grace by which man is justified is usually 
spoken of as that of God the Father, Rom. 
iii. 24 ; and so ckcivov, not avrov, is used 
as referring to the remoter antecedent. 

KXT)povo'p.ot : According to the analogy 
of the other passages where it occurs, 
this word is best taken absolutely ; or, if 
the notion must be completed, we may 
understand 9eov. The term would not 
need any elucidation to one of St. Paul's 
company. It is also an argument against 
connecting kXt]P. turjs alcdviov (R.V.m) 
that cXiris Cwijs alwviov occurs in i. 2 ; 
and Gal. iii. 29, icor* 4iroY7«Xiov kXt|p., 
is parallel. 

Vv. 8-1 1. To sum up what I have 
been saying : Belief in God is not a mat- 
ter of theory or of speculation, but of 
practice; it must be accompanied by 
good works. This true religion unites 
the beautiful and the profitable. On the 
other hand, foolish speculations and con- 
troversies about the law are profitless 




niTim.i. 7, "SiapePaiouaOai, t^a ^ipoi'Ti^axTii' "^ KaXwi' '^cpywi' •^ TrpoioraaOat oi 
not LXX. , ^ _ y \ t i f\ 

o Here only, '^''iTCTrio'TCUKOTes ^ ^ QeCi. ' TauTa ^aTtf " ' KaXd Kai wAcXiu-a TOis 
N.T. ' 

pTit.iii. 14, di'GpdJTrois. 9. ° fiupis 8c " ' ^TjTiio-eis Kal " yei/eaXoYias Kai epeis' 
see I Tim. \ ■, , , ., / >^^»Jl\~ \ f 

iii. I. Kai (idxas 'j'OfiiKas irepiiCTTacro, eio-ii' yap ai'u<pe\eis Kai ^draioi. 

q Acts XV. b « V » A X ' > S ' • fl ' 4 

5, xviii. 10. aipcTiKOf avupbiTTOv jxcTa (itav Kai ocuTcpav vouueaiav* 

27, xix. 18, 

r Gen. xv. 6 (Rom. iv. 3, Gal. iii. 6, Jas. ii. 23), 1 John v. 10. s C/. i Tim. ii. 3. t See i Tim. 

iv. 8. u 2 Tim. ii. 23. v See i Tim. vi. 4 w See i Tim. i. 4. x See 2 Tim. ii. 23. 

y Here only in this sense (see ver. 13), not LXX. z See 2 Tim. ii, 16. a Heb. vii. 18, Prov 

xxviii. 3, Wisd. i. 11, Isa. xliv. 10, jer. ii. 8 onl; b Here only, not LXX. c i Cor. x. 

II, Eph. vi. 4, Wisd. xvi. 6 only. 

1 Ins. T^ most cursives. "^ Ins. to, DcKLP. 

3 So J^cACKLP, d, e, f, g, m5o, vg, boh, syrr, arm ; epiv fc^* [DgrpgrGgr, epeiv]. 
Jerome once. 

* fxiav vov9. Kai[^] 8«vt. DcFgrG [D*, d, e, Kal 8vo"l, g ; om. Kal Sevr^pav MSS. 
known to Jerome, m5o, Iren. lat., Pamph. lat., Ruf., Tert., Cyp., Lucif., Aug., 
Amb., Ambrst. 

and unpractical. Do not parley long 
with a confirmed schismatic. If he does 
not yield to one or two admonitions, reject 
him altogether. It is beyond your power 
to set him right. 

Ver. 8. irio-T^s 6 Xo'yos. Here it is 
evident that 6 Xo'709 does not refer to 
any isolated Saying, but to the doctrinal 
statement contained in verses 4-7 regarded 
as a single concept — as we, when we 
speak of The Incarnation, sum up in one 
term a whole system of theology — while 
TovTCdv refers to the various topics in- 
dicated in that statement, not to the 
practical teaching of ii. i — iii. 7. 

PovXo|xai : see note on i Tim. ii. 8. 

Sia^c^aiovordai : Here the Vulg. has 
confirmare ; d has affirmare, as in i Tim. 
i. 7, where see note. 

tva: It is most significant and sug- 
gestive that the apostle held that good 
works were most certainly assured by a 
theology which gives special prominence 
to the free unmerited grace of God. This 
is made plainer in the R.V. {to the end 
that), than in the A.V. {that). 

(|>povTC(uo-iy : curent (am.), curam 
habeant (fuld). 

KaXuv ^pyuv irpotiTToa^ai : occupy 
themselves in good works, bonis operibus 
i>raeesse (Vulg.). Prostare would have 
Deen a better translation, since the irp6 
in this use of irpotcrTacrdai is derived from 
bodily posture rather than from 
superiority in station. " From the prac- 
tice of the workman or tradesman stand- 
ing before his shop for the purpose of 
soliciting customers ... we arrive at 
the general meaning of conducting or 
managing any matter of business." So 
Field, who also points out that the R.V. 
m., profess honest occupations (similarly 
A.V.m on ver. 14) is open to the serious 

objection that KaXa epya everywhere 
else in N.T., as well as in secular 
authors, means " good works " in the 
religious or moral sense. 

ol ireiriaTcvKo'Tcs Oey : This simple 
phrase is used designedly in order to ex- 
press the notion that profession of the 
recently revealed Gospel is indeed merely 
a logical consequence and natural de- 
velopment of the older simple belief in 

TavTo : The antithesis in the following 
p,fa)pas 8J ^i\rr[u-ti% proves that these 
things refers to the subject-matter of 
Titus' pronouncements (SiaPcPaiov<r6ai), 
and means this enforcement of practical 

KaXa : is to be taken absolutely, as in 
the parallel i Tim. ii. 3, and is not to be 
connected with tois avOpuirois. 

Ver. 9. 5T"io'«''S «ind ycvcaXoyiai are 
associated together in i Tim. i. 4 (where 
see notes). Here they are co-ordinated ; 
there the yevcaXoyiai are one of the 
sources whence t,i\T([(Tt\.% originate. The 
nature of the cpcis here deprecated is 
determined by the context, epcis indi- 
cate the spirit of contentiousness ; (laxai 
the conflicts as heard and seen. On 
p,dxai, see 2 Tim. ii. 23. The (laxai' 
vop,iKai are no doubt the same as the 
Xoyofiaxiai of i Tim. vi. 4. Speaking 
broadly, the controversy turned on the 
attempt to give a fictitious permanence 
to the essentially transient elements in 
the Mosaical Law. 

ircpii<rTaa'o : See note on 2 Tim. ii. 

p,aTaioi : Here, and in James i. 26, 
ptdraios is an adjective of two termina- 
tions ; yet p,aTaia occurs i Cor. xv. 17 ; 
p,aTaias, i Peter i. 18. 

Ver. 10. alpcTiKov av6p<i>irov : St. 




* irapaiTou, 1 1 . eiSois on * cl^oTpairrai. 6 toiootos koi d|xapTd»'ci, ^ ^^'^ ^'™" 

wk ' aoTOKardKoiTOs. « Deut. 

• / > I * t »t j\ n - xxxii. 20, 

12. Orav -ireu.i{<(i> Aprciidk irpos ere il Toxikok, ' oTTOooaaov cXScii' etc., here 

I > >\.~\h/ i / only, N.T 

irpos fic CIS NiKoiroXiK' eK6L yap KexpiKa irapaxciftiaaai. 13. f Hereonly, 

not LXX. 

ii. 15. h Acts iii. 13, xx. z6, xxv. 25, xxvii. i, z Cor. ii. 3, yii. 37, 3 Cor. ii. i. 

12, xxviii. II, X Cor. xvt. 6, not LXX. 

g See 2 Tim. 
i Acts xxvii. 

Paul passes from the reprehensible 
opinions to the man who propagates 
them. He is the same kind of man 
as the (^iXiSvctKos of i Cor. xi. 16; or 
"he that refuseth to hear the church" 
of Matt, xviii. 17 ; he is of " them which 
cause divisions and occasions of stum- 
bling," Rom. xvi. 17. The term aipcoas 
is applied in a non-offensive sense to 
the sects of Judaism, Acts v. 17, xv. 
5, xxvi. 5. St. Luke represents the 
Jews as so speaking of the Christian 
Church (Acts xxiv. 5, xxviii. 22), and St. 
Paul as resenting this application of the 
term (Acts xxiv. 14). The Apostle him- 
self uses the word in an unfavourable 
sense (i Cor. xi. 19 ; Gal. v. 20), as does 
2 Pet. ii. I. A comparison of i Cor. xi. 
19 with I John ii. ig suggests that 
atpco-is involved the formation of a sepa- 
rate society (so R.V.m. here, factious), 
not merely the holding of aberrant 
opinions, or the favouring a policy dif- 
ferent from that of the Church ruler?. 
The vov6co-ia addressed to a member of 
such a atpccris would be of the nature 
of a verbal remonstrance, pointing out 
the essentially unchristian character of 
needless separation. It is evident that 
the alpcTiKos avdpuirot would be beyond 
any Church discipline. The permission 
of a second attempt at reconciliation is 
probably not unconnected with our 
Lord's counsel. Matt, xviii. 15. 

irapaiTov : Have nothing to do with 
him. See note on i Tim. iv. 7. The word 
does not necessarily imply any formal 
excommunication. Such procedure 
would be unnecessary. Excommunica- 
tion has no terrors for those who de- 
liberately separate themselves. " Monere 
desine. quid enira iuvat? laterem la- 
vares" (Bengel). 

Ver. II. cl8»s : since thou may est know. 

cleo-rpaiTTai : subversus est. Argu- 
ment with a man whose basal mental 
convictions differ from your own, or 
whose mind has had a twist, is mere 
waste of breath. 

avTOKaTaKpiTOS : proprio iudicio con- 
demnatus (Vulg.). He is self-condemned 
because his separation from the Church 
is due to his own acknowledged act. He 

cannot deny that his views are antagon- 
istic to those which he once accepted as 
true ; he is condemned by his former, 
and, as St. Paul would say, his more 
enlightened self. 

Vv. 12-14. Come to me, as soon as 
you can be spared. Forward Zenas and 
Apollos. Let our friends in Crete re- 
member that fruitfulness in good works 
is the one thing needful for them. 

Ver. 12. Srav irc|x\|fu irpiis <re : It is 
natural to suppose that Artemas or 
Tychicus would take the place of Titus 
as apostolic legate in Crete. This tem- 
porary exercise of apostolic superintend- 
ence marks a stage in the development 
of monarchical local episcopacy in the 
later sense. 

'ApTCfiay : The name is " Greek, 
formed from 'Aprcfiis perhaps by con- 
traction from Artemidorus, a name com- 
mon in Asia Minor " (W. Lock, art. in 
Hastings' D. B.). 

Tvxiic<5v: See note on 2 Tim. iv. 12. 

NiK^iroXiv: The subscription in the 
later MSS. at the end of the epistle, 
^Ypa^i) airo NiKoiroXcws<ri]sMaKc8ov£as, 
follows the Greek commentators (Chrys., 
Theod., etc.), in identifying this Nico- 
polis with that in Thrace, on the Nestus ; 
but makes a stupid mistake in not per- 
ceiving that IkcI proves that St. Paul 
was not at Nicopolis when the letter was 
written. If we suppose that the situation 
of St. Paul, when writing 2 Tim., must 
have been somewhere between Dalmatia, 
Thessalonica, Corinth, Miletus, Ephesus 
and Troas, then Nicopolis ad Nestum 
would meet the needs of the case. But 
the more important Nicopolis in Epirus 
has found more favour with modern 
scholars (see art. by W. M. Ramsay in 
Hastings' D.B.). 

irapaxtniaa-ai : It is possible that the 
winter is that mentioned in 2 Tim. iv. 
21. The apostle was not always per- 
mitted to exercise the gift of prophecy, in 
the sense of being able to foretell future 
events. From this point of view. There 
I have determined to winter may be com- 
pared with the earlier / know that ye all 
. . . shall see my face no more (Acts xx. 25). 

Ver. 13. vo^ik6v : In the absence of 



III. 14—15. 

kMatt.xxii. Zncai' TOJ' ^ I'outKov Kai 'AttoXXwv ^ ' (nrouSaicjs " TrpoireixJ/oc , Iva 
35, Luke ~v , - , ., V . , 

(7),c/. UTioei' auT0i9 "Xciirri.- 14. iiavQaviTuaav Be Kal "61 "•niiCTepoi 
ver. 9- . ^ „ ji > / / !. 

1 See 2 Tim. P "^ KaXuK ^''cpycjk' '' irpoiOTao-Sai els tcIs ' di'ttyKatas ' xpci<*s, i**!! 

m Acts XV. piT) lavLV * aKaptroi. I5« 'AaTrdl^oi'Tai ae 01 jxer' ifioO TrdcTcs' 
x'xi. 5, ' cioiraaai tous " «j>iXoOiTas 'f\)ia<i ^ iv ^ irtcrrei. 'H X'^pi'S fA^Ta irdrrwi' 

Rom. XV. , ^ o 
34, I Cor. Vfi.UiV.'' 
xvi. 6,11, 
2 Cor. i. 

16, 3 John 6. n See Tit. i. 5. o Here onl'. . p Ver. 8. :; See i Tim. iii. i. r Acts 

X. 24, I Cor. xii. 22. s Acts vi. 3, xx. 34, xxviii. 10, Rom. xii. 13, Eph. iv. 29, Piiil. ii. 25, iv. 16, 19. 
t 2 Pet. i. 8, Matt. xiii. 22 (= Mark iv. 19), i Cor. xiv. 14, Eph. v. 11, Jude 12. u Matt. (5), Mark 

(I), Luke (2). John (13), i Cor. xvi. 22, Rev. (2), v See i Tim. 1. 2. 

* So ^*DbH* one cursive ; 'AiroXXwva FG ; g (apollo t apollonem) ; 'AiroXXu 
CD*cH*»KLP, d, e, f, vg. 

'^XiiTfl ^D*, 37, 47*, about thirteen others. 

3 Ins. d|iiiv ^cDbcFGHKLP, e, f, g, vg. (not fuld.), syrr. 

Add irpos TiTov ^C, 17, to which D adds IttXy^pcIjOtj ; AP add lYpd4>-ri diro 
Ni.KoiroXc(i>9 ; FG have iTeX^aOirj IithttoXtj Trp^s Titov ; K has irp6s Titov ttjs 
Kpir]Tb>v ^KKXijo'tas irpuTOV EirCcKoiroy \upoTOVi\QivTay C7pd<j>i) Lirh NiKovdXcus Tijs 
MaKcSovCas. Similarly HL. 

any example of this word being used as 
the equivalent of legisperitus (Vulg.), 
iurisconsultux or jurisperttus, it seems 
best to assume that Zenas was a vop,iK6s 
in the usual N.T. sense, an expert in 
the Mosaic Law. 

'AiroXXwv : For Apollos, see article in 
Hastings' D. B. 

Trpd-n-£p,\|/ov : set forward on their 
journey, praemitte; but deduco is the 
rendering where the word occurs else- 
where. See reff. 

Ver. 14. The 8e does not mark an 
antithesis between ot 'qp.cTcpoi and the 
persons who have just been mentioned, 
but is rather resumptive of verse 8 ; re- 
peating and emphasising at the close of 
the letter that which St. Paul had most 
at heart, the changed lives of the Cretan 
converts, ol "^ft^Tcpot of course means 
those of our faith in Crete. 

KaXwv cpywv irpoi<rTa(rOai : See on 
verse 8. 

els Tois avayKaia; xp^^'''^ ■ I'he best 
commentary on this expression is i 
Thess. iv. 9-12. Although KaXwv cpyuy 
irpCio-TaaOai, does not mean to profess 
honest occupations, yet it is plain from 
St, Paul's letters that he would regard 
the earning one's own bread respectably 
as a condition precedent to the doing 
of good works. The necessary wants 

to which allusion is made are the main- 
tenance of oneself and family, and help- 
ing brethren who are unable to help 
themselves (Acts xx. 35 ; Rom. xii. 13 ; 
Eph. iv. 28). This view is borne out by 
the reason which follows, tva p.Tj woriv 
aKapiroi. See John xv. 2, Phil. iv. 17, 
Col. i. 10, 2 Pet. i. 8. 

Ver. 15. Final Salutation. 

ol jier' lp.ov : The preposition is dif- 
ferent elsewhere in Paul : ol trvv l\t.o\ 
irdvTCS d8£X4>oC, Gal. i. 2 ; ol o~vv ^poi 
d8eX(|>oi, Phil. iv. 21. ol (xct* avTov is a 
constant phrase in the Synoptists. There 
is a similar use of (xcrd in Acts xx. 34 (a 
speech of St. Paul's), and in 2 Tim. iv, 

Tois <f tXoSvras •n(tas «v iritrrei ; The 
faith (see note on i Tim, i. 2) is that 
which binds Christians together more or 
less closely. Timothy and Titus were 
St. Paul's TCKva ^v iri<rrci ; others were 
more distantly related to him, though of 
the same family, " the household of 
faith ". 

Dean Armitage Robinson (Ephesians, 
p. 281) gives several examples from papyri 
of similar formulas of closing, especially 
two, which read, cUrird£ov . . . tovs 
(^iXoOvTCs cc (or '^p.ds) irpos dXTjOiav. 
This suggests the rendering here, those 
who love us truly. 





§ I. Authorship, Place and Date. — The external evidence for the 
authenticity of this Epistle is sufficiently strong ; it is included among 
the Pauline writings in the collection of Marcion ; Tertullian men- 
tions this in his Adv. Marc. v. 42. It is also mentioned, in connexion 
with the Pastoral Epistles, in the Muratorian Fragment. Origen 
ascribes it to St. Paul {Horn, in Matth. xxxiii., xxxiv.) ; Eusebius 
reckons it among the ofioXoyoufiei'a {H. E. iii. 25) ; Jerome, in his com- 
mentary on the Epistle, mentions the fact that its genuineness was 
disputed by some because it did not treat of doctrinal matters ; he 
holds that it would not have been received by the Church from the 
beginning unless it had been St. Paul's. The fact that it is not 
mentioned in the sub-apostolic literature cannot excite suspicion, for 
its shortness and the character of its contents sufficiently account 
for this non-mention. The internal evidence is equally strong ; the 
Epistle bears the impress of the Pauline spirit throughout ; and one 
has only to compare the vocabulary and style with those of the other 
Pauline Epistles to be convinced at once that St. Paul wrote it. Very 
few among modern scholars reject its Pauline authorship ; van Manen, 
for example, finds a difficulty in the " surprising mixture of singular 
and plural both in the persons speaking and in the persons addressed. 
This double form points at once to some peculiarity in the composi- 
tion of the Epistle. It is not a style that is natural to any one who 
is writing freely and untrammelled, whether to one person or many " 
{Encycl. Bibl. col. 3695). Such a futile objection is self-condemna- 
tory ; but he continues: " Here, as throughout the discussion, the 
constantly recurring questions as to the reason for the selection of 
the forms, words, expressions adopted, find their answer in the ob- 
servation that the Epistle was written under the influence of a perusal 
of ' Pauline ' epistles, especially of those to the Ephesians and 
Colossians " (ibid.). That is as much as to say that the fact that a 
writer is writing in his usual style is presumptive evidence that his 
style is being imitated by someone else I The minute verbal com- 
parisons which YW Manen tabulates between this and the other 


Pauline (he would write ' Pauline ') Epistles constitutes a strong 
proof of identity of authorship between them. Objectors like the 
writer mentioned are, of course, exceptional ; as Jiilicher says, " the 
all but universal judgment is that Philemon belongs to the least 
doubtful part of the Apostle's work" {Intr. to the N. T. p. 127). 

The Place of writing and the Date of the Epistle are mutually 
determining ; St. Paul was in prison when he wrote it, therefore the 
Epistle must have come either from Csesarea (Acts xxiv.-xxvi.), or 
from Rome (Acts xxviii. 30) ; the time of these two imprisonments was 
A.D. 58-63 ; the vast majority of writers are agreed that the group of 
Epistles to the Philippians, Colossians, Ephesians and to Philemon 
were written from Rome (see, for the reasons for this view, Lightfoot's 
Philippians, pp. 30 fF.) ; this would narrow the date of our Epistle 
down to somewhere between a.d. 60-63. As to the question whether 
Philemon was written early or late within this period, this depends 
upon the answer to the question as to whether the Epistle to the 
Philippians should be placed early in the Roman captivity and the 
three other Epistles later, or vice versa, for it is generally allowed 
that the Epistle to the Philippians stands alone, the other three were 
written and despatched at or about the same time. For a full 
discussion of these questions reference must be made to Lightfoot's 
Philippians, pp. 30-46 ; here it will have to suffice to say that the 
most probable year for the date of Philemon is a.d. 62. 

§ II. Occasion and Contents. — Although the Epistle is not the 
only one of St. Paul's addressed to an individual which has come 
down to us, it is the only one of a, mainly, private character ; for 
although in the opening salutation Apphia, Archippus and the Church 
in Philemon's house are addressed as well as Philemon himself, 
nevertheless the contents of the Epistle deal with a personal matter. 
The nearest parallel in the N.T. is 3 John, addressed to " Gaius the 
beloved". The Epistle is an appeal made by St. Paul to Philemon 
on behalf of the runaway slave, Onesimus. Philemon was a citizen 
of Colossae (c/. Col. iv. 17, Philem. 2, 10-12, and see Col. iv. 9) ; the 
Word was most likely preached here during the period which St. 
Paul spent at Ephesus, from which centre his influence extended 
widely (see Acts xix. 26, 1 Cor. xvi. 19) ; Philemon was among the 
converts made by St. Paul himself (see Philem. 19), and he evidently 
became a zealous worker, since St. Paul applies the title auccpyos to 
him ; that he was loving and hospitable is clear from vv. 5-7. 

Onesimus, the immediate cause of the Epistle, who had run away 
from his master, also became a convert of St. Paul's (ver. 10) ; from 
ver. 18 it would almost seem as though he had committed a theft ; 


if so, the reason of his having run away would have been fear of 
punishment. St. Paul's influence upon him must have been strong to 
have induced him to return. The name Onesimus, like Philemon, is 
Phrygian ; for some reason or other Phrygian slaves were regarded 
with contempt : ^pu| dkT]p -n-XtiYEis a,]ueivoy koI SiaKoccorepos (mentioned 
by Vincent as being quoted by Wallon, Hist, de I'esclavage dans 
I'antiquite, ii. 61, 62). The name was very commonly given to 
slaves, and appears over and over again on inscriptions as the name 
of a slave or a freedman. 

The letter in which St. Paul intercedes for Onesimus was sent 
by Tychicus, who was going to Colossze and Laodicaea with other 
letters from him to the churches there. Nothing could exceed the 
affectionate tactfulness displayed in the Epistle ; the delicate way 
in which St. Paul combines the appeal to all that is best in 
Philemon with a gentle, yet distinct assertion of his own authority 
(see w. 8, 9, 21) is very striking. The Epistle is a witness to the 
high demands which Christianity makes upon men ; and the way 
in which it teaches the universal brotherhood of man together with 
the eternal truth that one man is better than another — or worse — 
and that therefore class distinctions lie within the nature of things ; 
this is another side of its permanent value. The power of the Gospel 
and the noble character of St. Paul are the two notes sounded 
throughout; or, as Lightfoot so well expresses it, the special value 
of the Epistle lies in the fact that " nowhere is the social influence of 
the Gospel more strikingly exerted, nowhere does the nobility of the 
Apostle's character receive a more vivid illustration than in this ac- 
cidental pleading on behalf of a runaway slave ". 

§ III. Slavery, jfewish and Roman. — The question of slavery so 
obviously suggests itself in connexion with this Epistle that a short 
section on the subject seems called for. It is not enough to refer 
only to Roman slavery, although Onesimus was a slave and Philemon 
a master under the Roman regime ; for St. Paul was a Hebrew, and 
the Hebrew conception of slavery must, therefore, be taken into 
account as well. " Slavery was practised by the Hebrews under the 
sanction of the Mosaic law, not less than by the Greeks and Romans. 
But though the same in name, it was in its actual working " — and, 
we may add, in its whole theory and conception — " something wholly 
different " (Lightfoot, Philemon, p. 319). The Hebrew laws regard- 
ing slavery were exceedingly humane, for Hebrew slaves belonged to 
the Covenant people, for which reason also they were regarded as 
members of their owner's family ; they therefore had their social, as 
well as their religious rights. A Hebrew slave could not be kept 


as such for more than six years at the outside, unless he himself 
wished it ; the laws concerning the redemption of a slave are very 
explicit. But owing to the conditions of society in ancient times 
there can be no doubt that a slave was, as a rule, much better off in 
a servile condition than if he were free ; it was for this reason that 
the Hebrews had a special law laying down the procedure in the 
case of those who desired to continue bondmen "for ever". Ac- 
cording to Jer. xxxiv. 8-24, however, permanent enslavement of Heb- 
rew men and women is strongly denounced as a sin which will bring 
about national disaste' According to Lev. xxv. 45, 46, the Hebrew 
was permitted to buy Gentile slaves, who became personal property 
and were inherited by the owner's children. But the owner's power 
over his slaves was strictly limited by the law; if he punished a 
slave in such a way as to cause permanent bodily injury the slave 
gained his freedom as compensation ; if a master chastised his slave 
so as to cause his death, he was treated as a murderer. Then, again, 
according to Hebrew law, a slave who had escaped was not to be 
delivered up again to his master. St. Paul cannot, of course, be 
accused of having broken this law in the case of Onesimus, since the 
latter returned voluntarily; but it is, however, possible that when 
St. Paul wrote, " For perhaps he was therefore parted from thee for 
a season, that thou shouldest have him for ever," he had in mind the 
law of the slave's voluntary return to his master in order to remain 
his " bondman for ever " (Deut. xv. 16, 17), and thought of how that 
law had been " fulfilled " by the teaching of Christ (see Matt. v. 17). 
Much ancient traditional matter is contained in Talmudical writ- 
ings ; it is, therefore, interesting to note one or two data in these on 
the subject of slaves ; it is said, for example, that the master of a 
Hebrew slave (man or woman) must place him on an equality with 
himself " in meat and drink, in lodging and bed-clothes, and must act 
towards him in a brotherly manner," so that a saying is preserved in 
Kiddushin, 20a that, " whosoever buys a Hebrew slave buys a master 
for himself". Again, the law concerning the escaped slave, referred 
to above, is in the Talmud construed as applying to one who flees 
from a place outside the Holy Land into it ; but the slave must give 
the master from whom he has fled a bond for his value ; if the master 
refuses to manumit the slave by deed, the court protects the former 
bondman in his refusal to serve further {Gittin, 45a). According to 
Rabbinical teaching a runaway slave who is recaptured must make good 
the time of his absence ; if this is traditional and ancient law, which 
is very probable, it throws an interesting side-light upon our Epistle ; 
in the first place, it may, in part, have been the reason for St. Paul's 


insistence on the return of Onesimus to his master ; and in the se- 
cond place, it may have some bearing on the words in vv. 18, 19 
" But if he hath wronged thee at all, or oweth thee aught, put that 
to mine account; I Paul write it with mine own hand, I will repay 
it " ; these last words are perhaps meant literally, the reference being 
to manual labour, or the like, which St. Paul was prepared to under- 
take in order to make up for the time lost by Onesimus, this lost 
time having presumably occasioned loss to Philemon. For the above 
see further Exod. xxi. 2-11, Lev. xxv. 39-54, Deut. xv. 12-18, xxiii. 
16, 17 (15, 16 R.V.) ; Hamhurger, Real-Encycl. des jftidenthutns i. 
p. 947 ; jfewish Encycl. xi. 404 ff. 

These few data are sufficient to show the spirit of mercy and 
fellow-feeling which characterised Jewish slavery. 

Utterly different from this was the Roman system ; this is well 
described in Lighfoot's Colossi ans and Philemon, pp. 320 ff., and 
with great minuteness in Wallon's Hist, de I'esclavage dans I'anti- 
quite (2nd ed.), which is the chief authority on the subject. For 
details concerning slavery in the Roman empire recourse must be 
had to these works ; and for a description of the appalling moral 
effects of the institution upon both masters and slaves, see Vincent's 
Commentary, pp. 163 ff. While there were undoubtedly exceptions, 
cp., e.g., the letter written by the younger Pliny (Ep. ix. 21), quoted 
by Lightfoot, op. cit. p. 316, the general rule was that the Roman 
system was, practically, the antithesis of the Jewish. 

St. Paul's attitude towards slavery must be understood in the 
light of the Jewish system ; this contained within itself the germs of 
the Christian conception of man, which was bound sooner or later 
to prove fatal to slavery. " When the Gospel taught that God had 
made all men and women upon earth of one family ; that all alike 
were His sons and His daughters; that, whatever conventional dis- 
tinctions human society might set up, the supreme King of Heaven 
refused to acknowledge any ; that the slave, notwithstanding his 
slavery, was Christ's freedman, and the free, notwithstanding his 
liberty, was Christ's slave ; when the Church carried out this prin- 
ciple by admitting the slave to her highest privileges, inviting him to 
kneel side by side with his master at the same holy table ; when, in 
short, the Apostolic precept that ' in Christ Jesus is neither bond nor 
free ' was not only recognised, but acted upon, then slavery was 
doomed" (Lightfoot, op. cit. p. 325). 

§ IV. Literature : — 

Lightfoot, Colossians and Philemon, 1884. 

Von Soden, " Philemon," in HoltzmsLnn's Hand Komtnentar, 1891 
VOL. IV. 14 


Vincent, " Philemon," in the International Critical Commentary^ 

The articles on Philemon in Hastings' Diet, of the Bible and 

Cheyne's Encycl. Biblica. 
For the abbreviations in the Apparatus Criticus see the Intro 
duction to St. ^amei. The Greek text is that published by Nestle, 


I. riAYAOI *8^o-u,ios^ XpiOTOU 'liicroG Kal TifioQcos 6 *• dSe\<}>os » Acts 

~cj -^ 1 \ d „c-^ \j f « xxiii. iS, 

♦tXr]fio>'i Tu ayaTTTiTw'* Kai auwcpyw T]fjiui/, 2. Kai A'n'<j>ia ttj Hph. iii. 

dSeXtl)^ * Kal ' 'Ap)(iTnrw tw * o-oi'OTpaTtoSTT) i^fiuc Kal '' rfj Kar' b Col. i. i. 

c Acts XV. 
25, Rom. 
xvi. 9. d Rom. xvi. 3, 9, 21, Phil ii. 25, Col. iv. 11, 3 John 8. e Rom. xvi. i Cor. vii. 15, 

ix. 5. f Col. iv. 9, 17, 2 Tim. ii. 3. g Phil. ii. 25, cf. 2 Tim. ii. 3. h Col. iv. 15. 

* eirwrToXtj irp. <j>iX. KL. ^airocr oXos D*E* ; SovXos 33". 

3 + a8€X<t>w D*E. 

^ttYoiniTri DKL, rec. ; + charissimac Vulg., Pesh., Syrhark Chrys., Theod., 

Ver. I. 8c<r(Jiios Xp. Mrja. : to 
St. Paul an even more precious title than 
the usual official airocrroXos Xp. Mrjo-.; 
cf, V. 13, Iv TOis SeoTfxois tov cvayY-i 
" they were not shackles which self had 
riveted, but a chain with which Christ 
had invested him ; thus they were a 
badge of office ..." (Lightfoot) This 
title of honour is chosen, and placed in 
the forefront of the Epistle, not with the 
idea of touching the heart of Philemon, 
but rather to proclaim the bondage in 
which every true Christian must be, 
and therefore also the " beloved fellow- 
worker " Philemon. The title is meant, 
in view of what follows in the Epistle, to 
touch the conscience rather than the 
heart. — Tip,^0<os: associated with 
St. Paul in Acts xix. 22, 2 Cor. i. i, Phil. 
i. I, Col. i. I ; his mention here points 
to his personal friendship with Phile- 
mon. — 6 a 8 e X <f» o s : often used by the 
Apostle when he desires to be especially 
sympathetic ; here, therefore, the empha- 
sis is intended to be upon the thought 
of the brotherhood of all Christians; 
this is significant in view of the object of 
the Epistle. — ♦ iXi] p, o v i: See Intr., § II. 
— <rvv epyif: when they had worked 
together cannot be said with certainty ; 
perhaps in Ephesus or Colossae. Prob- 
ably what is meant is the idea of all 
Christians being fellow-workers. 

Ver. 2. 'Air^it^ T'ija8cX<^'g: A 
Phrygian name, often occurring on Phry- 
gian inscriptions. It is most natural to 

suppose that she was the wife of Philemon; 
but she must have occupied also, most 
Hkely. a quasi-official position in the 
Church : xi^ ^ aStXA-ii. coming between 
Q-vvcp-yu and avvcnpaTiarj], suggests 
this, especially when one remembers the 
important part the ministry of women 
played in the early Church, cf. the 
labours, e.g., of Mary, Tryphaena and 
Tryphosa, Persis, in connexion with 
whom the semi-technical term Koirtav is 
used (see i Thess. v. 12, i Tim. v. 17, 
for the use of this word), and Prisca ; on 
the whole subject see Harnack, The 
Mission and Expansion 0/ Christianity, 
i.. pp. 122 f.. 161 f.. ^6;^ f. (iQo8^.— 
'Ap X I "T IT <{> : there is nothmg to show 
that he was the son of Philemon, rather 
the contrary, for why should the son be 
addressed in a letter which dealt with 
one of his father's slaves ? The inclu- 
sion of his name must be due to the fact 
that he occupied an important position 
in the local church (cf. the words which 
follow in the text), which was thus, in a 
certain sense, included in the responsi- 
bility with regard to Onesimus. Archip- 
pus occupied, apparently, a more impor- 
tant nositinn than Philemon /see CnrhT. 
17, pXcire TT|v SiaKovCav f)V irap^Xa^es iv 
Kvpiw, tva aiiTT|v irXtipois, — if Philemon 
had occupied any such official position 
mention would certainly have been made 
of it), but this would be most unlikely to 
have been the case if the latter had been 
the father of the former. It is more 




iRom. i.i8>otic<5i' aou ^KKXr^cria'' • 3. X^P''^ "F' 
Phil. i. 3, -hiiSiv ^ Kal Kupiou 'Itictou Xdiotou 

pXv Kttl €ipi]fif) dirS ©eoC TrarpSs 

ti|X(i)|/ ^ Kai Kupiou 'Itictou XpiOTOu. 4. ' EuxapiCTTW tw ©ew fiou 
{ Thess. i. , v/ > >>- - kj' 

2,2Thess. TiarroTC fxceiat' ctou iroioufiei'os eiri tuc iTpo(r€uxt>)i' fiou, 5. dKOuwf, CTOu TTji' dyaiTT)!' KOI "^ Tqv iriOTif -qv cx^'S 

"" ih.i. if 

Eph.i. 16, 

irpoS '^ TOK KupiOK 

1 Phil. i. 9. mi Tim. i. 19. n C/. i Thess. i. 8. 

'Om. fc.^1. ''fisACD*, WH. 

natural to regard him as the head of the 
local Church, who lived in the house 
where the members met for worship (cf. 
Theodoret's words, quoted by Lightfoot : 
6 8^ 'Apxiiriros tt)V SiSao-KaXiav avTwv 
tireTrioTevTo). — aw ar p ar latrxi : 
only elsewhere in N.T., Phil. ii. 25, but for 
the metaphor cf. 2 Cor. x. 3, 4, i Tim. i. 
18, 2 Tim. ii. 3, 4, — Kal tq Kar' oIkov 
. , . : Cf. Acts xii. 12, Rom. xvi. 5, 
I Cor. xvi. 19, Col. iv. 15, Up to the 
third century we have no certain evi- 
dence of the existence of church 
buildings for the purposes of wor- 
ship ; all references point to private 
houses for this. In Rome several of the 
oldest churches appear to have been 
built on the sites of houses used for 
Christian worship ; see Sanday and 
Headlam, Romans, p. 421, who quote 
this interesting passage from the Acta 
jfustini Martyris, § 2 (Ruinart) : " Quae- 
sivit Praefectus, quem in locum Christiani 
convenirent. Cui respondit Justinus, eo 
unumquemque convenire quo vellet ac 
posset. An, inquit, existimas omnes nos 
in eundem locum convenire solitos ? 
Minime res ita se habet . . . Tunc 
Praefectus : Age, inquit, dicas, quem in 
locum conveniatis, et discipulos tuos 
congreges. Respondit Justinus : Ego 
prope domum Martini cuiusdam, ad bal- 
neum cognomento Timiotinum, hactenus 

Ver. 3. x^P*-^ • ' ' ^^pA^^'- ^f' 
Rom. i. 7, the usual Pauline greeting 
(exc. I. 2 Tim.) ; it is a combination of the 
Greek salutation, yjiiptw^ and the 

Hebrew one, 0*1752?. In the N.T. 
the word clpijvT] expresses the spiritual 
state, which is the result of a right 
relationship between God and man. 
According to Jewish belief, the establish- 
ment of peace, in this sense, was one 
of the mam tunctions ot the Messiati " 
(cf. Luke ii. 14), it was herein that His 
mediatorial work was to be accomplished. 
— IT a T p 6 s : see note on Jas. iii. 9. The 
phrase vteh ©cov . . . Xpio-Tov expresses 
the essence of Judaism and Christianity. 

Ver. 4. TrdvTOTc: belongs to evxa- 
pioTti, cf. Eph. i. 16, Phil. i. 3, Col. i. 3, 4. 

Ver. 5. d. K o V (d V : probably from Epa 
phras, see Col. i. 7, 8, iv. 12 (Lightfoot). 
— TT)v oYOiTTjv . . .: i.e., the faith 
which thou hast towards the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and the love which thou showest 
to all the saints. "The logical order," 
says Lightfoot, "is violated, and the 
clauses are inverted in the second part 
of the sentence, thus producing an ex- 
ample of the figure called chiasm ; see 
Gal. iv. 4, 5. This results here from the 
apostle's setting down the thoughts in 
the sequence in which they occur to him, 
without paying regard to symmetrical 
arrangement. The first and m'ominent 
thought is Philemon's love. This sug- 
gests the mention of his faith, as the 
source from which it snrinps. This 
again requires a reference to the object 
of faith. And then, at length, comes the 
deferred sequel to the first thought — the 
range and comprehensiveness of his 
love." — irCo-Tiv: not "faithfulness," 
but " faith " (belief), cf. i Cor. xiii. 13, 
Gal. V. 6, 1 Thess. i. 3. — ir p 6 s • • • e I s : 
the difference in these propositions is note- 
worthy, -rrp^s . "-^^^ip. ^° ^ft^ ." %^^^ " ^° 
Christ-ward (cf. i I'hess. i. 8). <is to the 
love to the saints: both are develoned in w. 
6,7. — Tovs ayiovs: St. Paul intends 
Onesimus to be thought of here. The 
original significance of the title ayios, as 
applied to men, may be seen in such a 
phrase as, "Ye shall be holy, for I, the Lord 
your God, am holy" (Lev. xix. 2). To the 
Jew, like St. Paul, the corresponding root 
in Hebrew connoted the idea of something 
set apart, i.e., consecrated to the service 
of God (cf. e.g., Exod. xxii. 31 [29]). 
The 0,7(01 constituted originally the 
cKKXijo-ia ; and just as, according to the 
meaning underlying the Hebrew equiva- 
lent of the word £710$, separation for 
God's service was the main conception, 
so, according to the root-meaning of 
eKKXY)(r(a, it connoted the idea of the 
body of those " called out," and thus 
separated from the world. 



Itjctoui''^ Kai CIS Tr(irra9 tous ° dyious, 6. ottus •»] ' tcoiccoi'io ttjs o Eph. i. i, 
TTKJTecjs o^ou '^ ivepyr]<i yeyr\Tai iv ' eiriyKuo'ei iraKTos ^ dyaQoG toO "^ p Phil. ii. i. 

3 ' " A. I f \ ^f5^7^^»» T >^' '^°''- *^*" 

tV ■' CIS XplOTOI''^ 7. X^'^P'**' Y"^P "'OA.XtJI' f.<T\OV ' KOI 3, 9, Gal. 

* irapdKXTjcrii' eiri tv^ dydiTT) (tou, oti rd oTrXdyxfa tui' dyiui' iv. 12. 
" dKaTTCirouTai 8id <roO, ^a8€X<j>€. 8. Aio, ttoWtji' iv Xpiorcj Eph.i. 17,' 

w 'VSX9' >•''• 0\\ Col. i. 20. 

7rappT]0'iai' ex**'' €TriTao-(rei»' <toi to ' avT\Kov. 9. oia ttji' 1 2 Cor. vii. 

oydinji'^ fjidWoK 'irapaKaXu, toioOtos wk <os llauXos ' irpea-puTTjs, Thess. ii. 

t I Cor. xvi. 
8, 2 Cor. vi. 12, vii. 13, 15, Phil. i. 8. u Matt. xi. 28, i Cor. xvi. 18, a Cor. vii. 13. y Gal. 

vi. 18. w 2 Cor. iii. 12, Eph. iii. 12, Phil. i. 20. x Mk. i. 27, vi. 27, 39, ix. 25. y Eph. 

V. 4, Col. iii. 18. z Eph. iv. i. a Luke i. 18, Tit. ii. a. 

^ + xpi<"'ov T>\ aeth. " + cpyov FG, a, c, e, g, Vulg. * Om. AC. 

*vp,i,v t^FGP, curss., Syrr., VulgA, rec. * + Itjo-ovv ^crPGKLP, m, Vulg. 

•x^pi-v KL, a, VulgF, rec, Chrys., Theod., Dam., Thl. 
''"^exop.fv iro\X€v DCKL, a, m, Pesh., Syrhark^ VulgJ', rec; iroXXev ex« a. 
' Habentes Vulg^^. * avayKT]v A. 

Ver. 6. o IT u s : belongs to ftvciav 
(Tov iroiovfievos ... v. 5 is, as it were, in 
brackets. It would be more usual to have 
tva here. — k o t v u v i a : the reference is 
to identity of faith ; the fellowship among 
the saints, cf. Phil. i. 5. The word is 
ysed of a cnllertinn of mnriev in Rom. 
xy. 26, 2 Cor, viii. 4.. ix. i-^\ cf. Heb. 
xiii. 16. — iv: see 2 Cor. i. 6, Col. i. 29. 
— Iiriyvwo-ci,: the force of this word is 
seen in Phil. i. 9. — ir avr^s ayaftov: 
cf, Rom. xii. 2, xvi. 19, Col. i. 9. — k v r\^. 
cl« Xp. : it is not only a question of 
men who benefit by " every good thing," 
but also of the relationship to Christ; 
cf. Col. iii. 23. 

Ver. 7. ggvov: the aorist exnrespes 
forciblv the moment of iov whic¥ 
St. Paul eynerienred v.;hpn he^ heard 
■this good news about Philemon. — ra 
«rwXdyxva: regarded as the seat of 
the emotions. — dv .ir eir avrai : the 
compound " expresses a temporary relief, 
the simple iravco^ai expresses a final 
cessation" (Lightfoot). — d8cX<(>^: the 
place of the word here makes it emphatic, 
cf. Gal. vi. 18, Phil. iv. i. 

Ver. 8. Aid: i.e., because of the good 
that he has heard concerning Philemon ; 
he .nust keep up his reputation. — k te i- 

d <r a e I v: " to enjoin," or " command " ; 
the word is used " rather of commanding 
which attaches to a definite office and 
relates to permanent obligations under 
the office, than of special injunctions 
for particular occasions " (Vincent). — t it 
d V TJ K o V : the primary meaning of the 
verb is that of "having arrived at," or 
" reached " ; and, ultimately, that of fulfil- 
ling a moral obligation. The word occurs 

elsewhere in the N.T. only in Ephes. v. 
4, Col. iii. 18. 

V^r. 9. TotovTos Stv is: "tov- 
ovTos can be defined only by a following 
adjective, or by olos, os, oo-os, or wo-tc 
with the infinitive; never by is" (Vin 
cent). It seems, therefore, best to take 
ToiovTos &v as referring to . . . |tdXXoy 
irapaKXw, which is taken up again in the 
next verse ; «s HavXos • . . Mtjcov must be 
regarded as though in brackets ; toioOtos 
«v would then mean "one who beseeches". 
— tt pe<rPvTT)s: this can scarcely be in 
reference to age, for which y^pwv would 
be more likely to have been used ; besides, 
in Acts vii. 58, at the martjadom of St. 
Stephen, the term vcavCas is applied to 
St. Paul. Lightfoot in his interesting 
note on this verse, says : " There is rea- 
son for thinking that in the common 
dialect irpe(rpvTT)s may have been written 
indifferently for irpccrPcv-n^s in St. Paul's 
time; and if so, the form here may be 
due, not to some comparatively late 
scribe, but to the original autograph 
itself or to an immediate transcript " ; 
and he gives a number of instances of 
the form irpco-^vrris being used for irpeo*- 
Pru-n)s> If, as seems very likely, we 
should translate the word " ambassador " 
here, then we have the striking parallel 
in the contemporary epistle to the 
Ephesians, vi. 20, virlp ov irpco-^cvu Iv 
dXvcrci. Deissmann {Licht vom Osten, 
p. 273) points out that both the vsrb 
irpeo-pevu, and the substantive irpco-- 
PevTtjs, were used in the Greek Orient 
for expressing the title of the Legatus of 
the emperor. Accepting the meaning 
"ambassador" here, the significance of 



biCor.iv. yui/i 8c Kttl S^o-fiio; XptoT J Mtjo-ou,^ io. irapaKaXo) ac irepl toG 
iv. 19, 1 ifLoG ^TCKfou, oc " iyivvy]cra - iv Tois ^Seaj-Oi;,^ " 'Oci^aiixot', II. 

c I Cor. iv. TOK ' TTore cxot a.\py]inov ' vvvi Sc Kai * aoi Kal cfiol *" €0)(pTjoTO»', 
iv. 19. 12. OK ' ^ aKeTrefjiJ/d o-oi, auxo^,^ ^ tout' coth'^ tci cad oTrXdvYva*'^ 

d Phil. i. 7. » , , ,0 7, > , X k , „ . X . 

e Col. iv. 9. 13. OK cyo) epouAOfiTjK Trpos efiauTOf KaTCX^i*'* i*'0 uiTcp oroo fjiot 

f Gal. i. 13. 

g Col. i. 21. 

hzTim. ii.2i. ILuke xxiu. 11. k Luke iv. aa. 

1 Om. Itjo-ov D^ ; \i\a-ov xpiorrov rec. ' Pr. ry» A, m. 

» + \x.ov t^cCDEKLP, a, Syrr., rec. 
*0m. Kau AKCDKLP, Pesh., rec, WH. 

*—* avcirc|jiT|/a ■ trv Be avrov DE, a, rec; retnisi tibi. Tu autem ilium Vulg. 
»— * Ut VulgA ; id est Vulg?. 

' + irpoo-XaPov CD, a, rec (cf. v. 17) ; + suscipe Vulg. ; the Pesh. reads " my 
son " for ra €p,o ffirX. 

the passage is much increased; for 
Christ's ambassador had the right to 
command, but in merely exhorting he 
throws so much more responsibility on 
Philemon. The word "ambassador " 
would be at least as strong an assertion 
of authority as " apostle " ; to a Greek, 
indeed, more so. — 8e<rp,ios: perhaps 
mentioned for the purpose of hinting that 
in respect of bondage his position was not 
unlike that of him for whom he is about 
to plead ; cf. the way in which St. Paul 
identifies himself with Onesimus in w. 
12 . . . avr6v, tovt' €<rTiv ra ep.a 
<r'jrXaYX''*» ^^^ 17 ... is ep.^. — Xpiorrov 
*l Tj <r o V : belongs both to -irpeo-pvTTjs and 
to 8corp.ios, cf. V. I, Eph. iii. i, iv. i , 2 
Tim. i. 8. 

Ver. 10. tv iyivvt)<ra: cf. Sanhe- 
drin, xix. 2 (Jer. Talm.), " If one teaches 
the son of his neighbour the Law, the 
Scripture reckons this the same as if he 
had begotten him" (quoted by Vincent). — 
'Ovijo-Lfiov: one would expect 'Orrjci- 
pov it is attracted to Sv . . . instead of 
agreeing with toS lp,ov t^kvov. He is 
to be hvf^<Tl^o<% in future, no longer avovtj- 
T09. — axpT]<rTov; air. Xry. in N.T., 
but used in the Septuagint, Hos. viii. 8, 
2 Mace. vii. 5, Wisd. ii. 11, iii. 11, Sir. xvi. 
I, xxvii. 19. As applied to Onesimus the 
reference must be to something wrong 
done by him ; the fear of being punished 
for this was presumably his reason for run- 
ning away from his master. — vvvl 82: 
a thoroughly Pauline expression, cf. v. 
9, Rom. vi. 22, vii. 6, 17, xv. 23, 25, i 
Cor. V. II, etc. — tvxpt\<TTov : only 
elsewhere in N.T. in 2 Tim. ii. 21, iv. 

Ver. 12. tv av^Trcp.i)>d o-ot: the 
aorist, in accordance with the epistolary 
style. It is clear from these words that 

Onesimus himself was the bearer of the 
letter, cf. Col. iv. 7-9. On St, Paul's in- 
istence that Onesimus should return to 
his master, see Intr. § III. — a i t o v : note 
the emphatic position of this word, cf. 
Eph. i. 22. — lp,a: again emphatic in 
thus preceding the noun. 

Ver. 13. iyu>: a further emphatic 
mode of expression. — ipovX<ipt]v: 
PovXco-Oai connotes the idea of purpose, 
Oc'Xeiv simply that of willing. The differ- 
ences between the tenses — cPovXopTjv 
and cdeXT)(ra (ver. 14) — is significant ; 
"the imperfect implies a tentative, 
inchoate process; while the aorist de- 
scribes a definite complete act. The will 
stepped in and put an end to the inclina- 
tions of the mind" (Lightfoot). — Kari- 
X € I V : "to detain," directly opposed to 
dir^XTl' i" ''^'^' ^5- Deissmann {Op cit., 
p. 222) points out that Karixut is often 
used in papyri and on ostraka. o( binding, 
though in a magical sense. — v ir € p trov: 
" in thy stead," the implication being that 
Philemon is placed under an obligation 
to his slave; for the force of virJp as illus- 
trated on the papyri, etc., see Deissmann 's 
important remarks on pp. 105, C41 ff. of his 
work already quoted.— 8 1 a k o v 'q : used 
in the Pauline Epistles both of Christian 
ministration generally (Rom. xi. 13 ; i 
Cor. xii. 5; Eph. iv. 12) and in special 
reference to bodily wants, such as alms 
can supply (i Cor. xvi. 15 ; 2 Cor. viii. 4). 
— Iv Tois 8c(rfi. Tov cva-yY. : i.e., 
the bonds which the Gospel had tied, and 
which necessitated his being ministered 
unto. — Tov tvayytXlov: see Mark 
i. 14, 15 and cf. Matt. iv. 23 ; Christ 
uses the word often in reference to the 
Messianic Era. " The earliest instances 
of the use of evayy^Xiov in the sense of 
a book would be : Did. 8, 11, 15 bis ; Ign. 




SiaKoi"rj ev xois Seaixois tou euayyeXiou, 14. X^P''^ ^^ "^^ OTJslMatt. 

,' ,^\ , n r\ - •> \ t vu>/ \ XXvii. 55, 

YfojfXTjs ouoet' TjOeATjaa irotT]aai, iva jitj ws Kara at'oyKT]!' to Acts xu. 

,., •»»»« \it< Of \ ^ \ - ^^' Rorn- 

ayaooK aou ^ aXXa Kara ^ cKOoaioi'. 15. Taxa yap Ota touto xv. 25, 

■^ £X'^P^<^"T TTpos wpaK, iKtt aiwf lok aoToi' ^ airexyiSj I o. oukcti ws 10. 

800X01' ^ dXXd uirep SooXoi','^ ' d8eX<|)0»' ^ dyaTnjTdc, ' jidXiara cfioi^ 3. 

t ' <t\ "w \ <u' ' *T' ' _>■» n 2 Cor. ix 

7ro(7(o 0€ p.aWoK aoi Kai £V aapKi xai cf Kupio>. 17. 6i ouv fie 7, Heb. 

eX^iS Koiv'WK'OJ', -irpocrAapou auToc US cfi€. lo. ci 06 Ti 'iqaiKTiaeKo Rom.v. 7. 

ac TJ *d<J>€iXci, TOUTO cfiol 'cXXdya'* I9. '' eyw FlauXos cypa<j/a "tq^ \i, 1^'. 

q Matt. V. 
16, vi. 2, 
Phil. iv. 18. r Eph. vi. 21, Col. iv. 7, 9. si Tim. iv. 10. t Rom. xi. 12, 24. u i Tim. 

iii. 16. V Rom. xvi. 2, Phil. ii. 29. w i Cor. x. i8, 20. x Acts xxviii. 2, Rom. xiv. 1, 

3, XV. 7. y Matt. xx. 13, i Cor. vi. 8. z Matt, xviii. 28. a Rom. v. 13. b Gal. vi. 

II, a Thess. iii. 17. 

1 Om. D. 

"-« Om, F. 

» Om. ^1 

' cXXoyci KL, rec. 

Philad. 5, 8 (Sanday, Bampion Lectures, 

p. 319). 

Ver. 14. With the thought of this 
verse c/. 2 Cor. ix. 7, i Peter v, 2. — w s 
KaTa avdyKtjv: "St. Paul does not 
say Kara avdyKT|v but ws Kara avdyKtjv. 
He will not suppose that it would really 
be constraint ; but it must not even wear 
the appearance (is) of being so. cf. 2 
Cor. xi. 17, us Iv dt^jpoo-vvQ " (Lightfoot). 

Ver. 15. cx«>pt<r6T|:a very delicate 
way of putting it. — ir posupciv: cf. 2 
Cor. vii. 8, Gal. ii. 5. — a I w v t o v : there 
is no reason why this should not be taken 
in a literal sense, the reference being to 
Onesimus as d.8cX(f>6v dya-irtjTdv, not as 
SovXov. — d IT ^ x H ' • </• Pbil. iv. 18, al- 
though the idea of restitution is prominent 
here, that of complete possession seems 
also to be present in view of aluviov and 
dScX4>ov dyair., but see further Intr., § 

Ver. 16. ovK^Ti ws SovXov: no 
longer in the character of a slave, accord- 
ing to the world's acceptation of the 
term, though still a slave (see, however, 
the note on v. 21) ; but the relationship 
between slave and master were in this 
instance to become altered. — Trdo-ip Si 
pidXXov . . . : i.e., more than most of 
all (which he had been to St. Paul) to 
thee. — With the thought of the verse 
cf. I Tim. vi. 2. 

Ver. 17. cxcis • • • : for this use of 
exf» cf. Luke xiv. 18, Phil. ii. 29. — 
Koivwvdv: for the idea see Rom. xii. 
13, XV. 26 f., 2 Cor. viii. 4, ix. 13, Gal. vi. 
6, Phil. iv. 15, 1 Tim. vi. 18, Heb. xiii. 16. 
— rr pocXa^oO aixiv ws cji^: cf. 
ra cfia o-irXdyxva in v. 12. An interest- 
ing parallel (given by Deissmann, op. 
cit, pp. 128 f.) occurs in a papyrus of the 
second century, written in Latin by a 

freedman, Aurelius Archelaus, to the 
military tribune, Julius Domitius : " Al- 
ready once before have I commended 
unto thee my friend Theon. And now 
again, I pray thee, my lord, that he may 
be in thy sight as I myself" (ut eum 
ant' oculos habeas tanquam me). 

Ver. 18. e I 8 i T I : as Lightfoot says, 
the case is stated hypothetically, but 
the words doubtless describe the actual 
offence of Onesimus. — cXXdya: only 
elsewhere in N.T. in Rom. v. 13 ; it 
occurs on the papyri (Deissmann, op. 
cit., p. 52), " to reckon unto " ; here, 
in the sense : " put it down to my ac- 
count ". 

Ver. 19. lyw riavXos: "The in- 
troduction of his own name gives it the 
character of a formal and binding signa- 
ture, cf. I Cor. xvi. 21, Col. iv. 18, 2 
Thess. iii. 17" (Lightfoot). — eypaij;a 
T'Q ifi-Xi X^*-P*- dirorCaw: cyp. epis- 
tolary aorist, cf. i Pet. v. 12, i John ii. 14, 
21, 26. Deissmann (op. cit., p. 239) calls 
attention to the large number of papyri 
which are acknowledgments of debt 
(Schuldhandschrift) ; a stereotyped phrase 
which these contain is, " I will repay," 
usually expressed by diro8wo-w ; in case 
the debtor is unable to write a representa- 
tive who can do so expressly adds, " I 
have written this for him ". The following 
is an example : "... which we also will 
repay . . . besides whatever else there 
is (aXXwv iv) which we owe over and 
above ... I, Papos, write it for him, 
because he cannot write ". See also 
Deissmann's Neue Bibelstudien, p. 67, 
under x'i\,p6ypa.^ov. It seems certain 
from the words eypa\|/a . . . (cf. also 
V. 21) that St. Paul wrote the whole ol 
this epistle himself; this was quite ex- 
ceptional, as he usually employed an 


nP02 4)IAHM0NA 

c 3 Cor. ix. ^fitj \€ipi, ** diroTiffw * ' ii'O /atj Xcyu " <roi on Kai <reauT6y fioi irpoao- 

d Phil.iv. 3. <|>^iXeiS.l 20. ^ >'ai, d8£X(|>£', eyoS (rou *6faifiT]f cc Kupiu ' dk'dirau- 
XXX. 2. CTOK fjLou rd a•Ir\dyx^'a ' c** Xpiorw.^ 21. * FIcttoiOws tt) "^ uTraKoV) 

f Rora. XVI. , ,c^« vc\--l\, / ' » 

7,9. (Tou eypatj/a croi, cious on Kai uirep a" Kiy<i> iroiTJacis. 22. ap.a 

h Roni. i. 5. 8e Kai *" ' ^Toip.a|^€' fjioi ^ leviac ' ^Xtti^u yap on * Sid twi' irpoaeuxwi' 

IS. X.5, e! u/J^wf " )(apiCT0i]ao( ufiic 23. 'Aaird^eTai* ac " 'Eirai^pds 6 

I Pe't. i'. al'auKaixiidXwTiSs fiou iv XpuTTuT 'ItjctoC, 24. '* MdpKos, '' *Apurrapxos» 

14, 22. 

i 2 lim. ii. 
21, I Cor. ii. 9, Heb. xi. 16. k Acts xxviii. 23. 1 Rom. xii. 3, Gal. i. 18, Phil. i. 19. m AcU 
iii. 14, xxvii. 24, i Cor. ii. 12. n Col. i. 7, iv. la. o Rom. xvi. 7, Col. iv. 10. p Col 

tv. 10. q Acts xxvii. 2. 

^ + ev Kvpiw D*E*. 
' o DE, a, rec. 

amanuensis ; the quasi-private character 
of the letter would account for this. See, 
further, Lightfoot's note on Gal. vi. ii. 
— d IT o T I or « : a stronger form than the 
more usual diroSwcw. As a matter of 
fact St. Paul, in a large measure, had 
repaid whatever was due to Philemon 
by being the means whereby the latter 
received his slave back, but see Intr. § III. 
— Iva p,T| X^yw (rot: a kind of men- 
tal ejaculation, as though St. Paul were 
speaking to himself; the trot, does not 
properly belong to the phrase ; cf. 2 Cor. 
ix. 4. — K a\ o-eavTov: the reference is 
to Philemon's conversion, either directly 
due to St. Paul, or else indirectly 
through the mission into Asia Minor, 
which had been the means whereby 
Philemon had become a Christian ; in 
either case St. Paul could claim Phile- 
mon as his spiritual child in the sense 
that be did in the case of Onesimus 
(see v. 10). — \L 01 irpoo-o4>c(Xcis: 
" thou owest me over and above ". See 
further, on 6^tXij, Deissmann, Neue 
Bibelst., p. 48, Licht vom Osten, pp. 
46, 239. 

Ver. 20. vai: cf. Phil. iv. 3, val 
jp wTu Kai xri. — d 8 c X ^ c : an affectionate 
appeal, c/. Gal. iii. 15, vi. 1-18. — ly«S : 
" The emphatic 4y« identifies the cause 
of Onesimus with his own " (Lightfoot), 
— o-ov &va(|i.T)v : air. Xcy. in N.T., 
it occurs once in the Septuagint (Ecclus. 
XXX. 2), and several times in the Igna- 
tian Epp. (Eph. ii. 2, Magn. ii. 12, Rom. 
V. 2, Pol. i. I, vi. 2). 'Ov. is a play on 
the name Onesimus, lit., " May I have 
profit of thee " ; Lightfoot says that the 
common use of the word &vaip,T)v would 
suggest the thought of filial offices, and 
gives a number of instances of its use. 
It is the only proper optative in the 
N.T. which is not in the third person 
^Moalton, Gramn\(nr iff N.T. Greek, p. 

^ Kvpicit EK, a, rec. 

* a<7"ira{ovTai KL, a, rec. 

195). — dvdiravo-ov: see note on v. 7. 
— €v Xpia-rif : St. Paul refers to the 
real source from which the dvairavciv 
gets its strength. 

Ver. 21. T'n ■iiroKO'n crov: a hint 
regarding the authority which St. Paul 
has a right to wield. — eypatj/a: see 
note on v. 19. — v ir i p o : as it stands this 
is quite indefinite, but there is much point 
in Lightfoot's supposition that the 
thought of the manumission of Phile- 
mon was in St. Paul's mind ; " through- 
out this epistle the idea would seem to 
be present to his thoughts, though the 
word never passes his lips. This re- 
serve is eminently characteristic of the 
Gospel. Slavery is never directly at- 
tacked as such, but principles are incul- 
cated which must prove fatal to it." — 
X ^ y u : note the tense here, a very vivid 
touch after cypaij/a. 

Ver. 22. afia . . . i.e., at the same 
time that he does what he is going to do 
for Onesimus. iTot|ia(c (loi: Light- 
foot's remark that '♦ there is a gentle com- 
pulsion in this mention of a personal visit 
to Colossae," does not seem justified in 
view of the stress that St. Paul lays on 
Philemon's action being wholly voluntary, 
see vv. 10, 14 ; it is more probable that 
this is merely an incidental mention of 
what had been planned some time before, 
namely another missionary journey to 
Asia Minor and Greece (see Phil. ii. 24), 
without any thought of influencing 
Philemon's action thereby. — | c v i a v : 
only here and in Acts xxviii, 23, in the 

Ver. 23. crvvatxpidXuTOS : lit. 
" a prisoner of war," used metaphorically 
like <rwv<rTpaTi««TTjs, see note on ver. 2 ; 
cf. Rom. xvi. 7, where the word is us'. d 
in reference to Andronicus and Junius. 

Ver. 24. M d p K o s : i.e., John Mark, 
cf. Acts xii. 25, XV. 37, Phil, iv. 10 ; be 

25. nP02 a)iAHMeNA 217 

'ATifAas, 'AouKds, 01 * auvepyoL iiou. 25. 'H ' x'^'P"'? ToG * Kopiou ^ r Col.iv.14. 
», « ~ \ -. n I z 9 ^ Rom. XVI. 

Inaou XpioTOu ixcTa tou iri'euu.aTos uiiCtv. 3, 9, 21, 

•^ ' "^ I Cor. iii. 

t Col. iv. 18. n Gal. vi. 18, Phil. iv. 23, a Tim. iv. aa. 

1 + Tjftwv Vulg., rec. '•' + a(AT)v ^C, m, Vulg., rec. 

Subscr. : irpos ^^iXtifiova (xai Aircfjcav Sccriroras OvT)(ri^ov Kai irpos Apxiifwov 
TO vSiaKOvov TT)s cv KoXocirais cKKXT|(rias) €Ypa<}>'n oltto Po)\t.r\% (oia OvT]arip,ov 
oiKCTOv). [AXXa St] Kai paprvs Xpio-rov y'Y^*''')''''''^ ** fnaKapios Ovncrip.os cv tt) 
P(i>p,aicov "iroXei eiri TcpTovXXov rrjviKavTa ttjv eirapxiKTjv c|ovcriav oieirovTOS ttj 
Tuv oTKcXuv KXacci TT]v \|/T)<^ov virop,£i,vas Tov p.apTupi.ov]. 

and Aristarchus were Jewish-Christians 2 Tim. iv. 22. — vfjiwv: the reference is 

(Col. iv. 11). — AT]p,as, AovKa«: Gen- both to those addressed by name m the 

tile Christians {cf. Acts xvi. 10, xx. 5, 6, opening of the Epistle, as well as to the 

xxi. i5,xxvii. 2); the former name isacon- members of the local Church, see verse 

traction of Aii]fAi]Tptos (Col. iv. 14 ; 2 Tim. 2. This final verse is a reiteration of 

iv. 10). the grace pronounced in verse 3. 
Ver. 25. 'H xapif. c/. Gal. vi. 18, 






History of the Epistle. The early history of this Epistle has 
Already been so fully narrated in various accessible volumes, that a 
bare outline may here suffice. Its chief interest is the illustration 
it gives of the difficulties which an anonymous book had to overcome 
before it won for itself a place in the Canon. The significance of 
the story of its fortunes may be gathered from the statement of 
Eusebius:^ "Paul's fourteen Epistles are well known and undisputed. 
It is not indeed right to overlook the fact that some have rejected 
the Epistle to the Hebrews, saying that it is disputed by the Church 
of Rome on the ground that it was not written by Paul." The 
Church, that is to say, looked with suspicion, or at any rate hesita- 
tion, on any candidate for canonical honours which had not the 
authentication of apostolic authorship. And although the Epistle to 
the Hebrews really won for itself a place in the Canon by its intrinsic 
merit, by its cardinal importance as the final adjustment of the 
Jewish and Christian dispensations, as well as by its marked ability 
and felicitous style, yet it had to steal into its place under the cloak 
of an apostle, and it is doubtful whether it would have won universal 
acceptance had it not been attached, loosely enough it is true, to the 
collection of Paul's Epistles. Even though there was no certainty 
regarding its authorship in any part of the church, and in some parts 
a distinct and expressed conviction that it was not from the hand of 
Paul, yet obviously it was too rich a treasure to lose ; and because it 
was not unworthy of the great apostle nor wholly alien from his way 
of thinking, it was allowed to attach itself to his Epistles, and so, 
happily, found a place in the Canon. 

The difficulty to which Eusebius alludes, as experienced by the 
Western or Latin, Churchy was of ancient date. For although the 
earliest traces of the use of the Epistle are found in Clement of 
Rome (c. 96 a.d.) who betrays familiarity with it, yet no Western 
writer of the second century acknowledges it as canonical. It was 
not included in the collection of Pauline Epistles which Marcion 

iH. £., iii. 8. 


formed in the first half of that century, and Tertullian, though object- 
ing to his omission of the Pastoral Epistles, makes no remark upon 
his rejection of Hebrews. In the latter half of the century Roman 
opinion is represented by the Muratorian canon, which makes no 
mention of the Epistle at all, unless, as some have fancied, it is 
alluded to as that " ad Alexandrinos ". ^ The prevalent Roman 
opinion is represented by the presbyter Caius who did not accept the 
Epistle as Pauline.-^ According to Photius, Hippolytus also denied 
the Pauline authorship ; and in the earliest Old Latin Version the 
Epistle was omitted. 

In the North African branch of the Latin Church not only was 
the Pauline authorship denied, but the Epistle was definitely ascribed 
to Barnabas. Tertullian (De Pudic, c. 20) in citing Hebrews vi. 4-8 
claims for the Epistle only a subordinate authority [" idoneum con- 
firmandi de proximo jure disciplinam magistrorum "] because it was 
written not by an apostle, but by a "comes apostolorum," whom he 
unhesitatingly speaks of as Barnabas. 

Meanwhile, however, in the Eastern Church the Pauline author- 
ship was maintained. The Syrian Church accepted the Epistle into 
its earliest canon ; and even if translated by a different and later 
hand than the other Epistles, this cannot be ascribed to any reluct- 
ance to receive it as canonical.^ In Alexandria towards the close of 
the second century it is accepted as Pauline by Pantaenus and 
Clement.* But as criticism was cultivated with some diligence in 
this Church, it could not escape notice that both in its anonymity 
and in its style this Epistle differed from those of Paul. The absence 
of the usual Pauline address Pantaenus explained as due to the 
modesty of the Apostle, who would not even seem to usurp the place 
which belonged to the Lord Himself as Apostle of the Hebrews.^ 
Clement accounted for the difference in style by the supposition that 
the Epistle was originally written by Paul in Hebrew and afterwards 
translated by Luke, while the absence of signature is referred to the 
natural fear lest the name of the Apostle of the Gentiles might repel 
Hebrew readers. The opinion in which the Church of Alexandria 
in general rested may be gathered from the words of Origen :' " If I 

1" Fcrtur etiam ad Laodicenses, alia ad Alexandrinos Pauli nomine fictae 
ad haeresem Marcionis, et alia plura, quae in catholicam ecclesiam recipi non 
potest ; fel enim cum melle misceri non congruit." 

* Euseb., H. E., vi. 20. Jerome, De Vir. III., c. 59. 

3 Dr. Bewer (.4. y. T., April, 1900, p. 358) dates its introduction to the Syrian 
canon in the third centufy. 

* Euseb., H. £., vi. 14. 'Adopted by Jerome, Ep. ad Gal. 

* Euseb., H. E., vi. 25. 


gave my opinion, I should say that the thoughts are those of the 
Apostle, but the phrasing and composition are those of some one 
who remembered what the teacher had said. If then any church 
holds this Epistle to be Paul's, let it be commended for this. For 
not without reason (ciKfj) have our predecessors (ol dp^aioi a>'8pes) 
handed it down as Paul's. But who wrote the Epistle, in truth God 
knows. The account that has reached us is, that some say it was 
written by Clement who became bishop of the Romans, while others 
ascribed it to Luke, the author of the Gospel and Acts." 

Unsatisfactory as such a decision was, the idea that the Epistle 
was Paul's generally ^ prevailed over the whole Church, so that from 
the fifth century to the reformation, there were few who took the 
trouble to inquire. The conversion of the Latin Church to this 
opinion was mainly due to the influence of Augustine and Jerome. 
The formulae under which the latter writer cited the Epistle reveal 
his personal dubiety. " The Epistle which, under the name of Paul, 
is written to the Hebrews." " He who writes to the Hebrews." 
" The Apostle Paul, or whoever else wrote the Epistle to the Heb- 
rews." "The Apostle Paul in the Epistle to Hebrews, which the 
Latin custom does not receive." He mentions that the Greek writers 
accept it as Paul's, although many ascribe it either to Barnabas or 
Clement.2 It would apparently, have taken little to persuade Jerome 
that the latter opinion was well-grounded, for he had himself noticed 
a striking similarity between the Epistle of Clement and that to the 
Hebrews.^ In short, we find that Jerome acted in regard to this 
Epistle on the principle he carried through his formation of the Vul- 
gate canon, the principle that it was better to include than to exclude 
a good book and that prevalent opinion must be allowed a great 

Instructive also is Augustine's treatment of the Epistle. Some- 
times he reckons it among Paul's, sometimes he cites it anonymously 
[** epistola quae ad Hebraeos inscribitur," or " est "] ; sometimes he 
calls attention to the doubts entertained regarding it by others, but 
professes that for his part he is moved by the authority of the Eastern 
Churches. The facile and uncritical spirit of the time is conspicuous 
in the manner in which the councils of North Africa dealt with this 

* For exceptions in the Western Church, see Westcott On the Canon, p. 401. 

*" Licet plerique earn vel Barnabae vel Clementis arbitrentur," Ep. ad. 

'"Clemens scripsit . . . utilem epistolam . . . quae mihi videtur characteri 
epistolae, quae sub Pauli nomine ad Hebraeos fertur, convenire," De Vir. Illus^ 
c. 15. 


Epistle. In the council of Hippo in 393, while Augustine was still 
a presbyter, and in the third council of Carthage, held in 398, the 
prevalent dubiety regarding the authorship of Hebrews found ex- 
pression in the enumeration of the New Testament books, " of the 
Apostle Paul, thirteen Epistles, of the same to the Hebrews, one". 
But in the fifth council of Carthage, in 419, where Augustine was 
also present, this feeble and meaningless distinction is abandoned 
and the enumeration boldly runs, " of the Epistles of Paul in number 
fourteen ". 

It is not easy to determine how much or how little we are justi- 
fied in concluding from these early opinions and traditions. That 
the ecclesiastical voice gradually settled upon the great name of 
Paul, if it does not do much credit to the critical sagacity of the 
Early Church, at least shows that no other name was satisfactory. 
That Clement should have been mentioned as a possible author, 
naturally results from the abundant and free use he makes of the 
Epistle, as well as from his friendship with Paul, and his position as 
a writer of repute. That Paul's still more prominent ally, Barnabas, 
should have been credited with the Epistle was possibly the result 
of its quite superficial resemblance to the well-known and widely- 
read but spurious Epistle of Barnabas. Evidently, however, it is the 
Epistle itself which must divulge the secret of its authorship if we 
are at all to ascertain it. 

Authorship. The bare reading of the Epistle suffices to convince 
us that the Pauline authorship may be set aside as incredible. The 
style is not Paul's, and this Apostle although using an amanuensis, 
undoubtedly dictated all his letters. The Epistle to the Hebrews 
reveals a literary felicity not found elsewhere in the New Testa- 
ment. The writer is master of his words, and perfectly understands 
how to arrange each clause so that every word shall play its full 
part in conveying with precision the meaning intended. He knows 
how to build up his sentences into concise paragraphs, each of which 
carries the argument one stage nearer to its conclusion. He avoids 
all irrelevant digressions. His earnestness of purpose never betrays 
him into carelessness of language, but only serves to give edge and 
point to its exact use. In all this he markedly and widely differs 
from the tempestuousness of Paul. As Farrar says : " The writer 
cites differently from St. Paul ; he writes differently ; he argues 
differently ; he thinks differently ; he declaims differently ; he con- 
structs and connects his sentences differently ; he builds up his 
paragraphs on a wholly different model. St. Paul is constantly 
mingling two constructions, leaving sentences unfinished, breaking 


into personal allusions, substituting the syllogism of passion for the 
syllogism of logic. This writer is never ungrammatical, he is never 
irregular, he is never personal, he never struggles for expression ; he 
never loses himself in a parenthesis ; he is never hurried into an 
anacoluthon. His style is the style of a man who thinks as well as 
writes in Greek ; whereas St. Paul wrote in Greek but thought in 
Syriac." The same difference was felt by those who themselves 
used the Greek language. Thus Origen^ says: "That the verbal 
style of the Epistle entitled ' to the Hebrews ' is not rude like the 
language of the Apostle who acknowledged himself ' rude in speech,' 
that is, in expression ; but that its diction is purer Greek, any one 
who has the power to discern differences of phraseology will ac- 
knowledge." ^ 

But if the style puts it beyond question that Paul cannot have 
been the immediate author of the Epistle is it not possible to believe 
with Origen that " the thoughts are those of the Apostle " ? This 
also must be answered in the negative. There is in the Epistle no- 
thing discordant with Pauline doctrine, but its argument moves on 
different lines and in a different atmosphere from those with which 
the Apostle to the Gentiles makes us familiar. This is most readily 
discerned when we consider the attitude held by the two authors re- 
spectively to the fundamental idea of Jewish religion, the Law. 
Paul views the Mosaic economy mainly as a law commanding and 
threatening. The writer to the Hebrews views it rather as a vast 
congeries of institutions, observances and promises. To the one 
writer the Law is mainly juridical; to the other it is ceremonial. 
To the ardent spirit of Paul athirst for righteousness, the Law with 
its impracticable precepts had become a nightmare, the embodiment 
of all that barred access to God and life. The grace of Christianity 
throwing open the gates of righteousness was the antithesis and 

1 Euseb., H. E., vi. 25. 

•"Diversity of style is more easily felt by the reader than expressed by 
the critic, without at least a tedious analysis of language ; one simple and 
tangible test presents itself, however, in the use of connecting particles, inas- 
much as these determine the structure of sentences. A minute comparison of 
these possesses therefore real importance in the differentiation of language. 
Now in the Epistles of St. Paul ei tis occurs fifty times, eire sixty-three, ttotc 
(in afiimative clauses) nineteen, cXra (in enumerations) six, cl Si Kal, four, ciircp 
five, Iktos cl (ffj three, eiye four, (ti^irws twelve, |it)K€ti ten, fttvovvye three, lav 
eighty-eight times, while none of them are found in the Epistle except iav and 
that only once (or twice), except in quotations. On the other hand, SOev which 
occurs six times and lawcp which occurs three times in the Epistle are never 
used by St. Paul." Kendall's Theol. of Hebrew Christianity, p. 27, 
VOL. IV. 15 


abolition of the law. But to this writer, brought up in a more 
latitudinarian school and of a quieter temperament, the law was not 
this inexorable taskmaster, but rather a system of type and symbol 
foreshadowing the perfect fellowship with God secured by Christianity 
and revealed in Him. Both writers have the same question before 
them : What gives Christianity its power to bring men into harmony 
with God and thus constitutes it the universal, permanent religion } 
What precisely is the relation of this new form of religion to that 
out of which it sprang and which it supersedes.' Paul boldly 
enounces the incompatibility of faith and works, of grace and merit, 
of Christianity and the Law. This writer, adopting a method and a 
view more likely to conciliate the Jew, aims at exhibiting the work 
of Christianity as that towards which the previous economy had been 
striving, that the two are essentially connected, and that without 
Christianity Judaism remains imperfect.^ 

So that Pfleiderer's remark is justified, when he says, "this is a 
thoroughly original attempt to establish the most essential results of 
Paulinism upon new presuppositions and in an entirely independent 
way — a way which proceeds upon lines of thought regarding the 
constitution of the universe which were widely spread amongst the 
educated people of that time, and which necessarily had far greater 
power of diffusing enlightenment than the dialectic of the old Pauline 
system which was so highly wrought up to an individual standpoint." ^ 

Here and there the ideas and expressions of Paul seem to be 
coloured by the Alexandrian system and manner of thought, which, 
as Pfleiderer says, influenced the entire educated world of the time ; 
but in the mind of Paul there lay a deeper soil in which had been 
sown the governing ideas of Palestinian or Pharisaic theology. The 
work and person of Christ are presented under different categories 
by the two writers : the priestly function, which is absent or almost 
so from the letters of Paul, dominates the thought of the Epistle to 
the Hebrews. In keeping with this, the idea of sacrifice which 
colours the whole of the latter Epistle, only occasionally emerges in 
the Pauline writings. So too it is the kingly state of the risen Christ 
which occupies the one writer, while in the mind of the other it is a 
priestly exaltation that is conspicuous. And thus the SiKaiouK of 
Paul becomes in Hebrews dyid^eii', or Ka0api£ei»' or TcXeioGi' ; and 
the leading religious terms " faith " " grace " and so forth have 

^Cf. M^n^goz {Thiol, de I'ep. aux Heb., 190) " L'un abolit la Loi, I'autre la 
transfigure " ; and p. 197,' the one was revohitionist, the other evolutionist. See 
also Holtzmann, iV.I. Tkeol., ii., p. 286 ff. Verhaltniss zum Paulinismus. 

^Paulinism, E. Tr., a., 53. 


one meaning in Paul and another in this Epistle. Evidently the sug- 
gestion that Luke was on this occasion Paul's interpreter is quite 
insufficient to satisfy the conditions.^ 

If the Epistle cannot be ascribed to Paul, must we fall back upon 
Tertullian's statement,^ and accept Barnabas as the author ? This 
solution cannot be said to have ever been prevalent in the early 
Church, notwithstanding the meagre references unearthed by Prof. 
Bartlet and Mr. Ayles. Over against these references may be set 
the significant words of Jerome, who designates this ascription of 
authorship as " juxta Tertullianum," apparently implying that in all 
his vast store of information he had found no one else holding this 
opinion. Origen, too, knows nothing of such a tradition. It was, 
however, revived in the seventeenth century by the Scottish scholar, 
Cameron, and in more recent times has found supporters in Ritschl, 
Weiss, Renan, Salmon and Vernon Bartlet.^ Zahn, who formerly 
advocated the same authorship, is now less certain. The claims of 
Barnabas are also urged with fulness and force by Mr. Ayles in an 
essay devoted to this object.* There can be no doubt that Barnabas 
answers many of the requirements which must be met by any pre- 
sumed author of the Epistle. He belonged to the circle of Paul and 
was a man of character and of capacity ; he was a Levite and as 
such predisposed to consider the Christ and His work in its bear- 
ing on the Old Testament ritual ; ^ he was a native of Cyprus where 
good Greek was spoken, and at the same time was well known and 
influential in the Church at Jerusalem. The tradition that JWark, 
his nephew, introduced the Gospel into Alexandria, might be pressed 
to indicate some connection with that centre of thought. This, how- 
ever, tells also against his authorship, for it is unaccountable that 
Barnabas' name should have been lost in the Church where his 
nephew presided. It must also be kept in view that the association 

1 The similarities to the usage of Luke in the vocabulary of the Epistle have 
been examined with final thoroughness by Prof. Frederic Gardiner in the 
journal of Soc, of Bibl. Lit, and Exegesis for June 1887. See also Alexander's 
Leading Ideas of the Gospels, 3rd ed., pp. 302-324 ; and W. H. Simcox in the 
Expositor for 1888. 

^ De Pudicitia, c. 20. " Extat enim et Barnabae titulus ad Hebraeos, adeo 
satis auctoritati viri, ut quern Paulus juxta se constituent in abstinentiae tenore 
(1 Cor. ix. 6) ; et utique receptior apud ecclesias epistola Barnabae illo apocry- 
pho Pastore moechorum." 

3 Expositor, 1902. 

* Destination, Date and Authorship of Ep. to Heb. (Cambridge, 1899). 

^ For supposed mistakes regarding the Temple and its service, cf. Zfiha, ii.| 


of Barnabas with the Church at Jerusalem only tells in his favour 
if that be considered the destination of the Epistle. It is, of course, 
a mere accident that his designation, 0169 irapaKXrio-cus (Acts iv. 36) 
should correspond with the description of this Epistle as a X^yos 
irapaxXi^aeus (Heb. xiii. 22). 

Harnack, who had previously ^ considered it probable that 
Barnabas was the author, has recently ^ in a forcible and brilliant 
manner urged the claims of Prisca and Aquila. In their favour are 
such points as these : that the letter proceeds from a highly cultured 
teacher, answering to the description given in Acts xviii. 26 of Aquila 
and Prisca ; that it was written by one who belonged to the Pauline 
circle, as there is no doubt that this couple did (Rom. xvi. 3 (Tuyepyol) ; 
that the writer was associated with Timothy, as Aquila and Prisca 
were for eighteen months in Corinth as well as in Ephesus (cf. 2 
Tim. iv. 19) ; that he belonged to one of the house-churches in Rome 
(to which presumably the Epistle was addressed) and that he had 
taught there — which corresponds with what we know of Aquila and 
Prisca (see Acts xviii. 2, Rom. xvi. 3) ; that behind the writer of the 
Epistle there is some one or more with whom he associates himself 
in a common " we," for in the letter there are not merely the literary 
" we " and the " we " which includes writer and readers, but a third 
use of the pronoun embracing some unnamed person or persons as 
uniting with the writer in what he says. " If on the ground of these 
arguments it be considered probable that the Epistle to the Hebrews 
is to be referred to this couple, it may then be asked whether Prisca 
or Aquila wrote it. And if the predominant position of the woman, 
witnessed by both Paul and Luke, be considered, as well as the in- 
contestable fact that she was foremost in winning Apollos, the balance 
must incline in favour of her authorship." It is thus he accounts 
for the most paradoxical feature in the history of the Epistle, the 
loss of the author's name. This disappearance is at once accounted 
for, if Prisca was even partly the author, for Paul's prohibition of 
female teaching in the Church had taken deep root. 

That there is in these arguments not merely ingenuity, but much 
that deserves consideration, will not be denied. Indeed, so careful 
and sound a scholar as Bleek almost convinced himself that Aquila 
was the author of the Epistle, and expresses surprise that his claims 
should not have been urged.^ But there are grave difficulties in the 

* Chronologic, p. 477-479. 

* Preuschen's Zeitschrift, vol. i., 16-41. 

^^ebraer-brief, i., 421, 422. Harnack's claim to originality [niemand an sie 
gedacht hat] is valid only so far as Prisca is concerned. 


double, predominantly feminine authorship advocated by Harnack. 
A single authorship is unquestionably demanded by certain expres- 
sions in the Epistle, as ti Iti X^yu, xi. 32 ; lya rdxioi' dTroKaTaoraOdi 
ufuy, xiii. 19; and the singulars in xiii. 22, 23. It is not possible to 
construe these singulars as referring to more than one writer: but it is 
quite possible to construe the plurals of the Epistle as referring to the 
single writer or to the writer uniting himself with his readers. And 
that this one writer should have been Prisca is certainly improb- 
able, both on account of Paul's prohibition which so good a friend 
as Prisca would observe, and because the writer seems to have been 
one of the i^youpcKoi, which Prisca could not have been. The im- 
pression made by the Epistle is that it proceeds from a masculine 
mind ; and if the Epistle is due to either we should suppose Aquila 
was more likely to undertake such a task. The familiarity which 
existed between this couple and ApoUos might be supposed to ac- 
count for the Alexandrian colouring of the Epistle. 

The name of Apollos was suggested by Luther ^ who apparently 
had either heard or read that this authorship had been advocated 
by others. It has received the suffrages of scholars so competent 
as Bleek, ThoJuck, Hilgenfeld, Lunemann, Reuss, Pfleiderer, Alford, 
Farrar and Plumptre. In Acts xviii. 24 Apollos is described as an 
Alexandrian Jew, a learned man, mighty in the Scriptures, who had 
been instructed in the way of the Lord and who spoke and taught 
with accuracy the things concerning Jesus. Passing from Ephesus, 
where he first appears in Christian history, to Achaia " he helped 
them much who had believed through grace, and powerfully con- 
futed the Jews, and that publicly, showing by the Scriptures that 
Jesus was the Christ". Paul also testifies to his influence as a 
teacher and probably indicates that his special function was that of 
carrying to maturity those who had already received the truth. The 
words " Paul planted, Apollos watered" bear this interpretation, and 
agree with what is said in Acts of his peculiar work. Certainly 
all this remarkably corresponds with the characteristics of the 
writer to the Hebrews, who certainly was a Jew of the Alexandrian 
school, a man of marked ability and culture, whose special training 
fitted him to build up in the faith and to find in the Scriptures 

^"Autor Epistolae ad Hcbraeos, quisquis est, sivc Paulus, sive, ut ego 
arbitror, Apollo" (Com. on Gen.); and in his sermon on 1 Cor iii, 4 "the Ep. 
Heb. is certainly his " [Apollos']. In another sermon he says " Some suppose 
the Epistle to be Luke's, some refer it to Apollos " ["etlichc meinen, sie sei S. 
Lucas, etliche S. Apollo "]. The most thorough presentation of the claim of 
Apollos is that by Plumptre in the first vol. of the Expositor. 


proof that Jesus was the Christ. This, plainly, does not prove 
that Apollos was the author, but it lends plausibility to the hypo- 

Destination. Here, again, however, we find the authorship im- 
plicated with the destination of the Epistle. The only places with 
which we know Apollos to have been connected are Ephesus, Corinth 
and Crete. The first named city was swarming with Jews and was 
also impregnated with Alexandrianism. Corinth resembled it in the 
former and possibly also in the latter characteristic, for the preach- 
ing of Apollos had certainly found in that city a very responsive hear- 
ing ; and it is the only place in which we have any positive reason 
to believe that he resided for any length of time. But evidently he 
was a man who moved about (Tit. iii. 13) ; and it is not improbable 
that he may have visited Rome. Evidently, however, if we are to 
come any nearer to a determination of the authorship, we must first 
of all try to ascertain the destination of the letter. 

We may put aside the idea that it was not addressed to any 
particular Church but was a homily written for all whom it might 
concern. This idea has been plausibly stated by Reuss. "The 
Epistle to the Hebrews," he says, "is not a letter properly so called 
written in view of a local necessity ; and the few personal and cir- 
cumstantial details added on the last page were certainly not the 
reasons which prompted the author to write. This book may have 
been already penned and actually concluded when occasion offered 
to make it useful to a particular circle of Christians and in reference 
to whom he may have added the 13th chapter. The 'Hebrews' 
whose name is inserted by the care of a later reader (also truly in- 
spired) are not, as has been imagined, the members of some isolated 
community, as e.g., the Church at Jerusalem ; they are Jewish 
Christians in general, considered from a theoretical point of view." 
This view has been adopted by Lipsius and others, and at the first 
blush it may seem to have something to say for itself, for letters do 
not usually begin without giving the name of the writer and of his 
correspondents. But the idea that the entire document is a treatise 
written in the study without definite reference to any particular group 
of Christians, is contradicted not merely by the personal references 
of the 13th chapter, but by the occurrence throughout the Epistle 
of expressions which have no meaning if not so addressed. Indeed, 
no Epistle more exclusively concentrates itself upon a definite and 
actual condition, nor more definitely recognises that its readers have 
passed through and are passing through well-marked experiences. 


The writer's references in v. 12; vi. 9; x. 32; xii. 4; could only 
have been made to a definite group of Christians.^ 

This consideration is sufficient to prove that the title irpos 'Eppaious 
w^ithout further designation is too indefinite to have been affixed to 
his letter by the author himself. Weizsacker, indeed, is extrava- 
gant when he brands the inscription as " the unhappy conjecture of 
a later time," but we may unhesitatingly adopt Robertson Smith's 
language, and say that it is " hardly more than a reflection of the 
impression produced on an early copyist ". The suggestion of Prof. 
Nestle 2 that it may indicate that the Epistle was addressed to the 
auvayoiyi] AiPpEtoc or 'E^piutv in Rome is interesting, but obviously if 
the writer of the Epistle had himself addressed it to a synagogue 
of Jewish Christians in Rome, he could not have written merely " to 
Hebrews," but must have more definitely identified them by some 
further designation. In short, we cannot from this address derive 
any assistance in determining the Church to which the Epistle was 

But that the inscription is right in so far as it declares that the 
letter was destined for Hebrew Christians has generally, though 
not universally, been acknowledged. The scope of the Epistle pre- 
supposes a profound attachment to the Mosaic dispensation. Not 
only is the Old Testament the common ground from vvhich material 
can be drawn and on which the discussion can proceed, but the 
argument is one which can scarcely be conceived as addressed to 
Gentiles. It may almost be said with Dr. Bruce : " If the readers 
were indeed Gentiles, they were Gentiles so completely disguised in 
Jewish ideas and wearing a mask with so pronounced Jewish features 
that the true nationality has been successfully hidden for nineteen 
centuries". Or more summarily we may say with Reuss: "For 
this writer there are no Gentiles". To Gentile ears some of the 
expressions used in the Epistle would be unintelligible, others would 
be offensive. To the former class belong such exhortations as, " Let 
us go forth unto Him without the camp " ; to the latter, " Not of angels 
doth He take hold, but of the seed of Abraham He taketh hold ". 

In spite of this, however, many eminent critics in recent times 
have reached the persuasion that the letter was addressed not to 
Hebrew, but to Gentile Christians. Schiirer, Weizsacker, von 
Soden, Jiilicher, McGiffert are of this opinion. They are chiefly 
influenced by the consideration that the list of rudimentary doctrines 

^ See Burggaller's criticism of Wrede's " Das literarische Ratsel des Heb- 
raerbriefes " in Preuschen's Zeitschrift for 1908. 
^ Expository Times for June, 1899. 


given in chap. vi. are such as would rather be taught to Gentile 
catechumens than to Jewish converts. No doubt the doctrines there 
mentioned would be taught to Gentiles, but surely the contrast 
between faith in God and faith in dead works is peculiarly appropriate 
to Jews; and it was also the Jew rather than the Gentile who re- 
quired explanation regarding the relation of Christian baptism to 
other lustrations. Besides, it must not be overlooked that the 
doctrines here enumerated are the " rudiments of Christ," and there- 
fore nothing specifically Jewish could be mentioned. They are that 
common ground or " foundation " which underlay the specially Chris- 
tian teaching. 

Difficulty has also been found in the phrase Airoo-Triv'ai diro Ocou ^wn-os 
(iii. 12). This expression, it is felt, is more appropriate to a relapse 
to idolatry than to Judaism. But the very point of the whole Epistle 
is that an abandonment of Christianity is an abandonment of God ; 
that in it God has finally spoken and that to neglect this revelation 
is to neglect God. In using this particular phrase the writer has 
not in view the end to which unbelief may lead them, but the fact 
that unbelief is apostasy from the living God, whether the unbeliever 
be Jew or Gentile. 

These difficulties then are not insuperable, although they are pos- 
sibly too cavalierly treated by Westcott, who pronounces that " the 
argument of von Soden, who endeavours to show that the Epistle was 
written to Gentiles, cannot be regarded as more than an ingenious 
paradox by any one who regards the general teaching of the Epistle 
in connection with the forms of thought in the Apostolic age ". 

Where, then, were these Jewish Christians resident ? The places 
most generally approved are Jerusalem, Antioch, Caesarea, Rome. 
In favour of the Jewish metropolis there is not much to be urged. 
To no Church on earth would it be so inappropriate to say that they 
had received the Gospel at second-hand (ii. 3). Many of its members 
must have been in direct communication with the Lord. Neither 
could it with any truth be said of the Church of Jerusalem that she 
had not been instrumental in teaching others (v. 12). This Church 
was also a poor community which itself required rather than afforded 
aid: whereas the society addressed in the Epistle had been con- 
spicuous for charity (vi. 10; x. 34). It also seems most unlikely that 
if the Church at Jerusalem was addressed, no allusion should be 
made to the Temple. Neither is it probable that any one, himself a 
member of the Church at Jerusalem, should prefer Greek to Aramaic 
as his medium of communication. 

As Antioch was the scene of a considerable part of the labours of 


Barnabas it naturally suggests itself as the destination in connection 
with his supposed authorship of the Epistle, The Hebrew Christians 
in that city must have been very much in his care, and certainly 
they required some such exposition as is given in the Epistle, of the 
relation of Judaism to Christianity. And some critics, even while dis- 
missing the claims of Barnabas, are inclined to find in Antioch the 
group of Jewish Christians to which the Epistle was addressed. 
Thus Mr Rendain sums up his inquiry in the following terms; "To 
one of these great Syrian cities, perhaps to Antioch itself, I conceive 
the Epistle to have been addressed ; for there alone existed flourish- 
ing Christian Churches, founded by the earliest missionaries of the 
Gospel, animated with Jewish sympathies, full of interest in the 
Mosaic worship, and glorying in the name of Hebrews ; who never- 
theless spoke the Greek language, used the Greek version of the 
Scriptures and numbered amongst their members converts who had, 
like the author, combined the highest advantages of Greek culture 
with careful study of the Old Testament and especially of the sacri- 
ficial Law." But could a Church which had actually started the 
great mission of Paul and Barnabas and in which other teachers 
abounded be open to the rebuke of chap. v. 11 ff. ? 

Recently critical opinion has decidedly veered towards Rome as 
the only possible destination. First suggested by Wetstein it is now 
advocated by Alford, Holtzmann, Zahn and many others. The clause 
in the Epistle which inevitably suggests this destination is the greet- 
ing in xiii. 24, da-ird^oKTcu ujiSs ot Airb ttjs 'IraXias "they of Italy 
(the Italians) salute you ". This clause shows that the Epistle was 
either written from or to Italy. But it is difficult to believe that 
the words were intended to convey a greeting from Italians in their 
own country to the writer's correspondents. For if the writer was 
in Italy, he was in some particular locality, and this place he would 
more naturally have named instead of using the general term " Italy ". 
Certainly the more natural and satisfactory interpretation of the 
words is that which supposes that the writer who himself is a member 
of the Church he addresses is surrounded by those who also recog- 
nise Italy as their home and who seek to send greetings to their 
friends in Rome. 

Nor does anything in the Epistle contradict this idea. That 
there was a large Jewish element in the Roman Church appears 
both from Acts and Romans, and is not denied. It has sometimes 
been thought that Jewish Christians in Rome could not be expected 

1 Epistle to Hebrttos, p. 69, 


to take so much interest in the Temple-worship or be so concerned 
about its observance as this Epistle requires ; but, as Principal Fair- 
bairn long ago pointed out, colonists idealise the institutions of their 
mother-country more than its resident population, and it is an ideal- 
ised, not an actual worship that is here described. It is also to be 
considered that it was in Rome both in the time of Paul and in the 
second century that in many subtle ways Judaism sought to assert 
itself and to absorb or expunge Christianity. The fact too that it is 
in Rome we find the first traces of the use of the Epistle (by Clement) 
has some weight. 

Zahn still further narrows the destination and identifies the re- 
cipients of the letter as a small circle of Christians in a large city, a 
house-church alongside of which there was another or several other 
such churches in the same city. They have an assembly of their 
own (x. 25), perhaps also rulers of their own (xiii. 17), although the 
rulers of the whole Church of the city are also their rulers, and there- 
fore greetings are sent to all the rulers and to all the Saints (xiii. 24). 
He is not aware of any place which so well answers to these re- 
quirements as one of the house-churches in Rome mentioned in the 
Epistle of Paul to that Church (chap. xvi). To one of these, possibly 
to that mentioned in Romans xvi. 14, this Epistle was probably 

The Roman destination may seem to carry with it the authorship 
of Aquila, for this Jew who was himself so well instructed that he 
was able to instruct Apollos was intimately associated with Rome 
and with one of the house-churches there (Romans xvi. 3-5). And 
indeed all that we know of Aquila seems to fit the conditions as well 
as any other name that has been suggested. 

It is impossible then to dogmatise regarding the authorship of 
this Epistle, and at present it is best frankly to confess our ignor- 
ance. But we may adopt the language of Prof. Rhys Roberts in 
dealing with the similar case of Longinus on the Sublime and say 
that "while it is good science to refuse to hazard any conjecture 
which our information does not warrant, it is good science also to 
decline to follow some critics in abandoning all hope of ever seeing 
a solution of this knotty problem. Let us rather recognise that we 
are confronted with one of those stimulating and fruitful uncer- 
tainties which classical research so often presents to its votaries — 
uncertainties which are stimulating because there is some possibility 
of removing them, and fruitful because in any case they lead to the 
more thorough investigation of the obscurer bye-ways of history and 
literature." Or we may adopt the words of Dr. Davidson in dealing 


with the similar problem of the authorship of the Book of Job: 
"There are soine minds that cannot put up with uncertainty, and 
are under the necessity of deluding themselves into quietude by 
fixing on some known name There are others to whom it is a 
comfort to think that in this omniscient age a few things still 
remain mysterious. Uncertainty is to them more suggestive than 
exact knowledge. No literature has so many great anonymous 
works as that of Israel. The religious life of this people was at 
certain periods very intense, and at these periods the spiritual energy 
of the nation expressed itself almost impersonally, through men who 
forgot themselves and were speedily forgotten in name by others." 
And if we cannot name, we can at least partially describe the author. 
For his letter reveals a man who was not an Apjostle but a scholar 
of the Apostles ; a man of the second Christian generation (genea- 
logisch nicht chronologisch, as Harnack says) ; a Hellenist yet a 
member and teacher of a Jewish Christian church ; a Paulinist with 
some tincture of Alexandrian culture, though his treatment of 
Scripture differs toto coelo from Philo's ; a friend of Timothy and 
at the time of writing in the company of Italian Christians. 

Aim. But it is not the locality so much as the condition of the 
readers that chiefly concerns us. And as we read the Epistle it be- 
comes apparent that the danger which roused the writer to inter- 
pose was not such definite and grave heresy as evoked the Epistle to 
the Galatians or that to the Colossians, nor such entangling heathen 
vices and difficult questions of casuistry as imperilled the Corinthian 
Church, but rather a gradual, almost unconscious admission of 
doubt which dulled hope and slackened energy. They had professed 
Christianity for some time (v. 12) ; and the sincerity of their profes- 
sion had been proved by the manner in which they had borne severe 
persecution (x, 33, 34). They had taken joyfully the spoiling of 
their possessions ; they had endured a great conflict of sufferings. 
But they found the long-sustained conflict with sin (xli. 4) and the 
day-by-day contempt and derision they experienced as Christians 
(xiii. 13), more wearing to the spirit than sharper persecution. 
Consequently their knees had become feeble to pursue the path of 
righteous endurance and activity, their hands hung limply by their 
side as if they were defeated men (xii. 12'*. They had ceased to make 
progress and were in danger of failing away (vi. 1-4, iii. 12) and were 
allowing an evil heart of unbelief to grow in them. No doubt this 
listless, semi-believing condition laid them open to the incursion of 
" divers and strange teachings " (xiii. 9) and in itself was full of peril. 

To restore in them the freshness of faith the writer at every 


part of the Epistle exhorts them to steadfastness and perseverance. 
" Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering *' (xi. 
23). " Cast not away your confidence" (x. 35). " If any man draw 
back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him" (x. 38). Or, what 
may be taken as the hortatory motto of the Epistle, " We are become 
partakers of Christ, if we hold fast the beginning of our confidence 
firm unto the end" (iii. 14). That they may have encouragement to 
do so, he shows them at large the good ground they have for confi- 
dence. The fruits of faith in their fathers are recapitulated in the 
eloquent eleventh chapter. But especially is Jesus exhibited as the 
great leader in faith. " Consider Him lest ye be weary and faint in 
your souls" (xii. 3). His supremacy and trustworthiness are ex- 
pounded in detail, and especially the eternal sufficiency of His sacri- 
fice and intercession is dwelt upon. 

Evidently, then, the persons addressed were in the mental and 
spiritual condition common in every age of the Christian Church, a 
condition of languor and weariness, of disappointed expectations, 
deferred hopes, conscious failure and practical unbelief. They were 
Christians but had slender appreciation of the glory of their calling, 
misconstrued their experience, and had allowed themselves to drift 
away from boldness of hope and intensity of faith. Dr. Bruce de- 
scribes them as persons who never had " insight into the essential 
nature and distinctive features of the Christian religion " ; and if by 
" insight " he means such perception of the greatness of Christ 
as causes men to rejoice in serving and suffering for Him, his de- 
scription is correct. But he seems less exact when he goes on to 
say " No greater mistake, I believe, can be committed (though it is 
a common fault of commentators) than to assume that the first 
readers were in the main in sympathy with the doctrinal views of 
the writer". Some points, no doubt, which the writer adduces 
were new to the readers. The manner in which the paragraph re- 
garding Melchisedec is introduced proves this. But we cannot there- 
fore conclude that the whole conception of Christ as Priest was 
new to them ; nor can we suppose that they had never thought of 
Christ as the Son through whom the final revelation was made and 
the eternal covenant mediated. Rather they had failed to con- 
sider what these great truths involved. Hence the writer bids them 
give "the more earnest heed to the things they have heard" (ii. 1), 
and throughout the Epistle he returns to his favourite admonition 
" Consider Him," let your minds penetrate more deeply into His 
significance. They had ceased to have that keen interest in truth 
which prompts contemplation and inquiry, and they now held what 


they had been taught so externally that they were in danger of 
wholly losing their faith and becoming practical apostates. They 
had fallen under the power of the present and visible, and were 
giving to appearance and shadow the value that belonged only to 
the eternal reality. 

The aim of the writer then was to open up the true significance 
of Christ and His work, and thus to remove the scruples, hesitations 
and suspicions which haunted the mind of the Jewish Christian 
embarrassing his faith, lessening his enjoyment, and lowering his 
vitality. The Jew who accepted Jesus as the Christ had problems 
to solve and difficulties to overcome of which the Gentile knew 
nothing. A transition of equal moment and encompassed by so 
much obscurity men have rarely, if ever, been summoned to make. 
It is easy for those who look back upon it as an accomplished fact to 
see that there was no real breach of continuity between the old 
religion and the new ; but that was not readily perceived by those 
whose whole life and experience were marked by the turmoil and 
instability which accompanied the abandonment of old forms, the 
acceptance of new ideas, the building on other foundations. Brought 
up in a religion which he was persuaded was of Divine authority the 
Jew was now required to consider a large part of his belief and wor- 
ship as antiquated. Accustomed to pride himself on a history 
marked at various stages by angelic visits. Divine voices, and miracu- 
lous interventions, he is now invited to shift his faith from institu- 
tions and venerable customs to a Person, and this a Person in 
whom earthly glory is suggested only by its absence and in whom 
those apparently most qualified to judge could discover nothing but 
imposture which merited a malefactor's death. Cherishing with 
extraordinary enthusiasm, as his exclusive heritage, the Temple with 
all its hallowed associations, its indwelling God, its altar, its august 
priesthood, its complete array of ordinances, he is yet haunted by 
the Christian new-born instinct that there is an essential lacking in 
all these arrangements and that for him they are irrelevant and 
obsolete. A blight has suddenly fallen on what was brightest in his 
religion, a blight he can neither dissipate nor perfectly justify. 

For the Jewish Christian must have found it quite beyond his 
power to understand the relation of the old to the new. Already 
indeed it had become apparent that in Jesus prophecy had been ful- 
filled. He had been accepted as the predicted Messiah partly 
because it was beyond dispute that in Him a correspondence was 
found to the figure more or less clearly defined in the Old Testa, 
ment. This tig doubt hinted that there was some strong and vital 


connection between the two faiths. But what relation did this 
Messiah hold to the Mosaic institutions ? That was a more difficult 
problem. The difficulty of it is appreciated when we consider that a 
large section of the Christian Church judged the old to be irreconcil- 
able with the new, and went so far as to maintain that the God of 
the Old Testament was antagonistic to the God who revealed Himself 
in Christ. And even the more moderate section of the Church found 
difficulty in answering the questions : What was to be thought of the 
Jewish ordinances and of the Jewish Scriptures which enjoined 
them ? If the ordinances were set aside, could the Scriptures which 
contained them be retained? In what sense had Christ fulfilled the 
law, the ceremonial ? He had not been a Priest. He had not as- 
sumed the Priest's function,but the Rabbi's. He had not been born in 
a priestly family. A sacrifice, perhaps, in some sense. He had been. 

To the Jew, in short, Christ must have created as many problems 
as He solved. The unquestioning faith that is guided by healthy in- 
stincts and can relegate to the future all intellectual explanations 
and reconcilements is not given to every one ; and many a Jewish 
Christian must have passed those first days in painful unrest, drawn 
to trust Jesus by all that He knew of His holiness and truth and yet 
sorely perplexed and hindered from perfect trust by the unexpected 
spirituality of the new religion, by the contempt of his old co-re- 
ligionists, by the enforced relinquishment of all outward garnishing 
and glory, and by the apparent impossibility of fitting the gorgeous- 
ness of the old and the bareness of the new into one consistent 
whole. To this miserable and weakening condition of spirit the 
writer appeals and aims at removing it by giving them a fuller insight 
into the relation of Christianity to Mosaism, and especially by illus- 
trating the unique supremacy of Christ and the finality of His work. 
He makes it his aim to show that every name, every institution, 
every privilege, which had existed under the old economy survived in 
the new, but invested with a higher meaning and a truer glory — a 
meaning and a glory, new indeed in themselves, but yet for the first 
time fulfilling the great purpose of God which from the first had 
been dimly shadowed forth. " The first was taken away only in 
order that the second might be introduced." ^ 

To this task he necessarily brought his own philosophical pre- 
suppositions. Trained in Alexandrian thought he cherished the 
Platonic 2 conception of the relation of the seen to the unseen. It 

" ^ Das Christenthum bringt nichts, was nicht schon im A. T. angelegt, ver- 
hejssen und vorgebiidet gewesen ware " (Holtzmann, N. T. TkeoL, ii., 287). 
» Timaeus, 28 C. ; Rep. 597 ; Philo, Mundi Op., A; De Vita Mosis, p. 146. 


was his inalienable conviction that the visible world is merely pheno- 
menal, the temporary form or manifestation of the invisible, arche- 
typal world which alone is real and eternal. In the Epistle these 
two worlds are continually related by contrast. The unseen world 
[irpdYfiaTa ou ^\€TT6ji.€va xi. 1] is the eternal counterpart of this 
present order of things [aurr] r\ Kxiais ix. 11] ; the reality, of which 
earthly things are but the shadow [o-Kia viii. 5]. The visible 
heaven and earth are one day to pass away, " as things that have 
been made " [is ireiroiTjfveVui' xii. 27], but this only in order that the 
eternal things which cannot be removed may remain alone existent. 

On this broad philosophical basis, itself unshakable as the eternal 
things, the writer builds his argument. Here he finds the key to the 
essential distinction between Mosaism and Christianity, as well as 
the proof of the superiority and finality of the latter. The Mosaic 
dispensation belongs to the seen and temporal, the Christian to the 
unseen and eternal. In the one there is a tabernacle "made with 
hands " ; a sanctuary of this world, equipped and furnished with 
material objects ; the sacrifices are of bulls and goats ; the rest ap- 
pointed cannot be eternal, because it is in a visible earthly land ; their 
holy city is one which can be profaned by Roman armies ; above all, 
their priesthood is dependent on the flesh. How manifest that all 
these things belong to the earthly temporal order. The whole dis- 
pensation is involved with things visible, tangible, material, evanescent 

But Mosaism was not wholly useless. It was a shadow of the 
good things to come : and to these real, eternal things Christ in- 
troduces men. Christ Himself, being Son of God, belongs to the 
eternal order. In Him we have throughout to do not with external 
ceremonies and temporal arrangements, but with what is spiritual ; 
in Him we come into touch not with imperfect revelations of God 
made through symbol and human medium, but with the very image 
of God. He mediates between God and man in virtue of His con- 
nection with both. He leads men into the true relation to God by 
Himself perfectly fulfilling the human life of obedience to God's will. 
His priesthood or power to carry His human brethren with Him into 
the heavenly life, springs out of His personal worth' wrought by 
discipline to a perfected condition. He is priest in virtue not of 
what is of the flesh, not by inherited office, but by virtue of His 
sympathy with men and His personal stainlessness. He enters the 
presence of God not in an earthly tabernacle nor with the blood of 
bulls and goats but with His own blood, bringing men and God 
together by the pure and perfect surrender of Himself to God. This 
gacrifice though made on earth was yet made in the eternal order, 


because made in spirit, in a spirit which necessarily belongs not to 
this visible and transitory order of things but to the eternal and real, 
or as the writer says, " through eternal spirit ". 

That which this writer finds common to the new and the old 
forms of religion is the purpose of God to bring men into fellowship 
with Himself, or, in other words, the covenant idea. With this 
writer religion is the harmony of God and man. He thinks of God, 
not like Paul, as a Judge before whose bar man must somehow be 
cleared of guilt, but as entering into covenant with man and provid- 
ing for the maintenance of this covenant by sacrifice. In history 
he sees two great epochs in the promotion of this fellowship distin- 
guished by the efficacy with which it is effected. For the covenant 
being between the holy, heavenly God and His unholy creature, it 
will not be quite easy to form or to maintain. It involves at any 
rate two things, that the will of God in the matter be made known, 
and that man be separated from his sin. it involves, that is to 
say, that the covenant be effectively mediated and especially in this 
respect that it be secured that man shall be cleansed from his sin 
and fitted for true and lasting fellowship with God. So essential 
is this, that each form of the covenant may be judged by the effi- 
ciency with which it accomplishes this. If the arrangements for 
bringing man into real and abiding union with God are imperfect, 
then this colours with imperfection the covenant to which these 
arrangements belong ; if, on the other hand, such arrangements are 
made as actually cleanse the conscience and renew the character 
then this determines the perfectness of the covenant in which these 
arrangements are comprised. 

Hence the importance which this writer attaches to priesthood 
and sacrifice. It is by these the nature and efficacy of every 
covenant between God and man must be determined. If one cove- 
nant only provides for a ceremonial purification and a symbolic 
introduction to God, this of itself stamps that covenant as inferior 
to one which provides for a spiritual cleansing and a real union 
If with one of the covenants there is identified a priesthood which 
is merely hereditary and therefore fleshly and professional, while 
the other rests on a natural and spiritual priesthood that offers a 
real spiritual sacrifice, the sacrifice of self, in contrast with the 
sacrifice of bulls and goats, there can be little hesitation in deter- 
mining whether of these two is the eternal covenant. It is the 
writer's aim to exhibit this distinction. He knows that if only his 
readers can once see the real glory of Christ and His religion all 
their doubts will vanish, and accordingly he proceeds to send them 


such an exposition of that glory as is in point of fact a magnificent 
apologetic for Christianity from the Jewish point of view. 

The relation thus established between the former and the latter 
dispensation may tend to an undervaluing of the old, and lead to 
the idea that " the Jew was simply the keeper of a casket which 
he could not unlock, an actor in a symbolical representation which 
to him conveyed little or no meaning". It must be borne in mind, 
therefore, that the arrangements of the Old Testament were primarily 
for the religious use of the Jews themselves. Their religion was not 
devised for the intellectual employment or diversion of persons 
who can now look back upon it, nor altogether for the religious 
edification of such persons, but primarily for the religious edification 
of the Jews themselves. They needed a religion as much as we do. 
They needed assurance of God and His favour, and some means of 
access to Him and this they found in their religion of type and 
symbol. To them as to us a gospel was preached (iv. 2). Through 
the symbolic arrangements of their earthly tabernacle they learned 
real truth and were brought into fellowship with the eternal. Not 
that they understood what the physical arrangements of their religion 
typified, but that they did understand what they symbolised. The 
Old Testament ritual was instructive not in so far as it was typical, 
but in so far as it was symbolical. A symbol is an embodied idea, 
or what we nowadays call an " object lesson " ; an idea rendered 
visible in a material sign or in an external action. A type not only 
expresses an idea, but looks forward to a time when this idea shall 
receive its perfect expression. As Mr. Litton ^ defines it " a type 
is a prophetic symbol ". " Every true type is necessarily a symbol, 
that is, it embodies and represents the ideas which find their fulfil- 
ment in the antitype ; but every symbol is not necessarily a type ; 
a symbol may terminate in itself, and point to nothing future ; it 
may even refer to something past." Now it cannot be supposed 
that the contemporaries of Moses or Moses himself understood what 
was prefigured by their ritual. But if they did not understand their 
ritual as a collection of types, they certainly did understand it as a 
system of symbols. The tabernacle itself was both a symbol and 
a type. It was a symbol that God dwelt with men, ever in their 
midst, sharing their fortunes, forgiving their sin, and bestowing bless- 
ing. This symbol every child could read. But it was also a type, a 
symbol with a prophecy wrapped up in it, a symbol giving promise 
that the truth taught in it would one day find its perfect, eternal 
manifestation. This could at the best be but imperfectly understood. 

^ Bampton Lectures, p. 82. 
VOL. IV. 16 


But the writer to the Hebrews looking back upon the preparation 
for Christ can see how this and that prefigured Him who was to 
come. Every Old Testament institution, ceremony, person or thing 
in which a principle or idea was embodied which was afterwards 
embodied in Christ and His Kingdom may legitimately be called 
"typical". To the Jews themselves these types were helpful not 
because they threw light upon the person and work of Christ, but 
because they then and there communicated those very ideas which 
were subsequently expressed in their reality in Jesus. The institu- 
tion of sacrifice, e.g., was useful to them not because it taught them 
to look for a Messiah who should die for their sins — for it had no 
such effect — but because it then and there communicated the very 
ideas and the very hopes which the death of Christ expressed — in 
a dim and unsatisiactory way no doubt, as this writer is careful to 
show, but still adequately as a first lesson in the holiness and for- 
giveness of God. 

Keeping in view the aim of the writer to convince his readers 
that the new Christian order of things is an advance on the old 
Mosaic order, and is indeed the final and universal form of religion, 
the course of thought is easily followed. The Mediator of the new 
covenant is first of all compared with the Mediators of the old, with 
prophets, angels, Moses, Joshua, Aaron, and this comparison oc- 
cupies the first seven chapters. The writer then proceeds to exhibit 
the evanescence of the old covenant and the superiority of the new 
(viii. 6-13), and of the true God-pitched tabernacle and its sacrifice to 
the first man-made tabernacle with its arrangements and offerings 
(ix. 1-x. 18). On this demonstrated superiority and finality of the 
covenant which Christ has mediated the writer founds a forcible 
appeal and exhorts his readers to hold fast their profession and to 
use the access to God provided for them (x. 19-25). This exhorta- 
tion he enforces by warnings (x. 26-31), by awakening remembrances 
of better times (32-39), by the rapid, sugggestive and eloquent pre- 
sentation of their predecessors in faith (xi.), and especially of Him 
whose example in faith and endurance is perfect (xii. 1-4), and by 
illustrating the reasonableness of hopefully submitting to present 
trouble as discipline sent by the heavenly Father (xii. 5-13). They 
are further urged to diligence in sanctification by the consideration 
that awful as were the sanctions of the old law, those of the new 
covenant are immensely more awful, that indeed our God is a con- 
suming fire (xii. 14-29). The closing chapter contains miscellaneous 
but relevant admonitions. 

Date. The chief index to the date of the Epistle is its relation 


to the destruction of the Temple. The impression one receives 
from its perusal is that the sacrifices and other services of the 
Temple were still being performed. If particular passages are ex- 
amined, this impression is deepened. It is quite true that the use 
of the present tense (as in Heb. ix. 6, viii. 4, etc.) does not always 
imply an actual present. The use of this tense by Clement {Ep. c. 
41) in describing ordinances which in his day were certainly obso- 
lete puts this beyond question. But of course the use of the pre- 
sent generally implies the existence of the object spoken of at the 
time of the speaker; and it is not easy to suppose that if the 
Temple and its worship had already been abolished, this writer 
could use such language as we find in ex. 1, 2; "they can never 
with the same sacrifices year by year which they offer continually 
make perfect them that draw nigh. Else would they not have 
ceased to be offered ? " And as Menegoz 1 says : " C'est precis^ment 
I'existence du culte levitique qui offrait des dangers pour la fidelity 
des Chretiens. Apres la destruction du Temple ce danger avait dis- 
paru, du moins en majeure partie." Besides, it is impossible to sup- 
pose that a writer wishing to demonstrate the evanescent nature of 
the Levitical dispensation, and writing after the Temple services 
had been discontinued, should not have pointed to that event as 
strengthening his argument. It would appear, then, that the 
Epistle must have been written while the Temple was yet standing, 
that is, prior to the year a.d. 70. 

Accordingly Salmon dates the Epistle in 63 ; Menegoz places it 
in 64-67. The year 66 or thereabouts is adopted by Riehm, Liine- 
mann, Hilgenfeld, Weiss, Beyschlag, Schiirer, Godet, Westcott. 
Bleek prefers the year 68 or 69. Harnack, Pfleiderer, von Soden, 
Holtzmann and McGiffert bring it down to some date between a.d. 
81 and 96. 

Commentaries. Full lists of commentaries on the Epistle are 
easily accessible in Bible Dictionaries or in Delitzsch's Comment- 
ary. A selection is given by von Soden in the Hand-commentar. 
Here it must suffice to name the most outstanding. Among the 
patristic commentators Chrysostom is unquestionably the most valu- 
able, always sensible and well expressed. Of mediaeval writers 
Primasius, Atto Vercellensis and Herveius may be consulted with 
advantage.2 Calvin, Erasmus, Beza, Grotius, Bengel will inevitably 
be used in the study of this Epistle, as of any part of the New 

^LaTheol. de I'ep. etc., p. 40. 

*On these and others see RiggenhaMs Die dltesten lateinischen Komm: Zum 
Hebrderbrief in Zahn's Forschungen. 


Testament. At the foundation of all more recent elucidation of the 
Epistle lies Bleek's great work, Der Brief an die Hebraer erlautert 
(1828-1840), the most comprehensive and scholarly, and in all re- 
spects one of the best commentaries on any book of the New Testa- 
ment. Of almost equal value is Weiss' contribution to the revised 
Meyer. Delitzsch though not so exact is generally suggestive and 
always rich in material, while his knowledge of the Old Testament 
enables him to enter into the author's point of view. Westcott, 
largely indebted to Bleek, is, as always, full and accurate. Vaughan 
is of great use for ascertaining the precise meaning and biblical 
usage of words. Davidson (Clark's Bible-class Hand-books) pene- 
trates to the meaning of the writer better than any other commen- 
tator, Peake (Jack's Century Bible) rivals him in this and has a 
rare gift of compact lucidity. No better book could be conceived or 
is needed for English readers. Nothing better has been written on 
the Epistle than his chapter on its teaching. 

Other works such as those by Owen, Peirce, Moses Stuart, 
Tholuck, Hofmann, McCaul, Lowrie and von Soden will be found 
helpful, and each has a merit of its own. And naturally the great 
collectors of illustrative material, Wetstein and Schoettgen, Kypke, 
Eisner and Raphel will be used. The parallels from Philo have 
been carefully collected by Carpzov. Where Anz is named, the 
reference is to his Subsidia ad cognoscendum Graecorum sermonem 
vulgarem e Pentateuchi versione Alexandrina repetita in the Disserta- 
tiones Philologicae Halenses, vol. xii., part ii. (1384). 

Riehm's Lehrbegriff des Hebrderbriefes is a classic, a monument 
of German industry and comprehensiveness, full of detail but never 
wearisome, always lighting up old meanings with fresh flashes of in- 
sight. Bruce's presentation of the substance of the Epistle [The 
Ep. to the Hebrews, Clark) is characteristically vigorous and full of 
elevated thought and enriching ideas. An excellent book on The 
Theology of the Epistle has also been issued by Dr. George Milligan. 
And quite indispensable to the student is La Theologie de I'Epitre 
aux Hebreux, by Eugene M^negoz. 

I. Greek Uncials. 

^ Sinaiticus Petropolitanus, Saec. iv. Complete. 

A Alexandrinus Londinensis, Saec. v. Complete. 

B Vaticanus Romanus, Saec. iv. Defective from ix. 14 — end. ["Manus multo 
recentior supplevit, Heb. ix. 14-xiii. 25, quae Mico Italus ipsius codicis con- 
lator Bentleio jubente contulit et Tischendorfius aliquoties notavit siglo b." 
Gregory's Prolegomena, p. 418.] 


C Ephraemi Parisiensis, Saec. v. Wants i. i iro\v|<,cpti>$ — wv£v|xaTos a^iov ii. 4. 

vii. 26 a|jiiavTOS — |jico'tTt)S ix. 15. x. 24 irqs Kai KaXuv — (LiavOoxriv iroXXoi 

xii. 15. 
D Claromontanus Parisiensis Nationalis 107, Graeco-Latinus. [" Latina inprimis 

in epistula ad Hebraeos errores multos praebent" Gregory.] Saec. vi. 

Heb. xiii. 21-23 is lost. Beza, to whom we owe the earliest notice of this 

Codex describes it as of equal antiquity with his copy (D) of the Gospels, 

and tells us it was found at Clermont, near Beauvais. Many hands have 

revised it. 
E Petropolitanus, Graeco-Latinus, Saec. ix. Wants Heb. xii. 8 iravres — v|xwv, 

xiii. 25. A faulty copy of D after it had been more than once corrected. 
Fa Coislinianus Parisiensis, Saec. vii. Contains x. 26. 
H Coislinianus Parisiensis nationalis 202, Saec. vi. The leaves of this MS. are 

still scattered, some at Paris, some at Moscow, some at St. Petersburg, 

some at Mt. Athos, others elsewhere. It contains of Hebrews, chapters ii., 

iii., iv., X. 
K Moscuensis, Saec. ix. Complete. 

L Angelicus Romanus, Saec. ix. Complete to xiii. 10 c|ovo-iav. 
M Londin, Hamburg (Scrivener's Codex Ruber, so called from beautifully bright 

red colour of the ink), Saec. ix. Contains i. i-iv. 3, and xii. 20-xiii. 25. 

" Textu ad optimos testes hie codex accedit." Gregory, cf. Scrivener, p. 

N Petropolitanus, Saec. ix. Contains v. 8-vi. 10. 
O Fragmenta Mosquensia, Saec vi. (?) Contains x. 1-3, 3-7, 32-34, 35-38. 

P Porfirianus Chiovensis, Saec. ix. Complete, xii. 9, 10 illegible. 

The first verse of the Epistle has been edited by Messrs. Grenfell & Hunt from 
a fragment in Lord Amherst's collection of papyri. It is in a small uncial hand of 
the early fourth century. It reads ^(Jiwv after warpao-iv. 

II. Greek Cursives. 

Of the large number of cursives cited by Tischendorf, it may suffice to mention 
the Codex Colbertinus of the Imperial Library of Paris, collated by Tregelles, and 
cited as 17 [33 of the Gospels]. It belongs to the eleventh century, and is of great 
value. Another MS. which was collated by Tregelles and highly valued by him is 
the Codex Leicestrensis of the fourteenth century, and cited under the sign 37. 
Gregory also marks 47, Oxon. Bodl. Roe, as " bonae notae ". It also was collated 
by Tregelles. 

III. Versions. 

The Old Latin and the Vulgate, the Peshitto and Harklean Sjrriac, the Coptic 
and fragments of the Sahidic and Bashmuric versions, together with the Armenian 
and jEthiopic are available for the ascertainment of the text of the Epistle. [For 
remarks on these versions, see Westcott's Com., Introduction.] 

H npos 


I. I. "nOAYMEPQI Kal iroXurpoTrus irdXai 6 0eos XaXi^aas tois a Num. xii. 

iraTpatrn' iv tois ■irpo<})T]TaiSi cir' ia^driav^ t<ov "fniipCiv toutwv eXd-';Gal. 

iv. 4. 

1 The title should be simply FIPOI EBPAIOYI. See Introd, 

* T.R. with 47, and some versions ; eaxarov with ^ABDEKLMP, 17, etc 

Chapter I. — Vv. 1-3. The aim of 
the writer is to prove that the old Cove- 
nant through which God had dealt with 
the Hebrews is superseded by the New ; 
and this aim he accomplishes in the first 
place by exhibiting the superiority of the 
mediator of the new Covenant to all 
previous mediators. The Epistle holds 
in literature the place which the Trans- 
figuration holds in the life of Christ. 
Former mediators give place and Christ 
is left alone under the voice " Hear ye 
Him ". With this writer, Jesus is before 
all else the Mediator of a better Coven- 
ant, viii. 6. But ' Mediator ' involves the 
arranging and accomplishing of every- 
thing required for the efficacy of the 
Covenant ; the perfect knowledge of the 
person and purposes of Him who makes 
the Covenant with men and the com- 
munication of this knowledge to them; 
together with the removal of all obstacles 
to man's entrance into the fellowship 
with God implied by the Covenant. This 
twofold function is in these first three 
verses shown to be discharged by Christ. 
He as Son speaks to men for God and 
thus supersedes all previous revelations ; 
while, instead of appointing a priest who 
can only picture a cleansing, and accom- 
plish a ceremonial purity, He becomes 
Priest and actually cleanses men from 
sin, and so effects their actual fellowship 
witji God. 

Ver. I. In sonorous and dignified terms 
the writer abruptly makes his first great 
affirmation : '• God having spoken . . . 
spoke". 6 0eis XoXijo-as . . . IXd- 

Xi]o-cv, for, however contrasted, previous 
revelations proceeded from the same 
soiu-ce and are one in design and in 
general character with that which is final. 
In the N.T. XaXciv is not used in a dis- 
paraging sense, but, especially in this 
Epistle, is used of God making known 
His will. See ii. 2, iii. 5, v. 5, etc. God 
spoke, desired to be understood, to come 
into communication with men and there- 
fore uttered Himself in intelligible forms, 
and succeeded, all through the past, in 
making Himself and His will known to 
men. He had not kept silence, allowing 
men to feel after Him if haply they 
might find Him. He had met the out- 
stretched hand and guided the seeker. 
And this " speaking " in the past was 
preparatory to the final speaking in 
Christ ; " God having spoken . . . spoke ". 
The earlier revelations were the prepara- 
tion for the later but were distinguished 
from it in four particulars — in the time, 
in the recipients, in the agents, in the 

iroXvftcpws Kal ir oXvrpiSirus 
" in many parts and in many ways ". 
The alliteration is characteristic of the 
author, cf. v. 8, v, 14, vii. 3, ix. 10, etc. 
For the use of the words in Greek 
authors see Wetstein. iroXv|jicp(os points 
to the fragmentary character of former 
revelations. They were given piece-meal, 
bit by bit, part by part, as the people 
needed and were able to receive them. 
The revelation of God was essentially 
progressive; all was not disclosed at 
once, because all could not at once be 



nP02 EBPAI0Y2 


understood. One aspect of God's nature, 
one element in His purposes, reflected 
from the conditions of their time, the 
prophets could know ; but in the nature 
of things it was impossible they should 
know the whole. They were like men 
listening to a clock striking, always get- 
ting nearer the truth but obliged to wait 
till the whole was heard. Man can only 
know in part, Ik (x^povs, i Cor. xiii. [A 
fine illustration will be found in Brown- 
ing's Cleon, in lines beginning: '* those 
divine men of old time have reached, 
thou sayest well, each at one point the 
outside verge," etc.] The " speaking " of 
God to the fathers was conditioned by 
the capacity of the prophets. His speak- 
ing was also TroXvTp<5ir<i)s {cf. Odyss. i. i. 
AvSpa fxoi cvveirc, Mov<ra, iroX.-0Tpoirov] 
not in one stereotyped manner but in 
modes varying with the message, the 
messenger, and those to whom the 
word is sent. Sometimes, therefore, God 
spoke by an institution, sometimes by 
parable, sometimes in a psalm, sometimes 
in an act of righteous indignation. For, 
as Peake says, " the author is speaking 
not of the forms in which God spoke to 
the prophets, but of the modes in which 
He spoke through them to the fathers. 
The message took the form of law or 
prophecy, of history or psalm ; now it 
'was given in signs, now in types." So 
Hofmann. These features of previous 
revelations, so prominently set and ex- 
pressed so grandiloquently, cannot have 
been meant to disparage them, rather to 
bring into view their affluence and plia- 
bility and many-sided application to the 
growing receptivity and varying needs 
of men. He wins his readers by sug- 
gesting the grandeur of past revelations. 
But it is at the same time true, as Calvin 
remarks, " varietatem fiiisse imperfec- 
tionis notam ". So Bengel, " Ipsa pro- 
phetarum multitudo indicat, eos ex parte 
prophetasse ". These characteristics, 
while they encouragingly disclosed God's 
purpose to find His way to men, did 
yet discredit, as inadequate for perfect 
achievement, each method that was tried. 
The contrast in the new revelation is 
implied in the word iKaOicrcv, indicating 
that the work was once for all accom- 

The next note of previous revelations 
is found in irdXai " of old," not merely 
" in time past " as A.V. ; marking the 
time referred to in XaXTJo-og as contrasted 
with the WTiter's present, and gently 
suggesting that other methods of speak- 
ing might now be appropriate. Already 

in 2 Cor. iii. 14 the Mosaic covenant is 
spoken of as ^ iraXaia SioOi^kt) cf. viii. 
13. Here irdXai is contrasted with kic' 
layja-rov t«v r[\kt.pStv toiJtwv, " at the 
last of these days," ["Aufs Ende dieser 
Tage," Weizsacker], i.e., in the Messianic 
time at the close of the period known to 
the Jews as "this present time or age". 
The expression is used in the L^X 
indifferently with lit iaya.TW t. '^(icpwv 
or Iv Tats lo-xaTttts 'qp.^pai; to translate 

D'^P^rr n''")nStn (see Isa. n. 2 

Gen. xlix. i ; Num. xxiv. 14), which was 
used to denote either the future indefin- 
itely or the Messianic period, " the 
latter days " in which all prophecy was 
to find its fulfilment. Bleek quotes 
Kimchi as saying : " Ubicunque leguntur 
' Beaharith Hayamim ' ibi sermo est de 
diebus Messiae ". And Wetstein quotes 
R. Nachman : " Extremum dierum con- 
sensu omnium doctorum sunt Dies 
Messiae ". It was this Jewish usage 
which the N.T. writers followed in 
speaking of their own times as " the 
last days ; " lir' iayarov r. XP"^*'**'" 
(Jude 18) ; i-rr' ia-xiruv r, 'fjp.cpuv (2 
Pet. iii. 3) ; lir' itrxarov t. xP*'''*"' 
(i Pet. i. 20) ; and in this Epistle, ix. 26, 
Christ is said to have appeared tiri 
awreXtlff, twv aluvcov. The first Advent 
as terminating the old world and in- 
troducing the Messianic reign was 
considered the consummation. The 
introduction of the word Toi5T«v is 
suggested by the Jewish division of the 
world's course into two periods : " This 
Age " (Ha-Olam Hazzeh) and The 
Coming Age (Ha-Olam Habbah). The 
end of " this age " or "these days " was 
signalised by ths coming of the Messiah, 
the new revelation in Christ. More 
effectually than the Jews themselves 
expected has the Advent of the Messiah 
antiquated the old world and opened a 
new period. 

The temporal contrast is further 
marked by the words T019 iraTpdciv 
(ver. i) and iq [i t v (ver. 2). Former revela- 
tions had been made to " the fathers," i.e., 
of the Jewish people, as in John vii. 22 ; 
Rom. ix. 5, XV. 8; 2 Pet. iii. 4. More . 
frequently " our " " your " " their " is 
added, as in Acte iii. 13, 25 ; Luke vi. 53. 
But it is idle to urge, with von Soden, 
the absence of the pronoun as weighing 
against the restriction of the term in this 
place to the Jewish fathers, ^i" "to 
us " of these last days, of the Christian 

"The determining OMitrast between the 

I— 3' 

nP02 EBPAI0Y2 


XTjaec VjjjtiK iy ut«, 2. ''oi' IdifjKe KXTipOfcSftof Ttdvrav, 8t* oiJ Kai Tois t* PS' "• 8; 

X Matt. xxi. 

olucas ETTOirjaei',^ 3. "os wk diraiiyaafia ttjs So^tjs Kai x^P'*''tt]P 38; Joan. 

iii. g; Col. 
i. 16. c viii. I et ix. i2, etc., et zii. 3 ; Ps. ex. i ; Sap. vit. 36 ; Joan. i. 4, et ziv. g ; z Cor. iv.4 ; 
Col. i. IS, 7 ; Phil. ii. 6; Apoc. iv. 11. 

*T.R. in DbKLP with other MSS. and versions; icai ciroiTjo-cv t. aiuvas in 
^ABD*, etc., E, etc. 

two revelations is found in this, that in 
the one God spoke iv tois irpo^iJTais, 
while in the other He spoke ev vitp. 
"The prophets" stand here, not for the 
prophetic writings as in Jo. vi. 45; Acts 
xiii. 40, etc. ; but for all those who had 
spoken for God, and especially for that 
great series of men from Abraham and 
Moses onwards who had been the organs 
of revelation and were identified with it 
{cf. the Parable of the Wicked Husband- 
men). The prep. Iv is not used in 
its instrumental sense (cf. Habak. ii. 1), 
nor is it = 8ia, it brings God closer to 
the hearers of the prophetic word, and 
implies that what the prophets spoke, God 
spoke. So Hofmann and Weiss. ["Ipse 
in cordibus eorum dixit quicquid illi foras 
vel dictis vel factis locuti sunt hominibus," 
Herveius.] The full significance of Iv is 
seen in Iv vi(3. I v v I cp without the 
article must be translated " in a son " or 
"in one who is a son," indicating the 
nature of the person through whom this 
final revelation was made. The revelation 
now consisted not merely in what was 
said [irpo(^i]Tais] but in what He was 
[vids]. This revelation was final because 
made by one who in all He is and does, 
reveals the Father. By uttering Himself 
He expresses God. A Son who can be 
characteristically designated a son, carries 
in Himself the Father's nature and does 
not need to be instructed in purposes 
which are also and already His own, nor 
to be officially commissioned and em- 
powered to do what He cannot help 
doing. " No man knoweth the Son but 
the Father ; neither knoweth any man 
the Father save the Son, and he to 
whomsoever the Son will reveal Him " 
(cf. John i. 18). The whole section on 
"The Son of God" in Dalman's Die 
Worte fesu should be read in this 
connection. " Son " is here used in its 
Messianic reference, as the quotations 
cited in vv. 5, 6 prove. The attributes 
ascribed to the Son are at the same time 
Divine attributes. [So Baur and Pfleiderer. 
Menegoz denies this]. The writer appar- 
ently experiences no difficulty in attaching 
to one and the same personality the 

creating of the world and the dying to 
cleanse sin. 

The Son is described in six particulars 
which illustrate His supremacy ^pd His 
fitness to reveal the Father : YiJ His I 
destination to universal lordsnip (hv 
e9T)K£v KXt)pov6|jiov -irdvTwv) ; (2) His 
agency in creation (St' ov liroiTjo-ev t. 
alwvas) ; {3) His likeness to God («v 
airav-yaa-|xa k.t.X.) ; (4) His relation to 
the world) <{>cpuv ret iravra) ; (5) His 
redemptive work (Ka6apta-p.6v . . . 
iroiT](ra)i,cvos) ; (6) His exaltation (licd- 
6i.(rcv Iv 8c|u^ k.t.X.). Cf. Vaughan. 
8v c9t)kev ic\i]povo|iov irdvTwv "whom 
He appointed heir of all ". Davidson, 
Weiss and others understand this of the 
actual elevation of Christ, on His ascen- 
sion, to the Lordship of all. [" Dass der 
Verfasser bei diesen Worten an den 
erhohten Christus gedacht habe, halten 
wir fiir unzweifelhaft," Riehm, p. 295]. 
But the position of the clause in the 
verse and the subsequent mention of the 
exaltation in ver. 3 rather indicate that 
e6T]Kcv has here its ordinary meaning 
(see Eisner and Bleek) of " appointed," 
and that the reference is to Ps. ii. 8 
Sutru croi eOvTj tt)v KXtipovoiiiav «rov 
K.T.X., so Hofmann. Through this Son 
God is to accomplish His purpose. The 
Son is to reign over all. The writer lifts 
the thought of the despondent to Christ's 
triumph and Lordship. In the Parable of 
the Wicked Husbandmen Christ speaks 
of Himself as Heir. It is involved in 
the Sonship ; Gal. iv. 7. It is not 
simply possessor but possessor because 
of a relation to the Supreme. The 
Father could not be called kXt]pov6|xos. 
Dalman shows that the 2nd Psalm 
" deduces from the filial relation of the 
King of Zion to God, that universal 
dominion, originally proper to God, is 
bequeathed to the Son as an inheritance," 
Worte Jesu, p. 220, E. Tr. 268. Cf. also 
Matt. xi. 27, iravTa |jioi Trapc860i) viri tov 
iraTp(is p.ov. [Chrysostom says the use of 
the term brings out two points rh ttjs 
vI<Sttjtos ■yvi]<rtov, icai rh ttjs KvpiiTTjTos 
avaird«rirao-Tov.] The inheritance is not 
fully e uered upon, until it can be said 


nP02 EBPAI0Y2 

rps fiiroordo'Eus auTou, ^iptav t€ tA itAvTa tw pi^fiari ttjs Surdficw; 
auTOU, 8t' ^auTOu ^ KaOapiaixov iroiTjadfi.ei'os tS)v dfiapriui' ^jxwk,' 

* T.R. in DcEKLM al pier, d, e, Syrutr ; omit Si covtow with fc^ABDbP, 17, 46», 

« Omit i||iwv with ^♦ABD*E*MP. 

that " the kingdom of the world is become 
the Kingdom of our Lord and of His 
Christ," Rev, xi. 15. Cf. Heb. ii, 8. 
But by His incarnation He came into 
touch with men and poured His life into 
human history, at once claiming and 
securing His great inheritance. 

Si' ov Kal iiroii]<rtv tovs alu- 
ros 'through whom also He made the 
world," "per quem fecit et secula " (Vulg.), 
•• durch Welchen er auch die Weltzeiten 
gemacht hat" (Weizsacker). " Secula et 
omnia in iis decurrentia " (Bengel). Weiss 
thinks it quite improbable that so pure a 
Greek writer should use aluvas in the 
rabbinical sense as = " world," and he 
believes that the Greek interpreters are 
right in retaining the meaning " world- 
periods ". But in xi. 3 it becomes 
obvious that this writer could use the 
word as virtually = K6ar}i.o%. "The 
thought of duration is never wholly lost 
in the Scripture use of aluv, though in 
this place, and in xi. 3 it is all but 
effaced" (Vaughan). Cf. Schoettgen 
and McCaul. The writer perhaps has it 
in his mind that the significant element 
in creation is not the mass or magnifi- 
cence of the material spheres but the 
evolution of God's purposes through the 
ages. The mind staggers in endeavour- 
ing to grasp the vastness of the physical 
universe but much more overwhelming is 
the thought of those times and ages and 
aeons through which the purpose of God 
is gradually unfolding, unhasting and 
unresting, in the boundless life He has 
called into being. He who is the end and 
aim, the heir, of all things is also their 
creator. The Kal brings out the propriety 
of committing all things to the hand that 
brought them into being. The revealer 
is the creator, Jo. i. 1-5. He only can 
guide the universe to its fit end who at 
first, presumably with wisdom equal to 
His power, brought it into being. ["Cette 
id^e d'un etre celeste charge de r€aliser la 
pensee creatrice de Dieu est une idee 
philonienne; elle a penetre dans le 
Judaisme sous I'infiuence de la philosophie 
grecque" (Men^goz). It is true that 
this is a Philonic idea (see numerous 
passages in Carpzov, Bleek, McCaul and 
Drummond) but we may also say with 

Weiss " Die philonischen Aussagen . . 
gehoren gar nicht hierher ". Certainly 
Philo never claimed for a definite his- 
torical person the attributes here enum- 
erated.] For the Son's agency in Creation 
see John i. 2; Col. i. 15. Grotius' ren- 
dering " propter Messiam conditum esse 
mundum " is interesting as illustrating 
his standpoint, but would require Si' ov. 

Ver. 3. $9 &v airavYao'iia. . . . 
" Who being effulgence of His glory and 
express image of His nature." The 
relative 8s finds its antecedent in v'uf, 
its verb in iKaOiorcv ; and the interposed 
participles prepare for the statement of the 
main verb by disclosing the fitness of 
Christ to be the revealer of God, and 
to make atonement. The two clauses, 
&v . . . ij>^pfa)v Te, are closely bound to- 
gether and seem intended to convey the 
impression that during Christ's redemp- 
tive activity on earth there was no ken- 
osis, but that these Divine attributes lent 
efficacy to His whole work. [On the 
difficulty of this conception see Gore's 
Bampton Lee, p. 266, and Carpenter's 
Essex Hall Lee, ^.^yj] Ltravya.iry.a. 
TTJs So|t)s. . . airavvoo-fia may mean 
either what is flashed forth, or what ia, 
flashed back : either " ray" or " reflection". 
Calvin, Beza, Thayer, Menegoz prefer 
the latter meaning. Thus Grotius has, 
" repercussus divinae majestatis, qualis 
est solis in nube ". The.Greek fathers, 
on the other hand, uniformly adopt the 
meaning " ettulgence '. Thus Theodorec 
rh Y^p airavYa(r|xa Kal Ik toD irup<is 
Icrri, Kal «ruv T<p irvpC Icti • Kal atnov 
ft^v Ix*"" Ti irvp, axwpiCTTOv S^ loTi Tov 
irvp69 . . . Kal T(p irvpl Si 6p.o<|>vis rh 
airavYoLcp-O' : ovkovv Kal 6 ,v\,h% rtf 
irarpi. So in the Nicene Creed ^lus Ik 
^»T<Ss. " The word ' efilulgence' seems 
to mean not rays of light streaming from 
a body in their connection with that 
body or as part of it, still less the reflec- 
tion of these rays caused by their falling 
upon another body, but rather rays of 
light coming out from the original body 
and forming a similar light-body them- 
selves " (Davidson). So Weiss, who says 
that the '* Strahlenglanz ein zweites 
Wesen erzeugt ". Philo's use of the 
word lends colour to this meaning when 



he says of the human soul breathed 
into man by God that it was axe ti)s 
ftaxapias icat Tpio-fiaKapias i^vo-eus 
airavYa<r|xa. So in India, Chaitanya 
taught that the human soul was like a 
ray from the Divine Being ; God like a 
blazing fire and the souls like sparks that 
spring out of it. In the Arian contro 
versy this designation of the Son was 
appealed to as proving that He is eter- 
nally generated and exists not by an act 
of the Father's will but essentially. See 
Suicer, s.v. As the sun cannot exist or 
a lamp burn without radiating light, so 
God is essentially Father and Son. t tj s 
8d|T)s avTOv. God's glory is all that 
belongs to, him as God, and the Son is the 
effulgence of God's glory, not only a 
single ray but as Origen says : oXt)s rris 
8o|t]s. Therefore the Son cannot but 
reveal the Father. Calvin says : " Dum 
igitur audis filium esse splendorem Pater- 
nae gloriae, sic apud te cogita, gloriam 
Patris esse invisibilem, donee in Christo 
refulgeat ". As completing the thought 
of these words and bringing out still 
more emphatically the fitness of the Son 
to reveal, it is added Kal x<'^P<*''''''^P 
TTJs viro<rTd(re CO s avTOti. x<>'P<'^'<' 
Ti]p, as its form indicates, originally 
meant the cutting agent [xapaorireiv], 
the tool or person who engraved. In 
common use, however, it usurped the 
place of xApa^fia and denoted the im- 
press or mark made by the graving tool, 
especially thel mark upon a coin which 
determined its value ; hence, any dis- 
tinguishing mark, identifying a thing or 
person, character. " Express image " 
translates it well. The mark left on wax 
or metal is the '* express image " of the 
seal or stamp. It is a reproduction of 
each characteristic feature of the original. 
viro(rTacre(d$ rendered "person" in 
A.V. ; " substance," the strict etymo- 
logical equivalent, in R.V. To the 
English ear, perhaps, " nature " or " es- 
sence " better conveys the meaning. It 
has not the strict meaning it afterwards 
acquired in Christian theology, but de- 
notes all that from which the glory 
springs and with which indeed it is 
identical. [We must not confound the 
S<}|a with the airavYaofJia as Hofmann 
and others do. The iiiro«rrao-is is the 
nature, the 8i$^a its quality, the airav^- 
ao-jxa its manifestation.] There is in the 
Father not/ung which is not reproduced 
in the Son, save the relation of Father to 
Son, Menegoz objects that though a 
mirror perfectly reflects the object before 
it and the wax bears the very image of 

the seal, the mirror and the wax have 
not the same nature as that which they 
represent. And Philo more than once 
speaks of man's rational nature as tvwos 
Tis Kal xO'P'i''<''~'IP OciAS Svvdficusi and 
the aTrav-yao-ixa of that blessed nature, 
see Quod deter, insid., c. xxiii. ; De Opif. 
Mundi, c. li. All that he means by this 
is, that man is made in God's image. 
But while no doubt the primary signific- 
ance of the terms used by the writer to 
the Hebrews is to affirm the fitness of 
Christ to reveal God, the accompanying 
expressions, in which Divine attributes 
are ascribed to Him, prove that this fit- 
ness to reveal was based upon com- 
munity of nature. The two clauses, &s 
to avTov, have frequently been accepted 
as exhibiting the Trinitarian versus the 
Arian and Sabellian positions ; the Sabel- 
lians accepting the airavYao-fjia as repre- 
senting their view of the modal manifes- 
tation of Godhead, the Arians finding it 
possible to accept the second clause, but 
neither party willing to accept both 
clauses — separate or individual existence 
of the Son being found in the figure of 
the seal, while identity of nature seemed 
to be affirmed in a'iravya€r\i.ti. [virdoT- 
a<ris was derived from the Stoics who 
used it as the equivalent of ovcria, that 
which formed the essential substratum, rh 
WoKc^^cvov, of all qualities. The Greek 
fathers, however, understood by it what 
they termed trp6(Tfi)trov 6p.oov<riov and 
affirmed that there were in the Godhead 
three v-irooTao-eis. The Latin fathers 
translating viroorao-is by substantia 
could not make this affirmation. Hence 
arose confusion until Gregory Nazianzen 
pointed out that the difference was one 
of words not of ideas, and that it was due 
to the poverty of the Latin language. See 
Suicer, s.v. ; Bleek in loc. ; Bigg's Chris- 
tian Platonists, p. 164-5 ; Dean Strong's 
Articles in jf.T.S. for 1901 on the His- 
tory of the Theological terni Substance ; 
Calvin Inst., i., 13, 2 ; Loofs' Leitfaden, 
p. 109 note and p. 134.! 

<^^puv re Ttt irdvTtt... "and 
upholding all things by the word of His 
power ". The meaning of c^pwv is seen 
in such expressions as that of Moses in 
Num. xi. 14 ov 8vvi](ro| lyu ^6vo% 
^^pciv irdvra ritv Xabv tovtov, where 
the idea of being responsible for their 
government and guidance is involved. 
So in Plutarch's Lucullus, 6, ^pciv tt|v 
irrfXiv of governing the city. In Latin 
Cicero {pro Plac., 37) reminds his judges 
" sustinetis rempublicara humeris vestris". 
See Bleek. In Rabbinic literature, as 



^ PhiL*i*^ ' ^''■^^'■^^*' ^^ Sc^io TTJs fieya^<<'<''ui^S ^i' 6«|;t]Xois, 4. * ToaouTW KpeiT- 
10. foiv y€v6]i.€vo^ rdv iyyikav, oau Siac^puTcpor irap* auTous kckXtjpo- 

Schoettgen shows, God is commonly 
spoken of as "portans mundum," the 

Hebrew word being ^3.0 In Philo, 

the Logos is the helmsman and pilot of 
all things {De Cherub.) tu ^tjixari,, by 
the expression of His power, by making 
His will felt in all created nature. The 
present, ^puv, seems necessarily to 
involve that during the whole of His 
earthly career, this function of upholding 
nature was being discharged. Probably 
the clause is inserted not merely to 
illustrate the dignity of the Son, but to 
suggest that the whole course of nature 
and history, when rightly interpreted, 
reveals the Son and therefore the Father. 
The responsibility of bringing the world 
to a praiseworthy issue depends upon 
Christ, and as contributing to this work 
His earthly ministry was undertaken. 
For the notable thing He accomplished 
as God's Son, the use He made of ins 
dignity and power, is expressed in the 
words, Ka6api(rp.ov r. a|jiapTuwv 
iroiT]o-d|xcvos " having accomplished 
purification of the sins ". This was as 
essential to the formation of the covenant 
as the ability rightly to represent God's 
mind and will. This itself was the 
supreme revelation of God, and it was 
only after accomplishing this He could 
sit down at God's right hand as one who 
had finished the work of mediating the 
eternal covenant. iroiT]o-d{i.evos, the mid. 
voice, supersedes the necessity of St* 
lavTov. The aorist part, implies that the 
cleansing referred to was a single definite 
act performed before He sat down, and 
in some way preparatory to that Exalta- 
tion. The word receives explanation in 
subsequent passages of the Ep. vii. 27, 
ix. 12-14. KaBapi(r^6s as used in LXX 
suggests that the cleansing referred to 
means the removal of guilt and its 
consciousness. The worshippers were 
fitted by cleansing to appear before 
God. ^ 

iKaSiircv iv8e|i^..." sat down 
at the right hand of the Majesty on 
high ". iKaSurcv seems to denote that 
the work undertaken by the Son was 
satisfactorily accomplished ; while the 
sitting down iv 8e{iqi k.t.X. denotes 
entrance upon a reign. The source of 
the expression is in Ps. ex. i (cited v. 
13) where the Lord says to Messiah 
icdOov ^K 8c|iwv p.ov, and this not only as 

introducing Him to the place of security 
and favour, but also of dignity and 
power. "The King's right hand was 
the place of power and dignity, belonging 
to the minister of his authority and his 
justice, and the channel of his mercy, 
the Mediator in short between him and 
his people " (Kendall). Cf. Ps. Ixxx. 17. 
In contrast to the ever-growing and never 
complete revelation to the fathers, which 
kept the race always waiting for some- 
thing more sufficing, there came at last 
that revelation which contained all and 
achieved all. But the expression not 
only looks backward in approval of the 
work done by the Son, but forward to 
the result of this work in His supremacy 
over all human affairs. (icYAXoxrvvi) 
is ascribed to God in Jude 25 and in 
Deut. xxxii. 3 Sire fiLCYaXbxruvTjv t^ ©«o> 
i\^iMv. Cf, also Clem., Ep., xvi. Here 
it is used to denote the sovereign 
majesty inherent in God (cf. xii. 2 ; Mk. 
xiv. 62). The words Iv vv|;i]Xois are 
connected by Westcott and Vaughan 
with iKaOio-cv. It is better, with Beza 
and Bleek, to connect them with p.cyO'X- 
"•HTMKijs, for while in x. 12 and xii. 2, 
where it is said He sat down on the 
throne of God, no further designation is 
needed; in viii. i, as here, where it is 
said that He sat down on the right hand 
of the Majesty, it is felt that some 
further designation is needed and iv tow 
ovpavols is added. No local region is 
intended, but supreme spiritual influence, 
mediation between God, the ultimate 
love, wisdom and sovereignty, and this 
world. This writer and his contemporary 
fellow-Christians, had reached the con- 
viction here expressed, partly from 
Christ's words and partly from their 
own experience of His power. 

Vv. 4 — ii. 18. The Son and tht Angels. 
Ver. 4, although forming part of the 
sentence 1-3, introduces a subject which 
continues to be more or less in view 
throughout chaps i. and ii. The 
exaltation of the Mediator to the right 
hand of Sovereignty is in keeping with 
His designation as Son, a designation 
which marked Him out as superior to 
the angels. Proof is adduced fiom the 
O.T. To this proof, in accordance with 
the writer's manner, a resulting admoni- 
tion is attached, ii. 1-4. And the 
remainder of chap. ii. is occupied with an 
explanation of the reasonableness of the 


nP02 EBPAI0Y2 


v6^r\K€v ocojuia. 5. 'Tiki y^P ^i'""^ itotc twi' dyy^wi', "YI65 |xou et^ g-5: ^.. 
«rd, iyiit <rfni.€pov y€yivfn]Kd tre;" Kal it6.\iv, " 'Eyw cao^ai aurA ^4;.iP»''> 

xxviii. 6; 
Ps. ii. 7 ; Acts xiii. 33. 

incarnation and the suffering it involved ; 
or, in other words, it is explained why if 
Christ is really greater than the angels, 
He had to be made a little lower than 

To<rovT^ KpeCrTuv Ycy«Sp.cvo9 
..." having become as much superior 
to the angels as He has obtained a more 
excellent name than they ". The form of 
comparison here used, Toa. . . . 8«r«{) is 
found also, vii. 20-22, viii. 6, x. 25 ; also in 
Philo. KpeiTTcdv is one of the words most 
necessary in an Epistle in which com- 
parison is never out of sight. The Son 
became (ycvciitevos) greater than the an- 
gels in virtue of taking His seat at God's 
right hand. This exaltation was the 
result of His earthly work. It is as 
Mediator of the new revelation, who has 
cleansed the sinful by His death, that He 
assumes supremacy. And this is in keep- 
ing with and in fulfilment of His obtain- 
ing the name of Son. This name kckXt)- 
povofi.T)Kcv, He has obtained, not " von 
Anfang an " as Bleek and others say, but 
as Riehm points out, in the O.T. The 
Messiah, then future, was spoken of as 
Son ; and therefore to the O.T. reference 
is at once made in proof. The Messianic 
Sonship no doubt rests upon the Eternal 
Sonship, but it is not the latter but the 
former that is here in view. 

In support of this statement the writer 
adduces an abundance of evidence, no 
fewer than seven passages being cited 
from the O.T. Before considering these, 
two preliminary objections may first be 
removed, (i) To us nothing may seem 
less in need of proof than that Christ 
who has indelibly impressed Himself 
on mankind is superior to the angels 
who are little more than a picturesque 
adornment of earthly life. But when this 
writer lived the angels may be said to 
have been in possession, whereas Christ 
had yet to win His inheritance. More- 
over, as Schoettgen shows (p. 905) it was 
usual and needful to make good the pro- 
position, " Messias major est Patriarchis, 
Mose, et Angelis ministerialibus ". Pro£ 
Odgers, too, has shown (Proceedings of 
Soc. of Hist. TkeoL, 1895-6) that quite pos- 
sibly the writer had in view some Jewish 
Gnostics who believed that Christ Him- 
self belonged to the angelic creation and 
bad, with the angels, a fluid personality 

and no proper human nature. In any 
case it was worth the writer's while to 
carry home to the conviction of his con- 
temporaries that a mediation accom- 
plished by one who was tempted and 
suffered and wrought righteousness, a 
mediation of an ethical and spiritual kind, 
must supersede a mediation accomplished 
by physical marvels and angelic minis- 
tries. (2) The passages cited from the 
Old Testament in proof of Christ's 
superiority although their immediate his- 
torical application is disregarded, are con- 
fidently adduced in accordance with the 
universal use of Scripture in the writer's 
time. But it must not be supposed that 
these passages are culled at random. 
With all his contemporaries this writer 
believed that where statements were 
made of an Israehtish king or other 
official in an ideal form not presently 
realised in those directly addressed or 
spoken of, these were considered to be 
Messianic, that is to say, destined to find 
their fulfilment and realisation in the 
Messiah. These interpretations of Scrip- 
ture were the inevitable result of faith m 
God. The people were sure that God 
would somehow and at some time fiilfil 
the utmost of His promise. 

The first two quotations (ver. 5) illus- 
trate the giving of the more excellent 
name ; the remaining quotations exhibit 
the superiority of the Son to angels, or 
more definitely the supreme rule and im- 
perishable nature of the Son, in contrast 
to the perishable nature and servile func- 
tion of the angels. 

Ver. 5. rivi yop cIWv itotc twv oyY- 
^Xa>v ..." For to which of the angels 
did he ever say My Son art Thou, I 
this day have begotten Thee ?" t(vi to 
what individual ; itotc in the whole 
course of history. The angels as a class 
are called " Sons of Elohim " in the 
O.T. (Gen. vi. 2 ; Ps. xxix. i, Ixxxix. 7; 
Job i. 6). But this was not used in its 
strict sense but merely as expressive of 
indefinite greatness, nor was it addressed 
to any individual, ctircv, the subject un- 
expressed, as is common in citing Scrip- 
ture (2 Cor. vi. 2 ; Gal. iii. 16 ; Eph. iv. 8, 
etc.). Winer and Blass supply OeiJs, 
others r\ ypa^i^. Warfield, who gives 
the fullest treatment of the subjectless 
use of X^yci, ^crl, and sucb words 


nP02 EBPAI0Y2 

f Ps. zcvii. CIS Trardpa, Kai aur^s corai aoi cis ui<5i' ; 6. OTa>' Se ttdXiv citr- 

7: Rom. \ , . X J / \ . ,< ^ 

viii. 29; aydyi\ toc irpwTOTOKOf eis tt)»' oiKoufxe^T]!', Xcyci} Kai irpoo-Kui'Tj- 
Col. i. 18. ' 

{Presb. and Ref. Rev., July, 1899) 
holds that either subject may be sup- 
plied, because " under the force of their 
conception of Scripture as an oracular 
book it was all one to the N.T. 
writers whether they said ' God says' or 
• Scripture says '." Here, however, the 
connection involves that the subject is 

6 6e(5s. The words cited are from Ps. ii. 

7 and are in verbal agreement with the 
LXX, which again accurately represents 
the Hebrew. The psalm was written to 
celebrate the accession of a King, Solo- 
mon or some other ; but the writer, see- 
ing in his mind's eye the ideal King, 
clothes the new monarch in his robes. 
The King was called God's Son on the 
basis of the promise made to David 
(2 Sam. vii. 14) and quoted in the follow- 
ing clauses : The words iyit o-qfjiepav 
YCY^vvTjKa o-e do not seem to add much 
to the foregoing words, except by em- 
phasising them, according to the ordinary 
method of Hebrew poetry. cri]p.epov is 
evidently intended to mark a special oc- 
casion or crisis and cannot allude to the 
eternal generation of the Son. In its 
original reference it meant " I have be- 
gotten Thee to the kingly dignity". It 
is not the beginning of life, but the en- 
trance on office that is indicated by y*Y" 
cvvTjKa, and it is as King the person 
addressed is God's Son. Thus Paul, in 
his address to the Pisidians (Acts xiii. 33), 
applies it to the Resurrection of Christ ; 
cf. Rom. i. 4. The words, then, find 
their fulfilment in Christ's Resurrection 
and Ascension and sitting down at God's 
right hand as Messiah. He was thus 
proclaimed King, begotten to the royal 
dignity, and in this sense certainly no 
angel was ever called God's Son. 

This is more fully illustrated by another 
passage introduced by the usual Kal 
iraXiv (see x. 30, and Longinus, De Subl., 
chap, iv, etc.). 'Eyit eo-opLai, avT<p ds 
irarepa . . ., words spoken in God's 
name by Nathan in reference to David's 
seed, and conveying to him the assurance 
that the kings of his dynasty should ever 
enjoy the fevour and protection and 
inspiration enabling them to rule as 
God's representatives. This promise is 
prior in history to the previous quotation, 
and is its source ; see 2 Sam. vii. 14. 
9f(ro|xai ds is Hellenistic after a Hebrew 
model. See Blass, Gram., p. 85. 

Ver. 6. Srav Si iraXiv elo-aYaYn • • • 

'* And wli ;n He shall again have brought 
the first-begotten into the world [of men]. 
He says, " And let all God's angels wor- 
ship Him". Having shown that " Son " is 
a designation reserved tor the Messiah 
and not given to any of the angels, the 
writer now advances a step and adduces 
a Scripture which shows that the relation 
of angels to the Messiah is one of 
worship. It is not easy to determine 
whether iraXiv merely indicates a fresh 
quotation (so Bleek, Bruce, etc) as in 
ver. 5 ; or should be construed with 
elo-aYaYij. On the whole, the latter is 
preferable. Both the position of irdXiv 
and the tense of ela-ay. seem to make 
for this construction. The "bringing 
in " is still future. Apparently it is to 
the second Advent reference is made ; 
cf. ix. 28. To refer clo-ay* to the incar- 
nation, with Chrysostom, Calvin, Bengel, 
Bruce (see esp. Schoettgen) ; or to the 
resurrection with Grotius ; or to an 
imagined introduction of the Son to 
created beings at some past period, with 
Bleek, is, as Weiss says, " sprachwidrig ". 
Rendall remarks ; " The words bring in 
have here a legal significance ; they 
denote the introduction of an heir into 
his inheritance, and are used by the LXX 
with reference to putting Israel in 
possession of his own land both in the 
time of Joshua and at the Restoration 
(Exod. vi. 8, XV. 17; Deut. xxx. 5)." 
This throws light not only on clo-ay. but 
also on irp(i>T(STOKOv and oiKovp.cvT]v, and 
confirms the interpretation of the clause 
as referring to the induction of the 
first-born into His inheritance, the world 
of men. irpcoTjJr. is used of Christ (i) in 
relation to the other children of Mary 
(Luke ii. 7 ; Matt. i. 25) ; (2) in relation 
to other men (Rom. viii. 29 ; Col. i. 18) ; 
(3) in relation to creation (Col. i. 15). 
Nowhere else in N.T. is it used absol- 
utely ; but cf. Ps. Ixxxix. 27. " I will make 
him first-born," i.e., superior in dignity 
and closer in intimacy, kiy e i , the present 
is used because the words recorded in 
Scripture and still unfulfilled are meant. 
These words, Kal •irpo<rKvvT]«rdTwo-av . . . 
occur verbatim in Moses' song (Deut. 
xxxii. 43). In the Alexandrian text, from 
which this writer usually quotes, we find 
viol ©eov {v. Swete's LXX), but in a 
copy of the song subjoined to the Psalter 
this MS. itself has aYyc^oi. The words 
are not represented in the Hebrew, and 


nP02 EBPAI0Y2 


adTbHTav auTu irdtTcs oyYcXoi Qeou". /. ' Kal irpos \i,kv toOs g Ps- "^- 4- 

dyy^oos Xcyei, ** 'O iroioif tous dyyeXous auTou Ttveufiara, Kai 

Toos XeiToupyous auToG irupo; (j>X6Ya "• 8. ''irpos Sc Tor ulby, " 'Oh Ps. xlv.6. 

are supposed by Delitzsch to have been 
added in the liturgical use of Moses' 
song. The part of the song to which 
they are attached represents the coming 
of God to judgment, a fact which further 
favours the view that it is the second 
Advent our author has in view. 

Ver. 7. Kai irpos fikv tovs a.yyi\ov% 
Xeyci. . , . The irpos \i,iv of this verse is 
balanced by irpos 8^ in ver. 8 ; and in both 
irp<$s is to 'be rendered "with reference 
to ," or " of" as in Luke xx. 19 ; Rom. x. 
21 ; Xen., Mem., iv. 2-15. C/. Winer, 
p. 505 : and our own expression " speak 
to such and such a point ". 6 ir o i w v 
K.T.X. cited from Ps. civ, 4, Liinemann 
and others hold that the Hebrew is 
wrongly rendered and means "who 
maketh winds his messengers " not " who 
maketh His angels winds ". Calvin, too, 
finds no reference to angels in the words. 
He believes that in this Hymn of Creation 
the Psalmist, to illustrate how God is in 
alll nature, says " who maketh the winds 
his messengers," i.e., uses for his purposes 
the apparently wildest of natural forces, 
and " flaming fire his ministers," the 
most rapid, resistless and devouring 
of agents controlled by the Divine hand. 
Cf. Shakespeare, " thought-executing 
fires '. The writer accepts the LXX 
translation and it serves his purpose of 
exhibiting that the characteristic ftmction 
of angels is service, and that their form 
and appearance depend upon the will of 
God. This was the current Jewish view. 
Many of the sayings quoted by Schoett- 
gen and Weber suggest that with some 
of the Rabbis the belief in angels was 
little more than a way of expressing 
their faith in a spiritual, personal power 
behind the forces of nature. " When they 
are sent on a mission to earth, they are 
wind : when they stand before God they 
are fire." The angel said to Manoah, 
•' I know not after what image I am 
made, for God changes us every hour ; 
why, then, dost thou ask after my name ? 
Sometimes He makes us fire, at others 
wind; sometimes men, at other times 
angels." Sometimes they appear to 
have no individual existence at all, but 
are merely the light-radiance or halo of 
God's glory. " No choir of angels sings 
God's praises twice, for each day God 
creates new hosts which sing His praises 
and then vanish into the stream of fire 

from under the throne of His glory whence 
they came." Cf. also the Book of 
Jubilees, ii. 2. "On the first day He 
created the heavens which are above and 
the earth and the waters and ail the 
spirits which serve before Him — the 
angels of the presence, and the angels of 
sanctification, and the angels of the 
spirit of the winds, and the angels of the 
spirit of the clouds, and of darkness, and 
of snow and of hail, and of hoar frost, 
and the angels of the voices of the 
thunder and of the lightning, and the 
angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, 
and of winter and of spring, and of 
autumn and of summer, and of all the 
spirits of His creatures which are in the 
heavens and on the earth, the abysses 
and the darkness, eventide and the light, 
dawn and day which He hath prepared 
in the knowledge of His heart." One 
thing all these citations serve to bring 
out is that the angels were merely 
servants ; like the physical forces of 
nature they were dependent and perish- 
able. In contrast to these qualities 
are those ascribed to the Son. 

Ver. 8. irp^s 8i tov vl6v . . .^ 
the quotation being from Ps. xlv. in which 
the King in God's kingdom is described 
ideally. The points in the quotation which 
make it relevant to the writer's purpose are 
the ascription of dominion and perpetuity 
to the Son. The emphatic words, there- 
fore, are Op($vos, els tov alwva, ^dpSos* 
and irapa tovs (jictoxovs crov. It does not 
matter, therefore, whether we translate 
" Thy throne is God " or " Thy throne, O 
God," for the point here to be affirmed is 
not that the Messiah is Divine, but that 
He has a throne and everlasting do- 
minion. Westcott adopts the rendering 
" God is thy throne," and compares Ps. 
Ixxi. 3 ; Isa. xxvi. 4 ; Ps. xc. i, xci. i, 2 ; 
Deut. xxx. 27. He thinks it scarcely 
possible that " God " can be addressed to 
the King. Vaughan, on the other hand, 
says : " Evidently a vocative. God is 
thy throne might possibly have been said 
(Ps. xlvi. 1) : thy throne is God seems an 
unnatural phrase. And even in its first 
(human) application the vocative would 
cause no difficulty (Ps. Ixxxii. 6 ; John x. 
34> 35)-" Weiss strongly advocates this 
construction, and speaks of the other as 
quite given up. els rhv alwva r, 
a I u V o s> "to the age of the age," " for 


nP02 EBPAI0Y2 

Qp6vOi (TOO, 6 Gcos, 6is TOY alStya toG aiufos ^ • pd^Sos €u0utt]TOS tJ 
Acts X. 38. ^ci|3Sos°-^ TTJs Pao-iXeias <rou.' 9, ' TJYdiTrrjaas SiKaioaui'Tji', Kal 

^fiio-rio-as dfOfiioK • SiA touto exP''*'^ •" ° ©cos, o 6c6s ffou, eXaiOK 
k Ps. cii. 35. dyaXXidaews irapd Tois (ierixous aou." 10. ^ Kal, "26 kut dpx^S, 

» Insert Kai with i^ABD*E*M, 17. 

* T.R. in DEKLP al fere omn ; t| pa^So^ cvfl. papSos with ^ABM. 

» avTov in ^^B ; vov in ADEKLMP. 

ever and ever," " to all eternity." C/. Eph. 
iii. 21, clt ird(ras t. ycvcols tov alwvos t. 
alwvuv, and the frequent cU t. alwvas t. 
aluvuv. See others in Vaughan or Con- 
cordance. " The aim of all these varie- 
ties of expression is the same ; to heap 
up masses of time as an approximation 
to the conception of eternity " (Vaughan). 
Kal f\ ^a^Sos TT)9 cv9vTi]TOS 
^dpSos T. Pa(ri,Xc£asaov. The 
less strongly attested reading [see notes] 
gives the better sense : The sceptre of 
thy kingdom is a sceptre of uprighmess. 
The well - attested reading gives the 
sense : " The sceptre of uprightness is 
the sceptre of thy kingdom ". The ever- 
lasting dominion affirmed in the former 
clause is now declared to be a righteous 
rule. An assurance of this is given in the 
the further statement. 

Ver. g. tiYdirticas SiKaioerv- 
rt)v . . . " Thou lovedst righteous- 
ness and didst hate lawlessness, therefore 
God. thy God, anointed thee with oil 
of gladness above thy fellows." The 
quotation is verbatim from LXX of 
Ps. xlv. 8 [the Alexand. text reads 
oSiKiav in place of avofiiav, so that the 
author used a text not precisely in 
agreement with that of Cod : Alex. v. 
Weiss]. The anointing as King is 
here said to have been the result [Sia 
TovTo] of his manifestation of qualities 
fitting him to rule as God's representative, 
namely, love of right and hatred of 
iniquity. [avop.(a is used in i John iii. 
4, as the synonym and definition of 
ai^apT^a. f\ aftapTia IotIv 1^ avop,Ui. 
It is contrasted with SiKaiocrvv^ in 2 Cor. 
vi, 14, tCs yap (lctoxt) SiKaio<rvvD ical 
avofiCi^:] It is the Messiah's love of 
righteousness as manifested in His 
earthly life which entitles Him to so- 
vereignty. & Qe6s is taken as a vo- 
cative here, as in ver. 8, by Liinemann, 
Weiss and others; and 6 6cds o-ov as 
the direct nom. to ixpia-e. Westcott 
thinks that the IXatoy aYaXX. re- 
fers "not to the solemn anointing to 
royal dignity but to the festive anointing 

on occasions of rejoicing ". So Alford. 
Davidson, on the other hand, says: "As 
Kings were anointed when called to the 
throne, the phrase means made King". 
So, too, Weiss and von Soden. But the 
psalm is not a coronation ode, but an 
epithalamium ; the epithalamium, in- 
deed, of the ideal King, but still a festive 
marriage song (w. 10-17), to which the 
festal cXaiov ayaX. is appropriate. The 
oil of exultation is the oil expressive of 
intense joy (cf. ver. 15 of the psalm). 
The only objection to this view is that 
God is said to be the anointer, but this 
has its parallel in Ps. xxiii. 5. ; and 
throughout Ps. xlv. God is considered 
the originator of the happiness depicted 
(cf. ver. 2). Whether the marriage re- 
joicings are here to be applied to the 
Messiah in terms of w. 16 and 17 of the 
psalm is doubtful. The verse is cited 
probably for the sake of the note of 
superiority contained in irapa tovs 
fiCToxovs o-ov. In the psalm the 
fi^Toxoi are hardly other Kings; rather 
the companions and counsellors of the 
young King. In the Messianic applica- 
tion they are supposed by Bleek, Pierce, 
Alford, Davidson, Peake, etc., to be the 
angels. It seems preferable to keep the 
term indefinite as indicating generally the 
supremacy of Christ (cf. Ps. xlv. 2). 
— [irapd " From the sense of (i) beside, 
parallel to, comes that of (2) ifi compari- 
son with ; and so (3) in advantageous 
comparison with, more than, beyond". 

Ver. 10. In w. 10-12 the writer intro- 
duces another quotation from Ps. 102 {in 
LXX loi, 25-7). The quotation is ver- 
batim from the LXX except that «rii is lifted 
fi-om the fifth to the first place in the 
sentence, for emphasis, and that a 
second ws ifxaTiov is inserted after 
avTovs in ver. 12. With the introduc- 
tory Kal Weiss understands irpos riv 
vtbv \iyiiy as in ver. 8. He is also of 
opinion that the writer considers that the 
words were spoken by Jehovah and that 
Kvpic, therefore, must be the Messiah. 




Kupie, t}|k yT]v 60Ep,eXi(>)o-as, Kal cpY<'t twc ^^''P'i^^ '^^^ ciclv ol 
oupaKoi * II.' auTol diroXoun'ai^ vb Se Siap-^fcis ' <oX it^ktcs (&s 
i)ji(Ctiok iraXaiuOi^aoio'ai, 12. Kal (tKrel irEpi^oXaiof IXi|cis^ auToOs^ 
Kal dLXXaYilo^ocrai ■ a\i 8c 6 auTos cl, Kal rd err) aou ouk eKXei\|/ou(n ". 
13. " ripos Tifa Be Twt' iyyiktav eipi]Ki irore, " Kddou ck Se^iuf p,ou, 
eois Ak 0u rods ^Opous aou uiroirciSiOK tuk iroSwi' orou; " 14. "^ouxl 
irdrres euri XeiToupyiKd irveufxara, els SiaKOKiai' diro<rT€XX<Sp.€Ka Sid 

n P8..xxxiv. 

lEsa. li. 6; 

2 Peter iii. 

7, 10. 
m X. 12, 13, 

et xii. 2; 

Ps. ex. i; 


44; Marc 

xii. 36 : 

Luc. XX. 

42 ; Acts 

»• 34 ; I 

Cor. XV. 

25 ; Eph. 

i. 20. 
y, et xci. II. 

1 cXigcis ABDcKLMP, Vulg., WH ; oXXo|€is ^*D* 43, Tisch. 
' Insert (OS i(xaTiov with J^ABD*, d, e. Tisch. with KLMP omits as a gloss, 
has the appearance of a homoioteleuton. 

This is possible, but it is not necessary 
for the justification of the Messianic refer- 
ence. This follows from the character of 
the psalm, which predicts the manifestation 
of Jehovah as the Saviour of His people, 
even though this may only be in the far 
future (see ver. 13 : " Thou shalt arise and 
have mercy upon Zion. ... So the 
heathen shall fear the name of the Lord, 
etc.") Prof. B. W. Bacon of Yale has 
investigated this matter afresh and finds 
that, so far firom the application of these 
verses to the Messiah being an audacious 
innovation, or even achieved, as Calvin 
says, " pia deflectione," " the psalm itself 
was a favourite resort of those who sought 
in even pre-Christian times for proof-texts 
of Messianic eschatology " ; also that 
"we have specific evidence of the appli- 
cation of w. 23, 24 to the Messiah by 
those who employed the Hebrew or some 
equivalent text " and finally that by the 
rendering of j-f> V ^^ ^^^' ^4 (English ver- 
23) by respondit or aircKpCOi] ♦' we have the 
explanation of how, in Christian circles 
at least, the accepted Messianic passage 
could be made to prove the doctrine that 
the Messiah is none other than the pre- 
existent wisdom of Prov. viii. 22-31, 
"through whom,"according to our author, 
ver. 2, " God made the worlds." Indeed, 
we shall not be going too far if with 
Bruce we say : " It is possible that the 
vsriter (of Heb.) regarded this text (Ps. 
cii. 25-27) as Messianic because in his 
mind creation was the work of the pre- 
existent Christ. But it is equally possible 
that he ascribed creative agency to Christ 
out of rega d to this and other similar 
texts believed to be Messianic on other 
grounds." See Preuschen's Zeitschrift 
fiir N. T. Wissenschaft, 1902, p. 280. 

In w, 13 and 14, we have the final 
contrast between the place of the Son and 

that of the angels in human redemptive 
history. This contrast is connected by 
the form of its statement with ver. 5 (" to 
which of the angels, etc."). There it 
was the greater name that was in question, 
here it is the higher station and function. 
wp^s rlva, 8J K.T.X. "But to which 
of the angels has He at any time said 
. . . ? " implying that to the Son He has 
said it, as is proved by the citation from 
Ps. ex. On this psalm (see note on ver. 9). 
Si connects this ver. with ver. 8, and stands 
in the third place as frequently in classics 
when a preposition begins the sentence 
(Herod., viii., 68, 2 ; Thuc, i., 6 ; Soph., 
Philoct., 764. See examples in Klotz' 
Devarius, p. 379). kgIGov Ik Sc|ib>v 
(fcov, see ver. 3 ; Ik 8c|. is not classical, 
but frequent in Hellenistic Greek, see re- 
ferences. IcosavOw. . . . " Until I set 
thine enemies as a lootstool for thy feet." 
viroirdSiovisa later Greek word used 
in LXX and N.T. The figure arose firom 
the custom of conquerors referred to in 
Josh. X. 24. Here it points to the com- 
plete supremacy of Christ. This attained 
sovereignty is the gauge of the World's 
consummation. The horizon of human 
historyis the perfected rule of Jesus Christ. 
It is the end for which all things are now 
making. Whereas the angels are but the 
agents whose instrumentality is used by - 
God for the furtherance of this end. 
ovx^ irdvTCs clorl XciTovpY^Ka 
irvcv^aTa. . . . " Are they not all 
ministering spirits sent forth to serve for 
the sake of those who are to obtain 
salvation ? " They have no function 
of rule, but are directed by a higher 
will to promote the interests of those 
who are to form Christ's king'dom. 
This is true of aW of them [iravres] what- 
ever hierarchies there be among them. 
X c I T o V p -y I K a, cf. v. 5. XciTovpY^S 






TOlis fiA.X0ITOS KXTJpOVOflCtI' OrWTTjpiOl' ; II. I. Aid TOUTO Set 

irepicraoT^pcos TJfiSs irpoa^x^'^'' """o^? dKouffOcicn, fir^ irore irapa- 

with its cognates has come to play a 
large part in ecclesiastical language. 
It is originally " a public servant " ; from 
XeiTos,an unused adjective connected with 
\a6%, meaning " what belongs to the 
people " and 2pYov. It occurs frequently 
in LXX, sometimes denoting the official 
who attends on a king (Josh. i. i), some- 
times angels (Ps. ciii. 2i), commonly the 
priests and Levites(Neh. x. 39), oi Upcis 
•I XciTovpYoC, and Is. Ixi. 6. In N.T. 
it is used of those who render service to 
God or to Christ or to men {cf. Lepine's 
Ministers of yes us Christ, p. 126). ds 
StaKovCav airo<rT€XX(J|*eva, pre- 
sent part., denoting continuous action. 
" Sent forth " ; therefore as servants by 
a higher power (cf. Acts i. 25, SiaKovCas 
TavTT)S K. airocTToXTJs). AiaKovia origin- 
ally means the ministry of a body servant 
or table servant (cf. Luke iv. 39 ; Mark 
i. 13, ol ayYcXoi 8it]K(Svovv avT<^) and 
is used throughout N.T. for ministry 
in spiritual things. fxcXXovras 
might almost be rendered "destined " 
as in Matt. iii. 7, xi, 14, xvi. 27, xvii. 12, 
etc. kXt]povo|i.6Xv, see on ver. 4. 
orci>Tt)piav in the classics means either 
preservation or deliverance. In N.T. the 
word naturally came to be used as the 
semi-technical term for the deliverance 
from sin and entrance into permanent 
wellbeing effected by Christ. See Luke i. 
7i> 77 ; John iv. 22 ; Acts iv. 12, xvi. 17; 
Rom. i. 16, etc. In ii. 3 the salvation 
referred to is termed TTiXiKav-nj. Cf. 
Hooker's outburst, Eccles. Pol., i., iv., i, 
and Sir Oliver Lodge {Hibbert yournal, 
Jan., 1903, p. 223) : " If we are open to in- 
fluence from each other by non-corporeal 
methods, may we not be open to influence 
from beings in another region or of an- 
other order ? And if so, may we not be 
aided, inspired, guided by a cloud of wit- 
nesses — not witnesses only, but helpers, 
agents like ourselves of the immanent 
God ? " On guardian angels, see Charles' 
Book of Jubilees, Moulton in y. T. S., 
August 1902, and Rogers' edition of 
Aristoph., Eccles., 999, and the Orphic 
Fragment quoted by Clement (Strom., v.) 
Ju SI 6p6vw irvpdevTi irapeorroaiv iroXv- 
fL6x6oL 'AyyeXoi olo-i p,^p,T|Xc ^poTois 019 
■irdvTa TeXeiTai. Cf. Shikespeare's 
" Angels and ministers of grace defend 

Chapter II. — Vv. 1-4. From this 
proved superiority of the Son to the 

angels the writer deduces the warning 
that neglect of the salvation proclaimed 
by the Lord Himself and attested by 
God in miracles and gifts of the Holy 
Ghost will incur heavier punishment 
than that which was inflicted upon 
those who neglected the word spoken 
by angels. 

Ver. I. Aia tovto: "on this ac- 
count," because God has now spoken 
not through prophets or angels, but 
through a Son. Sci . . . ' : " we 
must give more excessive heed ". 
" Alibi utitur verbo 64>ciXeiv debere : hie 
Set oportet. lUud dicit obligationem : 
hoc, urgens periculum " ; Bengel, who 
also remarks on i Cor. xi. 10, 6(|>€iXci 
notat obligationem : Set necessitatem ; 
illud morale est, hoc quasi physicum ; 
ut in vernacuia, wir sollen und miissen". 
Here then it is the logical necessity that 
is prominent. irepKrcroT^pus is to 
be joined not with Set as in Vulg. (and 
Bengel), "abundantius oportet obser- 
vare," but with irpotrexetv. The adverb 
occurs in xiii. ig and six times in 2 Cor. ; 
the adj. frequently in N.T. irepto-aoTepws 
[irepiTTOTepws] occurs in Diod. Sic, 
xiii. 108, TO, iTfp. elpYao-p-eva ; also in 
Athenaeus, v., p. 192 F. KXi<r|x6s ireptx. 
Kt.K6a-^y\ra.i. The comparative is here 
used with reference to the greater at- 
tention due to the revelation than if it 
had been delivered by one of less posi- 
tion. Atto Vercell. suggestively, " Quare 
abundantius . . . Nonne et ilia Dei 
sunt et ista ? " His answer being that 
those who had been brought up to 
reverence the O.T. might be apt to de- 
spise the new revelation, irpoa^x^*'*' 
never in N.T. and only once in LXX 
(Job vii. 17) has the added tov voBv 
usual in classics. As irpoae'xeiv is com- 
monly used of bringing a ship to land, 
this sense may have suggested the 
irapa^pvci>|xcv. '^^as, including him- 
self, but meaning to indicate all who 
in these last days had heard the revela- 
tion of Christ. Tois &Kov<r6ct<riv: 
" the things heard," the great salvation 
first preached by the Lord, ver. 3 ; cf. Acts 
viii. 6, xvi. 14. He means to disclose the 
significance of what they have already 
heard, rather than to bring forward new 
truth. p,T| iroTC irapa^^vo>p,ev: 
"lest haply we drift away". p,ii irore, 
as Hoogeveen shows, occurs in N.T. as 
= ru quando and also as = ne forte ; but 

1-4. nP02 EBPAI0Y2 259 

ppvCtjiev.^ 2. 'el yelp 6 8i' dkyy£K<tiv \a\r]Bt\^ \6yos iyivero ». Dent. 
^c^aios, Kal irdo-a irapd^ao-is koI irapaKOT] eXa^cc IfSiKot' pada- Acts vii. ' 
TToSoai'oi', 3. *'irws tjficis ^ic<j>€u|6jx€8a TrjXiKoJTtjs dficX'qo-aiTCS GaUil.ig. 
(TWTTipias ; iJTis ApxV ^^Pouo'tt XoXeioOoi Bid too Kupiou, uir6 twi' Matt! Iv. 

17; Marc, 
i. 14. 

^ irapapvw(A€v with ^AB*D*LP, 17, 47, 115. Bleek flavours the T.R. See also 
the forms given by Veitch. 

in clauses expressing apprehension, as 
here, it can always be rendered " lest 
perchance ". [" In Hellenistic Greek 
|iii]iroTc in a principal clause means 
' perhaps,' in a dependent clause ' if 
perchance,' ' if possibly,' " Blass, p. 212.] 
vapa^pvw|i,cv is 2nd aor. subj. pass, 
(with neuter meaning) of irapappeu, I 
flow beside or past; as in Xen., Cyrop., 
iv. 52, iriciv air& tov vapa^^^ovros 
iroTafiov. Hence, to slip aside; as in 
Soph., Pkiloct., 653, of an arrow slipping 
from the quiver; in Xen.,Anab., iv. 4, of 
snow slipping off; y^lian, V. H., iii. 30, 
of a coarse story unseasonably slipping 
into a discreet conversation ; and in 
medical writers, frequently of food slip- 
ping aside into the windpipe. Origen 
(Contra Celsum, 393) says the multitude 
need fixed holy days, tvo ^^ T^eov 
irapa^pv]Q, '.'that they may not quite 
drift away". See also Prov. iii. 21, vU, 
fi,T| irapa^^vQS) njp-qo'ov 82 ^P'T)^ PovXijv. 
Ver. 2. cl yap & 81' ayY^Xuv XaXiidelg 
X^yos. ... An a fortiori argument de- 
rived from the notoriously inevitable 
character of the punishment which over- 
took those who disregarded the Law. 
" The word spoken through angels " is 
the Law, the characteristic and funda- 
mental form under which the old re- 
velation had been hiade. The belief 
that angels mediated the Law is found 
in Deut. xxxiii. 2 ; Acts vii. 53 ; Gal. iii. 
19; Josephus, Ant., xv. 53. kyivtro 
P c P a I o s : " proved steadfast," inviol- 
able, held good; as in Rom. iv. 16, of 
the promise cU xi clvai ^^^aiav tt|v 
^ayyeXiav. The sanctions of the law 
were not a mere brutum fulmen. This 
appeared in the fact that irao-a 
vapd^ao-is... " every transgres- 
sion and disobedience", irapa^acris is 
transgression of a positive command: 
irapaKoi] is neglect to obey. Grotius 
renders irapaK. by "contumacia" which 
may be involved; but Bohme is right 
in his note "non commissa solum, sed 
omissa etiam ". The inflictions, whether 
on individuals, as Achan, or on the 
whole people, 99 in the wilderness- 

generation, were "a just recompense," 
not an arbitrary, or excessive punish- 
ment. For p,i(rda'7roSoo-£a classical 
writers use pio-OoSoo-ia. 

Ver. 3. ir»s -nfteis. ..." How shall 
we" — to whom God has spoken through 
the Son, i. 2 — " escape (cv8ikov fiKrO. 
prob. in final judgment, as in x. 27) if we 
have neglected (the aorist ap.cXi)a-avTes 
suggesting that life is looked at as a 
whole) so great a salvation ? "—the salva- 
tion which formed the main theme of 
the new revelation. The meaning of 
aficXijo-avTcs is best illustrated by Matt. 
xxii. 5, where it is used of those who dis- 
regarded, or treated with contempt, the 
invitation to the marriage-supper. The 
guilt and danger of so doing are in pro- 
portion to the greatness of the announce- 
ment, and this is no longer of law but of 
life, cf. 2 Cor. iii. The word now spoken 
is vastly more glorious and more fully 
expressive of its Author than the Law, 
" Non erat tanta salus in V.T., quanta 
est in gratia quam Dei filius nobis 
attulit" (Atto Vercell:). The "great- 
ness " of the salvation is involved in the 
greatness of Him who mediates it (i. 4), 
of the method employed (ii. 10), of the 
results, many sons being brought to glory 
(ii. 10). But one relevant aspect of its 
greatness, the source and guaranteed 
truth of its proclamation is introduced 
by iJTis, which here retains its proper 
qualitative sense and may be rendered 
"inasmuch as it...". "Its object is to 
introduce the mention of a characteristic 
quality, which explains or emphasises 
the thing in question " (Vaughan). It 
was the trustworthiness of the new re- 
velation of salvation which the Hebrews 
were beginning to question. The law 
had proved its validity by punishing trans- 
gressors but the majesty and certainty 
of the recent proclamation were doubtful. 
Therefore the writer insists that it is 
"very great," and illustrates its trust- 
worthiness by adducing these three feat- 
tures : (i) its original proclamation by 
the Lord, (2) its confirmation by those 
who heard Him, (3) its miraculous certi- 




* ^" A^' ^Kou^''^'^'"'' *iS I'iP'Cis ^PePaiu9T], 4. " aufcirifJiapTupouia-os tou eeou 
ii. aa, et (njjxgiois T6 Kal T^pacri koI iroiKiXais Sucdfieai, Kai nK€u|iaTOS 'Ayiou 
"i" "'.. fiepurjiois, Kord •rfji' auTou OeXr^cii'. 
4.7. "• 

fication by God. [This is not contra- 
dicted by Bleek's " Das t»iXik., tantae 
talisque salutis, verweist an sich wohl 
nicht auf den nachfolgenden relativen 
Satz," nor by Weiss' " Das fiTts hangt 
weder sprachlich noch sachlich mit t^Xik. 
zusammen."] ipx'^v Xa^ovo-a 
XaXcicrOai, lit.: "having received a 
beginning to be spoken " = " having be- 
gun to be spoken," or " which was first 
proclaimed", apx^v Xa^., acommon 
phrase in later Greek, see Stephanas and 
Wetstein. In Polybius of a war " taking 
its rise ". In ^lian, V. H., ii. 28. iroOcv 
TT|v apxT)V IXa^ev SSc 6 v(Spos, Ipw. It is 
used here to indicate with precision the 
origin of the proclamation of the revela- 
tion about which they are feeling un- 
certain. XaXcX(r9ai refers back to ver. 
2 and also to i. i. S i a to be connected 
with apxT|v Xap. ; it is used instead of 
viri because God is throughout viewed 
as the ultimate source of revelation. 
rov Kvpiov, " the Lord " supreme 
over angels, and whose present exaltation 
reflects dignity and trustworthiness on 
the revelation He made while on earth. 
The salvation which they are tempted to 
neglect was at first proclaimed not by 
angels sent out to minister, not by ser- 
vants or delegates who might possibly 
misapprehend the message, but by the 
Lord Himself, the Supreme. The source 
then is unquestionably pure. Has the 
stream been contaminated ? God testifies 
to its purity. There is only one link be- 
tween the Lord and you, they that heard 
Him delivered the message to you, and 
God by witnessing with them certifies its 
truth. The main verb is i^e^aiuQi] 
which looks back to Pc^aios of ver. 2, 
and compares the inviolability of the one 
word or revelation with that of the other. 
We must not, he argues, neglect a gospel 
of whose veracity and importance we 
have assurance in this, that it was first 
proclaimed by the Lord Himself and that 
we have it on the authority of those who 
themselves heard Him, and who there- 
fore were first-hand witnesses who had 
also made experimental verification of its 
validity. For aKOvccLvruv though with- 
out an object expressed, plainly means 
those who heard the Lord, cf. Luke i. i. 
els 111*0,5 is rendered by Theophy- 
lact Sicirop6pcv6i) els 'nc-^s PE^aiMS, it 

has been conveyed to us in a trustworthy 
manner. To their testimony was added 
the all-convincing witness borne by God, 
o'vvciripapTvpovvTOs tov 6cov. 
The word is found in Aristotle, Philo and 
Polybius, xxvi. 9, 4, irapiJvTwv 8J twv 

©€TTdXci>V Kal (TUVCiripapTVpOliVTUV TOIS 

AapSaviois. Also in Clement, Ep., c. 
xxiii., (rvvciripapTvpovo-iis ttjs Ypa<j>T)s ; 
but only here in N.T., cf. i Pet. v. 12 ; 
Rom. ii. 15, viii. 16, ix. i. The sense is 
found in Mark xvi. 20, lKi]pv|av -iravTa- 
Xov, TOV Kvpiov <ruv€pyovvTo% Kal rhv 
\6yov ^cPaiovvTos 8ia tuv eiraKoXovd- 
ovvTwv (rT]p€i<i>v. This witness was borne 
o-T)pc(ois T€ Kal Tepa<riv "by 
signs and wonders," the two words re- 
ferring to the same manifestations (t€ 
Kal closely uniting the words), which in 
one aspect were "signs" suggesting a 
Divine presence or a spirtual truth, and 
in another aspect " wonders " calculated 
to arrest attention. [The words are 
similarly conjoined in Polybius, Plut- 
arch, ^lian, Philo and Josephus.] Kal 
iroiKiXais Svvapco-iv" and various 
miracles," lit. powers, as in Matt. xi. 21, 
Kal ovK liroCT)(rcv Ikci Svvdpcis iroXXds* 
Bleek thinks it is not the outward mani- 
festations but the powers themselves that 
are here meant. This, he thinks, is sug- 
gested by the connexion of the word with 
irvevparos ayiov pcpi<rpois> " distribu- 
tions of the Holy Spirit ". The genitive 
is genitive objective, " distributions con- 
sisting of the Holy Spirit ". The remark- 
able character of the Charismata and the 
testimony they bore to a Divine presence 
and power are firequently alluded to in the 
N.T. and are enlarged upon in i Cor. 
xii. 14. Paul uses the same argument as 
this wrriter in Gal. iii. 1-4. The article 
is wanting before irvcvparos in accord- 
ance with the usage noted by Vaughan, 
that it is generally omitted when the 
communication of the Spirit is spoken of, 
cf. Luke ii. 25, John vii. 39, with John 
xiv. 26, Acts xix. 2 with 6. pcpio-pds 
only here and in a different sense in iv. 
12 ; the verb is common. St. Paul uses 
it in connection with the distribution of 
spiritual gifts in Rom. xii. 3, i Cor. vii. 
17. No one thought himself possessed 
of the fulness of the Spirit, only a p^pos. 
These distributions or apportionings, 
being of the Spirit of God, are necessarily 




5. *06 Y&p dyy^ois UTT^Tafe Tfif oiKoufieinf]!' i4)c p.^Xoucrai', d i. 2, 4, 8; 

■irepl ns XaXouuec- 6. ^ SicixapTupaTO 8e irou tis Xeyuv, "Tiecrrn' Hi. 13. 

e Ps. viii. 4, 
etcxliv. 3. 

made Kara t}|v avrov 64\r\<n.v " accord- 
ing to His [God's] will ", In i Cor. xii. 
II the will is that of the Spirit. " Non 
omnibus omnia dabat Deus, sed quae et 
quantum et quibus vellet, Eph. iv. 7 " 
(Grotius). [6eXTj<ris only here in N.T., 
but ten times in LXX. Pollux calls it a 
" vulgarism " ISicotikov. On the substi- 
tution of nouns in -fjia for nouns in -o-is> 
see Jannaris' Hist. Gram., p. 1024, and 
cf. X. 7, ix. 36, xiii. 21, so that in the pre- 
sent passage the choice of the active form 
is deliberate.] The clause is added to 
enforce the writer's contention that all 
the Charismata with which his readers 
were familiar were not mere fruits of 
excitement or in any way casual, but 
were the result of a Divine intention 
to bear witness to the truth of the gos- 

Vv. 5-18. Having sufficiently brought 
out the permanence and sovereignty of 
the Son by contrasting them with the 
fleeting personality and ministerial func- 
tion of angels, the author now proceeds 
to bring the supremacy of the Son into 
direct relation to the Messianic adminis- 
tration of " the world to come," the 
ideal condition of human affairs ; and to 
explain why for the purposes of this ad- 
ministration it was needful and seemly 
that " the Lord " should for a season ap- 
pear in a form " a little lower than the 
angels". The world of men as it was 
destined to be [r\ oikov|x^vt) r\ |j,^Xovo-a] 
was a condition of things in which man 
was to be supreme, not subject to any 
kind of slavery or oppression. And if 
the Jew asked why, in order to bring this 
about, the appearance of the Son in so 
apparently inglorious a form was neces- 
sary; if he asked why suffering and 
death on His part were necessary, the 
answer is, that it was God's purpose to 
bring, not angels, but many human sons 
to glory and that as there is but one path, 
and that a path of suffering, by which 
men can reach their destiny, it was be- 
coming that their leader should act as 
pioneer in this path. His path to glory 
must be a path in which men can follow 
Him ; because it is from the human level 
and as man that He wins to glory. More 
particularly His sufferings accomplish 
two objects : they produce in Him the 
sympathy which qualifies Him as High 
Priest, while His death breaks the power 
which kept them enslaved and in fear. 
[On this section Robertson Smith's papers 

in the Expositor, 1881-2, should be con- 

Ver. 5. Oil -yap ayyiXoi^. ..." For 
not to angels ". With yap the writer pro- 
ceeds to clinch the exhortation contained 
in w. 1-4, by exhibiting the ground of 
it. Under the old Covenant angels had 
been God's messengers, but this mode of 
mediation has passed away. The oIkov- 
(levTj p.€Wova-a is not subject to them. 
It is the Son as man who now rules 
and to whom attention must be given. 
vTT^Talev ..." did He " — that is God 
— subject the world to come of which we 
are speaking, r\ olKovp,cvi], not KO(rp.os, 
but the inhabited world. So used in 
Diod. Sic, i. 8 Ka6' a-irao-av t. oIk- 
ov|A€VTjv, wherever there were men. 
From the O.T. point of view " the 
world to come " meant the world under 
Messianic rule, but in this Epistle the 
Messianic Kingdom is viewed as not yet 
fully realised. The world to come is 
therefore the eternal order of human 
affairs already introduced and rendering 
obsolete the temporary and symbolic 
dispensation. Calvin accurately defines 
it thus : " Non vocari orbem futurura 
duntaxat, qualem e resurrectione spera- 
mus, sed qui coepit ab exordio regni 
Christi. Complementum vero suum habe- 
bit in ultima redemptione." It is the 
present world of men regenerated, death 
and all that is inimical to human pro- 
gress abolished ; a condition in which all 
things are subjected to man. The re- 
pudiation of angels as lords of the world 
to come implies the admission that the 
obsolescent dispensation had been sub- 
ject to them. So in Deut. xxxii. 8 : 
e<rTT]<rev 8pia eOvuv Kara api6p.ov ayy- 
i\<av ieov, cf. Dan. x. 13-21 and Booli of 
yubilees, xv. 31, Cf. the pages in which 
Robertson Smith expands the remark 
that " to be subordinated " to the angelic 
dispensation is the same thing as to be 
"made under the law" {Expositor, 1881, 
p. 144 ff.). Hermas {Vis., iii. 4, i) repre- 
sents the Church as being built by six 
angels whom he describes as being the first 
created ots irap^SuKcv 6 Kvpios irao-ar 
TT|v KT^criv avToi), avlciv ical olKo8o|xeiv 
Kal SeairiSSeiv xfjs KTicrews ira<rT)s. 

Ver 6. SicfiapTuparo 8J irov tus \iyw '. 
" but some one in a certain place solemnly 
testifies, saying ". The indefinite formula 
of quotation is used not because doubt 
existed regarding the authorship of the 
psalm, nor because the writer was citing 


nP02 EBPAI0Y2 


S.y9p(s}tT0^, 8ti fiifi»^<rKT) auTOu • f\ olos dcOpcSirou, on iirtorK^irn] 
Matt. 'auT<5K; 7. TiXdrrwaas auT^f PpO'X*^ ''"'■ '''oip' ^yyi^ous' 8<5?13 i^cii 
I Cor. xv*. TijiT] ^oT€(|>dK(i)aa$ out^;', Kal KaT^oTTjaas aflxoK iirX tA. 2pY<* TciK 
Eph.i'.aa. X*''P*^*' f^^^' 8. 'Trdin"a dir^ra^as uiroKdru twk -iroSuc auroO." 

^ This clause ical KaTcaTT|o-a« is omitted from B, and the sense favours the 

from memory, but rather as a rhetorical 
mode of suggesting that his readers 
knew the passage well enough. So 
Chrysostom : 8cikvvvto9 itrrlv, avroiis 
(r^68pa ifkTTtlpovs ctvai, tuv YP<'''<J*'i'^* 
Philo frequently uses an indefinite form of 
quotation : this identical form in De 
Ebriet., 14 (Wendland, ii. 181) elirc yap 
irov Tis. Cf. Longinus, De Sub., ix. 2 
YCYpa^xx TTov. Here only in the Epistle 
is a quotation from Scripture referred to 
its human author. t( Io-tiv avOpw- 
xos. . . . The quotation is from Ps. 
viii. and extends to iroSwv avrov in 
ver. 8. It illustrates the greatness of man 
in three particulars. 

1. TjXdTToxras avrbv Ppaxv Ti irap' 

2. 8<i|'n ''<*'^ '''''K''D 2<rT€4>dv<o(ras avr6v. 

3. irdvTa vir^Ta|as viroKaTH rmv 
woSwv avTov. 

And the author goes on to say that in 
Jesus the two former elements of man's 
greatness are seen to be fulfilled (He is 
made a little lower than the angels, and 
He is crowned with glory and honour), 
vhile the third is guaranteed because 
Jesus has tasted death for every man 
and so subdued even it, the last enemy, 
and therefore all things, under his feet. 

In Ps. viii. as in so many other 
poets and prose writers (see Pascal's 
chapter on The Greatness and Littleness 
of Man, A. R. Wallace's Man's Place in 
the Universe and Fisk's Destiny of Man), 
it is the dignity put upon man which fills 
the writer with astonishment. When 
Sophocles in the Antigone celebrates 
man's greatness, troXXa rot Sciva kovS^v 
avOpwirov Scivdrcpov ir^Xci, he excepts 
death from subjection to man, "AiSa 
udvov <{>cv|iy ovK lird|cTai. Here thp 
Hebrew poet excepts nothing. But 
only by Christ was he justified. Man's 
real place is first won by Christ, p i u v if- 
<r K-Q a V TO v" Thou art mindful of him" 
for good as in xiii. 3. Man, the subject 
of satire and self-contempt^ is the object 
of God's thought, vlis avOpwirov 
= avOpuvos of the first clause. In 

the Heb. t2?*l3M and DI^'D" ^'w^"- 
v: •• T I V 

iiTTQ "visit," generally as a friend (Mat. 
XXV. 36, James i. 27) frequently of phy- 
sician visiting sick ; in judgment, Jer. v. 
9, 29. "The day of visitation," ■f\p,ipa 
lirLa-Kovt)s> in good sense, Luke xix. 44 ; 
for chastisement, Isa. x. 3 ; c/". i Pet. ii. 12. 
In Jer. xv. 15 we have the two words 
pLvr\<r9i]TL p.ov Kal iTrio-Kcxj/aC p.c. 

Ver. 7. That God has been mindful 
of man and visited him is apparent in 
the three particulars now mentioned. 
ppaxv Ti is " a little," either in material, 
or in space, or in time. In i Sam. xiv. 
29, ly^'^'^'^H-'n^ PpO'X'" ''■'' ''■• f*^XiTOS. In 
Isa. Ivii. 17, of time, 81' a|iapTiav Ppax^ 
Ti iXvirijcra airov. So in N.T., of at- 
erial, Jo. vi. 7 ; of space, Acts xxvii. 28 ; 
of time Acts, v, 34. So in classics, v. 
Bleek. The original of the psalm points 
to the translation : " Thou didst make him 
little lower than the angels" [in the Heb. 

D'^nSsip "than God"]. There 

seems no reason to depart from this 
meaning either in this verse or in ver. 9. 
So Alford and Westcott, but Davidson 
and Weiss and several others are of 
opinion that as the words are in ver. g 
applied to the Messiah, whose superiority 
has been so insisted upon, an allusion to 
His inferiority would be out of place ; 
" and that the phrase should be used of 
degree in one place and time in another, 
when the point of the passage lies in the 
identity of the Son's history with that 
of man, is an idea only puerile" 
(Davidson). But on any rendering the 
inferiority of Jesus to angels so far as 
dying goes is granted, and there is no 
reason why the sense of degree should 
not be kept in both clauses. 861]^ Kal 
Tiji'D frequently conjoined. Rev. xxi. 26 ; 
I Tim. i. 17 ; Thucyd., iv. 86 ; Plut., 
Num., 51 ; Lucian Somn., 13. 

Ver. 8. irdvra vir^ra^as. ..." Thou 
didst put all things under his feet." In 
the psalm " all things " are defined as 
" all sheep and oxen, yea and the beasts of 
the field, the fowl of the air, and the 
fish of the sea, and whatsoever passes 
through the paths of the sea ". But to 
our author the scope of the "all" has 

/— 9. 



'Ev yiip Tw uirord^ai auTw rd itdvra, ouSck d^TjKCf auTw 
dkuir^TaKTOi' • vuv Sc ou7a> dpufxcf auru rot irdrra uTroTCTay- 
fi^ca. 9. 'rok 8c Ppaxu Ti TTop* dyy^ous TjXarrwfi^j'oi' pXe'-irofjiei'; 
*lT)aoGK, Sid t6 ird&T]pia tou Oafdrou, 8<J|t] xai ti|a^ i<rr€^avuni.evov, 8,9.'"'^* 

been enlarged by the event. His argu- 
ment requires an absolutely universal 
subjection, so that everything obstructive 
of man's " glory " may be subdued. And 
having seen this achieved by Christ, he 
is embolden