Skip to main content

Full text of "The Expository Times"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



= b, Google 


Digiiizcd by V_"i WL7V 







October ii)oi - September igo3. 

T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE ST RE E<3.00gle 




T, & T. CLARK, 














Ven. Archdeacon Aglen, D.D. — 

Bom of Water and Spirit . . 439 

Rev. WiLLOUCHBY C. Allen, M.A. — 

1 -^^ Aramaic Element in St. Mark . 328 

Rev. Professor B. W. Bacon, D.D.— 
I/-' Priesthood without Pedigree . 345 

Professor J. Vernon Bartlet, M.A. — 
nj Twofold Use of 'Jerusalem' in the 

^ Lucan Writings ■ '57 

Rev. Vice-Principal J. H, Beibitz, M.A. — 
<^ Critical Notes on Mt 24 . 443 

^ Rev. Professor W. H. Bennett, Litt.D., 
^ D.D.— 

l^ LXX of I S 2* 234 

^ Text of 1 S 68 234 

Wages in Ancient Israel . . .381 
^ Rev. Canon E. R. Bernard, M.A, — 

Praytr in Early Christendom . - ^S* 
Rev. Canon T. D. Bkrnakd. M,A.— 

Cxsarea 487, 558 

Rev. Albert Bonus, M.A. — 
-^ 'Our Lord' in the Lewis Palimpsest 

*■ 236, 334 

•^ StUct Narratives of Holy Women . 379 

Q Emmaus Mistaken for a Person . , 561 

\ BoscAWEN, W. St. Chad, F.R.H.S.— 
. -Tapyrus of Kha-m-uas . . . ■ 525 

^ev. G. H. Box, M.A.— 

Bishop Blyth on the Jewish Mission 

Problem 430 

W. C. Braithwaite, B.A., LL.B.— 

New Uncial of the Gospels . . .114 
Professor K. Budde, D.D. — 

The Opening Verses of Ezekiel . . 41 
F. Hugh Capron — 

'Son' in Lie 16^ 523 

Rev. F. G. Cholmondeley, M.A. — 

Christ and the Woman of Canaan 
Rev. W. H. Cobb, D.D.— 

Certain Isaian Questions 
Rev. G- Mackenzie Cobban, M.A. — 

Jewish Mission Problem 
Rev. G. A. Cooke, M.A.— 

Korah and ^ir-heres in the Moabite 


Rev. James Croskerv, B.D. — 

Recent Discussionsof the Title 'Son of 


Rev. J. A. Cross, M.A.— 

Date of Acts 


'Jew,' 'Jewry' 

Rev. Professor S. R. Driver, D.D., Litt.D.— 

Should the Auth. Version continue to 
be used in Public Service? . 167, 

Jacob's Route from l^aran to Shechem 
Right Rev. C. J. Ellicott, D.D.— 

' Being Burdened ' . . . . 
Rev. W. W. English, D.C.L.— 


Rev. W. EwiNG, M.A.— 

Bishop Blyth on the Jewish Problem . 
Rev. G. Ferries, D.D.— 

Science and Faith .... 
Rev. J. D. Fleming, B.D.— 

New French School of Theology . 
Rev. A. E. Garvee, B.D.— 

Hist, and Dogm. Method in Theology . 

Ro 6* 

Do we need new Revelations ? 

Christian Faith and Modern Thought . 

Rev. Canon F. Gell — 

Site of the Holy Sepulchre . . 46 

Mrs. M. D. Gibson, LL.D.— 

Born of Water and Spirit . 429 

Four Remarkable Sinai MSS . 509 

Rev. R. Glaister, B.D.— 

Christ and the Woman of Canaan . 188 
Professor N. Gloubokovskv — 

The Gospel and the Gospels . loi 

Rev. A. Grieve, Phil.Dr.— 
l^ The Utterances of Jesus regarding His 

Death 70 

Professor G. GrUtzuacher, Ph.D. — 

Jeioine 535 

Professor J. Rendel Harris, LittD. — 

' Our Lord ' in the Lewis Palimpsest 

383, 382 
Rev. Sir John C. Hawkins, Bart., M.A. — 

Arrangement of Materials in Mt 8, 9 . 30 
N. Hbrz, M.A.— 

Doubtful Hebrew Words ■ 190 

Rev. T. W. Hodge, M.A.— 

The Paraclete and the World . 10 

Rev. Principal J. M. Hodgson, D.D., D.Sc.— 

Fairbaim's Philosophy of tht CkrisHan 
Religion .... 
■ Professor Fb. Hommel, LL.D. — 

The Four Rivers of Paradise 

Azeka in the Assyrian Itiscriptioa 95, 144 

Arpakshad 385 

Professor A. van Hoonacker, D.D, — 

The Four Empires of Daniel 
Rev. M. J. Hughes, M.A, — 

714* Evolution of Immortality 
Rev. Professor J. Iverach, D.D. 

Herrmann's Elhtk 
A. N. Jannaris, M.A., Ph.D.— 

The Unrighteous Steward and Mach- 
iavellism 128, 306 

The Locus Classims for the Incarnation 477 

Does 'Amen' mean 'Verily'? . . 563 
Rev. J. B. Johnston, B.D.— 

The Date of the Septuagint . . .382 
Rev. John Kelman, M.A. — 

St. Paul the Roman .... 76 
Rev. H. A. A. Kennedy, D.Sc.— 

'Weakness and Power' . . 349 

Holtzmann on the Synoptics and Acts . 450 

Weiss on Mark and Luke . 544 

Professor Ed. KSnig, D.D.— 

The Unity of Isaiah 90,132 

The Early Verses of Ezekiel . 95 

The ' Weeks ' of Daniel . .468 

Rev. J. C. Lambert, B.D.— 

New Explanation of the Lord's Supper 398 
Rev. John Legge, M.A. — 

Christ's Treatment of Indignation . 266 
Mrs. Agnes S. Lewis, Ph.D., LL.D.— » 

A Remarkable Palimpsest . 

The New Edition of the Peshitta . 

A Leaf Stolen from the Sinai Palimpsest 
Rev. F. Warburton Lewis, B.A. — 

Christ and the Woman of Canaan 

New Garments and Old Patches . 
Rev, James Lindsay, D.D. — 

British Philosophy of Religion . 262 

Two Great Dogmatic Systems . . 358 
Rev. W. F. LoFTHoosE, M.A. — 

The Hexateuch and the Gospels . . 565 
Rev. D. Macfadyem, M.A. — 

Did our Lord use Irony? 
Rev. A. C. Mackenzie, M.A. — 

Happiness at the Table — and After 

'Whosoever' .... 
Rev. G. M. Mackie, D.D.— 
\y^ Jewish Passover in Christian Church 
Rev. H. R. Mackintosh, Phil.Dr.— 

Soltau's Gospel Sources 

Ritschl's Message for the Plain Man 

Schleierma Cher's Conception of Religion 

Harnack's Sokrates 

Holtzmann's Scribes of Palestine ■ 
Rev. T. M'William, M.A.— 

The Prophecies of Zechariah 
Rev. Professor D. S. Marcoliouth, M.A. — 

Arabia before Islam 

The Non-Bibl. Literature of the Jews 

Three Notes on Ecclesiasticus 
Rev. W. Marwick — 

Magic and Religion .... 495 
Professor J. Massie, M.A.— 

Cross-Bearing 348 

Ernest W. G. Mastkrman, F.R.G.S.— 

The Rivers of Damascus , 215, 477 

Rev, G. MiLLiGAN, B.D. — 
f. ' H^nack's Textual Problems 

A Ransom for Many .... 
Rev. R. M. Moffat, M.A.— 

The Servant of the Lord . . 7, 67, 
Rev. J. MoFFATT, D.D. — 

Tlte Messianic Secret in the Gospels 
The Righteousness of the Scribes and 

Rev. W. Morgan, M-A. — 

Schleierroacher's Doctrine of Redemp- 

Professor Eb. Nestle, D.D. — 


Lk i» 

Aprons and Handkerchiefs of St. Paul 


Dies Irae Dies Ilia 

The ArtangemenC of the Lord's Prayer 
'Jew,' 'Jewess,' 'Jewiih,' 'Jewry' 
Nathanael under the Fig Tree 
Emmaus Mistaken for a Person . 

Mk.4«;Mt6« 534 

'Between the Temple and the Altar' . 563 
'The Widow's Mites' . . . - 563 
The Distance of the Mount of Olives 

from Jerusalem .... 563 
Note on a Syriac MS 563 

Rev. W. O. E. OESTERt.EV, B.D,— 

' Pledged Clothes ' ■ . . . .40 

Rev. Professor J. Obr, D.D.— 

Rainy's Aneienl Catholic Church . . 305 

Rev. Adam Philip, M.A. — 

Patrick Walker 356 

Rev. Augustus Poynder, M.A. — 

l3 33^ 94 

Professor J. V. PbaSek, Ph.D.— 
Sennacherib's Second Expedition 

Rev. John Reid, M.A. — 
Three French Books . 

Un SiicU 

The Poor Rich Fool . 

Rev. Professor A. H. Sayce, D.D., LL.D.- 
Ur of the Chaldees . 
Paran and Hagar's Well 
City of Enoch ; Tarshish . 
Land of Sepharad 
Assyrian Deeds and Contracts 
Anzanite Inscriptions , 
Decipherment of Hittite Inscriptions 

Rev. J. A. Selbie, D.D.— 
Number of the Beast , 
Strack's Grammar of Aramaic 

1 S 1= 

New Edition of Schiirer 
Baudissin's Einleilung . 
Frd. Delitzsch's/,;,* . 
Konig's O.T. Criticism 
Abidmg Value of O.T. 
Jastrow's Religion Bab. u. Asiyr 
GoUe on Dives and Lazarus . 



W. Taylor Smith, RA.— 

History of Jesus' Childhood 

R. Somervell, M.A. — 
t^--" Hist. Character of O.T. Narratives 

A. SOUTER, M.A. — 

Interpolation in ' Ambrosiaster ' . 
Emmaua Mistaken for a Person . 

Rev. R. M. Spence, D.D.— 

Rev. Edmund Sinker, M.A. — 
'The Carcases of Your Idols' 

Rev. Professor J. Skinner, D.D. — 
Professor A B. Davidson . 

Rev. David Smith, M.A. — 

Songs of Ascents 

le Marvels of Pentecost . 
Rev. H. P. Boys-Smith, M.A.— 

St. John's Gospel and the Logos 

Ac i7« 

Rev. Professor J. G. Tasker — 

Syriac Busebius .... 

Nietzsche's Mission 

The Text of N.T. 

The Christian Doctrine of Grace . 

The Problem of the Lord's Supper 

Rev. Charles Taylor, D.D. — 
I Peter and Enoch 

Rev. John Tavlor, D.Lit, 
l>uhm's /erf mia . 
Holzinger's ybsAua 
The Songs of Palestine 
Benzinger's Chronicles . 



Rev. R. Bruce Taylor, M.A. — 

Rev. G. Elmslie Troup, M.A. — 

Canon Henson on Apostolic Succession 

Rev. A. H. Walker, M.A.— 

Born of Water and Spirit 
Rev. Dawson Walker, M.A. — 

The South -Galatian Thcorj' . 
Rev. Horace Ward, M.A. — 

Christ and the Woman of Canaan 
Rev. Adam C. Welch, D.D.— i^'«.'VH 

Micah 5^-* ^ . 



Acts of Apostles, Dale 

Agnostic's Faith 

' Ambrosiasler,' Interpolation 


Apostles a 


a John 

'tics and ChticUm . 31 

ApostFes as Evangelisu . 53* 

Apostolic Succession . . 238, 531 
Arsmaic in St. Mack . . 328 

Archieology, Biblical 64, 178, 30S, 4^5 
Arpakshad .... 3S5 

Assyrian Deeds and Contracts . 465 
Astronomy and Ibe Kble . Z99 

Atonement, Mobetly's Theory . 295 
Aathorized Version in Public 

Worship 167, 240 

Aiekah ■ ■ ■ 95. 144 

Balaam's Ass .... 301 
Beast, Number .... 30 

Bethesda 333 

Bible, Errors . . I49> 300 

Biblit^aphy ... 3', '27 

Birth, Kcv , . . . 4S4 

Books . 13, 8z, 135, 158, 180, 

ao8, 218, z68, 316, 

409, 470. S14. 554 

Ciesarea .... 487, 558 

Cbaldseans .... 64 

Christ, Brethren , .145 

„ Childhood . . .167 

,, Death .... 70 

„ Knowledge . . .53° 

Christianity and Modern Thought 507 

Chronicles 452 

Citizenship, Roman . . - 78 

Commentary, Great Text 35, 61, 130, 

354. 303, 355, 

424. 460, 492 

'Conversation ' . . 

Creation in Bab. Lit. 
Cross. Bearing , 
Cubit, Length . 
Damascus, Rivers 
Daniel, Date 

," 'Weeks" 
Davidson, A. B. 
Death, Suffering at . 

Dies Irse Dies Ilia . 
Dives and Lazarus . 
Divinity Students, Dearth 
Di^matics, Method 





Ecstasy, Prophi 

Egyptian Papyrus of Kha- 

Emmaus Mistaken for a Person 

477, 56 

Enoch, City . . . . ""' 

Episcopacy, Ilieb-Church . 

Ethics, -jcienti^ and Christian . 

Eusebius, Syriac Version 

Experience, Religious 

Eiposilion, Notes of Recent I 
97. 145. '93. 24", 

50, 233 







Foreign Theology, Recent . 38, 69, 

361.' 335! is^'- 
398. 505. 543 

Galatia, Southern Theory . . 511 

'Generation' .... 434 

Genesis and Bab. Lit. . . S' 

Gospel after Recent Criticism 146 

„ and the Gospels lol, 146 

Gospels and the Gospel . toi, 146 

,, and the Heiateuch 565 

„ New Uncial . . .114 

„ New Syriac ... 509 

,, Phraseology ... 4 

,, Sources ■ . • 75 

Grace, Christian Doctrine . . 359 

Hades 548 

Hagat'sWell .... 66 
Hand, Left .... 524 
Hebrew Bible, Smallest . . 336 
Hendiadys in the Bible . 342. 388 
Hexaplaric Discoveries . . 55 
Hexateuch and the Gospels . 565 
Hittile Decipherroeul . . 490 

„ Discoveries . . . 465 
Illustrations .... 265 
Imperialism, Roman ... 80 
Incarnation, Laciii C/assiaii , 477 
Index to Recent Theology — 

Books 377 

Periodicals . . . 280, 475 
Indignation, Christ's Treatment . 366 
Inspiration .... 149 
Irony, Christ's .... 47 
Isaiah, Unity . . qo, 133, 385 
Jacob's Route from Ha ran to 

Shechem .... 457 
Jeremiah .... 71, 135 

'Jerusalem' in Lucan Writings . 157 
,, Siege by Sennacherib 326 

Jesus, Holti ' '"' 


'Jew,' 'Jewess,' 'Jewish,' 'Jewry 

432. 477 

Jews and the Passion ... 99 

,, Mission Problems . 241, 333, 

430. 533 

„ Non-Bibl, Lit. ... 190 

John the Baptist Sect . . 483 

John's Gospel and Synoptics 392 

,, Recent Criticism . 199 

Kiddilsb 437 

Kierkegaard .... 404 

Kir-hires 186 

Lewis Palimpsest, 'Our Lord' in 336, 
283. 334. 383 
,, „ Theft from . 405 

Life, Ethical .... 2 
Logos and Si. John's Gospel . 140 
'Lord (Our)' in Lewis Palimp- 
sest . 236, 383, 334, 383 
Lord's Prayer, Arrangement . 431 
Lord's Supper . . . 398, 503 
-nd PitMover 394, 435 



Luke's Gospel, Johannine Docd- 

Maccabees, Syriac 

Macbiaveliism in N.T. 

M^c and Religion . 

Magnificat . 


Mark, Aramaic in 

Mary Magdalene 

Melchizedek .... 

Messiah ol Gospels . 

Miracles in Gospels . 146, 148, 



Moabite Stone .... 
Moses, Religioo 


New Testament— 

Recent Criticism . 


Text . 38, 97, 136, laS, 


Nippur Library .... 
Old Testament— 

Abiding Value 398, 

Palestine, Discoveries in E. 
Paraclete and the World . 
Paradise, Rivers 

Passover and Lord's Supper 
„ in Christian Church 

„ Order of Observance 
Paitiarchs, Persons or Tribes 
Paul at Malta . 
,, the Roman 
Pentecost, Day of 
Fenuel .... 
Poetry .... 
Prayer .... 

„ in Early Christendom 
Priesthood without Pedigree 
Prophetic Ecstasy 
Psalms and Christianily 

„ of Solomon . 
Psenosiris, Episile 
Punishment, Purpose . 
Rahab .... 
Redemption, Schleiermachi 

'Refreshing' . 
Religion, Healthy and Sick 
Remnant .... 

Kinds . 
Revised Version, Principles 

„ ,, American 300 

Righteousness of Scribes and 

Roads, Roman . 
Sabbath Day's Journey 
Schleiermacher, Djcltine of Re- 

I Science and Faith 

I Sennacherib, Second Expedi 

Sepharad, Land 
I Septuaginl, Date 



Sepulchre (Holy), Site . 

Sin, Conviction , 



„ Original 

„ Four fisS from 

Sinim .... 

Sins iDd SiDfulnui . . 

SiRich, Notes . 

Socrates and Christ . 



E-ab - 

' Son of Man,' Recent Discussion 


Sulierinf; at Death 
Tal>ernacle, Construction . 



Temple, The Two Cleansings . 
Theology, Subject-Index to Re- 


K"31 . 


Theology (i-nwrtnusjf) — 

'Tree and Pillar Cull ' 
Unbelief of Young Men 
Union, Church . 
UroftheChsldees . 

Wages in Israel . 
Walker (Patrick) 
Woman that was a Sinner 
Zecbariah . 


■ 563 

. 463 


■ 464 

^n^Xcia . 

. 464 

Ja . 

■ 365 



■ 157 


• 345 


c6pay«l . 

■ 97 

TiKOO' . . 337 

x.vL 30 . 
xxiv. 17 . 
xxvi. s . 

1. 3 ■ ■ 

i\ : : 

ill. 12 . 

X. 30. . 

v.. 19 . 
Cix.23 . 

J«riii. 36 


li. 2' . .' 
lii. 1-7 . 
lix. 1-9 . 
4-9 . ■ 
1. 13 . . 

VU : 

X. as, 26 
xvii. 10 . 
it. 24-27 

ii. 8 40 1 

V. 2-4 


. 20-24 


39 . 


:.3. ■ 


.25 . 
>i. IS 


.26 4 



i. 19- 

11. 27 

iii. 18 


: 34 - 


!"■ 35 



, 330 

6, 524 


14 . 


■ 34- 


xn. 2S . 
XV. 28, 29 
xvi. 6 . 


oi.V . 
ii. 5 , 

XT. 6 '. 
Cor iv. 21 
vi. s . 
Cor i. 5 

V. 17 . 

xiii. 3. 4 
al vi. 6 . 
hit iii. 20, 
leb xii. T 
xii. 2 . 
xiii. 8 . 
Pet i. 10, 
ev ix. 7 ( x 
xiv. 3 . 




Qtofee of (F«c<nf (BtpoetHon. 

'It is an extraordinary phenomenon of scientific 
ethics,' say the editors of The Biblical World in 
their issue for August, ' that it should have ignored 
the significance of Christianity. Historically there 
has been no more potent moral force in occidental 
society than the Church, and, whatever may be the 
value of other religious systems to the orient, the 
great teachers of right conduct in Europe and 
America have been the preachers of the gospel 
Yet there is almost no treatise on scientific ethics 
worthy of serious consideration in which Chris- 
tianity is accorded any weight. Even when a 
writer like Paulsen is led to notice Christianity 
as a historical fact, he discusses it as if it were a 
branch of asceticism or a matter of antiquarian 
information. Nor does scientific ethics merely 
ignore Christianity; some of its representatives 
explicitly declare the ethics of Christianity to be 

This then is the situation. The art of good 
conduct taught by Jesus is preached by thousands 
of men to tens of thousands of people every week. 
The scientific writers on good conduct either silently 
ignore the teaching of Jesus or openly reject it. 
It is more than extraordinary ; it is a situation of 
grave peril either to Christianity or to science. 

Some reasons are given. The first reason is 
that scientific ethics is now evolutionary. The 
Vol. XIII.— I. 

present recognition of conscience, it is held, has 
been reached by continued efforts to find out what 
is best in the long-run. The very idea of right 
and wrong, the very birth of conscience, it is some- 
times held, is the result of a process of evolution. 
The teaching of Jesus does not fall in with this 
position. It reckons upon a sense of right and 
wrong in every man. It denies to self-interest the 
honourable role of evolving that sense and giving 
it authority. Self-interest is one of the works of 
the devil ; the Son of Man was manifest that He 
might destroy the works of the devil. 

Scientific ethics is essentially systematic. That 
is another reason. Even if it recognizes Chris- 
tianity, therefore, it does so merely by accepting 
a precept here and a precept there. Greek ethics 
it can take over and build on, because Greek 
ethics included not simply scattered precepts of 
conduct, but a formal systematizaiion. But of 
Hebrew or Christian ethics it can at the most 
find room for only an occasional practical aphorism. 

Another reason is that writers on scientific 
ethics believe that Christianity when it touches 
on conduct teaches asceticism. It denies life 
its worth and pleasure; it represents this world 
as a vale of teats ; it describes the body of man 
as a vile instrument of indulgence, to be buffeted 
and bruised until it is cast off altogether. 


Again, the rewards which ihc Christian re- 
ligion ofTers to those who do right and the pains 
it promises to those who do wrong are held to 
be utterly unscientific. In scientific ethics there 
is no place for heaven or hell ; virtue is its own 
reward, vice its own suflicient punishment. 

The last reason is the most conclusive. Chris- 
tian ethics is understood to rest upon a basis of 
super natural ism. Jesus not only taught men to 
seek the kingdom of God and His righteousness, 
but is understood to have risen from the dead. 
And on the resurrection the kingdom of God is 
built, from the risen Christ the authority to teach 
His ethics and the power to do it is undeislood 
to come. Science has no room for the resurrec- 
tion. So far as scientific ethics is concerned 
miracles do not occur. 

Now the editors of Tht Biblical World do not 
deny that there is force in these objections. But 
they assert that not one of them presents any fair 
knowledge of Christianity. And they have come 
to the deliberate conclusion (and express it in 
italics) that the reason why writers on scientific 
ethics neglect or reject the ethics of Christianity 
is because they do not knoiv what the ethics oj 
Christianity is. 

But scientific moralists are not alone to blame 
for that, tor Christian preachers themselves do 
not always seem to know what Christian ethics 
is. The true inwardness of the ethics of Christ 
and of St. Paul has been missed. The liberty 
wherewith Christ has made us free, free from 
all external authority whatever, has been shunned 
as antinomianism ; and in its place has been 
established an external ethical authority — an in- 
fallible church, an infallible pope, or an infallible 
creed — often less attractive and less fruitful of 
good works than the law of Moses or even the 
tradition of the Pharisees. 

So the Church of Christ must herself learn 
n'hat the ethics of Christ is, and her preachers 

must preach it, before scientific moralists can be 
fairly expected to take account of it. And to 
that end three things are necessar}'. 

First, the history of the words which convey the 
ethics of the New Testament to us must be ac- 
curately and sympathetically traced. Next, there 
must be a clear understanding as to what is the 
essential fact in the moral teaching of the New 
Testament. And then these two must be sharply 
separated and seen apart. For Christianity has 
a husk as well as a kernel. The husk is the in- 
tellectual forms of speech which came from 
Judaism and were modified by Greek and Roman 
thought ; the essence was contributed by Christ. 

And that essence is life. This is Christ's con- 
tribution. '1 came that they might have life,' 
The words which describe the life are of Jewish 
or Grseco-Roman descent, and their provincialism, 
so to speak, must be discounted ; the thing itself 
is wholly of Christ. How ignorant, then, of the 
essence of Christianity are the writers on scientific 
ethics who say that Christianity belittles life; who 
think that either Jesus Christ or the Apostle Paul 
was an ascetic ; who reckon that the chief obliga- 
tion imposed by the Christian religion is to despise 
and destroy the body ; who declare that the New 
Testament knows no higher ethical imperative 
than escape from hell. It is the ethics of the 
New Testament that has determined the conduct 
of thousands of the noblest men and women 
throughout the Christian era; and the editors of 
The Biblical World suggest that before the next 
writer on scientific ethics 'finally decides that 
Christianity should be reduced to a footnote, or 
even to an arch^ological chapter, he would do 
well to understand the New Testament.' 

' New Testament Criticism and the Faith ' is the 
title of four articles which have been contributed 
to The Pilot during the month of August by Canon 
Gore. The articles deal with the most recent 
criticism of the New Testament, the f. 


the last ten years or less. They are written for 
the purpose of showing the direction which the 
most recent criticism has been taking, and the 
effect it has had upon 'the Church's faith in Christ.' 

Canon Gore does not go back more than ten 
years, because ten years ago one great critical era, 
the era of Lightfoot, had come to an end. In 
Germany the Tubingen school had been routed, 
and Harnack had begun to lead a 'backward 
movement towards tradition.' In England, Super- 
natural Religion, 'a book representing, not very 
worthily, the destructive criticism of Germany,' 
had been fairly exploded, and the names of Light- 
foot, Salmon, and Sanday stood for what on the 
whole was a decidedly conservative victory. The 
prospect was hopeful. The way seemed to be 
open for Canon Gore or anyone else to hold by 
the Church's faith in Christ, and at the same time 
recognize the function of a searching criticism as 
applied to the New Testament documents. 

But the criticism of the last ten years has 
'disappointed these hopes. It is true that Dr. 
Sanday's Bampton Lectures and ' his great article on 
Jesus Christ in Hastings' Dictionary' represent 
-what Canon Gore believes to be the high-water 
Jevel of sane criticism. But Harnack has shown, 
'by the lectures recently translated into English 
■with the title What is Chnstiamiyi that the 
backward movement towards tradition, whatever 
it may do with dates and authorships, has not 
carried Harnack himself any nearer the traditional 
faith. And there are others, in England as well as 
an Germany — Canon Gore names Professor Percy 
Gardner, Mr. Burkitt, Mr. Moffatt, Dr. Abbott, and 
Professor Schmiedel — whose writings have made 
much stir of late, and seem once more to have 
brought the question, whether the gospel story is 
really and substantially historical, into a condition 
which Canon Gore describes as ' not much less 
than chaotic' 

The immediate result, especially among younger 
men, is no little unsettlement. There is, for 

instance, a somewhat widespread anxiety not to 
affirm, as a fact resting on adequate evidence, 
the virgin birth of our Lord. And, beyond that, 
there is a tendency to eliminate the divine claim 
from the life of Jesus, and to leave the reality of 
miracle an open question — a tendency which 
Canon Gore finds illustrated in A. B. Bruce's last 
thoughts on Jesus in the E>t<yclopmdia Biblica. 
Nor is the unrest confined to professional 
theologians. Canon Gore believes that among 
the laity there is at present a good deal of 
suspicion that criticism has proved fatal to 
orthodoxy, and that the only permanent element 
of Christianity is the heritage of moral character. 

Now it is easy to magnify the importance of this 
movement, and even to overestimate its men. 
For it is a critical movement pure and simple. It 
has no discovery in early Christian literature to 
start from. The great discoveries of those years 
have all gone toward the confirmation of the 
traditional faith. And not only is it purely critical, 
but its criticism is wholly of the documents them- 
selves. The external evidence still throws back the 
Synoptic Gospels into the first century. Harnack 
dates St. Mark probably at 65 to 70 a.d., St. 
Matthew at 70 to 75 A.D., St. Luke about 78 to 92. 

And even on the internal evidence Sanday and 
Harnack are substantially at one. 'In their 
essential substance,' says Harnack, 'the Gospels 
belong to the first, the Jewish epoch of Chris- 
tianity, that brief epoch which may be denoted 
as the palfeontological.' It is therefore not only 
upon internal evidence thai this recent criticism 
proceeds, but upon that evidence as it passes 
through certain minds. These minds are not 
more ' historical ' than Lightfoot's. On the 
contrary, they are discovered constantly asserting 
that things cannot have been as they are represented 
in the Gospels, either because they do not square 
with the writer's own conception of Jesus and His 
times, or because they contradict some of his 
philosophical ideas, such as the impossibility of 


Canon Gore thinks that we have dealt too 
tenderly with such writers. 'Is there not a 
danger,' he asks, 'that in exhibiting a scrupulous 
anxiety to give due weight to the yet undeveloped 
theories of the last rising foreign scholar, and 
an even blind charity in refusing to notice the 
manifestly naturalistic bias in his work, some of us 
should be found dissimulating the real strength of 
our own reasoned convictions, and refusing to 
those who are weaker the support which they 
really need?' 

This criticism, then, has no discovery to work 
upon. Not only so, but all the evidence as yet to 
hand conlirms the statement of St. Luke's preface 
as to the way in which the Synoptic Gospels came 
into existence. There was first of all the apostolic 
witness as to the words and deeds of Jesus ; ' They 
delivered them to us who from the beginning were 
eye-witnesses and ministers of the word.' Then 
this apostolic delivery or ' tradition ' became the 
matter of common instruction in the first Christian 
Churches, an instruction which, from the necessity 
of the case, must have been, at first at least, 
mainly oral. Theophihis, like all other Christians, 
' was instructed ' in the contents of this tradition. 
Then, after a while, ' many took in hand to draw 
up a (written) narrative ' of this gospel story. 
Now the merit of these written documents 
depended entirely upon the accuracy and fulness 
with which they gathered up the apostolic 
' tradition.' St. Luke claims no qualifications but 
those of opportunity and care. ' Having followed 
along with the whole course of events from the 
beginning accurately,' he writes his Gospel to give 
'security' to the instruction which in common 
with others his Theophilus has received. 

This process occupied a certain number of 
years. The matter which is common to the three 
Synoptics and even that which is common to two 
of them, certainly assumed its form within thirty 
or forty years of the death of Christ. Now we 
know a good deal of the life of the Christian 
society during those first forty years. The 

Epistles, especially those of St. Paul, together 
with the Acts of the Apostles, reveal that life, its 
movements, and its tendencies. And the questiort 
which we have to ask is this, Are the Gospels 
trustworthy records of the actual words and works 
of Jesus Christ, or are they seriously coloured by 
later notions of what His words and works ought 
to have been? 

Look at the phraseology of the Gospels first of 
all. In the Epistles Christians are called 'the 
brethren' or 'the saints.' These titles describe 
their relation to the community. In the Gospels, 
as in the early history of the Acts, they are ' the 
disciples.' Again, in the Gospels the character 
islic title of Jesus is ' the Son of man ' ; and ' the 
Christ ' Is still the Jewish Messiah. In the Epistles 
'Christ' has become almost a proper name, and 
' the Son of man ' is no longer in use. The whole 
style of our Lord's teaching in the Gospels (to 
mention but one other matter), whether it is by 
parables or otherwise, is quite unlike anything in 
the rest of the New Testament. The phraseology 
of justification, sanctification, and election, if it 
appears at all in the Gospels, appears so un- 
technically that the contrast is only the more 

It thus appears that the ideas and phrases 
which grew up in the minds of the apostles and 
the Church throughout those forty years were rot 
allowed to interfere with their memory of what 
' Jesus began both to do and teach.' 

Look next at the influence upon the Gospels of 
Old Testament prophecy or type. We know that 
the early Church was much occupied with finding in 
Christ the fulfilment of prophecy. Is there reason 
to believe that they altered the record or their own 
recollection of events in the life of Christ so as to 
make these events more evidendy the fulfilment of 
the Old Testament prophecies ? Canon Gore be- 
lieves that in St. Matthew's Gospel there are three 
passages which show some trace of this desire. In 
Mt 21- the 'ass' is added to the 'colt'; In 26'* 


the thirty pieces of silver are specified ; and in 
27*' 'gair is substituted for 'myrrh,' But the 
common matter of the Gospels is free from any 
such suspicion. The Second and Third Gospels 
contain, indeed, very little reference to the fulfil- 
ment of prophecy. And although Canon Gore, 
for his part, feels compelled to admit modification 
of details in the three instances mentioned, which 
are peculiar to St. Matthew, he holds that there is 
no excuse at all for suggesting that the influence 
of Old Testament prophecy or type has been 
allowed to mould any event of importance in the 
portion of the Gospels which we are now con- 

And this leads to the further and more 
striking observation that the miraculous element 
in the Gospels does not grow with their age. It is, 
indeed, at its highest in that Gospel which critics 
with singular unanimity regard as the earliest of 
alt — the Petrine memories recorded in St. Mark. 
It is here also inextricably bound up with scenes 
and sayings of our Lord the most indisputably 
authentic. What, for example, can be more 
certain than that the account of the Temptation 
is the record of a real spiritual experience of 
our Lord, communicated by Himself in outward 
imagery to the disciples? But this experience 
presupposes throughout on our Lord's own part 
a consciousness of strictly miraculous powers over 

Once more, and it is yet more striking, St. 
Paul's Epistles presuppose Christ's incarnation 
and divine sonship as common beliefs of the 
Ciiurch. Now it cannot be said that these 
beliefs are foreign to the Gospels. They occur 
there, and it is impossible, says Canon Gore, for 
the most hardy scepticism to deny the authenticity 
of the passages in which they occur. Take the 
assertion of the mutual knowledge of the Father 
and the Son, a knowledge which is declared to be 
exclusive; or take the declaration that the day 
and hour of the End are known neither to men 
nor to angels nor to the Son, where the divine 

sonship is asserted to be superangelic in a con- 
text that is quite unassailable. Or, again, take the 
Parable of the Vine-dressers, where, quite incident- 
ally but quite unmistakably, God's Son is contrasted 
with God's messengers. Yes, the ideas of incar- 
nation and divine sonship are found in the 
Synoptic Gospels. But they are not the most 
prominent ideas. There, as in the early speeches 
of the Acts, it is the Messiahshlp and heavenly 
exaltation of Jesus that chiefly occupy the 
disciples' minds. And when the ideas of incar- 
nation and divine sonship do occur, they occur 
in such a way as to put interpolation or later 
colouring out of the question. 

Canon Gore gives yet another example. The 
resurrection of Jesus from the dead was, in 
the early Church, the great subject of apostolic 
preaching. Being a supernatural event, its im- 
pressiveness depended upon the fulness and force 
of the evidence that could be produced on its 
behalf. Accordingly, St. Paul tells us that the 
witness of those who had seen the risen Lord 
(omitting the women) was tabulated, so that it 
might be engraved in the faithful memory of all 
Christians. Now it is surely remarkable that this 
table is not incorporated in any of the Gospels. 
The appearances of the risen Christ to His disciples 
arc set down in the Gospels in so casual a way as 
to become a positive perplexity to the modem 
harmonist, It is difficult to imagine stronger 
evidence that the Gospels came into existence in 
the natural way described by St. Luke in his 
preface, and that they were left uncoloured by the 
thoughts and necessities of a later time. 

Professor Gwatkin of Cambridge has published 
the sermon which he preached before the 
University on the 16th of June 1901, the day 
known as Commencement Sunday. His text is 
taken from z Co 5'", the Revised Version : ' The 
old things are passed away; behold, they are 
become new.' 


Not 'all things are become new.' That is a 
false Teading, says Professor Gwatkin ; and the 
context shows that St. Paul is not speaking of old 
things generally but of our old selves, and the 
things we loved in past time. St. Paul is telling 
us of changes that are going on now. He is not 
looking forward like St John to the time when he 
that sitteth on the throne shall say, 'Behold, I 
make all things new.' He is speaking indeed of 
powers that belong to a future age. But he is 
speaking of them only in their working here 
on earth — the hriytia, 'earthly things,' not the 
iTTovpavia, ' heavenly things.' 

The old things are passed away. They are 
passing now. For the age to come in which the 
apostle's 'powers' arc to do their work is this 
present age, the age In which he and we are 
living. In its manifest out-working it was mostly 
future to him, and alas ! it is mostly future still 
to us. But the powers are at work. The old 
things are passing, or have passed away ; behold, 
they are become new. 

They pass often silently. We seem to wake up 
of a sudden to find that the old hand has tost its 
cunning, the old custom is turned to wrong, the 
old teaching emptied of its living force. What are 
we to do then ? The foolish mother would keep 
the infant an infant always. The stupid politician 
resists reform. The cowardly Christian looks out 
for a master upon earth, or hides himself amongst 
the trees of dogma, that no fresh voice from 
heaven may unsettle the thing he is pleased to 
call his faith. 

But revelation always comes in change. And 
change itself, says Professor Gwatkin, Is revelation, 
if we have eyes to see it. It is so in life. When 
we were children we thought as children ; but now 
we have put away childish things. It is so in 
history. Only decaying nations and decaying 
Churches, like the declining empire and the 
modern Church of Rome, look back to some 
canonized past, and strive to live by tradition. 

We are simply unbelieving, says Professor Gwatkin, 
when we cling like drowning men to the truth of 
other days, which cannot be God's message to us. 

' The old things are passed away.' They were 
good things in their time — the beauty of our 
childhood, the proud powers of our manhood, the 
words chat were spirit and life to our fathers. 
We look wistfully to the culture of Greece, the 
splendour of Rome, the fervour of the early 
Christians, the simple faith of the Middle Ages, 
the strong righteousness of Puritanism. But we 
can no more recall them than we can wake the 
dead. They are passed away for ever, and we 
must face, as best we can, the work of a world 
which without them seems cheerless and common- 

The Victorian age and the nineteenth century 
are of the old things that have passed away. But 
behold they are become new. What have they 
become to us ? There are two great guiding ideas 
— both contained in the Gospel, both made prac- 
ticable by the Reformation, both prepared for by the 
clearances of the eighteenth century — which the 
nineteenth century has at last made ours. They 
are these. First, the worth and dignity of man as 
an individual. To some it seems rather that the 
great gift of the nineteenth century is the worth 
of society, and they look upon the development 
of the social idea as a reaction from individualism. 
To Professor Gwatkin both seem parts of one and 
the same movement. It is the higher value set on 
the individual that gave a higher value to the 
societies of nations and Churches in which he 
found himself. And the social movement is 
sound only in so far as it develops the idea of the 
worth of individual men. For after all, says Dr. 
Gwatkin, even the Church was made for man, not 
man for ihe Church. 

The other guiding idea of the nineteenth cen- 
tury was that of evolution, which interpreted first 
science, then history and theology ; and if it has 
thrown no light on the final mysteries of" specula- 


tion — first principles cannot be demonstrated — it 
has marvellously illuminated for us the methods 
of God's working in the world. 

These then, the worth of man as man, and the 
evolution of life and history, are the new things 
which the things of the old century have become 
to us. And Professor Gwatkin claims that they are 
both intensely Christian. The reddest of red repub- 
licans, he says, never claimed for man such dignity 
as is given him in our old story of the Son of God 
who gave Himself a ransom for us all. The boldest 
of levellers, he says, never went such lengths as we 
go in the Lord's Supper, where rank and race are 
utterly ignored, and all come up alike to feed by 
faith on Christ. Nor can the greatest enthusiast 
of nations — of man gathered into societies — outdo 
the love of country which lights the pages of his 
Bible. It flashes up at the outset, when Miriam 
sings her soqg of triumph over Pharaoh's host ; 
and it shines out at the end on the gloom of the 
gathering storm, when the last of the Hebrew 
prophets, James, the Lord's brother, denounces 
wrath from the Lord of Hosts on the oppressors 
of the poor. 

And as for evolution, what else, asks Professor 
Gwatkin, is the majestic development of revela- 

tion, from the farthest past which the astronomer 
can discern, to the farthest future which the 
prophet can divine ? Gradually the ages led up 
to the coming of their Lord ; gradually the centuries 
are unfolding something of the fulness of His grace 
and truth. 

But if these, the guiding ideas of the nineteenth 
century, were in the Gospel from the first, they could 
hardly, Professor Gwatkin believes, have been got 
out of it without the Reformation. He gives the 
Latin Church its due. But its doctrines, he says, 
were all poisoned by one colossal blasphemy. It 
demanded to be believed without regard to reason, 
and obeyed without regard to conscience. And 
that is more than God has ever asked even for 
Himself. So the yoke of Christian Phariseeism 
had to be broken, that man might be free to serve 
God in spirit and truth. The unspiritual unity of 
Western Europe had to be shattered in pieces that 
nations might escape the tyranny of an alien and 
sectarian Church, Above all, the idea of an in- 
fallible Church holding plenary powers from an 
absent King had to be rooted out, before men 
could begin to see the gradual development which 
is God's word to successive generations. But, adds 
this great Church historian, 'an infallible Church is 
also incorrigible ; therefore He cut her in sunder 
and appointed her portion with the hypocrites.' 

€h ^tvv&Mi of t^t Borb. 

The High Calling: of the Servant (Isa. xlii. 1-7). 

The character and work of the Servant of the 
Lord is in some respects the most important 
subject with which 2 Isaiah deals. It is not only 
very important. It is also on the one hand very 
interesting, and on the other very difficult. It is 
very interesting, inasmuch as it is largely through 
the servant that Jehovah brings about the salva- 

tion of Israel and of other nations, and the 
methods of the unchanging God must be fraught 
with the utmost personal interest for His people 
of any period. It is very difficult, because the 
greatest care is needed in order to determine 
precisely who the servant is ; and only a close 
comparison of different passages where he i< 


described can entitle us to any opinion on the 

The title 'Servant of the Lord' is applied by 
2 Isaiah first to Cyrus, the deliverer of the 
captives from the yoke of Babylon ; but with 
the fall of Babylon Cyrus disappears from the 
prophet's view, and there rises another figure 
whom he invests with the same title, one who 
has a great spiritual task to perform, instead of 
a military one. Chapter 41 contains the first 
mention of him : 'But thou, Israel, my servant, 
Jacob whom 1 have chosen, the seed of Abraham 
my friend ; thou whom I have taken hold of from 
the ends of the earth, and called thee from the 
corners thereof, and said unto thee. Thou an 
my servant, I have chosen thee, and not cast 
thee away; fear thou not, for I am with thee; 
be not dismayed, for I am thy God : I will 
strengthen thee ; yea, I will help thee ; yea, I 
will uphold thee with the right hand of my 
w The servant then is, in this passage, Israel, 

the entire people whom the prophet is addressing. 
The servant is not an individual, Let us be clear 
about this to begin with, or 2 Isaiah will remain a 
sealed book to us. With us Westerns the unit of 
society is a single person, but in the East it is the 
family ; and so the Old Testament is full of 
references to the nation, or to some part of it, 
when to Western ears it sounds as if an individual 
were meant. Thus, ' The men of Israel said unto 
the Hivites, Peradventure tlieu dwellest in my 
midst; and how shall / make a covenant with 
iheey (Jos 9'). Again, 'The children of Joseph 
spake unto Joshua, saying. Why hast thou given 
me but one lot and one part for an inheritance, 
seeing /am a great people, forasmuch as hitherto 
the Lord hath blessed ««?' (Jos 17"). Instances 
like these might be quoted numerously. 

But to come back to the term ' servant ' as applied 
to the nation. It is used at least twice by Jeremiah 
(3o"» 46"), and twice by Ezekicl (28" 37=*). 
2 Isaiah takes the phrase, and uses it in such a 
manner as to develop a great doctrine. In find- 
ing out what this is, it is necessary of course 
to compare the various passages in which the 
servant is mentioned. A little attention shows 
that these resolve themselves into two sets, those 
in which God is spoken of as doing something for 
^is servant, and those in which the servant does 
aething for Him. And the significant thing 

I that the servant of the one set is not identical 
with the servant of the other ; the servant who in 
the former case is the whole nation becomes now 
that part of the nation which is really serviceable 
to God. 

When the prophet is speaking of God's love t-^ 
for His servant. His redeeming activity on tho 
servant's behalf, he naturally thinks of all his 
people, good and bad alike, all needing God, all 
dear to God. But when he is thinking of what 
the people ought to do for God, and recalls the 
great missionary purpose for which God selected 
Israel originally, and sought to train them alt 
along, he cannot but feel that there are members 
who are morally incapable of doing that which 
they ought. He sees that the nation as a whole 
cannot at present be the servant of the Lord in 
the full sense ; and so when he is speaking of the 
activities of the servant, he has to restrict the term 
to include only the pious kernel within the nation. 
Thus in the early verses of chap. 42 it is this 
God-fearing heart of the nation of which the 
prophet represents the Lord as speaking in such 
lofty terms ; and in v." it is expressly said, ' I 
will give thee for a covenant of the people,' 
i.e. to be the medium of the restoration of the 
people Israel as a whole ; and after that, ' for 
a light of the Gentiles.' Then from v.'* on- 
wards the prophet speaks in a very different tone, 
because he is now thinking of the inefficacy of the 
nation as a whole that ought to have been the 
Lord's servant. As he looks round upon the 
people he loves, and sees how very incomplete 
is their knowledge of God and their obed'ience 
to Him, their ignorance seems to him the veriest 
blindness to divine things, and their disobedience 
deafness to the voice of the Lord. ' Hear ye 
deaf, and look ye blin,d, that ye may see. Who 
so blind as my servant — this chosen nation here? 
or deaf as the messenger that I send?' (For 
other examples contrast ^a^-"^^ ^gi. s-ii. is. la ^,.j,)j 
49S. 8 5o<f-) 

Here then we have an exemplification of that 
saying of Jesus, 'Many are called, but few are 
chosen,' — a saying which is true for all time ; and 
the real servant of Jehovah we see to be that 
part of the nation who recognized their duty to 
the whole world, but who felt their immediate 
responsibility to be towards their own unbelieving 

There was a preparation in an earlier prophet 


for this conception of a section of the people 
being used by God even if the rest had to be 
given up. One of Isaiah's great doctrines was 
that a remnant should return from the Captivity 
which he saw to be inevitable; and in order to 
give prominence to the idea, he called one of his 
sons Shear Jashuv, 'A remnant shall return' (7'). 
Moreover, he expressed his view very emphatically 
in the words, ' Except the Lord of Hosts had left 
unto us a very small remnant, we should have 
been as Sodom, we should have been like unto 
Gomorrah' (i'). 

I^t me recall a recent instance of a remnant, 
a remnant which may possibly still be used as 
the servant of the Lord for the salvation of a 
great country. In France two years ago, there 
was waged a disgraceful 'campaign, ostensibly 
having for its object a single individual, but in 
reality being a vast conspiracy organized for the 
overthrow of religious liberty, and for the sub- 
ordination of the civil 10 the military power.' 
But the ' very small remnant ' was there — a mere 
handful of Jews, Protestants, and non-sectarians — 
who maintained their faith and courage and 
energy in spite of the breaking up of old ties, 
the boycott of society, and the persistent hound- 
ing down of a Althy press. None of these things 
moved such men as Labori, De mange, de 
Pressens^, Joseph Reinach, Cl^menceau, and the 
rest, a very small remnant, but strong in their 
sense of justice and their faith in the eternal 
righteousness. These men were able to with- 
stand in the evil day, and having done all to 
stand, not merely because of their own stead- 
fastness of purpose, but because they were as 
the servant of Che Lord of whom it was said, 
'He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he 
have set judgment in the earth,' and to whom 
God promised, 'I the Lord have called thee in 
righteousness, and will hold thine hand ... to 
bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, and 
them that sit in darkness out of the prison house' 

The early verses in chap. 42 in which these 
words occur contain a very inspiring and very 
attractive description of the servant, one who is 
able to serve his fellows wisely and well because 
he is first and foremost the servant of the Lord. 
It has been beautifully said of the servant of 
the Lord that he is 'useful only because he 
is used, influential only because he is influenced ; 

victorious because he is obedient ; learning the 
methods of his work by daily wakefulness to God's 
voice, a good speaker only because he is first a 
good listener, with no strength or courage but 
what God lends, and achieving all for God's 
glory.* ' Behold my servant, whom I uphold ; 
my chosen, in whom my soul delighieth ; I have 
put my spirit upon him : he shall bring forth 
judgment to the Gentiles' (Is 42'). 

Now what are the characteristics of this servant 
who knows that God's hands are about his spirit? 

We must be careful not to misinterpret this. 
This is not the praise of silence. On the con- 
trary, the description of the servant suggests to 
us a prophet-preacher more than anything else. 
The writer himself depended upon language for 
the service he could do to man and for God ; 
and for majesty and tenderness alike his words 
have never been surpassed. He is not likely then 
to disparage the gift of public speech. What he 
is thinking of is not so much the literal use of 
the voice as the method and demeanour of him 
who uses it. Matthew applies these words to 
Jesus with rare insight, when he says that Jesus 
charged those whom He had healed not to make 
Him known, and adds that this was a fulfil- 
ment of the words we have before us. Our 
Lord declined to be advertised in such a manntr 
as would draw attention merely to His miraculous 
healing powers: much less would He advertise 

Or to take another case, Jesus could denoutice 
the Pharisees in the most scathing terms, yet no 
one thinks of impugning His humility. The 
thing had to be done in the name of God, and 
Jesus did not shrink from the disagreeable task 
of unmasking the hypocrites ; but He never made 
capital out of their faults, nnd would have received 
every one of them with the utmost graciousness 
had they been penitent. And every servant of 
the Lord must seek to be like Jesus in this, 
especially if his service be of a public character. 
He must be perfectly fearless in uttering the will 
of God, but never sensational. If God is uphold- 
ing him, 'holding his hand,' he will not be 
hysterical He will be very modest, thinking 
only of God, and not at all of himself. 

Another quality which will be conspicuous tn 


the servant who is taught of God is gentleness. 
He will manifest the gentleness of God. 

A bruised reed shall he not break off. 

The dimly butning wick he will not quench. 

lie shall biing forth law rsithrulty. 
This was precisely what our prophet did himself. 
The exiles were the bruised reed and dimly burn- 
ing wick, and the keyword of the prophet's utter- 
ances is comfort. ' Comfort ye, my people, saiih 
your God.' Bid them have faith in God and trust 
His faithfulness. When Israel as a whole had 
realized this, she would have the same story of 
iove to tell to the nations, how that God made 
all men . . . that they should seek Him, if haply 
they might feel after Him and find Him, though 
He is not far from each one of us ; for in Him 
we live and move and have our being. That is 
what the servant of the Lord must make known 
to the Gentiles, how that all men have a Father 
in heaven, ' whose fondness goes far out beyond 
our dreams.' He is able to straighten and restore 
the reed bruised by sin, and to refresh with the 
supply of His love the wick of belief in goodness 
which is burning dim. 

How characteristic of Jesus this was. If pub- 
licans and sinners were despairing of themselves. 
He assured them that He did not despair, and 
neither need they. And the common people 
heard Him gladly, for He taught them as one 
having authority, and not as the scribes. Here, 
again, He is the model for those who are servants 
of the Lord to-day. Wherever we find those who 
are depressed because their life has been a failure 
i» the sight of God, or those who hoped and 

strove to be so much more serviceable than they 
are in their particular line of life, or those to 
whom the world is hard in any way, with these 
we must be very gentle, and tell them of God 
whose gentleness and condescension makes men 
great. But our gentleness must never be mere 
softness. We must never forget that we are ser- 
vants of an all-righteous God, and therefore we 
dare not offer the least comfort to one who will 
not part with sin. Whether he be a wreck of 
humanity, the miserable victim of his own vices, 
or a worldling who cares only for the things of 
this life, our first word to him from God must 
be. Repent. The servant of the Lord shall bring 
forth law faithfully, and he has no mercy or hope 
to offer to those who are not penitent. 

The reward of the servant is mentioned in v.'. 
It is that he shall succeed in the work of 
the Lord. ' He shall not fail nor be discouraged, 
till he have set judgment in the earth : and the 
Isles shall wait for his law.' ' He shall not faiL 
nor be discouraged' unfortunately obscures the 
metaphor. The words mean literally, He shall 
not burn dimly like a wick, nor break like a 
reed, till he have set law in the earth. We are 
reminded of the beatitude, ' Blessed are the 
merciful r for they shall obtain mercy.' But 
there is more than the assurance of God's pro- 
tection : there is the guarantee of His strength. 
His sustaining power. If we are working for the 
salvation of others, no less than if we are working 
out our own, ' it is God that worketh in us both 
to will and to work according to His good 

t^t ^ataciiU «n> i^t TJ7orf&. 

By the Rev. T. W. Hodge, M.A., Leicester. 

It is unfortunate that the N.T. Revisers had not 
the courage to render o TrapatXijrM in Jn 14-16 
by ' Advocate ' rather than by ' Comforter.' Their 
marginal rendering in i Jn 2' (Comforter or 
Helper) is as gratuitous as it is useless, and can 
be meant simply to cover the retreat from an un- 
tenable position in their translation of the same 
word in the Gospel. 
To the English reader the substitution of ' Ad- 

vocate' for ' Comforter' in the Gospel would seem 
a violent one. Equally violent would be the sub- 
stitution of 'Comforter' for 'Advocate' in the 
Epistle, as it would also be much more unaccount- 
able. And yet if there is one point upon which 
scholars are agreed it is that, both for the sake of 
accuracy and of consistency, the same word in the 
Greek should be rendered by the same word in 


On the other hand, it has not been clearly 
shown thai in the Gospel the word has a meaning 
tlie same as that which it has in the Epistle. Dr. 
Dods, in his note on Jn 14'* (Expotitor's Greek 
Testttment), with great beauty and force paraphrases 
ttAAo5 irapoKkTjTiK by alter ego. But there is no 
attempt to show how the Spirit is an 'Advocate' 
in the sense in which Christ is an Advocate, 
And until this is done the consistency gained by 
uniformity of translation would be slight indeed. 
If the Spirit is not an 'Advocate ' in the sense in 
which Christ is an Advocate, then that rendering 
might be consistent, but it would also be mis- 

In the Epistle the meaning is clear and un- 
mistakable. TOfja'iiAijTos was specially the Advocate 
for the defence. Christ is the sinner's Advocate 
with God. Whose cause, with whom and on 
behalf of whom, does the Spirit plead ? 

He is, first of all, Chrisfs Advocate with the be- 
liever (Westcott). It is through the teaching of 
the Spirit the Christian disciple learns the truth 
about Christ (1 Co a"-'^), it was through the 
Spirit's advocacy thai the first disciples learned 
how He who was condemned and crucified as a 
common malefactor and blasphemer could be the 
King of Israel, the Saviour of the world, and the 
Desire of all nations. They learned how He who 
was smitten of God and afflicted, was wounded 
for trangressions and crushed for iniquities that 
were not His own ; they learned how they had 
turned every one to his own way, and how God 
had laid on Him the iniquity of all. 

But Christ needed an Advocate with the 
WORLD as well as with the disciples. Only by the 
Spirit's guidance will the world be led into the truth 
aboutChrist(iCoia'). Byabilterlyhostile Church 
He was called a friend of publicans and sinners ; 
against all forms of law and justice He was con- 
demned to scourging and death as a blasphemer. 
Never in the whole history of the world was a 
prisoner so able to plead His own cause, never 
was there so good a cause to plead. And yet, 
while justice was dragged through the mire, Christ 
held His peace. Though in peril of more than 
mortal agony, He ^opened nol His moutk.' The 


some things of which He could not speak to the 
disciples (Jn i^'^). There were some things of 
which He could not speak to the world. For a 
moment His cause seemed to be lost in hopeless. 

irrecoverable defeat. His death was a perversion, 
not a vindicarion of justice. He was hated 'gra- 
tuitously' (Jn 15^). He was crucified through 
ignorance (i Co i^). The world had misjudged 
Him; the verdict was confessedly (Jn 19*) false 
and unjust, and must be reversed. Only through 
the advocacy of the Spirit could His righteousness 
be brought forlh as the light and His judgment as 
the noonday. His hope is in the Paraclete (Jn 
1 5=»). Through the Paraclete will the world be con- 
vinced of sin — its own sin ; of righteousness — 
His righteousness; of judgment — the condemna- 
tion of the adversary (Jn 16^""). 

It is hardly adequate to say that this conviction 
of sin would secure the acquittal of the disciples, 
it would secure the vindication of Christ : neither 
is it sufficient to say that the Spirit ' pleads the 
believer's cause against the world ' (Westcott) ; for, 
even in the world, the Spirit is the Advocate not of 
THE DISCIPLES, BUT OF Christ. The discipUs are 
not first of all defendants but witnesses. 

The Fourth Gospel is, avowedly, a Gospel with 
a purpose; it was written by a believer that his 
readers might share his faith and so be delivered 
from the terrible issues of unbelief. The writer 
steadily and carefully traces the growth of faith 
until it comes to fruition in the repentant cry of 
the first sceptic : ' My Lord and my God.' In the 
same way he traces the growth of unbehef until it 
culminates in the rejection and crucifixion of the 
Redeemer. Every other sin is a tacit, if uncon- 
scious, acquiescence in the world's unjust judgment 
of the Christ. The sin of which the Spirit will 
convict {iXiyxia) the worid is the sin of refusing 
to believe on Christ (Jn i6»). The conviction 
of sin will secure the vindication of righteousness ; 
the condemnation of the 'prince of this world' 
will lead to the glorification of Christ. And all 
this will be the result of the Spirit's advocacy of 
Christ and of Christ's cause. If the Spirit pleads 
the cause of the disciple, He does so only so far 
as He pleads the cause of Christ 

Christ came in His Father's name, and His work 
was to glorify the Father. The Spirit comes in 
Christ's name (Jn 14**), and the Spirit's work is 
to glorify Christ (Jn i6»}. Christ while on 
earth was God's Advocate with man. When 
the Spirit — the SXKck vapaK\r{tw (qAXot not 
htpK — His work was not different from the work 
of Christ) — Christ's alter ego — came. He continued 
the advocacy begun by Christ. But in coming as 


the Advocate of God's cause, He came as the i 
Advocate of Chrisfs cause. I 

Christ is now man's Advocate with God (i I 
Jn i'). That is the teaching of the Epistle. The 
Spirit is Christ'sadvocale with man. That is the 
teaching of the Gospel (14-16}. Christ pleads the 
cause of those who did the wrong ; the Spirit 
pleads the cause of Him who suffered the wrong. 
Christ pleads with the Holy the cause of the 
guilty : the Spirit pleads with the guilty the cause 
of the Holy. 

And now the Spirit's advocacy comes home to 
(he hearts of men with ever-increasing power and 
urgency, Christ is no longer regarded as a blas- 

phemer of God nor as a cunning deceiver of men. 

Now at last His name is received with reverence. 

The whole civilized world will, at length, be 
I ashamed of the deed done on Calvary. Through 
I the witness-bearing of Christian disciples and the 
I advocacy of the Spirit the world begins to see in 
! the crime on Calvary the culmination of its un- 
' belief and sin. The Spirit was, and is, the Advo- 
I cate of disciples because, and only so far as. He 
I was first of all the Advocate of Christ. He was 

the Advocate of the disciples only so far as 

they were witnesses for Christ. Christ is the 
' Advocate of disciples : the Spirit is the Advocate 
I of Christ. 


Bv Kleanoh C. Gbegoky. {Alleiiseii. i2mo, pp. 96. 
IS. fid. net.) 
Mysticism is too large a subject to be intro- 
duced so briefly, and too ' mystical ' to he made 
so simple. Yet this little book was worth writing. 
It wilt give to many their earliest knowledge of 
the existence of mysticism, to some their first 
laste for it. And if there are those who will read 
it and then call themselves mystics, that is their 
folly, not Miss Gregory's fault. 

Mr. Allenson is about to issue the Old Testa- 
ment portion of Mr, J. B. Roiherham's Emphasised 
Bible. He is to issue it in two forms, either in 
three volumes, of which the first will be ready in 
December, or in monthly parts, of which the first 
is in our hands (large 8vo, pp. 64, as.). 

For the Church Service Society of the Church 
of Scotland, Dr. Sprott has edited new editions of 
The Book of Common Order (Blackwood, crown 
Svo, pp. 273) and of Scottish Liturgies of the Reign 
fif JatTies vt, {pp. a3i). With becoming modesty 
Dr. Sprott speaks of the new editions as ' reprints.' 
But they are not reprints. Although the first 
editions were scholarly and attractive, no man 
with Dr. Sprott's love of things liturgical would 
(ve been content to reprint the books. There 

are omissions, additions, and alterations through- 
out. They might almost have been called new 
books. And being now bound separately there is 
no edition of these classical works so convenient 
as this. 


O-ITLEY. (Cambridge: Al iki Univtrsity Prisi. Crown 

Svo, pp. 332, with Maps. 55.) 
This Short History of the Hebrews must take 
the place of all other text-books. It is less like a 
text-book than Maclear's Old Testament History, 
for example, since it is written in a much more 
attractive Enghsh style, and its chronological 
tables are thrown to the end. But that does 
not make it really less suited for a text-book. 
.\nd it has the immeasurable advantage over 
Maclear that it makes use of the last fifty years' 
work on the Old Testament. It adopts the 
results of that work, though with discretion, and 
what is much more than that, it frankly recognizes 
the validity of the critical principles which have 
produced those results. There is no great hardi- 
hood in prophesying that Mr. Ottley's Short 
History iif the Hebrews will mark a turning-point 
in the study of the Old Testament. 

Recently in the Biblical World there appeared 
a remarkably complete list of Books for New 


Testament Stwiy. Under that italicized title the 
list has now been published separately, and very 
cheaply, through the Chicago University Press, 
The list is divided into two pans, the one en- 
titled 'Popular,' the other 'Professional.' Teachers 
and theologians who can get on as well without as 
with this guide to the recent literature of the New 
Testament must be themselves very literary and 
learned. The authors are Professor Voiaw of the 
University of Chicago, and Professor Bradley of 
the Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston. 

The Rev. Hugh M'lntosh, M.A., has issued 
the second edition of his book. Is Christ In- 
falUbk and tht BibU Trut? (T. & T. Clark, 
Svo, pp. 748, 9s.). It contains a new preface, 
in which he says: 'In issuing so soon the 
second edition, I have to acknowledge most 
gratefully the very favourable reception given 
to this work, the exceedingly good reviews of 
it by leading papers, both secular and religious, 
nnd the highly appreciative opinions of it, em- 
phasizing the urgent need of it now, expressed 
by biblical scholars and leading men. In 
this edition several corrections have been made, 
some changes introduced, and important additions 
appended. As the last pages of the first edition 
were passing through the press, there appeared 
Dr. G. Adam Smith's Modern Criticism and tht 
Preaching of the 0/d Testament, treating partially, 
but very unsatisfactorily of some of the questions ; 
as also, the second volume of the Encyclopedia 
BiblUa, with articles by Dr. Schmiedel and others, 
which have awakened earnest attention and serious 
concern. With these I have here dealt specifically, 
though briefly, but I hope effectively, from the 
standpoint and on the lines of my book — the 
Divinity and Authority of Christ. I trust it may 
now prove in tht present crisis more helpful and 
eft'ectual even than before in destroying the de- 
structive criticism, and confirming faith in the 
Word of God." 


Wblcb, M.A., B.D. {T. ^ T. Claii. Crown Svo, 

pp. a65. 3s. ) 
It was a great idea to get the history of the 
world written in biographies of its epoch-makers. 
There is no other way, perhaps, in which it can 
be written now, there is certainly no other form 
in which it will be read. The work differs with 

the workmen, but as the volumes of ' The World's 
Epoch-Makers ' appear, it becomes more manifest 
that in this series we shall have a history of human 
thought unsurpassed in range and interest. But 
there are those who have lost their ambition to 
know the history of the whole world. By them 
the volumes of this series may be taken separately. 
Each volume is complete in itself. It has its own 
interest and its own independent worth. 

Mr. Welch's masterly volume falls in with the 
editor's grand ideas of a history of the world, and 
at the same time meets our less ambitious desires 
for a good biography of a great ecclesiastic. The 
book is by no means an ' appreciation ' (as that 
word has come to be used). A mere eulogy of 
Anselm and his work would have been a poor 
service to render him or us. But Mr. Welch has 
not hidden from us the essential greatness of the 
man, nor the epoch-making character of the work 
he did. It is strange that for a work so great and 
so trying this man was chosen, who seemed so 
little fitted for it. But perhaps if he had been 
better fitted, after our ideas of fitness, he would 
have done it less perfectly. It is not through 
fitness but the shedding of blood ihat great work 
is done, and Anselm was fit for that. 

l>.D. ( ['hiladelphia : Coaln. 8vo, pp. 385.} 
The contents of this book will be often used to 
point a moral or adorn a sermon. Great men's 
ideas on God, Creation,' the Bible, and other great 
subjects are gathered from their wrhings and 
given in their own words. The editor's purpose 
is not apologetic but simply illustrative. His 
range is therefore very wide ; McGiffert and Tal- 
mage stand side by side, Voltaire and Charles 
Hodge. If the book is sifted for a new edition, 
here is an extract that might be shaken out — 

Talmage is stagg^ered by Nothiog;. 

There is nothing in ihe Bilile that staggers me. . . . 
Suiting with ihe idea ihal God can do anything, here 
I stand, believing in 1 whole Bible, fiotn lid to lid. . . . 
God was so caiefut to have us have the Bible in jubt ihe 
right shape thai we have fifty MS. copies of the New 
Testameni looo years old. . , . Assaulted, spit on, torn 
to pieces, and burned, yet still adhering ; the Bible to-day 
(is) in 300 languages, confronting four-fiflhs of the human 
rice in iheir own tongue; 3oo,ooo,ooocopiesof it are now 
ID existence. ... I demand that the critics of the Bible go 
clear over where they belong, on the devil's side. 


The new volume of the Century Bible is Romans 
(Jack, crown 8vo, pp. 322, 2s. net). The editor 
is the Rev. A. E. Garvie, M.A., B.D. It is per- 
haps the most difficult volume of the series, not 
only on account of its subject-matter, but also 
because of the surpassing excellence of some 
recent commentaries, and the consequent difficulty 
of saying anything good and fresh. Yet we have 
to acknowledge, and we are confident everyone 
will acknowledge, that Mr. Garvie is always fresh 
and almost always good. He is sometimes as 
peculiar as he thinks St. Paul was, for he is almost 
as independent as he claims the apostle to have 
been. And the wonder is that, not being St. 
Paul, he misses the mark so rarely. It is quite 
probable that none of the volumes of the series 
will be either more original or more helpful. 

Professor Buitenwieser of the Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, was invited to send an article 
to the/ewish EneyclopiEdia on the ' New Hebraic 
Apocalyptic Literature,' and he sent it. But he 
did not approve of the editor's revision, and with- 
drawing the article published it separately through 
Messrs. Jennings & Pye. It is a modestly 
written pamphlet of forty-five pages, price 50 
cents. A clear distinction is made between the 
merely eschatological and the properly apocalyptic, 
and all the apocalyptic writings are briefly de- 
scribed. In an Introduction of a few absorbing 
pages. Dr. Buttenwieser claims that there was no 
break in the existence or character of apocalyptic 
from the Book of Daniel which was written in the 
days of the Maccabees, right down to the Persian 
.\pocalypse of Daniel which was written in the 
ninth century after Christ. 


OK THE El'Ii'HANV. Edited or traksi.atbh by 

John, MARcjUEffi or Bute, K.T., and E. A. Wallis 

Budge, M.A., Lin-.D., r).L[T. (Frowdt. CiownSvo, 

pp. isS. 6s.) 

It is the Latin version that the Marquess of 

Bute has edited and translated. But he has also 

helped Dr. Budge with the other versions. These 

are Greek, Syr lac, Coptic and Russian. The 

original texts are all given, together with parallel 

translations of all, except the Greek. The 

interest of the little book to liturgiologists is 

very great. The publisher has joined hands with 

■*r. Budge to produce an appropriate and attractive 

imorial of the late Marquess of Bute. 

Mr. Gardner of Paisley has published a new 
edition of Our Present Hope and our Future Home, 
by the Rev. J. B. Sturrocit, MA. (crown 8vo, 
pp. 280). It is the third edition. It is practically 
a volume of sermons, and its continued circulation 
is proof enough that sermons will always sell if 
they have life in them. May this vital evangelical 
volume pass through many editions more! 

SPIRITUAL KELIGION. BvJohnG, Taskeb. {Kdly. 
8vo, pp. 191. 2s. 6d.) 
This is the Fernley Lecture for 1901. And it 
will surprise no one, who reads The Expository 
Times and Professor Tasker's reviews of foreign 
books therein, to be toid that the Fernley Lecture 
for 1901 not only exhibits an unusual knowledge 
of recent theological literature, but also expounds 
with rare insight the great movements of recent 
theological thought. And In doing so Professor 
Tasker preaches the gospel. For his interest in 
theology is never theoretical. Consciously or 
not, he seems always to ask how each theory helps 
us to the knowledge of God and the love of men. 
It Is this practical purpose that prevents his wide 
range of subject from losing itself in the sand. 
His single lecture is a manual of theology, but he 
so manages it that each subject, ere it is dismissed, 
has done its work of revelation and reform. The 
centre of practical interest for the present moment 
is the seventh chapter, on ' Access to God through 
Christ.' Access to God is desired on every hand ; 
but the demand is often made. Why through 
Christ? Professor Tasker answers that demand. 
Thus his book is an apologetic, and that none the 
less that his chief interest is not in Christian 
apologetic, but in communion with Christ. 

AND E>:i'ERIENCE. Bv tub Ki;v. \V. L. 
Watkinson. (Kelly. Crown Svo, Two Vols., pp. 24S, 
252. 2s. 6d. each.) 

Studies for the pulpit, studies (hat have stood 
the test of the pulpit, in short, sermons of great 
pith and moment, fill Mr. Watkinson's volumes. 
Number eleven in vol. i. is about 'Strained 
Piety ' ; Its text is ' Be not righteous overmuch ' 
(Ec 7'*); its divisions are (i) strained piety re- 
veals itself in doctrinal fastidiousness; (s) in 
morbid introspectiveness ; (3) in an exacting con- 
scientiousness ; (4) in the inordinate culture of 
special virtues ; and (5) in striving after impractic- 


able standards of character. It is quite a long 
sermon for Mr, Watkinson, nearly filling twelve 
little pages ; the next one scarcely fills five, and 
that is nearer the average. But there is matter in 
the shortest, 

S. Basks. (A>//i', Crown 8vo, pp. 274. as. 6d.) 
Professor Banks of Headtngley College recently 
published a little book on the Development of 
Doctrine in the Early Church. The present 
volume continues the subject, and carries it down 
to the Reformation. It is written for beginners. 
And just because it is written for beginners, just 
because he knows that he may be forming 
opinions that once formed arc not easily altered, 
Professor Banks is careful to find the actual facts 
and to let them speak for themselves. 



{Ktlly. Crown 8vo, pp. 326. 2s. 6d.) 
This new history of the men and events that 
preceded and produced the Reformatioti is to 
appear in two volumes. It would have been 
easier to have filled twice the number. But 
Mr. Workman has no reason to lament his limits; 
for his readers are thereby multiplied and his 
effect Iveness is not impaired. His previous 
volumes on the Church in the West proved him 
possessed of clear ideas, and able in few sentences 
to convey them to his readers. He seizes the 
essential in a movement, and lets the trifling go 
without yielding to the temptation of showing 
how much he knows. There is life in his writing, 
and it is the life of the period of which he writes. 
Holding by Jessopp's definition of History as 
' the science which teaches us to see the throbbing 
life of the present in the throbbing life of the 
past,* he neither mingles the present with the past 
nor misses the connexion between them. 

8vo, pp. 136. as. 6d. nel.) 
The literature of the Brahmo Samaj is so large 
that Mr. Lillingston has done a good work in 
using it freely and offering so intelligible and 
manageable an account of that curious religious 
amalgam. So careful has he been that those who 
know the subject will read his summary with 

delight. But he writes for the unlearned and the 
Englishman, and it is safe to say that no easier 
introduction to the subject is to be found. 

Mr. Arthur S. Way, whose Odyssey (published 
under the pseudonym of ' Avia ') is held to 
beat even Worsley's ringing rendering, has now 
produced a translation of the Epistles of St. Paul 
(Macmillan, crown 8vo, pp. xviii, 223, 5s. net). 
In a Preface which marks him out at once to 
the uninitiated as a master of the English 
language, he tells us why he has made a new 
translation of St. Paul's Epistles and how. He 
thinks that we should be able to read them as 
easily as they did who read them first. In a 
literal translation that is impossible. We do 
not catch the force of the words, we do not see 
the allusion in the figures. The words must 
sometimes be explained in a phrase, the figures 
by an expansion. There are snatches of hymns 
too, — quite a number of them, Mr. Way thinks 
(and he thinks St. Paul was often himself the 
poet who composed ihem). These have to he 
shown as hymns; they have to be lifted out of 
the even page, that the argument may be seen to 
flow on again when they are past. 

Is it not needless to say that Mr, Way has done 
his work well ? He has produced a modern 
English version which many others have also 
done : he has done more than that. While 
others have tried to bring St. Paul down to our 
day and to make him speak in our tongue, Mr, 
Way has taken us back to the days of St, Paul, 
and we are delighted to listen to the public reader 
in 'the crowded upper room or other barn-like 
structure lent for the first Christian assemblies.' 
There is a tradition that a great preacher made 
his sermon consist one day of the mere reading 
from beginning to end of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews. ^\'e might all try that method occa- 
sionally with a Pauline Epistle, and if we used 
Mr. Way's version, our hearers would 'follow' as 
easily as they do an average s< 

Brooke, M.A, {.Vanhall Bros. Crown 8vo, pp. 
119. as.6d.) 
It is still possible, even in the Book of Leviticus, 

to ignore the Higher Criticism entirety. Mr. 

Brooke does so. That would not be suipri^p^if 

bis method of interpretation were allegori<y. It 


is as literal as Wellhausen's. But when we read 
that 'the Lord spake umo Moses,' Mr. Brooke re- 
ceives the words spoken as 'the exact words of 
God,' and since this book contains that formula 
often, he holds that the very characteristic of 
Leviticus is this, that 'it reports more of the 
exact words of God than any other,' it 'conveys 
peculiarly God's voice and God's words,' and so 
' there is an authority herein sufficient to calm 
every doubt, there is a joyous assurance that all is 
authenticated by God.' This conviction deter- 
mines the character of Mr. Brooke's 'Studies,' 
and decides for all of us the value of his book. 

Our Bible Students' Palestine Party (Marshall 
Bros., as. 6d.) is the title of a book by Miss F. 
J. Dolby, containing notes of a tour in the East. 
Here is a paragraph. 'The so-called stables of 
Solomon interested us. Some of the pillars are 
very old. The Norman arches over them were 
built by the Crusaders. Iron rings were fixed in 
the pillars, and they stabled their horses here. 
The place was discovered by Sir Charles (then 
Captain) Warren. He was a most determined 
explorer, and tried hard to effect an entrance. 
One day he succeeded in digging a hole through 
the wall, but being overheard while talking inside, 
he had to make good his escape as quickly as 
possible, or he would have been a dead man. He 
has never shown his face in Jerusalem since.' 

Bible marking is now a science. lis appren- 
tices have therefore to be taught, and Messrs. 
Marshall Bros, have published a manual for 
the purpose, under the title of The Bible Marker 
{pp. 1^6). 


Julian, Aschoress at Norwich, a.d. 1373. 

EniTBD BY Grace W'arrack. {Methuen. Crown 

8vo, pp. Ixiviii, 20S. 6s.) 

Whether it be for good or evil, the motions 

of God's providence or the wrath of man that 

worketh not the righteousness of God, mysticism 

is upon us. It is upon us in some cases as a 

study of which we have this very month clear 

evidence, in most cases only as a pastime. As 

a pastime for most of us, because it is impossible 

for the multitude to find anything in mysticism 

that should touch the conscience or reach the 

heart. In any case it is on us, and it would 
have been strange if the ' Revelations ' of Julian 
had not been made accessible to us. Where is 
mysticism to be found in sweeter fragrance? The 
book of the Revelation of Julian the Anchoress 
may be needless to us and nothing after that 
of St. John the Divine, but Julian herself is most 
attractive. And wisely has the editor given us 
much of Julian. It is manifestly an artist's loving 
masterpiece, and we thank the editor most heartily 
for tlie beauty and fidelity of the workmanship. 

Many are they who being themselves under 
the spell of Behmcn have tried to make him 
known to the multitude. It cannot be done. 
But perhaps Mr. Bernard Holland (much helped 
by his publishers) has come nearest success. He 
has edited Dialogues on the Supersensual Lije 
(Meihuen, crown 8vo, pp. 182, 3s. 6d.). He has 
prefixed sentences selected from ' Regeneration ' 
and 'Christ's Testaments.' And he has intro- 
duced the whole with a long Preface of wonderful 
interest and instructiveness. 

Lka, LL.D. (Qiiarilih. 8vo, pp, 475. 95.) 
Dr. Lea's historical works run into many vol- 
umes, but there is one central subject round 
which they all travel, and they never travel far 
from it. That subject is the Inquisition. The 
Inquisition must have had an early, and it still 
retains a strong, fascination for Dr. Lea. He 
does not love it. With all his heart and sout 
and strength and mind he hates it. He has given 
his hfe to the exposure and condemnation of it, 
and not of it only, but also of the spirit of religious 
intolerance that once produced it. He does not 
shriek, for he is a historian, but you may say 
that he grinds his teeth. And you may feel happy 
or otherwise if he does not make you grind yours. 
At least you must throw your sympathies on the 
side of the Moors wholly and heartily. Vou must 
do that or else lay down the book. But the book 
does other service besides exciting strong feeling. 
By a memorable example it shows how little worth 
is conversion by force, and by the same example 
it shows how heroic human nature can become, 
whether Christian or Pagan, when persecution 
brings the heroism out. 


Beet. (J.r.S. Crown 8vo, pp. l6o. i<. 6d,) 
The Religious Tract Society has undertaken 
to publish a series of small crown octavo books 
to be called ' Bible Keys.' This is the first. It 
is general in character and probably in purpose. 
It contains much information about the Bible, — its 
contents, versions, translations, criticism, defence, 
— and it seeks to show how the good that is ii» 
it may be got with the help of, or in spite of, 
all these things. Dr. Beet writes simply and 
sincerely. He opens the series with a book likely 
to be well received. 


George Dickison. (,£llioi Slock. Svo, pp. 238, 
with IlluslraliDns. 55.) 

It is possible and even easy for any one to 
reconcile Genesis with Science, if he goes about 
it the wrong way. But who is the better for the 
reconciliation ? The Bible is religion and Science 
is not If they happen lo meet here and there, 
they only meet to part again. What is the Crea- 
tion to us without the Resurrection of Christ? 
And who will reconcile Science with that? No 
one should in any case attempt to reconcile Gen- 
esis with Science except a Jew, and no Jew would 
dream of iL Reconcile? he would say, they 
never were at enmity. They never knew of one 
another's existence. Let Science grow from more 
to more, and more of reverence in us dwell. This 
is an elaborate, able, expensive book, but its work 
is beating the air. ^^_^ 

HISTORY. Bv Professor ViLLARi. Translated 
BV Linda ViLLARi. {Unwin. Svo, pp. 583, 7s. M.} 
'Old essays,' says Professor Villari, 'old essays, 
more or less disjointed, and containing many 
unavoidable repetitions.' But it is not so bad 
as that. The old essays are brought up to date, 
and the repetitions are quite inoffensive. The 
only criticism that the reader makes upon the 
book is that it lacks unity. Expecting a history, 
he finds materials for a history. But even that 
disappointment he gets over after a moment. For 
he finds that the lack of system is more than 
balanced by the vividness with which Florence 
and her great ones are brought before him. Dis- 
jointed as it is, the interest of the book increases 
steadily till it gathers into intensity around the 
person of Dante, who forms the centre and subject 

of the last two chapters. A more systematic 
history of Florence would probably have been 
less read, and it might have given us less real 
knowledge than this. The book i.<; well translated 
and effectively illustrated. 

' S8e (pfifcMjifs of (gefigion; ' 

There are those who worship God in sincerity 
and truth and are content with that. There are 
others who ask why. They may ask why they 
themselves do so, and then they are both religious 
and religious philosophers. Or they may only 
ask why others worship God, and then they are 
philosophers only. It is better to be only religious 
than only a philosopher. It is no doubt best to 
be both. 

The philosophy of religion, or the reason why 
men worship God, covers the questions. Who or 
what is God ? to some extent also, What is man ? 
and then especially. What have God and man lo 
do with one another? These questions are difficult 
to answer. Perhaps no two independently think- 
ing persons answer any of them in exactly the 
same way. No doubt there are schools. Three 
or four writers may be near enough to one 
another, and far enough from the next three or 
four, to be classed together. Smaller groups may 
also be capable of being gathered into larger. 
But not only must the student of the philosophy 
of religion distinguish group from group, he must 
also, even in the smallest and closest group, dis- 
tinguish one individual from another. Who is 
sufficient for all this? 

Professor Caldecott has been found sufficient. 
He has gathered the writers on the philosophy of 
religion into groups ; out of smaller groups he has 
formed larger, and in every group he has distin- 
guished the individual contribution of each indi- 
vidual philosopher. His volume is an index to 
the philosophi CO -religious literature of England and 
America since the Reformation. But it differs 
from the ordinary index, for this author has read " 
beyond the title-pages. With care and discrimina- 
tion he has gone right through the books, and in 

' Tht Phihscphy of Xtli'siffi in England and America. 
By Alfred Caldicoit, D.D., Professor of Logic and Meotal 
Philosophy in King's College, London. Meihuen. Svo, 
pp. 450. los. 6d. 



clear outline he has set down the contribution 
which every one of them has made to the philo- 
sophy of religion. He has read small books as 
well as great, volumes of sermons as well as 
systematic treatises. Yet his space is not thrown 
away, for no book is mentioned that has not some 
independent thing to say. 

Bishop Westcott fills eight pages. Let us take 
him as a fair example — we are reading many 
curious things about him at present. The two 
books dealt with are The Gospel of Life, 189*, and 
Religious Thought in the West, 1891. His place 
is amongst the intuitivists or mystics. More par- 
ticularly his position is described as Comprehensive 
Intuitivism, since he holds to the intuitive nature 
of the idea of God, but articulates with it the 
whole range of human experience. God is known 
by direct outlook, yielding immediate conviction. 
We become conscious of Him in experience, but 
He is Himself beyond our experience — both the 
experience of our personal life and of the history 
of mankind Dr. Westcott speaks as if totally 
new facts were given by Revelation, but he also 
holds that all facts have, in addition to their 
significance for the sciences, aspects which are 
spiritual, and are to be read as signs of the divine 
activity. These are Dr. Westcott's fundamental 
beliefs. Other points are touched upon and other 
books mentioned. There is occasional acute 
criticism. And it is to be observed that here as 
elsewhere Professor Caldecott is very successful in 
keeping himself out of view, and letting us see the 
author whom he describes. 

' t%t t?eofo5B of t^e TTeefminefM 
^^Bofs.' ' 

In Britain the centre of theological interest has 
for a long time been the teaching of the Bible, 
though there are signs that systematic theology is 
coming to its own again. In America systematic 
theology has never resigned the primacy; it has 

' Tkeetogy of the Weslmimter Symbols. A commeiilaiy, 
hislorical, doctrinal, practical, on ihe ConfMsion of Faith 
and Catechisms and the related formularies of the Presby- 
terian Churches. By Edward D. Morris, D.D., LL,D., 
Emeritus Professor of Systematic Theoli^y in Lane Theo- 
logical Seminary. Columbus ; Smylhe : Edinburgh ; Thin. 
8vo, pp. 872- J3 net. 

always claimed the most popular teachers, it has 
always produced the greatest books. It is true 
that a year or two ago Professor Warfield of 
Princeton published a pamphlet on T7u Rights 
of Systematic Theology. But Professor Warfield 
was alarmed at what he thought was coming 
ratherthan jostled by what had come. Jn England 
systematic theology has come to be spoken of as 
merely a department of Church History ; in 
America Church History is merely a road along 
which to trace the progress of systematic theology. 

Beside the great teachers of systematic theology 
in America, Dr. Edward Morris has long held an 
honoured place. And of the great books on 
systematic theology which America has produced, 
one of the greatest will now be reckoned his 
Theology of the Westminster Symbols. 

Its size is an indication of its thoroughness. 
But, large volume as it is, it might have been twice 
the size if it had not been shorn of all superfluity 
both of matter and of language. No doubt there 
have been theological treatises of less bulk than 
this which covered the whole field, but where they 
touched the surface, this digs down to the centre. 
In this volume the Westminster Confession of 
Faith and Catechisms are described in respect of 
their authorship, contents, and relations, with so 
great thoroughness and, we must add, scientific 
sympathy, that the book becomes a necessity to 
the hand of every well -furnished theologian. It 
will not turn aside the scomer of creeds and cate- 
chisms from the error of his ways, for he will not 
read it, but only be the more scornful that so large 
a book should be written on so poor a subject. 
But it will give the earnest student a better con- 
ception than he has ever had of the essential and 
scriptural greatness of the theology of predestina- 
tion. It may even enable him to understand why 
Presbyterian ism is the theology of the most theo- 
logical nations in the world. 

Q^fftcftioooVe ' (p^ifoeop^tcttf 

It is a curious study to observe the ways in which 
the British public does its reading, or at any rate 
buys its books. It has three preferences : a great 
orthodox book like Salmond's Christian Doctrine 
of Immortality, a little fierj- heterodox iiook like 


Drummond's Gnatest Thing sit the World, or a 
series of volumes on kindred subjects and in 
uniform binding but by difTerent authors, like 
Blackwood's ' Philosophical Classics,' When the 
practice began of publishing books in a series like 
this, wise men disapproved, and said it was a pass- 
ing fashion. It has not passed, however, for it 
ministers to a laudable desire on the part of the 
British public to gather as much knowledge as 
possible within the threescore years and ten, a 
desire which does not diminish as the time 
approaches when knowledge shall pass away. And 
it also ministers to the less laudable desire on the 
part of the British public to obtain its knowledge 
with as little trouble as possible. Moreover, a 
considerable portion of the British public loves to 
possess some shelves of books, and nothing looks 
better on a shelf than a series uniformly bound, 
and especially when so daintily bound as Black- 
wood's Philosophical Classics. 

So Blackwood's 'Philosophical Classics' have run 
on into many volumes, and the British public has 
bought and shelved them. Ought not the pub- 
lishers to be content? Perhaps publishing and 
money-making, without being absolutely identical, 
have this in common, that the greater your success 
the greater is your discontent. If thousands have 
bought the ' Philosophical Classics,' why should not 
lens of thousands buy them? Does the price 
prevent? Then Messrs. Blackwood will lower the 
price, and the volumes which once cost three and 
sixpence apiece will be sold for half or less. Ten 
volumes have been issued at the new price with 
none of the old attractiveness removed from them. 
Surely as easy a way of filling a new and handsome 
shelf as one could find. 

But if the volumes are rather to be read than 
shelved, and if ten volumes are too many to start 
with, then lei MahafTy's Descartes be chosen first. 
For MahafTy has a way of making himself in- 
telligible with little effort upon your part, and 
apparently just as little upon his. He has also 
more interest in men than in philosophy, just as 
you have. Then, when you have read Mahaffy, 
get Flint's Vico. For here also you will find the 
sweet mystery of a distinguished English style, 
and in addition to that, as much about Vico and 
the Italian philosophers as you may ever need to 
know. There is no order for the remaining 
volumes, but this is the order of issue — Collins' 
But/er, Campbell Fraser's Berkeley, Adamson's 

FUhte, Wallace's Kant, Veitch's Hamilton, Caird's 
Hegel, Merz's Leibniz, Croom Robertson's Hobbts. 

*%%t l^ifitoticaf (Uew Testament.'' 

The first edition of Mr, Moffatt's Historical New 
Testament is exhausted ; the second is published. 
It is a striking testimony at once to the import- 
ance of the book and to the intense interest 
which at present exists in the criticism of the New 

The book is not much altered. We notice with 
pleasure the softening of certain expressions, but 
cannot say that we find any of the positions 
abandoned. In a new preface Mr. Moffatt asserts 
his belief in ' the reality and permanent signifi- 
cance of the New Testament as conceived upon 
the principle of the Reformers, which,' he says, 
'from the days of Calvin onwards has had to be 
restated and recovered from time to time within 
the bounds even of the Reformed Churches them- 
selves.' And he claims that the whole mass of 
methods and results within his book, 'so far as 
they are cogent and unbiassed,' flows from that 
principle. He does not deny that his 'results' 
may make faith to some more difficult, but he is 
far from allowing that they make faith impos- 
sible. He seems to say that faith in Christ is 
independent of research into the New Testament 
documents, and quotes the well-known lines of 
Principal Shairp with approbation — 

I have 

I life wilh Christ 
re I live it, mus 

C I « 

Till learDing rao clear aoswer give 
Of (his ot that book's dale ? 

I have a life in Christ to live, 

I have a death in Christ lo die ; — 

And must I wait, till science give 
All doubts a full reply? 

Nay rather, while the sea of doubl 
Is raging wildly round about, 
Queslioning of life and death and sin. 

Let me but creep within 
Thy fold, O Christ, and at Thy feet 

Take but the lowest seat. 

And hear Thine awful voice repeat 

In gentlest accents, heavenly sweet, 

Come unio Me, and rest : 

Believe Me, and be blesl. 


C9< @rtan5«)mnf of (Wlaferiafe m ^i. (fXatt^m viii.-ijc. 

Bv THE Rev, Canon Sib John C. Hawkins, Bart., M.A., Oxford. 


Some general considerations were put forward in 
the July number of The Expository Times • as to 
the principles and purposes which seem to have 
influenced the compiler of our First Gospel in 
this portion of it. 1 wish now to make some 
more special suggestions as to his selection and 
arrangement of the miracles — ten in number — 
which constitute the main subject of this division 
of the Gospel (Si-g**). 

I assume that my readers will be able to refer 
to the table printed in the first part of the article, 
in which the contents of this portion of St. Matthew 
were divided into thirteen sections, ten of which 
contain the miracles. And now, as before, I will 
refer merely by page and column (e.g. iSia) to 
Mr. Allen's 'Study' in vol. xt. p. 279 tf. of The 
Expository Times, without naming it on each 

Before entering upon the list of ten miracles, a 
preliminary question suggests itself. Why does 
Matthew omit altogether one miracle, and that the 
first one, of the six related by Mark in i"-5*3 — 
i.e. in that part of the Second Gospel which 
evidently formed the principal quarry of materials 
for the division of the First Gospel now before us? 
The miracle in question is the expulsion of the 
unclean spirit in the synagogue at Capernaum 
(Mk i='-28 = Lk 4"-a'}. There must have been 
some reason for this omission. It is true that 
another piece of Marcan narrative is passed over 
by Matthew, namely, Mk i5*-^' = Lk 4""", but in 
that case no special explanation is needed, for the 
omission is sufficiently accounted for by the first 
evangelist's habit of leaving out matter, however 
picturesque and interesting, which does not supply 
direct information either as to the moral teaching 
of Jesus or as to His actual performance of 

In the present case, two conjectures — they are 
hardly more than that — may be hazarded. 

{a) Possibly the simple cause of the omission 

of this narrative may be that Matthew, having 

employed already some of its opening words 

'Vol. xix. p. 47iff. 

('they were astonished at his teaching,' etc., Mk 
i''^) in his description of the effects of the Sermon 
on the Mount (Mk 7^- ^), regarded this Marcan 
section as used up and done with, and either 
forgot, or (iid not care, to turn to it again when 
entering upon this historical division of his 

{i) But more probably the cause of the omission 
hes, mainly or exclusively, in the similarity of this 
miracle to the more remarkable and outstanding 
one of the Gadarene demoniac or demoniacs 
(Mk 5i-=«, Mt 8™-", Lk S^-^»). Let us suppose 
that Matthew had before him among his materials 
the two Marcan leaves or pages on which these 
appeals to Jesus from demoniacs occur — 

i}iur Kai <rol,'JitvaSya^ap7}ri:^ iLeyi\g \iyit Ti ^/lol ml 
J}Xflft ivoMrm i^^ot ; alSd j aol, 'Iifffou vli tov ^ilov toD 
[W.H. mare- and Tisch. uitiuTou ; ipdfw Jf ri* 6(4ip, 
otiaiUr] ire tIs rf, i a^iot roP p.^ /tt fiairarhTi!. 

He would thus see that the only striking and 
distinctive feature of the earlier and shorter of 
these two miracles had a close parallel in the later 
and fuller of them. Would he not then be likely 
to omit the first of them, knowing that the second 
would have a place farther on in his list ? I admit 
that it is Luke, whose general habil of Spanam- 
keit would cause us to expect him to make such 
an omission on the ground of similarity; but, 
nevertheless, Matthew seems to be the compiler 
who made it here. Or perhaps it may be said 
that he combines the two Marcan narratives rather 
than that he leaves out either of them. For here 
may lie the explanation of there being two 
demoniacs mentioned in Matthew's nanative of 
the Gadarene miracle, while Mark and Luke 
respectively name but one. It may well have been 
the case that Matthew — or some previous teacher 
whose compilation he used — brought together 
these two similar though distinct miracles for the 
purpose of explaining them, and especially of 
explaining the two demoniacs' acknowledgment 
of Jesus, and that in the course of oral teaching 


the two events gradually came to be regarded as 
simultaneous. This process of combination would 
be helped by the occurrence of the plurals, iifuv, 
Vf^i, and perhaps oi&afutv in the account of the 
Capernaum miracle (Mk i^*). The case may 
have been similar in Ml zo", where the blind 
roan healed at Bethsatda (Mk 8"-^ only) may at 
first have had his cure described as an appendage 
or accompaniment to the better known cure of 
Bartimasus, and afterwards may have gradually 
come to be regarded as having been healed at the 
same time. 

Let us now take the ten Matthsean miracles in 
the order in which we find them in ten of our 
thirteen sections (see the table on p. 471). 

Section i. Miracle I. The Healing of the 
Leper, Mt viii. i (or 2)-4. 

This miracle appears first in Matthew's list, not 
merely because, as we have just seen, Mark's first 
miracle is omitted altogether, but because his 
second miracle, the healing of Peter's wife's 
mother (i""^'), is by Matthew postponed to this 
one, which stands third in Mark (!**■**), after some 
verses of other kinds (i'*'^*). Why was this 
change from Mark's order made? 

I am disposed to reject, even more decidedly 
than Mr. Allen does (p. 2810), the likelihood that 
' as a matter of fact the healing of the leper 
followed the Sermon ' on the Mount, and is there- 
fore placed next to it here. I believe that here, as 
in a few other places, not only the time-honoured 
divisions into chapters, but also the divisions into 
paragraphs in the R.V. and in W.H.'s text are 
misleading. With vv. 7'*- ^' should be read 
8': these three verses combine to tell us the 
whole immediate result of the Sermon on the 
Mount, namely, that o! ox^oi were astonished at 
the teaching of Jesus, and that, consequently, when 
He was come down from the mountain those 
multitudes or a large portion of them— o;(Aoi 
iroAAot— followed Him. So ends that incident, 
and a completely fresh one, quite disconnected 
with what had gone before, begins in 8^. Such is 
Tatian's way of regarding the matter ; for he 
passes on from Mt 8', not to Mt 8' (the leper), 
but to Lk 7^ (the centurion's servant), and reserves 
the healing of the leper for a much later place 
— indeed, an unaccountably late place — in his 
harmony (see Biatessaron, ed. Hamlyn Hill, pp. 

84, 129). And in case it may be thought that the 
KQi &au in Mt 8^ necessarily implies some con- 
nexion with what had gone before, it may be well 
to point to some instances in which that phrase is 
used when there is apparently complete discon- 
tinuity with the preceding narrative, namely, Mt 
19", Lk 10^* as" 24". 

But, further, not only is there thus no authority, 
except that of modern chapters and paragraphs, 
for connecting the miracle before us with the first 
journey after the Sermon on the Mount, but the 
narrative itself contains internal evidence against 
that connexion. For is it not very difficult to 
understand how the command 'See thou tell no 
man, etc.,' could have been given by Jesus, if the 
miracle bad been wrought at the time when 'great 
multitudes followed Him'? And, accordingly, 
Mark (i**) ascribes the promulgation of the 
miracle, not to any bystanders, but only to the 
healed leper himself. And though Luke speaks 
of 5x^ (s") they were evidently fresh crowds 
who then came together (oth^px""™) because of 
the report of this miracle, and not people who 
had previously been accompanying Jesus. 

We have seen, then, as to Matthew, not only 
that he did not feel himself tied to the order of 
Mark (whom perhaps he knew to have written 
i>u Tofn), but also that there is no reason to 
suppose that he thought of connecting this his- 
torical narrative with the foregoing record of the 
Sermon on the Mount. He was therefore free to 
commence his specimens and illustrations of 
Christ's power with any one of His early miracles. 
Why did he choose this one? Partly, perhaps, 
as has been suggested by Mr. Bartlet (Hastings' 
D.B. iii. 300*), ' because in Mark the healing of 
the leper comes between a reference to a general 
ministry in Galilee (i'*), in which Matthew sees 
the continuation of his own 4^, and an entry into 
Capernaum.' The possibility of this influence 
need not be denied^ but I have no doubt that it 
was mainly, even if it was not exclusively, the 
subject-matter of this miracle which disposed 
Matthew to give it the place of honour. For it 
would have a unique interest for him, and for the 
Jewish-Christians, whose habits of thought and 
whose needs he seems to have primarily regarded, 
both because of the prominence given to leprosy 
in Lv 13-14 and elsewhere in the Old Tes- 
tament, and because of the illustration of the 
respectful attitude of Jesus towards the Mosaic 


law (as in- Mt 5"*") which is supplied by the 
reference to the priesthood. 

Section ii. Miracle 2. The Healing: of the 
Centurion's Servant, Mt vUi. 5-13. 

I do not deny that Mr. Allen's suggestion 
(p. 2Sia) of 'a group of three miracles of heal- 
ing' may sufficiently account for the early place 
of this miracle and of the next one; even if 
Matthew did not start with the idea of triads, it 
may have occurred to him as he went on that he 
might make such a subdivision in at least the hrst 
part of his decade. But I should rather think 
that this miracle may be placed thus early, because 
Matthew found it in the Logia standing next to 
the Great Sermon, or to such parts of it as were 
already brought together in the Logia. It is in 
that position that Luke (7^) keeps it. And there 
is considerable ground for assigning this narrative 
— though it is a narrative^to the Logia. We 
have here, with the brief exception of Ml iz^^^ 
= Lk 1 1"- 1' (which, however, may be said to be 
implied in Mk 3*^), the only miracle, and with the 
further exception of the Temptation, the only 
narrative, which is found in Matthew and Luke 
only, the whole of the rest of the matter common 
to them but not to Mark being discourse, with or 
without brief historical prefaces. Most modern 
writers attribute this common matter generally to 
the Logia (see, e.g., references in Moffatt's Ifis- 
torical Ntw Testament, p. 642f.)j need we except 
this miracle? I think not, if we take the most 
reasonable account of the term Logia to be that 
it implies not a complete history like our present 
Gospels, and, on the other hand, not merely say- 
ings introduced by 'Jesus said,' or 'Jesus saith,' 
as in the so-called 'Oxyrhynchus Logia,' but 
sayings of the Lord, together with notices of the 
occasions that led to their being delivered, when such 
■ notices are needed for the full understanding of them. 
Then the name will cover this story. For in 
order to see the force of the saying, ' I have not 
found so great faith, no, not in Israel,' it is neces- 
sary to have read the previous account of this 
n on- Israelite, and especially of his recognition of 
power of Jesus to heal at a distance. 

That Matthew had the Logian collection before 
him at this time is rendered additionally probable 
by the fact that while, according to his frequent 
custom, he otherwise abbreviates the narrative as 

it is found in Luke (and as I am inclined to 
believe it originally stood), he nevertheless inserts 
into it two presumably Logian verses of discourse 
(8"-") which Luke has in a quite different but 
about equally appropriate setting (li**-**)- 

Section liL Miracle 3. Heallus of Peter's 
Wife's Mother, Mt viii. 14, 15. 

Beyond the suggestion of the triad, the only 
thing to be said here is that Matthew now returns 
to take up the Marcan miracle which he had 
displaced for the (to him) more important and 
interesting one of the leper. He may have been 
reminded to do so by the fact that, like the 
miracle which he had placed second, it is con- 
nected with Capernaum. 

Section vi. Miracle 4- The Stilling of the 
Storm, Mt viii. 23-27. 
Why does Matthew here again desert the 
Marcan order, even when evidently deriving his 
materials from Mark? Why does he not take 
next the healing of the paralytic in the house at 
Capernaum (Mk a^'-), since that is the miracle 
which follows next upon those already drawn from 
Mark? As to the postponement of all the other 
matter between Mk z'* and 4", the causes su^ested 
by Mr. Allen (p. 281^) seem to me to be quite 
adequate. But why is this miracle postponed to 
two others which stand so much later in Mark ? 
No doubt Matthew may have known that Mark 
wrote ai raiti, and in that case he would require 
no very strong reasons for making such alterations. 
But some reasons he must have had. It is sug- 
gested (p. z8i^) that there may have been in his 
mind the fear of seeming to ' confuse two visits ' 
to Capernaum, that being the place where the 
healings of Peter's wife's mother and of the para- 
lytic occurred, though at different times. But I 
doubt whether in this part of his Gospel he suf- 
ficiently cared, or expected his readers to care, 
about the times and places of miracles for this 
consideration to have influenced him. I should 
rather suggest (a) with Mr. Bartlet (Hastings' 
D.S., p. 3ooi5) that the mention of 'eventide' 
and of the gathering of crowds which he had 
lately adopted from Mark (Mk i»!-« = Mt 8") may 
have brought to his mind the somewhat similar 
occasion which Mark records much later (4^*- ''), 


but which was none the less suitable for Matthew's 
noD-chronological purpose here, (i) Again, Mat- 
thew may have thought it well, in this list of 
distinct specimens of Christ's various miTacles, 
to keep the two accounts of the healing of para- 
lysis (Mt 8*-" and g'-*) at a distance from one 
another, (c) And this is the place where the 
suggestion of the ascending triad of three miracles 
(2$aa) 'illustrative of Christ's authority over 
forces natural (8**-"), demoniacal (8**^), and 
spiritual (9^'^)' should especially be borne in 

It should be noticed here, again, as at the be- 
ginning of Mt 8, that we should be on our guard 
against the influence of the arrangement of chap>- 
ters and paragraphs. If we make our break after 
Mt 9' instead of before it, we can take that verse 
merely as the conclusion of the Gadarene incident 
and as the result of the request that He would 
depart, and not as the introduction to the sub- 
sequent miracle. And in that case all direct 
contradiction between Mark and Matthew dis- 
appears, though they still arrange their matter 

Section vii. Miracle S "^he Gadareae 
Demoniacs, Mt Tiii. 28-34. 

This obviously follows the fourth miracle, both 
historically, as in Mk 5', and also in the ascending 
scale of the suggested second triad of miracles. 

Section viii. Miracle 6. The Sick of the 
Palsy healed, Mt ix. i-& 

The causes of Matthew's postponement of this 
miracle have already been discussed under the 
heading of section vi. It may perhaps be wondered 
why he did not stil! further postpone it, so as to 
relegate it, with Mk i**'^ and Mk 2^* (also a 
miracle), to the controversial or anti-Pharisaic 
division of his Gospel contained in chap. 13. It 
is just possible that at first be held it back from 
its Marcan place with that intention, but that 
afterwards, when it appeared to be an apt climax 
to the miracles which he had just recorded, he 
placed it in the list of miracles instead of the list 
of controversies. For, like the healing of the 
withered hand (Mk 3'* = Mt 12"-"), it has its 
fitness for either list 

Sections x. and xi. Miracles 7 and 8. The 
Raising of Jairus' Daughter and the 
Healing of the Issue of Blood, Mt ix. 

Although, as was pointed out previously (p. 473), 
these two incidents must be reckoned as distinct 
miracles, it is well to consider them together. 

The matter contained in Mark up to this point 
has (with two small omissions already noticed, 
p. so), either been included by Matthew in this 
division of his Gospel or purposely reserved for 
other sections. 'This brings him to Mk 5"-**' 
(p. 382a). But at this point there arises a more 
serious chronological difficulty than we have yet 
encountered. For here Matthew does not only, 
as in other cases (see above the closing remarks 
on section vi. as to the most doubtful and diffi- 
cult of them) disregard Mark's order, but he 
certainly appears to contradict it. The request 
of Jairus, which Mark (5*^'**, followed as usual 
in Lk 8*') seems to locate on the shore of the 
sea of Galilee, immediately after the return from 
Gadara, is by Matthew said to have taken place 
at the time of the discourse on fosting after the 
call of Matthew (ravm airov AaAowTos, 9"), yHow Y 
did this difTerence arise? The suggestion of 
Matthew 'altering the beginning verse to suit his 
connexion' (p. 38311), implies a deliberate con- 
tradiction of Mark's express note of time and 
place which I am loth to accept, unless there are 
some undoubted instances of such contradiction 
elsewhere which can be brought forward as parallel 
to this one, and unless there is no other way of 
explaining the present passage except by the 
hypothesis of such a direct and intentional con- 
tradiction here. Perhaps the two following 
suggestions may be worth taking into account : — 

{a) Is it not possible that Matthew — or some 
other compiler or copyist working upon the 
Marcan materials before or after him — may have 
accidentally misplaced the words ravra avrov 
XoXawTot, by means of which the miracle now 
appears to be linked by him to the discourse on 
fasting? For it will be observed that in Mk s** 
(and so in Lk 8*'), where the Jairus - story is 
resumed after the episode of the healing of the 
woman on the way, the recommencement is made 
by the use of the words Jn avrov XaXovvrtK. But 
Matthew has no such words, and, indeed, no 
occasion for them in this later situation, though 



TIMES, ■^' '' 

he has the very similar ratTo airrmj XoXouKrot at 
the commencement of the whole story. May 
he not, therefore, either through a slip of memory 
or through a too hasty glance at the Marcan 
MS. which he was using, have transferred this 
clause in substance from the recommencement to 
the commencement of the narrative, I venture 
to make this suggestion because the break in this 
miracle makes it more likely than others to be 
erroneously referred to; twice in the prepara- 
tion of this article I found myself giving a wrong 
reference to the incident, because my eye fell 
upon the recommencement in Mk 5" when I 
was looking for the commencement in 5". 

{6} Though it is highly probable, I should not 
adroit it to be absolutely certain, that Mark in- 
tended to tix the date of this miracle immediately 
after the return from Gadara. No doubt it is the 
next incident that he records after that return and 
after the gathering of a multitude round Jesus 
when He was on the seashore (Mk 5*'- *5). But 
since he was writing without any special attention 
to order (for ov ro^ti must mean at least as much 
as this), he may only have entered it in this place 
as being a Galilean miracle. And it is to be 
observed that xal ipxtrai (used in v.^) and koI 
ipxovrai often form in Mark the beginning of the 
record of a new incident, with little or no refer- 
ence to what has gone before; see, e.g., Mk i*" 
320 gw 10*6 ,,15.27 ,;ig_ Bm „eji granting that 
Mark did mean to express that he was record- 
ing the miracle in its exact chronological place, it 
is quite possible that Matthew may not have 
noticed that this was the case. For here again 
it is probable that there would be no marked 
commencement of a paragraph at Mk 5'' as there 
is in our Greek Testaments ; and therefore it may 
well be that the compiler of the First Gospel, when 
his eyes fell upon the very familiar Marcan open- 
ing Koi ipx^rai, might rush to the conclusion that 
here was the beginning of a new incident, without 
looking backward to see whether there were any 
previous words of connexion to be found. He 
would thus ignore, without intentionally throwing 
over, the Marcan order of events. 

Sections xii. and xiii. Miracles 9 and 10. 
The Healing of Two Blind Men and 
the Healing of a Dumb Demoniac, 
Mt ix. 27-34. 

It is very difficult, as I have previously said 

(p. 474), to explain the insertion of these two brief 
records of miracles, unless it was with the purpose 
of making up the number /en. Not only are they 
'comparatively colourless and uninteresting' (A. 
B. Bruce in ioe.) as contrasted with even Matthew's 
other narratives of miraclesjbut they are so very 
similar to two of those narratives that it is almost 
impossible not to regard them as doublets. (They 
are so exhibited in Ifora SynoptUa, pp. 75-78.) 

(a) The former of them (Mt 9^"-") is closely 
parallel to the triple narrative of the healing of the 
blind man or men at Jericho (Mk lo**-*-, Mt 
2o*»^, Lk \%^-*% where the Marcan account 
seems most likely to be the original one ; observe 
especially in proof of this parallelism -mhi (or vie) 
AauciS, iKkt^ov, ^iparo ; also the less important 
use of the verbs Kpd^tiv and xoiiiv. It is true, 
indeed, that instead of the phrase, t} ttujtis itov 
vixruiKiv <rt, which is used by Mark and Luke (but 
omitted by Matthew) in the Jericho miracle, we 
have here Kara Tip/ nitrriv vftCiv ytvTj&ip-io vfi-tv ; but 
this is only an insunce of Matthew's employment 
of a favourite formula of his own, as in 8'^ to the 
leper, is isiiTTtvcrat ytyrjOtjria <rot, and In 15" to 
the Syrophenician woman, fxryaXii trmi ij jr«rTi5- 
yoTjtf^Tiu (Toi is 6ik(it. And in the account given 
of the disobedient promulgation of this miracle we 
seem to find Matthew, here as elsewhere, trans- 
ferring the familiar language of Mark from one 
place to another, as may thus be seen — 

Mk !"«■ ™l i^flpi^^i.. 

Ml 9«- « 

i in^pip.'tfiT, 

^vet ain-i . . . yjya ai^ri, 

a<Vrwt i 'Iijffo 

! \lyar 'QpaTf 

■Opa ,.^(^1 t^vSi' 'f'TIt ■ . . 

ILiiitii yitiMTti 

TO,- Olif^Jrt- 

A a iit\8wv ^pioTO K-npiaaiiv 


ni- ai>rii' it iXjj 

^•iK\i. Mi 3m*)j/*ff(,» t4» 

rg Yg istirg. 


The rarity of the verb SioAy/n'^eiv, which is used 
only three times in the N. 'IV and never in LXX, 
adds a special probability to the supposition of 
such a transference of Marcan language. And if 
that view is accepted, there remains nothing dis- 
tinctive and unparalleled in the narrative now 
before us except the fact of the entry into the 
house. For the substance of the question, ' Believe 
ye that I am able to do this,' and of the affirmative 
answer, is undoubtedly implied in the Marcan and 
Lucan saying, 'Thy faith hath made thee whole.' 

Unless we are to assume that Matthew had 
some special chronological information of his own, 
which on general grounds does not seem likely in 
this division of his Gospel, we must suppose that 

X A ' 



the words vapdyovrt iKtWo' (9'^) were added by 
him or some other editor as an inference from the 
juxtaposition of the Jairus-miracle and this one. 
Possibly the two incidents had been placed next 
to one another among the ten, merely because 
they set forth so similarly the spread of the fame 
of the miracles of Jesus. Compare the con- 
chiding words of the two— 
Mt I 

(ff) The tenth and last miracle (Mt 9^^-^) shows 
no more independence than the ninth. Whether 
we accept v.'* as original or reject it as being 
of the nature of a ' U'estern non-interpolation ' 
(see W.H., Introd. p. 176; the verse is omitted in 
Syt""), the narrative is closely parallel to, and 
appears to be a doublet of, Matthew's later account 
in x-i^-^^ of the exorcism which gave occasion to 
the great 'defensive discourse* in chap. la^"- 
(It is curious, by the way, that in la'*'- Matthew 
speaks of the demoniac as blind as well as dumb, 
and uses the title vios AaWS, thus suggesting links 
of connexion with both the miracles which we 
find together here.) But the narrative now before 
us is even more closely parallel to Luke's record 
(ii'*-") of the miracle, which leads to the defen- 
sive discourse; this appears in the use of the 
verb iK^aiXtw, of the genitive absolute, and of 
the verb l$o.\ifU3.tfai/, where Mt la-^ has iftWavro. 
These similarities seem to point to a Logian 
origin of the incident It will be remembered 
that in Mk 3^ no account of the expulsion of a 
demon is prefixed to the defensive discourse, 
though it is assumed that such expulsion had 
previously occurred. There is indeed one point 
in which this record does not merely reproduce 
the description of the later miracle, namely, the 
exclamation of the multitudes, OiSnror* i^vrj 
oi'raw iv T^ 'Iffpo^A, But here an explanation 
suggests itself which Is analogous to that which 

we applied to a sentence of our ninth miracle ; 
Matthew seems here, as in other cases, to have 
adopted Marcan words from another context, 
namely, Ovrms ofSnrorc tSto-itxy (Mk z'°), and to 
have blended them with his favouratc verb ^alvo^i., 
and with the name '\sypa.-q\ which occurs to him 
much more frequently and naturally than to 
Mark (he uses it twelve times, and Mark but 

In both divisions of this article, and especially 
in this second one, we have been occupied with a 
department of the Synoptic Problem, in dealing 
with the details of which, positiveness of assertion 
is singularly out of place. For anything like cer- 
tainty concerning them is unobtainable. The 
compiler of these two chapters has left us no 
rationale of his plan and procedure, and therefore 
we can only say — as I have been saying or im- 
plying so often here — that he may have been 
influenced by such and such considerations in 
the selection and arrangement of his materials. 
For of course he may have been also influenced 
by other considerations — by his own information 
or lack of information, or by the special needs of 
those for whom he wrote — in ways at which we 
cannot even guess. So all that is really practic- 
able, and I think all that is really important, is to 
pwint out some fairly probable causes, by some or 
all of which he may have been guided in his com- 
pilation, and which support, or at least harmonize 
with, the chief conclusion which seems to be 
resulting with a fair amount of certainty from the 
study of the Synoptic Problem, namely, the 
conclusion that our First and Third Gospels rest 
mainly on a constant though sometimes a free use 
of our Second Gospel, with the insertion of sup- 
plementary matter drawn from various sources, 
but especially from a second documentary source 
which consisted mainly of sayings of Christ, and 
which is usually identified with the Lo^a of 



^inett Crowns ani (Bof^en ^itiiie. 

By THE Rev. J. S. Maver, M.A., Aberdeen. 

' Od their beads were «s it were crowns like gold.'— Rev. iz. 7. 
' The street of the city was pure gold.— Rev. xxi. 21. 

We expect of a crown that it shall be of costly 
material. Better no crown at all than a poor 
pinchbeck thing, tt ought to be something of 
value, somethiDg worth looking at, something 
worth preserving. On the other hand, we do not 
expect much of a street. It is for ordinary every- 
day traffic, open to all, free to the tread of every 
foot. All we ask of it is that it be of hard, durable, 
serviceable material. But the crowns in the king- 
dom of darkness are a sham and a delusion, while 
the very street of the holy city is of pure gold. 
The crowns are tinsel, the street is gold. 

These strange creatures, called locusts, on 
whose head are the crowns, may be taken to 
represent the evil thoughts and passions that 
debase and destroy man. Locusts are often 
refened to in the Bible as a plague. A swarm of 
them will devastate a country with more com- 
pleteness than a horde of wild beasts. And 
terribly destructive can be the desires and cravings 
of our own evil nature if they gel their way ; while 
all the time they have something attractive and 
alluring about them, too, like the glittering crowns 
on the locusts' heads. 

And just as the locusts with their crowns refer 
to the evil in this world, to the evil in our hearts, 
so the heavenly Jerusalem that St. John speaks of 
also applies to this world, to the spiritual beauty 
that will yet one day characterize it. He is not 
speaking merely of something beyond the clouds 
and beyond the tomb. He says expressly, ' I, 
John, saw the holy city coming down from God 
out of heavea' Men have ever dreamed of a 
better day that is to be, each one picturing it 
according to his own idea of what a happy life 
should mean. And the Bible, too, has its vision 
of a brighter day to come. In all other dreams 
that men have had, the chief thing lacking has 
been God and His glory. They have been too 
much of the mere self-seeking, self-exalting, God- 
excluding nature. Not so with the Bible vision. 
In the very forefront of his description of the city, 
t. John refers to it as ' having the glory of God.' 

God dwells in the midst of it, and obedience to 
Him is the greatest glory of it. 

Putting these two together, then, — the locusts 
with their glittering crowns, and the holy clly with 
its street of pure gold, — they suggest to us very 
forcibly a great distinction between the kingdom 
of darkness and the kingdom of light: the things 
of the cne art unsubstantial and deceptive, the things 
of the other are real and satisfying. The kingdom 
of darkness is emphatically a kingdom of false- 
hood. It is false in its pretensions, false in its 
promises. You never get what you want, you 
never get what you expect. You are led to 
expect great things, but they always turn out to 
be a delusion. The locusts had on their head 
something that had only the appearance of a 
crown, — crowns as it were, and crowns like gold. 
And therein lies the power of the kingdom of evil. 
Its deceptions are so attractive and so promising. 

Bunyan tells us of the man with the muck-rake 
absorbed in drawing to himself the straws and 
sticks and dust of the floor, while there stood one 
over his head proffering him a celestial crown for 
his muck-rake. But often the things sought and 
gathered with the rake do not appear like sticks 
and straws. Were that so we should have no 
desire for them. They have rather the appearance 
of a crown itself. And many are rather like the 
dog in the fable, who let go his real bone to 
grasp what seemed to be a bone in the water. But, 
like him, you find yourself cheated, and a loser all 
round in the long-run. 

And that is true, indeed, of everything in our 
life that is severed from God's glory and service. 
Even things innocent in themselves have no lasting 
beauty and power save as we connect them with 
God's love and God's will. Only thereby will the 
sweet preserve its sweetness. And, without that 
view of life as a whole, one could well understand 
the statesman who said that he had ' weighed 
most things in life, and found their metal not 
worth the clink it made.' 

Secondly, the distinction is so great that the 



highest things in the kingdom of darkness are worth- 
Uss, the lowest in the kingdom of light are substantial 
and real. Nothing is higher than the crown, 
nothing more common than the street, but the 
crowns were tinsel, the street was gold. The 
richest treasures of evil are counterfeit. They are 
like the money Raphael is said to have once paid 
an innkeeper for his board. He painted some 
coins on the table that looked at a distance like 
gold, and only on his departure was the deception 
discovered. In his case, however, it was good 
value he gave, for a painting of his was worth 
more than the golden coins represented. Not so 
is it here. Delusion leads on every seeker, and 
disappointment awaits him. 

Very difTerent is it with the things of the king- 
dom of God. The very street is of pure gold. 
As the prophet said of old, ' He maketh the place 
of his feet glorious.' And what is the street in our 
cities for? For the common traffic and business 
of life, so full, as things are, of worry, anxiety, 
keen competition, and overreaching. But in 
this heavenly city with its street of gold, does 
it not mean that the traffic there will be of a 
transfigured kind like the ground we tread? 
And is not that, above all, what we need in our 
religion ? 

Some one recently referred to a saying of Samuel 
Rutherford, that our religion should be ' market- 
sweet.' That is the most difficult thing of all to 
make it, and the most needful. It is comparatively 
easy to make it church-sweet and prayer-mecting- 
sweet. But the most precious and most telling 
characteristic of it is when it becomes, say, home- 
sweet, — a home-sweet religion, bringing peace and 
pleasantness into the home relationships; and 
when it becomes market-sweet, making us meet 
our fellows on the street and market with honest 
dealings and kindly greetings and friendly help- 
ings. And the miriest street in our cities would 
become a street of gold, were that the nature of the 
daily trafiic passing through it Said the wise man 
to a farmer, who was wont to return from the 
market boasting of his gains, and that no one was 
ever able to cheat him, ' Oh, my friend, were you 
as anxious not to cheat others, that lumbering cart 
of yours would become glorious as a chariot of the 

Now, sooner or later the distinction between the 
false and the real is fully recognized by all. At 
first we are like those savage tribes among whom 

traders go, getting the costliest products of the 
country in return for a few beads, or a trumpery 
trinket, or any worthless thing that is bright and 
glittering, that catches the fancy of the savage eye. 
We are all just like the poor cheated heathen in 
connexion with this great kingdom of darkness ; 
we are attracted by glitter and show, and part 
with treasure beyond price for a few gaudy 
trifles. We give years for hours, we give soul 
for body, we give lifelong heartsease for a pass- 
ing delight. But by and by, though often after 
great loss, we begin to realize that always, and 
in all things, without exception, the promises 
and rewards of evil are never fulfilled as we ex- 

There was a picture in last year's Royal Academy 
that attracted considerable attention. It repre- 
sented a young king making a triumphal entry 
into his capital. Banners hang out from the 
houses, and bright maidens scatter flowers in his 
path. Who could be happier, one might say, 
than this king as he rides through his flattering 
subjects? By the side of the road is a plain 
crucifix, and on it hangs a figure. On this 
figure is also a crown. The king's crown glitters 
with jewels, but this is a crown of thorns. The 
people seem to be paying no attention to the 
crucifix, but the king observes it as he approaches. 
He checks his horse, and thoughts other than 
those of triumph come into his face. It is that 
moment that is represented in the picture. The 
thought is passing through his mind, 'AAer all, 
what is all this but a vain show? Here, unnoticed 
by the shouting and acclaiming crowd, here is 
the true king.' 

Yes, but the crown may be worn, as well as the 
streets trodden, in the spirit of Him whose noblest 
wreath was a crown of thorns, as was seen so long 
and so beautifully in the reign of Queen Victoria. 
And when that is so, there could be no lovelier spec- 
tacle, and none more worthy of homage and regard. 
Let us all choose, in our different spheres, the 
better part. It is one thing to see the distinction 
between that kingdom whose crowns are tinsel and 
that whose very streets are gold. We all come to 
see that, as life goes on and we meet with one I 

disappointment and grief after another. But may | 

God incline our hearts to choose the unsearchable : 

riches of Christ. And then, in humble and joyful 
trust, it may be ours to make our own the apostle's [ 

words, 'Henceforth there is laid up for me a 


crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the 
righteous Judge, shall give me at that day : and 
not to me only, but unto all them also that love 
His appearing.' 

Glorious ihings of thee »re spoken : 
Zion, cily of our God ; 

Fading ii the worldling*! pleasuce, 
All his boasted pomp and show ; 

Solid joys and lasting treasure 
None but Zion's children know. 

(S^tunt J'oretgn ^^eofogg. 

gdrndcft'B ' Qprofifeme tm ^ejrte Ut 

There has just been published in separate form 
the interesting paper read by Professor Harnack 
before the KonigHch Pnusiischen Akademie der 
IVisserucha/len in Berlin, in February last, dealing 
with certain textual problems which arise in 
connexion with the history of out Lord's Passion. 
And whether the veteran scholar's conclusions are 
generally accepted or not, they at least demand 
careful consideration at the hands of all workers 
in the held of textual criticism. We shall content 
ourselves here with simply mdicating what these 
conclusions are, tor the benefit of those who may 
not have access to the original paper. 

The first passage discussed is Lk aa*^"**, a 
passage which, as is well known, is not regarded 
as part of the original text by such modern editors 
as W'estcott and Hort, B. Weiss, and Nestle, 
who ate able to point to an imposing array of 
authorities (((*BART Syr.-Sin., etc.) in support 
of its omission. Harnack, however, regards this 
conclusion as too hasty, in view of the genuine 
Lukan ring of the words (note especially the 
mention of the angel compared with Lk i and z, 
24^3, and Ac 5'^ 8^*, etc., and such characteristic 
Lukan expressions as uxp$r), ^vkt^kv, ixTtvitrnpov 
irpo<rtpj)(tTO, and ytvofitvoi iv Ayioviq.^ , , . xtxl 
tyivero), and the traditional support they receive 
so early as the first half of the second century in 
Justin, Tatian, and Irenseus. The main difficulty, 
it the words are genuine, is to discover why 
they should ever have been omitted. But here 
Harnack, as against Wcstcott and Hort [' There 
is no tangible evidence for the 

■ Au! SiltungsWr. d. preuis. Ai. d. Wist. 
'.mer. livo, pp. 16. .M,o.50. 

substantial portion of narrative for doctrinal 
reasons at any period of textual history ' (JV. y, ii. 
App. p. 66)], does not hesitate to appeal to dogmatic 
grounds. Exception, so he thinks, was early 
taken to (he passage, both on account of the 
idea of an angel strengthening the Lord and of 
the mention of the drops of blood, as pointing to 
outward agony, rather than to inward conflict of 
soul, and in consequence, in a certain number of 
authorities, the words were altogether omitted. 
Further confirmation of this is also sought in the 
use made of the passage in the Fourth Gospel. 
For if it is referred to, as seems probable, in 
chap. 1 2^ f", the ' softening * thai it there undergoes 
at the writer's hands is obvious. A voice out of 
heaven now lakes the place of the angel, and the 
'strengthening' and the 'drops of blood' dis- 
appear. On ihe whole, then, Harnack is of 
opinion that the verses are to be legarded as an 
original pari of Luke's Gospel, and that in BA 
and Syr.-Sin. we have a purposely abridged text 

Harnack's second passage is Lk 2388-34^ our 
Lord's prayer on the cross for forgiveness for His 
enemies, words which are awanting in tfBD Syr.- 
Sin., and which in consequence are omitted by 
Lachmann, B. Weiss, and Westcott and Hort, 
though the last named claim them along with the 
passage we have just been considering as 'the 
most precious' among the remains of evangelic 
tradition (ii. App. p. 67). It is indeed just this 
very preciousness of ihe words, it is argued, which 
makes it so difficult to understand how ihey could 
ever have been dropped out, if they formed part 
of the true text ; whereas, on the other hand, it is 
said to be quite intelligible how, say about the 
beginning of the second century, such a prayer 
should have been inserted either from tradition or 
with reference to Ac 7*'. If Stephen prayed for 
his enemies, how much more likely that Jesus 

, "ffii EXPOSITORY TIMES. ,, . . 29 


sliould have prayed for His. But, rejoins 
Hamack, if the necessity of ascribing such a 
prayer to Christ was felt so strongly, how was it 
that it is found only in the Lukan text, and that 
not a single copyist seems ever to have thought of 
inserting it in the closely parallel accounts of 
Matthew and Mark ? Moreover, he continues, 
once grant the originality of the words, and their 
omission may be accounted for in one of two ways. 
Either it was accidental or, more probably, it was 
deliberate, owing to the ancient Christian pre- 
judice against the Jews. For though Hamack, 
wrongly we venture to think, makes the prayer refer 
in the first instance to the Roman soldiers, he holds 
that this reference might easily be extended to 
all enemies of Jesus, especially the Jews, and 
consequently, that in various quarters it would 
come to be asked. How could Jesus have prayed in 
these terms for those who were in the very act of 
committing such a crime, and that too not in 
ignorance, but of set purpose? It was in defer- 
ence to this objection therefore, and consequently 
again on doctrinal, or perhaps rather ecclesiastical, 
grounds that the words were in the authoriries noted 
above left out. To say that they certainly belonged 
to the true text of Luke's Gospel may be too strong ; 
but at the most a query should be attached to them. 
Our third and last passage is Mk 15**, where 
Harnack discusses the strange but very interesting 
reading b>v*BuTai for fyKarcAiirts.' The reading 
is found only in the Western text, and has been 
generally neglected by the editors, though West- 
cott and Hort place it in the margin. ' But 
Hamack believes it to be the original reading, and 
that mainly on the ground that only in this way 
can a satisfactory explanation of its occurrence be 
found. For if Mark originally wrote iyKaT(\nr<^, 
how could any copyist ever have changed this into 
mvdBurai, the more so as no trace of this change 
is ever found in the corresponding Matthsean 
passage ? On the other hand, we can easily see 
how Matthew, using here the Mark text, and 
finding in it ucft'Sitrai, would readily change this 
back into the correct LXX translation fyKartXin-ts. 
But what are we to understand by wmiEwm, and 
why should Mark ever have thought of substituting 
it? This can only have been, Harnack thinks, 

' Sm also the dlscuision on this text in The Expository 
Times, 1898, p. 521 ; 1900, pp. 237, 287, 334 ; to which 
Harnack rerers, though he is not personally acquainted with 

because he had found that the traditional 
iyKaTtXiwK, as pointing to desertion on the part of 
God, had proved a stumbling-block to some, and 
looking about for an easier expression, was arrested 
by the uivtCBtiov of v.^^. Reviling, as he had 
already shown (chap, igiT-20. m-sjj^ had played a 
large part in the sufferings of Jesus, and by 
inserting liniSwas in the Psalmist's cry, which 
Jesus adopted, the Evangelist desired to point to 
God as, at least, the j}ermissive cause of this 
reviling. The word was thus an erkidrcnde 
translation, and one rendered all the more natural 
by the stress laid upon the ovfiZiaii^ rav Xpurrov 
in the early Church, as evidenced by He 11^' 13", 

In each case therefore, it will be observed, in 
determining the true text, Harnack attaches a 
definite weight to dogmatic influences, with this 
difference however, that in the first two instances 
these influences led in certain quarters to the 
omission of what the original author had written ; 
but in the third, the author himself, taking excep- 
tion to what had been handed down to him, 
substituted an explanatory translation of his own. 

Want of space has prevented our reproducing 
in full the MS. evidence for and against these 
three passages; but, in general, Harnack claims 
that if his conclusions regarding them are correct, 
then neither the combination BA Syr.-Sin. nor 
BD Syr.-Sin, can be regarded as the infallible 
authority sometimes imagined; and, further, that' 
in at least one crucial passage the Western tradition, 
without the support of the Syrian, has been shoivn 
to preserve the original text. 

Cafu/A. . , , 

$^e #S"^^ (perston of 6u6e6tue' 
'C^utc^ gicforg.'* 

Dr. Nestle has made a valuable contribution to 
the admirable series of Tex/e und Unfersuchungen 
sur GeichkhU dtr alUhristHchen Literatur, which 
is being published under the joint editorship of 
Dr. von Gebhardt and Dr. Harnack. The SyrJac 
version of the original Greek text of Eusebius* 
Church History was, in all probability, the earliest 
translation of this great work ; many scholars are 
of opinion that it was made within the lifetime of 

' DU Kirehengtschuhte da Euubius. Aus dem Syiischen. 
Ubersetit von Ebethard Nestle. Leipiig : J, C. Hiniichs, 
1901. M.9.50, 



Eusebius himself, and some believe thai the 
translator worked under the author's supervision. 
Dr. Nestle finds eirors in the translation which 
render the theory of consultation with Eusebius 
incredible ; the version was made, he thinks, not 
long after the time of Eusebius, and has been 
preserved — with some lacunse — in two ancient 
manuscripts, one of the fifth and the other of the 
sixth century. As the earliest Greek MS. which 
has yet been discovered cannot be dated earlier 
than the tenth century, it is obvious that the 
Syriac version furnishes important evidence for a 
critical restoration of the true text of Eusebius. 

Dr. Nestle's name is a sufficient guarantee for 
the successful accomplishment of his purpose, 
which is to give a translation of the Syriac version, 
'as exact and as literal as possible.' By the 
publication of such a rendering he has made 
accessible to students of patristic literature, who do 
not read Syriac, material which cannot but be of 
the utmost value. The text translated is that given 
in the Wright- M 'Lean edition of the Syriac, pub- 
lished by the Cambridge University Press in 1898. 

As an example of the freedom with which the 
Syriac translator dealt with the Greek text, Dr. 
Nestle refers to the quotations from the Bible. 
These are usually given from the version known 
as the Peshito or the Syriac Vulgate, even when 
the Greek text of Eusebius dilTers from it. In the 
famous passage in which Eusebius quotes the 
testimony of Irenseus to the writings of Papias 
(iii. 39), Dr. Nestle translates: 'These things 
Papias says and testifies in writing ai the btginning 
of his books.' The Greek text has ' in his/ourtA 
book ' (TCTaprg) ; the Syriac version requires 
<^XV> ^^'^ if ^^'^ '^ ^^ original reading, the 
meaning of the words of Ifensus accords well 
with the subsequent argument of Eusebius, which 
dwells upon what Papias declares ' in the preface 
to his discourses.' J. G. Tasker. 

Handnaertk College. 

The abnormal manifestations of the religious 
sentiment are the dark shadows of its brightness. 
' Les Mdladti dii Religicux Scntimtnl. Par Professor 
E. Murisier, Ncuchatel. Paris: Felix Alcau, editeur.— 
IWalioHi de PrepMtt!. Par Lucien Gander. Lausanne : 
Georgei Bridel et Cie.,edileors. — Aulvurde La Mer Morit. 
Par Lucien Gautier. Geneve: Ch. Eggiman et Cie., edileuis. 

M. Murisier follows the pathological method of 
Ribot. Ecstasy, fanaticism, and the contagion of 
religious emotion are studied with the scientific 
severity which is a distinguishing feature of the 
work of Frenchmea 

We have Moses and the prophets. Do we read 
them ? Certainly not so much as we ought to do. 
This bright little book on the call of Ezekiel, 
Jeremiah, Isaiah, and Amos shows us something 
of their perennial interest and profit. 

'The least of all lands' is the best known of all 
lands. We never cry ' Hold, enough,' to those 

who have made the happy pilgrimage. This in- 
teresting book is the fruit of a second visit made 
to the Holy Land by its distinguished author in 
1899. The interest and value of the book is much 
increased by the thirty-four illustrations it contains, 
from photographs taken by M. Gautier. 

John Reid. 

$mon$ i^t (periobicAfs. 

The Number of the Beast 
The much discussed question as to who or what 
is referred to under the number 666 or 616 of 
Rev 13'* forms the subject of an article in the 
Z.N.T. W. (1901, Heft 2) by Dr. Carl Clemen. In 
opposition to Zahn and others he is quite clear 
that we have to do here with an instance of inter- 
pretation by Gematria. The beast is the Roman 
empire ; the one [or possibly fiiav of 13^ may mean 
' the first '] head wounded as unto death he refers 
to Julius Ciesar, whose assassination threatened to 
be fatal to the continuance of the Roman Empire. 
As to the word or title whose numerical value = 
666 or 616, Clemen does not favour the notion 
that a Hebrew basts must be sought for this value. 
The readers of the Apocalypse could never have 
thought, without special instructions, of seeking 
any but a Greek equivalent. The author of the 
book does not assume that they were acquainted 
with Hebrew ; on the contrary, he explains the 
meaning of Hebrew terms (9"), or at least notes 
Hebrew terms when he employs them {16*). 
Clemen sees no reason to conclude that even the 
author himself had a knowledge of Hebrew. For 
this and for other reasons he rejects Gunkel's 
proposal to equate 666 with n'jioip Dinn, the 


primeval chaos. The same objection applies to 
the explanation of Bousset and others, ^Dp )113 or 
'p ru ; as well as to p'Tn (or U'ln), i.c. Trajan, or 
DUmtt iin'D {or D13*mi« DUno), (>. Trajanus 
Adrianus. It so happens, indeed, that Tiuoc 
Kourap in Greek letters = 6i6 ; but this interpre- 
tation, like those just mentioned, is exposed to the 
objection that the number of the Beast can be 
represented only by a Greek name for the Roman 
empire and not for an individual emperor. A term 
satisfying this condition and yielding either 666 or 
6i6 Clemen believes be finds in ^ 'troX^ ^aaiMU 
(666), or ^ AaTiio; fiairiktia (6l6). 

Wanted a Bibliography. 
A somewhat novel but very practical suggestion 
is put forward in the same number of the Z.JV. T. W. 
by the editor, Dr. Preuschen. It is welt known 
that a number of our first-class theological maga- 
zines publish either periodically, or in every 
number, a Bibliography duly classified (cf, e^. 
the Z.A.T.W., the Theol. Lileraturteitung, the 
Critical Review, the American Journal of Theology, 
etc.). The Z.N. T. W. itself has been following suit, 
and the editor has been forcibly struck with the 
superfluous labour expended on so many separate 
lists of what is to a large extent the same material. 
He suggests that a body of competent men, by 
preference those engaged in libraries, each en- 
trusted with a special department, should prepare 
a list to be published every two months, and of 
such a form that it could readily be issued as an 
appendix or supplement to the various periodicals. 
Dr. Preuschen is convinced that such a scheme 
would be a financial success as well as a great 
saving of time-exacting labour to editors and 
others, and he trusts that some enterprising pub- 
lisher will come forward to take it up, or that 
joint action may be taken by the various editors 

Apologetics and Biblical Criticism. 
In last February's issue (p. 238 f.) we gave some 
account of the remarkable series of letters in course 
of being addressed by Mgr. Mignot, archbishop of 
AIbi, to the clergy of his diocese. The aim of 
these is to fix the right attitude of the Catholic 
Church towards the conclusions that are increas- 
ingly urged upon the public attention by the 
historical criticism of the O.T. A special interest 
belongs to the papers as bearing witness to the 

extent to which the leaven of criticism has per- 
vaded the Church of which Archbishop Mignot is 
an ornament; and it may be added that, while 
there are naturally a good many considerations put 
forward which have full weight only with Roman 
Catholic readers, the greater part of the letters are 
suited to any branch of the Christian Church. 

The writer begins his fifth letter, which lies 
before us, by urging the necessity of the Church 
taking her share in the settlement of critical 
questions. ' If these are decided without us, they 
are decided against us.' To ignore criticism 
will not prevent its progress. But the Arch- 
bishop is fuUy persuaded that the Church has no 
occasion for alarm. No dogma will be endangered 
even if many of the critical theories (as he prefers 
meanwhile to call them) should one day be estab- 
lished. All that will be necessary will be for the 
Church to alter the order and the form of her 
defence. ' No apologetic escapes the errors of its 
age or rises above the level of contemporary know- 
ledge.' Criticism, he insists, is neither Christian 
nor anti-Christian, neither good nor evil, any more 
than are mathematics and the natural sciences. It 
is simply a method of work, an instrument of 
research which is being daily brought to higher 
perfection; it consists in an examination of the 
text in the light of modem discoveries, with the 
resources, historical, scientific, linguistic, etc, put 
at our disposal by the constant advance of human 
learning. It has not to do exclusively with Scrip- 
ture ; biblical criticism is but a branch of historical 
criticism in general. No doubt it is a two-edged 
weapon, and one that is not safe in all hands. 
' One does not trust firearms to a madman or a 
child.' Still criticism is the appreciation (dttcern- 
mtnf) of the true, not its depreciation {dinigremeni), 
as those are only too willing to believe whom it 
disturbs in their old habits of thought, and who 
cling to their ideas from vanity or interest or 
spiritual sloth, or at times, as they imagine, for the 
glory of God. The one method of meeting the 
danger of false criticism is to set up the right 
critical system. 

It IS a commonplace that the books of the O.T. 
are the result of a religious and literary develop- 
ment. The Psalter, the Proverbs, the books of 
Judges, Samuel, and Kings all bear traces of having 
been composed at various epochs and from a 
variety of sources. Assuming this to be the case, 
is our faith imperilled P Not in the least. And 


why should it be endangered if it be proved that 
the Pentateuch is in a like case, if Deuteronomy 
should turn out to be a late edition of ancient laws, 
and that many enactments of recent origin have 
been attached to the primitive worlcs of Moses? 
In like manner the Archbishop shows how neither 
the supposed authority of our Lord and His 
apostles nor of the Church have closed those 
questions of authorship and date upon which 
historical criticism alone has a right to speak. But, 
granting to the fullest degree the late date of much 
that used to be supposed to be very early in the 
O.T. literature, the history of Israel could be in all 
essentials reconstructed from the prophets, from 

Amos, Hosea, and Micah, whose authenticity is as 
indisputable as that of the Epistles to the Romans, 
the Galatians, and the Corinthians. Archbishop 
Mignot practically adopts, in fact, the apologetic 
ailment of the late Professor Bruce, of which he 
speaks in laudatory terms. From the prophets we 
can learn what was the religious past of Israel, and 
in their writings we can see the role they played in 
the preparation for the Messianic kingdom. The 
value of all this is unaffected by critical conclu- 
sions as to the historical books. In the history of 
prophetism our author finds the true Scripture 
basis of apologetics. J. A. Selbib. 


By the Rev. G. Ferries, M.A., D.D., Cluny, Aberdeenshire. 

Advantages derived from the Interaction of Religion and Science. 

It is but half the truth to say that recent science 
makes the acquisition of faith difficult, and that 
many are chiefly impressed by the difficulties and 
are overborne by doubt. In the case of those 
who have gained a spiritual faith, and who are also 
in sympathy with the proper aims of science, 
as those may be expected to be who have 
grown with its growth, the latter exerts a 
rejuvenating, stimulating, and widening influence 
on their religion itself A happy change in this 
respect is now in progress. Even so lately as a 
generation ago, the most noticeable effect on 
religion of the advance of science was to draw 
forth from pious and reflective people a cry of 
distress. They made many anxious endeavours 
to reconcile the cosmogony of the opening 
chapters of Genesis with astronomy and geology, 
and were alarmed at the doctrine of Evolution, 
as if it implied Atheism and the overthrow of 
Scripture, and found themselves threatened with 
a philosophy which saw in Matter ' the promise 
and potency of all terrestrial life,' In this connexion 
it was the mere struggle for existence on the part 
of religion that mainly bulked in men's minds. 
But truth in religion as elsewhere is set in a clearer 
light, and is therefore promoted, by inquiry and 

conflict ; and, accordingly, it is fitting that reference 
should be made to some of the gains for faith 
which may now be registered as the fruit of many 
years of earnest effort; although multitudes still 
find themselves unable, for such reasons as those 
already mentioned, to share in those fruits, and 
although an Agnostic philosophy (often but an 
ill-defined habit of thought) has come to succeed 
the other sceptical systems whose influence has 

The interest with which Schleiermacher invested 
the inquiry into the subject of religion as an 
existing fact continues till now. The study of 
man's nature and powers shows religion to be an 
essential feature of his life, placed as he is in this 
world. Religion, it is made apparent, is not 
merely imposed upon him by authority, whether 
of priests or sacred books, nor does it consist of 
questionable speculations; it is an element of his 
nature without which he could not attain the full 
dignity of his rank among the creatures ; and men 
and books can only serve as the means for bringing 
this religious faculty to full exercise and fruition. 
One returns with fresh zest to the cultivation of 
what he knows to be a phase, and the richest 
phase, of his own life, and feels the stimulus 



which is imparted to him who works with a high, 
intelligent appreciation of his position and 
privileges, and not merely because he is impelled 
by authority or custom. 

Historical science, having first been tested in 
other fields, could not fail to introduce its spirit 
and methods into the study of the religious life of 
old Israel and the first Christians, and to elucidate 
as far as possible the record of that life which we 
possess in Scripture. In (his country, Robertson 
Smith, following in the steps of Graf and Well- 
hausen, pointed out (O.T. in the Jewish Church, 
lect. vi.) how the Canon of the O.T, was esUb- 
lished, not by some inexplicable divine decree, 
but by the discernment of the pious community of 
the Jews, who, with devout care, assigned pre- 
eminence and exclusive authority to the writings 
which, as a matter of fact, responded to the faith 
of their hearts. The principle of selection there 
brought to view is of far-reaching significance. 
Scripture holds its high rank in our esteem as 
being the record of the religious life at its best. 
We are invited to examine the grounds of its 
claims, and to enter into the life to which it 
testifies, and we cannot fait to derive much benefit 
by so doing. The aim is now to reproduce, as far 
as may be, by the resources of archeology, general 
history, and literary criticism the exact situations 
in which the great men of Scripture were placed, 
and so to render their thought fluid, to discover 
their spiritual motives, and to reach their heart. 
Their life thus becomes a light to men in every 
age ; for the hearts of mankind, their chief needs, 
are always the same. In particular, the prophets 
are no longer regarded as mere predictors, whose 
function was to supply material for the use of 
latter-day apologists ; they were the religious 
guides of the people of their own land and time, 
' spokesmen for God,' preachers of spiritual religion, 
moral and social reformers, whose principles can 
be apprehended by us in their original purity and 
force, and ought to be applied by all who seek the 
ends of Christian faith and eternal righteousness. 
The same line of remark applies to the N.T. 
writings. They were collected and set apart by 
the living faith of the Church ; and they have the 
authority which is derived from the fact that the 
Church's faith was itself formed through the in- 
dwelling Spirit of God, which was supplied in the 
early times in special measure. And as regards 
the great men of the new dispensation, St. Paul, 

t.g. when viewed in his historical surroundings, is 
not simply a hard dogmatist, as he has often been 
supposed to be: he gains full sympathy and ad- 
miration; his spiritual aims stand out as the 
loftiest and purest ; his life exhibits devoted self- 
sacrifice, and his intellect shows itself to be 
masterly. In him Christianity commends itself to 
our soul and conscience by its magnificent fruit — 
Above all, historical inquiry has impelled men to 
set less store by tradition, which often obscured 
the will of God, and to 'return to Christ.' so as to 
find in Him the source and centre of Christian 
faith and life. This course cannot fail, when the 
necessary precautions are taken, to convey incal- 
culable blessing to the Churches. For the gospel 
message, as brought by Jesus Himself, has a 
peculiarly convincing efficacy, being at once simple, 
translucent, profoundly ethical, and satisfying to 
the heart by its Revelation of God as Father. It 
is true that there is not material to form a ' Life of 
Christ,' though there have been many so-called 
Lives; but the mind, the teaching, the Personality 
of Jesus can be largely understood, and in so far 
as they are apprehended, the will of God with 
every man is discovered. Christ is not merely 
the Redeemer of the world by His deathj in a way 
which it is impossible to realize : He can be 
known as the efTeclual Revealer of God by the 
perfect goodness of His Personality, and the 
death of the Crucified One may be rec<%ni2ed as 
the crown and completion of the goodness mani- 
fested in His life. Christianity, as seen in its 
source, is not an infertile body of dogma, but a 
living power of the Spirit, uniting God and man 
by the bond of a spiritual faith and an ideal 
morality. The spirit and the morality are peren- 
nial, and can be infused with transforming effect 
into the life of the present. They are applicable 
to alt circumstances; and as the men of to-day 
allow themselves to be baptized with that original 
spirit, and enter into its aims in their worldly 
practice, they find that fresh intuitions of Christian 
truth are caught by them in countless number ; 
endless vistas are opened up in all directions ; 
it is felt that the whole of modern life can and 
ought to be spiritualized. And, again, when 
Christians are led by careful scrutiny to look 
beyond the letter of Scripture, and to acknowledge 
the spiritual Christ and His perfect morality as 
the enduring essence of the N.T., they have 
attained a principle of union by which they can 



be drawn into one spiritual brotherhood and be 
conscious of their fellowship. 

Furthermore, history throws light on the origin 
and essence of dogma, disclosing the circumstances 
which led to its formation, and so affording guid- 
ance for the intelligent and profitable use of it, 
assigning a relative significance to it, and making 
it cease to appear as an intolerable yoke. 

But natural law, universal causation, which 
science brings to light, appears to many to have 
a chilling effect for faith, and to undo the com- 
forting conviction that their life is secured in all 
its interests by a watchful Providence. Now, with- 
out order in nature, so steadfast that it can be 
counted on, they could not get the best and most 
necessary gift of all, namely, righteousness. They 
have the means of improving in moral character, 
only if they know the natural consequences of 
their action, from past observation and from 
memory, and if they choose their course of action 
with the conviction that the laws of nature will 
hold good in the present and future. In propor- 
tion, therefore, as those laws are ascertained, the 
more opportunities for moral advancement will 
there be, the more benefits of the highest value 
wilt be available, the more occasions will be found 
for pleasing a righteous God. Causation in the 
material sphere should be welcomed in the interest 
of ethical religion. The soul has its own means 
of rising to felt union with God, and in hours of 
devotion it is clearly realized that He is the God 
'who holds all nature up,' and that no operation 
whatever is withdrawn from His control. This 
persuasion can be retained in those other hours 
when one pursues the even course of obeying 
natural law and using it for righteous ends: the 
spiritual is now and always set over the material. 
And in that case nothing but advantage can accrue 
to faith from any possible advance of natural 
science in future. In any event, the spiritual God 
and the perfect righteousness known through Christ 
will remain immovable ; and the more the wonders 
in nature and history are unfolded, the more will 
our estimation be enhanced of that spiritual domain 
which is yet more marvellous than the earth, and the 
more cause will be found for ascribing glory to God 
who rules the universe both of matter and spirit. 

But though there have been advantages to faith 
from the growth of the scientific spirit, the new 
process of thought in theology is still very im- 
perfect; it has only accomphshed a stage in its 

onward march, and has not reached the goal. 
Men have to brace themselves to the intellectual 
tasks which are now incumbent on them. In 
particular, while science meets with universal ac- 
ceptance, it has to be admitted that no statement 
of the Christian faith exists which commends itself 
as a necessary and sufficient presentation of the 
truth, in the judgment even of that body of 
Christians who are in sympathy with moidern 
science. To frame such a statement is a work of 
the first importance that is now pressing. It ought 
not, however, to be surprising that the task has 
not yet been accomplished, and no blame is 
necessarily implied by the non-fulfilment of it. 
For the historical sciences are but a recent pro- 
duct; it was previously stated that not long ago 
the idea of Evolution came upon people as a 
surprise. It is in our day that that idea has been 
applied to all departments of knowledge, and 
people are only yet trying to realize the changed 
aspect of things. An adjustment of religious 
thought to a view of the world which is only now 
beginning to assume definite form was hitherto, as 
a matter of course, not practicable or conceivable. 
But already men are animated with hope in this 
regard, and in view of the spiritual gains actually 
achieved, that hope is well grounded ; indeed, those 
who are convinced that Christianity is the truth 
must be certain that with patience and persistent 
effort it will be realized. As a matter of fact, there 
have been praiseworthy endeavours of late to carry 
out the task referred to. But at most there can 
only be a relative and temporary settlement. For 
secular thought will move on ; new truth will be 
gathered in future both in the sacred and in the 
secular sphere ; and, as in a chemical combination, 
any theology that may arise will be transformed in 
turn when new truth is added to it, for it will be 
seen in a new light. Hence the applicability of 
the maxim, Ecckiia semper reformari debet. 

The great bulk of recent theological works, 
having for their aim to commend religious truth 
to the present generation, have striven to reconcile 
the spiritual sphere with science. Such books are 
countless, some of the best work being done in 
special and very limited fields, or in commentaries 
on single Books of Scripture. Martineau's Study 
of Religion is a valuable eirenicon between spiritual 
faith and current science. Jevons' Principles of 
Seiena and Eucken's Die Grundbegriffe der Gegen- 



wart insist on the rights of the spiritual nature of 
man in face of certain widespread pretensions 
which are fathered on science. The appeal which 
faith makes to the intelligence, the essentially 
rational character of Keligion, is brought out in 
BiedermanD's Dogmatik, Caird's Introduction to the 
Philosophy of Riligion and Thi Fundamental Ideas 
of Christianity, and in Faiibairn's The Place of 
Christ in Modern Theology. These show an affinity 
with Hegel's philosophy, and supply the means of 
combating Agnosticism. Other sceptical systems 
are refuted in Flint's Anti-Theistic Theories. From 
the school that succeeded Hegel and aimed at 
placing theology in touch with positive science 
there are, e.g., Ritschl's Justification and Reconcilia- 
tion, Herrmann's Communion of the Christian with 
God, Kaftan's Truth of the Christian Religion and 
Dogmatik, and in Church History the voluminous 
writings of Harnack, especially History of Dogma ; 
also articles in the Ckristliclu Well and in the 
Zcilschrift fiir Theologie und Kirche. Hatch's 

Infiuence of Greek Ideas and Usages on the Christian 
Church is written in this sense. Ecke's Die 
Theologische Schule Albrecht Ritschl's is a sympa- 
thetic and discriminating critique ; so too is Garvie's 
The Ritschlian Theology. Useful matter on the 
nature of religious knowledge is given in the first 
part of Lipsius' Dogmatik and in Biedermann's 
Dogmatik, vol. i., and in the Philosophies of 
Religion, e.g. Sabatier's Sketch, a lucid and at- 
tractive exposition, or Tide's Edinburgh Gifford 
Lectures. Dillmann's Commentary on Genesis and 
Schultz O.T. Theology treat of the records in the 
earlier part of Genesis from the point of view of 
science and history. — The Lectures on the Gi/Tord 
foundation at the Scottish universities are designed 
to investigate the evidences for religious belief, so 
far as these may be open to scientific or rational in- 
quiry, and do not rest on mere authority. — The more 
important works on Theology and its relation to 
science and philosophy are discussed in FHeiderer's 
Development of Theology in Germany and Britain. 


Hebrews xu. i. 
'Therefore let us also, seeing we are compasoed 
sbont with so gieat a cloud of witnessea, lay aside 
«vei7 weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset 
us, and let us run with patieace the race that is set 
before us' (R.V.)- 


' So great a cloud of witnesses.'— The writer legards 
himself and bis Tel low-Christians as placed in an arena, and 
contending for a great priie. The image of the amphi- 
theatre with ihc rising rows of spectators seems to suggest the 
thought of an encircling cloud. The witnesses of whom the 
cloud is composed are unqueslioaablf the countless heroes 
of faith whose deeds have been summarized in chap. tl. 
The testimony which they bear can only be the testimony 
which they bear to God, either by victorious achievements 
or by courageous sutTerings, answering to that which He 
has wrought for and in them. In both respects, ai con- 
querors and as sufferers, they witness to His power and 
faithfulness ; and those who regard them cannot but be 
strengthened by their testimony. 

There is apparently no evidence that tiApmi is ever used 
simply in (he sense of a spectator. ... At the same time 
it is impossible to exclude the thought of the spectators in 

the amphitheatre. The passage would not lose in vividness 
though it would lose in power if StaTrSf were substituted for 
fiapripur. These champions of old time occupy the place 
of spectators, but they are more than spectators. They 
arc spectators who interpret to us the meaning of our 
struggle, and who bear testimony to the certainty of our 
success ifwe strive lawfully. —Westcott. 

' Every weight' — The word ' weight ' wai used techni- 
cally, in the language of athletes, to mean 'superfluous 
flesh' to be reduced by training. The training requisite to 
make the body supple and sinewy was severe and long- 
continued. Metaphorically the word comes to mean 'pride,' 
'infiation.'— Farhar. 

The things called ' weights' are distinguished from 'sin,' 
and are possibly things that are laid aside by one who 
desires to run well, though in others and in tbeii own 
nature they may not be ohjeclionahle, or faulty, but even 
comely. An appetite, though lawful, that tends to gain on 
one ; devotion to some pursuit in danger of absorbing the 
mind ; an affection that threatens to turn away the heart, — 
such things are weights. — Davidson. 

'The sin which doth so easily beset us.'— The ref- 
erence is not to one parlieular sin as specially dangerous, 
but to iia itself. The article is generic. All tin.— 

The six words ' which doth so easily beset us ' represent 
one Greek word, eupciisiaina, of which the meaning is un- 


certain, because it occura nowhere else. It menu literally 
' well standing [□»□<]' or 'veil stood aroand.' (i) If Uken 

in the latter senie it is interpreted to mean (a) 'thronged,' 
'eagerly encircled,' and so ' iiitiiA admired' or 'much 
applauded,' and wilt thus put us on oui guard acainsl lins 
which are popular ; or (^) ' cBEily avoidable,' with reference 
lo the \a'a peri-istaso, ■■void' (2 Ti i", Tit 3'), The 
objection* to these renderings are that the writer is thinking 
of private wo*. More probably it is lo be taken in the aclivi 
sense, as in the A.V. and the R.V. oF the sin which either 
(a) 'presses closely about us 10 attack us'; or (^) vhich 
'closely clings . . . to us' like an enfolding robe [slafas 
chiieii). The latter is almo*t certainly the tnie meaning, and 
is suggested by the participle apolhemmoi, ' stripping off' (cf, 
Kph. 4^). As an athlete lays aside every heavy 01 dragging 
article of dress, so we must strip away from us and throw 
aside the clinging robe of familiar sin.— Fakrar. 

'With puience.'— Endurance characteriied the faith of 
alt the*e heroes and patriarchs, and be exhorts tis to endure 
because Christ also endured the cross. — Kakrah. 

Methods of Treatment, 


Weighti ftnd Sins. 

By the Ket; Aleiaiider Madaren, D.D. 

There is a regular series of thoughts here. The 
central itijiinction is, 'Let us run with patience'; 
the only way of doing that is by 'laying aside all 
weights and sin ' ; and the only way of laying them 
aside is 'looking unto Jesus.' Sin here is sin 
generically — all transgression. We must throw 
aside the garment that wraps us round — ' the sin 
that easily besets us,' but also 'every weighL' 

1. There are hindrances which are not sins. 
Sin by its very nature is transgression of God's 
law. A ' weight ' may be legitimate in itself, yet a 
hindrance to us. Sin is sin whoever does it, but 
weights may be weights to me and not to you. 
They are not so much external ciTCumstances as 
the habits of mind by which we abuse God's good 
gifts. We have an awful power of perverting 
God's greatest gifts into occasions of sin, as men 
distil poison from flowers. By cleaving to them 
too much or wrongly we may make them hin- 

2. If we would run we must lay these aside. 
Our material bodies have but to be nourished and 
they grow. But the spiritual growth involves 
warfare. Every step of the way must be fought 
for. Every progress involves a sacrifice of the 
natural man. Not only must sins be swept away, 
but 'every weight' But how can we lay aside 
our weights? (1) By growing so strong that they 

are no longer weights ; (a) By putting them utterly 
aside. The first condition is the highest, and we 
shall reach it one day ; but most of us are so weak 
that the second course is safest. There are duties 
and circumstances which, by our own sinfulness, 
we have made weights, which we yet dare not 
leave, because God has given them to us, and to 
leave them would be sin. But from other occa- 
sions of temptation we are wise to flee. We must 
be guided by our own experience of what does us 
harm. No man can judge for another. There is 
danger in freedom, the danger of licentiousness 
and of contempt for the narrowness of others, 
which may be the fruit of more earnest Christian 
principle. ' Let not him that eateth despise hira 
that eateth not' On the other hand, there is the 
danger of self-righteous condemnation of those 
perhaps stronger and wiser than ourselves. ' Let 
not him that eateth not judge him that eateth.' 
We must remember in things indifferent (1) for 
ourselves, that a weight retained is a sin; (a) for 
others, that we must neither judge their strength 
nor offend their weakness. 

3. Laying aside every weight is only possible by 
looking to Christ. Some think that in laying aside 
a weight they have done a meritorious action. It 
is of no use unless it fits us for positive progress. 
The runner puts off his garments that he may run. 
We empty our hearts that Christ may till them. 
All surrender not based on love to Him is but 
surface work. A man may linker himself into the 
outward appearance of a perfect man, and be but 
a whited sepulchre. Look to Christ and let His 
love flow into your soul. As the old leaves drop 
from the tree when the new buds of spring come 
out, the new affection will expel the old. Then 
you will find all given up for Him given back by 
Him. The hand cut off, the eye plucked out — 
all are given back when we stand perfect in 

Help and Cheer from the Glorified Dead. 

By the Kei: David Girgg; D.D. 
The simplest interpretation of the text is that 
the Church in heaven is interested in the Church 
on earth — the glorified dead cheer us on to our 
goal. There is great help in a cheer. It adds 
the life of those who cheer to ours, and inspires 
us with their coorage. We need this added life 


if we are to reach our goal. What is the goal 
of life? Perfect manhood in Christ — our best 
self reached — a life in earnest — ^useful service — 
honest success in life, — all are our goal. Success 
is so much power added to the personality we 
give to God ; it is therefore our duty to God and 
man. But success in anything means hard work 
and strenuous effort, and so it is in the Christian 
race. How do the gloriAed dead help us ? 

1. By the heritage thty have left us. They have 
left us (i) the fruits of their labours; (s) their 
influence ; (3) a holy fellowship ; (4} they have 
left for our admiration genuine greatness worked 
out in human nature; (5) their grand words. 

2. By their f resent interest in us, and expectation 
for us. They are interested witnesses of our race. 

Going to heaven has not made them indifferent to 
us. Because their love has been perfected, their 
interest is more intense than during the earthly life. 
Those in heaven took an interest in the trans- 
figuration. The angel told Cornelius that his 
prayers and alms were a memorial before God 
in heaven. Christ said that there is joy in heaven 
over every sinner that repenteth. This interest is 
a help to us. The approbation of those in heaven 
outweighs our low ambitions. Wc keep ourselves 
pure for them. The saints have a place in our 
lives, but above all we must look to Jesus. Are 
you letting Him into your life as the dominating 
influence? Let Him come in. He will teach 
you your possibihties. Men must learn that they 
can be made belter. Christ teaches them what 
they may be. But if you are to be anything 
He must make you. Let Him into your life. 
Surrender soul, body, and spirit to Him, that 
you may realize your best self, and reach the 
goal of life. 

A cloud of witoeweB.— The North Ameiican Indians 
lieliered thai when ihe flowers faded in the forest and 
prairie iheir beauty passed into the rainbow : thus our 
kindred anJ companions, Ihe joy and ptide of our homes 
and Churches, fade away ; but lifting our eyes, we see our 
lost ones blossom forth again in the holier beauty of the 
rainbow aboui the throoe-^W. L. Watkinson. 

Onr of the finest pictures in the world is that of the 
MadoDQa de Sou Sislo at Dresden, which depicts ibe infani 
Saviour ill the arms of His mother, surrounded by clouds, 
which attracted no special notice Until lately ; but when the 
accumulated dust of centuries was removed, they were found 
lo be composed of myriads of angel faces. Surely this is the 

Weifhti.— When the Califomim ileamer the Ceittral 
Anierira caught fire aiul was sinking, the stewardess ran (o 
the cabins of the pauengert and collected all the gold she 
could ; she then tied it in her apron round her waist. A 
boat was leady to start. In her eagerness to be saved, she 
sprang from the deck, missed her aim, and shot bead first 
into the brine like a cannon ball, Ihe weight of her ill-gotlen 
booty dragging hei down as effectually as a millstone would 
have done. _^_^_ 

Sometimes professing Christians are bejel by special 
hindrances to their usefulness — tendencies of speech or 
action that mar the beauty of holiness most sadly. ^Vhat 
are you going to do with Ihe evil habit, or the half-dozen, 
that ore hindering you? Fight them one by one; that is 
one way. What did you do last winter when the panes of 
the window were covered with frost, and you could not see 
out of them? Did you scratch it off with a knife? That 
would take too long. Heat up the room and the frost goes 
off the pane. Warm up the soul with the love of Christ and 
the bad habits will run ofT. Thai is what Chalmers calls 
Ihe 'expulsive power of a new affection.' Bring Jesus Christ 
into the soul, and you will overcome the evil habits. — 
T. L. CuYiER. ^_^_ 

BeMtting sin.— The words 'easily beset us' are better 
rendered 'subtly cncirclinE as.' And that ii more worih 
saying than the other. It is not the sin to which we are 
most liable that is our greatest danger. Wc are conscious 
of, and on guard against Ihe main temptation of our life ; 
but the sin thai has grown upon us, we know not bow ; 
slowly, subtly ; whose beginnings we thought Ultle of, or 
thought good ; whose magnitude we did not conceive lill 
we were at its mercy, till one morning we found ourselves 
its slaves — that is the terrible serpent that collars and 
strangles out race. We are like a runner who has been 
drugged. At first there is drowsiness, then languor, then 
failure of will, then faltering steps, then blindness that 
cannot see God, and singing ears that cannot hear Him. 
Or it is as if a fine net— so subtly threaded that it seems 
invisible— had settled down over our head, and slowly crept 
down OUT body as we ran, till we are altogether entangled, 
and fall on the path, as falls the dead. Awake, ere it be 
too late— cast off the entanglements of life. So run, as not 
uncertainly. It is a piteous and dreadful thing to be mastered 
by a subtle sin.— S. A. Bkookb. 

I NBVER Ihink of this Scripture but there comes back to 
my memory an experience of the war of the Rebellion which 
a man once related to me. He was a prisoner in a Southern 
prison, and managed, with some others, to escape, and afler 
almost intolerable hard.ship they reached the North and their 
homes. They were pursued by bloodhounds, and he said 
thai no other trouble or threat of trouble that bad come 10 
him in the course of an eventful life ever made such a horrid 
sensation in hit breast as the baying of those bloodhounds. 
At last Ihey were chased so hotly that they saw they most 
be overtaken and probably fearfully mangled by the cruel 


beuls unless they could in some way throw Iheii pursaeiii 
off the scent. Suddenly they came on a Ugoon, or dead 
slough, in the edge of a swamp. The water was filthy, but 
into il Ihey went, wading where they could, sometimes being 
compelled to swim, but not daring to leave the stagnant 
stream, where sometimes deadly moccasin snakes writhed 
near Ihem. They pushed on, keeping as closely under cover 
as possible, and remained in this water for hours, until they 
had completely thrown off the bloodhounds that had been 
following them. — L. A. Ba.^ks. 

* Let us run with patieoce.' — They needed the exhorta- 
tion, for if they had not much persecution now, il was 
different a little while afterwards. Then another amphi- 
theatre encompassed them, and another cloud of witnesses 
full of cruel eyes ; and ciuel voices shouted for their death. 
The sand on which they tan was stained with blood and 
black with lire, and when they died the Roman world cried, 
'Fooll' It was something great not to be faint-hearted 
then J it needed then something more than our unlortured 
laith to run the Christian race.— S. A. Brooke. 

Dear Angels and dear disembodied Saints 

Unseen around us, worshipping in rest. 
May wonder that man's heart su often faints 

And his steps lag along the heavenly quest, 
What white his foolish fancy moulds and paints 

A fonder hope than all they prove for best ; 
A lying hope which undermines and taints 

His soul, as sin and sloth make manifest. 
Slolb, and a lie, and sin : shall these suffice 

The unfathomable heart of craving man. 
That heart which being a deep calls to the deep ? 

Behold how many like us rose and ran 
When Christ, life-giver, roused ihem from their sleep 
To rise and tun and rest in Paradise !— C. Rossetii. 

Sermotu for Reference. 

Ailken (A.), Flowers of God, 67. 
Banks (L. A.), Paul and his Friends, ZI5. 
Barrett (G. S. ), Musines for Quiet Houti, 55. 
Bernard (J. H.), Via Domini, 385. 
Brooke (S. A.), Shorl Sermons, 166, 173. 

,, ,, Unity of God and Man, 61. 

Browne (R. D.), Sussex Sermons, 227. 
Butler (G. ), Cheltenham Collie Sermons, 75. 
Caughey (J.), Revival Sermons, 22S, 333. 
Church (R. W.), Village Sermons, ii. 346, 
i^ox (S.), Expositions, iii. 20(. 
Farrar (F. W. ), In the Days of thy Youth, 275. 
Gregg (D.), Our Best Moods, 159. 
Haroilton (J,), Faith in God, 162. 
Harper (A.), Considerations on Miracle, 24. 
Hobhouse (W.), Spiritual Standard, iSo. 
Jenkins (E.E.), Life and Christ, 297. 

Laing (F. A.), Simple Bible Lessons for Little Children, 383. 
Lawlor (H. J.), Thoughts on Belief and Life, 186. 
Levensij. T.), Clean Hands, 126. 
Lockyer{T. F.), Saints of Christ, 73. 
Maelaren{A.), Sermons, i. 250. 
Maurice (F. D.J, Lincoln's Inn Sermons, i. 57. 
Melvill (H.), Fifty Sermons from the Penny Pulpit, 351. 
Mej'er (F. B.). Way into the Holiest, 173. 
Miller(W.), Vision of Christ, 56, 
Moore (A.), God is Love, 218. 
Newman (J, H.), Parochial Sermons, til. 236. 
I'atCison (M.), Sermons, 273. 
Pearse (M, G.), Gospel for the Day, 18. 
Raleigh (A.), Rest from Care and Sorrow, 132. 
Reeve (J. W. ), Forty-two Sermons, 96. 
Simpson (M. ), Sermons, 405. 
SpurgeonjC. H.), The Messiah, 663. 
Temple (F.), Rugby Sermons, i. 55. 
Williams {W. W.J, Resources and Responsibilities, 44. 
Woodford (J. R.), Sermons on Subjects from the New 
Teslament, 152. 

Contvi^utione anb Commtnte, 

tU ^wv QSiv«te of (pdtAbiee. 

In his article last month, tinder the heading 
' Recent Bihlical Archaeology,' Professor Sayce 
has a very friendly notice of the part of my 
Aufsiiize tind Abhandlungen that appeared during 
the summer (in. i. = pp. 3-j^-4T4, Miinchen : 
I.ukaschik-Franz, 1901). I may be allowed to 
ofTer some remarks on what he says on the first 
of the essays * there included. 

' This essay may be obtained separately under the title : 
fVfr netu arabischt LaudsihafUiminen im A. T., nthst eiiiem 
Nacklrag iiber dU vier ParadiesesfiHsse in allbab. und atlarab. 
UeberlieftruHs. 8vo, 60 pp. Price M,3.5o. 

Professor Sayce cannot, to use his own words, 
'believe in Professor Hommel's attempt to find 
the four rivers of Eden in northern and central 
Arabia ' ; he regards my arguments as ' not con- 
vincing ' ; all this especially on the ground that he 
cannot admit that Beke and Winckler are right in 
finding ' the Mizraim of the O.T. in N.VV. Arabia 
instead of Egypt' These last tpords may form 
the starting-point of my defence, since they would 
leave on the mind of the uninformed reader the 
impression (i) that I would understand Mizraim 
everywhere in the O.T. of the land of Midian, and 
(2) that this identification is the whole basis of 



my new discovery of a Babylonian list of the four 
rivers of Paradise, whereas it supplies such a basis 
at best for my arguments as to the Arabian situa- 
tion of these rivers (and even here only to a 
partial extent). 

As it is impossible to recapitulate here all that 
I have written in my essay, I would urge every 
reader who is interested in this question to read 
for himself the readily accessible brochure. Care- 
ful study of it will show that it is by no means the 
case that I identify the biblical Mizraim every- 
Tvkere with the land of Midian (Mozar, Mu^ut), 
but that it is only ' in a whole series of passages,' 
all of which I cite in translation, that 1 maintain 
that Mozar has been misread Mizraim, On p. 
3Z3, for instance, I have expressly insisted that in 
the passages where the sojourn of the children of 
Israel in Mizraim is' spoken of, I do not see, with 
Winckler, Midian but Egypt. Besides, in the 
Paradise question, Mizraim or a misread Mozar 
does not come into account, but other two names 
of countries, which are, indeed, associated in 
many O.T. passages with Mozar, namely, Kosh 
(in my opinion -^ Central Arabia) and Ashur (which 
I hold to be in many, but not of course in all 
passages = Edom, instead of denoting, as usual, 
Assyria). Now, of course, anyone is entitled, 
from the old traditional exegeticat standpoint, to 
refuse to admit of these identili cat ions in any 
O.T. passage. If so, he will naturally continue 
to refer the statement that the Gihon compasses 
the land of Cush to an Ethiopian river, and we 
are just where we were in regard lo the mysterious 
statements of Genesis about the rivers of Eden, 
statements which do not fit into any scheme of 
geography. Gunkel and Zimmern consequently 
adopt what is decidedly the most convenient 
course in flinging these statements overboard and 
transplanting the rivers of Paradise to heaven ; as 
a matter of fact, the Babylonians gave the names 
Euphrates and Tigris to the two arms of the Milky 
Way that cut the Zodiac between the signs of 
Scorpio and Sagittarius. 

All the above concerns simply matters of 
opinion. But I should like finally to emphasize 
the circumstance that my ' Nachtrag ' on the Four 
Rivers of Paradise (pp. 336-343) in any case (and 
thus even if the arguments of Winckler and myself 
about the new countries, Ashur = Edom, Kosh = 
Central Arabia, and Mozar = Midian, should prove 
to be false, a question which O.T. scholars may 

now be left to discuss in all its length and breadth) 
contains the discovery Ihat the Babylonians, too, 
knew four Paradise rivers. I have been the first 
lo direct special attention to a list of four rivers pub- 
lished as long ago as 1S66. These are marked as 
sacred rivers by the circumstance that each one of 
them has before it the determinative for 'god.' 
Moreover, as I further pointed out, the fourth of 
these rivers plays elsewhere also a prominent role 
in the Babylonian exorcism formulas. What, now, 
can these four sacred rivers be but 3 direct analogy 
to the four rivers of Paradise of the Hebrews, in 
whose primeval history there are so many other 
points of contact with Babylonia? Herein con- 
sists the abiding significance of my 'Nachtrag' 
for O.T. science, however the question may be 
answered as to the localizing of these rivers, and I 
am sure that Professor Sayce will not be the last 
to admit its importance from this point of view. 

On matters of detail I may perhaps yet enter in 
The Expository Times, unless others, as I should 
much prefer, do it before me. To satisfy the 
curiosity of readers, I will only add the names — 

I. River-god ear' ^lojcf*. 

2 of diotite (ihe chief pioduct of E. Arabia). 

i of affeetion.' 

4 of Ibe preparer of aspbalt. 

The S. Arabians also knew four sacred districts, 
namely — 

I. That oflhegodtoT'iioxijf. 

i messeneer of the gods. 

3. . . . . cord (see the note oi^/m:.). 

That this S. Aiabian list is connected in some 
way with the Bab. list of the four river-gods ought 
to be clear to every unprejudiced mind. But this 
alone, whether my geographical explanations be 
adopted or not, invests the whole with an import- 
ance which is not apprehended at the first glance. 

May my brochure then be diligently read and 
studied ! Whatever may be the ultimate decision, 
I have fully established a primitive connexion of 
traditions regarding four sacred rivers. Nay, I 
am even persuaded, further, that the Egyptian 
names of the four rivers of the Isle of the Blest 
are to be brought into the same connexion (Book 

' The ' stone of affection ' is, as I showed, the chief 
product of Meluch ( = O.T. K(\sh) or W. Arabia. Another 
synonym of Ihii river was ' l>and of the kingj and , 

(Gibonl means in Bab. 'band ' ot 'cotd.' 



of the Dead, chap, i lo), in spite of the imperfect 

way in which they have come down to us. This 

point, however, would require an article to itself. 

MuHich. Fritz Hommel. 

1 (peter Anb <Bnoe((. 

Dr. Rendbl Harris, in the Expositor (September 
1901), explains i P 1'- by a parallel in the Book of 
Enoch, and proposes to read hiaioovvro (En 1' 
Sicfooiifii/v) for SnjKiVoi*. The verse ends with the 
remarkable statement, 'which things angth desire 
to look down into.' This is illustrated by En 9', 
where it is said that the four great archangels, 
Michael, etc., looked dmvn upon the earth in the 
days of violence before the Flood, irap«ian/™v (P 

JropoKu^oi) tvi r^ y^v ft Ttov arjuav Tou OMpavnv. 

Dr. Abbott, in Clue, % 272, quotes i P i"-" in 
his discussion of Mt 13'', ' prophets and righteous 
men have desired 10 see,' etc., and the parallel 
Lk 10**, 'prophets and kings,' etc It is pointed 
out that in Hebrew angels might easily have been 
misread kings. A word which means both saints 
and angels is 'holy ones.' It occurs several times 
in the Book of EDOch, where its meaning in one 
or two places is doubtful. Mr. Charles explains 
it in En 103^ by angels, but Dillmann 'takes the 
holy ones here to mean the saints or righteous.' 
Mr. Charles writes on the ' mysteries of the holy 
ones ' in En 106'^, ' Either the secrets known to the 
angels Or the secrets relating to the righteous in 
the future.' The ambiguous word is also an 
epithet of the prophets. C. Taylor. 



@.mo6 it. 8: '(pfefcgeb Cfotpee.' 

The meaning of the first half of this verse is usually 
explained by a reference to Ex 22^". 

This explanation is inadequate. Sut to deal 
first with the M.T., we notice that as it stands it is 
ungrammatical, flD3 is never used of people stretch- 
ing themselves out, and even if it were so used wc 
should require a niphal here; its ordinary us^e 
may be seen from the following : — 
z S 16*2 :Mn-ii!i Htvig\ ii^z\i> ie"i 

aSzi^intsni pi?n-n« n-K-na ntn npni 

Is 54* ntj' TniJSE'D nijni 

Moreover, Amos himself uses different words 
when speaking of people stretching themselves 
out, vir. : — 

Am 6' IT niDO-b D'aacn 
Dni}nH>» D'n-iDi 

Am (P ' D'lmD rmo ^D1 
It is therefore clear that as the text stands ID* 
has no object. This difficulty is, however, over- 
come if, following Oort, we delete SyF\ ; by doing 
so we get perfect grammatical sense, and we have 
the authority of the LXX behind us ; moreover, as is 
pointed out by Lohr in his recently published 
bookon the text of Amos,' the presence of iim spoils 
the symmetry of what is otherwise a well-balanced 

The sentence thus emended reads : D'^an DnJ3 
nniD"i>3 ^iVK ID', Pledged garments they spread out 
beside every altar; that the subject of ID' is the 
priests of the sanctuary would seem to be clear 
from the context. 

But what does this mean ? 

Before attempting an answer we should like to 
ofTer the following points for consideration : — 

1. The LXX rendering of the passage : Koi ra. 
i^Tia avTuv Setr/uiiovTcs a)(pivi.rtK, Trapaircratrfiara 
iTToiow ixo/itva Tov Ownaimipiov, And tying their 
garments together with cords, they make curtains 
{or hangings) beside the altar. While fully 
realizing the need of caution in making use of 
the LXX, it may nevertheless be surmised that 
the LXX is giving (in the words jrapajr«T(i<r/«ir« 
ftroc'ow) an explanatory gloss such as is frequently 
found in that version.* 

2. In 2 K 23^ we have the following interest- 
ing note : — And he brake down the houses . . . 
that were in the house of the Lord, where the women 
wove hangings for the Asherah. It is worth point- 
ing out that both here and in the verse of Amos 
preceding that under consideration, mention is 
made of gross immorality in the sanctuary. 

3. The Asherah was the ' lineal descendant ' of 
the sacred tree, which seems to have been indis- 
pensable in early days wherever an altar was set ; 
cf. Dt 16^1 : Thou shalt not plant thee an Asherah 
of any kind of tree beside the altar of the Lord thy 

' The metaphorical sense which some commeniaiors claiin 
for rrc in this verse does not aHecl the argument. 

' Uitttrsuthungen cum Bmh Amsi. MaJi Lohr. Gkuen, 


• S.g- 1 S 1°, where after Q'wt nnit .tjo \v tHn^ the LXX 
adds : Sri <H>ir ^ a^^ TaiAlw. 


Goi, whidt thmt shall tnake Ikte; a prohibition 
which clearly bears witness to the presence of 
Asherahs in the sanctuaries.' 

4- In speaking of the myth told at Byblus of 
the sacred erica which was worshipped in the 
temple of Isis, Robertson Smith says : ' The 
sacred erica was a mere dead stump, for it was cut 
down by Isis, and presented to the Byblians 
wrapped in a linen cloth, and annointed with 
myrrh like a corpse. It therefore represented the 
dead god. But as a mere stump it also resembles 
the Hebrew Asherah.' * Isis and Osiris are really 
the same as Astarte and Adonis, so that, as 
Robertson Smith surmises, the Byblian myth may 
have come from a Semitic original. 

But, further, there was a practice among the 
Semites 'of leaving,' to quote Robertson Smith 
again, 'at the sanctuary offerings of part of one's 
clothes or other things that one has worn, such as 
ornaments or weapons. . . . The clothes are so 
far part of a man that they can serve as a vehicle 
of personal connection. Hence the religious 
significance of suspending on an idol, or Dhat 
./iniM/("tree to hang things on"), not only weapons, 
ornaments, and complete garments, but mere 
shreds from one's raiment. These rag-offerings 
are still to be seen hanging on the sacred trees of 
Syria, and on the tombs of Mohammedan saints ; 
tbey are not gifts in the ordinary sense, but 
pledges of attachment' 3 Rawlinson, in his His- 
tory of Phmnicia, describes a Phoenician cylinder 
which has upon it 'a rude representation of a 
sacred tree in the central position. To the left 
stands a worshipper with the right hand upraised, 
ciad in a very common Assyrian dress. Over the 
sacred tree is a coarse specimen of the winged 
circle or disk, with head and tail, and fluttering 
ends of ribbon.'* May not these ribbons or rags 

' Cf. Jg e", Is I7» 27' (where Ihe LXX translate d-im 
byTi«,ap.),Jer,7=, jCh33'34'. 

" Rtligien aflht Semilis, p. 191, n. 3. 

' Op til. pp. 335-336. It may be mentioned, in passing, 
that similar things are to be seen nearer home as well. In 
Borphoven, on ihe Rhine, nearly opposite Boppard, is a. 
IVall/ahrlskirche, which the present writer has frequenlly 
visited ; inside this church may be seen various curious 
oflerings, )uch as crutchei, wax limbs, handkerchiefs, etc., 
hanging by the side of the altars. They ore thankofferings, 1 
and though the immediate object of hanging them up may 
be, and probably is, different from that of the cases men- 
tioned hy Robertson Smith,- nevertheless the principle 
underlying each must ultimately be much the same. 

' Mislery ef Phceaicia, p, 233, 

be a further example of the pledges of attatkment 
mentioned by Robertson Smith ? 

These considerations have led me to form the 
following conclusion with regard to the verse under 
discussion : — 

The prophet has in view the various offerings 
(garments, clothes, etc.) which were displayed in the 
sanctuary as tokens of piety by the priests. They 
were hung up ('stretched out') as pledges of 
attachment to the Asherah, i.e. the conventional 
tree-symbol of the goddess, which was erected by 
the side of (^jvk) the altar. With a fine touch of 
irony, the prophet emphasizes the fact that these 
garments are 'pledged,' and so far from being 
emblems of piety, they testify to priestly op- 
pression, for (so one is led to infer from the 
context) these garments had been pledged by 
those who were too poor to pay the exactions 
demanded for the sanctuary for real, or more 
probably imagined, offences. These garments the 
priestly oppressors, who were zealous in their out- 
ward show of religion, offered up in the sanctuary 
to 'their god.'* 

This last expression on'ni'K is significant ; it 
evidently points to the worship of some foreign 
deity, and I have ventured to identify it with the 
Asherah-worship connected with the cult of Astarte, 
although strangely enough neither the Asherah nor 
Ashtoreth (Astarte) are anywhere directly men- 
tioned by Amos. The existence of this type of 
worship in the time of Amos is, however, suffi- 
ciently well guaranteed by passages in other 
books,* and it is difficult to suppose that it was 
absent from the prophet's thoughts when he was 
denouncing the false worship of the time. 

W. O. E. Oesterlev. 

©r. 6b. QKontg on ^^eftief i. 1-4. 

I HAVE every reason to be satisfied with the 
reply of Dr. Konig (September number, p. 56C) 
to my objections (August number, p. 525 ''^■) t° 
his view of the above passage, for, in spite of 
its brevity, it is full of important admissions, 
* The spirit animating the priestly offerers, on this view, 
may be compared with that of the people denounced in the 
Book of Malachi (1''), who have brought that which was 
laktn by viehuie, and Ihe lavie, and Ike sick 10 the altar ; cf. 
also Mai 1""*. 



It will not be superfluous to note these expressly, and 
draw the conclusions where this seems desirable. 

From the silence of Dr. Konig it follows, first 
of all, that I had not at alt misunderstood him 
in attributing to him, as I did only with hesitation, 
the view described on p. 527. That is to say, 
he really means that the original title of 
the book has been handed down to us in 
the unpointed bnprn' that stands outside the text. 
On the other hand, he silently admits that ht 
has misunderstood me. For he is now aware that 
I meant to represent Ezekiel as reckoning the 
' fifth day of the fourth month ' not from the 
day of his birth, but according to the calendar 
year; and, even by urging that this would be 
less likely to happen with a personal date than 
with an affair of state, such as a ruler's accession, 
he yet admits iis possibility. — Unfortunately Dr. 
Konig has once more read a little hastily what I had 
written. He makes me say simply that ' Neh i' 
looks back to Ezr 7',' and refutes this by pointing 
out that 'Neh i'-;* belongs to the Memoirs of 
Nehemiah, but Ezr -f to the later [the Chronicler's] 
I>arts of the Book of Ezra, which could not yet 
have been taken into account by Nehemiah.' 
Any reader would think from this that I had 
made the tatter assumption. But 1 said expressly 
— I state it at present in somewhat different words 
— that Neh 1' must be considered »/Afr as being 
part of the work of the Chronicler, i.e. from the 
standpoint of the redaction, or as having had its 
origin in the Memoirs of Nehemiah. Only in the 
/ort/ifr case did I argue, and Dr. Konig himself must 
admit this, that the date in Neh 1' is to be ex- 
plained from Ezr 7'. From the latter point of view, 
again, I referred to Neh 2' 13* as witnesses for 
Nehemiah's way of dating, and hence concluded 
that either the omission in i' 'is due to a textual 
loss, or the verse has been torn from a context 
in the Memoirs where an exact date, rc/M the 
name of the king, immediately preceded.' Against 
these conclusions Dr. Konig has adduced nothing. 

Dr. Konig's most important admission is, that 
he, too, is now inclined to accept of a genuine 
Ezekiel element in v.'^-, and that in the very 
words 'this is the fifth year of the captivity of 
king Jehoiachin,' which I picked out of v.^ as 
genuine. 'This note,' he says, ' may have been 
written by the prophet in v.',' — precisely my 
view again. Dr. Konig makes out, indeed, that 
his language (p. 376) about Ezk i-^- 'did not 

exclude the supposition that a genuine Ezekiel 
element has been expanded by a later hand Into 
the present verses'; but all the same it is true 
that no one could have gathered that this was 
his meaning when he simply said : ' Vv.*'- are a 
later expansion, and I am now inclined more 
than formerly to the opinion that this expansion 
is due to a later hand than that of Ezekiel 
himself {/ae. at.). But it is of little or no con- 
sequence whether Dr. Konig was first led by me 
to the above recognition of a genuine Ezekiel 
element in v.*'-, or whether that was his view 
beforehand. Of far greater importance are the 
inferences that follow from this admission. If 
the prophet himself considered it necessary to 
explain the date, ' in the thirtieth year,' in v.' by 
the addition, ' this is the fifth year of the captivity 
of king Jehoiachin,' Dr. Konig's statement that 
' the prophet who lived in Babylon could assume 
that this era was familiar to his readers,' falla 
away. This alone makes it unlikely in the 
extreme that in the dale, ' the thirtieth year,' we 
have to do, as Dr. Konig holds, with ' the publicly 
recognized system of reckoning.' He has further 
admitted by his silence that in not one of the 
mass of dates which have come down to us iti 
inscriptions from the time of the Chaldee kings 
is there an instance of reckoning by the year of 
Nabopolassar's accession. Thereby his view is 
condemned, for the time is once for all gone 
by when one was at liberty to put forward any 
hypothesis he chose, because it was impossible 
to check its accuracy. — But the recognition of 
a genuine Ezekiel element in v.^ is important 
from yet another point of view. Dr. Konig 
detects ' the germ of death ' in my view ' in the 
supposition that the very expression {'jn?, ' of 
my life') on whose presence his [viz. my) 
theory depends was afterwards dropped out.' 
Here Dr. Konig forgets, in the first place, that 
I am by no means alone in this supposition, 
but that my '>r6 is only an improvement upon 
three different proposals by other scholars. But, 
secondly, he himself testifies to the possibility of 
our proposal by also assuming that something 
'has dropped out 'of v.'. Whether this has been 
preserved somewhere else or not, cannot alter 
the fact in question. And, further, if v.^** is 
derived from v.^, my view is correct also for 
ehrii> HBtona of v.^*, namely, that this expression 



simply coincides with the same words in v.', that 
it is nothing other than the catchword to indicate 
the right place of v.^"'. But in that case v."'" is 
not, as Dr. Kunig supposes, 'torn from this con- 
nexion [in V.'] by a later hand, with a view to 
its expansion,' but this explanatory date was only 
meant to be restored by v.'" to its original place. 
Moreover, it is difficult to see how v.* can be 
an expansion of the explanation taken from v.'. 
On the contrary, if cut off from v.'', this third 
verse becomes quite isolated, and in this way 
again the considerations that tell in favour of 
my proposal to regard v.° as the original title of 
the book are materially strengthened. Ever>-one 
who feels unable to believe, with Dr. Konig, that 
the ijxprn" of the MSS, which stands outside the 
text, belongs to the original text, has every reason 
to abide by v.^. 


Marburg f. H. 

Cgecent Ojjiniono on i%t ©die of t^e 
%ait of i%t ®.p08tfea. 

The Rev. R. B. Rackham's Plea for an 
Early Date. 

In an interesting article on 'The Acts of the 
Apostles' contributed to the first number of the 
Journal of Theological Studies, the Rev. R. B. 
Rackhah puts in an attractive ' plea for an early 

The case for the earlier date mainly rests, he 
says, on the difficulties attaching to any date as 
late as 70 a.d.' 'The crucial difficulty is the 
silence of the Acts as to St. Paul's martyrdom.' 
And this difficulty confronts us whether we con- 
sider the structure of the Acts as a whole or the 
position which St, Paul personally occupies in the 
book. The Acts, as a whole, is constructed on a 
plan which would have been much more complete 
if the death of St. Paul had been recorded, and 
in the second part of the Acts (chaps. 13-18) St, 
Paul is the central figure (pp. 78, 79), For two 
reasons therefore, it is incredible that St. Luke 
should not have related the fate of his hero, if he 
knew it. 

'A similar chain of reasoning will make it 

probable that the Acts was composed before the 
end of St. Paul's first Roman imprisonment, if, as 
we believe, that ended in a trial and acquittal' 
(pp. 79, 80). Can we suppose that St. Luke knew 
of the acquittal, and did not relate ft ? 

'Yet another difficulty lies in the tone of the 
Acts. A note of joy and an air of peace pervade 
the whole book. . . . Could this tone have been 
possible after the martyrdom of the apostles ' and 
' the wholesale slaughter under Nero ? ' (pp. 80, 8 1 ). 

' If, then, St. Luke wrote subsequently to the 
Neronian persecution, it could only have been 
when the lapse of some years had restored peace 
to the Church, had healed its wounds, and had 
mitigated the personal grief for the loss of the 
apostle. This could hardly have been before 
circa 80 A.D.' (p. 81). 

'Such a long interval, however, has its special 
difficulties. A characteristic of the Acts is the 
remarkable fidelity of its pictures to the con- 
temporary situation. , . . The most noteworthy 
illustration is given by the early history of the 
Church at Jerusalem. There we find reproduced 
with exactness the condition of Jerusalem between 
30 and 40 A.D., the relations of Pharisees and 
Sadducees, of Gamaliel and the high priestly party, 
of Jews and Hellenists ; the attitude of different 
parties to the Church ; the simplicity of the 
Christian Society, which appears as a continuance 
of the band of disciples in the gospel, the place of 
the Lord being now tilled by the apostles, and the 
whole body being nothing more on the outside 
than a Jewish aipto-is, "the Nazarenes." These 
conditions passed rapidly away,' and such a picture 
of Jewish politics would have been hard to draw 
after 70 a.d. (pp. 8r, 82). 

' Great as were St Luke's gifts, it would 
argue a literary self-control which is almost in- 
conceivable that the destruction of Jerusalem 
should nowhere have visibly affected his retro- 
spect' (p, 82). 

' Not a hint in the Acts would enable a modern 
critic to conjec^ture the subsequent movements and 
fate of St. Peter, St. James the Lord's brother, or 
St. John, or the history of the Church at Jerusalem, 
at Ephesus, at Rome. How different it is in the 
case of St. John's Gospel. We can tell at once 
that St, Peter has been already girded and carried 
"whither he would not," and that the great age 
of St. John is arousing sgecula^a Myjng the 
brethren' (p. 83). ' ' O 


Ooe of the subsidiary aims of the writer is ' the 
apologia for Christianity to the Roman authorities.' 
This would have been of no use after Nero's per- 
secution. ' That was settled from 64 A.n.; the em- 
peror had declared war ; Christianity had become 
a religio illidla ; and St. Luke's arguments were 
thrown away ' (p. 83), 

' The Acts is a vindication of the Catholicity of 
the Church, and a proof of the true communion 
between Jewish and Gentile brethren. But in 80 
A.D. no vindication of the existence of " Churches 
of the Gentiles " was necessary. The question as 
to Jew and Gentile had been settled by facts' 
<P. 83). 

' We might also notice that the Acts was written 
at a time when the question of John the Baptist's 
disciples and baptism was still a practical matter 
of some importance (iS'^^-ig^)' {p. 84, note). 

' If St. Luke was anxious to vindicate the apos- 
tolate of St. Paul as equal to that of St Peter, and 
yet prove the true unity between them, what better 
proof could he have had than the dramatic picture 
of the two brother apostles martyred at Rome, 
showing that " in death they were not divided ? " ' 
<P- 84). 

' It is clear that the writer has not used our 
Epistles of St. Paul.' ' This is evident from some 
apparent discrepancies between the Acts and the 
Epistles of Sl Paul, especially between the Acts 
and Galatians.' ' If Sl. Luke wrote at a date when 
the Epistles were the public property of the Church 
and widely read, we cannot imagine his leaving 
such inconsistencies in their present form. But 
if he wrote before St. Paul's death, all is clear ' 
<p. 84). 

On the above extracts, which contain a fair 
summary of Mr. Rackham's argument, we may 
make the following remarks : — The termination of 
the Acts is certainly perplexing when we compare 
it with later accounts of the end of St. Paul's life. 
But in our present state of ignorance as to the 
circumstances under which the book was written 
and of the object of the writer, and, we may add, 
of the real history of St. Paul's later life, it would 
be rash to conclude that it can only be explained 
by supposing the narrative to have been continued 
down to the time when the book was written. Dr. 
Salmon puts the argument with his usual force and 
point when he says: 'To my mind, the simplest 
explanation why St. Luke told us no more is, that 
he knew no more; and that he knew no more, 

because at the time nothing more had happened — 
in other words, that the book of the Acts was 
written a little more than two years after St. Paul's 
arrival in Rome ' (Hist, Int. 4th ed. pp. 337> 338)- 
And yet, if we apply these words to the finish of 
another composition to which they are equally 
applicable, we shall see that the conclusion which 
is drawn does not always hold good. The way 
in which the Gospel of St. Mark ends is equally 
abrupt, and just as surprising as the termination of 
the book of Acts, and yet no one ventures to argue 
that the writer stopped where he did because he 
knew no more, 

I doubt if Mr. Rackham adds much to the 
strength of his argument when he appeals to the 
supposed intention of the writer of the Acts to 
make the structure of his work conform to the 
structure of the Gospels. The idea is that 'in 
both ' — that is, in both the Gospel and the Acts, 
and also in both the Pauline and the Petrine 
portions of the Acts — 'we have an Introduction 
or Preparation; then an outpouring of the Holy 
Spirit ; this is followed by the body of the work, 
the active ministry. This ministry is concluded 
by a Passion, which is early anticipated, and is 
narrated at great length ; but the Passion is fol- 
lowed by a Resurrection or Deliverance,' and that 
the writer having this plan in his mind cannot be 
supposed to have written after the death of the 
apostle, for then he would have ' not only missed 
in the Acts the obvious parallel to the Passion of 
the Gospels, but also made it hard for us to dis- 
cover any [ilan at the bottom of his narrative' 
(PP- 77i 78)- The supposed plan which this 
argument discerns in the Acts is not more certain 
than many other plans which have been proposed 
to explain the structure of the book. It is, more- 
over, a plan which will be of necessity more or 
less discernible in all Christian biographies. It 
can be found, for instance, in the story of Stephen, 
' where it is even more complete than in the stories 
of SS. Peter and Paul, because the story of St.- 
Stephen's life ends with the martyrdom which Mr. 
Rackham desiderates in the story of St. Paul's 
I There does not appear to be much force in the 
' argument which seeks to deduce the date of the 
composition of the Acts from its relation to the 
Neronian persecution. It is said that the Acts is 
' an apology for Christianity to the Roman authorities, 
I and that such an apology would have been of 



no use after persecution had commenced. But 
apologies might have been made later, as Justin's 
were. Indeed it might be said that before the 
close of the period covered by the book of Acta 
there was no occasion for an apologia, for all 
the decisions of the Roman authorities recorded 
in the Acts were uniformly in favour of Chris- 

When we argue that a book must have been 
written at or near the time of which it treats 
because of the correctness of its historical colour- 
ing, we ought to be prepared to show (i) that we 
have some independent knowledge of the time 
with which to compare the book, and (z) that such 
knowledge would not have been accessible to a 
person writing at a later date.- It is not clear 
that the examples of historical knowledge which 
Mr, Rackham cites from the Acts fulfil these con- 
ditions. Our knowledge of the Pharisees and 
Sadducces, for instance, is, outside the New Testa- 
ment, chiefly derived from Josephus, who wrote 
af\er the fall of Jerusalem, and may be supposed 
to describe Pharisaism as it was in his own day. 
Gamaliel was a well-known personage who was 
not soon forgotten. Why should the distinction 
between Jews and Hellenists have disappeared 
with the fall of Jerusalem? Distinctions of 
language and party do not generally fade so fast. 
As to the simplicity of the Christian society, we 
are unfortunately here concerned with a period of 
Church history of which we know very little indeed. 
Until we know from some independent source 
more than we do about the development of Church 
government both in Jerusalem and elsewhere, we 
can hardly argue with any confidence for the date 

' It is not quite cleat what is roeanl by an apohgia. 
Schmiedel apeaks of 'the desire to say as lillle as possible 
unfavourable to itie Romnn civil powei' {Eniyilepadia 
Biblita, vol. i. p. 41). But this uems haidly consistent 
with the way in which the Roman otEcials are commonlji 
reptcjemed in the Acls. The porltaits of the Philippian 
Dingiatrates (Ac :6"-"}, of Gallio {18'*-"), of the chief 
captain Claudius Lyiias (13"), and of Fclii (24^) and 
Feslus (^S*-"-"*) ate not mote flattering (hin that of 
Pontius Pilate in the Gospels. The wtiterof the Acts certainly 
seems to dwell with pleasure upon the occasions when the 
verdict of the Roman authorities was pronounced in favour 
of Cbtistianity. But this is not more marked in the Acts 
than in the Gospels, and is not more matked in the 
Third Gospel than in Che Fiisl and Second, oi in the 

' In the case of a book like the Acls we must also bear in 
mind that we ate nol dealing with a mete romance, but with 
the woik of a writer who uses historical materials. 

I of the Acls from the fidelity of the pictures of 
' Church life which the book presents. 
I The argument from the silence of the Acts about 
I the destruction of Jerusalem as contrasted with the 
' references in the Fourth Gospel to the later years of 
' St. Peter and St. John is open to the criticism that 
I the passages refereed to in the Gospel are all taken 
I from the appendix, which is generally believed to 
' have been an afterthought, written by the same or 
! a different writer. Before this appendix was added, 
' the Fourth Gospel was as free as the Acts from 
references to later history. 

It may be added that it is dangerous to Mr. 
Rackham's cause when he argues from the pre- 
dictions in Jn ai as if they were prophecies 
after ihe event, for if the Fourth Gospel contains 
\ such prophecies, why may not the Third Gospel 
; contain them ? And if the references to the fall 
' of Jerusalem in St. Luke were written after the 
event, then the book of Acts was written later still. 
The baptism and disciples of John the Baptist 
were not forgotten so soon as Mr, Rackham's note 
on this subject implies. Instead of being forgotten, 
John was set up by some of his disciples as a rival 
Messiah, and certain well-known passages in the 
Fourth Gospel are with much reason supposed to 
have been directed against this claim. Even at 
the present day there ts a small sect in the East 
who are called 'John's disciples,' and Bishop 
Lightfoot supposes that these people may have 
been descended from some who claimed to be 
disciples of the Baptist in the first century (see 
CUm. Rtcog. i. 54, 60 ; Lightfoot, Colon, pp. 401- 
405, etc.). 

It is argued that if St, Luke had written at a date 
when the Epistles of St. Paul had become the public 
property of the Church, he would have been careful 
to avoid the appearance of contradiction between 
the Acts and the Epistles. Answer — There are 
I stranger things in the Acts than the appearance ol 
contradicting St. Paul's Epistles. There are the 
contradictions (apparent or real) of the Old Testa- 
ment, of the writer's own Gospel, and of the book 
; of Acts itself. Indeed we may carry these obser- 
vations farther, and apply them to other early 
Christian writings as well as to the Acts. The 
writers of the Gospels have not avoided the 
I appearance of discrepancy with one another, 
{ Either the later of them did not know of the 
I earlier, or if they did, they were nol careful to 
avoid the appearance of contradictions. 



It may also be asked what certain information 
ne have as to the exact date at which the Epistles 
of St. Paul became the public property of the 
Church. John A. Cross. 

Lilllt mtbtck, Ltids. 

Z%t ^\it of i%t l^ofg ^fpv.U%xt, 

In the paper contributed to the Quarterly State- 
ment of the Palestine Exploration Fund, which 
was referred to in The Exository Times last 
month, I carefully guarded myself from pronounc- 
ing that in my opinion the Tombs of the Kings are 
the veritable tomb in which, as in a mortuary 
chapel, the dead body of our Lord was deposited. 
I merely used that very remarkable excava- 
tion as affotding the best extant specimen of what 
the Holy Sepulchre must have been ; giving, as 
you have been good enough to mention, thirteen 
scriptural indications which must be reckoned 
with by our investigators before they can affirm 
that they have found it. 

All the arguments which have been reproduced 
in recent articles in favour of v/hat is called the 
traditional site, are to be seen slated with Christian 
courtesy and moderation in Williams' Holy City, 
published in 1845. They were answered and 
refuted with equal moderation by Dr. Robinson 
(whose great learning, modesty, and diligence are 
beyojid dispute) in 1852. He did not profess to 
have found the true sepulchre, but he conclusively 
showed that there is no dependence to be placed 
upon the traditions by which the present Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre claims to cover so many 
sites of sacred story. Let any one read from 
p. 255 to p. 263 of his Later Researches, and he 
will feel how unjust is the imputation of 'slipshod 
reasoning' which one angry disputant has pre- 
sumed to cast at him. 

The arguments hitherto have chiefly turned 
upon the direction of the second wall. Much 
ingenuity has been expended on the effort to 
show that its course zigzagged round south of the 
traditional site, so as to bring the sepulchre out- 
side that wall. Probably when Eusebius in the 
fourth century had to explain the case to Con- 
stantine and Helena, he forgot, or had not noticed. 
He 12", which demanded that the Crucifixon, 
and consequently the sepulchre, must be outside 
he city. In those dangerous times it would be 

far safer within, and his object was good — i.e. to 
convince all the crowd of pilgrims demanding 
ocular proof that the great facts had actually 
, taken place in Jerusalem. Supply and demand 
I are correlative, alike in the fourth as in the 
twentieth century. But when it is realized that 
the tomb must have been outside the limits of the 
city (which is interpreted by the writer of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews to have been typified by 
the camp), then the course of that wall ceases to 
have any bearing on the argument. It has been 
proved that the bounds of the city were at that 
time far northward of it ; and that the mound 
adopted by Conder and Gordon was surrounded 
. by a thickly populated suburb, to protect which 
] Agrippa built his wall ten or twelve years after- 

In examining the evidence for the traditional 
site, we lind it depends exclusively on the testi- 
mony of Eusebius, bishop of Csesarea. One does 
not care to disparage the character of a dead man 
who cannot defend himself; but when the only 
authentic account of an event, otherwise disput- 
able, rests on one man, we are bound fairly to 
appraise his credibility, and see whether he had 
any known bias. We ask, then, was Eusebius 
in a position to give reliable evidence? Let 
any one read his biography of his patron the 
Emperor Constantine, and he will see how fully 
justified Lewin was in calling him 'a fulsome 
panegyrist.' Remembering what that potentate 
really was — a man whose stormy past looked so 
black that when he applied to the pagan 
Plalonists, Sopatros and others, asking if they 
' knew any means by which he could be absolved, 
it is said they told him that such crimes as 
I his could never be washed away, — and he only 
, consented to be baptized by Bishop Eusebius of 
Nicomedia (at the instance of Hosius of Cordoba) 
I as a last resort when death stared him in the face. 
Yet this man, with such slender grounds for being 
regarded as a Christian at all, is Raftered by 
Eusebius with sickening adulation. We may ask 
then, Was this Eusebius the sort of man to with- 
stand the tremendous pressure put upon him, not 
only by crowds of pilgrims, but by Imperial 
patrons, to find for them the very spots where the 
Crucifixion took place ? and this after three cen- 
turies of terrible trouble, such as the world had 
never seen.had swept over Jerusalem, and tornadoes 
of destruction had removed many landmarks ! 



We may pity the unfortunate ecclesiastics who 
had to do it, and who did their best. No doubt 
they felt it was of paramount importance to con- 
vince their wavering pairons that the Crucifixion | 
and the Resurrection had really taken place i and | 
if they could not do so without producing the i 
crosses and the sepulchre, why, at all costs, they i 
must be produced. I do not suppose they thought 
they were committing a sin or a fraud of any con- ; 
sequence in doing so. They would certainly think i 
it was a dangerous sin to check the newborn zeal of , 
the Imperial patron, whose superstitious conscience | 
.and whose pious mother demanded it. Probably | 
they dared not confess that the Christians did not i 
-care or perhaps did not know exactly where the 
true site was. 

In a discussion of this nature I deprecate as 
heartily as you do, the use of such language as 
you have culled from one article. I am contented 
not to know for certain where the Lord lay ; and 
I agree with my old acquaintance, Herr Schick, 
that probably it is 'ruled' that there should 
always be some uncertainty about it ; but I should 
not be contented if I neglected any means afTorded 
by such a sepulchre as the Tombs of the Kings of 
realizing in every detail, as far as possible, all the 
circumstances of the great fact to which it is the 
paramount function of the Church to testify. 

Francis Gell. 

Kipple, Tetokesbury. 

irony in the whole passage. Though it was 
entirely true from the Speaker's point of view, it 
would sound to some who heard it almost like 
a caricature of Pharisaism ; the Speaker surely 
knew this and meant to rouse His hearers by 
appealing to the sense of the incongruous and 
unexpected. It is not without a touch of bitter- 

Jowett was considered, I remember, to have 
proved his case for the use of irony at least in this 
instance. Dugali> Macfadyen. 

Narlhvjood, Hcntiy. 

*®ib our &ort fotx Bi>eftft in "^xa-K^t 

The Expository Times for August begins with 
this question, ' Did our Lord ever speak in irony ' ? 
The question is an interesting one, but the case 
discussed — Mk 14" — is by no means the strongest 
instance in the Gospels. If this question is asked 
in the absolute form, it is only right to give the 
locus dassicus to which those who find irony in 
the Lord's words usually turn. 

I have read somewhere, or been told, that 
Jowett was once at a dinner table where a dis- 
tinguished ecclesiastic said emphatically that 'our 
Lord never used irony.' Jowett asked for a New 
Testament and read the passage beginning, ' Full 
well do ye reject the commandment of God, 
that ye may keep your tradition ' (Mk 7"""). If 
read in the Greek, KoAwt dtftrciTc t^ hmXriv 
Tou 0eoS, K.T.A., it is evident that there is a vein of 

§it. 3ofn wii. 1-3. 

The common interpretation of the third verse 
in the seventeenth chapter of St. John is that a 
knowledge of God and of Jesus Christ gives or 
constitutes, in some way, eternal life. Bui if 
eternal life is at all equivalent to what is meant by 
immortality, could we say, on the common view 
of the above verse, that heathen nations who 
know not God and Jesus Christ, are immorial 
beings? 1 have long felt that the common 
interpretation of the above passage is wrong, and 
that the true reading is, that eternal life is a ' gift ' 
and not the result of knowledge, a 'gift* (v,°) 
in order that men might attain to a knowledge 01 
God and of Jesus Christ, partially at least here, 
but more fully and perfectly, hereafter, in the life 
to come. This would harmonize with all those 
Scripture passages from Job downwards which 
afhrm that little is known, or can be known, of 
God in this life. And in the context, v,-, eternal 
life is said to be a 'gift,' as in i Jn 5" and 
other places. In v.' 'authority over all flesh,' 
iioiKriaf a-ooT^s (ropitds, is given to the Son that 
the Son might 'give eternal life' to whatsoever 
God had given Him, The ir«<ra tropf is equivalent 
to all mankind, all humanity, the point therefore 
is this, — was the 'gift' of eternal life in v.^ 
intended to lead to the attainment of the 'know- 
ledge' in v.^? — or does the knowledge in v.^ 
I constitute, in any way, the eternal life of v.". 
The 'all flesh,' alt humanity, makes for the former 
view, and against the latler. For the knowledge 
of God and of Jesus Christ could not be predicated 
of all mankind, even in this age after nineteen 
centuries of teaching. But eternal life is believed 
to be the common lot or destiny of all mankind. 
It would therefore seem that the common inter- 
pretation of v.^ is incompatible with the common 
belief of mankind — ^while the common belief of 
mankind agrees with the interpretation suggested. 
Of course a distinction may be made between 
eternal life and immortality, but if so, that which 


differentiates the former from the latter should be 
explained by those who adopt the common 
interpretation. W. W. English. 

Our fiot^'e ^Arb ^^tging to i%t 
^gro:((>9oemct<tn ^ornan. 

The difficulty is not so much in the words used as 
in their attendant circumstances. Taken alone, 
they might have been spoken gently and carried a 
deep meaning (Gal 3'*), and thus have served to 
guide the woman's faith, as they actually did, to 
its true object (Eph 5*). 

It is their ' setting ' that makes the words sound 
harsh and unsympathetic — Christ's previous deaf- 
ness to entreaty — His apparent unwillingness to 
help. Yet is not all this capable of another 
explanation ? Was it not mtntal preoccupation ? 

Christ had enough to occupy His thoughts just 
then. He was consciously nearing the crisis when 
culminating opposition and unbelief with their 
necessary effects (Mt i6'-^), including their leaven- 
ing influence on His followers (Mk 8" — note the 
Revisers' just omission of m), were to compel Him 
to close His ministiy in GaiUee, and force Him 
(as they shortly did) to prepare for His coming 
Death and Resurrection (Mt 16^'). 

It was a momentous decision to take, and He 
needed time and place where thought would be 
possible and uninterrupted. These could not be 
found on Jewish soil, where He had no leisure so 
much as to eat, and where, like a clergyman in his 
own parish, He was not only subjected to the calls 
of any and all, but where it was His duty in fulfil- 
ment of His divine mission to attend to them. The 
needed refuge must lie beyond His appointed field 
i)f labour— where without neglect He can permit 
Himself the necessary abstraction and mental 
concentration. And so ' He arose and went away 
into the borders of Tyre and Sidon . . . and would 
have no man know it.' Metaphorically speaking, 
He locked Himself in His study with orders not 
to be disturbed. The one answer to all applicants 
is to be, ' I was not sent but unto the lost sheep 
of the house of Israel.' 

We distinguish four stages in His mental pre- 
occupation. The first is that of complete absorp- 
tion. 'A Canaanitish woman came, and cried. 
Have mercy on me, O Lord, Thou Son of David ; 
my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.' 
' But He answered her not a word' — He simply 
did not hear her. His mental absorption rendered 
Him oblivious of all that was passing around. 
This continued until His disciples in concern 

ventured to call His attention to the woraaii, and, 
roisinlerpreting His silence, begged Him to send her 
away. Here we reach the second stage. Partially 
aroused for the moment, He dismisses the inter- 
ruption with the predetermined formula, 'I was 
not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of 
Israel.' It is His answer, not to the woman (of 
whose presence and petition He is still un- 
conscious), but to the interruption — and He 
relapses into deep thought! 

Thus they arrive at the house (Mk 7^), the 
object of their journey, the needed and needful 
seclusion. Hither the woman follows, and making 
her way in, falls at His feet and there urges 
her petition with, we may presume, intensified 
vehemence. This interruption (third stage) is 
effectual in arousing Him to consciousness for the 
first time of her presence and the nature of her 
petition. Need we import any bitterness or 
harshness into the dignified reply with which He 
first met her request? Did it not seem to Him 
needed, to rebuke an importunity that would 
appear to Him (oblivious as He was of her long- 
tried patience), somewhat too insistent — too eager 
and passionate ? If we cannot but regard the words 
as stern — were they not natural, when we re- 
member the nature of His own thoughts just then ? 
In what dark colours would they paint everything ! 
Were there not otlier ' dogs ' to whom He had been 
fruitlessly casting the ' children's bread ? ' — ' swine ' 
before whom it was no longer meet to cast such 
pearls? With what bitterness was He realizing 

The' woman's answer in its absolute confidence 
of faith and appeal sets Him completely free from 
the last vestige of preoccupation (fourth stage). He 
sees her and hears her petition as they arc — He 
meets her and her petition as Christ always meets 
the seeking soul— with full and complete satis- 
faction, 'O woman, great is thy faith : be it unto 
thee even as thou wilt.' 

It cannot surely derogate from the honour of 
the Son of God to represent Him in the days of 
His flesh as subject like other men to mental pre- 
occupation. It is impossible to think of Him as 
too really a man, so long as we know Him always 
Son of God. He was subject, we know, to sleep 
when weary. He needed to be aroused from it by 
His disciples before He was conscious of what was 
passing around — where lies the important difference 
if we substitute mental preoccupation for sleep? 
B. Horace Ward. 


PhDledbrMoRKisoKftGrBBLtuiTBD, TanfieldWorktiStid 
Publithed ttf T. & T. Cijirk. 3S Geoise Street, Edin- 
burgh. It ii teqauied that *11 iiierary commaniatioiM 
be addresMd to Thb Eoitok, 11 CluendOD Tcnace, 


Qlofee of (flecenf 6;tpo0t(ton. 

A DISCUSSION recently took place in the Upper 
House of Convocation on 'The Dearth of 
Candidates for Holy Orders.' A full report of 
the discussion appeared in the Guardian of 15th 
May. All the most prominent bishops of the 
southern province took part In it. The Bishop 
of Winchester surveyed the facts and suggested 
the remedies. He was followed by the Bishops of 
London, Rochester, Exeter, Lincoln. It was the 
last of a series of discussions on this subject 
which has been going on for eighteen months or 
more. When the Archbishop of Canterbury 
closed the discussion, everything seemed to be 
said that could be said. 

That there is an increasing reluctance to enter 
into Holy Orders was admitted* by everyone. 
Four principal reasons were given by the bishops 
for this reluctance. First, the poverty of the 
clei^. Second, the attractiveness of the Home, 
and, still more, of the Indian Civil Service. 
Third, the decrease in the number of clerical 
masters in public schools. And fourth, intel- 
lectual difficulties. 

The last was reckoned the least. It was 
reckoned the least by all the bishops. 'The 
cause of poverty,' said the Bishop of Exeter, ' is, 
I am sure, the one great cause. The unsettle- 
ment of the boys' minds and the men's minds is 
Vol. XIIL— 3. 

really by comparison quite trifling. The unsettle- 
ment is, as a rule, an unsettlement in a man's first 
year of his University career. The second year 
wilt probably enable him to recover his equilib- 
rium. There is a little wastage, but in com- 
parison it is small.' 

The Bishop of Lincoln, however, took a some- 
what more serious view of the force and prevalence 
of intellectual difficulties. He recognized that in 
ou» teaching professions there was room for a new 
professor; there was need, as you might say, in 
our Colleges for the endowment of a new chair. 
' We need some one,' he said, ' to help young men 
to get accustomed to the limitation of their 
faculties.' We have to hold truths in tendency, 
he said. 'We have to admit our inability to 
reconcile even the things which we know to be 
true. We have to confess that we cannot grasp 
really the whole of those truths which yet we say 
are necessary to salvation.' And these are just 
the things that young minds find it most difficult 
to do. They do not see why they should try to 
do them. 

An anonymous contributor to the Hlof, whose 
account we are following, agrees with the Bishop 
of Lincoln. He even holds that intellectual 
obstacles are mainly accountable for the striking 
decrease in students of divinity. He does not 



deny that the acceptance of the Creeds is easier 
at present than it was during the ascendency of 
Mil] and his school. But he thinks that young 
men's minds are more vigorous now. And he 
says that sensitiveness to doubt and difficulties 
is, as a rule, in direct proportion to the vitality of 
the mind. 

He gives his own experience. He himself, 
though now he can look back upon some years of 
clerical life, once hesitated to take Orders, and 
that for intellectual reasons. He believes that the 
difficulty arises from the age at which men have 
to decide to take Orders. At the age of twenty- 
three or twenty-four men look upon the facts 
of the Creed as something outside their own ex- 
perience. They are propositions, to be accepted 
or rejected as they appear probable or improbable 
in themselves. By the time the man has reached 
the age of forty, the statements of the Creed have 
verified themselves in his own spiritual experience. 
If the man of four and twenty could so forecast 
the years as see himself a man of forty, subscrip- 
tion would have no terrors for him. He would, 
at the most, be surrendering his immature to his 
own riper and richer judgment. Therefore this 
writer agrees with the Bishop of Lincoln, and says 
that we are greatly in need at this time of some 
one to help young men 'to get accustomed to the 
limitation of their faculties.' 

The latest commentary on Ezekiel has been 
written by Dr. C. M. Cobern and published by 
Messrs. Eaton & Mains, of New York. Its 
strength lies in its archaeology. The explanations 
which it contains of Ezekiel's chariot and Ezekiel's 
cherubim owe their probability as well as their 
novelty to Dr. Cobem's acquaintance with the 
monuments. But there are also occasional 
touches of interpretation that are both new and 

Take that most difficult passage, Ezk 20^-^. 
The rendering of the Revised Version is this: 

' Moreover also I gave them statutes that were not 
good, and judgments wherein they should not 
live; and I polluted them in their own gifts, in 
that they caused to pass through the fire alt that 
openetb the womb, that I might make them 
desolate, to the end that they might know that 
I am the Lord.' 

What are those statutes that were not good, and 
those judgments wherein they should not live? 
Were they certain Mosaic regulations, which were 
permitted because of the hardness of their hearts ? 
Or were they the edicts of evil kings, such as the 
'statutes of Omri'{Mic 6"), which they had to 
accept because they had accepted the kings them- 
selves? Or are these statutes and judgments the 
cruel taxes which sin levies on every man who 
gives himself up to its dominion? 

Dr. Cobern does not decide. He does not 
think it necessary to decide. While God retains 
His sovereignty, it is He that sends these statutes 
that are not good, and these judgments that are 
intolerable, even though from the side of science 
and of man they are to be described as the inevit- 
able result of our own transgressions. It is the 
same laws, indeed, which are a savour of life unto 
life to the obedient, that become to the disobedient 
a savour of death unto death. 

But the more difficult matter remains. In the 
a6th verse it is said that they caused their 
children to pass through the fire, and even this 
is somehow attributed to the ordinance of Jehovah. 
'I polluted them in theit own gifts, in that they 
caused to pass through the fire all that openeth 
the womb.' 

Professor Konig doubts if this refers to human 
sacrifice. Dr. Cobern, though he gives the doubt 
its value, thinks it most probable that it does. 
But he will not have the suggestion of Kuenen, 
Wellhausen, Smend, Toy, and others, that in the 
early days of Israel Jehovah ordained child- 
sacrifice, and that this is one of the statutes 



which now seem 'not good' to Ezekie). He 
will not have the explanation of Renan, that God 
commanded this evil thing for the very purpose 
of avenging Himself on the nation that had dis- 
obeyed Him. He calls that a horrible su^estion. 
He says it is opposed to alt that we know of the 
Mosaic legislation, and in flat contradiction to 
the statements of Jeremiah (j'^ 19'). Bertholet 
declares that ' the fact that Jeremiah is of a 
different opinion is of no impoitance to the 
decision.' But Dr. Cobera prefers to hold with 
Jeremiah that Jehovah did not ordain child- 
sacrifice, rather than with Bertholet and all the 
rest of the modem expositors who say that He did. 

No doubt there is the sacrifice of Isaac. But 
the sacrifice of Isaac was not a sacrifice. It did 
not come off. And the very point of it lies in 
that. Other gods will have the best that their 
worshippers can give them. Jehovah will have 
the best also. Other gods demand the offering 
of the first-born son. Jehovah demands that also, 
but not for death, for life. For a moment it seems 
to be for death, in order that it may be seen to be 
for life for ever. 

So this seeming command to the Israelites to 
offer their children in sacrifice, is in Dr. Cobern's 
eyes simply a particular example of the universal 
law that the way of transgressors is hard. The 
Israelites rejected Jehovah, and chose Molech. 
Choosing Molech they chose the ordinances of 
his worship. They had to pass their children 
through the fire. To Jehovah it was a ' pollution.' 
Yet the very pollution was administered by Him In 
orderto bring the Israelites back to their obedience 

During the last eighteen months a series of 
short scientific studies have been appearing in 
Germany under the general title of 'The Ancient 
East.' These studies are now being translated 
into English by Miss Jane Hutchison and pub- 
lished by Mr. David Nutt. Two have already 
appeared, and have been noticed in The 

Expository Times : Tie Jiealms 0/ the Egyptian 
Dead, by Professor Wiedemann of Bonn, and The 
Tell el-Amarna Period, by Carl Niebuhr. A third 
has just been published. It is entitled The Baby- 
lonian and the Hebrew Genesis. It is written by 
Dr. Heinrich Zimmern, Professor of Semitift 
Languages in the University of Leipzig. 

Dr. Zimmern begins by recognizing the interest 
of his subject. It is true that the centre of interest 
has shifted. Able editors who used to welcome 
articles on ' The Bible and Natural Science ' do so 
no longer. It has been discovered that the Bible 
is content to leave Natural Science alone, and 
Natural Science has been induced to leave the 
Bible alone. Their provinces and their purposes 
are distinct. To speak of 'the mistakes of Moses' 
is therefore itself a fundamental mistake. For 
Moses never intended to say the things that are 
attributed to him. And more than that, Moses 
is at the best only a link In a long chain of poets 
and editors, who received the materials out of 
which Genesis Is composed from some far-distant 
past, perhaps also from some far-distant province, 
and passed them on. As they passed them on, 
they purified and fitted them for the highest uses. 
But even in the form they at last assumed, a form 
in which they will charm and instruct the genera- 
tions of men till the end of lime, they still bear 
traces of the rock whence they were hewn, and 
the hole of the pit whence they were digged. 

So the centre of interest is not in science now, 
nor even in Moses. The ' First Book of Moses 
called Genesis ' has been discovered, at least in its 
earlier portions, to belong to the history and re- 
ligion of the great nations of the East. Babylonia 
also has her story of the Creation, of Paradise and 
the Fall, of the early Patriarchs, and of the Flood. 
And the great questions of interest now are these : 
What is the connexion between the Babylonian 
narratives and those in Genesis? Are these 
ancient stories mere myths, or have they a his- 
torical foundation ? And whether they are myths 
or not, what is the meaning of them, and wherein 


lies their profit for doctrine, for reproof, for correc- 
tion, for instruction in righteousness? 

Our first business is to know what these ancient 
narratives are. The narratives of the Bible we 
^ave before us. The Babylonian versions come 
from different sources. First there are certain 
extracts happily preserved by Eusebius and others 
from the work of a Babylonian priest named Ber- 
ossus, who flourished near the time of Alexander 
the Great. Next there is the Chaldaan Account 
of Genesis of George Smith. Then there are the 
Tell et-Amama tablets, especially the series now 
preserved m the Royal Museum at Berlin, which 
contain a story evidently related to the biblical 
narrative of Paradise. And lastly, there is the 
cuneiform tablet, quite recently discovered near 
Babylon itself, which deals with the Babylonian 
versions of the Deluge. 

The narratives of the Bible we have before us. 
But do we understand them, and have we gathered 
them all together? Professor Zimmern presup- 
poses a general knowledge of the biblical story of 
Creation, but he thinks it advisable to recapitulate 
Its chief incidents as found even in Genesis, and 
he finds it absolutely necessary to gather together 
the references to it which are scattered through 
the Psalms and the Prophets. 

The chief source for the Bible story of Creation 
is the first chapter of Genesis. There the creation 
of heaven and earth is ascribed lo the word of 
the Almighty, The language, says Dr. Zimmern, 
is solemn and simple, and it is penetrated by a 
sublime theological conception, though its phrase- 
ology suggests priestly learning and abstract think- 
ing rather than the freshness and spontaneity of 
popular belief The universe is represented as 
lying in a state of chaos until order is introduced 
by the word of God, the Creator, The chief 
phenomena of this primal state of chaos are dark- 
ness and water. An almost personal name is 
given to the watery deep. It is called 'Tehom.' 
And the first act of the Creator, the first day's 

work of creation, is to bring light into this gloomy 

Then the primeval waters, hitherto a single 
mass, are divided into two parts. One part forms 
the ocean that belongs to the earth. The other 
is sent to form the celestial ocean, which lies 
above the sky. The two oceans are understood 
to be separated by an actual and substantial vault 
of heaven, called the firmament. This is the 
work of the second day. On the third day the 
dry land appears and clothes itself in vegetation. 
The fourth day sees the creation of the heavenly 
bodies, and special emphasis is laid upon the 
'rule' of the sun and of the moon. They are 
not mere lights in the sky, they have a certain 
control, the force of which we see when we turn 
to the Babylonian astrology. On the fifth day 
are created birds and fishes. On the sixth, 
beasts and reptiles, and, as crown of the whole, 

This story is found in the first chapter of 
Genesis : is it the earliest written narrative in the 
Bible? No, says Professor Zimmern, it is one 
of the very latest. In its present form it is not 
older than the Babylonian exile, if it is as old. 
It dates at the earliest from the sixth century b,c 
So its monotheism, for which we are so thankful, 
is no more, he says, than a reflection of the 
monotheism that marked the Jews of the exilic 
or post-exilic period. Its learned author, who 
betrays his hand in the carefulness, approaching 
to pedantry, with which the separate varieties of 
animals and plants are indicated, 'each after his 
kind,' has taken care that no gross polytheistic 
elements should be left in the story to scandalize 
a strictly monotheistic generation. 

Nevertheless he has not eliminated every trace 
of its primitive origin. Chaos ; ' Tohu-wa-Bohu ' ; 
the darkness on the face of the deep ; ' Tehom ' ; 
the spirit of God moving, or more literally, 
' brooding' upon the waters; the firmament divid- 
ing the waters above from the waters below ; the 



' rule ' of the heavenly bodies ; the conception oi 
other divine beings besides the creative Deity 
implied by the use of the plural pronoun, 'Let 
us make man in our image'; the poetical form 
of expression retained in the account of the 
creation of man — 

' And God created man in His oirn image, 

In the image of God created He him,' — 

all these are relics of an earlier age and an earlier 

belief. Their presence is unaccountable until 

we read the parallel Babylonian narrative. 

But the first chapter of Genesis does not con- 
tain all that the Bible has to say about the 
Creation. Following nov somewhat closely Gun- 
kel's remarkable book, Sckopfung und Chaos, 
Professor Zimmern discovers a series of passages 
in the poetical books of the Old Testament 
which refer to a struggle between Jehovah and 
a mythical monster. This mythical Being is the 
primeval chaotic deep. It is personified, and 
appears under various names, as Rahab, leviathan, 
dragon, serpent, or simply sea, but more especially 
as Tehom, the name employed in Genesis. 

He quotes first of all from the 89th Psalm, and 
in this translation — 
'Thou remainest lord, when the sea rageih, 

A^hen the waves thereof arise, thou stillest ihem. 

Thou hast defiled Rahab as carrion, 

With arm of strength thou hast scattered thy 

Thine is the heaven, thine is the earth ; 

The world and its fulness, thou hast founded it. 

North and south, thou hast created them.' 

He sees there a close connexion between the over- 
throw of Rahab and the creation of heaven and 
earth by Jehovah. He sees that the Creation 
takes place only after the fall of Rahab. He sees 
that in the struggle Rahab has had auxiliaries. 
He sees that they were only scattered, while Rahab 
was slain and even treated with ignominy after 
death. And alt these things he sees in the parallel 
Babylonian narrative, as we shall see them also. 

His next quotation is from the 51st chapter of 
Isaiah : ' Arise, arise, arm thee with strength, O 
arm of Jehovah ! Arise as in the days of old, 
in the generations of ancient times 1 Art thou 
not he that shattered Rahab, that defiled the 
dragon? Art thou not he that dried up the sea, 
the waters of the great Tehom ; that made the 
depths of the sea a path, that the saved might pass 
over by it ?' The last words refer to the passage 
of the Red Sea. But the passage of the Red Sea 
does not exhaust the reference. The cutting of 
Rahab in pieces and the defiling of the dragon 
seem to Dr. Zimmem clearly to describe the 
struggle of Jehovah with the chaotfc monster 
before the Creation. And he strengthens his 
opinion by a quotation from the 36th chapter of 
Job, where it is said of God — 
' By his power hath he stilled the sea, 
By his understanding hath he shattered Rahab, 
His hand hath defiled the wreathed serpent.' 

Lastly, he quotes from the 74th Psalm. Here 
the part played by Rahab is attributed to leviathan, 
and the slaying of the dragon is again associated 
with the creation of the world — 
' But thou Jehovah art my king from of old, 

That doest salvation in the midst of the earth j 

Thou hast divided the sea with might; 

Hast broken the heads of the dragons in the 

Thou hast bruised the heads of leviathan ; 

Gavedst him for meat, for food to the jackals . . . 

Thine is the day, and thine is the night ; 

Thou hast established moon and sun. 

Thou hast appointed all powers of the earth ; 

Summer and winter, them hast thou formed.' 

Now whether these passages are earlier or later 
in date than the first chapter of Genesis, they are 
clearly earlier in conception. The 'Jehovah- 
Tehom myth,' as Dr. Zimmem boldly calls it, 
is present in the first chapter of Genesis, but not 
in the crude form in which these poems present 
From the strictly religious point of view, 
therefore, the Genesis narrative ranks highest. 



But from the purely historical point of view the 
other passages are by far the more valuable, since 
they exhibit the original story in its more naked 
and primitive form. 

How remarkable is the parallel between this 
story as we now see it in fulness and its Baby- 
Ionian equivalent. The Babylonian epic of 
Creation begins in this way — 
' Of old, when above, the heaven was unnamed, 
Beneath, the earth bore not any name. 
White yet the ocean, the primeval, their begetter. 
The primeval source, Tihamat, mother of them 

Their waters in one mingled together, . . . 
Then appeared the first of the gods.' 

Here are the primeval waters, but personified as 
male and female, and the female bears the name 
Tihamat, the same as the biblical Tehom. After 
this there follows an account of the origin of the 
gods, special prominence being given to the birth 
of Marduk. For it is this Marduk (the Merodach 
of the Bible) that offers himself to give battle to 
the rebellious and chaotic Tihamat. Marduk is 
victorious. He plunges his sword into the body 
of Tihamat, slays her, casts forth her corpse, and 
tramples on it. Then he turns on her allies and 
takes them captive. Returning to the body of 
Tihamat he cuts it in two pieces. 
' The one half took he, thereof made the firma- 
Bounds set he to it, watchers he placed there. 
To hold back the waters commanded he them.' 

The parallel with the biblical narrative is obvi- 
ous. The epic goes on to describe the creation 
of the heavenly bodies. Then comes a gap 
through the loss of some of the cuneiform tablets. 
But Berossus, to whose accuracy the tablets bear 
surprising testimony, enables us to affirm that the 
missing tablets roust have contained an account of 
the creation of the dry land, plants, animals, and 

Now the first thing that clearly emerges from 

this comparison is, that the account of the Crea- 
tion which we find in the Bible and the account 
which we find on the clay tablets of Babylonia are 
not independent. Recall the points of compari- 
son. According to both accounts, before the 
Creation all was water. This watery deep is per- 
sonified as a terrible monster, called 'Tihamat ' in 
Babylonia, 'Tehom' in Hebrew. No article is 
used before the Hebrew word; as in the Baby- 
lonian mythology, it Is a proper name. Id both 
accounts the monster is dragon-like, and in both 
there are variants implying that it had several 
heads. In the Babylonian tradition there is 
specific mention of a seven-headed serpent. This 
conception does not appear distinctly in Genesis 
nor throughout the Old Testament. But we have 
it when we reach the Apocalypse in the New 
Testament, a book which has preserved other 
traces of this primeval conception. In the Baby- 
lonian narrative, Marduk gains his supremacy 
among the gods by his victory over the dragon ; 
in the Israelite account Jehovab is already 
supreme, but other gods are apparently there 
and share in His deliberations. In both accounts 
the dragon of the deep and her allies are guilty of 
rebellion and an impious ambition to obtain do- 
minion over the world. Marduk and Jehovah 
both go forth to war bearing a sword, with which 
they slay the dragon. The auxiliaries of Tihamat 
are more leniently treated by Marduk than herself; 
so likewise do the helpers of Rahab fare, at the 
hands of Jehovah. The body of Tihamat is 
divided into the upper and lower oceans ; the 
dividing of the deep into the waters above and 
the waters below, precedes in Genesis the creation 
of heaven and earth. 

With these resemblances in mind it is impossible 
to believe that the two accounts are independenL 
What is their relation to one another? There are 
three possible ways of it. The Babylonians may 
have borrowed their account from the Israelites ; 
the Israelites may have borrowed theirs from the 
Babylonians ; or both may go back to a common 



Did the Babylonians bonow their account of 
the Creation from the Israelites 7 From the his- 
torical point of view, as regards both civilization 
and religion, that is to Professor Zimmem simpl; 
inconceivable. Do they both go back to a common 
original ? That is quite conceivable, but quite 
improbable. For there are features of the story 
that are evidently and exclusively Babylonian. 
The whole scenery, indeed, is specially Babylonian. 
It is the scenery of alluvial plains, like those of 
Babylonia, not the scenery of Palestine, nor yet 
of the Syrian or Arabian desert. Its theology also 
is Babylonian. It was not Jehovah but Marduk 
that was the god of spring or of the morning sun. 
To Professor Zimmern's mind the demonstration 
is now complete, that the account of the Creation 
in the Bible is borrowed from Babylonia. 

When was it borrowed ? Not at the Exile. No 
doubt the first chapter of Genesis, in its present 
literary form, may be placed as late as the Exile. 
But it is incredible, says Professor Zimmern, that 
the Jews of the Exile, with their sharply distinct- 
ive Jehovah cult, should have taken this myth, as 
he calls it, ready - made from their heathen 
oppressors, and placed it at the beginning of their 
sacred writings. Some of the later kings, as Ahaz, 

were friendly to the Assyrians, and coquetted with 
foreign customs, but that also is too late a time 
for such an appropriation. To account for the 
form in which the narrative in Genesis appears, we 
are bound, Dr. Zimmern holds, to assume a long 
development on Israelite, and indeed on Pales 
tinian, soil- One period only remains that suits 
the conditions. 

It is the period of the Tell el-Amama letters. 
These letters belong to the middle of the second 
millennium b.c. They reveal an active intercourse 
carried on between Babylonia and the West, and 
especially Egypt and Palestine. The medium of 
intercourse was the Babylonian language and writ- 
ing. It was mythological texts that served as 
exercises for Egyptians and Syrians in the study of 
the language of intercourse, and Dr. Zimmern 
thinks it highly probable that the matter of these 
texts would have entered the consciousness of the 
students. It has come about indeed, by a strange 
disposition of Providence, that one of the mytho- 
logical texts used for this purpose, and discovered 
at Tell el-Amarna, is no other than that story of 
Adapa which bears so close a resemblance to the 
biblical story of Paradise. 

(^ (FemorSaBfe paiimpetet. 

By Agnes Smith Lewis, Fhiu Dr. (Halle), LL.D. (St. Andrews). 

Those of your readers who take an interest in the 
palimpsest of the four Gospels in Syriac which I 
discovered in the Convent of St. Catherine on 
Mount Sinai in 1893, will be pleased to learn that 
another manuscript has come into my hands, prob- 
ably from the same quarter, which, though far its 
inferior in point of value, presents some features 
which are well worthy the consideration of the 
palaeographer and the biblical scbolstr. It is a 
palimpsest, purchased at Suez in 1895, whose 
upper-script is a collection of extracu from the 
writings of the Christian Fathers in an Arabic 

translation assigned to the end of the ninth or 
beginning of the tenth century. The under-script 
is chiefly Syriac, in two columns; a fifth or sixth 
century text of the Protevangelium JacoU and 
Transitus Mariae forming one book. Mingled 
with this are four leaves from two MSB of fifth 
century Pcshijta Syriac Gospels, three leaves 
of an ancient Arabic document, and fourteen 
from the Syrian Father, Mar Jacob. Three 
leaves are a double palimpsest, Syriac texts from 
Exodus and Isaiah crossing each other beneath 
the later Arabic But the book contains other 


two features which place it among the curiosities 
of literature. 

I have been aware for the last six years that 
many pages of the under-script were not Syriac, 
but a very peculiar Arabic. Until June of this 
year they baffled my attempts at identification, 
for two reasons : partly that I was seeking for a 
Christian text under a Christian one, and partly 
that they were Cufic. I need not waste words 

earliest Cufic. But the most curious occuireoc: 
remains yet to be told. 

I had copied a portion from each of thot 
Cufic leaves, and was about to send it to the press, 
when I observed a little leaf, f. 1 1 in the booL 
which had apparently only the one Arabic writir.: 
on it. Thinking that the reagent might possible 
reveal some more of an underlying CorSn text, I 
passed my brush lightly over its margin, and If 

f, iib Gen. xl. 3, 4 



CKCi K^icy^ecTHceW 


f. n* ». 7 

^ e"«V'cco«6 T6T^.j^\rMeNorK^iH.rcui';^ 
•^cKYepfonoi TOYceYNOYxoYc<^>^T^.a^ 


eNTwo. <pY^^KHTT^J»^TcaKco^Y 

c ^"^'^ TT^ Y'^^^'^CKYQTCOTT^CHM'e' 

A in the margin lUnds for Aquila ; C for Synimachus. 


by telling how I at last got on to the right (rack, 
and with the help of a chemical reagent found 
that I possess seven leaves of a Cufic CorSn 
belonging to the first half of the eighth century, 
or possibly to the end of the seventh ; also sixteen 
and a half leaves from another Cor^n MS., which 
needed no reagent, and are also of the eighth 
century, though a little later, as their script shows 
a very few diacritical points. The script in 
both these MSS has all the characteristics of the 

my intense astonishment, instead of the Arabic ' 
letters for which 1 was seeking, a row of beautiful 
Greek uncials appeared, like a vision from tbe 
forgotten past ; and these were followed by eleven 
other lines, being six on each side of the leaf. 
Their resemblance to the script of the Codes , 
Sinaiticus made me hope that they belonged 10 ' 
the fourth century ; and I lost no time in identi- 1 
fying them with Gn 40*- * on one side, and Gn 4c' 
on the other. V.' contains an interesting variaut, 



TTOfA Tu ip)(iitay*ipig, IDStead of xapa tu ipx^to'- 
fitx^vXoKi, which seems to be a closer rendering of 
the Hebrew text, D'Piaan ib n'3. 

On the margin, close to the edge of the leaf, I 
noticed the letters <rop€ in small uncials. It was 
then the Long Vacation in Cambridge; but a 
few scholars remained, and I asked some of them 
what the mystic letters might mean, showing Ihem 
at the same time the MS. I suppose that their 
eyes were, like mine, too closely riveted on the 
central text to observe that there was a column of 
small words on the mai^in of each page, entangled 
amongst the loops of the closely written upper 
Arabic script ; and it was only after I had sent 
photographs of the two pages to my friend, 
Dr. Nestle of Maulbronn, that I was informed 
of the full value of the fragment. Dr. Nestle 
says — 

' The manuscript, from which the photographs 
of two pages have been placed in my hands, is 
important for three reasons — 

'r. Because uncial MS5 of Genesis are few; 
Sinaiticus and Vaticanus being defective for the 
greater part of this book. 

' 2. Because its texts appear particularly good, 
confirming Gn 40^, the reading of Philo, &px'-l^' 
7<tp<p, which had been changed by the latest editors 
of his works (Cohn-Wendland, ii. 211) into the 
reading of the Codex Alexandrtnus, di^^'^'^^'*^'^ 
XoKL The true reading was known till now only 
from the Coptic and Syro-Hexaplaric Version and 
from six cursives of Holmes. 

' 3. Because it contains marginal readings from 
the Hexapla of Origen, adding to those collected 
by Field some which were hitherto unknown, as 
40', KOKa and xoi'ijpa for <TKv6p>aira.' 

Within the last few years other parts of the 
Hexapla have been discovered by Messrs. Grenfell 

and Hunt, and by Dr. Taylor, Master of St. 
John's College, Cambridge. Dr. Taylor's fragment 
was in the collection brought by Dr. Schechter 
from the Genizah in the synagogue of Old Cairo. 
But mine is from a different source. There are 
indications that before the year 1868 it was lying 
in the Library on Mount Sinai. How it was taken 
from that place, and what vicissitudes it has 
undei^one, are beyond my power to investigate ; 
but I may refer your readers to Professor E. T. 
Palmer's narrative in the Desert of the Exodus, 
vol. i. p. 70. I hope to give all the texts which 
form its under-script in No. xL of Sfudia Sinaitica. 

It is indeed surprising that a small book of i6a 
leaves, each measuring 19 centimetres by la, 
should contain such a variety of subjects: selec- 
tions from Athanasius, Chrysostom, Theodosius, 
Theodorus, Mar Ephraim, Mar Isaac, Mar Jacob, 
the apocryphal story of the Virgin Mary, two speci- 
mens of Peshitta Gospels, two specimens of very 
early Cordns, a private document, Syriac texts from 
Exodus and Isaiah, a beautiful Syriac hymn, and 
a leaf of the Septuagint, with variants from the 
Hexapla. The occurrence of Christian writing on 
the top of Mohammedan is of itself sufficiently 
singular. But the chief lesson which it conveys 
to me, as to all other owners of MSS dating 
between the seventh century and the eleventh, 
is, that we might try a harmless chemical, hydro- 
sulphuret of ammonia, by way of experiment, over 
a few of the margins which appear to us to be 
perfectly blank. 

Since the above was written I have shown the 
fragment to my friend, Dr. Rendel Harris, who 
assigns it to the sixth century, or possibly to the 
beginning of the seventh. If the script is like 
that of Codex Sinaiticus it is also like that of 
Codex Bezfc* 

Z^t (n«» 5rm5 ^cPoof of Z^toio^. 

By the Rev. J, Dick Fleming, B.D., Tranent. 

In the death of M. Auguste Sabatier the new 
Paris school of theolc^y has lost its chief 
exponent. If this were the place for personal 
reminiscences, the writer might speak with a sense 
of personal gratitude of the sterling qualities of M. 
Sabatier as a professor in the Protestant College 

of the Boulevard Arago, and of many a theological 
causerie, in which the professor became a student 
among his students and with the utmost freedom 
from professorial reserve discussed Neo-criticism 
or Ritschlianism, or any other ' ism ' that flourished 
at home or abroad. But the main interest of 



English readers must be confined to his literary 
work, and his contributions to vhat is called, 
for want of a more pleasing name, 'Symbolo- 

One of the latest critics of this school of 
theology. Dr. G. Lasch,> seeks to give an estimate 
of its significance for France. He considers that 
the ground had been prepared for it in the general 
movement of literature, as well as of religious 
thought The sceptical idealism of Renan could 
satisfy only an aristocratic few ; the ' religion of 
humanity ' based on Positivism had borne little 
fruit ; while in literature there was many an indi- 
cation of a return to the mystical and romantic. 
On the other hand, the narrow dogmatism of 
scholastic ProtesUntism had lost its hold. Such a 
work as that of the school of Paris was called for, 
to revindicate the Christian religion and to restate 
its doctrine in harmony with the intellectual needs 
of the time. Dr. Lasch characterizes Sabatier's 
Esfuisse ifune Philosophie dt la Religion as an 
epoch-making apologetic contribution, and con- 
fidently predicts of the whole movement that, as 
it unites strict scientific method with religious 
fervour, it will prove fruitful in evangelic 
preaching, no less than in the development of 
French theology. 

In his critical exposition of this theology, Lasch 
has properly confined himself to a study of the 
two works, Sabatier's Esquisu and M^n^goz's 
Pu&lUations diverses. Sabatier's work furnishes us 
with the philosophy and general theological prin- 
ciples ; M^n^goz's book deals, unfortunately only 
in a fragmentary way, with particular dogmatic 
questions. It is to be hoped that M. M^n^goz, 
who has proved an acute and original thinker, 
may yet give us a complete and systematic pre- 
sentation of Christian doctrine from the sUnd- 
point of the new school This would be the 
best answer to the charge repeatedly made, though 
strenuously denied, that Christian beliefs are 
reduced by this school to matters of indifference, 
and that faith is treated as quite independent of 

The theoretic basis is furnished by Sabatier; 
and, accordingly, Lasch devotes himself to a 
thorough exposition of the Esgwsse, allowing 
himself a more logical arrangement of the material. 
Sabatier has treated his subject under the three 

' Die Tkialagie dtr Pariier SchuU, Von Lie. Dr. Gustav 
Lasch. WiUUnis& Norgate. Price M.1.80. 

heads: (1) Religion, {:) Christianity, (3) Dogma; 
but, strangely enough, relegates to the end his 
theory of knowledge and his doctrine of symbolism. 
Lasch adopts a more scientific arrangement, and 
places in the foreground the fundamental theoretic 
principles, as governing and throwing light upon 
Sabatier's view of the origin and nature of re- 

Sabatier's theory of knowledge is a modified 
Kantianism. He accepts the distinction of the 
two inseparable elements— an & priori, furnished 
by the necessity of thought, and therefore, he 
maintains, essentially and wholly subjective (' the 
principle of causality, for example, is net in Ike 
things, but in the mind'); and an d posteriori, 
furnished by experience. By the conjunction of 
these two elements the world of science arises, the 
world of phenomena, where the causal nexus is 
unbroken, and determinism reigns. No doubt is 
to be cast on the reality of this world of pheno- 
mena ; Kant's ' thing in itself ' is to be rejected as 
meaningless ; Sabatier appeals to the discovery of 
new planets proved to exist before they became 
actually visible, and to the power that man exerts 
upon nature by his knowledge, as proofs that the 
world we know is the real world existing without 
us. (Query — Does not the rejection of Kant's 
'thing in itself involve the rejection of the 
analysis of knowledge which makes that sup- 
position necessary? Lasch holds that the ' thing 
in itself must be retained, and that only by 
retaining it is there room left for the postulates of 
the moral consciousness. Rather we should revise 
an analysis which so opposes subject and object, 
that the object becomes unknowable, and the 
subject is imprisoned within the necessities of its 
own subjectivity). But this phenomenal yet real 
world is not the only world. Besides this world, 
governed by the enchainment of causes and effects, 
there is the world of self-consciousness, of moral 
effort and freedom. The physical sciences deal 
with the first world, employing there the category 
of causality, and pronouncing judgments of exist- 
ence ; the moral sciences deal with the second ; 
their supreme category is 'the good,' and the 
judgments they pronounce ate Judgments 0/ dignity 
and value, la this world, where the spiritual 
activities are supreme (the aesthetic faculty, con- 
science, religion), our knowledge is necessarily 
subjective. Our judgments are judgments of 
worth, and they make only a limited and cir- 



cumscribed appeal. The good is only revealed 
to goodness; beauty to those who have the 
aesthetic sense; God to the pious and pure in 
heart And our knowledge is necessarily inade- 
quate and symbolic. The creations of art are 
but symbols; attempts to enclose the ideal in 
the real, to express the inexpressible; they are 
more or less perfect according as they convey not 
exact ideas, but true spiritual impressions. So the 
language of religion is symbolic. Exact thought 
is the province of science, and of the understanding 
working with the things of sense and space and 
time. We have no modes of thought equally 
adequate to the supersensible world; the proper 
Ut^uage here is a parable. 

Lasch finds that there is in Sabatier's working 
out of these principles considerable exaggeration. 
Value-judgments and existential judgments need 
not be exclusive; the judgments of religious 
thought are judgments of existence no less than of 
worth, and we cannot accept the dictum that the 
existential judgments of religion are the product 
of value-judgments, or are the outcome of mere 
emotion. Take one of Sabatier's own examples. 
*In presence of some grand spectacle of nature, 
man, feeling his weakness and dependence over 
against the mysterious power there revealed, 
trembles with fear and with hope. This trembling 
ii the primitive religious emotion. But this 
emotion implies necessarily for thought a certain 
relation between the feeling subject and the object 
that produced the feeling. Now this thought, once 
awakened, will necessarily express this relation by 
an intellectual judgment ... he will cry out, for 
example, "God is great," to mark the infinite 
disproportion between himself and the universal 
Being that makes him tremble.' Here, then, we 
have a religious thought, a value-judgment. But 
it is not subjective in the sense that it is a mere 
expression of pious emotion, or in the sense that 
it is a mere value- judgment and nothing more. 
The pious emotion does not produce it ; the 
intellectual notion which Sabatier himself declares 
to be essentially different in nature, accompanies 
the emotion, but has its own intellectual roots. 
Nor is this intellectual judgment a mere value- 
judgment ; it is clearly at the same time a judgment 
of existence, and must have its grounds in some 
rational interpretation of experience. But, further, 
the symbolic character of religious judgments is 
overstated. It finds its philosophic basis in the 

Kantian doctrine that our theoretic knowledge is 
limited *to experience ; which Sabatier interprets 
in this sense that all our conceptions of super- 
sensible objects necessarily express themselves in 
terms of sensible, time, and space experiences, and 
therefore inadequately. The very fact, however, 
that we are conscious of the inadequacy of these 
representations of the supersensible proves that we 
have some intuition or notion of the transcendent 
after all. How then do we come in touch with 
this supersensible? According to Kant, we do 
stand in some intellectual relation to it; the 
theoretic reason yields us at least the idea of 
God, and the practical reason enriches our con- 
ception, and guarantees the reality of it. Similarly, 
Schleiermacher, while denying the adequacy of 
our conceptions, or the possibility of gathering out 
thoughts of the supreme unity into a coherent 
whole, nevertheless argues that the reality of God 
is a presupposition both of the theoretic and the 
practical reason. Both the leader of modem 
philosophy, therefore, and the leader of modem 
theology, maintain equally that we stand in some 
intellectual touch with the Supreme Being, and 
deny that we are entirely imprisoned in the images 
and categories of sense- experience. Even Ritschl, 
who abandoned the theoretic proofs of God's 
existence, held to the knowability of God through 
the practical reason and by the help of revelation. 
But Sabatier, in presenting his doctrine of sym- 
bolism, is strangely silent as to the puwer of reason 
to transcend the understanding. It is to him as 
though when the human limited mind deals with 
God, it deals with a something it cannot really 
handle, and overshoots itself. It is doubtless 
because of this underlying scepticism as to the 
adequacy of our thoughts of God, that Sabatier 
prefers, instead of the more definite language of 
the Christian faith, the vague and mystical 
expressions {the 'principle of our being,' ^rUre 
urtiversel') which have brought upon symbolism 
the charge of pantheism. 

There is then, according to Sabatier, no intel- 
lectual bridge leading us to God. How then do 
we really come into touch with the Divine ? The 
answer is given by Sabatier in his Theory of the 
Origin of Religion. Religion has not its spring in 
any intellectual need, or sense of the infinite, 
releasing emotions of adoration, but solely in the 
emotions awakened by the contradictions of life. 
We have the sense of moral freedom, and' ideals 



that demand to be realized ; but there lies before 
us a world of mechanical law, opposing and 
thwarting us at every step. From the smart of 
this conflict religion arises, affording a practical 
solution. The spiritual nature takes instinctive 
flight to the universal being, the principle and end 
of life ; and uniting itself with that principle by 
an act of moral energy, it attains peace and is 
strengthened for further conflict. Religion is 
thus, as Sabatier admits, an example of self- 
preservation, or spiritual self-realization in the 
presence of the contradictions of life. This 
theory is good so far as it goes; but it is not 
comprehensive enough. The struggles of life, 
with the obstacles that lie without and within, 
are doubtless an all-important factor in religion, 
and in all human progress. At different stages of 
his life man has to struggle with nature for his 
subsistence ; he stands face to face with moral 
ideals unrealized, with problems of freedom or 
destiny he cannot solve. But to find in this 
struggle the origin of religion and of the con- 
sciousness of God, is to lead us bacli to the 
theory of Feuerbach, that God is created by our 
need. Sabatier sets religion upon too narrow a 
basis. The contradictions of life have doubtless 
a large part in the development of religion, and 
they are present at the very birth of it (when 
indeed have they been absent?); but there are 
harmonies in life, and a moral order, which may 
also have some part in leading us to fellowship 
with the eternal Being. But the fact is that 
Sabatier has closed every avenue to God that 
proceeds by the way of the intellect. The teason 
has nothing to do with the origin of religion ; 
and though it comes in later to serve with its 
poor symbols to express the various phases of 
the pious consciousness, its province is wholly 
secondary. This neglect of the intellectual 
factor avenges itself in the vague and shadowy 
God that Sabatier describes ; and while it enables 
him to look with philosophic sympathy on all 
the religions that have traversed the stage of 
history, its effect must surely be to weaken the 
vision to the great variety of content, the light 
and shade, the height and depth of religious ex- 

For the particular dogmatics of this school, we 
have to turn to the various contributions furnished 
by M. M^n^goz in his Publiea lions diverses. 
Except for the fact that the doctrine of symbolism 

encourages a free criticism of Church doctrine, the 
modifications of doctrine proposed by M^n^goa — 
as to the Trinity or Eschatology, for example — 
do not remind us of the distinctive princifJes of 
symbolism or fid^isme ; they form an independent 
contribution on the lines of a liberal theology, and 
stand or fall on their own merits. But the fid^ist 
doctrine on which Men^goz lays special emphasis, 
viz. that a man is justified by faith, apart from 
his beliefs, carries with it the same undervaluing of 
the Intellectual factor in religion, as may be 
chained against the philosophy of Sabatier. It 
would be quite unwanantable to condemn the 
theory on the ground that it makes faith independ- 
ent of belief; for M^n^goz recognizes that faith 
is never found alone, that it lies embedded in 
beliefs and doctrines, and is frequently produced 
by them. But Lasch rightly demurs to the view 
expressed by M^n^goz that a man may be justified 
by faith, even though he has no belief in Jesus 
Christ, or in the working of the Spirit, nay even 
though he has no conscious faith in God. Is not 
faith in danger of being evacuated of all content, 
when such beliefs are wanting? M^n^oz's 
formula and his logical deduction from it are both 
attractive to a generous mind. If they only mean 
that God is gracious to every one that turns his 
heart Godward, or at least in the direction of 
what is good, what Christian could deny it? In 
every upward turning of the heart God is 
graciously present, making His goodness and for- 
giveness felt in greater or less degree ; is not such 
a movement of the heart God's own movement 
and gracious work therein? Let it be allowed 
that every movement of the soul in the nobler 
direction is blessed of God. But there is faith 
and faith ; there is grace and grace. There is the 
faith of the poor heathen which is embedded in 
error; and the faith of the Christian solidified by 
truth. And God meets each heart with the grace 
it is capable of receiving ; giving to the one gleams 
of His mercy like rifts of glory through the clouds; 
giving to the other fuller supplies and a more 
abundant assurance. In short, we cannot ignore 
the intellectual element in faith, or minimise it at 
the expense of religious emotionS and volitions. 
We can only accept the fid^ist doctrine of faith 
apart from beliefs, if we are permitted to modify 
it so, — that a man Is justified by faith independ- 
ently of all \i^\Kkt exceft su^ as faith itself 
involves. O 


These criticisms run more or less on the lines 
suggested by Lasch's detailed critical remarks. 
The exposition given in that work is thorough 
and clear; but the running criticisms, and the 

remarks at the close as to the relation in which 
this school stands to Schleiermacher, Riischl, 
Lipsius, and others, are too brief and disconnected 
to be of great value. 


HeHREWS Xlt. 2. 

• Looking unto Jeaiu the author knd perfecter of our 
faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured 
the cross, despising; shame, and hath sat down at the 
light hand of the throne of God ' (R.V.) 


'Looking unto Jesus.' — It is not possible to express io 
English the thought su^esled by the Greek verb aphoToale!, 
which implies that we must ' look away (from other things) 
unto Jesus.' It implies 'the coneentration of the wandering 
gaie into a lirgle direction.' — Farrar. 

'The author and perfecter of our faith.'— The 'iaith' 
oC which the apostle speaks is faith in its absolote type, of 
which he has traced the action under the Old Covenant. 
The particular interpretations, by which it is refetted to the 
faith of each individual Christian, as finding its beginning 
and final development in Christ ; or Io the substance of the 
Christian Creed ; are foreign to the whole scope of the 
passage, which is to show that in Jesus Christ Himself we 
have the perfect example— perfect in realiiation and in 
eHecl — of that railh which we are to imitate, tnisling 
in Him. He too looked through the present and the 
visible to the future and the unseen. In His human 
nature He exhibiteil Faith in its tiigheBt form, from first 
to UsI, and placing Himself as it were at the head of the 
great army of heroes of Faith, He carried faith, the 

of their strength, to its moi 
loftiest triumph. — Westcoi 
'Who for the joy that 
the cross.'- The joy that n 
as an equivalent (and mo 
sufferings which He endured 
of redempl 

M set before Him endured 

set before Him was accepted 

than an equiralent) for the 

The joy was (hat of the work 

iplished through self-sacrifice. The 

of the cross, a death at once most 

painful and most humiliating.— WestcOtt. 

' Despising shame.'— Disdaining to shrink from any 
kind of shame, even that of being treated as a slave, a rebel, 
a blasphemer. — Dklitzsch. 

* Hath sat down at the right hand of the throne of 

God.' — The contrast of tenses is significant, //e tndurtd 
. . . and kalk sat doom. The fact of suffering is wholly 
pait, but the issue of it abides for evermore.— Wbstcott. 

Thk meaning is not that our Lord's throne is placed at 
the right baud of the throne of Cod, but that >Ie sits on Ihe 
right hand (of God, and with God) on the lame throne. — 

Methods of Treatment. 
Looking unto Jesus. 

By Iht Rev. Henry JHonlagu Btitltr, D.D. 

The eye sees what it brings the power of seeing. 
The star is one thing to the child, another to the 
mariner, another to the astronomer. What is the 
sight of Jesus on the cross to us ? 

t. One thing all mujt see — innocence. It was 
not an execution but a martyrdom. It was one of 
those moments known both to the heart and to 
history when evil seems good, and good evil ; when 
bigotry, jealousy, pride, envy, eic. combine to rouse 
the mob-passions always in wait for the hour and 
the man. Pilate's act is a present parable. If 
these mob-passions rise in us, and we are tempted 
to cry with the crowd against some person or 
cause, ' Crucify, crucify ! ' let us look to Jesus, and 
remember that this was part of the 'shame' which 
He 'despised,' while He still loved them who 
shamed Him. 

2. We see not only a righteous man. It is He 
who, the night before, said, ' I have overcome the 
world.' Can we see in Him the Conqueror of the 
world ? Do we not see here the victory of good- 
ness over evil by suffering ? We are often depressed 
by the power of evil in the world, even in Christian 
ages. If Christ has overcome the world, why this 
flood of pollution ? We cannot answer ; but if we 
'consider' Him who fought with evil even unto 
death, we may learn to win Christian triumphs, if 
not to solve Christian mysteries. How did He 
confront evil? He did not shun it, nor rage 
against it, nor palliate it. He tracked it to its 
root, and then died for it. And as we look to 
Him we learn that evil can be conquered no other 
way. We must suffer and die for it Those who 
can say, in any measure, 'I have overcome the 
world,' are those who, like Christ, have made evil 



their own 'yet without sio'; have home, for its 
sake, shame and death, 'looking to Jesus.' 

3. Those who have seen so much have seen 
more, — the evil in themselves. Only sinners 
understand the Cross. To their conscience He 
who hangs there is the Lamb of God, who taketh 
away the sin of the world. This the eye of the 
Christian brings the power of seeing. It looks to 
Jesus and sees the Atoner for sin. The docirine 
of the Atonement is full of intellectual difficulty. 
Scarcely one in a generation can state it in a 
way his contemporaries can approve. Bui what 
theory cannot do, the sight of Jesus on the Cross 
can do. It reveals the heart to itself and assures 
it of God's love. Such love and pity and righteous- 
ness cannot be in vain. The Holy One is made 
sin that we may become righteousness. \Ve cannot 
construct a flawless theory of the Atonement from 
these words, but we can feel, as we look to Jesus, 
our burthen of sin fall off our back. 

4. Wc see not only His suffering but His joy. 
This joy had a place in the word ' It is finished.' 
He had conquered evil and set up once for all a 
standard of what was highest in God's sight, the 
daily sacrifice of the will till it becomes one with 
God's. From this height He would draw to Him- 
self all the best impulses of His own, and His 
healing power would finally put away sin, and 
leave man at peace with God. This joy nothing 
could lake from Him, and it is the joy of all 
His servants, who even before death, and much 
more after, see of the travail of their souls. 

The Commander's Conflict and Triumph. 
By the Rev. Alexander Maclarca, D.D. 
Our Lord is (i) the Leader of the army of the 
faithful, and(z) the perfecter of their faith. The 
objects of contemplation which will assist Chris- 
tians in running their race are (i) the Com- 
mander's conflict and our share in it; {2) His 
triumph and our share in that. 

I. The Conflict. — There arc three points given : 
the motive of His sufferings ; these sufferings as 
an instance of patient endurance ; the shame of His 
death as revealing His scorn of hindrances. Each 
is a pattern for us. (i) Our Lord's whole life was 
influenced by realizing by faith an unseen reward, 
he joy of sitting at God's right hand. His motive 

is generally traced to obedience to God or love 
to man. There is no contradiction. We must 
combine all. Each is a strand in the golden cord 
which bound our Sacrifice to the horns of the 
altar. It seems to introduce an element of self- 
seeking; but His exaltation, like His humiliation, 
is for our sakes, that He may complete His work. 
Like Him we must subordinate the present to the 
future issue discerned by faith, (a) He is the 
pattern of heroic endurance. He not only endured 
the pain, but stood steadfast under it, not only on 
the cross, but during His whole life, with unflinch- 
ing determination. Such endurance must be ours. 
Life is not a garden but a wrestling-ground, and to 
make an arena for wrestlers the turf and daisies 
must be taken away and the soil beaten flat. 
Every Christian must carry a cross and be fastened 
to it, (3) Contempt of obstacles. There are 
difhculties in our lives which will be big or little as 
we look at them. Most of them are only white 
sheets with a rustic boor behind, like village 
ghosts. Go up to them, and they become small. 
Despise the shame, and it disappears. 

2. The Triumph. — The new thing which accrued 
from Christ's Incarnation was that His humanity 
was lifted up to participate in Divinity. Rest, 
Dominion, Judgment are the prerogatives which 
the Man Jesus won by His Passion and Sacrifice. 
This is a revelation and a prophecy for us. We 
have no knowledge of another world apart from 
His Resurrection and Ascension. In His exaltation 
we learn what is possible for us. He is the type 
of what God means us to be, and the measure of 
what we may hope to become. And His triumph 
has powers to fulfil its own prophecy. The ending 
of the work on the Cross was the beginning of 
another form of work for us which will never cease 
till the world has yielded to His love. He beholds 
and helps our conflict ; He makes intercession for 
us as our great High Priest; He has gone to 
prepare a place for us. More, if we are joined to 
Him by faith, so real is the union that we are 
glorified with our Head and partake in His victory, 
receive grace and blessing from Him, and are 
brought at last to share His throne. 


It takes > very strenuous cfTorl to biing the unseen Chtisl 
liefore tlie miod babilualljr, and so ss to produce effects in 
the life. Von have to shut out agreat deal betides in order 
to do ttwl ; as a nan will shade his eyes with bis hand in 


order to see some distant thing the more dearly. Keep out 
the crosS'lighls that you may look TorHard. You cannot see 

the tt>rs when you are walking down a town street and the 
gu-lamps are 111. AH thoae violet depths and calm Abysses 
and blazing vorlds are concealed from you by the glare at 
your side — sulphurous and siioking. So, my brother, if yon 
want to see onto the depths and heights, lo see the Great 
While Throne and the Christ on it who helps you to fight, 
you have to go out unto Him beyond the camp, and leave all 
its dauling lights behind you. — A. Mac la ken. 

Many young Christians are kept weak for a very long time 
through watching their own frames and feelings. If you 
read the diaries kept by young Christians, you will find the 
entries are usually of this kind : ' Very cold to-diy ; little 
enjoyment in prayer.' 'Faith is very feeble ; I cannot lay 
hold of a Saviour for me.' 'Felt some kindlings of heart 
to-day in reading the words of Jesus.' The almost exclusive 
reference is to the emotions, aflections, and desires of the 
heart. All is concerned with the element of feeling lo the 
great neglect of knowing and doing. And it is often only 
through a great struggle that a soul frees itself from this 
hindering peculiarily, and learns to grow and thrive by 
looking away from self — 'looking off unto Jesus.' — 
R. Tuck. 

Could an emmet piy into itself, it might marvel at its 

own anatomy i 
But let it look on eagles to discern how mean a thing 

Nothing great reveals iiselftoahasty glance. No great 
book can be read by snatches. No great picture can be 
understood or felt by the man who runs through a gallery 
and looks at a hundred in half an hour. The secrets of no 
fair landscape will impart themselves to the hasty tripper 
who casts a lack-lustre gaze for a minute over it. This 
modem life of ours, with its hurry and its bustle, about 
which so many people are so proud, is fatal, unless we 
exercise continual watchfulness over ourselves, to all deep 
and noble things. The most of us spend our lives as some 
amateur photographers do their days, in taking snapshots ; 
and, of course, the mystery and the beauty and the secret 
and the power escape us. Sit down and let the loveliness 
soak into you, if you want to understand the fairest scenes 
of Nature. Sit down in front of Jesus Christ, and lake your 
time, and as you look you will learn that which no hasly 
glance, no couple of minutes in the morning before you go 
to work, no still more abbreviated and drowsy moments at 
night before you go to sleep will ever reveal to you.^ 
A. Maclaren. 

A LADV had a dream, in which she fancied herself at the 
bottom of a deep pit. She looked round to see if there was 
any way of getting out ; but in vain. Presently, looking 
upward, she saw in that part of the heavens immediately 
above the mouth of the pit a beautiful slai. Steadily gating 
at it, she felt herself to be gradually lifted upwards. She 
looked down to ascertain how it was, and immediately found 
herself at the bottom of the pit. Again her eye caught sight 
of the star, and again she felt berself ascending. She bad 


reached a considerable heigbt Still desirous of an eiplana- 
tion of so strange a phenomenon, she turned her eye down- 
ward, and fell to the bottom with fearful violence. On 
recovering from the effect of the shock, she bethought 
herself as to the meaning of it all, and once again turned 
her eye to the star, still shining so brightly above, and once 
again felt herself borne upward. Steadily did she keephei 
eye upon its light till, -at length, she found herself out of 
the horrible pit and her feet safely planted on the solid 
ground above. It taught her the lesson that in the hour of 
danger and trouble deliverance ii to be found, and found 
only, by looking to Jesus.— T. Guthrie. 

Looking unto Jesus, 

Henling I shall find 
For the broken spirit. 

And the bruised mind — 
Yet I gaie on daily, 

Till my eyes grow dim, 
Looking unto any 

Rather than to Him ! 

Looking unto Jesus, 

I shall learn the road 
That the soul must travel 

Going home to God^ 
Yet I lag and linger. 

Till I scarce can see 
My guide and sweet companion 

Beckoning to me I 

Looking unto Jesus, 

I behold the heights 
Gleaming in the glory 

Of Love's undying lights — 
Yet my heart unmoved 

Cares not to aspire, 
Nor for all their splendour 

Would be any higher ! 

What is it that ails me? 

Why am I so dead 
That looking unto Jesus 

Lifts not up my head ? 
And my heart so wanders. 

Him, its fount of gladness? 
Jesus, look on me.— \V. C. Smith. 

Sermons for Reference. 

Aichison 0-), Cross of Christ, 27. 

Buckler (H. R.). Perfection of Man by Charity, 347, 

Butler (O.), Cheltenham College Sermons, 75. 

,, (H. M.), Univer»ty Sermons, 30. 
Brooke (S. A.), Short Sermons, 166, 173. 

,, „ Unity of God and Man, &l. 

Church (R. W.J, Village Sermons, ii. 346. 
Cooper (S.), Fifiy-two Family Sermons, aSi.- . . I 
EastOD (T.), A Year's Ministry, iSi. *^iOOQIC 

Fartar (F.)> In the Days of thy Youth, 275. ^ 



Fiuer (J.). Parochial Sermons, 49. 

Mall (C. C), Gospel of the Divine SacriRce, IiS. 

Hamilton (J.). Faith in God, 261. 

Harper (F,), A Year with Christ, 38. 

Jeffrey (G.), Believer's Privileees, 231. 

Laing (F. A.). Simple Bible Lessons for IJttle Childrei 

LAwlo'r(H. J.), Thoughts on Belief and Life, 136. 

Maclaren {A.), Christ in the Heart, 77, 91. 

,, „ The Victor's Crowns, 93. 

Maurice (F. D.), Lincoln's Inn Sermons, i. 63. 
Miller (W.), Vision of Christ. 56. 
Newman (J. II.), Parochial Sermons, ii. 163. 
Norton (J. N.), Short Sermons, 36. 
Parker (J.), City Temple Pulpit, W. 146. 
Pear5e(M.G.), Gospel for the Day, 18. 

,, Short Talks tor the Tiroes, 130. 

Perren (C), ReTival Sermons, 330. 

Price (A. C.), Fifty Sermons, vi. J09, vii. 33, 

„ ,, Flowers and Bible Trees, t. 
Salmon {G.), Gnosticism and Agnosticism, 174, 
Simpson (M.), Sermons, 405. 
Spai^ieon (C. H.), Facsimile Pulpit Note*. No. m 

„ ,, The Messiah, 663. 

Temple (F.), Rughy Sermons, ii. 24. 
Torolins<R.}, Sermons, 131. 
Troup (G. E.), Words to Voung Christians, 333. 
Wells (J.), Bible Images, 185. 
Cliri<al Library, Three Hundred Outlines, 230. 

„ ,, New Outlines, 263. 

Sermoni/ar the Seasons (Advent lo Lent), 397. 

„ fer Boys and Girls, 155. 
Studies for the Piilfit. i. 457, 505. 

^iutii (giBficaf ©rcjaeofogg. 

Bv A. H. Savce, LL.D., D.C.L., Professor of Assvrio 

PGv, Oxford. 

Ur of the Chaldees. 
Ever since the decipherment of the Assyrian in- 
scriptions made it clear that the biblical Kasdim 
and the classical Chaldtei were of different origin, 
various attempts have been made to explain the 
Hebrew name, but thus far with little success. 
The classical name presented no difficulty ; the 
Chaldfeans are the Kalda of the monuments, who 
inhabited the marshes at the mouths of the Tigris 
and Euphrates. It was not until Merodach- 
baladan possessed himself of Babylon that they 
came to form an important element in the Baby- 
lonian population and eventually to become 
synonymous with it ; before that period they were 
but one of the many West Semitic tribes, like the 
Puqudu or Pekod, who were settled on the fringe 
of the Babylonian kingdom. Winckler and De- 
lattre have supposed that Nebuchadrezzar 11. 
belonged to them; it may be so, but at present 
there is no proof that such was the case. 

But while the name of the Chaldasans recurs in 
the inscriptions, that of the Kasdim is unknown 
to them. And it is first met with in Scripture, 
not as a title of Babylonia, much less of the 
district inhabited by the Kaldd, but as an epithet 
of the city of Ur, which stood on the west side of 
the Euphrates, outside the limits of Babylonia 
proper. The fact has been first pointed out by 
Professor Hommel with his customary acumen. 

The epithet is thus applied, in the Book of Genesis, 
not to the alluvial plain of Babylonia, — the land of 
Eden of the monuments and of the second chapter 
of Genesis, — but to the region west of the Euph- 
rates, the native home of the Bedawin and West 
Semitic tribes. The Bediwin were known to both 
Babylonians and Egyptians as the 'Sutu, or 'child- 
ren of Sheth' (Nu 24"') 

These West Semitic tribes, in so far as they 
occupied Mesopotamia and Northern Arabia, are 
the Aramieans of later history. We must, how- 
ever, remember that the Aramieans are not neces- 
sarily those who spoke Aramaic dialects. As a 
matter of fact, these latter dialects originated in 
the contact of Arabic with that West Semitic lan- 
guage which may be called Canaanitish or even 
Hebrew, at a much later date than the time when 
the Assyrians and their neighbours first spoke of 
the AramQ or Aramxans. ' Aramaean ' is a tribal 
or territorial term, not a linguistic one, .and as 
such it is used in the O.T. (e.g. Dt 16*). 

Now the western bank of the Euphrates on 
which Ur was situated lay within the territory not 
only of the 'Sutu or BedSwin, but also of the 
Aramsans. Ur, indeed, was closely connected with 
Harran, the leading city of Mesopotamia. The 
two cities were the seats of the worship of the moon- 
god, around whose sanctuaries they had grown up. 
And it is therefore significant that according to 
Gn 23^^, Chesed was the son of Nahor of Harran, 



the brother of Uz and Hazo, and the uncle of 
Aram and Laban. In other words, he was an 
Aramiean of Mesopotamia. 

In the Kasdim or descendants of Chesed we 
must therefore sec, not the Babylonians, but those 
West Semitic tribes whose home was on the 
western side of the Euphrates and whose form of 
Semitic speech extended from Canaan to Southern 
Arabia. In a former article I have proposed to 
call the dialects they used Hebraic, and perhaps 
the same term might be extended to them in a 
racial sense. At all events it is important to 
remember that they occupied South-Eastem Arabia 
as well as the lowlands to the north-east of Baby- 
lonia, and that the Assyrians were of the same 
blood, though they had adopted the Babylonian 

Under the dynasty to which Khammurabi or 
Amraphel belonged the West Semites conquered 
Babylonia, or at any rate imposed upon it a line of 
kings. Hebraic proper names occur plentifully in 
the contracts of the period ; at a later date most 
of them disappear. It is only in the time of Kham- 
murabi's dynasty that we find names like Jacob-el, 
Joseph-el or Joel (Vahum-ilu). This therefore 
must have been the time when the Kasdim crossed 
the Euphrates and established themselves in Baby- 
lonia; in the age of Abraham Ur was still Ur of 
the Kasdim in contradistinction to the other 
great cities of Babylonia which were purely Baby- 
lonian ; but the Kasdim had already planted 
themselves in the Babylonian plain, and it was 
not long before they gave a name to it among 
their West Semitic neighbours. Not long after 
Abraham's migration Khammurabi united Baby- 
lonia under a single Kasdim sovereign and made 
Babylon for the first tftne the capital of the 
country. Just as Merodach-bala dan's possession 
of Babylon in later days caused ' Chaldsean ' and 
' Babylonian ' to become synonymous, so the rise 
of Khammurabi's empire made Kasdim and Baby- 
lonian synonymous among the Semites of the West. 

It is noteworthy that in the tenth chapter of 
Genesis Babylonia is not mentioned among the 
sons of Shem. Hitherto it has been supposed 
that it is meant by Arphaxad, in spite of the fact 
that in I fi- Arphaxad is the ancestor, not of the 
Babylonians, but of the Western Semites. M. de 
Morgan's discoveries at Susa have now put a new 
complexion on the matter. They have shown 
that Elara, the son of Shem, is not the non-Semitic 

district of Anzan, but the district of which Susa 
was the capital, and which was a province of 
Semitic Babylonia. Before the ^e of Kham- 
murabi, in fact, it was as purely Semitic as Assyria ; 
it was only after that period that it passed into the 
hands of a non-Semitic power. Western Semites 
or 'Sutu were settled in the lowland parts of it, 
and proper names make it clear that the kingdom 
of Khana, which lay to the north of it, was West 
Semitic also. The sons of Shem, accordingly, 
represented the Western Semites, and hence it is 
that Samu, or Sumu, the biblical Shem, was the 
ancestral god of the dynasty to which Khammurabi 
belonged. Its first king called himself Samu-abi 
'Shem is my father.' The Book of Genesis turns 
out to be strictly accurate in its ethnology: Elam, 
AsshuT, Arphaxad, Nod (so I read instead of Lud), 
and Aram all formed one family, and traced their 
decent from Shem, To the same family, morover, 
belonged the tribes of Hadramaut and South- 
Eastern Arabia. 

There was a good reason for not including 
Babylonia in the same family. Its primitive pop- 
ulation and culture were alike non-Semitic The 
Babylonian language and civilization of a later 
day were due to the superposition of West Se- 
mitic upon Sumerian elements, and the Babylonian 
language — which we generally term Assyrian — 
remained, like modem English, a mixed language 
to the last. The fact is witnessed not only by the 
vocabulary, which is full of Semitlzed Sumerian 
words, but also by the grammar with its two 
tenses expressive of time, and above all by the 
phonology which has suffered from the inability of 
the Sumerians to pronounce the distinctive sounds 
of Semitic speech, even more than Egyptian Arabic 
has suffered in the mouths of a Coptic population. 
The ghain and 'ain, the la, *?tL and Aa are all 
gone ; even the tsaddi and qopn have been con- 
founded with zain and kaph or gimei. Even if all 
remains of Sumerian literature had perished, Sem- 
itic Babylonian would have obliged the scientific 
philologist to postulate the existence of a Sumerian 

I have assumed that Arphaxad is a representa- 
tive of the Western Semites. It has long since been 
recognized that the name is a compound of Chesed, 
and of all the attempts that have been made to 
explain the first element in it that of Schrader, 
which connects it with the Arabic arfakf Eth. 
arfel, 'a wall' or 'rampart,' is the most plausible. 


I believe that I can now give Schrader's etymology 
its needed confirmation. In the recently published 
Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the 
British Museum, xii. pi. ii, 11. 21 fT. kar, 'a wall' 
Of ' rampart,' is explained by arpv, narrupu, and 
irrupu. Whatever may be the meaning of the 
last two fonns, arpu has nothing to do with arSiu, 
'to destroy,' and is, I believe, the arpAa of Ar- 
phaxad. The latter name, consequently, will signify 
' the wall of Chesed.' It will thus be parallel to 
Kar-Duniyas, 'the wall of the god Duniyas' — 
perhaps a Kassite form of Dungi, — which denoted 
Babylonia, and Kar-Kassl, 'the wall of the Kassi,' 
the name given in later days to the mountain- 
ous country to the north-west of Elam. Kar- 
Duniyas, it may be added, is probably the Median 
Wallof Xenophon(see myarticlein theiViw. S.B.A., 
February 1897, p. 75), Like the Shur, or 'Wall' 
of Egypt, which defended the eastern frontier of 
Egypt from the Beddwin of Asia (Gn 25^*), it 
protected the settled inhabitants of the country 
from the incursions of the nomad 'Sutu, Remains 
of a similar wall still exist on the eastern bank of 
the Nile ; they are now rapidly disappearing, but 
when I first visited Egypt considerable portions of 
it were still to be found. The fellahin called it 
Hct el-'Agflza, 'the wallof the old woman,' and 
its construction was ascribed to the mythical 
queen DilUqa. 

As I have pointed out in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Biblical Archaology (June 1896, p. 
172), the name of Kasda or Chesed is found in 
the cuneiform inscriptions, where it is applied both 
to a city and to a district Its situation is given 
us in W.A.I, iii. 66, Rev. 16-35, where Um 
Kasda-KI, ' the mother of the land of Chesed,' is 
included among the deities of the 'Sutu. It lay, 
therefore, on the western side of the Euphrates, 
precisely where Ur was built. The name may be 

connected with the word kasdii, which is stated 
in a tablet (81. 3-4, 287) to be the equivalent of 
irzitum, 'earth,' and qaqqaru, 'ground.' At all 
events, kasdii is not a purely Babylonian word. 

Paran and Ha«:ar's Well. 

The winter before last I copied at Kamak 
certain geographical cartouches in the famous 
inscription of Shishak, which the excavations of M. 
Legrain bad for the Arst time exposed to view. 
Among them M. Legrain pointed out to me the 
name of I-u-r-d-n, or Jordan. The last five in the 
list are Sh-l-d-d, R-p-^ia, L-b-u-n, 'A-n-p-r-n, and 
H-a-m. The last name is evidently the Hum of 
the list of Thoihmes iii., where it is the last name 
but one. R-p-ha is Raphia, the modem boundar} 
between Egypt and Palestine. 

The name, however, which is of most interest is 
'A-n-p-r-n. This is evidently 'fin-Paran, *ihe 
spring of Paran,' and the list shows that it could 
not have been far from Raphia. Now it will be 
remembered that Ishmael is said to have grown 
up 'in the , wilderness of Paran' (Gn 21-'). 
which is presumably the same as 'the wilderness 
of Beer-sheba' (v,'*), as it was there that Hagar 
found the spring which saved her son's life (v.*-^ 
It has usually been assumed that the wilderness 
of Paran was confined to the district immediately 
westward of Mount Seir, since 'Mount Paran' 
was synonymous with ' Mount Seir ' (Dt 33-, 
Hab 3°), but Shishak's list shows that the name 
applied to the whole stretch of country as far 
as the Mediterranean. Indeed, it is more than 
possible that 'the spring of Paran' is the 'well 
of water' discovered by Hagar. Lebun is probably 
the I^ban of Dt i', .which is associated with 
Paran. Laban has been identified with the Lib- 
nah of Nu 33-"", but this is not probable. 



Z^t ^txvani of i^t Boxi. 

Bv THE Rev, R. M. Mofkat, M.A.j Frome. 

The Servant as Spokesman of God and as Martyr (Isa. xlix. i-9a, 1. 4-9). 

In chapters 49 and 50 we have a very important 
group of passages about the Servant of the Lord 
which carries us a double step forward in our con- 
ception of him. In the beginning of chapter 42 
we found the servant represented as one whose 
hand is held in the hand of God, in order that he 
may bring his fellows help from above, and may 
not despair of being able to save them. Because 
of his relation to God he is characterized by 
modesty and gentleness, yet a gentleness that 
never becomes softness. ' He shall bring forth 
law faithfully.' We were at pains in the last paper 
to make clear to ourselves that thia Servant of 
the Lord is not an individual, but the God-fearing 
heart of the nation through whom, under God, the 
whole people is to be saved, and ultimately the 
heathen as well. We must keep this fact.of wAo 
the servant is steadily in view as we approach 
other passages which are descriptive of him. We 
must not be misled by metaphors used of him 
which would In modem England be used only of 
an individual, and we roust, above all things, 
adhere resolutely to what Scripture says. 

At the beginning of chapter 49 the servant 
speaks r ' Listen, isles, unto me ; hearken, ye 
peoples, from far. The Lord hath called me from 
the womb ; from the midst of my mother hath He 
made mention of my name . . . and He said 
unto me, Thou art My servant, Israel, in whom I 
will be glorified.' Yet not the whole of Israel, for 
he goes on 1 ' And now, saith the Lord who formed 
me from the womb to be His servant, to bring 
/acod again to Him, and that Israel be gathered 
unto Him, ... I will also give thee for a light (o 
the Gentiles, that thou mayest be My salvation 
unto the ends of the earth' (49'"*). 

I lay this great stress upon the fact of the 
servant being neither an individual nor the whole 
nation, but the pious kernel of the nation, because 
the qualities and functions of the servant which 
are mentioned in chapters 49 and 50 are really 
the qualities and functions of the devout Israelites, 
man by man, who, as a body, constitute that 

saving salt of the nation to which the naroe 
Servant of the Lord is given. The prophet inter- 
prets the collective task through the personal 

Now let us see what the fresh features of the 
servant are. They are three, three thai are 
almost inseparable. He is to express the glory of 
God, to be a vehicle of that glory to men. He 
is to be a witness by speech, and his witness will 
pass into roartyrdom by suffering. 

I. Jehovah tmA unto me, My eervanl ail thou ; 
Israel, in whom I will be gloiitied. 

The word rendered ' be glorified ' means to 
'become visible.' The glory of God is His 
holiness. His character, known and recognized. 
But God is Spirit, pure Spirit. If, then, His 
character is to be made known to those who do 
not know Him, He has need of a human mediator ; 
and until the Son of God Himself became man, 
God could be made known to mankind only 
through those men who followed their instinct for 
Him, who fett after Him if haply they might find 
Him, and having found Him, dwelt in His fellow- 
ship, their spirits with His. God Is necessary to 
the best in roan. He is necessary for the preserva- 
tion of whatever is good in man. 

If Thoo take Thy grace away, 
Nothing puie in man will stay, 
All his good is turned to ill. 

And so the Westminster divines were grandly 
right when they put as the first question and 
answer in their Catechism — 

What is the chief end of man? 

Man's chief end is to glorify God, and to enjoy Him 
for ever. 

That is one of the most inspired utterances of 
modern times, and has had an incalculable 
influence in moulding Scottish character. Every 
schoolboy in Presbyterian Scotland learns as his 
earliest lesson that 'man's chief end is to glorify 
God, and to enjoy Him for ever.' Teach a boy that 



from his childhood, teach him to know God as bis 
Father, to interpret God in his life and make Him 
visible to men, and you have set before him a 
peimanent truth and a present duty, a duty, the 
fulfilment of which wilt ennoble him, and make him 
more Godlike all the days of his bfe. If, then, the 
Church is to be a servant of the Lord, if we who 
are its members are to contribute to make it so, we 
must see to it that the effect of our lives is to bring 
God near to our fellows. There must be some- 
thing about us that needs explaining, a humility 
that is impressive in its dignity, the reverence of 
him who is aware that God is always near, and 
knows God as a Friend. By nothing short of this 
can God be glorified in us. Philanthropy is 
good, but it is not redemptive; it relieves from 
without, it gives no hope of change from within. 
Any sort of material help whatsoever has reference 
only to material welfare ; and what men need 
above all things is that we give them a lift, a 
lifting up of the heart towards God, God who 
understands and sympathizes, and who alone can 
provide for all the needs of the creatures He has 
made. That which we call charity is good in its 
place ; but if it is to uplift men and not pauperize 
them, it must be backed up by the love whose 
beautiful name it has usurped, it must be the ex- 
pression of love, — love which is the character of 
God that men need to have interpreted and made 
visible to them. 

3. In the second place, the servant is not only 
to interpret God in his life; he is, if I may so 
phrase it, to utter God with his lips as well as his 
life. 'He hath made my mouth like a sharp 
sword, in the shadow of His hand hath He hid 
me ; and He hath made me a polished shaft, in 
His quiver hath He kept me close ' (Is 49^). 

'The Lord God hath given me the tongue of 
them that are taught, that I should know how 
to sustain with words him that is weary : He 
wakeneth morning by morning. He wakeneth mine 
ear to hear as they that are taught. The Lord 
God hath opened mine ear, and I was not 
rebellious, neither turned away backward' (Is 

In these two passages the prophet evidently 
puts his own experience into the lips of the 
servant. The words describe the writer. His 
utterance is like a sharp sword, which does its 
work perfectly, because it has been forged and 

tempered by the hand of God Himself. His 
speech is like a pointed arrow going straight to the 
mark through all opposition of sin and pride and 
faithlessness. It has lain in the quiver of God, 
and at length been taken forth and drawn by the 
divine hand. Where, except in the words of 
Jesus, can we find a message from God more 
calculated to make men penitent and trustfiil 
than in the prophecies of 2 Isaiah ? This is 
speech that comes from the tongue of the learner, 
as the prophet so significantly says. If any man 
speak on behalf of God, he must speak as the 
oracles of God ; he roust have listened with the 
inward ear for what the Holy Teacher saith ; that 
and that alone must he utter without addition or 
subtraction. Here we have what is practically a 
definition of prophecy from one of the greatest of 
the prophets. And he represents this utterance 
as an ideal towards which all devout men, those 
who are the servant of the Lord, should aim. He 
seems to say : ' Would God that all the Lord's 
people were prophets!' Let us examine a little 
more closely what is required in order to make a 
man the spokesman of God. 

The first condition is that silence shall precede 
speech. The sword must be hidden in the 
shadow of God's hand, the arrow lie in His quiver. 
But this silence is not Hstlessness. So far from 
that, 'He wakeneth morning by moming. He 
wakeneth mine ear to hear as the learners.' No 
listlessness this, but punctual waking by the 
heavenly voice with a view to instruction. Speech 
that is to be helpful must be the outcome of a life. 
Behind the speech must be the life that is hid in 
God, a life which is unseen by others, but not 
unfelt by them ; the uplifting, of which they are 
conscious, is something which they know must be 
traced back to God. If we are to succour the 
weary with words, we must not be strangers to the 
secret place of the Most High. The silence in 
which the Lord Jehovah opens our ear and gives 
to us the tongue of the learner must precede the 
speech which is to convey the succour of God 
to those who are weary. And even though our 
words be very few, yet we ourselves shall be so 
full of our experience of God, that our bearing and 
our lives will, as I ventured to express it, utter 
God even beyond what the power of words can 
achieve. Let us see to it that rooming by rooming 
our ears are opened to the heavenly voice. Some 
of us have not many minutes, it may be, but let 



US make the most of vhatcver time we have. 
And if yoQ believe that a conversation every day 
with a good man would be a real help to you in 
resisting temptation, and would stimulate you to 
do your best, what may you not expect from even 
two minutes spent morning by morning in the 
presence of God listening to His Toice ? 

But mark this, after the silence must come the 

I was Dot tebellious, 

Nor lumed away backward. 

The speech may be in many words or few accord- 
ing to circumstances, but there is no man who is 
entitled to perpetually hold his peace and never 
name the name of God to a single human 

I have spoken of the servant as one in whom 
God is glorified and made visible, and also as the 
spokesman of God. From v.* onwards he is 
described as a martyr. Martyr is a Greek word 
spelled with English letters; but in Greek it 
means only witness, in English it means one who 
suffers because of his witness to the truth. In the 
experience of the servant of the Lord, the witness 
becomes the martyr. Now the Bible never blinds 
this fact, and neither must the expositor of the 
Bible nor anyone who means to regulate his life 
by the Bible. Jeremiah spoke of himself as a 
gentle lamb led to the slaughter. 2 Isaiah uses a 
similar phrase of the servant in chapter 53. Jesus 
bade His disciples rejoice and be exceeding glad 
when they suffered for righteousness' sake, 'for so 
persecuted they the prophets that were before 
you.' Paul says that we must, mux/, through much 
tribulation enter the kingdom of God. And 
Browning echoes these greater voices of the past 

when he says, 'How very hard it is to be a 

Jesus says that if a man will not take up his 
cross daily and bear it after Him, he cannot be 
His disciple. He says that ' he that endureth to 
the end, the same shall be saved.' But He says, 
' I know where thou dwellest, even where Satan's 
throne is.' I know, therefore, all is well. ' Fear 
not, for I am with thee.' If thou couldst have 
served Me better in another place, there would I 
have placed thee. Paul, again, compares the 
Christian life to a warfare. ' Fight the good fight 
of the faith,' he said, and do not be surprised or 
discouraged if it feels like a real fight. You were 
never told to expect anything else. But, thank 
God, He knows all about it, and is not indifferent, 
but equips us in His own armour. And so, when 
His servant has to endure hardships, he can con- 
fidently say, ' The Lord God will help me ; there- 
fore I have set my face like a flint, and I know 
that I shall not be put to shame.' 

Savonarola, a man of noble family, gave up the 
prospect of social and political position and 
became a Dominican monk. He loved his 
adopted city of Florence with a passion that made 
him labour by all means for moral and spiritual 
reform. The pope let him have his way for a 
time until his reforms seemed likely to clash with 
the interests of Rome ; and the prophet who had 
made the bonfire of vanities was himself burnt at 
the stake. But it is only he who is ready to lose 
his life for Christ's sake that can truly save it. 

' If any man love the world, the love of the 
Father is not in him. And the world passeth 
away and the lust thereof; but he that doeth the 
will of God abideth for ever.' 

^tttni J'oreign ^Jeofojj, 

(lliet;6C0e'e (gtission.* 

In recent years German writers have given much 
attention to 'the modern man' and his attitude 
towards Christianity. A series of essays on this 
subject is appearing in the Ifefie zur Christlichett 

' Dci modeme Mensch und das Chrisienihum. Skizien 
und Vorarbeiten ii. Nietzsche's Mission. Chrisiliih ader 
Medtmt Von Hans Weichelt. Wil1iams& Novate. 

Welt; pL 2 of this series, which has just been 
issued, contains two articles by Hans Weichelt, 
entitled respectively, 'Nietzsche's Mission,' and 
' Christian or Modem ? ' 

Weichelt holds that Nietzsche was nearer to the 
kingdom of God than many a Christian Pharisee, 
and enters a protest against the hard things which 
have been said of him in Christian pulpits. Never- 
theless, Weichelt acknowledges that Nietzsche is 



'unjust and often spiteful' in his sayings about 
Jesus, and that he seizes every opportunity of 
besmirching Christianity. The object of the 
essay is to show that Nietzsche's criticism of 
present-day Christianity is to a large extent true, 
and that the Ritschlian interpretation of the 
Christianity of Jesus Christ is best adapted to the 
needs of ' the modern roan.' 

Nietzsche revolts against Christian teaching, 
because, in view of the drunkard and the harlot, 
the fop and the idiot, it proclaims the absolute 
equality and the infinite value of all human souls ; 
but Weichelt truly says of this part of Nietzsche's 
egoistic and aristocratic philosophy : ' The attempt 
to perfume the Christian teaching for the fine 
noses that cannot endure the smell of poor 
people is an utter failure.' On this subject 
the teacher and preacher must stand with both 
feet upon Christian ground, for if there was any- 
thing new and great in the teaching of Jesus it 
was the thought of the infinite value of every 
human soul. Nietzsc'he's arguments, in the judg- 
ment of this sympathetic interpreter, tend to 
estabhsh the superiority of the Christian view of 

Many readers of this essay will arrive at a 
similar conclusion in regard to some parts of 
Nietzsche's teaching, which Weichelt defends. 
Nietzsche's egoism is said not to abolish altruism ; 
yet it is admitted that he did not believe men 
can act from unselfish motives. The mother 
who sacrifices her own health in nursing her 
child, the missionary who exchanges the com- 
forts of home for a life of hardship and peril, — 
these are some of the examples chosen to prove 
that, in the last resort, all human conduct is 
prompted by selfish considerations. 'They would 
not be satisfied unless they did these seemingly 
unselfish deeds.' To maintain this position, 
Weichelt notwithstanding, must involve the de- 
preciation of the value of altruistic actions. 

Some sound and able criticisms of Nietzsche's 
philosophy are marred by a tendency to exaggerate 
the defects of present-day Christianity. Are 
there many Christian preachers who reply to the 
question, ' What must I do to be saved ? ' by say- 
ing 'Thou shall nof do this, nor that, nor that'; 
and who value the Bible because it is 'a collec- 
tion of transgressors of the commandments?' 
Weichelt is right in maintaining that morality 
does not consist in prohibitions and restrictions — 

philosophy does not produce moral 
men ' ; but the teaching, which he thinks is rarely 
heard from Christian pulpits, has a familiar sound : 
'Morality is not negative, but positive; it con- 
sists not in clipping shrubs into the shape of 
pyramids, but in chiselling marble into statues.' 
J. G. Tasker. 
HmidsviaTlk Callf^. 

S(e (^UexMwt of ^uvt »3Ar%tng 

A SMALL but very interesting and scholarly mono- 
graph on an oldtheme. The title iscommonplace 
and unpromising enough (when will our ertidite 
friends across the water attain to skill in rubric- 
making?), but it is not necessary to read more 
than half a dozen of Dr. Hollmann's pages before 
we learn that we are in good hands, and have 
stumbled upon something uncommonly like a 
pearl of exegetic skill. In approaching his 
problem, which is to investigate the ideas held 
by Jesus regarding His death (as recorded in the 
Synoptists), the author is confronted with the 
prehminary question as to whether we are in 
possession of the means requisite to the gaining 
of a true and accurate representation of what 
Jesus thought. Can we ever be sure that we 
possess His actual utterances, either about His 
death or anything else? Dr. Hollmann is but 
little inclined to dogmatise : his mind is too well 
furnished with critical categories to let himself 
be exposed to the charge of making assumptions ; 
and it is only after an honest and careful probing 
of the question that he feels able to answer in the 
affirmative, though, of course this does not imply 
that he accepts the synoptical sayinys of Jesus 
just as they stand. Next he asks whether Jesus 
presurmised His violent death, and regarded it 
as necessary ; and, again, whether He ascribed 
any special significance to it. Dr. Hollmann 
makes out that to each of these questions an 
affirmative answer is due; and thus having cleared 
the outworks comes at length face to face with 

' Die Bedeiilung lia Tctln Jaa nacli siinen ei^m-H 
Aussagea an/, Gnitid dcr syiiofiliiihen l-.vangditn. Van 
Lie. Dr. Geoi^ Hollmann, l*rivRi<lozeni der Tticologie an 
der Universiiat Halle. TUliingen und Leipzig ; J. C. R. 
ifohr, 1901. (Williams i Noieale. I'ricc 3s. 6d. ) 


the real problem : Wherein hes this special signifi- 
cance ? After having investigated some of Christ's 
references to the O.T. generally, our author 
concentrates his attention on the attitude of Jesus 
to Is 53, or rather S3"-53'-. This investiga- 
tion, however, has in the main a negative result, 
namely, that the one reference of Jesus to Is 53, 
i.e. I.k 33'", has nothing to do with His death ; 
further, however. Dr. HoUmann lays emphasis 
on the extreme probability that had Jesus con- 
ceived of His death as an atonement {Siikne), the 
great Ebtd-Jahweh passage would have had a 
regulative and central place in His thoughts and 
speech. Next, the Avrpov-passage, Mk lo**, is 
discussed. After showing that in the LXX 
AirTpof is used to translate various Hebrew words, 
that not one half of the instances of Xvrpoi' 
'\ represent "IDD {atone), and that the ma-derivatives 
J {deliver) are always rendered by kvrpov, or by a 
1 word formed from Xvrpov, Dr. Hollmann con- 
cludes that Airrpof has nothing to do with atone- 
ment, but simply means something like deliver, 
{erlSsen, befrtien). Finally he comes to the words 
used at the Supper ; and, again only after careful 
investigation, takes Mark's account, 14'^-, as the 
most original and trustworthy. Here, too, he 
finds nothing that suggests Siihne, unless perhaps 
TTfi Sio,9t)iop, which, however, for linguistic reasons 
(awkward double genitive, tu aifta [um -np 
Sta9t)Krit), he judges to be a later addition. 
The positive conclusion to which he comes is as 
follows :— Jesus looked upon His death as con- 
tinuing the work of His life. This lifework was 
to deliver men from the kingdom of darkness and 
place them in the kingdom of heaven. But 
as the entrance to the kingdom was through the 
gate of ftcravota (e.g. Repent, for the kingdom 
of heaven is at hand, Mt 4'", || Mk i"), and 
as Jesus laboured to bring men to fitravota, so He 
believed that His death, apparently the sign of 
failure, would so influence mankind that it would 
in God's time bring about the great change in the 
hearts of many (avri m>AAuiv, cf. Mk 14'* virtp 
iraXAwk), whom His living words had left apathetic, 
or who had never heard them. 

Such then is our author's result. We may call 
it a new theory of the Atonement, if we are willing 
to keep that word clear of every suggestion of 
substitution. The theory has at least this advan- 
tage over the orthodox, namely, that while the 
latter fails to give a fairly satisfactory account 

of the relation between the death of Jesus and 
its alleged result — for substitution, theoretically so 
simple, is surrounded by immense practical, even 
moral, difficulties; Dr. Hollmann's theory traces 
an undeniable psychological connexion between 
the Passion of our Lord and the situ qua non of 
entrance to the kingdom of heaven. On the 
other hand, our author cannot be altogether 
exculpated from the charge of so far emending 
the synoptic texts in favour of his theory; for 
although in every case he gives good reason for 
his alterations and rejections, yet we know how 
even the ablest and fairest critics have too ol^en 
permitted their theories to influence their vision 
of the facts. Still when all has been said. Dr. 
Hollmann's book deserves the heartiest recommen- 
dation : it is learned, written in a clear style, 
stimulating, and often original. 

Forfar. ^ A. GkIEVE. 

We are not surprised at Professor Duhm's confes- 
sion that he has shrunk more from attempting the 
exposition of Jeremiah than from that of any 
other Old Testament scripture. The undertaking 
bristles with difficulties. Much requires doing on 
the text. And in the present state of our know- 
ledge no one will everywhere satisfy his fellow- 
inquirers or long remain entirely satisfied with his 
own results. The new instrument, the recognition 
of the metrical laws observed by the prophet-poet, 
will eventually prove of the utmost value. But in 
the use of it great tact and self-restraint are needed, 
and even where these qualities are present the 
result will not always be unassailable. Of this we 
see clear proof when we compare the book before 
us with Comill's recently published brochure, Die 
metriscften Stiicke des B.Jeremia.^ But Dr. Duhm's 
sense of the gravity of the task has been the best 
possible preparation for it. He has done every- 
thing under a deep feeling of responsibility and of 
the need for care and thoroughness. His own 
preconceived opinions have altered in the course 
of this special study, and the opinions of many 
readers will be affected. He has given us one of 
the most important of the contributions so far 
made to this excellent series of commentaries. 

^Jircmia. Erkliin von Dr. Bernh, Duhm. Tilbingen u. 
Leipiig: J. C. B. Mohr, 1901. 
° Cf., (._:;., the ireainient of S"-" aa"-" in ihe two works. 


The exegesis is fuller than in some of the pre- 
ceding volumes. That results from the fact that 
the exegete vividly realizes the scene or speech of 
which he treats, and is eager to naake us realize it. 
Here is part of the note on i> : ' The idea that 
Yahweh forms a man in his mother's womb is often 
worked out with wonder and astonishment by the 
later writers (cf. on Job lo^-", Ps i^^^^'-). But 
Yahweh "knew" Jeremiah before He made him 
in his mother's womb. This idea is an advance 
on the other, and reminds us of the wporyvia of 
Ro 8^. Yahweh knew beforehand what might 
and should become of the child whom He would 
give Co Hilkiah. He needed a special instrument 
for the future; He did not wait till the time when 
the man was required and choose him then out of 
the available material ; long ere that the image or, 
as a Greek would say, the idea of the person He 
would employ stood before Him and served as the 
model for what He formed. To this we must add 
that in the circumstances and character of the 
priestly family at Anathoth He saw the opportunity 
for carrying out His lofty purpose. According to 
Et 33'^ Yahweh knows Moses " by name." Moses 
has specially attracted His attention, so that He 
notices him more than others, occupies Himself 
with his person, and ultimately calls him. Amos 
is taken from following the sheep. Isaiah is sub- 
mitted to a sort of test and then offers himself for 
the service. But Jeremiah, before he came into 
existence, was a thought of God's, pre-existed in 
God's Spirit, was specially created by Him for a 
great mission. That is an imposing thought, a 
deeply impressive idea ! Whether the author of 
this chapter is to be credited with it or Jeremiah 
himself uttered it and it was extracted from 
Baruch's work, it is one of the most profound and 
lofty in the Old Testament. If Jeremiah carried 
about with him this consciousness, he had other 
ground beneath his feet than all the rest of human- 
kind. So far at least as his own person was 
concerned the riddle of existence was solved, 
But this involved the loss of that naive delight in 
life which ordinary mortals feel, that freedom from 
presentiment with which we advance from one 
day's life to another. In a world where every 
creature speeds from enjoyment to enjoyment, 
where sensuous happiness is held to be the 
supreme goal, and men care, fear, and struggle, 
only for themselves and their friends, Jeremiah is 
i figure of tragic greatness ; " before Thy hand I 

sat solitary" (15").' On 26* Duhm writes; 
' Would that we knew the manner in which 
Jeremiah recited these verses (or, more probably, 
a portion of them) ! The citizens of the capital, 
the notables, many burghers of the "cities of 
Judah" are assembled at their noisy sacrificial 
meal. They Ulk about the bad months which are 
just over ; they exhort each other to be of good 
courage — " the temple of Yahweh is this " ; they 
grow excited by degrees. Suddenly the seer 
appears, deeply earnest, traces of spiritual suflier- 
ings in his face. Now in solemn monotone, now 
in wild song, he repeats the terrible visions which 
have so long pursued him, in which the impending 
chaos is depicted, in which the incurable corrup- 
tion of the people is bemoaned, in which is de- 
scribed the decay of that green and charming olive- 
tree with which the people were compared a while 
ago in the sacrificial song (ii**').' And on 28"; 
' He makes no reply to Hananiab, he goes away as 
though he were vanquished, leaving behind the 
yoke with which he had appeared in public 
Why ? He has fulfilled his mission. Tlien, not 
as an inspired person, but as a thoughtful man who 
has reflected on his own position, impulses, and 
calling, he has adduced evidence which makes it 
reasonably probable, but not absolutely certain, 
that his prediction is not founded on a subjective 
illusion. Then the half-mad fanatic falls on him, 
as it were, snatches off the yoke and ' breaks it 
But he had been convinced that Yahweh gave it 
him to wear! What, then, does this mean? Is 
the ranter right after all ? Has Jeremiah been 
moved by a genuine inspiration? And, if not, 
should he contend with the patriotic enthusiast ? 
Is be not to vindicate his own honour ? Nay, he 
has no thought for himself; he feels, too, that 
rational words are here of no avail; he cannot 
quarrel with a rival, like chapmen who ciy their 
wares; he must be alone with God, We are 
reminded of Mk 15^. Those of the spectators 
who were possessed of finer feeling must have 
perceived that Jeremiah was a true man, un- 
affected, free from vanity, defenceless against brutal 
attacks, tp^ ^-333 (ii"), used to being reviled, 
but never reviling again, willing rather to seent 
beaten than to snatch a victory. For several 
decades past they could see him thus. He has 
never produced any result, but he has always come 
up again ; he knows that he is to be as " Yahweh's 
mouth," if he bring forth "the precious without 



the vile " (15"). And so he goes this lime, but he 
will return, though Hananiah meanwhile strive by 
still louder cries to make himself and those like- 
minded forget that only the future can decide 
what is true,' 

There arc shorter passages equally worthy of 
attention. For instance, on 3' Duhm speaks of 
the copyist ' who, with his -tot6 allows himself 
the modest query whether a new superscription is 
not here required.' At 3* he is surely right in 
omitting '3K which was interpolated under the 
influence of v.^*. There is an important and 
welcome pronouncement with reference to 2^': 
' The designation of the tree as father and the stone 
as mother arises mainly from the fact that y^ is 
masc. and (SK fern. But this does not authorize 
the conclusion that in Jeremiah's days the Israel- 
ites believed themselves to be physically descended 
from divine ancestors or thought that the souls of 
their ancestors inhabited the tree or the stone. . . . 
So far as we can see, the people as a whole were 
not strongly drawn to this kind of superstition, and 
ancestor- worship had practically no signiticance for 
Israel.' He deals very satisfactorily with 24^, a 
passage which readers who are not familiar with 
Hebrew can feel to be out of order : the familiar 
formula, ' for thus saith Yahweh,' is omitted ; T3R 
is read for [ntt, as in v.^ ; the result is a perfect 
parallel to v.'. Then the difficulty connected with 
the mention of Egypt is attacked : ' The mention 
of the Egyptian Jews is obviously occasioned by 
chap 42. We are not precisely informed as to the 
reason why they were so hated by the itne haggolah. 
No doubt there was always a sort of rivalry between 
the Babylonian and the Egyptian Jews : the 
former deemed themselves the better, the latter 
were better off. Under Ptolemy Soter (321-283) 
many Palestinian Jews are supposed to have gone 
to Egypt, some as prisoners, others voluntarily. 
Did this fresh emigration, opposed so flatly to the 
hopes entertained of the gathering together of the 
Diaspora, embitter the rivalry, and find expression 
in chaps. 24, 42 If. ?' The corrupt text of 19'*" is 
dealt with as follows : — ' Even if we had not the 
evidence of the LXX we should be obliged to say 
that the text of v."i* has received many additions. 
The three first words of v."* are not found in the 
LXX, and only the two first of v."; in several 
ancient codices and in the Pesh. ^'^ is missing; 
the latter must have been subsequently inserted in 

the LXX. The original text seems, therefore, to 
have run : And if ye pray to me, I will hear 
you; if ye seek me with your whole heart, I will 
be found of you : I can and will hear your prayers 
in far-off Babylonia also. The added matter at 
the beginning of v.*^ probably comes from a 
marginal note and the text is corrupt ; for the 
altc^ether meaningless DBsbn we should perhaps 
read QSnirn, after Is 30''. The second addition, 
v.'**, is an expression frequently repeated, and is 
modelled on Is 65". V."'' is to be connected 
with the two first words of v.'*, as in the LXX ; the 
latter reads 'ninJl for "Dttyoji, and seeing that the 
M.T. may be influenced by Is 55 this is perhaps 
the original. For the rest, v." is an altogether 
unthinking addition; Jeremiah is writing to the 
elders in Babylon, and therefore cannot represent 
Yahweh as saying that He will gather them out of 
all the nations.' Duhm declares that no one 
knows the meaning of the M.T. of 3I^^^ but that 
text 'is certainly incorrect We must read aiDn '3 
1113 (cf. Zee 141"), "The woman is turned into 
a man," That is very likely a proverbial expression 
which could be mockingly applied to many 
astounding occurrences, amongst others to poems 
in which one and the same important subject 
might be treated now as male, now as female. 
Israel here has first been regarded as a son, then 
as a wife. Hence the LXX reading, ais; ntfKB 
139, is better, although they did not understand 
its meaning.' The suggestion, as a whole, is 
worthy of consideration, but it is by no means 
certain that the HCfa, which the LXX read («v 
mrrr/pif vtpitXtv<TovTa.i S,v$piavoi), was a corruptioD 
of HB'KS. Duhm ascribes 31^ to the same critical 
reader asv.^**"! 'The book is ended, the dream 
over ; it would be only too delightful if everything 
could happen as is promised here, but obviously it 
is a dream, and who knows whether it will come 

We cannot do more than indicate the general 
results to which Duhm's searching and relentless 
criticism has led him. Of course he divides our 
present Book of Jeremiah into three parts: the 
prophet's own utterances, the Book of Baruch, and 
the supplementary matter ; the first consisting of 
about 280 verses, the second of about 220, and 
the third about S50. They are characterized in 
the following manner; — 'The main thing with 



Jeremiah, as with the older prophets, was his oral 
work, which seems to have been performed in a 
more restrained, one might say a more gentle and 
modest, manner than that of Amos or Isaiah, He 
was patient and persistent, rather than passionate 
and overpowering. He is not the ruler of men's 
spirits, but the keen observer, the true mentor and 
counsellor, a hero in suffering, not in attack. The 
only prose piece we have of his is the letter in 
chap. 29. Some of his poems convey the impression 
that he wrote them for himself rather than for 
others, yet it was he who published them. The 
great majority of the poems are very short, on an 
average less than five Massoretic verses. It is 
significant of the simplicity of Jeremiah's art that 
the metre is always the same ; four lines of alter- 
nately three and two accents,' whether the prophet 
is reproducing visions of the approaching cata- 
strophe or depicting the corruption of the people, 
whether he is uttering his pain and despair, or 
abandoning himself to consoling hopes. To this 
simple form the poetic diction corresponds ; it is 
never artificial or adorned ; it is not even pathetic, 
but always natural, appropriate to the thoughts, 
popular in the best sense of the word. But for 
this very reason it takes hold of us, moves us, often 
stirs us deeply, betrays the born poet by its abund- 
ance of striking and original images. Jeremiah's 
poetry is chiefly distinguished from that of the 
prophets of the foregoing centuries by the far 
greater prominence in it of the writer's own in- 
dividuality, his feelings, and his state of mind, often 
expressed in the most masterly fashion. Amos 
and Isaiah are orators, Jeremiah Is a lyric poet ; 
he is most closely related to Hosea, who influenced 
him considerably when he was writing his youthful 
poems,' Our second extract relates to the Book 
of Baruch, which 'may be called a biography of 
Jeremiah, although It does not seem to have told 
the story of his whole life, says nothing about his 
youth or his death, and sometimes appears to lose 
-Mght of him for a considerable time (4o"-4i'^); 

* Cr. Cornill's stalemenls : 'The octastich, the eight-line 
do^erel verse, is the rund»mcnla] melrical torm of Jere- 
miah's poetry.' 'The equality of the individual lines was 
not the fundamental law of his metre ; to speak in modern 
phraseolr^y, he wrote in "dc^gerel verse."' Coroill is 
not always able to complete the strophe by making out the 
requisite eight lines. On the other han<l, it is doubtful 
whether the original lines alwa^ contained three and two 
bears allemalely ; we cannot but lie suspicious when the 
:rilic (Duhm, p. iG) insert! a word 'des Metrums wegen.' 

nor does it profess to treat of the man Jeremiah. 
but of the prophet. Hence it is that in the firs; 
half it gives tis more of the impression of a chrono- 
logical document, making the word of Yahweh, 
which came in such or such a year, its object c: 
its starting-point (cf. on a6' 28' 29' 32' 3(>^)- This 
method is less common, and sustained narrative 
becomes more prevalent, in the later part of the 
book, where the events belonging to and succeed 
ing the final siege of Jerusalem are described. Fot 
a long time, probably for several centuries, the 
book appears to have had an independent exist- 
ence, as a highly valued constituent of the histor- 
ical, not the prophetical, literature (see on 2 7";. 
It was not united with the Book of Jeremiah at a 
single stroke or on a uniform plan, for as we now 
have it we possess neither the original order, the 
correct sequence of chapters, nor the original text. 
The revisers who added it piecemeal to the Book 
of Jeremiah thought that in order to do this they 
must range it among the prophecies. They have 
therefore laid stress on the speeches, have re- 
modelled and worked up this scanty stock into 
"Words of Yahweh," have here and there com- 
posed a divine utterance, have frequently abbrevi- 
ated the historical matter (see on 34*"" or 44'*'-). 
have misunderstood or disregarded Baruch's actual 
meaning. Consequently, Jeremiah is credited in 
our present form of Baruch's book with speeches 
which he neither did nor could deliver. This 
book has also given an impulse to the Haggadah, 
and many a Midrash incorporated with or severed 
from it, is now a portion of the collection of 
speeches in Jer 1-25 (cf. 39""'^ 40'-*).' We have 
already pointed out that l^uhm relegates more 
than half our Book of Jeremiah to the realm of 
supplements; the authors of these, whose work 
was not completed till the first century li.c, wished 
'to contribute to the formation of a kind of 
People's Bible, a book of religious instruction and 
edification, which, in conjunction with many other 
writings of similar tendency, would help the laity 
to a better comprehension of their religion and 
history." But their literary skill was of a low 
order, ' inferior even to that displayed in Daniel 
and Jonah. The prophet whom they bring before 
us has hardly anything in common with the real 
Jeremiah whom we know from his poems and 
froni Baruch's biography ... he is a teacher of 
the law rather than a prophet.' 
We have said enough to show that the book 



will cause some searchings of heart. There can 
be no doubt that it will excite a. new and keener 
examination of Jeremiah. Many who reject, or 
even resent some of its conclusions, will find much 
to charm and help them in the detailed exposition. 
For their sake, and for the promotion of bibHcal 
scholarship amongst us, it is to be hoped that 
Duhm's Jeremia will be speedily turned into 
English. John Taylor. 


^oftftu's ' iBovpit Sources.' ' 

This is one more of the endless series of German 
monographs upon the supremely interesting 
problem of our Gospels, their origin and value as 
sources of history. It diRers from most of the 
others in that its author is not a professional 
theolt^ian, but a secular historian of proved 
ability. Consequently it exhibits in no small 
degree that freshness of view and statement which 
frequently attaches to the writing of a thoroughly 
equipped outsider, such as has so often moved 
students of theology in this coumry to give thanks 
for the works of Professor Ramsay. Soltau's aim is 
to convey to educated laymen the accredited results 
of Gospel criticism, both positive and negative, in 
the hope of lessening their indifference to Chris- 
tianity. It may be that some will feel his methods 
and conclusions helpful to faith; to the ordinary 
believer, lettered or unlettered, the adoption of 
such results as we have here will probably appear 
pure loss. 

Nothing is possible but the briefest rhumk of his 
findings. A good deal of the matter in this book, 
be it said in passing, is elementary and familiar. 
Sollau, on the whole, adheres to the two-document 
theory of the Synoptics, though with modifications 
of his own ; and he offers us a fresh and attractive 
demonstration of the priority of Mark. Our Mark, 
and not a conjectural Urmarcus, is the narrative 
source used by the authors of the First and Third 
Gospels. The history of the canonical Matthew is 
as follows : — The Apostle Matthew wrote the Logia 
in Aramaic. About 70 a.d. an unknown editor 
combined a Greek form of this Logia-col lection 

' Umirc Svangcliai, ikrc Qutllin und ikr Quelleniuert, 
%-om Standpunktdts Hisloriiers aus belrachut. Von Wrfhelm 
isollau. Leipzig : Dieterkli'sche VerUgsbuchhandlung 
Theodoi Weicher, 1901. Price 2a. 6d. 

with the narrative of Mark, and so produced what 
Soltau calls Proto- Matthew. A generation later, 
a second editor (Deutero- Matthew) elaborated this 
work into an extended and more modern Gospel, 
with copious additions from his own pen. This is 
the Gospel as we have it now, and it contains not 
only a great many quotations from the Old Testa- 
ment, but also a large number of alleged incidents 
really due to the mythical tendency already be- 
ginning to work, such as Peter's walking on the 
sea, the paying of tribute, several passages relating 
to Pilate, and Jesus' appearance to Mary Mag- 

The pedigree of the Third Synoptic is more com- 
plex still. In a word, it is derived from Mark, 
a Judaistically exjiandcd form of the Logia, other 
sources which meet us again in Acts, and a brief 
written and legendary account of Jesus' birth and 
childhood. Besides these, Luke took certain 
mythical incidents {e.g. the raising of the widow 
of Nain's son, and the walk to Emmaus) from 
oral tradition. Luke had Proto-Matthew (which 
is undogmatic and universalistic in tone) before 
him when he wrote; on the other hand Deuteto- 
Matthew (whose sympathies are Catholic and 
dogmatic) had read Luke. 

Of Mark we need only say that, according to 
Soltau, its author was unacquainted with the Logia, 
and that in Its present form it also exhibits mythical 
elements, amounting altogether to what would fill 
three or four chapters. None of the three Syn- 
optics was originally written with a bias, and the 
Third, so long regarded as/nr excellence the Pauline 
Gospel, is in reality freer from tendency than the 
others. But the additions which they have each 
received from later hands are all of a Catholicising 

It need hardly be said, in view of alt this, that 
Soltau takes a comparatively low view of the 
authenticity of the Gospel of John. The apostle 
may in some way be responsible for part of the 
narrative, but the discourses were supplied by 
John the Presbyter, who developed and expanded 
suggestive sayings of Christ which the Church in 
Asia Minor had received from the belovud apostle. 
The Fourth Gospel finally took shape under 
Hadrian, long after the apostle's death. These 
conclusions, Soltau observes, are so simple and 
certain that he feels it unnecessary to offer proof 
in detail. 

Soltau's notions of what constitutes evidence are 



at times culpably defective, nor are the exigencies 
of space sufficient to excuse such shoncomings. 
Probably he himself would admit that he works 
upon the principle of cutting out everything that is 
miraculous, merely to clear the ground in a pre- 
liminary way, and what sort of a niin the Gospel 
story becomes when such a maxim is rigidly applied 
to it, every one can discover for himself. Even 
St. Paul's rapid summary of the appearances of 
the Risen Christ, which few have had the temerity 
to assail, has met with the usual fate of statements 
which do not fall in with preconceived opinions, 
the greater part of it being audaciously dismissed 
as spurious. There is a typical footnote on one 
page which tells us that no one can possibly regard 

the questions of Thomas and Phihp in Jn 14 
as traces of historical reminiscence. Little wonder 
that when Soltau came to sum up the results of his 
investigation he found himself advising his readers 
to abandon, as a secondary and uncritical excres- 
cence upon historical reality, the idea of a Saviour 
who has come down from heaven and gone to- 
heaven again (p. 136). Let us hope that calmly 
and surely the Church will choose, and is choos- 
ing, between the immovable certainties of faith — 
which are also the demonstrated verities of history 
— and all such unreasonable aberrations of sub- 
jective caprice. 

H. IL Mackintosh. 


^i. <|)auf iU (Eoman. 

By the Rev. John Kelman, Jun., M.A., Edinburgh. 

We have seen the greatness of Paul as it is shown 
in his dealing with the Hebrew and the Greek 
life of his day — how he changed both of these, 
and made them live again in forms that conserved 
their best elements and set them free to do their 
work in the world. Subtle elements they were 
in both cases. For the Hebrew he gave a new 
meaning to the Race, the Law, and to the 
Tragedy of the Cross. For the Greek he found 
for them what their poets and philosophers had 
sought — the true Appreciation, the true Liberty, 
the true Conception of Flesh, the true Ideal Life. 
In both nations these ideals were in Paul's time 
but words ; he made them powers — real things. 
Both nations were dying. He made them live 
in the spirit for ever. 

The case of Rome was very different. She 
was not a dead but a living power in his time. 
Her ideals were not subtle, but plain and common- 
sense. Her empire was at its strongest. Her 
legions had mastered the world. It was only 
historians of wise and penetrating insight who 
saw the inevitable decay and downfall which the 
future held for the empire. They saw it, and 
painted dark pictures of the worst side of Roman 
life. But they had no remedy. Bitterness and 
angry vexation were all they had to give. 

Paul also knew that seamy side of Rome. In 

the first chapter of his Roman Epistle he describes 
it in dreadful plainness. But he saw too the 
magnificent greatness, the practical effectivenesSr 
the still available possibilities of the empire. He 
was large enough in mind and imagination to 
grasp this situation for Christ, to claim it in 
Christ's name, and so to save it. 

Rome was great in common sense and practical 
genius. 'Rome was so successful, because she 
almost always yielded to the logic of facts.' She 
conquered the world ; but she allowed the Greek 
language, not the Latin, to be its speech. She 
allowed the conquered nations to retain their 
nationality, the towns their municip>al govemmentSr 
the people their religions. And the empire that 
cast its shadow over every land and sea, had for 
its characteristic notes the Roman dignity and 
pride — that gravitas which was the Roman quality. 
It had the Roman law and the Roman sense of 
justice. It had the Roman strength and belief 
in strength, the Roman endurance and courage 
and obedience and efficiency. 

Now in all this there was a very great deal which 
must have appealed to Paul, who was at heart far 
more Roman than has often been observed. A 
recent writer tells us that 'though Paul was 
excellent as a man in the Bible, be would hardly 
have done In real life.' But the fact is just that 



he did do in real l!fe ; that he was so pre-eminently 
a practical man ; that he was so closeljr in touch 
with everjrthing that in his day was living and 
effective. Had there been newspapers then, Paul 
vould have read them to purpose. He was the 
very last man in the world to imagine that 
'intellectual darkness was the guarantee of 
spiritual light,' or that because a man was not 
a Christian, he must therefore be a fool. 

Such a man could not but be in closest touch 
with Rome. We find traces of this continually 
in his writings — often surprisingly. For instance, 
the Roman law impresses him, and that great 
forensic system of theology which has been for 
so many centuries the very centre and backbone 
of Christian belief, owes something to this fact 
Again, in his doctrine of adoption, he is using, 
changing, and wonderfully enriching a Roman 
practice of investing persons formerly not sons 
with the filial status. 

Thus Paul and the Roman spirit understood 
each other well Everyone must have noted how 
confidently and with what gusto he appealed unto 
Csesar. Every student of his life must have felt 
how differently he fared under Roman judges 
from his treatment by either Jews or Asiatics. 
Gallic would have nothing to do with the Jewish 
persecution of him, Lysias saved his life, Festus 
and even Felix protected him in safety. 

Professor Ramsay, to whose work this article 
is deeply indebted, takes a most interesting view of 
the Book of the Acts of the Apostles, which brings 
out this point. It was, he says, a book written 
to prove that Christianity was legal in Roman 
law. He thinks that it is an unfinished book, 
and that Luke contemplated writing a third book 
giving an account of the trial and acquittal of 
Paul. Of the book as it stands he says ; ' He 
was engaged in composing this book under 
Domitiau, a period of persecution, when Christians 
had come to be treated as outlaws or brigands, 
and the mere confession of the name was 
rec(^nized as a capital offence. The book was 
not an apology for Christianity; it was an appeal 
to the truth of history against the immoral and 
ruinous policy of the reigning emperor; a 
temperate and solemn record, by one who had 
played a great part in them, of the real facts 
regarding the formation of the Church, its steady 
and unswerving loyalty in the past, its firm resolve 
to accept the (acts of Imperial Government, 

its friendly reception by many Romans, and its 
triumphant vindication in the first great trial at 
Rome. It was the work of one who had been 
trained by Paul to look forward to Christianity 
becoming the religion of the empire and of the 
world, who regarded Christianity as destined not 
to destroy but to save the empire.' Thus there 
runs through the whole book a very artful and 
very convincing strain of argument. The Romans 
find everywhere their law and their sense of 
justice leading them to befriend and protect 
Christianity, which is thus quietly identified with 
the honour of the Roman Empire. And this leads 
us to that new view of Paul's greatness which now 
we find. The greatness of St. John the mystic 
went into hatred — a historic and undying hatred 
of the harlot city. The greatness of St. Paul, 
the man of affairs, went into a tremendous scheme 
for uriliring the Roman Empire for Christ's 
purposes. ' He was beyond all doubt one of 
those great creative geniuses whose policy marks 
out the lines on which history is to move for 
generations and even for centuries afterwards.' 

Let us now consider three great illustrations of 
this fact, viz. : Paul's use of the Roman Roads, 
the Roman Citizenship, and the Roman Im- 

1. The Roman Roads. — As the Roman wars 
brought the armies, and after victory the colonists, 
farther and farther across the world, it became 
necessary to establish lines of communication with 
the most distant places. The Romans never did 
this sort of thing by halves, and the roads they built 
remain to this day the wonder of succeeding genera- 
tions. Radiating from Rome as a centre, these 
grand military roads stretched like a huge spider 
web to the ends of the earth ; linking towns and 
villages with each other, uniting whole regions 
into consolidated states, and ali leading eventually 
into one or other of those great Italian highways 
like the Via Appia and the Via Latina, which at 
last passed under the arch of the city gale. 

Looking back to the first century, as the 
student's eye falls on that network of highways, 
it wanders until on one of them it discovers the 
solitary figure of this man Paul, staff in hand, and 
with no very large scrip to carry his belongings. 
That figure walking on the Roman road is one 
of the most significant in all history. 

The Roman policy in the main was to allow 
religions to propagate themselves without interfer- 



ence. In the city itself men fTom all corners of 
the earth might worship their own gods. In the 
provinces they might- worship what they pleased. 
It would seem that it was Gallio of Corinth whose 
action determined finally Paul's grand Hne of 
conduct Gallio, whose 'caring for none of these 
things' has been much misunderstood, really 
showed Paul that Rome was not prepared to 
check an enterprise he had long been maturing. 
This was no less than the enterprise of making 
Christianity the religion of the civilized world. 
That this was in his mind we gather definitely 
from a trivial looking reference in the Epistle to the 
Romans, where he says he intends to go on from 
Rome to Spain. Spain was the most Romanized 
country, the chief seat of Roman civilization, in 
the West, and this plan is full of significance. 

Thus when we speak of Paul as the great 
fouDder of foreign missions, — as the apostle of 
the Gentiles, — we must not think simply of a 
preacher and organizer of individual churches in 
many different heathen places. We mean rather 
that here is one grand organization which one 
statesmanlike mind found ready to his hand and 
deliberately used. The Roman roads had made 
the world one, connecting the various centres of 
Roman government throughout the provinces, 
Paul, like Wesley, ' regarded the world as his 
parish.' But it was a world already organized for 
him. He did not go to savage heathendom, as if 
any one place were as suitable as any other for 
the propagation of the gospel. He chose the 
ganglia of the nerves, the central points of the 
roads, the chief centres, such as Puteoli, 
Corinth, Ephesus, Antioch. At Rome itself he 
established a church, with the distinct purpose of 
making that the headquarters, the natural base of 
operations, for a missionary campaign through 
Western Europe. Elsewhere he chose the com- 
mercial, military, and intellectual centres in which 
to establish the gospel. 

What fascinating work it must have been ! how 
full of excitement and adventure ! As we see that 
solitary figure on the Roman road, quickening his 
pace as he comes near some new centre, we can 
feel the more excited beating of the pulse and see 
the kindling eye. He is off to stand, to speak, to 
take what comes, ever in new towns. It Is his 
lifework. Yet it never can have grown dull upon 
him ; and to the end, driven onward by his great 
plan, he feels on each occasion the excitement of 

watching and speculating as to the result of each 
new attempt and venture. 

A little thought reveals to us at once bov 
original and how Titanic this plan of his was. 
Who were they who trod these roads then? 
Soldiers out from the capital, merchants, roarkec- 
ing countryfolk, and all the traffic, old and oev. 
that flows on century after century. But the most 
significant thing of Paul's time was the infiatr 
from the provinces to Rome. ' All movements of 
thought throughout the empire acted with marvel- 
lous rapidity on Rome, the heart of the vast and 
complicated organism.' . . . 'The Imperial policy 
fostered intercommunication and unity to the 
utmost ; and it is not too much to say that travel- 
ling was more highly developed, and the dividing 
power of distance was weaker, under the empire 
than at any time before or since until we come 
down to the present century.' This being so, we 
see a stream of evil travellers invading Rome 
continually. Impostures, superstitions, unnatural 
and shameful luxuries of vice,— every imaginable 
degradation and corruption that could be found 
anywhere in the world, — flowed steadily Rome- 
wards to find a market there ; until Sallust speaks 
of the city as the cesspool of the world. 

The old Roman party of the lime, conservative 
and staunch, dreaded this evil inflow. They saw 
how it was ruining Roman thought and manners. 
They opposed it with all their strength. But they 
were powerless to check it. Rome's very great- 
ness, her brilliance and attractiveness, had become 
her danger. Her very highways — the chief monu- 
ments of her strength and robustness — were be- 
coming the means of her weakening and decay. 

It was this that Paul rose up to check, doing 
what the emperors, the historians, and the 
philosophers of Rome confessed they could not 
do. Planting Christianity at the knots, or cross- 
ing-places of the roads, he set its stream also 
flowing Romewards. From all directions the 
gospel of Christ flowed into the city, along with 
so many baser things. And it was largely on 
account of this that Rome attained the pre- 
eminence she reached as the centre of Christen- 
dom in these early days. Surely it was a states- 
manlike way of doing foreign mission work. 

2, The Roman Citiunship. — Roman history has 
for its distinction this, that in it we have the record, 
not of one country governing other countries, but 
of a single city making herself mistress of the 


world. It is interesting to remember how much 
the single city counts for in the New Testament. 
St. Joho and St. Paul are responsible for this. 
But John hated Rome. His city was Jerusalem, 
and the whole magnificence of his inspired im- 
agination is spent in reconstructing that desolated 
capital into the New Jerusalem, with its sunless 
light, its worship without a temple, its jewel gates 
and golden streets, its river and trees of life. It 
is not of the earth, but descends from heaven — 
at least not of the present earth, for it may be a 
forecast of the better days of the future here as 
well as of the heavenly city. 

Paul also was a man of the city, but his city 
was Rome. He had nothing to say of her streets 
or gates or temples. It was her citizenship that 
fascinated him. And he did for that idea what 
John did for his Jerusalem — glorified and spiritu- 
alized it, and set it free to conquer the imagination 
and to draw the desires of the world. 

In the case of a city which is mistress of the 
world, municipal ideas and privileges become 
national and indeed universal ones. With us the 
' freedom of the city ' is a small affair ; with Rome, 
it was the greatest affair of all. Just as the Greeks 
divided the world into Greeks and barbarians, so 
the Romans divided it into citizens and strangers. 
Besides other rights, citizenship conferred these; 
that the citizen could not be scourged ; that he 
could not (except in extremest circumstances) be 
arrested ; and that he had the right of appeal 
from all minor courts to Cicsaj himself. 

At first the citizenship of Rome was confined 
to inhabitants of the city. In later days, Caracalla 
extended it to inhabitants of the provinces. Paul 
lived in the middle time, when Julius Cssar had 
widened it, not to the provinces, but to the whole 
Italian peninsula. Thus in Paul's lime a citizen 
meant either a native of Italy or a stranger who 
had received the privilege either by buying it 
at an enormous price, or as a reward for some 
distinguished service. It was conveyed in a 
diploma, to forge which was a crime punishable 
by death. The possession of that diploma stamped 
a family as one of distinction, and at least of 
moderate wealth. It superseded all other honours, 
and pbced its possessor among the aristocracy of 
any provincial town. 

To this latter class — the class of strangers who 
had in some way acquired the privilege — it would 
seem that the family of Paul belonged ; though we 

know nothing of the circumstances under which 
Paul's father had received the citizenship. 

This we do know, that Paul prized and openly 
boasted of the honour. It is true that he, who 
so willingly suffered alt things for Christ's sake, 
allowed his enemies to violate this privilege on 
eight different occasions; but when he asserted 
it, he did so with pride and with effect At 
Philippi he brought the magistrates cringing to 
his feet in the prison ; at Jerusalem he turned the 
cheek of Claudius Lysias pale when he declared 

It was not, however, for the sake of the indi- 
vidual distinction it conferred upon him that Paul 
valued the privilege most highly. Like all else, 
this was valuable chiefly as it became an instru- 
ment in his hand for Christ's service. For his 
mission work it was as perfect an instrument as a 
man might ask. The point where Paul most of 
all broke away from the Jews was his universalism. 
He had broken down that wall of partition be- 
tween Jew and Gentile, which formed so impass- 
able a barrier before his time. Rome, by offering 
to all the world the fellowship of her city, led 
men in every province to try to gain it And 
once a Roman citizen (so strong and glorious was 
the bond), a man might be said to have changed 
his nationality, and to belong to the one great 
family of Rome. It can be easily seen how great 
a help this must have been to him when he too 
planned his universal brotherhood. 

But Paul heightened and spiritualized every 
instrument he used. The worth of citizenship 
must ultimately be measured by the worth of the 
city that gives it. No one could see more clearly 
than Paul that the moral worth of Rome was 
utteriy out of proportion to the idea she had 
created of the worth and glory of her citizenship. 
So he, to whom this great political and social fact 
must have often seemed a huge sarcasm, took it 
only for the model of a spiritual ideal. The true 
Rome was heaven, the true citizenship was to 
have heaven's diploma. 'Our citizenship is in 
heaven,' he writes to the Philippians. Again, in 
the same Epistle, he says, 'Behave as citizens 
worthy of the gospel of Christ.' While writing 
to the Ephesians he says more fully, 'Now there- 
fore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but 
fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the house- 

We see what he has done in this. WM Paal 

'M Pat 



a metaphor ceases to be a metaphor. It becomes 
a force that seizes upon spiritual truth, and im- 
presses its own stamp upon it Just as Paul took 
the Roman highways, and turned them from 
military and commercial to Christian and spiritual 
uses, so here he does with Roman citizenship. 
It was the highest point of honour, the most 
coveted privilege in the world, making men hold 
themselves erect and Teel the dignity of their 
position. It was also the greatest political and 
social bond of union between man and man. In 
Paul's use of it we see this nation of the world 
bringing its honour and glory into the City of 
God (to quote John's expression). The citizen 
idea forces the social and public side of 
Christianity upon everyone who accepts it ; it also 
confers upon every humblest Christian the self- 
respect, the dignity, the erect bearing of a citizen 
of no mean city. 

3. The Roman Imperialism. — In this we have 
by far the most striking and the most evident 
connexion between Paul and Rome. In his time 
Imperialism absolutely dominated the thought of 
the Roman world. 'Every group of Roman 
citizens meeting together in a body in any part 
of the empire, formed a part of the great con- 
ception " Rome," and such a group was not an 
intelligible idea except as a piece of the great 
unity.' While Rome allowed the provinces to 
retain much of their old life, she set herself to 
discourage local patriotism. This she did in 
many different ways. She fed them with com 
in time of dearth ; she set up amphitheatres, and 
instituted games and gladiatorial shows ; she tried 
to take up the education question, and arrange 
for educating the world ; last and boldest, she set 
up a new Imperial religion — the universal worship 
of the Roman emperor — which was to unite all 
nations in worship; and, since its priests of every 
land were to be imperial officers, it was expected 
greatly to strengthen the imperial cause. 

Such is some slight sketch of the Roman 
Imperialism of the time. It will be remembered 
that Jesus Christ was cruciiied on the charge of 
having set up a kingdom that was to rival it. 
This was what His enemies took Him to mean 
when he spoke of a 'kingdom of God.' It is true 
His reply was, 'My kingdom is not of this world.' 
Yet that kingdom of His was, in fact, destined to 
take its models trom worldly kingdoms. First 
Paul in his conception of the Church; then 

Augustine in his City of God ; then Dante in 
his 'Dc Monarchia,' set Christ's kingdom along 
the model lines of the Roman Empire. It 
needed some such defining and sharpening. 
Christ's description of it was necessarily a vague 
and general one, so given {in His beatitudes and 
other sayings) as to adapt itself to the conditions 
of each successive age. What Paul did for it was 
to adjust it to the political conditions of his time 
— in a word, to the Roman Empire. 

That this is so is as certain as anything we 
know of Paul. As Professor Ramsay has shown 
past all doubt, he took up an altitude of friendli- 
ness towards the Imperial Government, which he 
never tries to conceal. This, indeed, was usual 
with provincial citizens, and particularly with Jews 
who had acquired the privilege. They were noted 
as warm partisans of the empire. To Paul it was 
in every way a congenial idea. ' The grand style 
of thinking about affairs came natural to him,' and 
the imperial idea exactly suited that 'grand style.' 
We can see this especially in the Epistle to the 
Romans. Evidently the writer is stimulated by 
the thought that his words were going to Rome. 
It is an epistle quite imperial in tone and style. 
He is not abashed by the imperial city, but in 
strong sympathy with its large ideals. He writes 
as one who feels that he has a thought imperial as 
Rome herself. 

Ay, a thought greater and more imperial. It is 
the thought of the Church Invisible — the ideal 
Church, which Paul was founding and realizing 
on the earth. That Church, as Paul conceived it, 
was to be a new unified humanity — unified very 
much on the lines of the Roman Empire. Each 
local church was to have its local home rule, and 
yet all were to be unified in an imperial central 
government. Christendom was to be a unity, at 
once self-governing and subject to a central 
authority. The emperor was Christ; the centre 
heaven. With this difference, the Church was 
practically a Holy Roman Empire. 

The intense spirituality of this conception was 
the main feature in which it differed from and 
excelled the Roman Imperialism. Its universality, 
in which all distinctions were lost, was the direct 
result of its spirituality. There was to be neither 
'Jew nor Greek, barbarian, Scythian, bond nor 
free,' because 'all were to be one in Christ Jesus' 
It was 'a spiritual society, in which nothing was 
to be taken into account but the personal relation 



of each member' to Jesus Christ, the comroon 
object of faith and service. Alt divisions were to 
be merged in that bond of union ; all Christians 
everywhere forgetting their differences and re- 
membering their common Lord ; every body of 
Christians who happened to come together any- 
where recognizing their corporate existence to 
mean for them simply that here there was a small 
part of that great Church which was the religious 
counterpart of the Roman Empire. 

This thought is one which must in a peculiar 
way come home to every thinking man to-day. 
What the future of politics is to be, God only 
knows. There is much that at least seems 
moving towards Imperialism. The federation of 
colonies, the merging of smaller states in larger, 
and many other signs of the times appear to point 
towards this. What the new Imperialism is to be, 
who can tell? This is not the place to discuss 
such things. But, while men's thoughts and 
speculations are busy on these problems, here is 
a master-thought — one of the greatest of Paul's 
thoughts — which it will be well for us all to 
remember, and to keep firmly fixed in our minds. 
This is the true Imperialism, in which no nation 
grudges another its place, but all are united 
under the central rule of Christ. For, in this 
Imperialism, 'the kingdoms of the world are 
become the kingdom (singular, not plural) of God 
and of His Christ.' 

That was Paul's ideal — the most Titanic of all 
his thoughts. How far was it realized? How far 
did it fail ? To a large extent, indeed, it failed, 
or seemed to fail. It was spoiled by individual 
churches, whose saints or teachers were set up 
by small-minded devotees as the successful rivals 
of other churches and their heroes. It was 
spoiled still more by the worldly-mindedness of 
the early ecclesiastics, who accepted Paul's 
Imperialism, but centralized in Rome instead of 

heaven, and took the Bishop of Rome for emperor 
instead of Christ, From the side of Rome, too, 
it failed. Rome failed to see in Paul one who, 
better than any man of his time, understood her 
policy^ — saw farther into it than her own statesmen 
saw — was her ally; and whose New Imperialism 
might have saved her empire from ruin. Spain 
had only a chain for Columbus when he returned 
and gave her a new world; Rome had but a 
prison and an executioner for Paul when he 
offered her an Eternal Empire. 

Yet it succeeded — Rome would not see it, but 
Paul's New Rome lived on. The highways, the 
citizenship, the empire more and more took 
Christian form, and lived on through the sack 
of Rome. 'One of the most remarkable sides 
of the history of Rome is the growth of ideas 
which found their realization and completion in 
the Christian Empire. Universal citizenship, 
universal equality of rights, universal religion, a 
universal Church, all were ideas which the empire 
was slowly working out, but which it could not 
realize till it merged itself in Christianity.' In a 
word, 'Christianity did what the Roman emperors 
tried to do and failed.' They succeeded in 
feeding the world, and in amusing the world — 
and it is probable that in both of these respects 
it would have been better for the world if they 
had failed. They failed in their attempt to 
educate the world and to give it a universal 
religion, and so to unify it in a permanent empire. 
These things Christianity did, and largely through 
the instrumentality of Paul. From these early 
days till now, and from now till the end of time, 
there goes on with Christendom the true Imperial 
Ideal — all men free, equal, educated, worshipping, 
under one central government which is the empire 
of God. It is for each successive age to realize 
that ideal as God will give it wisdom, and large- 
ness of mind, and power of action. 




LIFE. B¥ H. W. Clark. [A/lcmon. Crown Svo, 
pp. 238. 65.) 
This preacher has his own unmistakable mes- 
sage. It is not the message of the Bible, fully 
and exactly. Whose message is ? It puts more 
emphasis on character than the Bible does, and 
less on that vhich makes character possible, 
Christ made sin for us. But it is his own mes- 
sage, and it will always find its own audience. 
There are traces surely of a recoil from an early 
sterner training, a recoil which seems to colour 
even the interpretation of Scripture here and there. 
But, again, there are great passages admirably 
interpreted, and the writer is particularly happy in 
making one passage of Scripture illustrate and 
complete another. 

To the ' Guild Text -Books,' edited by Professor 
Charteris and Dr. M'Clymont, and published by 
Messrs. A. & C. Black, an addition has been 
made under the title of Studies in tAe Acts of the 
Apostles, by the Rev, W. Robertson, M.A. (izmo, 
pp. 154, 6d. net). It is a historical commentary 
on the Book of Acts, such as Professor Ramsay 
has made us familiar with, but clinging more 
closely than Professor Ramsay does to the con- 
tents of the Scripture narrative The difficulty 
must have been to avoid mere paraphrasing. 
That difficulty is not only itself overcome, but in 
overcoming it the author has written many pas- 
sages of real and independent eloquence. The 
exegetical footnotes are so good that it is a pity 
they are so few. 


A. J. SkbbL. (Cambridge: At tht University Press. 

Ciown Svo, pp. 169, with M>ps. 5s.} 

On many grounds this book is most welcome. 

In the first place, it is the work of a woman. 

More than that, it is a product of scholarship, 

working on the original sources, and advancing 

the knowledge of its subject by one clear step. 

Still further, its subject is one of the highest 

interest and importance for biblical science. We 

have learned to ask the geographer to help us in 

the study of the Bible; this keen-eyed geographer 

helps us greatly, and yet her book is a fascinating 
volume of travel. 

By a. C. PiGOU, B.A. {Cambridge : At th4 l/nttxr- 
tUy Press. Crown Svo, pp. 144. is. 6<1. net.) 
This is the essay that gained the Bumey Prin 
for 1900. The winner of the Bumey Prize has to 
publish his essay. Were it not so, Mr. Pigon 
says, this essay would not have been published, 
since he has corae to look upon it as something ,01 
a tour tie force. Mr. Pigou means that he has 
made Browning out to be more of a philosopher, 
or at least more consistent as a thinker, than he 
really is. And that is a serious fault no doubt 
For the more consistent Browning is as a thitiker, 
the less a poet is he. Inconsistency, the mark of 
life, is the most characteristic note of poetry. 
Mr. Lang has shown us that Gloucester in 
King Lear says first, ' No farther, sir ; a man maj 
rot even here ' ; and then, when Edgar reminds 
him that men must not seek their death bui 
endure it like men when it comes, he adds, 'and 
that's true too.' Not only ' that's true,' but ' that's 
true too.' But Mr. Pigou has not forgotten thb 
so utterly as he thinks. His Browning is by no 
means a consistent thinker. He is a poet still. 
.4nd his essay shows more clearly than we have 
ever seen that the root of Browning's excellence 
as a poet is his inconsistency in maintaining his 
belief in God simply because he cannot do 
without Him, while the world of natural things 
seems to deny His existence. 

Post Svo, pp. 391. 7s. 6d.) 
Of Dr. Newman Hall's Autobiography the con- 
ventional words are strictly true that it has not 
one dull page. And no wonder. Dr. Newman 
Hall has not one dull moment. He has come in 
contact with many of the men and women of 
whom we delight to hear — Gladstone, John Bright, 
Cuyler, Spurgeon — as well as with many move 
ments. But, throughout all the reading of this 
book, the man in whom we feel most interest is 
Newman Hall himself, the movement his own 



progress in grace and service. Why do not the 
servants of the Lord Jesus Christ, whose sole 
business it is to be witnesses, more frequently 
give their witness in the form of an autobiography P 
It is a dangerous shore no doubt, and there are 
wrecks. But this book shows that the navigation 
is not impossible. 

CHRIST By PRiNcirAU D. C. Davirs, M.A. 
IT. &• T. Clark. Crown 8vo, pp. 164, 4s.) 

It used to be the case that the proper way for a 
theologian to make his mark was by an original 
contribution to the doctrine of the Atonement 
Then can:ie a time when originality on the doctrine 
of the Atonement was counted eccentricity. It 
was thought that every possible theory had been 
exhausted, and interest passed to other doctrines, 
especially the Incarnation. But the doctrine of 
the Atonement has returned upon us. LJdgett 
and Moberley have written something original 
upon it, and we have not dared to call it eccen- 
tricity. There are indications that in sptte of its 
impenetrability no doctrine moves either intellect 
or heart so deeply. We welcome a new book on 
the Atonement again more greedily than on any 
other subject 

Principal Davies of Trevecca was an original 
thinker. Said the late Principal Edwards of Bala : 
' He was not a product of his age, nor was he 
fashioned by it. He stood apart from it by the 
strength of his own individuality.' Now there was 
no doctrine on which he spent his strength so 
gladly as the Atonement. His book on the sub- 
ject is small, it may be read in an evening's 
sitting, but it is so penetrating and so unexpected, 
that it would have been a great loss to modern 
theology if it had not been published. We owe 
its publication in English to the careful hand of 
the Rev. D. E. Jenkins of Portmadoc. We are 
astonished to learn that it is the work of a young 
man. Its simplicity makes that astonishing not 
less than its penetration. 


By D. W. Forrest, D.D. (T. &- T. Clark. 8vo, 

Thiid Edition, pp. xx, 4S9. 6s.) 

It is four years since Dr. Forrest published the 

(irst edition of his Kerr Lectures. Their subject 

is more prominent, and perhaps more pressing, 

now than it was then. To this result Dr. Forrest 

himself may have contributed, with his frank and 
incisive style and his keen intellectual interest 
His subject, to put it in his own words, is ' the 
problem raised by the union of the Historical and 
the Spiritual in Christianity.* It compels him on 
the historical side to examine the records, and on 
the spiritual side to examine the self^consciousness 
of Christ and of the believer in Christ. In short, 
he answers the question, Why am I, or why ought 
I to be, a Christian ? And that is still, after all 
these ages of Christianity, the burning question of 
the present moment In the course of the discus- 
sion, Dr. Forrest's active mind necessarily touches 
many matters that may be called subsidiary. One 
of these is the question, ' Did Jesus pray with His 
disciples i" upon which there is a separate note 
as an appendix to this third edition. But for all 
that, no writer ever held himself more rigidly or 
lucidly to his proper theme, and we still think 
that, unrivalled as the theme is in importance, as 
a popular exposition his book is also unrivalled. 

Through Mr. Gardner of Paisley, the Rev. R. 
Menzies Fergusson, M.A., of Logic, has published 
an edition of the Christian Precepts serving lo the 
Practice of Sandification of his great predecessor, 
Alexander Hume (fcap 8vo, pp. 56). He has 
added in footnotes passages that are parallel in 
thought from ^ Kempis. 


DALB T. Young. {Madder &• Simghton. 8vo, 

pp. a77. S"- 6d) 
Surely the people of whom Mr. Young writes 
are not so utterly n^lected. Isaac, Caleb, Saul, 
Gehazi, and Apollos are among them. But no 
matter; to believe that they are neglected is at 
least to be original in the treatment of them. 
Mr. Young is also very practical Every turn of 
experience, every trait of character he makes the 
occasion of some plain, modem, moral lesson. 

The fifth volume of the City Temple PulpU\^% 
been issued (Hodder & Stoughton, 8vo, pp 396, 
3s. 6d. net). There are rumours that Dr. Parker's 
strength has been somewhat overtaxed of late. 
No wonder. To the care of the 'City Temple' 
he has recently been adding the care of all the 
churches. To his pastoral work he has been 
adding a literary production of itself enough for 
a single man. But if he has been straining his 


physical strength, he has been losing none of bis 
iDtellectual vitality. Dr. Parker writes and writes, 
yet he never says what others have said, he rarely 
even says what he himself has said already. 

Professor ^ar Beet has now republished a 
series of articles which recently appeared in The 
Expositor on The Immortality of the Soul (Hodder 
& Stoughton, crown 8vo, pp. 115, as.). He calls 
his book ' A Protest.' It is a protest against the 
doctrine that the soul of man is naturally im- 
mortal. Dr. Beet does not believe that the soul 
of man is immortal. He denies that the Bible 
teaches so, or that the Church has a right to ask 
us to believe so. And he concludes that the 
notions of endless punishment of the lost will 
simply fall away so soon as the belief in man's 
natural imroortality is surrendered. 

Rbv, GBORas H. C. Macgkbcor, M.A. (Hodder &• 
Sltrnghlm. Crown 8vo, pp. 178, 3s. 6d.) 
Each book is treated separately, and all the 
books are treated from Genesis to Chronicles, 
while the prophet Joel is added at the end. 
Mr. Macgregor was an ornament of the Keswick 
platform, and also a higher critic. He believed 
that the Bible was made for man, and not man 
for the Bible, and he did not even find it neces- 
sary to keep his criticism and his evangelicalism 
in separate compartments. He found different 
documents in the Hexaieuch, but he found in 
every one of them the God and Father of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. It is not as a 
fragment of human history that he treats each of 
these historical books. It is as a step in the revela- 
tion of the grace of God in Christ. 

FLOOD-TIDE. Bv the Rbv. G. H. Morrison, M.A. 
(Hodder !^ Stoughlen. Crown 8vo, pp. 303. Ss.) 
This volume contains eight and twenty short 
Sunday evening sermons. They are not evan- 
gelistic. Mr. Morrison assumes that those who 
'attend in the evening' have an interest in Christ. 
He further assumes that they are ready to follow 
Christ more fully, or at least be more practically 
religious. And his purpose is first to retain their 
interest in the Sunday evening service, and 
second to persuade them to a fuller life of love 
and service. The subjects are well chosen and 
sometimes arresting, as 'The Ministry of Sur- 

prise.' The texts are sometimes unusual, as 
'He stayeth His rough wind in the day of the 
east wind,' and always memorable. The style is 
so faultless that the hushed audience knows that 
one word lost will mar the impression. But 
their strength is in their brotheriiness. It is a 
strong brother speaking to others who are not so 
strong; but it is always a brother. 

The new volume of the Century Bible is The 
Pastoral Epistles, by the Rev. R. F. Horton, 
M.A., D-D. (Jack, pp. 196, as. net). It is the 
commentary of a preacher, of a preacher who is 
also a scholar. Now, when a preacher who is 
also a scholar is restricted in space he produces 
the best possible commentary. The unsurpassed 
interest of this little book is partly due to Dr. 
Horton's unsurpassed clearness of expression, but 
mainly to the fact that he mentions nothing that 
he is not interested in himself. The authenticity 
of the Pastoral Epistles is discussed in the intro- 
duction and on almost every page of the com- 
mentary itself, but the oftener it returns upon 
us, the more we get interested in it. 

M.A., D.D. (Macmillan. Svo, pp. 318. 8i.6d.iiel.) 
Why is it that St. Mark has so many commen- 
tators, and St. Matthew so very few ? Quite 
recently we received both Gould and Swete on St. 
Mark, and here is Menzies now, while there is no 
scholar's commentary on St. Matthew in existence 
in our tongue. We do not grudge St. Mark the 
honour; we do not regret that even after Swete 
and Gould Professor Menzies has published his 
thoroughly original, incisive, and instructive 

Its method is this. There is first an Introduc- 
tion of fifty pages, which begins with the Synoptic 
Problem and ends with Paplas. It is written 
straight on, being occupied from first to last with 
the questions of authenticity. Then follows the 
Commentary. A corrected Greek text is found at 
the top of one page and a new English version at 
the top of the opposite page, throughout. The 
notes belong mostly to historical criticism. They 
are occasionally interrupted by an excursus on such 
a subject as demoniacal possession. 

St. Mark's Gospel is treated as a piece of 
literature pure and simple. Professor Menzies is 
as free from theological (shall we dare to say 



Christian P) prepossession as it is possible for a 
man to be whose hope is in Christ. This the most 
casual reader will perceive, for every sentence 
even of the translation reveals it. Dr. Menzies 
makes this impression deliberately. His aim is to 
enable us to read the earliest Gospel without 
putting on the spectacles of Church History. If 
he could he would let us read it as if we had 
never heard of the Resurrection of Christ from 
the dead. 

This commentary, therefore, is not written 'for 
edification.' Horn ile tics Dr. Menzies abhors. 
The pulpit is not in all his thoughts. Even if he 
makes preaching more difficult he does not care. 
That is your business. His business is to help 
you to read St. Mark's Gospel unfettered or un- 
furnished by anything that St. Mark, or any other 
Gospel, has done for the world. Professor Menzies 
has passed a self-denying ordinance almost as 
surprising as that of the apostle who was content 
to be anathema from Christ for his brethren's 
sake. And we do not hesitate to say that, 
whether intentionally or not, he has thereby him- 
self become a most potent preacher of the Gospel. 
For who will resist the evangelical persuasiveness 
of this ' earliest Gospel ' when read without 
prepossession ? 

There is no need for the visitors to Keswick 
to carry note-book and pencil with them now. 
An official report of every speech delivered is 
published every year at the Keswick House in 
Paternoster Row (Messrs. Marshall Bros.), under 
the title of The Keswick Wuk (as. net). The 
volume for i9or, besides the usual introduction, 
contains an appendix called ' After Keswick,' by 
the Rev. J. R. Macpherson, M.A. 


PRAYER. By T. W. Drurv, B.D. {NUbel. 

Ctowa 8to, pp. 155. 3s. 6d.) 

The first study is on ' The Lord's Prayer in the 

Liturgy,' the second is on 'The Witness of the 

Successive Revisions of the Book of Common 

Prayer as to the Practice of Non-Communicating 

Attendance.' The first study, in spite of all that 

has been written on the Lord's Prayer, in spite 

even of Dr. Chase's volume in the 'Cambridge 

Texts and Studies' on Tht Lord's Prayer in the 

Early Church, possesses a value of its own. For 

the Principal of Ridley Hall has confined himself 

to the liturgical history of the Lord's Prayer. It is 
therefore strictly a study in liturgies, a department 
of theology that is only beginning to receive 
adequate attention. The second study is still 
more limited in scope, and perhaps also more 
ephemeral in interest. Both are strictly historical. 
The facts are here; dogmatical and polemical 
considerations are not here. 

T. PiERSON. {Nisid. 8vo, pp. 517. lOi. 6d.) 

Dr. Pierson's pen is the pen of a ready writer. 
Book follows book in rapid succession. His 
subject is foreign missions. There is no subject 
upon which books can be more easily written in 
these days. It is a subject which the most 
prolific writer need never fear to exhaust. 

Dr. Pierson's latest book is a history of the 
foreign missions of the nineteenth century. It is 
a history with a purpose. The purpose is to show 
that foreign missions are in God's bands — their 
ups and downs, their failures as well as their 
successes. The book is divided into twelve parts, 
and each part is divided into three chapters. It 
is a trifle mechanical this, and Dr. Pierson has not 
always resisted the temptation to ' pad ' a little 
in order to gain his twelve times three. But 
so fertile is the subject that, for once he has had 
to make up, he has ten times had to cast away 
most interesting facts, and be content with a mere 

Probably the least popular, but we think the 
most valuable, part of the book is the seventh, 
which goes by the title of, 'They that handle the 
pen.' It is an appreciative account of the modem 
literature of missions. It is not exhaustive, and it 
is not critical, but it serves as a useful guide to a 
rapidly increasing, and already almost unmanage- 
able, branch of literature. 

Some popular discourses on Naaman, the Syrian 
Soldier, by the Rev. W. Lyon Riach, M.A., have 
been published by Messrs. Oliphant, Anderson & 
Ferrier (crown 8vo, 128, as. 6d.). 

Messrs. Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier are the 
publishers of a series of ' Little Books for Life's 
Guidance' (is. each). The latest issue is The 
Kingship of Self-Control, by W. G. Jordon. 



ONESIMUS. By C. E. Corwin. {Olifhanl, AruUrum 
&• Ferriir. Crown 8Ta, pp. 333. ss.) 
Stories that are founded on Scripture may not 
be to the taste of all of us, but they find a great 
and sometimes deeply-moved audience. No 
doubt they serve a purpose beyond their theft of 
time, giving to some, fiction though they are, their 
first sense of the reality of the scenes and persons 
that are presented in the old-fashioned language 
of the Bible. The author of Onesimus has striven 
to be true to the warp and woof of history. He 
has succeeded in occasionally thrilling and always 
interesting his readers. 

By J. J. KiPPiN Fletcher. {Oliphant, Andinim &• 
Ftrritr. Crown 8vo, pp. 309. 3*. 6d.) 

The magic name of Madagascar will give this 
book a chance, the book itself will do the rest. 
It is Dot a dry diary of events, it is not a formal 
history. Where the heroic deeds done in Mada- 
gascar for Christ have already been told with 
sufficient fulness to make their heroism manifest, 
they are taken as they are ; where they only remain 
in a meagre list of martyrs' names, they have been 
worked up into a connected and living story. You 
may call it a work of fiction if you will, the author 
is not afraid to call it so ; but the only fiction is 
the introduction of human interest and connexion 
into mere names and discoimected memories. 

PRAYER. By the Rev. A. F. Douglas. [OUphanl, 
AittUrsim £r* Ftrrier. Crown 8vii, pp. ZS4. 3s. 6d. ). 

' Tennyson,' says Miss Weld, ' was pre-eminently 
a man of prayer, and as he told me shortly before 
his death, never had one earnest prayer of his 
failed to receive an answer.' Mr. Douglas quotes 
those words as a motto for his book. No motto 
ever expressed the purpose of a book more fittingly. 
He believes in prayer. He believes in private 
prayer, in family prayer, and in public prayer. 
And he believes that no sincere prayer was ever 
uttered anywhere without receiving an answer. 
'More things are wrought by prayer than this 
world dreams of.' Perhaps there are more men 
of prayer, like Tennyson, than this world dreams of. 
But how pitiful it is that, after all, the thii^s that 
are wrought by prayer are not more and greater 
than they are. For not only are the promises 
attached to prayer boundless of grace, but every 
prayer, as Mr. Douglas demonstrates, brings sure 
and surpassing blessings. 

D.D. (Olipkani, Anderson, &• Ferrier. Crown 8vo, 
pp.192. 3s-6<J) 
No men are offered more advice, and no men 
accept less of it than ministers. The reason for 
so much good advice being offered is that tt is so 
easy to be a minister, so easy to be a better 
minister than those we know. The reason why so 
little is accepted is that every minister knows 
that whatever happens he must be himself. 
Nevertheless every wise minister listens to every 
word of advice that is offered to him. This book 
recognizes that a minister must be himself, and 
seeks to offer such advice, and such advice only, 
as may make him so. It deals with essentials. 
It leaves details to every individual. If ever 
the writer's own peculiarities or preferences are 
mentioned, they are mentioned as illustrations, 
not injunctions. In things indifferent it is always 
stated that a minister must make his own choice. 


BuRRBLL, D.D. {MsDchestet : Rebinsan. Crown 

8to, pp. 310. 3s. 6d. ntl.) 
The Unaccountable Man is the Lord Jesus 
Christ. The text is 'What manner of man is 
this?' and that short sermon which opens the 
book is as striking an apology for miraculous 
Christianity as you will find within the space. 
First of all Dr. Burrell lays out the items upon 
which we are all agreed. ' We are all agreed,' he 
says, that He was the best, the wisest, the 
mightiest, the most magnanimous of men. He 
quotes the words with which Renan concludes his 
Vie de Jesus, and they are worth quoting again : 
'Whatever may be the surprises for the future, 
Jesus will never be surpassed, his worship will 
grow young without ceasing ; his legend will call 
for tears without end ; his sufferings wilt melt the 
noblest hearts ; all ages will proclaim that, among 
the sons of men, there is none born greater than 
Jesus.' But now Dr. Burrell finds an unknown 
factor. He finds it even in the goodness, the 
wisdom, the might, and the magnanimity of Jesus. 
He was not simply better than others, /nmwj inter 
pares; He is alone in His goodness, and in all 
the rest. And then, in the third place, and most 
wonderful of all, Jesus claims to be alone in His 
goodness and in all the rest It is a striking 
sermon, you see, and the sermons are almost all 
striking. Dr. Burrell is a great preacher. 


ENGLISH. By Ferrar Fenton. {Partridgi. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 213. is, 6d. ncl.) 

Mr, Ferrar Fenton's purpose is to translate 
the whole Bible into modern English. He has 
already translated the New TesUment. This is 
the first volume of the Old. We are sceptical of 
new translations, more sceptical of those done by 
a single hand, most sceptical of new translations 
into modem English. But Mr. Ferrar Fenton's 
work is gradually removing all prejudice, and will 
stay. That it is modern, whatever else, the follow- 
ing eiample will show: — 

' Numbers x. 1-5 : The Ever-living also spoke to 
Moses commanding, Make two silver gongs for 
yourself. Make them concave, and use them to 
call the Parliament, and to prepare the camp for 
marching, so that when you beat them all the 
Parliament will know how to come to you at the 
door of the Hall of Assembly. And if you beat 
one of them the generals and colonels of the 
regiments of Israel will know to come to you. 
When you beat an Arise, then the divisions of the 
camp on the east shall march.' 

In the series entitled ' The Westminster 
Biographies' appears an appreciation of George 
Eliot, by Clara Thomson (Kegan Paul, pp. 1 3s, is.). 
The most intimate students of George Eliot's life 
and works should read the little book, for it contains 
independent information. We doubt the wisdom 
of exalting George Eliot at the expense of Mrs. 
Lewes, but there is no other adverse criticism 
which the delighted readers of the book will 


Bv THE Right Rev. H. C. G. Moulb, D.D. 

{Religims Tract Socitty. Ciown 8vo, pp. 256, 3s. 6d.) 
The Bishop of Durham is dead : long live the 
Bishop of Durham ! One evangelical mystic is fol- 
lowed by another. Dr. Moule's writings may touch 
fewer thinkers than Dr. Westcott's, but they touch 
more men, and assuredly more women. He sees 
as far, but he is more timid in expression than Dr. 
Westcott was. When he does express himself, 
however, his meaning is unmistakable. It is, 
perhaps, because of his greater timidity that he is 
also more consistent These two things — perfect 
clearness of thought and perfect evangelical con- 
sistency, make and maintain his great popularity. 

His latest will be his most popular book. At such 
a time as this, a more acceptable gift no one could 

• LIFE • IN ST. JOHN'S GOSPEL. Bv the Rev. J. 
GuRNBv Hoare, M.A. {S.P.C.K. lamo, pp. 

This study in Biblical Theology is an example 
for other students to follow. But Mr, Hoare's 
purpose is not literary. It is evangelical. He 
does not wish to show men how to study, but to 
teach them how to live. It is an earnest and even 
popular appeal to receive Him who is the Life 
and to abide in Him. 

M.A. {ElliBl SiDck. Crown 8to, pp. 96. ai. 6d.) 
There are many things wherein the Church of 
England needs reformation. Mr. Jackson sees 
them and speaks out about them. For he has 
been in Sydney and is able to look at the 
Church of England almost as an outsider. He 
speaks out about them in words that will be easily 
understood by the common people. So he must 
be a dangerous man. But it will be better to 
reform the things than to persecute Mr, Jackson. 
If some of the things really do not need reforma- 
tion, he can do them no harm. 

Mr. Stockwell has commenced to publish a new 
series of volumes under the title of 'The Free 
Church Pulpit.' The first volume is entitled 
Apocalyptic Sketckti, the author is Dr. Monro 
Gibson (crown 8vo, pp. 146, 2s. 6d.). A better 
beginning could scarcely have been made. Dr. 
Monro Gibson is a great preacher, and in the 
Book of Revelation he is at his greatest. His 
sermons recognize the immense change that has 
come over the interpretation of this book, through 
the study of apocalyptic literature in general ; and 
yet they bring home the great mystery to heart 
and conscience without any loss of the old- 
fashioned u 

The Sunday School Union has published the 
volumes for 1901 of its ever welcome and ever 
more welcome magazines, Young England (5s.) 
and the Child's Own Magasine (is.). They are 
edited with much sympathy, and can be recom- 
mended without reserve. 


Misconceptions of the Eastern Church, its 
position and teaching, which seem so prevalent in 
England ought to Eall away from one who reads 
7^ Greek Catholic Church, by R. B. C. Sheridan 
(Williams & Norgate, i6mo, pp. 70, is.). 

New T^nes to Favourite Hymns, published for 
the author, Constantia A. Ellicott, by Messrs. 
Novello, is a pleasant addition to a favoured field 
of composition. The tunes are for words in 
Hymns Ancient and Modern, and wilt find 
favour as agreeable alternatives to the customary 

The settings for ' The Day of Resurrection ' and 
' Joy ! because the circling Year ' are perhaps the 
best of the collection, but there is throughout the 
series almost a uniform richness and delicacy of 
harmonization. An occasional Wagnerian bold- 
ness of modulation, as, for instance, that occurring 
in the second line of 'O praise our great and 
gracious Lord,' will necessitate careful rendering 
on the part of a choir. 

tU (tlew *3ttfernftfionftf.'' 

Dr. Bigg is not the only man whom a ' Bampton 
Lecture ' has made famous, but we cannot recall 
another who sprang so suddenly to such a height 
of fame as a scholar and expositor as Dr. Bigg did 
by his Bampton Lecture on The Christian Platon- 
isis of Alexandria. His choice as the expositor of 
St. Peter and St. Jude in the ' International Critical 
Commentary' was received with universal satis- 
faction as soon as it was announced. The com- 
mentary will undoubtedly lift his reputation higher 
still. Dr. Bigg is an Oxford man, but it suggests 
and represents the great Cambridge school of 
exposition, and of that school most especially the 
work of Hort Perhaps it should be said that, 
laying this work beside Sanday and Headlam's 
Romans, he has materially assisted in the estab- 
lishment of an Oxford school of scholarship, which 
in fineness of workmanship and fearlessness of 
consequence is to carry the exposition of the New 
Testament one step nearer finality. 

' Tkt Internatiimai Critkat Commentary : A Crilicid and 
SxegiticaJ Catitmeniary en the EpiilUs ef SI. Prtir and Si. 
Jade. By the Rev. Charles Bi^. D.D. T. 4 T. Clark, 
Svo, pp. 363. los. 6d. 

Many things in the Introductions to the three 
Epistles dealt with or in their interpretation invite 
discussion. Let one suffice. After Dr. Chase's 
great searching articles in the Dictionary of the 
Bible, it will come as a shock to some, a surprise 
perhaps to all, that Dr. Bi^ should reach the 
following conclusions regarding 3 Peter: The 
Second Epistle of Peter is older than Jude ; (2) it 
belongs to the same school of ecclesiastical thought 
as t Peter ; {3) it conuins no word, idea, or fact, 
which does not belong to the apostolic age; (4) 
traces of the second century are absent at those 
points where they might have been confidently 
expected to occur; (5) the style differs from that 
of I Peter in some respects, but in others, notably 
in verbal iteration and in the discreet use of Apoc- - 
rypha, resembles it; and (6) these facts are best 
explained by the theory that the Epistle is really the 
work of St. Peter, but that a different amanuensis 
was employed. 

* Z%i. %tm%% <Bncj>cfopdebtd.* 

The first volume of a great undertaking called 
The Jewish Emyclopadia has now been published, 
and we have had time to examine it. The twelve 
volumes of which the work is to consist will cover 
the whole Bible, and continue the history of the 
Jews down to the present day. They will contain 
biographies of all notable persons belonging to 
the Jewish race and descriptions of all places with 
which Jews have been in any way associated. 
They will also explain Jewish manners and cus- 
toms, political, commercial, religious, and literary, 
throughout the history and geography of the 

This gigantic programme has been conceived by 
Dr. Isidore Singer, who, after some difficulty, found 
in Messrs. Funk & Wagnalls a firm of publishers 
willing to take the risk and meet the enormous 
outlay. Dr. Singer is assisted by an editorial 
board consisting of twelve scholars, each of whom 
is responsible for some particular department of 
study. He himself has special charge of the de- 
partment of Modern Biography from 1750 till 
t9oi. In addition to these thirteen departmental 
editors, there are two boards of consulting 
editors, one American, the other foreign- The 
American board contains fifteen names, the foreign 
twenty-nine. Most of these editors are contribu- 



tors, but there are also contributors who are not 

The first volume contains 685 pages of text, in 
addition to 37 of preliminary matter. It ends 
with the word Apocalyptic The siie is imperial 
octavo, and there are two columns to a page. 
The space seems thus sufficient. And as the 
volume is examined, the conviction settles in one's 
mind that the space has been carefuly used, and 
that the work is one of first-rate importance. It 
is not a Dictionary of the Bible. That mistake 
would misjudge and possibly condemn. The 
Bible, as has been said, is covered, but the 
persons and places are discussed not because 
they are io the Bible but because they are 
Jews or hare to do with Jews. After a short 
account of what the Bible says on Abraham, for 
example, there follows a long account of what is 
said about him in Rabbinical and Mohammedan 

The Encyclopaedia is not to be a mere record of 
tradition. It seeks to reach the historical and 
poetical truth throughout the whole course of 
Jewish life and literature. And to that end men 
are set to limited tasks, and apparently encouraged 
to sift thoroughly and be scientific. There are no 
fewer than four articles on Abraham. First the 
' Biblical Data' are furnished in a simple narrative 
by Dr. C. J. Mendelsohn ; next an account is 
given of Abraham in ' Apocryphal and Rabbinical 
Literature' by Dr. Kaufmann Kohler ; then Dr. 
Gottheil writes on Abraham in 'Mohammedan 
L^end'i and finally 'The Critical View' is pre- 
sented by Professor Toy. 

We shall not discuss details at present. It is 
enough to direct attention to this highly courageous ; 
and undoubtedly competent effort to place within 
our reach, for the first time in history, a full record 
of the manifold activity of that race which, if not 
destined, seems determined, to live as long as man, 
and which never ceases to possess for other races 
of the earth the most absorbing interest 

A NEW Shakespeare. Are there not editions 
enough yet? Has not every variety of taste in 

■ Tkt IVerks of William Skaieipfare. Weilmiiuler : 
Archibald Constable & Co. Twenly vols. 50$. 

the readers of Shakespeare yet been satisfied? 
Have not all the possibUities of paper and print- 
ing and binding and editing and illustrating been 
exhausted? It does not appear so. It is like the 
race between offensive and defensive engines of 
war. No sooner is the highest demand of Shake- 
spearian taste gratified than a new appetite is 
bom, and artists and editors and printers and 
publishers have to set their wits together to 
meet it. 

The taste at present runs in the direction of 
clear type and good illustrating. The Shakespeare 
that most pleases is the Shakespeare that has 
these things in their highest perfection, and at 
their lowest price. Editing is of less account. 
Perhaps the editing of Shakespeare has been 
overdone. Perhaps we have been so worried 
with interminable and irrelevant 'notes' in our 
schooldays, that the most beautiful edition of 
Shakespeare is marred to our eyes, if it is greatly 

The new edition which Messrs. Constable have 
published is not over-edited. It consists of twenty 
volumes. Each volume contains two plays. Each 
play ends with a glossary, sufficient and yet rarely 
running over two pages. And each play has a few 
pages of ' notes,' which are wholly textual. Now 
that is really all the editing that Shakespeare 
needs. His obsolete, and still more his obsolescent, 
words have to be explained to us ; and any im- 
portant various reading has to be mentioned. We 
ought to do all the rest ourselves. For however 
obscure his old English words are, his thoughts 
are never obscure ; and it is much better for all of 
us to discover his meaning with as little external 
aid as possible. 

The type of this edition is large and clear, and 
thrown out boldly by the pure white paper ; and 
the page is broad enough to take in a long line of 
it easily. This is very restful to the eye. Though 
there is the minimum of annotation, the utmost 
care has been taken to prevent misprints. And it 
is an evidence of the thought that has been spent 
on the volumes throughout, that while the pages 
which are of no use are given below, the name of 
the play, the act, and the scene appear at the top 
of every outer ma^n. 

But the most distinguishable feature of Messrs. 
Constable's Shakespeare is its illustrations. They 
are not numerous, but they are good. There is 
spirit and originality in every one of them. And, 



most significaDt of all, they are always in colour. 
Thus have these publishers anticipated a taste that 
is but forming. The time is at hand when no 
illustrations will please thatare not coloured. And 
rightly. Why should we be satisfied with the dull 
grey in a copy which makes us shiver in nature 

herself? Good illustrations in colour are but 
beginning to be seen. The time is at hand when 
every eye will be charmed by them. 

The twenty volumes are packed in a case. 
They form a handsome set, the fair beginning of a 

€^t Oueeftcn of fge ^nt^ of Jeatag. 

Bv Professor Ed. Konig, M.A., D.D., Bonn. 


This question has recently formed the subject of 
a study by Professor W. H. Cobb in the American 
Journal of Biblical Literature (1901, pp. 77-100). 
The delightful spirit which pervades his discussion 
is itself a sufficient claim to the interest of a wider 
circle. The tone he adopts possesses a sympa- 
thetic quality which readily awakens a similar tone 
in the mind of the reader, and the sweep of har- 
mony makes him almost forget the dissonances of 
the learned strife. But, in addition to this, the 
subject of discussion is itself of such importance 
that any attempt to shed new light upon it can 
reckon upon commanding the widest interest. 
Hence I take the hberty of submitting to the 
readers of The Expository Times a critical ex- 
amination of the article in question. 

Professor Cobb sets out with the correct 
hermeneutical principle that a prophecy can be 
fully understood only by having regard to its 
historical background. We may remark in pass- 
ing that Luther long ago expressed himself on this 
point with admirable clearness in the Preface to 
his Commentary on Isaiah.' But, Professor Cobb 
continues, this historical situation must not be 
distorted, and this he believes to have been done 
with chaps. 40-66 of Isaiah. Up till a few years ago 
Cyrus was made to pervade not only Western 
Asia, but also all the second part of the Book of 
Isaiah. He was, further, presented as a Zoroas- 

' His words (Exegelica eftra iMina, vol. XKii. p. 4) are 1 
'Ad prophetBs inielligendos maxime Dccessarium esl nosse 
qaae turn negotia apud Jadieos ^iuta sint, quis reipoblicae 
tum ttatns, quaks bomiDum tam inioii, quae consMia Tuerial 
cum Gnitimis populis, cum amicis et contra inimjcos, im- 
primis antem quae torn religionis fuerit forms,' etc 

trian monotheist, who out of pious zeal for the one 
God overthrew the idols of Babylon, allowed the 
Jewish exiles to return to their homes carrying 
their sacred vessels with them, and built a new 
temple in Jerusalem at his own expense. But 
what a modification of the views regarding the 
founding of the Persian Empire has taken place io 
consequence of the discovery of the inscriptions 
of Cyrus and Nabuna'id ! From these we learn 
that Cyrus was no monotheist. Whereas Nabuna'id 
neglected the cult of the gods of Babylon, Cyrus 
reinstated it with splendour. So far from ascribing 
his victories to Jahweh, he attributes them to the 
Babylonian god Marduk (the O.T. Merodach). 

In reply to all this I would point out that the 
reducing of the importance of the role played by 
Cyrus in Is 40-66 to its proper limits does not 
mean banishing him entirely from these prophecies. 
If his importance undergoes 'shrinkage,' to use 
the expression of Professor Cobb, it is not thereby 
reduced to nothing. In making the ' shrinkage of 
Cyrus ' the theme of a burning question, Professor 
Cobb should not have foi^otten to propose as a 
second prize-question, whether the last twenty- 
seven chapters of Isaiah contain no reference at 
all to Cyrus. Above alt, he should not have 
neglected to answer this question himself. But 
instead of this, he immediately proceeds to give to 
these chapters a different historical background. 

The historical situation contemplated in the 
words of Is 40 ff. is, according to Professor Cobb, 
that described in chap. 37. This is, of course, a 
very natural supposition, yet the question arises 
whether it does justice to the text 

What are the circumstances of the period 


described in Is 37 ? The kingdom of Judah was 
sore pressed by the Assyrian king Sennacherib in 
701 B.C. The latter thus describes his success in 
a cuneiform narrative — 

' As for Hez«kiah of Judah, who had rot submilted to 
my yoke, I took 46 of bis fenced cities, eounlteu 
fortresKS and small cities io their neighbourhood. 100,150 
perioiu, gieat and sm&ll, of mate and female sex, horses, 
mules, Mses, camels, oxen and sheep wilhonl number I 
carried forth (rora them and counted as spoil. Himself I 
shut up like a bird in a cage in Jerusalem, his royal city. 
FortificBlioDE I erected against him, the exits of the chief 
gale of bis city. . . .' (K.I.B. ii. 94 f,). 

The historical basis of this narrative cannot be 
called in question. The conquest and devasution 
of many places in Judah and the deportation of a 
great many persons can be brought into harmony 
with the O.T. narrative of 2 K igi*-", which is 
not incorporated in the Book of Isaiah. For, in 
consequence of this extensive conquest of the land 
of Judah, Hezekiah might be moved to send the 
embassy to Lachish (S.W. of Jerusalem), and to 
make the olTers of which we read in the above 
passage from 2 Kings. But when now Professor 
Cobb says : ' Look at these desolate cities of 
Judah, at the enormous deportation . . . and ask 
if this is not the time to proclaim, "Comfort ye, 
comfort ye My people," ' the reply must be, Yes, it 
was without doubt such a time, but it was not the 
only time when such a comforting proclamation 
was appropriate, and it was not the time which is 
presupposed by the whole text of Is a,Q^ For, 
however many cities of Judah the Assyrian may 
have stormed in the year 7or, he did not capture 
the city of the temple of Jahweh. But this city 
is mentioned at the very outset of Is 40 ff. as a 
special object of consolation (40*), and is thought ; 
of in these addresses as lying in ruins (44*"-*" ■ 
'Jerusalem is again to be inhabited,' etc; 49" \ 
'thy ruins'; sa*-» 'the ruins of Jerusalem '). 
Further, in Is 40 if. the nation of Israel is de- . 
scribed as one which in its essential part is in . 
exile. This is sufficiently clear from the following 
well-known passages : — ' Where is the bill of your 
mother's divorcement wherewith I have put her 
away?' (50', cf. Dt 24'); and 'The desolate \i.e. 
the nation of Israel separated as it were from her 
husband, cf. Hos ^\ shall have more children 
than she that hath an husband' (54I). This 
exiled nation is to return to its home only by ' 
Jahweh leading it through the wilderness like a 1 
shepherd. Professor Cobb asks, indeed : ' Who j 

says that Jahweh is marching at the head of 
the exiles f ' and he replies : ' Not the author 
of Is 40 ff.' (p. Si). But here he adopts a 
view of Is 40*'- which does not at all agree 
with the context^ How? In order to facilitate 
God's progress through the wilderness, the call is 
uttered, ' Prepare a way.' Is the form of expres- 
sion not manifestly such as to show that we have 
to do with a leading home of the people from exile ? 
So in Ps 68* <*' the call, ' Cast up a highway for 
him that rideth through the desert,' is so expressed 
with reference to the circumstance that ' God 
setteth the solitary in families and bringethout the 
prisoners ' (v. ^) ; and the meaning of Is 40"- is 
established by the words, ' He shall feed His flock 
like a shepherd' (v."), and by the addition in 
52i2i>. tijaj Jahweh will go before the exiles 
returning to Zion. 

The particular historical background of Is 40 ff. 
on which Jerusalem is shown lying in ruins, and 
the nation of Israel as separated from her husband 
Jahweh, i.e. as being itself and as a whole in 
exile, cannot be concealed, although Professor 
Cobb thinks otherwise. He says that of the many 
thousands deponed, for instance, by Sennacherib, 
no doubt many were sold into slavery and dis- 
persed in all directions. Hence even in the time 
of the older Isaiah it could be said : ' Behold, 
these come from far, and those from the north and 
from the west,' etc. (49'^). This is undeniable, 
but these general features of the picture presented 
in Is 40 ff. are not the characteristic ones. Rather 
are thett found in the special details as to the 
situation of Jerusalem at the time. To take one 
or two further instances, we read: 'Jerusalem 
shall be built again, and the temple shall be 
founded ' (44**) ; ' and they shall build the old 
waste places' (58" 61*), 'for Zion is become a 
wilderness, Jerusalem 3 desolation ' (64* ""'). 
Professor Cobb is wrong, then, in holding that the 
language of Is 40 ff. has its historical background 
in the situation of 701 b.c 

He next sets himself, in a second section of his 
article, to answer the question whether the religious 
teaching of Is 40 ff. cannot be explained from the 
lime of Hezekiah, a question which again he 
answers in the affirmative. His argument is as 
follows : — 

He starts with the assumption (p. 83) that the 

' Setlin proposed the same interpretation of 40*'' in his 
Seniiiaiel, 1898, p. 141 i. 



refonns of king Hezekiah must be ascribed to a 
somewhat late period in his reign.' These reforms 
are held to have been the fruit of the work of 
Isaiah and Micah. They were not undertaken at 
the time when the dark shadow of Assyria threat- 
ened in the distance or hung over the land of 
Israel, but ' when the sole deity of Israel's God 
had been gloriously vindicated in the downfall of the 
oppressor,' i.e. after the deliverance of Jerusalem 
in 701. It was then that Hezekiah entered on his 
campaign against the idols, and his reform is 
wrongly placed by the Chronicler (s Ch ag') at 
the beginning of his reign. 

The above judgment, however, regarding 
Hezekiah's reforms is very precarious. It lacks 
positive support, and it has a number of considera- 
tions against it. Would it not still be true that 
these reforms were due to the activity of Isaiah 
and Micah, even if they were undertaken by 
Hezekiah in the early years of his reign 7 Not 
only Isaiah but even Micah had, as a matter of 
fact, begun their mission under Hezekiah's prede- 
cessors. This is generally acknowledged in the 
case of Isaiah, and it will be found proved for 
Micah in my Einleit in das A.T. p. 330. More- 
over, the aim and the result of these refonns must 
not be exaggerated, but kept within the limits of 
what is said in z K 18*, according to which 
passage Hezekiah removed the altars on the high 
places, the pillars, the asheras, and the Nehushtan. 
Can we suppose that the Judfeans in a body and 
permanently carried out the intentions of the 
Jahweh-fearing king? Can it be assumed that 
even after that reform there was no need for 
Isaiah to preach against people who gave them- 
selves over to the fashioning of idols? The fact 
that he had to do this (31') does not overthrow 
the statement that Hezekiah, even if not at the 
very beginning (z Ch 29'), yet before the fourth 
year (3 K 18') of his reign, took steps against the 
dangerous schism and against certain false objects 
of Israelite worship. 

And what a tremendous impulse to this reform 
was supplied during the first years of Hezekiah's 
reign ! Could there have been for the kingdom of 
Judah any occurrence more impressive than the 
catastrophe which befell the sister kingdom of 

> ' HnekUh's rerorms came lati id hii reign.' Likewise 
Gutbe, ID liii Cisch.dis Ve/tci /inu2 (tSgg), doetnotmeiitioD 
'he teforms of Hezekiah till aher evecythiDg elae that he 
otes [yarding him (p. 205). 

Israel in the year 722? Was this not an un- 
paralleled call to Judah to repentance? Heze- 
kiah's reform is, accordingly, quite intelligible at 
the commencement of his reign. Besides, it is 
attributed to this period, not only by the Chron- 
icler, as Professor Cobb represents {p. S3), but 
even by the author of Kings. This very agreement 
of testimony furnishes a counter argument against 
the view that the reforms were not undertaken till 
after 701. 

Consequently, the basis is wanting for tbe view 
maintained by Professor Cobb that the addresses 
delivered by Isaiah in 701 against idolatry are 
represented by Is 40** and other passages in 
chaps. 40"- (p. 84). The addresses in the Book of 
Isaiah, which date most probably from 701, 
namely, 14^'^ chap. 31, and the words of Isaiah 
contained in chaps. 36-39, do not sound as if the 
prophet had to do essentially with worshippers 
of images and idols. But it is quite intelligible 
that the exiles, who amidst heathen surroundings 
might be inclined to idolatry and polytheism, 
should have their attention drawn both in earnest 
and in jest to the helplessness of the idols and 
the folly of worshipping them (4o'*-^ 41"^ 44*"" 
45" 46*-^), Professor Cobb himself is willing to 
admit that there was idolatry in Israel during tbe 
earlier years of the Exile. This is too clearly 
proved by Ezekie! (14°'- i8' 20' 33") to make 
any denial of it possible. But he declares that we 
do not know whether also towards the end of the 
Exile there was a tendency to idolatry on the part 
of the captives. But the facts are not favourable 
to his opinion. For he will not venture to deny 
that only a small proportion of the exiles availed 
themselves of the permission to return to their 
homes. The sum total of those who formed the 
first caravan that returned was 42,360 (Ezr 2** 
II Neh 7'*)' Aversion to the land of theChaldacans 
and to these worshippers of idols was not strong 
towards the end of the Exile. How aptly is this 
disposition of Israel illustrated by the words, ' I 
have called and ye have not answered,' etc 
(65") ! Do these words suit equally the period of 
Hezekiah's reign? 

Nor can Professor Cobb deny that in the 
religious world of ideas contained in Is 40 01 there 
are certain points emphasized which fall into the 
background in the preceding parts of the Book of 
Isaiah. In i'"-'* the bold question, 'Who hath 
required this at your hands ? ' is put with reference 



even to the Sabbath. I do not mean to affirm 
that here the Mosaic origin of the institution of 
the Sabbath is called in question. But the im- 
pression left by the passage is that the keeping 
of the Sabbath and the other festivals has not 
stress laid upon it (i'***- 1*). It is otherwise in 
56*, 'who keep my Sabbaths.' I do not think I 
am wrong in discovering the idea of the merit 
of the relatively pious in the words, 'She hath 
received double for her service ' (40*^), and in 
other expressions (52*^ **■). Further, we hear of 
'priests (and) Levites ' (66*').' For members of 
the foreign races cannot have been taken over 
as 'Levitical priests'; and for the distinction of 
priests and Invites, cf. Ezk 44""'- Again, was 
the question of receiving eunuchs into the congre- 
gation of Jahweh (56*'-), or the question of prose- 
lytes in general (v."-) as pressing in the time of 
Hezekiah as among the exiles in whose neighbour- 
hood not a few of the heathen might learn to 
worship Israel's God P Finally, should it be over- 
looked that the very collocation ' Bel and Nebo ' of 
46* meets us frequently in cuneiform texts dating 
from the later years of the independence of 
Babylon ? ' 

But were the addresses of Is 40 IT. really spoken 
and written among the exiles of Babylon ? Pro- 
fessor Cobb again denies this. He considers it 
to be a fact that the standpoint of the author in 
Is 40 is Palestine and not Babylonia. ' Babylon 
is doubtless included in 49*^ among the lands of 
the dispersion, but only included. "These shall 
come from far" may mean Babylon, the far east; 
then follow the other three cardinal points' 
(p. 83). In this he attaches himself to the inter- 
pretation of 49'', which was proposed by Duhm in 
the Hdkom. to Isaiah (1893}. Sellin, too, defends 
it in his Serubbabd (189S), p. 137, but in his more 
recent essay, ' Der Knecht Gottes bei Dcutero- 
jesaja,' * he admits that the view is untenable that 
Deutero-Isaiah wrote outside Babylonia. This 
view is maintained, however, even by Marti,* and 
hence demands renewed examination. 

Duhm, in advocating the above view, builds upon 

' As » read aUo by oldest MS5, Targ., LXX, Valg. 
(cr, th« TuU discussion of thU patsage in my Einliil. in d. 

' A'./.£. ii. i4S(E9arhaddon), iii. 3.47(NebuchadDeizai), 
127 {Cyrus}, 131. etc. 

• Sellin, ShuHtn tur EntsttkuHg^grtthiekte derJUd. Gemtin- 
di nadt dim bob. Exil (i90t)> i- I77. 

* K. Marti, Ktintr Hdcam. lujtsaja (1900), p. 344- 

49'^ thus : ' Since it IS nothing more than a chance 
that in the midst of expressions of a different kind 
the name of a country should stand quite isolated, 
there must be a special reason for this. Let us 
suppose, then, that Deutero-Isaiah names the 
Phoenician Sinites of Gn lo'^ because he himself 
dwells among them.' He was, however, con- 
siderate enough himself to speak of this supposi- 
tion as 'a hypothesis of despair,' and neither 
Professor Cobb nor Marti have followed him in 
seeking for Sinim in Phoenicia.* But are not the 
expressions, ' they shall come ' and ' from far,' 
indications pointing to the conclusion that the 
speaker lived outside Babylon ? Supposing his 
home to have been in Babylon, would he not 
rather have said 'they will go out' and 'from 
here?' In answer to this it has to be said that 
the statement of 49'* must not be torn from its 
nearer or more remote context, according to which 
the words before us are those of Jahweh. His 
joyous message to the 'prisoners' begins in v.* 
with the cry of release, ' Go ye out,' and accom- 
panies them on the march through the wilderness 
(v.") ; mentions, further, how they arc to over- 
come the mountains (v."); and, finally, alludes 
naturally to their final arrival in Canaan (v.'*).* 
If one accompanies this line of thought &om its 
commencement to its close, neither the word 
'they shall come' nor the definition 'from far' 
give any occasion to infer the Palestinian resi- 
dence of the author of Is 40 fT And how our 
conclusion is strengthened by the more remote 
context of 49'* ! 

In 52*'- we read as words of the Lord: 'My 
people went down at first into Egypt to sojourn 

» Cheyne, Maiti, and Cobb find in o-ra the S. Egyptian 
Syene (mod. Asiouan). But Sinini points most probably lo 
I'O, Pelusium, of Eik 30"'-. Al all evenis this place i« not 
named, as Matti and Cobb ('the far south') suppose, on 
account of ils remote situation. It rather stands in contrast 
to ' from far.' 

' This last stage of the Return of Israel would be indicated 
in a specially Etriking fashion, if ' My mountains' (t?) in 
49" are meant to deaignate the mountains of Palestine, in 
so far as these belonged in a special sense lo the Deity. 
Undoubtedly this is the meaning of HJ in 14" and 65*. 
But in spite ri ASk^ of Ps S4', it is difficult lo understand 
•C*Vpf, 'My highways,' of Is 49" in the same sense. Hence 
the reference is more probably to the mountains of Jahweh 
spoken of in Ps 36' (cf. 80" and 104"), i.e. the high 
mountains ; or it may be held that the < of -ni^ is a ditto- 
graphy, which was then imitated in the parallel -n. At least 
the possessive pronotm ' my ' is not eipreued in the LXX, 
Targ., Pe«h., and Arab. VS. 


there; and the Assyrbn oppressed them without 
cause; now therefore, what do I ken, saith the 
Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for 
nought?' What third oppressor joined in the 
course of centuries the Pharaoh of Egypt and 
the Great King of Assyria? The tyrant Babylon 
(Ps 137'). In what third place of Exile, then, did 
the people of Jahweh find themselves in presence 
of the author of Is 40 ff ? In Babylon. But the 
speaker in these chapters also found himself there. 
For he alludes to the third, then present, place of 
Eidle by the adverb nfa, a particle which is em- 
ployed in the O.T. in such 3 way that the speaker 
is actually in the place represented by the word 

But the same chapter (52) contains yet another 
adverbial allusion to the place of Exile, namely, 
De*, sham, of v.": 'Depart ye, depart ye, go out 
from thence (DBta),' eta This mi-sham is used in 

' This use of nb I have established by a comparison of all 

the passages where it occuis (see these in my Slilislii, etc 
(1900), p. 113. 

the O.T. in such a way that the place of the 
speaker is not identical with the locality to which 
the adverb sham refers.* Now the mi-shdm of 
52" has in view the place of Israel's captivity. 
Consequently it appears to result from this that 
the author of Is 40 S. did not find himself in the 
place of Exile, i.e. Babylon. But this conclusion 
is only apparently justified. For the words, 
' Depart ye, depart ye, go out from thence,' belong 
to the consolatory address of the watchmen who 
publish upon the mountains about Zion the tidings 
of the near approach of Jahweh's help. From 
their standpoint they naturally cry to the exiles in 
Jahweh's name, ' Go out from thence! That I am 
right in this explanation of v.'> is expressly ad- 
mitted by Sellin.* 

[I will conclude in one other, somewhat shorter, 
paper my examination of Professor Cobb's in- 
genious but unconvincing article.] 

' See all the passages where 0^9 occurs, ii 

c.,p. l.jf. 

' Dir Kneckt Geltes, etc (1901), p. 175, 

my Slilistit, 

Con^riBu^ione an^ Cotnmen^ff* 

'(§t ^@ou i^tix %tm everg 

Most commentators seem to find a difficulty in 
explaining w-yp:h Djnt fTn. Take for instance 
Dr. Skinner, who says: 'The force of the pro- 
noun their is uncertain ; some change it (need- 
lessly perhaps) to our.' ' Be thou our arm ' would 
certainly make very good sense — but the LXX 
testifies to the reading their. As this pronoun 
most naturally refers to the enemy, I would ven- 
ture to suggest that IPX may mean ' scatterer ' or 
'assailant.' The radical meaning of mr is to 
scatter or disperse, while in Arabic Gesenius tells 
us there is a root derived from y^iT, namely, 
c , j -■ to attack violently. 

We may compare also the kindred word mi, 
which is applied figuratively to the dispersion of 
enemies (Jer 15^ Is 41", Ezek 5*), In the face 
of Sennacherib and his army the prophet may well 
have prayed to Jehovah, ' Be Thou their scatterer 

every morning, even our salvation in the time of 
trouble.' This exactly suits the words which 
follow: 'At the noise of the tumult the people 
iled ; at the lifting up of Thyself the nations were 
scattered.' Augustus Povnder, 


So^n vit. 53-vtit. 11. 

Westcott-Hort write in their very careful notes on 
the attestation of this famous pericope (it. p. 85) : 

' Id Ibe whole range of Greek patristic literature before 
cent. (x. or) lii. there is but em trait of any knowledge 
of its existence, the rererence to it in the ApestoUe Camlitu- 
lioni, as an authority for the reception of penitents (associ- 
ated with the cases of St. Matthew, St. Peter, St. Paul, and 
the iiia/rrmK^ fvr^ of Lk 7"), without, however, any indica- 
tion of the book from which it was quoted.' 

The Apostolic Constitutions, as is well known, 
rest on an older work, the Didascalia, preserved to 
us as yet only in Syriac, and partially in Latin. 
Strange to say, nobody as yet seems to have 
asked how it stands in this document with the 



attestation. Lagatde, in his edition of the Con- 
ititutionSy placed on the margin the pages of his 
edition of the Didascaiia, and just there, where i 
in the ComHtutions the reference to this pericope 
begins (ii. 14 p. 49: Iripav Si rtva ^/uipnjKuuit* 
iimprac), stands the reference to p. 31 of the 
Didascalta. Now a look into this source of the 
Constitutions shows that here the association, 
pointed out by Westcott-Hort, with the cases of 
Matthew, Peter, Paul, and the woman of Lk 7, 
is missing; here the woman of }n S stands for 
herself. The whole connexion runs as follows : — 

'ThcFcfore must thou, bishop, with all power thou canst, 
prescribe those that have not sinned, thai Ihejr remain 
vithout sinning, and those that convert Irom lias thou 
mail heal and receive. But if thou dost not receive him 
that converts, because thou ail without mercy, thou sinnest 
against the Lord God, because thou obeycst not oui Saviour 
and OUI God, to do, as at>io Hedid lo her who sinned, whom 
the elders placed before Him and left the judgment in His 
hands, and went ofT. But He, ihe perceivcr ofhearts, asked 
her and said to her. Have the elders condemned thee. My 
4aughttr7 She said to Him, No, Lord. And He said to 
her. Go ; nor do I condemn thee. 

' In this, iherefore, our Saviour and our King must be a 
goal to you, bishops, and Him ye must imitate, elc. 

By a good fortune this very piece has been pre- 
served in the Latin fragments of the Didascalia, 
discovered and edited by E. Hauler (Leipzig, 1900, 

p. 35); there it runs :— 

' Si aulem penitentem, cum sis sine misericordia, non 
susciperis, peccabis in Oominum Deum, quoniai 
persuasus nee ccedidisti salvatori Deo nostro, u 
sicut iile fecit in ea mullere, quae peccaverat, quatn siuiuci- 
uDt presbyteri ante cum, et in eo ponentes iudicium exieninl. 
Scrutator autem cordis interrogabat earn, si condemnasseot 
ill am presbyteri. Cum aulem dixisset^ "" "" '' "" 
ad earn : Vade ; nee ^o le condemno. 

' Hunc salvalorem, regem el dominum 1 
prospectorem vobis habere oporlel ei ei 

It is interesting to compare these three recen- 
sions (Syriac, Latin, Greek of the Constitutions) 
with each other and with the Greek texts in the 
Gospel MSS. One touch is peculiar to the 
Syriac ; that Jesus addressing her directly (as in 
the Gospel), calls her ' My daughter ' ( = ' daughter,' 
6uya.rtp, as in Mt 9*^, etc.). 

It is not my intention to enter more fully into 
the question about this story ; it seems only worth 
while to refer to the Didascalia, because hitherto 
always the ComHtutions have been mentioned as 
the oldest reference in the whole range of Greek 
literature. Eb. Nestle. 


"Non," di»il > 

1. Dr. Budde had no occasion to say that I had 
read his remarks on Neh i* ' a little hastily.' This 
is a quite unjustified reproach. I did not say 
(vol. xii. p. 566) that he had not taken into 
account the possibility that Neh i^ belongs to the 
Memoirs of Nehemiah. I simply stated his actual 
opinion. He holds that the words of Neh i' as 
they stand do not form part of the Memoirs. 
Hence he refuses to regard this passage as a 
support for that interpretation of the 'thirtieth 
year' of Ezk i', which I observe is held to be 
possible also by Baudissin in his recently pub- 
lished Einieit. in die Biicher des A.T., p. 453. 
And the simple expression 'in the twentieth year' 
(Neh i^) may furnish such support even if a dif- 
ferent mode of dating is adopted in Neh 2* and 
13^ Nay, it is probable that Nehemiah himself 
employed both ways of dating. If a redactor had 
removed the name of the reigning king in Neh j', 
he would have been still more likely to do so in 
a', especially as the interval between Ezr 7^ and 
Neh i' is greater than that between the last- 
named passage and 3'. 

2. Dr. Budde does not think it possible that 
the 'thirtieth year' of Ezk 1' refers to the so-called 
era of Nabopolassar. He urges that no cuneiform 
documents have come down to us where the 
reckoning is from the commencement of the New 
Babylonian Empire. Yet this form of dating may 
have been employed, and this commencement of 
the supremacy of Babylon may have been for the 
Jews and other foreign peoples of more import- 
ance than for the Chaldeans themselves. The 
prophet may also have assumed that this mode of 
daung was familiar to his readers. This is not 
reduced to an impossibility, as Dr. Budde sup- 
poses, by the circumstance that he appends yet 
another form of date. 

3. Why do I oppose once more the interpre- 
tation of Ezk i^ favoured by Dr. Budde? Be- 
cause I consider it an unnatural hypothesis that 
the very word in v.* has dropped out on which 
the meaning of this verse depended. 

Bonn. Ed. KSnig. 

Z^t Opening (gewee of (Sijeftief. 

In reply to Dr. Budde (October number, p. 41 f.) 
I may be permitted to offer at least the following 
remarks : — 

nijK! C^^cftd) in an ^BBgridn 

A PLACE, nptU, which is to be sought between 
Lachish and Socho, is repeatedly mentioned in 
the Bible from the time of the Judges down lo 
that of Nehemiah. It is identified, in all prob- 
ability rightly, by C. F. Seybold {Miltkeil. des 
Deutsehen Pal.-Vercins, 1896, p. 26) with the 
modern Khirbet 'As^alUn. According to C. 
Bezold, the name is found in the cuneiform texts, 
on tablet Brit. Mus. 82-3-23, 131 ; cf. the 



Catalogue, vol. iv. p. 1824: 'Part of an inacr. 
of an Assyr. kingi mcDtion is made of {mdi) 
Pi-tii-ta-ai, {m&t) Mar-lu-kt ( = AmurHk) and (o/u) 
A-za-ka-a,' i.e. Aza^ai, Aza^iles (to be derived 
from a city-name AzO^at).^ Since the Philistines 
are spoken of, the reference can, of course, be 
only to the biblical 'Azelfa. In the Index (Cata- 
I Cf. Arab. MadSnat ( = Medina] but ai-Madant ( = Medi- 

logue, vol. V.) C. Bezold gives only ' Aza^ dtt,' 
not ' Palestinian city ' or the like, so that I hacc 
considered it a matter of importance to bring u 
the notice of a wider circle this note that is buii^ 
in the Catalogue. It is very desirable that tk 
fragment of twenty lines should speedily be pub- 
lished, with a transcription and translation. 

Fritz Hommbi. 

<&nixt Qtoue. 

The Chunk Quarterly Review opens a new 
volume in October with a new editor and a strong 
number. The new editor is the Rev. A. C. 
Headlam, B.D., whose articles on the Theology of 
the Epistle to the Romans in The Expository 
Times will be remembered. He is joint-author 
with Dr. Sanday of perhaps the richest commentary 
in our language, the ' International Critical 
Commentary ' on The Epistle to the Romans. 

The number of the Church Quarterly for 
October opens with a criticism of Schmiedel's 
recent article on the Acts of the Apostles, The 
article has been handled before, but nowhere so 
severely as here. One wonders what has brought 
Professor Schmiedel to the front. The word 
' certain,' one of the most induential words in the 
English language, has done much for him. 'The 
section,' says Professor Schmiedel (one example 
will do), 'in which, as an eye-witness, the writer 
gives his narrative in the first person plural 
(len"-" 2o=-'5 z|i-" 27I 28") may be implicitly 
accepted. But it may be regarded as equally 
certain that they are not by the same writer as the 
Other parts of the book.' Says the reviewer in the 
Church Quarterly: 'It would be perfectly legiti- 
mate for any Christian apologist to maintain the 
thesis that St. Paul wrote the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, and if his arguments were good they 
would demand respectful attention ; but if he be- 
gan by asserting that the Pauline authorship was 
certain he would be looked upon as a writer who 
did not know what he was talking about.' 

As Mr. Miltigan showed in his paper in The 
Expository Times last month. Professor Har- 
nack's contributions toward the problem of the 
Western Text are against its priority. He does 
not agree with Professor Blass that that text, 
represented by Codex Bezfe, is St. Luke's first 
draft. The best summary of the arguments 
against Professor Blass's theory will be found in 

n appendix to the new edition of Mr. Page's 

'rti (Macniillan). 

Mr. Fisher Unwin is going to publish a cheapei 
edition of the ' Story of the Nations ' Series on the 
instalment plan. The prospectus should be sen: 
for; it is attractive. 

A beautiful and most useful booklet has been 
published by Messrs. Mabie, Todd, & Bard, the 
manufacturers of the ' Swan ' pen. It is called the 
'Swan Pen Christmas Shopping List.' It contains 
an alphabetical list of all likely gifts for Christmas, 
and space to enter the names of those for whom 
gifts are to be bought, as well as the articles and 
their price. It costs nothing, and is sent post 
free from 93 Cheapside. 

The author of an article in the Church Quarterly 
Review for October on Bishop Westcott says that 
he well remembers the Bishop's horror on dis- 
covering in Blass's New Testament Greek the 
statement that St. Luke used a particular tense 
because he liked rolling, loud-sounding words. 
He did not make the mistake of supposing that 
there is no difference between Classical and 
Hellenistic Greek ; but he maintained that each 
had its own exactness ; that in neither were words 
or tenses used indiscriminately ; and that there 
was no excuse for neglecting any minute detail 
that could possibly be induced to yield a 

The same writer says that the letters which 
passed between Westcott and Hort while they 
were engaged on the text of the New Testament 
are still in existence, and he hopes that some of 
them may yet see the light. 

Printed b]p Mobkison & Gibb Liuitbd, TtmBeld WDrki,ud 
Published bj T. 4 T. Clark, 38 GeoTge Street, Edin- 
bnreh. It u leqaoied that all titerarf cotnamiiicaliooi 
be addteucd to Thb Editok, la Clarcndoa TcnMC, 

Dundee. Ij rri-r- h, X^H,'»> ''J L*^ 


Qtofeet of fS^tunt ^Bjcfoeiiion. 

The volume for igoi of Hennathena has been 
published. It contains two articles of biblical 
interest. The one is by Dr. Eagar of Dublin on 
the 'Hellenic Element in the Epistle to the 
Hebrews.' The other is by Dr. J. H. Bernard on 
the ' Greek MSS used by St. Jerome.' We hope 
to return to both. Meantime let us be content 
to mention a footnote to Dr. Eagar's paper. 

Through the whole Greek of the New Testa- 
ment, says Dr. Eagar, there is a strongly marked 
difference in meaning between the words Heaven 
and Heavens {aipavot and oipavoi). The diifer- 
ence, he says, is clearly seen in the Lord's 
Prayer, though it is not shown in our English 
versions. The first clause of the prayer is ' Our 
Father which art in the heavens' {Iv rait oipavait). 
If the clause read ' in heaven ' the meaning would 
be, says Dr. Eagar, exacily as in Robert Buchanan's 
' Devil's Prayer ' : ' Our Father, who in heaven art 
— not here.' 

For 'heaven' in the singular is contrasted with 
the earth, as in the third petition : ' Thy will be 
done in earth as in heaven ' (tv ahpav^. But 
'the heavens' include all places of God's do- 
minions, terrestrial as welt as celestial; and we 
are taught to pray to our Father who is in the 

vou xni.— 3. 

heavens that are here as well as there, upon the 
earth as well as in the sky. 

Dr. Blass has published his edition of the 
Gospel of St. Matthtw, and Mr. Burkitt has re- 
viewed it in the Clasiical Rtview for November. 
Mr. Burkitt reviews it unfavourably. He has 
no pleasure in unfavourable reviewing, and in this 
case he dislikes it exceedingly. For he knows 
that Dr. Blass is a great scholar, who has done 
great things for New Testament scholarship, and 
that he has spent much labour and ingenuity on 
this work in particular. But Dr. Blass's St. 
Matthew contains a text of bis own formation, 
and Mr. Burkitt believes neither in the text 
itself nor in the principles on which it has been 

Mr, Burkitt once saw a letter in which Dr. 
Hort wrote something about one of Tischen- 
dorfs many editions of the New Testament. ' He 
still thinks,' wrote Dr. Hort, ' that he may read 
exactly as he pleases.' That judgment, in Mr. 
Burkitt's opinion, would now apply to Dr. 
Blass. Not that he ever accepts or rejects a 
reading without a reason. But the reasons that 
appeal to him are not those that would appeal to 
anyone else, since they rest on literary or even 


religious fitness, as often as on documentary 

Mr. Burkitt gives Matthew 17" as an example. 
St. Peter is commanded to go to the sea and cast 
his net and take the first fish that comes up, 'and,' 
says the Lord, ' when thou hast opened his mouth, 
thou shall find a shekel ' (rvprjtrtii urar^pa). Dr. 
Blass omits the words ' when thou hast opened 
his mouth,' and then changes 'thou shall find a 
shekel' into 'it will fetch a shekel wAen sold' 
(tupjJo-H erroT^pa). For this reading, which con- 
veniently gets rid of the miracle, Dr. Blass claims 
the support of St. Chrysostom. But Mr, fiurkiit 
shows that St. Chrysostom is a hearty believer in 
the miracle, in which he sees as clear a proof of 
Christ's power over the sea as when He made 
Peter walk on the waves. Mr. Burkitt himself 
is willing to let any miracle go, as soon as textual 
or any other criticism pronounces against it. But 
as there is no evidence whatever against this par- 
ticular miracle, outside Dr. filass's fancy, he is 
compelled for the present to retain it. 

At the end of the twelfth chapter the Book of 
Acts is divided into two parts. Mr. Rackham, 
in his new commentary, noticed on another page, 
calls the first part the Acts of Peter, the second 
the Acts of Paul, It is a question whether v,**, 
which is the last, belongs to St. Peter or St. Paul. 
In favour of its belonging to the Acts of Paul is 
the fact that the previous verse contains St. 
Luke's formula for closing a section: 'The word 
of God grew and multiplied.' But the question 
is really decided by the choice we make between 
two disputed readings. 

According to the Received Greek Text and the 
Authorized Version, ' Barnabas and Saul returned 
from Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their 
ministry, and took with them John whose sur- 
name was Mark.' The Revised Version makes 
only two insignificant changes. But some MSS 
read ' Barnabas and Saul returned fo Jerusalem,' 

and among them are the Vatican (B) and the 
Sinaitic (n), the two MSS which were followed 
by the Revisers almost everywhere else where 
they agree. Why were they not followed here? 

They were not followed here, because for once 
they seemed to unite in contradicting common 
sense. In the end of chapter 11 it is stated 
that Barnabas and Saul were sent from Antioch 
to bring relief to the brethren that dwelt in 
Judsa. At this point St. Luke inserts the 
murder of James and the escape of Peter. Then 
he returns to Barnabas and Saul, and says, in v.^, 
that when they had fulfilled their ministry to the 
poor brethren in Judsea, they returned — the great 
MSS say to Jerusalem, but surely the little MSS 
are right for once, which say that they returned 
from Jerusalem, which is the capital of Judaea, to 
their own headquarters in Antioch. 

Mr. Rackham does not believe that the little 
MSS are right. He believes that this verse 
belongs to the Acts of Peter. Jerusalem and 
not Antioch is still the centre of the history. It 
is therefore the natural form of expression to say 
as yet, even of Barnabas and Saul, that they 
returned or came home to Jerusalem. With the 
first verse of the next chapter the scene is changed. 
Thereafter Antioch is the Church's home, and 
the apostles will be found returning always thither. 

But does not St. Luke say that it was when 
they had fulfilled this ministry (hat they returned ? 
The ministry being to the brethren in Judsea, it 
would be exercised chiefly in Jerusalem. How 
could they return to Jerusalem after they had 

Mr. Rackham tells us that if we had observed 
St. Luke's style more closely, we should not have 
been troubled with that difiiculiy. St. Luke is 
fond of using participles. He expresses his chief 
fact by a finite verb, and then adds other facts in 
participles. These participles must be taken in 
order. Accordingly the correct translation here 



is this : ' They returned to Jerusalem and fulfilled 
their ministry and took with them John.* This 
habit of Luke's style, he says, was missed very 
early. The meaning of the verse was lost The 
sense seemed to demand ^from Jerusalem,' and 
the change was accordingly made. But the great 
MSS were either too early or too faithful to make 
the change, and they are once more found on the 
side of the purest text and the most appropriate 
mean! ng. 

The Jewish Quarterly Review for October con- 
tains a review by Mr. Claude Montefiore of an 
American volume of sermons. The writer of the 
sermons is a well-known, almost notorious. Rabbi 
of Philadelphia, Dr. Joseph Krauskopf. The 
volume is called A Rabbi's Impressions of the 
Oierammergau Passion Play. 

Rabbi Krauskopf was interested in the Passion 
Play because of the part played in it by the Jews. 
He understood that the Jews were represented as 
playing a black part in the Passion. He believed 
that that was a misTeprescntation, and that it was 
doing injury to the cause of Judaism throughout 
the world. So he went to Oberammergau himself 

When Dr. Krauskopf reached Oberammergau 
and saw the Passion Play, he found that he had 
not been told half of the dark and dastardly things 
(hat were attributed to the Jews. He was much 
distressed. The representation he believed to be 
a complete misrepresentation. And he relumed 
to America to show that he had witnessed the 
Play with eyes of rare discernment and to de- 
nounce its evil influence in language of rare, 

Mr. Claude Montefiore reviews the sermons 
with sympathy. He had heard strange things of 
Dr. KrauskopC He calls the report of ' the sort 
of things which Dr. Krauskopf is wont to say' 
Jabuious nonsense. These are the sermons of a 
Jew who is a Jew indeed. It is true that ' a strong 

liberal or reform position ' is taken up ; it is true 
that 'Jesus is spoken of with high reverence and 
honour.' But these are not things that are likely 
to offend Mr. Montefiore. 'Sermons,' .he says, 
' more emphatically Jewish, it would be impossible 
to find.' 

What then does this emphatically Jewish 
preacher, with his reverence and honour for 
Jesus, think of the Jews of our Lord's day and 
their attitude to Him? He thinks that they 
have been entirely misrepresented and maligned. 
He saw the misrepresentation in the Passion 
Play, But the Passion Play rests on the Gospels. 
He believes that in the Gospels there is a double 
and dreadful misrepresentation — a misrepresenta- 
tion of the actual Jesus and a misrepresentation 
of the actual Jews. 

Dr. Krauskopf believes that the actual Jesus 
of Nazareth was a very different person from the 
Jesus of the Gospels. 'There is not a word of 
truth,' he says, 'in all these trumped-up charges 
against the Rabbis, in all the Gospel-recorded 
bitterness of Jesus against the Scribes and Phari- 
sees, or of the Scribes and Pharisees against 
Jesus.' 'If there ever was a time,' he says, 
' when peace was needed among Israel itself, that 
was the time; and if ever there was a man to 
knit the people in closest bond of mutual sym- 
pathy and helpfulness in the hour of the country's 
direst distress, Jesus was that man. Not he the 
man to brand the teachers of his people " hypo- 
crites," " scorpions," " whiled sepulchres." There 
was not enough of gall in him to force sucli 
words to his lips. He who preached to love 
the enemy, to bless those that curse, to do good 
to those that harm, to resist no evil, certainly 
could not harm or curse them that had not 
harmed or cursed. From his earliest childhood 
at his mother's breast he had drunk in the Jew's 
reverence of the teacher in Israel, of the judge 
who judges in God's stead ; and in all his studies 
of the history of Israel he had not come across 
a time when the teachers of Israel were more 


deserving of reverence than in that age that pro- 
duced a Fhito, a Hillel, a Gamaliel, a Jochanan 

Jesus and the Pharisees were therefore never 
in opposition. Jesus ' never preached a doctrine, 
advocated a reform, that was not strictly Jewish.' 
'There was nothing that Jesus ever preached that 
had not the heartiest endorsement of the Rabbis 
of Israel. Not a precept that he ever uttered 
that had not proven him a Hebrew of the Hebrews. 
His every word breathes of the religious and moral 
and social atmosphere of his time. His every act 
is the translation into deed of the aspirations of 
the pious and cultured Jew in the days of Pales- 
tine's bondage under the cruel Roman. His 
every teaching with regard to the Scribes and 
Rabbis, members of the Sanhedrin, was that they 
sit in Moses' seat, and whatsoever they bid that 
should be done. His very manner of teaching, 
his aphorisms and quotations, bis parables and 
illustrations, is the manner of the Rabbis of his 
time. Not a reform principle that he taught 
which they had not taught; not a ceremonial 
abuse to which he objected which they had not 
objected to ; tiot an ethical lesson that he enjoined 
which they had not enjoined ; not a prayer that 
he offered which they had not offered ; the very 
Lord's Prayer was a specimen of the kind of 
prayer they prayed ; the very " Golden Rule " 
was the rule taught in every school.' 

How is it then that the Gospels have come 
so utterly to misrepresent Jesus and the Rabbis 
and the relations between them ? It is because, 
in Dr. Krauskopfs opinion, they are of quite 
late production. They do not actually reflect the 
time of Jesus, because they do not belong to it. 
They reflect the ideas of the times in which they 
were written. The 'bitter denunciation of the 
teachers of Israel,' contained in the Gospels, ' is the 
language of the later-day Romanized vindictive 
theologians of the Church militant.' 

But here Mr. Montefiore finds himself out of 

touch with Dr. Krauskopf. The accepted date, 
says Mr. Montefiore, for the Gospel of Mark, 
is 70 to 80 A.D., which at the latest (and evec 
Mr. Montefiore's date is much later than ^c 
accepted date in his own country) is only fiftj 
years from the life of Jesus. The picture or 
Jesus and of the Rabbis is complete in the Gospe! 
of Mark : where do you find time for the ' late- 
day Romanized vindictive theolc^ans of the 
Church militant'? 

And even if you make the Gospels as late 15 
Dr. Krauskopf does, how are you to separate tiv 
truth from the error that is in them ? Mr. Monte 
tiore finds that Dr. Krauskopf follows the metho- 
of all the late-dating critics of every school 
> Whatever Jesus says in favour of the Law and 
of the Rabbis is true and authentic ; passage 
which point the other way are unhislorical.' Ak 
more than that, he finds that Dr. Krauskop:- 
Jesus, Uke the Jesus of the late-dating critics, isj 
historical impossibility, 'The Jesus of Dr. 
Krauskopf,' he says, 'might have been a mildc 
and gentler man than the Jesus of the Synoptit 
Gospels, but, in spite of Paul, such a Jesus wi: 
not and could not have been the founder a 
Christianity. Not even all the " parallels " drawn 
up by Dr. Krauskopf between Talmud and Ke« 
Testament will suffice to destroy the originaliii 
of the " Man of Naiareth." Without a Jest., 
who in hfe and tenets was not a mere replica 
of any other contemporary Rabbi, the Gospel.; 
are an even greater puzzle than before.' 

As for himself, Mr. Montefiore cannot sk 
that the r61e ascribed to the Jews in the Gospel.- 
is so very improbable. Jesus claimed to be the 
Messiah. He failed to show then {Mr. Monte- 
fiore thinks He has failed to show yet) that the 
Old Testament passages on which he based hit 
claim could possibly have applied to him. He 
asserted or admitted that he was the 'Son ci 
God' in some special or peculiar sense whic 
made it an assertion or admission of blasphemi 
to his hearers. If they did not adroit hi^ 


Messiahsttip, why should they have believed in 
his Divinity? If they did not believe in his 
Divinity, why should they not, with their intense 
and passionate monotheism have shown theii 
hatred of a blasphemer? Therefore, concludes 
Mr. MonCefiore, 'though there is doubtless a 

great deal of exaggeration of theatrical effect and 
of designed contrast between light and darkness, 
good and bad, in the alleged behaviour of the 
Jews at the catastrophe at Jerusalem, the main 
outlines seem to me neither antecedently improb- 
able nor morally atrocious.' 

Bv Professor N. Glouhokovskv, Thk EccLKsusTrcAL Academy, St. Petersburc. 

The Gospels are the law books of the New 
Testament. The word tiayyiXiov (good tidings) 
in the ancient classic Greek, as used by Homer, 
Aristotle, Plutarch, meant properly a reward for 
good news, in token of gratitude and as an 
expression of mental satisfaction, especially in 
relation to the gods; and, further, every com- 
munication itself which contained something 
agreeable. Both these nuances of meaning— 
' a reward ' and ' glad tidings ' — are found in the 
LXX when the Greek translators of the Old 
Testament render the Hebrew word btsorah (i S 
31*, 3 S 4" 1%"^- -"■ ■■^- ", 2 K 7*), as well as in 
the works of Cicero, Josephus, etc 

But besides this use, the word ttoyy«Aioc pre- 
ferentially and in its strict sense was applied in 
the Old Testament to the Messianic prophecies 
which announced the New Testament kingdom 
of inner peace and of release from the burthen 
of sin (Is 40' 51^ 60' 61'-'), Therefore goiptt 
ivas for a Jew chiefly prediction respecting the 
glorious coming of the Messiah — the promised 
Reconciler. Quite naturally, when the latter 
made His appearance in the person of out Lord 
Jesus Christ, this term was made use of (comp. 
Ac 13'*, I Co 9") in order to point out what 
He had done for the salvation of mankind. In 
this case 'gospel ' marks off the fact itself — 'great 
Joy' (Lk 11"). 'the mystery' (Eph 6i») of the 
redemption by 'the power of God' (Ro i") for 
' salvation' (Eph i") and 'pacification ' (Eph6"'), 
'through the grace' (Ac zo-*), in 'the kingdom' 
<Mt 4** 9"* 14") 'of God' (Mk i"), which the 
believer ought lo enter with hearty obedience 
<Ro lo", 2 Th I*) and a contrite recognition of 
his sinful weakness (Mk i'^), through an effort 

(Ph i") of self-sacrificing (z Ti i*) declaration 
(Ac 20**) of his gospel hope (i Co 9^'), of the 
eternal (comp. Rev 14*) 'glory of the great God' 
(i Ti i"; comp. 4*) and 'Christ '(2 Co 4'). In 
fine, 'gospel' is 'the coming of God the Word, 
even the Lord Jesus Christ, who for the salvation 
of the human race was incarnate of the Holy 
Ghost and of the Virgin Mary.' 

But if the word 'gospel' denotes properly the 
historical work of the salvation of mankind, only 
the Lord Jesus Christ may be called properly the 
author of it. An evangelist may be so called only 
as it can be gathered from Christ's own words 
(Lk 4'*, Mt ii<-*; comp. Lk i^\ and from 
testimonies both of the New Testament (Mt 9^ ; 
comp. 4^^, Mk 1") and Church writers (St. 
Ignatius, Trail. lo"). And, indeed, the gospel is 
called the gospel of the Son of God (Ro 1*), the 
gospel of Jesus Christ (Mk 1^; comp. Ro 15^^ 
Gal 1^, Ph i^^), and from its original source in 
God, the gospel of God (Ro i' is'*> * Co n', 
I Th 1 1^- 8- », I P 4"). 

It is, however, perfectly natural to find that this 
term soon began to be transferred also to the 
accounts of Christ's work in all its details, — all the 
more readily that the Saviour Himself so designated 
the announcement of certain episodes of His life 
upon earth (Mt 24'* 26" ; comp. Mk 14* ; comp. 
Jn 12*). It is not difficult then to see how and 
why reminiscences of the apostles not only spoken 
but written, began to be called ' Gospels ' (St. Justin 
the Martyr, ist Apol. chap. 66). It is quite possible 
that the books of the Gospels obtained this appella- 
tion very early; it is at least found to have been 
used by almost all the original codices both of 
the Greek and versions, and St. John Chiysostom 


{Dis^. Matt. L 2) distinctly asseits that ' Matthew 
has justly called his work Gospel' 

From the foregoing it follows thnt the first four 
books of the New Testament are named the 
Gospels on account, and in the sense, of their 
proclaiming ('evangelizing') good tidings (iv- 
ayycAxov) of the redemption of mankind through 
Christ, the incarnate Son of God, as of an especial 
act of God's love and grace (comp. Eph 11*). 
And inasmuch as our Christian faith is based 
entirely thereon (comp. Lk 1*), the Gospels are in 
a perfectly legitimate way considered as 'funda- 
mental ' records of the New Testament canon. 

This definition is of great importance for a 
correct and scientific comjirehension and apprecia- 
tion of the written Gospels. In their subject- 
matter they have in view the same object which 
our Saviour Himself pursued in His activity, and 
consequently they only narrate that which has a 
direct relation thereto. Their aim is practical 
soteriology ; everything that goes beyond its limits 
is omitted by the God-inspired writers (Jn 20*" 
zi'^). St. Luke, it is true, expresses his intention 
of writing everything in order, but only that Theo- 
philus ' might know the certainty concerning the 
things wherein he was instructed ' (i^"*). Therefore, 
the books of the Gospels strictly so called, are 
not a historical and biographical work ; therein 
lies the key to a right comprehension of their 
character and great importance They endeavour 
to describe for us the personality and the work of 
Christ as our Redeemer. One can easily understand 
that in carrying out such a plan many facts in the 
human existence of the Lord were considered as 
mere accessories. 

It is in this sense that the Apostle Paul 
persistently calls his preaching of the good 
tidings concerning Christ the Saviour gospel, 
and in so far as this preaching was true, and 
in its exposition precisely expressed, the actual 
fact of Christ's redemption in the fullest authen- 
ticity, power, and depth (i Co 15', Gal i" z^), 
he himself, as it were, becomes identical with the 
Lord, and appropriates this gospel in the quality 
of his own (to tharffiKtov fiov, Ro a" 16^, 2 Ti 
Z* ; TO €iayyikiov ^fiwi', 2 Co 4*, I Th l', 2 Th 
z"). This trait is most characteristic in all 
respects ; so that in speaking about the teaching 
of St. Paul it is necessary to retain the term 
'gospel,' which shows at once and faithfully all 
'he peculiarities of ' preaching among the Gentiles,' 

and seU aside all kinds of misrepresentations (rot 
instance, the period of infancy as leading to that 
of manhood), since out of the facts of His inanifotd 
activity those things alone must have been seleaed 
which particularly expressed it. Therefore, in tht 
narration of His sojourn among men, that only was 
important and necessary which characterized Him 
especially from this point of view, showing Him to 
beGodlncamate, Saviour of the world, which madt 
it clear to every one that He was the Redeemer. 
Under this condition only was it possible adequateif 
to conceive His God-man personality, inasmuch u 
in the salvation of mankind are to be looked for 
the starting-point, the life-long principle, and tte 
terminating point of His life on earth. Isolaidi 
facts had to be made use of only for this end, and 
thus we find in our canonical Gospels that ever? 
writer, pursuing his practical objects and makiih; 
his book subservient to the benefit of his readers. 
presents his own delineation of Christ as li- 
Saviour of men, and touches upon everything elK 
solely on account of its connexion, tangericy, and 
relation to this the chief point. Thus the Gospel. 
being neither a yearly chronicle nor a biograpbv, 
is an entire and objective reproduction of the 
work of Christ, illuminated by an idea which 
constitutes its inalienable essence, and therefore 
fully develops it- 

From this point of view one cannot fael;> 
characterizing as an obscuration and a reversal 
of the true ideal of the gospel-story, and as an 
entire loss of a correct conception respecting it 
all the latest of the apocryphal Gospels which 
endeavour to fill up the gap, as if it had not been 
purposely formed by the Synoptics and St. John, 
with legends of the period of the infancy of Christ 
the Saviour, with narrations of His life, which 
frequently appear monstrous and absurd and so 
forth.' For that very reason we believe that the 

' Apocryphal Gosjiels are those sloiies of the Life i- 
Christ (he Suviour which were either not recogniied nr 
were rejected by the Church as not deserving credence. 
fabulous and even thoroughly ioipioas and heretical. Their 
number is very corniderable. Even Fabricius counted i- 
many as lifly, nod now this total must be raised still rurlber : 
thus in 1892 the Greek fragments of the Gospel of $.:. 
Peter were discovered in Egypt, and made a great sensation 
in Western theological literature. Several similar fragments 
were also preserved in (be old Slavonian ' secret ' Kleraturt. 
.Some of the apocryphal Gospels are as old as the third, 
perhaps even the second century, but at all events it bu 
not been proved beyond doubt that even one of these might 
be accounted older Ihan the canonical Gospels. The mou 



actual Life of Christ, the God-man, cannot possibly 
be written, although attempts of t^e kind and 
under such a title are to be met with in Russian 
literature, not to speak of their striking multitude 
abroad (Strauss, Renan, Keim, Weiss, Beyschlag, 
Farrar, Didon, etc.). 

The Gospel, as the work 0} Christ, proceeded 
from, and can only belong to, the Lord Himself, 
and may not have other 'authors.' This explains 
all the peculiarities in the superseriptiom of our 
canonical Gospels. First of all, we must accept 
the opinion of St. John Chrysostom (Discourses 
OH Rom. i. 1 ; Matt, i. 2) that Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John did not write their names; the 
superscriptions have come into use afterwards, 
although not much later, as we have to conclude 
from the testimonies of Tertullian ( Vers. Marcion, 
iv- »), Irenxus {Vers. Heresies, iii. 11), Clement of 
Alexandria {Strom. \. 21), and the Fragment of 
Muratori (i. 3). At the same time it is perfectly 
natural that the designation of the evangelists 
could not be made in the form of 'genitivus 
auctoris ' or ' possessivus,' inasmuch as the author 
of the Gospel was Christ, Consequenlly preference 
was given to a complex form, EuayycXtov Kara 
Mar^cuov, Mi^mcov, Aovkoi', Imavv))!', — according tO 
Matthew, Mark, etc. In accordance with the 
character of the Gospels, this formula would 
precisely express the substance of the matter, if 
it be amplified as follows: — 'The Gospel of our 
Lord Jesus Christ according to the exposition {as 
related in writing) by Matthew.' The authorship 
of the evangelists would evidently not be ex- 
cluded thereby, and, consequently, some savants 
(Kruedener, Renan, Volkmar, Reuss, HolzmannJ 
have no ground for finding therein support for 
their notion that our canonical Gospels were 
made up in accordance with the tradition only or 

important or them are : The Pioto-Evingel ol James 
(25 chaps, from ihe time of tbe Annunciation af 
the birth of the Theotokos 10 the Massacre of Innocent! 
at Bethlehem) ; The Gospel of Pseud -Matthew, or The 
Book of Birth of the all-boly hiary and of the Childhood 
of the Saviour {42 chaps.) ; The Gospel of the Birth of 
Mary (10 chaps.): The Ilislury of Joseph the Carpenter 
(32 chaps.) ; Tbe Gospel of Thomas (in fragments relating 
in chaps. 19, 21, and 35 the Life of Christ from the Flight 
into Egypt until the Twelfth Year) ; Arabian Gospel of 
Virginity ; The Gospel of Nicodemus (consisting of the 
Acts of I'jtate and of the Descent of Christ into Hades) ; 
The Report of Pilate ; The Gospel of the Hebrews j The 
Eternal Gospel ; The Gospel of Andrew, of the Twelve 
Apostles, of Barnabas, of Bartholomew, and so forth. 

built up en the basis of original notes of the persons 
whose names they now bear. 

If the gospel is, strictly speaking, the work of 
redemption, it can, like every hbtorical event, be 
one only {Adamantius) ; that is why St. Irenseus 
{Vers. Heres. iii. 8) speaks only of 5 rtrpanapifxnr 
tiayyiXwy — a four-osfiected gospel (comp. Hieroni- 
mus on John xxxvi. 1 ; Sermon ccxxxi. i, de Util. 
crtd. 7), and St. John Chrysostom of one according 
to four {^o. Ttatrafum' h). And vrith regard to the 
quadruple number of the Gospels, the ancient 
Church authorities (Origen, Augustine, John 
Chrysostom) asserted that thereby is pointed oat 
the necessary fulness in the exposition of the 
subject, authenticity and sUbility of the delinea- 
tion, as well as the universality of the good 
tidings. On account of such considerations as 
this, the holy Irenseus {Vers. Iferes.'m. 11) deemed 
the present the only self-sufficient quantity, and 
rightly judged it 'vain, irrational, and extremely 
presumptuous to attempt to introduce greater or 
smaller forms of the Gospels.' And when we 
carefully examine into the contents of the 
canonical Gospels, we can easily discover that 
they contain the life of Christ, from all points of 
view, in forms adapted to all racial subdivisions, 
and answering all questions that human intellect 
can raise, and by their mutual agreement with 
some differences in details, they convince us of 
their historical truth (St, John Chrysostom). 

In this general outline there remains still im- 
touched the question of the origin and mutual 
relation of the canonical Gospels. In the Western 
negative and sceptical literature it has become 
very complicated, and has given birth to such a 
multitude of t:ompIex, original, and fanciful 
theories that only one who is well versed in the 
subject can help feeling bewildered amongst them. 
But at the bottom of all these ragings and re- 
searches lies, strictly speaking, the distrust of the 
fact itself in that supernatural form in which it is 
presented in our Gospels; from this springs the 
endeavour to amplify and to write a literary history 
of the Gospels in accordance with the originals, 
and in different forms ; from this also flow the 
efforts to dismiss, to deform, and to explain away 
ancient testimonies in favour of Church-tradition, 
etc. But the very diversity and mutual contra- 
diction of these attempts, the indefinite arbitrary 
character and instability of their construction, 
prove that these savants do not stand upon a sure, 


firm, and safe ground. Before the tribunal of true 
science the proposition that our Gospels were 
written by Saints Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 
and appeared, the first three in the second half of 
[he tint century, and the last either at the end of 
the first or not later than the very first years of the 
second, would stand firmly for ever. It is of greater 
importance to note that the first three Gospels, 
differing somewhat from the fourth, resemble one 
another in an extraordinary degree, both with 
regard to the scope, the contents, and the treat- 
ment of the narrative. That is why they are not 
infrequently called in scientific terminology, synop- 
tical, and their writers synoptics, whose narrations 
could be disposed in parallel lines. To explain 
this fact different savants offered (i) the hy- 
pothesis of an oral primordial Gospel of a stereo- 
typed form, which with slight modifications was 
reproduced in our written Gospels ; (a) the hy- 

pothesis of a written proto-evangelium, which was 
rewritten by the synoptics ; (3) the hypothesis of 
mutual use by the evangelists of the work of each 
other, and so forth. No undoubted conclusions 
can be reached in this direction on account of 
absence of direct and sure data. It is only certain 
that at the foundation of our Gospels are laid 
personal observations and oral communications of 
eye-witnesses of the life and work of Christ. 
Naturally, all the information of the kind was 
sacredly preserved by Christians on — so far as it 
was possible — strictly inviolate conditions both as 
regards the form and contents. Nevertheless, 
literary approximation of the synoptic Gospels 
permits of the admission that the Synoptics mutu- 
ally knew the writings of one another, namely, Mark . 
that of Matthew, Luke both that of Matthew and 
of Mark, as it has already been expressed by 
blessed Augustine {De cons. ev. \. 1). 

15<»|>p»«<«« Oii t%t ZaUi — «n6 ^\itx.' 

: Rev. A. C. Mackenzie, M.A., Dundee. 

We have had, I believe, a joyous and profitable 
Communion season, and we are all here, I trust, to 
give glory to God through Jesus Christ. Whether 
or not the individual experience has in every case 
been of this joyous kind, I must for the purposes 
of my text assume it to have been so. And in 
any case we can easily imagine it to be so, for we 
have a common experience of humanity. Christian 
and unchristian alike, to ^o upon. We have all 
at some time or other been present on a festive 
occasion which we have very much enjoyed. Our 
pulses beat faster, our spirits rose with the occasion, 
and our whole being was suffused with an inde- 
scribable feeling which we usually express by 
saying that we greatly enjoyed ourselves. 

The day after, when we have brought it all to 
the clear, cold light of reflection, we sometimes 
wonder what it was that we did enjoy. The lights, 
the music, the viands, the decorations, the com- 
pany, the feast of reason, the flow of soul, — all 

' tiiven ala post-Cotnmunion service, l8(h Ociober 1901, 

' For as the sufTeringfs of Christ abound unto ua, erm 
ao our comfort also aboundeth tfaroo^h Christ —2 Cor. 


these we pass through the mind in turn, but our 
account of the occasion is unsatisfactory till we 
combine with these a something that we cannot 
name — the festal spirit of the hour which ex- 
l^ressed itself through the whole. It does not 
diminish our sense of the enjoyment nor make our 
memory of it pale, that we may not be able satis- 
factorily to account for it, but if we could lay our 
finger upon the true cause of it, we could again 
evoke the same joyous spirit to repeat the ex- 

Now in Christian joy the Communion is a thing 
that a man may feel as he feels the warmth of 
sunshine without being able to account for n. But 
Christian joy in any of its phases is not a vague 
and formless, still less a baseless, thing. It has 
roots and foundations which can be laid bare. As 
Christians we arc expected to be able to render a 
reason for the faith that is in us, and as Christian 
communicants we should be able to say not only 
that we were happy at the Table, but also why we 



were happy there and look forward to being happy 

In trying to do this — to get at the bases of 
Christian joy in Communion — we are faced at once 
with an obstruction. There is a stone at the 
mouth of the cave which some of us may not be 
able without assistance to remove. I think St. 
Paul helps us here and puts a lever into our hand 
to uplift and remove it. He is speaking in the 
text of the abounding towards us of the sufferings 
of Christ. The stone in our way is this. The 
sufferings of Christ we know were the deepest that 
He could undergo. There was no lower depth that 
a suffering man could then touch than to be 
crucified as an evil-doer and in the company of 
«vil-doers. There was no baser form of death 
then known than crucifixion. We know that to 
the natural horrors of crucifixiDn was added un- 
speakable spiritual distress. One might be cruci- 
fied in a good conscience, knowing oneself to 
be innocent, and bear up under it wonderfully, 
just as martyrs in every cause have borne similar 
tortures in a frame of moral triumph and even in 
spiritual ecstasy. But no such experience was 
Christ's. It was not a martyr's but an evil-doer's 
death that Christ died. God and man abandoned 
Him to that, for in some way there was ' laid upon 
Him the iniquity of us all.' He suffered in a 
darkness inward and outward. All this is plain 
«nough and simple enough until we place other 
facts beside it. 

CruciGxion, execrable as it was, and slow as the 
torture it produced was, is not the most horrible 
torture that the malignant ingenuity of man has 
devised. There are deaths that are slower and 
more horrible. There arc sufferings that are more 
prolonged than Christ's. The years of Christ's 
earthly ministry were few in comparison with the 
long-drawn-out pains, bodily and spiritual, of many 
of His own followers even, and of others like the 
Fakirs of India. Men have died in a prolonged 
agony of spiritual distress, self-condemnation, 
inward agonies of the soul, up to the full measure 
of their powers of endurance. The Cains who 
have groaned ' my punishment is greater than I can 
bear ' have in all the ages been many. None of 
them is a saviour of mankind, none of their deaths 
is commemorated with joy as this death is. We 
honour the noble army of martys, but we are not 
joyful at remembrance of their sufferings. We turn 
away from their miserable ends with relief. Why 

do we continue and why have millions of men 
for nearly 2000 years continued to remember tkis 
one death with joy, and to give praise to God the 
Father and deep homage and worship to His Son 
on account of it t What gives weight to this stone 
of obstruction is this : here were sufferings neither 
so prolodged nor so awful as we have elsewhere 
beard of. Why should they be so fruitful that instead 
of turning away from them we sing Psalms of 
praise for them and meditate upon them in the 
night-watches ? As Christians we rejoice with 
trembling. It is a hope with us that we may 
rejoice with intelligence also and praise God with 
the understanding. 

Th6 angels that have come to our help and have 
not been able to roll away the stone are the theories 
which have come into the minds of men to explain 
this suffering and our joyous attitude towards 
it. One is that although the sufferings were less 
'abounding' than those of some others, the Sufferer 
was of such transcendent dignity that a particle 
of them might weigh against tons of the suffer- 
ings of ordinary human beings. I am afraid that 
this will not help us much. The lever is too 
short, the fulcrum too low. In plain English it 
suggests that a few hours of divine suffering is 
enough to outweigh the sins of the world in all 
ages, enough- to put away transgressions for ever 
and ever. Plainly this will not do. Allow for the 
transcendent dignity and all that can be said or 
thought about that, and you still leave an outrage 
upon common sense. 

But here comes another angel with a tale more 
plausible. The Christ is suffering still, sinners 
prolong and multiply the suffering. In their 
Communion with Him they reproduce in even more 
terrible forms the pangs of crucifiKion. They 
literally eat the flesh, they drink the blood of 
Christ. In other words, we are asked to believe 
by this expedient of inexorable Roman l(%ic that 
OUT Saviour is literally dying daily, hourly, moment- 
arily, and enduring penalties which fiends incarnate 
might congratulate themselves upon having 
invented. The Mass puts a bloody lever into 
our hands, but again it is too short If it lifts 
one stone out of our way, it plants a more mighty 
one right across the path. There are other 
so-called angels of deliverance, but these are the 
chief among them. 

All the while St. Paul is waiting for us. And 
his angel is so sweet and calm of countenance, so 


obvious too, that we wonder why we had not 
observed him. Before he speaks of sufTerings, St 
Paul speaks of comfons (v.*), and of what one 
might call the natural increase of comforts : God 
comforting us and we in turn comforting others, 
God's comfort bearing interest and compound in- 
terest. This is what he means. And here is an 
illustration of it. In the ordinary course of duty 
a trained nurse was sent to attend a rich man in 
his last illness, which was a peculiarly painful one. 
Some difficulty was experienced in procuring the 
nurse. After the rich man's death, his widow was 
so impressed with the comfort of having a trained 
nurse in such circumstances, and felt so much for 
those who might be unable to get one that, in 
memory of the comfort, she gave a large sum 
to establish a home for such nurses where people 
in want of them could be instantly supplied. 
This was the compound interest of comfort. And 
if one cared to inquire into the secret history of 
hundreds of comforting institutions and endow- 
ments, one could find similar records. Hospitals, 
and beds in hospitals and endowments in hos- 
pitals (to mention only one channel of comfort), 
are monuments erected to the comfort experienced 
by individuals and communities from God Him- 
self. 'The pious founder,' as we used in better 
days to call him, was one who was himself com- 
forted of God. And so up and down the scale of 
works of mercy. Now there is an interest and 
compound interest both in the sufferings and 
the comforts of Christ. SufTering on behalf of 
others, and suffering even unto death and unto 
hard violent, long-drawn-out death for others, has 
become so common an occurrence that we cease 
to regard it as a prodigy of Christian valour or 
virtue. We spend and are spent in the service of 
our brethren and of the world, and no one thinks 
of giving us any praise for it. They praise Him 
who 'left us an ensample that we should walk in 
his steps.' Whether Christian martyrdom is short, 
sharp, and violent, or lasts a lifetime, and is like a 
slow lire, we have ceased to wonder at it, and when 
we think of ii, it is to Him that we put the glory. 
In this sense there is a fruit of Calvaiy that is 
perennial and grows on every soil in which Chris- 
tianity has been planted. This of itself is a fruit 
of righteousness entitling Christ to everlasting 
remembrance and to all the honour that suffering 
humanity can confer upon Him. It is, if we may 
-o call it, a natural Increase, as wonder- begetting 

as the million spores tbst spring from one. But 
this, though it is more than finite mind can grasp 
or heart imagine, is not the reason why we worship 
the Father through Christ, and for what He has 
done in Christ, and are happy in Communion. 
Natural increase is wonderfiil, spiritual increase — 
'abounding' — is much more. Our Communion is 
with the Father and the Son through the Spirit, 
.ind our adoration of all three Persons is based not 
on the magnitude of the suETerings, still less on 
their duration, but on the Divine acceptance of 
these sufferings, inadequate as they confessedly are, 
to the putting away of the sin of the whole world 
in all time. 

The Son's sufferings came in the line of the 
sufferings of the lower creation fO£ the putting 
away of luan's sins. And it was never the value 
of these sacrifices — rather it was the valuelesiness 
of them and the gracious acceptance of them by 
God that awoke in the heart of the true Israelite 
the praise of His grace and mercy. The gods of the 
heathen tuight exact, and did exact, the uttermost 
farthing. They were hard creditors, inexorable 
taskmasters, and laid cruel, sometimes far more 
cruel, retribution on their devotees than the crimes 
for which atonement was thus made. But our God, 
so an Israelite would say, is a gracious God, who 
keeps mercy for thousands and passes by the in- 
iquity. The vital spark of the older sacrifice was 
God's good pleasure. His grace, which accepted so 
little in lieu of so much and sent His worshipper 
away, not thinking of his lambs and bis bullocks, 
but sounding the praises of the merciful God on 
the loud timbrel. God's prophets were not left in 
ignorance that it was not ten thousand rivers of 
oil or thousands of rams that were important, but 
the grace that accepted the cruse of oil and the 
one lamb. The spiritual increase, the overflow, 
or, to use the apostle's phrase, the abounding of 
the sufferings of Christ unto us, has its source 
not in any magical effect which His transcendent 
personality gave them, but in the bosom-love and 
compassion of God, who accepted the sufferings 
as a ransom for the sin of the world. Thus our 
Communion reaches up through the channel of 
the Son's sufferings to the full-welling fountain of 
the gracious love of the Father who sent Him. 
And this is why we are glad with a gladness that 
we can renew and that increases with every re- 
newal of the sacred rite, and with every wind of 
memory that brings back the fragrance of it. As 



it is nith the abounding of the sufferings so also is 
it with the comforts. The liTe of Christ abounded 
in consolations. He had no small mercies to be 
thankful for. They were all great mercies, follow- 
ing Him all the days of His life below. 
Nathanael's faith, Mary's devotion, voices in the 
heavens, the perpetual inward voice, the Father's 
'well-done,' the assurance of His uninterrupted 
love,— these strewed the thorny path of suffering 
with fragrant flowers of consolation. If devils 
tempted Him, angels came and ministered to Him. 
And these consolations have had an abounding 
quality about them, a spiritual increase more 
wonderful than any natural increase you can think 
of. The Spirit of Christ dwelling in us has opened 
our eyes to 'things that are for us and make our 
crosses seem as gay garlands displayed on festal 
days. The Christian who dwells on the sufferings 

and minifies them, and forgets that they were 
accompanied with consolations, which make us — 
as they made Him— love the weight we have to 
bear, is surely yet but an infant crying in the night, 
who knows not that the Father's soothing voice 
and helping hand are near. 

And the sinner, whose sin is ever before him, 
and who reflects, as reflect he must, that he is but 
one of millions of his kind and his sin but one 
of transgressions that are as the stars for multi- 
tude, may well turn away in despair even from 
Calvary until we show him the abounding quality 
which God, whose thoughts, blessed be His 
name, are not as our thoughts nor His ways as 
ours, imparts to them. Without this the Cross 
is a rock of offence; with this it is the power of 
God and the wisdom of God to everyone thai 
belie veth. 


Uniform with the delightful edition recently 
issued of the ' Horae Subsecivae,' Messrs. A. & C. 
Black have published a new edition of Dr. John 
Brown and his Sisters, by Miss E- T, M'Laren 
(2s. net). It is the sixth edition, and it supersedes 
all others by virtue of an Introductory Note which 
Professor Crum Brown contributes. 

Dr. M'Adam Muir of Glasgow has written an 
account of the life and works of the cYAef Religious 
IVriters cf England enough to make a volume of 
the ' Guild Library ' (A. & C. Black, crown 8vo, 
pp. 313, IS. 6d.). No desire for originality, no 
determination to reverse the popular judgment 
has led Dr. M'Adam Muir away from his practical 
purpose of making the lives of these great good 
men remind the young men of to-day that they 
too can make their lives sublime. 

Rkv. a. W. Momerie, D.Sc, LL.D. {Bliuktvood. 
Crown Svo, pp. 317. js.) 
Mrs. Momerie has prepared this volume for the 
press. It contains the chief sermons of the last 
four years. They mostly treat of the things con- 
cerning the End. They treat of these things 

unfettered by considerations of system or con- 
formity. Perhaps the deepest interest in the 
sermons lies in their candid revelation of Dr. 
Momerie's own hopes and fears as to the things 
that are behind the veil. For he has as little 
hesitation in contradicting our cherished notions 
as in gainsaying the teaching of Scripture and 
the Church. They read as if they were the 
sermons of a layman, and in that unwonted 
aspect they are of much value, the more salutoiy 
perhaps the less comforting they are. 

(Cassill. Crown 8»o, pp. 384. 61. ) 
The editor of the Quiver selected twelve men 
and set them the task of writing the Life of our 
Lord. Each writer had one period or one set of 
incidents to write about. The result is both more 
homogeneous and more edifying than even the 
editor of the Quiver could have expected. For 
recent study of the origins of Christianity, though 
it has much disturbed the minds of the unwary, 
has brought evangelical students of the Life of 
Christ into closer fellowship, and eliminated much 
fruitless idiosyncracy. Each of these studies is 


the writer'a own, but an agreeable harmony of 
conception is carried throughout the volume. It 
is notable in itself, and it is notable as a tribute 
to scientific exposition. Some modern paintings, 
beautifully reproduced, increase the volume's 

Two parts have been published of the seventh 
volume of the 'Cambridge Texts and Studies.' 
The first part is The Meaning of Homo-eusios in Ike 
* Constantinopolitan ' Creed. The author is the 
Rev. J. F. Bethune- Baker, B,D. (Cambridge: 
At the University Press, 8vo, pp. 90, 3s. net). 
The second pari is St. Epkraim's Quotations from 
the Gospel. The author is Mr. F. Crawford 
BurkitI, M.A. (Svo, pp. 101, 3s. net). Both works 
are of the very finest workmanship, their accom- 
|)lishcd writers' enthusiasm expressing itself in 
freshness of thought and in patience of investiga- 
tion. Nor are they so confined in interest as their 
titles may suggest Mr. Burkitt is of no little 
value to the exegete and critic ; Mr. Bethune- 
Baker compels the attention of the Church his- 
torian and theologian, 

W. FAlRWEATHSIt, M.A. (T. Sf T. Clark. Crown 
8vo, pp. 281. 35.) 
The present generation is said to be less con- 
versant with the Fathers than the generation of 
Newman and Pusey was. It seems to us, on the 
contrary, that the acquaintance is closer and more 
critical There may be less quotation (from con- 
venient Ante-Nicene libraries and the like), but 
when editions appear ihey are more scientific, 
and when lives are published they are more pro- 
gressive. The editions of Origen recently issued 
by the Cambridge University Press and the life of 
Origen now in our hands are sufficient to bear 
this out. Mr. Kairweather's work is as pleasant to 
read as though it were a purely popular compilation, 
it is as scholarly as though it were to be sat upon 
by patristic experts. That is the consummation 
these 'Epoch-Makers' seek to reach, and there 
is no reason why they should not all reach it. 


AND HIS I'OWER. Bv P. dk Lacy Johnstone. 

M.A., M.R.A.S. (r. 6- r. Clari. Crown 8vo, pp. 

156- 3s.) 

It is not the epoch-maker alone but the epoch 

he majces that this series seeks to describe. 
Muhammad we know at least a little ; his epoch, 
his whole wonderful vital movement, we do not 
know so well. It is difficult to know. Literature 
perhaps cannot reveal it. We must reside among 
Muhammadans and know them before we can 
hope to know Muhammad. This is what Mr. 
Johnstone has done, and every page of his brilliant 
confident narrative reveals the man who knows. 
His manner of writing seems fitted to his subject. 
We are swept into the current of his copious 
Eastern vocabulary. We are helped to know by 
being made to feel. The book is small enough 
to be read at a sitting, and at a sitting it is likely 
to be read. We are glad that Mr. Johnstone has 
given us the great prophet with sympnthy. 

A cheap edition of Mr, Frederick C. Spurr's 
Four Last Things has been published at the 
Drummond Tract Depdt, Stirling (is.). 

LI..D., D.D. {Dinl. i2mo.) 
Messrs. Dent have undertaken the publication 
of a new series of commentaries, which they call 
the 'Temple Bible.' They are to be quite original 
in many ways. Outwardly the volumes are as 
charming as possible, — their leather binding being 
at the money quite a luxury, — and that is origin- 
ality enough in commentaries. But that is not 
all. The text (it is the Authorized Version) is 
printed in paragraphs without chapter (except an 
asterisk) or verse division, and the page is divided 
off into lines, five at a time. The first volume, 
Genesis, being edited by Professor Sayce, its notes 
are mainly archceologicaL They are extremely 
useful and well expressed. The introduction is a 
r^sumd of what has been discovered about Genesis 
in our day. And there is a list at the end of 
English works which have borrowed materials 
from Genesis. 

Mr. Smith is a Canadian, and from Canada you 
see the whole of Scotland at a glance, so that his 
Scots is not the Scots of a single county. It is 
less provincial and less difficult to read than even 
the Scots of Bums. No Scotsman, no man of 
Scottish descent, should have any difficulty with it, 
and even for the occasional Englishman who may 



seek nourishment io the volume there is a glossary 
of the most un-Englbh words. There is no deny- 
ing the pathos or even the power of the New 
Testament in braJd Scots. It is more perhaps to 
tbe Scotsman, and especially to the Scotsman in 
a foreign land, than his native Hebrew tongue was 
to St. Paul, for it is less a literary language, more 
the language of tbe mother and the home. 

To their ' Complete Library ' Messrs. Gowans & 
Gray of Glasgow are in the way of adding tbe 
whole of Ceroantts' IVorks. Four of the twelve 
volumes, containing and completing Don Quixote, 
have already appeared. The translation is Orms- 
by's with his latest corrections and additions ; the 
editor ia Mr. 'James Fitzmaurice- Kelly. Are these 
names nothing to you ? Then you are the * general 
reader ' for whom these complete editions are being 
prepared. Take to the reading of Don Quixote 
in this translation and with this editor. The four 
handsome volumes will cost you but four shillings. 

Mr. Philip Green has just pubbsbed new 
editions of the two famous volumes of sermons by 
John Hamilton Thorn, entitled Laws of Life after 
the Mind of Christ (crown 8vo, pp. 406, 429, 
3S. fid. net each). The sermons, as we know, are 
Unitarian, and of the finest modern type. One 
meets of course an occasional statement that 
seems needless if not unwarranted. In the fourth 
sermon of the second series, for example, we read ; 
' Faith in immortality with the Martyr Stephen, 
sees the heavens opened and the Son of Man, 
Mankind imaged in the Son of man, on the right 
hand of the throne of God.' But for the most 
part these sermons are as elevated in thought as 
they are rich in expression. 

Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton have begun to 
publish a series of ' Christian Study Manuals ' at is. 
net each. The general editor is the Rev. R. E. 
Welsh, M.A. Three volumes have been published : 
Th£ Early Church, by Professor Orr ; Ruling Ideas 
of Our Lord, by Dr. IVArcy; and Protestant 
Principles, by Dr. Monro Gibson. 

APOSTOLIC OPTIMISM. By the Rev. J. H. Jowett, 

M.A. {Haddtr 6- SlBugklgn. Crown 8vo, pp. 285. 


Optimism is an unsatisfactory word. It argues 

a good digestion, or at least a sunny temperament. 

and there are those who say that temperament is 
all that there is in Christianity. But Mr. Jowett's 
magnificent first sermon puts it all right. The 
optimistic apostle is St. Paul, and three reasons 
are given for his victorious optimism. There is, 
first, his vivid sense of the reality of the redemp- 
tive work of Christ ; next, his living sense of the 
reality and greatness of his present resources, that 
is to say, that he is not only ' by Christ redeemed ' 
but also 'in Christ restored'; and, finally, his 
impressive sense of the, reality of future glory. 
Clearly these things do not depend on tempera- 
ment, but on the reception of Christ. The 
sermons are all of the same character, strong 
statements of evangelical doctrine, to be turned 
into energetic impulses of life. 


Bv W. B. Neatby, -M.A. I^Heddtr 6* Steughtou. 

Ciown Svo, pp. 360. 6s.) 
Twelve years ago Dr. Alexander, the present 
Primate of Ireland, described the warfare of his 
own Church in the following remarkable terms: 
' The hill up which our little host must march is 
steep, and the hail beats in our faces. We hear 
the steady tramp of the serried ranks of Rome 
round us ; the shout of the marauders of Plymouth 
rises as they, ever and anon, cut off a few 
stragglers. We draw close, and grip our muskets 
harder.' Mr Neatby begins his history of the 
Plymouth Brethren by quoting those words. He 
sees in those words a tribute to the importance of 
the ' marauders of Plymouth.' He has himself a 
yet higher estimate of their power and persistence. 
He undertakes his subject with a sense that it is a 
task worthy of the best that a historian can give 
to it, and he refuses to degrade it either by flattery 
or by vituperation. This apparently has never 
been done before. Here for the first time Ply- 
mouth Brethrenism is treated according to the 
laws of historical science, and as a portion of the 
history of the Church. 

The latest volutite of the ' Century Bible ' con- 
tains the General Epistles, edited by Professor 
Bennett of Hackney College (Jack, as. net). We 
know Professor Bennett best as an Old Testament 
student, and are not surprised to find that the 
originality of this commentary consists in the 
richness with which the General Epistles of James, 
Peter, John, and Jude illustrate, and are them- 


selves illustrated by the Old Testament Scriptures. 
There is much else that is worthy in the little 
book, but this is the most distinct and valuable 
service it has rendered. 

Messrs. Longmans have published a new edition 
of Dr. Vance Smith's well-known manifesto, The 
Bible and Us Theology (crown 8vo, pp. 347, 3s. 6d. 
net). The book has been largely rewritten. It is 
less polemical now, it is more useful. 



D.D, {Langmans. CrowD Svo, pp. 187. 3s. 6d. 


Dr. Mason chose these subjects for his lectures 

because they are greatly exercising the minds of 

not a few in the Church of England at the present 

time. He is peculiarly well fitted to speak upon 

them, for he has made himself roaster of the whole 

range of their literature, and he has the mind of 


Messrs. Macmillan have published Bishop 
Lightfoot's celebrated essay on The Christian 
Ministry in a separate convenient form (crown 
8vo, pp. 148, 3s. net). The volume also contains 
illustrative extracts chosen by himself from the 
Bishop's other writings, for be felt that an unfair use 
had been made of some statements in the essay, 


Bv THE Rbv. H. T. Purchas, M.A. [Maemillaii. 

Crown 8vo, pp. 13?. 3». net.) 
This is too small a book to deal satisfactorily 
with all the great problems it touches, but Mr. 
Purchas is a student and knows exactly where lies 
the pith of these problems. If we find little 
settled for us, we at least are put on the right 
track and stimulated to further pursuit, A chapter 
of exceptional interest is that on the true idea of 
the apostolate. .^^__ 

PatbR. (Macmillan. 8vo, pp. 149. 8s. 6d. net.) 
This volume, which will be gladly added to 
Walter Pater's previous works, contains nine essays 
which were contributed anonymously to the 
Guardian. Their subjects are English literature, 
\m\(:\'s Journal Intime, Browning, Robert Eismere, 
their Majesties' Servants, Wordsworth, Mr. Gosse's 1 
Poems, Ferdinand Fabre, Les Contes of M. | 

Auguslin Filon. They range in date from 1886 
to 1890, They are very short, but Walter Pater 
was very intimate with these subjects, and wastes 
no words. We read them for their English style, 
for what he says of Wordsworth is true of his own 
essays : ' He constantly endeavours to bring his 
language nearer to the real language of men, not 
on the dead level of their ordinary intercourse, 
but in certain select moments of vivid sensation, 
when this language is winnowed and enobled by 
sentiment.' But the language is not everything, 
even the twelve pages on Wordsworth give us that 
which abides when the words are forgotten. 

Mr. Melrose has published the story of the life 
of President M'Kinley, by David Williamson (is. 

Mr. Melrose has also published The Endeavour 
Greeting, a manual of information and suggestion 
for new members (is.). The author is Amos R. 

Mr. Melrose has further published a new edition 
of Henry Drummond, by Cuthbert Lennox (crown 
8vo, pp. xxviii, 350, 2s, 6d, net). It contains a 
new preface, full of new facts, most frankly 

Again, Mr. Melrose has published a volume en- 
titled Now to Promote and Conduct a Successful 
Revival (crown 8vo, pp. 336, 3s. 6d,), It 
contains papers on all the phases of revival work 
by leading American and other evangelists, a 
large number of condensed sermons as suggestions 
for speakers at revival meetings, and a smaller 
number of ' topics and texts.' Why should revival 
speakers need so many hints and helps? If 
revival work is a good thing, send the best 
preachers to it. 

liam GUTHRia. {Melrose. Crown 8vo, pp. li, 351. 
3s. 6d.) 
Have you made acquaintance yet with Mr. 
Smellie's ' Books for the Heart ' ? You have 
other editions of them all perhaps — The Journal 
0/ John IVeo/man, Pulsford's Quiet Hours, Jona- 
than Edwards' Religious Affections, and ihe rest. 
Nevertheless you will find that this edition ex- 
celleth them alt. Its strength is in its introdw^ons. 
For these introductions, in spite of their^alniost 


pedantic accuracy, so subtly exhale the right 
literary fragrance that they seem to have been 
handed down from the past as an inseparable 
part of the book they introduce to us. This is a 
roost rare gift, and makes a man an editor indeed. 
The volume before us is the latest addition to the 
series. It has all the outward beauty and in- 
ward permanence. 

ROYAL MANHOOD. Bv tHb Rbv. Jambs I. Vance, 
D.D. {Melmi*. Crown 8vo, pp. 2$\, 3s, 6d,) 
American sermons seem to run after types more 
closely than ours do. There is the doctrinal like 
Shedd's, the philosophical like Bushnelt's, and the 
anecdotal like Talmage's. This volume is of the 
anecdotal type. 

'My father called me to him. "John," said 
he, very kindly, "I wish you would get the 
hammer," " Yes, sir." " Now a nail and a piece 
of pine board from the wood shed." " Here they 
are." "Will you drive the nail into the board?" 
It was done. "Please pull it out again." "That's 
€asy." "Now, John," and my father's voice 
dropped to a lower, sadder key, " pull out the 
nail hole."' 

That is one of its anecdotes. It has not only 
point in itself, but receives point from its place 
in the sermoa For this is one of the best 
volumes of the anecdotal type. 

SHIP. Bv John P. Pbtbrs, Ph.D., Sc.D., D.D. 
(JHe/ium. Crown Svo, pp. 333. 6s.) 
Messrs. Methuen's books have a strong tendency 
to run into series. But an active mind can keep 
the various series and their editors separate. This 
book belongs to the 'Churchman's Library,' of 
which the editor is the Rev. J. H. Burn, ED. 
Now the 'Churchman's Library' contains books 
of the utmost variety both of subject and accom- 
plishment, and it is quite evident that Dr. Peters 
got liberty to write his book in his own way. He 
has written about the Higher Criticism of the Old 
Testament. But as that is a large subject now, 
he has wisely given a general exposition of its 
methods and results, and only gone into any ful- 
ness of detail in the case of Daniel and the 
Psalms. Dr. Peters is not what would be called 
an extreme higher critic, but he firmly believes in 
the divine mission of criticism. Not counting it 
his business to hold a brief for God, he lets 

methods work out their results, whatever their 
tendency may be. But he is most careful to check 
the results of a mere literary criticism by the 
findings of the monuments. 

HAU, M.A. [Aftlhuen. Svo, pp. cKvi, 514. 13s. 6d.) 

This commentary, printed on thin light paper, 
and pleasantly bound, catches the attention first of 
all by its outward attractive appearance. The 
moment it is opened, however, it arrests the 
attention more completely by the singularity of 
its method. It belongs to the series of 'Oxford 
Commentaries,' edited by Professor Walter Lock. 
The first volume of the series was Gibson's Job, 
and it followed the accustomed manner, the text 
in large type at the top of the page, the com- 
mentary in double columns and smaller type 
below. This is the second volume, and its plan 
is wholly different. The notes are given in the 
form of a straightforward narrative, to be read 
just as the Book of Acts itself is read ; and the 
text, which is that of the Revised Version, comes 
in when it is wanted. There are frequent dis- 
cussions, sometimes learned enough, but no Greek 
word is allowed to arrest the English reader's 
interest. The footnotes arc mosdy what we call 
'marginal references,' but occasionally they refer 
to some book, and they always contain the mar- 
ginal notes of the Revised Version. 

Mr. Rackham's general aim seems to be to 
translate the Acts into modem language. In 
order to do this, in order to put us, as it were, 
by the side of the original readers, his paraphrase 
has to explain many allusions, and that makes it 
far longer than the original Book of Acts. But 
the immense mass of accurate information which 
his book contains, not to speak of its interest, 
makes one only wish that it had been longer. 

Elsewhere will be found a note touching a point 
of scholarship in the book. It is enough for the 
present to say that both the Introduction and the 
Commentary prove Mr. Rackham's capacity for 
Scripture exposition of the highest order, and, in 
particular, his thorough grasp of the problems and 
whole situation involved in the Book of Acts. 
His indirect dedication of his book to Bishop 
Gore and Dr. Moberly is an indication that his 
theological position is moderate High Church- 
man ship. 


gait 6" SeiHI. Post 8vo, pp. 184. Js. 6d.) 

These papers, by various evangelical writers, 
were originally contributed to the Christian. 
Sketchy though they are, they were worth gather- 
ing together. For the one balances the other, 
and together they form a fairly complete round 
of doctrine. Amongst the writers are Mr. F. B. 
Meyer, who grapples with the thorny but salutary 
doctrine of (he Fall ; Dr. Monro Gibson, who 
writes tersely on Faith ; and Dr. Moule, who 
touches (would he had had space to go deeper) 
the most momentous of all things, the doctrine of 

8vo, pp. 331, 2S9, \3&. 3s. 6d. net., in leather.) 
Messrs. Nelson haveaddedthe Pilgrim's Progress, 
the Holy War, and Grace Abounding to their thin 
paper editions of the great English Classics. Paged 
separately, the three books are bound in one 
volume, which nevertheless is not too thick to be 
carried with comfort in the pocket. It is a good 
large type and well spaced, inviting even to aged 
eyes, while the binding is suitable for presentation. 
In beauty and convenience there is no edition of 
Bunyan that can for a moment compete with it. 

The Ads of the Apostles and the Epistles of Paul, 
arranged in the form of a continuous history, by 
Thomas Morrison, M.A., LL.D. Few books are 
more familiar to students of the Bible in Scotland. 
This is the third edition (Oliphant, crown 8vo, 
pp. 191, IS. 6d.). But if a copy had been bought 
every time that the book was read, it would have 
passed by this time into more than three times 
three editions. 

Under the title of Thvo Hebrew Jdylls, the 
Rev. G. B. Macnaughtan, M.A., B.D., of Ardoch, 
has published some lectures on the Book of 
Ruth and the Book of Jonah (Oliphant, crown 
8vo, pp. 185, 35. 6d.). Clearly and handsomely 
printed, the lectures make very agreeable read- 
ing, and the author justly claims that the two 
books which he has brought together deal with 
the same great lesson which Israel was so slow 
to learn, the lesson that she was called out 
of the world in order to be a blessing to the 


W, W. SCODDBH, {OliphaiU. Cro«*0 8vo, pp. 250, 

3s. 6d.). 

The time is at hand, it appears, when the subject 

of missions will be included in the 'Leaving 

Certificate.' So Mrs, Scudder has prepared the 

text-book. It is admirably adapted for cramming, 

the prominent matters in it being dates and 

districts, while every chapter ends with a set of 

examination questions. Teachers of missions all 

the world over will find it their readiest handbook. 

Bv Albxander Whvtk, D.D. (Olifikant. Ciown 
8vo, pp. 304. 3s. 6<1.) 
They must be near the end. This is the fifth 
volume. When the end does come, there will be 
lamentation and weeping, for these 'Bible Char- 
acters' have through the religious press formed 
the Sabbath afternoon reading of innumerable 
Christians in Scotland for a long time. But the 
volumes will remain, and we can go over them 
again, and again and again, as indeed we have 
been doing with the earlier volumes all this while. 
And not only so, but we all believe that Dr. Whyie 

' will discover other topics for his daring discerning 

I tongue and pen. 


By SusiB Carson Rijshart, M.D. {OtipkatU. 

Crowti 8»o, pp. 406, 6s.) 
There are foreign missionaries who never leave 
their native land. Messrs. Oliphant, Anderson & 
Ferrier are of the number. By their missionary 
literature they make known the work that foreign 
missions are accomplishing, and thus, though they 
go not abroad themselves, they send into the 
foreign field both men and money. They carry 
us all abroad indeed, and give us a pei^onal 
interest in the lands to which the gospel has been 
brought, as well as in the men and women who 
have brought it. This new volume has the double 
charm of a missionary of genius and a land of 
mystery. The writing is extremely simple, much 
after the manner ofa picturesque diary, — the genius 
is not in that. But the woman who passed 
through all that Mrs, Rijnhart did, is a genius as a 
missionary; and the picturesque simplicity of the 
language, by the very clearness and truthfulness of 
its information, does not dispel but deepens the 
religious mystery of the strange land of Thibet. 



MISSIONS. Bv GusTAV Warnkck. (Olip/iant. 
8vo, pp. 379. IM. 6d.) 
Dr. George Robson introduces this new edition 
of Dr. Warncck's well-koown Outline. He says : 
' Of all existing histories of Protestant Missions, I 
have no hesitation in characterizing Dr. Wameck's 
as by far the best, not only in respect of the 
completeness and orderliness of its survey, but 
also in respect of insight into historical develop- 
ment and enlightened sobriety of judgment.' And 
Dr. Robson knows. His word may be received 
without reserve. The new edition is a new book, 
a far larger, fuller, richer book. Of course much 
new material comes to the hand of the historian 
of missions every year, and Dr. Wameck seems to 
miss nothing. But besides that, the whole field 
has been surveyed anew, and the former con- 
clusions have been mercilessly tested and revised. 
The translation makes it an English book, and the 
occasional notes which the editor has added, 
supplying fuller information about Scotch and 
English missions, serve the same welcome purpose. 
The maps are too full of matter for ordinary readers, 
but they who are interested in the book will take 
the trouble to master its maps. Most cordially do 
we thank author, translators, editor, and publishers 
for the best history of missions in existence. 

Only a Prayer- Meeting is the title his publishers 
have given to a volume of forty addresses by the 
late C. H. Spurgeon (Passmore & Alabaster, 
crown 8vo, pp. 366, 3s. 6d.), It is Spurgeon at 
his best, and Spurgeon at his worst was better 
than most of us, 

New volumes by C. H. Spurgeon still frequently 
appear. For there is not only a great opportunity 
in his published writings for selection and airange- 
ment, but there are also many unpublished manu- 
scripts still. The latest issue is entitled Good 
Tidings of Great Joy (Passmore & Alabaster, 
crown 8vo, pp. 153, is. 6d.). It is a series of 
experimental chapters on the Incarnation. 


and Hrrb&rt Vivian, M.A. {Pearsaa. Ciown 8vo, 

pp. 330. With ItluilratioDi. 6s.) 

What mirthful and also what monstrous things 

are done in the name of religion I This book is a 

repository of both. But it is more than that. For 

its authors are not content to record occasional 
curious phenomena, they trace causes and effects. 
Their book is scientific, as well as entertaining. 
They range for their strange subjects over many 
centuries and many lands. Their style is highly 
picturesque. With whatever expectation their 
book is opened, it will immediately secure the 
attention, and it will not be laid aside until it is 
read through. The illustrations, taken from life, 
are in keeping with its wonderful contents. 

THV HEART'S DESIRE. Editbd by TH« Rev. R, 
LovKTT, M.A. (R.T.S. Crown 8»o, pp. aSo. 61.} 
This is a book of family prayer. The prayers 
are contributed by Dr. G. S. Barrett, Mr. G. E. 
Asker, Mr. W. Roberts, and Mr. W. T. Rowley. 
They are for morning and evening, and they cover 
thirteen weeks. There are also passages of Scrip- 
ture suggested. The book is both handsome and 
appropriate. And the prayers — well, it is simply 
impossible to read prayers with a paper-knife in 
hand. And yet the one criticism that we would 
venture upon them is that they seem written to 
be read. 

TESTAMENT. Bvthb Rbv. Septimus Buss, LL.B. 
{Rivingiens. Crowo 8vo, pp. 480. 6s. net.) 
The object which Mr. Buss has set before him 
is to run through the New Testament and lay his 
finger on all the signs it bears of the presence and 
power of the Romans. In some parts these signs 
are quite numerous, as when our Lord was tried 
before Pilate and St. Paul before Festus. These 
scenes are much more lifelike when we clearly 
understand the Roman customs to which reference 
is made, and which Mr. Buss fully, even elabor- 
ately, explains. Even the words that have any 
Roman flavour about them receive a separate 
paragraph of explanation. It was an excellent 
idea to gather out of the complex many-coloured 
life of Palestine at the beginning of our era this 
one influential element, and Mr. Buss has all the 
scholarship and patience to realize his idea. 
Consequently we not only see the Roman element 
itself and are surprised at its fulness, but we are 
then able to see more clearly the Greek and 
Jewish elements that remain, A service has been 
rendered to the interpretation of the New Testa- 
ment by this book, which it is surprising was never 
rendered before. 



THE CRIMINAL. Bv Havblock Ellis. {IVaJter 
See//. Crown Svo, pp. 441. 6s.) 
This is the third edition of the standard work 
on Criminology. It has been revised and enlarged. 
It contains forty pathetic or revolting illustrations. 
It is a book one must either have nothing to do 
with or devour. To read it for mere pastime is 
impossible. It is a book of science; its purpose is 
noble and enobling. It reveals the working of 
God's great laws of moral and physical health, and 
their unerring retribution as disease. It tells us 
what has been done for criminals. It suggests 
the means by which their numbers may be re- 
duced. It asks us earnestly what bw have done 
for our fellow-criminal^/' wAom Cirist died. 

Tait. {Mlliiil S/ack. Crown 8vo, pp. 216. 51.) 
The lessons are meant ' for home and school 
use.' It is only in the home and in the school 
that you can touch the parables. To the present 
generation, at least, they seem to be impossible in 
the pulpit For their meaning is so plain that 
even the children never miss it, and you have only 
to set their minds to think. But their meaning 
is also so difficult that our deeper study drives 
us to despair. We can only hope that unborn 
generations will make more of them than we 
can do. 

John Mitchblu (Sttttwell. Crown Svo, pp. \2Z. M.) 
Here is not only the straw for the bricks, but 
the bricks themselves. He does not know bis 
craft, and should betake himself to another, who 
cannot build with this. 

AN EDITOR'S SERMONS. Bv Si» Edward Russill. 
(FisAtr Unwin. Crown Svo, pp. 167. 6s. nett} 
Clei^men have little patience with sermons by 
a layman. It is not professional jealousy only. 
They have tried and found them wanting. But 
these sermons stand apart They have the pro- 
fessional man's knowledge together with the lay- 
man's detachment For Sir Edward Russell is 
not only a man of surpassing ability, but through- 
out his public life he has given himself to the 
interpretation of the great problems of morals and 
religion. The Bishop of Hereford writes an intro- 
duction to the volume, commending it especially 
to clergymen, not merely, however, because it lets 
us see ourselves as others see us, but because it 
also makes distinct contribution to the subjects of 
which it treats, such as the gift of prayer, high- 
mindedness, and the decay of experimental religion. 
If we were allowed a phrase in which to express 
our obligation to these sermons, we should say 
that they had urged us to be more spiritual in our 
thinking, more intellectual in our spirituality. 

% Qtm (Unctaf of iU &06ptie. 

Bv W. C. Braithwaitk, B.A., LL.B., Banbury. 

A YEAR ago Mr. J. Bevan Braithwaite of London 
procured from Macedonia an uncial MS. of the 
Gospels in Greek, which I have since had the 
opportunity of examining and collating. He 
proposes to call it the Codex Macedoniensis. I 
gave some particulars of the document when 
lecturing at the recent Friends' Settlement for 
Bible Study at Scarborough, but its interest 
justifies a wider publication. 

When complete the MS. seems to have con- 
sisted of 43 quires of 8 folios each, and of one 
odd folio containing part of the MijuiXiua. of Luke, 
making 674 pages in all, of which 66 pages, or 
9.8 pet cent., are missing, namely — 

Ml l' . . . Aiari/MTis"; l<f [eiryayipa . . . ^Mttrt 
11'; a folio with part of the «#, of Mark; Lk t" tit 

«-4Xi» . . . ir TiKJui] l" ; 15" rptapinpot , . . TpeetaKtci' 
[>«»«] 16* i 83" fi^ . . . liiina nSrw 33"; Jn ao" 
X^tpit fiou . . . i lUrpm ii". 

The MS. is on parchment leaves measuring 
18.1 by 13.2 cm. io single<olumn writing, 11 by 
7.5 cm., ruled 16 to at lines to a page. In the 
side margins stand the numbers of the Aro- 
monian sections with the Eusebian canons, and 
in upper and lower margins, as the case may 
require, the TirXot of the Kt^taXata majora with 
their numbers, which are repeated on the side 
margins. All these, and also the initials in the 
margin at the opening of sections and the 
apparatus of lection notes in text and margin, are 
in bright carmine ink, except the initials occurring 
from Lk 1' to 11*" {7 quires), which are in black. 



Very tasteful frames of spot and pattern work in 
carmine and gold enclose the titles of the 
Gospels, and the first letter of each is also richly 
illuminated. The titles run 'EtMyyiXiw Kara 
MofMov, etc. 

The writing is in small dark brown continuous 
uncials (without use of a syllable divider) in 
letters as nearly as possible z mm. high, 
punctuated by a single point, chiefly at the top 
or bottom. A comma or colon is used in a few 
cases, a semicolon never. Accents and breath- 
ings are general, and are usually correctly 
given. The breathings have the rectangular form 
f -1 . Double letters and a few simple contrac- 
tions occur occasionally, and the words regularly 
contracted in uncial MSS are almost invariably 
so written in the new codex. 

The writing may be confidently identified as 
ninth century, and resembles the facsimiles of 
F, r, K, and Ev ijo given in Scrivener's 
Introduction, though smaller and neater than any 
of these. The letters E C have the narrow 
oval shape, the base of the A is prolonged 
beyond the triangle and strengthened at both 
ends with points, the middle stroke of the @ is 
also prolonged and strengthened with points, the 
M is broad out of proportion to the other letters 
and its middle loop is carried below the line, the 
angular part of the K is entirely separated from 
the upright stroke. 

The round uncials used for the chapter- 
headings, and the occasional use in the text of the 
older form of H, made like a Z with a horizonUl 
line above it, strengthened at both ends with 
points (as the modem copyist of an eighteenth 
century document might preserve an occasional 
long s), suggest that the codex from which the 
MS. was copied was a seventh century one. The 
MS. is carefully written, and I have found no 
clear case of omission of lines by homoioteleuton. 
In six cases, however, entire phrases are omitted, 
namely, Mt 9'* «ai ti. /uxtfi^rat ajyroS ; Mt 14' 8*1 
yiip TaiJra (so in margin) yivia&a*; Lk i*' nai 
rivtufut 7i''Ayiov(so in margin) iw afirw; Lk lo'* 
Kill. avTot (itr^Ado' tw tva^rpi tii'ii; Lk 11' ou 
SvVa/ioi dfaoras SoiVat (roi ; Jn 6** M^ yayyi^.m 
UtT oAAijXuf. In the first case no words are 
supplied in the margin, in the next four cases the 
words are supplied in black, in the last case in 
red. As neither Tischendorf nor Tregelles 
notices these omissions, they seem due to the 

copyist, and the probable inference is that his 
copy was written in sense-lines. 

A menological rubric to the page Jn la'*-" 
gives a lection for Tarasius, Patriarch [of Con- 
stantinople], about 7S0 A.D., and, so far as it 
goes, confirms the palaeographical evidence as to 

An examination of the text of the MS. soon ■ 
shows that it is to be classed with the mass of ' 
later uncials of mixed ' Syrian ' text, namely, 
EFGHKMSUVrAXn. For instance, it contains 
all the eight 'conflate' readings cited by . 
Westcott-Hort {Tntroduetion to the N.T. in Greek, 
pp. 95-104). Like the others, it also has a ninth 
conflation, not noticed by VVestcott-Hort, as it 
was not taken into the Received Text. 

Mt r]** furi rwr ypaiiiMTiur lat rpm^vripar. ((t)A6L 
Mcmph, Vulg. 
fLtri. TiHr 7p. cal ^fiirafwr. D, most old Lat., 

furi rwr yp, koI rpeaff. <al ipap. LttCT uncwls, 
Syr.— Pesh., and Hark. 

But though the mixture characteristic of 
'Syrian' texts pervades the new uncial, it may 
nevertheless rank high in its own class by virtue 
of its resistance to this tendency, and to the 
extent of this resistance may give important 
support to pre-Syrian readings. The mixture and 
smoothness of text exhibited by the later uncials 
are explained when we remember that a MS. is 
commonly the offspring of a marriage (often a 
mixed marriage) of two older MSS — one parent 
being the copy used by the scribe, the other the 
text followed by the tiofSvinp or corrector who 
went over his work. This double parentage, 
repeated in each generation of ancestors, naturally 
resulted on the one hand in the mixing into 
the text of readings capable of mixture, and on 
the other in the disappearance of refractory 
readings and of non-interpolations. The MS, now 
under discussion, for example, contains omissions 
of Mt 12", Mk 15™, and part of Jn 8", which, so 
far as can be judged, are genuine variants, but 
the corrector has supplied the omitted words in 
the margin, and the variant would thus probably 
disappear from any copy made from this MS. 
The survival of early readings in a characteristic- 
ally late text is therefore excellent evidence of 
their vitality and originally wide currency. 

How then does the new codex compare with 
the other late uncials named above in retaining 



early readings? Dr. Sunday's convenient Delectus 
LectioDum appended to the ClarendoD Press 
Greek Testament may serve for a rough test. 
In the parts of the Gospels contained in our MS. 
he examines 153 variants, but in 116 of these 
the late uncials in question all go one way, and 
in four other cases (Mk j^' 14", Lk 9**, and 
Jn 5') their evidence is too evenly divided to 
afford assistance on this point. This leaves 
33 cases where one 01 more late uncials of 
' Syrian ' type are found standing out from thci;r 
felloirs either for the approved primitive reading 
or for some early variant. X (Codex Monacensis), 
though far from complete, does so 17 times, and 
has evidently a text of high value, n (Codex 
Petropolitanus Tischendorfii) has la cases, our 
codex has 10, of which eight follow the approved 
primitive reading and two an early variant; K 
(Codex Cyprius Parisinus) has 7 cases ; none of 
the others has more than 5. 

The new MS. therefore ranks high in its own 
class. It supports the Westcott-Hort text against 
the T.R. about 400 times, say once for every ten 
various readings in that text. 

I add a selection of various readings, citing 
other uncials mainly from Tischendorf's apparatus, 
and taking first good readings supported mainly 
by non-Syrian attestation, which often includes 
most of the early versions. 

Mt 16^' Omit 'Oflai ytroiUr7)i . . . ov Siraatt, with 

,, 16>1 dprur fur dprof, wilh (eBCLKMSII. 

„ I9> Omit oi before 't^pmaTo,, wilb BCLMAII. 

„ 24" tA IfiiTior, with KBDKL7AI. 

„ 14*' Omit iij>u afler rariip, wilh KBDLAIl". 

„ 25" Omit it i i i/lAi rev it8p<iriii/ Ipx'^"*! with 
KABC'DLXief'n. Added probably to 
round aS and point the moral of the leclion, 
^^t 15'"", read on Saturday of sevealeenlh 
week after Pentecost. Oui MS. add» the 
words in red ink io margin, which confirnu 
this origin. 

„ »7" Omit f«»Tit, withKABC'DEHKVAn. 
Mk 4" brii Tfj» \vx*i" iriTieS- So KB* 13-69-346, 
33, but with verb riSi. According to 
Weslcott-Hort, iwi is a primitive corruption 
rightly corrected 10 ^irl by a very early con. 

„ 8" ri» irBpi^or, with AC'DII. 

,. 11" Srarfotfrt, with NBCKLiir. 

,, 14" Omit ti before Tanjpiw, with KBCDLWt>XiS. 

„ 14" OujSo. for »,S«^^or, with KABCIKLNSM'An. 

„ 15" /jtjKtfof. with ADGKMI'll". 

Mk is" Omit verse, with MABC'DX. Corrector adds 

in margin. 
Lk 13" Omit(pi,/Mrt, wilb KABKLRSVPAn. 

,, 14° Omit <i*oiipi0ett, with BDLKII. 

„ 14' Read trot (not vl6t), with tiKLXn 1, 33, abci, 
Vulg., Syr.-Sin., Syr..Hier, Arm., Hempb., 
'^th. With the help of the Sjr.-Sin. and the 
new codex critici may now be asked to draw 
up the 'son'oatof the well and love the 'ais' 
there instead. 

„ 21* ft(oi« for iixof^vi, with KABCLMNRX. 

,, 23" irirtnifit yip a^Ar wpAi ^/an, wilh ttBK 


Jn 3» Read 'Uvtalui (not 'loiiialov), with K*GA*n'. 

„ S' Omit i before iopri, with ABDGKNSUVrA. 

„ 6° \tU\^Ka for XoXiS, with KBCDKLNTUH. 

,, 7" Omit iroXiJj, with Dace IP 1 Arm. 

„ 7" V(XT<u. with NBDK(N)TrAn. 

,, 7*'-8" Kai iwopeievat . . . ji^i^Ti iixJipratt. Omit 
with MABCLNTXA. In the maigio are two 
&ded asterisks, not by the first hand, but the 
text leaves no special blank, Che words 6vk 
tftlptrai. ndXit oSr ai \ forming one line. 
The table of nnp. contains no reference to the 

„ 8"-** Read itai v/uU tSr i ^imoiaaTi rapA toO rarpii 
i/tur *-«<irc. Omit ir at end of v." and ofr 
after tlnr in v.", and read /« rofi rarpit v.**. 

„ I3» iraT€rwv, with BC'KLXn'. 

„ l8' rod for riSr before KiSpur, with S. AA 133 have 
TtS ttipiir, and cefq Vulg., Gotb., Arm. sup- 
port the same reading. 

In several of the above readings the principal 
late uncial support comes from the group KMn, 
and while this is not the only line of relationship 
in the new codex, which often diverges from the 
KMn readings, there is an important strain of 
text in common, as the following cases of special 
agreement with the group will show : — 

Mt 19» olKlar, with K 33. 

„ 12" Omit biur after ^ir, with KAtl. 

„ 32*° Add if wnCiuin after AajSiJ, with DKMAH. 

„ 36* a^ni for nji rfrpip, wilh EKMII. 

Mk 7" ica0apltop, with KMOVmS*. 

„ 9" xadwi for iral vui, with AKMAII. 

„ 10" AddWh-. iiTTipii, withKMNH. 

„ 10^ Add ti 0i\^i W\»ot <T>ai before ft oh ifripii, 
with KMNn. , 

„ to" Omit Ti,,a, with EGKH. 

,, 14" Add xitii^t after dpxitp^a, with AKMII. 

,, 14" Add To5 etoS before toC tiXoynrw, with AKII. 

„ ■s'*/rryl*<«r«, witbAKH. 

Lk 9°°'" Retain cat tWir Ouk olSaTt . . . irwirai, with 

„ II" AddTo;j.ira(«i>afteT'A|J(X, with KMn. 

,, 18" Tur etparur for ToC Gmu, with KMO. Apart 
from this reading and the reading of K* in Jn 3*, 
the phrase ' kingilom C|f t^^; ^ew|^<^filMd 

o Matthew. 




Lk 30" Add Tirit after Xiyoucir, with AKMII. 
Jn 5* Add KvplDU after ^Tv^at yip, wilh AKLAD. 
,, 6'* Add irBpuTM before iriptt, with AKII*. 
„ 14" tip^ti for oix Ix'i, mth KII- 
,, l6"* eiifoT oixiri, withll* 131* w*"'*, oiJeM being at 

viriuice wiih out Lord's post- resurrection ap- 

,, iS** A\\<uir«(Ir(r, urithMSn'N. 

Other readings of interest are the following : — 

Mt to" Omit rtKpoit iyiLprrt, wilh all late undall. 

„ 10" irttiyjtv (to call hj a name of abuse), with U. 

,, 2o" KanKvpitiirBviiir, with B 124. Also in Mk lo*" 
with D (Gk.), and Kvpie6isoixri.v ia Lk 21", with- 
out other authority. 

margin. In Ml 20" the word* are retained, 

and in Lk I4>* they are added, wit^ GH(X)rA. 

„ 26" Tttarti^Ml, with E{G)(H)VA. Also in Mk 14" 

with EFGH(X)N. 
Lk 1" rfioaStxiltmr for wpoff<ttX^I"'"i without other 

„ 6" Omit xd»rrt. wilh DFLSVTiA. 
„ 9" Omit .off' liM^pof, with CDEFGHSUVXrAA. 
,, 10" Omit t4^ Xoi^ with GSVTA. 

,, 31* BoriXafit for Bvn\A\yiat, without other authority. 
,, m" Omit if rp §aat\tUt nou, wilh EFGHSVFA. 
Jn 8" Omit iiuh oit otSan w6So Ipxnimi f) iroS vvd-yu, 
with MSl'A 38, 33, 69, bul the words as above 
are added by corrector in margin. 
„ lo" Omit irpi /moC, with K'EFGMSUri. 
,. 19" ilt^pai for ^1, with AE* 33, 69. 
Except for the lists of kc^. the only additional 
matter in the new MS. consists of short sentences 
in the same uncial hand as the text, which occur 
at the end of each Gospel, but relate to the 
character and composition of the next. Those for 
Mark, Luke, and John remain, and belong to the 
series contained in the cursive Scr. 512- Greg. 473, 
frotn which Scrivener {Introduction to the Critimm 
of the N.T., 4th ed. vol. i. p. 66) cites the sen- 
tences for Matthew, Mark, and Luke. They are also 
found among other introductory matter in Scr. 236 
and in other cursives (see Gregory's Prokg. lo 
Tisch. p. 456). The new uncial seems to be the 
oldest authority for them. 

The interest of these sentences lies in the con- 
firmation they give to the argument recently revived 
by Mr. F. C. Burkitt {Two lectures on the Gosfels, 
London; MacmlUan & Co., 1901) in favour of 
the view that the Fourth Gospel was written at 
John's dictation or prompting rather than actually 
by John himself. Mr. Burkitt bases his argument 
partly on the ancient tradition found in the Mura- 
torian canon, and partly on a prologue in the tenth 

century MS. of the Vulgate, now at Madrid, known 
as the Codex Toletanus, which states that Fapias 
wrote the Gospel at John's dictation : ' Qui hoc 
euangelium Johanne subdiclante conscripsit.' He 
also cites a statement to the same effect in a late 
Greek catena palrum (cited among the fragments 
of Papias in Lighlfoot's Apostolic Fathers), the word 
there used being vrrnyoptvuv, 'to suggest,' 'to 

The sentences run as follows — supplying the one 
to Matthew from Scr. 512 : — 

'lariet Sri ri jrarik Mar^aioi' e^Y)^Xiar tfipatBi BiaXJiiTif 
tpa^t vx niitov- it 'XtpowoMiii. i(iS68-ri' ipinjniiT) Si iri 
'ludrnu- ^(irydToi St tHj* jtori irBfiuwor ToB XptiTToB 
yiriair, tal iertt ArOpiiiriiiiip^r ToOre t4 fteyyAisr. 

'larion Sri t4 nori JSApKor tOaYtiXtor irriyopeiSji iti 
II^I»u ir 'Pii/tj- ^iDuiffaTO W H(F ipx*!' i""* '*■' rpo^^uBU 
X670U, To5 fi D^oui iwiirret, roS 'Kratou, rftr TTipvtiitiir 
ilrhm Tou iHayytXleu Simrit, 

'Im-ta- Sti tA cari Aaux^ (i^tyAioi' irWfyl/fMiBri ^A 
llotrXou if'Pijifi^' &Te Si ItpaTLKoC xapaKT^pot intapxor df6 
Zax^tpiiiii TOU hpiut 0i>fuui>^oi ISpiaro. 

'Iffrioir An tA furd 'Itttdimji' riay^iXior if roTr xfi^"^* 
TpiuaroO Or-qyi/ptiS-Ji Ivi'luirrou it llir/ufi t'q rffiif 8iij7(r- 
Toi Si riji' twl (sic pro 4x6} roC Tlarpii Tye^ondjip ««( upaicn- 
tijr nai /»8ofw reC X/hstoB ytvedr. 

Scrivener, after giving the three of these which 
he found in his copy, says, ' The reader will desire 
no more of this.' The matter cannot, however, be 
dismissed so lightly. For the second clause of 
each sentence is taken verbally from the well-known 
pass^e in Irenxus (Contra Har. iii. 11 § 8); and 
if the compiler used equally good authority for his 
first clauses, they certainly claim careful attention. 
Now Scr. 51Z heads the sentence to Luke Eo<r/ui 
'IkSucoirA. CIS AovK. xopaypai^ij. Cosnias Indico- 
pleustes flourished about 520 a.d., and would base 
his statements on some earlier source of informa- 
tion. He uses the word virayoptuHv in the case of 
Mark, Luke, and John. Peter 'suggested' the 
contents of Mark, and Paul those of Luke, by 
which is evidently meant that these two apostles 
were the authority for the substance of the Second 
and Third Gospels. When, therefore, Cosmas also 
uses this word of the Fourth Gospel, he must mean 
that John stood behind the actual writer in the 
same way. The modi5ed Johannine authorship 
advocated by Mr, Burkitt has so much of internal 
evidence to recommend it that ne shall do well 
to inquire carefully into the possible existence 
of satisfactory external evidence in the same 


€U ^onget of tU (^eunie. 

By the Rev. David Smith, M.A., Tulliallan. 

PersecutiOQs ia the Desert. 

1. Unlo Jehovah in my distress 

I called, and Me answered me. 
1. Jehovah, deliver my soul from Ihe lying tip, 

from the deceitful tongue. 

3. What shall He give unto Ihee, and what add unlo 

thou deceitful tongue? 

4. Arrows of a mighty man, well sharpened, 

together with coals of juniper. 

5. Woe is me, thai I sojourn in Meshech, 

that I dwell by the tents of Kedar : 
G. Too long hath my soul had her divelling 

by him that haieih peace. 
7. I am all peace, but when I speak 

ihey are for war. — Ps. cxx. 

This little poem is exquisitely pathetic. A long 
time has now elapsed since the exiles vith glad 
hearts and eager steps quitted the land of their 
captivity and turned their faces joyfully home- 
ward. But they have encountered unforeseen 
and vexatious obstacles ; and, instead of arriving 
speedily at the dear city of their fathers and the 
sacred temple of their God, they have been kept 
wandering long with weary feet and hungry hearts 
over the homeless and inhospitable desert that 
stretches like an ocean of drifting sand betwixt 
Babylonia and Palestine. The wilderness tribes, 
with their savage instinct to reckon the defence- 
less as fair game, have barred the progress of the 
pilgrim band and hunted them hither and thither 
over the desert Northward as far as Atesheth, a 
tribe near the Black Sea, better known by its 
Greek name the Moscki; southward again to the 
tribe of Kedar in the north of Arabia and abreast 
of Palestine, have they been chased ; sometimes 
in full view of those westward mountain ridges 
which they have only to cross in order to descry 
Mount Zi'on and Jerusalem. It is hard to have 
travelled so far only to be detained here almost 
in sight of home. Could they but elude those 
harassing tormentors, a few days' march would 
bring them to their own land. 

It is little wonder that one of the pilgrims 

wearily and somewhat revengefully gives voice to 
his impatience and exasperation. Who he may 
have been we cannot guess, but his opening word» 
give us a vivid '■ glimpse of his character and 
history. Desperate and indignant he is, but he is 
neither cowardly nor weak. On the contrary, he 
is one who can look back on hosts of troubles 
manfully encountered and by God's help van- 
quish ed. 

Here he takes his sUnd : 'Thou hast helped me 
in the pasr, O God ; help me now.' 

The enemies he seeks deliverance from are 
lying lips and deceitful tongues. Falsehood and 
treachery have always been characteristics of the 
Arabs, and we can imagine how the pilgrims 
would fare at the hands of those fleet and wily 
banditti of the desert. With a show of friendli- 
ness and treacherous promises of assistance they 
would win the confidence of the unsuspecting 
pilgrims, only to surprise them suddenly and 
plunder them at unawares ; or they would propose 
to guide them over the trackless desert only to 
lead them into some trap ; and, when it came to 
fighting, instead of meeting them in a fair and open 
field, they would career about them on their fleet 
steeds, hurling their javelins and vanishing in a 
cloud of dust ere the discomfited Israelites could 
draw breath. It would be experiences like these 
that prompted the prayer: 

Jehovah, deliver my soul from ihe lying Up, 
from ibe deceitful tongue. 

In the next stanza the speaker breaks out with 
a passionate vindictiveness not altogether unjusti- 
fiable : 

What shall He (i.e. God) give unlo thee, and what add 
unto thee, 
(hou deceitful tongue? 

He has appealed to God for deliverance, and in 
view of the enormous provocation he feels that 



God's reuibution must needs be terrible. It will 
be retribution vpon retribution. 'What, and 
what more, shall He give unto thee?' 

Then he answers his own question. 'What 
shall He give unto thee? He shall give arrows 
of the mighty, well sharpened, together with coals 
of juniper.' It may be questioned whether 'the 
mighty ' should be taken as referring to God or as 
meaning a valiant hero. Most probably the latter 
is the true interpretation. These treacherous 
Arabs have shot their arrows at the defenceless 
exiles ; but retribution will overtake them in the 
just providence of God. A mighty warrior will 
one day assail them with his keen and invicible 
shafts. It is possible that the Psalmist was one of 
the leaders of the returning exiles, and is here 
anticipating the day when his people will be 
securely established in their land and he will be free 
to lead forth a disciplined troop and repay to those 
Arabs with usury the injuries they have inflicted. 

In the intensity of his passion he confusedly 
heaps metaphor upon metaphor. The punishment 
of the persecutors is to be not only the warrior's 
sharp arrows, but coals of juniper. Juniper is the 
crisp broom which grows in the desert and which 
is still used as fuel by the Bedouins. It gives a 
very intense heat. The Rabbis and St. Jerome 
tell fabulous stories of travellers cooking their 
food over a fire of juniper, and on their return that 
way a year after. finding the embers still smoulder- 

This twofold punishment of the deceitful 
tongue would appear less far-fetched to the He- 
brews than to us. Jeremiah had already spoken of 
the deceitful tongue as an arrow. 'Their tongue 
is a deadly arrow ; it speaketh deceit ; one speak- 
eth peaceably to his neighbour, but in his heart 
he layeth wait for him' (9"). And later, St. 
James said ; ' The tongue is a fire . . . and is set 
on fire by hell ' (3*). Such is the strong Hebrew 
way of describing the injurious consequences of 
falsehood and deceit. They pierce like sharp 
arrows and bum like a fierce tire. 

The retribution here predicted for the deceitful 
tongue is thus simply a figurative and Hebraic 
rendering of that solemn principle of God's provi- 
dence, that men are punished as they sin. It is a 
law which operates as surely in the spiritual as in 
the natural world, that ' whatsoever a man soweth, 
that shall he also reap.' In his castle at Loches 
that crafty and inhuman monarch, Louis xi. of 

France, had a variety of engines devised with 
fiendish ingenuity for the torture of the hapless 
wretches who incurred his displeasure ; and none 
was more appalling than those ' iron cages ' in 
which the captive could neither stand upright nor 
lie at length. This horrid torture was devised by 
the Cardinal la Balue, and many a poor mortal 
did he ruthlessly aid in consigning to it. It is not 
a striking instance of the irony of Providence that 
la Balue himself should incur the tyrant's dis- 
pleasure and spend the last eleven years of his 
life in one of those cages which his own diabolical 
ingenuity had contrived? It would have given 
him pause when he was planning the horrid device, 
had he foreseen that he would himself be one of 
its victims ; and it would surely give us pause did 
we but realise that, whenever we commit a sin, 
we are, as it were, letting loose a wild beast which 
will one day pounce upon ourselves and rend us. 
'Our deeds,' says one of our English novelists, 
'are like children that are born to us; they live 
and act apart from our own will. Nay, children 
may be strangled, but deeds never : they have an 
indestructible life both in and out of our conscious- 
ness.' It is an absolute law which no contrivance 
or cunning is able to arrest, that 'with what 
measure we mete, it will be measured to us again'; 
and it is not only at the Judgment Seat that our 
sins will meet us face to face and call us to account. 
The day of reckoning may be postponed, but it 
will certainly arrive sooner or later; and the 
longer it Is postponed, the heavier the interest that 
will have accumulated. 

By this solemn law of retribution it is ordained 
that we shall receive back not merely what we 
have given but incalculably more. Alike for the 
giver of good and for the giver of evil the law is : 
'Give, and it shall be given unto you; good 
measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and 
running over, shall they give into your bosom,' 
Accordingly, the deceitful tongue which has pierced 
the innocent with its arrows and scorched them 
with its fire, is doomed to be itself transfixed with 
arrows of the mighty, well sharpened, and burned 
with glowing coals of juniper, 'What shall He 
give, what add, unto thee, deceitful tongue ? ' Not 
simple retribution, but retribution upon retribu- 
tion. Thou shalt 'receive of the Lord's hand 
double for all thy sins.' No deed is trifling if 
regard be had to the magnitude of its results. It 
is an unspeakably solemn fact that by the mani- 


fold actions of daily life, which appear for the 
most part so trivial and of such slight account, we 
are laying up for ourselves a vast heritage of 
blessedness or of sorrow. 

In the third stanza the Psalmist turns awaj from 
the teachetous Arabs and bewails his own sad 
condition : 

Woe i» me that I lojourn in Meshech, 
that I dwell bj (be teols of Keiai I 

In view of the falsehood and treacherjr of his 
enemies, he eagerly anticipates the retribution 
which is sure to come; but in view of his own 
distresses he is filled with impatience and despair. 
Retribution is indeed sure to come, but it comes 
so very slowly ! 

Too long hath my soul bad her dwelling 
by him that hateth peace. 

The Psalm closes in utter hopelessness and dis- 
couragement. ResisUnce and conciliation were 
alike vain. For the former the exiles were too 
weak, and the latter was scorned by their per- 
secutors : 

I am all peace, but wheo I speak 
they are for war. 

One cannot help feeling that this Psalm begins 
better than it ends. The Psalmist begins by 
staying himself on God's past deliverances. So 
long as he stands here, he courageously &ces 
present distresses and confidently anticipates that 
God will deliver him again. It is a pity that he 
quits this ground so soon and betakes himself to 
revengeful imprecation. His indignation is indeed 
neither causeless nor exa^eiated; at the same 

time it does him no good but only hanm. It 
leaves him enfeebled and embittered. It would ill 
become us to cast blame on this sorely vexed 
man. His provocation was great, and had we 
been in his place, we should perhaps have been 
more bitter and vindictive than he. But we 
ought at least to learn wisdom from bis mistake. 
Had he continued as he began, and, instead of 
cursing bis persecutors, committed himself to God 
and calmly waited till God should vindicate him 
and his comrades, he would not have ended so 
darkly and dismally. On the contrary, he would 
have been strengthened and encouraged. The 
situation would have remained as dangerous and 
distressing as ever, but, had be only trusted God, 
he would have discovered that behind the clouds 
the sun was still shining and the sky still blue. 

Here then is the secret of hope and courage in 
the midst of distress : Remember the iovingkindnest 
of the Lord. Say, ' God has helped me in the 
past, and He will help me again.' Perhaps, how- 
ever, we are so blind and stupid that we cannot 
see that ever in all our lives has God helped us. 
Then we can still say, 'He has helped others. 
I will trust Him, and He will help me.* The 
deliverances which God has wrought for others, 
are so many pledges that He will do no less for 
us if we will only trust Him and bravely set our- 
selves to work out His holy Will. When we are 
in distress, we can do no worse than, like this 
Psalmist; give way to bitter and revengeful feel- 
ings; nor can we do better than submissively and 
lovingly commit ourselves to Him who is to all 
that trust Him a Refuge and Strength, a veiy 
present Help in trouble. 

(geceni J'oretgn ^^eofojj. 

'tU (Stessianic Secret in t$e 

(Boepefe.' ^ 

Readers of Dr. Wrede's earlier essays on The 
Task and Method of {so-ealled) New Testament 

' Dai Metsiasgthtimnis in dta Evangtlien. Zurich tin 
Btilrag turn Ventditdnis dt! Markusevangttiumt. Von Dr. 
W. Wrede, o. Fioreiior der ev. Theologie lU Breslau. 
Gotlingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprechl, 190*. F. Bauer- 
meUter, 49 Gordon Street, Glatgow. Price M.S ; bound, 

Theology and the Epistle of Clemens Romanus will 
be prepared for the qualities of acuteness and inde- 
pendence which are conspicuous in this daring, 
fresh, and carefully written monograph. The sub- 
title is as important as the tide itself. The thesis 
of the book depends finally upon exegetical data, 
and these are in the first instance drawn from the 
primitive evangelic tradition embodied in Mark's 
Gospel, which the author believes to have been 
composed after 70 a.d. in advance of the other 
Synoptics. Priority and primitiveness, however. 


are not allowed to involve any sacrosanct or his- 
torical infallibility. So far from accepting the 
early and common tradition as ipso facto entitled to 
credence, Dr. Wrede proceeds to expiscate its 
contents, with the result that the Gospel as a 
whole is pronounced defective and deceptive from 
the historical standpoint, while one series of pass- 
ages is set aside as due to special theological re- 
flection operating on the primitive tradition. The 
basis for this criticism is found in what are de- 
clared to be conflicting strata within the narrative. 
The real truth, Dr. Wrede believes, is that Jesus 
never claimed Messianic dignity during His life- 
time. He had no such ambitions, and therefore 
there was nothing to be concealed upon His part. 
All was open, frank, and simple, alike in His 
actions and in His utterances. But by the time that 
Mark came to tell the story of His life, theological 
reflection had been at work upon the primitive 
tradition, investing it with Messianic signiflcance 
and throwing back into the earthly life part of the 
later mystery and glory. This dermatic atmo- 
sphere was created, not by the Jewish idea of a 
hidden Messiah (preserved, e.g., in Justin Martyr), 
but by the early Christian belief that the resurrec- 
tion marked the full entrance of Jesus into His 
Messianic rule. Then for the first time He was re- 
cognized as the Christ {Ro i^) and completely en- 
dowed with power. But, men proceeded to argue, 
perhaps half unconsciously, what of His life on 
earth ? Must not that also have had some 
Messianic meaning and content? Surely Jesus 
must have been Messiah from the first in some 
degree 7 And i^ as we learn, He was not recog- 
nized as such, the reason must have been that 
secrecy was His desire and His design. Till the 
resurrection (Mk 9*, etc.) Jesus must have been in 
the nature of the case a mystery, even to His own 
adherents, and much more to the outside world. 
So, we may conjecture, the early Church reflected. 
The result is that its earliest product, in the line 
of evangelic narrative, contains not merely a nu- 
cleus of historical value, but a large amount of 
variant matter, incidents as well as sayings, in 
which we can distinguish more or less clearly a 
theological idea illustrated and expanded. Such 
passages include all recognitions of Jesus as the 
MessUh by dsemons (iai-».8« 3I1-W jK-t ^soj^ ^11 
prohibitions addressed to disciples, daemons, and 
others with regard to the promulgation of His 
Messiahship (e,f. i«-«> 5" 7«.« 8»-"o 9>-m* 10"'), 

the repeated attempts of Jesus to presene His 
Messianic incognito, His conception of the parables 
as an open secret to disciples and a deliberate 
puzzle to outsiders, His predictions of the death 
and resurrection {8" ^\ ^o^'-), and, finally, all 
references to the 'imbecility' and dulness of the 
disciples. The perspective of these is at once 
wider and later than the perspective of the original 

Nor is this standpoint to be regarded as con- 
fined to Mark, although in his Gospel it is first 
and most fully developed. Matthew, it is true, 
throws the daemonic prohibitions into the back- 
ground, and regards the disciples as, on the whole, 
less blameworthy for their failure to understand 
Jesus. To this evangelist the secret of the 
Messiahship is an occasional element, no longer 
primary. But in Luke the daemonic antithesis 
again becomes prominent, and the general con- 
ception of Christ's mysterious Messianic r61e 
approximates decidedly to that of Mark. Still 
more evidently in the Fourth Gospel the Marcan 
^econception is elaborated. The forms of ex- 
pression naturally differ, but substantially the same 
idea underlies both Gospels. Here also even the 
disciples fail to grasp the divine revelation of their 
Lord. His earthly life is a manifestation of the 
divine truth — but a manifestation <V ■tn.poi^daix. 
The secret things of His person and mission 
remain a riddle till the Spirit comes, and with 
the Spirit light daWns for the first time on the . 
actual meaning of His existence. 

With Dr. Wrede's entire principles and positions 
there is no need to quarrel. Some are valid 
enough ; others are reasonable, within limits. One 
is not concerned to claim absolute chronological 
accuracy for the order of events in Mark's Gospel, 
although much more might be urged on its behalf 
than he is disposed to admit. Nor can it be 
denied that the story embodied in this Gospel 
may have been, and probably has been, tinged 
with later conceptions. But this element is seri- 
ously exaggerated. Doubtless the level of his- 
toricity is not uniform, and some passages contain 
strange phenomena. But any sweeping deprecia- 
tion of Mark's historicity carries little or no con- 
viction with it, and one must admit that it sounds 
almost like a fantastic paradox to describe such a 
narrative as thoroughly dogmatic, destitute of 
serious historical importance, and so symbolic 
that recurring phrases like ro opis and tit oiKtac 


are practically symbols for stales of manifestation 
and retirement. Such a theory vouM require 
far more consistent and ample evidence than Dr. 
Wrede, with all his keennesB, has been able to 
adduce. Indeed, many of the discrepancies upon 
which his ai^ument is really based are quite 
imaginary; they rise when too logical and literal a 
test is applied to naive nanatives, and for the 
most part they vanish so soon as the criterion 
is modified by common sense. Certainly the 
'psychological' method of interpreting the 
Gospels has often been discredited by its har- 
monizing and modernizing forms. It may be 
employed to explain away rather than to explain. 
But obviously there is a via media between such 
extravagances and so rigorous a rejection of the 
method as that proposed and practised in this 
treatise. After all, the evangelic narrative was 
concerned with living men, often inconsistent, 
often unconscious of their inconsistencies. Human 
experience has a rhythm of its own, which is 
seldom as clear and straightforward as the move- 
ments of dialectic. Vestiges of this are sure to 
exist in any record. And if this factor had been 
recognized more cordially by Dr. Wrede, it would 
have materially altered the aspect of a number of 
sayings and incidents which, when viewed merely 
as passages in a document, may seem dim and 
incoherent. In a word, the standard applied here 
to the gospel tradition appears to be far too 
. prosaic and literary. Even from a scientific stand- 
point, it is inferior to that applied by writers like 
J. Weiss, Holizmann, and Jiilicher. 

This genera] criticism might be worked out in 
detail. But space forbids. The only special 
remark which we would make with reference to 
the exegesis is that the writer occasionally fails 
to adequately appreciate certain awkward points : 
e^. the vapfnivia. in 8'^ (which forms the clue to 
some previous passages like 2^"- ^ i"**), ihe oifirio 
in 4*" (which surely implies some previous ac- 
quaintance), and the presence of iroXtv in lo'^. 
Here, and at several other stages in this clever 
analysis, one is provoked to dissent. But, as a 
whole, the discussion, however unconvincing, 
always sets one thinking, although one has to con- 
stantly discount a repugnance to the 'super- 
natural ' (which, by the way, is never defined). 
The real merit of the book lies in its stimulating 
quality rather than in the conclusions which it 
proposes to establish. It views things from a new 

angle, and it will probably do service in many 
quarters by calling attention to quite a number of 
points in Mark and the other Gospels, which are 
not to be so readily solved as many editors and 
theologians apparently imagine. We owe Dr. 
Wrede thanks for his obstinate questioning and 
undaunted originality. He is an Isbmaelite in 
criticism. His work stands quite apart from the 
dominant schools even in Continental theology, 
his main allies being of the past, Bruno Bauer, 
Volkmar, and Hoekstra. But it will be impos- 
sible for any serious critic in future to edit the 
Gospels or discuss the Messianic consciousness of 
Jesus, without coming to terms with the argument 
which runs through this radical and subtle 
contribution to New Testament interpretation. 

Unfortunately, Hollmann's recent essay : Die 
Bedeutung des Tedes Jem, and Oscar Holtzmann's 
Lebenjeiv appeared too late for use in Dr. Wrede's 
pages. This is especially to be regretted, as both 
volumes, and particularly the former, traverse 
by anticipation the ground which he covers. 
Both find little or no difficulty in treating the 
gospel tradition with equal candour, yet with a 
much less sceptical spirit ; and in this they repre- 
sent, it must be added, the main current of contem- 
porary scientific thought upon the subject. Other- 
wise, Dr. A\'rede deals adequately and vivaciously 
with most of his predecessors and contemporaries. 
But his knowledge of the literature of his subject 
is hardly perfect. He seems ignorant of Dr. 
Martineau in this country, whose position was not 
far removed from that advocated by himself. Nor 
does he betray familiarity with French writers like 
Stapfer and R^ville, or with English authors like 
Dr. James Drummondand the late Dr. Bruce, from 
all of whom even he has some things yet to team. 
James Moffatt. 


|icmn'« £«fe«< <Wotft.' 

Our readers will remember the interest that was 
awakened two years ago by Sellin's Serubbabel, in 
which the author sought to identify the suffering 
' Studien :ur Enlstehungzgctchicktt der jiid. Gemeinde 
nock dtiti bahylstt. Eiil. VoD E. Sellin. I. ' Det Koecht 
Gottc9 bei Deuterjoeiaja' (M. 6. 50): II. 'Die Reslauia- 
lion det jiid. Gem«inde in den Jabren 538-516.— Das 
Schicksal Serubbabels' (M.^-SO) i the two volume] 
together Leipzig: A.Deichen; London: Williams 
& Norgate, 1901. ri/o- h, X^7f>'VL»^ 



Servant of Deutero-Isaiah with Zenibbabel. The 
book encountered much hostile criticism, some of 
it not altogether fair, as the author points out in 
the work before us. He takes exception, in 
particular to the strictures of Oettli and 
Giesebrecht, with both of whom he deals some- 
what sharply. At the same time he has been led, 
partly by the objections of Nowack and Meinhold, 
and partly by renetved examination of the whole 
problem of Deutero-Isaiah, to reconsider his 
position, and, while he still holds himself entitled 
to believe in an exaltation of Zerubbabel to the 
Davidic throne, followed by his overthrow and 
imprisonment, if not death, at the hands of the 
Persians, he gives up hb identity with the Servant 
of the Lord. This change of opinion has been 
brought about partly by his study of Ed. Konig's 
The Exiled Book of Consolation (Edinburgh: 
T. & T. Clark, 1899, price 3s. 6d.), and by his 
acceptance of that author's contentions in favour 
of a Babylonian origin for certain parts of Deutero- 
Isaiah which Sellin formerly held to have been 
composed in Palestine. But he is still confident 
that the Servant is an individual and a member of 
the Davidic family. His new candidate for the 
honour is king Jehoiachin, whose surrender to 
king Nebuchadnezzar is held to have been an act 
of self-sacrifice on behalf of his people (as it prob- 
ably was), and whose memory, it is argued from 
various O.T. references, was fondly cherished in 
the hearts of his countrymen. 

We cannot pretend to have any expectation that 
this new proposal will hold the field any more 
than its predecessor. For ourselves we are 
convinced that the collutivt and not the individual 
interpretation of the Servant is the correct one. 
But even those who hold that the Servant is an 
individual will find weighty objections to the 
identification with Jehoiachin (witness Bertholet's 
powerful criticism in the Theol. Literatuneitung, 
14th and £8thSeptemberi9oi). At the same time 
we freely acknowledge the great ability of Sellin's 
argument, and the valuable sidelight it throws 
upon much that is obscure in the period of Jewish 
history with which it deals. The book is written 
in a clear flowing style, and the reader's interest 
is never allowed to flag. It deserves to be widely 

Pethaps the author will meet with more assent 
to his conclusions in that part of his work which 
deals with the history of the Return as told in the 

Book of Ezra. The Chronicler fares much better 
at his hands than at those of Kosters, Wellhausen, 
Maiquart, and similar writers. Sellin's results are 
in many ways akin to those reached by Ed. Meyer 
in his Entstekung des Jtuien/hums. The last word 
has not yet been spoken on this subject, but 
Sellin has materially contributed to the settlement 
of the questions that yet remain open, and 
the scientific spirit and value of his investigations 
will be universally acknowledged. 

^ftacft'e ' (0ramtn<tT of Q^iBftcaf 

It is very gratifying to note that Professor Strack's 
admirable Grammar of Biblical Aramaic has 
reached a third edition. It contains all that the 
student who wishes to make a thorough acquaint- 
ance with the Aramaic portions of the O.T. 
requires. As compared with former editions, the 
present work shows a considerable number of 
additions and improvements which materially 
increase its usefulness. The Grammar proper 
(pp. 9-40) has been thoroughly revised and has 
gained in clearness of arrangement. The texts 
have been collated afresh and with the aid of 
additional MSS., while a number of passages, 
Dn s'^'"- ^*^* 4*'-?^ are given with the supra- 
linear punctuation. The vocabulary is concise 
but adequate. Dr. S track is to be heartily 
congratulated on the success, which, in spite of 
obstacles that ought never to have arisen, has 
attended the publication of this work, and we 
rejoice that the expectations we expressed in these 
pages in May 1S96 regarding what was then only 
an Abriss, have been realized in the appearance of 
this Grammar, which ought to be as popular as it 
is scientific and reliable. 


In his Rectorial Address last August, Professor 
Harnack of Berlin discusses the question which is 

' Grammatik des Biblisilt-Aramaischen, mil den naik 
Handschrifltn biricklipen Texlin und einem WMcrbuck. 
Von Professor II. L. Sttack, Dritte grossenihcils neubear- 
beiwte Auflage. Lcipiig: J. C. Hinriehs, 1901. Price 
M.Si bound, 1 170- h, X^iLf*.'^^!*^ 


often raised at the present day, whether the 
Theological Faculty in the Universities ought to 
confine itself to the Christian religion or to take 
the wider scope of dealing with the general 
History of Religion. Harnack does full justice to 
the arguments that support this latter course, but 
decides without hesitation in favour of the present 
arrangement. He urges forcibly that the Christian 
religion has such characteristics that 'the man 
who knows it not, knows no religion, whereas he 
who knows it and its history, knows all religions.' 
' Christianity in its pure form is not a religion side 
by side with others, it is the religion,' The 
lecture, which is published in pamphlet form 
by J. Ricker, Giessen {Die Aufgabe der theoL 
Facuitdlen und die allgemeine Retigionsgeschichie, 
price 50 pf.), and which we are glad to see has 
already reached a third edition, deserves to be 
widely read. 

Dr. Otto Scahlin has rendered a real service to 
Septuagintal study by the publication of his 
Clemens Alexandrinus und die Septuaginta 
(Niimberg: J. L. Stich, 1901). Clement's quota- 
tions are numerous, and show an acquaintance with 
all the books included in the LXX, except Ruth, 
Canticles, Obadiah, the Epistle of Jeremy, and 3 
and 4 Maccabees. No distinction is made in 
the quotations between canonical and deutero- 
canonical books. Dr. Stahlin goes carefully 
through the quotations from the various books, 
and lias no difficulty in reaching the conclusion 
that in many instances Clement quoted, not from 
memory, but directly from MSS. Unfortunately, 
however, his study has not led him to any positive 
result as to the particular form of recension or 
class of MSS to which the text used by Clement 
belonged. It is true that his text throughout 
diverges from B, and that in the Pentateuch it 
shows a frequent affinity to Lucian, or perhaps, 
rather to A. These results may appear rather 
meagre and disappointing, but students of the 
LXX owe a debt of gratitude to Stahlin for the 
materials he has collected and the great care with 
which he has handled them. When we add that 
the author expresses his indebtednes for help 
throughout the work to Dr. Nestle, students will 
know what to expect in the way of fulness and 

''ne of the most important contributions that 

have been yet offered on the subject of the origin 
and history of the tribes of Israel is contained 
in Dr. Carl Steuemagel's Die Einwanderung 
der israel. Stdmme in Kanaan (Berlin : C. A. 
Schwetschke & Sohn, 1901 ; price M.3.60). Dr. 
Steuernagel is too well known as a critic (and 
the present work will sustain that reputation) to 
incur any risk of being set down as an ' apologist,' 
although some of his conclusions might, in some 
quarters, earn for him that name. He sets him- 
self in this book to a careful study of the Israel- 
itish tradition regarding the tribes and their 
movements, and discovers far more material that 
can be turned to historical use than it has been the 
fashion to allow. Even the stories of the patriarchs 
yield, in his hands, valuable data, A great deal 
of interest attaches to his handling of the period 
of the Judges. He believes himself entitled to 
conclude that the various tribes, immediately after 
the entrance into Canaan, occupied quite dilTerent 
settlements from those in which we find them 
at a later time. On the question of the conquest 
of Canaan, the number of tribes that took part 
in it, etc., our author reaches conclusions that 
differ greatly from the traditional ones, but which 
are coming to be familiar and widely accepted. 
Dr Steuernagel himself would be the last to claim 
finality for all his results, but he is entitled to 
a careful study of his book, and to have a more 
excellent way pointed out to him, if such exists. 

Dr. Otto Weber, a pupil of Professor Hommel, 
has published his Inaugural Dissertation on the 
age of the Min^ean kingdom {Studien zur SUdarah. 
Altertumskunde : I. ' Das Alter des Minaischen 
Reiches ' ; Berlin (Peiser), 1901, price M.3). 
Readers of The Expository Times are well aware, 
from Professor Hommel's own contributions, of 
the importance for O.T. study of the Mituean 
inscriptions. A burning question at present is 
whether the Min^ean and Sab^ean kingdoms existed 
contemporaneously (D. H. Miiller, Mordtmann, 
et al.), or whether the Minxan kingdom was prior 
to the Sabxan, which destroyed it and took its 
place (Glascr, Hommel, et al.) Dr. Weber argues 
powerfully in favour of the latter theory, and in 
the Dissertation before us collects all the data 
available for a decision. His contribution to the 
discussion will no doubt find, as it deserves, 
many readers, and will receive full attention from 



Amongst the contributions to the recent ' Fest- 
schrift fiir B Stade ' was Dr. v. Gall's Zusammemtt- 
sung und Hirkun/t dtr Bikam-Perikope (Giessen : 
J. Ricker, 1900, price We may say, 
at once, that while the Balaam episodes in Nu 
33-34 b^^c i)cit\i difBculties, and while the analysis 
of these chapters has perhaps never been satis- 
factorily achieved, we find it impossible to follow 
Freiherr v. Gall in his extreme conclusions. The 
investigation of the sources is certainly marked 
by acuteness and abundant learning, but the mere 
sUtement of the results he reaches will be enough 
in the estimation of many to condemn them. In 
regard to the narrative portions he believes that 
there were originally two Balaam stories, one by 
J, the other by E, and that each knew of only 
one blessing of Israel. The two stories were 
combined by R^^ in such a way that again only 
one blessing was recbrded. Two further blessings 
were afterwards interpolated in this narrative by 
two different hands. And, finally, prophecies 
about other peoples were at a later period 
added by various hands. The poetical passages 
ate considered by v. Gall to be all of late 
origin, emanating from the post -exilic period, 
and in part as late as the days of Jesus 

In consequence of the progress which the last 
few years have witnessed in the investigation of 
the laws of Hebrew metre, and, in particular, on 
account of the appearance of various works on 
Jeremiah, Professor Comill has felt compelled, 
with the sanction of P. Haupt, to publish a text 
of the metrical passages of that prophet, which 
is meant to be an improvement on the text he 
has already furnished for the S.B.O.T. This 
new text will form the basts of the translation 
and notes in the Polychrome Bible, and it was 
published a few months ago mainly in order that 
it might appear before Duhm's 'Jeremiah,' which 
was issued very soon thereafter. The whole 
arcumstances are explained by Professor Cornill 
in his Preface, which invests with quite a pathetic 
interest the figures of editor, contributor, and 
publisher in these days of high pressure. The 
little work, now that it has been safely issued, 
will be welcomed by all O.T. scholars {Die 
metristhtn Stiicke des Buches Jeremia reconstruirt, 
von C. H. Cornill ; Leipzig : J. C. Hinrichs, 1901, 

Dr. O. Herrigel, Stadtvikar in Carlsruhe, ren- 
dered a service to N.T. students some eighteen 
months ago by the publication in Hilgenfeld's 
Zeittchrift of his verbatim report of the late Dr. 
Carl Holsten's class lecture on the results of his- 
torical criticism as regards the Canon of the N.T. 
We called attention at the time to this publication, 
and we have now the pleasure of noting that in the 
same periodical (pp. 334-369) Dr. Herrigel has 
published a similar report of Dr. Holsten's latest 
utterances (from the Professor's own papers) on the 
important questions raised by the Epistles to the 
Corinthians {Einleitung in die Korinthtrbrieje). 

Professor Rothstejn of Halle, so well and so 
favourably known as an O.T. scholar who always 
has a practical as well as a speculative interest 
in tbe problems raised by historical criticism, has 
published a volume which ought to serve a useful 
purpose at the present juncture (Bilder aus der 
Gesckichte des alien Bundes in gemeinverstdndlicher 
Form; Eriangen : Fr. Junge, 1901). It will reas- 
sure many as to the possibility of combining the 
scientific treatment of the O.T. and the acceptance 
of many of the predominant results of literary 
criticism with a deep sense of the uniqueness and 
the abiding value of Scripture. It is a work, too, 
from which even those who may consider the 
author's standpoint somewhat conservative may 
learn much. The first 60 pages of the book 
are occupied with preliminary matter, and then 
comes the first Scripture character studied, Moses 
(pp. 61-394), This is only the first of a series 
of studies, for which we would bespeak a hearty " 
welcome. • 

The first and second issues of the aoth vol. of 
Messrs. Schwetscbke & Sohn's invaluable Jahres- 
berieht have reached us. The former of these 
(price M.9) has for its subject 'Exegese,' and 
Bruno Baentsch is responsible for the O.T. part, 
A Meyer for the N."!". The other is devoted 
to ' Historische Theologie,' and is the work of 
Liidemann, Preuschen, Ficker,O.CIemen, Loesche, 
Kohlschmidt, Lehmann, Hcgler, and Koehler. It 
is unnecessary to repeat the testimony we have 
frequently borne to the fulness and accuracy of 
this great work, which is invaluable to all students 
of theology. 

Maryiullir, Aberdten. O 


The Text of the New Testament' 

The Theologische fiundschau occupies a unique 
place amongst German leviews. It is a monthly 
that does not aim at noticing every publication of 
the month, but new books are promptly entered in 
the Bibliography, which is nov issued separately. 
Each of the several branches of theological and 
biblical study is assigned to one of the experts on 
the long list of contributors, and from time to 
time an article appears which gives a survey of all 
the literature published on that particular subject 
since the last notice was written. By this means 
it is possible, in a few pages, to give reviews which 
are not scrappy and which do not overlook any 
work of importance. An excellent example of the 
working of this plan is furnished in a recent article 
on 'The Text of the NewTesUment' by the senior 
editor. Dr. Bousset. 

It is nearly three years since the appearance of 
Dr. Boussef s first article on ' The Textual Criticism 
of the New TesUment,' and his formidable list of 
books, which have been published during this 
period, bears eloquent testimony to the activity of 
workers in this department of study. As was to 
be expected, the foremost place is given to Dr. 
Caspar R. Gregory's great work, the first volume of 
which was issued last year. ' It may be regarded 
as a new German edition of the Latin prolegomena ' 
which Dr. Gregory contributed to TischendorPs 
ediiio octazia major, but use is made of the con- 
stantly accumulating material which is now so 
abundant as almost to be embarrassing. Special 
praise is given to the very instructive 'Introduc- 
tion ' prefixed to the list of Greek Liturgies. 

The greater part of Dr. Bousset's article is de- 
voted to an examination and estimate of the con- 
tributions made to the solution of the outstanding 
problem — the value of the 'Western' text, — by 
writers who have supported or opposed the well- 
known theories of Dr. Blass. It is a fault of 
Nestle's excellent and well-written Introduction to 
the Greek New Testament that its arguments in 
favour of the ^ text (Western) read too much like 
special pleading, whilst the instances cited by 
opponents of the theory of Blass ought, in a hand- 

' Thialegiiche Rundschau, Vwiter Jahi^ang. Neuntes 
't, Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr. London: Williams & 

book, to be more 'objectively' considered. Dr. 
Theodore Zahn is rightly described as one of the 
most influential supporters of the views advocated 
by Dr. Blass, and yet on the important question of 
the variants in Ac 15 these two critics come to 
opposite conclusions. The /3 text omits from 
the apostolic decree the words ' and from things 
strangled ' (koI xwwrii') ; it also inserts the Golden 
Rule. Zahn maintains that in this passage the 
reading of the /S text cannot be primary, and his 
argument is convincing ; but Bousset remarks 
with force: 'The conclusion that a secondary 
reading does not belong to the original ^ text is a 
petitio prindpii, which assumes what needs to be 
proved, namely, the superiority and originality of 
the J3 text.' 

In Bousset's judgment Hamack has established 
the secondary character of the j8 text in Ac 1 1*^-** 
i8'"". On these and on other grounds it is held 
that although the researches of Blass have given a 
powerful impulse to the work of textual critics, his 
chief hypothesis has not been established. Quite 
recently Blass has modified his own theory,^ for he 
no longer regards the jStext as the original of the 
Acts. The iS text and the a text' are, according 
to his latest statement, the first and the second 
editions respectively of an original which remained 
in the hands of Luke. 

Bousset speaks in terms of high appreciation of 
Mr. Barnard's work ■ in the Cambridge series of 
'Texts andStudies.' Clement of Alexandria is one 
of our oldest witnesses ; in Barnard's collection of 
biblical quotations found in Clement's writings we 
have fragments of a New Testament of the second 
century, and careful study of these fragments 
shows that the peculiarities of the j9 text are found 
in , the text used by Clement. Nevertheless, 
Bousset denies the inference drawn from these 
facts by Mr. Burkitt that the /3 text is the oldest 
accessible. That it seems to be older than the 
Bk text he allows ; but the Bk text may be a 
learned Alexandrine recension, and yet it may also 
be purer than the ^ text, for the scribe may have 
corrected the jS text by comparison with older 

Fragments of a MS. containing one-third of 
Matthew's Gospel and written in gold letters on 
purple vellum were recently discovered in Sinope. 
Omont's edition of this MS. shows that its text is 

' Sludittt and Kritiktrt, 1900, 11 und 19. l ' | 
^ The Biblical Ttil of Clcmenl ef Altxand^. 




almost identical with the text of the three purple 
codices N29. Bousset thinks that all these MSS 
were produced in the sixth century and probably 
at Constantinople. He appositely quotes Cbrys- 
ostom's polemic against those who covet these 
editicnes de luxe, but do not covet the wisdom 
treasured up in the words written in golden letters. 

The attention of an editor, who seldom nods 
and to whom all his readers are greatly indebted, 
may be directed to an amusing slip in the last 
issue of his Bibliograpkie. Under the heading 
* History of Israel ' there is this entry : Lamb 
(Charles), Essays of Elia I Let us hope that the 
mistake has introduced some German student of 
the Hebrew prophet's life to the genial English 
essayist. J. G. Tasker. 

Haitdiwertk CalUgc, 

Historical and Dogmatic Method in 

Reischle, a member of the Ritschlian school, 
contributes to the July and August numbers of the 
Tfuohgische Jiundschau an important article on the 
above subject. It is a criticism of an article by 
Troeltsch, written in opposition to an apologetic 
essay by Niebergall, 'On the Absoluteness of 
Christianity,' in which two propositions were 
proved. 'The moral personality is an absolute 
magnitude,' and 'Christ gives us the perfect 
satisfaction of the deepest needs of our moral 
personality.' Troeltsch condemns Niebergall's 
method as dogmatic, and in antagonism states what 
he calls the historical. While he insists on the 
application to Christianity as lo the other religions 
of the historical method ; yet he modifies that 
method in important respects : (i) he admits that 
religious psychology reaches in the leading per- 
sonalities of religious history, ' a last fact akin and 
yet unlike to moral judgment and aesthetic taste, a 
life of the soul, which reveals the independence, 
the inner unity, and the originality of religion,' 
' the original actual, repeatedly experienced contact 
with God ' ; (a) he maintains that in the history of 
religions we may discover progress, and are led lo 
the conclusion that in Christianity this progress 
has reached its highest stage. In discovering this 
progress we are guided by our personal feeling, and 
in our conclusion about Christianity all we can 
affirm is that ' it is relatively the highest of exist- 
ing religions, not that it is the absolute religion,' 

although a higher may be for us inconceivable ; 
(3) he holds that all logical, epistemological, 
and ethical problems point for their solution to a 
highest unity, an absolute consciousness; and 
although this is not the religious conception of 
God, it leaves in human thought a place where 
this conception can find room. 

In criticism of this method, claiming to be 
historical, and not dogmatic, Reischle points out ; 
(i) that Troeltsch 'steps altogether out of the 
limits of the historical standpoint,' when he in- 
troduces as an explanation of the phenomena of 
religion a mystical experience of the presence of 
God in the leading personalities, based on divine 
revelation ; {%) that be forsakes the path of purely 
historical observation, when as a conclusion from a 
comparison, he represents Christianity as the crown 
of the religious development; (3) that personal 
conviction is an active factor in the solution of the 
problems of thought. In these respects a limit is 
set to historical relativity by a systematic, we can 
even say dogmatic point of view, which is due to a 
conviction of faith. This method, Reischle con- 
cludes, is not so very different from that followed 
by theologians influenced by Ritschl. For they 
also accept a comparison of religions, seek to carry 
this out without partiality, admit a universal reve- 
lation, and attempt to base on this comparison a 
historical and philosophical view of the history of 
religion. Further, they too recognize the neces- 
sity of proving that Christian ideas are not opposed 
to a philosophical world-view or the results of 
particular sciences. 

But there are also differences as regards method 
and result. As regards method; (i) instead of 
attempting a spiritual metaphysics dealing with 
these last problems of thought, as Troeltsch does, 
the Ritschlians are content with a critical epistem- 
ology, while not denying that a personal conviction 
of the validity of intellectual, aesthetic, and moral 
ideals may be reached, and a philosophical world- 
view may be constructed out of these elements, 
and parts of our knowledge of the real world, in 
which, however, the individual, personal attitude to 
the spiritual contents of life is decisive; (i) how- 
ever valuable, the comparison of religions cannot 
be fundamental, but must be supplementary to 
another method of apologetics, even a practical 
one, the proof of the value of Christianity to the 
personal life of the believer; (3) the estimate of 
Christianity as the highest stage of a course of 

1 98 


divine revelation does not rest on merely historical 
grounds, but involves a judgment of faith ; a man 
must himself have experienced divine revelation 
to recognize its presence and operation in other 
religions. ' If the method of Troeltsch,' says 
Reiscble, 'seems to make too high scientific 
claims, the result is too modest ' : (i) Christianity 
is not only relatively the highest existing religion, 
but absolutely the highest conceivable. ' He who 
has found in Jesus Christ here salvation, com- 
munion with God Himself, and eternal life, has 
therein experienced the absoluteness of Chris- 
tianity, and understands how Christianity must 
carry on world-missions, if it is not to deny itself ; 
(2) the person of Jesus Christ is not like all 
individual historical facts relatively uncertain ; for, 
although by historical inquiry only probability can 
be secured, yet ' he who in faith seizes Jesus Christ 
presented to him in a living witness, because he is 
seized by Him, and finds eternal life in Him, 
knows himself, in spite of all historical mediation, 
placed in a personal intercourse with the person of 

Jesus Christ, and therewith gains a certainty of the 
living reality of this person, which transcends the 
probability to be gained in the historical critical 

The interest and importance of this essay 
warrants this full outline of its contents. The 
Ritschlian school is so often misrepresented, 
suspected, and censured, that it is desirable and 
profitable for English readers to know what a 
thinker like Retschle has written, not only as an 
individual, but as a represenutive of the school 
and in its name, on the right method of theology. 
We are not much given in Britain to the investiga- 
tion of questions of method. Many theologians 
seem to work by 'rule of thumb.' And, therefore, 
besides the importance of the essay as a defence 
of the Ritschlian school, the subject itself should 
possess interest. These two reasons seem not 
only to excuse, but even to justify this demand on 
the attention and patience of readers. 

A. E. Garvie. 

C^e (Unrij^^eoucr ^Uxoixti oxia (Nlac^taveffiffm. 

By A, N. Jannaris, M.A., Ph.D., Lecturer on Post-Classical and 
Modern Greek in the University of St. Andrews. 

Commenting upon my recent treatise on *The 
Logos in St. John,' which appeared in the February 
number of the Zeitschrift fur die ntutestamentiiehe 
IVisstnscka/t, some critics, including The Exposi- 
tory Times {April, p. 290 f.), have expressed sur- 
prise at, and even incredulity in, my statement that, 
'as it appears in our printed editions, the New Testa- 
ment is perhaps the worst edited of alt ancient 
books.' These words of mine, which represent the 
mature result of long and assiduous studies in the 
New Testament, can be substantiated by numerous 
throughout the sacred text, and I propose here to 
adduce afresh illustration.' If I select the Parable 
of the Unrighteous Steward (Lk 1 6), it is because it 
forms one of the most vexed questions in the New 

■ Other instances bsve iliekdy been adduced in THB 
Expository Times of Jxnuaiy last, p. iS^C, while a lur- 
piinng numtKT of them will be pointed oul in my foitbconusg 
edition o( St. John't Gospel and Epistlei (London : Null). 

Testament,^ and then because I was recently 
treated to a sermon on that text and derived there- 
from that kind of pleasure which is of^en over- 
mingled with annoyance. For the minister, who is a 
widely-read, practical, and very able preacher, strove 
to have his audience believe that in the parable 
referred to Jesus holds out the dishonest steward 
as an example to Christians who should endeavour 
to spread the cause of the Gospel and the Church 
even by questionable means. After the spirited 
sermon I could not help approaching my reverend 
friend to whisper into his ear the rather im- 
' 'The difficulty of thii parable is well known and the 
variety of interprelalionsia very great. A catalogue of even 
the chief mggcstioas would serve no useful purpose. . . . 
The literature on the subject is voluminous and unrepaying. 
For all that is earlier than iSoo see Scbrei her [read Schreiter], 
Hiitorieo-eritira exflanatUmum parabetat de imfnie eeiimome 
dtscriptio. Lips. 1803. For 1800-1879 see Meyei-Weiss, 
p. 515, or Meyer, Eng. ir. p. aog' (A. Plumner, St. Lute, 
in the ' Intenutional Critical Cammenlary,' p. 3Sof.). 



patient question, ' Could you not have selected a 
better text for your sermon?' to vhich he replied, 
'I have done my very best to smooth away the 
awkwardness of the teaching.' And truly awkward 
it is. For here we are asked by the very soundest 
and most conservative expositors of the New 
Testament to believe that the keynote of the 
parable — mat jyw (or xdyat) v/uv Xiyw JoirTot; 
Tot^art ^iXmK Ik tou /i^/uufa t^ iSmiai, ' I also 
say unto you, Make to yourselves friends by means 
of the unrighteous mammon' — is an argument a 
fortiori: si laudari potuit ille . . . quanto amplius 
placent Domini (Augustine ; so too Euthymios 
Zigabenos, Grotius, Com. a Lapide, Maldonatus, 
and most subsequent expositors down to this day). 
— ' Hasten to make for yourselves, with the goods 
of another, personal friends, who shall then be 
bound to you by gratitude and share with you 
their well-being' (Godet, in /ive); 'In this por- 
traitiue Jesus does not scruple to use the ex- 
ample of the wicked for the purpose of stimulating 
His disciples ' {idem, ib.). In plainer terms : The 
end justifies the means. — Nor do we improve 
matters much by reading into the text the less un- 
palatable and far-fetched meaning according to 
which 'the steward, however wanting in fidelity 
and care, ihowed great prudtnce in the use which he 
made of present opportunities as a means of pro- 
viding for the future \i\Q\. The believer ought to 
exhibit similar prudence in using material advan- 
tages in this life as a means of providing for the 
life to come.' (A. Pluramer, St. Luke, p. 380). In 
this respect Meyer {Commentary to St. Luke, p. 
J 26, note, Eng. tr.) is praiseworthy in honestly and 
candidly disallowing this lame and forced interpre- 
tation : ' Also the expedient which many have 
adopted of maintaining that attention is not 
directed to the morality of the steward's conduct, 
but only to the prudence in itself worthy of 
imitation (see Luther, Calvin, Grotius, Michaelis, 
Loffier, Bleek, and many others) must be regarded 
as mistaken, as on general grounds it is unworthy 
of Christ.' 

Indeed, it must make a sore place in the hearts 
of many a Christian to be told that Jesus bids 
us, ' Make to yourselves friends by means of the 
mammon of unrighteousness,' thus lending direct 
support to that immoral doctrine which we depre- 
cate under the name of Machiavellism, the end 
justifies the means. Happily we can question the 
grievous insinuation, first because there is no 

parallel in the whole life and teaching of Jesus, and 
then because we can prove that even the present 
passage is misread. I maintain that Jesus no- 
where ever — either directly or indirectly — insinu- 
ated or encouraged a Machiavellian doctrine ; for 
the supposed parallel of the Unrighteous Judge 
(Lk i8'~*) is not a case in point; there no com- 
mendation of dishonesty is implied. Still less 
relevant is the case, sometimes referred to, of 
IS*"'" where the woman asks her friends and 
neighbours to congratulate her for having recov- 
ered her lost piece of silver; or the case in Mt 
13", where the kingdom of God is likened unto 
a treasure hidden in the field. 

As to our passage under discussion : kqi iyit 
ifuv \tyar wot-^art ^iXovs ^ic ToiJ ^puvS, iva, orav 
iKXiTTj] (Rec. iKXimjTt), SiitinTOi vfia\ (fsra; otu^iotit 
o-mpctf, ' And I say unto you, Make to yourselves 
friends by means of the mammon of unrighteous- 
ness, that, when it hath failed (Rec. when ye are 
gone), they may receive you into everlasting habi- 
tations ' — the reading becomes the more doubtful 
the more closely we examine the verse. For, 
apart from the grievous imputation of Machia- 
vellism to Jesus, how can we imagine friends re- 
ceiving us into 'everlasting' habitations? Friends 
acquired in this world by means of mammon and 
' everlasting ' habitations are two incongruous 
and irreconcilable things. As to the context, 
the immediately succeeding verses clearly im- 
ply that we should make no friends out of the 
contemptible mammon: 'He that is faithful in 
the least thing (that is, in the worthless mammon), 
is faithful also in a great deal; and he that is 
unrighteous in the least thing, is unrighteous also 
in a great deal. If, therefore, ye have not (mark 
the negation Nat\) been faithful in the un- 
righteous mammon, who will commit to your 
trust that which is true? And if ye have not(!) 
been faithful in that which is another man's, who 
will give you that which is your own (rather, 
"mine own")'? 

So far, then, the whole moral teaching of Jesus, 
the internal incongruity of the very passage in 
question, and the context, forbid us to accept the 
current interpretation, ' Make friends by means of 
the unrighteous mammon'; indeed they suggest 
the very opposite, ' Make no friends by means of 
the unrighteous mammon.' Now that opposite or 
negative sense we obtain by simply discarding the 
current punctuation of the editors, which is doubly 



wrong and grievous, and reading the passage inter- 
TOgaCively : xai iyai v/uv Acyuc xoiijcrarc iavroii ^Aovf 
Ik tov fiapMva r^ dSiKi'as, iva, oTov CKXi'irjf, S^^tui^ai 
ifi^w; C(t rat autvunn <rKipas o xurrot cv cAa;i(((rr([i 
Koi iv xoXA<p iruTrds tcm, k.tA, t'.e. 'Shall I also 

say unto you, Make to yourselves friends by meatc 
of the mammon of unrighteousness, that, when n 
halh failed, they may receive you ? In the eva 
lasting tabernacles he that is faithful in the leu; 
thing is faithful also in a great deal,' etc. 

Zi^t &vtat Zt^t Commentary. 


'Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and to-day, yea 
and forever' (R.V.). 

'Jesus Christ is the same/— A new sentence wiih an 
aspect behind and iMfore. (l) Jesus Ctirist, who slrength- 
ened jrour departed pastors to live and to die, is the same 
also for you. Imitate their faith. (3) Jesus Christ is not 
Yea and Nay (2 Co i"). He change! not, Be not carried 
astray by novel and shifting doctrines. The ambiguous 
rendering of tufiaair in the A.V. (oirf) in v.', and the 
strange omission of the verb is in this verse, led to an en- 
tirely mistsken interpretation . . . and by degrees to an 
atteralion of the full stop into a colon at the end of v.'. — 

' Yesterday and to-day, yea and for ever.'— The notes 

of time ate two, not (la in the Authoriied Version) three. 
(1) The same to-day as yesterday; (z) the same for ever. 
(t) The same at this day as in the 'yesterday' of your 
departed ^oii/iom ; (i) the same in the longest future of 
time and eternity. Therefore (1) trust as ihey trusted. 
Therefore (2) hold fast the faiih once for all delivered.— 

Thb clause xat tU roit alQuai is added 10 the sentence 
which is already complete to express the absolute confidence 
of the apostle: 'Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and 
lo-day : yea, such a confession falls wholly below the truth : 

He is the Si 

e for ei 


Methods of Treatment. 



Sjt tie Hn: C.J. VaH^Aan. D.D. 

We have two words expressive of the same 
general idea — constancy and consistency. The 
difference may be defined as tenacity of purpose 
and tenacity of plan. Either term is applicable to 
Christ. He was constant in that having made the 
rescue of man His aim. He nevef swerved from it. 

He was consistent in that He was tenacious 0: 
His plan, and that plan was seeking the rau 
through the individual He dealt with bumr 
need in detail, not in a grand philanthropic roanncr 
To be the Saviour of the world He began by bein: 
the Saviour of one or two — by touching here and 
there the innermost part of a single human bejnj. 
And afterwards He caused the record of it to bt 
so written that any one in distress may find Hie 
in His Word. He has not ceased to feel aix! 
help. He is the same for ever. He challengo! 
His generation to deny the consistency of Ha 
life; and nothing impresses us more than tbe 
unity of the representation of Him given by manr 
different writers. He is the same in childhood, 
youth, manhood ; in all the circumstances of lift . 
and He is still the same, the same in sympatb) 
and in love. 

We are not so; Scripture, history, experiencf 
prove the inconsistency even of the saints. Pro- 
phets warn against it. Christ tells the Parable of ik 
Patched Garment^— the parable of inconsistency. 

1. Who is consistent all through? We set ar 
object before us. We may be constant in pui 
pose. Are we consistent in plan ? (i) In thought 
\Ve profess to count all things but loss that «t 
may gain eternal life. Vet who does not attach 
too much value to things seen ? Who can indeed 
think of death as the gate to immortality ? (a) Ir 
speech. What worldly estimates 1 What uncharit- 
able judgments! Are they consistent with Hii 
service? (3) In life. Every one is conscious 01 
such inconsistency, known only to God and tht 

2. The motives of inconsistency are various- 
fear of the world, love of the world, desire to shot 
versatility or to attract others by showing thai 
they need not be ascetics. But all inconsistent 



is due to the want of God's spirit in the heart, to 
unbelief in things unseen and in God's power to 
subdue all things to Himself. 

3, The consequences of inconsistency, (i) Im- 
potence. It ruins influence. In politics a man 
may be obliged to be inconsistent to change his 
plan that he may cling to his purpose. If even 
such conscientious inconsistency is punished with 
loss of strength and influence, how much more in 
that province where inconsistency is sin? (a) 
Misery. Even when it is involuntary inconsist- 
ency due to human infirmity. To grieve Him to 
whom all gratitude is due is painful, and only 
confession to Him and His absolution can restore 
peace. How wretched must be the life that is 
all inconsistency, contradicting constantly the pro- 
fession of the lips. (3) Hypocrisy. Not neces- 
sarily in its worst form of professing to be good 
when one is utterly bad. It may consist in con- 
cealing OUT knowledge of truth and sense of 
duty. Hypocrisy is duplicity, having principles 
not practised, convictions disguised by silence, 
professions contradicted by conduct. 

4. The Christian must fight this foe with the 
rest. Determine to be consistent. Never outrun 
your convictions in your professions. Guard 
against censorious judgments. In finding fault 
with others we make laws for ourselves, which we 
cannot break without inconsistency. Walk cir- 
cumspectly. He who guards against small incon- 
sistencies will be forearmed against great trans- 

The Changeleasneu of Christ. 

By the A'n: It'. A. Cray. 

The words are generally read as a qualification 
of the preceding clause. But v.' is complete 
in itself. It bids us remember those who have 
had the rule over us, with regard to their ' faith," 
their 'conversation,' and their 'end.' Then v.* 
draws our attention to Him with whom they had 
to do in all three. For He is the same to us as 
He was to our fathers, and will be to generations 
to come. The changelessness of Christ is the 
keystone of all theology, and lies at the root of all 
Christian experience. 

I. He is changeless in His divine essence. He 
is the Christ of 'yesterday,* existing from all 
eternity. When He took His place in the sphere 

of time, he became the Christ of 'to-day'; and 
through all the day of time, from Eden to the 
Final Judgment He is the same, parting, indeed, 
while on earth, with His manifested, but not with 
His essential glory. Pass beyond time to eternity 
and He wilt be the same — the same in His divine 
essence, in His power, in His omnipresence, in 
, His deep joy. 

i a. He is the same in His office. He was, is, 

! and shall be the one Mediator between God and 

I man. In the 'yesterday' of Old Testament 

history, closed by the Cross, He was the Mediator. 

, Through Him the saints who died went home to 

: God. In the fulness of time He came and suffered. 

' It is finished' rang out the old epoch; 'He is 

' risen ' rang in the new. But He is the same Jesus 

now with the selfsame office. And to all eternity 

that office will continue. He will always be the 

Mediator of His people in whom they deal with 

God, and God with them. 

I 3. It is true also of His manifestation in history. 

In His incarnate life on earth, He was always 

accessible, helpful, compassionate, sympathetic. 

I when He has ascended He is the same in 

His willingness to bless, to protect, to cleanse. 

And to all eternity there is no ministry which He 

fulfilled for His people in grace that He will not 

fulfil in glory. Helpfulness? He waits to receive 

them. Comfort? He wipes the tears from their 

eyes. Sanctification ? He will present the Church 

to Himself as a glorious, spotless bride. 

4. He is unchanging in the experience of His 
I people. The 'yesterday' of your history had 
; needs to be supplied, sorrows to be soothed, 
I temptations to be conquered, sins to be forgiven. 
I He did all. Yesterday has passed ; to-day has its 
I own needs, but the Jesus Christ of yesterday is 
! the Jesus Christ of to-day. To-day joins hands 
with yesterday in attesting His faithfulness, and 
] to-morrow will join hands with to-day. The future 
' is unknown, but the Companion is tried. Experi- 
ences vary, but Christ is the same. We may argue 
not only from our own experience but from that 
of others. When they are divided from us by 
death, we look back upon their faith, their con- 
versation, their end, and argue from their experi- 
ences what is possible for us. For Jesus Christ, 
who was all to them is the same for ever. Com- 
passed about with a great cloud of witnesses let 
us look to Jesus the author and fini^Cf of their 
faith as of ours. O 



ihe hillside. Christ 
(self. Much in the 

of Christianiif is in 
I Christ is the same 


Man's systems aie the shadows 
is the everlisting, solemn mounlai 
popular conception and represenlati 
the act of passing. Let it go i J< 

yesterday, to-day, and Cor ever. We need not feat change 
within the limits of His Church or of His 
change there means progress, and the more hui 
and embodiments of Christian truth crumble and disin- 
t^rate, the more distinctly does the solemn, single, unique 
figure of Chribt Ihc same rise before us.— A. Maclahkn. 

A FRIEND is rare to be found that cootiaueth faithful in 
all his friend's distresses. Thou, O Lord, Thou alone art 
most faithful at all times, and there is none like unto Thee. 
— Thomas X Krmpis. _ 

Tjie One remains, the many change and pass; 

Heaven's light for ever shines. Earth's shadows fly ; 

Life, like a dome of many-coloured glass, 
Stains the white radiance of Eternity— 
Until Death tramples it to fragments. Die, 

If thou wouldst be with that which thou dost seek. 

Goij's changeful providence comes into all our lives, and 
parts dear ones, making their places empty that Christ Him- 
self may Gil the empty places, and, striking away other 
props, though the tendrils that twine round them bleed with 
the wrench, in order that the plant may no longer trail along 
the ground, bkil twine itself round the Cross and climb to 
the Christ ujjon the Throne. ' In the year thai king Uiiiah 
died, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne.' The true King 
was manifested when the earthly, shadowy monarch was 
swept away. And Jusl as, on the face of some gccal wooded 
clilf, when the leaves drop, the solemn strength of the ever- 

lasting rock gleams out pure, so, when our dear ones UW 
away, Jesus Christ is revealed, 'the same yesterday, to-day, 
and for ever.' ' They truly were many, because they were 
not suffered (o continue by reason of death ; this Man con- 
tinue th ever.'— A. Maclaren. 

It Cortities my soul to know 

That, though I perish, Truth is so ; 

That, howso'er I stray and range, 

Whale'er I do. Thou dost not change. 

I steadier step, when I recall 

Thai, if I slip, Thou dost not fall.— Clouuh. 

Sennons for Reference. 
Banks (L. A.), Paul and his Friends, 193- 
Barry (A.), Westminster Abbey Sermons, 109. 
Beecher (H. W.), Sermons, 391. 
Bromfield (A.), Sermons in Town and Country, 1. 
Crawfori". (T. J.), Preaching of the Cross, 198. 
Eiiwards (H.), Spiritual Observatory, 38. 
Gray (W. A.), Shadow of the Hand, 279. 
How (W. W.), Plain Words, L 20. 
Hoyle(A.}, Depth and Power of Christian Faith, 59. 
Jenkins (E. E-), Life and Christ, 47. 
Maclaren (A.), Unchanging Christ, i. 
Mesurier (T.), Bampton Lectures, 316. 
Meyer (F. B.), Way into the Holiest, 213. 
Price (A. C.), Fifty Sermons, iv. t2l ; v, 89- 
Raleigh (A.), From Dawn to Perfect Day, 361. 
Ryle (J. C), The Christian Kace, 179. 
Sampson (E. F.), Christ Church Sermons, 236. 
Selby (T. G.), The Unheeding God, 365. 
Spurgeon (C. H.). Sermons, vol. nl. No. 2358. 
Spurr (F. C), Jesus Christ To-day, 1. 
Vaughan (C. J.), University Sermons, 271. 
White {E.), Mysterj- of Growth, 195. 

€^t Oueeflon of i^ (Uni^ of Jeaia^. 

Bv Profe-ssor Ed, Konic, M.A., 'D.IX, Bonn. 


Professor Cohu appeals, in suppon of his con- 
tention that Is 40-66 belong to the age of 
Hezekiab, to the circumstance that there are only 
a 'few allusions to Babylon and to Cyrus in 
Is 40-66 ' (p. 85). Now, even if we met with 
only a single mention of Babylon in these chap- 
ters, it would be enough. The ear of the reader 
would be sufRciently pierced by the shrill cry, 
' Come down, sit in the dust, O virgin daughter 
of Babylon,' etc. (47'*'*^)i and is not the call 
clear enough, 'Go ye forth from Babylon, flee 

from Chatdasa' (48-*)? A hitherto unobserved 
indication of the century in which the author of 
Is 40 fT. lived, is fotind in the order of the two 
expressions, 'the Assyrian oppressed them (Israel) 
without cause' (52*'') and 'new, therefore, what 
have I to do Aere' (v.")? The period of the 
Assyrian dominion over Israel is past ; the period 
that is present to the author of these chapters is 
that when the Babylonians had led the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem captive (v,^). 
In like manner a single mention of Cyrus would 


I S3 

suffice to justify the conclusion that the passage in 
question was not written in the years immediately 
after 701. It is true, indeed, that the prophecies 
of the O.T. had not their source in the incidents 
of history. Nowhere, I suppose, has this been 
more thoroughly demonstrated than in my own 
work, Der Offenbarungibegriff des A.T. Never- 
theless prophecy, in the choice of its vehicles 
of description, follows a course parallel with the 
progress of history. This fundamental principle 
of the development of O.T. prophecy I have 
established in my Einleit. in d. A.T. p. 323!. 
If then Isaiah had spoken even once of the rise of 
the Persian Empire and of Cyrus, he would have 
gone ahead of what was done by Jeremiah and 
Ezekicl and other preexilic prophets. But there 
is a considerable number of passages in Is 40 if. 
which allude to the conqueror whom the Divine 
disposer of the world's history has called from 
the rising of the sun to punish Babylon for her 
immorality (47^'*') and tyranny {4i'-*"''- 44" 
4S'- " 46^' 48'* ; and there is much in favour of 
reckoning also ss" to this series).^ 

Professor Cobb, it is true, has revived the ex- 
planation of 4i'-* which finds in the words ' Who 
hath raised up one from the East'? an allusion to 
the call of Abraham. But, in the first place, was 
the divine call of Abraham an occurrence so open 
to question and so recent that it could be sub- 
mitted to the peoples as a problem (v.') ? Secondly, 
it is a fact, indeed, that Abraham defeated Chedor- 
laomer and the kings allied with him {Gn x^*"-). 
But this military exploit of Abraham would be far 
too hyperbolically described in Is 41^, and the 
words 'a path corresponding to (= along) his own 
footprints he trod not' (v.^*) cannot be under- 
stood of Abraham. For there was nothing won- 
derful in Abraham's not returning to Mesopotamia 
or Chaldcea, and after the defeat of Chedorlaomer 
he did return by practically the same road as that 
along which he had pursued the hostile kings to 
Dan. Further, Abraham's migration to Canaan 
and his victory over Chedorlaomer cannot be 
supposed to have made such an impression upon 
the nations as is described in vv.'-^. Finally, if 
the allusion in vv.^~^ had been to the ancestor of 
Israel and the impression made by his deeds, we 
should not have had the transition, 'and thou, 
Israel, my servant ' (v,*'^), seeing that essentially 

' This inlerpreiation of 55" will be found discussed in mj 
work, Tki Exiles' BoBk b/ ConsolatUm {1899), p. gif. 

the same subject would have been spoken of 
immediately before. Accordingly, the following 
connexion of the principal parts of chap. 41 f. is 
to be preferred : — 

' In view oflhe cmpbasU laid upon Ihe divinely in tpiied 
impulse given to the hero from the East (41'"'), IiraeL, like 
the other nations (vv. ''''), might have been filled with panic- 
leiTOr, and might have become doubtful of its own special 
retatioD to God. In this situation, the designalion of Israel 
as the special MTvant of God made its appearance all at 
once like the bubbling up of a heavenly spring of consola- 
tion. . . . After (he following mention of the Eastern 
conqueror and his proceedings (41*^), it was natural thstt in 
42"- the mind should turn to the divine oi^ao which had 
been mentioned in 41", namely, Israel and its way of work- 
ing ' (JThe Exiles' Beoi of Cansolaiian, p. 6z).' 

Professor Cobb feels himself that his interpre- 
tation of 41* clashes with 46", where Jahweh says 
that He has called a vulture from the East, a man 
of His counsel {i.e. a confidant), from a distant 
land. Professor Cobb discovers here no mention 
of either Abraham or Cyrus. He takes the allusion 
to be to Sennacherib and the year 701. He recalls 
the exclamation, ' Ho Asshur ! rod of mine anger,' 
etc. (Is JO*). But is it the aim of the addresses 
in Is 40 ff. to threaten Israel, or was it the desire 
of the prophet to comfort his people? Seeing 
that the latter is the case, Sennacherib's com- 
mission to chastise Israel cannot be the subject 
of 46". The words of this verse must, on the 
contrary, refer to the hero who, according also to 
41*, was called from the East; and is not the task 
of this hero menlioned in the immediate vicinity 
of 46'!, namely, to bring about the fall of Babylon 
(47"^-)? It is self-evident, of course, that it is 
nothing to the point that Sennacherib loo had to 
contend with Babylon, so that there is no value in 
Professor Cobb's quoUtion (p. 87) of Sennacherib's 
account of his war with Merodach-baladan. 

A similar verdict must be pronounced upon the 
following attempt of Professor Cobb. He suggests 
the possibility that such characteristics of the 
godless portion of the community as meet us, e.g. 
in 57*"''', may be intended to describe the inhab- 
itants of Ephraim, Manasseh, etc., who rejected 
with scorn Hezekiah's invitation to a joint cele- 
bration of the Passover (2 Ch yi^"). What avails 
it to admit this abstract possibility? Other 

' It may be noted that my view of Ihe servant of Jahweh 
is entirely approved of by Ihe Swedish scholar Malhens 
Lundborg in his interesting work, Sep-eppel Htrrtii! 
TjUnare hot Andre-Esaias (Lund, 1901), p. 101 fT. 



scholars suggest another possibility. They hold 
that passages like 57^'^' present pictures of the 
impenitent portion of the exiles, only that in the 
drawing of these the eye sometimes strayed back to 
the centuries that were past. This was natural, see- 
ing that the Exile was the punisljment for the former 
sins of Israel, and it actually happens in the Book 
of Ezekiel. The latter prophet also readily com- 
bines the view of the sins of his contemporaries 
with the view of the sins of their fathers (Ezk 2^ 

13* ig'o 20"" 

In Professor Cobb's opinion, the weight of 
argument in favour of the exilic date of Is 40 ff., 
which is derived from the form of these chapters, 
is even smaller than that from their contents. 
'What the negative critics forget is the Protean 
character of genius. Other things being equal, 
the greater the genius the wider the limits within 
which his style will disport itself.' These words 
are only the variation of an old theme, and even 
the appeal to the case of Goethe is not new. But 
any one who means to treat of the weakness of 
the argument which is drawn from the linguistic 
colouring of a literary product, will do well to 
distinguish carefully the groups of materials upon 
which this argument is based. The means of 
making a thorough acquaintance with the nature 
of this argument, I may add, are at the disposal of 
anyone who cares to study the special section I 
have devoted to this subject in my EinUit. in d. 
^.TIpp. 147-151- 

Applying (he principles there set forth to 
Is 40 If., we find, t.g., so frequent a word as the 
relative 'who' expressed in the Book of Isaiah 
only twice (42-* 43^') by It {zu). The pronominal 
forms ' to them * or ' to him ' are reproduced only 
three or four times (43' 44^-", ? 53*) by to^ (IdmS). 
The negative 'not' is expressed by ?3 {bai) in 
40" 43" 44"- Note that DDK i'^i^s), besides its 
single occurrence in 5*, meets us other ten times 
in chaps. 40-54- The preposition ' according to ' 
is expressed by iD3 {id»id) in 43^ 44'^- ", and the 
preposition ' until ' appears in the form 'nji (ddl) 
in 65". The conjunction 'also' or 'and' has its 
equivalent in f\» {'aph) in 40" ^lU.^w ^jia 
43^'* 44>*'-"' 48'*'-i^ Further, I have noted 
such points as that the conjunction '■3 |tr (y£an 
kt) occurs in 3" 7* 8* 29", but the simple [l*; 
(ySan) in 61^ 65" 66^ Moreover, the inter- 

jectional use of ntn {kazi), ' behold ! ' which recalls 
the Aram, preference for the verb nrn, may be 
noted, and not a few other phenomena might be 
added (cf. my £i»/eif. in d. A.T. p. 321 f.). 
Some of these, such as the writing of Tt» ^dtk) for 
'("//, and nS'SX) for JiKO (54'* 59''), belong to the 
■linguistic differences to which I bave given the 
name ' successive.' 

It is certainly hard to say why Isaiah, if he is 
the author of the whole book, should have changed 
so completely in his choice of such frequent words. 
I am not denying to any one freedom in his use 
of words. But it must be doubted whether an 
author in the exercise of this freedom would have 
resorted to change in so many of the components 
of his vocabulary, which, on account of their 
frequency, are wont to be employed unconsciously. 
Doubt as to the identity of the author grows when 
among the linguistic diiferences we find such as 
characterize a different stage in the development 
of the particular language. 

Thus stands the matter in regard to the linguistic 
colouring of Is 40 If., and this condition of things 
cannot be robbed of its argumentative value by 
general remarks on the possible variability of style. 

Professor Cobb's hypothesis is set in a peculiar 
light by the circumstance that he connects it with 
the supposition that the name of Cyrus, in the 
two passages where it meets us in Is 40 If. (44^ 
and 45')> is ^ \a.\.ir interpolation (p. 90). The 
hazardous character of this conjecture is not 
removed by the fact that there are actually glosses 
in the O.T. Such explanatory notes recur with 
considerable frequency from Gn z'*'' (fTfl PBJ, 
cf. I**") onwards. But the supposition that there 
is a gloss must be justified in each particular 
passage, and — which is the main point — the gloss 
embodies in any case a very ancient view of the 
meaning of the passage. — Now, can it be supposed 
that in the first of the above two passages the 
name of Cyrus is an interpolation ? No, for the 
beginning of 44^* proceeds in quite normal fashion, 
nay, there must be a dative supplied to the words, 
'that saith,' if the ehl3^ be removed. Hence 
there are only a very few exegetes, such as the 
Roman Catholic theologians, Henneberg and 
Schegg, who have decided on seeing in ento^ of 
44^ an interpolation. I cannot associate myself 
with them. Somewhat different is the situation 
in 45'. There nothing would be wanting as far 
as the external form is concerned, although cnU? 



were removed. But in that verse the anointed 
of Jahweh is a hero called firotn without, for it is 
said, 'whom I have held by his light hand.' 
Consequently the expression 'to his anointed' 
would lack the closer definition it needs, were 
not the apposition, ' to Cyrus,' added. The view, 
moreover, that the two expressions, ' his anointed ' 
(4S') and 'ray servant Jacob' (v.*») cover the 
same subject, has everything against it and 
nothing in its favour. All the features of vv.''^ 
support the interpretation which finds in the hero 
mentioned there a non -Israel itish prince who was 
conducted by the living God of Israel to great 

political successes, and so received the commission 
to free the servant of Jahweh from captivity. 
There is no proclaiming here of 'a mission of 
Israel to Israel ' (Cobb, p. 90). 

Finally, the verdict that the last twenty-seven 
chapters of the Book of Isaiah were not written 
by the prophet of the year 701, cannot be 
shattered even by the ironical remarks of Professor 
Cobb on the rapid advance of critical theories 
(p. 96 f.). The false extremes of criticism cannot 
throw suspicion on its reasonable assumptions, 
which put forward nothing but what is based at 
onc« on material and formal indications. 

(Uew &ifi ani (S^tnati Q^ooSer. 

/« fair Granada. By E. Everett -Gieen. 5a. 
Held to Raas»m. By F. B. Forester, ss. 
Jim's SivMthtart!, By E. L. Haverlield. as. 6d. 
Great Esplortrs. as. 

Dickie. By Mr*. Hioiillon Synge. is. 6d. 
The Queen'i Shilling. By Geialdine GUigow. is. 

Mi» Everett -Green'i /» Fair Granada is a handsotDC 
Tolume of 450 pages, bound in blue and gold. It is one of 
her leries of hUlorical tales. Ii is a tale of Moors and 

Held to Ramam is iDoie modem md more lileiaiy. It 
cannot be said to be more stirring, for both are steeped in 
adventure. Its heroes and heroines, strange to say, are 
Spaniards alto. It is bound in a paler blue, set off with 
sesthetic brown and blaclc. Both books are illuslraled, of 
conrte, but Mi.'u Everett-Green's has the novel feature of 
two coloured illustrations. 

/I'/Ji'i Sweetht<ais are, of course, 'grown-ups' — mostly. 
For Jim is only seven. He is a brave, truthful little boy, 
and is often puuled to find that though the truth lells twice 
it sometimei muil not be told once. His mother enjoys a 
noniewiial tearful responsibility in the upbringing of so 
manly a boy ; but his friends at the Vicarage find all things 
in him to be loved. 

The Greal Explorers are Marco Polo, Christopher 
Columbus, Vasco da Gama, and nine more. Their story 
b told with much brevity, and the marvellous old illustra- 
tions, if seen by any ordinary boy, will speedily create an 
appetite for its wonderful narratives. 

Dickie is a beautiful little citcus-girl. She is beloved by 
an ill-tempered, high-spirited horse named 'Black Boy.' 
She alone can manage the horse, who, indeed, manages 
himself when she is with him. They have conquered a 
temper t<^etbcr, perhaps, for she too has had one. Their 

story is very pleasant, and there are many interesting circus 
people besides them. 

The story of The Queen's Shilling we seem to know 
before we read it. 

Besides these, Messrs. Nelson have published four picture 
books at IS. each. 


\. Blackie i^ Son have published the following :- 

tVilh Roberts to Preloria. By G. .K. Henty. 6s. 
Tb Herat and Cabal. By G, A. Henty. 6s. 
The Dragon ef Ptkin. By Captain F. S. Hrereton. 5s. 
The Doctei's Niece. By Kliia V. I'ollaid. 3s. 6d. 
In Quest efihe Giant Slalh. By Dr. Gordon Stables. 

3s. 6d. 
The Boyhood of a Nalitralist. By Fred Smith. 3s. 6d. 

Mr. Henty 's volumes, which lead this attractive list, both 
deal with camps and glory. Both are handsomely tionnd 
with olivine edges, the Boer war beint; in briltiani military 
red, the story of the first Afghan war in naval blue. They 
are not histories, though the history of both campaigns has, 
no doubt, been carefully studied for facts and incidents, and 
the countries themselves for local colour. They are stories, 
boys' Mories. Both Ixioks, therefore, possess the double 
interest of public achievement and private concern. They 
are written in that vivid entrancing style which makes ihe 
readers of Mr. Henty's books hold their breath with excile- 
menl, and tbey are lioth characteristically illustrated. 

The Dragon of Ptkin, bound in green and red and yellow 
and gold, with olivine edges, is a tale of the Boxer revolt in 
China. If the wni^bnd not been gtung on in South Afiica 
our boys would bate known far mote about that terrible 
revolt than Ihey do, But stories [ike this will bring it home 
to them,— its wild extravagance, its heart-rending scenes of 
suffering, its heroic endurance even unto death. 

In The Destot's Niece we are at home again. At least 
we are nearer home. Its scene is France, its heroine 



thoroughly French, and must pslbetic and b«Toic. It U a 
story of home, and home is reached at last, though through 
much tribulation, and there ia peace and rest. 

Di. Gordon Stables has had many adventures in his life- 
time, but surely they are as nothing to those he hai invented 
for hii little heroes and heroines. In Queil of the Giant 
Slolh sends little boys and girls through (he most wonderful 
eiperiences, but it does not matter what they set out to 
accomplish, tfacf always accomplish it and come back 

TAf Boyheod of a Naturaliit Is the most instructive of all 
Messrs, Blackie's books, yet it is without a dull page. We 
do not know who Fred Smith may be,^t is not the author's 
own name,^ — but he must have had a glorious boyhood, for 
it is his own boyhood he describes here, and he must surely 
have K>own into a famous naturalist. 

Woodland, Field, sod Shore. 
Mt. Oliver G. Pike has written a. book which will delight 
the lovers of nature, and give them an interest in outdoor 
things even in winter. He has not only written it, but he 
has also most richly illustrated it, and the Religious Tract 
Society has given it the best possible paper and printing 
and binding, and reproduced two of the full-page illustra- 
tions in the best style of colour-printing. It costs 5s. net. 

The Awakening of Anthony Weir. 

This is Silas Hocking's new stoiy. It was Anthony 
Weir's moral nature that was asleep, clergyman though he 
was. It was the touch of true love that awakened it, 
though his mother's prayers prepared the way. It was a 
true awakening and not too late for the duties of life though 
somewhat laic for its enjoyments. (R.T.S., 3s. 6d.) 

Heather's Mistreu. 

Heather and Bluebell were twin sisters who lived in the 
country wilh their grandmother and two old servants. 
The grandmother died, and Abigail rhe old faithful servant 
was much distressed when (hey were enticed to London and 
itsgaielies. But they came back to their dear old 'mistress' 
in time ; first Heather, Bluebell much later, after marriage 
and sorrow. The book is by Amy le Feuvre. (R.T.S., 
3s. 6d.) 

The Gold that Pedaheth. 

To say thai The Geld thai Pirishtlh is by David Lyall is 
to give it a circulation at once. It is a domestic tale, for 
there is both comedy and (ragedy enough in most family 
circles to thrill us wilh, It is not the comical side of life 
however (hat this great writer is impressed by. Happiness 
is understood and well described, comicality is lost in the 
pathoBof the things (ha( men and women dare and endure. 
The (ragedy is deep enough, and although (he last chapter 
says ' All's well,' we know (hat much is lost that never can 
■'. found again. (R.T.S., 3s. 6d.) 

An Artist'a Walka ii 

e Landi. 

The Religious Tract Society has the honour of having 
published (he finest book on I'alestine, if not the finest 
book on travel, this season. I< is the work, both pen and 
pencil, of (he late Mr. H. A. Hacper, who knew Palestine 
intimately, loved it, understood it, wro(e about it, and 
sketched it. Reading (his book and examining i(s artistic 
pictares ihey who never saw ' that goodly land ' will learn 
to understand and love i(. The publishers have produced 
a work lit to be laid beside (he same au(hor's Waiki in 
Palatine, and higher praise of workmanship is scarcely 

Shires of Etq^Iand. 
In (he year 1897 the Bishop of London, the late Di. 
Mandell Creighton, published a volume which he called The 
Story of samt English Shires. It covered seventeen 
counties, and (old their story both historically from the 
veiy earliest times till now, and also geographically from 
great city centre to open weald or down. The book has 
now been republished by Ihe Religious Tract Society 
(Svo, pp. 3S4, 6s,), and contains an additional chapter 
on the county of Cambridge. This permanent library 
form of the book is most welcome. The information i( 
contains may all be found somewhere else, but here it is 
related in a most unassuming manner, in a pleasant, 
coD(inuous narrative, and with Ihe most scrupulous accuracy 
of fact. Bishop Creighton's purpose seems to have been 
to leave on his reader's mind a general but distinct 
impression of each county's peculiarities. He has so 
succeeded that each counly takes its characteristic place 
in (he mind as clearly as i( occupies i(s position on a 
coloured map. 

The Story of Joaeph. 

Messrs, Hoddet & Stoughton have published some simple 
chapters by (he Rev. J. R. Millet, D.D., on the life of 
Joseph, with its application to modem lives (2S. 6d.]. 
The book is very attractively printed, and will no doubt 
be one of the most popular Christmas presents. 

Dr, Parker's Pulpit Bible. 

Messrs. Hodder & S(oughlon have published a handsome 
quarto edition of (he Authorized Version under the title of 
The Pulpit Bible. It is edited by the Rev. Joseph Parker, 
D.D,, minister of the City Temple. Dr. Parker writes a 
short preface which he calls * My last Will and Testament' 
He also contributes brief homileiical notes 10 almost every 
verse throughout the Bible. These notes are printed in 
small (ype on (he margins, right opposite (he veise ihey 
annou[e. They form the distinctive feature of the Pulpit 

The notes we say are homileiical. This must be under- 
stood or the work will be utterly misjudged. They explain 
no obscurity of allusion, Ihey identity no sites, (hey sugges( 
no new translations. Their sole intention is (o 'improve' 
of each verse, thai is lo say, to state its 


religious meaning, or at IfM to laggeit some religioui 
purpose to which it may be tunled. 

Now Di. Parker ii a remirkably clever man, and this is 
the line of his (;ieates( cleverness. But the slriking thing 
about these homiletical notes is that he has schooled himself 
not to say elcTer things, in order thai he might say things 
that would be oaeful to young preachers. 

But here is an example. Let us choose the passage <Gn 
19'*"", occupying one column of ihe bookj which de»«ib«s 
the visit of the ingela to Lot in Sodom. 

Verse 13— The miniatiy of destruction. Fire succeeds 
water. Disregarded voices,— experience, revetatioti, tesli- 

Veise 14— The preacher has often been mistaken for a 

Verse 16 — Angel -driven .' Expulsion may mean salvation ! 
God wniing Hit signature in capitals 1 

Vers« 17— Do not make a pastime of deliverance I Fleet 
Be energetic I Lose not a oioment I 

Verse 18 — The prayers of ignorance ! We offer Ihem 

Verse 19— Cities preferred 10 mountains. Divine mercy 
stooping to human weakness. Judgment wailing. 

Verse ao— Where God can accommodate man He will. 

Verse 31— God sometimes yields to man. It is an error 
10 oppose human desire to divine judgment. 

Notable Hasten of Meo. 

There is an idea at present thai the doctrine of self-help 
has been pressed too far. Nevertheless, we should read and 
heartily recommend another such book if another Samuel 
Smiles would arise and write it. Mr. Edward Prait's 
Notablt Masters of Men comes very near it. The story of 
the successful men whose lives it relates and portraits it 
presents is undoubtedly made inspiring and enohling, for it 
is clearly shown that their nobility did not tie in the love or 
acquisition of money. It is a well-bound, handsome priie 
or present. (Melrose, 3s. 6d.) 

Boji of Our Empire. 
The problem for an editor of juvenile literature is how to 
combine interest and edification. Il is one of (he most 
difBcutI problems of our day. But the issues at stake are so 
tremendous that it is worth all the determination and patience 
which it involves. A year ago The Bays of Our Empire 
was started with this commendable purpose clearly before 
the mind of its publisher, Mr. Andrew Melrose. The year's 
numbers make a heavy handsome volume. Its title has been 
well chosen and never forgotten. It is a book for British 
boys. Every week introduces a new champion in some 
British sport, every week has its stories of adventure and 
its obvious jokes, and every week eicludes everything that 
sensitive parent or suspicious guardian might disapprove of. 

The Sunday School Union has published : — 

Into Slermy Waters. By Mrs. Henry Clarke, is. 6d. 
Thi Captairis Flags. By W. E. Cule. is, 6d. 
Calkaritu tfSitna, By Florence Witts, is. 

Stories frem tie PUgrim's Progrtss. is. 

Tht Ncm Playfillew. By Gertrude E. M. Vai^ban 

Marley's Boy. By Jennie Chippell. 9d. 
Gterdit's VUtory. By Margaret S. HaycraTt. 9d. 

Info Stormy Waters is a girl's story, The Captain's Flat;) 
a boy's. The first is a story of the home, the second of the 
school. Both are very pleasantly written with wholesome 
purpose, and suitably illustrated. The 5/01^ of Catharine 
of Siena, and the Stories from the Pilgrim's Progress are also 
well illustrated, the illustrations in the latter being some- 
times quaint and original. The Nevi Playfellow belong* to 
the ' Red Nursery' Series. The illustrations this time are so 
charming that their author must be named, Florence Meyer- 
heim. Marlins Bey and Geerdie's Viilory are excellent 
prizes for the younger pupils. 

The Animals of the Bible. 
Mr. Gambier Bolton has written an account of some of 
the leading animals of the Bible, and illuslratcd it by photo- 
graphs from life. He does not say that he went lo Palestine 
to find the living animals, some of them indeed ate not to 
be found there now, but (hat does not matter. The little 
book, which is published by Messrs. Newnes at is. 6d., is 
both entertaining and useful. 

Tiinea of Retirement. 
Messrs. Nisbet, in a beautiful Christmas volume, have 
published a series of devotional papers which Dr. Matheton 
recently contributed to St. Andreai (3s. 6d.). They are 
very short, but they are as thoughtful and (hough t-su^esting 
as anything Dr. Malheson has written. And Dr. Matheson 
alone is able to rescue our generation from the charge of 
inability (o write devotional lit* 

The Wide World Hasoziue. 
The seventh volume of the Wide World Mi^aiineomalaMa 
its issues from April to September (Newnes, 6s. 6d.). Its 
leading feature is Conan Doyle's History of the great Boer 
war, of which il contains nine graphic chapters, illustrated 
by maps and pholc^raphs. But every page palpitates with 
thrilling narrative and amazing illustration. There is no 
need for adventurous youth to risk life or limb in war or 
wild beast chase, the utmost possible excitement of either 
can be had at the fireside, by some good uncle simply pre- 
senting a copy of this volume of the Wide World Magadan. 

Bei^en Worth. 

A strong American story— strong in character and strong 
in incident. It is love that brings out manliness, and other 
deep passions are disclosed. But perhaps the keenest interest 
in the book arises from the part played by the men and 
things of God. It is not a religious novel, but religion is in 
it, religious sentiment and religious practice. Bergen Worth 
is a hero to be remembered. Wallace Lloyd's next book 
will be looked for. The publisher is Mr. Fisher Unwin.j 


€ott^tt6tt^ton0 anb Commtnte, 

Cftriat dnb i^t T3?oman of C^ndan. 

Matiubw XV. j:-a8. 
It may be that in considering this narrative of 
the wonaan of Canaan, sufficient attention has not 
been given to the fact of her addressing our Lord as 
' son of David.' This is the Gospel of St. Matthew 
we must remember, who was writing specially for 
Jews, and was concerned to exhibit Jesus as the 
Jewish Messiah. He would naturally be tender 
with Jewish prejudices, so far as possible, and he 
would be glad to show Jesus as tender with those 
prejudices also. For they were not entirely pre- 
judices. God's election of the Jews was a great 
historical fact; and as God does nothing lightly, 
so 'He abideth faithful: He cannot deny Him- 
self.' Their position of privilege was a reality, 
and it had not been forfeited yet They had 
claims upon Him such as no other people could 
prefer; they stood in a unique relation to Him 
still. Had Jesus slighted those claims and 
ignored that relation, the Jews might justly have 
resented it, but He did nothing of the sort. As 
here in the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, so in 
Samaria (Jn 4^°), He is loyal to the Jews' preroga- 

Now what do we notice about this Canaanitish 
woman ? She addresses Him as the ' son of 
David.' This can hardly have been accidental; 
it must have been done with a motive. Did she 
think to commend herself to Him by this mode 
of address? Was it done to curry favour? Was 
it the least bit insincere ? Did it amount to some- 
thing like an attempt to sail under false colours? 
for she was using a title which meant nothing for 
her, taking up ground in her approaches to Him 
to which she really had no right. If this was so, 
it may partly account for our Lord's seeming 
harshness in so deaUng with her that she might 
be ted to rest her suit upon a truer ground. 
Those words of His that follow : ' I am not sent, 
but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel,' 
are easily explained by restricting the reference 
to His own personal ministry, but as overheard 
by the woman they would bring home to her 
her mistake in addressing Him as the son of 
David. That title meant something ; it was no 

mere title of courtesy ; and in all their approaches 
to Him, He would have people to be absolutely 
real. Witness His reply to the young ruler's 
appeal, ' Good Master, what shall I do to inherit 
eternal life?' there was something not quite 
genuine in the young man's standpoint evidently. 
Even so, perhaps, in the case of this woman. 
At all events, it was as ' son of David ' that He 
belonged quite specially to the Jews, and, in 
choosing to address Him so, whatever her motive 
may have been, she had herself emphasized the 
fact that she had no claim upon Him. The 
woman sees her mistake, she stands corrected, 
but she will not therefore abandon hope ; to be 
corrected is to be put in the way of doing better ; 
and she does better when hereupon she falls at 
His feet, and simply begs, 'Lord, help me,' her 
only claim her need, her only hope His mercy. 
So now the interest of the situation, and what 
shall make it instructive for all time, has resolved 
itself into the question. Will she really be able to 
accept this position unreservedly, as one who has 
no claim, nothing to commend herself by at all ? 
Jesus will put it to the proof; He will try her 
by a severe utterance from the strictest Jewish 
point of view; He will hold her for a moment 
at that extreme distance which a Pharisee might 
have done. If from that distance she can still 
plead, if from that level she can be seen pre- 
vailing, what a door of mercy will thus be found 
opened for all these dogs of Gentiles I She will 
be pleading and winning her cause, not for herself 
alooe, but for them alL She is like their repre- 
sentative. Taken at the Jews' own valuation, 
they shall, by the mouth of this woman, put in 
their plea ; and as it fares with her shall it be 
known how it may fare with them. ' He an- 
swered and said, It is not meet to take the 
children's bread, and to cast it to dogs.' Most 
suppliants would have been silenced by receiving 
an answer like that. But Jesus knew the faith 
that was in this woman; otherwise one feels 
certain that He would not have spoken as He 
did ; and the high honour He bad in view for 
her was that she should be the one to draw 
out of these very words, which were only borrowed 
words as Jesus used them, a ground of hope for 



all who pass amoiig their fellow-men as outcast 
and despised. The Jewish setting of this incident 
is accidental. The abiding lessons seem to be 
two : (i) Let the world put upon us ihe lowest 
valuation that it will, Jesus will not reject us, 
whatever that valuation be. (a) Only there must 
be no coming before Him pretending to be other 
and better than we are. As candidates for grace, 
the lowest valuation we can set upon ourselves is 
not likely to be too low. 

F. G. Cholmondelev. 

Leek Waallon Vicarage, H'arviick. 

iBilfilfiMi vi. 9. 

' Let us not be weaiy {ji\ fyKaKunif) in well-doing : foi 
in due Eeuon we shall reap, if we faint not (^4 inXuiiurw),' 

The commentators are careful to emphasize at 
greater or less length the distinction between these 
words; and even the ordinary New Testament 
reader cannot fail to observe the change from ' let 
us not fe weary ' to '/ain^ not.' The distinction 
is, of course, no idle one, and merits a few words. 
The ordinary reader observes that the apostle 
uses two different terms to express what, at first 
flush, seems to be the same thing ; Sl Paul speaks 
first of ' being weary,' and then of ' fainting.' But 
the two terms are by no means identical in mean- 
ing, and the subde mind of the apostle perceives 
at once the contrast and the connexion between 
the two. The exhortation, ' Ui us not be weary,' 
means, and indeed might be more fittingly trans- 
lated, 'Let us not lose heart'; the reference is 
more particularly to our attitude of mind, to our 
feelings. The condition, ^ if we faint not,' rtim 
to our actions, and means, ' if we do not entirely 
desist, absolutely stop.' That is to say, there is in 
the two phrases all the difTerence between the 
feeling of care-nothing and the state of da-nothing. 
Of course the one is very apt to lead to the other : 
if we care naught, we are apt to do naught ; and 
that is just why the apostle writes as he does. 
' Let us not lose heart ' ; he frames his exhortation 
with reference to the cause, not with reference to 
the effect, for the cause is at once more common 
in its occurrence and more subtle in its influence. 
And a further helpful thought is suggested by this. 
The 'reaping' — the result we desire and aim at — 
depends on our actions, on our 'not-fainting'; it 

does not depend on our feelings, whether of de- 
spondency or of hopefulness. Let us be never so 
downcast and hopeless as to the issue, still if we 
persist in our labours, the reward shall be ulti- 
mately ours. 

Tibbtmiere Mai 

:, Perth. 

Harry Smith. 

£ufte i. 3. 

It seems worth while to point out how early 
ihe question whether Traaiy, in the sentence, Tofi)- 
Ko\ov0i)K<!n wMii- avuidw dicptfiuK, was masculine or 
neuter, was answered in the opposite direction. 

The first who took it as masculine seems to 
have been Justin the Martyr (about 150), when 
he speaks of wrofiv^iuvra written by apostles of 
Christ and those who followed them, koI tSiv ck«Vih{ 
7rapaKo\ov$i)irdvT'j>y {Dial 103). For he alludes 
here, apparently, to the Gospels of Matthew and 
John as written by apostles, and those of Mark 
and Luke as coming from followers of the apostles. 

Thesame construction is maintained by Eusebius, 
when he writes on Luke {ff.E. iii. 4, 7) : ri irX-aara 
(Tvyytyovis t^ XIbuXu koi tow XodroTc oi ov irapfpyi^ 
Tuv avixrroXutv u/uAijKut, 'He lived mostly with 
Paul, but conversed also more than occasionally 
with the other apostles, receiving from them the 
art of medical treatment of souls {ijmxliv Biptartmi- 
K^i), traces of which he left in two divinely inspired 
books (Iv Suirii' . . . BtmrvviaTOK . . . fiifiXani) in 
the Gospel, which he testifies to have written, as 
delivered unto us by those who from the beginning 
were eye-witnesses and ministers of the Word, with 
whom all, he says, he followed from the beginning, 
{ail KOI, ^Tjvtv, iirdvu>6<y 3.iriuri wofniKoXovSriKivat), 
and in the Acts,' etc. 

A third ancient authority for this view is 
Epiphanius, Haeres. 51. 7. Like Eusebius, who 
expressly calls the books of Luke divinely in- 
spired, he emphasizes that the Holy Ghost in- 
duced Luke to write his Gospel {HyafKo^ti. to aytov 
jTWvjua KOI cTivwTci Tov iytov AovKov), 'who intro- 
duces in proof of truth as witnesses the ministers 
oftheWord . . , and says: It seemed good to me, 
after I followed in order from the first them who 
were eye-witnesses and ministers of the Word, to 
write unto thee (ISoj* k6^i xapijKoXov^oTi aina0t¥ 
Toi<i ajrTOimuf k<u vinjpcrais rov Xoyant ya/o/xirMt). 

The same view is taken by Euthalius (ed. 


Zacagni, 421), and, perhaps, also by Papias and 
Clement of Alexandria, when they used the same 
word, while speaking of the Gospel of Mark : 
Papias, that he did not follow Christ, but later 
Peter, oSrc «api)KoXoi]fti|(rav avr^ wrrtpov Si . . . 
n«-p4i ; Clement, that the Roman Christians asked 
him as follower of Peter to write his Gospel, trapa- 
noA^o-airovMapKoi' ^h.v dNoXouftl^atTaaATU ir^ppuSei' 
Kai fn^VT\ftAvav loiv Kfj^artiav avaypaij/ai To. ttfnffiiva- 

It seems, further, to be found in the Latin 
Prologus to the Third Gospel, where Luke is 
designated as dhcipulus apoitolerum, poslea (vero) 
Paulum seeutus. The Latin version of the text, 
'adsecuto a principio axanibus,' is ambiguous; 
but the verb {assegui) favours the neuter, and some 
MSS of the Old Latin and of the Vulgate, and 
the printed editions of the latter, put omnia. 

Grammatically it is possible to take itamv as 
masculine; but the connexion excludes this view, 
and it is strange that it found so much favour in 
the oldest times, and even later, after the explana- 
tion as neuter had been put forward. The first 
certain trace of the latter explanation I find in 
the Syriac palimpsest from Sinai, 'When I had 
examined all these things from the beginning,' 
En p yrhz pK m^^^. The same sense is given 
as that of the Peshito in the Uferal Translation 
from the Syriac Peshitto Version, by James Mur- 
dock (sixth edition, Boston and L^ondon, 1S93), 
'as they delivered them to us ... as I had ex- 
amined them all accurately.' But when we turn 
to the Peshito text itself, we find that it runs quite 
differently : pnioii n'SBV n*in nnpi ilOD, i.e. ' be- 
cause I was near carefully to all of them.' It is 
curious to ask how Murdock came to anticipate 
in his translation the reading of the Sinai Codex 
by more than forty years. With the Peshito seems 
to agree, again, the later Syriac version, the so- 
called Philoxeniana, as edited by White. It is 
true White translated: 'Qui assecutus sum alte 
omnia ditigentet,' but the text has 'jff? p nopinm 
n'WVnn Tin'pz'?, and must be translated, ' having fol- 
lowed from above a// carefully'; Jints is masculine, 
the neuter wSunv is rendered in this translation by 
rn^; see, for instance, Lk i*" 3"-**. 

It is not necessary to quote other witnesses; 
only one word about the Gothic version, in which 
' alJaim ' is again ambiguous ; it may be neuter or 
masculine. This version agrees with a few Latin 
MSS (bg of the Old Latin, and BGO of the 
Vult'ate) in the gloss : ' visum est mihi et spiritui 

sancfa.' Did this gloss enter from the I^tin into 
: the Gothic, or from the Gothic into the Latin, or 
{ is there any trace of it already in Greek sources ? 
' See above on Eusebius and Epiphanius. 
I Eb. Nestle. 

I Jtfttuibronir. 

A VERY interesting contribution from the pen of 
Professor Jannaris has lately appeared, on the 
interpretation of the prologue to St John's Gospel, 
which deserves careful consideration. The author 
approaches his subject from a standpoint diflferent 
from that of most students of the Gospel ; and as 
few things throw so much light on a well-worn 
study as a new point of view, this advantage 
should be borne in mind. 

A Greek himself, Professor Jannaris knew 
colloquial Greek as a living tongue in the first 
I instance, and became a classical scholar in the 
second ; and his principal publication is meant to 
show the unity of the Greek language from the 
most ancient times to our own.- Being then a 
master of the classical and the modem colloquial 
language equally, and having traced the stages by 
which the one has given place to the other, he has 
singular opportunity for reading the Greek of the 
New Testament, which is intermediate, with all 
the light that can be thrown on it from either side. 
' Some years since,' he says, ' I was struck by the 
frequency in New Testament Greek of what I 
should call editorial misreadings and misrender- 
ings. ... As it appears in our printed editions, 
alike Received and critical, the New Testament is 
perhaps the worst edited of all ancient texts.' 
Professor Jannaris finds in the opening of St 
John's Gospel a notable instance of this ; and his 
paper is to show how the passage ought to be 
read. He says : ' My object here is not the 
ambitious task of investigating or even reviewing 
the Logos doctrine in its wide and post-apostolic 
history, nor shall I embark on philosophical and 
theological speculation. My research will be con- 

1 Zeitsehrift fiir die NeuUslanunlliehr IVisseiuchn/l una 
die Kundt dei Ur<:lirisUiUums. Giessen : J. Ricker. By 
A. N. Janiurb. 

• An Mislarica! Crtii Grammar, ihiefly of the Allie 
dialed ai virilUa and sfmten, fnm tli^ssitnl giilfgtfiff dauiH 
to present limei, I^ndon 




fined within the N.T., or rather to the Johannine 
writings, and the method I shall adopt is that of a 
purely philosophical, i.e. grammatical and histor- 
ical study.' 

In the interpretation which he finally reaches, 
Professor Jannaris innovates in two respects ; first 
in the meaning of the teim Atryos, and secondly in 
the punctuation and connexion of the text. He 
assumes indeed the Received Text throughout the 
fourteen opening verses, which atone he discusses 
(save in a triviality of spelling), but his division of 
the clauses presents several changes. 

First the usual meanings of A»yot are discussed. 
From the two senses of Xeyai — ' say ' and ' tell ' — 
those of a saying or message, and of an injunction 
or command, are immediately derived. To these 
arc added two other uses, namely, that of articu- 
late thought, or reason, and that of an equivalent 
for the Aramaic memra when coupled with a 
possessive in which it is virtually merged, e.g. ' the 
Name of God,' which may be simply a paraphrase 
of 'God.' These are regarded as the only dis- 
tinct meanings which Xdyew bears in the N.T. 
generally, while even of these the third is absent 
from the Gospels. One would have thought 
that the meaning of a 'recitoning' or 'account,' 
which the word often has in the N.T., ought at 
all events to be added. However, Professor 
Jaanaris considers none of these senses applicable 
to the opening of St. John, so a full enumeration 
is unimportant. 

Next the question is considered when the term 
Aoyof first appears in post-biblical writers 'as the 
personal or anthropomorphic Logos, as the Incar- 
nate Son of God.' The form of the question is 
curious, as Christian writers have not identified 
the Logos with the Son of God only when Incar- 
nate : but that is perhaps a slip. The answer 
given is that it lirst emerges in the middle of the 
second century ; and the Logos doctrine seems to 
have gained currency only at the end of that 
century. This meaning is therefore set aside also 
as inapplicable in St. John. Professor Jannaris 
very truly observes that the introduction of the 
term a Xoyos (with the article) in the opening 
sentence of the Gospel, — and that with no pre- 
paration or subsequent explanation, — implies that 
the author used it in some well-known sense ; and 
this is confirmed by the fact that he never reverts 
to its use afterwards, as he certainly would have 
done, had he been impressing some new meaning 

upon a term selected for a position of such promi- 

Wbat then can be meant by this Logos — the 
Logos — which the writer assumes will be familiar 
to all? 'It can only be the well-known Aoyot, 
" der Spruch," the dictum or deliverance with 
which the Book of Genesis opens : God said (clxo' 
6 0«>f), the utterance (Atfyos) or Spruch, by which 
God created the world, by the repetition (nine 
times !) of which utterance all things came into 
being (^cVcTo) one after another, and without 
which not a thing came into being. ... In 
beginning the life of Christ, St. John very natur- 
ally and fittingly thinks of the beginning of the 
world, and so opens or prefaces his narrative with 
the account of the creation in Genesis. 'God 
said, Let there be light, and there was light.' . . . 
Conceiving Christ as the ' true Light,' then, John 
very naturally connects him with the account in 
Genesis where the light marks the first divine 

It is one merit in this interpretation, as Pro- 
fessor Jannaris rightly points out, that it ' accounts 
for the coincidence — the unmistakable coinci- 
dence—regarding the use of the term Ajiyos both 
in St. John and Philo. For without necessarily 
copying or knowing each other, both writers refer 
lo the same well-known work of God recorded in 
the well-known opening lines of Genesis.' ' And 
quotations from the writings of Fhllo go to show 
that the resemblances and differences between 
these and the prologue of St. John's Gospel, in 
the use of the term Koyoti, are alike consistent 
with its adoption by both from the story of the 

Notwithstanding the limits that Professor Jan- 
naris set himself at the beginning of his paper, he 
adds a few paragraphs to show how the Aoyo? used 
by St. John in this simple sense might easily, and 
did in fact, become the basis of the theological 
teaching which subsequently identified the Logos 
with the son of God. This he attributes to the 
need felt by men who were Hellenic philosophers 
before they became Christians, for bringing their 
new faith into touch with their philosophic habits 
and convictions, and presenting it to others who 

'Cf. Bigg's Chriilian Platonisls of Alexandria, p. |,S, 
wheie after quoting Troin the Di Agric. a passage on ihi.- 
XiyoT, Profcs-sor Bigg lemaiks, ' Hete Philo is thinking, dol 


nere not yet believers, in a form suited to specu- 
lative minds. No doubt if the reading of St 
John's prologue on these lines be accepted, the 
history of the Logos doctrine must be explained 
in such a way. 

A further point roust be added if Professor 
Jannaris' view is to be presented completely. 
Where Adyos occurs in v.>*, it is not taken in the 
same sense. Twelve verses intervene between 
its previous mention and this point, and these 
contain many ideas weighty enough to carry the 
mind forward, and so to make a direct resumption 
in v." far from the only possible way of reading it. 
The natural reference, in (he opinion of Professor 
Jannaris, for koi o Aoyos crapi iyivrro is to the 
iioviria of the sentence preceding, this word being 
understood in the sense of ' commandment,' which 
it often bears. The charge given to believers to 
become God's children is conceived as becoming 
embodied in us (iv ^/^ly) Christians, and so as 
'becoming flesh.' If Professor Jannaris' transla- 
tion of the whole passage be given, no difficulty 
will be found in seeing both how he punctuates 
the text in a new way, and how he gives effect to 
these corrections in the translation of the principal 
terra in dispute : — 

V.' In the beginning was the utierance. Now the utler- 
ance wM made unto God, and was a god. This -ulterance 
was in the beginning made unlo God. 'All things came 
into being through il, and without it not a thing came into 
being. That which it come into lieing, 'therein was life 
and lb« life was the light of mankind. 'And the tight is 
shining in (he darkneis and the darkness hath not ovei- 

'There appeared a man sent from God; his name was 
John. ''The same came for declaration (to declare things 
concerning the Light], so that all may become believers 
through him. ' He was not the Light, but wa> (came) to 
declare lUni^i concerning the Light. ' The true Light that 
illuminaleth every man coming into Ihe world '"wai in the 
world, and Ihc world came into being through him, aniyel 
the world reeogniied Him Del. " He came into His own 
home and his own people received him not. " But as many 
as received him, to (hem gave he authority (o become God's 
children for those which believe in his name ; '* which were 
[tota not through bloodshed nor through the will of ihe 
Hesh nor through Ihe will of man, but from God. "And 
the mandate became flesh and lodged in us, and m we beheld 
his (Ihe Light's) glory. 

It will probably be felt that some parts of the 
views which Professor Jannaris thus puts forth are 
more convincing than others. To dea! with a 
minor issue first, most readers will perhaps demur 

to treating Aoyot in v.'* as quite w£ 
with the same term where it occutsui< 
is it easy to see how the charge to b«» 
children could be said to ' become flei> 
to ' lodge in us.' For myself I shoolc i 
this interpretation was forced, and nxit 
realty intelligible sense. But it doensi 
fall with Professor Jannaris' main tma 
KoytK in v.> means the creative wvc' 
recorded in the opening of Genesis. U:= 
is much to attract. It puts to rest ui^ 
the difficulties that have always beenfdt: 
here, and here only in the Johanniiic rc 
language of speculative theology, whitl : 
is characteristic of a later generation,: 
besides more affinity with the philow^ 
schools than with the profound simplicrii 
Hebrew cast of mind so noticeable eis^ 
SL John's writings. Of course the Kct^ 
this interpretation no more involves ti 
of the later-developed doctrine conoir:^ 
as the Logos of God than the rejecdor 
{in the Received Text) implies draii ■ 
doctrine of the Trinity, or the readio;' 
stead of ®«ot in i Ti 3" implies the i;*^ 
the doctrine of the Incarnation. Buitf 
once cut away the strongest gromi = 
attacks upon the authenticity of the Of"^ 
been based ; and it would bring the ofci 
into complete accord with the rest of tt< 
inasmuch as the ideas there expressed'^ 
found simple, profound, and deeplf H'' 

True this does not remove all ^ 
Whether one pUces the stop after •»' 
treating this as a clause complete (u ^ 
Jannaris does), or after the follo«ua ■ 
(which is the customary punctuation). (^^ 
ovTot following (which is perhaps the btf^ 
it remains a difficulty that the word r.\ 
uttered in creation should be identi^^* 
who uttered it. I am disposed to taie 
as intended to exclude the false iie 
utterance once made had a power of ^ 
to guard the truth that God, and God i 
the source and origin of created thio;^ 
the later Brahmans taught that en>> 
themselves attained their ends and bM 
they were by means of sacrifice,' lbs*! 
sacrifice an independent existence V 

.' £.?. Sa/a/m/JllaMrJimir-- - 



virtue quite inconsistent with its essential char- 
acter as an act of relation between roan and God, 
so in an age when magic was still professed and 
commanded respect the apostle guarded against 
such ' idols ' by affirming that ' The word was with 
God ; and God was this word ; it was in the be- 
ginning with God.' A further difficulty remains in 
the latter part of v.'. It is far from clear what 
Professor Jannaris understands by the clause, 
' That which is come ioto being, therein was life,' 
etc. Does he mean ' Life was in what came into 
being,' or does he mean, 'What came into being 
was life in the word'? I am disposed to accept 
the second alternative, treating ' was life ' as again 
a Hebraism for ' lived ' in correspondence with 
iyirtTo above, just as iv auTw corresponds with Si' 

Despite these difficulties of detail — from some 
of which no interpretation yet propounded is free 
— the main point of Professor Jannaris' rendering 
commends itself. The case for reading X^ym as 
the creative word which summoned all things into 
being, as Genesis records, appears to me even 
stronger than Professor Jannaris has shown, when 
taken in the same sense in v.^*, with due attention 
given to the analogy drawn out in w.''' on the one 
hand, and w,"-" on the other. The fundamental 
ideas in St. John's mind are those which he ex- 
presses somewhat differently in 1 Jn i'"* 2"'-'. He 
had himself witnessed a new creation. A ' word of 
Life' had once more been uttered by God, and it 
was the apostle's duty to declare the Life, the 
Eternal Life, which was with (irpot) the Father, 
and was manifested. It was no novelty — this 
creative command — and yet it was a new word of 
power. Light was its first effect in the beginning 
of all things, and yet the light did not banish the 
darkness. Now again the word of God was 
uttered, and again the same effect ; so that at last 
' the darkness is passing away, and the true Light 
is already shining.' This teaching is drawn out, 
with of course difference of form and phrase, in 

' PacalleU are not uocommon ; e.g. Jn 6*° m'i where the 
senie is probably ' I am the Way ; Ibe true and living 

the prologue to the Gospel, but in complete 
harmony with the Epistle. ' In the beginning was 
the creative word. Through it God, and God 
alone, called all things into being. All that was 
made became alive in it. And this life was light 
for men. Yet a light that left darkness surround- 
ing, unable to quench the light, but never scattered 
by it. Then God's word was heard again: the 
word of the Lord came unto John, who was sent 
to declare the Light which was Life for men. And 
once more the true Light was found not to banish 
the darkness at once ; for when in the world the 
world did not recognize Him, — no, not even His 
own did so. Yet those that were truly His own — 
who received Him and believed on His Name — 
were given the power of a new life, an eternal life, 
so that they might become sons of God. By no 
natural birth must they become such, but being 
begotten of God. So God's word became flesh — 
took human form — and dwelt in our midst; and 
we beheld the glory which shone forth on this new 
utterance, "Let Light be," — glory as of an only 
Son from a Father's side, full of grace and truth.' 

It is hard to say whether the more suitable 
pronoun in reference to the true Light is 'He' or 
' it.' In any case, the thought is wholly fixed on 
Jesu:i Christ; but, except in the clause 'became 
flesh,' itte/arm of the thought is not personal, the 
Lord being conceived as the Light. Perliaps 
more justice would be done to the metaphor — 
which yet is more than metaphor, for 'this is the 
message which we have heard from Him and 
announce unto you, that God is Light,' — if the 
less personal pronoun were employed. But the 
whole thought is so intensely personal at bottom, 
that one can hardly deem this adequate. 

The connecting link between o koyiy; irhpi iycvtro 
and the previous iy ipxB ^ " A«yi« . . . jraym 
&' atToi' lyivtra is thus found in v.", which is but 
another way of expressing the established O.T. 
phrase, 'The word of the Lord came unto John."' 
And the whole of the prologue answers to, and is 
interpreted by, the ideas embodied in St. John's 

' iyltm XiyM Kvpl«u rpbt . . . 



Fitst Epistle, whose very phrases continually aid its 
exposition. As one last illustration of this I may 
add that the key to the understanding of ii aiixd- 
rmr is certainly to be found in i Jn 3', and 
Professor Jannaris' translation ' bloodshed ' is 
without doubt a mistake. E, P. Boys-Smith. 
Hardle Vicarage. 

When I wrote my note on 'Azek^i published in 
last month's issue (p. 95 f.), I was unawaie that 
the wish I then expressed for a speedy publication 
of the Inscription 82-3-23, 131 had been realized 
half a year ago. Hugo Winckler, whom we have 
to thank for making us acquainted with so many 
new historical texts, gave to the public a transcrip- 
tion and translation of the above inscription in his 
Altorient. Forschungen, zweite Reihe.iii. a (Leipzig, 
1901), i. p. 570 ff., under the title 'Bruchstiicke 
von Kcilschrifttexten,' No. rS. The inscription 
belongs, according to Winckler, to Sargon (cf. the 
expedition of the latter to Ashdod), and runs as 
follows : — ■ 

to my land 

of Assur, my lord, a district (iia§ii) .... 

the city A-ia-ia-a, his garrison town (*/( 

lutlSli-lu), which between . . . 
„ . . . a high ... a mountain peak, was situated, like 
the sheath of an iron da^cr . . . 
. . . and rivalled each other the peaked mnunlains . . 

... in bringing siege instruroenls [aramnii') 

[The approach] of my horses saw they and the tumult 
of my troop» [beard they] 

I caplured and plundeied . ■ . 

) ofa royal[city]of the /'.iiViJ/i'ifj 

huge . . . unblemiihed oxen [I offered?] 

of the palice. like a mountain befoie them . . 

. . . then lose nut up lor him bb Min-god, at the 

(drying up] of his water, 
:5. [nhilc he . . .] hewed with axes, a trench round about 

men skilled in war he brought in 

the troops of Martu, ill of them ... he, 

, . . [summoned I] againsi ihem. with seven limes 

siWy { = 420) . . . 
who from within [made a sally, I fought?). 

Strangely enough Winckler has not recognized 
the identity of this city Azaka, situated in the hill- 
country, with the O.T. 'Azeka, holding as he does 
that from line 10 onwards a fresh campaign is 
spoken of. 'The name of his' strong castle, 
Azaka, is unknown elsewhere ' (Winckler, p. 572). 
But, in spite of the fragmentary character of the 
text, it is quite clear that we have to do with one- 
and the same war of the Assyrian king ; and indeed, 
as far as I can see, it may be just as well an 
episode in the Judseo - Philistine campaign of 
Sennacherib, a point which it may be left to others, 
with the aid of his inscriptions, to discuss further. 
'Azeka lay on the route from Jerusalem toPhilistia, 
and a glance at the map shows abundantly the 
mountainous character of this region. 

We have now a double interest in what the 
O.T. tells us about 'Azeka. In Jos lo"'- we read 
that the Amorites were pursued by Joshua from 
Gibeon up to Beth-horon, and thence 10 'Azeka 
and Makkeda. In i S 17' the Philistines assemble 
their host at Socho, and encamp at Ephes 
Dammim, between Socho and 'Azeka. According 
to 2 Ch 1 1* Rehoboam re-fortified a number of 
cities in Judah and Benjamin, and among them 
Socho, Lachish, 'Azeka, and ?or'a. In Jer 34' it 
is said that Lachish and 'Azeka alone were left of 
the fortified cities of Judah, on the advance of 
Nebuchadrezzar. And, finally, in the post-exilic 
period, 'Azeka is once more (Neh 11*) named 
immediately after Lachish, among the settlements 
of the returned exiles. 'Azeka must thus from 
ancient times, from the period of the Judges until 
after the Exile, have been an important mountain 
fortress ; and that it gave trouble to the Assyrians 
in their Philistine wars, we learn from the inscrip- 
tion quoted above. 

Fritz Hommel. 


' J.t. of (be unknown rebel in his m 

Printed by Morkison & Gibh Liuitbi), Tanfield Works, 
and Published by T. £ T. Clark, 38 George Suect, 
Edinburgh. It is requested that all literary com. 
munications be addressed to The Eoitok, .St. Cyrus, 
N.IS. Ijii-. : h V.H.ft.J'^JH^ 


Qtofee of (B^tctnt ^xpoBitioru 

In his Ufeof the Master (^oAA.tx & Stoughton, 
25s. net), Dr. Watson seems to say that the 
brethren of Jesus were sons of Joseph by an 
earlier wife than Maiy. That they were sons of 
Mary he cannot receive. They impress him as 
older, not younger, men than Jesus. And he 
thinks that if they had been Mary's sons Jesus 
would have committed her to their keeping, and 
not to John's. 

He thinks they were sons of an earlier and less 
spiritual wife than Mary. For then he can 
understand ' their unbelief in this younger brother 
with His unworldly ideas and divine aspirations.' 
Then also he can understand something of what 
Jesus must have suffered in the Nazareth home 
during His early years. The misunderstanding 
and the criticism of His elder half-brothers must 
have been hard to bear — an early cross laid on 
His shoulders, and a heavy one. But at least, 
thinks Dr. Watson, it prepared Him for the 
gauntlet of Pharisaic faultfinding and slander. 

' When Christ says, Resist not evil ; but whoso- 
ever shall smite thee on the right cheek, turn to 
him the other al£o — it is an overstatement, made 
for the sake of emphasis.' So says Mr, W. J. 
Dawson, in his new life of Christ, to which he has 
Vol. Xni.— 4. 

given the title of The Man Christ Jesus (Grant 
Richards, los. 6d.) 

He calls Christ's law of revenge an over- 
statement, made for the sake of emphasis. Surety 
he himself is guilty of a misstatement in doing so. 
An overstatement for the sake of emphasis — Is 
that not simply an untruth? And if Christ was 
capable of an overstatement, was He also capable 
of an understatement ? And are not these things 
the cause of half the bitterness in this world ? 

'Koi a lie whicli is all a lie may be met and fought 

with oui right, 
But a lie which is patt a Imth is a haider mauet 

'These enigmatic sayings inculcate a certain 
spirit and temper; they do not lay down a literal 
law of conduct.' That is on the same page, but that 
is different. That means, that in saying ' Whoso- 
ever shall smite thee on the right cheek, turn to 
him the other also,' our Lord lays down a general 
law and does not state a particular example. It 
was the way in which this greatest Lawgiver gave 
His laws. It was the way His greatest countrymen 
gave them, and His hearers were so familiar with 
the way that they did not misunderstand it. 

We misunderstand it because we are Western 



and not parabolic. When Jesus said the mustard 
was the least of all seeds, we go and weigh it with 
other seeds, so prosaic and Western are we. And 
when He said, 'Whosoever shall smite thee on the 
right cheek, turn to him the other also,' we wonder 
how it can be done, and call it an overstatement. 
It must be done and always done, else what do we 
more than others? It must be done and always 
done, else how can we be perfect as our Father 
which is in heaven is perfect ? But how it is to 
be done depends on circumstances. I turn the 
other also to-day; to-morrow I do not. To-day 
you turn the other also, and I do not. It depends 
on circumstances. 

How fares it with the Gospel after recent 
criticism ? The Gospels we have, and after all is 
said against them they will be there, the wonder of 
our youth, the strength of our manhood, the 
comfort of our declining years. But the Gospel is 
greater and more vital than the Gospels. It is also 
more difficult to hold. The Gospels might remain, 
and we might read ' I am the true vine and My 
Father is the husbandman' with the old tremor, 
even after the Fourth Gospel has been proved to 
be the work of the Presbyter, But the Gospel 
wherein we stand, by which also we are saved — it 
means that Christ died for our sins according to 
the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that 
He rose again the third day, according to the 
Scriptures— it is not like the Gospels, it is unseen, 
unhandled, it is miraculous. How fares it with the 
Gospel after recent criticism ? 

When you ask the question, recent criiicism 
looks up in wonder. It has not touched the 
Gospel, it is with the Gospels that it has had to 
do. It has shown, or tried to show, that the 
Gospels are unhistoric. But it vehemently pro- 
tests that it has only shorn the Gospel of its 
husks and hindrances, and left it belter than 
ever it was. 

But the husks are the miracles. They include 
the resurrection from the dead. They include 

the living, present Christ. The Gospel that is 
left is not the Gospel as we have received it. It 
may be as attractive as they call it, but it is not 
the Gospel wherein we stand. 

They know that. They may call it a better 
Gospel ; they know it is not the same. They 
know that the essential thing in the old Gospel 
is the miraculous. And they know that they are 
changing the Gospel completely, for it is just the 
miraculous that they assail. 

We sometimes blame them for assailing the 
credibility of the Gospels. They are quite en- 
titled to do that. If they think that the Gospeb 
are incredible, or if they think that anything they 
contain is incredible, they are quite entitled to say 
so and try to prove it. Surely we are not afraid 
of the truth. Surely we do not want to hinder 
the search for it. But when they assail the 
credibility of the Gospels, they do so as a means 
towards an end. The end is the elimination of 
the miraculous. And we have a right to protest 
if h/ere they have begun to examine the Gospdt 
they have decided that the miraculous has no 
business to be there. 

Did you hear that they rejected the miraculous 
because they knew that miracles were impc^ssible ? 
None of them say that. Schmiedel says the con- 
trary. I am not going, he says, ' to start from 
any such postulate or axiom as that miracles ait 
impossible.' Dr. Percy Gardner does say that 
'miracles would form exceptions to that great 
law of the Conservation of Energy which men 
of science regard as holding in all parts of the 
physical universe.' But Dr. Percy Gardner, on 
his own admission, knows little about physical 
science, and even he docs not commit himself 

Did you hear that they rejected the miraculous 
because they found that the documents which 
contained it were composed so long after the 
event as to be untrustworthy? The date, says 


Dr. Schmiedel again, has nothing to do with it. 
' The chronological question ' — here are his very 
words — 'is in this instance a very subordinate 
one. Indeed, if our Gospels could be shown to 
have been written from 50 a.d. onwards, or even 
earlier, we should not be under any necessity to 
withdraw our conclusions as to their contents ; ne 
should, on the contrary, only have to say that the 
indubitable transformation in the original tradition 
had taken place much more rapidly than one 
might have been ready to suppose. The credi- 
bility of the Gospel history cannot be established 
by an earlier dating of the Gospels.' 

The date has little to do with it. It is true 
that Schmiedel and all who hold with him date 
the Gospels pretty late. It is true that in that 
way they get room for sources of the Gospels, 
and sources of sources of the Gospels, and ate 
able to represent that there are things in the 
Gospels which may not have been there at the 
beginning, and even how these things got added 
to the original Gospels. But if they cannot get 
time, ihey do not mind. An 'indubitable trans- 
Jermalion in the original tradition ' has taken 
place. They know that from looking at the 
Gospels as they stand. For the Gospels as they 
stand contain the record of miracles. 

Now miracles may not be impossible, but to the 
modem critic they are incredible. After Professor 
Huxley he cannot say they are impossible; but 
after Professor Huxley he says they are incredible. 
And he says that no amount or quality of evidence 
will make them credible. To be incredible is there- 
fore to be non-existent. But he is so loyal to the 
Lord Jesus Christ that he will not say He deceived 
the people. He says that they were not there at 
the beginning, probably not when the earliest 
attempts were made at writing Gospels ; they were 
added later, they are an ' indubitable transforma- 
tion in the original tradition.' 

There are different ways of explaining how they 
came there. The latest and the most ingenious 

way is pursued by Professor Percy Gardner in his 
new book, A Hiilorie View of the New Testament 
(A. & C. Black, 6s.). 

Professor Gardner divides the miracles into 
two classes. There are the so-catted miracles of 
healing, and there are the miracles proper. The 
miracles of healing were not miracles. They 
always demanded faith in the recipient. ' Now,' 
says Dr. Gardner, 'deeds of healing, in which a 
certain undefined power in the healer is met 
by faith in the person healed, are in no way 
miraculous.' The cures may have been many, 
or they may have been few ; that depends on the 
evidence, and the evidence in such matters is 
exceedingly hard to sift. But they were not 
miracles. ' Jesus stands in history as one among 
a number of faith-healers.' 

The cases of exorcism come under this head. 
They were cases of physical disease, says Dr. 
Gardner, especially of epilepsy and insanity. In 
ascribing them to diabolic agency, Jesus ' doubt- 
less spoke in the manner of the age.' Whether 
he knew better or not. Dr. Gardner cannot say. 
He considers it probable that He did not, and he 
holds that we need think no less of Him on that 
account. But, be that as it may, the cases of 
exorcism were simply cases of healing. The 
same faith was needed in the recipient, the same 
influence was exercised by the stronger over the 
feebler nature. In casting out devils Jesus took 
His place among the faith -healers. 

When we pass from the so-called miracles ol 
healing we come to the miracles proper. They 
are deeds which 'are inconsistent with our ex- 
perience of the working of law in the material 
world, such as the turning of water into wine, 
and the feeding of multitudes from a few baskets 
(hV) of food.' 

Now, what Dr. Gardner has to say of the 
miracles proper is that they are not only not 
miracles, but they are notl^ipg,^t^l,t^ i1(^^ev jqever 



were wrought. No one at the time pretended 
that they were wrought They aie hero-wor- 
shipping inventions of a later age. 'Jesus as a 
healer of disease,' he says, 'is historic; and the 
tales told of His cures, though doubtless de- 
formed by exaggeration and distorted by very 
imperfect physiolt^ical knowledge, rest on a basis 
of fact. But Jesus as turning water into wine, as 
feeding multitudes from a few baskets of food and 
the like, belongs not to history, but to a perfectly 
familiar field of pseudo-historic tale and legend.' 

What ground has Dr. Gardner for saying this? 
He has no ground. He simply supposes, and 
says it must be so. As a critic of the Gospels he 
has his sources, and perhaps, like Schmiedel, his 
sources of sources. But, so far as it appears, the 
earliest sources are as full of the miraculous as 
the latest The only proof he offers is a proof 
from analogy. Other men, he says, have had 
similar legends lold of them; Jesus must also 
have had His. 

He gives one example. He quotes it from 
Dozy's Hiifoire dt rislamisme. 'At the outset 
of his mission,' says Dozy, ' Mohammed said that 
he also had dwelt in error, since he had taken 
part in the worship of idols ; but God, he de- 
clared, had opened his heart. This figurative 
fhrase was taken literally, and gave rise to the 
following tale, which was placed in Mohammed's 
own mouth : — "One day, when I was lying on my 
side near the Kaaba, some one approached and 
cut open my body from chest to abdomen, and 
took out my heart. There was brought to me a 
basin of gold filled with faith ; in it my heart was 
washed and replaced in me."' 

Professor Gardner places that story beside the 
narratives of the Gospels. And even that siory, 
he admits, does not fit into the life of Mohammed 
as the miracle narratives fit into the life and 
character of Jesus. Quoting again from Dozy, 
he admits that 'the earlier biographies of 
Mohammed have infused the marvellous with so 

tittle skill that one can commonly with a little 
critical tact dtstingutsh between truth and fiction. 
Mohammed has never become a mythical or super- 
natural being. 

No one will lightly esteem the difficulty in 
believing in miracles. No one will needlessly 
multiply them. But the science of criticism is 
as faithfully followed by retaining what seems to 
be a miracle as by rejecting it In his new book. 
The Man Christ Jesus, Mr. W. J. Dawson declares 
that that which St. John describes as ' the second 
miracle which Jesus did when He was come out 
of Judxa into Galilee ' was not a miracle at all. 

It is the healing of the nobleman's son. The 
son lay sick of a fever in Capernaum ; Jesus was 
in Cana. The father came down to Him there, 
for he believed that his child was at the point of 
death, and, as Mr. Dawson puts it, ' as a last 
resource, he sought help of One who had already 
achieved the reputation of a thaumaturgus.' Jesus 
was disinclined to interfere. But when the noble- 
man exclaimed in an agony of love and vehemence, 
' Sir, come down ere my child die,' Jesus melted 
towards him, and assured him that his child would 
not die. The nobleman accepted the assurance, 
returned to Capernauoi, met his servants on the 
way, who had ridden out to tell him that his son 
was convalescent ; and when he found that the 
amendment synchronized with the hour when 
Jesus said to him, 'Thy son liveth,' he naturally 
interpreted so remarkable a coincidence as a 

Mr. Dawson does not find the miracles of the 
Gospels incredible, but he thinks it 'a safe rule to 
seek a natural explanation of any act described as 
miraculous where such an explanation is possible ' ; 
and he thinks it possible here. The child's illness 
was a fever. The symptoms would no doubt be 
described by the anxious father. Jesus had studied 
the local maladies of Galilee, and the nature of 
this fever would be quite familiar to Hira. From 
these data it would be easy to deduce a prophecy 


of Ihe child's recovery. ' The modern physician, 
trained by long experience in habits of intuition 
and deduction, often ventures on such a positive 
verdict, and is rarely mistaken. Jesus in this case 
did nothing more than such a physician in the 
course of a wide practice often does.' 

In the Jewish Quarterly Review for the present 
quarter Mr. Montefiore discusses a new pamphlet 
by Abb^ Loisy. The pamphlet is entitled Atudts 
£ibliques. It contains six essays bearing upon the 
Inspirationof Scripture, and upon BiblicalCriticism. 
Its object, as Abb^ Loisy states in his preface, is 
' the reconciliation of Catholic dogma and dis- 
cipline with the scientific study of the Bible.' 

Mr. Montefiore finds these essays by a Roman 
Catholic scholar and theologian refreshing. He is 
accustomed to Protestant acceptance of the Higher 
Criticism. True, it is the Old Testament rather 
than the New that Protestants criticize and assort, 
which he easily understands, though he does not 
think it is justified. In the Old Testament, and to 
a far more limited extent in the New, he sees tra- 
ditional dates, authorships of books, improbable 
stories, and awkward miracles all freely abandoned. 
In the Bible, as in so many other things, he hears 
of a growth and a development. The evolution 
reaches its term in the person and teaching of 
Jesus. He is not sure that this sudden arrival at 
perfection and finality with aparticular date and 
person is as ' scientific ' as the previous growth. 
In any case, he sees Protestants freely handling the 
Bible so, and finding it at once 'more human and 
more Divine,' But it is new to him to find the 
same things going on within the Roman Catholic 

So Abb^ Loisy is refreshing. And Mr, Montefiore 
is pleased to find that he is only one of a band of 
Roman Catholic scholars who are seeking' to 
reconcile Catholicism with free inquiry and critical 
results. He hears with interest that it has cost 
them something. M. Loisy himself speaks of 

persecutions for his pains. But he has not been 
driven out of the Church. And he has no intention 
of leaving it. Criticism led Mr. Addis to abandon 
Roman Catholicism ; M. Loisy says that it has 
made him only the stronger and more determined 

Mr. Montefiore has much sympathy with Abb^ 
Loisy and his criticism. He only wonders that he 
does not carry it farther. There are two matters 
which M. Loisy has to reckon with. The Roman 
Catholic Church has declared the Bible to be 
inspired. It has also declared that it contains and 
teaches no errors. Now it is an infallible Church, 
and Abb^ Loisy has to shape his criticism to agree 
with both these statements. 

As for the first, it is fortunate that the Church 
has nowhere explicitly stated what inspiration is. 
Therefore Abb^ Loisy can divide the Bible into two 
parts, a human and a divine, and he can find 
ample scope for his critical processes in the human 
parts, while he leaves the divine (and presumably 
' inspired ') parts untouched. Mr. Montefiore has 
no quarrel with him over this. He is not stjre, 
however, that it is easy to separate the human 
from the divine elements in the Bible j he is not 
sure that it is fair. It will not do, he says, to 
pick out all the gems (that is, whatever seems to 
you to be good and true) and to say, ' This is the 
divine part of the Bible, all the rest is human.' 
For ' the rest ' may be put into the mouth of God 
and may be attested by miracles. Even M. Loisy 
himself admits that it will not do to ' vivisect ' the 
Bible. Mr. Montefiore thinks perhaps it would be 
better to say that in kind the Bible is inspired as 
other good and true books are inspired, but that 
in degree it excels them all. But if Abb^ Loisy 
does not quarrel with the Pope over his ideas 
of inspiration, he will not quanel with Mr. 

The case of the errors is more serious. Still, 
the Church, while declaring that there are no 
errors in the Bible, has not explained what an 



error is. So Abb4 Loisy arranges the things 
which look like errors into departments, and says 
they are not errors. An error, he says, is not an 
enor when the sacred writer did not definitely 
intend to teach it ; which disposes of all ' scientific ' 
errors, since the writers of the Bible never in- 
tended to teach science. Again, an enor is not 
an error when it is merely adopted for the pur- 
pose of conveying a truth, or when the sacred 
writer did not intend it to be regarded as a fact or 
truth. Further, an error is not an error when it 
is only an adaptation of truth to the moral and 
religious capacity of the time when it was written 
or told. And, lastly, an error is not an error when 
it is in accordance with the literary habits of the 

Abb& Loisy finds all these kinds of error in the 
Bible. So also does Mr. Montefiore. Mr. Monte- 
fiore is not sure if these four categories cover them 
all. Thus M. Loisy says of the history of Israel, 
that after Samuel and Saul all is comparatively 
clear ; before Samuel, as far back as Moses, there 
are points of reliable light; between Moses and 
Abraham we see dimly certain indistinct figures 
in the shadow ; before Abraham all is dark night, 
Mr. Montefiore understands him to mean that the 
large majority of the statements made about 
Abraham and Moses are inaccurate, and he does 
not see how that comes under any of M. Loisy's 
convenient rules. So he frames a fifth rule. An 
error is not an error, he says, when it was written 

in good faith and has no relation to the real object 
or subject of revelation. 

Mr. Montefiore, on the whole, agrees with Abb^ 
Loisy. But he cannot understand why he who 
goes so far does not go farther. Or rather, he 
cannot understand why the popes do not go 
farther, — for no doubt Abb^ Loisy would follow 
if they led. Why, he asks, do they not allow that 
there are errors in the Bible, not merely errors 
that do not count, but real errors— theological 
errors, historic errors, religious errors, moral errors ? 
If they did, they would only make the infallible 
Church the more necessary. For if there were a 
few downright errors, with of course a great re- 
siduum of truth for the Church to rest upon, who 
would be able, like the infallible Pope, to say what 
and where they were ? And Jew as he is — but he 
does not deny a touch of irony here — he admits 
that an infallible Church, interpreting, in just ac- 
cordance with the religious needs and capacities 
of every age, a Bible true in the main, but not 
true in every statement and detail, is rather an 
attractive picture. 

It is rather an attractive picture, ' if one could 
accept the dogma.' But he does not accept it. 
He is a critic, and he does not believe that criticism 
will end in Roman Catholicism, but 'either in 
Christian Unilarianism or in "Reformed Juda- 
ism.*" He is a Jew, and for him at least it 
has already ended in ' Reformed Judaism.' 

By the Rev. R. Bruce Taylor, M.A., Aberdeen. 

Few more difficult problems present themselves to 
the student of the Old Testament than that of the 
ecstasy of the early prophets. The phenomena 
described have obviously a close relation in re- 
ligious history to other phenomena, which have 
not added to the dignity and truth of men's inter- 

course with divine things. They suggest analogies 
in the life of to-day which are apt to make us 
think but poorly of those manifestations of religious 
possession which Balaam and Saul exhibited. 

The narratives themselves ascribe the pheno- 
mena to the direct action of the Spirit of God, but 



this does not help us much in our endeavour to 
discover the positive element in ecstasy. For the 
tendency which asks the ' Why ' of everything is 
entirely modern. In those old days the work of 
the Spirit was so implicitly believed in, and was so 
evident a reality, that men did not stop to speculate 
about it. Nothing in human life was thought of 
as ouiwith the range of the Spirit's working. But 
whatever seemed to be beyond the limits of man's 
own ability was ascribed in special measure to the 
energy of the Spirit ; and thus we find a somewhat 
incongruous association of qualities, all deriving 
themselves directly from it. The feats of Samson 
(Jg 14"), the frenzy of the D'K'aa (i S 10"), the 
revelations of the prophet (Ezk 3^), the wisdom of 
the ruler (Nu 11", i S 16'^), the heroic valour of 
the Judges (Jg 6**), the inspiration of the poet 
(2 S af), the genius of the artist (Ex 31^ 36'), as 
well as the false oracles of deluded prophets (i K 
22^), and the homicidal mania of Saul, are all 
ascribed to the direct agency of the Almighty.' 

But, in the case of the ecstatic, the possession 
was supposed to exist tn quite a special sense. 
The Hebrews held, as the Arabs still do, that the 
relation between soul and body was but slight. 
The soul of the individual might depart and be 
supplanted by the Spirit of God, which thus used 
the body of the possessed simply as a mouthpiece. 
In the case of the lunatic this dispossession was 
permanent, while in the case of the ecstatic it was 
temporary. Hence, through all Semite peoples, we 
find this conception that mental aberrations are a 
sign of peculiar sanctity. The Arabic word ma/nun 
(mad) is from the same root Asjann, ' to cover over,' 
'to veil,' from which also the word /inn or (as it is 
commonly transliterated) ^('nw, ' a spirit,' is derived. 
When a man is [>ossessed by i-ginn, his natural mind 
is veiled, his own personality is lost in that of the 
invading spirit.' 'An idiot or fool is vulgarly re- 
garded by the Arabs as a being whose mind is in 
heaven while his grosser part mingles among or- 
dinary mortals ; consequently he is considered 
an especial favourite of heaven. Whatever enor- 
mities a reputed saint may commit (and there are 
many who are constantly infringing precepts of 
their religion), such acts do not affect his fame for 
sanctity ; for they are considered as the result of 
the abstraction of his mind from worldly things — 
his soul or reasoning faculties being wholly ab- 

' Moore, Judges, p. 87, etc. 

' SprcDger, Dm LcbtHund die Lekre des Mokammad,\. 2ZI. 

sorbed in devotion — so that his passions are left 
without control. Lunatics who are dangerous to 
society are kept in confinement, but those who 
are harmless are generally regarded as saints.'* 
Thus David, when compelled to fiee to Gath, 
found that the best course to secure his safety was 
to pretend to be mad. ' David was sore afraid of 
Achish the king of Gath, and he changed his 
behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad 
in their hands, and drummed upon the doors of 
the gate (LXX, xat crv/in-avifo'), and let his spittle 
fall upon his beard ; then said Achish unto his 
servants, Lo, je see the man is mad : wherefore 
then have ye brought him to me?' i.e. he was 
exempt from punishment, and must be treated 
with kindness (i S zi'""). Here we have typical 
features of madness — the effort to be free from 
restraint, QTa ^^ri'i, the senseless drumming upon 
the doors, and the defiling of his beard by letting 
the saliva fall upon it; an act which in itself 
showed all loss of self-respect.* 

There are several other passages in the Old 
Testament which imply that in prophetic ecstasy 
the personality of the individual was regarded as 
being merged in the being of the Spirit that 
possessed him — passages which can be paralleled 
from what we otherwise know of Semitic life. We 
are told in Jg-6" that the Spirit of the Lord 
'clothed' Gideon (i^vna-nit ntpaii "' rmi), where our 
version gives the colourless 'came upon.' The 
expression occurs in the J narrative, the oldest 
stratum of the hisiory. And the conception 
underlying it is that the Spirit was a mere tem- 
porary afflatus, that it was sent upon Gideon for 
special work, that it had no more effect upon 
the natural man Gideon than the cut of clothes 
has on the build of the man's body. The Spirit 
was regarded as something extraordinary, and 
Gunkel has shown that even in New Testament 
times the conception was the same.* We must 
therefore be careful in such an inquiry as this not 
to impose our modern conception of the working 
of the Spirit, as something which completely and 
permanently changes the natural heart, upon those 
old times. It is extremely interesting in con- 
nexion with the use of t?3S ' to clothe,' as applied 
to the work of the Spirit, to find the same word 
employed in the same way among the Arabs of 

' Lane, Afodrm Egypliam, chap. T.. 

' Hastings' BibU Dittiaaary, art. ' McdicIne.S 

' Gunkel, Die Wirkun^n dis ffeiligen Castes. 



to-day. Burton tells how he saw in Mecca a 
negro in the slate called Malbus — religious 
frenzy. ' He was a fine and powerful man, as the 
numbers required to hold him testified. He threw 
his arms wildly about him, uttering shrill cries; 
and when held he swayed his body, and waved his 
head from side to side, like a chained and furious 
elephant, straining out the deepest groans. The 
Africans seem peculiarly subject to this nervous 
state, which, seen by the ignorant and the imagina- 
tive, would at once suggest demoniacal possession. 
Either their organization is more impressionable, 
or, more probably, the hardships, privations, and 
fatigues endured whilst wearily traversing inhos- 
pitable wilds, and perilous seas, have exalted their 
imaginations to a pitch bordering on frenzy. 
Often they are seen prostrate upon the pavement, 
or clinging to the curtains, or rubbing their heads 
upon the stones, weeping bitterly, and pouring 
forth the wildest ejaculations.'* 

The word n?v, which is used in several places for 
the operation of the Spirit (Jg 14", i S io« 16" 
18'"), seems to imply the same temporary posses- 
sion. Its root meaning is perhaps ' to cleave,' or 
' lo burst through,' and it is used for the crossing 
ofariver(2 S 19'* (Heb,)), or the bursting in upon 
any one (Jg 14*- '» 15* etc). It is applied to Saul 
by Samuel : ' The Spirit of the Lord shall burst {or 
rush) upon thee, and thou shalt prophesy with 
them, and shalt be turned into another man ' (t S 

But, in considering the question of ecstasy in the 
Old Testament, we inust remember that the pheno- 
mena which exhibit themselves there do not stand 
alone. They have occurred frequently in history, 
and almost always in the history of religious move- 
ments. The Semites, indeed, would appear to have 
a special susceptibility to those states, but they 
are common too in the history of European peoples. 
It would not be difficult to adduce a fairly exact 
parallel to the case of Balaam from the Ada Sanc- 
torum, while instances of such ecstatic contagion 
as we read of in the story of Saul are legion. 

The explanations of ecstasy have varied with the 
state of knowledge of the peoples giving them, 
Socrates, who fell into trances lasting for a whole 
day, ascribed them to the possession of the Soi'/tdii'. 
'He believed himself to receive, from an inner 
divine voice, premonitions in regard to the success 
and unsuccess of men's undertakings, warnings of 

' R. F. Burlon, Meccah and Medinah, p. 413. 

this and of that,' ^ The Hebrews, referring every- 
thing, both evil and good, directly to God, held 
that these phenomena were due to the working of 
that Spirit of Jehovah which covered the whole 
range of life. The Arab thinks himself to be 
possessed by a ginn, and according to the character 
of the revelation does he consider the ginn to be 
good or bad.* In the Middle Ages, and down to 
comparatively modem times, possession was sup- 
posed to be due either to an evil spirit, as in the 
case of witches, or to the Spirit of God as witnessed 
in the Tarantism of Southern Italy, the Dancing 
Mania in Aix-la-Chapelle in 1374, the strange 
hallucinations of the Convulsionnaires at the Tomb 
of Sl M^dard, the wild excitements of the Hugne 
nots in France, and the cataleptic conditions often 
induced in women at modem revivals. 

During the last fifty years real progress has been 
made in the investigation of those phenomena- 
progress which has advanced ^an'/awu with the in- 
creasing knowledge of the structure and functions 
of the different parts of the brain. Ferrier, Hitzig, 
and MacEwan have mapped out the brain, and 
have shown that catalepsy, somnambulism, hysteria, 
and ecstasy are all due to the fact that certab 
parts of the brain are thrown out of gear, while 
other parts are acting normally. 

The human brain is the highest development of 
an immensely long process of evolution. In some 
respects man is not as highly developed as many 
of the lower animals ; his sense of smell is not so 
acute as that of the dog, nor can he see as distinctly. 
But as a thinking machine he is unique ; and bis 
brain shows clearly both what he has in common 
with the lower animals and what is peculiar to 
himself. Between the aspect of the bottom of the 
brain of a man and of a dog there is no great 
difference. It is in the bottom of the brain that 
the sensory apparatus is situated. But the human 
brain, looked at from the top, shows its develop- 
ment. It consists of two hemispheres, deeply 
convoluted in order that they may have a greater 
surface of grey matter, the part in which ideas are 
evolved. Those hemispheres are not peculiar to 
man, for they appear as far back in the scale of 
evolution as the fish. In birds they are consider- 
ably larger than in the fish. In the mammalia 
they have begun to cover the optic lobes ;* and as 
we ascend in the scale of life they gradually in- 
» Schwegler, HiH. o/Z'.i.^^p,^^ 
• Sprenger, e/. cil. i. p. 311. Q 



crease backward, until, in some of the higher apes 
and in man they entiiely cover the cerebellum. 

Roughly speaking, then, (here are in brain two 
parts — a constant and a variable. The constant is 
the sensory apparatus, which roust exist in all 
vertebrates, and the construction of which does 
not much vary in any. The variable part is that 
whichdenotes intelligence, those hemispheres which 
appear first of all in the fish, and increase as the 
evolution proceeds, until they culminate in man. 
Creatures which have no cerebral hemispheres, or 
in which these are imperfectly developed, are ruled 
simply by the sensory apparatus. An impression 
received along the nerves must at once react 
directly outwards, for there are no ideational 
centres to which they can be transmitted. There 
is no power of cogitation. But the process with a 
creature which does possess cerebral hemispheres 
is different. The impression received through the 
sensory apparatus is passed onwards to the cells 
spread over the hemispheres, and is there trans- 
formed into an idea or perception or thought. 
The hemispheres are thus the seat of the intellectual 
life, as distinct from mere sense, or impression, 
life. They are not necessary to sensation ; they 
stand above it. As we might suppose, they are 
themselves insensible to pain — a point which has 
been demonstrated by a somewhat gruesome ex- 
periment 'An animal which makes violent 
movements while the skin is being cut and the 
roof of the skull removed, remains quite quiet 
while its hemispheres are being sliced away.'^ 

Now it is on this fact that there are different 
nervous centres in the brain, each with its distinc- 
tive function, that the phenomena of ecstasy 
depend. Physiologists recognize four such centres. 
'Each centre is subordinate to the centre immedi- 
ately above it, but is at the same time capable of 
determining and maintaining certain movements 
of its own without the intervention of its supreme 
centre.'^ And the whole physiological theory of 
ecstasy is simply this : That, owing to reflex action 
or inhibition, the supreme nervous centre (the 
hemispheres or grey matter) gets thrown out of 
gear. Sensory impressions reach the lower nervous 
centres, and are either acted on blindly, as when 
a hypnotic patient imitates everything that is done 
before him, or obeys any command addressed to 
him, retaining no remembrance when awake ; or 
' Maudtley, Fkyiielogy of Mind, p. 98 note. 
* Maudsley, p. ro^. 

when the subject does conscious-like things un- 
consciously, as when a man in deep thought 
walks along a crowded street colliding with nobody, 
and yet consciously seeing no one. The impres- 
sion coming along the optic nerve reaches the 
sensory apparatus, or the part of the brain which 
serves as the centre for the fusion of impressions 
coming from the eyes. That this sensory apparatus 
is active, is evident from the fact that balance is 
preserved. But, while the sensations so transmitted 
are at once acted on, there is no transmission of 
the impression to the hemispheres, and there is 
therefore no memory of the fact. 

For this reason, a person in an ecstatic state 
may do and say things which to a bystander 
appear perfectly rational, and he will yet preserve 
absolutely no memory of them. When we con- 
sider how wonderful this is, and what extraordinary 
things have been done in those states, we cannot 
be surprised that the subject should have been 
supposed to have been filled with the Spirit of 
God, or possessed by a devil, as the case might 
be. The individual's own soul seems to be absent, 
because he remembers nothing of his doings ; and 
yet his actions are dictated by some apparently 
conscious and overwhelming power. For the 
ecstatic subjects do things in this condition which 
are supernatural in the sense of being impossible 
for them in the normal waking condition. In the 
winter of 1858 a girl living in an Alpine hamlet 
was sent a message to a neighbouring villf^e. As 
she did not return at nightfall, search was made 
for her. One mountaineer said that he had heard, 
during the afternoon, a call coming from the other 
side of the valley, and, on looking with his field- 
glass, had seen the girl, with her wooden shoes, 
running with the greatest swiftness and sureness 
of foot along slopes which even the chamois 
hunter would not think of attempting. Similar 
accounts came from other valleys, and at last after 
three days on the mountains the girl reappeared. 
During that time she had eaten nothing, and had 
traversed immense stretches of the most dangerous 
mountain slopes. She thought that she was being 
led all the time by three men who were accom- 
panied by a dog ; and she had some recollection 
of the steep places, because the dog, she said, had 
sometimes to make a roundabout course.^ This 
remarkable case of hallucination might easily be 
paralleled from other literatures. The girl was in 
' Sprenger, op. cil. i. ar7-2ia 



a state of trance. The things which she saw were 
realities to her for the time being, and caused her 
to perform feats which in the normal condition 
would have been impossible. Had she been in 
possession of all her faculties, she would have 
fallen, because she would have ' lost her head ' as 
we say. But the sensory apparatus alone was in 
action. The higher part of the brain, in which 
the conception of fear is generated, was out of 
gear. And so, because there was no nervousness, 
she could accomplisb mountaineering feats which 
far more experienced climbers could not have 

Many are familiar with the very remarkable case 
of trance which Coleridge has put on record, where 
a servant girl in high fever was found to be repeat- 
ing sentences of Hebrew, mostly Rabbinic, and of 
Greek. It was discovered that at an early age she 
had been taken to live in the house of a Protestant 
pastor who was a great Hebrew scholar, and who 
was in the habit of walking up and down a passage 
of his house into which the kitchen opened, read- 
ing aloud from his books. In her normal condition 
the girl would have been unable to repeat a word 
of what she had thus heard in her childhood. It 
was outside the sphere of her consciousness. 
But, in the delirium of fever, the balance of the 
brain was upset, and those impressions made 
unconsciously upon the cerebrum were repro- 

Ecstasy, then, physiologically speaking, is a state 
in which the subject is possessed not by the higher 
nature but by the loner. Its phenomena, in the 
West at all events, are very varied, and range from 
rigid catalepsy to mere eccentricity. But, in the 
Old Testament, its manifestations present a re- 
markable uniformity, and occur with great fre- 
quency, although we might have expected that the 
bracing air of the desert would not have favoured 
abnormal conditions of this nature. In the desert, 
says Burton, 'The mind is influenced through the 
body. Though your mouth glows and your skin 
is parched, yet you feel no languor, the effect of 
humid heat ; your lungs are lightened, your sight 
brightens, your memory recovers its tone, and your 
spirits become exuberant ; your fancy and imagina- 
tion are powerfully aroused, and the wildness and 
sublimity of the scenes around you stir up all the 
energies of your soul — whether for exertion, danger, 
or strife. . . . Your senses are quickened ; they 

Culeridee, Biagriifhia Lileraria, ed. 1847, vol, i. p. 1 17. 

require no stimulants but air and exercise; in the 
desert, spirituous liquors excite only disgust.'* 

It is, however, the very exaltation of the desert 
air which aids in producing the ecstasy. The 
senses, the facuhies, are heightened, and yet there 
is nothing in the landscape to fill their activity. 
The bare staring rocks give their echo ; a glimpse 
is caught of the marauder stealing along beside 
the caravan route amidst the sand-hills, and waiting 
for darkness or the straggler to make his dash. 
Hence the imagination of the Arab dwells on 
these things; voices are always whispering to 
him ; shadowy figures are always accompanying 
him. Not only has he general words for visions 
and dreams, but in his vocabulary he has separate 
words for the particular ways in which the gjin 
manifests himself. The voice that is heard only 
by tiie initiated ear is called Hdtif. The Arabs 
of Africa call those ambushed phantoms Jiagl 
(from ragul, 'a man').' 

The whole earth, both for the Semites in general 
and for the Israelites in particular, was full of 
those genii. Robertson Smith, in the Religion of 
the Semites, has shown that the peculiar sanctity 
attached to trees and springs and stones was 
due to the belief that the spirit actually dwelt in 
those things. The stone was itself the ^KTi'a; 
it was carefully anointed with oil, and stroked 
to win the favour of the god that dwelt within it, 
just as the garments or beard of a powerful 
man were touched in supplication ; and from this 
custom we have the phrase nm'-'JBTit* n^ (i S 
13'-).* Trees, with their recurring evidences of 
life, with the movements of their leaves and the 
elasticity of their branches, were regarded not 
only as being the abodes of the ginn but as being 
themselves alive. On them were hung, on feast 
days, fine clothes and women's ornaments. Sick 
men slept under them, to receive counsel in dreams 
for the restoration of health.* Springs also were 
among the oldest objects of reverence among the 
Semites ; and any one who has heard in that land, 
after days of wellnigh arid travelling, the lapping 
of a spring, will know why the Hebrews should 
have called it 'living water,' and why they should 
have believed that 'the water itself is the living 
organism of a demonic life, not a mere dead 
' Burton, Miccah and Mtdinah, p. 104. 




organ.' ' Each spot, in short, was thought of by 
the ancient Semite as having its own Baal, or 
husband ; and a nation that moved out of its own 
country, or a tribe thai fought beyond its own 
bounds, thought that in so doing it had forfeited 
the support of its god. The Syrians ascribed 
their defeat by Ahab to the fact that they had 
been warring against a people whose gods were 
gods of the hills. 'Their gods are gods of the 
hills ; therefore they were stronger than we ; but 
let us fight against them in the plain, and surely 
we shall be stronger than they' (i K 20^).^ 

The Arabs have now modified this belief, though 
it still persists in essence. The ginns now have 
their principal abode in Kdf, the chain of green 
chrysolite mountains which is supposed to sur- 
round the earth and to impart the blue colour to 
the sky.3 But they are great rovers. They inhabit 
both air and earth. The charms that Arabs and 
even Copts constantly carry with them and fix to 
their horses' heads against the evil eye are proof 
of the one, and the expression that is always used 
before water is spilled on the ground or before a 
bucket is lowered into a well, ' Destoor,' or ' Per- 
mission,' is evidence of the other.* 

Now it is quite clear that in all this belief in 
spiritual presences there lay much opportunity for 
the Spirit of the true God. There was here a 
belief in divine power that was a very difTerenl 
thing from the patronage that the Greek extended 
to his god. The god of the Greek was simply a 
glorified human being, not better, morally speak- 
ing, than the rest of mankind, but only more 
powerful, and with all human impulses, lust, anger, 
revenge, remorse, in an exaggerated degree. But 
the Semite, though he rose only under the revela- 
tion given by God to Israel to the idea of the one 
true God, still never fashioned his Divinity after 
his own likeness. The Semite ginn was incom- 
prehensible, unseen, manifesting himself only 
through natural objects, or in dimly-seen shapes 
or secret whisperings. So far from ever coming 
to make his God after his own image, the Semite 
felt that to see God meant death.^ But if he 
did not see his God he had intercourse with Him. 

'W. R, Smith, f!el. of SemiU?, p. 136. 

' Von Baudissin, StudUn zur Stm. Xeligimsgrsch. u. 236. 

' Lane, Modern Egyptians, chap. x. ; Arabian lii^hts, 

* Lan«, Modem Egyptians, chap. x. 

And it may very possibly be that the capacity 
which the Hebrews had for converse with God was 
due in no small measure to the familiar though 
immaterial communion supposed to exist between 
the individual and his ^n». There was here, at 
all events, a potentiality of better things ; and this 
the Lord used, for His own ends, in revelation. 

But a cause of ecstasy even more potent than 
the uniformity and ghostliness of the scene is the 
hardness of the life that the Arab is compelled to 
live. 'The true Bedawi is an abstemious roan, 
capable of living for six months on ten ounces 
of food per diem : the milk of a single camel, and 
a handful of dates, dry, or fried in clarified butter, 
sufllice for his wants. He despises the obese and 
all who require regular and plentiful meals, sleeps 
on a mat, and knows neither luxury nor comfort, 
freezing during one quarter and frying during 
three quartets of the year.'* 

Under such a treatment the body becomes 
reduced, while the nervous system is heightened. 
There is no rest, no absence from discomfort. 
The nomadic life, too, is of necessity solitary. 
The half- starved Arab is a prey to his own 
imagination, alone in the wilderness with the wild 
beasts of his own creation. As Doughty remarked 
of one of his desert friends: 'He was a little 
broken-headed, and so is every third man in the 
desert life.' ^ 

This undeniable place that familiar sights and 
modes of thought have in the phenomena of 
ecstasy has a most important bearing upon the 
question whether there is ever any new revelation 
made to persons in the ecstatic state. Is the eye 
of the future opened to them, or are they simply 
reproducing in dramatic and intense form things 
which have been previously heard or witnessed ? 
Certainly, in hysteria the ravings contain no new 
element. When hysteria takes the form of the 
simulation of a disease, it ts always some disease 
prevalent in the locality. A hysterical person 
will never, when in the hysterical state, exhibit 
symptoms of a disease which he has never seen 
or heard of. Mohammed, who unquestionably 
suffered from hysteria, imagined that he was a 
victim of intermittent fever, which was the prevalent 
disease in Medinah.* 

And when the hysteria takes the form of seeing 

' Burton, Meccah and Medinah, p. 376. 

' \>a>x^Vf, Arabia Destria, ii. aSfeS "- '^"^ "^ 

" Sprenger, of. Hi. i. 30S. 



visions, the same fact applies. The basis of the 
vision is to be found in the circumstances in which 
the ecstatic has been placed. As Renan observed 
long ago, the saints of the Middle Ages were even 
in their visions the representatives of their century 
and nation.! The Dancing Mania of the Middle 
Ages, for instance, was true contagious ecstasy. 
When dancing, the subjects neither saw nor heard ; 
they were insensible to external religious impres- 
sions. And yet their visions were the ordinary 
stock-in-trade of the religious beliefs of the time. 
Some stated that they had to leap so high to 
escape the overwhelming streams of blood. Others 
saw the heavens opened and the Saviour en- 
throned with the Virgin Mary. But there was 
never any fresh revelation of truth — never so 
much as a ftcsh statement of truth already known. 
In all (hat ecstasy there was nothing to help the 
soul's life." Santa Teresa saw devils and smelt 
brimstone with a vividness due to a particular 
eschatological conception,^ It is to be noticed, 
too, that all the tongues in Regent Square Church 
never revealed anything that was in advance of 
what people already knew. 

This fact, that the spiritual impressions in 
ecstasy are always on the line of something that 
has already been seen or known, comes to be of 
the utmost importance in connexion with the 
question whether in the visions of the prophets 
there was any element that was absolutely new. 
And the evidence goes to show that those visions 
were striking presentations of truths already 
present to the prophet's mind, or pictorial state- 
ments of an already existing i^olitical situation. 
They were conditioned by the known, even in the 
case of so great a prophet as Amos. This fact 
we find brought out very distinctly in the history 
of Balaam. When Balaam was brought to the 
top of Pisgah to curse the hosts of Israel, instead 
of cursing he blessed. He was impressed by the 
multitudes of tents spread out before him, ' How 
shall I curse, whom God hath not cursed ? . , . 
Who can count the dust of Jacob, and the number 
of the fourth part of Israel?'* Balak at once 

' Renan. i:iudcs <tHht. Rilig. (858, p. 307. 

' Carpenter, Miiitai Physiology, p, 313. 

' \iiughan, Haiin nith thi Mysliis, ii. i6i. 

sees that Balaam's oracle is conditioned by the 
splendid spectacle of the forces of Israel, and 
says, ' CoRie, I pray thee, with me unto another 
place, from whence . . . thou shalt see but the 
utmost part of them, and shalt not see them all : 
and curse me them from thence.' But even from 
this next station Balaam saw the tribes, and as he 
looked ' the Spirit of God came upon him,' and 
he foretold yet more distinctly the magnificent 
future of Israel. 

There was, then, a relation between what was 
seen by the ecstatic and the content 6f his utter- 
ance ; but there was also a relation between the 
character of the prophet and the genuineness and 
validity of his prophecy. What the prophet's 
message was, depended upon what he himself was. 
The prophet was not merely repeating words that 
God had put into his mouth. The Divine element 
might be there according as the prophecy was true 
or false ; the human element was sure to be there. 
But in the false prophet the determining factor 
was the desire to speak smooth things and 
pleasant things, as welt as to secure his own com- 
fort, In the true prophet the moral element pre- 
dominated, and he spoke what he felt to be right, 
regardless of comfort or consequences. It is not 
necessary to suppose that the false prophet was 
intentionally false. But his character was not 
suRiciently strong to bear the strain the prophetic 
calling put upon it. Ezeklel goes so far as to say 
that the Lord Himself has deceived that prophet;* 
the meaning being that if a prophet allows himself 
to be enticed and enters into the purposes of the 
people, saying 'Amen' to their plans, the Lord 
leaves that man alone in his foolishness' that both 
the prophet and the people he had deluded may 
perish together.* This fact, that the character of 
the man affected by the ecstasy determined the 
nature and moral value of the vision he saw, was 
also noticed by the Arabs of the time of Moham- 
med. As they expressed it, a weak man had a bad 
ginn, while a strong healthy man had a good ginn? 


• I-l/k u'. 

* A. B. Davidson, EMiid, Introduction, p. \x\v ; Schulli, 
0. T. Theol, i. 261 J .Smend, AltUst. Rtlig.'^, 144, 

' Sprcnger, op. lU. i. 222. 

= h, Google 


€it ^roofofJ Qlet of '^erueafem' in t^t 
Eucan TDriitngg. 

Bv J. Vernon Bart let, M.A., Mansfield College, Oxford. 

To begin with the phenomena in Luke's Gospel, 
as the simpler, we find that out of 31 instances 
Jerusalem occurs in the Hebraic form ('UpovtraX^n) 
in 27, and in the Hellenic ('Upovo^v/ia) only in 4, 
namely 2^^ 13*'' 19^ 13^, When we analyze them, 
these four cases seem due to the final author of 
this Gospel. Thus 2'*, 'they brought Him (the 
infant Jesus) up to Jerusalem, to present Him'to 
the Lord,' is the first reference to the Jewish 
capital in the worlt, and so it naturally appears in 
the form familiar to Gentile readers. In marked 
contrast to this, the five remaining cases of the 
name in the chapter present Jerusalem under the 
Hebraic form (jSs.m. «. *3. 4S. j ggg below). The 
next case, 13^, is a purely objective topographical 
note, touching Jesus' progress as He 'journeyed 
on towards Jerusalem'; similarly 19^, 'and when 
He had thus spoken, He went on before, going up 
to Jerusalem ' — a verse which simply reminds the 
reader of the course already indicated more than 
once (and may be suggested by Mk 11'). The 
last instance, 33^, is the verse which states that 
Pilate, 'when he knew that He was of Herod's 
jurisdiction, sent Him unto Herod, who himself 
also was at Jerusalem in these days.' lerosoliinia, 
then, seems so far Co be Luke's own word when 
writing freely for his readers as Gentiles. And 
when we pass to Acts the same holds good. 
Thus it is this form which hrst meets us in the 
preface linking Acts to the Gospel, in the words, 
' He charged them not to depart from Jerusalem ' 
( I*) ; whereas the next 1 1 occurrences of the name 
(i^-T fin.) exhibit the Hebraic form. 

But, granting that the Hellenic form is that 
which Luke naturally uses when telling a plain 
tale to his Gentile readers (without regard to the 
original ' atmosphere ' of the actors), what causes 
can be suggested for the frequent emergence of 
the Hebraic form? This happens in the Gospel 
27 limes out of a total of 31, and in Acts 36 times 
out of some 59. As regards the Gospel, the fact is 
the more noticeable in that the Hebraic form 
never occurs in any other Gospel save in the 

solitary case of Mt 23*" — the sad apostrophe : 
'Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets* 
( = Lk 13**). Here there is an emotional reason 
for the persistence of the more Hebraic form, the 
city being addressed as the hearth of Hebrew 
religion; that is, it is regarded strictly from the 
Jewish or theocratic standpoint. Speaking broadly, 
then, we may say that the habitual occurrence of 
this form in Luke's Gospel is due to the strong 
tradition (oral or written in parts), charged with 
Hebrew sentiment, into which Luke felt himself 
to have entered in telling the Gospel story, and 
which controls his style even in certain objective 
topographical notices where the context is full of 
Hebraic feeling (see «^. l^^^ i^^^-''^-). This pro- 
bably explains the habitual use of the Hebraic 
form in Lk 1-3 (after 2*'), as explained above. A 
special case is the phrase, 'Judaea and Jerusalem,' 
always found in the Hebraic form (5" 6''). 

The like holds good in Acts, though the pro- 
portions of the two uses are greatly modified by 
the change in the narrative, and by the author's 
freer hand in telling his story. Thus in the long 
section, 1^-7 fin., dealing with the early history 
of the Jerusalem Church, the Hebraic form alone 
appears, and that in cases where there is almost 
certainly no question of a written source {e.g. i^* 
3' 6'', cf, 9™- ^). Here what one seems to recog- 
nize is the instinctive adjustment of the writer's 
language to the spirit of the situation — a feature in 
our author which becomes plainest in his self- 
identification with the standpoint of bis speakers 
and their audiences. This psychological or sym- 
pathetic cause of our author's departure from his 
own usage, and that the one most familiar to his 
readers, alone explains many cases in speeches 
by Jews and to Jewish hearers, where the Hebraic 
form occurs apart from any probable use of a 
written source. Among such cases I would 
reckon 9"- 21 and 22" (in contrast to sS*-^"-^) 
in parucular. But these cases of direct speech do 
not seem to exhaust the inateriaL 1^^^>^^ ^^^ 
virtual quotations or statt^enis Vmotlip which 


naturally suggest the use of the Hebraic form. 
To the former variety may belong 9' 15* (in 
contrast to 15') as*; to the latter, 8*" (though 
it may be a case of assimilation to the quotation of 
angelic words in 8™). 

If now we include the possibility of written 
sources as a factor, such a variety of possible 
explanations of the Hebraic form leaves a certain 
number of cases on the border between two, e.g. 
jia jS, 14 1,2. 2! 1 ji5 (which is textually suspected). 
But, even though it clearly has the effect of making 
more doubtful the actual use of written sources in 
some cases, it has a most important bearing on 
authorship. Forthe GreeWwho fell so instinctively 
into the standpoint and spirit of the Jews whose 
words and motives he reproduces, can hardly have 
been other than a man who had mingled in the 
life of those whose experiences and feelings he 
thus sympathetically reflects. On the other hand, 
he must have been a man of wonderfully fine 
literary and historical sense, as regards his imagin- 
ative realization of what he relates. For the shades 

of distinction which we seem to have found to lie 
behind Luke's twofold use of 'Jerusalem' are 
totally absent from the Gospel of Mark, and are 
hinted at only in one passage in our Matthew, and 
that a Logian passage of deep patriotic pathos — 
Christ's lament over the city of the Promises 
(23*^. Elsewhere the evangelists, including the 
fourth, are content to use the Gentile form in a 
plain, matter-of-fact way, in addressing their Greek 
or at least Hellenistic^ readers. 

> It U interestbg la note Ihat in a Hellenistic (Cbristian) 
interpoUlion in the Teilamenls ef the Tackt Patriarchs 
we get the Hebraic funn and not the pure Hellenic one: 
Test. Dan, S, to' oiiKin Irwciiim 'ItpovniMiii ^p-/unMtr, oiit 
alXM^^-'^l^trai 'tirpai\ (cf. Lrvi^ fauim). Here the city ii 
used, not in & geogiaphicnl but in a quasi -personal or col- 
lective human seme — a sense ftnali^oas 10 otie of the Pauline 
uses, that in Gel 4»'-; cf. He la", Rev 3" 21''°, and 
Tal. Dan, 5, vat ^rt r^i wia% 'Ic/HuraXiTt' «'fb)Wi>04<n»'Ta( 
Si«(u«. On the dual I'Buline usage, analogous to the 
Lucan, see Deissmann, Bible Studies, 316 n. The religious 
use of the name persists in 1 Clem, ili, z, sacrifice being ir 
'lepDwraXflB /lirp. . _ > , 



ASSYRIA. Bv Ross G. MuRtsos, M.A., B.U. 
(T. &' T. Clari: liino, pp. 116. 6d.) 
Here is a scholar's estimate of the place of 
Assyria and Babylonia in history, and it is written 
in language of schoolbook simpUciiy. Mr. Muri- 
son has studied his subject as if for a work of 
exhaustive magnitude. He gives a selection of 
authorities, without parade, but instructive. No- 
where can the beginner begin better than here. 

TORAL EPISTLES. By the Rkv. J. P. Lil.i.ey. 

M.A. {T. ii' T. Clark. Crown 8vo, pp. 161. as. 6d.) 

It is highly instructive to compare this Com- 
mentary on the Pastoral Epistles with the one by 
Dr. Horton, recently published. How two men 
can travel the same road and never see one 
another is instructive to obsen-c. Mr. Lilley is 
so serious, Dr. Horton is so gay. Not a point 

will Mr. Lilley pass, the more difficult the more 
determination ; Dr. Horton trips from grammar 
to Church government, and has not his mind made 
up on this, and does not think that worth half the 
dust it raises. In the end it is hard to say which 
gives us the best commentary. We only know 
which we should consult when perplexed and 
which we should read when downhearted, 

B*u., LL.D. ir. &• T. C/ari: Ciowti Svo, pp. 3z8. 
I 4s. 6d.) 

I Dr. Ball has two rare gifts. He is a discoverer 
. and a writer. Only a Tew men have been both : 
' Livingstone in nature and Ramsay in literature 
I occur as notable. Dr. Ball discovered the place 
1 that Roman law and custom have in the Epistles 
I of St. Paul. And when he first came forward 
I with his discovery in the pages of the CoH/em- 



of the New Testament. His book before us has 
other discoveries besides that, and every discovery 
is made known by the same unconscious skill — 
the touch of nature, in literature as in life, that 
makes the whole world kin. For example, what 
is less likely to catch the ordinary reader's interest 
than the 'New Testament quotation of uncanoni- 
cal Scripture ' ? Vet surprise that there is such a 
thing in the New Testament leads to surprise that 
it is there so fully, and to further surprise that it 
rules the writer's thought so mightily. At last 
we feel that it is hopeless to understand the New 
Testament Scriptures without this key. 

GOD'S GENTLEMEN. By thb Rev. R. E. Welsh, 
M.A. {Allcnian, Crown 8vo, Second Kditiou, pp. 
264. 3s. 6d.) 
The Essayist is understood lo be out of date. It 
is the gentle art in literature that is supposed to 
have been lost. Its flavour is held to be as un- 
discoverable as the pigments of the ancient 
illuminators. And there is truth enough in the 
complaint to make a volume of essays, even 
though their motive is so unmistakably religious, if 
(hey have somewhat of the ancient manner, highly 
delicious faring. The title comus from the third 
of the essays. It is not the author's choice. Had 
he been left to his own taste, he would surely have 
chosen the second essay both to introduce and 
(o name his book. Its title is 'A Medicated 
Memory.' For the book treats of the issues of 
life, not its rippled surfaces, and in its treatment 
never passes beyond the suggested outline, which 
stirs far more deeply than the filled-in and 
blackened picture. 


Bv Pbbcv Gardnbs, Litt.D. {.4. &■ C. B!a^k. 

Ciown 8vo, pp. 174. 6s.) 
This is the latest and frankest presentation of 
* unmiraculous Christianity. Dr. Percy Gardner 
is far beyond the place of those who tolerate 
Christ. He is the nearest possible lo those who 
worship Him. He cannot worship Him because 
of the Conservation of Energy. There is no room 
for miracle in this world, and therefore there is 
no room for God manifest in the flesh. Yet he 
labours earnestly to preserve the beauty and even 
the integrity of the character of Jesus. How 
marvellous a fact this is : that a man who has to 
Uke all the supernatural out of the New Testament 

can yet feel the unrivalled, almost divine, attrac- 
tiveness of the Jesus that is left. ' 1, if I be lifted 
up from the earlh,' He said (or is said to have 
said), ' will draw all men unto Me ' ; and is it not 
true 7 The book, which is the third series of the 
Jowett Lectures, is a popular rdsum^ of Dr. 
Gardner's volume, Exploraiio Evaiigelica. Its 
simplicity and sweet reasonableness will draw 
readers to the bigger, sliffer book. 

Dr. J. H. Lupton, the editor of More's Utopia, 
has discovered an anonymous but very aged 
English translation of Erasmus's Coitcio de Putro 
Jesu, and has reprinted it with introduction and 
notes (Bell, is, 6d.). The copy from which Dr. 
Lupton made his transcript is unique, and has 
since gone astray (through no fault of his). But 
besides that interest of rarity, the translation is 
a quaint bit of si)(teenthM:emury English. The 
notes are an English scholar's finest work. 

Under the auspices of the Church Service 
Society, Dr, Leishman has published a new edition 
of The IVcsttninster Directory (Blackwood, 4s. 
net), He tells the story of its origin in sympathetic 
fulness, and he prints its title-page as it appeared 
in the first English edition. Let us print it after 
him — 



Together with an Ordinance of Parlia- 
ment for the taking away of the Book of 
Common .Prayer 

For eslalii;=hing and observing of this preient Dirtclory 

tbrijughout the Kinj^dom of England and Dominion of Walfs. 

Dicjavi$, 13 Maria 1644. 

Ordered by the Lords and Commons assembled in 

Parliament, That this Ordinance and Directory bee 

forthwith Printed and Published : 

JOH; BkoWN, Clerk. ' H. ElsINGE, Clir. 

rarliamenlonim. Pea!. D. Com. 


Printed for liTaii Tyhr, AUxatidir Fijicid, Kalfh Smith, and 

Jo/iit I-'UIJ : And are lo be sold at the Si^n f^ f ^t i^ble 

in Cornhill, Dear the Royal Exchange, Wt^^ 


A, F. KiRKPATRiCK, D.D. (Cambridge; At the 
University Prtss. Fcap. 870, pp. cxii, 547-847. 29. 
The first thing to observe is the new arrangement 
of prices of the 'Cambridge Bible for Schools and 
Colleges.' They are all net prices now, and much 
less than before. This thick volume at is. is 
marvellous. The Commentary follows the man- 
ner and the spirit of the two volumes which pre- 
ceded it. Professor Kirkpatrick works on con- 
servative principles, and yet he is keenly alive to 
the spirit as well as aware of the results of modern 
critical scholarship. Now that it is finished, it is 
our most convenient, complete Commentary on 
the Book of Psalms. 

Rendbl Harris, M.A., D.Litt., LL,D. (Cam- 
briilge ; At the Univcrtiljr Press. Svo, pp. 184, with 
Two Plates. ) 
The Western Text is still the chief topic of 
interest among New Testament textual critics. 
And so Codex Bezre, its greatest representative, 
is still the most studied of all the uncials. We 
have seen Dr. Rendel Harris's delightful Study of 
Codex Bezie. We are not less charmed with his 
new book, a study not of the text of the Codex, 
but of its annotations and annoiators. He finds 
that there was a whole series of annotators, who 
worked on the MS. from the ninth century to the 
twelfth, and he thinks it probable that, while they 
worked, the MS. lay in some S. Italian Church or 
monastery. In the course of his investigation he 
comes upon the matter of Sacred Lots, and 
digresses thereon in most instructive and enter- 
taining fashion. 

An old well-thumbed favourite is The Child's 
Bible, with its clear, large type, and its hundred 
full-page illustrations. Messrs. Cassel] have re- 
issued it, more handsomely than ever. The 
twelve coloured plates are highly attractive. But 
the whole book is an artistic success (crown 410, 
pp. 620, 10s. 6d.). ___^ 

M'Fadven, M.A. [Clarie. Feap. 8vo, pp. 382. 

Professor M'Fadyen of Knox College, Toronto, 
may be proud to have a hand in the series called 

' The Messages of the Bible,' but the editor of the 
series was as proud to receive this volume from 
his hand. He has worked through the historical 
writings in the Old Testament from Genesis to 
Esther, and made them read as modern history. 
This is literally to treat the Bible as any other 
book, and the Bible does not suffer from the 
treatment. Here is a specimen of Mr. M'Fad)en's 
translations : it is the song of Isaiah in z K 19"-* 
— the taunt'Song, as Mr. M'Fadyen calls it, uttered 
against Sennacherib; he translates its substance 
only — 

With scornftil laughter Zion's daughter greets thee, 
Thee who hasl blasphemed Ismel's holy God. 
Proudly thou boaslesi no land can resist theei 
Though all the while ihou art but Jahweh's tool. 
Walking His ancient purpose on ihe naiioos. 
Yea, all thy doings arc before mine eyes, 
And for Ihy rage and insolence I'll tame thee — 
Hook in Ihy nose and bridle in thy lips — 
And bring thee Inck the very way thou earnest. 

EXODUS, Edited by A. R. S. Kennbdy. 
{Dtnl. lamo. M.) 
The second volume of The Temple Bible is 
edited by Professor Kennedy. It flatly contradicts 
the first volume, which was edited by Professor 
Sayce. And that not merely in repudiating the 
Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, but in 
regarding it as having come into being through a 
wholly different set of causes, and as expressing 
a wholly different idea of God's Providence. The 
difference between the first two volumes of this 
beautiful edition of the Bible may fairly be counted 
a gain, and not a loss, at least by those who do 
not consider the problem of the authorship of 
the Pentateuch quite settled yet. Dr. Kennedy's 
notes are the terse expression of the most accurate 


E. Palcravb. {DetU. Crowo Svo, pp. 330, with 

Portraits. 4s. 6d. net.) 

' April 7. — Being Easler^day I got up very early,. 

when I had first blessed God as soon as I awoke : 

when drest, I retired, and when I had read in the 

Word, I meditated for a great time upon the 

sufferings of my Saviour; and when I had warmed 

my heart by the consideration of His love I went 

to prayer. I did earnestly beg of God to seal 

unto me, in the sacrament, the assurance of my 

everlasting condition ; then went to church, where 


I heard Mr. Ken preach ; his text was i John iii. 3 : 
" And every man that hath this hope in him 
purilieth himseU, even as He is pure." 1 was very 
attentive at the sermon, and moved by It ; when 
sermon was done, I found my heart exceedingly 
to long after the blessed feast : my heart was 
much carried out to bless God, and I had there 
such sweet communion with Him that I could say 
it was good to be there.' 

That is Lady Warwick with her own soul. Let 
us look at her relations with others — her husband 
will do best of alt : ' After supper ray lord, being 
passionate, provoked me to a dispute with him, 
wherein though I was by God's mercy kept from 
saying anything unfit to say to him, yet he was 
very bitter, and I was affected and troubled at his 
unkindness and wept much, yet did not come 10 
any quarrel with him, but was troubled both at my 
folly in entering into a dispute with him, though I 
was in the right, and at my shedding tears, which 
1 thought nothing deserved so much to have them 
shed for as my sins.' 

The story of this life was surely worth telling. 
It has been told most pleasantly. No effort is 
made at description. The life is left to tell itself, 
especially as revealed in the Diary. The Diary is 
found in many manuscript volumes in the British 
Museum. The service that has been rendered by 
this book to literature and to devotion is most 
real and thankworthy. 

The yearly volumes that issue from Drummond's 
Tract Depot in Stirling are The British Messenger 
(is. and is. 6d.), TAt Gospel Trumfet{(>A. and is.), 
and Good News (4d. and 5d.). 

Messrs. Eyre & Spottiswoode have published 
the second edition of The Student's Handbook to 
the Psalms (crown 8vo, pp. 470, 6s.), with a memoir 
of the author, the late Dr. John Sharpe, written 
by Dr. Sinker. It tells us all that was known and 
understood about the Psaher before the criticism 
of the Old Testament began, arranging its in- 
formation clearly, and not forgetting that the real 
use of the Poalter is its religious use. 

Of the many ways of studying the Epistles of St. 
Paul, the one most pleasing to the apostle himself 
is no doubt that which is followed by Dr. E. W. 

Bullinger in The Church Epistles (Eyre & Spottis- 
woode). For he seeks to reach Christ through 
them, Christ in all His fulness of grace and iruih, 
and refuses to wait or waste his time over matters 
of date or distance. The ' Church Epistles ' are 
Romans to Thessalonians. Their relation to one 
another is made out, but chiefly their relation to 

SAMUEL AND HIS AGE. Bv G. C. M. Dougi^s, 
D. D. (£yre &- Spmiisweodt. Crown 8vo, pp. joo, 
It is perfectly well known that Dr. Douglas, the 
Principal of the Glasgow United Free College, is 
not a Higher Critic. It is perfectly well known 
that he distrusts and dislikes the Higher Criticism 
of the Old Testament with all his heart. Never- 
theless, he is an accomplished and most courteous 
opponent. When he publishes, he publishes what 
will never make him ashamed, though the Higher 
Criticism should triumph to-monow. His sym- 
pathy, in spite of his scholarship, is with the 
unlearned reader of the Bible. Under the new 
methods so much seems lost, and all seems topsy- 
turvy. He believes that the traditional order 
is the best for science. But for religion it 
seems the only order that escapes confusion. 
So in this volume he reads the story of Samuel 
as our fathers read it, and he finds it good for 
instruction and for edification to our fathers' 
children. _^_^__ 

THE AGE OF FAITH. By Amorv H. Bbadford, 
D.D. (Gay &' Bird. Crown Svo, pp. 306.) 
In this quite impressive volume of thco1<^icaI 
papers Dr. Amory Bradford recognizes that the 
age of authority has given way to the age of faith. 
There are those who say that the age of authority 
has been succeeded by the age of unbelief (which 
often is called science). It is not so. Faith never 
was more general or more intense. When a man 
knows, as most men know now, that he must 
believe for himself, facing the Unseen without 
intervention, he finds faith easy. It is then not 
how little may I get on with, but how much can I 
receive out of the Divine fulness? This is the 
age of faith, and it will be so more and more as 
books so reasonable yet so religious as this are 
read. Take the chapter on Sin. It is not a 
subject for theolc^ical philosophy, it is a state of 
personal loss and enmity and unrest 



Bv R. B. Drummond, B.A. (Creeti. is. nel.) 
The five discourses which make up this little 
book are described as expository ; and correctly 
SO. It might even be said that the volume just 
contains the exposition of a certain number of 
Chiistological texts. Their exposition is able, 
thorough, and fair. It is true that, after all the 
pros and cons are balanced, the scale falls regularly 
on the Unitarian side. A Trinitarian would find 
it fall the other way. Whence it follows that it is 
not by texts but by good works that the doctrine 
of the Trinity is proved. 

LETTERS ON LIFE. By Claudius Clear. {ffa^J^r 
&• Sloughlen. Ccowo 8vo, pp. 177. 3s. 6(1.) 
What is it that lifts these out of the mass of 
newspaper articles and makes them worth repub- 
lishing? They seem to be all of the hour; they 
seem to handle matters of passing moment—not 
of occurrence perhaps, but of thought. Is it their 
expression? It is partly that. For the expression 
is somewhat singular. Not that it is old-fashioned 
or odd, as if it sought to introduce a Quaker to 
our streets in coat of leather and shoe-buckles. 
Its singularity is in its weight of feeling. The 
words are alive, they breathe, they sometimes 
heave with pressure of emotion. The expression 
has something to do with it. But the expression 
is not all. These letters, which touch mere 
matters of the passing hour, touch them from 
beneath. The passing hour is part of eternity. 
The moment's interest is undying. They seem 
sometimes superficial things; it is only because 
they are on the surface, and it is the surface of a 
great deep that surges with issues in which all 
men are involved. 

Walkbr. Edited by D. Hav Flkminc, {Hodder 
&• Staughlan. Svo.Two Vols., pp.407, 164. 851. neL) 
Who was Patrick Walker? Mr. Crockett says 
he was a pedlar ; Mr. Hay Fleming says be was 
not Mr. Crockett calls him 'the pedlar 'through- 
out, as if peddling were his only undisputed occu- 
pation ; Mr. Hay Fleming believes that the whole 
foundation for his being a pedlar is the metaphor 
about 'a pack to pin' in this sentence of his 
opponent, Andrew Harley: 'As long as we had a 
pack to pin we were not troubled with him, but 
when his means went from him he became a 

vagrant person, vrithout a calling, and wandered 
through the country gathering old stories.' Now 
as Mr. Crockett writes the Foreword to this 
edition of Patrick Walker's Six Saints, and as Mr. 
Hay Fleming writes the Introduction and edits 
the volume, what is the unlettered and ignorant 
reader 10 do? 

Why should we read Patrick Walker? Because 
of his style, say both Mr. Crockett and Mr. Hay 
Fleming. And they both give reasons, and even 
examples. This is Mr. Crockett's example : ' After 
a certain Mr. Barclay has defected from the par- 
ticular section of the Covenantmen to whom this 
hery-tender pedlar and ex-prisoner of the Lord 
pertained, Patrick Walker thus lays him out for 
decent burial: "After that expedition was over, 
Mr. Barclay said he had some business at Edin- 
burgh, but would shortly return and take part with 
them ; but when he came to the witty lown-warm 
air of Edinburgh, the heat of the summer of 1685 
being over, the tables better covered, the chambers 
warmer, and the beds softer than the cold hills 
and dens of Carrick and Galloway, or the watery 
mosses and bogs of cold Calder Muir, he forgot to 
fulfil his promise, and suffered them to shift for 
themselves." If,' says Mr. Crockett, ' to do such 
things easily and naturally be not style, I do not 
know what style is.' 

But why should we read him? Not surely 
because, as Mr. Hay Fleming tells us, ' his pages 
are always racy' and 'his epistles pithy'; not 
surely because, as Mr. Crockett tells us, ' according 
to his subject, Patrick laments in the language of 
Jeremiah the Prophet ; he denounces like the 
Book of the Revelation ; he is bitter as the 
Rutherford of Lex Jiex ; tender and sweet as the 
Rutherford of Joshua Redivivus, that mysteriously 
named collection of familiar letters.' No. Style is 
good, but truth is better. We read Patrick Walker 
because he wrote the lives of six Saints of the 
Covenant, and, in spite of all his detractors, seems 
to have laboured to get hold of the truth. 

it may be that much of what Patrick Walker 
writes does not look like truth. And that con- 
demns it at once in the eye of the modern critic 
and historian. All that is ancient must now be 
tested by verisimilitude. The question ever asked 
is, Is it likely? As if the unlikely never did 
happen by any chance or wonder in this world. The 
very Gospels are tested ^ Js iLli^'ly ^l**' J""* 
said, ' I and the Father are One ' ? h it likely 



that Jesus cried, 'Lazarus, come forth'? And then, 
because it is not likely, the critic forthwith pro- 
nounces that Jesus eertaMy never did say or do 
such things. Patrick Walker has suffered in good 
society. Mr. Hay Fleming says that wherever 
Patrick Walker's statements are due to his own 
observation, they may be taken as absolutely truth- 
ful; that his dates are, 'on the whole, amazingly 
correct,' and even his quotations fairly accurate. 

It was an excellent service to render us, therefore, 
to print and publish Patrick Walker's Six Saints; 
and that it was done so handsomely makes the 
obligation deeper. 

Messrs. Longmans have published an anony- 
mous (unless 'A. B. B.' is Bishop Barry) selec- 
tion of comments on the Songs of Degrees from 
Neale and Littledale's Commentary (is. net), 

Messrs. Longmans have also published a revised 
edition (being the eighth) of Mr, Balfour's Founda- 
tions of Belief (6s.). Besides new matter through- 
out (which is always distinguished by square 
brackets), it contains an introduction of thirty 
pages and a summary of twenty pages. Both are 
useful. In the introduction Mr. Balfour explains 
his object in writing his book. For he has found 
it often misapprehended. He says, for example : 
'Awell-known theologian (who, by the way, has him- 
self completely failed to catch my general drift) ob- 
served in a review, which he has since republished, 
that the book is redeemed by its digressions.' 
A footnote tells us that the theologian is Principal 
Fairbairn. The notes also correct misapprehen- 
sions, sometimes with refreshing vigour. Mr. 
Frederic Harrison described a certain sentence 
in the book as a ' coagulated clot of confusions 
and misstatements.' Mr. Balfour is astonished 
no less at Mr. Harrison's ' wrath ' and ' ill- 
humour' than at his 'elegant language,' and 
does not withdraw the 

Messrs. Macmillan have undertaken the publi- 
cation of a new edition of Thackeray, and 
Vanity Fair (3s. 6d.) is out. The great novel is 
found in one quite convenient volume, with all the 
author's illustrations, for the paper is just thin 
enough not to be transparent, the printing is a 
good fair size and very clear, the binding is 
original and most successful. It is an edition to 
do credit even to this publishing house, and not 

likely to be surpassed until they surpass it with a 
cheaper and better themselves. 


HoRT, D.D. {Marmillan. Crown 8vo, pp. 173. 

4». 6d.) 
Few men pubhshed less than Dr. Hort when 
he lived ; few men have had more of their works 
pubhshed after death. But we will buy and study 
every word that is published of Dr. Hort's, and 
never cease to thank Mr. J. O. F. Murray for his 
diligence. This volume contains a short course 
of lectures. It therefore belongs lo the class of 
Dr. Hort's writings that are perfectly lucid and 
popular. It gives us all we need to know about 
the 'Recognitions' before we read them, and 
much and further information regarding the 
Clementine literature in general. Mr. Murray 
has added some valuable notes, partly due to 
new discoveries. 

'The Enclisk Thbolocical Library' by C. H. 
SlMPKlNSON, M.A. {Macmillan. 8vo, pp. 508. 
los. 6d.) 
Mr. Rclton, who edits 'The English Theological 
Library,' has passed his numerous rival editors of 
old English theology in selecting writers that are 
really of paramount value, and deserve all the 
labour bestowed upon them. It is not what is 
popular and will sell, not what others edit, that he 
has selected and got edited ; it is what has pur- 
pose and value for to-day, what has in it the 
exposition of everlasting truth, the exposure of 
perpetual error. Then the special editors are so 
carefully chosen that thus far there has not been 
a miss or a mishap ; every volume is a classic, and 
every volume has been edited so as to make it as 
fit as possible for our use. In all respects this 
volume maintains the reputation acquired by its 
predecessors. This series will more and more be 
recc^nized as distinct from all others in workman- 
ship and worth. ■ 

Clifford, F.R.S. Euitkd by Lkslib Stbphepj 
AND Sir Frederick Pollock. {IHarmillan. Globe 
Evo, Two Vols. IDS.) 
Professor Clifford's Lectures and Essays are 
published in the 'Eversley' Series, which will 
induce even those who do not know Professor 



Clifford or do not believe in his thoughts to 
buy them. We do not believe in his thoughts 
when they pass the bounds of physical science. 
It is true that beyond the bounds of ph<->ical 
science he had no thoughts, he did not believe 
that there was anything to think about. But he 
said that no one else had any thoughts, and it is 
there that we do not agree with him. But in 
these volumes Professor Clifford is mostly within 
the sphere of the physical. And what a mastery 
of simple exposition he had when he found 
a sympathetic audience, and had his favourite 
' Atoms ' or the like in hand ! A mastery he had 
of the English tongue, or at least that part of it 
that has to do with the things of the earth ; and 
a great catching enthusiasm. As a teacher, who 
could excel him ? And, now that the voice is still, 
these beautiful volumes will bring delight to a far 
larger audience than ever was reached by the 
living voice. 

In the first volume the essays or lectures are on : 
(i) Some of the Conditions of Mental Develop- 
ment; (a) Theories of the Physical Forces; (3) 
The Aims and Instruments of Scientific Thought ; 
{4) Atoms; {s)The First and the Last Catastrophe ; 
(6) The Unseen Universe; (7) The Philosophy of 
the Pure Sciences. It is introduced by a biography 
and a selection from his tetters. The second 
volume is more debatable and even doubtful : 
Body and Mind; On the Nature ofThings in Them- 
selves; On the Scientific Basis of Morals; Right 
and Wrong, the Scientific Ground of their Distinc- 
tion ; The Ethicsof Belief ; The Ethics of Religion ; 
The Influence on Morality of a Decline in Religious 
Belief; Cosmic Emotion; and Virchow on the 
Teaching of Science. 


Kenvon. {Macmillan. Svo, pp. 321. lOi, nel.) 

Quite recently we had Dr. Nestle's Introduction, 
much the same in size as this volume. But this 
is 00 repetition or superfluity. Rather is it sur- 
prising how completely Nestle and Kenyon have 
worked on separate lines, not intending to do so, 
but because their studies have lain apart. Nestle 
deals with the text itself, discussing many pas- 
sages with minuteness; Kenyon deals with the 
conveyance of the text, giving rich and luminous 
information regarding the manuscripts and the 
versions. Thus both are needed, for both are 

masters in their special way and able to say the 
final word at any moment. We do not mean that 
they never cross; we do mean that they are so 
surprisingly separate that no student of the New 
Testament can take the one and say it will do 
for the other. 

Perhaps the most interesting part of Dr. Ken- 
yon 's book is, after all, the part wherein it 
approaches Dr. Nestle's book most nearly. It is 
the eighth chapter; its subject, 'The Textual 
Problem.' It is a wonderfully clear account of 
all the types of text and the reasons why West- 
cott and Horl's have won the day. Its examina- 
tion (and rejection) of Professor Blass's theory, 
in particular, is s.o masterly that it covers the 
whole ground within a page or two, never loses 
a point, and leaves a most distinct impression. 
Altogether, the science of textual criticism is 
immensely enriched by the publication of thb 
volume, which has succeeded in appealing with 
equal effect to the beginner and to the scholar. 
The sixteen plates increase its usefulness, espe- 
cially with the beginner, for whom the book is 
really written. Let the beginner begin with it 
rather than with a smaller, drier book. 

ArtmorKenyon Rogers, Ph.D. {Macmillaa. 8vo, 
pp. 516.) 
Professor Refers of Butler College is already 
known to literature by his Brief Introduction to 
Modern Philosophy. In a preface to the present 
work he frankly and modestly explains his pur- 
pose. He writes for the ordinary student taking 
his college course, who wishes to get up as much 
philosophy as he can in that time, and if possible 
understand what he gets up. So he writes un- 
technically, — as untechnically as the subject allows, 
— emphasizes the most influential philosophers, 
and, wherever it is possible, lets every writer give 
his own ideas in his own words. Of Socrates 
he says : 'In spite of his insistence upon his own 
ignorance, no one can be more thoroughly con- 
vinced that there is absolute truth, and that this 
truth is attainable by man. It is moral truth, 
however, not scientific or metaphysical. " This 
is the point in which, as I think, I am superior 
to men in general, and in which I might, perhaps, 
fancy myself wiser than other men — that whereas 
I know but little of the world below, I do not 
suppose that I know. But I do know " — and this 



suggests the positive side — "that injustice and 
disobedience to a better, whether God or man, is 
evil and dishonourable, and I will never fear nor 
avoid a possible good rather than a certain evil." 
The moral scepticism of the sophists is entirely 
foreign to him.' 

Professor Rogers has more interest than some 
philosophers in theology. His account of the 
' Religious Period ' of philosophy is useful, in 
spite of its brevity, and at any rate it is not mis- 
leading. Wisely, however, he has given his 
strength to the modern period, and by that he 
has made his book indispensable, at least to the 
student who is in a hurry. 

WHAT IS HEAVEN? Bv F. E. Marsh. (Afaniall 
Brothers. 9d.) 

What is Heaven 1 The best recent answer is 
Christina Rossetti's — 
liow know I thai it looms lovely, that land I have never 

With moming-glorin and heartsease and unenampletl 

With neither heat nor cold in the balm -red olenl air? 
Some of this, not all, 1 know ; but thi* is so— 
Christ it there. 
That is Mr. Marsh's answer also. 

Under the title of Looking unto Jesus the Rev. 
W, Milne, M.A., of Montreux, has written about 
some aspects of our Lord's life and work (Mar- 
shall Brothers, is. 6d.). 

Sunshine ought to succeed. Its name should 
be its fortune. But it is more than a name ; it is 
a cleverly edited magazine for boys and girls, 
published by Messrs. Marshall Brothers. 

THE SOUL'S ASCENT. Bv thb Rbv. F. B. Mevbr, 

B.A. {Haraii Marshall. Ctown 8vo, pp. 334, 

with Portrait. 3s. 6d.) 

This is the manual for the mission worker. It 

contains twenty-two mission addresses, arranged 

in order. That is to say, they begin with man 

just where the gospel begins with him — in the 

fearful pit and the miry clay. They carry him 

upward and onward step by step. They leave 

him when he is bearing much fruit. And every 

address is in the simple telling manner of this 

preacher, who has so often found men so, and left 

them so, as he has passed on his mission 


THE TRINITY. By R. F. Hobton, M.A., D.D. 
{Horace Marshall. Crown 8vo, pp. 30a, with Por- 
trait. 3s. 6d,) 
The Trinity is a bold title for a volume of 
ethical sermons. It is the bolder, too, that it is 
the title and professed subject of only one of the 
sixteen. Nevertheless, it is no haphazard and no 
foolhardy title. For Dr. Horton has worked 
these sermons on a plan. Ethical as they are, 
bearing directly on the daily life of men here 
below, they all have their roots in doctrine, and 
the doctrine from which they all derive is the 
doctrine of the Trinity. When Charles Kingsley 
discovered the doctrine of the Trinity, he 
wondered how he could ever have lived without 
it 1 it seemed to enter so far into every region of 
his religious life. So seems it with Dr. Horton. 
Unless these strong sermons are all in the air, 
it is puzzling to know how any man can live a rich 
religious life without the doctrine of the Trinity. 

Bv J. W. Grbgorv, D.Sc. (Horace Marshall, 
Crown Svo, pp. 393, with Maps and Illustrations. 
6s. net.) 
No novel can compete with a plain history 
of fact when the historian has the love of truth, 
the patience lo attain it, and the power to express 
it. Professor Gregory has all that. Then it 
does not need a great subject — though this is 
great enough surely, great in extent of territory 
and in reach of interest involved : it will be 
treated as a branch of human history, and be of 
interest to man and boy. We have rarely been 
so unexpectedly caught in the meshes of a book. 
Its matter-of-fact manner seemed lo promise too 
much information and too little emotion. But in 
Professor Gregory of the University of Melbourne 
is found a writer who can handle statistics so as to 
move to tears ; and here he has men of the highest 
type of heroism to deal with — General Lugard one of 
them. Let your boy read this book, and then keep 
him back from Uganda and heroism if you can. 


(^Horace Marshall. Crown Svo. 3s. 6d.) 

Two parts of this anonymous translation of the 
New Testament into modern English have already 
been received and noticed. The third part, con- 
taining the Pastoral and General Epistles, has 
now been issued (at is.), and the whole work 
published as above. 



It is a transtatioQ direct from the Greek, Weat- 
cott and Hort being the text fotlowed. It is done, 
we understand, by several hands, but the author- 
ship is not made pubUc. The aim is to present 
the most trustworthy text in the literary language 
of to-day. It is no revision, therefore ; it is a new 
translation. Nor is it a word-for-word translation. 
While nothing is omitted, a word or a phrase is 
often inserted to make the meaning clearer. But 
an example (taken from the new part), the fairly 
difficult first verses of i John, will explain — 

' Our subject is thai which wu in existence ai the Begin- 
ning, that which we have heard, thai which we have seen, 
that which we watched and touched — it treats of the Word 
who ii the Life. That Life was actual!; made visible, 
and we have seen, and now bear our testimony to, and tell 
you of, that enduring Life, which was with the Father, and 
was then made visible 10 us. It is, we repeal, of what we 
have seen and heard thai we have to tell you.' 

IN LEPER- LAND. By John Jackson. [Marshall 
Brothers. Crown 8i-o, pp. a8z. 33. 6d.} 

Leper-land is India. Mr. Jackson went seven 
thousand miles among lepers in that land. He 
wrote down his impressions, experiences, and even 
conversations. He look photographs. All is re- 
produced in this handsome and painfully interest- 
ing volume. 

The most interesting part of the volume is 
Mr, Jackson's account of his visit to Miss Mary 
Reed, the leper-missionary to lepers. That part 
is actually attractive, so beautiful is the personal 
character, so Christ-like the devotion, of this great 
missionary. For 'the tone and spirit of Miss 
Reed's life,' leper though she is, 'are the very 
reverse of melancholy. Her intervals of depres- 
sion are few and brief. The general tenor of her 
life for these ten years past is expressed in a 
sentence from one of her letters r " I find so much 
help and blessing in song, and from day to day I 
prove that faith, hope, love, work, and song cause 
sorrow to depart."' Mr. Jackson is almost as 
great an enthusiast in the leper cause as its own 
missionaries. Such a work needs a historian, 
and that is his choice — less heroic, perhaps, but 

profitable for our instruction. His vivid narra- 
tive never loses the impression of the strictest 


StuabT, M.A. (Morgan &• Seett. Crown Svo, pp. 

114. IS. fid.) 

Fourteen great mountains — great in the history 

of religion — each one familiar in our mouths as 

household words, are here turned to religious uses, 

their names, their appearance, their history, all 

being made to read us spiritual lessons and declare 

the glory of God. 

THE REFORMATION. By thb Rev. J. A. Babisg- 
TON, M.A. {Murray. Svo, pp. 372. 12s. net.) 
If the chief merit of a historian is found in his 
style, this will not be called a brilliant history. It 
is written after the manner of Mr. Freeman, not 
after the manner of Mr. Froude. And no doubt 
style, if it is distinctive, even if it is affected, 
does arrest the ordinary mind, and makes a 
book a popular success. But there are greater 
gifts than even style. The gift of impartiality is 
greater, the love of the truth is greater. Mr. 
Babington has not written without reflection. He 
has studied the whole course of the Reformation 
in Europe, and some parts of it with evident 
minuteness. He has put himself successfully 
beside the Reformers, and beside those who 
needed reform. He has moved throughout the 
movement as an impartial but sincerely religious 
spectator — an Erasmus with all the advantage of 
history behind him. And when he writes, he 
writes with perfect simplicity of thought and 
orderly arrangement If his book does not move 
to tears, it is because Mr. Babington has counted 
it his business to draw a full and faithful picture 
rather than excite emotion by strong partial colour- 
ing. He has, at the same time, the deepest sym- 
pathy with the Reformers and the Reformation. 
That it was a blessing, and how great a blessing it 
was, we see far more clearly in his truly historical 
pages than in any advocate's special pleading. 



^@ouf& t^i (^ui^oti^H (p»eton con^nue to 8e mti tn 
tl^ ^u6ftc ^ttvkte of i^ £$urc3?' 

Bv THE Rev. S, R, Driver, D.D., Regius Professor of Hebrew, Oxford. 

Phil. iii. zo, ai (A.V.) : ' For our conversaiion is 
in heaven; from whence also we look for the 
Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ : who shall change 
our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto 
his glorious body, accoTding to the working where- 
by he is able even to subdue all things unto him- 

The verses which I have just read, and which 
form part of the Epistle of to-day, afford two 
examples of the obscurity and error which have 
been introduced into the Authorized Version by 
changes which have passed over the English 
language since the dale, now nearly three 
centuries ago, at which it was made. We all 
know what 'conversation' is; but some perhaps 
even in this cathedral, and certainly many of the 
numbers who in different churches of our land 
have heard this Epistle read to-day, do not know 
that it means here something completely different 
— something which, without a knowledge of the 
original Greek, the most intelligent and painstaking 
reader would be powerless lo divine. 'Conversa- 
tion,' wherever it occurs in the Bible, never means 
what it means now, discourse; it means usually 
manner of life, behaviour, being a Latin repre- 
sentative of h/atrrfM^ (as in the words of Wesley's 
familiar anthem, 'So be ye holy in all manner of 
conversation ') ; and similarly in the O.T., where 
it stands for a word meaning ' way,' as in the Psalm 
which we have just heard : 'To him that ordereth 
his conversation right will I show the salvation of 
God.' In the text, however, it does not even 
conespond to dvoorpo^, but to another Greek 
word altogether, iroA('r«v/ia, and its meaning is 
either citizenship or, better, constitution, — so that 
the apostle's meaning is, the constitution or 
commonwealth to which we belong is a heavenly 
one ; heaven is the true country of which we are 
citizens. As it happens, the corresponding verb 
in the Greek occurs in an earlier part of the 
same Epistle (i*^, in the passage which in the 

^ The opening paragraphs of a sermon preached in the 
Calhedml, Oxford, on the Twenty-third Sunday after Trinity, 

Authorised Version reads, ' Only let your conversa- 
tion be as it becometh the gospel of Christ,' but 
in the Revised Version, ' Only let your manner of 
life be worthy of the gospel of Christ,' with the 
correct explanatory margin, 'behave as citizens 
worthily of the gospel of Christ.' It is again the 
same very su^estive metaphor of a heavenly 
citizenship which the apostle uses, but which, in 
the only version which our Church in its official 
capacity places in the hands of its members, — and 
at least in the Prayer-Book alone permits to be used, 
— is, except by a specially trained and educated 
minority, totally undiscoverable. 

The other word, the meaning of which has been 
changed by lime, is the word vile, — 'our vile 
body,' There are many places in the Bible in 
which viie is not meant to convey the idea which 
it now possesses of what is physically and morally 
detestable, but has simply the force of the Latin 
vilis, properly cheap, and then common, lightly 
esteemed, or at most looked down upon ; * and this, 
no doubt, is the sense which the Translators of 
1611 intended to express here; for the Greek is 
TavtivmrK, lowliness, low estate — as it is rendered 
in the Magnificat, ' the lowliness, or low estate, of 
his handmaiden'; and the contrast is simply 
between the lowly earthly body which we at 
present bear, and the future glorified body which 
has been made like unto the risen body of Christ. 

The two examples which my text has afforded 
are but specimens which might be almfist in- 
definitely multiplied, of cases in which — partly 
through the imperfect scholarshipof the seventeenth 
century, pardy through the changes which many 
English words have passed through since — the 
Authorized Version entirely fails to convey lo the 
reader of the present day the meaning of the 
original ; or even, where the word employed is not 
actually obsolete, does what is perhaps worse — 
suggests a wrong meaning altogether. Some of 
the commonest words in our language, such as 

' See Dt 2$' (''« s"™* Hebrew word is in I S 18" rt 
dered lightly esteenied) ; Job 40' [R.V. ant a/sB 
Jeris'*( = iv«ini'«); Laml". 




health, and wealth, and strange, and tempt, mean 
now something quite difTerent from what they did 
in 1611, and wherever they occur must, to most 
readers, suggest inevitably a false meaning. And 
there are other passages, probably still more 
numerous, and certainly including many important 
ones, the true meaning of which is never heard in 
our public services, on account of their being 
incorrectly rendered in the Authorized Version. 
A well-known but seriously mistranslated text 
occurred only two Sundays ago in the first lesson 
of the morning service (Dn 3^). ' Instances of 
mistranslation are roost frequent and glaring in 
the Epistles of the N.T. and in the poetical and 
prophetical books of the O.T., but they occur 
also often besides. Nor do they relate to points of 
merely antiquarian or philological interest ; they 
relate often to important points of Christian 
doctrine, and they frequently have the effect of 
obscuring an argument, and of blunting, or even 
destroying altogether, the force, and life, and ex- 
pressiveness of the word or figure employed by the 
biblical writer. Surely the time has come for these 
things to be changed. It surely needs no ai^ument 
to show that the Bible and Prayer-Book, which 
our Church places in the hands of its members, 
ought to be written throughout in a language 
' understanded of the people,' in a language which 
ordinary lay readers can follow and comprehend 
without difficulty. And the Bible, and not less the 
extracts from the Bible contained in the Prayer- 
Book, should also be placed in their hands in a trans- 
lation which is accurate and trustworthy. We 
live in a city in which there are many teachers and 
' The Speaker! Cetnmettlary, published now twenty-five 
yeois ago, makei here the required cotrection. 

tutors ; and it may be safely said that there is not 
a single teacher here who, if it were necessary for 
his pupils to read a work written in some foreign 
language, would recommend to them a translation 
which he knew to abound in inaccuracies and 
obscurities ; he would, we may be sure, if the 
work were an important one, take steps to provide 
a trustworthy translation himself Our Church, 
strange to say, seems to be less careful, less 
anxious, in making provision for an accurate 
knowledge of the Bible than any teacher of a 
secular subject would be. Else how comes it 
that it persists in withholding from the laity 
renderings which are confessedly the correct ones, 
and which in any commentary taken at random 
are without hesitation recognized as such ? It is 
surely a duty of the Church to take care that in 
all its public services the Bible should be read in 
the best translation which the scholarship of the 
day can provide, in a translation free from the 
defects which, arising from the causes that I have 
briefly indicated, so constantly make the Authorized 
Version, in spite of its inimitable literary excel- 
lences, obscure, inaccurate, and misleading. Is it 
too much to ask of the authorities of the Church 
that they should either sanction and encourage the 
public use of the Revised Version, or, if in their 
opinion this is not sufficiently good, that they 
should lose no time in taking measures to pro- 
vide a version which is better?* 

' The Bishops, it is right to »y, have Eanclioned the 
public use of the Revised Version, Ihough hilheilo, it is to 
be feared, with little efJect ; and the Convocation of the 
Province of Canterbury, which in 1870 norninatcd ihe 
original Revision Companies, has taken no action in the 

^S'tttnt Jforeijn ^feofogp. 

$ta6ia Before "iaUm.^ 

This pamphlet (35 pages long) forms part of a 
series of sketches published by the Vorderasiatische 
Gescllschaft with the title 'The Ancient East.' 
The author summarizes the history of the collec- 
tion and deciphering of Ihe S. Arabian inscriptions, 
^ AratiiMvr"-iUm Mam. Von Dr. Olto Weber. Williams 
& Norgale. 

and endeavours to put in an intelligible form the 
chief results of Sabtean studies. His style is 
lucid and easy ; he is thoroughly familiar with his 
subject, for which he has bad access to sources of 
information that are not yet open to the public 
It is well known that the animi cielesles engaged 
on the study of S. Arabian antiquities are not free 
from the tm which Vii^il thought incongruous in 
such cases. In Glaser's numerous and valuable 



works many hard words are to be found about Dr. 
H. Miiller, whom many regard as the first of 
Sabfean scholars; and, from the fact that Dr. 
Weber does not mention MiiHer in his list of 
authorities, the reader could immediately guess 
what side the author takes in the dispute between 
these eminent authorities. He is to be thanlced 
for having rendered the nature of Glaser's services 
clearer than previous statements have made them; 
and for attempting to rouse public interest in the 
collection of materials for the early history of 
Arabia which are still unprinted, and so to remove 
the obstacles (whatever they may be) which stand 
in the way of their publication. 

Readers of the first part of Glaser's History of 
Arabia and of Wincklei's History of Israel will be 
familiar with much of the matter that is summarized 
in this work; the statements which it contains have 
therefore ordinarily the authority of other investi- 
gators besides the writer, but it would be premature 
to say that they had universal assent. There is 
something unsatisfactory about conclusions of 
importance which are based on inaccessible 
documents, and the sooner all the sources of 
information are made public the sooner will the 
main points of disagreement between Sabsean 
scholars be settled. Meanwhile it is to be hoped 
that this pamphlet may be the means of encourag- 
ing many to start the study of the S. Arabian 
inscriptions. D. S. Marcoliouth. 


Z^t l^ources for t^t l^istors of 
JfcBue' €5ifb((oob.^ 

The substance of this learned but obscurely written 
and unpleasantly printed book is in brief as 
follows. It is argued .that the first two chapters 
of Matthew, with the exception of the genealogy, 
the journey to Egypt, the return, and the settle- 
ment in Nazareth ; and the first two chapters of 
Luke, with the exception of the preface, the 
Magnificat, and the story of the boy Jesus in 
the temple, are based on a common written 
source. Both evangelists handled this source 
with freedom, omitting, adding, and manipulat- 
ing according to need; Luke, however, going 

* Die Quelle der kanotiiiehen Kindhiilgtsdit'chle Jesus. 
Ein wissenschaltlicher VcTsuch. Von Ludwig Conrad. 
Gottingen : Vandenhoeck und Rupiecht, 1900. 

far beyond Matthew, with whose writing he 
was acquainted ; whilst Matthew epitomized 
and copied Luke to a considerable extent trans 
formed. They both agreed In rejecting the 
Doceiic teaching of the source, and both en- 
deavoured to adapt a narrative which was in the 
first instance heretical to the use of the orthodox 
Church. This source, which Resch has attempted 
to reconstruct in Hebrew and Greek out of the 
canonical Gospels and extra-canonical parallels, 
is found by Conrady in the apocryphon which 
is generally known as the Protevangelium of 
James. Its author was an Egyptian, very probably 
an Alexandrian, who was in the first instance a 
heathen, then a proselyte, and last of all a 
Christian of the Docetic type. As a Christian he 
still took deep interest in his earliest faith, and 
strove to effect a fusion of some of its elements 
with Christianity. In concert with the priests 
of Isis and Serapis, who are said (by our author) 
to have had holy places at Jerusalem and Bethle- 
hem, he aided with his inventive pen the appro- 
priation of these sacred sites by the Church. A 
form of the Isis-legend supplied him with much 
of his material. The leading actors in his 
narrative represent divine figures more or less 
associated with that part of the Egyptian Pantheon, 
Joachim and Anna, the parents of Mary, stand 
respectively for the earth.god Teb and the heaven- 
goddess Nut. Their child, Mary, is Isis. The 
aged Joseph is Tboth, ' the eldest who was at the 
beginning.' Zacharias is Sokari or Osiris. Eliza- 
beth, perhaps, represents the seven-homed Hathor, 
and her name, which might signify (according to 
our author) ' my goddess is seven,' might glance 
at the seven horns. Elizabeth's spinning scarlet 
reminds us of the description of Hathor as ' the 
mistress of the red veil.' Jesus, the child of Isis- 
Mary, is Hor-pi-chrud, Horus, or the sun. The 
birth of Jesus in the Protevangelium has for its 
basis a description of the sunrise. A person 
must be blind, we are told, not to see this. The 
Magi are really the solar baboons who greet the 
new-born sun. Now these baboons are represented 
as coming from the eastern region of Punt, the 
land of spices. So the Magi are said to have 
come from the East with offerings of frankincense 
and myrrh. The star which led them is the 
morning-star. The cruel Herod is the spiteful 
brother of Osiris, Set or Typho. It is true that 
Set was not known to the Egyptians as a child- 



murderer, but that little difficulty is brushed aside 
by a reference to the pseudo-evangelist's fancy. 
This, it may be remarked by the way, is an 
expedient repeatedly adopted by our author. 
When no analogy, however far-fetched, can be 
discovered for an incident or an expression, it is 
said to have been invented. Simeon, that is 
' hearing,' is Serapis, whom ' men at every lime 
call helper.' The lime at which the book was 
composed cannot be exactly fixed, but it may 
lie assigned with confidence to the reign of 
Hadrian. About lao a.d. is suggested as pro- 
bable. It was soon translated into Greek, very 
probably in Alexandria, by a countryman of the 
author, who had, like him, passed from heathenism 
through Judaism into the Christian Church. As 
the book in its Greek form speedily attracted 
great attention, it was soon utilized for the Catholic 
Church by the writers of the First and Third 
Gospels, which therefore cannof have been written 
until about or a little after the end of the first 
quarter of the second century. 

This extraordinary theory is supported by a 
great array of quotations and by a multitude of 
ingenious suggestions and bold hypotheses, but 
the reader's patience is severely taxed throughout 
the greater part of the volume by forced inter- 
pretations and fanciful conjectures and combina- 

The first and second sections, which treat 
successively of the existence of a source and of 
the relation of the canonical reports to the source 
said to have been discovered, abound in passages 
which shake the reader's confidence. The follow- 
ing are a few out of many which might be adduced. 
Apropos of the words of the angel, 'Thou shalt 
call His name Jesus ' and the following quotation 
from Isaiah (Mt i^''^''), it is suggested that 
Matthew, although acquainted with Hebrew, did 
not identify the name 'iTjaov^ as used by the 
angel with the VK^n'' or mr" of the O.T., but 
regarded it as a synonym of 'E^i/iaror^X. Is this 
in the least probable ? One acquainted, as Matthew 
must have been, with both the Hebrew text and the 
Septuagint, could not fail to identify 'Iijo-oCf with 
VKT, and would therefore not for a moment connect 
it with 'E/ifuivotnjX. The prophecy containing the 
latter name is no doubt cited as referring to the 
divine origin of the child to be born, not to the 
name given by the angel. The words in the same 

context, ' He shall save His people from their 
sins,' are thought to represent a mistranslation. 
The original Hebrew is supposed to have been 
Dri'KianD, which meant, in the writer's intention, not 
' from their sins ' but ' from sinners ' or ' the 
sinners against them.' Comment is needless. 
The attempt to find a common source for Matthew 
and Luke has led to the identification of the 
stargazing Magi with the shepherds tending their 
flock by night. The star which led the Magi was 
metamorphosed by the ingenious Luke into the 
angel who addressed the shepherds, and the other 
stars suj>plied the angelic host. It is hard to 
understand how this could be seriously pro- 
pounded. On p. 25 a remark of Strauss is 
approved, that the more wonderful a report 
the safer is the assumption that it was taken 
from a source. On p. 27 the piling up of wonders 
is said to be always a sign of a second hand. 
How can these positions be reconciled ? If the 
latter is accepted the secondary character of the 
Protevangelium cannot be questioned for a 
moment, and the theory of Conrady collapses. 
Were there nothing else in this part of the book 
open to criticism, this uncertainly on a point 
of the first importance in this department of 
research would justify want of confidence in the 
author's capacity to guide safely through so 
difficult a region. 

Of many points in the following portions 
which provoke dissent only three can be briefly 
discussed. That the original of the Protevan- 
gelium was written in Hebrew is improbable, at 
any rate on our author's theory. It may be 
allowed that a Palestinian Jew of the time of 
Christ writing for Jews might select Hebrew, but 
is it conceivable that an Alexandrian of the 
second century, of heathen origin and with strong 
heathen sympathies, would make use of that 
language when writing for Christians who were 
in the habit of using Greek or Aramaic ? 

Again, the early date assigned to the Prot- 
evangelium is not by any means proved. The 
Ignatian Epistles, which are said to betray acquaint- 
ance with the apjocryphon, were not improbably 
written before it. Harnack suggests as possible 
dates for them, 110-117 or 117-125 a.d. If the 
Protevangelium was written, as Conrady su^ests, 
about izo A.D., or a httle later in the reign of 
Hadrian, the probability of the use of a Greek 
version of it by Ignatius is exceedingly slender. 


And, even if he had known it, would he have 
made use of such a suspicious document tepTC- 
senting, according to our author, a form of 
teaching of which he strongly disapproved? The 
acquaintance of Justin also with the Protevan- 
gelium is not demonstrated, although its possibihty 
may be admitted. The reference to the cave is 
certainly not conclusive. The Palestinian Justin 
could easily obtain information of that kind from 
local tradition. In the present state of the 
evidence there seems to be no actual proof of 
the existence of any part of the Prolevangel 
before the end of the second century. The 
reference of Origen to a pi^Xw 'ItxKiifiov, which 
is not quite accurately reproduced by Conrady 
on p. 210, is most naturally interpreted as an 
allusion to the Prolevangel. In that case, as 
Origen elsewhere exhibits no acquaintance with 
the story of the death of Zacharias contained in 
our present text, Harnack's suggestion that he 
knew only chaps. 1-17, and that therefore 
the book as we have it was not compiled until 
after his time, seems highly probable. 

The date for the composition of Matthew and 
Luke, which follows from the theory, reminds the 
reader of some of the results of the now dis- 
credited Tubingen school. We are asked to 
believe that Matthew and Luke did not compose 
their Gospels until the beginning of the second 
quarter of the first century, or at the earliest 
at the end of the first quarter, and that they had 
no source for the greater part of their narratives 
concerning the birth of Jesus and the events 
which preceded it but the Proievangelium, written 
a few years previously. This view hardly needs 
refutation. It is entirely incompatible with the 
place taken by these Gospels in the latter part 
of the second century. 

Whilst, however, 'the scientific essay' must 
be pronounced a failure as to its main purpose, 
it is a valuable contribution to the study of an 
interesting apocryphon which has hitherto hardly 
received due attention from scholars, and contains 
much useful matter about the origin of Christian 
asceticism and some developments of Christian 
ritual. The collection of references to the birth 
and infancy of Jesus in the writings of Justin 
Martyr, which is much fuller than that in the 
Antilegoraena of Preuschen, also deserves grateful 
W. Taylor Smith. 

(gifsc^fs (Peeedge for tge (Df<tin 

This brief lecture is an eminently reasonable and 
sympathetic account of Ritschl's theology and its 
message for the plain man, Vischer undertakes 
to answer the question : What did Ritschl mean 
by evangelical Christianity? For one thing, he 
fought all his life against the idea that saving faith 
is submission to a number of dogmas or the ac- 
ceptance of a series of historical facts. In this 
he was not singular; but he was singular, Vischer 
holds, in the decisiveness with which he set forth 
the historical fact of Christ's Person as the indis- 
pensable, but sufficient, revelation of God. Our 
idea of God must start from Christ, not from 
nature. In Christ a life was realized and put 
within the reach of believers, which overcomes 
this hostile and refractory world, by making all our 
experiences subservient to a spiritual faith and 
spiritual ends. A good deal of attention is given 
also to Ritschl's quarrel with Pietism. His three 
grounds of complaint against that movement as a 
a whole were its negative and deficient conception 
of our active life and vocation in the world, its 
tendency to foster a lack of personal assurance, 
and its mystical familiarity with Christ. Vischer 
admits that Ritschl went too far in his aversion to 
Pietism, and in this verdict most people will agree. 
So brief a pamphlet could not well bring new 
material to the discussion of its theme ; nor can 
it be said in any substantial degree to relieve the 
ditiicuhies which friendly outsiders find in the 
Ritschlian system, especially, perhaps, in its 
Christology. But Vischer writes with a quiet 
earnestness and conviction, which will leave their 
mark on the candid reader. 

^c&feiermAc^er's Concei>tion of 


Huser's book is the kind of work which Germans 
do to perfection. He goes steadily through all 

' Alhreiht RilschU Amchauung von euangtlisihim 
GlaabtnunJ Lebttt. Von Ebeihaid Vischer, PtivBtdoienlen 
Aa Theologie in Basel. Tubingen : J. C. B. Mohr, 
London : Williams 4 Norgale. Price gd. net. 

' Die Enlwirklung des RiHgiambi^gs bti Schleiermathfr. 
Von Eugen Huber. Leipzig : Dieter ich'sche Verlagsbuch- 
handlnDg. London; Wiltiama & Norgate. 1901. 


Schleiermacher's extant writings, printed or in 
manuscript, and euhibtts in all iis fulness the de- 
velopment which is to be found in liis conception of 
religion. As he keeps strictly to the subject of liis 
inquiry, which has only to do with a particular 
theory of religion itigeneral, we hear disappointingly 
little of the great thinker's interpretation of Chris- 
tianity. But his Moravian training left its influence 
deep upon his thought, and it was thoroughly in 
accordance with the impression he received at 
Niesky and Barby, ihMfieling—a. word which is like 
a red rag to some theologians — should always have 
been the most important term in his vocabulary. 
So exclusively, indeed, was he interested in the 
subjective side of religion, that, to quote Huber, 
' we can state Schleiermacher's definition of religion 
almost without using the word God.' To the very 
end, philosophical iheorj' made it difficult for him to 
accept the idea of the divine personality; in fact, 
it is impossible not to perceive that he never was 
entirely successful in translating into exphcit 
theory the whole depth and richness of his religious 

The questions upon which he is here made to 
speak for himself are such as the relation between 
religion and knowledge, the seal of religion among 
the faculties of the soul, the connexion of piety 
with dogma, science, and action, and the neces- 
sity inherent in religion of expressing itself in 
a common fellowship. A specially difficult and 
intricate chapter in the exposition is that dealing 
with his psychology, and Ruber's pages show at 
great length the vacillating and indeterminate char- 
acter of his conclusions on this subject. Schleier- 
macher's theories were often strangely abstract, 
and had only a secondary relation to experience and 
history. But one constant aim united all his 
varying modes of statement — the resolve to vindi- 
cate for religion an independent atid impregnable 
place in the inward life of man. 

Huber has done his work so admirably that 
many years must elapse ere it will have to be done 
again. He writes with all possible clearness and 
precision, and not infrequently by a happy para- 
phrase brings much-needed light into the obscurities 
of his author. He is thoroughly aware of the 
greatness of the man whose thoughts he is ex- 
pounding. Indeed, perhaps the most memorable 
pages in his book are those in which he draws a 
vivid and convincing parallel between Schleier- 
machcr and Luther, Both men were Reformers, 

and both reformations were religious. But the 
earlier was shaped more by ethical, the later more 
by intellectual, conditions. It was Schleiermacher's 
task to show ' that we can possess the truth with- 
out belonging to the learned, and be religious 
without becoming unscientific.' 

H. R. Mackintosh. 


Mutatis mutandis, the general remarks made on 
Holzinger's Exodus in The Expository Times for 
January 1901 might be repeated here. The two 
volumes are constructed on identical hnes : the 
same close attention is paid to textual criticism 
and the analysis of the book into its component 
elements ; there is the same brevity in the Com- 
mentary proper. We cannot attempt to discuss 
the many interesting points raised by the investiga- 
tion of the sources, nor would anything be gained 
by a cursory review. Holzinger's arguments must 
be read in his own words if justice is to be done 
them. He does not differ from his predecessors, 
Driver, G. A. Smith, Bennett, Steuernagel, and the 
rest, for the mere sake of opposition. He has 
shown the untenableness of Steuernagel's theory 
that the compiler of Joshua made use of J and £ 
separately rather than in the combined document 
JE, and in many passages he has set in a clearlight 
the distinction between P« and P". As an example 
of the way in which he treats the critical problems 
of Joshua we select the analysis of chap, so, 
because the reader who is not familiar with Hebrew 
can easily satisfy himself that the chapter is com- 
posite : 'The cities of refuge are next appointed, 
no account being taken of Dt 4*i-»3 ig*"-, where 
Moses appoints three such cities in the east, and, 
in accordance with Nu 35*"'*, leaves three others 
to be appointed in the west. There is nothing to 
prevent this law being ascribed to P< : we may 
therefore expect to be told of its being carried into 
effect. But the chapter as now extant did not 
originate wholly from P*; vv.^-*, excepting *^, is 
a late expnsion. The discrepancy betwixt the 
limits fixed in "^ and *^ respectively involves a 
real difficulty both in point of grammar and of 
fact, and tells against Dillmann's suggestion that 

^ Das Buihjosua. ErkUrt von Dr, H, Holtingei. ;nibiii- 
gen 11. Leipzig: J. C. Mohr. 1901. 



the text was abbreviated by the LXX. Moreover, 
*^ — which the LXX, even A and Luc, attaches to 
V.' — is meaningless in its present position, for the 
action prescribed in v.*''-' presupposes a judicial 
procedure which is also expressly ordered in *'■ 
Vv.<- i. s^Hb are therefore a late gloss, which, save 
for the fragment '^, has driven out the original 
conclusion (cf. v,^ LXX, resembling Nu 35^-, but 
not identical, and consequently not corrected, as 
Steuernagel thinks, to bring the two into harmony). 
The fragment ""^ was probably retained from a 
wish to distinguish between the proceedings before 
the elders, v.^ and the final action before the con- 
gregation required in v.*. The title AigA priest, 
used in the gloss at •^*, also points to P', We 
cannot here enter into the results which follow 
with reference to Nu 35'*'- V.' furnishes a proof 
that vv.<- '■ •»'>^i' are a gloss; np_ *^33 is an 
addition to njJK'ii (which stands alone in v.*), 
taken from v.^, and not implied by the text of 
LXXA, which in other respects Is assimilated to 
the M.T, Here again we find P' using D's 
vocabulary: Dt 4*^ 19* has nin "fclS, instead of 
njjefn ; cf also «^ with Dt 17*, and <" with Dt 
4« 19*, and "^ with Jos 8»; at *'^ we have 
TVn 'jpi, as at Dt 19" ji^"- ji" ii* ; at "' «1DK, 
as in Dt 2%^. Compare ** with Dt i9«'2'' and *'' 
with Dt 19*, and D's influence is at once evident 
The gloss nrnip inn\ v.", isfreefrom any tendency. 
But there are other traces of expansion in '"'■ : P« 
knew nothing about a settlement of half the tribe 
of Manasseh in the east (cf. 13^™'- \!^'- 17'*-). 
The expressions employed are also striking : in v.^, 
when the command is given, we have WFi ; in v.^, 
when it is carried out, we find 't?*^ip?i, which, as the 
notes on the text show, is probably a copyist's 
mistake for npy or W^D^, occasioned by the 
^J) in the verse ; v,^ resumes with unj ; in v.' we 
are struck by Wi3, a word not found in P« and 
superfluous alongside ^RDi ^na ; in v.* by the hap. 
leg. minon ny ; in the same verse wc may accept 
Dtllmann's view that rri — not implied by the LXX 
— is an interpolation which takes account of the 
post-exitic situation. The simple conclusion, *''^, 
shows that we here have portions of a text of P« ; 
the cities of refuge ensure a temporary abode until 
the matter has been cleared up by a legal process. 

Everything indicates that vv.^-* were brought by 
R into harmony either (as Dillmann, 569, thinks) 
with a narrative by JED of the carrying into 
execution of Dt 19'^-, or, more probably, with the 
position maintained in Di 4'"*. That is a piece 
of close and careful reasoning, worthy of being 
pondered in every particular. 

The second half of Joshua contains an immense 
number of geographical puzzles. In many in- 
stances it is impossible to retrace satisfactorily the 
boundaries which are so vaguely described, or to 
identify the towns, which were never distinguished 
by a historical association. The notes of inter- 
rogation appended to a large number of names in 
Dr. Smith's recently published Map bear witness to 
the uncertainty which still remains. Holzinger's 
note on 11^ is enough to prove that the Rev. J. A. 
Selbie' was justified in expressing the wish that 
queries bad been appended in one or two additional 
examples: 'The identification of Di^p 'S with the 
Lake of Huleh is altogether arbitrary, and is incon- 
sistent with the description of the fight in v.* The 
Northern Canaanites would not have suffered their 
foes to march direct through their territory, nor 
would the Israelites themselves have left so many 
unconquered cities in their rear. Excepting in 
I Mac 11*^ (v&up rcvfco-ap) D'p does not mean 
"sea" (d;). The older tradition does not make 
them equivalent. Jos., Ant. v, t. 8, relegates the 
fight to the neighbourhood of a city called Bijptoft; 
{Bell. Jud. ii. JO. 6, and Vita, 37, Mijpufl) near 
Kadesh. In the Onom., 278. gg, the Waters of 
Merran (Mippai-, cf. LXX, Pesh.) are placed in the 
district of Dothan, twelve miles north of Sebaste : 
this situation suits admirably ; the confederates 
move south and ofler battle in the plain, Sahl 
Arrabeh. The Map of Western Palestine has a 
ruin el-Maruneh in the south-east of the plain ; we 
must leave open the question whether nhp 'D 
means a spring or the Wady es-Salhab which runs 
through the plain.' Until the old arguments here 
recapitulated have been more satisfactorily refuted, 
and the fresh ones advanced have been set aside, 
it will be advisable to hold, at least, that the 
identification of Huleh and the Waters of Merom 
is not established. 

John Taylor. 

' The ExposiTOkY Timks, lii. ss6. 



€h ^txvani of ti^t £orb. 

By the Rev. R. M, Moffat, M.A., Frome. 

The Suffering Servant (Isa. Hi. 13, liiL). 

We are now to study a passage which is perhaps 
dearer to believers than any other in the Old 
Testament. Some of the phrases which occur in 
it are peculiarly appropriate to Jesus Christ, and 
we love to apply them to Him. We speak of them 
as finding their fulfilment in Him. The fact of 
real importance is, that it is from Himself that we 
have learned to do this {Lk 22" a4M), But for 
Him it is doubtful if we should have come to do 
so, seeing that no Jewish disciple of His would 
have dreamed of identifying the Messiah with the 
suffering servant of the Lord, until taught by Jesus 
to do so. The chief question, therefore, which we 
have to answer is : What do we mean when we 
say that this prophecy of II Isaiah was fulfilled in 
Jesus Christ? 

The prophet himself, as we have seen, was not 
thinking of an individual at all when he spoke of 
the servant ; and we shall accordingly have to 
draw a very carefuWdistinction between the mean- 
ing of the prophet and the further meaning of the 
Holy Spirit who inspired him. This distinction 
has been illustrated by the difference between the 
understanding a workman has of the part he is 
doing in the construction of a great building, and 
the understanding of the same piece of work by the 
architectof the whole building. 'While the workman 
may have perfect comprehension of the piece of 
work he is engaged upon, and be full of enthusiasm 
in the execution of it, he may not be able to see 
the place it will hold in the completed fabric, or 
the great meaning which may accrue to it from the 
whole. This can be perceived only when the 
fabric is reared." In the same way, what the 
prophet meant can be fully determined by con- 
sidering his words in the light of the events of his 
own day. 'The question as to what the Holy 
Spirit meant can be answered only from the point 
of view of a completed revelation.' As we see the 
prophecy unquestionably fulfilled, we are able to 
say how much more was in the mind of the Spirit 
than in the mind of the prophet. 

' Riehm'i Mtstianic Prophecy, p. xiii. 

Let us begin, then, by interpreting as accurately 
as we can just what was in the mind of the prophet 
when he uttered this noble prophecy. Only when 
we have done that shall we be able to proceed 
intelligently to the fascinating and all-imponant 
question of how his words were fulfilled. The 
description of the servant before us is introduced 
in exactly the same way as the one we studied in 
chapter 49, that is to say, just after a great appeal 
to the people to come forth from Babylon. It 
would be altogether idle to question the identity 
of the servant in chapter 53 with the servant in 
chapters 49 and 50, unless some new feature 
appeared which should make it difficult to recon- 
cile the two descriptions. No such difficulty pre- 
sents itself; and, after our careful inquiry as to 
who the servant is, it would be mere waste- of time 
to labour the point that he is not an individual, but 
the God-fearing heart of the nation. In chapter 
50 the servant was depicted as a martyr — a martyr 
because of his determination to witness faithfully 
for God. In chapter 53 we are told the purpose 
of his sufferings, and are shown that they are in 
order to his people's salvation. 

The subject of this passage is, then, the humilia- 
tion and the exaltation of the servant, and the 
reasons for them. The topic was briefly treated in 
chapter 49, where we read, ' Thus saith the Lord 
... to him whom man despiseth, to him whom 
the nation abhoneth, to a servant of rulers ; kings 
shall see and arise ; princes, and they shall worship; 
because of the Lord that is faithful, even the Holy 
One of Israel, who hath chosen thee.' This sub- 
ject is now developed and explained. The passage 
we are to consider is divided in the Hebrew into 
five strophes, and these are represented in the 
RV. by five paragraphs of three verses each, I 
shall give a somewhat modified translation as we 
proceed — a translation partly suggested by the mar- 
ginal readings in the R.V. Some of the phrases 
in the ordinary rendering are far from plain, and 
I wish to bring out the meaning as clearly as 



I. In the first strophe (sa"*'*) we have the state- 
ment of the theme. The words are put into the 
mouth of the Lord, and they tell us that the 
servant shall succeed in his undertaking and be 
exalted; and that, when he is really known and 
understood, he shall be received with homage by 

' Behold, my servant shall prosper, he shall be 
exalted and lifted up, and shall be very high. 
Like as many were astonied at thee (his visage was 
marred from that of man, his form from that of the 
sons of men), so shall he startle many nations ; 
kings shall shut their mouths before him : for 
that which had not been told them shall they 
see; and that which they had not heard shall 
they consider.' 

The verb in the first line is rendered "deal 
wisely" in the text, and "prosper" in the margin. 
It really means, deal wisely in such a way as to 
prosper. The sufferings of the servant are 
sure to succeed : they will not be thrown away. 
God has a purpose in them, (^d who holds 
his hand. Therefore in the long-run there will 
be a recc^nition of his work of faith, and labour 
of love, and patience of hope, and he will be 

Truth tot ever on the scaffold, 
Wrong for evei on Ihe throne ; 
Yel that scaffold iways the fuiuie ; 
And behind Ihe dim unknown 
Slandeth God wiihin ihe shadow 
Keeping walch above His own. 

Keeping watch, and seeing to it that His servant's 
labour is not in vain in the Lord. 

Many who look on at the time do not under- 
stand the mighty power of suffering for righteous- 
ness' sake. The conception is too high for them : 
they cannot attain unto it ; but later on they, or 
their descendants, build the sepulchres of the 
prophets they slew, and so acknowledge the folly 
and the crime. The greatest instance in history is, 
of course, the death of Christ. Did those who 
slew Him really suppose that that stupid cross was 
going to prevent the setting up of a Kingdom not 
of this world ? They actually hastened by mistake 
the coming of the Kingdom ; and now it must 
stand and grow for ever till all the nations own 
Christ's sway. 

Ever since the black deed on Calvary there 
have been those who have ' considered ' that to 
which they had previously shut their eyes ; and 

their remorse has drawn from them the con- 
fession — 

O the bitlei shame and sorrow 

Thai a time could ever be 

When I let my Saviour's pity 

Pasi roe by, and proudly answered, 

All of seir and none of Thee. 

Or here is another illustration. When the Re- 
formers of the sixteenth century rose as the servant 
of the Lord to purify His Church of scandalous 
abuses, many within the Church shook their heads 
and questioned the wisdom of the step, many 
opposed themselves; and the Council of Trent 
made matters no better, but merely asserted that 
Roman Cathohcism would never be reconciled 
to Protestantism. Persecution and martyrdom 
followed for all heretics upon whom the Church 
could lay her hands, and many precious lives were, 
from one point of view, uselessly sacrificed. But 
mark the result in the long-run. 

' Everywhere in Catholic countries as in Pro- 
testant, the practices have been abandoned which 
the laity rose then to protest against. The prin- 
ciples on which the laity insisted have become the 
rule of the modern world. Popes no longer depose 
princes, dispense with oaths, or absolve subjects 
from their allegiance. Appeals are not any more 
carried to Rome from the national tribunals, nor 
justice sold there to the highest bidder. The 
clergy have ceased to pass laws which bind the 
laity, and to enforce them with spiritual censures. 
Felonious priests suffer for their crimes like uncon- 
secrated mortals. Too zealous prelates cannot 
call poor creatures before them ex officio, cross- 
question them on their beliefs, fine, imprison, or 
bum them at the stake. Excommunications are 
kept in bounds by the law of libel. Itinerant 
pardon -venders no longer hawk through Europe 
their unprofitable wares. . . . These scandals 
against which the laity cried so loudly are gone, 
and the devoutest Romanists would not wish to 
. revive them.' So says Mr. Froude. 

The whole world. Catholic as well as Protestant, 
has cause to thank God for the Reformation, and 
a man can deny that statement only by approving 
of the evils which the Reformation did away with. 
The Reformers were servants of the Lord, who 
dealt wisely and prospered in the thing whereto 
God sent them. Wherefore also God hath exalted 
them ; and kings who are true kings are silent in 
the presence of these, who are greater than kings. 



a. After the words of the Lord in chapter 51, 
chapter 53 appropriately begins with Ihe confession 
of the con science -stricken people. The Lord has 
spoken of the servant as one who shall startle 
many nations, and before whom many heathen 
kings shall shut their mouths. After this reference 
10 the heathen, the prophet represents the people 
as saying penitently, ' But among us Jews, who 
hath believed what we have heard? And to 
whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed ? 
For he grew up before Him as a tender plant, 
and as a root out of a dry ground He hath no 
form or comeliness that we should look upon 
htm ; nor beauty that we should desire him. 
He was despised and rejected of men, a man of 
pains and acquainted with sickness; and as one 
from whom men hide their face he was despised, 
and we esteemed him not.' The beginning of 
the last clause might also be rendered, ' He hid as 
it were his face from us ' ; the reference in either 
case being clearly to one afflicted with leprosy. 
We are reminded of the 'regulation in Leviticus : 
'The leper shall cover his upper Hp, and shall cry, 
Unclean, unclean* (13**). The servant, then, is 
here described as a leper, hideous with a fearful 
disease, unsightly and despised. As we read 
three verses before, ' His visage was marred from 
that of roan, and his form from that of the sons of 
men,' — he was only just recognizable as human. 

3, And Ihe people go on in the next strophe : 
' Surely he hath borne our sicknesses, and carried 
our pains: yet we did esteem him stricken, 
smitten of God and degraded. But he was 
wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised 
for OUT iniquities : the chastisement that brought 
us peace was upon him ; and with his stripes we 
are healed. All we like sheep went astray : we 
turned every one to his own way; and the Lord 
made to light upon him the iniquity of us all.' 

Here, then, we have the reason of His humilia- 
tion. At first the people thought thai the servant 
was suffering for his own sins: among primitive 
men that is always the first conclusion. The more 
a man suffers, the worse he must be, the more 
abhorrent to God. But reflection shows that this 
is absolutely false to the facts of life. The people 
could not help seeing at length that the servant 
was not suffering for his own sins; and as they 
were forced to seek a moral reason for his suffer- 
ings, they had to ask themselves the question : 
Whose sins, then, is he suffering for? And con- 

gave the answer: Theirs. The sufferings 
of the servant were vicarious ; they were redemp- 
tive, in order that his fellows might have peace 
with God. 

4. In the next strophe it seems to be the 
prophet himself who speaks. He tells how the 
servant bore undeserved treatment with patience 
and endurance. None of his contemporaries 
understood the real nature of his sufferings, and 
even after his death they pursued him with 
ignominy, burying him with extortioners. ' He 
was oppressed, yet he humbled himself and opened 
not his mouth ; as a lamb that is led to the 
slaughter, and as a sheep that before her shearers 
is dumb ; yea, he opened not his mouth. By 
oppressive judgroent he was taken away; and as 
for his generation, who among them considered 
that he was cut off out of the land of the living? 
For the transgression of my people was he stricken. 
And they made his grave with the wicked, and 
with extortioners after he was dead ; although he 
had done no violence, neither was any deceit in 
his niouih.' These verses tell us how he was 
judged to be a malefactor, owing to the usual 
judgment of those days upon the afflicted. We 
shall at once remember how the Book of Job 
combats this cruelly and lack of sympathy towards 

5. In verse ^^ the prophet passes from what 
the people thought of the servant to what God 
thought of him ; and we are shown in the last 
strophe the great reward to the servant for all that 
he had to bear, as described in verse *. 'Yet the 
Lord had purposed to bruise him ; he laid sickness 
on him; if his life were to make an offering for sin, 
he should see a seed, he should prolong bis days, 
and the pleasure of the Lord should prosper in his 
hands.' In the last two verses the Lord Himself 
speaks : * Out of the travail of his soul he shall 
see, and shall be satisfied by his knowledge (i.e. 
knowledge of Jehovah). My righteous servant 
makes many righteous, and bears their iniquities. 
Therefore will I divide him a portion with the 
great, and he shall divide the spoil with the 
strong; because he poured out his soul unto 
death, and was numbered with the transgressors ; 
yet he bare the sins of many, and interposed for 
the transgressors.' 

Now let us try to get at the heart of this utter- 
ance, so stately, so full of pathos. We need not 
pause to speculate whether the prophet had a 



particular sufTcrer in view when he spoke of the 
servant as a leper, and as treated as a felon. His 
words are too vague for that to be likely. Leprosy 
and perverted justice are mentioned because these 
are two of the worst and two of the commonest 
misfortunes in the East. Besides, the prophet 
speaks as if he were sometimes referring to the 
past, sometimes to the future; and the more we 
examine his words, ihe more we feel that he is 
not thinking so much of a definite event as of an 
ideal. As the spokesman of God, as one who 
tarries in the secret place of the Most High, whose 
ear the Lord wakeneth morning by morning, and 
to whom the Lord hath given the tongue of the 
learner, the prophet comes forth and declares in 
the name of God what must happen some day. 
Because God is love He will assuredly redeem 
His people, and save them from their sins ; and 
this is a magnificent prophetic anticipation of the 
method of redemption. The prophet could not 
know that 550 years after his day God would 
become man, and suffer for the sins of men. It 
was not possible for him to make this truth known. 
What he actually did was a far grander thing — he 
proclaimed to his generation a permanent moral 
and spiritual truth. He did not know that God 
would ever suffer on earth for men, but he stated 
the highest that he knew : that God-fearing, God- 
like men would suffer, do suffer, for sins not their 
own; and he ventured to believe that their suffer- 
ings would be redemptive as well as vicarious. It 
is a permanent truth that righteous men suffer 
vicariously; but since the days of II Isaiah the 
prophet's words have had a greater fulfilment than 
he would have dared to anticipate, and we know 
that the sufferings which are redemptive are the 
sufferings of God. 

And, now that we have tried to show that the 
prophet describes a moral situation rather than a 
historical event, the way is clear for us to see how 
his words apply to Jesus Christ. In a literal sense, 
some of them do not apply in the least. Christ 
was not a leper, nor have we any reason to believe 
that He was outwardly marred. Though virtue 
went out of Him when He bare men's sicknesses, 
He did not transfer them to Himself. And, of 
course, neither did He make His grave with the 
wicked or extortioners. It is not so much in out- 
ward circumstances as in the moral and spiritual 
sphere that we must look for the resemblance 
between Jesus Christ and the servant of the Lord ; 

for that is precisely what Jesus Himself did. ' As 
He read the Scriptures, He was always looking 
for the spiritual situation and its peculiarities. He 
thus interpreted His own surroundings and the 
situation in His own time by the light He obtained 
from Scripture. He argued from the unchange- 
ableness of God and the constancy of His methods 
to the way in which God would act ' ' in similar 
circumstances in the future. And so, with un- 
erring prophetic insight, He made the application 
to His own time, of permanent spiritual truth. 
As soon as He knew, after His baptism, of His 
mission as Messiah, He applied to Himself the 
Old Testament statements about deliverers of 
Israel, and thought out in anticipation what His 
destiny or fate would be. ' He searched the Old 
Testament to form a spiritual history of His own 
future.'' He chose parts out of psalms and 
prophets which otherwise would hardly be reckoned 
appropriate to Him, perceiving that the words 
found a spiritual fulfilment in Him. ' He was all 
unconscious of arbitrariness ; for He felt Himself 
vindicated spiritually.' ' In particular, with regard 
to the condition of the Jews, and their need to be 
redeemed from sin, He saw that the spiritual 
situation of the time of II Isaiah 'had repeated 
itself, and even more emphatically.' But most 
remarkable of all is the way in which He conceived 
the Messiah and the suffering servant as one and 
the same, and proceeded to regard His career as 
destined to fulfil the prophecies concerning both, 
at least as regards the spiritual aspects of what 
was written of them. The Messiah of Jewish 
expectation was a king on whom the sevenfold 
Spirit of the Lord should rest — a king who should 
judge with righteousness, and with the breath of 
his lips slay the wicked (Is 1 1). The Messiah was 
always conceived of as a victor, never as a victim. 
How abhorrent the idea of the Messiah suffering 
was to the Jew may be gathered from Peter's 
words, after he had acknowledged Jesus as the 
Messiah, and Jesus spoke of His approaching 
sufferings. ' Peter began to rebuke Him, saying, 
Be it far from Thee, Lord : this shall never be 
unto Thee.' But Jesus, with matchless insight, had 
perceived that it was a greater thing for the 
Messiah to be a persecuted prophet than even a 
righteous and victorious king — greater to stoop 
and bear men's sins than to reign and exact their 
service. And so, to the spiritually lesser office 
1 Aia^mson'i Siudinm/ lit Minri in Christ, iig-iai^'laj. 



He added the spiritually greater, and chose to 
reign over men through their hearts, having first 
won their love by bearing their sin. ' I, if I be 
lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto 
Me,' He said. The cross was to be His throne ; 
and through it He has reigned ever since. ' Where- 
fore also God highly exalted Him, and gave unto 
Him the name which is above every name.* He 
who was called Jesus because he should save His 
people from their sins, bears in a unique sense the 
name of Redeemer of mankind. Yet such is His 
grace that He calls believers to be fellow- workers 

with Him in the work of redemption. The apostle 
who most of all, perhaps, had the mind of Christ, 
ventures to speak of ' filling up on my part that 
which is lacking of the afflictions of Christ in my 
flesh for His body's sake, which is the Church ' 
(Col i"). So though there has been only one 
who actually bore men's sins, only one who has 
made men righteous, yet it is a permanent truth 
that God-fearing men in all ages constitute a 
servant of the Lord, through whose sufferings 
mankind is brought to own and to love the 
sway of God. 

By a. H. Savce, LL.D., D.D., Professor of Assvriology, Oxford. 

The City of Enoch. 
Is The Expository Times for May 1899 I have 
showi] that a close connexion exists between the 
antediluvian patriarchs of Genesis and the ante- 
diluvian kings of Babylonia — so close, indeed, as 
to make it clear that the biblical account is as 
much dependent on Babylonian traditions as is 
the story of the Flood. As has long been recog- 
nized, moreover, the genealogy of the Cainites 
is but a variant form of that of the Selhites, 
though the reason of the variation in the order of 
the names does not seem to have been explained. 
Whereas in the Selhite line the order is Mahala- 
leel, Jared, Enoch, and Methuselah, it is reversed 
in the Cainite line, where we have Enoch, Irad, 
Mehujael, and Methusael. The fact is that the 
source, or sources, from which the writer of 
Genesis derived his materials did not indicate the 
links of relationship between the several names, 
which must have followed one another without 
any expl.mation, as is sometimes the case in the 
First Book of Chronicles {e.g. a" 4^). They 
were taken from lists similar to those with which 
the cuneiform tablets have made us familiar, in 
which groups of words or names are arranged one 
under the other without comment, and it is left to 
the reader to supply the links of relationship that 
exist between them. Where the names stand in 
genealogical order, it is open to him to regard 
them as denoting either father and son or son and 

father. Hence Mahalaleel - Jared might mean 
either that Jared was the son of Mahalaleel, or 
that Mahalaleel was the son of Jared. The two- 
fold view that is taken of the relationship in the 
Book of Genesis points to a cuneiform tablet with 
its vertical columns as the source from which the 
names are derived. 

Why Enoch heads the list in the Cainite gene- 
alogy is clear, Cain, 'the smith,' represents the 
civilized inhabitant of the Babylonian city, and 
must therefore have been the builder of a city in 
the country east of Eden,— or Edin, the 'Plain ' 
of Babylonia, — to which he had migrated. Here 
was a district which figured a good deal in early 
Babylonian history, and usually bore the name of 
Khana. The proper names contained in a con- 
tract from the land of Khana published by M. 
Thureau-Dangin, show that it was inhabited by a 
Hebraic or West Semitic population similar to 
that to which the Israelites belonged {see my note 
in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical 
Archeology, January 1899). 

Now we learn from the inscriptions recently 
discovered by M. de Morgan at Susa, that in the 
early days of Babylonian history the Sumerian 
sutSx KI, 'place,' was often pronounced by the 
Semites at the end of the geographical name to 
which it was attached, and which was consequently 
made to terminate in a guttural. Thus on the 
obelisk of Manistusu we have Zimana-k, Kharkha- 
muna-kki, Kazura-kki, Nana-kki, and in a text of 



Meli-sipak (p. 99) we read of the city Tama-kku. 
In the same way Khana-KI would have been 
known as KKana-k. 

Here, then, we have the name of the city of 
Enoch, which, like Khanak, lay on the east side 
of Babylonia, and was inhabited by members of 
the same West -Semitic family as Ur of the 
Kasdim where Abraham was born. Indeed, the 
Khana contract which I have already mentioned 
was drawn up in 'the city of the country of 

If the city of Enoch is Khanak, the form of the 
name has been assimilated to the Semitic personal 
name, which meant a 'dedicated priest.' Those 
who will, however, may see in the Phrygian 
Annakos, or Kannakos, a survival of its original 
pronunciation, though for my own part I am more 
inclined to believe that these two variants of the 
name of the Phrygian Enoch have been conformed 
to the Asianic Nannakos. 


Tarshish has been so long identified with 
Tartessos, that in spite of the difficulties, both 
phonetic and historical, that lie in the way of the 
identification, the old supposition that it repre- 
sented the classical Tarsos has been almost for- 
gotten. But a closer examination of the tenth 
chapter of Genesis has now led me to believe that, 
after all, the old supposition was correct. 

In Gn lo'-* we are told that the sons of Japhet 
were Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan 
and Tubal and Meshech and Tiras, and that the 
sons of Javan were Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim 
and Rodanim. The Tel el-Amarna tablets have 
informed us what Elishah means. It is the cunei- 
form Alasia, the Al{a)sa of the hieroglyphs, where 
it is first met with in the list of the conquests of 
Thothmes 111. in the extreme north of Syria. The 
name belongs to the epoch of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth Egyptian dynasties, and disappears 
from the geography of the post-Davidic age — a 
fact which deserves to be noticed in connexion 
with the date of the ethnographical table of 
Genesis. I have already identified it in The 
ExposiTOKv Times, xii. p. 29, with the Aleian 
plain of Greek geography, where Homer describes 
the Lycian hero Bellerophon as wandering. The 
Greek name implies an earlier Alasion ; and the 
Egyptian Government, in the Tel el-Amarna 
correspondence, states that the Lukki or Lycian 

pirates, who had made a descent on the coast of 
the Delta, were under the jurisdiction of the king 
of Alasia. In fact, Cilicia adjoined Lykaonia, 
which preserved the name of the Lycians, and 
Strabo makes the Aleian plain occupy that pan of 
Cilicia which extended from Tarsus to Mallos 
and included the Saros, or Royal river, on which 
the city of Adana stood. lapetos, the brother of 
Adanos, and son of heaven and earth, was one of 
the seven great gods of Cilicia, according to 
Stephanus Byzantinus, and in lapetos it is im- 
possible not to recognize Japhet. 

Elishah is associated with Tarshish as a son of 
Javan; Tarshish accordingly must have been in 
Cihcia, adjoining Alasia, and have contained an 
Ionian population. As a matter of fact, the 
foundation of both Tarsus and Mallos was as- 
cribed to Mykensean Argos. Kittim and Rodanim, 
Cyprus and Rhodes, were also occupied by Greeks 
at an early period, and the ' Ionian ' district of the 
tenth chapter of Genesis would thus have em- 
braced the coast of Cilicia along with Cyprus 
and Rhodes. It was in Cilicia, however, that 
its chief centre was to be found. This results 
from v. 2, where Javan is associated with 
Tubal and Meshech, the Tabala and MuskS of 
the Assyrian inscriptions, as well as with Tiras, 
which seems to be the Tursha of the Egyptian 

The fact has an important bearing on the 
language of the representatives of the Mykensean 
age of culture. It looSs as if some of them at 
least really spoke an early form of Greek. We 
should thus have an explanation of borrowed 
Greek words like /appid, Xafirai, in the Hebrew 
of the age of the Judges, to which I have drawn 
attention in my Higher Criticism, p. 495. At all 
events, the form Tarshish seems to be derived from 
the Greek Tarsos (cf. also the Lykaonian Tarasis), 
since the native name is probably more correctly 
reproduced in the Tarzi and T-r-z of the Assyrian 
monuments and the Aramaic coins. 

That a particular class of ships should be known 
in Canaan as ' ships of Tarshish ' is not surprising 
when we remember ^the maritime fame of the 
Cilicians in the ancient world. The silver mines 
of the Bulgar Dagh provided the silver and lead 

' I am templed to rtad Tiras in Eik 27'* in place of the 
corrupt 'Persia.' We should then have 'Tiras (perhaps 
the Taunis), Lydia, and Hhui,' which is called ' Phut of the 
lonUns ' by Nebuchodieiiar. 1 17;- (., X^l *- "- '^ ' *- 


with which Tarshish traded, according to Ezk 27" ; 
perhaps also the iron and tin mentioned by the 
prophet came from the same locality. 

The name of Elishah, as I have already said, 
takes us back to the age of the Tel el-Amarna 
tablets. I have hitherto regarded the three names 
which precede that of Javan as later additions to 
the table; Gomer being the Gimirra, or Kimmerians, 
who did not appear on the scene of Asiatic history 
till the seventh century b.c. But I may have been 
mistaken, since in a letter written to his father by 
Sennacherib while he was still crown-prince, and 
therefore at least thirty years before Esar-haddon 
defeated Tcuspa, the Kimmerian leader, in Kbu- 
busna, on the northern frontier of Cilicia, (jamir is 
given as the name of a part of Cappadocia, This 
is plainly the Gamir of Armenian tradition, while 
the vowel of the first syllable seems to indicate 
that it has nothing to do with the Gimirra. The 
names of the three sons of Gomer, moreover, 
belong rather to an early than to a later age, for 
the discovery that Gamir is Cappadocia disposes 
of the suggestion first put forward by myself that 
Ashkenaz is the monumental Asguza to the north- 
east of Assyria. We must fall back on the old 
theory which connected it with the Phrygian 
Ascanius, Askenos, etc. As for Magog, no light 
has been as yet thrown on the name by the monu- 
ments of any age, whether late or early. Madai, 
it is true, would naturally be the Medes of 
Matiana, but M. Th. Reinach has pointed out in 
the Ada du dixiime Congrh international des 
Oritntalistts, iv. pp. 13-28, that there was another 
Matiene in Cappadocia, referred to by Herodotus 
(i. 72), in the land of the Halys, where the ruins 
of the Hiltite city now called Boghaz Keui are 
situated. This is the Matieo€ which is said in 

one of the fragments {188) of HecatEeus to adjoin 
the territory of the Moschi, the Meshech of the 
Old Testament. 

To return once more to Alasia, the final syllable 
of which, it will be noticed, is a Greek suffix.' 
The river Saros, it will be remembered, flowed 
through the centre of the Al^ian plain. We are 
told that the name of the river meant 'ruler,' and 
consequently must be the Assyrian sarru, 'king.' 
This raises the presumption that Adana also, 
which stood upon it, is the Assyrian Adin (as in 
Bit-Adini). How Assyrian names should have 
been introduced into the country has been ex- 
plained by the Cappadocian cuneiform tablets, 
which have shown that Assyrian or Babylonian 
colonies were established there at a very early 
period. The fact throws light on the connexion 
with Babylonia implied in certain Asianic myths 
and divine names {like Nana, Nineps, and Nineis), 
and it also suggests the mode in which the Cilician 
lapetos came to be identified with a son of the 
biblical Noah. 

' If the name is Greek, or at any rale related 10 Greek, 

it would represent an adjective Ala-s.ya, 'belonging to 
the (land of) Ala.' Ala signified 'horse' in Karian, and 
entered into the composition of several gec^raphical names, 
Ala.banda, Hali-karnassus (?), Alindo, etc. The Tet el- 
Amatna tablets give, as the name of a native of Alasia, 
I'astumme, the lerminalion of which may be compared with 
Ihat of Tarku-dimme (Torkondcmos) and Inda-lioima. 
Bellerophon's wanderings in the Aleian plain were llie 
result of his attempt 10 penetrate into heaven on the back of 
[he winged horse Pcgasos, and hiii fall from the horse seems 
like an echo of the Itabylonian legend of Etans, which may- 
have made its way to Cilicia through Cappadocia. The 
winged horse appears upon a Hittite seal firsl published by 
Lajard and reproduced in Wright's Empire of the Hitlilis. 
Another seal with a wingeil hotse and Hiltite ioscripliun 
belongs 10 M. Le Cicrcq. 

®f t%t i.\iix&ti ea8f«. 




{NisbiU Crown Svo, pp. 36B, 6*.) 
This volume is described as 'A handbook for 
deputations and workers,' It is further said to 

' comprise hints for chairmen, preachers, and 
speakers; outlines for missionary sermons and 
addresses ; missionary facts, figures, illustrative 
anecdotes, and independent testimonies, a mis- 
sionary calendar, a conspectus of British mission- 


ary societies, etc' This programme is not so 
miscellaneous as it seems. The book has a 
distinct character throughout, the impress of a 
distinct and (let us say it without offence) dis- 
tinctly official mind. The statistics are the best 
part of it, the anecdotes the worst. There are 
some excellent anecdotes, but they might easily 
have been more and belter. They are taken 
almost entirely Tram periodicals and reports. 

NEW.MAN. Bv Alkxandbb Whvtb, D.D. (Otipkani. 
Crown Sva, pp. 162. 3s. 6(1.) 
Dr. Whyie has the proper notion of an antho- 
logy. He makes extracts, he makes extracts pure 
and simple, not a word of explanation, not a 
thread of connexion, and they fill the bulk of the 
volume. But then he introducei them. And as 
you read his introduction you rattle your chain to 
be at the extracts, and all the while you hug the 
chain itself, so delightful is the introduction. 

Y. Simpson. {Oliphant. Crown Svo, pp. 164. 
IS. 6d. nel.) 
This is the third independent life of Henry 
Drummond, and yet it comes to us with the 
freshness of a new sensation. Some of the fresh- 
ness is due to new fact, but far more to its setting, 
or rather to the spirit and vigour with which the 
facts are set forth. It is a charming book, showing 
Drummond as charming as the few favoured ones 
knew him. And not outwardly only, not in 
manners alone, inwardly, in humanity of heart 
and patience of love — the Drummond we would 
now have with us always. So let no more lives 
be written after this. 

Henry Otis Dwight. LL.D. {Olipkant. Crown 
Svo, pp. 2^. 65.) 
It is the Constantinople of to-day. Dr. Dwight 
touches its brilliant past, but in a few pages he 
reaches its present, and stays. For he knows 
Constantinople of to-day. His narrative is of 
that which he has seen with his eyes and his hands 
have handled. And if it is an exposure, that is 
not his fault ; it is the fault of Mohammedanism 
mainly, and is due immediately to Dr. Dwight's 
merciless insistence upon morality as a change- 
less thing in East or West. It is an exposure of 
Mohammedan rottenness of heart. With its 
magnificent position, this city might rule the 

world of commerce and lead the world in virtue. 
Its impotence, its iniquity, make the Turkish race 
and the Turkish religion a byword and a hissing. 
And it will not do to say that this American has 
too evident sympathy with American missionaries 
to be impartial. American and other missionaries 
are the salt of the earth there : give them time and 
scope and they will salt the whole lump. And it 
is just in the light of their American Christianity 
that the degradation of the city is so buried. 
Measuring themselves by themselves, the Turks do 
not blush. When they see themselves as they are 
seen by the ambassadors of Christ, even the Turks 
abhor their history and their habits. 

THE LORE OF CATHAY. Bv \V. A. P. Martin, D.D,. 
LL.D. {Olipliant. Svo, pp. 47^. los. 6d.) 
The President of the Chinese Imperial Univer- 
sity recently published ^i Cycle of Cathay, z.n^ the 
book was found instructive beyond most. He has 
now issued its companion. From the title we are 
to understand that it describes the intellectual 
interests and accomplishments of the Chinese. It 
is divided into five Books. The first Book deals 
with China's Contribution to Arts and Sciences; 
the second with Chinese Literature; the third 
with the Religion and Philosophy of the Chinese; 
the fourth with Education in China ; and the 
fifth contains some special but related Studies in 
Chinese History. The subjects of these several 
books have often been handled before, sometimes 
more fully than in this volume. Thus Dr. Gibson 
of Swatow lately described the religious and 
ethical characteristics of the Chinese with more 
minuteness than Dr. Martin in his third Book, 
and we think with greater impress iveness. But 
nowhere else is the whole field so competently 
covered. Dr. Martin writes with the confidence 
of abundant experience, and he is not afraid to 
express his contempt for some of John Chinaman's 
weaknesses. He gives us a vivid sense of the 
potentiality of this empire and of the complexity of 
its social problems. His book is well illustrated 
and n: 

Mrs. Spurgeon is the author of A Basket of 
Summer fruit (Passmore & Alabaster, is. 6d.). 
In spite of its title it is a Christmas gift, to be laid 
when received beside A Carillon of Hells, and 
A Cluster of Campkire. 


GoTWALD, D.D. {Reiiell. CrawnSvo, pp. 320.) 
These sermons are the fruit of a high sense of 
the preacher's calling, a sense that he must do his 
best with the form of his sermon as well as with 
its matter. They are all textual sermons. The 
text is expounded and never departed from. It is 
made clear and telling, made to enter into every 
part of the life of to-day, by most painstaking 
work in the study. Dr. Gotwald was a Lutheran, 
and his sermons on Luther and on the Reformation 
show us how sincere a Lutheran he was. 


Mutton. {Rivingieni. Crown 8vo, pp. 431. 6s. 

From the general findings of this book on the 
doctrine of the intermediate state few who have 
dispassionately studied the subject will dissent. 
The preposterous positions of the Romish Church 
are temperately, and so the more mercilessly, 
expressed and exposed. The Anglican teaching 
is explained and embraced. Just one considera- 
tion seems to have escaped Mr. Hutton — just one ; 
but it is a great one. Character is essential to 
heaven, and spotless character; but He who is 
able to present us spotless before the presence 
of His glory with exceeding joy, is surely able to 
cleanse the character without the interference 
of suffering or even time — ' to-day shalt thou be 
with Me in Paradise.' 

Mortimer, D.D. {/iiviiigiimi. Crown 8vo, pp. 312. 

Is it not a somewhat invidious title for a volume 
of sermons 1 Are not the sermons of all of us 
studies in Holy Scripture? It is somewhat in- 
appropriate also. For Dr. Mortimer has clearly 
much less interest in Scripture than in human 
character and destiny. The sermon on ' Balaam,' 
for example, is simply a study in conscience ; the 
sermon on the 'Seed among Thorns' is a study 
of environment. The title of the twelfth sermon 
is 'Character and Circumstances.' That would 
have formed a truly descriptive title for the 
volume. We believe that no sermons are so 
fruitful as those that are studies in Scripture ; 
after that, however, we should place studies in 
character and circumstance, and this volume 
might even head the list. 

D.D. (Maneheslct: Rabinsan. Crown Svo, pp. 316. 
3s. 6d. net.) 
Dr. Burrell bids fair to lake a front place 
among the American preachers whose sermons 
appeal to us. The place is, unhappily, but httle 
occupied at present. He does not overcome us as 
a flood like Phillips Brooks, but he has something 
of the fresh mental stimulus of Newman Smyth. 
He even occasionally recalls the deep things of 
Horace Bushnell. But beyond those three — 
since he is less in their special excellence— Dr. 
Burrell is determined on seeing good works done 
here and now. 'If ye know these things,' he 
seems to say in every sermon, 'happy are ye if ye 
do them.' 

The monthly parts of the Monthly Visitor for 
1901 have been stitched together and published 
by Mr. R. Henderson Smith, at the office of the 
Scottish Monthly Visitor Tract Society, Edin- 
burgh. It contains tracts by Dr. Cunningham, 
of Edinburgh ; the Rev. Henry Montgomery, of 
Belfast; the Rev. Robert Shindler and Mr. 
William Luff, of London; the Rev. D. M. 
M'Intyre, Miss A. B. Church, and Dr. Wells, 
of Glasgow ; Mrs. J. S. Reaney, of Greenwich ; 
and the Rev. Thomas Duniop, of Bootle. Do 
not these names guarantee their literary worth as 
well as their evangelical fervour? 

The Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge has published the following Gift and 
Reward Books : — 

1. Ching the Chinaman, and his Middy Friends. 
By G. Manville Fenn. 5s. 

2. From Playground to Baltltfield. By Frederick 
Harrison, M.A. 35. 6d. 

3. In the Days of S. Anse.lm. By Gertrude 
Hollis. 2S. 6d. 

4. Ma/eking Day. By Phcebc Allen, as. 

5. Golden- Hearted. By M. Bramston. is. 6d. 

6. The Old Mill House at Ahermede. is. 6d. 

7. Little John Cope. By L. L. Weldon. is. 

They have all the S.P.C.K. colours and the 
S.P.C.K, lightness. They are boys' and girls' 
books, not adults' condensed. They are also un- 
impeachable in morals and manners. Chiog the 
Chinaman is meant to show us how even a pigtail 
may become beloved by an unformed half-grown 



Englishman. Ching is a tine brotherly fellow; 
and many a lad who reads his lively conversation 
will hope to see him when they first set foot in 

Mr. Frederick Harrison, who writes of the lad 
who passed from Mr, Timson's Academy to the 
wars with Napoleon, many many years ago, spells 
his name with a ^ to distinguish himself from the 
great Positivist. 

S. Anselm is a hero to Miss HoUis, and so well 
does she make him play his fictitious part that we 
should be prejudiced indeed if he did not become 
a hero also to us. 

Maftking Day is further described as ' A 
Snapshot from Real Life.' The Day is here 
in vivid colours, and also the tragedy. Yet it 
is said, and we almost seem to see it true, that 
one must be absent, left behind in Africa, never 
to return, in order that Mafeking Day may be 

The Old Mill House was deserted foolishly by a 
growing girl whose novel-reading became a snare. 
The novels she read were of course quite different 
from The Old Mill House. 

Gulden- Hearted is for the older girls — a tove- 
tale. But Little John Cope is a capital boy's story 
of the '45. 

Mr. Elliot Stock has published a cheaper 
(2s. 6d.) edition of Mr, Garnier's Sin and Re- 

Did Moses write the Pentateuch, after all? This 
book has been republished with a new preface. 
The preface, however, does not contain anything 
new, and the book stands as it was. Mr. Spencer's 
complaint against the Higher Criticism is that it 
is too subjective. His answer to it is also sub- 
jective. And the difficulty of subjective criticism 
is seen in the plausibility of his arguments, for in 
spite of their plausibility there is not one of them 
that has not been considered and answered 
(Stock, crown 8vo, pp. 329)- 

MOMENTA OF LIFE. By James Lindsay, D.D, 

{Slaci!. Crown 8vo, pp. 146. Ss.) 

Dr. Lindsay's hand is seen in many periodicals, 
always on the relation between philosophy and 
theology, and always with effect. Editors have 
discovered that he has a mind made up, that he 

has something to say and can say it, so that he 
is one of the first to be read. Seven magazine 
articles are gathered into this volume, of which 
the first is 'The Development of Ethical Philo- 
sophy,' and the last ' Mysticism — True and False.' 
The last is a sketch, with points to catch and 
arrest our thinking; the first is a clever, pains- 
taking historical study. The language, occasionally 
finely 'biblical,' is always direct and finished. 

The Rev. J. H. Bum. B.D., has undertaken to 
edit a new theological series, and Mr. Stock has 
undertaken to publish it. It is to be known as 
'The Church's Outlook for the Twentieth Cen- 
tury.' The first volume has appeared under the 
all-embracing title of Theology, Old and New . 
(as. 6d. net). Its author is Dr. W. F. Cobb. 
Now Dr. Cobb is a scholar, and a liberal one. If 
he goes over all the great doctrines of Christianity 
— and he does so here — we may expect the full 
flood of the modern methods of study let in upon 
us. Thus in the Atonement it is emphatically 
stated that ' the Christian consciousness, when 
set free from the perverse bias of theological pre- 
possessions, answers confidently that God remains 
the same, and that it is man who needs to be 
changed.' It takes much learning, says Dr. Cobb, 
to miss this truth. 

The Morning WaUh for Soldiers of the King is 
the title of a thick volume of devotional medita- 
tions for every day of the year. The readings are 
selected from modern writers like Pearse, Parker, 
and Dale, with just an occasional flavour from an 
older author like Jeremy Taylor. The editor is 
the Rev. G. Coates, and the publisher Mr. A. H. 
Stockwcll (5s.). 

The Rev. G. P. Thomas, M.A., Ph.D., had a 
dream, and in the dream he journeyed with an 
angel from heaven to earth, heard with the angel's 
ears, saw with the angel's eyes, and wrote down all 
he heard and saw. He calls the record An Angefs 
Visit to the British Empire at the Close of the 
Nineteenth Century (Stockwell, 3s. 6d.). He visits 
the Church, the State, Commerce, and Society, 
and in each he finds many things to astonish 
and disgust him, — in the Anglican Church its 
schism ; in the State its House of Lords, and 
much else. i) ii-o- h, x^iLfi^JVl*. 


Gborge Men'zcbs. {Stedurill. Crown Svo, pp. 
179. 3*- M.) 
The adjective 'ptcloriarin the title simply seems 
to tells us that there are pictures in the book. It 
was worth telling so prominently, for they are well 
chosen and taken from the life. The sermons are 
intended for the British working-man. There is a 
sermon to gardeners, a sermon to seamen, a 
sermon to bootmakers, a sermon to bleachers, and 
many more. Mr. Menzies seems to know all 
about these trades, as if he had been apprentice to 
each of them in turn ; but he knows most of all 
about the gospel, and turns them to account in 
impressively preaching it. 

PaLubr. {Stoctwell. Ciown Svo, pp. 114. 3s.) 
The first chapter — the chapter which gives the 
book its name — is an eloquent plea for the educa- 
tion of the young in patriotism. If the line could 
be drawn between patriotism and politics, the line 
so hard to draw, it would be worth all that Mr. 
Palmer claims for it. Was Mr. Gladstone the 
better patriot when he forgave Majuba, or Lord 
Roberts when he avenged it ? It is the application 
that makes the perplexity. 

There were two books on the same subject pub- 
lished at one time by one publisher. Both were 
the work of scholars, and both scholars could 
write. Vet one succeeded, the other failed. The 
reason was that the one was called Pseudepigrapha, 
the other Books which influtnced our Lord. Pro- 
filing by that example, the Rev. Joseph Farquhar, 
M.A., has published, through Mr. Slockwell, a 
small volume entitled The Schools and School- 
masters of Christ. In a simple, popular way it 
recalls the surroundings of our Lord's earthly life, 
touching also on His pedigree and on His life 
beyond the grave. 

There is nothing new in the matter of the 
sermons which this volume contains. They are 
all the better for that. There is nothing new now 
in the gospel, except when it touches the soul into 
life, and then all things become new. So is it 
with these sermons. They are old and stale till 

they kindle the spark of life ; but they have that 
in them. And this is the way of it — 

God came lo me as Trulh. I saw Him not. 
He came to me is Love, and my heart bioLe, 
And from its inmost depths there came a cry, 
' My Father ! oh, my Father, smile on me \ ' 
And the Great Father smiled. 

At the office of the Sunday School Union is 
issued The Golden EaU, of which the numbers for 
1901 he handsomely bound before us. It is the 
second volume of the new series, and at least in 
illustration is clearly making progress. 

KS. S. Unii/n. Svo. pp. 376. 2s. 6d. net.) 

The Notes are on the ' International ' Lessons. 
They are anonymous, as usual, but their author or 
authors need not be ashamed to own them, for 
they combine instruction with unction. The 
books of reference test the learning of these writers, 
and they stand the lest. The illustrations are not 
many, but really illustrative. 

What a Young IVifi ought lo Know is one of 
the 'Self and Sex Series,' published by the Vir 
Publishing Company. Its author is Mrs. Emma 
F. Angell Drake, M.D. (4s. net). 

Messrs. Williams & Norgate have published 
four (is.) volumes by the Rev. George Henslow, 
M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. Their titles are: (i) Christ 

no Product of Evolution; (2) The Argument of 
Adaptation ; (3) The At-one-ment ; and (4) Spiritual 
Teachings of Bible Plants. 

AUGUSTINE. Bv Atwi.l' lUttNACK. {.WilliiuHS 
& Norgate. Fcap. Svo, pp. 171. 4s.} 

Those two popular lectures have been well 
translated by E. E. Kellett, M.A., and F. H. 
Marseille, Ph.D., M.A. They are as brilliant in 
their reach of vision, as confident in their sweep of 
conclusion, as anything Professor Harnack has 
written. They look into the very heart of their 
two momentous subjects, or seem to do so ; and 
they spoil none of their impressions by hesitating 
to praise or blame. The risk to the reader is that 
he^ets himself be carried away, his thought stifled 
rather than stimulated. But it is his own fault 
As for Harnack, he writes so that, ev^r, p/ter, his 
writings must be reckoned with. c') 



'$6e (Stan Christ 3<Bue." 

When Ecce Homo was published the criticism 
most immediately uttered upon it was thai its 
author seemed to know no Jesus but the earthly, 
and replies with the title Ecce Deus were speedily 
written. Mr. Dawson challenges that recotlection 
with his title TX^ Man Christ Jtius. But, unlike 
Professor Seeley, he at once puts doubt aside by 
his preface. He confesses that he chose the title 
in order to express his purpose by writing a life of 
Christ upon the earth — 'the human life of Jesus 
as it appeared to his contemporaries.' He con- 
fesses that 'it did at one lime seem possible to 
write a life of Christ from the sole point of view of 
its human grace and efficiency.' But it could not 
be. As the life unfolded itself before his mind, 
'it produced a conviction, at once profound, 
gradual, and irresistible, that in the very nature 
of the story itself, and therefore in the nature of 
Christ, were elements entirely incommensurate 
with the limits of the human.' So the attempt 
was abandoned, and this book also was written, 
'that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the 
Son of God, and that believing ye might have life 
through His name.' 

And yet the mind which first conceived the 
abandoned idea showed its inclination thereby. 
Jesus is the Son of God, but (to use the phrase 
popularly though illegitimately) He is mostly the 
Son of Man. The thought of the ' contemporaries ' 
has never been altogether absent. All matters 
that touch the theology or the philosophy of the 
life of Christ are set aside. If the divine would 
not be ignored, it comes in as naturally as the 
human ; it comes into and gets absorbed by the 
human, so that it Is still the Christ who became 
Hesh and dwelt among us. What Mr. Dawson set 
out to do he has actually accomplished, though he 
has accomphshed more than that. His life of 
Christ is a life of Jesus the Son of God as He 
appeared upon the earth. 

There is ability and much originality manifested 
as the book proceeds. Neither exegesis nor 
estimate is ever conventional. Sometimes one 
hesitates, sometimes one dissents at once. Two 
matters are touched on elsewhere, others may 
follow. But the great result is the picture of 
i w. J. 

Jesus. That is worthy of its subject ; and how 
rarely is it possible to say so much. 

The eight reproductions of famous pictures are 
very fine, a feature in keeping with the contents 
of the book. 

' Ofb Testament J^istorg.* 

Under this simple title there has been pub 
Hshed by Messrs. Methuen in crown 8vo, at 
the price of six shillings, a new history of the 
Israelites under the Old Covenant, The author 
is the Rev. G. Woosung Wade, D.D., of St. 
David's College, Lampeter, who is perhaps 
remembered by his recent Commentary on 
Genesis. Dr. Wade is a critic — for that is the 
first matter we must refer to — occupying very 
nearly the position of Piepenbring, or, let us 
say, of Driver and Ryle in England. It is the 
position towards which even Continental scholar- 
ship is settling. 

From that standpoint Dr. Wade surveys the 
whole of the Old Testament history with a minute- 
ness that is surprising for a volume of so convenient 
a size as this. He gains space, however, by fre- 
quently throwing subordinate matter into small 
type. In spite of all that has been written upon 
it of late, the part that most needs minute descrip- 
tion is the earliest period of all, — the prehistoric 
and patriarchal period,^and it is with extreme 
pleasure that we find Dr. Wade giving that period 
his closest scrutiny and care. The spirit with 
which these delightful but difficult early narratives 
are handled Is most commendable, and the desire 
to get at the narrator's thought is an evident sign 
of a truly scientific mind. Some historians pass 
all this by as unhistorical ; we see here how 
greatly they miss the purpose of true history in 
doing so. 

Dr. Wade has not written for schools or colleges 
as Mr. Otlley did. He has written rather for 
preachers and for those who desire to learn the 
truth according to the modern scholar, whether 
they have to preach it to others or not. His book 
is a history to be read, not a class-book to be 
conned. If it gets recognized,— and we think it 
will get recognized, — there is much probability that 
it will commend the moderate criticism of the 
Old Testament as few books have yet been able 


It will not be claimed that Dr. Watson's life of 
Christ compares with Dr. Edersheim's in learning, 
or with Dr. Farrar's in picturesqueness. But it is 
his own. It has the stamp of his own special 
genius. It cannot pass unnoticed. 

As befitting the subject, he has given himself to 
his task with a serious purpose, that he may get 
beyond momentary effects, may even rise out of 
the region of that humour which was the charro of 
his earlier writings, but which depended for its very 
existence upon human frailty. He has sought 
earnestly to dwell apart with his great theme ; he 
has spent some days upon the mountain and seen 
the glory, 

But yet he returns to the earth to tell what he 
has seen and heard. His interest is among men, 
among men of to-day, and, unconsciously perhaps, 
his Christ is not the Christ of Galilee, but of 
London and Liverpool and Edinburgh. He 
speaks of the Samaritans. They are not the 
Samaritans of our Lord's day. Them he some- 
what misapprehends, and the Jewish attitude 
towards them. They are the heretics of our time, 
' When a Jew desired to express his dislike to any 

' Tie lift 0/ lAe Afastfr. By John Walion, D.D. Hodder 
& Stoughton. Imp. Svo, pp. 311, with l& illustrations in 
colour by C. K. Linson. 255. net. 

man with whose theolt^y he did not agree, he 
called him a Samaritan— just as religious people 
of our day are apt to call any teacher a Unitarian 
who does not hold their theory of the Atonement.' 
This was not the way of the Jews with their 
heretics, it is the way of the Church now. Jesus 
lives and moves among us now, the human Jesus, 
and His surroundings have the spirit, and some- 
times all things but the name, of our modem 
Western nations. 

This gives the book its character. This is Ian 
Maciaren. And is it not the accomplishment — on 
a large scale, and with conspicuous ability — of 
that which every preacher tries to do in every 
sermon ? What is our business but this, when we 
touch the incarnate Christ at all? To dress Him 
in the unseemly garments of a Jew of the ttrst 
century — as Renan tried to do, till Renan's en- 
graver unintentionally turned the attempt to 
ridicule — is to contradict the Gospels, not to 
reproduce them. Even the human Jesus wears no 
sandals. He condescends to human fashion, that 
He may be flesh of Abraham's flesh and mine. 

The publishers have recognized the worth of 
this book. Its sixteen coloured plates are a 
challenge to the eye, through which they feed the 
mind gradually. All else is of generous quality. 
It is a gift beyond the reach of most, but by the 
receiver to be greatly cherished. 

ConiviSutione <in^ Commtnte* 


In the current number of the Jf^ue Biblique 
(October) Pfere Lagrange has written a full and 
searching article on the Moabite Stone. Like 
everything that comes from that accomplished 
scholar, this contribution is distinguished by 
equal learning and lucidity. But on two rather 
fundamental points it may be questioned whether 
his arguments will carry conviction, (i) There is 
the familiar difficulty: How comes it that Mesha' 
can say 'and I made this sanctuary {bSmath) to 
Kemosh in Qorhah "' (Moab. St. 1. 3), when, as 
' I.e. nirjfl ; so Lagringe, chiefly on account of Ihe LXX 
reading in Jer 48 (LXX 31)", see below. But (he pro- 

a matter of fact, the Stone, which is thus associated 
with the sanctuary, was found at Didon, in its 
original position, as is generally agreed ? Various 
explanations of the difficulty have been suggested : 
e.g. Qorhah was the citadel or acropolis of Dibon 
( Clermont- Can neau) — this is inconsistent with the 
terms of 1. zi f. ; or, Qorhah was the name of a 
place in the district of Dibon (Nordlander, Imchr. 
KBn. Mesa, 1890) — this is inconsistent with the 
usage of the O.T., where Dibon is always the 
name of a city. Lagrange offers a new suggestion. 
He renders 1. 3, 'and I made this sanctuary to 
Kemosh-of-Qorbah,* ;'.*. Mesha' dedicated in his 
native town of Dibon an altar to the Kemosh of 

; peihaps ii 

1 .UTip, like 



another town, where, as we shall see, Lagrange 
supposes that he was marvellously delivered from 
a desperate situation. In support of his render- 
ing, Lagrange quotes from a Phcenician inscription 
found in Sardinia the expression DVrtU a^vyA 
(«V), 'to Ba'al-shamem in the Isle of Hawks' 
{C./.S. i. 139) ; we may add the similar expres- 
sions, Viita '?30 f\i:rh 'to Reshcf of Mukl in 
Idalton' {C./.S. i. 90), and maa nne' 'Sahar (the 
Moon-god) in Nerab ' (from the Aramaic inscr. 
Nirab i. I. a). This particular idiom is used to 
indicate that the cult of a foreign or distant deily 
has been transplanted from its native home to 
another place ; * Ba'al-shamem had been intro- 
duced from the Phcenician mother-country into 
Sardinia, Apollo of Amyklse (probably =^D t)en) 
from Greece into Cyprus, the Moon^od (Sin) 
of Harran into Northern Syria. But is there any- 
thing of this in nmp3 IP03^? The expression 
used by Lagrange to support his rendering is 
not to the point. And we may go further and 
say that the notion of Mesha' dedicating in Dibon 
a sanctuary to the Kemosh of another place is out 
of keeping with the religious ideas of the time, so 
far as we know them. Kemosh was the national 
god of Moab ; the whole country worshipped him ; 
he was at home in every town of it ; and we can 
no more imagine a Moabite making such a dedica- 
tion than we can imagine an Israelite of the period 
building, say at Bethel, an altar to the Yahveh of 
Jerusalem. Lagrange's suggestion has indeed the 
merit of getting rid of the difficulty noticed above ; 
but it is safer, after all, to fall back upon Nord- 
lander's view, that Qorhah was the name of a place 
in Dibon. It is true, the O.T. is against treating 
Dibon otherwise than as the name of a town ; but 
local usage in Moab itself may have been different, 
and certainly the language of I. ai (cf. II. 28, 19) 
is more applicable to a district than to a city. 

(j) Qorhah is identified by Lagrange with Qir- 
bares(eth) of the O.T., Is i6'- ", Jer 48s'- 5», a K 3=*. 
He regards ntsnn tp as a corrupted or misunder- 
stood form of nnn Tp, i.e. New Town, LXX 
Is ifP ^t<Tt9. "tcij^os (ftKotViCT-as,' and Qorhah 
as its ancient name. The idem iticat ion is based 

' In ■ newly-discovered inscription from Caithage mnosb 
paSi nin'n (IJzbarski, Ephimerii, i. 24), in the Neo-punic 
inscription of Aliiburos PT3n^3 [cn ^ya yivS, and in ihe 
Nibatsean inscription C.l.S. ii. 182, nn'wH n . . . jhih (218, 
it*na3 n injidS i» uncertain), this appears not to be the CMe ; 
Ihe native deities ate tesidinf; in (a) their native place. 

' So Cheyne, Enty. Bibl. col. 2676. 

upon the following grounds : (a) Qir-hareseth was 
the capital of Moab, 2 K 3^, and Qorhah was the 
capital too, because Mesha' built a palace there, 
II. 2 if., 24; (b) Mesha" was besieged in Qir- 
hareseth, and the measures which he took at 
Qorhah suggest a siege; they resemble those 
taken by Hezekiah when Jerusalem was threatened 
by the Assyrian advance, 2 Ch ja^"*' '" ; {c) Mesha' 
sacrificed his son at Qir-tjareseth, thus obtaining 
the favour of Kemosh ; hence he dedicates a 
sanctuary to the deity of the place where he was 
delivered. It may be doubted whether these 
arguments are conclusive. The mere fact that 
Qorhah became the seat of Mesha"s palace hardly 
proves that it became the capital of the country, 
any more than Timah was the capital of Israel 
because Jeroboam and other kings resided there, 
I K 14" ij^i-ss etc. (cf. Shechem, also a royal 
residence, 1 K 12^). The second argument about 
the siege-works does not lead us very far. The 
impression one gains from the account of the 
fortifications and cisterns at Qorliah (I. 21 ff.) is 
that they were made, not before or during a siege, 
but as precautions against possible dangers in the 
future. However, this is only an impression ; we 
cannot be sure that the Stone follows any chrono- 
Ic^ical order in the events which it commemorates. 
The third argument has been dealt with above (r). 

There is one further point which has special 
importance for the proposed identification of the 
two places — the rendering of the LXX in Jer. 48 
(LXX 31)*' €5r' JvSpas «(p<iSa9 (<«8apat. A) + 
aiJ;(;tov = tnn Tp 'B'JK ^. This rendering seems 
to Lagrange to require an original nmp 'tPlN ' men 
of Qorhah,' which was misunderstood to mean 
'men of baldness,' or 'of shaven heads' (Is. 15' 
etc. ). But surely is merely a transliteration 
of tPin Vp, with T for ^ — a transliteration which 
was made to have some sense fairly suitable to 
the context. Aquila and Symmachus witness to 
the M.T. by their version, hr Sv^i toC^ov oorpo- 
KiVou. Qir-bares(eth) = Qir-Moab is generally 
identified with Kerak' (so Targ. on Is and Jer, 
loa Ht.) ; but it must not be supposed that there 
is any etymological connexion between Kerak 
and Qorhah. Noldeke decided against such a 
view long ago {/nscAr. Kon. Mesa, 8 f ). 

G. A. Cooke. 

* For a recent description oF this and other sites in Moab, 
sec Professor Goutier's delightful narrative, Aii'sitr ,le la 
Alir MorU {\^\\ 62 ff. 


C^titi dni t^e #groi(p5oentciftn 


This story has great difficulties for faith. On its 
surface it is rich in suggestion ; it can be turned to 
great symbolic use. But the central facts of the 
story arc hard to understand. Why did Christ Jesus 
treat this woman as He did ; and what exactly is 
the faith which triumphed in the endi* That is 
the problem, felt keenly by many and loo often 
ignored by the teacher. 

Jesus was in the coasts of Tyre and Sidon. 
There a woman of the country, a pagan woman, 
came to Him beseeching Him to heal her 
daughter. Sorrowing love came to Him as 
naturally as birds to their nest. But the response 
of Jesus differed from all we read elsewhere. He 
answered her not a word. It was no failure in 
sympathy. The importunate crying of this heathen 
woman was the appeal of love; and never was 
Christ's heart deaf to that cry. His sympathy, 
amid His silence, was as keen as, when at home 
and among His kinsfolk of Israel, love made to 
Him its appeal of sorrow. Why, then, was He 
silent? It is usually answered that He meant 
to put her faith to the test. But of what 
moral value was her faith in Him? He was a 
stranger to her, a man of a different religion. The 
only faith in Himself which Christ Jesus could 
honour was surely a faith which came from hear- 
ing the truths He taught, or from marking the 
brotherliness of His perfect life. Faith is a moral 
and spiritual vision, a trust consequent on some 
intuition of goodness. And it is hard to see how 
any hope of help which this heathen woman might 
nourish within her heart could partake of such a 
faith. Besides, we cannot think that the all- 
gentle and all-loving Christ would ever play with 
an anguished heart. He was too simple ever 
to play a part. When Christ Jesus went on 
in silence, was it not because He felt it His 
duty so to do? Our hearts may bleed for 
another's sorrow, and yet our hands do nothing 
because they can do nothing. May ii not well 
have been so with the Master then? We think of 
Him as vested with divine power to use at will; 
we fancy that all He needed to do was to say to 
this woman of Canaan, 'Thy daughter is whole.' 
So the disciples thought when they asked Him to 

grant her request and send her away. But that 
was not the thought of Jesus Himself. He was a 
man under authority — a phrase that knit His soul 
to the soul of the Roman centurion who used it. 
His power was a trust. It was not his to use as 
He pleased, even at the bidding of sympathy or 
love. He came from the Father to do a certain 
work, and this power of healing was part of His 
endowment for that work ; it was the sword girded 
on His thigh by the Father when He sent Him 
forth, to be wielded only in that employ. When 
this woman cried unto Him and His heart went 
out with that perfect sympathy which made all 
human sorrows His own. He was being put to the 
trial as well as she. Though He was a Son, yet 
He learned obedience by the things He suffered. 
To the disciples urging Him to heal the sick 
daughter He said, ' 1 am not sent but unto the lost 
sheep of the house of Israel.' Was it not the 
answer He had given to His own heart when pity 
cried ' Grant her her request ' ? Christ Jesus had to 
school His own emotions of pity. And if to heal 
this woman's daughter by His word of divine power 
was not in the line of His mission, if it would not 
serve that purpose for which in the days of His 
humiliation He was yel thus royally girded, then 
even Jesus the Son of God had to deny Himself 
the luxury of helping this woman and drying her 
sorrow-laden eyes. 

Christ's miracles were in place in His work 
among the lost sheep of Israel. Part of that work 
was to reveal God the Father to men. That 
revelation could only Atly be made in Palestine. 
For there God was already known ; there for 
centuries the revealing word bad travailed with 
the growing knowledge of God. There only 
could the crown be set upon that knowledge. 
The fitful and partial voices of the past which 
spelled out the name of God were completed 
when He who is the brightness of God's glory 
and the express image of His person, the very 
Word of God, uttered Himself. And all His 
works of power were parts of that completing 
revelation; they only had their meaning there. 
God was known in Palestine, though dimly. 
When Jesus healed the sick in Galilee, when all 
in trouble cried to Him and He delighted to help, 
it was one glorious trait to add lo their thought of 
Jehovah, the trait of an infinite love yearning over 
all burdened and sorrowing ones. His miracles 
of mercy were part of His gospel of the Father's 



love; they stamped with thedJvinc seal His teach- 
ing of the Fatherhood of God. But they needed 
for their foundation all the knowledge of God's 
holiness and inflexible purity and justice which 
the chequered history of the past had made 
known to them. Only in the framework of 
Judaism had these works a living voice ; only to 
those who knew Jehovah did they bring their 
message of eternal hope and joy. 

It was different in ihe coasts of Sidon. Miracles 
there had no enfranchising light, rather the 
opposite. It was easy for this heathen woman, 
with her country's faith in magic and sorcery and 
witchcraft, to believe that this stranger could heal 
her daughter. And had Jesus simply healed her 
in pity, would He not have riveted ihat superstition 
more strongly on mind and heart? If so, was it 
not His duty to refrain ? It seems to our unthink- 
ing hearts as if the tender soul of Jesus could not 
see a human grief without assuaging it. But God 
forbears every day and every hour. How many a 
mother from one end of the world to the other 
cries to heaven to succour a dying child, and yet 
nature goes along its law -appointed course! 
Surely God on high hears the cry, and yet the help 
Jesus gave in the towns of Galilee is not given; 
the child sickens more, and dies. We can only 
say that in the counsels of God it is known to be 
best not to give the prayed-for help, and the loving 
heart of the Father therefore forbears. When 
Jesus heard the cry of that stricken mother, His 
heart felt for her though she was not of His kins- 
folk of Israel ; but it was only within the shelter 
of the ancient revelation of God that His divine 
power was at the mercy of His love, and He was 
ever faithful to His trust. His heart was strong 
enough to deny His own sympathy its desire, if 
need be, and hold back the divine power that was 

But yet her daughter was healed. How was the 
difficulty overcome ? The woman would not take 
a denial. She came nearer and worshipped, say- 
ing, ' Lord, help me.' Then Jesus spoke to her. 
He turned upon her those eyes eloquent of fullest 
sympathy, and said, 'It is not meet to take the 
children's bread, and cast it to the little dogs.' 
And she answered, ' Yea, Lord : for these dogs 
eat of the crumbs which fall from their master's 
table.' And that answer brought her her desire ; 
Jesus said, *0 woman, great is thy faith: be it 
unto thee even as thou wilt.' 

What was this faith which enabled Christ Jesus 
to grant her request ? 

There was in her importunacy a confidence in 
that brotherly kindness which she read in Christ's 
look, a faith in His willingness to help a sorrowing 
fellow-creature which divined the hand held out 
behind the seeming rebuff. And there was a 
humility of love which made her ready to take the 
lower place which He showed. These brought 
her into the right position. 

Doubtless she heard Him say that His mission 
was only to the lost sheep of Israel. And the 
teachable spirit of love, yearning after its need, 
showed her her position in the eyes of this 
Prophet. The children gather round the table, 
but the dogs of the household are there too; and 
the care that broods over the children embraces 
the dogs' needs also. Israel might be in a sense 
the children at God's table, the people brought 
nearest God ; but other nations are fed from 
God's table too. Would not this Prophet of 
Israel, servant of Israel's God, own this and with- 
hold not the crumbs of His loving care? 

That vision unsealed the divine power of Jesus. 
It brought His work within the shadow of the 
ancient revelation and gave it the fulness of 
meaning which is a miracle's sanction. It was 
then no soothsayer's or magician's spell of might, 
but a work of Jehovah, God of Israel, a portion of 
God's feast of love going on there. And the 
woman knew ii as such. The best of earth's 
blessings, she learned, were to be had at the table 
where Israel was fed. For that was the table of 
the Uving God. That knowledge might bring her 
in gratitude and thankfulness to inquire about the 
God of Israel and feed on the bread of life there 
broken for the children, a good to her own soul 
and to all her neighbours in that foreign land, who- 
might learn from her the news of a Father in, 
heaven. Richard Glaister. 

5/. CHtkberl-s Mame, Kirkcudbrigkl. 

While agreeing with the Rev. P. G. Cholmondeley 
in your last month's issue, that 'in considering 
this narrative of the woman of Canaan, sufficient 
attention has not been given to the fact of her 
addressing our Lord as " Son of David," ' I do not 
agree with his exposition of Christ's reply. 

Briefly : the woman regards herself as an out- 



aider, with no claim upon the 'Son of David.' 
She throws herself upon His 'mercy* (v.^), or 
pity. As ' Son of David,' He replies that He has 
only to do with ' Israel.' She can only fall at His 
feet — ' Help me. Lord.' Then He gives her 
woman wit a chance of seizing a wider relationship, 
— the little household dogs have a place in the 
home, — and she promptly takes it. The bond is 
knit, He is more than ' Son of David ' to her now ; 
and to Him she, a woman of such keen spiritual 
discernment, has become one of His true Israelites 
(cf. 8"). 

Had He granted her request at first, He would 
have remained for her the ' Son of David,' who 
' passed by ' one day and let a blessing fall ; a 
wonder-worker from another land. Now He will 
henceforth be her Lord, and she will 'sit down in 
His Kingdom,' at home. 

F. Warburton Lewis. 

©ouBffuf JgeBKW Trot»«. 

Our soundest authority {Heir. English Lexicon, 
Oxford) says that the actual meaning and ety- 
mology of narw {2 S 6", 1 Ch i63) are unknown. 
I should compare it with the Egyptian sefer, 'a 
rib* (Brugsch, Thesaurus, p. 1201), with a pros- 
thetic »; this seems to suit the context. 

The puzzling ;3, D32, or D33 (Ex 8''^ al.) one 

might perhaps refer to the Hausa L<>£, U^, flea 
{C H. Robinson, Hau$a Diet. pp. 128, 132). 

The word nsip (Is ss"), which the editors of 
the Oxford Lexicon (Part ix., 1900) have not been 
able to trace to any of the other Semitic languages, 
is found in an Egyptian inscription of the 
Ptolemaic period, where it stands as srpd in a 
list of plants. Brugsch identifies it with Pliny's 
saripha, an edible kind of papyrus {Thesaurus 
Inscriptionum ^gyptiaearum, iii. p. 605). 

The problematic rtno (Job 38^) G. Hoffmann 
(Hiob, 1891) has ingeniously explained as follows : 
— Pointing the word n^np, he equates it with the 
Egyptian dhuti, Thoth ; and as the Greeks and 
Romans identihed this god with Hermes, 
Mercury, Hoffmann takes nifiD to mean the 
planet Mercury. This hypothesis is, however, 
quite untenable, because in the Egyptian lists of 
the planets, of all the periods known at present, 

namely, the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties 
and the Ptolemaic and Roman, Mercury is never 
called 4h^f'\ liut Sebgu, Seiko (Brugsch, op. cit. i. 
pp. 65-71). N. Herz. 

Naciney, N.E. 

of i^t %trot. 

In notes contributed to this magazine and else- 
where I have made myself responsible for the 
assertion that the Jews had no written literature 
besides the Bible for a series of centuries ending 
well within the Mohammedan era. This propo- 
sition seems to me to be based on irrefragable 
evidence, (i) The assertion of Rashi (cii. 1105), 
on B. Mezia, 33a, that the writing of the Gemara 
was commenced in ' his own generations,' coupled 
with his statement on Gittin, 60a, that the Tal- 
mudists were allowed to write nothing of any sort. 
(2) The assertion of R. Semach GaonofSora, about 
the year 880 a.d. (in Eldad Ha-Dani, ed. Epstein, 
p. 7, No. 16), that the Mishnah was not, like the 
Bible, fixed in writing, but was loose (noniDD). 
{3) The assertion of R. Sherira Gaon, near the 
year 1000 A.D., in reply to the question how the 
Mishnah and Gemara were written, that they were 
not written at all, but handed down orally. This 
chain of witnesses, all men who thoroughly 
understood the business, makes it certain that 
Jewish non-biblical literature began to be written 
at the close of the ninth century a.d. And this 
result is confirmed in many ways. The Arabic 
writer Jahiz, who died in 868 a.d., declared that 
the Jews had no literature ; but the author of the 
Fihrist, near the year 1000 a.d,, is acquainted 
whh a written Mishnah, while AI-Biruni, his con- 
temporary, is acquainted with the Seder Olam. 
And the letter of R. Sherira, which in its original 
form (published by B. Goldberg, 1845) is quite 
consistent, was interpolated so as to make it ap- 
pear that in this writer's opinion the Mishnah and 
Talmud were written by their compilers, though 
he expressly states that they were not. This 
dehberate falsification of evidence makes it clear 
that many had an interest in maintaining that the 
non-biblical literature had been committed to 
writing earlier than was really the case, and invali- 
dates the testimony of such writers as the trans- 



Ulor of the Mqfteach of R. Nissim (of the eleventh 
century), who asseit what the interpolated letter of 
Sherira asserts. 

I have endeavoured to collect arguments which 
are advanced in favour of Ihe supposition that 
this non-biblical literature is earlier (in its written 
form) than 880 a.d. Some of these are too weak 
to be worth consideration : as such we may brand 
one of Weiss in his preface to Sifra, based on the 
readings which the Midrash Rabbah says were to 
be found in R. Melt's copy of the Law. From 
these we cannot infer more than that some of the 
copies of the Law were corrupt. The Midrash 
(on Exodus, sec. 47) declares as plainly as possible 
that neither Mishnah, Halachah, nor Aggadah 
were given in writing. 

A rather more interesting observation is that 
made by Epstein {I.e. p. xv), that Mairaonides, 
Hikoih Malwek, sec. 15, No. 2, states that he had 
found copies of part of the Gemara written on 
parchment as they used to write some 500 years 
before his time: this would be about 675 a.d. 
The question is whether Maimonides' palteo- 
graphical knowledge was sufficient to secure him 
from making a mistake of some 250 years. He 
does not say that the copies were of the seventh 
century, but written in the style in use in the 
seventh century. 

Another argument of some interest is urged in 
the work of Dr. Adolf Schwarz, Der Hermemutisckt 
Syllogismus in der Taimudischen Litteratur (1901), 
pp. 46-48, Comparing a passage of Sifra with 
another of similar import in B. Menachoth, 5b, he 
argues that the words nnairn Dtt ttn must have 
been misunderstood by authorities of the third 
century a.d., and that this misunderstanding must 
have been due to a written copy, and could not 
have arisen in oral teaching. These words, he 
says, mean 'this argument is already refuted,' and 
were wrongly interpreted as a conditional sentence 
by the authorities cited in the Bab. Gemara, The 
word DK, which stands for 'a rebutter,' because 
such arguments were regularly introduced by that 
word, was wrongly understood as the conditional 
'if.' This error, he thinks, could only have been 
committed if a written text were used. 

I should wish to speak respectfully of the author 
of this work, from which 1 have learned much. 
But it seems improbable that his rendering of the 
words nrunn dm ttn will find general acceptance ; 
the commentators on the Sifra seem to take the 
DK conditionally, as did the Talmudic authorities. 
And whether they mean 'you have refuted this 
rebutter ' or ' supposing that you can refute this' 
makes little difference to the sense. Hence I do 
not think the Talmudic authorities can be justly 
accused of having mistaken the meaning of the 

The doctrine, moreover, that the sense of words 

could not be lost in oral tradition is difficult to 
accept. Mistakes which can be attributed to script 
and not to oral tradition would seem to consist 
chiefly in cases where letters are alike in writing 
but not alike in sound. The differences of tra- 
dition recorded in the Talmud ate ordinarily 
where letters are indistinguishable in sound but 
unlike in writing. Thus several traditions are 
variously recited with tliph and 'ayin, in which the 
variety is due to certain reporters being unable to 
pronounce the latter sound. But, difHcult as it is 
for us to reproduce in thought a lime when large 
quantities of sayings were communicated orally 
for learning by heart, we are only following the 
guidance of the Gemara if we suppose that any 
number of errors can introduce themselves in the 

A passage that seems at first sight to make for 
written Aggadahs is B. Ckullin, 60b, where Rab 
Chesda is twice quoted as inviting R. Tachlifa 
to write down strange words in his Aggadah and 
explain them. Like most Talmudic passages, this 
collapses when one tries to build anything on it. 
Many authorities read 'in your letter' (^n•l'^{) for 
'in your Aggadah' (^n^3N). The commentators 
think that letters and Aggadahs are both fit places 
for strange words; but it looks rather as if the 
reference were to a collection q( glosses, or difficult 
words, which R. Tachlifa was making. What is 
remarkable is that the author of the Aruch (about 
1070 A.D.), in dealing with this passage, lets us 
know that the oral tradition of the Talmud was 
still living: 'I heard from the mouth of R. 
Mosheh Ha-Darshan of Narbonne, "pnjns nira b'T 
"l^C mjna,' i.e. a form of the tradition different 
from that which the ordinary texts have. If the 
oral tradition was not extinct in the laiier half of 
the eleventh century, we may be sure that Rashi's 
date for the commencement of writing is not far out. 

Among the passages adduced by Weiss, l.c., is 
onefrom yeiamt>lA, t 2b. R. Jochanan is informed 
by Rish Lakish that R. Eleazar B. Ptdath has a 
Mishnah of bis own on Leviticus. He (R. 
Jochanan or Rish Lakish) 'went out, learned it 
(n'jn) in three days, and got to understand it 
(mno) in three months.' If it was not in a book, 
asks Weiss, why are we not told of whom he 
learned it? The test implies that he learned it 
of R, Eleazar. We should rather ask why, if it 

i in a book, R, Jochanan learned it for three 
days before he understood it. This learning for 
three days must mean 'committed it to memory'; 
I have met many Indians who have learned books 
by heart before they understood any of their con- 
tents. Hence it seems clear ihat this passage 
implies the opposite of what Weiss supposed it 
to imply. For the above translation Lamperonti 
{s.v. psi) and Levy (s.v. laD) are responsible. 

Another passage adduced by Weiss is mGittin. 



44a. 'Said R. Jeremiah to R. Zarika, "Go and 
study (rv) in your Mechilia." He went out, 
examined carefully (pi), and found Ihat ihere was 
a tradition,' etc. The question whether this 
contains an allusion to books must depend on the 
sense of the words rendered 'study' and 'ex- 
amine carefully.' The former word, according to 
Levy, only means 'nachdenken,' to see with the 
mentai eye; and Kohut, who thinks it can have 
the sense to see with the physical eye, quotes for 
this sense evidence which is quoted by Levy for the 
opposite purpose. Hence it is impossible to argue 
from this word that the Mcchilta was written, and 
still less from the word meanmg 'to examine care- 
fully." It looks rather as if the compiler of the 
passage had taken trouble to avoid words that 
could suggest a written book. 

I do not think Rashi infallible, but on Talmudic 
matters he seems a lirst-rate authority, and there- 
fore there is no probability of bis words on B. 

Mezia being due to error or inadvertence. De 
Coucy (cire. 1240) in the preface to his Great 
Code places a whole epoch between the com- 
pletion of the Talmud in the fifth century and its 
being written down. He agrees, therefore, with 
Rashi, though from the vagueness of his language 
it is hard to say how long he supposed the epoch 
to have been. Whether it follows (as was sug- 
gested in this magazine) that the division of the 
matter into Orders was also post-Mohammedan is 
not so certain ; but a Responsum, assigned to Hai 
Gaon (Livorno collection, near the end), speaks of 
the six Orders of the Mishnah having been de- 
stroyed (irJJntc) in the days of Hill el and Shammai, 
and (apparently) having just come to light. 
Should I come across any further argument 
against Rashi's view, I shall communicate ibera to 
this magazine. 

D. S. MARcoLiotrrH. 

i&nfrt (Tlou0. 

This is the month of the greatest literary 
output. More and more the publishing season 
gets contracted. November and March see half 
the books of the year issued. 

The chief feature of the season in the biblical 
way is the issue of three ' Lives ' of Christ One 
is the result of a co-operative movement, the 
other two are highly individual and independent. 
But they are all characterized by their determina- 
tion to be modern. Our Lord is not treated as 
an object of study; He has to do with life, with 
our life, and there does not seem to be any 
department of life that He is kept out of. 

This is the season still for giving and receiving. 
Now if a book may be recommended that is 
artistic enough to please everybody, good enough 
to do good to everybody, young enough to be 
enjoyed by the young, fresh enough to instruct 
the old, the book is Abb^ le Camus's The Children 
of Nazareth {^z). It reached and charmed us in 
its French edition, but Lady Herbert's translation 
is better for the purpose. And there is no doubt 
that the illustrations come out keener, because the 
paper is so smooth and good. They are very 
attractive and homely, scattered all over the page. 

Abb^ le Camus went to Nazareth to see the 
children before he began to describe them. 
Which recalls a story the Literary World tells. 
It is the story of a camel. Three men of different 
nations were told off to describe it. The English- 
man went out to Egypt to observe its habits ; the 

Frenchman went home and wrote charmingly of 
many things, among which the camel was men- 
tioned near the end; the German entered a 
public library, gathered the authorities tc^ethcr, 
and is still working at the subject. But in the 
case before us it was the Frenchman that went to 
see his subject, 

Abb^ le Camus came in too late for the 
regular review, and so did the usual three books 
of the Church of England S.S. Institute. But 
they too must be mentioned this month, the 
next would be too late. They are; (i) the 
volume for 1901 of The Church Worker; the 
same of The Beys' and Girls' Companion, and Mr. 
Resker's course of illustrative lessons which he 
calls Biiile Scenes and Pictures. There is also this 
year a small volume of elementary lessons on the 
Book of Common Prayer, by the Rev. John 
Dickenson, with the title of The Child and the 
Prayer Book. 

The fourth volume of the Dictionary of the 
Bible is nearly ready, but it cannot be published 
till the spring. It will be found, we think, the 
finest of the four. There are great articles by 
Dr. Sanday, Dr. Driver, Dr. Davidson, and many 

Printed by MossisoN & GiSB Liuitcd, T«nfield WoAi, 
Mid PabiUhed by T. & T. C1.ARK, 38 Georee Stnel, 
Edintnirgh. It it requMicd that all tilenrr coo- 
municMioiu be addieued to Thb Edttok, St. Cyrus, 



Qtofeet of (S^tttnt ^}cpoeition. 

When St. Paul addressed the Athenians on Mars 
Hill, he said that God ' hath appointed a day, in 
the which He will judge the world in righteousness 
by that man whom He hath ordained.' Is it legiti- 
mate in reading that verse to emphasize the word 
man t We do not mean in order to distinguish it 
from God. We mean in order to distinguish it 
from the beasts. 

Dr. Matheson does so. He sends us a Christmas 
message out of his retirement, calling it The Sceptre 
without a Sword (CXaiVe:, is.). He finds it in the 
prophecies of the Boole of Daniel. In the seven- 
teenth chapter of that book there occur the words, 
'I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like 
a son of man came with the clouds of heaven. . . . 
And there was given him a kingdom.' He under- 
stands these words to be a prophecy of the reign 
of man as opposed to the reign of the beast 

Hitherto, he says, the symbol of imperial power 
had been an animal. First a lion. The lion 
represents the earliest stage of the world's culture 
—'the stage when men roared in the forest and 
wrestled for the prey.' Next a bear. The bear is 
the tenacity of grasp upon the conquered object. 
It is the age of despotism, when an iron hand 
held the wills of men. Then the panther. The 
panther is the symbol of cunning, of subtlety, of 
selfish diplomacy. After that an unnamed beast. 
Vol. XIII.— 5. 

Why unnamed? Because its object is to stamp 
out all distinctions, to be itself the whole world. 
'It is the reign of conventionalism, the rule of 
conformity, the crushing of the individual man. 
The masses alone have life ; ihe unit is nowhere. 
There is room for the thousand, but not for the 
one. There is a place prepared for the nation, 
but not a place for Daniel, not a place for you.' 
At last there comes the man. 

Now all these ages of the world have been. The 
lion has ruled, and the bear and the panther and 
the horned beast. But when Christmas morning 
dawned there came the Man. This, says Dr. 
Matheson, is the message of Christmas. And 
he says that this is also the meaning of St. Paul 
on Mars Hill. Do we think the 'day' of which 
St. Paul spoke was the Judgment Day? Dr. 
Matheson thinks it was Christmas Day. He says 
that St. Paul's message to the Athenians was not 
one of dread but one of hope. Hitherto, ye men 
of Athens, heroism has been measured by con- 
formity to the beast. Has our hero, ye have said, 
the strength of the lion, the grasp of the bear, the 
cunning of the panther? The day is appointed 
which will change all that. The Man has been 
ordained, and henceforth our heroism will be 
tested by a different standard. We shall no 
longer ask, Am I living worthy of C%sar or 


Hannibal or Alexander j but. Am I living worthy 
of Jesus the Christ ? 

Dr. Jafnes H. Moulton of the Leys School, 
Cambridge, is at present contributing to the 
Classical Review some Notes from the Papyri 
in illustration of the grammar of New Testament 
<and similar) Greek. In one of his notes he con- 
firms Deissmann's position regarding the use of 
the Greet preposition tV, with an instrumental 

Deissmann in his Bible Studies (pp. iiS-iao) 
holds that in original Greek hi is never used 
instru men tally. If there is the probability of 
translation from the Hebrew, as in the Gospels 
and the Apocalypse, the iv may be instrumental, 
because then it may be simply a rendering of the 
Hebrew a. But in St. Paul's writings, for example, 
he wilt not admit an instance. 

The instances usually quoted are Ko 15^ and 
I Co 4^'. In the first, 'that ye may with one 
mouth {h/ iv\ a^o^ta-rC) glorify the God and Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ,' he considers that the Iv 
simply stands for in as usual. The Romans, he 
understands, are to glorify God in the mouth, just 
as, according to popular psychology, thoughts 
dwell in the heart. 

The example of 1 Co 4" is more difficult. 
'What will ye?' asks the apostle. 'Shall I come 
unto you with a rod (Iv pa^Sv)" o"' '" 'ove (h/ 
iyawg) ? ' Deissmann concedes that the meaning 
is instrumental, but he believes that the construc- 
tion with iy is used loosely in parallelism with the 
phrase (if iyavj}) following, and cannot properly 
be brought under any grammatical rule. 

With all this Dr. Moulton would probably 
agree. Or if the apparent examples of an instru- 
mental h with the dative cannot be thus indi- 
vidually explained, he would suggest that 'speakers 
of Greek were b^inning to feci that they could 

not trust the dative out alone, and we can under- 
stand,' he says, 'the occasional employment of 
nursemaid iv in places where she would have been 
better left at home, or replaced by (nJv.' 

'Just as to the naturalist the shapings and 
shadings of a beetle's wing are not to be despised, 
so in Hebrew archaeology even minutise, such as 
the exact spelling of a name or the precise date of a 
battle, are worth ascertaining if possible.' So says 
Dr. Gregory Smith in an article in the Guardian for 
a4th December on ' The Psalms and Christianity.' 
His ai^ument is that the Psalms are unaffected 
by dates and names. Exactness and accuracy are 
things to be desired by all lovers of truth ; ^ 
'archaeological details are irrelevant to the Chris- 
tian faith.' 

Even the intention of the Psalmist, Dr. Gregory 
Smith holds, has nothing to do with the Christian's 
application of the words to himself and his own 
surroundings. Moore's exquisite song, 'When he 
who adores thee has left but a name,' may be sung 
with personal feeling by those who have no affec- 
tion for the ' Emerald Isle,' which is directly and 
passionately the poet's subject. And in like 
manner the beautiful words of the iioth Psalm 
(that Psalm 'so often and so hotly- wrangled 
about '), ' He shall drink of the brook in the 
way, therefore shall he lift up the head,' may 
refer originally to some victorious army on its 
march, but to the believer in Christ they suggest 
the refreshing influence of the Holy Spirit be- 
stowed on Christ and on His followers in the 
weary conflict with' evil. The Pharaoh of the 
Psalter may be Rameses or any other — let the 
archaeologists decide that, — to the Christian he 
stands for the enemy of the soul in the increasing 
conflict between good and evil. 

The use of the ' cursing Psalms ' is more diffi- 
cult. Dr. Gregory Smith gets over the difficulty 
by accepting the principle of gradual revelation, 
which 'exculpates the original purport of the 


Maledictions,' and then by taking the Psalmist as 
expressing his abhorrence not of any mortal foe, 
but of the spirits that tempt him from God. In 
that sense 'the execrations cannot be too fierce 
or too pitiless.' 

Most difficult of all to a Christian is the 
Psalmist's occasional assumption of innocence. 
How can he sing the 17th Psalm, 'Thou hast 
proved mine heait; thou hast visited me in the 
night; thou hast tried me, and tindest nothing'? 
Or how shall he sing the iSth, ' I was aleo perfect 
with him, and I kept myself from mine iniquity'? 
Dr. Gregory Smith has an easy answer: 'Through 
the marvellous condescension of the Son of God 
in the Incarnation a Christian is identified with 
the sinless Son of man, and in Him the believer 
is accepted.' 

One of the archxological minutiae which Dr. 
Gregory Smith somewhat depreciates will be found 
in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archae- 
ology for last month. There E. J. Pilcher describes 
a cylinder seal which through an ancient but un- 
known history has come into the possession of 
Mr. Joseph Offord. It is of hematite, and meas- 
ures 33 mm. in length by 15 mm. in diameter. 
It is figured with two conventional scenes, the one 
Babylonian, the other Assyrian; and it originally 
bore a cuneiform inscription in three lines, which 
is now almost entirely obliterated. 

About 400 B.C. the seal fell into the hands of a 
new owner. It was he that obliterated the cunei- 
form. Or if it was partly rubbed off already, he 
completed its obliteration by engraving his name 
in Aramaean across it. His name was Gehazi. 

Never before has the name Gehazi been seen 
outside the Hebrew Scriptures. And even there 
it has been suspected, so un-Hebrew does it seem 
to be, so difficult etymologically, though it may 
mean ' Valley of Vision.' In its place has been 
suggested the simpler Gikoni. But here is Gehazi 
itself in the abbreviated form Gehaz (iMA=tm). 

And so 'this little cylinder is an important con- 
tribution to biblical onomatology.' 

As we write, it is the season when men sing 
' Glory to God in the highest, and peace on earth 
among men of good will.' Was there ever a time 
wherein we desired more earnestly to sing the 
angels' song and found it harder? 

Dr. Matheson says we vex ourselves in vain- 
He says that when we find the angels' song 
so hard to sing, we do not understand its 
meaning; we do not know what we are trying 
to sing. 

' I have always felt,' he says, in the little book 
already noticed, ' that these words had a very pro- 
found meaning — a meaning which our Authorized 
Version has failed to render.' For the Authorized 
Version — and for that matter all the versions 
and all the expositions we know — give the glory to 
God and promise the peace to man. Dr. Mathe- 
son also gives the glory to God. But he says that 
the peace is promised, not to man but to men. 
The angels' song, he says, does not promise peace 
to the earth, but peace to men of good will upon 
earth. It does not promise that nation will not 
still rise against nation. It promises that among 
men, individual men, Christian men, there shall be 
good will, even though they should be standing in 
opposite camps, even though they should be found 
amid the roar of battle. ' The heart of the man 
will beat within the breast of the soldier, and the 
kinship of soul for soul will not be extinguished 
by the kindling of hostile fires.' 

In the timely little book which the Bishop of 
Gloucester has published, urging the use of the 
Revised Version in the service of the Church 
{Addresses on theJievised Version, S.P.C.K., as. 6d.), 
there occurs a reference to one of the rules by 
which the Revision Companies were guided, and 
an explanation is given which alters the aspect 


of that rule as it has hitherto been publicly un- 

It is the first rule of all. It runs ; 'To intro- 
duce as few alterations as possible in the text of 
the Authorized Version consistently with faithful- 
ness.* That is the rule which the Revisers are 
charged with disobeying, and the charge is sup- 
posed to have settled the fate of the Revision. 
Well, they did disobey it. Dr. Ellicott admits that 
they disobeyed it, in the sense in which it is popu- 
larly understood. But he shows that the sense 
in which it is popularly understood is not its 
proper sense. And he seems to say that if it had 
been taken in the popular sense, he at least 
would have refused to work under it. 

It is popularly understood that 'consistently 
with faithfulness ' means ' faithfulness to the general 
sense and spirit of the original.' That is to say, 
if a word or phrase in the Authorized Version did 
not misrepresent the general sense and spirit of 
the Hebrew or the Greek, it was to be allowed 
to stand. If the Revisers had understood the 
rule in that way, tt is certain that we should have 
had a very different revision. But the_ Revisers 
did not understand it in that way. 

Dr. Ellicott admits that some of them did at 
first. He clearly remembers that at one of the 
early meetings of the New Testament Company, 
3 discussion arose as to the, meaning of this word 
'faithfulness.' An alteration on the phraseolc^y 
of the Authorized Version had been suggested. 
Some one objected to it on the ground that the 
language of the Authorized Version sufficiently 
represented the sense of the original. The dis- 
cussion became general. Dr. Lightfoot look an 
earnest part in it. He said that such a Company 
could not be called together again for many years to 
come. Their revision therefore must be thorough. 
If a rendering could be suggested that was more 
accurate and more true to the original than that 
of the Authorized Version, that rendering must 
be adopted. The Company agreed. Again and 

again a suggested rendering was set aside as tin- 
necessary, but only on the ground that it did not 
represent the original more accurately. 'Faith- 
fulness' was taken to mean, in Dr. Ellicott's 
language, 'faithfulness to the original in its plain 
grammatical meaning as elicited by accurate 

'And they sing as it were a new song before the 
throne, and before the four living creatures and the 
elders.' So the prophets prophesied. For the 
Psalms are full of it So it was from age to age in 
Jewry. For every new age found new wonder in 
God and the ways of God, and sang the new song. 
So must it be throughout the Christian ages also. 
For the new song of Christianity is not to be 
learned when we get to 'glory.' It is to be 
learned now and sung now. It is the song of 
the Redeemed, but the Redeemed are to sing it 
upon earth. 

The Redeemed do sing the New Song upon 
earth. When 'they sang an hymn' that night on 
which He was betrayed, before they went out to 
the Mount of Olives, it was no doubt an old 
Jewish hymn they sang, though they had b^un 
to put new meaning into it. But they will not 
be content with Jewish hymns always. Soon 
the New Song was made as well as sung. 

And it is made, as it must be made, to be sung 
'before the throne, and before the four living 
creatures and the elders.' Now the song that it 
has been found most difficult to compose and 
sing is the song before the elders. 

It is Mr. Beeching who says that the difficulty 
in the singing of the New Song is to sing it before 
the elders. Mr. Beeching has published, through 
Messrs. Macmillan, a volume of sermons, calling 
it Inns of Court Sermons {4s. 6d.), because he 
preached the sermons in the Chapel of Lincoln's 
Inn. The title of the first sermon is ' Religious 
Poetry,' and its text is this verse from the 



Apoalypse, Mr. Beeching finds that it has been 
hard to sing the New Song — h&rd, he meuis, to 
compose and sing it — from the first day in which 
(he Redeemed in Christ began to sing it until 
now. But he says it has been hardest to sing it 
before the elders. 

For ' the purpose of all poetry is to illuminate 
our experience of the world ; it is one mctliod of 
interpreting life to us; and the means it employs 
are passion and imaginative thought.' Now it is 
comparatively easy for the Christian to express 
with passion and imaginative thought his delight 
in God — for that is what Mr. Beeching under- 
stands by singing the New Song before the 
throne. And it is comparatively easy to express 
his soul's delight in nature — for that is what Mr. 
Beeching understands by singing the New Song 
before the four living creatures. But when the 
Christian poet seeks to interpret anew to the 
Church the meaning of the life of man — for that 
is how Mr. Beeching understands the singing of 
the New Song before the elders — he finds it very 

It is comparatively easy for the Christian poet 
to express his soul's delight in God. His feelings 
of admiration and hope and love and worship are 
then so simple, that there is little chance of con- 
flict between his passion and his creed. He can 
even take the religious lyrics of the Jewish Church 
and sing them before the throne. The only 
alteration that he has to make upon them, and it 
is enough to make it in thought, is that now he 
sings them not only before the Father and the 
sevenfold Spirit, but also before the Lamb who is 
in the midst of the throne. 

It is comparatively easy also to sing the New 
Song before the four living creatures. For the 
Christian creed is so broad that it takes in the 
heauty of nature. If only the beauty of nature is 
ascribed to God the Christian poet can sympa- 
thize both with Cowper, who lays the greater stress 
on God's transcendence, and also with Wordsworth, 

who lays the greater stress on His immanence. 
He can even sing the song of those poets who are 
not called religious, if they are only true to 
nature. Let them faithfully describe the glory 
that moves them to song — the light that most 
truly is on sea and land for those who have eyes 
to see it — the spirit in things — 

Be il love, light, bannony. 

Odour, or the soul of all 

Which from heaven like dew doth fall — 

let them render this faithfully, and the religious 
man can join in the song and supply the inter- 
pretation that is lacking. For he knows that the 
love and light and harmony are due to the inter- 
penetration of things by the Creator-Spirit of God. 

But it is very difiicult to sing the new song 
when its subject is the life of man. For a true 
song must have passion and imaginative thought. 
And to be a New Song, a Song of the Lamb, it 
must be both fresh felt in passion and fresh dipt 
in thought. 

Passion — deep feeling — alone will not do. It 
is too often considered, says Mr. Beeching, that 
feeling alone is equipment enough for a sacred 
poet. And therefore our hymn-books are full of 
hymns that are not true songs, but only verses. 
They may be the fruit of true experience, they 
may gratefully acknowledge the facts of revealed 
religion ; but they bring no fresh insight to 
recreate the experience, they bring no imagina- 
tion to illuminate the facts. There are many 
emotional verses in our hymnals on our Lord's 
Atonement, but Mr. Beeching asks if any of 
them strike home so deeply or so freshly to our 
heart the old truth that ' God so loved the world,' 
as those lines of Shakespeare — 

Why, all the souls Ihat were were forfeit once ; 
And He (hat might the vantage best have took 
Found out the remedy. 

Now it is not strange that it should be haroest 
to sing the New Song before the elders. There 



are three reasons for it. I'he first reason is 
expressed by St, Paul when he says, 'That is 
not first which is spiritual, but that which is 
natural; and afterwards that which is spiritual.' 
There is a natural explanation of man's life with 
its joy and sorrow, its sin and death, and there is 
a spiritual, aad it is not the spiritual that comes 
first, it is the natural Let it be death that has 
to be explained. When the poet, if he is a Chris- 
tian poet, has time to think upon it, the Christian 
aspect of it occurs to him. ' But at first,' says 
Mr. Beeching, 'when the shock comes, it is not 
the reflective mind that is at work, recalling and 
reconsidering the traditional religious interpreta- 
tion, and perhaps taking fire at that to a re- 
in terprelat ion. It is the imagination that is at 
work, roused by deep feeling. The fact of death 
lies once more in its naked awfulness before 
the poet, as the world lay before Adam, com- 
pelling him to utter the dread name, and shudder- 
ingly he names it. It is the final loss that appals 
bim. The lamp is shattered; the wine is spilt; 
the silver cord is loosed, the golden bowl is 
broken ; the pitcher is broken at the fountain, 
the wheel is broken at the cistern.' 

Those words of Ecclesiasles just quoted are 
poetry, but they are not religion. The verses 
'wrung from the greatest poet of our own day 
by the death of his friend ' — 
Break, break, break, 

At Che foot of thy crags, O Sea ! 
But the tender grace of a day that is dead 
Will never come liack to me — 

those verses also are poetry but they are not 
religion. These are the first thoughts about 
death, and that is not first which is spiritual, but 
that which is natural, and only afterward that 
which is spiritual. 'And the worst is,' says Mr. 
Beeching, ' that before this arrives, the impulse 
to sing has gone.' 

Another reason is that 'the heyday of the 
blood in which the passion is strongest, and the 
imagination most active, is often a day of revolt 

against tradition, and especially against that 
traditional interpretation of the deepest facts of 
life which we call Christianity.' Mr. Beeching 
points to Shelley — ' expelled for the waywardness 
of youth from this University [Mr. Beeching 
preached this sermon first before the University 
of Oxford], but whose sepulchre has lately been 
built in his own college with exceptional honour.' 

And the third reason is that Christianity is 
essentially a religion of joy, but it is the sombre 
aspects of life which appeal to the poetical 
sensibility most keenly. 

The sweetest lODgs are thoie thkt tell 
of siddest thought. 

No doubt the greatest poets, if they are Christians, 
soar above this pessimism or at least rise out of it. 
For the most part, however, says Mr. Beeching, 
they need large space to accomplish it. Milton 
accomplishes it perfectly 'within the sonnet's 
humble plot of ground ' in the famous sonnet on 
his blindness, in which the hne 'They also serve 
who only stand and wait' contains the new 
thought the poet wins for us, and yet has all 
the passion within it of that which has pre- 
ceded — 'the systole and diastole of the poet's 
heart pleading with his Maker.' But it is in the 
space of the epic, or in the drama with its slow 
development, its crisis, its catastrophe, that the 
vindication of the spiritual force of life is most 
successfully accomplished. In the Shakespearean 
drama, says Mr. Beeching, there is no fate — no 
fate, at least, of which man is not master — and no 
laws but the laws of the spirit. 

Messrs. Longmans have published a paper 
which Professor Sanday read in October before 
the Tutors' Association in Oxford on Harnack's 
' IVAa/ II Christianity?' (8vo, is. net). Professor 
Sanday did not read the Paper because there was 
a gap in their programme which the Tutors' 
Association desired to fill up. There are certain 
questions at issue in New Testament criticism 


at present. Harnack's book makes them stand 
out with unwonted clearness. And Professor 
Sanday deliberately chose the book as an oppor- 
tunity of ' taking our bearings ' in regard to them. 

Professor Sanday tinds Harnack's book worthy 
of praise, and he does not grudge to praise it. He 
mentions at once ' its fresh and vivid descriptions, 
its breadth of view, and skilful selection of points, 
its frankness, its genuine enthusiasm, its persistent 
effort to get at the living realities of religion.' The 
nearest parallel he can recall in English is Matthew 
Arnold's theological writings : St. Pavt and Pro- 
teslantism. Literature and Dogma, God and the 
Bible. Harnack's theological training gives him 
an advantage over Matthew Arnold, and, curiously 
enough, his book is also a greater literary success 
than any of Matthew Arnold's, being so much 
more compact and well proportioned. Nor does 
Harnack ever commit himself to unfortunate 
definitions like Matthew Arnold's 'stream of 
tendency which makes for righteousness.' Butj 
on the other hand, Professor Sanday doubts if he 
has anything quite so original as Matthew Arnold's 
account of the doctrine of Necrosis {Die to live /). 

Professor Sanday has read not only Harnack's 
book, but also the criticisms that have been passed 
upon it. They range themselves on opposite sides, 
the Ritschlian organs praising, the Lutheran and 
orthodox condemning. Of the latter Dr. Lemme 
of Heidelberg is most uncompromising. To 
Lemme Harnack's book is simple Nihilism, a 
radical breach with all dogmatic and ecclesiastical 
Christianity. Lemme even challenges Hamack 
to say whether or not he denies the life after 

Professor Sanday is less concerned with the 
Ritschlianism of the book than with its truth. If 
Ritschl and his school should lay stress on the 
tangible facts of present religious experience, he 
will not disapprove, for the Bible represents the 
eternal life as beginning here and now. He will 
rather accept that as an explanation of the little 

attention that Harnack gives in his book to the 
doctrine of immortality, and not blame him for 
denying what he only omits. 

But does Harnack omit the doctrine of a future 
life? Professor Sanday does not think sa He 
quotes one passage. It is, as Dr. Sanday says, so 
une<]uivocal, and it is also so important, as uttered 
by Harnack, that we had belter quote it also. 

'Whatever may have happened at the grave 
and in the matter of the appearances, one thing is 
certain — this Grave was the birthplace of the 
indestructible belief that death is vanquished, that 
there is a life eternal. It is useless to cite Plato ; 
it is useless to point to the Persian religion, and 
the ideas and the literature of later Judaism. All 
that would have perished and has perished ; but 
the certainty of the resurrection and of a life 
eternal which is bound up with the grave in 
Joseph's garden, has not perished, and in the 
conviction that /aus lives we still have those 
hopes of citizenship in an Eternal City which 
make our earthly life worth living and tolerable. 
" He delivered tbem who through fear of death 
were all their lifetime subject to bondage," as the 
writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews confesses.' 

If there are those who say they believe that 
Jesus lives, and mean that He lives merely in His 
influence on the world, they cannot run for shelter 
to Hamack. For, as Dr. Sanday points out, that 
statement is 'not a matter of words and phrases, 
the whole argument requires that the life after 
death should be real.' 

But Professor Sanday is not come altogether to 
bless. He is somewhat disappointed with Har- 
nack's book. He is disappointed in more ways 
than one. He is ready, as he always is ready, to 
emphasize the matters of agreement, and to 
emphasize them first. But he has matters of 
disagreement alsa And he names the principal 
in a sentence. Hamack says that what he offers 
is a 'reduced ' Christianity — a Christianity, that is 
to say, reduced from theological and ecclesiastical 


Christianity. Dr. Sanday believes that it is 
unduly 'reduced.' He finds that in reality it 
consists of the teaching of Jesus and nothing 

And even the teaching of Jesus is unduly 
' reduced.' The Fourth Gospel is excluded. 
' Our authorities,' says Hamack, ' for the message 
which Jesus Christ delivered are — apart from 
certain important statements made by Paul — the 
first three Gospels. Everything that we know, 
independently of these Gospels, about Jesus' 
history and His teaching, may be easily put on a 
small sheet of paper, so little does it come to. In 
particular, the Fourth Gospel, which does not 
emanate or profess to emanate from the Apostle 
John, cannot be taken as an historical authority in 
the ordinary meaning of the word.* 

Dr. Sanday is disap|>oinled with that. He has 
watched for some time 'a certain oscilbtion of 
opinion' regarding the Fourth Gospel. He had 
hoped for another outcome than this. To this he 
enters ' an emphatic protest.' Such an estimate as 
this, he says, has often been asserted, but has 
never been proved. The Fourth Gospel does not 
stand apart in this way. It simply develops 
features in the history and personality of Christ to 
which the other Gospels clearly point. 'On the 
basis of the Fourth Gospel,' says Dr. Sanday, ' St. 
Paul and the primitive Church are intelligible, but 
they are not intelligible otherwise.' He grants 
freedom in the handling — though the amount is 
often exaggerated — that very freedom showing 
that the writer 'must have been in a position of 
command, and very sure of his ground.' And 
this tells for, not against, the beloved disciple. 
After all, 'the indications of trustworthy character 
long ago alleged remain where they were.' And 
the most real objection to the Fourth Gospel ts an 
objection to the supernatural. But to remove the 
supernatural, says Professor Sanday, is to reduce 
all the Christian documents to a chaos. 

Professor Harnack does not remove the super- 

natural. As a Rttschlian he does not make much 
of it. But his position is a distinct advance on 
the older Rationalism. He seems to recognize the 
presence of an exceptional and perhaps unique 
cause, producing exceptional and perhaps unique 
effects. He sees possibilities beyond the range of 
our common experience. And he leaves room for 
the substantial truth of the greater part of the 
narrative. Clearly his language regarding the 
Fourth Gospel is not only unjust to the Fourth 
Gospel, but unjust also to himself. 

If, however, it were right to reduce Christianity 
to the teaching of Jesus, then Dr. Sanday could 
go along with Harnack most of the way. He is 
particulariy pleased with Harnack's doctrine of the 
Kingdom. He quotes : ' The Kingdom of God 
comes by coming to the individual, by entering 
into his soul and laying hold of it. True, the 
Kingdom of God is the rule of God; but it is the 
rule of the holy God in the hearts of individuals; 
it is God himself in Ais power.' He quotes also 
Harnack's description of the triple meaning of the 
Kingdom: 'The Kingdom has a triple meaning. 
Firstly, it is something supernatural, a gift from 
above, not a product of ordinary life. Secondly, it 
is a purely religious blessing, the inner link with 
the living God. Thirdly, it is the most important 
experience that a man can name, that on which 
everything else depends ; it permeates and domin- 
ates his whole existence, because sin is forgiven 
and misery banished.' And 'all that,' he says, ' I 
venture to think is exactly right.' 

But it is not right, and it is not possible, to 
reduce Christianity to the teaching of Jesus. 
And when Harnack comes to deal with the Person 
of Christ, Professor Sanday decidedly parts 
company with him. 

For, in the first place, Harnack wants to have 
a Christianity without a Christology. He would 
have the Christian life without any doctrine as 
to Christ's Person. He is impatient of dogma, 
and even of doctrine in any form. He says that 


to put a 'Christological' creed in the forefront of 
the Gospel and say that men must first learn to 
think rightly about Christ, is to put the cart before 
the horse. And he even declares that the gospel 
(chat is, the message of Jesus, not the Gospels) has 
to do with the Father only and not with the 
Son ; he even asserts that Jesus desired no other 
belief in His Person and no other atuchment 
to it than is contained in the keeping of His 

Dr. Sanday shows that to deny its place to the 
Person of Christ is to disorganize the teaching. 
The teaching about the Kingdom involves the 
Messianic claim. For ' the Messiah is God's Vice- 
gerent in that Kingdom, and it is through Him 
that it is accomplished.' And he further shows 
that Hamack's own language in other parts of his 
book demands a doctrine of the Person of Christ, 
which contradicts these negative assertions. Along 
with other passages, he quotes these words from 
p. 142: 'With the recognition of Jesus as the 
Messiah the closest possible connection was 
established for every devout Jew between Jesus' 
message and His Person ; for it is in the Messiah's 
activity that God Himself comes to His people, and 
th2 Messiah who sits at the right hand of God in 
the clouds of heaven has a right to be wor- 

And, in the next place, Harnack cuts Jesus' 
teaching off from the testimony of the first genera- 
tion of Christians. Not only does he reduce 

Christianity to the teaching of Jesus, he redtices 
it to his own mutilated version of that teaching. 

At first, it is true, he makes a show of appealing 
to the interpretation of the earliest followers of 
Christ He says that we must listen to what the 
first generation of His disciples tell us of the effect 
which He had upon their lives. He even proposes 
to go beyond the f\rst generation. ' We shall follow,' 
he says, ' the leading changes which the Christian 
idea has undergone in the course of history, and 
try to recognize its chief types. What is common 
to all the forms which it has taken, conected by 
reference to the Gospel, and, conversely, the 
chief features of the Gospel, corrected by reference 
to history, will, we may be allowed to hope, bring 
us to the kernel of the matter.' 

But his appeal to history is a promise that is not 
kept. The moment the testimony of the early 
Christians conflicts with Harnack's own theories 
it is overruled. How otherwise could he get rid 
of Christology ? St. Paul has a high Christological 
doctrine of the Person of Jesus, Harnack has not. 
He can only retain his own by rejecting that of St. 
Paul. And thus Harnack misses his grand 
opportunity. For the question of deepest intetest 
at the present time is how far the remaining books 
of the New Testament rightly interpret the data 
contained in the Gospels. Harnack was called 
upon to answer it. He has said much on 
questions of less account. He has not answered 
that question. 

Bv THE Rev. James Moffatt, M.A., B.D., Dundonald, 

The following four hymns are taken from the so- 
called Psalter of Solomon (3, 6, 5, 10), which 
represents the somewhat unskilful Greek version ^ 
of a Hebrew original composed a century or so 

' Piobably made for use in the worship of Greek -speaking 
Jews throughout the Palesliniin lynagogues, though the 
liturgical traces are sonly and indistinct. 

earlier, i.e. 80-40 b.c. The greater part of this 
Psalter, as a whole, reflects the mood of the more 
pious Pharisaic circles in Palestine during the 
years that followed Pompey's siege and capture 
of Jerusalem * in 63 B.C., and the collection forms 
' The giory of the reoovaied earthly Jeiutalem (Ps it"-") 
is partly reproduced in Apoc Jl'"', as is the rule of (he 


a valuable supplement to the later and more ex- 
ternal sketch of the crisis furnished by Josephus. 
The catastrophe of 63 was evidently viewed by 
the stricter Pharisees as a judgment upon the 
country for its offences, especially for the com- 
promising and lax conduct of the Sadducees, their 
hereditary rivals. Naturally, with the fall of the 
Asmoneans, the Sadducees lost their paramount 
influence and position in the councils of the nation. 
Their ruin was hailed by the Pharisees with un- 
disguised delight, and the outburst of indignant 
satisfaction which followed is loudly sounded in 
several of the Solomonic Psalms. Nor was this 
merely the animus of party spirit. We can still 
see, through the mist of denunciation, evidence 
enough to prove the moral corruption and irre- 
ligious methods by which the political crisis under 
Pompey had been heralded. 

The Psalms also bear witness to the resigned 
'quietism' which kept many people clear of fresh 
political intrigues, such as those fostered by the 
Zealots with heroic but fatal energy. From revolu- 
tionaiy ambitions in the years following 63 B.C., 
as in those preceding 69 a.d., the respectable and 
prudent Pharisees sought carefully to dissociate 
themselves. So long as the observance of the law 
was unhindered, heathen jurisdiction (ihey held) 
must be patiently borne as a providential dispensa- 
tion. To this Pharisaic author and his circle, for 
example, the recent distress be comes a chastisement. 
Patience is the right attitude for God's people, 
patience accompanied by penitence and moral 
reformation. The really outstanding feature, so 
far as the outlook upon the future is concerned, 
consists in a remarkable development of the 
Messianic hope (Pss 17, 18), which assumes quite 
a fresh form of belief. Dr. Charles, however, con- 
jectures that these two Psalms are due to a different 
author {Encyclopedia Biblica, i. 244, 245)1 ^^^ cer- 
tainly they stand in some respects aside from the 
general current of the preceding hymns. 

The main interest of the Psalms, however, lies 
in the type of genuine and attractive piety to which 
they give expression. 'Their beauty simply con- 
sists in their great simplicity and sincerity ' (Ewald). 
They discover a state of feeling and a circle of 

Meuiah with His rodof iron (Ps i7'' = Apoc la' 19"). The 
appticalion of h trofun, i i/i-i^i>Tu\6t, lo Pompey {17" a') 
explains the similar usage in z Th 3'**' ' ; cf. also wiipl f\iryii 
(Ps ia' = iTh i>), andiliespititofdeceit(Pa8">=*Th2", 
also 1 Ti 4"). 

ideas which contained much of what was morally 
and spiritually healthy in pre-Christian Judaism, 
For Judaism, and even Pharisaism, in the age uf 
Jesus was full of contrasts. The righteousness of 
the scribes and Pharisees,' which the prophet of 
Nazareth pilloried as imperfect and misleading, did 
not cover all the characteristics and qualities of 
contemporary Pharisaism; there were evidently 
circles of quiet folk, who did not belong to the 
official or ecclesiastical class, untouched by the 
cruder and grosser forms of legalism, and largely 
out of sympathy with the externalism and pedantry 
of the more public Pharisees. It was the type 
represented by numerous unknown adherents of 
Jesus, possibly by men like Nikodemus, Nathanael, 
Paul,^ and Syraeon ; the latter of whom has been 
actually taken * as the prototype of this Solomonic 
piety (Lk 2"), which yearned for a satisfying fiototo- 
tritrq that was more than mere legal precision and 
performance (Mt 5*). 

These four hymns have been done into English 
to illustrate this elemefit of pre-Christian Judaism ; 
especially as a right estimate of it is necessary to 
any understanding of the Palestinian soil for Chris- 
tianity and of the subsequent membership within 
the primitive communities of Jewish Christendom. 
More distinctly, perhaps, than the rest of the 
Psalms, these four express the cardinal feature 
of this Pharisaic piety ; nor are they tinged with 
the colours of the immediate political situation 

'There are frequent references in the Solomonic Psalms to 
a righteousness of deeds (Pi 9'-' 17" i8»), which espeeiallir 
point to an observance of the ceremonial law (J*"" S")- 
But it is very doubtful if the majority of these allnsions 
mean much more than a scrupulous regard for ethical correct- 
ness. Their slriclneis, after all, is not any more eiceplional 
than the similar tone in the Epistle of James; and it U quite 
gratuitous (0 interpret the references 10 praise and prayer as 
mere liluigical injunctions. 

' The evident reluctance of Paul to employ terms like 
j3affi\(Ia or ^am^tit foe his conception of God's nature, may 
have been partly due to a reaction from their use in his older 
Pharisaic circle, where the motto had been, 'The Lord ii 
king' (Ps Sol s"-*", &c.). On the other hand, he repro- 
duces ideas such as : the neglect of God the source of ruin 
(Ps 2» = Ro 1", I Co l", &c.), the discriminating judg- 
ment of God (Pa 2"-" ~ Ro a'""), and liffni as the divine 
faithfulness (Ps 8" = Ro 3*). Cf. also the quotations iti 
Ps9» = Ro3', and the patriotic wail in Ps2">' = Ro9*. 

> E.g. by Ryle and James, The Psalnii ef Seltmen {li^i), 
p. lix, n, : 'He must have been a man in the prime of life 
when they were written.' On the resemblance* between 
the Solomonic Psalms and the hymns preserved in Lk i, a, 
cf. ibid. pp. Ix, Ixii, xci-xcii ; and Dr. F. ^(^'I^.C^i^mMds' 
Texts and Sluditi, i, 3, pp. I47->SI- ' "^ 




and its religious controversies. The first is occu- 
pied with the behaviour of the righteous man 
under the discipline of God's chasiisemeni, in 
contrast to the conduct of the sinner. The second 
describes the nobler side of Pharisaic devotion ; 
it is an attractive sketch of the Pharisee at 
prayer. Immediately occasioned by some drought 
or famine, the third rises into the spirit of pious 
contentment ' with God's Providence ; while the 
fourth is simply a eulogy upon affliction and the 
blessings to be derived therefrom. 

The Greek text used for this version is that edited 
by Dr. Swete in the Cambridge manual edition 
of the LXX (iii. pp. 764-787), compared with Dr. 
Oscar von Gebhardt's collation in the Texte und 
UnUrsuchungtn, 1895, the text of Ryle and James, 
and Kittel's recent German translation in Kauizsch's 
Apoaypfun u. Pseudcpigrapken des A.T. (ii. pp. 
127-148). One or two departures from Dr. 
Swete's text are noted at the foot of the page. 

(d) Psalm hi. 
I Why sleep, my soul, nor ble» the Lord ? — 
z SiDg ye a new ' song ID God, who ii woilhy of praite. 
Sing, yea be wnkeful for Him who is wakeful ; 
For God delighlcth in song from a good heart. 

3 The righteous make meniion of ihe Lord conlinually. 

Confessing the Lord's judgments to be just : 

4 Therighteousdothnoldespise the chastening of the Lord; 

To the Lord he is continually well- pleasing. 

5 When the righteous iatleth, he acquiiteth the Lord ; 

When he is thrown down, he considereth how God will 
deal with him \ 

6 Eagerly he watcheth Irom whence his salvation comelb. 

7 From God their saviour cometh ihe integrity of the 

righteous : 
Sin upon sin lodgeth not in the household of Ifae 

' The special position assigned to this virtue of afrdfKeia, 
as the outcome of failh, is noticeable in view of Paul's argu- 
ment in Ph 4"-" (cf. also I Ti 6"') ; and in a later Psalm 
(16"} words occur which curiously remind one of Ph 4" 
\tr T*^ ^Aff^Dffaf at ri^t 'fvx'iir p-ov dpician ftot rb So&iir. Srt 
lir /tit irt ino'X'J'Sft *■'• f"pi('rtH riuStlai' ir Tnr{if = ri,rra 
laxiu it T^ fvSwa^oGprf lu). But in these and other in- 
stances the resemblances in alt probability prove simply that 
Ihe N.T. language was largely drawn from the current reli- 
gious vocabulary of the period ; it is only now and then, as 
partly in Ihe case of Paul, tha' we can infer the precise 
circle of thought and terminology which possibly influenced 
his style. 

' Reading raifir. 

8 Continually doth the righteous make search in his house- 

To put away the iniquity of ils tran^retsion i 

9 For unwilling error he atoneth with fasting and hurabletb 

his soul; 
10 So doth the Lord cleanse every holy man, together 
with his household. 

Ii When the sinner fallelh, he curseth his life. 

The day of his birth and the pangs of his mother. 

12 He addelh sin to sin, the more he livelh ; 

13 When he is thrown down— right grievous is his down- 

fall—he shall not rise again. 

The deiiruciion of the sinner is for ever, 

14 Nor shall the Lord remember him when He viwtetb 

the tight eons. 

1 5 This is the pottion of sinners for ever ; 

16 But they that fear the Lord shall rise again to life 

In the light of the Lord shall be their life, nor shall it 
ever fail. 

(i) Psalm vi, 
I Blessed is the man who is ready in his heart 10 call on 

the name of the Lord ; 
3 When he maketh mention of the Lord's name, he shall 

he saved. 

3 His ways are directed by the Lord, 

And by the Lord his God are the works of his hand* 
made secure. 

4 By no ill visions shall he be troubled in his dreamt, 

5 Mar shall his soul be terrified as he passelb through 

rivers or amid the sweUing of the seas. 

6 When he riieth up from his sleep, 

He bicssclh the name of the Lord ; 

7 Stable in heart, he siogeth praise to God's name, 

And entieaietb the Lord's favour for all his household. 

8 And the Lord hearkeneth to everyone who ptayeth in 

the fear of God, 
Yea, every petition of a soul that hopeth in Him, the 
Lord fulfilleth. 

9 Biased be the Lord who showeth mercy unto those 

who love Him in sincerity 1 

2 For Thou' art gracious and merciful, the refng« of the 

3 Hold not Thy peace when I cry to Thee. 

4 No spoil is got from a mighty man ; 

5 And, except Thou give it, who gettelh aught of all 

that Thou hast made? 

6 A man and bis portion are determined before Thee ; 

He shall not add or increase more than Thou hast 
decreed, O God. 

' Reading ai x/Mjoriit" 




7 Iq our dislress we will call for help ; 

And Thou wilt not reject out Eupplicalion, 

For Tbou art our God. 
S Lay not Thy hand upon us heavily. 

That we be not driven lo sin. 
9 Yel even if Thou restore us nol, we will not desist ; 

Nay, still we will come unto Thee. 

10 for if I hunger, to Thee, O God, will I cry ; 

And Tbou will give unlo me. 

1 1 Birds and iish Thou feedest, 

Giving rain in the deserts for the grass to spring up ; 
Thou preparest food in the wilderness for every living 

12 So shall Ibey lift their faces unto Thee, if they hunger. 

13 Kings, rulen, and peoples Tbou feedest, O God ; 

And who is the poor and needy's hope save Thee, O 

14 Yea, Tbou wilt hearken, for who is giadous and consider- 

ate, who but Thou? 
Gladden Ihe lowly soul, and open Thine hand in mercy. 

15 Man's kindness is niggardly and done for a reward' ; 

Yea, if il be repealed without grudging, 'tis a wonder. 

16 But Thy giving is ample, kindly and bountiful ; 

Yea, whoso hopelh in Thee shall want for no gift, 

17 Thy mercy spreads in kindness, Lord, o'er all the 


iS Blessed is the man whom God remembereth lo content 
with a sufficiency : 

19 If a man increase exceedingly, he fallelh into sin. 

ao Suftice it to live moderately and be righteous ; 

Vea, to be satisfied and to be righteous hath the bless- 
ing of the Lord. 

31 They Ibat fear the Lord delight in His goodness ; 

Yea, Thy kindness is upon Israel as Thou reignest. 
22 Blessed be' the glory of the Lord, 

For He is our King. 

Id) PSAI.M X. 

1 Blessed is the man whom the I>ord remembereth lo 

Yea, scourgelb aside from the way of evil. 

That he may be cleansed from sin— lesl it increase. 

2 He shall be cleansed, who prepareth his Wk for the 

scourge ; 
For the Lord is gracious unlo those who endure chasten- 
ing patiently. 

3 The ways of the righteous He will make straight. 

Nor pervert ' them by His chastening. 

4 Yea, the mercy of the I.ard is upon those who love Him 

.^nd in mercy will the Lord remember His servants. 

5 Witness the law of the eternal covenant I 

Witness the Lord's oversight of the ways of men I 

6 Righteous and boly in His judgments is out Lord for 

And Israel shall praise (he Lord's name joyfully. 

' Reading with Kitiel after Krankenberg ^i??^ a 

' Reading iiavrp/i/'d. 

7 The boly ones also shall give thanks in tbe coogregation 

of tbe people ; 
Yea, God will bave mercy on the poor, to Israel's joy, 

8 For gracious and merciful is God evermore. 

And the assemblies of Israel shall glorify the Lord's 

9 The nlvation of the I<ord be upon the bouse of Israel, to 

its eternal joy ! • 

The O.T. background of the Psalms is very 
patent. But they also help to illustrate several 
traits and usages in N.T. thought antl diction. 
Besides feattires like some of those noted by Ryle 
and Jaroes (pp. Ixvi, xcf.), e.g. the Davidic sonsbip 
of the Messiah, the metaphor of the mighty man 
(Ps 5* = Mk 3"), the idea of divine and human 
kindness (Ps 5'*-"' = Lk 11'), and phrases com- 
pounded of ^itAoy^ ( = divine choice), wroncpurti 
(only in LXX 2 Mac 6^), and napropia (preferred 
as a rule, in Ps. Sol. and NT., to fiaprvptov), etc., 
there are several others which throw light upon 
the N.T. language. The favourite Pharisaic 
antithesis of tiKouu and afutpraiKoi recurs in Paul, 
where he speaks from the Jewish standpoint (Gal 
a'^ ^fitii i^viTti 'looSaioi xai ovk i( iSvuiv afiapTotKot), 
though aii. is widened from the Sadducees to the 
Gentiles (on the relation of 5^. in the gospels to 
f0viKoi, see Nestle's interesting discussion, Philo- 
logica Saera, pp. 31 f.). This contrast, indeed, 
pervades the whole Psalter. It was a normal 
development of Pharisaic principles, accentu- 
ated of course at this epoch by the exigencies of 
the historical situation. God, also, is termed 
' the saviour,' an idea which (apart from Lk i*') 
happens to recur only in the later books of 
the N.T. (especially i Ti); He is especially the 
protector and succour of the poor and lowly 
(Ps 5"'i* lo^'*), as in the Epistle of James, which 
in tone and aim has certain affinities with the 
Solomonic Psalter.* 

But the main interest of the Psalms lies naturally 
in their sketch of the religious ideal as conceived 
by the better class of Pharisees during the years 
immediately preceding the Christian era. The 
political situation obviously demanded the exer- 
cise of patience and endurance.'' Hence the 

* Reading li^poair^r (for auippoainjr, MSS). 

' Note, for example, the tongue as a bre in the forest (Ps 
iaS->=Jas 3'}, and the phrase rmtie (ipiji'ij* (Ps ii*=Jas 

' Kal-iiiuttiwilVYinrov Tit aluma, Kal niaTiyamuSilat mp 
(Ps 7'), a proverbial comparison of the Jewish law toayoke, 
which strikingly anticipates the N.T. usage. Cf. also 16", 
' when I am 'alRicted, put far from me all murmuring and 



primuy quality of the righteous character is {a) 
reverent behaviour under the chastening of God 
(Ps 3*'- lo"- •), acknowledgment of His justice (He 
iswTiot, as in Apoc 15* 16^), and a determination 
neither to blame nor to accuse Him. All this is 
quite in accord with the best traditions of O.T. 
piety. So is the spirit of reverent and willing 
submission, which is content to await God's help, 
and meanwhile, with unfailing praise {Ps3^),i to 
accept the divine end of chastening, namely, 
warning against sin (Ps 10"- 18*-*). The whole 
mood is reproduced ^ in Heb 1 2*'; though 
heightened by the Christian conception of God's 
Fatherhood. Even the two lines of evidence in 
the Psalter for the divine mercy as shown in 
affliction — the written law and the experience of 
Providence — are partially reflected in Heb 12* and 
ii"-. Along with this self-abasement goes (i) 
a sense of corporate responsibility. The truly 
righteous man, as conceived by this author and 
his circle, cares strictly and keenly for his house- 
hold as well as for his personal life, in a manner 
which recalls the primitive ideal of intercession 
and authority sketched in Job i*". In some 
way he represents his household before God, 
considering himself bound and permitted to 
approach God on their behalf. This feeling of 
solidarity possibly throws light upon passages like 
I Co 7", Ac i6"'3-**, etc., which indicate a sense 
of corporate religious responsibility such as is not 
mfrequent throughout this Psalter (3"- 6^"* 9"), 
The practice of prayer naturally involves (c) fasting, 
another jwint in which these Psalms (3*) cor- 
roborate the later evidence of the N.T. Pharisaic 
fasting was notorious by the time of Jesus. It had 
grown from a natural custom, such as in the main 

r*h]Uie>tor heart' {i\iya-^uxlar), &Dd 16" {^r rif uwoiairai 
iitucr i* tevrtit AiijS^eroi itrh KupJei') with Jas 5'"'. 

' ThUmeUphoiical u se of Y/Hrvperr is common in the N.T,, 
but it is usually associated with piayer and monl effort, not 
u here with the call lo praise. For the emphasis jn these 
Psalms (especially in Ps 15) on praise, eompare Heb rj" 
with the words in Ps 15*"' (^oVi* «(h»4j' «:opiri>' x'lWui-, 
*'«wrt'' X'lXiwii ari lopjlai ioJai nai iiitadii). In the 
same epislle it is inteiesling to read 11" along with Ps 17" 
(^Xovurra ir /p4<i«i), and 12* l^iir itiiaprwXCir tit tdwot^) 
with Ps 9* (6 roiuir iSidaf afrrJt alnoi riji ^I'xi* i' 

' Two (ingular phrase* of the Solomonic Psalter are 
paralleled in Hebrews: ii\f)poretiiu rit ^raTTfXfat (Ps 12* 
= Heb 6» ii<} and at-iuBt iiae^in) (Ps ioi=Heb I3«>). Cf. 
also Ps 13' rofBtriiaii, !l«ttiw ii« inif iyariiaiui with 
Heb K»-i. 

it Still is here, into a system of external asceticism, 
by means of which men believed they exerted 
pressure upon a reluctant God. Similarly, with 
the conception of (d) prayer itself. These Psalms 
(especially the 6th) present a simple and pious 
outline of Pharisaic supplication at its best, 
according to which the place and use of prayer 
affect (i) practical success in affairs of this life, (ii) 
freedom from superstition and terrifying dreams 
or visions,^ and (iii) safety upon a journey. This 
early and uncorruptcd type of piety is further 
exemplified in its demands for (e) sincerity (tv 
AXrjStuf, 6* lo*: cf Mt 22") especially in love 
to God, a trait reproduced in the story of the 
scribe (Mk la'^-**) who answered Jesus so sympa- 
thetically upon the essence of the law (cf. Eph 
6"), This claim to sincerity, of course, meant 
that the rival party of the Sadducees was stamped 
as insincere and guilty of pretence, when these 
Psalms were written. The hostile side-reference 
is unmistakable. 

The outstanding features* of this theology, 
which reappear in the N.T., are the ideas of 
Providence and of the Resurrection. The former 
was a cardinal tenet of the Pharisees (Josephus, 
Bell.Jud. ii, S. 14, Antiq, xviii. i. 3, etc), and in 
their ample and reverent recognition of God's 
moral order they represented an attitude with 
which, so far as it went, Jesus was thoroughly in 
sympathy (Ps 5*-« = Mk f, Mt I2» Lk ii^i-"): 
God over all, but man free and responsible. Upon 
the question of the Resurrection, however, it is less 
easy to determine what was the exact standpoint 
of the Psalms, if indeed they had any. The idea, 
in its popular and dogmatic form, was scarcely a 
century old within Judaism. It was opposed i« 
Mo by the Sadducees as a heretical development, 
and even within the circle of its Pharisaic (Ac 23*"*, 
Mt 22*^) supporters differences of opinion still 
existed as to its scope and object. Thus the 
Solomonic Psalter, in common with a certain 
element in Judaism, rejects the conception of a 

* A curious feature (6'), which, like several others, goes 
back to Che Book of Job (7'<] ; irrKurSat is used in the N.T. 
also, but only of rumours (Lk 2i') and ghosts (24"). 

* Tbe angeiology is quite incidental ; but, on (he other 
hand, the Pharisaic tenet of retribution throbs throughout 
all ihe Psalms. The Messianic hope forms ■ topic by itself; 
but one may compare passages like Mt 13", Lk 10" wiih 
Ps Sol 17"° {/laitdptM 0I -ttubntvm it Tafi imtpmi tttlraK, 
iStit Ti d7ofl4 'IfffMijX if auvaywYB ^^N"*' xmij«ai 6 Srij), 


general resurrection brought forward in Daniel 
(i2^'*). Only the righteous rise, according to 
this author. The sinful die and are no more. 
The lot of the wicked seems to be nothing but 
annihilation (Ps 3>*-" 13'* 14*); they die and are 
destroyed, as, apparently, in the teaching of Jesus 
and of Paul ( 1 Th 5', 2 Th z'- "), where extinction 
(ifftoX<ia) is their end (also, e.g., Ro 6^\ Ph 3"*). 
Upon the other hand, however, the fluidiiy of the 
conception betrays itself even within the N.T. 
literature, where, more than once (e.g. Ac 24^', 
jp i;SS-», Apoc 2o'-*- i2-i3j^ tjjg general resurrection 
of good and bad, especially the latter, to judg- 
ment is distinctly advocated. The antinomy is 
obviously due to the fact that the early Christian 
outlook upon the future was determined by 
heterogeneous and varied presuppositions, drawn 
largely from the fluid conceptions of contemporary 

Apart from one or two minor points,' these 
' E.g. 10 atan<3 before God, as the reward and privilege 
ofihe pious at the end (Ps 2* = Lk zi"); the verbal re- 
semblance of wrtDfia Syiar and i\iyiai (Ps 1 7"- ") and the 
collocation of 'light' and 'life' (3"), both Joh»nmae 
phrases: the very tare parallels of xpt'^'^f^* (P^ 9" = 
I Co 13') and Anflpuim^oifot {P« 4' = Col 3", Eph 6*), 
rti^TMOfi) (Ps 5"=Col 3") and i*6.\^r^^t {4"=Lk ^), 
and the leference lo divine influence under the Ir^re of a 

represent the main directions in which the Solo- 
monic Psalms converge upon the language and 
ideas of the N.T. Their especial value lies in the 
fact that they alTord evidence of a simpler and less 
corrupt form of Pharisaism than that which the 
historical exigencies of the situation have preserved 
for us in the N.T., and especially in the Gospels. 
There the Pharisee is indeed the Malvolio of 
Judaism, as he has been called, with his ridiculously 
stiir formality, his assumed attitudes, his absurd 
conceits. But it must never be forgotten that, 
despite grave faults of externaiism, complacency, 
hypocrisy, and exclusiveness, this type represented 
only the caricature of a religious ideal which itself 
had not yet wholly perished; and that, if Chris- 
tianity had affinities with any of the religious 
parties throughout Judaism, it was with the finer 
elements of Pharisaism, from which so many 
of its best adherents in Palestine were in all 
likelihood drawn. 

goad {16' fpiiir lit uii tirrpor Irwav ftri rifr y/nfyipriair 
■i>roB = Ac 26'*). The main coincidences wilh the gospels 
include divine inlerveniioo on Iwhalf of Ihe sainu (Ps 2"*- 
= Mk 13", Ml 24"'), God's knowledge of secret charily 
(Ps 9»= Mt e"-* i also the use of ei^avpitii,, Ps 9"= Ml 6'»'-). 
Ihe pious as lambs (Ps 8'' = Mt 10", Lk lo"), and the 
Pharisaic phrase 'to inherit eternal life' (Ps 14'= Mk 10", 
Mt 19", Lk lo»). 

(gitquteie oni (gitptitB. 

1 am puzzled by the reDdermg of 1 S i. 3 in botb 

A.V. and R.V. The Heb. is ng'p; □■p.'p. This is 

rendered in LXX if itiup^r tli iuiiiat, aa one 

might expect ; why then do both English versions 

give 'yearly' ?— T. W. 

The Heb. phrase quoted above does not mean 

'yearly' (A.V.) or 'from year to year' (R.V. and 

A.V.m.) ; it is the context that gives it this sense. 

'From day to day' or 'daily' would manifestly be 

absurd in the instance in question. If a strictly 

literal translation were wanted, 'periodically' or 

'on the proper days' might be suggested, but, as 

the visits of Elkanah to Shiloh were evidently on 

the occasion of an annual festival (cf, esp. i S 2"), 

the E.V. rendering is much to be preferred on 

the ground of clearness. The same technical 

expression np'p; 0*0^ occurs also in Ex 13'" 

(of the Feast of Unleavened Bread), Jg 1 1*" (of the 

mourning for Jephthah's daughter), ai" (of Ihe 
Shiloh festival). In all these passages the context 
shows that 'yearly' is the sense intended. It 
may be further noted that D*p^ probably answers 
to ' year ' in such passages as Gn 4^, Lv 25*", 
Jg 171", 1 S ao" 27T, 2 S 14**, 2 Ch 2ii». The 
Heb. student may refer for fuller information to 
Professor Ed. Konig's admirable Hei. Syntax, 
§ a66». J. A. Selbie. 

AfaryculUr, Aberdtm. 

I have read with gre^t interest Or. Jannaiis' article 00 
' The Unrishteoua Steward and MKhiavclUim.' 1 
do not criticize bis snggestioa as to the pnnctna- 
tioD, but to suggest that the difficult. If the older 



ponctuadon is retained, is not so great as Dr. 
Jannsris seems to think. 

Commenting; on Lk. xvi. 9, his words are : 
' Frieada acquired in this world bj means of mam- 
monandeverlastinifhabilationsare two incongruous 
and irreconcilable things.' But may not the ex- 
pression ' mammon of unrighteousaess ' be simply 
an equivalent for 'money,' the former term being 
chosen by 'attraction' (to borrow a word from 
grammar) from the parable, and also because 
money is so often and to so many the unrighteous 
mammon? The Sanour's words might then be 
paraphrased thus : ' The steward uied this mam- 
mon of unrighteousness to prepare for himself 
a welcome into temporal habitations. You may 
use the same thing, i.e. money (an unrighteous 
thing in the steward's case), in such a way that 
when you die you will be welcomed into euerlaating 
habitations by those wbo stilt remember with 
gratitude your kindness on earth.' 

That the expression may be used as a mere 
synonym for ' money ' seems to me to be apparent 
from rer. 11, or ^ow could the Lord mention the 
possibility of being ' faithful ' therein ?— E. P. 

'E. P.* SEEMS to overlook the fact that whether 
ire say ' mammon of unrighteousness ' or ' money ' 
(which is the same thing), the difficulty remains 
insuperable. His paraphrase is too free, speculative, 
and far-fetched to be admitted. For as commonly 
read, the passage is unmistakable : ' Make friends 
by means of money, that they (i.e. the friends so 
bought) may receive you into everlasting habita- 
tioDS.' Now does ' E. P.' mean to say that friends 
so unrighteously and sinfully allied (as are dishonest 
givers and unlawful receivers) — I ask, can such 
sinful confederates expect to meet in the 'ever- 
lasting ' habitations 7 

A, N. Jannaris. 

Mr. C. K. Henderson writes from Sydney in 
reference to the prohibition of the uie of things 
strangled and of blood in the apostolic decree 
in Acts XT. 38, a; : 'No one that I know of 
acta on these injunctions. I know how they can 
be refuted from other portions of the N.T., B.g. 
from the writings of Paul. But bow can any 
reasoning of Paul annul commands given with 
snch anttaority— " the Holy Ghost"?' 

Tub difficulty which Mr. Henderson has hit upon 
ii only one detail of the general .difficulty of 

reconciling the Acts wilh the Epistles of St. Paul, 
about which so much has been written on both 
sides. In the present instance the late Bishop 
Lightfoot's reply to the question raised by Mr. 
Henderson would be that there is no reason for 
supposing that the decree was intended to be 
' universal or permanent. He thinks that it was 
I not intended to be universal, because it was 
addressed only to the Churches of Antioch, Syria, 
and Cilicia, which were near Juda;a, and therefore 
more interested in the controversy. The adequacy 
of this reply has, however, been questioned on the 
ground that the Book of Acts itself seems to 
regard the decree as of wider application (see 
Lightfoot, Gal. p. 116, and Acts 16' and 21^, and 
/ourn. Theol. Stud., October 1899, pp. 70, 71). 

It is not so easy to answer Bishop Lightfoot when 
he says that the decree was not intended to be 
permanent. Nothing is said in the Acts as to 
whether it was intended to be permanent or not, 
The occasion for it' would certainly have grown 
less as the importance of the Gentile element 
in the Church increased, and that of the Jews 
diminished in comparison. But we really know 
very little of what happened in the early years 
of the Church- 
Mr. Henderson asks another question. At 
p. 34 of the article on the 'Acts' in Hastings' 
Bible Dictionary it is said that 'the presence of 
the author's hand in the speeches cannot be 
denied.' On pp. 28, 29, the writer in enumerating 
the contents of the Acts prints the speeches in 
italics. He also italicises the apostolic letter (Acts 
15"*, etc.). Mr. Henderson's question is: 'Are 
we to understand, therefore, that the apostolic 
letter may also have been modified by the writer 
of the Acts as well as the speeches.' There is 
no reason why the letter might not have been 
subject to the same treatment as the speeches, 
except that the letter being short, and being 
written, and of a more authoritative character, 
would have been more likely to have been pre- 
served in its original fonn. It might be better 
compared with a letter of St. Paul than with one 
of his speeches. 

J. A. Cross. 
LUlU Helbctk, Leids. 






Vol. I. Genesis to Rulh. {AlUmatt. Rojal 8vo, pp. 
2SE. Ss. nel.) 
There is no little danger that Mr. Kotherham's 
Emphasised Bible will miss the attention it de- 
serves, for on first view it is a highly elaborate 
system of signs and symbols signifying nothing. 
Take a single verse, Ex 3'- — 
" And he said — 

I will be* with thee, and ;| ihis ll<to ihee>[shall be] 
the sign, that || I II have sent thee,— 
^When ihou bcingest foith the people out of Egypt^ 
ye shall do scivice unto God, upon' this mountain. 
iHcb.: V*>(-1— »sinver. m- I "Or; 'by.' 

Now what have we here? We have first a new 
translation, which is good enough to justify its 
existence. Next, emphasis marks, whose purpose 
is to bring the English reader into touch with the 
original; for in translation it is impossible to 
present the exact force of the Hebrew and be 
idiomatic) so Mr. Rolherham's marks say, 'Thus 
the words would be read aloud in Hebrew.' 
Then brief notes, which do for special points what 
even Che emphasis marks fail to do. The whole 
desire, therefore, is to enable us to read the 
English and prodiice the very same effect as 
reading the Hebrew does. 

Is it worth the labour? Surely it is. Ask the 
trained reader sitting in the pew. Moreover, it 
puts the English scholar on a level, as nearly as 
possible, with the Hebrew scholar. 

Lessons on the Gospel of St. Mark is the title of 
the latest issue of Messrs. A. & C. Black's 'Guild 
Text-Books' (6d.). It is really a commentary on 
the Second Gospel, not, however, in the usual 
method of phrase by phrase, the incident or topic 
itself being explained rather than its language, and 
all being turned to immediate spiritual results. 
The author is Dr. Irvine Robertson of Clack- 

THE UNIVERSE, By F. A. Pouchet, M.D. Re- 
vised and Edited BV J. R. AiNswoRTH Davis, M.A. 
(Blackie. 8vo, pp. 591. 7s. 6d.) 
Pouchet's Universe ; or, The Infinitely Great and 

the Infinitely Little, has been one of the most 

successful of Messrs. Blackie's popular books. 
It has run so long that it was getting out of toucb 
with scientific knowledge. So it has been revised 
by a competent student. And now it will set out 
on a new career of conquest, captivating the hearts 
as well as informing the understanding of another 
generation of young men and maidens. 

The special business to which Messrs. David 
Bryce & Son of Glasgow have set themselves is 
the production of ttje smallest possible books. 
Scott's Lady of the Lake in their ' Dainty Uttle 
Library ' weighs less than two ounces. With its 
brown leather and brass clasp it is an ideal gift for 
friends abroad. 

Eastwick. {Bums *• Oalis. Crown 8vo, pp. 
The heroine is all the book. And what a 
heroine ! Powerful, perplexing, attractive — but 
good or bad? It is marvellous how easily the 
interest is maintained. There is a murder, but 
even that does not destroy or weaken iL For 
there is that beautiful woman's life to live and 
account for. The book is written by a woman, 
and the men, though respectable, are not great 
men, nor always consistent with their own mediocte 
selves. But the greatness of this bad woman 
makes up for it. It is a Catholic book, and there 
is purpose in things we might at first see Uttle 
purpose in. 

The third yearly volume of the new series of 
Young People (2s.) has been issued by Mr. 
Burroughs. It is a denominational magazine, 
but nothing merely sectarian is to be found in it, 
and it ranks with the best young folks' magazines 
published. Mr. Capey is an editor who should 
be introduced into the home. 

Morning Rays is the children's magazine of 
the Church of Scotland. It is edited, with a fine 
sense of the wishes and the wants of the little ones, 
by the Rev. Harry Smith, M.A- And it is illus- 



tiated so as to hold its own with the arlistic 
undenominational magazines. Its annual volume 
is published at 41 Hanover Street, Edinburgh 
( . 

1900. Chosen and Edited bv A. T. Quilleb-Couch. 
(Oxford : At the Clamtdtm Press. Crown Svo, pp. 
10S4. los. 6cl.) 
The Oxford Book Is the best book. We say 
so with remembrance of the rest and with grate- 
ful obligations to them. It will never take the 
place of the Go/den Treasury in our affection, for 
the first is the best toved always. But it is the 
best though not best loved. Having all the rest 
as guides, and going more thoroughly than any 
general anthology into the poetry of our own 
time, Mr. Quiller-Couch seems to have found what 
others missed, and missed nothing of what others 
found. As fat as a popular hymn-book — it 
contains 883 pieces — the Oxford Book of English 
Verse is nevertheless so severely edited that it 
can only be individual taste that will reject this 
piece or that, not common consent. For our part 
it would be the few more recent and more fanciful 
that we should be inclined, not to reject, but to 
bracket as the textual critics do. For simplicity, 
which is humanity, is the first law of anthology- 
making. Can anything be better to announce that 
law and fix it for ever than ' Sumer is icumen in,' 
the poem with which all anthologies must open 7 
Can anything be belter to end an anthology, in 
obedience to that law, than Margaret L. Woods' 
Genius Loci} or even the 'Amen' of the Book, 
the Oxford motto, which we must quote — 

Dominus lUuminatio Hea. 
In the hour of death, after this life's whim, 
When the heart beats low, and the e^es grow dim. 
And pain has exhausted every limb — 

The lover of the Lord shall trust id Him. 

When the will has forgotten the lifelong aim, 
And the mind can only di^race its Came, 

The power of the Lord shall (ill this frame. 

When the last sigh is heaved, and the last tear shed, 
And the coHin is waiting beside the bed. 
And the widow and child forsake the dead— 
The angel of the Lord shall lift this head. 

For even the purest delight may pall. 
And power must fail, and (he pride must fall, 
Atid the love of the dearest friends grow small — 
Bat the glory of the Lord is all in all. 

One of the most attractive single volume editions 
of Shakespeare is that which is published by 
Messrs. Collins of Glasgow. It contains an intro- 
duction by Henry Glassford Bell (4s.). Its paper, 
type, binding are all effective, and form a hand- 
some volume. But its special feature of attract- 
iveness is its series of illustrations. They are 
representations of modern actors and actresses 
taken in the act Sir Henry Irving is here as 
Hamlet and Shy lock and Wolsey and Lear. 
Miss Ellen Terry is seen in Beatrice and Portia 
and Queen Katharine and Imogen and Cordelia 
and Lady Macbeth and Ophelia. Almost all the 
plays are represented by those two or by others. 
It is an aid to interpretation which the most ardent 
student of Shakespeare will appreciate most. 

HE CHOSE TWELVE. Bv J. Elder Cumming. D.D. 
(Stirling: Drumaumd. Crown Svo, pp. 371. 2s. 6d.) 
In publishing a volume of studies in the 
character of the Twelve, Dr. Elder Cumming 
expresses astonishment, which we must echo, that 
he could find only two books (Bruce's Training 
of the Twelve and Symington's Apostles of Our 
Lord) which cover the same ground. That does not 
encourage him to be commonplace, however. He 
knows that separately the apostles have been 
much discussed. His studies are thoughtful, and 
once or twice independent. In the case of Judas, 
for example, he dares to suggest, in order to 
account for his choice, that our Lord never chose 
him, but that he offered himself; in fact, that he is 
the man who said, ' Lord, I will follow thee whither- 
soever Thou goesi,' and that he followed in spite of 
Christ's warning, ' Foxes have holes.' 

STONB, M.A. (Eyre &• Spoltimoode, Crown Svo, 
pp. 207. 65. )r 
To Canon Girdlestone prophecy means predic- 
tion. He does not deny that there is prophecy 
in the Bible that is not prediction, that the 
prophets were sometimes forthtellers and not fore- 
tellers, but he is only mildly interested in such 
prophecy. In prophecy, which is prediction, he is, 
and has long been, so deeply interested, that it 
alone is prophecy to him, and with it alone this 
book has to do. His purpose is to reveal the 
rules by which predictive prophecy should be 
interpretated. He calls his book The Grammar of 
Prophecy — not its Arithmetic. For he sees that 


it is not by figures on a skte, but by uoder- 
standing the language of the Spirit of God that 
the times and seasons will be found. So he will 
displease all the almanack-makers. But if he 
succeeds, and we think he does succeed, in show- 
ing that in prophecy 'we count time by heart- 
throbs,' he will do good service to his fellow-men. 
The Lord shall come, the earth shall quake — we 
know that; when? how? — that we do not know. 
Nor would it be well with us if we knew, but ill. 
Therefore let us be up and doing white the day 
lasteth, knowing that the sun will set and the 
night come down upon us, not knowing the hour 
of sunset or the darkness. 

This volume fitly closes the 'Bible Students' 
Library,' and the 'Bible StudenU' Library' closes 
a period in the interpretation of the Bible. 

A MINISTER OF GOD. {PhUif Great. Crown Svo, 
pp. 2*2. lu net.) 
This volume contains first a memoir of John 
Hamilton Thorn ; next selections from his sermons 
and addresses, the passages selected having a 
special value for preachers, so that the title, A 
Minister of God, is not meant to describe John 
Hamilton Thorn (though it would describe him), 
but you or me (if we will) ; then three fine sermons 
chosen to reveal the author's most characteristic 
work in the pulpit; and, lastly, an address to 
students of theology. The book will be made 
most welcome by those who know the two volumes 
of Laws of Lift after the Mind of Christ, and it 
may do more than even those volumes to keep 
this good man's Influence alive. 

pp. 687. los. fid.) 
This old book has been found out of date and 
a new edition has been prepared under the direction 
of Professor Sayce. The arrangement and the 
words of Eadie have been as far as possible re- 
tained. Even the old attitude has been scrupu- 
lously kept both in the Old Testament and in the 
New, so that, as Professor Sayce puts it, 'those 
who want the speculations of the so-called " Higher 
Criticism " must go elsewhere,' Consequently, we 
have the story of Abraham told just as it lies in 
Genesis. Abraham denied Sarah both before 
Pharaoh of Egypt and before Abimelech of Gerar, 
and Isaac denied Rebekah before Abimelech also, 
'or rather his successor of the same name, for the 

term Abimelech seems to have been, not a proper 
name, but a Philistine regal title.' No suspicion 
is hinted that these might be duplicate accounts 
of one occurrence. As the Cyclopedia proceeds, 
however, the possibility of such duplicates is 
frankly recognized. Thus in the history of David 
it is said, ' In this section of the sacred narrative 
there occur several difficulties in the way of recon- 
ciling what are apparently two accounts of this 
part of David's life which have not yet been 
thoroughly harmonized by any su^estions that 
have been made.' 

In this new edition account is taken of the 
Apocrypha and of the monuments. These, indeed, 
constitute its chief additions. But it is evident 
that the whole book has been wrought over, and 
consistently with the plan adhered to, brought up 
to date. 

W. Robertson Nicoll, M.A-, LL.D. {Hcdder &• 
Stoughten. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 227. 3s. 6d.) 
There has been some startllngly unorthodox 
writing recently, and some of it has come firom 
quarters whence orthodoxy was expected, but this 
is the way to deal with it. To get into a panic 
is absurd. The faith we hold has been assailed 
before now, and shaken itself clear of its assailants. 
Give it room to declare itself— its truth to life, its 
capacity for godliness, its spiritual pre-eminence — 
as Dr. Robertson Nicoll does here, and it will ever 
produce new conviction of its essential truth in the 
minds of honest men. The assailant may think 
that by nibbling at the supernatural in the Gospels 
he can nibble it all away. He begins at the wrong 
end. He must take away the Jesus of the Gospels 
first. He is the Supernatural, and after Him the 
rest will go or stay. 


D.D. (Haddir &• Slaughtun. Crown 8vo, pp. 395. 


Unless it be his co-editor on the Union Magatine, 

there is no man we know who can make systematic 

theology so easy as Professor Orr. If all ' Bodies 

of Divinity' had the vivacity of this book, the 

joke ' more body than soul ' would lose its point. 

But Dr. Oar's purpose is not simply to make 

theology attractive, not simply to write a Body 

of Divinity; it is to show how one theological 

system and one theolc^ical dogma developed out 


of another. The history of Dogma has been 
written by Professor Harnack, Professor Orr writes 
its evolution. 

Having to crush into a single small volume the 
whole mental development of Christianity, Dr. 
Orr has had ta practise economy. His gift how- 
ever lies there. When he is most concise he is 
most lucid ; when he cuts and carves he is most 
telling. We have to fill in much matter from 
other sources, but Professor Orr gives us the spirit 
and the life. And it is a perpetual surprise that 
in condensing he does not dictate, but continues 
to offer us the means of judging the most vital 
questions for ourselves. We do not always agree 
with his verdict, but we always respect it, for he 
respects our right to disagree. 

{Bedder is' SUugAlon. Crown 8vo, pp, 395. 6s.) 

Religion is more difficult than theology. There 
are those who can discover a new theory of the 
Atonement (and there are easier things in theology 
than that) who cannot take up their cross daily 
and follow Jesus. Mr. Black does well to address 
himself to religion. The truth is we have taken 
in enough of theological food for the present, we 
must get it digested. Not, What am I to believe? 
now for a little, but, What am I to do? 

There are two plans of life, the aesthetic and 
the ascetic, or the cultured and the restrained. 
Both are wrong. Jesus Christ our example followed 
neither. Nor is it right to go first a little into the 
one and then a little into the other. Nor again is 
a compromise between them right. The com- 
promise is perhaps of all the devil's devices the 
most devilish. 

The aesthetic ideal is right in so far as it takes 
of the things that are lovely in the world and 
transmits them into grace of character under the 
operation of the Spirit of God. The ascetic ideal 
is right in so far as it cuts off from the life and 
character all that is antagonistic to the glory of 
God, all that is really of the world, the flesh, and 
the devil. 

So, or nearly so, does Mr. Black most eloquently 
persuade us. His book Is itself a demonstration 
of the truth and workableness of his theory. He 
has made it a most attractive work of art, he has 
made it also a most impressive advocate for 'the 
following of Jesus.' 


Cosuo Goi<ix>N Lang. {IsbitUr. Ciown Svo, pp, 

296. 6*.) 
It is a curious commentary on our modern 
Christianity that a writer on our Lord's miracles 
has to explain at the outset that he is not writing 
either critically or apologetically. They were not 
done for the use of either the critic or the apolo- 
gist. They were the expression of the Person, 
the acts that became Him, the inevitable outcome 
of His human activity. They were done that we 
might behold His glory — full of grace and truth. 
But we have to be recalled to that. We have to 
be reminded that the use of the miracles is their 
religious use, that the question. What do they 
mean for us? is more than the question, VVere 
they ever wrought? The critic and the exegete 
will pass by a book like this. For they will copy 
the Jews who sat at Simon's table, saying ' Who 
is this that forgiveth sins also?' when they might, 
if they read this edifying book simply and sincerely, 
hear the Saviour say, 'Thy faith hath saved thee, 
go in peace.' _^^^ 

MEMORANDA PAULINA. Bv Gkorge Jacksojj, 
B.A. i/sdis/tr. Crown 8vo, pp. a68, 31, 6d.) 
The contents of this book, like those of Bishop 
Lang's, appeared originally in Ge<»i Words. Mr. 
Jackson, however, has revised and rearranged his 
Gaoii Words paper, which Dr. Lang had not time 
to do. Perhaps it will not be invidious to add 
that even before the revision they had more in 
them of the results of modern scholarship. Dr. 
Lang was 'religious' only, Mr. Jackson is exege- 
tical also, and partly even apologetic. Nevertheless, 
his business has been to tell us how we may find 
Paul good unto edifying. His choice of passages 
is made for that end, and they are wonderfully 
representative. Moreover, he brings Paul near. 
'The Passion for Souls,' for example (chap. 
XXX.), — it is the passion of Richard Baxter also, 
and of Wesley, and of Brownlow North, and of 
George Jackson. 

Thorps. {LeaiUnAall Press. 410, pp. 329.) 
This is a captivating idea. Miss Thorpe be- 
comes guide to all the children who cannot visit 
London, but long to. And if anything will com- 
fort them in their distress, this beautiful book is 
the thing. How handsome it is, how smooth and 
white its paper, how clear-cut its illustrations, how 


efTcctire its coloured frontispiece! The illustra- 
tions are all by William Luker, jun., and that is 
enough. Miss Thorpe is a kind children's friend, 
and she seems to know London, its great places 
and its small, most intimately. 

THE REAL CHRISTIAN. Bv Lucas Clebvb. (Long. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 334. 6s.) 
The only fault one has to find with this book is 
its brevity. It is not a common fault with this 
type of book, and for that reason must be foi^iven. 
And the brevity gives the impression of reserve 
power. Vet a greater effect, we feel sure, would be 
produced by greater scope in which to develop 
the characters and give them more movement and 
life. The greatest success of the book is the hero. 
Catholic though he became — a sorry Catholic, the 
hard ecclesiastic would say, — he is to be accepted 
as a real Christian, a far closer approach to the 
type we all feel after and even see in Jesus than 
any recent effort we can name. The heroine never 
takes her place, — that is, if Irma is the heroine, — 
she is weaker than was necessary, and had no 
right to let herself be set aside by Lady Fellcroft. 
For the rest the effect is wholesome. A great life 
and not impossible, triumphant also in its tragedy, 
is made ours for ever. 

There are many children, we are sure, to whom 
the two Latin words Biblia Innocentium were 
familiar before they could conjugate amare. For 
Mr. J. W. Mackail gathered the stories of the 
Bible into a book of that title, relating them in 
language that had the rhythm of the old version 
and more than its simplicity, and it fell into the 
hands of discerning mothers, who thereby taught 
their little ones to love both the Bible and this 
book. Now there has been published Biblia 
Innottntium Part II. (Longmans, crown 8vo, pp. 
197, 5s.). It tells 'the story of God's chosen 
people after the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ 
upon earth ' far into the history of the Church, Its 
brief chapters will be less familiar to mothers, but 
not less enjoyable to their children. The same 
simplicity of language attains the same univenal 
charm. ^__^ 

To their new edition of Thackeray Messrs. 
Macmillan have added Pendennis (crown Svo, pp. 
874, 3s. 6d.), and The Newcomes (pp. 864, 3s. 6d.). 
'Pendennis' has Thackeray's own illustrations. 

'The Newcomes' Richard Doyle's. The great 
novels are each found in a volume of perfectly 
convenient size, though the type is large enough 
to be read with ease, and the paper opaque enough 
to let one page be read at a time. One welcome 
feature, not noticed till Vanity Fair had been some 
time handled, and therefore missed last month, 
is the flexibility of the binding. At every page 
the book lies open flat, and there is no breaking 
or cracking of the back. A pleasanter volume to 
hold you could not take into your hand. 

{Moimillat: Globe Svo, pp. 295. St.) 
The volume is again edited by Dr. Aldis Wright, 
and many of the letters are addressed to him. 
There is as much self-revelation jn them as for- 
merly ; there is as much ignorance of the world's 
ways, as much sensitiveness to its opinion of 
Edward Fitzgerald ; there is as much love of books 
and coffee and pipes and — 1870 Port. Some of 
the letters are to Carlyle, whose judgment he 
feared and courted. He estimated Lowell very 
highly, one is pleased to see how highly in these 
days when we are all reading Lowell's Lt/e — but, 
while he has more humour, even Lowell has 'not 
nearly so much Delicacy of Perception or Refine- 
ment of Style as Ste. Beuve' — a just and welcome 
judgment also. _^^ 

OXFORD STUDIES. By John Richard Gkeek. 
(Afactmllait. Globe Svo, pp. 334. 55-) 
Some will buy this book to add it to their set 
of John Richard Green in the ' Everslcy ' Series ; 
some to recall the Oxford scenes they love ; and 
some to enjoy true history well told although in 
snatches only and in hints. The papers which 
the book contains are contributions towards a 
history of Oxford never accomplished. The most 
extended, filling 330 pages, is 'Oxford during the 
Eighteenth Century.' It is just an extension of 
the breezy essays that surround it, entering with 
them into the homes, as well as the clubs and 
colleges, revealing the same shrewd knowledge of 
men, the same keen relish of affairs. 

Ph.D., D.D. ^Macmillan. Crown Svo, pp. »3, 
This volume belongs to Professor Shailer 

Mathews' series of ' New Testament Handbooks.' 


If that series is not yet generally known in this 
country we are losing much. We are losing ac- 
quaintance with the best theologians of America, 
and we are losing the benefit of the best popular 
theological teaching. Professor Stevens gathers 
our Lord's words into groups under great topics, 
as His Attitude towards the Old TcsUment, the 
Kingdom of God, the Father in Heaven, the Son 
of Man, He has no novelties of interpretation to 
disclose. He believes the teaching is intelligible 
in itself, if we would take it as it stands. In his 
preliminary chapter on the Methods of Jesus' 
Teaching, he states that each of the parables 
teaches a single simple lesson; the unjust judge 
is nobody, and the widow is nobody, what is said 
by the judge or by Jesus is everything. Where all 
is so clear and capable, we need not stay to note 
a smgle slip — Lock being credited with the article 
Son of Man in the Dictionary of the Bible, instead 
of Driver. 

Sophia M. Nugknt. (Marshall Bnlheri. CrowD 
Svo, pp. 368.) 

If all is true that is here said of Mr. Fox, and 
if nothing is kept back, he was one of those whose 
walk is close with God. We do not doubt 
it is all true, so many have a hand in it and they 
all concur so heartily. We do not suspect for 
a moment that anything is kept back, for the 
sincerity is transparent both of Mr. Fox himself 
and of bis biographer. It was a great privilege 
to know such a man, who 'never gave his "testi- 
mony" on the platform of Keswick,' but gave 
it 'in the sweet and holy way he did his life 
duty,* and then 'in the sweet and heavenly 
patience with which he bore his death.' It 
ii now the privilege of us all, if we will, to 
know him from these ' Memorials.' We have 
known him partly already from his books, 
and Mr. J. B. Figgis, who knew both him and 
them well, says that his secret is in his books: 
'This was, after all, Mr. Fox's greatest character- 
istic ; not eloquence, nor poetic power, not even 
expository gift, though each of these in large 
measure were his ; — his great gift was that when 
he spoke and when he wrote he did so as one 
who had seen the King's Face. His was the 
" intense intimacy " he speaks of in Green Pastures 
and Golden Gales.' 

PATTIE E. EKINS. [Marikall Bralluri. down Svo, 

pp. i 


We have conferences ' for the deepening of the 
spiritual life,' and we have books. This is one of 
the books. It is the simple record of a simple 
life, with some unaffected letters. It is the reve- 
lation of a life that had been spiritually deepened. 
And its spirit and depth were seen not in words 
of pious devotion only, though these are not 
withheld, but in deeds of sympathy also. Nothing 
more tactful, more touching, could be written, we 
think, than the letter on page 81 to a cousin who 
had lost her mother. 'I would like to get you 
right into my arms SO that I could love out a 
little of the sympathy that cannot be written.' 


Barnbs. {Marshall BTslhtn. Post Svo, pp. 308. 

3s. 6d. net. ) 
The author oi Between Life and Death believes 
in Medical Missions. She believes that they are 
to be the missions of the future, their success 
being universal and immediate. In this book she 
tells the story of Medical Missions under the 
C.E.Z.M.S. in India, China, and Ceylon. The 
story is crowded with incident, sometimes of the 
most painful but always of the most impressive 
kind; and the incidents are made memorable l^ 
excellent photographs, which are due to two clever 
artists. If we were teaching our Lord's miracles 
of healing, we should find many useful illustrations 
in this volume. 

JOHN HOWARD. By Edgar C. S. Gibson. {Mttkutn. 
Fe«p. Svo, pp. 234. 3s. 6d.) 
Messrs. Melhuen have done up this little bio- 
graphy very charmingly, and it deserves it. Dr. 
Gibson has not missed his opportunity. A short 
bright life of John Howard will be welcomed in 
many schools and homes. The lads who see life 
before them, reading this, wilt seek to live it 
nobly. And those who look back 00 life will yet 
be thankful to read that one man fought the good 
fight so strenuously. 


Keating, D.D. {Mclhuen. Crown Svo, pp. 119. 

3S. 6d.) 
' The Agape has long been regarded as, if not, 
like Mary Queen of Scots, "the eternal enigma of 
history," at least one of the obscurest of problems, 



and I do not profess to have solved it.' Dr. 
Keating thus introduces his book. He knows 
what has been said upon it from the beginning to 
the present day ; he has studied the original 
sources for himself; and he has a mind of his 
own. From first to last he writes wiih the utmost 
modesty, but that never leads him into sycophancy. 
And if he has not solved the problem, it must be 
because, as he says himself, the materials for its 
solution are even yet not sufficient. 

His conclusions respecting the origin and 
earliest observance of the Agape and its relation 
to the Eucharist are these. The Agape was a 
distinctly Christian feast, arising out of our Lord's 
supping regularly with His disciples, and also 
speaking of His kingdom under the image of a 
Supper. The Agape and the Eucharist were at 
first united, the Eucharist being the culmination 
— the sacrificial culmination — of the Feast, 

The book is the product of very real scholar- 
ship, and in all discussions of its subject not only 
deserves but demands attention. 

OLD TESTAMENT. Bv Angus M. Mackav, 
M.A. (Mt/hutn. Crown 8vo, pp. 317. &.) 
' What he means by the Churchman's Introduc- 
tion Mr, Mackay nowhere tells us. Perhaps he 
means the church member, the person who is 
interested already in the Old Testament, not the 
outsider or the infidel, for he says his book is 
primarily intended for the intelligent layman. 
But it does not matter. It is just the book which 
hundreds of clergymen have been waiting for, in 
order to get their Old Testament lectures into 
modern shape and interest, it is just the book 
which thousands of laymen have been expecting, 
in order to understand what this Higher Criticism 
is, and what the Old Testament is after the Higher 
Criticism is done with it. Mr. Mackay has great 
sympathy with the intelligent layman. He does 
not denounce the Higher Criticism, he does not 
praise it. He tells what it is, he shows what it 
has done. He has written an Introduction to the 
Old Testament on critical lines, which will be 
welcome for its plain candid information, whatever 
may be felt about the Higher Criticism. His first 
chapter is on Inspiration. In his hands Inspiration 
is a matter of interest to ordinary men. He 
makes it so. He makes them feel it so. And he 
is not afraid. 'Inspiration,' he says, 'does not 

guarantee him who possesses it against all error. 
Here also,' he goes on, 'an analogy may help us. 
When we say that Shakespeare surpassed all other 
men in poetic inspiration, what do we mean ? Not 
that in dealing with disputed historical questions 
he was infallible, but that he had an incomparable 
eye for the /oetic and dramatic e\tmtx\t% of history. 
His genius did not make him an authority upon 
botany or astronomy, it only inspired him to turn 
stars and flowers to the very highest poetic uses 
conceivable. So the prophets were inspired in 
matters pertaining to God ; they had a genius for 

Messrs. Morgan & Scott publish in a cheap 
form the remarkable story of the 'Cambridge 
Seven ' — the athletes and scholars who sixteen 
years ago gave up scholarship to be scholars in 
Christ's school and athletics to compass sea and 
land in the service of the Gospel. The title is A 
Story Retold (6d. net). 

A supplementary volume to Martyred Mtsiion- 
aritsof the China Inland Mission has been issued 
by Messrs. Morgan & Scott under the title of Last 
Letters and Further Records of Martyred Mission- 
aries (8vo, pp. 105, with 19 illustrations, zs. 6d.). 
The book is edited by Marshall Broomhall, B.A. 
It contains the record of experiences that are as 
heart-rending in their simple bravery as any in the 
first volume. To that it adds complete lists, with 
portraits and mnch information, of those who in 
the China Inland Mission endured even unto 


B. Mbver, B.A. (Morgan &• Scoll. Post Svo, pp. 

193. 3s. 6d.) 
Mr. Meyer names two or three books, 'to all of 
which I gladly confess my obligations.' But this 
work is his own. He has considered Joshua for 
himself, and understood him in his own way. It 
is of course a way much influenced by the things 
which Christ has wrought. Mr. Meyer makes no 
effort to detach himself from Christ and present 
Joshua to us with the aid of the historical imagina- 
tion alone. The things of Christ, even the deep 
things, are used to make Joshua ours in the fulness 
of God's own prophetic vision of him. And so 
also the Land of Promise is a land whioheye hath 



not seen even yet, the 'land of morning glories 
and unexampled green ' which awaits the people 
of God. It is Joshua and the Land of Promise, 
as fae may be made useful for inatruction in 
righteousness by us to-day. 

In conjunction with Messrs. Nisbet the Christian 
Literature Company of Edinbu^h have published 
a small volume of 'Verses on the Christian Life,' 
by the late William J. Govan, entitled In His 
Presetut. Few of the poems can be quoted at 
length, yet few are unworthy if we had space. 
Take the first two verses of 'God Blessed for 
Ever ' — 

Our God, could we but Me 
The lovelineis Thou »it, 
Then would our waking heart 
Seek onlf Thee. 

All happinest is Thine, 
And happiness below 
Is bui the atter'glow 
or joy divine. 

The Church Directory and Almanack is one of 
the bravest enterprises in publishing of our day. 
It could be called so last year on its first appear- 
ance. Now it may be called also one of the most 

successful. So well has it been received that the 
editor makes it larger and fuller this year, and the 
publishers issue it at the same price (Nisbet, 
crown 8vo, pp. 672, as, net). This is to bring 
within every man's reach all the information he 
can desire regarding the Church of England, its 
Clergy, and its Benefices, and all in the most 
marvellous accuracy. This year's volume begins a 
list of the Colonial Clergy, which next year's volume 
is expected to present in completeness. It is 
useless for any clei^man to go farther or pay 
more ; he will get everything here, including notes 
for his sermons and a selection of books for his 


DEATH. By the Rev. Alexander Wright, 

M.A. (Oliphant. Crown 8vo, pp. 330. 3s. 6d.) 

The things beyond the veil never lose their 

interest albeit we get no nearer their knowledge 

with all our discussions. Mr. Wright knows now, 

for he was just on the shore, it turned out, as he 

prepared his book. But he wrote before he knew, 

and although he had a pleasant manner of writing 

and ample acquaintance with the literature, he 

leaves us where we were. His book should be 

got by those who cannot afford Salmond's 

Christian Doctrine of Immortality. 

C6e (Bitere of ®amaecu». 

Bv Ernest W. Gurney Mastebman, F.R.C.S., F.R.G.S., late of Damascus. 

'Art tut Amana (A.V. Aiatta) and Pharfar, rivers of 
Danuucui, ttlter than all the ■waters of Israel ? May I not 
tuasA in iMtm, and de dean ? ' (2 K 5"). 

Unanimity of opinion regarding the identification 
of the Amana and Fharpar may perhaps be scarcely 
hoped for. It is indeed possible, though highly 
improbable, that an entirely new theory may some 
day be started. It may be, too, that some new 
discovery may settle the question once for all ; 
but, meanwhile, I am venturing briefly to review 
the 'Rivers of Damascus' as I have seen them 
during three years' residence in the capital of 
Syria, in the endeavour to help others to form their 
own conclusions as to the possibility of a satis- 
factwy identification, and as to the merits of rival 
suggestions. My notes, made on the spot some 

years ago, have been laid aside, as I thought it 
was impossible much difference of opinion on the 
subject could be maintained ; but as I find at least 
two rival theories holding the field, I venture now 
to write them up. 

Briefly, then, I propose (i) to describe all the 
known 'rivers of Damascus' as we find them 
to-day ; (a) to indicate the many proposed identi- 
fications ; and (3) to state my reasons for adopt- 
ing the only one which appears to be at all 

I. The Modern Rivers 0/ Damascui.-^To those 
visiting Damascus for a hurried excursion there 
appears to be but one river — the Barada — that 
beautiful, quick • running, noisy stream which 
to-day accompanies the railway train, as once it 


gladdened the wear; eye of the diligence traveller, 
for the last hour and a half of his journey from 
Beyrout to Damascus. The stream, and the 
beautiful verdure produced by its distributed 
waters along the narrow valley of the Wady 
Baiada and out into the great plain — the GhiHah 
—in which the 'Oldest City in the World' lies 
'like a pearl set in emeralds,' can never be 
forgotten by any who have been privileged to 
see it, much less by any who have lived on 
its banks, and upon its abundant produce. Rising 
high up in the heart of the Anti-Lebanon — at the 
northern foot of Hermon, in a large open pool 
300 yards long, it speeds quickly over the short 
space of level ground which forms the southern 
end of the great plain of Zebedani; and passing 
to-day under a railway bridge, it plunges into 
its valley path, down which it descends, by a 
long succession of cascades and torrents, a 
thousand feet in 33 miles. The waters of this 
abundant 'Aiit Fundtfk are more than doubled, 
rather over half-way down, by the copious, almost 
ice-cold, spring 'Atn Fejeh, which to-day rises 
from the bowels of the earth amid the ruins of 
a temple dedicated in ancient times to the god 
of the Spring. As it approaches Damascus, but 
before it leaves the Wady Barada, the river, 
now of considerable volume, is subjected to a 
succession of dams, whereby its waters are turned 
off right and left into canals. Of these there are 
six, making with the main stream seven,^ 'rivers' 
for the watering of Damascus and districL These 
canals pass off at different levels, so that at 
Rubjuek, the mouth of the valley, one finds as 
he passes out five streams to the right of the 
road, and two to the left. As a matter of fact, 
very few visitors have taken the trouble, or had 
the opportunity, to observe this; and in many 
travellers' accounts, both ancient and modem, 
only two, three, or maybe four streams are 

Commencing with the canals on the right bank 
of the river, we find high up on the cliffs — 

(i) The Nahr Daiwani, ^V^- — This arises 
above the village of Dummar, and supplies a large 
mill near there. It contains' a comparatively 

' Eight, counling (he 'Airaiani, which branches off just 
inside the modern city. 

* The remarks on the condition of the canals were wrillen 
on the spot some four je^rs ago. 

small quantity of water, through want of repair 
and consequent leakage. It passes through deep 
tunnels in the solid rock in many places, and was 
made to hold much more water than it does at 
present. As it turns out towards the plain, 
in (he direction of the village of Darayya, which 
it was apparently made to supply, It contains little 
water, and is much overgrown with reeds. 
Some 10 feet or more lower down is the — 

(a) Nahr Missaweh, t^y*- — This at present 
contains a somewhat larger volume of water than 
the Daiwani ; in places it passes through rock 
tunnels, but it is chiefly an open channel; at 
present it is a good deal overgrown with reeds, etc. 
It goes to the village of Mizseh and the gardens 

(3) Below this again is the Nahr Kanawal, 
dJljUj — the River of Canals, literally. This 
stream, of course, leaves the Barada a good deal 
further down than the two before mentioned. For 
any who go to Damascus, I may mention that I have 
noted that it arises ' close to the railway signal-box 
where the road crosses the railway.' It contains 
also much more vrater than the channels above. 
It passes east of the new barracks, runs parallel 
with the new railway along a covered-in channel, 
and passes into the city by a fine old Roman 
aqueduct, now half hidden by the high level of 
the road beside it, and thence supplies a large 
section of the city with water. 

(4) The Baniai, ^^bJL', is also a large and 
important canal : it arises near the mouth of the 
Wady, and passing east of the Merj, at several 
spots traversing rock tunnels, it enters the city 
about half-way between the Kanawal and the 
Barada, and supplies another large section of the 

As these canals, at any rale the ones of im- 
portance, are from lime to time emptied by 
diverting the waters in order that they may be 
cleaned out, the inhabitants know well enough, to 
their cost very often, from which canal their bouses 
are supplied. 

(5) The main stream — the Barada, ^jJji, — 
would be much smaller than it is but for the con- 
tinual leakage into it from its canals on each side. 
It [>asses from the Jiubway through some gardens, 
and emerges at the Merj, — a large open meadow, 
— where it runs beside the high road (the French 



dil^ence road) until it reaches the Serai Square. 
Here it plunges beneath a bridge, not (as Dr. 
G. A. Smith > has it) to pass ' in lesser conduits 
and pipes to every bouse and court in the city,' 
but to give off the\.' Akmbane (^Ijjc) which 
runs 'between the walls,'— that is, between the 
sites of the two lines of walls which protected 
this northern side of the city. It emerges a little 
farther on, after passing under the Serai Square, 
and runs along the moat of the north wall of the 
city until it reaches Bab Tuma. Here it leaves 
the city to wind among the gardens, and finally, 
with much of the water of other channels also, it 
loses itself in the great marshy lakes to the east of 
the city. 

The two remaining canals, those on the left 
bank, are both large and of elaborate construction. 
They are, in many places, built up of masonry to 
a great height against the steep cliffs. 

(6) The Taura, \j^, or more correctly, Ijjfe, the 
lower of the two, arises not far up the valley. At 
Ruhvay it makes a remarkable dive through a 
tunnel in an obstructing ridge of cliff. On reach- 
ing the open it works north-westward, making a 
great sweep round the western flank of the city. 
It passes chiefly through gardens, but supplies the 
western suburbs outside the ancient city walls. 
It moves on as a shallow stream with muddy banks, 
overhung with trees, to water the land beyond 
the city, and, like the Barada, terminates in the 

(7) The Yazid, jyjj.— This, the largest and 
highest of the canals, leaves the Barada near 
Hameh. On reaching the Rubwth it makes a 
wider sweep northward than the Taura, almost, 
one might say, skirting the foot of the northern 
hills. It flows through and supplies the suburb 
of Salyheyek, and passes to the villages of Harista, 
DUma, etc. 

The Arabic historians,^ Idrasi, 1154 a.d,, and 
Dimashki, 1300 a.d., give almost identical names 
to these channels. The Yazid, Thaurah, and 
Barada are identical. The Banias is called the 
Banas by Idrasi, and the Balniyas by Dimashki 
Banas is probably the ancient name, which has 
become corrupted to Banias through some con- 
fusion with Banias, the site of Csssarea PhiUppi 

' Hislvriiol Geography of the Holy Land, 7th ed. p. 646, 
' See Paieseittt under Ike Maslemi, by Guy le Strange 
(Paleitine Explonlion Fund), 

and source of the Jordan. The Meziaweh is 
called by both the Kanat et Mizzeh, after the village 
it supplies, and the Dairan^ is the Adayah of 
Idrasi and the Darayyah of Dimashki — all practi- 
cally the same. The only doubtful one is the 
Kanawat, which, though so called by Dimashki, 
must correspond to either the Nahr Sakt or the 
Nahr Yashkiir of Idrasi ; the 'Akrabani may be 
the other. 

It is evident that these canals are of extreme 
antiquity, especially those on the right bank, as 
without them the site of the city of Damascus 
would be a waterless desert, intersected with one 
green-fringed river — the Barada. 

When we turn from the Barada we find but one 
other river in the Damascus district This is the 
'AwaJ — the 'brawling little Awaj,' as the late Dr. 
Wright called it. It seems to have fared badly in 
his descriptions, the reader's prejudices against it 
being excited by the mention of the large number 
of 'toads, tortoises, frogs, and leeches' that sur- 
round any one venturing to bathe in it. I shall 
not attempt a detailed description of the crooked 
Awaj (that will be found fully in Dr. Porter's 
works), but it is far more attractive than would be 
supposed. Rising from the very heart of Hermon 
at Arny, or, by its other head, from the south-west 
slopes of that great mountain near Beit Jenn, the 
Awaj has as clear and fresh a beginning as any river 
in the district. The two branches unite at SoiSt, 
and the stream runs a very crooked course through 
the plain south of the Jebal el Aswad, under the 
modern bridge on the Damascus- Mezerib Railway, 
and on to the southernmost of the marshy lakes of 
Damascus. It is true that in the latter part of its 
course it is muddy, but that is no drawback to its 
usefulness. Even to-day it is used for irrigation 
purposes, and one canal stilt passes towards the 
city; but it is evident that in old days its waters 
were much more utilized. Remains of old 
aqueducts are found to-day, and the south end 
of the ghHtah, which evidently should be watered 
from it, is now, for want of water, little culti- 
vated, and a marked contrast to the immensely 
fruitful area supported by the sister stream, the 

I have said there are but two ' rivers ' of Damas- 
cus, but I should perhaps add that a small stream 
coming down the Wady Helbott has by some 
been claimed to be the Fharpar. To me this 
identification appears to be impossible, and the 



comparison of such a streamlet with the Jordan 

Putting this aside, there are at least four pro- 
posals that have had, or have, their day. At the 
middle of last century I find^ that the Barada 
was supposed to be the Pharpar, and the Awaj 
the Abana. I am unable to say on what grounds 
this identification was made ; but I agree vrith 
a still earlier writer who states that the first 
mentioned, the Amana (or Abana), was certainly 
the more important, and therefore of these two 
must be the Barada. 

Secondly, we find the two fountains^ 'Ain 
Fundult (or Barada) and *Ain Fejeh suggested 
as the two rivers; but it seems to have been 
made by those who relied on false descriptions 
of the locality. 

Lastly, we have the two rival popular views 
of to^lay — that of the tate Dr. Wright* and that 
supported by Robinson,* Porter,' and I know 
not how many others. Dr. Wright availed him- 
self of so many opportunities for bringing his 
views to the front, and did so with such assurance 
and enthusiasm, that they have been widely 
adopted in spite of their not having (as he him- 
self says of Porter's views) ' a single claim, logical 
or archieological, to be so honoured.' 

Dr. Wright's view was briefly this, that the 
Abana was the Canal Banias, and the Pharpar 
the Canal Taura. For the elaboration of his 
views I must refer the reader to the ExposUor, 
vol. iv.,« 1896. Briefly his arguments are — (t) 
that the word Banias (he calls it Abanias) is 
like the word Abana; (z) that the Taura, inas- 
much as it supplied the best baths of the city, 
roust have been the Pharpar ; (3) that the Awaj, 
being too muddy for a satisfactory bath, could 

'John Wilson, Zanrfi of the Bible, 1847; KiHo, Cte- 
grapky ef Palestine, 1850. 

' Deiiriptive Geography ef Palestine, by S. Schwan, trans- 
lated by Isaac Leeser, 1850. 

' Wright in Expontsr, 1896, toI. iv.; Leisure Hour, 
1874: P'llmyraandZenobia; • Bibie Soatlj's ffaaditxri sf 
the Bible,- etc. Also Sir C. W. Wilson in Smith's Ditliimary 
ef the Bible (1893), vol. i. p. 3; Oxford Companion to the 
Bible, p. 110; Armstrong's Names and Places (Palestine 
Exploration Fund). 

* Robinson's Sescarches, vol. ill. pp. 446, 447. 
'Porter's Four Years aJ Damascus, vol. i., I8SS ; 

Journal of Saired Literature, Kos. 8 and 9 (July and 
October), :853. 

• The passages quoted below are either from this source 
or (rom Dt. Wright's Palmyra and Zenoiia. 

not have been the Pharpar; (4) that his views 
are supported by local tradition ; (5) that an 
Arabic version of the Bible, published in i545> 
supports his views; and (6) that his view is 
supported by Benjamin of Tudela. 

Against the first argument two objeclions 
may be urged. The name Amana is now gener- 
ally accepted instead of Abana; and secondly, 
the name Abanias, on which Dr. Wright laid 
so much stress, is certainly not the name of the 
canal in question. All the best modem authori- 
ties give the name as Banias. I myself, after 
much inquiry, never found any trace of a name 
Abanias. Further, I have just received a letter 
from the Rev. J. Stewart Crawford, who, in addition 
to having been bom and brought up in Damascus, 
has spent many years there as a missionary. 
He says, 'I have never heard the Canal Banias 
called Abanias. I have inquired of Moslems since 
getting your note, and none of them ever beard 

In the old Arabic writers the name always 
appears, so far as I know, as Banas or Balniyas. 

I cannot help thinking that some Damascenes 
had endeavoured to please Dr. Wright by further- 
ing his views with a piece of fictitious nomen- 
clature ! 

2. The identification of the Pharpar seems to 
rest on no grounds at all — mere guesswork. 
The Taura is by no means one of the most 
important canals for the city. The Kanawat, 
Banias, and the Barada are all more important. 
The Taura is entirely cut off from the city proper 
by the main stream. As to the ' western suburbs, 
luxurious and healthy,' they rest on no historic 
or antiquarian grounds, and at such a time of 
political unsettlement are, to say the least, highly 
improbable. It may be pointed out, too, that 
Dr. Wright entirely ignores the main stream, the 
Barada itself, which must always have been a 
prominent object in the city. 

When first I became acquainted with Dr. 
Wright's theory I thought perhaps that I might 
find evidence that once there were but two rivers 
entering Damascus, and these, the Barada, bifur- 
cated Into the Banias and the Taura ; but of this 
I find none. Dr. Wright indeed himself admits, 
'There need be no ques