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Full text of "Exposé of Communist activities in the State of Massachusetts, based on the testimony of Herbert A. Philbrick. Hearings"

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fePOSE OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

(BASED ON THE TESTIMONY OF HERBERT A. PHILBRICK) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SECOND CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 23 AND 24, OCTOBER 10 AND 11, 1951 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 





UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE L—^J^ /^ 

89067 WASHINGTON : 1951 I ■'|^'-^ 

POBLIC 



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U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF OOCUMENrt 

DEC 26 1951 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia, Chairman 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee CHARLES E. POTTER, Michigan 

Frank S. Tavennee, jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Senior Investigator 

JOHN w. Carrington, Clerk of Committee 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Paga 

Foreword v 

July 23, 1951, testimony of Herbert A. Philbrick 1257 

July 24, 1951, testimony of — 

Harrv Eugene Winner 1307 

Prof." Dirk J. Struik 1 1321 

October 10, 1951, testimony of Donald C. Bollen 1353 

October 11, 1951, testimony of — 

Donald Tormev 1371 

Nathaniel Mills 1390 

Robert Goodwin 1397 

Appendix 1401 

ni 



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FOREWORD 

The Committee on Un-American Activities of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, in the course of its investigation to ascertain the scope 
of infihration and influence of communism in areas containing indus- 
tries of vital defense to the national welfare of this country, has heard 
the following testimony relating to the New England area. 

Also subpenaed to appear before the conunittee was Joseph Figuei- 
redo who is referred to on several occasions in this testimony. The 
committee has acceded to the request of Figueiredo's physician to post- 
pone his appearance before the committee until such time as Mr. 
Figueiredo's health will permit such an appearance. It is expected 
that Mr. Figueiredo and such other individuals whose investigation 
would appear to be warranted will be heard some time early in 1952. 
From' the nature of the testimony concerning him, it is believed that 
if !Mr. Figueiredo so desires he can furnish testimony that will be of 
great assistance to the committee relative to detei-mining the extent 
of Communist infiltration and influence in the New England area. 



EXPOSE OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF 

MASSACHUSETTS 
(BASED ON THE TESTIMONY OF HERBERT A. PHILBRICK) 



MONDAY, JULY 23, 1951 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
pursuant to call at 10 : 55 a. m. in room 226, Old House Office Building, 
Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives John S. Wood (chair- 
man), Clyde Doyle (appearance as noted in transcript), James B. 
Frazier, Jr., and Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel ; Raphael I. Nixon, director of research ; 
and A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr. Wood. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show that for the purposes of this hearing I, as 
chairman, have set up a subcommittee composed of the following 
members: Messrs. Frazier, Jackson, and Wood. We are all present. 

Whom do you have, Mr. Counsel 'I 

]\Ir. Ta\t:nner. Mr. Chairman, the investigation this morning is 
shifting from the Baltimore area to the New England area, with 
special emphasis ui)on the Communist Party activities in the State of 
Massachusetts. Tlie witness this morninc; is Mr. Herbert A. Philbrick, 
who occupies the witness chair. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Philbrick, will you stand and be sworn, please. Do 
you solemnly swear the evidence you give this subcommittee shall be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I do. 

Mr. Wood. Have a seat. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT ARTHUR PHILBRICK 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you state your full name, please ? 
Mr. Philbrick. M}^ full name is Herbert Arthur Philbrick. 
JSIr. Tavenxer. Wlien and where were you born 't 
Mr. Philbrick. T was born in Boston, Mass., May 11, 1915. 
Mr. Tavex'x'er. Where do you now reside. 

Mr. Phiijjrick. I reside in ^Melrose Highlands, Mass., a suburb of 
Boston. 

1257 



1258 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you please state for the committee in a general 
way what your education has been ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I am a graduate of a school of civil engineering, 
and also a graduate of several courses in advertising, salesmanship, 
public relations, and so forth. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your trade or profession ? 

Mr, Philbrick. My profession is that of advertising. I am now 
advertising and sales-promotion manager of the Maintain Store 
Engineering Service in Boston. 

IMr. Tavenner. Will you describe briefly for the committee what 
your record of employment has been since the completion of your 
education ? 

Mr. Philbrick. ]\Iy first employment was with the Dickie Raymond 
Co. of Boston, a direct-mail advertising firm. From there I went to 
Cambridge, Mass., where I worked with the Holmes Direct Mail 
Service, H-o-l-m-e-s. 

Then I became assistant advertising director for the Paramount 
chain of theaters, working for Harry Browning, advertising director. 

Following that I worked for a short time for American Theatres 
Corp., again as assistant advertising director; and from there as 
advertising director for the Maintain Store Engineering Service, my 
present employer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Philbrick, the committee records reflect that in 
the trial of the 11 Communist leaders, in the United States district 
court in New York City, you appeared as a witness for the Government 
in the course of that trial. Is that correct? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes ; it is, 

Mr, Tavenner, During the course of that testimony it was indicated 
that you had operated in an undercover capacity for the Government 
in connection with various Communist Party activities, and in connec- 
tion with the Young Communist League, American Youth for Democ- 
racy, and possibly other organizations. Is that correct? 

Mr, Philbrick, Yes; it is. 

Mr, Tavenner, At the time you became a member of the Cambridge 
Youth Council, which I understand you joined, you were not working 
for a Government agency ; were you ? 

Mr, Philbrick. No, sir. 

]Mr. Tavenner. I would like for you to tell the committee in your 
own words all the circumstances relating to your joining the Cam- 
bridge Youth Council, and how your experience in that organization 
led to your connection with the Federal Government. 

Mr. Phil£ri;ck. Well, in the spring of 1940, in the course of can- 
vassing for busin^s^or my firm, which at that time w^as the Holmes 
Co. in Cambridge, I w\alked into an office at 7 Water Street, Boston. 
I had no previous knowledge of this particular office or of any of the 
individuals connected with it. 

Upon opening the door I found I was in the office of an organization 
called the Massachusetts Youth Council, and it was through that visit 
that I became acquainted with Alice Mills, who was in charge of the 
office at that time. Also, through her, I became known to Nathaniel 
Mills, or Nat Mills, her husband, who was the head of the Massachu- 
setts Youth Council. 



C03M1VIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1259 

Through thoiu I also met a girl in Cambridge by the name of Toni 
Grosse, who I found Liter was the head of the Harvard Student Union, 
which was a branch of the American Student Union, in Cambridge. 

I had always been in young ]^eople's work myself. I had been very 
active as a youth leader in our Baptist church in Somerville, Mass. I 
was very mnch interested in youth organizations and youth activities. 
When I learned of the possibility of a Cambridge Youth Council which 
would include the ])articipation of many youth organizations, such as 
the YWCA, YMCA, and all the various church youth groups in Cam- 
bridge, I was very much interested in it. So I became afliliatecl with 
the eroup in that fashion. 

]\ir. Tavenxp:r. Did you have any official position in the group that 
was established; that is, the Cambridge Youth Council? 

Mr. Philbrick. I became the chairman of the initial committee to 
form the provisional Cambridge Youth Council, and subsequently 
became chairman of the Cambridge Youth Council itself. 

Mr. Tavenxer. What was the approximate date of the formation of 
the Cambridge Youth Council ? 

]Mr. Philbrick. I believe it was formally organized in the fall of 
1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the purposes of that group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, the purposes of the group, so far as the great 
majority of the young people participating in it, were perfectly 
legitimate and honest. Our main objectives at that time — and by that 
I mean of the majority of the young people in the gi^oup — were, first, 
to try to maintain peace for the United States, to try to keep the 
United States out of the World War which was growing at that time; 
also, to work on job-training projects for the young people, because at 
that time unemployment was widespread among the youth. So, we 
worked on NYA projects, I believe they were called, and other worth- 
while functions. 

Mr. Tavexner. What ])art did the two persons by the name of 
Mills — I believe you said Nat Mills and Alice Mills — and Toni Grosse, 
have in the original formation of this organization? 

Mr. Philbrick. Xat ]Mills, as chairman of the Massachusetts Youth 
Council, which included similar organizations in many cities and 
towns throughout the State, otfered all help and aid and advice in 
forming this group. He supplied me and other members in the initial 
organization the names of various people to contact and see, names 
of people he said would be interested in participating in the youth 
group. 

Toni Grosse : I have no recollection that she ever belonged to the 
Cambridge Youth Council itself, but she did offer her office in Cam- 
bridge, which I believe was at 1384 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge. 
She offered us her office for the time being until we were able to get 
offices for ourselves. 

]Mr. Ta\-exxer. Was the Cambridge Youth Council affiliated with 
the IVIassachusetts Youth Council or the American Youth Congress? 

Mr. Philbrick. We were affiliated with the Massachusetts Youth 
Council and the American Youth Congress through delegates that we 
sent to these various organizations. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. How long did you serve as chairman of the Cam- 
bridge Youth Council? 



1260 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Philbrick. I served as cliairman right through until the time 
it folded, Avhich was during the summer of 1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did this group have an executive secretary ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes ; it did. 

Mr. Taveistner. Who was the executive secretary ? 

Mr. Philbrick. The person in the position of executive secretary 
was a fellow by the name of Arthur Solomon of Cambridge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Arthur Solomon? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. S-o-l-o-m-o-n ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you known him prior to your association with 
him in this group ? 

Mr. Philbrick, No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill you state whether the poHcies of the organ- 
ization and the programs which it adopted were those dictated and 
chosen by the membership at large, or Mdiether there were any other 
influences brought to bear which decided the policy and was influ- 
ential in the selection of the projects? 

Mr. Philbrick. To lead up to the question, very shortly after I 
became involved in this youth movement I began to realize that there 
was something wrong. Perhaps the major conviction that things 
were not i-ight centered around the fact that we had an executive 
board consisting of five people. One of the persons was myself, as 
chairman; another one was a girl by the name of Alice Solomont, 
S-o-l-o-m-o-n-t, who was the recording secretary of the group; and 
the other three members were Arthur Solomon ; Sidney Solomon, his 
brotlier; and another fellow by the name of Stanley Beecher, 
B-e-e-c-h-e-r. 

Alice Solomont and I soon found that in every matter having to 
do with policy we were continually overruled by the other three. We 
also discovered that at no time did the stand taken by those three vary 
in any way from the position of the Massachusetts Youth Council or 
of the American Youth Congress. 

I might go on to say that all of the positions taken by the American 
Youth Congress were not in accordance with the majority of the 
membership of the Cambridge Youth Council, and yet, in spite of 
that, we were most effectively controlled, so that we could not overrule 
the policies of the American Youth Congress. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the general membership in the group aware of 
that influence? 

Mr. Philbrick. No ; they were not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or control? 

Mr. Philbrick. No, sir. 

Mr. TA\TiNNER. Then, as far as the youth groups which were rep- 
resented in the Cambridge Youth Council were concerned, they were 
totally unaware of the fact that outside influences were controlling 
the policy of their organization? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that your experience aroused your 
suspicions about those matters. What did you do about it? 

Mr. Philbrick. As soon as I became convinced that I had run into 
a Communist-front activity, I reported to the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1261 

I^Ir. Tavexxkk. Before taking that action, had you decided to resign 
from the'position of chairman of the organization? 

]Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. Yes, sir; I had. 

Mr. Tavennek. After talking to the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion, did you continue with your plan to resign? 

Mr. Philbrick. No, sir; 1 did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you do? 

Mr. Philbrick. I stayed in the group for the purpose of reporting 
to the Government the activities of the Communists and their attempts 
to control the Cambridge Youth Council. 

Mr .Tav-enner. You were of the opinion then, I assume, that the 
activities in connection with your youth organization were sucli that 
the Government should be made aware of what was going on. 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that was your reason for reporting ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, -sir. 

Mv. Tavenner. Did you continue in the organization, then, at the 
behest of the Government ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. And I believe j^ou told us that you remained as 
chairman of the organization until it disbanded in the summer of 
1941? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. June 22, 1941, was the date of the invasion of Russia 
by Germany, I believe, and that was the date, I believe, your organiza- 
tion disbanded? 

Mr. Philbrick. Of course, as 1 have already said, the prime objec- 
tive of the majority of the members of the Cambridge Youth Council 
was to keep America on this side of the ocean as long as possible, and 
of course as of June 22, 1941, the comrades lost all interest in that 
objective, so the Cambridge Youth Council, to all effects and pur- 
poses, dissolved. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you acquire information as to other organiza- 
tions of which Arthur Solomon was a member at the same time he 
was executive secretary of the Cambridge Youth Council ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I found out later that Arthur Solomon was the 
head of the Young Communist League in Cambridge at the same time 
he had been executive secretary of our organization. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. How did you obtain that information? 

Mr. Philbrick. He told me so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee very briefly what func- 
tions the Cambridge Youth Council performed during its existence, 
what it did. what work it engaged in, in addition to the general spon- 
soring of the policies which you have already mentioned? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, of course, there were two factions at work, 
one the group I would call the legitimate gi"oup, and the other the 
Young Communist group. It is rather difficult at times to separate 
the two. But in addition to working for job training, working for 
peace, and so forth, we also, through the Communist influence, worked 
on other matters. One of them was to participate in a group called 
the American Peace Mobilization, I believe, and through the YCL'ers 
we were provided with, I believe, many petitions to be signed, and so 
forth. So there was a great deal of activity, much of which I do not 



1262 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

recall at tlie present time, which had to do with matters that were not 
of prime interest to the majority of the members of the Cambridge 
Youth Council. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were the financial affairs of the organization 
handled ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Very loosely, I would say. We raised money 
through friends and contacts we made, most of them believing in the 
honest objectives of the group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any contributions made by any other 
organizations to the work of your organization ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall of any. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any occasions when the Cambridge 
Youth Council performed any particular service for other organiza- 
tions in the way of furnishing materials, newsprint, or paper of any 
kind for use in circularizing the public? 

Mr. Philbrick. . Another one of the difficulties we ran into — this was 
at a very late date of the organization — was the fact that since, as it 
turned out, a great deal of our mimeograph work was being done at 
YCL headquarters. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you say YCL you mean Young Communist 
League ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. Since a great deal of our mimeograph work 
was being done at Young Communist League headquarters, this, also, 
without the knowledge of the majority of the membership, much of 
our supplies, mimeograph paper and so forth, which we bought, were 
actually delivered to YCL headquarters. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether any of the Cambridge Youth 
Council materials were used by organizations other than your own and, 
of course, the Young Communist League? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. After the termination of your organization in the 
summer of 1941, did you continue your relationship with Arthur Solo- 
mon and his brother, Sidney Solomon, and others of the group which 
you have indicated were exercising influence and control' over your 
organization ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. And what was your purpose in doing that ? 

Mr. Philbrick. My purpose was still to obtain information for the 
Government concerning the activities of these individuals. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of that relationship, were you urged to 
join another organization known as the Cambridge Committee for 
Equal Opportunities? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell us a little more of the circumstances regarding 
the establishment of that organization. 

Mr. Philbrick. The Cambridge Committee for Equal Opportuni- 
ties was another group which included a great many very fine people 
from Cambridge who were honestly interested in obtaining some bene- 
fits from the group. The purposes of it were — well, there were two 
purposes. First, of course, the purpose of the Communist Party was 
to establish this front to reach the Negro people of Cambridge. The 
stated purposes, the legitimate purposes, were to try to end race dis- 
crimination in jobs, and to obtain better housing and other opportuni- 
ties for the Negro people of Cambridge. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1263 

Mr. Ta%t:nxer. How long were you a member of that organization, 

do you recall? 

Mr. Philbrick. Only a short time. My initial capacity was as a 
member of the sponsoring committee of the group. 

Uv. TAM2NNER. But it was a group organized at the behest and 
under the influence of Arthur Solomon and his associates? 

Mr. Philbrick. Very largely; yes, sir. ■ ■ . r^ 

Mr. Tavenxer. During the course of your membership m the Cam- 
bridge Committe for Equal Opportunities, were you approached re- 
gardiiig- a desire to have vou unite with any additional organizations? 

Mr. PniEBRiCK. In the spring of 1942 I was invited to join the Young. 
Communist League. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. By whom was the invitation extended ? 

Mr. Philbrick. The invitation was by Arthur Solomon. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you accept the invitation? 

Mr. Philbrick. AfteV consultation with the Government, yes. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Were you assigned to a group or cell of the Young 
Communist League. 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell the committee the circumstances of 
your becoming a member, and the associations you had as a member 
of the Young Communist League? 

Mv. Philbrick. Well, my recollections are very vague for that 
period of time. I recall that the first meetings of this new group — 
which I understood was a group of people like myself, newly recruited 
in to the Young Communist League — the first meetings were held in 
my apartment at Cambridge, and it was then that I, together with 
the others, was given the first indoctrination by the Communist Party 
leaders who were in charge of the educational work. 

I have very little recollection of the people who belonged to that 
particular cell. It was a small group of 8, 9, or 10 people, perhaps. 

Mr. Ta\^X"Xer. Was Arthur Solomon a member of the same group? 

Mr. Philbrick. No; he wasn't. 

Mr. Taa-exx^er, Was his brother Sidney Solomon a member of that 
group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. He attended one or two meetings, but it was my 
understanding he belonged to another cell. 

Mr. Tavex'xer. You have spoken of the incloctrinational phase of 
the work while you were in the Young Communist League. Who 
conducted or took the lead in the indoctrinational work? 

Mr. Philbrick. Tliere was a girl comrade who conducted the ses- 
sions, but I do not recall her name at this time. 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. AVas your membership in the Young Communist 
League of an open nature, or were you advised that your membership 
would be kept secret? 

Mr. Philbrick. I was advised that my membership would be kept 
secret, and I was also instructed to keep my membersliip in the group 
secret. 

Mr. Taa-exxer. You have stated that you were unable to recall 
at this time the names of the 8 or 9 persons who were associated in 
this group with you at that time, but can you give us any description 
or any opinion of the particular field of employment or profession 
represented by those who associated with vou at "that time? 



1264 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Philbrick. The group was composed of young people living 
either in the community or attending one of the colleges in the vicin- 
ity. We had, for example, some Harvard students, some Radcliffe 
students, also some young people who were employed and living in 
Cambridge. 

JVIr. Tavenner. Were their last names given to you ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Only their first names were given in these YCL 
meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given any instructions after you became 
a member? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall any instructions specifically, except 
that I was given various jobs as a new member. For example, 1 was 
asked to help out in the free Earl Browder campaign. I was instructed 
to contact my friends and so forth as a non- Communist, and to obtain 
their signatures for the free Earl Browder campaign. 

Also, we worked on the Russian War Relief, as I recall, and in that 
-connection we canvassed various people, looking for money and so 
iorth. I guess those are the two most prominent ones I can recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any reason assigned as to why your member- 
ship in the Young Communist League was to be kept secret ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I was told that it was quite common for people in 
executive or semiexecutive classifications, or for people working in 
Government jobs, and for other various reasons, not to have their 
party membership known publicly. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have previously mentioned certain individuals, 
Nathaniel Mills, Alice Mills, and Toni Grosse. Did it come to your 
attention during the period you were a member of the Young Com- 
munist League that any of these people were also members ? 

Mr. Philbrick. After I became a member of the Young Commu- 
nist League, I found that my comrades included Nat Mills, Alice Mills, 
and Toni Grosse. 

Mr. Tavenner. Though they were not, I assume, members of your 
particular cell? 

Mr. Philbrick. No. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Were they times when you felt you were under 
investigation yourself regarding the sincerity of your purposes in 
joining the Young Communist League? 

Mr. Philbrick. During the time we were discussing the possibility 
of my membership — you see, I stalled Arthur Solomon until I had 
time to contact the Government — during that time or immediately 
thereafter I was contacted by Toni Grosse, who up to that time I had 
not known as a member of the Communist Party or the Young Com- 
munist League, and she proceeded to examine me quite thoroughly re- 
garding my background, and to question me closely as to my reasons 
for joining, and what I hoped to get out of the organization, and so 
forth. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. To whom did you pay your dues while a member of 
the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall. It was to one of the members of our 
group who served as treasurer. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the Young 
Communist League ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1265 

]\Ii'. riiiLiuucK. 1 remained a iiieiuber of the Young Communist 
League right up until the time of its dissohition, which I believe was 
in the fall of V.UX 

Mr. Tavexnkh. What Avas the date of your joining the Young Com- 
munist League ? 

Mr. PiiiLBRicK. I joined the Young Communist League in the 
spring of 1042 and remained a member until the fall of 1943, when 
the organization was dissolved in Xew York City and an organiza- 
tion called American Youth for Democracy was formed. 

Mr, Tavenner. Prior to the dissolution of the Young Communist 
League, was there any occasion at which you were present where 
there was a discussion concerning the formation of the American 
Youth for Democracy ? 

Mr. PiiiLBRicK. Yes, there was. 

Mr. Taa-exxer. Will you tell us about that, please? 

]\rr. Philbrick. There were two or three discussions. One or two 
of them were held in our own cell meetings. These centered around 
an article which I believe was written by Max Weiss, and which ap- 
]ieared in a magazine known at the time either as the Communist or 
Political Afl'airs. We had some discussion regarding this new or- 
ganization to be formed. 

Then I had luncheon with Alice Gordon at which we discussed not 
only the formation of the organization, but the question of my be- 
coming State treasurer of the organization. 

Mr. Tavexner. Will you tell us at this point who Alice Gordon 
was^ 

Mr, Philbrick. She was the head of the Young Communist League 
movement in district 1 of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavexner. What was the area or territory of district 1? 

Mr. Philbrick. That includes all the New England States with 
the exception of Connecticut, I believe. 

Mr. Tavex'xer. You have told us of various conversations relating 
to the formation of an organization of youth. Had the name of that 
organization been discussed prior to the time of the dissolution of 
the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer, Is it correct to state that the American Youth for 
Democracy was a continuation of the Young Communist League, or 
an extension of it ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Substantially so, although the policies and pro- 
grams of the American Youth for Democracy were considerably less 
Marxist than those of the original Young Communist League. 

For example, in the Young Communist League we, together with- 
the Communist Party, taught and believed in a revolutionary over- 
throw of the Government. In the American Youth for Democracy 
this question was never brought up. It was strictly a win-the-w^ar 
organization. But all members of the Young Communist League 
were actually interested in the American Youth for Democracy. 

Mr. Tavexx'er. Were you present at the convention in New York 
at which the Young Communist League was dissolved? 

Mr. Ppiilbrick. I was. I Avas a (lelegate to that convention. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell us the circumstances of the formation 
of the American Youth for Democracy ? 



1266 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IIST STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Philbrick. The details are very vague now. We met for 3 or 
4 days in New York City. Mecca Temple was one of the spots we met, 
and Manhattan Center. We met first, I believe, on a Friday night. 
I don't recall exactly. But we first met very briefly to go through the 
formality of dissolving the Young Communist League. Committees 
were set up then to form this new group, American Youth for De- 
mocracy. The delegates were in almost every case the same delegates 
as we had for the A YD the next daj. 

Mr. Tavenner. So it was the same group which dissolved the Young 
Communist League who organized the American Youth for De- 
mocracy? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did vou hold a State office in the new organization, 
the American Youth for Democracy ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, I did. I became, as we had discussed in Mas- 
sachusetts even before the organization was formed. State treasurer 
for the group. 

Mr. TA\TEN]srER. When you say "we" discussed, to whom do you 
refer ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Alice Gordon and other members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, the Communist Party formed a 
slate of the officers to be elected in the Massachusetts chapter of the 
American Youth for Democracy ; is that what you mean ? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that slate elected? 

Mr. Philbrick. Tt was ; completely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio were the officers, other than yourself ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall the full slate of officers we had. Don 
Bollen was chairman. I met him for the first time at the Young Com- 
munist League convention in New York. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Were you able at that time or sometime later to 
identify him as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that time or later? 

Mr. Philbrick. I assumed, since he was at the Young Communist 
League convention, that he was a member. As Young Communist 
League members we all understood that to all effects and purposes 
we were members of the Communist Partv. I assumed he was, and 
at a later date I met him at Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the names of other officers whose 
names appeared on this slate formed by the Communist Party 
members ? 

Mr. Philbrick. The only other name I recall right now was Bernice 
Rogers. I believe she became secretary of the organization. Then 
there were several others who also were on that list, but I am not 
entirely sure which of those became members or officers at that 
time. 

Mr. Ta^'enner. Was Bernice Rogers a member of the Communist 
Party to your knowledge? 

Mr. Philbrick, Yes, she was. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have partially answered this question, but 
I would like to have it restated, probably a little more fully. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1267 

What, in your oj.inion, -was the purpose of the formation of the 
American Youth for Democracy at that time? 

Mr. PiiiLBKicK. The purpose was to organize a large, mass youth 
oi'ganization wliich would back the policies of winning the war, of 
getting aid (o Kussia, and so forth. It was to be a non-Communist 
organization, insofar as we did not advocate overthrow of the Gov- 
ernment, and of course we watered down several other Marxist tenets 
and beliefs in accordance with that period, which was the time known 
as Browderism. 

The purpose was to organize a large mass movement of young 
people, the great majority of them being non-Communists, and to 
organize them in a win-the-war youth movement. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you a member of the American 
Youth for Democracy ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I remained State treasurer of AYD from the time 
of its organization in the fall of 1943 up until the summer of 1945. 

Mr. Tavenxer. What was the largest membership of the Ameri- 
can Youth for Democracy in the State of Massachusetts, if you 
know? 

]Mr. Philbrick. The peak of membership in Massachusetts was 
around 1,000 members. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of time when you were active 
in the American Youth for Democracy, did you have occasion to 
come in contact with members of the Communist Party, or persons 
known at that time, or even at a later date, by you to be members of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the occasion for your meeting those 
individuals ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, there were two groups with whom I came 
in contact. One was the group affiliated nationally with AYD, and 
of course as State treasurer of AYD in Massachusetts, I met with 
these people many times in working on the business of the . AYD 
of Massachusetts. 

One of these was Bob McCarthy, originally from Massachusetts, 
a member of the furniture workers union, who became an officer in 
the national group. 

I also met people such as Robert Thompson; Carl Ross 

Mr. Tavenner. Are these people all known to you to be members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Leo Cooper, I recall working with him from time to time. 

Max Weiss, of course, I met in New York, and he is an open member 
of the Communist Party. 

Claudia Jones, I believe, is known as an open member of the Com- 
munist Party, and I met with her. 

Mr. Wood. What is her first name ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Claudia. 

Mr. Tavenner. C-1-a-u-d-i-a? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. She is one of the 21 persons now under indictment 
as members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is the same person. 

89067 — 51 2 



1268 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether there are also deportation 
proceedings pending against her? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is the same individual ; yes. 

Mr. Taa^nner. I interrupted you in the listing of names of mem- 
bers of the Communist Party with whom you came in contact during 
this period. 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, I believe I mentioned Max Weiss. 

Marcella Sloane, from the national office of the Communinst Party ; 
I became acquainted Avith her. 

Those people I became acquainted with on a national level. 

On the local level I met at regular intervals with the leaders of the 
Communist Party in Massachusetts, most of these meetings taking 
place in Communist Party headquarters in the Little Building in 
Boston. At these meetings I received my instructions and orders 
as to my activities as a Communist in the American Youth for Democ- 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you identify the names at this time of any of 
the Communist Party leaders on the State level who were active at 
that time ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, Fanny Hartman was the person from whom 
I received most of my instructions and orders, although I also wcx^ked 
with Jack Green, Anne Burlack, Boone Schirmer 

Mr. Taatnner. Will you spell that name ? 

Mr. Philbrick. B-o-o-n-e S-c-h-i-r-m-e-r, I believe. His first name 
was Daniel, so he was known to us as Dan as well as Boone. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke first of Fanny Hartman. Can you give 
us further identifying information concerning her? 

Mr. Philbrick. She was in charge of and was running the district 
1 office of the Communist Party at that time. She is the former wife 
of Phil Frankfeld, who was also in Massachusetts for a period of time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is he the same Phil Frankfeld who came later to 
Baltimore and became the district chairman of district 4 of the Com- 
munist Party, consisting of the State of Maryland and the District 
of Columbia? 

Mr. Phh^brick. Yes, sir ; that is the same person. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become acquainted with Frankfeld your- 
self in connection with your work ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No, I did not. He had moved out of Massachusetts 
just prior to the time that I had gone in the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us of your association and connec- 
tion Avith these membere of the Communist Party, both on a National 
and State level. Were you an actual dues-paying member of the 
Communist Party at that particular time ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I became a dues-paying member of the Communist 
Party in March of 1944, which was also, of course, during this same 
period of time when I was serving as State treasurer for AYD. 

Mr. Tavenner. The contacts that you have mentioned with these 
various individuals occurred prior or subsequent to the time you 
actually became a member ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Some before and some later. 

Mr. Tavenner. What explanation do you have for a Communist 
Party member having contact with you in this work prior to your 
becoming a member yourself? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1269 

Mr. l*iiii BRICK. Well, as I say, (lui-in<i- that period, though we were 
only olKcial menibers of the Young Connnunist League, it was pretty 
well untlerstood that I was under the discipline of the Communist 
Party and taking orders from the Communist Party, and serving 
as treasurer of A YD as a Connimnist. 

Mr. Tavexxek. AVill yon tell the committee the c'-cumstances under 
which you became a dues-paying member of the Communist Party? 

]Mr. PniLmacK. In the spring of 1944 I became a member of a cell 
on Beacon Hill whirh was headed up by Alice Gordon. She was the 
head of that particular cell. 

Mr. Tavex^xer. And at whose solicitation ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall just who it was who actually ar- 
ranged for my formal joining of the Communist Party, except I know 
it was worked out in consultation with Alice Gordon and Fanny 
Hartman, but who made the first move, I don't know. 

Mr. Tavexx'er. After arrangements were made for you to become 
a dues-pa^'ing member of the Communist Party, did you consult an 
agency of Government before taking the actual step ? 

INIr. Philbrick. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavex^xer. Returning now to the question of your activities 
in connection with the American Youth for Democracy organization, 
will you tell the committee how funds were raised by that organiza- 
tion for the purpose of carrying on its work? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, we raised funds largely, of course, by the dues 
from the various members. The dues were very small, however, run- 
ning onlj' about a dollar or so a year, so in addition to that we had 
to obtain money from other sources, mainly from various sponsors of 

In addition to that, we ran Saturday night dances and raised money 
that way. And W'e had direct contributions from party members and 
friends. 

Mr. Tavex'X'er. Wliat do you mean by party members ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I recall one of the ways we used to raise money was 
to get sponsors who would give a prearranged monthly donation 
toward the maintenance of the organization, and some of these I later 
learned were members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavex'x-^er. So funds were contributed directly by Communist 
Party members^ 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was there any occasion during the operation of the 
American Youth for Democracy when that organization's policies or 
programs w-ere at variance with those of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. I^hilbrick. Never at any time were the policies and jirograms 
of the American Youth for Democracy at variance with the policies 
and aims of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavexxer. With reference to your joining the Communist 
Party in the spring of 1944, what reasons, if any, were given you for 
inviting you to become a member of the Communist Party,' if you 
recall ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall that any specific reasons were given 
to me, except, of course, that it was time now that I should become a 
full-fledged party jnember. 

Mr. Tavexx-^er. You have testified that when you became a member 
of the Young Communist League you were told' that the fact of your 



1270 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

membership would be kept secret. Was tlie same statement made to 
yoii with reference to the keeping of your membership secret upon 
your joining the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. Instructions were given to me at that 
time, and I might say also earlier, at the time of AYD, that if at any 
time anyone should charge I was a member of the party, or ask if I 
was a member of the party, I was to state that I was not a member of 
the Communist Party and had never been a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. These same instructions were given to me again in the 
spring of 1944 when I actually obtained for the first time a Commu- 
nist Party card. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you always serve in the Communist Party as a 
secret member ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I was never known publicly as a Communist Party 
member, and I was not known to many other Communist Party mem- 
bers as a member. 

Mr. Tavenner. The first time you were disclosed publicly as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party was when you testified in the course of the 
trial of the 11 Communists in the United States district court in New 
York? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. You have testified that you were active in various 
youth organizations in your church fork. Did you continue to be ac- 
tive in your church work after joining the Young Communist League? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, I did. First of all, of course. I wanted to con- 
tinue because I wanted to maintain my contacts with some healthy 
minded individuals ; but beyond that, and to my good fortune, I was 
instructed by the party to continue my contacts and to continue my 
affiliations in all my normal groups. 

These instructions were also given to other members in my cell. 
We were told not to separate ourselves from any mass organizations, 
because we were taught that as good Marxists we could lead the people 
only if we maintained contact with the people. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who gave you those instructions ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe the first instructions came early in my 
Young Communist League career. I recall that in a discussion at 
the apartment of Dave Bennett we were given those instructions. I 
was also given those same instructions by Fanny Hartman and by Alice 
Gordon. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. Was Dave Bennett known to you to be a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. He was known to me long before I actually became 
a formal member myself. I had already attended, on Dana Street 
in Cambridge, training sessions, Communist courses, given by Dave 
Bennett to a group of comrades there. 

Mr. Tavenner. From the instructions which you received from the 
Communist Party, did it appear, or were you led to believe, that in 
the field of religious activity the Communist Party was incompatible 
with any religious belief ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Absolutely. We were taught that the socialistic 
theories of Marx had nothing to do with the idealistic superstitions 
of religious organizations. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF JMASSACHUSETTS 1271 

Mr. Tavenner. When you became a member of the Communist 
Party, did you register, or were you given a Communist membership 
card ? 

Mr. Phii.brick. I was given a membership card, but the members of 
our group at the apartment of Alice Gordon were instructed to destroy 
the cards, but to keep the card number in mind for purposes of identi- 
fication, which we supposedly did ; however, instead of destroying my 
card, I turned it in to the Government. 

Mr. Ta\T::nner. You spoke of having been assigned to a cell or unit 
of the Communist Party. Did that unit or cell have a name ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Not that I know of, no. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many individuals were in that group? 

Mr. Philbrick. It was a latlier small group. There were perhaps 
seven or eight in the small group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of those who were mem- 
bers with you of that particular cell ? 

Mr. PiiiLBiucK. I don't recall now wdio the people were who be- 
longed to that particular cell. My recollection is very vague, except 
that Alice (lordon was the head of it. 

Otis Hood used to drop around occasionally at our meetings, but 
he was not a member of our cell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Whose name did you just mention? 

Mr. Philbrook. Otis Hood. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. He is publicly known in ISIassachusetts as 
a member of the Communist Party. He is pretty much the figurehead 
for the party in the State of Massachusetts. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you became a member of this Communist 
Party cell, were you knowm by your full name or just by your first 
name ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Only by my first name officially, although of course 
one or tAvo of the members knew who I was from my affiliation in 
AYD. But only first names were used or were placed on the Com- 
munist membership cards. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given any instructions at the time you 
became officially a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. It was just after I had joined that we were given 
instructions that the Communist Party was to be dissolved and the 
Communist Political Association was to be formed. 

Also, of course, in keeping with the regular routine of membership 
in those groups, we were given a course of instructions, though I 
do not recall what the course was at that' time. The major issue was 
changing over from the Conmiunist Party to the Communist Political 
Association. 

Mr. Tavenner. When the Communist Political Association was 
formed, were you kept in the same cell or group, or were you assigned 
to a different group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I was kept in the same cell. 

Mr. Tavenner. During this period of time were you still a member 
of the American Youth for Democracy? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, I was. 



1272 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Taveivner. Was there any change in the policy of the American 
Youtli for Democrac}^ followino; the dissohition of the Communist 
Party and the formation of tlie Communist Political Association? 

Mr. Philbrick. I would say that rather than the youth organiza- 
tion following the policy of the party, the party was leading and we 
followed the policy of AYI). In AYD we had been cooperating 
with so-called progressive capitalists and so forth, and now the new 
group was going to do the same thing. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Were there other groups and organizations in Mas- 
sachusetts at that time — that is, during the days of the Communist 
Political Association — which became Communist-front organizations 
and largely influenced and controlled by the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, there were. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee about each of them ? 

Mr. Philbrick. AYell, I don't know if I can recall all of them. 
There was a tremendous number of them. But in connection with the 
youth movement we had various youth organizations which were, 
again, infiltrated by Communist Party members and largely controlled 
by them. 

One of them was the Sweethearts of Servicemen. Sweethearts of 
Servicemen was pretty much of a subsidiary of American Youth for 
Democracy, and completely controlled and dominated by the Commu- 
nist element. 

Another group that we set up in Boston was known as Youth for 
Victory. Youth for Victory was set up quite early in the war, and 
there were many comrades, including myself, assigned to that group. 
In Youth for Victory I was playing a part, upon instructions of the 
party, as a non-Connnunist. The party ordered me to serve in vari- 
ous organizations as a liberal non-Communist. I71 such capacity I 
served as sponsor for an organization known as Youth for Unity. 
And I believe there were a few others, too, that I do not recall at this 
time, that were d( niinated and controlled by the party. 

(Kepresentative Clyde Doyle entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of the Communist Party, if 
you know, in infiltrating and controlling the policies of these groups? 

Mr. Philbrick. The reason it was possible to get the support of a 
large number of })atriotic young people was to Aviii the war. In that 
connection, we wrapped bandages, carried on war-bond and war- 
stamp sales campaigns, and so forth. For that reason we had the 
support of very many fine citizens in Boston. 

However, the objectives of the Communist Party were as follows : 

We were told and instructed that, first of all, we were not only to 
work for winning the war ; we were also to work very strenuously for 
aid to Russia as a great ally of the United States, and we were to work 
to get })eople to see Russia in a favorable and friendly light, and we 
were to win support for the Soviet Socialist system of government. 

Mr. Tavenner. In carrying out that program, did members of the 
armed services of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics appear at 
any of your meetings ? 

Mr. Ppiilbrick. Yes. We had a gi'oup of comrades from Russia 
come to Boston, and we had a reception for them and so forth, spon- 
sored by these youth groups. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1273 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any oflflcial position in any of these 
groups which you hiuC been directed by the Communist l\irty to 
sponsor as a non-Communist? 

Mr. PiTiLBRiCK. I was one of the organizers of Youth for Victory, 
and 1 was on the sponsorinir connnittee of Youth for Unity; and be- 
cause of my profession in the advertising iield 1 was instruct eel by the 
party to work in the promotional activities of these organizations. I 
did |)repare many of the folders and propaganda material for them. 

Mr. Tavexxer. In the course of your experience in Massachusetts,- 
did you learn of the National Council of American-Soviet Friend- 
ship^ 

Mr. PiiiLBRicK. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did it have a chapter in Boston? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, it did. 

Mr. Ta\-ex'Ner. Can you tell the committee who were connected 
with it, known to you to be members of the Communist Party, in that 
particular chapter? 

Mr. I'muiRicK. I do not recall at this time. I did know at that 
time, and that information has gone to the Government, but I have no 
recollection of it now. I know we worked with them closely. 

The Youth for I nity was pretty much of a foreign language group. 
We would sponsor, for example, folk dances, to which the young 
people woukl come dressed in native costumes, and so forth, and in 
that ca]iacity this youth organization was very close to us. 

Mv. Tavex'x^er. You mentioned earlier in your testimony the name 
of Marcella Sloane, I believe. 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Tavexx'er. Will you give us more identifying information 
relating to her? 

Mr. Philbrick. Marcella Sloane, I believe I have testified before, 
I had already become acquainted with as attached to the national 
office of the Communist Party. In the latter part of 1915 she was 
assigned to Boston to organize and to direct a recruiting class for the 
joarty. 

Mr. Tavexxer. That is, for the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. For the (^omnninist Party or Communist Political 
Association ; they were pretty much the same in membership. 

So we set up a training class sponsored by AYD. Various comrades 
in the organization were assigned to the ask of recruiting likely look- 
ing [)ros|)ects for the party, and of having them come to these classes. 
These classes were conducted by Marcella Sloane for a period of sev- 
eral weeks, during which time her salary was paid by the national 
office. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Of the Conmiunist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. TA^^EX^^ER. What organizations were used as the recruiting 
fields for these groups? 

Mr. Pifii.BRicK. iVIaiidy AYD, but also some of the contacts we had 
thrpugh Boston Youth for Cnity and Boston Youth for Victory. 

Mr. Tavex-^xer. Do you know what success Marcella Sloane had in 
recruiting members into the party as a result of the procedure you 
have described? 



1274 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Philbrick. I know they were successful in getting some of the 
young people to actually join the CPA. Just how many, I don't know, 
but I know there were a few. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are familiar, of course, with the dissolution of 
the Communist Political Association and the reorganization of the 
Communist Party in 1945, are you not ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee briefly about that ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, in early 1945 a French Communist leader, 
Jacques Duclos, had written an article or a thesis criticizing the Amer- 
ican [Communist] Party for the so-called taint of Browderism. That, 
of course, started the chain of reaction which ultimately, in July or 
August of the same year, resulted in the reformation of tlie Commu- 
nist Party and the return to ^larxism-LeninisuL 

Mr. Tavenner. And also resulted in the ouster of Browder? 

Mr. Philbrick. It did. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did you attend either the State or national con- 
vention at which the Communist Political Association was dissolved 
and the Communist Party revived? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. I attended the convention in the State of 
Massachusetts as a delegate. In the meantime, in the course of these 
activities I had become a member of the Communist Party while in 
Maiden, Mass. So in 1945 I attended the State convention as an alter- 
nate delegate from the Maiden Club. 

I also attended upon personal invitation of Dave Bennett, who was 
then, I believe, secretary of the Communist Party in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the names of the other delegates from 
the Maiden Club in addition to yourself? 

Mr, Philbrick. My old friend Alice Mills was a delegate, and she 
was a full delegate. 

Gus Johnson was a delegate or alternate. 

Frank Collier Avas a delegate. 

And a girl named Grace was a delegate, not known by her last name. 

Mr. Tavenner. They were all delegates from your club or cell in 
Maiden, Mass.? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe three were delegates and the rest of us 
were alternate delegates. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you notice any change in the attitude of the 
Communist Party as a result of its revival after the ouster of Browder? 

Mr. Philbrick. There was a very drastic change, which was to be 
brought forward very forcibly in the course of these conventions and 
later events. 

The change, of course, was a revocation of the line that communism 
could cooperate with any part of capitalism in any way, respect, or 
manner. We were told specifically that the forces of imperialism had 
been greatly strengthened by the war, and tlie newly formed Com- 
munist Party must combat imperialism, and especially American 
imperialism, in every way possible. 

That, of course, was the major change, although there was a great 
deal of other material that went along with it. 

Mr. Ta\tcnner. Then the revival of the Communist Party in 1945 
marked a return to the old Marx-Lenin principles of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1275 

Mr. I'liiLiiKicK. Tliat is true. 

Mr. Wood. The comniittee will stand at recess nntil 2 : 30. 
(Thereupon, at 12:10 p. ni., a recess was taken until 2:30 p. m. 
of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(The subconuniltee reconvened at 2:30 p. m.. Representatives 
"Wood, Doyle, and Jackson being present.) 

Mr. Wood. Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Counsel ? 
Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT ARTHUR PHILBRICK— Resumed 

^Ir. Tavenner. Mr. Philbrick, you described for us this morning 
the formation of the Communist Political Association and also its 
dissolution. Did you take part in any of the convention activities 
which led up to the formation of the Communist Political Associa- 
tion i 

Mr. Philbrick. I attended the conventions of the CPA — that is, 
the formation of the CPA — but only as a visitor, not as a delegate. 
In fact. I had attended Communist Party conventions as far back as 
1943, I believe, as a visitor, but it was not until 1915 that I attended 
as an actual delegate. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any time voice opposition to the forma- 
tion of the Communist Political Association and the adoption of the 
less stringent views or activity by that organization ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, I did. It so happened that in 1944, just prior 
to the acceptance of Browderism, I had been attending some classes 
over at Dave Bennett's apartment which were very strictly Marxist 
classes, advocation of violent revolution, and so forth. . 

So when the discussion came up at Alice Gordon's apartment re- 
garding the dissolution of the Communist Party and the formation 
of the Communist Political Association, more to heckle the comrades 
than anything else, I voiced strenuous opposition to the change. I 
said I thought capitalism was still fighting for its own selfish ends, 
and we were making a great mistake in overthrowing the great revo- 
lutionary traditions of the party. 

We had quite a time. The comrades were rather hard put for a 
while to explain all the changes. But of course in the end I did give 
in, as a good comrade, and admit that perhaps Comrade Browder was 
correct. 

To advance the story now to 1945, when the Communist Party 
leaders again changed their minds and it was decided they had to 
get rid of this very vile creature, Mr. Browder, it was remembered on 
the State convention floor that Philbrick was the one who had held out 
the longest against this great evil; and for that reason I became some- 
what of a great hero in 1945, and that was one of the reasons why 
I was assigned to educational work in the party, to teach Marxism to 
other comrades. 

I might add I had no success at all in convincing my comrades in 
1944 that thev were wronj;. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, as a result of that action, you finally became 
the head of the State Educational Commission of the Communist 



1276 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Party at the dissolution of tlie Communist Political Association; 
is that correct ^ 

Mr. Philbrick. No. I became a member of the education com- 
mission in charge of the propaganda work, in charge of the leaflet 
production. I was in charge of the printed material that the party 
produced from that time on. The first chairman was Justine O'Con- 
nor, then we had various chairmen throughout the years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall now the names of the various chair- 
men of that commission? 

Mr. Philbrick. The members of the commission at the time I be- 
came a member of it in 1945 were: Justine O'Connor; Otis Hoodf- 
Boone Schirmer, who later became a chairman 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name? 

Mr. Philbrick. B-o-o-n-e S-c-h-i-r-m-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that Daniel Boone Schirmer? 

Mr. Philbrick. Daniel Boone Schirmer. 

Max Weitzman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I can't recall the spelling. It was something 
like W-h-i-t-e-s-m-a-n or W-e-i-t-z-m-a-n: but Max was our chairman 
for quite a period of time. He was normally known only as Max. 

And Manny Blum was a member of the commission and a leader of 
the group for a period of time. 

Of course the group was headed up nationally by Jack Stachel of the 
national office. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your commission receive its directions from 
Jack Stachel? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, we did. 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what your functions 
were as a member of that commission? 

Mr. Philbrick. The purpose of the commission as a whole in the 
first instance was to set up Marxist training classes to get the party 
back to its revolutionarv thinking of Mai'xism-Leninism, and to cleanse 
the party of every element of Browderism, which, of course, was quite 
prevalent, especially among the newer members who had joined during 
the CPA period. 

So our immediate task was to train every single Communist Party 
member in the traditional Marxist-Leninist theory. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe briefly the traditional Marxist- 
Leninist theory to which you have referred? 

Mr. Philbrick. It was a long, involved course. I attended a course 
at ?) Hancock Street in Boston, given to only a select number of com- 
rades in whom the ])arty had absolute trust and confidence. 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Prilbrick (continuing). And we were trained in turn to be- 
come instructors in INIarxism. 

I then became educational director for the Eighth Congressional 
District in Massachusetts. The Eighth Congressional District in- 
cluded Maiden, Melrose, Everett, a part of Somerville, Wakefield, and 
a part of Stoneham. As such I went from cell to cell and branch to 
branch, either leading educational discussions myself, or many times 
arranging for State functionaries, functionaries from the State office, 
to come out to the branches and speak. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1277 

The iri'ont difference between our teachin<2;s in tliis period as against 
our teaehin<^.s before was tliat now the party taught tliat capitalism 
had to be destroyed absokitely in order to establish communism; that 
it could not be done by })eaceful means or by legislation, but it could 
be done and accomplished only through a violent revolution; and we 
were taught quite specifically that there was no other way to establish 
communism in this country. 

And of course in order to teach that we used all of the usual Marxist 
textbooks anil numuals, starting right in with the book Value, Price, 
and Protit, which was usually the beginner, then The Theory of Lenin- 
ism, by Stalin; Capitalism by Karl Marx; and History of the C. P. 
S. U. (B) : that was used as a textboook in my course. 

Then, of course, the two most important books so far as teaching 
the absolute necessity of revolution, were, first, Imperialism, the High- 
est Stage of Capitalism, and State and Revolution. Those two were 
the most important textbooks used to teach why it was impossible 
for connnunism to be established in any other way except through a 
violent revolution against the existing state government. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke of having attended a special school, a 
secret school, designed only for those in whom the Communist Party 
reposed great trust. Who were the instructors in that school? 

Mr. Philbrick. Fanny Hartman 

Mr. Ta\t:'nner. Will you spell the last name? 

Mr. Philbrick. Fanny Hartman, H-a-r-t-m-a-n. She was more or 
less the coordinator for the school. She taught the first session, I 
remember, and she taught some of the subsequent sessions. 

A man named Sam, not identified by any other name, was another 
one of the instructors. 

And a woman party member by the name of Hulda, H-u-1-d-a, was 
the third of our instructors. I w^as later able to identify her as Hulda 
McGarvey, who was affiliated with the Samuel Adams School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name, please? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe it is M-c-G-a-r-v-e-y, Hulda McGarvey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say she was affiliated with the Sam Adams 
School ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes; at a later date she also taught a class at the 
Sam Adams School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she also on the faculty of some college? 

Mr. PiiiiJiRiCK. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. With some teaching staff? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I did know. I don't recall at the moment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been able to identify the last name of the 
person referred to as Sam ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. You referred to the Sam Adams School. Do you 
have any knowledge of the method of operation of that school ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, since I was on the educational commission 
of the party, I became acquainted with the Sam Adams School quite 
well. Of course the Sam Adams School was one of the big projects of 
the Communist Party Educational Commission, and most, if not all, 
of the courses used at the school were planned directly by the Com- 
munist Partv. There were a few teachers on the staff of the Sam 



1278 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS . 

Adams School who were not Communist Party members, but not 
many, and of course even the courses taught by the non-Communists 
were selected ahead of time. 

There were many things we did at Communist Party headquarters 
for the Sam Adams School. First, since I was in charge of leaflet 
productions, 1 helped to prepare the folders and fliers and pamphlets 
for the Sam Adams School. This was done at the Communist Party 
headquarters of Massachusetts, and the material went out to the public 
supposedly as non-Communist material. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were non-Communists invited to attend the school? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was the school located? 

Mr. Philbrick. On Province Street in Boston, between School and 
Bromfield Streets. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of members of the teach- 
ing staff at the Sam Adams School who were known to you to be 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Let's see if I can recall a few of them now. 

Hulda McGarvey, of course, was one who was a member of the 
Communist Party and a teacher at the Sam Adams School. 

Anotlier Communist Party member who was a teacher at the school 
was Arthur Timpson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name, please ? 

Mr. Philbrick. T-i-m-p-s-o-n. Arthur Timpson was the husband 
of Anne Burlack, so her married name was Anne Timpson, although 
she used the name of Anne Burlack. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. You have mentioned Anne Burlack previously in 
your testimony? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have identified her as a member of the 
Communist Party also, have you not ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Slie was a member of the Communist Party who 
worked directly at Communist Party headquarters on many occasions 
with me. 

Another member of the Communist Party teaching at the Sam 
Adams School was Mrs. Otis Archer Hood. She was the wife of Otis 
Hood whom we have already mentioned, who has been at many times 
the figurehead of the Communist Party in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Wood. We still can't hear you. 

Mr. Philbrick. I am sorry. 

Another member of the teaching staff was Edwin Garfield, a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. I believe he was editor for quite a 
while of the Morning Freiheit in Boston. He was also associated 
with the Jewish People's Fraternal Order and with the IWO. 

I believe that Saul Vail, V-a-i-1, taught a course at the Sam Adams 
School, and he was known to me as a Communist Party member and 
a member of IWO and JPFO. He was an undercover party agent, 
because I know occasionally, instead of delivering material to his office, 
I delivered it to his home on Parkdale Avenue in Boston. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question ? 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. You have mentioned aboveground and underground 
members of the Communist Party. How much of a distinction was 
there betwen the two? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1279 

IMr. Philbrick. Yoii mean as to their aims and objectives? 
Mr. Jackson. No; their mode of operation. 

Mr. Philhrick. They were ahnost the same except that under- 
o;round members were to behave in other oroanizations as ncm-Com- 
mnnists, and were not to preach out-and-out Marxism, but they were 
to go as far as they feU. it was safe, depending on the individual with 
whom they were dealing. 

"We were taught in that connection very thoroughly that always, 
in our dealings with other people, we were to frame our conversations 
in such a wa}' as to be on the level of thinking of our listener. We 
were taught to deal with Republicans; we were taught to deal with 
church people; we were taught to deal with liberals, and so on, of 
different shades, and in all cases we were to push the Marxist line 
only as far as we felt the person could be dealt with diplomatically. 

Mr. Jackson. Was there a distinct separation in activities as be- 
tween the so-called underground members and those who were in cell 
organizations? Where was the chain of command to join the two 
together ? 

As I see it, they had parallel activities, with the same philosophy 
and same aims and objectives, but there was no common contact as 
between the two ; is that true ? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is true. The underground party members 
were organized in a separate group, and this group had no contact 
with the neighborhood cells or branches of the party. 

Mr. Jackson. That is the point I wanted to bring out. 

Mr. Philbrick. That is correct. 

Mr. Jackson. The only point at which they would converge would 
be in a district chairman or a district functionary, and there would 
be no connection in their parallel lines as they went about their sep- 
arate activities? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is true. Some of the people in the secret or 
pro group were kept so secret that even the party functionaries at the 
State headquarters did not know their identities. 

jNIr. Philbrick. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Continuing with the list of teachers, was Mr. Wil- 
liam Harrison a trustee and teacher in the school during your period 
in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. I became quite well acquainted with William 
Harrison, who was a Negro fellow, and a vice president for many 
years. He had a course having to do with analyzing the news. Of 
course his analyses were very good. 

Mr. TA\Ti:NNER. Was Barbara Bennett on the teaching staff ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I remember she was affiliated with the school, but 
I have no recollection at this time of a particular course she taught. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know her to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party? 

Mr. Piiti.brick. Yes. 

Mr. Taa-exner. Is she the wife of David Bennett ? 

Mr. Philbrick. She is, or was, the wife of Dave Bennett. 

IMr. Ta\t.nner. Was there a person by the name of Harrison Harley 
affiliated with the Sam Adams School? 

Mr. Philbrick. Dr. Harrison Harley was the director of the school, 
I believe, and I met with him many times, at luncheon and so forth, 
on matters pertaining to the school. However, I did not get to know 



1280 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Dr. Harley as a Communist Party member, and to my knowledge he 
did not know me as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with the Boston School for 
Marxist Studies, sometimes referred to as the Boston Labor School 
for Marxist Studies ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Shortly before the trial of the 11 in New York, or 
before my participation in it, I had worked with the State education 
commission in preparing the material for that school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you perform the same type of services for that 
school as you did for the Sam Adams School ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I did. I prepared a leaflet advertising the courses 
to be taught at the school, and I believe I prepared an outline for one 
of the courses. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that school Communist-controlled and con- 
ducted ? 

Mr. Philbrick. The Boston School for Marxist Studies was com- 
pletely a Communist Party school. While non-Conninmists not only 
attended but were urged to attend the Sam Adams School, the Boston 
School for Marxist Studies was limited to Communist Party mem- 
bers. Every person who attended the Boston School for Marxist 
Studies had to be cleared by the State office and approved by the 
party. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was necessary to have Communist Party approval 
before a person could enroll in that school ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of having Communist Party 
approval ? 

Mr. Philbrick. The man in charge was Manny Blum. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell that name ? 

Mr. Philbrick. He was known to us as Manny, M-a-n-n-y. I be- 
lieve his full name, which I never heard used, was Emanuel. 

Mr. Tavenner. And how do you spell his last name? 

Mr. Philbrick. The last name was Blum, B-l-u-m. 

I recall my own experience, which I believe indicates quite clearly 
the subversive tactics used by the party, the means used to keep 
their activities secret and underground. 

In this case, although I had worked on the material myself, I had 
no knowledge of where the classes were going to be held. There was 
some delay, because I was busy at my regular job in addition to work- 
ing for the Communist Party, and finally, on the day one of the classes 
was to open, I stopped at the Communist bookshop, the Progressive 
Bookshop, on Beech Street, and inquired of Frank Collier, who was 
in charge of the bookshop, as to where the course was going to be held. 

He said he couldn't tell me, that I would have to contact the State 
office. 

Bear in mind at that time I was a member of the pro group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean the professional group of the Com- 
munist Party of the State of Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

I was advised not to call from the bookshop. I called from a pay 
station and asked if they could direct me to where the course was 
going to be held that night, and they said they could not, that they 
would have to speak to Manny about it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1281 

They came back and said, "We can't o;ive it to you riirlit now. Can 
you come to headquarters T' 

This was the first time I had been to headquarters. They told me 
to use caution that I was not followed comintr down. 

So I went down and saw Manny Blum. AVe en<>ajrcd in convei-sa- 
tiou. Manny told me not to talk about some subjects because the 
walls had ears, he claimed ; so there were many thin<rs we could not 
discuss. 

I asked again where the class was to be held, and rather than saying 
it aloud he tore off a piece of paper on his desk and wrote the address, 
15 Fayston Street. 

I ki'iew that to be the address of Otis Archer Hood, so, sure enough, 
I turned up at the home of Otis Archer Hood that night and one of 
the classes was being held there. 

I think that illustrates the great caution exercised in everything we 
did in the Communist Party at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give me the names of any other persons 
connected with the teaching staff at that school? You have given 
the name of Hood as the person conducting the class the night you 
attended. 

Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. I can't recall now. There were two other classes 
in addition to the one taught by Mr. Hood. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. The Boston Traveler of January 4, 1949, contains 
a news item to the effect that the Boston School for Marxist Studies 
will open and that Emanuel Blum, Otis A, Hood, and Mrs. Frances 
01 rich would be instructors. 

You have already testified that Hood was a member of the Com- 
munist Party to your knowledge? 

Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. And also Emanuel Blum? 

Mr. PiiiLBRicK. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexner. Do you know whether Frances Olrich was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. She was a member of the Communist Party, but 
I met her in the party by the name of Smith. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the first name ? 

Mr. PiiiLBRicK. She used the same first name, Frances; Frances 
Smith. In fact, Frances Smith and I worked on a training manual 
together, something to the effect of Crises in Capitalist Economy. It 
was a longer title than that. We worked on it strenuously. 

Mr. Tavenner. And she is the same person as Frances Olrich? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexner. The Daily Worker of January 21, 1949, contains an 
article to the effect that Israel Epstein and A. B. Magill were instruc- 
tors at that school. Did you know them, and do you know if they were 
members of the Comnuuiist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. I did not meet either of them ; no. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Daily Worker of December 26, 1948, contains 
iu\ article to the effect that Samuel Sillen and Howard Fast were in- 
structors at that school. Do you know either of those persons, and 
do you know if they were members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't remember meeting either of those two gen- 
tlemen in a Communist Party meeting, but I had understood from 
other comrades that Howard Fast was a Communist Party member, 



1282 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

and I believe the same is true as to Sam Sillen, who was connected 
with the magazine Political Affairs, if I am not mistaken. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Political Affairs one of the magazines you 
were required to study in your indoctrination course ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. Political Affairs was on the required reading 
list and study list for the courses. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the State 
education commission of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I remained a member of the State education com- 
mission right up until the time I was expelled from the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. And when was that '^ 

Mr. Philbrick. According to the party, that was 2 weeks after I 
appeared on the stand. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a witness in the trial of the 11 Communists in 
New York City? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Philbrick, we have reviewed at considerable 
length your activities in the Communist Party, in order to demon- 
strate the fullness of your knowledge of its operations, for the princi- 
pal purpose of determining what position you are in to testify as to the 
objectives of the Communist Party in New England, and in Massa- 
chusetts, in particular, with relation to basic industries. 

As a result of your experience and your contacts within the Com- 
munist Party, did you become aware of the policies and plans of the 
Communist Party with reference to basic industries after the revival 
of the Communist Party in 1945? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what that was? 

Mr. Philbrick. In 1946 and 1947, as an executive of the Communist 
Party, I attended what were known as district executive conferences, 
held in Boston. I believe these were titled "party building confer- 
ences," and each of them, I found, was for the purpose of infiltrating 
heavy industries, or key industries, in our area and in the United 
States. 

I remember specifically at one of the party building conferences the 
comrades were instructed to take positions as colonizers; that is, to 
take upon themselves the duty of being colonizers in the key industries. 

That meant if you had a job in a small business or nonessential in- 
dustry, you should leave it and take a job in one of the key industries. 
These key industries were listed by the party leaders. We were told 
they were industries important to the war effort. 

We were instructed that the imperialist aims of the United States, 
the war-promoting purposes of the United States, were to carry on a 
war against the Soviet Union, and a war against the free peoples of 
the world, that is, peoples inider the jurisdiction of the Soviet Union. 

We were told that the chief means at the disposal of the American 
imperialists was the productive capacity of this country, which they 
said was owned directly by the capitalists of the United States. 

We were taught that since this was the key weapon, it was the 
weapon we had to attack and destroy as Communists. 

We were told in New England one of the key industries consisted of 
the General Electric plant in Lynn. We were told one reason why 
colonizers were needed there was because it was involved in the de- 
velopment of defense materials, including jet airplane engines. I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1283 

mi<ilit point out lliat at tliat time no one outside of the party liad any 
knowUHl<::e that jot airphme engines were being developed at the (Jen- 
eral p]lectric plant in Lynn, but they knew that. 

Another key industry was the communications industry; another 
was the leather industry, boots and shoes ; and another was the clothes 
industry, service clothes, and so forth. 

We were told that the steel industry and lines of transportation were 
very important centers for Communist Party infiltration and colon- 
ization, so various comrades were ordered at this time to take up jobs 
at these spots. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have outlined industries considered key indus- 
tries in New England. AVas any distinction drawn between the key 
industries in New England and nationally ? 

Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. We were told in certain sections of the country the 
steel industry would be the main point of concentration, whereas in 
New England the steel industry was not as important. We had seven 
or eight comrades assigned to the General Electric plant in Lynn, and 
only one assigned to the steel industry, to my knowledge, to set up the 
colonization program. 

ISIr. Tavenner. Proceed with your discussion of the colonization 
program. 

]\Ir. Philbrick. As a part of the colonization program, but carried 
out very secretly, a survey was conducted of certain plants. This was 
a very complete survey. That program in New England was under 
the direction of Daniel Boone Schirmer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that on a national level or local level ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I was told it was on a national level, but my only 
information concerning it came from this local level. 

I came upon it more or less by accident. I was working at Com- 
munist Party headquarters on leaflet production at that time. One 
of the means of prejDaring the survey was a mimeographed form 
which I happened to prepare for Daniel Boone Schirmer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall what information that form re- 
quested ? 

Mr. Philbrick. This had to do completely with industrial plants, 
although I understand they made investigations along other lines too. 
These particular forms that I worked on had to do with a complete 
survey of the plants — what they were producing; how many they 
were producing ; the labor unions ; the number of employees ; also the 
number of comrades in these plants and exactly what influence the 
comrades had in the unions. They also included a review of the 
training and qualifications of the various comrades working in these 
plants. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the forms request any information relating to 
the facilities of the plants? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they go to the extent of requesting blueprint 
information as to the layout of the plants? 

Mr. Philbrick. No; at least not on these particular forms. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed. 

Mr. Philbrick. As I say, I came upon it somewhat by accident, 
and therefore did not know how much information Daniel Boone 
Schirmer was getting from the comrades in the plants, but I know 

89067—51 3 



1284 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

he was callings on them for very specific information, including blue- 
prints, but I had no knowledge of any particular blueprints. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have spoken of persons being assigned to con^ 
duct the campaign for the colonization of these various basic indus- 
tries. Can you tell the committee the names of any individuals who 
were assigned to particular tasks of that character? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, I had a very complete list at the time. Of 
course my recollection now has failed me so that I cannot recall all 
of them. I know that at least 8, possibly more, Communist Party 
members were assigned to the General Electric plant in Lynn. The 
ones I recall now are : 

One was a fellow by the name of Nat Goodwin. 

Mr. Tavenner. In mentioning the names of these individuals, will 
you please tell the committee whether they are employed at the Lynn 
plant at the present time, and, if not, where they are employed, if 
you know. 

I believe you mentioned the first name as Nat Goodwin ? 

Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned earlier the name of Nat Mills. I am 
wondering if you have the names confused? 

Mr. Philbrick. No. These are two different people. Nat Goodwin 
was assigned to the plant at Lynn, and Nat Mills also was assigned to 
the General Electric plant at Lynn. The last I heard, all these people 
were still working at the Lynn plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVhen you say the last you have heard 

Mr. Philbrick. That was in the spring of 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have received no information that their em- 
ployment at Lynn has been terminated ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. All right. Now if you will give us their names, 
please. 

Mr. Philbrick. Nat Goodwin. 

Don Bollen. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask you one other thing: Do you know the 
character of the work that each of these persons was assigned to do ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No, sir, I don't, except, here again, to say that most 
of these people are fairly skilled in union organizing, and of course 
that was part of their task too. These were not single individuals who 
were to go in there and remain isolated. Their task was to endeavor 
to draw in as many other Communists as well as non-Communists in 
those unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know how each of these persons was em- 
ployed prior to going into this colonization work ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No, I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. Now if you will proceed. 

Mr. Philbrick. Don Tormey, T-o-r-m-e-y, was another one as- 
signed to Lynn. 

I believe that is all I can recall at the moment. There were some 
others, and I did know them well at the time. 

Dave Bennett was named to head up the colonization of the steel 
industry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before we go to steel, was there a Robert Goodwin 
assigned to Lynn ? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1285 

Mr. Tavennek. Is he one of the persons in the group that you have 
described? I mean, was he assigned for cok)nization purposes? 

Mr. PiiiLBKTCK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And he was a pei'son known to you to be a member 
of tlie Communist Party? 

Mr. pjiiLBKicK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Lynn engaged in the manufacture of jet pro- 
pulsion engines at the time this action was taken ? 

Mv. Philbrick. Yes, sir. According to the party, they were en- 
gaged not only in the production but in the development of bigger 
and better jet engines. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know anything about the results of their 
efforts in colonization at Lynn ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No. I did understand, in contact with Don Bollen 
at a later date, that he was quite happy with the results up to that 
time ; but specific information, I have none. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether any of these persons sent to 
colonize L"E at Lynn became officials in the UE union at a later date? 

Mr. Philbrick. Some of them did ; yes. 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. Do you recall the names of those who did become 
union officials? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now if you will proceed to the steel industry. 

Mr. Philbrick. Dave Bennett, w^ho for a time was a Communist 
Party functionary, that is, he was on the Communist Party payroll, 
was assigned to direct the colonizing of the steel industry. 

Joe Fieguerito, F-i-e-g-u-e-r-i-t-o, [Figueiredo] I believe his name 
is spelled, was ordered to take charge of the colonizing of the Fall River 
and New Bedford district, and he in turn was to obtain other com- 
rades in that district to assist him in this project.^ 

]\rr. Tavenner. What particular defense industries were located 
at Fall River? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe they call it the needle trade, was quite 
heavy in that area ; and also the shipyard in that area. 

In addition to that, at least two comrades were assigned to organ- 
ize the Boston & Maine Railroad. One of those I recall was a fellow 
by the name of Gus Johnson. The other member was known in the 
party simply as "Whitey." I did discover his real name, but that 
slips me at the moment. 

JNIr. Tavenner. May I ask you whether those last three named per- 
sons are still emplo3'ed in the same industry, that is, Bennett, Figuei- 
redo, and Gus Johnson ; and also a fourth I believe you stated was 
known as Whitey. 

Mr. Philbrick. Dave Bennett, I believe, was transferred shortly 
before I appeared in the trial of the 11. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that date was when ? 

Mr. Philbrick. In the spring of 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where he was transferred to ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall. 

Gus Johnson has since been deported as an undesirable alien. 

(Representative Clyde Doyle left the hearing room.) 
Whitey, the last time I heard, was still with the Boston & Maine 
Railroad. 

' See foreword. The correct spelling of this name Is Figueiredo. 



1286 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

And Joe Figueiredo, up until the spring of 1949, to my last direct 
knoAvledge, was still in the Fall River-New Bedford area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not any of those four in- 
dividuals were elected to positions of leadership in their respective 
unions ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't believe that Gus Johnson or Whitey was 
elected to any position of importance. 

Dave Bennett, I understand, did manage to be elected to a minor 
position in the steel industry. 

And Joe Figueiredo became — I can't recall now; it is my best recol- 
lection — that Joe Figueiredo did also reach some position of impor- 
tance in his union activities in the Fall Eiver-New Bedford area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with any other assignments of 
this character, tliat is, in the basic industries ? 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., returned to the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Philbrick, I believe that is all I can recall at the moment, with 
one exception — and there, again, with no specific names but simply of 
the group. One group which was given the same instructions and 
carried on a similar program of colonization was an organization 
called the United Office and Professional Workers Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. I will come to that in just a moment. 

The group who were to take the leadership in the colonization of the 
basic industries to which you have referred must have received instruc- 
tions from the Communist Party in connection with their work as 
time went on. Were you familiar with instructions or meetings of 
any character that took place between those individuals and the 
leadership of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. I know that such meetings did take place, but I 
did not attend them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not officials of the Com- 
munist Party met with leaders of the UE, either on a national or 
local Ivjvel, in connection with the Communist Party plans and pur- 
poses to infiltrate basic industries? 

Mr. Philbrick. I know that such meetings did take place. One 
such meeting, I know, took place at the rear of the Communist Party 
book shop in Boston. They had a small room set up at the back of 
the store. Most people didn't know it was there. But at least one 
meeting between UE people and Communist Party people took place 
quite secretly in that location. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. "V^Hiat was the location ? 

Mr. Phh.brick. At the Progressive Book Shop on Beach Street in 
Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were the UE officials who took part in that meet- 
ing, members of the national or local organization? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe they were members of the local organiza- 
tion. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the names of any of them ? 
Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with the results of the meeting, 
or the purposes of it? 

Mr. Philbrick. There, again, I recall sending a report in concern- 
ing it, but I have no recollection of the details of the information. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1287 

Mr. Wood. At this point I am asking INIr. Frazier to take over, and 
Mr. Doj'le ^vill be back in a few minutes, he has just gone upstairs, 
so that you will still have a quorum of the subcommittee. 

(Kepresentative John S. Wood left the hearing room.) 

Mr. TA^•E^rNER. Mr, Philbrick, you referred to the work done 
through the United Office and Professional Workers Union. What 
were you about to tell us in connection with that? 

Mr. Philbrick, In common with the industrial workers, this or- 
ganization, too, received instructions concerning the necessity for 
colonization in key industries. 

Mr, TA^■ENNER, What plan was used to infiltrate organizations 
through tliat group? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, they conducted somewhat their own pro- 
gram, a bit separated from the industrial workers, and their chief aim, 
I learned, I w^as told, and chief points of concentration, were in the 
communications industry and in finance. 

Most of these people, I will explain, were white-collar workers 
and clerical workers, so that they would take up positions as private 
secretaries and other jobs in the nature of white-collar work. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say there were two principal areas in which 
they desired to function, in finance and 

Mr. Philbrick. And in communications. 

Mr. TA\^]srNER, And in communications. Will you tell us what was 
done in the area of finance, if you know ? 

Mr. Philbrick, Here, again, we will have to go back to Marxism 
for a moment. 

We were told in Boston that one of the great centers of finance for 
capitalism was that of insurance companies, especially in Boston, 
rather than banks. So a program was started to infiltrate and to 
build up strength within the large insurance companies in our area, 
I was assigned directly to assist in one of the campaigns; this hap- 
pened to be the campaign to organize the John Hancock Insurance 
Co. in Boston, which is perhaps the largest, if not the largest, in the 
country. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you say to organize, what do you mean? 

iVIr. Philbrick. To organize all the workers in the John Hancock 
Co. as members of the UOPWA. 

Mr, Tavenner. You received instructions from the Communist 
Party to engage in that work? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right, and so I did, and in my usual capac- 
ity I worked on the advertising and sales promotion for that cam- 
paign. So for the party and for the UOPWA I prepared a great 
many of their leaflets. On some I looked up the statistics and gath- 
ered the material as well as printing it in printed form. 

The comrade assigned as mj^ contact person — you see, I was still 
an underground party member so I had to conduct myself in an under- 
cover capacity — my contact was Helen Johnson, already a member of 
UOPWA. 

To establish a better cover for mvself, the party ordered me to join 
the UOPWA, and that I did. I went down to the UOPWA office 
and applied for membership and paid my membership fees and so 
forth. 

I was ordered not to go near the State headquarters of the Com- 
munist Party, being a member of the pro group — — 



1288 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat do you mean by the pro group ? 

Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. The professional group in Boston, all the members 
of which were underground. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the Helen Johnson to whom you referred 
known to you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes; she was. 

Since I could not go near State headquaters, we had to conduct our 
communications with State headquarters by courier. The courier in 
this instance was Carole Levy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name? 

Mr. PiiTLBRicK. L-e-v-y, also known to me to be a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any other person engaged in that activity 
with you who were known to you to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. There were one or two people in the pro group who 
worked with me. Let's see if I can recall who they were. 

One person who assisted on gathering statistics for me was a Com- 
rade Mike, not known by his last name, a member of the pro group, 
and the husband of a Comrade Norma, also not known by her full 
name. 

I am trying to recall ; it seems to me that Frances Smith, or Frances 
Olrich, also helped provide some of the material. But most of it 
came from Helen Johnson and from Carole Levy. 

Mr. Tavenner. In addition to this purpose of the Communist Party 
to infiltrate areas dealing with finance, you said they also desired to 
infiltrate tlie communications industry ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give the committee information of a con- 
crete character regarding their work in that direction ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I never obtained direct information as to how 
much success they had in that field. I know they were to seek posi- 
tions in the communications industry, that would be wire or tele- 
phone, and also in the advertising field, the book-publishing field, 
and in the newspaper and radio fields. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us about the Communist Party plan 
and program to colonize the basic industries, and then, through the 
UOPWA, the various areas in finance and communications. Can you 
tell the committee of any instances in which people did actually 
change from their employment and take up work within these various 
industries, pursuant to the directions of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. I know that some of them did, upon orders of the 
party, change their positions, but I have no recollection now of the 
details or of the persons involved. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have spoken several times of the professional 
group of the Communist Party. Were you a member of that group ? 

Mr. PiiiI;Brick. I became a member of the professional group in the 
fall of 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell us the circumstances under which that oc- 
curred. 

Mr. Philbrick. I joined the pro group upon orders of Fanny Hart- 
man, and was instructed at that time that I was to separate myself 
from the Eighth Congressional District work and from affiliation with 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1289 

groups in that section, and join an underground Communist group 
known only as Pro-4, or sometimes known as MO. 

I was instructed at the time that I was to drop all contact with all 
members of the Conmiunist Party with whom I had been previously 
ufliliated. I was to drop out of sight and no longer affiliate with them 
or fraternize with them on an official or a social basis. So far as the 
comrades with whom I had been previously affiliated, I had appar- 
ently dropped out of the Communist Party. 

I was told that in the pro group I was to affiliate only with mem- 
bers in my own cell, and that I was to keep the identities of known 
people in my cell a secret ; that is, I was not to mention their names to 
any other individuals, either that I knew them as Communists or as 
non-Communists. 

And so in either September or October 1947 I did separate myself 
from the Eighth Congressional District and joined the pro group. 
Mr. Tavenner. Where was this group located ? 
Mr. Philbrick. There, again, as part of the system for staying 
rmderground, the party had devious means and methods of keeping 
this location secret. 

Mr. Tavexner. Wliich locality ? 
Mr. Philbrick. In Boston, or Cambridge. 

From 1947 until I appeared in the trial of the 11, we met some- 
times in the Beacon Hill area of Boston and sometimes in Cambridge. 
On one or two occasions I was brought to the place of meeting without 
even knowing the address. In other words, I was given the address 
without any names of the individuals living there. 

Sometimes we would meet in restaurants rather than at homes, in 
order, again, to keep the identities of the members secret. No meeting, 
for example, of the pro group ever took place in my home, and no 
meetings took place in the homes of some of the other members of the 
group. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. Will you state to the committee w^hat the general 
purposes of this group were ? 

Mr, Phh^brick. First of all, all of these people were professional 
people. They were engaged in the law profession, or the teaching 
profession, or advertising, or as doctors, or in some other line of work 
of a professional nature. 

Their chief objectives were twofold. Number one, of course, was 
to serve as Communist Party agents in Communist-front organi- 
zations. By Communist-front organizations I mean those such as 
the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee. At least two members 
of my own cell were assigned to work in that group. 

Then we were also instructed to participate in non-Communist 
organizations. At that time, for example, the Progressive Citizens of 
America might be considered as a non-Communist organization to 
some extent. I believe members of the professional group worked 
in the forerunner of the Progressive Citizens of America, known as 
the Citizens PAC, was it not. Citizens Political Action Committee? 
And of course we were asked to influence people in our normal sur- 
roundings. For example, I was listed as a Republican in Melrose, and 
listed as a Baptist, and I was to influence these people as best I could 
in Marxism. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you directed by the Communist Party to be- 
come a member of the Republican Party, or were you a member of the 



1290 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Republican Party and used your membersliip at the instance of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I was requested to be a member of the Rej)ublican 
Party by the Communists. From myhistory, which they had a very 
good record of, they knew that my parents were both Republicans,, 
so they said, "We think it is a good idea for you to be listed as a 
Republican too, especially since the Democrats are very weak in your 
town and the Republicans are the only ones that have any force 
there." 

Mr. Jackson. Did you make converts among the Republicans ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I am afraid not. 

Mr. Jackson. I am delighted to know that. 

Mr. Philbrick. I was instructed by the party to be a liberal Re- 
publican. 

Mr. Jackson. Did they give you any model in the party whose 
actions you might follow? Did they name any liberal Republican 
after whom you could pattern your activities? 

Mr. Philbrick. No ; they didn't. 

Mr. Jackson. They might, though. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons were in this professional cell 
with you ? 

Mr. Philbrick. There were between 70 and 80 members in the pro- 
fessional group in the Boston area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were they all in one group, or were they broken up 
into smaller units or cells ? 

Mr. Philbrick. We were broken into smaller units or cells. If it 
so happened that we knew a member in another cell, we were ordered 
not to have anything to do with that member. We were to work 
only with people in our cell. The last knowledge I had, there were 
14 or 15 cells in the pro group. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you arrive at the conclusion there were 
70 to 80 members in the professional cell of the Communist Party? 
Was that in Boston? 

Mr. Philbrick. That was just in Boston, in a fund-raising cam- 
paign in 1948, as the party always does have fund-raising campaigns. 
This particular fund-raising campaign was for a general fund to 
strengthen the party. All comrades in all sections of the party are 
asked to give a certain amount of money to this particular fund. 
We in the professional group were asked to donate likewise. 

I was told by one member of our cell at the end of the drive that we,, 
the pro group, had contributed over $3,500 to that particular cam- 
paign, which, I was told, was "pretty good in view of the fact that we 
have only 70 or 80 members." I thought it was pretty good myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat was the arrangement about the payment of 
dues? 

Mr, Philbrick. We paid dues once a month. Our dues were, ac- 
cording to the Communist Party's routine, in line with the regular 
dues of party members. In our cell our dues ran $2 a month auto- 
matically, since we were in a little better bracket than the other 
groups. I think that $2 was for those who made $75 or more a week. 
In addition, we had to pay a sustaining fee. That ran from $5 a 
month to $50 a month per person. At least one person was con- 
tributing $100 a month. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are getting in the Hollywood class now. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1291 

Mr. Philbrick. That is not bad for Boston, which is very con- 
servative. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were these funds collected ? 

Mr. Philbrick. They were turned over to the member of the cell 
designated as treasurer, and the money was then given to the courier 
for the party member in the next higher level, who passed it on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you carry a Communist Party card as a mem- 
ber of the professional group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. In the pro group we were not even issued a Com- 
munist Party card. I was told that under no circumstances should a 
member of the professional group carry a Communist Party card. 

Mr. Tavenner. There were 14 cells that made up the professional 
group. You were a member of one of them. What was the name 
of the group with which you were affiliated ? 

Mr. Philbrick. MO. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did those initials have any significance? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. They stood for mass organizations. Each 
member of our cell was assigned to mass-organization work. That 
would be work in Communist-front organizations such as the Pro- 
gressive Citizens of America, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, 
and I can't recall the others. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. The other 13 cells were assigned to what general 
type of work ? Was it the same or a different type of work ? 

Mr. Philbrick. They would be assigned to various types of work 
according to their normal occupations. For example, the doctors 
would belong to a group comprised of physicians and so forth, and 
they were to work in their usual trade organizations or trade groups 
and infiltrate non-Communist groups. 

Mr. Tavenner. Identifi*' as many of the different types of assign- 
ments as you can recall. You have the group in the field of adver- 
tising, of which you were a member. You have the doctors. What 
other organizations were there? 

]Mr. Philbrick. There was a teachers' group. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many belonged to the teachers' group? 

Mr. Philbrick. A very small number, I understand; perhaps five 
or six. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the names of any of them ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No; I don't. Max Weitzman may have been one 
of them. 

(Representative Clyde Doyle returned to hearing room.) 

]\Ir. Tavenner. What other groups? 

Mr. Philbrick. There were at least two groups of college profes- 
sors, one at Harvard and one at MIT ; and I know there were others 
in the area, too. 

]Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the names of any of those who were 
in tlie college-professor group ? 

IMr. Philbrick. Not directly ; no. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

]SIr. Philbrick. Also, at least one and possibly two groups of peo- 
ple working in Government organizations, that is, they went on the 
jobs from civil service, for example, jobs in the Post Office Depart- 
ment and other governmental positions, 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any information as to the member- 
ship of the so-called governmental groups ? 



1292 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Philbrick. No. I was never affiliated with those particular 
comrades as Communists. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with the names of any persons 
who were members of the o^overnmental group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No ; I don't believe so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any other groups ? Were there any in 
the field of religion? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes; that is right. A very important group had 
to do with the field of religious activity. That was one of the most 
active groups. 

Mr. Tavenner. Describe to the committee the method of operation 
of that group. 

Mr. Philbrick. I came very close to being well known to that 
group just before appearing on the stand, and it was a pity I could 
not remain in Cambridge two more months, because I am sure I would 
have become well acquainted with that group. I would say these 
people were at least posing as ministers of the gospel and playing the 
part of ministers and religious leaders while in fact they were Com- 
munist Party members using the cloak as a cover-up for their true 
motives and intents. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know how many were in that group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. My best guess is that in the Boston area there were 
perhaps between 6 and 12 people in that particular cell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you identify any of the individuals in that 
group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No ; I can't, not by direct legal evidence. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, if you will return to the group of which you 
were a member, who was the leader of that group, and how many 
composed your own unit or cell ? 

Mr. Philbrick. When I first joined the group in the fall of 1947 
there were 12 members in my group. At the time I joined, the leader 
was a man named Dick. 

Incidentally, let me explain that in this group we used either first 
names or nicknames or false names, which made it difficult at times 
to learn the true identity of those you were closely associated with. 

At the time I joined, the chairman was a person named Dick. 

Immediately thereafter. Comrade Martha became leader of the 
cell. 

Mr. Tavenner. The first person named was Dick, and the second 
Martha ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. Others in the group were known as Butch, 
Peg, Helen 

Mr. Tavenner. Quite familiar names. 

Mr. Philbrick. Too familiar. That is the trouble. If a person's 
first name or his nickname was uncommon, they would change it to 
a common one. 

Mr. Doyle. What was your name ? 

Mr. Philbrick, They used the name of Herb. 

Comrade Jackie, who happened to be a girl. 

Comrade Norma. 

Teddy, who was also a girl. 

Faith. 

And Henry. 

Those were the names used by comrades in that first pro cell. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1293 

Mr. Tavenner. During tlic course of time, did you become familiar 
enough with those individuals whose first names you gave to learn 
where they worked and what the last names of some of them were? 

Mr. PiiTLKRicK. With some I did. For instance, Comrade Martha, 
I had already known her to be Martha Fletcher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she single or married? 

]Mr. Philbkick. She was married. Her married name was Mrs. 
Harold Fletcher, Jr. 

Mr. Tavenner. Harold A. Fletcher, Jr. ? 

Mr. Philerick. Harold A. Fletcher, Jr. At that time he was a 
student at Harvard College. They have since gone to Europe. 

I had known Martha previously because of her association with 
Steve Fritchman and the Unitarian Youth movement. 

Mr. Tavenner. What w^as her association with that? 

Mr. Philbrick. She worked as secretary with Steve Fritchman for 
1 or 2 years, I believe she told me, and also she was head of the Uni- 
tarian Youth movement, which work she obtained through Steve 
Fritchman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us any further description of Martha 
Fletcher or her activities? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall much more about her. I did, of 
course, at the time, have a very complete record of her activities. She 
lived at 15 Grove Street, G-r-o-v-e, in Boston, which was in the Beacon 
Hill area, and we had many meetings at her apartment at 15 Grove 
Street. We used a back room in the apartment. 

I think most of her activities were centered around the Unitarian 
Youth movement. At a much earlier date she had been selected by the 
AYD as one of the youth to be honored, and I had met her at that 
time, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. This position of leadership which she obtained in 
the Unitarian Youth group, you stated, was obtained through the 
assistance of Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did she obtain that position of leadership, if 
you know ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I am sure she obtained that position because she 
was a Communist Party member and it was known she w^ould carry 
out Communist Party tactics in her position there. 

I never ran across Steve Fritchman inside a Communist Party meet- 
ing, but I had many conversations with Martha about him, and she 
left no doubt in my mind but that he w^as a Communist Party member. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know where Reverend Fritchman is at the 
present time ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. He is in California at the present time, and 
one of the Communist Party members in my group has gone out to 
join him there. 

Mr. Jackson. Is he the same Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman who is 
connected with the arts, sciences and professions organization in 
Hollywood ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes; that is the same man. 

Mr. Jackson. With Miss Sondergaard and Mr. DaSilva and a few 
others ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 



1294 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the name of the other associate of yours 
to whom you referred when you said an associate had joined Reverend 
Fritchman in California ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I understand that Comrade Margo Clark, M-a-r-g-o 
C-1-a-r-k, with whom 1 was closely associated as a Communist Party 
member, as comrades over the entire period of 9 years that I worked 
for the Government, I understand Margo Clark has joined Steve 
Fritchman on the west coast. 

Mr. Jackson. In Los Angelas ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does Margo Clark have a sister ? 

Mr. Philbrick, Yes. She had two sisters, I believe. Joy Clark was 
another sister. At the time I first ran into Margo Clark she belonged 
to a cell in Cambridge ; that was in 1940 or 1941. The cell in Cam- 
bridge also included, I believe it was. Professor Bridgeman. I am 
a little uncertain about it. I could identify him further that he was 
a professor who came to Cambridge from a TVA cell. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are a little uncertain here. We are going to 
look it up and see in a few minutes. 

Mr. Philbick. I believe he was studying at Harvard at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. He attended Dartmouth? 

Mr. Philbrick. Pie attended Dartmouth and later went to Tufts 
College. 

Mr. Tavenner. Howard Allen Bridgeman ? 

Mr. Philbrick, Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. He testified before this committee. in the Remington 
case. Is that the same individual you are referring to ? 

Mr. Philbrick. 1 believe it probably is. 

Mr. Tavenner. He attended Harvard University in 1940, according 
to his reply to a question I asked him. 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you identify Dr. Bridgeman as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Not directly. Of course, at that time I was just a 
fellow traveler, you might say, on the way to becoming a young 
Communist, as I did not attend the meetings of that cell in Cambridge, 
but I heard Margo Clark was attending the meetings of this cell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any Communist Party meetings at 
the home of Margo Clark ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you explain to the committee all you know 
about the activities of Margo Clark in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Philbrick. I worked with Margo Clark over the period of 
9 years, and I believe for a time we belonged to the same cell, for a 
short period of time, but as comrades we worked independently on 
many projects. 

I know that in addition to her regular Communist Party work 
locally with our groups in Boston, Margo Clark also had a rather 
wide network arrangement with Communists not only here in this 
country, but overseas as well ; and so it was my deduction, although 
she had never told me so in so many words, I gathered from what she 
told me that she was pretty closely hooked up with an international 
system of espionage. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1295 

One of the persons she knew was Herman Field in New York City, 
an arcliitect. At tliat time the name didn't mean mnch to me except 
that he was an architect in New York. There were others, also, 
whose names slip me at the moment. 

Mr. Ta^-exner. Is the Herman Field to whom yon refer the brother 
of Noel Field, the jierson who disappeared without explanation be- 
hind the so-called iron curtain? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes ; that is the same person. 

;Mr. Taa-exner. You were identifying the names of those who were 
members of your own group. Will you please proceed with that? 

Mr. Philbrick. Comrade Jackie was a girl, a stenographer or a 
private secretary. Her assignment by the party for quite a while 
was that of working with the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee. 

In common with all the other members of our group, she was known 
publicly as a non-Communist, as all of us were, so she worked in the 
Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee as a non-Communist. 

She also worked either for or in the company of Mr. Angus Cam- 
eron at Little, Brown & Co. in Cambridge. She lived in Cambridge 
on Massachusetts Avenue, I believe. I believe she was a single girl. 
The last I saw of her, which was about 2 weeks before I appeared on 
the stand in Xew York, she was telling me about her work at Little, 
Brown & Co. 

Comrade Peg lived on Foster Street in Cambridge. We had meet- 
ings at her house on Foster Street in Cambridge. Her husband was 
also a member of the Communist Party, but a member of another 
group, an industrial group. At a later date the}' moved to an indus- 
trial city, I believe Detroit, to serve as colonizers there. 

Comrade Henry was a writer, and I believe he wrote some articles 
for the Xew Republic magazine, among others. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you identify his last name? 

]Mr. Philbrick. No. A great many of these people were never 
known to me by their last names. 

Comrade Butch was an artist. I did learn his name. I don't re- 
member it now. He had a brother Pete who worked as a courier 
between our cell and Communist Party headquarters if there were 
important messages from Communist Party headquarters from time 
to time. 

Comrade Helen, I learned her last name was something like 
Dugochet. I don't know how that was spelled. The phonetic spell- 
ing would be D-u-g-o-c-h-e-t. I believe she was a British c itizen and 
served as courier for the party, making many trips between here and 
Great Britain. 

Comrade Norma was also assigned to the Joint Anti-Fascist Ref- 
ugee Connnittee. 

Comrade Teddy was assigned to the Progressive Party. I don't 
recall her name at the moment, but she plaj^ed an important part in 
the Progressive Party work in Massachusetts. 

I Ijelieve I mentioned Comrade Faith. I have no recollection at all 
about what she did. 

Mr. Tavexner. Did any other members come into this group after 
you first became affiliated with it? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, there were three or four changes made dur- 
ing my membership in the group. 



1296 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

At the time that Peg and her husband moved out, we had a couple 
of new members come in. These turned out to be Comrade Harry 
and Comrade Eileen.^ I knew tliese two people. At least, I knew 
Comrade Harry to be Harry Winner, W-i-n-n-e-r. Comrade Winner 
had been very active in the Sam Adams School. He had also taught 
classes for us in the AYD. He was very active in a great many 
Communist-front organizations, so I came to know him quite well, 
although up to that time I had never had any legal proof, or direct 
proof, that he was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the procedure in having him assigned to 
your group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. These assignments were made from some place 
above our echelon. That was decided by somebody higher than we 
were. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was he employed ? 

Mr. Philbrick. He was employed, I believe, as the personnel direc- 
tor of a rubber company in Maiden, Mass., the Converse Eubber Co., 
in Maiden, Mass. I had also known him as far back as 1946 in Maiden, 
Mass., in connection with political campaigns in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Comrade Eileen ^ his wife ? 

INIr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there others who became affiliated with your 
group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Shortly after the first of the year, beginning 
around January 1948, I was told to report to a Communist Party 
pro-group cell meeting on Beacon Street, Boston, at 534 Beacon 
Street, Boston, and I was given the apartment number, but no name. 
This turned out to be a hotel, I believe the Hotel Fensgate, 534 Beacon 
Street, Boston. This was in apartment 48, I discovered this apart- 
ment was the apartment of one Sara Gordon, S-a-r-a G-o-r-d-o-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. Any relation to Alice Gordon, previously referred 
to in your testimony? 

Mr. Philbrick. Not to my knowledge, no. We had meetings in 
this apartment, which was a very, very beautiful swank hotel apart- 
ment overlooking the Charles Eiver. It was Sara, I learned, who 
was making the monthly contribution of $100 sustaining fund to the 
party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether any special contributions 
were made by her or Alice Gordon to the Sam Adams School ? 

Mr. Philbrick. It was Sara Gordon. At a much earlier date, I was 
told at a cell meeting that Comrade Sara had been making contribu- 
tions of $100 and upwards per month to the Sam Adams School. At 
that time she was identified only as Comrade Sara. Later I learned 
she had been one of the leading angels of the Sam Adams School in 
Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us any further information relating 
to her ? Was she employed ? 

Mr. Philbrick. No. She was independently wealthy, and she was 
not employed in a wage-earning job that I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any other individuals with whom you 
became acquainted, members of the Communist Party to your knowl- 
edge, who took any part in the leadership in the educational field ? 

1 Subsequently in hearings before the committee, on July 24, 1951, it was established that 
Mrs. Harry Winner is named Irene. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1297 

Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. In the latter part of 1047 and beginning of 1948 in 
onr pro gronp, we had been stndying one of these revohitionary books. 
I believe at that time it was State and Revolution. By the time we 
had finished the course we had a new member join our group. He had 
apparently been informed as to the nature of our studies, so he- 

Mr. T.w-ENNER. Let me interrupt you there. Do you mean joined 
your piofessional cell ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. The same cell that we have been talking about? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, my particular cell. And so this new member 
was brought in. He was a new member to our own little cell, not a new 
member of the party. Pie was called in to conduct a summary of the 
entire book, State and Revolution. This member, it turned out, was 
Comrade Dirk Struik of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
and of the Sam Adams School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell both the first and last names, please? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe it is D-i-r-k, Dirk, S-t-r-u-i-k, Dirk J. 
Struik, I believe. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Do you know whether he is presently employed in 
the teaching profession ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. He is still with the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. He is a teacher of mathematics. He was one of the 
sponsors of the Sam Adams School in Boston, and one of the sponsors 
of the Thomas Jefferson School in New York City. 

]Mr. Tavenner. Did he also teach or lecture in the Sam Adams 
School ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, he did, and as a Communist Party member I 
attended his classes, or the classes he gave, at the Sam Adams School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe a little more definitely this meet- 
ing which you state he attended of your group and summarized the 
book, State and Revolution ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, the nature of the course had been that we 
had studied the nature of the state, the capitalist state, and the need 
for violent revolution to overthrow that state. 

Comrade Struik brought in a world-wide summary of the status of 
capitalism in various parts of the world. He particularly dwelt on 
the state of capitalism and imperialism in the Pacific, and at that time 
instructed us that there we saw imperialism at its worst, such as in the 
Dutch East Indies, and that we must back the Indonesian revolt and 
the revolt of all colonial peoples throughout the Pacific area against 
the inroads of capitalism, and the absolute necessity of overthrowing 
capitalist control in those sections. It was a long discourse, running 
about 2 hours in length. 

Mr. Tavenner. How frequently did Dr. Struik attend the meet- 
ings of your group ? 

Mr. Philbrick. He attended meetings every other week, as that 
was the custom of our group, to meet every other week. He attended 
our meetings from that period right up through, I believe, the latter 
part of May or first part of June. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Then you have been in many, many Communist 
Party meetings with him? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were those meetings closed meetings, that is, secret 
dommunist Party meetings ? 



1298 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr, Philbrick. They were very secret Communist Party meetings^ 
and it was impossible, absolutely impossible, for any person or any 
individual to ever get into these meetings unless he was not only a 
bona fide party member, but one who was very well trusted and who 
had been passed upon by someone in the higher ranlvs as a party 
member of sufficient trustworthiness to be permitted to belong to the 
pro cell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any further information you can give the 
committee regarding the Communist Party membership or activity 
ofDr. Struik^ 

Mr. Philbrick. There were many instances over the years. I don't 
know which are the most important. So far as the Communist Party 
was concerned, and so far as the educational commission was con- 
cerned, of which I was a member. Professor Struik was very influ- 
ential in teaching Marxism at the Sam Adams School. This was a 
required course for Communist Party members. 

As a member of the educational commission, I was given instruc- 
tions to prepare leaflets promoting the classes of Professor Struik 
at the Sam Adams School, and all Communist Party members were 
urged to attend that particular course. I attended it myself. 

I might say that perhaps to pin it down a little further, in one year 
we had two such courses for party members to attend. One of these 
was to be given by Professor Struik, and the other was to be given 
by Clive Knowles. At the last moment, Clive Knowles could not 
teach the course, and someone else would have to teach his course. 

I had already prepared the leaflets advertising both courses. I 
was called to Communist Party headquarters and told that all com- 
rades who had registered for the class of Clive Knowles were to shift 
their registration to Professor Struik's class. The reason given was 
because the new teacher taking the place of Clive Knowles was not a 
Communist Party member, and it was felt that members of the Com- 
munist Party should not be learning Marxism from a nonparty 
member. 

As a result. Professor Struik's course became so large he had to 
teach them in two sections, one at 6 o'clock and one at 7. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Clive Knowles known to you to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the early part of your testimony you were asked 
a question about the American-Soviet Friendship in Massachusetts. 

I hand you a letterhead of the Massachusetts Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, on which there is a letter dated February 5, 1946, 
signed by Dirk J. Struik, executive director. Is he the Dr. Struik 
to whom you have been referring ? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is the same man. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you look at the names of the officers and spon- 
sors appearing on the letterhead, and state whether or not any of the 
persons shown to be connected with that organization were known to 
you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philbrick. This is quite a list. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just take your time. 

Mr. Philbrick. Edwin B. Goodell, Jr., I came to know as a Com- 
munist Party member myself, but I never found him inside a Com- 
munist Party meeting. However, he always cooperated very fully 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1299 

and very completely with us in various Communist Party activities 
from the early days of 1940 and 1911. For example, in June 1941, 
■when the Connnunist Party switched from peace to open-the-second- 
front, Mr. Goodell, who had worked with us on peace activities prior 
to that date, went along with us to open-the-second- front. 

Professor Struik is listed as executive director. 

I am wondering if Eugene Blum, who is listed, is the same as 
Manny Blum. I don't know. 

Rev. Stephen H. Fritchnian, I have already testified to. He is 
listed as a member of the board of directors. 

William Harrison I knew to be a Communist Party member. 

Mr. Tavenner. He is also listed as a member of the board of di- 
rectors ? 

Mr. Phtlbrick. He is also listed as a member of the board of di- 
rectors, and I knew him to be a Communist Party member. 

Sol Vail I knew to be a Communist Party member. 

Mr. Tavexner, He is listed as a member of the board of directors? 

Mr. Philbrick. He is listed as a member of the board of directors. 

In the list of sponsors, Leslie Arnold heads the list. 1 knew that 
individual to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Richard Linsley I find in the list of sponsors. He was affiliated 
with us in Communist Part}^ activities. 

'Sir. Taa-enner. Was he a member of the Communist Party, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he affiliated with the Sam Adams School? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, and with many other activities. I am trying 
to remember if he attended one of our Communist Party meetings, 
and I don't recall now. 

I believe that is all of these people I can positively identify as mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Were you acquainted with Elba Chase Nelson? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you know about her? 

Mr. Philbrick. I knew her to be the head of the Communist Party 
branch located in New Hampshire, and I met her several times in 
Boston and worked witli her on several matters having to do with 
Conununist Party work. 

She was chairman of one of the sessions in 1945 to reestablish the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. ]Mr. Philbrick, can you give the committee any 
further infornuition that might be pertinent to the infiltration of 
communism into the defense areas, particularly into basic industries, 
particularly into the fields of finance and communications? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't believe we included that this John Hancock 
organizing campaign was successful for the party, and that they 
were able to set up the UOPWA union at the John Hancock Insurance 
Co. at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what the over-all results in the UE 
were ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall any specific information except I 
believe I said before the comrades, generally speaking, according to 

89067—51 4 



1300 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Don BoUen, were quite happy with the results they were able to 
achieve in the UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 
Mr. Frazier. Mr. Jackson, any questions ? 

Mr. Jackson. Is Rev. Stephen Fritchman, to your knowledge, an 
ordained minister of the gospel ? 
Mr. Philbrick. I believe he is. 
Mr. Jackson, In what faith, do you know ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe in the Unitarian organization. I know 
that the comrades really were quite successful in infiltrating the 
Unitarian movement in Massachusetts, and I guess on an international 
scale too, from information I gained from Margo Clark. 

Mr. Jackson. You stated you were more or less in charge of the 
preparation and distribution of party pamphlets, literature, and 
things of that sort. What was the principal outlet in Boston for the 
Communist Party publications? 

Mr. Philbrick. First of all, we had the Progressive Bookshop on 
Beech Street. That was the Communist Party center for all Marxist 
material and Marxist training material. 

As literature director I would always go to Frank Collier or one 
of the other persons in charge of the Progressive Bookshop and obtain 
copies of the Daily Worker, copies of Political Affairs, and copies 
cf the international publication, For a Lasting Peace, which we used 
quite heavily in our educational work. 

All that material I obtained at the Progressive Bookshop and in 
turn sold to Communist Party members. 

The material we prepared in the educational division was dis- 
tributed by various means. Some we distributed just to Communist 
Party members. The document Crises in Capitalism, consisting of 
20 or 30 pages, was distributed to Communist Party members only. 

However, the largest amount of material I prepared was for public 
consumption, and this was distributed at shop gates. In the John 
Hancock campaign it was distributed around the building to the em- 
ployees as they would come and go from their place of employment. 
Mr. Jackson. Was there a student cell on the Harvard campus? 
Mr. Philbrick. Yes, there was. 
Mr. Jackson. One or more ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Before they were broken up into small groups, 
there was just one student cell, but in early 1948, in common with all 
other cells, they were broken into smaller units, and there became 
several cells instead of one. 

Mr. Jackson. How about MIT ? 
Mr. Philbrick. They had a student group at MIT. 
Mr. Jackson. AndRadcliffe? 

Mr. Philbrick. A very small one at Radcliffe, off and on. Boston 
University had a student cell off and on. Some years they would be 
successful and some years very unsuccessful. 

Mr. Jackson, How was literature channeled into the cells? 
Mr, Philbrick, Through literature directors who would bring it 
back to the cells, 

Mr. Jackson. You mentioned several organizations. The Youth 
League for Unity was one, I think? 
Mr, Philbrick, Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 301 

ISfr. Jackson. Sweethearts of Servicemen, and other groups. Was 
there a coordinutino; body or coordinatinjT council for projects which 
were undertaken in common? 

Mr. Philbrick. Whenever we had a common project, that was 
usually worked out at the AYD headquarters, but these groups in 
themselves were supposed to be coordinating groups. The Youth 
for Victory group was a coordinating group. Many legitimate groups, 
YMCA, Young Men's Hebrew Association, settlement houses, and so 
forth, were brought into Youth for Victory. 

Mr. Ja( KSON. What can you tell the committee about the work of 
the Civil Rights Congress in Boston? 

Mr. Philbrick. I became a member of the Civil Rights Congress. 
I was ordered to join that body by the party, I believe in 1948. The 
comrade assigned to head up this particular work at that time was 
Comrade Hank Cooperstock, C-o-o-p-e-r-s-t-o-c-k. He was sent from 
New York City to take over the AYD after Don Bollen and myself 
had dropped out and gone into other work. From there he went into 
various other work, and at the time this group w^as set up in Boston, 
he was assigned to that. 

Mr. Jackson. To what extent was the Communist Party instru- 
mental in the activities or in directing the policy of the Civil Rights 
Congress ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Completely. It is my recollection that the very 
first meeting I attended, I was able to give to the Government infor- 
mation that almost everybody in charge there were members of the 
Communist Party. 

One of the persons who attended that very first meeting — I don't 
recall if he was a speaker, but he attended in some capacity — was 
Harry Winner. He was mentioned in another part of my testimony. 

Mr. Jackson. Was the Coo^ierstock you mentioned an attorney ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall. 

^Ir. Jackson. I think you stated that two members of your pro 
group were assigned to tlie Anti-P'ascist Refugee Committee. Wlio 
were those two ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Comrade Jackie for a time played a leading part 
in that organization ; and Comrade Norma was assigned to the group 
at one period of time. Those two. 

Mr. Jackson. You mentioned that Fletcher and his wife had gone 
to Europe. Do you know in what capacity ? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe Harold Fletcher went to Paris to study 
there — at a university in Paris. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know if he was a veteran or not ? 

JNIr. Philbrick. My recollection is vague. It seems to me he might 
have been, but I can't recall right now. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no further questions. I want to thank you for 
your testimony. 

Mr. P^razier. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Jackson. Just one more question : Is the Progressive Book- 
shop still in operation? 

Mr. Philbrick. No. Tliat was closed within the last few weeks. 

Mr. Jackson. That is all. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Philbrick, I was not privileged to hear your testi- 
mony this morning. I was in an executive session of the Armed Serv- 
ices Committee, of w^hich I am also a member, so I could not be here. 



1302 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

If I ask you a question you liave already answered in the record, 
tell me frankly it is already in the record, and don't take the time 
of the committee to answer it again. 

I am particularly interested in the youth angle. I noticed you said 
repeatedly, "I was instructed by the party ; I was instructed by the 
party ; I was told." 

Who told you? When you say, "I was instructed by the party," 
who above you told you what to do? 

Mr. Philbrick. That would depend on the area of activity. For 
a time it was Alice Gordon who was head of the YCL. She was the 
to}) boss in the Young Communist League. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know where she would get her instructions ? 

Mr. Philbrick. From State headquarters. Many times I would 
meet with her at State headquartei*s and would get my instructions 
there. 

Then at other times it would be Fanny Hartman who would give 
me instructions. Manny Blum, who replaced Fanny Hartman at a 
later date, was one of those from whom I received instructions. These 
were all Communist Party functionaries. 

Mr. Doyle. You stated the objective was to get the party back to 
the revolutionary principles of Marxism-Leninism. Was that ob- 
jective taught to young people in the youth groups? Do you under- 
stand my question ? 

Mr, Philbrick. Not exactly. 

Mr. Doyle. You said the objective was to get the party back to the 
revolutionary principles of Marxism-Leninism. Did you try to in- 
struct the young people that revolution by force was necessary to get 
rid of the capitalist state? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is right ; young people from 1948 on, remnants 
of AYD, remnants of YCL. 

Mr. Doyle. What form of force were they to use ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Pliysical force. 

Mr. Doyle. What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Whatever force they had at hand. At one of the • 
meetings of the progroup at a later date I recall it was Martha 
Fletcher who was in charge of instructions for a period of time, and 
she advocated and urged, at one of the meetings, the necessity for 
the gathering of arms. She said, "We must arm the workers for this 
fight against capitalism, and we must do it soon," 

Mr, Doyle. When was that ? 

Mr. Philbrick. 1948. But as early as 1945 we were teaching young • 
peo])le that force and violence were absolutely necessary to overthrow 
the Government. 

Mr. Doyle. Were these young people children of parents who were 
already Communists? 

Mr. Philbrick. Some of them, yes ; but others, no. 

Mr. Doyle. Did these young people generally come from homes 
where the parents were American-born, or were they foreign-born? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is hard to say. They were both. We had 
some young people who boasted parents who had practically come over 
on the Mayflower. Otis Archer Hood, for instance, boasted that his 
family was from a long New England lineage of Americans, 

]\Ir. Doyle. Are you telling me, from your 9 years' experience as a 
member of the Connnunist Party, that young people of teen age and , 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 303 

■■older in our country were being taught by the Communist Party, 
-through you and others, that it would be necessary to gather arms— 
that means military arms? 

Mr. PiiiLBRiCK. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. And use them in a revolution ? 

Mr. Philbrick. That is true. 

^[r. Doyle. And did any number of these American young people 
fall for that? 

Mr. Philbrick. Not very many; not very many. For instance, 
I mentioned this morning the Cambridge Committee for Equal Oppor- 
tunities, a large group of Negro youth. As I worked among them, 
went into their homes — this was, of course, in the early days of the 
war and before there was a large defense eilort— I went through their 
homes and met many of these Negro young people, many without jobs, 
many with very poor living conditions, houses without toilets, houses 
witli flush bowls in the basement, very bad; parents who were ill and 
had been unable to get proper medical care ; as I went through that 
area I thought, "By George ! I can't blame many of those people if 
they do join the Communist Party." 

And, of course, that was the object of the Communist Party, to stir 
these people against the capitalist state of government ; to tell them 
the reason they were so badly off was capitalism, Jim-crowism, and 
so forth. 

We worked in that Committee for Equal Opportunities for a whole 
year, and very diligently, and to my knowledge only one member was 
gained from that activity. Others, such as Alice Solomont, a Negro 
girl secretary, quite the Cambridge Youth Council when she found 
it was Communist ; a very fine girl. 

Mr. Doyle. Then would you say that the propaganda of the neces- 
sity to use force of arms, during your 9 years of experience, was prov- 
ing successful or unsuccessful among the young people of America ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Let's put it this way : The party would not teach 
that to new members of the Communist Party. 

]\Ir. Doyle. But they would still be the American young people. 
"Within the group of American youngsters who were in the party, 
am I to understand that they became convinced that they should use 
force of arms ? 

]\Ir. Philbrick. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. You understand my question ; do you ? 

Mr. Philbrick, Yes. In the IBoston School for Marxist Studies, 
for example, in a course I attended at Otis Hood's home on Fayston 
Street, we had young people in that course. The course started' with 
the evils of capitalism and so forth, but this particular course oc- 
curred just about the time when an Italian Communist leader stated 
that in a fracas with Russia Italian Communists would fight on the 
side of Russia and not on the side of Italy. 

The question came up in one of our sessions, and a member in the 
class asked the question directly of Otis Hood, "If we have a war be- 
tween the United States and Soviet Russia, whose side are we fiffhtine: 
on?" " *= 

Mr. Hood was quite put out that the comrade should not under- 
stand quite simply and quite naturally that, since we were fighting 
against American imperialism, naturally we would fight on the side 
of the people's movement, which meant the Soviet Union. 



1304 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Doyle. I will ask you just one or two more questions, and, 
again, if you have answered any of these already, do not answer 
them again. The propaganda you have just related about the use of 
force of arms if need be, is that a Nation-wide program of the Com- 
munist Party in America ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Since 1945 this has been a very strenuous part of 
their program ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And among the young people also ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Does that come from a foreign country, or does it 
originate among the American Communists, if you know ? 

Mr. Philbrick. In our area these were largely American Commu- 
nists who were teaching this. 

Mr. Doyle. Where did they get their instructions ? 

Mr. Philbrick. We took instructions directly from Jack Stachel 
of the Communist Party in New York. 

Mr. Doyle. I heard you say that, but I know Margo Clark well. 
I deducted she was a member of an international espionage ring. Do 
you know of any Americans who went to foreign countries and came 
back and tried to propagandize the American youth that forceful 
revolution was justifiable? 

Mr. Philbrick. I don't recall, Mr. Frazier 

Mr. Doyle. I am Mr. Doyle. You owe Mr. Frazier an apology. 

Mr. Philbrick. Mr. Doyle. Arthur Timpson, the husband of Anne 
Burlack, may have been one who had been to Russia and wlio had 
studied there, and who had come back and was teaching courses in 
that. 

Mr. Doyle. I think this will be my last question, due to the lateness 
of the hour. Do you feel, as a result of your 9 years of experience in 
the Communist Party, there is real cause for alarm in our country 
because of the extent of Communist teachings in our country that 
forceful revolution is justifiable? 

Mr. Philbrick. I think you would have to answer that question 
in two ways. 

First, I am sure we do not need to be alarmed that a great number 
of American citizens will fall for the line. I would say the Com- 
munist Party in this country has been very, very unsuccessful in con- 
verting members of labor unions and youth to the Communist Party. 
I know they have been reprimanded severely many times because of 
that. So far as the average American citizen, I think he takes care of 
himself very, very well, and that includes labor unions. I think they 
have been doing a wonderful job. I am convinced the American 
citizen can be depended upon to beat that kind of thing. 

But, I think also we have to realize that it is a menace, in that small 
numbers of disciplined, fanatic Communist Party members — which 
they have to be, especially today, to stay in the party — these small 
numbers can be doggone dangerous, particularly because of the sur- 
veys they have made of our defense plants, and so forth. They have 
been taught they can work in small groups, three to five, in sabotage, 
and I believe we have a problem on our hands if we should get into war 
with the Soviet Union. I know we have been successful in the past in 
preventing sabotage. I am not sure whether we can now. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS ] 305< 

Mr. Doyle. Didn't you say there was a meeting at which it was 
said it nii<T;ht be necessary to irather arms? 

Mr. PiiiLBKicK. That is right. 

]SIr. Doyle. Was that a part of the revokitionary intent against 
our Government? 

Mr. PiiiLr.KK K. Yes. 

]Mr. Doyle, I ask you this question because of your long experience- 
as a member of the Connnunist Party. 

The public law under which you are favoring this committee with 
your testimony, Public Law 601, charges this committee with the 
duty of studying the subject with reference to any necessary remedial 
legislation. If you have given some of that to the committee already^ 
don't take the time to do it now ; but, if you haven't, I would like you 
to take a minute and state to the committee any remedial legislation 
you think would be helpful and constructive. 

Mr. PiiiLBRicK. I don't believe I have any suggestion, sir, without 
some thought on the matter. I would hesitate to give any cuff opinion^ 

The Communist Party claims you can't legislate it out of existence. 
I think this is partly right. No matter how many laAvs we have against 
murder, some murders are going to take place. And no matter how 
many laws we have against stealing, some thefts are going to take 
place, and so forth. And that is true of the Communist Party. No 
matter how many laws we have against the Communist Party, some 
people still, in spite of everything, are going to be in it. And some 
will be in it almost because of the laws against it. They have what you 
might call a will to die. The psychologists tell us there is a will to live, 
with which we are familiar, and that there is also a will to die. I had 
the feeling many times, as I sat in their meetings, that they were 
plunging headlong to destruction and that they were looking forward 
to this great world cataclysm. It was a very odd feeling to hear them 
teaching it and almost wishing that it would take place. 

Mr. Doyle. Let me call your attention to the Subversive Activities 
Control Act of 1950 — Public Law 831, Eighty-first Congress, second 
session. In section 2 of that law this declaration was made : 

As a result of evidence adduced before various committees of the Senate and: 
House of Representatives, the Congress hereby finds that — 

(1) There exists a world Communist movement which, in its origins, its- 
development, and its present practice, is a world-wide revolutionary move- 
ment whose purpose it is, by treachery, deceit, infiltration into other groups 
(governmental and otherwise), espionage, sabotage, terrorism, and any other 
means deemed necessary, to establish a Communist totalitarian dictatorship 
in the countries throughout the world through the medium of a world-wide 
Communist organization. 

From your 9 years of experience as a member of the Communist 
Party, do you feel you liave enough legal evidence — the reason I ask 
"legal evidence" is that I noticed you used that term yourself — do you 
feel you have enough legal evidence to believe that declaration by the 
Congress is well founded ? 

Mr. Philbrick. It is, sir, completely. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all. Thank you. 

Mr. Fr(\zier. Any further questions, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Frazier. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 



1306 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Frazier. I wish to thank you, on behalf of the committee, for 
the very valuable testimony you have given us. 

(Witness excused.) • 

Mr. Frazier. The committee stands adjourned until 11 o'clock to- 
morrow morning. 

(Thereupon, at 5: 15 p. m. on Monday, July 23, 1951, an adjourn- 
ment was taken until Tuesday, July 24, 1951, at 11 a. m.) 



EXPOSE OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF 

MASSACHUSETTS 
(BASED ON THE TESTIMONY OF HEKBERT A. PHILBEICK) 



TUESDAY, JULY 24, 1951 

United States House of Representatives, 

subcoimmittee of the 
CoMMirrEE ON Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 
public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
pursuant to call at 11 a, m. in room 226, Old House Office Buildingy 
Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Repiesentatives John S. Wood 
(chairman), Clyde Doyle, and Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel; Raphael I. Nixon, director of re- 
search ; and A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr. Wood. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show that for the purposes of the hearing this morn- 
ing I, as chairman, have set up the following subcommittee, composed 
of Messrs. Dojde, Jackson, and Wood. They are all present. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Harry Winner, please. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Winner, will you hold up your right hand, please, 
and be sworn. You do solemnly swear the evidence you give this sub- 
committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Winner. I do. 

Mr. Wood. Have a seat. 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY EUGENE WINNER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HIS COUNSEL, H. CLIFFORD ALLDER 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your full name, please? 
Mr. Winner. Harry Eugene Winner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Winner, are you represented by counsel? 
Mr. Winner. I am represented by counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 
Mr. Allder. H. Clifford Allder. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give your office address, please? 
Mr. Allder, Columbia Building, 416 Fifth Street NW., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Winner, when and where were you born? 
Mr, Winner. Brockton, Mass., October 22, 1901. 

1307 



1308 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Winner. 82 Hancock Street, Maiden, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state to the committee briefly your educa- 
tional background? 

Mr. Winner. Very briefly, because I am merely a product of the 
Brockton public-school system. 

Mr. Wood. Will you elevate your voice, please, sir? We can't hear 
you up here. 

Mr. Winner. I am very sorry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where are you now employed ? 

Mr. Winner. I am employed at the Converse Rubber Co., at Mai- 
den, Mass. I have charge of two departments : the cafeteria and the 
retail store. 

Can you hear me now ? 

Mr. Wood. Yes ; thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner, How long have you been employed by that com- 
pany ? 

Mr. Winner. Since 1933. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been employed constantly by that com- 
pany since 1933 ? 

Mr. Winner. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to 1933, how were you employed? 

Mr. Winner. In Hackensack, N. J., where I lived for a brief period, 
by the Citizens' Finance Corp., a defunct banking, automobile-financ- 
ing corporation. It so happened that the person who owned and was 
in charge of that became one of the principal owners of the Converse 
Rubber Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other types of work have you done for your 
employer besides the two types of employment you have just men- 
tioned ? 

Mr. Winner. Actually, when I first went there, I worked in the 
receiving room, where one tugs 250-pound bales of rubber. Then I 
was in the shipping room ; then I operated the retail store for several 
years; and now the retail store and the cafeteria. However, I do not 
work in either one of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time held a position in which you 
employed people, or interviewed prospective employees in the plant? 
Mr. Winner. No, sir. In the interest of expedition, what is in the 
paper — that I am personnel manager — is incorrect. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in charge of the employment of individ- 
uals at any time while an employee of that plant? 

Mr. Winner. The small number who would work in those two 
•establishments I mentioned : the retail store and the cafeteria. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the total number of employees in the store 
and restaurant? 

Mr. Winner. In the store there were two, and in the cafeteria at 
various times there were five or four. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Winner, the committee is making a study and 
an investigation of Communist Party activities in the general defense 
area of Boston, and I would like to call upon you to furnish the com- 
mittee such information as you may have regarding Communist 
Party activities and membership in that area which may be known 
to you. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 309 

During the course of his testimony here yesterday, Mr. Philbrick 
i-eferred to the fact that yon had been connected or affiliated at one 
time with the Sam Adams School in Boston. If that be correct, will 
3'ou please tell us the nature of your affiliation with that school? 

Mr. Winner. I regret that 1 must respectfully refuse to answer 
the question. ]\Iy refusal is based upon the fact that my answer might 
tend to incriminate me, and my refusal is by reason of the rights 
granted me under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Do I understand that you are taking the position 
that an answer to the question as to your affiliation with the Sam 
Adams School might subject you to criminal prosecution if you 
answer the question truthfully? 

Mr. Winner. 1 reaffirm what I said before. 

Mr. Wood. I am not sure, Mr. Counsel, that your initial question 
which the witness declined to answer for the reasons he has stated, 
was in fact a question or a statement. Will you ask him the question 
in another form ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated in any manner with the Sara 
Adams School or its operation ? 

Mr. Winner. I regret, again, that I must respectfully decline to 
answer on the grounds that my answer might tend to incriminate me, 
and I stand on my rights under the fifth amendment, as before stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. From information furnished the committee yester- 
day, among the teachers at the Sam Adams School from time to time 
were William Harrison, Dr. Dirk J. Struik, Stephen Fritchman, and 
Barbara Bennett. Were you acquainted with any of these four 
individuals ? 

Mr. Winner. I must again — must I repeat the formula each time ? 

Mr. Wood. It will be sufficient, sir, of course I can't anticipate Avhat 
your answer will be, but if you are going to decline to answer there 
will be no necessity for you to repeat your reason for refusing if you 
state it is for the same reason previously given. 

Mr. Winner. Precisely. That is my answer to the question just 
masked me. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Are you acquainted with Mr. Herbert A. Philbrick? 

Mr. Winner. I must refuse to answer that on the same basis, that 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Winner, I will read you a question propounded 
to Mr. Philbrick yesterday in the course of the hearing and his an- 
swer. The question : ^ 

You were identifying the names of those who were members of your own 
group. * * * Di(j any other members come into this group after you first 
became affiliated with it? 

That question related to the professional group of the Communist 
Party and was referred to as the MO section, meaning mass organ- 
ization section. Mr. Philbrick's reply was this : 

Well, there were three or four changes made during my membership in the 
group. At the time that Peg and her husband moved out, sve had a couple 
of new members come in. These turned out to be Comrade Harry and Comrade 
Eileen. I knew these two people. At least, I knew Comrade Harry to be Harry 
Winner, W-i-n-n-e-r. Comrade Winner had been very active in the Sam Adams 
School. He had also taught classes for us in the AYD. He was very active in a 
great many Communist-front organizations, so I came to know him quite well, 
although up to that time I had never had any legal proof, or direct proof, that 
he was a member of the Communist Party. 

1 See pp. 1295 and 1296. 



1310 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Do you desire to deny or affirm or explain that vStatement? 

Mr. Allder, I object to the form of that question, Mr. Chairman. 
There are so many things involved in that question. 

Mr. Wood. I grant you the question is composed of several in- 
gredients, but he is asked if he desires to deny, affirm, or explain any 
of it. 

Mr. Allder. I don't see how any person could remember all that 
was read. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will read it again and ask the witness to state if 
there is any part of it that is untrue, to his knowledge. This is Mr. 
Philbrick's reply : 

Well, there were three or four changes made during my membership in the^ 
group. At the time that Peg and her husband moved out, we had a couple of 
new members come in. These turned out to be Comrade HaiTy and Comrade 
Eileen. I knew these two people. At least, I knew Comrade Harry to be Harry 
Winner, W-i-n-n-e-r. Comrade Winner had been vefy active in the Sam Adams 
School. He had also taught classes for us in the AYD. He was very active in 
a great many Communist-front organizations, so I came to know him quite 
well, although up to that time I had never had any legal proof, or direct proof,, 
that he was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Winner. May I correct one inaccuracy in there, at least ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Any inaccuracies, I would like for you to correct. 

Mr. Winner. May I consult my counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wood. The question you are asked now is: In the statement 
that has just been read to you, having been a statement by Mr. Phil- 
brick, is there any statement in there that is untrue ? 

Mr. Winner. I fear I must refuse to answer that on the basis 
previously given. 

Mr. Wood. You say you fear you must do it. Do you do it? 

Mr. Winner. I do it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the inaccuracy to which you referred wheik 
you first started to answer the question ? 

Mr. Winner. I think I shall continue to not answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your wife's name? 

Mr. Winner. Irene. 

Mr. Tavenner. Irene. I notice in reading the statement that her 
name appears as Eileen, E-i-1-e-e-n. Is that the inaccuracy to which 
you referred? 

Mr. Winner. That is an inaccuracy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the professional group of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Winner. I must decline to answer that also. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your reason for declining to answer? 

Mr. Winner. On the grounds it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you teach at the AYD or classes for the AYD ? 

Mr. Winner. May I consult with counsel for a moment ? 

Mr, Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. You may confer with counsel at any time you desire. I 
would suggest that counsel, for the benefit of the record, explain 
what the letters AYD stand for. 

Mr. Tavenner. American Youth for Democracy. 

Mr. Wood. Now you may confer with counsel. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1311 

Mr. Winner (cafter consultation with his counsel). I decline to 
finswer that also on tlie same grounds, on the grounds that it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Martha Haven Fletcher, 
also known as Mrs. Harold A. Fletcher, Jr. ? 

jNlr. Winner. I shall decline to answer that on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

;^lr. Tavenner. Were you a member of any organizations known 
to you to be Communist-front organizations, as stated by Mr. Phil- 
brick in his testimony? When I say member, I mean affiliated in 
any way with a Communist-front organization. 

Mr. Winner. I shall decline to answer that also. 

Mr. Wood. On the same grounds ? 

Mr. Winner. On the same grounds, and also because of the elas- 
ticity- with which that term is used today. 

Mr. Tavenner. The records of this committee reflect that the Sec- 
ond National Negro Congress was held October 15, 16, and 17, 1937, 
at tlie Metropolitan Opera House in Philadelphia, Pa. A program 
of this congress includes a list of individuals under the caption, ''Bos- 
ton sends greetings to the Second National Negro Congress." I hand 
you the program and refer you to the page carrying the heading, 
"Boston sends greetings to the Second National Negro Congress," and 
ask if you see listed there your own name and that of your wife ? 

JSlr. Winner. Yes, sir ; of course, I see it. 

Mr. Tavenner. That organization was declared by the Attorney 
General of the United States to be a Communist-front organization, 
was it not? 

]Mr. Winner. A long, long time later. 

Mr. TAM2NXER. In 1948. 

Mr. Winner. Yes. I had been a long time disaffiliated. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are the individual mentioned in the greetings 
that were sent to that organization, are you not ? 

Mr. Winner. Yes; I am this person. 

Mr. Tavenner. You state you became disaffiliated with the organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Winner. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When ? 

Mr. Winner. As a matter of fact, very shortly thereafter. I can't 
■even tell you when. I don't remember any serious activity in con- 
nection with them. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean shortly after sending the greetings? 

Mr. Winner. Sometime thereafter; perhaps a year or 2 years. I 
<jan't tell you. I have practically no recollection of it, actually. 

Mr. Taatnner. I also see listed, along with your name, the name of 
Mr. William E. Harrison. Is he the Mr. William E. Harrison who 
was connected with the Sam Adams School ? 

Mr. Winner. I must decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. AVooD. Mr. Winner, you say you must decline to answer. There 
is no compulsion on you to refuse to answer. 

Mr. Winner. I am sorry. It is just an unfortunate use of lan- 
g'uage. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted wtih Mr. William E. Har- 
Tison in 1937 when you signed this greeting? 



1312 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that also, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state to the committee, please, the cir- 
cumstances under which you joined in extending this greeting to the 
Second National Negro Congress? 

Mr. Winner. I have no recollection of it whatsoever. I remember 
when the organization was founded. I thought at the time that it 
was a good thing, and I probably expressed that feeling. I have no 
recollection of this, not the slightest ; but it is my name. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee records also disclose that in the New 
York Daily Worker for Wednesday, February 15, 1950, at page 3, 
there is an article captioned, "Boston notables protest CIO expulsion 
plan." This article states that 26 educators, clergymen, and so forth, 
sent an open letter to CIO President Murray protesting the plan to 
expel CIO unions described as progressive. Among the names of 
those signing this open letter is the name of Harry Winner. 

I hand you the February 15, 1950, edition of the Daily Worker, and 
ask you if your name appears there as a signer of that open letter? 

Mr. Winner. Yes ; it appears there. 

Mr. Tavenner. And did you sign the letter ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you explain the circumstances under which 
your name was used in connection with that open letter ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that also, on the same grounds, 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the article refers to the expulsion 
of certain CIO unions described as progressive. As a matter of fact 
you know, do you not, that the expulsion of the unions by the CIO 
was because of their Communist Party infiltration and control? 

Mr. Winner. I know it was so alleged. I don't know if it was so 
or not. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did you protest the expulsion of the so-called pro- 
gressive unions from the CIO ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that, also, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. It is noted from the same article that another signer 
of this letter, along with you, was Prof. Dirk Struik. Was he also 
opposed, to your knowledge, to the expulsion of the so-called pro- 
gressive unions from the CIO? 

Mr. Winner. You say his name appears there as one of those op- 
posed. That is all I would know about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you talk to him about it? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was your assistance obtained in connection 
with this protest? 

Mr. Winner (after consultation with his counsel). Is there a date 
on that letter? 

Mr. Nixon. February 15, 1950. 

Mr. Allder. The date on the letter. That is the date of the pub- 
lication. 

Mr. Tavenner. There is no date. The date line of the article is 
February 14, appearing in the issue of February 15, 1950, 

Mr. Winner. And your question, again? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the question, please. 

(The question referred to was read, as follows : "How was your as- 
sistance obtained in connection with this protest?") 

Mr. Winner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1313^ 

Mr. Tavenner. "Were you acquainted with Professor Struik in 
February 1950? 

Mr. AVixNER. I refuse to answer on the grounds it might tend to in- 
criminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with him in 1947? 

Mr. AA'inxer. I refuse'to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Jackie, a woman, who was employed in the oflice of Little, Brown, 
Inc.? 

Mr. WiNXER. I decline to answer to the same grounds. 

]\lr. Tamsnxer. Are you acquainted with ah individual by the 
name of Henry, who contributed articles to the New Republic, if 
you know of such contributions? 

Mr. Wixxer. Can you give me the approximate date of that? 

Mr. TA^■ENXER. 1947 and 1948. 

Mr. WixNER. And he wrote for the New Republic? 

Mr. Tavexx'er. Yes. 

Mr. AVixNER. The New Republic is no less respectable this morning 
tliat it was yesterday. Henry. Is there any more to the name? 

ISIr. Ta\'exxer. According to the testimony of Mr. Philbrick there 
was an individual in his particular professional cell or group of the 
Communist Party by the name of Henry who wrote articles for the 
New Republic. 

Mr. Wixxer. I know nothing about him. I don't believe I know 
anybody who ever wrote for the New Republic. If I did, I have for- 
gotten. Certainly no one named Henry. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are you acquainted with Sara Gordon ? 

Mr. Wixxer. I decline to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you attend any of the meetings of the Civil 
Rights Congress ? 

Mr. Wixxer. I decline to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you a member of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. WiNXER. You are asking am I ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you at any time ? 

Mr. Wixxer. I decline to answer that. 

Mr, Tavexxer. Are you now ? 

Mr. Wixxer. No. 

Mr. Tavexxer. "When did you cease to be a member ? 

Mr. Allder. I object to that. 

Mr. Beale. Wait a minute. Let the witness respond. 

Mr. Wood. The two answers he has given certainly indicate to 
me there was a time when he was a member. He said he was not now 
a member, and declined to answer whether he ever was or not. The 
quebtion now is, if he ever was, when did he cease to be a member. 

Mr. Wixxer. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Wood. You decline to answer that ? 

Mr. WiXNER. Yes, sir, on the grounds it might tend to incrim- 
inate me. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you a member of the Civil Rights Congress 
in 1947? 

^Ir. Wixxer. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavexxer. AVere you a member on January 1, 1950 ? 

Mr. AVixx'ER. I decline to answer. 



1314 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member yesterday ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer, 

Mr. Tavenner. But you are not a member today ? 

Mr. Winner. I am not a member today. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated with the International Workers' 
Order in Boston, Mass. ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta^tenner. Are you affiliated in any way with it today ? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated with it in any way yesterday ? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated in any way with it in 1950? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1947? 

Mr. Winner. No. I can't tell you the exact date, but it is several 
years. I will have to decline to hazard giving the exact date, because 
I might get into difficulties, but it is several years. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period of time were you affiliated 
with it? 

Mr. Winner. I am not certain. It is several years, however; a 
few years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you instrumental in organizing the Inter- 
national Workers' Order in Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Winner. No. I will ask you to clarify that, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you play any part in the organization of the 
International Workers' Order in Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Winner. You are asking me if I was one of the founders of it? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you one of the founders ? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the State of Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Winner. No; I was not. It is mucli older. I don't know 
when it was founded, but I was certainly not one of the founders. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with the time when it was 
organized in the State of Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Winner. No. I know nothing about it. Specifically, I know 
nothing. about the time it was organized in the State of Massachusetts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you perform organizational services for it in 
the State of Massachusetts ? 

JMr. Winner. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you solicit members for it ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer tliat on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any Conmiunist Party meetings in 
the State of Massachusetts in the years 1948 and 1949 ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now or have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Winner. That is two questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. I will separate them. Are you now a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1315 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that on the same <]jrounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. When did you sever your relationship with the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
January 1, 1950 i 

Mr. Winner (after consultation with his counsel). I decline to 
answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
January 1, 1951? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 
Mr. TA^^:NNER. Have you severed your connection with the Com- 
munist Party since January 1, 1951 ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Witness, you have answered you are not a member 
of the Communist Party as of today. This is July 24, 1951. Were 
you a member of the Communist Party yesterday ? 

Mr. Winner (after consultation with his counsel). I decline to 
answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Doyle, any questions? 
]Mr. Doyle. May I ask you a few questions, please. 
Mr. Winner. Certainly. 

Mr. Doyle. How large a plant is the Converse Rubber Co. with 
reference to the number of employees it has ? 
Mr. Winner. 1,100 employees. 

Mr. Doyle. Does it liave any defense contracts with the United 
States Government? 

Mr. Winner. I am not associated with the management of that, 
so that I actually do not know. We did during the war. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know what the general thought is in the plant, 
is it generally understood among the employees they do Government 
work ? 

Mr. Winner. We did a great deal during the war, at least 50 per- 
cent during the war, and I am sure there was bidding. 

Mr. Doyle. You are sure there was bidding in the last year or two ? 
Mr. Winner. I am sure of that. 

Mr. Doyle. Wliat was the Sam Adams School ? I don't know. You 
said you didn't teach there, but what was the school ? 
Mr. Wood. He didn't say he didn't teach there. 

Mr. Doyle. I live in California and I don't know what the Sam 
Adams School was. 

Mr. Winner. You live in California? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. I was born there. You were born in 
Massachusetts. 

Mr. Winner. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. What was the Sam Adams School ? Does it exist now ? 
Mr. Winner. It does not exist. 
May I speak to my learned counsel ? 
Mr. Doyle. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Winner (after consultation with his counsel). It was a pri- 
vate school known as the Samuel Adams School for Social Studies, 

89067—51 9 



1316 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

and it was put on the Attorney General's list, and shortly thereafter 
the people who ran it closed it. 

Mr. DoTLE. How long did it operate? You say it was a private 
school ? 

Mr. Winner. I mean it was not a public school. 

Mr. DoTLE. How long did it operate ? 

Mr. Winner. My guess it maybe 3 years. I am not certain of that. 

Mr. Doyle. Was there a large attendance, and was it for children,, 
adults, or what? 

Mr. Winner. Adults. 

Mr. Doyle. Evening classes? 

Mr. Winner. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Any day classes ? 

Mr. Winner. Very few, if any. I think evening classes almost 
exclusively. 

Mr. Doyle. How large a faculty or teaching staff did it have? 

Mr. Winner. I would have to guess at that. 

Mr. Doyle. Guess, if you can, and help me get that information. 

Mr. Winner. Anything for California. About 15, 17, 18. 

Mr. Doyle. Then it was a social study group ? 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson, a member of the committee,, 
left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Winner. Yes, if we are using the word "social" in the same 
sense. 

Mr. Doyle. I am using it in the sense it was a group of adult folk 
studying economic problems and social problems. 

Mr. Winner. There were art classes, dancing classes, handicraft,": 
they were the largely attended classes. 

Mr. Doyle. Dancing classes are always well attended. 

Mr. Winner. Yes, even in New England. 

Mr. Doyle. Anything that amuses the public is generally well 
attended. 

Mr. Winner. I think as a nation we like to be amused. 

Mr. Doyle. Was the teaching staff paid, or were they volunteer 
teachers ? 

Mr. Winner. They were paid. 

Mr, Doyle. Were they full-time instructors? Were they paid on 
the basis of full-time instruction, or part-time ? 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson, a member of the committee,, 
returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Winner. I don't know exactly what you mean. 

Mr. Doyle. Were the instructors a group of men and women busily 
occupied in the day hours at some other work, or who might have been 
teachers at some other school in the day hours, and then taught 2 
or 3 hours at night at the Sam Adams School ^ 

Mr. Winner. Yes. I tliink if that was not the case the amount 
they were paid, as I remember it, would not have permitted survival,, 
even in those days. 

Mr. Doyle. I understood you to indicate that when the school was 
declared subversive, or was named by the Attorney General of the 
United States as subversive, it was closed shortly thereafter. Was 
that tlie reason given for the closing of the school I I thought you 
volunteered that statement. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1317 

Mr. AYiNNER. Yes, I did. I would decline to be put on record that 
that is a certainty. That is my belief. That is what we are dis- 
cussing — our nnitual beliefs. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. If you have the knowledge, I would 
like to have it. If you don't, I don't want you to guess at it. Were 
you one of the instructors at that school ? 

Mr. Winner. I have declined already to answer that question. 

Mr. Wood. Do you here adhere to that answer? 

Mr. Winner. I here adhere to that answer, and for the same reason, 

Mr. DoTLE. Were there any students of college age at the Sam 
Adams School? 

Mr. Winner. It is my understanding they ranged from young 
adults to old adults. 

]\Ir, Doyle. Indicating yourself and me? 

INlr. Winner. Indicating, sir, only myself. California is noted for 
its products, including perennial youth. 

Mr. Doyle. Including oranges. 

Mr. Winner. Including oranges which are the best in the world. 

Mr. Doyle. I agree with you. 

Did the students pay tuition ? 

IMr. Winner. Moderate. 

Mr. Doy'Le, Did they buy their books, or were they furnished text- 
books ? 

Mr. Winner. I never heard of a private school that furnished 
textbooks. 

Mr. Doyle. When our counsel asked if you were a member of any 
Communist-front organization as testified to by Mr. Philbrick — I 
think he said he was a resident of your geographical area in Massachu- 
setts — you said you declined to answer on the ground of elasticity 
of the question. 

Mr. W'lxxER. Xo. I declined to answer on the ground I have 
previously stated. I added it was an elastic term. 

Mr. Doyle. If I take out the elastic, would you decline to answer it? 

Mr. Winner. You are doing a snappy job. I think my reason for 
refusing to answer would hold even if you took the rubber out. 

Mr. Doyle, I won't waste your time, then. 

Mr. Winner. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. I did note, however, that you felt you should add that 
in addition to your constitutional privilege, which we all recognize. 

Mr. Winner. You are a very observing young man. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there a labor union at the Converse Kubber Co? 

Mr. Winner. There is a labor union at the Converse Rubber Co. 
It is an A. F. of L. union. 

Mr. Doyle. Has there been throughout j^our employment there? 

Mr. Winner. No. It was organized about 1939 or 1940. There has 
never been a strike since then. We have excellent relations. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you now or were you ever a member of the union ? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Doyle. I just want to call your attention. Mr. Winner, to some 
of the text of the law under which this committee operates, as passed 
by the United States Congress. At the conclusion of reading a para- 
graph or two. I will ask you whether you feel this committee should 



1318 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

follow its assignment under the law and undertake to locate any 
persons or groups who are subversive in their intent. (Reading :) 

The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (2> 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Consti- 
tution. * * * 

Do you feel that is a worthy objective for Congress to assign a group 
of its Members to do ? 

Mr. Winner. I didn't follow you as well as I might, because you 
are guilty of what I was guilty of and the chairman called my atten- 
tion to it, but I gathered the general purport of it. I think it is the 
duty — 

Mr. Doyle. You refer to not speaking up loudly enough ? 

Mr. Winner. You are a man of remarkable apprehension. That is 
what I meant. I should have made it clearer. 

I am not a lawyer. I can't make an interpretation of that. It 
seems to me it is the duty of the Congress of the United States to 
safeguard the United States in every way. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any suggestions or advice to give the com- 
mittee of ways we can help uncover subversive activities in this 
country ? 

Mr. Winner. Wouldn't that be somewhat presumptuous of me? 

Mr. Doyle. I don't think so. I feel you have information that 
would be very valuable to this committee. To be very frank with 
you, I am very sure you know some things that would be helpful to 
protect your Nation and mine against subversive influences. I am 
not asking you to waive your constitutional rights, but as man to 
man I am talking frankly to you, and as man to man I have a hunch 
that you could help us if you would. 

One reason I have the hunch is that you have stated you disassoci- 
ated yourself from a certain organization, and you have stated you 
are not now a member of the Communist Party. The form of the 
questions and answers indicates to me, as a fellow American, that 
there was a time you were a member of the Communist Party. I am 
not condemning you at this time. We find some American citizens 
who were Communists and backed away from it when they discovered 
the hellish designs of the Communist Party. They backed away and 
came forward and helped us, and did not stand behind their constitu- 
tional privilege. 

Again, I am not urging you to waive your constitutional privilege. 
I am asking you help us as Members of your Congress, to protect our 
Nation against subversive influences. I give you that invitation very 
energetically. I sort of feel that in your testimony there has been a 
reservation. I have felt that you sort of wished you could come 
forward and tell us a thing or two, and then you backed away from 
it. Am I wrong? You said I was a very observing young man. 

Mr. Winner. Correct. 

Mr. Doyle. I observed that in your testimony, and I want to leave 
that thought with you. I think I observed something about you, 
that right now you have a regret. So have I. I don't mean to lec- 
ture you in public. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1319 

Mr. Winner. It may be the only time we ever meet will be in 
public, so — thank you. 

Mr. Wood. Any further questions? 

Mr. Winner. I didn't understand that to be a question. 

Mr. Doyle. No further questions. 

Mr. Winner. Thank you, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Jackson, another member from California. 

Mr. Jackson. When did you go to Boston? I think you have stated 
that previously. 

Mr. Winner. ^Yhen did I go to Boston ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, or to Maiden. 

Mr. Winner. In 1933. That was in connection with my employ- 
ment. 

Mr. Jackson. I believe yon stated you left that defunct loaning 
agency and went to the Boston company with another individual. 
Did you both go to the Converse Rubber Co. ? 

Mr. Winner. Let me explain that. ^Y\mt I said— or never mind 
what I said, the facts are these : The owner and manager of the People's 
Finance — you will have to forgive me if I do not recall the exact name 
— the finance company in Hackensack, N. J., this family became tha 
owners of the Converse Rubber Co. somewhat later. 

Mr. Jackson. Are they still in ownership ? 

]\Ir. Winner. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. I believe you refused to state whether or not you 
know Dr. Dirk Struik? 

Mr. Winner. Yes. I declined to answer that question. 

Mr. Jackson. But in answer to a question by counsel, "Did you 
talk to Dr. Struik in connection with the letter protesting the expul- 
sion of CIO unions," you said "No," which indicates you probably 
did know him. 

Mr. Winner. I don't think that is a logical inference. 

Mr. Jackson. It is the inference I draw. I ask again, did you know 
him? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any knowledge of the Boston School 
for Marxist Studies ? 

Mr. Winner. None whatever. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know anything about the Boston Labor 
School for Marxist Studies ? 

Mr. Winner. Is there such an outfit now ? 

Mr. Jackson. There was such an outfit during the period of time 
you have been in the vicinity of Boston. 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know Mr. Otis Hood ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know Rev. Stephen Fritchman? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know Herbert A. Philbrick ? 

Mr. Winner. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the nature of the work done by the Con- 
verse Rubber Co. during the last war? I believe you said 50 percent 
of your production was devoted to war contracts. What did the com- 
pany make? 



1320 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Winner. We make rubber footwear. 

Mr. Jackson. Tires? 

Mr. Winner. No. We make no tires and no rubber novelties; 
exclusively rubber footwear. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you consider that the Communist Party seeks the 
overthrow of this Government by force and violence ? 

Mr. Winner. Do 1 consider that they do ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Winner. Actually, I do not consider that they do. 

Mr. Jackson. Would you report an act of sabotage in the plant that 
you observed taking place? 

Mr. Winner. I most certainly would. 

Mr. Jackson. Whether that act of sabotage was being performed 
by a member or functionary of the Communist Party or not? 

Mr. Winner. I would report an act of sabotage — I would prevent 
an act of sabotage, no matter by whom performed or threatened to 
be performed. 

Mr. Jackson. Would you bear arms for this country in the event 
of a conflict with the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Winner. I would bear arms for this country if attacked by 
anyone. 

Mr. Jackson. Assuming it was not physically attacked so far as 
the continental limits of the United States are concerned, would you 
bear arms for this country ? 

Mr. Winner. Would you mind expanding that? 

Mr. Jackson. Assuming Boston or Jersey City or San Francisco 
were not physically attacked, but for the security of this country it was 
considered necessary to fight away from its shores. 

Mr, Winner. I would fight to defend this country. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you served in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you registered for the last war ? 

Mr. Winner. I was registered. 

Mr. Jackson. What w^as your classification? 

Mr. Winner. I don't know. I may have it. [After searching for 
paper] I don't find it. I was over age, whatever that classification 
was. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the date of your birth ? 

Mr. Winner. 1901. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you decline to state whether or not you have ever 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Winner. I have so declined to answer that question. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever been a member of any organization 
that seeks the overthrow of the Government by force and violence? 

Mr. Winner. I have never been a member of any organization that 
sought to overthrow the Government by force and violence. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you consider that the Communist Party seeks to 
overthrow the Government by force and violence ? 

Mr. Winner. No. 

Mr. Jackson. Then it is entirely possible, in your mind, to be a 
member of the Communist Party and still not belong to an organiza- 
tion which seeks to overthrow the Government by force and violence ? 

Mr. Winner. I think so. 



COMiMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1321 

ISIr. Jackson. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. Any further questions, Mr. Counsel ? 

]\[r. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Is there any reason why the witness should not be ex- 
cused from further attendance ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Winner. Thank jou. . 

( Witness excused. ) 

]\Ir. Wood. In view of the fact I personally, along with counsel, 
have an appointment at 1 o'clock, we will take a recess here until 2 : 30 
this afternoon. 

(Thereupon, at 12 : 10 p. m., a recess was taken until 2 : 30 p. m. of 
the same day.) 

afternoon session 

(Tlie subcommittee reconvened at 2: 30 p. m., Representatives John 
S. Wood, Clyde Doyle, and Donald L. Jackson being present, and Hon. 
John S.Wood (chairman) presiding.) 

Mr. Wood. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record disclose that for the purposes of the hearing this 
afternoon I, as chairman, have set up a subcommittee composed of 
Messrs. Doyle, Jackson, and Wood, and they are all present. 

Who is the witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Dirk Struik. 

Mr. Wood. Will you come around, please, Doctor. Will you raise 
your right hand and be sworn, please. 

You do solemnly swear — 

Dr. Struik. I do solemnly swear — 

Mr. Wood. That the evidence you give this subcommittee — 

Dr. Struik. That the evidence I give this subcommittee — 

Mr. Wood. Shall be the truth — 

Dr. Struik. Shall be the truth — 

Mr. Wood. The whole truth — 

Dr. Struik. The whole truth — 

Mr. Wood. And nothing but the truth — 

Dr. Struik. And nothing but the truth — 

Mr. Wood. So help you God. 

Dr. Struik. So help me God. 

Mr. Wood. Have a seat. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. DIRK JUNG STRUIK, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, OLIVER S. ALLEN 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your full name for the record, please, 
Doctor ? 

Dr. Struik. My full name is Dirk Jung Struik. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you represented by counsel? 

Dr. Struik. I am represented by counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Allen. My name is Oliver S. Allen of the bar of the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, with offices in the city of Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your address in Boston? 

Mr. Allen. 100 Milk Street, Boston, Mass. 



1322 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and wliere were you born, Dr. Struik? 

Dr. Struik. I was born on the 13th of September 1894, in Rotter- 
dam, in the Netherlands. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you an American citizen ? 

Dr. Struik. I am an American citizen. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you naturalized ? 

Dr. Struik. I was naturalized in 1934. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. When did you come to the United States ? 

Dr. Struik. I came to the United States in December 1926. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you naturalized ? 

Dr. Srtuik. In Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state briefly what your educational train- 
ing has been? 

Dr. Struik. Gladly. I was educated in the public schools of the 
Netherlands in Rotterdam, elementary and the equivalent of high 
school ; then I got my Ph. D. at the University of Leyden in 1922. I 
subsequently had an international fellowship and traveled and studied 
mainly in Germany and in Rome, Italy. 

That ended my formal education. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. And what was the approximate date of the ending 
of your formal education ? 

Dr. Struik. Well, I came back to Holland in 1926, 1 believe, before 
I came to the United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you came to the United States, did you take 
up your residence in Boston ? 

Dr. Struik. Strictly speaking, in Cambridge. 

Mr. Tavenner. And have you lived there since that time ? 

Dr. Struik. First in Cambridge, then I went to Holland and several 
other countries for a year, and came back to Massachusetts, and since 
that time, 1935, 1 have resided in Belmont, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. You reside where? 

Dr. Struik. Belmont, B-e-1-m-o-n-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. What countries did you visit when you returned to 
Holland from the United States ? 

Dr. Struik. Mexico ; the Netherlands ; very shortly, Germany and 
Poland, and the U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you in the U. S. S. R. ? 

Dr. Struik. Three weeks. 

Mr. Tavenner. What part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics did you visit? 

Dr. Struik. Moscow. 

Mr. Tavenner, What was your purpose in going to Moscow ? 

Dr. Struik. To be in attendance on a mathematics congress ; to be 
exact, a seminar for the study of vectors and tensor analysis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you invited to attend this particular con- 
ference ? 

Dr. Struik. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. By whom? 

Dr. Struik. By Professor Kagan of the University of Moscow. _ 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you been employed in the United States prior 
to your taking this trip ? 

Dr. Struik. Wliich trip do you mean ? 
Mr. Tavenner. The trip to Moscow ? 

Dr. Struik. Yes. I was out from 1934 to 1935, but I came to the 
United States in 1926. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 323 

Mr. Tavexner. How were yon employed from 1026 to 1934 ? 

Dr. Struik. I was employed at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Mr. Taa-enner. In what capacity ? 

Dr. Struik. First as a lecturer, then as assistant professor. I think 
that was up to 193-4 I was assistant professor. 

Mr. Tavexner. In what field ? 

Dr. Struik. Mathematics. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you teach any other subjects besides mathe- 
matics? 

Dr. Struik. I am not quite sure if it was before 1934 or after 
1934, but I believe it was before 1934 that I also gave a course in the 
history of science. 

Mr.'^TAA'ENNER. After you returned in 1935 from your trip abroad, 
where were you employed ? 

Dr. Struik. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Mr. Tavenxer. You have been employed there constantly from 
that time until the present ? 

Dr. Struik. Constantly, that is correct. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. And you are employed there now ? 

Dr. Struik. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Struik, the committee, in investigating Com- 
munist Party activities in New England, with special reference to 
Massachusetts, is desirous of knowing what action the Commvmist 
Party took with reference to the colonization of key industries by the 
Communist Party. Do you have any knowledge on that subject ? 

Dr. Struik. Sir, at this stage I have to decline respectfully to 
answer that question on the ground that an answer to that question 
might tend to incriminate me, and my refusal is based on the rights 
guaranteed to me under the fifth amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States of America. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. The committee also, in the course of its investiga- 
tion into the subject of Communist colonization of key industries, de- 
sires to know what part the Communist Party played in the education 
of youth in the Massachusetts area, and the committee had informa- 
tion that you would have some knowledge on that subject. 

Dr. Struik. But I must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, again upon the same gi'ounds; namely, that an answer to that 
question might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Mr. Herbert A. Phil- 
brick? 

Dr. Struik. I must again decline to answer that question upon the 
same grounds. 

Mr. Wood. Doctor, permit me to point out to you, sir, that in this 
committee you are not under any compulsion to decline to answer 
anything. The question is not what you must do; it is a question of 
whether you do it or not. 

Dr. Sti^ik. I stand corrected. 

Mr. Wood. Do you decline to answer ? 

Dr. Struik. I do decline to answer. 

Mr. Wood. For the reasons stated ? 

Dr. Struik. Yes. 

Mr. Allen. And may it be understood that it is upon that ground 
that he declines to answer further questions? 



1324 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Wood. Unless he indicates differently, his declination to answer 
further questions, if he does so decline, may be assumed to be on the 
grounds stated. 

Dr. Struik. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Struik, Mr. Herbert A. Philbrick appeared ab 
a witness before this committee yesterday, and in the course of his 
testimony he told the committee that he had occupied a position on 
the educational commission of the Communist Party of the State 
of Massachusetts for a considerable period of time during the middle 
forties. 

He also testified that beginning around 1947 he was transferred to 
what was termed the professional group of the Communist Party, and 
that that group had been divided into 14 units or cells, and he had 
been assigned to one of those known as the MO group, meaning — or 
do you know what it means, the MO group ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. That is sufficient, 
is it? 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., a member of the committee, 
entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; quite sufficient. Mr. Philbrick testified that 
the initials MO indicated, or stood for, the words mass organization. 

Dr. Struik. Is that a question, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No; I am just telling you what he testified to, as 
the basis for a question I am going to ask you. 

After having so testified, I asked Mr. Philbrick this question. First, 
I should say that Mr. Philbrick testified as to the membership of the 
particular cell to which he was assigned in the professional group, 
and after having given the names of those who were originally in 
that cell with him, I asked him this question : ^ 

Were there any other individuals with whom you became acquainted, members 
of the Communist Party to your knowledge, who tooli any part in the leader- 
sMp in the educational field? 

Mr. Philbrick's reply was : 

In the latter part of 1947 and beginning of 1948 in our pro group — 

meaning professional group — 

we had been studying one of these revolutionary books. I believe at that time 
it was State and Revolution. By the time we had finished the course we had 
a new member join our group. He had apparently been informed as to the 
nature of our studies, so he — 

At that moment I interrupted him and asked him this question : 

Let me inteiTupt you there. Do you mean joined your professional cell? 

Mr. Philbrick replied : 

Yes. 

Mr. Tavennek. The same cell that we have been talking about? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, my particular cell. And so this new member was brought 
in. He was a new member to our own little cell, not a new member of the party. 
He was called in to conduct a summary of the entire book, State and Revolution. 
This member, it turned out, was Comrade Dirk Struik, of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and of the Sam Adams School. 

Is there any statement contained in JVIr. Philbrick's testimony which 
I have read to you that is untrue ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 



See pp. 1296 and 1297. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1325 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you join a cell of the professional group of the 
Communist Party in the latter part of 1947 or the beginning of 1948? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Did you conduct a clasg or lecture before a cell of 
the professional group of the Communist Party on the book, State and 
Revolution ? 

Dr. SnJUiK. I decline to answer that question. 

]Slr. Tavenxer. Did you lecture to such a group on any book or 
ally subject? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Are you acquainted with the book. State and Revo- 
lution ? 

Dr. Struik (after consultation with his counsel). I decline to an- 
swer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then the testimony continued as follows : 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you si>ell both the tirst and last names, please? 

Mr. Philbrick. I believe it is D-i-r-k, Dirk, S-t-r-u-i-k, Dirk J. Struik, I believe. 

Your name is Dirk J. Struik, is it not ? 

Dr. Struik (after consultation with his counsel). Yes. 
Mr, Tavenner. Thank you, sir. [Continuing reading :] 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he is presently employed in the teaching 
profession ? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes. He is still with the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

You are still with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are you 
not? 

Dr. Struik. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing reading from answer by Mr. Phil- 
brick) : 

He is a teacher of mathematics. 

You are a teacher of mathematics ? 

Dr. Struik. I am a teacher of mathematics. 

Mr. Ta\t:xner (continuing reading from answer by Mr. Phil- 
brick) : 

He was one of the sponsors of the Sam Adams School in Boston — 

You were one of the sponsors of the Sam Adams School in Boston? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

^Ir. Tavex'Ner (continuing reading from answer by Mr. Phil- 
brick) : 

and one of the sponsors of the Thomas Jefferson School in New York City. 

You were one of the sponsors of the Thomas Jefferson School in Xew 
York City? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Taatenner (continuing, reading) : 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he also teach or lecture in the Sam Adams School? 
Mr. Philbrick. Yes. he did. and as a Communist Party member I attended 
his classes, or the classes he gave, at the Sam Adams School. 

Mr. Allen. Is that a question? 
Mr. Tavtex'ner. I am about to ask the question. 
Did you teach at the Sam Adams School ? 
Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 



1326 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Mr. Philbrick attend classes given by you at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology? 

Mr. Allen. Will you repeat that question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Read the question. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter, as follows : "Did 
Mr. Philbrick attend classes given by you at the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology?") 

Dr. Struik. I can only saj^ this, that I do not know. I have no 
recollection of a student called Philbrick in my mathematics classes, 
but so many students pass through the institute each year that I really 
cannot truthfully say that there w^as a student called Philbrick in one 
of my mathematics classes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did a student named Philbrick attend classes con- 
ducted by you at the Sam Adams School? 

Dr. Struik. I have to decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Do you so decline? 

Dr. Struik. I do decline, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the size of the classes at the Sam Adams 
School as compared to your classes at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did a Mr. Philbrick attend lectures or classes of 
yours at any place? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing with the testimony on the previous day 
of Mr. Philbrick) : ^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe a little more definitely this meeting which 
you state he attended of your group and summarized the book State and Revo- 
lution? 

Mr. Philbrick. Well, the nature of the course had been that we had studied 
the nature of the state, the capitalist state, and the need for violent revolation 
to overthrow that state. Comrade Struik brought in a world-wide summary of 
the status of capitalism in various parts of the world. He particularly dwelt on 
the state of capitalism and imperialism in the Pacific, and at that time instructed 
us that there we saw imperialism at its worst, such as in the Dutch East Indies, 
and that we must back the Indonesian revolt and the revolt of all colonial 
peoples throughout the Pacific area against the inroads of capitalism, and the 
absolute necessity of overthrowing capitalist control in those sections. It was a 
long discourse, running about 2 hours in length. 

Does that refresh your recollection as to the summary or lecture 
which Mr. Philbrick stated you delivered to his group ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were at that time rather vocal on the subject 
of government in the Dutch East Indies, were you not, in 1947 and 
1948? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the Daily Worker of August 20, 1947, 
at page 9, Dr. Dirk Struik, professor at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, was designated as the chairman of the American Com- 
mittee for Indonesian Independence. 

You were chairman of such an organization, were you not? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you the August 20, 1947, issue of the Daily 
Worker, and ask you to examine the article appearing in the left- 
hand top corner of page 9 and state whether or not your name ap- 

1 See p. 1297. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 327 

pears therein, and wliether or not yoii were designated as chairman 
of the American Committee for Indonesian Independence? 

Dr. Struik. The name of Dr. Dirk Struik, professor at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, appears in this article. 

Mv. Tavenner. Does it appear as chairman of the American Com- 
mittee for Indonesian Independence? 

Dr. Struik. I read on : "And chairman of the American Committee 
for Indonesian Independence." Shall I read on? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is enough, unless you desire to read further. 
Are you the individual referred to in that article? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

My. Tavenner. Is there any other individual by the name of Struik 
at tlie Massachusetts Institute of Technology? 

Dr. Struik. To the best of my knowledge, no. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing with the testimony of Mr. Philbrick of 
the previous day) : ^ 

Mr. Tavenner. How frequently did Dr. Struik attend the meetings of your 
group? 

At this point the question refers to the cell of the professional group 
of the Communist Party of which Mr. Philbrick was a member, and 
it was referred to by him as a highly secret group. [Continuing read- 
ing:] 

IVIr. Philbrick. He attended meetings every other vpeek, as that was the cus- 
tom of our group, to meet every other week. He attended our meetings from 
that period right up through, I believe, the latter part of May or first part of 
June. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you have been in many, many Communist Party meet- 
ings with him? 

Mr. Philbrick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were those meetings closed meetings, that is, secret Commu- 
liist Party meetings? 

Mr. Philbrick. They were very secret Communist Party meetings, and It 
vas impossible, absolutely impossible, for any person or any individual to ever 
get into these meetings unless he was not only a bona fide party member, but 
one who was very well trusted and who had been passed upon by someone in the 
higher ranks as a party member of sufficient trustworthiness to be permitted to 
belong to the pro cell. 

After reading that portion of the testimony of Mr. Philbrick to you, 
will 3'ou state to the committee whether or not you attended such a 
closed meeting as that described by Mr. Philbrick? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing with the testimony of the preceding 
day of Mr. Philbrick) : 

Mr. Taa-enner. Is there any further information you can give the committee 
regarding the Communist Party membership or activity of Dr. Struik? 

Mr. Philbrick. There were many instances over the years. I don't know 
which are the most important. So far as the Communist Party was concerned, 
and so far as the educational commission was concerned, of which I was a 
member, Professor Struik was very influential in teaching Marxism at the Sam 
Adams School. This was a required course for Communist Party members. 

As a member of the educational commission, I was given instructions to pre 
pare leaflets promoting the classes of Professor Struik at the Sam Adams School, 
and all Communi.«;t Party members were urged to attend that particular course. 
I attended it myself. 

I might say that perhaps to pin it down a little further, in 1 year we had two 
such course for party members to attend. One of these was to be given by 
Professor Struik, and the other was to be given by Clive Knowles. 

»See pp. 1297 and 1298. 



1328 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Are you acquainted with Clive Knowles? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer tliat question. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing reading from answer by Mr. Phil- 
brick) : 

At tbe last moment, Clive Knowles could not teach the course, and someone else 
would have to teach his course. 

I had already prepared the leaflets advertising both courses. I was called to 
Communist Party headquarters and told that all comrades who had registered 
for the class of Clive Knowles were to shift their registration to Professor 
Struik's class. The reason given was because the new teacher taking the place 
of Clive Knowles was not a Communist Party member, and it was felt that 
members of the Communist Party should not be learning Marxism from a non- 
party member. 

As a result. Professor Struik's course became so large he had to teach them 
in two sections, one at 6 o'clock and one at 7. 

Does that refresh your recollection regarding your experience at the 
Sam Adams School ? - 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you teach a class in Marxism at the Sam Adams 
School? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Mr. Philbrick prepare the literature and the 
material advertising your course in Marxism at the Sam Adams 
School, to your knowledge? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Struik, were you at any time a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member today ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time denied that you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall that during the course of the trial 
of the 11 Communists' in the United States District Court in New 
York in the spring of 1949, Mr. Philbrick, who was a witness for 
the Government in that trial, mentioned you as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall that ? 

Dr. Struik. I recall that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make a public statement after that with 
regard to Mr. Philbrick's testimony relating to you ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of the April 
9, 1949, issue of the Boston Post, which contains an article headed, 
"No action by M. I. T. on 'Red' — Professor not to be curbed or censured, 
says Killian — Struik denies being Communist," accompanied by a 
photograph appearing over your name. 

Will you look at tliat, please, and state whether or not that is 
your photograph ? Do you recognize your likeness ? 

Dr. Struik. Tliat is a very difficult question, sir. However, I can 
say this, that behind 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you just answer the question. Is that your 
photograph ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIMTIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1329 

Dr. Struik. It looks like it. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You don't doubt it, do you ? 

Dr. Stri'ik. No ; I don't doubt it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yon recall tlie incident perfectly well, and you 
know perfectly well that is your pliotograpli ? 

Mr. Allex. What incident? 

Mr. Tavenner. The publication of this article. 

Dr. Struik. I recall the publication of this article very well. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. And in that article is it stated you denied member- 
ship in tlie Communist Party? 

Dr. Struik. Let's see. 

]\Ir. Taa-enner. Do you recall that ? 

]S[r. Allen. One question at a time. 

Dr. Struik. May I read what it says, sir? 

]\Ir. Tavexxer. If you will just answer my question. 

Dr. Struik. And your question is what ? 

Mr. Tavex'X'er. Read the question. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter, as follows: 
"And in that article is it stated you denied membership in the Com- 
munist Party?") 

Dr. S'lRuiK. I must look at this article to see if I said that. 

]\rr. Tavexxer. Very well. Look as much as you like. If you 
will 

Dr. Struik. I am not finished reading it. 

]\[r. Allex'. Mr. Chairman, there is a question pendino;. 

Mr. Jacksox. ]Mr. Chairman, I ask that the counsel be instructed 
he is here to confer with and advise the witness. 

]Mr. Allex. But questions should not be asked to confuse the 
witness. 

Mr. Wood. Do you withdraw the question ? 

Mr. Ta\tenner. No, sir. I wanted to point out where the language 
I am inquiring about appears in the article. 

Dr. Struik. I read the following : 

Professor Struik said he has iiovcr advised anyone to join the Communist 
Party and when anyone aslved him .such a question he would give that person 
the advice to find out for himself. 

Professor Struik said he readily agrees that Marxism and communism have 
many things in common. At one time he likened the two isms to the relation- 
ship of Christianity to some Christian church. 

Mr. Tamsxxer. Now Avill you read the caption of the article? 
Dr. Struik (reading) : 

No Action by M. I. T. on "Red." 

]Mr. Tavexxer. And the rest of it? 
Dr. Struik (reading) : 

Proftssor Not To Be Curbed or Censured, Says Killlan — Struik Denies Being 
Communist. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did vou denv beino; a Communist? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answeuthe question, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you also look in the center of the page and 
see in black type in the centei- of the column, "Says Philbrick Lies." 

Dr. Struik. I see it, sure, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did Mr. Philbrick lie in referring to you as a 
member of the Communist Party? 



1330 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you were correctly quoted in the caption to this 
article, "Struik Denies Being Communist," was that a truthful 
statement ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I offer in evidence pages 1 and 2 
of the April 9, 1949, issue of the Boston Post, and ask that they be 
marked "Struik Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Wood. Let them be admitted. 

(The photostats above referred to, marked "Struik Exhibit No. 1," 
are filed herewith.^) 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Struik, you have refused to answer questions 
which might throw some light on your knowledge of Communist 
Part}^ activities in the Boston area relating to education of youth, 
the organization of the Communist Party, the secret units or cells of 
the party, and the colonization of key industries by the Communist 
Party, but there is information in the hies of the committee which 
shows, or tends to show, your affiliation with a number of Connnunist- 
front organizations which, unexplained, would indicate that you had 
such knowledge even beyond the testimony of Mr. Philbrick on yes- 
terday. 

Dr. Struik. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. I will ask you a question. 

So I feel I should ask you about a number of such affiliations with 
Communist-front organizations, but before doing so, possibly you 
have an explanation to make of your affiliation with such groups. 
Do you ? 

Dr. Struik. That is a question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Do you have an explanation that you would 
like to make ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then I shall be compelled to ask you a immber 
of specific questions relating to such organizations. 

Were you affiliated in any manner with the Conference on Pan 
American Democracy? 

Dr. Struik (after consultation with his counsel). I decline to 
answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not this conference set up the Council for Pan 
American Democracy ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it not the founding meeting for the formation 
of the Council for Pan American Democracy ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a letterhead of the Conference on Pan 
American Democracy and ask whether or not your name appears as 
one of the sponsors of that organization ? 

Dr. Struik. I see the name "Professor D. J. Struik." 

Mr. Tavenner. As a sponsor? 

Dr. Struik. As a sponsor. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a sponsor of the organization ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. Excuse me. 
May I see this thing once more ? 

' See appendix, pp. 1401-1405. 



COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1331 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Yes. I believe the date is November 16, 1938; is 
it not ^ 

Dr. Struik. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you another letterhead, dated September 22,. 
1939, on which your name appears as a member of the National Com- 
mittee of the American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual 
Freedom. Will you identify your name as a member of the national 
connnittee? 

Dr. Struik. I see the name "Professor D. J. Struik, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology.'- 

Mr. Ta\"enner. As a member of the national committee of the 
organization ? 

Dr. Struik. As a member of the national committee. 

]Mr. TA^'EN]srER. Is that you ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tav-enxer. The New Masses of April 2, 1940, published a letter 
to the President of the United States to the effect that a recent raid 
on the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, an indictment re- 
turned by a Federal grand jury in Detroit against persons accused 
of recruiting Americans to fight in the Spanish civil war, and the 
work of the Dies committee, was evidence of a tendency to pervert the 
spirit of the Bill of Rights. The name of D. J. Struik, associate pro- 
fessor of mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, appears 
as one having signed the letter. 

Will you examine it and state whether or not you signed such a 
letter? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name, Dirk J. Struik, professor of mathe- 
matics, Massachuetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you sign the letter? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr, Tavenner. I now hand you a letterhead dated August 10, 1940^ 
which reflects your name, D, J. Struik, as a sponsor of the Committee 
to Defend America by Keeping Out of War. I will ask you to verify 
that and state whether or not you were a sponsor of that organization. 

Dr. Struik. There are two questions, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you verify the fact that your name appears 
there ? 

Dr. Struik. I see "Dr. D. J. Struik, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology.'' 

Mr. Tavenner. And were you a sponsor of that organization ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know that this organization, the Committee 
to Defend America by Keeping Out of War, was a mere paper organi- 
zation created for the purpose of raising funds to finance the setting 
up of the Emergency Peace Mobilization held in Chicago, August 31 
and September 1 and 2, 1940 ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tav-enner. I show you a copy of the Daily Worker for March 
5, 1941. Across the front page appears the headline, "450 educators, 
ministers, writers call on F. D. R. to defend constitutional rights of 
Communists." On page 2 of the paper, the name of Prof. Dirk J. 
Struik appears in the article as one of the signers. Will you verify 
that to see if your name does so appear ? 

89067—51 6 



1332 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Dr. Struik. I see the name Prof. Dirk J. Striiik, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances un- 
der which your name was used in connection with that letter? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir, 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a program of the third biennial confer- 
ence of the International Labor Defense, held in New York City 
April 4 to 6, 1941. On the back page appears the following statement 
over the name of Prof. Dirk J. Struik : 

My sympathy is with you iif your fight against all attempts to treat the Con- 
stitution of the United States with contempt. 

Do you see the quotation which I read you, over your signature? 

Dr. Struik, I see the quotation, and I recognize my name, "Pro- 
fessor Dirk J. Struik, MIT." 

Mr. Tavenxer. Did you sign that message to the International 
Labor Defense ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of a pamphlet pub- 
lished by the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. It 
contains a letter addressed to President Koosevelt, dated July 11, 
1942, urging reconsideration of the order of the Attorney General 
for the deportation of Harry Bridges. On page 30, the name of Prof, 
Dirk J. Struik appears. Will you verify the appearance of your 
name on that page ? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances un- 
der which your name was used in connection with this letter, and how 
your name was solicited? 

Dr. Struik. I decline, sir, to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I suggest you look again, at page 15. I call your 
attention there to this language : 

It is equally essential tliat the Attorney General's ill-advised, arbitrary, and 
unwarranted findings relative to the Communist Party l)e rescinded. 

Wliat findings did the Attorney General make regarding the Com- 
munist Party with which you disagreed? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. What were the findings of the Attorney General 
that in your opinion were ill-advised, arbitrary and unwarranted? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are familiar with the findings of the Attorney 
General in the Bridges case, are you not ( 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know it to be a fact, do you not. that the find- 
ings of the Attorney General in the Bridges case relative to the Com- 
munist I^arty were practically identical to the findings in the case 
of the 11 Communist leaders convicted in New York. 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a page from the New York Times of 
April 1, 194G. It contains an advertisement of the National Federa- 
tion for Constitutional Liberties, with a statement opposing the use 
of injunctions in labor disputes. The name of Prof. Dirk J. Struik 
appears as one of the signers. Do you identify your name there ^ 

Dr. Struik. I identify my name, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIMTIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1333 

Mr. Tavennek. "Will you tell the comniittee the c ire urn stances under 
which you si<>ue(l tliis stateuiout. and wlio solicited your signature? 

Dr. 8tkuik. 1 decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of a letterhead of the 
Committee for Citizenship Rights. The name of Prof. Dirk J. 
Struik ai)pears as an endorser. AVill you identify youi- name, please? 

Dr. Stkuik. I'rof. Dirk J. Struik, MassacJuisetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Mr. Tavenxer, Is it not correct that this Couunittee for Citizen- 
ship Eights was a committee for the defense of William Schneiderman, 
secretary of the Connnunist Party in California '. 

Dr. Struik. I can only read what I see here, that it was a committee 
organized to defend William Schneiderman. 

Mr. Tavexxer. And you did endorse that committee, did you not? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Ta%-exner. Were you personally acquainted with William 
Schneiderman? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. > 

Mr, Tavexxer. Did you contribute or participate in any way in 
his defense, through contributions or otherwise ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

]Mr, Tavexxer. I show you a copy of New Masses of July 8, 1947. 
Beginning on page 12 appears an article entitled "Man Over Myth.'' 
Without going into the details regarding the content of this article, it 
apj^ears to be an explanation or analysis of the Communist manifesto. 
Is that correct ? 

Dr. Struik. Let me read it. I see I signed it. It says : 

Marxism and the scientific tradition. How tlie founders of modern socialism 
transformed the nationalist outlook into a science. 

Then it begins : 

The Communist manifesto was written at the end of 1847 — almost a century 
ago ; it appeared in February of the next year, on the eve of the revolution of 
1848. 

Shall I read more, sir? 

Mr. Tavexxer. You may read more if it is necessary for you to 
answer my question. 

JSIr. Allex. What is the question ? 

Mr. Ta\txxer. Read the question. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Dr. Struik. Yes, I thiidv it is an analysis mainly of the philosoph- 
ical implications of the Communist manifesto and its impact upon 
science and philosophy. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you write the article? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. TA^^ENXER. I desire to offer the article in evidence, and ask 
that it be marked "Struik Exhibit No. 2." 

Mr. Wood. Let it be admitted. 

(The article above referred to, marked "Struik Exhibit No. 2," is 
filed herewith.^) 

Mr. Tavexxer. Have you ever lectured upon the same subject? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

^ See appendix, pp. 1406-1411. 



1334 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a school schedule for the spring term of 
1947 of the Jefferson School of Social Science in New York City- 
Will you examine it, please ? 

Dr. Struik. I see the name Dirk J. Struik on the board of trustees. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it correct that you were on the board of trustees ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you turn to page 73 and tell us what you find 
there? 

Dr. Struik (reading) : 

Struik, Dirk J.— Instructor, "What is Science?" (150) ; "Mathematics for 
the Citizen" (155). 

Shall I read on, on my qualifications? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, that is sufficient. We understand your qualifi- 
cations. Those numbers represented the numbers of the courses in, 
the school, did they ? 

Dr. Struik. I see " 'What is Science?' (150) ." 

Mr. Tavenner. What does 150 represent ? 

Dr. Struik. I suppose it is a number. 

Mr. Tavenner. Obviously it is a number, but what does it repre-^ 
sent ? 

Dr. Struik. I suppose the course. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you conduct the course 150 ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are aware of the fact that the Attorney Gen- 
eral has cited the Jefferson School of Social Science as a Communist 
organization ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you another folder, advertising the summer 
session of 1944 of this same school. It still reflects your name as a 
member of the board of trustees, I believe? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name. Dirk J. Struik, listed on the board o£ 
trustees. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you on the board of trustees of thia 
school ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. On October 16, 1944, a dinner was given at the 
Hotel Commodore in honor of the first anniversary of the American: 
Youth for Democracy. A program reflects the name of Prof. Dirk 
J. Struik as a sponsor. Will you examine the program and state 
whether or not it so appears ? 

Dr. Struik. I see, "Salute to Young America Dinner, Hotel Com- 
modore," and on the last page I see, under the heading "Sponsors,"' 
"Prof. Dirk J. Struik." 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a sponsor of that dinner ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a sponsor of that dinner? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated in any way with the American 
Youth for Democracy ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a program relating to a testimonial 
dinner on October 12, 1947, at the Pennsylvania Hotel, a dinner given. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE. OF MASSACHUSETTS 1335 

hy the American Slav Congress. According to this program your 
name appears as one of the sponsors. Is that true 'i 

Dr. Struik. I see my name in the list of sponsors, sir. 

Mr. Tavennek. Will you tell the committee the circumstances under 
which your name was used as a sponsor of that organization? 

Dr. Struik. Of this testimonial dinner in honor of Senator Claude 
Pepper ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You decline to answer ? 

Dr. Struik. I see this is a testimonial dinner in honor of Senator 
Claude Pepper, by 

Mr. Tavenner. By the American Slav Congress ? 

Dr. Struik. By the American Slav Congress, 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you please tell us the circumstances under 
which your name was used in that connection? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. An undated letterhead reflects the name of Dirk 
J. Struik as a sponsor of a National Conference for Protection of 
JForeign Born, a meeting sponsored by the American Committee for 
the Protection of the Foreign Born. Do you identify your name ? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name. Prof. Dirk J. Struik. 

Mr. TA^TNNER. Will you tell the committee the circumstances under 
which you sponsored this organization and who solicited your sponsor- 
ship? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to an article in the Daily Worker of 
April 4, 1941, you were a sponsor of this organization for the coming 
year. Is that correct ? 

Dr. Struik. I can only tell you what I see. I see that "73 Notables 
Sponsor Foreign-Born Group," and I see the name "Prof. Dirk J. 
Struik, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.," 
on that list. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Are you a sponsor at the present time of the organi- 
zation, and, if so, will you state the circumstances under which you 
became a sponsor ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a letterhead of the Massachusetts Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship, Inc., and I will ask you to examine it 
and state whether or not your name appears as executive director of 
that organization ? 

Dr. Struik. I see "Massachusetts Council of Amrrican-Soviet 
Friendship, Inc." and "Executive director. Prof. Dirk J. Stuik." 

Mr. Tavenner. On the letterhead there also appears a letter over 
your signature. 

Dr. Stouik. I see my name. Dirk J. Struik, one in handwriting and 
another in typewriting. 

Mr. Tavenner. The one that is in handwriting is your signature, 
is it not? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer that letterhead in evidence and ask that it 
be marked "Struik Exhibit No. 3." 

Mr. Wood. Let it be admitted, and I would like to see it. 



1336 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

(The letterhead above referred to, marked "Struik Exhibit No. 3," 
is filed herewitli.^) 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the Daily Worker of November 10, 
1918, tlie National Council of American Soviet Friendship — of which 
your name appeared on "Struik Exhibit No. 3" as the executive direc- 
tor of the Massachusetts chapter — sent greetings to the Soviet Union 
on the thirty-first anniversary of the Russian revolution. The name 
of Prof. Dirk J. Struik appears as one of those who joined in sending 
greetings. 

Mr. Allex. ]Mr. Examiner, it doesn't appear from what you have 
given the witness that this comes from a publication, the Daily 
Worker. You assure me that is the fact ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I can only say it is clipped from the Daily Worker. 

Dr. Struik. And the question, sir? 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I pointed out to you from that article that the 
name of Prof. Dirk J. Struik appears as one of those who joined in 
sending greetings from the National Council of American- Soviet 
Friendship to the Soviet Union on the thirty-first anniversary of the 
Russian revolution. Will you tell the committee the circumstances 
under which you joined in sending greetings to the Soviet Union, if 
you did? 

Dr. Struik. It was a message of friendship to the people of the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. Any explanation you have to make of 
it, we will be glad to have. Your distinction, then, is that you were 
sending a greeting to the people of the Soviet Union? 

Dr. Struik. According to this article, these people have sent a 
message of friendship to the people of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the anniversary of the Russian revolution? 

Dr. Struik. It was the fifteeenth anniversary of the establishment 
of diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the United 
States, and the thirty-first anniversary of the Russian revolution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances under 
which you joined in sending those greetings, if you did? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you the Daily Worker of March 19, 1942, 
and point out to you an article headed, "38 noted educators join 
Browder appeal." On page 2 the name of Dirk J. Struik appears as 
one of those who signed the appeal. Will you identify that as being 
correct according to the article? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name. Dirk J. Struik, professor of mathe- 
matics. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee who interviewed you 
with relation to your joining in on this appeal, if you did so join? 

Dr. Stouik. I decline to answer tliat question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of an undated letter- 
head of tlie Schappes Defense Committee, which reflects the name of 
Prof. Dirk J. Struik as one of the sponsors. Do you see your name? 

Dr. Sti?uik. I see my name. 

Mr. Tavenner Were you acquainted with Morris U. Schappes? 

Dr. S'rRUiK. I decline to answer that question. 

^ See appendix, p. 1412. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1337 

]Mr. Ta\'ennek. Do you know whether he was a member of the 
Communist Party ^ 

Dr. 8tkuik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

INIr. Tavexxeu. You are familiar with the charges made against 
him at the school at which he was teaching ^ 

Dr. Stkuik. I decline to answer that question. 

ISIr. Tavexxkr. I sliow you a ])hot()static copy of a page of the New 
York Times of December 22. 1043, which contains an advertisement of 
the Keichstag Fire Trial Anniversary Committee, of which Paul Robe- 
son was the cliairnum. This was in honor of George Dimitrov, one of 
the defendants in the Reichstag Fire Trial. The name of Prof. Dirk 
J. Struik appears as one of the signers. Will you tell the committee 
the circumstances under which you became a signer, if you did so? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name. I decline to answer that particular 
question. 

Mr. Tavenxer. I show you a photostatic copy of a letter dated 
July 11, 1947, wherein the name of Dirk J. Struik appears as one of 
the sponsors of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy. 
"Will you tell the committee the circumstances under which you spon- 
sored this organization and who solicited your sponsorship? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name, sir. I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavex'Xer. You are aware of the fact, are you not, that the 
Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy has been cited by the 
Attorne}^ General as a Conynunist organization? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. In January 1948 the Committee For a Democratic 
Far Eastern Policy sponsored a meeting called the National Confer- 
ence on American Policy on China and the Far East. Did you attend 
that conference? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavex'xer. Did you prepare a document for that conference 
on the subject of American policy in the Far East? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I show you the February 1948 issue of Spotlight. 
Are you acquainted with it ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Spotlight was the official organ of the Committee 
for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy. On page 9 appears an article 
entitled "Duplicity Charged to United States Policy in Indonesia; 
Truce a Fake." 

In this article it is said that "duplicity of American policy, which 
has prolonged war in Indonesia at great expense to the American 
people, was documented by Dr. Dirk Struik of the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology." 

Mr. Allex. You are not quoting that correctly. It is "great ex- 
jiense to Americans." 

Mr. TA^•EXXER. Great expense to Americans. 

Mr. Allex. You have not quoted all of it. 

Mr. Tavexxer. From the standpoint of this question, that is 
enough: "Duplicity of American policy, which has prolonged war in 
Indonesia at great expense to the American people" 

Dr. Struik. To Americans. 

Mr. Tavexxer. "To Americans, was documented by Dr. Dirk 
Struik of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology." 



1338 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Did you document such an article ? 

Dr. Struik. I can only say what I read. It says it was "docu- 
mented by Dr. Dirk Struik of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology." 

Mr, Tavenner. You only know what you see in the papers ; is that 
right? 

Dr. Struik. Not always. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you any independent recollection of it aside 
from the paper that is before you ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever write any articles for Spotlight, the 
official organ of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a copy of the June 1948 issue of the Far 
East Spotlight, and refer you to page 7, where there appears an article 
entitled "Who Fights the Indonesians?", by Dirk J. Struik, professor, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Does your name appear 
there as the author? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name there as the author. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall if you were the author of such an 
article ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

May I make a remark, sir ? The picture of Brig. Gen. Evans F. Carl- 
son is on the front of this Far East Spotlight. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to a printed invitation, the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee sponsored a reception for Mme. Irene 
Joliot-Curie. On this invitation, Dr. Dirk J. Struik was listed as a 
member of the national reception committee. Will you state whether 
or not you were a member of such a committee, or first, whether it 
appears on the paper that you were ? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name, Dr. Dirk J. Struik. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that refresh your recollection, or do you need 
to refresh your recollection as to whether you served on such a com- 
mittee ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Daily Worker of November 22, 1948, at page 
4, carries an article entitled "Civic Leaders in New England Rap 
Frame-Up of 12." That refers, of course, to the 12 Communist 
leaders who were indicted in the Federal court in New York in 1949. 
The gist of the article was that the Attorney General abandon the 
prosecution of the 12 Communist leaders. The name of Prof. Dirk 
J. Struik appears as one of those who signed the letter. Does your 
name appear? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you advocate that the Attorney General 
abandon the prosecution of the 12 Communist leaders in New York 
City? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you sign the letter referred to there, or did 
you permit your name to be used in connection with it ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer that article in evidence, and ask that it be 
marked "Struik Exhibit No. 4." 

Mr. Wood. Let it be admitted. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1339 

(The article above referred to, marked "Striiik Exhibit No. 4," is 
filed hei-ewitli.^ 

Mr. Tavenner. The Daily Worker of October 15, 1948, page 3, 
contains a news item to the effect that, on the evening before, a dinner 
fornm was held at the Iceland Restaurant in honor of the 12 indicted 
Communist leaders. This dinner Avas sponsored by the New York 
State Civil Rights Congress, so the article says, and Prof. Dirk 
Struik was one of the scheduled speakers. 

Are you referred to there is one of the scheduled speakers? 

Dr. Struik. Yes; scheduled speakers include Dr. Dirk Struik of 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did you speak at this meeting or dinner in honor 
of the 12 indicted Communist leaders? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. According to the Daily Worker of November 23, 
1942. at page 3, Prof. D. J. Struik is named as an editor of Science 
and Society. Will you refer to the article indicated and state whether 
or not your name appears in that article ? 

Dr. Struik. I see an article entitled "War Problems Are Main 
Theme of Science and Society Institute," and it says, "Opening re- 
marks of welcome will be made by Prof. D. J. Struik of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology and an editor of Science and Society." 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever contribute or write articles for this 
publication Science and Society, of which the article says you were 
an editor? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you the winter 1948 issue of Science and 
Society, in which you are listed as one of the editors, and I ask you 
to look at page 181, where you will find an article entitled "Marx 
and Mathematics," by Dirk J. Struik. Do you see an article entitled 
"Marx and Mathematics" by Dirk J. Struik? 

Dr. Struik. I see that. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Will you explain to the committee what the afiinity 
is between Marx and mathematics ? 

Dr. Struik. Marx left certain mathematical papers, and it is of 
great interest to the mathematicians to see what they contain. They 
have a bearing on the foundations of mathematics, and I will be very 
glad to explain to the committee the bearing of Marx on mathematics. 

Mr. Tavenner. You made quite a study of the Marxist philosophy 
in connection with mathematics? 

Dr. Struik. I have always been interested in the bearing of Marx 
on science in general and mathematics in particular. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have followed that study by participating 
in the teaching of Marxism in certain institutions; have you not? 

Dr. Struik. This I decline to answer. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Did you write the article entitled "Marx and Mathe- 
matics" appearing in the issue which I handed you? 

Dr. Struik. Yes. 

Mr. Tav?:xxer. What other contributions did you make to this 
magazine? 

Dr. Struik. I write for this magazine occasionally book reviews, 
and have occasionally contributed articles dealing witli the philosophy 

^ Filed with the records of this hearing by tlie committee. 



1340 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

and history of science. In tlie last number of Science and Society 
you will find a review of a book by Herman Weyl of Princeton on the 
foundations of mathematics. I have recently written a review of a 
book by Professor Butterfield on the origin of mathematics. I try to 
review mainly the contributions that deal with the social implications 
of mathematics and science. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have made contributions of that nature to 
this magazine Science and Society ? 

Dr. Struik. Not only to this magazine but others, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you contribute frequently to the magazine 
Science and Society ? 

Dr. Struik. Not frequently. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were an editor of it. Didn't you make your 
principal literary contributions to the magazine of which you were an 
editor ? 

Dr. Struik. I write occasionally an article for Science and Society 
on these scientific subjects, but not often, because I have other things 
to do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been an editor of Science and 
Society ? 

Dr. Struik. Since its existence. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that ? 

Dr. Struik. You can see for yourself, sir. It is on there somewhere. 

Mr. Tavenner. This issue in 1948 says volume 12, No. 1. Does 
that mean that it is 12 years of age ? 

Dr. Struik. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you still an editor of that magazine ? 

Dr. Struik. Yes; I am an editor of that magazine. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the connection, if any, between the Com- 
munist Party and this magazine entitled "Science and Society"? 

Dr. Struik. (after consultation with his counsel). I refuse to an- 
swer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated you helped to organize it, or pub- 
lish it? 

Dr. Struck. No. I said I was asked to join the editorial board. 

Mr. Tavenner. At its inception ? 

Dr. Struik. I joined, and from that time until the present I have 
occasionally contributed an article to this magazine. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who extended the invitation to you to join the 
editorial board ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who controlled the editorial policy of this magazine 
at the time you first became an editor? 

Dr. Struik. The editorial board. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who composed it ? 

Dr. Struik. I don't recall. You can easily find that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who composes the board at this time ? 

Dr. Struik. You will find that. Living in Boston, I have very 
little to do with editorial policy. My contribution was an occasional 
book review or sometimes a manuscript. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is there about the formation of this magazine 
that makes you reluctant to tell us about its inception and who was 
responsible for its inception ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1341 

Mr. Ta-st^nner. Exclusive of yourself, is there any member on the 
present editorial board who is known to you to be a member of the 
Oonnnunist Party ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, Dr. Struik, is not this magazine 
entitled "Science and Society" a Marxian quarterly of the Communist 
Party ? 

Dr. Struik. The name "Marxian quarterly of the Communist 
Party" was never on the cover. 

Mr. Tavenner. Oh, I am not asking you if it was on the cover. 
Neither did this Communist Party cell advertise the place of its 
meetings. But I am asking you if it is not a fact that it is an organ 
of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. According to a program of the Cultural and Scien- 
tific Conference for World Peace, the name of Prof. Dirk J. Struik 
appears as one of the sponsors. Will you tell the committee the cir- 
cumstances under which you sponsored this conference, if you did 
sponsor it? 

Dr. Struik. I see my name on it, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances 
under which you sponsored that conference? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you written and contributed articles to any- 
other organ of the Communist Party besides the magazine Science 
and Society? 

Dr. Struik. I object to the question, sir, because you said that 
Science and Society is a Communist organ, or words to that effect. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, in effect, you have not denied it. 

Dr. Struik. I have not denied it, but I do not want to make the 
impression by answering this question in that form. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have already done that by your previous 
answer. 

Dr. Struik. What is the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Read the question. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter, as follows: 
"Have you written and contributed articles to any other organ of 
the Communist Party besides the magazine Science and Society?") 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer the question. It is not well 
formulated. 

Mr. Tavenner, If your objection is to the form, I will make it more 
specific. Have you written or contributed articles to the publication 
Masses and Mainstream ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the December 1948 issue, at page 58, is an article 
entitled "Public and Private Morals" by Dirk J. Struik. Will you 
examine it and see if you can identify it? 

Dr. Struik. I see "Public and Private Morals" by Dirk J. Struik. 

Mr. Ta\t.xxer. Are you acquainted with the fact that Masses and 
Mainstream has been cited as an official organ of the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. TA^•ENXER. Did you write the article that appt^ars in that pub- 
lication over your name ? 



1342 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Acording to a pamphlet, the Civil Rights Congress 
sponsored a National Civil Rights Legislative Conference in Wash- 
ington, D. C, on January 17 and 18, 1949. The name of Prof. Dirk 
J. Struik appears as one of the sponsors. Will you tell the commit- 
tee the circumstances under which your name was used there, if it 
was so used ? 

Dr. Struik. I see the name "Prof. Dirk F. Struik," but that is all 
right, MIT. Then you ask me 

Mr. Tavenner. To tell the committee the circumstances under 
which you became a sponsor of that conference. 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Civil Rights Congress also sponsored a Bill of 
Rights Conference held in New York City July 16 and 17, 1949. The 
name of Prof. Dirk J. Struik appears as one of the sponsors of this 
conference. Will you examine it ? 

Dr. Struik. I see the call to the Bill of Rights Conference, and my 
name appears on page 6. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances un- 
der which you sponsored this conference of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress and who solicited your sponsorship ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the Daily Worker of January 3, 1949, 
at page 3, the Committee of One Thousand made public an open letter 
to Congress urging that the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities be abolished. Among the signers on page 7 of the Daily 
Worker appears the name of Prof. Dirk J. Struik. Will you ex- 
amine it? 

Dr. Struik. I see an article entitled "Signers of Open Letter to 
End House Un-American Activities Committee," and among the 
signers I see my name. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not intimate you do not have the right freely 
to criticize this committee, but I am interested in the circumstances 
under which you signed the letter, who obtained your cooperation and 
support in the criticism of this committee ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the Daily Worker of June 20, 1950, at 
page 2, the name of Prof. Dirk J. Struik appears as one of those who 
signed the World Peace Appeal, according to an announcement by 
the Peace Information Center. Does your name so appear ? 

Dr. Struik. My name appears. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances under 
which you signed this appeal, who solicited your signature? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question, sir. 
Mr. Tavenner. According to a press release of the Committee for 
Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact on December 4, 1949, at 
page 10, the name of Prof. Dirk J. Struik appears as one of those 
signing a statement calling for an international agreement to ban the 
use of atomic weapons. Did you sign that statement? 
Dr. Struik. I see my name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your name used with your permission? 
Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. I see that among 
the initiators of the statement were two Nobel-prize winners and a 
great number of clergymen. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1343 

Mr. Tavenxer. Do you know who solicited those Nobel-prize win- 
ners for permission to use their names? 

Dr. Struik. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How about you ? Who solicited you ? 

Dr. Struik. That I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are you acquainted with Martha H. Fletcher, also 
known as Mrs. Harold A. Fletcher, Jr. ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Are you acquainted with Harry Winner? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are you acquainted with his wife, Irene Winner? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are you acquainted with Sara Gordon ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are you acquainted with Otis Hood? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Dr. Struik, I have asked you many questions re- 
lating to the committee's record of alleged affiliations by you with 
Communist-front organizations, which you have declined to answer. 
Do you desire to make any explanation of your alleged affiliations 
with such organizations that the committee may have in mind in con- 
sidering the weight of your testimony ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Professor, as to any of these communications which 
have been oifered in which your name appears as a sponsor or in some 
other capacity, is there any case in which your name was used without 
your permission on any of those papers ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there any case, in any of these papers offered to you 
for identification today, in which your name was used without your 
authority ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I am sure I noticed you and your worthy counsel here 
this morning in the committee hearing room ; didn't I ? 

Dr. Struik. I was here, sure. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought I observed you two gentlemen in the front 
row, and I especially observed you when Mr. Winner was in the chair 
this morning. You recall Mr. Winner was in the chair where you are 
now sitting ? 

Dr. Struik. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. When I was questioning him, I was anxious to know 
about the Samuel Adams School, and he related, in substance, that 
there were men and women in other occupations who taught at night 
at the Sam Adams School. Were you one of the gentlemen who was 
teaching at the Sam Adams School at night ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever visit the Sam Adams School ? 

Dr. Struik (after consultation with his counsel). I decline to 
answer. 

]\Ir. Doyle. Did you know where it was located ? 

Dr. Struik. In Boston. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever see it ? 



1344 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. How do you know it was in Boston ? 

Dr. Struik. 1 knew it was in Boston because there were advertise- 
ments of it. 

JMr. Doyle. Where did you see advertisements of it ? 

Dr. Struik. In the papers. 

Mr. Doyle. What papers ? 

Dr. Struik, I don't know. Perhaps some of the gentlemen behind 
me can tell you, from the Post or Globe. 

Mr. Doyle. What advertisements did you ever see about the Sam 
Adams School ? 

Dr. Struik. That I couldn't tell you. 

Mr. Doyle. You said you remembered seeing them. 

Dr. Struik. Oh, yes, several years ago. 

Mr. Doyle. What did the advertisements have to say ? 

Dr. Struik. I cannot tell you. 

Mr. Doyle. That impressed you, on your mind, after several years?' 

Dr. Struik. They said there was a Sam Adams School in Boston. 
That is all I remember. 

Mr. Doyle. Where was it located in Boston? Do you remember 
that, too, after several years, the street number? 

Dr. Struik. I couldn't tell you. 

Dr. Doyle. How many ads did you see of the Sam Adams School 
that you remember after several years ? 

Dr. Struik. I couldn't tell you. 

Mr. Doyle. More than one ? 

Dr. Struik. I couldn't tell you. 

Mr. Doyle. Were they advertising night classes or clay classes or 
both? 

Dr. Struik. I suppose so. I really couldn't tell you. 

Mr. Doyle, What do you remember about it except that you saw it? 

Dr. Struik. Really nothing more. 

Mr. Doyle. Really nothing. I thought so. You w^ant me, now, as 
one man to another, to understand that the reason you know anything 
about the Sam Adams School is that you saw an ad in the paper 
several years ago ? Is that correct ? 

Dr. Struik. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you want me, as one American to another, to under- 
stand that the only reason you knew the Sam Adams School was 
located in Boston w^as because you saw an ad in the paper several 
years ago wdth that name to it? Is that correct? I am deliberately 
reading my question. 

Dr. Struik. Yes. It is not so easy to answer, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I realize it isn't. Your answers aren't easy to under-" 
stand, either. 

Dr. Struik. You asked if there were other reasons to remember that 
the Sam Adams School was located in Boston ? 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. You see, another reason why I asked you 
that question was, Mr. Philbrick testified yesterday that you were 
one of the instructors at the Sam Adams School. You have refused to 
answer that question on the grounds it might incriminate you. 

Dr. Struik. Right. 

Mr. Doyle. Why would the fact you were an instructor at the Sam 
Adams School tend to incriminate you ? 



COMMUNIST ACT1\1TIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1345 

Dr. Struik. I decline to ansAver that question. 

Mr. Doyle. Why avouUI it incriminate yon, in your judgment, to 
be an instructor at the Sam Adams School any more than it would in- 
criminate you to be an instructor at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technoloo-y ^ 

Dr. SriiUiK. I decline to answer tluit, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You said you knew that Mr. Philbrick had testified 
in the trial of the 11 Connnunists in New York that you were a Com- 
munist. I believe that is what you said you heard he had done. Were 
you present at the trial and heard him testify? 

Dr. Struik. No. I was at MIT at the time. 

Mr. Doyle. I beg your pardon. I misunderstood. 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., a member of the committeey 
left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Doyle (continuing). How old were you when you came to the 
United States ? 

Dr. Struik. Thirty-one. 

Mr. Doyle. Why did you come? 

Dr. Struik. I was invited by the ISIassachusetts Insitute of Tech- 
nology to lecture on subjects of mathematics. 

Mr. Doyle. You were naturalized. I take it, therefore, that you 
realize that we gentlemen here whom you are favoring with your 
testimony today are Representatives of the United States Congress? 

Dr. Struik. I recognize it, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. This is your adopted country. 

Dr. Struik. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. And, therefore, I assume that your obligations to this 
country are not less than mine. You will agree w^ith that? 

Dr. Struik. Absolutely. 

Mr. Doyle. You heard me state this morning, very proudly, that 
I was born in the State of California ; and I am sure you were in the 
committee room when I emphasized to Mr. Winner that it was part 
of the duties of this committee to uncover subversive conduct in this 
country. You nod your head "Yes''? 

Dr. Struik. I heard you say that. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, the nod of your head can't go in the record. 

Dr. Struik. I heard you say that. 

Mr. Doyle. What is your definition of "subversive" ? 

Dr. Struik. I really can't define it. 

Mr. Doyle. You can't define "subversive" ? 

Dr. Struik. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you try, for the benefit of the committee ? What 
does subversive mean in your judgment? You are a highly educated 
gentleman. We can see that from the number of articles you have 
written. 

Dr. Struik. Subversive comes from the Latin word "subvertere,"^ 
which means to turn over. 

Mr. Doyle. It means to destroy? 

Dr. Struik. No. I would say "change rather radically." But I 
am a professer of mathematics. 

Mr. Doyle. Would you accept the definition by Mr. Webster of the 
word "subversive" ? 

Dr. Struik. I think I could. 



1346 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Doyle. I suggest you read his definition, and you will find it 
means to destroy. Assuming it does mean to destroy, don't you think 
we, as a committee of Congress, should go the limit within our con- 
stitutional prerogative and jurisdiction to find out people or organiza- 
tions that are subversive? What is your answer? — not counsel's, 
please. I am a lawyer, too. Counsel, and I happen to see and hear. 
Please give me your answer. Professor. 

Dr. Struik. Sure, it is your duty to find out subversive currents in 
this country. It is a little difficult, I think, to find out what "sub- 
versive" means. You say it means to destroy. There may be many 
people in this room who w^ill disagree with you on w^hat is destructive. 
There may even be a difference between members of your committee 
on that. 

Mr. Doyle. You would agree with me— wouldn't you ? — if we had 
evidence, from Mr. Philbrick, for instance — and you heard it stated 
you were a Communist — assuming we had his testimony, which we 
did yesterday, that the Communist Party advocated forceful over- 
throw of this Government by force and violence if necessary ? 

Dr. Struik. If Mr. Philbrick's statement of the aims of the Com- 
munist Party is correct, that would be highly subversive. 

Mr. Doyle. What do you know about the aims of the Communist 
Party and Marxism? Are they similar? 

Dr. Struik. The question concerns the relation between the teach- 
ings of the Communist Party and Marxism. The Communist Party 
claims it is based on the teachings of Marx as brought up to date by 
Lenin, The teachings of Marx are far more than the teachings of the 
Communist Party. There are several parties that are not called Com- 
munist Parties that are based on the teachings of Marx. 

Mr. Doyle. What parties ? 

Dr. Struik. Socialist Labor Party. 

Mr. Doyle. That is one. You said several. 

Dr. Struik. I didn't say in this country. I think the Socialist 
Party of Italy is based on tlie principles of Karl Marx. But Marxism 
is more than this. Marxism is a philosophy of the world. The Catho- 
lic creed is also underlying the behavior of Catholic Parties in Europe, 
such as in Holland. So Marxism, which is an all-sided philosophy, 
underlies the political philosophy of many parties. 

Mr. Doyle. I wanted your understanding of the princijjles of com- 
munism and Marxism. Did you ever give this lecture in substance, 
or in part, at the Sam Adams School ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any suggestions as to what steps we might 
take to uncover subversive conduct? Have you any suggestions and 
advice to give this committee, with whom you are meeting today, as 
an American citizen, as to steps we might take to uncover subversive 
conduct? 

Dr. Struik. Yes. 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., leturned to hearing room.) 

Mr. Doyle. What is it ? 

Dr. Struik. At present there is a terrible struggle going on in 
Cicero, 111. Negroes are being attacked, and the stories in the j^apers, 
at any rate, suggest that it needs police protection, not of the Negroes, 
but of the assailants. I don't know if it is true. I think that is a 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN" STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 347 

place where a Committee on Un-American Activities would be very 
interested in going. 

Mr. DoYTj;. As you said, you don't know if it is true or not, but 
you volunteered that that is a place where we might go. 

Mr. Struik. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Based on this hearsay? 

Dr. Struik. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have any knowledge of your own of any Com- 
munist cells in this country 'I This committee believes that we have 
knowledge that communism in this country is subversive. Believe 
me, sir, I will say to you that we believe that very thoroughly. I am 
asking you now to tell us. And you are an American citizen charged 
with the responsibilities of an American citizen, and evidently you 
have prospered in this country ? 

Dr. Struik. I am proud of it. 

Mr. Doyle. So are we. 

Dr. Struik. I have had my greatest chances in America, sir, and I 
will never forget it. 

Mr. Doyle. On that basis, then, do you have any knowledge of any 
Communist cells in this country i AVe are telling you that we believe 
comnmnism is subversive in this country. I am inviting you to tell 
us wliether or not you have any personal knowledge of any Com- 
munist cells in the country. Will you answer that, or will you claim 
the fifth amendment? 

Dr. Struck. I have to decline 

Mr. Doyle. No; as our chairman has told you, you don't have to 
decline. You don't have to do anything here. 

Dr. Struik. May I offer you another suggestion for activity of this 
committee ? 

Mr. Doyle. I think I have taken up my time. I just wish to say 
this to you, sir: I have two grandchildren who arrived in Wash- 
ington last night to visit us a month, and I hope they don't grow up 
to my age and come face to face with so many men who have been 
blessed and have prospered in this country and then refuse to co- 
operate witli the United States Congress in trying to uncover sub- 
versive conduct. 

Dr. Struik. I agree with you wholeheartedly in the sense I hope 
my own daughters will never come in contact with people who, like 
the hoodlums in Cicero, try to undermine the Constitution by force 
and violence. 

Mr. Doyle. Don't tell me that the only thing you know about the 
Sam Adams School is that you saw an ad in the paper several years 
ago. 

Dr. Struik. I didn't say that. 

Mr. Doyle. I practiced law some 25 years, and I make some of my 
own conclusions, and I have a right to make them, when a witness 
answers as you do. I am not happy over it, and I want you to know 
I am not happy over such an answer to a frank question by me. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Frazier. 

ISIr. Frazier. Dr. Struik, I believe you stated vou were naturalized 
in 1936? 

Dr. Struik. I was naturalized in 1934. 



89067—51- 



1348 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Frazier. Since that time, have you traveled in foreign coun- 
tries ? 

Dr. Struik. I was abroad in 1934 and 1935, and I gave counsel^ 
is that your title ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Dr. Struik. A short report on that. 

Mr. Frazier. At the time you took the oath as an American citizen, 
did you have any reservations ? 

Dr. Struik. None whatever. On the contrary, I was proud to take 
the oath of allegiance. 

Mr. Frazier. Were you a member of the Communist Party at that 
time ? 

Dr. Struik. I have to decline 

Mr. Wood. Let's not use the word "have." Do you decline ? 

Dr. Struik. I am sorry. I decline. 

Mr. Frazier. At that time you also swore that you would bear arms 
in defense of this country ? 

Dr. Struik. I am not quite sure if that was in the oath, but if it 
was, I certainly took it, and I fully agree with the sentiment expressed 
by it. 

Mr. Frazier. You have taught since what date at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology ? 

Dr. Struik. In 1926 1 began to teach. 

Mr. Wood. Did you say 1936 ? 

Dr. Struik. No ; 1926. 

Mr. Frazier. Have you engaged in any other work than teaching? 

Dr. Struik. At MIT? 

Mr. Frazier. Yes. 

Dr. Struik. That is a long stretch of time. Give me a moment to 
think. I have done some administrative work on committees, and 
I have done an enormous amount of mathematical research. 

Mr. Fi^vziER. How many lectures did you deliver a week out there ? 

Dr. Struik. During the war we went up to 15. Now it is summer 
school, and I have only one course of one and a half hours, but I ex- 
pect to teach in the fall 9 hours a week. 

Mr. Frazier. You seem to have had a great many other activities 
away from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Dr. Struik. Well, spread over the years it seems like a good deal, 
but most of that is science only ; but I have always tried to give my 
time and support to such causes as I think are in the best interests 
of the people of the United States. 

Mr. Frazier. No further questions. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Dr. Struik, my distinguished colleague on the com- 
mittee, Mr. Doyle, of California, said something about your favoring 
us with testimony, and with all due deference to ]\Ir. Doyle, I must 
have missed some of the testimony, because I don't recall that we have 
had any testimony from you aside from your educational background. 

I must say I am in full agreement with you so far as Cicero, 111., is 
concerned. Certainly an investigation is in order in Cicero. 

Would you sign an oath of loyalty to this country as a condition of 
employment or as a condition of travel abroad ? 

Dr. Struik. Would I sign what ? 

Mr. Jackson. A loyalty oath. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1349 

Dr. Struik. I am unalterably opposed to so-called loyalty oaths. 

Mr. Jacksox. Suppose, as a condition to travel abroad, yon would 
be required to sian the loyalty oath, Avould you so sign? 

Dr. Struik. It Avonld depend on the wordin^r of such loyalty oath. 
Certain loyalty oaths that have been proposed are objectionable. 

]Mr. Jackson. Suppose the loyalty oath said you were not a member 
of any croup or or^ranization that advocated the overthrow of the 
Government of the United States by force and violence? 

Dr. Struik (after consultation with his counsel). May I ask a 
question ? 

]\[r. Jacksox. Answer my question. Suppose that the oath you 
were required to take as a condition to obtaining a passport required 
the statement from you that you were not a member of any group or 
organization that advocated the overthrow of the Government of the 
United States by force and violence; would 3^ou sign such oath? 

Dr. Struik. In princi])le I would not object. 

Mr. Jackson. You would sign sucli an oath^ 

Dr. Struik. I believe I would. 

Mr. Jackson. Could you take such an oath in good conscience? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Allex. Might the question be repeated? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. Could the witness sign such an oath in good 
conscience? 

Mr. Allen. In the future? 

Mr. Jacksox. At the ])resent time. 

Dr. Strt'ik. I decline to answer tliat question because it would tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Jacksox. Have you traveled abroad during the past 10 years? 

Dr. Struik. Last 10 years? Xo, sir. 

Mr. Jacksox. You traveled abroad when? 

Dr. Strutk. 1934 and 1035. 

Mr. Jacksox. Not since then ? 

Dr. Strutk. Xo. 

Mr. Jacksox. Wliere did your visit take you at that time? Is that 
the same journey you referred to in your early testimony? 

Dr. Struik. Yes. And I was once in Canada on a short trip. 

Mr. Jacksox. Were vou ever a meml)er of the German-American 
Bund? 

Dr. Struik (after consultation with his counsel). I decline to an- 
SAver the question, sir. 

Mr. Jacksox. Did you ever subscribe to the Chicago Tribune? 

Dr. Struik. I bouglit it occasionally when I was in Chicago. 

Ml-. Jacksox. Did you buy the Daily Worker occasionally when you 
were in New York? 

Dr. S'lRuiK. Sure. 

]Mr. Jacksox. Did you subscribe to the Dailv W^orker? 

Dr. Struik. I am a subscriber to the Daily Worker, 

Mv. Jac Ksox. Did you subscribe to the New^ Masses? 

Dr. Struik. What is that? 

Mr. Jackson. Masses and Mainstream? 

Dr. Struik. Yes, I am a subscriber. 

Mr. Jacksox. Have you ever known personally a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Dr. Struik. X"ow, let's see. I decline to answer the question. 



1350 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever known a member of the Republican 
Party? 

Dr. Struik, Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever known a member of the Democratic 
Party? 

Dr. Struik. As a matter of fact, I am a Democrat in the primary. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever advocated or endorsed the overthrow 
of the Government of the United States by force and violence ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Jackson. In this connection, I call your attention again to the 
article in the Boston Post of Saturday, April 9, 1949, in which it is 
stated, in part : ^ 

Professor Struik, however, said he "believes in many of the Communist prin- 
ciples" but considers himself a Marxist and said "a Marxist does not believe in 
the violent overthrow of the Government," 

Is that a correct quotation ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer the question, sir. May I, however, 
add something to this if you permit? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes; briefly. 

Dr. Struik. Being a Marxist, I joined in the last war in the at- 
tack to overthrow the Governments of Italy and Germany. 

Mr. Jackson. So did every Communist in the country. It became 
a matter of fanatical ambition. 

Dr. Struik. Sir, the Communists in Germany, from all I know, were 
opposed to the Hitler regime from the beginning. 

Mr. Jackson. How did you feel about the entry of the United 
Nations in Korea ? 

Dr. Struik. I was sorry to see it, sir. I have always, from the be- 
ginning, stood for an honorable, peaceful solution to that unfortunate 
conflict. I am glad to say that there is a good chance that something 
like this may happen in the near future. 

Mr. Jackson. Again quoting from the article in the Boston Post, 
there is a direct quotation from you in which you describe Mr. Phil- 
brick as "a stool pigeon of no intellectual standing." Is that a correct 
statement ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you believe that the 12 Communists who were 
indicted in New York were victims of a frame-up, as you are quoted 
again as saying in this article ? 

Dr. Struik. A word like "frame-up" is an emotional word, but I 
would like to say I tliink it was unfortunate that the Communist 
leaders were found guilty in the Foley Square trial. It was a mis- 
carriage of justice. 

Mr. Jackson. In conclusion, I desire to make a very brief statement 
for the record. 

If you are not a member of the Communist Party and have never 
been a member of the Communist Party, you have compiled a record of 
affiliations with Communist-front organizations that would throw 
most of the witnesses who have appeared before us in a blue funk, or 
turn them green with envy. It is one of the most startling records 
that has been presented since I have been a member of this committee. 
In fact, some of the front organizations I had never heard of before 
counsel mentioned them today. 

1 See p. 1402. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1351 

It seems to me you have, in effect, advertently or inadvertently, 
offered every aid and comfort to the Communist Party by your, 
activities in "Communist fronts. 

You have refused to cooperate with the committee to any extent in 
answering questions put to you in regard to your activities, and your 
claims of possible self-incrimination have passed the conceivable realm 
wliere you could in any way be held responsible for answering. 

You have been identified by the previous witness as a member of 
the Communist Party, and in that connection you have refused to 
confirm or denv that 'alleged membership or public statements which 
have been attrit)uted to you, in the public press in some instances. 

Your entire testimony must leave this committee — I cannot speak 
for the committee — must leave me in the position of believing that 
you have been a member of the Communist Party, that you have lent 
aid and comfort to the Communist Party, that you have lectured at 
tlie Sam Adams School, and I think, based on the record, that any 
assumption that might be drawn by the American people after you 
leave the stand is as a result of your own failure to cooperate with this 
committee. 

Do you feel that your constitutional rights have been observed dur- 
ing this hearing? 

Dr. Struik (after consultation with his counsel). I can say this, 



sir- 



Mr. Jackson. 1 would like you to answer my question. 

Dr. Struik. It is difficult for me to answer that question, because 
I am not a lawyer. 

Mr. Jackson. You have been permitted counsel ? 

Dr. Struik. I have been permitted counsel. 

Mr. Jackson. No duress has been placed on you to answer questions 
when you chose not to answer on grounds of self-incrimination ? 

Dr. Struik. Correct. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you feel that any of your constitutional or civil 
rights have been overlooked by this committee ? 

Dr. Struik. I may say this, that a listing of perfectly good, ideal- 
istic, patriotic organizations as Communist-front organizations has 
been highly prejudicial, not only to me but to others. 

Mr. Jackson. Idealistic, patriotic organizations that have been 
found secretly transferring papers of this Government to other govern- 
ments, planting their agents in various organizations, and doing other 
things in such a manner that they would have assumed more gentility 
if performed in some other manner. 

That is all. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Tavenner, did you have additional questions? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. The catalog of the Sam Adams School for 
the summer session, 1947, reflects you were a member of the board of 
trustees at that time, as well as an instructor. 

Is it correct that you were a member of the board of trustees and 
an instructor at the Sam Adams School in 1947 ? 

Dr. Struik. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Mr. Chairman, I desire the right to produce a 
copy of that catalog and include it as a part of this record as Struik 
exhibit No. 5. 

Mr. Wood. So ordered. 



1352 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

(The catalog above referred to, marked ''Struik Exhibit No. 5,"" is 
filed herewith.^) 

Mr. Wood. Is that the only question you have ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Is there any reason why the witness should not be excused 
from further attendance on the connnittee? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. So ordered. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Jackson, did you have a statement you desired to 
make ^ 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

In today's Washington Star there appears an article headed, "Shub, 
Wertheimer keep Reserve commissions." 

I call to the committee's attention tlie fact that on July 12 last 
Louis Julius Shub and Gunther Wertheimer appeared before this com- 
mittee and refused to answer questions put to them by counsel of the 
committee. 

Both Shub and Wertheimei- liold Reserve commissions, in the Army 
and Navy respectively. 

The Defense Department has announced that under present policy 
there will be no revocation of commissions in the armed services of 
witnesses who appear before this committee and refuse to testify. 

It is my feeling in the matter that the holding of a Reserve conunis- 
sion in the armed services of the United States is a privilege and not an 
obligation, and witnesses who refuse to testify concerning their Com- 
munist affiliations and Communist activities should not be retained 
in positions of trust and responsibility in the armed services, where 
they are in a position to create considerable havoc and do consider- 
able harm in the event of trouble. 

It is my intention to introduce legislation in the House wdthin the 
next several days for the purpose of relieving such individuals of 
commissions in the Armed Forces in the event of their refusal to an- 
swer the legitimate questions put to them when they appear before 
this committee. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. The committee will stand in recess subject to call. 

(Thereupon, at 5 : 05 p. m., the committee adjourned, subject to the 
call of the Chair.) 



' Filed with tlie records of tliis heariiis by the committee. 



EXPOSE OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE 

OF MASSACHUSETTS 
(BASED ON THE TESTIMONY OF HERBERT A. PHILBRICK) 



WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1951 

UisriTED States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on" 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
pursuant to call at 11 : 45 a. m., in room 226, Old House Office Build- 
mg, Hon. John S. Wood (chaii-man) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives John S. Wood (chair- 
man), Clyde Doyle, Harold H. Velde, and Charles E. Potter. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel; John W. Carrington, clerk; Raphael 
I. Nixon, director of research ; and A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr. Wood. Let us come to order, please. 

Let the record show that, acting under the authority vested in me 
as chairman of this committee, I have set up a subcommittee for the 
purpose of holding this hearing, consisting of Mr. Dojde, Mr. Velde, 
and Mr. Potter. The members are all present. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Donald Bollen. 

Mr. Wood. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn, please? 
Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Bollen. I do. 

Mr. FoRER. We object to the absence of a quorum of the full com- 
mittee, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. Are you represented here by counsel, Mr. Bollen ? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes ; I am, 

Mr. Wood. Will the counsel identify himself for the record, please? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 Fourteenth Street NW., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

We are proceeding under protest, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your full name, please, sir? 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD C. BOLLEN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

r Mr. Bollen. Donald C. Bollen. 
Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Bollen ? 
Mr. Bollen. On July 11, 1920, in Quincy, Mass. 

1353 



1354 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state for the committee briefly what your 
educational training has been? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Well, I went to grammar school, finished junior high 
school, which was the ninth grade, and went perhaps a few months in 
the tenth grade. That is, the first year of my senior high school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you begin with that date — or rather, what 
was the date of your completion of the tenth grade? 

Mr. BoLLEN. As I recall it, it was 1935, the winter of 1935 and 1936. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your employment since that period 
of time ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Well, I don't remember every particular job that I 
have had since then, because I have had so many short-time jobs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, leaving out the short-time jobs, what has been 
your main source of employment since 1935 ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. My main source, or the job that I had during most of 
that period, was field organizer for the United Electrical, Radio, and 
Machine Workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you begin in that work? 

Mr. Bollen. Oh, about the fall of 1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. And how long did you continue in that position ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I was a field organizer from then until about December 
1943, or at least around the end of 1943, possibly November. Then I 
was a field organizer again for the United Electrical Workers from 
about the middle of 1944, possibly July or August, until the end of 
1950 or the first of 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to 1942, how were you employed? 

Mr. Bollen. I had several jobs, as I said before. I have worked 
on a farm. I was an usher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, let us take, say, from 1940 to 1942. 

Mr. Bollen. I worked in the shipyards at Fall River and Quincy, 
Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the entire period from 1940 to 1942 ? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes ; I believe so. 

Mr. Tavenner. For whom did you work ? 

Mr. Bollen. The name of the company I think was the Bethlehem 
Steel Co., and the name of the yard at that time was the Fall River 
Shipyard. 

Mr. Tavenner. And where was this located, this work ? 

Mr. Bollen. In Quincy, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, between 1943 and 1944, how were you em- 
ploved ? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question, because my answer 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, when you ceased to be an organizer for the 
UE, in 1950, what employment did you take? 

Mr. Bollen. I became a leather worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Bollen. At the Bay State Belting Co. in Salem, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside, Mr. Bollen ? 

Mr. Bollen. I now reside at 177 Essex Street, Lynn, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you still employed in the leather work that you 
just mentioned? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes; I am. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1355 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Bollen, a witness by the name of Mr. Herbert 
Arthur Philbrick testified before this committee on July 23, 1951. 
In the course of his testimony he revealed the fact that he had been 
a member of the Young Communist League, and that an organization 
knoAvn as the American Youth for Democracy was formed, which was 
the outgrowth and successor to the Young Communist League. 

In the course of his testimony, he stated that there was a slate of 
officers for the newly formed organization, known as the American 
Youth for Democracy, and that this slate of officers, the first officers 
elected, was actually set up and formed by the Communist Party. 
He referred to the fact that he was one of the officers on that slate, I 
think State treasurer of the organization. He testified that you were 
its chairman and that you were one of the members of this slate. 

I would like to ask you to tell the committee how this slate was 
organized and what information you have regarding the method by 
which you were elected as chairman of this new organization, the 
American Youth for Democracy, if it is true that you were so elected. 

Mr. BoLLEN. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
that I gave before, 

]Mr. Tavenner. Were you chairman of the American Youth for 
Democracy ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I refuse to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated that you were an organizer for the 
UE. In what district did you perform your work as organizer? 

Mr. Bollen. Well, in the State of Massachusetts, which is called 
district 2 of the UE. It is a part of district 2. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you ever an employee of the General Electric 
Co. in Lynn, Mass. ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. No ; I was never employed by the General Electric Co. 
in my life. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. But there was a local of the UE union in General 
Electric ; was there not ? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes ; there was and is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your work as organizer included the performance 
of your duties as organizer in the union located at Lynn, Mass., with 
the General Electric ; did it not? 

Mr. Bollen. To the best of my recollection I have never actually- 
had any official assignment, so to speak, with that local union, with 
the exception of perhaps someone calling me up a couple of times 
to distribute a leaflet or something like that.^ But, actually, my main 
assi|;nment with the union was never to work with that local union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that excepted from your general assignment ; 
and, if so, why ? 

Mr. BoLLFJNT. Well, I don't know the reason why, but I was just 
given certain assignments, and I carried them out, and that happened 
to be one of several local unions that I wasn't assigned to. 

Mr. Tavenner. But it was within the area in which you performed 
your duties as an organizer for the UE ; was it not ? 

Mr. Bollen. I have performed some duties as a UE organizer with- 
in the general area of North Shore. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliich would include the General Electric plant? 

Mr. Bollen. The General Electric plant is in the North Shore 
area. 



1356 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, during the course of the testimony of Mr. 
Philbrick it developed from his testimony that he was a member of 
the State education committee of the Communist Party. We de- 
veloped through Mr. Philbrick at quite considerable length his activity 
within the Communist Party. In fact, the testimony showed that 
he had acted in an undercover capacity within the Communist Party 
for a Government agency from 1940 or 1941 until the time that his 
identity as connected with the Communist Party was disclosed in 
his testimony in the trial of the 11 Communists in New York in the 
spring of 1949. 

Now, considerable details were developed in the course of his testi- 
mony regarding his activities and his connection with the Communist 
Party, in order to ascertain to what extent he was acquainted with 
the Communist Party decisions and policy with reference to infil- 
tration by the Communist Party into heavy industry in the Massa- 
chusetts area. And that is the general subject of this investigation, 
and that is why we have called you here to ascertain from you what 
information you may have upon that subject and to call upon you 
to fully and frankly give the committee the benefit of your knowledge. 

In the course of Mr. Philbrick's testimony, he said this. And I will 
omit questions which I asked him and will read directly from his 
testimony, which will give you a background and a thorough under- 
standing of his testimony. 

May I ask you at this point : Have you read his testimony ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I have read some of it in the newspapers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then I think I should read to you from his testi- 
mony, as follows : This was a question. I will read one question.^ 

As a result of your experience and your contacts within the Communist 
Party, did you become aware of the policies and plans of the Communist Party 
with reference to basic industries after the revival of the Communist Party in 
1945? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I refuse to answer that question- 



Mr. Tavenner. I haven't asked you a question. I am reading the 
question that was asked Mr. Philbrick. 

And then he gave this answer : that he was familiar with it. Then 
I asked him : 

Will you tell the committee of these matters? 
And Mr. Philbrick answered : 

In 1946 and 1947, as an executive of the Communist Party, I attended what 
were knov?n as district executive conferences held in Boston. I believe these 
were entitled "party-building conferences," and each of them I found was for 
the purpose of infiltrating heavy industry or key industries in our area and 
the United States. 

I remember specifically at one of the party-building conferences the parties 
were instructed to take positions as colonizers; that is, to talie upon them- 
selves the duty of being colonizers in the key industries. That meant if you 
had a job in a small business or nonessential industry you should leave it and 
take a job in one of the key industries. These key industries were listed by 
the party leaders. We were told they were industries important to the war 
effort. We were instructed that the imperialist aims of the United States, 
the war-promoting purposes of the United States, were to carry on a war 
against the Soviet Union and a war against the free peoples of the world; 
that is, peoples under the jurisdiction of the Soviet Union. We were told that 
the chief means at the disposal of the American imperialists was the productive 
capacity of this country, which they said was owned directly by the capitalists 
of the United States. We were taught that since that was the key weapon it 
was the weapon we had to attack and destroy as Communists. 

» See pp. 1282 and 1283. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1357 

We were told in New England one of the key industries consisted of the 
General Electric plant in Lynn. We were told one reason why colonizers were 
needed there was because it was involved in the development of defense in- 
dustries, includinsi' jet airplane engines. 

I might point out that at that time no one outside the party had any knowledge 
that .let airplane engines were being developed in the airplane plant in Lynn, 
but they knew that. 

Another key industry was the communications industry. Another was the 
leather industry, boots and shoos. And another was the clothes industry, service 
clothes, and so forth. We were told that the steel industry and lines of trans- 
portation were very important centers for Communist Party infiltration and 
colonization. So, various comrades were ordered at this time to take up jobs 
at these spots. 

We were told in certain sections of the country the steel industry would be 
the main point of concentration, whereas in New England the steel industry 
was not as important. We had seven or eight comrades assigned to the General 
Electric plant in Lynn and only one assigned to the steel industry, to my 
knowledge, to set up the colonization program. 

As a part of the colonization program but carried out very secretly, a survey 
was conducted of certain plants. This was a very complete survey. That pro- 
gram in New England was under the direction of Daniel Boone Schirmer. I was 
told it was on a national level, but my only information concerning it came from 
this local level. I came upon it more or less by accident. I was working at 
Communist Party headquarters on leaflet production at that time. One of the 
means of preparing the survey was a mimeographed form which I happened to 
prepare for Daniel Boone Schirmer. This had to do completely with industrial 
plans, although I understand they made investigations along other lines, too. 
These particular forms I worked on had to do with a complete survey of the 
plants, what they were producing, how many they were producing, the labor 
unions, the number of employees, also the number of comrades in these plants, 
and exactly what influence the comrades had in the unions. They also included 
a review of the training and qualifications of the various comrades working 
in these plants. 

As I say, I came upon it somewhat by accident and, therefore, did not know 
how much information Daniel Boone Schirmer was getting from the comrades 
in the plants, but I know he was calling on them for very specific information, 
including blueprints, but I had no knowledge of any particular blueprints. 

I know that at least eight, possibly more. Communist Party members were 
assigned to the General Electric plant in Lynn. 

Then he names a number of people, including the name '*Don 
Bollen.'' Were you known as Don Bollen among your friends ? 

Mr. Bollen. Either Don Bollen or Donald Bollen. 

Mr. Tavexner. Were you assigned to perform any function for the 
Communist Party at the General Electric plant at Lynn, as indicated 
by ]\Ir. Philbrick's testimony ? 

Mr. Bollen. Would you ask that question again, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you read the question, please Mr. Reporter. 

(The reporter read the question referred to.) 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds 
as before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Referring to that part of Mr. Philbrick's testimony 
where he said that he was instructed that the imperialist aims of the 
United States, the war-promoting purposes of the United States, 
were to carry on a war against the Soviet Union, and that the pro- 
ductive capacity of this country was the wea]3on which had to be 
attacked and destroyed by the Communists, did you receive any in- 
structions, or were you present at any conference or gathering where 
that thought was expressed ? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that for the same reasons as before. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Mr. Philbrick said that it was not generally known 
by the public that jet airplane engines were being manufactured at the 



1358 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

General Electric plant, but that members of the Communist Party 
knew it. Were you personally acquainted with the fact that jet 
engines were being manufactured at the General Electric plant in 

1945 ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I am not exactly sure of the dates, as to when I learned 
of it, but for a few years I have known of it. I have read it in the news- 
papers. 

Mr. Tavenner. You obtained your information from the news- 
papers ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you obtain it from any other source? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I may have heard workers talking about it in Lynn. 

Perhaps 1 did. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first learn of it through workers? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I don't know the exact date. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you stated you did not know exactly. Can 
you give the committee a reasonable idea as to what year you did 
ascertain that information? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I just can't remember when I first heard it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien you state you heard it from workers, do you 
know whether any one of the persons who told you of the jet engine 
work being done at General Electric at Lynn was a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Philbrick, in his testimony, as you will recall, 
from my having read it, referred to a survey that was being conducted 
at these various plants by the Communist Party. As a union organ- 
izer, did you give instructions to any person within your union as to 
the furnishing of information to you from which a report or a survey 
could be prepared regarding the various matters which I read to you, 
namely, what the plants were producing, how many they were pro- 
ducing, the number of employees, the number of comrades — meaning 
Communist Party members — in the plants, and what influence the 
Communist Party members had in the unions? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you also give directions to any person to furnish 
you with information regarding the lay-out of plants to be furnished 
by you to that other person ? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse, for the same reasons given before, to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you report the lay-out of any plants within your 
district or any of these other matters which I have just mentioned such 
as the number of Communist Party members in a particular union 
or the nature of the work, to or for the benefit of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Nat Goodman, Nathaniel 
Goodman — or Robert Goodman ? 

Mr. Bollen. The question is. Am I acquainted with Robert 
Goodman ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where he worked ? 

Mr. Bollen. The General Electric plant in Lynn. 



COMl^rUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 359 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Nathaniel Mills? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes, I have been acquainted with him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where he worked ? 

Mr. Bollen. The General Electric Co. in Lynn. 

Mr. Tavennfj?. Were you acquainted with Joseph Figueiredo? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
given before. 

Mv. Tamsnner. Were either Mr. Robert Goodman or Mr. Nathaniel 
Mills members of the Communist Party, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Donald Tormey ? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. Is he a member of the Communist Party, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mv. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. How was he employed ? 

Mr. Bollen. I believe his title was international representative of 
theUE. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what district ? 

Mr. Bollen. In district 2, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did that include the General Electric plant at Lynn ? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I referred in reading Mr. Philbrick's testimony to 
a person by the name of Daniel Boone Schirmer. Were you ac- 
quainted with him ? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, ]\Ir. Philbrick, in the course of his testimony, 
designated you as one of the persons who was directed by the Com- 
munist Party to engage in the colonization of the General Electric 
plant at Lynn for the Communist Party. Was Mr. Philbrick truthful 
in that statement? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question, because it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the course of Mr. Philbrick's testimony he was 
asked if he knew what success had been achieved by the Communist 
Party in its efforts to colonize the General Electric plant in Lynn, 
Mass., and to that question Mr. Philbrick replied : ^ 

I (lid understand in contact with Donald Bollen at a latter date that he was 
quite happy with the results up to that time, but specific information I have 
none. 

Do you recall having made that statement to Mr. Philbrick ? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Are you now or have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mv. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question, because it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

INIr. Ta\'enner. Let me ask the question — it is rather a double ques- 
tion ; I probably should have asked you it in separate form. Are you 
now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Boixen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

^ See p. 1285. 



1360 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Doyle, any questions? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Bollen, I see you were born in the month of July. 
That month, according to people who believe in those things, has, 
produced people who are generally very patriotic, very unselfish, 
very generous, and have other motives that human beings ought to 
have. 

I was also, born in that month. 

Mr. FoRKR. We were waiting for that, 

Mr. Doyle. With that premise, may I say: How old were you 
when you were a tield organizer the first time for the United Electrical 
Workers? That was in 1942 ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. To the best of my recollection, I was 22 years old. 

Mr. Doyle. Only 22? 

Mr. Bollen. That's right. 

Mr. Doyle. How did you come by experience enough prior to 1942 
to be chosen as an organizer for a union of the United Eelectrical, 
Eadio, and Machine Workers? What was your experience before 
1942? 

Mr. BoLLEisr. Well, I was in the machinists department in the ship- 
yard and became acquainted with the union there and decided I wanted 
to be an organizer. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you work from 1942 full time, at a full salary ? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Had you been an organizer in that shipyard union of 
the United Electrical Workers prior to 1942? 

Mr, Bollen, I was a steward, and I don't remember exactly whether 
I was an executive board member or not, but I believe I was at that 

time. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, were there as many men as young as you, at 22, 
say, who were leaders of the UE in those days in your area ? 
'Mr. Bollen. You say of the UE union ? 

Mr. Doyle. I mean were there many men of such young age as you 
who Avere stewards and organizers, and so forth, at 22 or 23 years of 
age in that union in those days ? 

Mr. Bollen. I don't know whether there was or not. 

Mr. Doyle. What is your mpression? I am not trying to catch 
you. I am just interested to know generally what the leadership was 
in that ai-ea in those days among those union workers. 

Mr. Bollen. My impression is that there probably weren't very 
manv at that young in age. 

Mr. Doyle. 'in other words, T have a right to assume that you had 
unusual ability. 

Mr. Bollen. Yes. 

Mr. Forer. I think he should have refused to answer that. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask, Were you married at that time ? 

Mr. Bollen. No; I was not, 

Mr. Doyle. Are you married now? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes; I am, 

Mr. Doyle. I suppose you have some children ? 

Mr. Bollen. Two. 

Mr. DoLYE. How old are they, approximately ? 

Mr. Bollen. I have a son 4 years old and a daughter approximately 
10 or 11 months old. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE^ OF MASSACHUSETTS 1361 

Mr. Doyle. Well, you will agree with me again when I say you are 
a lucky man. I am sure you do. Those children were both born in 
Massachusetts ? 

Mr. BoLLEx. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. During your first term of 1942-48 as organizer for the 
UE workers, was there any controversy within that union — I mean 
your local union, the shipyard union — as between what you would 
generally term now and what you know. I generally term, it being 
a commonly accepted term, the Couimunists and anti-Communists? 
Ilnd tlint developed yet in the Massachusetts area? 

Mr. B.'LLKX. I would like lo ask you to clarify that statement, be- 
cause, you have mentioned both unions, and one of the unions you 
mentioned I had no affiliation with during that period. 

]Mr. Doyle. I am glad you did ask me to clarify it. I realize it 
wasn't clear. I refer now to the time you were steward in the union, 
before you became an organizer in the shipyard union. Was there 
any conti'oversy in that local union of which you were steward, as 
between the Communist group and those who were not ? 

Mr. BoLLEX. Well, there are all kinds of controversies. I would 
like to know just what kind of controversies you mean. 

M]-. D;)YLE. Well, in other words, you know what a Communist 
is. You have heard of them. Possibly you have met some of them, 
maj'be in your own union. That is true, isn't it ? You know what a 
Communist is? I am merely laying the basis now to see if I can 
clarify my question for you. I meant to ask you very clearly and 
very specifically, if you please, whether or not in your local union of 
which you were stewarcl prior to the tune you became organizer the 
first time for the UE there was any controversy between those known 
to be Communists, if there were such in your union at that time, and 
those who opposed the Communists, any controversy for positions of 
officers or positions of leadership in the union, for instance ? 

]Mr. BoLLEX. I refuse to answer that question on the same basis 
tliat I o-ave before, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Doyle. You mean that I am to understand that just telling 
me the fact as to whether or not there was a controversy might in- 
criminate you? How would that possibly incriminate you? I am 
not asking you whether or not you were a Communist. 

Mr. BoLLEX. I have already given my answer, and I still refuse 
for the same reasons I gave before. 

Mr. Doyle. Xow I will ask you this, then. During the time you 
were the organizer for the TJEW. from ■42 to '43. the first time, was 
there any controversy in the UEW in the Ljam or Boston areas be>- 
tween the Communists and anti-Communists, to your knowledge? 

Mr. BoLLEX. I refuse to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. DoYT.E. May I preface this next question and all the rest of 
these questions by making the frank statement to you: I am ac- 
quainted with some members of the UEW in my own State, and 
I am not entirely uninformed as to some of these questions I am ask- 
ing here. So I am well aware of some of the controversies. But I 
am wondering whether you wouldn't cooperate with us, as a congres- 
sional committee, and help us to know what the problem was in or- 
ganized labor. You see, I am one of the jNIembers of Congress that 
believes rather strongly in the rights of the American workmen to 



1362 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

organize and to bargain collectively. I believe in it very vigorously, 
sir. And you apparently did when you were organizer. 

Are you an organizer now in any way for any union ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. No ; I am not. 

Mr. Doyle. Since when did that end ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. As I answered before, around the end of 1950 or the 
beginning of 1951. 

Mr. Doyle. And that was your second assignment as an organizer, 
then, that ended in '50? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes. 

Mr. DoYLE. And during your second assignment, were you a full- 
time employee of the UEW as organizer? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes, I was. 

Mr. DoYLE. Did you ever see this man, Philbrick, that we questioned 
you about? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I refuse to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Doyle. I did not ask you if you knew him, sir. Would it 
possibly incriminate you in your judgment if you answered whether 
you ever saw the man ? 

Mr. Bollen. That was my answer. I repeat: I refuse to answer 
for the same reasons I gave before. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you a member of any lodge now or any union now 
of any kind? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes, I am. 

Mr. DoYLE. "VVliat union? 

Mr. BoLLEN. The International Fur and Leather Workers' Union. 

Mr. Doyle. What was the name of that union, again ? 

Mr. Wood. The International Fur and Leather Workers' Union. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you an officer in it ? 

Mr. Bollen. No ; I am not. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you ever an officer in it? 

Mr. BoLLEN. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you a committee man in it ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you ever been? 

Mr. Bollen. No ; t have not. 

IVIr. Doyle. Has there been any controversy in that union between 
the Communists and non-Communists ? 

Mr. Bf)ij.EN. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason 
I gave before. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you serve in the Armed Forces in the last war? 

Mr. B01J.EN. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Doyle. Why? 

Mr. Bollen. I was put in 4-F because of a physical problem that I 
have. 

Mr. Doyle. If you were called bv the United States Government to 
serve in the Armed Forces in this Korean conflict or any other conflict 
in which the United States Government was at arms with a foreign' 
nation, would you willingly, gladly, serve? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes : I would go. 

Mr. Doyle. And in that connection, are you aware of what the job 
of this committee is? Has your counsel told you or has any one else 
told you what the function of this committee is? 



CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 363 

Mv. BoLLEX. I believe so, 

]Mr. Doyle. Did j^oii read it ? 

Mr. BoLLKX. I have rend it in the newspapers. 

Mr. Doyle. What newspaper? 

]Mr. BoLLEN. I don't know exactly what newspaper. 

Mr. Doyle. Yon don't know. What newspaper did you read the 
testimony of Mr. Philbrick in, that you said you read? And when 
did vou read it ( 

Mr. BoLLEN. AA^ell, I can't remember all of the newspapers that I 
may have read anv of the testimony in. l)ut I did read it in the Boston 
Globe, the Boston' Eecord. and very likely the Lynn papers, the Lynn 
Item 

Mr. Doyle. Did you read it in any other paper, a weekly paper, for 
instance, published by any or^janization? Do you take any paper, be- 
sides readino; the daily papers? 

Mr. BoLLEN. What papers do you mean? 

Mr. Doyle. Oh, published by any organization, by your own union, 
for instance. 

]\Ir. BoLLEx. Yes, sir ; I take the union paper. 

Mr. DoYLE. Did you read about the Philbrick hearings in that? 

]\rr. BoLLEX. Xo, I didn't. 

Mr. DoYLE. Did you read about the Philbrick hearings at the time 
they occurred? 

]VIr. BoLLEX. Yes ; I believe I did. 

Mr. Doyle. From day to day ? 

Mr. BoLLEX. I don't remember if I read them from day to day. I 
just remember reading them. 

Mr. Doyle. And did you read in the paper where he mentioned you 
in this testimony? 

Mr. BoLLEX. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you ever denied what he said about you in any 
way ? 

^h\ BoLLEX. Yes ; I have denied some of it. 

I^Ir. Doyle. Where ? 

ISIr. Bollex. I denied something in a newspaper, I believe, the Lynn 
Telegram-Xews. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you a copy of it ? 

Mr. Bollex. No; I haven't. 

Mr. Doyle. Where can we have a copy of it? Will you furnish the 
committee a copy of it ? Was it a statement prepared by you ? 

Mr. Bollex. I issued a statement ; yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there any part of the testimony of Mr. Philbrick 
which Mr. Tavenner has asked you about that you want to deny now? 
You have heard what Mr. Tavenner read, that he testified to. 

Mr. Bollex. No; there isn't. 

Mr. Doyle. If you deny any part of it in the newspaper, what is that 
part, so that you might repeat here a denial of anything he said? 

Mr. Forer". Would you make a little clearer just what you are 
asking? 

]\Ir. Don.E. My point is this, Mr. Counsel, and Mr. Bollen : What 
part of Mr. Philbrick's testimony was it that you denied in your 
newspaper statement? Will you tell us? 



89067—51- 



1364 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. BoLLEN. I don't remember from recollection all of the state- 
ment, but I would be glad to get a copy of it and send it to the com- 
mittee. 

IVIr. DoYT.E. Now, I am asking you what your statement was to the 
paper in substance. Do you not remember that ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Rather than attempting to describe the actual article 
and what was in it, I would rather have the committee see it com- 
pletely. 

Mr. Doyle. We would rather, too, but you are here now, and you 
are under oath. What was it that you said through the newspaper 
release about Mr. Philbrick's statement that you denied? Why do 
you not deny the same things now ? 

Mr. FoRER. One question at a time. 

Mr. DoTLE. Well, just to help the witness — I do not mean to inter- 
rupt him while he is conferring with counsel. 

Mr. FoRER. No, the problem was that I don't know which question 
you asked, Mr. Doyle, because you asked two. 

Mr. DoYT.E. When I asked the second it was to give him, and you 
as his counsel, my thinking. If he denied it, then why will he not 
deny it now ? That is what I am asking. 

AVill you now deny what you denied through the newspaper and 
tell us what it was? 

Mr. FoRER. Our problem is that there are still two questions there.^ 

Mr. DoYEE. I will make it one question. What statement did you 
make to the newspaper in denial or claim of denial as to Mr. Phil- 
brick's testimony involving you ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. To the best of my recollection, I said that I nevp.r 
worked at the General Electric Co. and I am not a member of the 
Communist Party. And I remember ending up with something 
about: I don't intend to be intimidated by such charges — or some- 
thing like that. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all you remember of your own prepared state- 
ment, after reading Mr. Philbrick's testimony involving you? 

Mr. BoLLEN. That is all I can remember right now. 

Mr. Doyle. How long ago was that, approximately ? 

Mr. BoLLEX. It was either a week or 2 weeks. I can't remember. 

Mr. Doyle. It was along in the middle of July of this year, was it 
not, that he testified? Now, when did your denial come out in the 
papers, that you prepared? I have not seen it, you see. That is why 
I am asking. 

Mr. Bollen. It was between a week and 2 weeks ago. Just when, 
I don't remember. 

Mr. Doyle. You mean 2 weeks previous to this date today, October 
10? 

Mr. BcLLEN. I would say it was between that period and a week 
ago. 

jMr. Wood. You say in that statement you denied that you are a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Wood. Do you deny it now, under oath ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I refuse to answer that for the same reasons I gave 
before. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, let me see if I understand, young man. Because 
I do not want to ask you two questions in one and have you confused 



COIVEVIUNIST ACTI\'ITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 365 

at all. You read Mr. Philbrick's statement involving you, and then 
you issued a press release, you say, between 2 and 3 weeks ago. In 
that you made the denials such as you chose to of Mr. Philbrick's 
statement involving you. I take it, therefore, and you tell me if I 
urn in error, please, that in that newspaper release you denied every- 
thing that you believed was untrue in Mr. Philbrick's statement. Is 
that true? 

JNIr. BoLLEN. I don't understand your question. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought it was very simple. In that press release 
Avhich you issued between 2 and 3 weeks ago, did you den;^ every 
charge or statement which Mr. Philbrick macle against you which you 
felt was untrue ? 

Mr. BcLLEX. Even to this day I haven't read all the charges that 
he has made. I am not familiar with all of them. 

]Mr. Wood. Would you yield to me again ? 

Mr. DoYLE. Yes; indeed. 

Mr. Wood. You stated a while ago, as I understood it, that you were 
willing to submit to this committee a copy of the statement that you 
did make to the press. Is that true? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes. 

Mv. Wood. Are you willing to submit that to the committee ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Wood. Are you willing to come before the committee with that 
statement and state under oath what you state in the statement? 

Mr. BoLLEN. No ; I am not willing. 

Mr. Doyle. If you say you did not read all Mr. Philbrick's state- 
ment involving you, but you read some of it, how do you know he said 
anything about you that you did not read? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I don't know, if I haven't read it. • 

Mr. Doyle. You are sure no one has told you that he said anything 
else about you which you did not read ? 

Mr. Bollen. I don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't know. I notice when our counsel asked you 
or told you that Mr. Philbrick testified before this committee that you 
were chairman of the American Youth for Democracy, you said, "I 
refuse to answer that for the reason that the answer might incrimi- 
nate me." Do you remember your answer to that question ? 

Mr. BoLLEX. Wliat was the question ? 

Mr. DoTLE. Here a few minutes ago our legal counsel asked you 
whether or not Mr. Pliilbrick's testimony, under oath by the way, that 
you were chairman of the American Youth for Democracy was true, 
was a fact. And you said, "I refuse to answer on the grounds that 
the answer might incriminate me." 

]\Ir. BoLLEN. I remember saying that. 

Mr. Duyle. Well, now, you read in the paper, did you not, that 
Mr. Philbrick had said that you had been at one time chairman of 
the American Youth for Democracy? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you deny that in the paper? 

Mr. Bollen. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Doyle. Why, if it was untrue ? 

Mr. Bollen. That didn't occur to me. That wasn't the main ques- 
tion that I wanted to answer. 



1366 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. DoTL,E. What were the main questions you answered other than 
the two you have given us? I mean, other than the two statements 
which you say 3^ou put in the paper, and which you denied through 
the newspaper statement, what other statements were there in that 
newspaper article which you read which you did not answer which 
you now want to deny under oath? Three weeks ago, young man, 
you made a statement through a newspaper. It was not under oath 
then. I have not had the benefit of reading that article. But I would 
suggest to you, as one American to another, that here would be a pretty 
good opportunity for you to clean up this matter under oath and tell 
this committee, as a committee of your Congressmen, if there is any- 
thing else that appeared in the Philbrick statement that you want to 
deny. Why do you not come in good faith before us, instead of 
hiding behind the first and fifth amendments ? What keeps you from 
coming clean, as a father of two American children, in coming before 
a committee of Congress? What are you afraid of? Is that too- 
blunt? 

Mr. BoLLEN. No, I don't think that question is too blunt. 

Mr. Doyle. Then why do you not come forward, as a father of two 
children, born and raised in this good country that gave you birth? 
We are not trying to catch anyone, Mr. Bollen, believe me. We are 
not trying to trap anyone. We are asking your cooperation as a 
person that we have information was a former Communist, if you are 
not now. And I am especially taking the time of this committee, 
and I hope the committee will not be aggravated with me in asking 
one more question of this young man, 

I am especially interested in you, sir, because you were so young 
when you went into organized labor work, 22 years of age. You are 
the father of two fine kids. You have a great future ahead of you 
if you use it right. And we are trying to prevent a world conflagra- 
tion that may put your boy in arms like mine was ; where he may not 
come through, as mine did not. I am saying to you that you had 
better wake up. Here is your chance, in good faith, clean, without 
any duress or without any pressure, to come forward as a young 
American and help the American Congress to discover where there 
are subversive influences and subversive programs. And if it is true 
that you were a leader of the Young Communist League or a Young 
Communist Committee of any kind at one time in this country — ■ 
suppose you were. You might have been misled and misguided like- 
a lot of other folks were. For God's sake, man, have you not waked 
up to the fact that the Communist Party in our country is subversive 
and its main objective is to help destroy our form of government if 
possible ? You know that, and I know darn well that you do. 

You will pardon me for speaking that bluntly, Mr. Chairman, to- 
him. 

But I want to urge you. I am a lawyer, too, and I know your 
lawyer's duty is to advise you of your legal rights. But if you were 
what Philbrick said you were — and you have not denied it this morn- 
ing under oath ; I do not know why — if you were what Philbrick said, 
I am saying to you, "Come on across and come clean." And you can 
follow your lawyer's advice in some ways. And I want to say to this- 
lawyer : Sure. Advise your client of his rights. But I think it is time 
some of you American lawyers also saw to it that some of these- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1367 

boys that want to come clean and have been misinformed about what 
would happen if they told the truth are able to come clean. 

1 think it is time some of the members of the American bar became 
aware of their full constitutional obligation and saw to it that these 
former Communists who want to get out of it and come clean and stay 
out of it and get more of a chance than they are getting can do so. 
And I am not directing this particularly to you, Mr. Counsel. I am 
dii'ecting it to all the members of the American bar, of which I am 
a member. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Velde? 

Mr. Velde. I have just one or two questions. 
■ Wlien did you join the International Fur and Leather Workers? 

Mr. BoLLEN. It was some time in January of this year, 1951. 

Mr. Velde. Of course, that was after they had become disassociated 
from the CIO ; is that right ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Velde. Now, as to your statement to the press, do I understand 
correctly that this was a prepared written statement issued by you ? 

]\Ir. Bollen. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Velde. In that statement you said that you were not a Com- 
munist, about 2 or 3 weeks ago ; is that right ? 

Mr. Bollen. I said 1 or 2 weeks ago. 

Mr. Velde. One or 2 weeks ago. Did you also in that statement deny 
that you had ever been a Communist ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Potter? 

Mr. Potter. Mr. Bollen, the charges made against you by Mr. Phil- 
brick are serious charges. He stated that you were one of the group 
that was charged with the responsibility of conducting a so-called 
survey, industrial survey, to obtain blueprints, and so forth, from the 
plant for the Communist Party. 

The courts have determined that the Communist Party of the 
United States is an international conspiracy, and that members of 
the Communist Party are subservient to directions which originate in 
the Soviet Union. Now, secret information that you might have had 
a part in obtaining, according to the charges of Mr. Philbrick, could 
involve something very serious. Here you have an opportunity to deny 
those charges. And by your refusal to deny them, the only implica- 
tion that this committee and tli^ American people have is that the 
charges made by Mr. Philbrick are true. 

I would like to ask this one question. If you saw an act of sabotage 
or espionage, would you impart that act to the proper governmental 
officials? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes, I would. 

Mr. Potter. Even though the acts were committed by members 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes. 

Mr. PoTT-ER. Now, you claim you would impart that information. 
Here is a man who has testified under oath and made charges against 
you. If those charges are not true, that man has committed perjury. 
If the charges are true, you have been a very disloyal person. 

I have no further questions. 



1368 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Bollen, I understood you to say a while ago that 
you were willing to furnish this committee with a copy of the state- 
ment which you released to the press some week or 2 weeks ago. Is 
that true? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. When can you let the committee have that copy ? How 
early can you get it to us? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Oh, I believe I could get a copy by this week end and 
put it in the mail immediately. 

Mr. Wood. Would you, then, if you were brought back here under 
subpena before this committee, testify to the truthfulness of it? I 
am going to ask you to furnish it to us in any event. As soon as you 
can get it, I am going to ask you if you will mail it to the clerk of 
this committee. Would you then come back under oath and verify 
the truthfulness of that statement? 

Mr. Bollen. I don't think I would. 

Mr. Wood. That is not exactly an answer. Would you, or would 
you not ? Because if you will, we want you back here. 

Mr, Bollen. No, I wouldn't. 

Mr. FoRER. He doesn't mean that he would disobey a subpena. 

Mr. Wood. I understand that. I do not want to put the taxpayers 
to the expense of bringing him back here if he still will not verify 
the truthfulness of his statement. That is the reason I was asking 
at this time. I did not want to take any advantage of it. 

Mr. FoRER. I just wanted to clarify that. 

Mr. Wood. In any event, please send that to the clerk of the 
committee. 

I understood you to say that while you were working in the Gen- 
eral Electric Co. you did get information from some of the workers 
of that organization, information to the effect that they were pro- 
ducing jet engines. 

Mr. Bollen. I never worked for the General Electric Co. 

Mr. Wood. While you were engaged in activities as an organizer,, 
did you not say that you got information that they were producing 
jet engines there? 

Mr. Bollen. I believe I said that I have read it in the papers and 
I perhaps have heard workers mention something about it. 

Mr. Wood. So vou did c-et that information from workers? 

Mr. Bollen. I have heard that from them, I think. 

Mr. Wood. I want to ask you this question, and I do not know 
whether I have asked you the question before. If it is repetitious, let 
it be so. Were any of the workers from whom you received such 
information members of the Communist Party, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Bollen. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Wood. Were you ever employed by the United States Gov- 
ernment ? 

Mr. Bollen. Yes ; I believe I was. 

Mr. Wood. In what capacity, and when? 

Mr. Bollen. I was in the Civilian Conservation Corps, the CCC's, 
and the exact dates I am not sure of, but to the best of my recollection, 
I was in the CCC's in 1937 and 1939, that is, parts of those years, and 
possibly part of 1938. ^ 

Mr. Wood. Was your connection with the Civilian Conservation 
Corps that of an enrollee, or an official capacity ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 369 

Mr. BoLLEN. Just an enrollee. 

Mr. Wood. Aside from beino; an enrollee in the Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps, which did a magnificent work for the youth of our coun- 
try in many instances, in most instances, have you held any other 
position with the Government? 

Mr. BoLLEN. Not that I can recall. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a few more questions^ 

In view of your answer, young man, just now, to the chairman, when 
you said "Not that I recall," I will ask you to think for a minute and 
I will ask you to be pretty specific as to whether or not you ever have 
worked for the United States Government. Just think for a min- 
ute. I want your positive answer as to whether you have been. 

Mr. BoLLEN. I still can't recall working for the United States Gov- 
ernment, with the exception of the CCC's. 

Mr. DoYLE. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. No ; I haven't. 

Mr. Doyle. Let me ask this question. Do I understand, Mr. Bollen, 
that when our distinguished chairman asked you if you would swear 
under oath before this committee that your statements in the news- 
paper, at least, which you gave, were all true — did I understand you 
to say you would not swear under oath that they were true ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. That is right. 

Mr. DoYLE. Do I understand, then, that you put some things in a 
newspaper statement that you now know not to be true ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I didn't say that. 

Mr. Doyle. I know you didn't. I am just saying to you that that 
is my impression pretty definitely. My impression is that that is 
where you find yourself in this instance. 

Mr. Wood. There is one more question I wanted to ask him. 

"Wlien you obtained information from any of the employees of the 
General Electric Co. as to the type of material that was being pro- 
duced, particularly jet engines, did you get that information from 
such employee or employees voluntarily by them, or did you request 
it? 

Mr. Bollen. What information, again, please ? 

Mr. Wood. That they were making jet engines. Did you request 
such information from them? 

Mr. Bollex. No, I haven't. 

Mr. Wood. Did you ever request any information from any em- 
ployee of the General Electric Co. as to what was being produced 
in that plant ? 

Mr. Bollex. I don't remember ever doing that. I would like to 
say that as far as producing jet engines in the community, it was 
common knowledge. That is, it was in the newspapers.'^ People 
were discussing it. 

Mr. Wood. I mean, before it became common knowledge, when it 
was classified information, did you get the information before it 
became common knowledge? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Wood. Did you ever seek it ? 

Mr. BoLLEx. No. 

Mr. Wood. Did you ever seek any information from people in that 
plant as to what was being produced? 

Mr. BoLLEX. I don't recall that. 



1370 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Wood. Did you ever pass any information tliat you received 
of that kind along for use by anybody else ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I don't know. Maybe I did, and maybe I didn't. 

Mr. Wood, I will make it a little more specific. Did you ever pass 
it along to any official or functionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
stated before. 

Mr. Wood. I am sorry that you do so refuse. 

Any further questions, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. PoTi'ER. I have just one more question. 

What would the Communist Party do with that information that 
was secured in connection with the plant ? 

Mr. BoLLEN. I refuse to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Wood. Any further questions, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Do you think the witness can be excused ? 

Mr. Tax-enner. I think he ought to be continued under the subpena. 
In other words, the subpena, I think, should be continued for a period 
of 2 weeks. 

Mr. Wood. Subject to notification of his return. 

Mr. Doyle. I feel the same way about it, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. I w^ould like for you to set a specific day. 

Mr. Wood. I will continue the subpena in force until the 24th of 
this month. That would be 2 weeks from this day, at 10 o'clock, subject 
to notification in the event you are not to appear. If you do not get 
a further notification from this committee, you will appear here at 
10 o'clock on the 24th of this month. 

And I understood that in the meantime you are to mail to the clerk 
of this committee, Mr. Carrington, a copy of the statement that you 
released to the press. 

Mr. FoRER. Can we do it the other way around ? 

Mr. Wood. No, because there might be some question. I would 
rather leave it like I have left it. Unless he gets a notification that 
he does not need to attend, let him come back here on the 24th. We 
are leaving it that way. As it stands now, he is to appear here at 10 
o'clock on the 24th. 

Mr. FoRER. The only question I ask is that as soon as the committee 
makes up its mind definitely, will they notify him as quickly as 
possible ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I will notify you. 

Mr. Wood. Until that time, the 24th of this month, the witness is 
•excused. 

Mr. FoRER. I assume the reason is that you want to examine the 
statement before you make up your mind? 

Mr. Doyle. It might not be that that is the only reason. I would 
not want you and the witness to conclude that that is the only reason. 

Mr. Wood. The witness is under subpena to return here on the 24th 
unless he is notified prior to that time. 

(Thereupon, at 1 : 05 p. m., an adjournment was taken, subject to 
the call of the Chair.) 



EXPOSE OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE 

OF MASSACHUSETTS 
(BASED ON TESTIMONY OF HERBERT A. PHILBRICK) 



thursday, october 11, 1951 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
pursuant to adjournment at 11 : 37 a. m., in room 226, Old House Office 
Building, Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives John S. Wood, Clyde 
Doyle, Harold H. Velde, and Charles E. Potter. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas W^ 
Beale, Sr., assistant counsel ; John W. Carrington, clerk ; Raphael I. 
Nixon, director of research ; and A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr. Wood. The committee will come to order. 

Let the record show that for the purposes of the hearing today, and 
acting under the authority that is vested in me as chairman of the 
committee, I have set up a subcommittee composed of Mr. Doyle, Mr. 
Velde, and Mr. Wood. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Donald Tormey ? 

Mr. FoRER. Mr. Chairman, we object to proceeding in the absence 
of a quorum of the full committee. 

Mr. Wood, Will you hold up your right hand and be sworn, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you will give before this 
subcommittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Tormey. I do. 

Mr. Forer. For the record, we are proceeding under protest, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. The record so shows. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, sir ? 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD TORMEY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL^ 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tormey. Donald Tormey. 
Mr. Ta\t:nner. Are you represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Tormey. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 
Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, 711 Fourteenth Street NW., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

1371 



1372 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Tormey ? 

Mr. ToRMET. In 1918, in South Ashburnham, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now live? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Beverly, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you outline for the committee briefly your 
educational background ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I attended the public grammar schools and high 
schools in Massachusetts and graduated in 1928; graduated from a 
Boston accounting school in 1931. 

Mr. Velde. Will you speak up just a little louder, if you will, please? 

Mr. Tormey. I attended and graduated from the public schools of 
Massachusetts, grammer and high school, and graduated from an 
accounting school in Boston in 1931. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you now employed ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I am international representative for the United 
Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America — ^TJE. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what district do you hold that position ? 

Mr. Tormey. District 2. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that includes what area ? 

Mr. Tormey. That includes all of New England, but most of my 
work is in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat has been your record of employment since, 
say, 1935? 

Mr. Tormey. Well, for 51/2 or 6 years I worked in the accounting 
section of the WPA in the Boston headquarters. In 1941 I came to 
work for the UE. 

Mr. Ta\ti:nner. What date? 1941? 

Mr. Tormey. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you worked for the UE constantly since 1941 ? 

Mr. Tormey. With the exception of about a year in the Army. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that? 

Mr. Tormey. That was from the fall of 1942 until the fall of 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been an international repre- 
sentative of the UE ? 

Mr. Tormey. Well, although my duties haven't changed much, there 
are a couple of titles that staff people have with unions. One is 
"organizer"; the other is "international representative." Actually, 
there is not too much difference between what they do, but you get 
$10 more for being an international representative, and I have had 
that title for about a year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a minute. Ten dollars more for what period 
of time ? 

Mr. Tormey. A week. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. When did you become international 
representative ? 

Mr. Tormey. About a year ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. And prior to that time you were organizer for the 
same district ? 

Mr. Tormey. In that district ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or in that district. When did you become or- 
ganizer ? 

Mr. Tormey. 1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you were organizer constantly from 1941 until 
about a year ago ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 373 

Mr. ToRMEY. That is the title. I am still an organizer; different 
title. 

Mr. Tavexxkr. Were you an organizer in the same locality during 
all that period of time, or were you transferred from one area to 
another within your district ^ 

Mr. ToRMEY. Well, most of that time I have worked out of either 
Boston or the office in the North Shore, but working out of that office 
I go all the way from New Bedford to the south and Springfield, Vt., 
in the north. 

Mr. Tavenner. Specifically what area did you cover? Or I would 
rather put tlie question this way : What was the area embraced within 
your district over which you were organizer at the time that you 
became an international representative? 

Mr. ToRMEY. A vear ao;o? 

Mr. Tavexner. Yes. 

Mr. Tormey. Well, for the last couple of years, most of my time 
has been spent at Lynn. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. At Lynn ? 

Mr. Tormey. With some side trips for either negotiations or arbi- 
trations or walking picket line. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. And when did your duties begin at Lynn ? I mean, 
when was that particular area assigned to you ? 

Mr. Tormey. Well, I was assigned to Lynn for about 30 or 40 days 
in the late winter of 1949, February probably. And then I received 
an assigmnent to go to Lynn in May of 1949 and have been there 
since. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Prior to that time, had you worked any as organizer 
in the area of Lynn. Mass. ? 

Mr. Tormey. What does the area mean ? Surrounding communities ? 

Mr. TA^•ENXER. Well, the area within which Lynn is located. 

Mr. Tormey. Well, Lynn is part of district 2 of the UE. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Yes, but you have told us that your duties were 
not coexistent with the entire district. 

Mr. Tormey. That is right. 

Mr. Tavexxer. It was only ])art of it. So I am trying now merely 
to ascertain what sections of district 2 have come under your juris- 
diction as organizer. ' ■ ■ 

Mr. Tormey. Well, almost any section where the district president 
wanted to send me. But I spent a lot of time in and around Boston 
and up on the Xorth Shore. That would cover Lj-nn, Beverly, Salem, 
Ipswich — most of the towns up through there. 

Mr. Ta\'t:xner. And over what period of time was that true ? 

Mr. Tormey. Well, that was true in 19 — . 

Although I was on a special assignment in 1941 and 1942, when I 
worked out of the Boston office up until the early part of 1949, I 
would go up to the Xorth Shore whenever I was"^called by a local 
union. We never used to go to local unions itnless we were called in. 

Mr. Taat^^x^xer. All right. You have told us you were assigned to 
specific duties in the area north of Boston, as I understood it. 

Mr. Tormey. Sometimes, yes. 

Mr. Tavexxer. A^Hiich would include Lynn and the various other 
places you mentioned? 

IVIr. Tormey. You mean some of our locals would be located there? 

Mr. Ta\t:x'xer. Yes. 



1374 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. ToRMEY, Sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, my question was : Over how long a period of 
that time were you given assignments of that character ^ 

Mr. ToRMEY. To plants of our union that would be located up in 
that area? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, including Lynn, Mass. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Oh, that has been going on for years. Whenever there 
is an assignment up on the North Shore. Although sometimes when 
we had organizational campaigns up there, there would be more than 
one organizer around. But if some local called for either negotiationL 
or arbitration or taking grievances through some step in the grievance 
procedure, or if we had an organizational problem on the North Shore, 
I would go over there, the same as I would go to either Fitchburg or 
New Bedford. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you perform your first duty? 

Mr. ToRMEY. On the North Shore? 

Mr. Tavenner. At Lynn, Mass. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Are you talking about any particular company? 

Mr. Tavenner. As an organizer, for UE. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Are you talking about any particular company? 

Mr. Tavenner. Any company. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Any company in Lynn ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Why, in 1942 we had an organizational drive in the 
Boston Machine Works. We won an election tliere. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that the first time that you went to Lynn? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was the first time you performed your dutie& 
as an organizer in the General Electric plant at Lynn ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. As an organizer? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Tlie first time I ever went to our local union that had 
had bargaining rights with General Electric Co. was during the 
strike in 1946. We had a Nation-wide strike against General Electric 
Co. at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. Had you finished ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. No, I w^as going to tell you what it was about. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Tormey. You see, GE had a plant up in Lowell that was in an- 
other union and wasn't on strike. So I went down to Lynn, and I 
talked to the executive board of our local down there. And we set 
a picket line up in Lowell, closed it down for a couple of weeks just to> 
show the company we could do it. That is, the leadership of local 
201 did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, that was in the performance of your duties as 
an organizer ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. That is -right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other work did you do at the General Electric 
plant other than as an organizer? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I never did any work in the plant of any kind, type, 
or description. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, what work did you do in connection with your 
union at the General Electric plant other than as an organizer ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK STATE. OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 375 

Mr. ToRMEY. Well, the next time I went to the local union was to 
speak to the veterans coininittee at the local union following the close 
of the war. I was a member of the veterans conunittee of the district, 
and there was a confusion about this GI bill of rights — who had sen- 
iority and who didn't — and we had a meeting of the veterans com- 
mittee down there, and I spoke there. That was the second time. 

Mr. FoREK. Can we have the date of that ? 

Mr. Taatexner. Yes, if you would like. 

JMr. Tormey. That was later in 1{)46, as I recall it. 

(Representative Charles E. Potter entered tlie hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, if I understand you correctly, beginning in 
1946 and intermittently after that, on up until the time you became in- 
ternational representative, you engaged in the performance of your 
duties as an organizer of UE at the General Electric plant ? 

Mr. Tormey. No. Just twice. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just twice. 

Mr. Tormey. And I have already related those two times. 

Mr. Tavenner. There were no other times I 

Mr. Tormey. There were no other times, to my knowledge, that I 
recall, sir, up until 1949. 

Mr. Tavexxer. And what has been your connection with the work 
at the plant since 1949 ? 

Mr. Tormey. Well, in the winter of 1949, the district president of 
•our union received a call from the local officers of our union, which 
holds bargaining rights, or did at that time, in GE. A rival union 
was trying to organize one of the departments into a craft and had 
filed a petition with the Labor Board for an election, and the petition 
liad been granted. The rival union had organized and signed up about 
80 percent of the members of this union in their rival union. We at 
that time had not complied with the provisions of the Taft-Hartley 
law as a union, either the local or the international. Consequently 
we were not on the ballot. The vote would either be for this rival 
union or no union at all. And we had reason to believe that if we 
could convince the membership to vote "no," the company would con- 
tinue to recognize our local as the bargaining agent for that depart- 
ment. 

So 1 must have spent about 30 days on that job. And the majority 
Toted "No," and they stayed in the union. 

Mr. Tavenxer. When was that? 

Mr. Tormey. That was in the late winter, probably February and 
maybe part of March, in 1949. 

Mr. Tavexner. In addition to the times you have already men- 
tioned, when you performed your duties as an organizer of UE at 
iynn, Mass., whether in the General Electric or some other organiza- 
tion, will you tell us the number of occasions when you performed the 
duties of your office at Lynn, Mass.? You see, you have named, I 
think, about three occasions — twice for UE and once for the Boston 
Machine. 

Mr. Tormey. That was an organizational job; Boston Machine 
€o., back in 1942. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Yes. 

Mr. Tormey. I negotiated several contracts for the union with that 
.company, spent some time in a couple of strikes at a lamp plant in 



1376 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

that town, helped neootiate contracts at a lamp plant in that town^ 
and we liad another local in there with a few small shops which I 
occasionally worked on negotiations with and a conple of strikes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time did that take place? 

Mr. ToRMEY. UE is always engaging in either negotiations or organ- 
ization or trouble w4th the companies, one way or another, and 
that took place whenever it happened, although I wasn't always 
assigned. Sometimes I might be in Springfield, Vt., or New Bedford,, 
and the president would have to send somebody else. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is quite obvious that you would not do that if you 
were not there, but I am trying to find out the dates or the period. 

Possibly it was intermittently during the entire period. I am just 
trying to ascertain the facts. 

Mr. ToRMEY. We must have 40 shops organized between Boston and 
IpsM'ich. That is a lot of shops to take care of. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Well, at Lynn, Mass., over what period of 
time were you engaged in performing your duties as an organizer? 

Mr. Turmey. Well. 1 imagine the small sho])s in Lynn probably 
took maybe anywhere fi'om 10 to 15 peicent of my time over a period 
of, oh — of course we had a lot of strikes in Lynn in 1946. Everybody 
did. And it took longer than that. But over a period of time prior 
to 1946 and some time in 1945. especially in negotiations, it would take 
from 10 to 15 percent of the time, because we had a business agent in 
one of the locals. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you say over what period of time it took 10- 
CO 15 percent of your time ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I would say every year, from the time I came back 
from the Army. 

Mr. Tavenner. Up until 1949, wlien you ceased to function as an 
organizer? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I didn't really cease to function as an organizer.. 

Ml. Tavenner. Well, until the present time? 

Mr. ToRM^Y. We don't have quite as many locals tliere as we used 
to have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, would you say it would be correct to state 
that it took about 15 percent of your time in Lynn from the time you 
began your work as an organizer up until the present time? 

Mr. Tormey. No, it is probably less than that. I wouldn't put it 
at above 10 percent. There might be weeks wjien I Avould have to- 
spend 2 or o days if it was tougli negotiations. But, then, there woidd 
be months running, and I wouldn't stop in at all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Tormey. there appeared before the committee 
on July 23, 1951, pursuant to a subpena served upon him. Mr. Her- 
bert A. Philbrick. Mr. Philbrick, in testifying before the committee, 
stated in some detail what his connection had been with various organ- 
izations in Massachusetts, including the Young Communist League 
and the Connnunist Pai'ty. He told us how he became a member of 
the State educational commission of the Connnunist Party. He also 
told us that as a member, as an executive, of the Communist Party, 
he met with various groups and received from them knowledge of 
the plans and the purposes of the Comnnniist Party in infiltrating" 
certain types of industry in Massachusetts. 

Now, inasmuch as he has mentioned you in connection with this, 
I want to read vou his testimonv relatino- to it. In order to save- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1377 

needless repetition, I Avill read his answers, whicli make a rather con- 
nected story, rather than to read my questions each time they were 
asked. 

Mr. Philbrick testified as follows : ^ 

In 1946 and 1947, as an executive of the Coinnuniist Party, I attended what 
were known as district executive conferences lield in Boston. I believe thpse 
were titled party building conferences, and each of them I found was for the 
purpose of infiltrating heavy industries or key industries in our area and in 
the United States. 

I remember specifically at one of the party building conferences the comrades 
were instructed to take positions as colonizers; that is, to take upon themselves 
the duty of being colonizers in the key industries. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Do you mind if I have a smoke ? 

Mr. Tavenxer. Not at all. 

Mr. Wood. Help j'ourself . 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing to read) : 

That meant if you had a job in a small business or non-essential industry you 
should leave it and take a job in one of the key industries. 

These key industries were listed by the party leaders. We were told that 
they were industries important to the war effort. We were instructed that 
the' imi)eralist aims of the United States, the war-promoting purposes of the 
United States, were to carry on a war against the Soviet Union and a war 
against the free peoples of the world, that is, peoples under the jui'isdiction of 
the Soviet Union. 

We were told that the chief means at the disposal of the American imi^eralists 
was the productive capacity of this country, which they said was owned directly 
by the capitalists of the United States. We were taught that since this was the 
key weapon it was the weapon we had to attack and destroy as Communists. 

We were told in New England one of the key industries consisted of the Gen- 
eral Electric plant in Lynn. We were told one reason why colonizers were 
needed there was because it was involved in the development of defense ma- 
terials including jet airplane engines. I might point out that at that time no 
one outside of the party had any knowledge that jet airphme engines were being 
developed in the jet airplane plant in Lynn, but they knew that. 

Another key industry was the communications industry, another was the 
leather industry, boots and shoes, and another was the clothes industry, service 
clothes, and so forth. 

We were told that the steel industry and lines of transi)ortation were very 
important centers for Communist infiltration and colonization, so various com- 
rades were ordered at this time to take up jobs at these isi>ots. 

We were told in certain sections of the country the steel industry would be 
the main point of concentration, whereas in New England the steel industry was 
not as important. We had seven or eight comrades assigned to the General Elec- 
tric plant at Lynn and only one assigned to the steel industry to my knowledge to 
set up the colonization program. 

As a part of the colonization program, but carried out very secretly, a survey 
was conducted of certain plants. This was a very complete .survey. That nr^- 
gram in New England was under the direction of Daniel Boone Schirmer. I was 
told it was on a national level, but my only information concerning" it came 
from this local level. I came upon it more or less by accident. I was working 
■It Communist Party headquarters on leaflet production at that time. One rf 
!ie means of preparing the survey was a mimeographed form which I happenrd 
io prepare for Daniel Boone Schirmer. This had to do completely with industrial 
plants, although I understand they made investigations along other lines, too. 
Tht^ particidar forms that I worked on had to do with a complete survey of the 
plants, what they were producing, how many they were producing, the labor 
unions, the number of employees, also the number of comrades in these plants, 
and exactly what influence the comrades had in the unions. They also Included 
a review of the training and qualifications of the various comrades working in 
these plants. 

As I say, I came upon it somewhat by accident and therefore did not know 
how much information Daniel Boone Schirmer was getting from the comrades- 
in the plant, but I know he was calling on them for very specific information, in- 
cluding blueprints, but I had no knowledge of any particular blueprints. 

^ See pp. 1282 and 1283. 



1378 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

I had a very complete list at the time. Of course, my recollection now has 
failed me, so that I cannot recall all of them. I know that at least eight, possibly 
more, Communist Party members were assigned to the General Electric plant at 
Lynn. The ones I recall. * * * 

And lie proceeds to name them. And after having named four or five, 
I asked him this question. 

I stand corrected on that. He names Don Tormey, in this lan- 
guage : 

* * * Don Tormey was another one assigned to Lynn. I believe that is 
all I can recall at the moment. 

after having named several others. 

When asked if he knew the character of the work these various 
people were doing, Mr. Philbrick answered : 

No, sir, I don't, except here again to say that most of these people are fairly 
skilled in union organizing. And, of course, that was part of their task, too. 
These were not single individuals who were to go in there and remain isolated. 
Their task was to endeavor to draw in as many other Communists as well as 
non-Communists in those unions. 

Now, Mr. Tormey, because of your peculiar position as an or- 
ganizer of UE in the very plant concerned with this testimony of 
Mr. Philbrick 

Mr. Tormey. What was the time and date of the testimony ? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1946 and 1947. And due to the fact that he named 
you as one of those connected with this work at Lynn, I want to ask 
you several questions about the details, which I hope you will coop- 
erate with me on, and I hope you will cooperate in giving the com- 
mittee the benefit of such knowledge and information as you may have 
on the subject. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, what was the question just asked? What 
was the date of the testimony ? 

Mr. Tormey. The date he was referring to in the testimony. 

Mr. Tavenner. He asked me the date as to when this began. Mr. 
Philbrick said it was in 1946 and 1947. 

So Mr. Philbrick stated in his testimony that he attended as an 
executive of the Communist Party, these party building conferences 
in 1946 and 1947. Did you attend any party building conference of 
the Communist Party where these matters were discussed ? 

Mr. Tormey. Mr. Tavenner, in answering that question, it is nec- 
essary to say that Philbrick is, No. 1, a liar, and should be prosecuted 
for perjury by this committee, certainly by this committee; and that 
group of people in the leadership of the State CIO of Massachusetts 
who helped him to conspire to present this perjury should also be 
prosecuted by the Government for helping him do it. And what I call 
a conspiracy leads all the way to the Secretary of Labor, and he should 
also be prosecuted for being part of this conspiracy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; I understand you have said that before. But 
will you answer mv question ? 

Mr. ToRJUEY. mat is that? 

Mr. TA^^DNNER. As to whether or not you attended a party building 
conference of the Communist Party at any time when this matter of 
infiltration or colonization of any industry was discussed? 

Mr. Tormey. You see, Mr. Tavenner, in Massachusetts this fellow 
is a big hero. 

Mr. Wood. Just answer that question, please. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE. OF MASSACHUSETTS 1379 

JVIr. ToRMf^Y. May I explain the answer to tlie question beforehand? 

Mr. Wt)on. He asked if you were at sueli a meeting. That can be 
answered and then if you want to exphiin it, go ahead, after you have 
answered. 

Mr. TinniEY. In view of tliis kind of a question, I am not going to 
answer any question anywhere in this proceedings — and this is what 
1 call such a question 

Ml-. AVoon. I cannot hear you, sir. 

Mr. TomiEY. I am not going to answer any question anywhere in 
this proceedings that has to do with the Connnunist Party or my 
alleged. sus])ected, presumed, assumed membership in that party or 
attendance at their meetings, on the basis of my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 

I don't have to build up a case and testify against myself, and I 
am not going to do it. 

Ml-. Wool). What is your answer, then? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I just did answer. 

]Mr. Wood. There has been no answer. 

Mr. ToRMEY. I am not going to answer the question, on the basis of 
my ])rivilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. A'Wjod. All right. 

Mr. Tavexxer. AVell, were you ever advised, counseled, or encour- 
aged to take part in a program at Lynn, Mass., which would facilitate 
the infiltration of Communist Party members in the UE union or in 
that plant at Lynn? 

Mr. Tormey. That is the same question as the other one. 

Mr. Tavexx'er. No. 

Mr. ToRMEY. It is the same answer. 

Mr. Wood. You give the same answer? 

Mr. Tormey. Certainly. 

Mr. Wood. Well, not "certainly," to me. The question was not 
"certaiidy"' to you. Now, do you give the same answer? 

Mr. ToHMEY. Of course. 

Mr. Tavexxer. And what is the answer ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. The answer is the same as before. 

Mr. Tavexxer. That you refuse to answer on the ground that to 
do so might tend to incriminate you ? Is that what you intend to say ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I won't answer this question. 

Mr. Tavexxer. All right. On what ground? 

Mr. ToRMEY. On the basis of my privilege not to say anything that 
may be used. I am not going to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tan-exner. Mr. Philbrick has testified that at the party build- 
ing conferences it was determined to ask people, members of the 
Communist Party, to leave their jobs where they may have been 
employed in nonessential industry, and to take up positions in key 
industries. Do you have any knowledge on your own part of that 
having been done in any instance? 

Now, I am not asking you if you were a member of the Communist 
Party. I am just asking you if you have any knowledge. 

Mr. Tormey. You mean as a union organizer do I have any knowl- 
edge of people who may have left one shop and went to work in an- 
other shop? 

8»0()7— .'-l 9 



1380 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. No. I am asking you, regardless of whether you 
were serving in the capacity of an organizer or not, whether — in other 
words, I am asking you whether you personally had any information. 
I don't care whether it was in an individual capacity or in an official 
capacity. I am asking you whether you personally had any informa- 
tion of any instance in which a person left his job in a minor industry 
or unessential industry and became employed in a key industry in re- 
sponse to this colonizing movement of the Communist Party. 

Mr. ToRMEY. I certainly don't recall anybody. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't recall anybotly? 

Mr. Tormet. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you advised at any time that the Communist 
Party considered that the productive capacity of the United States 
was the key weapon which the Communists had to attack and destroy ? 

Mr. Tormey. I never heard of it. 

Mr. Tavener. Did you at any time hear of the plan of the Com- 
munist Party to colonize either your union or the General Electric 
plant at Lynn? 

By colonizing, I mean for the Communist Part3^ 

Mr. Tormey. Hear of it where? From any source whatever? 

Mr. Tavenner. From any source. 

Mr. Tormey. I am not going to answer that question, on the basis 
of the same privilege as before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted, either individually or in 
your official capacity, with a plan by which surveys were to be made 
of various key industry plants, including that of General Electric 
at Lynn, for the purpose of passing the results of the survey on to 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Tormey. Mr. Tavenner, I was never a spy for anybody. I 
don't know anything about any surveys. I never participated in any 
surveys. And I don't intend to participate in any surveys of any 
such nature. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Daniel Boone Schirmer? 

Mr. Tormey. I refuse to answer, on the same basis as before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you not, as a matter of fact, know that Daniel 
Boone Schirmer was at the head of a group to obtain a survey from the 
key industries in Massachusetts and possibly other places? 

Mr. Tormey. I know of no such thing. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not know that ? 

Mr. Tormey. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever see one of the forms which was pre- 
pared for use by Daniel Boone Schirmer in collecting this survey 
material ? 

Mr. Tormey. What was that question, again ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Read the question, please, Mr. Reporter. 

(The reporter read the question referred to.) 

Mr. Tormey. Of course, I never saw any such form. 

Mr. Wood, What is that ? I cannot hear. 

Mr. Tormey. No ; I never saw any such form. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Do you know whether or not, or have you learned 
from any source that such forms were used, or that forms were used for 
such purposes ? 

Mr. Tormey. You just told me that there was testimony to that 
effect. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1381 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I mean prior to your appearance here. 

Mr. ToiorEV. What he testified here was in contradiction to what 
he testified at Foley Square. 

Mr. Wood. That was not the question that was asked you. 

The question that was asked you was : Did you have any information 
as to the existence of certain forms for making these surveys prior to 
the time you came here as a witness today? 

Mr. ToRMEY. No such knowledge, except what he just read off. Of 
course, I have read that testimony before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you receive instructions of any character 
from Daniel Boone Schirmer? 

Mr. Tormet. Me receive instructions from Schirmer? No. In 
relation to working in the union? 

Mr. Tavenxer. Yes. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Organizational negotiations? 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Or any kind of work. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Certainly not. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Any kind of work? 

Mr; Wood. The reporter cannot get the shake of your head. 

Mr. ToKMEY. The answer is "no." 

Mr. Forer. Excuse me, Mr. Tavenner, but the witness has been try- 
ing to give a comment on the testimony that was given by Mr. Phil- 
brick, a factual comment. 

I think before you leave that 

Mr. Tavenner. I haven't asked him any question to which that 
would be responsive. 

Mr. FoRER. I think it is something which the committee should be 
interested in, Mr. Tavenner. It is a question of evidence and of Phil- 
brick having committed perjury before this committee, and I think 
the committee should want to hear that. 

Mr. Ta-s^nner. If it is a matter of record, as you indicate, the 
committee certainly would have possession of it. 

Mr. Forer. I don't know whether the committee has or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Joe Figueiredo ? 

Mr. Tormey, That is the fellow that Philbrick testified at Foley 
Square was the one person in charge of colonizing the electrical 
union, GE. 

Mr. Wood. The question is : Do you know him ? 

Mr. Tormey. I won't answer that question, on the same basis of 
privilege as before. 

Mr. Ta%t;nner. Do you recall having attended a meeting that was 
entitled "The People and the Press" at the Horticultural Hall at 
Boston, November 28, 1944? 

Mr. Tormey. Will you tell me what happened at the meeting? I 
have been to a lot of meetings in my time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. In order to refresh your recollection, I hand 
you a photograph and will ask you if you can identify a picture of 
youi-self in that photograph, which I will ask be marked for identi- 
fication only as "Tormey Exhibit No. 1." ^ 

Mr. Wood. It may be so marked. 

(The photograph above referred to was marked "Tormey Exhibit 
No. 1" for identification only.) 

Mr. Forer. There is no question yet. 



* See appendix, p. 1413. 



1382 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the photograph and state 
whether or not your picture is included ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I won't answer that question on the basis of my privi- 
lege. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Is not the photograph appearing in the bottom row 
to the left your photograph ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Do you know the gentleman sitting next to you, 
next to the one that I just mentioned on the first row, the lower row? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know Louis Budenz ? 

Mr. Tormey. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that a photograph of Louis Budenz ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the photograph again and state 
the name of the person apjiearing at the left in the second row, the 
standing row, to your left, the first one? 

Mr. ToRMEY. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't that Joseph Figueiredo? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the person standing in the middle in the rear 
row; will you identify his picture? 

Mr. ToRMj^Y. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is his name William Harrison? 

Mr. Tormey. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were Louis Budenz, Joseph Figueiredo, or William 
Harrison members of the Communist Party in 1944, when that photo- 
graph was taken ? In November 1944, to your knowledge? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time between 194'6 and the spring of 1949 ? 

Mr. Tormey. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me^ Mr. Tormey, a leaflet or a pam- 
phlet entitled "Wlio Are the Un-Americans?" by Donald Tormey. 

Are you the writer of that document ? 

Mr. Tormey. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that released, that document? Wlien 
was it published ? 

Mr. Tormey. About 2 or 3 weeks ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. I read to you this statement from your article : 

I am not a member of the Communist Party. Nevertheless Herbert Philbrick 
gave sworn testimony that I am a member of the Communist Party and that I 
was ordered to get a job with GE in 1947 to spy out defense worli and that I 
was still working there in 1949. Every word of that is a lie. 

Was that a truthful statement, when you said that every word of 
that is a lie ? 

Mr. Tormey. It is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then do you state that you are not a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tormey. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. A< this time? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1383 

Mr. ToKaiEY. Of course. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are not now a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Not even now. 

Mr. Tavexner. Were vou a member of the Communist Party in 
1949? 

^Ir. ToRMEY. I have already said that I am not going to answer 
questions, based on my privilege under the fifth amendment, about 
any past, lussumed, presumed, or suspected membership in the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Tavexner. Were you a member of the Communist Party yes- 
terday ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I have already answered that question. Same answer 
as before. 

Mr. Taatjxxer. But you are not a member of the Communist Party 
today ? 

Mr. Tormey. I am not. 

Mr. TA^•EXXER. Well, is membership in the Communist Party a 
cloak that you can put on and take off just when you appear before 
this committee ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. I haven't the faintest idea. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You haven't any idea. Well, what will it be to- 
morrow ? Will you be a member of the Communist Party tomorrow ? 

Mr. Tormey. Certainly not. 

Mr. Tavex^xer. Do you mean you have severed your connections 
with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Tormey. That is a pretty tricky question, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavexxer. No, that is a very plain question. There is nothing 
tricky about that. 

Mr. Tormey. Same answer as before. 

Mr. Tavex'X'er. Were you a member of the Communist Party 2 
weeks ago, when you published this ? 

Mr. Tormey. Xo ; I was not. 

Mr. Tavexx'er. You were not 2 weeks ago. Were you 3 weeks ago ? 

Mr. Tormey. Now, you see, I am just not going to answer the ques- 
tion, based on this privilege. 

Mr. Taatexxer. Were vou a member of the Communist Party on 
July the 23d. when :\Ir. Philbrick testified, July 23, 1951? 

Mr. Tormey. Xo, I wasn't. 

Mr. TA^^EXXER. You were not. 

Mr. Tormey. I was not. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you a member on the 22d of July 1951? 

Mr. Tormey. Mr. Examiner, you can take me all the way back to 
when I was selling newspapers. 

Mr. Tavex'xer. Xo ; back to 1916 is quite far enough. 

Mr. TuR3iEY. And I have already characterized this fellow as a 
liar. 

Mr. Wood. Well, what we are trying to find out now is, Wlio is 
the liar ? 

Mr. Tormey. I was not a member of the Communist Party at the 
time he testified, although all the papers said I was. If he didn't say 
it, he was misquoted in all the newspapers that got themselves mixed 
up in our election campaign, with the help of this committee. And 

89067—51 10 



1384 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

I am not going to answer questions back to that point, based on that 
privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. You won't go back to the time when he testified? 

INIr. Tor:mey. I just did. Sure, I will go back to that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, Mr. Philbrick testified about 3'our con- 
duct and your activity back in the period of 1946 and 1947. 

Mr. Tormey. He didn't do any such thing, JNIr. Tavenner. 

Mr, Tavenner. I just read it to you. 

Mr. Tormey. All you testified, all you read to me, was that he said 
Donald Tormey w^as one of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, were you a member of the Communist Party 
in 1946 and 1947? 

Mr. Tormey. I have already answered that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. And what is your answer ? 

Mr. Tormey. The same as- before. 

Mr. Tavenner. And what is that? 

Mr. Tormey. That answer is that I am not going to answer those 
questions, on the basis of my privilege not to testify against myself, 
under the fifth amendment. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. TAAa^^NNER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. DoYLE. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party, Mr. 
Tormey ? 

Mr. Tormey. I have already answered that, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I did not hear you. I would appreciate it if you 
would answer it. 

Mr. Tormey. I am not going to answer the question, Mr. Doyle^ 
based on the privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. But you did answer that you were not on July 23, 1951, 
a member of it. 

Mr. Tormey. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Why Avoukl that answer not incriminate you, if you 
think answering whether you were ever a member would incriminate 
you? What is the difference? 

Mr. Tormey. The difference really, Mr. Doyle, is a difference in 
the methods now being used to destroy, dis"ru]it, and divide this union. 

Mr. Doyle, I assure you that I am not interested in disrupting any 
union. 

Mr. Tormey. Why, this committee w^as the most potent weapon our 
opponents had in our most recent elections, the one they used the 
most. They subpenaed other witnesses that were mentioned by Doyle 
on July 20. 

Mr. DoYi.E. You mean mentioned by Philbrick? 

Mr. Tormey. Mentioned by Philbrick. Tliey waited until 36 hours 
before a very important election at GE to subpena me. The opposing 
union knew all about it and announced it to their members and told 
them to keep it quiet until the subpena was served, at 4 o'clock. It 
was served ]:)roinptly at 4 o'clock, which they knew it would be. 

They dashed into the streets with an already prepared printed leaf- 
let telling how the Government had gi-abbed Tormey, hoping to take 
the election with that little trick. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1385 

Mr. Doyle. 'N^Hiat provision of the Constitution, wliat section, did 
you tell us you rely on ? 

Uv. ToKMEY. The Bill of Rights, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there any other portion of the Constitution on which 

you relv? 

(TheVitness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. I see you are asking your lawyer. I am not asking 
about vour lawyer's view. _ i • , • 

Mr. "Foker. I am sure you are not objecting to his consulting his 

lawyer. . , • -j! 

Mr. Doyle. Not as to his rights, but now I am simply asking it 
there is any other section of the Constitution that he relies upon. 

Mr. FoRER. That is just what lawyers generally tell people. 

Mv. Doyle. Well, all lawyers do not have to do that. 

Mr. FoRER. I am sure you did that when you were a lawyer. 

Mr. Doyle. I just assume that your witness knows what sections 
of the Constitution he relies on. If he does not, he can ask his lawyer. 

Mr. ToRMEY. I relied on the fifth amendment, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. DoYi^. And no other? 

:Mr. ToRMEY. Not that I know of. I don't know if the others cover. 

Mr. Doyle. You said in your testimony, "I am not going to build 
up a case against myself." 

Mr. ToRMEY. That is right. 

Mr. Doi-LE, "I am not going to testify against myself.'' 

Do you feel that stating frankly as one American citizen to an- 
other whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party 
would be testifying against yourself? 

Is that what I understand? 

Mr. ToKMEY. With what is going on these days, Mr. Doyle? 

Of course. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, I know something of what is going on. I 
do not know what is going on in your mind. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Well, you were not involved in that election. 

Mr. Doyle. May I state this, Mr. Tormey. I am one of the Mem- 
bers of Congress "that always has and I expect always will believe 
in the riglit of collective bargaining and the worth-whileness of organ- 
ized labor. 

And I wish to assure you as the son of a blacksmith, which I am, 
and proud of it, that I am not interested in fighting organize(l labor. 

Air. ToRMEY. Well, then, you should not allow the committee to 
be used by these people in the CIO the way they are doing it. 

]Mr. Doyle. We have not done that, to my knowledge. 

Mr. ToRMEY. AMiy, Mr. Doyle, you even subpenaed the election 
cards with the names of six of our members in an effort to intimidate 
them. 

Mr. Doyle. I gave you that statement to let you understand that 
in my questioning I am not trying to hurt organized labor. Now, if 
that is clear to you, I hojDe it is clear that I am not interested in ques- 
tioning you just because you are an organizer for organized labor. 

Tlie assignment of this committee, Mr. Tormey, is given to us by 
the United States Congress, which is your Congress, by the way, 
because you were born in this country. 

This is a committee of which I am a member, and I did not ask to 
come on this committee. I was asked to take the assignment. I did 



1386 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

not seek it. It is one of those very unpleasant tasks, and yet we are 
assigned to find out, if we can, where there are subversive influences 
in this country any place. 

Mr. ToRMET, Does that require issuing subpenas during our elec- 
tions in order to influence the results ? 

Mr. Doyle. Well, it requires issuing subpenas when we can catch 
people. 

Mr. ToRMEY. But he testified on July 23. Everybody else was sub- 
penaed on the 20th. Why did they wait until just before the election 
to do it to me ? 

Mr. Doyle. Will you let me finish my statement? 
Mr. ToRMEY. I am very sorry. 

Mr. Doyle. You have already told me about that subpena three 
times. 
Mr. Tormey. There were two subpenas. 

Mr. Doyle. You have got that in the record now ; so let us forget it. 
Let me ask my question. 

Mr. Wood. Will the gentleman yield at that point? 
Mr. Doyle. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. I want to state for the benefit of the record that when 
any subpena was issued by the chairman of this committee to be served 
on any witness the chairman of this committee had no knowledge of 
any election being held anywhere at any time by anybody. 

ikr. Tormey. Why, the election cards themselves 

Mr. Wood. Will you wait until I get through ? 
Mr. Tormey. I am sorry. 

Mr. Wood. Since these subpenas have been served, we have had 
before this committee under subpena many other officers of the UE 
who have taken advantage of their privilege under the Constitution 
of the United States to refuse to answer whether they were members 
of the Communist Party. 

Now, if by any act of mine — and I speak for myself only, as chair- 
man of this committee, but individually — if by any act of mine I have 
been able to bring before this committee officials of an organization 
who cloak themselves with the fifth amendment to refuse to answer 
as to whether they are members of an organization that is conspiring 
to overthrow this Government, and if by doing that I have caused 
them to lose a labor-union election in this country, I would be very 
happy about it myself. 

Mr. Doyle. May I proceed, then, to ask you this question, Mr. 
Tormey : I noticed you answered our counsel in some such language 
as this, referring to Mr. Philbrick's testimony, "Of course, I have 
read that testimony before." 

About when did you read Mr. Philbrick's testimony ? 
Mr. Tormey. A couple of weeks ago. 

Mr. Doyle. Not until then? You did not even read it in the Boston 
newspapers ? 

Mr. Tormey. That is where I got the idea that he said that I was 
actually working in the plant as a spy and had been there since 1937. 
That is what they reported. 

Mr. Doyle. But he testified on July 23d. 

Mr. Tormey. I just discovered today that one of the reporters 
instead of being an impartial reporter is an undercover agent of this 
oonnnittee. I tried him out today just to find out. 



COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE. OF MASSACHUSETTS 1387 

Mr. Doyle. Tried but who ? 

Mr. ToRMET. One of tlie reporters from Boston. I gave him a copy 
of this pamphlet. The first thing he did was to rush to the committee 
to show it to them. 

Mr. Wo<->D. "Wait just a moment. I am not going to let that state- 
ment go unchallenged. You mean to say there is an undercover agent 
of this committee who is a reporter for a Boston paper? If so, I 
want his name. You said an "undercover agent." 

Mr. ToRMEY. A reporter who claims to be an impartial reporter 
for the Boston Traveler — his name is Dalton — received a copy of this 
statement a few hours ago and went to the members of the staff of 
this committee to give it to them. 

Mr. Wood. Is that the only information you have upon which 
you base the charge that he is an undercover agent of this committee? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Certainly. 

Mr, Wood. That statement is just as rash and irresponsible as a 
lot of others you are making here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, in the light of this discussion, I 
think I should make a statement for the record that we have had a 
copy of this statement by the witness in our possession for fully a 
week. 

Mr. Forer. Mr. Dalton didn't know that. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Mr. Dalton didn't know that. 

Mr. DoYLE. May I then proceed with this, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. I am sorry I interrupted. 

Mr. DoYLE. That is all right. Do it any time. You always make 
a contribution. 

Mr. Tormey, have you ever read the law of the United States 
Congress under which this committee functions; I mean, what our 
job is? 

Mr. ToRMEY. The actual wording of the law? No. A lot of its 
activities seem to be to try to break up the UE. They are not 
succeeding very well. 

Mr. DoYLE. No, no. I assure you, sir, there is no reference to 
unions, labor unions, in the law. 

Mr. ToRMEY. I know there isn't. I know that. 

Mr. DoYLE. Then I assume you have never read it. Is that correct ? 
I ask you that question not to embarrass you, but I can see you feel 
that you are Avell informed on what this committee does, and therefore 
I am asking you whether or not you have ever read the law under 
which we function. Now, I do not believe you have. I believe you 
are misinfoi-med. 

The law under which we operate, Mr. Tormey, does not mention 
labor unions. AVe are not assigned under the law to investigate labor 
unions. We are assigned to investigate subversive influences wherever 
they come from, whether they come from the United States or from 
any place else, anything that would destroy our American form of 
government, anything that is determined to be directed toward 
uprooting or overthrowing it. Mr. Webster, if you look at his dic- 
tionary, which most of us follow, says that the term "subversive" 
relates to overthrowing. Now, I have told you what our job is. I 
assure you we are not interested in any labor-union activity unless 
it happens to be the case that we know there are some members in 



1388 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

that labor union that are devoted to the foreign ideology of aggressive 
communism, which is interested in overthrowing our form of 
government. 

Now, I have never met you. never heard you before, but you are 
rated as a very able UE organizer, and I am informed by Mr. Phil- 
brick and others that you are rated as a very able member of the 
Commmiist Party. 

And we are asking your cooperation to help us understand whether 
or not in the Comnuniist Party to your personal Imowledge there is 
any subversive program which would tend to overthrow our form of 
government. 

I have not done that to preach to you, sir. I have made that state- 
ment to you. And I notice whenever you get to anything about the 
Communist Party, you claim your privilege. That is all right. We 
want you to always claim your privilege, when it is in good faith. 

Mr. ToRMEY. Do vou want to listen to the evidence of perjury by 
this Philbrick ? 

Mr. DoTLE. No, we are interested in questioning you. We have 
his testimony under oath. We have that in writing, the same as we 
will have yours. But I am asking you if you have any knowledge 
within the Communist Party of any effort or program to overthrow 
the American form of government. Is that a fair question? 

Mr. ToRMEY. Well, now, let's see what happened in the last couplf 
of years, and maybe that will answer the question. 

Since 

Mr. Doyle. Now, just a minute. Because we do not have time to 
permit too long statements on both sides. 

Mr. ToRMEY. I think I can give you a real insight on what is being 
overthrown. 

Mr. Doyle. No, no. I know you came prepared to make a speech 
I understand that. 

Mr. ToRMEY. No, I am not making any speeches. 

Mr. Doyle. I am asking you a simple question. Do you know of 
any plan of the Communist Party, of your own personal knowledge, to 
in any way overthrow this form of government, the American form of 
fifovernment ? 

Mr. ToRMEY. What does it mean ? Does it mean, for instance, that I 
am opposed to the present administration ? 

Mr. Doyle. No, no. 

Mr. Wood. He is talking about the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not talking about Democrats or Republicans or 
any ]:)arties in the matter. We are talking about what we believe to be 
and have evidence to be the fact, that the Communist Party of Ameri- 
ca is dedicated to the proposition of overthrowing our form of govern- 
ment as it exists under the American Constitution. 

Do you know whether or not the Communist Partv is interested 
in that? 

Speaking frankly, I ask you that because I believe that until fairly 
recently you were a member of the Comnumist Party. 

Mr. Tormey. I just don't know any such thing, ]SIr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. As a Communist, now, are you speaking? 

I asked you this as a member of tlie Communist Party. 

Mr. ToRMEY. If I speak before this committee or any other body of 
Government, I speak as a citizen of the United States. The fifth 



^^ 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1389 

ameiulnient, which is descrihed here as a cloak, is no ch)ak. That is a 
sword to he used hy the i)eople when somebody tries to take their 
rights away. 

Mr. Dt)YLE. Let me ask you this. Do you know ISfr. Don Bollen? 

Mr. TomiEV. Yes, certainly. 

^Ir. Doyle. Where did yon know him, sir? 

Mr. TomiEY. He was an oriranizer for our union. He acted as a 
business aaent while an or<>anizer for our union. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever sit in any meeting of the Communist 
Party or committee of the Communist Party with him? 

Mr. Tormey. I won't aiiswer that, on the same basis as before. 

Mr. Doyle. I noticed you eliminated the years 1942 and 1943, years 
when, as I understood, you were not an organizer or in the employ of 
theUEW. 

Mr. ToRMEY. "Well, it is not the whole year. I was gone for about 
a year in the Army. 

Mr. Doyle. To Miami? 

Mr. ToRMEY. No, in the Army. No, I dichi't get to Miami. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever travel abroad ? 

INIr. Tormey. No. Oh, when I was about 7 years old, I think I made 
a trip into Canada and back with my uncle one day. 

Mr. DoTLE. I think that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Potter? 

Any further ciuestions ? 

Do you have any reason why the witness should not be excused from 
further attendance ? 

Mr. Tavenxfji. No, sir. 

!Mr. W^ooD. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Nathaniel Mills? 

:Mr. Wood. Are you Mr. Mills ? 

Will you raise your right hand and be sworn, please, sir ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you give this subcommit- 
tee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Mills. I do, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Mills, are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Mills. I am, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Will counsel ]:)lease identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Kantrovitz. Gabriel Kantrovitz, 294 Washington Street, Bos- 
ton. Mass. 

Mr. Wood. During the progress of your interrogation, you may con- 
fer with your counsel as often as you see fit and seek such informa- 
tion or advice as you think you may need. 

Your counsel is at liberty to confer with you as often as he may 
desire and give you such information as he thinks you may be in 
need of. 

Mr. Kantrovitz. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

This is my first appearance before this committee. I wonder if I 
may make a routine objection. As I understand, the subpena was is- 
sued in the name of the committee. I understand a quorum of that 
committee is five. May I note the absence of a quorum and object to 
the questioning under the subpena? 

Mr. Wood. I will say for the benefit of counsel that the resolution 
•of the Congress establishing the committee gives to the chairman the 



1390 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

authority to take testimony himself and to estabUsh subcommittees 
to take testimony, and acting under that authority the chairman has 
established a subcommittee for the purpose of this hearing consisting 
of Mr. Doyle, Mr. Potter, and Mr. Wood, who are present. 

Mr. Kantrovitz. But the record will show that just Mr. Doyle, Mr. 
Potter, and Mr. Wood, the chairman, are present. 

Mr. Wood. That is right. 

Mr. Kantrovitz. Thank you. 

Mr. Wood. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF NATHANIEL MILLS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, GABRIEL KANTROVITZ 

Mr. Mills. Nathaniel Mills. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Mills ? 

Mr. Mills. I was born in 1917 in New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your education ? 

Mr. Mills. I graduated from the public schools, high school. Mount 
Vernon, N. Y. ; went to Amherst College ; graduated A. B. in 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your employment since graduation 
in 1939? 

jNIr. Mills. Well, my first employment in private industry was in 
1941, June, when I went to work for the General Electric Co. on re- 
ferral from the USES. 

I took tests and they informed me that they could use me at GE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed in 1940 'i 

Mr. Mills. No ; I wasn't in industry. I wasn't employed by a pri- 
vate concern. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, the indication is that you were employed in 
some capacity, thougli not in industry. 

What were you doing in 1940? 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer, because my answer might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us how you were employed in 1941. 
Now will you bring us up to the present time, please? 

Mr. Mills. I w^as employed steadily in GE from June of 1949 up to 
the ]n-esent except for 15 months from December 1944 until March — 
well, I came back from the service in March of 1946, and I think it was 
in late April I went to work there, under my job rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Mills, Mr. Pliilbrick, Mr. Herbert A. Philbrick, 
testified before this committee on July 23, 1951. In the course of his 
testimony, he described the circumstances under which he met you in 
1940 and then proceeded to describe his work in the organization of the 
Cambridge Youth Council. He stated that you supplied him with the 
names of the persons whom he should interview in establishing that 
kind of an organization ; that is, for the initial members of the organ- 
ization. Do you recall the circumstances of that? 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer, on the grounds that my answer may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at that time chairman of the Massachu- 
setts Youth Council ? 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer, because my ansAver might tend to 
incriminate me. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE. OF MASSACHUSETTS 1391 

Mr. Tavennkr. Mr. Pliilbrick has testified here that during the 
course of his work with the Cambridge Youth Council, he first learned 
of the influence of the Communist Party on organizations of that type. 
He stated that other members of the executive committee along with 
him were Arthur Solomon, Sidney Solomon, and a third person, whose 
name I do not at the moment recall, and that he realized that all the 
decisions made w^ere the decisions made by those three, and that the 
policy of his organization was controlled by those three persons, who 
he later learned to be members of the Communist Party. 

Were you acquainted with Ai'thur Solomon ? 

Mr. Mills. May I consult counsel ? 

Mr. Wood. Yes, sir. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ta\-enner. The name of the third person was Stanley Beecher, 
the one I could not recall at the moment. 

Mr. Wood. But the name you are now asking about is what? 

Mr. Tavenner. Arthur Solomon. 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer, because my answer might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. TA^'ENXER. Were you acquainted with Sidney Solomon? 

Mr. Mills. May I say the same answer ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. And for the same reason ? 

Mr. Mills. The same reason. 

Mr, Ta\tenner. And Stanley Beecher? Were you acquainted with 
him? 

Mr. Mills. Same answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Mr. Philbrick also testified that the policy of the 
Cambridge Youth Council, of which he was the president, being con- 
trolled by these three persons, Arthur and Sidney Solomon and Stanley 
Beecher, never deviated from the policy of the Massachusetts Youth 
Council, of which you were chairman, and the American Youth 
Congress. 

Will you tell the committee what you know, if anything, regarding 
the efforts to control and guide the policies of the Cambridge Youth 
Council by your organization, or at least the organization of which 
you are alleged to be the chairman, the Massachusetts Youth Council ? 

Mr. Mills. The same answer, for the same reasons. 

]Mr. Tavenxer. Mr. Philbrick also testified about a convention held, 
a State convention of the Communist Political Association in the State 
of Massachusetts in 1945. Did you attend that convention ? 

May I change my question ? 

My question was based on a wrong assumption of facts. I with- 
draw the question. 

Did you attend any State convention, or did you attend a convention 
in New York in 1943 of the Young Communist League? 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer, because my answer might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever live at Maiden, Mass. ? 

Mr. ]\liLLS. I have lived at ]Malden, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over how long a period of time? 

Mr. Mills. I moved there shortly before I went into the service, 
and my wife lived there while I was in the service, and I considered 
it my residence, until we moved to Lynn in 1946, 1 guess it was. 



1392 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat were the circumstances under which yoir 
moved from Maiden, Mass., to Lynn, Mass.? 

Mr. Mills. I was working in the Lynn GE for that period, and I 
wanted to be close to my worlc. 

Mr.^ Tavenner. Mr. Mills, you were present, were you not, during; 
the questionino^ of the previous witness, Mr. Tormey ? 

Mr. Mills. No. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mills. Yes ; I was here. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not want to read again the testimony of Mr. 
Philbrick if you were present and heard it. Mr. Philbrick has testified 
in general about the plan in the Communist Party to have persons 
transferred to the General Eelectric plant in Lynn for the purpose 
of colonizing that plant for the Communist Party, due to the fact that 
it was an important defense industry. 

In the course of his testimony, Mr. Philbrick stated that you wera 
assigned to the General Electric plant. Now, prior to your moving 
over to Lynn, Mass., you say you were living at Maiden. Were you a 
member of the Maiden Club of the Communist Party at the time you: 
left there ? 

Mr. Mills. Same answer ; same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. You will have to speak a little louder. 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you counseled or advised by any member of 
the Communist Party regarding activities on your part at the General 
Electric plant at Lynn, as to what you should do in behalf of the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer, on the grounds that it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

(Kepresentative Charles E. Potter left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You will recall Mr. Philbrick's testimony, in which 
he said that you and others were assigned to the General Electric plant 
at Lynn for colonization purposes. Is that true, or is it false ? 

Mr. Mills. It isn't true, no. 

Mr. Tavenner. You took no part in any such plan ? 

]\Ir. Mills. No, none whatsoever, I was working in the Lynn GE 
from 1941. In 1941 I went to work in the GE pfont in Lynn. 

Mr. Tam:nnek. But you continued to work straight on through 
until when ? 

Mr. Mills. I work there today. 

Mr. Tavenner. To the present time? 

Mr. Mills. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Except when you were in the Army ? 

Mr. Mills. Except when in service. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, during that period of time, particularly from 
1946 on, were you given any advice or counsel or direction regarding 
any duty that you were to perform for the Communist Party in Lynn, 
Mass.? " 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Daniel Boone Schirmer? 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1393 

Mr. Tavexnkr. Were you acquainted with Alice Gordon? 

Mr. MiLLt;. 1 refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you ac(iuainted with Fanny Hartnian? 

Mr. M11J.S. I refuse to answer for tlie same reason. 

jSIr. Tavenxeh. Are you now a member of the Connuunist Party ? 

Mr. IMiLJ.s. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

JSIr. Tavenner. Do you want to confer with your counsel ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mills. That is my answer. I refuse to answer, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

jVIr. INIiLLs. I refuse to answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Wood. Any questions, "Sir. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I take it, Mr. Mills, from your interest in young people 
that probably you became interested while you had the splendid op- 
portunity of attending Amherst College. 

Am I wrong ? 

IVfr. Mills. Yes: I learned a lot there about the problems of the 
country economically. 

Mr. Doyle. Along with the other young American citizens who 
were thei-e with you. I think w^e men who were college men have 
pei^liaps more responsibility than people who have not had the chance 
of having a college education. You would agree with me on that, 
at least ? 

Mr. Mills. Yes; I think every young person should have the 
opportunity. 

Mr. Doyle, During the time you were at Amherst, were you a mem- 
ber of any young people's study group or organized group ? 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to testify, on the grounds that it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

j\lr. Doyle. You mean while you you w^ere at Amherst ? 

I am not asking you about the Communist Party, sir. I have not 
mentioned the Communist Party. 

I want to call your attention to that. 

Mr. Mills. How can I put this ? My counsel indicates that studies 
in college were of an academic nature, but I understood the question 
to refer to voluntary groups, a study group. 

Mr. Doyle. That is correct, Mr. Mills. Your worthy counsel prob- 
ably did not understand my question, or I did not make it clear. 

Let me direct my question to you again. In other words, I am a 
college man, too, and I know that during college years if men are 
active and virile at all, interested in their Government and their Na- 
tion, especially men that graduate with an A. B. like you did, during 
your college years you take some time to belong to groups of students 
studying economic problems or social problems. 

Now, I am asking you if, w^hile you were in Amherst, you were a 
member of such a group. That is all. If so, what group ? 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mills. I refuse to answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to say this. You are at perfect liberty, naturally, 
to confer with your counsel as to your rights under the Constitution, 



1394 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

but you and he were not at college together, and you ought to know 
whether you were a member of any such group as I asked about. 

Mr. Mills. I also understand from studying political science and 
from tlie time I was able to read that there is a freedom of association, 
a freedom of speech, and so on, but I am forced to refuse to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Do I understand that you claim the privilege of the 
Constitution, of refusing to tell a committee of Congress, merely of 
citizens who are interested in studying economic and social problems, 
as we are, because it is part of our job, with reference to the preserva- 
tion of our Union, our constitutional form of Government — do I un- 
derstand that you fear that you might be incriminated if you tell what 
group, if any, you were a member of, such as I have asked about? I 
have not asked anything about the Communist Party, 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mills. My counsel advises me that by invoking the privilege 
I do not need to explain my reasons for it, but that above all it is not 
a question of the college or of anything of such a nature, that I am 
inferring ; it is that there is no limit, evidently, in these days, to the 
extent to which stool pigeons will go, and stories will be invented. 

Mr. Doyle. I understand that you would like to make a speech, 
but I do recognize that you are apparently a very clear thinker and a 
very able man, and I am just interested to see if we can get help from 
you in understanding your interest in young people, and how early 
you became interested in young people and the directions it took: 

Were you a leader of young people in Amherst College while you 
were there ? 

You know what I mean by a leader, do you not? Of any group? 
Is that a fair question? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mills. Yes ; 1 was quite active. I was head of the Amherst 
Press and an officer in my fraternity and was in a variety of activities. 
I didn't keep quiet. 

Mr. Doyle. I just assumed, sir, that you were a leader in Amherst. 
Now, may I ask you again. Were you a leader in Amherst in studying 
economic and social problems in any group? Is that not a fair 
question ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mills. I again say that I refuse to answer for the same reason. 
I do not need to give my reason. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you volunteer the information that you 
were a member of the Amherst Press. That is the college paper. And 
you were a leader in your fraternity. But if you were a leader in the 
study of social or economic problems, you claim the privilege? 

Mr. Kantrovitz. I think he is on the horn of a dilemma. He wants 
no reflection on the college. You are directing your questioning, are 
you not. Congressman Doyle, to extracurricular activities or some- 
thing of that kind ? 

Mr. Doyle. That is correct. Let me be perfectly frank with you, 
Mr. Mills, I am not trying to trap you. But you are a college grad- 
uate, and 1 know enough about your work up in the area to know 
you have been a leader of young people. I know enough about your 
work, whether you think I do or not. 

And you may assume, perhaps, that I may know one or more of the 
groups that you were a leader in. But I am not trying to trap you 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1395 

into that. sir. I am interested to know how young you became a leader 
in the study of social and economic problems at Aniiierst College. That 
is all. I am not asking you whether you were a leader in the (lommu- 
nist study group at Amherst or any other Communist group at 
Amhei"st. 

Mr. Mills. Well, I considered myself a citizen while I was there, 
and I was a voter before I gradutited, and in justice to any other 
citizen or voter, 1 consider my political activities as a citizen to be 
privileged. 

Mr. Doyle. I am not asking you whether you were a Communist 
while you were there or what party you were a member of. But if 
vou chiim your privilege, and you are afraid it will incriminate you 
if you answer it, I understand, inferentially at least, that there was 
something while you were at Amherst College that you were a mem- 
ber of, the statement of which might incriminate you. 

Mr. Kaxtrovitz. That isn't the necessary inference. 

Mr. Doyle. He is claiming his privilege, counsel. It is his privi- 
lege. I do not question his right. I am a lawyer too, counsel, and 
I want him to stand up on his counsel's advice. But let me be per- 
fectl}' frank with counsel, because it is your first service with us. 

In my service with this conunittee, I have come to realize, not direct- 
ing this to you, sir, but I have come to realize, from facts I know, that 
when a person claims privilege under the first or fifth amendments, 
even though the Communist Party has not been mentioned in the ques- 
tion, the witness has some connection or has had some connection with 
Communist activities and he is afraid to come out and be square 
enough to tell the truth. That is wliat I have learned as a member 
of the committee, and I am giving tlie young man the benefit of the 
conclusion I have eome to, even though he has not asked for it. 

I wi?h to call ]Mr. Mills' attention again to the fact that I did not 
mention the Comnumist Party in the question I asked. I. too, was 
active at USC, where I graduated, and was proud of it. If I was 
put on the stand and was asked what my extracurricular activities 
were, I certainly would have no reason to claim the first or fifth 
amendments, and I am surprised that you did, sir, as to your college 
3'ears. 

I am not suggesting — no, I will not say that, either. 

Mr. ]MiLLS. Well, you subpenaed me, the committee did, because 
a man called me a spy infiltrating the GE in 1947, and now you ask 
me what my political and economic interests were when I was in 
college. 

Mr. DoYLE. I did not mention political interests, sir. I asked you 
about social and economic problems. 

Mr. Mills. Well, groups that I associated with. I say I won't 
answer, and I don't feel I should give the reason. 

I think you should know it from a studv of the Constitution, as 
I do. 

]\rr. DoYLE. I think perhaps I, too, know a little of the Constitution, 

AVell. noAv, let me say this to you, !Mr. Mills, as you go home, please. 

Have you read tlie bill under which this conunittee functions? 

Mr. ^IiLi.s. I am sorry. I haven't. I would be glad to. 

Have you a copy I can read ? 



1396 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Doyle. Ye^. We will give you a copy, from our reception 
room. I invite you to read that. Substantially, that law charges us 
with looking into the field of subversive conduct in this country, 
whether it generates from this country or from any other country. 

Now, you certainly have no objection to cooperating with a com- 
mittee that has that assignment from the United States Congress, 
do you? 

Just one further statement, Mr. Chairman. 

I only make it for your benefit, because you are much younger than 
I am, and you have had a college training that should put you in a 
position to be a great factor in this country against subversive con- 
duct. That bill charges us, as I have said, with looking into that 
subiect. 

(Representative Charles E. Potter returned to the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Doyle. I just want you to realize that when we subpena people, 
even though we know they are Communists when we subpena them, 
as generally we do — I will say to the gentleman that we generally 
know that in advance — we do hope that sometimes men of your age, 
sir, will between the time you are subpenaed and come in go to coun- 
sel, at least, and we always like to have citizens go to counsel, but we 
do hope that, generally speaking, when they tell their counsel that 
they have been Communists, that they realize, possibly, that it was a 
mistake. And if they tell their counsel that, many times their counsel 
will say to our counsel, "My client wants to help clean up this bad 
situation." Many times, witnesses' counsel make dates with our coun- 
sel or with committee members. But sometimes we fail in that objec- 
tive. I want to invite you, sir, as a young man, to think it over. And 
if there is any measure of cooperation you can give the United States 
Congress, why don't you give it? 

Mr. Mills. I will continue to strive to be the best citizen that I 
know how and serve my country in the best way I know how. 

Mr. Doyle. I am inviting you to think in terms of cooperating in 
the job this committee has, this particular job. 

We may never see you again, but I hope you do it. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Potter, any questions? 

Has counsel any further questions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Do j^ou know of any reason why the witness should not 
be excused? 

Mr. Tavenister. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Eobert Goodwin. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Goodwin, will you stand and be sworn, please? 

Do you solemnly swear the evidence you give this committee shall 
be the' truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Goodwin. I do. 

Mr. Wood. For the purposes of hearing this witness, I will, as 
chairman, appoint the same subcommittee, Messrs. Doyle, Potter, 
and Wood. 

Mr. Kantrovitz. Same counsel, Mr. Chairman. 



COAIMUNIST ACTIVITIES INT STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1397 

Mr. AVcioD. Will you please identify yoiu'self for the record, Mr. 
dounsel, apiin ( ^ 

Mr. Kan TKovrrz. Gabriel Kaiitrovitz, Boston, Mass. 

Once a4>-ain, I want to state my objections to the lack of a quorum. 

]Mr. Wood. The record will note that you object to the hearing on 
the o-round that a (luorum of the full committee is not present. 

Mr. Tavexxeu. Will you please state your full name, Mr. Goodwin? 

TESTIMONY OF ROBEKT GOODWIN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, GABKIEL KANTKOVITZ 

Mr. GooD^^^:N. Robert Goodwin. 

Mr. Tavenxer. When and where were you born? 

Mr. GooDWix'. April 1014, South Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. GooDwix-^. Lynn. 

Mr. TA^'EXXER. Will you state briefly to the committee what your 
educational training has been? 

Mr. GooDwix. Through high school; high-school graduate, South 
Boston High. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
employment record has been? That is, how you have been employed? 

Mr. GooDWIx^ Since school? 

Mr. Ta\t:xx"er. Yes. 

Mr. (toodwix^. Oh, many jobs, until I went to work in GE. 

Mr. Tavex-^xer. When did you go to work in GE ? 

Mr. GooDwix. 1941. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Well, prior to 1941, how were vou employed? Say, 
in 1940? 

Mr. GooDwix. In 1940, I worked at the McAllen Co. in South Bos- 
ton. I worked in hotels for quite a period. Or not "quite a period," 
Taut off and on for a couple of years. I was in the CCC's for a period. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What was the nature of your work in GE, General 
Electric, in Lynn ? 

Mr. GooDwix. The nature? 

Mr. Tavtinx^^er. The nature of your work. 

Mr. GooDwix. Oh. several jobs. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What were they? 

Mr. GooDwix'. One time I was a lathe hand. I was an assembler, 
a winder, a dipper. Oh, there have been at least half a dozen jobs in 
the whole period. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are you acquainted with Herbert A. Philbrick? 

Mr. GooDwix. I refuse to answer that question, on the grounds 
that my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavexx'er. Well. Mr. Philbrick, who for 8 or 9 years served 
in an undercover capacity for a Government agency, testified before 
this committee on July 23, 1951. He stated that you were one of the 
persons instructed by the Communist Party to take employment at the 
Oeneral Electric plant for the purpose of colonizing that plant for the 
Communist Party. Was that true, or false ? 

Mr. GooDWTX. Well, under the circumstances of today and the cir- 
cumstances of the present hysteria in the country, I feel that I have 
to refuse to answer that question on the basis that the answer might 
tend to incriminate me. 



1398 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Mr. Wood. It is not so much a question, sir, of how you feel, but what 
you do. 

Do you answer, or not? 

Mr. Goodwin. No. I refuse to answer, on the basis that the answer 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you perform any duty or function for the 
Communist Party at Lynn, Mass., as an employee at General Electric? 
I should not say "as an employee," while you were employed at 
General Electric. 

Mr. Goodwin. The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee is in possession of information that 
the Communist Political Association met in convention in Boston, 
July 21 to 22, 1945, and that the invitation to this convention was 
issued by Dave Bennett. Were you acquainted with Dave Bennett? 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Along with the receipt of the notice for the holding 
of that convention, there was a statement, we are informed, which was 
sent out to various clubs, including the Maiden Club of the Communist 
Party, signed by Anne Burlack, James J. Green, Otis A. Hood, Boone 
Schirmer, William Harrison, Justine O'Connor, and Robert Goodwin. 

Do you recall having signed or helped prepare a statement with 
reference to that convention ? 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mentioned the name of Boone Schirmer. Are you 
acquainted with Boone Schirmer? 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mentioned the name of William Harrison. I ask 
you to look at this photograph which I now hand you and which I 
desire to introduce in evidence and request that it be marked "Good- 
win Exhibit Xo. 1," and state whether or not you can identify William 
Harrison's picture in that photograph. 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reasons. 

jNIr. Tavenner. I will ask you if you can identify the picture of 
Louis Budenz in tliat photograph. 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a Donald Tormey? 

Mr. Goodwin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you see his iDhotograph in that picture ? 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reasons as given 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Joseph Figueiredo? 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reasons as given 
before. 

Mr. Wood. You asked that that be received in evidence ? 

It will be received. 

(The photograph above referred to, marked "Goodwin Exhibit No. 
1," is filed herewith.) ^ 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Mr. Joseph Figueiredo and see 
if he is present in the room. 

Mr. Wood. Joseph Figueiredo ? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reasons as given 
before. 



^ See appendix, p. 1413. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE, OF MASSACHUSETTS 1S99 

Ml-. Tavenner. Have 3'ou at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the same reasons as given 
before. 

Mr. Tavexner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. AVooD. Mr. Doyle ^ 

:Mr. Potter? 

Mr. Potter. When you first heard about the testimony of Mr. Phil- 
brick, did you issue a statement denying these charges that he made 
against 3^ou? 

Mr. Kantrovitz. Will you repeat that question, please, Mr. Counsel I 

Mr. Potter. Will you read the question, Mr. Reporter? 

(The reporter read the question referred to.) 

Mv. Goodwin. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Potter. Did you make any public statement, statement to the 
press, denying the charges ? 

Mr. GooD"v\-ix. Xo. I made one statement to the press on the ques- 
tion of postponement b}- the committee, where I felt that the spy 
charges and the rest of it, if it was true, was so serious that the post- 
ponements — I think there were three postponements by the committee. 
That is the point I made. 

]\Ir. Potter. You say if they were true. Are you denying the 
charges now, the charges made by Philbrick in his testimony? 

Mr. Goodwin. The question I raised in the press statement yon 
asked about was the question of postponement. 

Mr. Potter. And I believe you stated in that statement to the 
press that if they were true they would not have postponed the hear- 
ings. 

Is that not true ? 

Xow, are you denying the charges made by Mr. Philbrick? 

Mr. Goodwin. Under the circumstances of today, I am 

Mr. Potter. Well, the circumstances here today are that you are 
here before the committee and you are under oath to tell the truth. 

Mr. Goodwin. In my opinion, under the circumstances today, I 
desire to refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. PoTFER. No further questions. 

Mr. Wood. It is not so much wdiat you desire. It is what you do. 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse. 

Mr. Wood. For the reason given ? 

Mr. Goodwin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Any further questions? 

Mr. Doyle, May I ask this question, Mr, Chairman : 

Will you furnish this committee with a copy of that statement that 
you released to the newspapers, that you referred to ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodwin. Would you frame the question again? 

Mr, DoTLE, Your testimony was that you furnished a statement 
to the newspapers. Will you furnish a copy of that newspaper re- 
lease which was authorized and given by you, say, within 10 days'? 
Will you mail it in to us? 

Mr. Goodwin, Yes. 

Mr. Wood. Has counsel further questions? 

Mr. Taat:nner. Yes. 

89067—51 11 



1400 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

In reply to Congressman Potter's question regarding the making 
of this newspaper statement, I understood you to say, "We made a 
statement." Whom were you referring to by "we"? 

Mr. Goodwin. Myself and Mr. Mills. 

Mr. Tavenner. And Mr. Mills. 

Who prepared the statement ? 

Mr. Goodwin. I refuse to answer, for the reasons given before. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. All right. 

I think, Mr. Chairman, in light of this development, he should be 
continued under the subpena until the 24:th of October. 

Mr. Wood. Until the 24th ? 

Mr. TaviI^nner. To the 24th. 

Mr. Wood. The 24th of this month at 10 : 30. 

You may be excused, and if between now and then it should develop 
that the committee will not require your presence back here, you or 
your counsel will be informed of that. 

The committee will go into executive session now, gentlemen. 

(Thereupon, at 3:23 p. m., the committee proceeded in executive 
session.) 



APPENDIX 

The folUnviiio- exliil)its wore introduced during the course of hear- 
ings in this vohune and are tiled with the connnittee : 

Stniik Exhibit Ao. 1. — Article appearing in the Boston Post, Saturday, April 
9, 1949, pages 1 and 2, with headline, "No Action by M. I. T. on 'Red'— Professor 
Not To He Curbed or Censured, Says Killian — Struik Denies Being Communist." 
(See pp. 13.S0. and 1401-140.").) 

Struik E.rhihit No. 2.— Article appearing in New Masses, July 8, 1947, pages 
12-15, entitled "Man Over Myth. Marxism and the Scientific Tradition. How 
the Founders of Modern Socialism Transformed the Rationalist Outlook Into a 
Science." bv Dirk J. Struik. ( See pp. 1333, and 140C-1411. ) 

Struik Exhibit No. 3.— Letter dated February 5, 1946, signed Dirk J. Struik, 
executive director of the Massachusetts Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 
Inc., on letterhead of that organization. ( See pp. 1335 and 1412. ) 

Struik E.ihibit No. //.—Article appearing in the Daily Worker, Monday, Novem- 
ber 22, 1948, page 4. with headline, "Civic Leaders in New England Rap Frame-up 
of 12' ". ( See p. 1338 : retained in committee files.) 

Struik Exhibit No. ■'>. — Catalog of the Samuel Adams School for Social Studies, 
37 Province Street, Boston 8, Mass., spring term, 1947, showing Dirk J. Struik, 
chairman, American Committee for Indonesian Independence, as being among 
the lecturers on the sul)ject The World Today ; as instructor of a course 
The Science of Society ; and as a member of the board of trustees. ( See p. 1351 ; 
retained in committee files.) 

Torninj Exhibit No. 1. — Photograph of four individuals. (See pp. 1381 and 

1413. ) 

Qoodnin Exhibit No. 1. — Same as Tormey Exhibit No. 1. (See pp. 1398 and 

1413). 

Struik Exhibit No. 1 

[The Boston Post, Saturday, April 9, 1949, pp. 1 and 2] 

NO ACTION BY M. I. T. ON "RED" 

Professor Not To Be Curbed or Censured, Says Killian — 
Struik Denies Being Communist 

President James R. Killian, Jr., of M. I. T.. made it clear last night he will not 
cen.sure nor curb Mathematics Vvof. Dirk J. Struik, .54, self-proclaimed "Marxist" 
lecturer, who was accused at the New York Communist trial of being a teacher 
of Red philosophies at gatherings in Greater Boston homes. 

A .short time later Professor Struik completed a mathematics lecture to M. I. T. 
students and denounced the trial as "one against ideas and not facts" and declared 
the American peojile for their own good should protest against its contiiuiing. 

Herbert A. Philbrick, 33, the Melrose advertising man who served as an FBI 
counterspy inside the Communist Party ranks for 9 years and who accused the 
professor from the witness stand, was branded as a "stool pigeon of no intellectual 
standing," by Professor Struik. 

The sensational accus;ition by FBI counterspy Philbrick against the M. I. T. 
profe.'^sor came as a startling surprise to M. I. T. and gave President Killian his 
first public decision since his inauguration last Saturday. 

TO BE INDEPENDENT 

When asked what he planned to do about the testimony of Mr. Philbrick, Presi- 
dent Killian de<lared his thoughts were included in four paragraphs of his in- 
augural address, which read : 

"Another obligation to be independent lies on all of our institutions of higher 
learning. In a period of armed truce, the fundamental principle of academic 
freedom is subject to stresses which we have not met before. One of the 

1401 



1402 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

gravest dangers of the armed truce is the danger that it will force America to 
relinquish or distort or weaken some of its basic civil rights. I hope that this 
does not happen either in our country or in our colleges. 

"The luiiversity more than- any other institution, resolves the dichotomy (a 
cutting in two) between the individual and the institutionalized aspects of mod- 
ern life. It is an e.iviroment where the dignity of man is more important than 
the pomp of organization. It is the sanctuary of the free mind and the mind 
which is not free profanes it. 

SPIRIT OF SCIENCE 

"We must hope that the cold war may not diminish the opportunity to be free, 
either on the part of the educational institution or on the part of the scholar him- 
self. 

"To curtail freedom in our institutes of technology would be to run counter 
to the spirit of science, which thrives best in an atmosphere of freedom 
practiced with responsibility — the responsibility of a company of scholars gov- 
erning themselves;" 

Previously President Killian had talked with Professor Struik, and Professor 
Struik revealed he had told his new university head he was a Marxist believer but 
did not advocate the overthrow of the Government of the United States. 

In an hour-long interview with a Post reporter, Professor Struik said he 
does "not know this man Philbrick, but it's clear he was at some private home 
where I spoke." 

SATS PHILBRICK LIES 

The professor, who came to M. I. T. from Holland in li)2(j and who has been a 
citizen since 1934, heatedly denied, however, that Philbrick quoted him correctly. 
"I have spoken at several private homes. What he says about what I said is a 
lie. I have never advocated the violent overthrow of the Government of the 
United States. I'm not crazy." 

Professor Struik, however, said he "believes in many of the Communist prin- 
ciples" but considers himself a Marxist and said "a Marxist does not believe in 
the violent overthrow of the government." 

Although he is not a dues-paying member of the Communist Party and says 
he does not hold a Communist membership card. Professor Struik declared that 
"as a Marxist 1 have seen many Communists and have read Communist literature 
and as a Marxist I have much in common with the Communists." 

He said he has never participated in any Communist activities and "stayed 
aloof" from joining the party. During the war, he revealed, he decided to join 
the (^ommunist Party because of their great work in the war effort, but later 
changed his mind. 

MUCH IN COMMON 

"I found it better not to join them as a party member. I join them in particu- 
lar action if that action is right. A true Marxist is one who realizes Marxism is 
a general and serious authority on world philosophy," he said. 

Professor Struik said he has never advised anyone to join the Communist 
Party and when anyone asked him such a question he would give that person the 
advice to find out for himself. 

Professor Struik said he readily agrees that Marxism and communism have 
many things in common. At one time he likened the two isms to the relationship 
of ('hristianity to some Christian church. 

The professor refused to name the private homes in Greater Boston where he 
gave talks on Marxist theory. "The people will be persecuted," he said. He 
revealed, however, he spoke "in many homes and in other places." 

He said public speeches on Marxist theory were given by him at the John 
Lee Club at Harvard, the Mattapan Forum, and at meetings of the Progressive 
Party. "I am a member of the Progressive Party," he stated. 

ENEMY OF FASCISM 

He said in the speeches, "I have not ridiculed the law of God or man. I have 
done my duty as an American to speak out on .subjects to which I have given 
some thought. I am an outspoken enemy of fascism," he said. 

Condemning the New York trial, Professor Struik said, "I think this whole at- 
tack on the Cominiuiist Party, carried on as it is with a stool pigeon of no 
intellectual standing, is very dangerous to the United States. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1 403 

'•It increases the war danger. I believe it is the duty of all American citizens 
to protest what is going on in the United States, especially this trial. It is a 
trial against ideas and not facts. It is like the monkey trial in Dayton, 
Ohio. The men on trial in New York are not accused of anything except ideas. 
Some I share and some I don't share. 

FEABS "trade MOVEMENT NEXT" 

"If I did not share any of their \iews I would still believe in a Nation-wide 
protest to stop their trial. I believe in the power of ideas so long as they 
are within the limits of the law. The Communist Party is a legal party and, 
as far as the evidence goes, the men on trial in New York stayed within the 
limits of the law," Professor Struik declared. 

The M. I. T. mathematician said he fears "if the trial of the Communists is 
won by the Government it will not be beneficial to the trade-union movement, 
for they will be next." 

Professor Struik said he will not ask that he be allowed to take the witness 
stand at the New York trial to refute the accusations made by Mr. Philbrick. If 
lie is called, however, "that would be another thing," he said. 

Professor Struik said his activities as a Marxist are purely in the "interests 
of peace." He .said he firmly believes the United States and Soviet Russia 
should have better relations and subscribes to the suggestion President Truman 
and Stalin should meet to discuss their nations' differences. 

MOTHER-IN-LAW "PROUD" 

While Mr. Philbrick continued to "pour it on" the Communists and their 
activities in this section of the country, in his testimony at the New York trial, 
his friends and relatives continued to express amazement at his being an 
FBI counterspy. 

Mrs. Bessie Luscombe, of 17 Wesley St., Somerville, his mother-in-law, de- 
clared she was not only surprised but amazed when she learned of his patriotic 
work. 

Sunday night, 2 days before he took the stand, Mrs. Luscombe said she was 
in the Philbricks' Melrose home at a family party. Philbrick said nothing about 
his going to testify. 

Mrs. Luscoml)e said she has not heard from either her daughter or son-in- 
law since the testimony started in New York. She revealed if she had known 
what her son-in-law had l>een doing, she would have advised him to "get out of 
it." She said, however, she is proud of him now. 

PLEASANT SURPRISE 

Mr. Philbrick's relatives at Rye Beach, N. H., were plea.^^aiitly surprised yes- 
terday when they heard from both Mr. and Mrs. Philbrick. 

Mrs. Otis Hadley. his sister, received a telephone call from Mrs. Eva Phil- 
brick during the day. The call was arranged by the FBI when Philbrick's 
uncle. Manning Remick, appealed to them for news about the safety of Phil- 
brick's wife and three children. 

Mrs. Hadley said, "I was pleasantly surpi'ised when Eva telephoned me. 
She said she has talked two or three times with my brother on the telephone 
and told me not to worry. She said she and the children are being guarded 
by the FBI and will be guarded for a long time. I told her we were worried 
about her and she told us not to worry at all for she was all right and had 
plenty of protection." 

Many Greater Boston people listening to a radio broadcast last night, heard 
a discussion of the Communist trial in New York during which Mrs. Eleanor 
Roosevelt, wife of the former President, expressed the belief the FBI shinild 
be given more iwwer to ferret out Communists. 



SAVANT ACCUSED 

FBI Counter-Spy Brings in Name of Tech Professor in Testimony at New 
YoHK Red Trial — Says He Led Discussion at Party Meeting 

New York, April 8 (AP). — A "voluntary worker" for the FBI in the Com- 
munist Party today named a ]\Iassachusotts Institute of Technology professor as 
a discussion leader in a party professional group. 



1404 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

The witness, Herbert A. Philbrick, 33-year-old advertising: man, said Struik 
attended meetings of tiie professional jiroup in the Boston area and summed up 
its studies of Lenin's State and Revolution. 

He was testifying at the Federal court conspiracy trial of 11 leaders of the 
American Communist Party. They are accused of conspiring to advocate violent 
overthrow of the United States Govenmient. 

Phillirick said the professional group was taught it was essential to over- 
turn the United States Government by force and set up a dictatorship of the 
workers. 

RECEIVED NO PAY 

The advertising man, who lives at Melrose, Mass., also told the jury ah<iut 
clandestine contacts with Government agents to tip them off to party moves 
and the web of precautions spun to hide his role from party officials and mem- 
bers. 

He said the FBI paid all his expenses, including his party diies and rental 
charges on a dictating machine used for his reports. But he asserted he received 
no pay and did his undercover job voluntarily. 

Details about Philbrick's FBI connections came out on cross-examination. He 
named Struik as a party figure before finishing his direct testimony for the 
Government. 

Philbrick, surprise Government witness who is closely guarded by FBI men 
as he enters and leaves the Federal courthouse, testified that special agents 
Lawrence Healy and Dick Dow were his contacts in the Bureau during the 9 
years he belonged to the Communist Party or its affiliates. 

Throughout this period, he said, he made typewritten, dictated, or oral reports 
to the United States Security Agency. 

SMALL GROITPS 

He told of sidling up to Healy at a main intersection in Cambridge to give 
him one of tbe reports. 

Philbrick said the party professional group of which he was a member met 
at the Cambridge home of a party member known to him only as Peg. He had 
testified earlier that those in the grovip used only their first names and split 
into small units for security reasons. 

At these meetings, certain passages from Lenin's book, which told of the 
necessity for smasliing the present Government, were stressed, the witness said. 

One such passage, he testified, stated the "working class cannot simply lay 
hold of the state machinery and wield it for its own use, but must shatter, 
break up, blow up, the whole state machinery." 

VIOLENT REVOLUTION 

The witness said teachers at the sessions included a groiip leader named 
"Martha," "a girl named Helen," "Jackie," "Dick," "Henry," and "Butch." 

Philbrick said the doctrines of violent revolution were taught at meetings of 
party clubs in Maiden, Wakefield, and Melrose, three communities in the Boston 
area, as well as the professional group. 



WRITES TO MOTHER 

Philbeick Glad To End Life of Ditlicity That Enabled Him To Keep FBI 
Informed on Red Activities in New England 

Rye, N. H., April 8. — Free of the 9-year veil of secrecy which has shrouded 
his triple life, Herbert A. Philbrick, 34-year-old Boston theater advertising 
executive, has written his mother that he is once more able to breathe free air 
and to emerge from the duplicity which enabled him to keep the FBI informed 
of Communist activity in the Boston area. 

So careful has the shy and studious spy hunter been that the brief note to 
his mother telling her of his freedom was relayed from Newton via a greater 
Boston minister, who placed it in the mail for the Rye Beach address. 

When liis mother, Mrs. Guy A. Philbrick, wife of a Boston & Maine Railroad 
conductor, learned her son was testifying for the FBI against 11 alleged Com- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1405 

iiHinists in New York, she said she wms the most surprised person in the world. 
She had no inklinu that lier son had any connection with the FBI and was 
shocked to tears when she learned her son had heen an active Connnunist stu- 
dent in Camhridjie for tlie purpose of supplying Federal otlicials with party in- 
formation. 

SPECIAL COURSE 

Mrs. Philhrick stated her son had taken a special course at Harvard in psy- 
chology in 1941 and it was about that time that he became associated with a 
supposedly non-Communist irroup. He was also active at the same time in YMCA 
and church organization work. 

Philhrick had charge of all the advertising for the M. and P. Theater chain, 
with lieadquarters in Scollay Square, and during the war promoted the very 
successful war-bond drives which the theaters sponsored and for which he was 
commended. All during this time he was attending the Communist school and 
learning of the plot to infiltrate into American industry, at the same time supply- 
ing the FBI with latest developments. 

An aunt of the undercover agent, Mrs. A. Manning Remick, wife of the Rye 
police chief, said she believed her nephew had taken such an active part in the 
undercover activities for the Federal authorities because of his inability to enter 
the armed services because of an eye injury received several years ago while at 
work on an engine?ring job in Hampton, creo.sote from a piling had damaged 
the sight of one eye. 

Philhrick assured his mother that he was well guarded and that he felt as 
if a terrific weight had been lifted from his shoulders. His wife, mother of his 
four blonde daughters, was not at his Rye Beach summer home as had lieen 
reported. She called her mother-in-law from an unannounced location in New 
England, assuring her that she and the children were in good hands and under 
constant survey by Federal agents. 



1406 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 



Struik Exhibit No. 2 



neiirmasses 









'h. 






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^ 



sTorrut ATCMmui 






w^/,. 



.-<.>^'^'V.K^Xy 



■"-^ N>^ 



.3a„"s 



Justice Takes a Holiday 

by VIRGINIA GARDNER 

Marx Against Myth 

by DIRK J. STRUIK :,,lv o ,_, 

' 15f^ • in Canada 20(f JUiy 0, 1947 



Struik Exhibit No. 2 
(New Masses, July 8, 1947, pp. 12-15.) 

MAN OVER MYTH 

Marxism and the Scientific Tradition — How the Founders of Modern 
Socialism Transformed the Rationalist Outlook Into a Science 

(By Dirk J. Struik) 

The Communist Manifesto was written at the end of 1847 — almost a century 
ago ; it appeared in February of the next year, on the eve of the revolution of 
184S. It was a manifesto, a political document, published as the platform of 
a small and rather obscure group, the Communist League. The temper of the 
pamphlet was polemical, defiant, passionate. Yet it was at the same time a sci- 
entitic document, a presentation of a philosophy of history and of society in 
general. It established social science not only as a means of understanding 
the social structure, but also as a means of changing and controlling it. It 
marked the birth of Alarxism, which now guides the lives, or helps to guide the 
lives, of millions of men and women throughout the world. 

The fundamental proposition, the core of the manifesto, belongs to Marx. 
This we know from Eiigels himself, coauthor of the manifesto and lifelong friend 
of Marx. That proposition is that in every historical epoch the prevailing mode 
of economic production and exchange, as well as the resulting social structure, 
form the basis from which the political and intellectual history of that epoch 
can be derived. Consequently the whole history of mankind after the disappear- 
ance of primitive tribal society has been a history of class struggles, of contests 
between exploiting and exploited, between ruling and oppressed classes. The 
histoi'y of these class struggles forms an evohitionary series in which nowadays 
the main oppressed class, the working class, can only emancipate itself from the 
ruling class, the bourgeoisie, by emancipating the whole of society from all 
exploitation, oppression, class distinctions, and class struggles. The philosophy 
of the manifesto made it possible not only to explain the past of society, but 
also to understand the direction in which present society is going. By analyzing 
the past it helps to guide the future. Socialism was seen as a conscious act of 
delivery from the contradictions of capitalism, the possibility of full control of 
society was deduced from the direction in which the primitive controls of present 
and past society are necessarily developing. 

Engels has remarked that this fundamental Marxian proposition is destined 
to do for history what Darwin's theory has done for biology. Tliere, out of 
haphazard actions of living beings — of which Darwin only recognized natural 
and sexual selection — general patterns of life evolve which, if properly under- 
stood, will eventually allow conscious interference by man in shaping living 
creatures. Engels also pointed out how the fundamental ideas which Marx 
applied to the study of society have already been successfully applied to natural 
science, to the theories of gravitation and light, to electricity, inorganic and 
organic chemistry. The great contribution of the Communist Manifesto was its 
method of viewing all human activity, with respect to nature as well as society, in 
the light of science. From now on not only nature but also the social structure 
could be understood and its behavior forecast and even controlled. The Com- 
munist Manifesto sketched for the first time, with inimitable clarity, not only 
the rationalistic but also the scientific approach to the problems of society. 

Two liun(h-e(l and ten years before the publication of the Connnunist Manifesto 
another document had appeared which had sketched, for the first time, the ra- 
tionalistic approach to nature. In 1037 there was published the Discourse on 
Method, written by the French philosopher and mathematician Rene Descartes. 
It is instructive to compare the two revolutionary documents, one of which stands 
at the beginning of modern natural science and the other at the beginning of 
modern social science ; one of which showed how to control nature, and the other 
how to control society. 

The Communist Manifesto makes the impression of a highly emotional appeal, 
addressing itself to the "proletarians of all countries." The Discourse is academic 

1407 



1408 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

in style, seems to attack nobody in particular, and explains the process by which 
one man, the author, has tried to estaVilish "the method of rightly conducting 
the reason, and seeking the truth in the sciences." But a closer inspection 
i-eveals the fact that the Communist Manifesto seeks also to establish a method 
of rightly conducting the reason and seeking truth. And Descartes' discourse on 
reason was in reality a powerfur battle cry. addressing itself to a revolutionary 
class, the emerging bourgeoisie, in an appeal to ctmquer the world by the use 
of science and invention. Cartesianism of the seventeenth century, like Marxism 
of today, was a highly controversial philosophy. Adherence to Cartesian prin- 
ciples brought many a good man in the time of Louis XIV into serious political, 
religious, and personal difficulties. 

Descartes rejected established authority and tried to set down rational rules 
for research. The real criterion for truth, he proclaimed, lies in evidence and 
reason. And thus he established his rule "never to accept anything for true 
whit'h I did not clearly know to be such ; that is to say, carefully to avoid pre- 
cipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgment than 
was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of 
doubt." By using such purely rationalistic — we can say matei'ialistic — methods, 
he saw enormous perspectives ahead : 

"I perceived it to be possible to arrive at knowledge highly useful in life ; and 
in place of the speculative philosophy usually taught in the schools, to discover a 
practical one, by means of which, knowing the force and action of lire, water, 
air, the stars, the heavens, and all the other bodies that surround us, as distinctly 
as we know the various crafts of our artisans, we might also apply them in the 
same way to all the uses to which they are adapted, and thus render ourselves 
the lords and possessors of nature." Descartes himself tried to contribute to 
the execution of his program by research and discoveries in optics, astronomy, 
medicine, and mathematics. 

It was a bold scheme, this program of Descartes, not only because research 
in natural science was only in its beginnings, but also because most people still 
had to i»e convinced of the rationality of a method which proclaimed that the 
only way of obtaining truth in the sciences is through experiment and reason. 
Medieval belief in authority was all-powerful. Classical, biblical, and ecclesiasti- 
cal statements were considered absolutely binding ; to break preconceived notions 
through the combination of reason and experiment was considered heretical. 
Catch-all words were used to denounce Cartesianism ; it was condemned as 
"atheistic," just as now Marxism is condemned as "totalitarian." Both Calvin- 
ists and Jesuits opposed Cartesianism. Descartes' books were placed on the 
Index in 1664. Three years later the interment of Descartes' ashes in a Paris 
church was forbidden. This persecution could not frighten philosophers and 
scientists ; even Catholic priests turned to Cartesianism. In Descartes' steps 
followed the great thinkers of the later seventeenth century, a Spinoza, a Huy- 
gens. a Newton, and a Leibniz. In the eaily eighteenth century Cartesianism even 
became quite fashionable in France. The triumph of natural science became 
the triumph of Cartesianism. 

• Descartes has now won his battle ; reason and experiment are universally 
accepted as the liasis for truth in natural science. JNIuch or' his specific teachings, 
on substance, on vortices, on the relation of body and soul, are forgotten. His 
method remains. There exists at present no reasonable scepticism concerning 
the truth value of natural science; few peoi)le doubt that logical and experi- 
mental evidence are able to solve those problems on which there is uncertainty. 
Not only academic teaching but grammar-school education is impregnated with 
Cartesian thinking. Every teacher of science, whether in Ohio or in Shansi, 
is in his own way a disciple of Descartes. 

We might also speak of a Marxian rationalism, since Marxism believes in 
man's ability to obtain objective information concerning the universe, and rejects 
supernaturalism. However, it differs from Cartesian rationalism in at least two 
important respects. In the tirst place, it extends its domain to the field of social 
relations. At the very beginning of his exposition Descartes made sure that 
he kept religion outside of his argumentation. He established a dualism of 
body and soul, of materialism and idealism. Marx subjects not only religion to 
his materialistic criticism, but the whole of man's social relations. With Marx 
all human activity, in nature as well as society, can be subjected to the Cartesian 
test of truth. Descartes made man and his powers of reasoning and of acting 
supreme in matters pertaining to substance, to natural science. Marx showed 
that man can become master of his destiny. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1409 

■ A second iioiiit of difforeiico exists!, rartesianisni is entirely unhistorienl. The 
very idea tiiat history, or human rehitions in SPueral, can be subjected to 
scientitic analysis, and tliat sn( h analysis may sliow that society is in a state of 
devehipnient — this very idea is alien to Descartes. IMarxisni, on tlie contrary, is 
based on the nnderstandins: that society is in constant chan.s;e. and points to 
the fundamental cause of tiiis chan.iie in class society — namely, the existence of 
the class strugirle. Cartesianisni, as compared to Marxism, is static, it knows 
no evolution : its dynamics is restricted to dynamics in the .sense of mechanics, 
and even this in a primitive way. The emphasis on social change in Marxism is 
combined with an equally strong emphasis on the interrelation of the sciences 
and the historical character even of natural science — all elements which ai"e 
missing in Descartes. 

These differences are so vital that it is better not to speak of Marxian ration- 
alism at all. hut to nse another term and to speak of Marxian dialectics. There 
is also a dialectical element In Cartesianism — for instance in its i-elation of 
algebra to geometry, of numbers to points on a line — but it is rather primitive. 
We might call it an early seventeenth century form of dialectics. Common to 
both modes of thought is the materialist rejection of supernaturalisra ; with 
Descartes in the domain of natural science, with Mai*x in the domain of all 
human thought and activity. 

The differences between Descartes and Marx are between a revolutionary 
thinker living at the beginning of the capitalist period and a revolutionaiy 
thinker living at a time when the industrial revolution was well on its way. 
Descartes, consequentl.v, was an individualist, while Marx was socially con- 
scious. Descartes' Discourse ojaened with a remark on the common sense of 
man and lets him doubt about the problems of his existence. Then, with the 
di.scovery '"I think, hence I am," man starts out on his philosophy of certainty. 
The opening lines of the Communist ^Manifesto are equally characteristic; they 
introduce man as a social being: "The history of all hitherto existing society Is 
the history of class struggle." These examples are typical. The Meditations 
of Descartes open with the author's own desire "to establish a firm and abiding 
STiperstructure in the sciences." 

Marx's Capital starts by introducing a commodity-producing form of society. 

Both Descartes' Discourse and the Communist Manifesto derive their primary 
importance from their method. Now. more than 300 years after the publication 
of Descartes' work, almost all of Descartes' specific contribiitions to science 
are antiquated. Several specific proposals contained in the Communist Mani- 
festo for immediate political action have also lost their importance for today, 
though its basic analysis and major predictions have stood the test of time. 
In both De.scartes and Marx the method of thinking has retained its full value, 
and Marx's, being the modern method, has a far wider appeal. Philosophy, in 
IMarx's words, becomes material power when it directs the action of the masses. 

The most striking thing about the Communist Manifesto is its uncanny time- 
liness ; but for some details the pamphlet could have been written today. How 
many political or sociological documents written a hundred years ago have 
this same immediate appeal? There are not many scientific papers of the years 
before 1850 which possess this timeless aspect ; the only documents I can think 
of are some books by the mathematicians Gauss or Laplace. Helmholtz' historic 
presentation of the principle of conservation of energy was also published in 
1847 — a worthy companion to the Communist ^lanifesto in the sweeping grandeur 
of its ideas. Yet the full text of Helmholtz' pamphlet has definitely lost its 
actuality. Natural science has moved fast in the past century, while social science 
has moved much slower, despite the enormous increase in specialized informa- 
tion. Marx and Engels are as timely today as they were in 1847. 

What are the main contributions to social science laid down in the Communist 
Manifesto? The core of the argumentation is the principle of historical ma- 
terialism, which we have already given in Engels' formulation. Moreover we 
find, in few liut meaningful words : 

1. The statement that every form of society is in a state of evolution, each 
form passing into another one. 

2. An analysis of the orisjin of the two principal classes of capitalist society, 
the emplo.vers and the workers ("bourgeosie" and "proletarians"). 

3. A description of the revolutionary role which the employing class has 
played, and of the way in which the laws of capitalist society itself force workers 
into organizations of their own choosing. 

4. An account of the causes which make the bourgeoisie more and more unable 
to remain the ruling class. 



1410 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

5. The conclusion that socialism will emerge as the result of the historical 
evolution of capitalist society itself. 

6. A materialistic analysis of the content of different ethical norms and 
sociological structures existing in present-day society, such as the forms of 
property, the instability of family life, the content of culture and so-called 
eternal truths like freedom and justice. 

7. A critical description of all previous attempts to change society into 
socialism. 

The manifesto gives an astonishing forecast of some of the most important 
social phenonjena of the past century : The growth of trade unions, the concentra- 
tion of capital, the political organization of the working class, the conflict between 
the private ownership of the principal means of production and the public inter- 
est, the formation of a socialist society. This is the more remarkable since in 
1847 many of these phenomena were hardly, or not at all, in existence. It is easy 
now to see some weaknesses ; the most interesting, perhaps, is its failure to 
mention the national movements for self-determination. Marx and Engels, in 
their later work, corrected some of these weaknesses themselves. 

The great struggle of Cartesianism was waged against authority and obscur- 
antism in the field of the natural sciences. This struggle had to be conducted 
against elements so benighted that we find it hard to believe that they were a 
reality. The fear of earthquakes and comets as tokens of a wrathful Deity is 
only one example. Another example was the Itelief in witchcraft. It is instruc- 
tive to recall that some of the most ardent fighters against this miserable belief 
came from the school of Descartes, sometimes directly, sometimes indirectly 
through intermediate interpreters. We think, for instance, of the Reverend 
Balthasar Bekker, who lived from 1634 to 1698 as a minister in the Netherlands, 
a good patriot and a highly cultured man, who tried to convince his fellow 
citizens to adopt a tolerant attitude to Cartesianism. He met with sharp 
opposition, which turned into violent hostility when he attacked the ancient fear 
of comets and the equally ancient belief in witches. His four-volume Bewitched 
World (1693) was a systematic, relentless, and ingenious attack on devils and 
demons ; with keen wit he unraveled story after story about ghosts and witches, 
and "exiled the devil into hell." It was one of the strongest pleas against obscur- 
antism ever written. Bekker's book was received with outcries of horror, espe- 
cially from the pn pit; he became involved in a long trial, and lost his position as 
a minister in Am -.erdam. However, already during Bekker's lifetime his ideas 
gained acceptance, and his book was able to save the lives of several wretched 
persons who otherwise would have perished on the scaffold. 

The struggle against obscurantism in the field of natural sciences is not yet 
won, not even in America ; but the Cartesian approach is at any rate accepted 
by most people with a rudiment of education. This is not the case with the 
acceptance of rationalist ideas in the field of social relations. A new edition of 
the Bewitched World could be written today, and four volumes would hardly 
be sufficient to deal with the material. From all sides, in newspapers and maga- 
zines, on the radio, in schools and from the pulpits, not to si>eak of the Halls of 
Congress, obscurantism is propagated with the greatest ardor. This, by itself, 
is not new. Fascism made obscurantist propaganda a fundamental part of its 
struggle for power. It was the propaganda of the myth, the legend, the lie, and 
the big lie. There exists a book called No Compromise, written by Melvin Rader 
(1941), which gives an analysis of this bewildering mass of conscious misinfor- 
mation. But the destruction of the Axis has not been the end of obscurantist 
propaganda : its geographical center has only moved to the United States. 

The present wave of misinformation has created new demons, devils, and 
witches, who are now collectively labeled "Reds" or "Communists," or "totali- 
tarians." No rational analysis is given of the meaning of these words, which are 
only used to frighten. The simplest rules of semantics are discarded : authori- 
tarian regimes are called demoiratic: liberal clergymen are called Communist; 
conceptions such as "freedom of the press," "religious freedom," "dictatorship" 
are used without any reference to their actual content. The result is that the 
average American of these days, if he believes what he reads and hears, must 
be living in a world of his own so fantastic, so utterly different from reality 
tliat Bekker would have no trouble in recognizing a new bewitched world. 

An understanding of Marxism and its main ideas becomes under such circum- 
stances extremely difficult. In sharp contrast to the widespread interest which 
other peoples take in Marxism stands the aloofness of many Americans. It is 
still a test of the liberalism of a college whether the Communist Manifesto can 
be freely discussed in the classroom. Even liberal instructors identify historical 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1411 

materialism with economic determinism, ignoring the fact that Marxism stresses 
that man makes his own history. This ignorance of Marxism is fatal, since the 
theory tirst expoundtMl in the Communist Manifesto is now guiding the destiny 
of millions of people with whom we have entered into the solemn covenant of 
the United Nations. How can we understand the Russians if we ignore their 
philosophy? They understand ours well, too well. 

It is sometimes amazing to see how scholars and scientists who would not 
write a sentence in their professional publications without exact documentation 
are willing to accept the wildest hearsay evidence about so-called Communists 
and totalitarians. They may well ponder the case of a contemporary of 
Balthasar Bekker, also a minister, the Reverend Cotton Mather of Boston. 
Mather was an admirer of Newton, advocated the Copernican rystem when it was 
still heretical to do so, was the first to propose variolous inoculation in America, 
and was a botanist of no mean accomplislmient. Yet he believed in demons and 
witches, and is now mainly remembered because of the disgraceful role he played 
in the Salem witch trials. His error stemmed from his inability to apply the 
rationalistic doctrine, which guided him in so many other cases, to the question 
of witchcraft, despite the fact that in his day the correct position was possible. 
There are too many Cotton Mathers in our schools and pulpits today. I.et them 
remember, if not the words of Marx, then at least those of Descartes and com- 
prise nothing more in their judgment than has been presented so 'clearly and 
distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt. 

(Note. — The following is printed in a box on same page with be- 
ginning of the foregoing article by Dirk J. Struik :) 

Marxism was born in struggle. 1947-48 marks the one hundredth anniversary 
of the Communist Manifesto, the document which introduced scientific socialism 
to mankind. 

A specter which has haunted the oppressors of man, Marxism for that reason 
has been ceaselessly attacked since its inception by the ruling class and its agents. 
It has been denied and denounced, "refuted" and "revised," from pulpit, press, 
and lectern. In our time it has been exorcised by Franco's firing squads, burned 
in the square of Nuremlierg — and in the ovens of Maidanek. In our own country 
it has been harried from liigh and low, by philosophers and finks, by sages and 
stooges, by Clara Boothe Luce and Al Capone — and hounded by J. Edgar Hoover 
and John Rankin. 

Embodying man's age-old dream for freedom, it has for that reason become 
rooted in the mieds and lovetl in the hearts of millions. Its victories are im- 
posing — and increasing; its adherents legion throughout the world; its greatest 
monument, the socialist society of the U. S. S. R., a greater power than ever. 
From the chaos and wreckage of the capitalist world Marxism emerges ever 
stronger, invincible. 

To celebrate this anniversary New Masses will publish a series of articles by 
outstanding autliorities on the meaning of Marxism in American life, its effects 
on science, culture, and politics. There will also be articles by leading Marxists 
of other countries. This essay by Dr. Struik, distinguished American scholar 
and professor of mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is 
the first of this series. 

The Editors. 



1412 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 



Struik Exhibit No. 3 

MASSACHUSEHS COUNCIL OF AMERICAN -SOVIET FRIENDSHIP, INC. 



3 5 ^ newbury street 9 boston 16, masaacJius^tf 



kenmcre 7 188 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS: 

Hon. Choirrron 

B i::hop G B.-omt^y ff f'i r'^"^ - 
Acting Choirmon 
Edw^n E. Goodeil, Jr. 
E>ccut>ve Director 
- Prof. Dirk J. Sfruik *^ 
Vice-Chairmen 
Alexander Brin 
Mrs. Harold H. Given 
T.-eC-sufcr 

Dr. Samuel G. Povio 
Executive Secietory 

Ethel Mechanic 

Kotrino B. Anderson 

Prof. Hugh W. Bobb 

Eugene Blum 

Anno Cort 

f-I, W. L. Dano >^ 

Dr. Albert C D.effenboch 

Rev, Stephen H Fntchmon"* 

William Harrison 

Bo^il Kacedan 

Noncy Cox Premo 

Eric Slarbuck 

Joseph Suk 

Sol Vorl ' 



SPONSORS: 

Leslie Arnold 

Mrs Edw.n F AtHns 

Prof. J A. C- Foggmger Aucr 

M.;s Alice Stone Blockwell 

Mrs. W/L Bc/den 

Pfof Edgar S Bnghtmon 

Lawrence G Brooks 

Dr. Hugh Cobot 

Prof. WoUer B. Connon 

Williom H. Cory, Jr. 

Pres. Korl T. Compton 

Mrs. Chorles A, Coolidge 

Rev. Frederick M. Eliot 

Joseph Ford 

Deon Lucy Fronklm 

Serge Goposchkin 

Dr. Bernord I Goldberg 

Mrs. J. B. Gordon 

Sidney Grant 

Rev, Dana McLeon Greeley 

Prof. Harrison Harley 

Bishop L. O. Hortn-ion 

Prot, Williom E. Hocking 

Prof. Howord Mumford Jones 

Mrs. Fonnie Sowditch Kotz 
"Dr. Serge Koussevitzky 

Richard Linsley 
-Prof. KJrtley F. Mother 
— Prot, F. O Molthiessen 

AIe;(onder Meyendortf 

Prof. George R. Minot 

Aton R, Morse 

Mrs John R. Niihols 

Rose Norwood 

Julio Swift Orvis 

Prot. Rolph Borton Perry 

Mis Williom Z. Ripley 
' Joseph Solerno 

Dr. George Sorlon 

Rl. Rev Henry K Sherrill 

Robbi Joseph S Shubow 

Mis. Arthur A. Shurclif* 

Joseph I. Seifert 

Nicolas Slonimsky 

Elihu 0. Stone 

Woiien S Sturgis 

Nicholos Vokor 

Howard Wilson 

Mrs Andrew N. Winslow 

Dr. Mory E. Wooley 



February 5, 1946 



Mr. Ernie Adams on 

Committee on Dn-American Activities 
House of Representatives 
Washington, D» C» 

Dear Sir: 

The address of Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam 
la 150 Fifth Avenue, New York 11, New York. 

Bishop Oxnam la the head of the Federa- 
tion of Churches of Christ of America* 

Youra very truly. 

Dirk /. Struik, 
DJSAo Executive Director 



■^k%-^»2 



\ 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 1413 



ToRMEY Exhibit No. 1 
Goodwin Exhibit No. 1 




xS»»> ««»«»»» 



a-3^mS 



Lower row, left to right, Donald Tormey aud Louis Ludeiiz ; at tup, Joseph Fife'ueredo 

and \A'illiam Harrison. 



X 



X- 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY ' 



3 9999 05445 3822