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Full text of "Express office hand-book and directory, for the use of 1,200 express agents and their customers : being the history of the express business and the earlier rail-road enterprises in the United States, together with some reminiscences of the old mail coaches and baggage wagons"

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WHOLESALE 



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mm mm. 



Nos. 55, 57, 59 and 61 HUDSO " STREET. 



OANAL STREET 



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;j:'f)s, '\ i-.U!' 



mutual Insurance Co., 

SI n^ALI. STREET, cor. William, 

INSURANCE AGAINST MARINE AND INLAND 
' NAVIGATION RISKS. 

Reserved Capital, Over $2,500,000. 



ASSETS, OVER SIX MILLIONS DOLLARS, VIZ. : 

Stocks of the United States, of the State of New-York, and of Kew-York 

City Banks. $2,587,021 01 

Loans secured by Stocks, Bonds and Mortgages, and otherwise, 755,510 00 

Real Estate, 200,000 00 

Dividends on Stocks, Interest on Bonds and Mortgages and other Loans, 
sundnr Notes, Ke-Insurance, and other claims due the Company, esti- 
mated at 115.407 48 

Premium Notes and Bills Keceivable, 2,r81,999 53 

Cash in Bank, '. 182,794 65 

Total Amount of Assets, $6,002,732 67 

The WHOLE PROFITS of the Company revert to the Assured, and the profits of each 
year are divided upon the Premiums terminated during that year, and for which Certifi- 
cates are issued, bearing interest until redeemed. 
Dividend of Profits declared Jantfary, 1860, 35 per cent. : 

Total Profits for 17K years, $10,428,470 60 

Of which there has been redeemed by Cash, 6,619,220 00 



TRUSTEES 



John D. Jones, 
Hbnry Coit, 
Lowell Holbrook, 
Edward H. Gillilan, 
Lkrot M. Wiley, 
Geo. C. Hobson, 
IIenky K. Bogert, 
Joseph Gaillard, Jr., 
Watts Sherman, 
Benj. Babcock, 



Charles Dennis, 
Wm. C. Pickersgill, 
Robert C. Gooduce, 
Royal Phelps, 
Daniel S. Miller, 
David Lane, 
A, A. Low, 
William Wood, 
Edward R. Bell, 
Fletcher Westray, 



Wm. II. n. Moore, 
Lewis Curtis, 
P. A. Hargous, 
Caleb Barstow, 

S. T. NiCOLL, 

James Bryce, 
William E. Dodge, 
J. Henry Burgy, 
E. E. Morgan, 
C. A. Hand. 

JOHN D. 



Thomas Tilleston, 
Charles H. Russell, 
Meyer Gans, 

A. P. PiLLOT, 

Joshua J. Henry, 
Wm. Sttjrgis, Jr., 
Dennis Perkins, 
Cornelius Grinnell, 

B. J. How LAND, 

JONES, PreMdent. 



Charles Dennis, Vice-President. 
W. H. H. Mooke, 2d Vice-President. 



BALL, BLACK & CO., 

^67 and 4i09 Broadway^ 

(S. W. COR. OF PRINCE STREET,) 

MANUFACTUTtllsra 

AND IMPORTERS OF 



^^ 



CLOCKS, 

BRONZES, 

GAS FIXTURES, 

RICH FANCY GOODS, 

MARBLE STATUARY, 
PAINTINGS, 
AND WORKS OF ART AND LUXURY, 



Wc have opened this establishment to the public with an entire new and 
magnificent stock of goods, to which we have added an extensive department 
for the sale of 

GAS FIXTURES, 

111. all their varieties. 

The building being of the most solid materials, and fire-proof, and fitted 
up yith steam power and all the modern improvements, expressly for the 
manufacturing of Silver Ware in all its branijhes, and the fabrication of 

Each department being furnished with an experienced artisan for designing 
and modelling, thus rendering it one of the most complete workshops in the 
United States. 

All orders, however extensive, will be executed on the premises, and 
under our own supervision. 

HENRY BALL, WM. BLACK, EBENEZER MONROK 



TODD ^ REYNOLDS, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Tlieir Celebrated 



c Q 



BEST' 











Gold and Silver Pencils^ 

166 BKO^nJV^l^^ 

New-York. 



These Pens are used by the principal Bank and Insurance 
Officers, Book-Keepers, Clerks, &c., in New- York, Boston, 
Philadelphia and other large cities, all of whom testify that 
they are the *' Best Fens they have ever used^ 

They will be sold by only one house in a town, aiid we 
will correspond with any responsible party who may wish 
to secure the exclusive sale of them in their place, stating 
prices, terms, &c. 

TODD A llEY»rO£l>S. 




University of California • Berkeley 

The Peter and Rosell Harvey 

Memorial Fund 




WM. F. HARNDEN, 

THE ORIGINAL EXPRBBSMAN. 




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DRUG ST^ItIlS,,^^^'a4/'argy 6^^/^j, 

<^^ttt^t^^a , HOUSE FURNISHING STONES. 

Grocery' Stores, WoodenWare Stores, 

p/^///a a////^/aAj//w^ o^o^ and omoe (2)tx>ted, 

SLOT STORES, AvOTHEVAlUES,cSr/Yi/Y4:m/^4J, 
Printers andType Founders , HA IE DRESSER St 

KAILKOADSp stables & HORSES, r^^^l^^, 



Curriers, SILVER SMlTn^,fi^rr/ua?^ 
COTTOX,WOOLEX and PAPER MILIiS, 
EXPORT, i^c.&(. 



leoo. 



EXPRESS OFFICE 

HAND-BOOK AND DIRECTOEY, 

FOR THE USE OP 1,200 EXPRESS AGENTS AND TBEIR CUSTOMERS, 

BEING THE 

HISTORY OF THE EXPRESS BUSINESS 

AND THE EARLIER RAIL-ROAD ENTERPRISES IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 

TOGETHER WITH 

SOME REMINISCENCES OF THE OLD MAIL COACHES AND 
BAGGAGE WAGONS. 



BY A. L. STIMSON. 



INTERLEAVED WITH IT WILL BE FOUND THE ADVERTISE- 
MENIB OF NUMEROUS MERCANTILE AND MANU- 
FACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS. 



[see index.] 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY JOHN K. STIMSON, STJLTIONEB, 
No. 77 Ckdab Stb4kt. 

1860. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by 

A. L. STIMSON, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of 

New-Yorl£. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



In issuing, for the use of the Express Companies 
and their customers, the present edition of the 
Express History, (corrected and revised, and 
written up to the present time,) the Editor has 
sought to augment its utility as an Express Office 
Hand-Book, by appending a list of all the Express 
Stations of any importance in the United States and 
Canada, together with a list of the Agents' names ; 
an addition that cannot fail to be constantly referred 
to, not only by Express employes, but by those 
patrons throughout the country who have inquiries 
to send to offices at a distance, in which case it is 
an advantage to know the Express Agents' address. 

To advertisers in the work the price of the book 
is $1 ; to all others, (except the 1,200 Agents, to 
whom it is sent voluntarily by the publisher,) the 
price is $1 50. 



KIDDER BROTHERS, 

161 Chambers Street, 

NEW-YORK, 

Manufacturers of 



Woollen and Union Kerseys. 
KERSEY, WOOLLEN AND LINEN HORSE COVERS 

MADE UP IN THE GREATEST VARIETY. 

Enamelled and Patent Leather Work, Russet Heins, Web 

* 

Halters, Bridles^ Martingales, Surcingles, Black and Russet 
Covered Buckles, Ribbon and Silver Rosettes, Pads and 
Gig Saddles. 

OF ALL KINDS. 

Also, importers and dealers in Pkiid Linen Sheetings, 
Burlaps, Bagging, Horse Blankets, Whips, Combs, Harness 
Loops, Blue and Scarlet Cloth, Rein, Girth, Roller and Boot 
Web, Worsted Bindings, Blanket and Shoe Threads, Tomp- 
kins' Gig Trees, Fly Nets, &c. 

IW LOW FOE CASH OB APPROVED CREDIT, 

H. A. KIDDER & CO., 

No. 161 Chambers Street, 

Near Hudson River Rail-Road Depot 



O. T^. BEHSTEDICT, 

' WHOLESALE DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

Paper and Twine, 

64 JOHN STREET, 

(COKNER OF WILUAU,) 

JVew-lTork. 



ALL SIZES, WEIGHTS AND QUALITIES OF 

MANILLA, HARDWARE, PRINTING, TISSUE, TEA AND STRAW 

Suitable for Hatters, Confectioners, Druggists, Shoe Dealers, 

Grocers, Dry Goods, Silk Merchants, Tobacconists, 

Printers and others, constantly on hand, at the 

LOWEST FRIGES. 

Lit f Ei, iiP ill NIL PiPEiS, 

Grlazed Papers, etc. 

For 'the accommodation of Printers and others, I sell parts 
of reams at the wholesale price. 

IS^ Orders by Express promptly and 
satisfactorily filled. 



OSBORN ^ SWAN, 

Importers and Dealers in 

HARDWARE, CUTLERY, £c. 

]\os. 33 and 34 Fulton Street, 

Between Pearl and Water Streets, *^'1j^ *^S^^» 




HORTON'S, ALBERTSON'S AND BARTON'S 

TRUSS UOOPS, RiraS, BICK IRONS, 

HOWELS, CROZES, COOPERS' MORSES. 

WINDLASSES, ANVILS, VICES, 
SHio-\rels, Sx3»'des, If'orls.is, 

CUT AND WROVtiUT NAILS, SPIKES, &e., &e. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Frontispiece. — A portrait of William F. Harnden, from a likeness in 
the possession of his widow. 

A Steel Engraving of Alvin Adams, (prepared expressly for this work, 

by A. H. Ritchie, 442 Broadway,) page 72. 

A portrait of Henry Wells, President of the American Express Com- 
pany page 106. 

Picture of the " Harnden " and " National " Express Office . . .page 62. 

Little Falls, on the American Express Route page 165. 

A California Scene on Wells, Fargo & Co's Route page 201 . 

The Old Mail Stage and Baggage-Wagon Business — Curious Rem- 
iniscences — The Origin of Rail Roads in New England — The 
Earlier Charters — Wm. F. Harnden starts the first Package Ex- 
press page 40. 

gart ^mU. 

Biography of Harnden — His Express Enterprises in America and 
Europe — His Decease — Subsequent Extension of the Harnden 
Express Business, and its present Condition page 40 to 60. 

Rise and progress of the second Express firm, Adams & Co. — Bio- 
graphical notice of Alvin Adams — An Express in a Hat! — Suc- 
cess of his firm — Extension of Route to Philadelphia — Sanford 
and Shoemaker's connection — Creation of joint-stock Company — 
Present operations, East, South and West, by the Adams Ex- 
press Company page 61 to 76. 

ii 



PINCHOT, BRDEN & SEABUKY, 

8acccs8«r8 to Israel miner & Co*, 

No. 214 Fulton Street, JKT. Y-, 

Wholesale Dealers iii Orupjs, Medicines, Paints, Oils, Dj e Stuffs, 
Patent Medicines, Alcohol, Burning Fluid, &Ct 



The Subscribers invite attention to the following 

POPULAR MEDICINES, 

»nd other articles of which tbey are the SOLE PROPRIETORS, and which they 
offer to the trade on liberal terms: 

SEABURY'S OLEAGINOUS OPODELDOC,- a celebrated remedy for Rhen- 
mati^ia, Burns, Wounds, Bruiifes, «tc.; also, an invaluable Uorse Liniment 
Retails for 25 cents. 

SEABURY'S COUGH BALSAM; a very popular remedy for all diseases of the 
Throat and Lungy. For Whooping Cough and common Colds it has no equal. 
Its rapid growth in public favor is an evidence of its real merit. Price, 15 
and 30 cents. 

SEABURY'S HIVE SYRUP is a most reliable medicine in Croup— no family, 
where there are young children, shmld be without it. Price, 12 cents. 

SEABURY'S WORM DESTROYER is a safe and certain exterminator of in- 
testinal Worms. Price, 25 cents. 

SEABURY'S RUBEFACIENT is very valuable as a counter-irritant ia Rhea- 
matism, Neuralgia, <fcc. Price, 25 cents. 

SEABURY'S Compound Extract of Cinchona and Gentian, or Fever and 
Ague Tonic; an unfailing remedy in all iutermitterits. Price, 75 cents. 

AT WOOD'S JAUNDICE & DYSPEPSIA BITTERS is an old and very 
popular remedy for all disorders of the Liver and Stomach. l*rice, 37^ centBi 

DR. HUNTINGTON'S TONIC BITTERS; excellent for debilitated persons. 
They iiuluce a good appetite, promote digestion, and relievo the most dis- 
tressing symptoms of dy.«pep8ia — the best preventive against Fever and 
Ague, and other bilious derangements incideot to warmclimates. Price, 10 
and - cents. 

DR. HUNTINGTON'S PULMONARY BALSAM is a good medicine for all 

Lung Complaints. 

DR. SHEPHERD'S BLACK OINTMENT is highly esteemed as a remedy for 
Rheumatism, Sprains, Burns, Chilblains, &c. Price, 12 cents.. 

ROBINSON'S HORSE LOTION is an excellent Liniment for Harness Galla, 
Wounds, <tc. In half-pint bottles, price 25 cents. 

HEATH. WYNKOOP &. COS Genuine Medicinal Cod Liver Oil is unsui^ 
passed for its purity. It is highly recommended by medical men who hav« 
used it in their practice. It is put up in bottles, at 5U cents and $L 

MINER & CO'S FLAVORING EXTRACTS have a world-wide reputation, 
and are unsurpassed lor their purify and fineness of flavor by any in the mar- 
ket. V'ery neatly put up in boxes of one dozen each. 

SEABURY'S REFINED CASTOR OIL is purified from all extraneous matter 
—may l)e kept (or years without becoming rancid or depositing any sediment. 
Put up in Ixjtiles of various sizes. 

SEABURY'S CHEMICAL LAUNDRY BLUING was the first introduced to 
the public — has been used for many years by bleachers and for Washing pur- 
poses — is perfectly soluble in soft or hard water, and is unequaled Ibr in- 
tensity of color and beauty of tint. Put up in Liquid or Powder, at 6 and 12 
cents per bottle or box. 

iii 



fart imvtU. 

Origin of the American Express Company — Henry Wells, pioneer of 
the business west of Albany — Crawford Livingston, and Ponieroy 
& Co. — Success of Wells & Co. — John Butterfield and his enter- 
prises— Wells, Butterfield& Co. — Consolidation of three gi'eat firms 
into the American Express Company — New^ organization in 1860 
— Vast operatioDS in the West page 71 to 90. 

The National Express Company — Major Pullen — Pnllen, Virgil & 
Co^s Express operations in Northern New York, Vermont 
and Canada — Creation of joint-stock Company — Present con- 
dition page 90 to 96. 

Thompson & Co's Express between Albany and Boston — Col. 
J. M. Thompson, of Springfield, Mas*. — The Express business 
East — The Eastern Express Company page 96 to 100. 

Wells, Fargo & Co's California Express — The United States Ex- 
press Company — Howard & Co's Express — Howard Express 
Company; their operations page 100 to lOT. 

The Transatlantic Express Lines — The " Globe ^ Express — L. W. 
Morris — W. Williams & Co. — Express business in New Eng- 
land — The Earle Express and others — Cheney & Co.— Fiske & 
Co page 107 to 115. 

Jones' Express (Texas & New Orleans) — Brees & Co. — The Coal Sec- 
tion Expresses — The Baggage Express business — Studley's Enter- 
prise — Westcott, Dodd &, Co. — ^The Manhattan Express Com- 
pany — Metropolitan operations page 1 IS to 120. 

iart iim. 

The Laws and Judicial Decisions relatire to Express liability in case 

of loss or damage page 122 to 150. 

Express Symbols — The Overland Mail Company — Bogus Expresses 
— Anecdotes of Expressmen and Express Trains — Robberies 
— Express Routine — Hiram Dixon's Method of Keeping Express 
Accounts page 159 to 208. 

iv 



DANIEL W. LEE, 

(Foraerly with RICH & LOUTREL,) 

|0lcsale & llctail <Stati0ntr, 

PRUTER, LITHOGRAPHER, 

AND 

82 JVassau Street^ 

Near Fulton Street, NEW YORK. 



Banks, Merchants, Insurance, Rail Road and 
iEzpress Companies, 

and others, pupplied with first class STATIONERY, DLANK BOOKS, and PAPER, 
«t the lowest paying rates. 

made of every required Pattern and Binding, in the best manner and at the shortest 
DOt'ice. 

^tkaq^Lafhlunc^ and JS^dntLrLq^ 

of every description, done in the neatest manner. 



COUNTRY MERCHANTS 

Supplied with all descriptions of Forei^ and Domestic Stationery 
and Blank Books, 

AT THE LOWEST WHOLESALE RATES. 



PAPER OF ALL KINDS AT WHOLESALE, AT THE MILL PRICED 

V 




li^siWii f'apip 



lanBfactnred and Sold by 



J-D.WEST 

& CO., 

179 Broadway, 




DOllBLE-A{!TlX«,MTI-FREEZIi\G, LIFTING & FORCING. 

Thro-ws an even, continuous stream vrith great force. 

It is more simple, yet stronger and raore durable, than all others. Works easier 
and is cheaper. They are in use in all parts of the United States, West Indies, Cen- 
tral and South America, and in Europe. They have been sold by us for six year* 
past, and give universal satisfaction. Call at our store and see the pumps of all siaea, 
adapted for all places and purposes, and get a descriptive circular. Hundreds of 
gentlemen can be seen in this city who have them in use. Please call for tbeir 
Qames, or inquire of 

W. B. DINSMORE Prwident of Adams Express Companj. 



R. HOE k CO New York. 

HENRY VVAan BEECHER Brooklyn, N. Y. 

fiOLOM R0F?1X.-0N Hunt's BridRe. N. Y. 

B. T. IIARIJIT BwlIoH Station. N. Y. 

WARRKN l.ELAND. . . Metropolitan Hotel. N. Y. 

ROBKRT RKN'NIE Lodi. N. J. 

CLARKSON. ANDERSO.V & CO Richmond. Va. 

C. A. HART. BRO. «t CO Newborn, N C. 

DR. J. ED. M.UVF.R WaUerboro. S. C. 

MII.LFR H.\M.OWKS St. Marv's. Ga. 

J. REMLNGTOV .Jacksonville, Fla. 

HON. S. R. MALLORY Fensaoola, Fla 

L. N. WALTHAL Marion. Ala. 



JOHNT W. PRATT Tn.scaloosa, Ala. 

MEYER. riKUrSCHE Ac CO. .Vatchea Miss. 

R. F. HARRISOX New Orleans, U. 

GII.LE.SPIE, MORGAN k CO. Ba.strnp. Texas. 

MAJOR A. MOROECAI, Watervleit Arsenal, West 
Trojr. 

HARLEM R K. CO New York. 

CEXTSAL R. R. of N. J Elizabeth. 

PESANT BROTHERS New York and Cuba. 

RARITAN & DKLA. BAY R. R New Jersey. 

HAVANA & MANTANZAS R. R Cuba. 

H. I.. REY.NOLl)-< k CO Mobile. Ala. 

E. V. HAUGH WOUT & CO New York. 



VI 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 

TO 



[Tlie pages marked ia Roman Numerals precede the body of the work.] 



PAOK 

Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co Covei 

Adams, J. J. A Co S*e Title »'a>fe 

American Watch Co 

Alt, CharleM Ply-leaf 

American Clock Co. »• 

Adam.H, Union 150 

An<lu:min Uates A W.lKlit 133 

Agate, J. & Co 

Akerly, CurtU 171 

Arctic ln:iurauca Co Ill 

Amerii-Hu Kxctiange Fire liia. Co 82 

Allyii House 65 

Apples-ate * Co 138 

Anicricau Guano Co. 74 

Alexander, CM 



Ball, niack * Co First Fly-leaf 

Urewsteri Baldwin... xl 

BranitiAll. Hedico * Co 16 

ItoH oil Kau>-et C^impany 163 

Beiij.imii:. J. K 16 

IJrown. II. A. A Ok 13 

Ualley, S. T 

ltcuuetl,J. A 39 

Backua. K. A Co 160,161 

B<-eH!ey, Joaepli 1*1 

Boeclic-r, A, P 

Bacon ManufacturtBKOo 107 

Blakeulee, K. 139 

Bromley, J. S. *K US 

BildKM, A k Co 13 

Bowles. S.B 

Ba>;arilui<, Jamoa SO 

Bale. 'I'iiomas M 9 

Benedict, a W Fly-leaf 

Baxter. C. U. * A. T. * Co lOa 

Berry, T. S. 

B<^als t Ureeue, (Boston Post) . ... 97 

Boniiey, Z. IB 

Buitman. II. A Co 127 

Butlertleld, A. t> 13!) 

Berrieu. U. A Co 115 



Continental Ins. Co vlll 

Clerk, Oiten * Baker TO 

Couover Jc Woolley 76 

Clark, James A 100 

Cory, W. U 37 

Couroy, J. J 39 

Cook, James xvl 

OhadwUk. M. C lOJ 

CunnlnKli-ini, J. F. 113 

Coleman, W. T. * Co 68, 69 

Coni-an, J. P 

Chevalier, J. D 

Clark. D. W , 

Cilstadoia 3 

Ciiamlwi lain H. S 77 

Commeirial Ailvertlser 9j 

Colt's Mduufacturlug Company En<l 

Dixon, n. k Son lOS 

DelafleUl k Baxter . Mi 

Doui^Us, Thomas 7 

Denulson, l>. U 16 

Diiiiham J. B 36 

DoMttt, C M 

Deakyue k Howe 83 

IiidKi", Ihos. II SO 

Diivis. Tlionias 7:. 

DabhK, O * Co 117 

Dickinson, W. tJ la^ 

Ouhmc k Coi. UO 



Kvans, (J. O XV 

KhkHsIi * Mersick 176 

Karlf. T. K. k Cc 110 

Kilney, J. W 10 

Evens. P , Jr. 13^ 

Klllott * Patten 81 

KvMis * Watson ir<3 

BvenluK Post 90 



Field, C. W. . . . 
Fairbanks k Co. 
Francis k Louti 



FAOK. 



Fiinston k Scofield 159 

Foley, John 6 

FraSLT, John M. 76 

Foul.is. K. P., Jr 31 

Pal. child. I^ W • 67 

Piazler, Mills * Co 122 

Poster, J. Jr. 4 Co 129 



Gilbert, S. B 1 

Ouruey Jk Son K" 

Oruber, J. P 2:) 

Galbralth, H a 

OilchtUt k Daniels U7 

Q.>eilecket . Klein A Co 8 

Gouraud, T. F in 

Home Insurance Comp«nv 9.T 

Ut-nick, W. k v.. K 156 

Kowlaul Jt FrotbinKham 61 

He^emaii k Co I4r< 

Hall Dixon k Co 3 

HIckcox.T. N 19 

Hopp.!, Jiilm K 43 

Hedges Jk Mois« 36 

Humor, Keller k Co .'.l 

Hull. J. C. k Sons 33 

Hedenberg, P. I.,, Jt Sou 47 

Hampton, Adam 2'.' 

Hills k Benton 177 

Hu.-lbnit.C. T U 

Hall X Waldron »(• 

Homans J. S .'>9 

Hartford ftliknufacturini; Company 

Hall. CaiT'dl k Co. 134 

Hunt Jk Wearl 65 



PAOM. 

New Haven Wheel Company 158 

New York Spectator 9* 

Osborn k Swan i 

Onion Jt Wlicelock 48 

Orr, N. 4 Co. 69 



Pinchof, Briien k Seabury ill 

I'ji.vuii & Cai'hart Cover 

Peck Biotheis IT 

Price, E. B SO 

Phelps k Kluj^nmns U 

Park, J. D ISl 

Pase, W. H. k Co 6« 

Peck, Mllo k Co 143 



Ridley k Co 34 

Klchardson, Boynton k Co FIy4<«f 

KeaKles. E 43 

KItchie k Ci US 

Kitcl.io, A. H l.-iS 

RuliHon, Dunne 131 

Kodney k Aikin» ISS 

lioscY* Brotheis MauulactuiiuK C0...ISS 



Sun Mutual Insurance Company.... 01 

Stimson, Valentine k Co US 

Suftou 4 Co 308 

Sands, A B. A C C 

S<^'hienrolln Brothtua A Co 4 

Stout 4 He;;eman SS 

>»OHleyA lA-e 5S 

I33'8iri-ell, Lrf-ni. W «T 

>eailes A WilUania 41 

Sudth, Dr. S. B 7J 

Stewart 4 Co a 

.«<chenck, J. B. 35 

Shedleid A Davis fi 

Selpho, William 94 

StiKcr, Kandolph 4 Co 8S 

Sloal , G . B. A Co 114 

Siiwrt A Petersim lie 

KIrtland. North 4 Piatt xli ^"'' '" ' " w"V n ^" i « 

Kidder Brothers Fly-le^irl^'"'"' ."^^ C.' |« 

Keiiiii W H „,|Spra)CUe 4 Co 137 

Kemp, W. Jl... ^iksmlth, A. D 141 

Stevens, Brother k Co 161 

itarr (Hue Company 



Jones 4 While 

J»linsi>u, Natli'l 

Jai-ksim. W. 4 S<m 

J. L. Mott Iron Works , 



Kempton, ¥. C. 



jkwrcnce, Bradley 4 Pardee 170 

Uach, s. B 

Litchfield 4 Doyle 149 

l^werre, O. W. 4 O. W 

Lee. W. H. 4 Co 

Low. Francis 8. 

l/se, D. W 

Linn 4 Dacker 2i> 

Leconipie, L 1 

I.MUK-e, J. 4 Bro 14 

LyoD 4 Brown lOi 



Mercantile Mutual Insurance Co 92 

Mui^s, H. Jr. 4 Smith oa 

Mason 4 Ely «;i 

McMurray, J. O. 4 Co 40 

.Many, Baldwin 4 Many 41 

Moss, GeoiKe A *> 

Marks. A. A 7 

McLellaii, D. 4 J xvl 

MiuKlc, P. B. 4 Co 79 

Murphy, K 15.. 

filler. D. D 146 

.Mendum, G. K. 9". 

Me.rlam, B. W 16 

Mayher, A. F. 4 Co lo7 

.Hiller 4 Coates 84 

Meiviu, R 119 

Mowry, S 66 

Moore. Wilsl>ach, Keys 4 Co 143 

.Men/.el, O. A. A Co I40 

Malilcr, Loid A Queicau 96 

Maltby, C. S 130 



New England Life Insurance Co. 

Nlcolay, A. H 

Noyes, William 



-■"loss k, Lane 17T 

Simmons, W 160 

n. Jolin, Raymond A Co 17S 

Sllnuon, John K. & Brn 338 

Sullivan A Hyatt 169 

Syracuse House IM 



Tiffany k Co Covei' 

i'a.-.lor 4 Brother 68 

rill k Knevels 7T 

Todii k Ueynolds Fly-leirf 

rracy, Oeoree M 174 

Dldinger, W. P. k Co 118 

United States Hotel 1S4 

Van Vleck, J. T 64 

Van Horn. C 48 

VaKt, J. O U 

Van Antweip k Co 62 

West, J. D. 4 Co vi 

Woodward, Eugene sltr 

Wihier. B. G. k Co ii» 

Woerner k Mneale. 149 

Walling, H. F 31 

Wells, B. G ST 

Wilde. 8, k Son Fly-Ienf 

Wilson. D. C. k Co M 

Williams. C. F 46 

Woodman, OeorKe «I 

Whiton, A. >. k A. G 61 

Willard. J. W. k Co n 

Winch, A 106 

Warne, K. A lU. 

Ware, H IS* 

Wdetler k Dixon 106 

Worcester Wire Works 88 



Vll 



THE INSURED PARTICIPATE IN THE PROFITS, 

Without incurring any Liability whatever. 



(mTlNENTAL l^^SU.RANCE CO, 

CITY OF NEW YORK. 
OFFMCE, J%^o. 18 irvil/l. STREET. 



STOCK CAPITAL, (all paid in, and securely invested,) $500,000 
SURPLUS, 450,000 



Insures Buildings, Merchandise, Household Furniture, Rents, Leases, and 

other Insurable Property, against FIRE, at rates charged by 

other solvent Institutions. 



Three-fourths of the net profits of the bufinesa of this Company are divided 
annually to holders of its Policies. 



FlTKt Annual Division to Policy Holders, declared Jaly 9(h, 1857, - - 33i percent. 
Second «« «< »( July Sth, 1 58, - - 50 '' 

Third <( (( (< July Ufb, 1859, - - 50 «« 

Foortb (( «< wiU occur <« 1&60, 



DIRECTORS. 



GEORGE T. HOPE, President. 



A. A. I/)W, ..of the firm of.. A. A. Low & Brotlier 

WllUAM V BRAIiT. 

Thomas 'Dlkstd.v, (Pres. Phenix Bank,) SpofTurd, 

Tilestou A: Co. 
Gw>. Griswoij), of the firm of.N. L. & G. Griswold 



JAIHS Frkkla\d 

Wm. H. Cary 

1. H. BRiaaAM 

Sam'lD. Baro)ck .. 
Adrriius B. Hull... 

A. SrVDWBLL 

JoH» H. Eari.r 

Cbas. M. CoNNOixy, . 
Wm. H. Swa.\. 
Damrl W. Tkixkr,.. 
Shkppard Gandy, . . 
John Fa ink. 

Co*-*. H. B<X)TH, 

VfM. M Vail. 

TmiMAS Smi'll. 

James A. Edgar. ... 

)>AWRKNCK TeR.\UHK, 

BiramBarnky, 



.. Freelaiid. Squires X Co. 
Gary. Howard, ^^ange^ & Co. 

Urighain A: I'arson.s 

. . Babcock, Brothers & Co. 
B. A. Fahnestock. Hull* Co. 

A Slu.hvell &Co. 

...J'mallwood, Earle & Co. 
..Chas. .VI. Connolly & Co. 

. . Galwey. Casado & Teller 
.Robert &WiIUaiu8 



nth & Tuttle 



Thomas Smull & Sons 

Booth A: Kd^ar 

.. Mo.se8 Taylor & Co. 
.Barney, Butler &. I'ar.sons 



^VII^o^• G. Hu.vr.of the firm of Wilson G. Hunt ft Co. 



B>^Al)Isu JoH.vsux, .. 
Thomas Fraskr, .... 
S. B. Chittk.vpkn, .. 

JoH.v Caswkli. 

Edmund M. Young.. 
Wklu.ngio.v Clasp . . 



..Wm. M. John.son'M Son. 
.. .Thos. Eraser & Brother 
... S. B. ( hittenden & Co. 

John Casweli & Co. 

. . . .Young. Hiultz & Co. 
Clapp & Kent 



CYRUS PEOK. Assiatant Secretary. 



Lycirgus EiKikRTox, ' L.Edger ton, Rogers & Hatch 
....C. H. Marshall & Co. 

I). & A Dows & Co. 

. . . Boweu. Holmes & Co. 
. .Ricbardx. Haight & Co. 
Geo. S. btepbenson k Co. 
Wrijjht. Gillett & Rawsoo 
. . Sawyer, Wallace & Co. 

Geo. W. Lane & Co. 

Adams & Hawthorn 

.. . . Claflin, Melleu & Co. 

I). H. Arnold, (Pres. of .Mercantile Bank) 

J. H. Ra-\S(»m, " J. H. Ransom & Co. 

Hknrv Eyre. 

JoshPH Battkli., " . . Eagleston. Battell k Co. 

RoBT. H. McCukdy,. " . .late McCurdy, A.'drich & 

Spencer 

H. H. LAMPORT, Secretary. 



(.'harlks i.ampox, ... 
John I>. Maiks 

HK.NRY C. riOWKN, . 

Wm. M. Richards,.. 

GKO. S. STEPHK.VSO.V, . 

JoH.v H. Wright. . . 
Samuki. a. Sawyer,. 

Gbo. \V. L.\nk 

RoBr. H Hawthorn, 
HOKACK B. Clafu.\, 



Till 



BUiSlJNJiiSS INDEX. 



AUCTIONEERS OF STOCKS. 

Albert H. Nicolay, 52 Wall St., N. Y. .p. 109 

ACCOUNTANTS. 

Wheeler & Dixon 108 

Hiram Dixon & Son 108 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, &C. 

A.F. Mayher&Co 1G7 

ARCHITECTS. 

B. G. Wells 67 

ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 

William Selpho 94 

A.A.Marks 7 

ARTIFICIAL EYES. 

Thomas Davis 75 

AUSTRALIA AND CALIFORNIA PACKETS. 

W. T. Coleman & Co 09 

Mailler, Lord & Qiiereau 9s 

Sutton «fc Co. ... 206 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELLORS. 

Bloss .V Lane, St. Louis 177 

J. P.Conraii d-i lOl 

Henry Morgan, Albany, Ga 

BANKERS. 

H. Meigs, Jr.. «t Smith 63 

W. T. Coleman & Co t)« 

J. T. Van Vleek U 

Van AntwiTp & Co 65 

T lylor Brothers 65 

BEDS AND BEDDING. 

W. S. Di'kiuson 128 

Martin Willard 168 

• BOOKSELLERS. 

G. G. Evans, Philadelphia xv 

A. Winch 106 

R. Mclvin 119 

D. W.Clark I'-'O 

BOOTMAKERS. 

Joseph Beesley 171 

BROKERS. 

Custom House, John K. Stimson & Bro. . 228 

BUG AND ANT POISON. 

Killam's Exterminator 172 

BRUSHES. 

J. J. Adtims .V. Co See Title Page 

J. (;. McMirray& Co 40 

J. K. Ho. pel 43 

D. Berrie.1 «& Co 145 

CANDIES. 

Btewart iV Co 2 

Ridley & Co 24 

CEMENT. 

Delafield A- Baxter 86 

CHINA AND GLASS. 

J.G. A. Vagt 11 

CLOCKS. 

American Clork Company 35 

E.BIakeslee 139 

A. D. Smith 141 



CLOTHING. 

Pavan A Carhart See Cover 

T. W. Spragne & Co 137 

CARRIAGE BUILDERS & WHEELWRIGHTS. 

Brewster fi Baldwin xi 

Lawrence, Bradley & Pardee I7ft 

English k Mersick 176 

S B. Gilbert 1 

H.S. Chamberlain 77 

CORDAGE. 
Excelsior Patent Cordage (jompany. . . 61 

DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS. 
J. W. Willard & Co 

DENTAL INSTRUMENTS. 

J. D. Chevalier 144 

Jones & White 101 

DRUGGISTS. 

A. B. Sands & Co 6 

SchieRelin Rrothers 4 

Hi'geman A Co 148 

Pinchot Brnen k Seabury i'i 

Hall. Dixon it Co 3 

C.T.Hurlbuit 62 

DIES AND STENCILS. 

T. H.Hickcox 19 

ENCAUSTIC TILES. 

Miller & Coates 34 

ENAMELLED IRON WARE. 

J. L. Mott Iron Works 

ENGRAVERS. 

A. H. Ritchie 15S 

[For specimen, see portrait of Alvin 

Adams on page 72.] 

N Orr.V Co 89 

Stout .V Hegeraan 32 

C. Reagles 43 

FANCY GOODS. 
Kirtland, North it Piatt xii 

FIREWORKS. 

Funston fi Scofield 169 

Robert Foulds, Jr 31 

FISHING TACKLE. 

T.H. BateAiCo 9 

J.J. C<nroy 29 

Clerk, Green* Baker 70 

FORCE PUMPS. 

J. D West & Co vi 

J. M.Edney 10 

Burnell's (8. B Leach) 78 

FORWARDING MERCHANTS. 

John K. Stimson & Bro 

FRUIT. 

Sheffield* Davis 86 

Curtis Akerly 171 

FURNACES. 

W.H.Cory 37 

F. L flfdenberg^Son 47 

Richardson, Boynton «& Co Fly-leaf 



IX 



BUSINESS INDEX. 



FURNITURE. 

Phelps A; Kingmaus 14 

W. H. Lee&U<» 6i) 

N. Johnson— School 49 

FRAMES. 

Searles & Williams 42 

Goedecker, Klein & Co 8 

Woeruer & Muhle 142 

gentlemen's furnishing. 

J. Agate tt Co 44 

P.C. Kempton 62 

Litchfield A; Doyle 14:) 

Union Adams 150 

Geo. M. Tracy 174 

GOLD BEATERS. 

W.H.Kemp 31 

GOLD PEN MAKERS. 

Todd t^ Reynolds Fly-leaf 

John Foley H 

H. A. Hrown & Co 13 

L. VV. Fairthild 67 

GRATES AND FENDERS. 

A. Hampton 22 

Conover k WooUey 76 

W. Jackson & Son 27 

GUANO. 

Ajnerican Guano Company 74 

GLUE. 

Starr Glue Company 98 

HARNESSES. 

Kidder Brothers Fly-leaf 

Smith B'uirn ^St Co 12« 

A. S. Butterfleld 139 

HARDWARE. 

Osbom «V Swan -;• V' ^ 

Many. Baldwin & Many ... ^ .". 41 

C. Van Horn :;.;:;.. . .... 46 

HOM(EOPATHIC MEDICINES. 

C.T. Hurlburt 52 

HOTELS. 

Bonney '8, Buffalo 18 

S.Jrtmes' '• IS 

United States Hotel 24 

Allyn House. Hartford 55 

Syracuse House 168 

IRON BUILDINGS. 

James Bogardus. 30 

IRON PIPES, ENGINES, &C. 

Banter, Keller & Co 51 

IVORY. 

D.D. Denison 15 

INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

Atlantic Mutual Cover 

Sun Mutual 91 

Mercantile Mutual 92 

Conti neut.1 1 viii 

Home Insurance 93 

New Kngland Life 6H 

Arctic. Insurance ..... Ill 

American Exchange 62 



JEWELRY. 

Bijll. Black & Co 1st fly-leaf 

Titfany & Co cover 

JLauge&Bro 141 

LAND WARRANTS. 

George Woodman 27 

LANTERNS. 

D. D. Miller 146 

HaU & Waldron 88 

LEATHER, BELTING, &C. 

James Cook xvi 

Prazier, Mills «fe Co 122 

LITHOGRAPHERS. 

D. & J. McLellan xvi 

G. A. Menzel & Co 140 

LUMBER AND MOULDINGS. 

J. P. Cunningham 112 

LOOKING-GLASSES. 

B. W. Merriam 1(5 

MACHINERY, MILLS, &C. 

J. B. Scheuck 25 

Stevetis, Brother Jk To 151 

M. C. Chadwick & Co 102 

T. K. Earle «%, Co 110 

J. A. Bennet 39 

Mil) Peck & Co 142 

Boston Faucet Company 163 

MAGNETIC MACHINES. 

Dr. S»B. Smith 73 

MAHOGANY, &C. 

G. W. k G. W. ixiwene 8 

Gilchrist & Daniels 147 

MAPS AND CHARTS. 

H. P. Walling ,. 21 

MARBLE (and ARTIFICIAL STONE.) 

E. B. Price 20 

Richard Murphy 155 

MILLINERY & STRAW GOODS. 

W. Simmons 150 

MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

J. Poster, Jr., & Co 129 

NEEDLES. 

Clerk, Green & Baker 70 

NEWSPAPERS & MAGAZINES. 

N. Y. Spectator 99 

N. Y. Daily Evening Post 90 

Boston Daily Post 97 

A. Winch. News Agent 105 

Bankers' Magazine 59 

NOTIONS YANKEE. 

Eugene Woodward xiv 

OPTICIANS. 

Henry Ware 136 

Charles Alt Fly-leaf 

OYSTERS. 

C. S. Maltby 130 

PATENT AGENTS & SOLICITORS. 

Thomas H. Dodge 80 

Elliott .V Patten 81 

C. M. Alexander 88 

Francis S. I owe 6 

L. W.Serrell 67 



CARRIAGES. 




•-^^ ,^rf/»^' 



SBSWSTISR & BAZ.DWZNy 

MAXUFACTUr.ERS OP 

FIRST CLASS CARRIAGES 

Next to Grace Church.] Cor. of T. nth Street 

NEW YORK. 

ILL USTHA TED CA TAL OG UES FURNISHED A T EEQ VEST. 



XI 



KIRTLAND, NORTH ^ PLATT, 



IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IK 



Jfautj (i00irs, 



HOSIERY, WHITE GOODS, 

Caibrs* Crinimiitgs, h., 

20 Cortlandt Street, New York. 



We invite the attention of dealers in the above goods to our 
large stock, which will be found suitable for all markets. 

Having the best facilities for buying from the manufacturers 
and importers, we are at all times prepared to sell to first-class 
merchants at the lowest market price, for cash or approved 
credit. 

Please call, and we will with pleasure show our stock, and 

fjive prices. 

xii 



BUSINESS INDEX 



PATENT MEDICINES. 

John D. Park 131 

PAINTS, OILS, GLASS, &C. 

G. H. & S. T. Baxter 103 

Lyon & Brown lOG 

PAINTERS. 

8. T. Bailey 

PAPER WAREHOUSES. 

C. W. Field A Co 157 

C. W. Bei.edict Fly-leaf 

Hedges & Morse 26 

James A. Clai k 100 

PIANOS. 

T. S. Berry 54 

Jno. B. Dunham 36 

PISTOLS AND FIRE-ARMS. 

Colt's Miinufiictunnn Co End 

Bacon MaimfiHturiug Co 107 

Onion & Wheelock 48 

PHOTOGRAPHERS. 

J. Gurney A, Son 87 

A. P. Bee -her 5S 

J. VV. Willrtid.^Co 71 

G. Dabbs & Co 117 

PRODUCE COMMISSION. 

Hunt k Weart 55 

DertkyneA Howe 82 

C. Donat 84 

Mason fc Ely h3 

Stiger, llandolph & Co 88 

PUBLISHERS. 

D. Riilison 121 

Applej?ate tV C«). ... 132 

Ritchie & Co., Engravings 153 

RANGES. 

Bramhall, Hedge & Co 162 

RAIL ROAD SUPPLIES, &C. 

A. Bridges .V Co 12 

A.S. .fe A. G. VVhiton 67 

S. B. Bowles 1 

SAFES. 

B. G. Wilder & Co 113 

Hall.(^arroll & Co 134 

Evans & Watson 152 

SCALES, WEIGHTS & MEASURES. 

Fairbanks cV Co cover 

John P. Gruber 23 

SEWING MACHINES. 

G. B. Sloat .V Co 114 

W. P. UliliiiKer&Co 115 

H. C. Buriman 127 

SEED, &C. 

P. B. Mingle & Co. 79 

SKIRTS. 

Peck Brothers 17 

SHOW CASES. 

J. H. Fraser 76 

STATIONERS, ( WHOLESALE. ) 

Araos & Barnes 72 

W. ,V C. K. Herrick l.^»< 

Ad^tsou, Gates & Wright 133 



STATIONERS AND PRINTERS. 

Francis ."fe Loiitrel 96 

Moore. Wilsbach, Keys & Co 143 

U. W. Lee y 

Applegate it Co 132 

John K. Stimson A Bro 166 

SOAPS AND CANDLES. 
J. C. Hull's Sons 



33 

SILVER PLATED WARE. 

Hartford Manufacturing Company.... 123 

Rogers Bio's Maiuifacturiug Compauy. 125 



STOVES. 

v.. Backus <fc Co 

Stairt & Peterson 


.160, 161 
116 


TAILORS. 
St. John, Raymond & Co 


175 


TAILORS' TRIMMINGS. 
Till & Knevals 


77 


TIN CANS. 

C. F. Williams 45 

TOOLS. 

Douglass Manufacturing Co 7 

Osborn & Swan i 

TRUNK makers' MATERIALS. 

D. C. Wilson & Co 20 


TRUNKS. 
G. W. Sholl 


135 


A.S. BuiterQeld 

TRUSSES. 
J. R. BcDJamio 


... 139 
165 


VARNISHES. 
Stim.son, Valentine & Co. . 


118 


WATCHES. 
American Watch Co 


fi3 


D..hnie k (>> 

E. A. Warne 

WASHING MACHINES. 
Sullivan & Hyatt 


... 140 
... 118 

Ifift 


WIGS AND TOUPEES. 
Cristadora 


WINES AND LIQUORS. 
Geo. Mendnm 


96 


Linn & Decker 


. . . . 28 


MISCELLANEOUS. 
S. T. Bailey. Knjbleniatic Signs. . . 

8. M<'Wiy s Axles and lSprinj;s 

W. H. I'age dc Cos Wood Jype. . . 

B. (L Wells, Architect 

William No>es, Damper Governor 
Wone.'^ier \\ iie \\ oi ks .... . 


... 60 
... 66 

. . . . 66 
. . 67 

.... 164 

5l« 


Sealey A Lee. Stereoscopes 55 

New Haven Whiel Mainiiac tory 158 

G. W. Sholl & Co., Patent Burial Cate. 135 

P. Evans, Jr.. Seal Pie>ses 138 

Empire Sclmol Furniture 49 

Hills ,V Benton, Sieain Heaters 177 

T. F. Gowraud. C-'smetics, &c 227 

George A. Moss, Inks and Soaps 8 

S. Wilde & Sons, Cotlee . Fly-leaf 

H. (Jalbraith. Carriage Trimmings ... 2 


Hi '• "^^ 


OVKR. 



CHEAPEST STORE 

IN NEVr YORS CIT7. 



27 Cortlandt Street, 

2d and 3d Floors, SSW ¥@SS. 



o 

(S 



t 

I 

H 

I 
I 

m 

s 

8 



I sell best Steel HOOP SKIRTS $2.75 per dozen. 
I sell PINS for 34 cents per pack. 

Others sell them for U cents, 
I sell Willimantic & Clark's SPOOL THREAD for 36 tents per dozen. 

Othei-s sell it for 4U and 4o cents. 
I sell J. & P. Coats' SPOOL THREAD for 42 cents per dozeu. 

utUers sell it for 47 cents. 
I sell RUBBER COMBS, long or circular, for $1.00 per dozen. 

Others sell them for $1.50. 
I sell good Italian SEWING SILK for $3.75 per lb. 

Others sell it for $5.00. 
I sell Swan-bill HOOKS AND EYES for 62 cents per great gross. 

oilieis sell them for 81 cents. 
I sell LADIES' LEATHER BELTS for 23 cents per dozen. 

uther^j ^ell them for 50 cents. 

Please Call, Buy, end Save 20 per cent. 



9 

(ft 

u 

J 



Gold and Silver Watches. Rings, Bracelets, Breast Pins. Gold Pens and Pencils, 
Thimbles. Silver-Plated Knives, Forks aud Spoons, 500 kinds of Perfumery uud 
Soaps, Paini auil Varnish Bru>he8, Whittw.ish, Clothes, Tooih and Hair Biushes, 
Foolscap aud Note Paper, huvelopes. Ink and Steel Pens, British Lu.^ti'e, Glue, blu- 
ing, Sieel, brass and lieed Hoops, Woolen Yarn, Zephyr Worsted, Kniiling Cotton, 
Carpel Bags, Porte Monnaies, Pocket Books, Razor birops aud Razors, Spectacles 
and Cases; a great variety of Pocket and Table Cutlery, Scissors and Shears. 

TAILORS' GOODS. 

Cloths, Cassimeres, Vestings, Paddings, Canvas, Silecia, Coat Lining and Bind- 
ing, Silk, Twi&t. Thread, Baitous, Batis, Shirts, Bosoms, and Cotton Drawers, Wrap- 
pers, Stocks aud Cravats. 

MILLINERY AND SILK GOODS. 

Bonnets aud Frames, Ribbons, Flowers, Ruches, Feathers, Silks, Shawls, Para- 
sols and Umbrellas. 



Linens, Linen Handkerchiefs, Table Cloths, Diapers and Napkins. 



Carpets, Oil Cloth and Druggets. 



Lace Goods and Embroideries. 



pi 

a 

Q 

o 
o 
p* 

I 

Q 

P 

a 



Great variety of Cotton and Woolen Hosiery. 

E. WOODWARD, 

ii..e««orfA.woodw.r4.i 27 Cortlandt St., W. Y. 

xiv 



GEOKaB G. EVANS. 



K"^^ ,ii5»-« j.L.^ )^s A yiim'i^m Ji^^m ^t^^-mm q. 



m ORIGINATOR OF THE GIFT BOOK EM'ERPRISE. 



Important to Br)ok buyers ! Owin^ to the extensive patronage bestowed upon the original 
Gift Book Enterprise, 

INSTITUTED IN 1854, BY GEORGE G. EVANS, 

And now permanently located in the large Iron Building, 

No. 439 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

And from the increased facilities of the establishment, he is now prepared to distrilmte more valua- 
ble gift" llinn herelofore to all who patronize his liberal method of disposing of New and Standard 
Works, and to award a larger per cenlage to agents than any olher establishment in the country. 

IF YOU ARE IN WANT OF BOOKS OF ANY KIND, 

Send to the Head-Quarters of 6. 6. Evans, 

Thif oldest uud largest Gift Book Enterprise in the World, 
IVo. 439 Chestnut Streel, Philadelphia. 

YOU CAN GET GOOD BOOKS, YOU CAX GET CHOICE BOOKS, 

YOU CAN GET ALL THE NEW BOOKS, YOU CAN GET ANY BOOKS YOU WANT. 

LN EVERY DEPARTMENT OF LITERATURE. 

All Bookfl are sold at the Publishers' lowest prices, and you have the advantage of receiving 

A handsome Presenr, north from 50 ds. to $100, with each Book* 



GEORGE G. EVANS, the originator of Ihe Gift Book Enterprise, keeps constantly on hand Ihe most 
exteD!«ive stock, the jjreatest assort meit of Books, and circulates free, to all who may apply, the most 
complete <alalogiie of Books and (iifis in the United r^tatt-s. 

You can order any li(iok-< that you may want, of a moral character, of which the retail price is $1.00 
or more, and il in print, they will be furnished at the publishers' price.s, and pronjptly .-^ent, accom- 
panied wiih Gifts lo any part of the world. 

Georj^c (J. Evans' in-lncenients to Agents cannot be surpassed. The mo.st liberal commissions are 
olfered. and by soliciiinpj subscripiions to Books in the manner proposed, twenty books can be sold in 
the same time that it would take to ^ell one on the old-fashioned subscription plan. 

George G Evans, the originator of the Gift B)ok Enterprise, for his punctual business transactions, 
has received the approbati<m of all the leaiing city journals, and over one thousand NewspaperB 
throughout the country, all of the leading l5o.ik publishers, and over 6.000,000 citizens o( the United 
!^tales, each of whom have received substantial evidence of his liberal meihod of dillusing knowledge. 

^cnd for a ClaM«ilicd Cntalogac of Books, which will be sent gratis to any person 
who will hvnd lor it, and wiiicli contain^ a ciunpiete IihI of Ikjoks, <iifts, and all the de.sired information 
relative lo A)feiiciosand the formation of Clubs, and one trial will convince you that the only place 
where you should purchase Books is at the 

HEAD-QUARTERS OF GEORGE G. EVANS, 

Proprietor of the Oldest and Largest Gift Book Encerprise in the World, 
No. 439 CHESTNUT STREET, Philadelphia. 

XT 



Packages, of all descriptions, ia order to go with certainty to destination, by Ex- 

MUST BE LEaiBLY MARKED 

with the address of the Person, Town, and State to which they are to be carried, as 
plainly as posi^ible; and for this purpose a buush is usually better than a pen. 

,^^r Do not use cards or pafeb tags in superscribing packages, as they are liable 
to be rubbed off on the way. 

Avoid the careless way that some have in making up bundles and bales to be sent 
long dii*tances. If the covering be paper, let it be of a firm, durable kind, and it 
should be well secured with twine or other material strong enough for the purpose. 

The Express is not resprmsible for damage to the contents of bundles^ 
parcels, ^c, INSECURELY ENVELOPED. 

Money parcels must be sealed -with -wax by the sender, with his own 
seal, or one which he can identity; and the true amount or value of the contents 
distinctly marked on the out.^ide of said parcel, otherwise the Express will not be 
respon-sible for more than the declared value, or for more than the amount f-pecified 
in their customary form of receipt, in case the value is not declared at all. 

Strangers receiving Money Parcels or valuable packages by Express, are required 
to be identified. 

Barrels, firkins, kegs and heavy boxes must be in good condition for transporta- 
tion btfore delivery to the Express. Hickory straps properly nailed around the ends 
of a heavy box render it sale from breakage by the rough handling to which all 
freight is necessarily liable. If the boxes are second-hand or weak cases, pains must 
be taken (even it iheir contents are light) to strengthen them. The heads and ends 
of barrels, Ac, should be well fastened, and in case their contents are poultry or 
game, it ia beet to have air-holes in the side. The Express is not liable for the natural 
perishing of poultry, fruit, or any other freight intrusted to it. 

Care should be used in nailing the corners of boxes, Ac, containing bottles, jars, or 
other fragile ware. le.st (as is often the case) an ill-driven nail do damage inside. 
In such instances, the injury t.ot being ascertained until after the package has passed 
into the hands of the Expressman, the blame unjustly attaches to him. 

The Express is not liable for the breakage of glass-ware, wax-work, plaster casts, 
or any similarly fragile articles, nor will they be received for conveyance unless 
properly pacRed in wood. 

All packages accompanied by bills to collect on delivery should be marked 

C. O. D. 

Take care that your freight or parcels are at the Express office seasonably. 

xvi 



D. & J. McLELLAN, 

"THE WRITING READER," 

"lidure of Posts feit^ i\t CaWts of % fafo," 

IN OIL COLORS, 

AND THE BEST " VIEW OF NEW YORK " EXTANT, 
No. d6 Spruce ISIreet, cor. William^ 



Special facilities for the production of Maps, Plans, and Charts of every descriptiiHt 

Importer and Wholesale and Eetall Dealer in 
BOOK BINDERS' & POCKET BOOK MAKERS' 



C^ 



Book Cloth, Marble Paper, Marshall's Thread, &C., 
56 GOLD STREET, 

NEAR FULTON, ETBW VOBKi 

XTi 










NEW YORK 

RAIL ROAD SUPPLY 

BTORE, 

No. 12 Gold Street, New York. 




SB. BOWLES, 



PROPRIETOR. 



" We would call special attention to the above, as being a first class Honso 
in every particular, and from which may be obtained every article used in 
the survey, constraction, equipping, and repairs of Rail Roads. Based 
upon a practical experience of ten years as a Machinist and Engineer, 
Mr. Bowles coftimoriced the btisitieSs of Rail Road Furnishing about five 
years since, and the variety of articles furnished by him is only equalled 
by; the extent of territory to which his goods are sent, from Texas aud Cuba 
in the South, to the British Provinces in the North, — securing to its 
Proprietor a reputation for integrity and promptness unsurpassed. Mr. 
Bowles* relations with the Swith are of the most intimate character; and 
to those of our Southern friends who have not the pleasure of his acquaint- 
'Jftice; whether business or social, we would say, cultivate it; it will result to 
your pleasure and profit." 

1 



v?H 



MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 




OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

Nos. 6 and 8 Temple Street, 

XEW HAY£I¥, Conn. 



Silver Plated Dashes; Joints; Handles; Steps; Foot Rails; Dash Hods, and 
all other Carriage Irons made to order, of any required Size or Pattern. 




IiaPROTED SIIiVER PAD S C R E 1¥ S . 

Silver Carriage Bands, latest Styles and at all prices. 
DNT 13 Xj Xji ' JS .A. TJ €3r^JlEL& .A^l^JO ^ X "T 



n 

& 

o 

SI 



g 



STEWART fe GO'S 

i STRAM »" 

393 PEARL STREET, NEW YORK, 




•Ss ORIENTAL CONFECTIONARY. ^'S! 



^^ ^^ ^^ ^^! 



i 

N 

M 

tg 




Dealers and others wishing a PURE Article of Confectionery of fine flavor and free 
from all adulteration are requested to send us their orders. Send for a Price List. 
STEWART A; CO., 393 Pearl Street, W. Y. 



HALL, DIXON & CO., 

GHAMBEHS and 131 REABE STREETS, 

l<t:ErW YORK, 



IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN ^ 



DRUGS, 

CHEMICALS, 
PAINTS, 

DTE STUFFS, 



TOILET ARTICLES, 

FINE WINES, BRANDIES, CIGARS, &o. 

' PBICE LISTS FURNISHED ON APPLICATION. 

Agents fbr the 
BRiNDIES of the TINE GROWERS' COUPANT, Cognae, France. 

3 



PREFACE. 

In the following work the author proposes to treat of 
the origin of Eailroads in this country, and the decline 
and fall of the Stage-Coach lines; but his main object is 
an exposition of the rise and progress of the Express 
Interest. 

The growth of the Express service has been compared 
to that of " a mushroom over night ; " and, considering 
the present extent, magnitude, and ubiquitous operation 
of the business, it certainly is a matter for astonishment 
that its origin should date back less than twenty years. 

From the recentness of the institution, and the simple 
process by which it has attained to an importance second 
only to that of railroads, there has been little inducement 
to prepare for the press any thing like a full and accurate 
history of the causes which led to its establishment, and 
the men and methods by which it has become what it is. 

The facts, however, even if regarded only in a light 
purely utilitarian, are well worthy of being put upon 
record for future reference ; and it would be unwise to 
defer the task until those shall have passed away who, 
having nursed and tended the business in its infancy, are 
the best sources of information relative to its early history. 

But apart from those useful facts, the Express ex- 
perience has had its share of novel and interesting charac- 
teristics, and is still marked by peculiarities the description 
of which will repay the perusal. That it redounds greatly 
to the credit of American enterprise, who can deny ? 



IV PREFACE. 

Kor is it entirely a work of supererogation to devote a 
few pages to reminiscences of a class of carriers who, 
prior to the creation of railroads and expresses, served 
the public faithfully in a similar capacity. The Stage- 
Ooach proprietors, drivers, and agents, and the keepers of 
travellers' hotels and way-side inns, who found their 
occupation gone when the railroads came into use, were 
not without a multitude of sympathizers at the time, but, 
nevertheless, there is nowhere to be found any record 
whatever to remind us of the last days of a business, 
once the pride of the world, and for centuries coexten- 
sive with civilization itself. The present work aims to 
remedy, in some degree, that oversight. 

A kindred topic considered (without which no history 
of the Express service would be complete) is the origin of 
Kailroads, with some account of those in operation in 
America before the establishment of the parcel and pack- 
age express. The author has taken some pains, therefore, 
to give the dates of the incorporation of all the important 
Railroads in the United States, together with some facts 
concerning their foundation and management. 

Such of them as are in Massachusetts were for the 
most part constructed before Haniden's enterprise was 
known; hence we have preceded our account of his 
Express in this, the initial number of the serial history, 
by some useful facts relative to the origin of Eailroads in 
that State. In future parts of this work, the author will 
endeavor to do justice to the pioneer railroads in other 
sections of the country. 

New Tokk, June, 1860. 



SCHIEFFEL.IN BROTHERS & CO. 

IMPORTERS AND JOBBERS OF 



Nos. 170 and 172 WUUam Street, (and No. 40 Beekman Street,) 



Woald call the attention of Dealers throughout the United States to their large and 

well-selected stock of 

Dfop, Medicines, Chemicals, [ss. Oils, &c., 

embracing everything comprised in the regular business, which they are prepared t* 
sell on the most favorable terms for CASH, or APPROVED PAPER. 

Importing direct from all the principal Drug Markets throughout the World, 
And having unequalled facilities for the purchase of goods, they are in a position tO 
offer GREAT INDUCEMENTS to purchasers, whether buying by the package or less 
quantity. 

In addition to their stock of STAPLE DRUGS AND CHEMICALS, a full a»- 
sortment of 



PERCOLATORS, PIU MACHINES, 

and other articles pertaining to the furniture of a Drug Store, of their own impor- 
tation, constantly on hand. 

Having recently added to their establishment a department devoted exclusiyelr 
to 

lantn (&mh, lerfumers, Cambs, irttsbes, anb iruggists' Juntos, 

received direct from the manufacturers abroad and at home, thej are in a position to 
offer goods of this class on very favorable terms. 

SOLE IMPORTERS AND AGENTS for the United States for 

BER ANGER'S FRENCH BALANCES, 

which are so generally admitted to be the most correct, durable, and elegant Apoth»- 
cart's Scales that are made. Also, Wholesale Agents for the United States for 

SWAIM'S PMACEi AND VERMIFUGE. 

Allen's, Mander, Weaver & Co., Herring's and Merck's Extracts, Chemi- 
cals, and Medicinal Preparations. Also, Lubin's, Lo-w's, Fiver's, and Mangenet 
A Coudray's Perfumery, all of their own importation. 

^-©^Drugs in Bond for the Canadian, West Indian, and South American Markets. 

Indigo, Dyes and Spices at low prices, by the quantity to Manufacturers and 
large Dealers, or in lots to suit purchasers. 

INDIGJO.— Madras, Manilla, Caraccas, and all other kinds; a very large stock, 
of all prices and qualities, constantly on hand, and for sale by the package or len 
quantity, in lots to suit purchasers, tert low, by 

Schieffelin Bro's ^k Co., IV. Y. 

Druggists' Sundries and Fancy Gk}ods. — Imported direct, and for sale to 
ihe trade on the most favorable terms, by 

SCHZErrELZN BRO'S 6l CO., 

170 and 172 WiUiam St., and 40 Beekman St., N. 7. 

4 



A. B. SANDS & CO., 
WHOLESALE DEUGGISTS, 

IMPOBTERS AND DEALERS IN 

ENGLISH, FBENCH AHD GEfiMAH 

rugs & Peiricks, 

PAINTS, OILS, DYE-STUFFS, 

GLASSWARE, PERFUMERY, BRUSHES, SPONGES, SOAPS, &c., 

5I0. 141 WILLIAM STREET, cor. FULTON, 



Oar Goods are offered at the Lowest Market Prices, and orders in person or by 
mail will receive prompt and careful attention. 




SANDS' SARSAPARILLA, 

THE GREAT AMEiaCAN REMEDY 

Vor the Cure of all Diseases arising from an Impure State of the Blood. 

It is recommended by the leading medical authorities, and is highly ap« 

jkoved by all who have tried it. 

Because — It produces the combined effects of a tonic, alterative and 
stimulative medicine. 

Because — It purifies the Blood and expels the poisonous virus which 
engenders all ulcerous and eruptive diseases. 

Because — It acts powerfully upon the secretions of the body, and at 
once removes all impurities. 

Because — It does not reduce the system, but invigorates it — thus re- 
quiring no detention from business or pleasure. 



For Inflamed Eyes and Eyelids, use the ROMAN EYE BALSAM. 
For Toothache, use the CLOVE ANODYNE TOOTHACHE DROPS. 
For Worms in Children, use PERRY'S "DEAD SHOT" VERMIFUGE, 
lor Fever and Ague, use the PERUVIAN FEBRIFUGE. 

Prepared by A. B. & D. SANDS, and Sold by all Druggists. 

5 

f: 



fflSTORY OF THE EXPRESS BUSINESS. 



THE ORIGIN OF RAILWAYS, THE DECLINE OF THE STAGING 

INTEREST, AND THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF HARNDEN'S 

EXPRESS ENTERPRISE. 

In giving a history of the origin and rise of the 
Express Business, it will be proper, as well as 
philosophical, to consider, first, the cattses, Wm. F. 
Harnden was not responsible for these. To him be- 
longs the credit of recognizing a public want before 
the public had any definite idea of what the want 
was ; and not merely recognizing it, but going prac- 
tically and with characteristic energy to work to 
supply it. We propose to render in this book a 
minute and accurate record of his enterprise, not 
merely in justice to his memory, as the beginner 
and earliest practical worker of an institution which, 
for rapid growth and business importance, is with- 
out a parallel, but because the facts are of interest to 
the public, and deserve a place in the commercial 
history of our age. Nor would it be proper to 
limit our narrative to the enterprises of Harnden, 



6 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

alone. When he had justified the feasibility of his 
project by its success, the motive power of " compett- 
tion " was superadded to his previous stimulus, by 
the creation of one rival express after another, until 
the whole land was literally lined with them. We 
shall attempt to do justice to them all, in due 
course. 

But, for some years anterior to any of these en- 
terprises, there had been certain causes at work, 
and, the better to appreciate the nature and force of 
them, we must indulge in a retrospective glance at 
the last days of the old-fashioned Stage-Coach busi- 
ness, and the advent of Railroads and Steamships. 
And first, let us take a long look back to the stage- 
coach service. It existed fur several centuries, and 
for fifty or sixty years prior to the construction of 
the first railroad, it was regarded as a " crack " in- 
stitution, worthy of illustration by the best artists. 
A highly spirited picture, usually a colored engrav- 
ing, representing the London Mail Coach, crowded 
with passengers, inside and out, and drawn by four 
or six fine horses, dashing over the highway at a 
spanking rate, was considered as worthy of a place 
in gentlemen's houses in England, any time during 
the first half of the present century. The taste and 
skill of good artists were tasked to depict " the 
team " in every possible situation, — in the act of 
changing for relays ; or pawing the ground at the 
starting place, snufl&ng eagerly the morning air, and 
impatient to be off; or in the more unfortunate fix 
of an overturn, or break-down. In all these various 



"FOLEY'S" 

CELEBRATED 

GOLD AND SILVER PEN AND PENCIL CASES, 

I>E:3>J- HOIjIDESnS, discs., cS30. 



These Superior Pens are recommended and now in use by 

nearly all the Express Go's, "Banks," Insurance 

Go's, Merchants, &c., in the United States. 

Office and Maoufaclory, 163 BIIOADWiiy,ll,y, 

FRANCIS S. LOW, 

SOLICITOR FOR 

AHEBIGAN & FOREIGN PATENTS 

AND 

ATT(3)MII 11 FATIIT ^AEM. 



Interference Cases before the Patent Office, and Infringe- 
ment Cases before the United States Courts, 
particularly attended to. 

307 BROADWAY, 

Cor. Duane Street, H^^ MW!^ 




WILES 



DOUGLASS 

iiiiEii, iiWiii iiifii, &fi 
FREM'S MGERS, BITS, HOLLOW 

t Square Co's Square, ^l, i"t., ^t 



THOMAS DOUGLASS, Agent. 



Warehouse, 68 Beekman St., N. Y", 



MIRKS' PATBiM AND IMPROVED ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 







Long and well known as the best 
and cheapest. Received an addition- 
al approval from the American In- 
Istitute, 1859, as is to be seen by the followingex- 
tract from the report of (lie Judges. 

" For the simplicity of its constrnction, the ease 

with which it may be taken apart for cleaning and 

repairs, and withal, its far less price, makes it 

worthy of especial notice from the Institute." 

^ ^ D. M. Reese, M.D., ) 

N.B. A large SILVER MEDAL was awarded. lewis aX'^tre m^d j-^"^^''' 

still continues to replace AS FAR AS MAN CAN the loss of Leg or Arm, with in- 
creased improvements, and at reduced prices. " At the old place," 

307 Broadway, N.T,, "Near City Hospital," A. A. MiRKS. 

t 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 7 

engravings, many of which are still extant, in this 
country as well as abroad, both coach and horses are 
always represented as fine-looking and creditable to 
the institution. Probably the Americans, as a peo- 
ple, have never felt half that love and admiration 
for horse flesh which have been characteristic of the 
men and women of old England, but it is due to the 
proprietors of stage lines in the United States, and 
more especially in New England, during twenty 
years or more, prior to the origin of railroads, to 
record that the change which followed that era in 
the transportation of passengers, was in no degree 
owing to any inferiority of their teams to the Eng- 
lish. Their animals were the best that could be pro- 
cured for the purpose, and their coaches (we speak 
from personal knowledge of those then used in 
Massachusetts) handsome and costly. That they 
were numerous may be inferred from the fact that, 
in 1829, there were 77 lines starting from Boston. 
In 183 '2 the number had increased to 106, and they 
were all driving a flourishing business at that time, 
and continued to do several years longer ; for though 
the railway system was projected in Massachusetts 
in 1830, it was not in operation until 1834. For 
list of stage lines we refer the curious to the Mas- 
sachusetts Register of that period; also Badger & 
Porter's* Stage Register, 1830-5. 

An important person was the stage-driver in 
those days, when locomotives were a class of mon- 

* They were publishers of the Boston Traveller Porter was a brother to 
the Editor of the Spirit of the Times. 



g 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 



sters as yet unknown, and the free earth had not 
felt the iron shackles of the railway. Commonly a 
portly, florid-faced man, with an air of authority 
that was most impressive, as he sat upon his box 
grasping the reins of his four or six-in-hand, he was 
looked up to by all sorts of people. As a celebrity, 
he certainly ranked as high as the Squire, or even 
as the minister ; and this is saying not a little, for 
hardly a quarter of a century has passed since cler- 
gymen were reverenced full as much as the magis- 
trates. That was before locomotives had been 
dreamed of; and post-roads and turnpikes were 
thought, by the great body of the people, to be fast 
enough. Had it been said to that corpulent com- 
modore-like man, with the whip, reins and fate of 
fifteen passengers in his hands, that two parallel iron 
rails and a tea-kettle on wheels would, at some future 
day, dethrone him from his imperial position, and 
render staging not only unfashionable, but almost 
obsolete, he would have stared in astonishment, or 
smiled in pity, upon the speaker, as either a fool or 
a madman. The stage-coach he regarded as indis- 
pensable as we now think the railroad and express. 
In addition to the conveyance of passengers, the 
driver had a multitude of other duties to perform 
upon his route. There were messages to deliver, 
notes and bills to pay or collect, and nice articles to 
purchase, beside the business (more important than 
all the rest) of delivering to banks and brokers 
packages of money for redemption, deposit, or ex- 
change. Some of the old stage-drivers, on this 



G. W. & G. W. LOWERRE, 



No. 138 CENTRE STREET, 

Nearly opposite Nciv Hnvcii & Ilarlctu Freight 1>cpot, 

j|^B«tween White and Walker Sta., IKTo^VCT" TKToxrlE^ 



Builders Furnished with Newels, Balusters and Plank, 

MAHOCAKV IOCS, BOARDS, PIANKS ^ VENEERS. 

Rose, Satia, Zebra and otber Fancy Woods. Black Walnut and Cherry. 

Geo. W. Lowerre. G. Williams Lowerrb 

Established, 1850. 

0£;ORO£ A. JflOSS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

BLACKING, mi LIQUID BLUING, WASHING FLUID 

AND 

194 nU^J\*JE STREET, 

Parker XVIills Building* 

Between Greenwich and Washington Sts., , 'JSTJEm'Sy^T' TT'OHLIBZ 



Dealer in Saleratus, Cream Tartar, Soap Powders, Sal Soda, Matches, &c. 

GOEDECKER, KLEIN & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF ALL KINDS OF 

GILDED AND IMITATION 

ill 



ALSO 

©raameatedi Qvals, Frames aad M@taiMmgs 

OF 

GILD, ROSEWOOD, OAK, WALNUT, &o., 
No. 63 NE\¥ BOWERY, 

Near Chatham Square, NEW YORK. 



All order§ promptly attended to. 

8 



THOS. H. BATE tt CO., 

No. 7 Warren St., N. Y. 



.'Ss^a^ 




MANUPACTUEEKS AND IMPORTERS OP 

Fishing Rods, Reels, 

0UK% Cinen an^ Cotton £ine0, 
CHINESE GRASS HS, BiMBOOS iND REEB POLES, 



and everything connected with the above branches. 



PATENTEES OP THE CELEBRATED 

The best Trolling Bait ever invented. 



Catalogues fhrnished on application. 

9 



EXPRESS HISTORY. \) 

account, aver roundly that they were themselves the 
original expressmen ; but, however similar their ser- 
vice, it was never known by the name of express 
business, and was no more entitled to be called so 
than were the labors of the baggage-wagoners. 

The profits of the errand business was, we be- 
lieve, the drivers' perquisites. Many of these per- 
sons were possessed of some property, and were 
what is called "well-to-do in the world." They 
were, in numerous instances, either sole or part 
owners of their vehicles. They had no system in 
their errand and parcel business : it was all in their 
heads, and their hats. A stage-driver's hat — even 
in those days when the monstrous "bell crown" 
was the fashion — was usually filled with letters and 
parcels. Some of them aver that they became pre- 
maturely bald in consequence. 

We confess to an amiable curiosity to know 
what has become of all the good fellows who used 
to be connected, either as proprietors, drivers, or 
agents, with these lines, but we cannot hope to have 
it in our power to refer personally to more than a 
very few of them. Yet it is our purpose to make 
mention of many of those, who, before they were 
crowded out by the railroads, were the most useful 
and highly valued servants of the public, on the 
routes now used by the express companies through- 
out the country. 

Perhaps we shall be permitted to jot down in 
this place a few memoranda which we have gleaned 
from the old files of the Boston Directory, through 



10 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

the politeness of its enterprising and indefatigable 
proprietor, Mr. George Adams, and from some of 
the earlier volumes of the Daily Evening Transcript 
— the latter invaluable journal dating back as far as 
the summer of 1830, when it was established by 
Lynde M. Walter, and Dutton & Wentworth. 

In 1829, just ten years prior to Harnden's enter- 
prise, " the Albany coach, via Troy and Greenfield, 
and Boston Union Centre Line," used to leave Bos- 
ton on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, and arrive 
in Albany on the third day to dine. Distance 160 
miles ; fare $6 0. 

The "Mail Line" to Albany, via Northampton, 
left on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and arrived 
in Albany next day at 7 p. m. Distance 169 miles; 
fare to Northampton, $4 50 ; to Albany, $8 75. 

The extra fare by the Mail, is to be ascribed of 
course to the superior speed of that line. 

An " Accommodation Line,'' arriving in Albany 
on the third day, charged a fare of $7 00. 

Another, foreshadowing the Express perhaps, 
used to beat the mail by an hour : fare $8 75. 

There were two or three other lines from Boston 
to Albany. The stage fare to Worcester in those 
days was two dollars. It was currently believed, 
that if there should ever be a railroad on that route, 
the fare would not exceed fifty cents. 

"The Boston and New York Mail Coach" left 
daily at 1 p. m. ; arrived at Hartford next morning 
at 6, in New Haven at 2 p.m., and in New York at 6 
?. M., second day. 



Patented Apiil Gth, 1859. 

vnnuojjT sucTzozr, ixtxthovt r ACKiira. 

Fig. 1 — Is a perspective 
view. The Pump is im- 
mersed ia water, and the 
handle being given a recip- 
rocating motion, the T« 
piece E, receives a similar 
one through the lods, F. 
This gives the piston a 
horizontal back and forth 
motion, at each of which it 
takes in a quantitj^ of wa- 
ter and forces it into tho 
air-chamber, and thence 
through the pipe upwards 
to anj height. To this pipe 
a hose is here attached to 
show how it throws water, 
Ac, &c. 

This is a Doublk-Act- 
iMO Force Pump, with but 
one bore and one piston, 
worked by a tee piece, hav- 
ing as much leverage and 
less friction in its work- 
ing than any other pump 
heretofore invented. War- 
ranted to give satisfac- 
tion, or the money will be 
returned ; will not rust, 
will not freeze; throws wa- 
ter 40 feet by hose; forces 
to great heights and dis- 
tances by hand; simple, 
cheap, durable; prices 
from $15 to $G0; works by 
power also ; raises from 
6 to 60 galls, per minute. 

"The labor ot working it ia 
very trifling."— iV. Y. Ch. 
Adv. i£ Jour. »'It brings a 
continuous stream with littlo 
or no labor." — .So. Planter, 
Va. " It took the premium 
at our State Fair." — Jialeigh 
Register, N. C. "We never 
saw one comparable to it." — 
St. Louis Ch. AdixKale. "We 
consider it the best we have 
eTeraeen.' " •, , rything wehave exa">ined "— 6' 5. yoj/r. "The 

most useful iuvenlion of the day.'—N. 1'. Express. "A boy of 10 years can work jt at 60 tt."—N.r. 
Independent. "One man forced water 540 ft. and 97 perpendicular."— ^cieW^iAc American. " We have 
seen one; a roan can work it at 100 feet."— Z>ay Book, N. V. "Those who have used it speak highly of 
it."— N.y. Observer. "Wo give it our unqualified approbation."— iSpani.»?i Paper, N. Y. "It possess- 
es many advantages over the ordinary pumps."— i\r. Y. Chron. "It is extensively employed, and is found 
to be an excellent apparatus for rai.^ing water. "—Prac. Mach., N. Y. " From an examination of the 
model we should say, that with the aid of such a pump any one could force water anywhere, or to any 
height." — Am. Agriculturist, N. Y- "This pump will meeta demand never yet supplied." — Merchants 
Planier, N. Y. "We advise all personn in want of a pump that will raise water 150 feet or less, to buy 
this."— i/mer's Rural Am., N. Y. "For wells, railroad stations, &c., this pump will be almost indis- 
pensable and invaluable." — Mer. <£ Manu. Jour., N. Y. "Having seen one of your pumps in operation, 
we consider it the best we have ever seen for general use." — Galveston News, Texas. 

Nkw York, April 18, 1860. 
I hereby certify that a No. 2 "American Pump," which Mr. F.dney put up on my premises, at King's 
Bridge, forced water upon the first trial, through a three-quarter inch pipe, to a perpendicular eleva- 
tion of 210 feet, and a distance of 850 feet horizontal, discharging five gallons per minute, with the labor 
of two men at the handles, working with ease and regularity. WM. 0. GILES, 100 Chambers St. 

Complete Drawings, Prices, he, Ac, sent free. 

JAIflES m. BDHKY, 147 Chambers St., J¥. Y. 

Dealer in Fianos, IMCelodeons, Safes, 6lc, Frices sent free. 

49- LIBERAL DISCOUNT TO liXPRESS AGENTS. "«* 

10 




JOHN G. A. VAGT, 

57 John Street, New York, 

IMPORTER OF 

FinClillTM.llil&T(IIll!TWm 

mm AND AlE GLASSES, FINGER BOWLS, 

BAS TUHBIIBS, CUT AND PLAIN BEEB MUGS, COBDIAL GLASSES, &C. 

BOHEMI^IST CUT OL^SS, 

©able ttJarc an& lancg Colonli ®lo00 ttlare. 



An" assortment of 

PIRUN MARBLE AND PAINTED BISQUIT STATDETTES, 

FRENCH CHINA VASES, 

Carb ^askds, Canblestitk, Pugs, Spitttrans, 

JEWEL BOXES, MATCH BOXES, TOILET POWDER BOXES, 
iCOLOGNE BOTTLES, &c. 

fffilSl ©M§i ilAMg, 

With or without Rosewood Stands. 

Black Walnut and Rosewood Liquor Cases, Glass Shades with Artificial 

Flowers and Wax Figures; Molasses Jugs with metal covers; a large 

assortment of Germ«» Fancy China for Etageres, &c. ; Glass 

Drops, Napkin Rings, and also a very large assortment of 

'JEi :ei. Ts/L js^ isr TOTe^s. 

11 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 11 

The fare from Boston to Concord, New Hamp- 
shire, was $3 00 ; to Portland, Maine, it was $8 UO. 

"The Boston and Providence Citizens' Stages," 
used to leave the Marlboro Hotel at 5 a. m. daily, 
''to meet the Providence boats; " fare $2 50. 

In 1830, (the year in which the Boston and Low- 
ell Railroad was chartered,) there was a line of 
Boston, Lowell, and Nashua stages, which left the 
Marlboro Hotel daily, at 7 a. m., for Amherst, New 
Hampshire; Windsor, Royalton, and Burlington, 
Vermont ; Montreal and Quebec. Four years after- 
wards, we find E. W. Lawrence advertising, at Low- 
ell, the '' North Star Line of Stages," from Boston, 
to Keene, New Hampshire 

The ^''Package Express''* of modern times was 
unknown until Harnden started it, but special ex- 
presses for the transmission of important private or 
public intelligence have been in use, occasionally, for 
hundreds of years past. These expresses were 
usually conveyed upon fleet horses, with frequent re- 
lays at intervals upon the route. Life and death of- 
ten depended upon their speed, and not a few illus- 
trious political offenders have had to thank the riders 
for their timely relief from the edge of the axe, or 
the pressure of the rope. Even whole cities, when 
about to yield to besieging armies, have been saved 
by these expresses. A case of this sort was that al- 
luded to by Browning, in his fine poem of '' How 
they brought the good news from Ghent to Aix^ 

As it presents a graphic picture of the Express 
Rider, and reminds us of some similar equestrianism 



12 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

by Express messengers in California, it will not be 
inappropriate to insert it here. 



I sprang to the stirrup, and Joris, and he ; 

I galloped, Dirck galloped, we galloped all three ; 

" Good speed !" cried the watch, as the gate bolts undrew ; 

" Speed !" echoed the wall to us galloping through; 

Behind shut the postern, the lights sank to rest, 

And into the midnight we galloped abreast. 

n. 

Not a word to each other ; we kept the great pace, 
Neck by neck, stride by stride, never changing our place ; 
I turned in my saddle and made the girths tight. 
Then shortened each stirrup, and set the pique right, 
Rebuckled the cheek-strap, chained slacker the bit, 
Nor galloped less steadily Roland a whit. 

III. 

'Twas moonset at starting ; but while we drew near 

Lokeren, the cocks crew and twilight dawned clear ; 

At Boom, a great yellow star came out to see ; 

At Duffeld 'twas morning as plain as could be ; 

And from Mecheln church-steeple we heard the half-chime, 

So Joris broke silence with, " Yet there is time !" 

IV. 

At Aerschot, up leaped of a sudden the sun, 
And against him the cattle stood black every one, 
To stare thro' the mist at us galloping past. 
And I saw my stout galloper Roland at last, 
With resolute shoulders, each butting away 
The haze, as some bluff river headland its spray. 



And his low head and crest, just one sharp ear bent back 
For my voice, and the other pricked out on his track j 
And one eye's black intelligence, — ever that glance 
O'er its white edge at me, his own master askance ! 
And the thick, heavy spume-flakes which aye and anon 
His fierce lips shook upwards in galloping on. 



A. BRIDGES $( CO.," 

manufacturers and Dealers in 



AND 



MACHINERY 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

64 COURTL,^J%*DT STREET^ 

NEW YORK. 



RAIL ROAD AXLES, SPIKES, NUTS, CAR, SHIP 

AND WHEELS, CHAIRS, BOLTS, WASHERS, 

BRIDGE BOLTS, 

Iron Forcings, of various kinds, &c. 

STEEL AND RUBBER SPRINGS, PORTABLE FORGES AND 

JACK SCREWS, LOCOMOTIVE AND HAND LANTERNS, 

COTTON DUCK FOR CAR COVERS, 

BRASS AND SILVERED TRIMMINGS. 



Sole •Igenla for the Jftanufacturers oT 



We also give particular attention to the purchase of Lumber and all 
other articles required by RAIL ROAD COMPANIES, CAR BUILD- 
ERS, and others who may favor us with their orders. 

AL.BERT BRIDGES. JOEL €. I^AHE. 

13 






ENRY A. BROWN & CO., 

181 Broadway, N. J[. 

HISTORY OF GOLD PENS. 

Some sixty years since a Chemist in England discovered the 
metal now called Irridium, and applied it to the points of a few 
pens, for his own use. From that time no notice was taken of the 
discovery for thirty years, when Mr. J. Hawkins, an American by 
birth, resident of London, and civil engineer, hearing of this metal, 
obtained it, and applying the same to gold, as a body for the pen, 
succeeded in making a small number; but being without elasticity, 
broad-pointed, and not capable of writing fine, they were abandon- 
ed. American skill and ingenuity were then brought into re- 
quisition to make (what English Bumbcomb failed to do) a good 
gold pen. 

In the year 1837, a gentleman from America hearing of the 
gold pen, procured of Mr. Hawkins some Irridium, and brought 
it to the United States. Failing to get them made in New York, 
he, on his way West, became acquainted, in Detroit, with Mr. Levi 
Brown, watchmaker, a good workman, and a man of known integ- 
rity, whom he induced to go to New York, and commence the 
manufacture of gold pens. Three years^ hard uphill work, and 
the public were convinced that Levi Brown's gold pens were all in 
all — -v^hat they claimed to be. In 1840, Henry A. Brown commenc- 
ed his employment with Mr. Levi Brown, and remained as superin- 
tendent of his establishment until 185L During this time, by many 
experiments, and a heavy outlay of money, they succeeded in pro- 
ducing a perfect gold pen. In 1854, Mr. H. A. Brown bought the 
stock in trade, tools, and good-will of the business of Mr. Levi 
Brown, and continues to make the same pens, employing the same 
workmen that had been engaged in the factory for 17 years. Al- 
though Mr. Brown has sold his trade mark to another party, who 
stamps his pens " Levi Brown," yet Mr. H. A. Brown contends, and 
the public can judge, that he is the only manufacturer of the 
genuine Levi Brown's gold pen. 

13 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 13 



VI. 

By Hasselt Dirck groaned; and cried Joris, " Stay spur ! 
Your Roos galloped bravely, the fault's not in her, 
We'll remember at Aix" — for one heard the quick wheeze 
Of her chest, saw the stretched neck and staggering knees, 
And sunk tail, and horrible heave of the flank, 
As down on her haunches she shuddered and sank. 

VII. 

So we were left galloping, Joris and I, 

Past Looz and past Tongres, no cloud in the sky ; 

The broad sun above laughed a pitiless laugh ; 

'Neath our feet broke the brittle, bright stubble like chaff; 

Till over by Dalhem a dome-spire sprang white. 

And " Gallop," gasped Joris, " for Aix is in sight I" 

vm. 

" How they'll greet us !" — and all in a moment his roan 
Rolled neck and croup over, lay dead as a stone. 
And there was my Roland to bear the whole weight 
Of the news which could save Aix from her fate. 
With his nostrils like pits full of blood to the brim, 
And with circles of red for his eye-sockets' rim. 

IX. 

Then I cast loose my buff-coat, each holster let fall, 

Shook off both my jack boots, let go belt and all. 

Stood up in the stirrup, leaned, patted his ear, 

Called my Roland his pet name, my horse without peer ; 

Clapped my hands, laughed and sang, any noise, bad or good, 

Till at length into Aix Roland galloped and stood. 



And all I remember is, friends flocking round 
As I sat with his head twixt my knees on the ground. 
And no voice but was praising this Roland of mine. 
As I poured down his throat our last measure of wine, 
Which (the burgesses voted, by common consent,) 
Was no more than his due who brought good news from 
Ghent. 



14 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

Special Expresses^ for the conveyance of impor- 
tant public news were sometimes employed by the 
enterprising New York Press. In the Boston Daily 
Eve. Transcript of Dec. 11, 1830, we find the follow- 
ing paragraph, by Lynde M. Walter, the editor. 

" President's Message. — Some little idea of the 
opposition that exists amongst New York Editors 
may be formed when we mention that so great was the 
anxiety to get the start of each other, and have the 
credit of being out first, that three Expresses were em- 
ployed by the printers of that city. The Courier 
and Enquirer engaged one to bring on President 
Jackson's Message to them only ^ the Journal of 
Commerce received it by special express ; and other 
papers had a third in common to them all. The 
Courier and Enquirer^ speaking of it says, " It was 
delivered yesterday at 12 o'clock, and conveyed from 
thence to Baltimore by Express. From Baltimore 
to Philadelphia by steamboat; and from Philadel- 
phia to this city by our Express in six hours and 
twelve minutes, notwithstanding the bad situation of 
the roads. We would have been able to lay it be- 
fore our readers at an earlier hour had not our Ex- 
press between Baltimore and Washington lost all his 
copies. As it is we have incurred an expense of 
nearly three hundred dollars." 

It is, perhaps, needless to say, that railroads not 
being in use at that time these news expresses were 
conveyed upon fast horses; the relays being fre- 
quent. The example of the New York Editors was 
afterwards imitated in Boston, by Richard Haugh- 
ton of the Atlas^ and others. 

We now come to a consideration of the origin of 



PHELPS & KINGMAN, 

TVhoIesale Dealers and Manufacturers of 




ROSE WOOD, BLACK WALNUT AND MAHOGANY 

furniture;, 

UphoUtrrfd in Hair, Clotli, Brocatelle. Plusb, Delaine, Lasting, &c., &c., 
Nos. 118 & 120 Chatham Street, New York, 

Offer for sale, at great reductioQ from former prices, a large assortment, consisting 
in part of 



Tete-a-Tetes, Rocking Chairs, 

Sofas, Office Chairs, 

Sofa Bedsteads. :Elageras, 

Mahogany Chairs, jBureaus, 
Black Walnut Chairs.'Sideboarda, 

Rose Wood do. I Wardrobes, 

Easy do. | French Bedsteads, 



High Post Bedsteads, 
Common do. 
Feather Beds, 
Mattrasses, 
Card Tables, 
Extension Tables, 
Centre Tables, 



Marble Top Tables, 
Work Tables, 
Washstands, 
Marble Top Wash- 
stands, 
Book Cases, 
Desks, 



MAPLE, BLACK WALNUT, CANE, RUSH SEAT, and FANCY CHAIRS. 

Sole Wiiolesale Agents for HOWE'S PREMIUM ELLIPTIC SPRING BED BOTTOMS, 

Patented July 17th, 1855, and improved in 1859. Over 20,000 have been sold within 
the past year to the most prominent Md reliable citizens in the Union. These Bed 
Bottoms will sustain 2.000 pounds weight without injury, and warranted to last a life- 
time. Can be applied to any description of Bedsteads in ten minutes, and are sold at 
retail at the very low price of from $3.75 to $6.00 per set. 

Exclusive Manufacturers of NEEDHAM'S PATENT SOFA BEDS. 

Hotels, Steamboats, ami Private Fatuilies furnished with all varieties of Furniture, Beds, and Mat- 
traxBcn, on the most reasonable terms, and at short notice. 

N. B. Dealers and those enjfaged in Southern, Western, and India Trade, supplied with Cabinet Fur- 
niture, and all varieties of Cane and Wood .Seat Chairs and Kocking Chairs, (packed in boxes or other- 
wife,) in any quantitj, at the lowest market price. 

u 



DAVID D. DENISON, 

SUCCESSOR TO 

JNO. M. PHYFE & CO., 






9 



1 




i 




muM 



9, 



BILLIARD BALLS, 
BAGATELLE « 
PYRAMID POOL BALLS, 
PIN POOL 

ROULETTE " 
RONDO " 

BILLIARD BLOCKS, 



BILLIARD CUES, plain and 
fancy, 

FRENCH CUE LEATHER, 

BILLIARD CHALK, 

" . CUE WAX, 

" MACES & BRIDGES, 

" CLOTHS. 



IVORY FARO CHECKS IN GREAT VARIETY 

Constantly on band and made to order. 



m^^M wmmw (^^mm ^(§s@@» 

CUE KEEPERS, DEALING BOXES, 
OLOTH LAY OUTS, &c. 



DOMXNOES, CHESS MEN & IVORT GOODS, 

IN EVERY VARIETY. 



PIANO FORTE IVORY and EBONY SHARPS constantlf on hand. 



All orders promptly executed, received and collected through Express. 

Office 269 CANAL STREET, 

NEW YORK. 



NEAR BROADWAY, 



15 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 15 

an institution, but for which such an establishment 
as a package Express Office might never have been 
known. We allude, of course, to the Railway. 

In Judge Redfield's very valuable " Practical 
Treatise upon the Law of Railroads^'''' he states the 
following facts by way of introduction : " Although 
some of the Roman roads, like the Appian Way, 
were a somewhat near approach to the modern rail- 
way, being formed into a continuous plane surface, 
by means of blocks of stone closely fitted together, 
yet they were, in the principle of construction and 
operation, essentially different from railways. The 
idea of a distinct track for the wheels of carriages, 
does not seem to have been reduced to practice un- 
til late in the seventeenth century. In 1676 some 
account is given of the transportation of coals near 
Newcastle upon the river Tyne, upon a very imper- 
fect railway, by means of rude carriages, whose 
wheels run upon some kind of rails of timber. 
About 100 years afterwards, an iron railway is said 
to have been constructed, and put into operation 
at the colliery near Sheffield. From this time they 
were put into very extensive use for conveying coal, 
stone, and other like substances, short distances, in 
order to reach navigable waters, and sometimes near 
the cities where large quantities of stone were need- 
ed for building purposes. 

"These railways, built chiefly by the owners of 
coal mines and stone quarries, either upon their own 
land, or by special license, called way-leave, upon 

^■•^o loi-./l of otViora \\9^f\ \\f^nr\-n\c^ nnnnprnns Inner hpforp 



16 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

the application of steam power to railway transpor- 
tation, f'-^'^^^ ^^ ^^-3 f' 

** Some few questions in regard to these railways, 
or tram-ways^ at common law, have arisen in the 
English courts. 

"All railways, or similar corporations, in this coun- 
try, exist, or are presumed to have originally exist- 
ed, by means of an express grant from the legislative 
power of the State, or sovereignty. 

" The first use of locomotive engines upon railways 
for general transportation, does not date further back 
than October, 1829 ; and all the railways in this 
country, with one or two exceptions, have been built 
since that date.'* 

" The celebrated trial of locomotive engines, up^ 
on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway," (says 
Judge Redfield, in a concluding note,) for the pur- 
pose of determining the relative advantage of sta- 
tionary and locomotive power upon such roads, and 
which resulted in favor of the latter, was had in Oc- 
tober, 1829." 

Another authority, viz. two large volumes de- 
voted to the Railroad laws of New England, gives us 
the data of all the railway enterprises of Massachu- 
setts, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, 
and Rhode Island. 

The earliest use of the railway principle, in Amer- 
ica, was by the " Quincy Granite Railway Company," 
(Thos. H. Perkins, Wm. Sullivan, Amos Lawrence, 
David Moody, Solomon Willard, Gridley Bryant, 
*' and their associates,") who were chartered by the 



xsjsi:".A.33XjiXjS3a:£:x> 4X ir^JjAJFLtsi. 




LOOKiNG 



O 



B. W. MERRIAM, 

84 Chatham St., 



Manufactures aud offers fur Sale the following assortment of Looking Glasses, &e« : 

1,000 LARGE, RICHLY ORNAMENTED AND PLAIN. 
210,000 O. G. BAND POLISHED MAHOGANY, aU sizes, 
230,000 BEVELS, of various sizes. 

6,000 PLAIN GILT GLASSES, of aU sizes. 

§1^11 ^i^ fill Wlif 11^^ 



Picture Glass and Looking Glass Plates, 

OF EVERY SIZE, FRENCH AND GERMAN, .» ff 

GILT & OTHER MOULDINGS OF DIFFERENT IVIDTHS, 
PAINTINGS AND FRAMES OF ALL KINDS. 



The above Goods are all mostly imported or mannfactured for 
cash, and will be sold at prices greatly advantageous to city or country 
close buyers. 

16 



pece: bsothehs, 



AND 



DEALERS IN SKIRT MATERIALS, 



I 

Eh 






o 

& 




S 



td 

Si 



£3 






61 Chambers Street, 

Near Broadway, New York, 



SSTABIiXSBED ZW 1854. 



Our stock embraces the greatest variety, and largest 

assortment in the City. 

17 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 17 

legislature of Massachusetts, March 4, 1826. Their 
capital was $100,000, and their privilege was " the 
conveyance of stone and other property." By an act 
passed April, 1846, they were authorized to trans- 
port passengers between Boston and Quincy, but 
they did not avail themselves of this liberty. 

In June, 1828, the legislature of Rhode Island 
authorized Massachusetts, or any company within 
that State, to extend to the city of Providence, any 
railroad which, during the next six years, it might 
build to the contiguous boundary. 

In 1829, Massachusetts incorporated *' the Wor- 
cester Railroad,''^ (S. B. Thomas, Wra. E. Green, A. 
J. Allen, and others, capital $50,000,) but the terms 
not being complied with in the stipulated time, the 
charter was annulled. 

In the same State, the same year, Francis J. Oli- 
ver, Wm. Goddard, Nath'l Hammond, "and their 
associates," were incorporated as the Franhlin Rail- 
road Company ; but the road was never built. 

In 1830, H. G. Otis, Jos. Cooledge, Israel Thorn- 
dike, Wm. Prescott, F. J. Oliver, and Phineas Upham, 
were incorporated as the '''' Massachusetts Railroad 
Corporation^'''' to construct a railroad from Boston 
to Albany or Troy. Its capital was not to exceed 
three and a half millions, and its charter was to be 
avoided if 5,000 shares of the stock were not taken 
and one-third of the road located prior to 1831. 
We believe that the contemplated enterprise was 
never begun. 

The ^^ Boston^ Providence^ and Taunton Railroad 

2 



IS EXPRESSHISTORY. 

Company'' (F. Tudor, R. D. Tucker, John S. Boies, 
T. B. Wales, L. Foster, and Wm. Foster,) were in- 
corporated March 12th, 1830. The charter was to 
be avoided if the stock should not have been sub- 
scribed for by January 1st, 1831, or the road com- 
pleted as early as 1835. This, we believe, failed 
to go into effect. 

The ^''Boston and Lowell Railroad Company^' 
was chartered in the winter of 1830 : original capi- 
tal $500,000. I'he founders were John F. Loring, 
Lemuel Pope, Isaac P. Davis, Kirk Boott, Patrick 
T. Jackson, G. W. Lyman, and D. P. Parker. 

In 1831, Massachusetts incorporated the West 
Stockbridge Railroad Company, which charter was 
merged, in 1840, in that of the " Hudson and Berk- 
shire Railroad Company." 

In June, 1831, the " Boston and Providence Rail- 
road Co." was chartered by the Legislatures of Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island. John Bryant, Jos. W. 
Revere, Geo. Halle tt, and B. R. Nichols were the 
petitioners in Massachusetts, and Sam. Whittemore, 
John F. Gray, R. P. Bell, and Jos. Goddard in 
Rhode Island. 

June, 1831, Massachusetts incorporated the Bos- 
ton and Taunton Railroad Company ; (Cyrus Alger, 
Israel Thorndike, T. H. Perkins, David Sears, Sol. 
Willard, Nathan Hale, Wm. Prescott, Sam. A. Elliot, 
J. K. Mills, A. Atkinson, Wm. Rollins, Sam. Crock- 
er, Charles Richmond, and Edmund D wight.) Cap- 
ital $1,000,000. The time given for the comple- 
t^oTi was extended from 1836 to 18.^7. 



FPAL®. 




This elegant and commodious House is now leased to 

LOUIS LECOMTE, 

whose ability as a Cook and Caterer has been well proved. It is situate in the beat 
and most convenient part of the City of Buffalo, and visitors will find therein every 
comfort and accommodation. 



1860 



1860. 




Cor. Carroll and Washington i^ls., Buffalo, I^. 

Z. BONNfJY, Proprietor, late of the United States Hotel. 

18 



Y. 



T. N. HICKCOX, Proprietor. Eatablislied 1853. 




HICK COX'S 

STENCIL MARKING PLATE 

AND 

380 PEARL STREET, 

between Bcelman and FuJfonSts., IKTo"^^^ 'TtT^JC'^K-m 



FLOUR BRANDS, from 6 to 8 cents per letter; every description of Mark- 
ing Plates cut in Silver. Brass, Copper. German Silver, Prince's Metal, and Oxide, 
from g in. to any given size; Brass Alphabets and Figures in sets; liquid and dry Sten- 
cil Ink, all colors. Marking Caiis, a superior article, of our own manufacture. 
Btencil Brushes. Mauufacturer of Machinery Alphabets and Figures. The 
trade supplied, at retail. 

DIE SINKING. 

Steel Letters, Figures, Alphabets. Burning Brands, Envelope Stamps, Door Plates. 
Brass Checks for Hotels, Restaurants, and Rail Road Companies, &c. 

TO STENCIL NAME PLATE CANVASSERS. ' 

We manufacture superior Dies for cutting name plates for marking Clothing of every 
description. Indelible Ink, Brushes, Frames, Vials. Corks, Brush Ferules, German 
Silver, Brass Die-Sharpeners, &c., &c. 

A COMPLETE SET OP DIES put up in a nice Box; 2 sets of Letters; set 
of Border Tools, bamraer. shears, lignum vita3 block, die sharpener, 1 of bras.s, suffici- 
ent to make 400 Plate.s— Prices, with box, $25, $30. $35: without box, $20, $36, $30. 
These Dies are all made by hand, and are cheaper and far superior to any article offer- 
ed at less price, and one set will last as long as twenty sets of the machine-made Die. 
Any of the above articles sent by Express to any part of the United States or Cana- 
das. Three Diplomas and Gold Medal awarded by American Institute, for best Mark- 
ing Plates. 

References as to quality of our work: 

Swift, Hurlbut & Co., Wholesale Hat Manufacturers, 65 Broadway. 

R R. DouKEE & Co., Dealers in Bi-Carb. Soda, Saleratus, &c., «&c., 181 Pearl Street 

H. G. Reeve & Co., Dealers in Groceries, &c., 229 Front Street. 

19 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 19 

In the same year, in June, Wm. Sturgis, Amos 
Birnej, Henry Williams, Geo. Bond, Jos. T. Buck- 
ingham, and others were incorporated as the Boston 
and Ontario Railroad Company ; the road to begin 
at Lowell, and extend to northwest or westerly line 
of the State. 

The present Boston and Worcester Railroad 
Company was projected as early as the summer of 
1830. 

In the Boston Courier of January 12th, 1831, 
we find the following paragraph : 

Railroad Meeting. — rA meeting of the friends 
of a railroad was held at the old Common Council 
Room last evening. Elijah Morse officiated as 
Chairman, and Andrew J. Allen as Secretary. A 
committee consisting of Richard Fletcher, Henry 
Williams, Eliphalet Williams, Geo. Bond, and Amos 
Binney, were appointed to aid the Committee of the 
Common Council to procure an act empowering 
the city to subscribe a million of dollars for railroad 
stock, as prayed for by the meeting of citizens held 
last summer in Faneuil Hall^ 

This resulted successfully, and the Company was 
chartered June 23d, 1831. It was the first passen- 
ger railroad actually in operation in New England, 
and Wm. F. Harnden was conductor of the first 
train ever run. It was in the spring of 1834. The 
"Boston and Lowell" did not go into operation 
until a year subsequently, when it was finished. 
The opening of the " Boston and Worcester " was 
the occasion of much interest and enthusiasm in tho 
former city. 



20 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

In the Boston Daily Advertiser^ of April 9th, 
1834, there occurred the anaexed notice of the 
commencement of passenger travel upon it as far as 
Newton ; only about one quarter of the entire dis- 
tance (which is 44 miles) being then completed. 

^''Boston and Worcester Railroad. — The Direc- 
tors yesterday invited about a hundred and fifty gen- 
tlemen to make an excursion on the road to Newton. 
They started at twenty minutes past 4 o'clock, in 
eight passenger cars. After proceeding a short dis- 
ance, their progress was interrupted by the breaking 
of a connecting rod, between two of the cars. This 
accident caused a considerable delay, in conse- 
quence of the want of the proper materials for re- 
pairing it, and unfortunately the same accident oc- 
curred three or four times during the excursion. 
In consequence of these delays, and a short stop at 
Newton, for the purpose of taking refreshment, the 
party did not arrive at the depot on their return 
until twenty minutes past 8 o'clock. The cars were 
all used on this occasion for the first time, after 
standing several months, and they were in conse- 
quence in bad order for use. * * * The mo- 
tion also was much slower than it would have been 
had the cars been in travelling condition. The 
load was evidently moved by the engine with less 
ease, than double the weight of earth on the work- 
ing cars heretofore used. * * * They will, in 
a few days, commence running regularly between 
Boston and Newton, two or three times a day. A 
second engine was successfully tried on the road 
yesterday morning." 

The passenger cars employed were scarcely 
larger than the smaller omnibuses now in use. 



D. 0. WILSON & CO., 



Ifflporters, Manufaetorers and Dealers in 



TiUlK lATiilAl 



\M^<^ 



172 William Street. 



Betvreen Beekman and Spruce 8ta. 



?: %. xs^'tis^N-.} syiw 'S'iaiEE* 



Trunk Manufacturers supplied with every description of Goods 

suitable for the manufacture of Trunks, at the Lowest 

Cash Prices. 



team MarHe SStflrks, 



Nos. 999 AND 1001 Broadway, 

14 and 16 37th STREET, 
iiW YOIE. 

FMti Mdl Seilptirei Maiitte Fleets, 

MONUMENTS AND HEAD STONES, 

OF roREIQN AND DOHESTIC UARBLI, 

80 



H. F. WALLING'S 

MAP ESTABLISHMENT, 

356, 358 AJVD 360 Pearl Street, 

Franklin Square, WIM'W '^©MIE- 



^11 Imh of f oral ex General Paps ^rtpreJr to $xkL 

SURVETS conducted in a thoroughly scientific manner for State, County, or 
Town Maps. COMPILATIONS made from any existing sources. Accurate and 
elaborate 



on the most recent scientific and approved Projections, drawn by skillful Topo- 
graphical Draughtsmen. 

IMi^PS A.ND lDTtA.yVTNGS 

of a scientific nature engraved in the best style, on Copper, Steel, or Stone. Tho 
best qualities of Paper, in all varieties, furnished to order. 

Including Transferring to Stone, executed to order. COLORING, in every variety, 
neatly and tastefully done. Maps and Drawings bound in Covers, or backed with 
Cloth, mounted with Rollers, or on Frames, or Strainers, and Varnished, or other- 
wise prepared in any style required. 



Mr. Walling being a thoroughly Scientific Topographer of many years' experience, 
and having devoted several years to bringing together, into his own establishment, 
which is the largest of the kind in the country, all the Artists, machinery, and ap- 
pliances necessary to carry on the business in all its parts, under his own personal in- 
■pection, confideutly guarantees complete satisfaction, both in regard to the supe- 
riority of the work produced and economy in its cost. 

^S* Authorities of States or counties, where Surveys or Maps are contemplated, 
are referred to the prominent Statesmen and Scientific Men of Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island and Vermont, where elaborate Maps, showing the location of every road, build- 
ing, &c., have recently been constructed under the direction of Mr. Walling. 

21 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 21 

The conductor passed from one to another by hang- 
ing on to the outside. 

Nathan Hale, the editor of the Boston Daily 
Advertiser^ was, for several years. President of this 
Railroad. He had distinguished himself as the 
friend of the enterprise, upon its inception, and 
gave the Railroad movement, in all quarters, not 
only his own personal co-operation, as far as was in 
his power, but devoted a large space in his influen- 
tial journal to its advocacy and development. 
Eliphalet Williams, Amos Binney, and P. P. F. 
Degrand, (the latter, a Frenchman, who had passed 
the most of his life in Boston,) were also very ac- 
tive and efficient in the same cause. 

At this time, there was a Boston and Albany 
line of stages via Fitchburg — through in two 
days: Horace Brown, agent, in Boston. He was 
also agent of a line to Albany via Greenfield ; also 
of lines to Bolton, Lancaster, Leominster, Fitch- 
burg, Nashua, and Keene. Job Brooks was agent 
of the Norwich stage, and also of the Middle Road 
Line to New York, via Hartford and New Haven, 
and thence by steamboat ; also of the steamboat 
Peacock, the only boat on the line from Norwich 
and New London to New York : fare from Boston 
to New York, $8. 

Allen & Co. were agents (1834) of the steam- 
boat Chancellor Livingston, Captain Carter, to Port- 
land, from Boston, (fare $3 and found,) and on the 
route J. B. Smith was agent of the steam-packet 
MacDonough. 



22 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

The *' Boston, Norwich, and New London R. 
R Company," was incorporated by Connecticut, in 
1832. The same State chartered, in May, 1832, 
the N. Y. and Stonington R. E. Company. 

The " New York, Providence, and Boston Rail- 
road," chartered by Rhode Island, in June, 1832, 
was united, by act of Legislature, with the "New 
York and Stonington Railroad" in 1833. 

[In 1832, Massachusetts chartered what was in- 
tended to be the "■ Hoosac Rail or McAdamized 
Road Company," and the same year, the " New 
York and Berkshire Railroad."] 

In 1833, the same Legislature incorporated Na- 
than Hale, David Henshaw, Geo. Bond, Henry 
Williams, Daniel Denny, Joshua Clapp, Eliphalet 
Williams and others, as the " Western Railroad Com- 
pany," to build and use a Railroad beginning at the 
terminus of the Boston and Worcester Railroad in 
Worcester, and running thence to the Connecticut 
River, thence to Springfield, Massachusetts, and to 
Albany, New York. This was an enterprise of im- 
mense magnitude for a few individuals to undertake, 
and it received, therefore, assistance from the State 
Treasury. Fortunately for Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, it was seasonably completed, and has been 
the means of uniting the Eastern States in an indis- 
soluble social and business union, productive of 
great good to both sections, but especially to the 
city of Boston, where the enterprise originated. 

In 1833, Massachusetts chartered the " Andover 



A, HAMPTON, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN , 

EVERY VARIETY OF 

PLAIN, ENADIELLED, CipiiHAN SILVER, PARLOR & CHAMBER 



illfl 



1 



No. 60 GOLD STREET, 

Between Fulton and Beekman Sts., S5ISW "iTSSISo 



Having added a nnm- 
ber of new and very ele- 
gant patterns of 



to my already large as- 
eortmcnt, and being con- 
stantly manufacturing 
all styles «f 



GERMAH SILVEB 



Soil Coal Grales 



Purchasers are invited 
to call and examine my 
assortment before mak- 
ing their selections else- 
where. 




22 



JOHN P. GRUBER, 

170 [in the rear] AJVD 184 ChATHAM SqUARE, 



AND 



No. 2 Mott Street, New York, 

MANUFACTIJRER OF ALL. KINDS OF 

tab, ®eig|te, l^rasttm, 

CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING : 
Assaying, Bank, -Brokers', Jewelers^ and Gold Scales, from 63 cts. to $800. 
Druggist and Prescription Scales, with marble, brass and iron columns, 
from $1.2=> to $65 00. Counter and Excelsior Scales, from $1.50 to 
, $10 00. Gold Weights— from | dwt. to 20,000 dwt., capable of 
weighing from a $1.00 to $18,000 — in fine Rosewood and Ma- 
hogany cases. Troy Weights in patent round stands, and 
boxes, from | to 80 dwt. and ^ to 2,000 dwt. fr., 75 cts. to 
$14.00 per set. Druggists' Weights which will weigh 
from the eighth part of an ounce to 8 lbs., from 63 cts. 

to $10.00 per set. Brass, Iron, and Zinc Weights 

for Sealess, from \ ounce to 50 lbs., from 3t cents to 

60 cents per lb. Iron Weights, from 4 cents to 10 cents 

per lb. Zinc Weights, from 10 to 18 cents per lb., adjusted 

to any standard. Also, Yard Sticks of Brass in Mahogany 

Cases, from $3.00 to $9.00. Patent Pull Beer Pumps of all 

kinds, warranted for three years, from $10.00 to $250.00. Patent 

Water Pumps for Ships. Air and Forcing Air Pumps. New Patent 

Lager Beer Faucets, to be used without opening the top of the barrel, 

from $1.25 to $7.00. 

SAfJill MACHINERY OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
AND BRASS PINISHING : 

ALSO, 
23 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 23 

and Wilmington Railroad," which was subsequently 
merged in the Maine Railroad. 

The "Boston and Providence Railroad and 
Transportation Company," was chartered by Rhode 
Island in 1834 The " Fall River Mill Road, Rail- 
road and Ferry Company," was chartered in 1835. 

In May, 1833, James Brewster, John Babcock, 
John S. Mitchell, and others were incorporated by 
Connecticut, as the "Hartford and New Haven 
Railroad Company." 

In the spring of 1834, as before mentioned, the 
Boston and Worcester Railroad was in partial 
operation ; and in the summer or fall of the same 
year, the Boston and Providence Railroad ran its 
passenger trains daily to Dedham, Massachusetts. 

The Boston and Lowell Railroad was constructed 
at greater cost, and so thoroughly, that, though th^ 
work was pushed with vigor by William Sturgis, 
Patrick T. Jackson, and their associates, it was not 
completed until May, 1835. The foundation of this 
railway consisted of blocks of granite embedded in 
"rubble," the entire distance, 26 miles. The rails 
were secured to these stone ties, thus making a 
very firm and substantial road. 

In the Lowell Courier of May 27th, 1835, we 
find the foUowmg notice of its first operation : 

"Lowell Railroad. — The first locomotive car 
was put on to this road yesterday ; this afternoon 
steam power has been applied, and the move- 
ment of the machine tried on short distances. The 
Railroad is completed through the whole distance. 



24 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

and read J for immediate use. To-morrow, it is ex- 
pected, the engine with one or two of the cars will 
go to Boston and return, carrying a few persons, to 
test the operation. Afterwards, a few trips may be 
made during the week, but no regular times are 
yet announced for departure or return passage. 
Next week, probably, the cars will travel regularly 
between this town and Boston, and become a pait 
of the stage line connecting the city with Concord, 
N. H. In connection with the Railroad, should be 
mentioned the steamboat on Merrimac River. Three 
years ago, the project of constructing such a boat 
to ply on the river above us, was pronounced a wild 
scheme ; and it was generall}^ believed that our en- 
terprising townsmen who engaged in it would meet 
with heavy loss. Last summer the steamboat Her- 
ald ran from this place to Nashua through the sea- 
son. * * * During the past year she has been 
cut in two and converted into a large boat. The 
proprietors intend that she shall commence running 
the same day with the Railroad." 

The stone foundation of this Railway was not 
found to be advantageous, after a thorough trial. 
There was no "give" to it, consequently the wear 
and tear of the rolling stock were much greater than 
upon other railroads. The rails were taken up a 
few years ago, and laid upon the common wooden 
cross-ties. 

The business of this Company became lucrative 
almost immediately, arising chiefly, however, from 
the transportation of immense quantities of cotton, 
wool, and other materials from Boston to the mills, 
and the manufactured goods to the city in return. 



RIDLEir & CO. 




IDLEY 2c GO. STEAM REFINED CANDY& SUGARPLUMS 

Co rtxer of GHAMEfEiR S dncl HUDiSON'^'SaeBEETS , KEWrYQ R K . 






bert A. Ridley. 
ax. A. Haugrhton, 
m. Kennedy, 
m. A. Frits, 
m. Force. 



Caxdy, SuciAR Plums. Lozrsgrs, btc, ktc, in all their varieties, made exclusively from trebU 
refined I^af Sujar without adulteration or admixture of deleterious substances of any kind. 
Those wishing to purchase a pure article are requested to call and examine our stock, and con- 
trast them with those offered elsewhere. Boxes of Assorted Candies, for families, put up to or- 
der, at prices ranging from $5 upwards. Candies, etc., packed in boxes of 25, 50, 100 lbs., suitable 
for the Southern trade, and shipped to order. Orders by luail promptly executed. Ternui cash. 

24 



JACOB B. SCHBNCR, 




E 



1^1 



^ 




No. 96 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORE, 



DEALER IN 



ITl AM limil ^ iSILll 



» 



Wood worth Planing Machines; Sash and Blind Machinery; Engine Lathes 
of every style and size; Iron Planing Machines, from 3 feet to 20 feet 
long; Heavy Column Drilling Machines; Alden's, Masons', and 
other styles of Blowers; Circular Saw Mills; Moulding Ma- 
chines with Side Cutters; Duplicates for Woodworth 
Planing Machines; Slotting Machines; Portable 
Steam Engines; Sugar Mills; Bolts, Nuts and 
Washers; Dudgeon's Hydraulic Jacks; 

AM® muEU m^^nrnmi. 

Universal Chucks, of all sizes; Harris's Smut and Scouring Machines; 

Lace Leather of the best quality; Leather Belting, riveted and 

cemented, or stitched; and all kinds of 

Machinery for Working Wood or Iron. 

ORDERS RESPECTFULLr SOLICITED. 

Address as above. 

25 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 25 

The " Boston and Old Colony Railroad '' was 
chartered in 1835. In 1836, George Peabody, 
Wm. H. Foster, L. Thorndike, and others, were in- 
corporated as the "Eastern Railroad Company." 

The same year, the Boston and Maine Railroad 
was opened to Andover, Massachusetts, 23 miles. 

The "Nashua and Lowell Railroad Company" 
was chartered in 1836; and the "Nashua (New 
Hampshire) and Worcester (Massachusetts) Rail- 
road," in 1839. 

In the latter year, the Eastern Railroad was 
opened for passenger travel from Boston to Salem, 
Massachusetts, 16 miles. A. Chase was Superin- 
tendent at that time. In 1840, it was opened to 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 56 miles; and to 
Portland, Maine, 107 miles, in 1841. 

The Boston and Fitchburg Railroad was char- 
tered by Massachusetts in 1842. This Company, 
when it went into operation, obtained a very large 
and profitable business, and its stock rapidly ad- 
vanced above par. Its prosperity was unprece- 
dented; but prodigal management, after a few 
years of good luck, caused its business to fall off 
and its stock to decline to half its par value. Nor 
has the management of this Railroad improved by 
bitter experience ; yet, under a careful and sensible 
direction, it could be made one of the best paying 
stocks in the United States. C. C. Felton was its 
engineer, and its earliest superintendent. 

The " Providence and Worcester Railroad Com- 
pany" was incorporated in 1844, and the "Fall 



28 EXPBESS HISTORY. 

River Railroad Company " in the same year ; also, 
the " Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad Com- 
pany." 

The "New York and Boston Railroad Com- 
pany " was chartered by Connecticut in 1846. In 
the same year, Rufus B. Kinsley, and others, were 
incorporated as the "Newport and Fall River Rail- 
road Company." 

Notwithstanding the projection of the three 
railroads, above named, in 1830, and their steady 
progress towards completion during the subsequent 
five years, the old lines of transportation were con- 
tinued with unabated energy by their very efficient 
and liberal proprietors, as we well remember, and 
as any one may satisfy himself was the case, by 
turning to the newspapers of that eventful period. 

In the Boston Daily Evening Transcript^ (Vol. 
I.,) we find an advertisement of the ^^ New York 
and Boston Steam Packet Line. To New York. 
Only 40 miles Land Carriage!'''' Then follow 
vignettes of a steamboat and a handsome four-horse 
stage-coach, full of passengers, and two or three in 
a seat behind. " From Providence for New York 
daily, (Sundays excepted ;) touching at Newport. 
Fare Five Dollars! " So it appears that the fares 
were as reasonable then, as now. By this line's 
" Arrangement for September, 1830, the Benjamin 
Franklin, Captain E. S. Bunker, leaves Providence, 
Sept. 1, 6, 10, 16, 21, 25, 29, at 12 M. ; and New 
York, Sept. 3, 8, 14, 18, 23, 27, at 4 P. M. The 
Chancellor Livingston, Captain C. Coggeshall, leaves 



HEDGES & MOESE, 






m)Mtmmt, 

AND DEALERS IN EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

PAPER MAIFACTURERS' MATERIALS. 

208 FULTON STREET, 

Near Greenwich Street, 



[5, ®iuinc, ftlts, toire Ollotl), $fC-, $?c-, 

FOOLSCAP, LETTER, NOTE, 

ALL GRADES MD SIZES OF PRINT AND TEA PAPER, 

Also a full and complete assortment of 

PjllAf LEAF, STRAIV, RAG AND MANILLA PAPER, 

OF EVERY SIZE AND QUALITY, 

Constantly on hand in large quantities, and for sale in lots to suit pur- 
chasers. 

Paper of every description Made to Order 

AT SHORT NOTICE. 

Orders from any part of the country, by letter or otherwise, will be 
promptly filled for the lowest market price. 



Land Warrant and Collection Office. 

GEOKGE WOODMAN, 

]¥o. 49 TflLIilAIH STREET, PITEW ITORK, 

DEALEH IN 

The highest prices will be paid for Land Warrants, and correspondents can rely 
upon receiving prompt remittances. 

Warrants will be sold at the lowest market rates, and will be fully guaranteed. 

Collections made in all parts of the United States with dispatch. 

Mr. W. will also attend to the payment of Taxes upon, and to the sale of, Western 
Lands. 

REFERENCES : 

AMERICAN EXCHANGE BANK '. New York. 

SCHUCHARDT& GEBHARD do. 

A. L. STIMSON do, 

GALENA INSURANCE CO .Galena, niinoiB. 

IOWA COUNTY BANK Mineral Point, Wi«. 

HON. C. C. WASHBURN La Crosie, Wisconsin. 



W. JACKSON & SON, 



J 88 



snfiw 



JtMoMttfmcturert •f 




Grates & Fenders 

246 FRONT STREET, 

NEAK PECK SLIP, 
AND 

930 BROADWAY, 

Between 21st and 22d Streets, 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 27 

Providence, Sept. 2, 7, 11, 15, 19, 24, 30, at 12 M.; 
the President, Captain R. S. Bunker, leaves Provi- 
dence, Sept. 3, 8, 14, 18, 23, 27, at 12 M. ; and 
New York, Sept. 1, 6, 10, 16, 21, 25, 29, at 4 
P. M. ; the Washington, Captain Comstock, leaves 
Providence, Sept. 4, 9, 13, 17, 22, 28, at 12 M; 
and New York, Sept. 2, 7, 11, 15, 20, 24, 30, at 4 
P. M. Stages leave Boston daily, (Sundays except- 
ed,) at 5 A. M., and reach the Packets before their 
hour of starting. Dinner on hoard ; Meals extra. 
Dinner^ 50 cents j Breakfast and Tea^ 38 cents." 

In October following, the fare was increased to 
$6, — and the land carriage was stated to be 43 
miles. 

In the same journal, under date of October 29, 
1830, we find C. B. Wilder's advertisement of aline 
to New York, via Hartford and New Haven, stages 
leaving Boston every Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday, at 7 A. M. ''Sup and lodge at Ashford, 
and arrive at Hartford at 10 A. M., next morning, 
before the departure of the steamboats for New 
York, and in New Haven same afternoon, at 5 
o'clock. Fare reduced to $6. Inquire for the 
Middle Road line of Stages." 

Another was advertised, by the same Agent, as 
the " Stage and Steam-Pachet Line^ via Norwich and 
New London. Only 80 ^les Land- Carriage^ The 
proprietors of the Boston and Norwich Line of 
Stages, via Thompson, it appears, had made an " ar- 
rangement with Captain Davison, of the Steamboat 
Fanny, to run during the cold season," rendering 



28 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

" the trip to New York about as quick as by the 
way of Providence." " Stages leave Boston every 
Tuesday, at half-past 11 o'clock, and Wednesday 
and Saturday, at half-past 2 A. M ; " and passengers 
took the boat at Norwich, at 4 P. M. The trip 
from New York took from 3 P. M. until the evening 
^f the next day. Fare *'only six dollars;" from 
Norwich to New York, $2. 

In 1834, (April,) the steamer Boston, Captain 
Wm. Comstock, and steamer Providence, Captain 
Seth Thayer, were advertised as having been put 
in complete order, with low pressure engines and 
heavy copper boilers, to run between Providence 
and New York, 13 times each way during the 
month. The Benjamin Franklin, Captain Coleman, 
an opposition boat, left Providence three times a 
week for New York. 

In the Boston Transcript of May 21, 1835, was 
the annexed notice : — 

'* New Steamboat. — A letter, dated New York, 
on Tuesday afternoon, says, * Captain Comstock's 
new boat, the Lexington, starts on her first trip to 
Providence, on Friday morning next, (May 22, 
1835,) at 4 o'clock. She is intended to run as a 
DAY BOAT, and will carry passengers to Boston the 
same day she leaves New York. He thinks she will 
run 20 miles an hour.' " 

The melancholy fate of the Lexington is still 
vividly impressed upon the memory of thousands. 
The steam-packet Bangor, Captain S. H. Howes, 



LINN & DECKER, 



Importers of and Wholesale Dealers in 




Bj^MBIES^ 



o-iisrs. 



& 



BOURBON, MONONQAHELA, SCOTCH & IRISH 



WSmwm 



TS, 



OZIDES 



-A.I^I> 



POffT, MADEIRA, SHERRY, AND OTHER IVINES, 



mm., (^(D< 



No. 22 LIBERTY STREET, 



Between Nassaa and William, 



KDWARD 
JIMIS 



) N. LINN, ) 
A. DICKER. ) 



J; & J. C. COMOY, 

No. 65 FULTON STREET, 




MANUFACTURERS, IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 



AND 



The Trade Supplied on Liberal Terms. 

THE GOLD AND NINE SILVER MEDALS 

r^-. WERE AWARDEO TO 

" J. & J. C. CONKOY 



FOB THE 



BEST MilFACTURED PISHING RODS MD TICEB 



OF ALL KINDS. 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 29 

(I. W. Goodrich, and U. W. Green, agents,) was 
running to Portland. 

There were still in use two lines of stages from 
Boston to Albany, one to Worcester, and another to 
Providence. Stages continued to run from Boston 
to Amherst, Brattleboro', Bridgewater, Fitchburg, 
Gloucester, Greenfield, Keene, Lowell, New Bed- 
ford, Marblehead, Newport, Newburyport, Port- 
land, Me., Portsmouth, Salem, Woonsocket, and 
many other places. 

There were baggage-wagons for the transporta- 
tion of packages and merchandise, and the execu- 
tion of commissions, between the same city and 
Beverly, Fall River, Greenfield, Ilubbardstown, 
Lynn, Methuen, New Bedford, Providence, Salem, 
South Reading, Taunton, Bristol, and Wareham. 
All these were very serviceable. 

Upon the introduction of railroads, a very audi- 
ble murmur arose from a numerous body of per- 
sons, composed mainly of those interested in the 
staging and stage-tavern business, but including in 
its ranks very many old-fashioned people, who 
shook their heads ominously at the innovation, and 
said it would produce more harm than good. 
Some did not hesitate to denounce it as an inven- 
tion of the devil ; others wanted to know, " What 
was to become of horse-flesh?" and asserted that 
the new mode of travelling would so depreciate 
the value of horses and mules, that it would not 
pay to raise them. The commentary upon this is, 
that horses have doubled in value since that period ; 



3®-* EXPRESS HISTORY. 

and though many thriving taverns and villages suf- 
fered materially when the mail-stage lines were 
withdrawn, many more new towns were built up, 
and the larger cities became greatly increased in 
business and population. Take away the railroads 
now, and what should we do ? 

The public sympathy for the stage-drivers was 
universal and hearty. Many of them had served in 
that capacity from youth to advanced age. Some 
had driven the stage twenty, thirty, yes, forty 
years, upon the same route, and had become, as it 
were, " established institutions." The stage-driver 
of the olden time was a very different sort of a per- 
son from those who mount the box in these degen- 
erate days. He had troops of friends, and was a 
prodigious favorite everywhere. As a matter of 
policy, if not of simple justice, the new companies 
made it a point to give employment to, or in some 
other way favor, the drivers and agents, whose lines 
their railway trains had supplanted. Many were 
made railroad-conductors, depot-masters, and freight- 
agents; others were given the "freedom of the 
road," and allowed to travel without charge — a 
privilege which they turned to good account. 
While the principal railways in Massachusetts were 
yet in process of construction, and passenger-trains 
were run over only a portion of the contemplated 
route, the stage lines were not entirely relinquished, 
but would connect with the different temporary ter- 
mini of the railroads, and piece out the travel to 
the intended end. Most of the drivers doing this 



JAMES BOGARDUS, C. E., 

ARCHITECT IN IRON, 

ORIGINATOR, CONSTRUCTOR, AND PATENTEE 



OF 



Office, No. 207 Canal St., New York. 




This Efitafelishment offers unrivalled facilities to persons desirous of constructing 

"IRON riRE-PROOP BUILDINGS," 

OP ALL DESCRIPTIONS, 

Iron Fronts, for Stores, Dwelling-Houses, and all Iron Work 
required in construction of the Interior* 

Having been the first to enter the new field, which, indeed, he opened, Mr. Bogardus 
has already established firm and favorable business relations in all parts of the coun- 
try; and his arrangements being completed in a manner which long experience has 
proved to be most for the interest of both contracting parties, a uniform success in 
all past contracts guarantees the same for the future. 

Plans, Specifications and Estimates furnished, and Contracts 
taken, for every description of Public and Private Build- 
ings, Bridges, etc., etc., in all parts of the country. 
All parties Interested in the above are respectfully invited to call at his office, 
to examine the extensive collection of plans of Buildings already erected, or now 
being constructed. Especial attention is invited to the superior manner in which Mr. 
Bogardus constructs his iron buildings, according to bis patent, to evade which, other 
parties are putting up buildings in an inefficient and dangerous manner, and pro- 
ducing unsafe structures. All parties are warned against infringers, who will be duly 
prosecuted according to law. 



Bogardus' Patent Universal Eccentric Iflill, 

For Grinding all kinds of Wet and Dry Substances. 

Omec, 207 Canal St.; }lill Boom in Harlem R. B. Depot, cor. Elm and Wbite Sts. 

30 



imf't MUD [LiaF 



MANUFACTURED BY 

No. 4 Thompson Street, 

One door from Canal St., adjoining People's Rank, TV E W YORK. 



Preminms Awarded, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852 and 1853. 



WARRANTED TO BURNISH. 

EOBEET FOULDS, Je., 

Importer and dealer in 

FIRE WORKS, 

TOYS, 

^ CHINA AND FANCY GOODS, 

FISHIN^a TACKLE, &C., &C., 
No. 37 John Street, 

Near Nassau Street, SSHW '^(SlMSa 



Depot for J. W. Hadfield's First Premium 

3F'X3F1.ES XTCr O 3E1. 3EiL £1 



31 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 31 

kind of business, were partly compensated for their 
constantly diminishing fares, by being allowed a 
pass upon the encroaching railroad. For instance, 
when the Eastern Railroad was in operation only 
as far as Salem, Mass., the stage-driver, bringing 
passengers from Portsmouth, N. H., was allowed a 
pass in the next train to Boston; also, to return 
free. This enabled him to continue his old errand 
business between the metropolis and the principal 
places on his route. 

Upon the *' Boston and Worcester," and the 
** Boston and Providence" Railroads, as they ap- 
proached completion, this sort of service assumed 
a different character. The stage-drivers ceased to 
pass in the cars, and a portion of their parcel and 
errand business became the perquisites of the con- 
ductors. The clerks of the different lines of steam- 
boats plying between New York and Stonington, 
Providence, New London, and Norwich, were in 
the custom also of receiving parcels and orders, 
which, without any record or method of any kind, 
they passed over to the local Agents of the steam- 
ers to " put through" when convenient. 

Three times as many parcels, however, went by 
private hands, without cost. Merchants and others, 
now living, who used to travel in those days between 
New York and Boston, will remember how they 
used to be burdened by their friends and acquaint- 
ances with money packages and bundles to deliver 
upon their arrival. If a person was going to New 
York, it was usually known a week or two before- 



32 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

hand, and his friends and acquaintances would not 
only send their own bundles by him, but indicate 
him to others as a man who would accommodate them 
also. To such extremes was this practice carried, 
that strangers, even, used to be expected to afford the 
like favor, and had they declined, it would have 
been thought as churlish as for the passenger near- 
est the driver, in an omnibus, to refuse to pass anoth- 
er's fare. 

There must have been more honesty, and more 
mutual confidence among men, in that age, than now 
prevail. We have known men who were in the cus- 
tom of sending parcels of bank notes, drafts, accept- 
ances and bills of exchange, between New York and 
Boston — brokers, for instance — to put them in the 
charge of passengers in the cars, or on board the 
steamboat, whom they " did not know from a side 
of sole leather." The broker would rush down, 
with his money parcel, to the *' John W. Richmond," 
or the *' Norwich," just as the last bell was ringing, 
hoping to see a friend bound for Boston. Present- 
ly he would espy an acquaintance, and inquire if he 
was going through. If he replied in the negative, 
he would get him to introduce him to some one that 
was, and to Mm he would intrust his valuable bun- 
dle. It is no exaggeration to say, that hundreds of 
thousands of dollars, in bank-notes and other valua- 
ble paper, used to make the transit between these 
two cities, every year, in that unreliable manner. 

James W. Hale, who came on from Boston, in 
the spring of 1836, and was employed by Robert E. 



STOUT ^ HECEMAN'S 

565 & 567 BROADWAY, 

Cermr of Prince Street, MMW ■S"®!^:^. 




^SBWk ^'^^^ A«i>.-^ 



COATS OF ABMS, CRESTS km LETTERS, 

Beautifully Engraved on Stone, Gold, Silver or Brass. 

NOTARIAL, CONSULAR, SOCIETY and other SEALS, 

AT REASONABLE PRICES. 

SEAL PRESSES COSiSTAlVTlY ON HAND. 

WEDDING, VISITING, INVITATION AND DIISINBSS CARDS, 

Engraved and Printed on a Superior Quality of Cards, either 

fHfecLdLn.Q. and J^udineAA ^niwla/ied. 
SILVER PLATED DOOR PLATES, 

The Plate of which is warranted of unusual thiekaess. 

The finest quality of imported Note Paper constantly on hand. 

Crests, Initials, &c., Stamped on Cards and Paper. 

WM. C. STOUT. GEO. HEGEMAX. 

32 



mm>^ mm ®mm\Lm. 

J. C. HULL'S SONS, 

FORMERLY 

W. HULL & SON, 
108, 110, 112, 114, 116, 118 CLIFF STRE5ET, 

AND 

9, 11, and 13 HAGUE STREET, 

Jfamilg Soaps, f ak Soap, 

OVER ONE HUNDRED STYLES OP 

CONSISTING OP 

VARIEGATED, 

ALMOND, 

ROSE, 

PALM, 

WHITE, Ac, Ac, Ac. 

PiESSlD, TillOW IIQ ADlllHTIHE SAHfiLESi 

STARCH IN EVERY STYLE. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF / 

"THE IMPERIAL LUBSICATING OIL," 

For Rail Roads, Steamboats, Mills, &c. 
33 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 33 

Hudson, at Hudson's News Room, in the old Ton- 
tine Building, at the corner of Wall and Water 
streets, subsequently became proprietoi: of that es- 
tablishment, and styled it the " Tontine Reading 
Room." He was, also, agent of the steamer John 
W. Richmond, (the Providence boat,) and was in the 
habit of going down to her, every day of her leav- 
ing, to transmit newspapers, and a transcript of the 
latest intelligence, from his bulletin board, to the 
Boston editors. As the principal brokers were aware 
of this fact, and knew that he was acquainted with 
many Boston passengers, scarcely a day passed that 
they did not put packets of bank notes, &c., into his 
hands, with a request that he would intrust them 
" to somebody luho was going on^^^ for delivery as ad- 
dressed. 

Everybody knew *'Jim Hale;" William F. 
Harnden among the rest ; and when the latter, worn 
out by working sixteen hours per day in the close 
confinement of the B. and Worcester Railroad ticket 
office, either relinquished his situation or obtained a 
short furlough, and visited New York, the Tontine 
Reading Room was his favorite place of call. This 
was either in the latter part of 1838, or in the be- 
ginning of 1839. 

Harnden told Hale, one day, that the confined 
employment at which he had been engaged for the 
past three years had injured his health, and he was 
determined to seek some more active business : but 
what was there for him to do ? The times were 
wretchedly dull, and situations were not to be had 



94 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

for the asking. Hale replied promptly, advising him 
to do errands between New York and Boston. There 
was an urgent want, he said, of a parcel Express 
between the two places, and he explained to him 
why he thought so. He believed that he could help 
him to obtain the patronage of Jacob Little, and the 
other brokers, and (as its Agent) procure him some 
facilities on board the John W. Richmond. There 
is another version of the story, which alleges that 
Mr. Harnden had conceived the plan in Boston, be- 
fore visiting New York. Harnden consulted, also, 
by letter, with Major J. A. Pullen, who was conduc- 
tor, or agent, at that time, on the Boston and Provi- 
dence line to New York, and agent of the steamers, 
and he not only encouraged him to undertake the 
experiment, but aided him in obtaining a contract 
on that line of Boats. Harnden next had a talk with 
Mr. Moore, a conductor upon the Boston and Wor- 
cester Railroad, in Boston, with a view to enlisting 
him as a partner in the enterprise. Moore (we are 
told) required time to consider the matter. On the 
following day, he went to the Superintendent of the 
Boston and Providence Railroad, to make a contract 
for Express facilities, upon his own account ; and 
was informed that he was a little too late, an agree- 
ment having been entered into, on the previous day, 
with Harnden. This was a good lesson to the latter 
upon the value of decision and promptitude. " Nev- 
&r put off to the Morrow what may as well be done 
To-day,'' was an axiom well illustrated by that inci- 
dent Had Moore obtained the contract, it is quite 



EMWUSfm 




it 






FOR FLOORS. 



MINTON'S ENCAUSTIC TILES FOR FLOORS, 

As laid hy the Subscribers in the 

uwt%t m WAiiiigfii, 

and in numerous 

DWELLINGS, CHURCHES. BANKS, 

And other Buildings in all parts of the Country. 
PATTERN SHEETS AND DESCRIPTIONS 

of this durable and beautiful Material may be obtained by 
addressing as below. 

— ALSO — 

Garnkirk Chimney Tops, Drain Pipes, 

PLUMBERS' M^TERI^LS, &C. 

For Sale by 

MILLEH & COATES, 

279 Pearl Street, NEW YORK. 
34 



Cl« CSiMlT, 



Depot, ZIfo. 3 Courtlandt Street, SBTew York. 



Factories, I Jf^^ »^^^°' ^«"»- 
' 3 Forestville, 



(C 




Our Company being composed of the 

(Formerly Jerome Manufacturing Company,) 

AND E. N. WELCH, AT FORESTViLLE, CONN., 

It is not necessary to comment upon the superior qualities of Clocks manufactured by 
Ute aboTe named parties, as they are already well known. 

We manufacture every style of Clock, and can furnish them as lo»v as any other 
cfitablisbment in the country. We will send a circular containing the illustrations of 
all our styles of Clocks upon application. 

We have also constantly on hand a large assortment of 



vbich we are ready at all times to supply in large or small quantities, 

Those who deal in Clocks are respectfully invited to call and eiamine our stock 
lyefere purchasing elsewhere. 

S. M CAUFSVJTEH, Agent. 

35 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 35 

probable that Harnden would never have become an 
Expressman. As it turned out, he took, that day, 
the first step in a career that in less than three years 
was to make him famous throughout the civilized 
world, and hand his name down to the latest poster- 
ity as the founder of a new branch of industry, a new 
source of wealth ; a business constantly increasing 
and extending, and becoming daily more and more 
indispensable — a business, the importance and value 
of which, both to the mercantile and social interests 
of America, cannot now be over-estimated. 

Little did either Hale or Pullen, or any other 
live man, at the outset of Harnden's brilliant career, 
dream to what immense results his Express was to 
lead ; nor had he, himself, any conception of it. 

William F. Harnden was born in Reading, Mas- 
sachusetts, during the exciting times of the war of 
1812. His father was a house-painter, in humble 
circumstances, and had it agreed with his health, 
his son would have learned the trade. Diminutive 
in form, and fragile in constitution, it was thought 
best that William should not injure his health by 
application to study ; consequently his education 
was neglected. Still, he became a superior penman, 
as is proved by the round, handsome, and very leg- 
ible chirography of several letters of his, now in our 
possession. He was inclined to be unobtrusive and 
taciturn, yet his address was good and business- 
like. His principles were excellent, his habits reg- 
ular, his disposition agreeable, and his benevolence 
always larger than his means. He married a lovely 



36 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

woman, a daughter of John Fuller, Esq., of New- 
ton, Massachusetts, at the time (we believe) that he 
was a conductor upon the Boston and Worcester 
Railroad. In Stimpson's Boston Directory, for the 
year 1838, we find this address among the rest, '*W. 
F. Harnden, ticket-master, W. R. R., h. 7 Newton 
Place." In the Boston Directory of the following 
year, it is entered as " Express Package Carrier^ 8 
Court, res. 16 Za Grange Pl,'^ and his original ad- 
vertisement occupies a fly-leaf of the book. 

His matrimonial connection proved to be a happy 
one; and we have heard it said, that in many a 
business emergency, his wife was his best adviser. 

The earliest public mention, that we can find, 
of the arrangement which he had made with the 
Superintendent of the Boston and Providence Rail- 
road, is contained in a Boston newspaper, dated 
February 23d, 1839. For one or two reasons, it is 
worthy of preservation, and accordingly we will 
insert it in this record. 

BOSTON AND NEW 70EE 

EXPRESS CAR. 

IMPOETANT TO MEECHANTS, BROKERS, BOOKSELLERS, AND 0THEE8. 

W. F. HARNDEN, 

For the last five years, conductor and passenger-clerk for the Boston and Wor- 
cester Railroad Company, has made arrangements with the Providence Rail- 
road and New York Steamboat Companies, to run a car through from Boston 
to New York, and vice versa, four times a week, commencing on Monday, 4th 
March. He will accompany a car himself for the purpose of purchasing goods, 
collecting drafts, notes, and bills. Orders of all kinds promptly attended to. 
He will take charge of all small packages of goods, bundles, &c., that may be 
intrusted to his care, and see them safely delivered, and attend to forwarding 
merchandise of all descriptions, (except that prescribed by the Railroad Com- 



I 



XSaitA.l^llflila.ecl. Ixi. Xe34. 



^ 



MANUFACTURER OF THB 



&TFLTJlSTC3r 




MANUFACTORY AND WAREROOMS, 
75 to»5 East Thirteenth Street, 

Near Broadway, Sfl^W "STiDISISo 



The ''Dunham Piano Fortes," both Grand and Square, are 
distinguished for 

Their rich, melodious and powerful tone: 

Their light, elastic and powerful touch: 

For their strength and durability of construction: 

And their consequent remarkable power of keeping in tone. 

These Instruments are made of materials thoroughly seasoned outside, 
and then kilvrdried; so they are able to stand the test of every climate, and 
they do not depend upon their iron frames, as most of the other makes. 

Purchasers may rely upon the excellence of these Instruments; thej 
are warranted for five years, and the prices are moderate. 

36 



MACGREGOR'S PATENT 

Warming and Ventilating Furnaces, 




FOR HEATING PWUC AlID PRIVATE BUILDINGS. HAU8, STORES, &C. 




These Furnaces have been in 
nse several years, and with the 
recent improvements for econo- 
my, purity of air, and ease of 
management, have no equal. 

They require but little atten- 
tion; the same fire can be kept 
np the entire season, without go- 
ing out. The coal and gases are 
all consumed; with good coal no 
clinker is made, consequently 
sifting coal is dispensed with. 

There are tec sizes of Portable, 
or to be set in masonry, of power 
to warm from 10,000 to 200,000 
cubic feet of space. 

Carpenter's elevated Oven and 
St Nicholas Ranges. 

Caldron Furnaces, Registers, 
Water Coolers, Baths, Toilet 
Ware, Japanned Tin Ware, &c. 

Manufactured and for sale, 
wholesale and retail, by 

Wm. H. CORY, 

117 Beekman Street, N. Y, 

Successor to 
Jamea Macgregor, Ji. 



31 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 37 

panies,) if directed to his care. All packages, bundles, <fec., must be sent to 
office, No. 9 Court street, Boston, or No. 1 Wall street, New York. 

Orders may be left at J. W. Clark & Co.'s, 6 City Hall ; Colman's Pavilion, 
Tremont street ; E. C. Stowell, 7 Elm street, Boston ; and at J. P. Smith & 
Co.'s, 30 Wall street, New York. Will leave Boston Mondays, Wednesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays, and New York the same days. 

The "extra car" was a little ''play of fancy;" 
an ordinary valise serving to hold all that the orig- 
inal expressman had to carry for several months 
afterwards. The identical valise is now in the pos- 
session of Benjamin P. Cheney, Esq., at Cheney & 
Co.'s Express Office, in Court Square, Boston. 
During the first two or three months, Harnden 
served as his own messenger, and was upon the 
Sound nearly every night in the week. 

The Boston Transcript of March 21s^, 1839, con- 
tained the first editorial allusion to Harnden that 
we can find upon the files of that always popular 
*' daily." 

" Harnden's Express, between Boston and New 
York, has been running since the 4th of March, and 
is found highly convenient to those who wish to 
send small packages or parcels, from one city to 
the other. Mr. Harnden may be confided in for 
honesty and fidelity in the discharge of his engage- 
ments, and it affords us much pleasure to recom- 
mend his 'Express' to the notice of our readers.'* 

It then adds a few lines in relation to a map of 
the Eastern Boundary which Harnden had on sale. 

A day or two afterwards, it gave J. W. Hale, 
of the Tontine News Room, New York, credit for 
a Philadelphia newspaper. March 25th, complaint 



38 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

was made of the opposition for hiring the steamer 
Osceola to run into the steamer J. W. Richmond. 
The '' Rhode Island " started for Stonington at the 
same time, to beat the Richmond. 

The Transcript of April llth, 1839, says: "The 
John W. Richmond arrived at Providence this 
morning, far in advance of the other boats, coming 
through in eleven hours and forty-five minutes, be- 
ing the shortest passage ever made.*' May 14th, 
1839, it had the following: "We are indebted to 
our friend Harnden, of the Package Express^ for the 
United States' Gazette, (Philadelphia,) of yesterday 
morning." 

There were frequent editorial acknowledgments, 
subsequently, in all the principal newspapers of 
New York and Boston, and Harnden seems to have 
served the press with great zeal, for two or three 
years after he had started his enterprise. In recip- 
rocation, the editors, by their commendations, ma- 
terially aided him. 

The only through route from Boston to New 
York at that time, (March, 1839,) was by rail to 
Providence, and thence to New York, via Newport, 
by steamboat "J. W. Richmond," Captain W. H. 
Townsend, commander. The " Old Line " of steam- 
boats ran from Stonington to New York. Harnden 
had no paid Agent in this city, at the outset. He 
hired very limited desk-room in O'Hearn's station- 
ery store, in the basement, now, and for many years 
past, occupied by the Daily Express newspaper 
publication office, under the present premises of 



I 



WORCESTER ¥IRE WORKS, 

ICHABOD WASHBURN & MOBN, 

PROPRIETORS, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

lldnelr Ion mxH €ui Sled Win, 

AMONG WHICH AHE THE FOLLOWING, viz : 

CARD WIRE, REED, MACHINERY, SPIRAL SPRINa, 

BUCKLE, COTTON FLYER, BONNET, BROOM, BRUSH, 

BAIL, HAIR PIN, HOOK & EYE, STAPLE FLAT, 

FENCE AND COPPERED WIRE, 

TINNED IRON WIRE, 

IiiEI£,ii Am IBIilf Will 111 Wiif Hi, 

Plain and Galvanized Telegraph Wire, 

STEEL, jnUSMC W»IRE, 

Piano Pin and Piano Covering Wire, 

^mvtuA ami (SonxtA ^Ut\ Wixt tax (&xim\m$, 

STIEL wmi r®i ALL pummEB. 



Wire straightened and cut to any length required. 
38 



SANFORD'S ANTI-FRrCTION GIN POWER. 



This is the great- 
est invention of the 
age,and is particular- 
ly adapted toplanta- 
tionpurposes! It runs 
upon friction balls, 
and with one turn of 
the drawinjsc wheel 
gives 70 revolutions 
to the shaft, on which 
is placed an 18 inch 
and a 24 inch pulley; 
it can be nsed with 
1, 3, 3 or 4 horses. 
We manufacture a 
power for field pur- 
poses, on the same 
principle — geared be- 
low I Our Gin Pow- 
er took the Silver 
Medal at the late 
Stale Fair at Co- 
lumbia, S. C. 



6^ 




FOR FLANTIBRS AND FARMERS. 

This Mill received the large Silver Medal at the late Fair of the American Institute, and 
is in use on many plantations at the South, giving the most perfect satisfaction* The Gin 
Power used by Planters is well adapted to drive it, as is also the horse power used by Farmei-s. 

Persons wishing an honest Mill, that will Inst a lifetime, may see /Ai» in operation dailj, 
from 12 to 1 o'clock, at the office of the undersigned. No, 45 Gold Street, N. Y. 

Circulars of the above Horse Power and Mill will be furnished or sent to any address, by 

J. A. BET¥MET, 8ole Ag^ent. 

a9 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 39 

Sibell & Mott, who succeeded O'Hearn. Adolphus 
Harnden, a younger brother of William's, attended 
at this office, when not called thence by his duties 
as messenger. This young man, though as diminu- 
tive in size as his brother, (and the weight of the 
two together is said not to have exceeded 200 
pounds at that time,) had served creditably as a 
volunteer soldier against Mexico in the Texan war 
of independence. In appearance he was as natty 
and snug as a West Point cadet. The two brothers 
were so small, and similar in looks, that they used 
to be called, sometimes, when seen by their neigh- 
bors working together, on the walk, " the two 
ponies^ They were inferior in bulk, and so is a 
gold eagle among a lot of coppers. Fortunately for 
some of us, the standard of personal energy and 
general ability is not based upon '^ carpenter's meas- 
urementy Tailors' measures, we fear, have more 
influence, and often shape opinions, as well as men, 
but the best gauge of a man's real value is his 
achievements. 

Adolphus Harnden (we have heard his room- 
mate say) was not by any means a ''fast" young 
man ; on the contrary, he was very steady, and as 
slow as he was sure. He was chary of his words, 
and reserved in his communication with almost 
every one, but especially with the 30 or 40 wild 
young men, who boarded in the same house that he 
did, in New York. He was remarkably upright 
and reliable. We are pained to add, that, while 
crossing the Sound, in his capacity as messenger, 



40 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

he perished with the ill-fated steamer Lexington, 
which was burnt on that bitter cold, dark, calami- 
tous night, the 13th of January, 1840. 

This was an awful blow to his brother, relatives 
and friends; but thousands were mourning for some 
hundred other victims of the same dreadful catas- 
trophe, and the grief for the unfortunate express- 
man's melancholy end was merged in the general 
sorrow. 

Thirty thousand dollars in specie, which he had 
in charge for delivery to the Merchants' Bank of 
Boston, on account of the Government, was lost 
with the Lexington. 

Dexter Brigham, Jr., aided W. F. Harnden, 
both as messenger and clerk, soon after the Express 
was started, but only as a volunteer, and without 
compensation. Harnden told him that the Express 
was only an experiment, but when it should have 
become a paying concern, he would give him some- 
thing for his services. 

After the Express had been running a short 
time, via Providence and Newport, Harnden found 
it desirable to have a conductor through to New 
York, via Stonington, and he employed Luke 
Damon, who continued on that route for two or 
three years. By the way, Mr. Damon has been 
longer in the business than any other man. He has 
been for some years past with; Kinsley & Co., 
Boston. 



:ESi«i"-A.DBXjiXsmEi> ii>j- xese. 



iii liii if iliilMiif , 




'■■' a rt irt- 







JOHN^ G. McMURRAY & CO., 

Proprietors of the 

ITansmghitrgtj Steam §rtts| Jfacturj, 

WAREHOUSE AND SALES ROOMS, 

No. 277 PEARL STREET, 



By the aid of Machinery, of which they are the inventors and sole pro- 
prietors, they are enabled to sell Brushes of all kinds at very low prices, 
and solicit a thorough examination of the variety, style, quality, and price, 
feeling confident that they will copviace each buyer that it is for their in- 
terest to deal with them. 

40 



MANY, BALDWIN & MANY, 
49 JoHK Street, coriver Dutch St., 

mm ^®mm^ 




LOCKS of ererj description, 

pilfer ipiaie^ pinges, 
IRON AND BRASS BUTTS, 

Belh and Bell-Hangers' Materials 
of every kiad, 

Copjrer Wire, Iran Wirer Steel Wirt, 
WOOD SCREWS, 

Brass Screws and Machine Screws 
of all kinds. 

MANTJFACT0RER3 OF 

PORCEli AIID SILVER PLATED DOOR TRIMMINGS, 

Including Name and Number Plates, 

BBLL FtTLLS, &c., of the BEST QUALITY, 




AGENTS FOR 

GAUTIER'S BLACK LEAD CRUCIBLES, 
" PIRE BRICKS ANB TILE, 

'^ GAS RETORTS, 
" CARBURET OP IRON STOVE POLISH- 

IMPKOYED WIKE DOOE SPEII^GS, 



Every article of BUILDING HARDWARE snitable for first class 
houses kept constantlj an hand. Illustrated Catalogues sent hj piail, on 
application. 

FRANCIS MANY, GEO, W, BALDWIN, LEWIS MANT, 

41 



HISTORY OF THE EXPRESS BUSINESS. 



History op Wm. F. Haknden, and Harnden & Co., completed. Harnden's 

ILL IIEA.LTH AND OTHER DISCOURAOEMENTS. HlS HEROISM. NARRATIVE OP 
THE LOSS OF THE LEXINGTON. MELANCHOLY DEATH OP AdOLPHUS HaRN- 
DEN, THE FIRST MAN THAT DIED IN THE EXPRESS SERVICE. FrEEZING-UP OF 

THE Sound. Novel way op Expressing. Harnden establishes Offi- 
ces IN Philadelphia and Albany. Alludes to the starting of the 
FIRST opposition Express, (Adams & Co.) Takes a partner and estab- 
lishes A European business. Characteristic correspondence by Harn- 
den. Henry Wells as his Agent. Harnden & Co's operations; their 
progress at home and abroad. Sickness and decease op William F. 
Harnden. Result op his enterprises. 

We have described the causes and origin of the 
Package Express; it now remains for us to relate 
how Harnden's enterprise stood the test of experi- 
ence — wherein it failed, wherein it prosj)ered, and 
how much of the fruits of the noble tree, which he 
had planted, he was permitted to enjoy before he 
died. 

To illustrate how slight a thread the Express line 
was at that time, Mr. James Cholwell, then a clerk 
in J. W. Hale's foreign letter office, but subsequent- 
ly a city money-messenger with Adams & Co., in- 
forms us that he remembers that one day Harnden 
came to where his employer was sorting letters, and 



42 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

striking his hand emphatically upon the counter, 
declared that '* he could not make it go," meaning 
the Express business. " He had expended," he said, 
" a thousand or twelve hundred upon it, and had 
not got half his money back." Hale reminded him 
that the Cunard hue of steamships was about to go 
into operation between Liverpool and Boston, and 
this would necessarily make a multitude of foreign 
parcels for delivery, in New York and Philadelphia, 
by express. Harnden saw at once the force of the 
suggestion, and was encouraged to continue his en- 
terprise. When the steamships commenced run- 
ning, the communication between New York and 
Boston perceptibly increased, and the impetus given 
by it to the business of the latter city materially 
helped Harnden & Co. 

The reader will understand that Harnden, in the 
struggle for the establishment of his "project," had 
had the odds very much against him. He had nei- 
ther health, capital, nor friends to back him. As 
before stated, the reason of his resigning his situa- 
tion as ticket-master on the B. and Worcester R. R. 
was that his slender constitution had been seriously 
injured by his steadfast application to the duty re- 
quired of him ; hence he was not physically equal 
to the fatigue inseparable from the berth of an Ex- 
press conductor, or messenger ; and it was a subject 
of wonder, to all who knew him, that he endured 
it as well as he did. The secret of it was, that he 
had, under a very quiet, and rather taciturn de- 



SEARLES & WILLIAMS, 

No. 57 White Street, 

NE^V\^ YORK, 
MANUFACTURERS TO THE TRADE f 

OF EICHLY OKNAMENTED AND PLAIN 

E>®©II1S ©MSI fMKSi, 

IN EVERY VARIETY, OF THE NEWEST STYLES, 

IN ELLIPTIC TOP, OYAL, OR FANCY SHAPED ; 

ALSO, 

^kl anJr Square portrait anJr '§id\m ixmts, 

comprising more than a thousand patterns. 

PICTURE FRAME MOULDINGS AND OVAL FRAMES, 

of every pattern, ornamented, plain, prepared, or in the wood, 
as thej may be required. 



Having been established in the manufacture of Looking Glass and Pic- 
ture Frames for more than thirty years, and availing ourselves of all the 
improvements in manufacturing, are prepared to execute orders to any ex- 
tent in the best manner, and on as favorable terms as any house in the 

city. 

May 1, 1860. 

42 



JOHN K. HOFPEIi, 

BRUSH fflANUFACTlEER, 

829 Pearl Street, (Harpers' Building,) Franklin Square, N. ¥• 



Brushes of every description at the lowest factory 
prices. A superior quality of 

together with the greatest variety of 

in New York, on hand and for sale. 

made to order. 

Painters, storekeepers, druggists, and the public 
generally, will find it to their advantage in ordering 
from me. 





EXPRESS HISTORY. 43 

meanor, great hopefulness, a steady zeal, and a 
strong will. By almost superhuman exertion of the 
latter faculty, when worn out by a night of harder 
duty than usual, by which he had been robbed of 
his needful rest, and exposed to the roughest wea- 
ther, on sea and land, he would reanimate his e!t- 
hausted system, and nerve himself to discharge the 
recurring labor. In these days of progress, it is 
not so easy to appreciate the severe ordeal which 
Harnden went through. Unless a man is stimulat- 
ed by an indomitable spirit, if his body is weak and 
undermined by disease, he feels privileged to shun 
fatigue ; but Harnden, on the contrary, resolutely 
encountered the hardships of his new business, at 
all times, and often against the remonstrances of his 
friends, who feared that he had undertaken a work, 
that would soon destroy him. Among other things, 
it was his pride to be the first to board the British 
Mail Steamer, to obtain the Europeafti news for the 
press ; and even though it should be between mid- 
night and morning, his office would be illuminated, 
and he and his men on the alert for the expected 
arrival. This often occurred, when, instead of such 
exposure, he ought to have been in bed, and under 
a doctor's care. 

His Express had been in operation only a few 
months, when — it was in the summer or fall of 
1839 — O'Hearn, a part of whose little store in the 
basement of what is now No. 20 Wall Street, at the 
corner of Nassau Street, we have said was his orig- 



44 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

inal office in this city, requested him to remove, 
because the receipts of parcels had so increased, 
that they obstructed the stationer's own business. 
Harnden acquiesced, and hired an office at No. 2 
Wall Street, in a building situated where the Bank 
of' the Republic now stands. 

His original office in Boston was in the same 
room with Staples, the Stage Agent, No 9 Court 
Street. B. D. & G. B. Earle, Bank Messengers be- 
tween Boston and Providence, started an Express 
between those two cities, and occupied a portion of 
Harnden's Providence office. 

In August, 1839, E. L. Stone, a native of Lei- 
cester, Mass., became a clerk in Harnden's service at 
No. 2 Wall Street. J. W. Lawrence was agent of 
the Boston office; and Luke Damon and Adolphus 
Harnden were messengers. This arrangement con- 
tinued until the 13th of January, 1840, the date of 
the disaster to the Lexington. On that fatal day, 
the business of the Express at the New York office 
seemed even better than usual. Harnden had been 
intrusted with the delivery of $20,000 to Franklin 
Haven, President of the Merchants' Bank, and U. 
S. Pension Agent. Besides that large sum, they 
had in charge as much more for various other par- 
ties in Boston; and a considerable quantity of par- 
cels, &c. The money and valuables were put into 
the portable safe or iron box as usual, and this was 
bestowed in the Express crate, with the packages, 
by Adolphus Harnden, who little imagined, when it 



J. AGATE « GO'S 



AND 



^entlmen s JfmTO|mg Store, 

Between Mnrray and Warren Streets, New York, opposite City Hall. 



STOCKS, SUSPENDERS, AND THE PATENT CORAZZA SHIRTS. 

Constantly on hand — Scarfs, Cravats, Gloves, Suspenders, Under Garments, Hosiery, 
Lineo and Muslin Shirts, Pocket Kerchiefs, Buckskin Shirts, 
Drawers, and Suspenders, &c., &c. 




A — Measurement around the neck. 

B to B — " across the shoulders. 

C to C — " from centre of back to wrist bone. 

D to D — " around the chest to arm-pits. 

AtoE— " length. 



^^^ Orders accompanied with measurements as indicated above, will alwajs be 
executed with precision and dispatch, in the best style, and at most reasonable prices. 

J. AGATE & CO. 

J. AGATE. F. W. TALKINGTON. 



CHARLES F. WILLIAMS, 

ist Water Street, 

Corner of Fletcher St., SJSW ^©IEBLq 



MANUFACTURER OF 



ROUND AND SQUARE 

T2H € 





9 

FOR 

Oil, Yarnish, Turpentine, I^ard, Paint, 
Puttjr, PoTFder, &e., &e., 

DRUaeiSTS' TIN WARE, 

SWCIlHSandmSlolioldfromStolOOQGIILLOIS. 

HERMETIdALLY SEALING Oil, 

For putting up Fruits, Meats, Vegetables, Ac. 

A GENERAL ASSORTMENT OF 

Cash, Deed, Sample, Letter and Cake Boxes, Measures, 

Funnels, Scoops, Pumps, Water Pails, Water 
oii8« .i.^ (5i,^ots, Marking Pots, &c., &c., constantly 
4»diqiii*i«4£«*v< on hand, or made to order. 

Orders by Mail promptly and faithfally executed* 

45 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 45 

was done, that he had packed it for the last time. It 
was a winter's afternoon, but the trip seemed hkely 
to be safe enough. 

There were nearly 100 passengers on board, be- 
sides 37 persons in the capacity of officers and crew. 
On deck was a large quantity of cotton, in bales. 

At seven o'clock in the evening, when about five 
miles east of Eaton's Neck, L. I., and going at the 
rate of 1 2 miles an hour, the cotton near the smoke- 
pipe was discovered to be on fire! The wind was 
blowing very fresh, and all endeavors to extinguish 
the flames being found inefiectual, the boat was 
headed for Long Island. Unhappily the tiller ropes 
were soon broken by straining, and the vessel be- 
came unmanageable. 

The consternation was now so universal, that two 
of the Lexington's boats, and the life-boat, were 
no sooner lifted out and let down into the water, 
than a crowd of panic-stricken mortals precipitated 
themselves on bpard, and swamped them — by this 
means losing their own lives, and depriving the rest 
of their only dependence in that terrible emergency. 
Another boat, which had been lowered very care- 
fully, and apparently all right, was found, a day or 
two afterwards, with four bodies in it, and nearly 
full of water. 

The engine, also, became useless, and the boat 
drifted at the mercy of the wind and sea, while the 
volume of fire from the rapidly-consuming cotton 
swept over her, and her despairing passengers and 



4.6 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

crew, with a fearfulness that defies description. 
The conflagration being amidships, cut off necessari- 
ly all communication from stem to stern, where the 
passengers were collected; some clinging to each 
other, some on their knees, and either imploring 
God to help them, or unavailingly bewailing the 
horrible doom which gazed grimly into their pale 
countenances. 

The blazing wreck, shining far over the intensely 
cold and heavy waste of waters, exhibited the scene 
of the catastrophe with terrible distinctness. To 
remain on board was to incur certain death, and 
to cast themselves into the sea was the only alterna- 
tive. It was a desperate resort, but, commending 
themselves to God, the poor creatures availed them- 
selves of the wretched privilege of a choice in the 
manner of their death; for they could hardly have 
entertained a hope of surviving. A very few, who 
hesitated to precipitate themselves into the merci- 
less deep, clung to the sides of the burning hull, 
in the hope of prolonging for a few moments their 
limited existence. 

Only four persons were saved; and 110 men, 
8 women, and 3 children are known to have per- 
ished. If any, upon spars and fragments of the 
wreck, escaped drowning, it was only to die by 
exposure. It is possible that a few survived until 
morning, and drew their last breath in sight of the 
rising sun. 

Many of the victims of that awful calamity were 



I 



CORNELIUS VAN HORN, 

70 Beekman St., I¥ew York, 

MAXDFACTUKER, IMPORTER k DEALER IN 

Carriage Jarbfoare ^ Crimmings, Sleigji Materials, ^c. 

CONSIST INQ OF 



Springs, all qaalities, 

Axles numerous kinds, 

Malleable ('astings, 

Best Philadelphia Bolts, 

New York Bolts, 

Wrought Fifth Wheels, 

Wrought Axle Clips, 

Best Fhihuit-Iphia Nuts, 

Rivets Clamps, 

Buggy Da.'ihea. Bent Rims. 

Bent Shafts, finished and unfinished, 

Bent Poles, finished and unfinished, 

Bent Seat Rails and Backs, 

Spokes, Hickory and Oak, 

Hubs, 

Turned Neck Yokes, 

Carved Carriage Be.ls, 

Carveil Spring Bars, 

Beat Spindles, 

Buggy Seats, Buggy Bows, 

Buggy Wheels, 

Buggy Bodies, 

Wagon Hows, Oak and Ash, 

Coach and Buggy Lamps, 

Damask, various qualities, 

Blip Linings, 

Cloth, all colors and qualities. 

Curtain Silks, 

Silk and Worsted Coach Lace, 

Bilk and Wc.rsted Fringe and Tassels, 

Brussels and Velvet Carpet, 

Oil Carpet, 

Japanned Moleskin, 

Painted Cloth, 6-4 wide. 

Enameled Duck, ) 

Enameled Drills, > various widths. 

Enameled Muslin, ) 

Enameled Muslin, fancy colors, 



Patent Leather, 

Enameled Leather, 

Enameled Leather, fancy colors, 

Oil Top Leather, 

Buckram, Plushes, Scrims, 

Seamiug Cord, 

Patent Thread, 

Curled Hair, 

Moss, 

Curtain Frames, 

Spring barrels. 

Whip Sockets, 

Caleche Fixtures, 

Top Props. Silver and Brass, 

Knobs, Silver, Brass and Japanned, 

Locks, Bands, Tacks, 

Brads, Screws, Files, 

Buttons, 

Door Handles, 

Stump Joints, 

Shaft Jacks, Shaft Tips, 

Plated Slatt Irons, 

Plate<l Pole Yokes, 

Plated Pole Sockets, 

Plated Pole Tips, 

Plated Whiffletree Ferrules, 

Screw Wrfnches, 

Lining and Band Nails, Japanned 
and Silver, 

American Varnish, Coach and Car- 
nage, 

American Japan. 

Lane's English Varnish. Coach, Car- 
riage and Enameled Leather, 

Doles' Hub Boring Machines, 

Moulding, .'^ilver and Lead, 

Saundei's Patent Shaft Couplings, 

Kenny's Patent Shaft Couplin^.s, &c. 



C. V. H. has constantly on hand a large and well-selected stock of Carriage Hardware, 
Broad Cloths, Damasks, Plushes and Bent Rims, Shafts and Poles, of the best New Jersey 
Hickory; also, a large stock of Superior Hickory and Oak Spokes, which he offers to Carriage 
Manufacturers at the lowest market prices, and on the most favorable terms. 



C. V. H. is Sole Agent in New York for Doles' Hub Boring Machines, for boxing 
wheels. Prices, No. 1, $15.00; No. 2, 118.00; No. 3, $20.00, net cash. 



Nobles & Hoabe's English Varnish. Price of Carriage, $5.00; Wearing Body Var- 
nish, $0.75, net cash. 

Orders received for Gpard's Wheel Machines. Price $12.5.00, delivered in New York. 
Extra Tools 37 cents per quarter. This machine is worked without power, and one man can 
pot a wheel together in 40 minutes. 

46 



s 

O 

n 

§ 

n 



o 




Si 

n % 

Hi 

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•. a: j^ c -^ ^ 
eg e S K ,*> e 



{^^2*^^ 




EXPRESS HISTORY. 47 

prominent citizens of l^ew York and Boston. The 
public favorite, the inimitable comedian, the wit, 
the scholar, and the gentleman, Henry T. Finn, en- 
acted in that tragedy the last scene in his life. 
How impressively it stands out in contrast with what 
we remember of him, as, many a time and oft, at 
the annual Corporation dinner, he used to ' ' set the 
table in a roar," or, in some comic part upon the 
stage, would convulse the audience with a laughter 
that would tickle the ribs for whole days afterwards, 
and cause the very mention of his name to excite 
the risibles of the hearer! Poor Finn! Who of 
the vast multitude that knew you, has not paid to 
your memory the tribute of a tear? 

There is no record of the personal experience of 
any one of their companions, except that of the four 
who were saved; and we have none of Adolphus 
Harnden. That he behaved with courage and forti- 
tude, we have no reason to doubt. 

Express messengers have, in numerous instances 
of disaster by sea and land, distinguished themselves 
by their presence of mind and intrepidity in seeking 
to save or serve those in distress around them. In 
Harnden 's case, any attempt to rescue his fellow 
passengers would have been futile. His only care 
was for the safety of the very heavy amount of treas- 
ure which he had in his charge. He took his iron 
safe, containing about $40,000, from the crate be- 
fore the boats were swamped, in the hope of getting 
it into one of them, after they had done their ofl&ce 



48 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

in conveying the passengers and others ashore. 
Finding it was too heavy for that, he may have 
opened it and taken out the packages, for their bet^ 
ter conveyance. Probably all, or a portion, of the 
$12,000 in specie belonging to the Merchants' Bank 
had not been put into the safe, for one who was 
there says that he saw the boxes used by some per- 
sons in throwing water upon the flames. 

The safe was upon castors, and it rolled overboard 
when the steamer lurched. It has never been found, 
nor any portion of the money. Fragments of the 
crate were picked up a short time afterwards, but 
nothing of any value. The body of the unfortunate 
messenger was never recovered. 

On the day following the disaster, Captain Com- 
stock, accompanied by Dexter Brigham, Jr., and 
two or three other gentlemen, proceeded with his 
crew, in the Steamer Statesman, to hunt for such of 
the poor creatures as might yet be alive upon the 
icy shores, or afloat upon spars, &c. Crowley, the 
second mate, was found in good quarters, having 
floated ashore on a bale of cotton, (which, by the 
way, he gratefully preserves, in remembrance of its 
service ;) and three others were saved, but no trace 
was discovered of the unfortunate Express con- 
ductor. 

Early in 1840, Harnden contemplated an exten- 
sion of his line to Philadelphia, and in the spring 
of that year he commissioned E. L. Stone to go 
thither, and act as his agent. Pullen was the Bos- 
ton Messenger. 



A-LLEN'S 

PATENT 

mwMmmm 




THE LIGHTEST 11 BEST REVOLVER IN THE WORLD, 



WEIGHT ONLY 7 OUNCES. 



The advantages of this Arm over all others, consists in the superioritj 
of its workmanship, the rapidity of loading and discharging, the ac- 
curacy and GREAT FORCE with which it shoots, the convenience 
and safety with which the Arm and Ammunition may be 
carried. The Cartridges are waterproof, and the pistol 
may remain charged for any length of time, in any 
climate, with certainty of fire at all times. 

FOR SALE BY THE TRADE QENERALLY. 

ONION & WHEELOCK, 

Manafacturers. Importers and Jobbers of 

GUNS, REVOLVERS, RIFLES, PISTOLS, 

im JUIEEUL tlB SPOBTUG IBTiSLIS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

No. 99 Maiden Lane, 

48 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 49 

In November, 1840, D. Brigham, Jr., became a 
partner of Harnden, and went to England, to es- 
tablish a transatlantic express line and foreign 
exchange business. This step was regarded with 
favor, and through the energy of H. had become, 
in 1842, a popular institution, highly creditable to 
American enterprise. 

At that date, WiUiam F. Harnden was upon the 
top-wave of popularity; butwhatare splendid means 
and wide-spread reputation to a man, if the still 
greater source of enjoyment, good health, is denied 
to him ? Though constrained by his failing strength 
to ride to his place of business in his carriage, Harn- 
den still labored at his head work with unabated zeal. 
His Boston, New York, and Philadelphia Express, 
and his Foreign Express, were not his sole care; 
He conceived that his influence in Europe could not 
be better fostered and extended than by Harnden 
& Go.^s undertaking to afford the most sure and sat- 
isfactory facilities for the emptying of the overflow- 
ing population of the Old into the fertile Western 
valleys of the New World. When Henry Wells had 
urged upon him, a year or two before, the impor- 
tance of extending his line from Albany to Bufftilo, 
and thence Westward, Harnden replied, " Put a 
people there, and my Express shall soon follow." 
He did not want to waste time to court the patron- 
age of unpopulated prairies; and it was this thought, 
probably, that was the seed of his emigration pro- 



60 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

ject at a later period. With more experience, he 
might have reaHzed the fact, that Express faciUties 
may lead as well as follow population. 

Harnden desired, with all his heart, to have the 
great West traversed by railroads in every direc- 
tion. He saw that the "lay of the land" offered no 
such difficulties to their construction as had been 
experienced among the rocks and hills of New En- 
gland; and with comparatively small expense the 
immense distances, which appalled those who were 
looking wistfully to the productive and easily culti- 
vated western prairies, could be overcome, and the 
vast Yalley of the Mississippi be rendered accessi- 
ble to the enterprising spirits of the crowded East- 
ern States, and the starving millions of Europe. 
There were no exorbitaiit prices to be paid for 
** rights of way," no impediment to obtaining mate- 
rials for construction: the only difficulty was to pro- 
cure laborers. Great Britain was rich in its numer- 
ous gangs of experienced navvies, thoroughly ex- 
perienced in excavating, banking, tunnelling, bridg- 
ing, &c.; but the demand for similar labor, in this 
country, vastly exceeded the supply. The more 
that Harnden thought of this, (and the subject ex- 
ercised his mind for several months, at the period 
of which we are writing,) the more confirmed he 
became in the desire to be himself the means of 
bringing into the United States the requisite labor- 
force from the surplus of Great Britain and the 
Continent. Up to that time, there had been no 



bmi©1j®m^'^i® ^i^ir 



Q 



S. T. BAILEY, 

IVo. 5 Chatham Square, j^ew York City. 



I solicit your attention to my especial business (and consequent facilities) for furnish- 
ing Emblematic Sfgxs. (Carved, Plain or Figured,) always on 
band and got up to order; such as 

Horses' Heads, Watehes, Eagles, Spectacles, Mortars, Anvils^ 
Padlocks^ Guns^ MMats^ Keys^ Pens^ 

Liberty Caps, Wheat Sheaves. Brokers' Balls, Books, Porte-Monaies, Sad- 
dles, Boots, Awls and various Mechanical Tools, and other devices. 

My Watches arc made of two solid pieces only, one of wood, and the entire pea- 
dant of Iron, making a durable Sign; others of Wood, Iron. Cast and Sheet Zinc, ac- 
cording to necessity and requirement, all substantially made, faithfully painted, and 
gilt with the best Gold Leaf, and sent to all parts of the United States, Texas, Cali- 
fornia and Canada, when ordered; also, on hand, life-size Lions "rampant," with paw 
upon a Mortar, desirable signs for Druggist.*"; the Eagles can have a Watch suspended 
from the beak, for Jewelers; also. Gold Pens; small Signs and Cards for Store Win- 
dows, with various inscriptions on Tin, Glass and Paper; Pictorial Emblematic De- 
signs on Swing Boards ready painted, for the accommodation of Southern and West- 
ern Jewelers and other Merchants, Mecbanics and Traders. 

Pictorial Emblematic and Lettered Store Wlvdow Sh.vdes, with appropriate 
classic or quaint designs, painted or gilt, with ornamental borders. Plain, white or 
buff Linen Shades for Parlors, Offices, Ac. 



SIZES AN-D PB.ICES OF WATCH SZaiTS. 



For 



9 inch $ 4.50 



12 
U 
16 

18 
20 
22 
24 
26 
27 
28 
30 
36 



6 .00 

6.60 

7-50 

9.00 

10.00 

12.00 

14.00 

16.00 

16.00 

17.00 

19.00 

25.00 



For 



9 inch $ 5.50 



7.00 
8.00 
9.50 
11.00 
13.00 
15.00 
18.00 
21.00 
22.00 
23.00 
2.^.00 
30.00 



Price of Eacrles. 

Ist Large Size $60 00 

2d " " 50.00 

3d " " ^;00 

4th " ** 25.00 

5th " " 20.00 

6th Small Size 7.00 

7th " " 5.00 



Price of Mortars. 
36 inch $40.00 



25.00 
14.00 
10.00 



Price of Quns. 

12 feet $30.0* 

10 " 25.00 

8 " 20.00 



Daguerrean Baek Grounds, on hand, or painted to order, scenery or plain« 

60 



HUNTER, KELLER & CO., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



WROUGHT IRON PIPES, 



AND 



Finings for Steam, Gas and Water, 

144 CENTRE STREET, 






^ ^y %M MSk W^ JL ML Mm lyl ^ m 

Hot Water Boilers for Heating Buildings^ 

STEAM APPARATUS FOR HEATING AND YEN- 
TILATING HOTELS, FACTORIES, &c. 



EFery fariety of Tools and Machinery used by the Trade* 



STEAM ENGINES 



ALL FITTINGS REQUISITE FOR GAS OR STEAM WORK. 

61 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 51 

organized and well-regulated system of emigration. 
If a shipload of foreigners arriA^ed, the chances were 
that they were the dregs of a Em-opean poor-house, 
with neither the inclination nor the physical ability 
for labor; but if, on the contrary, they were of the 
better class of emigrants, able and anxious to go 
West and work, there were many hindrances to 
their getting thither, and little or no means of com- 
municating with, and remitting money to, the friends 
whom they had left behind them, in the old coun- 
try. Wm. F. Harnden determined to remedy, if 
possible, all these difficulties. He had established, 
as we have said, his Express offices in the principal 
cities of England and France. He lost no time in 
doing the like in Scotland, Ireland, and Germany, 
and so arranged it that Harnden & Co., at all their 
offices in the United States, could make bills of ex- 
change either upon their foreign agents or upon first 
class bankers in all those cities, for any amount, 
from one pound, upwards, for the accommodation 
of emigrants, who, having settled and made a little 
money, desired to remit it safely and expeditiously 
to friends at home, to pay their passage to America. 
Having made this arrangement widely known, 
the effect of it was soon manifested, agreeably to 
Harnden's expectation. The Irish and German 
residents (but especially the former, who are more 
impulsive) began to buy the bills, and send home 
to their friends to join them, in this land of plenty. 
The facility of remittance thus provided by Harn- 



52 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

den & Co. (and so extensively imitated by a host of 
6mall bankers since that time) gave a very decided 
impetus to emigration from Great Britain. It was 
precisely what was wanted to give it a start. Harn- 
den's next move was to arrange with Enoch Train 
& Co., the large packet-ship owners in Boston, for 
the cheap conveyance of emigrants from Liverpool. 
His next step was to contract with the owners of 
the numerous lines upon the N. Y. and Erie Canal 
for the exclusive use of all their passenger boats. 
It was an immense monopoly, but never abused, 
and saved the emigrants and other passengers from 
being confused by opposition lines, and fleeced by 
runners and other land-sharks, who, prior to that 
time, used to fatten upon the plunder of ignorant 
travellers. 

Harnden was almost as great a believer in the 
advantages of publicity as is the very liberal, reso- 
lute, enterprising, and successful Mr. Robert Bon- 
ner, of the ''New York Ledger," who has wrought 
so remarkable a revolution in advertising within the 
last year or two. Ex. gr. — Young Smith, in H. & 
Co.'s Boston ofl&ce, received an order from Nat. 
Greene, at that time, to get a thousand white cards 
printed, relative to the enterprise; the size of them 
to be somewhat smaller than his hand. "His hand!" 
exclaimed Harnden, when he heard of the order, 
"have them a foot square, five thousand of them, 
and the color red. If a thing is worth doing at all, 
it is worth doing thoroughly." Then writing down 



mm\m exchange fire insuraie oompm, 

OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 



OaisIx OA.x>ita.l, 



^200,000. 



Office, American Exchange Bank Building, cor. Broadway and Cedar Street. 

Insures buiMings, Merchandise, Household Furniture, Rents, Leases and other personal property, at 
the lowest rates; returning to the assured a per centage in Cash at the time of elTecting the In- 
surance, in place of Scrip, as is the custom on the mutual system. 

Ralph Mead, Jr., firm of E. & R. Mead, Jr., k Co. 
James L. Jackson, Iron Works, East 28th Street. 
Goodwin Lowrey, firm of Lowrey, Strang & Co. 
Henry Owen, Importer, 91 John Street. 
Hugh N. Camp, firm of Camp, Bruusen & Sherry. 
Francis Du Boi.s, 89 Fulton Street, ' 4 

N. L. McCready, firm of McCready, Mott & Co. 
jl-saac B. Wellington, " Wellington & Abbott. 
George W. Mead, ' " Mead & Taft. 
John Hopper, " Hopper & Emerson. 

James D. Sparkman, " Sparkman & Truslow. 
iMoiris Reynolds, "210 Washington Street, Brooklyn. 
I William K. Belcher, firm of Sackett, Belcher & Co. 
iJohn R. Graham, " Haws, Graham & Co. 

iFrederick M. AUes, " Guille & Alles. 
I Henry Biicking, " H. & C. I'. Bucking. 

IThos. S. Whitman, " Whitman, Bros, h Co. 



Samuel Brown, 

William A. Booth, President of Am. Ex. Bank, 
Lowell Holbrook, firm of Holbrook ^ Nelson, 
Amasa S. Foster, Banker, 267 Pearl Street. 
Wm. C. Langley, firm of W. C. Langley & Co. 
Wm. M. Richards, " Richards, Haight k Co. 
Sheppacd Gandy, " Robert & Williams. 
Samuel Willets, " Willets & Co. 

Rlwin Thome, " Thorne, Watson & Co. 

Alexander Studwell, 245 Broadway. 
Lewis B. Loder, firm of Loder k Co. 
Wm. Laytin, " Ijiytin, Hurlbut &Co. 

Prosper P. Shaw, " J*. P. Shaw & Co. 
Thomas Clark. " Thomas Clark k Co. 

William W. Rose, 68 Cedar Street. 
George H. Studwell, firm of Gillespie & Studwell, 
Charles Kellogg, »' Brumley h Kellogg 

Elijah T. Sherman, 

George B. Satterlee, 49 Exchange Place. 
Cornelius Smith, firm of Clark, Austin & Smith. 
John S. Jenness, " Jcnness & Watson. 
Chas. L. Anthony, " Anthony, Whittemore & 

[Clark. 
SAJIIJEIi BROIVX, President. 



Silas C. Herring h Co.'Josiah Jex, 26 Coenties Slip. 



Edward B Abbott, 47 Water Street. 
Henry Weil, 134 Fjjsex Street. 
Marcellus Massey, 105 P»'arl Street. 
William T. Blodgett, firm of Wm. Tilden * Nephew. 
Samuel W. Truslow, " William Wall's Sons. 
JAMES M. BATBS, Secretary. 

GEO. C. DA VIES, General Agent, "Western Branch, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



C. T. HURLBURT^S 

437 Broome Street, 

2d Door East from Broadway, 



HomoBopathic Medicines, Vials, Cases, &c. 

PUBLISHER OF 

Dr. M. Freligh's Homoeopathic Practice of Medicine; Dr. 
M. Freligh's Homoeopathic Pocket Compan- 
ion; and also of the United States 
Journal of Homoeopathy. 

62 



H. MEIGS, JR., 

e Cashier Metropolitan Bank. 



WM. ALEX. SM T 

For 16 years a Member of the N. Y. Stock Exchanjfe 



H. ISEieS, Jr., b SmiTH, 



U^iK 



DSiKiia 



No. 39 William Street, 

BUY AND SELL, ON COMMISSION, STOCKS^ BONDS, &C.y 

NEGOTIATE lOANS AND PAPEB, 

ALLOW INTEREST ON DEPOSITS, 
Hake Advances on Current Securities consigned to thentfor sale« 



A long and successful experience in financial affairs justifies them in offering to 
give useful information to their customers. 



THEY REFER, BY PERMISSJON, TO 

THE MCTROPOLITAN BANK . . New York, 

THE MERCHANTS' BANK Do. 

MOSES TAYLOR, Esq Do. 

MESSRS. P. HARMONY'S NEPHEWS k CO Do. 

THE PHH.ADELPHIA BANK Pbiladelphi*. 

R. MICKLE, Esq., Cashier Union Bank Baltimoro. 

J, MITTON, Esq. , Cashier, OflBce Northern Bank, Kentucky Louisrille. 

MESSRS. KINNEY, ESPY & CO Cincinnati, Ohio. 

T. P. HANDY, Esq. , President Commercial Branch Bank Cleveland, Ohio. 

MESSRS. COOLBAUGH & BROOKS Burlington, Iowa, 

63 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 63 

the order explicitly, he handed it to Smith; and in 
two weeks afterwards there was hardly a hotel, 
steamboat, or depot in the United States in which 
was not seen one or more of those large showy flam- 
ing-red placards, announcing, and keeping before 
the people, the admirable arrangement which Harn- 
den & Co. had consummated for the passage of emi- 
grants from Liverpool to New York, Buffalo, Chi- 
cago, &c. A thousand or more, also, were conspic- 
uously posted at the railway stations, and other 
appropriate places, in England, Ireland, Scotland, 
and on the Continent. Harnden employed, too, 
numerous passenger agents in Europe, and used 
every possible means to make the laboring class — 
and especially those who could be serviceable in the 
construction of railroads — appreciate that it was for 
their interest to come and settle in the Western 
world. Probably no one man ever did more to 
make the resources of the West, and the induce- 
ments to emigrate thither, extensively appreciated 
in Great Britain than William F. Harnden. After 
his death, his partners were reproached that in their 
zeal to obtain passengers, they suffered their foreign 
agents to over-rate the facilities and rewards of emi- 
gration; but that charge, whether true or false, was 
never made against Harnden himself. He knew 
that the Labor of a country was her most certain 
source of wealth, and never was this unerring law 
of political economy more manifest than in tho 
United States. On the one hand, he saw his native 



54 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

atate of Massachusetts, without either agricultural 
or mining advantages, made rich by the industry of 
her sons and daughters; on the other, he beheld im- 
mense prairies in the Western states and territories 
yielding no support to man, but ready to fill millions 
of barns and granaries to overflowing with the abun- 
dance of the earth, as soon as the hand of labor 
ehould come to develope their endless resources. It 
was with the most heartfelt gratification, then, that 
Harnden realized the entire success of what may be 
not inaptly called his Foreign Passenger Express. 
At the close of the year 1844, that small-sized, fra- 
gile man, whose constitution, never healthy, was 
now wasted by the consumption which was rapidly 
measuring the little remnant of life yet left to him, 
had the satisfaction of knowing that he had been 
the direct means of bringing from the Old World 
more than 100,000 hard-handed laborers, and de- 
positing them in that now magnificent portion ,of 
our country where their work was most wanted, for 
the cultivation of the soil, and the construction of 
railways and canals. He had no bodily strength, 
himself, for that sublime work which has since made 
the West an incalculably productive farm, traversed 
in all directions by over ten thousand miles of rail- 
road, and affording happy homes to millions of peo- 
ple; but yet (and it was his consolation in the last 
hours of his brief, but active and eventful career) 
he had brought more muscle to that prodigious la- 
bor than any Hercules among them all. 



HALLET, DAVIS & GO'S 



CELEBRATED 



(IRAIND, PARLOR (iRAND & S<IVARE 

Iz; 
o 

P 
O 

37 First Premiums taken within 15 years. 





IW AND mOl-HAND PIAM TO LET 

and Rent applied if purchased or 8oId on instalments* 



Great Bapins given in Second-liand Pianos & Melodeons. 

T. S. BERRY, 458 Broadway, 

Comer of Grand St., (Marble Building.) 
54 



SEALEir & LEi:, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 




attitt ^kxtmtops 



EXHIBITING from 25 to 200 VIEWS, 
127 E1.*W STREET^ 

Cor. Howard St., ^IH ^®^1^, 




ALLyil HOUSE 

Hartford, €«nn. 



Chas. Deyens, Jr. 



Proprietor. 



Asylum SL cor. TrninbulISL 

AND NRARKST 

HOTEL TO THE DEPOT. 



COMMISSION DEALERS IN 



Fruits, and all kinds of Country Produce, 

POEK, BEEF, CALVES, MDTTCN, POULTRY, 

liiSi IHlTlii EiliSii tilDi &i«i &ii| 

214 and 2T5 West Wasbiiigtou Market, foot of Fulton Street, 



Orders for Shippinp: promptly attended to. Reference: Messrs. Jones & Shepard. 
Favorable terms will be made with Express Agents offering consignments. 

Jared S. Weart. 
55 



JosiAH C. Hunt. 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 55 

But great as was the moral triumph of Harnden 
& Co.'s foreign operations, they were not remuner- 
ative pecuniarily. Their agencies, and other ma- 
chinery, abroad, were expensive, and it is possible 
that the disbursements might have been less lavish, 
with no detriment to their efficiency; but Harnden 
was liberal in everything, and it afforded him pleas- 
ure to have all in his employ share his prosperity. 
The idea seems to be regarded as exploded in these 
days, but it was Harnden's opinion that the surest 
means to render his men zealous in the work, and 
honest under every temptation, was to pay them 
generously for their services. Governed by this 
rule of action, he certainly succeeded in obtaining 
the hearty co-operation of all his employees — agents, 
clerks, messengevs, and drivers — and was singularly 
fortunate in never losing a dollar by any want of 
fidelity on their part. In their respective depart- 
ments, nearly all of them were remarkable for abil- 
ity. It was, indeed, a period in which the Express 
business — or perhaps we should say its projectors 
and managers — had infused some of their own elec- 
trical vitality into every man in their employ. Un- 
doubtedly, the work itself being novel, exciting and 
popular, was well calculated to create, and keep 
ahve, a strong esprit du corps. The value and im- 
portance of that sentiment, however lightly it may 
be esteemed in the present well-established condi- 
tion of the Express service, (to which, by the way, 
we, ourselves, consider it as essential as ever,) were 



56 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

not overlooked by Harnden; and so successfully did 
he encourage and foster it, that his men would make 
any sacrifice of personal ease and necessary rest to 
please him; and though it is now thirteen years 
since he died, there is not one of them living who 
does not speak of him with affectionate regard. 

In the summer of 1842 or '43, L. W. Winches- 
ter (now and for some years past the agent) was a 
clerk in Harnden & Co.'s New York office. No. 3 
Wall Street. He had previously been engaged in 
similar business. In a year or two, the office was 
removed to No. 6 Wall Street, Luke Damon acting 
as agent of the Eastern business, and Winchester 
as agent of the Philadelphia Express. In the win- 
ter of 1843-4, Harnden & Co. had a disagreement 
with the Camden and Amboy R. R. Co., and were 
easily induced to make a sale of their Philadelphia 
Express to Geo. Hatch and Geo. 0. Bartlett. 

We have already said that H. & Co. under-rated 
the value of their home Expresses, so full were 
their minds of the superior magnitude of their for- 
eign operations. They were receiving, and sending 
to the West, scores of ship-loads of emigrants, and 
actually had under their control the bulk of the for- 
eign passenger business. The senior partner used 
to say to his friends, that when his plans were per- 
fected, every emigrant arriving in New York and 
Boston would be consigned to Harnden & Co. 

Geo. Hatch & Co., failing to comply with the 
terms of their purchase, the Philadelphia Express 



" Mj object is to call attention to the fact, that a Policj of Life Insurance is the cheapest an 
safest mode of making a certain provision for one's family. "—Benjamin Fbankun. 

" One should insure in health, as sickness may suddenly overtake the most robust, and dis- 
qualify him for insurance." 

" Life Insurance the best investment. If long lived, the insured obtains a good interest on the 
premium paid, in cash dividends, and in most instances a very large return for a small outlay. 
In case of death there is a great advantage over Savings Banks." 

"The average length of human life is only Thirty-three Years. Of 500 persons, only 1 live* 
80 years, and of 100, only 6 live 65 years." 



^ei0 (Kngfetti fife Insurance €a. 

rURBL-Sr MUTVAZi . - . BOSTOir, HXASS. 



Accumulated Capital, January, 1860, over - - - • $1,400,000 

This remains after payingr Losses, (during lo yean,) amounting to over $738,000 
And Dividends in CASH to the Policy holders, amountinsr to 600,000 



WILL.ARD PHILLIPS, President. 



S) s m IE © "S* © 3B. ^ 



Charles P. Curtis, 
Marshall P. Wilder, 
Thomas A. DsxTtB, 



Sewell Tappan, 
Charles Hubbard, 
William B. Reynolds, 
James Sturois. 

B. F. STEVENS, Secretary. 



A. W. Thaxter, Jr., 
George H. Folger, 
Francis C. Lowell, 



The surplus is divided among all the policy holders, in CASH, thus 
affording a good and certain rate of interest upon the outlay of pre- 
miums, and avoiding the large and unnecessary accumulations of un- 
paid dividends of uncertain tendency, and erroneously called capital. 

One half of the first five annual premiums on life policies loaned to 
insurers, if desired; the remaining half may be paid quarterly. 

The premiums are as low as those of any reliable Company. 

]Bl&*This is the oldest American Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany j was established in 1843, has had an uninterrupted success, and 
is purely Mutual, dividing all the surplus profits among all the 
Insured, 

Insurance may be effected for the benefit of married women, be- 
yond the reach of their husbands' creditors. Creditors may insure 
the lives of debtors. 

Blank form of application for Insurance, or the Company^s Pam- 
phlet, containing the charter, rules and regulations, also the annual re- 
ports, showing the condition of the Company, will be furnished gratis, 
upon application by post or personally. 

BRAJVCH OFFICE LV JSTEW YORK CITY, 

Metropolitan Bank Building, 110 Broadway, cor. Pine St. 
JOBrr BOPFER, AgoMt and Attorney. 

56 



YORK RAIL ROAD AGENCY, 



33 Pine Street. 




A. S. & A. G. WHITON, 

AGENTS FOR THE SALE OP 

MIL ROID IRON, CHAIRS, SPIKES, BOLTS, RIVETS, 

Locomotives, Stationary and Portable Engines; Passenger, Freight 
and Hand Cars, Wheels, Axles, Tire, Steel, Volute and Rub- 
ber Springs, Rubber Goods, Belting, Hose, &c.. Locomo- 
tive and Hand Lanterns, Cotton Duck for Car Covers, 
Oil Cloth, Car Head Linings, Steam and Water 
Guagcs, W^aste, Switch and Car Locks, Bag- 
gage Checks, Switch Stands, Oil, Safety 
Fuse, Powder, Shovels, Picks, 
Barrows, Hydraulic Cement. 

Engineers' and Surveyors' Instruments, 

Transits, Levels, Rods, Chains, Drawing Instruments, Express Mes- 
sengers' Safes, Telegraph Instruments and Wire. 

Paints, Oils and Artists' Materials, Hose Carriages, Hook and 

Ladder Trucks, Plate Window Glass, Colored and Rough 

Glass, and all materials used in the construction, 

equipment and operating of Railways. 

Having had experience as Civil Engineers in the construction of Rail- 
ways, and as Superintendents in operating them, we offer our services as 
Manufacturers' Agents, with the confident belief that we can serve the in- 
terests of those who favor us with their orders. 

We sell, in all cases, at Manufacturers' prices. Oar experience and 
position here, at the head of the market, enable us to judge correctly as to 
quality and value of Machinery and articles in which we deal. 

57 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 5T 

reverted, after the lapse of a few months, to Harn- 
den & Co., who run it for a time, and then sold it 
to Johnston Livingston and William A. Livingston. 
In a month or two, the latter sold out to the for- 
mer, and went to Albany, where he engaged in the 
Express business. We shall have occasion to allude 
to him in another part of this work. 

Livingston & Co.'s New York and Philadelphia 
Express remained in the hands of Johnston Livings- 
ton for several years, until, indeed, it resumed its 
original name. 

James Stuart, then a lad, was employed in the 
New York office of Harnden & Co. at that time, 
and has continued in it ever since. 

In the winter of 1844-5, it became evident that 
Wm. F. Harnden could not survive until spring. In 
vain had he sought relief in a more genial Southern 
clime; vain was the skill of the best physicians — im- 
potent to save him were the incessant attentions of 
his affectionate wife and friends. He met his fate 
firmly, on the 14th day of January, 1845, aged 
thirty-three, and was buried at Mount Auburn, near 
Boston. A simple marble monument marks the 
spot where his remains were deposited. Besides 
his widow and children, there was a large circle of 
friends who sincerely lamented his premature death. 
He had been a dutiful son, a tender husband, and a 
kind father; a pleasant associate, an agreeable neigh- 
bor, and a good citizen. Still more, he was a lib- 
eral, yet judicious, friend to the poor. 



58 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

His European affairs were a source of anxiety to 
Harnden upon his death-bed. His only desire to 
live appeared to be that he might see his foreign 
enterprise attain to a good and permanent basis. 
Possibly, he hoped to put his Express system into 
operation upon one or more of the railways in En- 
gland, but probably the one grand purpose and dar- 
ling object of his heart was the monopoly of the 
emigration business. 

It was the popular notion, at his decease, that he 
had accumulated wealth; but the fact was, that he 
died poor. His personal and family expenses had 
been large, and he had been a liberal giver. His 
European business had required an immense out- 
lay, and he had little or no return for his invest- 
ments. At his death, it devolved upon his partner, 
Dexter Brigham, Jr., who soon associated with him- 
self several gentlemen of ability, experience, and 
capital, viz: Robert Osgood, I. C. Kendall, and John 
W. Fenno. It was then a distinct property from 
the rest of Harnden & Co.^s business, which consist- 
ed of their Express between New York and Boston. 
In about a year after Wm. F. Harnden's death, the 
home Express was disposed of to Messrs. Brigham, 
Blake, Cooledge, and Wheeler. At, or nearly at, 
the same time, Kendall retired from the European 
house, while it still appeared to be in the full tide 
of prosperity, though it no longer retained any of 
its original Express character. Blake, also, retired 
from the Express firm here, and was succeeded by 



:PHii.A.r)Er,T>iii^ 

IPilf IIMlFliC ST ICI lIMf . 

ESTABLISHED BY MYRON SHEW, 1846. 

A. P. BEECHER, 

Importer, Mannfaetnrer and Dealer in 

No. 322 Chesivut Street, 

Philadelphia^ Pa. 

Always on hand an extensive and complete assortment of 

1 MESTli IT m\ IT FAIR Ai IMSIMBII MIS. 

The Operator or Amateur can here obtain everything that has been 
found useful in his practice. 

as well as all the most approved Chemicals used in the art of Photography. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS THROUGHOUT, 

on the lowest terms, 

Consisting of Cameras, Camera Boxes, Plate-Holders, Copying Frames, 

Paper of the best makers and most approved, Portrait Frames, Passe 

Partouts, Embossed Bristol Boards for mounting Photographs, 

Glass Ware, Gutta Percha Goods, 



la^g (^€c 



9 ^^^i'^od 
and every article wanted by the Trade or Operator. 

IMPORTER OF THE CELEBRATED JAMIN CAMERAS. 

Orders attended to with care and dispatch. 

58 



^t ganhcrs' ^agape anlr Statistital ^Ifijistcr, 

Monthly, Five Dollars per annum. 

From the Bank of Charleston, S. O. 

The Bank or Cuaklmton, S. C, Charleston, February 23, 1860. 
J, Smith Homaks, Esq.. Editor, New-York : 

Dear Sir.— I have duly received the copy of the "Bankers' Register," for 1S60, for which I am obliged. 
We have been using the work for several years, and I take pleasure in stating Ihat.l regard it as a very useful 
and valuable book lo bank oflBcera, and one that I would not dispense with willingly. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. Chkesboeough, Cashier. 



From the Cashier of the New- York State Bank, Albany. 

Nkw-Yokk Statk Bakk, Albany, February 20, 1860. 
J. Smito Homaks, Esq.: 

Dear Sir,— I embrace this opportunity to commend the *' Merchants and Bankers' Register," published 
annually by yon. It contains, in convenient shape for reference, much desirable statistical and other matter. 
Judiciously selected and condensed ; the work being thus rendered one whoso merits entitle it to perpetuity. 

Very respectfully yours, 

J. H. Vak ANTWBBr, Cashier. 



From the Merchants* Bank, Providence. 

Mercuantb' Bank, Providence, February 18, 1880. 
J. SMirn Homaks, Jr., E?q. : 

Dear Sir,— I have used the " Merchants and Bankers' Register," published by you, for a number of years, 
and as a book of reference for most matters connected with the details of the business of a bank officer. I con- 
sider it almost indispensable. I havo always found it very reliable upon all matters about which I have had 
occasion to consult it Very respectfully yours, 

^______^ C. T. RoBBiKS, Cashier. 

Agricttltueal Bank. IIerkimeb, N. Y. 

W© prize the work very highly, and are very desirous of having it complete, that it may be bound and pre- 
served. The information it contains on the subjects of banking and finance is invaluable to Ihe banker, the 
merchant and the financier. 

September, 1850. _ 

CiiiTTBAt. Bank o» Trot, N. Y., February 6, 1853. 
J. B. IIoMAifB, Jb. : 

Dear Sir,— I herewith enclose $1 25 in payment of " Bankers' Register" for 1S5S, received on the 8d inst. 
It is a work of great value, a»d should bb in thk uak os or kvebt business man and bankbb. 

Kespecifully yours, 
John B. Kellogo, Cashisr. 

From the Cashier of the Bank of North America, Boston. 

Bank of Nouth America, Boston, December 20th, 1859. 
The *' Bankers' Magazine " is a periodical which is as essential to bank officers, who mean to keep posted 
in every thing relating to tliclr duties, as Blackstone to a student at law. I have seen copies of the Magazine 
which contained the decision of cases which was worth the year's subscription. It Is not possible that every 
number should contain information wanted by all, and because one may not see tho article that suits his case, 
or upon which he desires information. It may contain what would suit a dozen others. I undertake to say, 
that any person who has the work bound to refer to, will find any information he may stand in need of coa- 
corning banks and banking. Please continue my subscription. Respectfully yours, 

JoBir K. Hau, Cathie, 



From Messrs. Hurst & Brobston, Notaries Public, Philadelphia. 

PuiLADKLFniA, January 81, 18(J0. 
J. SMirn Homans, Jr., Esq.: 

Dear Sir,— Please find enclosed fl 25 for the Bankers' Register, received by us some dayc since. The only 
important omission in this numlwr Is the absence of the alphabetical list of Cashiers, which you furnish in the 
number of last year. I suppose the changes are not frequent enough to require you to repeat it every year, 
but we would respectfully suggest that it is loo valuable a part of tour truly taluable book to be entirely 
omitted. Very respectfully, your obedient servants. 

Hurst ds Bbobstoh. 

From the Cashier of the Philadelphia Bank. 

Philadelphia Bank, Philadelphia, February 11, 1860. 
J. SMmz Homans, Esq., New-York: 

Dear Sir.— I felt that we could not afford to lose the " Bankers' Register " for 166i>, so, as it did not reach 
me early, I send for it. I consider it valuable. Probably it would gratify many who use it, if the legal rate of 
intcre?t in each State, and the custom and law relative to grace on sight checks and drafts, and the liability of 
the agent who holds time bills twenty-four hours or more without acceptance, were added to it. 

Yours respectfully, 

__________^ B. B. COMIOTS. 

Bajoe or MoBiLB, February 16, 1860. 
J. Smith Homans, Esq. : 

Dear Sir,— I have been a reader of the " Bankers* Magazine" for many years, and take pleasure in recom- 
mending it as eminently useful (I might almost venture to say indispensable) to bank officers, as well as con- 
taining many articles of interest and mformation (or business men generally. 
. Yours very respectfully, 

'^ J. B. Ganx, Cashier. 



EXPRESS HISTORY. b'J 

C. H. Valentine, who adhered to it about two years. 
Dexter Brigham, Jr., sold out in the meantime. 
Subsequently, Cooledge and Valentine induced 
Wheeler to sell his interest to them. In 1850, or 
about that time, J. M. Thompson, of Springfield, 
Mass., purchased Valentine's interest; and Johnston 
Livingston and L. W. Winchester negotiated for the 
purchase of Cooledge 's. The result of it all was, 
however, that the Harnden Express between Bos- 
ton and N^ew York became the property of J. M. 
Thompson, Johnston Livingston, S. M. Shoemaker, 
E. S. Sanford, and L. W. Winchester, jointly, under 
the style of Thompson, Livingston & Co. Winches- 
ter was constituted manager of the New York of- 
fice. C. H. Valentine afterwards started an Express 
at St. Louis, but for a year or two past has resided 
in this city, as New York superintendent of a large 
Western and South Western freight forwarding 
business. 

In the meantime, Messrs. Brigham, Fenno, and 
Osgood remained in the foreign business, under the 
style of Harnden & Co. It is only because it was 
so styled that we again allude to it, for it was no 
longer anything more than a banking and commis- 
sion house. Our old Express friend, Luke Damon, 
however, was a clerk in their Liverpool counting- 
room, as late, we believe, as 1849 or '50. In 1851, 
some ill-advised operations in building and starting 
a line of steamships between Boston and England, 
and investments in East Boston stock, crippled 



60 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

them completely, and they were obliged to cave in. 
The failure was for a very heavy amount, and the 
dividend to creditors was only nominal. 

Thompson, Livingston, Sanford, and Shoemaker 
were all experienced, energetic and shrewd Express 
managers, and Winchester had been familiar with 
the office routine and customers of Harnden & Co. 
for more than seven years. With such a force be- 
hind it, the Harnden Express once more offered a 
strong competition to the powerful firm of Adams 
&Co. 

In 1851, James De Martin, a merchant in Savan- 
nah, Ga., became associated with L. W. Winches- 
ter in a semi-weekly Express between New York 
and that city, which was dispatched regularly by S. 
L. Mitchell's steamships. Soon afterwards Johnston 
Livingston obtained an interest in it, and the firm 
became Livingston, Winchester & Co. It proved a 
success, and its operation rapidly extended to Co- 
lumbus, Macon, Montgomery, &c. Nor has it ceas- 
ed to grow in usefulness and importance. 

Shortly afterwards, the Harnden Express propri- 
etors started an Express between New York and 
New Orleans and Mobile, by steamships, in opposi- 
tion to Adams & Co.'s business in that quarter, 
which had been commenced a year or two before 
by Stimson & Co. Thompson, Livingston & Co. 
established agencies in New Orleans, Mobile and 
Texas, and their Express became very useful to the 
merchants of the South Western states. 



W. H. LEE & CO. 

WARE BOOMS 

^..^ 199 FultoD Street, 
r^ N.Y. 




J. U. OTTER. 



WAREROOMS. 




In connection with their present stock of Cabinet Work, they have in their 

IVarerooms, ]¥o. 199 Fulton St., X. IT., 

A general assortment of BEDDING of EVERY DESCRIPTION: also Putnam's 
Spring Beds, Elliptic Spring Beds, all kinds of Cane Seat Lounges, Settees, Arm Chairs, 
Ac; Enameled Sets in all colors, Office, Bank and Counting-room Furniture, &c. 

60 



£3:s::oe3Xj s xo 



PATENT COHDAGE CO., 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



The subscribers having been appointed Agents of the EXCELSIOR PATENT 
CORDAGE CO., (Messrs. J. Atkins A Co. relinquishing the agency from this date,) 
beg to call attention to the superior quality of Cordage made by this Company. 

The Patent Machines, of which they have the exclusive control and use, are 
capable of producing 



'§ap ai all si^es rquto kx S|ip 

and other purposes, which, after abundant experience, they confidently recommend 
as possessing in an eminent degree uniformity of lay, which it retains to the end, 
perfect flexibility and freedom from kinking) consequently combining the greatest 
possible 



STRENGTH AND OURABtUTV IN WEAR. 

This Rope is now exclusively used on several of the largest lines of European 
Packet Ships, giving in every instance the best satisfaction. 

An assortment of the different sizes can always be delivered at short notice, and 
will be sold at the lowest market price, and on liberal terms. 

HOWLAND & FROTHINGHAM, 

106 Wall Street. 

61 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 61 

The Harnden Express is now regarded as a 
great institution, in the Southern States, as well as 
North and East. 

L. W. "Winchester is the able Superintendent, 
and Geo. Knower the Cashier, at the New York 
office: A. Sprague has been for some years the 
Agent at Boston. 



THE ADAMS EXPRESS COMPANY. 



When we consider the vast extension of the Ex- 
press service, both in area and importance, since 
the death of Harnden, we cannot but wonder that 
so gigantic a growth should have sprung from the 
enterprise and persevering energy of a few men 
who began the good work, with neither capital nor 
rich relations, nor high social position to back them. 
Indeed, more than one of them had not enjoyed 
even the advantages of a first-rate common school 
education. Several of the most successful com- 
menced their business with scarcely a dollar to their 
names, and all have to congratulate themselves that 
they have attained to their present standing, not by 
any adventitious aids, but solely by their own per- 
sonal talents, united to the most indefatigable appli- 
cation to the work. The labor has not all been 
manual, as many imagine; they have performed a 



62 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

great deal of head'-wovk, and the result is a degree 
of harmony in the operation of the Express service 
throughout the whole country, notwithstanding the 
different, and oftentimes apparently opposing, in- 
terests of the numerous proprietors. 

Mere executive men could never have brought 
the business to the prominent and influential posi- 
tion which it now holds in every considerable com- 
munity. Fortunately for its early success, it was 
not retarded by faUing into the hands of persons 
competent only to run of errands and deliver par- 
cels. Mind, as well as muscle — mental sagacity, as 
well as physical energy, were demanded for its 
development. 

Alvin Adams, happily, united in his own person both 
of those characteristics. He had the iron constitu- 
tion, and the aspect of health, which he had brought 
with him from his native home among the mountains 
of Vermont, twenty years before, when he came to 
Boston, a fatherless and motherless boy, to seek his 
fortune; and he had, too, the clear head and strong 
intellect for which the people of the Green Hills are 
famous. His fifteen or twenty years of experience 
in Boston, before he started in the Express business 
with P. B. Burke, had been marked by every variety 
of fortune, but he had never attained to wealth. 
Beginning it in the humble situation of an assistant 
in the Lafayette Hotel, his intelligence, regularity, 
temperance, and habits of industry speedily secured 
his promotion, and rendered him an invaluable aid 



F. C. KEMPTON, 

SUCCESSOR TO 

JOHN M. DAVIES & CO., 
106 WILI^IAITI STREET, cor. JOHi¥, 

WILL HAVE AT ALL TIMES A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

Htfit's Jfurnisljing §mh, 

OF THE BEST QUALITIES, AS 

HOSIERY OF ALL KINDS, 

SCARFS, CRAVATS AND TIES, ROBES-DE-CHAMBRE, &e. 

SEEIRTS. 

Particular attention is given to the manufacture of 

Jfine 6l)irt0 to ox^tx from Ittcaattre, 

THE FIT AND "WORKMANSHIP GUARANTEED IN EVERY PARTICULAR. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MEASUREMENT.— Size around the neck; largest part 
around chest: length of arm from centre of back to end of wristband; size of wrist; 
height of person, and wishes as regard9 Collar and st^le of Bosom, &c. 



All orders by Express Companies promptly attended to. 
62 



* MADE BY THE 

AMERICAN WATCH COMPANY, 

AT WALTHAin, IHaiss. 



Attention is invited to the following statement and the accompanying letters of 
recommendation and testimonials in tavor of these celebrated Watches. 

A Gold Medal was awarded the Company by the American Institute at New York 
in 1857. 

The Company also received the first premium — a Gold Medal — from the Franklin 
Institute. Philadelphia, in 1858. 

These Watches have now been in market for nearly ten years, during which time 
they have been tested as to accuracy, durability, and reliability in every conceivable 
manner, and have proved themselves to be the most satisfactory time-pieces ever 
offered to the public. 

This result has been brought about by a strict application of mechauical science in 
the construction of the Watch from its very inception, rendering it, when finished, 
mathematically correct in all its proportions, and necessarily as perfect a time-keeper 
aa it is possible to make. 

The Company have tested their Watches in many instances by actual daily noting, 
and the result of this test ha^ been that they have exhitited a rate equal in regularity 
to the best marine chronometer. 

N. B. — We have just introduced a new style of Watch, elaborately finished, and 
thinner than any we have hitherto produced, with several improvements calculated 
to insure the greatest accuracy of performance, aud to prevent the usual accidents 
and derangements to which foreign Watches are liable. 



Letter from Paul Morphy^ the celebrated Chess Player. 

Nkw YoitK. October 5. 1859. 
Mr. R. E. RoBBiNs, Treasurer American Watch Co. — Dear Sir : The American Watch, No. 9*240, pre- 
sented me by the New Y<»rk ChenH Club, has proved to be a most reliable and accurate timekeeper — 
almost unnecesHarily so for ordinary purpones. It i:i now nearly five months since it came into my poa- 
sessiou, and during that peiicd itH variation from standard time has been but a tritle more than » 
quarter of a minute. The following is a record of its performance. It was ^et June 3d correctly: 

June 15 fast 2 sees. ) July 15 fast 6 sees. I August 15.. fast 9 sees. I Sept. 15 fast 14 sees. 

July 1 " >> " JAugustl... '• 8 " I .-ept. 1 "12 '• | Oct. 1 •' 16 " 

I give you permission to make such use of this statement aa you may think proper. 

I am, with respect, yours truly, hAUL MORPHY. 

R. E. RoBBihs. Esq., Nkw Havkn. Ct., S pt. *J7. 

Dear Sir: — Yours of the 23d was duly received. In reply I would say that the American Watch, No. 
6939, has proved itself one of the best watches for railway purpo.<e!». (I have taken pains to note the 
exact time it made. From June Mlh to July 12th, it had lost just fix seconds a day in 24 hours; and 
from July 12th to Sept. 1st it had lost but eiglit seconds in 24 hours.) 

The American Watch, in my opinion, is far better than any watch I have used for the last fourteen 
years on railroads. I remain, respectfully yours, 

G. A. FULLER, Conductor N H., H. k S. R. R. 

Amkricax Watch Company, Walthaw, OmcB ok thk Tribc.ve, New York. Oct. C7. 1859. 

Oenllemen :—'ii&ywe carried one of yoiir watches for tne last eighteen mouths. I can say confidently 
that they will do, and may be bought with assurance that thoy will keep lime. I believe the watch un- 
surpassed. HORACE GRELU:Y. 

R. E. RoBBiNs. Esq., Wilton Blcff, S. C, Oct. 20, 1859. 

Dear Sir: — ^Ihe three watches of your manufacture which I purchased to be used on my | lantation, 
have proved to be the most correct time-keepers 1 have ever known. I gave my head servant, my head 
carpenter, and my head engineer, each one of them, and since they have been in their re.xpectire pos- 
session, everything on the plantation has moved like clock-wotk, in consequence of the extreme ac- 
curacy and regularity with which these watches perform. Truly yours, LEWIS MOKRIS. 

CAUTION.— As our watch is now extensively counterfeited by foreign manufac- 
turers, we have to inform the public that no watch is of our production which is un- 
accompanied by a certificate of genuineness, bearing the number of the watch, and 
signed by our Treasurer, R. E. Bobbins, or by our predecessors, Appleton, Tracy & Co. 
As these watches are for sale by jewelers generally throughout the Uuion, the 
American Watch Company do not solicit orders for single watches. 

S0BBIN8 & APPLETON, Wholesale Agents, Ko. 182 Broadway, H. T. 
63 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 63 

to the landlord. The characteristics which we have 
named, being accompanied by a frank, cordial man- 
ner, a gentlemanly address, and an obvious hearty 
desire to make all around him quite comfortable, 
admirably fitted Adams for the charge of a first- 
class hotel, which the ** Lafayette" was at that time; 
but his ambition did not turn in that direction. The 
celebrated inn was the starting place of several stage 
lines, and their stable was directly in rear of the 
house. Staging was a very important business in 
those days, as we have said; and as the lines from 
the hotel connected Boston with the great cities of 
New York and Albany, they stood very high in the 
esteem of young Adams. It was a common thing, 
in those days, for a driver to own his team, and 
this fact contributed not a little to the respectability 
of the occupation. The Stage Company at the 
Lafayette Hotel carried the U. S. Mail, and was rich 
m commodious and elegant coaches, and two hundred 
of the handsomest and most spirited horses that 
ever kicked up a dust on the Dedham turnpike. 
The drivers were substantial, solid men; both popu- 
lar and respected; and Alvin Adams fancied that 
he would like to be one of them. He had always 
been a lover of good horses, and to drive four in 
hand, with a fine coach-load of passengers, and the 
U. S. Mail behind, was no less an honor than it was 
a pleasure. He probably calculated, too, that he 
might some day be the proprietor of a line of his 
own. His predilection for the box, however, waa 



64 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

successfully combated by the stage agent, who insist- 
ed upon it that he was made for better things. He 
then betook himself to a mercantile occupation, 
and became either as an employee, or, upon his own 
account, a family grocer or dealer in provisions. 
Subsequently he was a produce merchant, and en- 
joyed a term of prosperity. Whoever is familiar 
with the latter business knows how liable it is to 
extreme fluctuations, by which fortunes are made 
or lost in a single month. Adams enjoyed no im- 
munity from the reverses by which his neighbors 
were suffering. He failed, and lost every dollar. 
When the tide of fortune again turned in his favor 
he paid up all of his old debts. One of those from 
whom we had the story, was himself a beneficiary 
of this act of unusual justice. The debt was some 
years old, and the creditor had forgotten it, when 
he was surprised by Alvin Adams stopping him in 
the street, reminding him of it, and requesting him 
to send it to him for payment. 

In May, 1840, Alvin Adams and P. B. Burke 
started an Express in direct competition with Harn- 
den^s, under the style of Burke & Co. After a few 
months of "up-hill work," Burke retired, and Mr. 
Adams executed all the business of the "opposition" 
himself. He was its messenger, cashier, receipt- 
clerk, label-boy, and porter. He employed no 
wagon, nor did Harnden, until a year or two elapsed, 
for they had only small and valuable parcels to de- 
liver in those days. 



J. T. VAN VLECK, 
KWitX, 

OFFICE, No. 4 BROAD STREET, 

ONE DOOR FROM WALL STREET, 




Y© 



Offers his services to 



mh m\it jankers IJrougljout tje CoMntrg 

as their agent and correspondent, and can assure them that all business 
intrusted to his care shall have his personal attention. 



^TmE, 



EXOHA.NGE, 

GOLD AND SILVER COINS AND BULLION 

AND OTHER QUOTABLE SECURITIES, CONVERTED FOR CORRESPONDENTS, 



TWENTY-EIGHT YEARS IN BUSINESS. 
64 



TAYLOR BROTHERS, 

BANKERS AND MONEY BROKERS, 

No. 76 Wall Street, New York. 

(ESTABLISHED 1840.) 



We deal largely in BANK NOTES AND SPECIE, LAND WAR- 
RANTS AND EXCHANGE ; make Collections ; and issue 
Sight Bills, good anywhere in the Old Country, in 
sums from £1 upwards. 



REFER TO 

BANK OF NORTH AMERICA, N. Y. 
PARK BANK, , " 

PACIFIC BANK, * *' 

MARINE BANK, 



DRAW ON 

UNION BANK OF LONDON. 
BANK OF LIVERPOOL. 
BELFAST BANKING CO., Ireland. 
NATIONAL BANK OF SCOTLAND. 



VAN ANTWERP & CO, 




No. 9 Wall Street, New York, 

DEALERS IN 



L 



T 



BANK NOTES AND EXCHANGE. 



»-/•-,. / J ATLANTIC BANK. 

Kejer to ^ ^j^ ^ ARTHUR, Esq., President Union Bank. 

65 



E X P K E S S HISTORY. 65 

We believe that Burke never returned to the 
Express business. 

For the first week or two, Adams could have 
stowed it all in his hat; nor did he carry anything 
more than a valise for several months from the com- 
mencement. For a long time he found it the hardest 
kind of up-hill work to obtain a share of the public 
patronage sufficient to pay his expenses, so strong a 
hold had the prosperous Original Expressman obtain- 
ed upon the confidence and good- will of the commu- 
nity. Indeed, very many people regarded Adams as 
an interloper upon a field of enterprise fairly won by 
Harnden, and manifestly his '* by the right of dis- 
covery." It is more than probable that not a few 
of Adams' personal friends looked upon his new 
business disapprovingly, or damaged it by faint 
praise. We know that some of them had no sym- 
pathy with it. They thought, with the majority, 
that there would never be enough business of the 
kind for more than one Expressman; never dream- 
ing that in less than eighteen years afterwards it 
would furnish employment for more than five thou- 
sand persons. Indeed, that was not a time to be 
sanguine about business of any kind except politics. 
It. was the memorable year of the Harrison Presi- 
dential Election, and 

"Tippecanoe and Tyler too," 

monopolized more attention than the mart or the 
counting-room. For an unprecedented length of 



66 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

time the industry and mercantile interests of the 
whole country had been depressed and almost ruin- 
ed. Any change of rulers, it was said, could not 
but be for the better, and the people were full of. 
the idea of a revolution in the national administra- 
tion, with a view to improving affairs in general and 
business in particular. 

Subjected to the double disadvantage of an un- 
propitious period for a new enterprise, and a de- 
gree of antagonism to it in the community on the 
part of the very people upon whose favor it was 
dependent for a support, it is not to be wondered 
at that Burke should so soon have abandoned the 
undertaking. It certainly was very discouraging, 
but Alvin Adams was not the man to back down. 
After Burke left him, in 1840, he conducted the 
Express, as we have said, entirely alone. He had 
no capital, nor, indeed, had Harnden at that time. 
Shortly afterwards, he took Ephraim Farnsworth 
into copartnership, and gave him the charge of the 
New York office; but the connection did not last 
long. Farnsworth died some years ago. We speak 
of what the second Express had to contend with, 
the better to illustrate the innate energy and perse- 
verance of Harnden & Co.'s earliest competitor, 
and his remarkable fitness for the occupation, which 
in calm disregard of sneers and remonstrances, and 
still stronger opposition, he persisted in following. 
It has been often said, that neither Harnden nor 
Adams, nor anvbodv eke. could ])ossiblv have an- 



SAMUEL MOWRY'S 

CASE-HARDENED AXLES Al TEMPERED SPRINGS 



I will have Case-hardened Salisbury, next time. 



fW^^ 



%\^A^. 



are manufactured from Charcoal 
Cold Blast Hammered Salisbury 
Iron, the best and safest used* for 
Axles; so say all practical Rail 
Roadmen. I manufacture all the 
different styles used, and place 
my name on each arm or spindle, 



also my Trade mark 



K 



on 




the shanks, to prevent impositiou, 
and enable persons to get a war- 
ranted article. The Mowry Cace- 
hardened or Steel Converted 
Axles have been fully tested, and 
used for over 12 years by most of 
our first-clasH builders ot Coaches, 
Wagons, Carts, Drays, Omnibuses, and Fire Engine Builders in the United States and 
the Canadas, to whom I would refer; also to A. F. Smith, Esq., Sup't Hudson River 
Rail Road, and other prominent Rail Road men, as to superiority of the Salisbury Iron 
over all others for strength aid safety. 

nowB^'si TsnrsssD svbihg^s, 

Manufactured from the best quality English Spring Steel, from Swedish Charcoal 
Hammered Iron. Owing to the superior material used, and the extra pains in fitting. 
I am enabled to give a much lighter Spring to do the same amount of business tlian is 
ordinarily used. I make all the different kinds and styles in use, and every Spring is 
fully tested before leaving the shop, and warranted not lo settle or cripple. 

Crrcenevillc, Conn., P. O. Addresn, 
Norwich Telegraph, ** 



SAMUEL MOVtTRY. 



EXCEI.SIOT=i ^^TOOD TYli^E. 



WM. H. PAGE & CO. 



Manufacture all styles and sizes of Wood Type, of a superior iinish, which is commended and 
recommended by those who have used it, as the best in the market; and we present it to the 
Trade, as second to none, and we think it the best; also, 



Rule, Reglet, Furniture, ftuoins and Printers' Materials 

generally, all which we furnish from our Shop or through our Agents, which embrace the 
principal Type Founderiea in the country, on favorable terms and on short notice. J. Con- 
ner & Sons, N. Y. L. Johnson & Co., Phila. Phelps & Dalton, Boston, &c., &c. 

Printers wishing a specimen of our work will be supplied with a copy of oar Sup2>lement 
by our Agents. 



Wm. H. Page, ) 
Samuel Mowry. j 



W!W. H. PAGE & CO., 

GreeneyiUe, Connr 
66 



AND 

, vn». 12 Centre «f|., ./r. T*. 



All orders promptly attended to, and warranted to give perfect 
satisfaction. 



LEMUEL W. SERRELL, 

^ SOLICITOR OP 

AlERICAI AND FOREIGN PATENTS, 

Nos. 119 & 121 Nassau Street, 

Artisan Bamk Buildings, SHIW 'S'OIEISo 



Prepares Mechanical Drawings, Specifications, Caveats, Assignments, etc. 
and transacts all other business connected with obtaining Let- 
TERS Patent in the United States and Foreign Coun- 
P^ tries with promptness and dispatch. 

LEROY W. FAIRCHILD, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

AND 

GOLD PEN AND PENCIL CASES, 
133 WII.I.IA1II i$TRECT, 

NETS^ YORK. 

61 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 67 

ticipated, at the outset, that the Express business 
would ever attain to the importance that it has; 
and doubtless that was so; but no one can look 
upon the intelligent countenance and ample fore- 
head of Alvin Adams without the conviction, that 
he had the sagacity to look forward to the realiza- 
tion of far greater results from the enterprise than 
any other man. It is difficult to believe that a 
person of his mental power and business experi- 
ence would have been contented to adopt for an 
occupation what appeared then to be only that 
of a messenger or errand-man, between two cities, 
had he not expected it to lead to something of more 
extent and consequence. That he had some such 
foresight, was probably the reason why he adhered 
to his enterprise through three or four years of the 
hardest kind of work and the poorest sort of remu- 
neration. 

Brainard, for many years past quite famous as 
an express-wagon builder in Boston, at that time 
drove a job-wagon. He says that he used to do 
the little carting that was then required by Adams, 
gratis; and even at that, gave him the preference 
to Leonard, of the Worcester Express. 

" Not that he loved Leonard less, but Adams more." 

Leonard, who paid well and was willing to pay 
more, to induce B. to receive his freight as soon as 
the steamboat train arrived from Worcester at the 
Boston Dep6t, and hurry with it down to his office, 



68 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

could never understand why he should insist upon 
waiting to get out Adams' New York trunk when 
he acknowledged that it was purely a *' labor of 
love." The fact is, that it was only one of many 
evidences that we have seen of the genial influence 
that Alvin Adams has exercised upon the affection 
of all who have enjoyed his friendship. 

At the time of Farnsworth's leaving the firm, 
Adams & Co.'s clerk in New York was a young 
man, named William B. Dinsmore, and their office 
"v^as in the basement for many years past occupied 
by. Boyd's City Post, in WiUiam Street, near Wall. 

This was in the latter part of 1841, or early in 
1842. Dinsmore was then a young man, without 
capital, but not without experience. He was born 
in Boston, and had lived there until two or three 
years before becoming connected with the Express. 
He had been in the South a portion of the time, 
engaged in trading, and still later was employed by 
David Felt, the stationer, in New York, either as a 
salesman or book-keeper. In the latter capacity 
he is said to have excelled. We have many pleas- 
ant recollections of him in his native city before ho 
located in New York, and remember well that he 
was regarded by his associates, and others, as a 
young man of much wit and humor, and superior 
mental calibre, as well as physical ability. 

It appears, that when Farnsworth left, and Dins- 
more was still a clerk, Adams seriously thought of 
taking for a partner some man of extensive acquaint- 



VnVE. T. COLEMAN & CO., 

88 Wall Street, New York, 



ILL ii 



iSSlii, 



all prime California and other Securities. 



Buy and sell Exchange on California, Oregon, and Western Cities. 

Purchase or Collect, California State, or City of San Francisco Coupons. 

Grant Letters of Credit available in any part of the United States. 

Receive money on deposit, and allow interest on special deposits, at such 
rates as may be agreed upon. 

Make advances upon approved Merchandise, consigned to our San Fran- 
cisco house. 

Fill orders for Staple Goods of all kinds, for the California and Oregon 
markets, and effect Marine and Fire Insurance in the best offices. 

Make Mercantile Collections on all the principal points in Oregon and 
California. &^ Manufacturers and Merchants making sales for Cali- 
fornia, (or Oregon,) can transmit their Bills of Lading through our 
house in San Francisco, and have the Invoices paid for on the^'arrival of 
the goods there; thus giving purchasers full benefit of the usual time on 
sales, and yet the sellers maintaining control of their property, until paid 
for. 

WE ARE AGENTS FOR THE 



E 



Dispatching two or three First Class Clippers every month 
for San Francisco. 

Orders for Merchandise should be accompanied with a remittance of 20 
per cent, on the cost, and for Stocks 10 per cent, on the par. 



WM. T. COLEMAN & CO., 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

AND EXCHANGE DEALERS, 

SAN FRANCISCO ^ NEW YORK. 



68 



Refer to 

BANK OP AMERICA, 

AND 

AMERICAN EXCHANGE BANK. 



ttme^^ CElif0rraa Jim 



NEW YORK TO SAN FRANCISCO, 

Office 88 Wall Street, 



Fiiif iLiiS iLiPPEi SUPS, 

Sailing Regularly and Promptly Twice a Month. 



Goods forwarded from any part of the country will be received with care 

and put on board free of commission, and all reasonable freight 

charges advanced and collected in San Francisco, if 

desired. 

Freight Entered at the Lowest Rate. 

INSURANCE EFFECTED IVHEN DESIRED. 

All Packap^es should be addressed to W. T. Coleman & Co., N. Y. 



AGENTS IN SAN FBANCISCO, 

TV^]Vr. T. COLEMA^N & CO., 

Corner California and Front Sts. 

69 



I 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 69 

ance in New York, who had influence with the Bos- 
ton, Worcester and Norwich hne, which carried his 
express; but Dinsmore ui^ed his own claims so 
strenuously, and was in truth so useful in the office, 
and so competent to take charge of it, that he car- 
ried the day, and became a member of the firm. 

It is now some sixteen years since that copart- 
nership was formed, and the two gentlemen still 
continue associates in the same business, and in 
charge of the same offices; ever acting harmoniously, 
yet with vigor and determination, together. 

In the outset, and for several years subsequently, 
Adams & Co.'s business was limited to New York, 
New London, Norwich, Worcester and Boston. 

When Dinsmore sought and obtained a partner- 
ship in Adams & Co.'s Express, he removed his office 
to No. 7 (now 17) Wall Street. There was nothing 
in the actual proceeds of the business to encourage 
him in the undertaking. As far as present com- 
pensation for his labor was concerned, he would 
have done better in a clerkship, even in the " hard 
times" of 1842; but he coincided with his partner's 
ideas of the prospective importance of the enter- 
prise, and looked to the future for reimbursement. 
He knew that 

" Great oaks from little acorns grow," 

and recognized in the Express the germ that would 
put forth and become a goodly tree, and in time 
cover the land with its branches. 

The entire business of Adams & Co. was done then 



70 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

by. two or three men and a boy. They were kept 
pretty busy, it is true, but found it hard to pay ex- 
penses, even with the most rigid economy. 

Up to 1843, their affairs had not prospered much, 
nor had business in general materially improved; 
but, fortunately for them, Harnden & Co., about 
that time, became so engrossed with the extension 
of their European operations as somewhat to neg- 
lect their home Express, and as an inevitable re- 
sult disaffected some good customers, who on that 
account gave their parcels to Adams & Co. The 
latter improved the opportunity to redouble their 
persevering efforts to secure success. The two Ex- 
presses were now supplied with horses and wagons. 
In the fall of 1843, Samuel L. Woodard (formerly 
^ stage-man for Col. Staples, from Keene and Fitch- 
burg to Worcester,) became the driver of Adams & 
Co.'s Boston wagon, although he was probably 
worth more money at that time than his employers; 
and he has continued in that capacity ever since, 
one of the most faithful, kind-hearted, agreeable, 
tmd industrious of men; always on hand early and 
late, and ready for any emergency. Then, an Ex- 
press driver was as valuable and important as ever 
the stageman had been in his palmy days, and to 
his efforts in "bucking for freight '^ his employers 
were indebted for a very considerable amount of 
their patronage. Woodard had a clear head, a 
round, cheerful happy face, a plump person, and a 
frank, hearty manner, united to a due degree of the 



CLERK, GREEN & BAKER, 

Successors to J. & T. "WARRIN, 




MANUFACTURERS AND IMPORTERS OF 



AND 



'" TMIIl i MRT DEBIPTION 



J 



Which they offer to the Trade on favorable terms. 



C, G. & B. having erected a building on Canton Street, Brooklyn, are 
now enabled to execute Orders of any magnitude for Fish Hooks, 
Spears, <fee., &e., at the shortest notice, and from the best quali- 
ty of Steel Wire. Agents for Buel's Patent Spinning Bait. 



ALSO, SOLE IMPORTERS OF 

|os. Mnums €tk\iak)i §rineJi-%b Itetirles. 

MANUFACTURERS AND IMPORTERS OF 

RAZORS, SCISSORS, STEEL PENS, PEARL BUTTONS, &C, &C, &C. 
Store, 48 Haiden f^aiie, W. Y. 



fi^* The Genuine Warrin's Needles will, in future, have across every label 

a fac-similc of Mr. Jos. Warrin's signature. 

10 



]¥o. S2^ Broadway, J¥ew Tork, 

(Opposite St. Nicholas Hotel.) 

Foreign and Domestic orders respectfully solicited, and executed with the utmost 
promptness and care. 



J. W. WILLARD & CO., 

Manufacturers, Importers and Dealers in every description of 

PBDMAPIIC. AiilTPE Mi M&iERREiTYPE MmElMS. 

Of our own Manufacture, are pronounced by all who are using them to be far superior to any 

other make. Sold at the following Reduced Prices, and warranted to 

give satisfaction or the money refunded: 

i Size $12.00 4 Size, Bellows, Box and Holders . . $ 6.00 

I " 25.00 i " " " .. 8.00 

4-4 " 60.00 4-4 " " " .. 10.00 

Apparatus of the newest and most approved styles. 

FANCY, EMBOSSED & IHANILLA CASES of efery description. 

Mattings, Preservers, Glass, Chemicals, Porcelain, Glass and India- Rubber Ware, Photo- 
graphic Paper, Bristol Boards, Passe Partouts, &c., Ac, &c. 

mmiGM & mmmm sTiasoscopis views & miEi. 

GILT FRAMES IN GREAT VARIETY, 

To which we invite particular attention. We have Cabinet and Life Sizes of superior work- 
manshij) and the most elaborate designs. Also, 

Solid Ovals, Plain and Ornamented, Gilt Beads. Gilt and Eosewood 
Mouldings. &c., &c., &c. 

AGENTS FOR 

GRISWOLS'S rxsROTirrii piatiss, 

HEWET'S CELEBRATED CHROMO PICTURES OR BACK GROUNDS. 

DBPOT FOR 

J. W. V/ILLARD k GO'S Celebrated Union Collodian, Price |1.C0 per lb. 
J. W. WILLARD k GO'S " " Gilding. Price 37^ cts. per bottle. 

For which we have received gratuitous letters of recommendation from Artists in this City, 
and throughout the country. 

Photographs Tetouched in India Ink or Colored in Oil or Water Colors, on the most rea- 
sonable terms. Also, India Ink, Oil and Water Colors, Brushes, Engravings and Artists' 
Materials constantly on hand. 

Goods of our own manufacture may be obtained of every stock dealer in the coimtry. 

All orders or letters of inquiry should be addressed to 



J. W. WILLARD & CO., 
2 ] 

71 



522 BROADWAY, New York. 



I 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 7l 

suaviter in modo, (very popular characteristics, by 
the way;) and being zealous in the service which he 
had adopted, and strongly impressed with the im- 
portance of it to the community, he talked it into 
the bankers and merchants with signal success. 
" Harnden & Co.,'^ he would say, **have got more 
than they can do: give your business to us. Just 
try Adams & Co. for once ! Mr. Adams is a little 
the nicest man you ever did see, and we have all 
the facilities for doing your business right up to 
the handle ! Come, let me set these bundles into 
my wagon, and put them through to New York by 
daylight. Mr. Dinsmore, Mr. Adams^ partner in 
New York, is a Boston man, (you know him, don^t 
you? of course you do: he was made for an Ex- 
pressman !) and will see to the delivering of these 
things himself." With similar, if not precisely the 
same "moral suasion" as this, would he make new 
customers for A. & Co., and, once obtained, he took 
good care never to lose them. Of course, he soon 
came to be regarded by Adams as an almost indis- 
pensable man in the Express, and the most friendly 
relations existed between them. Woodard, we are 
happy to say, now enjoys, as the fruits of his tal- 
ents, industry and steady habits, a snug little com- 
petency, and a constitution unimpaired by his long 
and still-continued service. Even the handsome 
white horse, which he used to drive, is still in good 
order and well condition, though now about twenty- 
six years old. 



72 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

About the same time (1843) John Hoey, the 
present Superintendent at the New York office, 
was a boy in Dinsmore's office. Serving the insti- 
tution zealously and with a constantly-enlarging 
capacity ever since, he now holds a very impor- 
tant post, and is a stockholder in the Company, 
whose interests no employee has done more to 
advance. Wallace and Doggett, Swett, Studley, 
Fisher, Brastow, Haskell, Freeman, Saffi)rd, Gor- 
man, Phillips, Webb, Dixon, Doyle, Curtis, Gore, 
Jones, and John K. Stimson, were employed at an 
early period of the business. 

E. S. Sanford, a native of Massachusetts, became 
connected with the New York office in 1842. 
Shortly afterwards, in association with S. M. Shoe- 
maker, a native of Louisiana, he extended the line 
of express to Washington. W. H. Trego has been 
for many years an active employee in Baltimore, 
where he now superintends their office. 

Mr. Phillips, for nearly 20 years past an Ex- 
pressman in Hartford, after having done the busi- 
ness for some time in his own name, became the 
Agent for Adams & Co. in Hartford. In 1854 the 
Company purchased of Thompson & Co. the Ex- 
press which they now run between that beautiful 
and thriving city and Springfield, Mass. 

Washington Webb, the New York Agent, was 
Harnden's in 1842, and in 1844 was Agent of 
Beecher & Co's Steamboat Express, and Phillips 



i 






1 





JVo. 41 JfoUn Street^ 



AMES & BARNES 

OFFER THE 

BEST ElVfiLISH, FRENCH ilVD AMERICAN GOODS 



Their stock embraces the Manufactured Stationery of • 

THOMAS RHOADS & SONS, 

LONDON, 

which consists of Note, Letter and Folio Papers, Steel Pens, Letter Clips, 
Envelopes, Cutlery, &c. Also, Whatman's Drawing Papers, 
Dowse's Patent Tracing Cloth, Arnokl's Fluid and Copy- 
ing Liks, Pvodgers & Crooke's Pocket Cut- 
lery, with a fine assortment of 

FREUCH PAPEBS t rA{1©Y STATIOI^EBY. 

Of American Goods their Stock is completet 

AGENTS FOR 

For securing Letters, Invoices and Music; also, Hicks' New Eraser and 
Burnisher. 

72 




eaYSTAL BATTIIY MKSSSTIG MAGSISS, 

For Extracting Teeth without Pain, and for Medical Purposes. 

Invented by Dr. S. B. SMITH. Price $12. 

This instrument is now extenKively used by the Dental Profession, for preventing pain in extracting 
Teeth. Its superiority over all others is, that it has a DIRECT current, as well as a to-and-fro current. 
The zincs never require cleaning. The expense of running it is about one cent a week. 

"The DIRECT current is the only current that should be used medicallv," says Gold'^n Bird, of Guy'a 
Hospital, Bird's Electricity, p. 121, London, and Smee, in his Electro-Biology, p. 97. Address 

DR. SAMUEL B. SMITH, 322 CANAL ST., N. Y. 



DR. S. B. SMITH'S MAGNETIC SALVE, 

For Old IJIcera, Scrofula, Salt-Rheum, Burnn, Blicnniatism, Piles, Corn*, 
BcMtoriujB; the Hair, Ac, 

This Salve is the most valuable of Salves in the World. The cures performed by it are almo.st in- 
credible. To any one requesting it. I will forward by mail my pamphlet of 24 pages, by which will 
be seen a full couGrmation of wbat I state. 

NOTICE ON WHICH LIFE MAY DEPEND. 
For the sake of introducing the Magnetic Salve into all parts of the United States, that every per- 
son may have an opportunity of testing its extraordinary virtues, I will send a box of it by mail, and 
prepay the postage on it myself, on the reception of '24 cents in postage stamps. I will also forward, 
free of charge, my third stereotyped edition of 

«• WHAT COIVSTITUTES DISEASE. '> 



CRISTADORO'S 

HAIR DYE! WIGS! HAIR DYE! 



stands alone and unapproachable in the manufacture of the above-mentioned articles* 
His Orioin.vl Excelsior Liquid HAIR DYE is the very best in the World; it being com- 
posed of harmless and vegetable substances, does not burn nor destroy the texture of 
the Hair, nor blacken nor blister the skin, as is too often the case by using the base 
and deleterious imitations palmed oflF on the public. 

His WIGS and TOUPEES are made on entirely new principles, which imitate 
nuture; they are durable, comfortable, and perfectly easy to the wearer; also his 
World Renowned Hair Preservative and Beautifier, the best Cosmetic for Invigorat- 
ing, Softening and perpetuating the Human Hair. 

The Dye is applied, and the Wigs fitted in private apartments, and sold, whole- 
sale and retail, at the manufactory, No. 6 Astor Hou.se, Broadway, New York. 

NOTICE TO EXPREISS AGEIVT8. 

Prompt attention will be given to orders to forward the above, with bills to col- 
lect on delivery. 

The Editor of this Work can fully recommemd Cristadorv's Hair Dye, as equal, if not luptrior, 
to any in the World. 

78 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 73 

& Go's Railroad and Steamer Express, to New 
York. Henry B. Plant, (now the indefatigable 
and excellent Superintendent of the Southern Di- 
vision,) was Webb's partner at that time, in mer- 
cantile business. Peregrine Turner, the estima- 
ble Agent at New London for many years, form- 
erly had an Express of his own. E. A. Johnson, 
Gabriel Brush, and W. L. Crane, (now Manager 
of the New York Department of the New Haven 
Line,) were early engaged upon the Connecticut 
division. Hardy served as Messenger. 

In 1850 or '51, Adams & Co. arranged to send 
their money and small packages over the New 
York and New Haven Railroad, then just com- 
pleted, paying $1,700 per month for the space 
occupied by them in a car on the express train. 
In November, 1854, H. B. Plant went to Augusta, 
Ga., to act as Superintendent of the Harnden Ex- 
press. Subsequently he took the charge of the 
routes laid out by Clapp Spooner, a Director in 
the Adams Express Company, and established 
agencies at all practicable stations in South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee and Louisiana. 
In the latter State, the business started in 1850 
by John K. & A. L. Stimson, under the style of 
Stimson & Co^s New Orleans and Mobile Express, 
had passed into the hands of Adams & Co. This, 
too, was the case with the thriving Charleston Ex- 
press of Hoey & Co., (John Hoey and John K. 



74 EXPRESS HISTORY 

Stimson.) By these accessions to its strength in 
the South, and still more by the creation of new 
railroads, and its enterprising and efficient man- 
agement in that quarter, the Adams Express, like 
the Harnden, is doing an immense and constantly 
increasing service, there. 

In the West, also, where Alfred Gaither is Su^ 
perintendent, the Adams Express is doing an ex* 
tensive and prosperous business. C. Woodward, 
the smart and assiduous Agent at Cincinnati, (Gai- 
ther's headquarters,) was formerly located at In- 
dianapoUs. Rhodes is still connected with the 
Pittsburgh office. 

One of the best men in the business is Col. 
John Bingham, Superintendent of the Pennsylva- 
nia Division. Geo. H. Burns, early employed in 
the Philadelphia office, is now Agent at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

The Superintendent of the South-eastern Divis- 
ion, S. M. Shoemaker, is a Director and large 
Stockholder. 

E. W. Parsons, Superintendent of the Eastern 
Division, is indefatigable in his attention to his 
duties, and is universally esteemed. 

The very able and popular cashier, and corre- 
sponding clerk, in the New York office, J. C. Bab- 
cock, was formerly a boJik, cashier. Hiram Dixoa 
is still book-keeper. .,'?;': 

R. P. McCullagh, Superintendent of the Phila- 



AMERICAN GUANO, 

FROM 

JARVIS & BAKEE'S ISLANDS, 



IN THE 



SOUTH FJlCIFIC 0€EA1, 

Under the protectioa of the U. S. Government. 



IMPORTED BY THE 



No. 66 William Street, 



This Guano, far superior to any other Fertilizer known, and of permanent 

value to the soil, is sold in LARGE or SMALL 

quantities at the Company's office, at full 

FOfiTT PER CENT. LESS THAN PERUVIAN GUANO. 



This Ga&no feeds, but does not stimulate to excess the roots of plants, and 

they are thereby enabled to withstand the effects of drought to a 

greater degree, than by the use of any other Fertilizer 

known ; its application will insure wonderful 

crops of Cotton, Corn, Wheat, Rye, 

Oats, Grass, Tobacco, 

Vegetables, &c. 

For full particulars and Pamphlets, address, 

AMERICAN GUANO CO., 

Wo. 66 WTT.T.T/IM STREET, XV. X. 

74 



THOMi^S DAVIS, 

(FROM LONDON,) 

MANUFACTURER AND INSERTER OF THE 

IMIPROVED 

ARTIFICIAL HUMAN 




¥ 




* 



Has had extensive Practice in the various Eye Insti- 
tutions in Europe, and is now supplying the New 
York Eye Infirmary, Second Avenue, 
corner of 13th Street. 

Office, 463 Broadway, New York, 

Where person's deprived of an Eye can be suppUed with 

an Artificial one, having all the movements 

and color of the Natural Eye. 



N. B. Supefior lo anyttiini of the kind made in Europe. 



fS 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 75 

delphia office, has had the advantage of many years' 
experience, and is liighly esteemed for the judicious 
and thorough manner in which he has always dis- 
charged his laborious and responsible duties. He 
is every inch a gentleman, and invaluable to the 
Company. 

E. S. Sanford is General Superintendent of all 
the routes of the Adams Express Company. 

E. Coleman and Harry Gorman, also Messrs. 
Heath, Lambertson, Bell, Piers, and McKeever, 
(the latter now Agent at New Orleans,) are old 
expressmen. 

Alvin Adams, the father of this great institu- 
tion, preferring the quiet city of Boston, where 
he has resided for 30 years or more, remains in 
charge of the operations and office at that original 
fountain-head of the business, where he is assisted 
by his two sons, Alvin, Jr., and Waldo; also Rich- 
ardson, (who was a pioneer in " expressing'^ away 
down East, where the sun rises,) and several other 
just such men as every large office ought to have 
in its employ. 

On the first of July, 1854, by the voluntary 
action of the four or five partners, Adams & Co's 
rapidly-extending business became the property 
of some 30 or 40 gentlemen in different sections 
of the country, under the style of the Adams Ex- 
press Company. Its capital stock is in 15,000 



W EXPRESS HISTORY. 

shares. Its present organization (June, I860,) is 
as follows: 

President — Wm. B. Dinsmore, of New York; 
Vice-President — Edwards S. Sanford, of Phila.; 
Secretary — James M. Thompson, of Springfield, 
Mass.; Managers — Johnston Livingston, W. B. 
Dinsmore, J. M. Thompson, E. S. Sanford, S. M. 
Shoemaker, R. B. Kinsley, Clapp Spooner, Alfred 
Gaither, and John Bingham. 



KINSLEY & GO'S EXPRESS. 



This was one of the pioneer institutions, and 
for the able and thorough manner in which it is 
stall conducted, is worthy of honorable mention. 

It was begun in 1842 by James Gay and E. 
Littlefield, of Boston. R. B. Kinsley afterwards 
became the senior partner. Their first trip on the 
Fall River Line, ever since used by them, was in 
May, 1847/)fh vr 

:ii'oThat route has always been a popular one, and 
the Express equally so, both East and South, to 
which they have now extended. The New York, 
Philadelphia, and Boston offices are well-manned. 
E. Littlefield has had charge of the New York 
department many years. 



CONOVER & WOOLLEY, 
368 CANAI. STREET, 

Manufacturers and Dealers in every variety of Plain Black Enameled, Electro- 
Bronzed, and German Silver, Parlor, Office, and Chamber 



Conover & Woolley have add- 
ed a number of new and very 
elegant patterns of GRATES to 
their already large assortment, 
and continue to manufacture all 
styles of German Silver. Electro- 
Bronzed, Hard and Soft Coal 
Grates, to order, at short notice; 
also Grates for Burning Wood. 
Having been brought up to the 
business and conducted it at their 
present location for seventeen 
years past on their own account, 
which gives them large experi- 
ence, they feel confident of givlni? 
as good work and at as rea-onal le 
prices as any house in the busi- 
ness in the country. 

Purchasers are invited to call 
and examine their a-ssortmcnt 
before making their purchases 
elsewhere. 




FIRST PREMIUM 



mwm 




Corner Reade and Hudson Streets, 



Storekeepers in want of Show-Cases of any description, will find at this establish- 
ment a large assortment, consisting of 

Which, for beauty of style and elegance of finish, are unrivaled by any other estab- 
lishment in the world. 

SILVER-PLATED STORE WIIOWS MADE TO ORDER. 

Show-Cases packed and shipped with care. Orders by mail, with city reference; 
promptly attended to. 

76 



Importers and Manufacturers of 



TAILORS' TRIMMINGS, 

No. 7 Mercer Street, 



(FOOT OF HOWARD, FRONTING BROADWAY,) 



«k^^ ^®^^e 



Express Agents arc requested to call the atteution of Tailors to this 
advertisement. 



H. S. CHAMBERLAIN 

Would inform his friends and the public, that he has constantly on hand a 

supply of 

Carriages, ^uggits ^ ^kigljs, 

Which he offers for sale as low (and as good) 

ylS ANY OTHER ESTABLISHMENT OF THE KIND. 
AU KtKOS or WORK MADE TO OROER» 

Repairing promptly attended to, and on reasonable terms. 
The subscriber hopes, by prompt attention to business, to meet a share of 
public patronage. 

N. B. The best quality of Express Wagons constantly on hand. 

Corner of Mohawk and Pearl Streets, 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 

77 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 77 



THE AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY. 



In 1841, Henry Wells, at that time, or a little 
earlier, Agent of Harnden at Albany, suggested to 
George Pomeroy, a Western Freight and Passen- 
ger Forwarder, that it would pay to start an Ex- 
press from Albany to Buffalo. The hint was ta- 
ken, and Pomeroy made three trips; acting as his 
own messenger, but never serving again in that 
capacity. His Express had been relinquished for 
some time, when Crawford Livingston proposed 
to Henry Wells that they should join him in re- 
suming the enterprise. Wells consented, and 
Pomeroy & Go's Albany and Buffalo Express was 
established upon an enduring foundation. Its 
transportation at that time (1841) was by Rail- 
road to Auburn; thence by stage, 25 miles, to Gen- 
eva; thence by Auburn and Rochester R. R. to 
Rochester; thence to Lockport, 60 miles, by stage; 
thence to Buffalo, 30 miles, by private conveyance; 
and also from Rochester to Batavia, 34 miles, by 
Tonawanda R. R. ; and thence to Buffalo, 40 miles, 
by stage. The trip was made once a week, and 
occupied four nights and three days. It is now 
accomplished in about eleven hours each way. 

The Mohawk and Hudson R. R., the Utica and 
Schenectady R. R., the Syracuse and Utica R. R., 



78' EXPRESS HISTORY. 

the Auburn and Syracuse R. R., all had been in 
operation about a year. The Rochester and Au- 
burn R. R. and the Tonawanda R. R. were only 
partially built; the Attica and Buffalo R .R. had 
not been begun. These seven railways now com- 
pose the great New York Central Railroad, from 
Albany to Buffalo, under the management of that 
experienced, wise, and famous Railroad President, 
Erastus Corning. 

Wells served his firm as messenger for about 1 8 
months, and he informs us that during one year 
he never missed a trip. In every instance, he 
paid his fare, and for extra baggage; like any 
other passenger: say $15 from Albany to Buffalo. 
In 1842 he carried all his valuable parcels in a 
carpet-bag. In 1843 the trips were made daily, 
but it was up-hill work, and one large trunk served 
to hold all his freight. It was a growing trunk, 
however, and increased in inches from time to 
time, until it provoked from a railroad superin- 
tendent, once, the exclamation, that ''of all the 
wonderful growths which he had seen in the West, 
none equalled Wells' trunk .'" 

The manufacture of all the trunks now used by 
his Company would keep one establishment busy 
all the while. In 1842 or '43 the Special Agent 
of the U. S. Mail Department made overtures to 
Pomeroy & Co. to do their business by that me- 
dium, but they declined. 



PATENT DIRECT AffiG 

RIM!, Lit T iD MM PiP. 




The only Pump which is adapted to all purposes of pump- 
ing from the Well or Cistern to the Steam Fire Engine. 

Its ingenious arrangement avoids the necessity of using 

Leather or India-rubber Packing, Yalves, Springs, 

or other delicate parts liable to become 

disarranged or to require renewal. 



Manufactured by the Pishkill Landing Machine Com- 
pany, New York. 

For further information, address 

SAMUEL B. LEACH, 23 Piatt St., N. 7. 

To whom all orders for Pumpa should be addressed. 

•78 



p. B. MINGLE t, CO., 

AND 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

Wliolesale and Retail, 

No. 103 Market St. and No. 4 North Front St., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



Our business being confined exclufcively to Seeds, and our facilities unequalled 
by those of any other house in the Country, we are prepared to supply all orders for 

on the most liberal terms. We give special attention to 

(Wohr, ®ima%, JerJr aiilr §xt\wc)s §rass Sttbs, 

and can furnish every variety of Grass Seeds, in large or small quantities, and of the 
very best quality. We have also constantly on hand a large and superior stock of 
Garden Seeds, comprising every article in the Vegetable line. As our stock is renew- 
ed fresh every year, we cannot but give satisfaction in these articles; we sell no old 
Garden Seeds. 

Our arrangements with European Houses enable us to furnish 

mPOKTEB WHE JlTS, 

of the finest quality, and warranted true to name and description We refer to the 
many persons who have purchased Imported Wheats from us during the past ten 
years, and respectfully invite the attention of Agriculturists who are desirous of 
introducing the best Foreign Wheats, to our large and very superior stock. 

Orders by mail will receive prompt attention, and prices will always conform to 
the lowest market rates. 

F. B. XmNGLS &. CO., 

No. lOMlBKST STREET aod No. 4 NOBTI FBUNT STREET, FMladeiphia, Pa. 

79 



EXPRESS HISTORY. T9 

Pomeroy & Co. then commenced running a river 
express, and had for competitors Pullen & Copp. 
This continued only a few months, when P. & C. 
gave up the Albany and Western business, and 
took the Troy and Northern route, acting as Pom- 
eroy & Co.'s messengers on the river, as it was en- 
tirely convenient for them to do so. It was in this 
service that Copp was robbed of his trunk contain- 
ing $64,000 of money and $500,000 of registered 
notes, not yet signed by the bankers. The history 
of that remarkable robbery, and the still more sin- 
gular recovery of it, is one of the most interesting 
chapters in express experience, and it will be found 
in a subsequent part of this work. 

In the course of a year or two, the style oi 
" Pomeroy & Co.'^ was altered to Livingston, Wells 
& Pomeroy, and again to Livingston, Wells & Co., 
when Pomeroy retired from the business. 

The second opposition Express on that route was 
put on in 1843, by Bailey & Howard, of whom we 
shall speak more fully in our history of N. G. How- 
ard. It was abandoned after a few weeks' trial. 
Bailey & Jacobs next put on an Express, but Ja- 
cobs getting into some trouble with Her British 
Majesty's officers of the Customs, in Canada, went 
away; we don't know where, only that after that 
trip up, he never made another, and the "line" 
was discontinued. 

The most important fact in Livingston, Wells & 
Co.'s history in the year prior to the memorable re- 



80 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

duction in postage by a law of Congress, was the 
establishment of their Letter Express between New 
York and Buffalo. The Post Office was then charg- 
ing 25 cents for a single letter between these places. 
Livingston, Wells & Co., at the suggestion of Henry 
Wells, advertised to carry a single letter for six 
cents, or they would sell twenty stamps for one 
dollar. This enterprise, in defiance of the Gov- 
ernment's assumed prerogative to monopolize the 
conveyance of letters, caused great excitement in 
the West. Public meetings were called, and reso- 
lutions passed by the merchants and citizens gen- 
erally, not to send or receive letters by mail to or 
from any points where expresses run, until there 
was a reduction in U. S. postage rates. Livingston, 
Wells & Co.'s Letter Express was, of course, warmly 
approved and largely patronized by the public, 
greatly to the chagrin of the Postmaster General. 

On the 1st day of April, 1845, the Western Ex- 
press from Buffalo to Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, 
and intermediate points, was commenced by Henry 
Wells, Wm. G. Fargo, and another person, under 
the style of Wells & Co. There were then no Rail- 
road facilities west of Buffalo, and Fargo, who had 
charge of the business, made use of only steamboats 
and wagons. Wm. G. Fargo, a native of Ononda- 
ga Co., in this State, had been in the employ of the 
Auburn and Syracuse Railroad for a year or two, 
when he entered into the service of Livingston, 
Wells & Co., as messenger, in which capacity he 



THOMAS H. DODGE, 



rri|Mrn 



AND 



OFFICE ON SEVENTH STREET, 



Nearly opposite the Patent and 1 . 
Post Office Departments. ) 



VVASHIfiiTOli 



United States Patent Ofhce, JVbvember 3, 1858. 
SIR: 

I have received with emotions of unmingled sorrow your letter of 
yesterday resigning the office of Examiner, the duties of which you have 
for years discharged with such distinguished honor to yourself and advan- 
tage to the public interests. It would have been to me a source of high 
gratification could I have enjoyed for the future that zealous support which 
you have so kindly afforded me iu the past. While, however, I feel that 
your retirement will be a severe loss to the service, as it will be a personal 
affliction to myself, I cannot be insensible to the weight of the considera- 
tions which have determined you to seek another and more attractive field 
of labor. I shall ever recall, with the liveliest satisfaction, the pleasant 
social and official relations which have marked our intercourse ; and in ac- 
cepting your resignation I beg to offer you my heartfelt thanks, alike for 
your personal friendship, and for the high-toned, loyal, and most effective 
co-operatioD which, in the midst of circumstances of difficulty and embar- 
rassment, you have constantly extended to me in the administration of this 
office. In whichever of the varied paths of life it may be your fortune to 
tread, be assured that you will bear with you my warmest wishes for your 
success and happiness. 

Most sincerely, your friend, 

J. HOLT. 
Mr. Thomas H. Dodge. 

80 



AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENTS PROCURED, 

CAVEATS FILED, 

OBTILID, INTERFERENCES 

And all business pertaining to PATENTS transacted by 



m 


D 

H 






o 






4 



s ° 

o ^ 



o 
O 



Books of information concerning Patent business sent free, on application. 

81 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 81 

gave great satisfaction, because of his fidelity, en- 
ergy, good judgment and perseverance under dis- 
couragements. He was just the man, Henry Wells 
thought, to overcome the difficulties in the way of 
establishing a remunerative express business in that 
untrodden field west of Buffalo. Nor was he des- 
tined to be disappointed. Fargo worked with ex- 
traordinary force, industry and tact to accomplish 
what has proved to have been "his mission," and after 
some years of persevering effort he succeeded in 
founding a western express upon a permanent basis. 

The Letter Express, started by Henry Wells in 
connection with that of James W. Hale, between 
New York and Boston, now extended from Chicago, 
HI., to Bangor, Me. The Government used every 
means to break it up. At Utica, its officers arrest- 
ed Wells & Co.'s messengers, daily; but in every 
instance citizens stood ready with bail-bonds filled 
out and executed, so that they were enabled to go 
on with their letter bags without losing a trip. At 
Buffalo and Rochester, the entire letter mail over 
the express route was sent by Wells & Co. Offi- 
cers were upon the track at every point, seeking to 
thwart the enterprise; suits were instituted against 
it in various parts of the country, and the Govern- 
ment was defeated in every case. 

The conveyance of letters at one-quarter the price 
charged by the Government, was the most profita- 
ble part of the Express business; and Henry Wells 
(speaking for himself and several responsible gen- 



82 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

tleuien who were desirous of co-operating with him 
in this matter,) made a proposal to Major Hobbie, 
the First Assistant Postmaster General, to take the 
entire Mail service of the United States, including 
the delivery, at the rate of five cents per letter. 
** Zounds, sirT replied that energetic and invalua- 
ble official. " It would throw 16,000 Postmasters out 
of officer That was so: and what would the Ad- 
ministration do without its 16,000 Postmasters? 
They constituted too important an element of party 
strength to be set aside by any postage reform 
movement. Of course, Wells's proposition was per- 
emptorily rejected; but the very resolute and prac- 
tical opposition which he and Hale, and Harnden, 
and others had initiated against the U. S. postage 
rates, was so generally sustained by the people in 
all sections of the country, that Congress was com- 
pelled to pass a law at its next session, reducing the 
rates of postage to about one-fourth of what they 
had been, though not quite as low as at present. 
Thus the country owes to the men whom we have 
named, and to the Express Companies, one of the 
most important reforms that the mercantile world 
has ever experienced. As soon as it was accom- 
plished. Hale, and Wells & Co., and the rest, relin- 
quished their entirely triumphant competition with 
the Post Office Department, and, thanks to the light 
which their demonstration threw upon the cost of 
carrying the mails ! they have had no occasion to 
resume it; at least, not in the Atlantic States. In 



I 



DEAKYNE & HOWE, 

COMMISSION DEALERS IN 

GRAIN, FRUITS, POULTRY, 

BUTTER, EGGS, 



AND ALL KINDS OF 



No. 64 North Water Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, 



John Y. Deakyne, 
Wm. B. Howe. 



Consignments solicited and promptly attended to. Goods Ship- 
ped to order to any part of the United States. 



REFERENCE : 

J. S. Bewley & Co., 326 South Delaware Avenue. 
Tflos. Shaw, Jr., 242 S. Broad Street. 

E. B. Cook, Pritts & Co., 6 Yesey Street, Pier 283 West Wash- 
ington Market, New York. 
Oliver N. Shannon, Boston Wharf, Boston. 
R. H. Ware, 68 S. Town Street, Columbus, 0. 
E. W. Stearns, Freight Agent, 9th and Green Sts., Philadelphia, 

82 



GENERAL 

Commission ^n't|ants, 



AND DEALERS IN 



Jersey, Pennsjilifania, Easleni, Wedem and Soiem 

[p[gi®ii](gip 

No. 2 North Water Street, Philadelphia. 



A MOST EXTENSIVE ASSORTMENT OP THE BEST 

by the barrel or hundred, greened and ungreened, with and without 

Vinegar; Pickles in Yinegar warranted to keep any desired 

length of time. Particular attention paid to all 

orders for any of the above goods; also, for 

FM, OYSTERS, FOREIGN MD DOMTIC FRIM, ITS, 

&C,f &Q,y &C. 



N. B. Oysters in Cans, put up in the best manner. 



GEO, MASON, the Original Piokle Merchant. 

JAMES ELY, formerly of Easton, Pa. 
83 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 8S 

California, before Uncle Sam had any mail routes; 
the Expresses performed similar service, until at 
length post roads being established by Government, 
though very inefficiently, the Expressmen were 
harassed by prosecutions, &c., by the Post Office 
Agent, into abandoning it there also. Still, it is a 
very common thing for people to put the Govern- 
ment ten cent stamps upon their California letters, 
to satisfy the law, and then pay an Express for the 
conveyance; and this they do because they have 
more confidence in the express than they have in 
the post-office delivery. The simple truth is, that 
the carrying of letters ought not to be a Govern- 
ment monopoly, but every person should have the 
privilege of sending his letters by any one who is 
willing to convey them. If that liberty existed, 
undoubtedly the most of all the letters, &c., usually 
mailed, would go by Express. 

At the time of the postage reform, exchange in 
Chicago upon New York was from I5 to 3 per cent.; 
in Cincinnati it was from 1 to 2 per cent.; in Buf- 
falo, from 1 to I2 per cent. The establishment of 
responsible Express Companies immediately reduc- 
ed the rates of exchange to a little over the mere 
cost of transporting specie, thus saving millions a 
year to the commercial community, and obviating 
the necessity of continuing the United States Bank, 
which had been the regulator for many years pre- 
vious. 

The firm of Livingston, Wells & Co, was con- 



84 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

tinued until the latter part of 1846. Just prior to 
that, Henry Wells sold out his interest in the West- 
ern Express to Wm. A. Livingston, and that con- 
cern assumed the style which it still holds, viz., 
Livingston & Fargo. Wells then removed to New- 
York, to assist his partner, Crawford Livingston, 
in the management of Livingston, Wells & Co.'s 
Express, the business of which, in this city, had 
very much increased. Wm. A. Livingston acted as 
their agent in Albany, and has served in that ca- 
pacity (with a proprietary interest at a later period, 
we believe,) ever since. 

In 1846, or thereabouts, Livingston, Wells & Co. 
commenced their European Express, and establish- 
ed offices at London and Paris. 

About that time a concern called "Henry & 
Co.'s Express," was started upon the Albany and 
Buffalo route, paying, like L., W. & Co., $100 per 
day for railroad facilities. If our recollection serves 
us, this new enterprise was abandoned after the 
first few trips. The expense was too heavy. Then 
another opposition was put on by Green & Co., a 
Baltimore firm, who run it six months, and having 
sunk sixty thousand dollars, gave it up as a bad 
job. The fact was, that two harder men to con- 
tend with could not have been found than Henry 
Wells and Crawford Livingston. The former has 
"made himself," and it requires no praise at our 
hands to add to his reputation. The latter was 
known only in the earher phases of the business, 



C. DONAT, 

Nos. 66 and 68 North Water Street, 



COMMISSIOIV MERCHAPfT, 

AND WHOLESALE! DEALER IN 

AI>I>IIS, Fl AC^IS, FIT OTIIS. 

BEANS, BERRiESglDRIED FRUITS, 

m^ lit i, nis, raiLf if , 

Butter, Eggs, Cranberries, &c., &c. 

All kinds and varieties of Country Produce received and sold on Commis- 
sion. Consignments respectfully solicited. 



Orders for Shipment of Produce to any part of the United States 
promptly attended to. 



REFERENCES: 

J. PRICE WETHERILL, HAGEN & BOYD, C. C. BABBIT. 

84 






SHEFFIELD & DAVIS, 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 



FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC 



mm & §mm mmi 



IMXTTPJS, dE30., 



No. 236 Washijvgton Street, 



Between Barclay and Bobinson Streets, 



We are constantly prepared to furnish to the Trade all 
articles in the Fruit line, in their season. By long and 
thorou^ experience in the business, we are enabled to give 
our customers the full advantage of the market. 



All kinds of Country Produce Sold on Commission. 

85 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 85 

but we have often heard the highest encomiums of 
his wisdom, abiUty and enterprise as an Express 
proprietor. 

Crawford Livingston died in 1847, at his father ^s 
residence in Livingston, Columbia Co., in this, his 
native state. Like Harnden's, his disease was con- 
sumption, (a fell-destroyer of many Expressmen,) 
and he was about the same age at his death, viz., 
34 years. It was his last request, that his partner 
should allow his interest in the Express to continue 
for the benefit of his widow and cliildren; and with 
this Henry Wells religiously complied, but the style 
of the firm was changed to Wells & Co. Its office 
at that time, and long afterwards, was at 10 Wall 
Street, in a block of buildings then occupied by the 
principal expresses, but which was removed some 
years ago to make way for modern improvements. 

Wells, himself, was out of health, when, by the 
premature decease of his excellent partner, all the 
labor of conducting their constantly enlarging ex- 
press operations devolved upon him. Still, he gen- 
erously continued the Livingston interest for the 
benefit of the family of the deceased, until 1848, 
when Mrs. L. voluntarily withdrew it. Shortly af- 
terwards, Johnston Livingston and Edward C. Wins- 
low each purchased a one-third interest in Wells' 
Express, and the style of Wells & Co. was pre- 
served. Winslow died in 1849. 

In the fall of that year a formidable opposition 
Express was started over the New York Central 



85 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

R. R. by Butterfield, Wasson & Co. It was a joint- 
stock concern, with a capital of $50,000. John 
Butterfield, who was at the head of it, was no mean 
competitor. Like one or more of our railroad presi- 
dents, he had been a stage-driver in his younger 
days, and a very popular one he was, too. Before 
long he became a stage-owner, and at length the 
sole proprietor of all the principal lines in the cen- 
tre of this state. In 1849, he was engaged in the 
transportation of freight across the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama. He was the projector of the Morse Telegraph 
Line between New York and Buffalo, and, after 
building the line by contract, put it into successful 
operation. Enlisting others with him, he founded 
a splendid line of large and commodious steamers 
on Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. In 
1848 or '49, he projected the joint-stock Express 
Company, before mentioned. Wasson, who was 
associated with him in this enterprise, had formerly 
been a stage proprietor, but was then Postmaster 
at Albany. 

Early in 1850, negotiations were entered into 
by Wells & Co., Livingston & Fargo, and Butter- 
field, Wasson & Co., for the consolidation of the 
three into one grand line. The result was, that 
the property and good will of W. & Co. were put 
in at a valuation of $50,000, and those of L. & F. at 
$50,000: Butterfield, Wasson & Co. put in theirs 
at $25,000, and made up the difference in cash. 
Two firms were then made of the three, viz: "Wells, 



ROSEISTD^LE 









f 

MANUFACTURED AT THE EXTENSIVE WORKS OF THE SUBSCRIBERS, 

WHOSE QUARRIES ARE SITUATED IN THE 

f iWi m iiiiieiLE. 

ULSTER COUNTY, STATE OF NEW YORK, 

ON THE LINE OF THE DELAWARE AND HUDSON CANAL. 

This Cement possesses superior hydraulic properties ; it 

has been thoroughly examined and tested by order 

of the Government of the United States, and is 

extensively used in the Fortifications and 

other principal Public Works of the 

Country. 

THE OFFICE OF THE MANUFACTURERS 

IS AT 

No, 104 Wall Street, New York, 

WHERE ORDERS WILL BE RECEIVED. 

DELAFIELD & BAXTER. 

86 



GMJRlSrEY'S 

NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART 




First Block below the New York Hotel, ITS W 1"®MM.< 

ESTABLISHED 1840. 



The particular styles of pictures which Messrs. GURNEY & SON are now producing 

are as follows : 

PHOTOGRAPHS, of all sizes, from Miniature to Life size, finished in Oil, 
Pastel, Water Colors, India Ink, and Crayon, by a corps of talented Artists. 

IMPERIAL, retouched and Plain Photographs. 

MINIATURES IN OIL, for Beauty, Delicacy, and Finish, are unequalled. 

IVORYTYPES,— This new and beautiful style of portraiture (first introduced 
by Mr. J. Gurney, in New York, and made only at this establishment,) has all 
the correctness of a plain Photograph, combined with the finish of the most delicate 
Miniature on Ivory. 

DAGUERREOTYPES, in the usual artistic styles. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC VISITING CARDS.-The Ladies especially are 
requested to call and examine this unique and beautiful style of Visiting Card, the 
same as now used by the upper circles of society, and is the mode in Paris and 
London. 

It is also the most convenient style of Portraiture for the exchange of likeness 
with friends residing in distant parts, as it is of a convenient size to be inclosed in 
any ordinary envelope, safely to any part of the world. 

STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES.— Messrs. Gurney & Son are now prepared 
to give their attention to making groups of Families, or single persons, at the Gal- 
lery, or by appointment, to visit private residences, having everything suitably 
arranged for making groups in the Parlor or Garden. Views of Buildings, Ani- 
mals, Statuary, or in fact anything in the Stereoscopic line of picture, can be ex- 
ecuted in the most truthful manner, to suit the most fastidious. 
N. B. — Old Daguerreotypes of Deceased Persons can be copied by the Photographic 

process, enlarged to any size, and colored in any style equal to those made from life- 
The largest collection of Photographs of Statesmen, Divines, Poets, Literary and 

Military Men, to be seen in the world. Also, on exhibition, the largest collection of 

Testimonials ever awarded any Artist for Photographic productions. 

PERFECT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

Gallery open from 8 A.M. till 9 P.M. for the free inspection of the Public. 

J. GURNEY & SON, Photographic Artists, 

TOT BROADWAY, N* Y. 

81 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 87 

Butterfield & Co.," and *' Livingston, Fargo & Co.," 
but comprised in a joint-stock concern, under the 
style of " The American Express Company." It 
was stipulated that this arrangement should last 
ten years. Henry Wells, then absent in Europe, 
was elected President of the new Company, and he 
still serves in that capacity. At the same time, Wm. 
G. Fargo, of Buffalo, was elected Secretary; John 
Butterfield, of Utica, Line Superintendent; and Al- 
exander Holland, of Schenectady, Treasurer. The 
latter (a son-in-law of John Butterfield,) was ap- 
pointed New York Agent, and the duties of this 
important, responsible, and laborious office, as well 
as those of the treasuryship, he has discharged for 
about eight years past with excellent judgment and 
the most exemplary fidelity. It would be hard to 
find a more unselfish, true and manly person than 
Alexander Holland. T. B. Marsh was a very use- 
ful man in the Buffalo office. James C. Fargo, 
Agent at Chicago, and General Superintendent of 
the Northwestern Division, has been from its com- 
mencement a very valuable aid to the able men 
already mentioned. From intimate personal knowl- 
edge, we can speak of him as a thorough gentle- 
man, and in every respect fitted to conduct an ex- 
tensive business. Indeed, the Fargos are pre-emi- 
nently an Express family. Charles Fargo, the very 
popular Agent and Assistant Superintendent at 
Detroit, is the proprietor of the Lake Superior Ex- 
press, which he started about six years ago. Chas. 



88 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

S. Higgins, also, General Superintendent of the 
Southwestern Division, has distinguished himself as 
an Express manager. Other prominent and invalu- 
able agents for some years past, are W. B. Peck, 
at Buffalo, Dr. Arnett, at Suspension Bridge, A. 
Seymour, at Geneva, Maj. Doty, at Auburn, and L. 
B. Van Dake, at Rochester. 

In 1852, Henry Wells, Wm. G. Fargo and oth- 
ers, projected Wells, Fargo & Co.'s California Ex- 
press, of which we shall speak more, fully by and 
by. In that or the following year. Wells, Butter- 
field & Co. removed the New York Office of the 
American Express to the spacious and convenient 
store, No. 62 Broadway, where they remained un- 
til the completion of their present stately edifice in 
Hudson Street. 

In the meantime, the Bank exchanges performed 
by the Company between St. Louis, Cincinnati, 
Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, Albany, New York, and 
intermediate points, had become in itself an im- 
mense business. The parcel and freight Express, 
also, had increased a hundred fold within ten years. 

Early in 1854, another powerful opposition Ex- 
press suddenly started into existence, and astonish- 
ed Broadway with its turnout of fine horses and 
beautiful vermiHon-red wagons, with the name in 
elegant letters on the sides, '* United States Express 
Company." This was not the Express which bears 
that name at the present day. Its projectors were 
Charles Backus, Hamilton Spencer, and Henry 



HALL & WALDRON, 

MANUFACTURERS OF LANTERNS 

SPcu±LCuLa.6 aiteiitLon. QLiieii ta j£aiitcinA. fai. Stall M.aad 

and ^xJLiieM. liuAiiieAA. 

LANTERNS DECORATED AND MARKED TO ORDER. 

No. 78 Maiden Lane, 
C. M. ALEXANDER, 

i®^ISIf ©1 ©I Mf SIf S 

AND 

ATTORNEY AT PATENT LAW, 

Office 449 Seventh Street, between IP and £ Sts., 

W^ Advice given respecting infringements and validity of Patents. 

STIGER, RANDOLPH & CO., 

€0MMIiM01 MEMHAITS, 

AND DEALERS IN 

Grain, Flour, Feed, Meal, &Ci, 

No. 100 WEST STREET, 



JNO. S. STIGER, 
A. R. RANDOLPH 
SIOLER STIGER 



88 



S^©^^^DB^©. 




THE SUBSCRIBERS ARE PREPARED TO EXECUTE ALL KINDS OP 



AND 




u^xuvin^ 0n^oo^ 



Promptly and in the best style of the art, upon the most reasonable terms. 
All kinds of Book Illustrations, Yiews of Buildinj^s, Machinery, 
Landscapes, &c. Portraits, Animals, Societies' Seals, 
Druggists' Labels, Newspaper Heads, Maga- 
zine Covers, Bill Heads, Tobacco 
and other Stamps. 

Illustrations for Catalogues. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

. ILLUMINATED ENVELOPES. 

Orders for Electrotyping, Stereotyping, &c., promptly attended to. 

N. ORH & CO., 

52 John Street, New York Citf. 

89 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 89 

D wight, who, with the aid of others, had made it a 
joint-stock Company, with a nominal capital of half 
a million of dollars. Without making any money 
themselves, it was in the power of the new associ- 
ates to inflict great injury to the established Ex- 
press, and this fact led to an amicable and judicious 
arrangement between the old and the new Com- 
pany, by means of which the latter was merged in 
the former; its proprietors becoming stockholders 
in the American Express Company, which created 
a new stock at that time, July, 1854, and increased 
its capital to $750,000. In the month of Septem- 
ber, 1855, the American Express Co. were robbed 
of $50,000. It belonged to the Government, and 
v/as promptly made good by the Company. The 
particulars will be given in another part of this work. 
The Company now make use of an office. No. 64 
Broadway, but in July, 1858, they removed the 
bulk of their N. Y. business to their new white mar- 
ble building, at the corner of Hudson and Jay 
Streets. It is very conveniently situated, upon a 
line with the Hudson River R. R., from which, by 
means of a track of their own, the American Ex- 
press Co. can run their express cars right into their 
office. This site is just 100 feet square, and cost 
$100,000. The spacious and superb edifice erect- 
ed by the Company upon it, under the immediate 
direction of Alexander Holland, assisted by Col. A. 
M. C. Smith, contains, besides the Express office, a 
commodious store and several large warerooms. 



90 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

January 1, 1860, the Company was re-organized, 
and the capital stock increased to $1,000,000. Its 
Board of Government is as follows: 

Henry Wells, President. John Butterfield, Vice- 
President. Wm. G Fargo, Secretary. Johnston 
Livingston, Alex. Holland, Directors. 

The Superintendent of the Eastern, or Xew York 
Division, is Daniel Butterfield. Of James C. Far- 
go, General Superintendent of the North- Western 
Division, we have already spoken. He is ably 
assisted by Charles H. Wells, Superintendent of the 
"Cleveland Division;" E. W. Sloane, Superintend- 
ent of the ''Indianapolis Division;" J. H. Talbot, 
Superintendent of the "Canada Division:" R. B. 
Peckham, Div. Sup^t of Wisconsin; Charles Fargo, 
Div. Sup't of Michigan and Indiana. 



THE NATIONAL EXPRESS COMPANY. 



The headquarters of this Company, in New 
York, is well represented in our engraving of the 
office. No. 74 Broadway. The original projector of 
the business now done by this excellent Company, 
was J. A. Pullen, and he continues to be one of its 
managers. He has already been named in this 
work, as one of the earliest and most efficient of 
Harnden's aids. Before entering that service, he was 
agent for the New York and Providence steamers 
J. W. Richmond and Kingston, and used to travel 



THE 





THE OLDEST DEMOCRATIC REPCBLICAN JOURNAL 

IN THE CITY OF NBVUr YORK, 

Now ia the Fiftt-Nunth year of its existence, combines all the essential elements of 

A 0®illPLi?E r^illL¥ HEWSPaPEi. 

Is devoted to the support of the Democratic Republican Party, when it is right, and 
of DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES ALWAYS ! Is the uncompromising advocate of 
Free Soil ! Free L.abor ! Free Speech ! A Strict Construction of 
the Constitution, and an Economical Administration of the Government. 

THE DAILY EVENING POST, which is printed on a large folio sheet, contains 
a full account of the occurrences of the day — the latest foreign intelligence — exclu- 
sive correspondence from Europe — public documents of interest and importance — 
Proceedings of Congress — Popular Lectures — Tales — Poetry — Reviews and extracts 
from New Books — City News — Special, full and accurate reports of Commercial and 
Financial Affairs, New York Markets, including Stock and Money Markets, together 
with the Cattle Markets of the country, and such Foreign markets as are of general 
interest. Its editorial disquisitions are always frank, fearless, and independent. 

THE SEMI-WEEKLY EVENING POST contains all the reading matter of The 
Daily Evening Post, and the latest news, by telegraphs and mails, up to the hour of 
publication. 

THE WEEKLY EVENING POST is edited with especial reference to the wants 
of country readers, and besides all the articles of general interest published in The 
Daily Evening Post, contains a complete digest of the News of the Day, and an 
Agricultural Column, devoted to the interest and instruction of FARMERS. It 
contains FORTY LONG COLUMNS of reading matter every week. 

TERMS: 

DAILY EVENING POST. 

Single Copy for One Year, in advance $9 00 | Three Copies, in advance $25 00 

Single Copy, per month 76c. 

SEMI- WEEKLY EVENING POST. 

is published every WEDNESDAY AND SATURDAY. 

Single Copy, One Year, in advance $3 00 I Five Copies, One Year, in advance $12 00 

" ~ " . .. .- ^ . ., ,, 20 00 



Two Copies, 



6 GO I Ten Copies, 



WEEKLY EVENING POST. 

IS PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY. 



Single Copy, One Year, in advance $2 00 

Three Copies, " " 5 00 

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Ten Copies, One Year, in advance $12 00 

Twenty Copies, " '< 20 00 

Any larger numbers at the rate of $1 ^ year. 



Subscriptions may commence at any time. Pay always in advance. Any person 
sending us twenty or more subscribers will be entitled to an extra copy for his ser- 
vices; or for ten subscribers he will receive a copy for six months. When a club of 
subscribers has been forwarded, additions mav be made to it on the same terms. It 
is not necessary that the members of a club should receive their papers at the same 
Post OflBce. CLERGYMEN are supplied at the lowest club rates. Moue^ may be 
forwarded at our risk. Specimen copies of the Evening Post will be sentjree to all 
who desire it. 

WM. C. BRYANT & CO., 

Office of the Evening Post, 
41 *Va88au Sireei, cor. L,iherty^ JITew JTorh. 

90 



SUN MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, 

No. 49 Wall Street, 



MMl INLll MMTION AND FIRE RISKS. 



RESERVED CAPITAL, $1,000,000. 



ASSETS: 

Real Estate and Bonds and Mortgages $583,500 00 

Stocks, Loans on Stock, Interest, Accrued Rents, Scrip of 

other Companies, &c 647,169 49 

Bills Receivable 576,354 17 

Premium Accounts not yet collected 10,491 29 

Cash 156,715 77 

$1,974,230 72 

The assured receive in scrip, bearing interest, the whole profits of the 
Company each year, divided amongst the dealers whose risks have termi- 
nated during the year. 



MOSES H. GRINNELL, 
ROSWELL SPRAGUE, 
OLIVER SUITE, Jr., 
WILLIAM H. MACY, 
DRAKE MILLS, 
G. WINTHROF GRAY, 
SAMUEL L. MITCHILL. 
FREDERICK G. FOSTER, 
PEl'ER POIRIER, 
SCHUYLER UVINGSTOX, 



TRUSTEES 

LOUIS LORUT, 
ANTHONY B. NEILSON, 
JOHN WHITEHEAD, 
WM. H. NEWMAIi, 

HENRY A. corr, 

CHAS. H. MARSHALL, 
JOSEPH FOULKE, Jr.. 
JACOB R. NEMUS, 
JOSEPH GAILLARD, Jr., 
P. STRAChAN, 

s;mo\ de ^^ssER. 



ALEX. M. LAWRENCE, 
JOHN A. ISEUN. 
EDWIN BARTLETT. 
FJJAS PONVERT, ' 
GEORGE G. HOBSON, 
U. A. MURDOCH, 
PERCY R. PYNE, 
CHARLES STRECKER, 
SAMUEL M. FOX, 
JOSEPH V. ONATIVIA, 



A. B. NEILSON, President. 
JOHN WHITEHEAD, Vice-President. 
WM. H. NEVIUS, Secretary. 

91 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 91 

over the route, from Boston, daily. Of good figure 
and fine address, and enthusiastically absorbed in 
the execution of the express business intrusted to 
him by its pioneer, Major Pullen was invaluable as 
a messenger in 1840, between New York and Bos- 
ton; in 1841, between New York and Philadelphia; 
in 1842, between New York, Albany and Troy, via 
the Hudson River steanaboats. 

In the winter of 1842, or the spring of 1843, 
Harnden having sold out his Hudson River Ex- 
press, PuUen & Copp started a like business on that 
route, from New York to Albany, Troy and Sara- 
toga Springs. At that time, Pomeroy & Co., who 
had been doing a business between Albany and 
Buffalo for several months, extended their Hue to 
New York. 

In 1844 or '45, by an arrangement between Pul- 
len & Copp, and Pomeroy & Co., they ceased their 
opposition, by making a division of their routes — 
the former taking Troy and North; the latter Al- 
bany and West — and that arrangement has con- 
tinued in force to this day. It led to some reci- 
procity of service between them, Pullen & Copp 
taking charge of Pomeroy & Co.'s Express trunk 
and freight between Albany and New York. An 
extraordinary incident which happened to Copp, in 
that connection, will be related in our budget of Ex- 
press anecdotes. Soon afterwards, C. retired from 
the firm, and Major P. took E. L. Stone as a part- 
ner, under the style of Pullen & Co. 



92 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

In 1843, a Mr. Jacobs had started an Express 
from Albany to Montreal, and continued it for a 
year or more. E. H. Yirgil, since somewhat promi- 
nent as an Express proprietor, acted as his messen- 
ger and agent about a year, and then, in company 
with N. G. Howard, purchased Jacobs' interest. 
They called it Yirgil & Howard's Express. Its route 
was by packet boats or stage from Albany to White- 
hall, and thence by steamers, via Lake Champlain 
and Railroad, to Montreal. It connected at Troy 
and Albany with Pullen & Co.'s. Early in 1844, 
H. F. Rice bought out Howard's interest, and the 
firm became Yirgil & Rice. H. H. Haile, of Platts- 
burgh, was in their employment, and has continued 
on this line ever since. This firm, ere long, united 
with the other, under the style of Pullen, Yirgil k 
Co.'s Express. Their route was from this city, via 
Northern New York and Yermont, to the principal 
cities in Canada. It was not. at that period, a very 
promising field of operation, and men of less san- 
guine temperament, resolution, and energy, would 
have abandoned it. Fortunately, E. H. Yirgil, upon 
whom devolved the immediate superintendence of 
the offices and business details upon the route, was 
a man of great physical ability united to sagacity, 
experience and tenacity of purpose. He had a pe- 
culiar people to deal with, especially in Canada 
where they are slow to enlist in new enterprises. 
It was only by the most untiring sauvity and patient 
demonstration of the uses and security of the Ex- 




MERCANTILE 
No. 35 Wall Street. 



IlSrOORFOR^TED MA.Y 12, 1843. 



ASSETS, JANUARY 1st, 1860, $1,125,000. 



iiiiii liiiiiiiE 

To and from Foreign and Home Ports, on Cargo, Vessels, and Freights. 

ALSO, 

INLAND INSTIBANCE 

On Goods to and from all places in the United States, by Rivers, Lakes, 
and Rail Roads, covering the risks of Fire and Theft in transit. 

ELLWOOD WALTER, President, 
CHAS. NEWCOMB, Vice-President 
C. J. PESPARD, Secretary. 



TRUSTEES. 

Joseph Walker, E. Haydock White, Francis Hathaway, 

James Freeland, N. L. McCready, Aaron L. Reid, 

Samuel Willets, Daniel T. Willets, John S. Williams, 

Robert L. Taylor, L. Edgerton. John McKesson, 

William T. Frost, Henry R. Kunhardt, Horatio Eagle, 

William Watt, E. E. Morgan, William Nelson, Jr., 

Henry Eyre, Her. A. Schleicher, Charles Dimon, 

Cornelius Grinnell, William Boyd, A. Wm. Heye, 

Benjamin M. Whitlock, James D. Fish, Harold Dollner, 

Ellwood Walter, Henry W. Johnson, Paul N. Spoflford. 

Jamets Chambers, Geo. W. Hennings, 

ELLWOOD WALTER, President. 
CHAS. NEWCOMB, Vice-PresidenL 
C. J. DESPARD, Secretary. 

92 



lenraiee Company 

OF l^EW YORK. 

! Office, Nos. 112 and 114 BROA DWAY. 

ASSETS, 1st January, 1860 $1,458,396 28 

LIABILITIES, « « 42,580 43 



The Home Insurance Company continues to insure against Loss or Damage 

by Fire and the Dangers of Inland Navigation and Transportation, 

on terms as favorable as the nature of the risks and the real 

security of the insured and of the Company will warrant. 

LOSSES EO PITABLY ADJUSTED Al PROM PTLY PAID. 

r> 1 1^ E c T o i^ s - 

WILLIAM G. LAMBBRT Firm of A. & A. Lawrence & Co. 

GEORGE C. COLLINS " Sherman, CoHins k Co. 

DANFORD N. BARNEY *' Wells, Fargo & Co. 

LUCIUS HOPKINS President Imrorters' and Traders' Bank. 

THOMAS MESSENGER Firmof T. &H. Messenger. 

WILLIAM H. MELLEN " Gaflin, Mellen & Co. 

CHARIJS J. MARTIN Prksidktt. 

A. F. WILLMARTH Vick-Prksidknt. 

CHARLES B. HATCH Firm of C. B. Hatch 4 Co. 

B. WATSON BULL " Merrick * BulL 

HOMER MORGAN 

LEVI P. STONE Stone, Starr & Co. 

JAMES HUMPHREY Late Firm of Barney, Humphrey k Butler. 

GEORGE PEARCE " George Pearce & Co. 

WARD A. WORK " Ward A. Work & Son. 

JAMES LOW " James Low & Co., of Louisville. 

I. H. FROTHINGHAM L»t« " I H. Frothingham * Co. 

CHARLES A. BULKLEY " Bulklev & Co. 

CEPHAS H. NORTON " Norton & Jewett. 

ROE LOCKWOOD " R. Lock wood & Son. 

THEODORE McNAMEE Late " Bowen, McNamee & Co. 

RICHARD BIGELOW " Doan, King & Co., of St. Louis, 

GEORGE D. MORGAN " E. D. Morgnn & Co. 

OLIVER E. WOOD '' Willard, Wood & Co. 

ALFRED S. BARNES ♦' A. S. Barnes & Burr. 

GEORGE BLISS " Phelps, Bliss & Co. 

AMOS T. DWIGHT " Trowbridge, Dwight & Co. 

CURTIS NOBIJ: " Curtis Noble & Co. 

LEVI P. MORTON " Morton, Grinnell & Co. 

JOHN B. HUTCHINSON *' J. C. Howe & Co., Boston. 

CHARLES P. BALDWIN " Baldwin, Starr & Co. 

HENRY A. HURLBUT " Swift, Hurlbut & Co. 

JESSEHOYT " Jesse Hoyt & Co. 

WM. STURGIS, JR " Sturgis, Shaw & Co. 

JOHN R. FORD " Ford Rubber Co. 

SIDNEY MASON Late " Mason & Thompson. 

GEO. T. STEDMAN " Stedman, Carlisle & Shaw, of Cincinnati. 

CYRUS YALE, jR " Cyrus Yale, Jr., &Co., of New Orleans. 

WM. R. FOSDICK ♦♦ Wm. R. & Charles B. Fosdiek. 

DAVID L BOYD " Boyd Brothers & Co., Albany, N. Y. 

F. H. COSSITT " Cossitt, Hill & Talmadge, Memphis. 

LEWISROBERTS »• L. Roberts & Co. 

SAMUEL B. CALDWELL " Brewer & CaldweU. 

A. J. WILLS " Pulliam, Wills, Rankin & Co. 

WM. H. TOWNSEND " Henrys, Smith & Townsend. 

^*/ *>'w CHAS. J. MARTIN, President 

J. MILTON SMITH, Seo'y. A. P. "WILLMARTH, Vice-Prea 

JOHN McGEE, Asst. Sec'y. 

93 



EXPRESS U J .> T o a Y . 93 

press, for a long time, that he succeeded at last in 
estahlishing it in that region upon the same basis of 
popular appreciation to which it had so rapidly at- 
tained in Massachusetts and ^ew York. 

In 1849, the firm consisted of J. A. Pullen, E. 
Ti. Virgil, Edward L. Stone, and C. A. Darhng. 

Upon the opening of the Albany Northern Rail- 
road in 1854, Robert L. Johnson, Wm. A. Livings- 
ton, and W. E. Hys established a Northern Express, 
under the style of Johnson & Co., from Albany to 
Rutland, Saratoga, &c., with a view of extending it 
into Canada. This enterprise came into competi- 
tion with Pullen, Yirgil & Co., and after its success 
had become certain, it was deemed politic by th^ 
two concerns to consolidate, especially as both wero 
composed of old and influential Expressmen, who 
could puU together far more profitably, and satis* 
factorily, than apart. 

Accordingly, in the spring of 1855, it became a 
joint-stock Express, under the style of the " Nation- 
al Express Company,*' capital stock $250,000; D. 
N. Barney, President. 

The General Manager of the New York terminus 
was J. A. Pullen; the Agent, here, W. P. Janes. 
E. H. Yirgil, of Troy, was Superintendent of the 
Routes. 

D. N. Barney had not been educated by experi- 
ence as an Expressman, but as a Banker. It is true, 
that he was Pi-esident of the joint-stock Express 
known as Wells, Fargo & Co., but it was rather be- 



94 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

cause of his large experience and position as a 
banker and capitalist, that he became the head of 
two or three of those companies, whose history we 
now have under consideration. The Express pro- 
prietary interests, grown to joint-stock corpora- 
tions, had assumed a financial phase not at all com- 
prehended in Express routine, and it was well, per- 
haps, to bring to their aid, under these circumstances, 
a kind of talent and ability never before demanded 
by the exigences of the business. To that fact we 
ascribe the election of D. N. Barney as President 
of the National Express Company; the prosperity 
which has attended the new organization, under his 
administration of its affairs, has fully vindicated the 
wisdom of the choice. 

This Express now has contracts for the best facili- 
ties which can be afforded by the Hudson River 
Railroad; the Troy and Boston Railroad; the Sara- 
toga and Whitehall Railroad; Rutland and Wash- 
ington, Western Vermont Railroads; Rutland and 
Burlington Railroad, and Champlain and St. Law- 
rence Railroad. 

In the winter, they make use of stages from Bur- 
Ungton, Vt., to Keeseville, N. Y.; in the spring, sum- 
mer and fall, the steamers, and the Plattsburgh and 
Montreal Railroad, via Rouse's Point. 

In Canada, the operations of the National Express 
Company are very important. Not the least part 
of their service is the attention which they give to 
the Custom House business. 



NEW INVENTION OF ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 




SELPHO'S PATEKT ELASTIC 
ANGLESEY LEG 

iV.MSllPl©IiK.la IHASl©, 

Manufactured at 

516 Broadway, opp. St. Nicholas Hotel, 

NEW YORK. 




WILLIAM SELPHO 

Continuea to manufacture on the above unerring and beautiful principle, through which he has been 
80 successful for the past nineteen years in this city. It is worthy of note, that while many inventions 
of Artificial Legs have claimed the attention of the pubhc, few have realized the expectations of their 
wearers; aod none can claim priority or superiority over the Anglesey Leg, which W. S. introduced into 
this country as far back as the year 1839, and which has successfully stood the test of so many years' 
experience, which test is the only one of any real value to those seeking the best substitute for the 
great loss they have sustained. It is, therefore, a source of much pleasure and pride to the subscriber, 
that he has been so successful in his endeavors to secure for those who have suffered the severe loss of a 
limb, a substitute that has so admirably met the various wants of the different classes in this great 
country. The Anglesey Leg is now worn by persona in every State in the Union — some walking ten miles 
and upwards daily — many walking with pairs below the knee, without a cane — and there is one case 
where the person has neither knee-joint, and consequently walks on two Artificial Knees; this is be- 
lieved to be the first instance of the kind on record; and the patient has walked at least four miles a 
day with these Limbs for the past eight years. Numerous other instances of its merits might bo men- 
tioned, but having been so long before the public, ^'f. S. deems it unnecessary to further recapitulate or 
classify the qualities of the Anglesey Leg. lie has, however, the gratification of announcing that after 
many experiments, he has succeeded in imitating the elastic lateral or side motion of the natural ankle- 
joint, which invention, having been thoroughly and carefully tested for the past eighteen mouth.s, is 
offered with confidence as a really valuable improvement, while at the same time all the well-tried ad- 
vantages of the Anglesey Leg are very carefully retained. 

The following are some of the advantages of thia new improvement: 

FiBST— An elastic life-like feeling at every step, by which means the stump has an easier bearing, and 

is less liable to injury from sudden shocks, such as jumping, kc. 
SICOND — The ankle-joint having a side motion combined with the elastic cushion, the foot retains its 

hold firmer in walking up hill or where the ground is uneven; consequently it is much easier 

to the wearer. 
Third — The step is more elastic and natural, because it is a closer approximation to nature. 
FocBTH — Its beautiful simplicity of construction, its lightne.ss, strength and durability, and the ease 

with which the wearer can keep it in order. 

The above are some of its merits, but as it is difficult to do them justice in print, W. S. will be 
happy to show a specimen to any person interested in this invention. 



's Pit ill liTiniiii, uii. 



W. S. desires also to call the attention of those who have had the misfortune to lose a Hand, to 
hl« newly invented Patent Artificial Hand, which is truly the most useful and practicable substitute for 
a lost Hand ever submitted to the consideration of the unfortunate. This Hand is so constructed that 
the wearer can open and shut it without assistance from the remaining Hand; can pick up and hold 
various articles, such as knife, fork, hat, &c. ; can write with surprising facility, and use it in various 
ways with great satisfaction; and in shape or form it is in close imitation of the natural hand. The 
principle on which it is constructed is simple and strong; it is not hable to get out of order, and can be 
worn with but little inconvenience. 

For further information, terms, &c., call or address, 

WII^I^IAM SEJLPHO, 

5X6 Broadway, New York. 
94 



G^. E. M^ENDXTIVI, 

Importer and Jobber of 

J^rnp Mins, 

BRANDIES, 

KABISCHINO, BITTERS, 
PICKLES, «cC., 

FOREIGHLEUID PORTER. 

SOLE AGENT IN THE UNITED STATES FOR THE SALE OF 

Widow Lavergne's W. I. Bay Rum, 

JVo. 90 Cedar Street^ 

Cor. Broadway, SJIW ^©ISSq 



* *•* - 



[We have very favorably known Geo. E. Mendum, in the above-named 
business, for ten years past, during which time he has filled innumerable 
orders received through the Express Companies.] 

95 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 95 

Thompson & Co.'s (Boston) Western Express. 
This Express was commenced in 1841, by William 
F. Harnden. Its route was from Boston to Albany, 
via Springfield, Mass. Henry Wells was its orig- 
inal agent in Albany. James M. Thompson, its 
agent at Springfield, (1842,) had been a clerk in the 
Boston office. These facts, with the more pertinent 
one, that in 1844 Harnden & Co. sold this Western 
Express to J. M. Thompson, we have already re- 
lated in our history of Harnden's enterprise. The 
new proprietor was shrewd, systematic and perse- 
vering, regular in his habits and very gentlemanly, 
though rather reserved in his address. His social 
position has always been superior, and his word has 
been considered as good as his bond. The good 
effect of his management of the Boston, Springfield 
and Albany Express became manifest almost im- 
mediately. Order, promptness, fidelity, and a spirit 
of accommodation characterized aU his offices. At 
the outset he had no partner, nevertheless his Express 
made use of the style of " Thompson & Co." as at 
present. 

E. Lamb Stone, Thompson's earliest agent in 
Albany, was succeeded in the autumn of 1844, 
by Robert L. Johnson, then only 17 years of age. 
This smart, enterprising, and faithful young man — 
since so successful in this kind of business — had 
been for a year or two a clerk for Pomeroy & Co.'s 
Express, (a daily line to New York, and semi-month' 
ly to Buffalo;) and when, in May, 1845, T. & Co. 



96 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

and P. & Co. occupied the same premises in Al- 
bany, he acted as agent for both. 

In 1844, J. M. Thompson started an Express by 
stage and boat, from Springfield to Hartford, and 
by stage from Springfield to Northampton, Green- 
field, and Brattleboro^ Yt. When the Railroads 
were completed, these Expresses were conveyed 
upon them, and still continue in successful opera- 
tion. 

In 1846, WiUiam N". Melcher, formerly of Ham- 
den & Co.^s Express, became a clerk for Thompson, 
in the Boston office, at No. 8 Court Street. There 
never was a more quiet, yet careful and efficient 
agent than Melcher. Some five or six years ago 
he became a partner with his employer. 

In 1847, R. L. Johnson, the Albany agent, start- 
ed an Express between Albany and Troy, over the 
Troy and Greenbush Railroad; running as his own 
messenger, and making the Bank exchanges be- 
tween the two cities the main part of his business. 
He continued in this service until the spring of 
1853, when he had the good fortune to be taken 
into the co-partnership of Thompson & Co. We 
say good fortune, because that Express was doing 
a very extensive and remunerative business, and it 
has been materially augmented since that time, by 
reason of judicious management, superior agents, 
and the growing prosperity of the communities 
which it serves. 

Thompson & Co. connect with the Adams Ex- 



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BY 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 

STATIONERS, 

LITHOGRAPHERS AND BOOKBINDERS, 
JVo. 45 JfEaiden JLane^ JVew Ik^orlc. 



^LLeli^ SFtij^Le: af .^Lcuik-J^aak, Sfa/tcf^ and S^tcLtiaiLatij. 

foi- /t^iLhiiLcliA, S^lofeSALOJLalf cuuL S^lLiiate flLe, 

Sold in quantity to suit, at lowest price. 

Use Francis' Manifold Letter Writer, by which letters and copies are 
written at same time. Price, from $1 to $5. 

OiiBIii III iillY liUiillS. 

i^>x|)fiibL- Kooks, Time Books, Hotel Registers, Wash Books, Interest Tables, 

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STATIONERY. Copying and Seal 

Presses, Notes, Drafts, etc. 

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Merchants, Bankers, Factories, Public Offices. Express, Railroad, and In- 
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their orders. Prompt and personal attention given. 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 

Stationers, Steam Printers, litiiograpliers and Bookljinders, 
^K^h'^Srel. } 45 Maiden Lane, N. Y. 

96 



I 



iiiTii Piif 

(Daily,) $8 per year, one-half in advance. 

THE PEESS AND POST, 

(Serai-Weekly,) $4 per year, one-half in advance. 

THE BOSTON STATESMAN, 

AIVD WEEKLY POST, 

(Weekly,) $2 per year, in advance. 



^S&*CLU£]S taking ten or more copies of the Weekly in one package, will be supplied 

at ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR, and a gratuitous 

copy to the getter up of the Club. 

^2?.^ These papers are Clled with a great variety of useful and entertaining muuer. 
Their ( dltorials; domestic and foreign correspondence; reports; marine de- 
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literary notices; poetic contributions and humorous mat- 
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TO ADVERTISERS. 

j^i^ As Advertising mediums these papers are unsurpassed, penetrating as they do 

into sucli a variety of households scattered over the whole Union; and read as 

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dilfusion of information which can scarcely be obtained elsewhere. 

THE CIRCULATION OP THE 

BOSTOJV POST 

is nearly doitble that of any Commercial paper in Boston; while the extent and 
character of the circulation of the Statesman' and Weekly Post over the country, 
together with the limited amount of advertisements inserted — never exceedifig two 
ro/vwns—ivndci' it a most valuable medium for advertisers, seeking a general circu- 
lation over thewuoLE Union. 

EATES OF ADVEETISING. 

In /;aiVy— First insertion, $1.00 per .Square, (space of twelve solid lines Agate.) 
Second and each succeeding insertion, 50 cents per Square. 

A liberal discount made from lengthy or continued advertisements. 

In Weekly— "V^n cents a line each insertion. 

DEALS, GREENE & CO., 

40 and 42 Congress St., Boston. 

97 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 97 

press Co. at Worcester and Springfield, where they 
have large and commodious offices; at Albany, they 
connect with the American Express Co.; and at 
Boston, with the Eastern Expresses. The excellent 
agent in Worcester, J. H. Osgood, since 1854, has 
had the supervision of the General Express Agency 
in that flourishmg interior city, and has acted 
equally for the Adams Express Co., Thompson & 
Co., and Fiske & Co. His office is one of the most 
useful in the country. 

Thompson resides in Springfield, and the busineae 
there is under his immediate supervision. When 
he first began the business there, he occupied a 
space of only 15 feet by 7 feet, in the lobby of the 
Post Office, and did all the work himself. Since 
then, he has built a commodious office, 65 feet by 
50 feet, and now gives employment to 13 men and 
4 horses, at that point. It was our purpose to say 
something in this connection, in reference to the re- 
markable growth of Springfield since the origin of 
the Express; but want of space will not admit of 
it. We will venture to say, however, that not one 
of it« numerous important business establishments 
has contributed more to its prosperity than the lib- 
eral, enterprising, and public-spirited James M. 
Thompson. 

Thompson & Co. have large offices, also, in Bos- 
ton, Albany, Palmer, Westfield, Springfield, North 
Adams, Chicopee, Holyoke, Northampton, Green- 
field, Keene, N. H., Brattleboro' and Bellows Falls. 



98 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

The Eastern Express Company, founded in May, 
1857, with a capital of $100,000, is a Boston joint- 
stock concern — a consolidation of the Express en- 
terprises of Carpenter & Co., Winslow & Co., and 
Hodgman, Carr & Co. Carpenter & Co. were for 
about ten years in the Express business between 
Boston and the towns on the Kennebec River. 
Winslow & Co. (J. R. Hall, Boston manager) suc- 
ceeded in 1850, or not long afterwards, to a business 
between Boston, Portland and Waterville, Me., 
once operated by Longley & Co. F. W. Carr has 
been in the Maine Express line about seven years. 
Some four or five years ago he became a partner 
with Hodgman & Co., and the style was changed to 
Hodgman, Carr & Co. Their Express business was 
between Boston and the towns on the Penobscot 
River. 

John R. Hall, the Superintendent of the Eastern 
Express Company, has been an expressman ever 
since the days of Harnden's Original Express. The 
associate managers and proprietors are J. R. Hall 
and F. W. Carr, Boston; J. N. Winslow, Portland; 
C. S. Carpenter, Augusta; and F. H. Hodgman, 
Bangor. Upon their different routes they have 
about 570 miles of steamboating and 380 miles of 
Railroad travel. They employ upwards of eighty 
agents and messengers, and from fifteen to twenty 
drivers. 

Mr. Tucker, in their Boston office, has been an 
express clerk for many years. 



MAILLER, JLORD Sl QUERE AU, 

SHIFPIIsTG^ 

AND 

108 VTaU Street, New 7ork. 



1<S#> 



PROPRIETORS OP THE 

KANGAROO LINE OF PACKETS 

sailing from New York for Melbourne, Australia, monthly; established 
1853. Vessels first class, and the lowest rates of passage and freight 
charged. Lord & Co., Agents, Melbourne, who receive consignments on 
commission; also, Regular Packets from New York to Baltimore, Charles- 
ton, and Savannah. 

AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF 






FOR FAMILY USE. 

WILL JTC-VD ARTICLKS IX 

IVood, licather. Crockery, Glass, Ivory, 

Bone, Alabaster, Marble, Rubber, 

Gatta Percha, Clotb, Paper, 

Papier Macbe, Sbeil, Horn, 

Hone, Plaster, Sic. 

And indeed there is scarcely an article in the 
whole range of domestic economy, whether it be 
for use or ornament, which, when broken, cannot 
with this preparation be restored to its original 
Talue. It challenges the world for its superior. It 
is indispensable in every 

HOUSE, WORKSHOP, COUNTING-ROOM, 
And no person, after a trial of 

STARR'S CHEMICALLY PREPARED GLUE. 

would willingly dispense with it for four times its 
cost. It is always ready, and always reliable. It 
is not offensive to the smell, and is not affected by 
climate, and where known it has become a FIX- 
ED FACT. 




Is sold by all Druggists, Furniture Dealers, Gro- 
cers, Fancy Goods Dealers, Hardware 

Dealers, Stationers, and 
by country Merchants generally. 

Price 25 Cents per Bottle. 

A brush goes with each bottle. 
Put up for dealers in cases from 1 to 12 dozen. 
A splendid Lithographic Show Card, printed in 
colors, given with each package. 

All orders or letters of inquiry by mail, addressed 
to the 

STUB ilil SilPilY, 
51 Liberty St., N.Y., 

will receive prompt attention. 
j|Sp>A liberal discount to the trade. 

98 



THE BEST FAMILY PIPER i THE UNION. 



THE NEW YORK SPECTATOR. 

The New York Spectator is the pioneer of American Semi- Weekly Newspapers, having been 
established sixty-three year«. It is unsurpassed by any of its contemporaries in the value and 
variety of its contents, having attained its present popularity by its prompt adoption of every 
improvement and the infusion of modern taste and talent into its columns. The New York 
Spectator has no superior as a 



or Record of Events. It is published every MONDAY and THURSDAY, and contains the 
latest Domestic and Foreign News up to the vei^ hour of publication, including 

Pull Reports of all Matters of interest in Ne-w York and neighboring 
Cities. 

Reliable Correspondence and Congressional Reports from Wasldngton. 

Public Documents, both State and National 

A Correspondence of unusual merit from London, Paris, and other Euro- 
pean Cities. 

The latest Telegraph Dispatches received by the Associated Press. 

An Accurate "Wholesale Price Current, Daily Sales of Stocks, and ample 
daily reports of everything connected -with Trade and Commerce. 

AS A FAMILY PERIODICAL, 

the New York Spectator is very confidently recommended. The severest supervision is 
exercised over its columns, so that it shall be a safe as well as an entertaining and instructive 
family companion. Its editorial comments are written under a deep sense of responsibility; 
its notices of New Books and Periodicals are liberal and honest; its Agricultural Intelligence 
is compiled by a competent gentleman; while its tales, fugitive poetry and Literary Glean- 
ings, are confessedly of a very high order, and are alwaj^ selected with a view to inculcate 
high-toned and pure morality. 

These characteristics of the New York Spbctatob it will always be the aim of the Pro- 
prietors to maintain, and they enter upon a new year with a determined purpose to keep in 
the ran of newspaper advancentent, and to make the SPECTATOR worthy of the wide and 
increasing jiatronage it receives. 



One copy one year $3.00 

Two copies one year 5.00 

Fire copies one year 11.00 



Ten copies one year, (seat to obc address) I20.0O 

Fifteen copies one year, " " .... 28.00 
Twenty copies one year, " " 35.00 



Payable invariably in advance at the oflSce.or remitted by mail to the office direct. Any 
person sending us a Club of Twenty or more will be entitled to an extra copy. 

FRANCIS HALL & CO., 

nro. 46 PIi\E ST., IVew York. 



To subscribers in Canada there will be an additional charge of fifty cents each, to meet 
the United States Postage, which has to be paid in New York. 



THE NEW YORK OOMMEECIAL ADVEETISER 

if published daily at the office of the Spectatoh, at Ten Dollars, or Nine Dollars in advance, 
per annum. Contains regularly. Letters from England. France, California, &c. Has a very 
hne digest of Foreign and Domestic News; Reprints of all Public Documents of interest and 
importance ; contains Special, Full and Accurate Reports of Commercial and Financial 
Affairs; New York Markets, &c. 

99 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 99 

Before taking a final leave of the subject of the 
transportation business in New England, during the 
latter days of the stage-coach lines, and while the 
earlier Railroads were only in embryo, we will 
quote two or three facts, for the accuracy of which 
we have the authority of the Boston Daily Advertiser: 

"In 1827, when careful inquiries for ascertaining 
the amount of travel and transportation were made 
on the Providence and Western routes, preparatory 
to a determination of the question of the practica- 
bility of maintaining railroads, it was reported that 
the number of passengers conveyed in that year 
between Boston and Providence, by the Commer- 
cial and Citizens' daily line of stage coaches, was 
24,100; and that in the same year 1706 tons of 
merchandise were transported between the two cit- 
ies in baggage wagons, and 3400 tons in sea vessels 
passing round Cape Cod, a distance of 210 miles — ■ 
the distance by the turnpike road being but 42 
miles. Subsequently to the date of the opening of 
the Providence R. R., the travel and transportation 
on the line were a good deal increased beyond the 
above amounts. Much of the journeying through- 
out the Commonwealth was performed at that pe- 
riod in private carriages, instead of stage coaches, 
and a great part of the transportation of merchan- 
dise was done by teams specially employed for 
each job. The only inland navigation in the State 
was that of the Middlesex Canal, on which was a 
packet boat, which left Charlestown for Chelmsford 
every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, and re- 
turned on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; and 
at certain seasons considerable boating of heavy 
merchandise on the Connecticut River." 



100 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

. Wells, Fargo & Co. — The very extensive Cali- 
fornia Express establishment, now so well known 
throughout the civilized world as Wells, Fargo & 
Co., was commenced in New York in the spring of 
1852, by Henry Wells, W. Gr. Fargo, Johnston Liv- 
ingston, A. Reynolds, and E. B. Morgan. It was a 
joint-stock Company; capital $300,000, subsequent- 
ly increased from time to time to $600,000. Its 
original managers were E. B. Morgan, of Aurora, 
N. Y., President; James McKay, Secretary; John- 
ston Livingston, Treasurer. The other directors 
were A. Reynolds, Wm. G-. Fargo, Henry Wells, 
and E. P. Williams. Several of these gentlemen 
were prominent managers of the American Express 
Company, and the numerous offices of the latter 
Express were made use of to facilitate the business 
of Wells, Fargo & Co. — a very great advantage, and 
calculated to place the new California Express upon 
the footing of a long-established concern. W., F. 
& Co. began by reducing the price of express 
freight from this port to San Francisco, from sixty 
cents to forty cents per pound, and their competi- 
tors (who had been paid, in 1849 and ^50, as high 
as seventy-five cents per pound,) were compelled 
to do the same. 

The managers of the new company being ener- 
getic men, well known in New York for their re- 
sponsibility, and famihar with " all the ropes," soon 
succeeded in obtaining a large patronage in the city. 
Add to this what was sent in from the American 



JAMES A. CL.ARK, 

COMMISSION 

No. 39 ANN STREET, 




Constantly on hand or made to order, at short notice, every description of 

MANILLA., 

HARDWARE AND DRUGGISTS' PAPERS. 

ALSO, 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



N. B. — Cash paid for Rags, Rope, Waste Paper, and Old 

Bagging. 

100 



ASAHEL JONES, SAMUEL S. WHITE, 



ifntel IPtnots, 



658 BROADWAY, NEW YORK ; 

528 ARCH STREET, PHILADELPHIA j 
16 TREMONT ROW, BOSTON j 

102 RANDOLPH STREET, CHICAGO, HI. 

JOHN P. COHBAK, 

%iimq ^ i^mmstlk at f ato. 

Legal Business trsnsaeted in tlie Freneb, German and Spanish Langnageiy 

NOTARY PUBLIC OF ST. LOUIS COUNTY. 

Office South-^East cor. of 3d and market Street 9^ 



J m 



101 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 101 

Express offices in the West, and the reader will 
readily conceive that Wells, Fargo & Co. made a 
very prosperous beginning. About that time 
Adams & Co. removed to their present quarters, and 
Wells, Fargo & Co. located themselves in the old 
express premises, No. 16 Wall Street. J. McKay 
was the agent there; S. P. Carter and R. W. Wash- 
burn were the San Francisco agents. The latter 
gentleman, formerly a bank cashier in Syracuse, N. 
Y., now has charge of the Exchange department of 
the Company, in San Francisco. Wells, Fargo & 
Co. remained in Wall Street several years, and then 
removed to No. 82 Broadway, their present office. 

The original Board of Direction were succeeded 
by the following, viz: D. N. Barney, President; T. 
M. Janes, Treasurer: D. N. Barney, W. G. Fargo, 
Henry Wells, E. P. Williams, J. Livingston, Benj. 
P. Cheney, N. H. Stockwell, T. M. Janes, and Jas. 
McKay, Directors. Louis McLane, Jr., was ap- 
pointed to the responsible post of Agent in San 
Francisco. Up to that time, we believe, Wells, 
Fargo & Co. had not owned any lines in the inte- 
rior of California; but for the sake of greater secu- 
rity in the receipt and delivery of valuable parcels 
in places beyond San Francisco, they adopted the 
policy of buying out the local expresses in Califor- 
nia, or establishing new lines, which they gave in 
charge of their own agents. 

Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express lines within the 
limits of California have become very numerous, 



102 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

and radiate throughout the state. Under the su- 
pervision of Louis McLane, Jr., the experienced 
and judicious General Agent, and the immediate 
management of Samuel Knight, the very worthy and 
efficient Superintendent of the Express department, 
these interior expresses are admirably operated and 
rendered profitable. They are so many channels 
for the streams of gold dust which pour into the 
Company's coffers at San Francisco, and thence, in 
half-million shipments, twice a month, are consign- 
ed to the house in New York. The Company have 
quite a number of express offices in Oregon and on 
the South coast. They run, also, an express to 
Frazer River. 

Among the most useful and highly valued of the 
many employees who have distinguished themselves 
by their fidelity to Wells, Fargo & Co., in Califor- 
nia, besides those already mentioned, are G. W. 
Bell, Superintendent of the Express Package De- 
partment, J. J. Kelly, Henry Norton, A. B. McNiel, 
W. H. Simmons, J. M. Yansyckle, T. B. Anthony, 
and Edw. W. Tracy, Travelling Agent. The lat- 
ter gentleman, for several years the very popular 
and efficient Agent of Adams & Co., at Shasta, has 
two brothers, also, in Wells, Fargo & Co.'s employ, 
viz., Theodore F. and Felix Tracy. In an earlier 
part of this History, we have confounded the two, 
supposing Felix's first name to be Theodore. 

Wm. H. Harnden, a clerk in their San Fran- 
cisco office, is a son of The Original Expressman. 



THi p; 



I».A.TE:2>JT3ES3D 3VC.^^:£1.0X=C, 3.B58 



Complete— Price $40. 




Economical, portable, and durable, requiring only two horse-power to 
work it. The grinding part having six stationary and four movable plates, 
dressed or grooved on both sides like mill-stones, moving with an oscillating 
instead of rotary motion, thus obviating the objections to Cast Iron 
Rotary Mills; it grinds all kinds of grain, and makes good Meal from the 
hardest Corn at the rate of one bushel in eight minutes. Many kinds of 
grain it grinds much faster; it can be attached to any kind of power. Per- 
sons wanting a Good Miia to grind any kind of Grain, Plaster, Salt, Malt, 
Peas, Flaxseed, or for chopping Feed, will do well to examine this. It is 
the cheapest Mill ever made, considering capacity, simplicity, durability, 
and regularity of its grinding, not requiring a person understanding the art 
of grinding to use it. It grinds either coarse or fine. Examine one in use 
at 17 Spruce Street, N. Y., where all orders can be supplied. 

M. C. CHADWICK $c CO., 

17 Spruce Street, N. Y, 

Silver Medal awarded it at American Instituto, N. Y., as best Mill ex- 
hibited. 

102 



NASSAU WHITE LEAD 



AND 



mm® [p^affiOT M®KKga 



C. H. t( A. T. BAXTER ^ CO., 

No. 82 MAIDEN LANE, 



AND 



No. 19 CEDAR STREET, New York, 

Offer the Trade, on accommodating terms, the following Brands of 
in Oil of their own manufacture: 

Island City, ^ 

Premium Pure, 
Nassau, 

East Rirer, 

Ne^ York City, 

Western Empire, 

American Wliite Lead. 
Pore Vielle Montage French Zinc, 

Pure Penui and Lehigh and New Jersey Zinc* 

All Colors, Dry and in Oil ; also, a general assortment of 

AU GOODS WABBANTED TO GIVE SATISFACTIOB. 

103 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 103 

^'Old Block,^^ (Delano,) whose thrilling sketches of 
California Hfe, from 1849 to 1854, rendered him 
a prodigious favorite throughout the "diggins," 
after having served Wells, Fargo & Co. for a long 
time as messenger, and afterwards as a local agent, 
at length retired from the business, and settled 
down at Grass Yalley, where, in 1858, he was still 
residing. 

During three or four years past, Wells, Fargo & 
Co. have had offices of their own in the principal 
Atlantic cities, entirely independent of other Ex- 
press Companies. Aug. 2, 1858, they made a semi- 
annual dividend of five per cent., and the annual 
exhibit of their Treasurer showed the amount of 
gold transported by this Company over the various 
lines within the State of California, during the year 
ending Dec. 31, 1857, to have exceeded fifty-nine 
millions eight hundred and eighty-four thousand 
dollars. Their ocean transportation of the precious 
metal must have been about nine milHons of dollars. 

The New York office of this immense business is 
remarkable for the thoroughness of its details and 
the superiority of its management. The same, we 
are told, may be said with truth of the San Fran- 
cisco office. 

In a Supplement to this work, we shall publish 
a Gazetteer of express towns, in which will be in- 
cluded a list of the offices of Wells, Fargo & Co., 
and the other places in California to which they 
forward. 



104 EXPRESS HISTOEY. 

The United States Express Company. — The 
present Company bearing this name (another, it will 
be remembered, had been previously merged in the 
American Express Company,) was organized in 
1854, with the view of doing a Western business 
over the N*. Y. & Erie Railroad. Its capital stock 
is $500,000. D. N. Barney is its President; H. 
Kip its Superintendent; and Theo. B. Marsh its 
Treasurer. This well-conducted Express has about 
200 agencies, and many employees worthy of par- 
ticular mention for their fidelity and untiring ser- 
vice. Its field of operations includes the most re- 
mote settlements in the Western country. It is 
very prompt in delivery, and its rates are low. T. 
B. Marsh, who has acted, at No. 82 Broadway, as 
its New York agent for several years past, to the 
entire satisfaction of the Directors and the public, 
was for some time previously one of the most valu- 
able men in the American Express business. In 
his excellent, well-managed office he is assisted by 
W. H. Murphy, and several other efficient men. 
Myron E. Cole, at Elkhart, is one of the many 
agents of this Company. H. Kip, the Superintend- 
ent, resides at Buffalo, where he has long enjoyed 
an enviable reputation as an express manager. He 
has been in the business since 1846, being about 
that time a pioneer expressman in the Western 
Express of Livingston & Fargo. 

A material addition has been made to the U. S. 
Express business lately. 



A. L, STIISON, 



^Jm 



AND 



No. 77 Cedar Street, New York, 

WILL BITY AND SELL 

^Mm i\mm m^m^m mm 



to order, aud purchase and forward 

i iiiiilES, 



Farming Implements, &e, 



when wanted. 



He also gives attention to the sale of consignments of 

PEACHES, PBIRS, APPLES, AND OTHER FRUIT, 



FOR CASH. 
104 



ii PMS Ai lIM iS. 

320 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

ADAMS' EXPRESS BUILDINGS, 

For supplying the Trade with Newspapers, Magazines, Cheap Publications, 
&c. Orders from Booksellers, Postmasters, and Newsmen, attended to 
with promptness and dispatch. 

Subscriptions received for Newspapers and Magazines, American and 
Foreign. Trade Lists supplied. 




Samuel Lover's Book of Irish 

Songs 12 

The Shilling Song Book, 175 

Songs 12 

Berry's Comic Songs 12 

Johnson's " 12 

Wood's Minstrels' Songs 12 

Wood's Plantation " 12 

Bryant's Old Virginia Songster 12 

" Power of Music 12 

Burnt Cork Songster 12 

Mat Peel's Melodies 12 

Charley White's Bijou Songster 1 2 

" Ethiopian " 12 



Gus Shaw's Comic Songs. 
" New Comic . . 

Pete Morris' Comic 

Charley Foxe's Bijou 

Sharpley's Sable Songster . 
Boyd and Enoch's Songs . 



CT3. 

12 
12 
12 
12 
6 
6 



Dixey's Essence of Burnt Cork 12 

George Christie's Joke Book. . 12 

The Magic Oracle 12 

Charley White's Joke Book. . 12 

Wy man's Hand Book of Magic 12 

Wizard's Book of Conundrums 12 



The Trade supplied at a liberal discount. 
COPIES MAILED (Post Paid) ON RECEIPT OF THE PRICE. 

A. WINCH, 

390 €he§tniit Street, Philadelphia, 

Adams' Express Buildings. 

105 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 105 

The N. Y. & Erie R. R. Co., in 1854 or '55, de- 
cided to do the Express business on their route 
themselves, and did so, accordingly; making H. D. 
Rice, (since deceased,) its Superintendent. The ex- 
periment, however, as might have been expected 
by any one entirely familiar with the details of ex- 
press business, was not destined to be successful, 
although managed during the last year or two by 
a very able man, to the best of his ability. The 
liability of their Express to make good any loss of 
money parcels intrusted to it for conveyance, be- 
came a cause of serious concern to many of the N. 
Y. & Erie R. R. stockholders, and finally, the Di- 
rectors determined to give it up and stick to their 
legitimate business. Accordingly, on the first of 
August, 1858, their Express was transferred to the 
United States Express Company, by whom it is 
now operated in connection with their Western 
lines. An experienced expressman, C. A. De Witt, 
is Superintendent of the Erie R. R. Division. 

Howard & Co.'s Express, Philadelphia. — We 
have before referred to N. G. Howard, as the Agent 
of Harnden & Co., at Albany, N. Y., in the summer 
of 1842. In the following year, he became associ- 
ated with E. C. Bailey, a very worthy and enter- 
prising young man from Boston, under the style of 
Bailey & Howard. B. had a warm personal friend 
in Nat. Greene, who was then in the firm of Harn- 
den & Co. Owing to his variance with Henry Wells, 

12* 



106 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

in 1843, to which allusion has already been made 
in our history of him, Harnden was desirous of ' * con- 
necting," at Albany, with some other Express than 
Pomeroy & Co/s; and it was at his instigation that 
Bailey k Howard attempted to establish an Express 
line to Buffalo in competition with that successful 
concern. B. & H. soon dissolved their co-partner- 
ehip, and Bailey returned to the Boston Post Office, 
where, a few years later, he became Postmaster ; 
and so continued, to the entire satisfaction of the 
merchants and citizens, until he resigned in 1857, 
to make room for Nahum Capen. He is now editor 
and proprietor of a penny newspaper of large cir- 
culation and influence — The Boston Daily Herald. 

Shortly after abandoning his Albany and Buff'alo 
enterprise, Howard joined E. H. Virgil in running 
an express between Albany and Montreal; but this, 
too, was up-hill work, and having, in the spring of 
1844, a good offer from Harnden, he went to Phil- 
adelphia and took charge of Harnden & Co.'s Ex- 
press in that city. 

The Pottsville and Reading Express, via Phila- 
delphia and Reading R. R., was commenced by 
Livingston, Howard k Co. shortly after this. A few 
years alter, E. W. Earl, of Reading, Pa., purchased 
an interest, and the firm became Howard, Earl & Co. 
The business was under the immediate superintend- 
ance of one of the partners at each principal place; 
Howard, at Philadelphia; Earl, at Reading; and R. 
F. Weaver, at Pottsville. 




HENRY WELLS, 

PRBSIDBNT OF THB AMBRICAN BXPRBSS COMPANY. 



LYON & BROWN, 

Importers, Manufacturers and Dealers in 

FRENCHAl AMERICAN WIIOWGLASS, 




WHITE LEAD, ZINC PAINTS, 

CHROME AND PARIS GREENS, ' 

1 SlillRf EilTIii MB. 

VANDYKE BROT^N, 

And a full assortment of 
Also, 

Glaziers' Diamond^ Ground, Colored and Enamelled Glasst 

jj^* Glass cut and packed free of charge. 
All orders executed with accuracy and dispatch. Send for a circular con- 
taining prices. 

171 Duane Street, New York. 

106 




NORWICH, CONN. 




MANUFACTURERS OF THE 



IMPROVED CMDiR CARTRIDGI FISW, 

URGE SINGLE CARTRIDGE PISTOL. 

Small Single Cartridge pistol 



These Arms are the most perfectly finished and complete in all respects 
of any ever offered to the public. 

The Company would particularly call attention to their Improved 
Cylinder Cartridge Pistol, an arm which is admitted to be unrivalled for 
accuracy of aim, length of range, durability, and convenience for prompt 
and effectual use. 

107 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 107 

In January, 1854, Earl disposed of his interest 
to the remaining partners, and the firm became 
Howard & Co. In November, 1854, the Catawissa, 
WiUiamsport and Erie, and the Williamsport and 
Elmira Railroads formed a connection with the Phila- 
delphia and Reading R. R. at Port Clinton, and How- 
ard & Co.'s Express ran through to Elmira, N. Y., 
daily; there, forming a connection with the Ameri- 
can Express Co., and opening a new and more direct 
route from Philadelphia to the Northwestern States. 

Howard & Co.'s Easton Express was commenced 
on the completion of the Belvidere and Delaware 
Railroad to Lambertville, N. J., and thence by 
wagons to Easton, a distance of 36 miles. The 
Railroad being gradually opened, the distance for 
wagoning was lessened, until, in the latter part oi 
the year 1853, the Belvidere and Delaware Rail- 
road was completed to Phillipsburg, (opposite Eas- 
ton). The Express was then run to Easton entirely 
by Railroad. The firm was represented by N. G. 
Howard and A. L. Randall, at Philadelphia, and 
John Smylie, Jr., at Easton. At this time the Le- 
high Valley Railroad was being constructed, and 
Howard & Co. placed their teams on the route from 
Easton to Mauch Chunk. In 1855, the Lehigh Val- 
ley Railroad being completed, the Express was run 
through from Philadelphia to Mauch Chunk by Rail- 
road. 

Howard died of consumption in 1859. F. Love- 
joy is the Superintendent. 



108 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

The Howard Express Company (P. Janney, Phila. 
Agent,) is another institution, having its headquar- 
ters in the same office in Philadelphia with the 
Harnden and Howard & Co., where Geo. R. Dunn 
is general agent of all three. F. A. Phillips is 
chief clerk. 

Edwards, Sanford & Co's European Express, 
favorably known for a few years prior to 1855, be- 
came in that year, by a union with Livingston, Wells 
& Co., "the American-European," under the man- 
agement of H. S. Lansing. Subsequently the style 
was changed to H. S. Lansing & Co. This firm 
abandoned the business a year or two ago. 

W. Williams & Co's European Express, now in 
successful operation, was established in 1854. His 
Agent in Boston, W. H. Pillow, an active and re- 
liable business man, is, like Williams, a native of 
England. He is also engaged in the Custom House 
Brokerage business, being one of the firm of John 
K. Stimson & Co., in that city. 

The Globe Express, at 28 Broad Street, corner 
of Exchange Place, was established by L. W. Mor- 
ris, on the 1st of May, 1859, as a transatlantic line. 
It carries to all parts of Europe, and to foreign 
countries generally. Morris, the proprietor, has 
long been in the shipping and forwarding business, 
both in Europe and in this country. 



WHEELER & DIXON, 



TEACHERS OF 



xuiml ^oflk-^ujing, 



T^O. 83S 



Corner of 13th Street, 



A. H. WHEELER. } ^^^\|®^\B^® 



HIRAM DIXON & SON, 



luMir l^xauiitatits 



AND TRADE ASSIGNEES, 
Nos. 59 ANJ) 835 Broadway, 



108 



AUSERT H. NICOLA7, 

|^ttctifln«r t!^ ^kk §rokr, 

No. 52 William Street, 

Near Wall Street, SIW ?dBS. 



REGULAR AUCTION SALES 



OF 



STOCKS AND BONDS, 




EVERY 

Monday and Thursday, 

(Which have been the regular established days of sale for many years), or 
every day, whenever required, at 12 J o'clock, at the Stock Sales Room, 
No. 62 William Street, or at the Merchants' Exchange, as desired. 
Stocks and Bonds bought and sold at private sale, and at the Brokers^ 
Board. Interest allowed on deposits and dividends collected; also, Real 
Estate at public and private sale. 

109 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 109 

The European Agents do not only forward par- 
cels and Express packages, but are, at the same 
time, Shipping Agents of merchandise, at current 
rates to this country, by either steamer or sailing 
vessel, according to instructions. Upon arrival, 
the packages are cleared at the New York Custom 
House by the Globe Express, and forwarded to des- 
tination, for ordinary commissions only. 

A particular feature of this establishment is the 
attention it pays to the Passage business. 

The Globe has arrangements with almost all the 
Steamships and Sailing Packet Lines between this 
country and Europe, and with the different Rail- 
road Companies to the interior, and is thus enabled 
to bring passengers from any place in Europe to 
any destination in the United States, at Companies^ 
rates, safely, and unmolested by runners. 

Passengers to California and to Europe are also 
taken care of by the Express, and berths provided 
for them in advance of their coming to New York. 

Jones' New Orleans and Texas Express is 
owned and conducted by Starr S. Jones, who has 
been located at Galveston and New Orleans for 
several years past, and is very favorably known in 
that quarter. He dispatches his freight once or 
twice a week from New Orleans to Galveston, per 
steamship, and forwards packages for the interior 
by steamboats and the most available conveyances. 
The business of his line is conducted with com- 
mendable regularity and method. 



110 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

There are in New England numerous small indi- 
vidual expresses, some of them of many years' 
standing and very useful. There are some of more 
note, which we will very briefly mention. 

The Earle Express Company, whose headquar- 
ters are at Boston and Providence, R. I., is a con- 
solidation of several long-established local con- 
cerns. B. D. & L. B. Earle, pioneers of the Ex- 
press business in Rhode Island, were formerly bank 
messengers, and went over the route daily in that 
capacity, from the time that the B. & P. R. R. was 
opened, (1835,) until they started what they called 
Earle's Express. It has always been a prompt, 
responsible and reliable concern. The present 
Company include in their line of operations, also, 
a line between Providence, Warren, and Bristol, 
R. I.; and another between Providence, Stonington 
and New London, Conn. 

Osgood's Express operates efficiently on the 
route between Providence and Worcester, Mass., 
where J. H. Osgood, a very capable and experi- 
enced general express agent, is its manager. 

Hatch, Gray & Co's Express, from Boston to 
New Bedford and Martha's Vineyard, was com- 
menced in 1840, by that energetic and wide-awake 
local celebrity, Col. A. D. Hatch, of New Bedford. 
The terminus of his route at that time was Nan- 
tucket. The New Bedford and Taunton Branch 



EDWARD EARLB. T. K. EARLR 

T. K. EARLE & CO., 

WORCESTER CARD-CLOTHING & BELT MAIFICTORY, 

GILATTOIO' STREXST, 

Near the Western Railway Depot, WORCESTER, MASS. 



MANUFACTURERS OP ALL KINDS OP 



COTTON AND TXTOOLLEN 

Of the best quality, from Leather and all varieties of Cloth used for that purpose. 

Angular Wire Cards for Tnmhiers, Icaders-in, and Feed Rolls; also, a very coarse 

article for Carding Waste, Old Rags, &c.; Doffer Rings of the most 

perfect qnality; also, the most approved Napper Cards, 

In connection with the above, they are manufacturinpj all kinds of 

OAE-TANNED LEATHER BELTING 

Of the very best quality; Covering Feed Rolls, Buff-Wheels, Pulleys; makliig^ all 
kinds of Loom Straps for manufacturers' use, &c. 

They have received Medals from all the principal Fairs ia the country, as also one 
from the World's Exhibition, held at London, 1851. 

These awards of excellence, together with a steady and constant increase of busi- 
ness, {which is the true test.) have led them to build a new and commodious Factory, 
and to increase their Machinery, so as to make their Establishment the most perfect 
one of the kind in the world; and they are therefore prepared to execute all orders 
with promptness, and in the most perfect manner. 



ANDREWS & JESUP, Agents, 

]¥EW YORK CITY, 



I^EFEI^ElSrCES 



NouKSK, Mason & Co., " 

Fox h Rice, 

Daxiel Tainter, f Worcester, Mass. 

F. WiLLARB & Co.. 

H. N. BiGELOW, Clinton, Mass. 
J. H. SiocKTO.v & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. F. Tow.vKR k Co., Baltimore, Md. 
Waterman Smitu, Manchester, N. H. 



John Gardner, Boston, Mass. 

W. A. Robinson & Co., Providence, R. I. 

J. L. SLOCUM, if :::i.r U. 

Edward Harris, Woonsocket^. .-: ,•; v" i 

J. W. Andrews & Co., 'I 

Murray & Davis. ^New York. 

Charles W. Hoi.brook,J 

L. S. Hargocs. Vera Cruz, Mexico. 



110 



^ 



d^ 



.^0 x^^'^^^'^^ oo^ 



NEW VORK CtTV, 

JTo. 18 W\a£,Ij STKEET. 



<^ 



> 



OASH OAI>ITA.I., S250,000, 

With a large and accumulating Surplus. 



FIRE INSURANCE IN ALL ITS BRANCHES. 



Taken upon Hulls and Cargoes, upon the Lakes, Rivers and Canals. 



OPEN POLICIES ISSUED TO COVER SHIPMENTS MADE BY FORWARDERS. 

RICHARD A. OAKL.EY, Secretary. 

AliBERT IVARD, President. 



BRANCH OFFICE, A. T. CO., No. 7 Coenties SHp. 

XS. lux. CAXiEB, USarine Inspector. 



DIRECTORS: 



Hetky GmsyHix, 

Caleb Barstow, President St. Nicholas Bank. 

Edmund Pknfold, firm of Penfold, Schuyler & Co. 

Hanson K. Corning, 

OODKN Haggertt, " Haggerty & Co. 

Thomas Monahan, President Fulton Bank. 

Albbrt Ward, 

Chas. Easton, firm of Eastons, Cahoone & Kinney. 

L. L. Sturgbs, firm of Sturges, Clearman & Co. 



W. R. & C. B. Fosdick. 
W. W. De Forest & Co. 
Thayer, Denning & Co. 
Taylor, Hubbell & Co. 



Wm. R. Fosdick, «' 

Gko. F. Thomab, " 

Embrt Thatkr, " 

Zalmon Tatlob, ** 

BiNj. F. Wardwell, 

Louis Lorut, firm of Louis Lorut. 

A. R. Frothingham, 

Thomas F. Youngs, firm of Youngs & Co. 

Sam'l L. MrrcHiLL,' ♦ * Sam'l L. MitchiU & Co. 



Joshua L. Popb, firm of 
RuFus R. Graves, " 
Henry Davis, " 

Hknry K. Bogkrt, " 
Samuel G. Gliddkn, " 
Stephen Cambrelkno, 
Thomas Scott, " 

ABM. R. Van Nest, " 
Wm. a. Sale, " 

La WHENCE TURNURE, " 

Daniel G. Bacon, " 
WiLUAM H. Gary, *' 

Theo. Polhkmus, Jr., " 
Elisha K. Morgan, " 
Thomas S. Nelson, " 
Henry G. Eilshemius, 
William E. Shsfabd. 



Barstow & Pope. 
R. R. Graves* Co. 
Davis, Morris k Co. 
Bogert & Kneeland. 
J. 0. Baker k Co. 
Lawyer. 
Thomas Scott. 
A.R. VanNest&Co. 
Wm. A. Sale &Co. 
Moses Taylor & Co. 

D. G. & W. B. Bacon. 
Gary, Howard, Sanger 

[& Co. 
Fox & Polhemus. 

E. E. Morgan k Co. 
Holbrook & Nelson. 



Ill 



EXPRESS HISTORY. Ill 

Railroad had just been put into operation. The 
stage-drivers whom it deprived of business, ob- 
tained situations upon the Railroad as conductors 
and brakemen. The lines of stages thus broken 
up were owned by Elias Sampson k Co. and 
Jesse Smith. Sampson soon added his strength to 
Hatch's, and (in 1843, we think it was,) the firm 
became Hatch & Co. 

Col. Hatch acted as his own messenger for several 
years, at any rate, and still does so, we think. 
Rapid in his movements, zealous in everything he 
undertook, and thoroughly experienced as a man 
of business, he accomplished more work than half 
a dozen ordinary employees could have done, and, 
in the face of much discouragement, established his 
Express upon a durable foundation. 

FiSKE & Co.'s Express had its head-quarters in 
the Railroad Exchange Building, which forms upon 
Court Square, the rear of the admirable Museum 
edifice, owned by David and Moses Kimball. The 
premises were originally leased by Benjamin F. 
Cheney, of Cheney & Co.'s Express, for the accom- 
modation of his own, and numerous local Express- 
es, and under his judicious management it became 
a sort of Express Arcade. 

The founder of Fiske & Co.'s business was L. 
Bigelow, who had a contract for express facilities 
upon the Boston and Fitchburg, Mass., Railroad, 
and Worcester and Nashua Railroad, as early as 



112 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

July, 1848, and this was continued until March let, 
1851, when Bigelow having sold out to them, Fiske 
& Rice obtained the same privileges. This was con- 
tinued until November 30th, 1854, when from the 
date of a new contract with the Worcester and 
Nashua Railroad, we find that the firm had been 
changed to Fiske & Co. That is still the style of 
it. Bigelow 's main route was from Boston to Bur- 
lington, Yt., and Montreal. When he commenced, 
the Worcester and Nashua Railroad was open only 
from Groton Junction to Clinton, Mass.: December 
18th, 1848, it was opened for travel the entire dis- 
tance from Worcester to Nashua; connecting at 
different points, upon the route, with the Boston 
and Fitchburg Railroad, and the Stony-Brook Rail- 
road. No better built railway was to be found in 
America, and the world could not show an avenue 
having a more picturesque and charming series of 
landscapes to pass through. Old travellers upon 
this route, before railways had been projected, will 
remember that its beautiful scenery well repaid the 
labor of a long coach-ride. The numerous ever- 
lasting hills which Genery Twichell and John C. 
Stiles tried, and not in vain, to make easy with 
their fine teams and stages, and entertaining talk, 
are now circumvented of all their difficulties by 
the Worcester and Nashua Railroad. The gratified 
traveller, skimming along at the rate of 25 or 30 
miles an hour, sees only the agreeable side of them, 
with the verdant meadows at their feet, intersected 



^ "^^ 445, 447 and 449 ^'^ 

"^ FIRST AVENUE, ^ 

Cor. Enst 2Tth Street, ]¥E1V YORK CITY. 



This establishment presents to Builders superior advantages over any other; 
here they can obtain at all times an assortment of 

Seasoned Lumber, White Pine, Spruce, Hemlock, 

AND A STOCK OF 

w^iLaiii, mmm Mm mum mm mmm. 

The stock of finished 

WOOD MOULDINGS 

is of the best (|iiality of seasoned Pine, and embraces over 600 patterns. 



9 

of any style, worked to order, at short notice. 

Sash, Blinds and Doors 

on hand and made to order with dispatch. The friends of H. V. 
Mandeville will find hira here, ready to fill any 
orders they may favor him with. 

J. F. CUNNINGHAM, 

Proprietor* 

112 



PATENT 





I MtBf 



SECURED WITH THE BEST 

PiWBli ill Mlli.il^"'**^™'^ ■ 



If&'AI 



IB. C3-. -V^IHiIDESn. dfc CO., 

AGENTS FOR THE PATENTEE AND MANUFACTURERS, 

DEPOT, 191 BKOAD^VAY, cor. of DEY ST., New Voik, 



197 SOUTH WATER STREET, Chicago, 111. 
Cflanufactory^ Third •Ivenue, cor. l^th Street, JSrooklyn. 



NoTiCK.— This celebrated Fire-rroof Safe is no longer made and sold by Silas C. Herring, his licen.>e 
having expired. 

CAUTION TO THE PUBLIC. 



The world-wide reputation ol" the WILDER PATENT SALAMANDER FIRE- 
PROOF SAFE has led other Safe Makers in this City to taf>e withmit aiUhurity 
the name of " WILDER,"' to help them to dispose of their WORTHLESS TRASH . 
and to impose upon the community. That we may not be misunderstood, we would 
state that the 7iame of the firm above alluded to is TILTON & McFARLAND, and 
that their place of business is at No. 26 Cedar Stubet, in the City of New York. 
The Safes are generally disposed of through third parties, who are irresponsible. 

WE CAUTION THE PUBLIC to be on their guard when purchasing Safes, as 
the celebrated 



WILDER PATENT SALAMANDER SAFE 



Known to be the great Fire-Proof Safe of the World, IS MARKED -WILDER'S 
PATENT," and is for sale only by 

Messrs. STEARNS & MARVIN, No. 40 Murray Street, 
Messrs. QUIRK BROTHERS, No. 98 Maiden Lane, 

And at our Warehouse, Wo. 191 BROAD VTA V, corner of Dey Street, 
New York, where a full assortment can always be found. 

B. O. WIIiDJCR & CO. 

113 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 1 1 (J 

by babbling brooks and still rivers. And now, in 
place of those admirable stage-men, who gave such 
a dignity and popularity to their calling in that 
olden time, we have conductors, Lyman Brooks 
and Aaron King, whose care and attention to the 
accommodation of travellers are no less than theirs. 
For many years those gentlemen have been serv- 
ing the public upon this admirably-managed road, 
" winning golden opinions from all sorts of people,'' 
by their uniformly agreeable and correct deport- 
ment. Lyman Brooks has been upon this Railroad 
from the commencement. G. W. Bentley, the su- 
perintendent of the Worcester and Nashua Rail- 
road, became connected with its direction in 1849, 
and has labored zealously ever since, to promote 
its popularity and increase its revenue. The clean- 
liness of the cars, the neatness and orderly system 
of the offices, and the thorough repair in which the 
track and rolling-stock are kept, speak his praises 
louder than words can do. J. G. Stiles, to whom 
we have alluded, is now superintendent of one of 
the Horse Railroads, in Boston. 

The original Worcester Expressman was S. S. 
Leonard. He started it as long ago as 1840; pass- 
ing, as his own messenger, over the Boston and 
Worcester Railroad twice a day. Fuller, a con- 
ductor upon the Worcester and Norwich Rail- 
road, (we learn from Albert Roath, one of the best 
conductors ever upon that route,) did a kind of 
Express service about the same time, between the 

13 



114 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

two latter cities. Fuller^s Express is now well 
known. 

Benjamin P. Cheney, since famous in the East as 
an Express pioneer and proprietor, was formerly a 
stage-driver. Cheney & Co's express lines are very 
useful in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont; as those of the Hope Express are in New 
Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania. 

Pullen & Co's Harlem R. R. Express, No. 2 Tryon 
Row, was originated by E. T. Dudley in 1850. In 
1858, after passing through divers hands, it became 
the property of Pullen & Co. It is ably conducted 
by Fred. T. Pullen, a son of the veteran Major J. 
A. Pullen. The line is upwards of 130 miles in 
extent, and includes about seventy places of deliv- 
ery en route. 

Brees & Co^s line, founded by Bailey Brees, in 
1855, and now conducted by his son, Stephen B. 
Brees, extends from this city to Hackettstown, N. 
J., over the Morris & Essex R. R., and by the Sus- 
sex R. R. to Newton, N. J. 

The Baggage Express business was originated by 
Arnoux. Warren Studley, in 1852, made it quite 
an institution, for the accommodation of the pas- 
sengers of the N. Y. and N. Haven R. R. He now 
employs many elegant wagons. Every large city 
in this country now has its baggage expresses. The 
charge for the transportation of baggage between 
the railroad depots and hotels, or other residences 
in the corporation limits, is 25 cents per package. 




IUb 



f iiii 1^ ^if n 




MANUFACTURED BY 



FHIUDELPHIA, FA, 



The Celebrated Elliptic Lock Stitch and Improved Shuttle Sew- 
ing Machines 

manufactured by this House are sold by their Agents in every large city and town 
in America, and they are 

WARRANTED TO EVERY PURCHASER !!!! 

They have been tested in the most thorough manner, and the manufacturers having 
in every case defeated competition, 

Challenge the World 

to produce their equal in the rapidity and beauty of execution, the elegance of work 
upon all fabrics, and in their simplicity of construction and ease of operation; and 
they further claim for them, that in all the Sewing Machines now before the people, 
they are universally admitted THE NEATEST ! THE CHEAPEST ! ! THE 
BEST!!! 

No. 1129 Beach Street, 

PHIIiAD£LPHIA. 

lU 



W. p. UHLINGER & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF ALL KIXDS OF 




o y 

OFFISE m^ SALESROOM, 
628 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Our LOOP-STITCH SEWING MACHINES have now been before the public some 

years, and have established a reputation for themselves wherever 

they have been introduced. The three qualities, 



Simplicity, Durability and Cheapness 



requisite for a FIRST-CLASS SEWING MACHINE, have been combined in ours, 

which all those using them will admit. They are adapted to all kinds 

of work, whether for Private F.\miues or Maxufactcreiw. 

Of late we have also commenced to manufacture 

Wm\i UR lOCKSTITOH MACHii. 

in order to offer our customers every variety of Sewing Machines; and we can say 
without boasting, that we have succeeded in producing one that has been pronounced 
by COMPETENT JUDGES the MOST PERFECT Sewing MACHINE cvcr invented. 

MANUFACTURERS;OF LEATHER WORK 

will please notice that we guarantee this Machine to be better adapted for Leather 
Work than any other Sewing Machine. Finer grades of sewing it will do equally 
as weU. 

For further particulars, please address as above. A few 
Agencies open yet in different parts of the Unioui 

W. p. Uhlinger & Co. Hermann Albrecht. 

115 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 115 

The Baggage Express has a contract for exclusive 
privileges on the railroad with which it connects, 
and on every train has a messenger, who applies 
to each passenger just before the cars reach their 
destination, and receives bis checks and orders as 
to the delivery of his trunks, &c. The customer 
then has no further care in the matter, but as soon 
as he arrives may proceed directly to his residence 
or hotel, with the assurance that his baggage will 
follow him in quick time and good order. By this 
means the hackney-coach nuisance is almost en- 
tirely abated, and we rarely hear now of imposi- 
tions by drivers upon passengers. 

The Manhattan Express Company (Westcott, 
Dodd & Co., Proprietors,) has its main office at 'No. 
168 Broadway, but it is in fact almost ubiquitous 
on this great little island of Manhattan, as well as 
in the neighboring cities, which its numerous hand- 
some green wagons, lettered in gold, and drawn 
by some of the best horses in the world, are con- 
stantly traversing, for the delivery and collection 
of baggage and other packages. 

This Company, now so extensive and invaluable 
in its metropolitan operations, had its origin in the 
smallest possible beginning. It was commenced in 
1851 by Robert F. Westcott, (now the senior mem- 
ber of the prosperous and enterprising firm of 
Westcott, Dodd & Co.,) with a single horse and 
wagon. In 1855, A. S. Dodd, at that time con- 
nected with the National Express Company, and 



116 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

principal manager of the New Jersey Express Com- 
pany, became associated with him in his city ex- 
press business, at which time Westcott had largely 
increased his operations. He foresaw that a grand 
business might be made, with the aid of judicious 
headwork and more capital, and was fortunate in 
securing both. ■ It was known for a time as the 
Westcott Express, but on account of a consolida- 
tion and new organization, it assumed in 1858 the 
style of "The Manhattan Express Company." 

Westcott, Dodd & Co. have at present 50 branch 
offices throughout the cities of New York, Brook- 
lyn, Williamsburgh, Jersey City, Hoboken, Staten 
Island, and at Long Branch. Their wagons make 
delivery every two hours. The Manhattan Com- 
pany's Baggage Agents may always be found upon 
the trains of the Hudson River Railroad, the New 
York and Erie Railroad, the New Jersey Railroad, 
and the New Jersey Central Railroad; the Long 
Branch line, the North River boats Thomas Pow- 
ell and Daniel Drew, the Norwich and Worcester 
line for Boston, and the New Haven steamboats 
Elm City and Traveler; also upon the New York 
and Savannah steamers, Mitchill line and Crom- 
well line, the Central Railroad of Georgia, and 
Florida steamboats. 

To render the operation of their various lines 
and fifty offices entirely perfect, the Manhattan 
Express Company now use, between their distant 
offices in the metropolis, a Telegraph, by means of 



STUART & PETERSON 



MANUFACTUKE 



Cooking aiiir lark ^taks, 



TINNED IRON HOLLOW^ WARE, 




Turned Iron Hollow Ware, 
Plain Iron Hollow Ware, 
Heavy Iron Hollow Ware, 



Ia m 



MISCilili/iMOOS HARBWARi GOODS, 

mn%, i®l AHi MEAL illLLi, 

13th and Willow Streets, 

PHILADELPHIA, 



116 



STIMSON, YALENTINE & CO., 




FaCIOKT, KlV£Kt3IUB, fiRIGHTON. 



Stuks, 30 Isdul Strekt. 



COACH-MAKERS' VARfilSH km JAPAN, 

Fnrniture-Manufactnrers', Painters', and Builders' Matnred Varnishes, 

of finest quality, luit&ble for the Home, Tropical, and ail Foreign Markets. 



IfHlTE COACH BODY, 
BEST WEARING BODY, 
RAIL ROAD CAR, 
ELASTIC COACH BODY, 

A. G. STIMSON, 



IMPERIAL COACH BODY, 
CARRIAGE FINISHING, 
BODY FINISHING, 



LIGHT RUBBING, 
No. 1 COACH, 
ENAMEL LEATHER, 
IMPERL^ COACH JAPAN. 



L. VALENTINE, H. C. VALENTINE. 



" 7%« New York Coach-Makers^ Magazine,^ in the course of a long article 
upon the manufacture of Yarnishes, devotes considerable space to a notice 
of Stimson, Valentine & Go's extensive and flourishing factory, near Bos- 
ton, where a celebrated Newark Varnish maker, Mr. John Babcock, is the 
chief operator and superintendent. The Magazine closes by saying: 

" This firm do a large business in the common grades of Varnish. Their 
* Rail Road Car Varnish ' is preferred to the best of English. Their Piano- 
polishing and flowing Varnishes are used all over the country. Their sup- 
ply of stock and tools used by both house and carriage painters is equal in 
<juality and quantity to any other House in New England. An abundance 
of testimonials are shown to the visitor, all speaking highly of the quality of 
their varnishes; and a majority of these are from men occupying the prin- 
cipal stations in the most noted carriage shops of Boston, New Haven, and 
other places. They have every advantage over competition, the senior mem- 
ber having been engaged in the business nearly 30 years, and, until they 
lately moved, had been located in one store 27 years, and that the oldest in 
New England in the trade. They have spent a fortune in bringing their 
establishment to its present perfection, and are now reaping the fruits of a 
long and faithful service devoted to the interests and advantage of their 
nu icrous patrons." 

118 



EDWARD A. WARNE, 



IMPORTER AND MANUFACTURER OF 





- M m, 




35 South Third St., above Chestnut, 



THOMPSON, RICHARDSON & CO., 

nxAsruFACTuxizsRs or 

<JOLD JEWELRY, 

No. 35 South Third Street, 



Address 

EDAv^RD A.. 'wajrn:e. 



Agent. 



118 



IMPROVED 



i?^ 




112 SOUTH THIRD STREET, 
PHIL.ADEJLFIIIA. 



E 



9 



Having been successfully engaged in the GIFT BOOK TRADE since 
1854, I have had ample opportunity to perfect my business in all its de- 
tails. 

By selling immense numbers of Books, I have been able to buy at the 
very lowest prices. 

Experience has proved that the greatest liberality induces the greatest 
trade, and it is a matter of fad that the 

^^§«^ %^^^^«^^ m ^'\m^ 

secure a continuance of patronage. 

MY SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION has been perfected, so as to al. 
low the largest possible per centage for Gifts; and by this system, the 
largest gifts, such as 

ioIt( anb Sillier ^att|{s, art as sure to k §istril)«felr 

as the smaller gifts. This fact is worthy of the consideration of those who 
may have come to the conclusion that all gift euterprises forget this part 
of the distribution. 

I save over $40,000 annually by making my Gift Book Store advertise- 
ments short and to the point, and this amount is added to the value of my 
Gifts. 

My terms to agents are not excelled, and my orders are filled with 
promptness, care, and impartiality. 

Express agents and all others interested will find it to their advantage 
to address me for further particulars. 

Address, R. MELVIN, 

BULLETIN BUILDING, 

112 South 3cl Street, Pliiladelphia, Pa. 

119 



APPENDIX. 



The Liability of Express Propuietors as Carriers. Some Important 
.Judicial Decisions in relation to it. Express Routine. Usefut. 
Hints to Express Employees. A mass of interesting and amusing 
Sketches and Anecdotes, illustrating Express and Railroad Pecu- 
liarities. Robberies of tub Express. 

Having given the history of the origin of Rail- 
roads in America, and the rise and progress of the 
Express business, it will be appropriate to devote 
the closing portion of the work to some mention of 
matters incidental to those institutions. Express 
affairs being the subject more especially under cont 
sideration, what we shall have to say now, will have 
particular reference to them. 

We propose to speak first upon a point of the 
last importance to Express proprietors, viz., their 
liability as Carriers; then of some interesting facts 
in Express routine, and afterwards devote about 40 
pages to curious and useful facts and entertaining 
sketches and anecdotes, illustrating the peculiarities 
of Express and Railroad life. 

The Liability of Expressmen as Carriers. 

For many years expressmen were universally 
regarded, not as '' Common Carriers," but as For- 



120 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

warders or Agents of those sending by :hem: hence 
the terms "Express Agents" and "Express For- 
warders." All that they promised, and all that 
was expected of them, was to use due diligence and 
fidelity in the execution of the business intrusted to 
them by their customers. If by storm or fire, or 
any accident beyond the control of themselves or 
their employees, any parcel or package in their 
charge was damaged, lost or destroyed, they were 
not held liable to make it good or pay for it. They 
held that the Railroad or Steamboat Company own- 
ing the cars or boats in which the goods were convey- 
ed, were common carriers; but expressmen were 
merely messengers. In one or two instances only, 
in the early stages of the Express business, was this 
position contested in a court of law. Of late years, 
there have been several cases of the kind, (to be 
quoted in the following pages,) but the instances 
are rare. 

Express proprietors are now beginning to regard 
themselves as carriers under special contract with 
their customers: that is to say, whenever they take 
a package or parcel for transportation, they give a 
receipt for it, in which they state precisely what 
they undertake to do with it, and the limit of their 
pecuniary liability in the case. 

The Adams Express, in receipting for a package, 
uses the simplest form possible, giving the marks 
of it, and specifying the value, if it is stated. The 
following printed clause is included in the receipt: 



GIFTS RARE AND BEAUTIFUL 

GIVEN INDISCRIMINATELY 

WITHOUT MONEY TO ALL PERSONS ORDERING BOOKS 

FROM 

CLARK'S 




No. 806 SPRING GARDEN STREET, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



This establishraeut is conducted on a scale of unsurpassed magnificence 
and liberality, 

AS THOUSANDS CAN TESTIFY, 

and universally acknowledged to be the most liberal and punctual Gift en- 
terprise in the United States. 

Copies of my new and Classified Catalogue of Books sent free to any 
address. 



IlSriDXJOE3Sd:E3SrTS- 

More liberal inducements are offered to agents than by any other simi- 
lar establishment in the United States. 

Agents wanted in every town in the United States. One trial will con- 
vince you that the best place to get your Books is at Clark's Gift Book 
Store and Publishing House, where you get a book worth the money in- 
vested and often a valuable gift, such as Gold and Silver Watches, Gold 
Lockets, Breast Pins, Ear Drops, Gold Pencils, Pens, Silk Dress Patterns, 
&c. «@* Send for a Catalogue. 

X>. -SAT. <DJLBjA:FLlES.y 

806 Spring Garden Street, 

PHILADELPHLi, Pi- 
120 



--, QUAKER CITY -- 



BOOKS. PHILADELPfflA. Pa. GIFTS. 



With Books of every standard Author, in all the departments of Literature, at Publishers' 
lowest prices, you will obtain 

Elegant Presents from the Quaker City Publishing House, Philadelphia. 

The oldest Publishing House in America conducting the Gift Book Business. 

A NEW AND ENUABGED LtST OF SPLENDID GIFTS, 

KMBRACINO 

VaUiable and appropriate GIFTS for MOTHERS. 
Valuable and appropriate GIFTS for FATHERS. 
Valuable and appropriate GIFTS for SISTECS. 

Valuable and appropriate GIFTS for BROTHERS. 

Valuable and appropriate GIFTS for SWEETHEARTS. 
Valuable and appropriate GIFTS for LOVERS. 
Valuable and appropriate GIFTS for WIVES. 

Valuable and appropriate GIFTS for HUSBANDS. 
This List will be sent free to all. Send for it. A new edition of the Quaker City Publish- 
ing House Catalogue has just been issued, comprising 

Ti if ME, m STMiO ME, Ti MlSmiilS WE, 

In all the departments of 

Not an exceptionable volume can be found in the entire Catalogue. It is richly worthy the 
attention of the Scholar and general reader, and is sent free to any address. Write for it. 

It contains books of 
HISTORY, TRAVEL. HUMOR. FACT. DEVOTION, 

BIOGRAPHY, POETRY, ADVENTURE, FICTION, AMUSEMENT. 

It contains books for Old and Young, Boys and Girls. Farmers and Mechanics, Merchants 
and Physicians, Lawyers and Statesmen, Soldiers and Sailoi-s. 

Remember that all books are sold as low as at any other establishment, and a handsome 
present accompanies each book sold. 

ALBUMS, of all sizes and styles, with splendid Engravings. 

PRESENTATION BOOKS, in every beautiful style of Binding. 
PRAYER BOOKS, Protestant and Catholic. 
HYMN BOOKS, of all denominations. 
POEMS, of all tbe authors. 

JUVENIl.E BOOKS, in almost endless variety. 
BIBLES, of all sizes and qualities. 
All sold at the lowest prices, and a beautiful gift presented with each book. 

The Quaker City Publishing House Guarantees the most Pcrfert Satisfaction 

to all of its patrons. 

BEAR IN MIND THAT you can order any books which are in print, and they will be fur- 
nished at the Publishers^ Prices, and promptly sent to any destination. 

MONEY MAY BE SENT AT OUR RISK, provided it is inclosed in presence of a reliable 
person and properly registered. But the best and safest mode is to remit by Draft on Phil- 
adelphia or New York, and made payable to my order. 

TO THOSE WHO WILL ACT AS AGENTS— Send for a Catalogue and private Circular, 
which contain inducements not to be excelled, if equaled, by any other establit.hment, with 
full directions and particulars. Address all orders to 

Proprietor of the Quaker Citj Publishing Ifonae, 

No. 33 South Third Street, Philadelphia, Pa* 
121 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 121 

" To be forwarded to only. 

It is further agreed, and is part of the consideration of this con- 
tract, that the ADAMS EXPftESS COMPANY are not to 
responsible, except as Forwarders, for any loss or damage 
arising from the dangers of Railroad, Steam, or River Naviga- 
tion, Leakage, Fire, or from any cause whatever, unless the same 
be proved to have occurred from the fraud or gross negligence of 
ourselves, our Agents or Servants; and we, in no event, to be lia- 
ble beyond our route, as herein receipted. Yalued under fifty 
DOLLARS, unless otherwise herein stated. All articles of glass 
will be taken at shippers' risk only, the Company refusing to be 
responsible for any injury by breakage or otherwise." 

The "American/' "United States," and "Nation- 
al" Express forms, instead of saying '' Received of, ^^ 

use the words " has delivered to us.''^ The 

American Express form contains the annexed 
clause, which does not vary materially from the 
above, except in the amount of Hability assumed. 
They 

" undertake to forward to or to 

our agency nearest or most convenient to destination only, perils 
of navigation and transportation excepted; and it is hereby ex- 
pressly AGREED, and IS PART OF THE CONSIDERATION OF THIS CON- 
TRACT, that the said AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY 
are not to be held liable for any loss or damage except as For- 
warders only; nor for any loss or damage of any box, package or 
thing for over one hundred and fifty dollars, unless the just 
and true value thereof is herein stated ; nor for any loss or dam- 
age by fire ; nor upon any property or thing unless properly packed 
and secured for transportation; nor upon fragile fabrics; nor upon 
any article consisting of or contained in glass. 

CONTENTS UNKNOWN." 

And such are the forms in common use. If the 
value of the package exceeds the sum mentioned 
in the regular printed form, the company is willing 
to assume the extra liability, but the amount must 



122 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

be written in the receipt by the company's agent 
or clerk, at the time. 

In case the article receipted for is a money par- 
cel, or negotiable paper, its envelope should be 
marked with its value, and sealed hy the person in- 
trusting it to the Express. This is an important 
precaution, both for the customer and the company. 

Insurance of packages is sometimes endorsed 
upon the receipt, when the customer orders it and 
pays the insurance premium; the Express Com- 
panies having what are well known as " Open Poli- 
cies" at the Insurance Offices, in which to enter the 
risks so assumed. 

Having premised thus much, to show the nature 
and extent of the responsibility assumed by the 
Express Companies in behalf of their customers, 
we will proceed to quote a few trials and decisions, 
to indicate the judicial view of Express Carriers' 
duties and liability: 

Russell & Annis v. Livingston & Wells. 

Where a package, delivered to common carriers for transportation 
along their route, on its way to a consignee upon a lateral 
route branching off from that of the carriers, is addressed to 
the care of the agent and representative of the carriers at the 
place where the carriage by them is to terminate, such address 
is to be regarded as a direction to have the package stopped at 
the place were such agent is in charge of the carriers' business, 
and does not import that upon receiving it he ceases to be the 
agent of the carriers in respect to its custody and becomes that 
of the consignee. 



FRAZIER, MILLS tc CO., 

Successors to Conrad & Frazier, 

MANUFACTURERS AND WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN 



iROBERlTS' PATENT 




iS^.E^^M^Ni^^EI^^OHBE. 




SUPERIOK I»i*LTENT 

mm nRBTCHEi leatbeii seits. 

FRAZIER'S PATENT RAW-HIDE BELT CLASPS, 

Hides, Leather and Findings, Lace Leathers, French and 
American Calf-Skins, 

184 State and 119 Front Streets, 



Wm, Frazier. 



G, D. Mills. 
122 



0. H. Whitmore. 





-titactmt lug ©I) 



n 



HARTFORD, CONN. 



ALBATA GERMAN SILVER 



AND 



iLif[i[a=^L^Tii) wm 



SAMPLE ROOM IN NEW YORK, 

182 BROADWAY, cor. John Street, (up stairs.) 



Ji/l ^QinnuuilcatLQjTA Jiaitlcl /le. acLcLi£.AAed 
ta Mailfaldy ^ana. 



E. HURLBURT, Pres.; H. E. ROBBINS, Sec; J. H. ASHMEAD, Treas. 

123 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 123 

Appeal from the Supreme Court. The action 
was brought to recover the value of a package of 
money delivered to the defendants, as common 
carriers, to be carried to the plaintiffs, and which 
was lost. Upon the trial at the Ontario circuit, the 
plaintiffs proved the delivery at Amsterdam, by the 
teller of the Farmers^ Bank of Amsterdam, to a 
messenger in the employment of the deiendant:>, 
and then in a railroad car used by the defendants 
for the transportation of packages intrusted to 
them, of a package of money containing $981. 
The package was marked and directed : 

" Russell & Annis, 
" Care of Dawley, *' Port Gibson. 

*' Express Agent, Vienna.— $981.' 

and was so directed in pursuance of the order of 
the plaintiffs. It was proved that the defendants' 
business was carried on along the line of the Cen- 
tral Railroad from Albany to Buffalo, and that they 
had agents and kept offices in the cities and princi- 
pal villages along the line of the railroad, solely 
for their Express business. The agent at Canan- 
daigua was a witness for the plaintiffs, and testified 
that he was in the habit of receiving packages at 
the cars; if the place of destination was on a side 
route, off' from the railroad, he kept them till they 
were called for; if directed to persons in his village 
he delivered them personally; he had an iron safe 
to keep them in, which was the joint property of 
himself and the defendants; he frequently received 
Express packages addressed to consignees oft' the 
railroad, and further addressed to his care as "Ex- 
press agent," and that he treated and delivered 
them, as he did all other r)acka2:es, as before men- 



124 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

tioned. Dawley, the defendants' agent at Vienna, 
was also a witness for the plaintiffs. He proved 
the receipt of the packages in question by him; 
the package was kept over night, in his office, in an 
iron safe belonging to the defendants. He cor- 
roborated the testimony of the agent at Canandai- 
gua as to the defendants' mode of doing their busi- 
ness. He further testified that he was in the habit 
of sending packages to Port Gibson, which is off 
the line of the railroad, by a stage line; the pack- 
age in question was sent in that manner the next 
morning after it arrived at Vienna, and was lost. 

The defendants' counsel asked the court to non- 
suit the plaintiffs, on the gi'ound that, from the evi- 
dence, the duty of the defendants was to carry the 
package to Vienna and there deliver it to Dawley, 
and, having done that, their liability was at an end. 
The judge decided that the defendants were to be 
held as common carriers from Amsterdam to Vien- 
na, but not from Amsterdam to Port Gibson; and 
that the evidence established that Dawley was the 
agent of the plaintiffs to receive from the defend- 
ants the package in question at Vienna, and that 
it was delivered by the defendants to him, and held 
by him, as such agent, for which reasons the defend- 
ants were not Hable. He directed a nonsuit, and 
the plaintiffs took exceptions. The judgment 
thereupon entered for the defendants was on ap- 
peal affirmed by the Supreme Court, at general 
term in the seventh district, and the plaintiffs ap- 
pealed to this court. 

Henry R Selden, for the appellants. 

Cambridge Livingston, for the respondents. 

Johnson, Ch. J. The plaintiffs were nonsuited 





^s© ^r^^ 



HOTEL, 




B"S- 



iiStl^M 111 

Mem I'Wft ' ^S r '*!> mmm 



mmiM 



liWf \&i,ai 



'M'^mi^wi 



No. 26 State Street, 



&/z/LQAlte the c^'late JSniACj 



124 



ROGERS BROTHERS MT6 CO. 

Manufacturers of Superior Quality of 

SILVER'PLATED WARE 

IN GREAT VARIETY, 

HARTFORD, Conn. 



No. 17 MAIDEN LANE, New York. 
145 WASHINGTON ST., Boston. 



SAMPLE ROOMS, I ^^"^ "' — — ^.-...^, 



IN OUR ASSORTMENT MAY BE FOUND 

Spoons; Forks; Ladles; Fish Carvers and Forks; Knives tor Pic, (Jake, 
Fish, Ice Cream, Pudding and Crumb; Aspara<^us and Ice Tongs; 
Dining and Dessert Knives, in variety; Napkin Rings; Knife Rests; 
Call Bells; Card Baskets; Cups; Goblets; Spoon Cups; Egg Cups; 
Toast Racks; Salt Cellars; Mustard Cups; Sugar Baskets; 
Butter Coolers ; Butter Boats; Gravy Tureens; Berry or * 
Preserve Dishes; Syrup Cups; Bouquet Yases; Casters; 
Cake Baskets; Fruit Stands; Ice Bowls; Pickle and Pre- 
serve Stands; Wine Stands; Communion Ware; Soup 
and Oyster Tureens; Vegetable and Steak Dishes; 
Entree Dishes ; Dish Covers ; Wine Coolers; 
Pitchers; Ice Urns and Pitchers; Tea Sets; 
Urns; Kettles; Waiters, <fec.; with all else 
necessary to make a complete assortment. 



All orders for Goods should be addressed to the Factory at Hartford, 
Conn. 

Catalogue and Price List furnished to customers only. 

125 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 125 

at the trial, upon the ground that the evidence es- 
tablished that Dawley was their agent to receive 
the package in question at Vienna, and that it was 
delivered by the defendants to him, and received 
mid held by him as the plaintiffs' agent. 

The testimony of defendants' agent at Canan- 
daigua showed that the practice at his agency was 
to retain packages addressed to persons and pla- 
ces not on the direct line of the Express routes, 
antil they were called for, or written directions 
were received from the consignee; and that pack- 
ages so directed, and further addressed to his care 
as " Express agent," were dealt with in the same 
manner. Dawley, the agent at Vienna, likewise 
stated that he treated and delivered packages ad- 
dressed to consignees off the line of the railroad, 
and to his care as "Express agent," in the same 
way as he did all other Express packages. He also 
stated that he had heard the testimony of the Ca- 
nandaigua agent, and agreed with him as to the de- 
fendants' mode of doing their business. So far as 
his recollection served him to specify cases in which 
he had such packages addressed to persons off the 
direct line, he had received specific instructions from 
the consignees; but in one case he thought he had 
sent a package to persons whom he named, and could 
not say whether or not they had given him any in- 
structions. It is manifest, therefore, that the ruling 
at the trial was based upon the legal effect of the di- 
rection upon the package; for all the other evidence 
in the case tended to show that, according to the 
usual course of the defendants' business, what Daw- 
ley did at Vienna with this package was done as 
the agent of the defendants and not of the plaintiffs. 

Ordinarily, the address of a package to the care 

14 



126 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

of any one is an authority to the carrier to deliver 
it to such person; but when the person to whom it 
is thus addressed is the agent and principal repre- 
sentative of the carrier himself, at the point where 
the carriage is to terminate, it may be regarded as 
a mere expansion of the ordinary direction to have 
it stopped at the place on the route where that 
agent is in charge of the business. It should be so 
regarded; for there is no probable reason why a 
person sending a package should be supposed to 
choose to terminate the carrier's responsibility and 
substitute that of the carrier's agent, when by such 
change no new duty would be created, and the 
package would be dealt with in either case by the 
same person and in the same way. The only ob- 
ject in giving such a direction which could be sup- 
posed would be to change the responsibility from 
the carrier to the agent appointed by the carrier; 
and as such a change would usually impair the se- 
curity of the owner, as he must be taken generally 
to know more about the carrier whom he employs 
than about the carrier's agent, of whom he will com- 
monly know only the name, it would be acting 
against the natural presumptions which arise from 
the situation of the parties to attribute to the owner 
such an intention. 

It was therefore erroneous to hold as matter of 
law that Dawley received the package as the plaint- 
iffs agent, and there must be a new trial. 

Selden, J., expressed no opinion. All the other 
judges concurred, intending, however, to exclude 
any implication that the defendants were under an 
obligation to transport the package to Newark. 

Judgment reversed and new trial ordered. 






The oldest Establishment in the United States engaged in this business, 

which was commenced by Normand Smith, August, 1794. We 

still manufacture and keep constantly on hand, and 

make to order, a larire assortment of 



O" 



Riding Saddles, comprising: 

English and American Styles of Gent's Saddles, 
Spanish and Mexican " V 

Side Saddles, 

Boys' and Misses' Saddles, and Saddles adapted to every market in 
the World. 

Riding Bridles and Martingales, Surcingles, Girths, Halters, Saddle-bags, 
Fancy Enameled Bridles, Housings and Bridle Fronts. 

Harnesses of all kinds, such as Stage, Double and Single Buggy, Ex- 
press, Coach, Hack, Gig, Team, Cart, Georgia Wagon, and Farmers' 
Wagon Harness. 

Horse Collars in great variety, such as Case, Short Straw, Long Straw, 
Wool for Coach, Gig or Buggy, Stage, Team, Cart or Wagon; also, 
Plantation Collars of all kinds. 



ALSO, DEALERS IN 

Whips, Bitts, Stirrups, Harness Leather, Bridle Leather, both russet and 

black; Patent Leather, Enameled Leather, black and fancy colors, 

with a general assortment of Saddlery Hardware, 

SMITH, BOURN & CO., 

142 and 144 Asylum St., Hartford, Conn. 

126 



f30. ^30. 

MOORE'S 

THIRTY DOLLAR DOUBLE LOCK STITCH 




SECURED BY RECENT LETTERS PATENT. 



'SM laAsassi' M.mm wHii^ i§isg®. 



The introduction of this most beautiful and eminently practical Machine will bring joy and glad- 
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H. C, BURTMAN, Sole and Exclusive Agent for the United States, 

92 WEST FOURTH ST., CINCINNATI, O., 



p. S. Every Machine is fully warranted! 



127 



Opposite the Post Office. 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 127 

HoLFORD V. Adams and others. 

The defendants, an Express Company, received from the agents of 
the plaintiff, at New Orleans, a package valued at $40,000, to 
be transported and delivered to the plaintiff at New York. 
By the terms of the receipt given for the package, the defend- 
ants were not to be responsible for any loss or damage not 
arising from their own fraud or gross negligence, or that of their 
servants; and it was proved that there was the same care in 
the transportation of all articles without regard to their value. 
When the package arrived at New York, the defendants refus- 
ed to deliver it to the plaintiff, unless upon the payment of $400, 
being 1 per cent, upon its estimated value. 

Heldy that, under these circumstances, there was no reason for 
enhancing the charge for transportation in proportion to the 
value of the articles transported, and that the charge made was 
therefore, prirtm facie, unreasonable and extravagant. 

Hdd, also, that the charge was not justified by usage, the usage 
proved not being general, but that of the defendants alone, and 
there being no proof that it was known to the plaintiff or his 
agents. 

(Before Oakley, Ch. J., and Emmet, J.) 
November 11; December 10, 1863. 

Appeal by plaintiff from a judgment, at special 
term, upon exceptions taken at the trial. 

The action was for the delivery of personal prop- 
erty, with damages for its detention. 

The complaint charged that Robb & Co., agents 
of the plaintiff at New Orleans, on the 11th of De- 
cember, 1851, delivered to the defendants, trans- 
acting business under the name of Adams k Co., 
a package containing Arkansas bonds of $1,000 
each, with coupons attached, belonging to the pliant- 
iff, to be transported by the defendants, by steam- 
er from New Orleans to the City of New York. 



128 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

and there to be delivered to the plaintiff for a rea- 
sonable consideration, to be paid by him to the de- 
fendants. That when the package was so delivered 
the agent of the defendants, at New Orleans, signed 
and delivered a receipt therefor, by which it was 
stipulated that the defendants should not be respon- 
sible for any loss or damage arising from the dan- 
gers of the sea, steam or river navigation, or from 
any cause whatever, unless the same should be 
proved to have occurred from the fraud or gross 
negligence of the defendants, their servants or 
agents. 

The complaint then averred that the defendants 
had transported the package to New York; that he, 
the plaintiff, had tendered to them a reasonable 
sum as a compensation for transporting it, and had 
demanded its dehvery; but that they had refused 
to deliver and still retained it: and then demanded 
judgment in the usual form. 

The defendants, in their answer, denied that the 
package containing the bonds was delivered to them, 
to be transported to New York, and there delivered 
to the plaintiff for a reasonable consideration. They 
denied that any receipt was signed or given, as 
alleged in the complaint; and that the plaintiff had 
offered to pay to them a reasonable sum as a com- 
pensation for transporting the package. 

They averred that when the package was deliver- 
ed to them at New Orleans, Robb & Co. expressly 
stated that the bonds which it contained were of 
the value of $40,000; and that it was then express- 
ly understood and agreed between them and Robb 
& Co., that, in consideration of their taking charge 
of, transporting, and delivering the package, the 
plaintiff would pay to them, upon its dehvery to 



W. S. DICKIJ^SOJ*, 

No. 19 East 4tli Street, 

Between Main and Sycamore Sts., OISOZB&AVIp Oa 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in and Manafactnrer of 

SPRINMAIil, MOSS, COlIQHi HUSK MAITBES, 

ALSO 



OP EVERY KIND, 

Gilt, Oil, Dry, Landscape, <fec., on hand, or large Shades for 
Churches and Offices or Stores made to order. I also 
have fine stocks of Comforts, Blankets, Counter- 
panes, Sheets, Towels, Table Linen and 
Napkins, Damask and Muslin 
Curtains, Gilt Cornices, 
Tassels, Cords, &c. 

FLAGS MADE TO ORDER OF ANY SIZE. 

All of the above-named goods, with great many other articles not 

mentioned, for sale very low, to which I would call the 

attention of Housekeepers, Hotel Proprietors, 

and others in want of such goods. 

Orders from a distance promptly executed. 

128 



JAMES POSTER, Jr., & CO., 

S. W. corner Race and Fifth Streets. 



MANtJFAOTURERS AND IMPORTEltS OF 

Paljma&al, |ljiIos(ip|«aI ^ #pl«al Instruments, 



ISjS'Z'ua^IlSXLiXSIZZXSX) 3.836. 



HAVE ON BAND FOR SALE A COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF 

APPARATUS FOR ILLUSTRATING THE SCIENCE OF PNEU- 
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HYDRAULICS, STEAM, MAGNETICS, ACOUSTICS, 
OPTICS, MECHANICS, METEOROLOGY, 
ASTRONOMY. &c. 

ENGINEERS' AND SURVEYORS' INSTRUMENTS 

For field use or instruction, always on band. 

Particular attention paid to making and adjusting Hydrometers for 
measuring the strength of Whis-key, Alcohol, and apparatus for guaging 
tbe contents of barrels; also, 

OlSTILLERi' T}4Eiil®ilETiii, 

And Thermometers of all kinds, at wholesale and retail. 

fflCTAaiS ®F ALL DMB& 

At wholesale and retail. Their well-known reputation in this branch of 
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Will always be found at their establishment, of warranted quality. 
JAMES FOSTER, Jr. HENRY TWITCHELL. 

129 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 129 

him in New York, one per cent, upon the value of 
the bonds, as represented and fixed. They then 
insisted that they were entitled to retain the posses- 
sion of the bonds until this sum, amounting to $400, 
should be paid, which they averred was no more 
than a reasonable and usual compensation for the 
transportation of similar packages. The reply took 
issue upon the new allegations in the answer. 

The cause was tried before Paine, J., and a jury, 
in December, 1862. Upon the trial, the counsel 
for the plaintiff read the following stipulation: 

" Whereas this suit has been commenced by the 
plaintiff to recover the possession of certain bonds 
and coupons in the complaint described, and dam- 
ages for the detention thereof, and the defendants 
claiming a lien on said bonds and coupons, and a 
right to detain the same, for their labor and ser- 
vices in the transportation thereof, from New Or- 
leans to the City of New York; 

"And whereas the defendants have surrendered 
up to the plaintiff the possession of said bonds and 
coupons under the agreement hereinafter set forth; 

"Now it is stipulated and agreed between the 
attorneys for the respective parties, that, upon the 
trial of this action, the jury shall assess the amount 
to which the defendants are entitled for such labor 
and service; and that in case the amount so as- 
sessed shall exceed the amount heretofore tendered 
by the plaintiff, namely, twenty dollars, the defend- 
ants shall be entitled to judgment with costs, and 
the plaintiff shall, upon demand, pay to the defend- 
ants such judgment, and the costs and extra allow- 
ance of this suit, or return such bonds and coupons 
to the defendants, to be held by them as a security 
for the payment thereof, in the same manner, and 



130 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

with the same right of lien, as though they had 
never parted with the possession thereof. 

"Dated, New York, April 3d, 1852. 

*' Tucker & Crapo, 

"Att'ysPltff. 

**E. H. Owen, 

'' Defts. Att>." 

The counsel for the plaintiff then rested his case. 

It was then admitted by the counsel for the de- 
fendants, that a receipt for the package had been 
given by their agent at New Orleans, which cor- 
responded in its terms with the statement in the 
complaint. 

The counsel for the plaintiff then admitted, that 
on the outside of the envelope which contained the 
bonds was endorsed the words and figures " James 
Holford, Esq., 49 William Street, New York — value 
$40,000." 

The counsel for the defendants then called 
A, L. Stimson, who, being sworn, testified as fol- 
lows: I am an expressman in Adams & Co.'s office; 
I have been there about three years; I am in the 
New Orleans department; I have charge of it; the 
business of Adams & Co. consists in transporting 
parcels and freight to most parts of the country, 
and also to California; they also transport valuable 
packages, which compensates for the small amounts 
they receive for the carriage of articles of small 
intrinsic value; in the transportation of parcels, the 
valuable parcels compensate for transporting less 
valuable packages, and enable Adams & Co. to 
transport the less valuable packages cheaper than 



C. S. IIIAL.TBT, 



T)EALER IN 



riESH, iPioEi m§ mvE 



\/ 'S O M 






No. 11 WEST FIFTH STREET, 



SOUTH SIDE, FOUR DOORS FROIVI mAIl¥, 



CINCINNATI, Ohio. 



ROBERT ORR, Agrent. 

130 



JOHN D. PARK 



(EstabUahed in 1841,) 
WHOLKSALK DEALKR IN 



PATEiT lEilC 



^ 



DRUGGISTS' AETICLES, FANCY GOODS, 
Pomades, Bair Oils, Hair Dyes, 

mm, MUSHES, soaps, perfumery, cutlery, 

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Key Rings, Cosmetics, Colognes, Toilet Articles, Playing Cards, 

Violin Strings, Coral Necklaces, Beads, Dolls, Hair Pins, 

Garters, Fans, &c., &c. 

N. E. CORNER FOURTH AND WALNUT STREETS. 



iiEiiiii Wins ill 

PREPARED BY JOHN D. PARK, 
Cincinnati,, Ohio. 

SPARKLING CATAWBA, 

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STILL CATAWBA, 

Corresponding to German Hock Wines. 

CATAWBA BRANDY, 

Distilled from Catawba Wine. Strictly pure; for medicinal purposes unrivaled. 



19 v&Mi»iAwaiw aiOiaiaA Na^9 su/iiiiMi;j'o 

Alcohol, 76, 92, and 98; Cologne Spirits; Neutral Spirits; Camphene ; 
Burning Fluid; Coal Oil; Linseed Oil; Lard Oil. 

JOHN D. PARK, 

N. E. Corner of Fourth and "Walnut Streets, 
131 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 131 

they otherwise would; we have agencies at the prin- 
cipal points of the Union. 

Being asked by the defendants' counsel what 
was the usual compensation of Adams & Co. for 
receiving at New Orleans, and for transporting and 
dehvering in New York, packages of value; the 
question was objected to by the plaintiff's counsel, 
which objection was overruled by the judge; to 
which decision of the judge the plaintiff's counsel 
excepted. The witness answered, One per cent, 
on the value of the package. 

Counsel for the defendants then asked the witness: 

What is the usual charge of other expressmen 
and carriers, for transporting packages of value 
from New Orleans to New York ? 

To which question the plaintiff's counsel objected, 
which objection was overruled; to which decision 
of the judge the plaintiff's counsel objected. 

The witness then answered, One per cent, on the 
value — that is the usual charge of Adams k Co. ; it 
is my impression that the steamships charged at 
the same rate; it is invariably our customary charge; 
we make special bargains with people sometimes. 

Being cross-examined by the plaintiff's counsel, 
the witness testified: 

There are about sixty Express offices in the city 
of New York; this number includes all sorts — the 
local expresses as well as the large ones; I never 
was employed in the express business before I en- 
gaged with Adams & Co.; I have never known 
Adams & Co. to transport Arkansas bonds before; 
I don't remember their transporting any bonds ex- 
cept some Texas bonds; I can't say whether thejr 
did or not; I don't remember any other bonds than 
the Texas and Arkansas bonds. 



132 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

Being asked by plaintiff 's counsel what articles 
of value the defendants have forwarded, he says: 

I cannot name any articles of value particularly; 
I cannot name a single parcel; I remember a parcel 
of gold dust worth $1,000. 

Being again examined hi the direct, the witness 
said: 

Packages, when brought to us to be forwarded, 
are usually sealed; we rely as to the value of the 
package on the declaration of the party employing 
us; sometimes he don't declare its value; we then 
let it go as a common parcel; the charge on these 
bonds as a common parcel would have been $1,50; 
there is no diff'erence between parcels of valuable 
goods and common articles in the care we take of 
them; we charge one per cent, on the value over a 
certain amount; 1 remember the bill of this parcel; 
when this package was I'eceived it was sealed; we 
always ask as to the contents. 

Being again cross-examined, the witness testified: 
w<i:We did not insure this parcel; I remember for- 
warding gold dust; they sometimes transport goods 
for jewelers, and we generally make a bargain with 
them as to compensation. 

In answer to a question of the judge, the witness 
said, The receipt produced is in the common form 
of the receipts we give. 

In answer to a question from one of the jury, the 
witness said, I do not remember that we ever car- 
ried anything for Robb or Holford except this one 
package. 

The defendants' counsel then called 

William McGill, who, being sworn, testified: I 
am an expressman in the employ of Adams & Co.; 
have been with them twelve months last May ; they 



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ANDERSON, GATES & WRIGHT, 

WHOLESALE 

lOiiiiLiiS. Sfifi' 



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No. 113 Main Street, 

East side, let. Third ami Fourth Sts., lBII6IiiiTI| Qi 



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133 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 133 

are at 59 Broadway; I am employed in the Califor- 
nia department, in the general department. Being 
asked what is the usual rate of charge of Adams 
k Co. for valuable articles from New Orleans to 
New^ York, the plaintiff''s counsel objected to the 
question, which objection was overruled by the 
court; to which decision the plaintiff's counsel exr 
cepted. The witness then answered, One per cent. 

Being cross-examined by the plaintiff's counsel, 
the witness testified: 

That he had never been in the express business 
excepting in the employ of the defendants. 

The plaintiff's counsel then offered to show that 
the bonds, to recover which this action is brought, 
were actually bought by the plaintiff in December, 
1851, for $26,000. 

To which offer the defendants' counsel objectedy 
which objection was sustained by the court; to 
which decision the plaintiff's counsel excepted. 

The cause was then summed up by the counsel 
for defendants and plaintiff. 

Whereupon the judge charged the jury, That if 
they believed, from the evidence, that the custom- 
ary charge by express offices was one per cent, on 
valuable articles from New Orleans to New York, 
they should find for the defendants to that amount 
on the value of the package, as the same was mark- 
ed on the package, and declared to the agent in 
New Orleans when the receipt was taken. That 
with regard to the value, the sum of $40,000, de- 
clared to the agent in New Orleans, and marked on 
the package, and inserted in the receipt, was to bd 
taken as the value. 

That if the jury should think that the $20 tender- 
ed by the plaintiff was, under th evidence, enough 



134 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

for bringing this package, they would find for the 
plaintiff. 

If not, they would find for defendants what they 
thought a proper compensation. 

To this charge of the judge, and to each and 
every part thereof, the counsel for the plaintiff 
excepted. 

Whereupon the jury found a verdict of $425 for 
the defendants. 

jT. Tucker, for the plaintiff, now insisted that the 
judgment entered upon the verdict ought to be re- 
versed, the verdict set aside, and a new trial order- 
ed, and rested his argument upon the following 
points and authorities: 

I. The plaintiff had a right to the possession of 
the bonds in question, upon tendering to the de- 
fendants the sum of $20. 1. The evidence does 
not present any facts from which the plaintiff can 
claim compensation for more than a common par- 
Gel. 2. It appears, from the receipt given by the 
defendants, that they were not responsible for any 
risk, excepting for their own fraud. 3. It also ap- 
pears, from defendants' receipt, that their charge in 
this instance was not for insurance. 4. It was also 
proved that the defendants bestowed no more care 
on this than they would have given a common par- 
cel. 5. The bonds were not valuable articles, but 
mere evidences of debt, the destruction of which 
would not have involved a loss of their nominal 
amount. 

II. There was no commercial or other usage 
which justified the defendants in charging, or obliged 
the plaintiff to pay, $400 for the transportation 
of the package in question. I. A usage like that 



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HAIili, CARKOLL & CO., 

Manufacturers of the Celebrated Hall's Patent Concrete 




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13i 



,gT;' G. W. SHOIiL., 



MANUFACTURER OF 



T^yiiS, ¥ALI 



^ 



AND 






57 Walnnt^ cerner of West Second, and 507 PInm Street, 



A WEWI.Y INVENTED PATENT 

lEnm milk Bunmi tmE, 




;: INVENTED BY DAVID SHOLL. 

This Case is made of material which is everlasting ; neither water nor 

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wishing to obtain the right of any State will call upon 

a. W. SHOLL & CO., 
IV. 1¥. corner Second and li¥alnut Streets, 



.Wii^'-' 



135 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 135 

claimed by the defendants must be so well settled, 
and of so long continuance, as to raise a fair pre- 
sumption that it was known to both contracting 
parties, and that their contract made reference to 
it {Eager v. Atlas Insurance Co,, 14 Pick. 143; 
Rayney v. Vernon, 9 Carrington & P.) It must be 
60 uniform and universal, that every one in the 
trade must be taken to know it ( Wood v. Wood, 1 
Carr & Payne, 59; 3 Phil. Ev., Cowen & HilFs 
Notes, 1422; Story on Contracts, sec. 650, p. 5750, 
2d ed.) Neither of these requisites is supplied by 
the defendants' testimony. 2. The testimony of 
the defendants' witnesses was not competent to es- 
tablish the existence of a usage. The witnesses, 
two in number, were in the defendants' employ; 
and had never had any other experience in the 
Express business. Their experience in the Ex- 
press business did not exceed one year; and their 
knowledge as to transportation of bonds is confined 
to one instance. Evidence of a few instances is not 
sufficient to establish a usage (3 Chitty Com. Law, 
45; 1 Marsh, 186.) Usage must be proved by wit- 
nesses who have had frequent and actual experi- 
ence of the usage (2 Creen's Ev. 208.) 

III. The defendants' customary charge for trans- 
porting packages was not binding upon the plaintiff, 
it being in evidence that neither he nor his agent 
had had any prior dealings with defendants, and 
there being no evidence that the plaintiff knew, or 
had notice, that there was any customary charge. 
** For whatever may have been the usage, it can 
have no effect on a contract unless adopted by the 
parties," {Eager \. Atlas Instance Co., 14 Pick. 143; 
Snowden v. Warner, 3 Rawle, p. 106.) The usages 
of individuals cannot affect these contracts, unless it 



136 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

appear that the usage was known to the parties 
with whom they contracted {Loring v. Guriwy, 5 
Pick. 16; Garay v. Lloyd, 3 Barr. & Cr. 793; Lau- 
rence V. Stonmgton Bank, 6 Cowen R. 521; Rus- 
forth V. Hadfield, 7 East. 225; Kinkman v. Shadcross, 
6 T. R. 4; 2 Phill. on Ev., p. 37; Lewis v. Mars/iall, 
13 Lawson, (N.S.); Duer on Jus., vol. i., pp. 179, 
182, 193, 254, in Notes X. toxiii.; Wins/roopv. Union 
Insurance Co., 2 Wash. C. C. R. 16; Astor v. Union 
Insurance Co., 7 Cowen, 202; Syces v. Bridge, 2 
Doug. 627.) There must be a general usage, or 
universal custom, brought home to the knowledge 
of the party defendant; or it must be the special 
course or habit of dealing with one of the parties, 
recognized and assented to by the other (Story on 
Contr., sec. 14; Wood v. Hickock §• Harris, 2 Wend. 
501 ; Child v. Sun Mutual Insurance Co.) 

IV. The testimony of A. L. Stimson and W. Mc- 
Gill in relation to the usual rate of charge for valu- 
able articles, was irrelevant, and ought to have 
been excluded. 

V. The judge erred in his charge to the jury, 
because: 1. If there was a customary charge of one 
per cent, on valuable articles by the Express office, 
the plaintiff had no knowledge or notice of it, im- 
plied or direct, and is not bound by it. 2. If such 
a charge were proper for valuable articles, it could 
not be applied to the transportation of Arkansas 
bonds, these having no intrinsic value, and being 
evidences of value merely. The plaintiff's right to 
recover the amount specified in the bonds would 
atill remain, although the bonds were lost or de- 
stroyed. The plaintiff could not have recovered the 
stated or nominal value of such bonds of the defend- 
ants, under any circumstances. Such bonds, there- 



HENRY WARE, 



9 



JVo. 7 fWJEST FOURTH STREET, 



CINCINNATI, Ohio. 



:n:s-t£tl3llsli.ec3. in. .A., 



1B38. 



MANUFACTURER AND IMPORTER OF 



#ptual, Pat^euialkal aiiJi flilosopljial Instruments, 



AND 



iiiiiiiL iPMiif ii. 

A LARGE ASSORTMENT OF APPARATUS FOR ILLUS- 
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ALWAYS ON HAND. 

Particular attention given to the selection of Spectacles for defective 
sight; also to the repairing of Engineers' Instruments, and all Philosoph- 
ical and Chemical Apparatus. 

All Instruments warranted correct in all particulars. 



Illustrated priced Catalogues furnished on application, and sent by mail, 
free of charge, to all parts of the Union. 

136 



We would recommend to your particular notice the Establishment 

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SPRAGUE & CO. 

Are now doing a very prosperous busiuess. They keep the 
And do business on the 

EIGHT FJRINOIPLE. 

137 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 137 

/ore, are not valuable articles upon which the defend- 
ants can charge a per centage. 3. The plaintiff was 
not excluded from proving the actual value of said 
bonds by the amount stated in the receipt; there 
being no evidence of the manner, or by whom such 
statement was made, or that the plaintiff or his 
agent ever assented to it. 4. There was no evi- 
dence that any declaration whatever was made in 
New Orleans by the plaintiff's agent. 

G. F. Belts, for the defendants, contra. 

I. The charge of the judge was correct, in leav- 
ing it to the jury to determine what was the proper 
compensation (Chitty on Contracts, p. 547; Chap- 
man V. De Tastel. 2 Stark. 295; Bryan v. Flight, 
5 Mees. & W. 114.) 

II. It was correctly submitted to the jury, that 
if, from the evidence, they believed that the cus- 
tomary charge by Express offices was one per cent. 
on valuable articles from New Orleans to New 
York, they should find for the defendants to that 
amount {Hinton v. Locke, 5 Hill, 437; Vailv. Rice, 
1 Seld. 155, 158.) 

III. The evidence as to the customary charge of 
Adams k Co. was competent: 1. To show what was 
a reasonable or proper compensation; that they 
only asked from the defendants what they asked 
from all their other customers. 2. It was not offer- 
ed to prove a local usage of that house, nor was it 
so submitted to the jury by the court. 3. A gen- 
eral usage having been proved, this evidence could 
do no harm, being included in the other. 

IV. The sum of $40,000, declared to the agent 
of Adams & Co., at New Orleans, by Robb k Co., 
marked on the packages, and inserted in the receipt, 



138 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

was to be taken as the value. 1. Robb & Co. were 
plaintiff's agents. (Letter from Tucker & Crapo.) 
And their declaration and contract are binding on 
the plaintiff (Story, Agency, § 135.) 2. This was 
the contract between consignor and carrier (En- 
dorsement on envelope; Smith v. Jaines, 7 Cowen, 
328; Woife v. Mi/ers, 3 Sand. 7-13.) 

Y. If the bonds had been actually purchased 
by plaintiff for $26,000, that was not evidence 
against the defendants. 1. It was res inter alias ,^. 
acta. 2. The plaintiffs were estopped, by their ad-. .^^ 
missions and contract, from showing the value to 
have been other than $40,000 (Truscott v. Denis, 
4 Barb. 498; Wetland Canal Co. v. Hathaway, 8 
Wend. 483.) 

By the Court. Oakley, Ch. J. — As no proof 
was given on the part of the defendants of the Ex- 
press agreement set up in their answer, they were 
entitled to demand no more than a reasonable com- 
pensation for the service which they performed. 
By the receipt which they gave for the package, 
they were exempt from the usual liability of com- 
mon carriers as insurers. They were not responsi- 
ble for any loss or damage, arising from any other 
cause than the fraud or gross negligence of them- 
seves, their agents or servants; and their witnesses 
proved that the same care and diligence were be- 
stowed in the transportation of all articles and pack- 
ages intrusted to their charge, without reference to 
their value. It is not perceived, therefore, that 
there was any reason for enhancing the charge for 
transportation in proportion to the value of the 
articles transported, and, consequently, the charge 
which the defendants made, which even exceeds 
the usual rate of insurance from New Orleans to 





EATEINTS' 




II f llSil 



IF f OU WANT A 



LOD&E, SOCIETY, COURT, NOTARIAL, 



OR 



^W K^WKffi^^ 



9 



Address 



. iB-^riEsiNrs, j-r.. 



No. 64 West Fourth Street, 

CINCINNATI, Ohio. 



Wax Seals and Stamps of every description. 

138 



A. S. BUTTERFIELD, 



^MMBIM. MMM 



^Q ^^<^^^<^^iSJQ 



AND 



Cnmk Mamtfettam; 



No. 242 Main Street, four doors belo'w Sisth, 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

i^ No. S29 

MAIN STREET, CINCINNATI, OHIO, 

Is the only place in the Western States where a full stock of the celebrated 

SETH THOMAS GLOfiKS, 

TIME-PIECES AND REGULATORS, 

Can at all times be found. The common Weight and Spring Clocks and 
Time-Pieces, of every style and quality, with 

Can always be had at the above stand, at the lowest market price. 

Pedlers, Jewelers, and Merchants are respectfully invited to call and ex- 
amine the Goods. 

M^^iM^ B. BLAKESLBB. 

139 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 130 

New York, was apparently unreasonable and ex- 
travagant. 

We are not, however, to be understood as saying, 
that the charge made, unreasonable as it seems, 
may not be sanctioned by usage; but it is certain 
no usage could justify the charge, unless its charac- 
ter were proved to be such as to warrant the pre- 
sumption that it was known to both parties, and 
that their contract was made in reference to its ex- 
istence; in other words, that it was known to Robb 
& Co., the agents of the plaintiff, when they deliv- 
ered the package to the defendants, and that, by 
their silence at that time, they consented to be 
bound by it. 

Had it been proved that there was a general, uni- 
form, and notorious usage, justifying the charge 
made by the defendants, the law would have im- 
puted to the plaintiff and his agents a knowledge 
of its existence; but there was no pretence for say- 
ing that any such evidence was given. If any 
usage was proved, it was of the defendants alone. 
It was special and particular, not general; and such 
being its character, we deem it needless to cite 
authorities to show that, to render it binding on the 
plaintiff, his or his agent's actual knowledge of its 
existence and terms was necessary to be proved. 
The evidence, even, of the existence of this limited 
usage was slight and unsatisfactory; and there was 
none whatever from which a jury could be warrant- 
ed to infer, that its existence was known to the 
plaintiff or to Robb & Co. 

The judge, however, upon the trial, charged the 
jury, that if they believed, from the evidence, that 
the customary charge by Express offices was one 
per cent, on valuable articles from New Orleans to 



140 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

New York, they should find for the defendants to 
that amount, on the value of the package. We 
think that this charge was erroneous, and that, upon 
the evidence before the court, the queston of usage 
ought not to have been submitted to the jury at 
all. We have, however, no right to say that it was 
not upon this evidence that their verdict was found- 
ed, and it must therefore be set aside. 

The judgment set aside, and a new trial ordered; 
costs to abide the event. 

Note. — We cannot but regard the judicial decision in the above 
case as wrong. The inference of the honoraVjle court, that the 
Express charge of oue per cent, was exorbitant, was based en- 
tirely upon Judge Oakley's idea that " the bonds were not valuable 
articles, but mere evidences of debt" We must respectfully beg 
leave to say, that were his Honor's premise right, his deduction 
would be a fair one ; but his basis was utterly unsound. Had that 
package of Arkansas bonds been lost by Adams & Co., it would 
have becu optional perhaps with the State of Arkansas to substi- 
tute others for them; and at the best, weeks and months must 
have elapsed before it would have been done. In the meantime, 
Arkansas bonds, which had already fallen much below par, might 
have gone down to a much lower figure; in which case Holford 
would have undoubtedly hold Adams & Co. liable for the whole 
amount of the decline on his " $40,000" parcel of bonds from the 
time when in due course they should have been delivered to him 
by the Express. In New Orleans, his agent, or himself, stated 
their value to be $40,000, and had it so written down in the Ex- 
press receipt then given him; but in New York, in the trial of 
the case, it is stated by his counsel that they were worth only 
$26,000 — a fluctuation in their value, indicating a capacity to fall 
much lower yet. In the jury trial, (in which the verdict was it 
favor of the" Express Company,) the jury was composed mostly of 
experienced mercantile men, and their foreman was a gentleman 
who has been a commercial lawyer, in high standing, for many 
years. — En. Express History. 



DUHME & CO., 

IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OP 

WATCe MOVEIHEKTS, TOOLS AND MATERIALS, 

SILVER AMD PLATED WARE, SPECTACLES, $,Z., 
S. W. cor. Fourth and Walnut Sts., 

G. A. MENZEL & GO'S 

(Formerly l£lauprech Sc Iflenzel'n) 

LITHOGRAPHIC ESTABLMIEE 

257 and 259 Walnnt St., 

Opposite WalDut St. Honse, CISGIZISAVI) On 



Portraits, Conbscopcs, SI)on3 Carbs, iHaps, 

G&iiSi isiii, iu eiiiSv 

Checks, Drafts, Labels of ^v^t^ kind, &c., done in the 

best style. 

140 



SMITH'S 




^ 



OLD ESTABLISHED 

No. 19 Ea§t Filth St., Cincinnati. 

The attention of bajers is respectfully called to oar onsarpassed assortment of 

Tlairty ]>ar, RIsht Vay and One Day Office Clocks, Bank and Chnrrh GIoclu» 

Railroad Clocks, Steamboat Clocks, Patent l.erer Clocks, Alarm 

Clocks, Clocks Tor Halls and Publir Baildings. Fine JBegu- 

lators; Parlor, Chamber and Kitchen Clocks, Gilt 

W^auh 8igns, Clock 'J'rimmings, Arc, &c. 

All of whi<ih we offer to Jewelers, Merchasts. Peddlers, and Dealers generally, at a rery Bmall advance 
opon actual cost to manufacture. Be sure to look through our stock and prieea before purcbaaing tbe- 
where. 49rAll goods warranted and carefully packed. Order* promptly executed. 



A. D. SMITH, 12 East Fifth St, opp. Dennison House, Cincinnati, O. 



J. LANGE & BROTHER, 



MANUPACTUBEBS OP 



AND 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN 



No. 52 FOURTH STREET, 



Bet. Walnut and Tine Sis., 



eiiuiiAf li 



I wi 



141 



■M-:i 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 141 



Louis Newstadt v. Alvin Adams and others. 

In an action against the carriers of goods by express, to recover 
the value of a diamond pin, received at New York, to be de- 
livered at Philadelphia, the fact that the complaint states a de- 
livery to the carriers at 59 Broadway, while the proof is of a de- 
livery at an office in Canal Street, is no obstacle to a recovery. 
The variance is immaterial. So is the omission to state, as a 
part of the carrier's contract, that he was not to be liable for 
any loss or damage, unless proved to have occurred from his 
fraud or gross negligence. In such a case, proof of the deliv- 
ery and acceptance of the goods to be carried, of a demand of 
them at a proper time and place, and of a refusal to deliver 
them, without explanation, is sufficient, in the first instance, to 
entitle the plaintiff to recover. 

It is only when an actual loss is shown, that a plaintiff, under such 
a contract, is bound to prove that the fraud or gross negligence 
of the carrier caused the loss. When the contract limits the 
liabiUty to $150, unless the nature and value of the property 
are disclosed when delivered, to the carrier, the plaintiff, prima 
facie, cannot recover beyond that sum, though the property is 
clearly proved to be worth more. 

(Before Duer, Bosworth and Slosson, J.J.) 
October 1, 1856. 

This action was tried before Ch. J. Oakley, and 
a jury, on the 19th of March, 1856. A verdict was 
taken for the plaintiff by direction of the judge, 
for the sum of $175, subject to the opinion of the 
court, at general term, upon a case, with power to 
the court to reduce the verdict to $150, should it 
think proper. 

The defendants were partners, carrying on the 
Express and Forwarding business between New 
York and Philadelphia. The complaint alleges that 
on the 10th of December, 1854, a box was dehver- 

15 



142 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 



ed to the agent of the defendants, at their office, 
No. 59 Broadway, in New York, to be delivered to 
the plaintiff, in Philadelphia, to whom it was direct- 
ed. A receipt was given, signed by one Griffin, 
the agent. The box contained a diamond ring of 
the value of $175. The box was a small flat one, 
about two and a half inches long, made of paper, 
and had paper around it. It was delivered at what 
was alleged to be an office of the defendants, in 
Canal Street. A receipt was given at the time, 
which is in the following form: 



ADAMS & CO.'S 

GREAT EASTERN, WESTERN AND SOUTHERN PACKAGE EXPRESS. 

New York, October im, 1854. 

Received of Emilia Newstadt, in apparent good order, to 
be transported by our Express Lines, the undersigned arti- 
cles, marked as per margin, which we promise to deliver in 
like order, subject to the agreement now made, and hereafter 
expressed, to Louis Newstadt, at Philadelphia, Pa. It is 
agreed, and is part of the consideration of this contract, that 
we are not to be responsible for any loss or damage arising 
from the dangers of railroad, steam, or river navigation, 
leakage, fire, or from any cause whatever, unless the same be 
proved to have occurred from the fraud or gross negligence 
of ourselves, our agents or servants, and we are in no event 
to be liable beyond our route, as herein receipted. Valued 
under $150, unless herein otherwise stated. 

Freight to 



marks. 
Louis Newstadt, Philadelphia, 
Pa. To be called for. 



PACKAGES. 

Little box, to be left at Adams' 
Express: for the proprietor. 



Griffin, who signed the receipt, was an agent of 
the defendants. They had an office in Canal Street, 
where articles were received, and from which they 
were taken to the office, 59 Broadway. This was 



WOERNER ^ MUEHLE, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 



Vfhotetate and JRelail^ 

Looking Glass and Picture Frames, 

AND 

ALL KINDS OF GILDING DONE TO OBDEE, 
No. 8 North William Street, 



IMPORTA-NT^NVENTION. 

J. S. & R BROMLEY, . 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

^fln-Carms|mg Silto fkteb Wan, 

83 STATE STREET, 



Important to Dealers. — By our inventioa dealers can be supplied with Silver 
Plated Ware that will remain on hand for any length of time without tarnishing, 
and therefore does not require cleaning. In case of dust settling upon the ware, it 
can easily be removed by wiping or dusting with a clean Chamois Skin. 

^^ We are the only Manufacturers of Non-Tarnishino Silver Plated Waab, 
either in this or any other country. 

MILO PECK ^ CO., 

MANUFACTDRERS OP THEIR 

POWER AND FOOT CUTTING PRESSES, 

OVAL DIB CHUCKS, &o., &o. 

AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF FIRST CLASS 

Machinist Tools, Steam Engines, & Woodworth Planers, 

142 



MOORE, WILSBACH, KEYS & CO., 

|PttMrs|ers, §0011561100 & Stationers, 



AND MllFACTmS OF PAGED BLANK BOOKS, 

No. 25 West Fonrth Street, 

CINCINNATI, Ohio. 



Country Merchants, Booksellers, and Dealers generally, who purchase 
Books and Stationery, will serve their own interests by examining 'our 
stock before purchasing. 

No more complete assortment can be found in any establishment in the 
United States, of like character. It has been purchased and manufactured 
with great care, and will be sold at uniformly low prices, for cash or ap- 
proved credit. 

We publish more than thirty diflferent styles of 



all of which are superior in quality of material and workmanship to others 
of similar styles and prices issued in the country. We also publish 

PULTE'S HOM(EOPATHIC DOMESTIC PHYSICIAN. 

BEACH'S AMERICAN FAMILY PRACTICE. 

THE AMERICAN DISPENSATORY, by John King. 

THE AMERICAN ECLECTIC PRACTICE, by Jones & Sherwood. 

BAYARD TAYLOR'S CYCLOPEDIA OP MODERN TRAVEL: 
A Record of Adventures, Exploration and Discovery for the past fifty 
years. Comprising Narratives of the most distinguished Travelers since 
the beginning of this Century. Prepared and arranged by Bayard Tay- 
lor. 2 vols, royal 8vo., 1,000 pages. Neatly bound, embellished with 
seven fine portraits on steel by Buttre, and illustrated by fourteen full- 
page engravings, and over forty wood-cuts, and thirteen authentic Maps 
by ScHONBERG. Sold to Subscribers only. 

Agents wanted in all parts of the United States and Canvas. 
SEND FOR CATALOGUES. 
143 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 143 

for the accommodation of up-town people, and pack- 
ages were received there when the goods were of 
small value. The agent's orders were, not to take 
articles at that office of over the value of $150, nor 
any money. He was authorized to sign receipts of 
the character of that produced, for packages of 
small value to go to the lower office. Nothing was 
paid to Griffin, the agent, at the time, for carrying 
and delivering the package, or agreed to be paid. 
Nothing was said at the time of the value of the 
box. The agent states he would not have taken it 
if apprised of its value. He supposed from its ap- 
pearance it was not valuable, and did not make any 
inquiry as to it. It was the custom to receive 
packages at the office in Canal Street, and send 
them by the drivers to that in Broadway. 

The defendants, when the plaintiff's testimony 
was closed, moved for the dismissal of the complaint, 
on the ground that no delivery of the box, as al- 
leged in the complaint, had been proved; and that 
there was no proof of compensation or hire for car- 
rying the box, paid or agreed to be paid by the 
plaintiff to defendants; that the complaint did not 
allege the defendants to be common carriers, and 
that no negligence had been shown on the part of 
the defendants. 

The Chief Justice refused the motion, and the 
defendants' counsel excepted. 

The defendants offering no evidence, a verdict 
was directed, as before stated. 

The other facts sufficiently appear in the opin- 
ion of the court. 

L. S. Ashley, for plaintiff. 

/. G, Vase, for defendants. 



144 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

By the Court. Bosworth, J. — The complaint 
states, and the answer does not deny, and there- 
fore admits, that the defendants were partners, and 
as such were ' ' carrying on the express and for- 
warding business between the cities of New York 
and Philadelphia." They were common carriers. 

When they took goods in the ordinary course of 
their business, to be carried from one of those cities 
to the other, in the absence of any special contract, 
the implication of law would be, that the defend- 
ants were to be paid the usual and customary com- 
pensation. 

If die defendants received the goods and under- 
took to carry them, although they were paid noth- 
ing, nor promised anything for doing it, they would 
be bound to use, at the least, as much care and 
skill as they stipulated for in the written contract. 

The fact that they were delivered to the defend- 
ants at Canal Street, instead of Broadway, is a va- 
riance which the court is required by section 169 
of the Code to disregard. 

The objection that the legal effect of the contract 
proved, varied from that described in the complaint, 
does not appear to have been taken at the trial. 
Neither was the objection taken that the complaint 
did not allege any fraud or gross negligence of the 
defendants. It is too late to take such objections 
now. ( Barnes v. Perine, 2 Kernan, 24, 25.) 

The objection taken was, that no negligence had 
been proved. Proof of a delivery and acceptance 
of the goods to be carried, and of a demand of the 
goods and non-compliance with it, without any ex- 
planation or apology, was sufficient proof of fraud 
or gross negligence, until some evidence of care or 
fidelity had been given by the defendants. 



CHEVALIER'S 





OPERATING CASES AND CHAIRS, 

F@rtaiMi laities iii Bi©ai«l©sts, 

TEETH, GOLD AND TIN FOIL, 

Gold and Silver Plate and Solder, and every other article used by the Dental Pro- 
fession, sent to all parts of the World. 



FRIGES REDUCED 



CHEVALIER'S WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEPOT, 
639 Broadway, IV. Y. 

EST.AJBX,isia:Er> iisr i8ss. 



SPECtJiL, J%'OTICE.—DISCOUJrT. 

I have heretofore adhered to the rule of making no discount to any but the trade; 
but being convinced of certain practices amongst most of the dealers, which had a 
tendency to increase my wholesale, at the expense of my retail trade, 1 have de- 
termined from this date to make the following discount to dentisis, viz: 

On all purchases made at my store for cash, or orders by mail or otherwise, inclos- 
ing the cash, ten per cent, on all sums from ten to seventy-five dollars. From seven- 
ty-five to two hundred, twelve per cent, discount; and one per cent, additional on 
every fifty dollars, up to five hundred. 

JVo discount on Gold Foil, Plate or Platina. 

Always send enough money to pay for what you order, and the surplus, if any, will 
be returned in specie with the goods. 

144 



D. BERRIEN & CO., 

252 and 357 Pearl Street, New York, 

IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OP 



Of every description. Also, Manufacturers- of 

BLMSim', MOEDIRS', 11 KIMEN BELLOWS, 

DEALERS IN DRESSED AP UNDRESSED GIN BRISTLES. 
BERRIEN'S JUSTLY CELEBRATED FRICTION MATCHES, 

Warranted to keep in any climate. 



ESTABLISHED IN 1819. 



We would call the attention of the Trade to eur large and extensive assortment of 

of our own manufacture and importation, feeling confident that we can offer as great, 
if not better inducements to purchasers, than any other House in the city for the 
same class and quality of goods. 

We have been manufacturers of the above-named articles for over forty years, 
and hav9 the satisfaction of knowing that wherever our articles of manufacture are 
introduced, none ever take their place. We would call the attention of purchasers 
particularly to our large and great variety of 



especially the quality of the same, our 

CKLEBRATEB B£JL£.OWS 

of various qualities, and to our 

WORLD REBrOWigSD FRICTZON MATCHZSS, 

warranted to keep in any climate. 

The trade and purchasers are respectfully invited to call and examine for them- 
selves, before purchasing elsewhere. Orders carefully and promptly filled. Price 
Lists, with full information, sent to any address. 

145 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 145 

As the case presents the facts, the defendants 
received the goods and undertook to carry them. 
They stipulated that they should not be charged for 
any loss or damage unless caused by fraud or gross 
negligence, and that the plaintiff should be requir- 
ed to prove fraud or such negligence in order to be 
entitled to recover. The defendants, if made liable, 
agreed to pay whatever might be shown to be the 
value of the property; such value, at all events, to 
be deemed less than $150. The plaintiff has de- 
manded the goods at the place at which the de- 
fendants have agreed to deliver them; and they 
have not complied with the demand, nor assigned 
any reason or excuse for their failure to do so. 

If the contract had been set out according to its 
legal effect, as evidenced by the paper signed by 
Griffin, no other proof of fraud or gross negligence 
could well have been given, than such as was fur- 
nished in this case. 

When the defendants admit, or it is proved, that 
they took the goods, and agreed to carry and de- 
liver them at a place named, and they admit that 
they did not carry and deliver them there — and the 
only question is, whether their default results from 
fraud or misconduct; if it appears that the plaintiff 
called at the proper place and demanded his goods, 
and the defendants refused to deliver them, without 
explaining or apologising for their conduce, the 
plaintiff would seem to have given all the evidence 
of fraud or negligence that should be required in 
the first instance. 

Frankness and good faith require that carriers, 
under such circumstances, should give some expla- 
nation of their conduct. It is known to themselves, 
and cannot be presumed to be known to the plaint- 



146 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

iff. It is easy for them to state the cause of the 
loss or injury, and thus enable a plaintiff to exam- 
ine into the truth of their statements. 

But when they refuse to deliver the goods, and 
fail to suggest any ground for such refusal, or to 
give any explanation of their conduct, I think a 
plaintiff has proved enough, unexplained, to make 
a prima facie case of fraud or gross negligence. 
{Beardslee v. Richardson, 11 Wendell, 25; Angel k 
Ames on Carriers, § 38, n. 4, ed. of 1851.) 

The defendants did not object that they were not 
required by the pleadings to come prepared to try 
the question whether their conduct had been fraud- 
ulent or grossly negligent; but the objection was, 
that no evidence of such conduct had been given. 

The main question was, whether the defendants 
had undertaken to carry and deliver the goods, and 
had broken their contract. 

They did agree to carry and deliver; but the 
evidence disclosed that this agreement was subject 
to the further agreement, that the plaintiff should 
have no claim on them for loss or damage, unless 
he proved that such loss or damage was caused by 
their fraud or gross neghgence. 

The plaintiff gave all the proof that this condi- 
tion required. If the defendants had objected that 
the complaint contained no averment of fraud or 
gross negligence, the court might have ordered an 
amendment at the trial. 

All that the complaint alleged was proved. The 
most that can be said is, that the agreement pro- 
duced required the plaintiff to prove more, in order 
to recover, than he had averred. To this it may 
be answered, that such proof was given. The de- 
fendant did not object that the plaintiff could not 



D. D 



ILLER 



No. 190 Water Street, New York, 




I' f 





MANUFACTURER OF 



SIGNAL AND HAND 



LTil!' 





|1L1 




i 



FIEEMEN'S TRUMPETS, TOECHES & SIGNALS. 



ALSO, SOLE MANUFACTURER OP 



BLAKE'S PATENT ARM LANTERN. 



N. B. — Orders by Mail filled with punctuality and dispatch. 
146 



GILCHRIST & DANIELS, 



OE^^JLERS Ijr 



MMOGMY. ROSEWOQO 



ZEBRA WOOD, SATIN" WOOD, HOLLY, 



AND OTBEK 




Pi 



I 



Nos. 204 and 206 Franklin Street, 



One door West of Washington, 



JOHN^L? d'aniels! [ ^S^ £i^ W!f M. ^^l^^^^S^Q 

147 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 147 

give the proof because he had not alleged the fact, 
but that he had failed to give the necessary proof. 
If he was mistaken as to the effect of the evidence, 
as we think he was, the objection made is untena- 
ble. There are no variances between the pleadings 
and proofs, which should not, under the circum- 
stances, be disregarded. (Code, §§ 169 and 170. 
2 Kernan, 24-25.) 

There is another consideration which is fatal to 
the defence. The complaint does not allege, nor 
was there any evidence tending to show, that the 
package was actually lost. The complaint states 
that the defendants received the package, and un- 
dertook to carry it and to deliver it at Philadelphia. 
That a delivery has been demanded there, and at 
the office of the defendants in New York, and that 
they have wholly neglected and refused, and still 
refuse to deliver it. 

To make the qualifying clause of the contract 
available to the defendants, after the plaintiff had 
proved the case stated in the complaint, it was in- 
cumbent on the defendants to give evidence tend- 
ing to show that it was lost, or that they were not' 
able to deliver it, in consequence of its destruction, 
or of its being placed beyond their control by some 
casualty arising "from the dangers of railroad, 
steam, or river navigation, leakage, fire, or some 
other cause." 

Then it would be the duty of the plaintiff to show 
that the cause of the loss, destruction, or other dis- 
ability of the defendants to deliver, occurred from 
the * ' fraud or gross negligence of the defendants, 
their agents or servants." 

But it cannot be pretended that the plaintiff can- 
not recover, for a refusal to deliver the article, if 



148 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

the defendants have the power to deUver it. Nei- 
ther the complaint nor the answer alleges a loss 
of the package, nor any inability of the defendants 
to deliver it. 

It was not suggested on the trial that it had been 
actually lost. 

The concluding part of the contract is inopera- 
tive, except in case of an actual loss of the pack- 
age. When the proof shows a loss of it, that an- 
swers the plaintifi'^s claim, until he gives proof that 
the loss resulted from fraud or gross negligence. 

As the case is presented to us, it is simply a case 
of a refusal to comply with a demand, made in due 
form, at the proper place, to deliver the package. 
The refusal is not accompanied by any explanation. 
No suggestion was made that it was lost. The 
case, therefore, as far as the rights and liabilities 
of the parties to this action are concerned, is the 
same as if this qualifying clause was out of the 
contract. There is nothing in the facts of the case 
on which it can operate. {Hearn v. The London 
and South' Western Railway Co., 29 Eng. L. and Eq. 
R., 494.) 

There must be a judgment for the plaintiff; but, 
as the value of the property was not disclosed, the 
verdict must be reduced to $149.99. 

Judgment accordingly for plaintiff, with costs. 

Sweet & Faulkner v, Barney, President of th 
United States Express Company. 

Prima facie, a person receiving money is entitled to it, and does 
not become a debtor to the person delivering it. Some evidence 
in explanation of the transaction is necessary, to establish a lia- 
bility by the receipt of the money. 







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For Bruises, Sprains, &c. 
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In bottles 50 cents. 



148 



^t gofuK-Cofon Store for Pen's Jurnisjing ioobs, 

97 WILLIAM ST., Established in 1834. 



LITCHFIELD & DOYLE, 

MANUFACTURERS, JOBBERS AND RETAILERS OF 

iirs risiiisiis siiii. 

A complete assortment always on hand, and offered at the 



SUPERIOR SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER. 



STIIES. 

3 Plait Bosoms. 

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T Plait Bosoms. 

9 Plait Bosoms. 
11 Plait Bosoms. 
13 Plait Bosoms. 
Fine French Bosoms. 




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Cross Plait Bosoms. 
Diagonal Plait Bosoma. 
Ruffle Bosoms. 
Marseilles Bosoms. 
Embroidered Bosoms- 
Fancy Cbmbric do. 
Fancy Linen do. 



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LITCHFIELD & DOTLE, 97 WiUiam Street, 

(Old Stand, Established in 18S4,) between Maiden Lane and Jolin St&., New York. 

149 



EXPRESS HISTORY. I49 

Hence, a bank in the city to which a package of money is sent by 
bankers in the country, by Express, being considered the owner 
of the money, may authorize the same to be delivered at the of- 
fice of the Express Company, or at any other place in the city, 
to any person it may select; and the Express Company, on mak- 
ing such a delivery, will be discharged of their obligation in re- 
spect to the delivery, whether, their obligation be that of common 
carriers or of forwarders only. 

The substance and spirit of what the persons sending the money, 
under such circumstances, exact, and the Express Company un- 
dertake, in regard to a delivery, is, that there shall be such a 
delivery in the city as will charge the bank there with the re- 
ceipt of the money, as between it and the persons sending it. 

Where a package of money thus sent is directed to a bank in the 
City of New York, at its usual place of business, it is the duty of 
the Express Company — in the absence of any authority from the 
bank for a different mode of delivery — to deliver the package at 
the banking office, to the officer or clerk whose business it is to 
receive money for the bank. 

And if it appears that it is the usual course of business of the Ex- 
press Company to deUver money packages according to their 
address, it will be assumed that any particular package was de- 
livered to and received by the Company in any reference to that 
practice, where there is no express contract in regard to the 
place of delivery, or the officer or person to whem the delivery 
shall be made. 

In case of a package of money sent by country bankers to a bank 
in the City of New York, directed to it at its place of business, 
only a delivery at the office, to the proper officer of the bank, 
will be a delivery according to the address on the package, or 
which will charge the bank with the money. 

But a delivery at the banking office to the general receiving agent, 
being for the benefit of the bank alone, the bank may waive the 
same, and receive the money at a different place in the city, and 
by a different agent, and the Express Company be thereby dis- 
charged from liability. 
15* 



150 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

The delivery of the money by the Express Company, at their of- 
fice, to a person usually employed as a porter at the bank, being 
insuflBcient, unless it was authorized by the bank, it is incumbent 
on the Company, for their defense, to prove such authority. 
This may be direct and express, or implied from the acts of the 
porter, such as receiving money for the bank, on other occasions, 
at the Express office, sent to it in a similar way and with a sim- 
ilar address as that in question, with the knowledge and assent 
of the bank. 

Appeal from a judgment entered at a special 
term, after a trial at the circuit. In November, 
1854, the plaintiffs, being bankers in Livingston 
County, sent by the United States Express Compa- 
ny, of which the defendant was president, a sealed 
package of bank bills, directed on the cover to 
•'People's Bank, 173 Canal Street, New York." 
The agent of the Express Company, on receiving 
the package in Livingston County, gave the follow- 
ing receipt: 

"United States Express Company, 

" Office, No. 82 Broadway, New York. 
"Nov. 18, 1854. 
" S. Sweet & Co. have delivered to us one package 
money, marked as follows: 'People's Bank, 173 Ca- 
nal Street, N. Y.,' and said to contain twenty-eight 
hundred and ninety-two dollars, which we under- 
take to forward to New York, or to the nearest 
agency of this Company only, perils of navigation 
excepted. And it is hereby expressly agreed that 
said United States Express Company are not to be 
held liable for any loss or damage, except as for- 
warders only; nor for any loss or damage of any 
box, package or thing, for over $150, unless the 
just and true value thereof is herein stated; nor for 



WM. SIMMONS, (late of 564 Broadway,) Importer, Manufacturer and Wholesale 

Dealer in MILLINERY AND STRAW GOODS, No. 637 Broadway, up 

stairs, New York. 




UNION ADAMS, MANUFACTURER OF SHIRTS AND HOSIERY TO ORDER, 



150 



NEW YORK MACHINERY DEPOT. 



STEVENS, BHOTHEH & CO., 

No. 222 Pearl Street, New York, 

Uanufactnrers and Sealers in every description of 



I 



J^NJD BOILERS, 



And all other Wood Working MachincL^, of the latest improvements. 
Every size, kind, and quality of 

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ff/lffff/r AND OTHER COMPOSITION METALS, 

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that cannot but give satisfaction to all who favor them with their business. 

TERMS CASH. We charge no extra profit for risks of credit. We give full value 
for the money, and deal honestly with all. 

151 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 151 

any loss or damage by fire; nor upon any property 
or thing unless properly packed and secured for 
transportation; nor upon frail fabrics, unless so 
marked upon the package containmg the same; nor 
upon any fabrics consisting of or contained in glass. 

**For the proprietors, W. W. Finch, Agt. 
" Contents unknown." 

This action was brought to recover damages for 
the non-delivery of the package. The answer ad- 
mitted the receipt of a package from S. Sweet & 
Co., directed to the "People's Bank, 173 Canal 
Street, New York," on the day aforesaid, but de- 
nied any knowledge or information of its contents, 
and put in issue the residue of the complaint. The 
defense set up in the answer was, in substance, 1. 
That the defendants were not common carriers, but 
Express forwarders; that their undertaking was 
evidenced by the receipt delivered by them at the 
time of receiving the package; that such paper cre- 
ated an obligation only to transport to New York, 
which was done, but not to deliver the same at the 
bank, or to the officers thereof, and averred a de- 
livery. The cause came on for trial at the Liv- 
ingston circuit, before Mr. Justice Johnson, and a 
jury, on the 9th of October, 1855. The plaintiff 
proved the receipt of the package by the defend- 
ants; that it contained bank notes; that the plaint- 
iffs had not received the package or the proceeds 
thereof It was also proved that the Express Com- 
pany forwarded the package to their office in New 
York. On its arrival, (on 20th November,) a per- 
son named Messenger, in the employ of the Peo- 
ple's Bank, called for it, received it there, aiid gave 
a receipt for it in the book of the Company. The 



152 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

book showed that he had thus received and receipt- 
ed for the bank every package directed to it, and 
carried by the Company during that month; this 
being the tenth in number. It was further shown 
that this Messenger had received for the six previ- 
ous months more than half of the packages intend- 
ed for the bank; that this mode of deUvery to him 
was adopted at the request of the officers of the 
bank; that it was for their accommodation, and not 
for that of the Express Company; that packages so 
delivered had been regularly credited by the bank, 
and no exception taken. This package thus deliv- 
ered to Messenger was stolen from him before he 
got to the banking house. The bank then, for the 
first time, disowned the agency of Messenger, and 
indemnified the plaintiffs. 

The counsel for the defendants offered to show 
that John J. Messenger was in the habit of receiv- 
ing from the defendants packages of money ad- 
dressed to the bank, and did such other acts out of 
the bank; that a delivery to him at places other 
than at the bank was a good delivery to the bank. 
The counsel for the plaintiffs objected to any evi- 
dence of the acts of Messenger at places other than 
at the bank, or of a deUvery to him at such places, 
by the defendants, of packages of money addressed 
to the bank as a delivery to the bank, unless they 
showed it was with the knowledge and authority of 
the bank. The court overruled the objection, and 
held that the defendants could show the nature and 
character of Messenger's employment and acts for 
the bank outside the banking house; and could in 
this connection show the delivery by the defend- 
ants to Messenger at places other than at the bank- 
ing house at No. 173 Canal Street, at different 



EVANS ^ WATSON'S 

SALAMANDER SAFE. 




Oswego, N. Y., March 27, 1860. 
_ Gentlemen— It affords me much pleasure to inform you that the Safe, No. 5, [upright,] 
which I purchashed of B. Stroud, your tniveliug agent, has passed through an exceediugly 
hot lire, in a three story brick building, which heated the Safe to a white heat, so that the 
corners of it appeared melted; but it jjreserved my books and valuable papers to the amount 
of several thousand dollars, for which 1 feel thauktul. 

Yours, respectfully, J. N. ELDRIDGE. 

El & W» haFC a lar^e assortment of Salamander Safes, 

AT THEIE STORE, 

JVo. 304 €lie§tnut St., Pliiladelpliia, Pa. 



GREAT FIRE-AN OTHER TRIUMPH I 

IvNOxviLLE, Tennessee, March 13, 1859. 
Messrs. Evans & Watson, Phila.: Gentlemen— It atfords me great pleasure to say to you 
that the Salamander Safe, which I purcliased of you in February, Inos, proved to be what you 
recommended it — a sure protection from fire. My storehouse, together with several others, 
was burntd to the ground in March last. The Sate fell through into the cellar, and was ex- 
posed to intense heat for six or eight hours, and when it was taken from the ruins and open- 
ed, all its contents were found to be in a perfect state, the books and papers not being injured, 
any whatever. I can cheerfully recommend your Safes to the community, believing as I do/ 
that they are as near Qre-prool' as it is possible for any Safe to be made. THOS. J. POWELL. 



Xjxst of X=Le»fex*exi.oes : 



United States Mint, Philadelphia. 

do Arwpuals, Philu. and California. 

do Navy, Steain.-iliip t^u.squehanna. 

Germanfown and Norrislown K. R. Co., 4 Safes. 
Pennsylvania R. R. Co., 20 Safes, 
City Comptroller. 
Odd Fellow.s' Hall. Sixth St. 
Nat. Fund and Loan Asso., 3d and Walnut Sts. 
Phila.. Wilming on and Bait. R. R. Co., 16 Safes. 
United Stale.s Ouarterniaster. 
Pennsylvania Blind Society. 
Masonic Grand Lodge, Chestnut St. 
City Bank of Philailelphia. 
Consolidation B&ak, Philadelphia. 



Southwestern Rank, Virginia. 
Bank of Jersey Shore, Penn. 

do Stroudsburg. do 

do Newark, Delaware. 

do Fulton, Atlanta, Geo. 

do Goldsborough, N. C. 

do Salisbury, do 

Lewisburg Bank, Penn. 
Bank of Raleigh, N. C. 

do Phoenixville, Penn. 

do Catasauqua, do 

do Chester Valley, do 
Commonwealth Bank, Philad«lphift. 
Bank of Fottstown. 



152 



A.. H. RITCHIE, 

ANO OTHHK 

IK THE BEST STYLE OP THE ART. 
(See Portrait of A Tj TIN AI>A!T18, iu this Book, opposite page.) 

Steel and Copper-plate Printing carefdlly executed, 

443 BROADWAY, IVEW YORK. 



442 BROADW^AY, NEW YORK, 

Have recently issued the following Engravings, illustrating events in 

AMERICAN HISTORY. 

Engraved by iUr. A. H. Ritchie. 

"Washington akd his Generals." Illustrating a congratulatory meeting after the War, 
of Washington with some /or/j/ other Officers of the Revolutionary Army. 
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•• Clay and Calhoun."-— Size 34x26 inches. Subscription Price Three Dollars. 

153 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 163 

times, of packages of money addressed to the Peo- 
ple's Bank, 173 Canal Street, and which afterwards 
came into the possession of the bank, and were 
treated by it as regularly received and delivered; 
and it would be a question of fact for the jury to 
determine on such evidence whether the same was 
with the knowledge and authority of the bank, and 
if so, it was a good delivery to the bank; to which 
rulings of his honor the judge, the counsel for the 
plaintiffs excepted. 

At the close of the testimony, the jury brought 
in a verdict for the defendants. 

/. W. Gilbert, for the appellants. 

0. Hastings, for the respondents. 

% the Court, T. R. Strong, J. The plaintiffs 
were bankers at Dansville; and the People's Bank, 
to which the package of money was addressed, was 
the corresponding bank of the plaintiffs in the City of 
New York. The package was delivered to the de- 
fendants, as expressed in the receipt, ** to forward to 
New York;" and the legal inference from this rela- 
tion between the plaintiffs and the People's Bank, 
and the sending of the money, in the absence of 
other evidence on the subject, is that the money was 
sent as a payment, either upon a pre-existing debt 
to, or to purchase a credit at that bank, as a pro- 
vision for drafts. Prima facie, a person receiving 
money is entitled to it, and does not become a debt- 
or to the person delivering it; some evidence in 
explanation of the transaction is necessary, to 
establish a liability by the receipt of the money. 
( Welch V. Seaborn, 1 ^tarh. R. 474. Bogert v. Morse, 
1 Comst. 377.) In that view the People's Bank, on 
the receipt of the money, would be the owners 



154 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

of it; and no good reason is perceived why the 
bank might not authorize a delivery of the money 
at the office of the defendants in New York to any 
person it might select; and the defendants, on 
making such a delivery, be discharged of their 
obligation in respect to the delivery, whether their 
obligation was that of common carriers, or, as 
stipulated in the receipt, ''forwarders only." The 
substance and spirit of what the plaintiffs exacted, 
and the defendants undertook, in regard to a de- 
livery, was that there should be such a delivery in 
New York as would charge the bank there with the 
receipt of the money as between it and the plaintiffs. 
The plaintiffs were only interested that there should 
be such a delivery; that the purpose of a payment 
or purchase of credit should be effected; beyond 
that the bank was solely interested, and might, with 
the defendants' consent, direct on the subject as it 
should think proper. It might with such consent 
direct the defendants to deliver to any person, at 
any store or place in the city other than its prin- 
cipal office or place of business, having regard to its 
own interests or convenience, or even the conven- 
ience of the defendants. 

Independent of authority from the People's Bank 
for a different mode of delivery, it was doubtless 
necessary in this case to deliver the money at the 
banking office, to the officer or clerk whose business 
it was to receive money for the bank. The course 
of business of the defendants was to deliver money 
packages for that city according to their address, 
and it must be assumed that the one in question 
was delivered to and received by the defendants in 
reference to that practice, there being no express 
contract in regard to the place of dehvery, or the 



J^O YE S' 




Designed for (he Saving of the Fuel used for Steam Boilers bv 
controlling the Draft iu the Flue or Chimney. 

upon the'pisron in S" 'T ' ^"7 "^ '^ P^""'™ ^''^^e, ) which operates 
upoD the piston m the machine; the Governor havinff a lever anrt h,Il 
same as a pa r of steclvarHs- tho B„ii k • . . ™"' 

where it wHI i„.f , , '^"'^'' *''\^''" ''«"'g ^^t "Pon the Lever at a point 

the throttle to govern the speed of the Engine 

The saving of fuel varies from 10 to 15 per cent., and the cost of th« 
Governor varies from $60 to $100. ^ 

WILLIAM NOYES, 

GENERAL AGENT, 

219 Centre Street, New York. 

154 



RICHARD MURPHY, 

1050, 1052 and 1054 BROADWAY, 

Botween 29th and 30th Streets, 

AKD 

Nos. 26 and 28 WEST 30th STREET, 

Between Broad^vay and Fifth Arenuc, 

i t ^»m ^ 

ALWAYS ON HAND THE FINEST ASSORTiMENT OF 

MARBLE MANTELS 

to be found in the City; comprising all the choice 

FOREIGI il AlERlCAl lARBLES 

now in use. Also, 

MONUMENTS, 

HEADSTONES, 

PLUMBERS' TOPS, 

TILING AND TABLE TOPS. 



Also, Blocks, Slabs, and Tiles cut to sizes and shipped to any part of 
the country. 

155 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 155 

officer or person to whom the delivery should be 
made. The legal dut}^ of the defendants was there- 
fore to deliver according to their usual course of 
business; and so far as there was any implied con- 
tract, it arose out of and corresponded with this 
legal obligation. Only a delivery at the office, to 
the proper officer of the bank, would be a delivery 
According to the address on the package, or which 
would charge the bank with the money. But, as 
already stated, I think the bank might receive the 
money at a different place in the city, and by a dif- 
ferent agent, and the defendants be thereby dis- 
charged from liability. A delivery at the banking 
office, to the general receiving agent, was for the 
benefit of the bank alone, which the bank might 
waive, and substitute another place and agent. 
Any mode of delivery in New York, consistent with 
the object and intent of the plaintiffs in sending the 
money, assented to by the bank, would discharge 
the duty of the defendants as to a delivery of the 
money. 

The delivery of the money by the defendants at 
their office in New York, to a person usually em- 
ployed as a porter of the People's Bank, being in- 
sufficient unless it was authorized by the bank, it 
was incumbent on the defendants for their defense 
to prove such authority. The authority might be 
direct and express, or implied from the acts of the 
person who received the money, such as receiving 
money for the bank on other occasions, at the de- 
fendants' office, sent to it in a similar way and with 
a similar address as that in question, acquiesced in 
by the bank. {Conover v. Mut. Ins. Co., 1 Comst. 
290. Story on Ag. §§ 54 to 56, 84 to 123.) In the 
present case the defendants relied, in support of 



156 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

such authority, upon presumptive evidence, con- 
sisting of a series of similar acts by the alleged 
agent, without, so far as appears, any objection, or 
even inquiries by the bank at any time, where the 
money was received. Looking at the charge to the 
jury in connection with the questions of evidence 
raised, I think the plaintiffs have no substantial 
ground for complaint as to the reception of evi- 
dence on that subject; and I am satisfied there was 
sufficient evidence of such acts as above referred to, 
and the knowledge of and acquiescence therein by 
the bank, to call for the submission of the question 
of agency to the jury. As to such knowledge by 
the bank, it must have been possessed by it, unless 
its officers were guilty of the grossest negligence in 
omitting to inquire how the money was received; 
and if they knew it was delivered at the defendants' 
office for them, they must, in the absence of evi- 
dence that they objected, be deemed to have assent- 
ed to the practice of the defendants to make such 
a delivery. 

I see no error in the charge or refusals to charge, 
and am of opinion the judgment should be affirmed. 

Note. — The foregoing reports of Judicial Decisions are extract- 
ed from the following named law books, for sale by Halsted & Co., 
Law Booksellers, No. 1 Nassau Street, New York. Russell & 
Annis v. Livingston & Wells, vide Smith's New York Reports, 
Court of Appeals, vol. 2, p. 515. Holford v. Adams & Co., vide 
Duer's Reports, New York Superior Court, vol. 2, p. 471. Louis 
Newstadt v. Alvin Adams and others, vide Oner's Reports, New 
York Superior Court, vol. 5, p. 13. Sweet & Faulkner v. Bar- 
ney, vide Barbour's Reports, New York Supreme Court, vol. 2i, 
p. 533. 



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IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 



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156 



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Bleaching Powder. 
Soda Ash. 
Alum, Rosin. 
Oil of Vitriol. 
Pnissiate of Potash. 
Pulp Blue. 

Bichromate of Potash. 
Hypernic, Ultramarine. 
Paper Scales. 
Felting, Wire Cloth. 
Canvas for Dryer Felts. 
Woolen Dryer Felts. 
Twine, &c., &o. 



For Grocers. 



Wrapping Paper. 
Straw " 

Tea " 

Shoe 

Writing " 
Envelopes, &c. 



For Dry Ck>ods Dealers. 

30x40 Manilla. 

36x40 

40x48 

Cap, Letter, and Note Paper. 

Envelopes, &c. 



For Printers. 

Printing Paper, all sizes and weights. 
Colored " " " 

Book " " " 

Flat Caps and Letter Paper. 



For Stationers. 

Cap, Letter and Note Paper. 
Tissue and Colored Paper. 
Blotting Paper. 
Envelopes, &c. 



For Lithographers and Bn- 
gravers. 

Lithograph Paper. 
Bond Paper. 
Bank Note Paper. 



For Hardware Dealers and 
Manufacturers. 

Hardware and Manilla Paper. 
Writing Paper and Envelopes. 



For Fancy Ooods Bouses. 

Cap, Letter, and Note Paper. 
Colored and Manilla " 
Blue and White Bonnet Boards. 
Brown " " 

White " " &c. 



15t 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 157 

SUPREME COURT— SPECIAL TERM. 

Before Hon. Judge Morris. 

Liabilities of Express Companies as Common Carriers. 

Feb. 13. — Herman Hersfield and others vs. A. Adams Sf Co, 
The plaintiffs are partners, merchants, having a house at New 
York and another at Sau Francisco. 

The defendants are partners, transacting Express business, the 
forwarding and care of packages for hire from the City of New 
York to San Francisco, in California. The defendants do not 
own any of the means (vessels and boats) of transportation be- 
tween New York and Sau Francisco, neither are they in any 
manner interested in them, or have they the least management or 
control of them, either in person or by agents. The packages 
which the defcnaants expressed to San Francisco, they have con- 
veyed in their own name from place to place, in the vessels and 
conveyances owned by others, plying upon the route between the 
two cities, used in common by the community. The plaintiffs on 
the 28th day of August, 1850, delivered to the defendants two 
trunks containing clothing, worth $2,025 loo, to be forwarded and 
transported by the defendants to San Francisco, to Mr. Burnett, 
the house of the plaintiffs, to be sold for plaintiffs and on their 
account. The trunks were properly protected with canvass. The 
plaintiffs paid to the defendants $219 75 compensation for for- 
warding and transporting the trunks. The defendants, upon the 
receipt of the trunks and the money, gave the plaintiffs the fol- 
lowing receipt: 

Adams & Co's New York and California Package ) 
Express.— New York, Aug. 28, 1850. J 

Received from HersBeld, Burnett & Back, in apparent good 
order, to be transported by our express, the following articles, 
marked as below, which we promise to forward in like order, sub- 
ject to the agreement now made, to Mr. Burnett, at San Fran- 
cisco. It is agreed, and is part of the consideration of this con- 
tract, that we are not to be responsible for any loss or damage 
arising from the dangers of ocean or river navigation, leakage, 
fire, or from any cause whatever, unless the same be jiroved to 
have occurred from the fraud or gross negligence of ourselves, our 
agents or servants; and we are in no event to be made liable be- 
yond our route as herein receipted, value under $100, unless oth- 
erwise herein stated. Freight paid here $219 75 — marked [N3,] 
*50.51. Packages — two trunks. San Francisco. For Adams 
& Co. COBB. 

The defendants shipped the trunks on board one of the steam- 
ers plying between New York and Chagres in their own name, 



168 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

and paid the freight on them, tlie truuks arriving safely at Cha- 
gres. On the 9th of September, 1850, the defendants shipped 
these trunks in their own name, paying freight for them, on board 
of a flatboat, Capt. Thomas Angels, for Cruces, on the route to 
San Francisco, which was the usual conveyance. The boat arriv- 
ed safely at a point upon the Chagres River below the town of 
Varmos, on the evening of the 12th of September, 1850. The 
night was dark, and the river was rising rapidly. Capt. Angela 
deemed it imprudent to proceed, and made the boat fast at the 
bank of the river. At 1 o'clock on the morning of the ] 3th of 
September, it was discovered that the boat was leaking, owing 
to the springing of a plank, produced by the pressure of the cur- 
rent and the drift wood passing down the river, and not by any 
insuflBciency of the boat or neglect of master or crew. Captain 
and crew made every effort to prevent the boat sinking; but the 
pressure of the current caused the boat to careen, and she sunk. 
Captain and crew exerted themselves to save the cargo; they got 
much of it on the bank, and among it the trunks in question, and 
then the crew deserted. The master of the boat reshipped to 
Chagres the trunks in question, and other packages saved from 
the flatboat. On the 26th of September, 1850, Captain Angels 
called upon three respectable merchants of Chagres to survey the 
packages saved from the flatboat, and among them the trunks in 
question. The surveyors considered the trunks in question and 
their contents as being damaged and unmerchantable. They 
signed a certificate to that effect, advising that they should be 
sold. The conduct of the captain and the surveyors was honest. 
On the 21st of September, 1850, the trunks and goods in ques- 
tion were sold by Capt. Angels at public auction, and were pur- 
chased by W. Porter, the highest bidder, for $350. The sum 
($350) was afterwards remitted to the defendants at New York, 
and was received by them. The goods from the two trunks were 
sent by Mr. Porter to San Francisco, and sold by him for $2,000. 
There was a semi-monthly means of transportation from Chagres 
to San Francisco. The goods were never forwarded to Mr. Bur- 
nett. There was a semi-monthly means of communication between 
Chagres and New York. The plaintiffs were not notified of the 
accident or of the sale. The defendants have offered judgment 
for $569 75, being the amount for which the trunks and goods 
sold at Chagres, and the amount of freight paid in advance, and 
interest on both sums. There is no pretence that fraud has been 
committed by the defendants or their agents, or that defendants 
or their agents knew of the accident or of the sale, until informed 
of both, at New York, by the receipt of the amount of sale trans- 
mitted to them. 

Morris, Justice. — The defendants in this case, not being own- 




NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
is^ j^ 1<T TJ F .A^ C^ rr TJ Tl JEIJ^ & OF 

WHEELS AND WHEEL STUFFS, 

OF EVERT DESCRIPTION. ' 

SPOKES, FINISHED AND UNFINISHED. 

Hy§i, iiiii, sAWEi rELLiEi, 

SPRING BAES, PLAIN AND CARVED, 



WllFfLITlIi 



On hand and made to order, of the best Eastern timber. 

Also, Manufacturers of SARVEN'S PATENT WHEEL, 

which for lightness and durability excel all other wheels made. 



'©> 



New Haven, May 16(h, 1860. 
I, James D. Sarvcn. hereby certify that the NEW HAVEN WHEEL CO., per Henry G. Lewis, 
Secretary, and Messrs. WOODBURN & SCOTT, of St. Louis, Mo., have the exclusive right to 
manufacture my PATENT WHEEL and sell the same as an article of merchandise to those not 
owning shop rights. JAMES D. SARVEN. 



For particulars in regard to the Patent Wheel, or shop rights, address either of the 
parties. 

HENRY G. LEWIS, Secretary. 

158 



' FUNSTON & SGOFIELD, 



AGENTS FOR 



G. A. LILLIENDAHL'S 



WiM^M^%WS^M 



I 




Osk^ 






■ 



DEPOT 



Torpedoes, Fire Crackers, Joss-Sticks, &c. 



159 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 159 

ers of or interested in the vessels and boats in which these trunks 
were to be conveyed between New York and San Francisco, were 
not common carriers, and are not liable as such. 

The defendants are bailees for hire to receive these trunks at, 
and to forward them from and to, place to place, to destination, 
by the ordinary and approved means of conveyance, and had a 
legal right to define the extent of their liability. 

By the contract in this case defendants obligated themselves to 
deliver the trunks and contents specified to Mr. Burnett, at San 
Francisco. They were not to be liable "for any loss or damage 
arising from dangers of the ocean or river navigation, leakage, 
fire, or from any cause whatever, unless the same be proved to 
have occurred from the fraud. or gross negligence of the defend- 
ants, their agents or servants." 

In this case it is established that up to the time when Capt. 
Angels and his crew recovered the trunks from the sunken flat- 
boat and placed them upon the bank of the river Chagres, there 
had been no fraud or gross negligence by the defendants or their 
agent — consequently, the defendants are not liable for any dam- 
age that had occurred up to that period. 

The only remaining question is whether, according to the spirit 
and letter of the defendants' agreement with the plaintiffs under 
the facts proved, they or their agents were guilty of gross negli- 
gence in not delivering the trunks and contents in their damaged 
condition to Mr. Burnett, at San Francisco. 

The defendants' contract must be construed with reference to 
the rights and obligations of other persons engaged in the trans- 
portation of these trunks to and with the plaintiffs. 

Capt. Angels, of the flatboat on the river Chagres, was a com- 
mon carrier, and during the time he was in possession of the 
goods was responsible to the plaintiffs to the full value of the 
trunks and contents — $2,025 09 — for the faithful performance of 
his duty, and as an insurer, and for all his legal liability as com- 
mon carrier; and he has a right, for the purpose of saving him- 
self harmless of legal responsibility, to do with these trunks and 
contents whatever the law under similar circumstances authorized 
common carriers to do; and the defendants, under the authority 
contained in their agreement, had no power to prevent it. 

In addition to this, the defendants and their agents had no 
knowledge of what Capt. Angels was doing. 

The first information they received upon that subject was after 
he had sold the trunks and goods. The defendants, therefore, 
have not been guilty of negligence. 

There must be judgment for plaintiffs for $50t Y5, being the 
amount for which the defendants offered that plaintiffs might take 
judgment, (and which offer must control,) with costs to the de- 
feiidants, since the offer of judgment. 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 



Symbols. 



The symbol long adopted by the American Ex- 
press Company was the picture of a dog guard- 
ing a safe. Their new building upon Hudson 
Street is adorned with a fine bas-relief of that ap- 
propriate emblem of care and fidelity, sculptured 
in marble. It conveys a good lesson to Express 
agents and messengers, though intended mainly, I 
presume, as a figurative assurance to the public. 
A symbol less felicitous, used by an Express mana- 
ger for a year or two, to our own knowledge, was 
a greyhound running at full speed — intended prob- 
ably to indicate dispatch. Unfortunately for his 
customers it obtained at length a more pregnant 
significance, for the manager himself ran away. It 
only wanted a sack of gold on the back of the 
** hound," to render the picture perfect. 

"Speaking of guns," another Express emblem, 
which we have seen somewhere, is a deer, going at 
the rate of 1.20, to signify speed. It had too 
much the look of a fugitive. The ancient mytho- 
logical figure of Mercury, with wings to his heels 
and head, has been used, time out of mind, as a 
,symbol of swift messengers; but as Mercury was 
the god of thieves, it applies more appropriately to 
carriers who live fast; for how can they, with their 
limited salaries, indulge in any superfluities without 
stealing? 

The carrier-dove is not much better. 




Received large Silver Medal at the Fair of the N. Y. State Agricultural Society, 

held at Albany, Oct., 1859; also, large Silver .^Tedal at the Fair of 

the American Institute, New York. Nov., 1859. 




: FERGUSON.ALBJI/ir, 



The peculiarities of thl« Store are, the advantages it possostii's for niollinB orM<»ats, Haking Buckwheat Cakes, Roasting and Boil- 
ing Vegetables, without being subjected to the inconvenience of the smoke escaping into the room. The above view Hhows the Rroil- 
Ing and Koustlng Ovens, witli the doors thrown open, sliowing In the Uroillng Oven, the gridlion in Its proper place. Wlieu broiling, 
or baking (if Buck wlieat Cakes is to be done, the ilaniper luiudle. A, is to be drawn out. wlilch uncovers a liole cut in the top-plate of the 
Broiling Oven, ptoduriiig a drnrt widcli eOectually carries of all Bmokc and vapors arising during tl>e process. The Koasting Oven la 
rigged with a spit and cog-wliecl, C, wluch is intended to regulate the roast. The draft to this Oven is produced by means of the 
damper E, and the damper placeil at tlie bottom of the said oven near the heartli, in front. Tlie nniin oven seen at the left, with the 
doors closed, U one of the liest ovens for baking now In use, possesBiug advantages whicli claim for It tlie name of a vast improvement, 
tliere Iwing presented to tbe oven Ave heating surfaces; there being a fifth Hue lunning tlie whole length of tlie Stove on the back, 
presenting a heatius lurrace to the back of the main oven, as well as tlie two .sides and top and bottom. 

E. BACKUS & CO., Sole Manufacturers, 233 "Water St., N. Y. 

160 [turn over.] 



A-'l 




The above is a diagram of the Combination Stove and Range, showing the course of the flues, 
the location of the fire-box, and of the different ovens, &c., &c. 

We have also of this Stove an extensive top for each size, for the purpose of placing a tin boiler 
on for heating water, furnished with an iron cover, jointed so that it can be thrown back, and a dip- 
per or pan used to dip out the water. We have also furnished all but the smallest size, the 7-inch, 
with water baclts, which can be easily attached. 

We have four sizes of this Stove, aa follows: 7, 8, 9, and 10 inch boiler holes, with and without 
extension tops. 

EVANS BACKUS. HENRY H. GIBBS. 



BBOoniniBBSJLViesrs. 

Red Hook, New York, Nov. 23, 1859. 
Mr. E. Backus: Dear Sir — The Stove you sent us has been in operation since received, and was 
all it was recommended to be. It works admirably. We would like to have an understanding with 
you for the exclusive sale of the Stove iu our town; let us hear from you. 

Respectfully yours, 

L. & J. CURTIS. 

New York. March 2G, 18G0. 
Messrs. E. Backus & Co.: Gentlemen— Since getting one of your Combination Stoves, my labor 
has beeu reduced one half, every part performing its functions to my entire satisfaction. Tue com- 
partment provided for broiling Meats and baking Buckwheat Cakes, &c., acting with the best success. 
The roasting compartment doing meats to a turn. The main oven baking bread as It should be 
baked; everything can I do at one and the same time, and with one fire; and all 1 have to say is, 
that this atove is the one nearest perfection I have yet used. 

Yours, truly, 

JAS. W. COLLINS, Collins' Hotel, 279 Hudson Street, New York. 



Sold by E. BACKUS & CO., No. 233 Water Street, IVew York. 

16X 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 161 

very uncertain and insecure messenger. Harnden's 
emblem upon a circular advertising the first Express 
between the New World and the Old, was a 
vignette representing the two hemispheres, with 
himself striding from one to the other — one foot 
being on the American shore, and the other on 
"the chalky cliffs of Albion;" while upon his back 
he carried a bag of newspapers, letters, &c. 

The construction of Rrailways, the origin and ex- 
tension of Express routes, the creation of Ocean 
Steamship lines, the discovery and operation of 
Morse's Magnetic Telegraph, the construction by 
Butterfield, Dinsmore, Fargo, Spencer, and other. 
Expressmen, of an Overland Mail Stage Road, 
through vast mountain ranges and desert plains to 
California, now succeeded by this grandest of all 
human works, the union of America and Europe 
\>y Telegraph, put all emblems at defiance. For^ 
merly symbols were made use of to convey a more 
exalted idea of the thing referred to, but they have 
no power to enhance the glory of, or even to do 
simple justice to, the grand achievements of the; 
present age. Nor do the Express Companies need 
them. Of course there is no objection to their use, 
but the phrases, * ' With the speed and safety of th& 
Express,''^ and ''With the promptness and fidelity of 
an Expressman^^^ ought to become so proverbial, 
that no comparison or poetic image shall be able 
to make their impression stronger. ; 



162 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

There could be no better symbol of ** safety " in 
the transmission of money, than a picture of an 
Express messenger, sitting upon his iron box, in 
the Express car of a fast train, rushing along a 
down-grade. If by any means we could make the 
picture convey the idea that the faithful man was 
well paid for all the risks he runs, the idea would 
be doubtless still more satisfactory. 

Irresponsible Express Enterprises. 

Every now and then a new Express starts into an 
ephemeral existence, without either capital or facil- 
ities. The Express business cannot be learnt in a 
day, nor can it be conducted without a reserve fund, 
to pay the losses which are liable to occur, even in 
the best managed companies. Two or three very 
clever fellows — A., B., and C, for instance — may 
advertise to run an Express. That is easily done; 
and if they have either money or credit enough to 
obtain an office and a team, possibly they may 
secure, also, a contract for room for their freight 
upon an express train. But supposing that they 
should lose, or have stolen from them, a valuable 
package intrusted to their care? The American 
Express had two boxes, of $25,000 each, stolen 
from them, and paid for them in full. The Adams 
Express Co. lost $10,000 at one lick on their South- 
ern route, and paid for it, in hard dollars, to the 
last dime. The same responsibility and honor have 
been noticeable in the other prominent Express 



IMPROVED EUROPEAN RANGES. 




These Ranges, for Economy of Fuel, Solidity of Castings, and general 
eifEcifnoy, surpass any and all others in the market* 

iiicy may be seen ia use at the following places: 



MADISON SQUARE HOTEL. .. .New York. 

IIVING HOUSE 

NATIONAL HOTEL 

LORENCK'S " 

i'ETIT & CROOK 



UNION HALL Sarato{?a Sprinj?s. 

MASSASOIT HOUSE Springfield. 

PULASKI HOUSl^J Savannah. 

FORT WM. HENRY HOTEL. Lake George. 
RETREAT FOR THE INSANE. . .Hartford. 



And at many of the best private houses in New York City and throughout the country. 

Send for a circular. 



BRAMHALL, HEDGE ^ CO., 

Manufacturers, No. 442 Broadway, New York. 



162 



BOSTON FAUCET COMPANY, 

GORE BLOCK, OPPOSITE REVERE HOUSE, 
BOSTOI¥, 

SELF-IXMEUIi&mmiFlllICSTS. 

OF ALL VARIETIES, 

BEER P«MPS, FORCE PUMPS, WATER CLOSETS, 

PATENT HOSE PIPES, HOSE COUPUtMCS, 

^imm #augfis, ^^fat^f d^augfjs and €!odis in tlitto, 

STEAM VALVES, PATENT SOLDEBING IRONS, 
VOSE'S PATENT PORTABLE FIRE ANNIHILATOR, &e.; 



TOGETHER WITH 



ILL iliii IF iiiSS Will 

AND PLUMBERS' MATERIALS. 



THIS COMPANY MANUFACTURE, ALSO, ALL KINDS OF 



5 



INCLUDING 



KEROSENE, COAL OIL, FLUID AND GAS BURNERS, LAMP 

STANDS, CHAIN AND HARP HANGINGS, BRACKETS, 

CHANDELIERS, IMPROVED STYLE OF SHADES, 

CLASPS, &c., &c. 

REUBEN J. TODD, 

Agent and Treasurer. 

New York Agency, 442 Broadway, bet. Howard and Grand Sts. 

163 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 163 

Companies mentioned in this book. But what 
would "A., B. and C." do in such an emergency? 
Have they the money with which to satisfy the 
shipper for the loss? It may be $500, it may be 
$5,000: the loss is quite as likely to be large as 
small; and more so, for the greater the sum the 
greater the temptation to dishonest clerks or out- 
side thieves to steal it. 

Bogus ** Expresses." 

The public are often imposed upon, and the rep- 
utation of honest expressmen is hurt, by swindlers, 
pretending to do an express business on their own 
account, or 'as employees of the good and reliable 
companies. The least injurious of these scoun- 
drels, perhaps, are those who, with no other facili- 
ties than are enjoyed by any common freight for- 
warder, advertise to put freight through with ex- 
press speed. 

The worst form of the bogus express, however, 
is that in which the swindler receives packages to 
forward, and audaciously appropriates them to his 
own use, or deposits them with a pawnbroker. 
This rascality succeeds best when the bogus ex- 
pressman pretends to forward parcels to Europe. 
In that case it takes the victim several months to 
discover the fraud; and even then he finds it so 
difficult to prove it, that he suffers his injury to go 
unredressed. Pursuing their impositions with im- 
punity, the swindlers go a step further, and «a^l 



164 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

worthless bills of exchange upon the principal for- 
eign cities. 

A trick practised considerably of late years, by 
rogues in the name of expressmen, is to call upon 
people at their houses with bundles, purporting to 
have come by express from a distance, upon which 
they have the hardihood to collect charges. Their 
demands are usually paid, and their victims too 
late discover that they have got in exchange for 
their money only a parcel of paper rags, or other 
trash. In one instance, last winter, a box of 
" game" was left at a house up town, and "20 shil- 
lings charges" collected — the rascal remarking that 
he believed it was English hares. The lady was de- 
lighted with the idea that it was a present from a 
very dear friend in England, and she was dying of 
impatience until her servant-man had opened it, 
and discovered that it contained only a dead cat. 

Another mode, of the same system, is to coun- 
terfeit the custom, practised by the legitimate ex- 
presses, of notifying, by filling up printed forms, 
those persons for whom there are unclaimed par- 
cels, &c., in the office. For example: 

"Mr. John , Cayuga. 

Sir: There is a box in this office to your address. 
You will please remit to us the charges on the same, 
viz., $3.25, and remove the same; or, if. you wish, 
it will be forwarded by express to you. 

Jones & Brown, Express Agents, 
New York, Oct. 12, '68. 711 South St. 




■"^^JJ^*.**^"* 



JOHN K. STIMSON, 

Bank, Insurance, Mercantile and Express 




PI 



C^ ^5 








AND 



"CJJ 



ENGRAVING, LITHOGRAPHY & JOB PRINTING 

EXFXJUTED WITH NEATNESS AND DISPATCH. 

New- York. 

166* 




J. R. BENJAMIN'S 

Brass Springs Trusses, 

J^To. 1 Barclay Street^ 

(Opposite the Astor House,) 



These Trusses surpass all others for ease, durability and 
effecting a Radical Oure. They never rust nor grow weak 
from use. Pressure graduated to suit every variety of cases 
or circumstances. By sending the measure round the hips 
and side ruptured, a perfect fit is guaranteed. This Truss 
has taken the highest premium ever awarded, (a Gold 
Medal,) and never has failed of taking the first premium 
when exhibited. 

Also, Manufacturer of Fine Rolled Silver^ for plating. 

165 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 166 

This ruge, practised extensively by a brace of 
rascals here a year or two ago, was very successful. 
Money was remitted to them from all quarters, and 
it was two or three months before the game was 
blocked. 

Beyond question, these frauds were either exe- 
cuted or suggested by persons formerly employed 
by the regular Express Companies, but discharged 
for misconduct. And this leads us again to the 
reflection, that it is of very material if not vital 
importance to the Express proprietors, that they 
should employ the most reliable men that they can 
find adapted to their business; and when they have 
them they ought to pay them well enough to se- 
cure a continuance of their service. 

Railroad Companies and Baggage. 

In the Liverpool (England) County Court judg- 
ment was given in the case of " Wignall vs, the 
London and Northwestern Railway Company,'' in 
which the plaintiff, a commercial traveller, claimed 
£25 as compensation for the loss of a desk, stolen 
from a carriage in the Lime Street station, (where 
it had been placed by one of the company's por- 
ters,) while the plaintiff was in the refreshment 
room. Three grounds of defence were taken: that 
the plaintiff, not having booked when the desk was 
taken, no contract had been entered into, and 
therefore the company were not responsible for the 
loss; that the desk was not "luggage," within the 



166 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

ordinary meaning of the Act of Parliament; and 
that the order books and private papers in the desk 
were "writings," within the meaning of the Carri- 
ers' Act. His Honor decided that the first objec- 
tion could not be sustained, as the company's serv- 
ant had taken charge of the plaintiffs luggage and 
placed it in the carriage; and as to the second and 
third objections, that nothing could be more essen- 
tially luggage than a travelling desk, except, per- 
haps, articles of apparel required for the journey; 
and order books were absolutely necessary to com- 
mercial travellers, in order to carry on their busi- 
ness. He then gave the plaintiff a verdict for £3 
IO5., the declared value of the desk; £2 IO5. for 
the inconvenience arising from the loss of the order 
books; and Id., as the nominal value of the private 
papers. He also allowed the plaintiff his costs. 



f toe ^|t»ciisje Ji0jtiije 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



We would say of this Hotel, that it is the best kept house and has a 
better table than any we know of in the interior of this State. Its early 
proprietor was Phi. Rust, but for some years*past it has been conducted 
by Wm. D. Stewart, assisted by Mr. Burton. Its location, immediately 
adjoining the N. Y. Central R. R. Depot, (with which it communicates by 
a side door,) renders it a convenient place to obtain a capital meal when 
one is passing through Syracuse by rail. 



08 




A. F. MAYHER & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in all kinds of 

AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL 




Also, Inaporters of and Dealers in all kinds of 

Grain, Field, Grass, Garden and Flower 



We have manufactured, /or our sales exclusively^ the best LOCOMOTIVE 
BOILER PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES that are made in the United 
States, from three to thirty-five horse-power, at prices ranging from $4T5 
to $2,400 ; all complete, with smoke-pipe and steam gauge, ready to fire 
up with wood or coal. Tliey have two balance-wheels that are used as 
puUies, and trucks are furnished, if wanted, at $50, so that the Engines may 
be moved from place to place. We manufacture over 150 varieties of Plows. 
All approved kinds of Corn Shellers, Harrows, Cultivators, Horse Hoes, 
Straw, Stalk and Hay Cutters, Grain, Coffee, Hommony and Paint Mills, 
Carts, Wagons, Wheelbarrows, Hay Presses, Horse Powers, Threshers and 
Separators and Combined Threshers and Cleaners, Mowing and Reaping 
Machines, &c. Orders promptly filled. Descriptive Catalogues and Circu- 
lars furnished or mailed on applcation. 

A. F. MAYHER & CO. 

Warehouse and Seed Store, 54 Vesey Street. 
Manufactory, 550 and 552 Water, and 294 and 296 
Cherry Streets, New-York. 

167 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 167 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS 



OP 



EXPRESS AND RAILROAD LIFE. 



The Boy in the Box. 

In an Express office not more than three hundred 
miles from Boston, the watchman, who slept in the 
building, was advised that sundry articles of an 
eatable nature had been abstracted from the cellar. 
It was supposed that some juvenile thief was in the 
custom of crawling through the bars on one of the 
cellar windows, though the space was so narrow 
that it seemed incredible that any but a very small 
child could get through it. Still, with all his vigi- 
lance, the watchman found that the depredations 
were continued. To add to his aggravation, the 
Express clerks and drivers insisted that he must be 
in Ihe habit of sleeping with " a brick in his hat;'' 
and others insinuated that he never went to sleep 
hungry. One night, as he sat alone in the office, 
meditating somewhat impatiently upon these un- 
just suspicions, he thought he heard a foot-fall on 

16* 



168 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

the cellar stairs ! Quicker than you can say "/act 
Robinson,''^ he reached the stairway! He had for- 
gotten to take a light, and could see nothing, but 
heard footsteps retreat precipitately. It was not a 
heavy sound, and it must be, he thought, the sus- 
pected boy. Obtaining his lantern quickly, he de- 
scended the stairs, lickerty -split, and rushed to the 
window to prevent the young rascal's exit in that 
direction. There was a sound at the other end of 
the cellar, as if the rogue was seeking to screen 
himself behind some of the casks, barrels, boxes, 
and other freight in transitu. In a high state of 
virtuous indignation and nervous excitement, the 
watchman proceeded to get at him. In a few mo- 
ments he discovered a corner of a garment sticking 
6Mt of a long narrow box, a rod or two distant, 
just beyond a dozen or more of large bundles which 
blocked his way. Putting down his lantern, he 
clambered over these articles, (nearly breaking his 
neck in his hurry,) and jerking away the loose cover, 
discovered what he supposed, by the dim hght, to 
be the boy in the box. Madder than sixty, he de- 
tiunciated a curse upon his eyes, and " pitched into 
him.'' Whack! whack! whack! one blow followed 
another; the exasperated watchman meanwhile 
doing up some of the tallest kind of profanity, min- 
gled with such remarks as the following: 

" You thief, you ! I'll learn yer to slip in 

and steal our crackers ! This aint the first time; 
no, nor the second nuther ! I know yer, you Httle. 



THE WASHBOilllD ENTIIIELy DISPENSED WITH 



THE 



WAS HING MACH INE. 

SimpIt.Ctonomital, §uraWe, an^ tmnt get m\ of axkx. 

No Washing Fluids or Acids required; nothing but Soap and Water. 

Ffom 50 to /5 per cent, sad in Clotliingjime and Labof. 

DESCRIPTION. 

It consists of a metal cylinder, with elects on the inner surface, and an interior 
cylinder of wood, with elects. There is a space of from six to eight inches between 
the two cylinders. One crank turns both cylinders at the same time in opposite di- 
rections, rapidly creating a suds, forcing the water through the clothes, and effectually 
removing the dirt. 

ADV.A.NTAGIiS. 

This Machine dispenses entirely with the washboard. THE ACTION OF THE 
WATER CLEANS THE CLOTHES, consequently there is NO WEAR OF FABRIC. 
The SAVING OF CLOTuixo, and the saving of time and labou, are equally remarkable. 
The Machine is simple in construction and management — a child can use it. It is 
well made, of galvanized iron, and is very durable. It will wash the finest as well 
as the coarsest fabrics — a single small piece, or a quantity of clothing. For Flan- 
nels (usually the most difficult things for the laundress to manage) its operation is 
astonishing, as it thoroughly cleans them, with no possibility of shrinkage. 

FRIOES. 

No. 1. $12 00 

No. 2 }tjl4 00 

No. 3 $16 00 

Machines can be seen in operation at 

494 BROADWAY, east side above Broome St. 

Ladies and Gentlemen are invited to call and examine it, or what is better, send 
your dirty clothes and test it. 

SULLrlVAlV & HYATT, Proprietors. 

N. B.— "\Yholesale orders will be received at our office, 54 Beekman Street. 

169 



THE J. L fflOTT mON WO£ES, 

264 and 266 IXTater St., N. Y., 



MANUPACTUREBS OP 



RAJ^GES, 

FARMERS' BOILERS, 

ntON SINES, 



from 2 inches to 12 inches diameter, and 

PIPE FITTINGS TO iflATCH. 



Castings of every kind made to order. 



Foundff at Moll Haven, Weslcliestef Counlf, i I 



170 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 169 

whelp of Satan ! I recognize yer features ! I know 
yer mother, you Uttle Irish son of a slut 1 Bring 
an honest fellow into disgrace, will yer ?" 

The last reflection, stinging him with the remem- 
brance of the slurs which had been cast upon his 
fidelity, even by the greenest hand in the office, on 
the score of the abstracted crackers, the enraged 
watchman quit thumping the "thief in the stomachy 
and struck him on the head. His fist sunk into the 
skull under the force of the blow, and there was a 
crackling sound, like the breaking of a bone. At 
this the watchman's fury evaporated instantane- 
ously, and his heart sank within him ! 

''Little hoyf said he, in a tremulous, anxious 
voice, ''little hoyf 

There was no reply, and he turned as pale as 
death as the truth flashed upon him that life was 
extinct. Almost ready to expire, himself, with the 
unpleasant reflection that he was a murderer, he 
staggered (very weak at the knees) over the bun- 
dles, and obtaining his lantern, went back, sick at 
heart, to take a better view of his victim. Unfor- 
tunately, in his trepidation, he tripped up, over a 
bundle of G-leason's new weekly, or Harpers', and 
in his fall his light was extinguished. Horribly 
discomfited, and groaning in spirit as he wiped the 
cold sweat from his brow, the poor man picked 
himself up and groped his way up stairs, where 
the gas was burning. His first impulse was to run 
away, but being an honest, law-abiding citizen, he 



170 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

promptly decided to face the music. After many 
painful reflections, (not to say conflicting emotions,) 
he concluded to give himself up immediately to the 
authorities. 

Before executing this intention, he went to a desk, 
and taking from it a package of Schiedam Schnapps, 
applied it to his mouth and turned the bottom up 
solemnly towards the ceiling; then replaced the 
cork, and sighed deeply as he put the bottle into 
the desk again. He then proceeded to the nearest 
police station. It was near two in the morning, 
but the captain was on hand. 

" What are you here for, Mr. Lodge, at this time 
o'night?" said he, with a yawn. "What's broke?" 

" Ah, that^s it!" replied our pale friend. ''It is 
broke. I have fractured the skull. There's no 
doubt of it. Would that there was !" 

"What?" ejaculated the amazed oflficer. "Do 
you mean to say that " 

" Yes, sir, that's it. I've gone and done a mur- 
der, and I've come to give myself up." He then 
related how he had unintentionally, by an unfortu- 
nate blow, deprived the robber of life. " But come 
with me," said he in conclusion, " and I will show 
you all." 

The officer followed him, and entering the Ex- 
press office, they descended with a brace of lanterns 
to witness the bloody spectacle. Imagine their sur- 
prise, and the mingled joy and shame of our friend, 
on discovering the boy in the box to be only the 




^m-Pmms^lf 



■"^r - 




^^m 



S^SSUMi 




NEW HAVEN, CONN 

'^m 61 AND eT'cHAPEL streeO 



COACHES, COUPES, BAROUCHES, 
BRETTS, CHARIOTEES, PHAETONS, 
BUGGIES AND CARRIAOES OE EVERr 
DESCRIPTION CONSTANTLY ON HAND 



CI' ^^Z^^^ '0) f'-^ 



o 




Designed tor the use of Students, Kegatta Clubs, Public and 
1^ Private Parks. Agricultural Fair Grounds tc, Jtc^^ 
These^ Carriages may T)e used separately or in trains. 



^ 



'1; B.«.Z.CK»Uo8|, ~ ~~ ' H.rtfova.Con 



RODM£Y & ATKINS 



No. 16 Court St. cor. Pearl St., Buffalo, N. T. 




Have always on hand an extensive as- 
sortment of Kosewood, Mah(>{?any, Black 
Walnut and VVhitewood Coffins, Shrouds 
of all descriptions, Caps, Cravats, &c. 
Zinc Linings for Coffins, rendering them 
perfectly air-tight. Hearses and (Carria- 
ges furnished to order. Prices moderate, 
and a liberal discount made to the trade. 

JOHN RODNEY. R. P. ATKINS. 



MAQIC INSECT POWDER, 



FOR THE SPEEDY EXTERMINATION OF 



€/i 




To Housekeepers, Hotel Keepers, Restaurants, Confectioners, Bakers, Steamboat and Ship- 
masters, and everybody whose premises are infested with Insects, this Powder is invaluable. 

JB@^ Price only 25 cents a Box ! -^^a 
JOHN K, STDISON, Proprietor's Agent, 

No. 77 Cedar St., New York. 

Orders by mail or Express promptly attended to. 

172 



CURTIS AKERLY, 

General C0mmissi0n P^erc|ant 



IMPORTER AND DEALER IN 



314 Front Street, 

Near Beekman St., SEW ^®BKa 



J8®» Consignments of Fruit and Produce solicited. 

JOSEPH BEE8L<1:Y, 

FASHIONABLE 




T H^Ki^ 



p 



525 BROAD'WAT, 



In the St. Nicholas Hotel Building, 



SrHW '2'®IBl£c 



Mr. Beesley has been well known in Broadway for many years past, as 
a fashionable Boot Maker, and is confident that he can satisfy the most 
fastidious taste in style, fit, and materials used in his manufactures. Gentle- 
men who order boots of him may rest assured that he employs only the neat- 
est and most thorough workmen, and uses the best stock to be had in this 
or any other market. Since the opening of the St. Nicholas Hotel, he has 
occupied a store in the same building, where he will be happy to receive, at 
all times, a continuance of the patronage heretofore accorded to him, and 
any new cash custom that may offer. 



m. WILiIiARD, the Bed and ITIattress merchant. 

As long ago as 1839, when Harndea started the first Express, one of his customers was Martin Wil- 
lard, then, and ever since, (until lately,) occupying his famous old stand in Chatham Square, where he 
sold the best Beds and Bedding, at cheaper prices than they could be had anywhere else in New York. 
Last spring, Willard removed to another stand, somewhat celebrated in the same line, and his large and 
excellent stock of Frathkrs, Beds, Mattresses, &c., can now be found at the corner of Hudson and 
Houston Streets. In purchasing Beds and Mattresses, people ought to have an honest man to deal with, 
and we take the liberty of using a friend's privilege, (for we have known him for more than 14 years,) to 
recommend Martin Willard as an upright merchant, who never sells an indifferent or poorly made article 
for a good one.— Ed. Ex. HiSTOkT. 

171 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 171 

wax figure of a Saint, intended for a church or con- 
vent in Louisiana. Being a new importation, it 
had been opened by Custom-House Officers, and 
had not been nailed up again. The *' foot- fall" was 
probably caused by a big rat. 

"Say nothing about this ridiculous affair. Cap- 
tain," said the sold, when the other had done laugh- 
ing, ** and I will stand a bottle of champagne and a 
pair of canvass-backs with you to-morrow at Per- 
kins's !" 

"Agreed," responded the officer, and he kept 
the secret faithfully from all — hut his wife. 

The Inventor of the T Rail. 

Robert L. Stevens was one of the projectors and 
original stockholders of the Camden and Amboy 
Railroad. He was sent to England as the agent of 
the company, to examine into the working of the 
system, and to contract for rails and machinery. 
At that time the fish-bellied rail was then in use. 
This form Mr. Stevens deemed in many respects 
objectionable; and he set about devising a form 
that would be better, and more easy of manufac- 
ture. He concluded that the form T would answer 
the purpose; and that it might be rolled for much 
less than the fish-bellied form then was costing. 

He devised a plan for rolling it; which plan he 
proposed to the iron manufacturer with whom he 
was negotiating for the iron for his company. The 
manufacturer was unwilling to test the plan, alleg- 



172 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

ing that it would involve considerable expense. Mr. 
Stevens, not inclined to give up his point, asked 
what would be the loss in case of failure. He was 
told it would be from four to five hundred pounds. 
In reply to this he offered to advance that amount, 
to be credited by the company in case of the adop- 
tion of his plan, and to be held responsible for 
whatever expenses might be incurred in the trial, 
if his plan should not succeed. His offer was ac- 
cepted; and a foreman, with a sufficient number of 
men, were placed under his direction. 

The first trial had a result that might have dis- 
couraged a less resolute inventor, and caused a less 
wealthy one to be denied further privileges in the 
mill. The rail would not come on straight, but 
persisted in winding around the roller. A second 
trial, in which the grooves were tapered so as to 
allow the rail to get out easily, was tolerably suc- 
cessful, and after a few alterations, the invention of 
the T rail was complete, and the order was given 
for rails in that form. This account was given by 
Mr. Stevens himself, to a friend of ours who inquired 
of him as to the truth of the current report that he 
was the inventor of this form of rail. 

Selling A Railroad Conductor. 

The Mobile Register, a year or two ago, had the 
following good story: 

** As the Citronelle train was on its downward 
trip to this city yesterday morning, an incident oc- 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 173 

curred that caused no little amusement to the pas- 
sengers. As the train was approaching Eight Mile 
station, a lady quite elegantly attired, with a lovely 
boquet of wild flowers in her hand, and face con- 
cealed from view by a handsome veil, was discovered 
standing on the platform. The train was of course 
ordered to stop and take in the fair passenger — and 
stop it did. The gallant conductor jumped out up- 
on the platform and cried out as usual, ' all aboard!' 
at the same time raising his hat and politely extend- 
ing his hand to help the lady aboard. She, how- 
ever, did not recognize his gallantry, but stood 
dumb and motionless as a statue. The astonished 
conductor advanced, involuntarily raised the veil, 
when lo, instead of a face of flesh and beauty, the 
words 'April fool,' inscribed on a black lightwood 
chunk, met his astonished vision! He started back, 
gave the signal to be off", with unusual violence, 
jumped aboard, exclaiming to the innocent engineer, 
' Who the deuce told you to stop here ?' '' 

Selfishness and Ill-breeding of Passengers. 

The piggish behavior of many railroad travellers 
is disgusting. A sensible writer says: 

" Perhaps we have no right to expect that men, 
women, and children will be transformed in the 
cars to what they are not at home in breeding and 
character, but it sometimes appears to us that half 
the world reserves its cast-off habits of manners 
and conduct, to wear in journeying. We wonder if 



174 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

it ever occurred to that well-dressed man. at our 
right, that it is a greater insult to squirt tobacco juice 
on the floor of a room where a hundred must sit, 
breath, and smell a whole day, than on a drawing- 
room carpet, where two people are to sit an hour ? 
That genteel lady behind us would not ask us to 
sit by an open window in her own house on a Jan- 
uary morning, if we made her a fashionable call; yet 
she opens a car window, and gives us a draft across 
the neck, like a sharp sword, during a six hours' 
ride. Should we make a wedding call on that sen- 
timental-looking young couple yonder, would they 
not be as polite in giving us the best seat as they 
are boorish now in driving up some good-natured 
farmer, to roam in vain through crowded aisles for a 
resting place?" 

The utter selfishness or impudence, call it what 
you will, of some persons, (and we are sorry we 
cannot except the women from the number,) in 
monopoHzing twice as much room as is their share, 
while others are standing, or seeking in vain for a 
seat, has often made us feel not a little indignant. 

Express and Railroad Sketches. 

HUMOROUS AND PATHETIC. 

The following sketchy articles, numbered in the 
order in which they were furnished to us, are from 
the pen of an experienced and highly valued mes- 
senger of the American Express Company. 



SHIRT AID COLLAR DEPOT, 

Nos. 87 and 89 William Street, 

(One door North of Maiden Lane,) M21W "E®MM« 

OEOROE IVl. TRA€¥, Ag^ent. 

A PERFECT FITTING ss^ss 

sssss ssss 



ssss 

SSSSFS 

sssssss 
sssssss 

SSSvSSS 

ssssss 



ssssssss 

HIIHHH HHHHH 
HHH HHH 

HHH HUH 

HHH HHH 

HHHHHHHHHH 
HHHHHHHHHH 
HHH HHH 

HHH HHH 

HHH HHH 

HHHHH HHHHH 

Hnmni 

HHI 
IHH 
IHH 
HHI 
HHI 
HlII 
HHI 
HHI 

nnnnn 

RRRRRRRRRR 
RRRRRRRRRR 
RRR RKRRR 
RRR RRUUR 
RRR RRRKR 
RRRRRRRRRR 
RRR RRR 
RRR RRRR 
RRR RRRR 

RRRRR RRRRR 

TTTTTrTTTrTTTTTTT 

'rm TTiTrrnTnTr 

T riiT T 

Tirr 



TTTT 

ITTT 

TTTT 

ITTTm 

Made to order from Measure, and warranted to fit, at $18, $21, and $24 per doz. 

persons at a distance sending orders by mail, we will guarantee a perfect fit on receipt of the follow- 
' ifip.isures: Nkck — The distance around it. Yoke — The measure from the points of each shoulder. 
Hie length from the centre of the back to the wrist, with the arm bent. Brkast — Distance 
lO body under the arm-pits. Waist — Distance around. liOngth of Shirt, &c., &c. 
() keep on hand the most elegant assortment of 

Or exit lexa3.ezx'ai 3E*-u.x*xxisli.izi.e; Oroodsi 

be found in the city, consisting in part of Shirts, Collars, Neck Stocks, Napoleon Ties, Neck Ties, 
carfs, Under-Shirts and Drawers, Silk and Linen Pocket Handkerchiefs, Dressing Robes, Shawls. 
Silk and Gingham Umbrellas, Hosiery of every description, &c., &c., wholesale and retail. 

T. C. GRANNIS. G. M. TRACY. 

174 



ST. JOHN, RAYMOND & CO. 



M£rtl;aitt f aibrs, 



No. 526 BROADWAY, 



CORNER OF SPRING STREET, OPPOSITE ST. NICHOLAS IIOTEI, 



We would respectfully call the attention of strangers, 
visiting the city, to the fact that we have been engaged in 
business on Broadway for many years, and have enjoyed 
a reputation second to none for the variety and excellence 
of our stock of materials, (always of the latest importa- 
tion,) and the taste and thoroughness of our work. 

Cash orders promptly executed and forwarded by Ex- 
press to any part of the United States. 

ST. JOHN, RAYMOND & CO. 

175 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 175 

No. 1. 
EXPRESS LIFE. 

" How much will you charge to take this pack- 
age to Illinois ?" 

"One dollar." 

''Outrageous ; it is only worth fifty cents, and 
you have the conscience to charge twice the worth 
of it." 

*' It is not our fault that the cost was only fifty 
cents; you can make the package twice as large, and 
the cost of transportation will only be the same." 

" But that I do not want to do, as it will be so 
much out of my pocket for nothing." 

" Yet you do not think it will be outrageous for 
us to be out of pocket in carrying this to your 
friend." 

* ' I cannot see that you will be at any loss by 
taking it for fifty cents. If you can explain it to 
me, I will be satisfied." 

" Sensible to the last, and I am truly glad that 
you ask for the information. In the first place, we 
charge you two shillings to carry this to B. Then 
pay two shillings to get it to C, two shillings from 
C. to M., and two shillings from M. to S., where 
your friend resides, thus making one dollar. If we 
take it for fifty cents we will be obliged to carry it 
to B. for nothing, and pay from B. to C. two shil- 
lings out of our own pocket, thus losing cash two 
shillings, and the freight from here to B., which we 

17 



176 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

pay to the Railroad. Thus actually losing about 
forty cents, besides assuming the responsibility of 
delivering your package to your friend in Illinois." 

"I was not aware that such was the case, and 
pardon me for speaking so abruptly when I just 
came in !" 

" Granted, my dear sir, and it always affords us 
pleasure to give every information in our power in 
regard to business. And I assure you, that if 
many persons who think we are extortioners and 
swindlers, and call us many other hard names, 
would only ask for a reason, they would be as sat- 
isfied as you are. But on the contrary they ask a 
question, and before they hardly get an answer 
they fly off at a tangent, muttering about many 
things they do not understand, and working them- 
selves into a passion; when, if they had waited but 
a few moments, they would have had an explana- 
tion which would have saved a great deal of wear 
and tear of conscience, and they would have been 
better prepared to hear a sermon than run the risk of 
an explosion of their head from a pent-up passion." 

No. 2. 

EXPRESS LIFE. 

"Can you take a box to Albany to-day?" was 
the question of a good-looking young gentleman, 
who was trying to raise a crop of hair on his upper 
Up, but which seemed more like the down on the 
south side of a peach. 



> AS. G. ENGLISH. EDWIN F. MERSICK. 

ENGLISH & MERSICK, 

(Successors to J. G. & G. D. ENGLISH,) 
ID E -A. Ij E i=L s insr 

250 CHAPEL STREET, (Old No. 140,) 



3S^ ^ftu 3Sr TJ F .Au C T TJ I^ E I^ S OE 

LIGHT CARRIAGE BODIES AND SEATS, 

SHAFTS, POLES, WHIFFLETREES, &c. 



DEALERS IN 

ENAMELED LEATHER, BROADCLOTHS, DAMASKS, CAP. 

PETS, BUCKRAMS, SCRIMS, BROAD AND NARROW 

SILK AND WORSTED LACE, FRINGES, SEAMING 

CORD, TUFTING TWINE, &c., &c. 



Agents for Dole, Silver & Felch's Self-Centering Hub-Boring Machines; 
A. H. Braiuard's Paint Millsj Crown Enameled Cloths; "Eagle Works" 
I'liiladelphia Bolts ; American Excelsior Co. ; " Millers" New Orleans 
Moss. 



MANUFACTURERS OF PATENT BAND SETTERS, 

For paring down the Hub to size of Band. 

176 



HILLS & BEJVTOIV 



PROPRIETORS OF 




GOLD'S PATENT 

LOW PRESSURE 

STEAM HEATING 

lAPPARATUS. 

For warming and ventilat- 
ing all kinds of 
buildings. 

L. M. Hills, Mfr. 88 and 90 
State St., New Haven, Ct. 

L. M. HILLS. 



Both public and I'rivule. 



For Brooklyn. (N. Y.) 

State of New York, (in part) 

Connecticut, 

Ne^v Jersey, 

Pennsylvania, 
and other States, South Sc 'West. 

Stram FrmxG EsTAnLisnsiE.vr, 
No. 3 Hicks Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



D. R. BENTON. 



Office, 58 Pulton, cor. Hicks St , Brooklyn, N. Y. 



WILLIAM L. SLOSS. 



JOHN G. LANE. 



SLOSS & LANE, 



No. 37 Pine Street, 



Will practice in the United States Court, and all the State 
and County Courts of Missouri and Illinois. 

Prompt attention paid to Collections. Titles of Real JEs- 

tate carefully examined. Conveyancing done 

with neatness and dispatch. 

177 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 177 

"We will start it to-day, and it will arrive Id 
Albany sometime during the night, provided the 
train has the good luck to reach there." 

"Oh! but it must reach there by nine o'clock 
to-night, at the farthest." 

" Had you not better send it by telegraph, then 
there will be no doubt of its arriving in time ?" 

"The telegraph man laughed at me when 1 
asked him to do it, and said I had better carry it 
there myself." 

"As it is now near five o'clock, and as it must be, 
there by nine, you had better follow his advice. 
Those gentlemen who work the telegraph under- 
stand velocity in a remarkable degree, and I have 
no doubt they judged correctly when they advised 
you to take it there yourself." 

" I suppose they judged me to be a fast young 
man, from the observations they made, and I was 
not pleased with them." 

" They seldom form an incorrect opinion of those 
persons who visit them, and I doubt much whether 
they were mistaken with you." 

"What must I do, then?" 

" Take the advice of the telegraph operator." 

"What ! and carry the box there myself?" 

" Certainly. You know it must be there by nine 
o'clock, and I know of no other way of its getting 
there." 

And such impossibilities are expected by persons 
every day. They think that the Express Compa- 



178 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

nies can annihilate time and space, and run special 
trains for their special accommodation; and if it is 
not done, they go off in a huff, and talk as valor- 
ously as ever Falstaff did, because they cannot be 
gratified. 

No. 3. 

WINTER EXPERIENCE. 

** See here, Mister, four weeks ago there was a 
box sent to me from Saint Paul's, and I want it!" 
was the savage request of a surly-looking fellow, 
who looked as if he would eat up the whole com- 
pany, and wash them down with a barrel of hard 
cider. 

*' How do you know that, my dear sir?" 

" Why, here's a letter that says so." 

*' When did you receive that letter?" 

*' This morning, by mail." 

*'When was it dated?" 

*' January 10th." 

*'Come, my friend," said the clerk, "let us make 
a little calculation about that box, and we may 
possibly arrive at some conclusion where it is. How 
much do you suppose was the weight of it?" 

" Well, I don't know. There was a saddle of 
venison, a hind quarter of bear, twenty prairie 
hens, and quails enough to fill up the chinks. The 
bear weighed six hundred pounds when he was 
killed, and the deer was a good one." 

" Suppose the bear weighed one hundred pounds, 
the deer fifty pounds, the hens forty pounds, and 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 179 

the quails ten pounds, making a total weight of 
two hundred pounds; and, as I suppose you have 
been in that country in the winter season, you must 
know what kind of travelling they have there." 

" No, sir, I have never been there, and don't 
know anything about the country, but I suppose it 
must be wild, or they would not have so many wild 
animals there.'' 

"Well, it is about the last place where a white 
man would think of locating, but there is quite a 
number of that sort of people settled in that neigh- 
borhood, and some of them are good fellows, and 
have compassion on their poor friends here, as haa 
been the case of your friend. But you must know 
that, at the present time, the snow averages about 
fifteen feet in depth, any where within 500 miles of 
Saint Paul's, and it is somewhat difficult to make a 
passage through it. Uncle Sam sends a mail from 
there once a week, and it is carried on the back of 
an Indian or trapper, who makes his way as best 
he can, to the nearest settlement, on snow shoes. 
And if it required a month to bring one letter from 
there, can you think it very strange that your box, 
which weighs two hundred pounds, should be de- 
layed a little while longer? But there is one satis- 
faction, which will comfort you some, that the meat 
is frozen pretty solid, and will therefore keep good. 
I know that this is ' cold comfort,' but it is the best 
I can offer you, under the circumstances." 

"Well, stranger, I didn't think quite so far as 



180 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

that, and I suppose that I must wait until it does 
come. But I tell you what, I just calculated that 
I was going to live a little on that bear, and IVe 
got to draw the strap a little tighter, and wait 
patiently." 

*' As soon as it arrives, we will send it up to you. 
I hope that you will not experience much incon- 
venience from the delay." 

" I hope not, for I feel a little wolfish, at present, 
and that bear might satisfy me some. Now, don't 
forget to send it up when it comes, for I'm anxious." 

The gentleman departed, and we were not verxj 
sorry, being under the conviction that his inward 
man required replenishing, and, for want of bear's 
meat, he might take a fancy to demolish us for the 
purpose of making a hearty meal. His box arrived 
the next day, and it was dispatched to him " quick 
as the lightning's flash," fearful that he might, in 
a wolfish moment, pay us another visit. 

No. 4. 

THE TORPEDO. 

We were riding along one day at a pretty rapid 
rate with a nice little company of railroad men, 
who were passing the time in relating adventures 
through which they had passed, when we were 
startled by a report resembling that caused by a 
four pounder, and at the same instant was heard 
the engineer's whistle of "on brakes." Bet your 
life we jumped when we heard that, for we knew 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 181 

something was the matter ahead, and the warning 
given to us made us open our eyes wide. I sup- 
pose you have both seen and heard a torpedo, have 
you not ? No ! Then I must tell you, that in a 
.small round box, very similar to a blacking box, is 
])laeed a quantity of fulminating powder, which ex- 
plodes upon pressure being applied to it. This box 
has two tin straps soldered to it for the purpose of 
strapping it on the rail, and when there is a draw- 
bridge open, or any derangement of the road, 
whereby an accident might happen, it is the duty 
of the flag or station man to hang out a red flag or 
lamp, and then run some hundred yards and place 
two or three of these torpedoes on the rail. The 
engine in passing over causes them to explode with a 
loud report, and as soon as the engineer hears them 
he must instantly stop the train. At night, or in 
foggy weather, when the flag can only be seen at a 
short distance, these torpedoes are freely used, and 
thereby the danger avoided. 

It was a foggy day when we were coming down, 

and one of our party, Jack R , had never heard 

one of the things go off. He thought that some 
person had thrown a stone against the car, or a 
piece of wood had fallen from the tender and struck 
it, and he therefore sat still and wondered what 
had made us jump so lively like a parcel of Hippo- 
drome performers. 

When the train stopped, and he found out that 
a drawbridge was open just beyond a short curve, 



182 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

and that the red flag could not be seen for more 
than twenty yards from the engine, he began to 
feel all over as if he had been subjected to a cold 
bath, "and trembled like an aspen leaf in a high 
wind.'^ Poor Jack ! methinks I can at this distant 
day see his lengthened doleful countenance, as hard 
jokes thick and fast came pouring down upon him 
from our little party; for although he had been 
travelling on the cars for a year, this was the first 
time he had heard the explosion of a torpedo, and 
I doubt much whether he will ever forget it. 

No. V. 

THE RAILROAD TUNNEL. 

Stop a few minutes, and let us look at yonder 
mountain. Its majestic crown rises nearly to the 
clouds, and its sides are covered with the evergreen, 
hemlock and pine, the laurel and the spruce. How 
often has the painter tried to convey to his canvas 
its beauties, and how often has he failed. See you 
that small dark spot near its base? It is the mouth 
of a tunnel which has been, by human energy, bored 
through the solid rock for a long distance. 

Suddenly, as if from the unboundless depths of 
the earth, is heard a roaring and shrieking, as though 
all the thunders of the universe were combined in 
that one spot, and the ground vibrates for miles 
around, as if shaken by an earthquake. In wonder 
and amazement, you believe that the volcanic fires, 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 183 

bound in the deep bowels of the earth, are about 
to burst forth in all their beauty, violence and terror. 
But, ere the mind has time to recover from this 
impression, you see issuing from that small dark 
spot upon the mountain side two large, bright glar- 
ing eyes, followed by a coal-black iron steed, pro- 
pelled by a fiery steam; and rushing forward with 
an impetuosity equal to the wind, it passes beside 
you, and before you are aware of it, naught is seen 
save a long, thin stream of light vapor, shaking and 
curling in the distance like the tail of an enormous 
serpent, let loose from the bowels of the mountain 
to scourge and ravage the earth. The track of 
the railroad is laid through that tunnel, and the 
engine, with its train of cars loaded with a living 
freight, has just passed you. 

The Boston Journal lately published the follow- 
ing: 

"Where shall I Deliver it?" — Such was the 
anxious inquiry of one of the Cambridge Express 
messengers this morning, as he received a parcel 
bearing the following superscription: 

"Timothy 0. Conner, No. 82 Eliate Street, Bos- 
ton, State of Massachusetts, for Timothy Murphy; 
please to deliver to Mrs. Laby, North Cambridge. 
To be left at Porter's Hotel, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts." 



17 



184 express history. 

The $50,000 Robbert. 

On the 21st of September, 1865, Charles Q. 
Clark, for many years the highly esteemed money 
clerk of the American Express Co. in this city, re- 
ceived at the hands of the faithful messenger, John 
Upton, two boxes, purporting to contain $25,000 
each, in gold, sent by Express from the U. S. Re- 
ceiver at Dubuque, Iowa. For reasons which I 
shall render presently, Upton suspected that the 
boxes were bogus. Clark was of the same opinion. 
After remaining in the American Express office, 62 
Broadway, an hour and a half, until the President 
came in, the boxes were conveyed, in charge of 
Henry Wells, to the office of the U. S. Sub-Treasu- 
rer, where they were opened in presence of that 
functionary and his clerks, and Messrs. Henry Wells, 
Chas. G. Clark, and John Upton, andfoimd to con- 
tain only bullets, sheet lead and brown paper! 

The inference was, that either at Dubuque, or^n 
route to New York, the boxes of gold originally 
received had been rifled or exchanged for two ex- 
actly like them externally, but almost worthless in 
fact. The feelings of the Expressmen may be bet- 
ter imagined than described. Henry Wells assur- 
ed the Bub-Treasurer that as soon as his Company 
should be satisfied that the loss occurred after the 
gold had been put in charge of the Express at Du- 
buque, the amount of it would be paid into the 
U. S. Treasury without delay. In the course of a 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 185 

few weeks, a thorough investigation at Dubuque 
satisfied the Company of the fact, and Alexander 
Holland, the New York Agent, paid into the U. S. 
Sub-Treasury, of this city, the sum of $50,000 with 
interest. 

In the meantime, the American Express Co. had 
offered a large reward for the conviction of the 
robbers and recovery of the money. Nor did they 
spare any personal pains to unravel the mystery. 
The integrity of their agent at Dubuque was above 
suspicion; nor could they see any reason to doubt 
the fidelity of any other of their employees who had 
anything to do with the boxes. Weeks and months 
passed, and the mystery continued as profound as 
ever, when unexpectedly a clue was obtained. Two 
men, William C. Ayer and Oliver King, residents 
of Lowell, Mass., and known to have been intimate 
with Samuel C. White, the messenger of the Com- 
pany between Chicago and Detroit, were very flush 
of gold coin not long after the robbery, and one of 
them deposited $8,000 in gold in the Bank at Hav- 
erhill, Mass., accounting for it, when qucvstioned af- 
terwards, by saying that he had been lucky in Cali^ 
fornia. It was ascertained also by Captain Best, 
the excellent " detective" employed upon this scent, 
(and to whom, by the way, great praise has been 
awarded for his sagacity and thoroughness in the 
case,) that these two men were in Detroit a few 
days prior to the 17th of September, which was the 
date of the agent's receiving the boxes in charge. 



186 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

Upon tliis imperfect, yet important evidence, Ayer, 
King, and the messenger. White, were arrested. 
The latter had been employed formerly by a small 
Express concern in the Railroad Exchange, Boston. 

The trial of the prisoners was commenced on the 
18th of June, 1856, at Detroit, Michigan, and last- 
ed several days. Judge Douglass was on the 
bench, assisted by Judge Wing. Messrs. Emmons 
and Nye conducted the prosecution, and Levi Bish- 
op the defence. 

Upon a table in front of the jury lay four small 
pine boxes, which attracted almost as much atten- 
tion as the prisoners themselves. Two of the boxes 
were the bogus ones, and two were genuine. The 
testimony was very full and conclusive against the 
prisoners. Daniel 0. C. Quigley, a son of the U. 
S. Receiver at Dubuque, then acting as his clerk, 
testified that on the 17th September, (1855,) he 
packed and delivered to Edwin Hayden, Agent at 
the American Express office in that place, two pine 
boxes containing $25,000 each, in five, ten, and 
twenty dollar gold pieces, but chiefly the larger 
coin. The boxes were directed "Assistant Treas- 
urer, New York." Th^y were of a pattern always 
used by the Receiver for the purpose, and all he 
used were made by the same man. The witness 
was in the custom of packing and sending such 
boxes by express. Only corroborative evidence 
was elicited upon the corroboration of this witness. 
Edwin Hayden, the Express agent, testified that 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 187 

he received the described boxes (marked as con- 
taining $25,000 each, in gold) at the time sworn 
to by Quigley, and took them himself the next 
morning, according to custom, to the opposite side 
of the river, to the cars in Dunleith, and delivered 
them to J. W. Parker, the Express messenger who 
was to make the trip to Chicago. His reason for 
not sending them forward the same evening on 
which they were received, instead of keeping them 
all night in the office, because the only express run 
was on the morning train. The bogus boxes, since 
shown to him, had hemlock bottoms, instead of 
pine, as usual — a difference which he would have 
noticed at any time. He was confident that they 
were not the ones which he had received and de- 
hvered to the Express messenger. James W. Par- 
ker testified that he received the boxes of gold, as 
sworn to by Hayden, and arriving at Chicago at 
4.45 P. M., delivered them to Mr. Raynor, the 
checking clerk at the American Express office. 

Alexander Raynor testified that he received the 
two boxes on the 18th September, from Parker, 
and locked them up in the safe, where they remain- 
ed about two hours, until transferred to the keep- 
ing of the messenger from Chicago to Detroit, Sam- 
uel C. White, now on trial. White's train left for 
Detroit between 8.30 and 9 P. M. The Express 
messenger on the night express was not to deliver 
any way packages. John Sutton, one of the Ex- 
press drivers, conveyed White to the Detroit cars, 



188 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

as was confirmed by his testimony. Henry Kip, of 
Bufifalo, Superintendent of the Western Division of 
the American Express at the time, testified, that on 
the second Friday after the robbery he had a con- 
versation with White at the office in Detroit, in 
which the latter admitted that he had received the 
boxes as stated, and rode with them in the Compa- 
ny's wagon to the depot, and put them into his 
messenger safe, in the Express car, but took them 
out when about 12 miles from Detroit. Upon ar- 
riving at the depot, he met the Express driver, and 
putting them and his other packages into the wagon, 
drove up with him to the Company's office in De- 
troit. Each messenger always has his own safe 
and key. The duplicate keys of the safes are kept 
in the Buffalo office. W. H. Stow testified that he 
was checking clerk in the Detroit office at the time, 
the 19th September, and received from White two 
boxes, which were next delivered to Thaddeus Day, 
the messenger between Detroit and Buffalo. Day 
testified to receiving, on the 19th September, two 
boxes, said to contain specie, and locking them up 
in his iron-bound express trunk. Arriving at Sus- 
pension Bridge, he took them from the trunk and 
put them in the baggage car, but keeping them in 
sight until his arrival in Buffalo, where he deUvered 
them to the Company's receiving clerk, 0. A. Judd; 
at his request, placing them in the vault. Judd's 
testimony confirmed Day's. The boxes marked 
$25,000 each were brought in by Day about 10 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 189 

A. M. on the 20th September. They remained in 
the vault until 2 P. M. Soon after they wore 
delivered to Messenger Mahon, who went in the 
train East at 4 P. M. Mahon testified to receiving 
and conveying them to Albany, where he delivered 
them to John Upton, the Company's messenger from 
Albany to New York, at the New York Central 
Railroad Depot, about half-past 4 on the morning 
of the 21st September. John Upton testified to 
his careful conveyance of the boxes to the New 
York office. On the road between Albany and 
Poughkeepsie, he discovered that the cover of one 
of the boxes was not screwed down tight, and, on 
examining it, saw something inside looking more 
like lead than gold. At 31st Street, upon unload- 
ing his freight, he became satisfied that the box was 
filled with bullets. He readily discovered the dif- 
ference in the sound of the rattling from the jin- 
gling of coin. 

Charles G, Clark testified that, in September, 
1855, he had charge of the money delivering de- 
partment of the American Express Company in 
New York; and on the 21st received from John 
Upton two boxes, directed to the Assistant Treas- 
urer of the United States, at New York, and each 
marked as containing $25,000. In an hour and a 
half after receiving them, he went with them, in a 
wagon, to the Assistant Treasurer's office, accom- 
panying Henry Wells and John Upton. Assisting 
the Treasurer's clerks in opening them, in presence 



100 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

of them all, he found them to contain bullets and 
sheet lead, with a piece of paper in the top of each 
box. Upton had called his attention to one of the 
boxes before leaving the office. 

Henry Wells corroborated Clark^s testimony. 
He had compared the bogus boxes when emptied 
with those that had been used in the transportation 
of coin, and observed on the sides of one indenta- 
tions made by bullets; in the other a deep mark, 
from which all present inferred that the boxes had 
never contained coin, for that usually leaves its own 
stamp. He pointed out to the jury the indentations 
of coin in a genuine box. Since the robbery, the 
$50,000 had been paid into the U. S. Treasury. 

William A. Gregg testified that he lived in Bos- 
ton, and knew all three of the prisoners; on the 3d 
of September last, fell accidently into the com- 
pany of Ayer and King, and travelled with them to 
Buffalo. They carried only valises. 

Alfred H. Stillman, clerk at the Tremont House 
in Detroit, testified that Ayer and King took lodg- 
ings at that hotel on the 7th of September, and left 
on the 10th. White was with them much of the 
time. He boarded at the same house: sometimes 
wanted to borrow small sums of money. 

It was proved, also, that shortly after the robbery 
the three prisoners were seen together upon the 
Railroad train, and at a hotel in Chicago: Ayer 
and King were very prodigal in the use of gold 
coin. About a month subsequent to the robbery, 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 101 

White left the employ of the Express, giving as a 
reason the utter inadequacy of the messenger's sal- 
ary to the expense of living. The reason was nat- 
urally regarded as valid, for no one could deny the 
truth of it, and suspicion had not as yet rested up- 
on him. There was evidence of lavish expendi- 
tures made by him after his discharge, and of his 
intimacy with Ayer and King, who in the mean- 
time were investing in real estate, &c. Nor could 
any evidence be brought forward to prove that they 
had come honestly by their ill-gotten riches, or ob- 
tained it in any other way than by the robbery with 
which they were charged. The evidence was entire- 
ly circumstantial, but it was amply sufficient to sat- 
isfy the jury of their guilt. A verdict was rendered 
accordingly, and the three robbers were sentenced 
to long terms of incarceration in the State Prison. 
No portion of the stolen money was ever recover- 
ed, nor dared the Company attach the real and per- 
sonal estate owned by Ayer and King, and manifestly 
purchased with the stolen gold. They put an injunc- 
tion upon its sale, however, and it is still in force. 

The most Remarkable Express Robbery. 

By far the largest and most singular Express 
robbery that has ever occurred, took place at a 
time when the business was comparatively new. 
The following are the particulars: On Thanksgiv- 
ing Day, (in November, 1843,) Pullen & Copp's 
messenger started from Albany for New York, hav- 

18 



192 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

ing in charge, besides his own matters, Pomeroy & 
Co.'s Express trunk for delivery at the office in this 
city. A portion of his journey was made in stages, 
and the last sixty or seventy miles in the steam- 
boat, the river being filled with ice above. 

The season was already inclement, for, early as it 
was, winter had set in. Under the most favorable 
circumstances, it would have been a very tedious and 
fatiguing journey. To P. & C.'s messenger it was 
exceedingly so, for it was a return trip without the 
usual pause for rest. Owing to the inclemency of 
the weather and the badness of the roads, he had 
not arrived in Albany until it was time to start 
upon his return. Exhausted nature pleaded for 
repose, but the calls of duty were imperative, and 
he set out again upon his toilsome way. Few mes- 
sengers, in these days, have an adequate idea of the 
hardships of the occupation in those earUer times. 
We do not say it to the disparagement of the present 
men. While some of them have an easy though 
responsible berth, there are numerous Express mes- 
sengers who work hard for their money, especially 
in the winter season; and considering the risks which 
they run, we are free to admit that, as a general 
thing, they are not paid as well as we could wish 
rliey were; but, though the responsibility of the 
messengers has been materially increased, their work 
is not as fatiguing as it was at that period, when a 
portion of every express route had to be travelled (at 
least in the winter) with stages, wagons, or sleighs. 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 193 

Poor C. had the hardest kind of a time in get- 
ting to Xew York on the occasion referred to, and 
we doubt whether he was in a Thanksgiving mood 
until the day following, when the steamboat reach- 
ed her pier in this city. 

The boat was crowded with passengers and freight, 
for she was the only medium of conveyance, and 
the tired messenger was forced to snatch what sleep 
he got, sitting upon a desk-stool in the clerk's office. 
Close at hand was Pomeroy & Co.'s Express trunk, 
which he had ready to deliver to their driver as soon 
as the boat should have reached the dock. Owing 
to the uncertainty of her arrival, the Express wagon 
was not there, and as there was every reason for 
haste, he concluded that he had better go after it. 
He went, accordingly, after having requested the 
clerk to have an eye to his trunk, which he had 
placed within view, on deck, just outside of the 
clerk's office. His proper course was to remain 
with his trunk, and to have sent some one for the 
wagon, or a cart; but he left it, as we have said: 
probably he had no idea of its immense value. 
When he returned for it, the trunk was gone ! In 
a hurry he questioned the clerk, but neither that 
functionary nor anybody else on board would admit 
that he knew anything about it. Seriously alarm- 
ed, and full of self-reproaches, the unfortunate mes- 
senger knew not what to think nor which way to 
turn. All his inquiries and search for it being un- 
successful, he at length carried the evil tidings to 



194 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

Pomeroy & Co. It is no exaggeration of the truth 
to say that they were struck aghast by the inteUi- 
gence, for that trunk contained hank notes amount' 
ing to several hundred thousafid dollars / A portion 
of-it ($130,000) consisted of sheets of Union Bank 
notes, registered, but not signed by the bank offi- 
cers, and there was about $60,000 belonging to 
Drew, Robinson & Co., ready for use. With the 
exception of a single $500 note, no description of 
the money had been retained by the banker in 
* * * from whom the Express had received 
it. Crawford Livingston and Major PuUen imme- 
diately notified the owners of the notes of their loss, 
and the description of the $500 bill was furnished 
to all the bankers and brokers in the city. Henry 
Wells, also, had detectives at work to obtain a clue 
to the robbery. Suspicion rested temporarily upon 
the unfortunate messenger and two equally respect- 
able hotel keepers, one of whom belonged to Syra- 
cuse and the other to New York, both men of 
property. The three had been seen talking to- 
gether on the route to New York not many hours 
prior to the robbery; and coupling this trivial cir- 
cumstance with the incredible story of the messen- 
ger, that he had left the trunk containing so much 
money upon the deck of the steamer with no one 
to guard it, the officers thought it afforded sufficient 
justification for the arrest of the gentlemen ! It 
was a damnable thing to do — bringing temporary 
odium and life-long regret to these innocent per- 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 195 

sons and their families; but arrests upon mere sus- 
picion are common, and in this case the two hotel 
keepers were speedily released, nothing of any ac- 
count appearing against them. In the meantime, 
every effort was used by many shrewd heads to 
ferret out the real robber, but in vain. At length, 

just one month after the loss, the teller of the 

Bank found among the bills deposited that day by 
a very worthy firm of German merchants, doing 
business at No. Street, a $500 note answer- 
ing exactly to the description, which had been left 
with him, of one in the stolen package of $60,000. 
There could be no question of its identity, and had 
the teller taken the case immediately in hand him- 
self, and worked it out to its final result, as he might 
have done very easily, he would have obtained the 
large reward ($10,000) which had been offered; 
but the next day he notified the Express Co. of his 
discovery, and left all further action in the matter 
to them. Messrs. Livingston & Wells and Major 
PuUen, as may well be conceived, pursued the scent 
with the utmost avidity. The depositors of the note 
stated that they had received it for a cash purchase 
of goods, on the day on which they had sent it to the 
bank, from a German merchant belonging to Mil- 
waukie, named Lackner, whom they believed was 
still in the city. One of the firm accompanied an offi- 
cer, in order to identify Lackner, and in the course 
of a day or two he was seen by them in Broadway, 
and followed by them to his lodgings in Delancey 



196 EXPRESS HISTOEY. 

Street, where they found him in company with a 
modest and pretty young woman, whom he had mar- 
ried in New York since the robbery, in which, by the 
way, it subsequently appeared she had had no hand. 

Lackner offered no resistance to arrest, but con- 
fessed that he had taken the messenger's trunk 
from the boat, and covering it with a buffalo robe, 
conveyed it to his room. He suspected it was valu- 
able, as he knew the Express messengers carried a 
good deal for the banks, but he was not prepared 
upon opening it to see it so full of money. And 
here we must remark, that the trunk had two com- 
mon inside locks to it, and was not at all like those 
now in use. The sheets of bank notes, not signed, 
he said he had put into the stove and burnt up, and 
this was confirmed to the satisfaction of the Presi- 
dent of the Union Bank, and others, for a mass of 
the cinders, and some unburnt fragments of the 
bills, were found in the flue of the chimney. All, 
or nearly all, the rest of the money was recovered. 

Lackner was committed to prison, and hung him- 
self the same night. His unhappy bride, so soon a 
widow, was an object of commiseration. She went 
soon afterwards, we believe, to Milwaukie, but we 
know nothing of her subsequent history. 

Another Express astonisher is known among the 
craft as the Rochester robbery. It occurred some 
12 or 13 years ago in the R. R. Depot at Roches- 
ter, in this state. The trunk of the messenger of 
Wells & Co., containing a very large amount of 



EXPRESS HISTORY. 197 

bank money, was stolen, and another trunk, exactly 
corresponding to it in appearance, substituted in 
its place. In short, it was a plot very similar to 
that used in the robbery of the two boxes of gold 
three years ago, and through the exertions of Henry 
Wells, and that excellent detective, Col. A. M. C. 
Smith, (now, and for some years past, Freight Su- 
perintendent of the American Express,) the robbers 
were brought to justice, and the money recovered. 

Wm. F. Harnden had a great hatred of thieves, 
and nothing delighted him more than to balk, ex- 
pose, and punish them. His pockets, when he trav- 
elled much in the cars and steamboats, were a trap 
for the pickpockets abroad, and by this means he 
would catch them in the act, and put them under 
arrest. It is said that on one occasion a pick- 
pocket was a little too much for him, for he suc- 
ceeded in abstracting the tempting pocket book, 
(full of worthless notes,) without his knowing it, 
greatly to the expressman's chagrin. 

At the outset of Harnden's brief but glorious Ex- 
press career, the people of the very sedate and vir- 
tuous city of Boston were horrified one morning 
by the announcement in the papers, that during the 
night the store of the jewelers, Jones, Lows & Co., 
had been robbed of more than $30,000 worth of 
silver plate. Either $3,000 or $5,000 were offered 
as a reward for the conviction of the robbers and 
recovery of the property. The police officers (in 
those " good old days" called constables) were on 



198 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

the qui vive. Derastus Clapp, the famous detect- 
ive, was on the alert; but it was reserved for an 
expressman to obtain the clue and ferret out the 
robber. Harnden stuck to his express duties as 
usual, but, nevertheless, his active brain was busy, 
and the requisite senses were bent upon discover- 
ing who stole the silver plate. 

It was not long before his skill and untiring per- 
severance were rewarded. He traced the robbery 
home to its perpetrator — a noted villain whom he 
had seen often in the cars — and, with the valuable 
assistance of Clapp, the robber was arrested and all 
the stolen goods recovered. The officer, we believe, 
received the reward, or a portion of it. Harnden 
generously declining to receive a share of it, was 
presented by the grateful jewelers with a valuable 
gold watch suitably inscribed. 

Express Routine. 

THE QUALIFICATIONS AND DUTIES OF AGENTS, MESSENGERS, 
CLERKS AND DRIVERS. 

Extraordinary care and judgment should be 
used by Express proprietors and superintendents 
in the selection of their agents, clerks, messengers 
and drivers. Indeed, however humble the duty of 
the employee, it is in his power (or he may be 
made a tool in the hands of designing knaves) to 
injure the Express Company. 

The mass of men— even those famihar with mer- 



EXPRBSS HISTORY. 199 

cantile affairs, are not adapted naturally to the 
duties of Express agents. It is of some import- 
ance that the agent should enjoy the respect and 
friendly regard of the community in which he is 
located; but this of itself does not fit him for his 
duties. He should be constantly alive to the re- 
sponsibility of his position, assiduous in his atten- 
tion to the work assigned to him, and prompt in 
the execution of it. Accustomed to receiving and 
forwarding large amounts of money and valuables, 
his natural tendency is to suffer his watchfulness to 
diminish, which of course is wrong. A want of 
caution is inherent in mankind. We see or hear 
of this failing constantly, even in those whose lives 
are a constant scene of danger. The soldier and 
sailor are proverbially careless. The engineer, 
upon his locomotive, dashing along by the brink of 
precipices, over a route strewn with the debris of 
numerous railroad catastrophies, has been known to 
sleep at his post. It was but for a minute or two, 
perhaps, and it may have been a very rare thing, 
but carelessness almost as great as that is by no 
means uncommon. It cannot be wondered at, 
then, that Express agents and their clerks should 
in some instances prove to be lacking in watchful- 
ness; still it does not justify them, and the em- 
ployee so offending should be immediately dis- 
charged. The company has too much at stake to 
intrust it to such hands. When we reflect that 
millions of dollars^ in charge of the Express, are 

18* 



200 EXPRESS HISTORY. 

in transitu daily, entirely at the mercy of the 
agents and messengers, the importance of having 
only those who are faithful and careful, constant- 
ly, demands no further demonstration. The em- 
ployees who are to fill these responsible berths 
should be selected cautiously, and never with a view 
to their cheapness. Their antecedents (to make 
use of a term which has lately come into fashion) 
ought to be carefully inquired into, and their pres- 
ent habits, too, are a fit subject for consideration. 
Had this been done in the case of one messenger, 
at least, it would have saved him from a crime 
which has carried him to a State Prison, and the 
Express Company from a loss of not less than 
$30,000. 

What we have said of the necessity of watch- 
fulness in Express agents will apply with equal, 
or perhaps greater force to Express messengers. 
They should always bear in mind, that great as is 
their bodily exposure to accidents, their reputation 
should be as dear to them as life or limb. In case 
a loss occurs of any money parcel or valuable pack- 
age in his charge, the messenger has to bear no 
inconsiderable share of the onus of it. The un- 
charitable and mean-minded will not hesitate to 
suspect him of the robbery, however irreproacha- 
ble may be his moral character. It behooves him, 
therefore, to be always vigilant and attentive to his 
trust. 

Express clerks are usually a very worthy class 



202 



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ADAMS EXPRESS COMPANY. 

BostOBy AliVIIV ADAmS. E. "W, PARSONS, SnperintenfleBt. 

EASTERN DIVISION. 



HAETFOKD, PROV. & PISHKILL K. R. 

OFFICE. AGENT. 

Hartford Daniel Phillips 

Manchester J. O. Spencer 

Willimantic J. Walden 

South Windham S. S. Weaver 

Baltic J. E. Jewett 

Moosap Geo. Dunlap 

Sterling. D. H. Freeman 

Coffin's Road D. W. Burnap 

Anthony R. Harvey 

Washington J. M. Spencer 

Bristol G. M. Mitchell 

Plainville R. Neale 

Oneco John Fahey 

NEW YORK ft NEW HAVEN R. R. 

New York W. L. Crane 

New Haven W. Webb 

Bridgeport H. R. Parrott 

Waterbury E. M. Hardy 

Milford Wm. Strong 

Stratford A. B. Judd 

Fairfield J. C. Nichols 

Westport H. Allen 

Southport A. Jennings 

Norwalk G. W. Jennings 

Darien H.Bell 

Stamford George H. Hoyt 

Port Chester J. Marshall 

New Rochelle. M. Hoyt 

HOTJSATONIC R. R. 

Pittsfield E. B. Wilson 

Stepney A. Piatt 

Newtown J. Bottsford 

Hawleysville D. P. Hawley 

Brookfield L. G. Knapp 

N. Milford F. Boardman 

Merwinsville S. Merwin 

Kent A.St. John 

Cornwall Br H. C. Gregory 

W. Cornwall S. P. Judson 

Falls Village W. H. Matson 

Canaan W. W. Williams 

Sheffield Jay J. Kellogg 

Great Barrington T. M. Chapin 

Housatonic J. S. Stone 

Glendale E. Wentworth 

Stockbridge S. Rockwell 

So. Lee E. B. Manley 



OFFICE. AGENT. 

Lee R. H. Booth 

Lenox Furnace W. Thomas 

Lenox W. O. Curtis 

Van Deusenville J. Soudant 

NAUGATUCK. 

Derby L. G. Wilcoxson 

Ansonia E. W. Webster 

Seymour P. B. Buckingham 

Naugatuck L. M. Booth 

Waterville W. Pickett 

Plymouth H. Baldwin 

Litchfield W. Butler 

Wolcottville H. B. Richards 

Union City J. H. Whittemore 

Naugatuck Junction . . A. T. Curtis 

CANAL. 

CoUinsville A. Williams 

Hitchcock Station H. Bradley 

Cheshire T. B. Payne 

Granby G. W. Holcomb 

Westfield H. C. Gates 

Southington O. D. Woodruff 

HARTFORD & SPRINGFIELD R. R. 

Wallingford S. N. Edmonds 

Berlin W. W. Norton 

Middletown H. Harrington 

Windsor Locks A. H. Putnam 

Windor A. H. Mack 

Thompsonville Albert Ray 

Warehouse Point ... .V. Warner 

NEW LONDON & NEW HAVEN R. R. 

New London P. Turner 

Norwich E. P. Slocum 

Westbrook H. S, Bartlett 

Clinton J. C. Chittenden 

Madison G. N. Wilcox 

Lyme T.Johnson 

Guilford C. E. Crittenden 

Say brook L. Redfield 

NORWALK & DANBUEY R. R. 

Bethel T. B. Wheeler 

Wilton J. R. Comstock 

Cannon Station Wm. Dudley 



207 

WESTERN DIVISION. 

AliFBED OAITHEB, S.n pcrintendenf 



OFFICE. STATE, 

Amanda Ohio. 

Athens " 

Acton Ind. . 

Adams " 

Amity " 

Aurora " 

Austin *• 

Anna 111. . . 

Ashley " 

Barnesville Ohio. 

Bellair " 

Belmont " 

Blanchester " 

Bloomfield " 

Bowensville " 

Bremen ** 

Bridgeport " 

Batesville Ind. . 

Bedford " 

Belleville " 

Bloomington . . " 

Brazil " 

Brownstown . , " 
Butlerville .... " 
Bridgeport ....111.. ., 

Bagdad Ky. . 

Belleview •* 

Boston " 

Boyd's ♦• 

Blairsville Mo. , , 

Bowling Green. Ky. .. 

Cadiz Ohio, 

Cambridge " 

Campbell's " 

Chillicothe " 

Cincinnati " 

Circleville " 

Clarksville " 

Claypool " 

Columbus '* 

Concord " 

Cutler " 

Coshocton " 

Carlisle Ind. . 

Cartersburgh ... " 

Clayton " 

Cloverdale " 

Columbus " 

Currysville ** 

Cairo 111. . 

Carbondale .... " 

Carlyle " 

Centralia ...... " 

Central City . . « 

Clermont •* 



.J. H. Sunderman 
G. H. Stewart 

J. D. Pleak 

B. W. Bush 
J. B. Wilson 

.C. Shick 

J. J. Van Dyke 
.C. Judkins 

A. Stewart 

E. Faucett & Bro. 

S. Baldwin 

J. Blackburn 

Latimer & Custer 

E. J. Gardner 

G. L. Clark 
. D. Kipper 

P. T. Vestal 

J. H. Davis 

J. W. Carter 

T. H. Senin 

R. H. Sawyer 

J. K. Hamilton 
. T. J. Warner 
.M. Red ford 

Whitehead 

J. Carpenter 

P. & L. C. Boyd 
.J. T. Farris 
J.I. & J. E. Young- 
love 
. A. F. Moore 

J. Fordyce 

J. Gibson 

M. Sparks 

C. Woodward 
A. Beach 
P. R. Cliver 

H. R. Beeson 
Speer, Patterson 
&Co. 

E. Denmead 
W.F.Mason 

A. F. Shirts 
Lockheart & Bro. 

B. Grass 
H. B. Hogue 

D. Brownson 
,L. Jorgenser 

W. S. Mason 

G. W. Hayne 

T. Wight 

J. C. Gall 

J. R. & T. Johnson 



OFFICE. STA.TE. AGENT. 

Clay City 111. . . J. J. McCawley 

Coloma " H. Watkins 

Covington Ky. . .S. Reynolds & Son 

Cynthiana " T. R. Rankin 

Cadett Mo. . .A. Long 

Dresden Ohio. .P. Rouey 

Delaware Ind. . . J. S. Little 

Dupont *' R. Winterstein 

De Soto Ill J. H. Storer 

Du Quoin " A. J. Mitchell 

Danville Ky. ..S.P.Barber 

DeSoto Mo. ..C.B. Fletcher 

Dongola Ill Geo. Little 

Edinburgh Ind. . . J. De Hart 

Elizabethtown,. " J. B. Newcomb & 
Co. 

EUettsville " J. McCampbell 

Evansville .... '' G. H. Fith 

Eminence Ky. ..D.Thomson 

Fairview Ohio. . 

Frankfort ♦' W. Rittenhouse 

Frazersburgh . . •* E. L. Lement 

Fairland Ind. . . W. Judkins 

Fillmore " H.Ellis 

Fort Ritner " L T. Reed 

Franklin " J. W. Kightley 

Flora 111. ..E.P.Turner 

Falmouth Ky. . .R. Tomlinson 

Frankfort " G.W.Owen 

Gibson Ohio . . S. G. Yakey 

Glencoe " Lochrey 

Goshen Pike . . " A. C. Fry 

Greenfield " J. A. Cheever 

Gosport Ind. . . J. M. Cash 

Green Castle . . " J. Allen 
Greensburgh . . " C. Bryan 

Greenwood " S. Frazier 

Guilford " C. W. Robinson 

Georgetown . .Ky. . .B. F. Williams 

Gallatin Tenn..W. H. Yates 

Glendale Ky. ..J.B.Walker 

Hamden Ohio. .B. J. Lowe 

Hillsboro " W. H. Glenn 

Harrodsburgh . .Ind. . .D. Jones 

Hazleton " T. Johnson 

Henry ville " E. B. Guernsey 

Holton " C. Boswell 

Huron " J. W. Bartlett 

Hadley 111. . . . Robinson & Grier 

Harrodsburgh. .Ky. . .J. F. Woods 

Hopewell Mo. . .J. Evans 

Hutchinson Ky. . .M. Hutchinson 

Indianapolis Ind. . . J. G. Obr 

Ironton Mo. . .Taylor & Servioo 

Iron Mountain. . " J. W. S. Boyce 

Jackson Ohio. .Bunn <& Bra 

Jefferson ville . .Ind. . . J. H. Miles 



!08 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 



Ind. . 

111. . 

Ky. . 

ks Mo. . 

Ohio. 



Jonesville . 
Jonesboro. . . 
Jericho. . . . 
Jefferson Bar 
Lagrange. . . 
Leesburgh . 
Lexington . 
Lynchburgh . 
Loveland. . . 
Lawrenceburg 
London . . 
Loogootu 
Lawrenceville 
Lebanon . . . 
Lagrange , . . 
Lexington . 
Louisville. .. 
Lancaster... 
Labanon . . . 

Loretto 

Marietta 

Marshfield . 
Martinsville. 
McArthurs . 
McCoy's.... 
Milwood . . . 

Monroe 

Morrow 

Madison . . . 

Medora 

Memphis . . . 
Mitcuell 
Moore's Hill 
Mound City. 
Midway , . . 
Mumfordsville 
Martinsville 
Newark . . 
New Market 
New Comerst'wn 
New Holland 
New Lexington 
New Vienna 
New Albany 
North Vernon 
Nebraska . . . 
New Point . 

Noble 

Nicholasville 
New Haven. 

Nolen 

Osgood 

Orleans 

Oak Station . 

Odin 

Olney 

O'Fallou's. . 
Pittsburgh . 
Portsmouth . 
Philadelphia Road 
PortWashingtoa 



Ind. 



111. 
Ky. 



Ohio, 



Ind. 



111. . 
Ky. . 

Ohio. 



Ind. 
Ind. 



111. 

Ky. 

Ind. 

« 
111. 



Pa. . 

Ohio, 



.Hayes & See 

.C. Shiel 

.Moore & Maddox 

.M.Smith 

. Bracken&Rodgers 

C. M. Bentley 

R. Chambers 

N. W. Cummings 

G. K. Smith 
.J. P. Chew 

E. K. Long 
.J. B. Adams 

J. & J. Blair 
. Hapwood jfeGibson 

J. Harper 

S. A. Jones 

R. C. Daniels 

Cardwell&Edelen 

O 'Brian & Ballard 
. D. G. Mathews 

H. Boden 

J. Wood 

S. Isaminger 

C. C. Breneman 

L. B. Biggs 

W. Reddish 

C. T. Hunt 
.R.C. Weldrum 

W. Dibb 

I. Deitz 

H. U. Manley 

J. H. Long 
. R. C. Daniel 
.G. W. OcKeal 

Jno. T. Brown 
.1. M. Townsend 

D. D. Jewett 
W. Creal 
Nugan & Smith 
N. R. Ferguson 
P. Bastian 

A. J. Amberg 
.C. Pink 
.A. P. Huckleberry 

P. Rooney 

. R. Rowland 
.G. W. Stewart 

H. Buler 

Phillips & Dorsey 
.F. Miller 

J. F. Kimbly 

A. & G. Bond 

F.Root 

T. P. Lawrence 

Peach & Simmons 
.Geo. Bingham 
. W. S. McColen 

Lacey 

I. Angel 



OFFICE. 



Portland 
Patoka . . 
Plainfield 



Putnamville. 
Pierceville . 
Pulaski ... . 

Paris 

Paris 

Pilot Knob . 
Queensville . 

Quincy 

Roseville . . . 
Rush Run. . . 
Rusville . , . 
Rockford . . . 
Richview . .. 
Spencer's. .. 
Salesville... 
Steubenville 
Stoutsville 

Salem , 

Sabina 

Stanton. . . . 
Seymour . . , 
Sholbyville 

Salem 

Sullivan . . . 
St. Paul . . , 

Sparles 

Shoalds . . , 
Synman's . . 
Sandoval . . , 
South Ross . 

Salem 

Sumner.. 
Summerfield 
Smithfield . 

Scipio 

Shepardsville 
St. Marys. . . 
Torre Haute 
Taylorsville 
Trenton . . 
Tamorra . . 
Urichsville 
Unionport 

Ullin 

Upton 

Vinton Furnace 
Vincennes . 
Vanwedden's 

Vernon 

Vienna 

Wellsville . 
Washington. 
Willmiugton 
Westboro . . . 
Williamsport 
Washington . 
Waldron . . . 



STATE. 

Ohio. 
Ind. . 



AGENT. 

, J. J. Jones 
.J. Corbett 

Sanders & Easter- 
ling 

W. M. Waldron 



111. . 
Ky. . 

Mo. . 
Ind. . 

(( 

Ohio, 



Ind.. 

111. 

Ohio. 



Ind. 



111. 



Ky. . 

Ind.. 

111. . 

Ohio 

111. . 
Ky. . 
Ohio 
Ind. . 



Ohio. 



Ind. 



.H. T. Brent 
J. R. Lyle 

L. P Cone 

P. Buck 
.W. Leiuhart 

W. B. Lytten 

F. H. Barr 
.L. T.Davis 

T. B. Needles 
.Fordyce & Shipley 

M. M. Garrett 

D. Myers 

W. Stout 

S. A. Langdon 

J. Theobold 

Shields & Ewing 

B. Johnson 

C. H. Buck 
Pierce & Kelly 

B. Jenkins 
Geo. Miller 
O'Brien & Baker 

C. Marsh 
.B. W. Carter 

D. Gow 

L. W. Drake 

S. Knox 

T. B. Peeples 

Guthrie «fe Hannon 

J. F. Draper 

J. Chaddick 

B. J. Spaulding 
.W. C. Lupton 

S. Steinberger 
.J. Meguire 

N. Holt 
.J. W. Bukey 

Harvey & Vorhes 
.W.J. Waters 
.G. W. Upton 
.H. C. Vincent 
.J. Reynolds 

H T. Lellse 

H. T. Varoter 

I. Hougland 
.P. L. Mackintosh 

W. B. Smith 

J. Rutherford 

L. Racket 

O. R. Davis 
.J. R. Clark 

Hahn & McCain 



209 



OFFICE. STATE. 

Wheatland ....Ind. . 
Waynesville . . " . 

Wetaug 111. 

Wheeling Va. . 

West Lafayette.. Ohio 


AGENT. 

.W.H.Wallace 
.J. K. Haws 
Hight & Helman 
,N. Pigman 
.S. Ketchara 


OFFICE. 

Woodburn . 
Woodland . 

Xenia 

Zaleska 

Zanesville . 


STATE. 

...Ky. . 

'.'.!iiis. . 

...Ohio 


AGENT. 

.Robinson 

W. Ritter 
.0. M. Hammond 
.J. F. Sands 

H. Orndorff 



II . ] 

OFFICE. STATE. 

Augusta Ga. . . 

Atlanta " 

Athena " 

Adairsville .... " 

Barnesville " 

Calhoun " 

Cartersville " 

Cassville " 

Covington " 

Crawford vi lie . . " 

Curaming " 

Dalton " 

Forsyth " 

Greensboro.. .. " 

Griffin " 

Jonesboro " 

Kingston " 

La Grange .... " 

Lexington .... ** 

Madison " 

Marietta " 

Newnan *• 

Ringgold *' 

Rome " 

Social Circle ... " 

Stone Mountain. " 

Thompson .... " 

Auburn Ala... 

Brownsville *' 

Chehaw *' 

Courtland .... " 

Cusscta " 

Decatur '* 

Florence " 

Huntsville .... " 

Mobile " 

Montgomery ... ** 

Mooresville " 

Notasulga .... " 

Opelika " 

Selma " 

Somerville " 

Tuscumbia .... " 

Tuskeega " 

Amite Miss. 

Brookhaven ** 



SOUTHERN DIVISION. 

PliANT, .Superintendent 



AGENT. 

C. Haskell 

T. M. Lampkin 
E. Lovelace 
C. W. Brown 
S. A. Miners 
J. A. Maddox 
W. H. Woffard 
J. A. Spencer 

Dobbin 
E. R. Andrews 
J. H. Bard 
A. Guon 

C. C. Lewis 

M. A. Bowdoin 

T. C. Elliott 
A. S. Spencer 

Little 
J. H. Porter 
J. R. Tooker 
A. J. Lowe 
R. H. Cauldwell 
W. S. Cothran 
J. A. Clark 
J. W. Goldsmith 
R. H. Bush 
,B. F. Johnston 
W. W. Lorance 

Adams 
J. J. Pearce 

W. A. Raney 

D. Halsey 

J. J. Pittraan 
J. W. AflFron 

E. S. Smith 

W. L. Wayland 
W. C. Jackson 
Donald Collier 
Central Warehouse 
Company 

W. S. Throckmor- 
ton 
Adams 
.C.S.Stewart 
W. Hoskins 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 

. Miss. 



AGENT. 



Bolivar 

Canton " 

Coflfeeville .... " 

Corinth " 

Crystal Springs. " 

Grenada " 

Goodmans .... " 

Holly Springs . . " 

Hazelhurst .... " 

Juka " 

Jackson " 

Magnolia " 

Natchez " 

Oxford " 

Osgka " 

Summit " 

Tangapapo .... " 

Vicksburg .... " 

Water Valley . . " 

Athens Tenn, 

Chattanooga. . . " 

Cleveland " 

Columbia *• 

Charleston " 

Collinsville " 

Decherd " 

Gerraantown . . •' 

Jackson " 

Knoxville .... " 

La Grange *• 

London " 

Memphis '• 

Moscow " 

Mouse Creek ... " 

Murfreesboro. . . " 

Nashville " 

Philadelphia ... " 

Shelbyville " 

Summerville. . . " 

Sweetwater .... " 

Saulsbury " 

Charlotte N.C.. 

Aiken S. C. 

Blackville " 

Charleston " 

Camden " 

Columbia *• 



.C.J.Joy 

Pierce 
W. B. Wagner 
N. B. Robei-tson 

C. A. Folsom 
J. Powell 

P. A. Morton 
J. J. House 
S. Newman 
J. M. Stone 
G. W. Bemia 

E. M. Bee 

J. D. Dellingcr 
W. H. Parker 
W. H. Thomas 
W. E. Ligon 
H. Brinbaum 
S. L. SchcUiug 
J. W. Henderson 
J. McCormick 

F. Montgomery 
H. B.Titcomb 
S. D. Stout 

F. M. Williams 
J. Carter 

W. Brown 

G. G. Hughs 
T. Murrah 

D. W. AnderEon 
J. K. Adams 

H. Berden 
D. C. Moseley 
J.H.Magill 
J. W. Thomas 
J. S. Butler 
T. J. Moore 
W. Galbraith 
R. G. Bum pass 
R. C. Rowan 
D. W. Camp 
.F. M. Rea 
.C. H. Ranlett 
C. W. Stewart 
W. T. J. 0. Wood- 
ward 
J. Jonea 
A. Lee 



210 



Ot^FtCE. StATE. 

Chester S. C. 

Claremont 

Florence 

Graniteville 

Gadsden 

Kingsville .... 
Louisville . . . . 
Marion 



lOENT. 

W. T. Robison 
J. W. Rogers 
J. M. Chandler 

Edney 
W. B. Flowers 
W. Shaw 
J. B. Welling 
J. C. Oata 



OPFlCk. STATE. AdENt. 

Manchester S. C . J. H. Boyd 

Orangeburgh . . " W. C. Meredith 

Sumter « B.Mitchell 

Winnsboro " W. R. Garrison 

New Orleans . .La. . . J. J. McKeever 
Grand Junction. Tenn.G. M. Dugan 
West Point . . . .Ga. . . W. W. Hulburt 



PENNSYLVANIA DIVISION. 

jr O n N BINOKAIII, SnperintendenK 



OFFICE. 

Altoona 

Avondale 

Blairsville 

Blairsville Int's. 
Bell's Mills .... 

Brintons 

Bedford 

Birmingham . . 
Bainbridge .... 
Bloody Run.... 

Carlisle 

Chambersburg. . 

Chester 

Cresson 

Christiana .... 

Columbia 

Claysville 

Coatesville .... 

Claymont 

Derry g 

Downingtown .. 

Duncannon 

East Liberty . . 
Elizabeth town.. 

Fostoria 

Freeport 

Gap 

Gallitzin 

Greensburg 

Georgetown 

Glen Riddle.... 

Gettysburg 

Glen Rock 

Green Castle . . 
Harrisburgh . . 

Halifax 

Hilltiide 

Hollidaysburg.. 

Hopewell 

Huntingdon 

Herndon 

Hanover 

Homer 

Indiana 

Irwins 

Jeft'erson 

Johnstown .... 
Kittanning .... 



STATE. 



AGENT. 



Penn..E. M. Jones 

•* C. R. Forbes 

" J. Zimmer 

" J. N. Hough 

" B. F. Bell 

" J. Baldrige, Jr. 

" S. J. Way 

'* Jas. Thomson 

** Henry Isaacs 

" J. B. Farquhar 

" Jas. Louden 

" W. G. Reed 

" S. A. Price 

" Jas. S. Clark 

" R. A. Marshall 

" F. X. Zeigler 

" L. H. Switzer 

" B. Harlan 

" L. W. Williams 

" W. R. Albright 

" R. D. Wells 

" Robert S. King 

" A. J. Whoolayer 

" Jas. Lynch 

" Levi Stahl 

" C. H. Smythe 

" Levi EUmaker 

« John Walsh 

" Joseph Taylor 

" Arbogast & Bubb 

" Jas. Neville 

" C. H. Buehler 

" Emanuel Sheffer 

" E. G. Heston 

" John Marsh 

" M. C. Breniser 

" Jas. Bingham 

" Jno. F. Lowry 

" J. J. Lawrence 

" Wm. H. Lamb 

" Daniel E Trone 

" David Boyd 

« Geo. W. Sedgwick 

" Jas. Fleming 

" J. D. Hamilton 

'' J. A. Munson 

« W. H. H. Piper 



STATE. 



AGENT. 



Kellysville .. . 

Leaman Place. . 

Lancaster 

Latrobe 

Lewisburg . . . . 

Lewistown 

Lykenstown 

Littlef'town 

Marietta 

Mechanicsburg. . 

Midway 

Middletown .... 

Millerstown. . .. 

Mifflin 

Mill Creek .... 

Millersburg 

Mount Joy 

Mount Unioa . . 

Milton 

Mapleton 

Media 

Muncy 

Mc Veytown 

Newport 

New Hamilton. . 

New Florence . . 

Northumberland 

New Oxford 

Oakland 

Parkesburg .... 

Penningtonville 
Penny ville .... 

Petersburgh 

Port Trevorton.. 

Pittsburgh 

PaoH 

Saxion 

Steamboat .... 
Selin's Grove . . 
Shippensburg . . 
Spruce Creek . . 

Sunbury 

Shamokin .... 

Tipton 

Tyrone 

Taylorstowa . . 
Uniontown .... 
Washington.... 



Penn..John Drew 

" Chas. Laverty 

" J. G. Thackara 

" J. W. Coulter 
" J. Wolfe 
" W. Swartz 

" Jonas Garman 

" J. Bombgartner 

" A. W. Stehman 

" Armstrong Noble 

" Geo. W. Mell 

" Yentzer & Hake 

" Wm. J. Jones 

" J. McCay 

" W. C. Wagner 

" G. M. Brubaker 

" H. Shaflfner 

" A. Lewis 

" C. A. Bound 

" J. Donaldson 

" Alex. Henderson 

" David Mecum 

" Geo. Mitchell 

" W. Glover 

" D. W. Hunter 

" J. N. McCartney 

" Conrad Wenck 

" Bastress & Winter 

" J. Boyer 

" J. T. Wiley «fc Co. 

" J. W. Wright 

*' Jno. Lukena 

" J no. R. Hunter 

" J. P. Bogar 

" Geo. Bingham 

" John Dodwell 

" Chas. S. Favon 

" J. Whitell 

" J. H. Fisher 

" Kelso & Matthews 

" R. A. Dorsey 

" A. W. FiPher 

" G. B. Cadwallader 

" J. M. Confer 

" C. Guyer 

" S. J. Cronthens 

" Wm. P. Datesman 

" John Baird 



211 



OFFICE. STATE. 

West Alexandria Penn 

Westchester ** 

Williamsport . . " 

York *' 

Bridgeville Del. . 

Camdea " 

Dover " 

Delmar " 

Elktoa Md. . 

Farmington Del. . 

FeltoQ " 

Havre De Grace. Md. . 



AGENT. 

.A. R. Howe 

C. P. Hewes 
J. B. Corryell 
Jas. A. Stabll 

.William Gray 
J. T. Jakes 

D. F. Burton 
J. B. Clarkson 

.B.Wells 
.C. J. Harrington 
J. B. Conner 
.R. Evans 



OFFICE. STATE 

Harrington Del. . 

Hagerstown Md. . 

Laurell Del. . 

Middletown " 

Milford " 

New Castle " 

Newark " 

North East ....Md. . 
St. Georges ....Del. . 

Seaford " 

Smyrna " 

Wilmington " 



AGENT. 

.Wm. J.Fisher 
.Edward M. Mealey 
. A. J. Hearn 

J. H. Miles 

W. T. Vauls 

L. M. Chase 

G. W. Ortlife 
.J. T.Roberts 
,Wra. Magens 

Jas. B. Clarkson 

Jas. A. Searenson 

Geo. Canning. 



I> . B 



AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY. 

EASTERN DIVISION. 

U T TE RF !£ li D • Oeneral Superintendent. 
Dirision Superintendent 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 



AGENT. 



Adams N. Y. 

Adams Centre . . ** 

Akron " 

Albany " 

Albion ** 

Alder Creek " 

Amsterdam " 

Attica •' 

Auburn " 

Aurora " 

Antwerp '* 

Alexander " 

Baldwinsville , . " 

Barrytown " 

Batavia " 

Boonville " 

Brockport " 

Brownville " 

Buffalo " 

Byroa " 

Caledonia " 

Camden " 

Camillus " 

Canandaigua . . " 

Canastota " 

Cape Vincent . . " 

Carthage " 

Castleton " 

Catskill " 

Cayuga " 

Cherry Valley . . •' 

Chittenango. ... " 

Chili " 

Churchville " 

Clayton " 

Clitton Springs. " 

Clyde " 

Coburg C. W. 

Colborne " 

Cold Spring.... N.Y.. 



.W.M. Adams 
Daniel Fox 
C. M. Rich 
Am. Ex. Co. 
Nichoson & Paine 
E. J. Evans 
J. W. Sturtevant 
R. G. White 
J. L. Doty 
Morgan & Moeher 
E. G. Taylor 
M. W. Brown 
W. E. Williams 
J. Cosgrove 
H. B. Ferren 
J. Doig 
J. D. Spring 
J. E. Robinson 
W. B. Peck 
James Bean 
H. Sinclair 
H. A. Case 

E. h\ Wellington 
G. R. Fox 

C. F. Toby 
W. B. Buckley 
I. Van Norsdall 
A. Van Hoesen 
H. F. Olmsted 

F. H. Lyon 

A. H. Watkins 
L. B. Curtiss 
Charles Coler 
S. D. Bromley 

Fowler & Esseltyne 
J. A. Sutherland 
E. R. Calhoun 

, C. G. Oliver 
E. P. Dewy 

.B. Spellman 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 



Cayuga Lake ..N.Y. 

Chaumont •* 

Cornwall " 

Coxsackie " 

Cooperstown , . " 

Canton " 

Croton " 

Crugers " 

Dobbs' Ferry . . " 

De Kalb " 

Dresden " 

East Bloomfield " 

Evans' Mills " 

Fairport " 

Fiehkill " 

Fonda " 

Ft. Montgomery " 

Fort Plain " 

Frankfort " 

Frog Point " 

Fulton •' 

Garrison's .... " 

Gasport .../.. " 

Geneva " 

Germantown . . " 

Glenham " 

Gouverneur " 

Hastings " 

Herkimer " 

Holland Patent. « 

HoUey " 

Honeoye Falls.. " 

Hudson " 

Hermon " 

Hyde Park " 

Hion " 

Irvington " 

Ithaca " 

Jordan " 

JeflFerson " 



.A. L. Goodrich 
W. Baker 
W. H. Barrett 
L. W. Carman 
Kendall & Hawes 
W. P. Brown 
W. Kecfe 
E. F. Byington 

C. Gisner 
See Hermon 
Wm. Downey 
S.^almon 
L.%. Sandiforth 
J. Eddy 

P. Kelly 
W. B. Fonda 
John Scanlan 
J. R. Simms 
W. R. Stevens 
See Cayuga Lake 
M. Cox 
R. A. Berard 

D. L. Welsh 

E. H. Sly 

J. T. Abrahams 
A. W. Lomas 
Bowne & Smith 
D. Crane 
H. H. Bellinger 
J. Candee 
D. B. Kellogg 
W. M. Locke 
J. H. Poultney 
S. W. Delano 
H. Tuthill 
L. L. Merry 
P. M. Wasmer 
J. Johnson 
D. C. Austin 
Capt. Tuthill 



212 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 

..N. Y 



AGENT. 



Junction 

Kasoag " 

Keenes '• 

Kidder's Ferry . " 

Kingston " 

Kingston C.W.. 

Knowlcsville ..N.Y.. 

Lake Ridge '* 

Lamsons " 

Lavana " 

LeRoy " 

Little Falls. ... " 

Limerick " 

Lockport " 

Lodi " 

Lyons " 

Macedon " 

Manlius " 

Marcellus " 

Mannsville " 

Medina " 

Middleport " 

Murray " 

Miller's Corners " 

McConnellsville " 

Newark " 

Newburgh " 

New Hamburgh " 

New York " 

Niagara Falls . . " 

North Hector . . " 

Oak Hill " 

Ogdensburgh . . " 

Oneida - " 

Oriskany " '• 

Oswego " 

Ovid " 

Palatine Bridge. " 

Palmyra " 

Peekskill " 

Pembroke " 

Pierrepont Manor " 

Pittsford " 

Philadelphia ... " 

Port Byron " 

Port Hope C. W. 

Poughkeepsie . .N. Y. 

Phelps 

Potsdam 

Potsdam Junct 

Prospect 

Pulaski 

Remsen 

Rhinebeck . . . 



..J. McNamara 
Thos. Smith 
H. B. Keene 
See Cayuga Lake 
Cbas. Schryver 
.J. C. Clark 
.W. North 
See Cayuga Lake 
M. S. Thompson 
See Cayuga Lake 
M. G. Lamkins 
S. J. Waters 
T. Zimmerman 
"W. H. Eager 
J. M. Coryell 
G. R. Rudd 
M. J. Wilcoxen 

C. N. Lewis 
H. A. Steele 

A. M. Wardwell 

D. J. Willis 

F. Craig 
C. Thomas 
W. B. Ingalls 
R. R. Agt 

A. Hays 
J. E. Fuller 
S. H. Jones 
A. Holland 
C. B. Hoit 
A. Goodwin 
See Catskill 
C. P. Geer 
I. N. Messenger 
S. P. Halleck 
L. L. Kenyon 
A. L. Furman 
W. Wagner 
J. C. Calhoun 
Robt. Poultney 
J. Garvin 
H. A. Hatch 

G. R. Wood 
John Ellis 
A. M. Green 

.W. Burnham 
. A. A. Ver Valen 
W. Root 
J. H. Seeley 
W. B. Whitney 
T. Arthur 
H. H. Mellen 
W. Francis 
See Kingston, N.Y. 



OFFICE. STATE. 

Rochester N.Y.. 

Rome " 

Rondout ** 

Richland " 

Richville " 

Rock Stream . . " 

Sandy Creek ... " 

Saugerties " 

Sand Banks •' 

Schenectady " 

Savannah " 

Schodack " 

Seneca Falls ... " 

Sheldrake .... " 

Sing Sing " 

South Byron... " 

Spencerport ... " 

Springport '• 

Spuyten Duyvil " 

Staatsburgh " 

StaflFord " 

St. Johnsville . . " 

Stockport '• 

Stuyveeant " 

Susp'n Bridge . . " 

Seneca Lake . . " 

Shortsville " 

Stittsville " 

Syracuse " 

Tarrytown '* 

Taberg " 

Three Mile Bay. " 

Tivoli " 

Tonawanda " 

Town Line " 

Trenton " 

Troy " 

Utica " 

Verona " 

Verplancks " 

Vienna " 

Victor " 

Waterloo " 

Watertown " 

Watkins " 

Weedsport " 

Wende " 

West Bloomfield " 

West Point " 

West Camden . . " 

Williamstown .. " 

Yonkers •* 



AGENT. 

L. B. Van Dake 

J. B. Barton 

See KingBton,N.Y. 

See Pulaski 

S. A. Keene 

R. Lincoln 

W. T. Tifft 

T. J. Barritt 

R. R. Agt 

E. E. Page 

E. Luce 

L. F. Ostrander 

Z. D. Avery 

Harris, Thomas & 

Son 
J. Archer 
See Byron 
T. H. Schuyler 
See Cayuga Lake 
J. R. Havens 
P. Cummings 
C. W. March 
H. F. Jones 
E H. Simmonds 
A. D. V. Witbeck 
S. W. Bronson 
H. Tuthill 
J. Hurley 
S. B. Atwood 
A. S. Higgins 
H. N. Powell 
R. R. Agt 
A. P. Mayo 
G. W.Norcutt 
W. Sweeney 

G. Pritchard 
H. S. Benedict 
H. Yates 
M. HaskeU 
John Lee 
See Phelps 
C. Hurley 
R. Furniss 

C. A. Clark 

See Seneca Lake 
R. G. Adams 
G. Davis 

D. G. Glover 
R. A. Berard 

S. J. W. Gamble 

E. A. Sperry 
J. Mangin 



213 



JWesiern nivition^—SAH. C. FAROO, Oeu. Superintendent. 
Canadm.—S, U. ARN£TT, Superintendent. 



OFFICE. AGENT. 

Aeton J. Ahera 

Brantford Thos. Evana 

Bothwell Wra. Laughton 

Beachville "Wm. Hook 

Brampton Wm. Stark 

Berlin Wm. Davidson 

Beamsville J. C. Kerr 

Chatham Thos. McCrae 

Clifton H. S. Smith 

Clinton Smith & Fisher 

Caledonia A. C. Buck 

Dunnville Brown & Mylne 

Dundas Wm. Tavlor 

Fort Erie R. Ratcliflf 

Glencoe D. S. McKellar 

Grimsby J. A. Nellis 

Gait J. G. Eraser 

Georgetown C. Ryan 

Guelph C. P. Hutchinson 

Goderich J. F. Mercer 

Hamilton J. D. Irwin 

IngersoU E. Doty 

Komoka O. D. Mabee 

London J. T. Boniface 

Mitchell E. J. Woods 

Mount Brydgea Edward Mihell 

Malton J. McNevin 



OFFICE. AGENT. 

New Hamburgh J. P. Smith 

Newbury Thos. Robinson 

Port Colborne L. G. Carter 

Port Stanley E. E. Warren 

Preston W. Schluter 

Paris R. Nisbet 

Princeton S. Yale 

Petersburgh W. Piatt 

Rockwood . . . J. U. McKenzie 

St. Catharines Wm. Cooke 

St. Thomas G. McKenzie 

Shakspeare Wm. Dunmoodie 

Stratford L. Reynolds 

St. Marys R.Calvert 

Seaforth Patton, Torr «& Co. 

Sarnia W. B. Clark 

Stratbroy Jas. Keefer 

Thamesville A. J. C. Shaw 

Thorold Hugh James 

Toronto M. H. Irish 

Windsor S. K. Forde 

Woodstock J. McKay 

Weston E. E. Knight 

Widder J. McCarmiff 

S. Bridge, N. Y J. H. Arnett 

N.Falls, " C. B. Hoit 

Lewiston, " R. Trafford 



CLEVELAND DIVISION. 

GHARIiES II. WJBIiJLS, Superintendent. 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Dunkirk N. Y..M. B. White 



Silver Creek. . , •< 

Westfield Pa. . 

Columbus " 

Conneautville . . " 

Erie " 

Girard •• 

Meadville " 

North East " 

Union Mills " 

West Greenville "• 

Waterford " 

Warren " 



E. R. Ballard 
.8. R. Dewey 
W. C. Howard 
E. L. Litchfield 
J. Harper 
Geo. II. McEntire 
L. C. Magaw 
S. Malick 
Wm. Putnam 
Jno. R. Packard 
C. M. Hayes 
A. J. Davis 



Ashtabula Ohio. .A. C. Hubbard 



Berea 

Corwin 

Crestline . . 
Cedarville 
Cleveland. 
Cincinnati. 
Conneaut . . 
Columbus. . 
Cardington 
Delaware . . 
Grafton . . 
Geneva... 



W. B. Rogers 
Cadwalader&Crane 
J. G. Barnes 
H. H. Gibney 
Jno. E. Cole 
Frank Clark 
S. A. Boughton 
Jno. Stearns 

A. H. Shunk 

B. Dickinson&Son 
A. K. Hand 

H. S. Hunger 



OFFICE. STATE, 

Gilead Ohio. 

Greenwich ** 

Galion " 

Iberia " 

Kingsville .... " 

London ** 

Lebanon •* 

Loveland •'* 

Milford " 

Morrow " 

Madison " 

Newark " 

New London ... " 

Painesville " 

Rochester " 

S. Charleston . . " 

Shelby " 

Springfield " 

Worthington . . '* 

Wellington .... " 

West Jefferson. . " 

Willoughby " 

Xenia " 

Yellow Springs. '' 

Zanesville *' 

Louisville Ky. . 



AGENT. 

.C. B.Foot 
H. Townsend 
B. F. Mathias 
II. W. Cole 
E. D. Nettleton 
John Cass 
Jno. Wise 
G. R. Smith 
Z. C. Woodruff 
E. F. Hunt 
O. C. Loveridge 
J. J. Buckingham 
Ira Liggett 
H. Steele, Jr. 
Horace Bacon 
H. G. Tibbals 
E. S. Close 
Chas. B. Morris 
W. S. Park 
N. Hamlin 
D. W. Bliss 
W. H. Turner 
N. Dougherty 
Johnson &Gilmore 
A. C. Ross 
.Frank Tryon 



214 



MICHIGAN DIVISION. 



CHARIiES FARGO 



uperintendent .— JD e tro4 t , 



OFFICE. STATE. 

Wayne Mich.. 

Ypsilanti " 

Ann Arbor " 

Dexter " 

Chelsea " 

Grass Lake " 

Leoni " 

Jackson " 

Parma " 

Albion '• 

Marshall " 

Battle Creek.... '* 

Augusta " 

Galesburgh .... " 

Kalamazoo " 

Mattewan " 

Lawton " 

Decatur " 

Dowagiac " 

Niles '.... « 

Buchanan " 

Davton " 

New Buffalo *• 

Michigan City. .Ind. . . 

Lake Station . . " 

Ross " .. " 

Dyer " 

Bloom -' 

Matteson 111. . . 

Frankfort '* * 

Joliet " 



E. P. Lewis 

B. Follett 
L. Dodge 
E. B. Tyler 

W. W. Whedon 
Lord & Fargo 
W. M. Sullivan 
liumphrey & Hib- 

bard 
E. P. ilerrill 
S. V. Irwin 

C. C. Peavy 

J. Stuart & Son 
C.W.Cock 
R. H. Whitford 
J. W. Taylor 
H. Fitch & Son 
Juo. Ihling 
C. Wheeler 
E. Pardee 
Geo. Goodman 
G. R. Treat 
P. Hunter 
A. Bennett 
H. H. Roberta 
C. F. Johnson 
R. D. Cornish 
Wra.Cullea 
Wm. Tomson 
G. Somers 
J. McDonald 
L. A. Fuller 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 



Birmingham ..Mich 

Royal Oak .... " 

Pontiac " 

Drayton Plains . " 

Clarkston '* 

Davisburgh " 

Holly " 

Fentonville " 

Linden " 

Gaines " 

Vernon " 

Corunna *• 

Owosso " 

Ovid •' 

St. Johns " 

Lyons " 

i'ewamo " 

Ionia ** 

Sarauac " 

Lowell " 

Ada " 

Grand Rapids . . " 

Berlin " 

Nemica " 

Grand Havt n . . *' 

Utica " 

Mount Clemens . " 

Ridgcway .... *• 

Smith's Creek .. " 

Port Huron " 



..G.L.Lee 

J. B. Johnson 

Bagg & Parker 

J. Linaburg 

N. E. Dewell 

M. Hickey 

Arms & Tindall 

N. T. Thurber 

W. H. Cook 

G. B. Runion 

W. D. Garrison & 
Bro 

J. B. Wheeler 

A. H. Byerly 

W. C. Bennett 

T. Baker 

C. W. Staley 

H. W. Blanchard 

S. H. Sherman 

C. B. Pratt 
A. C. Vanderburgh 

A. Thomas 

C. Angell 

A. Walker 

R. S. Innis 

Geo. E. Hubbard 

F. Reynolds 

J. V. De Boucher- 
ville 

J. P. Smith 

J. Carlton 

Hull & Osborn 



JE . Tl 

OFFICE. STATE 

Alton Ills. . 

Augusta Ind. 

Arcadia '* 

Anderson " 

Bainbridge " 

Bradford " 

Brookston " 

Bueua Vista ... " 

Belleville " 

Brazil " 

Bridgeport " 

Bunker Hill... Ills. 

Bethalto «' 

Butler " 

Cambridge City. Ind. 
Connersville . . '* 

Centreville " 

Crawfordsville . " 
Cicero " 



INDIANAPOLIS DIVISION. 

'.-SliOANX:, Superintendent. 



AQENT. 

.W.M. Parks 
.J. Klingensmith 
W. T. Smith 
P. Burton 
M. Daggy 
W. G. Porter 
Jno. P. Lowery 
A. G. Walton 
L. T. Bray 
J. M. Connely 
J. L. Yealman 
.F. E. Adams 
Wm. Tryon 
Coudy & Mehany 
. R. S. Lackey 
A. Morrow 
A. Trumbull 
R. E. Bryant 
J. W. Cottingham 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 



AGENT. 



Castleton Ind. . 

Cumberland ... " 

Crittenden " 

Colfax " 

Cartersburgh ... " 

Coatsville " 

Clayton " 

Collinsville Ohio. 

Camden " 

Charleston Ills. . 

Dublin Ind. . 

Dudley 111.. . 

Dayton Ohio. 

Eaton " 

Eldorado " 

E. Germantown.Iud. . 

Fillmore " 

Francisville. . . " 
Fairfield " 



.H. H. Bassett 
Louis Pauce 
S. C. Hackett 
P. C. Scmerville 
H. F. Shirts 
Wm. Moore 
J. H. Davis 
.A. P. Young 
V. D. Reese 
.D. Byington 
.A. Chappell 
.W. S. Vaumeter 
.J. M. John 
W. D. Quinn 
Adams & Co. 
.Jacob Gipe 
M. D. Bridges 
F. F. Stokes 
John Evans 



2l5 



dPPICB. 


STATE. AGENT. 


OFFICE. 


STATE 


Franktoa 


..Ind. 


.C. Quick 


Nevada 


..Ind. . 


Florence 


. . Ohio 


. .J. H. McWhinney 


Oxford 


..Ohio. 


Green Castle . 


..Ind. 


..W. E. Whitridge 


Plainfield . . . . 


..Ind.. 


Greenfield . . . 


" 


N. F. Williams 


Pniladelphia 


u 


Galveston . . 


a 


Knoulton & Kendall 


Peru 


K 


Gillespie 


..Ills. 


. .H. L. Elsworth 


Quincy 


<< 


Hagerstown. . 


..Ind. 
..Ohio 
..Ills. 


. .G. Hindman 
.J. C. Skinner 
.J.M.Keith 


Reynolds " 


Hamilton 


Raysville ... " 


Hillsboro 


Richmond . . 


(( 


Indianapolis . 


..Ind. 


.H. W. Daniels 


Roseraond . . 


..Ills. .. 


Kokomo 


" 


Richmond & Leeds 


St. Louis 


..Mo. .. 


Knightstown . 


(( 


W. H. H. Glass 


Shelbyville . . 


..His. . 


Kansas 


..Ills.. 


.J.K.&W.F.Boyer 


Seven Mile . . 


..Ohio.. 


Litchfield .... 


i< 


J. W. Haggard 


Somerville . . 


<i 


Lebanon 


..Ind. 


.Wm. Zion 


Sharpsville . . 


..Ind. . 


Levvisville . . 


ii 


Eli Davis 


Saw Pier 


tf 


Ladoga . ... 


(( 


Harney & Stover 


Staanton 


" 


Lafayette 


ti 


C. W. Schidell 


Sulphur Springs " 


Logansporte 


« 


J. W. Dunn 


Terre Haute . 


'< 


Lincoln 


. . " 


W. Ingram 


Tipton 


:< 


Millville .... 


(( 


Conwav & Hood 


Thorntown . . 


<( 


Medaryville. . 


<( 


J. C. Crouch 


Tampico 


(< 


Miaraa Town 


n 


Truax& Humisick- 


Windsor .... 


..Ills. .. 






house 


Washington. . 


Ind. . 


Middletown. . . 


(I 


J. Yount 


Westville .... 


" 


Manchester . . . 


.Ohio. 


.M. L. Farmer 


Whitestowu . . 


<» 


New Paris . . . 


<t 


Saul Thomas 


Windfall .... 


«« 


Nicholsonville 


.Ind. . 


.B. Nicholson 


Walton 


<« 


Noblesville . . . 


(( 


P. Lawyer 


Zionsville . . 


(i 


New Castle . . 


<( 


W. J. Haskitt 







AGENT?. 

.Wm. Wooley 
.J. Molly neaux 
. Sanders & Easterly 
David Gilson 
L. T. Higgles 
A. J. Griffith 
Aaron Wood 
J. T. White 
M. Y. Graff 
. W. P. Warner 
.S.M.Allen 
.G. M. Dilly 
.A. B. King 
A. S. Ritenouse 
.Franklin & Good 
L. Glazebrauch 
J. H. Whiden 
J. W. Yoush 
M. S. Wasson 
S. L. Kniseli 
Wood Bros. 
J. W. Thomas 
H. B. Beach 
Charles Evans 
W. L. Webster 
Buck & White 
Smith & Taylor 
J. D. Forguen 
A. Nichols 



N. W. DIVISION. 

B. P. P£CK.IIAiTI nnd E). KAITDEIV, Dirision Supcrinteudents. 



OFFICE. STATE. 

Aurora Ills. . . 

Amboy " 

Batavia " 

Bloomington . . " 

Belvidere " 

Bunker Hill . . " 

Chicago 

Courtland 

Centralia 

Clintoa 

Charleston 

Decatur 

Dixon 

Elgin 

El Paso 

Freeport 

Fulton 

Galesburgh 

Geneva 

Galena 

Galva 

Hillsboro 

Joliet 

Kaukakee 



AGENT. 

E. R. Allen 
L. Bourne 

F. E. Isham 
J. A. Lewis 

C. W. Ives 

F. E. Adams 
Jas. C. Fargo 
J. D. Milliken 
Thos. Wight 
J. A. Rasbach 

D. S. Gates 
U. P. Fobes 
W. C. Snyder 
C. D. Sprague 

G. H. Campbell 
S. Wright 

E. P. Wells 
A. Ray nor 

F. June 
W. C. Parsons 
E. Fuller 

L. A. Fuller 
W. W. Johnson 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Kewanee Ills. . .H. C. Parker 

Kansas *' 

La Salle ** J. A. Raynor 

Lane " D. D. Culver 

Litchfield " 

Mattoon " J.L.Smith 

Marengo " H. L. Dow 

Mendota " D. G. Bly 

Macomb " J. M. Westfall 

Morrison " J. C. Overheiser 

Monmouth " E. C. Babcock 

Ouarga " J.F.Colby 

Pecatonica " A. L. Van Dyke 

Paua " J. A. Keith 

Princeton " P. N. Newell 

Polo •« W. ii. Chatfield 

Paris " 

Quincy " A. L. Sweet 

Rockford " J. S. Ticknor 

Sterling . , " W. A. Sanborn 

Sandwich " D. R. Ballou 

Shelbyville.... " 

Talono " E. Richards 

Urbana " Pratt & Bro. 



2l6 



OFFICE. STATE, 

Waukegan Ills. . . 

WheatoQ " 

Woodstock *• 

Warsaw " 

Warren " 

Windsor " 

Vandalia " 

Columbia City. .Ind. . 
Fort Wayne.... " 

Plymouth " 

Valparaiso , " 

Warsaw '\ 

Bucyrus Ohio., 

Delpho3 " 

Forest " 

Lima " 

Upper Sandusky " 

Van Wert '* 

Hannibal Mo. . 

St. Louis " 

Lake Ind. . 

Michigan City. . '' 

Anamosa Iowa . 

Burlington '* 

Clinton " 

Cedar Rapids.. " 
Cedar Falls .... " 

Du Buque " 

DeWitt " 

Fairfield " 

Independence . . " 

Keokuk " 

Lyons " 

Mt. Pleasant . . " 

Ottumwa " 

Waterloo " 

Appleton Wis.. 

Beaver Dam . . " 



AGENT. 

D. O. Dickinson 
H. H. Fuller 
J. H. Durfee 
Ofndorff&Co. 
P. H. Murphy 

D. Palmer 

,W. V. McCracken 
S. McElvain 
T. A. Lemon 
Carpenter & Co. 
G. R. Thrall 
M. Deal 
J. W. Hunt 
J. B. Massey 
W. B. Barroll 
Jas. Culbertson 
G. McCoaoly 
.F. Levering 
S.M.Allen 
.C. F. Johnson 
H. H. Roberts 
Peaslee & Fi^er 
M. C. Mc Arthur 

E. A. Wadleigh 
W. B. Mack 

S. A. Bishop 
Thos. Adams 
J. C. Smyles 
Geo. A. Wells 
C. W. Taylor 
C. L. Allen 
J. G. Smith 
W. A. Sanders 
Wm. Daggett 
J. C. Hubbard 
J. M. Stebbins 
C. H. Weed 



OFFICE. STATE. AOENtP. 

Beloit Wis., .Wright &Newcomb 

Berlin '• J.W.Clark 

Broadhead " E. A. McNair 

Columbus " Davis & Axtell 

Clinton " H.Cook 

Delevan " Johnson & Betts 

Elkhoru " W. D. Lyon 

Fond du Lac . . " E. L. Patch 

Fox Lake " John M. Hardy 

Geneva *• S.P.Dewey 

Green Bay .... " W. C. E. Thomas 

Horicon •* J. B. Butler 

Janesville *' John W. Nichols 

Jefferson " W. D. Hiltger 

Kenosha " L.G.Merrill 

Kilbourne City. " W.G.Gardner 

Lisbon " M. McKercher 

Lone Rock .... " W. Craig, Jr. 

La Crosse " L.E.Webb 

Mihvaukie " F. C. Loomis 

Mazomaaie " J. B. Stickney 

Madison " H. C. Pond 

Menasha " W. D. Meeker 

Mineral Point.. " G.W.Cobb 

Monroe " Ludlow Bingham 

«fcCo. 

Oshkosh " Tremble, Colvin&Co 

Portage City . . " S. L. Corbin 

Prairie du Chien " L. G. Harris 

Racine " N. A. Van Tine 

Ripon " D. Greenway 

Stoughton " H. H. Giles 

Sparta " J. E. Myers 

White Water . . " S. C. Hall & Co. 

Watertown .... " C. A. Sprague 

VV'aupun " L.B.Dodge 

Waukesha " O. M. Tyler 



UNITED STATES EXPRESS COMPANY. 



OFFICE. 



C. A. DJBIYITT, Superintendent. 

EASTERN DIVISION. 



STATE. 



N. Y.City N.Y. 

Addison " 

Almond " 

Alfred " 

Andover " 

Alleghany " 

Apulia " 

Avoca " 

Avon " 

Attica " 

Alexander " 

Alden « 

Blauveltyille. .. " 

Binghamton. ... " 



.S. C. Hay 
E. Van Tuyl 

E. N. Ackerman 
B. H. Green 

G. W. Estabrook 
J. H. Farqueharson 
A. H. Hackett 
N. B. Chase 
J. Myers 
G. Simpson 
J. B. Lewis 
O. Dodge 
S. D. Demarest 

F. A. Morgan 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 



Barton N.Y. 

Big Flats " 

Belvidere " 

Bath " 

Bloods '' 

Batavia " 

Burns " 

Buflfalo " 

Candor " 

Chester " 

Cochecton *• 

Callicoon " 

Campville " 

Chemung " 



.A. S. Parmelee 
W. Doyle 
A. Aldrich 
C. A. May 
W. O. Nicholson 
A. C. English 
P. S. Jones 
J. E. Smith 
G. F. Barager 
M. L. Clark 
W. H. Tator 
T. Ingalsbie 
R. C. McNeal 
S. B. Lathrop 



217 



OFFICE. STATE 

Corning N. Y. 

CameroQ " 

Canisteo " 

Cuba " 

Cattaraugus.... " 

Chenango Forks " 

Cortlai.d " 

Canandaigua ... ** 

Campbell " 

Conesus *' 

Caledonia " 

Canaseraga .... " 

Castile " 

Deposit " 

Dayton *• 

Dunkirk " 

Darien " 

Elmira " 

Friendship " 

Forest vi He " 

Goshen " 

Genesee " 

Geneseo " 

Great Valley. . . " 

Gorham " 

Gainesville .... " 

Hampton *' 

Howell's " 

Hankins " 

Hancock '• 

Hale's I'^ddy. .. «' 

Hoopers " 

Hornellsville. . . " 

Himrods " 

Hinsdale " 

Homer " 

Horseheads .... " 

Havana " 

Ithaca " 

Kirkwood " 

Lordville " 

Little Valley . . *' 

Lisle " 

Liberty " 

Livonia " 

Leroy f . . '• 

Linden " 

Lancaster '• 

Monsey.. " 

Monroe •' 



.L. R. P.Thompson 
G. Shepard 
A. F. Norton 
C. Hallack 
H. Babb 
R. B. Camp 
H. L. Rogers 
O. H. Corson 
J. H. Place 
S. Stoddard 
H. N. Ayres 
C. F. Bennett 
J. G. True 
M. P..Buell 
J. Rice 
M. B. White 
J. McLane 
S. DeWitt 
G. W. Fries 
W. R. Smith 
H. A. Hortoa 
O. L. Mather 
Doty &Bro 

F. B. Tyler 
J. M. Ray 

W. F. Thayre 

H. Phillips 

A. J. Horton 

P. W. Reeseman 

A. B. Chamberlain 

N. H. Hotchkiss 

P. Hooper 

E. Bowen 

C. Post, Jr. 

P. C. Lockwood 

G. C. Babcock 
J. H. Woodward 
J. H. Risdon 
Jesse Johnsou 
J. A. Emmons 
A. J. Lord 

J. R. Fitch 
W. V. Share 
W. Washburn 
C. P. Andrews 
J. Allison 
J. Warren 
S. Spencer 
L. Sherwood 
C. B. Knight 



OFFICB. STATE. AGENT. 

Mlddletown N. Y. .H. Sweet 

Mast Hope " J. E. Decker 

Marathon " A. H Barber 

Millport " T. V. Weller 

Mt. Morris •' G. W. Phelps 

Nanuet " D. P. Demare«k 

Newburg " J. E. Fuller 

Narrowsburg ... " E. R. Schryver 

Nunda " C. Van Riper 

Otisville '« C Hovt 

Owego " T. LChatfield 

Clean " J. S. Shaw 

Piermont '* D. Clark 

Port Jervis " E. Wells 

Painted Post ... " J. C. VanduzcQ 

Phillipsville. ... " C. G. Home 

Perrysburg " W. Ferris 

Penn Yan " J. Burns 

Portage " W. R. McCormick 

Rochester '* W. H. Shelly 

RathboneviUe . . " J. Kennally 

Spring Valley . , " N. C. Blauvelt 

Sullerna " A. K. Laport 

Southfield " J. B. Burroughs 

Sohola " C. Thomas 

Stockport " P. S. Farelly 

Susquehanna . . •* J. T. Cameron 

Smitbboro " J. C. Gray 

Sclo " PI N. Canfield 

Smith's Mills ..." G. W. Canfield 

Syracusci " Levi S. Mayo 

Starkey " L Fowler 

Savona " H. U. Haile 

Springwater ... " A. M. Witheringtoa 

Tully " J.B.Hall 

Union " P. T. B. Emmons 

WashingtoQville " J. B. < ameroa 

Waverly '' J. M. Ely 

Wellsburg " J. Gray 

Whitney's Point *•• S. Stowe, Jr. 

Watkins " M. W. Mather 

Wayland " J. G. Bennett 

Warsaw " A. L. Cook 

Great Bend Penn..G. W. Orange 

Lackawaxen " J. M. Williamson 

Godwinville N. J.. .C. A. Shuark 

Hohokus " H. Clair 

Paterson " A. M. Aplin 

Ramseys . . *' S. Smith 

Jersey City " F. Garrett 



WESTERN DIVISION. 

CIEIVRY KIP, Superintendent 



OFFICK. STATE. AGENT. 

Buffalo N.Y. .John Topping 

Dunkirk " M. B. White 

Berea Ohio.. W. B. Rogers 

Bellevue '• C. D. Hale 

Bellefoutainc . . •* J. D. Niven 



OFFICE. 



Bryan 

Carey 

Carlisle . . 

Caledonia 

CiQciunati 



STATE. 



AGENT. 



.Ohio. 



.W. D. BillingB 
Geo. B. Stevens 
Bradford Chaco 
T. N. - nderson 
A. M. Healy 



218 



OFFICE. 

Cleveland 01; 

Clyde 

Columbus .... 

CresliQC 

Dayton 

De Graff 

Defiance 

Delaware 

Elmore 

Elyria 

Findlay 

Forest 

Fosteria 

Fremont 

Fredericktown 

GalioQ 

Grafton 

Greenville 

Hamilton 

Huron 

Huntsville 

Kenton 

Lima 

London 

Mansfield 

Marion 

Marysville 

Maumee City. . . 
Mecbanicsburg . 
Miamisburg. . . . 

Middletown 

Milford 

Monroeville 

Mt. Vernon 

Napoleon 

NeWark 

Norwalk 

Oberlin 

Osborne 

O.Kford 

Perrysburg 

Piqua 

Plymouth 

Port Clinton . . 

Quincy 

Sandusky 

Shelby 

Sidney 

Springfield .... 

Sylvania 

Stryker .. .:.. 

Tiffin ^... 

Tippecanoe ... 

Toledo 

Townsend 

Troy 

union City 

Ijrbaua 

Utica 

yermillioQ 



S. AGENT. 

..W.G.Yates 
R. Smith 
John G. Stearns 
J. G. Barnes 
Thos. M. John 
A. Mitchell 
Wm. Moore 
V. D. Stayman 
G. Wight 
Levi Morse 

A. R. Beldea 
J. B. Massey 
E. J. Fodgham 
G. VV. Steele 
S. S. Tuttle 

B. F. Matthias 
A. K. iiand 

J. Van Mater 
J. C. Skinner 
Levi Peck 
Wm. Cadwallader 
A. M. Davis 
J. M. Metheany 
Low & Son 
John J. Beach 
S. Peckenpaugh 
S. W. Dolbear 
R. Robbins 
A. L. Mann & Co. 
J. Zimmer 
John Gentry 
Fullington, Gar- 
wood & Co. 

C. Caligan 
James Blake 
J. A. Stout 
A. J. Cutting 
J. S. Coe 

E. F. Munson 
E. Massev 
McGaw & Richey 
J. S. Norton 
R. Slauson 
E. Case 
O. E. Nye 
Patton & Cost 
T. D. McClelland 

E. S. Close, Jr 
John W.Knox 
C. P. Norris 
W. H. Huling 
S. A. San ford 

F. Don Benham 
Peter Fair 
Edward Chapin 

M. S. Wasner 
R. A. Wilson 
A. Utley 
V. B. Alsdorf 
C. L. Burtoa 



OFFICB. STATE. AOENT. 

Versailles Ohio. . W. E. Larimore 

Wakeman '• L. S. Hall 

Wupakoneta .. " Andrew Kuhn 

VV'auseon " E. L. Barber 

West Liberty . . ♦• R. E Ruukle 

Zanesville " A C. Koss 

Anderson Ind. . .B. B. Campbell 

Attica " C. W. Baieman 

Bri.stol " T. P. Martinea 

Calumet •' H. Brown 

Chesterfield .... •* W. W. Nolaad 

Delphi " D. Leonard 

Elkhart •* Myron E. Cole 

Fort Wayne " S. McEivaine 

Go?hen " W. B. Martin 

Huntington " Tim. Collins 

Indianapolis . . " D. Ryan 

Kendallville . . " W. R. Evans 

Lafayette " C. W. Scheidel 

LaGro " Geo. M. Wilson 

La Porte « Geo. B. Roberta 

Ligonier " Otis CoJe 

Logansport " A. P. Healy 

Middleburj " W. D. Billings 

Mishawaka " D. E. Thayer 

Muncie •' T. H. Sullivan 

New Carlisle . . " J. F. Hoyt 

Pendleton " L N. Zeublin 

Peru '« L. T. Higgins 

Plymouth " T. A. Lemon 

Rolling Prairie . " J. H. Breese 

SmithUeld " W. J. Moore 

South Bend .... •♦ C. M. Heaton 

Wabash " H. W. Hanna 

Waterloo " O.A.Smith 

Williamsport. . . '* H. D. Tnomaa 

Winchester " J. W. Williamson 

Adrian Mich..H. A. Grannis 

Blis^^fijld •' J. H. G. Mead 

Bronfon " O.U. Gillam 

Burr Oak " J.H.Phelps 

Clayton " G. R. Britjga 

Clinton « E. W. Freese 

Coldwater " R. F. Mockridge 

Detroit " C. J, Petty 

Hillsdale " S. Chandler 

Hudson " J. B. Farnam 

Jackson " D. B. Hibbard 

Jonesville " Geo. Krapp 

Manchester .... " S. Fitzgerald 

Monroe " J. C. Cole 

Napoleon " O. A. Green 

Quincy " D. R. Riddell 

Sturgis '• F. S. Packard 

Tecumseh " L. Drew 

White Pigeon.. " C. Duuwell 

Alton Ills. . . W. M. Parks 

Annawan •' J. Bruce 

Atlanta " A. D. Reid 

Auburn " W. R. Head 

Beardstown .... " C. J. Norbury 



219 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Bement Ills . .R. B. Griffiti 

Bloomington . . '* James H. Smith 

Brighton " H. G. Stall 

Bureau June. . . " Johnson &Ramsdell 

Oarlinville " George Judd 

Cailio " Richard Jones 

Chatham '♦ W.H.Mills 

Chicago " H. D. Colvin 

Chillicothe .... '♦ J. H. Bachelder 

Danville ♦• W. P. Watson 

Decatur " U. P. Fobes 

Dwight " D. McWilliaras 

Elkhart " R.J.Williams 

Elmwood ** A. H. Roberts 

Galesburgh " D. C. Brown 

Gardner '* J. N. Sawyer 

Geneseo " S. Fleming 

Girard " W. B. Michaels 

Henry " D. W. Myers 

Homer *' J. C. Forester 

Jacksonville . . " Joel Catlin 

Joliet '' L. A. Fuller 

Kooxville " Robert Cooper 

Lacou " Green & McClena- 

han 

La Salle " J. A. Kaynor 

Lexington •' S. H. Dexter 

Lincoln " R. W. Miller 

Lockport " James Milne 

Minooka " W. R. Tupper 

Mokena " Samuel Tinley, Jr. 

lloline " L. H. Barker 

Morris " W. H. Parker 

Monticello •* T. P. Walworth 

lit. Sterling " F. A. Ingersoll 

Naples « E. S. Greeuleal 

Ottawa •* E. J. Crandall 

Peoria ♦♦ E. B. Simmons 

Peoria June. ... " J. B. Lenney 

Pekin ♦♦ John S. Cook 

Peru " J. A. Raynor 

Pontiac " J. W. Chappel 

Quincy " J.A.Lewis 

Rock Island . . " J. Galligau 

Sheffield " T. Clement 

Shipmans " 

Springfield •* S. Halliday 

Tiskilwa " O. W. Batti^y 

Tolono •' E. Kuh'enthal 

Virden " W. T. Parkinson 

Washington... " D. L. Miles 

Williamsrille . . ** C. K. Snyder 

Wilmington " C.B.White 

Adel Iowa .John L. Blue 

Atalissa " A. Brompall 

Beutonsport " C. E. Snow 

Burlington ♦* H. E. Hunt 

Cedar Rapids . . '♦ E. Coulter 

Council BluSs . . " A. Eddy 

Columbus City . " Geo. Haywood 

Davenport " John Galligan 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Des Moines Iowa .R. K. Mc Master 

Durant " H. S. Downs 

Eddyville '• E.L.Smith 

Farmiugton .... " S. J. McKee 

Fort Madison . . " W. C. Paine 

Grinnell ** C.H.Spencer 

Iowa City " W. H. Quick 

Keokuk " J. B. Clinton 

Keosauqua " J. B. Sample 

Lewis " T. R. Chapel 

.Marengo " Ogle & Reed 

Montezuma " J. T. Drain 

Muscatine " VV. H. Joy 

Newton " Lamb & Rodgers 

Oskaloosa " A. F. Seeberger 

Ottumwa " C. C. Cloutman 

Pella " J. Nollen 

Sigourney " A. G. Brown &, Co. 

Washington " D. McMichael 

West Liberty . . " C. F. Miller 

Wilton " G. M. Francis 

Wintersett *' J. G. Vawter 

Allen Mo. . . M. Jackson 

Arrow Rock. ... " Jay M. Potter 

Bevier " D. N. Cudworth 

Boonville •* A. A. Austin 

Brunswick " A. L. Kerr & Co. 

California " James Harker 

Chillicothe " C. VV. Davenport 

Columbia " L. S. Dorsey 

Franklin " J. F. Antes 

Glasgow *' O. Hendnrson 

Hannibal '« H. R. Mills 

Hermann " A. Leiraer 

Hill's Landing . " Hill & Trotter 

In lepeudence . . " J. C. Agnew 

Jefferson City . . •• J. Grimshavr 

Kansas City . . *' H. S. Clark 

La Clede " John H. Tomlin 

Lexington " J. R. Buckner 

Liberty Landing " John Baxter 

Macon City •' E. T. Phelps 

Mexico *' N. Lackland 

Miami " F.S.Robertson&Co. 

Palmyra " G. W. Lane 

Providence Mo. . .Lawrence «fe Ellis 

Parkville ♦• W.McNeill Clough 

Rocheport " Harris, Stevens & Co. 

Richfield •' Gilmore & Holt 

Shelbina '♦ Alex. Farrow 

St. Charles " W. M. Christy 

St. Joseph .... '« H. D. Hall 

Sturgeon " W. W. Stone 

St. Louis •« Charles W. Ford 

Tipton " E. H. Dennis 

Utica " M. Juno 

Warrenton «' R. E. Pleasanto 

Washington ... '• E. Stevens 

Wellsville .... •' B. J. Sharpe 

Waverly " M. Vincent 

Wentzville •' Wm. M. Allen 



220 



Weston . . . 
Westport . 
St. Aubert 
AtehiROQ , 
Doniphan 
Lawrence . 
Leeompton 
Leavenw'th City 
Qamdaro 



STATE. AGENT. 

Mo. ..T. F. Warner 
" P. H. Smith 
" C. Willing 

Kan. .M. C. Finney 

" James E. Watson 
" Wm. Morrow 
D. T. Parker 
Johnson & Veale 



OFFICE. 

Sumner 

Tecnmseh 

Topeka 

Wyandotte . . 
Plattsmouth 
Brownsville. . 
Nebraska City 
Omaha City. . 



Kan. 



Na. 



S. AGENT. 

.A. Weston 

John Martin 

S. L. Munger 

McHenry & Downs 
. .Tootles & Hanna 
Lushbaugh & Carsoa 

E. S. Havf ley 

C. D. Woolwortb 



New York 

Boston 

Providence 
Philadelphia 
AngQsta . . 
Americus. . 
fiarnesville 
Colambus. . 
Cuthbert .. 
Davisboro . 
Eatonton . . 



HARNDEN EXPRESS COMPANY. 



N.Y..L. W.Winchester 

Mass. .A. Sprague 

R. I...B. Lawton 

Pa. ..Geo. R.Dunn 

Ga. ..L. C.Shaw 
" H. C. Nunn 
" C. W. Brown 
" S. H. Hill 
" E. S. Brooks 
" J. J. Watkins 
•' I. Wright 



OFFICE. 

Forsyth 

Fort Valley. . 

Geneva 

Green Cut . . 

Griffin 

Jonesboro 

Macon 

Milledgeville 
Montezuma . . 
Oglethorpe . . 
Savannah 



STATE. 

Ga. 



AGENT. 



.A. Dunn 
W. A. Skillen 
A. T. Chandler 
A. J. Lambeth 
M. A. Bowdoin 
A. &H. 
L. H. Powers 
Bemis 
I. A. Miller 
J. A. Smith 
J. Spooner 



*' The Harndcn -' has Express facilities in all parts of the South, and (through ita 
connections and its own agencies) East and West. 



THOMPSON & GO'S AMERICAN EXPRESS. 



OFFICE. 

Boston 

Worcester . 
Clappville . 
Charlton ... 
Spencer . . . 
E. Brookfield 
Brookfield . . 
W. Brookfield 
Warren . . . 

Palmer 

Indian Orchard 
Springfield 
Westtield . . 

Russell 

Hnntington 
Chester.. . 
Becket .... 
Washington 



STATE. 

Mass. . 



AGENT. 

W. N. Melcher 
James H. Osgood 
J. L. Warren 
H. Towne 

D. K. Rathbun 
B. B. Adams 
W. Tufts 

F. M. Carew 
J. F. Hitchcock 
W. C. Child 

E. A. Fuller 
Geo. R. Monell 
H. C. Gates 

H. Parks 
J. Stanton 

E. D. Cook 
A. Barnes 

F. W. Manly 



OFFICE. 

Hinsdale . . 

Dalton 

Pittsfield .. 
West Pittsfield 
N.Adams .. 

Canaan 

Chatham .... 
Kinderhook . . 
Albany ... . . 

Chicopee 

Holyoke 

Nortnampton 
S. Deerfield . . 
Greenfield . . . 
Brattleboro . . 
Bellows Falls 
Keene 



STATE. 



N.Y. 
<t 

<( 
«< 

Mass. 

.( 
(i 
t< 
i< 

Vt. . 

« 

N. H. 



AGENT. 

F. Curtis 
H. M. Parker 
L. Scott 
M. D. Francis 

E. D. Whi taker 

B. F. Knight 

C. H. Chapin 
E-Carr 

R. L. Johnson 
L. A. Moody 
L. Newell 
H. C. h"en«OQ 
B. Ackington 
L. Merriam 
W. Bemis 
J. W. Moore 

F. A. Barker 



OFFICE. 

Philadelphia 
Phoenixville 
Pottstowu . 
Beading ... 



HOWARD & CO'S EXPRESS. 

p. f^OTEJOY, en apcrin tcndcnt 



STATE. 

Pa. . 



John W. Morrison 
Reeves Hornett 
Abner Evans 
William Keely 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 



AGE.Vr. 

SchuylkillHaven Pa.. .William Voute 

Pottsville. " R. F. Weaver 

Homelsdorf .... '• S. D. Gockley 
Lebanon " John Ulrich 



OFFICE. 



Wyentown . 
Harrisburgh 
Taraaqua . . . 
Danville . . . 
Miltoa 



Lewisburg . 

Muncy , 

Williamsport 



221 



.Pa. 



.H. H. Gettle 
George Bergner 
W. P. Fowler 

E. W. Conkling 
H. H. Frymire & 

Bro. 

F. S. Caldwell 

G. L. J. Painter 
J. B. Coryell 



OFFICE. 



Jersey Shore . .Pa. . 
Lock Haven . . •' 

Troy " 

Canton " 

Elmira N. Y. 

Bloomsburg. . . Pa. ,. 

Berwick " 

Wilksbarre " 

Pittston " 



.S. Gudeykuntz 
J. G. Borrows 
Wm. Hoffman 
J. S. Tyler 

.S. De Witt 

A. C. Wench 

B. F. Davis 
S. Urquhart 
S. Everett 



Coaaect at Elmira with Express Companies for all points in the Great West. 



The Howard Express Company's Lines 

extend over the following Rail Roads : Belvidere, Delaware, Rail Road from Phila- 
delphia to Belvidere, N. J. Distance 93 miles. The principal oflBccs are: 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Philadelphia ..Pa. ..P. Janney 

Trenton N.J...C. C. Burroughs 

Lambertville . " E. Vanuxern 
Frenchtown " Thos. Renyan 



OFFICE. 

Milford 

Easton 

Belvidere . . 



STATE. 

..N.J.., 
..Pa. . 
..N.J.. 



AGENT. 

Jas. Might 
J. M. Seigfried 
A. N. Eastoii 



Distance 13 miles. 



Fleraingtoa Rail Road, Lambertville, N. J., to Flemington, N. J. 
A. V. BoNNELL, Agent at Flemington. 
North Pennsylvania Rail Road. Distance 55 miles. The principal oflSces are : 

AOENT. 



OFFICE. 

Philadelphia 
Sellersville . 
Quakertown 



STATE. AOEXT. 

.Pa. . .P. Janney 

. " E. Shellenberger 

. " M. Ochs 



OFFICE. 

Hellertown 
Bethlehem . 



STATE. 

...Pa. .. 



Robert Peisert 



Lehigh Valley Rail Road, from Easton, Pa. to Mauch Chunk, Pa. 
miles. Principal offices: 



Distance 46 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Easton Pa. . . J. M. Seigfried 



Freemansburg. 
Bethlehem . . . 
Allcntowa 



G. Bachman 
R. Prisert 
H. A. Algert 



OFFICE. 

Catasaugua .... Pa. 

Slateington " 

Mauch Chunk . . " 



STATE. AGENT. 

.W.J.Craig 
D. McKenna 
John Taylor 



Beaver Meadow Rail Road from Mauch Chunk to Jeanesville, Pa. 
miles. Principal offices: 



Distance 23 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Weatherby Pa. . .Michael Kromer 

Heaver Meadow '* M. Wilson 
Jeansville .... " J. F. Black 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Hazleton Pa. . . William Glover 

Eckley " C. A. Foster 



East Pennsylvania Rail Road from Allentown to Reading, Pa. Distance 56 
miles. Principal offices: 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Allentown Pa. . .H. A. Algert 

Kutztowa " C. Helfrick 



OFFICE. STATE. AOEXT. 

Reading Pa. ..Wm. Keely 



By an arrangement with the Hope Express Company, the Howard Express Com- 
pany bill through from all their agencies, to all points on the Central Rail of Nevr 
Jersey ^nd the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Rail Roadp. 



222 



HOPE EXPRESS COMPANY. 

A. S. nOPE, (9 n per i n ten dc n t , New York 

NEW JERSEY CENTRAL RAIL ROAD. 



OFFICE. AGENT. 

Elizabeth City M. D. Wilson 

Craueville .... Baldwin 

Westfield Chas. Clark 

Scotch Plains V. L. Frazer 

Plainfield * M. F. Gushing 

New Market C. C. Morgan 

Bound Brook A. C. MoHison 

Somerville Jno. W. Taylor 

Raritan C. P. Beekman 

North Branch Wm. Judd 

White House Davis & Haver 

Flemington Geo. F. Crater 



OFFICE. AGENT. 

Lebanon John Heine 

Clinton Wm. A. Hope 

High Bridge A. Rockafellow 

Clarksville C. Chapin 

New Hampton W. Welsted 

Asbury J. Allen 

Bloomsbury Joa. Smith 

Valley Wm. Johnson 

Springtown J. Umlaff 

Easton Jno. M. Scigfried 

Belvidere A. N. Easton 



LEHIGH VALLEY RAIL ROAD. 



OFFICE. 

Freemansburgh 
Bethk^hem . . 

AUentown 

Statington . . . . 
White Hall ... 
Rockdale 



Geo. Bachman 
Henry Algert 
W. J. Craig 

D. McKenna 
Charles Shaffer 

E. Lentz 



OFFICE. AOBNT. 

Lehigh ton John Koons 

Mauch Chunk John Taylor 

Scbrisbers F. J. Scbrisbcr 

Coplay 

Lehigh Gap B. Andrews 

Lawry's .'.David Lawry 



NORTH PENNSYLVANIA RAIL ROAD. 



OFFICE. 

Quakertown 



AGENT. 

.Ocbs 



OFFICE. 

HcUertown 



AGENT. 

J. L. Reiget 



OFFICE. 

Shamrock . 
Fleetwood 
Emans . . . 
Lyons . . . 



EASTON AND PENNSYLVANIA RAIL ROAD. 

AGENT. I OFFICE. AGENT. 

J. P. Haas Topton Jerome Titlow 

Geo. Schaffer Milierstown .Harbison Miller 

Moses Wisand i Blaudon William Bland 

J. Richards | Reading William Kirby 



BEAVER MEADOW RAIL ROAD. 



OFFICE. 

Bowers 

Eckley ... 
Weatherby 



AGENT. 

Geo. Knoskie 
,C. E. Foster 
, Kromer 



OFFICE. AGENT. 

Beaver Meadow Wilson 

Hazletowu W. Glover 

Zanesville Waniswright 



LACKAWANNA AND BLOOMSBURG RAIL ROAD. 



Scran ton ...., 

Pittstou 

Wyoming 

Wilksbarre . . . 

Plymouth 

Siucksburring 



AGENT. 

.J. D. Fuller 
M. L. Everett 
.J. K. Jenkins 
.S. A. Urquhart 
. N. W. Sticker 
. Lot Search 



OFFICE. 

Beach Haven 
Berwick . . . . 
Bloomsburg . . 

Rupert. 

Carbondale . . 



AGENT. 

. . G. F. Dreisbach 
..B. R. Davis 
..A.C. Meuch 
.. J. H. Harmau 
. .0. U. Jadwin 



Harrisburg George Burgner 



223 

DELAWARE, LACKAWANNA AND WESTERN RAIL ROAD. 



OFFICE. 



AGENT. 



Washington J. J. Saraus 

Oxford Furnace Marrune 

Bridgeville G. Bogart 

Delaware \V. H. Hemingway 

Columbia linos Goble 

Del. Water Gap L. Broadbead 

Strondsbury Jno. N. Stokes 

Oakland (>oleman 

Pocono G. F. Conklin 

Gouldsboro A. W. Jones 

Tobyhanna L. K. Ford 

Moscow Jno. Lattoucbe 

Dunniogs 



Granville 

Scranton Jno. D. Fuller 

Clark's Summit Sherman 

Abington N. Phelps 

Factory ville W. V. Mace 

Hop Bottom Geo. Thompson 

Oakley's D. K. Oakley 

Montrose Depot B. Case 



Monirose Village 

New Milford 

Nicholson 



. C. G. Merrill 
A. D. King 



Great Bend John Colstoa 



EARLE EXPRESS COMPANY, 

In connection trith Ilnrndcn^« Sxpress from Ncir York and Boston. 



OFFICE. 


STATE 


AOEXT. 


OFFICK. STATE 


AGENT. 


Warren 


.R. I.. 


.H. D. Maxfield 


Wick ford R. I.. 


.E. S.Hall 


Bristol 


<< 


N. Warren 


Kingston " 


Earle Ex. Co. 


Pawtucket . . . 


«< 


B. Miller 


Richmond " 


W. C. Lamphear 


Attleboro 


.Mass. 


.N. C. Luther 


Rich'ond Switch " 


E. Tucker 


Mansfield 


(( 


F. Paine 


Carolina Mills. . " 


Earle Ex. Co. 


Sharon 


*. 


S. W. Bullard 


Charleston " 


Earle Ex. Co. 


Foxboro 


'« 


Earlc Ex. Co. 


Westerly " 


E. P. Hitchcock 


Canton 


ii 


Earle Ex. Co. 


Stonington . , . Ct. . 


.J. H. Palmer 


Boston 


■r.i.. 


H. Pollard 
.Earle Ex. Co. 


Mysiic - 

Noank " 


J. H. Lovett 


Appanaug . . . 


Earle Ex. Co. 


East Greenwich 


'* 


E. Greeawich 


New London .. " 


P. Turner 



LEONARD'S EXPRESS, 

In connection irith Ilarndcn^s Express from TSvw Y'ork and Boston'* 



OFFICE. STATE. 

Grafton Mass.. 

Westborough . . " 
Southborough. . '* 

Cardaville " 

Ashland •* 

Northboro ♦• 

Marlboro " 

Southboro Centre " 

Faysville " 

Milford " 

Framingham . . " 



AGENT. 

David White, Jr. 
N. S. Eaten 
J. Fay 

Abner Parker 
Wm. Scaver 
Dart's Express 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Tildcn Express 
M. Ranney 



OFFICE. 

Saxonville . . . . 

Natick 

West Needham . 

Grantville 

Lower Falls 

Auburndale 

West Newton . . 
Newtonville . . . 
Newton Corner. 

Brighton 

Boston . . . . 



STATE. AGENT. 

Mass. .Hardy 

'^ W. Larring, D. M. 

" Mr. Perry, " 

" Mr. Fuller, '< 

" Leonard Express 

" Geo. Bourne 

" J. C. Bixby 

" Mr. Randall 

" Mr. Slocum, D. M. 

" Mr. Whitney, " 

" J. K. Bannister 



OSGOOD'S EXPRESS, 

In connection with Ilarnden'a Express from Boston and IVcw fork* 



OFFICE. 



STATE. 



AGENT. 



Valley Falls . . .R. L. .David Patt 



Lonsdale 

Albion 

Manville . . . 
Woonsocket 
Waterford . 
Blackstone . 
Millville ... 



A. Kinsman 
Mr. Oatman 
Mr. Hodges 
W. S. Balcam 

,L. S. i'enniman 

(( (( 

Lymon Logg 



OFFICE. 

Uxbridge 

Whitens 

Northbridge . . 

Farnums 

Gratton 

Sulton 

MUlbury 

Worcester . . . 



STATE. AGENT. 

,Mass..O. Taft 

" Mr. Carr 

" Mr. Carr 

" L. R. White 

" Calvin Wesson 

" D. T. Dudley 

« J. Eddv 

". J. H. Osgood 



224 



Offices of EASTERN EXPRESS COIffPANY 



In the State of lUninc. 



North Berwick 


Newport 


Rockland 




Frankfort 


Gorham 


Freeport 


Thoraaston 




Castine 


Lewiston 


Bowdoinham 


Camden 




Searsport 


Readfield 


Vassal boro 


Belfast 




Ellsworth 


Kendall's Mills 


Skondregan 


Bucksport 




Lincoln 


Agents of CASTERN EXPRE!lS COMPAIVir. 


OFFICE. STAT 


rE. AGENT. 


OFFICE. 


STATE. AGENT. 


Wells Me. 


..George Getchell 


Richmond . . . 


.Me. 


. . J. T. Robinson 


Kennebeck " 


J. Littlefield 


Gardiner 


<l 


A. Lovejoy 


Saco " 


G. A. Carter 


Ilalloware , . . 


(( 


C. Spaulding 


Biddeford " 


tt 


Skowlagam . . . 


u 


Isaac Dyer 


Portland •' 


E..Expres8 Co. 


Rockland 


t( 


Geo. W. Berry 


Bangor " 


(( 


Ellsworth 


« 


Moaes Hale 


Augusta " 


<( 


Castine 


« 


C. W. Tilden 


Lewiston " 


Edward Sands 


Camden 


l( 


E. M. Wood 


Waterville .... •' 


J. C. Bartlett 


Thomaston . . 


i< 


A. C. Fuller 


Winthrop « 


B. F. Wing 


Belfast 


(. 


J. S. Caldwell 


Bath " 


B. Rlggs 


Bucksport 


»t 


W. H. Dowling 


Brunswick " 


A. L. Stanwood 


Searsport 


(i 


R. W. Gil more 


Damariscotta . . " 


Frye & Taylor 


Newport 


" 


W. A. Frye 


Wiscasset " 


E. McKenney 


North Berwick 


n 


J. £. Hobbs 



NATIONAL EXPRESS COMPANY. 

J. A. PUL.LEN, Director, New York. 
B. H. VIRGIIi, Route Sap% Troy, N. Y. 



OFFICE. 

New York . 

Albany 

Troy 

Ballston . . . 
Saratoga . . . 
Fort Edward 
Whitehall . 
Keesville . . . 



STATE. AGENT. 

...N. Y. .W. C. Hare 

. . . " C. H. Lathrop 

. . . •• S. A. Chapin 

. . . " D. W. Bristol 

. . . « C. W. Burlingame 

. . " W. H. Tilford 

... " A.Hall 

... " W. Mould 



OFFICE. STATE. AGKXT. 

Plattsbargh . . . .N. Y. .H. H. Haile 
Rouse's Point. . " M. F. Chase 
Bennington . . . . Vt. . . M. G. Selden 

Rutland '• J. F. Knight 

Burlington .... " S. M. Pope 
North Adams . .Ma«8. .W. E. Bray ton 

St. Johns C. E. .French & Maguire 

Montreal " Q. T. Irish 



And all intermediate places. 



KINSLEY & GO'S EXPRESS. 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

Boston Mass. .Luke Damon 

Fall River .... " Kinsley & Co. 
Newport " " " 



OFFICE. STATE. AGENT. 

New York . . . . N. Y. . E. Littlefield 
Philadelphia ..Pa. . .Jas. Morrell, Jr. 



CHENEY & GO'S EXPRESS STATIONS 

REIVJ. P. CHErVEY, Superintendent. 

Potter Place N. H. 

W. Andover " 

Lebanon " 

White River June. ..Vt. 

Royalton " 

Bethel " 

Northfield " 



Lowell Mass. 

Nashua N. H. 

Fisherville " 

Boscawen " 

North Boscawen " 

Bristol " 

Hill f " 



Montpelier Vt. 

Middlesex " 

Waterbury " 

J Richmond " 

Burlington " 

Franklin N. H. 

E. Andover " 



E. Lebanon N. H. 

E. Concord " 

Canterbury '* 

Sanbomton Bridge. . " 

Union Bridge " 

Laconia " 

Lake Village " 

Holdeness *' 

Plymouth " 

Rumney " 

Warren " 

E.Haverhill " 

Haverhill " 

N. Haverhill " 

Woodsville " 

Bath •' 

Lisbon " 

Littleton " 

Hanover ** 

W. Rumney " 

Wentworth " 

Norwich Vt. 

St. Johnsburg " 

Barton " 



225 

W. Burke Vt. 

Lyndon •' 

Bradford " 

Thomon's Ferry ..N. H. 

Derby Centre Vt. 

Chemsford Mass. 

Reed's Ferry N. H. 

Grafton " 

Canaan " 

Enfield " 

W. Lebanon " 

Danbury " 

White River Village.Vt. 

W. Hartford " 

Sharon •* 

S. Rojalton '' 

W. Randolph " 

Roxbury ', 

Jonesville " 

Winooski " 

W. Canaan N. H. 

S. Lawrence Mass. 

Hartland Vt. 

Windsor '* 



Thetford Vt. 

N. Thetford 

0.xford 

Newbury 

Wells' River 

.VIcIndoes 

Baruett 

Passumpsic 

Methuen Mass. 

Derry N. H. 

Salem " 

Londonderry " 

Windham... " 

Pembroke " 

Candia " 

Raymond " 

Epping " 

VV. Concord " 

Mast Yard •' 

Conloocookville' " 

Henniker " 

Hillsboro " 

Warner ** 

Bradford " 



FISKE & GO'S EXPRESS STATIONS. 



South Acton 

West Acton 

Littleton 

Groton Junction 

Shirley 

Leominster 

Fitchburg 

West Fitchburg 

Westminster 

South Ashburnham 

North A.'shburnham 

Winchenden 

Fitzwilliam 

Troy 

Marlboro' 

Keene 

East Westmoreland 

Westmoreland 



Walpole 

Bellows Falls 

Chester 

Gassetts 

Cavendish 

Proctorsville 

Ludlow 

Healdville 

Mount Holly 

East Wallingford 

Cuttingsvilie 

Rutland 

Piitsford 

Brandon 

Whiting 

Salisbury 

Middlebury 

New Haven 



Vergennes 

North Ferrisburgh 

Charlotte 

Shelburne 

Burlington 

Charlestown 

North Charlestown 

Claremont 

Windsor 

Ashburnham 

Gardner 

Terapleton 

Baldwinville 

Royalaton 

Athol 

Orange 

Wendell 

Erving 



Grout's Corner 
Montague 
Greenfield 
Northfield Farms 
Northfield 
Vernon 
South Vernon 
Brattleboro' 
Sterling, Mass. 
W. Boylston, 
Oakdale, " 

S. Lancaster, " 
Lancaster, " 

Clinton, " 

Harvard, " 

Groton, " 

Pepperell, " 

Hollis, N. H. 



EXPRESS AGENTS' ORDERS 



for the purchase of any articles in New York, Philadelphia, or Boston, 
always promptly executed by 

JOtllV K. & A. JL. STIIVISOIV, 

77 Cedar Street, IVew York. 



226 
Offices of WXSXZiS, FAUGO 6l GO'S 

California, Atlantic and European Express. 
SAiniJEli KNIOHT, Superintendent California Dirision. 



OFFICE. STA1 

Angels Camp . .Cal. 

Auburn 

Amador City. . . 

Benicia 

Bear Valley 

Crescent City . . 
Campo Seco . . 

Coloma 

Columbia 

Chinese Camp. . 
Clarksville .... 
Dry town 

Diamond Springs 

Dutch Flat 

Eldorado 

Eureka H.B. 

Folsom Cal. , 

Fiddletown " 

Forest Hill .... " 

Fort Tejon ♦' 

Fresno City " 

Fort Yuma . " 

Grass Valley . . " 

Georgetown. .. " 

Greenwood " 

Gold HiJl " 

Gilroy *' 

Guaymas " 

Honolulu S. I. 

Hornitas Cal. . 

lone Valley " 

Iowa Hill " 

Jackson " 

Jamestown .... " 

Jenny L.ud " 

Knight's Ferry. " 

La Grange " 

Lob Angeles . . *' 

Lancha Plana. . " 

Marysville " 

Mariposa " 

Michigan Bar .. " 

Michigan Bluff . . " 

MoquelumneHill *' 

Murphy's Camp. " 

Martinez " 

Mormon Island . " 

Monterey " 

Napa City « 

Nevada " 

Ophir « 

OroWUe " 



S. AOENTt 

.F. G. Dyer 

J. Q. Jackson 

Samuel Scott 

Shirley & Co. 

J. S. Bates 

Henry Smith 

N. T. Root 

Paul Mitchell 

Wm. Daegener 

Miller & Co. 

J T. Gridley 

Richtmeyer& Bab- 
cock 

W. N. Muffley 

Hall & Allen 

James McCormick 
.Tomlinson& Bro. 
.C. T. H. Palmer 

M. W. Belshaw 

Geo. G. We lister 

Geo. C. Alexander 

A. J. Downer 
E. G. Stevens 
S. P. Dorsey 
John I. Spear, Jr. 
W. Roush 
J.A.Hill 

J. W. Sweeny 
J. J. Rogers 
L. F. Hanks 
.John Lennebacker 
Daniel Stewart 
W. A. White 
G. S. Andrews 

B. Randall 
Wangenheim & 

Rosenberg 
Palmer & Allen 
Peck & Co. 
H. N. Alexander 
W. J. Johnstou 
A. B. Brown 
J. B. Condon 
W. B. Kingsbury 
E. Tyler 
E. J. Bacon 
James J. Worden 
D. W. Swain 
Ezra Woolson 
Milton Little 
J. M. Dudley 
A. D. rower 
James Moore 
Thomas Callow 



STATE. 



AGENT. 



Olympia W. T, 

Oregon City . . . Og'n. 

Portland " 

Petaluma Cal. . 

Poverty Bar . . Cal . . 

Placerville " 

Port Orford Og'n. 

PortTownsend.W. T. 

Rattlesnake Bar Cal.. 

Red Bluffs " . 

Rough & Ready " 

Redwood City. . " 

Sbasta " 

San Andreas . . " 

Seba.««topol " 

San Jose- " 

Santa Clara •.. ♦• 

Sonoma " 

Sutter Creek .. " 

Sacramento " 

Stockton " 

Sonora " 

Springfield " 

Suisun " 

San Juan " 

Santa Cruz " 

San Diego •• 

Santa Barbara. . " 

San Bernardino. '* 

San Luis Obispo " 

Steilacoom W. T. 

San Rafael ....Cal. . 

Seattle " 

San Quentin ... " 

Todd's Valley.. '* 

Trinidad " 

Tehama " 

Trinity Centre . *• 

Uniontown H. B. 

Umpqua Og'n 

Union City ....E. Co, 

Vallejo Cal. . 

Vallecito " 

Volcano " 

Victoria V. I.. 

Visalla.. Cal. . 

Vacaville " 

Waisonville ... " 
Yankee Jim's. . " 
Yreka '* 



.T.M. Reed 

A. H. Steele 

E. W. Tracy 

Lamberton & 

Thompson 
.John FitzsimmoDS 

T. F. Tracy 
.R. W. Dunbar 
.Washburn & 

Wheeler 
.D. A. Rice 

E. W. Goodrich 

A. S. Slack 

B. G. Lathrop 
Felix Tracy. Jr. 
W. Knight 
J. H. Cummig 
Elliott Reed 
Maclay Bros. 
Fred. Rohrer 
W. T. Wildraan 
W. H. Simmons 
T. R. Anthony 
D. M. Ken Held 
J. F. Marvin 

D. E. StockmoQ 
Jos. R. Deals 
Cooper & Son 
Frank Ames 

F. J. Maquire 
Marcus Katz 

C. T. Roraie 
.Balch & Webber 
.U. M. Gordon 

Yesler Rand«feCo. 

G. N. Cardwell 
Hall & Allen 
NordheimerA 

Marks 
Ayres & Combs 
J. B. Wells 
.Byron Deming 
.W. Brand & Co. 
.H. K. Stowe 
.E. J. Wilson 
Emil Krause 
Han ford & Downs 
C. C. Pendergast 
.W. N. Steuben 

E. F. Gillespie 
Godchaux <fc Bro. 
Wm. Barstow 
E. Wadsworth 



GOURAUD'S 

is the most astonishing article ever invented for the removal of freckles, 
tan and pimples from the skin; so rapidly does it effect its objects that sel- 
dom more than one cake is requisite for a perfect cure. Pray, do try a 
cake, ladies; all redness, roughness, and chaps will, by its use, speedily van- 
ish. 60 cents a cake. 



OOrRAUD'S POIIDRE SUBTILE, 

for eradicating superfluous hair from females' upper lips, moles, low fore- 
heads, or the more stubborn beard of ma >. Always tested before buying. 
Proof positive this, and no mistake. $1 per bottle. 



The LiqUID TdGETABLE ROUGE of Dr. OOURAUI> 

stands unrivalled for its delicacy and brilliancy. When applied to the lip, 
or the cheek " sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought," it imparts a tint 
as deep as the cherry, or faint as the petals of a rose, and absolutely im- 
movable by rubbing. 



GOURAUD'S ORIENTAL CREARI FOR THE COIVI- 
PL.EXflO]V Ai^D SKI]¥. 

The most beautiful liquid for the Complexion ever invented. 



GOURAUD'S SPAIVISH ^VHITE, 

for the complexion. To ladies subject to flushes, or redness in the face, 
the above is really a beautiful article. 

w^ound at 

DR. FELIX GOURAUD'S 
OLD ESTABLISHED DEPOT, 

67 WALKER STREET, NEW TORE. 

Wells & Co.; Hegeman & Co.; Park & Barnes; Mrs. Hays, BrocMjn, 
and Druggists generally. 

227 



o 



# 



EST-A.BX.ISHEID 1 1ST 18 4 3 



4 




Q. 



'^ 



JOHN E. STIMSON & BROS, 

nOM-HOVSE BROKERS AND SHIPPING AGENTS, 

77 Cedar Street, Wew York. 



ZlXSZ*3S£l.Z3Sa'0£3fil. 



NEW YORK. 

liessre. Lamson. Goodnow & Co., 

" Alfred Sellers, 

" J. J. Adams & Co., 

" Richard Russell & Son, 

" Allen, BAbcock & Co., 

" George Sloan & Co., 

" Gillllaa Brothers, 

" Maguire, Hyde & Co. 



PHILADELPHIA. 

Messrs. Wray & Gillilan, 
» H. Duhring & Co., 
" Besson «fe Son, 
" T. & F. Evans, 
" Jas. W. Queen & Co., 
" Ferret Brothers. 



BOSTON. 

Messrs. G. D. Jarves <t Cormerais, 
" F. A. Hawley & Co., 
" Sumners & Co., 
" Thomas Groom & Co., 
" William H. Hill & Co., 
" F. M. Holmes & Co., 
" White, Gushing & Co., 
" Metcalf & Papendiek. 



BALTIMORE. 

Messrs. E. Jenkins & Sons, 
" Orem, Hopkins & Co., 
" Harrington & Bogue, 
" Samuel Ault «t Son, 
" E. Larrabee «fe Son, 
" Samuel Feast & Son. 



Having superior facilities for hurrying Goods through Customs, Importers may rest 
assured that any business intrusted to us will be executed with 
dispatch, and at most reasonable rates. 



John K. Stimson. 



A. L. Stimson. 



Geo. A. Stimson. 



228 



Tgp«PIONEERS OF CIVUilZATION. 

C0LT;S REyOLYUNG BREECH 




PISTOLS, RIFLES. CARBINES AN!) SllOT GUNS^ 



^^v country, and 
the present liour 



Hsses gate^or mijt <jrackers.. '/' 
1 after %discliargp#/ jtp,]l>|QWiAb( 



fVoii/Ueirindi. 



Simple Reasons for preferring Colt's Arm 'td all othei^s. 

If They liavf' b(H»Ti t}iori>uf!fhly Itested by all classes of 'men, m eve^^ 
frp,p;i'tVe!. first ^'ifl« firei in Florkla, 'Vi"ipir y|^^--^i — >>fir |in 1^37, .to 
rhi'v li;iv« always rt^f.panded to tlie t.oTi<-li o\' rheir ovvijers in the time of daiif^er. , , s 

•J. Thny have a force and aQonnn y \x Imh have fl*t) jij^alldLs in the liistory of fire-arms. 

.5. They dp not endanger ypiir cyesirrhf and 'brain,, qs do tli' ;i:!!i- wiili patent 
[niintrs, \vtUch,<fly like shells into many piijiceft. .. t^< 

Ml 4ii 'IThcy do Hot stick fast, yefiisiog'^^her to* oi>8n or l^ut Ai'lthout the aicjkjf AivaX'e 
wfjen beated,' as '(!lt) the giuc- ^vliich op<^u like m 

5.,; Tlyjy Teavt^. no.bnn.iii;^- pijH r i,i;lic ! 
'•artvidfje into yi^ur face), as tl» jIi' <r«t«!- vvhjcii oj» n 

" 8i" 't'hf'y Ar.^ si^iiiiler in conatrnction.^anil easiJy taki^ ^jiii'* of, as ^tii 'i"ftii,^er oi < nv- 
;llr\• soktiei' \vilt tfll you'. Treat j^tem well, and tli^ y will tr«iat j'^oiir e^em^es badly- 

7. .They are made of the bi-st stefel that euii I < procured for tnouey, and have the 
strenE^th to resist the explosive force of f^Uapuwdiir, vvhihi! the' ttiongrel imitations and 
cheap armi^ ai^^ clilhrsily made of cast iron or inferior materijils,'aiid are iiiore dangerous 

to 'the^ oAvnei;9.,thai> ,they are to all others^, , j ,>., v/m. .i i r: , i-.,''.. vn- 

, <! 6j>' Thejf ai>ewe(H ilnished, and as chea^ as a gjood arm caQ(,be'|n)»^e ^by thei'aid' oi 
modern' *iiaohinery and' Skillful labor.. . ;.-(( i i jo /iu ,b'.!> . 

^.'^Thlfy are aUva'ts worth wh4^ they post — in'-4he Far W^tj-mucnlmoi;^, almos^.a 

lqgal.)be<i;^fi/ , if ,|"9U. (buy anything jcheaperL your lijfe, or tlat oig,yom,-:<tompaiiiouy xmiy 

bWailde.tbe dHlfebeDioeiatcost. ! I "''^' ' i'. .j..-.- oi.,r >- 

' lO: If v<)ti biiy a'jColt's Rifle jor Pi»t<^V,-jou jfeel cfT;ain;*tJia*|; yoji^aye^ (i-ue 

hi 'u^/ wUli.siix ]^eayts IB his body, and who can always bt reljjed on. n lo ■.ru': 

llw They can be,,^rried loaded and capped, wjith entii|e safety.. i. In raia', br<iwfe«il 
wadihg-Or s^'itrtbihlg'rivfers, they TPmaln w<a"ter-pfo6f. ^ " ' ' "• ■ ( •'• •«'» 

'12. .'Th'<^y have no'knife edge to cut off the end o/,,tj|iq c,^j[:'tridge and 'ijie! pftwdejr! 
q^ttiflg, qff more and mqre; at,, every djtscharge, as the,. barrel gets heated, and finally 
getting BO dull thiat -they will not .cni at all. What old lady will lend her scissors to 
Ctit'*^per^-ith?"lAs(ft'»tty r^n^'r'ri^hjy'hiBis tri'(^a"(?he'cti'ttitij*'Vide gtiii'g, wh^t h^ thinks 
of,the%,, , .. ,! , <,; ,, .. •:, '\ ,, ..,; - ^ •! . ■ .|! , .•;. . ,. ! , ... . 

., ISiir- Colt's Jiirms have been adopted.' for the Service, of the United JStaies by the 
army board at West Point, in 1858, and for many yeAtW pfieviously, as Supcribr to all 
others. See the printed reports^ whicl).^fill ypliiJaies. . ^ ^ ^ ^rn 

14. Colt's ^veajWils''ill•e old' frfUidl to<in4n^ tlTPorts^Lnas'^vbd wih*f'<^iS*d this sheet. See 
Colt's new ri(!eg before you buy any other, and then^decidfe Which Will afford surest protec- 
tion to your family, yoiur life and y6ur propeirt^ . > ^ 

Sold by all respectable dealers throughout the world. 



COL. COLT'S 

Militafy and Sporting. Bifles. 



Captain Randolph B. 
Marcy, U. S. A. in 
his recent work the 
'Prairie Traveller,^ 
thus speaks of Coif s 
Breech Loading 
FireArmsqmge 42. 

Colt'y revolving pistol 
is very generally admit- 
ted, both in Europe and 
America, to be the most 
efficient arm of its kind 
known at the present 
day. As the same prin- 
ciples are involved in the 
fabrication of his breech- 
loading ritle as are found 
in the pistol, the convic- 
tion to me is irresistible 
that, if one arm is worthy 
of consideration, the 
other is equally so. For 
my own part, I look up- 
on Colt's new patent 
rifle as a nsost excellent 
arm for border service. 
It gives six shots in more 
rapid succession than 
any other rifle 1 know of, 
and these, if properly 
expended, are oftentimes 
sufficient to decide a 
contest ; moreover, it is 
the most reliable and 
certain weapon to Are 
that I have ever used, 
and I cannot resist the 
force of my conviction 
that, if I were alone up- 
on the prairies, and ex- 
pected an attack from a 




Lieut. Hans Busk, M. 
A. of the Victoria 
Rijles, England, in 
his recent wo;7j"The 
Rifle and Low to 
use it," thus sjjeaks 
of Colt's Arms%pa- 
ges 45 and 4(^. 



s c%valj:¥ pistol^ 
fact, poCTcet rifles. 



"His 
are, in fact, poc 
With one of them I once 
fired from a re«t, at the 
Erith rifle ground, thirty- 
six rounds at the enbr"- 
mous rang^ of Fouit 
iiUMJUED AND TEN 
YARDS ! Six bullets 
struck the butt at a dis- 
tances varying from 
thirty to thirty-six inches 
from t^e centre pf tk^ 
target, eighteen bullets 
struck within the cir- 
cumference of a circle 
seven fc;et in diameter, 
and the other six shots 
at heights varying from 
ten to twelve feet above 
the taiget — satisfactorily 
proving the capacity of 
the weapon for a still 
greater range. As re- 
gards the purposes for 
which they arc intended, 
they may be pronounced 
in every respect perfect." 
In a letter to the inven- 
tor , dated 2tith April 1859v- 
sendingtarget(attached) 
he says: "Your rifle is. 
by far the most compleii^' 
specimen of a sdldiers 
fi^nelock that has y eJ, been, 
produced and cousider- 
r have fired more than 68.U00 



'body of Indians, I am not acquainted witk i mg that 

any arm I would as soon have in my hands | rounds from my oavu shoulder, my opinion 

as this. 

My own experience has.fpfce.d me :t;o the 
conclusion that the breech-loading arm, pos- 
sesses great advantages over the muzzle- 
leading, for lihe reason that it can be charged 
and fired with much greater rapidity. 



in such matters is perhaps, worth mor^^ 
thjau,. the mei^e eujpty, praise of a sret^ii^ 
hand ; let any obe who wants to know 
what a Colt can do take my woM that 
for efficieny and stTeogtb of shotting 
nothing, can hat.it., I . .7 j,i Li*.o.j vaiji. 

, Sh<)t'28tlnltty£Qf April 1859, byjudout, Buak*, Bistano^ 400 yard* »Nro.R©«ittd«^ 
48; No. Hits, 48; Colt's Regulation iiiiflqt>a^aoi<0pl6!s Amnrai^it%iau*;i tijoy oi uoi« 



'>jn<nrfl 



»I;iii)o')qH37 [[» yd Hog 



imni in t|e Bnihli Statts, 



OF 



COLTS REmra,G FIRE ARMS. 



-yy^- 



Durin^ tl^e ^ast t^eiity -jrfe^i^; tofe anris' lioisr ftiaae'ibtbe j^reat^si perfec- 
tion by this Company have been tested as no other arlns have ever been, and 
the following distinguished officei-s, and many thousand!^ of others h; 
fied to their superiority. 



lavo corti- 



Hon. Lewies Cns(», late Sec'y War & 

" Jefferson Davis, *' of War, 
Major Gen. Alexander Macomb, U. 
" Zacliary Taylor, 

• W. J. Worth, 
" D. E. Twiggs, 

John A. Quitman. 
George M. Brook^. 
Joseph Lane, 
Gideon J. Pillow, 
Brig. Gen. C. Gratiot, 
*' " Matthew Arbuckle, 
" Frank Pierce, 
W. 8. Harney. 
•♦ " John Garland, 
ColOitel, Benj. Huger, 

B. L. E. Bonnevilh\ 
firorge Cr;, ghan, 
.J )hii C. Fremont, 
Jrrc. C'lemens, 
J.Mck Hayes, 
Wui. Turnbull, 
J.J. Abort, 
John W. Tibhatt«, 
Wm. Dav<!nport, 
George W. Morgan, 
Bohcft E. Temple, 
Ward Buniet, 
.i(jeorge W. Hughes. 
*♦ Charles A. May, 
IJritttiJCtol. R. S. Baker, 
ih \n '.*,; Geo. A. Cadwell, 
Vi V "Nathan Boone, 

• T.P.Moore, 
" Joseph fe. Johnson, 

*' i '^ J.»B. Magrader, 
-'•' ; " J. H. Hook, 
" '* Benj. 8. Roberts, 

" J. McClelland, 

" R. B. Masoji, 

• James Kearney, 
Major A. Mordeeai, 

" W. A. Thornton, 
" Benj. MoCulkiohi T^exAg* 
*' J. P. Gaines, ... 

/' ^^ W, H.Polk, ' • ' " 

" ''P1 Morrisson, 

" .J,\J. JVIcCVty* 
John F. Hunter, 



State I Mtyor F. T. Lally, U. S. A. 

*' M. L. Bonham, " 

S. A. " James H. Carlton, " 

" " Phillip Kearney, '' 

" '* John S. Simmoiii^, " 

- D. H. Rucker, 
A. B. Eaton, 

* 0. Cross, " 
" Henry tlill, 

G. . Riiins, " 

" R. H. Chilton, 
" Edward Doas, " 

'♦ L. Twiggs, 

" Henry Wilson, ' 

" L. Whiting, 

- G- T. iroward, 

• R. B. Mareey. 
" G. W. Kcmlail. 

Captain M. E. Van Burcn, " 

'* ** Samuel H. Walker, " 

- ! " H. W. Bonham, 

" " W. W. Tompkins, " 

I •"•* W. W. Fulton. 
^^imUirlf.<i'-Hi J. p. 8imon(on, 
•• , ! " R. B. Screven, 

" " John Pago, '• 

*' ,,A. R. Hetzel, 
,, )'^.,,!) A. Canfi^ild, 
Lieufa^ant Thomas J. Lee, " 

" ' > ^ru\- W.H. Emory, 

: •*♦' J. T. Sprague, 

" M. Knowlton, " 

" Magilton, , " 

" Commodore, Charles Stewart U.S. N. 

•* Tho's. A. Jones, 

-** .[ •' M. C. Perry, 

,^,uufM -mmn^tii .,. .r|N^ Mcintosh, 

.1. H. Auliok, 
" C. S. McCauloy, 

,Y i...vFf. H. Gregory 
•* . , Samuel L. Breese, 
Joshua R. Sands, 
Ghas. Wilkes, 
j Captain David D. Porter, 
fj " . , J. F, Schenck, 

■ •' ' W,>Iay,' 

C. F. Beale, 
♦• C. Ringp^old, 
Commodore E. W M< <ue, Texn 



».,4k 



COLT '^ 

Pistols, Rifles, Carbines & Shot Guns. 

Bi'fore Loading iiiiap off a round of Percuit*ion Capo to blow the oil nud dirt out of .^hc JlippleB. 
" Qreai 'tfare shotild be taken when Colt'g Cartridge* are not used, that all the IJiUlp arc perfect and fit the 
ehamberB ftuttgrjy, dthcr^ige the charges n?ay jar oat, and more than one chamber be ducKacged at once. 

. . . ' ' ; ' 1 ( ( ; I ( » > 1 1 : 1 : . ' - ' ; ' . '• • . - ■'■ I • ' 'ill ■ V ■'' ■ ' 

,t ,., , 111, For Loading and Firing.; ,'^ ' ''''' - 

iHt. Draw l»aefc th*- Ilaniim r to half cock, which allowv the Cylindt r to turn in one <lir«vtifiu freeiy. 

3nd. Holding tlio mtizzle' ef«vt, place a charge of Powder in, atid- 1\ Ball tipnn the -niuiirtl of the elminber. 

:}d. Turn the Cylinder nntil tho loaded chamber is under .the RHraniermul fo(rce the Ball wlthitheJjerer 
below the mouth ot the chamber, [if the Bull fits, the chamber Ik then hcrmctlc:rfjy Vi'-T'' ""*' '^"^ powdi r 
protected from water, damp, and KparkB of fire.] " ' 

4th. Revorie tho Ana and place the Pt rrutMiou CapK niwu the Nipphs. 

r)th. Draw tlK" Hamnier to full eot'k, and the arm i«»r<udy for tiring. 

For Cleaning Old Model Pistols, Army, Navy and Pocket. 

. iHt. Set the Hammer at hair-oovk »nd dri\ t- out the K< y or We<lge whjcii hoUlg th« Barrel and (;ylinder 
to (he Lo<'k Frame and remove the partti. 

2nd. Turn ont tlw bottom and two ri-ar Bcn ws wliich fuHtt-n If to the Trigg* r'Gnard and Ivock Traihe, and 
remove t^ie .Stock, . ;i Wv,,, *'" ' m iUPj ;(( i . . "• . ' ' •, 

3(L LooAcu the screw that f:u<tcnK the Main Spring to> tbr Onard, and tnm the Spring from nn^rtlM 
Hammer. 

4th. Turn out tlli) three 8Ci'ew« which fanten the (luard. to the Lo«-k Frame and remove It. 

nth. Turn out the «erevv, suul remove the Dcmble •Spring \> Inch bi'Uis npou the Trigger and Bolt. 

(Uh. Turn ont the nide ni-rtws, and romovn tlw Trigger and Bolt. 

7th. Turnout the Hammi r sen w. and remove the Hummer with the Hand attached, by drawing it 
down want out of tlxi Lock Frame. (.;ieim an«l oil all the parts tlioroughly anil nhtore thciil to their plAi'C8 
in the reverpe order of Kcparation. ;, 

Jj^f In ordiniury cleaning, i*«'t th.- Hammet* «♦, half-coik, Hiid I'rive 9iit the Key an far ifrt the Kcrew will 
allow, rt-move the Barrel ^khich may be done by tne nid of the Lev« r p|reh>ing down the Kampier upon the 
pnrtitionn b<'tweon the chamber« of the OyUmli-v. Wash the Cylinder arid' Barrel 'in %vnrm wnt. r. dry jind 
oil theui thon iigljly, oil fn^ely the Bane pin pu which the Cyiiurter revolves, then replace the pnrt!« 

For Cleaning Kiffes, Carbines and Shot Guns.. , 

Irt s. I t'ii.' Hannuer at Imlfcoek, preeiJ down t'.io Uii««f-piu Cateh w^th tin Icit hand. dr»w ,t1ir; l^t«e-piu 
uith tin lifiht and n-move the Cylinder. 

9nd. Turn out tho Tajig and rear Guard i»^r«'>vf» and remove tht- Htock. 

:M. Turn out the n'l^aining Guard Bf^r^WH and remove the Onardi 

•Ith. Turn out the sen w, and detach the Sjiiiiig irom the .Stirrup and n hk.vc llie Main Spring,. 

r)th. Tuni out the Sear Spring Hcrcw I'rom the under (>'ide of the Frame tjtnd rcjnove the '.Soar Sprhig, 
[for .Shot Gun ami .")fi-l(H) Civlibre Arms, the Sear Spring i? attaciied lo l^e Oaard an*! n»?#d libt t»e. removed^ 

<)th. Turn out the Hcrew and remove tho TiipBi,'r,. ; .^^^^^ ;j, , •: '■jij;; , /I'liuJ 1 i .>ii;l 

7th. Turn out the Bolt screw and reir.ove the TurnT)!**" Cap,' ' l *' " '• • .' \ 

mi. Turnout the Tumbler eerew, drirelhr T^timhU.tVHf.i>ym'Hm*4er.'}^mtAki^A'miM^^^ 
renioved. ^ ,, . . >' .A i- • *'((• ; I >4fVv<l 

11th. Turn out the Ba»<e-pin sen w m»d reuiovo thu Base-pin Catch, , . 

10th. DnVe o>ut the Ke^ undrhise the I>*er till iheWreW is djipOKMe thi^'iitAe Itt the 1 i ni,. . turn out 
thv Hcrew, reijiove th»^.^4eve<-'«nd Ilawi^en Wfrt iltHrmwt! *i« B»rrsJ.' (iJnre;flio«MI rie-taken to n?n»nv.- the 
r.everbelVretun.iago^t_thelijirr.-L^, .^ .. ^,, u-.liu-iJin M.it /.'jjr. i\yr -i ' ..- . 

, /. > aCV x\\ For Cleaniiig^New koM Pistol: ' ' 

1st. Turn otit the Screw that fibfeut* it to the Frame and remove the .Stock. 

2nd. .Set the Hammer at half-eoek ; press dl)wn the Bast -plu Ciitch with the left hand and draw the Base- 

piu with the right and remove the Cvlinder. 

3d. Turn out t'je ncrow. iriveout thePta, <li)tac!h thtf ^rukg froni :iUe>S(4rnip, UJittiQg^he Sprttigr<'main 

in th' Frame and detach thi- Miiiii Spring. ., ,,.[[ ,,,((<.il >i,;'k|f( -mIj li, ..tfll Ut-l' ,7ii(>" • 
4th. Turn ont th(> senw and remove t lie Trigger. ,' . • i '. •., 

.•ith. Turn otrt the (;ap and B'Jt «•:< \v*An{} texnev^iTft^'Pi^hUi'GW^.''''^'^^'''^'' * . -*"^ ' "^ ' . ' 
(ith. Turn out tho Tumbler ^ST'^v^'n drito t!»* 'r«iipld«»r, wt o^ tl|(TiaftiTWina t|w:*«*rffil^*if/*<»ltian8 

tiand caii then be detached. , . >s ' t li« J a-^- imi Im '^t. ■'> ■( tr.i m • 

'7th. T>ini out the Base-pin hcrcw^ And renAovetbeBjU^-pWr^H^fi. 'i- "i' "• ' " ' ,. 

; i gtk (K.i»i8e the JUovjr^l f be rB|ii|inif^^ PJnl in flpppsiji' tlw hoJp in th* Fmnei'drail: fimt tttei Pin ft«.4> tll| 

l.e.'t side ot' the Pistp^ rt move the Ia y< r imd Ramiuer^ and tur^v out j,he Bmrd. ^ ,1! . >' ) . i j/. ,i rtl ;'1 it 

E;^In ordinary cleanii^g,:^fte«ye. tlie jCyJ»«de»^, ,^^:e niaiMior«leiicrib(;<l' D*»v*, clean th*'CyMndH\ B.ir- 
rcl, iVage-pin and i'rame, oil them nud replace thewarts. To (ri^jthe interior of .the I»c^,,rt'in©>TJ,^tl]e »S(ock 
and dTy>pln a little (^J.'' ■ rf •'''•':• '• "1 .•• - f . iri' 

|-''i'*j cn^vih<"irtiii^fcnfr)j'ltt thi^'Htntithu^lt^iH'WpAn^lftifelnt oi''^4^ti»^B;>etwe^ tUp' N/n^iw ©n tile 
rear of Cylinder. i . \sv\\>'\ .• «- I 'it^'-) .Imw.^I HiT torro, 



COLT*S PATENT FIRE ARMS MAN'F'G, COMPANY. 

COLONEL SAM. COLT, President. 

REDUCED PRICES FOR 1860. 

_^ ., 

Henceforth the prices for Colt's Revolving ppreech, Rifles, Carbines, Shot Guns, 
^ und Pistols, will be, as follows : 

POCKET PISTOLS. Pliited or Steel Mountiugs, Calibre 31-lOOths of an iucli, (92 Elongated or 
140 Round Bullets to the pound.) 
Three inch Barrel, Weight 23 oz. - - Si.\: .Shots, Five Shots, 

Four " " " 24 07,. ---"•• 

Five " " " 26 oz. - - .i .* u n 

Si.x " " " 27 oz. - 

BELT PISTOLS. Army, and Navy, Medium Size, Plated or Steel Mountings, Six Shots, 7i inch 
Barrel, Calibre 3(;-100tha of tin inch, (50 Elongated or 86 Round Bullets to the pound.) 

Weight 2 lbs. 10 oz. - - - - - 

With an "Attachable Carbine Breech,"' plain, extra. - • - - - 

" " " " with Canteen, extra, - 

HOLSTEB PISTOL. Army, Large Size, Brass or Steel Mountings, Six Shots, 7i inch Barrel. 
Calibre 44-i00th8 of an inch, (32 Elongated or 48 Ronnd Bullets to the pound,) Weight 
4 lbs. 2 oz. - - ...... 

With Plated Mountings, .'-'.' 'y . 

With an "Attachable Carbine Bteech," plaii|, extra, - • - . - 

" " " " with Canteen, extra, ... 

HEW MODEL POCKET PISTOL. Steel Mountings. Five Shots, 3] inch Barrel, Calibre 
2l);)-l000th9 of au inch, (1-J8 Elongated or 2(K» Round Bulleta tothe pound,) Weight 1 lb. 1 oz. 
Ornainental En^ravinw on Pocket Pistols, extra, ..... 

do. do. Belt and Holster Pistols, <xtri>, 

do. do. Attachable Carbine Breech, extra, 

Ivory Stock, for Pocket Pistols, extra, -...-- - . 

do. do. for Belt or Holster Pistols, extra, - - 

Powder Flasks, for Holster Pistols, each, ........ 

do. do. for Belt " " . 

do. do. for Pocket and New Model Pistols, ooich, - ■ - - - 

RIFLES. New Model Steel Jlountings, Six Shots, Calibre 36-100th« of an inch, (42 Elongated or 86 

Round Bullets tathe pound;) 
Twenty-four inch Barrel. Weight 9 lbs. 

Twenty-seven inch Bunel, Weight 10 lbs. • 

Thirty inch Barrel. Weight 10 lbs. 8 oz. 

Same Moael,,S i X 8hot.s, Calibre 40'lOOths of an inch, (38 Elongated or 68 Round Bullets 
to the pound.) 
Twenty-four inch Barrel, Weight 8 lbs. 12 oz. 

Twenty-seven inch Barnl. Weight !» lbs. 12 oz. 

Thirty-one and 5-16 inch Barrel, (Army Pattern,) Weight 10 lbs. 4 oz. 
Same Model, Six Shots, Calibre 44-100'th8 of an inch, (28 Elongated or 48 Round Bul- 
leta to the pound.) 
Twenty-four inch Barrel, Weight 8 lbs. 15 oz. - 

Twi-nty-seveu Inch Barrel. Weight !) lbs. 2 oz. 

Thirty-one and 5-16 inch Barrel, (Army Pattern,) Weight i) lbs. 10 oz. 
Same Model, Six Shots, Calibre 50-lOUths of an inch, (20 Elongated or 34 Round Bullets 
to the pound ) 
Twenty-four inch Barrel, Weight 8 lbs. 11 oz. - 

'JJwenty-seven inch Barrel. Weiglit 8 lbs. 14 oz. 

'I^hirty-one and 5-16 inch Barrel, (Army Pattern,) Weigiit 9 lbs. 6 oz. - 
Same Model, Five 'Shots, Calibre 56-lOOthB of an indi, (14 p] Ion gated or 24 Round Bul- 
lets to the pound.) 
Twenty-four inch Barrel, Weight 8 lbs. 14 oz. - 

Twenty-seven inch Barrel, Weight It lbs. 11 oz. 

Thirtv-one and 5-16 inch Barrel, (Army Pattom,) Weight i) Iba. 15 oz. 
CARBINES. New Model, Rifled Barrels, 15, 18, or 21 inches long: Steel Mountings, 

Six Shots, Calii)re 36-lOOths of an inch, (42 Elongated or 86 Round Bullet* to the 

pound;) Weight 8 ll)S. 8 oz. - 
Six Shots, Calibre 44-10Dth8 of an inch, (28 Elongated or 48 Round Bullets to the 

pound;) Weight 8 lbs. 12 oz. -...-... 
Five Shots, Calibre .36-lOOths of an inch, (14 Elongated or 24 Round Bullets to the 
pound;) Weight!) lbs. 8 oz. .... ... 

SHOT GUN. Tw.nty-Beven ineli Barrel. Weight 8 lbs. 12. oz. Five Shots, - 

Patent Powder Flasks, for Carbines and Rifles, ....... 

Ordinary do. do. •' ' • 

Globe Sights, For Riflon, ..-..,. 

Telescope Sights, For Riflefe, - - . 

Bayonets, For Rifles, ........... 

^aore Bayonets, For Rifles, '\- ....... 

Al' PiBtols, Rifles. Carbines and Sho^t Guns, are furnislied with a Bullet Mould, Screw Driver and Nipple 
Wcpnch free of charge. 
2V l*'8tol8 are put up assorted or otlierxrise, in packages of 10, 20, and 25 each. 

.^Rifles, Shot Guns, and Carbinfs, are put up assorted or otherwise, Jn packages of 5, 10 and 20 tacli. 
"^'or snpaller quantitiea reference is made to the retail trade. 

r- :/ TERMS. Cash m New York Funds. 

K* / All Compaunieations should be addressed to 

^'COLT'S PAXENT FIRE ARMS MAN'F'Q. COMPANY. 

, - . HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT, U. S. A." 

**^ Dy Onh'T of the Buar| of Directors, W. M. B. HARTLEY, Sec'y. 



.Od 81 a.01 

w {.•.u;Ti<iu::i V 




•loY 
01 hoBasibbn ed 
MOO .O'^^klAM 

Y'osa .YaiTHAH 3 .M W 



CHARLES ALT, 

Importer and Manufacturer of 

Optical and IVIatlieiiiatical 

i i i r i i 1 i i r i , 

irmsH(Bn m]i(iiDr]LA^r(0)ms, 

(Entrance Nassau Street,) NEW-YORK. 

SPECTACLES, EYE GLASSES, HAND GLASSES, OPERA GLASSES, 

SPY GLASSES, TELESCOPES, MAGNIFYING GLASSES, 

MICROSCOPES, COMPASSES, DRAWING 

INSTRUMENTS, BAROMETERS, 

THERMOMETERS, Etc. 

SAinrEi. wii.i>E & sows, 

{Successors to Withington & Wilde^) 

DEALERS IN 



MUSTARD, &c., 
BTos. 7, 9 and 11 Dutch Street, 

(between JOHN AND FULTON STREETS,) 

IMILLS, WILLIAMSBURGH, LONG ISLAND. 



Established 1829. 



Goods sold at lowest market prices, and shipped free of charge. 



56 



s c CO N n c c V E n I ri G 



A hR SPACE 




BOYNTON'S IMPROVED 

Self-Clearing, Self -Packing, Gas-Tight and Ventilating 

3xr 



PATENTED AUGUST 22, 1854. 

Four Sizes-Nos. 8, 9, 10, 11. 
ADAPTED TO ALL CLASSES OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE BUILDINGS. 

The above Furnace has now been thoroughly tested for the last fire years In nearly all parts of the 
United States and British Provinces, and is now admitted to be unrivalled in point of power, durability, 
economy, simplicity, and all those qualities so essential in a Hot Air Furnace. 

The provision made in this Furnace for the self-clearing of the radiator, and the self-packing of the 
joints, are two very strong points in its favor, above every otiier Furnace in the market. Another very 
important feature of this Furnace is found in the small number of joints, their position, and the manner 
of their construction. By referring to the above cut, it will be seen the only joints are those where the 
radiator connects with the body, and the body with the pot, and these are so far below the top of the 
radiator as to be free from pressure. These joints are packed inside and out, and are made perfectly 
gas-tight The form of these castings is such, that they are not in the least liable to crack ; and they 
are made thicker than any Furnace in the market. It is also very low, which is another great recom- 
mendation for it, especially when set in low cellars. 

This Furnace is well adapted to the use of Bituminous Coal, and has been successfully introduced at 
the West the past three years. We are prepared to fill orders for them at short notice. 

RIC^ABDSON, BOYNTON & CO., 

360 Canat Street, 

A few doora east of Broadway, Ke%D- York. 
Descriptive Circulars sent by maiL 



TIFFANY & CO., 

wVe. S50 Broadway^ JVew^J^ork, 

AND 

Hue Hichelieu, JVo. 79, Paris^ 

In calling attention to their stock, beg to present to the notice of their 
friends and the public the following facts : That their importations and 
manufactures in Gold and Silver comprise a more extensive variety than 
any other house in the same line — that their foreign connections, of which 
their Paris house is the focal centre, gives them extraordinary facilities for 
the selection of their general stock and the execution of special ordcrs^that 
it is their determination^ as it is their interest^ to make reasonable charges 
as prominent a feature of their establishment as the beauty and variety of 
their stock. 

DIAMONDS, 

And other Precions Stones, 



0. Frodsham's, Tooper's, Jules Jurgenscn's and Patek Phillippe & Co.'s 

WATCHES. 

CLOCKS, BRONZES, ARTISTIC GAS FIXTURES, DESKS, DRESS- 
ING-CASES, WORK BOXES, JEWEL BOXES, 
FANS, RICH PORCELAIN, 

AND MANY OTHER ARTICLES OF ART AND LUXURY. 



Every article is marked in plain figures the lowest price at which it 

will be sold. 



T. k Co. cordially extend to strangers, as well as the 4*esident public, an 
invitation to inspect their stock, assuring them that a call will incur not the 
least obligation to purchase. 



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