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Exterior of the Horse. 



With 346 Figures and .34 Plates, by G. Nicolet, 


8IMON J. J. HARGER, V. M. D., 





C'(>pynt;ht| 1892, t>y J. B. Lippincott Compaitt. 










Progress in veterinary science implies advance in investigation 
and the publication of books setting forth the results of that advance. 
Numerous volumes of veterinary literature have of late years appeared 
from the pens of both French and German writers ; but in English 
there has been very little produced upon the subject; and English- 
speaking teachers, practitioners, and students constantly find themselves 
compelled to look to foreign writers for instruction on points connected 
with their vocation. 

In no branch of this literature has this deficiency been more seri- 
ously felt than in that which studies the horse exclusively from the 
exterior, considering his external form and characters with relation to 
his mechanical aptitude and liis commercial value. Hence I was in- 
duced to fill this vacancy by the translation of Groubaux and Barrier's 
" Exterior of the Horse." 

In selecting this book, the French veterinary text-book par excel- 
lence, I was influenced no less by the reputation and standing of its 
au^ors than by the originality, exactness, and fulness of its treatment 
of the subject. 

The difficulty of such an imdertaking can be fully appreciated only 
through actual experience. I have endeavored as far as possible to 
•avoid the use of French terms. In some instances, however, it was 
impossible to find English terms that would convey the exact mean- 
ing of the terms of the original text. Wherever I have retained the 
foreign terms, it has been done solely for the sake of brevity and 

No pains have been spared to make this one of the most complete 
books of its kind. The numerous plates and figures thoroughly elu- 
cidate the more difficult points of the text ; and references are made to 
all the best French, Grerman, and Italian treatises on the veterinary 
science. One of my special aims has been to adapt tliis book to the 
English-speaking reader. It contains valuable information for the 
practitioner, the student, the horseman, and tlie breeder. 


I take occasion here to acknowledge my obligation to M. Barrier 
and Meflsrs. As^lin and Houzcau for the loan of the plates and cliches, 
and abo to express my gratitude to tlie friends who liave assisted me 
in my work, and |>articularly to the publishers for their generous as- 
sistanoey for the ability with which they have executed their i>ortion of 
the undertaking, and for the interest they have manifested not only in 
this work, but als<j in all publications pertaining to veterinary sciencv. 
Nor must I forget, finally, to express my obligations to Mr. R. K. 
Jones for his ctjnscientious care in reading and correcting the pnKif. 

Simon J. J. Harger. 

206 North Twrntirth Stbeet, Philadrlphia, 

iM-eiuU-r 8, 1891 


In the preparation of the work herewith offered to the public, our 
aim has been to select from the science which treats of the rational 
improvement of domestic animals — the science of zootechriics — that 
chapter which bears upon the consideraUon of the external forms and 
the charoAsteristics of the horse in their connection with his mechunical 
aptitudes and his commercial value. 

This study, for which we have retained the name given to it by the 
founder of veterinary schools, merits a treatment very different from 
the theoretical and empirical one accorded to it by the majority of our 
predecessors. We have endeavored, therefore, on all important ppints, 
to base our opinions upon numerous careful researches pursued by 
ourselves in person ; and from these data we have deduced, or by them 
confirmed, the principles of a judicious appreciation of the physical 
and moral qualities of the horse. 

To our teaching colleagues, our associates, our pupils, and all others 
who have aided us in our task, we here acknowledge our deep gratitude. 
If we have not cited the names and treatises of all the authors who 
have written upon the exterior of the horse, it is because we had de- 
termined, in the matter of bibliography and out of consideration for 
our readers, to abstain from all idle discussions and uninteresting 
controversies. As for the rest, we think we have done them full 
justice in the numerous citations we have made from their works. 

Our labors have been singularly facilitated by the friendly interest 
and generosity of our publishei*8, who will allow nothing to stand in 
the way of the successful completion of a book useful to sciencre, and, 
in particular, of one useful to the veterinarian. 

WV are indebted alho to M. G. Nicolet, librarian to the veterinary 
school of Alfort, whose artistic skill has reproduced, among other sub- 
jects, with an exactness hitherto unknown in works of this kind, the 
characteristics of the d(»ntal wear, the recognition of which is a matter 
of such great importance in determining the age. 

Alfort, March 15, ISS4. 



This second edition, in preparation for three years, has been the 
subject of a careful revision and of numerous alterations. 

Some very notable improvements upon the first edition have been 

A new plate upon the age, and fiffy-three original figures, have 
been added. 

The matter, while much condensed as a whole, has in many places 
been rewritten at great length. 

Finally, by the employment of three varieties of type, we are 
enabled to indicate the d^ree of importance of each subject treated, 
and to facilitate the use of the volume to those who can consult only 
the essential parts. 

Armand Goubaux, Gubtave Barrier. 

AL70RT, March 1, 1890. 






Object, End, and Utility of thjc Exterior 1 

Centre of Gravity 8 

The Lever and Muscular Mkchanihm • . . • • 11 

The Inclined Plane 19 



2 I. Divisions of the Horse 21 

{ 2. Some Definitions 81 

A. Beauties 81 

B. Defects 82 

C. Blemishes 32 

D. Vices and Faults 88 



Anterior Face 86 

A. The Forehead 86 

B. The Face 88 

C. Extremity of the Nose 40 





Lateral Facsb 41 

A. The Ear 41 

B. The Temple 46 

C. The Supra-orbit and the Eyebrows 47 

D. The Eye 48 

E. The Cheek 58 

F. The Noetrili 59 


Posterior Face 65 

A. Intermaxillary Space 65 

B. Inferior Maxillary Begion 67 

C. The Chin 68 


Interior Extremity 69 

A. The Mouth and its Subdivision 69 

1. The Lips 69 

2. The Teeth and the Gums 78 

8. The Bars 74 

4. The Lingual Canal 75' 

5. The Tongue 76 

6. The Palate 79 

B. The Mouth in General 79 


Posterior Extremity 82 

A. The Poll or Nape 88 

B. The Parotid R^pon 83 

C. The Throat 85 


Head jv General 8^ 

A. Harmonious Relations 86 

B. Length 87 

C. Volume 87 

D. Direction 88 

E. Forms ^'^ 

F. AttachmenU 95 

G. Movements *. 95 

H. Expression 96 



BirpxmioR Face - • ^m 

A. The Neck ^x 

The Mane and the Forelock .... • ^^^^^ 



C. The Elbow 219 

D. The Forearm 221 

K. The ChestnuU 227 

F. The Knee 227 



A. The Thigh and the Buttock 287 

B. The Stifle 244 

C. The Leg 240 

D. The H<»ck 253 

E. TheCh€«tnut 279 

F. The Canon and the Tendons 279 

G. The FeU<»ck 290 

H. The Footlock and the Ergot 297 

I. The Pantem 298 

J. The Coronet 309 


The Foot .' 312 

A. Organization 312 

1. Internal Parti 313 

2. The Hoof 3UJ 

B. Properties and Mechanism 322 

C. Beaiitiet 327 

D. Defects 328 

1. Of Volume and of Proportion 328 

2. Of Conformation 329 

8. Of the AxU .'332 

4. Of Quality nf th** Horn 384 

E. Accid«*ntf> occasioned by Sh<»eing . . . ^ 386 

F. Diseases ' 886 





Historical 844 





P01KT8 OF View fbom which the Proportioks are studied 867 

A. Relation of Dimensions between the Parts 868 

B. Angular Relations of the Osseous Segments 866 

Theory of the Similitude of the Angles and the Parallelism of the 

Bony Segments 866 

0. Oeneral Relations of the Ensemble, the Whole Organism 886 

D. Relations of the Organism with the Nervous System 897 


Isolated Effects of Beautiful Proportions upon the Akimal Ma* 

CHIKS 404 

A. Conditions of the Motor en Mode de Masse, or of Force 406 

B. Conditions of the Motor en Mode de Vitesse, or of Speed 407 

C. Conditions of the Mixed Motor. (Combination of Force and ^peed 

realized ) .408 

D. Excitability; Impressionability; Irritability 410 


Bxbult of Beautiful Proportions upon the Animal Machine . . . 412 
Resistance to Fatigue : Endurance • • • 412 

Dxfinitiye Synthesis 429 






Attitudes 488 

A. Station 488 

Axes, Equilibrium 442 

a. Of the Anterior Members 448 

6. Of the Posterior Members 466 

B. Lying Down or Decubitus 466 

xvi coNTEyrs. 



A. Rearing; Itt 

B. Kicking 41 



Gkns&alitiks or the Oaitb 47^ 


Systems of Notation of the Gaiti 4i 

Stnthbtig Study or the Mode of Peooression -.40 


The Gaits in Particular SO 

A. The Amble, Pacing 50 

Broken Amble 80 

B. The Trot 61 

Br(»k«n Trot, Flying Trot 69 

Racking 69 

Skipping 59 

The Canter 69 

Running Walk 69 

C. The Walk 61 

Backing 6i 

D. The Gallop 6i 

S. Leaping 6< 

Bounding and Bucking 6' 


Dirscn iv the Gaits 6' 

A. Defects eziiting in the Anterior Memben alone 6' 

1. Dragging the Toe 6! 

2. ExccMive Knee-Action 6' 

8. Immobilized or Pegged Shoulders f 

B. Defect!* existing in the Posterior Members alone 6' 

1. String-halt 6' 

2. Routing Hocks 61 

0. Defects dep(*nd**nt upon the Mode of Association in raising the Ante- 
rior Feet and resting the Posterior 5 

F«)rging & 

D. Defects existing separately or simulUneously in the Anterior or the 

Posterior Members 6 

1. R(»cking 6 

2. Strain of the I/»in« & 

K. Defects existing indiM:rimin»tely in the Four Members 6 

1. Blllarder. Paddling 6 

2. Interfering 5 

8. Lamenes* 6 







Thx lycisoRS 697 

A. Of the First Dentition 597 

B. Of the Second Dentition 601 

C. Structure 606 

D. Details of the Dental Table according to the Age 616 

£. Direction 616 

The Tuska or Canine Teeth 619 


Thk Molabs 621 

1. Supplementary Premolan 621 

2. Molars Proper 622 

A. Of the First Dentition 622 

B. Of the Second Dentition 626 

0. Development and Structure . 681 


EaupTioK or the Txith 687 

A. Of the Incisors 687 

B. Of the Canines 640 

C. Of the Molars 640 




DvBATiON OF Life in the Horse 642 

Thk Parts to be examined for the Determination of the Aok . . 646 

The Characters furnished by the Teeth 648 


xviii CONTENTS. 




1. Number 721 

2. Form 726 

8. Union of Two Teeth 726 

4. Form of the Central Enamel 727 

6. Depth of the Infundibulum and its External Dental Cavity 729 

6. Defect of Length or Exceiw of Width of one of the Jaws 736 

7. Ezceuive or InHufficient Wear 738 

8. Wear resulting trom Cribbing 752 

9. Employment of Fraudulent Mi^ans 762 



THE Home 771 


TbkCoatb 771 

1. Coats properly so called 771 

{ 1. Primitive Coals 773 

A. Simple C<»ats (Black, Sorrel) 773 

B. Composite Coats (iHalielln Bay, MouM'-Color) 775 

C. Mixed CoaU (Fox-Color) 777 

{ 2. Derive<l Coat* (Gray, White, Flea-bitten, Roan) 778 

{ 8. Conju(cate Coato (Piebald, Conjugate, Isabella) 782 

Spotted or Marbled Coats 784 

Synoptical Table of the CoaU 784 

2. Peculiaritiei* of the CoaU 78r, 

A. General 78»i 

B. Of the Head 71)4 

C. Of the B*»dy 796 

D. Of the Members 7l»7 

Synoptical Table of the Peculiaritit** of the Coats H()0 

8. Causes of the Modifications of the CoaU 7'.)0 

4. Indices Airnished by the CoaU and their Peculiarities as t^) the Qualities 

of Horsci 803 


The Height 8(>> 


Certificate or Dbscbiptiov 813 






Rack-Hobsbs 826 

A. Kunning-Hone 825 

B. Steeple-Chaser 827 

C. Trotten (in Harness or under the Saddle) 829 



A. Coach-Horses (Large and Small Coach-Horses) 888 

B. Saddle-Horses (Hackney, Cob, Hunter, Double Pony, Pony) ..... 887 


Caval«t Hobsbs 844 

A. SUir Horses 845 

B. Troop Horses 846 


HoBSia OF Industry and Commercs 849 

A. Slow Heayy-Draught Horses 851 

B. Fast Heavy-Draught Horses 862 




Whims and Vicious Habits 868 

1. Horses which loll the Tongue, double it up, or continually protrude 

it fh>m the Mouth 869 

2. Horses which strike the Lower Lip against the Upper 869 

8. Horses which rub the Lower Extremity of the Head against the Han- 
ger, or the Tail against surrounding Objects 860 

4. Horses which shake the Head or jerk the Reins 860 

6. Hones which grasp the Branches of the Bit with the Lower Lip . . . 861 

6. Horses which tear their Blankets with the Teeth 861 

7. Horses which rest one Hind-Foot upon the other 861 

8. Horses which lie down Cow-Fashiun 862 



9. Horsed which strip their U altera 8(>'J 

10. Honeit which mW mm soim as they are harnessed or when they return to 

the Stahle after working , 863 

11. Horses which trot in the SUble 863 

12. Horses which paw in the Stable 864 

18. Horses which weave in the Stable 864 

14. Horses which eat Earth 864 

16. Hones which have the Vice of ^^Wind-Sucking/' or swallowing Air . 866 



{ 1. External Manifi^tations Pn>per to each Vice 860 

1. Balky Horsw 860 

2. Horses difficult t4i Approach or to Groom 870 

8. Hon«cs difficult to Harness or to Mount 871 

4. Horses difficult to Shoe 871 

6. Bitera 872 

6. Horses which rear and strike with the Fore-Feet 873 

7. Horses which back 874 

8. Kickers 874 

9. Timid Horses, Shyera 876 

10. Aversion to S|)ei*ial Objects 877 

11. Runaway HoiveM 879 

I 2. General Causes of Vicci 882 


Oboice op thb Horss 886 

1. The Seller 887 

2. The Purchaser 892 

8. Examination of the Horse 894 

4. Hones mated or paired 901 

6. HorMs which may be mounted or driven at will 908 



1. Situation of the Centre of Gravity in the Horse 4 

2. Determination of the Centre of Gravity 6 

8. Stability of the Equilibrium 10 

4, 6, 6. The Lever and Muscular Mechanism 12, 18 

7. Lever of the First Class 16 

8, 9. Lever of the Second and Third Classes 17 

10. The Inclined Pbine 19 

11. Regions of the Horse seen in Profile 24 

12. Regions of the Horse seen in Front 26 

18. Regions of the Horse seen Behind 26 

14. Regions of the Horse seen Laterally and in Front 26 

16. Regions of the Horse seen Laterally and Behind 27 

16. Superficial Structures viewed in Profile 28 

17. Superficial Structures viewed in Front 80 

18. Superficial Structures viewed ftx>m Behind 80 

19. R^ions of the Head 86 

20. Vertical Section of the Eye of the Horse (semi-schematic) 49 

21. Examination of the Eye 62 

22. Examination of the Eye 68 

28. Normal Eye 64 

24. Examination of the Nostril 02 

26. Interior of the Mouth (after Bruueau) 70 

26. Examination of the Mouth 77 

27. Bit of the Bridle 80 

28. Directions of the Head and the Neck 89 

29. DirectionB of the Head and the Neck 90 

80. Directions of the Head and the Neck 92 

31. Ove^check Rein 92 

82. Direction of the Neck 101 

88. Direction of the Neck 108 

84. Cox» 124 

86. The Coxa as a Bent Lever 124 

86. Length of the Croup 126 

87. Openness of the Ilio-ischial Angle 126 

88. Variations in the Inclination of the Ilium 182 

89. Variations in the Inclination of the Ischium 188 

40. Simultaneous Variations of the Ischium and the Ilium 184 

41. Influence of the Misplacement of the Cox» as a whole 186 




42, 48. Conyexity of a Curve 153 

44. Conyezity of the Ribt 165 

46. Sute of the Hain of the Tail 170 

46. Docked Tail, with the Hain long 171 

47, 48, 49. Docked Tail, with the Hain shortened 171, 172 

60, 61. Hone in the Act of Pulling 187, 1(^ 

62,68. Limiu of Extension and of Flexion 191,193 

64. Schemes of the Erolution of two Congeneric Memheit during the Phases 

of Contact and of Elevation 194 

66. Action of the Anterior Member in the Trot 197 

66. Action of the Posterior Member in the Trot • • 199 

67. Length of the Shoulder 204 

68. Length of the Shoulder in Relation with the Arm 206 

69,60,61. Direction of the Shoulder 207,208 

62. The Scapulo-humeral Angle 209 

68. Direction of the Arm 216 

64. Scheme of the Muscular Incidences of the Straight and the Oblique Arm . 217 

66. Compensation of the Straight Shoulder by an Oblique Arm 218 

66. The Olecranon as a Lever-arm 220 

67. Form of the Knee 229 

68. 69, 160, 161. DirK'tion of the Knee in an Antero-posterior Sense . 281, 282, 460 

70, 71. Direction of the Knee in Relation to the Median Line 283 

72. Scheme of the Direction of the Thigh 241 

78, 74. Length of the Thigh 242 

76. Scheme of the Width of the Leg 249 

76. Tendons and Tendinous Bunn of the Hock 264 

77. Form of the Hock 266 

78. Scheme of the Rigidity of the Posterior Member 269 

79. Straight Tibia 264 

80. Oblique Canon 266 

81. 82. Deviations of the Vertical Axis of the Hock 269 

88. Capped Hc»ck 270 

84, 86. Curb and Spavin 278 

86. Spavin 274 

87. Jarde 276 

\. Jarde upon the I)isM»cted Hock 270 

K Jarde upon the Mai'«>rated Hock 277 

90, 91. Different Views of the DisMCted Hock 278 

92, 98, 96, 97. Bonei^ and Ligaments of the Canon, Fetlock, Pastern, and 

Coronet 280, 291 

94, 96. Width .»f the Canon 2«:» 

98. Mot'hanium of the Articulation of the Fetlock 292 

99, 100. Sh«me of the Lenifth of the Pastern 801. 3(>2 

101, 102, iri2. 158. Dimtion of the Partem 804. 4:»0 

108. Disadvantaf^t'K fn>m Excess or InFufficiency of the Obliquity of the Pastern 80'> 

104, 106. Tlie Pastern ai^ a I-ever 3<»6 

106. Longitudinal and Median Section of the Foot -^14 

107. Normal Foot before and after Maceration •'^l*') 

108. Foot viewed in Front 310 

109. Profile of the Hwf 817 

110. Wall of the Hoof 817 


wo. PAGB 

11. Inferior Face of the Hoof 817 

12, 118. Antero-posterior and Transverse Sections of the Hoof 818 

14. Interior of the Hoof 819 

16. Transverse Section of the Hoof (Posterior Part) 819 

16. Frog and Periople 819 

17. Hoof with Perioplic Band detached 820 

18. Views of the Forefoot 820 

19. Hind-foot 821 

20. Foot with High Heels 881 

21. Foot with Low Heels 881 

22. Foot, Pincard 888 

28. Deformity of Hoof fh>m Laminitis 888 

24. Keraphyllocele 889 

25. The Proportions, after Bourgelat 847 

26. The Proportions of Eclipse, after Saint-Bel 861 

27. The Proportions of the Horse seen in Profile 860 

28. The Proportions of the Head viewed in Profile 862 

29. The Proportions of the Head viewed in Front 868 

80. Comparative Proportions of the Man and the Horse 864 

81. Articular Angles, after Morris 866 

82. Anterior Memher with the Oblique Segments inclined Forty-five Degrees 

to the Horizon 868 

88. The same in the Posterior Member 868 

84. The Articular Angles upon a Drawing, finom a Photograph of Fits-Glad- 
iator 872 

86. Toise 878 

86. Measurement of the Inclination of the Segments 876 

87. Use of the Arthrogoniometer 876 

88. Arthrogoniometer for measuring the Articular Angles 876 

89. Value of the Articular Angles in the Fore Member 881 

40. Value of the Articular Angles in the Hind Member 881 

41. Length of the Body 888 

42. Length of the Body not dependent upon that of the Vertebral Column . 890 
48. Length of the Body as modified by the Obliquity of the Shoulder and the 

Croup 892 

44. The Rassembler 440 

46. The Camper 440 

46. The Placer 441 

47. Lines of Equilibrium of the Horse viewed in Profile 444 

48. Scheme of the Lines of Equilibrium 446 

49. Normal and Abnormal Axes of the Fore Member 446 

64. Axes viewed in Front 461 

66. Normal Axis viewed in Front 462 

66. Horse too Open in Front 462 

67. Bow-legged Horse 464 

68. Outbow-footed Horse 454 

59. Horse Closed in Front 466 

60. Ox-Knee 466 

61. Horse Cross-footed in Front 466 

62. Scheme of the Axis of the Hind Member 456 

68. Normal and Abnormal Axes of the Hind Member seen in Profile .... 467 


no. PAGB 

280. Longitudinal and Median Sections of the Pincer, Intermediate, and Comer 

in each of the Jawt 605 

281. Series of Liongitudinal Sections of the Right Inferior Incisors of a Five- 

year-old Horse 607 

282. Schematic Section uf the I>enUl Follicle of an Inferior Incisor of a Horse 608 
288. Longitudinal and Median Sections of a Permanent Inferior Pincer (en- 
larged) 609 

284. Radical Cementation of the Incisors of a Horse 610 

286. Longitudinal Aiitun>-po«terior Section of an Inferior Pini^r, etc 611 

286. Median and Longitudinal Sections of Incisors, showing, 1st, the Growth of 

the Teeth at their Roots ; 2d, the Progressive Wear of their Tables ; 8d, 
their Length and Obliquity according to the Age ; 4th, Obliteration of 

their Pulp Cavities ; 6th, finally, their Radical Cementation 618 

287. TransTente Section of Inferior Right Pincer, showing the Different Layers 

constituting the Tooth, with their ReUtive Thickness (Magnified Five 

Diameters) 614 

Incisive Arcades exp(«ed Xa> show the Progressive Inclination of the Teeth ' 

in Relati«m to the Plane of Meeting of the Jaws 617 

K Incison ezptised by their Anterior Face to show their Relative Inclination 

towards the Median Line 618 

290. Double Inferior Right Canine Tooth in the Ass 620 

291. Superior Right Canine T<N>th 621 

292. Longitudinal and Median Sections of the Canines 6*21 

298. The Three Superior Deciduous Molan (Right Side) 628 

294. The Three Inferior Deciduous Molars (Right Side) 624 

896. Transverse Section of the Inferior Jaw, showing the Relation in the Al- 
veolus of the Permanent and Deciduous Molars at the Moment of 

Eruption 626 

296. Transverse Section of the Superior Jaw, showing the Relation in the Alve- 

olus of the Permanent and Deciduous Molars at the Moment of Eruption 626 

297. Superior Permanent Molar (Right Side, Virgin Tooth) 627 

298. Superior Molar Araide of the Right Side of a Hone Six Years Old Past . 628 
899. Inferior Molar of the Second Dentition (Left Side, Virgin Tooth) .... 680 

800. Inferior Molar Arcade c»f the Left Side of a Horse Six Years Old Past . . 631 

801. Superior Right Molar removed fh>m iu DenUl Follicle 632 

808. Inferior Left Molar removed ttom its Dental Follicle 633 

808. Table of Superior and Inferior Molars 684 

804. Infiarior Left Molar Arcade of a Very Old Horse, showing the Radical 

Cementation 684 

806. Transverse Section of a Superior Left Molar (enlarged) t'Ah 

806. Superior Left MoUr Arcade of the Hipparion »'>3t> 

807. Transverse Section f»f an Inferior Right Molar (enlarged) ^VM) 

808,809,810,811. Supernumerary Incisor Teeth 722,72:: 

818. Double Right Inferior Canine in the Ass 724 

818. Absence of the Inferior Comers 72.'i 

814. Union of Two Superior Incisors 72«'. 

816. FiiiKurc of the I nfUndibulum of the Incisors 727 

816. Double InfUndibulum of the Incisors 72^ 

817, 818. Superior and Infiarior Bnchygnathiim 7:;7 

819. Parrot Mouth 740 

Revened Parrot Mouth 742 



821. Incisors of the Inferior Jaw too Short 744 

822. Inferior Molar Arcade of a Very Old Horse, showing the Radical Cementa- 

tion, as well as the Insufficient Length of the Middle Teeth 745 

823. Right Molar Arcades of a Very Old Horse 746 

824. Bevelled Molars from Irregular Wear 748 

825. Hypertrophy of the Fourth Right Superior Molar 750 

826. Abnormal Wear produced by Cribbing 755 

827. Abnormal Wear produced by Cribbing 756 

828. Abnormal Wear produced by Cribbing 757 

829. Abnormal Wear produced by Cribbing 759 

880. Hippometer with Pedestal d08 

881. Hippometer without Pedestal 809 

882. Hippometric Cane 810 

888. Running-Horse, Vermont, Winner of the Great Prize of Paris in 1864 . . 826 

884. Steeple-chase Horse, Bois-Roussel, Winner of the French Derby in 1864 . 828 

885. Trotter in Harness, Fazan, Russian Stallion of the Orlolf Variety .... 881 

386. Trotter under the Saddle, Bayadere, Anglo-Norman Mare 882 

337. Large Coach-Horse, Lahore, Half-thoroughbrtnl Anglo-Norman 885 

388. Small Coach-Horse, Shang-Hai, Half- thoroughbred Anglo-Norman . . . 887 

889. Hackney 888 

840. Cob 840 

841. Hunter 841 

842. Double Pony . 842 

848. Pony 848 

844. Slow Heavy-draught Horse 851 

845. Fast Heavy-draught Horse 853 

846. Velocity, Percheron Mare of the Compagnie G^n^rale des Omnibus . . . 854 


FLAn r, 

I— Birth 

II.— AUmt One Week 

III.— Oue Month 

IV.— Three Months ( 

V. — Four Monthi 

VI.— Five Monthi i 

VII.— Ten Months 

VIII— One Year 

IX. — Sixteen Months 

X. — Twenty Months 

XI.— Two Yen™ 

XII. — Rising Three Years 

XIII.— Thiw Years Past 

XIV.— Kising Four Yeaw 

XV. — Four Yean 

XVI.— Four Years Past 

XVII.— Rising Five Years 

XVIII.— Five Years 

XIX. — Six Yean 

XX. — Seven Yean 

XXI. — Ki^ht Yean 

XXII. — Nine Yean 

XXIII— Ten Yean 

XXIV.— Kleven Yean 

XXV.— Twi4ve Yean 

XXVI.— Thirteen Yean 

XXVII. -Fift*H*n Yean 

XXVIll—«*'n Yean 

XXIX. — Nin«'t«-«'n Ynan 

XXX.--Twfnty-<in«f Yean 

XXXI. -Thirty Vt^n* 

XXXII —H.'iru.—Nim* Y«*Hn 

XXXIIl -FhI- B.'iru.— Fourteen Yean 


XX VI 11 

« t « L^ 






The term exterior of the horse seems to have been employed by 
veterinarians only since the close of the last century, dating from 
the period when Bourgelat published his book upon the external 
form of the horse in 1768, six years after the foundation of veterinary 

Before his time veterinarians and horsemen had entered but super- 
ficially upon the study of the forms of tlie horse. They had limited 
themselves in their works to determining, sometimes by figures, the 
principles relating to the proportions. These efforts, however, had 
passed, so to 8i)eak, unperceived, were lost among the publications of 
the times and drowned in the midst of the different writings of which 
the numerous veterinary treatises were composed. Here, as in the 
other branches of veterinarj^ scnenee, Bourgelat was endeavoring to 
establish prin(»ipk*s to guide the pupils who flocked into his schools. 
If it be rememl)ered that this innovator was an eminent master as 
well as a skilful horseman, we will not be astonished to see that he 
has reached with the greatest ease, in his treatise on the exterior , if not 
absolute perfection, at least that degree of exactnt^ss which it was just 
to demand at that epoch from a man who turned everything into in- 
struction. Bourgelat more than all others was conscious of the great 
utility of the horse, and the necessity of preparing in a special manner 



the professional men whom he gave to the agricultural world. He 
desired tliat they should be well acquainted with and appreciate the 
qualities and the defects of this merchandise^ which every day gained 
more importance and acquired a greater value. The inauguration of 
instruction upon the exterior dates from this period. 

Its object is to enable tlie scliolar to ddennhie by a rapid examina- 
tion of Uie fona of a horne his relative commereial value in Hie service in 
which he hi to be employed. In 1837/ H. Bouley had already stated it8 
object as follows : 

" (liven the external conformation of an animal, we determine the 
ser\'ice in whi<*h he may be employed and estimate tlie amount and 
duration of the effects which his machinery is capable of producing." 
This study, we see, is only a branch of zootechnics, but differs from 
the lattiT in that it dtK^s not seek the conditions for the amelioration 
of the e(|uine races. It is intendcnl, rather, to he a guide in the c»hoice 
of an animal at the sale. Its imiM>rtance to the horsiMnan is such that 
the ne<x»ssity of forming a distinct wmrse for its study and devoting 
to it exti*nded investigations is undcrst<K)d. This study is, then, es- 
j)ei*ially an applied sc'ience, and it is therefore indis|K'nsablc l)efore 
entering upcm it to have a certain knowledge of anatomy, physiology, 
mechanictt, physii^s, hygiene, zootiH'hnics, and |)athology. 

In ordcT to bi* able to imderstand it well, its theory should first be 
learned. A knowledgi» of the horse is a problem full of difficulties 
when its application is to In* made to any given animal. It is only 
through ctmstant habit that we can succeed in fonning by a rapid 
examination a g<NKl judgment of his value as a l)eaflt of service*. No 
doubt tliis result may Ix' obtain(>d without having undertaken ana- 
tomical and physiologi(til studies. It is sufficient to ])ossess wliat 
tradesmen call judgment, a glancv of the eye ; but this is only acquir(*il 
by long practice. We all know what jHTfection in this resjx»ct is 
acquired by tvrtain persons <|uite ignorant of the sciences which are 
applied to the exti»rior. The offic<»rs of our n»mounts, of our studs, even 
simple horse-deak'rs, ast4»nish us s<»metimes by the rapidity witli whi(*h 
they sc»e in a horsc^ the weak ])oint, the defect, and the blemish ; tliev 
have, moreover, that veritable tact of knowing how to adapt theni- 
flelves, in tlieir pun*hases, to the exigencit»s, nunles, and fanci(*s of tlic 
times. However, the time which it has taken them to obtain this 
result must be considered. Theoretical ideas have prt»<'isely the effect 
of shortening tliis time ; they are, for beginners, aids which ex jM?rien(v 

1 Utdmm ruftique du XIX* li^de, 1 11. 


will allow them tu dispense with^ but without which they could not 
rise above this empirical knowledge, appanage of the ignorant or of 
the coxcomb, who accepts under the same title the true and the fidse, 
and who is incapable of distinguishing otherwise than by the routine 
with which he proceeds. 

If the knowledge of the horse is an art, it is especially one which 
consists in' observing, comparing, and judging according to positive 
information. Besides, it is necessary, in order to reach perfection, to 
have observed much, to have put into practice tliat faculty which makes 
the clinician, the connoisseur, and the artist. It is when such an edu- 
cation is carried to a considerable extent that we succeed in seizing at 
once what good or defective qualifications the horse possesses, and that 
it is possible to form a just conclusion by appreciating to what d^ree 
the good qualities exceed the bad. 



The simultaneous actions of the force of gravity upon all the molecules 
of a body may be considered as so many small parallel forces having the same 
purpose and the same direction, whose total sum is the weifirht of the body, and 
whose result is applied to one point which is the centre of gravity. 

The vertical pressure of the centre of gravity to the ground is called the 
line of gravitation (line of gravity, Raabe & Bonnal). We have just seen that 
the result of these forces is equal to their sum, and that the position of its point 
of application depends upon the intensity of its components. 

All the actions of the force of gravity being equal for each molecule of the 
same kind, if these molecules of a body are uniformly distributed, — ^in a word, 
if the latter be homogeneous, — it will in all its parts be equally attracted by this 
force. Therefore, nothing will be easier than to determine the centre of gravity, 
especially if the body has a geometrical form. Special procedures are employed 
to determine the location of this centre in a body, whatever may be its form. 
We will not speak of this at present. 

Seldom, however, are bodies found in conditions sufficiently homogeneous for 
its determination to be simple. Certain parts are much more dense than othen, 
and therefore the force of gravity attracts them more. The result of this is that 
the centre of gravity, instead of being situated in the middle of the body, is 
drawn nearer, as has been seen, to the parts which weigh the most This is 
observed in organized bodies. 

Its Determination in Animals. — In animals new difficulties arise. The 
▼ital phenomena being only the phenomena of movement, the material particlea 


Ht i-Hi-li inr'tunt Hn> cliH))!!!!-!-!] in difti-nnt dirci-tiiinH, uml thuH uro niixlilieil the 
writilit anil voliiiiic of tht- orKiHU in n-))ii,'h thi- iimlifular chunK<^ taki- jilucc. 
Other tllMplHceinciilii. iiiuch inort- cnnHidprahle, inileo<l oven iiion- iin|Hirtimt fnim 
the iHtint of vit'w which f-omi-niH iii>, arc (lui< t<> the uctiniw of the or^nH, the 
ilitli>rpnt Httituik-M iif the InkIv, or the iiioveiufnlH which are chuimkI l>y locomo- 
tion. \\> uiuk-rHiunil, tlicii, how <lifKcult Ih'chiiiiii the enact •Iclcnii I nation of 
tiic ivntri' of (gravity, ami the )!»'»( i)n)Hirtanco of HUlticiifntly njijiri'ciuting its 

Ki... l.-Sii 

ii'nlii when it \* a 

of olilniniti).' from it tlic coniliti 


Aiforilintc lo Etorclli.' the ceiiin- of |;r;ivity in the Imri'i' i» I'iluiiti'il in lh>- 
niiilillc iif the height of the trunk, anil llie line rif trr.i vital ioti IUIIh lliroiiph ihe 
centre of the ijuailrilatenil f'lnniil l>y tlie fonr iiiciiilii'ru. 

Acconlint; to I'rofiwor Colin,* it ahii<»t rorr<'«|-n<l-^ t» the iutcrxction of 
twii lincH, one of then) (verticiil) juuminfc Imik of the xi[>li>iiil ii|>|H-nili\ r>l' ilie 
sternum, the other (horizontal) nejmratin); the niiiliilc fr»ni tlic iufirior llli^l of 

hhlluii. I'arla, IMS, t. 


the body (Fig. I). Further on, the sauie author a<ld« : " It is clear that the puai- 
tion of the eentre of gravity and the distribution of the weight of the body upon 
the niemben must vary very much according to the conformation of animab 
whose head, neclc, abdomen, and croup preHent such diverae proportions," 

The position of the centre of gravity of tlie honw, as indicated by M. Colin, 
seems to us veiy nearly correct, at least judging from the cx|ierimenti» which we 
have conducted. 

At fiiHt, it seeniB extremely probable that this point is situated in the median 
plane of the body. In efl'ecting a series of weighings bearing alternately upon 
both of the lateral bipeds of the same subject maintained aa much as possible in 
an invariable attitude, we succeed in determining that the left lateral biped, for 
example, supports a weight vcrj' nearly equal to that of the right lateral biped. 
On the other hand, if, from the example of MM. Raabc and Bonnal,' we consider 
that the dorso-lumbar column AB, Fig 2, measuring the interval comprised be- 

tween the centre of the movement of the shoulder and that of the haunch, — that 
is to say, the len^h of the I>aw of :<iip|M>rl ol' a well-formed horse, — is attracted 
by two parallel lorccs /' ami /", distributing the weight of the IxmIv u|Km the 
pKMterior and anterior bipeds, it will 1>e ca.-iy to determine witli considerable 
approximation the position <if the |Hiini P, through which |>aHscM the line of 
gravitation,— that is to wy. the rcsullaiit of these two forces. It is known that 
this point divider the line Ali into two jiarta inversely proportional to the forces 

/'and F', in such a w 

V that ' 

n Archives vfUrl- 


Here are. In tect, the resolts wbich we have obtained by the aid of thli procedure upon a 
nddle-horse of a flne form provided with good equilibrium, that measured 1.56 m. at the withers 
and at the croup, and 1.53 m. from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock. The 
subject, saddled and bridled, was weighed, the neck at 45 degrees and the head elevated. Its 
base of support. AB, was equal to 1.20 m. As to the total weight, which was 445 kilogrammes, It 
was distributed thus : 

Upon the anterior biped 257kll.(/^. 

Upon the posterior biped 188 kil. (/*). 

In the particular case of which we are speaking, the point P divides the line AB, which 
unites the two forces, into two parts inversely proportional to their intensity. We have then 


By the addition of the denominators to each of the two terms of this equation we obtain 

F+F' ^ AB — PA -k-PA _ AB . 
F' PA ^ pa' 


P^ . .q_>L^ - OlXl^aOm, _ o.« m. 

F^- F* 445 


PB » 120 m. — 0.60 m. -* 0.51 m. 

The line of grayitation then falls upon the horee submitted to the experi- 
ment at 0.51 UL posterior to the anterior biped. 

ThiA is about the position which MM. Raabe and Bonnal have assigned to it The line of 
gravitation of the Arab mare upon which these horsemen experimented was situated 0.09 m. in 
fh)nt of tbe coxo-femoral centre and 0.47 m. from the centre of movement of the shoulder. 
The disunce-of iu two crentres of movement was 1.17 m. instead of 1.20 m. As to its bipeds, 
they weixheil : the anterior, 270 kilogrammes—the poHtiTior. IH4. In this case, the distribution 
of the weight, although analf)gous to that of our honn.', differs from it, since in the latter the 
surplus weight of the anterior bipeds is only 69 kilogrammcM. whilst in the mare it reached 
}«6 kilogrammes. The more anterior position of the line of gravity in the latter is thus 

MM. Raabo and Bonnal have dcnluced with reason the practical importance 
of obtaining a» pre<'i»*o a dotorniination a** iK)«Hible of the centre of (^yity. The 
ideal to Ih' realisMMl, when wo think of placing a dorsal burden u|)on a horse, 
should, in fa<t, consist in «listributinjr this burden ujKm each biped pro|H)rtionally 
to th<' w«'ight which it I wars in the natund state. In these conditions the centre 
of pravity pres<»rvcs its normal iM)sition and one of the bipeds is never relieved 
at the ex|M'ns4» of the other. 

In lS:ir», Morris and Baucher* had alrea<ly ex|H?rinientally determined in the 
honk' the displm'cnu'nts of the centre of jrravity, by chanjring the position of the 
head an<l ne<-k, :is w<'ll as that of the rider. 

"With t!i;> |niriM»H'." •^nv" Mor^i^. " M. Baiichrr. a hoix'TiiHii. and mywlf were going to the 
general mart nf ih** riist<>iii-H*itiM' at ^iro'^Cailloii to wt* iuli iKtix's uiM)n scales of proportion with 
miA'at'lt' plaiik«« iiiv**!!!!"*! a ffw yfar> airo. . . . 

"Tht- tuo wiljrJiiiitf-inii'himT Men* i»1h<'«mI in Huh a manner tliat the anterior extremities 
reHtc<l u|M»n the miildle of t)ie (ii>t an«l \\\v |H>>terior extremltieii upon the middle of the second. 

1 Morris. Ki!»4ii bur rext6rieur du cheval, Paris, 1857, p. 41. 


The two planks beinar exactly upon the same level, and belonging to weighing-machines of the 
same proportion, could therefore be taken for two scales of an ordinary balance. We equipped 
a aaddle-mare regularly formed, although the head and neck were stronger than the remainder 
of the body. She was bridled and saddled. 

" The scales being abandoned to the weight of the mare held in a complete state of immo- 
bility, the head being in its ordinary position, rather low than high, gave us the following results : 

Fore Extremity. Hind Extremity. Total Weight Difference. 

210 k. 174 k. 384 k. 86 k. 

" A fluctuation of f^m 3 to 5 kilogrammes was established, which settled alternately upon the 
fore and hind extremities, on account of the movements produced by the organs of respiration. 

" We lowered the head so that the end of the nose reached the level of the chest. This 
movement effected and the immobility obtained in this position, the fore extremity increased 8 
kilogrammes, of which the hind was relieved. 

Fore Extremity. Hind Extremity. Total Weight. Difference. 

218 k. 166 k. 384 k. 52 k. 

" The head being raised until the end of the nose was on a level with the height of the 
withers, the same precautions for immobility being observed, the fore extremity displaced 10 
kilogrammes of its weight upon the hind and then balanced itself, with the following results : 

Fore Extremity. Hind Extremity. Total Weight. Difference. 

200 k. 184 k. 884 k. 16 k. 

" The head, being returned to its former position, was drawn back upon the neck and ele- 
vated somewhat by the action of the bridle. Ten kilogrammes were then displaced backward 
as follows : 

Fore Extremity. Hind Extremity. Total Weight. Difference. 

202 k. 182 k. 884 k. 29 k. 

These results evidently prove that the more the head is raised, if not natu- 
rally, at least hy the action of the hand, the more its weight and that of the neck 
are equally distributed upon the extremities, if the position be not forced. 

** After these experiments M. Baucher mounted the mare, and the two scales poised with 
the following weights : 

Fore Extremity. Hind Extremity. Total Weight. Difference. 

^'^Ik. 197 k. 448 k. M k. 

" The rider placed in an academic position, his weight of 64 kilogrammes was distributed as 
follows : 41 kilogrammes upon the anterior members and 23 upon the poHterior. 

" Being seated in such a manner that the upper part of the body leaned backward, M. 
Baucher displaced 10 kilogrammes upon the hind extremity. Then drawing the horse's head 
backward according to his method, he again charged the same with a weight of 8 kilogrammes : 
total. 18 kilogrammes. In this position we obtain : 

Fore Extremity. Hind Extremity. Total Weight. Difference. 

233 k. 215 k. 448 k. 18 k. 

" By bearing entirely upon the stirrups, the weight on the anterior members increased 12 

" Afterwards we placed a gray horse of a vicious disposition upon the scales, which, with 
differences already well indicated in construction, fUrnished us with analogous results." 



In union with Bellanger, firet veterinary flugelman/ Morris instituted a 
second series in 1857. The following are the results : 




Obskrvations upon Horses. 

Head at Forty- 
five Degrees. 

I si 



ATcract of tltTtB honts. | 

' QoofI cvi\formation, head and neck ' 

Avtract of oUtob honoi. 

Body well prnfiortioned. neck short, i 
head strung 

Avoract of two horsoa. 

Body well formed, neck ithort, he«d i 

Avoract of two horsos. • 

Neck stmng. head light 

Avoract of two horaoi. 
Neck long, heail ordinary 

One horao. 

Neck htn)nv. head strong. cn)up 
Hhort and oblique 

One horao. 

Neck and iMnly well fomie<l, head 

One horao. 

Neck Mntnjr, head Krong 

Kil. , Kil. 
26i) Ido 

246 2U0 

24() 195 


•245 JOO I 

250 I 195 


240 1 210 






Head lowered 
and drawn to- 
wards the 





H ! 

X^ I ^ 

M O 

Kil. Kil. Kil. Kil. 


250 205 

455 267 

446 ' 240 I 206 

I I 

! I 

485 286 200 

I I 

445 ' 235 , 210 




240 2ft> I 445 


450 I 236 214 ; 450 


Oae hora«. 

Ne<>k stMiig. hi*ail Mnmg 

260 200 
270 200 






460 250 210 460 270 

; ■ ' I 

470 265 205 470 265 





196 I 446 

190 ! 436 



186 < 446 


206 450 

190 400 

205 470 


2a') 215 I 450 ' Z^ 220 450 i 240 j 210 I 450 

" It may 1h» roinarkcnl, in coiisiclorinp these diflfcTent weights," Qeneral Morris 
ailds, **that the weijrht <if the tore extremity is alnrnt one-ninth greater than that 
of the hind ; that the change of the inwition of the head causes the weight of 
the tore extremity to differ from that of the hind by 10 kilogrammes; that long 
ne<ks give more weight to the fore extremity than short and strong ones; that 
the ton* extremity is heavier than the hind." M. Colin has repeated the 
first of tlu»se ex|H'riments upon two horst»s, and arrived at results entirely 

Our Experiments. — We will say that most of these have been made 
ui»on fit\y liorHt-s of different sizt^s an<i races, chosi*n from the hospital of the 
school at A 1 fort. 

> M(>^ri^. l<»c. elt., p. 44. 


We have also sought to appreciate the exIeiU of the posterior and anlrrior ilU- 
placrmerUa of thf linr of gravitation in other different eonditiimn, — for example, with 
the mount«d horse, atxording as the rider eits erect, leana forn-ard iir haelcward, 
or as he L'arries hU head high or low. The displacementK of thin line are then 
determined, whether in front of or behind its average ixwition, wbiib usoillate be- 
tween two and six centimetres, sometimes more, according to the ease. Differ- 
ences of weight, quite considerable, are equally produced in weighing both of the 
lateral bipeds when the head, the netk, the trunk, or the rider \* inclined to 
one aide, facta which show the im|>ortance of the laleni/ ditpt'itfiaentt of the 
centre of gravity during locomotion, especially the work of dressing. But it is 
in horses high or low in tront that the variationn of the weight cif the fore or 
hind extremity assume importance. These have no longer ihe momentary or 
accidental character of the preceding, Hud from this fact alwavH involve, accord- 
ing to the case, a permanent surcharge of one of the two bipedis anterior or 
posterior, and consequently their premature ruin. Their gravity augments in 
horses low over the withers when from the i 
are obliged to carry burdens, as in t 

In order to prove this, we weighed successively several subjects, by plai'ing 
them first upon the plank of a weighing-machine perfc-ctly horizimtal ; then we 
raised gradually sometimes the anterior quarters, sometimes the posterior, so as 
to obtain, at will, horses having the fore or hind quarters low. The height was 
carefully noticed at the beginning of each trial, and then it waa known exactly 
how much the croup or the withers were raised or lowered. The results were 
then in all points comparable, since in all coses the observations were made 
u|>on the same subject. They were found lo be in conformity with the theory, 
and may be consideretl as a corroboration of the preceding experiments. We 
have chronicled them in the following tables: 

■ of their employment they 
e of the saddle, the shafts, or the 



> 1 







1 ^^^'^ 





£i ' 






M.C. M-C 

















PerchDron Reldlng. 












Baib. mare. 

Jw : 






Thami«h. bnne. 

M I 








Norman geld!ng. 
Peroberon geWlng. 

.& 1 








.At. 1 








X \sa 





Corslcan teldlDB, 


A', 1 LAO 




Irish foi)*^ 

.AS ' 1.«1 














.51 1.5! 



runlcan Gelding. 

IM 1 1.60 




(iermaii gelding. 









Ki-mak. a«.. 





















1 .« IJU 4U 







Coamm man. 

' J« lAVI 6(i« 



,M ! l.M Utj 



M,\.a\ 311 





Barb. mue. 

M ' 1.B3 ' UW 





Thorough, hone. 

.« ] l,fll MB 






.« 1« 6JU 


I'enhsron Keldrni. 

.«» ica 5» 




Noniiin mire. 

^ 1.S* a» 






Corelonn guLdlug. 

i 1 .« liu M4 

Iriih tob," ^ 

I .W Itl «w 





Boulon. RuldlnE. 
Perpheruii ptelifliif . 

1 ; JM 1 I.U 4U 












Condmn Reldlng. 

« .»|1JW »■■. 




OenDmi KeldlnT 

1 1 .It l.a) 235 






Let lu iwe nnw what in underetood by the tenns eptiUbrium uid 6aw ^ 

BqulUbrium in mechanics is the state of a body induced bj the forc«e 
which destroy one another or which are 
annulled by a resislancc (Littrt). 

In aniniHU the body seldom rests upon 
the );rounil by a continued surface (decubitus). 
It is Bupimrtcd by four broken columns ar- 
ticulated fnini ilixtance to distance and desig- 
natc<l by the nonic of HKiiibfr*. The polygon 
formed by the linen jnininK the four points 
which touch the ground at rest represents 
what in called the base of support. This 
|)olygnn ix sometimes a triangle; at other 
times the biuw of nupport is reduced to a 
line; finally it may be only a point What- 
ever may be the f'inn and extent of the base 
of iiup|>ort, It Ih neccHHarj-, in order to obtain 
equilibrium, that the line of graviUtioQ doeo 
not meet the ground outnide of this base. 

The eijuilibrium will be so much more 
$tali/f as the Ihiw of iiupport becomes Urger, 
the centre of gniviiy placed lower, and the 
line i)f gravitation nearer the centre of the 
bH.'>e. It will be wittnbk in the contrary con- 
ditions. In fHct, in the solid here reprewnted 
(Fig. 3) it will l)e wen that if the centre of 
I) C, having n'uclu-d tn the point C, the slightest 
■ other, C" f<)r example, will cause the line of 


gravitation to come outside of the base and provoke a fall. Therefore, a horse 
having a heavy body mounted upon long, slender members drawn close to the 
median plane will be endowed with an equilibrium relatively undable. As the 
base of support has the form of an elongated rectangle, with the horse at rest, 
the displacement of the centre of gravity from in front backward will be much 
less dangerous for the integrity of its equilibrium than those which take place 
from side to side, because the line of gravitation will be moved much easier from 
the base of support in the latter case than in the former. This explains to us 
why &}ls during rapid paces scarcely ever take place upon a straight line, but 
are produced, on the contrary, in turning ; why the ambling horse, which moves 
his members by lateral bipeds, goes faster and falls more frequently than the 
trotting horse, which moves his members by diagonal bipeds ; why the leaping 
horse, which displaces the centre of gravity greatly, Mis down so often ; why 
sliding sideways is more dangerous than moving forward or backward, etc. 

That instability of equUibrium gives the measure of speed has been justly 
said. It is easy to account for this. If, from the fact of its displacements, or 
frt>m its situation being more or less raised, it is carried outside of the base of 
support, it will cause the members to be displaced with a greater rapidity to sup- 
port the body, as the fall is more imminent. 

The race-horse lengthens his body, extends his head and neck, and seems 
almost to lie down upon the ground in such a manner as to bring, as much as 
possible, the centre of gravity in advance of the movement. The dressed horse 
raises himself in a strong proportion in order to execute more easily the varied 
movements which at every instant his rider exacts from him. His paces are 
shortened, raised; his equilibrium is more stable, the displacements of his 
centre of gravity less extended but more numerous. On account of his acquired 
speed, and especially because of the instability of his equilibrium, the hippo- 
drome-horse can scarcely make progress upon a straight line ; the slightest latmal 
displacement of the centre of gravity, a little sudden, causes him to Ml. 



The lever is defined as a ''rigid and inextensible rod supported upon a 
fixed point." The form and nature of the substance of which this stalk is com- 
posed have no importance from the point of view which concerns us. It is seen, 
then, that the bones of the skeleton are properly considered as levers, since they 
enter into the definition which we have just given. 

Every lever may be submitted to the action of several forces, but, whatever 
may l>e their number, we know that it is always easy to reduce them to two. 
When it is a question of ascertaining the conditions of the equilibrium of this 
machine, only two forces are usually recognized. The former will be in equi- 
librium when the resultant of the forces which move it is annulled bv the reac- 
tion of the j)oint of support. If equilibrium does not result, the effect of the 
forces is to determine a rotation of the stalk around the fixed point. 



Of tlif two Ibri'i* wliii'h mt u|iiin tlic levi-r, oiii\ which is called the power, 
b duvtineil t» ii|iiiiliz4' the i>thfr, which is eiktk'd the reslstcuioe, or Ui uvetcome 
itM ui-tiuD. The objm-t of thi- leviT in to Ikvor one iif these forces at the expense 
of thi' other. ^> will nee later on whnt ita cunsequencex are. In the animal 
ecomiiiiy, thtiw forveti are by the muerles, and the leverti by the bona. 

For conveiiienee iif dewitDiitnition, we will auppoee that the two forces which 
incite the lever are situated in the jilane of the Utter. In moHt ioBtances it ia 
not thus: the forceii and the lever are placed in difterent planes. 

Ad viiimiiU' will f iplulu tt>l» bvlicr. Su|ip<iiit; It t<' be a quenloD ot the adductor muMl* 
of the anil. Tlit- Wwt u)»ii Hlili-li 11 It iiiwrlol is ilii- Immvrui. the reelHtaiice which II miut 
uvercviiii' b Ihv ui-i)[ht cit Hit itii'niU-r H)i|]1k-<1 U> ilie anlculattoii of Hie elbow, U li then eaiy 
lu ilvlcniiliiv llim Ihe Iiiiiiieral anil vi-iilial ails iiaulng tliniugh the centre of thli artlculatloii, 
tamu a plane In whl<-h Ihi' wlUuclor luUM'k- or Uiv urui Is ixH tlluaU'd. If II were locatvl there, 
II wuult] detvcniltw lleiliiti oiune of that bum-, whk-h Is not Hie case, uliicv It piumulea adduetlon. 

AiiioDK the iiiuscleM of the uieinbent. it in uiily the direct extensors and 
ficxoK that an' ijituut<,it in the plane of their r(«)H.x-tive leA-em. It is the same 
tiir the niUHcleri iii' ihe spinal culuiuii. All the otherH act in different planes. 
This d(Hv nut nieiin that the conditinn!! of the eiiuilibriuin of the lever are not 
i4)pli<-ttlile ti) the former. Init the clevelojitncnU into whieh we must enter in order 
tti reMdve jmrticular ea.-<es wimlil len<i um ti«> far awuy. 

In iniH'liuiili-M, the iiKiiiit'iit iif a force in relation to an axis ia the product of 
the pniJK'tioii of this tonv ii|hiii a i)lune jieriienUicular to the axis, through the 
distaniY of this force to the axiH. 

When ihe idea of moment is applied to the xtudy of the lever, it may be 
defined thus: The product 
tevrr, becaiwe the forces, 
being xiliiated in the same 
plane, are tberuselvcs their 

it is iiiip[>osed to pass 
thmiit;h the |>oint of 

Siippuse thi' tw« force* F 
ItliiE the lever AB 
The Khulc ■yiiem tg 

' :iMd nif an' I'alle.i frw- 

ti f the forces Ftmd F 

n the lever the moment of 

of a force is the product of 
the Slime manner that the 
;o forces are equal. We will 


Whence is produced : 

= Of. 

That is to say, that the /orc«* are /o eatk othtr inversely at the armn of their lever ; 
great force, Bmall lever-arm, and, reciprocally, large lever-arm, Hraall force. 

Again, the intensity of the forces varies according to their dei/ree q/" incHna- 
Hon. The three following cases may present themselves: 

Ist. 7Ti« force matet a right angle with the kiier-nrm. 

It acts then with its maiimum of intensity. This is, in fact, the case where 
the lever-arm is the most considerable ; it is measured by the distance of the 
point of application of the 
force to the point of relation 

2d. The/orce maiei at 
acute angle (Fig. 0). 

Lei U 

( acted parpen dio- 
olMly, lis leveT-Arm would be AO. 
Now. 0.4 la > tlian OC. u oblique 
upon il/'iirlih reference to the pur- 
pendlcuUr OC, um uf Ihe lever of 
F. Thus ■ cerlilQ part of the force 
employed in repelling Ihe flied 
point ts lo«t Ibr the movement of 
the point A. Tbls la seen by de- 
composing F inio iwo fuTcea, AE 
and AD, acting upon llie point 
A. fallowing the dlreftlons Indi- 
cated. AD Is Ihe quMitlly em- "" "■ 
ployed to repel the Hied point. 

It may be conceived that the more the anfrle formed by the force with its 
lever-arm is acute, Ihe greater will be the increase of Al> at the expense of AE, 
and the force utilised for the movement will thuH be low. The disposable force 
will he null if F becomes parallel to the arm of its lever. 

3d. Tht /ortx matei an obfiue angle (Fig. 6), 

In this case the srm of the 1 
would be 0.4 Itwlf. ThiiBacerta 
ti>rt ol F l> liii* )n drawing A to 
ardi AD at the eipense of I 

I smaller than if F were perpendlcalai 

IS, without there 
being any pntslblo movement. 

Thus it results from the 
preceding remarks that every 
time a force is not perpen- 
dicular to its lever-arm, a 
part of its intensity will be 

attracting or repelling the point of support according to the n 


Muscular Meohanios. — ^These ideas can be at once applied to muBColar 
mechanics. A muscle which contracts tends to draw its two extremities equally 
towards its centre. Each one is usually inserted upon a distinct bone. The 
bones, however, are not all movable to the same decree. Whence it follows that 
every muscle has a fixed and a movable insertion, the latter being situated upon the 
heme which is displaced during the contraction. 

As the muscles of the apparatus of locomotion are voluntary, the animal 
can at will change a movable insertion into a fixed insertion, and vice versa. In 
other terms, a muscle, for example, which extends from the head to the arm 
(mastoido-humcralis) can as well become a motor of the head as an extensor of 
the arm. It sufhces that the other muscles contract in order to fix and render 
immovable the head or the arm. The multiplicity of the muscular fibres is in 
proportion to the intensity of the contraction ; their length, on the contrary, agrees 
with its extent. Or, if preferred, the volume of the muscles gives the measure 
of foree ; their length, that of speed. 

It is, then, we believe, an error to think that the extent of the contraction 
of the muscles is not measured by the length of their fleshy portion, but by the 
length of the flbres which form them. This is only partly true, for in compound 
muscles, if the flbre be interrupted by aponeurotic or tendinous intersections, if 
it be shorter than in simple muscles, things occur, so to speak, as if the fibre rep- 
resented the length of the fleshy body. The extent of the contraction is the 
result of several distinct actions which are added to one another to determine the 
total effect. The intersections, therefore, only give greater support to the con- 
traction of the fibre ; they fiimish it with greater resistance to the tractions of 
weight, for the muscles in which they are encountered, besides their active r&le 
in hnimiotion, are still important passive agents in station. 

In most instances, in the memiiors esf)ecially, the muscles are applied along 
the length of the bones, and are found, on that account, in conditions very dis- 
advantageous. Their manifest tendency towards parallelism with the lever-arm 
seems to have little connection with the theoretic ideas which we have just 
given, since a large part of their force is regarded as lost for movement. 

This is of no account, however, and it is easy to determine that this disposition 
is, on the contrary, most fortunate, whatever may have been said concerning it 

Indeed, if the muscle at the beginning of its contraction acts with a defective 
incidence, this incidence becomes more and more favorable as the contraction 
progresses, and the muscle will then profit, at the moment its action is most 
powerful, by the entire quantity of movement already acquired by overcoming the 
fpsistani^'. Hut if the insertion at the beginning l)e more perpendicular, the 
muscular action, instead of acquiring intensity, will gradually lose it, and the 
movement pnMluce<l, while overcoming the resistance, will be less extended. 

On the other hand, the t<'ndcncy to parallelism determines in the memben. 
of animals those slender forms which we know are in accordance with speed. It 
is i*ertain that the musc*ular interstices are much more considerable as the mus- 
cles are mtire reniove<l from their bony columns and therefore more perpendicular 
to them. This is ol)served in animals with massive forms and slow movementB.. 
Here, the iK'uviness of the gait is due to the enormous size of the mass as well 
as to the feeble degree of the contraction of the muscles. 

It must not be inferred from this that for speed we should seek abeolute 
parallelism of the muscles with their levers. It must be remembered that thia 


parallelism is a hinderance to the execution of the initial movement ; hence the 
utility of the eminences which the bones of the members present, more particu- 
lariy in the vicinity of their extremities. These projections, upon which the 
muscles are inflected or attached, have the effect of removing them from the 
bones and increasing the intensity of their action. Such is the r6le of the great 
sesamoids, the supra-carpal bone, the olecranon, the coracoid process, the calca- 
neum, the anterior tuberosity of the tibia, the patella, the trochanter, etc. Such 
is the advantage presented by the enlarged extremities of the bones of the 
members, and such the result of the inclination of the different bones upon 
each other. These diverse dispositions retain the advantages of parallelism, 
whilst avoiding the manifest inconveniences at the beginning of the muscular 


Again, the study of the lever teaches us that the paths described by the lever- 
arme are in direct ratio to their length, since they describe circumferences which 
are to each other as their radii. If, consequently, one of the forces act upon an 
arm shorter than another, the arm of the latter will traverse a path much more 

In organisms it is very remarkable to find that the lever-arm of the muscles 
is usually very weak, especially when the latter are charged with the production 
of speed. As Lecoq ' judiciously remarks, power acts in this case with much 
less intensity, but it may become much greater through the multiplicity of the 
muscular fibres, which, having only to produce a contraction slightly marked, 
can be disposed obliquely and be much more numerous in the muscle. On the 
other hand, if the muscles have their insertion very fieur from the point of sup- 
port, their contraction, by removing them from this point, deprives the member 
of its slender form. 

From what we have said above, h propos of the inclination of the forces 
upon their lever-arms, it is easy to determine the force utilized at each instant 
of the muscular contraction. It is clearly seen that, according as a muscle is at 
the beginning or at the end of its contraction, there is a tendency to an approx- 
imation or a separation of the articular surfaces. 

It is said that a muscle is at its moment when its traction is exercised per- 
pendicularly to the displaced bone ; but a great many muscles cease their action 
before reaching that position ; they often only commence the movement which 
is terminated by the intervention of other muscles. This takes place in the 
flexors of the metacarpus, for example, whose parallelism to the lever-arm is 
almost complete ; if the flexors of the phalanges did not initiate the flexion of 
the metacarpus, these muscles could perhaps not produce it by themselves. 

In all the instances which we have just considered the mobile bone repre- 
sents a lever upon which we always find the three fundamental points : the point 
of support and the points of application of the power and of the resistance. 

The point of support is nearly always situated on a level with the articula- 
tion with the fixed bone ; this is also the centre of movement. The power is 
always applied at the mobile insertion of the motor muscle. As to the resistance, 
it is situated upon the lever, at that variable point where the weight or the 
obstacles to the displacement of the mobile bone act, whatever they may be. 

1 See. fbr ftirther details, O. Colin, Physiologie comp&r6e, t i. p. 896, 8e M. 
* F. Lecoq, Recuell de mMecine v^t^rinaire, 1S43, p. 493. 


Acciirtlinj; i<i llic re Intivc |M»ilion iil' then' three i>oiBts, we recognize three clasMS 
of levers. 

In the one etilled the Jint cbuu (Fig. T), the fixed point A occupies an inters 
meditile position to the two 
othera, P and R. It is 
called inter'fijrtd fcwr. 

A certain number of 
muHi'lcs act upon this claiw 
of lever. It is exemplified, 

sion of the faeud upon the 
neck. The fixed point {oe- 
cipUo-atioiil articutatioii) is 
always situated, whatever 
may be the position of the 
'''"■ ■'■ bead, between the resist- 

ance {rentre of gramt^ of 
tht latter) and the power ('Kvipita/ intrtion of the mu*e/p» of the nape qf the neel% 

The ccrvii'al li^inent in nur lai^r domestic )t|>ecied aim equalixts the 
weiicht of tlic bead liy un iiiiuU^oum uiechunism. 

It ill, however, nut ti)rrccl to eoniiidor the bead an an inter-fixed lever at the 
niinuent i>f Hexion, an «nue {H-nu>nM think. Accordinn to tlieir view, in fact, 
the <il>ntuek« dejH-nil on tlic antagDnistM (fj-tmaor miuclet) and the elasticity of 
the iTrvical ligament. Thme would be the elementH of resistance, the weight 
of the head bccuiuinK, according to this opinion, an auziliaty of the power 
(JIfJiir mnfflfii). 

So iloubt It in MiinetimeM thus when the head and neck are elevated, but 
tbinKK are very diHerent when thme regions are directed towards the ground. 
The weight of the heail then becomes to the flexora a veritable resistance to be 
overcome, mv\ the lever is no lunger of the firet class; it is of the third, as we 
will see liirthor on. 

Besidiv, in order t'l understand the action of a muscle well, it is necessary to 
investigate it an if it alone were attache*! to the lever, without r^arding the 
manner of existence of the antiigonistic ones. In most instances the latter do not 
»p]Miit> any resisianii'. but allow the former to execute the movement freely. 
The extension of the foreann, nnd tliat of the mctatamux, the foniur, the pelvis, 
the spine, etc., take jdscc ihroutrh the mechanism of an inler-fixed lever in which 
th>' arm of [Hiwer is. ai ronling to the case, the olecranon, the calcaneum, the tro- 
I'hitntiT. the iw'bial tu^^ero^•ity. the spinoim or transverae nimphyaes of the vertebrte. 
In ihi'fciiiioiny the lever of the finit class apjteatH tobc more particularly reserved 
for f./irimiiiu. It Is also the /i-rrr of njuvil. for the arm of i>ower is never equal to 
Ihiic of rt-Miiiiunit- : tin- latter is alway!> nnich longer. 

In nutn, wIiimi- iiiiinilini; (WMition is venical, in whom foiling forward is 
Hisy. on ai'c'iiunt of the juirticulur i>ilmili<m of the organs, the lever of the first 
kind i''. with pifsl r<U'«>ii. lo Ik- [-onsidered as the Irivr of tiafion. We shall see 
thill in iiniuiiilH it is that of the m rorirl class in which this usage can be prefer- 
ably ri-cogniwd. 

In the U-viT i>{ till- "rnii-l e/'i" the resistance occupies the intermediate posi- 
tion it'ip. »). The name inli-r-n-fhliiiif is iipplied to it. In this case, whatever 


maj be the reepectdre poeitiona of the three points, the lever-arm of power exceeds 
that of leaiatance, aince PA always remains hypothetically longer than RA. Thia 
lever is, then, very traly that 
of force, but has more diasd- 
vantage concertiitig the pro- 
duction of speed, for, tile 
latter being proportional to 
the leTer-arm, the path of the 
resiat&nce will never be as 
long as that of the power. 

Several examples are seen 
in animola. It is well known 
that while standing the weight 
of the body tends to cloee all 
the articular angles of the 
members upon each other. tiq.s. 

There ore also observed, on 

the convex side dr the summit of the latter, muscles which are opposed lo this 
cloaing, by acting as levere of the second clans. It is thus that the supra-spina- 
tus, the coraco-radialis, the sub-epinatus, the subscapuiar, suslain the scapulo- 
humeral angle. The insertions of these ditfercnt muscles are all situated a little 
beyond the articulation, which represents the point of application of the resist- 
ance to be overcome, whilst the point of support is placed at the articulation of 
the elbow. It is in the same manner that the extensors of the foreann sustain 
the humero-radiol articulation upon which are transmitted the actions of the 
weight, that the suspensory ligamenl of tlie fetlock maintains this region, that 
tiie gastrocnemius and the perforatus muscles of the leg retain the calcaneum, 
that the middle gluteal muscle prevents the closing up of the coxo-femonil angle. 
It will be noticed that all these muscles act as levers of the flrst class when the 
members do not serve as a support, so that the organism has do need of inter- 
posing new anatomical dispo- 
aitions in order to develop 
fonx. The same levers adapt 
themselves with the same 
powers to ditferent conditions 
in order to produce, according 
to the necessity of the move- 
ment, either force or speed. 

Finally, a third case pre- 
sents itself in the relative 
situation of the three funda- 
mental points of the lever. It 
is that in which the power 
ia placed between the resist- Pio.t. 

ance and the point of support. 
This lever is designated the Irvrr oj the third r/nw, or inttr-p'iinanl (Fig. 9). 

Here the arm of resistance is always hyiMthetically longer than that of the 
power, and the velocity is increased at the expense of Ihe force. Like that of 
the first class, it can also be called the Irrrr of uperd. 


The ecooomy oifera numerous examples of this variety. All the flexor mus- 
cleB act ait levers of this kind. The large psoas muscle flexes the femur by this 
mechanism. The point of support is at the coxo-femoral articulation, the resist- 
ance (the weight of the member) is applied at the femoro-tibial articulation, and 
the power is exerted at the internal trochanter. The flexors of the leg, meta- 
tarsus, arm, forearm, metacarpus, phalanges, head, spinal column, etc., act upon 
levers of the third kind. We are right in saying that this lever is that of flexion 
in the same manner as that of the first kind is the lever of extension. 

In the animal mechanism all the levers are not distributed in the same 
number. The manner of articulation of the bones and the function of the parts 
demand here the use of the inter-fixed lever, there that of the inter-puissant 
lever, and elsewhere that of the inter-resisting. 

We have, however, a right to ask why the organUm utilizes two levers of speed, 
the first and the third class, since one of them may become that of force. We 
have seen, indeed, that the bones which act as levers of the first kind when the 
member is raised become the secimd kind during support, by the simple dis- 
placement of the fixed point and of the resistance. It cannot be thus for those 
which act as levers of the third kind. In other words, the lever of flexion can- 
not be of the first kind ; it belongn e8i>ecially to the third. For, were it otherwise, 
we should find in the sinus of the articular angles apophyses analogous to the ole- 
cranon, the calcaneum, the trochanter, the sesamoids, or the patella, peculiarities 
destined to substitute the lever of the first class for that of the third. It is not 
difiicult to see that the movement of flexion, already sufficiently limited by the 
interposition of the muscular masses occupying the articular sinus, would be 
almost imiMiHsible. The presence of these eminences on the opposite side of the 
locomotory angles does not cause any inconvenience, for the extension is never 
complete, and, were it so, it would place the two segments in prolongation with 
each other, which would not limit the normal movement. In flexion it is difi*erent ; 
the c<mcavity of the angles should be free in order that certain points of the movable 
segment do not meet Ux) soon the fixed segment and therefore limit its displacement. 

In all the preceding cAses we have supposed the muscular action isolated in 
order to analyze it better. It is, however, never thus. Every muscle which con- 
tracts to displace a bone is aided in its rdle by the contraction of one or more 
neighlmring muscles. These latter have the effect of fixing the one of the two 
segments which should not be moved. Not one of the pieces of the machine is 
arrangt^l in an immovable manner, since all are agencies to produce movement. 
It is then important, in order to avoid the discharge of force, that certain ones 
among them be immovable, and it is on this account that the contraction of a 
muscle is always assisted by that of a congener. This fact, most of the time diflfi- 
cult to determine, l)eiM>mes most evident at the time of the prcnluction of the effort. 

Finally, we remark that, if the organism frequently employ the lever, the 
simplest of machines, in the functicms of its locomotive apparatus, this animal 
lever differs much from the onlinary one and, with still greater rea«»on, from 
the inatlu'inaticiil. If wo apply to it the laws of the latter, we simply arrive 
at a surticifnt approximation of its action without seeking to establish any abso- 
lute principle. 

With M. Mijmon,* we think that in the animal lever the i>oint of support is 

» Mijrnon. MtSaiil<|\it' animale, in Recueil de mMecIne v^^riiiaire, 1S41, p. 67. 


neither invariable nor certain; the insertion of the forces neither well established 
nor very precise; their intensity always approximative. Whatever may be the 
exactuew of the idea which may exist in regard to volume, length, direction, the 
atmctnre of the muscle, its angle of insertion, the arm of the lever which it 
movea, the amount of contractility — that is to say, the value of the force itaelf — 

" In the oi^ianized machine resistance is only a power disguised alone by 
the name. It is indeed weight at first, but it ia also muscular contraction which 
opposes and resists the action of the lever. It is an unknown quantity to be 
overcome by another equally unknown." 

Let US add that the forces of extension have their maximum of intensity at 
the b^inning of their action, whilst those of flexion have it at the termination. 
This is explained by the difference of the result which they should produce. The 
first resist the weight of the body at the same time that they overcome in loco- 
motion the inertia of the regions situated below them ; the second only have to 
raise the member to permit it to advance over the ground, and are nearly dia- 
chai^ed from the rdle which the first fulfil during station. The insertion of the 
extenaora is ordiuArily more advantageous than that of the flexors, because thne 
latter have but to employ velocity against the others, which should, in addition, 
develop force. 



The inclined plane ia, with the lever, the other of the two simple macliinta 
employed by the organism in the construction of the locomotory apparstus. 

It is known that in the inclined plane (Fig. 10) a solid, 0, incited by the 
weight F, is drawn the 
length of this plane by 
a force,/, which is cal- 
culated by the follow- 
ing formula : 


In other words, 
the force/ is the prod- 
act of the weight of 
the body by the sine 
ofthe angle of inclina- 
tion of the plane. 

The larger this 
angle becomes, the ^'o- it*- 

more the component / 

iocreuses at the expense of the other component, Od. destroyed by the resistance 
of the plane. The arfieiiUir mr/ncei rrjiment a muHUiiiie of inclined p/anf» which 
decompose the weight of the ranwi ui><>n the iMiny levers and the tendinous and 
ligamentous cords situated In the vicinity of the articulations. 


At the superior part of the members the articular surface is a cavity more 
or less deep. It may be considered as being formed by a succession of inclined 
planes whose inclination diminishes from the periphery to the centre. It thus 
disseminates the wei^rht of the body upon the head, which is adapted to it. The 
latter acts in the same manner a second time, alternating the actions of the mass 
by disseminating them u|>on the ligaments at the same time as upon the bones. 
On a level with the second articulation of the members we find other inclined 
surfaces ; these surfaces are multiplied towards the carpus and tarsus ; finally, 
they are found in the articulations of the hand and f(K)t. 

Thus more and more the weight of the body is disseminated upon the bony 
oolumns through the existence of thes»e diverse inclinati<»ns, and the volume of the 
twnet decreases in proportion to the efforts which they support. 

Another mrxle of dispersion, again very remarkable, is that which M. 
Mignon * calls the inclined plane of the segment^ in contradistinction to the pre- 
ceding, which he names inclined plane of ttur/aee. 

** In order to establish the existence of these planes in animal machinery," 
he says, ** it is sufficient to observe that in the members the bony segments super- 
pose themselves by being diversely inclined and by thus forming a series of angles 
at their reciprocal points of union. As these angles do not became closed, as the 
action of the weight is one by its direction, — that is to say, vertieai, — and as the 
oblique segment, imme<liately inferior, receives this action, the latter is then trans- 
mitted in the direction of the osseous segment ; and, since it has followed this in- 
clined segment, it undergoes the influence of this oblique plane which conducts 
and sup|K>rts it ; that is to say, it is decomposed into two parts, one of which is 
peq>endicular to the segment, the other parallel to it and follows its direction. 

**The flexible supports uprm which the segments or inclined planes act 
therefore bec<»me <»ne of the elements of these planes. 

*' If we now examine the mechanical dispositions of the mpport, we find that 
the weight of the ImmIv is disi>ersed and attenuated uiM)n a series of inclined planes, 
which receive, decomiMJse, and transmit this weight; that the solid segments, 
more and more numerous, support that {mrtion of the weight transmitted parallel 
to the plane and decominise it in their turn ; that the flexible parts sustain like a 
spring the other portion of the weight perpendicular to the diflerent planes ; 
finally, that the levers and pulleys favor, aid, or increase the action of these 
springs which move and extend intelligent forces that graduate and measure in 
some manner the entire influence claimed by the necessity of the moment. 

"Such is the mechanical system, as simple as it is ingenuous, which concen- 
trates or disseminut(>s action, produces and directs it, increases or diminishes it, 
resists or combats it." 

Thiwe primary ideas being well understood, we may now begin the particular 
study (»f the regions. 

1 Mignoo, loc cit, pp. 69 et 71. 



§ 1. Divisions of the Horse. 

Most authors who have written upon the exterior, since Bourgelat, 
have adopted the division of the horse into fore extremity^ body, and 
hind extremity; others have preferred the anatomical division into 
trunk and members. All have acted under the influence of three good 

Horsemen, with Bourgelat, have only considered the saddle-horse, 
and have r^arded it as a machine under the rider, extending beyond 
him, in front and behind. For all those who practise horsemanship, 
the rider in the management of his mount has two resistances to over- 
come, two parts to direct : the fore party — that is to say, all that part > 
of Uie horse in front of him, — and the hind pari, all that which is 
behind. The body is under him, he feels its action directly, and it 
cannot escape him. It is not Uius with the fore and the hind partSy 
whose movements are often far from being correlative, and upon which 
he should fix his attention. 

The authors who have preferred, contrary to the preceding, the 
division of the horse into trunk and m,emberSj quickly perceived that the 
division of Bourgelat, whilst applying itself very well to the service 
of the saddle, becomes defective when applied to the heavy or the light 
draught-horse. It would be useless to insist upon this point. The 
contradiction in the terms is still greater when it becomes a question 
of studying the external conformation of other domestic animals, such 
as the ox, the sheep, and the dog. 

We will adopt the following division, because it is more general 
and more convenient, and because this book is not alone addressed to 

Whatever may be the animal examined, or its service, it may always 



be divided into three parts : the heady the bodyy and the membet^s; and 
the expressions fore extremity and hind extremity may be replaced to 
advantage by those of anterior quaiiet^a and posterior quarters. 

The head and the body are the most important parts of the animal 
machinery, for they contain the organs that are indispensable to the 
maintenance of life. 

The members, broken columns articulated from space to space, sup- 
port the trunk and, by their movements, transport it from one place 
to another. 

Besides these principal divisions, there are secondary ones ; these 
are faces or planes which limit the animal in front, behind, above, 
below, and laterally. 

The lateral faces, in ordinary language, are sometimes designated 
in a particular manner. Thus, horsemen often call the left side 
(mounting side) the near-sidey in opposition to the right, which they 
call the off-side. As it is usually on the left side from which a rider 
mounts a horse, these expressions are only suitable for the training- 
horse, and would be out of place in all other cases. 

Drivers also employ, for the same reasons, denominations which 
it is well to understand. One who drives draught-horses is always 
stationed on the left of the team, and it is for this reason that this 
side is designated under the name of the side of the mun, the right 
being called the off-side of the man. 

In Paris and in a large number of departments there are reasons 
for the use of these expressions, but in certain localities, Finist^re and 
the northern coast, for example, they would be void of sense, since 
men often drive horses on the right side. 

We have so far only indicated the primary divisions of the horse. 
E^ach of them is again subdivided into secondary r^ions, which we 
have consigned to the following synoptical table as well as to the 
explanatory' figures which are annexed to it. 

In order to fiicilitate for persons little familiar with dissection 9 
knowledge of the summary anatomical desiTiption which accompanies 
each region, we liave, by guiding the artists in the exact representation 
of the forms of the horse, reproduced Figs. 16, 17, and 18, indicating 
the various stnictuw^. In fact, all the prominences — bony, ligamentous, 
tendinous, and muscular — which exist under the skin and may become 
apparent on tlie exterior are illustrated here. 




1.— Head (17 regions). 

Anterior Face. 

1. Furehead. 

2. Face. 

8. Extremity of 
the nose. 

Posterior Pace. ! Lateral Faces. 

4. Lower Jaw. 

5. Intermaxillary 


6. Chin. 

7. Ear. 

8. Temple. 

9. Supra-orbit. 

10. Eyebrow. 

11. Eye. 

12. Cheek. 
18. NoetriU. 


14. Mouth, 
a. Lips. 
6. Teeth. 
c. Bars, 
ef. Lingual 
e. Tongue. 
/. PaUte. 


15. Poll. 

16. Parotid re- 


17. Throat. 



1. Neck. 

2. Withers. 
8. Back. 

4. Loins. 

5. Croup. 

2.— Body (20 regions). 


6. Xiphoid 


7. Abdomen. 


8. Ribe. 

9. Flank. 
10. Groin. 


11. Chest 

12. Interaxilla. 
18. Axilla. 


14. Tail. 

15. Anus. 

16. Perineum. 

Genital Organs. 


17. Testicles and 


18. Sheath and 



19. Vulva. 

20. Mammae. 

8.— MSMBEBB (16 regions). 


1. Shoulder. 

2. Arm. 
8. Elbow. 

4. Forearm. 

5. Knee. 


6. Thigh and buttock. 

7. Stifle. 

8. Leg. 

9. Hock. 

Regions Common U> the Two Members. 

10. Chestnut 

11. Canon and tendons. 

12. Fetlock. 

18. Footlock and ergot 

14. Pastern. 

15. Coronet 

16. Foot 






'Ragloiu of ibe bone nco bcblnd. 


IS. Neck. 

1. UbM. 

S. PolnlorUiebock 

2. niraloek. 

U. CheM. 

!. Neck. 


IS, InlciulIU 

& WIthen. 


16. Axilla. 

4. Croup. 

l rellock. 


IT. roreum. 

S. Tall. 

U. Knee. 

e. Thigh. 

*. Foot 

7. Fwe. 

IB. rwion. 

7. Butlock. 

&. Fluik. 

1. Exmmltr of tfaa 

20. FeUoCk. 



B, K«tra. 

n. Coronet. 

IL SbooJdcr. 

». Bib.. 

a. Point of the ■) 

). BollowofdwOuik. 

dw or of tiM arm. 26. Huinch. 


Pin. It^IUtloDi of the hocM I 

22. FIftDk. 

2S. RitM. 

a Aiiiu. 

B. Elbow. 

10. PorMnn 

11. Kn**. 

12. Ilnon. 

U. rcUock. 

1*. I'Mlml. 

15 rnrontt 


M. ThlBh. 

2>. SUde. 

2B, AbdODMIl. 

27. I*g. 

26. Hock. 

2>. OkioD. 

to. Fetlock. 

n. xiphoid nsliiD 



or the hone lat 

n luenllr 

ftnd bchlDd. 

). Sboulcler. 

IS. Wllhtirt. 

a. Point ol the 



in, Rlbi. 

i. Hbow. 


E. Foreinn. ■ 



•. Chealnul 



7. Kn«B. 






B. FeUock. 






4 4 4 4^44isM^:i!i^&iiis 








" E B ii 

',5 W C -< Pti 

s^s^s^^!^ ?\^Fi$l^tiPi^^^^^^i^ 

d -S 



B > g 

fi i-H on 

•9 -^' 
A a 


OQ fiU O 


3 s^ 

•2 gLS 

JS 6 

• s 

2 ^ 

•a s 







o 3 



2 g S. 

P< £ S ^ S 

!• 2 S 5 s 

H < i Si 

• e c £ 5 -g 

- 4 f 1-3 c 


cc oc 2 »3 

c s 



!>»■ « d> 

8 S 





12. siFnin-maxllUrls. 
IX MutuMr'-hiiinpnillii. 
21. stunt eiWiMtfiiflhe 

jrof the iilimlBiiKM. 

U. Anteriiir poTtlon of euperflpM gluten*^ 
17. Ljilcrnl ciuiiMir of Ihu pbalsngpi. 
M. rrnierloriairtlnnof KUperHclklgldtelU. 
50. MliMIe Rtuuiu. 

fi2. Fvmiin] blcepi. 

Xi. I)«i.'p fli'ior of th« phalanges. 
Ml. Curd u( tba hock. 


§ 2. Some Definitions. 

In the language of the exterior, oertain expressions are oflen em- 
ployed whose signification should be exactly known. They are the 
following : Beauty ^ Defectj Blemishj Fice, Fatdt, 

A. — Beauties. 

Beauty, says Bourgelat, resides in the fitness and the relation 
of the parts. This definition is incomplete, for it refers only to the 
proportions of the whole and excludes those of the parts taken sepa- 
rately. Indeed, it may be that the general harmony in a horse is 
defective, although some of the parts are absolutely beautiful ; the 
whole may be composed of elements badly arranged, notwithstanding 
that certain of them are not incompatible in subjects of the best 

A more precise sense should therefore be attached to the word 
beautiful, and we should assert that it indicates the perfect adaptation 
of the organ to its function, or of the subject to the service for which 
he is destined. It is not that which pleases the eye, as is often under- 
stood by persons ignorant of these kinds of study, but that which is 
qualified as fit by the connoisseur, the competent man. Beaviy is 
therefore aynonynwus vdth fitness. It is seen, then, that a beautiful 
region is a good region, a beautiful horse is a good horse, the beauty of 
the whole results, as Bourgelat says, from the beauty and reciprocal fU- 
ness of all the parts. One of these may be beautiful without the whole 
possessing that quality. 

This acceptation of the word beautiful is applied generally as well 
as particularly, and it is the only one which should be ac^^pted when 
the word is employed. 

There is still another distinction to be established among the 
beauties : some are obsdide, others are relative. 

Absolute beauties are always sought for whatever may Ix? the ser- 
vice, — the saddle, or light or heavy traction. A sj)acious chest, large 
articulations, dense and voluminous muscles, regular equilibrium, and 
j)owerful attachments are absolute beauties to be exacted indiscrimi- 
nately from all horses, for these characters indicate tlic strength and 
energy necessary for all services. 

Relative beauties, on the contrary, denote a specialization for such 
and such a service. Thus, we prefer largeness of the chest, massive 
dioulders, voluminous muscles, short, vigorous members, a body close 
to the ground, wide loins, etc., in the slow and heavy mot«)rs which 


must ovenx)me resistance by the mass and the power of their effort ; 
whilst we seek a more elevated and narrower body, a longer neck, a 
light head, long bones, — in a word, a smaller mass and more subtle and 
extended movements, — for the rapid motor. These are beauties rela- 
tive to th(»se two kinds of utilization, which would become prejudicial 
if instead of being applied to one they were applied to the other. 

B. — Defects. 

The word defect is, in its etymology, tlie opposite of beauty. It 
characterizt»s tlie want of adaptation of tlie thing to the end for which 
it is destimnl. 

Defects art* absolute, rekUivCy congenital^ or acquired. 

Absolute defects are causes for the rejection of the horse, for they 
are injurious to every kind of utilization. Thus, a flat costal r^ion 
lesst»ns tlie ciijwcity of the clK»st, flat f(H»t render the application of the 
shoe diflicult and exjMise the foot to contusions of the heels and the 
sole; a n'tnicted alxlomen indiirates a capricious ap}x;tite; slender 
memlx^rs an* s<K)n mined ; small articulations diminish the extent of 
the movements ; unstable e([uilibrium predisposes to falls, to excessive 
use of the menil)ers, etc. These are so manv absolute defects. 

( )n the contrar}', deliH-ts are relative when they only injure the em- 
ployment <»f a horse for a determined st^rviw. A concave back is 
d(»fective for the iwck-saddle ; a cn>up too oblique and a very large 
cJM^st will not Ik» suitable for the rapid gaits, whilst they are not preju- 
dicial in the draught-horse ; the same is tnie of the low withers and 
*Jie high withers, the horizontal croup and the double croup, etc. It 
is apjmri'nt, then, from tliest* examj)li»s, that what is a beauty for one 
ik»rvi(*e niav InH-ome a (lefe<*t for another. 

Congenital defects are those* which the horse i)08sesses at birth ; 
1k)quired defects, th(»s<> which are the result of his utilization. 

A kne<^sj)rung hors<' — that is to say, one whose knee is naturally 
displaced forwanl — is atlW-t^Hl with a congenital defect ; whilst, if this 
jefe<'t Ih' the n»sult of usage, he is said to Ik? jK>ssessed of an acquired 
defect. Most defl't'ts an' inal formations which the animal possesses at 
birth, and an* thcn'fon' of a <'ongenital nature; however, tliere are a 
large numlxT which he ae<juin's through work. 

C. — Blemishes. 

It is dittieuh to give a gcMxl definition of th<» won! blenushy be- 
cause* the first condition to fulfil in onler to define a thing is that the 
thing its4*lf Im* drfiurd in the literal s(*ns<» of the word. At this present 


time the number and nature of the blemishes are far from being deter- 
mined. Nothing is more absolute, nothing more relative ; all depends 
upon the idea which is formed of them. 

The words fefemwA, mcey and favit are very often employed synony- 
mously when applied to the horse. They appear, however, to have a 
particular signification. Tlius, by the term blemish is designated a 
cause of depreciation superficial and apparent. Fice and faiUt seem 
rather to convey in themselves something concealed. 

Among the numerous definitions which are given of a blemish, that 
of Littr^ seems to us to be the most complete : " A blemish is a defect 
of whatever origin, pathological or otherwise, which has its seat in the 
skin or the subjacent parts, and which diminishes more or less the value 
of the horse." 

As the word defect has another sense in the exterior ; as, besides, it 
is of little importance to explain the variety of the origin of blemishes, 
since this origin may or may not be pathological, we will modify this 
definition in the following manner : A blemish is every apparent trace 
of depreciation having its seal in the skin or in the subjacent tissues. 
This trace need not be persistent. A horse may indeed be blemished 
to-day and not be so eight days hence. A very slight fall upon the 
knees sometimes leaves an immediate trace which then blemishes the 
subject, while oftentimes soon afterwards nothing is visible. 

However it may be, we add that most usually the name blemish 
is given to cicatrices, tumors resulting from accidents, operations which 
the animal has undergone, or different diseases which have left apparent 
lesions. Let us give some examples. A horse one of whose articula- 
tions has been cauterized is blemished. A horse which presents en- 
largements around the hock is blemished. The same thing follows 
when blisters are applied to the walls of the thorax, and the hairs are 
not replaced at the place of their application. A horse which after 
having been bled has contracted an inflammation of the jugular vein, 
with a consecutive obliteration of the latter, is a blemished horse. 

Blemishes, as may be conceived, are of more or less gravity, and 
diminish, on that account, the value of the animal which }K)ssesses them. 
There are some to which no importance is attached. We will return 
to them in the examination of the regions. 

D. — Vices and Faults. 

These two expressions have not always the same meaning in the 
language of the exterior. In certain cases the word ince is synonymous 
with disease or defect, as is seen, for example, in tlie first article of the 



law of August 2, 1884, which tivata of the sale and exchange c 
doiiu>8tic animals. This law gives, in fact, the enumeration of all tl 
cic^^y fnulfit, or duserwe^ rcputed redhibitory, — that is to say, whi( 
iiuise a (unctJling of the sale or exchange. In other cases, vice reeul 
fn)m the bad character of the animal or from his imperfect eduo 
tion. A horse which bites, strikes, n^rs, and pulls backward withoi 
lx»ing indiutnl to do so, is a vicious horse. 

(lem^rally tliere exists a cvrtain gradation between via»8 and fault 
To the word vice is usually given the sense of a serious moral imperfe 
tion ; t4) the word faulty that of a slight moral imj>erfec*tion ; finally, i 
the wonl defcvty that of a physicral deficiency more or less siTious. M 
n'jK'at, howevcT, that these* three exprt»ssions are often employed in tl 
same s(»nse in ordinary language, although they an», as we have ju 
seen, quite ck'urly defined. 



Divisions. — Situat4'<l at the anterior extremitv of the trunk, tl 
head i-cpresents a n^sistauce placc<l at the extremity of the arm of 
lever formc<I by the ntx'k, — a resistance whose relative situation, on ai 
count of the exti'usive movements which it execut<*s, has a gna 
infiiieue<* in changing the ])osition of the centre of gravity. 

Studie<l as a whoh*, it pn*scnts for consideration /o7<r/cice«, a superu 
extrnnltif, continuous with the ne<*k, and an inferior , (xvupied by tl 
oral o]K'uing. 

tiicli one of tht»s<' primar}' <li visions is sulxlivided into a numb 
of regi«ms cnuineratiHl in Fig. It). 

Faces. — 1st. The anterior face pres(»nts successively, froi 

alM»ve t4) Ih'Iow, the forehead y the face or /jwr, and the extremity of 

2d and M. The lateral faces prc»sent the mr, the templey tl 
ttupra-ttrbit, the eye^ the mawderie retjioUy the eheek^y an<l the nostrils, 

4th. The posterior face offers the branches of the inferior ma: 
iVAi, the intennaxillnry H^taee, and th(» chin. 

5th. Inferior Extremity. — This is entinJy occupied by the tnouL 



which comprises several secondarj- r^ioDs, — namely, the lips, the fedA, 
the gfttma, the bars, the lingual canai, the tongue, and the paiaie. 

6th. Superior Elxtremity. — It ooraprises the stnicturcfl inter- 
mediary to the head and neck : above, the poll or nape; below, the 
throat or phanpigo-laryrigeal region ; on each side, the parotid r^on. 

Such are the different regions of the head, which we will examine 

L Month. 

8-fl. FW*. 

11. flnpTMTblt 


T. Porebead. 

U. TMDplciK 

1. Intarlorllp. 

i. Irferini maillta. 



>. Cheeb. 

U. PuoUdreglo 

4. EitremllT of (he now.* 

It. ThniM. 


U. HMk. 




A. — The Forehead. 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical BaiSe. — The forehead is 

that symmetrical n^gion which occupies the superior part of the ante- 
rior face of the head. It is limited above by the external occipiUu pro- 
tuberance and the }X)ll; below by the face; * on each side, passing from 
above to lx»low, by the ear, the templey the mipra-oHnty and the eye, it is 
|)artly concealed by a tuft of hairs, the forelock, floating over its surface. 

It has for itM 08tHH>UH baHis the anterior reflection of the occipital bone and 
the correi«|K)nding portions of the frontal and the parietal bones. On each side 
of the median line, where the frontal bone is directly covered by the integument, 
are the tem|M)ral foHsie, (x'cupied by the tem|K)ral muscles, separated from the 
skin by the external and internal temporo-auricularis muscles. Whatever may 
be the general form of the forehead, there always exists over the temporal fossse 
a convexity of variable volume which is due to these muscles ; for the remainder 
of its extent the regi<m is almost |)erfectly plane. 

This n*gion should In> examined in relation to its width and its 

The width of the fon^head is an absolute beauty. This is an 
inwmtestable fiw't u|)on which all are in accord, but to which authors 
have very oflen given false* interpretations. Most writers exert thera- 
rt(»lv(»8 14) demonstrute that this width is in relation with the intelligence, 
and deduce from this the indiiaticm of its Ix'autv. That this assertion 
may Ik» establishe^l it is n(X'«»ssary t<> pnive : 1st, that the width is in 
direct n^lation with the volume of the enoephalon ; 2d, that the volume 
of the latter is pn»])ortional to the development of the intelVu fence. 

Relative to the first |>ro|)osition, we should not forget that the 
fnmtal diameter dejM'nds u|h>i) the volume of the surrounding muscles 
as well a** \\\\im the amplitude of the frontal sinus<^, filleil with air 
and compris<Hl in the thi<'kness of the (>nuiial pariet^'s. We may even 
8up|)ose that in most instances it is the resultant of lx)th causes united, 
and, above all, of the latter, nither than of the actual cajMicity of the 
cranial i^vity. What, then, IxH^onKs of the interpretation given above ? 
Ix»t tlie Header draw his own conclusion. 

C'om«ming the second a»N*^^rtion, its explanation will be of but little 

1 On a line connecting Uie iotcmal canUii of the eyes. (Harger.) 


more oonseqiience. It is true that in the animal scale the development 
of the encephalon is in relation with that of the intelligence ; but we 
are not justified to conclude with the positive assertion, that in isolated 
individuals of the same species this relation is still constant. Con- 
tradictory observations against the argument are numerous in man, in 
whom the facts have been well studied. In the horse, such seem to be 
the facts by the concurrence of the authors who have adhered to this 
theory. Vallon ^ reports that at the great cavalry school at Saumur, 
where large numbers of vicious and unyielding horses from the army 
are sent, there are many which, compared with others, are not deficient 
in the transverse measurement of the forehead. The intdligence^ 
therefore, is not in constant relation with the mdih of this r^ion. 
Some subjects, without doubt, are more endowed with this faculty than 
others ; but it is a fact which can only be proved by following the 
animals in their future career. 

Among the Arabians the forehead is regarded as one of the four 
principal characteristics of the horse. This maxim is true, but for 
reasons very different from those which they have invoked. 

Again, the forehead should be wide because its transverse develop- 
ment indicates that of the temporal muscles and of the frontal sinuses, 
dependencies of the respiratory apparatus. Theoretically, a strong 
muscularity of a certain region is always an absolute beauty, for 
not only does it indicate a great aptitude for the execution of its par- 
ticular function, but it is also a sign of muscular puissance of the looo- 
motory system in general. For analogous reasons a spacious frontal 
sinus is to be sought, as the dimensions of one organ are proportional 
to those of the other organs in the same organic ap()aratus. From the 
principle that the function makes the organ it will follow that the 
more developed it be the more perfect will its function be. 

It is for this reason that spacious sinuses are an absolute beauty, 
and not, as Merche * thinks, because their objec^t is " the exaltation of 
the sense of smell." The olfactorv cells exist not in the mucous mem- 
brane of the sinuses, but in the pituitary membrane along the course 
of the first pair of encephalic nerves. 

In the young animal, as the foal and the colt, the forehead is very 
prominent, from the fact that the sinuses have not acquired the same 
capacity that they will have, from the absorption of bone, as the animal 
advances in age.' 

1 Vallon. Ooun d*hippologie, t i. p. 906. 

s Merche, Nouveau Traits des former exK^rieures du cheval, p. 15, Paris. 1868. 
* The verHcal diameter cf the fonhead is the distance between the external angle of the eye 
•nd the base of the corresponding ear; the trojiwerte diameter is the distance fh)m the base 


The direction of the forehead is closely related to the general 
form of the head, and varies with the race. It is draight when \is 
surface is rectilinear in every sense ; c(mcave when it is depressed in its 
inferior portion ; convex when the profile is arched from above to below. 
These diverse forms designate the head as square, fluty arched, or hare- 
fac€(L We will return to this ii propos of the general form of the head. 

Tlie form of the forehead is sometimes modified by the presence 
of small eminenc^es known under the nameof Aanw, from tlieir analogy 
with similar appendages observed on animals of the bovine sjjecies. 
The horses which present this anomaly are rare. They are called 
horned in ordinary language.^ 

We will study, in the article on the robes, the peculiarities relative 
to tlie color and dis]>ositi(m of the hairs of the forehead. 

and Blemishes. — The most common lesions of this region are 
eiecUrieeji unci ejcoriafiouM re«ultin^ from fulls, blows, and other traumatisms. 
Among other affW'tions m(»re rare and more serious are tuniefactious which result 
from diseases of the frontal sinusw. Sometimes cicatrices are situated on the 
middle or inferior part of it«« surface to either side of the median line, indicating 
that trepannimj lian l)ecn i)ractised, with a view of giving exit to pus contained in 
the sinus. When these are ol)si»rved, it is necessary to complete our examination 
by that of the nnsal mucous membrane and the submaxillary lymphatic ganglia, 
because an insidious purulent collection of the sinuses may be a complication of 

Merche,' following liourgelat and many others, mentions a fraud sometimes 
committcH.! by linrsc-<iealcr« attemptinjij to matt» horses intended lor sale. It con- 
sists in producing a white coloration in the region of the forehead by cauterizing 
the skin with a hot iron or with boiling water, etc. The hairs will soon become 
exfoliated and Ik* n^placcd by those of a white color. This artifice can be easily 
detected by the fact that in the centre there is a denuded sjmt around which the 
hairs are less numerous than in the surrounding j)art^. (I^)urgelat.) The proof of 
such ade<.'epti(m is much more detrimental to the rejmtation of those who employ 
it than to the value of the animals on wliich it is practise^!. 

B.— The Face or Nose (Fi^. 19). 
Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The face is a svm- 

metricjil rt»j;i<Mi sitiiat^Kl on the anterior surfiuv of tlic hcjul, limited 
above hv \\w fonhtad, Im*Iow l)y the vxfrniiity of the none, and on each 
side l)V the eyt\ i\w rhrtk^ an<l the noHtril, 

of one ear to Uial of ihf <»thor. Thrir ri'lntive development give** three cla««e« of foreheads: 
1. Brachyefphalic .H<|ii«n'-hea(liMl», wht-n tht- two raea«ureincm« are nearly or quite equal: it 
inclutleK the Aryan. Afritan. Irihh, kimI Kn^li>»li fshlre) homes; 2. Dolirhr>rrphalir (lon»r headed), 
when the vertical dianioter in in cxcev.. as in the lielgrian, Frisian, cierman.and renhen.>n races; 
8. Metocrphniif. which Is int4'rnie<llary lMiw«cn the two prece<linjf. (HurKor.) 

» A.Ooubaux, Note Mir le« chevaux corniw, in Comptea rendus de la .S»ci«.H<5 de Mologle, 

ltt2, p. '&. 

• llerche, Nouveau. Tralu'' de« fonnes ext^Jrieurea du chcval, p. 16. 


The bones entering into its formation are the nasal anteriorly, and 
the lachrymal, superior maxillary, and incisive laterally. Three pairs 
of muscles occupy the lateral moieties, — the supermaxillo-labialis,* 
supernaso-labialis,. and inferior palpebral or lachrymalis. 

The study of this region is very interesting, because it circum- 
scribes the nasal fossse, whose development is always in direct relation 
with tliat of die respiratory apparatus in general. A wide transverse 
diameter of the face is therefore its first condition of beauty as well as 
of utility. 

The face is divided into three r^ions, a middle and two lateral, 

1. Middle Region. — This must be studied as to its direction and 
its widtii. 

a. The direction or form of the face or nose gives to the head 
particular names. 

Thus, when it is straight or rectilinear from above to below, the 
head is called /a/ or square. When it is convex in the same sense, the 
head is designated as having a rani's nose or a Roman nose, if the con- 
vexity be limited to the face ; when the wjnvexitv extends to the fore- 
head as well as to the nose, the head is arched. Finally, when it is 
concave in the middle of its length, the head is likened to that of a 
rhinoceros, and is also called camel-nosed. 

The various forms may be congenital or a<*.quired. The latter are 
due to pressure on the nasal bones from the impn)per employment of 
the nose-band of the bridle or the halter. Fortimatelv, this do(^ not 
interfere with the capacity of the nasal fossae, which are as (apacious 
as in natural conditions. It will be othenvise, however, if this confor- 
mation be occasioned by fracture of the nasal bones, as we shall see 
further on. 

Although the straight form or square head is the most agreeable to 
the eye, the other forms of the face do not imply anything derogatory 
to the development of the respiratory apparatus. 

6. The width of the middle region can be easily determined by 
examining its anterior surface. The width is in all cases an index of 
the respiratory capacity, and should ha in projiortion to that of the fore- 
head to preserve the harmonious relation of the integral parts. We 
cannot oppose too strongly the erroneous tt^aching of some authors who 
r^;ard a c»onvex face, under the pretence that it is narrow, as a predis- 

> This miucle, covering the maxillary sinuses below the eye, can be easily outlined. Its 
external border Is sepMtrated from the maxillar>' spino. with which it is almost parallel, by a si>aco 
about twenty-five centimetres in width. This space should be selected for trepanning, so as not 
Co injure the muscle. (Harger.) 


posing cause of roaring. This aflTwtion (low not have its seat in the 
nasal iossie. Narrowness of the face is an al)solute defect. 

2. Lateral Regions. — The lateral divisions present but little of 
inijx^rtance. We will ol)serve, nevertheless, that thev do not present 
altogt^ther the same wmformation at diffeixnit periods of the animal's 
life. Thus, they are more prominent in young horses, because the 
molar te<»th aiv mon» dcH»ply implantcil into the alveoli' of the superior 
maxilla ; as age advances and tlu» t<»eth are irontinually worn, the latter 
are pnslK»d from their s<K*k(»ts, and these* regions apjxnr more ccmcave. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — The bleinUhi^ of the face are : 

1. Deformities ooiiHCHiuent to fracture of the nai^il Inmes from traumatismB 
received l)v the parieti*** of this region. Thene fractures are rare, not only because 
the l)ones theiiiwlvw |MiH8es8 a nuirkcKl degree of resistance, but also because the 
elasticity of the air contained in the nasal fossie to a great extent breaks the 
momentum of blows receiviHl ujxm their surface. Nevertheless there is danger 
of pnKiucing, either by the displacement of the bones or the consequent forma- 
tion of a callus, a sericms obst^ide to tlie free passage of the air during ordi- 
nar\' respirati<m ami particularly during exercise. Other deformities may exist 
upon the lateral parietw of the face. These are tumefaction* which result fmm a 
chnmic lesion of the nmcous membrane of the maxillary sinuses, due to necrosis 
of a t<K>th or other alterations of a diverse nature, whose gravity varies with the 

2. Traces of Cauterization. — At the pn»sent time cauterization of the face 
is sehlom practiswl. The A rain employiMl it in the treatment of strangles and 
benign at!*ecti<»ns of the su|M>rior rt»spinitory pitssagi^s. With these exceptions, 
such blemishes indicate that the animal has lu'cn or is still suffering from a 
grave dis*»asi» of the Uiisal cavities. 

3. Cicatrices which are tlie rt^suit of traumatisms, excftriafioftM, or thicken- 
iuffn of the skin caus4'<l !)y the halter or bridle ; finally, cicatrices of an angular 
or semicircular sha|H*, arou^^ing the suspicion that the maxillary sinuses have 
biH'n tn'phine<l. Tluve hist are situated witliin the maxillary spine towards the 
internal angle of the eye. 

When any of the blemish«'> emiinerat<'d are present, it is nec(.»ssary to com- 
plete our examination by a niinut<' inspertiori of the nasal sinusi*s, the molar 
tetHh, and the submaxillary lymphatic ^an^lia. 

C— Extremity of the Nose (P'iir 10.) 
Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The extremity of 

tin* nc»s4' is sitimte<l at the inferior extreinitv <d' the face, U'tween the 
nostrils and alM>ve the sn]MTi<)r lip. 

Anatomically it ccmipris<»<* for its bast* tin* anterior extri'inity of the srptum 
nasi and tlie comma-sha|HHl cartilages whicli furirrle the internal 'il.-r of the 
nostrils. The external face of the latter i.** i-overe<l by the transv« rsalis n:isi 
nia*<ok\ which is se)>arated on the me<lian line from the fine intetruinent ot thiH 
n»gion by the terminal tendon of the !n:i\illo-l:0»i:ili«< iimw<'U> 


All authors who have described this region have confounded it with 
the superior lip, whose organization is entirely different. They have, 
therefore, erred anatomimlly in saying that it has an extensive nerve- 
supply, and physiologically none the less seriously in considering it as 
the principal organ of touch in the horse. The superior lip fulfils the 
latter r6le. It follows from this that we will describe neither beauty 
nor defect of tliis r^ion, excepting that it should be large as an index 
of the respiratory functions. 

It is more important to assure ourselves that it is exempt from blemishes. 
When they exist, they are nearly always the result of falls which the animal has 
received. It is necessary, then, to examine with care the state of the incisor 
teeth, the lips, the gums, and the plumb-line of the extremities, to determine as 
nearly as possible whether the blemishes resulted from an accident or from a 
weakness of the fore limbs, the effect of usage. They are never produced by the 
application of the twitch, — a means of torture employed to divert the attention 
of the animal, and which can only be placed ui>on the superior lip, whatever 
precaution in this respect be taken. 



A.— The Ear (Fig. 19). 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The ear is situated 

at the superior extremity of the lateral face of the head, to one side 
of the forehead and the dependency of the mane known under the 
name of forelocky in front of the poU, above the parotid gland and 
behind the temple. 

Anatomically, this region is easily visible, and has for its base the 
eonchal and scutiform cartilages. These give attacJiment to ten pairs 
of muscles which endow the ear with movements either general or 
partial. The former carry it backward, outward, forward, inward, 
and rotate it on its adipose cushion. The latter (mastoido-auricularis) 
are destined to move the concha so as to adjust the volume of air in 
the auditory chamber (hiatus) to sounds of different intensities. 

Diverse beauties are recognized in this organ which are depend- 
ent upon its length, thickness, situation, direction, and movements. 

1. Lengfth. — As Bourgclat has remarked, some prefer a long ear, 


others a short one. He adds^ with much prudence, that good judgment 
does not approve of an excess of length, and that this organ, being an 
integral jiart of the head, should be in proportion with it. It is a fact 
worthy of remark, that horses in which they are short are usually 
energetic and courageous. We must also add that small ears diminish 
the apparent size of the head, n^nder the physiognomy more pleasant 
and exprt'sisive, and brighten the eye. In this respect the Aryan horse 
has greatly influenced the English thoroughbred ; the Boulonnais, the 
Flemish ; the Irish, the PtTclieron, etc. 

2. Thickness. — The thickness of the ear denotes the quality 
of the race and of the subjei't. This is indicated by st^veral other 
organs wliich in additicm reveal clearly his origin. When the skin of 
the concilia is thick, and garnished on tlie inside with numerous long 
hairs, when the subcutaneous connective tissue is abundant and obliter- 
dt4»s tlic 1)1o<k1-v(*ssc1s and nerves, we have evidemx^s that the subjec^t is 
common and lymphatic. A concha small, firm, and elastic, covered 
by a skin fine* and adherent, with flue and scanty hail's in the interior, 
and blood-vessels well outlined, chanicterizes an animal of distin- 
guislieil auctstrv. This is so well known to horst^-merchants that tliey 
never fail to tam|KT with the haii*s of the c^ars of cx^mmon horses in 
arranging their toilet prior to offering them for side. 

*\. Situation. — The situation of the ear merits consideration. 
Its distan(t' to one side of the n)e<lian line, though de|x»ndent in part 
U|)on the development of the muscles of this region, allows us to appre- 
ciate, to a ceiiaiu degrcM', the width of the cranial ciivity. If this 
s(»|>arjition gives mon* expression to the head and presages greater intel- 
ligence, it is nevertheless n(H«<»ssarv to guanl ourselves agjiinst an error 
of which we have sj)oken, in acconling to this character more impor- 
tance than it des4TV(^. The siinie argument applies to ears situated too 
high ; they have an unplciisjuit effeet on the eye and are ollen an index 
of a timid and sulky dis|)osition. 

4. Direction and Movements. — It is (Hinsidenil a mark of 

l)eautv if a hoi>4<» freelv dinx-ts his eiu*s to an anti:le of alwMit fortv- 
five di'gnH's with the axis of the head. It is thus that they present 
tliems4*lv(»s in active an<l mergetie sul»j(^*ts: if, Ix'sides, they are short 
and well phutHl, they an* dcsignatiHl as hold or cunniiir/, 

Onlinarilv thev are niov^nl in various <lire<'tions to receive sound- 
waves, by m<>:ins of whieh tli<* animal obtains a direct knowUxlge of 
ivrtain c<»nditions of the exterior. Animals in whieh the ears are 
moti<mle88 an» sluggish and indohnt or, what is more serious, suffer 
from a variable dt^grec* of de-aiiu-ss. 


Let US refer to certain movements which have not been considered. 
These are forward and backward oscillations of the ears of some horses 
during work, and particularly during laborious efforts. At each step 
or at each effort the animal carries the ears quickly forward, then back- 
ward to their primitive position, and repeats this action during the con- 
tinuance of the work. We know of no appropriate expression to 
qualify these singular oscillations. 

En risumSy the ear is beautiful when it is short, directed forward, 
well situated, clean, fine, covered by a thin and adherent skin, with few 
hairs in the interior of the concha. 

Defects. — Ears long, thick, and transversely horizontal designate 
a horse as being lop-eared. This ungraceful carriage does not neces- 
sarily detract from the good qualities of the animal. There are many 
lop-eared horses none the less excellent for service. Nevertheless this 
defect is more common in lymphatic horses than in those of the finer 

We speak also of horses whose ears are held in a horizontal di- 
rection and undergo, during locomotion, alternate elevations and de- 
pressions. It has been said of such, more picturescjuely than properly, 
that they limp at the ear. This peculiarity may exist on the right, on 
the left, or on both sides simultaneously. 

When tlie ear is thick, large, and decidedly pendulous, overhanging 
tlie parotid region, it is called incine-ear. This defect is no more grave 
than the preceding, but it is more unpleasant to the eye. 

The ears are restless or unceiiain when the animal keeps them 
in continual motion in the stable as well as during exercise. This is 
an evidence of a timid nature, imjmired vision, or even total blindness. 
It seems tliat in the last two instances, as H. Bouley ^ has said, the 
animal endeavors to compensate for the loss of vision by turning the 
auditory apparatus in various directions ; he endeavors to see by the 
sense of hearing. 

In the language of horsemen, horses are skittish if they worry and 
fret at the noise when they are driven into such or such a place in 
the stable or made to execute certain movements ; it is often remarkable. 

Finally, some horses carry the ears backward against the superior 
border of the neck. It is evidence of a l)ad dis[)osition and an inclina- 
tion to strike or bite when approached. 

Blemishes. — The blemishes of this region are numerous. 

1st. It is quite common to observe draught-horses whose ears are 

> H. Bouluy, Maisou nistique, t. ii. p. 196. 



lacercUed. They may becx)me deformed, thickened, and acquire a fault} 
direction. Fractures of the conchal cartilage result ordinarily froir 
blows inflicted by brutal drivers ; they have no serious consequences. 

2d. At the prest»nt time horses with the earn cropped in the middk 
of their length are almost unknown. We have met with only twc 
instancies. It appears, however, that this was the custom during the 
last century. Horses which had undergone this ojx?ration were called 
crop^arefL If at the same time the tail had been amputated, thoy 
were designat<Kl by the term disked (J. B. Huzard). Vallon ^ reporb 
that this mutilation was formerly common in Algeria, and was em- 
ploywl by the Aral)iaiis in their military expeditions to establish proofi 
of ownership. Under other circumstances, amputation of the ears \i 
sometim(»s etfcH'tiKl by the application of the twit<*h, most often b) 
bnital farriers, upon hors(»s difficult to shoe or to dress. It will not hi 
difficult to convimt* the rc»ader of the danger which the emj)loymen1 
of such pHKiilurc^s may occasion. 

»*kl. It is not h^s rare to meet horses whose ears are split Thii 
incision was made u|k)u the left ear of cavalry horses under eight yean 
of agi», dis<*hargiHl from the Fn^nch army. The purchasers did no 
delay to unite the two fla|)s. When the incision had existed for a lonj 
time, they fr(»shc<l the e<lg(»s with a cutting instrument and united 
them. Xotliing mon» than a cicatrix jK'rsistcd afterAvards, which wa 
often wmcealiHl bv the hairs. 

In Algt»ria, says Vallon,' as in the states of the Mussulmans, it L 
the custom under c<'rtain circumstances to split the i»ars of colts. W< 
cjm then' fore pun'has<', without fear, such horses as have lx»en subjectec 
to the o|H»ration. This is also practisiKl on the Western prairies of th< 
ITnitixl Statics as a brand of ownership. 

4th. We s<>metim(\s (»l)s<Tve at the IwLse of the ear denudations o; 
circiJar cicatrices which nsult from the re|x»atc<l a))plicati()n of th< 
twitch to this n»gion. It is to Ix* fearc<l, then, that the animal ha 
Ihm'u treat<'d for a dis<»asi» of long standing which rc<piirc<l n»|>eate€ 
dn'ssing, or that he is difficult to shiK', hanu^ss, etc. Certain horse 
during the summer, as s4M>n as they In'gin to |)i»rspirc, cxperieno 
violent itching in the interior of the ear, which cjiiis<'s disordere< 
m<»vements of the hnul. Cleanliness, hygienic prtH-juitions, and de 
tersive lotions are the renn'<li«*s for the affi*<'tion. 

I>»t us now consider the fraudulent means employ(Kl to hide th< 
deflects and blemislu^ of this region. 

> Vallon. Couni d'hippolugie. t. i. p. 317. 



Ist. The simplest and most harmless among them consists in clip- 
ping the hairs of the ears. In this part of the animal^s toilet^ the 
dealer carefully cuts the long and abundant hairs which exist in a 
normal state at the entrance of the concha and which act undoubtedly 
as organs of protection to the auditory apparatus. These hairs are less 
abundant in horses of the finer races^ as stated above. It is also in- 
tended by this procedure to give lightness to the head^ fineness to the 
ear, and distinction to the animal, characteristics which do not belong 
to common horses. This fraud — for it is a procedure whose object is 
to deceive the buyer as to the real qualities of the merchandise which 
is offered — is not easily detected except by those who are experienced 
with horses. This is so generally resorted to that certain dealers, very 
honest otherwise, are unwilling to expose horses for sale unless they 
have been thus prepared. When questioned as to this practice, they 
respond that, the parts being cleansed with difficulty, the removal of 
the hairs renders this more easy. We often find on the internal sur- 
face of the concha a thick layer of sebaceous matter — cerumen — which 
becomes irritating, provokes pruritus during the summer, and, at the 
same time, attracts insects. This material is most abundant in horses 
whose sanitary conditions are neglected. Particles of fodder and 
atmospheric dust will adhere to it, against the invasion of which the 
hairs thus shortened can offer no obstruction. In the army this custom 
has been abolished. 

2d. Another common means is the use of a hood, under the pre- 
tence of protection from insects. It should always l)e removed, as it 
may hide the marks of the twitch, for example, if it be difficult to 
shoe or harness the animal ; or, again, a leaden Imll suspended by a 
thread and placed in the interior of the ear to quiet nervous subjects. 

3d. When the ears are long and pendulous they can be made, by 
horsemen, to assume a good direction by means of a silk thread which 
is covered by the hairs of the forelock. Being thus adducted towards 
the median line, they may entirely hide this defect. 

4th. Certain operations were formerly practised upon these organs, 
whose effect was to straighten them. They are not employed at the 
present time, but have been abandoned, not because of a moral view, 
but because they are recognized as being dangerous and inefficient It 
is not rare to see horsemen attempt to shorten the ears by means of the 
ear-cutter. This instrument is a sort of mould composed of two lateral 
halves, into which the concha is received. Whatever projects beyond 
the edges of the instniment is carefully removed with a bistoury. 

We have not included deafness among the defects of the ear because 



this infirmity' is often diiScult of appreciation^ although it may oceasioi 
great inconveniences in animals which are governed by the voice of 
their master. 

As M. Richard * remarks, in deaf horses the ears are generally 
fixed, directed forward or laterally, vainly endeavoring to perceive 
sound. This attitude, by it8elf alone, does not jwrmit us to reoognia 
this defect at tlie time of sale. In most instances it passes unperoeived 
and is onlv obstTve<l after the animal has IxH^n worked for some time 
Deaf horst»s are onlinarily docile, lH)th in harness and in the stable, anc 
resjxmd quickly to all the indications of the bridle and bit. Th< 
Arabians, with ahnost self-love for their horses, urge tliem with th< 
voict* as well as with the hand, and reject those which are deaf ai 
lx»ing fit only for the i)a<'k-saddie, and of little value as saddle-horses 
Neverthel(»ss, it is more prejudicial in draught-horses. Those that an 
mounted an' more eiusiiy guided by tlie ac*tion of the bridle. 

B.— The Temple (Fig. 19). 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — This is a doubI< 

n'gion, mon' <»r less |)r(»niinent, situated on the lateral faces of th< 
hejul. It has for its anatouiicsil Iklsi' the exterior of the temporo- 

uiaxillar\' articulation, aud is limit<Hl Ix'low bv the cheelc. l)ehind bv th< 

» . ' . 

IHinAitI nylon, aud iu ihmi and al)<)ve mon' or less dinn^tly by the ear 
the <7/r, and the supra-^trhif. 

The principal qiialifii'iitions which we se(»k here arv its distinct- 
ness and its freedom from blemishes. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — Drnmfofiofnt, ewroriafionitf and woumU of thii 
rejri<»n <l«»!*<'rvc to \w takfii into consideration. The first are the result of frictioi 
fn»ni <lifMirdcred niovenient.H of the head, as in animals tossinp themselves ahou 
when surterinjf from colic, verti^^o, epih'jwy, or jrrave diseai*!^ of the feet, whei 
the uninial ji.H.Mimes a f)rolon^ed deeubitus, eto. The .second, on the contrary, an 
the cons4'<|uenr<'s of severer causes, its traumatisms of various kinds, which maj 
primarily or s<M'ondarily open tlie articulation, allow the escai)e of the synovia! 
fluid. an<l pHniuce a H«*tula. The hu*t accident is serious, the horse beinj? uuabh 
to nuisticate his aliment jiroju rly on aceount of the pain which the movement! 
of the jaws prcKluce.' It i** not astonishin<; that an affection of such a natun 
might Ik* ccmcealed hy a h(MKl which covers the ears to protect their interioi 
fn)m foreign lMMli(»s and insects. At any rate, the animal should always be un< 
covenni during the (>xaminati<»n, and such an alteration of the temple shoulc 
never eHcai)e the attention of the olwerver. 

> Richard, foude du chcval, 6e (^1., p. fiT). 
* A. Gouk>4UX, Comptes-Renduii de USoci^t^ v(^rinalre (s^nce du 27 avril. 1876). 


This is the region in which the first white hairs, common in old horses of a 
dark color, make their appearance. It is to be remembered, however, that we 
may find gray temples in younger horses as well as in colts and foals. 

C. — The Supra-orbit and Eyebrows (Pig. 19). 

Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — ^The supra-orbit 
is an asymmetrical depression situated above the eye, on the side of 
the forehead, and above the cheek and the temple. 

This r^ion, which corresponds to the most superficial part of the 
temporal fossa, is filled with a mass of adipose tissue more or less 
abundant. It indicates nothing as to the quality of the animal, but 
it permits us to make an approximate inference of his age. It is 
a well-known fact that in old horses the supra-orbits become hollow 
from the absorption of the fat which in the young animal completely 
occludes them. This fact is not so constant that very much im- 
portance can be attached to it. 

Although the first condition does not lessen the real value of the 
animal, horse-merchants, in order to obliterate these cavities when 
empty, have endeavored to fill them by a very simple method which, 
in the majority of cases, occasions no inconvenience. It consists in 
making a deep puncture into the region with a large needle or the 
sharp blade of a knife until tlie connective tissue of the temporal fossa 
is reached. Having made the incision, the mouth is applied over the 
opening and the connective tissue is forcibly inflated with air. (A 
hollow needle would be more expeditious.) We have seen one instance 
in which an abscess complicated this operation. 

To detect this deception, it is only necessary to make pressure with 
the fingers over the region, which will produce crepitation due to the 
passage of the air through the connective tissue. 

Some authors have admitted a region of the eyebrows. Huzard 
the elder and Merche have absolutely denied their existence. Lecoq * 
refhtes with good reason the latter opinion by remarking that in the 
foetus the arches of the eyebrows are visible, in a very distinct manner, 
a little before the remainder of the body is covered with hairs. Later, 
they are confounded with the surrounding parts and lose, for this reason, 
all interest from a point of view of the exterior. We will not dwell 
any longer on this point. 

1 F. Lecoq. Ext6rieur du cheyal, 4e M., p. 215. 



D.— The Eye (Fig. 20 and Fig. 23). 

Situation ; Limits. — The eye constitutes a double region situ- 
at«l upon the lateral planes of the head, above the che^k and the face^ 
Ik»1ow the Hupra-orhitj and on each side of the forehead, 

Anatomicctl Ba43e. — The essential part of the visual apparaUu 
consists of a membranous sphere called the ocular globe, transparent 
in front, whose int^'rior is lined by a nervous membrane^ the retina^ 
sensitive onlv to luminous ravs. 

It is protected over its greater extent by a deep osseous cavity, th< 
orbital cavity, to the lK)ttom of which it is fixed ; in front also bj 
two mobile curtains, the eyelifh, which complete the orbit in front and 
regulate' the quantity of light which should Ix^ admitted into its inte- 
rior. Ten jiairs of nuiscles endow it with various movements ; finally, 
s])e(*ial organs of a glandular nature lubricate its anterior sur&oe and 
prottH-t it fn)m the constantly dwicxtiting influence of the atmosphere 
Such, in a general way, is the organization of the ocular region. 

iHt. Bssential Orcrans of Vision, or the Globe of the Bye. — ^This ii 
a membranouH oiivel(>iK% completely oUmed, whoso interior is filled with trmiii< 
imrent HulMtanoiii of a variable denHity, kn<»wn under the generic name of thi 
metiia of the eye. 

This 8ac, most hul^injr in front, is eonstitute<l here by a transparent, thick 
and resisting expansion, the lurUl mnua, covering <me-fifth of its peripheric but 
face. Posteriorly it is conii>ostMl of three layers, to which are assigned differeni 
fiinctions. These are, pnn-cH'ding fn>m without to within : 

a. The sclerotic (1). white, sometimes pigmented, fibrous, resisting, anc 
thick, which is vulgarly often known under the name of the white of the eye 
and which is visible from the exterior by its white coloration around the periph- 
er>' of the I'ornea whenever the eyelids are separatiKi from each other. Its ex 
temal surface givt»s attachmt^nt to the motor muscles of the eye-globe. Iti 
anterior elliptical o|)ening is clostnl by the cornea by l)evelled edges after th< 
manner of the cr>'stal fitting into the case of a watch. 

b. The choroid (2). very tiiiii, black, not visible from the exterior, whicb 
plays the rufr of an al>s4»rbing surface for an excess of luminous rays, and con- 
verti* the interior of tin* eye into a veritable dark chamber, into which the 
images of external objt»<-t^ are received to be aj)preciatetl by the retina. 

This membrane, in fn)nt, where it is railed the rif'mnj tHnhj, presents numer- 
ous raiiiating fohK the ri/inn/ prott^fji, which rinumscribe the e(ig(»s of the cry*^ 
talHne lenn (7). Through the riiinnj I'njnmtut it givfs attachment to the circum 
ferencc of the irM(4). an ellijitical <liaphragni j»ierred in its centre by an o[>ening 

the />My/// (•'»). 

The iris and the pupil are visible through the transi)arent cornea. Th< 
former divides* the space anterior to the <rystalline U-ns— //«^^rfor rhumher — int< 
two communicating compartments, an anfrrlor («) and a po^^ftrhr (S^ practically 
obliterate<i. Thecolorati<mof iu* anterior face is of a yellowisli-bnmn. but it umj 
vary in different subjects; that of the jMHterior, on the contrary, is l^lack, due U 


the preaeace of pigment called the " uvea," variable masses of which, called " cor- 
pora nign," or " soot-balla," ' are sometimee suspended from its edge into the 
pupillary opeaing. 

terlor mmpartinvnl of the ej'c. with the vlireous humor; in, iKiilar shealh : II, taml c&niligei; 
U, Integument of the eyelids; 13, conjuncllva; 14. section of the small oblique muerle; IS, Inch- 
rymat gluid; 16, comes: IT, ttansvctse section of the bupeiior half of the oftiirularle muarle; 
IS.pnMeHor nnilght muscle: 19 superior Mntlghl muxle: SO, elevator at (he superior eyeliil; 
21, Kcllon of the orbital arch: 2!, optic nerve: 23. traiiarerae section of (he Inrerior moiety of the 
it muscle : 24. reclion of the floor of the orblL 

e. The retina (6), Iran^piirent, very Ihin and delicate, adherent to the chnmid 
And its dependencies, which is an expansion of the optic nerve, and upon which 
the impressions of U^ht are directly perceived. 

Media of Reftaotion.— a. OirstaUine Lens (7),— This is a bi-convex. 


tramp&rent ' organ, more convex on its poeterior face, and appears behind t 
pupil. It u cl<wely a]iplied againRt the potterior face of the iris, and dividea t 
inUriur of the oye into two great rompartmriitit, an anterior (5) and a potterior ( 

b. VltreotiB Humor (9).^It i» a tnin»(iarent, limpid, and gelatinoua bu 
atance which o<M;u]>ie8 the whole of the posterior chamber. 

e. Aqueoua Humor (8). — The aqueous humor, slightly more den 
than water, OL-cupira the anterior i;hamber (8 and 8') of the eye. It hatha bo 
Hurfai'w of the irli). It in under external ae well aa internal pressure, and read! 
escapw when the cornea in perforated. 

The function of these three media of the eye ia to concentrate the rays 
light, by refraction, upon the surface of the retina, where they make an ima( 
The lens, being more I'onvex behind than in front, converges them for tl 
reason and brings them to a. focus on the anterior surface of the retina. 1 
relative position iH thuH necovitated by this function i if too distant from t 
retina, the imago is formed anterior tv the lattor and is not perceived by tL 
membrane; if too close, the rays converge p<k>terior l4i the retina and the ima 
really would tend to be formed outside of the ocular globe and again is n 
appreciated liy lliis structure. 

2d. Proteotlve Or^aua of the Bye-Qlobe.— These include the orbit 
oavity, the eyelida, and the ntotitaiiB membrane, 

(I. The orbital oavlty is a conii'itl, deep cavity, nurrounded by a fibro'-osseo 
wall with an omeuus opening in front. Its parietes are formed by the orui 
thtnth (ID), conical and rusiKting, attacheil behind ti> the erect of the orbital hiab 
whoHe base is attached tu the orbital opening and thence prolonged into t 
eyelids, whose base they i-otlstitulo. 8uj>eriorly, the eye is only protected by ti 
adipose cushion which forms the l)ase of the supra-orbital r^on. Intemal 
ami inferioriy, the orbital cavity is osseous. The ojtening of the orbital cavi 
is circumscribed by the orbital proems of the frontal bone (21) and a portion i 
the lachrymal and zygomatic Ixmes (S4). We also lind on its floor and towar 
the internal side the lachrymal foHsa and the superior orifice of the canal of t 
same name. 

b. The eyelids, ilistinguiiihed as tupfriw and inferior, are two mobile mi 
culo- mem lira nous valvtw which protect the part of the eyeball exposed to t 
exterior. Their free border, more curveii in the superior than in the inferii 
pr(««.>nts the i-xcretorv oriRces of the Meilxmiiun glamU as well as a series of tc 
tiK'ulur huit)> lunger a)H>ve than below, known under the name of fi/flnshes. T 
eyelidi' ulTcr. U-siden, two ciHniiiiiwHri's or angles. — ti Iria/itiral or external, and 
unmtl or internal. 

The rj-teriml /nc< is ,-ovcr.-.l by an ii.Ib.-ri-nt (12) d.-llcate skin provided wi 
minicMus short hairv. Tht- ii,ler„.,l /ai-f mouldnl on the eye-globe is covered 
a di'lii'iiic iiiLii'ou* lui'mbriim' — tlic •iininiii-li'ui (|:i) — which in verv sensitive 
foreign UA\,f. The I'r.njiiiicliva in tli.- Iicollliy .uiimal is of a timy <rolor ai 
iMtMini-s ri'llcclnl over tlu' choroid and tlit' nictitan)> membrane, and is pi 
long.'.! into the Iiuhrynia! niniil, II Wcim.'s iit the f\fn- of the com 
and ilx epithelial tavcr ulonc cr.viTx th;it sinictnre. Al the fn-e Ixirder of t 
eyelid* exists a cartihiginoitx lamina calhil the Uir-iit. on wbi<'h the extremity 
the iK-ulur ^hi'atli Icrniiiiati-:-, 

riui|>iitt<ifllwuhurulil. illai|i)'r.) 


The Meibomian glands, embedded in the deep face of the tarsus, secrete a 
sebaceous matter which prevents the escape of the tears in a normal state and 
obliges them to follow the natural passages in reaching the exterior. 

The orbicularis palpebral muscle approximates the two lids and the levator 
paipebra elevates the superior ; the inferior is depressed by its own weight. 

c. The membrana niotitajis, or third eyelid (haw), is a nucleus of very 
mobile cartilage surrounded by adipose and connective tissue and the conjunc- 
tiva, situated at the internal can thus of the eye. It becomes continuous with 
the adipose tissue enveloping the ocular musdes. It has no inherent movements 
of its own, but mechanically protrudes when the eye is compressed, and liberates 
the latter from foreign bodies. It glides over the sur&ce of the cornea when the 
eye is retracted into its orbit, and can be easily rendered visible when the globe 
is compressed and drawn into the bottom of the ocular cavity. 

3d. Apparatus of Lubrication of the Bye. — ^This apparatus com- 
prises the lachrymal gland (15), situated between the orbital process of the 
frontal bone and the eyeball. It secretes the tears. These are distributed over 
the surface of the cornea by the hygrophthalmic canals, which open on the inner 
surface of the superior eyelid towards its temporal angle, and thence they gain 
the nasal commissure, where they open through the punda lachrymaiia into the 
lachrymal ducts. A small tubercle, the caruncula lachrymcUiSj a dependency 
of the conjunctiva occupying the inner angle of the eye, directs them towards 
these two conduits, whence they pass successively through the lachrymal sac and 
the lachrymal canal to make their exit through the orifice on the floor of the 
n<istril, where they are liberated on the exterior. 

4th. Apparatus of Locomotion. — ^The movements of the eye areprotec- 
tire and functional. The former have for their object the mechanical protrusion 
of the nictitans membrane upon the ocular surface by retracting the eye into 
the bottom of its orbit. It is accomplished by the posterior rectus muscle. The 
latter elevate, depress, deviate laterally, rotate the eye, and control the size of the 
pupillary opening of the iris to regulate the quantity of light which enters the 
eye. Elevation, depression, and lateral inclination of the eye-globe are executed 
by the contraction of the superior, inferior, external, and internal recti muscles ; 
rotation, by the superior and inferior obliques, muscles which are physiological 
antagonists. These muscles are inserted posteriority into the bottom orbital 
hiatus and anteriorily on the external surface of the sclerotic. Their anterior 
ini«ertion can be exposed by making lateral traction on the eye-globe with a 

Method of Procedure in the Examination of the Eye. — 

I»ng ago, Bourgelat * had (*lc?arly indicated the precautions to be taken 
in executing snch an examination skilfully. It is, perhaps, needless 
to recommend that the head should be divested of all harness, more 
particularly of blinkers, and that the surroundings should be such as 
not to obstruct the view or communicate abnormal reflections to the 
eve. The head is turned towards the entrance of the stable, and the 
eye is carefully inspected in semi-daylight to observe any pathological 

> C. Bourgelat, TraiU^ do la conformaUon ext^rieure du cheval, 5e 4d., p. 57. 



^tomdonfi. For thb purpose the ophthalmoecope may Bonietimes b 
used with advantage. Then the animal is taken into broad dayligl 
to see how the eye acta under tlie influence of the solar rays. To d< 
tcrminc simply the integrity of vision the following procedure is pui 

Kxtunlnttlcin of thepjre. 

sued : The nlijK'nTr plac)-!* hirartdf in fnmt of the iniimal, strikes tl 
side of the i'tut' lightly with tin- liaiiil, and suddenly withdraws it 
elevating it to a li'vcl with tin- iiirrcsiK)ndinji; eye. The lutt<'r, if visi( 
is not imjmii'iil, will suddenly rlin*c from f(«r of Ix'ing struck. If tl 
sight IS iniiHiircil or lust, the cyi'lids remain stationani'. Thiii manreuv 
is n'[»eat<<i with the opjxisito eye. Tlie nmvemcnt-' of the hand mil 
nnt be too fiircildc, as exct-ssive vibration of the air may even aflFect 
Uind eye, jiarticularly in one-eyed horses. If it be desired to exomii 


the conjunctiva, the nictitanous membrane, the lachrymal carunde, the 
media, etc., with more care, and the eyelids are not sufficiently sep- 
arated, the following manipnUtion is employed (Fig. 21 and Fig. 22) : 
Having quieted the animal, one hand is placed upon the &ce to pre- 

Pio. 22.— EzunlDallon of Ibe efs. 

vent his advancing, or upon the inferior lip, if the head be held too low. 
Then, with the thumb and index finger of the free hand, the eyelids 
are separated and the eye-globe is compressed into the orbital cavity. 
The nictitans will then protrude and expose a lai^ area of the con- 
junctiva, and render pathological growths or foreign bodies visible. 

Beauties of the Eye.— Whatever may be the physiological 
integrity of the eye, ita absolute beauty resides in the following 
phenomena : 

1. Its ^^raiion from the median Une, which coincides with a wide 
fi>rebead and a wide nose. 

2. Its dtgrw oj prtnainmoe over the surrounding r^ons, which 



iaduntps a fiilnens of the ocular cavity and the temjMiral fossa, the si] 
and ilcvelopnient of the miisc-ular t!ystem in general, and the amplitud 
of the field of vision. 

;j. \ts jurfect e<iwilUg witli that of the opposite side. 
4. Its iteep coloration and the hUenitiii/ of ilx rrjttvtloii, a white t 
pale coh)r hehig symptoniatii^ of nior*.' or less serious diseases. 

o. ItA freedom from bleminhen of the cornea and the Iraiutpareney a 
the metlia. Alteration in these always manifests itself by an opocit 
and the 8pj>earance o 
"^ abnormal ooloration 

whenee results a var 
able (hyree of impel 
nicability to light. 

fi. The ejieni «ii 
quirkneiui of the mov 
meiif" of the iVm, in 
mobility tntlicatin 
complete iiisensibilil 
of the retina to the in 
pressions of liiminoi 
vibrations. The pup 
should contract in tl 
jirescn<'e of light, an 
dilate in darkness, i 
order to ]>n>]K>rtion ii 
retinal sensibility to the fimi-tionul ilclitney of this uicmbranc. 

7. A mnni miirixilit ';/" //"■ i-nrnni, too iiuich or too little charaete 
ii:in^ a myojiic. ii liy|M'rnu-tropic, utiil not a normal eye. 

H. The U'l'-k i-'iloriitiort if the jiuiii'/, which denotes a jjerfect tran 
pnrcn<-y ..f the <Ty!<t«llinc jfns. ami iitdic](t<s the reflwlion of the blat 
of the <'hon>id and the <i)iary Ixxly sitnatiHl Inhind. 

niv of fi/rmixhr^, and mMlity of t 
oiyims iniliciitint; imix'rtirtiuns ai] 


it. The inl'-ifntii, liiini'-K 
ei/rliilH, all other unaliti.-s ol 
fnnetioiiiil !m|Niirriient. 

lU. A r'H'i/ Hut ofllf •■„ 
tion lieiii^r syiiipt'unutii' of 
conpftiv<' state, or nf pnifonnd oi^rjinK- debility. 

11. The ,-l.:,rn.-^H a,„l llltir a/,u,„l,u.rr of the Imr^, the drynt 
of the rtfrli'ln, the lan/e ili-rrh/iiin-iil and </"'"' iH'-ei-lion if ihe ey 

12. Finally, the rinteilii, .■hniujr„hienv->H, ami f,-iinkne«n of the c: 

•<i. its rKbiess, |Kileness, and intiltr 
•ill or hKii! IntiammalorA- state, of 


pression^ which denote the energy^ the nobleness^ and the distinction 
of the horse. 

Such are the numerous beauties sought for in this region. 

Defects. — The defects of the eye are not less important to 
consider. We mention : 

1. The mnall eye, or pig's eye, in which the ocular globe is littl« 
developed, the palpebral opening narrow, and the eyelids thick. It 
accompanies, in general, a lymphatic temperament and a common an- 
cestry. It is said to be an index of a predisposition to diseases of this 

2. The concealed eye, ordinarily small and but little salient, but 
surmounted by a prominent and voluminous eyelid which partly con- 
ceals it, implies a sullen and treacherous disposition and a natural 

3. The bovine eye, or gross eye, characterized by an excessive con- 
vexity of the cornea, is very salient between the eyelids, little mobile, 
ungraceful, and without expression. It is often predisjx)sed to myopia, 

4. The hollow eye is seen only in old horses and in those deterio- 
rated by age and hard labor. It is retracted into its orbit, covered 
by flabby eyelids, surmounted by a hollow supra-orbit, and often 

5. The circled or bordered eye is one in which a portion of the scle- 
rotic around the edge of the cornea is visible through the palpebral 
opening. It is very unseemly. 

6. The eyes are sometimes unequal in size, either from excess or 
deficiency of growth. When this disproportion is not congenital, it is 
a subject of apprehension, from always being a constant result of 
repeated attacks of periodic fluxion. The eye which has experienced 
repeated attacks of this disease is always the smaller. Its function is 
practically lost. 

7. The myopic eye is very convex ; it resembles much the bovine 
eye, save the volume, which is not exaggerated. It is obser\^ed most 
frequently in young animals, and renders them irresolute and liable 
to shy. 

8. The hypermetropic eye is, on the contrary, not sufficiently con- 
vex. Such animals as possess it discern ver}- poorly objects which are 
near, whibt those which are at a distance can be easily recognized. It 
predisposes them to stumbling and uncertainty of the limbs. 

9. A walleye is one in which the iris is of a jiearly-white color, 
being deprived of its pigment. Apart from the visual effect, it is none 
the less excellent functionally. 


Diseases. — The diseases of the eve are numerous and more c 
l(»!^s grave. They are : 

Nuagf i8 constituted by a slight opalescence of the cornea. 

Albugo is a complete opacity of a variable area. 

lA'ucoma is a cicatrix of the cornea. 

Glaucoma is a greenish coloration of the vitreous humor. It is grave. 

(htarari is indicated by a partial or total opacity of the crystalline lens. J 
is a serious affei*tion. 

AmaurMis or goutte ^reine is due to a paralysis of the retina. It may exii 
only on one or on both sidcH. 

I{ydro}}»y is an augmentation of the volume of the globe of the eye due to 
hypersecretion of the aqueous humor. 

Simple ophthalmia is an inflammatiim of the conjunctiva. 

Periodic fluxion is a peri(xiic inflammation of the whole eye, which termi 
nates in the total aboliti<m of sight by the formaticm of a cataract after a variabl 

Lippitude is an inflammation of the Meibomian glands and the free bordc 
of the evelids. The eve often becomes covered with the secretion of thei 
glands. It is called blear-eye, 

Trichiani^ consists of an inversion of the superior eyelashes against the oci 
lar glol>e. 

Encanthis is a hypertrophy of the caruncula lachrj'malis. 

Melanotic deposits may form on the preceding structure ; warts may grow o 
the evelids. 

(higlet is nothing else than an inflammation of the nictitans membrane.' 

Blemishes. — ^The blemishes of the region of the eyes are cfewt 
datiotij<^ ahr<monH^ and \ronnfU of the supereiliar}' arches. They are th 
e<)nsc><juen«»s of injurieH reeeivwl by striking the head against resistin 
objects, etc., or of diseas(»s, as epilepsy, when the animal falb to th 
ground or when he strike's his hi^ad against a wall during an attae 
of vertigo. Sonietiniw they an* coniplicat^'d hy fradurej< of the orbits 

Under other eireunistanc^^s, the evelids Ix^conie the seat of a6rc 
Hionjt, laoeratio)iJiy or deformities of their fnn* l)onler, — e.g., ectropion an 
entropion. The deformity which follows i)eriodic fluxi(m should I 
taken into serious considenition. It has iK'cn obser\HHl that the sup 
rior eyelid of the eye, after s<»vend attacks of this dist»ase, become 
angular ^ from ocular atn)phy, towards the nasal angle, which gives t 
the |)al])el)ral o|X'ning a triangular form instead of that of a rq^uli 

Finally, all abnormal colons of the cornea or the media of the ej 
«)nstitute blemishes to which we must give the most serious prognoeii 

1 1 have ofU>n. in practice, met with eye» alTccted with t>trabi8mu8,— external, internal, ai 
oblique. Thib wan easily remedied by the simple section of the antagonistic muiicle. (Hars<er.i 


Among these blemishes, m^ny are the symptoms of grave diseases 
of the ocular structure. 

These diseases have too often for their consequence the destruction 
of one or even of both eyes. The animal is then suffering from par- 
tial or total blindness. Generally attempts are made to conceal this 
infirmity, and sometimes we meet with horses offered for sale, provided 
with an artificial eye made of hard rubber, which very much resembles 
that which nature provides. It is needless to say, however, that, with 
a proper examination of the eye, as before explained, this fraud will 
deceive only those who are unobserving or inexperienced. But it is 
not the same with those which are blind in both eyes or suffer from 
amaurosis, in which the eye presents all its normal characteristics. 
These conditions can also be detected by a scrupulous inspection 
of the parts. The retina not being sensitive, the iris will remain 
stationary even when exposed to intense light, and when at liberty the 
animal will run against surrounding objects. Such horses are uncertain 
on their feet and not without danger as saddle-horses. Too much reli- 
ance cannot be placed on the word of the horse-dealer, and a thorough 
veterinary examination becomes a necessity to assure one's self of the 
integrity of the crystalline lens and the movements of the iris. 

A blind horse will supply, with the other senses, the deficiency 
created by the cessation of vision. The ears are extended forward, 
and, at the least noise, are directed forward and outward to perceive 
it. During progression, the elevation of the members is exaggerated, 
but their step is uncertain and the animal is predisposed to stumble. 
The carriage of the head is elevated to prevent falling, and the nos- 
trils are mobile, as if to examine the surroundings by the odors which 
they exhale. He carefully smells and feels with the orbicular tentacles 
all objects presented to him. The eyes are wide open, the mouth is 
sensitive to the slightest indication of the reins, and the ears are 
qoick to recognize the voices of those who lead him or approach him. 
As Vallon ^ has written, he is susceptible of rendering good service 
if we understand how to use him and have the proper respect for him 
which his condition deserves. At work, as in the stable, it is neces- 
sary to place him alongside of one that is gentle and docile, because he 
cannot defend himself against the attacks of his neighbor. Worked 
in file, he should not be placed in the lead. We may add that when 
he is worked in harness he should always have the same driver, or the 
same rider when used under the saddle. In all cases his master 

1 Vallon, Coun d'bippologie, t ix., p. Sift. 


should not forget tliat he must at the same time see for the horse as 
well as for himself. 

E.— The Cheek (Fig. 19). 

Situation; Limits; Divisions; Anatomical Base. — ^The 

cheek is an almost plane surface, occupying the major portion of the 
lateral face of the head. It is limited in front by the templcy the eye, 
and the faee; behind by the branches of the inferior maxillary bone; 
below by the commisimre^ of the lips ; and, finally, altogetlier above by 
the parotid region. 

The cheek has an area more considerable externally than internally, 
where it forms the lateral j)arieU»8 of the mouth. The latter surfiu^e is 
generally, tliough incorrectly, not examined, and we will describe it in 
connection with the mouth in general. 

It8 external surface \» divMible into two regiomi: the one superior, the 
Jlai of the cheeky or the itiw*8eteric region ; the other inferior, or the Imecal region. 
Their separation in indicated by a vertical gutter in front of the masseter muscle, 
in which are situateil the glosso-facial artery and vein and the duct of Stenon. 
In its lower half these three stnictures lie side by side, the artery being anterior 
and the duct directly against the border of the muscle ; at its middle the duct 
passes obliquely forwanl over the side of the cheek, to penetrate it opposite to 
the anterior border of the thini superior molar tooth. 

Its base is forme<l by the masseter, buccinator, alveolo-labialis, zygomatico- 
labialis, and maxillo-labialis muscles, separated from the skin by the cuticularis 
colli. Their surface is covered by the sub-zygomatic plexus of nerves; the 
superior and inferior molar glands lie opiKwite to the corresponding teeth. 

The five prinoiped blood-vessels can be located from the exterior : the 
gloss4Hfacial artery along the anterior border of the miL*<setcr muscle ; the superior 
conrnar}' on the side of the superior maxillary Ixme, about an inch and a half 
fn>m its alviM»lar ridge, with which it is parallel ; the inferior coronary between 
the branch (»f the lower jaw and the maxillo-labialis muscle; the transverse 
arter)' of the face parallel with the zygomatic crest ; and the external branch of 
the maxillo-muscularis parallel with the curvature of the angle of the lower jaw. 

Beauty. — The principal beauty to bo sought for in this r^ion 
consists of its distinct ddint^jition, characterized hv the fineness of the 
skin and the hairs, im<l the a})S(»n('e of connective tissue n'ndering the 
bhMKl-v(»ss<»ls, the nerves, an<l tlu» mns<'les distinctly visible through 
their thiekness. Such \vv find it in hors<'S which Ix^lonjx to the finer 
race's. When it is excessive, it Hinders the heiul too nharp. In common 
hors<»s, on the contnirv, the eh<*ek is round in the flat |K)rtion and 
flabby and thick in the buccjil |>ortion. 

Defects. — Tlu* most fr<*<jnent defect of this region is called the 
granary y an<l is due to irregularities of the molar t<vth. In this 
condition we remark on the exterior an elongattnl tumor, oflen lobu- 


lated, produced by the bulging of the cheek in consequence of the 
accumulation of aliment between the latter and the molar arcades. It 
is gbserved principally in old horses. Horse-merchants always take 
the precaution to cleanse the mouth of such horses with vin^ar and 
water before they are presented for sale, in order to mask the fetid 
odor which it exhales. The employment of these manoeuvres, how- 
ever, is insufficient for those who examine carefully the condition of 
the teeth, on the one part, and pouch in the cheek on the external sur- 
face, on the other. The latter, on account of its continual distention, 
is not closely applied upon the molars, but remains flabby, pendulous, 
and presents longitudinal ridges. We can understand that this defect 
of itself does not depreciate much the value of the horse, but that its 
gravity depends upon the cause which produces it and the means which 
remedy it. 

Blemishes. — ^The blemishes of the cheek are traces of setons, indicating 
that the animal has been treated for an affection of the eyes or of the nasal cavi- 
ties. A seton improperly applied to this region may produce paralysis of the cor- 
responding lips by injuring the branches of the sub-zygomatic plexus of nerves ; 
the former is then drawn to the side opposite to that of the paralysis. 

A salivary fistula^ following an accidental opening of the duct of Stenon, may 
be found on the maxillary fissure or the side of the face. A transparent, limpid 
liquid escapes from the opening, perhaps in jets, when the food is masticated on 
that side. It is a serious accident, on account of its long continuation, the ineffi- 
ciency of its treatment, and the malnutrition which results from the loss of the 

F.— The Nostrils (Fig. 19). 

Situation; Limits; Form; Divisions. — ^The nostrils are 
the external orifices of the nasal fossae, and the only passage through 
which the air can enter the lungs in solipeds, which respire only 
through the mouth in ordinary conditions. Designated as right and 
iefty and situated at the inferior extremity of the head on each side of 
the median line, they are limited, internally, by the " tip'* of the nose; 
below, by the superior lip ; and, externally, by the cheek and the face. 
The form of the orifice is auricular or crescent-shaped, extending 
from above to below, and slightly from without to within. They 
present two lips, mngSj or ate, and two commissures. 

Anatomical Baae. — a. The internal ala or lip, flattened and thin at its 
free border, which is convex, is turned downward and outward, and is constituted 
centrally by the nasal cartilage, whose flat portion, with the one on the opposite 
side, forms the cartilaginous pl<Ue of the extremity of the nose. The latter, covered 
externally by the transversalis nasi muscle and the skin, and internally by soft 
akin and mucous membrane, is prolonged downward and outward through the 
inferior commissure, to terminate in the external ala. 


b. The external "winff or ala of the no6tril is concave. Its inferior ex- 
tremity contains a hard and resisting body, which is the termination of the curved 
portion of the preceding cartilage. In the remainder of its extent it is soft and 
flexible, formed only by skin and muscles. 

The muscles are all dilators. In some mammiferous aquatic animals, as 
the hippopotamus and the seal, there are constrictors to prevent the entrance of 
water into the respiratory apparatus. In terrestrial animals, on the contrary, the 
closure is prevented by the rigidity of their fibro-cartilage. 

c. The coxnxnissures are formed by the junction of the al». The inferior 
is round, concave, and continuous posteriorly with the floor of the nasal fossa ; 
the superior is smaller, acute, and is continuous, with a dependency of the skin 
called the/oZstf nostril. The latter is a cul-de-sac formed by a reflection of skin 
on the inside of the nostril, whose bottom lies at the angle of the incisive and 
nasal bones. It existo only in the domesticated animals, as the horse, ass, and 
mule, and admits of the introduction of the finger.* 

Around the margins, as are all the natural openings, it is covered 
by soft, tliin, and adherent skin, continuous with the nasal mucous 
membrane. It is covered by two kinds of hairs : the one short, fine, 
and numerous ; the other eoarse, long, and scanty. The latter, very 
deeply imi)lanted and provided at their bulb with a nerve-filament, 
are organs of tactile HenHaiion to the animal analogous to the moustachea 
of camivora. They are more or less abundant, according to the quality 
of the race. The habit of cutting them with the scissors, singeing, or 
extracting them entirt»ly, with the view of giving lightness to the head, 
is to Ik* r(»primand(»d. 

Beauty. — The absolute beauty of the nostril resides in its 
width and in its sc|>aration from the li|>s, because it is proportional to 
the capacity of the n^spiratory apparatus. In soHjxhIs, buccal respira- 
tion is prevented by the development of the soft palate. All the air 
which enters the lungs must jmlss through the nostrils, whose amplitude 
should then»fore l)e in n»lation with the former. It follows, then, 
d priori^ that the greater these* orific^es are the greater will be the vol- 
ume of air which enters the lungs during inspiration ; that conse- 
quentlv the development of the hmgs will always be correlative to the 
dimensions of the nostrils, and i'ice verHO, There is no exception to 
this rule, and the rt»vers(» has never l>e<»n obser\'ed in nature. Small 
nostrils art* an absolute defect, and ass<xMate themselves with a chest 
that is narrow and but little s|>acious. 

Movements. — The movements of the nostrils are almost imper- 

> On the floor of the noAtrll, anterior to the mucotu membrane, is the oriflce of the lachrymal 
canal. It U round, excavated, punchedout, and refiemblt^fl a glanderoun chancre, Ibr which it 
muft not be mistaken. In the mule and In the urn It it situated on the superior commiMure. II 
to usually single, but may be double or even triple. 


ceptible in normal conditions and at rest. They dilate slightly during 
inspiration and become relaxed again during expiration. It is not 
thus during exercise ; their movements are accelerated in proportion to 
the efforts executed. Other circumstances, as the age, the temperature, 
and the seasons of the year, modify their frequency and often their 
rhythm. The causes of irr^ular dilatations of the nostrib or of ex- 
cessive rapidity of their movements should be carefully determined. 
These are always symptomatic of pulmonary- emphysema or of a^me 
other grave affection of the respiratory organs. The examination in 
this case will, therefore, include that of the lungs, the trachea, the 
larynx, and, if need be, that of the other organic apparatus, if the accel- 
eration be due to their diseased condition. 

Examination of the Interior of the Nostrils. — The exam- 
ination of the interior of the nostrils is made as follows : Let us sup- 
pose the animal to be held by the bridle or simply by a halter whose 
strap is passed through the mouth. Taking, for example, the nostril 
on the right side (Fig. 24), the inferior lip is seized with the left hand 
and the bulb of the right thumb is placed under the internal wing in 
order to remove it from the external, which is separated by means 
of the index finger. With this simple manoeuvre it is usually suflS- 
cient to inspect the state of the mucous membrane over a large part 
of its area. If it do not suffice, an assistant will hold the head, and 
both hands are used ; the internal ala is seized by the right hand and the 
external by the left hand, the head being so held towards the light as 
to expose the largest surface of the nasal fossa. In some cases reflected 
light from a mirror may be utilized. 

It is necessary to recall certain normal anatomical dispositions : 

The skin which covers the alse of the nose, preserving its characteristics, is 
reflected into the nostrils to form a cul-de-sac known under the name of the 
/aUe nostrily and becomes continuous with the pituitary mucous membrane. The 
hairs with which its free surface is provided are destined to arrest particles of 
dust held in suspension in the air, which are obnoxious to the respiratory organs, 
and which, when inhaled into the more sensitive portions of the apparatus, 
cause irritation. 

At the inferior part of the nostril, on the floor and a little anterior to the 
point of continuity of the skin and the mucous membrane, is found the external 
orifice of the lachrymal duct, giving exit to the tears in their passage through 
excretory apparatus and offering such characteristics that it cannot be mistaken 
for a pathological alteration. It is ordinarily single, but may be double and 
even triple. Its form ia round, its edges perpendicular, commonly called punched- 
outy and the liquid which exudes is limpid and transparent. 

A cartilaginous septum, the septum nasi, separates the nasal fossae into right 
and l^. It is covered by the mucous membrane and is related to a lamina 


of fibro-cartiUige coTered by mucous membrane, and extending from the auperior 
turbinated biine to the deep &ce of the internal ala. In a pbyaieal examination 
thio lamina must be unrolled, for it ia often the seat of pathological alterations. 

State of the Mucous Membrane. — Tlic niatil mnooiifl mem- 
bmiic, ill a i^Uito of hiiilth iiiiil ul' n-st, !;< nf a r»fy <ttliir. After a 
certain aiiuMint of c.xcrciH', it Imiihiii-s hri);l]t nil, mure or UtM intenae, 
oci'ottlint; to tilt' plctlioru of the siibjit-t. It in |iiil<T and mure fbllic- 
iiliir n|Mm the liniDch of the afon-sjiiil lamina of <iirtilap'. !>■( us only 
itidii-atf hen' tliat in a pat)iiil<^iiiil state it iiiay Ix' jniIi' y<'llow, leaden 
on in nlanii»'n», inii United, and iimy prewnt on its siirlai-e iileerations, 
piiHtulcs, small nil sjHrt!*, jM-techia, eliaiwn-s. di'i-ortiiiitiiuis, cHatricea, 
tunioni, etc. \l] tlitiH- Kvmptums |)t'rtain tu divcTNc disi,<tu$t's concern- 


ing which we cannot occupy ourselves in this book. Let us limit our- 
selves to saying that the most serious of all is farcy-glanders^ which 
should be particularly observed, and in the diagnosis of which the 
minute examination of the maxillary lymphatic glands must not be 

It is not rare to meet wounds in the region of the nostrils, which 
are found mostly in stallions, and involve the mucous membrane and 
the cartilage. 

At other times we find finger-nail marks which have been made 
on the pituitary membrane during the examination by inexperienced 
persons or those unable to control the animal. 

Normal Liquid of the Nostril. — We have seen above that 
the normal liquid of the nasal fossae is clear and transparent, from 
the fact that it results from the continual discharge of the tears. In 
certain horses, when the atmosphere is cold, and much more in those 
whose lungs are emphysematous, we find the presence of a flaky dis- 
charge which adheres to the hairs of the nostrils, and designates the 
latter, according to horsemen, as being frosted. 

In pathological phenomena the liquid receives the name of dis- 
charge, and assumes certain characters which depend upon particular 
diseases. It may be : 

1st Adherent or not to the alse of the nose. 

2d. Thick, tenacious, or clotted. 

3d. White, reddish, yellowish-green, sometimes streaked with blood. 

4th. Inodorous, fetid, gangrenous, or from caries. 

6th. Unilateral or bilateral. 

In all cases the examination of the nostrils should be completed by 
that of the lymphatic ganglia. 

Entrance and Exit of the Air. — ^The expired air merits also 
to be taken into consideration. It is of little utility to appreciate its 
quantity, either by placing the hand in front of the nostril, or, when 
the atmosphere is cold, by considering the two clones of vapor which 
escape. It is more interesting to assure ourselves of the r^ularity 
and equality of the column of air at its exit from the orifices, for it 
may meet obstructions of a diverse nature in its passage, as polyps, 
tumors, deviations of the nasal septum, etc. Some authors report that 
certain tradesmen, to mask the discharge, have placed a s}X)nge into 
the diseased mvity. This fraud is very easily discovered, and re(|uires 
no further explanation. In a state of good health the expired air is 
inodorous ; the bad odor with which it is c*ontiiuiinated proves a dis- 

of the lungs, caries of the superior molars, and, finally, prolonged 


stasis of pus in the guttural pouches or in the frontal and maxillary 
sinuses. If there is doubt as to the veritable cause of this odor, the 
aninial is made to cough by compressing the larynx with the hand, and 
standing to one side of the animal to avoid being contaminated by the 
expet*torated matter. He is also made to »nort by touching the sides 
of the median septum of the nasal fossae, which will immediately 
provoke sucli an eifbrt and n?nder the discharge visible if tliere 
bc» anv. 

It is im])ortant to add that the air should pass in and out wiihoui 
making any sound ; if a sound is |x;rceived, the animal is aiTected with 

Itoaring is acute and chronic. The former is temporary, the second 
permanent^ It is a defei*t which nullifies the contract of his sale in 
some Continental countric»s. (I^aw of August 2, Article 2, 1884.) 

Cynt^ of the false* nostril, between the layers of the integument 
which are plactKl in ap{)oHiti<>n to form it, are oliservcnl in some horses. 
We have 8c»c»n sevcAil exami)Ies, ami never have we remarked the least 
interferenct» with rcspinition. 

We have proof of paralyms of one or of Iwth nostrils. In the 
latter case the animal will find it an impossibility to trot, from the 
fiict that th<» pariet(»s of tht»se opt^nings an» colla{)sed upon themselves 
an<l ofler an ol>stacle to the intnKluction of the air.* 

Elxpression of the Nostril. — I>et us n^mark that the nostril 
is one of tlie prin(*i{)al orgaiia of expression of tlie physiognomy. 
ActH»nling to its state of contraction, dilatation, flaocidity, or crispness, 
it manif(*sts in a tliousiui<l ways the sensations whic*h the animal expe- 
riences. Now it is suq)riw», fear, anger ; now joy, pleasure, anxict\', 
and surtcring. P(»rs<ms who are exjH»rienced witli horses will soon 
lK?come familiar with the cxpn»ssion of the organs, which defies all de- 
scription from the multiple shades in which it is manifested. We 
will n»turn t4» this again, it propos of the head in general. 

Blemishes. — ^The blemishes of this n^ion an* situated upon 
the alHM>f the n<»strils, the nasal fosste, the ap|M*n(lices of the turbinated 
l)on<»s, and n»snlt from bit<»s or la^-* 'rat ions. These may l)e produced 
accidentally in draught-horses by the h<M)k which is oflen placed at 
t\w extremity of th<* shafl, when the aninial is tit^l to a ring surmounted 
by a h<N>k, or when, in turning the head, the nostrils strike against any 
sharp obje<*t. 

1 A. <t<>ul>aux, Mcmolre Bur let paralynies localvs (Kccuvil du luMccine vOU^rinaire, annfe 
1M8, p. 1S29). 


Formerly the nostrils were slit to diminish the sound of neighing. 
The practice is still exercised upon the ass in the Orient.^ We have 
several times repeated this operation upon the horse without producing 
any modification of the sound. The procedure is therefore inadequate. 

To recapitulate : 

1. The nostril should be large and clear. 

2. The mucous membrane, rosy at rest, more or less red after 

3. The liquid which it discharges, clear and transparent 

4. The air which is exhaled, inodorous. 

5. Inspiration and expiration should be noiseless. 



A. — The Intermaxillary Space. 
Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The intermaxillary 

space is a symmetrical and triangular-shaped cavity, situated at the 
posterior face of the head, comprised between the two branches of the 
inferior maxilla. It is limited above by the throaty below by the chin, 
and on each side by the borders of the maxillary bone. 

Its anatomical base is the body of the hyoid bone and the 
muscles which attach to it, the inferior face of the tongue, and the 
intermaadUary lymphatic glands ; on each side, about an inch from the 
internal alveolar ridge, and underneath the glands, is the sublingual 
artery. The skin is fine, covered with hairs ordinarily longer than 
those in other parts of the body ; the connective tissue is abundant. 

Beauties and Defects. — The principal structures which offer 
themselves for consideration in this region are the lymphatic glands. 
These should be small and movable without adhering to the surround- 
ing tissue. It is observed that in all diseases of the nasal sinuses, the 
nasal fossse, and the mouth, these ganglia become voluminous, painful, 
more or less adherent, and approach the corresponding branch of the 
inferior maxillary bone. In glanders they are decidedly adherent to 
the latter and to the base of the tongue. 

It is not only the inspection of these organs which requires our 

1 Vallon, Coura d'hippologie. t. i. p. 282. 



consideration^ but we shall also examine the plainnesSy the vndih, and 
the depth of this region. 

It is plain or clean when all the structures which enter into its 
composition are distinct and can be outlined with the fingers. When 
tlie conntH'tivc tissue is abundant the contour of the parts is not dis- 
cernible and the whole region is full or thick. Such is its structure in 
lymphatic horses raised in low and moist districts. 

The depth is related to the cleanness and the absence of connective 

The width of the intermaxillary' space denotes a corresponding 
separation of the branches of the maxilla and a large development of 
the rt^spiratorv apjuiratus, sinct* the larynx is partly lodged in that 
simcv, and thus prot^H'tinl from the movements of flexion of the head 
u}K)n the neck. It is ernmeous to believe that in horses in which tlie 
head is an*hed, this ix'^ion is narrow, and that these are therefore much 
mon» pn'ilisjMiscd to roaring. Exclusive of the general form of tlie 
h«ul, it is true that there are ct^rtain subjects in which the inter- 
maxiUar}' spiKv is wider than in otliers. Proft»ssor Dupuy/ in 1829, 
has taken uKiisurt^meuts of sixteen horses of different tvj)es, and 
pn)ved a maximum widtli of 0.119 m., and a minimum of 0.087 m. 
In two hors<'s which were roanTs, the measurements were 0.079 m. 
and ().(M).*5 m. ; hence it was lK'lieve<l as conclusive that the narrow- 
n(»ss in th(» hittor was due to a defective development of the maxilla 
and an insufficient scpamtion of its branchc^s, causing compression of 
th(» larynx. Wc cannot dispute the figun»s of Dupuy, but they are 
verj' exct'ptional. 

The skin of the intermaxillary space in conmion races is furnished 
with long, stiff*, coiirs<', and abundant hairs, which make the head 
apiHiir Ihiivv and volnminoiis. S<»ine are in the habit of singeing or 
extracting th(Mn, so jis to rcii<lcr the hea<l smaller, to disguise* the race. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — The general disease known under 
the name of sfmnoli\s is often followed bv considerable inflammatorv 
swelling of this region and the formation of enormous abscvsses of the 
iymphatic ganglia, of which we have s|>oken al)ove. When the latter 
do not have their normal characteristics, it is siiid that there is a gland 
in the n»gion, or that the animal is (jlnnded. (irejit importance must 
lx» attache<l to this tumor, for it may Ik» a symj)tom of a more serious 
dist^<v, (jlnndern. 

» Dupuy, IH' la fluxion vulgnirvmeiit appi*!*^ p^r1(Mllque ou Reohonhes hi.«u>riques, physio- 
infiriquef et th<^r«peutiquefi nur cette maladic, auxqucHcx on a ajoutvdo (ronNid^rutloDB sur le 
cornagv, U pouwe et la Miction dva nerfii pneumo-gaHtriques, 8vo, Fari8, 1^29, p. \\\. 


As consequences of these alterations, we may find denudationSy 
excoriations, and cicatrices resulting from the application of medicines 
or from operations, as incising an abscess with a view of causing the 
disappearance of the swelling. Formerly excision of the gland was 
practised in horses over five yeare of age, in which the gland was 
enlarged. V^g^ce had already considered this operation useless, the 
gland being only a symptom and not the disease itself. Strange to 
say, it has again been revived in some modern publications. 

B. — The Inferior Maxillary Region (Fig. 19). 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The inferior max- 
illary region is a double area, having for its base the rectilinear 
branches of the inferior maxillary bone. It is limited internally by 
the iniermaxillary space, externally by the cheek, anteriorly by the 
chin, and posteriorly, more or less distinctly, by the parotid region. 
Its internal face presents the course of the glosso-facial artery and vein 
and the excretory duct of the jiarotid gland, — Stenon's duct. These 
three structures pass around the maxillary fissure, where they can be 
easily distinguished through the skin and where the pulse is counted. 
On the inner side the duct is superficial and the artery deep. 

The two rami of this bone circumscribe a V-shaped space with the 
apex forward, which corresponds to the intermaxillary space, and whose 
width, as stated above, constitutes an absolute beauty. They are not 
of the same thickness at all periods of life, and some persons attach 
enough importance to this to judge of the age of the animal by their 
examination alone. In young animals the molar teeth are deeply 
implanted into their alveoli, and the maxillary bone, for this reason, 
is of much greater thickness. Conversely, as the teeth are pushed 
from their alveoli, whose sides will then approach each other, there is 
an absorption of bone, the maxilla becomes thinner and the posterior 
border acute. This phenomenon can be utilized in determining the 
age, the border becoming sharp when the animal is about thirteen 
years old. This, however, is not absolute, and too much importance 
should not be attached to it. Descriptive anatomy has shown numer- 
ous individual differences. 

Animals of a lymphatic temperament and with large skeletons have 
thick maxillary bones. This is very marked in Shetland ponies. In 
horses of a nervous or a nervo-sanguinary temperament they are thin 
and fine. It indicates nothing but a race characteristic, and does not 
influence the qualities of the animal. 

In animals belonging to the common races this r^ion, like the 


intermaxillary space^ is covered with long and abundant hairs, which 
it is the custom to singe, cut, or extract This practice is called to 
make the jaw or the hairs of the jaws. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — ^These are asmms tumors^ the result of blows 
which the animal ha» received or of injuries which are inflicted by the extrem- 
ities of the shafts. Again, we may find enlargemenU of the bone sometimes 
accompanied by necrrjsis and fistulse emitting an extremely disagreeable odor. 
The latter lesions are caused by diseases of the inferior molar teeth. Finally, 
this region may be the seat of salivary fistulse upon the course of the excretory 
canal of the parotid gland, most frequently on a level with the point where the 
duct is inflected around the maxillary fissure. 

These diverse alterations have a great tendency to assume a chronic 
form, and are always followed by deformities quite persistent, which 
blemish the animals for a more or less long period. 

C— The Chin (Fig. 19). 

Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — Symmetrical and 
situated in front of the iiUcnaaxiUary sp(we and the branches of the 
lower jaw y and lx»hind the tufl of the eh in, the chin, upon which rests 
the curb of the bit, ('orres|K)nds almost to the point of union of the 
two branches of the maxillary lK)ne. The symphysis is manifested 
externally by a slight cn^t, a gutter, or a simple convex surface. 

Tlu»st» diverse conditions, with difficulty appreciated fn)m the exte- 
rior, have <iuis4'd this rt^ion to lx» nanunl round or sharp, two oonfor- 
nuitions u|xm which buyers also attach too nmch importance. The 
impression of a |x)rtion of the harness or of the curb ujxm the skin 
<le|KMKls much less ujM)n the anatomical di8|X)sition of the jmrts than 
tlu» dcgni' of natural si'usibility of the subjwt. It is easy to moderate 
the action of the curb by protcvting th(» latter with a leather cushion 
and by r(»gulating tlu» (juautity of traction exercised on the reins ac- 
conling to the s<Misibility of the auiuud. 

DenmftitionM and intitn(fi< an» the onlinarj* consequences of immod* 
crate pn^ssun* snstaintHl by tlie chin of ver\' irritable horses, as from 
the curb, or other traumatisms. There are also blemishes of the 
chin, which are not without inten^st in that which concerns special 
utilizations of the animal. 




A.— The Mouth (Fig. 25). 

Situation ; Divisions. — The mduth is a complex r^on which 
occupies the inferior extremity of the head and represents the entrance 
into the digestive apparatus. It is elongated from before to behind, 
and comprised between the two jaws. We recognize in it the following 
parte, which we will first study : 1, the lip8; 2, the teeth and the gurns ; 
3, the bars ; 4, the lingiud canal; 5, the tongue; 6, the palate. We will 
afterwards i)ass to the examination of the mouth in general. 

I. The Lips (Figs. 19, 26, and 26). 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The lips are two 
movable musculo-cutaneous curtains, placed at the entrance of the 
mouth, whose opening they limit. 

They are distinguished as superior or anterior and inferior or pos- 

Physiologically, they are organs necessary to the prehension of 
food, and they serve as auxiliaries in mastication. The inferior lip, 
in relation to the exterior, to a small degree supporte the bit, whose 
impulses are, in a certain measure, first received by it. 

The superior lip, the more mobile, is limited above by the 
extremity of the nose ; on the sides by the cheek and the nostrils ; by its 
free border, finally, it is in contact with ite congener. The inferior 
lip is limited behind by the chin and laterally by the cheeks. 

The lips present for study two/acw, external and internal ; two commissureSy 
right and left ; and two borders, free and adherent. Each i« composed of three 
layers, — ^an external or cutaneous, an internal or mucous, and a middle or muscu- 
lar, — besides blood-vessels and nerves. The muscular layer is constituted by the 
orbicularis oris muscle and the muscles of the face which attach to it. The arte- 
ries are the superior and inferior coronary, passing through the centre of their 

The external fieice of each lip is covered by fine and very adherent skin, 
provided with two kinds of hairs : the one consisting of long, stiff, and scattered 
hairs, called tentacles, and deeply embedded in the subcutaneous tissue and even 
in the muscles ; the other, very fine, short, and numerous, belonging to the ordinary 
hairs of the coat. The former are provided with a nerve terminal at the base of 
their papilla, which makes them delicate organs of tactile sensation for the 
animal. To a large degree these supersede the function of the hand in quadra- 



m&no. The exteni&l bee oflere on the median lioe of the superior lip a smmll 
gutter more or lew dutinrl, and on each aide an elevation more or lees promineot 
This fitter ia the repre«entative of the tuual gutter, very pronounced in man and 
some other animals. This lip is, besides, longer, larger, more movable, and more 
constricted at ite ba«e than the inferior. In the latter, on the contrary, the 
median gutter is alMcnt, to be replaced by some semicircular folds on a hemispheri- 

nil Fniinpn<'< 

of Ihr '■hi,,. iiikI wIkm' IniM' 

Till- internal face r>i 
hiici'nl mucous iii<'iiil>r;ini-. 
Minietimeii uinrbUil. due U 
reflecti-il on the ini-i? 
the gums, and \iv* in contuct with the 

r lew d<'vcl')|ie(l. to w1ii<-li hiis liren given the name of t^ 
< Ihp ni.-iito-IubinlLs niuHcle. 
r)f Piii'h lip, c-iincuvc ill cvt-n- si'nsc, ifl covered by the 
II'. unitH.ih. shilling, of a roKV color in good health, and 
lo tk di'pieiit or black jiigmrnt. Thi^ layer becomes 
ind inferior mH.Yillary lionc*, to liccomc continuous with 

face of the incisor t 



contains large numbers of salivary glands in the thickness of the submucous 
tissue. The connective tissue which unites it to the adjacent parts is sufficiently 
loose to allow of an abundant serous effusion. 

The free border of each lip is thin and bevelled, lies in contact with its 
oongener, and is the point of continuity between the skin and the mucous mem- 

The adherent border is marked in the interior of the mouth by a gutter 
at the point of continuity of the mucous membrane with the gums. Externally, 
it is not delimitated from the adjacent parts, with which it becomes continuous. 

The commissures are the points where the two lips become continuous; 
slightly round and quite thick, they are perfectly closed in ordinary conditions. 

Their volume appears much larger in young than in old animals, 
because the direction of the incisor teeth, upon which their internal 
face rests, becomes more and more horizontal with the progress of 
age. Also, the head in old horses seems to be tapering at its inferior 

The lip, like the nostril, the eye, and the ear, is a most remark- 
able organ of expression. When it is curled up, relaxed, lowered, 
elevated, or inclined, we have so many variations which aifect the 
whole physiognomy. When we study the expression of the horse 
under the influence of pain, fear, pleasure, or distress.; when we ob- 
serve his attitude as he attempts to snatch or bite somebody or one of 
his companions ; when we observe the lips in certain diseases ; when 
we translate the language of the stallion as he scents the mare, or the 
animal as he passes through the death-agonies, then can we see how 
perfect the expression is and how it varies in each circumstance. 

It is well known, also, that the physical qualities are in direct 
relation with the faculty of expression of which the lip is capable. The 
horse which is of a sanguine temperament, with a nervous system 
that is well developed, energetic, and easily stimulated by external 
causes, presents a high development of this region. The common 
horse, on the contrary, has a lip which is thin, soft, flabby, immobile, 
and without expression. The skin which covers it is thick and the 
hairs long, coarse, and abundant. 

The lips should approximate themselves easily by their free border 
to keep the mouth constanUy cloned ^ in order to avoid a continuous 
escape of saliva. Nevertheless, it is not always thus, from the fact 
that the animal is " reined up too high," or that one of the lips may 
be paralyzed. In the first instance, the mouth remains open from the 
iatigue of the muscles inducoil by the unnatural position of the head ; 
in the second, there is great difficulty in the prehension of food, the 
constant loss of saliva is deleterious, and the physiognomy loses all its 


expression. If the paralysis be unilateral, one of the lips is drawn to 
one side by the muscles which still pre8er\'e their nervous influence. 
If it be bilateral, the affected lip becomes [)endulous. It is this which 
we sometimi^s see in the inferior lip of old horses and much more rarely 
in the young. This state is more often associated with a pn)found 
debility of the organism and an atony of the muscular system in gen- 
eral, than as a veritable paralysis, or at li»ast as a complete inertia of 
the organ. 

Nevertheless, the defect in question may be congenital. Del- 
phine, an old brood-mare in the stud of Pin, suffered from paralysb 
of the inferior lip, and all her progeny inherited the same infirmity ; 
yet she was [x>sst»«8(Hl of great energy and good breeding, and was not 
inconvenience<l in the least (Richard).* 

Certain horses, whether in harness or under the saddle, at rest or 
during exercist*, have a continual and convulsive movement of the 
inferior lip which is verj' ungraivful to the eye. In tlie language of 
horsemen, it is said that they beat the lip. 

Again, some hor«(»s continually attempt to scMze tlie branches of the 
bit with the lower lip, a vicious habit ca|>able of changing its good 
direction. It is rc»medied in several ways, either by the application 
of a hnithor lii)-strap to the bridle, by bending the branches of the bit 
backwanl, or, tinally, by shaking tlie reins lightly at i»ach new attempt 
of the animal, t4> comiK»l him to let go. 

The conunissun'S of the lijw, acx'ording as they are situated more or 
Ws high, designate the mouth as lK»ing irr//, too much, or iioi enough 
elrft. This (lo<»s not (H>nstitutt» a serious detlvt, Ixn^use the bridle can 
always 1m» so adjust^Hl as to pn'vcnt the bit from exerting excessive 
pH'ssun* against the first molar t<K)th or the angles of the mouth. 

Most authors since liourg(»lat have conU'udcHl that the inferior lip 
can pn'vrnt i\w pn»ssun» of the bit u|M>n the barn by opposing too 
gniit a n-sistancH* or int<TiK)sing itself In'twtH'n the two. The former 
th(»n ofi'ers <'<>nsideral)l<* n'sistiin<*e t4) the bit, and the animal l)ecome8 
hiird-mouthnh M. RichanP has amply refute<l this assertion in 
|x>intiii^ <»iit the fJ^'Mr n*sistanc<' which the orbicularis mus<'l(» is able 
Xi\ iAW'T ag:iiiist the bit, and in dcin(»iistrating tiiat hanl mouths result 
onlinarily fnuii the i!iex|)<Tienc<» of the rider in using the.n'ins or the 
inaptitude of the liors<' t4» execute c<'rtain niovenients. 

On the inferiiir lip tiiert* exists sometimes, on each side of the 
m(Hlian lin<\ a tuft of long curly hairs, whicii are cjille<l, from the 

> Richanl (<Ui < antnlj, ^.IikIc du rhi-vaJ, p. hi. fw» M. « n>Ul. 


analogy of their form and position, inoudaohen. This peculiarity is 
also more rarely observed on the superior lip. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — Diverse diseases, which may ordinarily pre- 
vent the sale of the animal, are observed in the region of the lips. Besides 
paralysUy of which we have spoken, farcy ulcers are sometimes observed here 
over the couihc of the lymphatics. Ulcer» of variola also affect this region, attack- 
ing young animals principally. These latter ulcers may be situated upon the ex- 
ternal surface of the lips, along their free border, as well as in the interior of the 
buccal cavity, and around the alae of the nostrils. Their gravity is of little con- 
sequence, and with care and practice we are enabled to distinguish them easily 
from the preceding, which are characteristic and serious in the extreme. Besides 
these alterations, the lips are the seat of swellings which disfigure the parts be- 
cause they extend into the surrounding tissues. Such are (edematous effusion 
due to anasarca, the prolonged ingestion of certain plants, as buckwheat, for 
example, or the accidental application of vesicants, as when the animal rube 
a surface which has been blistered for a therapeutic pur|M)se. 

The most common blemishes of the lips are e.vcori<i(iofis and cicatrices^ 
resulting from the application of the twitch. These are always an indication of 
a vicious habit of the animal, difficulty in shoeing, or of his having been subjected 
to a surgical operation requiring frequent dressings. It is not rare to meet with 
cuU or lacerations along their free border. These wounds suggest falls, and it is 
important to examine with care the condition of the extremity of the nose, the 
incisor teeth, the gums, and the limbs, to inform ourselves as to the cause which 
has produced them. 

In old horses it is quite common to see thickenings or hcerafions of the one 
or the other commissure, occasioned by repeated and violent traction on the bit or 
by a bit which is too narrow and improperly adjusted. These render the com- 
plete closure of the mouth impossible, and may prove to become obstacles to the 
prehension of liquids. The pain which they cause may, for a certain time, inca- 
pacitate the animal for service. 

Let us say, in conclusion, that we often see in horses affected with immo- 
bility particles of hay or straw adhering to the commissures of the lips and 
remaining there without provoking the least movement of the jaws. It is then 
said that he smokes his pipe, 

a. The Teeth and the Gums. 

The teeth are organs of osseous appearance, implanted in the 
alveoli of the maxillary and incisive Ix^nes. They assist in the pre- 
hension and masti(»tion of the aliment, and are distinguished from 
their use as incisorSy canines j and molars. 

The relation of the teeth to the determination of age is so important 
to recognize that we will devote to it a special chapter. (See Aye,) 
We will content oursc^lvc»s for the present by saying that their minute 
examination should Ik* made at the same time as that of the moutli, 
and include their inte(/riti/j HOundnesHj length, direction ^ and the reijn- 
lariiy of their surface. 

The mucous membrane which surrounds the teeth and aids to fix 


them into their alveoh' is called the gums. These offer little of interest. 
In young horses thty are rosy, thick, and adherent, but as the animal 
grows older they lx»eome pale and retracted from the teeth. Alimen- 
tarj' matti*rs may jK»netrate l>etwei»n their dental surface and the teeth, 
excite inflammation, and become the origin of periostitis or of carieB 
of the lx>ne. 

3. The Bars (Fi^s. 25 and 26). 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The bars, occupying 

the inferior interdental sj>ace on each side, include that portion of the 
inferior maxilla Ix^twwn the canine and first molar teeth, and are 
covereil simply by the mucous membrane. In the mare, in which 
the tushes art* undeveloped, the Imrs are longer, and extend from 
the corner incisor tooth to the first molar. They support the canon of 
the bit. 

Most authors have pretended that the conformation of the bars is of 
great imjK)rtance rt»lativc to the pain which the horse feels as a conse- 
quence of the pressure of the bit ; that if they be elevated or sharp^ the 
pam is intense, and, on the c<intrarv, feeble when they are round; finally, 
that the form of the bit should he adapt^nl to the one or the other of these 
disiMisitions. We re|K»at here what we have already said above as to 
the Imrs : with etptftf Hen^ibiliti/ it is certain that on the sharp bars the 
pn»ssun» will Ih» nion» intense, but the different which we observe in 
the s<»nsibilitv to the action of the bit resides not so much in the con- 
formation of the jwirts as in the natural st^nsibility and irritability 
tlienis<'lvcs, — all |KH*uliarities of this region. As M, Sanson^ has justly 
sjiid : when shaq) Imrs ac<»om|)any a nervous and irritable temperament, 
it is to this alour that tifahe or apoUed mouth, as well as the faults of 
n^arin^ or running away, must Ih^ attributtxl. Most horses whose 
inoiitlis havr Imh^i abus^nl with the bit by inexperienc<Hl riders or 
<lrivers present roun<l and d(»pr(»ss(Hl bars. When the mucous mem- 
brane is tlii<'kene<l and the s<'nsibilitv is blinite<l, thev are called caUuses. 

The bars mav Im' the sejit of woun<ls sutticiently gnive to prevent 
the ns<' of the animal for a variable |MTi(Kl of time. Due to forcible 
tnietion on the bri<lle, then' may tcnuinate in caries, fistula, and exfoH- 
atinn of a part of the Iwme which forms their l>as(», and leave a perma- 
nent deformity. 

To reeiipituhite, the fineness of the bars (constitutes the princi[)al 
beauty to 1m* sought for in their examination. 

» A <«n>".ii N.Mivrmi Iiirtiinmaire pratique <K' nnHlt'i'inc. de chirurBie et d'hyjfi^ne T*t#ri« 
iiiiirt*'^ t ii. Art " ii4»iu-lu'." 


4. The Lingual Canal (Figs. 25 and 26). 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The lingual canal 

is generally described as the space comprised between the branches of 
the inferior maxilla^ in which the tongue is situated. It is a kind of 
gutter the sides of which are covered by the mucous membrane of the 
mouth. Anteriorly, where its inferior wall is formed by the body of 
the aforesaid bone, it is single ; posteriorly, it divides into two branches 
comprised between the sides of the rami of the same bone and side of 
the fixed portion of the tongue. 

At the anterior extremity of these lateral divisions is the lingual crest formed 
by the superior border of the sublingual gland, covered by mucous membrane, 
and presenting a series of orifices of the excretory ducts, — ducti Biviniani. 

Underneath the mucous membrane covering the lateral faces of the tongue 
is the duct of Wharton, the excretory canal of the maxillary salivary gland. It 
opens upon the superior face of the body of the maxilla on each side of the 
frsenum of the tongue by means of an enlargement called the barb or barbiUon^ 
whose fimction is the protection of the canal against the entrance of alimentary 

Depth. — The Ungual canaly which we must examine in regard to 
its depth, should be proportional to the volume of the tongue. If 
the latter be not in relation with the capacity of the gutter which con- 
tains it, the result will be a vicious position of the bit; in the one 
case the tongue will entirely support the action of the bit, whilst in the 
other the latter will I'est exclusively upon the bars. We must say, to 
speak the truth, that nothing has been demonstrated to establish this 
opinion. The width of the canal is always in relation with the volume 
of the tongue, and, should it be otherwise, the bit will experience 
neither more nor less difficulty, as we shall show further on. 

We think, also, that there is neither beaiUy nor defect to be appre- 
ciated in this regioti. We may, however, obser\^e an inflammation of 
the canal of Wharton from the introduction, through the barbs, of 
particles of forage proving very often to be pieces of brome-grass. 
This affection is noticed most frequently in old horses with irregular 
teeth, and nourished on old Burgundian hay, in which this grass 
is abundant. It is accompanied by intense congestion of the barb, 
and perhaps a discharge of pus from its orifice. 

It was formerly believed that the barbs could prevent the animal from drink- 
ing. It is surprising that this opinion was even shared by Bourgelat, who con- 
sidered these organs simply as excrescences of the mucous membrane. At 
present, many persons in the rural districts are imbued with this prejudice, and 
employ horsemen and empirics who practice its ablation. It is easily understood 


that this barbarous operation facilitates the penetration of foreign bodies into the 
salivary canal, the entrance to which is thus no longer protected. 

5. The Tongue (Figs. 25 and 26). 

Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The tongue is an 

organ of prehension and mastication of the aliment, of gustation and 
deglutition, placed in the lingiuil canal, and which completely fills the 
mouth when the jaws are in apposition. It is related above to the 
hard palate ; in front, to the incUor teeth and the lipH ; on cacJi side, to 
the barsy the niolar teeth, and the cheeks; and behind, to tlie ftoft palate. 

The princi|>al stnu^tures entering into its organization are five 
pairs of Jintscles. 

Anatomically, it is divided into two portions : anterior, or free, and 
posterior, or fixed. The free portion is spatula-shaped and flattened 
from above to below. A fold of mucous membrane of a triangular 
form is detached fn)m the middle of its inferior face and attached to 
the IkkIv of the inferior maxillary bone. This is the fnenum, or ante^ 
nor pillar of the tongue. It limits to a certain degree the movements 
of this organ. 

Its examination, which should be made at the same time as 
that of the tet»th, is conductixl as follows, supposing the operator to 
stand o\\ the left side (Fig. 2G) : The left hand seizes tlie inferior lip 
or is placinl u|K)n the anterior face of the nose to steady the head. The 
right hand s(MZ<»s the tongue ; the middle and index fingt»rs are intro- 
duciHl iK'twiH'U the li|>s into the mouth on a level with the bars, and the 
org:in !.»< gni.»*|KHl. 15<Mng thus held betwwn tlu»s(? two fingers above 
and tli<* thumb ami annularis Ik^Iow, it is withdrawn from tlic mouth 
and, with its adjacent jMirts, (^n^fully insiKH'tcil. To examine the base 
of tJH' tongu<% it is n(»c<»ssary to stand in front of the head and allow 
the light to shine into the buccjil ciivity. 

Thes4' nianu'uvres must 1h» pra<'ti.scd with the greatest gentle* 
ness. Exc<ssiv<» traction will 1h» painful to the animal and make 
him insulM»nlinatc ; it may also ciiusc a ruptun' of the stylo-glossus 
inu.s<*le, wlii<'li wc iiavc s<*v<'ral times proved by dissection,' as well as 
the geni<Hjr|nssus an<l the fnenum. On account of the pain which is 
pHKhKinl, (*eitain drillers, without doubt, do n<»t hesitate to prac'tise 
this IwirlMirons a<'t «>n ihirs<'s suffering from immobility, to make them 
timid and caus** tlH'in to ** back." 

* A <f«iiit>aMx. IH« <|ii«'Iiiiii'*< |#rall«in«-» burbares aux«iuoll»*s on a rwouiN \ha\t examiner la 
lwiiirh«* <lii «'h«'viil. iMiur ilrUTinlner »t»n Ak*.*. iwiiir le fairt' ixTuler, etc. iJounial de l'<kx>le d* 
Lyon. 1M6. !>• ^Sio} 


The mooementa arc elevation, depression, extension, retraction, and 
lateral inclination. E^ach chanj^ the form and volume of the organ ; 
it becomes wider, thicker, concave or convex, etc 

Fio. It.— BitmlDfttlon of Ibe 

The TOlume, in general, is proportional to the capacity of the buccal 
cavi^. We have never observed, except in very old horses, that the 
thickness of this oi^n caused it to project beyond the bars, become 
the sole support of the shank of the bit, and lessen, for this reason, 


the sensitiveness of the mouth. The diflTerenoes of sensibility, which 
are quite common, proceed from another cause. We have already 
spoken of this (t propos of the bars and the chin. 

In a normal state, the tongue should always be kept in the in- 
terior of the buccal cavity. It helps to support the bit and, in con- 
cert with the lips, it receives its first impression. Some horses have 
the bad habit of doubling the tongue within the mouth by recurving 
its free extremity alxjve or underneath the bit. This can be readily 
detected by separating the lips from each other, and is remedied by 
tightening the curlx'liain. 

Tlie integrity and entireness of the tongue should never escape 
the attention of the veterinarian. When a horse, tied with the reins 
of the bridle, or with a strap passed througli the mouth, becomes 
frighteneil, he will throw himself violently backward and support 
the weiglit ol* the IkxIv entirely by the mouth, the point of attach- 
metit. Then, if the means of attachment does not break, the tongue 
may lx» sufficiently compn^sscnl by the bit or the strap to be cut trans- 
versely. We know of an instance of this kind in which the free por- 
tion was comj)letely separated and fell to the ground. This is always 
a grav(» accident. If the sii'tion be incomplete, mastication is slow and 
imjK»rfect ; if it Ix.' complete, death may be the cons(»quence, as it was in 
the instaniv mentione<l alx)ve. A horse should, therefore, never be at- 
tached to the reins of the bridle or to a strap jiassed through the mouth. 

The tongue may l)ecome lact»rated or cut, more or less deeply, on 
its latenil lx)rders from irregularities of the molar arcades, which 
an» denticulated in old horses. These wounds are very ))ainful and 
pn»vent the animal from masticating his food. The rt^medy is the 
dn^ssing of the t<H'th. 

There an* S4)ine horses whose tongue, during work or at rest, pro- 
trudes fnim the mouth and Ix'comes pendulous ; this is called Idling 
the tongue.* 

In other esises it is alternat(»ly protrudes! and retracted in a manner 
which simuhit4*s the movements of a s(Tjx»nt's tongue ; hence the 
appropriate designation, serpentine, 

lioth of these eon<litions are ungnw'cful, deleterious from the con- 
stant loss of saliva which could be utiliztnl in digestion, and finally the 
orgjin ceases t4> give the same iK)int of supjx)rt to the bit which it 
furnishes in ordinarv circumstances. 

1 1 have Veen an insunce in which this waM toraitorarily prevented by Uie application of a 
rubber band to itn free portion, the effect of which, however, was an almost complete section 
of the organ. (Hanger.) 


6. The Palate (Fig. 25). 

SitTiation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The palate, which 

forms the anterior or superior wall of the buccal cavity, has for its 
osseous base the superior maxillary, incisive, and ])alatine bones. 
These are separated from its mucous membrane by a thick layer of 
erectile tissue, most abundant anteriorly. It is limited in front by the 
superior incisors; laterally, by the superior molars and tlie superior 
interdeivtai spaces ; behind, by the attachment of the soft palate. Only 
a portion of it is \nsible in the examination of the cavity of the mouth. 
Its surfiu^ is of a rose color, sometimes pigmented in different portions 
of its area. It presents transverse arches, with the concavity behind 
disposed symmetrically on each side of the median line, and separated 
from one another by transverse furrows. 

With the exception of the width, which is most marked in the 
finer races, the palate has no apprwiablc beauty or defect. 

The thickness varies according to the age and the physiological 
conditions. The palate may become congi^tcd and inflamed, projecting 
beyond the table of the incisor teeth and thus })reventing mastication. 
This state is vulgarly termcKl larnpas. It, however, is not j>athological, 
but physiological, due to the irritation of dentition. 

Huzard* the elder has long ago shown the usek»ssness and cruelty 
of the practice of removing the swelling of this region by excision 
with the knife or bv cauterization with the actual cauterv. These bar- 
barous procedures impede mastication and tend more to diminish than 
to increase the appetite, as is shown by the animal's willing but inef- 
fectual attempts. They are still performed at the present time by far- 
riers and empirics, who call it burning the larnpas. Scarifications 
practised for the same reason are not without accidents. They are 
made posterior to the third bar of the palate and not less than an inch 
from the edge of the gums of the molar teeth, so as not to puncture 
the palatine artery. 

B.— The Mouth in General. 

All the secondary regions which we have studied in the preceding 
chapter should be in harmony with one another, so that, as a whole, 
they may fulfil their functions. The mouth, indeed, requires examina- 
tion not only fix)m a physiological point of view, but from that of the 
exterior also, in that it is the organ in which is lodged the instrument 
to guide the animal, called the bit. 

> BomgelAi, Traits de U conformation ezt^rieure du cheval, 5e 6d., p. 81. (Note de Haxard 


The Bit.— Tliis iiifltrumeDt (Fig. 27) 
pictv »t' metal, woimI, tir rubber, Htraiglit, 
hiimehex, to whidi tlw 
fiinuer, calU-d tlie itin 

niposed of a <rylindri<'al 

(■d, or brokeu, and twu 

r, bridlcy and piwi-rAoin are attachi-d. The 

or bar of the bit, or the bitting, rests upon 

ri. 27.— fill r.f bridle. 

the tonpie and tlie Ihips ; the hitter prevents deviation and increases 

Tlie hit pliiys till' |iiirt of a h'Ver of the second elasw, in which the 
eiirli .1 i:- tlic fiil.riim or i)f attachment, /' tlie |mint of applica- 
tion of the p<'\v<T, and // the place when- the rcsiHtanee is overcome by 
pntwnrc ii|><<n tlie Imix. /'.I npn-seiitintr the [niwer-arm of the lever, 
it will U- at oii.v iHTivivcd that the loiit^tr the branches of the bit the 
nioH' |K>\verfiil anil cnei^ctir is its ai-tion. The latter augments, with- 
the diminution of the arm of n-sistancc, the distance from the canon 
to the attaehmcnt of the enrb, A H ; also, if the hit Ix- grooved instead 
of round, iir if the fre*' ]><)rtion of the tonfriie W large and the pressure 
on the chin of increa.'ting fon-e, itH effeet will l)e more intense. 


Functionally, the bit is, therefore, an apparatus of restraint which, 
by its pressure, more or less severe, on the bars and the chin, causes 
pain of variable intensity. 

Temperament of the Mouth. — The animal will react in con- 
sequence of this pain, and Bourgelat designated the temperament of 
the mouth as tlie particular mode or intensity of this reaction ; in 
other words, as the special effect of the different sensations transmitted 
by the bit to the mouth. 

Thus, the mouth is qualified as being steady y truey or normal when it 
supports the bit with freedom, without uneasiness, pain, or fear ; when 
it neither struggles nor yields too easily to the action of the hand. 

The mouth is sensitive, tender, delicaie, or easy when it peixjeives 
the most delicate impressions of the hand and responds to them with 

It is strong, hard, and thick when it yields only to energetic traction 
on the reins. 

A spoiled mouth is one which reacts falsely towards the indications 
of the bit, whatever may be its sensibility otherwise. 

Finally, the fresh mouth or the (leiive mouth is that which relishes 
the bit, chews it without cessation, and appears slightly frothy from the 
continual agitation which the movements communicate to the saliva. 

These different qualities of the mouth can only be judged by the 
utilization of the animal, but they should not be neglected on that 
account. In a general way it is always necessary, in the selection of 
a horse, to seek the most complete information possible and not omit 
any tests, if such be necessary. Overweening vanity is too often 
tlie cause of the most singular mistakes. We cannot insist too touch 
upon the importance of examining all parts of the mouth, and of cen- 
suring those individuals who confine themselves to an insi)ection of the 
teetli with a view to a knowledge of the age alone. 

Intemal Pace of the Cheeks. — We will now refer to the 
internal face of the cheeks, whose external conformation we have 
already studied. It does not constitute a particular region by itself, 
but it limits laterally the mouth external to the molar teeth, as the 
lips do in front of the incisor teeth. It merits, nevertheless, some 
consideration, because it presents the round tubercle at the termination 
of Stenon's duct, opposite to the anterior border of the third molar 

Wounds or lacerations of the mucous membrane, the result 
of dental spiculse from irregularities of the molars, often exist here, 
particularly in old horses. They may produce inability to masticate, 



tlie remedy for which is apparent. The subjects presenting these 
lesions are poorly nourished, their mastication is incomplete, and fre- 
quently food aocimiulates between the molar arcades and the internal 
face of the cheeks, producing a peculiar distention (granary) on the 
exterior, which we have previously described. 

Method of Action of the Bit. — The bit should be considered 
as a check which ari^ests, as a j)ower which masters, and, above all, as 
a means of communication between the horse and he who directs 
him. The physical impression which it causes varies from the slightest 
sensation to the most intense ))ain. 

If the intensity of its effect is not properly measured with the 
degree of sensibility and th^ intelligence of tlie subject, it produces 
eflTects opposite to those which are desired ; it provokes an energetic 
and often stubborn defence, in which the man is not always victorious, 
and which may not be without dangt^r to his person. If, on the 
contrar}', the mechanical efftvt of the bit be in proportion to the sensi- 
tivent^ss of the mouth, so as to l)e a simple indication for the horse to 
surmise what is required of him, and, if necessarj', to teach him by the 
pain that he must obey a will sujK^rior to his own, then it becomes a 
means of education entirely rational and utilized in his dressing for 
various pur|)()st»s. It becomes an intermediary agent between two in- 
telligenci's whose communication is thus possible. It translates ideas 
and information from the language of the master into that of his ser- 
vant ; and, little by little, tlie latter will eompix^iend this language, 
although it varices aci^onling to tlie puriK>se for which the animal is 
employcil, as the saddle, light carriage, or heavy traction. It is im- 
jK)rtant that the dressing should lx»gin early and under a patient, 
firm, able, aiul exjXTieuced niast<T. 

The bitting is the name given to the method by which the bit is 
most conveniently adjusted to the mouth of the horse. 



The posterior extremity of the head compris^^ three regions, 
of which one, s^Tvingto unite the head with the neck, is double. They 
an* : the poll or nape, the panAid nyion, and the thrwd. 


A.— The Poll or Nape (Fig. 19). 
SitTiation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The poll or nape 

occupies the summit of the head. It is limited laterally by the ear 
and the parotid region, anteriorly by the forehead, posteriorly by the 
crest of the neck and the mane. 

This r^ion, which corresponds anatomically to the occipito-atloid 
articulation, has for its base, on the median line, the funicular por- 
tion of the nuchal ligament, separated from the surface of the atlas by a 
synovial bursa ; on each side are eight pairs of muscles disposed in several 
layers. Over the side of the atlas, corresponding to the two foramina, 
at the base of its transverse process, are the two principal blood-vessels, 
the retrograde and occipito-muscular arteries, separated from each other 
by a space of about two inches. The skin which covers it is ordinarily 
protected by the mane, which is usually cut to lodge the head-piece 
of the halter or bridle. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — The veterinarian must thoroughly 
assure himself of the fineness and freedom from disease of this r^ion ; 
for, on account of the movements and the disposition of the muscles 
into layers, filtration is favored, and all diseases in this location assume 
an unfavorable aspect.^ Wounds of the poll result sometimes from 
a misfitting bridle or halter and from contusions, consequent on the 
animal's rearing and striking the poll against resisting bodies. The 
most common result of these is fistula with necrosis of the tendons, 
nuchal ligament, and even the bones. This is extremely serious and 
oflen fatal ; sometimes a cicatrix alone betrays the disease. A less 
serious disease is a synovitis and dilatation of the above-mentioned 
bursa. The swelling is usually bilateral. 

No one but the most ignorant would buy horses with such blem- 
ishes without observing them. We know of instances in which the 
hood was employed to cover the parts. An abnormal sensibility 
of the poll is always indicative of a previous or now-existing disease, 
which can be demonstrated by passing the hand over this region. 

B.— The Parotid Region (Fig. 19). 

Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The parotid re- 
gion, like the gland which forms its base, derives its name from its 
proximity to the ear. It is limited above by the ear, below by the 

> A. Goubaux, Note sur quelques l^ions de la r^on de la nuque, chez le cheval (Arch. 
yHAi., 1877, p. 187). 



thrcnUy lK»hiii(l bv the neekf and in front by the temple and the ehe 
The external face of the pamtid gland is separated from the skin 
the parotido-auricularis and cutieularis colli musck^; underneath, 
lies against the pharynx, larynx, guttural pouches, blood-vessels, a 
nerves, and is traversed obliquely from 1k4ow upward, and from wit 
out to within, by the jugular vein ; the superior extremity embra< 
the lya^e of the «ir, and the inferior is hxiged in tlie angle of uni 
of the jugular and glosso-facial veins. 

Beauties and Defects. — Thesi^ are purely conventional and va 
according to taste. The n^ion, to be beautiful, it is said, should 
light and depressed in order that the movements of the head may 
free and exti»nsive ; if too much excavated relative to the surroundi 
parts, the movements will Ik? too easy, the saddlt»-horse will be able 
defend himself against his rider, and the head is null-attached; if t 
salient over the regions which confine it, the horse l)ecomes difficult 
guide and dire<*t, the movements are neither free nor extended, and t 
head is again mal-attavhed , 

These arguments do not n»st on any given physiological rationa 
It suffici»s to rtM^nll the auatonii<'al dis|H)sition of the articulations a: 
the mus<'U^ to understxuid that thesi^ (hju formations are arbitrary a: 


n*uder the contradictor^- theories valueless. A moderate depre 

sion of the iMirotid surfiwe is simply agreeable to the eye in that 

nuikes the hejid ap|>ear to Ik' In'tter attaclunl, and, for this reasc 
d<»serves the pn»fen*nce acTonled to it. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — It in of more utility than the preceding 
determine the pn^sence or al)Hen(*e of diseases and blemishes. We obsei 
here tumej'actwuj^ duo to melanotic tumors, to alterations in the gland itself, 
parotiditis, to diseases of the stnictur(»s which surround it, as the guttural pouch 
or to lesions of the surroundinjr veins. Parotid abscesses are often com| 
cate<i with salivary fistuhe, which allow the escape of saliva and produce m 
nutrition. The XvhA is a^ain calle<i upon hy unscrupulous dealers to hide th* 

I^t us also mention dfnudntionn, rirafricfA^ and trnren of the amtery, as w 
as other hlemislu*?* which result from the employment of a means of treatm< 
of discjises of the larynx, the ^land, or the facial vein. In such it is nee 
sary to determine whether or not the animal is a roarer or sutfers from an obi 
eration of the jupilar vein. (Si»e AW*/-.) 

In c<mclu>ion, let \i> mention the barbarous us€Lg'e which c(msisted in co 
preHsion of the paroti<i region with a farrier's pincers in horses suffering fr 
violent attai-ks of coIi«-. the cause of which was attributed to pain and engor] 
ment of the parotid glands. In similar circumstances it was also the custom 
beat ami o|H*n the >;lands to (piiet the animal. This operation, dangerous 
well as al)surd, often terminattui in pingrene and iti* inevitable consequence, t 
death of the patient. We have pr<H)f of such an example. 


C— The Throat (Fig. 19). 
Sitiiation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The throat oocu' 

pies the bottom of the curvature of tlie head upon the neck, or the sine 
of the cervico-cephalic angle. It is limited behind by the inferior 
border of the neck, in front by the submaxillary spai^e, and laterally 
by the parotid region. It is a single I'egion, which corresponds to the 
inferior face of the larynx and the origin of tlie trachea, which are 
separated from the internal fac« of the skin by the musc»les. It is 
bordered inferiorly and on cacli side by tlie two glosso-facial veins. 

Its absolute beauty consists in its large transverse diameter, 

because the larynx, whose diameter is related to that of the throat, 
belongs to the respirator}^ apparatus, the (opacity of which should 
always be extensive. Its narrowness is, therefore, an absolute 
defect, because it signifies lungs of small capacity. 

In examining a horse, the larynx is generally compressed with the 
hand to determine the cough, the character of which has an important 
clinical aspect. All horses, however, are not equally sensitive to this 
manipulation. In certain animals it is necessary to employ both hands 
to obtain this result, and in others it is entirely impossible to excite 
a cough. 

The character of the cough indicates the condition of the respiratory organs. 
Provoking a cough sometimes causes the ejection of a discharge which has been 
fraudulently concealed. As soon as such is visible it is judicious to examine the 
nostrils and at the same time observe any movements of deglutition. In some 
rare cases of glanderous ulceration of the larynx and trachea, the expectorated 
matters are thrown into the mouth and immediately swallowed. Abadie, of 
Nantes, who has first called attention to this fact, advises in these cases the 
opening of the mouth of the animal and allow^ing the secretion to run out. 

The blemishes of the throat are depiloHonSy excoriationSy and cicairioea^ 
indicating the use of revulsives employed in diseases of the larynx and phar3mx. 



We have studied in the preceding chapters the different r^iona 
of the head, as to their situation, form, beauty, defects, diseases, and 
blemishes. In other words, we have employed a system of analysis in 
endeavoring to point out the physical and anatomical characters, the 
int^rity^ imperfections, and good qualities of each r^ion in particular. 


This study will not be complete without a glance at the different 
parts as a whole, purj)08ely reserved for a special chapter. This «yw- 
th^tical study will enable us to perceive much more easily the harmo- 
nious relations which should exist among them ; it will furnish us 
also with an opportunity of examining the head, as to its length, volume, 
direction, general form, aitachments to the neck, movements, and their 
influence upon the displacement of the centre of gravity, and, finally, the 

A. — Harmonious Relations of the Head. 

M. Richard ' was the first to insist, with detail, upon the &ct tliat 
the relation of construction of the different regions seems to be 
much more intimate in the head than in any other portion of the 
body. It is, he says, not rare to see, for example, a very beautifiil 
hock associat(Hl with a defwtive haunch, a good shoulder with a 
defective croup, withers well made with loins concave and badly 
atta<*hed, a narrow chest with limbs strong and well formed, etc. 

Inharmonious proix)rtions are infinitely less c^ommon in the head. 
Thus, large nostrils, well-situatKl eyes, ears widely separated, and a 
large intermaxillary' space coexist nearly always with a wide forehead ; 
whilst a narrow forehead implic^s, in most horses, large ears, placed 
high and appniaching each other, eyes but [)artly ojx?n, small nostrils, 
and a narrow intermaxillary sjiace. The fineness and mobility of the 
ears and of the eyelids, the amplitude of the nostrils, the thinness of 
the lips, the vivatMty of the eyes, and the intelligent expression of the 
physiognomy, are Ix^uties which ordinarily fx>exist. 

It follows, then, that a good or a bad conformation of one part 
naturally |K'rmits a gcxxl or a bad disj)osition of another. Beauty of 
the fon»head is not associated with narrowness of the nose ; that of the 
nostrils with narrowness of the intermaxillary sj>ace ; the intelligent ex- 
pression of a lK*autiful eye with stupidity of the remainder of the face. 

In a general way, it is correct to say that the beauties and de- 
fects of the head c»orrelate themselves in a manner almost absolute; 
but we must rememl)er that there are some subjects in which these 
relations art* defective. Therefore, in selecting a horst*, such a desir- 
able quality as a wide forehead should not of itself be regarded as 
ooncliL<^ive of general excellence. If the harmony \ye in nature, it is 
often de8tn)ved bv man, who modifies the natural conditions of existence 
of the domestic animals. 

> A. RichATd. Etude du cheval, 5e 6d., 1874, p. 127. 


A propos of the proportions, we will again revert to this subject. 
For the present we will only indicate the harmonious relations of the 
head without ignoring the possible digressions or exceptions to this 
principle, which is really less absolute than M. Richard has been 
willing to admit. 

B. — Length of the Head. 

Since the time of Bourgelat, all have been generally in accord as to 
the classic length of the head : that the height of the body measured 
from the withers to the ground, or the distance between the angle of 
the shoulder and the hip-joint, should be two and one-half times the 
length of the head. If these distances were more than two and one- 
half times the vertical diameter of the head, it was too short; if the 
reverse was true, it was considered too long. 

When it has an appropriate length, it is carried with grace, responds 
easily to the action of the bit, and does not overburden the anterior 
members. A head too long is too heavy, displaces the centre of 
gravity forward, restrains the movements of the anterior extremities, 
bears heavily on the reins, and diminishes to such an extent the speed 
and usefulness of the animal. If too short, it becomes lighter, more 
movable, and favors rapidity of movement by the removal of the 
centre of gravity from the anterior limbs. 

These are reasons of so little value that an excess or a deficiency 
in length can be compensated by a short or a long neck. In the 
saddle-horse, the head should be short ; if too long, it displaces the 
centre of gravity forward, and throws too much weight on the fore 
limbs. In the draught-horse, however, this objection disappears and 
is rather favorable to traction. We have seen many excellent horses 
which, according to the measurements indicated by Bourgelat, had this 
r^ion very long or very short. In such instances, the length of the 
head is to be considered as to its harmonious development with the 
other portions of the body, which vary with size and race, rather than 
by its influence upon the real qualities of the animal. 

C. — Volume of the Head. 


The yolume of the head is represented by different names, which 
also express its coexisting peculiarity of construction. It is called ^n« 
when the osseous processes, the muscles, and subcutaneous blood-vessels 
and nerves are well outlined. This is an index of a good constitution, 
and is a reliable sign of good breeding ; whereas, indistinctness of these 



cciiiipoui'iit ]>arts uiid an ubiindunixt of connective tissne always den 
u «)ft, lyniplmtic tcinjK'ranii'nt and a common an<'estrj'. 

Tlie lii-ad is toriiK^l </;'w« or coarxe when it is defective from 
excess of all its diiiicnisions, nwing its volnnn- more jtarticularly to 
great develop meat of its l>ony frainowork. The objeotions to this o 
formation arc the same as to that of the long head. It Is admissil 
however, with the same restrict ions that we made when sjteuking of 
luifrth (if the head, hi the draught-horse it is not a detit-t, Ixx-ause 
)Miw<T dcjtcnds, in a gi-cat inctL-'tiiv, wyinn his weight, and not > 

ii|Hin tlie i';ij>idity and extent of his movements 
to li\ the anterior |i:n-t of ilic UmIv when tilt- m 
The h<-iid is desi^rnat.-,! jir^hy or i,lm,> when, i 
tlK-n' is an ahimst •-omjileteetliiirnietit of the hl< 
i)ssei)ns and iniis>-nlar pruttilx-nuii-is in c<nisiiiTie 
the skin and MiUiiianeons tis.-:iie, 
Ixiny jiiVKis.-^s thi'nis<Ivcs. It revi 

also Ikh^iisc it tei 
[■Ics ciintract. 
addition to gnjssni 
l-ves«'U, ner\'es, i 
I' of the thickness 
as of the diminution of 
ik <-onstitntion, a lymphi 

n-injK-niiui nt, and all the jinflisixisitions to whieh the latter is heir. 

It is (^dhtl xiuiile or kUhi-ji when it apjM'ars i-maeiated from atroj 
and ulisoqttion of tlie adifxisc- tissue and of the mnscles. The ei 
iienecfl of the Uini-s, sn<'h as the maxillary spine, l>oeome quite c< 
spienons, the snpniH>rl>it is hoHow, the eye Im deeply embedded in 
orhit, the eheek Hat, tlw fiiiv di-pressed over the ma.villan.' sinuaes, t 
the skin seems atta<-hed to the l(ones. In a word, it presents all 
chararteristies "f a<lvanii'd age and exhaustion from extreme nsage. 

It nnist not Ix' eonfotmde«) with the itenile head proper, of wh 
we will s|)eak fnrther on. 

D. — Direction of the Head. 

The long axis "f the hesid may assume thre«; princijial poBiti< 
n-lutive to die verti<id line : the of>l!t/iic, the horizontnl, and the vertit 
The last two qiialitiealioiis ar»> not to Ix- taken literally, but as expn 
ing an approximation to the vertical and hori»>utjil jxisitions. 

The h.-:nl \v.i< n good as well as a natural direction when it 
tends iibliipielv from al«ive IoImIow, from lieliire to Iiehind, and fon 
with the gnnnid Mirliice, an angle of aUmt 4-") degrees. The bora 
then'hy enahled to <listingnish iiertt-etly obJi'<'ts plaee<l before hira ; 
is enal>h-<l t<> avoid them, aii<l is less likely to i>tuni))le and fall, 
is also iK^i'ssjiry 1o add that the iiit has a suitable (xiint of support ti| 
the bars, simv the insa'rtion of the n-iiis or the lines is more perp 
ilienlar to the hniuihi's of the lower jaw, which represent the arm o 



lever. But then there are other reasons of a purely mechanical nature 

(Fig. 28). 

We represent by the lines AB and AV resijcctivelv the directions 

of the bead and the neck. The former being verj- movable, admit- 
ting of extension and flexion, we 

represent the direction of the cxten- 

siirs and flexors bv the dotted lines 

(1" and Cii, in order to show at 

wliat aiigk'tt they are iiiseil^^d ii|M)n 

their lever-arm, the head. It is to 

lie remarked that when the obliiniity 

of the ht^ is (larricd to an angle 

of 4o dt^rees, the cxtensiirs and tiie 

flexors have an incidence apjiroacb- 

ing a i)eri)eadicnlar dinvtion, which 

thcv will not have when the head 

has any other inclination. 

The animal respires more easily 

(the larynx being neither in a state 

of compression nor exi^^erated ex- p,o, ^ 

tension), responds more promptly to 

the bit, is more readily controlled, and executes with greater facility 

any movements of the head which may be demanded. 

When the head is carried horizontally, the centre of gravity is 
elevated and displaced forward and the stability of the equilibrium is 
lessened. The larynx and trachea are placed in a straight line, facil- 
itating the entrance and exit of air. The body being then in a st»te 
of unstable equilibrium, the hind limbs, which are principally concerned 
in locomotion, can more easily displace the centre of gravity, the fore 
limbs, in order to avoid falling forward, move more rapidly, and loco- 
motion is thereby increased.' 

This position is not maintained at rest, hut only during exercise, 
and more especially in horses which are ewe-necked and in yoimg 
saddle-horses at the beginning of their dressing, when they are not yet 
habituated to the action of the bit. Tliis attitude is expressed by say- 
ing that the animal carries his head towards Hk «<-cnt. 

If there are some advantages in horses carrying their heads in this 

< li li > well-known hct tliM In our taaXrsC trotting- horaes the height of tbe posterior 
eitramlUa cioeedi IhU of the wltben. This oiveu li an addttlonal aid (□ (he dlBplacement 
of tbe centre of gravItT by the bhid limbs, HccnrdliiK lo the principle enuncialed, and beDM 
OtTOn an Increue of ipeed. An oppoalte coaformntluti will diminish upeed. (Haiger.) 



pottition relative to the increase of speed, of which We will speak 
latvr, there are at the luiine time aome disadvant^es. The horee cao- 
not »o easily rc<i^iii»- objects immediately about him ; he caanot 
appreciate as well the nature of tlie siirfatv over which he travels, 
and is more likely to stumble and tiill. The most serious defect which 
this direction entails is that the bit cannot act perpendicularly to the 
bars. All the traction exercised on the bit tends to retract the com- 
missures of the lips and carry it against the first molars. The teeth 
may now grasp the bit, tlie animal may become uncontrollable, and is 
then said to have taken the bit. 

It is to be remarked, from another point of view, that in the hori- 
zontal position of the head the extensors attach at an obtuse angle, an 
incidence unfavorable to contraction ; the attachment of the flexors, on 
tlie other hand, is at an acute angle, also a less favorable incidence 
(Fig. 29, A). 

This (nrriage of the head, when habitual, is nearly always accom- 
panied by a concnvity or reversing of the neck. In such cases, as 
Profifi,-<iir licsbn-' thinks, the articular relations between the atlas 
and the axis' will assume the normal condition most appropriate 
fi)r tlie execution i>f all the movements. These would l>e extremely 
limiteil in extension if the cerviial axis did not curve itself. Anat- 
omy also explains that lateral inclination of the head in such an 
elevated attitude Ixi'omes almost impossible, l)ccause its pruductioD 


requires a mean position of contact of the articular surfaces. Finally, 
the reversing of the neck, which is the consequence, renders the inser- 
tion of the muscles, now approaching the perpendicular direction, less 
defective, and at the same time increases the power of the mechanical 
action of the nuchal ligament (Fig. 29, JB). 

It is sometimes impossible to prevent the animal from holding the 
head in this position. The remedy consists in the use of the martin- 
gale, a strap of leather of suitable length extending from the bit to 
the girth of the saddle. This apparatus is frequently added to the 
harness simply as an ornament. In saddle-horses this faulty direction 
can also be prevented by the use of a martingale with rings at its 
extremity, through which the reins pass, and which act as a pulley to 
keep the latter in their proper position, and thus prevent the elevation 
of the head. 

When the head is held in the vertical position the centre of 
gravity is carried backward and downward. The line of gravitation 
approaches the centre of the base of support, whence ensues a state of 
stable equilibrium, more difficulty in displacing the centre of gravity, 
aad leas quickness of movement. This position of the head is objeo- 
tioDiEkble in driving-horses and in running-horses, whilst in draught- 
horaes it is not 

A vertical head is always accompanied by an arched or swan neck, 
die appearance of which is agreeable to the eye. Besides having the 
defiKt which we have indicated, the head is not in a good ix)sition for 
■eeiDg distinctly objects beyond a certain distance. The field of vision 
does not extend far enough ahead to enable the animal to avoid obsta- 
cles which may be in his path. Also, like those which carry the head 
in extension, he is apt to stumble and fall, but for opposite reasons. 

In this direction of the head the incidence of the extensors is 
acute and that of the flexors obtuse (Fig. 30, A), Here again the 
neck is incurvated or arched to preserve the normal relation of the 
articular surfaces of the occipito-atloid articulation and render at the 
same time the insertion of the muscles more perpendicular to the arm 
of their lever (Fig. 30, B). This vertical direction is less objectionable 
in the saddle-horse than in any other. In horses which present it the 
steps are short and the flexion of the knees (knee-action) is more 
marked. They are m'ore sensitive to the bit, and quite manageable 
if the conformation be not exaggerated. 

When excessive, however, it constitutes a serious defect, as when 
the head is oblique from above to below and from before to behind, and its 
inferior extremity approaches the sternum. The effect of the backward 


<lisiila<vmciit of the centre of gravity hari liere reached its highest 

limit; according; to thf usual exprt-sriiuii, tlic liorse orrhes his neck to 
bin brmut, cannot aee 
the surrounding obeta- 
(-1(11, and removes his 
h<ad entirely from the 
control of the hand. 
In certain siibjectg 
_ the I>raneli(s of tlie bit 
are said tu touch the 
pcoti)ral region. This 
ha» not yet been 
pn)ved by our olteer- 
vation. If it \)c true 
it (fln Ix" remedied by 
limiting the excessive 
flexion of the head 
Kii,. 31 \i]«m the neck by 

means of an over- 

eheek, — a system of Htru}m extending from the Hnddle to each side of the 

bit and infl«t.d over the ih.I1 (Fig. ;t] ). 

E.— Forms of the Head. 
At the Ix^inning of the chapter we eoniiwired the general form of 
the head to that of a ({iiudrungnlar pyramid, in order to establish the 


different subdivisions and facilitate their description. This compari- 
son is not sufficient to specify clearly certain conformations which must 
be described, and to which have been given particular names. 

1. The head is called straight when its anterior face is rectilinear in 
every sense. It is accompanied ordinarily by a wide forehead and nose, 
large nostrils, wide separation of the ears, the eyes, and of the branches 
of the lower jaw, exceeding fineness of the skin, of the eyelids, and of 
the lips, and a high faculty of expression. It is the type of absolute 
beauty ; it indicates the nobleness of the animal, his purity of blood, 
his energy, and his kindness of temperament. It is found in Aryan 
and thoroughbred horses and their descendants of mixed breed. It is 
the one most highly appreciated. 

2. The conical head is that which is much contracted at its 
inferior extremity. It is regarded as a defect, l)ecause it presents, 
it is said, all the characters opposed to those of the preceding form. 
This is true in many cases, and some who designate the beauty of the 
head by saying that the horse should be able to drink from a glass y 
little suspect that they indicate precisely the defective point ; the animal 
is nearly always incapable of performing work requiring force and 
energy. Yet we have known, for several years, excellent horses which 
had the conical head. Old subjects, from senile atrophy of the max- 
illary bones and the change in the direction of the incisor teeth, some- 
times acquire this form of head. 

In a general examination it is necessary, therefore, to assure our- 
laelves that the forehead and nose are wide, the jaws well separated ; in 
a word, that the head does not present one of the more exceptional 
forms of which we will speak immediately. In the latter the anterior 
sur&ce of the head is characterized by a curvature more or less marked, 
which may be concave or convex. These have received special names. 

3. The head is arched when the profile of its anterior face is 

4. It is called hare-faced when the convexity is limited to the 
region of the forehead. 

5. It is designated ram's head when the convexity is limited to 
the nose. 

De Cumieu also described the hurdy-gurdy head, so named on 
account of its resemblance to the profile of that instrument. It pre- 
sents " a curve, more or less pronounced, extending without interruption 
from the poll to the lips ; it ordinarily has considerable expression and 
indicates a pure line of descent." It is not necessary to dwell upon this 
variety, as all its characteristics correspond to those of the arched form. 


The convexity of the head, whatever may be its extent and degree, 
is not very desirable, on account of its inel^ance and the habitual nar- 
rowness which accompanies it. 

For a long time, more especially during the last century, the con- 
vex head was verj- much in demand. But it was believed that horses 
which presented it had narrow nasal cavities and intermaxillar}' spaces ; 
that they were particularly predi8i)osed to become roarers. By judi- 
cious crossing, attempts were made to cause its disappearance from the 
races in which it was most conmion, — those of the north of Europe, 
Normandy, Limousin, Spain, Algeria, etc. To-day it is quite rare 
and is ceasing to be a distinct race peculiarity. Most authors liave 
considered it as characteristic of a deficient development of the cranial 
cavity and the respirator}- apparatus, and as indicating a predisposition 
to grave diseases. M. de Curnieu remarks tliat " it represents tlie ex- 
treme of dc^ncration ; the horse possessing such a sliaped head is the 
idiot of the s|xxMes, and is found in the poorest parts of England, 
Germanv, and Normandy." 

6. The ht^d is snub-nosed when its anterior face is concave, or 
when the coni-avity is liniitcil to the inferior part of the forehead. It 
is common anumg the Irish raci*, as the Irish cob and the Shetland 
|)ony, and in the (.\)rsi(«u and Sjiixlinian inmic^s. Ordinarily sliort, 
wide, and in n'lation with the development of the respirator}' api)aratus, 
it is incornn-t to IxJieve that it is an objwtionable characteristic. 
Nothing justifi(»s this l)elief. It gives the animal a certain air of 
aggressivent»ss and inde|K*ndencv ; it is often allied with marked 
rol)ustn(»ss, great energy, and a series of other good qualities of the 
race in which it is ()l)S(»r\'ed. 

7. The hesid is c<»nii)an'd to that of the rhinoceros when the 
concjivitv exists (uilv at the inferior extremity of the nasal bones. It 
was f<)rin(Tly ol)serve<l in the Anlennaise hors(» and is a g(KKl CHmforma- 
tion, although jHThaps disagnn'ahle to the eye. It may he congenital 
or (wquired : <*ongenital, when it is pn^sent at birth; ac<|uired, when 
it is the H'siilt of pn^ssnre or of fracture of the njisal l>on(»s, as we have 
nMnarktnl in the <'hapt4T on the nose. It only becomes a defect in the 
lattiT <':is<' when, from displacement or the formation of a ejillus in the 
nasiil fosste, it lH'<'onies an olist ruction to respiration. 

The H'lative value of these different forms is bv no means 
al>solntc, and ejieh one has numerous excerptions. We have known 
horn's with arehe<l Inads, which, during several years, performed 
extn*mely lalw prions s^Tviees. In (►thers, the width of the maxillary 
s|)aee by <iur measurements was as great as that in subjects with 


straight heads. It appears to us very hazardous to believe that this 
conformation predisposes to roaring, and the facts which we will relate 
seem to prove that the observations made during the last century have 
been mal-interpreted. The lesions of chronic roaring do not reside in 
the nasal cavities. Among horses with straight heads roaring seems to 
be as common as among those in which they are convex ; finally, it 
should not occasion surprise to find roaring more common in some races 
than in others, this resulting not so much from an anatomical defect as 
from a physiological weakness transmitted by heredity. This confor- 
mation is really only defective when accompanied by a veritable nar- 
rowness of the cranial cavity, the forehead, nose, nostrils, or maxillary 
space. In other cases it is perfectly reconcilable with services which 
exact force and vitality. The same argument is true as to glanders, to 
which horses with arched heads were, incorrectly, said to be more 
predisposed than others. 

F. — Attachments of the Head. 

Attcu^hments of the head is the name given to the mode of union 
between that part of the body and the neck. The head is said to be 
irrf/ attached when there exists a slight depression in front of the trans- 
verse apophysis of the atlas, extending from the poll to the throat. 
When its union with the neck forms a graceful curve, the movements 
are easy and extended. This is preferable in the saddle-horse and 
those used for light purposes. It is to be noticed in the finer races as 
well as in mixed breeds, in the English horse, the true Arabian, the 
Anglo-Norman, the Tarban horse, etc. 

The head is poorly attachedy or unfastened, when the jxirotid grooves 
are too much accentuated. Oflcn, with this arrangement, the neck is 
long and slender, the muscles of the members slightly developed, the 
loins depressed, the chest narrow, and the animal lacks strength and 
endurance. The head is plastered on when the parotid groove is 
efiaced. The subject is then heavy on the bit and appears unsightly. 
This condition is most objectionable in the saddle-horse. 

G. — Movements of the Head. 

The movements of the head play an important part in the exe- 
cution of the different functions which it fulfils. It contains, first, the 
organs of smell, sight, hearing, and taste. We can add to these the sense 
of touch, although the latter belongs also to other regions. Whence it 
fbllowB that the head is obliged to assume different attitudes in order 


to place the ()r<j:ans of which it is the st»at in the best (conditions to 
(•stablish their i)r()i)er relation with tlie external world. The most 
interesting movements for us to study, however, are tiiose whose object 
is to modify the j)osition of the centre of gravity while standing or 
walking. The hcjid ocinipitn:?, in fact, at the anterior j)art of the trunk, 
a position which also allows it to oscillate like a veritable pendulum at 
the extremity of the cervical stalk. It may be raised or lowered, 
remain in the axis of the Ixnly, or Ix* displaced laterally, l>ackward, or 
forwanl ; in a word, the i^entre of gravity can he moved upward, 
downward, fonvard, backward, sideways, raised from the liase of sup- 
port or drawn to it, removcil from the c*entre of this l)ase, forced out 
of it, or again drawn l>ack. These multiple actions are produced still 
more fnH?ly by the h«id when it is attaclunl to a long neck, in which 
lase its movemi^nts an* easier and more extendwl. Therefore, all the 
influence which it excn*is(»s ui>on hKHjuiotion can Ik? understood, since it 
(•an, a<xx)rding to the will of the animal, change rapidly the condi- 
tions ol* stability or instability of the equilibrium ; in a word, modify 

the SptHll. 

Xot only do wc sjK'ak of its extensive displacements, the effect of 
which is undcrst<MHl at first sight, but we also make allusion to its 
|iartial mov<'mcnts u|)on the ncvk. 

A<t'j)nling to our researches, the centre of gravity of the head is 
situated on the nuHliau line, at the intersection of a transv€»rsal plane, 
which jKiss^'s j)ost<*rior to the last suj)erior molar tooth, and of a hori- 
zontal plane tangent to the |)alatine arch. Should the head be extended, 
it Im-couh's a mass of alnuit fiftwn to sixteen kilogrammes, which will 
<-arry it, fn»m this fact alone, in advance of the cervical lever, and 
which will tend to deviate the line of gravitation in front of the base 
of snp|)oi1. This is the attitude which it assumes in the race-horse 
when he is running at full s|k^1. When it lKx»onu»s flexed, reverse 
effects are pnKhie<Hl ; when it is dircH^'ted to the side, the corresponding 
anterior menilKM' will at once l)c overburdened, and the other as much 
disbunh'Uiil. This is sutiiiMcnt to explain the im|X)rtance of these total 
and partial displacements. Wc will, lH»sid(»s, hav(» occasion to return 
to the snbj<Ht when des<'ribing, in their pro{)er place, the gaits, the 
attitudes, and the movements which the animal |)crforms. 

H. — Expression of the Head. 

The fa<v of the hoi>ie is e<'rtainly the i)art of the Ixxly upon whidi 
the sensations and the jutssions which he exj)eriences show themselves 


most clearly. When tliis faculty of expression is carried to a high 
d^ree, he is said to have figure and expression. 

The parts which are most particularly charged with the manifesta- 
tions of the different internal states of the animal are : the eyes and the 
eyelids, the ears, the nostrils, the lips, and the mouth. These organs, 
through the different attitudes which they take, depict, by turns, gentle- 
ness, vivacity, anger, sadness, depression, joy, pain, fear, frankness, 
courage, ferocity, aggression, savageness, indifference, stupidity, ennui, 
etc. Ordinarily, the faculty of expression of the head is in direct 
relation with the purity of the nu«, the quality of the animals, their 
energ}', and their intelligence. But it is a gross error to believe that it 
is possible to appreciate the qualities of a horse from an examination 
of his physiognomy ahme. The latter, like that of man, can deceive, 
perhaps still more, for it has not the same mobility and shades ; its 
language is less familiar to us ; its most j)owerful auxiliary (gesture) and 
its best interpreter (speech) is wanting. Besides, if the features of the 
face are quite well understood, through education and habitual inter- 
course, as regards horses of the same species, they become much less 
comprehensible when it is uqu(>sti(m of different species having between 
them only limited relations. 

Man reads upon the fm« of his fellow-man sentiments which he 
feels ; long observation and habit are indispensal)le to him, on the con- 
trary, in order to understand the expressive manifestations of the horse. 

Besides, we should not b(» d(»ceived about their value ; for in some 
select subjects in which the head clearly reveals the greater part of 
the internal passions, the mass of the body will often deprive it of 

The ability of the buyer will consist, then, in the pnidence with 
which he guards himself against the premature inferences that can be 
drawn from their absence. 

It must not be forgotten that he who exhibits the animal for sale 
18 greatly interested in showing qualities which the horse has not, or has 
only in a feeble d^ree, and can by a kind of special preparation — the 
fear of blows, the blows received, the introduction of a piece of ginger 
into the anus, etc. — give him an appearance of vivacity or energy 
which, unfortunately, will be only temporarj'. 


PART 11. 



A.— The Neck. 

Situation ; Limits ; AnatomicaJ Ba«e. — The neck is a sin- 
gle n^gion, flatU»neil from side to side, situated at the anterior extrem- 
ity of the tnnik ami 8up|x»rting the head. Free on its lateral feces, 
it is limited in front and al)ove by the poll, the parotid region, and 
the throiit ; behind and below by the withers, tlie shoulders, and the 

It has for its osseous l)ase a bony axis formed by the eervical ver- 
tebra?, sustaine<l su|XTiorly by the two i)ortions of the nuchal ligament 
and enveloiKHl completely by numerous and voluminous muscles. The 
tnichea, the (es<)j)hagus, the arteries, the veins, the lympliatics, and, 
finally, the ner\'e8 leading to the head, occupy its inferior border. The 
manr a<lorns its sujierior l)order. 

This region is an ini])ortant one to study, because it constitutes at the 
anterior |)art of the trunk the arm of a lever more or les^s long, whose 
extn»mity gives attachment to the hea<l, which is a kind of resistance 
that follows all its displac(»meuts and concurs with it to nuxlify the sit- 
uation of th(» centn^ of gravity <luring progressive movements. 

Divisions. — Whatever may Ik» the j)articular form of the region 
of the nc<*k, it may Ik* repn^scntiKl as a pyramid flattened from side to 
side, the 6<w<' of which corr(»s|K)nds to its jMJsterior and the ^ummi^ to 
its autiTior cxtri'mity. Its |x»ripher}' pn^^nts, l)esides, two faces, a 
right an<l a Icfl, and a nuprrior and inferior harder. 

1. Lateral Paces. — Kach <)!' the lateral faeea is traversed over its 
(»ntin» length l)y a n)und thickening corn'S|)onding to the cervical ver- 
tebra? (H»ven'<l by the muscles, the most su|K»rficial of which is the ma»- 
toido-hum(»ralis. Alnjve this enlargement is an irregularly-triangular 


surface, on which are seen, in fine and well-bred horses, the digitations 
and directions of the muscles underneath the skin. Below, it presents 
a longitudinal depression along the side of the trachea, known under 
the name of jugular gutter. The width of the latter diminishes from 
before to behind ; its depth varies with the subject according to the 
form of the neck, the muscular development, etc. In those animals in 
which the neck is dag-like, or reversed, this gutter is more superficial. 
Whatever may be its disposition, it lodges under the skin a large super- 
ficial vein, the jugular, which becomes immediately very apparent 
when the circulation of the blood is interfered with by any obstacle, as 
the pressure of too small a collar, for example. 

2. Borders. — ^The inferior border is thick and rounded, because 
it has for its base the trachea. Its width from side to side is in rela- 
tion with the calibre of this conduit and the amplitude of the lungs. It 
constitutes, therefore, a mark of absolute beauty. 

The superior border, thinner than the preceding, supports die 
mane. Its thinness is a matter of beauty and is to be sought for ; but, 
in some old horses, especially stallions, it becomes invaded with adi- 
pose tissue, which renders it so heavy that it cannot sustain itself and 
fiills to one side.* Such a condition is called lop-neck, or faUenrneck, 
an ungraceful disfigurement which makes the application of the collar 
difficult, and is accompanied by deep transverse folds, which are always 
hard to cleanse, and in which colonies of acari often take refuge. We 
have seen some animals in which these furrows were sufficiently deep 
to bury the hand when the head was extended. 

The region of the neck should be examined as to its/orm, directum, 
or carriage, volume, length, mode of attachment to the head, and its 

Form. — ^The neck is called straight, or pyramidal, when its borders 
are rectilinear and its lateral faces nearly plane or but slightly rounded, 
according to the age, the sex, the volume of the muscles, etc., of the ani- 
mal. The head is then well supported and well directed. It is arched 
when its superior border describes a convexity more or less pronounced 
throughout its entire length. In this case the head is ordinarily carried 
in a vertical position and presents the defectiveness of which we have 
already spoken. If the convexity be limited to the anterior part it is 
designated swartr^neck, by reason of analogy to the neck of that bird, 
whose graceftil curvature it imitates. This form modifies, like the pre- 
ceding, the carriage of the head, but the vertical direction which the latter 
shows is less pronounced. Finally, the neck is reversed, or ewernecked, 
when its superior border is concave, which implies a proportional con- 


vexity of the inferior border. Many horses showing this conformation 
have, in front of the withers, a distinct depression. Most of them 
also hold the head in a horizontal direction, as we have indicated. 

In a general way, all these forms are so much more compatible 
wnth the velocity of the gait the more the head is carried in advance 
of the base of support and, cx^nsequently, as the cervical trunk is leas 
convex along its superior border. The pyramidal and reversed forms 
remove the head farthest from the body and denote the greatest speed. 
On the (contrary, the an^hed and the swan-neck, by their tendency 
to curve the vertebne in the shajx? of an S, diminish the length of 
the nec^k, move the wntn* of gravity backward, and are more fevor- 
able to its elevation and depression as well as to the lateral displace- 
ment of the trunk. They also offer advantages in the saddle-horse, 
in which grace, brilliancy, rapidity, and extent of movement are pre- 

These conformations can Ix? acquired by means of mechanical con- 
trivances and appropriate dressing. All horsemen are in the habit of 
making the nwks of their horses 8upj)le by obliging them to execute 
progressively the movements of extension, flexion, and lateral inclina- 
tion. The utility of such suppleness is easily understood, since this 
kin<I of functional gymnastic*s has no other purpose than to habituate 
th(» animal to use* this Iwlani^e — so i)owerful and so useful — ^with dex- 
terity and rapidity, and thus overcome the resistance of the head. We 
shall, farther on, sci* that tlu»sc cervical gymnastics, carried to an ex- 
tnnic, will prove prejudicial in cvrtaiu castas, while, when well employed, 
their cflicacv lK'<*onu»s incfmtestable in certain others. 

Direction or Carriage. — IndcixMidently of the particular forms 
which it assumes, the niH»k also carries itself in several directioilB 
nlativr to the vcrtiiiil line. We shall <*onsider three varieties: 

1st. Tljr vertical, or, more pro|)erly, an approximation to the 
rerlinil. In this attitude, which constitutes a point of beauty and 
imlii-atc's <*n<Tgy, the head is easily sustiiinc<l, the animal is easy on the 
n'ins and the bit, and the niovenicnts of the shoulders are free and 
exti'usivr ( Fi;r. •>-). 

1^'t //*/* and 0/>, for illnstrati<»n, rt^prt»s<^nt the directions of the 
shonl<l<T an<l tli<' ntH*k rcsjHH'tivcly. The extensor muscles and the 
mast4»ido-lminrnilis will 1k' s<'lu'nmticjilly rcprescntwl by the lines J5iii 
aud Bh. TIk* latt4'r, it will Ih' plainly s(H»n, has a more considerable 
h'Ugth, an<l tlH'n^forc a gn^atcr amplitude of contraction to elevate the 
s^-jipulo-hunK'nil anjrlc and in<T<-as(» the an* d(*scrib(Hl by the forefoot. 
We s<»e, monH>ver, that the weight of the head, rcpresi»nted by the line 


BR, indicating the direction of the force of gravity, is exerted at the 
end of the cervieal lever at a very acute angle, an incidence which 
diminishes the intensity of the force of gravity. This explains why 
horses carrying the neck in this position are not hard-inouttied ; the 

head seems to weigh less at the end of the cervical stalk, in <vnse- 
quence of the sIigiitly-)K'riien(liciilar incidence of the line of gravita- 

Finally, we call attention to th<' favorahle inriertion of the extensor 
muscles. Bin, which are in exeellent i-ondition t<) resist the weight of 
the head and to carry it backward in onler to give freedom to the 
action of the anterior linil>s. Horses with nwks thus formed are well 
qualified for all the hrilliant movements of tossing and balancing the 
head in the riding-school and in the [mrade. 

2d. The Horizontal. — We obwr\-e this dirccticm in animals that 
arc deficient in energy, in the common races, and in tliose which are 

y*t THE hZTEty^a O/- 7SF Wa^SE^ 

ii^ijfu^. * 15 xsj^ '"maC *Qiy^ H- lV.nil*7-.^ -are jBv%«il»dL bf tlic 

tii^ <^Air.*iiu*Ji;» Vt^ h up amd d'^iriL uni Inr lU^ <i5iriTltfTHg mcmp- 
ju(#dir •jiiM' tii*- iuu*^-jM^ atu<j r»-lJHtn-*- ti#*iiiaelv«& <<f ilie fis^ne which ui» 
j^'^'r.'A '/•3'afc^j'Ai*;/' Wi- J#^.» «^^ L«.lTv«E?^ thai are aiiftiffdl fc* hcavv 
yi«id# )iM^tiij(i#' tbi^ irtxiuid^ '^xausv.ciallv, ior rfamr vhich iiv hart ^een 
>• ii^j r.j#^iiji^ #^ tL^ iir^x^Mi */f the head. 

^'ii:^*j^-^ luiiv li«r ti^ f'fr'.'uxa«!taiK«» uoder which we ohsenrf h, the 
tujjsiizl ;tjKiai\> iia« a hard juvjutL. and hi& gah is sboitaied. We mo^ 
4-*.'j«'|/i. h'-fv. tii^ t^tiA^m^, wIm>* neck i« held horiaontalhr when he i» 
ut'/*A u, U'iift tixuMM «^|i^, liut as^ume^ aiKiCheT poation under cddinanr 
*'ir''*jiij*'tiifyii*. All Ok^*^ fi^.tis are explained bv the mechanical oooad- 

l^-f, for •'x:a,tu\Af^ mn awl 0(' \*: the relative direction erf* the 
i»l»'/ijMi'f afi^J tiMf r*»<k rFitr. *52;. It Ls plain that the mastoido-hame- 
tmW*. i»! p^Uortj'W'/lf awl tlierrforf has a limited degree of oontrartioo. 
\<\<rili«'l«-^, it* iri>)«'rtion in tlie shoulder is much more perpendicular 
tlmn in fhi' pn^«<iiri;r din^lion, whence it resultB that the muscle will 
\tt' utort' |mih<'Hij1 a- r»*jranlH tin* inU^nrtity of its action. We understand 
i'rout tliif* i'iyi how it ih that horw*H which become exhausted daring 
It lonjf joiiriM'V <iirrj' tin* n<H'k in this direction. Moreover, the line 
of jrniviiiition, ^7^, of the* h^-a^l tcndrt to become more and more fer- 
|M'fidirijhir with the <vrviml axiH, which jrives to the head a greater 
|Miv\ ir of rcnlHUiiut' an<l explainn why these animals are always harJ- 


Th*' Utwl thiiH hold dinpla^'CH, iK'nidc^s, the centre of gravity forward, 
nlirvrH thi* |M>Ht4Tior pxtn'inity of the Ixnly from a portion of the weight 
hiir>tiiiiir<l hy it, iiiid pxartH a sinallrr ex|H'nditure of force in the propiil- 
hivr rlVul'ti of the hin<l linil>s. 

'>U\. I''iimllv. thr lUik inav assuiiK' an intcrmwliatc direction, — that is 
to Hi\\ , nil ohli«|uity of alniiit lo <l('jj:r(M»s. We w^o again, by inspecting 
I'V'. .'J*J, tliiit in tills liistan<'<» the advantajr<'H and disjul vantages of the 
tuo |inMi'<liii^ diiti'tions an* alH)nt c<inally (listrilnit<'<l. The muscles 
haxi' II iiiniii Iniirtli, and tln'lr incid(Mi<M» with the shoidder is favorable, 
till* »*t<|» \^ ^-iilVirit'iitlv t'\triHlt'<l, ami the haul is neither tcK) light nor 
t«Mi hrjiw nil the i-ein. In a woixl, for ^mkI service, this is the usual 
|x»Hition !is«.iimt^l i»y nn»st ho!N«s, the p»l<len mean to which it should 

Volumo. Tho volume of the ntn'k shonld not lx» too large. 

• II \U'uW\ iMiiU'iiiiAifv pnkiwiue tlo mc^locliH-. *U' vhirurKio el ilhyKit^iie v^t^rinAire*, t 

s I All Kiu %»'niv ■ 


It is important that the latter should be harmoniously proportioned to 
the other parte of the body, and only by practice are we enabled to judge 
of the characters which denote this harmony. Thus, it may be lender 
or thick, two conformations intimately associatnl with an excess or a de- 
ficiency of its length. However, in stallions the neck acquires a develop- 
ment which must not be considered as a defect. The effect of castra- 
tion is a diminution of the thickness of this region to a notable extent 

Lengfth. — The length of the neck, which is measured from the 
middle of the anterior border of the shoulder to the anterior extremity 
of the transverse process of the atlas, is correlative to its volume, which 
should be neither excessive nor deficient, under penalty of destroying 
the usefulness of the animal. 

Let us see what happens when the cer\-ical lever is lengthened or 
shortened on this or on tliat side of its normal dimensions. Let (Fig. 
33} mn and OC be the relative directions of the shoulder and the neck ; 

iet, on the other hand, OC, OA, and OB represent the lengths of the 
neck gradually decreasing. 

Ist. When the l^nrfth in projtortionnl, OA, it allows a sufficient 
extension in the movements of the shoiiKler and in the displacement 
of the centre of gravity ; the head is not t(xi heavy on the bit, and the 
cervical trunk poasessefl suppleness and a mean power of mobility. 
If to this quality be addH a good direetion and a high carriage, we 
will find the conditions most fovorabk- for all general services. 


TIic proper length of tlie nwk caiiitot invariably be detcrmir 
luatlii'itiatically, an Bourgelat bas prett.'ii(l<-d wbeii be assi^^ned to it i 
wtDR- l<-ii^}i as tbat of the liL'od. jlltboti^rb tbis relation may be o 
stant, M'e find some com )x>nHat ions cornt-ting tbe errors in the < 
st'nce or the otlicr, and altering tbe exti'nial beanty no more than tl 
iiifliien<-e the good ijualitioN of tbe uninial. M'e will return tu thia 
<liseii(ising tlio prOjMrfhnn. 

■id. W'licn the iiccli k too long, Of, itu givatest disadvanti 
lies in overlninieniii^ tbe anti-Hur jMirlion of the l)ody and in bringi 
tbe (vnire of gravity too tiir forwai-d. It frequently I)econics defecti 
lH>sides, by reason of its slender and ema<-iated u]i]>eamneo. Final 
it i'eiid<Ts tile bind beavy iMtmisc it iiii'n'afies the length of tbe U" 
of tbis resistaiKT. ('It. 

Nevertheless, nature orteii brings eonijM'n sat ions whieb reniwly i 
Tindne length of the nivk and give t<) it llieeliariK'terietiwof a verita 
Ixwity. This eonsists, first, in its elevate<l attitn<lo, whieh does i 
]K'rriiit iif exeessive weight on the anterior quarters, by displacing, 
a projHi- degree, the centn- of gravity liaekward. There is, in con 
qncticT, a firm, enei^'tic, and powerful nmwularity, which gives sn 
eiiiit voliHiie and eoiintenicts the slender appearance. The snialln 
and Mgbtiii-ss of tbe bead <liniinishcs the force of tbe reflistnmx', 
in its relation witii the abnormal length of the cervical lever. T 
eoiiqx-nsiiiioti, joined to a direction approaching the vertical, cwntribu 
to niider tbe bead lighter on tbe reins, Imiinsc tbe line of gravitati 
in this .u^c is applied at the extremity of the nech with an ineidei 
iiioi-e or Ic-s acute. 

It i- useful to remark, also, that the length of tbe neck deiio 
a nirnhitivi' dcvelo]iinent of tbe muscles, Cii, elevators of the s<n(iu 
hiiiiicrjil angle, and tberi'lore a large extent of contraction and a le 
swing tu ilii' fon'fiiot. Tbe insertion of the muscle od tlie shoiih 
lieing ru'ire )H>r]K'ndicular, their a<-tion will be for this reason mi 
eneiyeiii'. In luhlltion, the niik, liy lengthening itself, becomes m^ 
inoval'h' and :icipiire^ :i greater infliienee u|kiu the displacement of i 
centre of gnivity. Tbisi' arc itr- rciil advantages in the race-hoi 
whilst- ne"k is not ii^iillv hi-nutiful unless jt Is long, verj' muscu] 
.^irriMl high, and j.nivi.l.^l with a light luwi. 

:'A. Finally, the n<-<'k m;iy Ix' too short, OB. In this case 
pn-sents advMUtagi-s ii- wi'll as disadvantages, according to the purpc 
for which iIk' aiiiuial is int<'iidiil. In driving- and eaddle-hon 
esjMi-ially till' latter, it huks snppleiiects and mobility, is genen 
tbi'-k and massive, and n iiders lii<' animal less subject to OtmtroL 


It is essentially defective in the race-horse, l^ecause its movements 
are slow and have but a limited action on the displacements of the 
centre of gravity. Let us add that the pace lacks amplitude by reason 
of tlie defect in the length of the elevator muscdes of the slioulder. 
Horses having short necks owe their speed less to the extent of the 
movements of the limbs than to their frequent rejxitition in a given 

It is not the same in the draught-horse, in which the work is 
effectctl altogether by his weight and the energy of his efforts. A 
short neck c«in Ix* redeemed by a firm and powerful muscularity, which 
will furnish a large surface for the support of the collar and will, at 
the same time, indicate groat power. The brevity of the cervical 
lever will lx» comiKjnsated again by its liorizontal tendency, because the 
elevator muscles of the scapular angle pi'ofit by a more pcTpt»ndicular 
insertion, without which the anterior displacement of the centre of 
gravity of the head would overburden too nuich the anterior members. 
In a word, the gait will be slow, whilst tlie energy of the effort will ho 
t^arried to its maximum if, as we have said, the region has very vigor- 
ous muscles. 

From the preceding considerations, we must conclude that each 
kind of service demands a determimMl length (jf the nwk : that for ex- 
treme sp<Kxl we must have a mn'k of long dimensions, well carried, and 
supjK)rting a light heiid ; that for great and |)<)werful efforts we uckiI 
weight and muscle, — that is to say, a large (luantity of contra(!tile ele- 
ments and these in a voluminous mass ; finally, for ordinary speed and 
energy, the nock should have intermediate proportions. 

In all cases it must not be forgotten that bt^tween the mtniium and 
the extremes there is a whole scale of intermediate forms which are 
neither excessive nor deficient, and that when the neck attains either 
extreme there are still (X?rtain comi^nsations for it jwrfectly compatible, 
if not with absolute biauty, at least with energy and vigor. 

Attachments. — Those lines which mark the limits of the sujk'- 
rior and the inferior bonlers of the neck cxjnstitute what are called its 


X propos of the hc^ad, we have already spoken ex|)licitly of the 
mtperior attachment. We know that there is a slight furrow on the 
external feoe of the parotid gland ; that the larynx and pharynx are 
easily lodged in the space betwcjcn the rami of the inferior maxilla ; 
that the nape of the neck, the jmrotid gland, and the throat, as a 
whole, appear to present betwcjen the head and the ne<»k a slight con- 
striction^ whose rounded and graceful profile enables us to surmise the 


perfect freedom of their reciprocal movements. When these condi- 
tions are not fulfilled, the head is said to be plastered on, or ma!- 
attached; its movements are not so easy, as we observe it, more espe- 
ciallv in short and thick necks. 

" The inferior attachments of the neck/' says H. Bouley (foe. ciL\ 
" should be marked on each side by the slight relief which constitutes 
the anterior border of the slioulders ; on each side of the tracheal 
border by the angle of union of the jugular gutters converging 
towards each other al)ove the i>oint of the sternum ; finally, towards 
the withers by a depression in front of the summit of this region, 
generally not well marked. In these conditions the neck has a good 
origin; it is ice/l attached. In other words, it harmonizes with the 
anterior jxarts of the tnmk, of which it is a continuation. The facts 
are not the same when the neck is meagre and thin, and its inferior 
border forms with the cliest a very pronouncxKl angle ; when the 
demaniiticm betwetm it and the shoulders is established in an abnipt 
and sali<mt manner; when, finally, the depression in front of the 
withers is dwply marked. In such easels we say that the neck is mat- 
attached, or, In'tter, that it is stuck into the thoraXy a very striking 
expri^ssion, which (x)nveys an (»xact idea of this defective confor- 

Since we are speaking of the inferior attachments of the neck, we 
will d(»scrilH' a jXH'nliarity which is sometimes met with, and to which, 
for a long time, the name of cut of the npear has been given. "The 
cut of the Hpear,^^ says (Jarsault,* " is a hollowness quite deep, which 
is s^-en in Turkish and Spanish horsts at the jun(»tion of the n«^k and 
the slioulder, sometimes liigher and sometimes lower. This is consid- 
ennl as a very gcMKl mark, the <iuise of which is told in a fable, which 
says that an excellent Turkish stallion received a stab from a spear in 
that jwirt, and that all his d(»s<'endants — he having been placed in the 
stu<l — inluTit^nl this mark of honor." 

Ijafoss<», in his ** Dictionnaire (riiippiatricjue,'' observes with truth 
that this ixH'uliarity is pnscnt as often on the left as on the right side, 
and that it is not licnHlitarv. SjK^'ial ri^sean'hes have demonstrated 
that it tHuisists simply in a ciingenitiil atrophy of one of the digitations 
<»f th(» angularis nuis<'lc of the s<^'apula. The atrophied branch leaves a 
depression which extends to the \vvo\ of its insertion on the corre- 
sj>onding tninsvcrsc* pnKi-ss of the cervicjil vert<»l)ra. 

Movements. — ConsidenKl in its relation with the locomotorv 

1 (iarftault. Le nouveau parfait mari>cbal. 1770. 


fiinctions^ the neck represents a balance which supports the head at its 
anterior extremity, and whose displacements carry it upward, down- 
ward, backward or forward, and to one side, at the will of the animal. 
Remarkably mobile, from the £9^^ of the numerous pieces which form 
its osseous base and the powerful muscles which move them, this 
balance plays the greatest r6le in most of the attitudes taken by the 
animal machine in movement. 

We have already seen its influence upon the stability of the situa- 
tion of the centre of gravity. (See Experiments of Morris and Baucher, 
page 6.) This influence is still more apparent when the animal 
rises, lies down, kicks, prances, walks, trots, gallops, leaps over obsta- 
cles, etc. Under all these circumstances the neck is carried first to the 
side opposite to that part of the body which is to move first ; then it 
liberates successively all those parts which will continue this move- 
ment or terminate it. Its displacements are always proportional to 
those of the entire body ; very quickly depressed in kicking, elevated 
in prancing, moving from side to side in walking, and forward and 
backward in the gallop. When the movement has a certain d^ree 
of uniformity, and is accompanied with great speed in a straight line, 
the neck acquires then a relative fixity after being extended forward 
enough to induce the members to move with a celerity in accordance 
M'ith the rapiditj' of the gait. We see this, for example, in the fast 
trot or the gallop. 

Some important practical deductions can be drawn from these facts, 
which may be employed in directing horses, as well as in equestrianism. 

If the rider desires the horse to move the left anterior foot when 
it is in repose, it is only necessary to make traction and urge him 
forward in such a manner as to increase the weight on the right fore 
member. If it be desirable to make him change the feet while he is gal- 
loping, it is only necessary to disburden this or that member by drawing 
the neck to the opposite side. If the animal be required to leap over 
an obstacle, the neck is raised to facilitate the half-prance which pre- 
cedes the leap. If, on the contrary, the object be to prevent him from 
fidling on his knees, the head is forcibly raised in order to prevent the 
centre of gravity from being displaced outside of the base of support. 

It will be sufficient for us to point out a few instances, in order to 
demonstrate the importance of the cervical region in the various 
movements, so that we may be able to apply them intelligently in 

and Blemishes. — The blemishes of the neck are cicatrices^ which 
hayCy according to their situation, different significations. We observe them 


ordinarily on the lateral faces, along the coursi* of the jugular gutter, and on the 

On the lateral face« there are sometimes traces of ««/orw, which occupy the 
superi(>r third of it« length. These are very significant, because they indicate 
that the animal has been treated for disease of the eye», the nasal sinuses, or the 
encephulou, as vertigo. 

Al(mg the course of the jugular vein there are traces of firing and linear do- 
a/rirt'M^ which suggest that the horse has been affected with inflammation of the 
jugular vein, or that he has undergone a st»rious operation in this regitm. It is 
important, then, to determine if ont^ of these veins is not obliterated. To ascer- 
tain this it is sufficient to make pressure with the thumb over its courw* at the 
inferior part of the neck, in order t<» prevent the blood from descending towards 
the heart. The slight shake of the hand will reflect the wavc^ of the column of 
bhMKl t(» the upper extremity of the gutter when the vein is intact. The contrary- 
effect will show tlmt the vessel is obliterated and the circulati<m is re-established 
by collateral vessels. If the obliteration exists imly in one of the jugulars, the 
inconvenience is not s<» great, In'cause the circulation is still sufficiently active 
thniugh the <me of the opposite side. When, however, the obstruction exists on 
Inith sides, the animal is unfit to |>erform rapid service, Iwcause the collateral veins 
are insufficient fbrtbe afferent circulation, and c<mgestion of the component part* 
<>f the heiul is the consiM|Ucnce. More(»ver, the jugular vein being the vessel 
m»lecte<i for phlebotomy, we are not able, under this circumstance, to have 
n»eounH» to it in cases of emergency. 

Very fn?<iuently the bleedings, of which (me of the veins has been the seat, 
leave their trace on the skin. A very small longitudinal cicatrix indicates the 
s|M>t where the tissui's have been involved by the fleam of the operator. At 
other time^ tht»si' truces are more apparent, manifesting themselves by varicose 
(iiiati(ms, simple or multiple, along the course of the vein, at the level of the 
places where it had been punctured. This condition is calle<l rari(v>*e. 

Along the inferior border we recognize cicatrices resulting fnmi trache- 
otomy, — that is to say, the artificial opening of the trachea for the preventi<m of 
a.Hphyxia when the natural air-passag<'s are o<Tlu(led or have an inadi'tjuate calibre. 
It is neees.sirv. in a <ase like this, to exercise the animal in everv possible wav to 
determine whether he is or is not a mnrrr. A horse that carries a trachwil tul)e 
|NTmanently will almost eompletely los«- his value, and should n(>t Ih' purcha.«*tML 

\\v observe, al>o, along the inferior border of the neck, surfaces flattencHl 
from before to b«'hind, ari-^ing from fractures of the cartilaginous rings of the 
tniehea. or from a eongenital deformity of the eon<luit, which infringe on its 
>ide'<. an<l always dimini^ih. in the <ame proportion, its internal calibre. Occa- 
sionally. <litfieulty of respiration arises in cons4H]uence of this atlection, and we 
should fullv sjili.'«fv ourselves as U\ the manner in which respiration is eflected in 
horses with sueh a deformity. 

Finally, the superior border of the neck may present ncatricf» following 
deep alwees'ij's with neerosis of the rniehal ligament, a disease which requires a 
long time to reeover from, an<l whieh should never be passed unobserved. These 
blemish(*s are ordinarily m'ca.**ion<Ml by the um' of a collar t<M) small or improfierly 

From the same causes app<'ar m/iuMr.^ and mr/M along the anterior border 
of the shoulder, or in the vicinity of the superior border of the neck. 


The diseases of the neck are affections of the skin, as surfeit and mange 
along itfl superior border ; inflammation of the jugular veins, thrombi and phle- 
biiis ; lesions of the CBSophagus and trachea ; inflammation of the lymphatic 
vessels, lymphangUiSy followed by knotted indurations along the course of the 
vessels ; and, finally, lenoiia of fJie cerrkal ligament. 

We cannot enter into long details in this connection without going beyond 
our province. Suffice it to say, that most of these diseases continue a long time, 
and are difficult to eradicate, on account of the situation, the structure, and the 
movements of the region in which they are found. 

The Mane and the Forelock. 

Situation ; Limits. — The Ttuine and the forelock are formed by 
the horse-hairs which oci'upy the siij)erior border of the neck and 
extend forward to the superior extremity of the head between the 
ears, and backward to the withers. 

a. The mane is to the neck of the horse, says H. Bouley {foe. cii.), 
what the capital is to the column which it surmounts ; it beautifies the 
neck by concealing, under its undulating tufts, the angularity of the 
superior border, and thus gives to the latter a more graceful aspect. 

Its abundance varies ac(*ording to the race, the sex, the age, the 
state of the genital organs, and the animal himself. In well-bred 
horses and in foals it is fine, silky, and not abundant, while it is 
coarse, long, and stiff in common horses and most plentiful in adults. 
Thus, it appears more bushy in the stallion than in the gelding or 
in the mare. This state of the mane and its color denote nothing 
absolute and have very little signification In this respect the indi- 
vidual differences are so numerous that all inferences as to the pecu- 
liarities of the animal's character thus deduced are uncertain as well 
es delusive. 

We habitually separate, with the scissors, tlie mane from the fore- 
lock at the level of the nape of the nec^k, where the head-stall of the 
bridle rests. 

The mane is said to be single when all the hairs which com|)ose it 
fiJl on one side of the neck, regardless of their length. In saddle- 
horses it is turned towards the left side so that the rider mav seize it 
in mounting the horse. In the case of draught-horses, whicli invari- 
ably occupy the same position relative to the pole, the one attached on 
the left side (near horse) has the mane on that side ; the one on the 
right side (oif horse) carries it on the right side. This detail, how- 
ever, is often n^lected. 

The mane is double when naturally parted in the middle, one-half 
idling to the right and the other half to the left side. Thus, being 


exposed in the centre, it is soiled by particles of fodder and dust. It 
is difficult to preserN'e cleanliness, and the parts become the seat of such 
affections as herpes and psoriasis, which persist with so much tenacity 
that it is sometimes impossible to eradicate them completely. 

In their natural condition, as we have already mentioned, the hairs 
fall from their own weight They are in certain cases cut so as to 
assume an erect direction and form a sort of crest on the median line, 
outlining tiie convexity of the neck more distinctly and making the 
lattcT appear heavier. Such is the custom with ponies and small 
hors(»s, and jmrticularly those in which the nec»k is reversed, with the 
view of rendering its apix'arance more agreeable to the eye. To-day 
this is the fashion even in the teams of the wealthy. 

Among the ancients it api)ears to have been the custom to cut the 
mane as a sign of mourning. To render it thicker and longer, the 
Aral)s of Algeria, ac<»onling to Vallon,* also employed this method 
for from one to four years, and sometimes even throughout the life of 
the animal. 

The hairs of the mane, like those of the tail, are ordinarily 
straight. One of our associates, Mercier, has communicated a remark 
on this subjei*t, which was also l)elieved by the Arabians : that it is in 
the white or gray horscn* with frizzled or curly hairs in which melanotic 
tumors are always found in the interior of the lK)dy, although none may 
have any apimn^nt trace* cm the exterior, particularly under the tail 
and around the anus. This remark, the correctness of which we 
have verified a numlxT of times, lK)th on the living subjc»ct and in the 
ciidaver, is very iin|M)rtant bcHrause of the dangers to which animals 
afl[l»<*ted with melanosis are pn^lisposed. 

Then* are ncitlicr dinva^eH nor blemUhes of the mane. It is there- 
fore ernHKHHis to attribute to this apj)endage what projKTly belongs to 
the su|KTi<)r lH)nler of the rnvk. 

/;. The forelock is nothing mon*, pro|MTly s|K>aking, than the 
su|M»rior c»xtnniity of the mane. It consists of a tuft of hairs varying 
in length with the* animal and the race, which coupes Iwtween the 
ears in iloating meshes, overshadowing the forc^head and the eyes, 
Onlinarily, in the English thoroughbred horse* it is light, fine, and 
silky. In tlu* Arabian horsi* it is, cm the cxmtrarj', Icmg and heavy. 
In <*ominon hors«»s it is lonj^ and coarse. Like the manc», it mav be 
Himjli' ov thtuhlv. All proj)ortions being prc»ser\'ed, it is most develo{)ed 
in Oriental horses. At th(» sjiine time that it is an onmment to the 

I Vallon, Count irhi|>|»olo|^e, tome i. |>. 33(i. 


heady it protects the eyes from insects and excess of light. It acts, 
perhaps, also as a protection to the organs contained witliin the cranial 
cavity against the solar rays, and in horses much exposed to the sun its 
removal is injudicious. 

The mane and the forelock sometimes attain extraordinary dimen- 
sions. We have seen weUrhred and common horses in which the former 
descended to the level of the knees and the latter to the inferior 
extremity of the nose. With certain exceptions, these appendages 
are not allowed to reach so great a length ; they are dressed by 
means of a comb or a bnish. Sometimes it is desirable to render the 
mane, which was primitively double, single. This may be accomplished 
by removing a portion of the hairs by extracting them with the curry- 
comb and continually brushing those remaining to the same side, the 
right or the left, as may be desired, according to the fancy of the 
owner. If, instead of proceeding as we have just indicated, scissors 
were employed to remove the superabundant hairs, these would again 
grow and remain straight. We have known a horse which, in conse- 
quence of the want of skill of the person who had arranged the mane, 
had the latter falling to the right, while on the left the hairs were upright 
like a brush, giving them a very ungraceful appearance. 

B.— The Withers. 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The withers com- 
prise a single region situated on the superior face of the trunk, behind 
the crest of the neck, in front of the baek, and between the two shoulders. 

This region has for its anatomical base the five or six dorsal vertebrae which 
follow the first. Their summits, enlarged and tuberous, support a nucleus of 
permanent cartilage, to which are attached the corresponding portions of the 
nuchal and dorso-lumbar ligaments, very much widened. 

On each side are the cartilages of prolongation of the scapula, and the 
muscles to which it gives attachment. The spinous processes offer a large surface 
laterally for the attachment of the trapezius, the rhomboideus, the splenius, the 
great and small complex!, the small anterior serrated, the ilio-spinalis, and the 
transverse spinous muscles, arranged in so many superposed layers. 

The anatomical complexity and elevated situation of the withers 
afford an explanation of the gravity of wounds and diseases of this 
locality. The superposition of the muscles allows of easy filtration 
of pas into the surrounding parts. 

Beauties and Defects. — The beauties of the withers reside in 

the /orm, elevation, extent, and freedom from blemishes thereof. 

1. Form. — ^This qualification indicates that they should be well out- 
lined, and that the summit should be formed only by the tissues which 


I'onstitute their essential base. As H. Bouley ' remarks, the superior 
border, under this definition, should alone present the inert parts, as 
the lx)n(» and ligaments. At the base, on the contrary, the thickness 
denotes a large development of the muscles which separate it from the 
internal face of tlie scapular cartilages. 

Tlie abundance of the subc*utaneous and interstitial connective 
tissue, the volume and non-compactness of tlie muscles, as well b» the 
development of the muj?<»ular system in general, are the principal factors 
in the production of the lateral diameter of the region. Let us add, 
also, that it always has this aspect in an ordinary' d^ree when its 
prominence over tlie surrounding parts (shoulder and back) is not verj- 
marked. Such withers are called coarae-y thick, and low. They are 
found in horses with great assimilative powers, thick skin, stiff and 
coarse hairs, abundant connei*tive tissue, voluminous and flabby mus- 
cles, lymphatic temperament, and strong and massive forms. 

On the other hand, an ordinary' stature, a slender, fine, and distin- 
guishecl form, prominence of all the external anatomical eminences, a 
fine skin, an energc^tic nature, and dense and firm muscles always 
accomjwny well-defintxl withers. This form is the most desirable ; it 
indimtc's the nice, the temperament, and, in a word, the distinction 
of origin, and all the <|ualities of the animal so characterized. 

When tlu» lathT jKHuiliarity is extn^me, the withers are called sharp. 
This (*on forma) ion, which is often setm as a (H>nsequence of emaciation 
from ol<l age or excessive lalM)r, is an attribute of those animals which 
Ih^^'ouu* very l«in when subj(H»t<Ml to.s<»v<»re work, and accompanies a 
g<»n(»ral defi<Mency of nuis<*ular development. As Vallon ' lias remarked, 
it is particularly d(»f<K'tive in i-avalr}' horses, for it exacts the use of 
a v(»rv narrow aii<l elevatcnl anwle of the saddle in fnmt, differing 
niiK'li from the onlinarv m<Mlel, and which is not alwavs at our dis- 
|M»sal in a (*iim|)aign. Su(*h animals arc> diilicult and expensive to 
harness, give the rider an uncomfortable |K>sition, and are exposed 
t<» tniunuitisms of this n'gion fn)m the pressun* of the saddle during a 
long nian'h. They nec<»ssitate the c<»ntinuwl olMservaticm of the veteri- 
narian an<l those who nxmnt them. 

2. Height and Extent. — The examination of the height is 
n<»t less interesting fn>m the double n^lation of its utilization and its 
din^-tion. Writers an* not in at^'ord as to th<' exact sens<^ which should 
Ik» attaclunl to the wonl height when applitnl to the withers. In the 

1 H. R4itil(*y. NtturpAu Dlrtinnnaire pmtiquo d« mMeclne. dc chlrurgle ct d'hygltoe r^CM- 
nalret, t. viii. \t. Ti. 

* Vallon. <'(>ui> d'hipiK>Ii)gie. t. 1. p. 33V. 


first edition of this book we have wrongfully considered that the 
height of the withers should be viewed from their elevation in relation 
to the croup and the adjacent parts. 

In view of the criticism which this opinion has received, we recog- 
nize to-day that the relative height of the croup is not germane to the 
subject which we now have under consideration, but to the respective 
heights of the anterior and the posterior extremities of the body. We 
will discuss this in the chapter on proportions^ as to the dimensions 
of the body as a whole (see Height and length of the body ; Horses high 
and low in front). 

By the height of the withers should be meant, tlierefore, only the 
height of the eminence formed by this part of the body above the 
adjoining regions, such as the shoulders, the back, and the superior 
border of the neck. By extent we are to understand the total dimen- 
sions of the withers antero-posteriorly ; in a word, the d^ree in which 
it is prolonged towards the region of the back. This circumstance, de- 
pendent in a large measure upon the length and inclination of the 
spinous processes, necessarily enables the latter to play the part of the 
long arms of the levers of the extensor muscles of the vertebral col- 
umn, and is therefore a favorable condition for the development of 

The height or elevation of the withers depends, on the contrary, 
upon several diverse causes, which we must determine. Among them 
we mention : 

a. The well-defined form, or the thickness y of which we have already 
spoken, which concur to modify the obliquity of the lateral faces in 
consequence of either the lowness or the prominence of the entire 
region, as the case may be. 

6. The length and obliquity of the shoulder, which tends to cover, 
to an extent more or less considerable, the sides of the apophyses 
of the first dorsal vertebra. 

0. The absoltUe length and vertical direction of these processes, 
which, by their summits, exceed to a variable extent the border of the 
scapular cartilages. 

d. Finally, the mode of suspension of the thorax bet^veen the anterior 
members, the effect of which is to produce a more or less marked pro- 
jection of the summits of the spinous processes above the superior 
border of the shoulders. 

The age, the sex, and the state of the genital organs have equally 
their influence. Poorly delineated in the foal and the young animal, 

the withers become more prominent towards the fifth, sixth, or seventh 



year, the period when the bones have attained their full length and the 
body its complete development. In the mare it is less prominent than 
in the gelding or the stallion. In the latter, however, in which the 
anterior portion of the body is more extensively developed, it appears 
usually thick j mum^uUir, low, and effaced. 

The relative influence of all these causes it is easy to comprehend. 
One may ojx^rate alone or several may be (X)mbined, and the height of 
this n^ion should not be attributed exclusively to one alone, as the mle 
length of the spinoun procesnes, for example, which hippotomists imtil the 
present time have asserted without offering any proof to substantiate the 
claim. Taking (X)gnizance of this relation, we have endeavored to prove, 
by numerous researches upon the living animal and the cadaver, that 
this opinion is well founded. It is true that we have frequently found 
an excess of the length of the spinous process of the fiflh dorsal ver- 
tebra (the culminating {)oint of the region) in horst^ with high withers, 
but we have also, all things Iwiug e(|ual otherwise, none the less often 
seen this pnxvss only e(|ual to and even shorter than the others. 
Moreover, we (^n affirm that this ex(i»s8 of length is not uncommonly 
met with in hoi'ses in which the n»gion ap])ears depressed. 

The spinous pn)cesses are, therefore, subje<*t to great variations in 
animals not dissimilar in apixuimmv These* variations may attain five 
centimetrtM in the one casi* or the other. 

It lx»come8 evident, tlien, that other influences must assist in the 
determination of the promincmv of the withers. They arc those 
which we have enumerat<Hl above. Among them the most important, 
doubtless, is that which n»fers to the mode of suHpemion of the tfiorax 
betiteen the anterior memhern. As to this assertion, our researches 
leave not the lc»ast doubt. We dailv meet horses which have the 
same length of the ril)S, the shoulder, and the spinous processes, the 
same inclination of thes<» pr(H'<»sses and the s<iipula, and the same state 
of muscMilar development, in which, nevertheless, the summit of the 
witlicrs d<H*s not, to the same degree, pnyect l>evond the top of the 
slioiildrr. How can we explain this fact, unlc^ss it be* due to differ- 
ence's in the <lcgn'f» of the <»l<'vation of the tnmk in its attachment 
Ui the autiTior cxtn*miti(»s? As a pnM)f of this enunciation it has 
Imh'U as<'crtainc<l, in similar instances, that the distance from the 
inferior surfiiw of tlic thorax to the groun<l augm(»nts in direct ratio 
with the proj(^'tioii of tlu» spinous pnKt^sses alx)ve the scapular carti- 

I>»t us HMuark, in |)jissing, that in pnu^tice it is almost impossible 
t4) establish tin* relativi» r6U' which is exenised by the one or the other 


of these causes to which the height of the withers owes its variations ; 
whether it be due to the length and vertical position of the apophyses 
or to the lowering of the thorax. But what is well demonstrated by 
experience is that the best type of withers in a horse is that which is 
as salient and as much prolonged backward as possible ; especially if 
the horse be expected to perform service at a rapid pace/ and also for 
work under the saddle. 

It is not very important to determine the real cause of the promi- 
nence of the withers. What is essential to know is that increased 
height in most instanwa means a lengthening of the arm of the lever 
of the spinal and cervical musck^s and an increased freedom of move- 
ment of the anterior extremity of the body, two conditions, either of 
which favors the muscular contracition and movements of the anterior 
limits, the rotation of Uie scapula, and, consequently, the movements 
of extension and flexion. These reasons suffice to justify the prefer- 
ence which is accorded to this conformation. 

It is well known that horses with low and thick withers have ordi- 
narilv insufficient action an<l too much clumsiness of the movements of 
the fore limbs. The shoulder rotates but little, the animal is predis- 
posed to forging and iiUerfcring, and is unfit for service at a rapid 
gait. He supports the head insufficiently and is heavy on the bit. 

Apart from the foregoing objections, there is still another factor 
which aggravates this defect. This is the difficulty of maintaining tlie 
saddle in place, it having a constant tendency to slide forward and 
to make direct pressure on and bruise the tissues underneath. Hence 
result wounds and inflammatory affections, the effects of which are so 
often incurable. The use of the crupper is an insufficient preventive 
against such lesions, and may itself become a cause of pathological 
conditions, from its continued traction at the base of the tail. 

Let us close by saying that beauty of the unthers not only involves 
the mechanical advantages which we have already considered, but it is 
also a sign of the noble qualities and the distinction of its possessor. It 
endows the surrounding regions with other important qualities, such 
as are indicated by the length of the shoulder and the height of the 
chesty and thus presents itself as one of the essential qualifications of 
this locality. Whenever the chest is deep, and the shoulders long and 
oblique, it is clearly recognized that the withers are elevated, well 
attached, and extended well backward, the general harmony presuming 
that, in most instances, the development of one of the elements of an 

* Thli It not invariable. Among our speediest trotters we And some In which the withen 
are high, and others in which they arc Uno. (Hargcr.) 


anatomi(!al n*gion (^exists with tliat of the others, whatever may be 
their number. With resjiet^ to the horse, however, it is necx*ssarj- to 
guard ourstJves a^inst siieh an absolute generalization ; it is essential 
to remember that the shoulder or the thorax cran give this region a 
prominence in which the withers do not really assume that im|K>rtan(v 
which might be suppost>d from a |K>int of view of the exterior. Suc4i, 
at least, have bei»n the deiluctions made fn)m our own obser\'ation8. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — ^Tho withers, in consequence of their i>ronii- 
nence, »ituution, and anat<»mical complexity, are exiK)se<i to numerous ]e!(]on» of 
variable gravity. Blows, chafing, bruiHeH, aiui hitcs are among the causeti which 
may lead to swellingH, wounds, or alMcessiM with profound complications of 
necrosis antl caries of the bontv, the muscles, and the ligaments. These affec- 
tions, known under the generic name of erih of (he irithern, render themselvei 
apparent, in the majority of instances, by an extraoniinar>' exaggeration of the 
sensibility, abnormal enlargement of the part, cicatrices, or fistulous tracts dis- 
charging pus, which leave their evidence by soiling and decorticating the adja- 
cent skin. 

Horses in such a conciition are not nirely offered for sale, and w^e know of 
two instancies in which the dealer cleverly concealed the tume&ction and the 
fistula, of which it was the seat, with a blanket. 

It is more common to meet animals which offer acx'idental white markings 
or cicatrices more or less large, where the skin is denuded, thin, and more easily 
excoriated by the c(mtact of the harnt^ss. The prenence of these cicatrices 
furnishes, besides, the evidence of a pn*-existing disease implicating the muscles 
or the Ixmt^ of the withers and the shoulder, which may result in some irregu- 
larity of the gait. They have an inii>ortant In^aring in an examination for 
souminess in the pun*hase of horses. 

Other blemishes may also result from the application of blisters or the actual 
cautery. They have their principal value, however, wh<?n the affection for the 
curt* of which they have lH»en appliinl has not yet disappeared. Such diseases are 
liable to return or btn-ome augmentiMi under the ])crsistent action of the causes 
which phmUummI tbcni. 

:\, The freedom from blemishes, in a jrc»neral way, as related 
to the pbysiolo^icsil apix-aranci', is, therc»fon», as indis])ensable to our 
stu<lv as the form, tlu» <'levati<m, or the extent. 


C— The Back. 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — This single region, 
sitnat«*<l (»ii tlir siijMTior part of the trunk, is limitt'd anteriorly by the 
wif/irrs^ |iost«Tiorly by flu* /o/;m, and laterally by the nhn (ttules). 

It has for itM o»<-'*<MiU"i bar*** tb<* eleven <»r twt-lve |M»t<terior dorxal vertebrte and 
the su|n'rior extremity nf tb»' corn'S|Mnnlinjr ril»s. These bone?* give attachment 
to the diilert-nt musrlrs wbirh fill the costo-vrrteliral jrrcMives, — the great dorsal, 
the Kiiiall uiit4'ri<ir and {HMterior tkTrated, the ilio-s|)iuali.*«, the tranHverse spinous, 
and the intern >stalH. 


Its uses are of primary importance, because it receives the saddle 
and the weight of the rider. It transmits to the anterior part of the 
body the efforts of propulsion, which are communicated through the 
loins by the posterior limbs. The back therefore fulfils, by its con- 
formation, diverse requirements which we will describe. 

Direction. — The back may present several directionfi. It is 
draighi when it describes almost a horizontal line from before to behind. 
A straight back is a sign of great strength, for all the weight which the 
region supports is borne by the bones and tends to efface the rachidian 
arch. The saddle will, in this conformation, rest in a good position. 

The back is convex (or the animal is roach-backed) when it is slightly 
arched, prominent, and sharp near the region of the loins. Such a con- 
formation increases the conditions of solidity to external pressure, in 
which the preceding form is deficient, on account of this arch being 
exaggerated. It is incorrect to associate this condition with flat ribs 
and a narrow chest. Convexity increases the reactions of the back and 
shortens the gaits of the animal. The constituting vertebrae in this 
disposition are related in such a manner that all pressure made upon 
them from above to below is supported more by the bones than by the 
ligaments which imite them, whence less elasticity and flexibility in 
executing its various functions. The convex back, besides, is generally 
shorter than the other forms, and does not permit sufficient freedom to 
the extension and flexion of the posterior members in taking long and 
rapid steps. It is therefore a contra-indication of rapid locomotion. 
Horses in which it is observed are predisposed to forging ; that is to say, 
the fore and hind feet touch each other when their speed is increased. 

The convex back, for these reasons, is a defect in saddle- and driv- 
ing-horses; in those performing, on the contrary, slow and heavy 
work, it is of no consequence. 

When the dorsal r^ion is concave from before to behind, the 
animal is designated as sway-baxiked or hollow-backed. This conforma- 
tion, congenital or a^cquired, is more faulty than the preceding, and any 
load borne upon it tends to efface the arch formed by the vertebrae of 
this r^on. Instead of the latter offering a resistance, from their 
mutual contact, to the weight which they support, such weight is almost 
entirely sustained by the ligaments. This fact makes the vertebral 
column become rectilinear or, when exaggerated, convex along its in- 
ferior border. The ligaments which maintain the dorsal arch normally 
are therefore submitted to constant traction during service, particularly 
if a weight be superadded to that of the viscera. We have often 
observed in old horses more or less voluminous exostoses disposed in a 


aeries along the common inferior vertebral ligament. In our opinion, 
these should be attributed to tlie violent and continuous pressure 
of the saddle or the harness. If this be true, it is easily i)erceived 
that these excrescences on the bodv of the vertebrae are most common 
in animals which, instead of having this region straight, have it 
strongly concave. 

The first ill effect of this concavity is an overtaxing of the vertebral 
ligaments due to the displacement of the bones, — a condition which com- 
municates to the rachidian column a greater flexibility than is physio- 
logical. The result is that the transmission of the impulsive action of 
the hind limbs communicated to the anterior part of the body is incom- 
plete. The region lacks sufficient rigidity, and a certain part of the 
fon* is wasted, to the detriment of the speed, since its effect is to 
deviate the vertebrae from their noniial rectitude. 

Sway-backed horses are not adapted to work which exacts much 
force and resistance of the l>ack. They cannot l)e employed as hunt- 
ers, runners, or cavalry horses, but should be reserved to draw vehin 
cles, one with four wheels Inking preferred. 

With M. Bouley * we lx»lieve, nevertheless, that it is necessary to 
discTiminate Ix'tween a real concuvity of this region and that which 
is only ap|)an*nt, — a condition sometimes existing in horses capable of 
the greatest exertion. The latter appears to be due to a concavity of 
the suix'rficiul surface of the back alone, to a [leculiar cur\'ature formed 
by the series of spinous processes, which may be shorter in the middle 
of this region than in front or behind. It is a veritable anatomical 
anomaly. In this case the arch of the vertebrae themselves is in a 
normal c<»ndition and fulfils all its functions. This remark should 
c<>ns<H|UcntIy Ik* taken into account, and a ]>ositive judgment should 
not Ik* cxpn'ssecl unl<»ss the pn)of is ap|)arent. 

It has also lK>en said of horsi*s thus formed that the reaction of 
th<* Inirk is less hanl than that of the average horse, — a fact which 
ha*< nHtmimcndecl them to favor as saddle-horses. Some authors, as 
C'unu<'U, Kng<*ne (Jayot, and Vallon, assert that this last fact is due 
to a diffcn'nt onler of ph(>noniena, whi(*h lead to a suppleness and 
lUH* of the niovenients. These* n'sult, in this view, not from any 
IKK'uliar condition <»f (»ne n'gi(»n alone, but from the conformation of 
the IxkIv as a whoh-. The latter intiTpretation is tnie, but it does 
not destroy thr validity of the other. One isolattxl cause may produce 
tlie same effe<'t as s<'V«*ral others <»onibined. 

1 H. H<inl«-]r, Nuuveau Dictioiinaire pratique tk' m^declue, dechlnirgic et d'hygitoe T^CM- 
OAlr«ii, t. V. |>. im. 


We believe that the more flexible and elastic the vertebral column 
is the more it will disperse the effects of concussion from violfent 
exertion or accidents. The back will at any time lose this quality as 
soon as the alternative efforts which elevate and depress it are enacted 
in an irr^ular manner. Let us recall the r^ular movements of the 
rope-dancer ; nothing more graceful and of better rhythm. But would 
they have the same rhythmical character if, for example, he attempted 
to jump without regularity upon his rope ? Evidently not ! 

This comparison applies to a certain degree to our subject. In 
locomotion the weight of the body, whenever it touches its base of 
support, calls into activity the elasticity of the vertebral column, which 
describes oscillations whose amplitude is proportional to its elasticity, 
its d^ree of tension, and the energy of muscular contraction. If, for 
one reason or other, these oscillations are excessive, whenever the feet 
come into contact with the surface upon which the animal moves, an 
evident antagonism of forces will result, leading to a succession of 
rebounds, which render the reactions still more exaggerated, even more 
so than if the back had an opposite conformation. Here is, we think, 
the cause of the divergence of opinions which we have spoken of. 

Horses of this type frequently have verv feeble reaction when their 
gait i8 rhythmical and perfectly regular, as" in the ordinary trot or the 
gallop ; but the reactions become marked as soon as the oscillations of 
the vertebral column cease to be in accord with the movements of the 
foot in touching the ground, as in trotting or running at great speed. 

Sometimes the line of the back is oblique from above to below, and 
behind to before, instead of being horizontal, concave, or convex. Such 
a form is called dipped. This direction, due to a more or less marked 
elevation of the croup above the withers, entails an unequal distribution 
of the body-weight upon the four extremities. The centre of gravity is 
carried towards the fore limbs, increasing by so much the weight which 
they support. We shall hereafter have something further to add in 
lespect to the objections which exist with regard to this type of struct- 
ure when we come to treat of the axial measurements of the body. 

Form. — In horses whose muscular system is very highly developed, 
there exists on the median line of the back a longitudinal line or fur- 
row, which is slightly surmounted laterally by the environing parts 
on account of the volume of the muscles situated in the costo-vertebral 
gutters. This characteristic marks that kind of bac^k which is called 
double. It is a pecdliarity observed in heavy and well-muscled animals 
whose chest is wide, the back somewhat concave, and the withers low. 

Many subjects which preseiit it at the time of purchase may not 


retain it throughout their whole life. Under the influence of the 
work to which the animal has been submitted, and poor and innutri- 
tions alimentation, the double back often becomes single and the mus- 
cular organization in gc^neral loses its volume and its high degree of 

Conversely, the crest of the back becomes prominent and stands 
out in relief over the surrounding muscles in subjects emaciated from 
the ravages of age, or in tliose of a certain natural conformation whose 
chest is narrow, the l)ac^k slightly convex, the withers high, and the 
muscles Xvi^a voluminous. In the latter form the region is pnHlisposi>d 
to become nhnrp, and is more exposed to wounds from the saddle or 
the harness. 

Lengfth. — The length of the back is in relation with the depth of 
the chwt and the rapidity of the gait. Its measurement, which requires 
some judgment, is usually combined with that of the loins. The typical 
ba(*k is n*ganled as iH}ual in length to the distance between tlie dorsal 
angle of the scapula and the exti^mal angle of the ilium or the haunch. 
The determination of how much of this distance Ix^longs to the loins 
is of little pnuliml utility, but it should be as small as possible. A 
loiuj Inivk implies a corn»s|)onding length of the thoracic cavity whose 
su|)erior wall it forms. We know that it is indispensable to seek, for 
any kind of work, those anatomical dispositions which imply the de- 
velopment of the respirator}- ap|)aratu6. Such development requires 
a pn)iKT H<'|)aration of the anterior from the posterior members ; and 
this se|Hiration is in relation with rapidity of locomotion, in that it is 
the expn*ssion of the length of the muscles which pass from the trunk 
to the suiKTior part of the linil)s, as the |)Soas, great dorsal, and pectoral ; 
also of thos<» which (Kfupy the costo-vcrtebral gutt£»rs, whose function is 
the extension and pn>pulsion of the vertebral column. Again, it en- 
larp-s the Iwsi' of supfMirt and K»aves a sufficiently large area underneath 
the trunk, cin'unis<rilHHl by the four feet, for the movements of tlie pos- 
ti'rior liml)H. TIm' hitter an' thus Ws liable to come in contact with 
ii\v\\ other, and so to pnKluce that disagreeable sound (tilled /orgriw^. 

Th<»s<» advaiitap^s, however, an» often diminisluHl by the following 
ass(K*iat('d iniiK»rfe<*tions, whi<'h tin* shortn(»ss of the loins (rannot always 

The ilorsjil <*<»liinm IxMug long, tends to alter its direeti<m under 
the imi)etns re<'<'iv«Hl from the |)osterior extremities during the move- 
nM»nts of pn>gn*ssion. A ivrtain i)art of this impulsive force is there- 
fore ncH-i'ssarily lost at the ex|)ens<» of propulsion. Further, from tlie 
augment4Hl flexil)ility and diminishe<l solidity of tlie vertcbnil column, 


its depression, to an exaggerated degree, is rendered more easy, and the 
back may even become concave under the pressure of excessive weight. 
Long-backed horses are more predisposed than others to fracture of 
the vertebrae during surgical operations in the recumbent }K)sition. 

As to the short back, it presents the elements of great strength 
and solidity, transmits the action of the hind limbs with greater force, 
and rarely becomes sway-backed ; but, conversely, it lacks flexibility 
of movement, diminishes the capacity of the thoracic cavity, and limits 
the play of the posterior limbs. The animal is predisposed to forcing 
as soon as he is obliged to lengthen his steps, unless the loias, by an 
excess of length, preserve the required proportions of the dorso-lumbar 
region as a whole. Under these circumstances this defect is apt to be 
obscured by one that is more grave, as we shall see further on. 

Most authors who have written of this subject pretend that short- 
ness of the back constitutes its first beauty. H. Bouley* has very 
judiciously asserted that this proposition is too absolute. A very short 
back is not desirable except in animals destined to carry heavy weights, 
as the shaft-horse, the pack-horse, the mule, the ass, and the saddle- 
horse. In the last, from which speed is exacted, a deficiency in the 
length of the chest should l)e compensated by the arching of the ribs 
and their increased projection backward. As to the diminished stride 
of the legs, it may be redeemed by the multiplicity and rapidity of 
their movements. An elevated carriage of the head, throwing the 
weight upon the hind and liberating the fore limbs, tends to prevent 
forging. Moreover, by judicious handling, the short-backed saddle- 
horse can be taught, little by little, to elevate the anterior members 
quickly enough and sufficiently far in advance, so that they will not be 
touched by the posterior. 

The same considerations are applicable to animals otlier than saddle- 
horses, in which a long back would be deemed preferable, with the pre- 
sumption that the dorso-lumbar spine be well directed and strongly 

Width. — ^The width is also one of the qualities of the back to 
be considered. It is in relation with the transverse diameter of the 
chest and the volume of the ilio-spinalis muscles. When the back is 
narrow^ the ribs are often flat, the thoracic cavity deficient in space or 
volume, the spinal crest too prominent, and the parts are predisposed 
to wounds and abrasions from the harness or the saddle. Thus narrow- 
ness of the back, for these reasons, may become a positive defect. 

> H. Bouley, loc. cit., art. " Doe." 


Diseaaes and Blemishes. — Various lesions resulting from a defective 
pattern or vicious application of the harness or the saddle are sometimes obsenred 
in thivS region. Such are denudations, excoriations, bruises, corns, cysts, abscesses*, 
and Hstulte which exist on the median line, or the lateral parts. Their gravity 
varies according to position and the anatomical structures of the parts involved. 
Cure is difficult in proportion to their closeness to the median line. Benign 
a.H they may appear at the beginning, there is alwa\^ danger of complicationn 
which may prevent the animal from working for several months. The presence 
of cicatrices or of white hairs are the indelible evidences which follow lesions 
of this nature. Finallv, we sometimes find the marks of blisters or of the 
actual cautcr}', which will indicate that the animal has been treated for some one 
of these 

D. — The Loins. 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — ^This symmetrical region, situ- 
ated behind the back and in front of the croup and the haunches^ and limited on 
each side by the flank^ has for its base the six lumbar vertebrae (sometimes only 
five), whose costiform pnwesses continue posteriorly the costo-vertebral gutter. 
Tliis gutter is c(»vcred l)y the transverse spinous and the ilio-spinalis muscles, 
the anterior extremity of the gluteal muscle, and the aponeurosis of the great 
dorsal muscle. 

Wi» will examine this region as to its lengthy widthfform, directioUy 
and <itt<ichmn\U, 

Width. — llie width of the loins is directly proportional to the 
di'velopnient of the costiform a|x>physes of the lumlmr vertebrae, and 
corresixmds in some dej^ree with that of the muscles named above. A 
wide loin is n^ganled as a feature of absolute l)cautv. 

Length. — Whatever may Ik» the work the animal is destined to 
|M»rform, the loins should Ik' as short as |K)ssible, a condition of solidity 
im|)ortant to n'coj>:niz(», Inn-aust^ the lumlwir vertebrae have no support 
latenilly, In'injj simply articulate<l the <me with the other. Its short- 
tn'j<M also favors the transmis'^ion of the imjK'tus p^iven by the posterior 
limbs, Immhusc it l(»ss<»ns the elasticitv and mobilitv of the structures 
through whi<*h the force of impulsion must |)ass. As to the relation of 
the entire h*ngth <»f the dorso-lumlKir region, the l)aek should be long 
an<l the loins nhorf, esix^Mally in saddle- and pack-horses. This point 
c^miot Ih' impn^ss^sl t<M) strongly. 

Form. — As in tin* back, the form of the loins is dependent mainly 
u|x>n that of the mns4*les. The median line is indicated by a crest or a 
gutter. In the former <iis<\ they are xin(flt\ and should be well muscled ; 
in th<' latter, thev an' douh/r. When the crest is very high, the loins are 
calle<l nhfirji, which is a sign of wt»akness and f(H4)le resi.stanoe. 

Direction. — As to their direction, the loiiLS are usually atraighif 
and their convexity is <»I)sitv(h1 only in old horses, or in those abused 


by excessive labor, in which the spinal column has been injured by the 
weight and muscular traction whi(;h the region has sustained. In 
gravely-diseased animals they are often arched and have lost suppleness. 

Attachments. — The loins should become insensibly united to the 
ort>up and the back. When they are mal-attached, there exists in 
front of the former a depression of variable depth, which gives them 
such names as lowy weak, fahe^ and dipped. Besides, they are oft«n 
long, narrow y B,nd feeble, peculiarities detracting from their strength. 

EiXamiliation. — At all times, in (conducting an examination of 
the horse, veterinarians are in the habit of pressing on the loins to 
determine by their flexibility the state of the health of the subject. 

This practice should be executed with some precautions. Taking a position 
at the side of the animal, with the back towards his head, the hand is passed 
downward over the back, and the loins are pinched on the median line by making 
gentle pressure with the thumb and index finger. Under this influence the 
animal, when in a state of health, will extend the spine, or flinch. In those 
suffering from weakness or certain /ew diseases of this region, as osteoporosis, or 
in those of a nervous temperament, the sensitiveness may be much exaggerated. 
In horses suffering from fever or some other diseases, the region will remain per- 
fectly rigid. In a general way, its sensitiveness affords an index of the health 
of the animal. Certain nervous subjects will resist this manipulation by biting 
Of kicking; in order to avoid this, the head should be raised and the position of 
the clinician should not be too close to the body. Others will yield to the first 
attempt, but resist a repetition by stiffening the parts. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — The wounds of this region are of the same 
nature as those of the back. They result nearly always from a misfitting harness 
or its improper application. * The posterior part of the saddle frequently bears on 
the origin of the loins and wounds them on the median line. These wounds are 
always painfiil and slow to cicatrize, and may prevent the animal from working 
for a long period. In olden times they were designated under the name eviU of 
the (oins. 

Strain of the hins, which is sometimes observed, is a much more grave affec- 
tion, but we will speak of it under the defects of the gait. 

It manifests itself as a great weakness of the posterior quarters, which is 
most apparent during locomotion, and renders its victim unfit for active service. 

The blemishes are traces of blisters or the firing-iron, more or less exten- 
sive, proving an old cauterization for a serious disease, principally strain of the 
loins. There may also be excoriations, white markings in horses of a dark color, 
or cicatrices of the same nature as those which we have indicated in the region 
of the back. 

E.— The Croup. 

Situation ; Limits. — The croup is a single region situated on 
the median line of the superior surface of the body. It is bounded in 
front by the fofrw, behind by the tail, and on each side by the thigh and 
the superior part of the buttock. 



Althuugh, froDi an onatomii^iU uid {ihyuulugical point of view, th« c 
vunatitukti the fimt HegineDt of the tibdumiiiiiJ linib, yet, on aci^ount of iba • 
rt'littioii:<hi)i with the other partH uf the back, we prefer to regard it, for 
pruHoiit purpuHO, aa the ttiriuinikl iM>rtiun of the trunk giving attachment t< 
hind liuiljo. tiolidly unittnl with the verleUral coluiuu by Iwoes und muecli 
hel[)B to fonn the periphctj- of the pi 
cavity. Accordin|rly, we ahall nut, in 
diBcuissidn, Be[>aratc it froni the other rrn 
of the body with which it ia Mt intinii 

Anatomloal Base— It haa fui 

banc the two i.'«>Kie, HF (Kig. M), fii 

unitc<l on the median line, <.'I>; antcr 

they urtii'ulate with the bonlcn nf th< 

cruiii, .V, and are iininovitlile excepting 

certain amount of claiitiuity. These b 

are covf red l>y u large tiiaxii of luusclcM, i 

of which extend to the femur and h, 

Fio. 34. tiliu. Un the xide is the cozo-fen 

articulation, 0, in which the head of 

fenmr takn jiart, and which supiMirtu thiii region ujiun the [Hjgitorior member 

I'oiiitidenrd fnim a {xiint of view of animal mcehaniiti, the coxa can be n 

M-iitiil (Fig. %">) tij- a tient lever, HOF, contpuHcd of two arnu: the one ant< 

HO, formed by the ilium 

■y^ tending (rom the exti 

f J y . angle of the hAQUch, 1 

the centre of the ooxo-fen 
articulation, 0/ the o 
OF, formed by the iteh 
extentU from the centr 
the hi[>-joint to the iach 
tubcRiiiityor the point o 
buttock, F. 

Thuie two bon«i fo 
8 very ohtuite angle, / 
whiMC mean extent, w d 
mined by our leMucht 
fniiii 1411 to 14ft d^ren 
which may vary ten dq 
in either directioD, us 
ing III the individual, 
will call it the iSo-it 

It rentJi hy itaminun: 

upon the head of tho fe 

Via. Si, nt un inclination ^ktjvh 

cimling to the iadlTi^ 

idined fiirwanl. and then the line of direction, HF, taadi t 

i>nii(] ; winu'tiiiii-M it tcnilH to an opjKMite ii 

•unieliiucH it ir 


Finally, the femur not always having the same obliquity, it forms with the 
ilium and the ischium two angles, HOC {Uio-fevwrar) and FOC (iaehio-Jemoral), 
for thiij reason more or less dased or open. 

It will be perceived that the femur surmounts the centre of the articulation, 
O, by the great trochanttry T. 

Among the groups of nmscles we recognize 

1st. The gluteal mmcles^ TH, TS, carrying the femur backward when their 
fixe<l point is H, or elevating the ilium when T\& the fixed jwint. 

2d. The flexont of the femur, HPy principally the psoas, Rl\ advancing the 
thigh when H is their fixed point, and depressing the ilium when P becomes the 
fixed insertion. 

3d. The nch'io-tlhUd (femoral biceps, semi-tendinosus and membranosus), 
Fl and FF, extending the femur and flexing the tibia, have as their fixed j>oint 
F or *S'; when / or F is the fixed point, the ischium swings downward or 

The remaining muscles are all similar in function to those already studied. 

We observe, therefore, that there are in this region two principal groups 
of muscles. The first, P//, flex the femur, carrying it forward ; the second, TH, 
FI, FVf more voluminous, extend this region. When the femoral insertion is 
fixed these muscles are capable of pro<lucing the same movements of the croup. 
The flexors, HP, swing the cox» downward and forward ; the extensors rotate 
them backward. They can thus contribute directly or indirectly in supporting 
the dorso-lumbar region. 


The croup must be studied with regard to its length, width, thickneati, 
direction, muscular development, and particular fonnn. 

Lengfth. — The lengfth is measured from the external angle of tlie 
ilium (haunch) to the ischiatic tul)erosity (buttock). Bourgelat con- 
sidered it equal to the distance comprised between the summit of the 
head and the commissures of the lips. These dimensions appear to 
correspond in most horses of a regular conformation, except in thor- 
oughbreds, in which the croup is relatively longer on acc*ount of the 
exceptional smallness of the head. 

The length of the coxae is, without dispute, the most important con- 
dition of the beauty of the croup in animals adai)ted to any rapid ser- 
vice. Whilst it is not a necessity in draught-horses, it nevertheless 
adds to their usefulness and lx*auty. Among Arabians this cjuality is 
much appreciated. " As to the horse whose croup is as long as his 
back and loins united, vou can safelv choovse him even with vour eves 
closed ; such a horse is a blessing !" This is one of their maxims. The 
principal idea which this metaphor teaches is that the long croup should 
always be preferred, to the exclusion of all others. 

The reason for this preference is readily perceived. The great 
development of its antero-posterior diameter corresponds relatively 
with the length of the muscles of the croup^ notably tboae of 



frltiUiil rc);iun, tliG priiK-ijial vxb-nfloi's ut' tlic femur. They, in cmi- 
ncction with the iithor exti-iituire uf the hind lirah, o»inmiiiii<st« tu the 
ImmIv a ^roatvr inijnilnc, which carries it forward by a sudden and 
fun-ihle ujietiin^ of all the l<icoin(>tor}' angles and a straightening (»f 
the wliiilc limb. The greater their length tlie more they will be caitabic 
uf flhurti'ning during i-untraetion, and, cunsequently, the greater will be 
the force which the hind limb jKixsosses. 

Thi» impulsion, besidert, will have greater ]>ower, because the inser- 
tion of the miiscW will have an incidence aI)|>l^)aching the |K'rjK.'n<l!cu- 
lar. The line ('If, which rei>i-e8ent« the direction (Fig. 36), U less 
oblique h) IiC(or CO) than the line CD. 

\afi\n, the Icn^h of the en>iip 'ik <-on(Hiniitant \t'ith that of the 
ischio-tibial inuscKs, Al{ and A'li, which Hex the tibia or rotate the 
Goxtc Ixiekwaiil during rearing or pnignswivc movements in which they 

an- i-onccntol, n.i the gallop or leaping. Not only the length but the 
anr/lr of iui-i<l,iii-r is ills-. nio<litii-d. 

This is nut all. It is also instructive to inform ourselves as to how 
the length of the (-roup is piiKlncetl, fiir theiv are thrc<^' principal fac- 
tors which enter iut<> its fimtiation, — 1st, tiie ile'/rrr <>/ openiif«a uf the 
ilio-isi'liial angle : :!(1, the h-nfflh of ihe ilium ; and, iid, the Ifitgth of the 

The openness of the ilio-i.xchial angh-, a<-('onling as it ia more or 
less large, scjianitcs <iirrfs|)omiiugly the angle of the haunch from the 


point of the buttock, and makes the croup long or short This is 
illustrated in Fig. 37. The lines AB and A'B' are of unequal 
lengths, whilst they support angles whose sides are exactly equal ; 
nothing but the inclination of these lines has changed. It follows from 
tliis that if the increase of the length of the croup can exist without 
influence upon the real length of the ilium and ischiiun, it modifies, 
nevertheless, the direction of the region in such a way that it tends 
to become, in general, more horizontal. We yn[\ return to this subject 

It is curious to observ^e that in our larger quadrupeds the line of 
direction of the croup always passes perceptibly above the centre of 
the coxo-femoral articulation, whilst in our smaller species, as rodents 
and camivora, for example, the ilium and the ischium standing more 
nearly in the same line, and making a less angle the one with the other, 
this line passes almost through the centre of the joint. The ilio-ischial 
angle, in t^is respect, seems more marked, or, if it be preferred, the angle 
is the more effaced as the volume of the body becomes less and the 
nimbleness of the movements greater. Thus it augments in size grad- 
ually from the horse and the ox to the pig ; from the pig to the smaller 
ruminantB ; and, finally, from tlie latter to the camivora and the rodents. 
This relative openness, or largeness of the angle, with the corresponding 
modificationB in the length of the muscles, and of tlieir incidence with 
the otBeous levers, and the play of the angles of locomotion in the pos- 
terior extremity, seems specially adapted to the execution of the gallop 
and leaping. 

Whatever may be the interpretation, it is well known that in 
horsea of great speed this angle is more open than in draught-horses. 
In animals used for rapid services, this conformation has the preference. 
It is manifissted externally by the relation of the centre of the articu- 
lation with the line of direction of the croup. 

The length of the croup, however, is due, more than to aught else, to 
that of the ilium and the ischium, the ilio-ischial angle remaining the 
same. These offer some important individual differences. Thus we 

have seen the relation of these two bones -r^. — vary from 1.55 to 1.87. 


The ratio augments in fast-trotting horses, and diminishes in hunters, 
saddle-horses, and draught-horses. The length of the ilium determines 
that of the muscles attaching to it, and favors the amplitude of the 
iemoral extension, whilst that of the ischium fixes the vertebral column 
when the flexors act, and facilitates the rotation of the pelvis downward 
and backward. 


Here are some von* »uggi»«tive figures whirh show these dimensions relati 

,. ., in certain s|)ecies other than the horse : We have found the relation to Ih» (».»' 

[i the swan ; 0.87 in the turkey ; 1.22 in the hare and the rabbit; l.J^ in the 1 

J 1.5<) in the cat ; l.(>() in the greyhtmnd ; l.oG in the goat. In the ox it is only 1 

'h it is smaller than in the horse. 

In all animals in which the anterior [mrt of the IkkIv has no di 
support, as in hinls, or is eomiximtively heavy, as in the hirgt^r rii 
nants, or, a^iin, when the natural nuxle of pn>^ression is ^illopiu] 
li-apin^, tlH» nitio (liniinishes in eonstH|uenee of the relative im^reasi 
the is<'hiuni. 
, The nsult is apparent. It is t»asy to dt^temiine the pn>iK)rtioni 

{ , th(» two l<»vers constituting tlu» coxa, by the distance comprised l>etv 

the i-entix' of th(» articulation and the |)oint of the buttock. This fa 
is at hiist us<'ful, if not indis|K»nsal)le, in estimating the locomotor}- s 
tude (»f the animal. 
J . To recjipitulate : th(» length of the croup is in close relation ^ 

the production of s|mhh1. The ilio-ischial line is an insufficient ind 
tion, and often the sounv of error. We should primarily strivi 
estinuite the length of the Ixmc^s which (constitute that line, and sIk 
atta(*h only a s<H'ondarv im|)ortanct» to the line of direction ; or, in o 
words, to the o|)enness of the angle whi(*h they form. 

Thickness. — Authors have said but little upon the thickc 
of the cnmp, a |H)int which should, nevertheless, be taken into < 
sideration. We may define it as the distance* comprised between 
anten>-|)osterior axis of the (H)X2e and the summit of the sa(*ral ppii 
The interval Ix^twcvn the sacrum and the coxa; is greater at 
outh't than at the inlet of the |K*lvic cavity, on a(x*ount of the incl 
tion of the axis of the cnuip and the horizontal tendency of the 
of i\w sacnun. It variw singularly in different subjects, owing to 
l: |)e<Miliariti(»s of the form of the sjicnil spine and the general direc 

|i of the sjicrum its4'lf. This Inme may often Ix* curved indraught-hoi 

■ while it is onlinarilv more or less n»ctilin«ir in animals possc^ssii 

•! s|N'c<l, n4ital>ly the Knglish thomughbnKl and his descendants, 

•ji more it is dcprcss4*<l the smaller will U' the coxo-sacral interval, or 

}' less the fhU'hiu'M «>f the croup. 

Whrn it is straight, on the contrary, this interval augments, and 
liiu* wITuh marks the profih' of the croup contrasts nion» strongly ^ 
the ili(His<'hi;il line. The n»gion then ap|H^ars horizontal. 

Xumcrous nuise-lcs, among them the ischio-tibial muscles, cha 
with the rotation of the |M*Ivis and the fixation of the spinal coin 
nttarli to the >idt> of the siicral >piue. Its straightness, also indies 



the thickness of the croup, is, therefore, in relation with the length of 
the muscles, the extent of rotation of the coxae, and, coasequentl y, the 
aptitude for galloping and leaping. This straightness may at the same 
time be considered, in horses of rapid movement, as an index of great 
power and strength in the upper part of the hind quarter. 

Width. — ^The width is the distance between the external angles 
of the ilia, but depends also upon the separation of the points of the 

In the skeleton, the interval between the external angles of the ilia 
always slightly exceeds the length of the ilio-ischial line; in other 
words, the pelvis is ^\'ider than long, the excess varying from two to 
seven centimetres, according to our measurements. 

In the living animal it is otherwise on account of the thickness of 
the muscles which cover the ischiatic tuberosity ; the length of the 
croup becomes equal to, and sometimes exceeds, its width in heavy 
horses from two to five cent! metrics. 

The development of the transverse diameter of the region varies 
evidently with the race and the conformation of the animal, but is, in 
general, an index of the volume of the mus(*les, and, consequently, of 
their contractile j)ower, the fibres or contractile units l)eing more 
numerous in a wide croup than in any other. Such a croup is, there- 
fore, an absolute beauty, and a most desirable feature in a horse, 
no matter for what service he is intended ; Init it is es|)ecially dc^sirable 
in horses used for heavy work, in which the greatest possible effort is 
exacted. It is even more desirable in broodmares. 

The separation of the haunches is far from furnishing, though it 
be so regarded, the best criterion for judging of the true width of the 
cn)up. Horses having an equal measurement over the haimches may 
have, in reality, ilia very different in their transvei'se diameter. It is 
not rare to meet some subjects whose haunches are less separated than 
most others, but whose pelvic measurements and iliac surfaces are con- 
siderably larger. 

We have convim^ed ourselves that these individual differences 
depend upon the following causes : 

1st. The degree of inclination of the iliac surfaces from above to 
below. 2d. The degree of conicavity of the external iliac fossa?. 

The first cause effects a lowering of the external angle of the ilium 
in relation with the summit of the croup, and brings it towards the 
median plane of the IkkIv, a circumstance which, it is true, diminislu* 
the distance between the haunches, but which exerc»ises no influence in 
any manner upon the peripheral surface of the Imne for muscular attach- 


i • 

■ I 


ment. An apparent narroicneHu of the en>up, due ti> this cause, i 
exist, all things Ixnng otherwise normal, so marked as to diminish 
transverse diameter of the crouf) by more than six ct^itimetres. 

As to the dt»gree of concavity of the external face of the ilium 
influencv is easily understtMKl. It augments thereby the surface < 
tined for mus(*ular insertion. I^et us c*onfine ourselves by saying ' 
it is often nuurli more pn>nounced than can be determined from 

The practical cimdusion to be drawn fnmi tlu»S4* statement: 
simple : to judgi* well the width of the croup, it will suffice to itms 
tlw transverse dimension of the c(trity of the pelvis. With « 
length of the ilium, pn»fcren<t» is to lx» given to the horse in which 
sides of this n»gion an» indincHi, — that is to say, a great different 
level l)etwct*n the haunch and the summit of the croup is de»iira 
the seiniiiition of the haum^hcs remaining the same. 

Two objectionable constHjuenct»s may result fn)m excessive wi 
of the cn)up and a t(N) marked in(*li nation of its sides. Tin) \vi< 
s4'|Kiratc<l fn>m the meilian line, the coxo-femoral articulations require 
large a Imisc (»f sup|)ort, and consetjuently produce exaggerated lat 
(»s<'illations of the {K)sterior |)art of the body during l(K»motion. F: 
:, this results an ungmceful swaying of the buttcxrks, which has I 

callc<l the rocking of the horse ; wlienw results a loss of force and t 
r pn»)M)rtional to the extent of these movements and the excessive o« 

lat ions of the centre of gravity. The (^uiditions of l(KX>motion req 
the centre of gravity to move in as straight a line as {)ossible, bea 
fonv is rc(|uin>d to displaiv it from that line. In draught-horses 
<lcfcct is of no im)N)rtaniv ; in animals used for other purposes it is d< 
mental, an<l a mean obliquity of the sides of the croup is preierabl 

( )x\wT tleliK'ts, not U»ss s(Tious, nuiy result from an excessive inci 
tion of the latcnd |)arictcs of the cnnip, as is scvn more jMrtieularl; 
I I the form in which it is di»signat(*d nharp. Here the l)ase of supj 

is narrow and the hind limbs do not have their nee(*ssar\' freedom 
movcnicnt during rapid hK'omotion ; they approach each other, 
alMluction is liniitc<l, and the animal will i/i/cz/r/r or forge. Lei 
ad<l that such a<'n)up la<'ks stn^ngtli and iK^iuity, and is often acvun 
ni<'<l bv a narn»w chest, sullicit^nt cause to n*nder the animal unfit 
for s<>ni«' kinds of w<irk. 

The (iftHiJutv nnrnnrncM of this region is at all times regarded i 

Direction. — The direction of the cn>up has l)een the theme 
extensive discussions am<»ug authors who liave written upon the e 




nor. More recently, our learned colleague, M. Neumann,* has, in a 
full review of this subject, endeavored to offer diverse criticisms on 
certain views which we supported on this point in our first edition. 
These criticisms have induced us to make a careful revision of this part 
of our book, and we have conducted numerous experiments, the results 
of which are given in this edition. We are convinced that the diver- 
gence from our opinion r^arding the direction of the croup, held by some 
writers, is much less reasonable than our critics imagine. They do not 
sufficiently consider the sources of error, and the compensations and 
exigencies demanded by the nature of the work which the animal must 
perform. Very often qualities or defects which belong to other elements 
of the conformation are attributed to the direction of the croup ; finally, 
it is common to see persons who choose as a standard of excellence such 
or such an inclination which has given good results in some instances, 
without reflecting that different purposes also require peculiar anatomical 
conditions, which endow the mechanism with a peculiar aptitude. 

The discussion into which we now enter will furnish the proof of 
what we have said. 

First, how is the direction of the croup manifested ? 

Certain writers think, incorrectly, that it is indicated by a curve on 
the median line of the body extending from the termination of the 
loins to the origin of the tail. This line denotes only the degree of 
convexity of the sacral spine and the curvature of the sacrum. It is 
altogether independent of the general direction of tlie coxae, and 
influences but little the form of the region. 

The axis of the croup, in our opinion, corresponds almost exactly 
with a line uniting the angle of the haunch to the point of the ischium 
and passing some distance above the coxo-femoral articulation ; we will 
call it the Uio-ischial line. 

We are prepared to assert that the direction of this line depends 
upon two principles, as follows : 

Ist It may depend upon the dimension of the ilio-ischial angle. 

2d. It may depend upon the more or less inclined position of the 
coxae without variation in its angle. 

a. Influence of the Dimension of the Ilio-ischial Angle. 
— Two causes are capable of modifying the size of this angle ; they 
mav act alone or simultaneously. It mav be the inclination of the 
ilium alone which varies, or that of the ischium, or, finally, that of both, 
which may vary at the same time. 

Let us examine each of these cases in particular. 

1 G. Neunumn, Sur la direction de la croupe ; in Revue v^t^rinaire. 1887, p. 621. 



\»X. Varinti'iiif in l/ir liii-liiiiilUin <tf the Ilium. — When ihe iliam ii/i/inHir/ii 
rrrlititl (V'lf,. .IN). lln' iTimji A' li \* mure iibliijue mill sliortiT than Ihi' cntU]! 

Tlif U-ii;nli 'if tli<> tfliitful iiiusckii A'f in diliiiniiihdl ; nevi^rthdc.-w. 
inciili'in'c ii" iimri' Ikvoralilf Ihiiu lliiit nt' AC, whrthiT I'lir the extensiuti nl 
I'l'iTiur or Iht' sii[>|H>rt of tin- vcrlibriil olumn. Thu lulvaiitagw which fi 
fmtii thin iiii'i'li'titv iiri' miiri' t'ttiriii'icius thuii in (fpncnilly bolicved. Are tlie; 
cviilriit ill lUf ilriivii;lit-lii)r«i', liir ixumple, when he eniieavom ti> Diuve bin h 
Till' I'Hiirl iui'lim-s liis rniiip iiinl i-liwiit )ir<)|Hirti<>aHll.v hin iirticuUr angU-:<. w 
iitherwiw un' tiiun' i)|ii'ii. I^' it nut the initnediiitc conM^iurnee or thn varii 
ti> iiiiiftiit'iit the intensity i>r the inuM-iiliir ciiiitnu'tion, by rendering the in!<ei 
miirc iH[j«-tnli(iilnr t.i the Ihiiiv levers on whidi ihcj- act 1 If, therefore, 
i-iri'iiiu^tunee the aniiiiul iiiiiimaehiT. ii I'linfiinimtion which saven him from eitei 
iillhiKeiriirtHdurinic truetion, he will re 
lain eeiiiiiiniv or force which niufi 


The coxo-feinonil angle, A'Olt, li 
i>litii»e. Ihe weifcht of the IiihIv 
iliiiie iiwlf more )H>rpendieii1iirlv i 
l»m.*; till- muscles A'f anil 
chiirifcl til ^ii)<|Hirt the i>|)lnal coh 

Fniiii nil ojijKMitO point nf view, i 
i-lemonil angle, A'Olt. hcfome i 
ise, it |tlacei> the ti-mur in a )»•» 
'li [-liMt-T to itM limit of extenHJon. 

,..r-i'il!>-A ../ thr Mrml,>-n.) It foil 
■11, that if the coxii, liy ita iiiirighti 
reai-e the <limciisi<.n of the unicle.l' 
ii'li is ulreaily large, lhi» Ihihc enn 
'~ lliniiij;h a Hiiiil<i] (liftanM- during 

t Ihi- II 

I' |>n>|iiilsion of Ihe trunk the \'t>v 

■lit i.f the lenioral play ix reaeheil ii 

itinrogiiickly. ThcniovcmentKof ihefi 

,1 :;l. ..n the .-..iilriry. lie iiiiiili iiii.r.- cMciHivc with the an^'lc AOI> kw cl 

i.i'i iii'i-iiKii'liint' ihc iliinii tnunnl- the ln.ri/untal tlinrlion. 

If 111- il'iiiiii W- till' t>'-iili- iiri- jiriH-iscly of an ojiixwite onler. 

» ill. lher.-t<.iv. 1I..1 p:!-.. Iiiillicr into •l.-talU. 

i'lie liilLiiJi- i-.,n.Iii-i.,ii^ mv <I.Tivi-<l fVoni thp stmly of 
iii-ONiiii-iM Il-"i-j. -AX]: 

\\\\\\ ihi- ••/•'l./i- i/l",ii. ilic j:liit<!il iiiiisclis an- !*lMirter, but Ix 
liii ricl l^r iiit<'ii~itv i>l' |H>\ur ; llie ti.\atiiiti ol' tlie spiiK' it) more « 
llif iii'ivi'iii''iii> .il' i.\t<'ii~iuii iiiiii Hixioti hu'k nmplitiidp; and 
liii|>iiUii>ii i- iiiiii'-iiiiiiMi irxm' vi'ilii-iilly. I'lU-it- is iiiemascd and ?] 

With the ilium /i",-<-..i,i/(i/|tli;it i- tosiiv, less ti)>ritr|it), tko inrt'lmi 
■i.iiiliii.iii- -.ii-r tl ]ijH.-lic- ..[■ ilie [itvceiliii;! ; tlic miiM'k-s are Iwnjj; 



-When ii 

the isehtum 

femoral movements extensive ; impulgitin is ti-ansinittcd horizontally, 
but tbe general structure is not adapted to incivase the fixation of the 
spinal column. VdocHy la increased at the ex[x.'nsc of force. 

The first conformation, therefore, should exist in horses which are 
employed to carry burdens or pull heavy loads ; the second is found 
in those which are adapted to rapid locomotion with little or no 
weight to carry, those whose value depends upon their qualities of 

2d. Varialion* in fht Inr/inalion of the Itchi 
vrhich is iowfred (Fig. 39), Ihe croup, AB', 
vi more oblique, and appeara l(in);er. 
The length of the ischio-tibifll muscles, 
B'E, diminiithee, but they have an inci- 
dcnc-e of insertion more fuvonible, whether 
for the rotation of the vimx, in view of 
fixing the xpinal column, or the flexion of 
the leg during progrcwtion. 

The coxo-femoral angle, AOD, does 
not vary, and the extension of ihe femur 
preserves its amplitude, pnivided the ilium, 
AO, remain well direeted. 

The force of propulsion, at the sanif 
time, continues to be transmitted in itc 
proper direction, OA. 

Nevertheless, the (lintanie, B'E, be- 
tween the ischium and the tibia dimin- 
ishex, which can only lie wnnpcnsiited 
by an increase in the femoro-tibial angle, 
ODE, thus giving to the boneit a more 
vertical direction, such hh in often seen 
in thoroughbred horeeti, in which the tibiii 

The gluteal musclex, AV, do not vary. 

What are tlie conclusions from these statements? Simply this: 
timt the obliquity of the croup, due only to the lowering of the 
ischium, or, if it lie preferred, of the point of the lutttock, fiivors 
again force at the expense of sj>eed, but in a niiiniicr less pn^ndicial 
than in the preceding case, Hiiice the femoral amplitude, a» well as a 
good direction of the force of impulsion, arc preserved. 

This conformation, if it be not exaggerated, will be ex<vllent for 
most ordinary services, because it corresponds more uniformly to the 
mean requirements of power, resistance, and velocity dcmaiuled from 
tlic horse of to-day. 

3d. Simultaneotia VariatiotM of the Ineliinm nnil the Ilium. — If the 
angle, A OB, instead of preserving its mean dimension, becomes smaller 

ordinarily but little inelined. 


as to become A' OB', the 

bv the approximation of its two sides, s 
results are aa fiillows (Fig. 40) : 

The apparent length uf the croup, A'li', will be diminished, Although the 
dimension uf the levers OA' anil Ofl' do nnt change. The distance between the 
]ioint of the ischium and the tibia becomn 

The coxo-femoral angle, A'OIi, being 
larger, the impulnive foree of the femur 
will be redueed, because it is trsiisniitted 
tjK> vertically. ThiM is the principal dis- 
adviintage uf this conformation. 

The fixation of the doreo-lumbar spine 
iR easy and powerful, on account of the 
greater obliquity of the ilium and the per- 
pendicular incidence of insertion of the 
gluteal muscles, A'V. 

•Such a croup appears short and 
jKxirlv dcfinec) ; the animal lackx mo> 
bility and develojw a vertical im- 
{lulsion ; the region possesses gn.«t 
Mtrciigth, and he is well fitted to exe- 
cute the gallop or leap, on aceount of 
Fro. «, th<' length of the buttock, but he is 

without great Hi»eed. We have known 
manv horses whose croup had these charaeteristics, and which per- 
formed ordinarj" work satis&ctorily. 

In theoppoMite conformation, ^"OB", the croup will appear longer, but wiU 
have a tendency to weaknew from the horizontal direction of the ilium. 

The movetiientM of thu femur will Im more extensive, the angle A"OD being 

The impulsion will Ih' better transniittcd than in the preceding case. 

Finally, the buttiK-k will lie shorter, 

Fceblcnes^i of the i-n>u]> and loins, greater propulsion from behind, 
and little aptitude for the gulloj) and tor Icainng are the principal 
<-liiinirteriiitt<-!i of this lorni. The gait will liick neither amplttnde 
nor gnuv, ixit iho weight on the Itack mii.vt Ix* rethiced to a mintmam. 
The subjiit will ]>crforni good service as u tarriage-horse or for light 

An iiit<'n'«tiHg renmrk hi be made in {Missing is, that in the three 
vorieties, AH, A' It', A" It", the generul direction of the croup is not 
sa-nniiily ni<Hlitied, while the iiinditioiis of force, strength, and speed 
an- nil <if dillen-iit orders. We shall return to this point later. 




Whole, — The pelvis, aa a whole, may incline more or less towards 
the horizontal or the vertical line. 

Although these misplacements are more rare and leea marked than 
those of the individual bones, suuh general misplacements are never- 
tbelesa sometimes obser\'ed. 

The ilio-ischial angle in such cases is ordinarily more closed than 
is normal, owing to a diminished obliquity of the ischium. The tor- 
ward and backward rotation of the coxk can thus be accomplished 
without perceptibly modifying the direction o( the floor of the pelvic 

This rotation, in one direction or in the other, modifies the obliciuity 
of the croup (Fig. 41) more tliun the ]iartial variations to which we 
have alluded. 

When the cojxearerotfded ioctfcan/,jl' 05', the combined result, a 
straightening of the ilium and lower- 
ing of the ischium, is both favor- 
able and unfavorable. Veli>city is 
diminished and force increased. The 
croup and loins are strengthened, 
and the power for traction increased. 
The femoral impulsion is reduced 
because it is applied too vertically. 
This conformation, when it is exag- 
gerated, disturbs the axis of the 
members by placing tlie latter under 
the tnmk ; it is altt^ther incom- 
patible with great speed, but is not 
detrimental to slow work which re- 
quires great force. 

An inverse displacetaent. A" OB", 
naturally means opposite results. 
The muscles are longer, their play is 
augmented, the transmission of the motor impulse is i 
but the regions above are weakcne<l. 

As soon as the horizontal direction passes beyond certain limits, 
the hind limbs tend to rest ixjsterior to their vertical axis, and the 
extension and flexion of the femur become insufficient. There is a 
tendency towards a disposition analogous to that in the ox, whose 
loins are weak, not only on account of their great length, but also in 
consequence of the conformation of the croup, whose inclination is but 
fiiintly marked. 

e horizontal, 


Geneual Considerations relative to the Direction op 
THE Croup. — If the reader is not already discouraged by having fol- 
lowed us in the minute analysis which we have given, he will now 
recognize that the terms horizontal, croup and oblique croup only have 
a relative signification, always more or less vague, unless they an* 
somewhat arbitrarily defined. He will know that such or such a croup 
is not necx»ssarily well directed, fn>m the statement that the ilio-ischial 
line is oblique or horizontal, as the case may be. He will then under- 
stand the distinctions to lx» made in the two factors, the ilium and the 
ischium, which ocvupy such an imiK)rtant relation in the modification 
of the gt»ncral direction of the (»oxa?. Finally, he will perceive that 
each si)ecial aptitude of the honse is ass(K'iat<Kl with a j>articular 
inclination of the one or the other of thc»s(» factors. 

The mo<lern horse must respond, by his (H)n formation, to multiple 
puriK>s(»s. The two princiiml, which embratre all the others, require 
the animal to employ eitlier force or npeed. The muscular forces, 
however, which in the two cas(\s are intrusteil with the double result, 
must, for the production of the one or the other, act according to a 
nuvhanism entin»ly diffen>nt as to its mod(» of construction. Whence 
we mtH»t (vrtiiin qualifiditions, absolute for sjkhxI, while those for force 
may Ik» al)S(»nt, and vice verna. 

In this n»gion of the cn>up, any oss<h)us inclination which implies 
long gluteal and is<*hi<>-tibial nuisck^s, a large femoral extension, and a 
transmission of the motor impulse* as horizontally as j)ossible, should 1)6 
consitlrrcil as the thn»e factors which cxemi)lify the U'st additions of 


The* (liHtincily^horizonUd croup has an inclination of 20 to 30 
d<»gnH's, a low ilium im^lined 2.") to *M) dcgixn^s, a horizontal ischium, 
and an ojm'U ischi< filial angle. The animal thus c^mfomic^d will have, 
if the frnuir 1k» well direi!te<l, a (»oxo-femoral angle of 105 to 110 
drgrn's. This iiicn-as^'s (he arc of os<'illation of the thigh, the limit 
of whirli during extension j)ass4's well Inyond the vertical line of the 
nM'iulK'rs. We know, in liiet, that the impulsive fonx* (»s|)e<ially is 
only utili/Ml (luring progression after the moment that the direct axis 
of the inemlMT has pass<'<l Iwyoiul the verticjil line jmssing through the 
e^'Utre of the <'ox<^- femoral articulation. 

Such a hors<s howev^T, lM'<'oines incapable of cjirrj'ing, without great 
fatigue, a heavy weight on his ba<*k ; light j<K*keys, therefore, are 
ne<t»ssarv for the nnuiing-hors4» ; the vehi<'lc which he draws must also 
Im» very light. ('onstnict<'<l for running, and carrying only his own 
wei;:ht, his sixiil will Ix* <'Xtreme; more than this should not be 


demanded of him. How many of his likeness appear on the turf 
which are capable of astonishing speed for a short distance, but which 
cannot maintain it when the distance is increased, lx»ing overburdened 
by the weight which they must carry I 

Let us change the data of this problem. Let us exact from the 
motor the production of a force of the greatest ))assible intensity, 
whether it be for carrying a lieavy weight or drawing a heavy load. 
lTjK)n what will be based the influence of the direction of the croup 
in such a case ? 

With M. Neumann/ we resp<md that it de|K»nds, so to sjK'ak, 
exclusively upon the inclination of the croup and the (H>xo-femond 
structures, or, if it be preferrc»d, the position of the ilium under the 
dorso-lumbar arcjh. Here the length of tlie musi*l(»s and the extent of 
the movements are a se<x)ndarv (Hmsidemtion ; it sufficc»s U\ overcome 
the intensity of the resistance. Conseipiently, any anatomical disposi- 
tion whose effect is to furnish to the pieces of the skeleton a |)art of 
the effort re(piired from the muscles, or which gives incidences of inser- 
tion to them more favorable to their contraction, must be regarded as 
being in conformity with the adaptation of the subject to this variety 
of labor. 

A stroiigly-oblique croups inclinixl 40 to 4') degree's, with an obli<pie 
ilium inclined 45 to 50 degrei\s, and with a low ischium, will well 
fulfil these conditions. A large coxo-femoral angle, which will \k' the 
consequence, will pla<'e the coxae as a strong support underneath the 
vertebral column and render the musck»s able to sustain the latter, even 
if it be heavily charged. To exact the least sjkihI from such a h<»rs(.* 
will be in opposition to physiological laws ; he cjin only employ his 
force at a slow pace. 

Between these two extreuwH there are numerous intermediary ty}>es, 
which may, with sufficient ease, be grou|H»d int4> tlin^ categories, as 
follows : 

L Saddk'horaeM, whi(;h are obliged to move a more or less heavy 
weight (Sirried on their l^ack, at a sufficiently great vehx^ity, whether 
at the trot or the gallop. Those which are destiiKnl for the turf should 
have a croup approa(*hing the* horizontal ideal of 25 degrt»es, but with 
a more oblique ilium (30 degrei\s), for the pur|K>s<' of giving solidity to 
the stnictures anterior to it. Trotters^ are lK»nefitt»d by a somewhat 

' O. Neumann, loc. cit., p. 527. 

* In the American trottiiig-horse the obliquity of the croup is subject to the f^reatest varia- 
tion. In aome it in hori7x>ntHl, in others oblique. In the nmre ."unol, thret* year-old, record 
2.10^, it la extremely oblique. In suoh ca-ses the mechanical disad van tain' is compensated by an 
ezccwive length of the iHchio-tibial muscles and those of the thi^h and leg in general. (Harger.) 


more oblique direction of the ilium (35 degrees). . As to hunters and 
cavalry horses, used exclusively under the saddle, and from which 
great strength of the loins and ix)sterior quarters, but less speed, are 
demanded, their cn)up should have an intermediary ix)sition between 
the <>hli((ue croup of the draught-horse and the horizontal one of the 
thon)ughbred. The ilium should incline 35 d^rees, and the isc»hium 
l)e slightly lowercnl, in such a manner that the ilio-ifichial line shall 
prestTve this intermediate relation. 

2. f>nrin(/-horHe^y employwl on the track or as animals of luxury', 
whose exclusive gait is the trot, without any weight on the back, can, 
without disadvantage, have a horizontal croup. This is ai)preciate<l as 
a quality of Ix'iuity and fashion as well as for its mechanical advan- 
tage's in rapid hn'omotion. 

3. In (fraitf/ht-horHCH for fnM^ heavy irork, or mixed motors, com- 
bining at the same time font^ from their bulk and tlieir muscular jwwer, 
and a certain sjmhhI from their relative muscular activity, united with 
the h^ngth of tht? s(»gmeuts, a croup slightly more inclined than that of 
the cjivalrv horsi* or the trotting-horse will fulfil the rtHpiired (conditions. 

KuHoits IN THE Estimation of the DiREcmoN of the (,'Rorp. — 
T1h» (le<*p situation of the coxo-femonil structure, the large mass of 
mus<'h»s which cover and conceal it, more or less, and, finally, the com- 
plexity of the function which it fulfils as an ap])aratus of staticm, impul- 
sion, and hK'omoti<m, render its study jMirticularly difficult Without 
a traimnl eye, <a|>able of ol)s<*rying and often inferring the anatomy 
thn)ugh the external form, errors are not only possible but frequent, 
even with ex|)erts. Scmie prefer the horizontal and others the oblique 
dinvtion, wliih* still others have no preference between the two direo- 
ti<»ns, but ass**rt that the inclination of the c^oxae alone is without effect 
on the IcKHnnotorv aptitude. 

Neverthclrss, here, as in all other circumstances, the correct method 
of sc»lection is regular an<l s<'ientific. Pich direction offers advantages 
whit'h correlate with some (leterminiKl exigency or need ; each one also 
has its exj)c<licn(M(»s with reganl to the qualities of sjieed or of force 
which it is desire*! to (»l)tain. The difficulty li(»s in establishing the kind 
of (conformation which is suital)le to (»ach sj)ecial case. 

In onl( r to acc^omplish this, a thorough examination of the parts is 
nHjiiinHl, irnsjMH'tivc of sjxH'ial apfrntranee^. Nothing, for example, 
pr<Kliic<s such a <i(»ccptivc apjH*arance of horizontality in the croup, 
as the slight prominence and small convexity of the superior line and 
the horizontal din'<'tion of the is<^hinm and the sacnim. Conversely, 
a depn»sse<l is<'liiuin and sjktuiii and a suix»rior surface curved and 


oblique, seem to augment the inclination of the coxae. As we have 
seen, it may, nevertheless, be that in the two cases the obliquity of the 
ilium is equal and even more horizontal in the one which appears the 
more oblique. Hence it is especially the direction of the ilium which 
it is necessary to take into consideration in the determination of the 
conditions of force and strength of the regions in front of the croup, 
and particularly its characteristics of length, width, and thickness, 
which we have already detailed. A certain intuition which not everj' 
one possesses is necessary to appreciate these, and hence the errors of 
judgment which are so common. 

M. Richard* has good reason to criticise persons who make no 
difference, in their selection for 8i)eed, between the horse with a hori- 
zontal croup and one in which it is oblique, and asserts that compensd- 
tioiis can equalize their mechanical aptitude, if not in blood, at least in 
structure. Vallon* has not expressed a different opinion in advancing 
that an oblique croup is cai)able of forcibly propelling the body and 
of communicating to it great sjKHKi, provided the anterior part of the 
trunk is low and light. The length of the locomotory segments, the 
degree of the openness of the articular angles, the position of the 
limbs under the trunk, the muscular development, the race, the energy, 
and many other factors of speed, can accompany a croup with an 
oblique i}ium, and would be more or less defective in subjects with a 
horizontal croup. It is incorrect to connect a special aptitude, what- 
ever it be, to the conformation of one region alone, and much more so 
to pretend that it depends exclusively upon one particular osseous 
inclination. We will not dwell on this point. 

Modifications in the Direction op the Croup resitltino 
FROM Labor. — The direction of the croup is not always congenital; 
it is often modified by the manner of utilization or work. 

Young animals which are attached to heavy loads too early, and 
those which are employed in mountainous districts for traction or as 
animals of burden, will have, in time, a croup more and more oblique. 
On the contrary, in the saddle- or the pack-horse which are placed in 
service prematurely, this region tends to become more horizontal. 

Muscularity. — Besides the qualifications, length, width, thickness, 
and direction, which we recognize in this region, it is also necessary 
that the muscles be firm, dense, well outlined, and well developed. 

Without these qualifications the region will he entirely deficient in 

> Richard (du Cantal), Etude dti eheval de senMce et dc guerre, 6e M., p. 215, PariB, 1882. 
< Vallon, Cours d'hippologie, tome 1. p. 406, I*aris, 1863. 


power. This is a conimoii defwt in many horses of a sluggish and 
lymphatic tem|x?rainent and raistnl in low, marshy districts. 

Forms. — The different forms of the croup are dejiendent u|X)n : 

1. The dimensions, length, and width. 

2. The dircH'tion of its largt* axis. 

3. The dir(»ction of its sujKTior line. 

4. The mus(*ular development. 

5. Th(» movements. 

The (h^scription of these which we have alnwly given above will 
allow us to notici' them rapidly in n^view. 

1. In rehition to its dimensions, the croup can Ix? loiuf or tJkort^ 
trifle or narrow. When the haunches and the |K)ints of the buttocks 
are in plaiu*s which tend to Ih» jmrallel, and at the sjuue time the nyion is 
long and wi<le, the hors(» is siiid to ho. fiqtuire behind, a (pudiiication 
which is to \\q adminnl, Ikhiuisc* it gives force and vehx^ity.* When 
the croup has a certain width in front but is narrower behind, it takes 
the nanus (tfinontl-shajteif, mnle-likc; the horse viewed from Ix'hind 
apiKWrs niirron% pointed, 

2. In relation to its great axis, we know that the cnnip may l)e 
ol}H(pie or horizontal. Th<»s(» terms are applicable to these diiXH'tions 
when the hitter exist in an ordinary dt^gn-e ; when they are not exag- 
g(»nit<Ml. It ofti'u liap|M'ns that they become faulty from an exci»ss or a 
delicicn<'V in the one S4'ns(» or the other. 

Too liorizontof, it la<'ks forc<', Hinders the animal incapable of sup- 
|)ortiug the Iwist weight on his back, and alters the verticid axis of the 
]M>st4Tior liml> l)v disphicing th<' latter t<M) far backward. Too oblique, 
it a<rts prc»judiiMally to this axis by phicing the limb t(H> far under the 
trunk, transmits the fonv of impulsion ineffectively, and pre<lispo6es 
the Iwu'k to discas*' fn»m undue strain. It is then called low, cut-^iffy 

X Direction of its Superior Line. — When the sa(*ral spine \% 
prominent, so that the sides s1<»|h; strongly outward, downward, and 
biiekwanl, :is is remarked in certiiin strains of horsc»s in the south of 
(•^'Utral Fninc*', the croup is designatcKl nharp or mule-Uke, This con- 
f<»rination, (juite common in the lKirb-hors<^ of Andalusia, becomes 
defei'tive inily when it isa<'<*omjuinied by a narrowness of the {Kisterior 
(piart<*rs, lesM*ning the stnMigth of the partes and the velw^ity of the gait. 

The croup is <*alled hen-fniJrd when it prt^sents a more or lt»ss dis- 
tinct d<*pn*ssion anterior to the l)asc? of the tail. In such animals the 

' A. Kivct, <iui«lc prHti^iie do lachetvur de chuvuux, 1S77. 


latter is badly carried ; the aspect which it presents gives it the name of 
rabbWa tail ; it is observed in certain Frisian and German horses with 
slanting croups. 

4. The development of the mTlSCles of the croup varies 
according to the race. 

When the median line presents a longitudinal gutter, limited on 
each side by an elevation, of the gluteal muscles, the croup is double; its 
lateral diameter is then nearly always large. It is a characteristic of 
great force, and is ol>scrved in draught-hoi*ses of a lymphatic type. It 
must be considered as being detrimental to the production of speed, 
because it surcharges the posterior extremities and occasions excessive 
lateral displacements of the centre of gravity. 

When, on the contrary, the sacral spine projects above the sur- 
rounding muscles, otherwise well developed, the croup is said to be 
angular. This conformation, which renders the lines and the c»ontour 
of the region more apparent, is not a defect, but denotes great power 
of the bony levers. If, however, it results in a disap[)oaranc»e of the 
harmony between the bones and the muscles, and the latter are weak 
and |XK)rly developed, the preceding advantages will be al>sent. 

" If the muscles of the croup of the man* aj)p(»ar nunken^ so that 
the base of the tail is well detached and the alxlomen somewhat pen- 
dulous and projecting on oa(*h side, we can presume that she is preg- 
nant ; a slow and heavy walk confirms this presumption" (Captain 

6. Finally, in relation to its movements, we remark that the 
croup should prop(»l the tnmk without swinging from side to side. If 
this condition be not fiilfilled, the region is said to Ix* oMcillating, and if 
it is more exaggerated, the animal rocket himself. 

In the first case, the region lacks pn)pulsive force ; in the second, 
the gait is ungraceful and deprived of s|xkh1. 

" In the pr^nant mare, nine times out of ten the muscles attaching 
to the summit of the croup on each side of the base of the tail will 
tremble when she walks" (Captain Rivet). This condition is due to 
a relaxation of the sat»ro-ischiotic ligament, a fact which we have 

and Blemishes. — Certain authors assert that the coxo-fcmoral 
articulation is quite frequently the seat of a peculiar sfrairif a^inst which cau- 
terization, setonis, and veAicants are employed (Vallon, Merche). 

This disease, consigned to-day to the list of maladies whose names have 

^ Ann. Goubaux, Soci6t6 de Biologie, ann^e, 1869. p. 125. 


encumbered ancient veterinary medicine, serves as a pretext for a treatment of 
which the region sometimes bears the traces, and which is too often the proof of 
the uncertainty into which a lameness whose seat is unknown sometimes leads the 
veterinarian. Be that as it may, it will be necessary to examine carefully the other 
regions of the posterior member in which the coxo-femoral articulation present* 
evidence of nuch disease. 

The blemishes of the croup are not numerous. They are due to exroria- 
tions and tcounds which result from continued friction, caused by a misfitting or 
a vicious application of the crupper. 

The muscrles of the croup, with those of the thigh and buttock, sometimeA 
become the seat of atrophy^ which, manifesting itself by a considerable reduction 
in their volume, places the osseous apparatus in relief.' 

This atn>phy of the croup, whether of nervous origin or otherwise, is always 
due to a prolongcil inactivity of the muscles, and is sometimes rebellious to treat- 
ment. It depreciates the value of the animal, especially when it is the manifes- 
tation of a local paralysis. 

The Haunch. 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The haunch, an 

asyiiimetriinl region, is situateil U|K)n the antero-i»xtcrnal part of the 
cn»iip, with whicli it Ixieoines more or less confounded, according to 
the suhjtvt. It is for tliis reason that its study as a distinct regrion 
is somewhat difli(*ult. 

It is limited bt»low by i\\Q flank and the anterior cniral region, 
alK)ve hy the lointi ami the croup, and has for its princi|)al base the 
external angle of the ilium and the musc*les which attach to the latter. 

Kelate<l in front to tlu' hollow of the flank and behind to the 
<»n>up, it forms, in horses of a c*oarse c*<mformation, a large eminence 
whi<*h then n'<'t»ivi»s the (|ualifi(^iti(m well detached. If its prominence 
Ik» due to th(» meagn* development of the surrounding muscles^ as is 
sometinu^s seen in lesm and |MM)rly-<levelo|XKl subjec^ts, in the angular 
en>up of certain Nonuan hors<»s, and in many with oblique croups, it 
lM<*onu*s defin'tive and renders the animal too anr/ular. We are fiuniliar 
with the old jest alludiHl to by De Curnieu, in which tlie jockey tries to 
hang his hat on the haunch of a horse* which is very nu*agrely developed 
in this n»s|K*ct.* 

When ]>rominen<v of the haunch is not due to a vicious conforma- 
tion of the croup, it sim])Iy apjH'iirs uugra<x.*ful to the eye and has no 
influemv U|)on the qualitii's of its |M)SS(\ssor. 

In (»ther instaucts, the haunch nuiy show an op])osite defect; it is 
not sufficiently salient, and then Un'omes effavedy ioWj dropped j or 9unken. 

1 H. Roult-y. Nifiivi'AU IMrtioniialrtf <le iDMcciiie, d'hvf^ii^iie et de chinirgSe TilMMlNi^i 
Till. p. .'ii7. 

* l>e Curnieu. L4\i)nH de science hipplque g^n^rale, IKA, tip. 248. 


This is the usual form which it exhibits in very fat horses, or in those 
whose croup is of insufficient width. We have sufficiently discussed 
this defect and will not return to it here. 

From the preceding statements it follows that it is scarcely possible 
to draw any indications of importance from the mere examination of 
the haunches. Nevertheless, this is not the view taken by certain hip- 
potomists. The reason for this difference of opinion lies in the follow- 
ing considerations. Bourgelat first described this region as having for 
its base the whole of the* ilium, including that part of the body ex- 
tending from the external angle of that bone to the coxo-femoral articu- 
lation. Many of his disciples, following his example, have made use 
of such expressions as hngy short, narrow, wide, straight, and oblique 
haunches, terms which are still used in the veterinary world, but whose 
meaning is hard to determine, if we take them in their literal sense. 

It is easy to see that it is illogical to make such a distinction as to 
separate the anterior part of the coxa from the posterior, to call the one 
part a haunch and the other a croup, to examine separately structures 
which are so intimately united and so harmoniously blended in their 
nature and their anatomy. Accordingly, to avoid those repetitions and 
confusions which otherwise would not fail to spring up in our minds, 
the haunch is best r^arded as only a secondary region of the croup, 
interesting us by reason of its (mrticular forms, and, more especially, 
its blemishes. These are the reasons why we have imitated those of 
our predecessors who have not accepted the distinction established by 

and Blemishes. — ^The haunch may be the s^eat of excoriatioos 
and wounds of more or less gravity, and sometimes accompanied by severe com- 
plications. They are always found on horses which have been injured by 
passing through narrow door-ways, on those which have to keep the recumbent 
position for a long time alter surgical operations or during serious diseases, upon 
a bed with insufficient litter, or, finally, in those which, suffering fi*om nolent 
attacks of colic, throw themselves on the ground. 

In other cases, the haunch is the seat of hcenmtomaia (blood-tumors), cysts^ 
ab9ee99e9^ bruuea^ partial or total fractures. The latter are followed by marked 
deformities of this region ; one haunch is lower than the other, from the fact that 
the detached portion is carried downward and forward by the contraction of the 
muscle of the fiucia lata and the small oblique of the abdomen. The lameness 
which exists at the outset of such an accident disappears at the expiration of a 
certain time, but the deformity will always persist. An animal which presents 
it is called hip^hoi; it has received a stroke from a broom. 

" Finally, it is possible that in young horses the centre of ossification 
which forms the tuberosity of the external angle of the ilium may becoine 
detached by the force of muscular contractions, as when the animal is forced 


into u retrained position lor the performance of a Hurjjcical operation, castration, 
for example ; thuH may Ik' produced an accident which, if it 'n not a fracture 
properly speaking, Mimiiluti's it hy itH deformity and hy itis results." * 



A. — The Breast, or Pectoral Region. 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The breast is a 

sviniiiotric:!] n'jrion sitiiatiHl at tlu» antorior |mrt of the trunk, and 
liinitiHl ill fn>nt hv tlu* iiifmor iKmlcr of tho ncrk\ Ix'hind bv the 
iixifhr an<l tlu' inter-iixiUnrif rcr/loHj and on oa<'li side by the arm. 

It has for its main tjss^'ous element the anterior extr(»niitv of the 
sternum, on which an' ins<'rte<l the sterno-hyoideus, st<»nio-thyr(>ideus, 
stenin-maxillaris, and st«M*no-humeralis mus<*h»s, and tlu»se are se{Nirato<I 
fn»m the intiTiial lluv of the skin bv an abnndane(M)f eonmH*tive tissue. 
It eontaiiis the plat4* vein, situatiHl in the gutter fomuHl by the adjoining 
lHinlers(»f the steriKHhuiiieralis and mastoido-humeralis nuisek^, whieh 
nin Im' l(Miit<>(l easily from the exterior, and on which phlel)otomy is 
sometiiiH'S praetise^l. 

Form. — Th«* eonfi^umtion of the external suriacr of the jXH^oral 
niri«»n varies ac-eonliiijr tn the sui^iu't, from the iiiet that the volume 
nf the alN)ve-mention<'4l miis^'h's leaves the tra(*helian ap|K*iidix of the 
sternum m<ire or les< prominent. I>ut littK' attention need be given 
to tlii^ promiiiene«*. Nevertheless, if it is very inarke<l, the re^on is 
<|ualiti«-<l :\< s/ifti'it, Snnrtimes the bniist pn'sents twt) deep depreseions 
sitM:ii(><l within the H'lipiilo-humertil an^k'S ; tlies4MlepressH)nsaredue to 
a meagii'nr-^ nf th«' miis<-les or to a <-hanjre in the dinvtion of the 
H-:i|inlo-|iiimei*:il anirlr. This |H'eiiIiarity is very et^minoii in korsoss 
whirh an* }HH»rly drvr|i>|Nil. and the l)n*a>t is then d4'S<TilKil as holiow^ 
i\T f*»*/i/:* li. 

Width. — The width !•* the j>rin<-iiKil element tu \k' i*onsiden*d in 
th«- examination of the Iirea>t, and, as Ikair^relat has s:iid, it should lie 
pro|N»rtional to ih*' volume of the ImkIv (»r the ^'iieral devek)pment of 
the animal. 

^ 11 ll..Ulry I'l I'll. 


Most authors have advanced the opinion that its width is proix)r- 
tionate with that of the chest. In our opinion, it is easy to see in this 
assertion the false interpretation of the fact (for the most part ver\' well 
established) that narrowness of the breast acccjmpanies a thorax of 
little cai)acity and slender limbs. 

It might be supjwsed, indeed, that there ought to be a cxirtain 
relation l>etween this narrowness and the sjmce enclosed by the first two 
ribs. This is, however, an error which we have exposed by more than 
fifty observations made upon the living subject and comi)leted after- 
waitls upon the cadaver. We have never found marked differences in 
this respect among subjects of the same size, whatever may have l)een 
the width of the breast. This is due to the simple reason : it is not 
at the anterior extremity that the dimensions of the chest vary, but 
rather in the middle and posterior regions. Also, the differences in the 
width of the pectoral region are the result of causes other than the 
separation of the anterior ribs. We must attribute them to the varying 
ttii(;kness of the pectoral muscles which form its base. It is also true 
that this region can accidentally become narrow in animals whose 
thorax is spacious. It is only nec»essary to place them in bad hygienic 
conditions, or to give them improi)er flxxl and injudiciously-i'hosen work, 
to convince ourselves that emaciation causes a diminution of its width. 

It 18 physiologically true, however, that the general development of 
the respiratory apparatus is directly proportional to that of the muscular 
system. The functional activity of the muscles causes an augmenta- 
tion of their volume, and their contractions produce an increase of the 
amount of oxygen consumed. No lungs, no muscles ; and, conversely, 
dense and vigorous muscles require a spacrious thorax ; whence it follows 
that the width of the pectoral region, owing to the volume of its muscles, 
should coincide with a certain degree of respiratory power. If, there- 
lc)re, this region is narrow, it becomes desirable to determine to what 
cause this narrowness is due, whether to that of the thorax directly, or 
to the animal's " condition." 

The size being equal, the breast of the English thoroughbred 
horse is less wide than that of the heavy coach-horse, whilst he is 
endowed with a chest equally if not more spacious. In this case the 
harmonious development of the locomotory apparatus must also be 
considered ; the power of the muscles, instead of Ix'ing the effect of 
their thickness, is due to their length ; and the sternum appears more 
prominent than it does in a horse with thick muscles. Besides, these 
muscles are dense, firm, and habituated to repeated energetic and 

extensive contractions. 



There are, therefore, two elements to be considered in the width of 
the pectoral region : whether it depend solely upon the volume of the 
j)eet<)ral muHcles, or if to this cause is also added a well-developed 
thoracic cavitv. In the former case, the width of the breast will var\' 
ac<*ording to the general condition and health of the animal ; in the 
latter, its variations, whatever they may be, cannot be presumed to be 
due to narrowness or fet»ble development of the thorax. 

The width should not excetxl certain limits ; for when these limits 
are passcnl width of the breast bect>me8 a defect, sine* it gives too large 
an arwi t4> the Ixise of support. Horses endowed with speed should lie 
well open in fronts but their oi)ennes8 must not be excessive, betnuse 
tlie lateral displacements of the centre of gravity can only take place at 
the expense of the velocity of the gait. 

The English thoroughbred is not too open in front, whilst his 
chest, which apiKurs narrow, is high and salient in such a way that the 
extreinity of the sternum is prominent and gives attachment to long 

Draught-horses can, without being defective, be very open in front. 
The lateral osc*illations of the centre of gravity, being only prejudicial 
to velocity, do not diminish the energy of his efforts. His power 
depends upon his mass, and he demands, therefore, firm and volumi- 
nous nius(*les. From this point of view we may regard a wide breast 
as an absolute beauty, or as a point of great merit, IxxTause it gives 
to the trunk the volume which is necessary for it to have in order to 
overcome easily, but slowlv, heavv resistances. 

When the breast is very narrow, it is said that the horse is c/oMcf 
in front. In all such casc»s, this conformation, the opposite of the pre- 
^'eding, is defective. It indicates a feeble development of the muscular 
system, and verj' often Respiratory organs of small amplitude. If such 
animals off(T some apiK»arance of energ}' when they are exercised, they 
are gcnendly initiiwible of enduring continuous and lalx)rious work. 

Narn>wncss of the bn»ast, as well as its width, may be congenital 
or (Ufptirefi. When it is congenital, it is ol>serv(»d in those subjects 
which, at birth, show thenist»lvi's to Ik* d(*fe<'tivc in the development of 
the nius^'iilar and the n»spinitorv syst<*ms. When it is a<*quinHl, on the 
contrary, it is cf>nsc<|uent uj)on a stat4» of emaciation, exhaustion, diverse 
chroni<' didea»<cs, and, in jrcneral, a pn»found debility <»f the organism. 
In this csis*', the extremity of the st4Tnum lKH»ome.s salient, the points 
of the shouKh-rs j>nije<*t forwanl, and l<«ve l)etwe<»n them and the stemo- 
huuK^ralis nnwles two de<»p dei>ressions which tenninate inferiorly the 
jugular jrutters. 


Blexnishes. — ^The most common blemishes of the breast are traces of 
fletons, but these need not arouse any apprehension, because people are in the 
habit of inserting these counter-irritants for the most trifling causes. More or 
less extensive cicatrices or denudations are also met here, which result from the 
application of revulsives and blisters in the treatment of diseases of the respira- 
tory apparatus. 

Finally, in draught-horses it is common to observe excoriations or cicatrices 
which extend from the inferior border of the neck to the anterior border of 
the shoulders, following the direction of the collar. These have no important 
significance, and are even utilized by the horse-merchant to indicate to the buyer 
a proof that the animal settles freely into the collar. 

B.—The Inter-axilla. 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The inter-axilla 

is a symmetrical r^ion limited in front by the breads behind by the 
xiphoid reffioriy and on each side by the axillary space. It responds to 
the inferior border of the sternum and to the origin of the stemo- 
humeralis and stemo-aponeuroticus muscles. 

Having a variable conformation, concave or convex, according to 
the volume of the muscles, it presents nothing remarkable as regards the 
exterior. Setons are applied in this region, to which, in the majority of 
cases, no more importance need be attached than to the cicatrices which 
follow them. 

C— The Axilla. 

Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The axilla corre- 
sponds in situation with the point of junction of the supero-intemal 
extremity of the forearm with the trunk. 

Limited in front by the breast^ behind by the elbow and the xiphoid region^ 
internally by the inter-tixilla, and externally by the foreamif the axilla has for its 
anatomical base the stemo-aponeuroticus muscle and the muscular interstice 
sitoated between the adjoining borders of the sterno-humeralis and mastoido- 
humeralis,' in which the vein of the axilla (brachio-cephalic trunk) is lodged. The 
skin is soft, pliable, and mobile. 

Little importance is attached to this r^ion, viewed from the exte- 
rior. Nevertheless, in certain thin-skinned and fat horses whose skin 
in the axilla offers numerous folds, it presents, during the summer and 
after a long march on dusty roads, excoriations, accompanied by redness 
and great sensibility, which may prevent tliem from performing their 
duties for several days. This accident, frequent in (avalry horses, and 
generally of no gravity, is called /raying of the axilla. 

We may also allude to bloodletting from the brachio-cephalic vein, 
which is sometimes followed by a thrombus. 




A. — The Xiphoid Region. 

Situation; Limits; AnatomicaJ Base. — ^The xiphoid re- 
gion cornsiMUKls to the inforior |>art of the stomum and tlie xiplioid 
cartilaj:^» (a tract whose* appnNiehc^s are flattened from above to below), 
at the lev(4 of which usually jwsst^s the jjjirth of the saddle and the belly- 
band, when the thorax is pn)|HTly sus|)ended between the anterior mem- 
bers and tlie alxlomen lias a j^kkI conformation. If the withers are 
h>w or eh»vatc<l, or the alKlonien like that of the greyhound, these Ixindn 
must l)e c5irri<\l (»itluT forwani or l)a(*kward of their proper place. It 
is tlu»n undcrstiNKl without difficulty tliat the situation of the latter 
must Ih» changtHl a<'<'onling to the circumstamres. 

Limited anteriorly by tlie infer-iixilla, |K)steriorly and on the sides 
bv tlu' ahdomvn and the rlbn. and laterally by the elbow and the ribs. 
this n»ji:ion is mwrv or l(»ss plainly marked, according to the subject, 
by a slight concavity which insensibly |)assi>s into the neighboring 
regi<»ns, an<l (*s|KH*ialIy into the alnlomen. It is of no great interest 
with rts|MM*t t<» the intoriuation wlii(*h it furnishes, but is, nevertheless, 
the wilt of blnninUvH as well as of wouiuh. 

Tilt* blemishes an* oxcoriatiom*, oicatriccM of variable Hizew, and tracen of 
reviiNivt's aii<l l)li>t('i>, rtMviit or remote, applied f(»r thera|>eutic purpoi»et« in 
BorioiH 4lis«'a>*t*?« of the nspiraton' orjrans. The diseases of the thoracic cavity 
which miuin' th<> eiiipIoyiiii>nt of such means may not leave any permanent 
altenitiiiii of the nr^an-* atlWied, hut, at the same time, it is necessary to examine 
thr thorarir <»rpiiH rarcfnlly, as well as the movements of the flank. 

Thr wounds art' ^merally caused hy a ham(*ss which is misfitting or 
imprfi|N'rly applied. In Kiddlc-hors(*s, a ^irth whose tension is severe will, if 
it Ik* l«M» stitr. tiM) ^\iilc. *ioi|i<l. or exert unefpial pn»ssure, irritate the skin and 
rcmhT it fxtrniicly ))niiM'iil. It is then n(.v(*ssar\' to Use one which is narrr»wer, 
or made nf >oft4T material, as cott<m, or liniHl with silk. In draught-horses the 
s:ime wnund^ are candied )>y the pinching of the skin iK'tween the girth and the 
U'lly-hand. These ili'nndatinii> disa)>|>i'ar never to return when use is made of 
one wi(h' girth, upon which one inf»re narrow is fastened hy means of two keepn. 

Other mean?>. such a> shee]>skin with the wool on, and soft jMids, are ini»uffi* 
eient. irritating, and ilitlicult to keep clean. 


B. — The Abdomen. 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — In external anatomy 
this it^ion corresponds to the inferior surface of the abdominal c«ivity. 

It is circumscribed in front by the xiphoid region; behind by the 
sheaih and the scrotum in the male, and in the female by the mammary 
glaiuis ; on each side by the ribs, the flunky and the groin. 

The structures which form its base are, proceeding from without to 
within, the skin, the panniculus camosus, the tunica abdominalis, the 
abdominal muscles, and, finally, the peritoneum, the serous membrane 
which covers the parietes of the abdominal cavity, and the contained 

Beauties and Defects. — It is important to consider the region 
of the abdomen, for by its volume and its weight it influences loco- 
motion. By certain other characteristics it gives information as to the 
qualities of the animal and its state of health or of disease. We shall 
now discuss it as to the two following points, intimately associated with 
each other : the volume and the form. 

Volume. — In a state of health the abdomen is elastic and yields 
to digital pressure. It augments in volume afler a meal and diminishes 
in a measure when digestion is completed. It should be proportional 
to the size and the type of tlie horse. 

It varies according to the breed. Though larger in some and smaller 
in other strains, it is not on this account disproportional, comjmratively 
8{)eaking. In animals used for slow or rapid work, its vertical diameter, 
measured from the middle of the back, is most generally equal to the 
length of the head. It is always more voluminous in the light saddle- 
horse, the product of a half-breed and a pure-blocxled animal, or of the 
latter stock alone, except during the period of training. 

It is, perhaps, most exact to consider, with M. Eug. Gayot, the 
volume of the abdomen as beaiUifnl whenever this region continues the 
external form of the thorax, — i.e., when the latter becomes insensibly 
continuous with the arch describcnl bv the ribs and the flank. Its 
inferior line, when viewed in profile, should describe a graceful curve 
from the sternum to the inguinal region. In this case it can be pre- 
sumed that digestion and assimilation are well performed, because the 
amplitude of the abdominal cavity corresponds to the volume of the 
enclosed viscera, which is in relation with their functional activity, 
particularly when the diet consists of aliments of good quality. 

When the abdomen is defective through lack of volume, it indi- 
cates an animal with inqiaired assimilation, whose digestive functions 


arc iri-ej^ular and incomplete, nnless this state Ik» due to the mode 
of alinientatii»n, or to the s|K»eiaI functional gymnastics to which tlie 
ra(?e-hor8(» is submitted. 

A t<K) vohnninous alxlomen denotes an animal of a ravenous apiN^- 
tite, of c^ommon bretnling, or rtured in low and damp countries with 
coars(», very aqueous, and innutritious food. Being coni|K'lled to take a 
large (juantity of tht^si* aliments in onler to obtain the ncHt^ssarj- nntri- 
tiv(» material, the horst* submitted to this rt»gimen has a distendetl 
stomach and intt»stini»s which, pn»ssing against the |>osterior facv of t\w 
diaphragm, compress the heart and the lungs. The muscles remain 
ftvble, flabby, and little develo|XKl ; the skin becomes thick and the 
hairs cHjarse ; the form is thick and clumsy, and the c<»nstitution soft. 
The stej) is htnivy, the respiration constraincil by the weight of the 
intestinal mass. The ynico is im]KHled by the lowering and forward 
displacement of the wntre of gravity, and this fact renders the horse 
unable to execute even the least lal)orious efforts for any length of time. 

In young horses, from the nature and the <piantity of the sub- 
stances which they ingest, the alxlomen is onlinarily voluminous. They 
rei^eive little grain, and their diet c< insists princi|)ally of dr}' foragf» 
and of grass which they obtain in {msturcs. In brotxlmares the 
alxlomen is also more develo|x?d, either from the fact of gestation or 
fnmi the pei*uliarities of their fiHKl. 

We do not lx»Iieve, as some veterinarians do, that the volume of 
the abdomen has any influemv u}X)n the dis|X)sition of the horse. If 
certain subjects arc irritable, whimsical, gentle, or (juiet, their dispo8iti<»n 
{x^rtains to their inhen^nt naturc, and not exclusively to the conforma- 
tion of such or such a ]xirt of the IxkIv. In fa(*t, the exceptions to 
the nile pn)|x>sed by th<» veterinarians we have alluded to are so fn»- 
ipH'ut that it is not n«t»ssarv to give this matter any further attention. 

Form. — The alxlcHnen, of which the form is in close proportion 
to its volume, is generally cylindrical in those animals that arc well 

If its inferior line, instead of (h»scribing the grawful curve of 
which we have s|)okcii, |)ass<»s obli(]Uely Imckwanl and upward, as we 
observe it in greyhounds, it is c:i11(h1 ifrryhountl-like. 

The hors4» which pi"es<Mits it is lank, deficient in the volume of the 
bowels and of the InnIv, which |>oss4ss |XM)r assimilation ; too much air 
jMt^rjt HHilernvnth ihr aMomni ; the digestive functions arc imperfect. 
Arriveil in the stabh* after a long driv(», he stands Imck from the man- 
gt»r, sulks over his fiMKl, refuln thr nnrn^Ki^ier^ ac<N)rding to the language 
of horsemen, and is incaiKibh* the next day of resuming his work. 


This condition must not be confounded with that retraction of the 
abdomen which is temporarily the result of training in the horse, or 
of an exclusive diet of oats for those required to perform laborious 

If, on the contrary, the inferior line of the abdomen is very convex, 
descending abruptly backward from the sternum, it is spoken of as 
dropping J pendvlouSy or cow*s belly. This is a conformation indicating, 
as we have seen, a horse with a ravenous ai>petite, sluggish, without 
activity, and predisposed to be sway-backed and short-winded. In 
breeding districts where the forage is nutritious and fattening, as in the 
Valley of Auge and in the Cotentin, it is not necessary to hesitate over 
a voluminous abdomen when the conformation of the chest is good, and 
particularly in the case of mares which are pregnant, and that of foals 
and colts. Diet and exercise will soon cause its disappearance. The 
skill of the buyer consists in selecting under adverse circumstances, 
often with little to enlighten him, the animal which, in spite of a heavy 
alxlomen, will with proper care assume a light, graceful, and stylish 

Diseases and Blemishes. — The disea^^es and blemishes of the abdomen 
it is important to recognize. They are : 

1. CESdema, or a serous infiltration of the connective tissue, an enlargement 
of variable area, which is soft (but not hot or fluctuating) and yields (pits) to 
the pressure of the finger. It results often from prolonged rest in the stable, 
and sometimes also follows traumatisms, castration, or the application of irri- 
tating substances used with a therapeutic object. 

2. Ezoxnphalus, or umbilical hernia, very common in colts, which con- 
sistH of a subcutaneous swelling from a protrusion of a portion of the intestines 
through the umbilical opening, whose obliteration after birth has not taken place. 
This affection is very rare in adults, because it is treated at an early period, and 
because it reduces itself spontaneously as the vertical diameter of the abdominal 
cavity increases. 

8. Ventral hernia, which only differs from the preceding in that the rup- 
ture of the parietes through which the abdominal organ passes is accidental, and 
may be situated upon any part of the abdomen, instead of being natural and 
occupying always the position of the umbilical opening. It is due to rupture 
of the muscular and fibrous parietes of the abdomen. When the solution of 
continuity extends to the skin and the intestines protrude, it is called an eventration. 
The two terms do not carry the same importance. Although they are only different 
degrees of the same accident, yet, in relation to their gravity, they are not com- 

4. Traces of setons, which certain practitioners prefer inserting in this 
region rather than in the axilla or inter-axilla, so as not to interfere with the 
application of the girth and the belly-band. They have no importance. 

* A. Rivet, Guide pratique de I'acheteur de chevaux, p. 71. 


5. Bxooriations following vedicant8 or re\'ul»ivc8. These Bhould induce the 
buyer Ui examine with care the state of the lungs, for these agents are some- 
times intentionally applied here to divert the attention from the place which 
should more particularly require their applicati(m. 

Li»t us say, finally, that in some instances the abdomen may be dulrndeii^ 
tijmiKitntic^ and painful to pressure. These symptoms indicate acute or chronic 
inflammation of the digestive viscera, or the peritoneum, or the presence of 
diverse profound lesions which we shall here only hint at 



A. — The Costal Region ; Ribs ; Sides, 
Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The region of the 

ril>s is sitiiat(Hl wyam the latoral jmrts of the trunk, l)elow the back^ 
Ix'liind the nhoulder and arm, in front of the flanks and above the 
xiphoid rff/ion and the ahiloinvn. 

It ha.** for its base the last twelve rilw, which are not concealed by the 
nhoulder, ami which are covered hy the jrreat (l(»n«al, the preat serratus, and the 
^reat ohlicjue hiuscUm of the abdomen ; the intercostal muijcleft, external and 
internal, fill the space** which exint l)etween them. 

Movements. — In the normal state, the rilw execute regularly alternative 
movements of elevation \\m\ depression, more or lt»s8 extensive according to the 
state of riNpi ration and the numerous circumstanccH which mcnlify its rh^-thm. 
These movements, esiH'cially jHTceptible under the skin of emaciated hor8e», are 
of two kin<ls: thr first movement takes place during inspiration, and it* explaimni 
by jin aii^rmrntatinri of the intercostal sj)ace» and the rotaticm of the ribe forward 
iiiHJ tlH'ir alxiiii'tinn fn»m the median line; it corresinrnds to the dilatation of the 
thnraric t-avity and the lun;r* ; the si'c(m<l movement, coinciding with expiration, 
coi)^i<it>4 ill the a{>[>roximatioii of the rii>s and in their rotation backward and 
inward ; it corresponds to the routracticm of the thorax and the compression of 
tin* IiiniT'*. 

Form. — Slightly thitt<'ii(Ml towanls its sii|K'rior jmrt, and much 
wxwTv roini(b'<l a-^ it is exainiiKil more jM)steri<)rly, this rejijion presently 
two op|w»sit<' roll lorrnat ions. The ril)s are ciilled round when they 
<les<'rilM', as a whole, a wellHlefine<l convexity from alM)ve to below; 
tlirv are flat in the e4)ntrarv <lispositi(m. 

Beauties. — The due mrmfurr of the ribs, their definite Heparaiion 
from rnrh othrr, and their full develo|)ment in frn(/tli are three absolute 
lH':inti«'s, <»r jwrnits of exiidlenee, to l>e de.sir(Kl in all h()rs<»s, whatever 



may be their servi<«. In explaining the reasons for this, we will show 
the inconvenienwH resulting from tlieir flatnesi^, tlii-ir luiirness t« eacii 
other, and their want of length. 

let. The normal curvation of the rilw is in direct relation with a 
large tratisverst' diameter of the thoracic- cjivity, and, <-<inse<]nently, with 
the development of the respiratory a|i]>iii-;itns. 

Before proceeding furlher, let us ileteniiinc 
what is understood by the ronre.rifi/ of a ruri-e. It 
w the relation which exists between the heif^ht of 
its arch and the length of itn chord, eupiKisin);, 
be it well underHtood, that we are speaking of 
a regular curve. In other wordv, & curve is much 
more convex when it forms a greater jirojee- 
tion upon a shorter chord. ThUH, the two areii 
ADB, A'lyB' (Fig. 42), although belonging to two 
circumferences of the «ini«mifitM(0.^ ^ O'.i'), have 
not the same conveiily relatively to Ihc chord which 
unites them, for the arcs and their chonU nrc differ- 

ent, and their relations, 

VD cry 

' AB A'B' 

Again, the curve AOB (Fig. 43) is more convex 
than the curve j40<7, althuugh its height be ct\ua\, 

becauae the ratio -75 is greater tb ■' 

' AB" 


Therefore, because two curves have the 1 
it mnat not be concluded that their convexity 
nftUzad only when the chords are e^jual. 

What we have just applied to the area can be extended to the ribs, although 

le projection upon their chord, 
the same, this condition being 


complete similarity may not be possible, on account of the irregularity of their 
curvature and the variations of their length and form. 

Henry Cliiie long ago demonstrated ^ that the more the pectoral 
cavity deviates from a cylindrical form the more its capacity is di- 
minishcKl. It results from this tliat the rib which presents the greatest 
curvature will also be the one which circumscribes the greatest sjkkv. 
Depress a cone or cylinder, and the reduction of their volume is in pro- 
j)ortion to the flatness of their surface. The thorax may be r^arded as 
a flattened cone ; and this is why we say : for an equal length of (he rift*, 
the ch(\st can never gain in height what it has lost in widtli ; or, in other 
words, the convexity of the ribs is the first beauty, or {)oint of struct- 
ural merit, to Ik* sought for in a g(X)d conformaticm of this region. 

2d. This is not all ; the ribs, as structural elements of the c<>stal 
region, should also be long, for this length of v\h% constitutes, for an 
equal width of the chest, the thoracic measurement in the vertiail sc»nse. 
The volume of a solid depends ujK)n the relation which exists betwwn 
its threi» dimensions ; to be large, it is necessary that the dimensions 
should all l)e as large as jK)ssible. 

It is, however, interesting to know that the rib can make up by 
its length for the lack of chest-volume occasioned by its loss of con- 
vexity. This pn)|K)siti()n, which apjK'ai-s to be contradictor)', in prin- 
ciple, to that which we have just given alK)ve, is, however, very logical, 
as we shall see. 

In the pre<*tHling case* we sup|)os<»d the length of the rib invariable, 
and only made its curvaturt* rariable. In the present case we inves- 
tigate the problem under its two asjKH-ts by mcxlifying its data to find 
the comjKMisations, if any exist. This method can be illustrated by the 
following c<»m|Kirison : Is thcrt* for two horses, the one liaving verj' 
round ribs and a low clu^st, the other, less convex ribs and a ver}' high 
ch(»st, any com|K'nsation in n»s|KM't to the thoracic capacity? 

Nearly all authors answer this question in the affirmative, and, 
tlKH>n*ti«illy siM'aking, they are c<)rre<*t. 

I-*et us suppose the two ril)s AOR and ADC (Fig. 44). I>et us also remem- 

OR . DK 

ber that they have not the same convexity, since the ratio — - is greater than - - ^, 


which indicates that the first is more curved than the second. 

A glance at the figure shows that not only does the rib ADC circumscribe a 
surface e<|ual to tluit of the rib AOR, but one that much exceeds the latter. 
Here, then, arc two animals having the same width of the chi«t and a different 
ccmvexily of the rilis, for which there is more than a comi>ensation. Another 

1 Henry (line. Tr&it^ hur la fi»rme (!«•• anlmaiix, published in the work of M. O. Lef^vre de 
SaiDte-Marie : I>e la ruct> Ixivinr cotirte cornc anioliorit*. dlte Kace de Durham, Paris, 1M9, p. 


form of rib, AOO, might be found, for example, circumM^ribiDg 
for which there would be a proper compeDaation. 

Such are the reeulte which can be deduced 
from tm exutnination of the figure. 

But unfortunately for the position of those 
who lilcfcnd tills opinion, there is here much 
dilfcrence between theory and prat'tice ; and 
siacv, after all, we must view the horse an he 
is, and not as we desire him to be, we must 
tsny that tlie ratio existing between the height 
of the chest and its width does not vary to a 
great extent In thirty-six horsfw of ditter- 
ent races, measured in this ix-s|K!ct, we have 
seen this ratio range between 1.12ri and 
1.4f>8 ; it should have a mean of 1.27:1. 

It follows from this that the eom)>eusa- 
tions ofiored by the ohest in its height are 

not as valuable as we were at first sight tempted to believe, be<»use of 
the harmonious relations which exist between the two diameters of the 
thorax. A flat rib is in most instances short; a round one is more 
often long ; the thoracic cavity but little dcvelo[>ed in one sense has 
Rtanv chances of being sniull in another ; Utut is atptciaUi) the reason 
wAy a JI(U side shovM be rejected. 

It would always be in defiance of the most elenientar;' ol)3er\'ation 
to say that the existence of pectoral compensations is to lie absolutely 
denied. Such compensations are possible theoretically, and in practice 
they do exist ; but they are rare and very limited. If a large number 
of horses be measured, some are found having the same conformation 
and the same width of tlie cheat, with a difference of only two or three 
centimetres in tUe height of the latter. Less commonly, horses are seen 
which present a diminution of, perliaps, one or two centimetres in the 
width of the chest, but which redeem themselves by an excess of three 
or four centimetres, at most, in the height. But these last are excep- 
tions so difficult to meet that we have reason to doubt whether the 
internal mensurations of the thorax would, in fact, give the proof of 
a real compensation. 

It is al^'ays true that the ribs, even if deficient in convexity, are still 
capable of circumscribing a spacious thorari<^ cavity, upon the sole condi- 
tion that they are long and their flatness is not verj' markt'd. The essen- 
tial point ia to know when the defect will Ik' compensated und when it 
will not be. This is a point which demands great practical skill, and 


upon which many cimnoisHtan-s are lotl into error. We think that we are 
givinj^ ji^ood advice to beginncrn in recommending tliem always to dis- 
approve of the flat rib, whatever may be ita apparent length. In tlie 
present-e of such a lionformation they should not neglect to assure 
themselves, by a more complete examinati<m of the other regions, of the 
state of development wliicli tlie n*spiratory organs present. This is, 
in our opinion, the easiest and most {XMitive means of recognizing the 
compc*nsation, if any exists. 

R»sid(»s, the n>undn(^s of tlic chest-wall, often more ap{)an*nt than 
r«d, may lead su{KTlicial ohst^rvers into error. The volume of tlie 
musck*s whici) ct»ver tlic thoracic walls and the abundance of iut and 
sulx*utamH>us tissue may liave the effect of making tlie j>ariett*s of the 
ch«»8t ap}K>ar m(»re round than it rvaWy is, and of c(»ncealing the (»K*^'ntial 
bony picH-c^s which constitute its Imsi' and limit its internal cjivity. 

:^I. The width of the mtercostal spaces is a Unuty, or }M>int 

of exc«'llcnc<», of no less im|M)rtaiuv. When the ribs are well se|iarated, 
the thonicic walls pn^scnt a largt* surface, extcMiding fnmi lK>fon» to 
U'liind, and circums<'ribing a dtv|K*r cavity. Their separation from 
cjich other coincides also with their great projection hnrhranlj and it is 
«*asily undcrsttMNl that the latter gives the measure of their projeetion 
jonnini during ins|unitiou. The movements of the different iiarts of 
the thorax should Ik» as extensive as |N>ssible, in onler that the lungs 
may have sutlicicnt fritMhmi oi' action. I^arge intercostal s|)aces sup|)ort 
stn)ng iuspirat4)rv muscles, and, then»fon*, imply gn«t pt^ssible di»- 
placi'iucnt of the |KH*toral walls. 

To reitipitulatis the U'auty of the ribs n»sid(»8 : 

1st. In their p^n'iit <*urvature from the shoulder liackward. 

2d. In their length, or in the verticid <'xtent of the thora(*ie pe- 

:»4l. In their strong projc<*tion backwanl. 

hli. Finally, in their se|)anition from cjich other. 

Defects. — Ribs that an* ///'/, nhorfy HtUv inrliuM hachrard, little 
Mvjtftrnft'fi, clianu'tcrize a hors4» which is short-windwl and without 
|M>wer, whatever may Ir' his bR'^'^i, his statun', his tem|M*nmient, or his 

In onlinary language, this vicious e<»nformation is expros8c«d hv 
.saving that the ja/j<4' ribs tn-r nhort ami the hooj^-ri/M are but little 
ilejtcrmlnl, or that the animal has nvtd of riha. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — '/. Horses* whirli havo suffered from a pro- 
lonjrr'l sl»kn«*^f*, jiikI whirh tor this reason h:ivo awuiiKMl the <UrubitU8 for a long 
time, jwiiuetiuu's prt-Miii a tlaliietw of the one or the other region of the ribs. 


b. Those which have been affected with a serious pneumonia or a pleurisy, 
and to which rej>eHted applications of revulsives and blisters have been made, 
often show along the inferior surface of the region denudations accompanied by 
large discolonitions of the skin or the hairs. It is important, in examining such 
animals, to observe attentively the character of the cough and the movements 
of the flank, in oi*der to be assured that these affections no longer exist. 

c. At other times there are cicatrices situated at the level and in front of 
parts covei*ed by the saddle, and due to setons inserted for a therapeutic pur- 
pose. These counter-irriUtnts are directed vertically, or are slightly oblique from 
before backward and from above to below. When they are observed, or their 
tnices are found, we should inform ourselves more completely as to the reasons 
for their application, and the present condition of the horse, according to the 
manner indicated below. 

rf. Heavy draught-, light draught-, and saddle-hoi*ses offer also, on the partn 
which receive pressure and friction from the shafts, the pole, the traces, the saddle, 
an<l the girth, depilations, wounds, cicatrices, and sit-fasts, known under the name 
of corii^^ which are the result of wounds occasioned by these pieces of the 

e. Finally, l)ony tumoi*s may be seen upon the course of one or several of the 
ribs. These are traces of old fractures, usually situated upon the middle parts of 
the region. Nearly always they are complicated by contracting adhesions with 
the lung, through the existence of a localiziMl inflammation of the pleura which 
covers the internal surface of these bones. Likewise, as Lecoq says, we have 
reason to fear, esi)ecially when several ribs have been fractured, that a sui>er- 
Tening affection of the chest may be aggravated by this cause. 

The Chest in General. 

We have now examined sepamtely the ivgions which concur to 
form this vast cavity, and we shall next inve>^tigate it as a whole with 
r^aixl to the congelation Ix^tween its dimensions and its lx»auties. 

Definition; Limits; Anatomical Base; Usages. — The chest is that 
part of the body which corresponds to the bony cage designated under the name 
of thorax. Bounded above by the withers and the back ; in front by the neck and 
the breast; on each side by the sfwnlder^ the r/rm, the ariUa, and the ribs ; below 
by the inter-axilla, the xiphoid region^ and the abdomen ; and, finally, behind by 
the abdomen and the flanks^ it has for it^ osseous base the following parts : 

a. On the median line and above, the bodies of all the dorsal vertebne. 

b. Laterally, the ribs and the intercostal spaces. 

c. Inferiorly, the superior face of the sternum and the cartilages of prolonga- 
tion of the ribs. 

d. Behind, the diaphragm, convex in front and pierced by three openings, 
traversed by the aorta, the oesophagus, and the posterior vena cava. 

Open in front to afford passage to the trachea, the oesophagus, and the vt^sse's 
of the head and anterior members, as well as to the important nerves, it has in 
general the form of a cone, with the base posterior and truncated obliquely from 
aboTe to below, and from behind to before ; it is depressed upon its lateral faces. 

Its functions are complex and of three kinds : 


Through the bony parts, it in primarily an apparatus of protection to the 
central organs of respiration and circulation. By the mobility which it pomesses, 
it constitutes the most important agent in the respiratory mechanism. Finally, 
by its resistance, its connections with the spine, and the extent of its skeletal 
surface, it plays an important ^^U in locomotion by furnishing numerous points 
of attachment to the muscles which belong to the superior sections of the thoracic 
meml)ers. To fulfil this last purpose, its first pieces are short, stnmg, straight, 
and but slightly movable, for their action would be very much disturbed by their 
relation with the shoulder and arm. The last pieces, on the contrar>\ are 
curved more and more, narrower, removed from the median plane, and leave 
a wide s|Mice at the posterior part of the pulmonary lobes. 

Beauties. — Although the chest-wall is far from being obeon-able 
over its whole extent fn)ni the outside, it is }x>8sible to judge of its 
raiMUMty with mueii preoision. This knowledge is of the gn^atest ini- 
|x>rtun(«, for it furnishes information u)xm the essential elements of the 
value of the horse. 

The elu*st may Ix* called beautiful when it is high,. wide , and long. 
Ix*t us see the nu^aning which shouhl be attached to these three words : 

1st. Height. — This is nu^suixHi from the summit of the withers 
to the inferior surface of the xiphoid region ; this line, then, marks 
the true vertical diameter of the thorax, that diameter being greatest at 
the spinous pHxiss of the fifth dorsal vertebra, which forms, as we have 
seen, the culminating |MMnt of the withers. 

This dimension must not Ik* (*onfounded with tlie dej^th, which is 
nunisured from lR*foiv to iM'hind ; it is to l>e regretted that some hi|>- 
|)otomists have changtHl, in this connection, the meaning of a terra 
established by long usagt».' 

In s|N*aking of the ribs, we have said that this height, with the 
corre0|M)n<liiig width, isdirtvtly pn)}K)itional to the length of these bcmy 
aix'lu^s. When this height is considerabh*, the chest is said to be trrf/ 
(h-HtrnfM, an (>|>ithct which dcpi<*ts its situation relative to the ground. 

Wc must n*nicmlKT, moR»over, that the extent of this thoracic 
dimension is one of the cimditions (»f {x^^toral amplitude. It should, 
however, not Ix' forgotten that this factor alone is insufficient to the 
development <>f tin* thoracic <-Ji|>acity ; the cur\'ature of the ribs must 
als4» 1m* taken into the nM>k(»ning. I>*siving out of the account the 
hMiirth of the fifth (l(»i*siil spinal a|X)physis, the height of the chest is 
nothing else than the chonl of the an*li represcnttnl by tlie ribs. Mere 
h«Mght of the clu-st has no longer any imjK)rtanc<* but for the coexistent 

1 The flepth of n tttiiiK. ^ays Littn'*. \h Uw extent <>f thift thitiK, c<m«(ldere<1 fh>iD its entranot 
t'l ItH iMittoin. Thf entmnrf uf thv chv^i in Hitiiatefl tH.'tween the flnt two ribs; iu bottom It Um 
<lia|>hraciu. Thrrefwre. livre, depth ik Kyiiuiiymuui with length. 


curvature of the ribs. In fact, it is known that by depressing a cylinder 
its capacity can be reduced without diminishing its surface. 

It is not correct to believe that the height of the chest is always 
proportionate to the height of the withers. We have already shown 
that the length of the spinal apophyses of this region is subject to 
numerous variations, and that the prominence of the withers often 
depends upon the mode of suspension of the trunk between the 
anterior members. 

A horse whose chest has a good height should, according to M. 
Grayot,' measure a greater distance from the top of the withers to the 
interior face of the sternum than from this point to the ground. The 
first distance would exceed the second thirty centimetres in well-formed 
saddle- and driving-horses, with a height of about one hundred and 
sixty centimetres, whilst it might not be more than fifteen or twenty 
centimetres in animals of an inferior conformation. 

We must acknowledge that we are still ignorant of the exact pro- 
portions. Not only is the distance between the ground and the xiphoid 
region not equal to the height of the chest, but the latter is always 
several centimetres greater ; the difference may even be twenty centi- 
metres. Our measures have been made with the aid of the metrical 
standard and the compass of depth upon more than fifty horses of all 
varieties, — slow and rapid workers, saddle- and race-horses, etc. ; they 
have been taken upon common horses, Percherons, Boulonnaise, Bel- 
gians, Bretons, Normans, Berrichons, Andalusians, Barbs, Tarbans, and 
English thoroughbreds. 

It is scarcely necessary to add that this height must be examined 
from the side of the chest ; it would be impossible to appreciate it 
accurately by viewing the region from any other direction. The chest, 
to be high and well descendedy should extend well below the summit of 
the elbow. 

2d. Width. — The width of the chest is the result of the curva- 
ture of its osseous parts. It is measured from the middle ribs to those 
which correspond to them upon the opposite lateral plane. To do this, 
the observer is stationed in front of the animal, so as to see the profile 
of the ribs and the degree in which they projecjt beyond the shouldere 
on the right and the left;. The roundness of the ribs is also judged 
by viewing the horse obliquely, either in front or behind. 

It is not necessary to refer here to the advantages of a large trans- 
verse development of the thoracic cavity, but we would caution the 

> L. Moll et Enff. Gayot, La connaissaDce g^n^rale du cheval, Paris, 1861, p. 187. 


reader against ceitain ideas which are too absohite, and which exist 
aiiiong horsemen. Some preler the cylindrical chwt for slow and 
heavy motors ; they ivject it, on the contrary, for rapid services, in 
which tlu»y would pi*efer the elliptical form. The latter form, whilst 
giving equal s|)a<i» within the clu^st, tends to limit the lateral displait*- 
ments of the wntre of gravity, and thus facilitates the vehnity of the 
gait. Others insist that then* is sufficient compensation between the 
two forms, l)Ut consider width of chest as a l)eauty, or point of merit, 
in all ca8(»s. 

We have se<'n, wh(»n s|>caking of the ril>s, that a high chc^t is 
spacious only on ac(»ount of its pro|>ortional width, but the n»lation 
lK»twe(»n the vertic;il and the transvei'st* diameters varies less than is 
genendly thought. T\\v development in one direi'tion verj' often carries 
with it a correlative development in the other. Th«' dign»ssions which 
sei'm to contradict this principle are more apj^aivnt than n^l, for the 
<*ondition of the ImhIv has nnich iufluemv ujxm theextenial dimensions 
of the ch(»st. Tak«' a hoi'se in gcMKl heiilth, vigonnis, well proportioned, 
and subjtM't him to excessive work and insuffi(*ient fo<xl, and measure 
his chest when emaciation has n^chcnl its extivme limits. Not onlv is 
he unr(H'(»gnizal)h* in his genenil form, but his narrow thorax and his 
Hat ril)S have UKHlifiiHl the correlation of his two thonuMc diameters, and 
we shall Ik* astonisluHl to find it to Ik» 1.4, when, for example, it was 
1.2. When tlu* animal is ill c-jinHl for, when good nourishment and 
nuxlerate' exercis*' no longer maintain the harmonies of the economy, all 
the functions are diminish(>d, es|HM-ially those* of respiration and circrula- 
tion. The chest te-nels to Ix^come (*ontnicte<l, at the same time that the 
muscles lM*com«' snmller, for the lungs are less active in the animal 
which is <>nia('iatcil. 

To make a <'(uitnirv exjK'rimcnt, take the same horse and entirely 
rliangc his conditions of cxist«Micc ; his ch(*st will n'assume its form, 
a<t*oi*ding as its nnis<'lcs augment in volume, density, and energy. 

The training which animals <lestine<l for the race-course undergo, 
and that which n*sults tnmi the s|H*cial lalM)r to which work-horses are 
sul)jc<tc<l, constitute', again, im|H)rtant cjiuses of a development of fulness 
<>f the chest. In the ln>rs<*, as in man, muscular gymnastics have the 
ctliH't of in<'reasing the tlHMiicie* jXTimeter. If we were not convinced 
of this fact in pr.ictici', our purchasing offi<*ers would every day refuse 
iioi*s<*s whos<' chest is not jxTfect at the moment of the sale. Our 
n'luounts take them Im*cjius4' th<'v know that this defect will jwrtly dis- 
ap|M*:ir aft<'r sullicieut exercise. 

Thus, in our opjuion, amplitude of all the thoracic diameters should 


be desired, whatever may be the service required, for they are correla- 
tive to one another. The variations, in this respect, are so insignificant 
that they do not deserve to be taken into consideration. The English 
thoroughbred horse differs essentially in his form from the heavy 
draught-horse, but the relations of the three dimensions of his chest 
are sensibly the same as in the latter when both have a spacious lung. 
All proportions considered, the rib seems perhaps a little longer and less 
convex ; what tends especially to make it appear thus is the particular 
nature of the tissues and muscles which cover it. 

3d. Depth or Length. — The length of the chest is measured 
from before backward, from the angle of the shoulder to the middle 
part of the last rib. It is easily appi'eciated by examining the horse 
in profile. It depends upon : 1st, the width of the intercostal spaces; 
2d, the d^ree of projection of the ribs behind. 

The chest may be deep without the back acquiring an immoderate 

In fact, ribs very much arched and strongly oblique behind and 
below cause the thoiucic cavity to encroach in a certain proportion upon 
the abdomen. Nevertheless, as the width of the intercostal spaces is 
in direct ratio with the length of the doi'sal region, it follows that a 
kmg chest is incompatible with a short back. The English horse pre- 
sents a very fine chest when he is well formed, and he generally trans- 
mits this beauty to his descendants as well as to the offspring of his 
crosses with our native horses. 

Defects. — When the chest is deficient in height , the hoi'se is said to 
be too far f rain the earth ; he has no cheMy no xiphoid region ; too much 
€ur passes wider his abdomen ; he is wanting in girth ; his sides or false 
ribs are short ; his hoofps are not low enough. When the chest is wanting 
in w^idth, it is said to be narrow ; it is short, on the contrary, when it 
is wanting in length or depth. 

Finally, when it is deficient in its three dimensions, the animal 
lacks or has no insides. 

In describing the inherent beauties of a large development of the 
chest we have, at the same time, demonstrated the inconveniences of its 
defects ; it is, therefore, not necessary to return to the latter here. 

To recapitulate, the chest, to be beautiful, or ideally perfect, should 
be high^ wide^ and long. 

The relation existing between its different diameters varies but 
little in horses of the same race. 

The differences depend in most instances upon the state of fatness 
or emaciation of the animals, or upon improper exercise and training. 



In a general way^ the chest is or is not yxioious, the harmony of the 
whole implying only that an increase in one direction is ordinarily 
followed by an augmentation in the otiiers. 

It is from this point of view, especially^ that animals differ in n^rd 
to their thoracic capacity. 

Exceptions are always found. Certain horses are deficient in one or 
another of the diameters^ most often in the width. 

In such cases compensations are possible, but witliin a ver}' smaU 
limit. They are always re/*y rare and very difficult to estimate. 

We must not, then, allow ourselves to be misled by appearancx^s ; we 

should form our judgment on a complete examination of the respiratory 


B.— The Flank. 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Baae. — The flank is a double 

region, situatiKl behind the ribs, in front of the haunch, the thigh, and 
the stifle-joint, lx»low the loins, and al)ove tlie abdomen, with which it 
is (continuous. Its principal base is the small oblique muscle of the 
alxlonicn, with a |M)rtion of the great oblique and the transverse. 

Divisions. — TIuxh* divisions aix? rt»cognized, more or less distinct 
a(\*ording to the indivi(hials and the conditions in which they are 
placiKl ; the names which have In^en given to them indicate quite aocu- 
mtcly the siK'i'ial configuration which they prcst»nt 

The first, external to the Iuml)ar region and in front of the haunch, 
is (•alh'd the hollow of the flank, l)ecanse it presents a depression so much 
more distinct as the intestinal mass is heavy and farther removed from 
it. It is very pronouncal in horses witli a pendidous or cow^s abdomen. 

The se(»ond division, or cord of the flank, (corresponds especially to 
the fic^iiy {lart of tiie small oblique muscle of the abdomen. It forms 
a n)nn(lcd relief, ol)li(}Ue, downward and fomard, which extends from 
the an^le of tlu* haunch to the cartihiginous circle of the false ribfi. 

Finally, the third division, the most inferior of all, known by the 
name of tin* movaUr portion of (he flank, is united to the stifle-joint 
by a very niobih^ cutaneous fold, and becomes insensibly continuous 
with the alKlonien. 

Thnv thintrs an* to Ik* examined in this ivgion : its form, its extent^ 
and its mffmnrnis, 

1st. Form. — When the flank is well formed, its hollow is but 
little <>bserve<l, its (^)rd is scarct'ly pn>minent, and its movable part 
continu<'s regularly with th<» external surface of tlie abdomen and the 
last ribs. A flank of this description is seen in animak that are well 
f(*d and in a pro{)er state of flesh. 


When its concavity is too deep, it is said to be hollow, as may be 
observed in horses that are indolent, of a lymphatic temperament, and 
of large form and pendulous abdomen. It is also seen in meagre 
animals, and in those which are poorly nourished, or which have been 
obliged to endure great fatigue or a long period of sickness. 

It is called corded when its cord or middle part projects above the 
two others, through the simultaneous effect of the depression of one 
and the retraction of the other. This state is noticed under the same 
circumstances as those which cause the hollow flank, of which we have 
just spoken. 

When the inferior part of the flank becomes abruptly continuous 
with the abdomen, and appears as if pushed back towards the sub- 
lumbar region, it is said to be tucked up. Some authors also call it 
a greyhound flank when it becomes a permanent retraction, the tucking 
up being, in their opinion, only a transient disposition, always dis- 
api)earing under an appropriate regimen. The greyhound flank, on the 
contrary, constitutes a veritable defect, being " an indication that the 
animal does not eat enough, which is the fault of a poorly-developed 
appetite ; it is impossible to repair in a just measure the waste caused 
by the action of the apparatus of locomotion, and as, by a singular 
contradiction of nature, greyhound horses are usually endowed with 
great energy, they are exposed to an early ruin if they are not used 
with care, since the losses which they sustain are only slowly repaired." * 

Finally, if the flank unites the three preceding vicious conforma- 
tions, — if, in other words, it is hollow, corded, and tucked up, — ^the 
animal is said to be ihin, poor, 

2d. Extent. — The extent of this region is estimated by its width, 
measuring from the angle of the haunch to the last rib. This measure- 
ment should be as small as possible, and a flank of this kind is said to 
be short or narrow. Let us see the reasons for this. 

Most hippotomists assert that the width of the flank is in direct 
relation with the length of the loins, and that the measure of the one 
gives correctly that of the other. This assertion can be considered 
only as relatively true, for the reason that the last rib, on account of 
its projection backward, does not end where the lumbar region b^ins. 
No doubt the width of the flank will, to a certain degree, depend upon 
the great or small extent of the loin, for the rib comes more or less near 
to the haunch. In order that this last proposition should become 
rigorously true, it would be necessary that the length of the loins 

1 H. Boolej, NouYeau dictionnaire pratique, etc, t ▼!!. p. 54, art ** Flanc." 


should correspond always to the width of the flank, which, as we have 
just stated, is not the case. 

A more exact reflation then remains to be established : it is that thia 
width is tlie consequence of the depth of the chest first, and the length 
of the lumbar region afterwards. The latter varies much less than is 
generally believed in horses of the same size and race. It is quite 
otherwise with tlie former. When s})caking of tlie chest, we have seen 
that the diflerent depths of this cavity depend especially upon the 
degree of backward projection of the ribs, supposing a constant lengtli 
of the back. The shortness of the flank indicates a deep chest, short 
loins, and well-developed muscles ; it is in tliese features that its l)eauty 
resides. All are in acxM)rd upon this |)oint Horse-dealers do not fail 
to show, by placing two fingers flat upon the r^ion, that the anhnat 
has ofUy two Jint/ers^ width of Jlank, 

It si»ems useless to detail the disadvantages of a contrarj' ctuiforma- 
tion. It is evident that t<M> nuu'h area is a defect, indicating, at the 
same time, the mobility and la<*k of solidity of the loins and the want 
of capacity of th<» clu»st. In this cas<» the flank is said to be Iwig, 

.*kl. Movements. — C'om|HKsed excJusively of soft stnictures, and 
attachcnl to the last rib, whosi' movements, normal or abnormal, it fol- 
lows, the flank is indeed, as has Ixi^n said, the true mirror of the thoracic 

In ordinary (conditions, when th(» horse is at rest, it rises and falls, 
altemat<»ly rectnU^s from and approaches the nunlian line, as the air enters 
the lungs or is ex|M'lled from them. During inspiration its cord is 
t^flmtnl, its hollow is dcpn^scnl, its inferior part enlarge*, descends, and 
is confounded with the hvjxK'hondriac circle. During expiration, on 
the c<mtniry, its ct^rd is (|uite ap|Mirent, its hollow is less di>ep, its 
movable jmrt ascvnds, is rt»tnicte<l, and increas(?s the prominence of the 
fal.**4' ril)s. 

Th<'S<» movements should l)e exwuted regularly, slowly, without any 
j(Tks, and sh(»uld succe<Hl i^u^h other at almost equal intervals. Let 
us, how<»v<T, notice a very (H>rrtH»t ol)S(^r\'ation of J. Girard, ignorant^ 
of whi<'h might lea<l one into error: after six or seven equal respira- 
tions a lonpT one (k-cui's. 

The numlKT of respiratory m(»vements of the flank varies aaH>rding 
to the age, the stiisons, ami the physiological condition; but its mean 
mav l)e <*stimate<l at twelv<» or fourtiH»n to the minute. It increases with 
exen'ise ac<H>nling to the duration, extent, rapidity, and intensity of the 
ertorts which thr animal has Ih»<mi ol)liged to make. We have determined 
it to be eighty -seven after a gallop of about half an hour. This number 


18 always much greater immediately after than during the exercise. 
This results from the fact that the thorax furnishes numerous points of 
attachment to the muscles of locomotion, and thus loses its rigidity 
during work, precisely in the measure necessary to assure pulmonary 
oxygenation and avoid asphyxia. After a race, on the contrary, the 
muscles which extend fix)m the thorax to the members no longer act, 
and the ribs need preserve no longer the same fixity ; the respiratory 
movements are now as much accelerated as they were before separated. 

All horses do not have exaggerations of the respirations in the 
same proportion after exercise ; some become breathless much more 
quickly than others. We shall explain this fact when we discuss the 
depth of the chest However it may be, the horse which remains 
** winded" a long time after exertion lacks endurance, is said to be 
panting, or shortrbreolhedj and usually has a narrow chest and a 
tucked-up flank. 

Eyarnination of the Flank. — We often limit ourselves to a 
superficial examination of this r^ion, but this practice is wrong, for it 
is one of the most important regions of the surface of the horse's body. 
To avoid any doubt as to tlie regularity of its movements, two ex- 
aminations should be made : the first in the morning and when the horse 
is at rest, and the next after a certain amount of exercise. It will be 
well in both cases to give the animal several handfuls of oats. 

These are the reasons for this procedure : at rest and in the morn- 
ing the respiratory movements are less frequent ; the horse is not 
excited, and at this time he presents the most regular and most normal 
manifestation of his functions. After light exercise, the respiratory 
movements are increased, and those of the flank are more numerous 
and more intense, and sometimes reveal respiratory diseases which 
would have remained unperceived had not the organs themselves, so to 
s{)eak, been obliged to show, by a greater activity, their physiological 
imperfections or their pathological alterations. Finally, the few hand- 
fuls of oats which the animal cats have the efTeet of turning his attention 
away from the persons or things which surround him. 

In summer it will also be well to free him from all insects which 
may torment him. 

The observer should place himself in such a position as to view the 
'flank obliquely, in order to distinguish better its profile. He may be 
stationed either in fix)nt, one metre from the shoulder, or behind, and 
at the same distance from the croup ; the eye will then follow with 
care and ease the oscillations of the lower part of the flank at the level 
of its attachment to the cartilages of the false ribs. The examination 


will be made suooessively upon the two flanks^ for it is sometimes 
aooomplished better on the one side than on the other. The purely 
anatomical explanation which has been given for this is not sufficiently 
satisfactory to arrest our attention here. 

It will be possible, with the aid of these precautions, to determine 
the modifications of number and rhythm of the movements without 
much difficulty. However, it is necessar}' to have a certain amount of 
pnu^ice and possess some knowledge of the different diseases which may 
affect this region, for it is a (juestion of slight variations, sometimes 
scarcely apparent, the appreciation of which requires the co-operation 
of an expert 

Among the most (*ommon alterations of the ilank there is one which 
is quite comimtible witli all the apparent signs of health, and which 
frequently esca{x>8 detection up to the moment of sale ; it is that due 
to ptUvionary emphysema^ an alteration- which produces characteristic 
lesions in the lungs, consisting of an infiltration of air into the [laren- 
chyma of thos(» organs. This lesion, clearly proved, is redhibitorj', and 
nullifies the contract of sale or excliange, according to the terms of 
Article 2 of the law of August 2, 1884. 

The expiratory movement in the emphysematous horse is double, 
and is sei^aratiKl by a short interval of time (hence called double time\ 
during whi(*h the flank suddenly ex|)ands, and sto|)6 for an instant, to 
wmtinue again its former expiratoiy movement. 

This double expiratory efllort is more or less apparent according to 
th(» stage of the disease. However this may lie, as soon as the di«*ase 
has Ixvn detected, the animal should be made to (X)ugh by compn'ssing 
the origin of th(» tra(*hea. If the cough is dry, slight, abortive, and 
st»vcral tim(»s re|K»ated ; if the nostrils are much dilated after exercise ; 
if they art* l)oth («vere<l in cold weather with a grayish discharfire 
adhering to the ala ; if the clu^st has an abnormal resonance on per- 
cussion ; if tlu» movements of tin* flanks (tiuse the entire body to move, 
|>jirticularly tin* anus ; if lalK)n» dbn'athing is rapidly developed in 
warm wcjithcr, the r<»spiration loud, the anxiety extreme, etc., the exist- 
en<f of a vctv advan(*<Hl casi' of (»niphysema may U* positively affirmed. 

I'ufortimatcly, th(»s<» char*i<»teristi(s are far from being always 
evi(l«'iit at the time of the sale, and tliey verj* often jxiss unperceiv«l 
by inex|MTi<'ne<Kl ]H»rs<)ns. By placing such animals in special <•<«- 
ditions <»f aliuK'ntation, by submitting them to a iwrticular mode of 
tre«tiu4*nt in which arsi'uions a<*id plays an important jiart, men*hants 
csui s<»metimt»s conc<^il the discnise, or, at least, mitigate it in a notable 
d<»gre<». The punhas^T cannot Ik* t*M> exac'ting as to the integrity ol 


the movements of the flank, nor too much discredit all the more or less 
specious reasons which the seller never fails to give, in such cases, in 
opposition to any unfavorable assertions concerning the horse. 

Diseases and Defects. — The flanks may be the seat of tumors of diverse 
nature. Sometimes these are indurcUions of the skin, a kind of callosities pro- 
duced by the ring of the breeching in shail-horses ; at other times they are 
absresseSf which are caused by the continual rubbing of that part of the harness. 
They may be the result of a ventral hernia, a portion of the intestine being 
expelled from its cavity on account of a rent in the abdominal walls. Finally, 
they are due to the presence oi farcy-buds or lymphatic cords which cross the 
flank to reach the ganglia of the inguinal region. 

'' The frequent expulsion of gas from the anus, which takes place in emphy- 
sematous horses, has induced ignorant horsemen to make an artificial fistula 
above or upon the side of the anus, by which they pretend to relieve the horse 
of the great quantity of air which he has in his body. At present this ridiculous 
operation, which formerly annulled the redhibitory action in regard to horses 
upon which it had been practised, is abandoned." * 

The special object of this procedure, of which we have seen some examples, 
was to prevent the noisy expulsion of gas through the anus by giving it a more 
direct outlet, in order to conceal to a certain extent the severe emphysema of 
which it is one of the symptoms. 

C— The Groin. 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The groin, which 

until now has not been comprised among the r^ions of the exterior, 
nevertheless deserves to be pointed out, on account of the examination 
which should be made of it. 

It corresponds on each side to the cutaneous fold extending from the abdomen 
to the thigh, and has for its base the inferior inguinal ring, which, as we know, 
gives passage, in the male, to the testicular cord and the external pudic vessels, 
and, in the female, to the mammary nerves and vessels. The superficial inguinal 
ganglia are also seen here on the side of the abdomen ; much more deeply, and on 
the side of the thigh, the elongated group of deep inguinal ganglia, less directly 
explorable than the preceding ; finally, the part is covered by a fine skin, with 
downy hairs, oily to the touch, usually black and very pliable. 

Limited in front bv the abdomen, behind and externally by the 
superior and internal extremity of the thigh, internally by the scrotum, 
or the mammcR, this region presents, projierly sj^eaking, neither beauties 
nor defects. We need only assure ourselves of the absence of blemishes. 

In undertaking its exploration, some precautions must be taken, 
especially in irritable horses. In examining the right side, for instance, 
the observer, after having warned the animal, will station himself 

> Leooq, Traits de Text^rieur du cheval, 5e M., p. 92. 


opp<Mite the flank, apply his left hand to the croup, and with his right 
seek the inguinal ring, taking care to avoid being injured by the ]m in- 
terior member. If the horse is very sensitive, and attempts to n*ar, 
bite, or kick, an anterior member or the left posterior should be raisi-d. 
The manoeuvres are of the same nature, but of an inverse order, when 
the groin of the opposite side is explored. 

The principal cUteratioM which are oh«erve(l in this region are enlargements 
known by the name of glnntU^ which involve the superficial inguinal lymphatic 
glands, and whose presence often coincides with the existence of a glanderous 
diathesis. It will be prudent in such a case to examine the corresponding mem- 
ber, as well as the surface of the body, and, particularly, the course of the 
lymphatics, to see if no other symptoms of farcy exist, such as cords and buds. 

Inguinal hernia is sometimes observed in the groin, which enlarges the tes- 
ticular cord and no longer permits the different parts which compose it to roll 
under the fingers. We will refer to it again when treating of the scrotum. 



A.— The Tail. 
Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — The tail is a long, 

fl<'xii)h' :i|)|)oii(lix, situatixl at the ixwterior extremity of the tnink, 
liinit4Ml ill fnmt l)y the croup, Inflow by the anwt, and laterally by the 
jtoinf of the hiifffH*k, 

This a|>|M>n(}a^o is an ornament to the horse in the same manner as 
tht» injinr, and is of ^reiit utility in protecting him against insects. 

It has for its hone the fmrypeal vertebrae, jim well a» the four pairs of cix-cy- 
p':il musolcs, which cover their surface. These muwh^s en<low it with movements 
of elevation, depn^^'ion, and lateral inclination; the skin which covers them, 
and which is vcr>' adherent, is furnisluHl with lonp hnir^ over its whole surface, 
except upon its inferior face an<l at the level of its base. 

Two <li visions are nH^oj^nized in this rej^ion, — the stump and the 

Attachment and Carriage. — Tlu* tail should 1h» strong at its 
origin, conuiKiirin;: liijrii up on the cToiip, an<l l)e harmoniously sup- 
|)ort<il dnrinjr hK*oni(»tion. It is then said to Ik» mil attached and well 
curriciL Wh(*n it dfH'S not pn's<*nt this uniformity of eliaracter, it is 


called badly aUached, or badly carried. Often in very energetic horses, 
during work, it is concave superiorly, and even retroverted forward, 
which is expressed by saying that it is of trumpet form. Some persons 
call it rabbits tail, planted as in an apple, when it originates almost 
horizontally from a very oblique croup. 

It is easy to understand that its attachment and its carriage depend 
upon the direction of the croup. When the latter is horizontal, the 
animal carries this organ with elegance ; with an oblique croup, on the 
contrary, the tail is poorly sustained, being applied against the buttock. 

According to its good or its vicious position, admirers of horses 
draw, in a manner entirely empirical, an accurate conclusion as to the 
energy and vigor of the animal. The explanation of this opinion is 
found in the fact that when the elevator muscles are well developed 
and have a dominant action over the depressors, it is an excellent sign 
in subjects whose general muscular system is strongly developed. As 
horses of the finer races have the sacrum rectilinear from before to 
behind, whilst those of the common races have it usually convex in the 
same direction ; as, besides, this direction of the bone has an influence 
upon that of the croup, and, therefore, upon the carriage of the tail, 
we must guard ourselves against forming the conclusion that the beau- 
tiful attitude of the latter is in all cases the expression of great energy. 

Formerly, dealers and owners frequently attempted to remedy the 
ungraceful carriage of the tail by excising a part of the depressor 
muscles so as to allow the elevators their full d^ree of action ; this 
procedure was simplified by amputating a more or less considerable 
portion of the stump. This was the ojx?ration on the tail after tlie. 
English fashion ; the animal which had undergone this operation was 
said to be docked in the English style ; it gave him a certain d^ree of 
distinction. Cutting the depressor muscles alone, the stump being 
spared, was called nicking ; the horse was then nicked. 

This custom is very old, for Hartmann* reports that the council 
of Calchyd, meeting in England towards the end of the eighth cen- 
turj', prohibited the practice of thus docking horses, on the ground 
that it was a barbarous custom.^ There is no doubt that from this 
usage was derived the nickname Caudatiy which was given to the Eng- 
lish in the thirteenth century.' The procedure did not long prevail in 
England before it passed into Grermany.* 

1 Hartmann. Traits des haras, p. 274. 
s Journal de Paris, ann^ 1787, Noe. 201 and 216. 
■ Duft'esne. Glossar, word " Caudati." 
^ Neue Kriegsbibliothek, Breslau, 1771, 8vo, 6th part 


It is not in place here to speak of the difTereht accidents which may 
be the consequence of docking ; they are quite numerous, and more or 
less serious. It is sufficient to say that the operation is not always 
without danger. 

Many docked horses carried their tails either to the right or to the 
left side, like certain terrier dogs. This resulted from raising the tail 
upon the croup after the operation, and maintaining it there by sup- 
porting it by its superior face upon a }md of straw. The latter often 
l)ecame disarranged during locomotion, was displaced backward and 
forward upon the croup, and rendci'cd the cicatrization irregular. 

State of the Stump. — ^The atump has the form of a quadrangular 
pyramid, whost» summit c()rre8|K)nd8 to the free extremitj' ; its inferior 
face is normally always deyoid of hairs. 

The tail wlioso stump is intact is called entire; it is said to be 
docked when a portion has Ixn^n amputated from the latter. We should 
not n(^lect to noti» the one or the other of these cxmditions when a 
description of the animal is nnpiired. 

Some pers^ms atta<*h importance to the development of this part, 
because it is iw»nerallv in harmonv with the other muscles of the IkkIv. 
It is also customary to niise it at the time of the sale, and to estimate 
the vigor of tlie animal acc^ording to the degree of resistance which it 
op{>oses. As H. lioulov affirms, " the information furnished by this 
measuriMncnt of fon^ S(»ldom loads into error." * 

State of the Hairs. — Wiien the tail is entire^ its stump, intact, 
naturally carriw all the hairs which it can 8np|>ort. At pn«t»nt the 

horst' is said to have a full mane and tail when thev 
have not i)een shortenwl. In such castas, their abun- 
daiKM' and tlicir length vary much acconling to the 
rac-t' and the subject. It is known that in Arabian 
hors<s the hairs of the tail often touch the ground ; in 
others, tJK'v usually stop more or less l)elow the ho(*k ; 
they an* always dis|M)sed in a |)oint inferiorly, like the 
l)ristlt*s of a brush. 
Fro 4r>. It is nin» that they art* pres<»rvcd in this state. They 

an» usually shoi-tencd in diffident wavs; thev an* 
diviih^d tnuisvcrst»ly, S4»uirtiin<*s on a level with the eh(»stnuts or the 
IH»int of the li<Kk, sometimes towanls the fold of the butt<H'k. In the 
diseription, this kind of s4'<*tion should Ik» indiejitwl in the following 
manner: enfin fnil^ Ahoiiaivtl haii'H, All nwi^-horw^s are thus treated 

» II. IJouIfy. MalHon rustique «Iii XIX" Kl^^•Ic, 1. il. p. 203. 



(Fig. 45). The tail is then more easily turned up, it soils the rider 
less^ and is much less liable to catch the reins^ an accident often serious 
on account of the energetic kicking which it at times provokes. 

As won as the stump has been shortened, it is plain that a certain 
number of hairs are wanting ; the horse can no longer be described as 
having a fuU tail. Special designations have been 
employed which recall the particular disposition of the 
hair upon the horse's tail. 

When, for example, after amputation practised 
upon the stump, the remaining hairs preserve their 
entire length, the tail is like a broom (Fig. 46), on 
account of the aspect it presents ; inferiorly it termi- 
nates in a tapering point, like a paint-brush, as in 
horses with full mane and tail. When it is too long, 
it is sometimes shortened with the knife, but its form 
is preserved. It is usually allowed to have its full 
length in draught-horses. 

If, after the amputation of a portion of the stump, 
the hairs are cut transversely at the level of the fold 
of the buttock, or slightly below, the tail, still quite 
long, is called banged. Such is the custom adopted in the army, and 
in horses performing light work, coach-horses, etc. 

At present it is becoming more and more fashionable to have the 
tail very short in certain horses kept for pleasure, principally Irish 
cobs, race-horses, and ponies. It then scarcely extends beyond the 
point of the buttocks. 

Three principal forms are given to the tail by the manner in which 
the hairs are cut ; besides, it has not the same aspect on the animal 

FlO. 46. 

Fio. 17. 

when at rest as when at work, in profile as behind, as is shown by the 
figures. It is called a short tail when tlie hairs have been cut off per- 
pendicularly to the stump and close to the latter (Fig. 47). 



Sometimes the hairs are cut obliquely from l)elow upward and f riim 
behind to before (Fig. 48). 


Finally, the tail is called bxuihy when tlie hairs, a little longer than 
the stump, are excistnl oblitjuely, as in the preceding form, but follow- 
ing a tronvex curve, which is insensibly continued on each side to join 
tlie root of the stump. When well sup])orted, it resembles the bnishes 
which bakers use to clean loaves of bread (Fig. 49). 

Fio. 49. 

ForincTly, tlie name vluh-iail (l<'rtij^nnteil one whose stump, with 
th«» hairs n'inov<il in the middle, cut very short, presented ujx>n the 
siihs two lonjr l<Kks which were allowwl t4) flow fret^ly. The origin 
of this ap|M>Ihition InMUg much disput^^il, and, Upsides, being of little 
int4'rfst« we will siiy notliin^ mon* al>out it. This form of tail is no 
loiipT i'ashiouabh*. However, Ixh*<m| re]M>rts that it is still sometimes 
s<H*n in tow-path h<>rses.* 

Finally, the hors4' is siiid to Ik* rdt-Utiled when the hairs, thinly scat- 
t4*nKl, n-ndrr the pai'tly-<h*nudt*d skin of i\\v stump visible. Although 
a proverb jissiTts that never fforA a horne with raMail lefive his mader in 
iroxthle^ this {MHuiliarity should always Ix; considered as an inconven- 

» Ui'oq. Kxt«'Tleiir «iii chevnl, p. 78. 


ienoe, on aooount of the function devolving upon this region, especially 
in broodmares ; it is rejected in services of luxury, on account of the 
ungraceful appearance which it gives to the animals. 

We have already said, in speaking of the mane, that horses with a 
gray or white coat, with curled woolly mane, always have melanotic 
deposits in the interior of the body. This state of the mane is extended 
also to the tall, and constitutes a cause of depreciation so much greater 
38 it is more accentuated, for melanotic tumors oilen cause the most 
serious complications. 

Merchants have the habit of plaiting the tails of their horses when 
the hairs are very long, principally in those of heavy draught, before 
they present them for sale. This practice, intended to give greater 
apparent width to the posterior part of the trunk and to make the 
posterior quarters appear more prominent and vigorous, is generally 
accompanied by a small fraud, which consists in introducing a piece of 
ginger into the anus. Suddenly the animal feels very energetic, a 
feeling which he manifests by the elevated carriage of his tail and the 
vivacity of his movements. We will return to this custom when speak- 
ing of the animal at the sale. 

A more serious fraud, the employment of which, however, is rare, 
is the application of a false tail to horses with a rat-tail, for example, or 
in the case of a pair of horses in which this region is dissimilar. If 
anv doubt is entertained as to this manoeuvre, it mav always be detected 
by unplaiting the tail and withdrawing the straw and other accessories 
which jockeys employ when the horse is to be sold. 

When the tail has been the seat of operations practised by dealers, 
it is useful, at the time of buying, to be guaranteed as to the pos- 
sible results. On two occasions we have seen animals die of tetanus 
follow^ing amputation of this organ, performed by the seller. 

In relation to its movements, the tail, during work, should be 
carried high and remain immobile. If it is agitated in a jerking way, 
the animal switches the organ, as seen in urinaiing, ticklish mares when 
the posterior parts of their bodies are touched or approached. Care 
should then be taken against kicks and bites ; the attitude of the ears 
and the expression of the physiognomy afford information concerning 
the intentions of the animal. 

Let us remark, in conclusion, that the horses threatened or struck 
from behind instinctively depresses tlie tail between the buttocks. It 
is often suflSeient to seize him by this appendage and exercise upon the 
hairs strong traction from above downward, to prevent him from 


One of the most frequent diae a aea of this region is pruritus, occasioned by 
the uncleanlincsH of the skin of the Htump, sometimes by the presence of int«H- 
tinal worms (oxyures), or the itch, which is manifested by depiiations, excoria- 
tions, and escliars, more or less extensive. These affections always begin by a 
peculiar straightening of the hairs, which should attract the attention of the 
purchaser ; otherwise they are not serious. 

The crupper quite frequently causes woun<ls when it is not well fitte<l or 
padded, especially in animals low in front, in which the saddle and harness have 
a tendency to slip towards the withers. These lesions are also observed on hor>H's 
of a good conformation which are harnessed without the breeching, and which are 
retjuired to di^scond »tev\} hills. However caused, these wounds sometimes make 
it imiMMsible for the animal to endure the crupper. We have seen them so deep 
that they could take the place of nicking, (tenerally it is sufficient to increjist* the 
thickncHH of the crupper or to discontinue the use of this part of the hamew, to 
enable the sores to heal at on(*e. 

We shall further <m H(>eak of cicatrices, Icmgitudinal or transverse, traces of 
do<.*king or nicking; of fistula' which require a long time to heal, and which c*om- 
plii^te these o])erationK ; finally, of melanotic tumors, sometimes ulcerated, which 
cause a black, fetid, and unclean discharge. 

B.— The Anus. 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The anus is the 

jx^storior orificr of the clijfc»stive U\\k\ Sitimted underneath the Uril 
and alM)ve the jHTinciimy it has for its l>ase tlie most p()st*»rior muscular 
fil)n»s of the HM-tuin, 8urn)Uiu}(Kl by a strong sphincter, relat<Kl on the 
sides to two n*tni<*tor muscles (isehio-anal). Its skin is fine, pliable, 
oily, devoid of hairs, and hlaek even in white horses ; we can some- 
tiuK'S find, li(»wever, as in the vicinity of other natural openings, pinkish 
surtiM»(»s <l<»priv(Hl of pigment, called leprous npoU, Internally^ it is 
c»<»v(»nMl l)v the nvtal nui(*ous membrane. 

Tn vigorous and hesilthy horsc^s the anus forms a rounded projection, 
finn, (lepHss***!, and foldcKl at its (vntni like the mouth of a purse ; it 
is d<*scrilKKl i\a prominent. In animals wc»akent»d by age, work, and 
sickuf'ss, it ap|M'sirs sunken, soft, and sometimes gaping. It shows, in 
this, itri mucous int^Tior, and iKi^omes ])owTrless to retain tlie faM!al 
matt<Ts, whiih — j>oorly mouhle<l, on account of th«» general atony of the 
dig(»stive tulM» — are ex|>ellc<l with mu<*h gsis during l(xx>motion or while 
the animal is taking a (h'cp inspiration. This state is chara(*terized by 
giving the animal the epithet rrantafor. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — The anus is es^HH^ially to be exam- 
intxl in n'ganl to its a/tmttionM. 

lA»t UM H{>eak first of the mrfanofir tnmor* in certain white or jrray horses, 
the volume of which is uu ol>stacle to the expulsion of the excrements. Theie 


tumore soon soften, ulcerate, and acquire a repulsive aspect and an unpleasant 
odor, and they lead to fatal results whenever sufficient inflammation is excited. 

AncUfittul(t were quite common at the time when the operation of docking 
the tail was more usually practised, of which they constituted one of the compli- 
cations. It was not less frequent to find here other fistulee which were vohmtarily 
made, under the name of whistle^ or nightingaJef with the object of relieving horseb 
affected with emphysema, in which the expulsion of gas through the anus is 
almost constant As we have shown on a previous page, this practice has long 
since fallen into disrepute, and is now only the appendage of a gross emj)iricism. 

In certain horses a particular larva is sometimes found, attached strongly to 
the margin of the anus by the hooks of its cephalic appendix ; it is that of the 
(Estrus hiEmorrhoidctliSy which comes from the stomach and is expelled from the 
digestive tube to perform its metamorphosis. 

There is another larva, that of the Hippobosca equina y or horse-tick, better 
known under the name of fldtfly, or spider-fly ^ because of its special form. These 
1ar\'se are seen under the tail, on the sides of the anus, and on the genital organs, 
particularly in Oriental horses. They are flat, resistant to pressure, and very 
adherent to the above-mentioned parts. These flics sometimes emigrate to animals 
which are not accustomed to them, and excite the horses to such a state of agita- 
tion that they are suddenly seized with fright, run away, and demolish everything 
in their way. It is only necessary to remove the cause of this agitation as soon 
aa it manifests itself, in order to avoid with certainty such formidable dangers. 

C. — The Perineum and the Median Raphe. 

The perineum is a single r^ion comprised between the anus and 
the external genital organs. 

In the male it extends from the posterior part of the scrotum to 
just below the anus. Situated at first between the thighs , then between 
the btUtockSy it is in relation anatomically to the corresponding part of 
the urethra and to the perineal aponeurosis which covers the latter. Its 
skin is black, or sometimes marbled, from the presence of leprous spots, 
which peculiarity should not be omitted in the description of the horse. 

It offers neither beauties nor defects for consideration ; it should be 
perfectly distinct and exempt from cicatrices, which might be the result 
of a dangerous operation, urethrotomy , practised in the treatment of 
calculus of the bladder, or the ot)nse(|uence of blows received by the 

In the mare this region is much smaller ; it corresponds only to 
the narrow space situated between the vulva and the anus. 

Some authors have r^arded it as extending to the mammse, whose 
situation is quite similar to that of the testicles. But even if we should 
obeen'e this analogy, the study of the perineum, with regard to the 
exterior, would not gain in importance. 

As to the raphe, as its name indicates, it is a kind of cutaneous 


thickening which marks the median line, from the sheath and the 
testicles, or the munimie, t4> the anus. It is shown in the form of 
a small crest, mon* or less pnmiinent according to the subjects, is 
a simple peculiarity of the regions upon which it is observed, and, 
tlH»refore, is devoid of all inU»R»st. 



The examination of the genital organs should not be neglected, 
either for the puqK)s«» of ascvrtaining their good conformation in ani- 
mals which are destined for rt»production, or for simply proving their 
state oi* health or of disease. 

§ 1. (temtal Okcjanh of the Male. 

Thc»s(» comprise*, with n»s|)ect to the exterior, the (eMiclets and the 
/)eniM, to which an> annexeii the pn>ti'<'ting coverings, dependencit* of 
the intc»gument, known under the name of enveloping tunics for the 
former and nheafh for t\w latt4»r. 

A. — The Testicles and their Enveloping Tunics. 

The organs whicli secrete the semen, the n^productive fluid of the 
mal(», are two glands, situat<Hl on <»ach side of the median line, in the 
inguinal n^gion, an<l Ix^tween the thighs. They constitute, as a whole, 
an irregularIy-round(*d mass, divided in its middle into two almot^t 
<»i|ual 1oIh»s, by a slight gnM)ve, a sort of raph^, which behind is con- 
tinuous with the ])erineal raph^^ and in fnmt is prolonged u]K>n the 
infcri(»r surfaiv of the nhefifh. 

1st. The Envelopingr Tunics. — The tostideH are surrounded by several 
siiiHT{M»s4>fl envelope?^, which arc, prociMMlin^ from tht* Kuperticial to the deep 
|>:irt«* : 

n. Thf nrrofum, or xho skin (hut th«» whoh» <louhlc »ac, composed of all the 
nivrlojiiii^ tunics, is also spoken of as tht* mTotuni). 

h. Th<' ifiirtiiM, very adluTcnt to the latter, and forming for each testicle an 
independent nnis<'uln-<'lastie sae. 

/•. The Muf/-ihirfitlif rftfinrrflrr timiiit\ a more or less densi' layer, which separates 
the dartos from the following' tunie. 

d. The rranantrr or tunini erythrouh*, a striated muscle which is attached to 


tUe external surface of the fibrous tunic, and determines the rapid ascending 
movements of the testicle. 

e. The fibrous tuniCy which surrounds the serous sac in which the testicle is 

/. Finally, the vaginal tunic or sheath^ a diverticulum of the peritoneum, 
covering the inner face of the fibrous tunic and surrounding the testicle as well aa 
its suspensory cord. 

The development of the testicular envelopes varies according to 
diverse circumstances, such as the degree of descent of the testicjles, the 
state of healtli or of disease, rest or exercise, the temperature, the 
race, etc. 

Contrary to the general opinion, they are always fontied at birth, 
at which time occurs the commencement of the descent of the testicles ; 
but they soon duappear, to reappear towards the end of the first year, 
following, consequently, the migration of the organs which they protect. 

These tunics, thin, soft, unctuous, and shiny in fine and well-nour- 
ished subjects, are thick, coarse, dull-cx)lored, and rough in common 
horses. The scrotum or skin is, with few exceptions, almost hairless, 
of a black color, or onlv covered bv some downy hairs. Nevertheless, 
in light-colored animals it is sometimes deprived of pigment in certain 
places, and then offers white or red spots of a variable area, to which 
18 given the name leprous spots. 

2d. The Testicles. — Susjiended at the extremity of a cord con- 
stituted by the vas deferens, blood-vessels, and nerves, these glands 
consist of ovoid masses depressed laterally, and related by their external 
face and superior border each to an elongated organ, the epididymis, 
enlarged at its two extremities and formed by an indefinite number of 
convolutions of its excretory canal. They float freely in their envelopes, 
but are neither in the same horizontal plane nor in the same transverse 
line : the left is always more inferior and more posterior than the right. 
The two testicles are, therefore, so disposed that they can approach the 
median line without being mutually compressed during the adduction 
of the thighs, between which they are situated. It is ap|)arent how 
painful to the animal and dangerous to these organs such friction and 
compression would be if fretiuently repeated. 

The examinaJtion of the testicular r^ion requires some precautions, 
particularly in irritable and sensitive horses. 

Let us suppose that this examination be practised upon the left 

The head is maintained ui an elevated ])osition by an assistant ; in 

addition^ the anterior right foot may be raised. This being done, the 



surgeon stations himself opposite the cn)up of the same side, places 
tlie left hand upon the dorso-lumbar r^ion, being careful not to stand 
in the line of action of the (^orresj)onding posterior member, and goes, 
with the right hand, in search of the testicles, having previously 
caressed the jjart^ which surround the region. 

When these oi'gjuis are well developed, lie in the scrotum, and are 
(H)nse<juently visible and tangible from tlie exterior, the horst* is 
entire,^ and is also called HtnUion ; he is called gelding after emascu- 
lation. Emasculation is jxTformed for various reasons, most usually 
with a view of completely (k»stroying the fuiK*tion of these organs. 

The testick»s, in the entire male, should l)e well down, n>und«'d, 
almost ec^ual, firm, and nJling under the pressure of the fingers, with- 
out showing any abnormal siMisibility. They are larger in the adult 
animal than in tlie colt, and in Ambian, Barb, and Andalusian stallions 
than in those of other ract»s. In hot weather thev mav become some- 
what flabby and iK»ndulous. When they are small and rt»tract<>d 
towards the inferior orifice of the inguinal canal, soft, or altogether 
|K'ndul<ius, they indicate a horsi» that is degenerated, witliout energy, 
without vigor, and uusuitinl for repnKluction. 

The gelding luts the testicular envelojMis flattened and almost indis- 
tinguisluible from tlui ixwterior |>art of the sheath of the penis. There 
always exist on «ich side of* the median line, at the plac^ where the 
ti^stich's have Uvn, two lint^ar cic^atrices, slightly excavated, which 
))res<'nt the siime characters in all ema.sculated animals, and which are 
due to the ex(»ision of thcsi* glands. 

A horst* may have Ikh'u subjected to an o|x^ration destroying his 
n'pnKluctive faculti<»s, and still have his testicles in the scrotum. This 
o|N>mtion, known under i\\Q . wjuxm} bitdournagey is nothing else than a 
sulK'UtamMMis torsion of the t<^ticular cord, which is soon followed bv 
a complete atrophy of th<* orgiui due to the obliteration of tlie blood- 
v<^»4<'ls whi<*h nourish the testicle. 

Although v<Ty litth* pra(*tis<Hl u|K>n the horse at present, bistoiimage 
leaves tnuH's which <':m U» cjisily ix»c(>gnized : the volume of the tes- 
ticle is DO more than that of a large walnut; it ocx;upies an elevated 
sitnatinii, and is no l<uig<T movable in its envelo|)e8, in consequence of 
the adhesions wlii<'h are ("stablislunl under the influence of the inflam- 
matory phenomena <'ons(^pi(Mit u|K)n the torsion. 

When the testienlar envelojK»s pr(»s<'nt the characters rccognizeil in 
the g<*Ming, and there exists on the surface no appreciable cicatrix; 

1 Technically, the w(»rd hor$e si^ifles the enHrt male. 


when, besides, the animal neighs frequently, has an ei'eetion of the 
penis at the approach of mares, and shows himself endowed, in appear- 
ance at least, witli all the instincts and aptitudes of the most vigorous 
entire male, it is ceilain that he has not been castrated by bwtownage, 
or otherwise, but that his testicles have not made their normal descent, 
and either float in the abdominal aivity or remain hxlged in the ingui- 
nal (anal. In either cast* the horse is callinl a cryptorchicV or an 
enorchul} Very often he is calle<l an atiorchidy^ but this is an improper 
designation, because it indicates the absence of the testicles instead of 
simply expressing their irregular situation. 

In onlinarv language a crj'ptorchid is called a ndgeUng, In scien- 
tific language we do not advocate th(? use of this expression, which 
originated from the horseman, but w^hicli is not (M)n fined to him, if we 
may judge from the favor which it has met among a wrtain class of 

Whatever terminology may be used, it is none the less true that 
that cryptorchism does not always exist on both sides at the same time. 
It is quite common to find it unilateral, but it is an eri*or to believe 
it affects the right side oftener than the left. Since 1847 we have 
established the falsity of the foundation of this opinion ; it is useless 
to prolong our remarks on this question. 

Cryptorchids have always been rq^rded, w^tli good reason, as 
being troublesome and dangerous to their com)>anions as well as to 
their attendants. They oflen interfere with the manieuvi'es of cavalry 
by kicking and biting, or unfasten themselves in the stable during the 
night, and mount the mares which they get access to. They are very 
ardent, and perform copulation readily, althougli this act appears to 
fatigue them extremely. We have not succeeded in getting them to 
repeat it on the same day. Finally, it should not be forgotten that 
these animals are sterile whenever the two testicles remain in the 
abdominal cavity ; their semen contains no s|)ermatozoa. This secre- 
tion has the same characters in those animals in which the glands are 
arrested in the inguinal canal, as we have several times proved ; but 
we will not assert that it is always thus. 


The importance of the preceding facts is clearly demonstrated by the two 
following instances : 

One of them, given by H. Bouley, Jr., has reference to the remarkable Rivit^re- 

> Prom icpvvTM, 1 conceal, and h^x^%, testicle. 

« Prom iv, in. and 6px«. testicle. 

* Prom a, taken away, and opx^Vi testicle. 


Rouleau lawsuit, which was so much discussed in Parisian veterinary circles more 
than half a century ago.^ 

It concerned a horse sold and guaranteed &s entire by Mr. Riviere to Lady 
Rouleau, in which the two teflticles, eAch barely as large as a small hen's egg. were 
lodged in the inguinal canal. liouley, Jr., in his report, effected an annulment 
of the sale by specifying : 

1st. That the tcsticleH had acquired only about one-fifth of their normal size, 
and that they were atn>phied, and, couMcquently, able to fulfil only imperfectly 
their functions. 

2d. That, in this roM]HH*t, Lady Rouleau had been deceived into buying as an 
entire horse one that wan iinporfei^t, having a defect in his organization which she 
had nf)t l>een able to recognizi% and which diminished his value and rendered 
him unable to jierforni the ser^'ice for which he was purchased. 

In the presimcc of these conclusions, and u|)on the concordant opinion of 
thme other exi>crtM nanuxi by the court, Rivii'^re agreed to dissolve the bargain, 
took back his horst*, ati<l the affair terminated. 

The second example is that of (Uofure^ the cryptorchid horse, of remarkable 
form and qua1itii>»(, which took twice in suctression the purse in the races at the 
Champ de Mars. I^>ught some time afterwards by the administration of the 
governmental studs, he served, at Pompadour, forty mares, without succeeding in 
impregnating a single one ! 

In order to prove the existence of cryptorehidisniy it is sufficient, as 
Henrj' and Symphorien Bouley verified in 1852 in the case of Cloturty 
t4> <Ieterniine whether the inguinal region does or does not cam' the 
|MTmanent ei(titrix of castration. It is ))roper to say, however, tliat, 
by fraudulent means, this cicatrix can Ik' imitated, thus giving to such a 
horse the apiH*arancx> of one that has Ikhmi castrated. The only method 
whi(*h <^n th(*n Ix^ em|)loyeil is to lead the animal to the mare, in order 
to pr<Kluce an cixrtion of the |M^nis, and to i)erniit a collection of the 
i^cminal fluid, which shoidd be subjectiHl to a micn)8(X)pic examination.' 

Disectses and Blemishes. — When the testicles, their enveloiNw, 
an<I tlic cfirds <lo not pn^st^nt the normal chara(*t<*rs we have indicatAxl 
al><>vc, then' is reas4m to (*onsider them diseased, and the prognosis which 
sliould Ih» given is in most instamvs verj' grave. The diseases of the 
ti^ticidar n»gion are num(»rous and varied ; we will only review them 
in {Missing. 

Thcv arc : 


1st. (J'yfnmi, simple infiltn*ti<m of the connective tissue of the envelopes, 
a comlition which may be the result of prohm^nl and (Mmiplete idleness in the 
stable, or it may l>e the manif(*stati(m of a \(k'a\ affection or of a grave consti- 
tutinnal (lis4*aMi'. 

> B«»uli'y. Jr.. RtTueil de rmSlwhic vtHi'riiiaiiv prHliqiic, INSi p. 487. 

Xinuhaux ft Follin. Momoirv sur la eryptorrhldic. in Kecueil de m^dednt T^CMnalrt^ 
annte 1856, p. KA>. 


2d. OrehUiBf acute inflamination of the tissues of the testicles, whose multi- 
ple causes often give rise to serious complications. 

dd. Sarcocele, which is usually one of the terminations of chronic orchitis, 
and consists in a more or less pronounced induration of the gland. It forms a 
voluminous tumor, insensitive to pressure, complicated at times by hydropsy of 
the vaginal sheath, and accompanied by a considerable enlargement of the cord. 
Sarcocele, by its weight, inconveniences the animal considerably ; but this would 
be of little import if it were not frequently one of the manifestations of glanders 
or the sign of a cancerous state. As the differential diagnosis is difficult, and as 
there is always apprehension of the presence of a glanderous diathesis, it will be 
prudent to condemn animals which are thus affected, more particularly if they 
are intended for reproduction. 

FcUse sarcocele is a similar condition, which has its seat in the testicular 
envelopes. Its prognosis is sometimes as serious as that of the preceding. 

4th. Hydrocele, which is an acute or a chronic dropsy of the vaginal sheath. 
The latter form is particularly serious in that it predisposes to hernia, occasions 
great pain, and causes atrophy of the testicle. It is quite frequently a compli- 
cation of sarcocele. 

5th. Varicocele^ varicose dilatation of the veins of the envelopes, of the cord, 
and of the gland itself. It is very rare in the horse. 

6th. Carcinoma, which affects the substance of the testicle and causes a 
gradual atrophy of the latter. This tumor is one of the forms of what is called 

7th. Cy$U, distinguished as dermoid or as serous, according to their nature; 
they are rare, and are located in the testicles, the envelopes, or the cord. 

8th. Champignon, scirrhous cord, an indurated tumor of the extremity of the 
oord, which follows castration on one side or the other, and has no tendency 
towards cicatrization ; it presents a deep fistula leading to the interior of the 
parts and discharging an abundance of pus. It is a common diseased state, and 
is grave on account of its complications. 

9th. Finally, hernia, called inguinal or testicular, due to a displacement of a 
portion of the intestine into the vaginal sheath. It is acute or chronic, according 
to its duration and symptoms. The violent colics which accompany the acute 
form will always prevent the animal from being offered for sale. It is not the 
same with the chronic form, examples of which are quite frequently met in 

The old law of redhibitory vices comprised chronic intermiitent hernia among 
the diseases capable of causing the annulment of the sale ; the law of August 2, 
1884, does not include it 

However, a horse suffering from chronic hernia should never be purchased ; 
at some period he may succumb to a strangulation of the hernial intestine, an acci- 
dent always to be feared, because there is always a possibility of its occurrence. 

B.— The Sheath and the Penis. 

To the organs charged with the secretion of the somen is annexed 
an apparatus of excretion, the penis, which serves at the same time for 
copulation and for the emission of the urine. This organ is protected 

A £-ifi .c V iir a C'^a n t-ac. x ^ ihsczifl«i ^ :iHuaim tke 6«e portkio of 

- '-r :irT -r — ri* A^'l "TT-r C«:r HLl\r .£ -VIOL 

Tb^ •bp^ih irr •-sTirviy r!^>«i ^ <^^ a»?Bfenc of ercctioo of the 
pM!»!*. It.- 'l^v*-!. .^<!>*it v:iri--i> jivi j>i::^ ^. d^ ■•w^ti*^! : in the stallion 
it U arnpl*- a^il ^r^-o-nllj Jttlr -s^il-^l by it* Twretii*! : in the geklin^ 
it !• •mall«-r. ar>i :t- liirr'T • |*:c.::^ ?*o?tIIxale^ pcwvnte the protniFioii 
of til*- j^=-ni- •Irjrinz Ei>turlti»-Q- Tberv nay nesoh. in socfa a case, as 
I>*'»«l FiA- r»-niark«^l. hy^^^rv^.-rvn. ,q Sv the ?«4nee«<Q? riuidsv irritation 
fprrn th^' firin*. an«l »rv«rn u^v^iri••Q^ d:£!*.tilt ^> heaL which may extend 
^» tfi*^ f^ni«J 

H'lr'A Of /-^/'•'/'/w tm. 4r«? in •'lerLiin .'*b*!s '^^Iwiempii on the dieath. They 
are r*-?raH*<l ap ^-r.n'-Airi.ia*. aI:h<»Grh d*? irrvruta:*'-* pfOi>f of thi» ha* as yet been 

^Fyirma of the ^h«»ath d^{«i»ii«i4 apito a prrkU^tncvii retention of the penit 
within it, op«m the '-^'Di^K't of th<» urine. «*r uf^oi the pnweDte of an exoea§ of the 
f^^ra^frtftiA *f< THion. h dL<sapp«rarfi readily uDiier the influence of exenrine and 


Finallr. rtulnnft*ir f»tnu»r» arp met h»»r?, which bT their rolome sometimei 
pr<'V«-nt x\i*' protni'*i<'»n of th^ fi^-ni* and interfere with the exit of the nrine. 

Th«'r(* 'ATf ^^itnc hopte* which produce durine liKonii:»cion, partienlarly in the 
trot ari'l xh*- (rallop. a •'lun'i. always diisafn^eable. called the mmt^ t/ the frog. It 
c'tf'si^M ordinarily at th*' *'nd of a certain time during the exereise. SoniepenM>n» 
hav«> in'-orr«*''tly attri^ut^'*! it to the chumini; of the liquids and gaaes con- 
firi'-d in th«* ri%*\\u\. a part of th#' larjr** intc-stine remarkably developed in thehoTK. 
W«- lonir tt'/o uvaAo t\\** PTiiark that it in never heanl in marau Franconi, our 
rlH«^mat<* ari«l \'n*U'\. inforrnf'l u- oru* day that it could t»e made to disappear by 
pa< kirit' th«' -Jnatli with oakum. W'f havtr ^ince verifier! the efficacy of this 
ifi/« iii'.ii^ iiiMui-, th«' a* ti'.fj '»r wliM'h i^ i]n(it'n<to«xl without difficulty, knowing 
th*' u\*t hjifti-in hv ^hi' )i thi- "'nin'! i- |»FKiijrr><l. Durinir hM-omotion the sheath 
i- Hlt<rn it<-lv rai-' 'I afwl low<'f#'d. hh'I at thi- -rinH- time the j>eni?» executes in its 
Cftvity rnori' or h— «xt<'n-ivi' to-an<l-fro movt-ment^. There results from this the 
foriiiution of u vaiiiuui and thf f'ntran<*e of external air, which occasions this 

» V. I^TTHj Kxt^rieiir «lu cheval, p. y?. 


particular 80und. Its intensity appears to depend upon the flaccidity and the 
dLspro|)ortion of volume of the parts concerned in the mechanism of its produc- 
tion ; its absence is due, on the contrary, to a more complete coaptation of these 
same parts, which exists in those animals in which this sound is not produced. 

2d. The Penis. — The penis is the male organ of copulation. 
It repi*esent8 an eixictile shaft, constituted principally by the corpus 
caveniosuni, and supports along its entii-e length the urethml canal. 
In the study of the exterior of the hoi'se, however, we shall occupy 
oui'selves only witli the free poHimi of this organ, which in a state of 
relaxation is contained within the sheath, and appears externally only at 
the moment of erection, when the blood distends and elongates it. 

It then appears covered by a fine, unctuous, glistening skin, sometimes rosy 
and marbled in the places deprived of pigment. Limited at its base by a sort of 
cir^'ular cul-de-sac, it has an almost cylindrical form, excepting at its free 
extremity, where it suddenly enlarges. The latter, known under the name head 
of the penis , and notched below and behind {mb-urethral notch), is hollowed in its 
middle by a shallow excavation which surmounts a round eminence formed by the 
extremity of the corpus cavernosum, and in the centre of which opens the 
Hrethml tube, projecting about one or two centimetres. Above the latter is the 
urethral nniis^ a spacious bilocular cavity, often filled with hardened sebaceous 
matter (the l>ean), which may compress the urethra and interfere with micturition. 

It is the erectile tissue of the urethra, altogether independent of that of the 
corpus cavernosum, which composes the head of the penis. At the beginning of 
erection the latter alone is dilated so as to give the necessary rigidity to the 
organ to penetrate the genital passages of the female. As soon as the penis is 
inserted, the urethra dilates and gives to the free extremity of the organ the 
aspect of a mushroom or the nose of a watering-can, as is seen in the stallion 
immediately after the ejaculation of the semen. 

Under oitlinary conditions the head of the penis is not visible at 
the entrance of the sheath : it is concealed bv the folds of the skin. It 
is incorrect for painters and sculptors to represent this |)art almost with 
the same disposition as that which it affects in man. 

The penis of the entire horse is more voluminous and morc firm 
than that of the gelding ; but in this resiXH't it diifei*s much in diffei-ent 
animals. These variations have not, as is generally iK'lieved, any 
influence upon the qualities of hoi'ses which are destincnl for reproduc- 
tion ; it is the same with those variations which concern the head of 
tlie penis, which is often very different in different stallions of the same 
race, the same form, and equal ardor. 

It is more im))ortant to assure oui-selves that the penis movc^ with 
ease in the interior of its protecting cnvclo|K\ Th(» stallion has quite 
frequent erections ; it is common even to see him masturbate, either in 
the stable or at rest when he is harnesse<l. When tlu»st» enactions occur, 


the ))eni8 emerges from the sheath with more or less rapidity, and 
increases in v^ohime, in length, and in tension. 

In this condition it is easy to determine tlie state of the parts and 
to judgi^ as to their good conformation. This cannot be done during 
mi(i;urition, for the |)enis is only partly protruded. 

Erection in the gelding is, on the contrary', rare ; the copulative^ 
organ is c^)nfined to its naiTow sheath. If it be not protnided at the 
time of micturition, the animal urinates into his shiath, an injurious 
fault, on account of the irritation which the n>tention of the essentially 
putrefiw'tive pnxlucts detcTniin(»s then*. In horses can»lessly groomed 
the desiccated Hel)a('eous matter after a time occasions an inflammation 
of the skin which the simpK^st hygienic measures (xiuld prevent. 

We have w)metinieH olMcrved melanotic imiwrn upon the |>entM. They give 
riftc, by their softening, to ulcerationH, from which eHoapes a blackish, dinagreea- 
ble (liHcharge; by their volume they ahso produce compretwion of the urethra and 
obstruct the free paiwagc of the urine. 

At other timeM blowi-tutnorn (turniatotna) exbt in the corpus cavenKMum, 
nwulting from blow8 received by the |)eni8 during erection, or produced by the 
efTortH of the Htallion in mounting. Veritable wound» are oi*cai»ioned sometimei* 
from these cauHCH, whoHe prognortin is much more serious because there is always 
danger from hemorrhage or fn>m resultant complications of gangrene necessi- 
tating the amputation of the organ. 

Finally, all animals having ulctraiioM at some point of the penis should be 
n^jei'ted. These are simietimes the expression of the most serious c*ontagious 
di!«ease, nuUadie du m'it, or dourinfy which is most common in Oriental horses. The 
ulcerations must not be ccmfounded with the }/ustuU$ of eq^tine variola, which 
resemble the f(»rmer very much, and u|Mm the differential diagnosis of which 
our distinguished assocMate, Pn>fe8Sor Peudi, has espei^ially insisted.' 

htniiym* of the penis is |KH*uliar to jaded stallions degenerated from old age. 
The organ i^ then not ctrntained in the sheath ; it is said to \\e pefululoH$. 

Flabby, intiltratcMl, swollen, purplish, and cold, it oscillates in every direction 
during l(K'omoti<»n, ami is continually exixjsed to wounds and contusions. It 
is nec(>}war\' then to place the |)enis in a leather sheath, acting like a suspen- 
sory ligament, which is maintained in situation by leather straps fastened around 
the loins. 

§ 2. Genital Oimjaxs of thk Female. 

A.— The Vulva. 

The vulva is the only [mil i>f the giMiital ap|)aratus of the female 
whi(*h dirtvtiy c()n<*<*ms us in this (H)iuiccti<m ; nuist autliors liave added 
H (h's^'ription of the mamnur^ and we will not change the established 

The vulva cim.stitut<>8 the extcTual orifice of the genito-urinar}' 

> K. Tcurh. Nitte f'Ur It- liof>(>-pox HirouUut U doiirliie, In Revue v^rinslre, annte 1880, p. 297. 


apparatus in the female. This orifice^ situated below and at some dis- 
tance from the anuSy has the form of a vertical chink, in which can be 
recognized two lateral lips and two commissures, the one inferior and the 
other superior. 

The lips {labice) are in apposition, the one against the other, in 
ordinary conditions. The skin which covers them is fine, unctuous, 
devoid of hairs, usually black, and very adherent. It becomes contin- 
uous, at their free border, with the internal mucous membrane. 

Of the commiamireSy the superior is acute ; the inferior is rounded, 
and shows, when the labiae are separated, a single globular organ, the 
cUtoriSf a veritable penis in miniature, lodged in a mucous fold which 
constitutes a sort of prepuce, of a rosy color, sometimes black or 

During the period of heat {menstrucUion) the vulva is slightly open, 
swollen, warmer, more sensitive, and all the parts covered by mucous 
membrane are bright red. From the inferior commissure there is a 
moderate discharge of liquid, which agglutinates the lips. The animal 
frequently ejects a small quantity of urine, which is followed by several 
convulsive protrusions of the clitoris. She is then very excitable, diffi- 
cult to approach, inclined to kicking, and provoked by the least touch. 
She is called |>i«8y when this condition is habitual ; ovariotomy (removal 
of the ovaries) may sometimes remedy this; at other times it is 
without effect 

Mares which have been pregnant generally present longitudinal 
folds upon the external face and inferior part of the lips of the vulva. 
These folds increase with the frequency of parturition. In old and 
very emaciated mares the vulvo-anal region is strongly excavated, a fact 
which may render the introduction of the penis somewhat uncertain. 

In certain cases fillies are ringed in order to prevent copulation 
when they run in pasture with males. This operation consists simply 
in approximating the lips of the vulva by means of metallic threads 
inserted transversely from side to side and disposed in superposed 
rings, or simply in protecting the vulvar opening by means of a wire 

Although this practice opposes a copulation by preventing the 
introduction of the penis, it fails with those animals that are inclined 
to accomplish this act to satiate their imperative desires, and, on this 
account, it is not free from danger. Tlie stallion in his efforts some- 
times wounds the lips of the vulva, lacerates them with his teeth, or 
commits an error of place nearly always fatal to the female, without 
ocxisidering the wounds which may be inflicted upon his own organs. 


There are neither beauties nor defects to be indicated in this regioa. 
It should esj)eciaHy be free from blemishes. 

Woumijff faeerafioMj bi/es fnim the stallion, pustules of hone-par, and uicrra- 
twm Hymptoiiiatic of Malndie (In m'it are observable in this region. The la»t are 
of a \ery grave prognooiH. Rvptiiren of the superior commissure are nearly 
alwayH due to difficult parturition. According to J. B. Huzard, the presenile of 
warU, or papilfomat/i, on account of their hereditary character, should exclude 
the mare fn>ui the ntud.^ 

B. — The Mammae. 

The wu;7/im/r, 8|hhmii1 to the mare, are two glands endowed with the 
secretion of the milk. They form two hemispherical eminences pla<*ed 
in the inguinal region and separated fn)ra each other by a median 
groove. Kiivh of them prc»sents in its central |)art a small protulier- 
anc<\ the teat^ or nipple, whose free extrt»mity has in its middle a shal- 
low depression, at the bottom of which o|)en two excretory ducts which 
commence in the interior of the organ. 

But little develojx^l in the filly and in the mare which has never 
lx»en prt»gnant, they ac<iuire a (H)nsideral)le volume towards the end of 
gestation ; they pr«»serve it after {mrturition during the period of 
suckling, but reassume their primitive characters afterwards. 

The di*faM» of the mammary glands are few ; let us mention more especially 
mehnotir dri>thfH*^ of which they are Kometimes the seat in gray or white mares. 

Linear cicatrici^, which result from the cuts of the whip-lash, frequently 
given in this region, are, as in the sheath of the male, quite frequently found here. 

Finally, their surface often shows corded ii/mphatics from farcy, because of 
the abundance of the lymphatic vessels which emerge from them. 



(General Considerations. — The members, limbs, or legs are 

the MupporU an<l th<» natural motorn of the trunk. They represi^nt 
four articulates! colunins, sc^jrniented, piece bv |>ie<'e, situated upon the 
latenil iiuts of the ImhIv, in fn)nt and l)ehind the centre of gravity, 
and distinjruishe<l, for this reason, as anfenor and poMericr. 

The s(*^nients which (*oni|M»s(> them diminish in volume, in periph- 

1 1'l. Boiirp'Ut. Kxtrrlfiir du <'h(>val, 5c <H1.. p. 162. (Note of J. B. HiiMrd.) 


eral sur&ce, and, in general, in iaclination from above to below, but 
at the same time they augment gradually in number, compactneee, and 
resistance. Surromided in their superior sections by voluminous and 
powerful muscles, they are, as it were, reduced infcriorly almost to 
skin and bone. These are fortunate dispositions, whose effect is to 
disseminate and attenuate the combined actions of the weight and the 
velocity, and to furnish an adequate siir&ce for the attachments of the 
muscles, all preserving to the centre of gravity all the elevation com- 
patible with the extent of its displacements, and conferring upon the 
trunk gracefulness, harmony, and eleganw of support. If the members 
were covered with muscles throughout their entire length, their weight 
would be excessive, and the step heavy and slow on account of the volume 
of the extremities and the consequent lowering of the centre of gravity. 

During locomotion these motor columns are alternately elevated 
from the ground ; they receive the body-weight which fells on them, 
and impress it with the needed impulsive force, and are then lifted, 
projected in advance, and a^m touch the ground. 

FunctioiL — The function of the anterior limbs is very different 
from that of the posterior. 

The Anterior memberB, situated in advance of and close to the 
centre of gravity, and bearing consequently more weight than the 
others, have a secondary office, being principally endowed with the 

,— From an IniUnt 

function of support and dispersion of concussion. Their propulsive 
action is not very marked, excepting at a slow pace and when the animal 
moves a heavy toed. Under these circimistances (Fig. 50) the lt>ody, 


strongly inclined forward, gives the fore-l^ an oblique direction 
backward, which {)ermit8 them to push against the collar, to which the 
shoulders are energetically applied. It is by the extension of all their 
articular angles, previously semi-flexed, that the fore-legs aocomplish 
this result. When they are directed obliquely and in an inverse direc- 
tion, as is seen sometimes at the beginning of the effort of traction, the 
force which they exercise upon the trunk, and therefore against the 
collar, is at its minimum. Traction forward can be &vorablv exeeutixi 
only when the foot, directed backward, is fixed against the roughnesses 
of the ground. This is observed in the draught-horse as he moves his 
load ; when the soil, the point of support, gives way, the feet suddenly 
glide backward. 

Aside from these functions, the anterior member is, as all admit, 
nothing more than a column of support and an apparatus of dispersion 
and compensation. From its mode of attachment to the trunk and the 
disposition of the segments composing it, the fore-1^ is adapted in a 
remarkable manner to this double function. Fixed to the side of the 
thorax by means of muscles and aponeuroses, it has all the articular 
angles quite open, except that one of them, the radio-metacarpal, is 
even entirely effaced. It opposes to the body-weight and to the looo- 
motory reactioas resistances, more particularly mechanical, whose pas- 
siveness eases the muscular strain. The bones, the ligaments, and the 
tendons, more than their mustnilar portions, resist the pressure and oon- 
<*ussion of l(XH)motion. 

Tlie posterior members are widely different in construction and 
fuiK'tion. Much less of a support to the trunk, and well situated in 
Halation to the centre of gravity, they are articulated solidly with the 
COX2C without endangering their integrity. By the inclination of their 
different segments, they push against the trunk at a given moment 
wlicn the former are straightened, one piece upon the other ; thus the 
anghs arc oblitcraUtl, and tlie hind-legs communicate to the body the 
n(H'<lc<l f<)nt» or velocity. The muscles, being obliged to contract in 
onlcr to op|)ost» the tendency towards closing of the angles of locomo- 
tion, an» mor«» voluminous and numerous than those of the fore-leg; 
th(»y an' th(»rcforc» iihlc to sustain without fatigue the part of the body- 
weight which the oss(H)Us framework intrusts to them. 

They arc therefore, fii-st of all, the agents of propulsion. They 
act with i\w gn'jittist efficacy and |K)wer against the trunk, to which 
they are attached, at the mom(>nt when their line of direction (a line 
which unit<»s the superior c<»ntre of movement to the foot) points ob- 
li(|uely downward and bac^kward. Inclined in an inverse direction 


during the beginning of the eflTort of traction, they can only support 
that portion of the body and take a position to prejmiv tliemselves for 
the effort which they are to execute the following instant. Besides^ 
this phase is of a very short 
duration^ and the backward 
obliquity soon manifests it- 
self. The latter exists al- 
ready at the end of a certain 
period when the canon is 
still inclined forward. The 
phase cannot be expected in 
the draught-horse, as we 
shall clearly see if we reflect 
upon the fact that the body 
of the animal is continu- 
ally inclined forward during fio. si. 
the efforts of traction. In- 
stantaneous photographs place this matter beyond a doubt (Fig. 51).' 

Mechanism of Impulsion. — Whichever of the members we 
examine, the impulsive force which they develop at a certain period 
in their acting as a support results invariably from a more or less forci- 
ble extension of the bony segments at the moment when the members 
are supported against the trunk or the collar. It is an interesting and 
important fact that we can prove scientifically that this process of exten- 
sion is the conjoint function of most of the musck»s belonging to the 
limb which originates the impulse. Many of the flexors are capable of 
contributing to this end, either because they cross over several articular 
angles and attach to the convex side of one of them,* or because they 
originate from the trunk and concur to straighten the inclined levere upon 
which they terminate.* As to the abductors and adductors, they can, 
by acting simultaneously, perform the rdle of extensors. The other mus- 
cles maintain the osseous levers in their proper plane as ex)mpared with 
the median plane of the body, and prevent their outwanl or inward dis- 
placement after the manner of the ropes which fix the mast of a ship. 

» See, for farther details and interesting discussions by modern authors. H. Bouley, Nouveau 
dictionn&ire de m^decine, de chirurRie et d'hygi^ne v6t<:Tinaire8, tome i., art. " Allures," p. 360, 
Plaris, 1856; G. Colin. Physiologie companSe des animaux, t, i.. p. 448, 8e ed., Paris, 188f»: G. 
Neumann, Du tirage du cheval, In Rec. de m4m. et obsenr. sur I'hyg. et la m<>d ^t. milit, ann^ 
W76; Ibid.. Sur leu ^14ment8 de I'impulslon. in Revue vi^USrinaire. anmV« 1S86, p. W2»\ G. Chenier. 
contribution k l'6tudedes actes locomoteurs, in Echo des soc. et assoc v<^t<^r., Juln. 1866. 

s Such are : the flexors of the metacarpus, of the phalanges, of the forearm, of the metatarsus, 
the iichio tibia] muscles, etc. 

* Such are: the pioaa, the superficial gluteus, the great dorsal, etc. 


We are therefore eonviiutHl tliat during pnipulsion there is no 
antagonism of foree?*, hut siJely the use of the powers intf^ndcnl to pnn 
duee an elon^tion of the nieralx*rs acxronling to a definite plan. To 
IxK-^jnie convinw^ of this, it will Ix' nwt»ssar\' onlv to examint' tiie 
musi'les of one's own k^, semi-Hexed, just Ix^fore it IxH'onu^s <»xteinUHi 
in order to stniighten the ImkIv ; all the stnu^urt»s art» rigid IxH'siuse 
they all ap|X'ar to eontraet in unison, so as to ovenrome the antagonistic 

On the other hand, nieehani<«l dis|X)sitions of great |x»wer and the 
arningements of the mus<*les and tendons in the hind liml>s of the 
horsi* asso<Mate the articular angles in such a manner that one <»f them 
cannot be extendcnl without ])nKlueing a simultantHius o]X'ning of the 
others. It follows from this that all the forces which an» <»xcrt«Hl at 
one iM)int aix^ transmitti'd at the same time to the adjoining |Nirts and 
cause them to move successiv(»ly one ujxm the other. This pnxiss of 
fon'c*-a<'cumulation gives an explanation to some of those si>asm<Klic 
movem(»nts, — Htriiuj-haH^ — so sudden and so energetic, of which the 
jH»st(Tior memlH»rs an* the scat. 

Articular Movements ; Orientation or Relative Position 
of the Angles of Locomotion; Limited Positions of the 
Osseous Segments. — The €trticular movements, U^ing clo^ly 

sulM)rdinate to the extent of the osi'illations of tlie segments wliieli 
accom|)lish them, hert* otfer u> an op|M)rtunity for general considcra- 
ti<»ns <'on<'eming which wv shouhl say a few wonls. 

It must Ik' a<lmitt4Hl, to U^gin with, that amplitude of joint-action 
must in<*nib44' in a nitiowith the initial displacement of the Ixmy Icvern 
as stu<licd in their <'<mdition <»f rest when com|)an'd with the line of 
tln»ir n*gular axis. 

But the ct!<'etivcin»ss of this play deiM»nds upon another (*onsidera- 
tion of primary im|)ortanc<*. It is indis|M*nsid)lc that the line of dinnv 
tion of the S4Hrinfnts of the memlKT should h<»ld ctTtain determinate 
Halations with the v(Tti<':d line |Kissing thntugh their <*cntr(* of move- 
nuMit. In other wonls, it sutlices not that the articular angle which 
they form U* irvll ojfnmf^ hut it is also n<'<'essarv that the angh' l)e 
trr/f IiHiitcil for pnnrn-ssion. This eoiiditioii is n-sdi/fnl whenever the 
angular displai-cment of the hraudies of an angle of liK*omotion tends 
to S4*|)aiiit4' the two extn'mitics of the memlNT to which it In^longs, fol- 
lowing a very ohliipie line nit her than the vertieal or some anal<»g«»U8 
din-cticm. When such a relation do<»s not exist, the l<K'omotor\' 
(■olumns |xissing over to«» little surfan* at eiu'li step, an* not pn>|XTly 
extemletl in a forwanl movem<>ut, hut an* men*lv elevatc<l, and the 



impulse transmitted to the trunk is nu luiiy;i.-r a trajectory approxi- 
mating the horizontal, but becomes a short curve. 

The inclination of the osseous segments should therefore supply 
this double purpose : it should aug- 
ment the effectiveness of the articular 
play without diminishing its extent. 

Each of the loconiotory segments, 
when viewed alone, presents for study 
(Fig, 52) a limit of exlenaion, A, and 
a limit of flexion, £ ; in a word, the 
line or xpace of osctliaiioii, A B, mark- 
ing the limit of opening and of closing 
the angle, beyond which it cannot ex- 
tend, by reason of the resistance 
offered by tlie articular surfaces and 
the tension of the ligaments. 

Anatomy, through the researches 
of Vincent and Goiffon ' upon the cadaver, has dctennined the extent 
of thia space, AB, in a very satisfactory manner; but it Ix.'comes a 
difRcult problem when it is a question of the i)re<;ise hx'ation of the 
ai\gleAOB in relation with the vertical line OX, or, what amounts to 
the same thing, to fix the limited pogifioim A and R, — iM)ints which 
indicate the limit of the oscillation of 0('\n the living animal. 

It is in this direction that investigations should now Im' pursued. 
It is possible, indeed, that if we could recogni7.e tlie exact ixtsition of 
these limits in horses of speed, it would Ix-ronie easy to detiTuiine the 
most desirable inclination of the bonv levers. Kvidently this inclina- 
tion should assume the direction OC, hiMx^ing the angle AOB. In 
this case alone the space of oscillation will reat^h its gi^eatest |x>ssible 
limits; for the extremity C, being equivalent fiimi A and B, admits 
of equal flexion and extension, the greatest of each that is iH)ssible. 
All other inclinations diminish the one or the other of these movements. 

We have presented the only acces.sible observations that have been 
made on this subject, excepting only the incomitarably nccm-ale re- 
searches which MM. Marey and Pages' liav*; nndeitaken witli the aid 
of instantaneous phot<^raphs of hoi'ses in liRoniotion. 

> ViDCCDt M OolROn. H^molre ftrtlflclelle des prliiclp«> relallfi i 1> 
tnlmiui, L n.. Pftrlg, ITTS. 

■Pag^ AiuUyae clnfioBtlquc ile U locomotli'O da I'brvHl, in Ci>ii 
nil dM (Cleiira, 1886, p. 702 ; Mirey et pBg*a, AiiBl>-st uln^matlque 
OaapUa-Rendtu, IBM; Ibid., Mouvi-ments du mcmbre pelrlen cb« 

MHe repri*Piiii 


Unfortunately, tlieae experiments have only deterniimHl the liniitiHi 
{)08ition.s in the walk, tlie tn)t, and the slow gallop, and leave iii^ still 
ignorant of what these |)ositions are in extreme sjkxhI. Neveillieless, 
from the fa(*t8 alix^ady acquired, an important proposition iian U' 
deduced : that the limit of extenHion of the locomotory HegnieniH ocvupien^ 
in horses of speedy a poitUy Ay quite close to a veriiail line passing through 
their centre of movement, 

Aoeording to the angles considered, tJiis point is situated either in 
advance of the vertical line mentioned (angk^s with tlie sine |>osterior), 
or behind it (angles witli the sine anterior). Dut it is ap|)urent that tlie 
farther the limit of extension jHisses In^vond the vertiead line of the 
centre of movement the mon» will the angle of thi»st» si'gments, when 
it is opem*d, \ie favorable to the augmentation of the obli<|uity of the 
member, and (*onsec|Uently the moiv will it tend to increase* the ampli- 
tude of the step or the extent of the movement. 

It would follow fnnw this that the ni(»st favorable inclination of an 
4jSKeous lever is that which removes it the least from the vertical line 
OX during llexi(»n, an<l ct>ns(H{uently that which tends to approai*h it 
to this same line while the animal is standing still. In this c^ase the 
direction of tlu» H«»gnn*nt will Ih» moiv closely reflated to the bisi*c*tiiig 
line f)(\ whif'h is jL**s<K*iated, as we have set»n, with the largest s|)a(t' 
of oscillati<m. 

In the pHHtnling statements we have viewed an isolated locomotor}* 
Hcyment, as it is movcnl fnt^ly under the horizontal line MNy without 
the intervention of toiiMgn intluenci>s. This has {x*rmitted us to indi- 
<tite to tlu' Ust advantage the dinntictn of the segment ass<K*iated with 
a largt* and <>tfe<>tivc os<*illati(»ii. 

In natural c<»uditious, liow(*ver, this arrangement is not so simple, 
simv tlx' l(NN»mot(»rv angles arc f(»rmc<l by Inau^s which are articulated in 
tw(»s <»r in thni's. It is therefore in phuv to inquire whether, under these 
cir(*umstan<'(*s, the extn^UH* limits .1 and li rt^main alwavs the same witli 
rolatidu to the v«»rtiejd line O.V through the c-entre movement. 

It is r.isy t«» luwun' ourselves of th<* contrary. Thest» {Nisitions de- 
|)end u|M)n the in(*liuati<»n of the S4*gnu*nt with which the one under eon- 
8ideniti<m is articulat<'d. Tlie niaxinuim value of the articular angle 
may U* similar, an<l, for tlu* sjike of the argument, we may say cqiml ; 
but the orientation of this angle U'lng <liffen'nt, the extrt^me {Misitions 
A and li aiv <lispla<-<Hl <'ithcr forward i»r Uickwanlof the vertical line, 
aeconling to the obliquity of the a<lia<*<>ut S4*gment. This will necH^i*- 
sarilv n*sult in dif!enMie(*s in the utilization of the articular movements 
in forward l<M*omoti(»n. 


t obliquities 

11 oniiPaugluCOfl. 


Let us suppose the two s^'guif nts 01 ' jiud Ofy lo liiive 
when compared with the vertical line OX{V\g. r»3). 

Let, on the other haud, COB' he the it 

The angles, in estemtiun, being 
equal, for anutomical reaxoni', Co the 
segment OC, the limit of extenxion 
of OB will be B", A simple in- 
apection, howcTer, fihowu that OB", 
being lege inclined upon OX than 
OB', will also be lese &votably di- 
rected than OB' in relation with the 
Tertical line OX. Therefore, the 
orientation OD, bisecting the angle 
COB, IB more favorable than the 
orientation Oiy bisecting the angle 

It can only be allied that the 
angle COB, eince it is more open 
while the horse is standing still, 
should be the same in action, but if 
it were thua the eonditioni would no 
mart bt tqtiol, and consequently no l^i^- **■ 

more comparable. The condition of 

the maximum opening of the angle COB changing, it can be assumed that in 
the same manner the angle COB ia caused to vary. Moreover, anatomy teache» 
that there exists for these two angles a maximum separation, jiractically the 
same, but dependent upon the diapohiition of the articular surfacCM and the liga- 
ments limiting their displacement. The sole dilTerent'e which dintinguishcH them 
is that in repose their branches are unequally inclined. 

Mode of Evolution of the Members during Progression. 

— TAe mode of evoluiion or oscillation oj Ihf membem dnrintf protfrenmon 
iDvolves quite a complex analysis, but we must be able to explain its 
general features in order to understand some subsequent phenomena. 

Let us examine this oscillation in tlie irnlf;, a miMle of pn)gress in 
which tiie body is never entirely disconnected fnmi tlie gi-ound. 

The foot, now elevated from the gi-otin*! and now in contact with 
it, passes tJirough two principal phas«^s ; one of elevation,' during 
which it is in tJie air, and one of contact, during ^vhich it ^u[)]>ort3 
a portion of the weight of the b(xly. fhiring this evolution, the line 
of direction of the member apix-ars to oscillate altemati'ly an)und 
two points »tuated at its superior and its inferior extremities ; the fiwrt, 
the inferior extremity, is the point of the pha-se of contact ; tlie siiih-- 
rior, the centre of movement of the shoulder or tlie cn)U}», is thiit of 



tile phaHO of elvvatiuii. WIioii the fir»t is Htatiuiiary iin tlit- (cround, 
the sLivml, i>r iHi|M>rior pohit, dcscrilM-K an an- of a cin-lt' uiiil itt 
larriwi furwanl hy tho foixv of inipiilsioii, iiiid ritv nr«(. 

At the itHinit'iit when the fixit, I) (Fig, .")4), w nivly to Itiivc tin- 
ground, the line uf direL-tiuii, H'l), in inclined duwiiwun) ami liat-k- 

Ptii, M.— Srbenm of the cmluIEoii 

n dnrint ifae phuM of 

ward. It is thi-n udvancml, di-sa-riblng an an- of a cin^lc, aiid when it 
nwlies tlio jMiint If, hIh-h' it ajr^in tinu-licM its wipiwrt, the line of 
din'<liiiu, Il"l>, in n-vcnst-tl. 

In the «inii- liiilf iii" tin- Ixxlv (nnti'rior or [Kinterior) the jthaiM.-, 
IH>', of cli-vnliou of one nu-niU-r n>inei(lw alwuvH exactly with tlie 
pliiw of ciintiicl, Il'Il" of tlu' other. Thcr sm-ccfwive jMntitionK of one 
nieinlxT, whatever tln-y U-, an- then'fon- din-ctly the n-versc of tlxwn 
of ii!< i-on>renei-. As to the relative velocities of the transmis- 
Bion of the body and of the feet, they an' ditferent, hut alwayii 
in simple relation. The fijiil, in the Niine k[mI(v of time, |»a.'«eH over 
a (lijitauif, />/>', (loiihle that of the eentn; movement II'H". Its 
velocity iw tlien-titre twi<v as \i.nii.X. 

Many y^irs api Captain KmiU' and M. Colin N-hemati(iilly re[>- 
n-scntctl tile o!ii'i Hat ions of tin- e.vtn-niitics in the folhiwin); manner : 

Ia-1 UKMiiiiHW lh:U we i-xiiriiiin' llir >-viilutiiin i>r the (xiKtcrior [luirof linibi>. 

The iiiilri' of the iTiHi|i, II. •hirii,.) Il,' jJi'v i.J miit'i'/, (lewribi'M a uniform 
niovi-iiKMl in iiilv:iiii-i' wliirli i-itrrii-s il (mm If to //', i[ Mnf nuiiixirtvil hy the 
right ]KB'l(riiir linili, /'. \t ihi- in-tiiiil //', the ritrlit Uy, U i-IevHieil, H'r>, an<l 

l.<lclx-cnq.(t.h'1ii|-hy>t<.]<«)e, rompan' 
K Tnll« <1« rhfululoKta, da U. C^jUn. L 


the posterior left, O, on the contrary, goes to rest on the ground, /T G, at a distance, 
2>G, equal to a half-step. 

While the latter, Q^ passes through its phase of contact, the centre of the 
croup passes through the space from H^ to IT^ and describes the arc ITH^^ equal 
to that described by the right, because, in the normal gait, the steps are equal. 

Arrived at 2P'', the left member, C, becomes elevated, IT'G ; the right, on 
the other hand, is now placed on the ground, H^^L/, to renew its phase of contact 
at % dktonce, 01/ ^ equal again to a half-step. 

JDming iU progression^ the right foot, therefore, proceeds from its initial po- 
iillon D to attain its final position IX. It consequently passes through the arc 
JW*, wbile the centre of the croup only pa^^ses over the space ITIT^ which is 
one-half of the distance !>£/, 
^^ is parallel to DIY, for the isosceles triangles QH'D and QWIY are 
QD and Qiy are equal. Again, the analogous angles GDH' and 
^^ being equal, the lines DIT and GIF^ are parallel. 

TiMrafoe, H'H''=rDG=^^^' 

When one of the members has passed successively through the two 
of contact and of elevation, the body eiFects what is called a 
wmpleU aUpf the two pairs of members (anterior and posterior) being 
jointly conoemed. During this evolution it can be seen that the centre 
of movement, Hy and consequently the centre of gravity, has progressed 
from H to IF'y or, what is equivalent, through a space which is equal to 
the line DD', equal to the distan(»e passtxl over by one of the feet, a 
distance completed in two attitudes, HI), H^^D\ identical and successive. 

It follows from these statements that the leiigOi of the fttej) will be 
measured by the separation of DD', comprised l>etween the successive 
imprints left upon the ground surface by the same f(X)t. 

But for an accurate analysis (such as is often neix»ssary) the division 
of the step into the two principal phases of contact and devcUiorij above 
mentioned, is insufficient. It is necessary to subdivide each into a number 
of equal secondary divisions called petnods. All veterinary writers, 
with Captain Baabe, recognize at present the following six periods (see 
Fig. 55) : 

C 1st period, from to 1 . . . Chmfneticement of the contact. 
Phase of oontad. < 2d period, from 1 to 2 . . . Middle of the contact. 

y 3d period, from 2 to 3 . . . Termination of the cofUaet, 
pM^ f /«vi/iAn C ^^^ period, from 3 to 4 . . . Lifting of the foot. 
f^^ri^nMum. J ^^ Period, from 4 to 5 . . . Middle of elevation. 

C 6th period, from 5 to 6 . . . Resting of the foot. 

Systematic Analysis of the Play of the Members. — ^The 

general scheme of the evolution of the members, which we have 
given, has permitted us to prove a certain number of facts, and to 


formulate these into intelligible propositions. As a whole, the eomlu- 
sions which have \yevn deduced are exai^t ; but if we endeavor to make 
a more minute analysis of these phenomena we shall find that they are 
not so easily worked out. 

Strictly sjwaking, the limb of a horse cannot be (Mjm|>ari»d to a long 
lever which alternates bv turns nnuid its inferior extremitv when the 
latter is relateil to the surfatv of sup}K)rt, or its su|KTior when it is 
lifh^d. In other words, tlie displacements of the leg are not assimilable 
to those of an oacillaiim/ pi*fu!ulnm^ ius Captain Itaabe and his disciples 
have supjK)se<l.* They rt»sult irom a series o( partial movements whiirh 
influence each other mutually and give to the articular ct»ntres very 
complidited (rajerforlej*. The n>oognition of these secondary actions 
offers intenwt from a i)oint of view of the {mrticular nuH*hanical n'Je 
fulfilled by each region. It is niHt^ssary to make some n^marks (vn- 
ceniing this stat^'Uient. 

MM. Marey and I^ag^s,* in their re<^»nt ami valuable researches 
with tlie aid of chrono-photography (sc»i» (wcneralifica njH)n the (rait^), 
have Ikvu enableil to register the suc<*(»ssive positions of tlie diflferent 
l)onv segments of I<M*(»m(»tion and the n»lative duration of their revcH 
lution during the exe(*ution of the two principal^ of cx)nta<*t and 
of elevation of a t'omplete step. 

liCt us s<H» what interprt»tations can l)e given to the phen<»mena 
indictitinl by th<»s<* original invwtigations. Take, for example, the 
movements of the m(»mlH»rs in the ordinary trot ; like MM. Marc»v and 
Pag^s, we will c1hm)s<», amcmg the numen>us positions aflTtn'ted by tlu^?e 
apiNiratus, a certain mnnlx^r of* attitudes W(>11 (*hanicterizc<I by tlie 
extension ami flexion of some segments, or by im{M>rtant modifications 
of the articular trajcH-toric^s. 

I. Action of the Anterior Member (Fi^. 56). 

A. Pha4S6 of Contact. — The anterior memlxT (which during 
this phas4' arrives at a Mtatr of rest in an attitude of ext(*nsion whose 
«l4»gn"<» varii's with the (»xtent of the |m<v and the natun^ of the gait) 
should suc't'cssiyi'ly fulfil two very distinct /'/>//'«, of which the pur|x»ses 
arc, first, to tlcixlcn th<' sh<M*k of <*oiicussion ag:iinst the soil, and next, 
to <'xt4'n<l ilM'If. \i\rr this procc^ss is over, it apiin prejMires to elevate 

> Th«'S«» vii'Wi havi' U-vii <l<'in«)iiHtraU.Hl in h recenl work entitled I/art Aquestrc, jiar M, 
Barrriil.)!. '11 ct muv.. Vhti^. IN'-T. ("hrz KnthMhild. 

I Man*y «*t I'im?*"^. AiialyM> riii«''niHti(iui' dt^ nUiin'«> dii cheval, in Compter- Rend uti de I'Arad^ 
mie den M>ifnrcr>. J7 *^i-|iifni)»r«'. l*^*"*) : i)>id., MouviMiicMt dii membre pelvieii rhes rhommv 
r^K^phaut et le cheval. in CompU.*>Kvn<liiii, Ih Jiuliet, lh67. 



1. Attenuation of Concussion.— This is effected during the 
movement from to 2 by the diminution of the two extreme angles 
(the scapulo-humeral and metacarpo-phalangeal) placed at the extremi- 
ties of the rigid radio-metacarpal segment. The fetlock is strongly 

Fio. 55.— Action of the anterior member in the trot. 
A. PbaM of contact. | S. of elevation. 

lowered and the radio-metacarpal segment pivots forward u])on the 
pastern, which is horizontal and immobile. During the second period, 
from 1 to 2, the closure of the scapulo-humeral angle is most marked. 

2. Ebctension of the Member. — ^Extension takes place in a 

prugressive manner from 2 to 3 (Fig. 55). The line of direction of the 
member becomes vertical, elongated, and at the termination is directed 
downward and backward. Tlie angle of the fetlock and that of the 
elbow are opened : the first by the gradual straightening of the pastern, 
which pivots on the coronet and becomes vertical ; the second by 
the forward rotation of the i'adio-metacar|)al division, which pivots 
upon the first phalanx. As to the angle of the shoulder, it becomes 
slightly augmented by the forwaixl rotation of the scapula. It is now 
observed that during this i)eriod the memlx?r can fulfil a function of 
impulsion, particularly when the resistance to progression is considera- 
ble, as in strong tiuction, for example. 

Preparation for Elevation. — ^Elevation is manifested during 
Ae movement from 3 to 4 (Fig. 55). The pastern contiiuies to rotate 
'n advance, carrying with it the foot, which pivots u}X)n its toe. The 
'^•dio-metacarpal angle becomes slightly flexed, while that of the 
*«oiilder continues to augment. At the moment of elevation nearly 
•*! the articular angles have reached their maximum extension. 

8. Phase of Elevation. — During this phase the foot leaves the 


groiindy is carried forward, and finally establi^es a new point of 
contact. Directed obliquely downward and backward at the beginning, 
the member is directed in an inverse sense at the termination. It 
therefore successively becomes shortened, elongated, and finally ansumes 
a new point of contact. 

1. The shortening manifests itself more particularly during the 
motion from to 2 (Fig. 55). It is characterized at first by the maxi- 
mum flexion of the {mstem producing a closure of the angle of tlie 
fetlock, of the canon, and of the forearm, resulting in a diminutitm 
of the angle of the corpus and of the elbow. Arrived at the point 2, 
the angle of the fetl(K'k already b^ins to open in consequence of the 
straightening of the |)astern. As to the shoulder, it eontribut€», by its 
backward rotation, in the shortening of the limb and in closing the 
Bcapulo-humeral angle, though only to a small degree. 

The diminution of the length of the memlx?r is therefore progressive, 
and passes from below upward by a greater and greater flexion of the 
articular angles. 

2. The elongation, which commences at 2 (Pig. 55) by the exten- 
sion of tlie fetlock, is continued to «*) by that of the metacarpus, by 
the oiM^ning of the angle of the elbow, and, finally, by that of the 
shoulder. These phenomena are not all simultaneous. They are due 
to a gradual and succ^'ssive extension of the {eastern, the canon, and the 
arm, and the lengthening of the inferior extremity of the memljer 
commences Ix^fore the shortening of its sufx^rior |)art has reached its 

The preparation to touch the surface carries the anterior mem- 
l)er to its limit of extension. The radio-metacar))al angle is effaced ; 
tho^^' of the eUx>w and the shoulder now attain their maximum se|ia- 
ration. As to tli(» |>astern, it extends obli(|uely downward and forward ; 
tlie foot is nesting in the same axis. 

a. Action of the Posterior Member (Fig. 66). 

The posterior niemlxT, U^ing an agc»nt of (dtenxuition^ impubion, 
and ainbnintion, (iffers attitudes analogous to those* of the anterior. 

A. Phase of Contact. — Like its homol(»gue, this member arrives* 
in station in a state of extension whose degret» varies with the length 
of tlie |Ni(v an<l the natun* of tiie gait. During this phase it also 
den<lens the <*onenssion against the ground ami develo|)s the force of 
impulsion ; having ait'omplisheel thes4% it again prepares for a position 
of station. 

1. The attenuation of the wncussion is effected from to 2 bv 



the descent of the fetlock and the closing of the coxo-femoral and the 
femoro-tibial angles. 

These articular phenomena are due : to a sudden horizontal direction 
of the pastern, whibh pivots upon the os corona, produces a lowering 

Fio. 56.— Action of the posterior member In the trot 
A. Phase of contact. | & Phase of elevation. 

of the fetlock, and straightens the canon ; to the fonvard rotation of 
the tibia upon the tarsus, which lowers the femoro-tibial articulation ; 
finally, to a greater obliquity of the femur, which results in a lowering 
of the ooxo-femoral angle. 

2. The development of the impulsive force is effected 
principally from 2 to 4 (Fig. 56), during which movement the fcK)t is 
on the ground. In this space the line of direction of the member 
becomes directed obliquely downward and backward, and the latter 
becomes elongated progressively by the almost simultaneous opening 
of all its angles. This takes place first at the pastern, which rotates 
forward upon the os corona, becomes vertical, and oj)ens the angle of 
the fetlock ; the canon is now extended and c]K»ns the angle of the 
tarsus; finally, the superior extremity of the tibia is directed more 
obliquely forward, and the inferior extremity of the femur is carried 
backMrard, thus opening the angles of the femoro-tibial and the coxo- 
femoral articulations. 

The preparation for elevation sucx'ceds the jx»ri(Kl of impul- 
sion and manifests itself at 4 (Fig. 56) ; the hoof and the i>astem 
pivot in advance upon the toe, whenci* a slight flexion of the fetlock : 
the canon is now rotated backwanl at its sujx^rior extn»niity, and tlie 
movement also produces a ft«ble closure of the tibio-metatarsal angle. 


S. Phase of Elevation. — In thc^e phenomena the foot leaves 
the soil, oscillates fonvanl, and then assumes a point of contact. The 
line of direction of the member is first inclined backward, and after- 
wards obliquely fonvard. The posterior column, like the anterior, 
should succt^ssively bei-ome shorteniHl, elong:ated, and prepare it^t^lf for 

1. Shortening. — This process presents the following stages: a. 
Maximum flexion of tlie {mstern and slight flexion of the canon and 
the thigh, producing a marked elevation of the foot and a maximum 
flexion of the fethn-k, which, however, is only (oahle in the hock, the 
stifle, and the liij) (0 to 1). b, Ver}' marked flexion of the canon and 
the femur, with an ac<*(»ntuat(Hl closing of all the articular angles ex<»e]>t 
that of the fethx^k, which commences to o|K»n itself by the extension 
of the phalanges (1 to 2). 

2. Elongation of the Member. — The elongation commences hy 
the extensi(m of the tcthn'k, to Ik» nmtinued by tliat of the h«K'k and the 
stifle from the sole influence of the extension of the tibia on the tarsus 
(2 to 4). The coxo-femoral angle has now reachwl its minimum sizt». 

I^'fon* the fo<»t again n>achcs its point of contact, the angles of 
the stifle, the h(K*k, and the fethx'k have reached their limit of extension 
almost entirely under the influeni^ of that of the leg, which itwlf has 
attain<il this limit of movement. The jiastem, which now t^'nds to 
be<Hmie horizontal (4) again, thus carries the hoof far in advance. 

All tlM»s<» are i'^mditions of stnicture more or less closely allied to 
the pnKlucti<»n of force or s{xhh1, and these we shall examine in the 
])ages that f(»ll<»w. We shall also demonstrate that the animal motors 
itin 1k» submittinl with i\\v gn>atest accuracy to the same scientific analy- 
ses, a(t'(»nling t4» mec*hani(td principles, as the inanimate motors which 
are the production of human ingenuity. 



The antcrif)r nicmlxT i-ompristw several regions which we describe 
in the tolhmiug onlcr : the nhoulder^ X\w army the foreamiy the ^bow^ 
the knee, the canon, the fdh}cky the fooflocky the ergot , the padem, the 
coronet y and tlwfoot. 


A.— The Shoulder. 

Several authors have intentionally iniitwl the description of the 
shoulder with that of the arm, because of tlie fact that, in relation 
with the exterior, there exists between them no definite line of separa- 
tion, and that, in relation with their functions, they are intimately 
united. There is, nevertheless, no more reason for confounding these 
r^ions than there is for uniting the croup with the thigh, the back 
with the loins, or the neck witli the head. W^c shall therefore study 
them separately. 

Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — Situated between 

the neck and the mles of the thorax, the tritherfi and the arm, tlie 
shoulder occupies, without any precise demarcation, the lateral and 
anterior region of the chest. 

The scapula is flat and triangular, and is provided with a strong spine on its 
external surface and a wide cartilage of prolongation at its superior border. It 
thus forms the osseous base of the >«houlder, and gives attiiehment to two kinds 
of muscles, which, with respect to the anterior member, can be distinguished as 
extrinsic and intrinsic. Besides, this bone participates by its inferior extremity 
in the formation of an articulation very mobile and at the centre of the move- 
ments of the arm. 

The extrinsic muscles originate from the vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum. 
Viewed only as to their action upon the shoulder, their function is to fix the 
latter to the trunk and regulate its displacements. 

The intrinsic muscles embrace and sustain the scai)ulo-humeral arthrodia, 
and act exclusively upon the arm, except three which extend to the forearm 
(the long and short flexors and the great extensor of the forearm). These 
intrinsic muscles determine most of the movements of the humerus, and carry 
this bone into extension, flexion, abduction, and adduction. They also oppose 
the closing of the articular angle during station, and maintain in proper relation 
the two bones which form it. 

Form.. — It is difficult to assign a g<M)mctric}i] form to tlic slioulder 
on account of its intimate connci*tions with the thorax, the u(»ck, the 
withers, and the arm. In lean subje<'ts, the most sjdient parts of its 
oonformation are ver\' markedly delineated underneath the skin : in 
front, its anterior border projc^cts from the bas(» of the neck ; alH)ve, its 
cartilage is indicated by a (»urve parallel with the sujM'rior line of the 
withers ; on its external (aco a longitudinal crest, formwl by the acro- 
mion spine, extends from almve to Ix'low ; In^hind, a less marked 
furrow separates it from the thorax ; in front and Inflow, a round, 
voluminous eminence, improperly calUnl the point of the nhoulder^ 

> It is fbimed, in fact, by the superior extremity of the humerus, Hiid merits much more 
^>pio|»1ately Uie n%xa»poiiU ^f Uie arm, under which Hourgelat described it. 



forms the summit of the sitipulo-bumeral angle and indicates externally 
the origin of the region of the arm ; finally^ immediately behind tliis 
angle^ and iiixm the ext4»mal surface of the great extensor of the fon*- 
ann, is found what is termed the blemwh of the shoidder. An ordinance 
of sanitary p(»li(t.', of the 31 st of August, 1842^ prescribed that all 
horses sus|)ected of suffering from contagious diseases should be marke<I 
in this region by a s<juar(* brand. 

In fat and*led horses these prominences of the shoulder 
are almost <H)niplet*»ly (»ifa«'d ; the external fa<*, the anterior border, 
an<l the arti(*ulation iNHtane rounded and insensibly confounded with 
the adjoining nyicms ; the form of the shoulder must l)e 8umiis<>d 
rather than jK»r(HMve<l, unless it is reveahnl while the animal is exer- 
cisinl at a more or h»ss nipid gait, in which event its movements will 
inform us as to its general form, its dimensions, and its direction. 

Movements. — When, during the walk, the anterior ineml)er 
h-aves its jioint of contact with the gnnmd, it Ixxjomes shortened, 
directed forward, an<l all the articular angles close themst^lves by tlie 
flexion of the si'gmcnts whi(*h form them, and the f(K)t is elevated a 
wrtain distance* al)ove the soil. But if the shortening were manifest^il 
only in a verticul dir(H*tion, it is easy to understand that the f<M>t 
would arrive at pre<Msely tlie same point which it ])reviously oa>upie<l 
without, of course, communiditing any pn)pulsi(m to the tnink. 

In order to givt» amplitude * to the step, it is indispensable there- 
fore that the Ixincs l)e <iirrie<l forwanl, and that the displacements 
l>egin at the su|M'rior extremity of the limb (the scupula) and terminate 
witli the f«M)t, one pic<v In'ing move<l u|K)n the other. 

The shoulder is the n>gi(m whence proiii'd the initial movements 
\\\w\\ the uH'mlMT is advance<l. 

In tliis pli<>u<»ni(*non the shouhler is slightly elevated by means of 
th<» surrounding nuis<hs ; its humeral angle rotati»s forwanl while its 
su|HTior lM»nl<T is csirritnl d(»wnwanl and i)a<*kwarfl, and the extent of 
this inov(*nicnt is dinn'tly pro|)ortional to tlie length of the nius(*les 
whirh pnKluc<> it. 

The clt'vatini) f»t' the litiincnil nnple ia efTectiMl princ'i]>ally, through its crm- 
iicrtioti with \\\v htiiiuTtiH, l)y tho Htnmg muMtoido-humeraliH muscle which ex- 
pand^ MV4T thr aiitorinr Mirt'aiv of tho articulation. It in aided in this action hy 

I Wo <li>«ii;iiHti- (tii<t*T thi«< iiHino the linear (li^placcment of the inferior extremity Of Uie 
nii-intHT in riIvhtm'i' <>i its vt-rtiral hxIk, thi> n*HuIt nf the nnoceiwive moTemenUof the Anxlca and 
iMini-^ which i>«int(H«.v it. Thi;* displHivmeiit i^ (-(iiial to one-half of the oscillation of the muCi>r 
citluinn. which i^*. niciii|>h(>rirHlly Ki^Mikiiit;. not unlike a t>ody AwinKinK to and fh> in the uian- 
iMT «»r an Hrti< iiiiit*'<l {K'liilnluni. Uiit with this iliiri'rvnr«>, that here the miucular contracUon 
ivplai* o tlif Wi'iKht which nlonc ciiu>v^ the* latter to UM:illate. 


the stemo-humeralis, directed obliquely outward, downward, and backward; 
finally must be added the serratus magnus, which draws the dorsal angle of the 
scapula downward and backward, as well as the dorsal trapezius. 

As soon as the member has completed its extension the elevation of its supe- 
rior border, and consequently the lowering of the articular angle, is effected by 
the trapezius, the rhomboideus (the proper elevator), and the angularis on the 
one part, and the stemo-trochineus and the stemo-prescapularis on the other, and 
the member is again brought into its primitive position. These two movements, 
intimately associated, are executed actively by the muscles above named, and 
passively by the weight of the body. 

The scapular play, it is needless to say^ should be as easy^ supple, 
and extensive as possible. Nevertheless, there are some horses whose 
shoulders, though regularly constructed, are unable to rotate with 
sufficient freedom, and this limitation markedly restricts the move- 
ments of the member. Such a shoulder is vulgarly called pegged, 
(See Defects of the Gaits,) 

Length. — ^The most important phenomenon in the construction 
of the shoulder is its length, or, in other words, its development 
from the summit of the withers to its point. 

Two factors enter into the production of this dimension : the 
height of the spinous processes of the first dorsal vertebra above the 
scapular cartilage, and the length of the shoulder properly so called. 
But as the variations of one of the elements of this r^ion are not 
always correlative with those of the other, it follows that the real 
length of the shoulder is not strictly given by the distance from the 
summit of the withers to the point of the arm. This restriction being 
established, let us view the assigned limits of this length and the 
advantages which follow its marked development 

Bourgelat was the first one to mention that the distance comprised 
between the summit of tlie head and the commissure of the lips 
equals almost exactly the measurement of the shoulder from the 
withers to the insertion of the neck on tlie breast.^ This is an observa- 
tion which is quite accurate, as has been testified by some of the very 
best authorities on such subjects, notwithstanding the active opposition 
which it has received from the generality of hip})otomists. Those who, 
like ourselves, have taken the pains to verify by numerous nieasure- 
ments the exactness of this fact, Colonel Duhousset among them, 
have somewhat modified it by savins that the entire length of the 
head equals the distance from the summit of the withei's to the point 
of the shoulder. It is thus, at least, in the more beautiful and jKTfeet 

» C. Bourgelat, loc. cit., p. 204. 


hurso^, wliatcvcr may be tlip wn'ife t<> wliicli tlu-ir I'ontVimuitiiia 
aakjiLs ihcDi. The cxcvptionH arc* miicli IcsB niimeruua tlian is ^yn- 
crally bflii'voi. Nt-wrtlioli'ss, audi variations, although not vt-ry 
marked, do exiat, and the ospi'- 
rient-ed eye will recognize a 
sitoulder tliat is long or one 
that is short (Fig. 57). 

Tlie length of the shoulder, 
in onler to apprei-iate it iu<cii- 
mtely, should he viewed: (I) 
in the alMulute; ('2) in relation 
t<» the arm. 

1. Absolute Length of 

the Shoulder. — It is neces- 
sary, tor variiiUB n'ostms, that 
the slioulder should he as lung 
as jiossible. 

First, it« length neetwi- 
tates u nirn-iative devL-lopnit-nt 
oi' the intrinflie raiisi^les, the ex- 
tent of wIioim; twntrattiun is 
dirtvtiy ]m>jiurtional to the 
movcnu-rits elleeted hy the Im- 

S-iiKwlly, the df^roe of am- 
plitude of the mtatiou of the 
a(ii]>iita in n.>lation wiUi the 
niovenicnts of the mem Iter as 
a whole, and the are descrilx-d 
by each extremity of this bone 
an<l taking plaet* annind a tlcfi- 
nito <vntn', are more extensive 
as the length of this nyion iii- 
citiLses. The value of high 
withei-s lies in the length of its 
', liir )oii;r slioulih'r-iunsi-K-scorreisjtuudingly augment this tKapu- 

nily. lnsicU-s Ix'inj: in nlutlou with the vertical diameter of the 
n aiiipK' hii^tli of till- uiiis«'les has a disposition to render tlie 
•r iiniiT uliliipie, — imntiier Inwity wliiise value in horws [kjs- 
if ^jNi'*! \vi- \t'il] preijcntly «-xplain. A long sliuulder, as it is 

lur nio 
elKsl. ;. 
atsM-il I 


applied vertically or obliquely iijx>n tlie sides of tlie thorax, hjis a 
tendencv of itself to elevate or Xo lower the (x»ntre of ffravitv by 
augmenting or by diminishing the total length of tlie memlier in this 
proportion, at those timt»s when the anterior extremity of the body is 
being displaced. The amtre of gravity, however, in order to be in 
aciH>rdanc'e with the laws of equilibrium and of speed, should have a 
favorable position and not be too elevated. Furthermore, a shoulder 
can profit by its length only when it is (H^ri'espondingly inclincnl ; 
otherwise, the reactions will be hard and the animal without action in 
consequence of the defective orientation of the superior angles of the 

There is an idea, very generally prevalent, tliat, in the draught- 
horse, marked length of the shoulder constitutes a defect rather than 
an advantage. This is an error which the partisans of such a theory 
c'ould very easily demonstrate by making some practical measurements 
upon the very best specimens of draught-horses. In them, also, the 
head is the measurement of the shoulder. The gi^eat length of this 
region is in ail cases, in our opinion, the first and most im|)ortant ele- 
ment of its l)eauty and perfection. There are, without doubt, draught- 
horses with short shoulders capable, nevertheless, of very effective 
service, and the disadvantages of this defect in tliem do not have the 
same importance which they would have in the race-horse. In the 
draught-horse, amplitude of the movements is secondary ; the essen- 
tial qualities reside in the resistance which can be overcome by the 
power of his muscles and the proper incidence of their insertions. 
To say that the length of the scapula and its muscles, in these slow- 
moving animals, is defe(.'tive and incompatible with the power of the 
muscles, is to advance a principle which is entirely incorrei't and with- 
out proof. 

2. Length of the Shoulder in Relation with the Arm. — 

On general principles the shoulder and the arm should be long abso- 
lutely, in order to be favorable to vehx'ity ; but, with the same total 
length of these two segments, it is necessary that the former be long 
and the latter short. This IxK'omes apjxai-ent from the following dem- 
onstration : 

Let us represent (Fig. 58) the two shoulders, AB, AH\ and the two arms, 
C/>, CJy, having the same reciprocal inclination and giving the same total sum, 
AB-^ CD being equal to AB'\- C/ IV by hypothesis. 

From our estimations, the relation y— is equal to - ; we have prt»serve<l the 

At* O 

same relation for 7-=^, the conditicms in both citses beinjtr therefore comparable. 



Let UH Ruppiwie nnw that the exteiuura of CD uid thoM of Ciy w 
shoitenecl through the name space (C'E= C'F), a phenoroeaon which, however, in 
reality dow not occur, ■hww 
the muBc)e« are of differ- 
ent lengtha. The arm ( '!> 
will be carried to /''V.whiie 
V'jy will be diujiUwil t.. 
FH. Whence it ft.ll.iwo 
that the point D will reach 
anituation mure advanced, 
O. in relatiiin with ilie 
limit of exten*i(in. than ihe 
I>oiiit ly, which will <ii- 
K-rlbe the arc />'//■ alwayn 
Hmallcr than the arc IHl 
under the ii]«i'ial prcijHBJ- 
tiun with which wc started 

(jg •"""'"' S)- 

The ungiilar di-t- 
placcniont of the xhort 
arm, VD, is therefore 
more extensive for un 
equal contraction or 
shortening oj" the miw- 
eles than that of the 
long ami, I'Jy, 

In addition, the ex- 
tensors of the slionlder 
AB are longer than 
those of the shoultlcr 
AB', Consequently,thc 
niiiM-h-s of the latter an- obliged to shorten theniwlres more for tin" 
pDKhietion of the diHplaeement DH, whieh the extensors of AB will 
eflfett without tutlgne. 

I-'iimllv, a« the efl'ort of a miiwle varies according to certain eondi- 
tii>ns, aiming others witli tlw n'sistance to l»e displaced, it follows that 
tiie shuililir ,l/> will pnxliKv the extension of the arm CD more 
eusik timii Alt' liiat of the arm f'//, sim-e the former is shorter and 
eonMi|iifntly Ics.-^ heavy thiiii the hitter. 

Tims till' length of the shoiildcr in coni{»rison with that of the 
arm shoiihl Ik- us gresit «s [Mwisihle. for the reason that it effects a 
^rrcHtiT (lis|il:iivnii-nt of the humcnis witli a more fi>eblc muscular eon- 



Directioil. — Another element in the beauty of llio slioiildei' of the 
race-horse in particular resides in its obliquity. 

This direction is indicated by an inia{rintir>- liiH' which passes from 

('litre of lliu Miajtiilo- 
lon-stratod tliiit thJK line 

ways been consideri'd a 

the summit of the withers through tli 
humeral articulation. Observation has dc 
parses a little posterior to the scapular spine. 
Marked obliquity of the shoulder has 
beauty, or point of excellence, in 
close relation with the production 
of speed ; while in its relation with 
the development of force it is com- 
paratively indifferent. Nothing is 
more easy of oomprehension. 

t (Fig. 59) OA and 
OA', two shonlden of unequal obliq- 
uities, and OB, the hnmeniB on which 
they operate. Let ue Buppoftc, also, that 
AOB' be the maximum opening of the 
angle AOB. 

All things being equal, the limit of 
extension of the humerus on the shoul- 
der OA' will be carried to B", since, 
from tiie anatomical union of the two 
r^ouH, the angle A' OB" is equal to the 
angXeAOB'. (Use Oeneralitieg on the Mem- 
bers, p. 194.) OB" being more distant 

from the vertical line than OB', will also be leas favorably directed than OB' in 
relation with the vertical direction OX. 

The orientation of the scapulo-hunierjl an^lo is therefore most 
&vomble to progression when the shoulder i^ oblique; the inferior 
segments of the member arc further ai:lvan<'ed, and »iuoh a shoulder — 
especially if it he long — will be (^|>able of pruduiing a niiioh more 
extensive revolution of the humenis BB'. 

If, instead of becoming lai^r from the straightening of the 
shoulder, the Bcapulo-humeral angle remain.^ the same {A'OC^AOB), 
it is correct to assume that, from an etjiial fim<-tiouaI shortening of the 
muscles, the humerus OC will be carried litss in utlrance than the 
humems OB. 

Snch are the reasons which operate in fiivor of a great uhliqiiity in 
horses of speed ; but this is not all. 

If we study the movements of the shnuldei-, viewed se|»arately, tlu- 
iKt beowDes evident that, /or a/t equal elemfioH iif !tn iwlirmili/, it will 


thk EXTKiti'jR OF THE mmsK. 

wlii'ii it ix iiirliiKtl tilun wlifii it is 

ho iiirrinl iiiui-)i mon- in atl' 

f All iiiirl A'li' (Fie. III!) till"!' iwinlitti'mit dini-ti. 

nil-ill Ilik-s .Iniwii Iroiii ihi- sujHTii>r fxlniuity i 

nhoulOtT; finally, by Jf ami A'f, "/ici/ uin|iUtinii* of the two Moapular ii 
tionx. It in uiwuim-)!, Iiy hyiH>t)kC)iii>, that Ail 


AM+ACit, , .l'.W + .-l'< 
Tlicreliirt', liir nii ojiiul 


tho niiirv iiiiliiiHl wi 
tin- miirt' aiitiTior. Tli 

H-iinU, that .Vis M'f, 
crilxil liv t)iv ]Niii)t 111' (lu-li fliiiuUItT, 

^hoiiMrr Ii. 



tlic lower or dt«t«l cxtivmity to a jMixition 
almi nlli.w i» {innttT rxtonsion oJ' thr 
iiiiiiTiis, mill tin- fonarm will rt^cL for- 
wanl to It |>()iiit iiion- in itdvaixT-. It i> 
<x-rtaiii, '< /irliii-i, tliat a straifrlil shoiilili-r 
i^ i';t]iiil)l<- ofa };n-at<T otK-illution forward, 
lint it iiinM Iwn-mfinlKTi'*! tliat tlK'tltypiH- 
of thf iMtiinilar iiiovcriicnti' ik tho n-oiilt 
<il' tli<- tiiiii'tioiial shortfiiiiiK i>t' the v\e- 
viitor niiiM-lcs (if till' jKiiiit of tho ann. 
Tlii:^ flKirti-nint; alotn- ^ircK the imitfiire 
of mtidioii, a inousun- wliii-li we know im 
|)ro)>oniiiiial to tlii> iiiiiH-iilar Iciif^li. We 
liuvi- siitlii'ii-ntly dwelt on thin [Hirtii'ular 
(Miint " /ii-iiiHi" III the nei-k willioiit iiifain 
iniikiii;; refcn-iK-e to it hen-, 

AiiiiihiT iiilvantaire of an ohliigne 
|M'r|N-iidi<'iilai' ini-ideiiee of the initM'ular inftrrtionu 


The line AE, whk-h indHiites the dmvtiou of the elevetora of the 
shuulder AB, is more perpendicular to this )Ki(iii<iit, and consequently 
more power&l than is its homologue CE, whi<-h 'm^ attaclicd to tlio 
shoulder CD. But it can be seen that the mechunitnl iuojnvonienus 
resulting from the latter t»nturmation will he mitigated to a certain 
d^ree by a more horizontal direction of the nwk EF. It is also oh- 
sen-ed that horses with straight slioulders, mid wliich have to employ 
great feroe, carry their nwks very low, so as to increase the [jower of 
the miucto 1^ giving (hem the best incidence, and to enable the centre 
of gravi^ to be more easily displaced forward. 

Hie Scapulo-humeral Angle. — The obliquity of the shoul- 
der, an element to be desired for velocity, tends to effei't a. rLtluetion 
of the dimension of the scupiilo-humenil angle. This circumstance 
would, oonaequently, restrain the extent of play of the latter, if the 
humerus, by a more vertical position, did not preserve a normal separa- 
tion of these two a^ments. 

Whatever may be the value of thia direction of the liumonis, it 
ne\-er attuns such a degree as to give to this angle tlic same obtosene»(s 
which the other angles of locomotion have, cxcc])ting the coxo-temoral. 
Normally, in running- and trotting-horscs, the scapiilij-Iuinicral angle 
is much more acute than any of the others. The consideratiim of 
this feet alone is, however, not suffi- 
cient to establish our [Kwition. It is 
necessary that the arm itself liave g<xKl 
direction ; in a word, that the angle 
remain well situated in relation to (he 
\'ertical axis of the member. 

Our measurements have shown ns, 
in &ct (Fig. 62), the angles A OD and 
AOC, as well as the angles BOD und 

It may be said that a Urge scapulo- 
humeral angle can coexist with an 
oblique shoulder, and, pIcc i-prxn, n 
small one with a straight shoulder. 

It can be understo(Ml by this time 
why BO many beautiful or id^idly ]K'r- 
fert shouldciB fail to fulfil the cxixt-- ^"'- "' 

tations which are based ujton tlicni, and liow, also, the ineliniition of 
the arm constitutes, to a <t'rtuin ]H>int, a eomjH'usiition lor a stniight 
shoulder. In the latter case, the animal niay ntill Ix' rajiidile <,i' gix'ut 


Bpcfd, but he does not reeeive the benefits which should result fn)ni 
the fixation of the seapulo-humeral angle in advance. Whenever thi» 
anterior member is advanced, the point of the shoulder is not suth- 
ciently elevated to permit the other segments to attain their maximum 
degree of movement. As a natural constHjuence of this, the gait is 
deficient, the feet are but little elevated from the ground, the step^ an» 
short, and the movements rapid. 

The sciipulo-humeral angle in horses of the best cx)nformation is 
not 90 decrees (as is generally but incx)rrectly supposed) ; and, a fortiori^ 
the inclination upon the horizon of the two segments (constituting it 
is more than 45 degrees. In the articular angles, the axes of mov<^ 
ment of the branchi»s should meet in the probable centre of the articu- 
lation. The (xnitral point of the scapulo-humeral uni(m is not, as ha> 
been i^omnKmly believed, the jwint of the arm (the summit of the 
trochiter and trochin). Its sitimtion is more posterior, and corres]x>mLs 
externally to the convexity of the great trochanter over which the 
tendon of the sub-spinatus musc*le glides. It is at this {M>int tliat the 
axes of the scapula and the humerus mei't, and the angle formed by 
thi'K; lines csui l)e measuriHl in the living animal when the Ixm^^s are 
placed in their normal position in relation with the median line. 

Our mi^asurements have given us oo degrees as a mean inctinatJon 
of the scapula in horses possessed of spinnl, and ()0 to 70 degret»s in 
those used for slow and heavy work. The l)eautiiiil models of mpifl 
ilraught-horses do not differ sensibly, in this notation, from the i'hampiou 
of the race-i-ourse, and we do not hesitate to affirm this fact in opiMwi- 
tion to those obstinate {mrtisans of the oblique shoulder, who value it 
only in the ra«»-horst», and dwiart* it a dcfi^'t in the draught-horse. The 
unpublished ol)ser\'ati(ms on this topic which Professor L4iulani6 has 
kindly communicatinl to us, although less numenms than ours, fully 
corrolninite our own. AccM>nling to our distinguislu'd colleague, the 
mean st'apular inclination is o7 dt»gret»s, the extreme measurements 
varying fnnn iH) to GG degrees. 

The scstpulo-humeral angle has In^cu determine<l by us to have a 
UHim dinicnsion of 115 d^^nts, and we have seen it vary from 110 to 
l.*iO th'gHH's in all tyjK^s of horsc»s. 

Resume. — It nsults from the prtMHHiing statements that the direc- 
tion of the shoulder is in intimate relation with the s]>eed. It is 
(IrsiraNc to have it as nuK'h in<'linc<l as |N>ssible, Uttiust' its obliquity 
will admit of a ^n*jitcr cxt4'nsion of the humerus; it will ]M'nnit the 
memlNM* to In* niis4il higher an<l to<*omplete the extension lii'fore phu*ing 
the f(M»t on the S4)il ; it will inon* strongly proj<H't the f<M»t, and will be 


oompatible with a favorable orientation of the scapulo-humeral angle ; 
finally, it will give suppleness, style, and amplitude to the gait, and at 
the same time will attenuate those reactions whose effects are as injurious 
to the rider as to the horse himself. Scapular obliquity usually accom- 
panies elevated withers and great depth of thorax. It gives to the 
horse a mark of distinction which denotes the nobleness of his race. 

All other directions of the shoulder are antagonistic to velocity 
from the fact that their elements are diametrically opposite to those of 
the conformation we have described. These disadvantages, however, 
disappear, as before stated, in slow and heavy work for which force 
alone is required. 

To conclude, from these remarks, that the shoulder of a heavy Per- 
cheron is defective because it is not straight, would be wrong; and 
those who will endeavor to^ prove it by real measurements will recog- 
nize that, in the very best specimens of this class, this r^ion, neverthe- 
less, will show a marked inclination. Without doubt, in such cases, 
the most beautiful and perfect shoulder is that which offers the greatest 
surface for the adaptation of the collar. It is a serious mistake to 
suppose that an inclined scapula does not furnish the elements of this 
large surface, for it excludes nothing favorable to muscular power. 

It has also been said that, in the presence of such a shoulder, the 
application of the collar is against the scapulo-humeral articulation 
only ; whence a certain amount of pain during the efforts of extreme 
traction, bruises of the sensitive parts, wounds, etc. These are objec- 
tions which have value only when the shoulder is too sharp, emaciated, 
or poorly muscled, and consequently leaves the articulation too much 
in relief; but if it become defective for this reason alone, the defects 
must not be attributed to the obliquitA\ If the muscles be well 
developed this hinderance will disappear, especially if the precaution 
be taken to elevate the attachment of the traces. It seems useless to 
repeat so often the aphorism, the harness is made for the horse, and 
not the horse for the harness. Nevertheless, how few harness-makers 
seem to appreciate this fact, but prefer to choose the collar without 
taking the measurement of the shoulders ! 

The inclination of tlie scapular segment having a marked influence 
only upon the speed, the straight shoulder is acccptcnl in the motor 
which works exclusively from the weight of the maa*^. In a rai)id 
motor, these defects will increase whenever the height over the 
withers is low, and, particularly, when the latter conformation is due 
to the low attachment of the trunk between the anterior meml)ers. 
Their free movement being already j)reventod on account of the 


defective direction of the shoulder, these members will be advan<>ed 
with much more difficulty, as they will be required to support a greater 
portion of the body-weight. Under these circumstances, if the animal 
be able to perform good ser\M(^ at the gallop or the trot on U'vel 
roads, he becomes dangerous in descending hills or on rough roads, 
and is predisposed to stumbling and falling when he increases his 

Finally, the shoulder merits our attention from a point of view of 

the modifications which may supervene in its direction. 

According to the mode of subsistence or the employment of the 
region, it becomes straight or inclined, oblique or straight, as it was at 
first A long time ago, Ch. de Sourdeval, in tlie Journal des Haran^ 
had already recognized tlie influence of the attitudes which animals 
assume to obtain their nourishment This ^urate observer has proved 
that the shoulder becomes more vertical in those which are obliged to 
eat from the ground, or which are maintained in pasturage, whilst it 
becomes more oblique in those which are fed in the stable and rt'ceive 
their food from a high manger. Besides, a majority of horsc^men think 
that a pn>])er dressing of the saddk^-horse in tlie riding-fl(*hool will in- 
(*line the siupular segment to a notable degree, and tliat the continuous 
pressure of tlie collar will straighten the shoulder of the draught-horse. 
This is also our opinion. 

Position. — It suffices not tliat the shoulder be long and well 
directed, it should als4) ha properly placed against the verU^bral col- 
umn, — tliat is to say, so situatcnl as to maintain a proper separation 
betwe<'n itseli* and the croup. When tliis condition is not fultilK^d, 
the vertebral column is t<N> long, lac^ks forc«, transmits the impulsive 
a(*tion <»f the |)osteri(»r linilis fivbly, and lxHx)mi>8 sway-backed as a 
c*)ns<HjUcn<'<». This <left»<*t, verj* common in draught-horses, is nearly 
always un*om|Hinic<l and complicated by a vicious direction and insuffi- 
cient h»ngth of the stiipula, whicJi is then called /jAoW, tdraighiy <»r for^ 
inini. We van determine tliat it is not so by measuring the distance 
lM^tw<*(*n the dorsal angle of the scapula and the angle of the liaun<*h. 
In a natund conformation this distance is alNUit espial to the length 
of the hcsid, while in disproportionat4* subjects it may measure om^ 
fourth or even onc-thinl more. (St» Proportioni<y length of the body.) 

Volume or Musculai* Development. — The volume of tin* 

miis<'l<*s of the slioiildcr is an in<lis|M'nsal)le eh'ment of its beauty, 
whatever may U' its relative fun(*tion. This iiualification lias different 
d«»gn'<'8, <lc|M'n(lent upon the nv\\ the t<*in|>(»rauient, and the mode* of 
riAriiig and sul)sisten<v. The muscles of tlie English thoniughbred are 


more remarkable for the density, fineness, and cleanness of their fibres 
than those of the heavy Percheron, in which they are voluminous, short, 
and separated by an abundance of connective tissue. In the one case, 
the muscles communicate to the region a long, slender, and graceful 
appearance ; in the other, it is the mass, the volume, the power. We 
should never demand a muscular development which changes all in all 
the conditions of its intended utilization. 

When the osseous eminences of the shoulder, especially its scapular 
spine, its point, its tuberosity, its dorsal angle, and its cartilage of pro- 
longation, form a prominence somewhat marked, which allows us to 
surmise the situation of these parts, it is called well outlined. This is 
the form which it presents in all horses belonging to the finer breeds. 

When, on the a)ntrary, the same reliefs are very apparent under- 
neath the skin, from the effect of a commencing emaciation or muscular 
atrophy, as is observ^ed in horses exhausted by fatigue or privations, it 
is called meagre or lean, and expresses a certain feebleness of the loco- 
motory apparatus. When, finally, this emacnation is such that the 
scapula can be almost completely outlined under the integument by its 
reliefs and its general configuration ; when the situation of the super- 
and sub-spinati muscles is manifested by a deep depression ; when the 
scapular cartilage is delimited above by a prominent curve from before 
to behind ; when, in a word, the region as a whole overhangs, so to 
speak^ the adjacent parts of surrounding regions, as tlie neck, ribs, 
withers, back, it is called atrophied. 

Conversely, if the muscles, instead of being deficient in bulk, ex- 
ceed a volume compatible with their special service, a volume demanded, 
besides, for general harmony ; if, for example, they affect, in the saddle- 
horse, a volume which would be sought for in the draught-horse, tliey 
will render the movements clumsy by surcharging tlie anterior part 
of the body, oppose themselves to the complete extension of the ante- 
rior member, and diminish the force of propulsion engendered by the 
hind limbs in rapid locomotion. In tliese conditions the shoulder 
receives the appellations of massive^ fleshy, thicky charged with too much 
mvsdey etc 

and Blemishes. — ^These are denudations and excorintwns, due to 
a mal-fitting collar, which may terminate in smooth or radiating cicatrices 
formed by a portion of the skin which is deprived of its hair, thinner, irritable, 
and much less resisting to friction. The seat of these wounds is at the level of 
the anterior borders of the shoulders, where they appear flat and circumscribe 
the base of the neck. Horse-dealers never fail to point to these as a proof thai 
the horse is firee in the collar. Of but little gravity in themselves, they consti- 
tute, nevertheless, a cause of depreciation in view of the increased sensitivene»« 


which they give to the parts and the difficulties which are afterwards ex(>erieuiHHl 
in tlie application of the collar. 

At other timert, this region may be the neat of coid abucf^sen, disabling th«' 
horse for a variable |>eriod during their formation. These are sometiuics true 
tibnmiata, fnmi the induration of the sulKnitaneous conne(*tive tissue. Of a 
chnmic character at tirMt, they s(K>n become so sensitive to the pressure of the 
collar as to render the most docile horse intractable. 

The most serious of these tumors are those at the point of the sbonblcr, 
from the fact of the enonnous volume which they may aitiuirr, the dangers 
which their extirpati<m pri^st^nts, and the difficulties ex|>erienced in healing the 
consei*utive wounds, which are always more or less dtH»p. They are causeil by 
the pressure of a cM>llar badly adjusted, insufficiently {mdded« or t<M) heavy. 

• It is not necessary to c<»nfound these tumors with ditiuse enlargements of the 
si'apulo-humeral articulation, as, for instance, with the particular affection known 
under the clinical but impro]H*r nami*s fprnutetl i^houldrr^ nhouhhr-nlip^ which 
is acc(mipanie<l by a lameness in which the anterior memlnT is markedly 
abducted when it is extemltKl, instead of moving in a direction fmnillel to that 
of the iMxly. This movement, which is calKnl motvintf, is due to the immobiliza- 
tion of the arm u|M)n the shoulder or the sides of the thorax, and is a sym{>tom 
of diverse lesi<ms of the ligaments, the muscle«», the bones, the bl<Msl- vessel**, or 
the nerves. Although this phenomenon may be quite rare, the |M)int of the 
shoulder n<me the less often carries the evidence of the treatment employed to 
combat it. Such are the marks of rtiHtrrization^ tirfon^, nnrtU^ and bMern^ which 
(K'casion decortications, accidental white spots, or cicatrices of a particular form 
U]>on a more or U>ss extensive area of this region. The gravest blemisliCM, 
alM)ve all, are traces of the actual caut<»r>', except in the Barb horses, in wliich 
this therapeutic agent is always applied as a means ofprnrnti/m against diseases of 
the articulati(m. It is im|M)rtant, in such cases, to examine carefully the inferior 
IM>rtion of the c<»rres|Mmding meml>er, for the si*apular k*sion may be a feint for 
another disease, or, what is more frequent, an indittation of an error of diagnosis. 

lA*i us mention, also, parnfysin of the shoulder and afrophy of the suiht- and 
sul>-spinati muscles, which are sometimes obser\'ed, but which produce no lame- 

B.— The Arm. 
Situation; T limits; Anatomical Base; Form. — The arm, 

slightly (leta<*h<tl fn>m the trunk, is 8itiuit4*d lx*tween the shouldery with 
whirl] it is coiifounthKl, and the forearm, from whi<*h it is sejMiratecl bv 
an ol)li(]ue fiirn>w in front. 

Limit«Hi in fnmt by the hrt^a^f and the nriUn^ behind by the tides of fkr 
thonix, and l<»wer down by the ffboir, it contains for its osseous baM a long and 
v<»luminous Inme, thr humeruH, 8urround(?<l by two sets of muscles: the tirnt, 
<*oming from th«* shoulder, the tu^'k, the r^ide of the thorax, and the sternum, 
moves this region in every direi-tion; the s<Tond, extending to the forearm and 
the foot, n*gulates the movements of the inferior segments of the member. 

Movements. — When th(» thonu'icr nienilx»r is ctirried forward, a8 
in walking, the humerus is first flexed, then its inferior extremity 


describes an arc of a circle forward to increase the opening of the 
scapulo-humeral angle. It is not, as our distinguished colleague, M. 
Ch^nier,' has said, that the humeral extension is terminated at the end 
of the phase of contact, but it is at the end of the elevation, when the 
foot is being placed on the ground, that the two lx>nes (humerus and 
scapula) attain their maximum separation. The same phenomena are 
true of the member of the opposite side ; the angle is closed by the 
approaching of its branches until the step is about to be terminated, 
when the arm is extended. 

Length. — We will not consider the details of this jmrticular ele- 
ment as we did in the case of the shoulder. The arm should be as 
long as possible, relatively, in order to give greater length to its 
muscles which attach to the radius, and to permit its inferior extremity 
to describe an arc of a larger circle. But its length will be defective 
when it becomes excessive, — that is to say, disproportionate relative 
to that of the shoulder. In this instance, as we have sc^en (see Fig. 58), 
the arc which it describes is not augmented. The foot will pass over 
a smaller space of the ground surface ; the movements are not executed 
with freedom ; the animal is disposed to stumble and fall, at least, if 
the shoulder be not long and oblique. It is therefore apparent that, 
in relation with the latter region, the arm should be short to give the 
necessary extent and rapidity to its oscillations. According to our 
measurements, confirmed by those of MM. Colin and Duhousset, the 
distance between the point of the shoulder and the centre of the 
humero-radial articulation should be equal to one-half of tlie length 
of the head in draught-horses. In rapid motors, like the trotter or the 
running-horse, it is, on the contrary, nearly always longer. 

It is important to recognize this dimension from a point of view 
purely artistic, because sculptors and painters, says Colonel Duhous- 
set,* have committed grave errors from antiquity even to the present 
time. Nearly all represent the humerus too long, placnng much too 
high the point of the arm, which should not extend beyond the level 
of the extremity of the sternum. 

While an exaggerated length of the arm constitutes a defe(»t which 
is not always compensated, its shortness also produces deficiencies of an 
inverse order, and both are hinderances in that which ccmcems the rai)id 
gaits. If too short, it accomplishes an insufficient extension ; its nuis- 
des contract feebly, and restrain the movements of the fort^arm ; the 

* O. Chafer, Analyse de la premiere Edition du present ouvrage, in ^ho des 80ci<^t<Hi et asiso- 
cifttlonB T^tMnalrei, annte 1882. 

* £. Duhonaaet, Lecheval, Paris, 1881, p. 67. 



elevation of the anterior membeps, when the animal is in locuniutiim, 
becuni4» exaggerated, — an elevation whi<-h is executed at tlie expense oC 
the length of the step. Wliemv n loen of time whieh, insignifieant ok 
it may be at each step^ eventually determines a marked dimtQutioii in 
the total quantity of speed. 

Direction. — ^The direction of the arm is indicated by an imagi- 
nary line which joins the convexity of the great trochanter to tlie 
ei-ntiv of the external lateral ligament of the elbow. 

It xliould fulfil the princijial elements, as follows : to allow to the 
n-apiilo-humemi angle, aln-ady re^lueed by tlie obliqui^ of the seapuhi, 
a sutHeient magnitude, and not to alter the direction of the vertiiwl 
line in relation with the radiuri. 

We eftiniate, fn)m our researches, that a mean inclination of HII 
<legre(>H is favorable to the <levelo|im<>nt of velocity. When the inclina- 
tion pacvcs beyoml these figures, it must be com]H>nsated by an aug- 
mentation of the scapular obli<|uity. In the draught-horse, whoM> 
scapula is mun.' straight, the humenis docs not suffer by becoming more 
obliipie. In the more active draught-horse it is interraediarj- between 
the two pre«-eding types. 

The dull) furuislK>d l)y instantaneous photographs of animals in 
liHiimotion' tsliow tliut the limit of extension of the humenis is verj' 
cl<»e to thevertical line passing 
through die scspulo-humeral 
cent pp. 

Theoretically, therefore, 

the arm should not lie too 

straight at r('{Mise, — tlial is to 

say, in such a ]K»sition that the 

line of direction of the mein< 

Ut is 1(H) <'l(»ie to the verti- 

cal line |Nisr<ing through the 

centre of the siisfM'nsion of 

this nieuilHT to the trunk. 

When the c-onfoniiatiim is 

thus, the exteiHitin of the 

crus is nr<ti)t<arily limited, 

and such an anu tuunot profit 

f n long shiiuldcr. It is tnic (Fig. ii'.i) tliat tb«' 

■xiiniple, iiuist [HISS through much lew space to 

by the advantages 
segment OJi', fur 

.1) l-aiOi. ri 

mduclng thv dcUll* u( Iht oadUaUDO of the 


reach the verti<»] axis OX than the segrnvnt OB, supposed to lie well 
directed. With the latter, however, the forward ut^illation will be 
greater, and it will corres[K>nd better with a long shoulder, which, as 
we know, determines the degree of its displacements. 

If it be too oblique, on the contrarj', as OB", it does not bring the 
humero-radial articulation sufficiently in advance to permit the forearm 

™ the canon to evolve themselvL's eoniplotely. It obliges tlie horse 
^ fnultiply his movements and elevate tlic members ex<'('ssively, 
"•stead of being advanced without describing too great a cur\-atHre, — a 
1«6 of both time and enei^y. 

But a very oblique arm gives a better insertion for the muscles 
"'"* a straight one, as can be demon strate<I by an examination of the 
two diagrams (A and B) of Fig. 64, ujwn which are indicated tlie 
Miors and the extensors of the humerus and the radius ; its muscles, 
'"'"'^ver, are shorter. It is also not disadvantageotis in horses from 
thich great foree is exacted. 

"Hte degne of brachial inclination, on the otlier hand, liaving an 


iufltii'in'c uQ tho value iif the scapulo-liumeral utigle, it may be a^knl 
if, t'cir vcliK'ity or s|M>«>d, ji sti-ui);iu olioiildtr will not in a mwwurv W 
ttmiiH-nsjil^-d by an cxit-ss iif nbliquity of tJie arm. In other wunlif, ii* 
it I'iitiiinal t(j preler (Fig. (jo) an angle AOB to an angle V(il>, Imth 
having tlie yanie dimeutiion ? Kvi- 
dontly it is: to a straight arm an 
ubli(|ne uhuulder; this \& tbt' law, 
and for several reasons already known. 
We will TwaW tbvni: An obtitguc 
shoulder will augment the elevation 
and extension of its point, from t)ie 
same ipiantity of muscular i<onlni>-- 
lion ; wlienoe it followB llial th*- in- 
ferior extn'mity of the memlrer will 
be <'urricd more in advaniv of its 
primitive jKJsition. As the straight- 
ening of the humerus also tends t<> 
the name nvult, the two acting in tini- 
w»n will im-rcase the total amplitude 
of the movemi>nt. 
If, on the <-ontrar\', the eonditions be the n-verse, if the arm U- 
very obtifjm- and the shoidder straight, the seapulo-humeral angle, 
although etjnul t<> the |>n-<-e«ling, will be restrained to a Ic88 separation 
of its branches, iK-^uuse the extremity of the shoulder and the himiero- 
rndial artieulatiou will n-nuiin t(M> far Itackward in order to give to the 
foniirm and t)ie i-nnon the ease und the time to be <arried sufficieiilly 
far in atlvanee. 

To riwipitiiliitr, the inelination of the humenis should not Im> ex<'eB- 
.tivi' ill rapiil motoi's, and the itinditioas of a got>d orientation of the 
Hi'a|inl<»-hiimeral angle must Ik- found in t)ie obli<|uity of the shoulder. 
This e.vplain.-' why certain subjects, well marked in appearance in 
n'lation with their articular angkti, r)o not omlimi the eoneliisions 
w)ii<'h an' InL-o-d u|>on them. It sufRe^-s not (a" we have s(H>n on |>&gc 
1!H ) that the angles may have fn>e<lom of a<-tiou, but it is also neeex- 
sary that this iw'tinn may In- clfected in the dini-tion of the movemi-nt. 
If their orientation in relation witli t)ie vertiiiil line of the centre uf 
movement is ilcfiitive, all the meeliani<«l advantages for the aecom- 
plishuKiit of onr aim, s|»eed, an- Ui-t. 

Tbi-4' •-'•nsiihriitions, ufxin which we have purposely insisted, are 
not applic^iMc to HTvii-es whi<-b only f\wt stn-ngth. We will except, 
however, the rapid draught-horse, In which the elements of foree seem 


to be dependent on the phenomenon of speed. The inclination and the 
disposition of the articular angles will also very often enable us to 
judge the amoiuit of thoroughbred bloinl in such animals. It is, by 
no means, not the same in slow draught-horses. We frequently 
meet in them a straight shoulder supi)orted on an oblique arm. The 
obliquity of the humerus in such cases is not a defe^'t, for it favors the 
power of the muscles by rendering their insertions more perjx'udicnilar. 
The shortness of the step, the inevitable cons(X|uence of such a con- 
formation, offers nothing of special interest, since, in motors of this 
nature, the ultimate purjx)se does not consist in the extent but in the 
power of the effort produced. 

Direction of the Arm in Relation with the Median Plane 

of the Body. — The long axis of the arm, in order that its displaa*- 
nients may be effected proj>erly, should be almost jxanillel to the median 
plane of the body. If its inferior extremity is directed too much out- 
ward, the whole member is deviated in the same degree, the relation 
of the vertical lines is disturlx^d, and the foot is turned inward. This 
18 called cross-footed. If, on the contrary, the elbow be deviated 
inward, the inferior part of the limb is turned outward (see crooked- 
Uggecl horse). We will again refer to these d propos of the aa^es. 

Muscularity. — The development of the muscles is an absolute 
beauty. It is preferredly appreciated by the prominence and width 
of the olecranon muscles (extensoi's of the forearm), wiiich cKXHipy the 
triangular 8{)ace between the scapula and the humerus, and by the 
relief formed by the humeral biceps in front of this region. 

and Blemishes. — ^The region of tlie arm is, in most instances, 
exempt from these lesions. Contusions and, more rarely, fractures^ the result of 
kicks received from other horses, when they are worked in file, running in pas- 
ture, in public exhibitions, or during transportation on railroads, are the principal 
alterations of this nature which are observed in this region. Rupture of the 
fibres of the coraco-radialis muscle is sometimes a cause of lameness. 

C— The Elbow. 
Situation ; Lamite ; Anatomical Base. — The elbow, situat^^l 

between the arm and the forearm, and in front of the xiphoid region y 
has for its base the superior extremity of the cubitus, a voluminous 
apophysis called the olecranon. It gives attac^hment prineij>ally to the 
extensors of the forearm. 

The elbow offers for consideration three elements : its length, a 
good direction, and its freedom from blemishes. 

Length. — ^The osseous process which forms the olecranon repre- 



Fio. M.— Reproduction fh>m an Inntantaneoiu 

sentA the arm of a long lever for the muscles to which it gives attach* 
ment. Charged to maintain, during station, the summit of the humen>- 

radial angle c*ontinually tend- 
ing to become closed fn»m 
the pressure of the body- 
weighty and to produce ex- 
tension of the same angle in 
tlie propulsion of the trunk 
(Fig. 66), and, finally, to 
bring the antibrachial n^ 
gion into its primitive ])«>si- 
tion, during l(M*omoti<»n, 
these musc^les acrt S4) inui'h 
the more favonihlv a.*< tlie 
arm of the lever in c|ues- 
tion is longer and mon^ 
curved Iwekward. Pn»fer- 
encx* should thert»fore 1k» given to an elongated and pn eminent elbow, 
nitlxT than to one which, in a word, encroa<*hes much u\Mm the arm. 

Direction. — The direction of the elbow is rt»lat(Hl to that of the 
arm. It is considennl tine or l)eautiful when it (Mx'upit^s a [>lane |)ar- 
allcl to the axis of the InKly, and when, In'sides, this plane is suffi- 
ciently s<>|)anit4Hl from the lateral fjut»s of the thorax. The elbows an» 
then said t4) U* ire/l ftrjnt ratefl and j/v// direetjcd, 

\\\ from the fc«'ble devel(>pm(»nt of the muscles which se[iHrate the 
ant4'nor limb from the riks, the region in question, although always 
IMirallcI to the nKilian plane, is t(H) (*Iose to the thonuric walls, the 
hoi-st* has the vlhown on the bwiy. It then hu'ks vigor, energ\', and 
amplitude of the bn>sist. 

When the <'11m)w is tnrnM outward ^ the inferior extremity of the 
mcnilHT is dcviat^Hl inwanl, which (*hara(*teri/cs the animal as iK'ing 
plf/tnn^tH'd : if, on the contrary, the ell)ow is turn(*d obliquely inwanl, 
the foot is dinfUKl outward, and the animal is said t4) Ix^ ouihow-footi^L 
Va\v\\ one of these dinnrtions is vicious, Ix'cause it renders the 
mov4'meuts 4)f hn'omotion ungra<vful, 4listurbs the verticil axis of the 
m4>n)lN'rs, pn'4lis|M»s4's them t4» premature ruin, even including the 
efltH'ts from npinUf cut ti\v\ inierjWing, 

Freedom trora BlemiBhee. — WoiukIs} of tho refrion of the elbow may be 
the c<m!*4N|Ufiice of tli4* inipro|M*r iipplioation of the iK'Hy-bund, when the hone 
in w<»rk4Mi in th4' shaft**, particulurly of two-whoolc<i vi'hirli*?* or the cart 

MoHt fre(]ut'ntly they are due to the uxmIo in which the decubitus is effeeted. 


Certain horses have the habit of lying down like a cow, — ^that is to say, of main- 
taining the anterior members flexed under the chest. It results from this that 
the heels of the shoe come into direct contact with the point of the elbow, irri- 
tate and bruise the skin, and cause the formation of a more or less voluminous 
tumor called shoe-boUy so named from the agent which acts as the exciting cause. 
A tumor of this kind is sometimes sensitive to the touch, and necessitates suspen- 
sion from work. At other times shoe-boils are not harmful, except as being ugly 
blemishes. We have had under our observation for several years a horse which 
performed very active service and carried on each elbow a shoe-boil of the volume 
of a man's head. 

As soon as any excoriation of the skin of this region is perceived, it is neces- 
sary to observe the position of the animal in the decubitus, and, if required, to 
shorten the heels of the shoe, or simply the one on the internal side, which alone 
is most usually the cause of the " boil ;'* or, again, we may protect the foot with 
a leather boot. 

We may here mention fractures of the olecranon; these are followed by a 
permanent deformity of the elbow, the extremity of the bone being displaced 
upward by the contraction of the extensor muscles of the forearm. Even after 
the fracture is repaired, this injury causes a lameness the nature of which can 
always be detected by careful observation. 

D. — The Forearm. 

Situation ; Ldmite ; Anatomical Base. — The forearm, situ- 
ated between the arm and the knee, is related, al)ove and behind, to the 

Two bones constitute its base: the radius and the greater portion of the 
cubitus. These bones are surrounded by two sets of muscles, which all act upon 
the metacarpus or the phalanges ; the one, the anterior, compressing the extensors 
of these regions, and the other, the posterior, forming the flexors of the same. 
Indirectly, through the ligaments, they (!an also move the forearm, and carry it 
into extension or flexion, according to the muscles which act. They operate for 
the meet part upon levers of the third class, and hence play their principal rdle 
in the production of velocity ; rarely do they concur in an active manner in the 
support of the body, a timction provided for by the special mechanical conforma- 
tion of the parts. 

Form. — ^The forearm, as a whole, has the form of a cone, depressed from 
Bide to side towards its base or superior extremity, who've volume is in relation 
with that of the muscles just named. 

Its external face is separated from the arm and the elbow by a furrow, with 
an inferior convexity, due to the prominence of the extensors of the forearm 
upon the superior extremity of the antibrachial muscles, extensors of the meta- 
carpus, and phalanges. A gutter, extending along the external border of the 
radius, and in its lower part, separates the anterior from the posterior muscles. 

The internal face is devoid of muscles over the greater portion of its extent, 
and the skin is applied almost directly against the radius. The internal subcu- 
taneous vein of the forearm, on which phlebotomy is sometimes j)ractise(l, crossi>8 
LIS face a little obliquely from below to above. Finally, in the lower tliird of 


this region, we meet a homy excrescence to which has been given the name cheai" 
nut It id small in animals of line breeding. 

The anterior and posterior faotB, convex from side to side, are covered bj 
muscles ; their thickness is proportional to the volume of the latter. 

Movements. — Tlie forearm, from the mode of union of its two 
boncti with themselves and with the humerus, ean execruto only two 
principal movements : extenmon and flexion, 

Tlie first, whose extent is din»etly proportional to the lengtli of the 
bones eonwmetl and the decree of ojK»nness of the humero-radial 
angle, carries the knee fon\'ard and upward, and enables the anatomic^ 
foot to be moved in advance. This is accomplished just before the 
foot touches the gnuind. 

The second takw place principally during the latter half of the 
phase of conta(*t, as is sliown by instantaneous photographs. It ct>n- 
tributes, therefore, in a certain measure to the impulsive forces, since in 
this pericnl the memlxT, as a whole, is directed obliquely downward 
and l)ackwanl. 

Beauties. — In order to ho in the most favorable conditions for 
the j)roduction of veloc»ity, the forearm should be loju/j irirfe, thick, and 
v?ell (nrecied. 

Length. — The length of the antibracliial lever should be con- 
8id(»nHl from two different ])oints of view : the one considers the al)s<»lute 
length ; th(» other, its length as coni|>arcd with tliat of the canon. 

a. Absolute Length. — The al)solute length of the forearm 
shouki Ih' as grc*at as |x»ssible, for the reason that the arc which this 
Hegmcnt dcscrilx's by its extn^mity is pn)])ortional to its lengtli ; also, 
Imh^uisc this k>ngth implies a (Corresponding length of tlie musi^les 
which cover it. It is upon these two factors that the velocity, in so 
far ju* it is pnKluccil by the stnictures of this region, princi|)ally 

If the foH'arni 1m» short, its oscillation, it is tnie, will be more 
rapi<l, but i\w distanci* |)itss4Hl at each step will lx» less. It van only 
pn'S4Tv<' the v<*l«K'ity by a gn'jiter fn^juency of the movements, at the 
ex|M'n>4' «>f :i loss of time and mon» fatigue. Again, the knee lH»ing 
iiion* clcvatiil, th<* whole limb will Ik* niis^nl rather tliaii projected for- 
wanl ; the aninial will trot upon plarcy but with a short f(»rearm the 
moveiiK'nts will In' more brilliant, ea^^y, and harm<»nious, and the horse 
is siii<l to hav<' hlf/h kiwc-^iHinn, In the cavalr}' horse, or in thosi* 
use<l in ridin;^-s<h<M»ls an<l |Kinuh's, this is, without doubt, a matter of 
U'jiuty, but |KTfe<'tion in this n*s|K»et iuak(»s the horse more manageable^ 
and is tlien^fore a useful ((ualiti<-:ition. A li<»rse with a high knee- 


action will "be less disposed to stumble, will more easily overcome 
obstacles in his way, and will be fitted for special varieties of work, 
but will never be possessed of great speed. 

Horses provided with long forearms move their members closely 
along the groimd, and thus offer less safety to the rider on uneven 
roads. An intelligent handling and a rational training will nearly 
always cause a disappearance, or at least an attenuation, of most of 
these disadvantages of a long forearm. 

b. Length in Relation with the Canon. — Nearly all authors 

agree that the radio-metacarpal segment should owe its length to the 
forearm or its superior section, and not to that of the canon. In 
other words, from a point of view of speed, the conformation should 
be such as to present a long forearm and a short ctinon. 

The relative length of these regions varies in a small proportion 
when they are measured in a large number of horses of the same 
height at the withers. But the few centimetres by which these figures 
differ are sufficient to produce a very marked effec»t on the value of the 
movements at the extremity of the member. 

ProfeBsor Neumann * was the first one to remark that if the metacarpus be 
considered just before the foot is raised, when the region is inclined downward 
and backward, it will be seen that the latter plays the rdle of a lever, upon the 
superior extremity of which the weight of the body is decomposed into two 
secondary forces : the one, perpendicular to the canon, tends to carry the knee 
forward ; the other, parallel to this segment, indicates the intensity with which 
the foot presses against its point of support, the ground. The latter force, 
antagoniaced by the resistance of the soil, offers but little of interest to us in 
the present discussion. The former force acts behind on the arm of a lever, the 
metacarpus, antagonized in front by the extensor muscles of this region. It 
follows, then, that the shorter this arm the less will be the effect of the force in 
question and the less the fatigue of these muscles in combating the tendency to 

A member with a long forearm will support the Ixxly more easily 
daring contact for a longer time without a greater exj)cnditure of 
force, and will incline itself more before Ix^ing raiscnl from the ground, 
a condition which will enable the foot to describe a larger arc and 
increase the length of the step. 

If the inferior extremity of such a forearm, having reached its 
limit of inclination, be now flexed, it will descriU', for an Qi\\m\ angu- 
lar displacement, a greater quantity of movement, and the latter is 
alvrays proportional to the speed acquired, which is itself in direct 

1 O. Neumann, De Vavant-bras du cheval et de I'influence de sa lon^Mieiir sur lu rapidity des 
■UoTBi* in Journal de mMeciue v(!'t<3riiiaire militaire. t. xi., aniit'e 1873. 1874, p. 157. 


ratio with the distaiK* |)asficd over in a unit of time ; but the exten- 
sion of the canon taking phwv after the flexion of the forearm, thr 
quantity (»f m(»vement of the latter will tend to augment that which 
the antibnK'hial muscles will communioite to the canon, in order to 
favor the rapid and extensive projwtion of the inferior part of the 

It is, therefore*, also necessary to seek for a great development of the 
foreann in the jiarts where the muscles are situatcKl, sinw the degree 
of muscular shortening gives the measure* of the angular displacements 
of the Iwnes. For this n»as4m it is preferable to have a short cnnnn 
in relation with the fonnirm. Vnmi a |K)int of view of ItK^nnotion, it 
is just to say that, of tlu*se two s(»gments, the one is active and the 
other passive ; the first, by its mobility, overc^omes the inertia of the 

Finally, with a short fonnirm, the displa<vm<»nt of the knet» is 
eftWrted upwanl instinid of its being projected fonvanl in the dirwtion 
of movement. The arm of the lever (nidius) of the resistance (weight 
of canon) diminishes, whilst the intensity of the power (flexors of the 
radius) remains th<' same, which tavors so much the latter and gives to 
it mon* fiicility to elevate the kmv. With a long radius, the arm of 
the lever (radius) of the n»sistan<t» (weight of the <'anon) augments, 
and th(» |)ow(t (extensors of the mcta<'Jirpus) riMuains invariable, a <N»n- 
dition which favors this Ixinc agsiin and dis|)os<*s it more lavorably for 
tlie extension of the cimon. This is the reiu^on why, in the first <iuse, 
the kn<H»-action is exagg<»rattHl, the memlx»rs Imdly employed and not 
projKTly advan«*c<l ; also why, in tlie se^^nmd tus<», the knee is not unduly 
<»levat<Nl, th<» S4»gmciits U'ing at the same time well pnyw'tetl f<»rwanl. 
The animal thus a<*<juin's mon» s|kih1 without increiLsing the rapidity* 
of his cllorts and withoeit compromising the intt»grity of the locomotory 

Width. — It sutticts not that the forearm should merely be long, 
but it sliould also l>e wide, this widem^ss iM'ing an indicator of the 
vohunt* (»f th<' nius4'l(s. 

This width is iiK^tbiiinil from iH'fort* to Ix'hind 1r»1ow the ell>ow, 
viewing thr h<irs<' in pntfilc, at a |)oint always a little sujK»rior to the 
wi<l<>t |Kirt of the tibial region, and at the level <»f the most pn>minent 
|)ortion of its anterior iinis<'Ies ; it is, finnlly, on the same level as that 
of the tibial rev: ion at the |)oint wliei*e the latter re<vives the ins(*rtion 
of the fo|<l nl* the biitt<M*k. 

The fon-anu has su<h a eouforniation in well-formed horses, which 
<|Ualiti(S it irltl*\ nuiMcuidr^ wvU mUKrlnL 


The tendons which terminate, under such conditions, the posterior 
radial muscles are short and thick ; tliey are well 8ej)arated from the 
canon and favorably disposed to fulfil their function of support in 
relation to the fetlock. The antero-posterior diameter of this region 
should be considerable, — in the draught-horse more than in any otliers, 
since it is in relation with the contractile force of these muscles, pro- 
vided they are dense, firm, and poor in adipose and connective tissues. 

When the forearm offers dimensions opposed to the preceding, it is 
defective by reason of its small volume, and is called slender. The 
slender forearm characterizes ordinarily a horse without energy, with 
long, disproportionate limbs, vulgarly chilled weedy ; he lacks strength 
and firmness, and, in general, is defective in most instances in the other 

Thickness. — The thickness, in close relation with iha width, is 
measured from side to side, viewing the r^ion from in front. It is 
recognizable by the prominence which the anterior antibrachial muscles 
form externally. It is desirable to have the thickness as extensive as 
possible, for the reasons which we have previously indicated. It may 
be remarked, nevertheless, that the forearm does not have the same 
muscular development in the thoroughbred hoi*se as in the draught- 
horse ; the region appears flat in the former, whilst it seems rounded 
in the latter. 

Direction. — ^The direction of the forearm is as important a 
characteristic of its beauty as its length and its breadth. It should be 
vertical when the horse is examined in profile, and [mrallel with the 
median plane of the body when he is viewed in front. The vertical 
axis in this case is not altered, and the members are well placed to 
support the weight of the body. 

If the inferior extremity of the region be directed forward or 
backward, outward or inward from the vertical line, the dire(»tion is 
vicious; certain parts of the limbs become exhaustwl and prematurely 
ruined, to which we will again refer in sjieaking of the knee and the 
rertical axeSy because any deviation of this nature, altering the vertical 
position of the segment, demands an increase of function of the muscles 
€<|uivalent to the part of the weight which is no more supported by 
the lx)nes themselves. 

It is not without interest to present here the details of the rdle 

which the direction of the arm plays in the effective utilizjition of the 

antibrachial movements. The angle formal by the two s(*gments 

depends upon the more or less marked degree of inclination of the 

humerus. When the latter api)roaches the horizontal, this angle is so 



much more closed than when the Ix)ne in question is more vertical. In 
order that the horse may have speed it is necessary that the fonmrm be 
not only long but that it be also enabled to become flexed to a lai^^ 
<legree, so as to give the greatest possible amplitude to the step. The 
more vertical the arm the lx?tter will tliis cnrndition be fulfille<l. 
Such a disposition will, besid(»s, favor the opening of the humero-radial 
angle during the pn>pulsi(»n of the trunk, another qualification which 
all the articular angles of rapid motors possess. Here obser\'at ion con- 
firms the tluH)retiitil data presente<l in discussing the arm. In nuv- 
horses the latter region is not inclim*d, a disfKisition which, as we have 
seen, is not incom))atible with an extensive closing of the wiipulo- 
humeral angle, since the oblicjuity of the scapulum counterac*ts the 
disadvantages which n*sult from a vertical humenis. 

These slight variations in the direcrtion of the bones and the mode 
of oix'ning of the su])erior articular angles of the mcmlK^rs contribute 
to explain the contnulictory rt*sults which are obe<»r\HKl in ractvhorses 
of the In^st apjHxiratwe as to conformation. Very difficult to apprc<*i- 
ate, these variations (»f\en |)ass un|K'nvived and lead tlie obser\'er into 
error as to t\w im|)ortan(v of their eff'ects. 

These, neverthelenn, may Hometimes be quite considerable, as we Hhall 
prem'ntly t*i»t». 

Ix't us HUpiNMte, for an instant, that a horee be able, at each Htep, to opt^n the 

tK'apulo-huinenil an^rle and cliise the humero-radial, each to a greater degree than 

in another honM'. Ix*t u» aMsume, also, to make use of nmnd numl)ers, that tlii« 

finable amplitude of two degrees is manifested upon a lever only one metre in 

length. We know that the distance passed over by the extremity of this lever 

for each degree will be : 

2./?^ 2X3.1416 ^ 

This will signify that each step of this horse will be 34 millimetres longer 
than that of the secon<i hors4\ Those 34 millimetres will give him an increase 
f»f 22 metres and 044 millimetres over a distance of 4000 metres travelled at a 
fast gallop (the stop measuring H metres) ; at a fast trot (the step being 3 metres), 
an increase of 08 metres. 

Thus, the influence of the articular angles merits to be taken into 
c(»nsidcration, in that they can determine the amount of speed which a 
given animal is able t4> employ. As it has l)een well remarked, we 
must take <*ognizan<'e of only a very feeble augmentation for a very 
short l<»ver, as in the example which we have chosen. What might 
have been the results if, inst^wl of calculating them upon two degrees, 
we had i*stimated them upon four, six, or eight, as it frequently 


and Blemishes. — ^These are wounds^ the result of kicks upon 
this region from other horses, but which are only grave when they interest the 
Internal face of the region, where the bone, as we know, is directly subcutaneous 
and not covered with muscles. In this situation they are often complicated by 
fnustwrtB of the bone. 

At other times, synovial dilatations, which proceed from the upper extremity 
of the region of the knee, may exist here, but these appear upon the forearm 
only when they have reached a large development. Those of the humero-radio- 
cubital articulation are extremely rare, and, in our experience, we have seen only 
two examples. They manifest themselves posterior to the external lateral liga- 
ment of this joint, and can be clearly seen when the member is placed upon the 
g^und. They then acquire a volume equal to one-half of that of a hen's egg, 
and disappear altogether when the limb is raised. 

Finally, let us mention the wounds which are located upon the external 
lateral ligament of the humero-radial articulation. The external side of the 
joint forms a prominence, projecting above the level of the surrounding surface, 
which ia continually being bruised, and receives most of the pressure when the 
animal assumes the decubitus for a long time upon a bed with insufficient litter. 
These wounds are very grave, for they may be complicated by an opening of the 
articulation and terminate in the death of the animal. 

The drfeds of direction, true blemishes, we will study with the verticcU axes 
of the members. 

E.— The Chestnuts. 

The name chestnut is given to a homy production, more or less 
voluminous^ according to the race, situated upon the middle part or 
the mferior third of the internal face of the forearm. 

But little developed in the finer races, it is large in common 
horses, in which it is habitually cut or peeled off in arranging the 
^imal's toilet before presenting him for sale. 

The absence of the chestnuts in the anterior members has been 
observed, but it is a very rare fact. (The chestnuts are the rudiment 
^^ the nail or hoof of the internal digit or thumb.) 

F.— The Knee. 

. — The knee, corresponding to the mrisi of man, com- 

P^^seg all the radio-carpo-metacarpal articulations. It is at this region 

^^t the anatomical foot commences. It is also the region where the 

**^terior member is almost completely divested of its muscles, and is 

^i^tituted by nothing but the bones, the tendons, and the ligaments. 

XilmitB ; Anatomioal Base. — Limited above by the forearm and below 

7^ the eoium, this region has for its osseous base the seven carpal bones arranged 

^^osupwposed layers. One of these bones, the first and the most external 

^^ ^e four of the saperior row, also called the supra-carpal, is situated somewhat 


without the region, and forms behind a more or lens pronounced elevation under 
the skin. 

Several gpecial ligcunenit, short, strong, and numerous, unite the bones of the 
same row to one another ; others maintain the two rows in contiguity, or concur 
to fix the one or the other to the forearm or the canon ; finally, the common liga- 
merUs, which are much longer and more resisting, and common to all the carpal 
articulations, appear to assume the rdle of insuring general solidity of the whole 

Among the last, two are lateral, iiinicular, which circumscribe the carpus 
within and without, and extend from the tuberosities of the radius to termi- 
nate on the head of the rudimentary metacarpals ; the other two are capsular : 
the one, the anterior, is thin, more particularly charged to sustain the synovial 
membrane of the joint and*to furnish gliding surfaces for the tendons which 
pass over the anterior surface of the knee ; the other, the posterior, much more 
fibrous, extremely thick and resisting, fills up all the irregularities on the pos- 
terior face of the carpal Ixmes and transforms this fiice into a veritable Bheaik, 
the carpal sheath, which is completed posteriorly by the supra-carpal lx>ne and 
an arch of fibrous tisssue, in which are lodged the flexor tendons of the pha- 
langes. This ligament, one of the most powerfiil in the organism, is prolonged 
at its inferior extremity by a strong hand to constitute the cheek tendon, which is 
inserted into one of these tendons (that of the deep flexor), and plays a mechan- 
ical but imp<»rtant r6U in sup{)orting the fetloi^k and maintaining its angle. 

Three tynorial mrnibraneti lubricate the articular surfiures and facilitate their 
movements. They arc everywhere firmly surrounded by the ligaments as well as 
the extensor tend(»n8 of the foot, excepting at certain places where they are more 
feebly supported, un<l become the seat of abnormal dilatations. We will refer to 
these in dis4*ussing the bfemishrn. 

The anterior tBLoe of the carpus is traversed fn>m above to below by two 
principal tendon*, which are maintained there by means of special synovial 
sheaths : one of them is that of the anterior extensor of the metacarpus, the other 
that of the anterior extensor of the phalanges. 

The external face is travennHl hv the ten<lon of the lateral extensor of the 
phalanx's ; the internal flEMse by that of the internal flexor of the metacarpus. 

Finally, u|M>n the posterior fiEioe of the regitm is located the vast mrpal 
»hetith, wh<K«(' hynovial membnin<> <-r»vering its walls and reflected upon the two 
ti*n«lon'( of the flexors of the |>!ialang(>s, ascends on the posterior face of the 
radius to alNiut its inferior fourth, and descends upiinst the metac*arpus to the 
lowrr limit of its superior third. Althoufrh stronply surnmnded above by the 
musrular <*one of the flexors of the inetacarpiis and the antibrachial a|>oneur«isis, 
b(Mow and in its middle |K»rti(»n by the earpal areh, it nevertheless l»et*omes 
apparent, wlien it is the seat of almomial distentions in the form of tumors, wh'ise 
exact ehuRieteristies and -situation we will indieate farther tm. 

The movements of the ranon on the foreann mei'hanicallv excite those 
of the knee; they ri»nsi«»t ni' jir.rioH unii v.rtrnxitm. 

The first is produnMl when the foot is elevate<l from the jrround and lH*f<»re 
it is advanecMl to eoniplete the step. It is worthy of remark that the inferior 
extremity of the nieinU'r. instead of mc»ving in its own plane, is deviated out- 
ward in eonse<]uenee of the obliijuityof all the urtienlar surfaces, and is not thus 
exposed to cMune in eontaet with tlie |H)f«terior face of the forearm. 



Th« Moond only takes place when the member, sufficientlj' relieved Irom the 
weight it supports, is projected forward to cumplete the step and assume its coa- 
t&ct It has attained its extreme limit as soon as the two segments are placed in 
a straight line, as they were during station. 

As to the displacements which the carpal bones undergo, the one upon the 
other, their importance is considerable in relation with the distribution of the 
quantity of force upon the metacarpal surfaces. Their multiple facets, indeed, 
represent so many inclined planea which deaden the concussion and disseminate 
it upon the powerfiil ligaments which unite these bones. 

Form. — The anatomical details which we have summarily reviewed are 
indispensable in order to conceive an exact idea of the external aspect of a well- 
constituted knee. 

The skin, in horses of the finer and more nervous racex, is thin, covers all 
irregularities of the region, and shows its contour with the most perfect details. 
Also it is in these that the characters of a beautiful conformation can be best 

Viewed on the anterior Jart (Fig. 67, A), the knee appears slightly rounded 
from side to side, and a little wider above than below. It olfers on its middle an 

""••SBted eminence, the termination of the tendon of the anterior eutcnsor of the 
"■Mw^iatpua. Two curved lines circumscribe it on the sides ; the internal, very 
"'•'"'t'sd, commences at the tuberonity of the radius; the cxtcrnnl begins almoxt 
■*«»ame level, but makes a Uws salient aujile ; both terminate ([uite abruptly 
■'**«> canon below the head of the rudimentary metacarpal bones. 

Examined in profile from the external side (Fig. C7, li), its anterior line, 
"""^t straight, continues that of the foreiirm ; two eminent-es, scaneiy marked, 
"^ » ty it slightly and indicate the relief of the two rows of carpal Uine*. its 
P'^^^«Hor line, on the contrary, presents a very pronounced angle, formed by the 
'™P*'^-carpal bone, below, which it curves oliliijucly forwiird upon ihe liTiilmi!". 
****«en these two lines there are two promincmeti which indinite llie external 
'"''^•'r»ity of the radius, alwve. and the heiid of the torrcwpondinjr splint bone, 
\ieW-W. The branch from the tendon of the lateral extensor of the pliuliingea 
yrtnitig that of the anterior extensor is detached below the latter. 


The profile of the knee firom the vmmt aide (Fig. 67, C) is very much niinilar 
to that which ih seen from the outer side. It presents the internal radial tube- 
rosity, well outlined, the internal metacarpal vein, and the head of the int^'mal 
splint bone. 

Finally, viewed from behind (Fig. 67, />), the lines which circumscribe it 
on U^e side are similar to those which we have described in connection with the 
anterior face, while in its middle it is traversed by a voluminous conical emi- 
nence formcKl by the insertion of the flexors of the metacarpus upon the supra- 
cari>al bone. This relief, slightly depressed below the latter at a point called the 
fold of the knee, is continuous inferiorly, without any sharp demarcation, with 
the flexor tendons of the phalanges. 

Beauties. — ^The knee, in order to be beautiful, must be/?i^, thick, 
vndej well situated ^ well directeily emd free from blemishes. 

Fineness. — This ({uality is one that, in a general manner, is 
desirable in all the articulations. It denotes that they arc formed <»nly 
of those parts which should (xmstitute them. It resides in the ap|)ar- 
ent prominence of all the normal osseous reliefs, the ligaments and the 
tendons, which implies a thin and delicate skin, a small abundance and 
great density of the connective tissue which ctjvers these stnicturcs. 
All horses Ixilimging to the more distinguished races are noted for this 
peculiarity ; those of the common nici« present it in a small degree, 
and in nerveless and lymphatics animals it is absolutely defective; the 
articulations in the last are always more or less pcxirly defined* 

Thickness. — The thickness of the knee is its diameter from side 
to side. It is ]iartii*ularly desirable, IxHiuise the lateral diameter is in 
relation with the transverse development of the articular surfaces, with 
the volume of the carpal bcmi's, and, consequently, with the firmness 
of the step and safety of the gait. When this region is warroir, the 
animal is liable to stumhle and to a pivnmture ruin of his limbs, which 
are t<N> ftvble to sup]x>rt tlu* weight of the body l)eyond a certain rate 
of sj^hhI. 

Width. — Th(» width is measured from before to behind, for the 
extent of the kn(H» measures mon» in this sense* tlian from one side 
to the other. A large width always indicates the antero-posterior de- 
velopment of the articular surfaix^s ami a dwided prominence of the 
snpniHiirjwl lK»nc. 

Tli(» effect of t\w first of tlM»s<» factors is to render the ctiqial bones 
more n«sisting, to augment the movements of flexion and extension, at 
the siune time that it makes the inferior extremity of the radius appear 
larger, a <lis|K»sition which wfiaratcs the musck»s from their parallelism 
with the Ixmes and favors their action. The secimd only implies a 
longer arm of the lever for th(» flexors of the metacar]>us. 



The knee is called calf^s ktiee when it is defective in its width, its 
thickness, and in the effaeement of all the bony prominences ; it denotes 
a general feebleness of the member, the volume of an articulation 
being correlative also to that of the regions which confine it 

Height. — The height of the knee above the ground depends on 
the relative length of the forearm and the canon. We have seen that 
a long forearm gives a great advantage in the function of long anti- 
braehial muscles, and it is for this reason that preference should be 
given to a knee well descended and situated verj' low. In this con- 
nection, all other things being equal, saddle- and carriage-horses have 
the knee higher than draught^horses, a fact which can \ye easily ascer- 
tained by actual measurement. Their canons are longer, their body is 
less close to the ground. Nevertheless, tnis does not change the prin- 
ciple which has just been laid down. The latter applies only to those 
subjects whose conformation is comparable, and to no others. 

Direction. — The vertical direction of the forearm and of the 
canon is without doubt one of the principal conditions of the strength 
and endurance of the anterior members. So true is this 
that everything in the carpal articulations is so ar- 
ranged as to determine this mode of superjwsition of 
the osseous s^ments. Such is, however, not always the 
direction of the knee : sometimes it is deviated for^vard 
or backward from the vertical line; sometimes it is 
within or without this axis. Hence grave defei^ts of the 
axis of the member, to which are given particular names. 

Thus, the horse is called oro* in the kn^eSy hiee- 
sprung f when this n^ion is curved forward (Fig. 68). 

This condition is also distinguished as acquired and 
congeniUd: acquired or accidental when it is the result 
of fiitigue and excessive wear and tear of the j)arts; 
congenital, on the contrary, when it exists from the time 
of the animal's birth. 

The first case is a serious condition, indicative of the fio. ea. 
muscular weakness of the part, of its worn-out state, or 
of the contraction of the posterior tendons ; such a horse is utterly un- 
steady on his feet, is positively unsafe to ride, and may fall on his 
knees at any moment, as is shown by the indelible scars with which 
they are usually disfigured. 

In the second case the defect is only aj)j)arent, and in no way inter- 
feres with a firm and steady grip of the ground or with the freedom 
of movements. 






" In this class," says H. Boiiley/ " we even find horses whose 
knees arch forward to such an extent, when they are standing still, 
that we wonder how they manage to hold themselves up ; and never- 
theless, even laboring under such an exaggerated form of this defect, 
thev never stumble when once thev have U»en started. The reason of 
it is that the remarkable attitude of these animals does not hes]ieak 
any weakening in the |X)wers of their extensor nuist*k»s, as it din's in 
the horse that has become knee-sprung thnnigh hard work and old age.'* 
Custom alone enabk»s us to distinguish true or a(X]uired npntng 
knees ; let us add that it is also n^vealwl by the trembling of th<» kn«»s 
when the horse is in a resting |N>sture, as well as by the habitual pres- 
ence of hard or soft blemishes u|)on the inferior regions of the memliers. 
If, contrary to what we hav<» s<»(»n, the knee deviates towanfs tlie 
l)ack of the vertinil axis (Fig. 65>), it is term«l effaced^ 
Hunkeny holfow, or Mhrep-knee. 

This def(H't, chanieterisaHl bv a eoneavitv of its ante- 
rior face and a moi*e distinct prominence of the supra- 
car])al Ixme, hva^ nt>t, so far as we know, the imiK>rtance, 
Its rcganls s|KtHl, whi<'h S4)mc would atta(*h to it. It 
niH*essitates, without doubt, a s<»mewhat more extensive 
<*(»ntracti<m of the flexors of the metai-arpus, to bring 
that n^gion into the attitude nHpiinnl by normal flexion, 
whemv a hxss of time in the execution of the move- 
ments. This loss of time ami of mus<«ular force, which 
ixsult fr<»m it, are insigniHiiiut an<l tun hanlly be appn^- 
riatt'il. Such a (conformation is vicious, rather in S(» far 
as it c:ius<'s a coi)tiiiual tension of the (N>stcrior ligamentous 
ap|ianitus (»f the carpus and the chei*k tendon of the 
|M'rfor.uis, a tension which tells likewise u|x»n the lateral 
liyramcnts and Ikn-oiih's furth<T in<*niis4»tl at everv instant 
of contact with the ground, when the animal is moving at great siieitl. 
TlicM' cxcosivc tnirtioii>, injuring thr articular ligaments, will eventu- 
ally brin^ alwiut th<» formation of ossihxis de|K»sits at the |xjints of 
thrir iiixTtiuii ii|miu tin* IxMics, or else a |NTmancnt indurati(»n of the 
rlufk tfudoii and tlir sus|M*nsorv liHfiiiucnt of the fcthn'k. 

( \»ii>i<lrrtition> of a similar natinn* an* applie:tbl(> t(» a knei* which 
deviates t<» the iini<*r si<l<> of the vertiesil axis, and which is styled 
oj'-kntr, from its analogy to that of the animal wh«^se name it l)ears 
(Fig. 70). Very «M»nv<*x !i|Min it«* internal faci' and eoncjive externally. 

Fni. tvj. 

1 U li*>it!f>. N«>uvf.iu Dlctiuiiimirc )>rali<|iu- Mc nn-ilii luc, <lc chirurgic vt d'hygitoe T^t^ri- 
UHirt-' t \ lii. \K -"'1. 


it is no longer compatible here with a uniform diBtribntiun of the body- 
weight upon the metacarpal region, because tlic articular Rur&oPH in the 
horae's carpus have a slaut different from that of 
the carpal bones in the ox. The inward deviation 
has a tenilenf^ to increase in the state of rest and 
at the time of contact with the ground dunng loco- 
motion ; the outer half of the hones is overloaded, 
while the internal lateral ligament is stretched to 
its utmost Hence, for this reason, first an<1 fore- 
most, do we look upon this anatomical ronfonna- 
tion as a vice of the greatL-st imi>ortance in car- 
riole- or in saddle-horses, the latter in {tarticular. 

Moreover, during the act of flexion, it exag- 
gerate* the movement of abduction of the meta- 
carpus, which, on the contrary, under ordinary 
normal conditions, is always very slight. At 
ever)- step the animal throws the (■anon outside of 
tlwvertital axis, wastes a certain amount of time K10.70. 

in bringing it back to its nornial attitude, and uses 
nis limb in a most ungraceful style, described by H. Boiiley as "a 
siod of aU-ocer-the-ahop gait, dis))leasing to the eye of the true con- 
"wsseur." Finally, the necessary consequence of 
'■lis form of the knee is the outwaitl deviation of 
"w inferior part of the member, notably the h(x)f, 
"e will return to this in sjK«king of the outbow- 
/ixited horse. (See Axes.) 

MTien the r^ion of the carpus deviates to the 
"'«'~iW side of the vertical axis it is the seat of ft 
grave defect, which is denote*! by the limb being con- 
^'s^ On tlie external side and concave inwai-dly, as 
*ell as by a convergence of the two hooit* (Fig. 71). 
fnis conformation is not common, but, like the pre- 
'^'*>g, it causes unsteadiness in the " grip" of the 
KfxiiKl and a straining of the ligamenb*. In this 
*** it is the internal sui-face of the articulatifms 
which is overloaded, and the external lateral liga- 
"••^ts that are subjected to the abnormal tension; 
■™ for this reason blemishes are the speedy nwilt of this form of the 
knw. Besides, as (he toe of the hoHif is tumffl inward, the horse is 
pifleojj-tofd and exposed, consequently, to all the evils of this dcfW-t, 
jwtioularly interfering. 


Oleamess of Outline. — It is not sufficient that the knee be 
'Mr}'/' wide, thiek^ well located^ and set in the right direction^ but it 
is absohitely indispensable that the outline be ])erfectly deary — that is 
to say, neatly defined in its external lines, whether viewed from the 
front or from the side. Any deformity, even a slight one, should be 
considered grave, for it is a sign of the weakness and the ultimate niin 
of the limb in which it is noticed. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — H. Bouley^ has described the dis- 
eases and the blemishes of the knee in his usual happy style. We will 
therefore limit ourselves to condensing here what he has written on 
this subject 

1. Recent Lesions and Diseasea — Fint among these are (ienudaiiom», 
exetmaHoMf and more or leiw deep toounds of the skin of the anterior surface of 
this region, the result of falls, and the gravity of which varies with the nature 
of the soil, the vel<Kity of the gait, and the weight of the burden which tho ani- 
mal carried at the time. These lesions, as well as the scars they leave behind, 
are, as a rule, somewhat circular in shape, on which account the horse thus disfig- 
ured is said to be crowned. The cicatrices which succeed them usually have quite 
a regularly cir(*ular form, and designate the animal that presents them crownM, 
It is important to ascertain whether they are the result of a lack of steadiness in 
the anterior limbs or due to accidental falls. It is likewise necessary to find out 
if the lesion of the knee has affected only the skin and the subcutaneous con- 
nective tissue, or if, on the itmtrary, the synovial bursse have been involved, for 
the gravity under these diverae circumstances is not the same. In general, super- 
ficial wounds are not aix^ompanied by any great difficulty in walking, while the 
deep ones, those which have brought about the o|)ening of the articulations, arv 
extremely painful, and make ft imiXMsible for the animal to press his h(M>f on 
the ground. 

Hometinies injuries or falls have determined no other consequences than a 
simple ex(H)riation of the epidermis and the hairs thereon, which latter will gr(»w 
again with their natural change of color. At other times the region is more or 
less contUHo<l, without a loss of substance, and the extravasation of blotxl or 
serum underneath the skin will occasi<m the formation of abscesses capable of 
rendering the subjoi*tH incapable of service for some time. 

2. Ohronio Lesions and Diseases. — In this category are arranged 
numen>us lesions and affections, which, in most instances, are tantamount to 
true blrmUhrt. They involve the skin, sulnrntaneous connective tissue, the artic* 
ular and tendinous synovial burece^ and the Inmes. Let us examine them 

n. Skin. — We have seen that the horse styhnl rrownrd may receive upon the 
anterior surface of the knees injuries of greater or less imiK>rtance; hut the skin 
only pniservcM {HTinanont traces when it has been affected in its essential |mrts. 
The most trifling of these afler-results are th<ise which pniceed merely from 
a miKlification of the hair-follirles. Where these f(»llicles are the new hair 
grows white, and thus l>earM witness of the fall which has taken place. In other 

1 U. Buulcy, loc. cit 


cases the integument has been injured more deeply or even partly destroyed, and 
then no new hairs grow when the cicatrization has been completed. In the eyes 
of the connoisseur the horse is no less blemished in the one case than the other, 
whether he has an abnormal white spot upon the knee or an indelible cicatrix 
deprived of hairs ; he is considered weak upon his limbs, predisposed to repeated 
falls, and, consequently, much depreciated from a commercial point of view, 
although, at times, the blemish may be altogether accidental. We should, there- 
fore, beware of the so-called recipes which horse-merchants never fail to recom- 
mend for the reproduction of the hairs. More especially should we be on our 
guard against the fraudulent means used by certain individuals for the purpose 
of concealing from the eyes of too credulous buyers a blemish which baffles all 
such attempts. Some have been known to go so far as to blacken the denuded 
spot with a particular blacking; others cover it rather skiliiilly with false hairs, 
which they temporarily keep in due position by means of a thin coating of 
dextrine ! As may be readily imagined, all these expedients are of such a nature 
as not to deceive the attentive and experienced observer. 

Fissures known under the name of malanders are met in the region of the 
fold of the knee. They are grave in so far as they cause much pain, and are often 
very tedious to heal. 

6. Subcutaneous Ck>zineotive Tissue. — It is not rare to observe more or 
less abundant effusions into the subcutaneous connective tissue as the result of 
contusions of the knee. The anterior face of this region is then seen to present 
a voluminous, fluctuating, and non-inflammatory tumor, whose walls, at first thin, 
«wn become indurated and irregularly thickened ; this constitutes the hygi^oma^ 
^^ cyst, of the knee. It sometimes becomes inflamed and very painful. As a 
J^neral rule, it interferes with locomotion only in a mechanical manner, and is 
nothing more than an eyesore. 

Indurated tumors of the connective tissue have the same origin ; they differ 
^m hygromata in the fact that they are not fluctuating and that they can be 
^uch more easily dissolved. 

c. Tendinous and Artioidar BurssB. — A complex articulation like the 
^^^ endowed as it is with such extensive movements, is sure to give signs of 
^^'g^e in the long run, by synovial dilatations at the level of the most mobile 
^^'^,' — that is to say, at the points where the gliding apparatus must needs have 
^pl^yed an excessive and almost incessant functional activity. Indeed, that is 
ivoat ij9 observed in the radio-carpal and intercarpal articulations, in spite of the 
P^'^erful union which protects them. 

^ftydropsy or hydrarthrosis of the first manifests itself by the presence of 
^^ tumors, 8oft and fluctuating when the limb is semiflexed, and tense and con- 
®* ^^Len it is in extension. The one is situated immediately above the supra- 
^^P«i.l bone and against the radius ; the other forms at the upper part of the 
^^rtor surfiace of the knee. They correspond evidently, therefore, to the por- 
uouh ^f tjjg synovial membrane which are feebly supported ; pressure applied 
^P*^^ the lateral tumor is distinctly transmitted to the anterior, a fact which 
^^^^^^tea the close relation which they bear to each other 

^lydrarthroflis of the intercarpal joint is shown, when the foot is in contact 
iraik the ground, by the appearance of two or three nodosities of the size of a 
nMfci-nut or a walnut, between the extensor tendons of the phalanges and of the 
metacarpus, almost over the middle of the anterior surface of this region. 


When the articuhur diUtationn of the knee are very old, their wall bec^>me» 
indurated and even osflified. This constitutes, in the latter case, one of the 
varieties of htoped knee, of which we will speak farther on. 

The difaiationt of the tendifunu 8t/fioviai bur9(e are of two varieties: they 
appear either along the course of the flexor tendons or along that of the exten- 
sors. Larger than the preceding, they may acquire very great dimensions. It 
sometimes happens, at least with the second variety, that they communicate 
betwetm theniKclves or with the articular capsules,^ an important peculiarity, 
which should warn us against the danger of opening them. 

Hydropsy of the oarpal sheath, better known under the name of carpal 
or tendinous thorouffh-pin of the knee, is manifested by the formation of two tumors 
posterior to the carpus, between the radius and the flexor muscles of the meta- 
carpus. E^ch one of these is ovoid in shape ; the internal is onlinarily smaller 
than the external, and both extend higher up than the articular dilatation. 
Inferiorly, the tendinous dilatation is prolonged below the knee by a soft, 
elongated, and irregularly- lobulated swelling, which follows the course of the 
flexor tendons, and transmits its fluctuation and pal[>ation to the two superior 
culs-iie-sac, thus giving evidence of its communication with them. This is a cir- 
cumstance which is never noticed in the articular svnovial dilatation. 

The synovial dilatations of the tendinous burssp situated upon the anterior 
capsular ligament of the carpus present analogous chara(*teristi(*8. They i*f»n- 
sist of elongated tumors, from one to three in numl>er, l<K'ated under each of the 
extensor tendons, and always [lerfectly distinct at the beginning of their forma- 
tion. In advance<l stages they become diflused over the anterior surface of the 
knee, and may communicate among themselves and with the articular synovial 
membranes; their parietes U'cHmie indurated and, in some places, ossified. 
They might be easily confounded with the cysts, which are always more super- 
ficial, were it not for their n^lativc situation with the tendinous cords. 

(/. Osseous Apparatus. — Not even the osseous ap{iaratus is exempt from 
the traces of the wear and tear resulting from age or fmm excessive work. Ex- 
ostoses ap]M'ar, in time, U|Nm the anterior surface of the carpal bones and U|Nin 
their articular eilges, at the ]M>ints which iMirresfioml to the insertions of the lig- 
aments. Tlu»se oHst»ous tumors of the knee have n.H'cived the gi'neric name of 
(nwf/rfit. Their furination l)egins at the head of the rudimentary metacaquil. 
pret'enibly on the internal nide, and then they gradually extend, little by little, 
to tlie pieces of the two n>ws. When they are thus generalized, it has Uvn the 
<'U'*t(»in to say that tlie knee is /r^xyW, a very a]>])ropriate expression, which ctm- 
vcys to the mind the idea of the alterations of which the region is the scat« 
Thes<> ossvlcts, like the tendinous and articular dilatati<»ns, arc grave hlrmuhes; 
they distiiTure th<' animal. prisluctMi deviation (»f the forearm and of the canon, 
and. finally, ot\<*ii ;rivc risi* to a reU'llious and, very often, {KTsixtent laiuenesa 
of variable intrusitv. 

As the nylons sitiintiNl lu'low the kn«» an<l the li«H*k offer but few 
(liflen-iiMS in their anatomy ami their extomai ap|H*:imn(Vy we will 
study them with the |M»steri<)r memU'rs. 

1 I tiAvc cxHmiianl a UrKt* iium)>vr <i( iirtirulutious and ha%*e not oiux* veriflcd such a condi- 
tion. \ I larger.) 




We have already stated the reasons for uniting the description of 
the croup with that of the trunk, and need not return to them here. 

The regions of the posterior members correspond to those of the 
unterior, with some unimportant variations consequent upon the par- 
ticular mode in which these parts execute their movements. 

Thus, the thigh is the coimterpart of the arm ; the difie, of the 
eftoir ; the leg^ of the forearm ; the hock^ of the Ance. Such are the 
diverse rq^ons which it remains for us to examine. 

A.— The Thigh and the Buttock. 

Situation ; Limits ; Anatomical Base. — We deem it advis- 
able to combine the ihigh and the buUock in one description, since there 
is 80 close a relation between them. 

We will merely consider the latter as that part of the former which 
^8 charged with the flexion of the tibia, the extension of the femur, and 
the rotation of the coxa. 

The thigh is the r^ion where the posterior member becomes sepa- 

'^^ed from the trunk. It is limited above by the ci^oup and the 

'^nch; below, by the leg and the stifle; in front, by the flank; 

'^^rdly, by the groin (in both sexes), the sheath and the scrotum in 

"Je niale and the m^mm>ary glamh in the female ; l)ehind, finally, it is 

^^^^gether free, and is simply in relation with the trunk and the hairs 

<>f the tail. 

Its anatomical base consists of the femur and of numerous muscles 
^hichj originating in adjoining regions, terminate here, or, on the con- 
^O^, are detached here to terminate on the sections immediately below 
%• — ^viz., tlie 1^ and the foot. 

. — ^The thigh offers for study two surfaces and two borders. 

'T'be external surface is slightly rounded, according to its length and its 

^<*tli^ in a horse in good condition. It forms, in such cases, below the croup, an 

*lniOHt vertical plane, which blends off below with the corresi)onding surface of 

l^, and, in front, with the side of the flank. But hard work and insufficient 

**^ render the muscular interstices and the natural prominences of the skeleton 

^^^ apparent: the femur is indicated by a thick longitudinal elevation, in front 

^» ^hich the muscles appear hollow, in consequence of the contraction of the 

™k ; the ischiatic tuberosity and the trochanter become very salient, and leave 

wureen them a deep furrow which separates the superficial gluteiw muscle 



from the posterior ischio-tibial muscles, and which ia known under the pictu- 
resque name of furrow of misery. 

The internal surftioe, called thejlat of the thigh, is also more or less convex. 
It is traversed above in its direction and from back to front by a large vein, the 
naphenay on which phlebotomy is sometimes practised. This vein is accompanied 
by a small artery bearing the same name and covered over with a net-work of 
nerve-branches and of lymphatic vessels, whose situation it is important to re- 
member from a surgical point of view. 

The anterior border of the thigh is constituted by a voluminous muscular 
mass, the crural triceps, whose function it is to extend the leg. Over the middle 
and inferior portion of this border attaches a musculo-cutaneous fold, which is 
called the fo/d of the stifle, and spreads over from the side of the flank to the 
anterior surface of the stifle-joint 

Ah to the posterior border, it represents by itself the sub-region of the 
buttock or the breeching, and has for its base the ischio-tibial muscles. It 
describes, beginning at the base of the tail where it becomes continuous with the 
croup, a regularly-curved line, which becomes concave inferiorly and disappean 
at the iKMterior lM)rder of the leg. The most salient point of this graceful curve 
has received the name of point or angle of the buttock; it is due to the pn>mineni'e 
of the ischiatic tuberosity of the coxa. On the other hand, the fold of the buttock 
is the most concave portion of this line, and corresponds about to the c*entre of 
flexion of the tibia on the femur. It is worthy of remark that in very emaciated 
subjects the point and the fold of the buttock are always strongly marked, while 
they are scarcely indicated in those tliat are in good condition, particularly in 
the heavy draught-horse, whose muscular system is voluminous. 

Viewed fn)m behind, the thigh is thicker as its muscular masses are more 
develoi>od and nt^ the animal belongs to a race of a more lymphatic and \em 
nervous temperament 

Movements. — This n^ion, in relation with the movementB 
which it exivutes, is most interesting to study. It describes two prin- 
ciiml movements, whose centre is the coxo-femoral articulation : these 
an' extension and flexion. Their maximum amplitude is about 30 

During flexion^ the femur is displaced angularly to begin the step. 
It n*n<*hcs iU limit of flexicm a little before the foot arrives on the 
ground, s<> as to allow the full extension of the tibia, which has not yet 
lMH>n (*omplet(Hl at the moment that the femoral flexion is accomplished. 

During extrn^fioHj the phenomena have an inverse order: the femur 
movies Uickward, thus .strongly opening tlie coxo-femoral angle; ita 
ol)li<juity is changeil in dinn'tion ; it becomes vertical or even inclined 
Iwickwanl and <lownward when the limb is about to rise. The exten- 
sion of the thigh takes place during the last phase of contact and 
<*estsi*s as HK>n as the f(H)t has lefl the ground to accomplish a new step. 
The musc^k* which exet^ute it are more numerous and stronger than 
those which pnxlucv flexion ; a fact not to be wondered at, ainoe these 


muscles have to displace the body-weight as well as to overcome the 
inertia, while, in the second case, they only raise the member and pro- 
ject it forward. The energy and the extent of their contraction will 
determine the intensity and amplitude of the femoral force which, in 
concert with the stifle and the hock, communicates to the trunk the 
initial impulsion, the ddion^ as it is customary to say. 

Direction. — ^The direction of the thigh cannot be suitably de- 
scribed unless we understand well the signification which it is neces- 
sary to accord to this word. 

In animal mechanics, osseous segments have an axis of form which is not 
airways their axis of movement. The latter being defined as the imaginary line 
wliich connects the two probable centres of movement, it is clear that it will 
difTer from the axis of form whenever the articular surfaces are situated in front, 
beliind, without, or within the axis of the latter. This has already been noticed 
in the case of the humerus, and is evident here again in the consideration of the 
femur. The axis of form of this bone follows almost exactly the direction of 
a line connecting the trochanter with the fossa which exists between the trochlea 
azi<i the external condyle; the axis of movement, on the contrary, joins the 
oexitre of the coxo-femoral to the centre of the femoro-tibial articulation, and 
crooBes the first by reason of the fact that the head of the femur occupies the 
internal side of this bone instead of being situated directly at its superior 

In spite of the difficulties which, in the living animal, hinder the determina- 
tion of this &ct, we may obtain the result in an approximate manner by seeking 
^e two points indicative of the two aforesaid articular centres ; these are, on the 
O'^^e part, the concavity of the trochanter, and, on the other, the middle of the 
leixgth of the external femoro-tibial ligament. The line joining these two 
points will constitute the axis of movement of the femur. In many subjects, the 
none being supposed to be in equilibrium, it is almost vertical ; in others, it falls 
^ a slight extent obliquely forward and downward ; finally, there are some in 
^Ixich it is oblique in an inverse sense, — ^that is to say, downward and backward. 

The direction of the thigh should satisfy the four principal require- 
^*^^ntB which follow : 

Ist Give to the coxo-femoral angle, already reduced by the hori- 
*^^«tal direction of the croup, a sufficiently wide opening. 

2d. Permit of an extensive separation of the branches of the 
*^*^oro-tibial angle, while allowing, at the same time, a feeble obliquity 
^^ thel^. 

3d. Not alter the vertical axis, which implies the tangency of the 
■^^^Hik to the vertical line falling from the point of the buttock. 

4th. Finally, maintain the stifle in a certain state of separation 
"^m the median plane. 

Ve estimate, from our researches, that a mean inclination of 80 
^**pee8 fiilfils all these desiderata in rapid motors. The obliquity in 



the slow draught-horse may be more accentuated, since the t^ixa \^ 
less horizontal, but this modification is rarely obserx^ed. Ordinarily, in 
these horses, the femur is straighter at the same time that the croup is 
slanting, which thus increases this angle instead of diminishing it, m 
as to place the inferior parts of the member in a less defective position 
in relation with the vertical axis. 

Examinations of instantaneous photographs teach us that the 
limit of extension of the crural segment is situated but slightly pos^ 
terior to the vertical line (lassing through the centre of the coxo-femoral 

' In principle, therefore, the thigh should not be too ttraighi when 
the animal is normally at rest, — that is to say, when the line of direc- 
tion of the femur becomes confounded with the vertical line which 
extends from the centre of suspension of the limb upon the tnmk. 
(See Vertical Axes.) 

When it is thus (Fig. 72, AB), the d^ree of extension of the 
femur is necessarily limited, the animal lacks action, and is incapable 
of utilizing the advantages of a long croup. Besides, his vertical axis 
becomes vicious, and the hock and the foot carried too fiir backward, 
render him camped behind. As to the muscles, the glutealsy HA, the 
extensors of tlie leg, m/i, and the is(*hio-tibial muscles. Go, are short ; 
the flexors, i/f, alone are l<mg. 

When the femur, on the contrary, is too obtique, as CD, it is the 
flexion that is unduly limit^nl. The arc which the foot describes at 
<*a<*h step is too short ; the memlxT, stationed too much under the trunk, 
works upward, and loses a (wrt of its extension power in raising the 
IxKly instead of pnyecting it forwanl, whatever may be the greater 
Icnjrth of the ^rhiteal miis<'l(»s, IJ(\ of the is(*hio-tibials, Go", and the 
<»xtcns4)rs of the h'g, //*;*". 

On the other hand, the decree of in<*lination of the thigh biding 
<ti|Mil)le of HKNlifying the vahie of the <^>xo-femoral angle, it may be 
<|U4'stion4'<l whether, for vel<M'ity, th(» obliquity of the croup would not 
Im» (ii|xil>le of (-(uniMMisjitinjr the exct^ss of obliquity of the cniral seg- 
ment in such a inanncr as t^) leave to this an^le the same ojiening and, 
<tins4Hjuently, the sune (K^^hh' of play. 

This e(iiii|MM)sation. as we have s^^en al)ove, is possible, but tmly 
within verv narrow limits, iMHiuise the oriritfnflun of the articular 
aiiirh' siMin lK'<*oni«s deti'^'tiv** ; its l)is<H*ting plane a.ssumes tin) horiz<mtaI 
a dire<'tioi). Hen', as in the arm, xhv principle is: to a horizontal 
en»np shouhl n)rres|M)n<l a stnii^ht thi^h. 

On the other hand, if it In* ntMi'sssiry that the (4*mnr should pre- 


Ben-e a NiitsUe and offiuuioiiis <i|K'iiiiig of the coxo-femoral joint, it is 
no Jess obligatory tJiat it should give a proper diret'tion, as well as a 

w*!* upeniog, to the angle which it forms witli the leg, OI)3tT\'ation 
<^oibtratc3, in fact, that the ji.>inor()-tihial angle always has a wider 
"F*iing in rapid motors; this is tlie iiu^tor whicli piivents the tibia 


ft:isiiming an excessive inclination which would plai-e it in a [wsi- 
)vements of extension and flexion and 

I"""* vlisadvantageons to 

"* ^fteetiveness in pn^i-cssioii. 

We therefore believe tiiat a somewhat oblique thigh fidtils all these 
^'erse requirements. It is the kind of thigh which is best for 
'*''4es, extensive and eflM'tivc [)n)|inlsivc iiiovcrncnts, and a normal 



relation with the vurtical axis. This is very different fn>ni the cluftiinl 
teachings of a ocrtain school, that al) the superior Begment« of the 
members should incline at an angle of 45 degrees with the horizon ! 

Finally, one more point of excellence in the thigh consists in its 
being well away from the median plane towards its inferior extremity. 
The region of the stifle, of which we will soon speak, will not, in this 
i-asc, be exposed, in rapid locomotion, to come in contact with the 
abdominal parictes. If this separation, however, be too marker], it 
will cause an outward deviation of the inferior jjarts of the limb. 
Many homes, close behind and outbow-fuoted, owe the faulty dintlion 
of their posterior extremities to this cause. (See Verticat Axot.) 

Length. — The length of the thigh, it can be plainly seen, nnixt 
be in close relation with the amplitude of the oscillations of wht<-h it 
is capable; besides, it governs the d^ree of the displarements of the 
tibia. In our opinion, it should be computed from the coxo-fcmoral 
articulation to the inferior part of the stifle. But its variations mani- 
fest themselves principally at the le\'el of its posterior border. They 
are usually characterized by different expressions. Thus, such a hiittork 
it) said to be {mig or v>dl deactnded (Fig. 73), which constitutes for this 

rejri'Hi 11 l>eanty "f the first order, and of which the F,nglirth thonmgh- 
bn-d, i-siNi-inlly, nfilrw a rcniarkaiile example. 

When iIk' tliifrli is ilclicicnt in lenirth, it n'mlcrs ttic buttock rnwvi 
and ihnrf {V\. 74), a defn-t which may also \w due to to<» small a 
fem'in>-tibial mx^V: The buttock m alixi named MtHnit when ito point 


18 prominent in a hoi'sse in good condition, which signifies an easy 
rutation of the ooxse on the posterior iirenibei*s. 

Width and Thickness. — ^The width of the thigh is measui-ed 
by a horizontal line which crosses it underneath the cx>xo-fenioi'al artic- 
ulation. Its thickness, on the contrary, is appi*eciatcd, from side to 
side, either by viewing tlie animal from behind or obliquely from in 

It is almost superfluous to dwell upon the impoi'tance of these two 

dimensions, which show the muscular development of the i*egion and, 

consequently, the impulsive force of the hind extremities. A thigh 

iacking sufficient thickness is designated as sharp ; when this deficiency 

affSacts die whole thigh, and is accompanied, moi-eover, by a lack of 

width, the thigh is styled /a<, leaiiy or is called a frog's thigh ; among 

horsemen the animal himself is known by the name froggy, by i*eason 

oV the striking weakness of his hind quaitei-s. 

The beautiful muscularity of the thigh can be summarized in a 
•id: the animal is well rumped and strong-linibed ; his buttock is 
rUfumiahed; his muscles are firm, dense, and elastic. 

Peculiar Markings. — The external suiface of the thighs often 
presents cauterization brand^y practised for the pur|)ose of dis- 
tinguishing subjects, of i^ecognizing their bi'eed, and of testifying of 
dieir purcliaae, or of any prizes they may have obtained. 

Up to a recent date, horses in the French army were marked upon the left 
thigh as follows: with a grenade, if used by riflemen ; a C, by tlie cuirassiers; a 
D, by the dragoons; an H, by the hussars; an A, by the artillery ; a hunting- 
horn, by the chasseurs ; a cross, by the lancers ; a T and an E, for the transpor- 
tation horses, etc. This practice having sometimes occasioned extensive slough- 
11% of the integument and disiigure<l the animals, these marks were subsequently 
"i*dc upon the side of the neck, where they were more or less concealed by the 
nune. Ultimately the accidents to the operators, the pain occasioned by the 
branding, and the complications and the blemishes resulting therefrom led to 
the adoption of a much wiser method, the marking of (fie. hoo/f which is alone 
praclLsed nowadays. 

Nevertheless, in spite of the numerous disadvantages of the hot- 
iron brand, some large corporations have thought it advisable to pre- 
8er\'eit The Paris Greneral Omnibus ComiMiny's hoi-ses aix? all marked 
with a number upon the left side of the ne(;k ; those of the Paris 
"etites Voitures" (or light-stage) Comimuy, on the contrary, ai-e 
"^k«l on tlie hoof. There are cuses in which one of the thighs 
^^ likewise peculiar markings. Sometimes we find a numl^'r, 
^''''^naes a date, and at other timers various lett<»rs, very often a P on 
"Oraes that have won prizes ; again, figurt\s of a sixrial form, as in 



tlie csLse of many Russian, Hungarian, and Anilalusian horses, or thuw 
of certain studs. 

Diseases and Blemishes.— The disea»ei of the thigh and the butttx'k 
conMiHt in general of woundu^ al>9Cf9Ae»^ and bloiHi tutnorSf which are the result of 
blowtt, knocks, falls, or other purely accidental causes. There i», nevertheless ^^ 
im|M)rtant one for which we should keep a sharp watch ; this is an inJiammntiuH 
of the fymphatic veweU on the flat of the thigh. An examination of the couwe 
of these vessels reveals a hard, cylindrical, sometimes bosselated, cnmi, painful or 
painless to the touch, and of variable volume, which goes right up to the inpiinal 
lymphatic glands in the groin. This elongated tumor, known under the name 
of corded fymphnticn, is very often the symptom of glandere-farcy, and, for thi>i 
reamm, its existence is an ugly symptom. In other cases this conditi<m U the 
conse(|uence of diseases of the foot or of the inferior regions of the ineniU'f. 
Whatever its cause may be, its presence always demamls a most ^4ear^hinl; 
examination of the part by those who proi>ose purchasing the animal. 

Let us also indicate the vnrix and (hrombans of the superior part of the 
saphena vein, comparatively insignificant though they be, and, finally, the more or 
less numen>us woundu and cicatricat which are the result of the cuta of the whip 
applied to this region. 

The thigh is a favorite spot, even as the breast, the axilla, the ribs, the .^idcs 
of the niH'k, etc., for the application of wtons. Traces of these indi(*ate that the 
horse has been aflfei'ted with chronic diseases of the foot, such as grease, canker, 
etc., or that these issues have Ihh.^ employed as counter-irritants against grave 
alterations of the encrephalon or the spinal cord. Not infrequently, either, the 
cxttTnal surface of the thigh shows marln qf cautery in the vicinity of the coxo- 
lenionil articulation. These reveal former cases of lameness where the seat of 
the malativ has remained unascertaine<i and all other methods of treatment have 
pn)ved inetfectual. Their presence demands a minute examination of all the 
inferior regions of the member, even of the hoof. Many are the chancea of 
IfK'ating the true cause of the lameness in those parts. 

B.— The Stifle. 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical Baae. — The stifle in>rrt»- 

8|)(>nds to the fenioro-|Kitellar artieulntion, and is conipriHed lietWiH)ii 
tile inferior extremity of the tlii^h and the su|x*rior jiart of the l<*j^. 

Kxternally, it** imtline repros4'nt'* twf> nmndinl, une<iual eminences, one alnive 
th<' other. The upper, inon' voluminous, and due to the anterior crural muscles, 
ovtTlianp* the lower, which is smaller, and is caused by the |mtella. Behtw the 
latter then* rxists a slight depri>ssion corrt>s|N>nding to the patellar ligaments and 
the patellar Uili|H>>c cushion. Finally, the cutaneous fold, known under the name 
of j'o/d nj tht' ^fifff, extends fronj the su|>erior prominence <»f which we have 
s|K>ken to the Mirfaet- of the tlank in the din*etion of the hy|MK*hfmdriac region. 

The stifle, in ii'lation to its conformation, offers neither spcvial 
|M>ints nor det'(*<>ts for considemtion. It is imp(»rtant, ai>ove all, tliat 
its ess<»ntial \K\vis <-jui Im* distiiu'tly (Mitline<l. Itr^ distance fmni the 


ground is onlinarily ccjual to that of the elbow, in swift horses as well 
a:^ in others, whatever may have been said to the contrary. 

Whilst the neatness of outline of this r^ion is a quality to be 
desired, its direction should not esca])e a careful examination. With 
good reason, a stifle which lies close to the abdomen, and is slightly 
deviated outwai'd, is preferred to one that is low, deviated inward, or 
even parallel to the median plane. The first dirwtion, indeed, indi- 
cates great length and a beautiful obliquity of the thigh and great ease 
in executing the movement of flexion of this segment. In the second 
case, the stifle is liable to strike the abdominal parietes, a drawback 
which must needs have a certain importance in the modification of the 
rapidity of the gait, confining as it does the forward displacement of the 

thigh, the more so as it often coincides with a femur which is short and 

not sufficiently oblique. 

Nevertheless, too great a sejmration of the stifles will be defective, 

in so far that it will surely sujx^rinduce an outward deviation of the 

inferior part of the members and render the animal outbow-footcd. 

We will return to this point d propos of the axof. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — The stifle presents various affections 

^wliich deserve our attention. Thev are : 

Ist SsmoviaJ dilatations, a kind of thorough-pins, which appear in the 
fonn of a soft tumor, more developed internally than externally, at the level of the 
Patellar ligaments. They manifest themselves by a round, sometimes lobulated, 
floctoating enlargement of a variable volume. When the distention is of large 
<^n»eD8ions, the synovial membrane is bulged out above the patella underneath 
toe extremity of the crural triceps muscle, where it forms a more or less accentu- 
ated swelling. Its prognosis is then rather serious on account both of the diffi- 
^^^y which is experienced in obtaining its resolution and of the lameness of 
tile horse. 

2cl. BxoetoaeB, located on the anterior surface of the patella, and resulting 
^^ frequently from external violence. 

^d. Superfloial or else deep -wounds, inflicted by knocks or blows. They 

^*'^ Oo gravity so long as the skin alone is involved ; but the immediate conse- 

SWcace of such causes may he fracture of the pnfella, — a rare accident, fortunately, 

^ '^ incapacitates the animal for work for a long time and induces nearly always 

'**'*»ianent lameness. 

"^th. Displacements, called luxations of the patella, common in young 

''^^, and vulgarly designated under the name of foaPs cramp. This bone, 

^**^«tiing to some, is supposed to be thrown out of its cavity of reception, — that 

* to aay, altogether dislocated towards the outer side of its trochlea ; according 

wotli^i^ it is supported, or rather held, by the very salient eminence which is 

**"'*^ by the superior extremity of the internal lip of the femoral trochlea.* 

^ See, for more details. Bulletin de la Soci<^t^ centrale de iiKMecine v^t^rinaire, s<^nee8 du 
\\ kQ(Qt it du 27 Octobre, 1S81. (MM. Bouley, Cbuchu, Cagny, Nocard, Trasbot, Weber.) 



The latter opinion is nowadays mrwt generally accepted. Be this as it may, the 
accident oamrs but once, or again its reproduction may be intermittent and 
frequent, the bone becoming alternately dislocated and reduced sitontaneously at 
the end of a variable period. In either case a very intense lameness super^-enesfi, 
the chief diagnostic character of which consists in the attitude of the member, 
which remains in a state of forced extension, and can only be carried forward by 
a very marked abductive movement. A horse in such a state is, of course, not in 
a condition to be sold, unless, however, the sale should be made during the 
interval of two displacements of the patella, as we have had occasion to obserx'e 
several times. 

5th. Traces of blisters and oauterization denote that the region has 
been treated for one of the diseases of which we have just spoken, princi|>ally 
synovial dilatations. 

C— The Leg. 

Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base.— The leg is the in- 
termediate region between the thigh and the lioek ; the stifle and the 
buttock are also its upper boundaries. 

Two bones form its resisting, osseous base : the tibia and the peroneus. The 
latter is so rudimentary in the horse that it is hardly of any account so far as 
animal mechanics are a>ncemed. The tibia, on the contrary, strong and pris- 
matic, is situated obliquely fn>m above downward and from before backward 
under the femur, to which it is joined by a very movable articulation. 

Two groupri of iK>werful muscles cover it in front, on the back, and on the 
outside. \Xa internal face alone is subcutaneous, and therefore more exposed to 
traumatisms. The function of the anterior tibial muscles is the flexion of the 
canon and the extension of the phalanges upon each other and ui>on the meta- 
carpus. The r6te of the posterior tibial muscles is precisely the reverse : with the 
exception of one, the |M)pliteus, they are all extensoni of the metacarpus or 
flexors of the digital region. They are. in a great measure, concealed externally 
bv the inferior extremitv of the isi*hio-tibial muscles which cover them. I^Astlv, 
most of them Ikh'oiiio inflei^ted over the back part of the hock, — that is to say, 
the summit of the tibio-tarsal angle, — and by this very fact help to prevent the 
clfMing of this angle when the member is standing still. 

Eixtemal Form. — The tibial muscles, like those of the antibrachial region, 
have thin imi iiliiirity, that almve they are constituted by a fleshy body, and below 
they are contiiuKMl by u shorter or a longer tendon, destined to transmit their action 
t4) the cimon or to the i>halanges. The result of this is that the region, considered 
as u wholo, preH(>nts a s<»mewhat pyramidal or conical form, wider above than 
bi'low, antl coinpreHSiHi fnmi one side to the other. Four faces may be recognized 
on thin region, two of which, the external and the internal, especially merit our 

The external feu3e, almost plane sufieriorly, and confounded with the 
m<wt dex'livitous part of the thigh and the buttocrk, shows quite distinctly the 
outlines of the inusch's that we have mentiimiKi above. Inferiorly, there is a 
change in iU Hp|M'!inince near the hoi-k : the external tulierosity of the tibia may 
be discerno<i in front, the anterior lM>rder of the calcaneus behind, and between 
these two eminences a depression which is called the hollow of the hock. It b 


limited in front by the tibial crest and behind by the tendon of the gastrocnemius 
and perforatus muscles {cord of the hock, incorrectly called the hamstring tendon), 
which is inserted on the summit of the calcaneus. 

The internal face, almost plane and subcutaneous, is traversed by the 
saphena vein, which is accompanied by the artery of the same name and several 
lymphatic vessels, voluminous but not visible in the normal state. The very lowest 
extremity of this face displays in relief the internal tuberosity of the tibia, as 
well as the corresponding portion of the tendo Achillis, and, between these two, 
the concavity already indicated under the name hollow of the hock. 

Movements. — The leg, owing to its mode of articulation with the 
thigh, is the seat of two princiiml movements, flexion and extension. 

During the former, the leg is carried upward and backward ; the 
femoro-tibial angle is closed in proportion to the length of the flexor 
muscles. Flexion commences in the latter part of the phase of con- 
tact, and is completed a little after the raising up of the foot. It does 
^ot entail much fatigue on the agents which execute it, as they have 
only to overcome the weight of the member to be raised. 

-As soon as the thigh has effected its forward movement, the 1^ 
rapidly completes its own, and the amplitude of the arc of a circle 
thus described by its inferior extremity depends always (apart from the 
length of the tibia itself) upon the degree of flexion which it effects 
^^ the distance at which the foot was raised above the ground. If 
^e foot is not raised high enough at the moment when it is to come 
down on the ground, the hoof will \ye in contact again before the leg 
"^^ had sufficient time to attain the maximum d^ree of extension of 
whioh it is capable. Indeed, it is evident that the length of the step is 
'° direct ratio with that of the tibial extension. 

Xjength. — ^The length of the leg is measured from the inferior 
P**^ of the stifle to the fold of the hock. It is always equal to that 
^* trlie forearm, and should be as extensively developed as possible in 
"^Pid motors. Upon it depends, indeed, tlie extent of the movements 
*^d^rgone by its inferior extremity, at the same time that it implies a 
propiortional length of the muscles which belong to this region ; more- 
^^^^, as these muscles are destined to move the canon, it follows that, 
^^^ ^ese two reasons, a Imig leg is indispensable to the velocitv of the 

If it be too short, the foot passes over less surface at each step ; the 

^* «iial can only preserve his speed by dint of multiplying his move- 

™^*it8 and increasing his fatigue. It is needless to say that this oon- 

w>**nQation offers nothing objectionable in slow motors, from which 

'^^^-hing more is expected than great nuisc^ilar power. 

The length of the leg deserves, likewise, to be studied in relation 


wUh that of the canon. In this (*onn(H'tiony all authors are agreed that 
a short canon at the extremity of a lon^ leg constitutes a great point. 
But why ? No one has ex])lained it. Still, it is easy to account for it. 
The reasons are of the same nature &s those which have been explaine<I 
in connection with the forearm. 

Here, also, the metatarsus, at the time of contact, plays the iiart of 
a lever, at the sujKTior extn»mity of which the weight of the body is di»- 
eomiK>sed into two secondary fon-es : the one, iK*r|)endicular to the ctinon, 
tending to carrj' the hock l)ackwanl ; the other, (larallel to this segment, 
showing the intensity with which the foot presses against the gn>und. 
The latter font*, destrt^ved bv the resistance* of the soil, is for us void 
of interest. As to the former, it has the metatarsus for its lever-arm, 
while the extensors of this n»gion are its antagonists. The shorter this 
arm will l)e, the less will be the muscidar force required to counteract 
the tendency to flexion. Not only this, but, during the impidsion, 
the extension of the canon will (Hpially Ix? effected without any gnuter 
expenditure of force. 

A (*anon which is short relatively to a long leg descTibes a less exten- 
sive an* of a cin*le, and is h*ss hcjivv. These are additional n»as<»ns 
whv the tibial nuisi*lcs will have to contrad with li*8S intensitv and to 
a smaller dcgriM* in onler to jmiduev the same effect. 

On the other hand, the metatarsus is covered onlv bv tendons, — in 
other wonls, by inert ("onls, simple agents of transmission. The tibia, 
on th(» I'ontniry, is siirn)un<lcd by the flt»shy |)orti(m of the muscles, 
<'ontra<*tilc orgjuis, whos<» shortening gives the measure* of the osseous 
displace'UK'Uts. I^arge* dimensions should, then»fore, be l(N)ked for in 
this n^gion, which, it may 1k» said, constitutes the adive part of the 
s^^gmcnti'd |M>n<lulum n^pn'scnteel by the tibia and the metatarsus. The 
K'Ugth of the ciuion not com|K»nsating the shortni'ss of the leg, simv 
its rofe in l<K-omoti<»n is al>solutcly iMussive, there is the best reason to 
sehn't one that is short in n*lation with the leg when the object is to 
c<mibinc the In^st conditions for sjK»c*d. This consideration in the 
<lraught-hors<' is of no imjwrtamv. 

Width. — The width of th<» lc»g is nn-ognizeel at its superior 
extn»mity fnun U»forc Iwckwanl, an<l at the level of the enlarged portion 
of the (»xtens<irs. It is alwavs somewhat inferior to that of the fore- 

It in<li<-at<'s the development of the nmscles in this rone, and we 
know that the volume, density, and com|>actness of the musc*le8 are, 
in the sujXTior sc<*ti(ms of the m(»mlH»rs, qualities of the first order. 
A horse with a l(»g thus mus<'lcd is <nlled utrong-Umhcd ; the calf of 


the leg IB well outlined and powerful. In the opposite conformation, the 
\eg is lean, flat, ot frog-tike, from analogy with that of the familiar 
batnichian. That is a grave defect, particularly in the draught-horse. 
The leg should also be wide in the virinity of the tarsus. The 
calcanean cord must be distinctly separated from the tibia, for then the 
probabilities are that tiiis separation is due to tlie length of the cal- 
caneum, that arm of the lever of the muscles which produces the 
impulsion, the extension of the hock. 

Kevertheless, let no error be committed here ; the separation in 
question may depend upon another factor : a more or less accentuated 
uwlination of the tibia upon the canon. 

It is evident, from the mere examination of the diagrams of Fig. 
15, representing two tibitB, OM and ON, differently inclined ujTOn their 
napective canons, that the wider 1^ is also the more inclined of the 
two, OM, although its calcanean lever, OC, may be absolutely of the 
saine length as that, OD, of the straight %, ON. 

^t IB therefore requisite, at all times, to take into consideration the 
^''**^t*onof the tibia in estimating the value of the width of the 
"^W part of the tibial region. 

ihicknass. — In order to estimate properly the muscular devel- 
'^^oit of this r^on, it is necessary to consider its thickness, — in 
0™* words, its transverse diameter. This can be appreciated by 
I the hoise obliquely from in front, or by viewing it from 


\3Hf0rh or friHu U'tiiivL The relief of die anUrrH*r mosrles in 
of thff^e pfjMtiofin 4Hiuki \)e plainly marked and ^trcm^ly cr.4ivex «.4]t- 
wanl. W[Km the l<v |Kjesespc^ Ijut little thickness, it then lai-k* t*r'e. 
an'l i- filial ifi^d Uiin^ Unh^fint^ a* we have seen alcove. 

DirectioxL — The direction of tlie le^ i< as important a quali&^a- 
tion with n^^^arrl Ui t>H' development of fierce ae^ to the pmdu«tii'n «*f 
h|¥?rd, for it fkvorn tin.' munr-tilar action and facilitates the play <if th*- 
articular angh>, a^«Kinlin«r to \xa obliquity. It i« measured by a lin*- 
j<iiniri$r two point/^ ^ituaterl the one aUive, tiie other below, the rw«t 
fxUimaX tibial tuljerrjwities, ^ujierior and inferior respwtively. 

The din?r'tion of the h*^, like that of the thigh, should fulfil two 
prin^'ijAl nf^^uin/ment* : 

l?^t. It (should not alter the n-jrularity of the vertical axis, whii-fa 
axi.*4 affWlA the vertical ity of the canon and the tangenc}* of the hack 
to the vertic'al line which falLs fn>m the a[K*x of the buttock. 

2a\, It kIioiiM .^itf'curr* a lar^ o[)ening and the proper dimtion •»f 
the feriiorf>-tibial ami tibif>-tarsal angles. 

A riH'an inclination of G5 to 70 degrees, according to our reseaivhe<, 
fulfils very well thcHe cvjnditions in swifl horses. Indeed, instantane- 
ous pluit' lymphs demonstrate that the limit of extension of the tibial 
Hcction is situated very nearly on the vertical line whidi passes thn>ugh 
thr (vntn* of the cvixo-femoral joint. Remembering this disposition, as 
wf'll as the fact tliat the femur is capable, during flexion, of surpassing 
ixmicriorly the vertical line dirough its centre of movement, it is only 
natunti that the obli<|uity of the tibia should be more marked than 
that of tlH> femur. 

When tli<> l(*g is too ntraight^ which is rare, its d^ree of extension 
is iKHi'ssiirily Iiniit<'<l, and the step is short, whatever may be the lenjrtii 
of the thi^h ; tin* foot, iK'ing too far for\^'ard, causes the horse to Im* 
uiktitr himMcff Ix'hind. When it is too oblique, the flexion, on die con- 
trary, is n'<lii('c<i, and the h<K»k, Ix^ing carried too far backward, pn>- 
iii('<*s the <»p|M>sitc dcfcvt, and the animal is said to camp behind. 

In sjM-'akin^r thus, wc liave sup|)<jsc<l the direction of the femur awl 
tin* metatarsus to Im* invariable, for it will 1h' undcrst4K)d that the former 
nf tliisi' segments, by iii«Kliiyin^ its inclination, might re-establish tlic 
n<»rnial axis of tin* limb. Hut ^iven a pro|XT obliquity of the femur, 
an<i, l)esi<ies, the vertical diri't'tion of tin* canon as necessary, the posi- 
tion of the tibia ha^ a dinn't inHuenet* u|M)n the axes and the degree 
of a{)<*rtiire f»f the femonKtibial and tibio-tarsal angles. Should it 
U'f-ome mon- vertiuil, it widc^ns the an^l(»s, lengthens the member, 
miss's the trunk, diminishes the stability of the e<}uilibrium, and 



fiivors speed; should it become more inclined, it closes the angles, 
shortens the member, draws the body down to the ground, and favors 
tlie muscular insertions and the production of force. 

It is easy to understand that the more the tibia is inclined on the 
femur the more perpendicular is the insertion of the muscles upon 
their lever-arm and the more effective are their contractions. These 
two segments are never so oblique upon each other as to form a right 
angle, even when the member is in station. Although normally very 
obtuse, the more closed the femoro-tibial angle is the more favorably 
is it disposed for all the manifestations of force. It renders the buttock 
shorter without preventing it from being strongly muscled ; it diminishes 
the height of the animal without interfering with an increase of its 
bulk. Besides, is not this the form which this angle assumes when 
the draught-horse is called upon to move his load and to display great 
force ? Does he not incline the croup, the thigh, the leg, and the canon, 
close all the angles, bring the body to the ground, correct the muscular 
insertions, and, in a word, adapt his locomotory apparatus to the new 
conditions which are imposed on him ? 

In the rapid motor, the angle of the stifle should offer a greater 
amplitude. If, indeed, on the one hand we should seek in the abdomi- 
nal limb for a certain horizontality of the croup with a view of aug- 
menting the power and extent of the contraction of the muscles, the 
case is quite different with the inferior segments, the femur, tibia, and 
canon, which require but little obliquity to move one upon the other 
with a great amplitude when the foot is raised from the ground. It 
is for this reason that the femoro-tibial angle is much more open in 
the running-horse than in any other. A tibia excessively inclined in 
relation with the femur would not reach its limit of extensicm quickly 
enough ; too much time would he taken up, and the extension would 
not be terminated before the foot liad touched the ground again. We 
bave seen in discussing the thigh that the femoro-tibial angle is about 
145 to 150 d^rees in horses endowed with speed. This is a quality 
^*di we have recognized in the best running-horses, and which wo 
^ give only as a simple datum on which our judgment can be based, 
w Uus angle varies according to the type of the horse examined. 

In order to subserve speed, it is necessary, besides, that the tibio- 
•i^raal angle be very wide, another condition which implies a small 
^^Huation of the direction of the leg. The canon can then be more 
^^Ugly flexed, pass over more space, and take a long stride, particu- 
***'^y if the tibia be long and well muscled. Moreover, when the foot 
ffte on to the ground again, the extension of the ho<^k is at its full on 


aooount of the degree of <4o6ing which ita angle has attained, and also 
because the extensor muscles of the canon are in a more favorable 
position to contract with intensity. 

A small tibio-tarsal angle defiends upon one of two causes : an 
excessive obliquity either of the canon or of the tibia. In the first 
case, a portion of the force is expended in raising the trunk upward 
instead of propelling it foni'ard. In the second case, the tibia, being 
too much inclined and too mu(*h directed backward, cannot execute its 
movements upon the femur with sufficient freedom, and limits the 
gracefulness and velocity of the locomotion. 

The tibio-tarsal angle, according to our measurements, oscillates 
about 166 to 160 degrees in the most l)eautifiilly constnictal running- 
horses. It is never 136 degrees, as affirmed by the [lartisans of the 
theory of the parallelism of tlie segments, not even in the draught- 
horse, in which the angle is smaller, and in which, in truth, its exami- 
nation is of no importan<t\ 

In this respe<*t our ol)S(*rvations are absolutely in ac(M)rd with tluise 
of our coll(>ague, M. I^ulani6. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — The diseases of this region, few as they are, 
are nevorthelcm capable of pnwenting characters of exceptional gravity. We 
will cite : 

1st Wounds caused by kicks from other horses, received during work, out- 
door exercise, or in the stable. These wounds generally appear on the internal and 
the anti*rior faces of the tibia. They are h^ss grave u|>on the external surface, 
because here the hone, protected by the muscles, is less predisposed to fnicturus. 
The intense lameness which accompanies these injuries usually prevents the 
animal fn>m working or being presentable for sale. 

2d. Osseous tumors, of about the size of a hen's egg, sometimes observed 
on the internal fact's of the two tibiae, deser>'e the greatest consideration on the 
part of the buyer. Although their presence may be related to a simple external 
vi<»lence, yet they are often the sign of a veritable calltu, — that is to say, of the 
work of ccmsolidation which has Uiken place at the point where the bone has 
been fractured in conse<]uence of mon» or loss intense* traumatisms. Experience 
has demonstrate<i that incomplete fractures of the Inme, im|>erfectly consolidated, 
may Ih' renden'tl complete under the influence of muscular contraction alone. 
It is a<lvisable, therefore, to defer the purchase of a horse which presents thia 

3d. Ijistly, l«*t us mention the lameness due to rupture of the tendon of 
the flexor of the metatarsus. This tendon, an integrant part of the muscle 
in questi<m, extends fn»m the inferior and external extremity of the femur to the 
su|>errHanterior extremity <»f the canon ; it plays a most important mechanicsl 
rdfff in so far as it establishes an intimate connection between the movementa of 
the metatarsus and those of the thigh. This tendinous cord, under the influence 
<if the energt*tic efforts made by the animals to free themselves from their bonds 
when placed under such restraint as is used by the blacksmith in shoeing m Ticimia 


labject, or when their limbs get entangled in the traces, when they are down on 
the ground, or again under the influence of a forcible gliding backward of the 
fix)t, etc., may not withstand the strain and may become ruptured. The simul- 
taneouaneas which at first existed between the movements of the two above-named 
segmentB at once disappears. The flexion of the canon is no more synchronous 
with that of the thigh ; the former sometimes remains pendulous or swings back- 
ward, and the tendo Achillis (cord of (he hock) becomes relaxed and thrown into 
folds when the animal walks. As to the position of the limb in station, it is 

This lameness, which must not be mistaken for a symptom of fracture of 
the tibia, in spite of its appearance, is ordinarily not serious ; it simply incapacitates 
the animal for his work for six or seven weeks. 

4th. We need only mention, in terminating, the excoriations which are 

rather frequent u[X)n the legs of kicking horses. They are common on the 

internal face in those subjects that struggle and kick to disengage themselves 

■when the members have been displaced over the shaft or the i)ole of the vehicle 

or the traces of the harness. The presence of these wounds, or their traces on the 

'^^in, should be a warning to the intending purchaser of some bad and vicious 

^sposition in the animal which is oflered to him. 

D.— The Hock. 

Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base. — The hock, in the 

nor>^j is analogous to the knee. It corresponds to the tibio-tarso- 
'^^tiitarsal articulations, supports the bones of the leg, and forms the 
^"^**^tre of the chief movements of the foot. 

Punctionally, it is, more than any other, a region of disi)ersion of 

^^Of^ussion as well as of propulsion. It is upon this region tliat tiie 

^^^rts of the extensor muscles which propel the body are conct»ntrattHl ; 

^^ is on this point that the rea<;tions of l(x?omotion bear at the moment 

^^en the body, moving with great vehKMty, and projected forwanl, 

^^t'ikes the ground ; finally, tliis is the region on which, in the act of 

^'^^I'ing, all the weight of the body presses down with such great force. 

Under these different aspects its study is full of interest, as much 
^^ relation to animal mechanics as to that of pathology. 

Let us examine with some detail the j)arts wliich compost* it. 

The Bonee. — The tarsus of the horse is composed of six small bones, some- 
times seven, from a want of fusion of the median and small cuneiforms in one of 
^em. Among these bones there are two whose volume and Unction are (pute 
)>eculiar; these are the astragalus and the calcaneus. The first presents a 
Very movable articular trochlea, or pulley, which is opposed to the inferior 
extremity of the tibia ; the second, more salient and elongated, is situated 
behind the preceding, continues, by its direction, the c4inon, and forms a powerful 
aim of a lever for the extensor muscles of the metatarsus. 

Underneath these two [)rinci[)al bones arc found the four <)thci->, flattened 
from above downward, with numerous facets. Tliev arc verv solidly united to the 


calcanfUH and the BstragaluH, the three pieces of the roetahtriiuii, und play the 
rAlf iif (IJHperHing agenb* for the wcifibt or the body ia movement 

Ugamenta. — The boaea of which we have ipoken are joined in a mod 
intimate manner to the a^uiniog Htmcturee, the tibia and the meut«niiiii, by 
uapaular and funii;ulur ligaments, which allow perfect freedom in the tibio-tanal 

Among these ligaments, ttro laleral, external and internal, unite the external 
and the internal tuberosities of the tibia to the head of the corre^pondinf; rudi- 
mentary metatanal boneH. They are elongated, rounded, unela/tic. tortuouH 
according to their length, and take itueeewive attaebmentH un the lateral surfaces 
of the bones which lie in their course. 

Two capsular ligaments of unequal resistance protect the t&nus in front and 
behind. The anltrior, somewhat thin and stronger outwardly, extends from the 
anterior edge of the inferior articular surbce of the tibia to the surface of the 
tarsal bones and the cauou. It pnitects the synovial membrane in front The 
poderior afleeta a general analogous disposition as to its attachments, but it ia 
thin and membranouii in ita superior [lart in order to yield easily to movements 
of flexion, whilst in itK centre and inferiorty it is reinforced by a plate of fibn^ 
cartilage, which itcr>'i<s sh a gliding xurface for the tendon of the deep flexor of 
the phalanges. It keeps in position the articular synovial membrane behind. 

Articular Synovial Membranes. — Of the five tarsal articulations, only 
one is intcrextinj; from an external |>oint of view. This ia the tibio-aatragvluid, 
which is lined by a spc«'ial synovial membrane. Although this membr&ne in 
firmly maintained on the sides by the lateral ligaments, and in front and tiehind 
by the oajMular ligaments dFsiTiI>ed above, nevertheless, it presents certain weak 
spot« whieh nuiy ]Hii<silily yield uniler the influence of the interarticular prewure 
from anexccsa of synovial secretion. These s|iots are three in number: the one 
antero-intemal, where the ligament is not protec'ted 
by the anterior tibial muscles, the other two p«te- 
rior, and situated aliuve the reinforcing fibro-i'iirtj- 
lage of the puMterior ligament. I'rewure applietl to 
any one of these swellings will cause the liquid to 
flow into the others, a fiu^t which demonstrates con- 
clusively enough their intercommunicatioo. 

Tendons and Tendinous Buran. — The ten- 
dons of the various muscles glide over the bonoi 
and the ligaments of the hock by means of synovial 
biirw, of which it in necessary to say a few words. 

In front and on the outside, the anterior cajisu- 
lar ligament is maintained by the tendon* of the 
anterior extensor of the phalanges and the flexor of 
the uietadirsus, which is held by a fibrous apooeu- 
fMi" in the lienil of the luK^k ; their moTements are 
cfllt-lfd ihriiuirh tin- intervention of the underlying 

Vv.'.f. "n ilic outside is the tendon of the lateral es- 

ten^ir of the phiilunges, which a buna of Its own 
enables to glide through ii dujiticuU- of the cxti-rnul lateral li)^ment. 

Un the inside wc find the tcmlon of the olilique flexor of the phalange* (Fig. 


76) having almost the same disposition along the internal lateral ligament, while 
below, supplied also with a special synovial bursa, the cunean tendon of the 
flexor metatarsi passes obliquely backward over the internal face of the hock ; 
this, when in a state of abnormal distention, is capable, according to Bouley,* of 
simulating a spavin by the enlargement that it forms under the skin at the very 
point where a spavin is located. 

Finally, at the back, the tarsus is transformed into a fibrous envelope known 
as the tarsal sheath. Its anterior wall is constituted by the posterior ligaments 
of the hock ; it is completed behind by an arch of fibrous tissue extending from the 
posterior border of the calcaneus to the inner side of the tarsal bones. It gives 
passage to the perforans tendon through the medium of a synovial membrane. 
The latter extends from the inferior fourth of the tibia downward to about the 
superior third of the canon. When this synovial membrane becomes dilated it 
forms two hemise superiorly in the hollow of the hock, one on the outer and the 
other on the inner side, posterior to the corresponding culs-de-sac of the tibio- 
astragaloid articulation. It is also prolonged downward along the flexor tendons 
in the shape of a tumor of variable size, sometimes simulating curb. 

The summit of the calcaneus also presents a little synovial gland, where the 
tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle is attached, to facilitate its gliding upon the 
aforesaid bones during extension and flexion of the metatarsus. This bursa, 
being very firmly sustained over its periphery, is not liable to become distended 
and form external dilatations. It is different, however, with the bursa which 
fiudlitates the play of the superficial flexor of the phalanges over the summit and 
along the posterior border of the calcaneus, and which almost entirely covers this 
surface. This tendon, afler winding around that of the gastrocnemius, widens, 
becomes inflected over the head of the calcaneal, almost completely enveloping 
it, and is then continued in the region of the canon. Now, it is for a distance of 
about five centimetres along the perforatus tendon in front of the summit of the 
calcaneus that the enlargement manifests itself when, from excessive secretion 
of the synovial fluid, this membrane becomes distended. 

External Oonformation. — The hook is a centre of movement^ 
whose perfect integrity is so important, as aflTectin^ the usefulness of 
ttie animal^ that the. eye should know and recognize its normal form 
in its least details. 

This region is divided into four faces: an anterior, a posterior, and two 

a. Anterior Faoe. — ^The anterior face (Fig. 77, -1) corresponds to the 
*^nait of the tibio-tarsal angle; it has received the name oi fold of the hock, 
^^ shows, on each side, the profile of the lateral faces. It presents, outwardly, 
«bove and behind, the summit, a, of the calcaneus ; below this, the external 
^*>eiX)8ity of the tibia, b ; finally, below, the eminence, r, formed by the ba.He 
^'tlie calcaneus, the cuboid and the head of the external rudimentary metatarsal 
"^*^e- On the inside, it offers the very prominent internal tuberosity of the 
ubi^ rf; lower down, the internal tubercle of the astragalus, e ; finally, altogether 
below, the prominence of the head of the internal metacarpal bone, // in its 

* H. Bouley, Nouveaii Dictionnaire pratique, etc , t. x. p. .'>69. 



midcllc is visible the U-nilnnH of the tiexor metatarai and of the ante 
of the jihalantcet^ g ; inferinrly. the (cr""^**- A> "f the pullcj of the aalnticitluii ; 
inwanlly, the iiaphena vein cwwten this fate obliquely from Hbove to below, i.- 
tinally, Htill on itM internal part, the unnuiitained [M>rtiun of the articular ivnuTial 
meDibmne, i. 

b. Posterior Pace.— Thin faie (Fip. 77, H) in an^lur onil oinHtituted 
from alH)re downward : by the ford, I, and the pnini of the hotk, a ; the poHterJor 
border, n', of the VHlcaneuH and the perforatun tendon. Dut, viewed from behind, 
the hm'k hIi*o precentu: the pnilileM of the lateral fat'ea, b, n, e, and d, c, / (the 
aatuc lett^m an in the {>re<-edin)c lii^ire} ; the hollow of the huvk, m, m, and the 
ehetttnut, o. 

r. Bxtema) Faoa. — ThiiK (wx i» limiled in front by a line which han. in 
it» middle part, u Humuiit, h (Fig. 77. ('), i-orrw[>ondinK t<> the amraiialoid 
trorhleii; iH-himl, the line, forming the profile of thin iwuie face, i>> very aninilar 
at the level of the nummit of the ealeaneun, a, at a jMiint known, in external 
anatomy, under the name of the puiiil nf Ihr hocl. Between the Utter and the 
canon arc nccn xucceHiiively : the iKHterior l>onler of the ealcaneuB, »' ,- then the 
tendon, /,- alHive the point of the hock i* delacheil, very pmniinently, the '^int 
iifih' hock, I, in fnuil of which in rnieii a deep deprewion, «i, calle<I the hollotr nf 
the hiK-t. Thi:« face, for the remainder of itM extent, '» undulated in it« middle 
by three iiuper]>u>ed pnK'iiiK«-i> : the i>u[MTiiir in formed by the infen»-extemal 

tiilienHity nf the tihia. h ; the nnddle nm-, more effat-ed, in eonrtituted by the 
ban' of the calcaneus, n ; the inferior, r, eiirreMjiondH to the cuboid and the head 
i)f the I'Xlcrniil nichmenliiry m<-(iitiiT»ul iMine. 

•/. Interna) Face. — Tbi' inlerniil face nlTers nlmoHt the name [)eculiaritiw 
an the i-slcrnal. It uli^iw- anteritirly the convexity due to the axtrafnilun, A (Fig. 
77, /»); f— .teriorly, the /-/'.'. ", the mr-/, /. and the h'-ffoir. m, ,.t the hmk; in 
the centrt- and fnnti iiUne iliiwnwiinl the infero- internal liiliennity of the tibia, 
if, the internal lulMnle of the Hi|ni).iihiM. f. luid, linully, the large euneifi>rm and 
the hiail uf tlic Jnterniil riidinicniiiry tni-taianMd iHme./. But on this face arc 
i*e«'n, Widiv : the niiii-i'iiliir |><irtii>n >'f the 'leep Itcxor of the phalangn, which 


■ well outlined, />, over which are located numerous venous branches, r; the 
Htphena vein, i / the chestnut, o ; and, finally, the point, ^, where the articular 
lynovial is unsustained. 

Sudi is the oonformation which the normal hock presents when it 
is examined on its four &ces. We have insisted much upon this, in 
Older that the banner may not mistake for incipient blemishes nor- 
mal eminences and depressicms which are only the indications of one 
of the primary qualities of this region, \X& neatness of outline. 

Ezaminatioii of the Hock. — The blemishes of the hock, as 

soon as they become apparent, modify at once the neatness of its lines, 

which cannot deceive the attentive and educated observer ; it is not the 

flame, however, witli the student. We would therefore advise the 

latter to examine the r^ion with care in front, between the fore-legs, 

•nd behind, in order to determine the form of the profile of the lateral 

^<«8 ; then to view it from the side, to see the profile of the anterior 

^ the posterior faces. When he has acquired a certain skill, he can 

attempt a more complicated but more rapid examination, which is 

^1^ oblique or (hree-qaarters, either in front or behind. The com- 

pfexity and the greater rapidity of the oblicjue examination are readily 

'"^erstood, since, in such a («8c, the eye endeavors to appreciate, with 

^ Same glance, the two adjacent faces of the r^on. 

Some persons claim that it is ridiculous to examine the hock by 
vie^^ing it from between the fore members ; others remark the same 
^' those who, not contented with seeing with minuteness, insist, more- 
^^'^J*, on feeling with their hands, the better to ascertain the facts. Such 
reference for the spectators' opinions would be verj- injudicious, and, 
^oi"eover, a very bad example for beginners whose many-minded 
^®*^hers are alreadv so numerous. We are not aware that anv one 
^^'^i* became possessed of 8(?ience by intuition ; in order to know a 
«»ng a man must have given himself the trouble of learning it. 

Kow, this book is esjiecially prepared for the student, whom it is 
'^^''^oseary to impress with this great tnith, — namely, that, in the pur- 
ciia^^ of horses, " he who do(»s not ()[)en his eyes o|K'ns his purse wide !" 
^^p^*i your eyes wide, therefon*, until you have acquired absolute eer- 
^^'ty concerning what you are examining, and by no nie^ins n»frain 
"^*Jn feeling with your fing(»rs if nwtls l)e. We will never r<»gret t<K) 
W^^tcili precaution in such a wise, if we ran then»by avoid committing 
^ «rror; and in any case the purcliasiT will not Ik* the j)arty who 
^*1 complain of it. 

AVliatever precautions may be employc^d, a (iireful examination of 
*« bock always requires certain prefiaratorv- conditions in th<» animal. 



He must stand in such a manner that cacrh of the four members hu)>- 
ports its own sliare of the body-weight and lies in its natural axis. 
If this little detail is neglwted, the eye will be deeeived as to the tnii- 
dimensions of tlie region and cannot (*ompare the 4>ne side with the 
other, as we shall st»t» in a future chapter. 

Movements. — The hoek is the seat of onlv two extensive move- 
ments, that of extenmon and that i){ Jlexion, The plane 4 >f these niovt*- 
ments, on account of the 4)bli(|uity of the astragaloid troi*hlea, is 
slightly obli(|ue outward, a dis|)osition which, (^lineidiug with a certain 
obliquity of the femur, ix»rmits the memlx>r to lie extended witlitnit 
being restrained by its contacrt with the alxlominal |)arietes. 

There are, l)esidi»8 these princi|)al movements, others, very liniitiil« 
consisting of simple gliding of the contiguous Ixmes, whose eftW't is to 
attenuate tlie hn'omotory nwtions, and which are, in the casc» «»f the 
h(K*k, an apiuiratus of dis|H'rsi()n anali»gous to that of the knee. 

When h'aving tlu* state of rciH)st», the fiMjt is always mon» aUhirtfHl 
in flexion than in exti'usion, and lK)th are executed with the m<ist |mt- 
fect n»gularity. When, how4»vcr, the articulations of the memUT are 
diseoMKl, whether those of the h»g or those of the luK'k, as deducxtl 
from the i»l>s(*rvations of Rig(»t and from our own, flexion is sudden, 
jerking, exaggcratetl, and sometimes so extensive that the anterior fa<* 
of the fetl(K*k almost touches the {mrieti's of the abdomen. This phe- 
nomenon constitutes x^-/«7-A<ift or //ry K/xiriM ; but the h<K'k oflers no 
trait* of extiTual dc»formity. We will again revert to this on the 
subjcH't of the (/alfx. 

Finally, when, at th<* moment of conta(*t, the ]H)ints c»f the calcanci 
are tumiil outward by a sort of n»tati4m, of which the fcM)t is the ct*ii- 
tre, the hors<» is said to hav<» rafathuj httcht, (See (waitM,) 

The Hock as a Centre of Axnortissement and Impul- 
sion. — This region is <m4» of tlu» most energi»tic wntws of impul- 
sion in the |>osterior mcmlnT. It is by its aid that the tibiiHtarsal 
angle csm su(l<lcnly f>|M'n in order ti) project the ImkIv foni'ard at the 
end of the phiisi' of ci»nta<'t. 

The quantity of movement of the Ixxly, after being first dissemi- 
nat4'<l u|N>n the lM>ncs an<l the ligaments of the coxo-femoral articulation, 
and si'i'ftmlly n|K)n thos<M)f the ienioro-tibial union, is then transmitted 
t4» the til>io-tarsil arti<*ulation, when', a certain portion iiaving alrrady 
lHH*n dcstniycil, it is again dis|>ersed uiMin the tarsal iMmes and their 
ligiuncnts. The coml)incd action of the weight of the body and its 
veI(N'ity n*sults in a diminution of the tibio-tarsal angle as well as of 
the other anghs in the superior (lart of the member. In the hock. 



cun^itlers tlie nature 
ery iuoment a resist- 

elsewbere, the extensor muscles binder this clming of tlie angle b/ 
actiiig in the maDner of a lever of the second class, or tlmt of force. 
The canoD, which U a portion of the arm of this lever, takes its ]K>iQt 
of contact upon the soil by means of the foot, and receives the weigiit 
of the body upon the astragaloid pulley, while the power, represented 
by the gastrocnemius and the perforatus mnseles, Riaiataius the equi- 
librium of this weight by strong traction upon t!ie extremity of the 
calcaneus. ■ 

A &ct here strikes the mind of whoevi 
of this power, that it has to overcome at < 
ance of more than 100 kilc^rammes ! It 
ie its relative feebleness; it is the small 
volume of the fleshy body of the gastroc- 
nemius and the perforatus muscles, and 
even of the perforans, which can also su.s- 
tain the tibio-tarsal angle ; it is tite small 
volume of tlieee agents, compared witli the 
powerful muscles of the croup and the 
thigh, which Professor Lemoigne justly 
regards as a key to the rigidity of tlie 
member, — a key without which all the 
other extensors would be deprive<i of their 
fulcrum or point of support' It seems 
that there exists here an enormous contra- 
diction l[)etween the means at the disposal 
of the oi^anism and the efiects which it is 
to produce. 

This incon^stency is only apparent, 
ud disappears as soon as we examine the 
Diode of proceeding by which the extension 
of the hock is eifected. By reason of the 
'^'anections which exist between the femur 
*'<^ the calcaneus, through the interven- 

''on of the cord ab (Fig. 78), the opening of the feilioro-tihial angle 
^*'^Oot take place without producing coincidently and in the same i)ro- 
'"'•"tion the opening of the tibio-tarsal angle. 

-^Vs the opening of the former may depend upon tiie straightening 

tfce femur or of the tibia, under the influence of their proi>er exten- 

**"*» e^, cd, it follows that all muscular traction exerted on the summit. 

K. Lemoigne, Note communiqiKl- 


Cf of the trochanter, or on the Bummit, c, of the patella, is communi- 
cated also in the same m^nsc^ and with an equal intensity to the summit, 
a, of the calcaneus. 

It is thus that, in spite of their distance of separation, the exten- 
sors of the femur and of the tibia participate in an indirect manner 
in the extension of the canon, — that is to say, in the maintenance of the 
tibio-tarsal angle, owing to the mechanical rdU of the cord of the hock. 
This remarkable synergy or correlation in the extension of the articular 
angles of the posterior limb explains the vigor, precision, and sudden- 
ness of the propulsive movements of this member during locomotion. 
ft also accounts for the true action of the gastrocnemius, the perfor- 
atus, and part of the tibial aponeurosis, which thus become agents of 
transmission in oommon with the muscles of the croup, the stifle, and 
the leg, enormous muscles, acting together and simultaneously to over- 
come the inertia of the body and to propel the latter forward. 

Thus the oif;anixation of this cord responds admirably to the 
function which is allotted to it Ileing com|M)Ki>d of two voluminous 
tendons, that of the perforatus and tiiat of the gastrocnemius, twisted 
one upon the other^ reinfort^ by a tliick lamina of the tibial aponeu- 
rosis, and, finally, attached to the summit of the calcaneus, this oord 
acts, besides, almost perpendi<*ularly to tlie extremity of one of the 
longest lever-arms in the iH'onouiy. The tarsus, from the number of 
its bones, the siuallness of their dimensions, the strength of their 
means of union, the tenuity of their movements, l>eiM>mes finally the 
instrument whicii receive«4 the font*, transniitft it, attenuates it, dis- 
fx^rHcs and deix>m{Kisos it without imtmvcnienci^ to the living ma(*hine, 
<»n (tmdition, however, that this liase be (tmstituted aix-ording to the 
mcchanitnl principles which we an* aliout to cxjilain. 

Beauties. — ^The hoc^k, t4) Im> well fonne<l, should Ik* netUly outlined^ 
fottw, »r/V/f, thickf well opnwif, aii<l frell dirvri^l. 

Neatness of Outline. — The hock is said to be mat and nicHy 
cut out when it n»pnKlu(ts <'xa4*tly tlio shaix* which we have described 
alN)V('. It is, in this <iiS4', I'xcmpt fn>in blemislH^s, and its hollow is 
v<TV pn>noun<i'<1. 

Leanness or Dryness. — Tliis repfion is, monHiver, (pialified lean 
or dry when all its iioriiiul elevations and depnHsions are well marked 
and c(»v(>nil l>y a i\iu\ supple skin, adhon^nt to the mljacent parts. 
The n<'jitn«'ss of outline iii<li(4it4's the s<»un<lness of the pi«t*« of the 
tarsal ap|)anitus; its hinuu^ss, on tli<» eontnirv, ini])li<s the pun'uess of 
the l>n*<tl, the fineiKvs of the e« institution, and the enerjry nn<l ex<'ita- 
bility of the individual. In .*«uhjwt^ of a Iympliati<' temperament, 


in those of the North of France and some of tlie districts of the 
West, the skin and the hairs are thick, the subcutaneous connective 
tissue abundant, and all the osseous reliefs more or less effaced. These 
^ni'"!^!'* frequently have a/a<,/t^//, doughy hock. We must not con- 
found this state witli an absolutely blemished condition of the parts, 
for we sliould thereby irequently be liable to discard many excellent 
horses, in which, on a(xx>unt of the race, the climate, and the soil, it is 
impossible to obtain the dry hock which is usually observed in horses 
of meridional countries, above all in the finer races. 

Width. — ^The width of the tarsus is an absolute quality, but in 
order to appreciate the same it is indispensable that the members be 
stationed in their normal axis. It is measured from the point to the 
fold of this region. It will be readily understood that, if the canon 
be placed well under the trunk, for example, this dimension will appear 
more considerable in consec|uence of the diminished obliquity of the 
calcaneus upon the tibia. It is precisely on aoeoimt of this possible 
error, resulting very frequently from a defec^t in the vertical axis or a 
variable obliquity of the leg, that deception as to the widtli of the 
hock may arise, and the latter is not always — far from it — the ex- 
pression of the length of the calcaneus, even as many think. With 
H. Bouley, we should recommend the intending purchaser not to be 
satisfied with the one dimension indicated above. He should, more- 
over, appreciate the distance comprised l)otwet»n the cord and the ante- 
rior profile of the leg on tiie one part, and the {)erforatus tendon and 
the anterior profile of the canon on the other. In other words, it is 
absolutely ne(;essary to asi»crtain the width of tiie hock above, in the 
middle, and below. If these three conditions are not fulfilled the 
region cannot be qualified wide^ for it is eminently defei*tive from the 
very disproportion of its parts. 

It is ordinarily at the inferior extroniitv, at the level of its base, 
that the region shows an abnormal narn»wness, owing to which it is 
styled strangled. The tarsal bones of the lower row are, in this case, 
not in relation, in their devel(>i)ment, with th(» dimensions of the astrag- 
alus, the tibia, and the calcaneus ; alK)ve all, with the last, which loses 
none of its power and acts, by this very reason, with so much more 
force upon the ligaments which unite it to the metatarsal lever, of 
which it really constitutes the supt^rior (»xtromitv. Such a h<K»k, there- 
fore, becomes blemished very soon, and should Ik* n|je<'t(Ml for very 
severe services expected from tli(» sjiddlc- or the* dnuijjjlit-liorse. 

When the region is deficient in widtli over its whole an^i, it is 
called lender, narrow. This is, we Ixilievc, a serious delli-t, although 



there are some authors who excuse it, and even class this form of hock 
among the good conformations. We (^an only admit one thing or the 
other : either the width is an absolute beauty or it is a defect If the 
former of these opinions be adopted, it is plain that the same qualitira 
eannot be attributed to the narrow hock as to the wide h(M*k, which is 
exactly the reverse. This is, nevertheless, what the authors of whom 
we s[M!ak liave done, unknown to themselves, although the inconsistcn<*y 
of such a theory is at once apparent. 

The width of the hock, in reality (we suppose it well dire(*ted and 
well opened), implies : 

1. The separation of the calcancan cord, which, in its turn, dept^nds 
upon both the volume of the posterior muscles and tlie length of tho 
calcaneus (superior width). 

2. The antero*posterior diameter of the tibio-astragaloid articula- 
tion and, here again, the length of the calcaneus (middle width). 

3. Finally, the antero-|)osterior development of the inferior row 
of tarsal bones (inferior width), which is tantamount to saying that a 
wide hfx^k commands a well-muscled leg; a well-<iirected tarsal cord 
in relation to the arm of its lever, which is, in addition, powerful of 
itself <m acxx>unt of its great length; large articular surfaces se(*uring, 
consM'ciuently, much amplitude to the movements of extension and 
flexion ; finally, a solid uni(m with the metatarsal column, whose width 
is evidently correlative. 

Tlic slc^ndcr, narrow h<x;k presents a conformation precisely the 
opposite. It is, therefore, for inverse reasons, defective, which is 
indcinl confirmed by oliservation. A strange sophism would be c<ini- 
mitt4Hl, unkn4>wn to himself, by the man who would argue the usi^ful- 
ness of so |)owerful a h(K*k a8so(*iat(d with a weak croup and bad loins.^ 
The solidity of one region, it is true, can S4»metimes exaggerate the 
feel)h'ncss of another; but this is not the case in the example under 
oom<ideration. If such a (*nnip or such loins transmit the impulsion 
badly, M'hat will the impulsion lie with a nam»w hock? The two 
dcfwts will Ih» 8U|M*nid(UHl to (>ach 4 )ther without any chance of comjwn- 
sation ! 

Thickness. — The thickness of the hock is measured fn)m one 
lateral iluv U\ another. It is appn'ciated by examining the region in 
fn>nt, behind, or o|>li<|ii(>ly, if one has more ex|)eriencv and a more prac- 
tist^d eye. Like tin* wi<ltli, we must view it al)ove, in the middle, and 
Inflow, in <»rdcr to assiin> ours4'lv(>s that there is a pnijier correlation 

I Mercbe. Nuuvenu Timlt^ den furxueH extoiieure* du cbcval, p. 447. 


between the development of each of these seeondary parts. The thick 
hock merits this name and is truly beautiful only on condition of its 
great transverse diameter at the level of the tibia, the astragalus, and 
the superior extremity of the canon. 

The tarsal thickness indi(»ates that of the leg, of the canon, of the 
fetlock, and of the pastern. It l)esjx»aks perfect steadiness and equi- 
librium in every part of the hind limb; while its breadth has the 
entire command of the extent of the movements, the latter taking 
place backward and forwanl and vice versa. 

It is evident, however, that this thickness in the draught-horse, for 
example, should not be comjjared to that of the thoroughbred, two 
types essentially diiferent. In the one, the bones are voluminous, short, 
and the muscles powerful ; in tlie other, the bones are long, relatively 
alender, and the musck^s long. If each requires, with equal propriety, 
wide and thick articulations, absolute l)eauties applying to all services, 
still it is necessar}' that the projwrtions and the general liarmony should 
not suffer thereby. 

Extent of the Tibio-tarsal Angle. — As the hock is practically 
only one articulati(m, the summit of an angle, it is not useless to 
inqm're if its degree* of ojx?nnt»ss is capable of influemnng the fun(»tions 
of the parts, and if this angle, once determined, can owe the separation 
of its branches to a greater or lessen* inclination of the one or the other 
of them. In other terms, what is the value of the tibio-tarsal angle, 
and what is its orientation on the member to 1k> in the most favorable 
attitude for the development of fon-e or the display of velocity ? 

Most writers have endeavored to answer tiiis question by advancing 
theoretical views insufficiently based on facts. Hen(xi their writings 
contain numerous contradictions. We think we have Ix^n more logical in 
studying first very Ijeautiful m(xlels, with a view of reasoning afterwards 
more easily in the i>articular cases which presenit neither an aKsolute 
l)eauty nor a veritable defect, and which are so otlen met in practice. 

Dismissing for a moment the oi)liquity of the leg, let us remark 
that the angle of the hock undergoes more or less the influence of the 
three metatarsal directions, as follows : 

a. The canon remains vertical. 

6. It is oblique for>vard and downward. 

c. It is oblique backward and downward. 

We will suppose, in each of these instances, the iK)int of the hock 
tangent to a vertical line which would start from the jioint of the but- 
tock, as we remark it in the memlHT with a normal axis. (St»e Axei<,) 

a. The Oanon, Vertical. — The canon in this case is tangent 



throughout its entire length to the pn^viously-cited vertical axis. 
This iNMition of the menilH*r \h the most favorable to the projK.T ext*- 
cution of its Incomotory funt'titm, a8 we will verify d propon of the 
vertical axi»s. It Ix^longs, Ix^ides, to all properly-conformed horses^ 
whatever niav be the service for which thev are destined. 

The tibio-tarsal angle, under this premise, i^n be more or U*ss o|M'n 
acconling to the situation of the tibia which (*onstitutes its sujK'rior 
branch. Whence, ctinsetjuently, then» follow two si^HHidar}' pro|Misi- 
tions with regard to the direction of the latter sc»gment. 

1st. The Tibia, Straight. — We will <h>signate thus a tibia whttsc 
obliquity is little mark(>d (al)out 65 to 70 ch»gn»es). The hcx^k whi(*h 
oorrett|K)nds to it is called Htraujht; the angle which it forms is wry 

open (Fig. 79). A similar (*(»nf4»rmation is favonililc t(» 
velocity orspeetl, for it allows hmg stridt*s, during which 
the caU^neus U^'omes mon' and more {M'qM^ndicular to 
the musc*les that have to move it, liesides, the f(M>t, on 
arriving on the gnmnd, is more stnmgly flexed u|>oii 
the leg, which givi*s the ho(*k a more energetic and ex- 
tensive impulsion. 

Kunning-horsc^s onlinarily have this region thus 
disiKJSi'd ; their tibitntarsal angle is al)out 155 io 160 
ilegnH's, aw we have alnndy swn in treating of the K*g. 
The ol)s<Tvcr is easilv dcct»ived as to the width of 
the straight h<N'k on account of the dinvtion which the 
cahiincus here atl(H*ts. On that account it is necessar}' 
to (observe the length of this bone during walking. 
But it is an error to Ix4ievc that this h(N*k, implying 
but little inclinatnon of the til)ia, m*ct?ssarily violates 
th4' vertitiil axis liy pla<*ing the limb more under the 
trunk. It >utKces, to convimv ours4»lv4»s «»f the contrarj', to ol)serve 
tlie tlioiiiuglibnil horses, which have in nearly all instances a marked 
o|H*iiiiig of tlic tibio-tarsiil angle, and t4» make nu*asurements, as we 
havf done, u|M»n their articMihir angles; it will then U* verified that 
their axf- arr jMTfiN'tly ni»rnial on su'ctuiut of the suitable din«cti<m of 
the <Toup and x\\v tliigh. 

Thr stniight li(N'k, which it sct^ms should pnKlu<r much fatigue to 
till* animal fn»ni tlic litth' |>er|NMidi<'ularity of its c(»rd \\\ym\ the itil- 
itmeus, is pn^-isi'ly so ilisiMiH^l in order that tlu' deficient muscular 
ctmtrai'tion may not int4Tfere in a grejit mea8ui*e. As H. Bouley * has 

Fi«i :«,» 

» H. Hrnilry. Iik-. cit.. p JHO. 


remarked, "when tlie pieces of a freshly-dissei^ted hock are moved, 
it is easy to recognize tliat, towards the limits of its movement of 
extension and flexion, the angle 0{)ens and closes by a sort of spring- 
like action, which cannot be better compared tlian to tliat of the blade 
of a pocket-knife upon its handle. The articulation, being once opened, 
the two segments will remain in this state of extension by tlie very fact 
of the manner of coaptation of their surfaces of contact, and the 
intervention of a muscular force to maintain them vertically is not at 
all necessary/' 

The straight hock, finally, possesses this advantage from a point of 
view of speed, that it is usually ass<K»iated with long posterior memlx^rs 
capable of taking long steps. Supposing the lengths of the crural, 
tibial, and metatarsal segments to be equal, it is evident that their 
superposition, in a more or less vertical manner, will give a more con- 
siderable total height to the memlxir than if these pieces are joined in 
a more oblique manner. Whence it follows that a horse having his 
^ne& thus articulated will have his locomotory apparatus more 
Q^v^eloped relatively to the body, and hence will be endowed with 
^''ea.ter speed. 

2d. The Tibia, Oblique.— The first effect of such a direction 
^ 'the closing of the tibio-tarsal angle, allowing less freedom to the 
'Dc>\rements of flexion tlian if this angle were more open. Another 
cfl^ot is a more perpendicular insertion of the cord of the hock, which 
pl^oes the latter in the best conditions for the projK»r utilization of its 
foroc. The last result is a lessening of the total length of the posterior 
^^*^ber and a proportionate diminution of the aptitude of the organism 
^ *^lation to speed. 

Thus conformed, the. animal is closer to his bast* of support ; the 

*^^*^1« is strong, and its muscles well dis|)osod ; but the step is shorter 

^^ account of the smallness of the tarsal angle and the diminished 

ler^gth of the member. All things being tHjual otherwise*, the gait will 

*^ less rapid, unless it makes up by the repetition of its movements 

*^*' the space and time lost at each stride, which will fatigue the ani- 

"^^1 and wear him out more quickly ; hut if the step lacks amplitude 

^^<X the member length, the muscles may l)c niort* voluminous, the 

"<kI^» developed, and the total mass considerable. The animal being 

^^^*ii (a|)able of the most energetic efforts at a very slow pace*, tlie 

H^^aitity of movement (inv) procluccKl will not Ik' less, l)ecause it will 

msplace a greater weight with more feeble velocity. Poorly adaptinl 

*^^ the turf, he will be excellent ior traction, pr()vi(lcd tliat his confor- 

^^'^tioii has been modifieil in the sense whicli \vc hav<' indicated. 



The hock with a small angle, which we will call common^ bccauRe 
it is ordinarily met in horses for light-draught and rapid heav}'- 
draught services, is, in our opinion, more favorable to the produc*tion 
of force. Does this mean that the straight hock is defective for all 
laborious ser\'ices, and that it is only obserN'ed in long-striding lu^rses? 
By no means. It is rather frequently seen in our heavy, lympliatic 
horses, which our measurements have proved ; it should not, in such 
cases, be considered as defective unless it at the same time lacks width, 
which is not rare, or unless its deficiency is not compensated by a mus- 
cular and powerful leg. 

6. The Oanon, Oblique forward and downward. — This 

conformation, in which the canon is deviated in advance of tlie verti- 
cal line falling from the point of the buttcxrk, has 
caused the hock to be qualified elbowed or ang^ular 
(Fig. 80). 

This hock, says H. Bouley,* "always ap]>oar8 
wide in its su))erior part, because its angulanicss 
H'Hults in a 8(>paration of the calcaneus fnmi the 
tibia and, cousiH|uently, places tlie (alcanean cord 
at a greater distance from the latter bone ; whence 
a widening of the external surface. This l)ending 
of the region, t)esidt>s, also lias the effect of plai*ing 
the arm of the calitmean lever in the most favor- 
able i*ondition for the prtxiuction of force. 

'' But, by the side of these advantages, T%*t\ 
disadvantages present themselves, which give 
ample reasons for considering this conformation 
as Ix^ing deflective. First, the column of sup- 
port b<»l<>w the tibia Ix^ing situated obliquely, it results that the pn>t»- 
ure of the weight (»f the InKly, instead of being transmitted to tlie 
ground by tlie bones exclusively, as in the vertical position of this 
«yment, causes a strain, pn)ix)rtionate to the degree of the obliciuity, 
on tlic ligaments which unite the tarsus with the metatarsus as a 
whole, and ini|)oses u|N»n them an abnormal fum*tion. In addition, 
tln-si* lig:inients, during IcK-omotion, are subjects! to all the gn-ater 
strain, iM^-ausi* the mustnilar fonv finds, in the direc*tion of the <al- 
<'anean lever-ann, more favorable conditions for its development. 
Thes«» an* two (»aus<*s which fatigue the ap|)aratus of the hock more 
and hast(>n its prematun' ruin. Kx]M^rience Ixurs witness to tiiis 


> H. Buulvy. luc. cit.. t. z. p. 079. 


eSect Nothing is more oommon than to witness, at the base of 
dbowed hocks, the development of osseous tumors, which are the 
expression of the excess of its function, to which such hocks are pre- 
iiisposed from the very fact of their defective conformation. We can 
understand that this defect will tend to become more exaggerated 
when the hock, instead of corresponding to the vertical through the 
buttock, is situated farther under the centre of gravity. Horses 
whose hocks are angular are often animals of superior quality so far 
as energy for work is concerned, and are, consequently, predisposed to 
niin themselves so much more quickly, as the apparatus upon which 
tJiey apply their force possesses less favorable conditions for resistance." 
The learned author of this quotation might have added that the 
anf^iilar hock, by drawing the inferior i)art of the member towards the 
centre of gravity, by causing an exaggerated closing of the tibio- tarsal 
angle and too great a stret<^h of the. foot forward under the tnmk, 
determines, besides, an overloading of the posterior members prejudicial 
to tlieir functions. It augments the work of the extensor muscles of 
the metatarsus during station, diminislies the amplitude of tlie step by 
w»t«raining the movement of flexion, and, finally, expends to no pur- 
pose* a part of the eifort of impulsion to elevate the trunk instead of 
<*«*rying it directly forward. 

Such a hock should, for these reasons, be rejected in sjnte of its 
apparent width, for it is the result of an imperfection in the axis of 
^^ member which will soon ruin it. 

c. The Oanon, Oblique downward and backward. — This 

^'''ection of the canon places the posterior member in tlie attitude 
wtiich is called camping ^ and which approaches somewhat that of tlie 
•'^•xiial when he urinates. We will have occasion to return to this in 
^"^<iii8sing the axes. Let us say, for the present, that it i)laces the 
'^^^Habers in a very unfavorable condition to fulfil, with ease, their 
"^^cjtions as columns of support and as agents of impulsion, relatively 
^ txlie trunk. It removes them too far from tlie centre of gravity, 
^'^xxsfers a corresponding portion of the bcxly-weight.upon the anterior 
^^^iibers and the loins, and renders the impulsion more feeble and less 
^^^^nsive; it predisposes to gliding backwanl, fatigues the animal 
"^^'^j leads to sway-backedness, etc. (See Axes,) 

We must not confound this c^onformation with that which is proper 

^ ^ straight hock. The femoro-tibial and tibio-tarsal angles, in the 

"^«r case, are open, but tlie natural axis of the linih is preserve<l, 

^*^Ue, in the horse camping Iwhiiid (only from the hock down), the 

wWa remains very oblique, whilst it leaves the tihio-tai-sal angle very 


large and disturlM the normal axes. Wheniv it follows that this angle 
is badly dis|M»sed tor the functions of its branches during locomotion^ 
and even tend^ to n^ist the etTorts intended to draw tliem towards 
i^\ (»ther during station. Its bisectrix, if prolonged to the ground^ 
m<*ets the latter at a {xiint insutiiciently distant from tliat when* the 
hind feet effect their contact, and the consetpience then is that the angle 
is (juitc* as hadly openetl for the production of six^etl as for that of 

Directioii of the Hock. — ^The directioii of the hmk must be 

studied from two different points of view : in r(4ation with the median 
plane of the body and in relation with tlie axis of the member. 

1st. Direction Relative to the Median Plane. — Relative tn 

the median plane of tlie body, the hock can &ssume thnv situations, 
— namelv : 

It is jxtrallel and thus ireil directed. 

It is derkded inward and qualified close or coW'ho(*ked, 

Finally, it is deviated oultrardy which renders the horse open 

In order to have its normal dire<*tion, the hoc^k should Ix* {Nirallel 
to tlie median plane, for its branches are flexed and extend(*d u|iod 
ciU'h other in a plane equally {Kirallcl, not to sjx'ak of the nonnal devi- 
ation which the inferior j)art of the memlxT aftw'b* during flexitm. In 
this cas<> the impulsion given by the |)<»sterior limits is transmitted, 
without lateral oscillations, to the spinal column, whose* direction it 
follows, and there is n<» waste of fonv in the pn»je<'tion of the ImkIv. 
Th(» play of the extn»miti<»s is easy ; the f(H»t nw not predis|M)sed to 
interfering ; their ctmtacl with the gn»und is uniform ; th(» gait is free, 
n*guhn% l»rilliant, and the tarsal ap|)aratus will withstand a prolonged 

When the li<H'ks are rionv or rrfntkefl (Fig. HI), their ]H)ints, when 
vifwt"*! from JH^hiud, I'^mvrrg**, aud the inferior jwirt of the memlK^rs i« 
dcviatMl oiitNNanl. TIk' ln»rs«' i'» thru d4>signat<ii ro/r-/iocAvW, or done- 
hamimd ; his iiiovrmrnts an» without clr^nuicc', although the ctrnforma- 
tioii is iA'Xvw assiKMat*"*! with v<tv gn-at qualities. 

It', (»u tl iitrary,tlH' |H>iuts of thr lnK-ks (Fig. S*J)an' diverging, 

tlir lower |Kirt iA' the uicuiImt is turniHl inward ; tin* animal is oy^'/i, ui 
tnn ofH n hrhind, xu vicw of tln' gH'Sit s<>|)anitiiin of the two csdciinei. 

Wr will 4'\|»laiu, when tn'siting of the </./vw of fJif innnttcrH^ the di*- 
ailvaiitages of tliesi* 4h»ln't>, which give to >ueli ^nbj*»ets the mosi 
uii;:ra<^'ful 'jiits imagiua))le. 

•J<1. Direction Relative to the Axis of the Member. — In 



wder diat the tarsal apparatus may fulfil ite functiooH well, it is not 
CDOugb that it should be in a plane parallel to the axis of tlie body, 
but it is also Dcoessary that the median line of the member divide it 
into two very equal moieties. If this condition be not realized, the 

•^on of the hock is displaced inwardly or outwardly, and becomes 
"^ seat of insularities in it^ t^untaet mure or less prejudicial to the 
int^gtity of the locomotory machine. 

AVlien the hocks are strougly convex on their internal faott from 
™**ve to below,' they an' most ordinarily angular in front, and the 
•"'iBial ia close behind. 

The deviation opi>osite to the latter, and common in horses too 
"!**» behind, consistw in a rather strongly- marked concavity of the 
"••ole of the internal surface of the member, in virtue of which the 
'^''^nei become very diverging, while the two htHjfs, nearer each other 
""^O they should be, converge and oven touch each other in the region 
**' the toes, A horse offering this conformation could be callixl boir- 
'^KO'ed, on account of its analogy to the aspect of the man whose l^is 
"^ thus directed. In botli forms the hock does not give the natural 
impulsion to tlie body, and the nieinl)era move in a very ungracefid 
"^Uner. (See Axes of MemfxTx. ) 

Diseases and BlemiaheB. — ^Tlie alteratiims of which the hix-k 
"^y be the seat, says H. Bouley,' are numerous, vai-ii-d, and often of 
tttrcme gravity. They may afUn-t any of tlie constituent (wirts of 

■ U. BuuIgjt, Iuc. clL, p. &8S. 



tilis complex appanitiifl : tlie Ntius, the synovial nirmbraneci, the liga- 
ments, the tendons and tbeir sheaths, and, finally, the Hubvutaneuus 
tissue. The skin ituelf is sometimes affected, but only in a mild 
degree, as <x>nii>an<d with the intrinsic pieces of the region. 

The niinilxT and gravity of these lesions are readily ex])1uin('d by 
the inijKtrtiint liite of the hock in the fimt^tiun of locomotion. 

Following the metliutl of H. Bonh-y, we will study them by jMiMiing 
fnim without U> within. 'Hiey exist, in tat't, uiHtn the fkin, the iim- 
neetive tissue, the tendons and their burew, the Umes, and the tibJo- 
tun<al arti<-ular synovial membrane. 

a. The Side— The [Miint (if the hiNlc in quite froqucntlv the Heat of denuda- 
tions and UEooilatlona, wliime jini>i.-ni-v nhnuld attract the attciiiinu. Such 
wiiuiidx, by reawiii i>r their liK-ality, an- ultcn an inilex iif the viriiiuo <-hiinii-t<T nf 
the auiiiial, <ir of hin irritabh' lUMjMMition. They nvull fmni blo«K, kick*, kick- 
ing;, ami are [wrtii-ularly (.■oiiiinon in irritable inartii which are iimtinually urt- 
natitifr. They arc wtiiietitncH tiilliiwtil by ntviilcutul irhife miirkai'i* in ntibjit-tii 
with dark-ouUinsI fxtrcniilieti ; at mhcr liaii'M by cioatrloea of a varinlib' c<>n- 
ti(!ii ration, viiiible iin thenutHiile. ciivcn'd by the lurnmndini; liuim, or frauiluli'nily 
hiiblcn by a colonNl ciiatinf:- 

Traoes of oauterisatloa, in |K>iiit» <>r in litien, which an- seen on blem- 
tHhol iKM'ks xlioulil induce <>nc to ascertain whether the alfectinn tiir which the 
cantcrinklion hiiH hvt'ii cni|iloy(il lia* entirely dtiiapiwansi, iir whether the n-giun 
iH improved in a uiiinner hi [it-riuit of a better utiliutimi nf tlic unimal. 

It Ih in the fold i)f thiTi IxH'k that the nnwt M-rinux culaneouM bi'ion^ are 
otMervcd. They ciiii:tiiit of tniiiHVcrw li>to^iire:>, known under the vul);ar name iif 
aallenders, occasioned by extemul irriluli'in. i-on- 
tiniial (Virtion, or the application of a vexicaut. Pri- 
marily lieniftn, willenilerH WHin Imiinica eoinplicatvd in 
coitM-<jHenc« iif the incuwant movcuientu of the iHUtii, 
and aU) other cauiu.ii. xuch an the bniiiidity, the eleva- 
tion of the teiiijifrature, unclcilnnc?*, etc It then 
lieconiei' n wound, rel>elliiiUii to cicatriutinn, with 
thick, indiinitol bonien', i-overtd with Hcal*. and 
alwavK very |uiinful during the hut wawiita. 

b. Oonnective Tissue. — The mbeutancouo enu- 
ni'ciive tiwiic lit tbi- jxiint of the lioek, under the in- 
llni'iii'c of contusion!! ami rcin-alcd frictiom-, U-cotnea 
inliltralcd with semni. mid form» at the end of a cer- 
tain time a m>II. fluetufttin|r, noinetimm tctlematiHU. 
non-inflaniinatiiry tumor denijrnated under llie iiatnea 
F»>. M. ftti,fH-.i h-H-i anil ni/W/>/ ' (Fig. W). 

C.'apjied hiK'k ix nothing t-lne but hj/yroiiui of the 
Bunimit of the i-alcaneu*. Itii prealeHl inconvenience Ih the deformity of the ptdnt 
of the hock, but it iK-<-aition* no lamcm-iM. It (vin^litutea none the lew quite k 

ill np ulunilui the heul vt llxi valiatwui." ill. Ihnil 


ierious blemish in pleasure-horses, on account of the deformity which it produces 
tod the tenacity with which it resists the means employed for its resolution. 
It must not be confounded with the purely accidental oedema of this part in 
iiofses standing in the stable for a long time, which disappears promptly under 
tile influence of exercise. 

c. Tendons and Tendinous Synovials. — We will mention, in passing, 
the rupture of the tendinous portion of the flexor vietatursi, of which we have 
already spoken in the article on the leg, and which gives rise to a lameness of a 
special character. 

We will also name an accident, — an exceptional one, indeed, — luxation of the 
caieanectn attachment of the perforatum. In the two known cases, the tendinous 
portion of this muscle had ruptured its insertion on this bone from a very 
violent effort of traction, was dislocated externally to the jwint of the hock, and 
produced so visible a deformity that the animal could not have been offered for 

It is the same with the omfication of this calcanean capy as well as of a 
portion of the tendon itself, which we have observed, on one occasion only, in an 
old horse that was sacrificed for dissection, and whose hock we deposited in the 
Department of Collections at the Alfort School. 

These lesions have no other interest than their raritv. A different case, how- 
ever, Li that of the abnormal dilatations of the synovial sheaths which facilitate 
the gliding of the tendons in the region of the hock. These are, on the contrary, 
niOftt common, always very gnive (some of them at least), with regard to the de- 
preciation in the value of the animal. They are known under the generic name 
of tendinous hygroma or thorough-pin. 

The most serious among them is undoubtedly that of the tarsal sheath, which, 
'Of this reason, has received the name of tarsal or tendinous thorough-pin. It is 
characterized by subcutaneous tumors, which appear at the superior or at the 
^ferior part of the hock, at the points where the synovial membrane has no 
wpport. The superior dilatation is situated in the hollow of the hork, immedi- 
ately in front of the tendo Achillis or cord, and along its course. More salient 
Ott the internal side, it is sometimes bilobed, and mav reach the inferior fourth of 
the leg. When it is very voluminous, pressure exercised upon it will not force 
the liquid to the anterior face of the hock, because the tarsal sheath does not 
wnnnunicate with the articulation ; but such pressure, being transmitted to the 
welliiig at the inferior part of the hock, renders them more apparent. 

These tumors, less developed than the preceding one, and less distinctly out- 
lined in consequence of the thickness of the walls of the sheath, follow the 
^^*^^^*^Re of the flexor tendons to the superior third of the canon. 

** Tarsal thorough-pin,'' says H. Bouley, " is susceptible of acquiring enormous 
pensions, particularly on the internal side. It has been seen to be enlarged 
^ *Uch proportions that the space between the two members was no longer suffi- 
cient for their normal movements, and the skin over its surface was excoriated 
"Om the constant friction against the opposite hock during the movements of 

"^e gynoTial bursa which facilitates the gliding of the expansion of the 
pcrforatus upon the summit of the calcaneus is also capable of becoming dilated 
to an abnormal degree. Although very strongly attached here, it can yield to 
** presBure of the liquids from within, forming along the cord of the hock an 


elongated, cylindrical tumor, ordinarily of a small volume, and about ten centi* 
metres in length. This is called caicanean hygroma, 

H. Bouley obser>'ed with justness that the synovial cul-de-sac which permits 
the gastrocnemius tendon to glide upon the summit of the calcaneus, during 
the movements of extensive flexicm, is so powerfully supported by the expansion 
of the |)erforatus that it is alMolutely impossible for it to dihite in the form of 
external enlargements. He adds, with equal accuracy, that this synovial t^nnot 
in any manner give rise to the tumor which we have studied above under the 
name of capped hock. 

Finally, it is also possible to meet hydropsy of the small bursa which facili- 
tates the gliding of the cunean tendon of the flexor of the metatarsus over the 
surface of the internal lateral ligament It presents a small, soft, fluctuating 
tumor of the size of a large bean, situated in front of the point where the exos- 
tosis of a spavin usually forms and for which it is sometimes mistaken. This 
dilatation has received the name of cutteati hygroma, on account of its lrK*ation 
in relation with the tendinous branch under which it is devcloi>ed. 

(i, Artioular Synoviala. — It is rather common to meet uiK>n the astrag- 
aloid pulley and in the corresponding grooves of the tibia more or loss deep 
multiple striie or Assures, perfectly regular, and all of them parallel to the lips 
of the astragalus. These atritr of the articular surfaces are most omimon in old 
horscM. They are, without doubt, due to some slow and oliscure irritation of the 
tibio-tanal joint, and corrcs|)ond pnibably to a special irregularity of its move- 
ments ; but clinicians at present have not determined in a precise manner the 
external symptoms of this variety of lesions, which should consequently be 
investigated. (See DrffcUofthr (Snih: Sirimj-hnH,) 

The most serious alterati(m of the tihio-astragaloid articulation is const^'utive 
to a hydrofwy of its synovial nifiiibrane. The synovia, under the influence of an 
excessive functiimal activity on the part of this membrane, is sei*reted in larger 
quantity in the articular (*avity, and, in the long run, exen*ises pressure fnim 
within whi4*h, little by little, dislocates the |Mirietei4 of the articular cavity. l)ut 
HK the latter are not e<iual)y sustained everj'where, the places which off*er thv 
IcHKt resistance to the internal pn*ssure are distended l)eyond their physiological 
limits ami pnKluct* a hernia, by forming under the skin three tumors whose \nw\' 
tion in stationar>', wh<H<* volume and tensicm alone change aa^ording to thf 
intcii**itv of the alteration. The:H' three tumors constitute what is called artiruiar 
thonmtfh'f/in of thr httfl. 

The first of thcsi* i*« l<H*atiHt in the fold of the h(K*k and a little to the internal 
•<idi'. It m<Hliti(>H the pn»filr of i\\v anterior fa<r of this* region by the preseni'< 
t»r :in abiioriiial curvo. yii'Min^, uml always nion> t<»nsi* to the flnger when th< 
niciiilNT is on thf ^nmnd. 

Thr other two articular dilatation?* are situattni In^hind and ab<ive the lateral 
li;raiii(>ntf«. ix'twiM'n th(* tibia antl the prrforans trndon. They have a variabU 
vdliiiMc, whirli raii<5i*s from that of a walnut to that of a child's head; tht 
internal \* ni(»*«t rri'i|ii(Mitly larircr than the rxti>rnal. which is Hometinics alisent 
Tin* pri'M-ncc of i»nc <»!' th<*-c cnn-taiilly coexists with that of th<* anterior swell- 
iuL'. aM<l that i?* wliat wc iiii;rht expect. sinc(> all three an> only diverticula of th« 
same cavity. Pres.«iire exercisi*<l ii|h>ii one of tliciii is coniiuunicated to th< 

The -ynnvial tjilatatinns arc. in ^'ciier:il, les> ^^ravc than the <»ss<»ous tumon 



They may for a long time remnia crimputible with the liberty of the n 
They (the articular eepecially) lame the animal only in caseti of abundant hjper- 
aecietion of synovia and excessive tension on the surrounding tissues. Their 
parietce, in tong-stunding osHes, become thickeneil and calcified in plai^cx, restrain- 
ing greatly the lantal movementH. When the ralciticutioa is very extensive, it 
mnstitules a false anchylosis of the urticulatioii, which renders rapid locomotion 
ihMlutely impossible. 

e. Tbe Bonee. — The osseotts blemishes in the region of the bock have 
irceived different names. They are: curb, tpdi-lu, aniljarde. 

1st. Curb.— Ourb (Fig. 84, B, and Fig. 85, A) is a periostitis of the infero- 
interaal tuberosity of the tibia, which is developed under the influence of external 
rioleni.'e or excessive strain of the articulation. It is characterized by the fornia- 
tinn of osseous layers, which are disposed in regular strata upon the tibial tubor- 
oiity, over the surface covered by the attachment of the inlernul lateral ligament. 

"ua fonnation offeni a longitudinal groove in which the tendon of the oblique 

oMor of the phalanges glides and manifests itself extermilly iiy a curee, more 
P™lnunced than in a normal state, when this fiice is viewed from in front, behind, 
w obliquely. At the beginning, it is <ifton difficult of recognition from its feeble 
(liioenaioim^ which render the comparison of the two hocks necessary. Unless 
""7 »re both blemished, it is generally easy to determine the presence of such a 
|''*'pl«ia, for it it exceptional that the two enlargements should l>e absolutely 
' ""ical in relation to their form an<l volume. Curb only 'H-casiiin.'* lameness 
onnng iig formation ; when it is once devclojied, the lameness disa]ipearw. 
*^erthelesa, there are some which from the volume which Ihey ntliiin cover up 
"•* ttiirgin of the tibial articidar surfaces and interfere, mor 
^*'«Mn of the movements; in such thev arc nil the m 
«• febellious to all means of treatment. 

^.Spavin.—The term spavin should be rcscrv<Hl to d 
•'lb* lower and internal [wirt of the hock (Fig. 84 and Fig. » 

with the 



most UKually certain bones nf the tamus und of the raetatareuit cnvcreil l>y th« 
cxponxion of the inferior extremity of the internal lateral ligament of the ur- 
ticuUtion, — that in to say, the head of the rudimentary metatarsal bone, a ^niall 
portion of the princijMl metatamal, the cuDeif<ir)n!>. the 
M'ttphoid, and even the buiie of the uHtragalUK. Freijucnily, 
however, it is much more lirfunwcribt-d. which liao Iwl H, 
Itouley K) Hpei-ify an nn-hiUirml, at loir, the spavin which is 
situated at the upper cxti?mity of the canon, ami a.« f'<rfi- 
tHftaliirmif, or Aiifli, that \ hich aHi-etti the lumiit of the tatfa- 
a» well an thcwe of the DU-tatarsiM. 

The finit is manifented externally sh an exafqienilion of 

the eminence fornu-tl by the head of the internal sjilint 

bone, or, ainiin, when it is more anterior, by the greater vid- 

umc of the tulM-rosity of insertion of the flexor mUM-le of the 

metatarsus. Siinetirnes it is (iim|dicaled by a splint on the 

canon, in c-()ns»|nence of the alinonuHl nssification of the in- 

teriMM-ous Hguaicnl which unites the rudimentary in the 

principal nietutarsal Imiiic. U'hulerer may be its exact M-at 

anil its volume, which are KUseeptiblc to variation. iatf„t„m/ 

spavin onlinurily occiisions only a tem))orary lauivnew. which 

Fiii.W. coaxes, in most instances, utter a certain lajise of time, when 

the work of nssifjcatioH is cmnpleted. 

As to liifm-metatitrml sjiavin. itii jtruviiy is verj- dilTerent urn) its fni|ueucy 

Ruicb (Greater. It constitutes, in IHct, a kind of ex<jiit<K>is which solileni the inferior 

lH>n(>s of tlie tarsus to <ine another iiml to the metatarsus. It is at first limiie<l to 

the |H<rip))ery nf the articular marfrins, but profcressively iuvailes the iirtii-ular 

surfaces themselves. The latter complication, wh<Me evil efteets are easily un'ler- 

stoisl, — in one woni, true ancbylo-is. — dis-s not always exist, even in the c»w 

of very voluminous exoHtnses. We have examined the urticular surfaces in ■ 

numlN'r of instances in old horses, und found them still Such a b-^ion 

dm-s not, us I'sn 1h> [>erceiveil, ci>iuplete1y annihilate the movements of the tanwl 

arttculnlioiLs, anil, consei|iiently. lessens the gravity of the pmifnosis which may 

buve Uin de<lu<-eil from it. 

Iliine s|>avin, nt the Uvinninj; of its formation, and (>efore the apjiearance 
of the CKternal tumor, detennines a lameni^vi, ):enerally very intense, u|H>n the 
nutnre nf wbii'b it is almost itii[H>ssible Ut deciile with certainty. The liimc- 

m-s- which foU.m-s has no palhot:ni>nionic cbaracter, even when it is act |ia- 

nieil by the jrrt: of ulriii'j-lmll. It i* only .it the enti of a ii-nain time that the 
exostiHis is niiiuifesli-il in profile u|><m the internal side of ihe h's-k. lis volume 

timi- very «,-ll d.lin.'l. it projiits inwiinl, lorwa.^ 

ticiiliilion. In nillx-r t'r<-<|ii<-nl <-:i^<-s llie lanii-iii-« 

iiiti'n>iiy nr disiipis'iir- entirely ; but iu m<Mi in^Iii 

in r<-liiii..n with the extent of the tumor. It>. char 

•anie; ihi' .ininial siilfcrs li-w piiiii and the limp : 

niii'bauical ilitlicul til's which the tar-ul lH>m-< exjKTieniv in tlieir illsplacements. 

Ilowi-ter it iiiiiy Is-, it !:■ apparent that the univity of ihc pro>.'n<Mi> varii'> with 

the iialiire of tli.- arlliidar b-^lon-. llic ol^taeb-s iiUcroi to I.Himiotion, and the 

per*i->lencc and ti'nacily of the rational -ymptoms to which ibe blemish is heir. 

limi"* s<.-arcely distinct, s<nne- 
il.or Imckwanl fn>m the ar- 
al this [HTiod diiiiiniT>hii> in 

iU'feristies an- no lonp-r the 



1 location, 

84 Jarde.'— Jard© (Fig. 87) m nut, a» every iint wrongly believes, an osse- 
ow mmor, reproducing identically, U|H>n tbe external aide of the ho*;k. the 
enlirgement which a spavin forms on the internal side of the 
•■me r^ioiL It is Bini|)ly a more or test eileative pfrhftUif 
i/ the head of Hie ej-itrnal rudimenfary metatarml bone. This 
'^ion a very often com plicated by a aplint, an in ihe case 
which we represent (Figs. 88 and 89) ; at other times, and this 
i" perhaps the most frequent circumstance, nothing is found 
but a tumor developed at the superior and external side of the 
ciaon, — that is to say, a simple eplint. This is at least the 
opiDioD which we have acquired as the result of our re- 
searches rr)r a period of observation citcnding over more 
tiun forty yeais, in conditions altogether exceptional in so far 
*s tli« abundance of the specimens studied was concerned. 

Jarde is never situated at the same height as spavin ; 
it is always lower, which already implies that the external 
Uraal bones are not the seat of it. Beaides, it remains con- 
fined outwardly or posteriorly, and docs not extend forward 
■■spavin does; finally, it \» rather inclined to descend along 
tile rudimentary metatanal than to ascend up>n the culioid 
or the base of the calcaneus, additional reasons which mili- 
'■ic in favor of its metatarsal origin. It should, therefore, neither i 
™'ona, nor gravity, be considered as the honiol<^ie of spavin. 

We also sometimes meet, on the outer side of the hm-k, a tumor localized 
"" the base of the calcaneus, the scaphoid, Ihe culmid. and the head of the 
external metatarsal bone, — a tumor sufficiently circumscriheil to merit a s|)eciH] 
"■nje other than that of osteophyte, of which we shall speak farther on. (It 
■"Uld be called exlernal ^trin.) 

In 1852, M. Gillet " represented the true jarde with great exactness, although, 
"S 9, singular deference for the erroneous opinions of his predecessors and his 
""* temporaries', he would not abide by his own oliservations alone. His <lraw- 
'"?. altogether similar to our own (Figs. 88 iind 8E)), dilTcred, for Rooii reasons, 
""■»» all the other more or less fantastic representations which have been made 
"' *he blemiah in question. We will add that it is irn/ rare to meet lesions 
"' 'Kis nature, and we are certain not to be contradicted upon this point by those 
"lio have taken the trouble to search for them. 

The anatomical facts explain why the jieriostitis of which we s))cak can 
'***!>' only take ite origin uiM>n the head of the external splint bone and not 
"taerwise. It is necessary first to recall that exatt<)ses resulting from usage 
*PFHsar only at points of insertion of the lar^ articular ligaments. It is nt these 
puinti that tractions and irritations are convcyeil to the periosteum and inHanie 
'^ The irritation, spreading little by little, invades ultimately all the Inmy sur- 
™es covered by these ligaments. It is acconling to this proceiw that curli, 
'P*vin, ,nd exostoses of the iKHlies of the vertebra* are produced : this same pro- 
**■• we shall find again as Ihe primary factor in the formation of splints or 

'null the "curb" or EngtlEh Bullion. 

'WUrt, Da T»re« oaMUWii d« rapmhrc 

""tVlUneMlamMedne viUrlnBlreamill 


» of the canon. The fonnatioD of a jarde in no esceptioo U this prin- 

-Jinli' upon Ihr illuii'li'il hix'k. 

It cnmmencni Hi the hi'inl ul' tlit- t'xicrnal inetatArwl Ihihi' (Fi|[. iKJ), — that ti 
My, nl till' iiiffriiir inM'rii'>ii nf t)i>' ]Hiwerfiil (-iileiiiii-i>-iiictHlarial li|tament. A, 
luiK'h imiri' fK|iiMy| tn tniclicm mi itn f»ni|Hiiicn( lilin-H ii* ih<- vflbrti irbirh 


frodace it are exerted at the extremity or a catcaneun lunger und more oblique 
npoD the tibia. Hence it has always been comtidered aH coexistent with angular 

••■ The tumor, once formed, has no tendency to attcend ; it remains localized 

^^w pUce which we have just indicated, or, perhaps, is complicat^'d by a splint 

t"^ the tnurt of the interoKiieous ligament, which unites the principal meta- 

^'^■l to the coneBponding rudimeatAry bone. With regard to its seat, it may 


I)e defined oh a pcrimtitis of tku caluaneo-meUtarsul ligament, b (Fig. 90), atul 
the external tibiii-tai-Hal, x (Fit;. 91)> and opAvin m that of the antraipilu-uicU* 
tiinial. b (F'ig. !>!), unil the iiiteroal libio-tamal, a (Pig. 9ft), ligan 

Fio >I.~Dlawctc4 

Whatever auy be ita Hitualion, it nccoHiotu a veiy chiiractcriMtic deformity 
of tlie |)n>file nf the haw of the h<H'k. Tiic lino whii'h {laiweM fmm the ^ummit 
i)f the lakaneUB n> the feil'K-lt, iiixteait i>f U-ing i^rfectly Htraight, deocribtit, on 
the cuntrury, a curve with the convexity [xiHterior, at the level of the head nf 
the fplint bnne anil moMt frequently b little Iwlow. The enlargement iM aloo per- 
i-eived upiin the h'wk viewed from behind or uhliijuely. When thejaide aHiumM 
the form ofa HpUnt, it Ntinetiines elevatOH the HuxpcnMry ligament of the fetliK'k 
by devi'lciping in the iMwterior gutter, whioh hitvch an a cavity of reception for 
the Ifliter. In thiii ea»e it is the line of the tvndim which Iodcs its rectitude and 
l)ec'imeii more or lens convex behind. 

ttefore leavinc thlH Huli|e<'t. we Hhould warn our readere against a tendeney 
which in quite general a[ni)n>c horwnien, particularly in the army : it in the 
imiiii/i of jardn, if we iiiiiy u^e HUch an eipreasion. Many jardes exist often 
only in the imagination of thow who !>peak of it, and who, to a certain degree, 
cannot inspect a Iiofm' without weeing this leninn. The head of the external 
mi'talantal bone, in our opinion, hait not always the name configunition i it ir 
■ometimc* very angular, and may, in this case, alter ext«ra«Uy the posterior 
profile of the taiMM,— above all, if the hock is oow-hocked, — without juBtifyuig 
thereby a conclusion of the exiatence uf a blemish, becauae the structurci ttill 
are and will remain |ierl'ectly normal. 


A jarde is far from oflfering the same gravity as spavin. This is simply due 
to the fact that it never terminates in anchylosis of the inferior tarsal articula- 
tions ; the latter remain absolutely intact. 

The lameness which it determines, when the work of ossification has been 
completed, depends upon the want of freedom experienced by the small metatarsal 
arfhrodia or the compression of the suspensory ligament of the fetlock and the 
flexor tendons. 

Osteophytes. — ^The hock does not always present so clear a delimitation 
of its osseous blemishes ; in old horses it is quite frequently the seat of dissemi- 
nated bony deposits whose point of origin may be in the thickness of the ante- 
rior capsular ligaments, that of the lateral ligaments, or again in that of the 
articular and tendinous synovial membranes. This condition, as we have seen, 
is t Lie ultimate complication of synovial dilatations, and, consequently, is nothing 
remarkable. The normal profiles of the hock, in such instances, are completely 
changed. At the level of these osseous tumors the region presents more or less 
volixminous, hard, and irregular reliefs, which have a great tendency to join and 
eventually encircle the tarsal apparatus. These are always conclusive evidence 
<>f min and of usage driven to its utmost limits. 

E.— The Chestnut. 

The chestnut, o (Fig. 77, B and /)), in the posterior member, is 
sj^Tiated on the inferior part of the internal surface of the h(x*k. It 
'^^^ J>onds anatomically to the small cuneiform, and is sometimes wanting. 
"- Vt2ard the elder has mentioned its absence, and we have also verified 
*^ in several instances. In such a case the descTiption of the horse 
^*^>uld mention the fact. As in the anterior meml)er, its area and 
^^lume vary in a great measure ac^cording to the rac*e ; it has, besides, 
'^^'trliing of special interest. 

(The chestnut, anatomically, is the rudiment of the hoof of the 
^*^li digit or thumb, which it represents. Its absence is most fre- 
^^ontly noticed in meridional horses, probably the descendants of the 
-A-^Vican horse, which, of all the equine races, is the most closely related 
*^ the ass. It is smaller in well-bred horses. — Harger,) 

F. — The Canon and the Tendons. 
Situation; T limits ; Anatomical Base. — ^The canon is the 

'^Kion of the members which extends vertically from the hnee or the 
*^^<^ to the feOock. 

Its anatomical base consists of the three metatarsal or metacarpal bones, the 
***^doiig of the different motor muscles of the phalanges, and a very strong liga- 
^^^^^t) known, on account of its functions, under the name of the tuspenwry 
^9fmeiU of thefeOock. 



Of these three Ikidm, one, the principal metataraal or metacarpal, in much 
mnn^ developed than the other two, which are altogether ruitimminry. The latter 
(FijC- ^'i) are united tn the Hides of the principal bone h; meanfl of a very reaiiit- 
\a^ interoweouH ligament which CNBiSee with age, nave at its two eztremitiw. 


The HUperiiir jiiirt, or tlu> hmd of thew oniall styloid Ixmni. in articulattsl by two 
iliurtliriHliul fiui'iii with the cutrcuiity of the mf^liiin lM>ni- of the canon; Ihi'ir 
iiifcriiiT cxtrt'iiiity, HliKhtly ililiitc<l unil b»tlan-iiliaiKif, ulmnitt frtH- anil tangible t» 
thf tinjEcr, if unitiil by u tibmun lipiiiicnt to the region which we will i>tudy a» 
tlif mH. 

ThuH IV institute I. the rumm i" articulated aUivo, through the intervention 
of itrt iiini|i»nciii [lunf, with the b>wcr row of carjial or tanial lH>mii, fniin which 
it ni-eivo Hnd iruiiHiniii' itu)ir<iiition'' ; In-Iow. the n 
lir»t phiilanx a very movable jnii 

.id b 

whii'b Ih couiplcIe<l. l>elii: 

ne fornix with the 
il. by the two ix-aa- 

I ti-lc- worthy 'if iittcntioii esii'l 

ir niUM'lii> of the phHliingc^ 

I thi* 

region. The tcndoiw of the 
intiTJor Hurhce, and thoM- of 

the tlcxor*. {H-rfoninH, anil inrrfonitUH on the jxHlt-rinr. We niunt mention, he- 
niili-H, till' oari>al unci ihe tarsal oheok tendons, fibnnix, iinclaHtic laminw, 
whiih eiiriirirc frini the (xHterior lijrumciil of tlie curpu^ snd the tamtw, nnd ter- 
minate, after u more or lf-o< cxlen^iive •viurxc, in llic deep flexor tendon of the 

Two lanrc R>tiovi«l membnineH exi^t. one altove, the other l>elow, upon abmit 
a thirtl of the leu|[ih of tin- cntmn. The iiui>erior we have iilreudy irtudied ; it 
U'longx t» the •■•irf^il or the t,ir,«,/ thralh. The iuli-rior will Iw Htudied witb tlie 


fetlock : it is that of the metacarpo- or metcUarso-phalangeal sheath, also called the 
frtal $e»anund aheaih. They both facilitate the gliding of the flexor tendons of 
the phalanges, the first against the posterior face of the hock or the knee, and 
the second over the angle of the fetlock ; both permit, besides, the movements of 
the two cords upon each other. 

Finally, against the posterior face of the principal bone of the canon, in a 
Bort of gutter formed by the splint bones, is lodged the vast ligamentous brace 
of the fetlock, a (Fig. 93), which is bifid inferiorly and terminates upon the 
sesamoid bones. 

It is not without interest to note, in passing, a somewhat infrequent fact of 
^hich science, nevertheless, has a certain number of examples ; we refer to the 
existence of supernumerary digits * on the internal face of the canon of one, two, 
or all four of the members of the horse at one time. This anomaly consists in the 
abnormal and almost complete development of the internal digit, which, in ordi- 
nary conditions, is simply represented by the corresponding but aborted meta- 
tarsul or metacarpal bone. 

The external digit occurs much more rarely. Professor R. S. Huidekoper 
^ observed a very remarkable case in a Texas horse. The animal had, in all, 
ten lioofe, three on each anterior member and two on each posterior. The an- 
terior supernumerary digits were formed each of three phalanges ; their hoofe 
descended almost to the ground. The supernumerary digits on the posterior 
n*^ti:xber8 existed only on the internal side ; their phalanges were rudimentary 
^^ their homy covering only reached to the middle of the pastern.* 

Hole and Action of the Oanon. — The canon is a locomotory 
w^y which plays a most important rdle in progression, station, and 
"''^F^iilsion. Let us examine it rapidly from these diverse relations. 

It is primarily the seat of two principal movements, ^f'.r/ari and 

The first, much more pronounced in the anterior member, elevates 
™^ foot and places the canon in a favorable position to accomplish the 
*^^oiid, which it is desirable should be as extensive as possible. The 
^^gth of the forearm and that of the tibia are, as we know, in relation 
^tlx the amplitude of these displacements. 

The movement of the canon in the two members is of an inverse 
^'d^r, on account of the op|X)site positions of the articular angles. 
" *^en that in the anterior member is extended, it simply passes over 
**^^ ground, places itself in prolongation with the radius, arrives thus 
^^ the soil, and preserves this attitude as long as the foot remains on 
™^ ground. In the posterior member, its extension commences a little 
"^*ore the foot is in station, and continues during the whole period that 

^^^^ fiupemuiaeniry 'digits constitute simply an example of the law qf reversion to the penta- 
*^V)M or flve-toed type of the foot of the ancestral forma of the horse, as the eo-hipput, in 
^M*** four digit! exlrt. (Harger.) 

* ft. Huidekoper, ^uke communiquj^ 


the foot is on the soil in such a manner timt, at it8 tomiinati<»ny wlien 
the foot is elevated, the tibia and the metatarsus an' in a straight line. 
It is apixirent fn»m this that the anterior canon, in this a(*tion, is iS|K»- 
eially utilizinl as an orjijJ^n of supjK)rt, whilst the |K>sterior lKHx>nies a 
veritable afr<*nt of impulsion. 

This rejjion, however, only fulfils a jiaAsive rdle in l<K*oniotion. It 
is an inert lever having no influence in itself uj>on the niovcnu-nts 
which follow or pre<t»de it, sinct» it is traven^nl in its len^h only by 
tendinous cords, orpins of transmission, and not by contractile mus^-hs. 
It is the same during station : its vertical direi*tion and its inertia 
make it a verital)le colunm of 8upi>ort for the weight of the IhkIv, 
wlios(» total pressure aceumulat(»s ujX)n it. It is therefore very appro- 
priately disjX)SiHl to fulfil this end. lk»sides Ix^ing vertical, it also has 
an ahnost cylindriml form ; its median Ixme has |)arietes of gnut 
thickness ; the tissue whidi constitute it is extn»mely i*om|)ait ; finally, 
bv the <x)ncurren<x» of the nidimentarv iKines attm*hed to its lateral 
faces, it augm(«nts the ana of the sujMTior artic*ular surface and serv<s 
&s an im|M>rtant ap})aratus of breaking (*on(*ussion in virtue of tlie 
double articulation which is found then' and the ol)8cure movements 
which are pnxluced then*. 

Its tendinous conls, even, and the |>oftterior ligament, from their 
pe<'uliar n'lati4>ns, present a sjXH*ial dis|)osition to starve with efficacy a2» 
an ap|Niratus of sup{K)rt. The caqml or tarsal check tendon n»Iieve8 
the ft>nmT by displacing a large shan of the weight u|K>n the Imiucs, 
while the ol>scun»ly mus<'ular nature and the nnxle of inten*n»ssing 
of the fibn»s of the suspens4)rv ligament of the fetl<x»k * make this lig- 
ament a veritable elastic brace, which disjK»rs<»s the effwts of the weight 
in such a measun* as to n^nder them com})atible with the n»sistance and 
int«*grity of the tissues. 

Finally, the action of the (iimm in relation to the impulsion is not 
the same in the two menil>ers. This fum^tion, as we have seen, is more 
})articularly im|)art4*d by the }Mjsterior members. The extensor mus- 
cles of tlie m(*tatarsus an» also pn)vided with more powerful lever- 
arms. The (ulcimcus, by its length and by the pmminenoe which it 
forms alN)ve and Ix^hind the cttntn* of the tibio-tarsal articulation, 
plact^ these inuscl<*s in very iavorable conditions n^lative to the inten- 
sity of font' and the rapidity of 8ix?ed. 

> From Uie point of rkw of compArmUve anAtomy, the luspensonr UgAment of the fetlock 
i*. In (kct only A mrMllfle<l miuicle which hH iti fbll derelopment in the ipeciet whoee hand and 
foot mppnierh, bjr the number of their dlgitii. the eonformAtion which is obeenred In man. Tho^ 
it occur* in quadrumana, camivora. rodents, and many of the imectlrora. 


Form. — The canon is subdivided into four faces : an anterior, a posterior, 
and two lateral. They offer some slight differences according as they are examined 
in the anterior or in the posterior biped. 

Viewed from in front, the region is rectilinear in it« length, rounded trans- 
versely, and widest towards its extremities. 

The lateral faces are flat, and leave the parts under the skin, which we 
already recognize, tangible to the eye and finger, — namely, in front, the borders 
of the principal metacarpal or metatarsal bone; behind and above, under the 
hock or the knee, the eminence of the corresponding rudimentary bone ; below 
and a little above the fetlock, the button of this bone ; posteriorly and in the 
middle part, a groove augmenting in depth and width down to the fetlock, which 
separates the suspensory ligament from the principal canon bone ; it is in this 
groove that hemire or dilatations of the synovial membrane of the mctacarpo- 
or metatarso-phalangeal articulations appear; more posteriorly, the suspensory 
ligament of the fetlock, whose prominence increases from above to below; then a 
second groove, less deep than the preceding, separating this ligament from the 
flexor tendons, and lodging the synovial dilatations of the great sesamoid sheath ; 
fl'Jally, the cord of the flexors, known in the exterior under the name of tendon^ 
strong and resisting, which falls perpendicularly from the supra-carpal bone or the 
<*Icaneu8 upon the fetlock. 

The tendon, an eminence rectilinear from above to below, narrow 
^d round from side to side, forms exclusively the posterior face. 

The skin of the canon, as well as the layer of the subcutaneous 
^*Uiective tissue, is more or less thick, according to the fineness of the 
"^^^e. These minute but important details which we have described 
^'^ not observed in all subjects. They arc the characteristics of horses 
^^ fine breeding and of good qualities. 

The hairs on the posterior face are always longer, morc abundant, 
***<! coarser than the others, exc^ept in animals of the finer rac^s, the 
'^^'van or the English thoroughbred, for example. 

Coarse, sluggish, and lymphatic hoi'ses are remarkable, on the con- 
"^t^, for the abundance and the length of these hairs, which are only 
^^ origin of those of the fqotlock. Horsemen and many horse-owners 
*^v*€ the habit of cutting, clipping, or singeing them, in the preparation 
^* the animal for sale, in order to give to the memlx»rs an appearance 
^* fineness and of good qualities ; they are spared in draught-horses to 
°*^lie the limbs appear more voluminous. We will again have occasion 
*^ t^um to this practice in discussing the toilet. 

Beauties and Defects. — The ctmon, in order to be beautifuly 
"^Ust be vertical, short, wide, thick, fine, and neat of outline ; its pos- 
^^or part, or the tendon^ must also be fine, unblemished, firm, and well 
^^tached. It is defective in opposite conditions. 

Direction. — We have only one word to sav on the subject of the 
^^ection of the canon, which should be perpendicular to the ground 



in order to duly gustain the body-weight, particularly in the anterior 
members^ in view of their function and their closer situation to the 
centre of gravity. The least displacement fom-ard, backwanl, out- 
ward, or inward makes the horse appear deficient in the axes; ito 
articulations in certain regions are surcharged ; tlieir constituent })art» 
and the ligaments which unite them show signs, in the long run, 4»f 
the concussions, of tlie violent tnu^tions, a necessary cH>nscqueni'e of 
the mode of superposition of the locomotory segments. Finally, the 
muscles themselves, supposing that the articulations are sound, un^ 
obligcHi to display more force in order to maintain the Ixines in a pKid 
direc*tion, which in normal conditions claim but little of their eo-o|K'ra- 
tion to preserve their equilibrium. The deviations of the mnon an^ 
less prejudicial to the integrity of the locx)motor}' ap^Miratus when they 
are confined only to the |)osterior members ; the animal is n(»t lest 
defective for this reason ; only the effects of these* alterations are 
slower in manifesting tliemselves. We will return to all th«*s4* facis 
when we disi»uss the direction of the cijcen. 

Length. — The al>solute length of the cunon merits to be taken 
into consideration in the i*ase of rapid motors. It has not much im- 
jK)rtance in the draught-horse. 

In well-fonn«l subjects, whatever may be the rare to which they 
belong, the metatarsus is always longer tlian the metaeaq)us. We will 
say that, all things Ix'ing e({ual, the latter are i*onstantly longer in 
animals of s|k^i1, when c*om|)ared in this relation to those of the 
draught-horse. With ecjuality of form, the canon of the draught- 
hors(« is shorter than that of the thoroughbred ; the Ixxly of the 
former is uesinT to the ground and more voluminous than that of the 
hitter, which, to use the com|)aris4m, apjK»ars, to a (vrtain dt'gree, 
monnteil on stilts. It is esisv to verify this statement bv nuiisun^ 
intuits which we ourselves have l»een careful to make Ix^fore abandoning 
the classical opinion which claims that race-horses have their bo(*ks va 
low as |>ossible. Wt» si'c, then, all projH)rti<ms l)eing of course ctmsid- 
eriil, that their <iuions an* always longer than is lK»lieved. Ilenit^ 
tlics4» animals jm^ssos mon* s|mhhI, for niHt^ssarily they embrace at each 
step a loiipT expanse' of sjKic**. 

The rclnfirr Irugth of the cjuion should l»e studied with n^rd to 
the region whi<'li surmounts it, the leg or the foniirm. 

We know ainiidy that the length of tlh» bn)ken radio-metacaqial 
or tibio-iiHtatarsi! lever in rapi<l motors is dn** to the devehipment of 
the siijM'rior Intiie, the radius or the tibia. It is ne<H»s«arv, therefore^ 
that the (unoii 1m* in su<'h cases short. When it is thus, we know that 



the muscles experience less fatigue and cuntract to bettvr mlvaiitagc. 
A short canon is less heavy, oscillates more freely, unfolds itself more, 
and does not necessitate the name elevation of the 
member above the ground to reach tlie limit of 
its movements. Hence it is advisable to seek, 
in the pendulum under examination, a great ex- 
tent for the display of what we have already 
designated its active function ; in its passive func- 
tion the canon is inert, being incainble of accel- 
erating or slackening the movement which is 
oonununicated to it (See Foreunn and iey.) 

Width and Thickness.— The width of 
the canon is measured from before to behind, 
considering the animal in profile. It proceeds 

from the separation of the principal bone of this 

Kgion from the flexor tendons of the phalanges^ 

vbich procured also to the latter the designation 

wfl detached (Fig. 94). It is due, in the aiitc- 

rior members, to the volume of the antibrachial 

Qosdes; in the posterior, to the widtli of the 

''cck, which carries the summit of the calcaneus more behind. In each 

"'' the members it results, besides, from a more 
"' Idas marked prominence of the sesamoid 
wDeg behind the fetlock articulation. 

■Is it necessary to say now that this width 
* a-n absolute quality for all kiuds of services ? 
widently not, since it is itself derived from 
™*eT good points which wc liave already de- 
""^bed, such as the volume of tlie muscles, the 
*^th of the articulations, and the length of 
"^ lever-arm. If, however, in theorj', the 
''^th of the canon in the anterior member 
"''inddes generally with that of the fetlock, it is 
P<>^Bible, notwithstanding tlie development of tlie 
"tter, that the former may be deficient from ex- 
cnaive narrowness at its superior [lart. 

Ilie flexor tendons, being then too strongly 

*">»ed in the fold of the knee by the tarsal 

'('^th, descend obliquely uptin the sesamoi<ls 

"J gndually separadng from the niolatarsus, a 

*Ke of conformation which renders the tcn<li)ii8 weak, less ctfectivt 



(Fig. 95). T1m» hoi'sc* aflTectcd with this fault appears slender in its 
build, whieli, in iiu^, lac*ks strength. Horse-dealers, in order to c*<»n- 
ceal it, leave tlie hairs at the up()er part of the eanon in arranging the 
toilety while lx»low they eut them off very closely, a deceitful pixxi'dure 
which it is easy to detect. 

The tendon in th(^ (M>sterior members is never weak, tliauks Ut the 
particular disiM)sition of tlie tarsal sheath. 

The thickness of the canon is measured, on the eontrar\', fmm 
side to side, viewing the |)arts either in front or behind. This dimen- 
sion, which indicat4»s the transv(»rse development of the princi|Hil Ixme, 
and, (N)nscM{uently, that of the regions between which it is place<l, is 
always greater in the fore-limbs, columns of sup|x>rt, tlian in the hind, 
agents of impulsion. This is a fortunate adaptation of a |Mirt of the 
locomotor}' ap|)aratu8 destined to fulfil such different functions. 

A thick (imon, therefore, constitutes an al>8olute beauty, which 
denotes great strength of the members ; and because this is not the 
same in the well-bred as in the common horse of equal forms, Untiuse 
the meagreness of the iiinon in tlie fonner is not indimtive of any weak- 
ness, it does not follow, as several autliors have advanced, that su<'h a 
conformation is not to l)e taken into account. H. Bouley has very 
fon*ibIy elucidated how unwise this tlieory is, by saying, ^' The b<me$ 
of (he canon shoiild be developed proportionately to the majw mhieh they 
stipjMrt.'^ This (Conception is im]K>rtant. The slendeniess of this 
region not only implies its fei*bleness of support, but it also involves 
that of the adjoining Ixines and of the tendinous ap|)anitus which is 
anucxc<I to it. A slen<Ier (-anon means a narrow knee ; the phalanges, 
the s4>samoids, and the tendons lacrk pn)|R*r development. In tliesi* con- 
ditions, the memlM'rs wear away in a very short time, and so much 
nion* (juickly as the ImkIv is heavier, as the animal is endowed, from 
hi> nuv, with gniitcr en(»rgy. It is common to meet this defect in 
h(»rs4's (»f iMNir conformation which are the product of injudicious 
si'h^ftious or <*n>ss<»s. (II. liouh'V.) 

When the n*gion larks width and thickness, the canon is trailed 
mvtnjr*\ unrrow, nlnidtr ; wlini to these characters is added an excessive 
length, the animal i> s:iid to Im* mounted nj)on matchea ; finally, this 
siune hors4' h(fM nofhin*/ undrr hln kn*'*' when the tendons are not suffi- 
ciently <lcvcl(i|Mil, while the iiienilNT is qualified well caM when the 
tendons of the tlexors are strong un<l well Si*()arated frrim the U»nes 
whi(*h e«institut4' it> h'Ver-arin. 

Fineness. — The fineness of the c>nnon is characterized bv the 
thinness of the skin and the s|Kiren4.'Ss of subjaci*nt conmirtive tissu^ 


which expoee to external view, in all their details, the Iwnes, the sus- 
pensory ligament, tlie tendons, and the blood-vessels. This state indi- 
cates a noble ancestry ; it is found in horses of the distinguished races 
and those of their race which show their lineage. 

This quality can habitually be perceived by a glance of the eye ; 
bat many also endeavor to appreciate it by i)assing the hand over tlie 
lateral faces of the region, a manner of procedure which has primarily 
the advantage of betraying the existence of blemishes. It is niHXJSsary 
to attract the animal's attention befoi*e practising this manipulation 
upon the posterior member, in order to avoid his kicking or biting. 

In common subjects, even in the Ix^st, the skin is thick and the 

«)nnective tissue abundant. When carried U) the extreme, these char- 

^^ristics cause the canon to be spoken of as round and the tendons as 

.^oAy, defects essentially prejudicial in pleasure-liorses, in which the 

^distinctness of the lines and the fineness of their extremities are the 

Jidispensable conditions of their value, while in draught-horses no 

'^portanoe is attached to them. 

density. — ^The firmness of the tendons denotes the density of the 
^Ues, the energy, the quickness of movement, the blood, the race, 
•"^d the resistance of the constitution. This is ascertained by the sense 
^f touch and not by striking the cord of the flexors with the foot, 
vluch some persons practise to judge of it as well as of the solidity 
of the member. It is easy to comprehend that such a method can give 
°o positive information, since it is the suq)rise and not the weakness 
*^' the parts which causes the horse to flex the limbs. 

Neatness of OutUne.— This neatness— that is to say, the 
^^^Scnce of blemishes — is the most important qualification to Ixj 
'^ized in the examination of the ctanon. It is indispensable that to 
^ inspection and to the touch the outline should bt» normal ; that the 
''^ges and grooves of this r^ion, which we have des(Tilx?d, should 
w cjuite marked without any alteration. 

and Blemishes. — First amonp: these are skhi woundu re8ulting 

from coDtusions and kicks given or received by the animal. When thv^e are the 

'^s^t of the repeated contact And friction of the opposite feet during locomotion 

^®y receive the name speedy-cul, and the animal is said to orrrrearh him«eif^ 

^te hinuef/f cut hinueff. We will apiin return to them when treating of the 

*/««• of (he ffoifs. 

It 18 not rare, either, to see hlood-tumorf^^ hot nhitcejutr^, and hiflammnlory 
^'^gmenU of the subcutaneous tissue or of the lymphatic vessels (m the internal 
^ of the canon. Lymphnngitu of a malignant type, often symptomatic of a 

LP^'^dero-farcinous diathesis, has a favorite seat in this region. Let us also indi- 
™ the enormous indurations of the skin and the subjacent connective tissue. 


very common ui)on the fioBtcrior memberH and completely deforming the regioiu 
between the h«K*k and the h<N»f. ThcHe indurations, known under the nanu* of 
Jibrotts elephanti<ui» (Traabot) on account of their analog}' with elfphantiasU in 
man and of the aj)|)ect which they give to the membere, are sometimes compli- 
cated by lenions of the b<meH. In spite of their hardnciw, their volume, and the 
preiwure exercised on the organs which they cover, they do not occattit^n very 
great inconvenience in walking and ]>eniiit the utilization of the animal at a 
slow pace. They are rebellious to all treatment, and the ver}' mean;* employed 
to combat them have no other result, in most instances, than the development 
of an activity analogous to that which is observed in similar cases in the fonna- 
tiou of neoplasms, which may have with them, according to our colleague. 
Professor Trasbot, a closely-related origin. 

We will also cite the hani and indolent enlargement of the tibiai ajmneunms 
at the |M)int where it terminates on the tendons of the extensor muscles of the 
phalanges. This induration, which is located at about the su|>erior thinl of the 
anterior face of the hind canon, is susceptible of ulceration under the influeni*e 
of friction, and seems more particularly confined to E^lish thonmghbred and 
other horses of great s|>eed. 

Eczema {(/reuse, wafer in (he fer/n), a chronic affection of the skin, somewhat 
scarce to-<lay, consisting of an abundant and fetid exudation on the very lowest 
part of the meml)er, may lUH'cnd to the fMisterior region of the canon when it is 
of long standing. Although not disabling the animal from work, this should 
nevertheless l>e considered si>rious, fn)m the uncleanliness which it engender! 
and the care which it necessitates. 

f huUmons and rnptureA of the tendons of the canon are frequent in the 
anterior meml)ers, while in the fMisterior they are, so to speak, at least fnim our 
own ex|KTicnce, almost unknown. 

DesignatcMl under the name orer-ntretchinff, or, better, itrains of the tendon^ 
they result fntm tniction or partial lacerations of the tendinous fibres during the* 
violent efforts of locomotion at great speed. This alteration of the tendons or^ 
of the structures situated more deeply (check tendon) is followed by a more or — 
U>si4 acute inflammation accom]»anie<i at the In'ginning by a severe lameness an<&- 
succcmmIim! mnm by an enlargement, which nrnders the organs knotted and alwayff^ 
very K<>n.*«itive. The symptoms, at the end of a certain period, ameliorate, bu^ 
the swelling and the lameness |>ersist, while the i^tmtraction of the tendon^ 
an<l the consecutive deformity of the angle of the fetlock take place. For thes^?* 
reaiMinH, nvt-r-^fntrhimj is a grave ac<'ident. It depreciates so much more thc^ 
value of the animal a.<« be is intendtnl for pleasure ami parade, and as it is nec«i^ — 
sary to employ the most energetic means of treatment against it, such as tennt^ — 
<»inv or the actual euuterv, whose indelible tracer have all the characteristics olf 
the most iMTiiianent blemishes. 

It is vulgarly s:iid of the hippo<irome horse which meets with the acciden'C 
on the raee-i'ourse, tliat h* h*iJ* fnnpjt^d a tendon or that he i> broker* dmrn. 

The in<»>t coiiinion bl(>inish of the canon, involving the bones themsolve*^. 
manift*sts itself by the prt^^'uce of 4ihs(h)us tumors, known under the name of 


Tliesi' ex(»st(»>es, in the majority of cases, have their seat on the intenisse«>ui 
ligament which unites tlu> nidinientary metacarpal or metatainal to the principal 
boue of the ranon. Those which exist on the anterior face of the latter are the 


resalt of contasions and have little gravity ; they are in most in»tanccH absorbed 
spontaneously, are much more rare, and only appear accidentally at all periods 
of life. 

Splints occur more often upon the anterior members than upon the posterior, 
and on the internal side than the external. This is due to their cause of develop- 
ment. They proceed, in fact, from tractions exerted on the interosseous ligament 
under the influence of the vertical pressure which is exercised on the head of the 
splint bones during rapid locomotion. As long as these small bones are not 
soldered to the principal bone in consequence of the normal 08sificati(m of their 
ligament of union, they tend to glide up and down in a measure proportional to 
the weight which they sustain. Whence results rupture of the ligamentous 
fibres, which is propagated to the periosteum, irritates the latter, and causes a 
periostitis with the appearance of one or more tumors upon the tract of the 
metacarpal or metatarsal synarthrodial articulations. 

It is easily understood from this that the formation of splints is a disease 

niore frequent in young horses used too young, and without moderation, for 

heavy work, than in old horses, in which the process of co-ossification of the 

hones of the canon has already been completed. It can also, without difficulty, 

be perceived that they should be more common on the anterior limbs, nearer to 

the centre of gravity, which receive, more especially, the effect of the quantity 

of movement at great speed. Finally, it is equally easy to explain their habitual 

presence upon the internal side if we only recall : first, that the weight of the 

^Hxiy presses more upon the internal side of the articulation ; second, that the 

pressure sustained by the bones is proportional to the area of compressed sur- 

^cea. Now, in this connection, it is to be remarked that, all proportions being 

^>nsi(lered, the articular surfaces of the internal metacarpal or metatarsal bones 

*'^ larger than their homologues of the external side ; whence it follows that 

^'^e^e bones are more disposed to glide against the median piece which supports 

^ooui than the external, and, consequently, to lacerate their interosseous ligament. 

Splints, the volume of which varies from that of a small hazel-nut to that 

^^ s* hen's egg, are characterized externally by the relief which they form under- 

'^^'^th the skin, and by a sensati(m of hardness which is conveyed to the hand on 

P*>l£)ation. They are readily perceived if the ciinon be viewed from in front.' 

Their disposition is very variable : sometimes only one exists {simple Hp/iuf) ; 
*on:ietimes there are two, situated almost on the same level on each side of the 
'''^S^on (pegged splints) ; at other times there are several in succession from above 
^^^^*nward, upon the same face, and of an almost uniform volume {chain splints) ; 
^^'^^Uy, there are some which, in relation to size, form a decreasing series from 
**^ove downward, on the one side or the other {Mpindle-shnprd splints). 

>\^hatever may be their form, these tumors are more grave as they are situ- 

*^^<i towards the carpal or the tarsal articulations, or are developed in the posterior 

f5^tter destined to lodge the suspensory ligament of the fetlock. In this they 

<^Usean evident constraint and induce too often a persistent lameness. Most 

^^'^inarily a splint lames a horse, only at the first, when the inflammatory process 

^f the periosteum is still in full activity. The lameness disai)i)ears as soon as 

"^e tumor is quite developed. 

•The buttouf of the rudimentary metatarsal or metacarpal hoiie^ should uot be mistaken 



fyarfure^ of the canon, though rather common, are, so far as our study is 
concerned, aliBolutely deprived of interest. We should, neverthelcw, mention 
fwime: they are those of the rudimentary metacarpal <»r uietaturHal bone*, 
liesulting from traumatisms, they give rise to a complication, similar to the for- 
mation of a splint, at the point of unitm of the two osseous segments. 

As to the nynovUd dHatatioivs of the canon, they pn»|>erly belong t*) either <if 
the regions between which the canon is situated. The sufierior have already 
been pointed out with the knee ; they are due to an abnormal distenti(m of the 
carpal sheath. The inferior, known under the name of windgalU^ consist of a 
hydn)|)sy of the synovial membrane of the metacarpo-phalangeal articulation, or 
of the great sesamoid sheath, and will )>e studiinl with the /ctfwk. 

Finally, there are also found, along the length of the canon, trarrM of nrtunt 
rauteri/ of var>'ing area and configuration, which indicate, acconiing to their situ- 
ation, that the animal has been treated for disease of the osseous apparatus, the 
tendons, or the synovial membranes. In spite of these markings, the alterati«)ns 
of which they arv the evidence may not have disap|)eare<l, and it is wis«\ con«4»- 
quently, to submit the member which presents them t4) a minute examination. 
In any case, the horse has none the less lost at lea^tt a part of his value, for he 
is Ofrmifh*(l, and so much more gravely as the treatment t4) which he has Ikh'U 
8ubjecte<l has In^en less efficacious. 

G.— The Fetlock. 

Situation ; Lomits ; Anatomical Base.— The fetlock is situ- 

ate<I betwtvn the canon and the pattern. It 8up])<»rts, ut its ixistorior 
|Nirt, a homy pnxluetion, the ergoi, ami a tufl of liair to whieh has Uvn 
ji^iven the nanu» of fooifock. 

It has for its anatomical base the metacarpo- or the metatarso-phalangeal 
articulation, which n^ults from the api)osition of the inferior extremity of the 
principal bone of the canon and the sufierior extrcMnity of the first phalanx, 
complemente4] liehiud by the great sesamoid Ixmes (Fig. %). 

Th(*se lN)nes are unitcnl by numerous lifjnwent*: an anterior or ca]mular ; two 
lateral funicular, n ; a |K»sterior, the fuffyenmrtj of the fetlock, which has already 
lMH>n m('nti<med, and whos«« two branches terminate upon the si>samoid bones, a 
(Fig. iC); finally, the group of inferior, b (Fig. 97), and lateral, b (Fig. 96), 
s(»samoid ligaments, short and stnmg, which ^x these bones to the first phalanx 
and the canon. The two sesamoid bones are, moreover, intimately united to 
each other by niean.H of a fibro-cartilaginoiis mass which transforma their poste* 
rior face into a pulley, c (Fig. 97), ui>on which the flexor tendons of the ph&langea 

This ligamentous appanitus, of great strength, is, in a<ldition, reinforced by 
the extenixor tendons of the phalanges in front, and by the flexor tendons behind, 
which also fulfil the WS/<r of sus(>ensorB like the superior sesamoid ligament, 
whose function they supplement. 

Three distinct itynonal membranet exist in the region of the fetlock : one 
articular antl two U'ndinous. 

The first, firmly maintained in front and on the sides, can become dilated 



behind uid above, between the canon bone and the i^iupcnaory ligament of the 
fedock; behind and below, upon the sides of the fint phalanx. 

The largest of tiie tendinous iynoviale, posterior tti thp artii-ulation, aubserTcs 
the gMng of th« tendons against the aeaamoid pulle; ; it is known b;^ the name 

d theaib. Extending from the inferior third of the canon to the 
T^^^iior put of the second phalanx, and unequally sustained by the Hunrounding 
j*'>e, it sometimea forms a dilatation on each side, above the fetlock, between 
r^ auspeosory ligament and the flexor tendons. It prmenb*, also, along the 
™SUl of the pastern, two weak points, of which we will only make mcation, 
^'^ whose enlargement is always much lees marked than that of the preceding. 
The second and the smallest of the tendinous nynovials is found in front, 
j|*'«meath the tendons of the estensors of tbe phalanges, and permits their 
PiQiiig npan the anterior face of the capsular ligament. It is extremely rare 
1^^ it commnnicKteB with the articular synovial membrane. It is susceptible of 
'"^^oiaing distended over ita whole periphery, unsustained by the tendons, and 
f^Q of mpturing its parietes into the surronndii^ connective tissue under the 
"'^Uence of internal pressure. 

Hecbanism of the Articulation of the Fetlock.— By rea^ 
'''*l of the oblique direction of tiie first phalanx and of ita superior 
•'tirailar surftce, vhich play, with r^arcj to the »reight of the body, 
w* »* of an indined plane, the principal bone of die canon constantly 






Fio. 98. 


tonds (Fig. 98) to press on the sesamoid bones, A^ and tends to eflect 
a closing of the angle PBi\ 

The ligamentous apparatus, however, and the tendons wliieh exist 

liehind this angle, (*onstautly nv 
sist this tendency and, bv tlu^ir 
tenaeitv as well as their elas- 
tieity, transform the articular 
joint into a veritable elastic 
spring admirably adapted to the 
sustentation of the IkkIv, the 
dis)M*rsion of the n^ac'tions, and 
the impulsion of the nuL<s. 

The susjK»nsorv ligiuncnt <»f 

the fethK»k, lK»ing n'sisting and 

elastic, thanks to the few nuis- 

cular fas(*iculi whi(*h enter into 

its com|M»sition, yields more nr 

less, a(tH)rding to the intensity 

of traction which it underpK's, 

to the lowering of the great .S4'sa- 

nioids, and thn)Ugh its att:M'h- 

uicnts \\\Hm the Ixmi^sof the csuion distributes u|>on the latter a portion 

of x\\i* pix'ssure of the weight 4»f the Uidy, in such a measure as is 

coni])atible with their integrity. 

As to the ('(inl r, of the tlcxor tendons, thinigh much h*ss clastic, 
it ai-ts in the siunc umnncr ujMin the extrt»mity of the lever-arm AB^ 
in onlcr to limit to sonu» extent the movement of d(*s<rnt of the fet- 
liM-k ami pri'vcnt the elasticity of its susjM'nsory ligament from U^ng 
strain<><l lN'yon<l its limits. Hut as it is continuous, su|K'riorly, with 
tlic fleshy |M»rtiou of the corn *s|>on< ling nnis'h's, and us an intermission 
in thr action of all tlu'S4' coutRK'tilc orgmis is mHissary, theiv exists, 
U'hin<I ami U'low the itiriKil and the tarstil articulations, a strong lig- 
amentous IkukI cuianating fn»ui th<* |Histcri4)r (ii|)sular ligaments of the 
lattrr, whirli |N'nnits th<* firxor tcmlous to (xTfonn the r6le of jKissive 
oi*g;ni»i of su<|x*usiou, by giving tlM-ni a fiiuctiou completely in(h'|M'ndent 
of tlirir n'S[M'<*tive mus<'ular jM>rti<»us. The rarjml mul the tnrnaf check 
lif/ttiiirnfs thrri'fon- transfer to the siijHTior |Mirt of the t'anon Ixmc the 
n*maiuiuir pnssnre of the InKly-wcight whii'h has not Wnm completely 
ovenikuie by the elastieity of tin* sus|M»ns<irv ligimient of the fetl<H*k. 
Ilemi* their fon**' of n'sistane** is in n-lation with the intensitv of tho^ 
tractions which tlu'V nnist sup|x»rt, and it is for this n*ason that tlie 


carpal check tendon always has a greater volume than its homologue 
in the posterior member. 

The function of the fetlock is deduced from the preceding consid- 
erations. It is a veritable elastic mechanism or springy which consti- 
tuteSy for the weight of the body, an apparatus of sustentation and an 
apparatus of dispersion ; it relieves the muscles charged with the sup- 
port of the body, at the same time that it prevents, by its elasticity, 
tlie effects of the concussion of the latter against the ground. 

Bztemal Form. — Viewed in front, the fetlock forms a spheroidal 

relief circumscribed laterally by two convex lines whicli are continuous 

above and below with tlie lateral faces of the canon and of the fetlock. 

Viewed in profile, it is limited, on the i»ontrary, in front by a concave 

curve which continues symmetrically the profile of the anterior face 

of the adjoining regions, while, behind, it presents a salient angle 

Vi'huse superior branch is tangent to the tendons, and whose summit 

corresponds to a tufl of hairs, tlie footlocky containing in its centre the 

horny production called the ergot. A fine skin with short hairs covers 

't and, to a certain point, enables one to (x>njecture its anatomy in 

'>ighly-bred horses. In horses of tlie common races, on the contrary', 

^"C external details are more or less masked in consequence of the 

Sickness of the integument and tlie qiiantity and c»oarseness of the 

pJoiis production. The region is also, in such cases, the object of 

*P^^ial care on the part of dealers, which consists in removing the hairs 

®' the footlock in order to give to the animals an apiK»arance of fineness 

^^ distinction which they do not in reality |x)ssoss. We will again 

'^^m to this in the chapter on the toilet, 

Seauties. — The fetlock, like all the articulatiiins, in order to be 
•Utiflll, should be wide, thick, well di riveted, fine, and free from 

"Width. — The width is given by the ext(»nt of the antero-posterior 

^"^^xietcr, and is appreciated, c^onsecjuently, by examining the lioi'se in 

P'^file. It dejiends upon two elements : the volume of the inferior 

^^^remity of the canon and that of the s(\sainoid bones (Fig. 98) ; w hence 

** >s apparent that it should Ix' ample, for it is pro|)orti(mal to the firm- 

"^^^^ of contact of the members, to the extent of ilu) movements, and, 

finally, to the length of the arm of the lever AB, w4iose developni(»nt 

wVors the action of the suspensory apparatus of the tendons and of 

«^« suspensor}' ligament of the fothx'k. When the aiiieuhition is 

wtrrojTj the tendon is close to the canon, the animal has little firmness 

'« step, lacrks force, and is ruimxl all the quicker as the nienilHTS are 

^^er as columns of sup|)ort in relation to the ImkIv. 


Thickness. — The thickness is the transverse diameter. It indi- 
catiis the large development, from side t*) side, of the inferior extremity 
of ttie canon and of the (*orres|>onding part of tlie first phalanx. It is 
needless to insist ii(>on the advantages of tlu^se ()eeuliaritics ; it stan^ls 
to reason that they denote large articular surfaces, and firmness and 
sureness of the st(*p, important conditions to exact whatever may lie 
the service. 

The fetlock which is deficient hv lac*k of width and tliickni'ss, hv 
lack of volume, in a word, is called Hmailj round ; the animal is alsi» 
said to have thiiij lUjId trrintHy to be wanting in the wrintM, to liave imik 
pimtj oU\ 

Direction. — To the two preftxling qualities it is important to add 
a third, — tliat is, the goixl direction of the segments which concur to 
the formation oi' tliis articulation. We know already that one of tli(*m, 
tlie (unon, should be vertiiail ; as to the other, it implies a certain 
obliquity whi<*h we will determine when we trt»at of the jHiMem, 
Suffice it to say for the present, that this obliquity would be greatly 
exagg<»rated if it attaintnl only 40 or 45 degrees with the horizon; in 
any well-<»onfonu«l hors4» it attains at least 55 degrees. 

When the branches of the spring represented by the fetl(N*k 
straighten thems«»lves <m<» upon the other, their angle l)ecomes mon* 
and m<»n» obtuse* and even tends to Ix'^^ome effaced. The animal is 
then said to 1k» straight in (he mvinhvrtt^ in (hefvUockii. In certain case's, 
however, the deviation of the si^gments is such that tlieir oblicpiity 
tak(»s pla<t» in a st»nsc» inversi* to tliat whit'h they normally aiTeet ; tht^ 
summit i*f tli<' articular angle is direc*ted forward while its sine l(M»kj^- 
iNK'kwanl. This is a somewliat conuuou deformity to which the nanu^^ 
k'intrf:/iiit/ has Uh'U given. We will treat of this with the partem an 
the a.rt'j< t»f the nicmlHTs. 

At otIuT times, an a<vidental, momentary deviation results fro: 
fatigu<% au<l exists only in the fetl<»ck of the ])osterior memlx>rs, whic 
art' su«Mruly pn»j<H'tc<l forwanl when the animal stands still an< 
n^iissunic their pro|N'r situation sis stNin as he stejjs out again. Thi 
singular attitude, wlii<"h is nianifestc<l also in the stable, is exprese^iil bv"* 
saviuiT that the liors<» is /// /-orW. 

Finally, wlicn this deviation, instead of l)eing parallel to the mediar'^ 
plane, in trout <»f or lN'liin<l the axis of the memlx'r, is Hitiiated in 
oblique plane, outwani (»r in\v:inl, in n'lation to the median plane o! 
the UhIv, the hors<' is qualitie<I Hphy-Joofrd uT jxtrrot-toffl. It is a V 
of the axes of the memlN'rs which we will study in a future chapter. 

Fineness. — The fineness or dr>'m*ss of the fetlock impliet 


delicac}' of the skin and of the hairs which cover it, spareness of the 
subcutaneous (?onne(?tive tissue, and the precise and clean delimitation 
of all its parts. It is considered as an index of quality, temjHiranient, 
energy, and vigor. When it is not thus the region is called pnffy- In 
this respect, horses of the flner races approach those of the common 
races according to the condition they are kept in. We have known a 
rather large number which, working in low and moist countries, or \\\y(m. 
muddy and filthy soil, had in the long run acquiixxl long and abundant 
hairs and more or less thickened extremities. 

Absence of Blemishes. — ^The fetlock is ckan w4ien it is exempt 

from blemishes and from diseases. The rationale of this Ix^autv will 

be apparent from wiiat follows. 

Diseases and Blemishes. — From the situation which the fetlock 

<K?eupies, numerous disc^ases, acute and chronic, as well as accidents, 
may affect it, which depret^iate the animal in different ways. 

The skin, first, is often the seat of exronallons, conluj^iom, and wounds^ most 
frequent on the inner side, and resultinjr generally from injuries which the sub- 
ject inflicts on himself during locomotion. It is then said that the horse over- 
Tfaehe*^ interfere^^ cuts himself j ulrlkei^ hlmAeff ; he is usually affected with a defec- 
*'ve axis of the parts, and ordinarily hius an ungraceful gait. (See Defeciii of the 

Like the knee, the fetlock becomes more or less gravely lacerdted on its 
^'^terior face in consequence of falls upon hard and irregular soil. 

At other times it presents vlenfricru, caUoAifhn^ or fracfi^ of the aetual cautery 
^^ points or in lines of a variable extent and configuration. 

The integument sometimes, but more rarely, offers an abundant, fetid exuda- 
"on, vhich transudes from warty excrescences called /r/, and agglutinates the 
®^*ttered hairs over the diseased surface. This disease, known under the names 
*>» Homier in the tegs, grapes, fici, and grease, etc., is an index of a soft constitution 
*nd a lymphatic temperament, dependent most often upon bad hygiene. It is 
"^K^txied as grave on account of its chronic state, its tcnden(\v to ascend into the 
|^*>nof the canon or descend towards that of the foot, of the putrid odor which 
^?> Ves off, and of the tenacity which it offers against ail means of treatment. 

The connective tissue is fre<|uently the seat of (edema, eystn, ho'matoma 
\^or^ri^tumors\ abscesseSy hjmphnngitiK, Jistnhu)t irof/nds^ etc., occasioned by very 
*^^»>^ causes, to concern ourselves with which would be bevond our province, 
"*^ *^cnite character of all these affections being given. 

It is not the same, however, with cgstic tumors, which are met either on the 

^^•"tial or on the anterior face, and which proceed nearly always from repeateti 

^'^^ti^ions durine loc(miotion. The cvst on the anterior face, sometimes verv 

yolt^ixiinous, produces an abnormal convexity of the region, when it is vi<'wed 

^^"■^file. This swelling is indolent, uniformly fluctuating an<l somewhat tense, 

whiit^ygf maybe the attitude of the member, which j)ermits it to be diagnosed 

^'^**^ a synovial dilatation. It is not serious, but constitutes a decided blemish 

™ Pl^tKure-horseB, in consequence of the deformity which it entails. 


The cyst on the internal face, uIwhvh much smaller, lies ui>on the tract of 
the internal lateral ligament of the m(*tacjirp(>- or metatarMHphalangeal articula- 
tion. Its symptoms are the same ai« those of the preceding, but the blemish 
which it occasions is less grave. 

A propas of the canon, we have spoken of the enormous indurations of the 
subcutaneous c<mne(iive tissue which Professor Trasbot designates under the 
iiuine (»f fibrou9 elfphantin*u* of thr membem. In the region of the fethnrk they 
acquire at times colossal dimensions. H. Bouley ' has seen some that extended 
from the Inferior half of the can(m to the hoof, which they envelo|>ed like a 
hcKKi. Measuring more than a metre in circumference, they touched the gnmnd 
behind, with the f(M>t in station, and rubbed, in walking, against the opjKisite 
memU'r, into which they had made a deep cut. Two tumora of this nature* of 
which Prudhomme* has given the desiTiption, weighed twenty -one kihis. and 
twenty-Sloven kilos. n»s|KH"tively. The deep base of these enlargements is ordi- 
narily formed by extrt»mely-<ieveloped vegetations fnim the |HTiosteum. 

The most comm(m U*si(ms of the fetlock, those which indicate at a glani'e 
the excessive function of this articulati<m and the premature wearing away of 
the member, are without doubt the tendinous or articular synovial dilatations^ 
which have receivtnl the generic name windgalU. 

One of these dilatations, however, that of the synovial burna, facilitates the 
gliding of the exten»^)r tendons over the superficial surface of the anterior cap- 
sular ligament of the articulation, and could with equal pn>priety be called 
atUerior wmdgalL In relaticm to its development, it is absolutely identical with 
the others. 

It must not l)e confoundinl with the anterior cyst of which we have siN>kt>n 
iilnive. Like the latter, it determines an abnormal swelling \i\^m this region 
accf»nling to the degree of the synovial hydn){isy ; but what will always |KTniit it 
to \w differentiated fn)m the prece<ling is its relative situatitm with the tendon. 
In the first c-ase, the tendtm is never l(K*ated u|Mm the surface of the tumor; in 
the s(H.M»nd, on the c<mtrar>', it is most usually the reverse, unless, under the rtfect 
of extreme distt'ution, the somewhat weak parieti>s of the synovial membrane^ 
allow si»in(> of the <-ontents to es^'afN' into the interspaces of the surmunding 
(•onne<'tive tissue. Ik»fore things have gone so far, however, over the middle of 
the anterior face of the tumor is s«*en a vertical gutter which ' n*nden» it bilolied, 
and which is <lue to the C4»mpr(*ssion exercis(><l by the anterior extens(»r tendon 
of the phalanjres. Rarely <li>es the nnterwr whuhjall u{ the fetloi'k communicate 
with the articular symivial. Still, such a communicati<m may be pn^sf^nt (Kigot), 
and it is I'asy of appreiMation, for other latenil dilatations will lie found c^K'xist- 
in^r with it, pn»ssun» on which is integnilly transmitted to the former (I^mley). 

The true windijnih are of two varieties : nrtivulnr and tendinoun. It is impor- 
tant to In> able to tlistintruish them. 

Artiriihir wiudijtiHn a]»|K*ar above the feths'k in the form of two small, mund 
tuinor«, oii(> nil earh side, tense when the iiieiiiber is in stjiticm, and softer when 
it is <'lrv:it«Ml. They an' situatinl exac-tly in the angular space c<»mpris4Hl In'twet^n 
the lM»nler of the principal canon l>on«' and the C(»rrcsjMinding branch of the 
rUs|H'n!M»ry ligament of the fetbn'k. It i** <mly when they have attaineil a large 

« 11. Ib.iilcy. 1«.< lit . !• '.W» 

> rnitihoiniiic. KofMU'il ile int'iliHiiif Vi-UTlnAiru, 1M4, p. fiSS. 


Tolume that there appears, against the first phalanx, in the fold of the pastern 
and on each side, the outline of two other tumors, always much smaller, whose 
flactuations are transmitted to the preceding. We have seen that these are the 
points of the synoTial membrane which are only feebly supported. 

TMinoM windgaUs, formed within the great sesamoid sheath, are more 
Tolaminoufl and ascend higher than the articular, behind which they are located. 
Their exact position is the space compri&KKl (m each side between the suspensory 
ligiment and the tendons ; it is the i>oint which corresponds to the HU|)erior culs- 
de«K of the sheath in question. Below the fetlock there are two other smaller 
tumon, in the fold of the pastern and along the latter border of the flexor 
tendoDs ; they communicate with the superior, but are only visible in a state of 
extreme dilatation of the sheath. 

The parietes of windgalls in time become thickened, indurated, and ossified. 
The accumulation of a large quantity of synovia in their interior renders the 
movements less easy, and occasions painful pressure upon the surrounding 
times; and, in consequence, the articulation itself becomes deviated from its 
normil direction owing to the mechanical restraint which it experiences and the 
ptin which it causes during station. 

The tendinous cords, relieving themselves instinctively, so to speak, from 
their habitual tension, retract and tend to produce, little by little, a more or less 
complete e&cement of the angle of the fetlcK'k, a complication always grave by 
wawn of the vicious axis of the members which it occasions, knurkHng. It is 
then that the articular extremities, deprived of their apparatus of dispersion, 
nwnifest the violence of the concussions which they exi>erience during locomo- 
tion hy the appearance of osseous formations u|>on their peripherj'. The exos- 
^<*«i whose formation is excited under the influence of these causes on the 
Mteriorand the lateral faces of the fetlock, have received the name ossr/eU. 

Generally speaking, the chronic diseasi»s of tlu^ region, which we have 
enumerated, are compatible with the normal function of the joint. But the hard 
"Mutations of the tissues and the formation of osseous vegetations around the 
•rticuhur margins produce a certain restraint of the movements. In spite of the 
^*nable BtifYhess of the members, the animal is still utiliziiblc. A <lccidcd laine- 
neSjSave in exceptional cas(?s, appears only after a long time, when, for example, 
the 8yQo\ial membranes are very distended and the articular surfaces notably 

H.— The Footlock and the Ergot. 

The footlock is a tuft of hairn situatcHl iM'hiiul the felhK*k, aroiiiKl 
we trgoi. Properly H|x>akin^, it merits but little attontion when a 
"^'^ is examined for 8oundn(»ss. It is small and formed of hairs of 
"'^texture in the finer nM*es, while in the ccjunuon rac(»s, whose pilous 
8^'8teniatthe inferior jxirt of tlio memlx'r is, in general, thick, eoarse, 
^ very extensive, esiXH'ially if the subjiH'ts inhabit low and damp 
'^ties, it presents tlie op]Kisite ehann'ters. It is not ran* to set*, in 
"^the hairs of the f<M)tl<M'k touch the* soil and ofWn ascend to the 
P^rior part of the kmK\ 

Many horse-merchants, in do'nuj up the hairs, do not fail to (tut the 


footlook to the form of that in the English thon)ughbred, in order to 
give to their horses an apjx»ranoe of fineness and quality which they 
do not really (xisriess. 

The ergot is a more or less voluminous homy production, whi<*h 
<x»upies the |)o8terit)r part of the fetlock in the middle of tlie hairs of 
the /ootfoct. 

In relation to comparative anatomy, by reason of its situation, it«* 
ammxlions, and the stru(*tun>s which form its base in some siHH*ies, it 
is anisidend as the vestige of an aborted digit. It is, however, with- 
out intert»st from an external point of view. 

Like the footl(K*k, it acx|uin's quite a great length in (*ommon 
horses. It is sometimes si»en to divide under the influcniv of desioiti- 
tion, and in the end is sh(»d oft*. When it is t<K) voluminous, it is mit 
when the liairs of the footlock are IxMng arranged, a useless practice? in 

well-bred animals, for with them it alwavs has very feeble dimensions. 

» * 

The ergot, in spite of its ap])arent insignificant v, plays none the less 
a certain r6le o{ protection, in loc^uuotion at great speed, in relation to 
the posterior |)art of the fctlwk, which the vitJencv of the rea<*tions 
tends to lower to the ground. It is (X)mmon to see (m the nux^H)ur8is 
afler a rac<», horses whose erg<»ts are wavered with blood from their use, 
an evident pnK)f that the fetlock must go down to the ground at eadi 
time of the contai't. It is always, in this ("as^*, the diagonal biped 
u|)on whi<'h the horsi' galiojis tliat is m(»st injured, a rtvult easy of ex- 
planation, since the feet whi(4i constitute this biiH^I support, in sucit^s- 
sion and singly, all tlu* weight of the Inidy multiplied by the velocity 
of the locomotorv movements. 

I.— The Pastern. 

Situation ; Limits. — The pastern is situated between the fd- 
hit'k and the roronrf ; it is tlie narn>west |iart of the member of the 
horst% and owes without doubt to this cliaracteristic the name irnW, by 
whicli it is also ih^signated in ordinary language. 

Anatomical Base. — Its (ihsch»us liasi* is formc<l by the first plia- 
lanx, whirh givc»s t4) it, c<»ns4ijucntly, its obli^pic direction fnmi al>ove 
downwani and In^hind forwanl. We have miuic mention al)ove («*e 
t\ihH'k) of all the nuN^hanicsiI a<lvantages which dc|K»nd ujion the 
inrlinatinn of x\w su]NTior articular siirliut'S of this l)onc ; others will 
U* n4iticc<I when we dis<'uss the obliquity of its gnut axis. We will 
alsi» H'vert to them in des<Tibing the function of the |Mistem as an 
int'lintil plane ntviving the weight of the l)ody an^I tnuismitting it to 


the hoof, besides disseminating it in part upon the environing reten- 
tive apparatus. 

The first phalanx is united behind to the sesamoid bones; above, to the 
principal bone of the canon through the medium of ligaments which we have 
already enumerated. (See Fetlock.) Inferiorly, it is firmly articulated with the 
second phalanx by the lateral ligaments, e, c (Fig. 96), which are common also 
to the articulation of the foot. 

These means of union are completed, anteriorly, by the tendon of the ante- 
rior extensor of the phalanges ; posteriorly, by the cord of the flexors, separated 
from the inferior sesamoid ligaments, 6, 6, b (Fig. 97), by the inferior cul-de-sac 
of the great sesamoid sheath. 

Movements. — The pastern is the seat of two movements, flexion 
and ertensian. Each of these modifies tlie opening of the metacarpo- 
or metatarso-phalangeal angle, which, in a state of repose, can be con- 
sidered as in an attitude of extreme extension. They have, however, 
not the same value. Almost insurmountable anatomical obstacles, as 
we have seen, hinder a greater extension ; these reside in the presence 
of the suspensory ligament and the flexor tendons upon the summit of 
this angle ; a fortunate disposition, in virtue of which the bones main- 
tain their function in sustaining the body, w ithout being exposed to too 
violent effects from the tractions of tlie extensive displacements of the 
'fi'tter. The flexion of the pastern, on the contrary, has, so to speak, 
^o definite limits. The articular movement is capable not only of 
^^***sing a disappearance of the primitive angle, but even of giving it 
* disposition inverse to that which it occupied at first. In tliis case, 
the obstacle to the closing of the new angle is entirely mechanical ; it 
I® dvie to the presence of the sesamoid bones and the soft tissues, which 
^'^^irpose their thickness between the canon and the phalangal segment. 
-At the moment of the contact, when the body-weight is tlirown 
^ ^le member, the fetlock is pushed backward and downward, and 
^ jMistem tends to become horizontal. It then gradually becomes 
*^*^htened upon the canon until towards the termination of this 
The ti?v'o s^ments are now almost in a straight line. The 
sm then becomes strongly flexed, elevates the foot, and is finally 
Pwiij^jd in prolongation with the canon to commence again the phase 
^* ^^^^ntact with the ground. Those diverse attitudes have been a<'cu- 
™^Xj recorded by MM. Mare}- and Pagt^ by means of instantancH)us 

^Onn. — ^The anterior face of the j>astern is sli^litly con.stricteil in 
itB xniddle, particularly in horses in which tliis n^gion is soniewliat 

* Harey et Ptgds, Analyse cin^matiquc des allures du chevul. in Comptes-Kendus dcs 
de VAcad^mie des sciences, Paris, 27 Scptombrt'. lbi'>6. 


long ; the posterior face, less extensive, and known under the name 
/M of the jxtHterHf is the centre of the movement of flexion of the 
hooi' upon the phalanges ; finally, the two lateral faces, almoest subc*u- 
taneous, are cnwsed from above downward, and from before back^i-ard, 
by a ligament of constraint which the suspensory of the fetlock sends 
to the ti^ndon of the anterior extensor of the digit. The skin which 
covers this r^ion is more or less thick according to the race ; the hairs 
also liave a variable abundance and texture. 

Beauties. — The iNistcm should be wide, thick, of medium length, 
well dinx'ted, fine, and free from blemislies. 

Width and Thickness. — The width is measured in an antero- 
posterior sense, viewing the animal in profile ; the thickness, on the 
contrary, is appreciated from side to side, examining the subject Id 

Urcat importance is attached to the development of both of these 
dimensions. The width gives the measure of the volume of the first 
phalanx and of the tendons which pass over its two faces. The thick- 
ness indicates the transverse development of the articular surfaces, 
which, we know, is (.x>rrelative to tliat of the fetlock and that of the 
con>net. Now tlie princi]ial condition to be realized in tlie solidity of 
the memlx'rs of the horse is the volume of the boni^s and the ligaments 
which unite them, in order to maintain their locomotory angles ; we 
judge of it, therefon% in relation to the l)ody, as a whole, keeping in 
view the tlii<*kness of tiie segment and the abundance of tlie liaiiy 
pnKlu<*tioiLs which ix>ver them. 

Length. — To assign an absolute length to the {lastem would 
(ibligt* us t4) enter into too many minute details, as the exct^vs or tlie 
drfici«*ncy of tiiis <'lcnient can be, and quite fre<|uently is, comi)ensuted 
by a more or Uss oblique dinH*tion of tlie phalanges under tlic <^non. 
Th«' various diffen*nc«>s in this respect uin l)e quickly recognized by tlie 
pnu'tis<'<l eye. \Vc will then»fon» refer to them only to show the 
ailvantages an<l th<' <lisadvantag<*s d<*|)endent u|)on these variations, 
with reganl to the |KirticuIar serx'iw which a horse is destined to 

A hors<' whoj^e |Mistcrns an* t4M) long is ciill(*d long-jointed ; he is 
uliort-jointai in an op|M)sit4* siaise. Kach of these conformations is 
rc'ganh'd :is an abs4ilntc dcf(H*t, if it Ix* not <*om)N*nsateil, in {lart at 
h»ast, by a [)n»}MT <lirection, il»< \vc shall we farther on. 

Untii n(»w, and for (*onv«'nicn<'e of d<'mon8tration, the phalangal 
sc'gmcnt w:ts ciaisidenKl as an almost rigid C4)lumn extending from the 
fetlock to the gn»uud. 


This view, too absolute in its character, has been recently opposed 
by our colleague, M. Pader,' who has pointed out with reason the 
articulation of the foot — that is to say, the last intcr-phalangal artic- 
ulation, and not the hoof — as the centre of the movements of rotation 
of the phalangal lever upon the soil. 

This statement being made, the phalangal segment may be repre- 
sented scbematicaHy, during station, by the angular lever AOB (Fig. 
99), which rests by Its point, 
B (fixed point), upon the 
third phalanx, and receives 
at (fetlock) the weight of 
the body, OR, transmitted 
trough the canon, OC. 

The muscular action, 
M, exeroised upon the sesa- 
moid bones, A, must there- 
fore, at each instant of the 
oontart, In order to main- 
tain the equilibrium, an- 
ta^DJze the force, R, and 
«>uoterbalance it, so that 
the fetlock, 0, where it is 
applied, may remain in Its 
normal situation. 

Lei US now draw, from tho 
J^'nt of support, B, the per- 
pendiculars BF and BE upon 
•he direction of the two fortes, 
* «od R; these lines, it is 
***"' Hre the respective lever- 
■rtnn of each of these fortes, 
•'"' U will be seen that here, as in all Ic 
^ power overcomes that. BE, of the resistance. 

It is known, besides, that a lever is in <i|uilitirium when the movements i)f 
* '*ro forces are equal. 
Whence, since equililiriuni does exist, we have the fnlhming formula : M X 
**' (mom. of the force .1/) ^RyBE or /// (morn, of the hn-c Ji). 

Ilii» being laid down, let u? now leiigtlK'ii the pustern, and make it 0I>, for 

The new arms of the lever will W Jiff anil J)f. Itoth will be lenprtheiinl h_v 

« of the second class, the arm, BF, of 

e quantity, ND, which will r 

ily disturb the cituilibrium, for the 

*"" of resistance will have augmented, relatively, by a greater quantity tliini that 

' hder, De )a ftrmre n< 



of the power. The atiMiluto autfmcnbition, however, being equal for b 
pTCMTvatidn of the e<|iiililiTtum will ilfnian<l that the power or the m 
contraili'in tie mnre inienw lo c-ounlerbaluni'c the rtiiistani-e, or the w< 
the IxkIv, whiMe uriii has lengthened beyond the limita required by the me« 
of the purtM. 

Wlioncc it (iiliowB tliat the dontratioD «(" the jiastem irn-n'o* 
fitTw li at the exjtcnse of tho li>rtv M, Ixxnuxe ilc eltWt if tn lei 
the arm of (he lever by the siiiie ijiianltty, instt.'ad of in an 
ratio to the foret-t which move tliom. 

Duriitif locomotion, when the foot has n>aehe(] tlie }rr<>iiu(l, i 
longer the first two phalanges that constitiito tho phiilanjrul se 
att M. Pailer' i»'li*'v 
it iK the enlin' difri 
giun, the luHif iiielnc 
TiMse torm, it i 
a hnikeii lt'V<T e<ii 

of two |)i«f!' (1st, t 
two |ilialuil)res; '2^ 
hiMif), lint their xni 
nioveinentrt, always 
Huniedin-ction, an* ^t 
aitt><M-iHtetl us to give 
total ilin(»laifnient o 
analogoiiis to that j)r 
by a rigid lever, Ol 
10(1), extemiiiig fm 
soil, n, to the tetl<M'l 
With a ijtianti 
miivenient that var 
eonling to the wei; 
the l><>dy and the \ 
oftheguit, tlieextn-n: 
'"" '«^ of this wgl'itnt w 

nu'h step, in eontat 
the ground, rv, whioh nt-eefxurily reaetit in pn>[>ortion to the 
which it cominnninitei' to the luKif. It is easy to eonviniv ou 
tliat this action is also niutliticd liy the vunati<ins in the length 
digital region. 

Let the lin<- BH repreivnl the fiire<- which, aetin)[ rI the extremity, i 
nitate it ■round the jHiint <i, and. conMHiuvnily, to c 

lever, BOA, tenils ii 


angle BOCj by antagonizing the muscular action, M^ which is exercised at the 
extremity, -4, of the same lever. In this case, the fetlock becomes the fixed point 
or fulcrum and the lever belongs to the first class. 

Let us determine, as above, the arms of the lever of the forces, BH and 
AM^ by inserting from the fixed point a line perpendicular to their direction ; 
these arms evidently are 0i7 and OA. 

Now let UB lengthen the lever OB to 0Z>, and we will see that the arm of 
the force, BH, becomes 0/, while that of ^ J/ will always remain OA, 

Thus, the longer the i)astem the more the reaction of the soil 
against the weight of the body augments and fatigues the tendons and 
the ligaments which are inserted, at Ay upon the sesamoid bones. The 
causes which tend to augment the length of the plialangal region are 
very significant, exception being made, of course, of the dimensions of 
the bones. 

First among these we will place the elongation of the hoof, re- 
sulting from the normal growth of the horn in a horse whose shoe 
is not sufficiently often reset ; secondly, tlie error of the farrier in 
not sufficiently paring the f(K)t ; finally, the tendency which farriers 
or proprietors have, according to their interests, of applying too 
Aick a shoe in order not to have the trouble or the exjiense of re- 
setting them at proper intervals, as often as the state of the hoof re- 
quires it 

Defidenei/ of. the length of the pcudern evidently has inverse draw- 

*^*^ks. The short-jointed horse suR'harges liis bones beyond measure ; 

^^ lacks suppleness in consequence of the insufficiency of the fetloc^k 

^ an apparatus of dispersion, and has, from this fact, hard reactions ; 

''^sides, he is more predisposed to osseous blemishes of the bones of the 

''^^xnbers, as ring-bones. 

The inconveniences of tlie long joints and the short joints have not, 

">" far, the same importance in the anterior as in the posterior mem- 

"^^^j on account of their unequal distance from the centre of gravity. 

*^ is beyond a doubt that the anterior extremities, incomparably more 

*^*^^€d than the posterior in the sustentation of the body, show more 

^^ickly and more gravely the injurious consef|uences of these defects. 

^ bet, experience has demonstrated this ; blemishes of the anterior 

"^^mbers are more common than those of the posterior, and the part 

^*l^ich the pastern takes is more marked in the former, this region 

"^itig always longer in the fore than the hind limbs, and also more 

Clique, doubtless on account of their proximity to the centre of 


Directioil. — The direction of tlie pastern is intimately allied to 
^length, — that is to say, a long jiastern is in most cases t<M) horizontal, 



Flu. 101. 

Flu. 102. 

while it bet-oint^ more vertical when it is too short. In the first case, 
the horse is low-johUed ; in the second, he is qualified straight' jointed 
(Fijr. 101 and Fi^r. 102). 

The (^ior^e relationship which associates long-joinledness with /oir- 
jointednejui is easy of* comprehension, the pastern becoming less and 

less a a)lumn of support, and 
more and more an elastic spring 
in proportion as its leng^th in- 
creases. We have si^en above 
that tlie arm of the lever of 
resistance (weight of the l>ody) 
elongates and imposc'ts greater 
efi*orts upon the mus(*les and the 
ligaments. A spring alsf> gives 
all the more as it is more elastic 
and as the pressure which it sup- 
ports is gnuter. This is precisc'ly what takes place in a long-jointed 
{MLstem, whi<*h is at the same time nearly always loir-jointetf, because it 
is relatively weak and flexible imder the weight and the redactions of 
the bodv. 

Some horses, nevertheless, an* exceptions. Kither from the great 
resistance of the fibrous ligaments or the tendons to tra(*tion, the mode 
of articulation of their Ixmes, a greater (*nergy of their musc*les, an 
intensity of a(*tion whi<'h is more effective from the lengtli of the arm 
of tht» lever an<l the jK»qx»ndicular incidence of insi*rtion, or, finally, 
f*or som<» other cause, these animals redwm tlie excess of the lengtli of 
the imstcrn, and mitigate the evil effects by a less oblique dinniion. 
Thcs4» in^tamM's, however, an* rare, which is nothing but natural, as we 
have jn<t i*<v\i. 

Most authors who define the dire<*tion of this r(*gi<m estimate it at 
alMHit 40 to 4") iK'gnH's, in such a uuuhkt as to form with the fetIo(*k an 
angle of l.*i() to l;).") <legre<»s. Vallon ami M. Ix'moigne an» the only 
ones, to our kuo\vl<ilge, wiio sei'm to hav<' UK'sisured this inclination with 
s«>ni«' mn' \\\utu the living hi»rs<» or u|M»n the skelet<»n. Aside from the 
puH'ly tli«*i»n*ti<';il i*!**;! that the |Kist<-ni should have a din»ction intiT- 
UKMliarv U'twc^n tlic al>solut44v verticjil and the horizontal, it has licen 
U'lievtil to In* g(N»d l(»gic to nN'onuncnd a niciin obliquity of 4o ch^grees, 
withtMit |M*n'<Mving that this arguni(>nt is faulty, first of all, in ita 
pn*mises, sintx' it is not Iwis^mI u|m>u liicts. 

The meiui obliquity, in our opinion, (»scillat(*s around GO degrees 
ujMin the horizon, in the anterior nu'niU'rs, and «>.") degree's in the po§- 



terior, which are always more vertical to the fetlocks. An in<-1ma- 
tioD of 45 degrees is not observed in wetl-fornicd liorsi-s provided 
with good axes ; it constitntos, on the contran-, u low-jointedncss (juite 

Let UB now see the disadvantages which aconie from an excess or 
ta ioBufliciency of 
obliquity ; they are 
of the same nature 
» those which fol- 
low an excess or 
u insufficiency of I 
length. There are 
leveral ways of ex- 
plainii^ this: 

Let UB first re- 
fwd the pastern as 
•n iwUned plant 
of mrface and of 
^yiwirf in the de- 
composition of 
ftma parallel to 
*l>e weight. 

Suppose OB 
wd Oi)(Fig. 103) 
"6 two pasterns 
of the tame length, 
bat imequally in- 
sliwd upon the 

<*owi OC. From the fact of this inclination, the weight of the body, 
"hich we will represent in quantity ami direction by the line OH, is 
*'*»'uposed, at the level of tlie fetlock O, into two forces, one of 
*hich is parallel to the phalangul region, and is overcome by its own 
KeiBtance ; the other is perpendicular to the preceding. The latter is 
*^ted upon the sesamoid Iwnes, ami tends to lower the angle of the 
■ttlock against the summit of which tlie tendons are applied. 

Thwetwo components of the resultiint OS are, by wn«trui'tinfr the parallelo- 
P*a of forces : for OB, Oe iind Of; Un 01), Of/ .i'li.l OP. Tlicy imlicnt«. for 
•"b inclination, the rdlf which i.* intriistcii to the Ihhii-m iinii Ihf inii«t-lo». The 
•"'« inspection of the figure Mhi>wfl that .rith the piistcrn 0/1 {-tnii;,hl-jm»lei{), 
"" oinponent Of exceeds Oe, and therefiire litewiwe 01), whii'h corresponds to 
'tin the other nwe. 


TIicn'fi>rr the Ktnii^Jil ji»int Min'liaiir<'« t!n' Ixmcs iinit n-liivt-* the 
nniwlis ,1 .1/, wliicli unta^iiii»' flic Conv Or, while tlic lung j<iiiit (iivurs 
till' liom-s at the cxix-nsf^- ol' the tc'iii|(>ii!< wliii-li it cxlinu^^tif. 

Tlif ]iiL''tiTii |>la_vrt n IK) Ii-srt iin|M>rtaiit [lart il" u frvcr, wliutfvcp wjiv 
wo examine it. 

Bointt Hlill (riven the two pantcm* Oft and 0/> (Fitr. l'>4t. «.f tin- wiiiip 
lenffth, but unequally inclined u|)(>n the eunon 00: Tbey funn with tlie ^n-M 

h<->iini..i<l-, .t. twri imL'uliir leveix. AOtI jiti'l .fO/f. ..I' ihe M-e-mil elww, whw 
tHiitil ..f eotiliii I ..r HiU-nnii U iin Ilir );ninii<l al It :in.l /'. wlxw rniixtnnec. ft. 
IK HI 0,!ii..| «li..... |...«vr. .1/. i^al .1. 

It i- ii|<]>ur<M( tliil liy 'IriHiiii; llir |H'r|H'n<IJ<-iiliir- /If and />A' from the 
)»iinl- <>r <''iiil:i<'l iij-in iIk' ilirei-ti'in 'il' Ili>' limi' li. — thai \* tii kuv, the arinH of 
lh<- Irv.r :( r.-i-1:inie for ea.h u( th.-i- ill.linati..ii-..— thi* f:fi- will net al the 
■•xlri'iiii1\ lit' nil artii loiiu'ir in the euM- »( ihe loH-jniuteil )>ai^Tn lluui in that 
of tli.'Mriiii.-li(-.;"ilil<-<l '- 

Tlii- ulili.jiiity ol' the |ilt:il:iii;.riil lever, then-fore, ublif^-s tin- mitit- 
<'les AM, «h>i-i' levi-r-artii n-inuin'' iiivarialile, to iiiiike more cnerpotic 


oontractions, in order to maintain the equilibrium of the fetloirk which 
receives the weight of the body, whose lover-arm has augmented. 

Finally, the results are identical when the animal machine, moving 
at great speed, strikes the ground at each step of tlie gait 

When the levers AOB and AOD (F^g. 105) are of the second class, the 
power is always applied at A^ the fulcrum is at O, while the resistance becomes 
the reactions, DE, BF^ of the soil against the weight of the body, which are per- 
ceived at the points B and 1), By drawing the [)erpcndiculars OF and OE from 
the falcrum, or point of relation, ujwn the direction of the vertical fones liF 
and DE^ it is found, as in the preceding figure, that the greater the inclination 
of the pastern the more the lever-arms OE and OF augment at the expense of 
the arm, OA^ of the muscles, AM, 

This implies tJiat the obliquity of the phalangiil region n^nders the 
reactions of the soil against the <]uantity of movc^ment with which the 
bodj 18 animated at great sj)eed more lalxjriouH and fatiguing for the 

It resoItB from the preceding tliat the inccmvcniences of low-jointed- 
nen are of the same value as tliose of long-jointeilness, and hence it 
foUowB that they will be superadded to each other in hoi-sscs suffering 
aimultaneoufily from tliese two defects. The same may be said of the 
atniglit and the short-jointed pasteni. 

Theae conformations, nevertheless, do not offer the same gravity in 
all aerviceH. The long and oblique jKLstern rendei's the horse more 
BQpple and more pleasant t4) ride ; it enables him to disperse mon^ 
easily the violent reaction of IcK'omotion at great sikiiI, and it would 
be veiy desirable in the saddle-horse, the driving-liorsc, and the nux^ 
horse, were it not a source of danger to the integrity of the tendons. 
The short and straight |>astcrn is strong ; it has no very prijudicial 
influences against heavy-<lraught s(»rvic(»s, but it renders the n»actions 
hard and jeopardizes tliereby the integrity of the osseous ap{)ai*atus ; 
hence it unfits a liorsc for the riding>sclux)l or for ilist riding. 

To recapitulate, numerous disadvantages and sometimes advantages 
may accrue from a pastern erring in its length and in its direction. 
If both sides be comj)are<l, it will Ik* seen that it is injudicious to extol 
t«X) muc^h any (me of tht*se cimformations in preference to that which 
we have indicated as the Ixniutiful : the lomj^ low^ HtraUjhtj and nhori 
joinU will always constitute defects. 

Neatness of Outline and Freedom from Blemish.— The 
|iastem is called neat when its skin is thin, the sulK'utancous couikm- 
tive tissue rather scan-e, the haii-s deliciitc and short ; i\w Imiucs and 
the tendons are then apparent in their spci'ial form an<l dirc<'tion. 


Here, also, iieabiiess in a characteristic of quality and distinction^ 
which the thoroughbred horse presents in the highest decree. Com- 
mon horses, like the draught-horse, have this region more or h'ris 
thick, and the hairs of the f<M>tIock almost cover its posterior face. It 
is the custom to cut thes(» hairs in the lighter variety of horses \vlii<'h 
are somewliat lymphatic and lack in breeding, so as to make the mem- 
bers appear more slender and render the form and outline of the 
extremities mon^ appun^nt. This procedure is not prm*tised in heavy 
horses, in which these hairs fulfil the rdle of protecting organs against 
mud and dust. 

The neatness of outline of tlie {lastem implies, as in the other 
regions, tlie al>semx.' of diseases and blemishes. 

Diaeaaee ajid Blemishes. — Many diseases are observed upon the paKtorn 
or extend there fn>m other regions : such are contusions, excoriations, superficial 
wounds of the skin, cuts, fissures, coUosities, cedema, abscess, grease, lymphangi* 
tis, fibrous elephantiasis, et<*. We will only mention them in passing. 

However, there arc some diseases and blemishes whose seat is entirely 
confine<l to the pastern. 

I^t UH cite first the eife<*ts of hnltrr-coM, a transverse or oblique wound which 
is oocasiontnl in the fold of the pastern by the friction of too long a strap fasten- 
ing; the horse to the mangiT. This accident is produced when the animal, in 
endeavoring to rub the mane with one of the posterior bipeds, or the pastern of 
one of thene with the teeth, carries the posterior member forwani, which then 
lMx^omcs entanji^led in the halter-strap. The latter, stnmgly tensed by the inveme 
actions of the nei'k, which is straightened, and of the f(rN>t, which is carried 
backward, moves to and fro over the skin, whence result more or less pn>f(»und 
wounds.' Hometimai the animal loses his equilibrium, falls down, and twists the 
niH'k, which determines a permanent deviation of the latter.' 8uch a mishap 
can also be produee<i under other circumstani*es, when, for example, the horve i» 
tieil to a |M)st, or to a (*ord with a fetter fixed to one of the anterior pasterns; 
wh<'n he is cast for the puqMise of undergoing a surgical operation ; when he i** 
obliginl to eat fn»m the gnmnd, an<l l>eing in harness, aiTidentally entangles one* 
of the itumiiImtm in the reins, etc. The symptoms and the gravity of this accident 
vary m'(*oniing t4> the qualities of the rubbing IxKiy, its hardness, the intensity^ 
of the friction, an<l the nature of the lesions. We will not expatiate on these. 
lA't us mer<>ly say that a cicatrix follows th(*se li*sions, which, in most instam^es^ 
is |H*rinunent, un<l u|M)n which the hairs are not replaced. At times, the ciira — 
tri<'ial tissue is so alnindunt that the n>gion remains permanently enlarged anA 
defoniied ; the tnovcment of flexion of the foot is n*ndered less easy and the skiim 
is much iiioH' sensitive to (*aus4*s caf>ab1e of irritating and excoriating it^ 
Finally, there are (*aMi*s in wliirh cicatrization never follows, and the wound iHUf 

I H. Boaloy, Nimventi (liriionnain' <1i> m^lt'cine, de chlninde et d'hygi^ne vfU^iinaim. L w- 
p. 602. 

* Thli accident. raiiikHl by iliv btrugKlvit of the antm&l, often givit rlw to wrfneA or partliU 
luxsUuD of the cervical vertebru:. 


tinueB to diadiarge. The latter is then oonverted into an incurable fissure, often 
with an eczematous condition of the surrounding parts. 

JFlasures on the pastern are more grave than in any other region by reason 
of the movements and the difficulty of maintaining the wound which they 
occasion in a proper state of cleanliness. 

The 9oft tumor$ which are observed here are synovial dilatations belonging 
to the great sesamoid sheath, or to the articulation of the fetlock. They appear 
on each side of the flexor tendons, but usually do not acquire a large volume. 
However it may be, they accompany vnndgcdUy and only show themselves when 
the latter are largely developed. 

Linear cicatrices are met on the lateral planes of the pastern, indicating that 
the animal has been subjected to neurotomy for a chronic disease of the organs 
contained in the hoof, or for osseous tumors of the coronary region. It is there- 
fore necessary to ascertain if the malady against which the treatment has been 
employed has disappeared. 

Bzoetoses of the first phalanx receive the name of osselets. Some incor- 
rectly call them ring-bone», this appellation being reserved for the osseous tumors 
of the coronet or of the complementary fibro-cartilages of the third phalanx. 
The oflseletB may or may not cause lameness, according to the restraint which is 
experienced by the tendons or the articulation ; they generally result from hard 
o§age, and occur more frequently upon the anterior members, upon short and 
straight pasterns oftener than uf)on any others. Sometimes they result from 
blows, and are even the consequence of fractures of the first phalanx, accom- 
panied by the formation of a callus. 

Finally, let us mention traces of actual cautery ^ in points or in lines, used as 
a means of treatment against osseous tumors, indurations of the skin, or all other 
chronic affections of this region. These blemishes are, however, in mobt in- 
rtances, only an extension of those which are dependent upon the cauterization 
of the fetlock or the coronet. When they are present, it is imperative to examine 
with care the acyoining parts of the member in order to assign to these blemishett 
^^h just value in the depreciation they cause to the animal. 

J.— The Coronet. 
Situation; Limits; Anatomical Base.— The coronet, a 

'^ion rather difficult to delimitate, is situated between the pastern and 
*« hoof. 

Its anatomical base is that part of the second phalanx not containe<l in the 

^"^y case, covered anteriorly by the tendon of the anterior extensor muscle of 

. * phalanges, poeteriorly by that of the deep flexor, and laterally by the supe- 

'J^'' portion of the complementary fibro-cartilage of the third phalanx as well aH 

"y the glomes of the plantar cushion. 

Hounded firom side to side on its anterior face, wider below than al)ove in 
^'laeqnence of the presence of the coronary band, and depressed on its posterior 
*^ at the level of the concavity which separates the two bulbs of the aforcsjiid 
^'^■^ion, the coronet also presents on each side the tuberosities which give attach- 
ment to the lateral ligaments of the first inter-phalangul articulation. It is 



covered by a thick skin provided with hairs more or lew abundant and coane, 
according to the fineneas of the animal. 

Bc'fore pn*tsenting a pk^asure-horsc* for sale, tiiey iMually clip his 
hairs in order to give to the members a eertain appearanix; of lightness 
But neither horses of the finer races nor heavy-draught horses art*, as 
a nile, 8ubje<*ted to this practice, because in the former the hairs are 
short and fine, and in tlie latter they constitute an apparatus of pn>- 
tection of which it is unjust to deprive the horse. 

In the army it is prohibited to dn^ss the hairs over the {utrts ct»r- 
n«})<)nding to the |)a8tem, in order to protect them as much as 
IX)fisible against the injuries S4) frequent during the manieuvn's. 

Beauties. — The only |>oints of this region are the ir/V/Z/i, the Jint^ 
newt, and ihi^ freedom from hleminhcH, 

The first implies a combative width of the phalanges and the 
firmness of the member. The second consists in the thinness of the 
skin and the delicacy of the hairs ; it indicates the ancc^stry, the tem- 
perament, the energy, and the vigor of the horse. As to the third, it 
implies a |KTfect n'gularity of the |)artd and the absence of disease's 
and blemislu>s. 

Diseases and Blemishes.— The cx>ronet, like all the other infe- 
rior regions of the memlx'rs, shows numerous alterations which involve 
either the skin and the subcutaneous c^nmective tissue, tlie tendons, or 
the bones. Their gravity nect^ssarily depends uiM>n the nature of the 
lesions, their location, their ))ericxl of existence, and the intorfereoi« 
whic*h tlu»y offer to the IcK'omotory fimction. 

These are firnt m/ibi, deep wounds of the skin, of a variable extent, which 
result from the contact of the fcH.»t in some circumstancert, an on the race-coune 
or in leaping]; over obstacleiiy for example. 

(irratte or xeater in the leg», already cited in the description of the canon, the 
fetlock, and the pastern, often Itegins at the oonmet, whose hairs it agglatinata 
into small |MMicils of a bristly aspect which is quite peculiar, and which is vulgmriy 
compare<l with a comb. 

Contusions and other traumatisms produce, at times, deep alterations of the 
lateral cartilagt^, the tendons, the glomes of the plantar cushion, or even the 
skin, an<l pive rise to a partial nei^rosis of these structures, known under the 
gi*noric name quitter. A quitter may be tendinous, enrtUaginou», or cuiamemm^ 
a<*cording to the timue involved. In freneral, they should be considered as betag 
grave, for they incapacitate the animal fnmi service for a long time and con- 
primiise his very life by the complications which ac(H)mpan7 them. (See Foai.) 

The anterior fa(*e of the coronet is sometimes the si>at of an aifecrtion called 
cmpaudine, which is characterized by a pieculiar modification of the secretoffj 
function of the con)nary band, which becomes fissured and cracked after IkMi 
manner of the bark of an old tree. (See Foot,) 


The osseous tumors of the region hjive received the name ring-bone^ and are 
located on the anterior and the lateral faces. Clinically, they are distinguished 
as coronary and cartilaginous^ according as they are developed upon the second 
phalanx or in the thickness of the lateral cartilages of the foot.* 

They are usually, to whichever variety they may belong, the consequence of 
violent percussions received by the bcmes during locomotion, or of contusions of 
the cartilages. They also follow inflammatory conditions of a diverse nature, such 
a8 abscesses of the coronet, tendinous or cartilaginous quitter, the prick of a nail, 
etc. ; finally, they are frequently sequelae to fractures, in which case it is observed 
they are persistent. Short-jointed horses, young horses with a precocious consti- 
tution, which are subjected to laborious work, and full-grown horses which are 
employed in severe labor on the pavements of large cities are much more j)re- 
dispo8ed to such formations than others. The influence of heredity has been 
recognized for a long time ; certain families of horses, from injudicious selections 
or crossing, invariably transmit these blemishes to their descendants. 

Ring-bones are recognized by a hard, resisting tumefacticm, which covers the 
anterior or lateral faces of the coronary region, and manifests itself as an abnor- 
mal convexity when the animal is examined from in front or in profile. Although 
the enlargement is most often apparent to the eye, it is sometimes concealed by 
*'he thickness of the integument and the ai>undance of the hairs ; it is therefore 
'^^•essary to complete the examination by the use of the hand, especially in 
**onie8 whose coronet is not verv distinct in ita outlines. 

A ring-bone most usually at its beginning occasions lameness; but when the 
tumor is once formed the lameness disappears, unless the exostosis has reached 
^oe contour of the articular surfaces. 

&iucMing also appears as a com[)licAtion of old ring-bones ; to this symptom 

^^y be added contraction of the hoof, due to the deviation of the coronarv band. 

These exostoses always constitute a serious blemish, but the degree of the 

IP^vity nevertheless varies. It is clear that the depreciation of the value of the 

*^Hiial is greater as he is one of luxur>' or a rapid motor, and as the interference 

^'th the locomotory ftinctions is more pnmounced. Many horses are but little 

depreciated even by a voluminous ring-bone which is not accomi)anied by lame- 

^^'^* or who8e lameness does not interfere w^ith their utility as draught-horses. 

7 *** entirely differ^t with pleasure-horses, in which the perfectness of conforma- 

^"^ a.nd the cleanness of the members form one of the essential conditions of 

^^'^ acquisition. Finally, these exostoses are, from their hereditary tendency, 

*o«olute reason for condemning siwh horses as are destined for breeding purposes. 

The coronet rather frequently presents on its surface traces of the actual 

in points or in lines. We will repeat here the advice we have so often 

^▼en in guch cases : it is necessary to ascertain by a minute examination that 

^^ ^liseased processes against which this treatment has been employed have 

y^**y disappeared. Certain horse-dealers, indeed, have applied, with fraudulent 

^•^t^ the actual cautery upon the member for the concealment of a lameness 

*^^^*e seat is more or less distant from the cauterized parts. 

l«et OS remark, in terminating, that there is a particular variety of scabies or 
^JJ***^ affecting the inferior extremities of the members of the horse ; it is qual- 
^•^ 9ymbioiie or eharioptic mange, because it is caused by an acarus named sgrn- 


> These are ordinarily called ride-bone$. 


bioies or rhoriopiet 9p€Uh\feru9, It residet^ in the coronary band, the fold of the 
partem, and the footlock, which are soon covered by an abundant scurfy desqua- 
mation of the epidermis and gradually deprived of their hairs. This mange is 
benign, in couHcquence of its very slow spreading and the little tendency of the 
acarus towards migration ; it passes easily from one anterior or posterior mem- 
ber to the other, whilst it is more rarely seen to be communicated from one 
anterior member to the corresponding posterior. However it may be, this variety 
of mange occasions decided itching, which prevails during the night or after 
work and induces the animal to rub and bite himself. From this symptom, it 
disturbs their rest, worries them unnecessarily, and exposes them to wounds 
which are to be dreaded on account of their situation. It is only contagious 
from horse to horoe, and not at all from hone to man. 



Definition. — The foot, in its relation to comparative anatomy, is 
all that |»rt of the meml)er which is below theforeunn or the leg. 

This definition, on the (*i»ntrar\\ much more limited so far a^ the 
cjirrior is <"on(i»rnied, is here applied only to the extremity of the 
raemU'rs which it«ts u|Km the gnnmd, the ruiil, properly so called, the 
horny box, vnl^rly known under the name of the hoof, which contains 
and protet-ts living, sensitive tissues of variable texture and properties. 

Distinction. — Four in numlx^r, the feet are qualified fore or 
hindy acconlinjr to their n4ative situation with the centre of gravity. 
All have the ssime general organization ; they differ, nevertheless, in 
w'veral extenial c'lianuiers which we will 8<M)n explain 

In ea(*h l)i|»ed, anterior or i)osterior, tliev are distinguished as righl 
ami (rji ; their c<»nfomiation otherwise is absolutely identical. 

A.— Organization of the Foot. 

The foot luis always Ikh^u considered as one of the most important 
n^gions to study. This will Ik' the Ix^tter appreciated when we U^anm 
the |Kirt it plays in station and in l(Hx>motion, the influence of iti» 
beauties and defects u})on the a]>titude of the animal for diverse 
s<»r\'ic<'s, and, finally, the gravity of its discuses. 

Mon* than twenty-two (t>nturies ago, Xenophon said that the mem- 
bers an» the very first {larts t4) Ik» examintnl in the horse : " A house 
cannot mtvc any purpose, however perfect it may be in its superior 

THE FOOT. 313 

parts, if it has not a good foundation ; it is the same with a war- 
horse ; he will be good for nothing if, being perfect otherwise, he has 
bad legs (members) ; for he is unable to use whatever good points he 

ttuiv have. 

" In ike examination of the legSy look first at the foot r ^ 
This is the same idea which is reproduced, in our days, in the forms 
of aphorisms in all treatises on the exterior : 
^^Nofooty no horse P^ said I^afosse. 
" Nofooty no horse P^ repeat the English. 

Bracy-Clark has only translated the thought of Xenophon when 
Ae said, " Incerta basis instabile sedificium T* 

The foot is formed by a certain number of internal parts, covered 
'^y ^ modified skin admirably adapted to its special functions, as well 
^ h>y a homy envelope known under the name hoof Let us examine 

I. Internal Parts of the Foot. 

These parts are complex and numerous ; their relation can be clearly recog- 
in a vertical and antero-posterior section of the organ (Fig. 106). 

Three bones form its. osseous base and permit it to accomplish its various 

°^^"^^^ment8. These are : the third phalanx or pedal bmie (a) ; the second phalanx^ 

^ ^^^^^^yronary bane (6) ; finally, the naviailaVy or small sesamoid bone (c), situated 

"®1^ i sd the preceding and complementing the articulation which the other two 

£hort, strong ligaments consolidate the joint on the sides, while two wide 
""***^^^fc~cartilaginous plates, lateral cartilages of (he third phalanx, intimately united 
^ ^ ^:^ bone, seem like two ela.stic and diverging springs, placed on the outside 
^'^^ on the inside of this bone, to prevent it from descending or rocking too sud- 
"^'^ ^ ^ in the hoof at the moment when the latter strikes the ground. 

Two strong, expanded tendons terminate upon the third phalanx : the anterior 
v»> ^:*arries it into extension ; the posterior (e) permits, on the contrary, the flexion 
^ ^^iais bone upon the os coronse ; it glides over the inferior face of the navicular 
^*~^^ by means of a synovial sheath designated under the name small sesamoid 

fh (better called the navicular sheath). 

Finally, a voluminous flbro-elastic cushion (g), called the plantar cushion^ 
MC9!bed behind and pointed in front (Fig. 107, B :d), is placed under the flexor 

on, to which it serves as a flexible bufler when the foot has reached the 
I'^^^'^^nd. All pressure upon the hoof from below upward tends to depress it and 
J**'*^'^"^ it against the lateral parts, where it is maintained by the two elastic carti- 
*S^^^« indicated above. 

Outaneooa Bhivelope of the Foot.— This is the skin, modified in its 
^^^^^^Citions and external characters, which covers the surface of all these organs. 

proof of this can be easily obtained by maceration of the hoof, or the arti- 
removal of the hoof and the hairs of the digital extremity, in order to see 

Xtoopbon, De V6quit&Uon, traduction du baron de Curnieu, chap. i. p. 7. Paris, 1840. 


the integumcnta n direct cont nu tv w th the living partu which might, at fintt 
Hght, bf miHtaken f t tUHues coiuwtiiig of an entirely different oiitMiiMtion. 
Let Fig. 107 represent by A the normal foot before maceration ; by B. the mbdic 

'Iiongltudliuil and madtan Kctiun ot th« biot. 

font after prolonged imaking in water. The epidermic prodnctiona, the bom and 
the haire, naturmliy detiu.-hed, leave the eutjuieoiu covering intact. 

The latter, vulgarly known under the luune JIahif atrtlape, ftik ^ Utt foot, 
is remarkalile fur iln great viuH'ulHritr ami the aliundance iif its nervea. Hence 
it in very HuiK;eptible of congmtion and inflainnutinn as anon ao the hoof, which 
auTTounda it, haa lost ita phyniological properties. All its leaiona, of whttlCTer 
utture they may he. are always aceompanied by intense pain, the tumefiwtioD of 
the living part* becoming Impoaaible, incaacd aa they are in a reaiatiag, klmcat 
iustenaible, envelope. 

THE fV>or. 


The cwtaDeoua envelope of the foot, also lalled the keralogaiout meittbrxme, 
i> Bubdtvided into three import&iit r^ions. These are ; 

a. The ooronary band or outldure (Fig. 107, B:a) is an enlarged, cir- 
cular hmnd or ridge, crowmng superiorly the living parte and Wrminating behind 

Fio. im.—A. The 

belbre macertUoD. B- The hwt aAer macerttloD. 

by ■ coDtinui^ with the glomes, e, of the plantar cushion. It offers along the 
eotire length of its >aperior border a much smaller secondary conTexity, known 
under th« nam« of periopllo bond, to which are intrusted special fiinctioDH. 

It ia covered over the remainder of its surface by a multitude of filamentous 
prolongationi, pv^iSa, easily perceived when immersed in water. These pene- 
tnte, by so many fbnunina, the superior border of the wall. Endowed, physio- 
logically, witJi the elaboration of the latter, the cutidure constitutes also, by its 
•tUantM* or papilla, very rich in nerve filaments, a veritable organ of tactile sen- 
Mtion for the horae, which can thus recognize, with all the perfection desirable, 
the qoalily of the mirface tipon which his foot rests. 

b. Tlie podoptayllouB, laminated, or lamellar tissue (Fig. 107, B.b) 
vomprisea the whole periphery of the cutaneous envelope situated below the coro- 
nary band, lliis tlasue, which owes its name to the numerous lamiuK or longi- 
tudinal leaves which it presents, also forms a whitish, soft horn, composed of 



ImiiinE intimately united to the horn which descends from the c 
This adherence of the two horny productions is so strong that It resists the muat 
prolonged maceration. Behind, the lam- 
inn are reflect«d into each of the lateral 
lacuna of the plantar cushion, and are 
in relation with that part of the pariete* 
of the hoof whii'h is called the bar*. 

e. The Tlllotu or velvety tlsauA 
(fig. 107, B : d), whose aspect apprnachen 
that of a buahy sod, in conaequtnif of 
the innumerable villnsities over its sur- 
hK», coven the whole of the )ilantar sur 
&ceof the third phalanx and the jilantar 
cushion or fltahyfrag. Like thoHc of the 
cutidure, these papillie are received into 
the ntunerous foramina of the dubjai-ent 
horn which is produced by the moat 
superficial layer of the velvety tissue. 

a. The Hoof. 
The hoof, as we know, is the exter- 
nal homy envelope of the foot, or, more 
properly speaking, the n&ll of the hoive. 
Its form is that of a cone with its liaae 
downward and the summit truncated 
obliquely from above to below and from 
before to behind (Fig. 108). Its conical 
disposition, however, being always very 
slight, in only very apparent when it ia 
examined from in front or behind. 
Viewed in profile, it has more the fiirm 
of a cylinder, as has been remarked by 
Bracy^Jlark • (Y\%. 109). 

Concave below, cleft behind, and 

bordered superiorly by the skin of the 

coninet, the hoof in compmed of three 

dixtlnct piece* intimately united to one 

Fiii. iw.— KiBii vtBwcd In from. another. These piece* can be separated 

the one from the other by prolonged 

inaceratliin nr Imiling; they are dmlgnuled under the nanm ini//, naU, and 

frog, A\'r niuxt enter into a special study of each in order lu undentaod the 

me«'h](^i^lnl well. 

n. The Wall— The Kvi// or pnrin forms, as its name indicate*, the clrcum- 
fi-n-nie nf liie hrHif, iind Ineludnt hII that portion of the homy case which U visi- 
ble when the fiml r«<tK ujMin the wiil. It repreeentit a large crescent of horn, 
curviil on itM'lf (Kig. 1 10), placed againiit the anterior face of the foot on which 

E. Kteherchv!' nir U conitructlon da H 


it is moulded, and folded from behind forward at its extremities. The tatter ter- 
minate in a point, 
converge towards 
«»ch other bj en- 
circling the frog, 
and unite at the 
point of the lat- 

The wall is 
divided into sev- 
eral important re- 
gioiu! tiearing vari- 
<MiB names (Figs. 
109 and lit). 

The foe, a, is 
the median and anterior fifth of tlie circumference. 

The mammal, b, include the fifth on each Hide of the toe. 

The quarter, e, olao double, constitutes the posterior fifth of the lateral s 

Pio. 109.— Profile of the hoof. 

foce, immediately behind 
the preceding. 

The heel, d, situated 
altt^ther behind, corre- 
sponds to the point where 
the wall becomes inflected 
inward to constitute the 

Fbially, the&worrfny, 
« (Fig. Ill), visible only on 
the raiited foot, is the re- 
flected portion representing 
the extremities of the wall, 
placed between the frog 
and the sole. 

The wall offbrs for study, also, besides thexe subdivinionH, two/arm and two 

The tboes, distinguished as rxli-rnal, e (Fig. I0i»). and iuternat, q (Fiim. 1 1 2 
and 113), diminish gradually in height fruni the titu to lh<' cKlrcniily of tlit; bur*. 



The/r< iimvi-x trawvereely, Tectilinear fmni ahiive in Mi-vi. \» mi 
pnliHiiitl, unil »hinv. It is more ol)1ii)ue HntcrJDrly thun nn thr oiilc!!. wh 
thomnclvt-t unii|iMlly incliaet) and JDCurvatts). The inh-nial cjuurtcr \* 
mure iitrai);ht an<) Uiw round thiut the exlernitl. 

Thi' tmiHil, eiineave fnitu Hide to side, in I'livcrts) liy niiiueniuii I'mftit 
laminie, g, iit white hnra {trrtiphi/lbHt timur), which an- M)liilly Uuvetulc 
tboMe of the podnjihyllouM laminie na the pedal iHine. 

Ah to the 6order*, the infrrior {Fig. Ill), (he lonjnvt. renti' ii|Hin the f 

iiniliiic Ihi' tmtiinil 

tion!> of wear and tei 

Itn thieknem diiiiiniiiheM Inuii the tue t<i the livelii, ami then Hi));inon 

ilenly iil thin |N>int li> Ibmi the ham. Finally, it in intiuately united ali 

whole |>eri|thery tn the eontour of the luile. 

The miH-nor, thin tiud i^)lique, ohorter than the jireeeilin);. iin<l Ihiuhi 
terinrly by tlu> peruiple, ft (Fijco. 109 and 117). i» tniiL->l'i>nm-<l, iiiwanll 
a M-mi-('ylini|rit'ul ):ui(vr, ' 
ll:!and'll:<). "hi.h Iravc 
I'liiir.- li'iiKih itiKi li-Ico t 
oiian- liun<l. It i- :il the 

lowiiniK [hi> n-uii.n i.f th 
that the [Mirliiul tixm i^ 
rutiil liy (he <'iil^<ii<-.iii!> tl 
in(f in i|ii<i>iii>ti. 

A. The Sole— The ■ 
Urj.i' homy |i|al<' (Fi|r 
deeply notrluil iHliind I 


r ih. 

> th.' 

■ laiv 

[•onvex »up<Tiorly. it fill, the inl<-rv:it rxi^I^ U-twri 
of Ihi' whII. thi' liiir>. ami the |>oint of thi' fnip. 

Ili'>»/»ri>.r<ir i„ fui-e (PV 114, '(MhMikIO.iI «i(l 
an- einlH-.|.l.-<t th.- ■miiien'U" pHpilhi- of ih.- vi-lv.ty ti*.ii 
|>r<'r<«iin-of tiK'lliinI ].hiibiix. 

Tli<> i,./^n..r. f ( V\--. 111). ,x.-av:.l.-.t. an U-lik.-. >•»<] Ji> . 
iiKiluiilitii'K of ili<- tiroimil in tin- wild hitrm-. in lMt<l.dn', iit]< 



Of the two bordert, the eriernal or anterior liescribcs almost a semi-circuin- 
ierence, and unites iDtimatcly with the iDferior border of the wall. The internal 
orpotterior, on the contrary, much less extensive, simulates a re-entering angle, 
like the letter V, nhoee sidea are adherent to the barH and the fm^. 

e. The Froe- — The /roff is a wedge or pyramid of soft horn, which covere 
the plantar cushion, whose form it reproduces. Lodged in the angle formed bj 
the bwH and the posterior border of 
the sole, it is seen to be single in 
front and bifid behind; two faces 
aad two extremities are thus assigned 
to it. 

The mperior or internal face, 
6{Fig. 114), is the reverse of the in- 
ferior face of the plantar tushion, 
It presents, consequently, a marked 
relief on the median line, known ' 
under the name Jrog-tlay, m (Figs 
113 and 115), and on each side two 
fitters, a, n, converging in front, 
^biuh respond to the branches of 
the plantar cushion. Like the sole, 
it is covered by a large number of 
perforations, which receive the cor- 
responding villositics of the velvety 

The in/erior or frteniat face 
<Figs. Ill and 116), much more 
important with regard to the exterior, is hollowed in iti middle by a cavitv *, 
vailed the median lacuna, separating the two branchet, i, t, Irom each other. 
Between each branch, i, and (he bar are 
the Uteml lacuns, j,J (Figs. Ill, U'5, and 
115); finally, the body of the frog is the 
point of juncture of its two branchc;<. 

In the wild slate, the inferior face of 

Interior of tho hoof 

the funincular branches, in i 
of the heels and the bars; 

nditions of nature, i* iii»iii ihi- sm 
: con^uently rests il]i<iii the ^ru 



I rcprcMDUtl 

rcailily otwerveil t>y the examination of ibp tranRvoriH 

in Fip). lis Bad llA, practiiied upon uiwhnd r«et 

The I'roft, at itji anlrrior 
fxlrrmilg, terminaUv in a 
poiut (Fifn- 111 auil llti). 
frhii-h iit Iin1([4.-<) in the i>uin- 
mit nf the rc-rntcrinK aii);le 
of the tn}\e. 

Ila pottrrior frtrrmitg 
Iwitonlargt-uu'niK, n, ''(Fiitw. 
Wi, lib, an<l 117). ciillfJ 
tho qlomn, which ovrrhanx 
thr heelH ami t>c(i>nie cun- 
tinuuus alonp thi- oufH'rior 
burdtr fif the wall by a 
Ihin Hoft, tl^iitilt ImriI or 
hum ;>, little {H>rvii>U!i to 
water. The latter [troduc- 
tliin. known under the 

Daiue of ptno/tle, and MH:ret«<l by the periuplic liand of whii'h we have already 

Fill, in.— Hoof vhAM ptrlopllc band I* deucbed. 


the bcwf, for whicli it forins n sort of pnit«etiv^ VHrniflh against thp 
dryneas and moiKture. 

Such is, in a siunman' manner, the anatomical construction of the 
foot of the horac. Ijct ii8 now see the pe<-uliarities oonceniing tills 
oi^au if it be examined in the two sorts of members. 

Differences between the Fore- and Hind-Feet ; the Left 
and the Bight. — These difiercnco? are secondare', altogether 8U{x.'r- 
ficial, and do not modify the preceding details which bear on the 
funeral oi^aoizatioa. 

The fore-foot (Fig. 118, A, B, C) is more round, more spread 
out, lees concave, and a little wider than the hitid; the heels are less 
separated ; the wall, in profile, is more oblique ; the frog is less long, 
but more voluminous, thicker, and closer to the ground. 

The hind-foot (Fig. 119, A, B, C), on the contrary, is oval, <-<m- 
cavc, with higher and more se|«arat«l heels, and a more vertical wall ; 
the branches of tlie frog are less thick and more separated ; tlie bars, 
finally, are somewhat stronger. 

Nothing is more easy than to distinguish a left fn.m a rl'jlit foot, 


whether thev lx'h)ii^ to the aifterior or the jiosterior h\\yoi\ : the external 
side (if the wall in eonstaiitlv inort* iiu^liiuHl and nion* <*oiivex than the 
internal : also, the interior lH)rder of the wall ia alwavs rounder aiKl 
8tn>uger on this side tlian on the other. 

B. — Properties and Mechanism of the Foot. 

The foot of the horse, sueh as we have desc'ribed, is an orpin wlii<*li 
enjoys ivrtain pro|)ertii»8 inhen^nt Ixith to tin* nature and dis|Mksition 
of the tissues whieh eonnMiN* its internal |)arts and to thesc» sjune 
qualities possessed by the homy enveIo|K'. It is tin lux^ount 4»f tlu'st* 
pro(H'rtii*s that the foot can fulii], with all the desirable |KTfe<*tion, the 
im|)ortant funetions whieh devolve u|M)n it. 

The Horn : Properties. — The horn is a hanl, eompa(*t, nsistinji:, 

elastic*, and tenacious sul)stance, whi(*h is sciftemnl by eonta<'t with 
water or the influenee of dampnosH, and hardens by eva|N>ration. It 
is ver}' eonibustible, and ^ivis origin, when burning, \k\ abundant 
fumes of a (*hanu*teristi(; cMl(»r and a (Arbonacoous adherent n]att«*r 
whieh protivtri tiie living tissues against the a(*tion <»f the hi*at^ 

rt. Origin. — ^The (liverst* regions of the eutancnius envelope (irrrf/o- 
ijt^xoxM inemhmnff /frx/i of (he foiti) of the foot do not eontribute in 
the same manner to the formation of the h<»rn. As our colleague, 
M. Arloing,' judieiously remarked, some are kerafogmouM and others 
kfirfifophoroHM, lT|K>n the first (<i)ronarv Iwnd, velvi»ty tissue, |MTiopli«- 
ring) is im{NtscHl the elal^oration of the nail, pn)iHTly so (uUcd ; u|Min 
the se<*ond (|HMlophyllous tissue) nu^n* |Hirti(*ularly devolves the r6lei*f 
sup|)4)rt, eons4)l illation, and uni<m. Analogous t4» a sort of physiologi- 
(id cement, the latter establislus the n^atiou and adhcrt^nce bi*tween tlu* 
h<»ru and the living part8. Its pr(Mlu(*tion is repn-sented for this pur- 
|MiH> by the white, horny lamime situate<l <»n the deep faix' of the wall, 
U* whieh w'v have nuule n»fen»ncv alM»ve under the name hrajJiylloMM 

Thus the wall, the sole, and the fn»g an> formed by the keratogenoiis 
n*ginns of the ungual matrix. 

/>. Structure. — rudtT the micrnHcopv^ the horn ap{M*ars <Y>nsti- 
tut<'d by a gmit nuiulN'r of |i:indlel tuU^s, nn'tilinear (wall, sole) or 
undulatiuir (trog), whirli originate from the vas<'ular |Mpilhe of th<* 
eutidure or thr velvety tissue by c'uveloping them in the most intimati* 
manner. Altnirrther <*<im]ianible to hairs of a larg<* cidibn' platted sidt* 
bv sitle, thes4> tulNs are <'<)m|M»s4'<l of a multitudt> 4if homy (epithelial) 

I S. ArloliiK. l'"!!** «*( oiigU^, tli*?<4' irHffri-Kttttuii. 1n«», |>. HI. 

THE FOOT. 323 

cells, disposed concentrically around the axis in numefolis layers in an 
imbricated manner. The most superficial of these layers affect a difr 
ferent disposition: the cells become j)eq)endicular to the direc^tion'of* 
the tube instead of remaining parallel, and in this manner is formed 
the intertubular horn, a veritable cement 8ubstam?e which agglutinates 
the hair cylinders to one another. 

c. Color. — The horn cells, being epithelial' in nature and formed 
from the cells of the epidermis of the skin, the hoof assumes a whit^ 
or black coloration according as the parts which foriii it are or are not 
provided with pigment. When the skin of the coronary band is red, 
the wall is white for an equal extent ; in the opjposite case, it remains 


black. The same considerations are applicable to that of the sole and 
the frog. 

d. Consistency. — The consistency of the nail is in direct rela- 
tion with the decree of humidity of the horn, arid this humidity is 
obtained by the foot either from the surrounding attnosphere or froni 
its own tissues. 

The temperature of the soil, the quality of the pasture, the hygrb^ 
metric state of the air, the season of the year, the nature of the 
climate, are so many causes whose influence is evident and which it is 
needless to dwell upon. 

Likewise, the horn becomes more supple and softer as it is exam- 
ined closer to the living tissues ; it is, on the contrtiry, more resisting, 
brittle, and difficult to cut as it is more distant The su])erficial parts 
of the frog, the sole, and the wall, the inferior border of the latter, 
are always excessively dry compared to the deeper parts of these 

These diverse conditions of the hoof, when existing in extremes, 
offer serious evils from the double point of view of the preservation 
of the foot and the use of the animal. We will revert to tliis in the 
chapter on defects. 

Ghrowth and Wear of the Hoof. — New layers of horn are 
incessantly secreted at the level of the villous papillae of the kerato^ 
genous apparatus, pushing down the older layers to re\ya.iv the loss 
occasioned by use. It is clear that each portion of the hoof grows 
according to the direction of its own fibres : the wall in its height, the 
sole and the frog in the sense of their thickness. 

This growth is effected slowly. It retjuires about eight months 
for the production of a (Completely new hoof. All loss of substance* to 
the wall is therefore reproduced very slowly ; whence the lesson ik 
taught that we should avoid this loss as much as possible. 


In the wild lu>r»i' the (x)ntiuual growth, always eompi^ntsated hv a 
propurtiuiial hwH from wear, ilui-H not induw a deiuriuity of tlie iiuil ; 
but the iiUM* is ditfm*nt in liorHCS which we utilize as motors, ou 
aocount of the shoe, which restrains the elasticity of tlie fiNit and 
disturbs the normal growth of the hoof. In such (iisc*s the wall may 
acciuin* an excx^ssive lengtli if the iarrier does not take the mre to 
shorten the whole extent of its inferior border to tlie limits required by 
the natural wear. As t4) the sole an<l the frog, their m<xle of exfoliation 
is such tliat their thickness never becomes ex(t?ssive ; they be(\)me dritnl, 
crai'ked, and {)eel off spontaniniusly in mon* or li*ss voluminous stules. 

The sivretion oi* the horn is exaggerated by certain influences, as 
the external temperature, the state of health or of discast*, the nourir^h* 
ment, etc. We know that the proct^ss is more active in warm than in 
oold countries, in summer than in winter, in the healthy animal, abun- 
dantly nourished, than in the diseuseil animal, suffering from ImuI 
hygiene and an insufficient alimentation. This is so tnie that the hoof 
itself often tivtific^^, by the untH|ual zones of which it is the scat, of tlie 
pliysi<til c*onditions or suffering which the horsi* has endunnl. 

Certain ranuny or rinM h(H>fs have in most instaiK'cs no other 

Elasticity of the Foot. — The digital extn^mity of tlie equida\ 
below the {lastem, is dis]K)sed so as to dis]K'rse or bri'ak the ct>n- 
cussi<ms an<l tlie pressure which it receivers iluring hKiimotion at 
the moment wlu*ii the l)ody, at great speed, comics in ct»utac*t with 
the ground. Not (»nly is the quantity of movement with which the 
body is aiiimat^nl dis(K*rse<l and decom|K>sed by the inclined planes <»f 
surface* and of segment, but it is dcstroyi'd alsc» by the inti*r\H*utiou of 
the elasticity of Hi*venil organs which we will recognize. It is then*- 
fori* alnwlv consid(*rablv Icsscntil when it arrives at the hoof, where 
it nu^ets M>vcnd elastic ap|Niratus, wh(»si* ukmIc <»f funt^tional activity 
we must rapidly review. Tlu^sc ap|iaratus an» : the |K>rforans tendon, 
the latcnil <':irtilages, the plantar cushion, ami the diverse |iarts of the 
nail (tlic wall, the sole, and the fn»g). 

The tirst vWWi nf the c« intact of the f<N»t with the soil is the dis- 
pla«vincnt of the tliini plialanx fn>m alN»ve to U^low in the interior of 
the homy <'<»vcring (Fig. I0<j). This movement of the bone is conn- 
teractetl liv the nKi'hanind action of three verv evident causes: ante*- 
riorly ami |MTiphcr.iIly, by the adheniK'c of the iNKlophyUous and 
keraphylliMis tissu<s; iiImivc and iati'rally, by tlic nsistamv of the 
lati'ral «:artila«r<«s ; tinally, U-low, l»y the pn'S4'n«'e of the plantar a|R^- 
neurosis and the plantiir cushion. 

THE FOOT. 325 

The remarkably solid union between the hoof and the sensitive 
tissues 18 due, above all, to the intimate dovetailing of the sensitive 
laminse with the homv laminae.^ 

These two sets of laminae, however, are not simply placed in juxta- 
position in a parallel manner, but they interdigitatc with one another 
hv the numerous secondary prolongations which they offer on their 
lateral faces and which are disposed after the manner of the barbs of a 
ieather u|x>n itB stalk. This constniction admits of a very slight 
gliding of the keraphyllous laminae of the wall upon those, soft; and 
flexible, of the podophyllous tissue, whence, in consequence, the first 
decomposition of force at their level. 

Besides, the wedge formed by the third phalanx not only descends 
(larallel to the wall, but describes a sort of vertical rotation, from the 
pressure transmitted by the second phalanx to the navicular bone. 
This pressure is first exercjiscd upon the plantar aponeurosis, c, which 
maintains the articular angle, and, secondly, upon the elastic plantar 
cushion situated immediately below. Following this, there exist also 
at this place two new structures whose elasticity, now called into 
ac'tivity at the moment of the contact, notably diminishes the intensity 
of the reactions. 

But the phenomena do not cease here. The plantar cushion, 
strongly compressed from above to lx»low by the weight of the body, 
tends to depress the plantar arch at the same time that it elongates 
transversely, where it is maintained by the two lateral cartilages. The 
latter, flat, wide, suj)ple, and very elastic, overlap Ix^hind the sujwrior 
border of the wall and sensibly separate from eac^h other under the 
influence of the eccentric pressure which they reit*ive from the plantar 
cushion. They are therefore opjx)sed, in their turn, to the rotation of 
the third phalanx in the interior of the hoof. 

Thus, little by little, the internal parts of the f(K>t dcH»omjK)se the 
reactions of the weight, by changing their form and relative situation, 
and, finally, by concentrating their action u])on the diverse* parts of the 
h<x)f, especially the frog, the quarters, and the sole. 

The sole is flattened and IxHxjnies less concave inferiorly ; its 

• M. Pader has recently calle<l attention U> the remarkable manner in which the horny oa^e 
is attarhe<1 to the living parts. Aecordin^ to him, in a horse of mcH^linm fonn. tlie lumin:i' ufthe 
f«M>t being BupfKMied to have an area of a square (le<>inu*tre, the total surface of the t>rinci|Mil and 
Moondary iaminsD. which he has ha*l (he patience to com])ute. should attain about one tuimirt 
metrt ! It can then l»e readily understt)od how this sysi<.*m t)f dovet^iilinjr of tlu' laiuitnr' jv crtj- 
culated to inmire the intimate union of the horn and the flesh, to deeomp(»se th<.' concussion, at 
times enormous, which the unRiial cxtrmiity pM-eives, and to <listrit»ute unifoimly tin* pressure 
upon the whole of the internal face of the wall. 

(See, for more details, Bulletin de la Sue. cent, de mt'il. voter., annce IHSSi. p. VM.) 

TT'*. . 

!t ir "HE" ^:si^K. 

• • I 

n«k<r^*n**-<£ ; --nflESCf^a jai jiiin"x:3BCLm -r » Jtseis. viiLitfe xmpii- 
.^'-riB*" -sn-'OOA -<ij«Mjsr «aL*«Lai b^***^ w ta '«nini"i' "ro "ttt lot^iuzur 

m0\ 'f'^^fi^rr lax vii^-n nxxzi^ -cun^ r ^irnmc^ 'v^uous^ mu 'm«irT*'a> 

inr»*r"i.r irr^-irnrt-rnsfc^. T-oiwir v^^a^i-aiZBc i»* niu-a b uiii»d w:th 

•.'* "ii** arr«*r ^*aif»"-» tt^ih -a*-, Tir t»tc *iw "3*? *u^ "Hiv" chat 
r'liiTi • -r :ii:nsir»-i 'ii>»ii£ant-*«i2n'' ITir iwc TTUt-a fii^ unienp-oe 
lAr.iim b<ur^ .nil- it*rfi Jhuaiua*! i» «i«*iiiii»c«'iu Ji&i mu^ !fciny rr>'ni 

Preaerriacii ^ ice ?ce3l nf Sd* SxxiL — Pi* in»»»tl -n a 

Tiitr* .'* .HIT.;."*. ".It* ■m.»t.j^tii»i r" imrf^M i#iiM*«/»it ~ iia** siy^ pnfS*T\"t*j» 
•/• ■' •^.; liv: '.- . ;a..":»— :ai:i-r -at* :iLj'^r'iu£ -'aiiiQi»iifr: 

. -r ,*■- • ;L-r.r"-- .- • oicif't* Tit-n ^iiif z*c ^ n ^lii r»?ian«.*n with 

>. T':.- i« - .-ji.- i/. v V*.. k:;--~. li" > ^rvn^th. and prvvt^oL-* 

»■'. f... ..*.-- •: -.>-.' I. riH*-^ •• .*-r ^.-.•l ;r Cr^t the tiitklurv* ; iht* 
•jif'. '. '.f T- ■• ^ . i^'r."\tU- , \tT'tftiX' •;.' :. -n ;u:u:ik^c aIt«Hratk4isi «»t' 

I • 

• J . ■•;... 

THE FOOT. 327 

of the pasture maintain it in a state of humidity favorable to the 
presentation of its form. 

C. — Beauties of the Foot. 

The volume of the foot is susceptible of variation in notable pro- 
portions without being necessarily (X)nsidered defective. £nglish 
horses, as well as those of Algeria and Central Fran«», generally have 
a small, hard, and resisting finit. Those of the common race«, and of 
a lymphatic tem|)erament, raised in low and damp districts, on the 
oontrar}', have this region more voluminous. It should, in all cases, 
be proportional to the height of the horse, his weight, his conforma- 
tion, and his special aptitudes. The width of the hock, measured from 
the point to the l>end of this articulation, equals that of the hoof from 
the toe to the heel, or at least very nearlyf in a beautiftil draught-horse. 
It is always more considerable in pleasure-horses, whose feet are never- 
thehs^ well formed. 

" The unshod foot of a horse bred on favorable soil and sufficiently 
exercised is a type of bt^uty and perfection. Compared to the foot 
that has been shod, it is large, strong, as wide as long, and in proper 
equilibrium ; it constitutes a solid support. 

" Mewed in f rout, it is narrower above than Wow, more expanded 
externally than internally, and of equal height at its quartc^rs. 

" Mewed in proJiJe, the line of the toe has a mean inclination ; ' the 
height of the heels is equal to at least one-half of the height of the 

" Viewed front behind, the heels of the standard foot are well 
separated, equal, of the same height, and fall vertically to the ground, 
especially the internal, which is sensibly more vertical than the 

" Viewed from below, its sole is hollow and thick, the frog strong, 
healthy, and quite hard ; the Irnrs neither too straight nor too much 
inclined ; the toe and the mammse of the wall and the sole are j)ercep- 
tibly worn from usage. 

" The horn of the standard foot is black or dark gray ; the wall, 
smooth and shiny, shows its fibrous structure." ' 

Su(^h are the characters of the virgin foot which we have re]>re- 
8ent<»d in the text.^ 

1 Abont 50 degrees for the Trout Tcet and f/) for the hind. 
* CVimmissIon d*hyiri<>ne hipplquo. U)C. cit.. p. r>6. 

•See. for more detAlls, Mathfeu. hv la face InfiVleiiro <lu Kabot, chez le cheval vierKO de 
isrnire, iu Recueil de m^deidnc v^t4?rinaire. aiincH: ]87(). p. 761. 

THE FOOT, 329 

or less sensitive. It is {Mirtieularly seen in the meridional raoes^ upon 
verj' active and energetic subject. It is the more defective as it is 
more disproportionate with the volume of the body and the height of 
the animal. 

A aetni-covered shoe with a good garniture — that is to say, pro- 
jecting beyond the border of the wall more than usual externally and 
internallv— eases the foot much.* 

Narrow Foot. — This variety of foot differs from the preceding 
by the meagre development of its transverse diameter as compared to 
it8 antero-posterior diameter. Its toe acKjuires an exaggerated lengd), 
which augments, consequently, that of the pa-steni to the detriment of 
the tendons, as we have already seen. (See Pattern, pagt* 801.) It 
is also, like the small foot, subject to contraction, — that is to say, ap- 
proximation or narn>wing of its posterior |)arts; its shoeing is similar 
to that of the small f(M)t. 

Unequal Feet. — The inequality of the volume of the feet 

would be, without doubt, more rationally studied in the chapter on the 
diseases, for it is rarely congenital. Be it as it may, such a conforma- 
tion should l)e considered ijrave bv reason of its cause. It is alwavs 
the smallest foot which, in this case, is the first to become diseased on 
afxx)unt of its relative weakiK»ss. Among the diseases of which it may 
be the seat, contraction of the quarters and the heels occupies, without 
contradiction, the first rank. It can be obviated in a certain measure 
by applying a more core/rrf( wider- webbed) but lighter shoi» to which is 
given garniture proportional to the reduction of the volume of the 
hoof; it will be advisable to employ small nails. 

2. Defects of Conformation. 
Flat Foot. — This foot is thus nainwl on accoimt of the ficdnesn of 

its pfmUar surface. It is ordinarily large, spreading, with an oblique 

wall, low heels, very inclineil bars, and a voluminous frog. It offers 

more difficulties in shoeing than one is tem]>ttHl t<» believe. The farrier 

should apply a covered hIkk* sufficiently light and chhicjum*, in onler 

that it may not press on the sole, always very little arclxKl ; lie will 

s|>are the heels and dn'ss the frog only su]M»rficially ; the t<K' sIhmiUI Ik* 

well raised up and the heel flat, never thickeuKl ; In^ides, the f*arri«T 

should drive the nails at a suitable inclination, so that thev nmv not Ik* 

> The French ByBtem of shoeing is cntiri.'Iy diirereiit from ttinl. ii would seem, iuferiDr to 
the American. 

'*1" :• ri>rl 

•I'll": !L- V ..' '1 r»*<|iiirH «rr» 

. r 

•■•-. r.' '•'.i:j'i*ii -lii'«\ i.r tin- 

.::::•■'• ■■ ":. i :n;iri' "f I»-:ith»T 


• . ■' ■ r!.-- - -I'l -M.If lint 
::• -:r";L— '^ 'lu- inti riMr 

• ■•: •■'^- r*i»- 'i'T^ii iiltii-* 
• • ■•" :j.-'i' v:i :!>• il«-jni- 

-i. • • - !• r v.-rN -kilhil. 

■»i« '"T iiiil liiriiin- 

-^^ • t •ii!r.M» ■:■ r^t ••f tin- 

•: ■• M:!il» ' |«»Tti»rill 

H- >1 I.I 

t ■ . 

!• •• 

^ ■ ■ *' 

:t:*: th«iit<:li 

..* . liji*- T«' an 

• rv; -t^l ftit. 

.: "..• • \t» nial. 

•■ \\\.\*\i llii- 

• ** r'"'. -IpH'iii;^. 

^«iil ill* will 


(^-t'liliar til 

THE FOOT, 331 

the anterior members ; the sole of the posterior supports less weight 
and is always more concave. 

Foot with High Heels. — This conformation (Fig. 120), com- 
mon in some horses in meridional France (also in the so-called Arabian 
horses), does not result, as might be believed, from an excessive height 
of the wall at the heels. The sole here is hollow and the frog elevated 
from the ground. The pastern, from the fact of this 
bad direction of the foot, becomes straight, renders 
the animal straight-jointed, and displaces most of the 
weight on the toe. Many horses are high-heeled from 
the n^lect of the farrier to lower the heels before 
resetting the shoe, and hence in the long run they be- pio. 120. 

come hoof-bound. Such cases are not difficult to 
remedy ; it suffices to pare off the heels regularly and give them a 
proper height. If the defect is congenital, we must content ourselves 
with the foot such as it is, and only endeavor to prevent the increase 
of the defect in the shoeing, by employing a shoe thin at the heels. 

Foot with Low Heels.— This form of the foot (Fig. 121) is 
open to objections of an inverse order. The weight of the body bears 
upon the heels, which, ordinarily weak and sensi- 
tive, are thus easily bruised and contused. There 
results, besides, a more marked inclination of the 
pastern, which fatigues the tendons, and this so 
much more as the toe is longer and the horse 
longer-jointed. The shoeing, in tliis case, should pio. m. 

aim at restoring the foot to its normal axis and, 
at the same time, protect the posterior part of the heels. It is with 
this object in view that we recommend a st^mi-covered wide-heeled shoe ; 
nor should the heel ever be thickened, as is the usual tendency to 
recommend. It is better to raise the Ueels by interposing between 
them and the shoe one or two thicknesses of leather, of India-rubber, 
or again, by the application of the English patents ; in a word, of 
elastic pads incapable of producing contusions. If the frog is well 
developed, it will be judicious to alternate the covered-heel shoe with 
the l)ar shoe. 

Foot with Sloping Heels. — The heels in this conformation 
are much inclined forward and acquire an abnormal length, a disi>osi- 
tion which leads to all tlie evil results of a low- and long-jointed 

The indication, therefore, is to shorten the foot over its whole urea, 
particularly towards the toe and the mamnue. Pixn^autioii in [mring it 


must, however, l>e employed, for the toe Ih not as long as it might 
apiK'ur. The latter should he shortened wa much as )XN«ible. The 
sh<K' should be i*los<*lv fitti'd at the toe and well sunk into tlie wall at 
this }>oint ; its extremities also must be kept M>mewhat long. Plat4*s 
of leather under the heels or the English {wtents, by tilting the hoof 
fom'ard, will contribute to rc-es^tablish its normal axis. 

Loir and doping heels are phemimena pec^uliar to the fore-feet. 

3. Defects of the Axis. 

OutbOW-footed. — The OUtbOwed foot is that in whieh the 
toe is turned outward ; it is more fn»C|uently olmTved in the posterior 
memlx^rs than in the anterior. We have alreadv se<»n tliat this eonfor- 
mation is associated in most instances with a deviatitm of the }iart of 
the meml)er below the kne(» or the hock ; but it may also be due to a 
men^ change in the axis of the foot. In either case the hoof will stNin 
show the efflW*ts of this vicious direction of its axis. The internal 
quarter, pressed t4)wanls the me<lian line, and c<»nsequently mon' sur- 
(*harged, has a tendency to contract and press u{M)n the living tissuis 
l)elow. I'he animal, besides, almost invariably strikes the op|)osite 
memlNT with this quarter, as is well known. This is the princi{ial 
ac<*id(*nt which the farrier is calked upon to prevent, tearing the 
external quarter more will easi» the internal, which is always wmker ; 
the'axis will thus Ik» n*gulat<*d in the gnutt^st nuw«un' |Missil)le. The 
sIkm' must not pn)j<rt U'yond the wall at the external mamma or at 
the internal quarter ; the heels shoidd Ih> of (H]ual length and width. 
It is ouly af\er several shoeings that ^f^rtain fwt may 1h» straightentHi/ 

Parrot-toed Foot, Cross-footed. — This is a defU-t dianiftri- 

nilly op|x>s<><l to the prectnliug, and has inverse* deformities. Here it 
is the t<H* which is turmnl inwanl, and much more fretpiently in the 
fon*- than in the hind-f<M)t. The intenial quarter is stnmgtT and n'la- 
tiv«>ly \\\i\Yi' prominent than the external, the luvl of which is <*imtniiie<l 
an<l l»niis4'<l quit<» easily. The hors<% in this t-ase, interf4*n>s with the 
mamma. IIeu<*e, lM>fi>n* the sIxh' is adjust4Hl, the internal mamnui and 
tin' aiitrriitr |»iirt of the (^»rn's|x»nding quarter must U' well ni.^iMil off, 
S4I as tn lower that side i»f the tiM»t. Tin* sImk» will have to U* e|iis«»- 
fittiiijr •»» thr inside, well ** giirnislM-*!" an<l slightly <i»vered on the out- 
side ; xhi' f/nrnifnrr of its lu't'ls should Ik- e<jual on Inith siih-s. 

Crooked Foot. — Thr rnM»k4'«l f«Hit is that in \\hi4'h the hfM»f is 

' Thi"« ili-tiTi l-i -I t •)■*>( in iitr tti trriidiii tit |t> »)iii(int; U-i-miM- :t !h ..iioti 'li'pfii«)eiit upon 
aimtn'iiiU'iil Mllt'riitinii.o nf tin- }•llHlHn^t'^ iiihI llii-ir urlirular ^iirtu(>i-o. uhh h •■itiimil he lUtidllictL 

THE FOOT. 3.13 

inclined to the one side or to tbe other. Tliis defu-t, rarely i-ongi'nital, 
depends rather upon improper shoeing. In tlio first time, it in (^atiMitl 
by a vicious axis of the superior parts of the nicinbcr, and very often 
aocompanies the outbowed and the parrot-toed foot. At other times it 
is oliaerved in a horse simply too close or too o[ien in front or behind. 
In .the second case, it is due to excessive )>aring by the farrier of one 
of the two quarters. 

However it may be, the evil effects remain the same ; the low^r 
side bears the most weight; the soft parts here arc compressed and 
bruised, and the quarter becomes tilted to one side. The shoeing 
should endeavor to re-establish gradually the normal axis, by sparing 
the deformed quarter, protecting it with the wide-heeled, projecting 
shoe, if this be possible, and, finally, by lowering the normal quarter. 

Foot Pincard or Bampin (Fig. 122). — Some make a diS'erenL« 
between the pintvrd and the rampin foot. Still, these 
two are only d^rees .of the same defect, characterized 
especially by tlie foot touching the ground only with the 
toe. Tliis disposition allows the heels to acquire a 
great height. This defect is peculiar to the hind feet, 
where it is in reality only an esi^geratioii and contin- 
uation of the attitude which these memliers affect 
during the efforts of violent tratrtion. It often coexists 
with a low-jointed pastern. The rampin hursi- wcan^ his shoe ven*' 
rapidly, but only at the toe; his shoeing is ex|>cnsive, an<l he is 
exposed to fissures of the wall called toe-<-nickK, on account of the 
excess of weight which this r^ion of the foot mumt supp«)rt. Wo 
Itclieve, with Lecoq, that most of tlie corrective measures resorted to in 
the shoeing only aggravate this defect. I^et us suy, lU'verthclcss, that 
we are in the habit, in order to cure it, to save the heels and employ 
tlie piiwird diae, with corks on the heels, whose lengtli is in relation 
with the distance of the foot from the gruuiul. 

Olub-Poot. — "There is not much acconl," .siyw Ijecoq,' "ujhhi 
t\w true meaning of this word on appli^l to the foot of the horst^'. 
Some, comparing this malformation t4i the same si)ecies of def<>rniity 
existing in the human subject, designate by the term cfiih-foot any foot 
tJmt is strongly deviated outward or inward. This is a very rari' con- 
dition, since, as Girard has obser\'<'4l, a horsi^' thus confnrmiHl, not Ih'UI^ 
able to render any service, is promptly siicrificeii. Others ilcsiiriiatc 
under the name club-foot all the deformities of the lioni<-'s fi^xjt in 

' p. Lacoq, EiMricur du cheval, p. 175, Sb *J., Tarls, IBTS. 


which the coronet a« well i\& the ietl(x»k an* stnmgly displuc^ fi>n%'ard> 
from the retrat^tion of the liganienti^ and the tendons primarily, and 
the donation oi' the heels »t»condarily. This deiect mmietimes exists 
t4) such a degree* that the anterior face of the wall toiichcH the gn»iind 
at each step. 

** When a cliil)-foot is of long standing, a nuxlification of the artii^ 
ular surfaces of the phalanges takes place, and the disease is then 
in(*urable. If, howev(T, the acvidcnt is recent and due esiKH'ially to 
contraction of the flexor tendons, the hor»* still has some value, fi>r the 
o|)eration of tetuttnmy can sometimes straighten the f(M)t, though the 
member may not entirc^ly regain its original strt»ngth." 

4. Defects of Quality of the Horn. 

Soft Foot. — ^The foot is thus (*haracteri»Hl when the honi is sof\, 
without consisten<*y, and yielding to pn'ssure. The wall and the sole, 
in spite of the large volume of the h(N)f, are thinner tlian in onlinary 
conditions. Hence su(*h a foot is difficult to sh(M'. 

The clinches of the nails easily tear through the sof\ horn and will 
not bold the shoe. The f(K>t is easily pricked in driving the nail, (»n 
acfount of the thinness of the utill. Finally, the horse is suhji'c't, for 
i\\H same rcas<m, to contusi(»ns of the sole, contusi<ms which an* so 
much mon» thnpient as the foot is heavy and the km^e-ai-tion high. 
The shoeing consists of a light, xrmiw'orcrev/ shoi*, to b<* nailed on with 
thin nails. 

Dry Foot. — The r/ry fiK>t is one whose horn is hanl, drj", and 
brittle. The latter gn>ws slowly and breaks readily when the fo«)t is 
uusIkmI or when t4N) Ix'avy nails an' employed in fastening the slnie. 
Kx|N»sc<l to the same accMdents as the 8<»ft f<N>t, it must Ix* dealt with in 
the same csuitious wav. 

Broken Foot. — The flM>t is cjdhnl broken when mon» or less 
extensive aniis (»f tin* wall along its plantar Inmlcr an» broken or 
chipfMHl off, so as to intirfen' with the n^gular distributi<»n of the nails. 

In the unslxxl hurst*, the l>cst hoof is susc<*ptible of bnnking ai\*i- 
dentally, but m<)st of)en this (h'fect de|M>nds U|M>n a |MM>r c|uality of tlie 
horn, whii*li is t<M> S4»f\ or t(N> brittle. It is mon* serious than w 
lN*lif*vc<l, on accitimt of the cxtn^me i-an^ which it demands fnim the 
farrier. Tli<* nail-hoh's <if the s1i(k» can only l)e pla<'<'<l at thoee points 
when* the wall is still intart. The nails must not Im' driven t«K> cloise 
to the tnlgcs under the |M'nalty of bi-eaking the horn still more. The 
latter rin'umstan<'e would necessitate Um many MhouMrrA or fangua on 

THE FOOT. 335 

the shue, sunk into the horn at the toe or the mammse, to supply the 
insufficiency of the nails. 

The broken hoof is sometimes restored to its normal form by the 
application of gutta-pen*Jia at tlie points when> this is necessary. It 
is then possible to apply a normal shoe provided with an ordinary- 
numlx^r of nail holes equally distant from each other. It is not rare 
to see an animal whose foot has thus been treated offered for sale ; at 
times even the nails at the level of the broken jmrts are simply riveted 
on the shoe at these places and the irregularities filled with gutta- 
percha or some other coating. The examination of the hoof can there- 
fore never be too minute. 

Foot with Weak Heels. — This is a variety of the low-heeled 
foot, in which the ix)sterior parts are defective by reason of an insuffi- 
nent consistency of the horn, and are consequently predis|K>sed to con- 
tusions of all kinds. The shcx', in su<;h casc^, should protect the parts 
which lack strength, without Ixjaring on them, either by means of a 
wide-heeled shoe, or, if the frog be well developed, the application of 
a bar shoe. 

E. — Accidents occasioned by Shoeing. 

The conditions of domestication of the horse make it necessary for 

^ose who employ him to protect the four hoofs by a shoe, a sort of 

incomplete metallic sole, destined to insure them against the excessive 

^•'ear of the horn, which would otherwise soon impair their functional 


Shoeing, fkrriery, is the art which consists in the methodical 
*J*I>lication to the foot of the shoe or the protecting apparatus of 
^■^ioh we have spoken. It is, in most instances, not very difficult to 
P^rtorm this operation, but there are some cases in which, either from 
**^^ incompetency and unskilfulness of the farrier or tlie conformation 
^^ tbe foot itself, shoeing causes more or less grave accidents, in i*egard 
^ MrLich we must confine ourselves to a simple enumeration. 

Ihickillg. — Pricking is tlie |K»netration into the sensitive tissues 

of ct nail which is driven too closely by the farrier. Again, it can be 

caussod by the division of a flawy nail, of which one segment enti^rs 

tne living tisBues (the (|uick), while the other issuc-s on the outer side. 

Ita gravity varies with the length of time the nail remains in the soft 

|wrt8. If the nail Ixi drawn out again immediati'ly, it is without 

g*vity; if, however, the direction of the nail 1)0 not recognizcil, it 

n»y lead to serious complications. The nail should be removed and 

DOl reinserted. 


PH. k'n-u: :- ^..m-iim- -.T,-».f^- •- "^ amVr, who rivot^ tlir nail 

th »xiir^ >r .--i-.i ■■• •- • "^ •rr ,— that is t4) say, Uro cK^se to 

^. . .-* -...-w im^ifv or loss oonipn'SscHl. This 

*.. - ^.T .'T »vjik twt, in conswiuomr of thf 
^ . . -^ ^ «-.' >• {.vnvive this a«'idont by making 

t : .1 ti^' 

^ -** 

*» -rnioving th(» shot* inim(Hliatoly. 

— INunprrssion of the soh* <Kviirs 

. Mi» * ^itt\I« Intirs in S4)mo places on a weak 

.. -^ taktt* pimv when the farrier has {mnnl 

-^.-v r!v shtie t4M) tightly. Certain defwtive 

«rv more {wrtieiilarly predis|Mje€<i to this 

X'Wt. *^ ^»1»' i=* eallwl heated when it has bet*n sul)- 
^ ii« ti» the c^>nta<*t of the rt^d-hot shoe; it is the 
>^ . ^ . j^ i > if*** eoneave. 
^^ ^, V:*^- **^ ^^l** u|)on whirh has bet»n applied for Uh\ lonjr 
.j..\ *ff is, on the contrary, (jiialititHl bund. In the 
^^ .A uHiiidant 4'arl)onaeeous laver fomu*d bv burnt born 
^, .1% Avi a^inst tht* injurious effect of the heat. \\vt\\ 
. uii iMrriug of the horn, whieh {MTniits the heat to |K*n- 
v.x K^ui Jivply into the living tissue's. 
., V. ..» M'a- If* n'U^Uiouft to treatment. 
•*.v^vv*ivu Paring of the Foot. — When the f<M>t is imnnl t<M» 
.. .j..,un aw e\agp»rat«l sc^nsibility fmm the ex<tssive thinn(*ss 
lu lairierV knife, Inith to tin* sole and the inferior lM>rder 
. . ..I 

vXUi tKnu the Hoof-Enife and the Butteris. — The^* are 

,v...* ;«(«Hbhx*d by unskilful or unintellig(*nt employment of tbi*s<* 

^.iiN nl' farriery. Their gravity is in relation with the depth, 

» iikI the s<'at of the wounds whieh nwilt fnmi them. Tbey 

, ijiiuT% i^tHiplimteil l»y t\h\ ext-n'sivnees, excessive granulaticms 

,u .ui|.i*vut tissue, kn<»wn un<ler the name of rherricjt, 

F. -Diseases of the Foot. 

riu-.-^' nuuHTous :ui(i variiHl diH»as<»s,*' says J. Girard,' **<tui be 
PM-^iiiix^l bv pri»lou;:('<l travelling on dry, hard, n>ugh, and stony 
i*\uU b\ «Mn<'Ussii»u, th<' mutai't of external ImmUi^s and even of oik* 


> J «iiriir<l. TrMiti- <l(i |iiv<l. 2v ('<\., p. Vi, I'arii. 1828. 

THE FOOT. 337 

foot with the other ; by the deviation of some of the superior regions 
or articulations ; and, finally, by the shoeing." 

In all diseases of the foot the horse, when exercised at a walk or 
the trot, does not make a free and equal contact with the ground upon 
the whole of the plantar surface of the foot ; certain movements are 
precipitated, others are effected in preference upon the toe, upon one 
quarter more than the other, or again upon the heels. 

We must confine ourselves, not to go beyond our domain, to the 
enumeration of the principal of these diseases, by simply mentioning in 
what they consist. 

Oontraction of the Foot. — Ck)ntraotion of the foot (hoof-bound) is 
the more or less marked contraction of the foot in its posterior parts. 

It is distinguished as inie and false^ according to the form which it assumes. 

In true contraction the diminution of the lateral diameter affects the quarters 
as well as the heels, which are always very high ; and hence such a foot is qual- 
ified mule's foot. As a consequence of the compression, the sole becomes more 
concave and the frog, in a great measure, becomes atrophied. 

It is nearly always acquired, and occurs more frequently in meridional 
horses than in any others. The causes are numerous, but all can be traced to 
one of two factors : desiccation of the horn or interference with its normal elas- 

In false contraction^ known under the name contraction of the heels {narrow 
heels, compressed heels, etc.), the hoof preserves its ordinary form, except in the 
region of the heels, which are more or less drawn towards each other without 
attaining the excessive height which they assume in true contraction. 

Inflammation of the Progr, Thrush. — These are two inflammatory con- 
ditions of the frog, which are accompanied by a separation of the horn, with a 
blackish, purulent, and very fetid discharge, emanating from the median and 
the lateral lacunae, principally from the former, especially when in feet in which 
it is prolonged between the two heels. 

Canker. — In canker the horn of the frog first, and then that of the sole, 
softens, separates, and, finally, is shed, thus exposing the living tissues, whose 
papillae, very hypertrophied, form fleshy vegetations, often voluminous, known 
under the na,mefici. These alterations of the keratogenous membrane, which 
have a tendency to spread to the surrounding healthy tissues, discharge an abun- 
dant caseous secretion of a very fetid odor. 

Seams. — Seams {crach) are longitudinal fissures of the wall, which extend 
from the inferior border to the coronary band or to the vicinity of the latter. 

They are called complete when, involving the entire length and thickness of 
the wall, they extend to the podophyllous tissue ; they are qualified incomplete 
in the contrary case. 

Relatively to their seat, they are distinguished as follows : quarter seam, the 
complete fissure of the quarter, which is more common in the anterior members, 
and on the internal side more than the external side. 

Seam of the toe (toe-crack), fissure of the toe; it occurs more frequently in 
the hind- than the fore-foot, and as it seems to divide the foot into two lateral 
moieties, the animal is, on this account, sometimes called cloven -footed. 


Bniiaed 80I&- 
•ff airof. It 'joIv liiflen fnym ib^ UlWt id thai h c 
m'iTt 'IT \mt larf« am of the «oI« at tbr quaiten or at the (oe. According to the 
'>l':^«ctiv« cfaarai.-ten of tht b-irs. it b abo qualified A^r. Mouf, or mqtjnirtiling. 

Ooncnasioo of tbe HooC — Aarieni rMeriiwhani ban dengnated under 
thi« naioe a loisliied ofBgeatiTe suie of tbe keratupiiaaa mcmbraiie of the foot 
nnultiog from external riolence, moBt fre<iiient]f the blom of the brrier** 

Thin alteration diflen onlr ftraa that of laminitia in that it ia due b> th« 
tnflueare of purely local cauMs. Anaiomicall]:' qieaking, ther are identical. 

lATntntM« _t Amlnlria (/imiuier) u. primaritj, a congeftion of the kerato- 
genouH apparatUH in the re^on of the lue and the mamnue. 

I'licler the |>reHHure of tbe »eroUM aod sanguineou* exudation which results 
ihi-refroni, tbe |H)i]o|ihylloui liwue {Jtt*h of Ihf Joot), tightlj compreMed between 
tile Willi and tbe tbini phnlanx, bemmm extremely setuitive, which obligee the 
I'ulk u|Hin the heel, or even renders all support by the foot impowible. 

Th<' r<.<in<ier 


■1.1 1 V V 

I tbi:< 

iilK-nilurc full, thf ^< 

.-ailed aevU, for ii 

I accompanied by phenomeiw 

uiptomM a meliorate, and inBammatory phe- 
nomena gradually invade the tinues pre- 
viriunly coDicettted, the keratogenoui mem- 
iirane, ut thin level, becomea the leal of 
un ul'noriaal and eiaggervted lecretory 
riiiiction. rbHracteriied by » profound de- 
liirtiiiiy i>r (he luxif and a decided alt«-fa- 
(ioii in the form ami relation of the inter- 
ii:il rH-MxiiL' !>lructuref>. It is this whii-b 
i''iii->Iiliitii> r'Anitiir /ouiuUr or Uimitiilu. 

I'WMxit Uinlrr 

■cquirv* an enormouii thick- 
'Ui-h the (ETound firtl in liicii- 
<f tbe third phalanx, luxe* 

THE FOOT. 339 

its concavity ; it presents, towards the toe, a swelling in the form of a crescent ; 
its peripheral border, finally, is separated from the inferior border of the wall at 
the toe and the mammae by a voluminous wedge of podophyllous horn. The 
latter may be solid, or it may contain an internal cavity {ieedy-toe), filled by a 
reddish, dry, porous mass formed by the residue of the serous and bloody exu- 
date from the podophyllous tissue, which the forrier at times fraudulently 
endeavors to conceal with the shoe. 

Seedy-Toe. — ^This condition is not always due to founder, because the 
cavity by which it manifests itself may exist under the sole as well as under the 
wall. This allows us to distinguish two varieties of seedy-toe: that of the 9ole 
and that of the wall. The first is much less grave than the second ; it is occa- 
sioned by strong contusions of the velvety tissue ; percussion of the sole over 
this region is resonant as soon as the cavity is formed. 

False Quarter. — ''False quarter is especially characterized by the 
absence of the wall at the quarter, in consequence of an operation or an accident 
sacrificing the coronary band. While it lasts there is nothing in this region but 
the horn secreted by the podophyllous tissue." * The foot is, in this case, quite 
frequently restored by a folse quarter made of gutta-percha. 

Avalure and Oiroles. — By the term avalure is meant the normal descent 
or growth of the horn, from the fact of the continual formation over the whole 
periphery of the cutidure. It becomes morbid, pathological, when it takes place 
in an irregular manner only over a portion of the wall, or over the whole area, 
which qualifies it entire or partial ; the animal then grows a new foot or a new 
quarter. According to the case, it is called : complete, when the growth of the 
horn which corresponds to it extends to the inferior border of the wall ; ineom- 
plete, when this growth has not yet reached this border ; irregular, if it takes 
place more rapidly at one point than at another. Under these diverse circum- 
stances we have altered nutrition of the coronary band manifesting itself in the 
form of circles {rammy foot), which often surround the whole wall, sometimes one 
of the quarters, and which occasion a marked soreness in the foot from the com- 
pression which they exercise upon the sensitive parts. The circled foot (Fig. 
124) is frequently a symptom of chronic founder and, in 
general, of all the diseases in which the keratogenous 
membrane is extensively involved. 

Keraphyllooele. — ^Keraphyllooele is a horn 
tumor of a cylindrical or conical form, which exists on 
the internal face of the wall, particularly at the toe ; it 
compresses and atrophies the vascular tissues. Fio. 124. 

It is qualified fistulous or solid according as it con- 
tains, or does not contain, an internal cavity. Its mode of formation resembles 
in all respects that of the wedge of horn in chronic laminitis ; it consists, in fact, 
of a localized congestion of the podophyllous tissue, followed by a hypersecre- 
tion of the corresponding laminse. Among its causes we may recognize either a 
slight founder, a seam, or most frequently violent contusions of the wall, con- 
secutive, for example, to the blows of the farrier's hammer when he sets the toe- 

Quitters. — ^This term designates a partial necrosis of some of the tissues 

1 Commission d'bygi^ne hippique, loc. cit.. p. 190. 


entering into the construction of the inferior jmrt of the memben. Quitteni are 
divided as follows : 

The cutaneouM is that of the cutidure or coronary band, and may be consid- 
ered as a veritable furuncU, 

The tauiinous is the necnwin, in small fragments, of the aponeurotic, liga- 
mentous, and tendinous tissues of the phalangal region. 

FUruncle of the frog iroDMiMU in a i>artial necrosis of the plantar cushion or 
Beahy frog. 

Finally, cartilaginous quitter is nothing else than a slowly-progressive 
necroais of the complementary fibro-cartilagcs of the third phalanx. This is 
much the gravest on account of its complications and its duration. 

Oalk. — Oalk is a wound, a contusion of the con>nar>' hand, at the toe, 
the quartets, or the heels, which the animal inflicts himself by the contact of 
the shoe of another foot during l(KM>motion. It belongs to the category of grave 

Orapaudine or " Mai d'Ane."— This afTei'tion, thus named because it 
is more common in the ass than in the honte, develops firit at the toe upon the 
perioplic band, then upon the cutidure, and originates essentially from a chnmic 
inflammation with perverted secret(»r>' functions of these two structures. It 
aeema to be, as H. Bouley believed, of the same nature as canker, and as a sort 
of exfoliation of the periople, with this difference, nevertheless, '*that the 
aecreted product, instead of remaining diffluent, concretes after its formation," * 
and constitutes, at the seat of the disease, a rugous surface*, laminated longitudi- 
nally and transversely, varying in xeverity and extent according to its peri<Nl of 

We have deomcd it m'cdltws t(» enter into more details as to the 
diseases of the f<M)ty since their diagnosis, their proj^nosis, and tlieir 
treatment belong entirely to the jiiriHdi<*t]on of the veterinarian. The 
foot is the veritable f(»iindation of the animal iHlific*e, which should 
always be reniemliered in the piin'hase of a horst*. It is a re^^tm in 
relation to which one cannot be t(M> fastidious. Is it defei*tive? is it 
disea«44xl? One (an then toivtell the s|)eedy wearing out and niin of 
the animal, as well as <*onsidenible ex|)enses of sluK^ing and treatment. 
On the riMitrarv, is it dulv constituted? is it healthv? Ever>' dav the 
animal will nsunie, without (lis4*onifort, the work of the day liefore; 
he will nev(T Im> in(a|HU*itati*d fnmi work, for it is in the inferior regions 
that the nienilM'rs l>e^in to hlcniish, an<l all the more sh>wly as the 
extremities an» Ijetter c«mfornuil. Himic<», in what com-ems the dis- 
eas(% we Imvr only <lefin«Hl them and inclicat^Hl their st'at, not so much 
for the student to understand them as to <linvt his attention t(» i*ertain 
|Mirts of tlic h<M»f moiv phhIIsix^sihI than others to hise those character* 
which miistitut<' the desiniliic |M>ints in these |)aiis. 

I II. Rtiulcy. NouvcAU Dictiontiaire ile uu-ilvcine, d'hyglene et <lo rhirurfi« fHMtudrm.i 
It. p. v.-.* 



PART 1. 



Deflnition. — The word proportions, in its most general aooep- 
tation, signifies agreement and correlation when it is applied to the 
different parts of one whole. Considering it from the point of view 
which concerns us, this meaning should still be preserved, and, in the 
exterior, the study of the proportions endeavors to point out with pre- 
cision the agreement of tlie regions with each other and with the body 
as a whole. 

Agreement or Relation of the Regions. — The bodies by 
which we are surrounded are composed of elements, simple or complex, 
possessing a kind of reciprocal connection with one another, from which 
results the particular state in which these bodies appear to us. 

As to living beings, they are a collection of organs whose action 

conspires to a sole end, the manifestation of that special mode of 

activity which is called life. These organs, when we study only that 

which is apparent to us from the exterior, show us relations of length, 

width, thickness, direction, development, etc., which cause the animated 

machine to present itself to us in a form always similar in its general 

features, but, on the contrary, infinitely varied in its details. It is on 

account of these general proportions, constantly the same and easily 

recognized in each individual of the same species, that we distinguish, 



at first sight, for example, a horse from an ass or a zebra. But the 
opponents of the relationship theory affirm that these characters cannot 
be compared ; it is the disposition, the attitude, the appearanit*, tlie 
color, the presence or the absence, etc., of such or such parts, much 
more than the dimensions, which impress us at first. To make tliis 
assertion is to recognize implicitly the relations of the many parts of 
the organic collection, from which proceed the differences shown. 
The proportions of the ass are not more similar to those of man than 
those of man are to be confounded with those of the monkey ; and so 
long as these species exist, we shall find in their external form the 
relations, more or less comprehensible, which their regions dischjse at 
the present time. In different individuals these vary but ver\' little, 
and in the same race they are not, as has been said, essentially variable, 
for the features of resemblance become purely illusionar\' ; we know, 
on the contrary, that they are used as a principal foundation for all 
classifications whose object is the methodical description of the different 
ethnic groups. 

Hajmony and Discord; Proportion and Disproportion. 

— When the mind examines any living form whatsoever, a conception, 
a production of its own activity, it always experiences in the presena* 
of the one or the other a series of si*nsations which convey to it an 


agreeable or a disagreeable impression. We are not affected in the 
same yrtLV by the reading of a literary (^imposition, at the sight of a 
picture, a statue, an object of art, the recital of a dramatic adventure. 
The as80<'iation of ideas, words, &cts ; the musical power of a sentence ; 
the rhythm of discourse ; the elevation of nentiment ; the combination 
of f^Himetriml lines, color, objects, or scenes described, — all these con- 
ditions of |K>rsons and things excite our sensibility differently, please 
or iiitigue us according to tlie manner in which they are expressed and 
the aptitude of the person whom we wish to appreciate them. 

In the same manner, the sight of a horse pleases or displeases us 
by the eleganit; of his form, the expression of his physiognomy, the 
vigor, the gracefulness, and the elegance of his gaits. Beautiful nature, 
lik(* a fine l)(M)k, nianit*estj4 in every one a sentiment of physical and 
moral pK-asure in pn)))ortion t<» the degree of impressionability and 
specMal cailture which the observer possesses. Sympatliy or antipathy, 
emotion or indifferemx*, such are the results by which the correlation 
of tilings is manifested to our senses ; by which, in other words, the 
harmony or discord of these relations is indicated. In ordinary lan- 
guage ever}'thing that is in harmony or coniHirdance is called propor- 
iionaU; everything that is not s(» is disproportionate, although in many 


instances the arrangement of the parts is different. In this respect, 
it is plain that the type of a handsome draught-horse approaches as 
near perfection, in its way, as that of a fine race-horse. Both satisfy 
in the same d^ree, although in a different way, the requirements of 
the true connoisseur, for both are the expressions of a perfect adap- 
tation to the end desired. 

Proportions are then good or bad, perfect or defective ; the subject 
in which they are found is well formed^ correct in his lines, has a hand- 
some form, beautiful symmetry, beautifvl lines ; or he is tn two pieces, 
inharmoniously constructed, wanting in form and in symmetry. 

The Agreeable, the BeautiAil, and the Gk)od.— '< But," 

Bourgelat^ says, " it is just as certain that all eyes have not the power 
to judge well, though, as it is a fact that all men indiscriminately 
believe that they have the right of judging. However, the decisions 
formed upon the knowledge of certain established and demonstrated 
rules are the only ones which should be held as the law ; for every 
judgment which has for its foundation only fancy, prejudice, inclination, 
a purely customary and imperfected notion of the thing, is only a self- 
conceited and often false opinion, denied by some, accepted by others, 
and sometimes even soon abandoned by him who has conceived it." 

Thus the distinction between the agreeable and the beautiful in 
things pertaining to the horse has for a long time, as we know, been 
very clearly established ; between that which pleases the eye and that 
which signifies energy, vigor, a perfect adaptation of the motor to its 
,end ; between that which is self-conceit, prejudice, mode, and that 
which is reason or demonstrated truth, s(^ience. 

What, then, are the qualities which impress the laity, — that is to 
say, the mass of people, ignorant of the facts of which we speak ? 
El^ance of form, gracefulness of attitude and movement, roundness 
of the lines, indicating an easy, graceful action, and implying the 
absence of effort in the movements ; vivacity, mobility, a certain 
gentle look of distinction in the physiognomy, which admits the pre- 
dominance of moral perfection over the purely physical instincts. 
The animal which performs a laborious work contracts his muscles, 
stiffens his spine, extends his members, and shows under his skin a 
multitude of angular projections, straight or broken lines, which sug- 
gest vigor, energy, power, but which always indicate hard labor. 
Hence it is that we dwell, in preference, unknown to ourselves, on 
the spectacle of this energy in the state of rest, for as soon as it 

1 C. Bourgelat, Trait6 de la conformation exMrieure du cheval, 5e M., p. IM. 


becomes visible, the grace, calmness, ease, which before pleased, will 
disap))ear. A round croup, flattened haunches, a sway bai*k, a ** fat/' 
thick withers, an arched ne(*k, slim canons, small feet, and a slender 
head will give more pleasure to the majority of inex|)erien(*e<I eyes 
than long, projecting lines, even a little mughly so, well-marked 
muscles, strong members, a spacious (*hest, broad arti<-ulations, large 
nostrils, etc. 

All eyes do not see in the same way, nor even appreciate fon*i- 
biy what is simply agreeable. With greater reason the li<»reemen an* 
rare who are capable of appreciating the l)eauty of which Bourgt>lat 
s|)eaks ; not the arbitrary, which varies with individuals and their artistic 
tem))erament, but the unefuly which should Ik> understcMid a^ synony- 
mous with fitness, and which consists essentially in the adaptati<»n of 
the organs to their fumrtion ; that which results from the harmonious 
proportions of the parts and communi(*ates to the tchole a combinati(»n 
of qualities which renders it good, and not that t\'hich makes the same 
agreeable only to the sensi^s. This l)eauty, to l)e appreciati'd, demands 
a certain intuition, much culture, study, acnite oliservation, and judg- 
ment ; we will refer to this at the end of this work. 



Now that we know what diilicidties are comprised in the study of 
pro|Mirtions, it is not surprising that all horsc*men have endeavored to 
establish the basis of these pn>]M>rtions the more safely to U*ad their pupils 
to a knowhnlge of the horse. Hut, among the many authors, those 
an* frw in nuniUT who have n^ally pnKluced ujH>n this subject any- 
thing original. Many criticisms not founded u|)on facts, any amount 
of <*<»mmcntaries, and oi\en much injustice an% unfortimately, the argu- 
ments of th<»se who have rntcn^d the an^na after the masters wh<isc 
H'st^an'hcs they have had neither the |mtienee nor the courage to investi- 
gate I'an'fnily. 

Abou-Bekr-Ibn-Bedr. — A veterinarian of distinction. Abou-Bekr, ^>n 
of IJetlr, ha»« piwn in his JmmiIc, " I^* NarM.*' all the quei*ti«»n!« referrinjr to the 
8<.>ieni'e and the treatment of the Arabian hone. We fin<l in thitf important 


work, which dates from the first third of the fourteenth century of the Christian 
era, the first vague, incomplete, and indeed incorrect indication of the measure- 
ments concerning the proportions of the horse. We will confine ourselves to 
this mention.* 

Ghiaone. — ^The origin of the idea of proportions is therefore wrongly 
attributed to an Italian veterinarian of the sixteenth century, Frederico Grisone,' 
a very imperfect idea, too, for he attempts in his book, which treats especially 
of horsemanship, rather to determine the qualities of the parts than to express 
their relations; he indicates the characters which, according to his opinion, 
should constitute beauty ; besides these characters being in several respects very 
disputable, and in others very erroneous, we do not see that he has felt the neces- 
sity of comparing the regions with one another, and of expressing their rela- 
tions with positive data. The establishment of the proportions, such as they 
are understood at the present time, does not therefore belong to him. 

BouTffolat. — To Bourgelat, then, belongs all the praise of this attempt 
He says' that, "since beauty resides in the fitness and agreement of the parts, it 
is very necessary to observe their particular and respective dimensions ; and, to 
acquire a knowledge of the proportions, we mtut institute a kind of measurement 
which may be indiscriminately common to all horses. 

" The part which can be used as a basis of proportions for all others is the 
head. Let us measure its length between two parallel lines, one tangent to the 
nape of the neck, or to the top of the forelock, the other tangent to the extremity 
of the superior lip, by a line perpendicular to these two parallel lines ; we will 
thus obtain its geometrical length. Divide this length into three parts, and 
give them a particular name which can be applied to all heads, as, for example, 
that of prime. . . . But all the parts which we shall consider, either in their 
length, height, or thickness, cannot constantly have either a whole prime, a prime 
and a half, or three primes ; subdivide each prime into three equal parts, which 
we will name seconds; and as this subdivision is not sufficient to furnish us with 
the correct measure of all the parts, we will again subdivide each second into 
twenty-four paints.** 

The geometrical length of the head is then divided into 3 primes, 9 seconds, 
or 216 points. Now, as this region may be defective in proportion, Bourgelat 
had to seek for another unit of measure in the height and in the length of the 
body, which, in the well-formed horse, are equal to two and one-half times the 
length of the head. By dividing one or the other of these dimensions into five 
equal parts, and by taking two of these parts, he then established a unit of 
measure such as the head would give if it were well proportioned. 

This being laid down, let us now detail the law of Bourgelat, — that is to say. 

For more details, see : 1. Le NAc^rl ou Traits coxnplet d'hippologle et d'hippiatrie arabes, 
translated flrom the Arabian by M. Perron, t. li. p. 96, PariR, 1859, chez Bouchard-Husard ; 2. Le 
Livre de ragricultnre d'Ibn-al-Awam, translated A-om the Arabian by J.-J. Clement- Mullet, 
t ii^ 2d part, p. 38, Paris, 1866. This manuscript is older than the preceding. M. Clement-Mullet 
wrote it in the twelfth century of our era. 

* Fiederioo Griaone, Ordini di cavalcare et modi di conoscere le nature de cavalli, emeudare 
i yitii lore, et ammaestrargli per I'uso della guerra et commodity de gll huomini, Veuetia, 1568, 

< C Bourgelat, loc. cit, p. 199. 


the rUwnk of the rules which, accordiDg to his opinion, constitute the founcU- 
tion of the beautiftil proportions of the horse's hody.' 

Ist Three ffeometrioal lexiirths of the head give : 

The nMrt height qf the horu, ab (Fig. 125, A), counting from the forelock to the ground upon 
which he recti, provided that his head be well carried. 

2d. Two headB and a half equal : 

The hgighi qf the body, cd, from the top of the withers to the groand. 
The length qf thU 9ame bod^, </; from the point of the arm to the point of the huttoek 

8d. A whole head gives: 

The length qf the neck, eg, from the summit of the withers to the posterior part of the poll. 
The height qf the §houlden, cK from the top of the withers to the point of the elbow. 
The tMeknem qf the 6ody. ^, from the middle of the abdomen to the middle of the back. 
The width qf the body from one side to the other. U (Fig. 125. B and C). 

4th. A head, bb\ measured fix>m the top of the fbrelock to the 
oommiasiire of the lips, will equal (Fig. 125): 

The length qf the croup, qf. from the angle of the haunch to the point of the buttock. 

The width ^ the croup or (^ the hamncha, mn (Pig. 1*25, B and C). 

The height qf the croup, pq (Fig. 12&. A), taken from the summit of the latter to the patella, 
the leg being at rest 

The poetero4ateral length <^ the legt or Itbial region, qr, from the patella to the centre of the 
tlbio-astragaloid articulation. 

The perpendicular height, rt. of the same articulation above the ground. 

The dietanec Jrom the aummit qf the wither$ to the imerdon <tf the neck into the cheat, cL 

fith. Twice the len^rth of the oroup, bb^, gives almost : 

The dietance from the point <^ thepaktiato the aummit qf the wiihert, ue. 
The diatante from the point <^ the elbow to the aummU <^ the croup, hp. 

6th. Two-thirds of the length of the head will equal : 

The width qf the brtaat, tv (Fig 12^ B), from one point of the arm to the other, from outside 
to outside. 

The horiaontai length qf the croup, ya (Fig. ia&. A), between two verticals, one of which touches 
the point of the buttock, and the other pastes through the summit of the croup and touches the 
point of the patella. 

The thirda qf the hind quarlerM and qf the body, uken together, ct. to the perpendicular line 
from the withers touching the elbow. 

The anterior length qf the leg, uw, Uken from the tuberosity of the tibia to the fold of the hock. 

7th. The half of the head is the same as : 

The horianntal diatanee from the point qf the arm to the rertieal line from the rummii </ the 
withera and from the dbotr, e^. 

The width qfthe neek, mn, viewed laterallj and uken from lu insertion at the intermaxUlary 
space, or from the throat, to the nM>t of the flnt halm of the mane, upon a line which forms with 
the contour of the poll two equal angles. 

Rth. The third of the head gives : 

The height qf ita auperior porta, op (Fig. 12&, S). from the summit of the forelock to the line 
which pastes through the most prominent points of the orbits. 

1 In Fig. 12f). which is an exact reproduction from the large plate of the book of Bourgelat, 
we have omitted all the more confUalng lines; it has also seemed necessary to us to change the 
letters and somewhat modify the expressions of the original description in order to render the 
ideas more inulllgible to the reader. Finallj, we have omitted paragraphs 6 and 7 of the pf- 
portiona of the founder of the veterinary schools, because the measurements which are given 
there are only a repetition of those mentioned in paragraph 2. 




The width t\f the head, qr, below the inferior eyelidi. 

The Uilerol width qf <A« fortanm, vh (Pig. 125, A), taken ttom its origin in front to the point 
of the elbow. 

9th. Two-ninths of the heckd give : 

The vtHieal eievaiion (^ the point t^ the tibaw above the ■tenmrn, hat. 
The deprt»»ion qf the back, ii\ iu relation to the summit of the withers. 
The lateral incUA t^ the lega, w/^ close to the hocks. 

The opening, g (Fig. 12&, B), or rather the didanee between the /oreorsu, fh>m ona aziUa J.« the 

Knh. One-sixth of the heckd equals : 

The thickne»$ qf the forearm, h (Fig. 125, B). i«en in fh>nt, at Its origin, from the axilla to lu 
extenial contour horismitally. 

The width *4 the conmei qf the anterior Jeet, h (same flgure), either fh>m one side to the otlier 
or fmni bvfori' to behind. 

The ypUUh t\f the ronmit tff the. pottertor feet, h (Fig. 125, C), ttom one side to the other only. 

The width *^ the poeteriur /etlorke, k (Fig. 12S. A), from In ftont to behind. 

The width of the knee, h vFig. I'A B*, seen In front (measure a little laige). 

The thickneM qf the hockt, h (Fig. 125, O (measure a little small). 

11 til. One-twelfth of the head giveM: 

The thieknest qf the anterior canon, h' (Fig. l£>, B) ; the pofCeHor, n" (Fig. 125, C). is a littie 

1 2th. One-ninth of the head equalH : 

The thickneM t^ the forearm In lis narrowest pari, m' (Fig. 125, B). 
The thiekneu qf the potterior paetemt. m', seen laterally (Fig. 125, A), 

i:Uh. The height of the elbow tronx the fbld of the knee (Fig. 
12/>, J, Ik*1(iw) is the mime an: 

The hrtght qf thm mmeJuUi to the gro%tnd. o'n' (Fig. rjTi. A). 
The hrigtu n/ thr patella abnve the fold of the hoek. qw. 
The diMtince fmm the fold qf the hoek to the conmti, wd'. 

I4th. One-sixth of the preoedin^ measure (18th) gives: 

The wulth *if the canon i^ the fortfoid, a' (Fig. l'£\ A), viewed Uiterally in the middle of its 


The width qf the antrrUtr feiloek vlcweii In fnml, a" (Fig 125. B). 

ir»th. One-third of the same measure (1 3th) is almont equal to: 

The width *^ the httck fnim the fold to the point, r (Fig. 125, A). 

Kith. One-quarter of the same measure (13th) giveM: 

The width of thr knrr Men UU'rally. c' (Fig. 125, A). 
The length of the kner, «■" (Fig. 125. Au 

ITtli. The space between the eyes fix>m one anffle to the other, « 

(Fig. 1 '2.\ If). wiu:il»* : 

The wtttth qf the leg or tilHal region seen laterally at the level <}f the ft»ld of the buttock, r'r 
(Fig. 12.'.. A). 

isth. One-half of this interval between the eyes given: 

The width nf the jymteriifr mntm Mvn latiTslly. r ■ Fig. 125. .4 1. 
The width of thr nntrritpr fetlock Mfu Ititerally. r' < FIk. 12.\ A). 

Finally, the difference of the hnght qf the croup la rtlatiom to the eummit qf the withert, pg (Fig. 
125. ^». 


Bourgelat adds that '^ these are, in the horse, nearly all the parts correspond- 
ing through reciprocal dimensions. The eye which is experienced in these dif- 
ferent data will recognize them without the use of the hippometre, the compass, 
or the scale upon the parts whose defects he wishes to judge by the measure- 
ment with as much facility as the painter reduces his sketch in making from 
an ordinary figure one that is colossal/' 

Bourgelat's work is almost entirely contained in the preceding data ; con- 
trary to the accepted opinion, it is based upon a profound knowledge of the 
horse, as well as upon observations as positive as those which are daily recorded 
by purely descriptive sciences, as anatomy, for example. 

Still, the first and most frequent of the criticisms made against the founder 
of veterinary schools is his having acted under the inspiration of his own ideas 
and borrowed from other sources than from nature itself. How can we, indeed, 
uphold the bad expression, the ugly form, of the model upon which he has traced 
his geometrical lines? This model, known to-day by the name the Bourgelat 
hor^e, with his Roman nose, his arched neck, and massive, straight shoulder, 
rounded croup, flattened haunches, round buttocks, angular hock, and long 
canons, appears to have aimed at the establishment of a special and new type, 
very different, however, from that which he had mentally devised. The beholders 
&iled to see all the beauty and accuracy contained in that rough scheme which 
Vincent's pencil produced under the very eyes of the master. Disagreeably 
impressed by the whole work, they missed the harmony of the important lines, 
they objected to the minuteness of the measurements, and looked upon it as a 
work of pure imagination, without reflecting that the most gifted imagination is 
powerless to create such combinations. 

It is true Bourgelat did establish his laws according to his own idea of the 
beautiful horse, but he has obtained the proportions from a real type, which still 
exists, and which by a unanimous acknowledgment connoisseurs also consider 
the type of beauty. 

That there are exaggerations, inaccuracies, in his system is incontestable. Is 
not this the danger of all inventors, and does i^ follow from this that we should 
discredit any of the truths that are offered? Bourgelat has attempted to deter- 
mine the agreement of the parts with one another and with the whole ; this is 
his main idea; to have seen and appreciated these relations is his merit; finally, 
he has found some which will live and which show the results to which a correct 
idea, supported by a good judgment and an exceptional talent, may lead. 

But we do not think that we can, following the example of Professor 
Baron,* blame him for having estimated all the external measurement of the 
body by only one and the same unit : the length of the head. According to 
our colleague, the length of this regi(m should only be used to measure the lon- 
gitudinal axes, its %oid4h the transverse, and its thlckneas all that which, in the 
body, is an element of thickness. Truly, this logic appears a little exclusive. 
In practice it results in this: a single rule being insufficient, three are necessary. 
Instead of simplifying a rule already too complex, we increase the difficulties 
threefold at the time when it is so important to point out, in passing, the excep- 
tions and the deviations that are of some interest. To understand the regional 
relations, one single coiainon measure is sufficient, the head or any other part. 

* Baron, M^thodes de reproduction en zootechnie, p. 159, Paris, I8ss. 


it mattere little which. The head has been rightly selected, because this unit i» 
easy to be obtained, and its individual variations in the same race are more rare 
than those of the other regionn. It is just as convenient to compare the different 
dimensions of the horse, with the head, and to find their harmonious combina- 
tions, as to determine the relations of height, width, and depth of a room, for 
example, by the name yard measure. 

Bourgelat has been criticised for the minutiap into which he has entered, 
notably, of the width and the thickness of the articulations and the members, 
the separation of the eyes, etc. But would he have fallen into this error if he 
had not especially worked to guide artists in the realization of their works? 
No doubt he forgot that the more minute his measurements became the more 
liable they were to show what was erroneous in them, for if the generality of 
horses are in conformity with his principal rules, they are notably different from 
the secondary as soon as dissimilar types are in questitm. This is the very 
reason why these rules have been successfiilly opposed, and without difficulty, by 
most horsemen. It seemed, in fact, a deduction from the ideas of Bourgelat, that 
there was but one single type of beauty for the horse, while it is evident that the 
tjrpe is multiple. To attempt to apply the same scale to the heavy-draught 
horse and to the race-horse, and assert it beforehand as infallible, was the obliga- 
tory consequence that his opponents were sure to draw from Bourgelat's forget- 
ftilness, and to make the most of against him. He believed that his rules had 
an absolute value, whilst they are essentially relative to some particular types. 

His other great fault is to have misunderstood the compensations which 
exist between these regions. In assigning such precise limits to what he believed 
to be the ideal beauty, he has tacitly declared defective all that was not in 
conformity with his measures, a logical deduction of his system. The head, for 
example, was in his opinion either proportionate, too short, or too hmg. In these 
latter cases it was to be rejected, whatever might be the length of the neck. 
Still, we have seen that a neck which is too long redeems a small head ; a neck 
that is short and massive ameliorates in the same manner the effects of a head 
that is too large. It follows from this that the defects of certain regions are 
capable of compensating those of some others, always on condition that these 
last, by agreement with the preceding, are of a reverse order in their results. 

Another criticism which can be made against Bourgelat lies in his having 
absolutely ignored, so to speak, the relations between the angles of the osseous 
segments of the members. He has occupied himself with little m(»re than 
the relations (»f length, width, and thickness of the parts, without c<msidering 
the desired angles of locomotion which tend ti> an increase of npeed. This is a 
regrettable omissicm in this sense, that if the founder of veterinar>' Hch<N>ls had 
thought of it with the same intelligen(*e that he showed in the e9«tablishment of 
his horH-metuniring rulr*, science would have |M>sHe»sed at least w»me correct 
idoas u[K)n this* subjcH't, which w<»ulcl havi* prevented CSenenil M<»rris from 
inv(*nting, aside fn»m nil positive ol»9«ervations, his theory* uiM»n the similitude 
of un^l(*s and the parallelism of the Ixmy segments. 

Filially, IVoun;<'lat has also omitt4Hl to s|H'4ik of the relati<ms of the Inidy as a 
whole with the nervous system, another im|K>rtant consideration which might 
have raUf*e<l him to >«|H*ak of the inten»s*ting questi<m of the blfH^t, — that is to 
!*av, of the mond quulitieH, tranitinissihle by heredity, which endows the horse 
with the hi^'ht'^t qujiliti«'»» of the choicest families of the H|»ecies. 



Saint-Bel. —Saint-Bel,' the founder of the veterinary school of SaintrPon- 
cras, endeavored to propagate the principlee of Boui^eUt in England. He 
thought th&t Eclipm, that eitraordinary and always unconquerable horse, would 
be for English scholars the beet type of the conformation of the beautiful horse, 
and he prepared with great care the scale of the proportions of this noble animal. 

We do not know what instnimenls Sainl^Bel mode use of to measure 
Eclipse, tt is certain that he indicates accurate measurements alongside of 
others that are altogether impossible. Perhaps he employed the tape-measure. 
If this were so, the incompatibilities of several of his assertions may be 
explained. However th» may be, we have shown in our drawing the head of 
Eclipse, such as this horse should have had in order to be r^ulorl; conformed. 

The length of the head is supposed to be divided into twenty-two equal parts, 
which ore used as a common measure for all parts of the body (Fig. 126) : 

6 i nd i / 

Pie. m.— The praponlons of Ecllpw. after SalnvBel. 

in. Hd^tof the poll from the irrorniKad) S hesOs •nd iap«rte. 

M. Hrtghtof t)iewlth«rafromlhegruund(cd) 3 heaili. 

Sd. Hd^tof theCTouprmm tbegraund(cr) ahesda. 

41h. WholS length of the bodjr, titaa the point of the shoulder 

to thM of the buttock (flW aheadimd S p»rU. 

Hh. Hetffat of the bodfU the level of the centre of gravllyiU) 2 heads uid 20 perti. 

«th. BerHlonof thecheWibovetheifroundit) '^headauid 7 pmU. 

7lh. Helghtof the perjiendlcuUr filling from the point of the 

•houlder upon the hoof li«j 2 he«dB and 5 pitta. 

ah. Height of the perpendicular from the point of ihe elbow 

tothairouud (mn) 1 he«d and IBparW. 

■ WllUUD Yoiutt, tHitor; of the Bngllah Thorunghbivd Horse. 


9th. INitance fh>m the ■ummit of the witheri to the stifle- 

joint {CO) 1 head and 19 |Mrta. 

10th. DlBtance from the luminit of the cn>up to the elbow (em) 1 head and 19 parti, 
nth. Length of the neck fh>m the withen to the top of the 

head (ea) 1 head and 11 parts. 

12th. Length of the neck fh>m the top of the head to iu inaer 

tlon in the cheitt ((q>) 1 head and 11 parts. 

18th. Width of the neck at iU union with the che»t (cp> . . .1 head. 

14th. Width of the neck in iU narrowest part iqr) 12 parta. 

16th. Width of the head Uken above the eyea (iT) 12 parts. 

16th. Thickness of the bodj between the middle of the back 

and the middle of the abdomen (uv) 1 head and 4 parts. 

17th. Width of the bcKlj 1 head and 4 parts. 

18th. Distance fh>m the top of the croup to the point of the 

buttock feA) 1 head and 4 parts. 

19th. Distance fh>m the root of the tail to the stifle-Joint (oar) . 1 head and 4 parts, 
auth. Distance fh)m the stifle-Juiut to the point of the hock (oy) 1 head and 4 parts. 
21st. Distance fW>m the point of the hock tn the hoof (ys) . . 1 head and 4 parts. 
22d. Distance from the point of the buttock to the stifle- 
joint (oA) 20 parts. 

2Sd. Width of the croup . 20 parts. 

24th. Width of the anterior members at the level of the elbow 

(mmO 10 parts. 

2ftth. Width of Che posterior members at the level of the fold 

of the butUtck (vw) 10 iwrts. 

26th. Width of the hock at the level of its fold (yiTi H parts. 

27th. Width of the head above the nostrils (nV) 8 parts. 

28th. DiManitt frt>m the internal angle of one eye to that of 

the other 7 parts. 

29th. Separation of the anterior members 7 parts. 

aoth. Width of the anterior Usee of the knees 5 parts. 

31st Width of the anterio member above the knee (r^) '. . . . 6 parts. 

aad. Width of the hocks (anterior face) 6 parts. 

38d. Width of the fetlock y) 4 parts. 

34th. Width of the aiitA'rior face of the coronet 4 parts. 

35th. Same wi<lth. but a little lower 4Vi parts. 

86th. Width (»f the memlier in its narn»west part {f) 3 parts. 

87th. Width of the posterior pasti'm < anterior (kce) 2?{ parts. 

3Hth. Width of the anterior pastern «/; 2*^ parU. 

39ch. Width of the anterior canon . 294 |>arts. 

40th Width of the ant«*rior and posterior canons upon their 

anterior face 194 parts. 

Vallon. — Vallon' aluo attempted to indicate pmportioni*, hut he ha» not 
heen nion* KUci't*M4fu1 than the EnftliHh, eRpecially in what conremM the Icnyrth 
of the InmIv, which he crmHideiv to he three headft in the Had<ile-h<>n«4% which iH 
incorrtH't. Here are the ineai«urement8 which he givtis for a horae of l.fX) ni. : 

U'liKth of the hca<l 0,60 m. 

U'liKth of th«' niM'k 'a licad and a fifth) 0.72 m. 

Ilfitfht <if the horM' from the withen to the Rround (two and two-thirds 
hea«l!») 1.60 m. 

UeiKht of ihf oli«'*>t from the withers to the xiphoid rticion 'a hea«1 and a 
(lusrteri . . 0.75 m. 

lA'Utrth of the anterior members tmrn the paua^e of the girth to the ground 
• a hend nnil siMMit H thinb OHTim. 

Heiirht of tlie posterior quarters fnim the top of the cnmpUt the gn>und (a 
little more tlian two hcHdH and a half ) ... l.>*i& m. 

U-iiKtli of the tMMly frfiin the (Miint of the stioulder to the point of the but- 
tock (threi* heail!>) l.ftO m. 

1 Vall<»u. ('ours d'hip|Mih>gie. 1. 1. p. 448. 


If, with these proportions, the head is square and light, the forehead wide and 
long, the eye large, placed far from the ears, the withers elevated and extending 
backward, the loins short and straight, the croup, the shoulder, the leg, and the 
forearm long and well muscled, the canon short, the pastern of medium length 
and properly inclined, the articulations wide, the articular angles well oriented, 
the muscular system dominant and firm, the foot irreproachable, the horse has, as 
a whole, good proportions. 

" As to the work-horse,'' he adds,' '' he should not be in all respects similar 
to the cavalry horse. The fore-quarters need not be as light nor the shoulder as 
long and oblique, the withers as elevated ; the chest should be spacious, the 
members shorter, the muscular system more strongly developed, the degree of the 
temperament (blood) less sanguinary. 

'* The proportions which suit the horse of 1.50 m. the best are the following : 

Head O.eOm. 

Neck (* head and aboat a fifth) 0.70 m. 

Height of the body (two heads and a half ) l^m. 

Length of the chest (a little more than a head and about a fifth) 0.70 m. 

Length of the members (a head and a third) 0.80 m. 

Length of the body (two and two-thirds heads) 1.60 m. 

Height of the hind-quarters (a little less than two heads and a half) 1.45 m." 

The preceding measures do not differ much in principle from those of Bour- 
^lat, which they reproduce, as a whole, under another form. Their points of 
clifierence consist, in our opinion, in errors or at least exaggerations, the evidence 
of which will be seen when we present our own ideas concerning this. 

M. Richard. — ^To our regret, and contrary to our custom, we are here forced 
txi oppose one of the most distinguished horsemen, who, in France, contributed 
much to bring discredit upon Bourgelat's system. We mean M. Richard, whose 
opinions on other questions are in most instances in conformity with ours. 

The principal objection to this recommendable writer proceeds from the 
point of view in which he regards the horse. Starting out with the idea that 
this animal has become for man a generator of force and speed, he cannot con- 
ceive that an attempt could be made to impose limits to the mechanical beauties 
of the horse-machine, which he would wish to realize. This manner of reason- 
ing, although very just in principle, has led M. Richard into numerous exagger- 
ations ; because beauty resides principally in the harmony of the parts, and not 
in the extreme development of some of them, considered as more particularly 
advantageous for the proper action of the whole. If the disproportion results 
from the number of the defects, it may also become the consequence of a func- 
tional discord of the relations. 

Now, it is with the beauties of the horse as with all other things analogous 
to them through utilization ; the motor in question must be benefited by them, 
for otherwise Uiey become useless or detrimental. It being granted that large 
wheels are for a vehicle one of the first conditions of speed, of what use would 
they be if their elevation gave it such an instability that it could be used only 
upon special roads, or turn only in certain curves? In the same way, it is 
acknowledged, in an absolute manner, that a long forearm, long legs, a long 

1 Vallon. Cours d'hippologle, 1. 1. p. 457. 



croup, and a very oblique slioulder are elements indi8|>enHabU* to the velcK'ity of 
the gait ; now, increa^w these beauties of the forearm and the leg in on exnggrraied 
degret and you will make your horse taller ; do the same thing with the cn»up 
and the shoulder, you will lengthen his body, and if you do not develop in the 
tame proportion the chest, the abdomen, the neck, the head, the articulatiims, etc., 
you will have made, according to your fancy or talent, a giraffe, a dnmictiar}*, <ir 
an elephant, but you will no longer have a horse, — that is to say, a s|)ei'ial mot(»r 
adapted to our needs, to our civilization ; because you will have dfHtroviHl the 
pre-existing harmony of the regions. That is what M. Richani has misunder>(t4M)d, 
and which caused him not only to disregard the opinions of Ik>urgelat, but also 
to shower upon him thoee harnh criticisms which fell with equal torce u\Hm his 
followers, the membern of the Hoani of Education. 

Here are, l)esides, some extracts which abundantly prove that we have not 
exaggerated his thtmghts : 

"The model hone of Bourgelat, ooiiKtructtHl in accordance with hlM method, itinnot fulfil 
the conditions requin'd by reaiton and by a RtMjd lucomotftr. How, indt'ed. ran we airvpt limitji 
to the development of certain refciona. efji^'iaUy whm the vrry exrt$te* vo%dd altmif* amil withtmt 
rjtrrptUm be a detirabte bttiutyf How Ik it possible to limit the width of the forehead, the ht-ighi 
of the cranium, the devi'l<»pment of the withers, the heiicht of the cheiit, that of the shoultlcrs. 
or their obliquity ? Shall we ever find a fetlock (»r a forearm that is too wide, the latter too lonie. 
a knee tCM) much develo|»ed, a tendon t(H> neatly (»utlined ? (^n we fix the limits to the wi<ith of 
the hock, to that of the lex. to the lenicth of the cmup and that of tlie ribs? 

'* He who wishes u* htudy the hone acconling to his destination will be convinced, as we 
are. that It is contrary Ut n.'ason to establihh by arbitrary measures {therf ntn be no itthrr^) limits to 
the development of such or »uch n>Klon of his lM>dy. We understand pcrfe<'tly that the artist 
should have data to direct him in the perfection of his work, the forms of which are tiinilated 
by taste and fashion, but the mei>hanic muxt obey only the laws of mechanics; he can Judire of 
the qualitien of the machine only ttam the invariable rules upon which these laws are 

And still further : 

" PhyvioIoKy and m(*chanics united, in accordance with the observation of facts, teach us 
that a Mfuare head is fri*nerally beautifUl. Its masticatinic muscles are usually quite pniminent 
Its n<»trils an' v<>ry mobile, very wide, very dilatable. Large eyes, wide open, bright, and placed 
low. a large forehead, and a wellileveIo|>ed cranium are its characteristics. Such a head is 
always to Ik* re<r<»mnu>ndifl, vhtilever may otherwife be Ike indieationt (tf the prvporliont, trhich ymre 
ttitmttHttiy ntithing {f Ihey are tuntrary to beauty. If. on the other hand, a horse has his ii(*ck well 
nnwli'd. to exe<-iite well all the movements, without an ezcew of fktty or cellular timue : if he 
has vfry high withfrn and here we know no limlla; if he has a short back and short loins, ver)' 
widf and vtitli strung niUNcl(>s; if hin trroup \s long and well muscled, high and well-inclined 
shoulder*; if (he rh«*«t is very deep and the riln* long, well arched, and niunde<l ; if the flank it 
short. the furcnrni wry long and wide; if the knee is ^inmg. the tendon extremely detache«l. th« 
fi*tIo(^k widi', thf |Hi»t«'rn *ihf»rt and of the dcMlreil d<*gn'e of inclination ; if the biitt«M>ks are 
pntminent aii<l fnrlllsh^ll with stn>ng. long, well-markt>fl and well-descended muscles; if the lef 
anil the bin-k an* wide, whxterer miiy be the fjreim »/ Ihrir tciilth, take no arrount of ;»i <»;>orf lonj irAoff 
utlw nftthintj juffiMf.' ; ynu will alway*> \h.* Mire of hiiving fmnd the m«Mlcl horM.*." 

M. Kichurd <l<>os not |M*rreive, in the two quotations which we have just 
mad*', thiit, more than all others, he has the idea of pn)|M)rtions, the name of 
whirli irritatos him s<» much. He s|M»nks of the errrM of rertain )H*»utic«, with- 
out thinking that \hv «*xr<»«s of thingn is judgwl only by rompuring them with 
fme anotluT. or by ap|»r(M'iating how they extreed the diiiietiHionH and the mean 
limits which they onlinanly possess. If that particular thing ninnr»t l>e too wide, 
or /Am (»n<< Uat long, it follows that another one can Im* right, t>r even too narn»w 
and t4S) ^mall. N(»w, the except, the tufficimcy^ and the dejirimnj are qualities 


impomible to be determined if the relations of the parts have not been studied, 
and if there be not for them certain mean terms of comparison. To say that a 
region is too long, exactly normal, or too short, is to express that, relative to its 
ordinary beautiful length, it is proportional or (Unproportional ; it is therefore 
tantamount to admitting good or bad proportions. There exist, therefore, certain 
standard dimensions which must be known in order to be able to base (me's 

Without any doubt, it would be contrary to reason to establish by arbitrary 
meojntres the limits of development of any region. But the great error in our 
esteemed colleague's argument lies in not proving what he asserts. The meas- 
urements are arbitrary only when they proceed solely from the self-conceit of 
him who invents them ; in all other cases they are as real as the things from 
which they are taken. 

M. Richard has advanced exactly, with regard to Bourgelat, that of which he 
has accused the latter : a pure theory. He has not taken the trouble to study 
this author closely. If he had attempted this, would he ever have written the 
following passage? 

•• But we will go still ftirther. We mean to prove In two words that a horse which would 
dbplay the most rigorous proportions advanced by this author might be very badly amjormed and 
in rtry bad condition aa regards strength and speed. We wish to show still further that, in order 
to remedy his vice of conformation, we are forced to do the contrary of what is prescribed by the 
founder of veterinary medicine. 

** Suppose that a horee which is in conformity with the proportions of Boun?elat hast^rry 
long and corded flanks and a very short croup, which is often observed ; this horse will have weak 
loins, and his gait will be shortened for want of length in its croupal muscles. What shall we 
do now, if we wish to give this horse the qualities of strength in which he is wanting and which 
the acknowledged proportions would indicate as excellent? We will lengthen its iliac bones, 
which Bouigelat condemns, so as to diminish a part of the surplus length of the loins; we will 
also lengthen the ischiums to carry the point of the buttocks farther backward. We have no 
other means of remedying the evil and making a good horse from a bad type of construction of 
the loins and the croup. To arrive at this essential result, what shall we do ? We will do the oppo- 
site of what is prescribed by the proportions of Bourgelat : we will lengthen the body of the horse 
by lengthening the croup in front and behind through a greater predominance of the buttocks. 
The proportions of the whole, like those of the individual regions, are therefore contrary to 
physiological and mechanical laws as well as to those of reason. Then, as we have said, written, 
and taught for more than 6ftecn years, the proportions of Bourgelat, which have always been 
considered as the key to the basis of all the principles established by this author, are /cUfely 
founded ; we cannot repeat too often that they should be condemned as a material error./alal to the 
jtrogresM of sdenee, fatal to the perfecting qf our races of horses, especially cavalry horses." 

In the face of such assertions, without proof, we must acknowle<lge that 
this verdict is very severe. M. Richard takes for granted precisely what he 
should at first have commenced to demonstrate, — namely, that a croup such as 
Bourgelat requires would be very short. But it would have been easy for him to 
ascertain the contrary by measuring this region upon subjects selected by him- 
self as well formed in that part of their body. Then he could have proved that 
a croup whose length is equal to the distance comprised between the top of the 
head and the commissure of the lips is not too short, that, consequently, this 
proportion was not poorly founded, and should not be condemned as a material 
error and one fatal to the progress of science. M. Richard's objections, very 
judicious theoretically, we repeat, fail when practically applied, for the same 
reason : want of deliberation. To what would they be reduced if it were settled 
that Bourgelat had taken his measurements upon horses in which they showed 


themielveB really irreproachable? To nothing, since upon these subjects the 
shoulder, the croup, the forearm, the neck, the leg, etc., would exactly enter into 
the conditions of length, width, and thickness required by his contradictor. And 
yet this is the very merit, we do not say of ail, but of many, of the proportions 
of the founder of veterinary schools, and M. Richard would not have fiuled to 
recognize it if he had seriously undertaken to verify, with compass in hand, the 
assertions of the former. This is the reason why, when we take literally the 
data of an author, without taking account of the almost inevitable exaggerations 
to which he is naturally inclined, one is easily led to draw from them wrong 
conclusions, to overlook the good in order to see only the weak points, and 
present these as the only result which this theory can attain. 

Most certainly we would ourselves deserve this reproach if we should not 
now make prominent the correct and truly practical idea which is apparent in 
M. Richard's criticisms. This distinguished horseman desires principally to 
call the attention of the observer to the absolute beauties of the horse, beauties 
which we should never oppose, since they are the best index of the conditions of 
strength and speed, attributes which should never be limited, for they are funda- 
mental qualities of the animal machine, elements indispensable to its pn>per 
action. If the eye is impressed with a want of harmony in the whole, it is not 
to the fullness of the chest, the length of the croup, of the forearm, of the leg, 
the obliquity of the shoulder, the height of the withers, the width of the articu- 
lations, etc., that this defect is to be attributed ; it is due to the weakness, the 
bad conformation, of the other regions. The disproportion should be considered 
especially as characterixing the predominance of defects, and not as being de- 
rived from excess of the beauties. A hone is drfectite not because he is too well 
formed in some qf his parts^ but because he is not enough so in others. A kind of 
correlation of development exists between all the organs; if one of them acquires 
dimensions somewhat considerable, othera follow it, so to speak, in the same 
measure ; and this is what justifies to a certain extent the words of M. Richard, 
when he asserts that he does not understand how we can limit the width of the 
forehead, the height of the cranium, the development of the withers, the height 
of the chest, and the length of the shoulders ; when he defies us in some way to 
find too wide a fetlock, a forearm too Icmg, a knee too much developed, a tendon 
too much detached ; when he rejects the limits imposed to the width of the hock, 
that of the forearm and the leg, the width of the croup and that of the riba. 
The girafle-, dromedary-, or elephant-horse is not possible, even in driving to ex- 
tremities M. Richard's exaggerations, cm account of those very organic correla- 
tions of which we have just H|)oken. This has been mentioned only to show the 
consequences which may be the result of the a priori in matters concerning the 
horse. We get to believe that facts are overthrown by words, and the more readily 
so, as we are encouraged in it by the mass of those who content themselves with 
admiring facts through the eyes of othera. 



Now that we have demonstrated the existence of the relations 
existing among the difTerent parts of the body, it will be easy to imder- 
stand what result can be reached by seeking for the proportions of the 
horse. The question at issue is to express in simple terms the relations 
of the r^ions in such a manner as to establish the elements of beauty 
which should here be looked upon as a reflection of i)erfection. Such a 
study is most fruitful for one who wishes to succeed promptly in devel- 
oping his " eye" and his judgment ; it is not less useful for the artist 
anxious to impress his works with the stamp of accurate imitation. 

We do not wish to say by this that imitation is the supreme aim 
of art and that the merit of artistic productions lies infallibly in their 
accuracy. It is far from our intention to compare the artist to a pho- 
tographic apparatus : this would be the ignoring of his personality, of 
the very passion with which he sees the things of his domain ; it would 
be the very n^ation of his talent. His work should, principally, 
reflect movement and animation, the emotion he felt in the presence 
of the subject which he wished to reproduce. He will be pardoned 
for the want of physical resemblance in his conceptions, whilst he will 
always be blamed for his want of sentiment or his absolute indiffer- 
ence. But if we have been able to say with reason in this I'espect that 
sincerity' in art can replace truth, it is not less evident that the artist 
who is at the same time accurate and sincere in his reproduction will 
constantly excel him who has only one or the other of these qualities. 
It is on this account that the study of proportions is of the greatest 
necessity to him. 



Until now, under the head of proportions, we have only treated 
of the relations of length, of width, and of thickness of the constit- 
uent parts of the body, and even this has been done in a very incom- 
plete manner. This too exclusive view is certainly insufficient for one 


who wishes to analyze minutely the horse as a machine productive of 
force and speed. It is necessary^ besides, to inquire into the relationA 
of direction which the osseous segments may affect among each other, 
to determine in what manner they are articulated, and what nilis 
govern their most extensive and regular action. 

We should then examine the whole body with regard to its larger 
dimensions, its general harmony. 

Finally, we should determine in wliat measure the nervous system, 
this ultimate regulator of all activity and of all vital manifestation, is 
in functional equilibrium with the ma(*hinery which animates and 
directs the animal with absolute [>ower. 

These four imi)ortant questions will be the subjec*t of the pres^i^nt 

A. — Relation of Dimensions between the Parts. 

Wc have not to deal with long and slender or with short and thick 
forms only, — that is to say, with two extreme conformations between 
which there might exist a mean one related as much to the first as to the 
second. In reality, the typesof conformation, var^'ing with the conditions 
of existence and the kinds of utilization, are much mi»re numen>us. He 
who intends to make an artistic reproduction of them, or who wishes to 
oiioose them with a view to some si)ecial purpose, should tliereforc lie ac- 
quainted with the characters pro[)er to each, and seek for their differences. 

Nevertheless, certain common characters always unite them, which 
establish their relationship, their analogies, and their resemblance. It 
is these qualities, easily found in the great majority of horses, which, 
hereafler, we pro|Mi0e to consider. 

But an important obeer\'ation should first of all be made witli 
reference to the documents of which we are alxiut treating. It is, tliat 
they constitute only mean data ca[)able of direi*ting and aiding the 
artists or amateurs who are making their c//6ii/. We cannot si*e in 
them al)soIute ideas beyond which everything is false. They are only 
l)ea(*ons, landmarks of reference to Ix? iMjnsulted, which, whilst showing 
g(*neral harmonious notations of the form of the horse, will ctiuse gross 
errors, regrettable mistakes^ and opinions falsely foundetl. 

Since Bourgelat's time, several obser\'er8, besides Saint-Bel and 
Vallon, have en<ieavored to establish the relations of the dimensions 
which should exist lietween the parts of the horse's body. 

Professor CV)Iin,^ a hmg time ago, indicated tlie mean length of 

> a. GoIiD, Phyiiolofle comparft d«» aDlmauz domcuUque*. l^re 4d.. 1 1 p. 252. Parto. 1356. 


the bony segments of the members. Our colleagues^ M. Neumann * and 
Professor Lemoigne,' of Milan, have confirmed, on their part, the 
results published by M. Colin ; we will say the same about our own 
personal researches.' 

But Colonel Duhousset is indeed the man who, in France, is the 
most interested in the measurements of all the regions of the horse. 
We have had the pleasure of guiding him in his first attempts and 
investigating, afterwards, the correctness of his observations. These 
are published in a pamphlet, from which we have borrowed the greater 
part of the following details.* After the example of Bourgelat, M. 
Duhousset has chosen the head as a unit of meamirey and considers its 
length from the poll to the extremity of the upper lip. This dimen- 
sion, as well as those of which we will hereafter speak, is obtained 
by the aid of a compass of thickness, and not by the tape-measure 
system, in order to avoid the causes of error inherent to the promi- 
nence of the parts whose outlines this measure would have to follow. 
It is also well that the animal be placed in normal equilibrium, and 
that his head, a little raised, should as nearly as possible be parallel to 
the direction of the slope of the shoulders. 

We will annex to our description the following drawing (Fig. 127), 
a reproduction of a photograph on which the subject is shown abso- 
lutely in profile, a position which in no way alters the reciprocal rela- 
tions of the parts ; ' the animal here represented was as high as he was 

** The UngUi of the head almost exactly equals the distance : 

1st. From Uie back to the abdomen, NO (thickness of the body). 

2d. Prom the top of the withers to the point of the arm, HE (shoulder). 

8d. From the superior fold of the stifle-joint to the point of the hock, TJ. 

4th. Prom the point of the hock to the ground, JK. 

5th. Prom the dorsal angle of the scapula to the point of the haunch. I/D. 

6th. Prom the xiphoid region to the fetlock-joint, MI; above this latter for large horses and 
race-horses; below and in the middle, in small horses and in those of medium size. 

7th. From the superior fold of the stifle-joint to the summit of the croup in subjects whose 
coxo-femoral angle is large ; this distance is always less in other cases (O. and B.). 

1 G. Neumann, Dea aplombs ches le cheTal, in Journal de m4d. tR milit.. t yiii. p. 352. 

* A. Lemoigne, Recherches sur la m^canique animale du cheval, in Rec. de m4d. v6t., annte 
U77, p. 81. 

<8ee, besides, J. Ki4ner, Journal de ragriculture, ann^e 1884, t. ii. p. 841. (He treats there 
of the relation of the widths of the anterior and posterior canons.) 
4 B. Duhousset, Le cheval, p. 68 et suiv., Paris, 1881. 

* In meaaoring a horse from a photograph, it is necessary to take him absolutely in profile. 
Without this precaution the regions are not shown perpendicularly upon the same plane ; the 
length and the height of those which are more distant from the observer appear shorter in rela* 
lion to those which are nearer. 


" Ttoo and one-half (tnw the htad gives : 

lit. Tbe helsbl or tha irlthBn, H, above tbe ground. 

3d. Thg helsht of the lap oT the croup kboTO the fround. 

Sd. Very orten the length of the bodjr Ih>m the polot or tbe vm to thit of the tnttock, 
■llhoufb for ■ long time BoumelU'i type bu been rqlecled M ■ puielr conventloiul Ifpe. tbott 
■Dd mrnBlTe. Our dnwlng, which U two be«di and ft half In lenclhuid lu hel(bt, U thUor ft 

Flo. 17).—The proportloui of the hone kcd In prollle. 

" The /cny/A of thr map, frwin the point of the haunch U> that of the but- 
tork, f>F, \» alwavN Icn* than that of the head: thin varies fmm 5 to 10 centi- 
metrvH. Ait to its width from one haunch to the other, it often exceeds only very 
little iu length (often it li* cquHl to the latter) (U. and R). 

"The ftvup, DF.eni*!* quite accurately in length four time* in the name 

M. Fmm the point of tbe Iiiitluvk to tlir Inferior part or the ■tlflp-jolnl. FP. 

3d. tn Ihc width i>( the nek at It* Inlbrlur atlachnunl. m>m Itii Inacrtlan Into tbe cbcM to 
tlie orWn of the wltlion. SX. 

3>l. Fnim the In-wrtinn iif the neck Into the cheat lo (he ftnule of the lnwer ]iw. XQ. when 
the head li h»I<l panlli'l In ihe xhiiiilder. 

Ilh. Kinalljr, rniin the nape of the neck lo the noUrll, nil', or lo the commlBure or the ll|s. 

" Thi- measure of mifh-ilf of Ihf hraH will alao guide u« \-ery much in the con- 
struction <if Uie liiiDn', when we kmiw that it n frequently applied to ieTcral of 
hiw part*, — iiiiiiii-ly : 

lU. Pnim the mint pnimliwnt point of the arwle oT tbe lower Jaw to the anlertor prollle of 
Ibc nirrheail. the eye, PQ (thlckne* nf the head). 

M. Vmoi the thruat tu the tuptrliir border of Ihe ucck, behind the piill. QL (alUchmeni of 


Sd. From the inferior part of the knee to the coronet, TT. 
4th. From the base of the hock to the fetlock, VU. 

5th. Finally, from the point of the arm to the articulation of the elbow (approximate length 
of the arm)." 

The proportions of the head are also of groat impoi*tance to artists, 
who, in this respect, depend entirely too much upon the inspiration of 
the moment. We always borrow from M. Duhousset — whose graphic 
precepts appear to us to be the nearest to the real form — the indications 
which he recorded in an unpublished work upon this subject ; we will 
add to them, in passing, our personal researches. 

" Although it is very difficult," says he, " when we speak of meas- 
urements taken upon the living horse, to form anything but approxima- 
tions, still we think we are very near the truth when we give the follow- 
ing results which proceed from our numerous observations. The head 
which we present is that of a horse which is frequently seen as a 
medium between the pleasure-horse and the draught-horse.'' In this 
respect, it will not be uninteresting to accompany with figures the two 
drawings upon which are found the measurements we are speaking of: 


Length. ^B. from the poll to the end of the lips 0.60 m. 

Thlcknen, CA troxn. the angle of the lower Jaw to the anterior face (half a 

head) 0.30 m. 

This line passes through the middle of the eye and is taken perpendicu- 
larly to the profile of the anterior fi&ce. It is seen in many common 
horses, especially In the heavy-draught horses; in finer subjects it is a 
little shorter (G. and B.). 

Width, lU, of the neck in its narrowest part (half a head) 0.30 m. 

It is frequently greater, which is noticed whenever the superior attachments 
of the neck are wanting in neatness of outline. This is seen in lymphatic 
and draught-horses, and in those which are excessively corpulent <G. and B.). 
Distance, OR, ttom the internal angle of the eye to the .superior commissure 

of the nostril (G. and B.) (half a head) 0.30 m. 

It is greater in the common head and in one which is too long. 

Distance, AO, ttom the poll to the internal angle of the eye 0.22 m. 

This distance is equal to the thickness of the head {PQ), taken perpendicu- 
larly to the profile of the anterior face, and passing the level of the maxil- 
lary fissure and the maxillary spine. 
Again, it is equal to QO, fh)m the internal angle of the eye to the maxillary 
fissure ; and to PO, ttom the middle of the face to the commissure of the 
lips (G. and B.\ 
The distance, PE, from the middle of the fkce to the maxillary spine is about 

one-^ixth of the total length of the head 0.10 m. 

The line BE, considered from the end of the lips to the maxillary spine is equal : 

To EF, ttom the maxillary spine to the external auditory hiatus, visible only upon the 

To HO, from the insertion of the throat into the intermaxillary space to the commis- 
sure of the lips (G. and B.). 
To QR. from the maxillary fissure to the superior commissure of the nostril (G. and B.). 
To QB, from the maxillary fissure to the end of the lips (G. and B.). 
To OD, from the internal angle of the eye to the curved portion of the border of the 

lower Jaw, provided the line CI) be in proportion (G. and B.). 
Finally, very often to OH, from the internal anvfle of llie eye to tlie insertion of the 
throat into the intermaxillary space ((J. and B.). 


rtrj frpquenl w)U»lllr la IhU which eiWi between the dlManc**: 
OB, rninilhelnlcni>langleortheeTetolheendorthell|B. 
AH. from the ntF« or Ihe nack to the liuertlan of the thnwl Into tt 


M. DuhouiM'l BiliU that if, in onlrr tii i-(>ntinu« inir exmminatinn, we rcgmnl 
the hi-tiit ill fnint, nf find Jtn greatest width in A B, extreme [Hiintu of the orbi- 
tal anh(-. 


lUi wldtb ii 12 ceDUmetns. 
Itii»lH> equal to: 

AC, fiom one uch to the poll. 

AD, rrom ona arch lo tbe middle of the face. 

DX, rnun the middle of the bee to tlia end ol the lln. 

proportions or the bead vleved In front. 

FroB the auditory hUtiu, o. to the maillliry >plnr, F. It !■ the matt dliUtice m from thia 
llotbeendor tliellpa. £, and •till bell«r to Ihe end uf th? leeLh. 

The Hoe OC. Imm the amtlii'ry hiatua li> the poll, equala otie-ilith of the head, or 10 
laalree; the line All. from the nrbiul arrh la the auditory hUlua. I* a Ultle loncer and 


FR. (liatknce from Ihe mkiUI 

Ing ncxirll (U. and B.). 
FP. Irom the maiUliry Kpliic 
From Ihe audltorr h[Uuii. O, 

□i^n (O. uid B.). 
And P<i. trom Itie aupn-orbll to ihe Inaertlnn oT the ear upon Uie poll (C. and B. ■■ 
From l)ic poll u the Iriem*) angle of Itia tjt, CO, the dliuince !• eqml to that IViiiii it>i> 
laat point lu the cummlBure or the llpa. OT, and rrom the niaillUrr iplne to the aupenur lipi, 
rs (a. and B.). 

The •eparatlOD. TT, of Ihe two comtabaure* of Ihe llpa li almuat the dluance rrom t)ie 
■uperlor bunler of the orbllal arch to the hue of the ear or to the audltorr hlatui. 

In ■ ilale of mt. the exlemal llmli of the separation <if Ihe nntiila doe* ii<it extwl the 
widlh of Ihe knee ; the aaiDe dtatanre often exltta between the baae of the e«ra. In quietude. 
over the rrgion of the poll. We have Inienllontllr Tcpreeenled In the Acuie the laiier dliwle-l 
In dlflerehl illracUoni, In order to ahow that when the external put of the eat la turned bai k- 

liarui.>ni.,us pr..,. 


As to that which oonoems the comparative proportions of man and 
horse^ the reader may gather information from Fig. 130^ which repre- 
sents a man of 1.70 m. mounted upon a horse of 1.60 m. The latter 
is in the position of rassemblery ready to b^in the step.^ 

B. — Angular Relations of the Osseous Segments. 

Besides the relations of length, width, and thickness which exist 
between the different r^ions of the body, it is also important to know 
the relations of direction possessed by the different bony r^ons super- 
posed one upon the other to form the members. These relations, as 
we have seen, have an influence upon the production of speed and force. 

From this mode of superposition, angles are produced upon the 
course of the various bones, whose summit always corresponds to the 
centre of movement of an articulation, and whose sinus is either in the 
anterior or the posterior part of the particular region. 

But as the bones of the skeleton have a variable external configura- 
tion, and as their aoda of figure does not always terminate in an artic- 
ular centre, — witness the femur, whose sur&ces of contact with the 
pelvis and the tibia are situated internal to and behind the median line 
of the bone, — ^it follows that we can logically determine the angles of 
locomotion only after having previously ascertained the dxia of move- 
ment of each of their branches. Now, the latter are obtained by simply 
uniting to each other the articular centres, which are at the same time 
the centres of rotation of the said branches. All researches not founded 
upon this experimental mode are therefore at once condemned as being 
vitiated by arbitrariness and error. The analysis of the following 
theory will give the proof. 

"Rieory of the Similitude of the Angles and the Parallel- 
ism of the Bony Segments. — More than half a century ago, in 
1835, Captain Morris,' later commanding general of the Imperial Guard, 
published a pamphlet in which was expressed the opinion that in all 
well-formed horses the same articular angles had a uniform opening or 
size and the osseous segments inclined in the same direction^ — were parallel. 
Again, these bony segments were inclined at an angle of 45 degrees to 
the horizon. Whence it follows that the head, the shoulder, the thigh, 
and the pastern on one hand ; the neck, the humerus, the croup, and 
the 1^ on the other, in order to combine the conditions of beauty, were 

1 For farther detaili, see K Duhounet, ^ude tar lea proportions du cheval, d'aprte son 
(Mntore, in lUuBtnition, noe. des lS-25, AoQt et ler Septembre, 1883. 

* Oapitaine Morris, Esaai sur I'Ezt^rieur du cheval, Paris, 1835, ches Mme. Ewtard, rue de 


regarded as having the samv iiu'linutinn, the tame {laniHelisiii, and, 
finally, forminfr, two by two, angleti of 90 degrees. 

Such, in MiilMtance, is Morris's theon', by the aid of which he was 
led to coniitnict the horse whose tyjie he gives at the head of hit) treatise, 

and which wt' ('<inoi<kT it our duly to n>)iruduce witli the most senipu- 
louK wcumc-y (Fig. I HI). It in >>nffii-ient I'uriu to look at this drawing 
to sif that till- author hiini^cH* duly a|>])iv<-iat«d tlit.' niaxim of De«- 
lurtiti, which he n><'oniui<'ndM to the attention of his nwlers : " He who 


wishes to know the truth should, at least once in his life, doubt all 
that he has been taught." It will be acknowledge! that the general 
might have bei»n better inspired ; not only was he satisficnl to doubt, 
but he never learned what he represented ! 

Still, it is upon this hoi'se that he traced his geometricral lines. It 
is tnie that he himself admits that the directions considered are nofr 
strictly those of the bones, but those of the regions whose base they form. 
With such a reservation we mav conceive that the most inventive mind 
has a free field and may persuade itself into believing in the objective 
reality of its conceptions, whatever may be their exaggerations. 

We would not oblige the I'eader to formulate an opinion \i\yon the 
theory of the. similitude of the angles and the parallelism of the bony 
segments if the views of General Morris had not found partisans, even 
among men of great merit His arguments in favor of his doctrine are 
(the expression is not too strong) absolutely unintelligible. As to the 
theory of the similitude of the angles, taken in itself, it has no scien- 
tific value, since common sense and facts are opposed to it. Its only 
merit consists in having drawn horsemen's attention to a question 
formerly completely ignored. 

The most judicious criticism of it that we know of is that of our colleague 
of the school of Toulouse, Professor Neumann.^ We will review his principal 
arguments, which, in all points, are the same as ours. 

And first of all, since the ideal conditions of speed imply certain angles and 
certain inclinations of the bones, how is it that these conditions are applicable 
only to the horse and not to other animals as swift as the horse, for example, the 
hare, the dog, the gazelle, etc. ? Wtience comes this exception to the laws of 
nature, which always show us organisms adapted in the same manner to the 
same needs? It being granted that long members and a tall form are especially 
necessary to produce speed, in order that they may be able to move extensively 
under the body; it being granted, on the other hand, as a deduction of this prin- 
ciple, that animals with long members have all their articular angles very open, 
we do not see why the horse, so very similar to them with regard to locomotion, 
should have been endowed with a particular and contrary disposition residing in 
the closing of his angles and the parallelism of his bony segments. A priori^ the 
theory of Morris presents itself, then, for examination as an exception to the 
natural laws of speed, which should already arouse our apprehensions against its 

Let us pursue the purely theoretical objections which result from its appli- 
cation to the construction of the horse ; this M. Neumann has very fortunately 
attempted ; we will resume our colleague's reasoning and confirm it with our own 

In subjects which are well formed the lenjrth of the anterior and the 

* G. Neomanii, Des aplombs chez le cheval, ia Journal des vtHorinaires militaires, t. viii. 
p. 8^2. 


p<Ml«rior membeni in about equal; the excew of the height at the withera OTer 
that at the croup results mwt usually from the pmjection of the spinal apophfvet 
above the scapular cartilages. 

This bein); admitted, let ua represent (Fig. 132) the anttrior member of a 
hone uf medium height with the oblique long icgme&ts inclined 46 degreci to 


lie horiion, as affinned by General Morris. Again, let us give to each segment 
B medium length, such as has been determined by the concordant observations 
f MM. Colin, Neumann, Lemoigne, and our own, — namely : 

Vor the ihonlder 0.41 m. 

VorthoMin OJSim, 

Vor the foreann O.S6m. 

Vor the knee 0.05 m. 

Vortheeanon 0.24 m. 

And Ibr the phalangal segment 0.17 m. 

Then project each region upon the vertical line ox, which meann nothing 
le than the height of the member above the ground. 

Finallyy calculate the sides a, 6, and c, which belong to the right-angled 
30oelei triangles having for hypothenuses the recognized length of the shoulder, 
« arm, and Uie phalanges. 

We will have : 

a = -i/^i^ = 0.28991 m. 
^ 2 

IVom which results 

2a« = (0.41)». 

Ldkewise, we will have : 

ft = -^^^!^ = 0.21920 ra. and c = V^" !J^- = 0.11313 m. 

Add the values of a, 6, and c thus obtained to those of the vertical segments 
hich are prcgected in their actual length ; add to them 0.12 m. for the projec- 
on of the cartilage of prolongment, the thickness of the shoe, the hoof, the 
cartilages, the skin, etc., and we will obtain the following results : 


Shoulder (a) 0.28991 m. 

Arm (5) 0.21920 m. 

Ibnann 0.96000 m. 

Oupoe 0.05000 m. 

Melacarpiu 0.24000m. 

PhaUnget(c) 0.11313 m. 

OutlUge of prolongation, shoe, hoof, etc 0.12000 m. 

Total height of the member 1.392'2I m. 

The same calculations are applied to the posterior member according to the 
allowing medium length (Fig. 133) : 

Hium 0.2<>m. 

Femur 0.39 m. 

TlbU 0.36 m. 

Tanus 0.08 m. 

Metatamu 0.28 m. 

Phalanges 0.17 m. 




PelvlB (a) 0.28SS4 m. 

Thigh (6) 0.27675 m. 

Leg(r) 0.25455 m. 

Tarsus O.O800Um. 

MeUtaimu 028000 m. 

Digital region 0^2020 m. 

Vertical diatanoe between the summit of the croup and that of the 

haunch 0.09000 m. 

Thickness of the iuterarticular meuisci, the cartUaget, the skin, 

the shoe, the hoof 0.06000 m. 

Total height of the member 1 JMS4 m. 

Whence it followB that if the locomotory segmentB of the hone were reallj 
inclined, as General Morris asBerts, a subject of medium iue would measure only 
1.39 m. at the withers and only 1.26 m. at the croup. Besides, the summit of 
his withers would be 12 centimetres higher than that of the croup! Medium 
horses so small, or withers so prominent, are no longer seen I What is the cf>n- 
elusion? Evidently that the articular segments are not inclined 45 degrees to 
the horizon and that the angles are more open than the theory asserts. 

On the other hand, M. Neumann adds, " Since some kind of mathematicjil 
accuracy is the principal merit of this conception, is it not strange that, in a 
practical question, ideal /inen, which are left to the appreciation of those who 
wish to apply them, are established at« a foundation ? For, if the direction of 
the region by itself be considered, it is seen — to speak of the shoulder alone — 
that this direction may vary from five to six degrees upon the same subject, 
according to the line which one wishes to obtain. Each region is not so well 
delineated. It does not offer points of delimitation so precise and so invariable 
that the iine$ which may be taken as a basis shall be the same in all horses 
which are made an object of comparison ; and, if these Ones are not the same, 
of what use can they be in that comparative examination of the subjects which 
is necessary to the establishing of a theory? 

"An oblique croup will necessarily correspond to an oblique shoulder; a 
horizontal cnmp to a straight shoulder; so that draught-horses which, in the 
opinion of connoisseurs, would be well adapted to their service, would present, 
on the contrary, a very defective conformation, if such a theory was to be the 
guide ; to an oblique croup (that of the race-horse) would correspond an eibowed 
hock (that of the draught-horse) ; the anterior and the posterior pasterns should 
have the same direction, whilst it is well known that the latter are nearly always 
straighter than the former ; and many other details upon which we do not wish 
to insiHt." 

Thus, from a purely theon*ti(iil jwint of view, the c^onception of 
the sitnilitiido of the angles and the iiarallelism of the bony Hegmentn 
i.** unsup|x>rtable, nor is it less «<) if we endeavor to verify it experi- 

III order to do this, as we have said at the Ix^inniiig, it is necessary 
to det<Tiiiine with the greatest care tlie external landmarks of the axes 
or (t* ntr(»8 of mtation an>uiid which the osseous levers turn. 


The Determination of the Articiilar Angles. — Several at- 
tempts have already been made to gain a knowledge of the articular 
angles of the horse. Vallon * and Daudet' have, indeed, indicated in 
their works angular openings in opposition to the ideas of General 
Morris, in vogue at the time among all horsemen. But these observers 
no doubt lacked suiBcient instruments, judging from the conclusions 
to which they were led, and which otherwise fail in accuracy. They do 
not relate in their writings either their raethcKl or the class of horses 
they experimented upon. Some of their id(»as are even so far from 
being true, that we are tempted to believe that in many cases they de- 
pended only upon the accuracy of their eyesight. However it may be, 
and though their researches were of so little account, it was already 
praiseworthy to invalidate in their time, as they have done, the classical 
opinions of the day. 

In this way they made it easier for their followers to obtain the 
general acceptation and the ultimate triumph of ideas for which they 
had^ so to speak, paved the way. 

Little by little the theory of Morris fell into disrepute, unable as it 
i¥as to stand the slightest investigation, and it would have remained 
thus if some observers of merit had not very recently attempted to set 
it up again. 

And yet, as early as 1865, Professor Alexis Lemoigne,* of Milan, 
published his researches upon the articular angles, with the intention 
of determining the direction of the final resultant of the horse's efforts 
in the act of pulling. This is what they consisted of: 

Our learned colleague, in his measurements, made use of the tape- 
measure, the hippometer, the plumb-line, and the goniometer, provided 
"with a spirit-level. 

First of all he sought to establish with great accuracy, upon the 
skeleton, the axis of rotation of the bones, — that is to say, the centres 
of movement forming the mathematical summit of the angles of loco- 
motion. We have, on our side, verified M. Lemoigne's principles ; they 
are absolutely precise. Here is the rSsiimS. The reader can more easily 
follow this review by consulting Fig. 134, which represents the copy of 
a photograph of Fitz-Gladiator. 

a. Anterior Member : 

let. Seapuh-humeral Axis, — Its point of external localization, upon the living 
tnimaly is situated about at the level of the convexity of the great trochanter. 

> A. Vallon, Conn d'bippologie. Saumur, 1865. 

< Dandet, TralM de locomotion du cheval relatif k r<!'quitation, Sauraur. 1864. 
* Alexis Lemolfne. in Qiomale delle razze degli animali utili e di raedicina.Teterinaria, 
fiude. 11 et 12, Naples, 1865 ; ibid., in Kecueil dc m^ecine v<^tc'rinaire, ann^ 1877, pp. 81 et 208. 



2d. Humtro-radiai Axi*.-~-Pomt ot external Icx^liialioii : at the humcnl id- 
Mrtion of the exIeniKl lateral ligament of thia articulation. 

8d. Radio-earpal ^.rii,— Puint of est«rnBl locatitatinn : a centimetre below 
the external and inferior tubero«ity of tbe radiu*. 

4th. Mctaearpo-phalangtal Axi*. — Point of external local iiation : at the au- 
perior inaertioQ of tbe corresponding lateral ligament of the artinilation. 

We have intentionally omitted, tm of little importance to our aubject, the 
intercarpal and the interphalangal axee alao established by M, Lemoigne. 

Flu. 13t.— The 

■nilM npon ■ itnwltif trtni a plMMompb of FiU-GUdlUDr. 

b. Pooterlor Member: 

Ut. (.itTo-frmaml Arif. — Point of external localiiation : a little below and 
behind the convrxity nf the trochanter. 

2d. Fftntiro-libinl Arlt.—Vinal nf cxtcnial localiution : a liUle below tbe au- 
prrinr inwrtiiin of (ho iiirrrKponding lateral ligament of thin articulation. 

:til. T'hin-liinal or Metalnrmil ArU. — Point of external localialion : centre of 
the aHtragalua. 


4th« MdatarBa'phdUmgal Axis, — Point of ex- 
ternal localization : at the superior insertion of the 
corresponding lateral ligament of the articulation. 

All these points of localization — the points where 
the centre of rotation can be located externally — can 
with a little practice be easily recognized in the liv- 
ing animal. But it is indispensable that this habit 
should be acquired by numerous experiments ; other- 
wise, those who explore and measure are exposed to 
almost inevitable mistakes. Nor are all subjects 
suitable for such an experiment; there are some 
that must be absolutely rejected : those whose state 
of obesity conceals not only from sight but also 
from touch those external points of which we have 
been speaking. 

These restrictions being established, we will 
suppose that upon a chosen subject all the articular 
centres have been marked with a colored pencil or 
chalk. In order to obtain the imaginary axes of 
movement of the osseous levers it will be sufficient 
to join these points by straight lines. 

This direction should be determined accurately 
in a special manner for the shoulder, the coxa, and 
the phalanges, which are connected with only one 
articular centre. All the other re- 
gions are indeed placed between two 
of these centres, and therefore as soon 
as the latter are discovered their 
direction is known. 

It is M. Lemoigne's opinion, as 
well as ours, that the line of direc- 
tion of the shoulder starts from the 
scapulo-humeral centre, and supe- 
riorly divides the dorsal border of the 
scapula at about two centimetres be- 
hind the line of the scapular spine. 

That of the ilium extends from 
the coxo-femoral centre to the angle 
of the haunch, which it divides in 
its middle. 

Finally, that of the phalanges 
extends from the metacarpo- or 
metatarso-phalangal centre to the 
ground, and remains almost parallel 
to the anterior profile of the digital 


The animal being placed and 
maintained in its normal equi- 


- M tat 

Fkj. 135. 

1. I^n^c toise 
use<I as a compass 
of thickness. 

2. Compass of 
thickness prop- 
erly so called. 











librium, the top of the goniometer, M. Lemoigne says, is piai'ed in 
juxta]M>sition ** to the external determining point of one of the axi»s of 
rotation ; an arm of the instrument is directed in such a manner tliat 
its line of direction {lasses through the external determining |>oint of 
the axis of rotation which is immediately su|)erior ; the other arm is 
placed in a jXTfectly horizontal direction, — which is ascertaine<l l>y 
means of a spirit-level, — and the degrees of the angle thus fornuHl 
Ix'tween the horizontal and the osseous segment whose inclinati<»n is 
desired are then counted. . . ." 

By taking these precautions, and by the greatest cure, M. lA*nu»igiic 
has been able to determine the following figures, which represent, u|Min 
fourteen subje<'ts, the mean of the inclinations of the osseous Ievt»rs 
and the angles which they form. 




Iliac. . . 
Kcmond . 
Tibial . . 









• • • • • • 












S«'iipiil<)-hiimeral . . 
Iliinu*n»rndial . . . 
Il><>-K'n)i»nii . . . . 
F<*mon»-Hbliil . . . . 
TlbiiHiiu'tiitMnuil . . . 
M ftatanw •■ ptialaiiKal 









, 157 




! 170 




1 lao 















\Vt», too, have attt^mpt^l io determine the standard im^linations of 
the articular M'gmetits of the honn*, ainl this we have* done U{Nin nearly 
a hiindre<l suhjcnis of diffen^nt (*onfoniiati(ms. 

For thi.»< |)ur|M»si» we have ct»nstni<'ted (Fig. V^b) a toiW (1) and a 
romjHtJw for metuniriiif/ fhicknvHM (2). Eai*h of thes<» instruments is 
<i>m|H».s<Hl of a stnmg, s<}uan' rule Inuring two graduations disiMN^Hl in 
an invers4» iM^UM^ fn)m cwh other, U|mjii which glide's hy g(»ntle friction 
a gauge, // ainl h, whi<h may \h* held in fxisition l>y means of a 
pnssun'-siMi'w. By raisin»r the nnl .1, the largi» nile forms a standard. 


and is used to measure the height ; by turning the gauge B, after having 
completely withdrawn it, it be(x>mes a i^>iu)>as3 of tliickncss to measure 
the great lengths. As to the cumjiasH of thickiii-sii {irojieitv so i-alled, 
merely turning it will transform it into a small toise. 

On the other hand, in tninneotion with M. Vignardou, principal 
of the department of physics and oheniistiy at the Alfiirt school, we 
have constructed a goniometer by tlic iise of which vt^ can (lis|H>nse 
with the spirit-level, an instrument very ditticnll to iisl' on an irritable 

Suppose, for example, we ant measuring (Fig. l-}6) the inclination 
of the segment, AB, upon the horizon, XY. To do this, it will be 
sufficient to estimate the 
angle, BAP, formed by this 
segment with the vertical 
line, and deduct 90 d^rees 
from the angle obtained. It 
is quite easy to arrive at 
this result by employing the 
following instrument, which 
we intend to designate by 
the name arthrogoniomdei; 
on account of its use. 

It is composed (Fig, 13H) of 
a compaw of precision, made of 
wood, whose brauchcti are 0.65 m. 
long, and which at the same 
time is used as a compaw of 

Upon one of these brnDchcn 
a semicircular piece of copper, 
very accurately graduated, well 
centred, and having a radius of 
0.20 m., is fixed by menns of 
movable screws. The centre of fi" "*. 

this circle carre8i>0Dds to the 

axis of rotation of the branches, an axiti u|ion which a xniall metallic rod 
0.10 m. long is screwed perpend icu In rly, ujinn whicli Irecly slides a hollow 
cylinder supporting a plumh-line. 

lu order to use the arthrDgnniometer. vv xtunil the Ixime in his normal 
equilibrium, and then place the articulation of the instrument over an articular 
centre, as, for example, the Bcapulo-humeral (Fig. 137). The observer stations 
himself about fifty centimetreH from the nniniHl ; he in careliil not to touch the 
latter, and recommends the asHistant to hold liin hiind over the eye of ihe cur- 
raponding aide, bo thai the hozne nmy not be rriirhteiieil by the v 


About being made, This dooe, the operator places the instrument in such ■ 
poxition that the branch of the compam to which the hair-circlc in fai-tenoil is 
perferlly tangent to the plumb-line. Then he gently moves the other hram-h 
until it baa the direction of the oMseoui s^ment the inclination of which he 
desires to obtain. Having again proved the correct position of the apparatus, 
be reads upon the hatf-circle the value »f the angle contained between the two 
branches, and deduclJi 90 degreex from thin angle to obtain the desired inclina- 

ir, on the contrary, we Hjmply dexire to measure an articular angle, the 
plumb-line is needless. It is unfastened from the sliding cylinder, and the two 

[he ■nlcular adilvo. 

iirni- tif ihi' nrihni^T'mi'imeli'r iin- plarnl in the prolonpution of the twi> axes 
of niiiv'i'uii'nt whriM- rii'iiiimtion we diwire to ilelcrniine. Fur the nicta(iir|H>- and 
iiieUilarwr-pliHliiuinil iingluii uii iinliiiiiry conipam is uw<l, which is afterwanls 
npplieil ii)H>ii ill) iippriipriule pmlnit-tor in onler to obtain the angle cimtainci). 
Althouf;!), in ri-ulity, the iiielucurpun and the iiieliilar>>us are not alHuilutely ver- 


ticaly a sufficient approximation is nevertheless obtained by considering them so 
to determine the inclination of the anterior and the posterior phalanges. 

By operating in this way and with great care upon a large number 
of subjects destined for different services, but of irreproachable con- 
formation for their kind, we have succeeded in obtaining the angles 
and the inclinations given in the following table : 



Dbsxomation of thk Angles. 


Value OF Ancle 


Of the Superior 

Of the Inferior 

Anterior Mtmber. 


50° to 56° 


30° to 35° 

66° to 70° 




65° to 70° 




140° to 145° 


110° to 115° 

145° to 150° 

155° to 160° 




Posterior Mombor. 




Notwithstanding the improvement which is obtained from the em- 
ployment of the arthrogoniometer, the measurement of all the angles 
of locomotion in the same horse was none the less a long, delicate, and 
often dangerous operation. It was necessary to place the horse in 
equilibrium, and thus maintain him during the entire duration of the 
experiment, — that is to say, for nearly an hour. 

In order to gain time and operate with more accuracy, we have 
recently conceived the idea of applying photography to the measure- 
ment of the articular angles. This proceeding, which is more precise, 
more convenient, also gives more security to the obser\'cr.* 

It consists in this : 

Wafers (white or black, according to the color of the horse) are fastened to 
the skin over each articular centre. Others are also placed on the withers, the 
haunch, and the hoofs, which are used as marks to indicate the direction of the 
extreme segments of the members (shoulder, croup, phalanges). Different 
measurements are then taken : the height at the withers and at the croup, the 
length of the body, length of the head, etc. 

This being done, the horse is j)laced in the direction of an axis marked out 

* G. Barrier, Sur un uouveau proc^'<]i> de mensuration des angles artieulaires, in Bulletin de 
IaSoc. cent. demM. Y^t^r. (Rocueil de mMecinc vOt^riuaire, ann<^e 1885, p. 224). 


upon the gp^und. On the other hand, a photographic apfuiratuH is Htationod 
upon another axin perpendicular to the fint Ar Boon an the animal in placHwl in 
a gcKxl position, and his nieml)erH are in their normal equilibrium, the phot«»- 
graph M inHtantaniH)U8ly taken. 

The photographic proof thus obtained w in some meaHure a mathematical 
reducticm of the silhouette, or the profile of the i»ubjec*t, and the nieaMurenient2( 
previoHsly taken u|M>n the latter, then cr>mpare<l to the correi«]N>nding dimenHioan 
of the photograph, show exactly the ratio of the reduction efltH*tc<l. To avoid 
the causes of ern>r inherent to the slight alteration of forms due to the len^i-s, 
the photographic apparatus is placed at a certain distance, in such a manner as 
to obtain as small an image as |Kissible. 

Up<m this image the wafers serve as so many points of determinatitm (»r 
landmarks which it will be sufficient to join by straight lines to obtain the rt^al 
direi'tion of the ossinms segments. It only remains now to estimate with a pnn 
tract^ir the inclination of each line, as well as the angles which are foniuHl hy 
their union. With this new process we can measure quietly, at our ease, without 
fatigue, without <langer, and whenever convenient. The measurements are all 
comparable, since all the angles of the same (iubjei*t have been photograplunl at 
the same time, and since on different horses we operate constantly under the same 

The results obtained are very analogous to those already indicated. 

What we have said with regard to each region, (^«)nccming the 
oeeeous inelination and the angular n^ations, excuses us from entering 
here into more minute details relative to the numerous variations which 
are observeil in subjects according to their adaptation. 

We will not 8)M>ak of draughtrhorsciii u.s(*d for slow work, in which 
the serviiv at a walk rcquin?s only bulk and muscle ; tlieir scapulo- 
humeral and coxo-femoral angles are always more o]M*n ; the (»tlu*r8y 
on the contrarv, are mon» closed. When the researclu^s of M. I jo- 
moigne apiM^antl, Prof*cssor Neumann was the only one who submitted 
them to a judicious analysis; and as the criticisms which he o])p(»sed 
to them have un im])ortant value and may iH|ualIy (KX'ur to the mind 
of the nwler, it is our duty to give an a<x*ount of them, iiwsmuch as 
they apply to us also who have, sinci^ tlie beginning, sided with our 
Milan colleague. 

M. Ncmuann has reas4)mHl u|)on these things in a purely math- 
ematictil light, and, in this res|>ect, no objix'tion can lie made to his 
di*ductions. But the case is cntirelv different if tlw n'st^n'hes ni 
M. Ijcmoigne and our own an» «)nsidenHl as a I'rri^ at'curnte means 
of ol)taining intormati<m u|Mm the different inclinati(»ns of the lN>nes 
of fast hone's. It is no long<'r a problem to know if these in- 
<'linations tun In* calculatc<l with strict pretMsion, a precision which 
it is im|Nissibh* t4) niili/i' in the resean*hes which have animal 
mc<'hanics for their 4)bjcrt ; it practically n-solvi's itwlf into this: // 


being granted thai the angular relations of the ohscouh level's have an 
immediate influence upon the development of speed (we think that we 
have shown this d propos of the regions), is it possible to estimate these 
relations with more accuracy than a single glance of the eye would give, 
and, this being so, are the centres of rotation obtained by the process 
indicated above sufficiently precise to allow comjmrative observations to 
be made upon different subjects and afterwards to reason in a generat 
manner upon the results obtained f 

Well, there is no doubt but the question, brought down to these 
limits, is susceptible of a [M)sitive solution ; and however approxima- 
tive this solution may be, it will always be better than the state of 
ignorance in which the observer was previously, or than the often 
erroneous appreciations suggested by our senses. Let us see, besides, 
the criticisms of M. Neumann, which, without contradiction, we our- 
selves would have presented if our colleague had not previously 
formulated them.* 

First, it is certainly not demonstrated that the articular angles are 
always of the same geometrical kind for the same bone ; that they 
possess a centre and only one; that the position of this centre is 
always the same in relation with the extenial surface of the bone; 
finally, that the supposed axis of rotation is perpendicular to a cross- 
section of the latter. Nor is it established, either, that the axes pass- 
ing through the centres of rotation, perpendicularly to the plane of 
movement, invariably mei^i the same anatomical jwints of the external 
surface of the bones. All this is true, but the variations among dif- 
ferent animals are less marked than M. Neumann seems to believe. 
We will go furtlier, for we have sought to determine it, and say that 
these variations, already so minute in the hybrids (mule, hinny), or in 
subjects of the same genus (ass), are recognized witli extreme difficulty 
and are even unappreciable, so feeble are they, among tlie representa- 
tives of the same species. Therefore, although these objections are 
applied to possible and even prol)able errors, tliey ai'e of little value as 
concerns definite results, and may be neglei^ted without great incon- 

This is not the case in the search for the points of external data, 
or location of the axes of rotation in the living animal. Errors of 
one, two, or three centimetres, either alx)ve or below the point indi- 
cated, are easily committed, which lead without a doubt to solutions 

1 G. Neumann, Quelques observationK stir la tnocanique animale, k propat des recherches 
de M. Alexia Lemoigne, in Kcciu'il de luodeciiie vOU'Tinaire, aniuH; 1>^77, p. 48*j. 


entirely erroneous. This is not, however, an irrefutable argument. 
At every moment, in physiological experiments, we find ourselves fatv 
to face with such difficulties, and notwithstanding the failures, notwith- 
standing the errors every day, these experiments are renewed, and sci- 
ence constantly goes on reaping benefits from them. Must we say, then, 
that this idea should be renounced ? Must we reject beforehand and 
with determination the facts acquired for this reason alone, that tliey 
may have been badly collected, wrongly studied, wrongly interpreted, 
or that they are simply approximative? Certainly not; this would 
prove a deplorable state of the scientific mind. 

Far from us be the thought of drawing this conclusion from the 
criticisms of M. Neumann. Our distinguished colleague (and be is to 
be praised for this) has signalized the danger ; he has appealed to cor- 
roborating observations ; he has shown and demonstrated with proof 
the inevitable errors into which investigators incompletely prepared 
would fall, and we cannot too warmly approve his aim. All eyen 
are not apt to see well, all hands are not skilled in exploring, all 
horses are not suitable for this kind of study. Let it be well noted 
that if the results obtained by two observers do not agree in an alMo- 
lute manner, if even their differences ap))ear exaggerated, it is not leas 
certain that these results, for each of them, can still l)e compared, for 
the chances are great that whatever error is committed is rejieated 
everywhere the same way. In M. Lemoigne's opinions and in ours 
the differences are insignificant ; we are in accord as to his articular 
angles. In table B ({lage 377) we gave only the angular relations of 
the bonc*s in last horses, — that is to say, in animals with an oblique