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Full text of "Extinct birds : an attempt to unite in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times : that is, within the last six or seven hundred years : to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction"

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EXTINCT BIRDS. 



i 



This copy is No. '*-'^' of the limited edition of 
joo copies for the British Empire, of which 280 arc for 
sole, the names of Subscribers being registered at our office. 

Signed '^Z^^21l^tL-^:^ll^^ 

Paternoster Row, 
London. 



EXTINCT BIRDS. 



An attempt to unite in one volume a short account of 

those Birds which have become extinct in historical 

times — that is, within the last six or seven 

hundred years. To which are 

added a few which still 

exist, but are on 

the verge of 

extinction. 



BY 



The Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, 
Ph. D., F.Z.S. 



With 45 Coloured Plates, embracing 63 subjects, and 
other illustrations. 



LONDON. 

HuTCHiNso.\ & Co., Paternoster Row, E.C. 
1907 



LONDON ; 

A. CHRIS. FOWLER, PRINTER, 

TENTER STREET, 

MOORFIELDS, 

E.C. 



ii tJil^y 






PREFACE. 

"1 "1 THEN I decided to read a paper before the Ornithological 
Congress of 1905 on Extinct and Vanishing Birds, I found it 
necessary to illustrate my paper by a number of drawings. 
These drawings roused special interest among those who listened to 
my lecture, and I was asked by many if I could not see my way to 
publish the lecture and drawings, in book form, as these plates were 
far too numerous for the proceedings of the Congress. After some 
hesitation I determined to do this, greatly owing to the persuasion 
of the late Dr. Paul Leverkiihn. The preparation of a book required 
considerably more research than the lecture, and therefore my readers 
will find, in the following pages, a totally different account to that 
in the lecture, as well as corrections and numerous additions. The 
lecture itself has been published in the " Proceedings of the IVth 
International Ornithological Congress." 

I wish to thank very heartily all those of my ornithological 
friends, who have kindly helped me with the loan of specimens or 
otherwise, and especially Dr. H. O. Forbes, Dr. Scharff, Professor 
Dr. K. Lampert, Dr. O. Finsch, Professor Dr. A. Koenig, Dr. Kerbert, 
Mr. Fleming, Dr. von Lorenz, and others. 

WALTER ROTHSCHILD. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE study of the forms of life no longer existing on the earth, from 
the scanty remains preserved to us, has provolied a very great 

interest almost from the commencement of historical times. The very 
small portion of this vast field I am treating of in the following pages has 
a special attraction, as it deals to a great extent with forms familiar in a 
living state to our immediate forefathers and even to some of ourselves. 
Although I have here arranged the species systematically, they fall into two 
distinct categories, namely those known externally as well as internally, and 
those of which we know bones and egg-shells only. Under the former 
category might be included those merely known from descriptions or figures in 
ancient books, as well as those of which specimens exist. In the present 
work several plates have been reconstructed from such descriptions in order 
to give some idea of their probable appearance. There is considerable 
difference of opinion as to the approximate date of the disappearance of 
many of the species known from bones dug from deposits which have been 
variously determined as pleistocene and post-pleistocene. It seems to me 
that this problem can never be entirely solved, but the significant fact remains, 
that while many bones of these species in one locality have been collected 
in the kitchen-middens of the former inhabitants, in other localities the same 
bones occur in what seem to be much older formations. 

In view of this and kindred facts, I have mentioned many species 
which some ornithologists will probably consider outside the range of the 
present treatise, viz., birds which have become extinct in the last seven- or 
eight-hundred years. Taking my first category, viz., those species whose 
exterior is more or less known, our knowledge is very variable in scope; 
about some we have a very full and even redundant literature, such as the 
Great Auk, the Labrador Duck, and Notornis, while of others, such as most 
of the extinct Parrots from the West Indies, the "Giant" of Mauritius, the 
" Blue Bird " of Bourbon, and so forth, we have the very scantiest 
knowledge. Even in the times of Leguat and Labat there must have been 
many species, now extinct, of which no mention has ever been made, for 



viii INTRODUCTION 

these old writers only mentioned such species which impressed themselves 
on their memories either from their size, peculiar shape, beauty of plumage, 
or excellence and usefulness for food — in fact the culinary property of the 
various birds seems to have been their principal interest. One of the most 
interesting phenomena connected with recently extinct birds is the 
resemblance of the fauna of the Mascarene Islands and that of the Chatham 
Islands in the possession of a number of large flightless Rails, though the 
significance of this fact has been much exaggerated. 

On the whole, this book is confined to species actually known to be 
extinct, but a few are included of which a small number is still known to 
exist, because firstly there seems no doubt that they will vanish soon, and 
secondly, as in the case of Notornis, it was necessary to clear up certain 
misconceptions and contradictory statements. In the case of a few species 
believed to be quite extinct, it is possible that some individuals may still 
exist in little known parts of their range, while on the other hand it is 
more than likely that several of the species referred to in my lecture (Proc. 
Orn. Congress pp. 191-207, 1907) as threatened with destruction, have 
already ceased to live. This may also be the case with some birds not 
alluded to at all. 

In several instances I have treated of extinct flightless species under 
genera including existing species capable of flight. This may appear to be 
inconsistent, seeing that I maintain Notornis separate from Porphyria, but, 
while not considering flightlessness in itself a generic character, the great 
development of the wing-coverts and the modification of the toes appear of 
sufficient generic value in this case. I know that several of the most 
eminent ornithologists of the day, among them Dr. Sharpe, diff^er from me, 
and are convinced that the loss of the power of flight is so profound a 
modification, that it is imperative that we should treat it as sufficient 
for generic distinction. 

While agreeing that many genera are founded on much less striking 
modifications, I cannot concur in this opinion, for, unless the loss of the 
power of flight is also accompanied by other changes, in some cases it is 
difficult to find at first sight even specific diff^erences other than the 
aborted wings. 

The cause of recent extinction among birds is in most cases due 
directly or indirectly to man, but we also have instances of birds becoming 
extinct for no apparent reason whatever. 

Man has destroyed, and is continually destroying species directly, either for 



INTRODUCTION ix 

food or for sport, but also in many other ways he contributes to their destruction. 
Some species have been exterminated by the introduction of animals of prey, 
such as rats, cats, mongoose, etc., and we know that also the acclimatisation of 
other birds, such as the mynah, etc., has proved to be harmful to the native birds. 
Again we find that the introduction of domestic creatures or others kept 
as pets has brought diseases which may prove fatal to the indigenous fauna. 
Another means by which man causes immense destruction, is by destroying the 
natural habitat of various species. By cutting down or burning the forests, 
prairies, or scrub, and by bringing the land under cultivation, man indirectly kills 
off a species through starvation, from extermination of certain insects or plants 
on which it depends for food. Many species, such as the Moas, were evidently 
greatly reduced in numbers by cataclysms of Nature, such as volcanic outbreaks, 
earthquakes, floods, bush fires, etc., and then died out from what appears only 
explicable by the natural exhaustion of their vitality. The chief cause of the 
extermination of the Moas was undoubtedly their slaughter by the Maoris for 
food, but in several inaccessible parts of the interior large numbers of Moa 
remains have been found which undoubtedly had died for no apparent reason. 

This cause also seems to be the only explanation of the dying out of such 
birds as Aechmorhynchus, Chaetoptila, Camptolaimus and others. 

The melancholy fact however remains that man and his satellites, cats, 
rats, dogs, and pigs are the worst and in fact the only important agents of 
destruction of the native avifaunas wherever they go. 

I have not included in the body of this work the fossil species from the 
pleistocene of Europe, Asia, Australia and America, as I believe that these 
belonged to an avifauna of an epoch considerably anterior to those attributed to 
the pleistocene of New Zealand and the adjacent islands, as well as that of the 
Mascarenes and Madagascar. I, however, give here the list of the species 
described from the above mentioned regions which I have been able to find in 
our literature, to serve as a guide to those who may think I ought to have 
included them in the work itself. 

Sfrix melifensis Lydekker .... .... .... Malta. 

Vultur melitensis Lydekker .... .... Malta. 

Pelecanus proaviis De Vis.... .... .... Queensland. 

Phalacrocorax sp. Lydekker .... .... New Zealand. 

Aythya robusta De Vis .... .... .... Queensland. 

Alias elapsa De Vis .... .... .... Queensland. 

Anas benedeni Sharpe .... .... .... Belgium. 

Alopochen pugil Winge Brazil. 



INTRODUCTION 



Dendrocygna validipennis (De Vis) 
Branta hypsibata Cope 
Branta propinqua Schufeldt 
Anser scaldii Van Beneden 

Anser sp. Lydekker 

Anser coudoni Schufeldt .... 
Cygnus sp. Lydekker 
Cygniis falconeri Parker .... 
Palaeopelargus nob ills De Vis 
Prociconia lydekkeri Ameghino 
Platibis subienuis De Vis .... 
Grus proavus Marsh 
Grus melitensis Lydekker .... 
Grus turf a Portis 

Grus primigenia Milne Edwards .... 
Fulica prior De Vis .... 
Fulica pisana Port'is 
Porphyria mackintoshi De Vis 
Gallinula strenuipes De Vis 
GaUinula peralata DeVis.... 
Microtribonyx effluxus De Vis 
Progura gallinacea De Vis 
Coliimba melitensis Lydekker 
Lithophaps ulnaris De Vis 
Gallus sp. Lydekker 

Gallus sp. Lydekker 

Phasianus sp. Lydekker .... 
Perdix sp. Issel 
Tetrao sp. Issel 
Metapteryx bifrons De Vis .... 
Dromaius queenslandiae (De Vis).... 
Dromaius gracilipes (De Vis) 
Dromaius patricius (De Vis) 
Genyornis newtoni Sterling & Zeitz 



Queensland. 

Oregon. 

Oregon. 

Belgium. 

England. 

Oregon. 

Malta. 

Malta. 

Queensland. 

Brazil. 

Queensland. 

New Jersey. 

Malta. 

Italy. 

France. 

Queensland. 

Italy. 

Queensland. 

Queensland. 

Queensland. 

Queensland. 

Queensland. 

Malta. 

Queensland. 

New Zealand. 

Central Germany. 

Germany. 

Italy. 

Italy. 

Queensland. 

Queensland. 

Queensland. 

East Australia. 

South Australia. 



Casuarius lydekkeri nom. nov. 

"The distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus is narrow, without a semilunar 
pit on the lateral surface of the ectocondyle, and with a very deep e.xtensor 
groove " (Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus., p. 353). 



INTRODUCTION 



XI 



Type, a caste of the distal portion of the right tibio-tarsus, in the 
British Museum. The original is preserved in the Museum at Sydney and 
was obtained from the pleistocene cavern-deposits in the Wellington Valley 
in New South Wales. 

A bird usually stated to be extinct is Monarcha dimidiata, from Rara- 
Tonga, but in March, 1901, two specimens, male and female, were procured by 
the Earl of Ranfurly. Doubtless this is a species which will one day vanish 
entirely, but at present it hardly comes within the scope of this work. 

The birds known to be more or less on the verge of extinction which I 
have not thought advisable to give in the main part of this book might, for 
convenience of reference and to avoid possible controversy as to my having 
omitted any species, be given here, but it must be understood that of these 
species I only know the fact that their numbers have been greatly reduced 
and mostly almost to vanishing point. I have already mentioned before that 
some of them may already have disappeared, but in many cases recent 
investigations are wanting, and all, therefore, that can be said of them is 
that they are threatened and may soon become extinct, if they still exist. 



Myadestes sibilans .... 
Myadestes genibarbis 
Cinclocerthia gutturalis 
Rhamphocinclus brachyurus 
Ixochicla olivacea 
Phediiia borbonica .... 
Trochocerciis borbonicus 
Oxynotns typicus 
Foudia newioni 
Drymoeca rodericana 
Cyanorhaviphiis cooki 
Cyanorhamphus erythrotis 
Cyanorhamphtis unicolor 
Ttirnagra fanagra .... 
Sceloglaux albifacies.... 
Miro albifrons 
Miro australis 
Clitonyx albicilla 
Pogonornis cincta 
Hypotaeiiidia miilleri 
Mergtis australis 



St. Vincent. 

Martinique. 

Martinique. 

Martinique. 

Mauritius. 

Mascarene Islands. 

Mascarene Islands. 

Mauritius. 

Bourbon. 

Rodriguez. 

Norfolk Island. 

Antipodes Island. 

Antipodes Island. 

North Island, New Zealand. 

Middle Island, New Zealand. 

North Island, New Zealand. 

Middle Island, New Zealand. 

North Island, New Zealand. 

North Island, New Zealand. 

Auckland Island. 

Auckland Island. 



Xll 



INTRODUCTION 



Nesonetta aucklandica 
Ocydromus ? sylvestris 
Puffinus newelli 
Telespiza flaviceps .... 
Nesocfien sandvicensis 
Pareudiastes paciflcus 
Nesomimus trifasciatus 

Phalacrocorax harrisi 
Meleagris americana 
Conurus carolinensis 
Pseudgryphus californianus 
Amazona guildingi 
Campephilus principalis 
Pyrrhula pyrrhnla muritia 
Stringops habroptilus 
Anthornis melanocephala ... 
Gallinago pusilla 
Thinornis novaezealandiae 
Amazona augusta .... 
Amazona bouqueti .... 
Amazona versicolor .... 
Hemignathus lanaiensis 



Auckland Island. 

Lord Howe's Island. 

Hawaiian Islands. 

Hawaii. 

Hawaii. 

Samoa. 

Charles? and Gardener 

Island, Galapagos Islands. 
Galapagos Islands. 
United States. 
Southern United States. 
California. 
St. Vincent. 

Southern United States. 
Azores. 
New Zealand. 
Chatham Islands. 
Chatham Islands. 
Chatham Islands. 
Dominica. 
St. Lucia. 
Dominica. 
Lanai, Sandwich Islands. 



Many of my readers will, I fear, find fault with me for having bestowed 
names on a number of forms, known only from fragments of bones, single 
bones, or two or three bones. Especially will they, I fear, blame me for 
doing this when these forms have been described by other authors who have 
refrained from giving names. My reasons for doing so are very simple: in 
such cases as Dr. Parker's species which are fully described, but quoted 
under the formula Pachyornis species A or Anomalopteryx species B, the 
danger lies in different authors using the same formula for quite other 
species. In the case of others, where an author fears to name a form, but 
gives the distinctive characters and quotes only Casuarius species or 
Emeus sp., unless the author and page are quoted, confusion must 
arise, and so in both cases I have thought it easier for reference and 
also more concise to name all these forms which have been described or 
differentiated without a binomial or trinomial appellation. I have, however, 
refrained from doing so in the foregoing list of Pleistocene species in the 



INTRODUCTION 



xiu 



following eight cases as I was not able to decide anything about them 
with the material or literature at my disposal, viz. : — 

Phalacrocorax sp. Lydekker .... .... New Zealand. 



Anser sp. Lydekker 
Cygnus sp. Lydekker 
Gallus sp. Lydekker 
Gallus sp. Lydekker 
Phasianus sp. Lydekker 
Perdix sp. Issel 
Tetrao sp. Issel 



England. 

Malta. 

New Zealand. 

Central Germany. 

Germany. 

Italy. 

Italy. 



LITERATURE 

REFERRING TO 

EXTINCT BIRDS. 



No attempt has been made to quote all books in which extinct birds 
have been mentioned ; not only would that mean a tedious, long work, 
and a book in itself, but, the repetitions being so numerous, it would 
have been of very little use. On the other hand, I have tried to quote the most 
important literature referring to Extinct Birds, and I have specially been 
anxious to cite and verify the principal ancient literature. Well known general 
works on birds in which extinct species have, of course, also been mentioned, are, 
as a rule, not quoted ; such as : The 27 volumes of the Catalogue of Birds ; 
Brisson's Ornithology; Daubenton's, Buffon's and Montbeillard's works; Latham's 
Ornithological Writings ; Linnaeus' Systema Naturae in all its editions ; Vieillot's 
writings; popular natural histories and school books ; Brehm's Thierleben in its 
various editions; Finsch's Papageien ; Gray's and Sharpe's Hand-lists ; Dubois' 
Synopsis Avium, lists of specimens in Museums, and many others, in which 
extinct birds are as a matter of course mentioned. 

Three most complete detailed bibliographies must be named: The 
" Bibliography of the Didinae," forming Appendix B. of Strickland's " Dodo and 
its Kindred" (1848), the Bibliography of Alcu iiiipettnis by Wilhelm Blasius in 
the new Edition of Naumann, vol. XII, pp. 169-176 (1903), and the Bibliography 
referring to the Moas by Hamilton, in the Trans. New Zealand Institute XXVI 
and XXVII (1894, 1895). 

Most of the books and pamphlets quoted hereafter are in my library at 
the Zoological Museum at Tring, in the ornithological part of which Dr. Hartert 
and I have been specially interested for many years. Those books that are not 
in my library are marked with an asterisk, but several of these I have been able 
to consult in other libraries. 

The chronological order appeared to be best suited to the particular 
subject treated of. 



XVI 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



1580 or 90. Collaert, Adrian. Avium 
vivae icones, in aes incisae & editae 
ab Adriano Collardo. 

(On one of the plates is figured the "Avis 
Indica." This figure seems to have been the 
original of the representations in Dubois' and 
Leguat's works.) 

1601. Jacob Cornelisz Neck. Het tweede 

Boek, JoLirnael oft Dagh-register, 

inhoudende een warachtig verhael, 

etc., etc. Middelburch, Anno 1601. 

(On picture No. 2, page 7, the Dodo is 
figured and described as follows : " Desen 
Voghel de is soo groot als een Swaen, gaven 
hem de naem Watchvoghel, want doen wy 
de lecUere DuyfUens ende ande cleyn ghevog- 
helte ghenoech vinghen, doen taelden wy 
niet meer naer desen Voghel." This appears 
to be the first mention of the Dodo in 
literature.) 

1605. Clusius. Carol! Clusii Atrebatis . . . 

Exoticorum libi-i decern : Quibus 

Animalium, Plantarum, Aromatum 

historiae describuntur. Ex Officina 

Plantiniana Raphelengii, 1605. 

(On p. 100 van Neck's Dodo is reproduced, 
on p. 103 the Great Auk, sub nomine " Mergus 
Americanus.") 

1606. De Bry. Achter Theil der Oriental- 
ischen Indien, begreiffend erstiich ein 
Histor. Beschr. d. Schiffahrt, so der 
Adm. Jacob von Neck ausz Hollandt, 
etc., etc. Frankf. 1606. 

(Figure and mention of the Dodo.) 

1619. Jacob Cornelisz Neck. Historiale 

Beschryvinghe, Inhoudende een 

waerachtich verhael vande veyse 

ghedaen met acht Schepen van 

Amsterdam, etc., etc. Amsterdam, 

1619. 

(Evidently another edition of Neck's voyage 
of i6oi. On page 5 and on Picture No. 2 
(page 7), which is the same as in the other 
editions of Neck's voyage, the Dodo is 
described. There is also a French edition 
of i5oi.) 



1625. Castleton. Purchas his Pilgrimes. 
In five books. 

(On p. 331, in chapter XV., first mention 
of the Reunion Dodo.) 

1626. Sir Tho.mas Herbert. A relation of 
some years' Travaile. 

(First mention of Aphanapteryx bonasia.) 

1635. Niere.mberg. Joannis Evsebii Nie- 

rembergii Historia Naturae, 

maxime peregrinae,librisXVI distincta. 
In quibus rarissima Naturae arcana, 
etc., etc., etc. Antverpiae MDCXXXV. 
(Clusius' account and figure of the Dodo 
reproduced on pp. 231, 232. On p. 237 the 
Great Auk (" Goifugel ") mentioned). 

*1638 and 1651. Cauche. Relations veritables 
et curieuses de I'isle de Madagascar. 
(Two editions.) 

(See Aphanapteryx bonasia.) 

1640. Pere Bouton. Relation de I'etabl. 
des Fran9ais dep. 1635, en I'ile 
Martinique, I'vne des antilles de 
I'Amerique. 

(Describes, among other birds, the Aras 
and Parrots of the island of Martinique.) 

1646. BoNTEKOE. Journ. of te gedenckw. 
beschr. van de Ost. Ind. Reyse. 
Haarlem 1646. 

(On p. 6 mention of the Reunion Dodo.) 

1655. WoR.vi. Museum Wormianum. 

(On pp. 300, 301, lib. Ill, description and 
figure of a Great Auk from the Faroe 
Islands.) 

1658. HisToiRE Naturelle et Morale 
DES Iles Antilles de l'Amerique. 
Enrichie de pleusieurs belles figures 
des Raretez les plus considerables 
qui y sont d'ecrites. Avec un 
vocabulaire caralbe. Rotterdam 1658. 
(The title-page has no author's name, but 
according to P6re du Tertre the author is 
" Le Sieur de Rochefort, Ministre de 
Rotterdam." Contains important notes on 
former bird-life on the Antilles.) 

1665. The same. Second Edition. 
Rotterdam 1665. 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



xvii 



1658. BoNTius. Gulielmi Pisonis Medici 
Amstelaedamensis de Indiae Utriusque 
re naturali et medica libri quatuor- 
decim. Third Part: Jacobi Bontii, 
medici civitatis Bataviae Novae in 
Java Ordinarii, Historiae Natur. et 
Medici Indiae Orientalis libri sex. 

(On p. 70 an excellent figure of the Dodo. 
Caput XVII. Appendix: De Dronte, aliis 
Dod-aers.) 

1667. Du Tertre. Histoire generale des 
Antilles habitees par les Francois. 
Tome 1 1, contenantl' Histoire Naturelle. 
Paris 1667. 

(On p. 246. Traite V. Des aniniaux de I'air. 
§ I, Les Arras. § II, Des Perroquets. 5 III, 
Des Perriques.) 

1668. HisTORiscHE Beschreibung DER 
Antillen Inseln in America gelegen. 
In sich begreiffend deroselben 
Gelegenheit, darinnen befindl. natiirl. 
Sachen, sampt deren Einwohner 
Sitten und Gebraiichen. Von dem 
Herrn de Rochefort, zum zweiten 
mahl in Franzosischer sprach an den 
Tag gegeben, nunmehr aber in die 
Teutsche ubersetzet. Frankfurt 1668. 

(Translation of the second edition of 
Rochefort's book.) 

*1668. Carre, Voyage des Indes Orientates. 

(Page 12 the " Solitaire." Cf. Did us 
solitariiis.) 

1668. J. Marshall. Memorandums con- 
cerning India. 

(In the article on Mauritius occurs a mention 
of Geese.) 

1674. Pere Dubois. Les Voyages faits 
par le Sieur D.B. aux Isles Dauphine 
ou Madagascar, and Bourbon, ou 
Mascarenne, es annees 1669-70-71-72. 
(Of this extremely rare work I possess a 
beautiful copy, together with the map of 
Sanson belonging to it.) 

(On p. 168 we find " Description de quelques 
Oyseaux de I'lsle de Bourbon," with figures of 
the " G^ant " and " Solitaire.") 



1696. Thevenot,M.Melchisedec. Relations 
de divers voyages curieux qui nont 
point este' publie'es. Nouvelle 

Edition. Vol. I, II, 1696. 

(A very interesting collection of ancient 
voyages, translated into French. In Vol. 
II is a translation of Bontekoe's travels to 
the " East Indies," with figures of the Dodo 
and other interesting notes.) 

1707. Leguat, Francois. Voyages et 
Avantures de Fran9ois Leguat, et de 
ses Compagnos, en deux Isles desertes 
des Indes Orientales. Londres 1707. 



1708. Leguat, Francis. A New Voyage 

to the East Indies by Francis Leguat 

and his companions. Containing their 

adventures in two desert islands. 

London 1708. 

(Valuable notes on the birds of Rodriguez 
and Mauritius.) 

1707. Sloane, Hans. A Voyage to the 

islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, 

S. Christofers and Jamaica, with the 

Natural History of the Herbs and 

Trees, four-footed Beasts, Fishes, 

Insects, Birds, Reptiles, etc. Vol. I, 

1707; vol. II, 1725. 

(Gives most valuable notes on the birds, 
including the Goatsucker, Aestrelaia and 
Parrots.) 

1722. Labat, Jean Baptiste. Nouveau 

Voyage aux lies de I'Amerique 

contenant I'histoire naturelle de ces 

pays. Paris 1722. 6 vols. 

In Vol. II, chapter VIII, the different species 
of Parrots are described, and it is stated that 
each island had three kinds, viz., an " Aras," 
a " Perroquet " and a " Perrique," evidently 
meaning a Macaw, an Amazona and a 
Conurus.) 

1742. Nouvelle Edition. 8 vols. 



JCVllI 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



1752. MoEHRiNG. Avium Genera. 

(In this ominous work, which, through an 
article by Poche in Zool. Anz. 1904, has 
recently caused so much quite unnecessary 
disturbance among nomenclatorists — cf. 
Hartert, Zool. Anz. 1904, p. 154, and Proc. 
IV. Int. Orn. Congress, pp. 276 — 283. The 
Dodo is mentioned under the name "Raphus.") 

1763. L'Abbe de la Caille. Journal His- 

torique du Voyage fait au Cap de 

Bonne — esperance. 

(Some birds from Mauritius mentioned, but 
no descriptions.) 

1773. Voyage a l'isle de France, a I'isle de 
Bourbon, au Cap de Bonne Esperance, 
etc. Avec des observations nouvelles 
sur la nature and sur les hommes. 
Par un officier du roi. Neuchatel 
1773. 

1775. A voyage to the island of Mauritius, 
etc. By a French Officer. (Transla- 
tion of the above). 

(Lettre IX, page 67, treats of the "Animals 
natural to the isle of France.") 

1782. Sonnerat. Voyage aus iles orientales 

et k la Chine. Two volumes, 1782. 

(In Volume II, on plate loi, opposite page 176, 
the e-xtinct Alectroeiias tiituiissiina is figured, 
under the name of " Pigeon hollandais.") 

*1783 (?) Callam. Voyage Botany Bay. 

(According to Gray Notoniis alba is 
mentioned under the name of " White 
Gallinule.") 

1786. Sparrmann. Museum Carlsonianum I. 

(On pi. 23 Poiiiarea nigra Sparrm.) 

1789. G. Dixon. Voyage round the World. 

(On p. 357 is note and figure of the extinct 
Moho apical is, under the name of the "Yellow- 
tufted Bee-eater.") 

1789. Browne, Patrick. The Civil and 
Natural History of Jamaica. 



1789. The Voyage of Governor Phillip to 

Botany Bay, etc. London 1789. 

(Among other interesting birds Notornis 
staiileyi is figured on the plate opposite p. 273.) 

1790. J. White. Journal of a Voyage to 

New South Wales with sixty-five 

Plates of Nondescript Animals, Birds, 

Lizards, Serpents, etc. London 

MDCCXC. 

(1 have a copy with black and white, and 
another with coloured plates. Notornis alba.) 

1804. Hermann. Observationes Zoolog. 

(On page 125 the extinct Bourbon Palacornis 
is described as Psittaciis seinirostris.) 

1807. M. F. Peron. Voyage de decouvertes 

aux terres australes, ex^cut^ par 

ordre de Sa Majeste I'Empereur et 

Roi, etc., etc. 2 vols. 1807 and 1816 

and Atlas. 

(On p. 467 is described the Little Emu from 
Kangaroo Island, which I have named Dromaius 
peronii, in honour of its discoverer, Franjois 
P^ron. A memoir of this extraordinary and 
admirable man's short and brilliant life will 
be found in Vol. VI of the " Naturalist's 
Library," Edinburgh, 1843.) 

1810. Andre Pierre Ledru. Voyage aux 
iles de Teneriffe, la Trinite, Saint- 
Thomas, Sainte-Croi.x et Porto- Ricco, 
execute par ordre du Gouvern. fran^ais, 
etc., etc. Two volumes, 1810. 

(In Vol. II, page 39, are mentioned various 
birds as occurring on the Danish West-Indian 
Islands, which are not found there at present. 
" Un todier, nomm6 vulgairement perroquet 
de terre " and seven species of Humming- 
Birds !) 

*1826. Bloxam. Voyage of the Blonde. 

(See Phaeornis oahensis, Loxops coccinea 
rufa. Also interesting notes on other 
Sandwich-Islands Birds.) 

1827. Pallas. Zoogr. Rosso — Asiat. 11 p. 
305: Phalacrocorax perspicillatus, the 
now e.xtinct Cormorant from Bering 
Island. 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



XIX 



1830. QuoY ET Gaimard. Voy. Astrolabe, 
Zool. I p. 242 pi. 24. 

(Cotttrnix novaezealaiidiac described.) 

1830. KiTTLiTZ. Memoires Acad. Sc. 

Petersburg I. 

(Kittlitz describes Turdus terrestris and 
Fringilla papa.) 

*1838. PoLACK. New Zealand. 

(First mention of Moas.) 

*1838. Don de Navarette. Rel. Quat. voy. 
Christ. 

1838. LicHTENSTEiN. Abhandl. K. Akademie 

d. Wissenschaften p. 448, plate V. 

(Heiiu'giiatlins ellisiantis — sub nomine 
obsciinis — and Hemignathus lucidus 
described.) 

1843. Dieffenbach's Travels in New 
Zealand, 1843. Appendix, Birds, by 
J. E. Gray. On page 197 Ralltis 
dieffenbachii described. 

1843. Owen. P.Z.S. 1843, p. 1., letter read 
from Rev. \V. C. Cotton, mentioning 
remains of gigantic birds in New 
Zealand, p. 8 the name Dinornis 
novaezealandiae given to the first 
Moa-bones exhibited. 

1846. In the "Voyage of Erebus and 
Terror," Birds, Gray describes and 
figures Nesolimnas dieffenbachii. 

1847. GossE. Birds of Jamaica. 

(Cf. Ara erythrocephala, Siphonorhis 
americanus and other Jamaican birds.) 

1848. Edm. DE Selys-Longchamps. Resume 
concern, les Oiseaux brevipennes 
mentionnes dans I'ouvrage de M. 
Strickland sur le Dodo. 

In Rev. Zool. 1848, pp. 292-295. 



1848. Strickland and Melville. The Dodo 
and its kindred; or the history, 
affinities, and Osteology of the Dodo, 
Solitaire, and other extinct birds of 
the islands Mauritius, Rodriguez and 
Bourbon. London 1848. 

(141 pages and 15 plates.) 

*1848. Peale. U.S. Expl. Exp. Birds. 

(On p. 147, pi. XL, is described and figured 
the extinct Chaetoptila aiigustipliima, under 
the name of Eiitoiniza atigitstipliiina. This 
work is not available, as only 3 or 4 copies 
exist of it, but see : 

Cassin. U.S. Expl. Exp. Mamm. 
and Orn. p. p. 148 pi. XI (1858). 

1851. Is. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. Notice 
sur des ossements et des oeufs 
trouv^s a Madagascar dans les 
alluvions modernes, et provenant d'un 
oiseau gigantesque. 

In Annales des Scienc. Naturelles, 13 s^rie, 
Zoologie, tome 40. 

(This volume is dated " 1850," but the above 
article is said to have been read before the 
Academy on January 27, 1851, therefore the 
date of publication must be rather 1851 than 
1850.) 

1854. H. Schlegel. Ook een woordje over 
den Dodo en zijne verwanten. 

In : Verslagen en Mededeelingen der 
Koninglijke Akademie der Wetenschappen, 
Afdeel. NaturUunde, Deel II, p. 254. 

1857. Japetus Steenstrl'p. Bidrag til 
Geirfuglens Naturhistorie, etc. 

In : Naturh. Forening. Vidensk. Meddel. for 
1855, Nos. 3-7. 

(The first history and bibliography of the 
Great Auk.) 

1858. H. Schlegel. Over eenige uitge- 
storvene reusachtige Vogels van de 
Mascarenhas-eilanden. (Een tegen- 
hanger tot zijne geschiedenis der 
Dodo's.) 

In : Verslagen en Mededeelingen der 
Koninglijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, 
Afdeel. Naturkunde, Deel VII, pp. 116-128. 

(Leguatia gigantea. Porphyria (Notornis ?) 
cacrulescens.) 



zx 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



1860. A. V. Pelzeln. Zur Ornithologie der 

Insel Norfolk. 

In : Sitzungsberichte der Mathemat. Natur- 
wiss. CI. Akademie Wien Bd. XLl, No. 15, 
pp. 319-332. (Mit I Tafel.) 

(Lengthy account qi Nestor iiorfolcensis, 
from Bauer's Manuscript, Notoniis alba, etc.) 



1681. Alfred Newton. Abstract of Mr. 
WoIIey's Researches in Iceland 
respecting the Gare-fowl. 
In Ibis, 1861, pp. 374-399. 

1862. W. J. Broderip. Notice of an 
Original Painting, including a figure 
of the Dodo. 

In Trans. Zool. Soc. London IV, p. 197. 

1862. William Preyer. Ueber Plautus 

impennis. 

In Journ. f. Orn. 1862, pp. 110-124, 337- 
356. 

1865. Alfred Newton. The Gare-fowl 

and its Historians. 

In Natural Hist. Review XII (1865), pp. 
467-488) ; id. in Encylcl. Britannica Ed. IX, 
Vol. Ill ; id. Diet. Birds, p. 220-221. 

1866. Owen. Psittacus matiritianus named, 
in Ibis p. 168; also mentioned in 
Trans. Zool. Soc. VI, p. 53, 1866. 

(See Lophopsittacus.) 



1866-1873. Alph. Milne-Edwards. Re- 
cherches sur la Faune Ornithologique 
Eteinte des iles Mascareignes et de 
Madagascar. Paris 1866-1873. 

(With 37 plates. This volume consists of 
reprints of the author's articles on the suhject 
in French periodicals, though not a word of 
this is mentioned. To the plates originally 
issued with the articles, several new ones are 
added.) 



1867. Alfred Newton. On a Picture 

supposed to represent the Didine 

Bird of the Island of Bourbon 

(Reunion). 

In Trans. Zool. Soc. London VI, pp. 373- 
376. Plate 62. 

1867. George Dawson Rowley. On the 
Egg of Aepyoruis, the Colossal Bird 
of Madagascar. 

In Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1867, pp. 892- 
895. 

1868. Frauenfeld, George Ritter von. 
Neu aufgefundene Abbildung des 
Dronte und eines zweiten kurzfla- 
gligen V'ogels, wahrscheinlich des 
poule rouge au bee de becasse der 
Maskarenen, in der Privatbibliothek 
S.M. des verstorbenen Kaisers Franz. 
Wien 1868. Mit 4 Tafeln. 

1868. Schlegel & Pollen. Mammif^res 
et Oiseaux, in : Pollen et von 
Dam, Recherches sur la faune de 
Madagascar et de ses dependances. 
Leyde 1868. 

1868. Owen, on Moas in Trans. Zool. Soc. 
London, VI. 

(Diiionu's inaximus established.) 

•1868. H. C. Millies. Over eene nieuw 

ontdekte afbeelding van den Dodo. 

In : Verhandlingen der Koningl. Akad. d. 
Wetenschappen, Deel XI, Amsterdam 1868. 

1869. Owen. On the osteology of the 

Dodo. 

In : Trans. Zool. Soc. London VI, 1869, 
p. 70. 

1869. Elliot. New and heretofore unfig. 

sp. N. American Birds. 

(In Vol. II, part 14, No. 3, the now extinct 
Carbo perspicillatiis from Bering Island 
figured.) 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



XXI 



1872. F. W. HuTTON. On the Microscopical 
structure of the Egg-shell of the Moa. 

In Trans. & Proceed. New Zealand Inst. IV, 

pp. 166-167, with illustrations. 

1872. F. W. HuTTON. Notes on some Birds 
from the Chatham Islands, collected 
by H. H. Travers, Esq. 

In Ibis 1872, pp. 243-250. 

(Miro traversi and Sphenoeacus rufescens 
(Boii'dleria rufescens of this book) only found 
on Mangare. First description of " Rallus 
modestus" (Cabalus iiiodestns), "Rallus 
dieffenbachi" already extinct.) 

1872. J. Hector. On Recent Moa Remains 

in New Zealand. 

In Trans, and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. IV, 
p. no. 

1872. Julius Haast. Notes on Harpagornis 

Moorei. 

In Trans, and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. IV, 
p. 192. 

1873. A. V. Pelzeln. On the Birds in the 
Imperial Collection at Vienna obtained 
from the Leverian Museum. 

In Ibis 1873, pp. 14-54, I03"i24. 
(Most important notes on some of Latham's 
types. Cf. Drcpanis pacifica, Platycercus 
tilietanus, Notornis alba.) 

1873. Christmann und Oberlander. 

Ozeanien. 

(On pages 138-144 a popular account and 
wood cuts — from Brehm's Thierleben — of 
Moas and other Gigantic Birds.) 

1873. BuLLER. The Birds of New Zealand. 



1874. A. Milne-Edwards. Recherches 
sur la faune ancienne des iles 
Mascareignes. 

In Ann. Sciences naturelles s6r. V, Tome 
XIX, article 3 (Erythromachus, Strix miirivora, 
Colittuba rodericaiia, etc.) 



1875. Rowley. Porphyrio Stanleyi. 
In Ornith. Miscell. I, pp. 37-48, plate. 

1875. HuTTON. Description of the Moa 

Swamp at Hamilton. 

In Trans. & Proc. N. Zealand Inst. VII, 
p. 123, pi. V. 

1875. HuTTON & Coughtrey. Description 
of some Moa Remains from the 
Knobby Ranges. 

In Trans. & Proc. N. Zealand Inst. VII, 
p. 266, pi. XIX. 

1875. Alfred Newton. P.Z.S. 1875,p.350: 
the name Lophopsittacus established. 

1875. HuTTON. On the Dimensions of 

Dinornis bones. 

In Trans. & Proc. N. Zealand Inst. VII, 
p. 274. 

1875. Julius von Haast. Researches and 

Excavations on, in and near the Moa- 

bone Point Cave, Sumner Road, in 

the year 1872. 

In Trans, and Proceed. New Zealand Institute 
VII, pp. 54-85, pis. I, II. 

'•1875. Van Beneden. Journ. Zool. IV, 
p. 267. 

(Description of Anas finschi.) 

1876. A. & E. Newton. On the Psittaci of 
the Mascarene Islands. 

In Ibis 1876, pp. 281-288, plate VI. 

1876. To.vimaso Salvadori. Nota intorno 

al Fregilupus variiis. 

In : Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze 
di Torino, Vol. XI, pp. 482-488. 

1877. G. D. Rowley. On the Extinct 

Birds of the Mascarene Islands. 

In Orn. Miscell. II, pp. 124-133, plates LII, 
LIII. 



xxu 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



1878. G. D. Rowley. Remarks on the 

Extinct Gigantic Birds of Madagascar 

and New Zealand. 

In Ornith. Miscell. Ill, pp. 237-247, pis. 
CXII-CXV. 

1879. Dole. List of Birds of the 
Hawaiian Islands. Corrected from 
the Hawaiian Almanack. 

Reprint: Ibis 1881, p. 241. 

(Pcnniila iitilhi, Ciridops anna.) 

1879. Owen, Richard. Memoirs on the 

Extinct Wingless Birds of New 

Zealand ; with an Appendix on those 

of England, Australia, Newfoundland, 

Mauritius and Rodriguez. 

(Memoirs on the Dinornithidae, their bones, 
eggs, integument and plumage, Notornis, 
Aptornis, Cnemiornis, Alca inipennis, Didus 
and Pezophaps. With many woodcuts and 
plates.) 

(See also Owen's articles in Trans. Zool. 
Soc. London III, IV, VI, X, XI.) 

1879. GUNTHER AND E. NeWTON, OH 

Aphanapteryx leguati in Philosophical 
Transactions. Vol. 168, pp. 431-432, 

pi. XLin. 

1879. W. A. Forbes. On the systemat. 
position and scientific name of " Le 
Perroquet mascarin " of Brisson. 
In Ibis 1879, p. 303. 

1884. Wilhelm Blasius. Zur Geschichte 
von Alca impennis. 

In Journ. f. Orn. 1884, pp. 58-176. 

(The most accurate and complete list — till 
1884 — of specimens of Alca impennis.) 

1885. A. B. Meyer. Notornis Itochstetteri. 

In : Zeitschr. ges Orn. 11, p. 45, pi. 1. 

1885. Symington Grieve. The Great Auk or 
Garefowl. Its History, Archaeology, 
and Remains. London 1885. 



1897. Id.: Supplementary note on the Great 
Auk ; in Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat. 
Soc. 1897, pp. 238-273. 

1886. December. Julius von Haast. On 

Megalapteryx hectori, a new Gigantic 

Species of Apterygian Bird. 

In Trans. Zool. Soc. London Xll, p. 161, 
pi. XXX. 

1887. Henry Seebohm. The Geographical 

Distribution of the family Charidriidae. 

(Plates of Prosobonia leiicoptera and Aech- 
Dwrhynchiis cancellata.) 

1888. BuLLER. A History of the Birds of 
New Zealand. 

In two volumes. Second Edition. (See 1873.) 

1889. Sir Edward Newton. Presidential 

address. 

In Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Natural. 
Society IV, pp. 540-547. 

1889. A. DE Quatrefages. Nouvelle Preuve 
de I'Extinction recente des Moas. 

In : Le Naturaliste 1889, p. 117. 

1889. F. C. Noll. Die Vei-anderung in 

der Vogelwelt im Laufe der Zeit. 

In : Bericht iiber die Senckenberg. Naturf. 
Gesellsch. in Frankf.-a.-M. 1887-1888, pp. 77- 
142. 

1890. Stejneger and Lucas. Contributions 
to the History of Pallas' Cormorant. 
With plates 1 1- IV. 

In Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. Xll, pp. 83-94. 

1890-99. Scott B. Wilson & Evans. Aves 
Hawaiienses : The Birds of the Sand- 
wich Islands. With numerous plates. 

1891. Richard Lydekker. Catalogue of 

the Fossil Birds in the British 

Museum. London 1891. 

(Pages I-XXVII, 1-368. With 75 figures in 
the text.) 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



XXUl 



1891. Frederic A. Lucas. Animals recently 
extinct or threatened with extermina- 
tion, as represented in the collection 
of the U.S. National Museum. 

In Report of the Smithson Inst. (U.S. Nat. 
Mus.) 1889 (1891 1), pp. 609-649, pis. XCV-CV. 

(An account of some of the larger animals 
which have become extinct within historic 
times, or are threatened with extinction, with 
reasons suggested for their disappearance.) 

1891. Hartert. KatalogderVogelsammlung 

im Museum der Senchenberg. Naturf. 

Ges. Frankfurt-a-M. 

(Alca impennis, Ttirdus terrestris, Chauno- 
proctus ferreorostris, Hemiphaga spadicea 
mentioned.) 

1891. Will. DuTCHER. The Labrador Duck. 
A revised list of the extant specimens 
in North America, with some historical 
notes. 

In Auk 1891, pp. 301-316, pi. 2. 

1894. Will. DuTCHER. The Labrador Duck. 
With additional data respecting extant 
specimens. 
In Auk 1894, PP- 4-12. 

1892. Forbes, H. O. Preliminary Notice 
of Additions to the Extinct Avifauna 
of New Zealand (Abstract). 

In Trans, and Proceed. New Zealand Inst. 
Vol. XXIV, pp. 185-189. 

(The editors say that the paper is published 
in abstract, as it had been impossible to 
prepare the drawings for its illustrations in 
time. — It is a most pitiful and unscientific 
proceeding to publish such preliminary abstracts 
containing insufficiently founded names and 
complete " nomina nuda " without publishing 
a fuller account ; such, as far as I know, has 
never appeared.) 

1892. H. O. Forbes. Aphanapteryx and 

other remains in the Chatham Islands. 

In Nature, Vol. XLVI, p. 252. 

(Short notes on avian remains which, unfor- 
tunately, were never properly studied after- 
wards.) 



1892. HuTTON. The Moas of New Zealand. 
In Trans, and Proceed. New Zealand 
Institute Vol. XXIV, pp. 93-172, pis. XV-XVII. 

1892. Hamilton. Notes on Moa Gizzard- 
stones, t.c. p. 172. 

1892. Hamilton. On the genus Aptornis, 
t.c. pp. 175-184. 

1892. Hartlaub. Vier seltene Rallen. 

In : Abhandl. d. Naturwiss. Vereins zu. 
Bremen XII. 

1893. H. O. Forbes. A List of the Birds 
inhabiting the Chatham Islands. 

In Ibis 1893, pp. 521-546. 

(Notes on the living and extinct forms. The 
genus Palaeoliiiinas established. Egg of 
Cabalus tiwdestus figured, etc.) 

1893. W. W. Smith. Notes on certain 
species of New Zealand Birds. 
In Ibis 1893, pp. 509-520. 

(Methods of colonization and their disastrous 
results to the birds described.) 

1893. Milne-Edwards & Oustalet. Notice 
sur quelques especes d'oiseaux actuelle- 
ment eteintes qui se trouvent repre- 
sentees dans les collections du museum 
d'histoire naturelle. In : Centenaire 
de la fondation du museum d'histoire 
naturelle. Volume commemoratif 
public par les professeurs du Museum. 
Pp. 189-252, pis. I-V. 

(Only 6 species : Mascarinus mascarinus, 
Alectroenas nitidissima, Alca impennis, 
Fregiliipus variiis, Camptolaemus labradorius, 
Droiiiaiiis " afer," but these beautifully figured 
and masterly described and discussed.) 

1893. Sir E. Newton and Gadow. On 
additional Bones of the Dodo and 
other Extinct Birds of Mauritius 
obtained by Mr. Theodore Sauzier. 

In Trans. Zool. Soc. London XIII, pp. 281- 
302. Pis. XXXIII-XXXVII. 

(Strix sauzieri, Astiir alphotisi, Butorides 
mauritianus, Plotus nanus, Sarcidiornis 
inaiiritianus. Anas theodori, etc.) 



XXIV 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



1893. A. DE QuATREFAGES. The Moas and 
Moa-hunters. 

In Trans, and Proceed. New Zealand Inst. 
XXV, pp. 17-49. 

(Translation of the French article which 
appeared in the Nos. for June and July of the 
"Journal des Savants" by Laura BuUer.) 



1893. Parker. On the classification and 

mutual relations of the Dinornithidae. 

By T. J. Parker. 

In Trans, and Proc. New Zealand Inst. 
XXV, pp. 1-6, pis. I-IIl. 

1893. F.W. HuTTON. New Species of Moas. 

In Trans, and Proc. New Zealand Inst. Vol. 
XXV, pp. 6-13. 

(Diiioniis stremius, Anoiiialopteryx fortis, 
Eiiryapteryx compacta, Pachyornis inUabilis, 
P. valgus.) 

1893. F. W. HuTTON. On Anomalopteryx 
antiqua. T.c. p. 14, pi. IV. 

*1893. R. BuRCKHARDT, in Palaontolog. 
Abhandl. VI, Heft 2, pp. 127-145, 
Taf. 1-4. 
(Aepyornis.) 

1893. H. O. Forbes. The Moas of New 
Zealand. 

In Natural Science II, pp. 374-380. 

1893. A. Hamilton. On the Fissures and 

Caves at the Castle Rocks, Southland ; 

with a description of the remains of 

the Existing and Extinct Birds found 

in them. 

(In Trans, and Proceed. New Zealand Inst. 
XXV, pp. 88-106; with figures.) 

1893. A. Newton. " Extermination." In 
A Dictionary of Birds. 

(See also in Encyclopaedia Britannica.) 



1893-1900. Walter Rothschild. The 
Avifauna of Laysan and the Neigh- 
bouring Islands: with a complete 
history to date of the Birds of the 
Hawaiian Possessions. London 1893- 
1900. With numerous plates. 

(Account and coloured plates of the extinct 
birds of Oahu and Hawaii.) 

1894. Milne-Edwards et Grandidier. 

Observations sur les Aepyornis de 

Madagascar. 

In : Comptes Rendus hebd. des Stances de 
I'Acad. d. Sciences, Paris, Vol. CXVIII, Part I, 

pp. 122-127. 

1894. J. Parker. Notes on Three Moa- 

Skulls. 

In Trans, and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVI, 
p. 223. 



On Avian Remains in 



1894. Hamilton. 

Southland. 

In Trans, and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVI, 
p. 226. 

1894. Hamilton. Materials for a Biblio- 
graphy of the Dinornithidae. 

In Trans, and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVI, 
pp. 229-257. 

(A careful list to which I refer my readers.) 

1895. C. W. Andrews. On some remains 
of Aepyornis in the Hon. Walter 
Rothschild's Museum at Tring. 

In : Novitates Zoologicae II, pp. 23-25. 

1895. Hamilton. Further contributions 

towards a Bibliography of the Moas. 

In Trans, and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVII, 
p. 228-232. 

1895. Jefferv Parker. On the Cranial 

Osteology, Classification, and Phylo- 

geny of the Dinornithidae. 

In Trans. Zool. Soc. London Vol. XllI, pp. 
373-431, pis. LVI-LXII. 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



XXV 



1895. Hamilton. On the Feathers of a 

small Moa. 

In Trans, and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVIl, 
pp. 232-238. 

*1895. C. \V. Andrews. On Aepyornis 
bones, etc., in Geological Magazine 
1895. 

1896. HuTTON. On a deposit of Moa-bones 

at Kapua. 

In Trans, and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVIII, 
p. 627. Id. On the Moa-bones from Enfield, 
t.c.p. 645. 

1896. C. W. Andrews. On the Extinct 
Birds of the Chatham Islands 

In Novit Zoolog. Ill, p. 73-84 and 260-271. 

( Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi, Palaeolimnas 
chathciinensis, Nesoliinnas dieffeiibachii.) 

1896. G. Hartlaub. En Beitrag zur 

Geschichte der ausgestorbenen Vogel 

der Neuzeit, sowie derjenigen, deren 

Fortbestehen bedroht erscheint. 

In : Abhandl. d. Naturwiss. Vereins gn. 
Bremen XIV Band, i Heft. 

(Also : Second edition of the same, printed 
as manuscript, with a few alterations and 
additions.) 

(The most useful, comprehensive pamphlet 
on recently extinct birds.) 



1897. Andrews. On some fossil remains 
of Carinate Birds from Central 
Madagascar. 

In Ibis 1897, pp. 343-359, pis. VIII and IX. 

1897. H. O. Forbes. On an apparently 

new, and supposed to be now extinct, 

species of Bird from the Mascarene 

Islands, provisionally referred to the 

genus Necropsar. With plate. 

In Bull. Liverpool Museums, I, p. 34, pi. 
Sturn. I (Necropsar leguati). 



1897. Forbes and Robinson. Note on 
Two Species of Pigeon, t.c. p. 35. 

(Hemiphaga spadicea.) 

(On pi. I of the same vol. is figured Nestor 
norfolceiisis. See p. 5.) 

1900. W. WoLTERSTORFF. Ausgestorbcnc 
Riesenvogel. Vortrag, gehalten im 
Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein zu 
Magdeburg. Mit zwei Abbildungen. 
Stuttgart. Verlag von E. Nagele. 

1900. A. Mertens. Die Moas im Natur- 
wissenschaftl. Museum zu Magdeburg. 
Mit 2 Abbildungen. 

in : Jahresbericht Naturwiss. Vereins zu 
Magdeburg fiir 1898- 1900. (Pp. 1-24 in separate 
copy.) 

1901. W. A. Bryan. Key to the Birds of 
the Hawaiian group. 

1902. Walter Rothschild and Ernst 
Hartert. Further notes on the 
fauna of the Galapagos Islands. 

In Nov. Zool. 1902, pp. 381-418; cf. also 
Nov. Zool. 1899, pp. 154, 163. 
(Geospiza magnirostris and dentirostris.) 

1902. H. W. Henshaw. Birds of the 
Hawaian Islands, being a complete 
list of the Birds of the Hawaiian 
Possessions, with notes on their 
habits. Honolulu 1902. 

1903. Graham Renshaw. The Black Emu. 

In : Zoologist 1903, pp. 8i-88. 

1903. Wilhelm Blasius. Der Riesenalk, 
Alca impennis L. In the New Edition 
of Naumann called " Naumann, Natur- 
geschichte der Vogel Mitteleuropas " 
(sic), vol. XII, pp. 169-208, pis. 17, 
17a-17d, 1903. 

(Among others the most complete biblio- 
graphy and very detailed descriptions.) 

1903. Fleming, J. H. On the Passenger 
Pigeon. 

In Auk 1903, p. 56. 



XXVI 



LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS. 



1903. M. GuiLLAUME Grandidier. Contri- 
bution a I'etude de I'Epiornis de 
Madagascar. 

In : Comptes Rendus des Stances de I'Acad. 
Sc, Paris 1903 (pp. 1-3 in separate copy.) 

1903. G. Grandidier. Note au sujet du 

squelette de VAepyoniis ingens. 

In Bull. Mus. Paris 1903, pp. 318-323, with 
figures. 

1903. Paul Carie. Observations sur 

quelques oiseaux de I'ile Maurice. 

In Ornis XII, p. 121-128. 

(We are informed that neither Palaeornis 
echo — sub nomine eqiies — -nor Nesoeiias mayeri 
are extinct.) 

1905. A. H. Clark. Extirpated West 
Indian Birds. 

In Auk 1905, pp. 259-266. 

1905. A. H. Clark. The Lesser Antillean 
Macaws. 

In Auk 1905, pp. 266-273. 

1905. A. H. Clark. The West Indian 
Parrots. 

In Auk 1905, pp. 337-344- 

1905. A. H. Clark. The Greater Antillean 
Macaws. 

In Auk 1905, pp. 345-348. 



1905-1906. Sir Walter Buller. Supple- 
ment to the " Birds of New Zealand." 
Two volumes. 

(Though containing very interesting notes on 
e.xtinct and threatened birds, these two volumes 
are rather disappointing. They contain very 
little that is new, and are mainly composed of 
quotations from other people's writings or 
letters. Buller's former great book on the 
Birds of New Zealand was a most important 
and creditable work, though not without short- 
comings. Our knowledge of New Zealand 
Birds might have been brought up to date in 
his supplement, but we cannot say that this 
has been done properly, and errors are 
frequent.) 



1906. Baldwin Spencer. The King Island 
Emu. 

In The Victorian Naturalist XXIII (1906), 
pp. 139, 140. 

(Dromaius miuor described.) 



1907. Walter Rothschild. On Extinct 
and Vanishing Birds. A short Essay 
on the Birds which have presumably 
become extinct within the last 500 
years, and also of those birds which 
are on the verge of extinction, includ- 
ing a few which, though not yet so 
far gone, are threatened with extinc- 
tion in the near future. 

In Proceed, of the IV Intern. Ornith. 
Congress, London 1905, pp. I9:-2I7. 



LIST OF PLATES. 

1. Fregilupus varius. From the plate in the " Volume Centenaire," 

Mus. Hist. Naturelle, Paris. 

2. 1. Fottdia bruante. From the figure in Daubenton's work. 

2. Necropsar rodericanus. Made up from description. 

3. Necropsar leguati. From the type specimen in Liverpool. 

3. 1. Geospiza magnirosiris. From the type specimen in London. 

2. Geospiza strenua. Head. From specimen at Tring. 

3. Nesoenas mayeri. From specimen in the British Museum. 

4. Chaimoproctus ferreorostris 3 ! . From the pair in the British 

Museum. 

4. 1. Hemigjiathus ellisianus. After a drawing from the type in the Berlin 

Museum. 

2. Heterorhynchus lucidus. From a specimen in the Paris Museum. 

3. Psittirostra psittacea deppei. From the type in the Tring Museum. 

4. Ciridops anna. From a specimen in the Tring Museum. 
4a. 1. Moho apicalis. From specimen in the Tring Museum. 

2. Chaetoptila angusiipluma. From specimen in the Tring Museum. 

5. 1. Miro traversi. From skin in the Tring Museum. 

2. Traversia lyalli 3 and J . From the type specimens in the Tring 

Museum. 

3. Bowdleria rufescens. From a skin in the Tring Museum. 
5a. Siphonorhis americanus. From skin in the British Museum. 

6. 1. Nestor norfolcensis. From the plate in the Bulletin of the Liverpool 

Museum. 
2. Head of Nestor prodiicttis. From a specimen in the Tring Museum. 

7. Lophopsittacus mauritiantts. From ancient drawing and description. 

8. Necropsitiacus borbonicus. From a description. 

9. Mascarinus mascarinus. From the drawing in the Volume commemoratif, 

Centenaire Mus. Paris. 

10. Ara tricolor. From specimen in the Liverpool Museum. 



xxviii LIST OF PLATES 

H. Ara gossei. From Gosse's description. 

12. Ara erythrocephala. From Gosse's description. 

13. Anadorhynchus purpurascens. From description. 

14. Ara martinicus. From description. 

15. Ara erythrura. From description. 

16. Conurus labati. From description. 

17. Amazona violaceus. From description. 

18. Amazona tnartinicana. From description. 

19. Palaeornis exsul. From the plate in the " Ibis." 

20. Palaeornis wardi. From the plate in the " Ibis." 

21. Hemiphaga spadicea. From the specimen in the Tring Museum. 

22. Alectroenas nitidissima. From the plate in the Volume commemoratif 

du Centenaire, Mus. Paris. 

23. Pezophaps solitaria. Made up from descriptions and ancient drawings. 

24. Didus cucullatus. From drawings. 

24a. Didus cucullatus. See explanation, page 172. 
24b. Didus cucullatus. See explanation, page 172. 
24c. Didus cucullatus. See explanation, page 172. 

25. Didus solitarius. From a picture supposed to be taken from a living 

specimen in Amsterdam, but beak and wing restored. 

25a. Didus solitarius. After Dubois' description. 

25b. 1, 2, 3. Pezophaps solitarius. Reproduction of ancient figures, see 
page 177. 

4, 5, 7, 8. Didus solitarius. Reproduction of ancient figures, see 
page 177. 



LIST OF PLATES xxix 

26. I. Hypotaenidia pacifica. From Forster's unpublished drawing in the 

British Museum. 

2. Pennula sandwichensis. From the unique specimen in the Leyden 

Museum. 

3. Pennula millsi. From skin in the Tring Museum. 

27. Nesolimnas dieffenbachi. From the unique specimen in the British 

Museum. 

28. \. Cabalus modestus. From skin in the Tring Museum. 

2. Coturnix novaezealandiae. From skin in the Tring Museum. 

29. Aphanapteryx bonasia. From ancient drawing. 

30. Erythromachus leguati. Made up from ancient outUne figure and 

description. 

3L Leguatia gigantea. Made up from ancient figures and descriptions. 

32. Apierornls coerulescens. From description. 

33. Notomis alba. From the plate in "Ibis," 1873. 

34. Notomis hodistetteri. From the plate in the Zeitschr. f.d. ges. 

Ornithologie. 

35. 1. Aedwiorhynchtis cancellatus. From the plate in Seebohm's 

" Charadriidae." 
2. Prosobonia leucoptera. After the unpublished drawings in the British 
Museum, but the artist has not shown the white patch on the 
shoulder. 

36. Camptolainms labradoriits. From the two specimens in the Tring 

Museum. 

37. Aestrelata caribbaea. From the type specimen in the Dublin Museum. 

38. Alca impeiinis. From the stuffed specimen in the Tring Museum. 

39. Carbo perspicillatus. From a specimen in the British Museum. 

40. Droinaius peroni. From the type of the species in the Paris Museum. 

41. Megalapteryx huttoni. Restored from osteological remains and feathers. 

42. Dinornis ingens. Restoration from skeleton and some feathers. 



PALAEOCORAX forbes. 

THIS genus is founded on cranial ciiaracters : Basipterygoid processes 
of parasphenoid present but rudimentary. The vomer broad, flat, and 
three-pointed in front. Maxillaries anchylosed to the premaxillaries, 
the latter anchylosed to the expanded ossified base of the nasal septum. 
The ossified mesethmoid stretches backward and is lodged in the concavity 
of the upper surface of the vomer, so that it presents a form intermediate 
between the complete aegithognathous forms, such as Corviis, and the 
compound aegithognathous forms, such as Gymnorhina, in which desmogna- 
thism was superadded by "anchylosis of the inner edge of the maxillaries with 
a highly ossified alinasal wall and nasal septum " (Parker). 



PALAEOCORAX MORIORUM (forbes). 

Corvus moriorum Forbes, Nature XLVI p. 252 (1892). 
Palaeocorax morionan Forbes, Bull. B.O.C. I p. XXI (1892). 

DR. FORBES says this bird is of about half the size again of a Corvus 
comix. The principal characters are cranial, and the same as those 
of the genus. 
Habitat : Chatham Islands, and possibly the Middle Island, New Zealand. 
Many skulls and bones in the Tring Museum. 



T 



PALAEOCORAX ANTIPODUM forbes. 

Palaeocorax aiitipodum Forbes, Ibis 1893, p. 544. 

HIS is said to be distinguished from P. moriorum by its considerably 
smaller size. Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. 



H 



FREGILUPUS LESSON. 

UGE crest, bill long and curved. One species, extinct. 

FREGILUPUS VARIA (bodd.) 

(Plate 1.) 

" Huppes oil Callcndrcs," Voyages du Sieur D.B. (Dubois) aux lies Dauphine on Madagascar, 

and Bourbon ou Mascarenne, etc., p. 172 (1674 — Bourbon). 
Hiippe du Cap de Bonne Espirance Daubenton, PI. Enl. 697. 
Hiippe noire et blanche du Cap de Bonne Espirance MontbeiUard, Hist. Nat. Ois. VI, 

p. 463 (1779). 

Madagascar Hoopoe Latham, Gen. Syn. B. II pt. I, p. 690 (1783). 

Upupa varia Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 43 (1783 — ex Daubenton). 

Upiipa capensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 466 (1788 — ex MontbeiUard). 

La Huppc grise Audebert et Vieillot, Ois. Dor., " Promerops " p. 15 pi. iii (1802). 

Le Mirops huppi Levaillant, Hist. Nat. Promerops, etc., p. 43, pi. 18 (i8o6). 

Upupa madagascariensis Shaw, Gen. Zool. VIII, pt. I, p. 140 (1812). 

Coracia cristata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. VIII, p. 3 (1817). 

Pastor upupa Wagler, Syst. Avium, Pastor, sp. 13 (1827). 

Fregiliipus borboniciis Vinson, Bull. Soc. d'Acclimat 1868, p. 627. 

Fregiliipus varius Hartlaub, Vog. Madagasc. p. 203 (1877); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XIII 

p. 194 (i8go) ; Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, Centenaire Mus. Hist. Nat., p. 205, pi. II 

(1893). 

AS long ago as 1674 a note about the " Huppe" exists, by " Le Sieur D.B.," 
i.e., Dubois. He says, when describing the birds of Reunion (translated) : 

" Hoopoes or ' Callendres,' having a white tuft on the head, the rest 
of the plumage white and grey, the bill and the feet like a bird of prey ; 
they are a little larger than the young pigeons ; this is another good game 
{i.e., to eat) when it is fat." 

This description has generally been accepted as referring to the 
Fregilupiis, though that of the bill and feet is then due to an error of the 
author, for Fregiliipus has the bill and feet of a member of the Sturnidae 
or family of Starlings. 

Good descriptions and representations of the "Huppe" have been given 
in many places (see literature), but whether they were taUen from males or 
females is generally not known. The sexes seem to be alike in colour, but 
the female is smaller, and has a shorter and straighter bill than the male. 
At least, this is the conclusion of Dr. Hartert, who saw the four examples 
in the museum at Troyes. As far as he could see through the glass all four 



seemed to be adult birds, but two were larger with longer and more curved 
bills, two smaller and with shorter and straighter beaks, so that they are 
evidently two pairs. 

This bird seems to have become extirpated about the middle of the 
last century. The late Monsieur Pollen wrote in 1868 (translated) : "This 
species has become so rare that one did not hear them mentioned for a 
dozen years. It has been destroyed in all the littoral districts, and even in 
the mountains near the coast. Trustworthy persons, however, have assured us 
that they must still exist in the forests of the interior, near St. Joseph. The 
old Creoles told me that, in their youth, these birds were still common, and 
that they were so stupid that one could kill them with sticks. They call this 
bird the " Hoopoe." It is, therefore, not wrong what a distinguished 
inhabitant of Reunion, Mr. A. Legras, wrote about this bird with the 
following words: "The Hoopoe has become so rare that we have hardly 
seen a dozen in our wanderings to discover birds; we were even grieved to 
search for it in vain in our museum." 

We are certain that Fregilupus existed still on Reunion in 1835, as 
Monsieur Desjardins, living on Mauritius, wrote in a manuscript formerly 
belonging to the late Professor Milne-Edwards: "My friend, Marcelin Sauzier, 
has sent me four alive from Bourbon in May, 1835. They eat everything. 
Two have escaped some months afterwards, and it might well happen that 
they will stock our forests." 

It seems, indeed, that specimens were killed in 1837 on Mauritius, 
where they did not originally exist. Verreaux shot an example in Reunion 
in 1832. 

The names "La Huppe du Cap" and " Upupa madagascariensis" arose 
out of the mistaken notions that this bird lived in South Africa or Madagascar, 
but we know now that its real home was Reunion or Bourbon. 

WE ARE AWARE OF THE FOLLOWING SPECIMENS PRESERVED IN 

COLLECTIONS. 
2 stuffed ones, one in good, one in bad condition, and two in spirits, in the Paris Museum. 
4 stuffed in Troyes. 

1 stuffed, from the Riocour collection, in the British Museum. 
1 in the Florence Museum. 
1 in Turin. 
1 in Pisa. 

1, rather poor and old, in Leyden. 
1 in Stockholm. 

1 in the Museum at Port Louis, on the island of Mauritius. 
1 in the collection of the late Baron de Selys Longchamps. 
1 in Genoa. 



T 



NECROPSAR GiJNTHER & NEWTON. 

HE authors state that this genus was very closely allied to Fregilupus, 
and, besides some minor differences, give as the principal difference 
the shorter and less curved bill. 



NECROPSAR RODERICANUS gunth.&newt. 

(Plate 2, Fig. 2.) 

Necropsar rodericanus Giinther & Newton, Phil. Trans, vol. i58, p. 427, pi. XLII, figs. A-G 

(1879). 

TH E original description given by the anonymous author of the " Relation 
de rile Rodrigue " is as follows: — "These birds are a little larger 

than a blackbird, and have white plumage, part of the wings and the 
tail black, the beak and the legs yellow, and make a wonderful warbling." 
Our author also says they inhabited the Islet au Mat, and fed on seabirds' 
eggs and dead turtle. 

The bird evidently became extinct on Rodriguez before 1730, and 
lingered a little longer on the outlying islets. Only known from bones, 
mostly collected by the Rev. H. H. Slater, and the above description. 

Habitat : Rodriguez and neighbouring islets. 

There is one tibia in the Tring Museum. 

The figure is coloured according to the description, while the shape 
of the bird is evident from its bones and relation. 



NECROPSAR LEGUATI forbes 

(Plate 2, Fig. 3.) 
Necropsar legitati Forbes, Bull. Liverp. Rlus, I, p. 34, pi. Stuniidac I (1897-1898). 

DR. FORBES' description is as follows : — " General colour white every- 
where, except on the outer webs of distal half of the primaries and 
secondaries and the outer webs of the newly moulted and both webs 
of the unmoulted rectrices, which are marked with lighter or darker 
ferruginous." 

Dr. Forbes then gives an exhaustive description of the structure, to 
which I refer my readers, and the following measurements :— 

Culmen .... .... .... .... .... .... 32 mm. 

Wing 109 „ 

Tail 98 „ 

Tarsus 31-5,, 

I should have been inclined to consider this bird an albinistic specimen 
of the bird described in " Relation de I'lle Rodrigue," but for the fact that 
the tibia of Necropsar rodericanus is 52-59 mm. in length, while this is only 
46 mm. in length, while the metatarsus measures 31 "5 mm. as opposed to 
36-41 mm. in A'^. rodericanus. I cannot accept the theory that this is the 
Islet au Mat bird, and therefore different from A'^. rodericanus, as the islet 
is too close to Rodriguez to have had a different starling. 1 therefore 
believe this bird to have been an albinistic specimen of the Mauritius species 
of Necropsar, for there can be little doubt that it is albinistic, as the 
ferruginous colour is much stronger on one wing than on the other ; and I 
conclude that the colour in the wings and tail in normal specimens was 
black like the Rodriguez bird, and that A'^. leguati was a close ally of 
A'^. rodericanus, from which it differed principally in its much smaller size. 

Habitat doubtful. — The type specimen bears Lord Derby's Museum 
number, 1792, and a label of Verreaux giving Madagascar as the habitat, 
which is certainly erroneous. 



FOUDIA BRUANTE (p.ls. mull.) 

(Plate 2, Fig. L) 

Bruant de I'isle de Bourbon Daubenton, PI. Enl. 321. 

Le Mordori, Montbeillard, Hist. Nat. Ois., Quarto Edition IV., p. 366 (1778 — Bourbon). 

Fringilla bruante P.L.S. Miill., Natursyst., Suppl. p. 164, No. 51 (1776 — ex Daubenton 

PI. enl). 
Emberiza fuscofulva Boddaert, Table PI. Bnl. p. 20 (1783 — based on PI. Enl. 321 and 

Montbeillard's " Morder6 "). 
Emberiza borbonica Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I p. 886 (1788 — ex Daubenton and Montbeillard). 
Foudia bruante Newton, Trans. Norf. and Norw. Nat. Soc. IV., pp. 543 and 548 (1889). 
NesacaiUhis fusco-fulvus Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XIII p. 484 (1890). 

WE know absolutely nothing about this bird, except Daubenton's figure 
and the description by Montbeillard. In the plate the whole body, 
including the back, is uniform red, about the same red as in other 
species of Foudia, while the wings and tail are dark brown with yellowish- 
brown borders. In the description the body plumage is described as rufous 
("mordere") and the wings, wing-coverts and tail as more or less bright 
rufous ("d'un mordore plus ou moins clair "). The size is said to be about 
that of a Bunting, but the tail shorter and the wings longer. 

According to Dr. Sharpe (Cat. B. XIII, p. 484) "it has generally been 
considered identical with Foudia madagascariensis," but the latter has the 
back marked with longitudinal black spots, while both the figure and description 
of F. bruante represent a uniform red upperside ; moreover the locality of the 
latter is expressly stated, and as we know other forms of Foudia from the 
Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Aldabra and Madagascar, we have no reason 
to doubt the statement. We are not aware of any specimen existing of this 
doubtless extinct bird, though it would be worth while to search the Paris 
Museum for this treasure. 

Habitat : Reunion or Bourbon. 



CHAUNOPROCTUS Bp. 

Chaunoproctus Bonaparte, Consp. Av. I p. 526 (1850). 

THE genus Chaunoproctus contains only one species, which is characterized 
by its enormous bill, the depth of the mandible being greater than 

the distance between the nasal apertures. The cutting-edge of the 
maxilla is nearly straight, and there is no tooth in the posterior half of the 
maxilla. The total length is about seven to eight inches. The adult male 
has red in the plumage, the female is brown, above and below. 

Dr. Hartert (Vogel pal. Fauna I, p. 115) is of opinion that this bird 
is connected with Carpodactis and allies, and not with the Greenfinches and 
Hawfinches, among which it is placed in the Catalogue of Birds in the 
British Museum. 



CHAUNOPROCTUS FERREOROSTRIS (vio 

(Plate 3, Fig. 4.) 

Coccothraiisfes ferreorostris (sic) Vigors, Zool. Journ. IV p. 354 (1828) ; id. in Beechey's 

Voy. Blossom, p. 22, pi. 8 (1839). 
Fringilla papa Kittlitz, M6in. Acad. Imp. Sc. Petersbourg I p. 239, pi. 15 (1830); id. 

Kupfertaf. Vog. p. 24, pi. 32, 2 {1832). 
Chaunoproctus papa Bonaparte, Consp. I p. 526 (1850) ; Bp. and Schlegel, Monogr. Loxiens 

p. 32 pis. 37, 38 (1850). 
Chaunoproctus ferreirostris Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XII p. 31 (iS 



VIGORS' original description, translated from the Latin, is as follows: 
Dark brown; head, breast and upper part of abdomen scarlet. Bill 

very strong, feet plumbeous. Length of body 8 J, bill J, at gape If^, 
height I ; wings from the carpus to the third quill 4j ; tail 3, tarsus J inches." 

In the "Catalogue of Birds," XII, p. 31, both sexes are carefully 
described. 

It appears that only one pair, now in the British Museum, was 
obtained during Captain Beechey's voyage. Curiously enough. Vigors 
suggested that the brilliantly coloured adult male might be the young, the 
female the adult bird, " as is the case in the Pine-Grosbeak " {Sic !). 

Kittlitz, who visited the largest of the Bonin Islands in May, 1828, 
obtained a number of specimens, of which some are in St. Petersburg, 
two in Frankfurt-a.-M., one or two in Leyden, and, I believe, in Paris. 



10 



These seem to be all the specimens known in European museums. 
Mr. Seebohm's collector, the late Hoist, failed to obtain it, and Mr. Alan 
Owston's men, who several times went to the Bonin group to obtain it, and 
who were promised good prices for specimens, did not get one. I am 
therefore convinced that for some unknown reason this bird became extinct, 
though there is still the possibility that the recent collectors did not collect 
on the main island of the group, which alone was visited by Kittlitz. 

Kittlitz tells us that he found it in the woods along the coast, but not 
numerous. That it keeps concealed, is very phlegmatic, and is so little shy 
that one is obliged to go back for some distance, before shooting, if one 
wishes to preserve the specimen. Kittlitz saw it but seldom on high trees, 
mostly on the ground. Its frequently heard note is a very fine piping sound. 
In the crop and stomach small fruit and buds of one kind of tree were 
found. 

Habitat: The largest of the Bonin Islands, south of Japan. 



11 



GEOSPIZA MAGNIROSTRIS gould. 

(Plate 3, Fig. 1.) 

Geospiza magnirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1837, p. 5 (Galapagos Islands) ; 
Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1899 p. 154, 1902 p. 388 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
XII, pp. 6, 7 (Fig. ) ; Ridgway, B. North and Middle America I, p. 495 (1901). 

AS explained in Nov. Zool. 1899, p. 154, it is uncertain where Darwin 
obtained the type specimens of Gould's G. magnirostris, as "Unfortunately, 

most of the specimens of the finch-tribe were mingled together," as 
Darwin tells us in his "Journal of Researches" (New Edition 1890, p. 420), 
and he had only " strong reasons to suspect that some of the species of the 
sub-group Geospiza are confined to separate islands." We are, however, 
convinced that the types of G. magnirostris can only have come from Charles 
Island, where it is, probably, the representative of G. strenua strenua. It 
seems, however, that G. magnirostris exists no longer, for all subsequent 
collectors have failed to obtain specimens, unless an immature specimen 
in the U. S. Nat. Mus., from Charles Island (No. 115,905), is a young 
magnirostris (cf. Nov. Zool. 1902, p. 388). 

The dimensions of the three black specimens in the British Museum 
are as follows: Culmen 26-5, 27, 27; height of bill at base 23-5-24; 
wing 91, 91, 95; tarsus 25 mm. These measurements — a culmen of over 
26-5 and a wing of 91 mm. combined — do not occur among our large series 
of strenua, and therefore it is hardly possible that G. magnirostris is composed 
of huge examples of strenua only. 

As Charles Island has been inhabited for many years it is not at all 
unlikely that a bird became extinct on that place. On plate 3 is figured G. 
magnirostris and a head of G. strenua for comparison. 



12 



GEOSPIZA DENTIROSTRIS gould. 

Geospiza dentirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1837, p. 6; Rothschild & Hartert, 
Nov. Zool. 1899 p. 163, 1902 p. 396. 

THIS curious form differs from G. fortis fortis (Charles Island!) in its 
bill, which is bowed in towards the end of the upper mandible, and 
slightly " toothed " on its cutting edge. The one specimen in the 
British Museum certainly came from Charles Island, and we may, therefore, 
conclude that the other also came from there, and there is certainly no reason 
to think that it came from Chatham Island. As the skins in the British 
Museum slightly differ from each other, there is some reason to suspect that 
they are both aberrations of G. fortis fortis. Otherwise it must have become 
extinct, as, in spite of special attention being paid to it, none of the recent 
collectors met with G. dentirostris. 



13 



POMAREA NIGRA (sparrm) 

Miiscicapa nigra Sparrmann, Mus. Carlson. I, pi. 23 and text (1786 — Society Islands). 
Pomarea nigra Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. IV, p. 434 (1879 — Full synonymy, description, etc., 
" Society Islands, Marquesas group "). 

IN the list of birds now fully extinct, in the Proceedings of the Fourth 
Intern. Orn. Congress, I enumerated Po7narea nigra, on the strength 
of E. L. Layard's statement, P.Z.S. 1876, p. 501, who says: "This 
bird has undoubtedly become extinct. Large sums have been offered by 
Messrs. Godeffroy's collectors for the acquisition of a single specimen, but 
in vain ! The very old natives say they remember the bird and call it " Moho." 
I, however, overlooked the fact that this note of Layard's referred 
to the Friendly Islands only, and that this bird has afterwards been obtained 
in numbers on the Marquesas group. It would, nevertheless, be very 
interesting to compare specimens from the various islands, viz. : the Society 
group, Marquesas and Tongatabu, to see if they are perfectly similar. 



15 



MIRO TRAVERSI duller. 

(Plate 5, Fig. 1.) 

Miro traversi Buller, B. New Zealand, Ed. I p. 123 (1873 — Chatham Islands). 

Petroeca traversi Hutton, Ibis 1872, p. 245. 

Myiomoira traversi Finsch, Journ.-f.-Orn. 1874, p. i8g. 

Miro traversi Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. IV p. 236 (1879). 

Miro traversi (partim) Buller, Suppl. B. N. Zealand II p. 125 ? pi. XII (October, 1906). 

THE late Sir Walter Buller described, in 1873, Miro traversi as follows: 
"Adult male. The whole of the plumage black, the base of the 

feathers dark plumbeous; wing-feathers and their coverts tinged with 
brown, the former greyish on their inner surface; tail-feathers black, very 
slightly tinged with brown. Irides dark brown ; bill black ; tarsi and toes 
blackish brown, the soles of the feet dull yellow. Total length 6 inches; 
wing, from flexure, 3-4; tail 2-6; bill 0-5, tarsus M ; middle toe and claw O'l, 
hind toe and claw 0-8 inch." 

" Female. Slightly smaller than the male, and without the brown 
tinge on the wings and tail." 

It may be added that Miro traversi is not pure black, but of a 
somewhat brownish slaty black. 

Miro traversi is only known from the Chatham Islands, where it was 
formerly very common, but, according to a letter from the late W. Hawkins, 
the cats, which have been introduced to destroy rats and rabbits, have 
exterminated it. It seems to have disapppeared from Warekauri, the main 
island of the Chatham group, long ago, for H. O. Forbes (Ibis 1893, p. 524) 
and Henry Palmer found it, in 1890 and 1892, only on the outlying islets of 
Mangare and Little Mangare. 

The bird from the Snares is quite diff'erent, being deep glossy black 
and having a shorter and narrower first primary. 1 named it M. dannefaerdi. 
It is to be feared that a similar fate will one day befall it as has, apparently, 
already befallen its congener from the Chatham Islands. 

Sir Walter Buller (Suppl. B.N.Z. II, p. 125) has confounded 
M. traversi and dannefaerdi, and the figure he gave on his plate looks so 
black, that I do not doubt it represents rather the latter than the former. 
Of course M. dannefaerdi alone occurs on the Snares, and Buller's traversi 
from the Snares were all dannefaerdi. Dr. Finsch's statement (Ibis 1888, 
p. 308) that Reischek's specimen from the Snares "agreed in every respect 
with specimens from the Chatham Islands " is entirely wrong, for, even if 



16 



one prefers unscientifically to lump allied forms, one cannot say that a Miro 
from the Chathams agrees in every respect with one from the Snares. 
BuUer's doubts about the distinctness of the latter might easily have been 
removed, if he had taken the trouble to compare them, for it does not require 
any genius to see the differences. I admit that with my present views on 
geographical forms I would regard the two Miro as sub-species, and call 
them M. traversi traversi and M. traversi dannefaerdi , but most ornithologists 
would still consider them to be "good species." 

I may add that Buller, I.e., p. 125, has not quoted my description 
correctly, for in his rendering are several disturbing misprints, and in the 
fourth line from the bottom occurs a " not " which ought not to be there, and 
which makes the sentence incomprehensible. Also the name itself is spelt 
incorrectly. 

I have a series from Mangare and Little Mangare, taken by Henry 
Palmer in 1890. The egg seems to be unknown. 

Habitat : Chatham Islands. 



17 



TURDUS TERRESTRIS kittl 

Turdus terrestris Kittlitz, M6m. Acad. Sc. Petersburg 1 p. 245, pi. 17 (1830 — Boninsima). 
Geocichla terrestris Bonaparte, Consp. Av. I, p. 268 (1850); Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. V, 

p. 183 (i88i) ; Hartert, Kat. Vogels. Senckenb, p. 6 (1891) ; Sharpe, Monograph 

Turdidae, I p. 107, pi. 33 (1902). 
Cichlopasser terrestris Bonaparte, C.R. XXXVIII, p. 6 (1854). 

THE following is Dr. Sharpe's description from a specimen in the 
Leyden Museum : "General colour of the upper parts olive-brown, 

shading into chestnut-brown on the rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail; 
the inside web of each feather much darker, approaching black on the back; 
lores dark brown ; eye-stripe very obscure ; lesser wing-coverts brown, darkest 
on the inside web ; median coverts dark brown, with large olive-brown tips ; 
greater coverts nearly black, broadly tipped, and narrowly margined towards 
the base with olive-brown ; primary coverts black, with a broad olive-brown 
patch on the outer webs; tertials dark brown on the inner web, and olive- 
brown on the outer web ; secondaries brown, margined with olive-brown on 
the outer webs : primaries brown, with the basal half of the outer webs, and 
a spot where the emargination begins, olive-brown ; tail-feathers chestnut- 
brown ; ear-coverts brown ; underparts olive-brown, shading into white on 
the chin, throat, and centre of belly ; under tail-coverts dark brown, with 
irregular diamond-shaped white tips ; axillaries brown ; under wing-coverts 
brown. Geocichline markings on inner webs of quills dirty white. Wing 3'8 
inches, tail 2-6, culmen 085, tarsus 1-07, bastard primary 08." 

The only person who ever collected this short-tailed Ground-Thrush 
was Kittlitz, who obtained four specimens, one of which is in St. Petersburg, 
one in Frankfurt, one in Vienna, and one in Leyden. Neither Hoist, nor 
Alan Owston's Japanese collectors obtained specimens, though their special 
attention was called to it. Therefore, unless these recent collectors left 
unvisited the most important island of the group, we must suppose that it 
became extinct. 

Habitat : Bonin Islands, south-east of Japan. 



19 



PHAEORNIS OAHENSIS wilson & evans. 

Phaeomis oahensis Wilson & Evans, Aves Hawaiienses, Introd. p. XIII (1899 — Based on 
Turdus sandwichensis var. Bloxam, Voy. " Blonde " App. p. 250 (1826-Oahu) and 
" Turdus woahensis " Bloxam M.S.) 

NOTHING is known about this evidently extinct bird, which formerly 
existed on the island of Oahu, except Bloxam's short description, 
which is as follows : — " Length 7J inches ; upper parts olive-brown, 
extremities of the feathers much lighter colour ; tail and wings brown ; bill 
bristled at the base." 

The corresponding description of Phaeomis obscura in Bloxam's M.S. 
notes is : — Length 8 inches ; belly light ash ; back, tail and wings an ash- 
brown ; bill slender, f-in. long, bristled at the base. A beautiful songster." 

It is thus evident that Bloxam considered both forms to be distinct, 
and Messrs. Wilson and Evans were perfectly justified in naming the extinct 
Oahu form. 

We are not aware of any specimens being preserved in any Museum, 
though Bloxam obtained a skin. Messrs. Wilson and Evans (I.e.) write : — 
" All the specimens obtained by Mr. Andrew Bloxam, properly prepared and 
labelled, were placed at the disposal of the Lords of the Admiralty, as shewn 
by a copy of the letter he wrote to their Secretary, and probably all were 
sent, as some certainly were, to the British Museum ; but no other trace of 
this unique specimen of a vanished species, which may be properly called 
Phaeomis oahensis, is now forthcoming." 



21 



BOWDLERIA RUFESCENS (buller). 

(Plate 5, Fig. 3.) 

Sphenoeacus rufescens Buller, Ibis 1869, p. 38. 

Megaluriis rufescens Gray Hand-l. B. I, p. 206. No. 2913. (1869.) 

BULLER'S original description is as follows: "Upper parts, sides, and 
tail dark rufous brown, brightest on the crown and hind-neck ; the 

feathers of the shoulders and sides centred with black. Quills 
dusky black, margined with rufous brown. Streak over the eye, throat, 
breast and abdomen pale fawn colour; sides of the head and ear-coverts 
marked with black. Bill light brown with the ridge black, feet dark brown." 
Buller's type probably had been preserved in spirit, as the colouration of 
fresh specimens is very different to his description. The general colour above 
and on the flanks chestnut rufous, most feathers with darker or black centres; 
chin, throat, breast and abdomen pure white ; crissum and under tail-coverts 
whity buff or buffy brown. Wing 2-6 inches, tail 3-9 inches, culmen 0-65 inch." 

Habitat: Chatham Islands. 

Cats, rats and weasels have exterminated this fine species, which is 
now quite extinct. Messrs. Travers and Dannefaerd have supplied the 
specimens in most colonial museums, while Henry Palmer collected the 14 
at Tring. A few in Liverpool and two in the British Museum are all known 
to me in Europe, in addition to those at Tring. 



23 



TRAVERSIA rothsch. 

See description below. Only one species known. 



TRAVERSIA LYALLI rothsch. 

(Plate 5, Fig. 3.) 

Traversia lyalU Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. IV p. X (December 29th, 1894); Nov. Zool. 1895, 
p. 81. 

Xenicus insularis Buller, Ibis 1895, p. 236, pi. . 

Traversia insularis Buller, Suppl. B.N.Z. II p. 109, pi. X (1906). 

IN 1894 I described this remarkable little bird as follows : " Traversia, gen. 
nov. Xenicidarum. Differs in several important points both from 
Xenicus and Acanthidositta. Bill much larger and stouter, very little 
shorter, if at all, than the tarsus; the latter about as long as middle toe 
without claw, or the hind toe and claw, while in Xenicus and Acanthidositta 
it is about twice as long as the hind toe. The principal difference, however, 
is the weakness of the wing, which suggests flightlessness, as does also the 
very soft and loose character of the entire plumage, and the very Ralline 
aspect of the bird. There are only ten tail-feathers, and the scutellation of 
the tarsus is like that of Xenicus. These two points determine its position 
in the Xenicidae at once (cf. Sclater, Cat. B. XIV, p. 450). 

" The type is : Traversia lyalli, sp. nov. 

" Male. Above dark brownish olive-yellow, each feather with a 
brownish-black border. A narrow distinct yellow superciliary line. Wings 
and tail umber-brown, the inner webs darker; wing-coverts like back. Chin, 
throat, and breast chrome-yellow, each feather slightly edged with greyish 
brown. Flanks, abdomen, and vent pale brown, centre of feathers paler. 

" Female. Upper surface umber-brown, each feather bordered with 
very dark brown ; wings and tail similar. Under surface huffy grey, the 
feathers edged with pale brown. Total length about 4 inches, culmen 06, 
wing 18 to 19, tail 0-8, but much concealed, tarens 075, middle toe 0-65, 
hind toe without claw 05. 



24 

Habitat : Stephens Island, New Zealand. Discovered by Mr. Dr. Lyall, 
lighthouse-keeper, and sent to me by Mr. Henry H. Travers." 

I received nine specimens of this new bird, and was not aware that 
any others had been taken at that time. As I was unable to attend the 
December meeting, 1894, of the British Ornithologists Club, I asked 
Dr. Hartert to exhibit the birds in my name. When he had done so and 
had read the description, the Chairman, Dr. P. L. Sclater, said that the bird 
had also been received for illustration and description in the Ibis, from Sir 
Walter Duller, and he asked Dr. Hartert if I would not withdraw my 
description. Dr. Hartert said that this was unfortunate, but he had no 
authority to withdraw my description, and he and Dr. Sharpe thought that 
the proceedings of the meeting should be printed without consideration of 
any manuscripts which might refer to the same bird. No doubt this was 
hard luck on Sir Walter Duller, but it would have been equally hard luck for 
me if he had forestalled me with the new bird. He had only one specimen, 
I had nine, of both sexes, and I had paid a high price for them, as types of 
a new bird. My type is in Tring, and, as everybody knows, available for 
study by any competent ornithologist, while Buller's type was not in any 
museum, and it was uncertain to whom he would sell it afterwards. I 
suppose it is now in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, to which DuUer's 
" third collection," 625 specimens, was sold for a thousand pounds, as Duller 
himself tells us in his Supplement II, p. 167, under the heading of Glaucopis 
wilsoni ! On the same page Sir Walter Duller also tells us that his " second 
collection " was sold to me, but he makes a mistake about the price, as I 
certainly did not pay a thousand pounds for it. 

I mentioned these unimportant details, because Duller rather bitterly 
and severely complained about my describing the Stephens' Island Wren, on 
p. Ill of his supplement. I may only add that of course my name, being 
published in December, 1894, has the priority over his, which was not 
published before April, 1895. 

The history of Traversia lyalli is perhaps the most extraordinary of 
any bird known. All the specimens I am aware of, viz., the eight now in my 
collection, the type of "Xenicus insularis" in Duller's former collection, one 
in the late Canon Tristram's collection, one in the Dritish Museum (ex Tring), 
and two or more offered some years ago by Mr. Travers, were brought in 
by the lighthouse-keeper's cat. Evidently this feline discoverer has at the 
same time been the exterminator of Traversia lyalli, and many may have 
been digested by that unique cat, as in letters received from Mr. Travers I 



25 



have been told that no more specimens could be obtained, and Buller (I.e.) 
says: "Very diligent search has been made on Stephen Island for further 
specimens of the Island Wren, but without success, and there is too much 
reason to fear that this species has almost immediately after its discovery 
become extinct." 

Habitat : Stephen Island, a small, partly wooded islet, about a square 
mile in extent, in Cook Strait. It is almost impossible that this bird has 
only existed on Stephen Island. It must have been overlooked on d'Urville 
Island or the " mainland," where it probably became extinct — through rats 
and cats, and similar pests — long ago. 



27 



MOHO APICALIS gould. 

(Plate 4a, 1.) 

" Yellow-tufted Bee-eater" (non Latham !), Dixon, Voyage round the World, p. 357,plate (1789). 
Moho apicalis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London i860, p. 381 (? Hawaii). 
Acrulocercus apicalis Wilson & Evans, Av. Hawaii, pt. V text and plate (1894). 
Moho apicalis Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, etc., p. 223 and plate (1900). 

THIS rarest species of the Mohos formerly inhabited the island of Oahu, 
where specimens were obtained in 1837, near Enero, by Herr Deppe. 

The localities of the specimens figured by Dixon and that of the type 
of Gould are uncertain, but they must have been obtained on Oahu. Since 
1837 we have no further traces of Moho apicalis. 

The only specimens known are those in Berlin, collected by Deppe, 
two in the British Museum, and one in my Museum at Tring. The latter, 
which I obtained in exchange from the British Museum, is the one brought 
home from the Sandwich Islands by Capt. Lord Byron. There is no 
specimen of Moho apicalis in the Vienna Museum. 

Habitat: Oahu. 



29 

CHAETOPTILA scl. 

Chaetoptila Sclater, Ibis 1871 p. 358. 

DR. SCLATER justly proposed a new generic term for the " Entomyza." 
or " Molto " angustipluma of former authors. This bird belongs 
doubtless to the family of Meliphagidae or Honey-eaters, and the genus 
is sufficiently distinct from all others. There are no fleshy wattles anywhere. 
The tail is long and strongly graduated ; all the rectrices are obliquely pointed 
at their tips. The plumage of the body is very soft, that of the head, throat 
and chest almost fluffy ; the feathers of the chin, throat and forehead end in 
hair-like bristles. 

We know only one species. 



CHAETOPTILA ANGUSTIPLUMA (peale). 

(Plate 4a, Fig. 2.) 

Entomiza aiigusfipliima Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp., Birds p. 147 pi. XL fig. 2 (1848— Hawaii). 

Mohoa angustipluma Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1855 p. 440. 

Moho angustipluma Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp., Mamm. & Orn. p. 148 pi. XI fig i (1S3S — 

Hawaii). 
Wilson & Evans, Aves. Hawai. pt. II and plate (1891— Hawaii). 
Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, etc., p. 215 and plate (1900). 

THIS remarkable bird, belonging to the family Meliphagidae, used to inhabit 
the island of Hawaii in the Sandwich Archipelago. It has been said by 
Mr. Dole to inhabit Molokai, but this is evidently an error. At present 
nobody on the island of Hawaii has any recollection of its presence, and its 
former native name is unknown— the name " Kiowea " erroneously quoted by 
Mr. Dole being that of Numenius tahitiensis. The bird is extinct, though we do 
not know the reason why it disappeared. 

THE ONLY SPECIMENS WE KNOW OF ARE THE FOLLOWING:— 

1. The type in the Museum at Washington, U.S.A. 

2. One in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu. 

3. One in the Museum of the University at Cambridge, obtained in exchange from Honolulu 

by Mr. Scott Wilson. 

4. One in my Museum at Tring, obtained in exchange from the Honolulu Museum. 

The type was obtained by Peale, the three others by the late Mr. Mills on 
the island of Hawaii. 



30 



STRIGICEPS LEUCOPOGON less. 

Strigiceps Icucopogon Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant 1840 (?) ; Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 266 ; Suppl. aux (ruvres 
compl. de BuPfon, Descr. de Mammif. & Ois, r^cemm. d*icouverts, p. 277 {1847 — Nouvelle HoIIande) ; 
Hartlaub, Beitrag Gesch ausgest Vogel, in Abhandl. Natunv. Ver. Bremen, 2te Ausgabe, als M.S. gedr., 
p. 40 (1896). 

Nobody has hitherto identified the curious bird described by Lesson, 1 c, under the above name. From the 
generic characters he gives it is evident that it was a bird with a long, curved bill, lanceolate feathers on the 
head and throat, and long, strongly graduated tail, doubtless belonging to the McUphagidac. The description of 
the colouration is as follows : — 

" Back, wings and tail bright greenisholive ; quills brown inside ; shafts of the rectrices canarj-yellow 
from below, glossy brown-red from above ; top of head and neck chestnut, each feather being narrow and streaked 
with white, then with fawn-colour on the top ; the feathers of the throat arc elongated and fringed out on their 
edges, very narrow and lanceolate, grey at base, white at the tips ; cheeks, sides of neck and chest ferruginous, 
some white streaks on the feathers of the chest and in the middle of the throat ; flanks and belly clear rufous, 
passing into canary-yellow on the under tail-coverts. Tail from below greenish-yellow ; tarsi horn-colour, bill 
above brownish, below yellowish with brown tip. Length about eight french inches and a half (0.23 centim6tres)." 
{Translated.) 

This bird was said to have come from Australia. I have made enquiries, but the type seems to have 
disappeared. There is something in the description reminding us of ChactoptHa angustipluma. Unless the 
description is faulty, this bird came probably not from Australia, but from one of the Pacific Islands. It has 
not been observed since, and is possibly extinct. 



31 



DREPANIS TEMM. 

Drepanis Temminck, Man. d'Orn. Ed. II, I p. LXXXVl (1820— " Espfeces: Certhia pacifica 
— obscura — vestiaria et probablement falcata, que je n'ai pas vu." Type by 
elimination : Drepanis pacifica. 

THE name Drepanis is now restricted to the practically extinct "Mamo" 
of the natives of the Sandwich Islands. Drepanis pacifica has a very 

striking black and yellow colouration ; the somewhat loose-webbed 
under tail-coverts cover about three-quarters of the tail. The bill is long, 
curved, non-serrated, the upper mandible a few millimetres longer than the 
lower jaw. Nostrils large, covered by an operculum. First primary rudi- 
mentary, hidden by its covert. There is a silky, soft and fluffy axillary patch 
of feathers. The tail is slightly rounded. The metatarsus is covered with 
large, partly fused scutes. 

Only one species known. 



DREPANIS PACIFICA (gm) 

Great Hook-billed Creeper Latham, Gen. Synops. I p. 703 (1782). 
Certhia pacifica Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I p. 470 (1788 — ex Latham). 

BOTH Mr. Scott Wilson and myself have at length discussed this beautiful 
bird in our books on the Hawaiian Avifauna. Of the actual status of 
this bird in former times we know nothing. Latham described it first 
(Gmelin named this species after Latham's description) from a pair in the 
Leverian collection, which is now presei'ved in the Vienna Museum. About 
half a century ago several specimens were collected by the late W. Mills near 
Hilo, on the island of Hawaii, the only island where it existed. Nothing certain 
was heard of the "Mamo" until, in 1892, my collector Henry Palmer obtained 
a fine male, which was caught before his eyes by a native birdcatcher. In 
July, 1898, Mr. H. W. Henshaw saw "at least a pair, possibly a whole family," 
in the woods of Kaumana, and in 1899 a native heard the, to him, well-known 
call near the same place. This brings the existence of the Mamo down to the 
year 1898 or 1899. In view of the futile efforts of Messrs. Henry Palmer, 



32 



Perkins, Henshaw and others to observe this rare bird again, we may well 
suppose that this species is either extinct, or will very soon vanish if any 
are left. 

In former times the Mamo was probably more or less common. Its 
golden yellow feathers were of great value, and, though the majority of the 
famous war-cloaks are composed of the feathers of Moho nobilis, a few such 
cloaks are known to consist of Mamo feathers. It is supposed that it took 
generations to complete such a cape. 

I only know of specimens of this bird in Vienna, Leyden, Paris, Honolulu, 
Cambridge and Tring. 

The two examples in the Vienna Museum were obtained by Fichtel at 
the sale of the Leverian collection. One is perfect, the other has the upper 
portion of the bill wanting. 



33 



HEMIGNATHUS OBSCURUS ELLISIANUS 

(Plate 4, Fig. 1.) 

Hemignathus obscurus Lichtenstein (non Gmelin!), Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1838, p. 440 
pi. 5 fig. I (Oahu). 

Drepanis (Hcniigiiathiis) ellisiaiia Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Is. Pac. Oc. p. g (1859 — based on 
Lichtenstein's H. obscurus from Oahu. 

Hemignathus lichtensteini Scott Wilson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 6, vol. IV, p. 401 (1889 — 
Oahu, based on the Berlin specimen). 

Hemignathus ellisianus Rothschild, Avif. of Laysan, etc., p. 87 (1893) p. 310 (1900). 

WE know only of one single specimen, the type of the names ellisianus 
and lichtensteini, figured and described by Lichtenstein, in 1838, under 
the name of Hemignathus obscurus. It is true that Lichtenstein 
says, that Herr Deppe procured several specimens, but there is only one 
in the Berlin Museum, and we have no knowledge where the others may be, 
if they are still in existence. 

There can hardly be any doubt that H. obscurus ellisianus is extinct on 
Oahu, where it was discovered by Deppe. All recent collectors, from Wilson 
and Palmer to this day, have failed to find a trace of it. Although collecting 
in the dense forests and rugged mountains of Oahu is most difficult, we may 
suppose that at least one of these collectors would have come across it, if 
it still existed. 

The following is the description made by Dr. Hartert of the type in 
Berlin : — 

"Above greenish olive-brown, more greenish on the back and rump, 
and somewhat more greyish on the head and hind-neck ; the dark bases of 
the feathers on the head showing through, lores deep brown. A distinct 
yellow superciliary stripe. Chin, throat, and middle of abdomen dull brownish 
white (apparently somewhat faded). Upper breast olive-greenish, sides of 
breast and flanks dull olive-greenish, more olive-brown on the flanks. Wings 
and tail deep brown, bordered with yellowish green. Under-wing coverts dull 
white. Bill brown, somewhat horn-brown, but not blackish, as in the other 
forms of Hemignathus. 

It is not probable that the bill and feet are faded, as in specimens of 
Heterorhynchus lucidus collected and stuff^ed at the same time and kept side by 
side with H. 0. ellisianus, the bill and feet are still blackish and not brown. 

Wing 83-5, tail 53, culmen 56, bill from gape to tip in a straight line 475, 
lower mandible from mental apex to tip 40 mm." 



35 



HETERORHYNCHUS LUCIDUS (licht) 

(Plate 4, Fig. 2.) 

Hemignathus liicidus Lichtenstein, Abh. d. Kon. AUad. Wissensch. Berlin 1838 p. 451, pi. V 
figs. 2^ 3? (1839— Oahu). 

Heterorhynchus olivacens Lafresnaye, Mag. de Zool. 1839 pi. X. and text (Oct. 1839). 

THE Oahu form of Heterorhynchus is now extinct, and specimens are only, 
as far as we know, preserved in the Museums of Berlin (types of H. 

lucidtis), Boston (type of H. olivaceus), Francfort, Paris, Leyden, London, 
Cambridge, Liverpool. 

In 1838 Deppe saw this bird in great numbers flying round the flowers 
of the banana plantations. As the bird was apparently common, it is quite 
possible that specimens are preserved in several other collections, and it would 
be most welcome if the officials of continental Museums would give information 
in case they should find specimens of this interesting extinct bird. 

Habitat : Oahu. 



37 



PSITTIROSTRA PSITTACEA DEPPEI 

(P..Te 4, F.G. 3.) ROTHSCH. 

Psittirostra olivacea Rothschild, Avifauna of Laysan p. 193 (1900— Oahu, ex Lichtenstein 

nomen nudum & M.S.) 
Psittirostra psittacea deppei Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. XV. p. 45 (1905— new name for the 

above, the name olivacea being preoccupied by Ranzani). 

PSITTIROSTRA PSITTACEA PSITTACEA is still one of the commoner 
birds on most of the Hawaiian Islands, except Oahu, where it was 
formerly replaced by a closely allied form, P. p. deppei, distinguishable by 
slightly smaller dimensions, more whitish abdomen in the male, and somewhat 
more olivaceous upperside. Specimens have been collected on Oahu by Prof. 
Behn and Herr Deppe, and besides a pair in my collection, I only know of 
examples in the museums of Berlin and Vienna. There is no trace left of 
this species in Oahu, and in spite of great efforts Mr. Palmer and all other 
recent collectors did not come across it. This form has thus shared the fate 
of Hemignathus ellisianus, Heterorhynchiis lucidus, Moho apicalis and Phaeornis 
oahensis, which have all disappeared from Oahu, while Loxops ritfa may still 
exist in a few pairs, or has possibly followed suit already. 



39 



LOXOPS COCCINEA RUFA bloxam. 

Fringilla rufa Bloxam, Voy. " Blonde " p. 250 (:826). 

Loxops ■wolstenUolmei Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club I, p, LVI (i893-Oahu). 
Loxops rufa Wilson, Aves Hawaiienses part VI, plate and text (1896) ; Rothschild, Avif. 
of Laysan, etc., p. 177 (1900). 

THIS form of Loxops is only found on Oahu, where it is doubtless very 
rare now, if not already extinct. The last known specimen was shot 

on April 20th, 1893, in the mountains of the Wailua district, on Oahu, 
and is in my collection. This is the only specimen obtained by the efforts 
of recent collectors, and, if any should still exist, we may suppose that their 
fate is sealed. 

L. c. rufa differs from L. coccinea coccinea of Hawaii by its smaller 
size and more brownish, somberer coloration. 

We know of specimens in the British Museum, including the type of 
Bloxam's Fringilla rufa, in Liverpool, Philadelphia, Berlin, Berlepsch Castle, 
Vienna and Tring. 



41 



CIRIDOPS WILSON 

Ciridops Wilson, Nature 1892, p. 469. 

THOUGH formerly supposed to belong to the Fnngillidae, it is now 
generally acknowledged to belong to the family Drepanidae, a peculiar 
family of different forms restricted in its distribution to the Hawaiian 
Islands. The genus Ciridops seems to stand nearest to Loxops, from which, 
however, it is easily distinguished by the form of the bill, the pattern of 
colouration, stronger feet, and the structure of its plumage, which is somewhat 
stiff and scanty, while it is soft and rich in Loxops. The feathers of the 
crown and throat are pointed. 

We only know one species belonging to this genus. 



CIRIDOPS ANNA (dole). 

(Plate 4, Fig. 4.) 

Fringilla anna Dole, Hawaiian Almanac 1879, p. 49 (Hawaii); reprint in Ibis 1880. 
Ciridops anna Wilson & Evans, Aves Hawaienses, Part IV, text and plate ; Rothschild, 
Avifauna of Laysan, p. 183. 

THE " Ulaaihawane " of the natives of Hawaii is one of the rarest birds 
known, only three specimens being on record— one, the type, in the 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu, and two in my collection. 
One of these was brought home by Mr. Scott Wilson, who obtained it from 
Mr. Bishop in Honolulu, the other was shot by a native for my former 
collector, Mr. Palmer. No other examples have been obtained. As there are 
still a good many hawane palms in elevated districts of Hawaii, there is, of 
course, a possibility that a few examples still exist there ; but to all intents 
and purposes Ciridops antui may be looked upon as extinct. 



43 



SIPHONORHIS scL. 

Siphonorhis Sclater, P.Z.S. 1861, p. 77. Type: Caprimulgus ainericanus L. 

" '■ I "«HE bill is extremely broad at base, the tip strong and heavily 

J. decurved ; nostrils tubular and very prominent ; rictal bristles 

strongly developed. Wing pointed, third primary longest ; tail 

rounded, almost graduated. Tarsi long and naked. The sexes differ slightly 

in coloration." (Hartert.) 



SIPHONORHIS AMERICANUS (l.) 

(Plate 5a.) 

"Small Wood-Owle" Sloane, Voy. Jamaica 11, p. 296, pi. 255, fig. i (1725). 

Capriiinilgiis ainericanus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 193 (1758 — Ex Sloane. "Habitat 

in America calidiore "). 
Chordeiles americanus Bonaparte, Consp. Av. I, p. 63 (1850). 
Siphonorhis americanus Sclater, P.Z.S. 1861, p. 77; id. P.Z.S. i866, p. 144; Cory, B. W. 

Indies, p. 139 (18S9); Hartert, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XVI, p. 592 (1892). 

THE whole diagnosis of Linnaeus is " Caprimulgus narium tubulis 
eminentibus," but the prominent tubular nostrils are just the character 

which distinguishes S. americanus most strikingly from all the other 
goatsuckers, and 1 think that Sloane's figure and description are sufficient to 
indicate this bird. Sloane says as follows : — 

" This was seven Inches from the end of the Bill to that of the Tail, 
and ten from the end of Wing to Wing expanded, it had a quarter of an Inch 
long crooked black bill, with two Tubuli about one eight Part of an Inch 
long for the Nostrills, along the upper Mandible were several bristly Hairs in 
a Line, like those of a Cat's Mustachoes of a black Colour, the Aperture of 
Chaps or Swallow was extraordinary large. The Feathers on the Head and 
under the Chaps were many, the Tail was four Inches long, the Head and 
Back were cover'd with Feathers of a mixt Colour of Feuille Morte, grey 
and black, the Wings and Tail were of the same Colour only Lighter under 
the Chaps, Breast and Belly was also of the same, the Legs and Feet were an 
Inch and half cover'd with brown Scales, the Toes four, three before, that in 
the middle three-quarters of an Inch long, and one behind. 



44 



" Its Stomach was not very muscular, it was fill'd with Scarabei, &c. 
The rest of the Bowells agreed in everything with those of the greater Sort, 
concerning which see the description above. 

" They feed on Scarabei and other Insects of that Kind. 

" They are found with the former." 

Specimens of this Goatsucker are very rare in collections, and I am 
only aware of the existence of examples in American museums and of the 
pair obtained by Osburn in Jamaica about half a century ago, and now in 
the British Museum. Recent collectors have failed to procure it, and it is 
therefore to be feared that, like Aestrelata caribbaea, it has been exterminated 
by the introduced mongoose and other animals. 

Habitat : Jamaica. 



45 



NESTOR PRODUCTUS (gould.) 

(Plate 6, head.) 

Wilsou's Parrakeet Latham, Gen. Hist. B. II, p. 170 (1822). 

Plyctolophus productus Gould, P.Z.S. 1836, p. 19. 

Nestor productus Gould, Syn. Austr. B. and adj. Isl. pt. I, pi. , flg. i (183 — ?). 

Ceiitrnrus productus Bp., Naumannia 1856, Consp. Psitt. No. 265. 

LATHAM'S original description is as follows : " Length thirteen inches. 
Bill very long and hooked, and upper mandible measuring almost two 
inches, the under three-quarters, colour dusky ; plumage in general 
greenish ash, inclining to brown, and clouded here and there with orange as 
in the ' Crossbill,' but the edges of the feathers of the back dun colour ; all 
the under parts of the body mixed yellow and dull orange ; rump dull red ; 
under wing coverts dull yellow ; thighs brown ; the quills reach almost to the 
end of the tail, which is somewhat, but not greatly, cuneiform ; both quills and 
tail are brown, the former marked on the inner webs with five or six 
whitish bars ; legs dusky, toes very long. Inhabits New South Wales. I 
met with a fine specimen of it in the collection of Thomas Wilson, Esqre." 

It has long been a question whether Nestor productus of Gould and 
Nestor norfolcensis of Pelzeln were really distinct or only individual varieties 
of one species. I had for a long time considered them to be merely 
individual varieties, for I could not persuade myself that a small island like 
Philip Island, almost contiguous to Norfolk Island, could have a different 
species of Nestor to that found on the larger island. Since commencing to 
write this book, however, 1 have come to somewhat different conclusions. 
In the first place no special locality is given for N. productus by the earlier 
authors, in the same way as in the case of Notomis alba, which, like the 
Nestor, was said to come from N. S. Wales. This fact is easily explained, 
as N. S. Wales and Norfolk Island were both penal settlements in the early 
days, and there was intercourse by regular vessels plying between these 
colonies and Lord Howe's Island. Now we find in the case of several other birds 
that distinct local forms occur on Norfolk and Lord Howe's Islands, while as 
far as I know there is no other record of a distinct bird from Philip Island. 
I therefore believe that Nestor productus inhabited both Norfolk and Philip 
Islands, and that all specimens extant are from Philip Island, where it lingered 
some years longer than on the main island, while the specimens of Ferdinand 
Bauer and Governor Hunter, and possibly the supposed A'^. norfolcensis of 



46 

Canon Tristram's collection, now in Liverpool, had been brought from Lord 
Howe's Island in cages and were kept as pets in Norfolk Island; and then, as 
the value of exact data in those early days of our science was unknown, 
the references were made to the place whence the specimens were seen or 
brought. One thing however is certain, the bill in Ferdinand Bauer's sketch 
is evidently a monstrous growth produced by captivity, for Latham expressly 
describes the bill of Governor Hunter's bird as ending in a long thin point. 
The differences of N. norfolcensis are the dull crimson sides of face, chin, 
and throat ; dull green head and hind neck, and the total absence of bars on 
the tail. The plate given herewith is a reproduction of the Liverpool bird, 
with the bill of Ferdinand Bauer's sketch added, as this is wanting in that 
bird, and in the corner a head of the specimen of A'', productus, purchased for 
the Tring Museum, when the late Mr. Wallace's Museum at Distington, 
Cumberland, was dispersed. 

I have carefully examined the three fine specimens of Nestor productus 
in the British Museum, and the conclusion I have come to is that the bird 
described by Gould as the adult of his A^. productus was an abnormal 
specimen, and was in relation to normal A'', productus what the aberrations 
called "superbus" and "esslingi" are to N. meridionalis. The bills of the 
British Museum specimens are very different. The one from the Bell 
collection has the long, thin bill, but it is at least half-an-inch to three- 
quarters shorter than those in the Tring and Florence specimens. 

Habitat : Philip Island and probably Norfolk Island. 

One in Tring, three in London, one in Florence, two in Vienna, one 
in Prague, two in Leyden, one in Amsterdam, are known to me. 

The two specimens in the Vienna Museum were both bought in 1839. 
One from Ward, with a short bill, brown chest and throat, and a very wide 
yellow breast-band. The other from Baron von Hilgel, which has a long 
bill and very red cheeks and chin. 



47 



NESTOR NORFOLCENSIS pelzeln 

(Plate 6, full figure.) 

Long-billed Parrakeet Latham, Gen. Hist. II, p. 171 (1822). 

Nestor norfolcensis Pelzeln, Sitzb. k. AUad. Wiss. XLI, pp. 322-325, pi. — (i860 — detailed 
description from the manuscript of the late botanist, Ferdinand Lucas Bauer, and 
figure of head with an evidently abnormally developed bill. The specimen was from 
Norfolk Island ; it had disappeared before Pelzeln's time). 

LATHAM'S original description is as follows: "Length above 12 inches. 
Bill very long and curved, thick halfway from the base, but tapering 

quite to a point at the tip, and under mandible truncated at the end, 
colour of both, dusky; head and neck dull green; sides under the eyes, chin 
and throat pale crimson ; upper parts of the body, wings and tail dusky ; 
breast yellowish; belly, thighs and vent more or less crimson; tail cuneiform; 
legs brown." 

"One of these was in possession of Governor Hunter, who brought it 
from Norfolk Island; from the bill it seems related to the other, but 
the tail is cuneiform in a much greater degree, without any bars across it." 

The only bird of this species extant is the one in Liverpool, from 
the Tristram collection. 

Governor Hunter's specimen and Bauer's bird were both brought from 
Norfolk Island, but as they were cage-birds, and differed so markedly from 
A'^. prodticttis, I, for reasons given under A^. product us, believe this bird came 
from Lord Howe's Island. 

Habitat: Lord Howe's Island (?). 



49 



LOPHOPSITTACUS n 



EWTON. 



T 



HE huge bill and peculiar shaped crest, together with the — apparently, 
i.e., if the figure is correct — very short wings are characteristic of 
this genus. (P.Z.S. 1875, p. 350.) 



LOPHOPSITTACUS MAURITIANUS (owen). 

(Plate 7.) 

Broad-billed Parrot Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VI, p. 53 (1866). 

Psittaciis mauritiaiius Owen, Ibis, p. 168 (1866). 

Psittacus (Lophopsittacus) mauritiaiius A. Newton, P.Z.S. (1875), pp. 349, 35°- 

Lophopsittacus mauritiaiius Newton, Enc. Brit. (ed. 9) III, p. 732, ff. 44, 46 (1875). 

THIS extraordinary parrot was first described and made known to science 
by Professor Owen in 1866. He described it from 2 lower mandibles, 

much damaged, which were dug up from the Mare aux Songes. Except 
a few further osseous remains, mostly collected by Sir Edward Newton, 
nothing more of importance was found relating to this bird till Professor 
Schlegel discovered in the Library of Utrecht the manuscript journal kept 
during the voyage to Mauritius in A.D. 1601-1602 of Wolphart Harmanszoon, in 
which among other items of natural history there is a sketch of Lophopsittacus 
from life, and the statement that it was wholly of a grey-blue colour. From 
the fact that this bird is not mentioned by the voyagers who visited Mauritius 
in the 2nd and 3rd decades of the 18th century, it is probable that it was one 
of the first of the Mascarene birds to become extinct. This is easily 
understood when we consider that the bird was apparently unable to fly, and 
would like all big parrots prove excellent eating. 

Only known from osseous remains and the above-quoted drawing 
and notes. 

35 tarsi and tibiae, and 60 complete and incomplete lower mandibles 
and fragments of palatine bones in the Tring Museum. 

Habitat : Mauritius. 



51 



ARA TRICOLOR bechst. 

(Plate 10.) 

Le petit Ara D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 641. 

L'Ara tricolor Levaill., Perr. I p. 17, pi. 5 (1801) 

Psittacus tricolor Bechst., Kurze Ueb. p. 64, pi. I (181 1). 

Sittace ? lichtensteini Wagl., fide Bp., Naumannia 1856, Consp. Psitt. 

BECHSTEIN'S description, taken from Levaillant, is (translated) as follows: 
" This Aras, which others have held to be only a variety of Macao, is 

according to Vaillant a distinct species. It is one third smaller than 
the red-fronted species, or 1 ft. 10 in. long, of which the tail takes 11 inches 
and the bill 18 lines. The latter is of a black colour and has the upper 
mandible less curved, and the sides of the lower mandible more swollen than 
is the case in the other Ara species. The cheeks are naked and white, with 
three lines of red feathers. Head, front and sides of the neck, breast, belly 
and thighs red ; back of the neck pale yellow ; back, shoulders and smaller 
wing coverts brownish red bordered with yellow or green ; flanks yellowish, 
primaries above dark azure blue, below coppery red. Crissum violet blue, 
undertail coverts pale blue with green and brown-red borders ; under-wing 
coverts red, the larger yellow, and brownish green. Two centre tail feathers 
all red with blue tips, the outer ones blue on outer webs and tips, red on 
the rest of the feather." 

Of this bird I know only of two in the British Museum, one in 
Paris, one in Leyden, one in Liverpool. The specimen in the Paris Museum 
bears the inscription " Macrocercus tricolor (Bechst.) M. E. Rosseau. Cuba. 
Menagerie 1842." Probably, however, there are more specimens in other 
museums. 

Apparently the last specimen was shot in 1864 at La Vega (Bangs, 
Americ. Nat. XXXIX, p. 200). 

Like all the extinct West Indian Macaws, Amazons and Conures, it 
became extinct through its persecution by the inhabitants for food. 

Habitat : Formerly Cuba and Isle of Pines. 



52 



ARA GOSSEI ROTHSCH. 

(Plate 11.) 

Yellow-headed Macaw Gosse, Birds of Jamaica, p. 260 (1847). 

Ara gossei Rothsch., Bull. B.O.C.. XVI, p. 14 (1905) ; Proc. IV, Orn. Congr., p. 201 (1907). 

Ara tricolor (non Bechstein) Clark, Auk 1905, p. 348. 

MR. GOSSE'S description is as follows : — " Basal half of upper mandible 
black ; apical half, ash coloured ; lower mandible, black, tip only 
ash coloured ; forehead, crown, and back of neck, bright yellow ; sides 
of face, around eyes, anterior and lateral parts of the neck, and back, a 
fine scarlet ; wing coverts and breast deep sanguine red ; winglet and 
primaries an elegant light blue. The legs and feet are said to have been 
black ; the tail, red and yellow intermixed (Rob.)" 

Mr. Gosse also remarks, " If this is not the tricolor of Le Vaillant, 
which is the only Macaw I am aware of marked with a yellow nape, it is 
probably new." 

In spite of the evident differences in the description, the Jamaican 
Ara has always been united with the Cuban A. tricolor, even as lately as 
October, 1905, by Mr. Austin H. Clark (Auk, 1905, p. 348), though he queries 
it in a footnote. The specimen described by Dr. Robinson, here quoted by 
Gosse, was shot about 1765, by Mr. Odell, in the mountains of Hanover 
parish, about ten miles east of Lucea. 

Habitat : Jamaica. 

The specimen described no longer exists, and there are none in any 
collection known. 

There was a third member of the tricolor group of Macaws found 
on the large island of Haiti, which Mr. Clark has also united under A. tricolor, 
but I believe it must have been different, just as the Jamaica bird. 



53 



ARA ERYTHROCEPHALA rothsch. 

(Plate 12.) 

Ara militaris Gosse, Birds of Jamaica, p. 261 (1847). 

Ara erythroccphala Rothsch., Bull. B.O.C., XVI, p. 14 (1905) ; Proc. IV Orn. Congr., 
p. 201 (1907). 

GOSSE says the description given to him in a letter, just received from 
Mr. Hill, was as follows : — " Head red ; neck, shoulders, and 

underparts of a light and lively green ; the greater wing coverts and 
quills, blue; and the tail scarlet and blue on the upper surface, with the 
under plumage, both of wings and tail, a mass of intense orange yellow." 

" The specimen here described was procured in the mountains of 
Trelawny and St. Anne's by Mr. White, proprietor of the Oxford estate." 
No specimen now known. 

Habitat : Jamaica. 

Mr. Gosse also relates that the Rev. Mr. Coward, in 1842, saw two 
large Macaws flying near the foot of the mountains in the parish of 
St. James, near the centre of the island. These birds were said to have 
been blue and yellow ; if so, probably they were my Ara erythrura, whose 
precise island home is unknown. 



ARA MARTINICUS (rothsch.) 

(Plate 14.) 

Les Aras P6re Bouton, Rel. de I'^tab. d. Fran9ais dep. 1635, en I'ile Martinique 

pp. 71.72 (1640) 
Anadorhynchus martinicus Rothsch. Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 14 (1905); Proc. IV Orn. Congr., 
p. 202 (1907.) 

PERE bouton says, " Les Aras sont deux ou trois fois gros comme 
les Perroquets et ont un plumage bien different en couleur. Ceux 
que j'ai vus avaient les plumes leleucs et orangees." 
No specimen preserved. 

Habitat : Martinique. 



54 



ARA GUADALOUPENSIS clark. 

Les Arras Du Tertre, Hist. gen. des Antilles Vol. II p. 248 (1667). 

Ara Rouge D'Aubenton, PI. Enl. 12 (1779). 

Ara gtcadaloupensis Clark, Auk, XXII, p. 272 (1905). 

DU TERTRE gives the following description : — " The Arras is a sort of 
Parrot bigger than all the others. This is proved because those of 
Guadaloupe are larger than all the other Parrots, both those from the 
Islands as well as from the Mainland ; while this Arras is larger than these 
by one third. It has the head, the neck, the belly and the back of the 
colour of fire ; its wings are a mixture of yellow azure, and crimson feathers ; 
while the tail is entirely red and a foot-and-a-half long." 

Macaws of this colouration are mentioned by Du Tertre, De Rochefort, 
and others of the older authors as being found on Guadaloupe, Dominica 
and Martinique, and Mr. Clark has united them under one name. This I feel 
sure is wrong, and I believe each of the three islands had a distinct species 
of Red Macaw, so I confine this name to the Guadaloupe form. 
Habitat : Guadaloupe. 
No specimen existing. 



ARA ERYTHRURA nom. nov. 

(Plate 15.) 

De Rochefort, Histoire Nat. & Mor. des lies Antilles, &c. (1658), p. 154, Art. IX (Des 

Arras). 
Anadorhynchus coeruleus (non Gmelin) Rothsch., Bull. B.O.C., XVI, p. 15 (1905). 

IN the Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 15 (1905), I unfortunately described this bird 
under the name of Anadorhynchus coeruleus (Gm.), having misread his 
description, and also said it came from Jamaica. Professor Salvadori, 
in the Ibis (1906) Series 8, Vol. VI, "Notes on Parrots," p 451, calls 
attention to my double error, but failed entirely to realise what bird I 
really meant. The original description is (translated) as follows : — 

" Among them are some which have the head, the upper side of the 
neck, and the back of a satiny sky blue ; the underside of the neck, the 
belly, and undersurface of the wings, yellow, and the tail entirely red." 
No specimen existing. 
Habitat : One of the West Indian Islands. 



55 



ANODORHYNCHUS PURPURASCENS 

(Plate 13.) ROTHSCH. 

Le gros Perroquet de la Guadaloupe Don de Navarette, Rel. Quat. voy. Christ, p. 425 

pi. II (1838). 
Anadorhynchns purpurascens Rothsch. Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 13 (1905) ; Proc. IV Orn. 

Congr., p. 202 (1907). 

THE original description of this bird says it was entirely deep violet. 
Native name Ond couli. No specimen extant. I have placed this 
species in the genus Anodorhynchiis on account of its uniform bluish 
colour. 

Habitat : Guadaloupe. 



57 



AMAZONA VIOLACEUS (gm.) 

(Plate 17.) 

Perroquet de la Guadeloupe Du Tertre, Hist. Nat. Antill. 11, p. 250, fig. p. 246 (1667). 
Perroquets Labat, Voy. aux iles de TAmSr., vol. II p. 214 (1742). 
Psittacus violaceus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 337 (1788). 

LABAT'S translated original description is as follows : — " Those of 
Guadaloupe are a little smaller than the Aras; they have the head, the 

neck, and the belly slate colour with a few green and black feathers, 
the back is entirely green, and the wings are yellow and red." 

Gmelin's description reads thus :— Ps. violaceus viridi et nigro admisto 
varius, dorso ex fusco viridi, remigibus majoribus nigris, reliquis ex luteo, viridi, 
et rubro variis, tectricum macula rosea. Rostrum et orbitae incarnata." 

Du Tertre's description is as follows : — " He is about as big as a fowl, 
has the beak and eyes bordered with red. All the feathers of the head, neck 
and belly are of a violet colour, a little mixed with black and green, shot like the 
throat of a pigeon. All the upper part of the back is green, strongly washed 
with brown. Outer primaries black, rest yellow, green and red." 

No specimens in collections. 

Habitat : Guadaloupe. 



AMAZONA MARTINICANA clark. 

(Plate 18.) 

"Perroquets" Labat's Voy. aux iles de I'Am^r. II p. 214 (1742). 
Atnazona luartitiicana Clark, Auk. XXII, p. 343 (1905). 

LABAT'S description reads thus : — " Those of Dominica have some red 
feathers on the wings, under the throat, and in the tail ; all the rest 
is green (Amazona bouqueti, w.r.). Those of Martinique have the 
same plumage as the last mentioned, but the top of the head is slate colour 
with a small amount of red." 

No specimen now known. 
Habitat : Martinique. 



59 



CONURUS LABATI rothsch. 

(Plate 16.) 

Perriques Labat, Voy. aux iles de I'Am^r. II p. 218 (1742). 

Conunis labati Rothsch. Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 13 (1905) ; Proc. IV Orn. Congr., p. 202 

(1907). 

LABAT'S translated description of this bird is as follows : — " Those of 
Guadaloupe are about the size of a blackbird, entirely green, except a 
few small red feathers, which they have on their head. Their bill is 
white. They are very gentle, loving, and learn to speak easily." 
No specimens known. 
Habitat : Island of Guadaloupe. 



61 



NECROPSITTACUS milne-edw. 

Necropsittacus Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sc. Nat. (5) XIX, Art. 3, p. 18 (1874). 

MILNE-EDWARDS considered Necropsittacus closely allied to the 
genus Palaeornis, and at the same time to show affinities with the 
Loriidae. At the same time the two mandibles were sufficient, in 
his opinion, to show that this bird belonged to a little generic group standing 
near Palaeornis. 



NECROPSITTACUS RODRICANUS 

(MILNE-EDW.) 

Psittacus Rodricaniis A. Milne-Edw., Ann. Sc. Nat. (5) VIII, pp. 151-155, pi. ?• ^- i. 2 (1867). 
Necropsittacus rodericanus A. Newt., P.Z.S. p. 41 (1875). 

THIS parrot was described from a portion of the upper mandible by 
Professor Milne- Edwards, and then was more fully described by 

Dr. Giinther and Sir Edward Newton, who examined a nearly 
complete skull and other bones. 

A manuscript discovered in the Archives of the Ministry of Marine 
in Paris proves that this bird only became extinct at a not very 
distant date, it having been seen alive by the writer of the manuscript 
about the year 1731. In this manuscript the bird was said to have a 
body considerably larger than a pigeon, with a very long tail and a very large 
head and bill. Unfortunately the writer does not mention the colour, but adds 
that the smaller green and blue parrot {Palaeornis exsid) was much 
handsomer ; so we can safely assume that our bird was of sombre colouration. 
It was undoubtedly closely allied to the genus Palaeornis. The two following, 
though much brighter coloured and but scantily described, apparently belong 
to the same genus. 

Habitat : Rodriguez. 



62 



NECROPSITTACUS (?) BORBONICUS 

(P.ATB 8.) NOM. NOV. 

THIS parrot is described by the Sieur D.B. (Dubois) in the following 
terms : — " Body the size of a large pigeon, green ; head, tail and 
upper part of wings the colour of fire." As he compares it with 
the other parrots which are true Palaeornis, it is evident that this bird 
must have been a Necropsittacus. 

This description is the sole evidence we have of the existence of 
this bird. 

Habitat : Bourbon or Reunion. 



NECROPSITTACUS (?) FRANCICUS 

ROTHSCH. 

Necropsittacus franciciis Rothsch., Proceedings Int. Ornith. Congress 1905, p. 197 (1907). 

ORIGINAL description: — "Head and tail fiery red, rest of body and 
wings green." We only know this bird from the descriptions in the 
various "Voyages" to Mauritius in the 17th and early 18th centuries. 
Habitat : Mauritius. 



63 



MASCARINUS lesson. 

Mascariiius Lesson, Trait6 d'Orn. p. i88 (1831 — A mixture of forms. By elimination the 
name Mascariiius has been restricted to the Mascarine Parrot). 

THE generic affinities of this bird have been discussed by various 
authors. Wagler, Gray, Pelzehi, Hartlaub (1877) and Messrs. A. and 

E. Newton united it with the Vaza Parrots in the genus Coracopsis, 
Finsch included it, together with the Vazas and the Grey Parrot {Psittacus 
erithacus), in the genus Psittacus. Recent authors — Oustalet 1893, W. A. 
Forbes 1879, and Salvadori (Cat. B. XX, p. 421, 1891)— have admitted a 
separate genus, Mascariiius. This is evidently the proper course, and I 
agree with W. A. Forbes, Oustalet and Salvadori that its nearest affinities 
appear to be the genus Taiiygnathus rather than Coracopsis, and that the 
place of Mascariiius is among the Palaeornithinae of Salvadori. 

The large red bill, with distinctly ridged gonys, concealed nostrils and 
moderately long, strongly rounded tail, are peculiar characters. The coloura- 
tion is unique. Only one species is known. 



64 

MASCARINUS MASCARINUS (l.) 

MASCARINE PARROT. 

(Plate 9.) 

" Perroqueis iin pen plus gros que pigeons, ayant le pliiinage dc coiileur de petit gris, 
lilt chaperon noir siir la teste, le becq fort gros, & couleitr de feu" Le Sieur D.B, 
(Dubois), Voyages aux lies Dauphine ou Madagascar, and Bourbon ou Mascarenne. 
p. 172 (1674 — "Bourbon ou Mascarenne"). 

Psittacus Mascarinus Brisson, Orn. IV., p. 315 (1760); Hahn, Orn. Atlas, Papageien p. 54, 
pi. 39 (1835). 

Psittacus iiiascarin. Linnaeus, Mantissa Plantarum, regni animalis appendix p. 524 (1771 
— " Habitat in Mascarina." Ex Brisson). 

Perroquet Mascarin Levaillant, Perroquets II, p. 171, pi. 189 (1805 — "Madagascar," 
errore). 

Mascarinus tnadagascariensis Lesson, Trait6 d'Orn, p. 189 (1831 — "Madagascar," ex 
Levaillant). 

Coracopsis mascarina Wagler, Mon. Psittac. p. 679 (1832) ; Pelzeln, Verb. Zool. Bot. 
Ges. Wien 1863, p. 934. 

Mascarinus obscurus (non Psittacus obscurus L.) Bonaparte, Rev. & Mag. de Zool. 1854 
p. 154 (Linnaeus, Psittacus obscurus — Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 97, 1758, ex Hasselquist 
M.S. — though identified by himself with the Marcarine Parrot in 1766 — Syst. Nat. 
Ed. XII, I, p. 140 — cannot be the same as P. mascarinus ; the description disagrees 
entirely, and the bird was described from a specimen probably seen alive by Hasselquist, 
with uncertain locality. What Linnaeus' P. obscurus was, is difficult to say ; if it 
was not for the long tail, one might consider it a variety of the Grey Parrot). 

Psittacus madagascarensis Finsch, Papageien II pp. 306, 955 (1868 — Finsch was not 
acquainted with the history of this Parrot, as he still considered Madagascar to be 
its home, and wondered why it had not been found there by recent collectors). 

Psittacus tnadagascariensis Pelzeln, Ibis 1873, p. 32. 

Mascarinus duboisi W. A. Forbes, Ibis 1879, pp. 304, 305 (figures), 306; Milne-Edwards 
& Oustalet, Centenaire Mus. d'Hist. Nat. pp. 191-205, pi. I (1893 — excellent lengthy 
account). 

Mascarinus mascarinus Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XX, p. 421 (1891 — Reunion). 

IT has been mentioned above that " Le Sieur D. B." (Dubois) described 
this Parrot clearly in 1674, and that it lived on Reunion, and not on 
Madagascar. Linnaeus in 1771 (see above) was the first to bestow a 
scientific name on it, though Brisson had already again described it in 1760. 
Linnaeus' diagnosis is, as usual, rather poor, and not quite correct*, but his 
reference to Brisson leaves no doubt as to what he meant. 

This parrot is one of the rarest of extinct birds, only two stuffed 
specimens being known. One normally coloured specimen is preserved in 
the Museum of Natural History in Paris, and it is evidently this which has 
been figured by Daubenton and Levaillant, and in the " Centenaire du 
Museum d'Historie Naturelle." From the latter plate my figure has been taken. 
The example in Vienna is unfortunately semi-albinistic, there being 
some white feathers on the back, wings and tail. Another normal individual, 
however, lived formerly in the Menagerie of the King of Bavaria, where it was 
depicted by Hahn in 1835. Unfortunately this specimen has not been preserved. 

•" Psi/facMS brachyurus fuscus, facie nigra, Cauda albente. Habitat in .Mascarina. Rostrum incarnatum. 
Caput caerulescens." 



65 

PALAEORNIS EXSUL newton. 

(Plate 19.) 
Palaconiis exsu! A. Newton, Ibis 1872, p. 33. 

LEGUAT was the first to mention these parrots as " Perroquets verds 
et bleus," and that they were wonderfully good to eat and also 

delightful pets. 
Professor Newton's description is as follows : " Female : Of moderate size. 
General appearance greyish-glaucous, darker above than beneath. From the 
corner of the mouth proceeds an ill-defined dull black chin stripe, which 
becomes broader as it passes backward and upward, ceasing somewhat 
abruptly on reaching the level of the ears. Head, nape and shoulders, upper 
wing-coverts, and rectrices above dull greyish-glaucous, the blue tinge in 
which predominates when the bird is seen against the light, and the green 
when seen in the contrary aspect; the outer rectrices paler. Rump verditer 
blue. Primaries with their outer, and most part of their inner, webs deep 
greenish blue, the former with narrow, lighter edges, and the latter broadly 
bordered with pitch black; shafts and lower surfaces greyish black. 
Secondaries much the same as the primaries, but of a still deeper shade. 
Breast dull greyish-glaucous, but lighter than the upper parts and passing 
on the belly into verditer, which becomes lighter and greener on the vent. 
Rectrices beneath yellowish grey, darker toward the tips of the longer 
feathers. Bill black." 

The specimen was sent in spirits to Sir Edward Newton in 1871 by 
Mr. Jenner, the Magistrate of Rodriguez. 

The male differs from the female in having the upper mandible crimson, 
fading into horn at the tip. Top of head more glaucous. Black stripe from 
nostril to eye. Black chin stripe prolonged almost to meet on nape of neck. 
Most of primaries with dull black patch on inner webs. Middle secondaries 
dusky black. 

The male was sent to Sir Edward Newton in 1875 by Mr. J. Caldwell. 

Total length 16 inches. 

Wing 7-5 „ 

Tail 8-5 „ 

Probably almost if not quite extinct. Recent investigations about its 
status are very desirable. 

Habitat : Rodriguez Island. 



66 



PALAEORNIS WARDI e. newton. 

(Plate 20.) 
Palaeornis wardi E. Newton, P.Z.S. 1867, p. 346 (Seychelles). 

THE translation of Sir Edward Newton's diagnosis is as follows : 
" Similar to P. alexandri, but with a stouter bill, purple red 

shoulder patches, and the hind neck without a red band. 
"Adult Male. Crown of head and throat bluish, cheeks ochraceous green, 
chin and line round base of mandible black, continued in a stripe from the 
gape to the hind neck; back and wings grass green; rump brighter; a single 
wide band (or patch) on the shoulders purplish red; remiges and rectrices 
deep green washed with blue, the latter yellowish, the former dusky below; 
belly yellowish green ; bill vivid scarlet with paler tip ; feet dusky. Total 
length 16 inches, wings 775, tail 9." 

Female similar to the male but duller, and with the bill all black, and 
without the black mandibular stripe. 

Formerly abundant on most of the islands in the Seychelles, especially 
Mahe, but now confined to the little islet of Silhouette, where it will in all 
probability become extinct. According to E. Newton its name was " Cateau 
vert." 

Habitat : Seychelles Islands. 



67 



PALAEORNIS EQUES (bodd). 

Psittaca borbonica torquata Briss., Orn. IV p. 328, pi. XXVII f. i (1760). (Bourbon.) 

PsittacHS alexandri var. y Linnaeus, S.N. p. 142 (1766). 

Perruche d collier de I'Isle de Bourbon Daubenton, PI. enl. 215. 

Perniche a double collier Buff., Hist. Nat. Ois. VI, p. 143 (1779). 

Alexandrine Parrakeet var. C. Double Ringed Parrakeet Latham, Syn. I p. 326 (1781). 

Psittacus eqiies Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 13 (1783). 

Psittacus semirostris Hermann, Obs. Zool. p. 125 (1804). 

Psittacus bitorqiiatus Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. p. 92 (1820). 

Rose Ringed Parrakeet var. B. Latham, Gen. Hist. II p. 161 (1822). 

Psittacus bicollaris Vieillot, Enc. Meth. Ill p. 1385 (1823). 

Palaeornis bitorquatus Vigors, Zool. Journ. II p. 51 (1825). 

Palaeornis borbonicus Bp., Rev. and Mag. Zool. 1854, p. 152. No. 140. 

THERE has been considerable confusion with regard to this parrot. 
It was first asserted that it occurred on both Bourbon and 

Mauritius. Then Professor Newton separated the Mauritius bird as 
Pal. echo. Salvadori, however, in Cat. Birds. Brit. Mus. XX, p. 442, reunited 
the Bourbon and Mauritius birds, while quite unaccountably stating only 
Mauritius as the habitat. 

The Abbe Dubois describes this bird as follows : " Green Parrots as 
large as pigeons having a black collar." 

Now the species of Palaeornis from Rodriguez, the Seychelles, and the 
mainland of Africa are all distinct, and the other land birds of Mauritius are 
and were different from those of Bourbon. I therefore feel quite certain 
that Professor Newton is right, and that his Palaeornis echo is distinct 
from P. eqties, though, unfortunately, we do not know in which way the two 
forms differed. 

Habitat : Bourbon or Reunion, but now extinct. No specimens known. 



68 



PALAEORNIS ECHO new 



TON. 



Palaeoniis echo Newton, Ibis 1876, p. 284. 

Palaeornis eques Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. XX, p. 442 (1891). 

DESCRIPTION of Male : Green, the occiput tinged with bluish ; a 
narrow black stripe from the nostrils to the eyes; broad black 
mandibular stripes passing down and across the sides of the neck 
where they meet a pink collar, which is interrupted on the hind neck; under 
wing-coverts yellowish green ; central tail feathers scarcely tinged with 
bluish ; tail below dark yellowish grey ; upper mandible red, under mandible 
almost black with only a brownish tinge in places. Iris yellow. Naked skin 
round eyes orange. Wing 7'5 inches, tail 8'75 inches, bill 9 inches. The 
female differs by the absence of the collar, no bluish tint on occiput, and the 
bill entirely blackish. 

It differs from P. torquatus in the incomplete collar, darker green 
colour and broader tail feathers. This bird is still found in the interior of 
the island, but is rare and apparently on the verge of extinction. 

Habitat : Mauritius. 

Three specimens at Tring, four in the British Museum. 



69 



CYANORHAMPHUS ZEALANDICUS 

(LATHAM.) 

Red Rumped Parrakeet Latham, Syn. I, p. 249, No. 50 (1781). 

Psittacus novae seelandiae Gmelin (nee. Sparrm.), S.N. I, p. 328, No. 83 (1788). 

PsittacHS zealandictts Latham, Ind. Orn. I, p. 102, No. 58 (1790). 

Psittacus novae-zcalandiae Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. p. 44, var. i (1820). 

Psittacus erythronotus Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. p. 45, No. 67 (1820). 

Psittacus pacificus var. No. 3, Vieillot, Enc. M6th., p. 1387 (1823). 

Platycercus pacificus, part. Vigors, Zool. Journ. I, p. 529 (1825). 

Platycercus erythronotus Stephens, Gen. Zool. ^XIV., p. 129, No. 9 (1826). 

Coiiurus phaeton Des Murs, Rev. Zool. 1845, p. 449. 

Platycercus phaeton Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. i5 (1845). 

Cyanorhamphus pacificus Bonaparte, Rev. et. Mag. 1854, p. 153, No. 184. 

Cyaiiorhaniphus erythronotus Gray, Hand-list II, p. 140, No. 8029 (1870). 

Cyanorhamphus forstcri Finsch, Papag. II, p. 270 (18 



THIS bird has received a variety of names owing to the adult bird being 
very different to the younger and quite young birds. Adult, forehead 

black ; stripe from lores passing through eye almost to hind-neck 
scarlet ; rump scarlet ; back and breast dull green ; cheeks, head, neck, belly, 
under-tail coverts and wing coverts, bright green. Flight-feathers blue on 
outer, brown on inner, webs ; bend of wing blue ; tail feathers blue, edged 
with green. 

Young differs in having a dull bluish-black forehead, brownish head, 
back mixed brown and green, rump and eye stripe chestnut red, and the 
underside greyish green. 

This species was confined to the Society Islands, where it was 
obtained during Cook's Voyage by Ellis and by Forster, and lastly by Lieutenant 
de Marolles in 1844. We only know for certain at the present day of the 
existence of two specimens, one in the British Museum, ex Massena collection, 
whose origin is doubtful, and one in Paris, collected by Lieutenant de 
Marolles. What became of the other two specimens of the latter's collecting, 
and of Forster's and Ellis' specimens, I cannot say. 

Habitat : Society Islands. 

Evidently extinct. 



70 



CYANORHAMPHUS ULIETANUS (gm) 

Society Parrot Latham, Syn. I p. 250 (1781). 

Psittacus uliefanus Gmelln, S.N. I p. 328, n. 85 (1788). 

Platycercits iiUetaniis Vig., Zool. I p. 533, Suppl. pi. 3 (1825). 

Cyanorhamphiis ulictanus Bonaparte, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 153, n. 188. 

Platycerciis fannaeiisis Finsch, Papag. II, p. 272 (i858). 

Psittacus fiiscatus Pelz., Ibis 1873, p. 30. 

A DULT : " Olive brown, the head brown-black ; rump and basal upper tail- 
coverts brown-red, the longest upper tail-coverts olive brown like the 
back ; underparts olive-yellow ; quills, primary-coverts, under wing coverts 
and tail-feathers grey ; bill black, base of upper mandible grey ; feet brown." 
(Salvadori, Cat. B. XX p. 579). Wing 5-3 inches, bill 08 inches, tarsus 08 
inches, tail 5 inches. 

Habitat : Ulietea, Society Islands (fide Latham). 

The type from the Leverian Museum is in Vienna, and a specimen from 
Bullock's collection is in the British Museum. These are the only two 
specimens known, and as it is now more than a hundred years since anyone 
has procured a specimen, we may suppose that this is an e.xtinct species. 
The specimen in Vienna, which I have recently been able to examine, has 
the head, back, wings, and tail deep umber-brown, the rump dark-crimson, 
upper tail-coverts olive, underside brownish yellow. 



CYANORHAMPHUS SUBFLAVESCENS 

SALVADORI. 

Parrot from Lord Hou-e Island Phillips, Bot. Bay, p. 225 (1789). 
Cyaitorhamphus stibfiavesceiis Salvadori, Ann. & Mag. (6) VII, p. 68 (1891). 

VERY similar to C. cooki and C. saisseti and intermediate in size. Above 
more yellowish than C. saisseti, below more greenish, tail shorter 
than in either of the latter. 
This species is believed to be extinct. Last year I received some 
specimens of a Cyanorhamphiis from an inhabitant of Lord Howe's Island, 
but from subsequent letters these appear to have been collected on Norfolk 
or Philip Island, and they certainly are C cooki. 
Habitat: Lord Howe's Island. 
A pair in the British Museum appear to be the only known specimens. 



71 



BUBO(?) LEGUATI nom. nov. 

Stn'x sp. Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX p. 13 (art. 3.) 1874. 

MILNE-EDWARDS had only a single tibio-tarsus of this form and 
described this bone, but refrained from giving it a specific name, 
though he stated it was probably a small Bubo, in the hopes of 
getting more material. 

As, however, we have no further specimens, I think 1 am justified in 
naming it after Leguat, who first mentions Owls on Rodriguez. Milne- 
Edwards' description of this tibio-tarsus is that it equals in length that bone 
in Asio accipitrinus, but was distinguished from the latter by the strong 
inward curvature and the great development in width of its distal extremity. 

Tibio-iarsiis. 
Total length 77 mm. 

Length from the pro.Kimal extremity to the 

top of the peronial ridge .... .... .... 25 ,, 

Width at distal extremity .... lOS ,, 

Width at proximal extremity .... .... 9 ,, 

Width of shaft 37 „ 

Habitat : Rodriguez. 



73 



SCOPS COMMERSONI oust. 

Scops commersoni Oustatet, Ann. Sci. Nat. (8) III, p. 35 fig 3 (1896). 

THIS owl, I believe, is not a true Scops, being much too big, but we must 
leave it in that genus for the present, as there are no specimens or bones 

extant, and only Jossigny's drawing to guide us as to its appearance. 
The first mention of owls on Mauritius was in the year 1606, when Admiral Matlief 
says that owls were common in the Island. Monsieur Desjardins, in 1837, 
gave the first accurate description of the bird, of which I here reproduce 
the translation. "The digits and even the tarsi are not feathered, only on 
the front portion of these latter one sees some short, stiff feathers running 
down to a point nearly to the centre. The digits are very strong, they 
being armed with hooked nails. 

The beak is very stout, arched from its base; the upper mandible, 
which is much longer than the other and covering it, is as if cut square at 
the point. The nostrils pierce the bill pretty high up in the horny portion. 
The eyes, of which I could not see the colour, are round, and placed, like 
in the entire family, in front. They are surrounded by a circle or disc of 
stiff, thread-like feathers, which is interrupted at the sides. A sort of collar 
is perceptible on the throat. Two tufts, similar to those of the Eagle Owls 
and Eared Owls, and very apparent, are behind the eyes and towards the 
top of the occiput. 

The wings are a little longer than the tail, the fourth and fifth 
primaries being the longest, the third and sixth are shorter, and the second 
still shorter, being equal to the eighth, and the first is shortest oif all. The 
tail reaches to the end of the digits; it is rounded and not much 
lengthened : all the retrices are equal in length. The ear-tufts are brown, 
with some slight buff shading, the discal plumes being white marked with 
buff. All the upper side is of a dark brown colour, the feathers of the head, 
the neck and the back are edged with rufous, but not very distinctly so; 
this rufous colour is more apparent on the scapulars, and some of these even 
have on the outer web one or two whitish patches surrounded with brown. 

The large tail feathers are less brown and more rufous in colour, with 
lighter rufous marbling mixed with brown. 

The tertials and secondaries have a darker brown bar towards the 
centre, and their outer web is pleasantly marked with somewhat square ocelli 
or irregular bands of white, pale buff, and brown. The large primaries or 



74 



flight feathers present the same ornamentation, but more strongly developed, 
and the blotches are buffy white on the inner web, which produces a regular 
spotting on a brown ground colour ; the tip of these large feathers is finely 
stippled with brown on a fairly pale ground ; and there is a large patch of 
white on the wings in addition. 

The throat and abdomen are nicely adorned with dark buff feathers, 
which have a black brown centre and two to four large round white spots. 
The large feathers on the flanks are whitish, with a brown shaft line and 
marked with buff. All the well feathered parts, underneath the feathers are 
covered by a very thick black down." 

The colour of bill and feet is reddish brown. Total length, 13J inches 
= 365 mm. Desjardins says the specimen he described was killed at the 
end of October, 1836, in the forest crowning the hills close to " Bamboo 
Creek." In 1837 several were still seen near " La Savane," and one was 
killed at Curepipe by Dr. Dobson of the 99th Regiment. This latter is 
believed to have been one of, if not the last of this species, so we have 
to thank that excellent naturalist, Desjardins, and Monsieur Jossigny, the 
companion of Commerson, that we know what this extinct species was like. 

Habitat : Mauritius. 



75 



ATHENE MURIVORA milneedwards 

Strix (Athene) miirivora Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX p. 13 (Art. 3.) (1874). 

PROFESSOR MILNE-EDWARDS described this bird from a tibio-tarsus 
and a tarso-metatarsus collected in Rodriguez by Sir Edward Newton, 
and says that he considers it to belong to the genus Athene, because 
the proportions of the tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus agree with those of 
that genus. The most remarkable specific characters appear to be that the 
ridge to which the fibula is articulated is stout, and extends very far along 
the outer edge of the bone. The diaphysis is large and nearly straight; the 
distal extremity is furnished with two equal condyles separated by a 
deep channel. 

Tibio-tarsus. 

Total length 

Length from proximal extremity to end of 

peronial ridge 
Width of distal extremity .... 
Width of proximal extremity 
Width of shaft 

Tarso-metatarsus. 

Total length 

Width at proximal extremity 
Width at distal extremity .... 

Width of shaft 

Habitat : Rodriguez. 



71 


mm. 


25 


1} 


10 


)j 


9 


ij 


4 


M 


46 


mm. 


10 


>T 


15 


n 


5 


)) 



77 



SCELOGLAUX RUFIFACIES duller. 

Sceloglaux nififacies Buller, Ibis 1904, p. 639; id. Suppl. B. New Zealand II, p. 65, pi. VII 
(1906). 

ORIGINAL description: "Adult female: Similar to Sceloglaux albifacies, 
but appreciably smaller ; face dull rufous brown, instead of being white ; 
crown and nape blackish brown ; entire upper surface strongly suffused 
with rufous ; quills marked with regular transverse bars and a terminal edging 
of rufous brown ; tail-feathers uniform yellowish brown, obscurely barred with 
pale brown ; bill lemon-yellow ; feet dull yellow." 

" Wairarapa district, near Wellington, North Island, in the summer 
1868-9." 

This supposed " species " is a very doubtful one. A close examination 
in the Tring Museum of the type (which was offered me for such a high price 
that I did not feel justified in buying it, fond as I am of possessing extinct 
forms, types and varieties) by Messrs. Hartert, Hellmayr and myself proved 
beyond doubt to all three of us that the specimen was not fully adult, but 
showed signs of immaturity. If I said to Sir Walter Buller that it was an 
" extremely young, hardly fledged Sceloglaux" this was certainly incorrect, 
and was perhaps just an exclamation after a hasty preliminary examination, 
for the bird is of course fully fledged and has passed, at least partially, through 
one moult of the feathers. On the other hand, both Professor Newton's and 
Dr. Sharpe's reputed statements that the owl in question is fully adult are 
not correct. It certainly shows unmistakable signs of immaturity, as noticed 
at once by Dr. Gadow (cf. Newton's letter on p. 66, I.e.), by Hartert, Hellmayr 
and myself. Moreover Professor Newton — though Buller says he " pronounced 
it to be an adult bird " — also admits that the bird " had moulted, though not 
necessarily to be in adult plumage," and he continues that he thinks the 
" character of the markings continues to be juvenile." 

Having thus discussed the age of this owl, the question must be 
considered if it is different from S. albifacies from the South Island. This 
is less easily done. Buller described it as a "new species," and mentions 
among the distinctive characters (see above) the colour of the tail. The 
tail, however, is " skillfully " (as Buller calls it, though I should use a less 
complimentary adverb) stuck in, and does not belong to a Sceloglaux, but to 
an Australian Ninox, and also some feathers on the neck are foreign. The 
wings being abraded, its slightly smaller length is not very significant. 
Certainly, however, the colouration in general is slightly more rufous than 



78 



in S. albifacies, though some of my specimens approach it almost completely, 
and the face is more rufescent. Professor Newton cautiously warned Sir 
Walter Buller, suggesting that S. albifacies might possibly have a red " phase," 
like Symium aluco, and this North Island specimen represented the latter. 
As for myself, I do not think that S. albifacies has two phases, as I have seen 
too many specimens, and found them to vary but little. I have now in my 
collection eight specimens from the South Island. On the other hand, I have 
not seen juvenile examples; but it is very likely that the rufous face of the North 
Island specimen is a character peculiar to the North Island form, which would 
then be a sub-species of S. albifacies from the South Island, and should be 
called S. albifacies rufifacies. The type from Wairapara is said to have been 
killed in the summer of 1868-9, and, since no further evidence of its existence 
has come forth, I presume that the North Island race of this owl must be 
extinct by this time. 



79 



STRIX NEWTON I nom. nov. 

Strix sp. Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 287 (1893). 

MESSRS. NEWTON AND GADOW give the measurements of, and 
describe a pair of metatarsi procured witii tiie remains described as 
Strix satizieri, and state that they do not fit in with that species. For, 
as they are fully adult bones, it is impossible to attribute their much smaller size 
to youth. They then add a sentence of which this is the first part: "Unless we 
assume, what is unlikely, that the Island of Mauritius possessed two different 
species of Strix, we have to conclude that the short pair of metatarsals 

belonged to a small individual of Strix sauzieri, ." Evidently Messrs. 

Gadow and Newton, when they wrote this, did not remember the fact that 
throughout a very large portion of the range of Strix flammea, its various 
geographical races are found side by side with another species of the group 
of Strix, namely, S. Candida and S. capensis, popularly called " Grass owls " ; 
these in nearly every case have the legs considerably longer than in the true 
"Barn Owls" {Strix flammea and its races). 

Therefore I consider it not in the least unlikely that two species of 
Strix inhabited Mauritius, and that Strix sauzieri was the Mauritian 
representative of the " Grass Owls," while these two short metatarsals 
belonged to the representative of the " Barn Owls." I therefore have much 
pleasure in naming this form after the collector of these bones, the late 
Sir Edward Newton. 

Length of tarso-metatarsi, 56 mm. 

Habitat : Mauritius. 



80 



STRIX SAUZIERI newt. & gad. 

Strix sauzieri Newton & Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 286, pi. XXXIII, Hgs. Ii-i8 (1893). 

MESSRS. NEWTON AND GADOW describe this species from four 
metatarsi, three tibiae, and two humeri. They state that the relative 
length of the tibia to the metatarsus is very constant and characteristic 
of the various families and genera of owls. In the present instance this 
comparison indicates a species of Strix. 

The longer and higher cnemial process of the tibia and the shortness 
of the humerus serve amply to justify the specific separation of this Mauritian 
owl. 

The following are the measurements : — 

Humerus, length 71 mm. 

Tibia-tarsus, length 90—93 „ 

Tarso-metatarsus, length .... .... 63 — 66 „ 

Habitat : Mauritius. 



81 



A 



''CIRCUS HAMILTONI" forbes. 

Circus hamiltoni Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. i85 (1892 — -no proper description). 

VERY large harrier, much larger than Circus gouldi, but not so big as 
Harpagornis. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



A 



''CIRCUS TEAUTEENSIS" forbes. 

Circus teauteeiisis Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 186 (1892 — no proper description). 

NOTHER very large harrier from Teaute, which has never yet been 
properly described. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



83 



ASTUR ALPHONSI newt & gad. 

Astur sp. Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat (5) XIX, Art. II, pp. 25, 26, pi. 15 flg 2. (1874). 
Astur alphonsi Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII p. 2S5, pi. XXXIII, figs g, 10 
(1893). 

MESSRS. NEWTON AND GADOW bestowed the name Astur alphonsi 
on a pair of tibiae, a pair of metatarsals, and the metacarpals of the 
left side of a goshawk apparently of the same size and relative 
proportions as A. melanoleucus of South Africa. They justified their 
description of this goshawk as a distinct species, first of all by the fact 
that most of the Mascarene extinct species were distinct ; and then because the 
bony ridge for the M. flexor digitorum communis was more strongly developed, 
the fibula reached further down the tibia, the peroneal crest was straighter 
and longer, and the cnemial crest slanted more gradually into the anterior 
inner edge of the shaft of the tibia. 

Milne-Edwards gives the measurements of the solitary tarso-metatarsus 
of this bird which he had for examination as follows : — 

Total length 80 mm. 

Width at proximal extremity .... .... 11 „ 

Width at distal extremity 13 „ 

Width at smallest part of shaft 6 ,, 

Messrs. Gadow and Newton give the length of their tarso-metatarsi as 
81 mm., of their tibiae as 117 mm., and of the metacarpals as 55 mm. 
Habitat : Mauritius. 
Seven tarsi in the Tring Museum. 



85 



A 



HARPAGORNIS haast. 

LLIED to Aquila, from which it is distinguished by the ulna being 
relatively shorter and the tarso-metatarsus stouter. 



HARPAGORNIS MOOREI haast 

Harpagoniis inoorei Haast, Trans. N.Z. Inst. IV, p. 192 (1872). 

DESCRIPTION of femur (from Haast): The cylindrical shaft bent 
forward, and above the distal extremity it is slightly curved back. 
The hollow on the top of the head is very large and measures 
•42 inch across. 

The trochanteric ridge is well developed and the outer side is very 
rough, showing that muscles of great strength and thickness must have been 
attached to it. 

The inter-muscular linear ridges are well raised above the shaft, of 
which the one extending from the fore and outer angle of the epitrochanteric 
articular surface to the outer condyle is the most prominent. The pits for 
the attachment of the ligaments in the inter-condyloid fossa are strongly 
marked. The femur is pneumatic, the proximal orifice is large and ear- 
shaped, resembling in form most closely that of the Australian Sea Eagle. 

Total length 

Circumference at proximal end 
Circumference at distal end 
Circumference at thinnest part of shaft .... 
Ungual phalanx (probably of left hallux) : 

Length 

Circumference at articular end 
Ungual phalanx (probably of right second toe) ; 

Length 

Circumference .... 
Type locality: Glenmark Swamp. 
Habitat : New Zealand. 

Type bones: 1 left femur, 2 ungual phalanges, and 1 rib. 
For a more detailed description my readers must refer to the Trans- 
actions of the New Zealand Institute VI, pp. 64-75 (1874). 



6-66 


inches. 


4-66 


n 


5-58 


»j 


2-50 


)) 


2-92 


inches. 


317 


1) 


2-75 


inches. 


2-92 


J) 



87 



CARBO PERSPICILLATUS (pall.) 

(Plate 39.) 

Phalacrocorax perspicillattis Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso. -Asiat. II, p. 305 (1827 — Berings Island); 
Gould, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, p. 49, pi. XXXII (1844) ; Stejneger, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
No. 29, p. iSo (1885) ; id. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. XII, pp. 83-94, pis. II-IV (1889— 
Osteology); Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXVI, p. 357 (1898). 

Graculus perspicillatus Elliot, New and heret. unfig. sp. N. Amer. B. II, part 14, No. 3, 
text and plate (i85g). 

Pallasicarbo perspicillattis Coues, Osprey III, p. 144 (1899). 

PALLAS gives the first recognizable description of this bird, which, 
as translated from the Latin, is as follows : " Of the size of a very 

large goose. Of the shape of the former (sc. Cormorants), which 
it also resembles in the white patches on the flanks. The body is entirely 
black. A few long, white, narrow pendant plumes round the neck, as in 
Herons. Occiput with a huge tuft, doubly crested. Skin round the base 
of the bill bare, red, blue and white, mixed, as in a turkey. Round the 
eyes a thick, bare white patch of skin, about six lines wide, like a pair of 
spectacles. Weight 12 to 14 pounds. Female smaller, without crest and 
spectacles. (From Steller.) " 

Steller, who was shipwrecked on Bering Island in 1741, was the 
discoverer of C. perspicillatus, and Pallas took his diagnosis from Steller's 
notes. 

The Spectacled or Pallas's Cormorant is one of the rarest of all birds. 
It is generally said that four specimens are known, but five are really in 
existence: Two in the St. Petersburg Museum, one in Leyden, and two in 
London. One of these latter is perfect, while the other has no tail. Probably all 
five have been obtained by Kuprianoff, the Russian Governor at Sitka, who, 
in 1839, gave one to Captain Belcher, and sent some others to St. Petersburg. 
The careful researches of Stejneger and others on Bering Island have 
clearly shown that this Cormorant exists no longer. Formerly it is said to 
have been numerous, but the natives were fond of its flesh, which formed 
their principal diet when other meat was difficult to obtain. Probably it 
would not so soon have become extinct if it had not been that their rather 
short wings resulted in a certain slowness of locomotion on land and in the 
air. A good description is given in the Catalogue of Birds, and a still 
more detailed one by Stejneger (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1899, p. 86) from 
Brandt's manuscript. 

Habitat: Bering Island. 



88 



CARBO MAJOR (forbes). 

" PhaJacrocorax novaezealandiae var. major " Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 1S9 
(1892 — no proper description). 

DR. FORBES only informed us that this shag was of greater 
dimensions than Ph. novaezealandiae (a very closely allied form of 
Ph. carbo). It would be interesting to know more about it, and, 
especially, if this extinct form was incapable of flight, like Pli. harrisi of the 
Galapagos Islands. 

Habitat : New Zealand. 



89 



PLOTUS NANUS newt. & gad. 

Plotus nanus Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII p. 288, pi. XXXIV figs 1-5. 
(1893). 

THE humerus, the pelvis with sacrum, and the tibia were the materials 
on which our authors founded this new species. They state that all 
the strongly developed characters in these bones leave no possible doubt 
as to its being a species of Plotus, and its diminutive size at once 
distinguishes it from the three known species — P. anhinga, P. melanogaster, 
and P. novaehollandiae. 

The measurements are as follows : — 

Left humerus, length 89 mm. 

Left tibia, length 61 „ 

Distance from acetabular axis to anterior end of sacrum 30 mm. 
Distance between ventral inner margins of the acetabula 145 mm. 
Habitat : Mauritius. (Also recorded from Madagascar.) 



91 



''CHENOPIS SUMNERENSIS" forbes. 

Chenopis sumnereiisis Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. i88 (1892) (Nomen nudum). 

THIS appears to have been a very large species, with not very great 
powers of flight, if not flightless. 

Habitat : New Zealand and Chatham Islands. 
Bones from Chatham Islands in my collection. 



93 



CHENALOPEX SIRABENSIS Andrews. 

Chenalopex sirabeitsis Andrews, Ibis 1897, p. 355, pi. IX, figs 1-3. 



THIS species of which skull, sternum, pelvis, the bones of fore and hind 
limbs, &c., are preserved, appears to be closely allied to Chenalopex 
aegyptiacus, but has such a number of small differences that 
Mr. Andrews is, I think, quite justified in separating it ; I do not, however, 
agree with him when he suggests that perhaps it is the same as Newton 
and Gadow's Sarcidiornis mauritianus, although many of the bones agree. 
Of course, his line of comparison was strengthened by the fact of subfossil 
bones of Plotus nanus occurring both in Mauritius and Madagascar ; but it 
does not follow that because in one family of birds the same species 
occurred in two places the others must do likewise, and, therefore, one must 
not necessarily regard a certain similarity of osteological characters as proof 
of identity. I must here again refer my readers to Mr. Andrews' very full 
description. 

Habitat : Sirabe in C. Madagascar. 
The measurements are : — 

Coracoid 67— 75 mm. 

Humerus 132—147 „ 

Radius 126—134 „ 

Ulna 129—142 „ 

Metacarpus .... .... .... .... 76 — 85 ,, 

The smaller bones, undoubtedly, belonged to female, and the larger to 
male individuals. 



95 



CENTRORNIS Andrews. 

ALLIED to Chenalopex and Chenopis, but differs from Chenalopex in the 
form and proportion of its metatarsus, and from all other Anserine 
forms by the extreme length and slenderness of the shaft of the tibio- 
tarsus and the relative shortness of the fibular crest. From Clienopis it 
differs in several respects, and the very long fibular crest of the latter at 
once separates them. 



CENTRORNIS MAJORI Andrews. 



Cenironiis majori Andrews, Ibis 1897, p. 344, pi. VIII. 



THIS species was discovered by Dr. Forsyth Major and Monsieur 
Robert in the bed of an old lake at Sirabe, Central Madagascar, 
in 1896-1897. It was similar in many respects to Sarcidiornis 
and Chenalopex but differed in its large size and the great length of its 
legs. Indeed, judging from the slenderness of the metatarsus and femur 
and the slight degree of inflection of the lower end of the long tibia, it seems 
probable that this bird was ill adapted for swimming, though a good runner. 
The wings were long and powerful and armed with a long spur. I must 
refer my readers for a fuller description to Mr. Andrews, as quoted above. 
The measurements are : — 

Tibia. 
Length (exclusive of cnemial crest) 
Width of upper articular surface 

Width of middle of shaft 

Thickness of shaft .... 
Width of distal extremity .... 

Femur. 

Length 

Width of proximal extremity 
Width of distal extremity .... 
Width of shaft 



.... 213- 


-215 


mm 


.... 20- 


- 21 


II 


.... 11- 


-11-5 


II 


.... 8-5— 9 


II 


.... 20- 


- 21 


n 


.... 103- 


-107 


mm 


.... 25- 


- 26 


u 


.... 


.. 26 


M 




.. 11 


11 



96 



Metatarsus. 

Length 

Width of shaft 

Width of middle trochlea 

Coracoid. 

Length 

Width of glenoidal surface 

Scapula. 
Width at proximal extremity 



Radius. 



Length 



Ulna. 
Width at middle of shaft 

Metacarpus. 
Greatest width at proximal extremity 
Length of spur 
Width of second metacarpal 
Habitat : Madagascar. 



130 


mm. 


approx, 


8-5 


It 




10 


j» 




31 


mm. 




13 


»» 





23 mm. 

24 mm. 
10 mm. 

31 mm. 
26 „ 
9 ,. 



97 



CNEMIORNIS OWEN. 



SKULL short and massive, with beak rounded and stout. Carina of 
sternum aborted. Limb-bones short and very stout, the ulna being 
shorter than the humerus, and having very prominent tubercles for the 
secondaries ; cnemial crest of tibia greatly developed. No foramen between 
third and fourth trochleae of tarso-metatarsus. Spines of dorsal vertebrae tall. 
The power of flight was absent. The chief differences from Cereopsis were 
the presence of extra pre-sacral vertebrae, so that two only instead of 
three ribs articulate with the sacrum ; and an elevated pent-roof arrangement 
of the ossa innominata, which indicate more decided cursorial habits. 



CNEMIORNIS CALCITRANS owen. 

Cnemiontis calcitraiis Osven, Trans. Zool. Soc. V, p. 396 (1865). 

" '' I "'HE type species. Very considerably larger than the existing Cereopsis 
J. novaehollandiae, with the limbs relatively much stouter and shorter " 
(Lydekker). 

Height of back from ground .... .... 26 inches. 

Length from beak to tail.... .... .... 34 ,, 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 

For full description see Trans. N. Z. Inst. VI, pp. 76-84, pis. X-XII 
(1874). 



98 



A 



''CNEMIORNIS GRACILIS" forbes. 

Cnemioniis gracilis Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 187 (1892) (Nomcn nudum). 

MOST elegantly moulded goose from the North Island." Unfortunately 
this is all that has been published about this form! 

Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. 



T 



CNEMIORNIS MINOR forbes. 

Cnemioniis minor Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 187 (1892); vide also Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. VI, pp. 76-84 (Hector). 

HIS species appears to be distinguished from Cnemiornis calcitrans by 
its very small size, being hardly bigger than Cereopsis novaehollandiae. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



99 



CEREOPSIS NOVAEZEALANDIAE forbes. 

Cereopsis novaezealaiidiae Forbes, Trans. N. Zealand Inst. XXIV, p. i88 (1892). 

THIS species was founded on an incomplete skull, and differed from 
C. novaehollandiae by its slightly larger size. 
Habitat : New Zealand. 



101 



SARCIDIORNIS MAURITIANUS newt. & gad. 

Sarcidioniis maiiritiaitus Newton & Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XllI, p. 290, pi. XXXIV, 
figs. 9-10. 

THE evidence on which this species is founded is a single left metacarpal 
and an incomplete left half of the pelvis. Its specific character is the 

very large size as compared to the two existing species. 
Habitat : Mauritius. 

In an old work entitled "Memorandums concerning India" by 
J. Marshall (1668) in the article on the Island of Mauritius, there occurs 
this passage : " They are many Geese ; the halfe of their wings towards the 
end are black and the other halfe white; they are not large, but fat and 
good. Plenty of Ducks." As there is no mention of the caruncle on the 
bill here or in Other authors alluding to geese in Mauritius, Oustalet doubted 
that these geese were this Sarcidiornis, but I believe this merely to have 
been an oversight of Marshall's and that his description goes far to prove 
the distinctness of Newton and Gadow's species. 

The allusion to the small size also points to the geese of Marshall being 
the Sarcidioniis. L'Abbe Dubois in " Les Voyages du Sieur D. B." records 
the fact that on Bourbon were some wild geese slightly smaller than the 
geese of Europe but having the same plumage. Their bill and feet were red. 
It is also probable that wild geese were found on Rodriguez. There is 
nothing to show what these Bourbon geese were, and as no osseous remains 
of such birds have been found as yet it is impossible to do more than 
mention the fact of such birds having been recorded. 



103 



ANAS FINSCHI van beneden. 

Alias fiiischi Van Beneden, Journ. Zool. IV, p. 267(1875); Ann. de la Soc. Geol. Belg. II, 
p. 123 (1876). 

THIS duck is most peculiar, as it stands intermediate between Querquedtda 
and Dendrocygna in structure, and its nearest known ally seems to 

be the extinct A. blanchardi of Europe, and of living forms apparently 
Clangula clangula. 

Skull nearest to that of Clangula clangula but wider, nostrils more 
elongated, eye-sockets smaller, and the whole skull more regularly rounded off. 
Sternum differs from that of C. clangula by having the notch lower, more faint 
behind and shorter in front. Clavicle and coracoid resemble those of 
FuUgula marila. Humerus larger and stronger than in F. marila and 
C. clangula, as are the femur, tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus, which are 
almost double as long and thick. 

Judging from the shape of its leg-bones this bird must have been a 
strong runner, and probably at the same time was a poor flyer. 

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand. 



ANAS THEODORI newt. & gad. 

Anas theodori Newton & Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 291, pi. XXXIV, figs 11-17 
(1893 — Mauritius). 

MESSRS. NEWTON AND GADOW founded this species on a fragment 
of a sternum, a pair of coracoids, eight humeri, and a pair of tarso- 
metatarsi. These are referable to a duck of larger size than Nettion 
bemieri, and somewhat intermediate between N. punctata and Anas melleri. 

The sternum differs from that of A. melleri by the lesser height of the 
keel and by the shape and direction of the anterior margin of the latter. The 
coracoid is longer and larger than in A^. bemieri, but is much shorter than 
in A. melleri, though agreeing with that of the latter in shape, and by the 
plain almost ridgeless ventral surface of the shaft. The seven humeri vary 
in length from 70-78 mm., and agree in size with those of A'^. punctata, thus 
proving our species to be smaller than A. melleri. 

The two tarso-metatarsi are in poor condition ; the right one measuring 
42 mm. in length, thus indicating that A. theodori was a bird with a shorter 
foot than A. melleri. 

Habitat : Mauritius. 



105 

CAMPTOLAIMUS LABRADORIA (gm) 

(Plate 36.) 

Anas labradoria Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, 2, p. 537 (1788 — "Habitat gregaria in America, 

boreali." Ex Pennant and Latham.) 
Anas labradora Latham, Ind. Orn. II, p. 859 (1790). 

Rhynchaspis labradora Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool. XII, 2, p. 121 (1824). 
Fnligula labradora Bonaparte, Ann. Lyceum N.Y. II, p. 391 (1826). 
Somateria labradora Boie, Isis 1828, p. 329. 
Kamptorhynchiis labradorus Eyton, Mon. Anat. p. 151 (1838). 
Fuligiila grisea Leib, Journ. Acad. Sc. Philad. VIII, p. 170 (1840 — young bird). 
Camptolaimus labradorus Gray, List. Gen. B. ed. 2, p. 95 (1841) ; Dutcher, Auk. 1891, 

p. 201, pi. II; 1894, pp. 4-12; Hartl. Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen XVI, p. 23 (1895). 
Campfolaemus labradorius Baird, B.N. Amer. p. 803 (1858) ; Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 

Water— B. N. Amer. II, p. 63 (1884); Milne-Edw. and Oustalet, Centen. Mus. d'Hist. 

Nat., Notice Ois. 6teint. p. 51, pi. IV (1893) ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXVII, 

p. 416 (1895). 

THE adult male and a young male, both in my museum, are represented 
on plate 36, but the young bird became too rufous, through the colour 

type reproduction, and should be somewhat more mouse-gray. Though 
first technically named by Gmelin in 1788, this duck was first described in 
1785 by Pennant, in the Arctic Zoology II, p. 559, as follows: — 

" Pied Duck. With the lower part of the bill black, the upper yellow, 
on the summit of the head is an oblong black spot ; forehead, cheeks, rest of 
the head and neck, white ; the lower part encircled with black ; scapulars and 
coverts of wings white ; back, breast, belly, and primaries, black ; tail 
cuneiform, and dusky ; legs black. The bill of the supposed female ? 
resembles that of the male, head and neck mottled with cinereous brown and 
dirty white; primaries dusky; speculum white; back, breast, and belly clouded 
with different shades of ash-colour ; tail dusky and cuneiform ; legs black. 
Size of a common Wild Duck. 

"Sent from Connecticut, to Mrs. Blackburn. Possibly the great flocks 
of pretty Pied Ducks, which whistled as they flew, or as they fed, seen by 
Mr. Lawson in the western branch of Cape Fear inlet, were of this kind." 

The Labrador-Duck is one of those birds, the disappearance of which 
is not easily explained. As Mr. Dutcher truly said, "we can speculate as to 
the cause of its disappearance, but we have no facts to warrant a conclusion." 
Formerly Camptolaimus was of regular occurrence along the northern Atlantic 
shores of North America, in winter south to New Jersey and New York. It 
has often been sold on the markets of New York and Baltimore, and nobody 
anticipated even fifty years ago that they might become extinct, but they 



106 



appear never to have been very numerous, at least we have no proof of this. 
It is true that Professor Newton tells us that this duck used to breed on rocky 
islets, and that " its fate is easily understood," since " man began yearly to 
visit its breeding haunts, and, not content in plundering its nests, mercilessly 
to shoot the birds." This, however, seems to be mere conjecture, as we do 
not know for certain where the breeding haunts of this Duck have been, and 
that anyone has ever visited them. All information known about the 
breeding of this bird is that of Audubon, who says that his son was shown 
empty nests on the top of bushes, which a clerk of the fishing establishment 
told him were those of the Labrador Duck. This information is certainly too 
uncertain to draw any conclusions from, but the breeding places might just 
as well have been much further to the north, and probably were. 
The number of specimens extant is 48. 

Amiens, Town Museum: \ J ad. (Auk. 1897, p. 87), 

Berlin Museum: 1, bought from Salmin (Hartl. p. 23). 

Paris: (J adult, presented 1810 by M. Hyde de Neuville. 

London, British Museum : 2, a ,J ad. and a ? ad., neither of them with exact locality or 
date. 

Liverpool : 2 3 ad., 1 J , 1 <7 jun. 

Cambridge : 1 ^ 

Dublin : 1 fine mounted J (Dr. Scharff in litt.) 

Tring : 1 3" ad., l^jun. (See below.) 

Brussels : 1 3 ad. 

St. Petersburg : 1 J ad., purchased from Salmin. 

Heine Museum in Germany : 1 poor specimen. 

Munich : The Museum possesses a male from the collection of the Duke of Leuchtenberg. 

Dresden : 1 <? and two doubtful eggs — the latter doubtless wrong I should say. 

Vienna : 1 ,? ad., exchanged from Baron von Lederer in 1830. Locality New York ; 
1 J ad., bought from Brandt in Hamburg in 1846, for 4 Gulden I 

Leiden Museum : S 9 y from the Prince of Wied. 

American Museum, New York: 7, three of which formerly belonged to George N. Lawrence. 
Long Island Historical Society, Brooklyn : 1 3 ad. 
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. York : 1 ^ ad. 
New York State Museum, Albany : J J ad. 
Cory collection : ,J J ad. 

University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont : I J ad. 
Philadelphia : 2 3 jun., 1 J 

U.S. National Museum, Washington : 2 ^ , 1 J , 1 J jun. 
Collection of Mr. William Brewster : 1 3 jun., 1 J 
Boston Society of Natural History : 1 <? jun. 
Collection of Dalhousie College, Halifax : J 5 
This makes a total of 48 known specimens. 



107 



The last specimens killed were those shot in May, 1871, at Grand 
Manan Island, the date of which is absolutely certain, and the specimen 
bought from a Mr. J. G. Bell in 1879, for the Smithsonian Institution, which 
is said to have been shot in 1875, but this date seems not quite certain (Cf. 
Auk, 1894, p. 9). That several other specimens were shot later than 1852 is 
perfectly certain. As the specimen of 1875, or thereabouts, is a young male, 
Mr. Lawrence's question about the old birds is certainly justified. As, 
however, no Labrador Duck has been recorded later than 1871 or 1875 we 
may suppose that it is now extinct. 

My young male was bought in the Fulton Market, New York, about 
1860, and probably came from Long Island. It was mounted by John Bell, 
a bird-stuffer, through whose hands several Labrador Ducks have gone, and 
is in the finest possible condition. I bought this bird from the late Gordon 
Plummer, shortly before his death. He died at his home in Brookline, Mass., 
in November, 1893. (Cf. Auk, 1891, p. 206.) 

My adult male is the one of which the history is given in Auk, 1894, 
p. 176. It is described there in detail and then added : " Shot in the bay 
of Laprairie this spring (1862) by a habitant, and purchased by Mr. Thompson 
of this city, who has kindly placed it at my disposal for examination." 
Mr. William Dutcher of New York City bought this specimen from the widow 
of the Mr. Thompson, mentioned in the above note as the original owner, 
and I purchased it from Mr. William Dutcher, who informs me that " the 
Bay of Laprairie " is simply a name given to a wide part of the River St. 
Lawrence, just south of Montreal, Quebec. The name is found on good 
maps of Quebec. 



109 



''BIZIURA LAUTOURI" forbes. 

Biziura lautouri Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. i88 (1892 — nomen nudum). 

DR. FORBES, unfortunately, gives no description whatever of this bird. 
It would be interesting to know something about it, and especially if 
its powers of flight were impaired, as it seems to have been the case 
in so many extinct birds. 



Ill 



ARDEA MEGACEPHALA milneedwards. 

"Biitors" Leguat, Relation du Voyage (1708). 

Ardea megacephala Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX, 1874, P- '°' 

LEGUAT'S description, here translated, is as follows : — " We had Bitterns 
as big and as fat as capons. They are tamer and more easily caught 

than the ' gelinotes.' " He also says, " The lizards often serve as prey 
for the birds, especially for the Bitterns. When we shook them down from 
the branches with a pole, these birds ran up and gobbled them down in front 
of us, in spite of all we could do to prevent them ; and even if we only pretended 
to do so they came in the same manner and always followed us about." 

Milne-Edwards remarks, among other notes, that " This bird is not a 
true Bittern, but its head is so large and its feet so short that it is easy to 
understand that Leguat should have called it so. 

The bony structure of the head is remarkable on account of its massive 
and thick proportions ; the skull itself is strongly enlarged posteriorly, and the 
temporal fossae are bordered by very pronounced ridges, especially those on 
the occipital region. The upper side of the skull is hardly convex, and the 
interorbital region is large, but only slightly depressed along its middle line. 
The bill is stout, almost straight, a good deal enlarged at its base and rounded 
beneath. The nostrils are large and preceded by a large groove, which extends 
very far towards the tip. 

It is impossible to confound this skull with that of any Bittern, the latter 
having the beak relatively slender and only barely exceeding the skull in length. 
These also have the skull much constricted at the temporal region. The fossil 
skull from Rodriguez therefore presents characters essentially those of a 
Heron, but differs from all known species in its massive appearance. In the 
Grey, Purple and Goliath Herons, as well as in the Egrettes, the head is 
narrower, more elongated, the bill less conical and less strong. In Ardea 
atricollis, now inhabiting Madagascar, the beak much resembles that of our 
extinct species, but it is longer and less enlarged at the base. The interorbital 
area is much wider, while on the other hand the hinder portion of the skull 
is narrower and more elongated, which gives to the skull a totally different 
aspect. 

The feet relatively to the head are e.xtremely short, and from this I 
conclude that we know no species of Heron which can be compared to that 
of Rodriguez. Nevertheless, the tarso-metatarsus presents all the characters 



112 



of Ardea, and is far removed from that of Botaurus. The tibia is big and 
short ; it surpasses in length the tarso-metatarsus by about a third, as is usual 
in the Herons ; but the femur on the contrary is strongly developed, being 
quite as large as in the Ardea cinerea ; which shows us that the body of this 
creature was of large size, and that the reduction in size of the feet had only 
taken place at their extremities. 

The sternum is puny and small as compared with the creature's size. 
It is clearly that of a bird not furnished with powerful wings, and is even 
much less elongated than in the Bittern, but the coracoidal bones are very 
long and slender. The wings also were short and feeble, the humerus being 
hardly as big as in Butorides atricapilla. It is conspicuously slenderer and 
shorter than in the Bittern. The main body of the bone is slightly curved 
on the outside, and the lower articular condyle is large and flattened. I have 
not been able to examine any bone of the " manus," but the metacarpal bone 
shows exactly the same proportions for the wing as does the humerus, as it 
also barely reaches the size of that of Butorides atricapilla. The measurements 
are as follows : — 



Skull. 

Total length 154 mm. 

Length of upper mandible .... .... .... 94 

Width of upper mandible at base .... .... 22 

Width of interorbital region .... .... .... 22 

Space between the mastoid apophyses .... .... 40 

Width of skull at level of postorbital apophyses 40 

Length of lower mandible .... .... .... 147 



Tarso-metatarsus. 



Total length 

Width at proximal extremity 
Width at distal extremity.... 
Width of shaft 



95—162 mm. 
.... 14 „ 
0135—14 „ 
0062—7 „ 



Tibio-tarsus. 

Total length 

Width at distal extremity 
Width at proximal extremity 
Width of shaft 



140—210 mm. 
12-13 „ 
13—14 „ 
6—0065 „ 



113 



Femur. 

Total length 

Width of distal extremity 
Width of proximal extremity 
Width of shaft 

Sternum. 

Total length 

Width in front 

Width behind costal facets 

Width at posterior border 

Comcoidals. 

Total length 

Width at lower extremity 

Humerus. 

Total length 

Width of proximal extremity 

Width of distal extremity 

Width of shaft 



90—92 mm. 
15—16 „ 
14-16 „ 
0062—7 „ 

64—88 mm. 
35—48 „ 
26—36 „ 
27-35 „ 

59 — 67 mm. 
17-18 „ 

118—180 mm. 

20—27 „ 

0165—24 „ 

7—11 „ 



Metacarpals. 

Total length 62—98 mm. 

Width of proximal extremity .... .... 12 — 17 „ 

Width of distal extremity 7—11 „ " 

The anonymous author of the manuscript " Relation de I'ile Rodrigue " 
(see Ann. Sci. Nat. (6) 11 p. 133 et seq. 1875) about the year 1830 mentions 
this bird as follows : — " There are not a few Bitterns which are birds which 
only fly a very little, and run uncommonly well when they are chased. They 
are of the size of an Egret and something like them." 

Habitat : Rodriguez Island. 

2 Humeri, 2 Femora, 2 Tibiae, and 2 Metatarsi in the Tring Museum. 



114 



ARDEA DUBOISI nom. nov. 

Butors ou Grands Gauziers Dubois, Les Voyages faits par le Sieur D.B. (1674) p. 169. 

I 'ABBE DUBOIS is the only author who has, as far as I can ascertain, 
•*-^ told us that the Island of Reunion also had a large almost flightless 
Heron as well as Mauritius and Rodriguez ; and so feeling sure that it, 
like most other birds of this island, was distinct I name it after him. 

The translation of his original description is as follows : — " Bitterns or 
Great Egrets, large as capons, but very fat and good. They have grey plumage, 
each feather spotted with white, the neck and beak like a Heron, and the feet 
green, made like the feet of PouUets d'Inde (Porphyria, w.r.). This bird 
lives on fish." 

Habitat : Reunion or Bourbon. 



115 



ARDEA MAURITIANA (newt. & gad.) 

Butorides mauritianus Newton & Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. XIII, p. 289 (1893). 

THE bones on which this species is founded are a pair of ulnae, one radius, 
four metatarsi, and one coracoid. The description is as follows : — " The 

bones in question are all considerably shorter than the corresponding 
bones of A. {Nycticorax) megacephala. The metatarsi agree otherwise in every 
detail with those of the latter species ; this relative stoutness indicates that 
they belonged to a Night-Heron or Bittern like A. megacephala. The two 
ulnae cannot, unfortunately, be compared with those of A. megacephala; their 
length, 110 mm., compared with the length of the humerus of A. megacephala, 
119 mm., shows, however, likewise that they were those of a considerably 
smaller bird. The single left coracoid agrees in all the features of its dorsal 
or scapular half with A. megacephala, but its ventral or sternal half differs 
considerably, first by the much more strongly marked ridge of the linea 
intenituscularis on its ventral surface, secondly by the almost straight instead 
of inwardly curved margin between the processus lateralis and the lateral 
distal corner of the sternal articulation, thirdly by a very low but very distinct 
and sharp ridge, which arises from the median margin of the coracoid, a little 
above its median articulating corner. This roughness or prominent ridge is 
entirely absent in A. megacephala and in all other Herons which we have 
been able to examine, but at least a slight indication of it occurs in an 
individually varying degree in Nycticorax and Botaurus. That this coracoid 
bone belonged, however, to an Ardeine bird is clearly indicated by its whole 
configuration, notably by the shape and position of the precoracoid process, 
the various articulating facets at the dorsal end, and the prominent lip on the 
visceral or internal surface of the median portion of the sternal articulating 
facet." 

The following are the measurements : — 

Length of ulna .... .... Ill — 112 mm. 

Length of metatarsus .... 81 — 87 „ 

Length of coracoid .... .... .... 48 „ 

Habitat : Mauritius. 

Although megacephala and mauritiana have been placed in Ardea and 
Butorides respectively, from the short, stout legs and general build, I am 
inclined to think that all three of these Herons belong to the genus Nycticorax. 



117 



PROSOBONIA BR 

THIS genus is, in the Catalogue of Birds, placed in a section with 
somewhat long tarsus, the latter being longer than the culmen, 
containing in addition to Prosobonia the genera Tringites, and 
Aechmorhynchus (see afterwards), and it differs from the latter by its 
long hind toe, from the former by its square tail. The position of this 
singular bird is, however, not quite certain. The late Henry Seebohm 
placed it in the genus Phegornis, though the latter has no hind toe whatever, 
and it has even — but doubtless wrongly — been suggested that it belonged to 
the RalUdae, rather than to the Charadriidae. We know only one species. 
It is true that Dr. Sharpe bestowed a new name on the figure of Ellis, 
which is said to have been taken from an Eimeo-specimen, but it is hardly 
creditable that it belongs to a different species. Latham appears to have 
had three specimens, which were all three different from each other. Both 
Forster and Ellis, in their unpublished drawings in the British Museum, as 
well as Latham, evidently considered all three to belong to the same species, 
and it is not advisable now to over-rule their verdict, given with the 
specimens before them, merely on account of the different plumages, since 
we all know that most waders, and especially brightly-coloured ones, differ 
considerably in plumage, according to age and seasons. We are convinced 
that "P. ellisi" has been a younger bird. Sharpe attaches importance to 
the different habitat, but this is no argument in this instance, because Eimeo 
is, at the nearest point, not more than seven and a half miles from Tahiti,* 
and it is quite against all precedents among Charadriidae and beyond all 
plausibility that two such closely situated islands have closely allied forms 
of a Wader. 

"See Findlay's South Pacific Ocean Directory, p. 642. 



118 



PROSOBONIA LEUCOPTERA (gm.) 

(Plate 35.) 

White-winged Sandpiper Latham, Gen. Syn. Ill, pt. i, p. 172, pi. LXXXII (1785 — Otaheite 
and Eimeo). 

Tringa leucoptera Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 678 (1788 — ex Latham!); Westermann, Bijdr. 
Dierk. \, p. 51, pi. 15 (1854 — Figure of the type). 

Totanus leucoptenis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. (Ed. II) VI, p. 396 (1817). 

Calidris leucoptenis Cuvier, R^gne Anim. I, p. 526 (1829). 

Tringa pyrrhetraea Lichtenstein, Forster's descr. anim. p. 174 (1844 — Otaheiti). 

Prosobonia leucoptera Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. XXXI, p. 562 (1850) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus. XXIV, p. 525 (1896). 
Tringoides leucopterus Gray, Handl. B. Ill, p. 46 (1871). 
Phegornis leucoptenis Seebohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charad. p. 452 pi. 18 (1888). 
Prosobonia ellisi Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 85 (1906 — "Eimeo"). 

DR. SHARPE'S description, made from the type in the Leyden Museum, 
is as follows : " Adult. General colour of upper surface blackish 
brown ; the lower back and rump ferruginous ; centre tail-feathers 
blackish, the rest rufous, banded with black, less distinctly on the two next 
the middle pair ; wing-coverts blackish, with a white spot near the carpal 
bend of the wing, formed by some of the lesser coverts ; crown of head 
blackish, the hind-neck browner, mixed with black ; sides of face brown, the 
lores and ear-coverts slightly more reddish, behind the eye a little white 
spot ; cheeks and under surface of body ferruginous red, the throat buffy 
white. Length 67 inches, culmen 09, wing 445, tail 2- 15, tarsus IS (Mus. 
Lugd.)" 

We know nothing of this bird, but the one specimen in the Leyden 
Museum, which is the type, or at least one of the types. As no other 
specimens have been obtained for nearly a century and a quarter, there is 
every reason to fear that this bird is extinct. My plate has been made up 
by Mr. Lodge from the unpublished drawings of Ellis and Forster in the 
British Museum. 

Habitat : Tahiti, and the adjacent islet of Eimeo. 



119 



AECHMORHYNCHUS coues. 

THIS genus appears to be closely allied to Prosobonia, but has a much 
shorter hind toe. Its colouration is very different, and quite that of 
a Sandpiper, while the pattern of Prosobonia is most singular. Seebohm 
placed Aechmorhynchus, together with Prosobonia, in the genus Phegornis. 
We know only one species. 



AECHMORHYNCHUS CANCELLATA (gm.) 

(Plate 35.) 

Barred Phalaropc Latham, Gen. Syn. III. pt. i, p. 274 (1785 — Christmas Island in the 
Pacific Ocean). 

Tringa cancellata Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 675 (1788 — ex Latham). 

Tringa parvirostris Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp., Birds p. 235, pi. LXVI, 2 (1848 — Paumotu) 
Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp. p. 321, pi. 38, 2 (1858 — Paumotu). 

Totanus (Tryngites?) cancellaius Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Islands Pac. Ocean, p. 51 (1859). 

Phegornis cancellatus Seebohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charadr. p. 451, pi. 17 (1888J. 

Aechmorhynchus cancellatus Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIV, p. 525 (1896). 

" I 3 ILL short, straight, and slender; wings long, first, second, and third 
1 J quills very nearly equal ; tertiaries but very little longer than the 
secondaries ; tail rather long, wide, rounded ; legs and toes long, the 
former robust ; tibia feathered for more than half its length. A distinct 
stripe over and behind the eye ashy-white. Entire upper parts umber-brown, 
unspotted on the top of the head, but on the other upper parts edged and 
tipped with ashy-white and reddish fulvous. Tail-feathers umber-brown, with 
irregular and imperfect transverse narrow bands of ashy and pale reddish- 
white, and tipped with the same. Underparts white, with a tinge of 
ashy ; throat and middle of the abdomen unspotted ; breast, sides, and 
under coverts of the tail spotted, and with irregular transverse bars of 
brown, the latter most apparent on the sides, flanks, and under tail- 
coverts. Under wing-coverts ashy-white, irregularly spotted with brown. 
Bill greenish, darker at the tip; legs dark green. Sexes very nearly alike, 
female slightly paler." (Cassin.) 



120 



I have here given the synonymy of this bird, as it has now been 
generally accepted by Seebohm, Sharpe, and others. An actual comparison 
of the types would, however, be very desirable, but, unfortunately, we do 
not know where the type of Latham is, and if it still exists. Christmas 
Island lies much to the north of the Paumotu group ! As no specimens 
have been obtained since the U.S. Exploring Expedition, we may safely 
suppose that the species has ceased to exist for some reason. 

Habitat : " Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean and Paumotu 
Islands." 



121 



GALLINAGO CHATHAMICA forbes. 

Gallinago chathamica Forbes, Ibis 1893, P- 545- 

EVIDENTLY a species allied to G. ptistlla, but very much larger. 
Bill three inches long. 
Habitat : Chatham Islands. 
Several skulls and a few bones in the Tring Museum. This is a snipe 
only a little larger than the existing Gallinago aiicklandica. 



123 



HYPOTAENIDIA(?) PACIFICUS (gm) 

(Plate 26.) 

Pacific rail Latham, Gen. Syn. Ill, pt. i, p. 255 (1785). 
Rallus pacificus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 717 (1788). 

FORSTER'S description is as follows, in translation : " Black with 
white spots or bars ; abdomen, throat, and eyebrow white ; hind neck 
ferruginous ; breast grey ; bill blood-red ; iris red. Bill straight, 
compressed, narrowed at the top, thicker at the base, and blood-red. The 
mandibles subequal, pointed ; the upper slightlv curved, with the tip pale 
fuscous ; gape medium. Nostrils almost at the base of bill, linear. Eyes 
placed above the gape of the mouth. Iris blood-red. Feet four-toed, split, 
built for running, flesh coloured. Femora semi-bare, slender, of medium 
length. 

"Tibiae slightly compressed, shorter than the femora. Four toes, slender, 
of which three point forward (are front toes). The middle one almost as 
long as the Tibia, the side ones 'of equal length shorter, the back one short, 
raised from the ground. Nails short, small, slightly incurved, pointed, and 
light coloured. Head oval, slightly depressed, fuscous. A superciliary line 
from bill to occiput whitish. Throat white. Hindneck ferruginous. Neck 
very short. Back and rump black, sparsely dotted with minute white dots. 
Breast bluish grey. Abdomen, crissum, and loins white. Wings short, 
wholly black, variegated with broken white bands. Remiges short. Rectrices 
extremely short, black spotted with white, hardly to be distinguished from 
the coverts. 

Total length from bill to tail .... .... 9 inches. 

Total length to middle toe 12| 

Bill \^ „ 

Tibiae .... .... .... .... .... .... 2 ,, 

Middle toe 1^ „ 

Mr. Keulemans' plate was done from Forster's unpublished drawing in 
the British Museum, and no specimen is in existence. The legs should, 
however, be less bright red, more flesh-colour. 

Habitat : Tahiti, but evidently long extinct. 

This bird, according to Forster, was called " Oomnaa " or " Eboonaa," 
on Otaheite, and the neighbouring islands. 



125 



NESOLIMNAS Andrews. 

DIFFERS from Cabalus by the relatively shorter bill ; by having the 
whole culmen convex with the tip sharply decurved, by having a 
close instead of a loose plumage, and a much less reduced sternum, 
with a well-developed instead of almost obsolete keel. Type of genus 
Nesolimnas diejfenbachi (Gray). 



NESOLIMNAS DIEFFENBACHII gray. 

(Plate 27.) 

Rallus Dieffenbachii Gray, Dieffenb., Trav. N.Z. II App. p. 197 (1843). 
Ocydromus diejfenbachi Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terr., Birds p. 14, pi. 15 (1846). 
Hypotaenidia dieffenbachi Bonaparte, C.R. XLIII, p. 599 (1856). 

Cabalus dieffenbachi Sharpe, Voy. Ereb. and Terr., Birds p. 29, pl. 15 (1875), id.. Cat. 

B. Brit. Mus. XXIII p. 47 (1894). 
Nesolimnas dieffenbachi Andrews, Novit. Zool. III. p. 266, pl. X, flgs 3-15 (1896). 

ADULT: "General colour above, brown, banded on the mantle and scapulars, 
and spotted on the upper back with ochreous buff, these buff markings 
being margined with black, which takes the form of broad bars on 
the mantle ; lower back and rump uniform brown ; upper tail coverts brown, 
barred across with light rufous and black ; lesser wing coveiiis like the back ; 
median and greater coverts, as well as the primary coverts and quills, light 
chestnut, barred with black, the inner secondaries spotted and barred with 
ochre and black, like the back ; tail feathers brown, mottled with chestnut near 
the base ; crown of the head and nape uniform brown, followed by an indistinct 
patch of chestnut on the hindneck ; lores dull rufous, surmounted by a broad 
line of bluish grey, extending from the base of the nostrils to the sides of the 
nape; rest of the sides of the face bluish grey, extending on to the lower 
throat ; this grey area of the face separated from the grey eyebrow by a 
broad band of dark chestnut, which extends from the lores through the eye 
along the upper part of the ear-coverts ; chin and upper throat white ; 
lower throat black, barred across with white ; fore neck and chest 
ochreous buff, banded rather narrowly with black, this pattern of colouration 



126 



extending up the sides of the neck to the chestnut on the ear coverts ; lower 
breast and abdomen black, banded with white, the light bars on the flanks 
and vent feathers being tinged with ochreous ; under-tail coverts broadly 
banded with black and ochre ; under-wing coverts and axillaries blackish, 
barred with white ; under surface of quills chestnut, with broad black bars. 

Wing 4-8 inches, culmen 1-35, tail 27" (Sharpe). 

Habitat : Chatham Islands. 

The type and only known specimen is that in the British Museum. 



127 



CABALUS HUTTON. 

Cabalus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. Vol. VI p. io8, pi. XX (1874 — Type and unique species 
Cabahis modestus). 

CAPTAIN HUTTON characterized his new genus as follows: "Bill longer 
than the head, moderately slender and slightly curved, compressed in 

the middle and slightly expanding towards the tip ; nostrils placed in 
a membranous groove which extends beyond the middle of the bill, openings 
exposed, oval, near the middle of the groove. Wings very short, rounded ; 
quills soft, the outer webs as soft as the inner, fourth and fifth the longest, 
first nearly as long as the second ; a short, compressed claw at the end of 
the thumb. Tail very short and soft, hidden by the coverts. Tarsi moderate, 
shorter than the middle toe, flattened in front, and covered with transverse 
scales ; toes long and slender, inner nearly as long as the outer, hind toe 
short, very slender, and placed on the inner side of the tarsus ; claws short, 
compressed, blunt. 

"The bird is incapable of flight, and the stomach of the specimen, 
dissected by Dr. Knox, contained only the legs and elytra of beetles." 

Captain Hutton also adds, I.e., a valuable description of the skeleton. 

One species known. 



CABALUS MODESTUS (hutton). 

(Plate 28.) 

Rallus modestus Hutton, Ibis 1872, p. 247. (Mangare, Chatham Islands.) 

Cabalus modestus Hutton, Trans. New Zeal. Inst. VI p. 108. (The genus Cabahis 

established.) 
"Rallus dieffcnbachii luw." BuUer, B. New Zealand, Ed. I pp. 179, 180; Ed. II p. 121 (1888). 
Cabalus dieffenbachii (part., juv. I) Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII p. 47 (1894) : corr. 

p. 331. 

Cabalus modestus Forbes, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. No. IV. p. XX (Dec. 1892) ; Salvador!, 
op. cit. V p. XXIII (Jan., 1893); Forbes, Ibis 1893, PP- 532. 544, pi. XIV, fig. 4, egg; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII p. 331 (1893); Buller, Suppl. B.N.Z. I p. 45, pi. Ill 

(lyos)- 

Ocydromus pygmaeus Forbes, Nature XLVI, p. 252 (1892 — nomen nudum ! cf. Ibis 1893, 
P- 544)- 

CAPTAIN hutton (Ibis 1872, p. 247) described this interesting 
species as follows : " Olivaceous brown, bases of the feathers 
plumbeous ; feathers of the breast slightly tipped with pale fulvous, 
those of the abdomen and flanks with two narrow bars of the same colour; 



128 

throat dark grey, each feather slightly tipped with brown. Quills soft brown, 
the first three faintly barred with reddish fulvous, fourth and fifth the 
longest. Tail very soft and short, brown. I rides light brown, bill and legs 
light brown. Length 875 inches, wing 315, bill from gape 1-4, tarsus 1, 
middle toe and claw 1'4. 

Young. Uniform brownish black. 

A single specimen and young from Mangare ; also a specimen in spirits." 

The author knew perfectly well what he was doing when he described 
this excellent species. Sir Walter BuUer afterwards (B. New Zealand, Ed. I, 
pp. 179, 180) declared "after carefully comparing it with the type of Rallus 
dieffenbachii, and submitting the matter to the judgment of other competent 
ornithologists, I have no hesitation in considering it the same species, in an 
immature state of plumage." {Sic !) Unfortunately, Dr. Sharpe, in the 
Catalogue of Birds XXIII, repeated BuUer's error, and, on Plate VI, figured 
Cabalus modestus under the name of Cabalus die^enbachii, though the latter 
is not congeneric with C. modestus, and must be called Nesolimnas dieffenbachii, 
while the third form included in Cabalus by Dr. Sharpe, viz. sylvestris of Lord 
Howe's Island, must also be separated generically from Cabalus. 

Formerly Cabalus modestus inhabited Great Chatham Island, as 
Dr. Forbes proved by bones found by himself at Warekauri, but when the species 
was discovered it existed there no more, though being plentiful on the little 
outlying island of Mangare. Unfortunately even there it is evidently extinct 
now, this island being overrun with cats and rats, besides which, according to 
BuUer, the original vegetation has been ruthlessly burnt down for the purpose 
of sowing grass-seed, as even this bleak little island has been claimed by an 
enterprising sheep-farmer. Fortunately a good many specimens have been 
secured by the late W. Hawkins. I have fifteen in my museum, and there are 
specimens in the British Museum, in Liverpool, and one in Cambridge. 
Henry Palmer failed to get specimens when he visited Mangare. 

I have also the egg described and figured in the Ibis by Dr. Forbes. 
It measures 40 by 21-4 mm., and is creamy white, with faint pale reddish 
and purplish roundish spots. 

Habitat : Chatham Islands, east of New Zealand. 



129 



OCYDROMUS MINOR Hamilton. 

Ocydromits sp. Hamilton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 103 (1893). 
Ocydromus minor Hamilton (nee. Forbes) I.e. 

THIS species is nearest allied to sylvestris Scl., which has quite erroneously 
been placed in the genus Cabalus by Dr. Sharpe ; sylvestris will have 
to form the type of a new genus, but until the skull of minor is known 
I prefer to leave the latter temporarily in Ocydromus. 

The present species is known from two pelves, seven femora, six 
tibiae, and five metatarsi, as well as the front portion of a sternum. The 
measurements all show that minor was a slightly larger form than 
sylvestris, but owing to having a much shorter tibio-tarsus it must have 
been a much stumpier bird. 





Minor. 


Sylvestris. 


Pelvis extreme length .... 


... 65 mm. 


625 mm. 


Pelvis extreme breadth.... 


... 28 




25 


Femur length 


... 64 




63 „ 


Tibio-tarsus length 


... 93 




98 „ 


Tarso-metatarsus length 


... 53 




51 


Sternum greatest width 


... 24-5 




24-5 „ 



Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. Extinct. 



T 



OCYDROMUS INSIGNIS forbes. 

Ocydromus insignis Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 188 (1892— insuffieient deseription). 

HIS bird "far exceeded in size any of the existing species of 
Ocydromus." That is all that is published about this bird. 
Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand. 



131 



APHANAPTERYX frauenfeld. 

BILL produced, not cut short, rather curved. The nostrils are exposed 
and situated at the base of the bill. Halluces of the naked fowl-like 
legs of moderate length. Front of legs apparently scutellated. Wings 
abortive, no rectrices apparent. 



APHANAPTERYX BONASIA selys. 

(Plate 29.) 

A Hen Sir Thomas Herbert, A relation of some years' Travaile (1626). 

Veli-lweiiders Reyer Cornelisr, Van der Hagen's voyage (1646). 

Ponies rottgcs an bee de Becasse Cauche, Relations vfiritables et curieuses de I'lsle de 
Madagascar (165 1). 

Apterornis bonasia Edm. de S6Iys-Longchamps, Revue Zoologique, p. 292 (1848). 

Didus herberti Schlegel, Vers. Med. Ak. Wetensch., II, p. 256 (1854). 

Didiis broecki Schlegel, I.e. 

Aphaiiapteryx imperialis Frauenfeld, Neu aufgef. Abbild. Dronte, p. 6 (1868). 

Aphanapteryx broeckii Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5), X, pp. 325-346, pis. 15-18 
(1868). 

Pezophaps broeckii Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Struthiones, p. 4 (1873). 

I HERE give a translation of Frauenfeld's original diagnosis: "Of the 
size of a fowl, of a uniform brown red all over. Bill and legs dark, 

Iris yellowish. Feathers decomposed, as in the Apteryx, somewhat 
lengthened on the nape." 

This description was made by Frauenfeld from a drawing by 
G. Hoefnagels, in the Imperial Library, Vienna, executed about the year 
1610, and, together with that of the Dodo, apparently drawn from life in the 
Imperial Menagerie at Ebersdorf. This drawing proves Van den Broecke, 
Herbert, and Cauche's descriptions to have been correct, though their 
drawings are somewhat startlingly different in shape. Only known from these 
four drawings and osseous remains. 18 fragments of beaks, 5 pelves, 35 tibiae, 
1 sacrum and fragments, and 1 vertebra in the Tring Museum. 

Habitat : Mauritius. 



133 



DIAPHORAPTERYX forbes. 

THIS genus is closely allied to Aphanapteryx and Erythromachus, but, on the 
whole, is nearer to Aplianapteryx. It differs from both these genera 
and Ocydromus in the large protuberances on the basi-temporal region 
of the skull, and the tarso-metatarsus was much shorter than in Aphanapteryx. 
For complete diagnosis of this genus see Andrews in Novitates Zoologicae, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 73-76 (1896). 



DIAPHORAPTERYX HAWKINSI (forbes). 

Aphanapteryx hawkinsi Forbes, Nature XLVI, p. 252. 
Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Forbes, Bull. B.O.C.I. p. XXI, 1893. 

THE remains of this bird were first sent to Dr. H. O. Forbes in 1892 by 
the late W. Hawkins, from the Chatham Islands, 500 miles E.S.E. of 

New Zealand. It appears to have been confined to the Island of 
Wharekauri. Dr. Forbes subsequently went to the Chathams himself and 
collected a large number of bones of various extinct birds, including those of 
Diapliorapteryx. In 1895 I received a consignment of bones through the 
agency of Mr. Dannefaerd, from the Chathams, such as has never been 
equalled from any deposit elsewhere, for literally there were many hundreds 
of thousands of bones of a considerable number of species of birds. 
From this collection Mr. C. W. Andrews was able to draw up a most minute 
description of the skeleton of Diaplwrapteryx, founded on several practically 
complete skeletons, some thirty or more skulls, and several thousand individual 
bones of various portions of the skeleton. This description, published in 
"Novitates Zoologicae," Vol. Ill, pp. 73-84, is too long for reproduction here, 
and so I must refer my readers to it. 

This bird, as well as the Palaeolimnas, shows an apparent relationship 
between the Chatham Islands and the Mascarene Islands ; but I believe that 



134 



this is not a real relationship, as has been asserted, due to a former land- 
connection, but merely a case of parallel development owing to similar 
conditions of existence. 

Habitat : Wharekauri Island, Chatham Islands. 

In the Tring Museum are two complete skeletons, more than a 
thousand bones, and about fifteen skulls. 

One almost complete skeleton, and the type, skull, and bones, are in 
the British Museum. 



135 



ERYTHROMACHUS milneedwards. 

" T EGS stout, made for running, and from a quarter to one-fifth shorter than 
I V in Ocydromtis, the three anterior digits well developed and the hallux 
very small. Body less massive than in Ocydromus, with the wings 
slightly more developed, but not serviceable for flight. Head small ; bill red, 
straight, pointed, and about 60 mm. = 24 inches. A red naked patch round 
the eye ; plumage pale grey." 



ERYTHROMACHUS LEGUATI 

MILNE-EDWARDS. 

Gelinote Leguat, t. II p. 71 (1708). 

Erythromachus leguati Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX, pp. 6, 7, pis. XI, XII (1874). 
Aphanopteryx leguati Giinther & E. Newton, Phil. Trans. Vol. i58, pp. 431-432, pi. XLIII 
(1879). 

OF the older writers only Leguat appears to have described the Rodriguez 
flightless rail. There are several references to "Hens," " Veld Hoenders," 

&c., but all appear to refer to the Mauritius bird Aphanapteryx bonasia. 
Leguat's description is as follows : — 

" Our ' gelinotes ' are fat all the year round and of a most delicate taste. 
Their colour is always of a bright grey, and there is very little difference in 
plumage between the two sexes. They hide their nests so well that we could 
not find them out, and consequently did not taste their eggs. They have a 
red naked area round their eyes, their beaks are straight and pointed, near 
two and two-fifths inches long, and red also. They cannot fly, their fat makes 
them too heavy for it. If you off^er them anything red, they are so angry they 
will fly at you to catch it out of your hand, and in the heat of the combat 
we had an opportunity to take them with ease." 

Quite extinct. Only known from descriptions and osseous remains. 
One tibia in the Tring Museum. 

Habitat : Rodriguez Island. 



137 



PENNULA DOLE. 

Penniila Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879 p. 54 (Reprint in Ibis 1880 p. 241). 

I BELIEVE that the genus Pennula should be placed near Porzanula, but 
its wings are softer, the rectrices are next to invisible, but can be felt, as 
they have stiff shafts and are about 13 mm. long, though being entirely 
hidden by the soft tail-coverts. The tibia is bare for about 7 mm., the meta- 
tarsus covered in front with nearly a dozen transverse, very distinct scales, and 
distinctly reticulated behind. The bill much as in Poliolitnnas and Porzanula. 
Two species can be recognized : Pennula millsi, with a uniform upper 
surface, and Pennula sandwichensis, with a distinctly spotted upper side. Both 
forms are now extinct. 



PENNULA MILLSI dole. 

MOHO OF THE NATIVES. 

(Plate 26, Fig. 3.) 

Pennula millet (misprint for millsi) Dole, Hawaiian Almanac 1879 p. 54 (reprint in Ibis 1880 
p. 241. "Uplands ofj Hawaii : named in honour of Mr. Mills, spec, in Mills's Coll., nearly 
extinct") ; Rothsch., Avif. Laysan, etc., p. 241 pi. LXXVI. 

"Pennula ecaudata " apud Wilson & Evans, Aves. Hawaii., part V, text and plate. 

ALL we know of this bird are the five specimens caught by an old native 
bird-catcher named Hawelu for the late Mr. Mills of Hawaii. Two of 
these are now in my Museum, one in Cambridge, and two in the Bishop- 
Pauahi Museum in Honolulu. There can be no doubt that this bird is now 
extinct. All recent attempts to find specimens have been futile. Mr. Palmer, 
whom I sent a specially trained dog, also failed to find even traces of it. It 
lived formerly in the counti-y between Hilo and the volcano Kilauea, in places 
where thick grass, Vaccinium and Dianella, forms the thickest cover possible. 
In former times the " Moho " was a dainty on the tables of the Hawaiian kings, 
but its disappearance is probably due to the introduction of the obnoxious 
mongoose and to bush fires. 



138 



PENNULA SANDWICHENSIS (gm.) 

(Plate 26, Fig. 2.) 

Rallus Sandwichensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1 p. 717 (1788 — ex Latham ! " Habitat exilis in 
insulis Sandwich "). 

Pennula Wilsoni Finsch, Notes Leyden Mus. XX p. 77 (1898 — Finsch explains that the 
specimen in the Leyden Museum is not the type of Latham — and therefore of Gmelin's 
name — and therefore renames it). 

For full synonymy and explanations of name, etc., cf. Avifauna of Laysan, p. 239, 240 and 243, 
also plate LXXVI. 

LATHAM'S description — from which Gmelin's diagnosis was taken — distinctly 
says that the feathers were "darkest in the middle," and in the Index 
Ornith. " supra maculis obscuris." Moreover, the unpublished drawing of 
Ellis, well reproduced in Mr. Scott Wilson's book, shows beyond doubt the 
identity of the bird of the old authors with the specimen in the Leyden Museum. 
The Leyden specimen is all we are acquainted with, and of the history of 
this bird we know nothing but Latham's statement that it came from the 
" Sandwich Islands." 



139 



TRIBONYX ROBERTI Andrews. 



Tribonyx roberti Andrews, Ibis iSgy, p. 356, pi. IX, figs 4-7. 



THIS bird is described from an imperfect pelvis, a perfect left tibio-tarsus 
and a femur. The pelvis differs from that of T. mortieri in not having 
the deep depression in the ilia in front of the acetabulum and above 
the pectineal process. It also differs in having a rather wider pelvic escutcheon 
and wider renal fossal, and the supra-acetabular ridges of the ilia are smaller 
than in the Australian bird. The beautifully-preserved left tibia differs from 
that of T. mortieri in having the intercondylar groove wider and shallower, 
the inner condyle less massive, thus making the difference between the inner 
and outer condyle more marked ; T. roberti also has the shaft immediately 
above the e.xtensor bridge wider, the bridge itself less oblique, and the 
fibular crest is longer. 

The measurements are : — 

Pelvis. 
Length of Ilium 

Least width of acetabular region of Pelvis 
Width at Antitrochanter .... 
Width at anterior angle of Pelvic Escutcheon . 
Width at Posterior angle of Pelvic Escutcheon. 
Length of Sacrum .... 

Tibia. 

Length 

Width at distal extremity.... 
Width at middle of shaft .... 

Femur. 

Length 

Width at distal extremity.... 
Width at middle of shaft .... 
Habitat : Sirabe in C. Madagascar. 



82 mm. 


approx. 


14 „ 




40 „ 




36 „ 




40 „ 




68 „ 




143 mm. 




12 „ 




7 „ 




83 mm. 




17 „ 




7 „ 





141 



NOTORNIS OWEN. 

DIFFERS from Porphyria by the secondaries being nearly as long as 
the primaries, and the wing-coverts more or less elongated, sometimes 
nearly hiding the quills. 
Type : Notornis mantelli. 

NOTORNIS MANTELLI owen. 

Notornis mantelli Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, p. 377, pi. LVl, figs. 7-11 (1848). 

THIS species was founded on a nearly entire skull, collected by Walter 
Mantell at Waingongoro, North Island, New Zealand. This skull is 

more than twice the size of that of Porphyria melanotus. The 
basisphenoidal surface, however, is flatter, the anterior angle projects below 
the base of the presphenoid, and there is a slender ridge continued from each 
paroccipital to the lateral angles of the platform, the posterior angles being 
hemispheric tubercles as in Palapteryx. 

The occipital region inclines forwards as it rises, while the same is 
more vertical in Porphyria. The post-frontal is broader than in Porphyria. 
The chief distinction from that of Porphyria is, however, the almost regular 
four-sided figure of the skull. The breadth of the anterior part is almost exactly 
that of the occipital region, and the extent of the sides is not much more than 
that of the front and back part. The parieto-frontal region of the skull is 
very unlike that of Porphyria, being convex and oblong, and Notornis also lacks 
cerebral or hemispheric convexities. Owen gives a large number of other 
differences, but I refer my readers to the original article as above, pp. 366-371. 
I, however, must state here, as is already mentioned by Mr. Hamilton, Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 176, 1892, that the Dinornis skull, with which Professor 
Owen compared Notornis, referred by him to D. casuarinus is really that of 
Aptornis defossar (v/cfe Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, pi. 52, figs. 1-7), and, therefore, 
it is quite natural that Professor Owen found a great likeness to Dinornis in 
Notornis, as the skull he compared it with was really that of the Ralline 
Aptornis, and not the Struthious Dinornis at all. 

Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. 

Dr. H. O. Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst., discusses at length measurements 
of tibiae and femora of Notornis, provisionally naming the skeleton in 
the Otago Museum Natarnis parkeri, as a new species, but I consider we must 
wait for confirmation till we get an associated skeleton of N. mantelli. 



142 



NOTORNIS HOCHSTETTERI a.b.m. 

(Plate 34.) 

Notornis Hochstetteri A. B. Meyer, Abbild. Vogelskelett, Lief. IV & V, p. 28, pi. XXXIV- 
XXXVII (1883— South Island, New Zealand) ; Zeitschr. ges. Orn. II, p. 45, pi. I 
(1885 — figures of the bird). 

Notornis maiitelli (non Owen 1848 1) Gould, P.Z.S. London, 1850, pi. 21 ; Trans. Zool. Soc. 
London IV, pi. 25 (1850); Gould, B. Austr. Suppl., pi. 76 (1869); BuUer, B. New 
Zealand, pi. (1873); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII, p. 208 (1894). 

THE name Notornis mantelli having been based on a cranium and some 
leg-bones from the North Island, and the bones of a specimen from the 

South Island, showing marked differences. Dr. A. B. Meyer was fully 
justified in describing the latter form as different, under the name of 
A^. hochstetteri. 

According to the describer there are considerable differences in the 
cranial bones, but the comparison of the leg-bones shows such differences in 
size that these alone would be sufficient to separate the North and South Island 
forms. The femur of A'', hochstetteri measures 109, that of A^. mantelli 122, 
the tibia of the former 165, the tarso-metatarsus 109, the tibia of the latter 
200, the tarso-metatarsus 129 mm. For further measurements see A. B. 
Meyer, Abbild. Vogelskelett I, p. 30. 

The upper surface is olive-green with some slaty-blue shading, the 
quills are black with purplish blue outer webs ; rectrices blackish, green on 
the outer webs. Head, neck, and under surface purplish blue, thighs more 
blackish. Under tail-coverts white, frontal plate and bill bright red, yellow 
towards the tip of both mandibles. Feet red. 

Although this bird is evidently not extinct, a specimen having been 
captured as late as 1898, it seems that not many examples live at present in 
New Zealand, as they have been sought after a good deal, and yet only four 
have been taken so far, i.e., the two in the British Museum, one in the 
Dresden Museum, and the last-mentioned one. 

Full accounts of the capture of this last specimen have been given in 
the Trans. New Zealand Institute, XXXI, pp. 146-150, and in Sir Walter 
Buller's Supplement to the Birds of New Zealand, I, pp. 66-74, where, however, 
the year of the capture is not mentioned, though one can guess that it 
must have taken place shortly before the articles on it appeared. 

Habitat : Middle Island, usually called South Island, apparently nearly 
extinct. 



143 



NOTORNIS STANLEYI (rowley) 

White gallinule, Voy. of Gov. Phillip to N.S.W., p. 273, cum tab. (1789). 
Porphyria stanleyi Rowley, Orn. Misc. I, p. 36, pi. IX (1875). 
Porphyria melanotiis (part.) Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. XXIII, p. 205 (1894). 
Porphyria alba G. R. Gray, List Birds N.Z., &c., Ibis 1862, p. 214. 



THE first to point out the differences between the bird now in the 
Liverpool Museum and the specimen in Vienna was Mr. Dawson 

Rowley. The original description of the anonymous author of Phillip's 
Voyage is as follows :— 

" This beautiful bird greatly resembles the purple Gallinule in shape 
and make, but is much superior in size, being as large as a dunghill fowl. 
The length from end of bill to that of the claws is two feet three inches. 
The bill is very stout, and the colour of it, the whole of the top of the 
head and the irides red ; the sides of the head round the eyes are reddish, 
very thinly sprinkled with white feathers ; the whole of the plumage is, 
without exception, white. The legs the colour of the bill. This species is 
pretty common on Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, and other places, and 
is a very tame species. The other sex, supposed to be the male, is said to 
have some blue on the wings." 

Gray states under Porphyria alba, in Ibis 1862, p. 214: "It is stated 
that a similar kind was found on Lord Howe Island which was incapable of 
flight. The wings of the male were beautifully mottled with blue." 

Dr. H. O. Forbes, in the Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums, Vol. Ill, 
No. 2, pp. 62-68 (1901), gives an exhaustive account of Rowley's type, in 
which he comes to the conclusion that the bird is not a Porphyria but a 
Notornis, and that it is also probably a specimen of Notornis alba. That it 
is a Notornis I equally believe ; but I think the length of the wing-coverts 
in the type of A^. alba, puts it out of the question that the two birds could 
be the same. Moreover, the two original pictures of Phillip and White show 
this difference of the wings very well. I have therefore kept the two 
separate, and 1 feel sure if we had other specimens with exact data we 
should find this a parallel case to that of Nesonetta aucklatidica of the 
Auckland Islands and Anas chlarotis of New Zealand, and that Notornis alba 
of Norfolk Island was a still further degenerate form to the already 
flightless A'^. stanleyi of Lord Howe Island. Wing nine inches. 

Habitat : Lord Howe Island. 



144 

NOTORNIS ALBA (white) 

(Plate 33.) 

? White galliniilc Callam, Voy. Botany Bay (1783?) (teste Gray). 

Fulica alba White, Journ. Voy. N.S.W., p. 238 and plate (1790). 

Gallinula alba Latham, Ind. Orn. I, p. 768 (1790). 

Porphyria albiis Temminck, Man. d'Orn. II, p. 701 (1820). 

Porphyria melanotus var. alba Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terror, Birds, p. 19 (1144). 

Porphyria melanotus Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terror, Ed. II (1846), p. 14. 

Notoniis? alba Pelzeln, Sitz. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien. XLI, p. 328 (i860). 

Notoriiis alba Salvin, Ibis 1873, p. 295, pi. X. 

THERE has been considerable confusion in connection with this bird 
and the following species, owing to the fact of White not having 

given any locality for the specimen on which Latham founded his 
Gallinula alba, and which is now in the Vienna Museum. That the Vienna 
specimen is really White's bird is proved because it was bought at the sale 
of the Leverian Museum, and White expressly states that all his birds were 
deposited in the Leverian Museum. 

It is quite impossible to say with certainty which of the two forms, 
Notomis alba or A'^. stanleyi, came from Norfolk Island, as we have no 
indication of the origin of the Liverpool specimen. But seeing that in 
the anonymous work, "The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay," 
the first mentioned habitat is Lord Howe Island, and the figure shows a 
bird with the shorter wing-coverts of A'^. stanleyi, I think I am justified in 
taking the bird with longer wing-coverts — viz., Notomis alba, to be the bird 
from Norfolk Island. 

White's description is as follows : — " White Fulica, with bill and front 
red, shoulders spined, legs and feet yellow." White's figure clearly shows 
the long wing coverts characteristic of the genus Notornis. Von Pelzeln 
says in his account of this bird that there is a label on it bearing the number 
102, and giving as place of origin Norfolk Island, but White makes no 
mention of this. There are traces of a bluish shade, and two or three dark 
spots on the plumage, which has led many ornithologists to consider N. alba 
an albino. Gray, in "A List of Birds from New Zealand, &c.,"* remarked 
that some Norfolk Island specimens had blue between the shoulders, and 
the back spotted with the same colour. He also states that the young are 
said to be black, then become bluish grey, and afterwards pure white. 
From these and other authors' similar remarks I believe we have not here 
a case of albinism, but a bird which was in a stage of evolution towards 
becoming a fixed white species. Wing 9 inches (measured by myself in the 
Vienna Museum). 

Habitat : Norfolk Island. 

♦ Ibis 1862, p. 214. 



145 



APTERORNIS selys. 

DIFFERED widely from Didus and Pezophaps in its long beak, which 
resembles a little that of a woodcock, but is much stronger. These 
birds were high on the leg, ran swiftly, and were far removed from 
pigeons like the Dodo and the Solitaire, but to which they had a certain 
resemblance, owing to their rudimentary wings, apology for a tail, and the 
disposition of their digits." 

The above is a translation of de Selys- Longchamps' diagnosis of the 
genus, but owing to his inclusion therein of Didus solitariiis and Aphanapteryx 
bonasia, it does not fit when restricted to the " Oyseau bleu " of Le Sieur 
D.B. It might be described as : Resembling Aptornis, but with shorter bill 
and feet, thus more approaching Notornis. 
One species. 



APTERORNIS COERULESCENS selys. 

(Plate 32.) 

"Oyseaiix bleus" Le Sieur D.B., Les Voyages aux Isles Dauphine and Bourbon, 

pp. 170, 171 (1674). 
Aptercrnis coenilescens Selys-Longchamps, Rev. Zool. 1848, p. 294. 

THE original description of the Sieur D.B. (Dubois) is as follows 
(translated) :— " Oyseaux bleus : As big as the Solitaires ; they have 

the plumage entirely blue, the beak and the feet red and made like 
those of fowls; they do not fly at all, but run extremely quickly, so that a 
dog can hardly catch them; they are very good." 

Habitat : Bourbon or Reunion. 

Dubois gives the size of these birds as the same as that of a big 
goose and the feet as being like those of a fowl: I have, therefore, in 
reconstructing the plate of this bird, had it made intermediate in structure 
between the New Zealand Notornis and Aptornis, which were evidently its 
nearest allies. 



147 



APTORNIS OWEN. 

DIFFERS from Dinornis, Palapteryx and Notomis in having an articular 
surface for a very strong hind toe, and the tarso-metatarsus of a 
conformation more nearly resembling that found in the Dodo, but 
shorter and thicker than in the latter. In addition, the strong calcaneal 
process, perforated by a complete bony canal for the tendon at the back 
part of the proximal end of the tarso-metatarsus ; the perforation above the 
interspace between the condyles for the middle and outer toes; and the more 
posterior position for the condyle for the inner toe all prove the distinctness 
of this genus. 

Type: Aptornis otidiformis. 



APTORNIS OTIDIFORMIS 



(OWEN). 



Diiioniis otidiformis Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, p. 247, pis. XXV and XXVI, fig. 5 (1844). 
Aptornis otidiformis Owen, ibidem p. 347 (1848). 

THIS is the North Island form, and I must refer my readers to 
Owen's description, only remarking that Mr. Hamilton, Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. XXIV, p. 179, says the vertebrae assigned by Owen to Cnemiornis 
all belong to Aptornis. 

Locality of type tibia : Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand ; 
collected by Rev. Wm. Williams in 1842. 



148 



APTORNIS DEFOSSOR 



OWEN. 



Aptornis dcfossor Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. V'll, pp. 353 to 366, pis. 40-44 (1871). 



THE skull differs from that of A. otidifonnis by the vertical surface of 
the descending part of the occiput being less deeply concave, the 
occipital foramen relatively smaller. The hind part of the base of the 
alisphenoid is more produced and tuberous outside the end of the hyoid 
process of the paroccipital in A. defossor. 

The chief other differences in size, according to Owen, are as 
follows : — 



Skull. 
Length 


A . dcfossor. 

7-2 inches 


Breadth across paroccipitals 


3-3 


)) 


Breadth across postfrontals 


3-2 


J> 


Breadth across temporal fossae 


23 


n 


Breadth of base of upper mandible .... 


1-6 


»» 


Breadth of middle of upper mandible .... 


1-4 


»» 


Breadth of fore end of upper mandible 


07 




Length of premaxillary 


50 




Femur. 
Length 


7-6 




Breadth of proximal end 


2-2 




Breadth of distal end 


2-2 




Circumference of middle of shaft 


2-9 




Tibia. 
Length 


10-3 




Breadth of proximal end 


2-3 




Breadth of distal end .... 


110 




Circumference of middle of shaft 


2-6 




Metatarsus. 
Length 


4.4 




Breadth of proximal end 


1-8 




Breadth of distal end 


1-9 




Breadth of middle of shaft 


1-6 





. otidi_ 


form is. 


62 inches 


2-9 


n 


210 


n 


M 


Jj 


1-3 


»» 


11 


)) 


0-6 


n 


4-3 


J) 


6-2 


»» 


1-9 


)J 


1-9 


»j 


2-3 


n 


8-9 


J» 


1-9 


ji 


1.3 


»» 


Ml 


n 


310 


)j 


1-5 


»j 


1-6 


>» 


1-4 


)» 



Locality of type : Oamaru. 
Habitat : South Island. 

A nearly perfect skeleton in the Tring Museum, collected by 
Mr. W. S. Mitchel in limestone cave on Oreti River, Southland. 



149 



D 



PALAEOLIMNAS forbes. 

IFFERS from Fiilica by the much more curved shape of the skull, the 
deeply marked glandular impressions over the eyes, and the great 
pneumaticity of the frontal bones. 



PALAEOLIMNAS CHATHAMENSIS (forbes). 

FuUca chathamensis H. O. Forbes, Nature, vol. XLVI p. 252 (1892). 

Fulica iiexctoni H. O. Forbes, I.e. (non Milne-Eclwards). 

Palacoliiiinas newtoni H. O. Forbes, Ibis 1893, p. 544. 

Palaeolimiias chathaiiicnsis Milne Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (VIII) 2, 1896 p. 130. 

DR. FORBES says in Nature "I procured from the same beds which 
contained Aphanapteryx a certain number of bones of a Fulica 
which much resemble those of Fulica newtoni ; like the bones of 
Aphanapteryx (should be Diaphorapteryx, w.r.) they vary much in size, some 
being equal to, while others were considerably larger than similar bones of 
FuUca newtoni. This variation is so great that I am inclined to consider 
them as belonging to different species, or at least different races. I have 
given the name Fulica chathamensis" to the larger species. 

Later, in the Ibis, Dr. Forbes says, " Tlie limb-bones and pelvis 
correspond so closely to those of F. newtoni that I am not able to separate 
them. The head of the type is, however, unknown." 

Professor Milne-Edwards, however, points out numerous differences. 
In the humerus the sub-trochanterial groove is bigger, and particularly wider 
than in typical Fulica. The iliac grooves are larger than in Fulica newtoni, 
the pelvic knob is more extended, and the sciatic foramen is larger. The 
first sacral vertebrae are stunted below the median sinus, while in the 
Mauritius species one observes a very stout one, occupying the four first 
vertebrae of the pelvis. The feet were also larger and stronger than in the 
latter. 

Habitat: Chatham Islands. 

An almost complete skeleton and numerous bones in the Tring 
Museum, and an almost complete skeleton in the British Museum. 



150 



PALAEOLIMNAS NEWTON I (milne.edwards). 

Ponies d'eau Sieur D.B., Voyages 1674. 

Fiilica iiewtoni Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Kat. (5) VIII pp. 194-220, pis. 10-13 ('^'^y). 

THE translation of the Sieur D.B.'s (Abbe Dubois) description is as 
follows : — " Waterhens which are as large as fowls. They are always 

black, and have a large white crest on the head." For the anatomical 
description I must refer my readers to Professor Milne-Edwards. 

Habitat : Bourbon. 

Milne-Edwards gives so many details in which Fulica newtoni agrees 
with Palaeolimnas chathamensis that I feel convinced that the former is not 
a true Fulica, and, until we know its skull and can decide for certain, 
I think it is best to include it in the genus Palaeolimnas. 16 tibiae, 
30 metatarsi, 8 humeri, 2 sternums, 4 fragments and an entire pelvis and 
sacrum, and 3 cervical vertebrae in the Tring Museum. 



PALAEOLIMNAS PRISCA (Hamilton). 

Fulica prisca Hamilton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 98 (1893). 

THIS bird was nearly as large as Notornis, but with a very small head 
and with a frontal shield. It was probably a poor flier, though 
not flightless, as Fulica chathamensis was. It was smaller than 
the latter. Measurements, according to Hamilton : — 

prisca. newtoni. chathamensis. 

Femur: Length 78 — 93 mm — .... 85 mm. 

Tibio-tarsus : Length .... 143—162 „ .... 144 mm 152—163 „ 

Tarso-metatarsus : Length 81—98 „ .... 88 „ .... 96 „ 

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand. 



151 



LEGUATIA SCHLEGEL. 

BODY not larger than that of a goose ; wings rather short but still 
fitted for flight ; feathers of the legs reaching down almost to the 
top of the tarso-metatarsus ; toes long and completely free, middle 
toe almost as long as tarso-metatarsus. Bill with a naked shield reaching 
back beyond the eye. Height about 6 feet. 



LEGUATIA GIGANTEA schlegel. 

(Plate 31.) 

Le Giant Leguat, Voyages (170S), p. 171, English edition. 

Leguatia gigantea Schlegel, Versl. Med. AUad. Wetensch. Amst. Vll, p. 142 (1858). 

LEGUAT'S description is as follows : " . . . and many of those birds 
called giants, because they are six feet high. They are extremely high 

mounted, and have very long necks. Their bodies are not bigger than 
that of a goose. They are all white, except a little place under their wings, 
which is reddish. They have a goose's bill, only a little sharper; their claws 
are very long and divided." This bird was apparently confined to the island 
of Mauritius. 

Professor Newton asserts that Leguat's "Geants " were Flamingos, 
principally because bones of Flamingos have been found in Mauritius and 
not a single bone has ever been got of the "geant." This argument is, in my 
opinion, insufficient, and no evidence at all. We know that a Didine bird and 
a gigantic rail existed on Reunion, but no bones are yet known of these. I 
think, like Professor Schlegel, that Leguat's figure and description cannot 
be meant for a Flamingo and that they prove the former existence of a 
gigantic ralline bird in Mauritius. 

The figure is made up from Leguat's description. The bill is drawn 
like that of a gigantic moorhen, and so are the feet. 

Habitat : Mauritius. 



153 



ALCA IMPENNIS l 

THE GREAT AUK. 

(Plate 38.) 

"Penguin" Hore, in Hakluyfs Coll. Voyages III p. 129 (Ed. 1600 — ex Hore). 

Anser Magelanicus s. Pinguinus Worm, Museum Wormianum, Lib. Ill, Cap. 19, p. 300, 

301 (1655 — Figured from a specimen from the Faroe Islands). 
"Penguin" Willoughby, Orn. Lib. Ill p. 242 pi. 65 (1676). 
" Northern Penguin " Edwards, Nat. Hist. Uncommon B. etc.. Ill p. 147 pi. 147 (1750 

— First good coloured plate, from a specimen from Newfoundland). 
" Geyervogel" Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica p. 43 no. 119 (1746). 

Alca impennis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X p. 130 (1758— Ex fauna Sueciva no. iig, Mus. 
Worm. I.e., Willoughby I.e., and Edwards I.e.) ; Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. XII, I, p. 210 
(1766); Naumann, Nat. Voy. Deutschl. XII p. 630 pi. 337 (1844); Dresser, B. Europe 
VllI p. 563, pi. 620 (1880); Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. HI p. 371 (1885). 
Alca borealis Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. B. p. 29 (1817— nomen nudum). 
Plautus impennis Briinnich, Zool. Fundamenta p. 78 (1772); Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 
Water Birds N. Amer., II p. 467 (1884) ; Grant. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXVI p. 563 
(1898). 
FOR FULL DESCRIPTIONS, LITERATURE, HISTORY, LIST OF REMAINS, SEE :— 
Japetus Sleenstrup : Bidrag til Geirfuglens Naturhistorie etc., Kjobenhavn (Copenhagen) 

1857 (In Naturh-Forening. VidensU. Meddel. 1855, nos. 3-7). 
Alfred Newton : Abstract of Mr. Wolley's Researches in Iceland respecting the Gare- 

fowl. (In Ibis, 1861, pp. 374-399)- 
William Preyer : Ueber Plautus impennis. (In Journal f. Orn. 1862 pp. 1 10-124, 337-356. 
Alfred Newton : The Gare-fowl and its Historians. (In Natural History Review XII, 
1865 pp. 467-488); id. in Encycl. Britannica Ed. IX vol. Ill; id. Diet. B. p. 220-221. 
Wilhelin Bltisiiis : Zur Geschichte von Alca impennis. Journ. f. Orn. 1884 pp. 58-176. 
Symington Grieve : The Great AuU, or Garefowl. Its History, Archaeology, and Remains. 
London 1885 ; Supplem. note on the Great Auk ; in Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat. 
Soc. (1897) p. 238-273. 
Wilhelm Blasius : Der Riesenalk, Alca impennis L. In the New Edition of Naumann 
"Naumann, Naturg. d. Vogel Mitteleuropas ") Vol. XII p. 169-208, plates 17, I7a-I7d 
(1903). 

PROBABLY the first mention of Great Auks is that in Andre Thevet's 
book " Les singularitez de la France antarctique . . . ," Anvers 
1558, where a large bird was mentioned under the name of " Aponars," 
"Apponatz" or "Aponath." But evidently this name covered several other 
sea-birds, and it is at least doubtful if it was solely applied to the Great 
Auk. The same applies to the remarks by Jacques Cartier, as translated in 
R. Hakluyfs collection of voyages. On the other hand there is no doubt 
that the "Penguin" mentioned by Robert Hore in 1536 (Hakluyt, Collection 
of Voyages III, p. 129—1600, and other Editions) was actually the Great 
Auk. In fact "Penguin" has been the name usually applied to the Great Auk 



154 



and is even now used for it by the French, while in most other languages it 
has been transferred, from an early date, to the Antarctic flightless birds, 
the SpJteniscidae. 

All the first reports are from Newfoundland and thereabout, and even 
Clusius (Exoticorum libri decern, Lib. V, p. 103 — 1605), who gives a rather 
poor but perfectly recognizable figure, describes it first (p. 103) as a native 
of America, under the name of " Mergus Americanus." Later on, however, 
in the "Auctarium," on p. 367, he mentions it, on the authority of Henricus 
Hojerus, as found in the Faroe Islands, under the name " Goirfugel." 
Hojerus was also the authority for the account given in Nieremberg, Hist. 
Nat., etc., p. 215 (1635). The first comparatively good figure was published 
in 1655, in the "Museum Wormianum," on p. 301, from a specimen brought 
alive from the Faroe Islands. Curiously enough the figure shows a white 
ring round the neck, which no Great Auk, of course, possesses. 

Linnaeus, when first bestowing a scientific name on the Great Auk, 
in 1758, I.e., gave the following short diagnosis and references: — 

" AIca rostro compresso — ancipiti sulcato, macula ovata utrinque ante oculos. Fn. 
Svec. Iig. 

Anser magellanicus. Worm. mus. 300 t. 301. 

Penguin. Will, ornith. 244 t. 65 Edw. av. 147 t. 147. 

Habitat in Europa arctica." 
From referring to the literature he quotes, there can, of course, be 
no doubt as to what species he refers. 

The most detailed descriptions are probably those given in the New 
Edition of Naumann (see above), where also a list of literature and figures 
is given, fully seven folio pages long! As regards the difference in the 
sexes little is known, because very few specimens exist of which the sex has been 
ascertained. We find, however, some with the grooves and ridges on the bill 
more marked, and the grooves purer white, while others have the grooves of 
a dirtier white and less strongly developed ; as these latter are apparently 
mostly smaller, I think they must be females, the former males In this 
case my two specimens would be females, and the one now in Professor 
Koenig's possession an adult male. Probably somewhat similar seasonal 
changes took place as in Alca tarda, and Professor Blasius (I.e.) has described 
them. It must, however, be remembered, that the date of capture is known 
of but a few examples, and that by far the majority of all those that exist 
in collections have been killed in spring, on their breeding-places. 

Nobody can doubt that the Great Auk is extinct. The last specimens 
were obtained on Eldey, near Iceland, in 1844, and the seas and islands 



155 



where the great bird used to live are frequented by vessels every year. It 
is true that a certain Lorenz Brodtkorb told that in April, 1848, he saw four 
Great Auks, of which he shot one, near the Varanger Fjord, east of the 
North-Cape, but Professor Newton and Wolley have, in 1855, had an inter- 
view with Brodtkorb, and came to the conclusion that he saw and shot the 
Great Northern Diver. This is the more likely to be the case, as the 
occurrence north of the Arctic Circle is as yet uncertain, the finding of 
Great Auks both on the island of Disco (west-coast of Greenland) and on 
Grimsey and Mevenklint on the north coast of Iceland being open to doubt. 

From sub-fossil and prehistoric finds, we know that the Great Auk 
formerly inhabited Norway and Sweden, Denmark, with Seeland, Sejero and 
Havno, the British Islands (Cleadon Hills in County Durham, Scotland, 
Ireland), the east coast of North America from Labrador to Florida. 

In historic times we know of the occurrence on the islands near 
Labrador, Greenland — where it certainly used to breed on the east coast, 
but was probably only of rare and exceptional occurrence on the west coast — 
Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Fair Island between the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands (doubtful), Orkneys (Papa Westra), St. Kilda, Skye, and Waterford 
Harbour in Ireland. But as breeding stations within historic times the 
following only are absolutely certain : — 

1. Funk Islands near Newfoundland. 

2. Iceland (Geirfuglasker, Grimsey, Eldey). 

3. Faroe Islands. 

4. St. Kilda. 

5. Orkney Islands. 

While we know of regular occurrence and may assume that the bird 
has been breeding on the north and west side of Newfoundland, and in east 
Greenland (opposite Iceland). 

The remains of the Great Auk and its eggs in collections are more 
numerous than one would think, considering the enormous prices paid for 
mounted specimens and eggs. There are at present known 79 or 80 skins, 
26 or 27 skeletons, a great quantity of detached bones, and about 73 eggs. 

I HAVE IN MY MUSEUM: 
1. One adult female, formerly in the collection of the late Comte de Riocour at Vitry- 
le-Fran9ois, in France. I bought this specimen from the late Alphonse Boucard, 
together with the bulk of the birds of the Riocour collection. It is evidently an adult 
female, having the white lines on the bill not very much developed, and showing a 
distinct grey tinge on the flanks. This shade is present in both my Great Auks; the 
feathers of the flanks, just under the wing, are nearly white, with a conspicuous, very 
light grey border. This grey tinge is present in all females, but appears to be absent 
in adult males. My bird is apparently in worn breeding plumage. As it was not 
very well mounted and the feet slightly damaged, I had it reduced to a " skin." 



156 



2. Another adult female. I purchased this from Mr. Rowland Ward, who had it from 
Mr. Leopold Field in London, in 1897. According to a letter, dated Paris le 20 Jan., 
1890, written by the late A. Boucard, who sold it in that year to Mr. Field, the history 
is as follows: "This bird was captured in Iceland in 1837, did first belong to Mr. 
EimbecU of Brunswick and afterwards in the collection of Mr. Bruch from Mayence." 
We must accept this information by the late A. Boucard as correct, though it is difficult 
to understand that in the most painstaking and exact list of remains of the Great Auk, 
by Prof. Wilhelm Blasius of Braunschweig, or anywhere else, no mention is made 
of a specimen in the possession of the late Eimbeck, or the late Bruch. Moreover, 
we have no explanation where this Auk has been between the time of Bruch's death 
and 1890, when Boucard sold it to Mr. Field in London. 

This specimen has been described as " immature," but this is a mistake. Evidently it arose 
from some white speckles being visible on the neck in the photograph (see Symington 
Grieve, Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat. and Micros. Society, explanation to plate III, on 
page 269). The specimen itself, however, shows no white speckles, but only worn 
feathers, out of which the illusion arose in the photograph. This error has also been 
transferred to the admirable treatise on the Great Auk in the New Edition of 
Naumann. The grey shade " on the body lower than the wing," mentioned by 
Mr. Symington Grieve, is not a sign of immaturity, but appears in all adult females, 
though it is said to be absent in males. 

Some years ago an extraordinary rumour was current in Germany 

about the Great Auk in the Brehm collection ; it was said to have been 

exchanged by the widow of Pastor C. L. Brehm for a rare Dresden cup, and 

that its present resting-place was unknown. I do not know who invented 

this story, or how it arose, but suffice it to say, that the Auk which was in the 

Brehm collection was sold to the late King of Italy, in 1868 or 1869. The 

business was concluded by Dr. Otto Finsch, and the money was used for the 

benefit of a brother of the late Dr. A. E. Brehm, as it had been the wish 

of his father, Pastor Brehm. The specimen was re-stuffed by the late 

taxidermist Schwerdtfeger in Bremen and forwarded to a professor in 

Florence. It was kept for years at the "Veneria Reale," and recently, when 

the collection at that castle was dissolved, was placed in the Museum at 

Rome. It is one of the finest Great Auks known. 



157 

AESTRELATA CARIBBAEA (carte). 

(Plate 37.) 

Procellaria jamaiceiisis Bancroft, Zoological Journal V, p. 8i (1835— Nomen nudum 1). 
Pterodroma caribbaea Carte, P.Z.S. 1866, p. 93, pi. 10 (" Blue Mountains in insula 

Jamaica "). 
Aestrelata caribbaea Giglioli & Salvadori, Ibis 1869, p. 66. 
Fulmarus caribbaeiis Gray, Handlist B. Ill, p. 107 (1871). 
Aestrelata jamaiceiisis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. B., p. 67 ; Cory, Cat. West-Indian B., p. 84 

(1892). 
Oestrelata jamaiceiisis Salvin, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, p. 403 (1896). 

IT is surprising that the name jamaiceiisis has generally been adopted for 
this species, as Bancroft gave no description whatever. The first 
description is that of Carte, in 1866, which is as follows :— " Head, neck, 
back, and wings of a uniform dark sooty brown ; vertex and external webs 
of the primaries a shade or so darker ; abdominal feathers and under tail- 
coverts a shade or two lighter than those of the back ; upper tail-coverts and 
basal portion of tail-feathers of a light grey or dirty white. The light- 
coloured patch on the rump is conspicuous when the wings are expanded, 
but completely concealed when they are closed. I rides dark hazel. Tarsi, 
toes, webs, and nails jet-black. 

"Length about 12| inches; expanse of wings 34 inches; length from 
carpal joint to tip of first primary lOf inches ; length of bill, measured from 
gape. If inches; length of nasal tubes -^ inch; length of interval between 
nostrils and commencement of apical curve of upper mandible i inch; length 
of tarsi lA inches; length of toes, outer and middle, sub-equal 2 inches; 
length of inner toe If inches. First and second primaries sub-equal, and 
about I inch longer than the third. Tail about 4 J inches long and round at 
extremity. The closed wings extend about IJ inches beyond the tail. Hallux 
small, and in shape triangular." 

"With respect to the habits of the bird, Mr. March has most kindly 
furnished me with the following interesting details : — 

" It is a night-bird, living in burrows in the marly clefts of the 
mountains at the east and north-east end of the island. The burrows form 
a gallery 6 to 10 feet long, terminating in a chamber sufficiently commodious 
to accommodate the pair ; from this they sally forth at night, flying over the 
sea in search of food (fishes), returning before dawn. It is often seen on 
moonlight nights and at sunrise running about the neighbourhood of its 
domicile, and sometimes crossing the road, regardless of the labourers going 
to their work. I know nothing of its nidification." 



158 



The type of " Pterodrotna caribbaea" is preserved in the Dublin Museum, 
and three specimens are in the British Museum. This bird is one of the rarest in 
collections, and all modern collectors have failed to obtain specimens. Quite 
recently (1906) Mr. B. Hyatt Verrill published a pamphlet entitled "Additions 
to the Avifauna of Dominica." In this unpaginated essay he said under the 
heading "Aestrelata j'amaicensis" : "Not uncommon (on Dominica), but 
seldom seen during the day. Breeds at La Bime, Pointe Guignarde, and 
Lance Bateaux, as well as at Morne Rouge and Scott's Head. In many of 
the above localities the musky odour of these birds is very pronounced when 
passing the cliffs, wherein they breed, on a calm evening. At dusk they may 
often be seen flying about the cliffs in company with myriads of bats that 
spend the day in the fissures and crevices. They are very difficult to 
procure, and although shot at repeatedly only two specimens have been 
obtained." 

From all former evidence we might have well considered this species 
to be extinct, but if Mr. Verrill's statement is correct it would be far from 
exterminated. I do not, however, know if the Dominica specimens have 
been compared with Jamaica examples, and if Mr. Verrill's determination 
(apparently made on Dominica) is therefore correct. 

Habitat : Jamaica. 



159 



AESTRELATA HASITATA (kuhl). 

Procellaria hasitata (sic) Kuhl, Beitr. z. Zool. Temminck, PI. Col. 416 (1826); Gould, B 
Australia VII, pi. 47 (1845). 

Procellaria diabolica Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 168. 

Procellaria meridioiialis Lawrence, Ann. Lyceum N.Y. IV, p. 475 (1848 — ), 

V, pi. 15, p. 220 (1852). 

Procellaria rubritarsi Newton, Zoologist 1852, p. 3692 (ex Gould's MS., descr. nulla). 

Aestrelata haesitata Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. XLII, p. 768 (1856), Elliot, B. N. America II. 
pi. 60, fig. I (1868) ; Rothsch. & Hart, New Edition of " Naumann " XII, p. 20 (1903). 

Aestrelata diabolica Bonap., Consp. Av. II, p, 189 (1855). 

Oestrelata haesitata Newton, Ibis 1870, p. 277; Dresser, B. Europe VIII, p. 545, pi. 618 

(1880); Stevens, B. of Norfolk, III, p. 361, pi. 4 (1890) ; Salvin, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXV, 

p. 403 (1896). 

MR. SAUNDERS describes this bird as follows: "The adult has the 
crown and nape dark brown, hind-neck white, cheeks and ear-coverts 
greyish ; mantle dark brown ; upper tail-coverts white ; central 
tail-feathers chiefly brownish-black, the rest more or less white on their 
basal portions but broadly edged with brown ; forehead and under-parts 
white; bill black; legs and feet dusky-yellow. Length 16 inches, wing 
113 inches. The immature bird is believed to be mottled with brown on 
the forehead and to be duller in tint on the upper parts." 

Though evidently not quite extinct, it seems certain that the fate of 
this bird is sealed. In former times it used to breed in great numbers on 
several of the West Indian Islands: Hayti, Guadeloupe, and Dominica. Its 
last breeding place was the Morne au Diable or Morne Diablotin on Dominica. 
There it was searched for in vain by Colonel Feilden, in 1889, who wrote 
a lengthy article about it in the "Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Society 
V. p. 24-39. Mr. Selwyn Branch again, ten years later, ascended La Morne 
au Diable, and found the old breeding places deserted. The " Manicou," 
evidently an introduced North-American Opossum, Mongoose and rats had 
entirely extirpated the " Diable." 

Two-and-a-half centuries ago Pere du Tertre found this Petrel breeding 
on Guadeloupe, and Pere Labat, about forty years later, found it in great 
numbers, and gave a long, graphic description of it in his " Nouveau Voyage 
aux isles de I'Am^rique" (Edit. I, Vol. II, pp. 349-353). These birds were 
then known as the " Diable " or " Diablotin," and their flesh was highly 
esteemed, and they were even salted and exported to Martinique and other 
French islands in great numbers. 



160 



In 1876 Mr. F. A. Ober searched already unsuccessfully for our birds. 

It seems that the disturbance and destruction on their breeding places 
has scattered these Petrels about, for specimens have at various times been 
taken on the coast of Florida and Virginia, and even as late as 1893 and 
1895, inland of the State of New York on Oneida Lake, in Ulster County, 
Vermont and Ontario; moreover, a specimen has been killed in 1850 in 
Norfolk, England, and an example in the Museum of Boulogne is said to 
have been killed in the neighbourhood of that town. 

In an undated and unpaginated pamphlet, received last year in 
Europe, Mr. A. Hyatt Verrill informs us that this bird is "not uncommon on 
the fishing grounds and in Martinique and Guadeloupe channels," and 
that he took a specimen in September, 1904. This statement requires 
confirmation. 

In collections this bird is very rare. I have the male (in moult) 
which was caught on August 28th, 1893 on Oneida Lake, in the State of 
New York. 

Habitat : West Indian Islands. 



161 



HEMIPHAGA SPADICEA (lath.) 

(Plate 21.) 

Chestnut-shouldered Pigeon Latham, Gen. Syn. Suppl. II, add. p. 375 (1802— Norfolk 

Island). 
Columba spadicea Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. LX, No. 7 (1802— Norfolk Island); Temmtnck 

and Knip, Pigeons, II, p. i, pi. i (1808—" Friendly Islands."— Errore). 
Columba gigas Ranzani, Element! di Zool. Ill, i, p. 223 (1821— " Friendly Islands."— Errore). 
Columba pHnceps Vigors, P.Z.S. 1833, p. 78 (Australia— errore). 
Columba leucogaster Wagler, Syst. Av., Columba spec. 12 1827— Norfolk Island). 
Hemiphaga spadicea Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXI, p. 238 {1893). 

THE Norfolk Island Pigeon, Hemiphaga spadicea spadicea, is very 
similar to the New Zealand Pigeon, Hemiphaga spadicea novae- 
zealandiae, but differs in having the hind-neck coppery or metallic 
green, sharply defined from the chestnut back, the wings and upper wing- 
coverts more greyish, less greenish, also the lower back and rump somewhat 

more greyish. 

As 'far as we know this pigeon was only found on Norfolk Island, the 
locality " Australia " being doubtless erroneous. Like so many other birds 
it became extinct on Norfolk Island, probably more than half a century ago. 

There are evidently quite a number of specimens in various museums, 
many of which have never been recorded. I am aware of the following 

examples : 

1 in the British Museum (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXI, p. 238). 
3 in the Liverpool Museum (Bull. Liverp. Mus. I, p. 35). 
1 in my own collection (Proc. IV, Orn. Congress, p. 215). 
1 in Philadelphia, U.S. America (Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp. B, p. 225). 
1 in Frankfurt a.M. (Hartert, Kat. Vogelsamml., p. 189). 
1 in Wiesbaden (Lampe, Jahrb. Nassau Ver. 58). 
1 in Bremen (Hartlaub, Verz. Museum, p. 98). 
1 in Lisbon (Forbes and Rob., Bull. Liverp. Mus. II, p. 130). 
1 in Leyden (Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas). 
1 in Vienna (Ibis i860, p. 422). 
1 in Naples, seen by myself. 
1 in Milan, examined by myself. 
The specimen at Tring was bought at the auction of the "Cumberland 

Museum" at Distington. 



163 



ALECTROENAS NITIDISSIMA (scop) 

(Plate 22.) 

Pigeon hoUandais Sonnerat, Voy. Ind. Orient. II, p. 175, pi. loi (1782). 

Hackled Pigeon Latham, Syn. B. II, 2, p. 641, No. 36 (1783). 

Columba nitidissima Scopoli, Del. Flor. and Faun. Insubr. II, p. 93, No. 89 (1786) (ex 

Sonnerat). 
Columba franciae Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, 2, p. 779, No. 51 (1788). (ex Sonnerat). 
Columba botanica Bonnaterre, Enc. M6th. 1, p. 233 (1790). 
Raniier pirissi Levaillant, Ois. d'Afr. VI, p. 74, pl. 267 (1808). 
Columba jubata Wagler, Syst. Av., Columba, sp. 22 (1827). 
Alectroenas nitidissima G. R. Gray, List Gen. B., p. 58 (1840). 
Alectroenas franciae Reichenbach, Syn. Av., Columbariae, p. 2, f. 1302 (1847). 
Columbigallus franciae Des Murs, Encycl. d'Hist. Nat., Ois. VI., p. 31, (1854 ?). 
Ptilopus nitidissimus Schlegel and Pollen, Rech. Faun. Madag., p. 159 (1868). 
Alectroenas nitidissimus G. R. Gray, Hand-list II, p. 228, No. 9164 (1870). 
Alectoroenas nitidissimus A. Newton, P. Z. S. 1879, pp. 2-4. 

SONNERAT'S original description, translated into English, is as follows: 
" It is much larger than the European Woodpigeon ; the feathers of 
the head, neck and breast are long, narrow, and end in a point. 
These feathers are rather curiously constructed, they have the polish, 
brilliancy, and feel of a cartilaginous blade. I could not, with the aid of a 
lens, distinguish whether these blades were formed by the conglomeration 
of the barbules, but we may take it for granted that they are constituted 
in a like manner to the wing appendages of the Bohemian Waxwing and the 
cartilaginous blades of Sonnerat's Jungle Fowl. The eye is surrounded 
by naked skin of a deep red ; the back, the wings and the belly are of 
a dark blue ; the rump and tail are of a very bright carmine red ; the beak 
and iris are of the same colour, and the feet are black." 

Undoubtedly quite extinct. Only three specimens are known of this 
bird : one in Edinburgh, one in Paris, and one in Mauritius. Some bones 
were collected by the Rev. H. H. Slater. 
Habitat : Mauritius. 



164 



ALECTROENAS(?) RODERICANA 

(MILNE-EDWARDS). 

Columba rodericana Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sc. Nat. (5) XIX art. 3, p. 16, pi. 12, ff. i, la, ib, 
ic (1874). 

THE original description of the sternum is as follows: — "It belongs to a 
species small in size, barely as large as T. tympanistria, but evidently 

much better built for flight. In fact the most striking characters of this 
sternum are the large size of the bouclier, the large size of the lateral notches, 
and the shape of the keel, whose anterior angle is not much produced in 
front. The coracoidal grooves are large and only slightly oblique. The lateral 
branches detach themselves from the bone in front of the costal facets — they are 
very widely spread, and stretch more directly outwards than in the remainder 
of the species of the family. The lower lateral branches are equally divergent, 
and the median blade of the posterior edge is remarkable from its enlargement. 
The keel is moderately prominent, its anterior angle is much rounded, and does 
not reach the level of the episternal apophysis, as is the case, as a rule, in 
the pigeons. All these peculiarities, to which must be added the general 
flattening of the bone which is hardly at all sloped like a roof, separate the 
pigeon of Rodriguez very widely, not only from Erythroena and Ttirtur, but 
also from Vinago. In its shape in general, by the little pronounced keel and the 
direction of the latter, this sternum presents certain analogies to the essentially 
arboreal species such as those of the genus Carpophaga, but they all diff^er 
in having the space for the costal facets on the sides of the sternum much 
more extended, the superior lateral branches larger, and the latter arising 
further back, so that the lateral notches are smaller. Up to the present I 
do not know any genus of the family of Columbidae in which the sternum 
can at all be likened to that found recently in Rodriguez, and therefore in 
all probability this fossil remainder is of yet another vanished species, which 
I propose to call Columba rodericana." (Translated.) 

It is probable that Milne-Edwards's C. rodericana belonged to the 
genus Alectroenas, and was the representative on Rodriguez of the Alectroenas 
nitidissima of Mauritius. 1 humerus in the Tring Museum. 

Habitat : Rodriguez. 



165 



s 



NESOENAS SALVAD. 

OLES normal, not very broad, only the hind toe with the skin prominently 
expanded on the sides. First primary about equal to the sixth. Tail 
entirely rufous, composed of twelve feathers. 



NESOENAS MAYERI (prevost). 

(Plate 3, Fig. 3.) 

Columba mayeri Provost & Knip, Pigeons II, pi. 6o (1843). 

Columha meyeri Schlegel & Pollen, Rech. Faun. Mad. p. in, pi. 36 (1868). 

Peristera meyeri G. R. Gray, Gen. B. Ill App. p. 24 (1849). 

Carpophaga meyeri G. R. Gray, fide Bp. Consp. Av. H p. 45 (1854). 

Trocaza meyeri Bonaparte, Consp. Av. II p. 45 (1854). 

Trocaza meijeri Pollen, N.T.D. I p. 318 (1863). 

Nesoenas mayeri Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. vol. XXI p. 327 (1893). 

THE following is the description by Salvadori in the "Catalogue of 
Birds " : — " Head, neck and underparts pale pink, fading into whitish 
towards the forehead, cheeks and upper throat, and passing into rather 
darker pink on the mantle ; remainder of the upper back and the entire wings 
brown, with a slight shade of olive and rufous ; lower back and rump greyish, 
the latter mottled with chestnut ; upper tail coverts and tail cinnamon, the 
outer tail feathers fading into buff on the outer webs and towards the tips ; 
undertail-coverts pink, like the mantle ; undersurface of the wings ashy brown, 
slightly pale on the axillaries, and under wing-coverts iris yellow ; bill yellow, 
shaded with red towards the base ; legs red (fide Shelley). Total length about 
15-5 inches, wing 85, tail 65, bill 0-86, tarsus 1-3." 

In the live bird the pink soon fades away almost entirely, and the olive 
shade on the wings is strongly developed. 

This bird was not found by the Rev. H. H. Slater, during his visit to 
Mauritius. As observed by Mons. Paul Carie (Ornis XII, p. 127), the 
idea that it is extinct is, however, incorrect, as it can still easily be 
procured, though it is rare. M. Georges Antelme, of Mauritius, possesses 
the eggs of this pigeon. That it still exists is also evident from two 
specimens which were sent to the Zoological Gardens, London, last year, 
and are still living there. 
Habitat : Mauritius. 



166 



NESOENAS DUBOISI sp. nov. 

"Pigeons sauvages d'lin rouge roussastre" Le Sieur D.B., Voyages aux lies Dauphine ou 
Madagascar, etc., p. 171 (1674 — Bourbon). 

TALKING of Wild Pigeons, " Le Sieur D.B." tells us that there were on 
the island of Bourbon " others of a russet red colour, a little larger than 

European pigeons, with the beak larger, red at base near the head, the 
eyes surrounded by a fiery colour, as in the pheasants. At a certain season 
they are so fat ' qu'on ne leur voit point de croupion ; ' they taste very good." 

This passage cannot be meant for a turtle-dove, but the description of 
the bill and surrounding of the eyes shows that it refers to a form allied to 
Nesoenas mayeri. The latter, however, is not entirely russet red, but the 
head, necli, underside and back are creamy white, washed with a greyish-rose 
colour. Therefore the bird mentioned by Le Sieur D.B. was evidently a repre- 
sentative of A'^. mayeri or Bourbon. I name it in memory of Monsieur Dubois, 
who was the author of the Voyages of the " Sieur D.B." 

Habitat : Bourbon or Reunion. 



167 



ECTOPISTES 



SWAINS. 



Eciopistes Swainson, Zoological Journal III p. 362 (1827 — Parti m ! Columba speciosa and 
C. inigraton'a mentioned as types, but ten years later the genus Eciopistes was restricted 
to C. migratoria by the same author). 

TAIL very long and excessively cuneate, the central rectrices sharply 
pointed. First primary of the wing longest. Tarsus very short, in 
front half covered with feathers. Now, only the Passenger Pigeon is 
included in this genus, while formerly the Zenaidura carolinensis auct. used 
to be associated with it. 



ECTOPISTES MACROURA (l.) 

PASSENGER PIGEON. 

Columba macroura Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X p. 164 (1758— Ex Catesby, Carolina I p. 23, 
pi. 23 [1754J. "Habitat in Canada, hybernat in Carolina." Regarding the necessity 
of accepting this name see Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington XIX p. 42, and Auk 
1906, pp. 474, 475. The conclusions of Messrs. Bangs and Allen are perfectly correct). 

Columba canadensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. XII, p. 284 (1766 — Ex Brisson, Orn. I p. 118. 
" Habitat in Canada." Cf. note of Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXI, p. 369). 

Columba migratoria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. XII p. 285 (Ex Frisch, pi. 142, Kalm., Brisson 
I, p. 100, Catesby. " Habitat in America Septentrional! copiosissima . . ."); Wilson, 
Amer. Orn. I p. 102, pi. XLIX (1808) ; TemmincU & Knip, Pigeons I, seconde fam., pis. 
48, 49 (1808-11); Andubon, Orn. Biogr. I, p. 319 (1831); Baird, Brewer & Ridgway, 
Hist. N.A.B., Land-Birds HI, p. 368, pi. 57, 4 (1874). 

Pigeon de Passage Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. II, p. 527 (1771). 

Tourterelle du Canada Daubenton, PI. Enl. 176. 

Columba Histrio P.L.S. Miiller, Natursyst. Suppl. p. 134 (1776 — ex Buffon). 

Columba ventralis id., I.e. p. 134 (1776 — ex Buffon). 

Eciopistes migratoria Swainson, Zool. Journal III, p. 362 (1827) ; Gould, B. Europe, pl. 247 
(1848) ; Coues, B. North-West, p. 387 (1874) ; Maynard, B. E. North America, p. 335 
(1881). 

Trygon migratoria Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 495 (1831). 

Eciopistes migratorius G. R. Gray, Gen. B. II, p. 471 (1844) ; Brewster, Auk 1889, pp. 
286-291 ; Bendire, Life-History N. Amer. B., p. 132; Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXI, 
p. 370; Proc. Delaware Valley Ornith. Club II, p. 17 (1898) ; A.O.U. Check-List (Ed. II) 
p. 120, No. 315 (1895); Wintle, B. Montreal, p. 51 (1896); Minot, B. New England, 
P- 395 (1S95) ; Auk 1903, p. 66. 

Trygon gregaria Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 258 (1855). 

IT is true that Linnaeus' diagnosis of his Columba macroura is very short, 
reading, as it does, as follows : " Columba cauda cuneiformi longa, pectore 
purpurascente." These words, however, are clearly taken from Catesby, 
who gives an excellent figure and description, as is also the " Habitat," viz. : 



168 



" Habitat in Canada, hybernat in Carolina," though Linnaeus first quotes 
" Edwards 15, pi. 15," where an entirely different bird is described and 
figured. (Cf. Bangs, I.e.) 

The Passenger Pigeon in former times occurred throughout North 
America in great abundance, from the Atlantic to the great Central Plains, 
and from the Southern States, where it rarely occurred, north to at least 
62" northern latitude. Being a migrant, this bird used to migrate southwards 
after the breeding season, and to return to their homes in spring, but it also 
shifted its quarters according to the abundance or scarcity of food, 
like our Pigeons. Sometimes incredible numbers flocked together. Such 
stupendous flights have been described independently by Audubon, Wilson 
and others. In 1813 Audubon says that during his whole journey from 
Hardensburg to Louisville, fifty-five miles, countless masses of Pigeons 
continued to pass over, and also did so during the three following days. " At 
times they flew so low, that multitudes were destroyed, and for many days 
the entire population seemed to eat nothing else but Pigeons." Where they 
roosted in millions, the dung soon covered the ground and destroyed the 
grass and undergrowth, limbs and even small trees broke down from the 
weight of the birds. " One of the breeding places visited by Wilson, not far 
from Shelbyville, Kentucky, stretched through the forest in nearly a north 
and south direction. This was several miles in breadth, and upwards of 
forty miles in extent. In this immense tract nearly every tree was furnished 
with nests wherever there were branches to accommodate them. He was 
informed by those who sought to plunder the nests of the squabs, that the 
noise in the woods was so great as to terrify their horses, and that it was 
difficult for one person to hear another speak. The ground was strewed 
with broken limbs, eggs and young Pigeons. Hawks were sailing about in 
great numbers, while from twenty feet upwards to the tops of the trees 
there was a perpetual tumult of crowding and fluttering multitudes of 
Pigeons, their wings resounding like thunder, and mingled with the frequent 
crash of falling trees In one instance he counted ninety nests in a 
single tree." 

It is only natural that man took advantage of such vast multitudes, 
and that they were killed in great numbers, for food, and, maybe, sometimes 
wantonly destroyed. Yet it is difficult to understand what brought on their 
total destruction, as their power of flight was great, and their vision remarkably 
keen. In 1874 Messrs. Baird, Brewer and Ridgway considered them still 
common birds, though " their abundance in large extents of the country had 



169 



been very sensibly reduced." At that time " in the New England States 
and in the more cultivated part of the country, these birds no longer bred 
in large communities. The instance near Montpelier, in 1849, is the only 
marked exception that has come within my knowledge. They now breed in 
isolated pairs, their nests being scattered through the woods and seldom 
near one another." In 1895, in the A.O.U. check-list, the authors say : 
" Breeding range now mainly restricted to portions of the Canadas and the 
northern borders of the United States, as far west as Manitoba and 
the Dakotas." 

At the present time the Passenger Pigeon seems to have entirely 
disappeared, a small flock in an aviary apparently being all that is left of it 
alive. Mr. James H. Fleming, of Toronto, kindly sends me the following 
notes, which I think are of the greatest interest : — 

" The disappearance of the Passenger Pigeon in Ontario dates back 
at least forty years, though as late as 1870 some of the old roosts were still 
frequented, but the incredible flocks, of which so much has been said, had 
gone long before that date, and by 1880 the pigeon was practically exterminated, 
not only in Ontario, but over the greater part of its old range. There are 
however occasional records of birds taken, for some years later. An immature 
bird taken September 9, 1887, in Chester County, Pennsylvania, is said to be 
the last for that part of the State' ; a bird, also immature, is in my collection, 
taken in December, 1888, at Montreal, Quebec. There are other Montreal 
records of the same date,^ but with the exception of one taken at Tadousac, 
July 26, 1889,^ these are the last Quebec records of birds actually taken. In 
Ontario two were taken at Toronto in 1890, on September 20, and October 11, 
both immature females, the latter is in my collection, as is an adult female 
taken by Mr. Walter Brett, at Riding Mountain, Manatoba, May 12, 1892, 
one of a pair seen. I also have an adult male taken at Waukegon, Illinois, 
December 19, 1892. I was in New York in the latter part of November, 1892, 
and was then assured by Mr. Rowland, a well known taxidermist, that he 
had recently seen several barrels of pigeons that had been condemned as 
unfit for food ; they had come to New York from Indian Territory, and I 
believe had had their tails pulled out to permit tighter packing. Mr. William 
Brewster has recorded the sending of several hundred dozens of pigeons 
to the Boston market in December of the same year, and in January, 1893 ; 
these were also from Indian Territory*; these are the last records we have of 
the Passenger Pigeon as anything more than a casual migrant. The records 
ceased after this till 1898, when three birds were taken at points widely apart, 



170 



an adult male at Winnipegosis, Manatoba, on April 14,* an immature male at 
Owensboro, Kentucky, on July 27, now in the Smithsonian Institution, and 
another immature bird taken at Detroit, Michigan, on September 14, now in 
my collection ; these are the last records that can be based on specimens. 

" In 1903 I published a list including sight records, one as late as May, 
1902; this latter is possibly open to doubt, but the ones I gave for 1900 are, I 
feel confident, correct, as the birds were seen more than once and by different 
observers. For all practical purposes, the close of the Nineteenth Century 
saw the final extinction of the Passenger Pigeon in a wild state, and there 
remained only the small flock, numbering in 1903 not more than a dozen, that 
had been bred in captivity by Prof. C. O. Whitman, of Chicago ; these birds 
are the descendants of a single pair, and have long ago ceased to breed. It 
was in an effort to obtain fresh blood for this flock that I started a newspaper 
enquiry that brought many replies, none of which could be substantiated as 
records of the Passenger Pigeon, and many referred to the Mourning Dove. 
I am aware that there has been lately wide-spread and persistent rumours of 
the return of the pigeons, but no rumour has borne investigation, and I feel 
that Prof. Whitman's small flock, now reduced (in 1906) to five birds, are the 
last representatives of a species around whose disappearance mystery and 
fable will always gather." 

1. Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, II, 1898, 17. 

2. Wintle, Birds of Montreal, 1896, 51. 

3. In collection of Dr. J. Dwight, Jr. 

4. Minot, Birds of New England, 1895, 395. 

5. Auk, XX, 1903, 66. 



171 



FAMILY DIDIDAE. 

INCLUDES very large and massively-built forms, agreeing with the 
Columbidae in the truncation of the angle of the mandible, but with 
the extremity of the cranial rostrum strongly hooked. They were 
totally incapable of flight, the wing-bones being small, the carina of the 
sternum aborted, and the caracoidal grooves shallow and separated from one 
another. 

Two genera : Didus and Pezophaps. 



DIDUS LI 



NN. 



SKULL with a very large and deeply hooked rostrum, and the nasal and 
maxillary processes of the praemaxilla converging anteriorly ; the front 
region inflated into a sub-conical prominence of cancellous tissue. Neck 
and feet shorter than in the succeeding genus. Delto-pectoral crest of 
humerus distinct. 

Two species : Didus cucullattis and Didus solitarius. 



172 



DIDUS CUCULLATUS (d 

DODO. 

(Plates 24, 24a, 24b, 24c.) 

Walchvoghel Van Neck, Voy., p. 7, pi. 2 (1601). 

Walchvogel De Bry, Orient. Ind. pt. VIII, t. 11 (1606). 

Gallinaceus galltis peregrinus Clusius, Exot. Libr. V p. 99 t. 100 {1605). 

Dod-eersen or Valgh-vogel Herbert's travels ist ed. (1634) t. page 212. 

Cygnus cucullatus Nieremberg, Nat. p. 231 (with fig. ex. Clus.) (1635) 

Dronte Bontius, Ind. Orient, t. p. 70 (1658). 

Raphus Moehring, Av. gen. 57 (1732). 

Dodo Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist. Ill p. 179 pi. 296 (1757). 

Struthio cucullatus Linn., S. N. I p. 155 No. 4 (1758). 

Didus ineptus Linn., S. N. I p. 267 No. i (1766). 

THE first description of this very remarkable bird was given in the 
account of the voyage of Admiral Jacob van Neck in 1598, which was 

published by Corneille Nicolas at Amsterdam in 1601. It is as follows : — 
" Blue parrots are very numerous there, as well as other birds ; among which 
are a kind, conspicuous for their size, larger than our swans, with huge heads 
only half covered with skin as if clothed with a hood. These birds lack wings, 
in the place of which 3 or 4 blackish feathers protrude. The tail consists 
of a few soft incurved feathers, which are ash coloured. These we used to 
call ' Walghvogel,' for the reason that the longer and oftener they were 
cooked, the less soft and more insipid eating they became. Nevertheless 
their belly and breast were of a pleasant flavour and easily masticated." 

In a large number of works on travel and voyages published in the 
17th and 18th Centuries we find all sorts of notices about the Dodo, and 
numerous pictures of which I have given outline drawings. From these 
sources it appears that the Dodo became extinct about the end of the 17th 
Century, i.e., 1680 — 1690. The causes of the extermination of this, perhaps the 
best known and most talked about of the recently extinct birds, are not far to 
seek. The total inability of flight, the heavy slow gait, and the utter fearlessness 
from long immunity from enemies, led to a continual slaughter for food by 
the sailors and others who came to and dwelt on Mauritius. But the final 
cause of the extermination of this and many other birds in the Mascarene 
Islands was probably the introduction of pigs, and also of the Ceylon Monkey. 
These animals increased enormously in numbers, ran wild in the woods, and 
soon destroyed all the eggs and young birds they could find. 



173 

It is strange that for many years after great attention had been paid to 
the Dodo, ornithologists differed conspicuously as to what family it and the 
other two Didine species belonged. Many asserted that it was a Struthious 
bird, in fact Linnaeus called it calmly Struthio cucullatus, while others just 
as forcibly declared it to be an abnormal Vulture. The truth is, that although 
the Didtinculus strigirostis of Samoa, which was supposed to be its near 
representative, is not at all closely allied, yet the two species of Didus and 
Pezophaps solitarius form a group of very specialized pigeons. 

THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF THE PAINTINGS REPRESENTING THE DODO. 

1. Vienna, in the Library of the Emperor Francis. By Hufnagel, 1626, reproduced 

by von Frauenfeldt in his book, 1868. 

2. Berlin. "Altes Museum," Cabinet 3, Division 2, No. 710. By Roelandt Savery, 1626. 

3. Sion House. Duke of Northumberland. By John Goeimare, 1627. 

4. Vienna. Kunsthistorisches Hofmuseum, formerly Belvedere. By Roelandt Savery, 

1628. 

5. London. Zoological Society, formerly Broderip. By Roelandt Savery, undated. 

6. Pommersfelden, Bavaria. Count Schonborn, "Orpheus charming the Beasts." 

By Roelandt Savery, undated. 

7. Haag. Mauritshuis. " Orpheus charming the Beasts." By Roelandt Savery. 

8. Stuttgart. Formerly Dr. Seyffer, but sold at his death and since disappeared. By 

Roelandt Savery. 

9. London. British Museum, formerly belonging to G. Edwards. Probably by Roelandt 

Savery. 

10. Emden. Galerie der Gesellschaft fiir Bildende Kunst. " Orpheus charming the 

Beasts." By Roelandt Savery. 

11. Oxford. Ashmolean Museum. By John Savery, 1651. 

12. Haarlem. Dr. A. van der Willigen, Pz. By Pieter Holsteyn (1580-1662), not dated. 

13. Dresden. Kgl. Gemalde-Galerie. " Circe and Ulysses." By C. Ruthart, i566. 

14. Dresden. Kgl. Gemalde-Galerie. "The Creation of the Animals." Supposed to be 

by Franz Francken (1581-1642), no date, and said to be by a different artist. 

At least 2 Mauritius Dodos have been exhibited alive in Europe, one 
brought back by Van Neck in 1599, and which most likely served as the model 
for nearly all Roelandt Savery's pictures, and one exhibited in London in the 
year 1638, mentioned by Sir Hamon Lestrange. This is almost certainly the 
bird afterwards preserved in Tradescant's Museum (1656), and finally in Oxford 
(Ashmolean Museum), and probably served for the model of the supposed 
Savery picture in the British Museum. 

The Dodo inhabited Mauritius. 

NOTE. — Didus nazarenus Gmelin, based on the "Oiseau de Nazareth" of Cauche (Descr. de I'lle de 
Madagascar, p. 130, ff, 1651) is evidently founded on a mistaken and partly fictitious description of a Dodo, or 
rather a mixture of that of the Dodo and a Cassowarj'. The name was, perhaps, also a mistake, derived from that 
of " Oiseau de natts^e,'' which has a similar meaning as " Walghvogel." 



174 



Explanation of Plates of Dodo. 



Plate 24. 



This was taken from the picture by Roelandt Savery in Berlin, but the wings, tail and bill 
have been altered, partly from Pierre Witthoos' picture of the Bourbon Dodo, and partly from 
anatomical examination. The tail, however, appears to have been curled over the back in life, 
according to most authors. 

Plate 24 (a). 

Fig. 1. Reproduction in outline of the Dodo in Savery's Orpheus at Haag. Vide antea 
No. 7 in the List of Paintings. 

Fig. 2. Outline of Dodo (and Pelican?) in Ruthart's "Circe and Ulysses" at Dresden. 
Vide antea No. 13 in the List of Paintings. 

Fig. 3. Outline of Dodo (and Pelican ?J in Frans Franckens (?) picture in Dresden. Vide 
antea No. 14 in the List of Paintings. 

Plates 24 (b and c). 

No. 1. Outline of Dodo in Roelandt Savery's picture at Berlin. Vide antea No. 2 in the 
List of Paintings. 

No. 2. Outline of picture by Roelandt Savery in the British Museum. Vide antea No. 9 
in the List of Paintings. 

No. 3. Outline of Dodo in Jacob van Neck's Voyage, Plate 2 (1598). 

No. 4. Outline of Roelandt Savery's Dodo, Vienna. Vide antea No. 4 in the List of 
Paintings. 

No. 5. Outline of Dodo in Broeck's Voyage (Peter van Broeck's Voyage, 1617). 

No. 6. Outline of Dodo in Piso's additions to Jacob Bontiu's Oriental Natural History, 1658. 

No. 7. Outline of Dodo in Sir Thomas Herbert's Relation of some yeares Travels, 1626. 

No. S. Outline of Dodo in Clusius Exoticorum libri decem, 1605. 

No. 9. Outline of Dodo in Joan Nievhof's Gedenkwaerdige Zee and Lantreize, 1682. 

No. 10. Outline of Dodo in John Goeimare's picture at Sion House, 1627. Vide antea 
No. 3 in the List of Paintings. 

No. 11. Outline of Dodo in Roelandt Savery's picture at Pommersfelden. Vide antea 
No. 5 in the List of Paintings. 

No. 12. Outline of Dr. H. Schlegel's restoration of the Dodo in Transactions, &c., of the 
Amsterdam Academy, vol. 2, 1S54. 

No. 13. Outline of Dodo in Roelandt Savery's picture, Zoological Society, London. Vide 
antea No. 5 in the List of Paintings. 



175 



DIDUS SOLITARIUS (selys). 

REUNION DODO. 

(Plates 25, 25a, 25b.) 

Great Fowl Tatton, Voy. Castleton, Purchas his Pilgrimes, ed. (1625) I p. 331 (Bourbon 

or R6union). 
Dod-eersen Bontekoe, Journ. ofte gedencU. beschr. van de Ost. Ind. Reyse Haarlem(i546) p. 6. 
Oiseau Solitaire Carr6, Voy. Ind. Or. I p. 12 (1699). 
Solitaire Voy. fait par Le Sieur D. B. (1674) p. 170. 
Apterornis soUtarius de Selys, Rev. Zool (1848) p. 293. 

Didus apterornis Schlegel, Ook een Wordje over den Dodo p. 15 f. 2 (1854). 
Pezophaps borbonica Bp., Consp. Av. II p. 2 (1854). 
Ornithaptera borbonica Bp., Consp. Av. II. p. 2 (1854). 

Didine Bird of the Island of Bourbon (Riunion) A. Newt. Tr. Zool. See. VI pp. 373-376, 

pi. 62 (1867). 
Apterornis solitaria Milne-Edw., Ibis (1869) p. 272. 
? Didus borbonica Schleg., Mus. P.B. Struthiones p. 3 (1873). 
Solitaire of Riunion A. Newton, Enc. Brit. II p. 732 (1875). 

THE Didine bird of Reunion was first mentioned by Mr. Tatton, the Chief 
Officer of Captain Castleton, in his account of their voyage given in 

"Purchas his Pilgrimes." His account is as follows: — • 
" There is store of land fowle both small and great, plenty of Doves, great 
Parrats, and such like ; and a great fowle of the bignesse of a Turkic, very 
fat, and so short winged, that they cannot fly, being white, and in a manner 
tame : and so be all other fowles, as having not been troubled nor feared with 
shot. Our men did beat them down with sticks and stones. Ten men may 
take fowle enough to serve fortie men a day." 

We then find frequent mention of this bird by Bontekoe in 5 separate 
treatises or editions, from 1646 to 1650, and by Carre in 1699. But the first 
more detailed description is given by the Sieur D. B. (Dubois) in 1674, which 
is as follows : — 

"Solitaires. These birds are thus named because they always go alone. 
They are as big as a big goose and have white plumage, black at the extremity 
of the wings and of the tail. At the tail there are some feathers resembling 
those of the Ostrich. They have the neck long and the beak formed like that 
of the Woodcocks (he refers to the woodrails, Erythromachus — W.R.), but 
larger, and the legs and feet like those of Turkey-chicks. This bird betakes 
itself to running, only flying but very little. It is the best game on the Island." ■ 



176 



It will be seen that, while Dubois says the wings and tail are black, 
Pierre Witthoos's picture, from which the accompanying plate was partly 
drawn, shows the wings yellow. This may either be due to Dubois' faulty 
description, or, what is much more probable, the bird brought to Amsterdam, 
which Witthoos painted, was somewhat albinistic. The bill in the picture by 
Witthoos shows a distinctly mutilated bill, evidently done by the bird's keeper 
to prevent being injured by the formidable hook of the untrimmed bill. In 
addition to two pictures (the one formerly in the possession of Mr. C. Dare, 
of Clatterford, in the Isle of Wight, and a second in Holland, both by Pieter 
Witthoos, painted about the year 1670), we know of this bird only the drawing 
given in Zaagman's edition of Bontekoe, 1646. In all these drawings the first 
four primaries point down and forward, which is probably owing to the injured 
condition of the specimen figured, so in the accompanying plate I had the 
wing drawn like the true Dodo's and the bill reconstructed. 

Habitat : Island of Bourbon or Reunion. 

Only known from the above-mentioned descriptions and two drawings. 
No specimens existing. 

This bird became extinct between the years 1735 and 1801, because in 
the latter year Monsieur Bory St. Vincent made his scientific survey of the 
Island, and no such bird existed then ; while we know that Monsieur de la 
Bourdonnaye, who was governor of the Mascarene Islands from 1735 to 1746, 
sent one alive to one of the directors of the French East Indian Company. Of 
this, the second living specimen brought to Europe, we unfortunately have 
neither drawing nor history. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate 25. 

Drawing of White Dodo from Pierre Witthoos' picture, the bill and tail being reconstructed 
from the model of the common Dodo. 

Plate 25 (a). 

Fig. 5. Outline of figure of White Dodo in the picture by Pieter Witthoos circa 1670 
vide supra. 

Fig. 8. Outline of Woodcut in Zaagman's edition of Bontekoe van Hoorn, 1646. 

Fig. 7. Outline of figure of White Dodo in an edition of Plinius Secundus about 1643 but 
without date. 

Fig. 4. Outline of Dr. H. Schlegel's reconstruction of the Reunion Dodo. 

Plate 25 (b). 

Drawing from description of the Sieur D.B. (Dubois), 1674. 



177 



PEZOPHAPS STRICKLAND & MELVILLE. 

SKULL with a moderate rostrum, slightly hooked, and the nasal and 
maxillary processes of the praemaxillae diverging anteriorly ; the 
frontal region flat with but little cancellous tissue. Coracoid stout. 
Manus armed with an ossified tuberosity. Neck and feet long. Delto- 
pectoral crest of humerus aborted. 

This genus connects Didus with the Columbldae. The male is much 
larger than the female. 



PEZOPHAPS SOLITARIUS (Cm) 

THE SOLITAIRE. 

(Plate 23, 25a, Figs. 1, 2, 3.) 

Solitaire Leguat, Voy. deux lies ddsertes Ind. Or. I pp. 98. 102 (1708). 
Didus solHarius Gmelin, S. N. 1 p. 728, n. 2 (1788). 
Pezophaps solitaria Strickland, the Dodo, &c., p. 46 (1848). 
Didus nazarenus Bartl. (nee. Gmel.), P.Z.S. 1851, p. 284, pi. XLV. 
Pezophaps minor Strickland, Contr. to Orn. 1852, p. 19 ( J ). 

THIS bird was first made known by Leguat in 1708, but some confusion 
seems to have arisen, owing to his applying the same name to them 

as the Sieur D.B. (Dubois) gave to the Bourbon Dodo in 1674. This 
is the original description : — 

" The feathers of the males are of a brown-grey colour, the feet and beak 
are like a turkey's, but a little more crooked. They have scarce any tail, but 
their hind part covered with feathers is roundish, like the crupper of a hare. 
They are taller than turkeys. Their neck is straight, and a little longer in 
proportion than a turkey's when it lifts up his head. Its eye is black and 
lively, and its head without comb on cop. They never fly, their wings are 
too little to support the weight of their bodies ; they serve only to beat 
themselves and flutter when they call one another. They will whirl about 
for twenty or thirty times together on the same side during the space of 
4 or 5 minutes. The motions of their wings make then a noise very like that 
of a rattle, and one may hear it two hundred paces off. The bone of their 



178 

wings grows greater towards the extremity, and forms a little round mass 
under the feathers as big as a musket ball. That and its beak are the chief 
defences of this bird. 'Tis very hard to catch in the woods, but easy in open 
places, because we run faster than they, and sometimes we approach them 
without much trouble. From March to September they are very fat, and 
taste admirably well, especially while they are young, some of the males 
weigh 45 pounds. The females are wonderfully beautiful, some fair, some 
brown. I call them fair, because they are the colour of fair hair ; they have 
a sort of peak like a widow's, upon their breasts, which is of a dun 
colour. No one feather is straggling from the other all over their bodies, 
they being very careful to adjust themselves, and make them all even with 
their beaks. The feathers on their thighs are round like shells at the end, 
and being there very thick, have an agreeable effect. They have two risings 
on their craws, and the feathers are whiter there than the rest, which 
livelily represents the fine neck of a beautiful woman. They walk with so 
much stateliness and good grace that one cannot help admiring them and 
loving them, by which means their fine mien often saves their lives." 

The unfortunate Solitaires, owing to the depredations by the pigs 
and monkeys introduced by the settlers, and the unceasing slaughter by the 
latter, became extinct between the years 1760 and 1780. 

Of their habits we only have the accounts of Leguat : — 

" Though these birds will sometimes very familiarly come up near 
enough to one, when we do not run after them, yet they will never grow tame, 
as soon as they are caught they shed tears, without crying, and refuse all 
manner of sustenance till they die. 

When these birds build their nests, they choose a clean place, gather 
together some palm leaves for that purpose, and heap them up a foot and a 
half high from the ground, on which they sit. They never lay but one egg, 
which is much bigger than that of a goose. The male and female both cover 
it in their turns, and the young is not hatched till at 7 weeks end. All the 
while they are sitting upon it, or are bringing up their young one, which is 
not able to provide for itself in several months, they will not suffer any other 
bird of their species to come within two hundred yards round of the place. 
But what is very singular is, the males will never drive away the females, only 
when they perceive one they make a noise with their wings to call their own 
female — she drives away the unwelcome stranger, not leaving it till it was 
without her bounds. The female does the same as to males, which she leaves 
to the male who drives them away. We have observed this several times, and I 



179 

affirm it to be true. The combats between them on this occasion last some- 
times pretty long, because the stranger only turns about, and does not fly 
directly from the nest. However, the others do not forsake it till they have 
quite driven it out of their limits. After these birds have raised their young 
one, and left it to itself, they are always together, which the other birds are 
not, and though they happen to mingle with other birds of the same species, 
these two companions never disunite. 

We have often remarked, that some days after the young one leaves 
the nest, a company of 30 or 40 bring another young one to it, and the new 
fledged bird, joining the band with its father and mother, they march to some 
bye place. We frequently followed them, and found that afterwards the old 
ones went each their way alone, or in couples, and left the two young ones 
together, which we called a marriage." 

Leguat's, d'Heguerty's, and the Abbe Pingre's descriptions were all we 
had of this great ground pigeon down to 1866, except a few bones. When Mr. 
Strickland proved its distinctness from the Dodo of Mauritius in 1844, and up 
to 1852, these bones numbered 18. In 1864 Mr. E. Newton and Captain 
Barclay got 3 more bones, in 1865 Mr. Jenner, the resident magistrate, 
collected 8 bones, and in 1866 nearly 2,000 bones were collected, but during 
the Transit of Venus e.xpedition in 1874, a thorough search was made, and a 
number of complete skeletons was collected. 

Habitat : Island of Rodriguez. 

Represented in Museums by a number of complete skeletons and a 
large number of bones. 



Explanation of Plates. 

Plate 23. 

Coloured drawing made from Leguat's description and figure. 

Plate 25 {a). 

Fig. 7. Outline of figure in Leguat's Voyage, 1708. 

Fig. 2. Outline of Schlegel's reconstructed figure of the Solitaire, 1854. 

Fig. 3. Outline of Solitaire in Frontispiece to Leguat's Voyage, 1708. 



181 



TYMPANUCHUS CUPIDO (l.) 

HEATH HEN. 

Tetrao ciipido Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. i6o (1758 — ex Catesby, Carolina II, App. p. i, 

pi. I, 1743. " Habitat in Virginia ") ; Vieillot, Gal. Ois. II, p. 55, p. 219 (1825). 
Pinnated Grouse Latham, Gen. Syn. II, 2, p. 740 (1783). 

Bonasa ciipido Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool. XI, p. 299 (1819 — New Jersey and Long 
Island). 

Ciipidonia ciipido Baird, B. N. Am. p. 628 (i860 — partim) ; Maynard, B. E. Massach. 

p. 138 (1870 — Martha's Vineyard and Naushon Island) ; Brewster, Auk 1885, p. 82 

(Massachusetts). 
Ciipidonia ciipido var. ciipido Baird, Brewer & Ridgway, N. Amer. B. Ill, p. 440 (1874). 
Ciipidonia ciipido brewsteri Coues, Key N.A.B., App. p. 884 (1887). 
Tywpaiiiichiis ciipido Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. VIII, p. 355(1885); Bendire, Life- 

Hist. N. Amer. B. I, p. 93 (1892); Grant, Cat. B. Brit. B. XXII, p. 77; Check-List N. 

Amer. B. Ed. II, p. 115, No. 306(1895); Hartlaub, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen XIV, i 

(second ed. of separate copy, p. 15) (1896). 

LINNAEUS' brief diagnosis is: "Tetrao pedibus hirsutis alis succenturiatis 
cervicalibus." After the habitat he adds : " Color Tetricis feminae ; 

vertex subcristatus ; a tergo colli duae parvae alae : singulae pennis 
quinque." This diagnosis is taken from Catesby, who gives a fairly good 
description and a recognizable coloured plate. He specially mentions that 
the neck-tufts are composed of five feathers, and in his figure they are shown 
to be much pointed. Catesby expressly states that he does not know exactly 
from which part of America his specimen came — yet Linnaeus says " Habitat 
in Virginia." 

Formerly the Heath Hen inhabited New England and part of the 
Middle States (Southern Connecticut, Long Island, New Jersey, Nantucket, 
Eastern Pennsylvania), but in 1887 Ridgway stated already that it was then 
apparently extinct, except on Martha's Vineyard. About that time it was 
still common on that island, inhabiting the woods and chiefly haunting oak 
scrub and feeding on acorns. They were then "strictly protected by law," but 
this protection seems not to have been effectual, as from 1893 to 1897 a 
number were killed, skinned, and sold to various museums. This was, 
perhaps, fortunate rather than unfortunate, because Mr. Hoyle (the man who 
collected them) told us that in 1894 a fire destroyed many of them, and in 
the fall of 1897 they were practically gone. But almost worse than this, 
perhaps, two pairs of " Prairie Chicken " {Tympanuchus americanus) were 
liberated and broods of young (of the latter apparently) were seen, so that it 



182 

is to be feared that birds shot now on Martha's Vineyards Island may have 
blood of T. americamis in them, the two forms being closely related, 
somewhat difficult to distinguish, and evidently sub-species of each other. 
Nevertheless, a bird taken in 1901 was pronounced to be typical cupido by 
Mr. Brewster. 

From these facts it is pretty clear that the Heath Hen is among the 
birds the fate of which is sealed, and which, if not already exterminated or 
mixed with foreign blood, will soon have disappeared. The footnote in the 
Proceedings of the IV. International Ornithological Congress, p. 203, is 
herewith corrected. 



183 



COTURNIX NOVAEZELANDIAE quoy&gaim. 

(Plate 28, Fig. 2.) 

Coiurnix Novae-Zelandiae Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. I. p. 242, pi. 24, 
fig. I (1830 — " 11 habit la baie Chouraki (riviere Tamise de Cook), k la Nouvelle — 
Z61ande ") ; Gould, Syn. B. Austr., text and pi. fig 2 (1837-38) ; Buller, B. New 
Zealand, p. 161, pi. (1873); Hist. B. New Zealand, 2nd ed. I, p. 225, pi. XXIII (1888); 
Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXII p. 245 (1893). 

THIS Quail, though a typical Coturnix, is easily distinguished from all 
other species. The male has the upper-side almost black, each feather 

bordered and indistinctly barred with rufous-brown, and with a wide, 
creamy white shaft-line. The throat and sides of the head are rufous- 
cinnamon, the feathers of the chest and breast at their basal half buff with 
a broken black cross-bar, the distal half black, with two pale buff spots 
near the tip, or with a continuous white border. 

This sole representative of the " gamebirds " in New Zealand was in 
former days very numerous in both islands, but especially so in the South 
Island, wherever there was open grass-land, but is now evidently extinct. 
Its disappearance is apparently not due to excessive shooting, but rather to 
the introduction of rats, cats, and dogs, and last, but not least, to bush-fires 
and to the regular burning of the sheep-runs, according to Sir Walter 
Buller. No doubt the establishment itself of extensive sheep-farms in the 
once, more or less, uninhabited grass-land was ominous for the future of 
the Quail. 

It is not quite clear when the Quail disappeared. The last on the 
North Island was shot by Captain Mair at Whangarei in 1860. Specimens 
were recorded in 1867 and 1869, but were apparently not procured. In 
Haast's "Journal of E.xploration in the Nelson Province" it is said to be 
still very abundant in 1861 on the grassy plains of the interior. 

Sir Walter Buller mentions two specimens said to be from an island 
in Blue Skin Bay, shot in " 1867 or 1868." In his Second Edition of the 
" Birds of New Zealand " he informs us that it was found occasionally in 
the South Island down to 1875, but in the "Supplement" he speaks of a 
specimen said to have been shot in 1871, but adds, " There is no absolute 
evidence of it," and " if true, this individual bird must have been about the 
last of its race." Therefore, evidently the note about 1875 was erroneous. 



184 



The statement of Mr. Cheeseman, that he took eggs on Three 
Kings Islands is erroneous. The eggs belonged to a Synoecus, and the egg 
given to Sir Walter BuUer is now in my collection. 

I have, however, also two eggs of Coturnix novaezealandiae, brought 
home by Dr. H. O. Forbes. They have a brownish-white shell, covered and 
washed all over with deep brown patches and lighter brown underlying 
markings. They show distinctly the character of Quails' eggs, but, besides 
being much larger, are easily distinguished from eggs of Coturnix coturnix. 
They measure 34-3 by 25 and 345 by 2r3 mm. 

Of birds I have in my collection : One S ad. Shot at Whangarei, 
North Island, by Major Mair, in 1860. (This is the specimen figured in 
the Second Edition of the " Birds of New Zealand." I bought it with 
Sir Walter Buller's collection eighteen years ago. By a curious lapsus 
memoriae Sir Walter BuUer, in the " Supplement," p. 35, in 1905, states 
that this bird was in his son's collection.) One ! ad. and one 3 in the 
first year's plumage, shot by Messrs. Walter Buller and E. French near 
Kaiapoi, South Island, in the summer of 1859. 

Seven specimens are in the British Museum, the types in Paris, three 
in Cambridge, a pair in Christchurch in New Zealand, some in the Canterbury 
Museum, and doubtless many others, most of which have never been recorded. 



185 

DINORNITHIDAE. 

MOAS. 

THE first announcement of the former existence of large Struthious birds 
in New Zealand was made by Mr. J. S. Polack in 1838. In his book 

" New Zealand," he states that he found large bird bones near East 
Cape in the North Island. The first specimen, however, that came into the 
hands of a scientific man was the bone sent to Professor Owen in 1839 by 
Mr. Rule, who reported that the natives had told him that it was the bone 
of a large Eagle which they called " Movie." Professor Owen, with his 
extraordinary knowledge, at once saw that far from any connection with 
the Raptores, Mr. Rule's bone was a portion of a femur of a gigantic 
Struthious bird. He described it on November 12th, 1839, at a meeting 
of the Zoological Society, and it was figured on Plate 3 of Volume III of 
the Transactions of the Zoological Society. 

The next notice of the Moas takes the form of a letter, received by 
Professor Owen from the Rev. W. C. Cotton, dated Waimate, near the Bay 
of Islands, New Zealand, July 11th, 1842; and in it the writer gives an 
account of his meeting with the Rev. Mr. Wm. Williams, a fellow missionary 
at East Cape. The latter had collected a lot of "Moa" bones and sent 
them to a Dr. Buckland. Mr. Williams also reported a conversation with 
two Englishmen, who declared they had been taken out by a native at night 
and had seen a Moa alive, but had been too frightened to shoot it. 

On January 24th, 1843, Professor Owen exhibited a number of bones 
from Mr. Williams' collection, and described them, giving the bird the name 
of " Megalornis novaezealandiae" afterwards changing the generic title into 
Dinornis, as Megalornis was preoccupied. Afterwards, when describing these 
bones and those contained in the second box of Mr. Williams' collection 
more fully, he somewhat inconsistently changed the specific name to 
stnithioides, which Captain Hutton, in his later classification, retained. 
Following the laws of priority, however {novaezealandiae has 10 months' 
priority over stnithioides), we must reinstate the name novaezealandiae. 

A number of other finds occurred between 1842 and 1847, but by far 
the largest and most important collections were made and sent home between 
1847 and 1852 by the Hon. W. Mantell, who sent to Professor Owen many 
hundreds of bones and eggshells, from which the Professor was enabled to 
determine and describe a large number of species, and even as early as 
this to separate some genera. 



186 



The bulk of later finds were made by Sir Julius von Haast, Captain 
Hutton, and Mr. Aug. Hamilton, and the two most famous deposits were 
Glenmark Swamp and Te Aute ; but it would take too much space to give 
here an account of all the other extraordinary discoveries of Moa deposits 
made by such men as Dr. Thomson, Mr. Earl, Mr. Thorne, Dr. H. O. 
Forbes, and many others. Besides many fragments of eggshell, a number 
of eggs have been found, which will be enumerated elsewhere. 

Feathers have been found at Clutha River, near Ro.\burgh, and also 
in caves near Queenstown. Those from Clutha are mostly dark, being black 
with white tips ; while the Queenstown ones resemble feathers of Apteryx 
australis in colours. Professor Owen has shown that Megalapteryx huttoni 
was feathered down to the toes, and in the plate I have represented it 
clothed with feathers similar to the Clutha ones, which I believe belong to 
this species. The Moas at one time must have been extraordinarily numerous, 
both in numbers and species, and they varied in height from 2J feet to 
12 feet. Professor Parker has shown that some of the species had crests 
of long feathers on the head, and, as some adult skulls of the same forms 
show no signs of this, he infers that the males alone had this appendage. 
There has been much discussion as to the time when the Moas became 
extinct, and we know for certain that the two species, Dinornis maximus 
and Anomalopteryx antiquns, belong to a much earlier geological epoch than 
the bulk of the other species. It would be too lengthy for my purpose to 
go into the arguments, but we can, by the study of the ''kitchen middens" 
of Maoris and their traditions, fairly adduce that the Maoris arrived in the 
North Island some 600 years ago, that they hunted Moas, and that they 
exterminated them about 100 to 150 years after their arrival. In the South, 
or rather Central, Island, the Maoris appear to have arrived about 100 years 
later, and to have exterminated the Moas about 350 years ago. It is only 
fair to say, however, that Monsieur de Quatrefages adduces evidence in his 
paper which goes far to prove that Moas existed down to the end of the 
18th or even beginning of the 19th century in those parts of the Middle 
Island not, or scantily, inhabited by Maoris. 

Tiie Dinornithidae form a separate group of the order Ratitae, in no 
way closely related to the Australian Emu (Dromaius), as many ornithologists 
have asserted, but nearer to the South American Nandu (Rhea) than any 
other living Ratitae, though exhibiting many characters in common with the 
Apterygidae. There have been a number of classifications set up of this 
family. The first by Reichenbach, in 1850, with 7 species and 7 genera ! 



187 



The next was by Von Haast, in 1873, who enumerated 10 species, divided 
into 4 genera. The third was Lydekker's, in 1891, who acknowledged 23 
species, divided into 5 genera. Then came Mutton's, in 1892, which left out 
Megalapteryx, with its then known 2 species, and acknowledged 26 species, 
divided into 7 genera. Lastly we have Professor Parker's, in 1895, in which 
again Megalapteryx is left out, and 21 species are acknowledged, divided into 
5 genera. There has been a great amount of controversy as to the number 
of species of Moas which really ought to be distinguished, and of late years 
there has been a tendency to unite most of the species as synonyms, the 
authors declaring that bones vary to such a degree that all the characters 
relied on for the distinguishing of the various species were individual 
variations, and that, besides, it was impossible that so many distinct forms 
could have occurred in such a small area. The extreme of this lumping 
was reached when Professor Forbes, in the Bulletin of the Liverpool 
Museums, 111, pp. 27 and 28 (1900), divided the Moas into six genera, each 
with a single species. He thus ignores the fact that by doing so he has united 
forms which were founded on fully adult bones, and yet some of them were 
only about half or two-thirds the size of the others. I personally think that 
too many species have been made, and at least 7 of Captain Button's forms 
must be sunk. On the other hand some have been described since 1895 
and 1900, and I have been obliged to name others rather against my 
will, so that in spite of uniting so many species of others I find I am 
obliged to acknowledge more species than anyone else. I have divided these 
into genera according to Professor Parker's classification, only adding 
Palaeocasuarius of Forbes, with 3 species, and Megalapteryx, with 5, which 
brings my number up to 38 species, divided into 7 genera. My reasons for 
not uniting these into 7 species and 7 genera, as those of the " lumping 
school " do, are twofold, — first, the bones of the Ratitae are much more solid 
than those of other birds, and are not given to so much individual variation ; 
and, secondly, in the face of the great number of species of Paradise 
Birds and Cassowaries found on New Guinea, the contention that there 
could not be so many species of Moa on so small an area is not easily 
maintained. Moreover, we have strong support in the present fauna and 
flora for the presumption that, when the Moas first came into existence and 
differentiated into species. New Zealand was a much larger area, stretching 
at least from the Macquarie Islands in the south to the Kermadecs in the 
north, and from Lord Howe's Island on the west to the Chatham Islands 
on the east. So that, like the giant tortoises on the Galapagos Islands, 



188 



they only got driven so closely together after their specific differentiation, 
when the land gradually subsided, owing to volcanic action. The differentiation 
of the family is as follows : — 

DINORNITHIDAE. 

Skull with a short and wide beak. Pectoral girdle very small or absent, 
wing absent, only an indication in Dinornis dromioides. Hallux absent or 
present. An extension bridge to the tibio-tarsus, which is placed near the 
inner border of the bone. No superior notch to the sternum. Most of the 
species of very large size. The tarso-metatarsus is either long and slender 
or short and wide, and its anterior surface may or may not be grooved. The 
second trochlea is longer than the fourth, the third is not pedunculated, and there 
is no perforation in the groove between the third and fourth trochlea. In the 
tibio-tarsus the cnemial crest rises well above the head ; the extensor groove 
is separated by a considerable interval from the inner border of the bone. 
There is a well-defined intercondylar tubercle ; the intercondylar gorge is 
deep, and there is no deep pit on the lateral surface of the entocondyle. The 
femur may be either slender or stout, but is not markedly cur\'ed forwards. 
The popliteal depression is deep, and the summit of the great trochanter 
rises considerably above the level of the head. The pelvis approximates to 
that of the Apterygidae, but the pectineal process of the pubis is less developed, 
and the ischium and pubis may be longer and more slender. The coracoid 
and scapula are aborted and may be absent. The sternum, which may be 
either long and narrow, or broad and short, differs from that of the 
Apterygidae by the absence of the superior notch, the divergent lateral 
processes, and the reduction of the coracoidal grooves to small facets or 
their total disappearance. The cenical vertebrae are relatively short, an 
expanded neural platform as far as the sixth. 

In Anomalopteryx and Megalapteryx the number of cervicle vertebrae 
is 21, and there are 2 cervico-dorsal and 4 free dorsal vertebrae, so it is fair 
to assume that this is the correct number throughout the family. 

The feathers had after-shafts. 

THE GE.NERA ARE AS FOLLOWS: 

Dinornis Owen. Megalapteryx Haast. 

Palapteryx Owen, part. Anomalopteryx Lydekker, part. 

Palapteryx Hutton. *Mesopteryx Hutton. 

Tylapieryx Hutton. 



189 



Cela Reichenbach. Pachyornis Lydekker. 

Dinomis Owen, part. Palapteryx Haast. 

Meiononiis Haast. Dinomis Owen, part. 

Anomalopteryx Lydekker. Euryapteryx Hutton. 

Mesobteryx Parker. „ , . _ , 

Palaeocasuartus rorbes. 

r-. • I f < *Megalapteryx Forbes, part. 

Emeus Reichenbach. 

Euryapteryx Haast. Anomalopteryx Reichenbach. 

Syoriiis Hutton. Meiononiis Haast. 

Dinomis Owen, part. Dinomis Owen, part. 

I have adopted Professor Parker's classification in the genera, only 
substituting Cela Reichenbach for Mesapteryx Hutton, which is a synonym 
of Megalapteryx Haast. As to the species I have used my own judgment ; 
I felt obliged to name a number of species acknowledged by Parker and 
Lydekker but not named, because this system of indicating species by the 
letters A, B, C, &c., which has crept into our nomenclature, will make all 
understanding impossible, as not always the same species is denoted by the 
same letter. A few of these species will naturally later have to be sunk, as 
some have been founded on skulls and others on leg bones, or so, which, 
when we get perfect individual skeletons may prove to be identical, but I do 
not think these will be many. 

Besides a number of imperfect eggs, particulars of which will be 
found in Dr. A. B. Meyer's article in the Ibis, 1903, pp. 188-196, there are 
known two perfect Moa eggs and one almost perfect one. 

1. Otago Museum. Molyneux River, igoi. Pachyornis pondorosus. 

2. Tring Museum. Molyneux River, igoi. Megalapteryx huttoni. 

3. Rowley Collection. South Island, 1859. Dinomis novaezealandiae. 



191 



DINORNIS. 

THE skull is broad and much depressed, with a comparatively wide, 
somewhat pointed and deflected beak. Breadth at the squamosals 

twice the height at basi-temporal. It has a flattened frontal region, 
and a wide median ridge on the upper surface of the praemaxillae. The 
mandible is in the form of a narrow U, with the angle much inflected, no 
distinct anticular process, and the symphj'sis moderately wide, narrowing 
anteriorly, with a prominent and broad inferior ridge, widest in front. The 
quadrate is elongated, with a very large pneumatic foramen. The sternum 
is nearly as long as broad, very convex, with distinct coracoidal facets, 
3 costal articulations, very small and reflected costal processes, the lateral 
processes very broad and widely divergent, and a wide xiphisternal notch. 
The pelvis is narrow with a high ilium, in which the inferior border of the 
postacetabular portion is flat, and does not descend as a sharp ridge below 
the level of the anterior postacetabular vertebrae. The pubis has a small 
pectineal process ; and the ventral aspect of the true and postacetabular 
vertebrae is very broad and much flattened. 

The distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus is not inflected. A hallux is 
present in some species. The tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus are long and 
slender, the length of the latter equalling and more often exceeding the 
length of the femur, and also exceeding half the length of the tibio-tarsus. 
The femur is comparatively long and slender, with a short neck, the head 
rising but slightly and projecting only a small distance, the linear aspera in 
the form of a long irregular line, the outer side of the distal extremity 
moderately expanded, the popliteal depression small, deep, and sharply defined, 
the profile of the inner cordyle semi-ovoid and narrow, and the interior 
trochlear surface nearly flat. The phalangeals of the pes are long and 
comparatively slender, the proximal surface of the terminal segments not 
being trefoil-shaped. In the vertebral column the middle cervicals are long 
and narrow, with the postzygapophyses directed much outwardly and separated 
by a very deep channel, and the posterior face of the centrum low and 
wide. The dorsals have short transverse processes and neural spine, the 
anterior and middle ones (those with a haemal spine or carina) having a 
large anterior pneumatic foramen between the nib-facet, the foramen being 
triangular in shape. All the species of this genus are of comparatively large 
size, and include the tallest members of the family. 

Type of the genus : Dinornis novaezealandiae (Owen). 

Number of species : 7. 



192 



DINORNIS MAXIMUS owen. 

Diiiornis maximus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VI. p. 497 (1868). 
D. excelsus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV. p. no (1892). 
D. giganteus Haast, Trans. N.Z. Inst. I p. 88, No. 20 part. 

THIS is the largest species of Moa, the tibio-tarsus being from 375 to 
39"2 inches in length, while that of the largest D. giganteus does not 

exceed 35 inches, but by far the largest number of the latter are 
considerably shorter. 

The type bones were obtained in Glenmark Swamp, Middle Island of 
New Zealand, and were sent to Professor Owen by Major J. Michael of the 
Madras Staff Corps. Casts of these bones are in the British Museum, 
No. A 161 in the Palaeontological Department. 

This bird was the tallest of all known birds, though it must have been 
considerably exceeded in bulk by Aepyornis ingens and Aepyornis titan of 
Madagascar. 

Locality : Glenmark Swamp, Middle Island, New Zealand. 



DINORNIS ALIUS owen. 

Ditiornis maximus Owen, Ext. Birds N.Z. p. 253 (Dr. Lillie's specimen) (1879). 

D. altiis Owen, Ext. Birds N.Z. (1879) p. 361. 

D. giganteus var maximus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VI p. 497 (i858). 

ONLY known by a tarso-metatarsus, femur and tibio-tarsus from the 
Middle Island, New Zealand. The bones at once noticeable by their 
great length, and are more slender than the same bones in 
D. maximus. This form must therefore, till further material comes to hand, 
be treated as a separate species. 

Locality : Middle Island, New Zealand. Collected by Dr. Lillie. 



193 



DINORNIS GIGANTEUS owen. 

Dinoriiis giganteus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill p. 237 (1843) and p. 307 (1846). 
Moa giganteus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. XXX (i85o). 

Dinornis maximus (non D. maximiis Owen of 1867 !) Trans. Zool. Soc. X p. 147 (1877). 
D. validus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. p. iii (1S92). 

THIS is, as regards size, one of the more variable forms in the tarso- 
metatarsus, while the tibio-tarsus is remarkably constant. The 
tibio-tarsus is almost invariably 35 inches in length, while the tarso- 
metatarsus varies from 17'5 to 19 inches in length. 

The type of D. giganteus Owen is from Poverty Bay ; the type of 
D. validus is from Glenmark. 

Habitat : North and Middle Islands, New Zealand. 
Portion of skeleton in Tring Museum, from Kopua Swamps, Canterbury, 
New Zealand. 

DINORNIS INGENS owen 

(Plate 42.) 

Dinornis ingens Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill p. 237 (1843). 
Movia ingens Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. xxx (1850). 
D. ingens var. robustus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill p. 307 (1846). 
Palapteryx robustus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill p. 345 (1848). 
D. finiins Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV p. 114 (1892). 
D. potens Hutton, I.e. p. 115. 

T\ INGENS shows considerable variation in size, but the inter-gradation 

is so complete that it seems impossible to retain the four species 

ingens, firmiis, potens and robustus, which Captain Hutton admits. 

This form was widely distributed over the North and Middle Islands. 

The type skull of P. robustus came from Timaru, the type of firtnus 

from Wanganui, that of ingens from Poverty Bay, while that of potens is 

quoted from the East side of Middle Island, without specific type locality. 

Habitat : North and Middle Islands. 

The plate of this species was reconstructed by Mr. Frohawk from the 
skeleton and feathers in my museum, and the feathers found with the 
skeleton now in the York Museum. The only criticism that might be made in 
connection with this picture is that the feathers are drawn a little too much 
like those of Apteryx australis, but this is not of any consequence, as the Moa 
feathers in the Tring Museum and elsewhere vary considerably in appearance, 
though being more or less coloured like Apteryx feathers. 

There is an almost perfect skeleton in the Tring Museum. 



194 



DINORNIS GRACILIS owen. 

Dinornis gracilis Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV (1855) p. 141. 
D. torosus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV p. 117 (1892). 

IF we acknowledge that D. novaezealandiae occurs both on the North 
and Middle Islands, then I feel sure that the distinctness of D. gracilis 
and D. torosus cannot be maintained, as the measurements intergrade 
completely. 

The type of D. gracilis came from Wanganui, while that of D. torvsiis 
is a nearly perfect skeleton found in a cave at Takaka, near Nelson. 
Habitat : New Zealand. 

There is an imperfect skeleton in the Tring Museum, from a limestone 
cave at Takaka, near Motueka, Province of Nelson, New Zealand. 



DINORNIS DROMIOIDES owen. 

Dinornis dromioides Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III. p. 235 (1843). 
Palapteryx dromioides Reichcnbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. XXX (1850). 
Palaptery.x pleiius Htitton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV p. 122 (1892). 

THIS form also inhabited both islands, but was probably one of the rarest. 
The type of D. dromioides came from Poverty Bay, and that of 
P. plenus from Glenmark. 
Habitat : New Zealand. 



DINORNIS NOVAEZEALANDIAE owen. 

Dinornis novaezealandiae Owen, P.Z.S. (1843) p. 8. 

D. struthioides Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill p. 244 (1844). 

D. strennus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV p. 8 (1893). 

PROFESSOR OWEN changed the name of this form, but we cannot 
accept this change, as it is against the laws of nomenclatorial priority, 
though w^e all appreciate the motive the Professor had in making this 
change. The type came from Poverty Bay, but the bird inhabits both islands. 
This species had wings. 
Habitat : New Zealand. 

A nearly perfect skeleton in the Tring Museum from Waitomo district, 
Auckland, New Zealand. 



195 



MEGALAPTERYX haast. 

ORIGINALLY distinguished by Haast from the Dinornithidae as an 
ancient form of the Apterygidae, but afterwards united by Lydekker 
with the Dinornithidae. Mr. Lydekker's diagnosis of the genus is 
as follows : — 

" Distinguished from Dinornis by the extreme slenderness and length 
of the femur and tibio-tarsus, and the relatively shorter tarso-metatarsus, of 
which latter the length is considerably shorter than that of the femur. The 
pelvis is much narrower than in Dinornis, with the ventral surface of the 
postacetabular sacrals ridged and narrower, and a more developed pectineal 
process to the pubis. The femur is markedly curved forwards, with the distal 
extremity moderately expanded, the popliteal depression larger and less defined, 
the linea aspera narrower and sharper, and a more distinct anterior inter- 
muscular ridge." 

The following additional diagnostic characters are taken from 
Mr. Charles W. Andrews' description of the complete skeleton of Megalap- 
teryx teniiipes in the Tring Museum (Nov. Zool. IV, pp. 188-194, fig. 1-2 in 
text and pi. VI) :— 

Width of cranium at paroccipital processes less than half the length of 
the basis cranii. Length of premaxilla less than two-and-a-half times that of 
the basis cranii. Body of the premaxilla pointed and slightly decurved ; its 
length and breadth less than the basis cranii. The occipital plane slightly 
declined backwards. Occipital condyle projecting slightly beyond the parocci- 
pital processes. Anterior and posterior lambdoidal ridges separated by a very 
narrow interval in their middle region only. Width at squamosals slightly 
more than double the length of the basis cranii. Mammillary tuberosities not 
very prominent. Margin of tympanic cavity evenly curved. Temporal fossae 
very large. The distance between the temporal ridges about four-fifths the 
width of the cranium at the fossae. The posterior temporal ridge confluent 
with the lambdoidal ridge. Post-temporal fossae very large. 

The inferior temporal ridge is strongly marked, and there is a pretympanic 
process. The zygomatic process is well developed. Rostrum dilated towards 
its anterior end, compressed and carinate beneath the large presphenoid fossae. 
Mandible very slender. Posterior angular process small. Sternum very convex, 
and with a very nearly straight anterior border between the tuberosities for 
the coracoscapular ligaments. Costal processes short but large, with distinct 



196 



coracoidal facets. The lateral processes are long and distally expanded. The 
sternum is just as wide as it is long. There are three costal articulations. 
The most notable character is the enormous length of the toes, the middle one 
being longer than the tarso-metatarsus. The ungual phalanges are peculiarly 
long, narrow and curved, instead of being comparatively short and broad, as 
in most other Moas. 

Type of the genus Mcgalapteryx heciori, Haast. 

Number of species 4. 



197 



MEGALAPTERYX HECTORI haast 

Megalapteryx hectori Haast, Trans. Zool. Soc. XII, p. i5i (1886); Lydekker, Cat. Fossil 
B. Brit. Mus., p. 252. 

THIS form was described by Sir Julius von Haast as a gigantic Apteryx. 
This error arose from the absence of the skull. There is, however, no 
doubt now, since the skulls of Megalapteryx are known, that although 
sufficiently aberrant to form a distinct sub-family, the birds included in this 
genus are Dinornithidae and not Apterygidae. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



MEGALAPTERYX HAMILTONI spec. nov. 

Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds in Brit. Mus., p. 252, under M. tenuipes (1891). 

THE type is a left femur. No. 32145 in the British Museum. It is smaller 
and relatively narrower than the femur, of either M. hectori or 
M. tenuipes. This is most noticeable at the distal extremity. 
Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. (Type locality Waingongoro.) 

Named after Mr. A. Hamilton, who did so much in discovering deposits 
of extinct New Zealand birds. 



198 



MEGALAPTERYX TENUIPES lyd. 

Megalapteryx tenuipes Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. I\lus. p. 251 (1891). 

THIS species was described from the tibio-tarsus, which is longer and 
relatively more slender than in M. hectori. Its distal width is about 

one-ninth of its length, while in M. hectori it is about one-seventh. 
The length of the tibio-tarsus is approximately 0405 mm. = 16 inches, and 
width of distal extremity about 0044 = 1-74 inches. Type specimens Nos. 
49989 and 49990, British Museum. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand, and perhaps North Island. (Type 
locality Lake Wakatipa, Queenstown, Otago.) 

Complete skeleton in the Tring Museum. 

Mr. Lydekker mentions also a right femur from the North Island, of 
the same proportions as those of M. tenuipes and 0'255 m. (= 101 inches) long. 
It may probably belong to a different form, as we know M. tenuipes otherwise 
only from the Middle Island. 



199 



MEGALAPTERYX HUTTONII (owen). 

(Plate 41.) 

Diiwniis hutionii Owen, Ext. Birds, N.Z., p. 430 (1879). 

Dinoniis didiiiits Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. XI, p. 257 (1883). 

D. diiiiformis Haast, (non Owen 1844) Trans. N.Z. Inst. I, p. 83, Nos. 5 & 6 (1869). 

Mesoptery.x didinus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 129 (1892). 

THE synonymy of this form is somewhat confused, but I think it is 
clear that huttonii of Owen is its proper name. Professor Owen 

(Ext. B. p. 430) says : 
" In the collection from the Glenmark Swamp, South Island, are bones 
that scarcely differ, save in size, from the dimensions (?w.r.) of the type 
bones of Dinornis didiformis from the North Island. They are noted as of a 
large variety of that species." Captain Hutton remarks: "The bones that I 
have arranged under the name D. didiformis belong probably to a new 
species. The tibia is well marked and quite distinct, but the femur and 
metatarsus, that I have associated with it, pass almost into D. casuarinus, 
but are rather smaller. D. casuarinus is undoubtedly a good species, 
easily distinguished by its tibia." Possibly the Dinornis of the South Island, 
with the tibia characteristic of D. didiformis of the North Island, may need 
to be noted for the convenience of naming the bones as Dinornis huttonii. 

When describing his D. didinus, Professor Owen failed to recognise its 
identity with his previously named D. huttonii, doubtless owing to the leg 
bones being hidden by the dry integument. This being the case, it is necessary 
to reinstate the name huttonii, as it has four years' priority over didinus. 

Captain Hutton says that a few bones of this form have been obtained 
in the North Island at Poverty Bay and Te Aute ; but I am convinced he 
is in error and that these bones are aberrant individual bones of A. didiformis 
and that M. huttonii is confined to the South or rather Middle Island. The 
plate of this species has been reconstructed by Mr. Lodge from the 
mummified remains which form the type specimen of Didornis didinus, and 
the feathers found in the alluvial sands of the Clutha River. The type of 
Dinornis didinus was found at Queenstown by Mr. Squires. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 

Mr. C. W. Andrews, in his description of my complete skeleton of 
Megalapteryx tenuipes has shown that Owen's type specimens of his Dinornis 
didinus are certainly of a species of the genus Megalapteryx, and closely 



200 



allied to M. tentiipes. Mr. Andrews, however, throws some doubt as to 
whether the pelvis and femora, referred to this species by Hutton, really 
belong to it. 

A complete egg which I consider must be of this species is 
preserved in the Tring Museum. Its measurements are as follows : — 

Large circumference, 21-4 inches = 535 mm. 

Small ,, 175 ,, = 4375 mm. 

This egg was dredged up on the Molyneux River, near Otago, during 
gold dredging operations in 1901 ; a second perfect egg was dredged up a 
few months before in the same river, and was referred by Dr. Benham 
to Pachyornis ponderosus. 



201 



ANOMALOPTERYX reichenbach. 

THE skull is narrow and vaulted, with a long, sharp and slightly deflected 
beak. Breadth at the squamosals IJ times the height at basi-temporal, 

which has a constricted praemaxillary ridge, and the quadrate 
with a very small pneumatic foramen. The mandible is V-shaped, with 
a slight inflection of the angle, and a distinct postarticular process. The 
symphysis is very narrow and pointed, with a long and narrow inferior ridge, 
not expanding markedly at either extremity. The sternum is longer, flatter 
and narrower than in Dinornis, having no distinct xiphisternal notch, three 
costal articulations, long and narrow costal processes, slender lateral processes 
which are often elongated, and usually no coracoidal facets. The pelvis is 
wider and lower than in Dinornis, with the lower border of the postacetabular 
portion of the ilium descending as a sharp ridge much below the level of the 
sacral ribs, and without any distinct pectineal process. A hallux is present. 
The tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus are relatively shorter and stouter than 
in Dinornis, the latter being shorter than the femur, which is usually stouter 
and relatively shorter than in Megalapteryx. The length of the tarso-metatarsus 
is less than half that of the tibio-tarsus. The femur, besides being usually 
relatively shorter is readily distinguished from that of Dinornis by its more 
expanded extremities, the rather longer neck, and the much larger and ill- 
defined popliteal depression. 

The vertebrae are of the general type of those of Pachyornis, but the 
anterior pneumatic foramen commences in the third dorsal. The phalangeals 
are intermediate between those of Dinornis and Pachyornis. Haast considered 
that the coracoid was aborted and often absent in this genus, in Emeus, and 
Pachyornis. As additional characters of the skull it may be mentioned that 
there is a prominent supra-occipital protuberance, and a depression on the 
squamosal above the quadrate ; the par-occipital processes are pointed, and 
the basi-occipital processes only slightly prominent ; so that the posterior 
profile of the basi-occipital is nearly straight. The quadrate has a very short 
anterior process. 

All the species of the genus are small, in fact parvus is the smallest 
but one of the family. 

Type of the genus : Anomaloptcryx didiformis (Owen). 

Number of species : 4. 



202 



ANOMALOPTERYX DIDIFORMIS (owen). 

Dinomis didiformis Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, p. 242 (1844). 
Anomalopteryx didiformis Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. 30 (1850). 
A. didiformis LydeUker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus., p. 275. 

THE present form is confined to the North Island. Owen's type was 
collected by the Revd. Wm. Williams, and came from Poverty Bay. 
Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. 
Portion of skeleton in Tring Museum. 



ANOMALOPTERYX PARVUS (owen). 

Dinornis parvus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. XI, pp. 233-256, pis. LI-LVII (1883). 
Anomalopteryx didiformis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 123 (1892), part. 
A. parva Lydekker, t. c, p. 278. 

THIS small form is confined to the Middle Island. The type, a skeleton 
in almost complete condition, was dug up in a cave at Takaka, near 
Nelson, and is now in the British Museum. A much less perfect skeleton 
is in my museum at Tring. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



ANOMALOPTERYX ANTIQUUS hutt. 

"Avian Remains" Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXllI, p. 369 (1891). 
Anomalopteryx antiqutis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 124 (1892). 

A ANTIQUUS was named by Captain Hutton from the photographs of bones 

described by Dr. Forbes in the above-quoted article. The evidence is 

very slight on which to found a species, but I prefer to treat it as one, 

for the bones were discovered in the Upper Miocene, a much older stratum 

than most remains of Dinomithidae occur in. 

Locality : Timaru, Middle Island, New Zealand. 



203 



T 



ANOMALOPTERYX FORTIS hutt, 

Anoiitalopteryx fortis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 9 (1893). 

HIS is the largest of the genus, and the type bones came from Glenmark. 
I append comparative table of Measurements: 



Tarso-metatarsus, 



Tibio-tarsus. 



Femur. 



A. fortis 

A. didiformis .... 

A. pan'us 



80 inches. 
6-3 „ 
6-3 



175 inches. 

133 

137 



98 inches. 
80 „ 
8-5 



Locality of Type : Glenmark. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



205 



CELA REICHENBACH. 

SKULL convex, the temporal fossae very large. Breadth at the squamosals 
l'6-I-7 times the height at the basi-temporal. Length from the supra- 
occipital to the nasals rather less than the breadth at the squamosals. 
Occipital condyle hidden by the supra-occipital. Ridge between temporal 
fossae and supra-occipital narrow. Beak short, slightly compressed and rounded 
at the tip, though more pointed than in Anomalopteryx. Lower mandible 
nearly straight and rather slighter than in Anomalopteryx, V-shaped. Sternum 
with coracoid pits faintly indicated or absent ; length less than breadth. Costal 
processes well developed, lateral processes diverging at different angles. 

Pelvis broader in proportion than in Dinornis, the acetabula set more 
forward. Tarso-metatarsus shorter than the femur, and less than half the 
length of the tibio-tarsus. Hallux present in some species. The smallest 
species of Moa is Cela curtus. 

Type of the genus : Cela curtus. 
Number of species : 5. 



CELA CURTUS 



(OWEN). 



Dinornis curtus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, p. 325 (1846). 
Cela curtus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. 30 (1850). 
Cela curia Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIX, p. 550, pi. XLVII, Fig. B. 

THIS and the following are the two smallest species of Moa, having been 
about the size of a large turkey. It also is the most abundant species 
at Whangarei, and appears to have been most common in the North 
of the Island. The type is from Poverty Bay. 
Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. 



206 



CELA OWENI (HAAST). 

Diitornis oweni Haast, Trans. Zool Soc. XII, p. 171, pi. XXXI, XXXII (1886). 
Cela curtus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., XXIV, p. 127 (1892), portion. 

DR. VON HAAST (Sir Julius von Haast) took as his type of Dinornis 
oweni the almost complete skeleton collected by Mr. Cheeseman in 
a cave at Patana, Whangarei, and now in the Auckland Museum. While 
referring my readers to the original diagnosis for the specific characters, I 
wish to specially draw attention to the fact that Dr. von Haast says that 
in the collections he examined, made by Mr. Thorne and Mr. Cheeseman, 
there are bones belonging to at least 20 skeletons of his D. oweni, and that 
some were even smaller than the type, and the only difference was the 
constant average difference due to sex. I draw special notice to this, as 
Captain Hutton has united this form with curtus, saying Haast's type is 
only a small individual of that species. The fact of bones of at least 20 
different individuals, showing the same characters and the same differences 
from curtus, is quite sufficient evidence for me to consider Dr. von Haast's 
D. oweni as a distinct species. I append measurements of the leg bones of 
the types of Cela curtus and C. oweni : — 



Cela curtus 
Cela oweni 



Tarso-meta tarsus. 



50 inches 
4-4 „ 



Tibio-tarsus. 



11-25 inches 
9-6 „ 



Femur. 



565 inches 
6-5 



Locality : Whangarei. 

Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. 



T 



CELA GERANOIDES (owen). 

Palapteryx geranoides Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, p. 345 (1848) 
Cela geranoides Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 126 (1892). 

HIS species is confined to the North Island. The type came from 
Waingongoro. It is most commonly found in the South of the Island. 
Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. 



207 



CELA RHEIDES 



(OWEN). 



Dinornis rheides Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV, p. 8 (1850 — ^partim). 
Syornis rheides Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 131 (1892). 

THIS is a very difficult form to consider, as the type bones consisted 
of those of three different forms. Whether Professor Owen, were he 
now alive, would concur in Captain Hutton's treatment is very 
questionable, and I doubt if it ought not to be united to Emeus crassus, 
while Haast united it to P. gravis. I have kept it separate as no bones of 
a single individual united are known, and it might prove sufficiently distinct 
if a good skeleton were obtained. The type bones were sent from 
Waikawaite, Middle Island, by Colonel Wakefield, in 1849. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



CELA CASUARINUS 



(OWEN). 



Dinornis casuarinus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, p. 307 (1846). 
Syornis casuarinus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog, p. XXX (1850). 
Meionornis casuarinus Haast, Trans. N.Z. Inst., VII, pp. 54-91 (1875). 
Syornis casuarinus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., XXIV, p. 133 (1892). 

/^ CASUARINUS is found in both Islands, and is abundant in the Middle 

Island. 

The type came from Waikowaiti. 
Habitat : New Zealand. 

Portions of one skeleton and two almost complete skeletons in Tring 
Museum ; one of the latter from Kapua Swamps. 



209 



EMEUS REICHENBACH. 

THE skull is very short and wide, with a blunt and slightly deflected 
rostrum, and a very small pneumatic foramen to the quadrate. The 

mandible is in the shape of a wide U. with a slightly inflected angle, 
and a large post-articular process. The symphysis is very wide and deeply 
excavated, with a broad and slightly prominent inferior ridge narrowing in 
front. The sternum resembles that of Anomalopteryx , but the pelvis is much 
wider and approaches that of Pachyornis. The tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus 
are relatively shorter and thicker than in Anomalopteryx, but less stout than 
in Pachyornis ; the distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus is not inflected. A 
hallux is present. The length of the tarso-metatarsus is considerably less 
than that of the femur, and than half that of the tibio-tarsus, its width at the 
middle of the shaft being rather more than one-fourth of its length. 

The vertebrae are of the type of Anomalopteryx. The species are larger 
than most of those of Cela and Anomalopteryx. Additional cranial characters 
are that the skull usually has very broad and blunt paroccipital processes ; 
there is no distinct supraoccipital prominence, and no well-marked depression 
upon the frontal aspect of the squamosal above the head of the quadrate. The 
basi-occipital tubercles are prominent, and give an arched posterior profile to 
this bone. The quadrate is elongated with a long anterior bar ; the cavity 
of the squamosal for the reception of its head is inclined much more outwardly 
than in either of the other genera. 

Type of genus : Emeus crassus (Owen). 

Number of species : 6. 



EMEUS CRASSUS 



(OWEN). 



Diiioniis crassus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, p. 307 (1846 — partim). 
Emeus crassus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog., p. XXX (1850). 
Syoniis crassus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 132 (1892). 

THIS species has led to much confusion, owing to Professor Owen 
having associated with the real portions of crassus in his possession 
bones of elephantopus, ponderosus and struthioides. The type came 
from Waikouaiti. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 
Imperfect skeleton in Tring Museum. 



210 

EMEUS BOOTH I nom. nov. 

Emeus, Species A, Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 379 (1895), pi. XVI. 

EASILY distinguished by the shorter and narrower beak. Type specimen 

— the skull found by Mr. R. S. Booth at Stag Point — now in Otago 
University Museum, figured as above. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



EMEUS GRAVIPES lyd. 

Emeus gravipes Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 298 (1891) Nos. A95, on p. 299, to 

47444d, on p. 300. 
Dinornis gravis (portion) Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VIII, p. 361 (1872). 
Euryapteryx gravis Haast, Ibis 1874, p. 213. 

THE present species is smaller than E. crassus and has the tarso- 
metatarsus relatively wider. Length, 198 mm. = 7-8 inches ; width 
at middle of shaft, 51 mm. = 2 inches. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



EMEUS HAASTI 



NOM. NOV. 



Emeus species B, Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII p. 379 (1895). 

Emeus gravipes Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus. p. 301 Nos. 32017, 32016, a-e and 
c to 32044 e on p. 307 (1891). 

SIR J. VON HAAST united this form with Dinornis gravis, and the skull 
which is the type of E. haasti is put on a skeleton of D. gravis in the 
Canterbury Museum. The measurements of this species are much 
smaller than those of the other species. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



211 



EMEUS PARKERI nom nov. 

Emeus species V, Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 380 (1895). 

THIS species is at once distinguislied from the other species of the genus 
by having right-angled orbits. The type is a skull from Hamilton 
Swamp, named Euryapteryx gravis, by Prof. Hutton, in the Otago 
Museum. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



EMEUS EXILIS (hutt 



Dinornis didiformis Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill, pi. 24 (1846), part. 

Euryapteryx exilis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIX, p. 552, pi. XLVIII, Fig. C (1897). 

DIFFERS from E. crassus in the tibia being more convex on the 
anterior surface. The skull, among other differences, has a very 
slight frontal rising to the cranial roof, as opposed to the very 
conspicuous one in the remaining species. The type is a nearly complete 
skeleton in the Wanganui Museum. For full description see Hutton, I.e. 
Habitat : North Island, New Zealand. 



213 



PACHYORNIS LYDEKKER. 

THE skull is either vaulted or flattened, with a sharp and narrow beak. 
The paroccipital processes are shorter and more rounded, and the 

basi-occipital tubercles more prominent than in Anomalopieryx, while 
the quadrate and mandible resemble the same bones in that genus somewhat 
closely. The sternum is flat and very broad and short, with no coracoidal 
facets, a very small xiphisternal notch, broad and short costal processes, and 
widely divergent lateral processes ; while there are only two costal articulations. 
The pelvis is extremely low and wide, with the anterior wall of the acetabulum 
very deeply concave, the ventral surface of all the vertebrae behind the true 
sacrals narrow and convex, and from which the very broad sacral ribs ascend 
to join the ilium, of which the inferior postacetabular border is very sharp, 
and descends far below the level of the ribs. There is no pectineal process to 
the pubis. The tibio-tarsus is very short, with the shaft curved outwards, 
the distal extremity markedly inflected, and the fibular ridge much shorter 
than in the other genera. The fibular border below the smooth space at 
the distal extremity of the fibular ridge is extremely rough ; and the distal 
extensor tubercle is very prominent, being situated partly on the line of the 
upper half of the extensor groove, instead of being altogether external to 
the same. 

The tarso-metatarsus is still shorter and wider than in Emeus, the 
width at the middle of the shaft being usually rather more than one third 
of the length. The third trochlea is more prominent than in the other genera, 
and rises very abruptly from the shaft, the outer border of the anterior surface 
usually expanding suddenly at the proximal extremity, and the outer ridge of 
this surface being always more prominent than the inner, whereas in the 
other genera the opposite condition obtains. The femur, as compared with 
that of Dinornis, is very much shorter and thicker, with a longer neck, and 
the head rising and projecting very considerably, the linea aspera mainly 
forming a rough nodule near the distal end of the shaft, the outer surface of 
the distal extremity more suddenly expanded, and the popliteal depression 
larger, more open, and leading to the inner surface of the shaft by a more 
distinct channel. The profile of the inner condyle is wider antero-posteriorly, 
and more rounded, the anterior intertrochlear surface being deeply channelled. 

The phalangeals of the pes are much shorter and stouter than in 
Dinornis, the proximal surface of the terminal segments generally presenting 
a trefoil-shaped contour. The length of the tarso-metatarsus is very much 



214 



less than half that of the tibio-tarsus. In the vertebral column the cervicals 
are short with very stout centra, the prezygopophyses in the middle region 
being nearly horizontal and separated from one another by a wide channel. 
The posterior face of the centra is tall and narrow, and the neural spines of 
the last two vertebrae much inclined forward. In the dorsals there is usually 
no anterior pneumatic foramen till the fourth (or the last with a distinct 
haemal carina), this foramen being situated on the line of the anterior border 
of the rib-facet. The third and fourth dorsals are extremely compressed. 
Throughout the series also the neural spines and transverse processes are 
comparatively long. Additional characters of the skull are that the sphenoidal 
rostrum is expanded in a lance-like shape at the anterior extremity, in a 
manner unlike that of any of the other genera. 

Then the supraoccipital never has a veiy strongly developed median 
prominence, and the temporal fossae are comparatively short. The mandible 
may be readily distinguished from that of the other genera by the low position 
of the inner aperture of the dental canal, which pierces the bone obliquely to 
join the small lateral vacuity. 

Type of the genus : Pachyornis elephanfopus (Owen). 

Number of species : 8. 



PACHYORNIS ELEPHANTOPUS (owen). 

Dinornis elephantopus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV, p. 149 (1853). 
Palapteryx elephantopus Haast, Ibis, Ser. 3, vol. IV, p. 212 (1874). 
Euryapteryx elephantopus Hutton, Trans. X.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 135 (1892). 

UNTIL Mr. Lydekker described Pachyornis immanis, and Mr. Andrews 
Aepyornis titan, this was undoubtedly the most bulky and ponderous 
of all known Ratitae, extinct and living. 
Type : Awamoa, near Oamanu. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 

Two imperfect skeletons in the Tring Museum ; one from Kapua 
Swamps. 



215 



PACHYORNIS IMMANIS lyd. 

Pachyornis iinmaiiis LydekUer, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 343 (i8gi). 

THIS is the most bulky and largest member of the genus, and also of 
all Dinornithidae. Its living parallel to-day is Casuarius philipi 

Rothschild, which, though by no means the tallest species of Casuarius, 
is the most bulky, and has the shortest and stoutest legs — the tarso- 
metatarsus is specially short and stout. 

The type tarso-metatarsus measures 228 mm. = 9-9 inches, and in 
width (shaft) 84 mm. = 33 inches, while the type tarso-metatarsus of 
elephantoptis measures 239 mm. = 9"4 inches and 65 mm. = 2'55 inches. 

The skull is much more depressed than in elephantopus and with deeper 
temporal fossae and a shorter post orbital region. 

Type : No. A168 British Museum. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



PACHYORNIS ROTHSCHILDI lyd. 

Pachyornis rothschildi Lydekker, P.Z. S. 1S91, pp. 479-482, pi. XXXVIII. 

THE bones in the Tring Museum, which form the type of this species, 
unfortunately have no history and their locality is unknown. It differs 
from the other species of the genus by the slenderer proportions of the 
tibio-tarsus, which is 22 inches long by 29 inches distal width, as opposed to 
24 inches by 42 in elephantopus and 20 inches by 35 in ponderosus, the two 
nearest in size. Femur: length 10'6 as opposed to 125 inches in elephantopus. 



216 



PACHYORNIS PONDEROSUS (hutt) 

Euryapteryx ponderosus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 137 (1892). 

THIS species is slightly smaller than P. elephantopus, the tarso-metatarsus 
varying from 825 to 8-0 inches, as opposed to from 94 to 9-25 in 
elephantopus ; the tibio-tarsus varies from 18'5 to 18'6, as opposed to 
24 to 21-1 ; femur, 10, as opposed to 13 to 11-8. 

The skull can be distinguished by the processes at the hinder angles 
of the basi-sphenoid, which are higher and rounder in ponderosus, flatter 
and more elongated in elephantopus. Type : Hamilton. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 

Cast of egg in Tring Museum, taken from specimen in Otago Museum, 
dredged up in 1901 in the Molyneux River, also incomplete skeleton from 
Kapua Swamps. 

PACHYORNIS INHABILIS hutt. 

Pachyornis inhabilis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 11 (1893). 

DIFFERS from ponderosus by having the great inward expansion at the 
distal end of the tibio-tarsus. This expansion has induced some 
ornithologists to separate the species of Pachyornis into two genera — 
Euryapteryx and Pachyornis — but I do not think this expansion of sufficient 
importance to warrant generic separation. 

Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 

PACHYORNIS VALGUS (hutt.) 

Euryapteryx valgus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 12 (1893). 

THIS species is at once distinguishable from all others by the extraordinary 
internal expansion of the distal end of the tibio-tarsus. The tarso- 
metatarsus is 8-5 inches = 216 mm. in length and the proximal width 
3-5 inches = 89 mm., and does not differ much from crassus except in the 
great proximal width, necessary to articulate with the distal internal 
expansion described above. 

The type came from Enfield in New Zealand. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



217 



PACHYORNIS PYGMAEUS (hutt.) 

Etiryapterxy pygmaetis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 739 (1892). 

AS implied by its name, this is the smallest species of Pachyornis, the 
tarso-metatarsus only measuring 6 inches in length. The type came 
from Takaka. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



PACHYORNIS COMPACTA (hutt) 

Euryapteryx compacta Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 11 (1893). 

APPROACHES nearest to pygmaetis in size, but can be at once distinguished 
by the distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus not being expanded inwards. 
The tarso-metatarsus has the trochleae considerably more expanded than 
in pygmaeus. 

Type from Enfield in New Zealand. 
Habitat : Middle Island, New Zealand. 



219 



PALAEOCASUARIUS forbes. 

DR. FORBES founded this genus of Dinornithidae on remains of Moas of 
three distinct sizes as regards femora collected by him at Manitoto. 
Dr. Forbes has kindly placed these bones at my disposal, and the 
following summarises the results of my examination. I find that Dr. Forbes' 
original idea as to the distinctness of Palaeocasuarius is perfectly justified, 
as not only are his characters of the tibio-tarsus, as opposed to those in the 
other genera, correct, but the proportions between femur, tibio-tarsus and tarso- 
metatarsus are quite different to those of other genera. I give the proportions 
of the three bones in Palaeocasuarius elegans, Megalapteryx tenuipes, and 
Pachyornis elephantopus, which are the three most nearly allied genera : 





Pal. elegans. 


M. tenuipes. 


Pack, elephantopus. 


Femur, length 


lOf inches 


1 1 inches 


12 inches 


Width over condyles 


3J „ 


3i „ 


5 „ 


Tibio-tarsus, length 


16 


15J „ 


33 „ 


Width at distal end 


2 


2i „ 


3J „ 


Tarso-metatarsus, length 


7 


6 „ 


9 „ 


Width at centre .... 


u „ 


u „ 


2J „ 



The original diagnosis was as follows, being founded on the tibio-tarsus: "The 
tibio-tarsus differs from that of all other genera in being straighter and less 
twisted on itself, so that the position of the ridge forming the inner wall of 
the groove for the tendons of the extensor muscles run along the inner side 
of the bone as in Casuarius. As in the latter genus it takes a marked turn 
inwards and backwards before joining the epicnemial crest, while a line 
joining the centre point between the distal condyles and the epicnemial ridge 
leaves a considerable space between it and the wall of the groove. There is 
no intercondylar eminence in the intercondylar channel, and the orifice of 
the extensor foramen opens more longitudinally than in the other genera, 
and points downwards." 

Type of the genus : Palaeocasuarius haasti Forbes. 

Number of species : 3. 

In the following descriptions of the three species I only rely on the 
measurements of the femora, as not all the other leg bones of the three 
species are available. 



220 



PALAEOCASUARIUS HAASTI forbes. 

Palaeocasuarius haasti Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 189 (1892). 

FEMUR : length approximately 85 inches ; width across head and great 
trochanter 225 inches. Tarso-metatarsus : length 7 inches ; width in 
centre 115 inches, at distal end 275 inches. 
Type from Manitoto in Liverpool Museum. 

" This bird exceeded considerably the cassowary in size," is all the 
author tells us of this bird. It is a pity that Dr. Forbes did not insist on 
the publication in full of his paper, as proper descriptions of all the twelve 
new species are wanting. 

Habitat : New Zealand. 



PALAEOCASUARIUS VELOX forbes. 

Palaeocasuarius velox Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 189 (1892). 

FEMUR: length 95 inches; width across head and trochanter 275 inches, 
across distal end 25 inches. Tarso-metatarsus : length 7 inches; width 
in centre 15 inches, across distal end 3 inches. 
Type specimen from Manitoto in Liverpool Museum. 
Habitat : New Zealand. 



PALAEOCASUARIUS ELEGANS forbes. 

Palaeocasuarius elegans Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 189 (1892). 

FEMUR: length 1075 inches; width across head and trochanter 325 inches, 
across distal end 34 inches. Tarso-metatarsus : length 78 inches, 
width over centre 175, over distal end about 33 inches. 
Type specimen from Manitoto in the Liverpool Museum. 
Habitat : New Zealand. 



221 

AEPYORNITHIDAE. 

THE first notice we have from a scientific man of the existence on 
Madagascar of large Struthious birds is the description by Isidore 

Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire of two eggs and a few osseous remains, in the 
Annales des Sciences naturelles III, Zoologie, vol. XIV (1850). These 
important objects were sent to the describer by a colonist of Reunion, 
Monsieur de Malavois, but were obtained from the natives in Madagascar 
by Captain M. Abadie. A third egg arrived smashed. The name given on 
this evidence was Aepyornis maximus. 

Since then some 40 eggs at least and a large number of odd bones 
have been collected by Monsieur Grandidier, Messrs. Last and others, and 
Dr. Forsyth Major, but only one practically complete, and one less complete 
skeleton of a smaller species, named Aepyornis hildebrandti by Dr. Burckhardt. 

A large number of species has been diagnosed on the evidence of 
these bones and eggs by Professor Milne-Edwards, Mr. Dawson Rowley 
and Mr. Andrews, and a second genus, Mullerornis, established. 

The following is the diagnosis of the family 

AEPYORNITHIDAE. 

Head less flattened than in the Dinornithidae, much longer and 
narrower. Brain case much greater in volume. Occipital condyle strongly 
pedunculate. Temporal fossae deep and narrow. The basisphenoid has on 
each side a well marked pterygoidal apophysis. The lower mandible is 
straight and stout, recalling somewhat that of R/iea, but the maxillary 
branches are higher and stouter. The symphysis is long, contracted, and 
hollowed out in the shape of a ladle. The sternum presents many affinities 
to that of Apteryx. It is a thin plastron, flattened, and much widened. 
The coracoidal articular surfaces similar to those of Apteryx. The Coraco- 
scapulars are feeble, and have so faint an articular surface that the humerus 
must have been rudimentary. Hallux absent, outer digit has five, the middle 
digit four, and the inner digit three phalanges. 

There are three genera and twelve species. 

A striking character is that in the genus Aepyornis the proximal 
extremity of the tarso-metatarsus is larger than the distal extremity, a 
feature not found in the majority of other birds. 

Monsieur Grandidier has expressly pointed out that Aepyornis had only 
three toes, I cannot, therefore, understand why Messrs. Lydekker and Evans 
both state that the hallux is present. 



L 



222 



In spite of the researches of Messrs. Grandidier, Last, and Forsyth 
Major and the large collections sent home by them, the number of Aepyornis 
bones is infinitesimal compared with the vast masses of bones of the 
Dinornithidae contained in the museums. This paucity of material quite 
prohibits us from making a critical study of the described species, so that 
we are at present unable to say if too many or too few species have been 
diagnosed. I am inclined, however, to think that if we ever get complete 
skeletons of the larger forms, Ae. grandidieri and Ae. cursor will prove to 
be se.\es of one species, and also Ae. titan and Ae. viaxhnus. For the 
present, however, the measurements are too different to allow of their being 
united without further investigation. 

The three genera are as follows : — 

AEPYORNIS T.GEOFF. 

Aepyornis Geoffroy Saint Hilaire. 
Epioniis Geoffroy Saint Hilaire. 
Epyoriiis Auct. 

MULLERORNIS milneedwards & grandidier. 

Mullerornis Milne-Edwards and Grandidier. 

FLACOURTIA Andrews. 

Flacourtia Andrews. 

Mullerornis Milne-Edwards and Grandidier (part). 



223 



AEPYORNIS GEOFF. 

CHARACTERS same as those of the family ; but in opposition to 
Mullerornis the species are very heavy, ponderous, and clumsy, the 
bones being both actually and comparatively much stouter. Differs 
from Flacourtia in not having an ossified boney bridge over lower end of 
groove for adductor of outer digit. 

Type : Aepyornis jnaximus Geoff. 
Number of species : 9. 



AEPYORNIS TITAN andr 

Aepyornis titan Andrews, Geol. Mag. 1895, p. 303. 



THIS appears to be the largest species of the genus, though Ae. maximus 
is considerably stouter. In the original description of Ae. ingens, 
however, the tibio-tarsi referred to that species are really those of 

Ae. titan : — 

Smallest Femur. 
Length about.... 

Circumference, narrowest point .... 

Width, distal end 

Width of shaft at narrowest part .... 

Largest Femur. 
Length 

Circumference at narrowest point .... 

Width, distal end 

Distal part of tibio-tarsus. 

Width at distal end 

Width of shaft at narrowest point 

Circumference of shaft at narrowest point. 

Tarso-metatarsus. 
Length 

Width at proximal end 

Width at distal end 

Width at narrowest point of shaft 

Circumference at narrowest point of shaft.. 



430 


mm. 


280 


»» 


190 


11 


97 


J) 


470 


mm. 


280 


jj 


210 


»» 


180 


mm. 


77 


ij 


210 


JJ 


480 1 


mm. 


190 


JJ 


165 


JJ 


80 


JJ 


200 


JJ 



224 



The skull, pelvis, and most vertebrae, as well as the sternum of this 
form are unknown. 

Habitat : S. W. Madagascar. 

Three Femora, two tarsi-metatarsi, and two incomplete tibia-tarsi are 
in the Tring Museum, collected by Last in the Antinosy country. 

There are two eggs of this species at Tring, the measurements of 
which are as follows : — 

No. 1, Antinosy Country, Last. 
Large circumference .... .... .... 8625 mm. 

Small circumference .... .... .... 631 5 „ 

No. 2 (traded). 
Large circumference .... .... .... 883 mm. 

Small circumference .... .... .... 763 ,, 

The egg mentioned by Mr. Lydekker in Cat. Foss. Birds B.M., page 214, 
No. 41847 is, judging from its size, undoubtedly an egg of this species, and I 
quote the measurements, as they are very large : — 

Largest circumference .... .... .... 921 mm. 

Smallest circumference .... .... .... 768 ,, 

The egg purchased in 1854 in the Paris Museum measures : — 
Large circumference.... .... .... ... 925 mm. 

Small circumference .... .... .... .... 753 ,, 

In addition to these four eggs which are undoubtedly of Ae. titan, there 
are the following which I consider to belong to that species : — 
1 Paris Museum, Mr. Armange. 
1 Hamburg. 

1 Messrs. Gilford, Orange, New Jersey. 
1 Rowley collection. 
These four eggs range from 900 mm. to 8635 mm. in large circumference, 
and 770 mm. to 736 mm. in small circumference. 



225 



AEPYORNIS MAXIMUS geoff. 

Aepyoniis maximus I. Geoffrey St. Hilaire, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6r 3, vol. XIV, p. 209 {1851). 
Acpyornis ingeits Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, C.R. CXVIII, pp. 122-127 (1894). 

THIS is the stoutest and bulkiest species, though not so tall as 
Ae. titan. All the largest eggs next to those of Ae. titan must 
belong to this species. It will be argued that I have no right to use 
the name maximus for this form, but the name of maximus is based on one 
of the eggs in the Paris Museum, and as these evidently belong to this 
form and not to the form subsequently called maximus, I must apply to that 
the name of grandidieri, given by Mr. Dawson Rowley in 1867 to a portion 
of eggshell of the lesser form. 

The measurements of the limbs are as follows : — 

Fem^ur. 

Total length 440 mm. 

Width at proximal end .... .... .... 190 „ 

Width at distal end 200 „ 

Circumference at narrowest part of shaft 265 „ 

Tibio-tarsus. 
Total length 780 mm. 

Width at proximal end 180 „ 

Width at distal end 160 „ 

Circumference at narrowest part of shaft 210 „ 

Tarso-metatarsus. 
Total length 420 mm. 

Width at proximal end .... .... .... 170 „ 

Width at distal end 160 „ 

Circumference at narrowest part of shaft 200 „ 
The description of the foot in the diagnosis of the family is based on 
the pes of this species. It is true that the two mounted skeletons in the 
British and Tring Museums of Aepyornis hildebrandti show a larger number 
of phalanges ; but as neither is composed of the bones of a single individual 
it is more than likely that the articulator made a mistake. 

The dimensions of the type egg are as follows : — 

Large diameter 340 mm. 

Small diameter .... .... .... .... 225 „ 

Large circumference .... .... .... 850 ,, 

Small circumference .... .... .... 710 ,, 

Habitat: S. W. Madagascar. 

There are about 16 eggs known of this form, varying from 854 mm. 
to 816 mm. in large circumference, and from 743 mm. to 715 mm. in small 
circumference. 



226 



AEPYORNIS GRANDIDIERI rowley. 

Aepyoniis Maximtis Auct. 

Aepyornis grandidieri Rowley, P.Z.S. 1867, p. 892. 

THIS is the form which nearly all the bones, referred erroneously to 
Geoffroy's Ae. maxunus, belong. The original description of Dawson 
Rowley was founded on a piece of eggshell, and is as follows : — 
" The granulation is in a marked degree different from that of the other 
pieces. The air pores which in the other specimens appear like a comet 
with a tail are here only small indentations without any tail ; the shell also is 
only half the thickness, is much finer, and presents an aspect so diverse that 
the difference is detected by the most careless observer, even when the 
pieces are all mixed. These fragments belonged to the egg of much smaller 
birds, the embryo of which required less strength in the shell. Yet the 
colour, quality and locality of that shell clearly point to a bird of the same 
family as Aepyoniis niaximus — in short, a smaller and more delicate Aepyornis. 
For this species I propose the name of Aepyoniis grandidieri." 

The measurements of bones of the hind limb are as follows : — 

Femur. 
Length 320 mm. 

Width at distal end 190 „ 

Tibio tarsus. 
Length 640 mm. 

There are at Tring two eggs of this species. 

No. 1, traded. 

Length 2830 mm. 

Width 2150 „ 

Large circumference .... .... .... 7775 ,, 

Small circumference .... .... .... 6700 ,, 

No. 2 Ambondo, Ambovombe in the district of Fort Dauphin. 
Large circumference .... .... .... 775 mm. 

Small circumference .... .... .... 6625 „ 

There are recorded of these eggs, besides the two mentioned above, 
eight further specimens, varying from 810 mm. to 771-5 mm. in large 
circumference, and 686 mm. to 654 mm. in small circumference. 

In addition to these there are in various collections about eight or nine 
eggs whose species is doubtful. 







227 



AEPYORNIS CURSOR m.-e.& grand. 

Aepyornis cursor Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, C.R. CXVIII, p. 124 (1894). 

RIGINAL description as follows: Ae. cursor is almost as large as 
Ae. grandidier i = maximus auct., nee. Geoff roy, but is more slender. 
Length of tarso-metatarsus .... .... 380 mm. 



Width at proximal end 
Width at distal end 
Circumference of shaft 
Width of shaft 
Habitat : Madagascar. 



140 

120 

155 

65 



AEPYORNIS MEDIUS m.-e. & grand. 

Aepyornis medius Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. V, vol. XII, p. 179 

(1869). 
Aepyornis medius Milne- Edwards & Grandidier, Rech. Faune. Orn. Et. Masc. & Mad. 

(1866-73), P- 97> "ote 2. 

THIS form was founded on a femur found at Amboulitsate in W. 
Madagascar, and is described as follows: "It presents the same 

general characters, and evidently belongs to an Aepyornis, but to 
a different species, which we will call Aepyornis medius. The femur in 
question is not only distinguished by its lesser proportions but by the 
narrower external face of the bone ; which variation results in causing the 
whole area between the trochanter and the base of the femoral neck to be 
much less depressed. The intermuscular line, which marks the insertion 
surface of the deep portion of the femoral triceps muscle, is hardly indicated, 
whereas it is very pronounced in the larger femur. The posterior side is 
also more rounded, and the distance which separates the popliteal depression 
from the proximal extremity is larger; the shape of this large depression 
is, however, the same as in the larger femur, and although the articular 
surfaces above it do show some differences, we know that these characters 
are not very reliable as they are subject to individual variations. 

Circumference of shaft 215 mm." 

Habitat: West Madagascar. 



228 



I 



AEPYORNIS HILDEBRANDTI burckh. 

Aepyornis hildcbrandti Burckhardt, Pal. Abh. (VI) II, p. 127 (1893). 

MUST refer my readers to Dr. Burckhardt's description, as it is too long 
and too technical to be reproduced here, especially as it is not 
comparative. I, however, give here some of his measurements: — 

Tibio-tarsus. 





A. graiididieri. 


A. hildcbrandti. 


Length 


640 mm. 


480 mm. 


Breadth at proximal end 


.. 190 „ 


130 „ 


Breadth at distal end , 


.. 135 „ 


82 „ 


Tarso-metatarsus. 




Length circa 


.. 375 mm. 


275 mm. 


Breadth at proximal end 


.. 145 „ 


103 „ 


Breadth at distal end 


.. 145 „ 


95 „ 


The locality of the type is Sirabe. 






Habitat : Madagascar. 











AEPYORNIS LENTUS m..e. & grand. 

Aepyornis lentus Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, C.R. CXVlll, p. 124 (1894). 

RIGINAL description as follows: " Ae. lentus is remarkable from its 
short and massive feet. 

Length of tarso-metatarsus 360 mm. 

Width of proximal end .... .... .... 150 ,, 

Circumference of shaft .... .... .... 170 „ 

Width of shaft 68 „ " 

Habitat : Madagascar. 



229 



AEPYORNIS MULLERI me & grand. 

Aepyornis mulleri Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, C.R. CXVII, pp. 124-125 (1894). 

THE original description commences: "The new species which we owe to 
the researches of M. G. MuUer, and which we shall name Ae. mulleri, 
is smaller. Nevertheless, it is superior in size to Ae. hildebrandti, 
described by M. Burckhardt, which also came from Antsirabe. We possess 
the almost complete skeleton of this bird, the skull, mandible, vertebrae, ribs, 
sternum, a part of the pelvis, the leg bones, and a few phalanges of the pes; 
so that we can now exactly define the position and affinities of the genus 
Aepyornis." Then follows the diagnosis of the family, which I have given 
before. 

Habitat : Central Madagascar. 



AEPYORNIS MODESTUS me. & grand. 

Aepyornis modestus Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XII, p. 189 (1869). 

MESSRS. MILNE-EDWARDS & GRANDIDIER state at pages 180-181 
that the bone (a portion of a femur) which is the type of the above 
name, had a shaft-circumference of 120 mm., while in Ae. medius this 
circumference was 215 mm., and in Ae. grandidieri (= triaximus auct. nee. 
Geoffroy), it was 270 mm. 

Type locality : Amboulitsate, in West Madagascar. 



231 



MULLERORNIS MILNE-EDWARDS & grandidier. 

BIRDS of medium size, not having the heavy and massive build of 
Aepyornis. They appear to resemble more closely the Casuaridae. 
Known only from leg bones. 
Number of species : 2. 



MULLERORNIS BETSILEI milne-edw.& grand. 

Miillerornis betsilei Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, Compt. Rend., CXVIII, p. 125 (1894). 



ORIGINAL description as follows: — "The leg bones are slender, the 
tarso-metatarsus is not enlarged as in the preceding genus, and the 
section through the shaft shows almost an isosceles triangle. The 
bone itself having more the proportion of Droniaius. 

" Length of tibio-tarsus .... .... .... .... 390 mm. 

Circumference of tibio-tarsus 
Width of tibio-tarsus 
Width of proximal end 

Width of distal end 

Length of tarso-metatarsus 
Circumference of tarso-metatarsus.. 
Width of shaft of tarso-metatarsus 
Width of proximal end 
" Mullerornis betsilei inhabited the same area as Ae. mulleri but was 
much rarer." (Translated.) 

Habitat : Central Madagascar. 





*JU\t 1111 

90 „ 




.. 30 „ 




75 „ 




60 „ 




.. 310 „ 




80 „ 




.. 27 „ 




70 „ 



232 



MULLERORNIS AGILIS milne-edw. & grand. 

Mulleromis agilis Milne-Bdwards and Grandidier, Compt. Rend., CXVIII, pp. 125-126 (1894). 



ORIGINAL description as follows: — " M. agilis inhabited the South-west 
Coast ; we only possess, of this species, one tibia, which is remarkable 
for the manner in which the intermuscular bony ridges and the tendon- 
grooves are marked. The exterior border of the bone above the lower 
articular surface has developed into a very pronounced crista." (Translated.) 
" Length of tibio-tarsus 440 mm. 



Circumference of tibio-tarsus 
Width of tibio-tarsus .... 
Width at proximal end 

Width at distal end 

Habitat : South-west Madagascar. 



97 
34 
65 
75 



233 



FLACOURTIA Andrews. 

DIFFERS from Mullerornis in having a completely ossified bony bridge 
over the lower end of the groove for the adductor of the outer digit, 
in the tarso-metatarsus. 
Number of species : 1. 



FLACOURTIA RUDIS (milneedw. & grand.) 

Mullerornis rtidis Milne- Edwards & Grandidier, Compt. Rend. CXVIII, p. 126 (1894). 
Flacourtia rudis Andrews, Nov. Zool. II, p. 25 (1895). 

ORIGINAL description as follows : — "The third species M. rudis (= F. rudis) 
was discovered by M. Greve in the fossiliferous beds of the West Coast. 
The tibio-tarsus is of about the same length as in M. betsilei, but is more 
massive. The tarso-metatarsus is remarkable on account of the great enlarge- 
ment of the distal extremity, and of which the digital articular attachments are 
extremely large. Between the middle and outer ones there is a bony opening 
for the passage of the adductor muscle of the outer digit, which passage is 
not present in Aepyornis (or Mullerornis, w.r.)." (Translation.) 

Length of tibio-tarsus .... .... .... 400 mm. 

Circumference of tibio-tarsus .... .... 100 ,, 

Width of tibio-tarsus 35 „ 

Width of distal end 75 „ 

Habitat : West Madagascar. 



235 



DROMAIUS PERONI nom nov. 

(Plate 40.) 

Casoar de la Nouvelle HoUande P^ron, Relat. Voy. Terr. Austr. I p. 467, pi. XXXVI 
(1807). 

Droinoitis ater Vieillot, Gal. des Ois, pi. 226 (not text). 

Dromaeiis ater Blyth, Ibis 1862, p. 93. 

IT is most unfortunate that the larger number of authors have neglected 
to go carefully into the synonymy of this bird ; if they had done so it 
would not have been necessary, after 81 years, to reject the very 
appropriate name of aier, and to rename the Emu of Kangaroo Island. 
Vieillot, in the Nouveau Dictionnaire D'Histoire Naturelle X, page 212, 
distinctly states that his Dromaius ater was a name given to Latham's 
Casuarius novaehollatidiae, and makes no mention of P^ron or of the Isle 
Decres. 

The figures in Peron's work of the adult male and female are not 
good, but those of the young and nestlings appear to me to be very accurate, 
and the plate in the Galerie des Oiseaux is quite excellent. The latter and 
my own are taken from the type specimen in the Paris Museum, while 
the plate in Peron was done by Lessieur from a series of sketches from 
life made by himself on Decres Island and in the menagerie of the Jardin 
des Plantes. The only known specimens of this extinct species are the 
mounted skin and skeleton in Paris and the skeleton in the Florence Museum. 
All these are what remain of the three living birds brought to Paris by 
Peron, and no other authentic specimens exist anywhere. There is in the 
Museum at Liverpool a full-grown, though immature Emu of the same size 
as Dromaius peronii, but owing to its proportionally longer legs and very 
scanty plumage it is not absolutely safe to identify it as a second mounted 
specimen of D. peronii. I will recur to this lower down. 

Description of adult male (ex Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.) : Similar to 
D. novaehollatidiae, but much smaller, and with feathers of the neck entirely 
black ; feathers of the body brown fulvous, with the apical half very dark 
blackish brown ; bill and feet blackish, naked skin of the sides of the neck 
blue. Total length about 55 inches, tarsus 1140, culmen 2-36. 

Immature in first plumage entirely sooty black. Nestling whitish with 
longitudinal bands of rufous brown. In addition to Decres or Kangaroo 
Island, also Flinders, King Islands, and Tasmania had Emus living on them 



236 



at the time of Peron's visit, and I believe, if authentic specimens from these 
localities were in existence we should find that each of these islands had had 
a distinct species or race of Emus. Taking this for granted, and also taking 
into account that it is slightly different from the type of D. peronii, I have 
come to the conclusion that the Liverpool specimen is an immature, though 
full-grown individual from one of these other islands; but it is not possible 
from this one rather poor specimen to separate it from the Kangaroo Island 
species, especially as there is absolutely no indication of the origin of this 
specimen. 

Habitat : Island of Decres or Kangaroo Island. 

One stuffed specimen (Type) and one skeleton in Paris, one skeleton 
in Florence, and one stuffed specimen in Liverpool (an species diversa?). Also 
some leg-bones in Adelaide, Australia. 

Dr. H. O. Forbes, who kindly lent me the last-named specimen, was 
the first to point out the differences of this bird from D. novaehollandiae. 
It is certainly totally distinct from birds of similar age of either D. novae- 
hollandiae or D. n. irroraius. 



237 



DROMAIUS MINOR (spencer). 

Dromaeus minor Baldwin Spencer, Vict. Nat. XXIII, p. 140 (1906). 



AS Mr. Bernard H. Woodward, of Perth, West Australia, was organising 
an expedition to Kangaroo, Flinders, and King Islands (December, 

1906), to hunt for Emu remains on these islands, I had hoped to be 
the first to describe what I felt sure would be two new species of Dromaius. 
I have, however, been forestalled by Professor Baldwin Spencer in the case 
of King Island, whence a collection of 17 femurs, 19 tibio-tarsi, 28 tarso- 
metatarsi, and portions of 8 pelves, made by Messrs. Alex. Morton and R. M. 
Johnston, T.S.O., formed the material for the description of a new species. 

The diagnosis is as follows : " Smaller than D. ater (= D. peronii 
mihi). Tibia not or only slightly exceeding 330 mm. in greatest length. 
Tarso-metatarsus not exceeding 280 mm. in greatest length. Pelvis, length 
not or only slightly exceeding 280 mm." 

D. minor was a smaller but stouter bird than D. peronii. Comparative 
dimensions — 







D. peronii. 


D. minor. 




Tibio-tarsus .... 




.... 342 


mm. ... 


. 320 332 


mm 


Tarso-metatarsus 




.... 290 




277—277 




Femur 




.... 180 




170—180 




Pelvis .... 




.... 340 




274—280 




Pelvis, front width 




.... 75 




64 




Pelvis, width behind acetabular 


cavity 


.... 92 




78— 86 





Habitat : King Island, Bass Strait. Now extinct. 



INDEX. 



239 



Aechmorhynchus .... 
Aepyornis 
Aepyornithidae 
Aestrelata .... 
agilis (MuUerornis) 

alba (Notornis) 

alba (Porphyrio) 

albicilla (Clitonyx) 

albifacies (Sceloglaux) 
albifrons (Miro) 

Alca.... 

Alectroenas .... 

Alopochen .... 

alphonsi (Astur) 

altus (Dinornis) 

Amazona 

americana (Meleagris) 

americanus (Siphonorhis) 

Anas .... 

angustipluma (Chaetoptila) 

anna (Ciridops) 

Anomalopteryx 

antiquus (Anomalopteryx) 

antipodum (Palaeocorax) 

Aphanapteryx 

apicalis (Moho) 

Apterornis 

Aptornis 

Ara .... 

Ardea 

Astur 

ater (Dromaeus) 

Athene 

aucklandica (Nesonetta) 

augusta (Amazona) 



PAGE 

119 

223 

221 

157 

232 

144 

143 

XI 

XI 

XI 

153 

163 

X 

83 
192 

57 
XII 

43 
103 

29 

41 

201 

202 

1 

131 

27 
145 
147 

51 
111 

83 
235 

75 

XI 
XII 



PAGE 

australis (Mergus) XI 

australis (Miro) .... .... .... XI 

benedeni (Anas) .... .... .... IX 

betsilei (MuUerornis) 231 

bifrons (Metapteryx) X 

Biziura 109 

bonasia (Aphanapteryx) 131 

boothi (Emeus) 210 

borbonica (Emberiza) .... .... 7 

borbonica (Pezophaps) .... .... 175 

borbonica (Phedina) .... .... XI 

borbonicus (Fregilupus) .... "■ 3 

borbonicus (Necropsittacus) .... 62 

borbonicus (Palaeornis) .... .... 67 

borbonicus (Trochocercus) .... XI 

bouquet! (Amazona) .... .... XII 

Bowdleria 21 

brachyurus (Rhamphocinclus) .... XI 

Branta .... .... .... .... X 

brewsteri (Tympanuchus) .... 181 

broeckii (Aphanapteryx) .... .... 131 

bruante (Foudia) .... .... .... 7 

Bubo 71 

Cabalus 127 

caeruleus (Anadorhynchus) .... 54 

calcitrans (Cnemiornis) .... .... 97 

californianus (Pseudogryphus) .... XII 

Camptolaimus .... .... .... 105 

canadensis (Columba) 167 

cancellata (Aechmorhynchus) .... 119 

capensis (Upupa) .... .... .... 3 

Carbo 87 

carribbaea (Aestrelata) 157 

carolinensis (Conurus) XII 

Casuarius .... .... .... .... X 



240 


INDEX 






PAGE 




PAGE 


casuarinus (Cela) .... 


.... 207 


didinus (Dinornis) 


.... 199 


Cela 


.... 205 


Didus 


.... 171 


Centrornis .... 


... 95 


dieffenbachii (Nesolimnas) 


.... 125 


Cereopsis 


.... 99 


dimidiata (Monarcha) 


.... XI 


Chaetoptila 


... 29 


Dinornis 


.... 191 


chathamensis (Palaeolimnas) 


... 149 


Dinornithidae 


.... 185 


chathamica (Gallinago) 


... 121 


Drepanis 


.... 31 


Chaunoproctus 


9 


Dromaius 


X, 235 


Chenalopex 


... 93 


dromioides (Dinornis) 


.... 194 


Chenopis 


... 91 


duboisi (Ardea) 


.... 114 


Cinclocerthia 


.... XI 


duboisi (Mascarinus) 


.... 64 


cincta (Pogonornis) 


... XI 


duboisi (Nesoenas) 


.... 166 


Circus 


... 81 


ecaudata (Pennula) 


.... 137 


Ciridops 


... 41 


echo (Palaeornis) .... 


.... 68 


Clitonyx 


... XI 


Ectopistes 


.... 167 


Cnetniornis 


... 97 


effluxus (Microtribonyx) .... 


.... X 


coerulescens (Apterornis) 


... 145 


elapsa (Anas) 


.... IX 


commersoni (Scops) 


... 73 


elegans (Palaeocasuarius) 


.... 220 


compacta (Pachyornis) 


... 217 


elephantopus (Pachyornis) 


.... 214 


Conurus 


... 59 


ellisi (Prosobonia) .... 


.... 118 


cooki (Cyanorhamphus) .... 


... XI 


ellisianus (Hemignathus) .... 


.... 33 


Coturnix 


... 183 


Emeus 


.... 209 


coudoni (Anser) 


... X 


eques (Palaeornis) .... 


.... 67 


crassus (Emeus) .... 


... 209 


erythrocephala (Ara) 


.... 53 


cucullatus (Didus) 


... 172 


Erythromachus 


.... 135 


cupido (Tympanuchus) 


... 181 


erythronotus (Cyanorhamphus) 


.... 69 


cursor (Aepyornis) 


... 227 


erythrotis (Cyanorhamphus) 


... XI 


curtus (Cela) 


... 205 


erythrura (Ara) 


.... 54 


Cyanorhamphus 


... 69 


excelsus (Dinornis) 


.... 192 


defossor (Aptornis) 


... 148 


exilis (Emeus) 


.... 211 


dentirostris (Geospiza) 


... 12 


exsul (Palaeornis) 


.... 65 


deppei (Psittirostra) 


... 37 


falconeri (Cygnus) .... 


.... X 


diabolica (Aestrelata) 


... 159 


ferreorostris (Chaunoproctus) 


9 


Diaphorapteryx 


... 133 


finschi (Anas) 


.... 103 


Dididae 


... 171 


firmus (Dinornis) .... 


.... 193 


didiformis (Anomalopteryx) 


... 202 


Flacourtia 


.... 233 


didiformis (Dinornis) 


... 199 


flaviceps (Telespiza) 


... XI 



INDEX 



241 



Foudia XI 

forsteri (Cyanorhamphus) .... 69 

fortis (Anomalopteryx) .... .... 203 

franciae (Columba).... .... .... 163 

francicus (Necropsittacus) .... 62 

Fregilupus .... .... .... .... 3 

fuscatus (Psittacus) 70 

fusco-fulvus (Nesacanthis) .... 7 

gallinacea (Progura) .... .... X 

Gallinago 121 

gigantea (Leguatia) .... .... 151 

giganteus (Dinornis) .... .... 193 

genibarbis (Myadestes) XI 

Geospiza II, 12 

geranoides (Cela) 206 

gossei (Ara) .... .... .... .... 52 

gracilipes (Dromaius) .... .... X 

gracilis (Cnemiornis) .... .... 98 

gracilis (Dinornis) .... .... .... 194 

grandidieri (Aepyornis) 226 

gravipes (Emeus) .... .... .... 210 

Grus X 

guadaloupensis (Ara) .... .... 54 

guildingi (Amazona) .... .... XII 

gutturalis (Cinclocerthia) XI 

haasti (Emeus) 210 

haasti (Palaeocasuarius) .... .... 220 

habroptilus (Stringops) .... .... XII 

haesitata (Aestrelata) 159 

hamiltoni (Circus) .... .... .... 81 

hamiltoni (Megalapteryx) .... .... 197 

Harpagornis .... .... .... 85 

harrisi (Phalacrocorax) .... ••■ XII 

hasitata (Aestrelata) .... .... 159 

hawkinsi (Diaphoraptery.x) .... 133 

hectori (Megalapteryx) .... .... 197 

Hemignathus .... .... .... 33 



Hemiphaga .... 
herberti (Didus) 
Heterorhynchus 
hildebrandti (Aepyornis) ... 
hochstetteri (Notornis) 
huttonii (Megalapteryx) 
Hypotaenidia 
hypsibata (Branta) .... 
immanis (Pachyornis) 
impennis (Alca) 
imperialis (Aphanapteryx)... 
ineptus (Didus) 
ingens (Dinornis) .... 
inhabilis (Pachyornis) 
insignis (Ocydromus) 
insularis (Xenicus) .... 
Ixocincla 

jamaicensis (Aestrelata) ... 
labati (Conurus) 
labradoria (Camptolaimus) 
lanaiensis (Hemignathus) ... 
lautouri (Biziura) .... 

leguati (Bubo) 

leguati (Erythromachus) .. 

leguati (Necropsar).... 

Leguatia 

lentus (Aepyornis) .... 

leucopogon (Strigiceps) 

leucoptera (Prosobonia) .., 

Lithophaps .... 

Lophopsittacus 

Loxops 

lucidus (Heterorhynchus) .. 

lyalli (Traversia) 

lydeUkeri (Casuarius) 

lydekkeri (Prociconia) 

mackintosh! (Porphyrio) .. 



PAGE 

161 

131 

35 

228 

142 

199 

123 

IX 

215 

153 

131 

172 

193 

216 

129 

23 

XI 

157 

59 

105 

XII 

109 

71 

135 

6 

151 

228 

30 

118 

X 

49 

39 

35 

23 

X 

X 

X 



242 



INDEX 



macroura (Ectopistes) .... .... 167 

madagascariensis (Mascarinus) .... 64 

madagascariensis (Upupa) .... 3, 4 

magnirostris (Geospiza) .... .... 11 

major (Carbo) .... .... .... 88 

majori (Centrornis) .... .... 95 

mantelli (Notornis) 141 

martinicana (Amazona) 57 

martinicus (Ara) .... .... .... 53 

Mascarinus 63 

mascarinus (Mascarinus) .... .... 64 

mauritiana (Ardea) .... .... .... 115 

mauritianus (Lophopsittacus) .... 49 

mauritianus (Sarcidiornis).... .... 101 

maximus (Aepyornis) .... .... 225 

maximus (Dinornis) .... .... 192 

mayeri (Nesoenas) .... .... .... 165 

medius (Aepyornis) 227 

megacephala (Ardea) Ill 

Megalapteryx .... .... .... 195 

melanocephala (Anthornis) .... XII 

melitensis (Columba) .... .... X 

melitensis (Grus) X 

melitensis (Strix) .... .... ... IX 

melitensis (Vultur) .... .... .... IX 

Metapteryx X 

meyeri (Columba) .... .... .... 165 

Microtribonyx .... .... .... X 

migratoria (Ectopistes) 167 

millsi (Pennula) .... .... .... 137 

minor (Cnemiornis) .... .... 98 

minor (Dromaius) 237 

minor (Ocydromus) 129 

minor (Pezophaps) .... .... .... 177 

Miro XI, 15 

modestus (Aepyornis) .... .... 229 

modestus (Cabalus) .... .... 127 



Moho 27 

Monarcha .... .... .... .... XI 

moorei (Harpagornis) .... .... 85 

moriorum (Palaeocorax) .... .... 1 

mulleri (Aepyornis).... .... .... 229 

moUeri (Hypotaenidia) XI 

MuUerornis 231 

murina (Pyrrhula) XII 

murivora (Athene) 75 

murivora (Strix) 75 

nanus (Plotus) 89 

nazarenus (Didus) .... .... .... 177 

Necropsar .... .... .... .... 5 

Necropsittacus .... .... .... 61 

Nesoenas 165 

Nesolimnas .... .... .... .... 125 

Nestor .... .... .... .... 45 

newelli (Puffinus) XI 

newtoni (Foudia) .... .... .... XI 

newtoni (Genyornis) X 

newtoni (Palaeolimnas) .... 149, 150 

newtoni (Strix) 79 

nigra (Pomarea) .... .... .... 13 

nitidissima (Alectroenas) 163 

nobilis (Palaeopelargus) X 

norfolcensis (Nestor) 47 

Notornis 141 

novaezealandiae (Cereopsis) .... 99 

novaezealandiae (Coturnix) .... 183 

novaezealandiae (Dinornis) .... 194 

novaezealandiae (Psittacus) .... 69 

novaezealandiae (Thinornis) .... XII 

oahensis (Phaeornis) 19 

Ocydromus .... .... .... .... 129 

Oestrelata .... .... .... .... 157 

olivacea (Ixocincla) XI 

olivacea (Psittirostra) 37 



otidiformis (Aptornis) 

ovveni (Cela) 

Oxynotus 

Pachyornis .... 

pacifica (Drepanis) .... 

pacifica (Hypotaenidia) 

pacificus (Cyanorhamphus) 

pacificus (Pareudiastes) .... 

Palaeocasuarius 

Palaeocorax 

Palaeolimnas 

Pelaeopelargus 

Palaeornis .... 

papa (Fringilla) 

parkeri (Emeus) 

parvus (Anomalopteryx) .... 

patricius (Dromaius) 

Pelecanus .... 

Pennula 

peralata (Gallinula).... 

peroni (Dromaius) .... 

perspicillatus (Carbo) 

perspicillatus (Phalacrocorax) 

Pezophaps .... 

Phaeornis .... 

pisana (Fulica) 

Platibis 

plenus (Palapteryx) 

Plotus 

Pogonornis .... 

Pomarea 

ponderosus (Pachyornis) .... 

potens (Dinornis) 

primigenia (Grus) .... 
principalis (Campephilus) 
prior (Fulica) 
prisca (Palaeolimnas) 



INDEX 


243 


PAGE 




PAGE 


.... 147 


proavus (Grus) 


.... X 


.... 206 


proavus (Pelecanus) 


... IX 


.... XI 


productus (Nestor) 


... 45 


.... 213 


propinqua (Branta).... 


... IX 


.... 31 


Prosobonia .... 


... 117 


.... 123 


Psittirostra .... 


... 37 


.... 69 


pugii (Alopochen) .... 


... IX 


.... XII 


purpurascens (Anodorhynchus) 


... 55 


.... 219 


pusilla (Gallinago) 


... XII 


1 


pygmaeus (Pachyornis) 


... 217 


.... 149 


pygmaeus (Ocydromus) .... 


... 127 


.... X 


pyrrhetraea (Tringa) 


... 118 


.... 65 


queenslandiae (Dromaius).... 


... X 


9 


Rhamphocinclus 


... XI 


.... 211 


rheides (Cela) 


... 207 


.... 202 


roberti (Tribonyx) 


... 139 


X 


robusta (Aythya) 


... IX 


.... X 


robustus (Dinornis) 


... 193 


.... 137 


rodericana (Alectroenas ?) 


... 164 


.... X 


rodericana (Drymoeca) 


... XI 


.... 235 


rodericanus (Necropsar) .... 


5 


.... 87 


rodricanus (Necropsittacus) 


... 61 


.... 87 


rothschildi (Pachyornis) .... 


... 215 


.... 177 


rudis (Flacourtia) 


... 233 


.... 19 


rufa (Loxops) 


... 39 


.... X 


rufescens (Bovvdleria) 


... 21 


.... X 


rufifacies (Sceloglaux) 


... 77 


.... 194 


sandviciensis (Nesochen) .... 


... XII 


.... 89 


sandwichensis (Pennula) .... 


... 138 


.... XI 


Sarcidiornis .... 


... 101 


.... 13 


sauzieri (Strix) 


... 80 


.... 216 


scaldii (Anser) 


... IX 


.... 193 


Sceloglaux 


... 77 


X 


Scops 


... 73 


.... XII 


sibilans (Myadestes) 


... XI 


.... X 


Siphonorhis 


... 43 


.... 150 


sirabensis (Chenalopex) .... 


... 93 



244 



INDEX 



solitarius (Didus) .... 
solitarius (Pezophaps) 
spadicea (Hemiphaga) 
subflavescens (Cyanorhamphus) 
subtenuis (Platibis) 
sumnerensis (Chenopsis) 
stanleyi (Notornis) .... 
strenuipes (Gallinula) 
strenuus (Dinornis) 
Strigiceps .... 

Strix 

struthioides (Dinornis) 
sylvestris (Ocydromus) 
tannaensis (Platycercus) 
tanagra (Turnagra).... 
teauteensis (Circus) 
tenuipes (Megalapteryx) 
terrestris (Cichlopasser) 
terrestris (Geocichla) 
terrestris (Turdus) 
theodori (Anas) 
titan (Aepyornis) 
torosus (Dinornis) 
traversi (Miro) 



PAGE 




PAGE 


175 


Traversia 


23 


177 


Tribonyx 


.. 139 


161 


tricolor (Ara) 


.. 51 


70 


trifasciatus (Nesomimus) 


.. XII 


X 


Turnagra 


XI 


91 


Turdus 


17 


143 


turfa (Grus) .... 


X 


X 


Tympanuchus 


.. 181 


194 


typicus (Oxynotus).... 


.. XI 


30 


valgus (Pachyornis) 


.. 216 


79 


validipennis (Dendrocygna) 


IX 


194 


validus (Dinornis) .... 


.. 193 


XI 


varia (Fregilupus) 


3 


70 


varia (Upupa) 


3 


XI 


velox (Palaeocasuarius) 


.. 220 


81 


versicolor (Amazona) 


.. XII 


198 


violaceus (Amazona) 


57 


17 


ulietanus (Cyanorhamphus) 


70 


17 


ulnaris (Lithophaps) 


X 


17 


unicolor (Cyanorhamphus) 


XI 


103 


vvardi (Palaeornis) 


66 


223 


vvilsoni (Pennula) 


.. 138 


194 


wolstenholmei (Loxops) .... 


39 


15 


zealandicus (Cyanorhamphus) 


69 



PLATES. 



EXTINCT BIRDS 



Plate 1 



I 



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I 




FREGILUPUS VARIUS 
(Natural Size) 



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EXTINCT BIRDS 



Plate 3 




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1. GEOSPIZA MAGNIROSTRIS 3. NESOENAS MEYERl 

2. GEOSPIZA STRENUA 4. CHAUNOPROCTUS FERREIROSTRIS 

(All Three-Fourths Xatcral Size— from skins) 



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Plate 4 




1. HEMIGNATHUS ELLISIANUS 

2. HETERORHYNCHUS LUCIDUS 

(All Five-Sixths Natural Size -frotii sbitts : No. ^ from type 



3. PSITTl ROSTRA PSITTACEA DEPPEl 

4. CIRIDOPS ANNA 



'< DUFWBIE^ PAPER 



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Plate 5 



.^(^ 




1. MIRO TRAVERSI 

(Four-Fifths Natural Size) 



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CQLCR 



2 & 2a. TRAVERSIA LYALLl $ J 
(Four-Fifths Natural Size) 



3. BOWDLERIA RUFESCENS 



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EXTINCT BIRDS 



Plate 6 





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Fig. 1. NESTOR NORFOLCENSIS 

From the phtfc in the Bulletin of the Liverpool Museum 



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I 



Fig. 2. HEAD OF NESTOR PRODUCTUS 

From the specimen in the Tring Museum 
(Five-Sixths Natural Size) 



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EXTINCT BIRDS 



Plate 9 




MASCARINUS MASCARINUS 
(Three-Ouartehs Natural Size) 



BURABLE^ft- PAPER 
COLOR 



EXTINCT BIRDS 



Plate 10 



■iteiK 




ARA TRICOLOR 

(Eleven-Thirteenths Natural Size —from specimen in Liverpool Mnseum) 



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Plate 1 1 




ARA GOSSEI 

(Four-Fifths Natural Size— /i-omi Gosse's description) 



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Plate 12 



4^- 





ARA ERYTHROCEPHALA 

(Six-Tenths Natural Size— /mm Cossc's description) 



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Plate 13 



P 



I 




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ANADORHYNCHUS PURPURASCENS 
(Two-Fifths Natural S\zE—fron: a description) 



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Plate 14 




ARA MARTINICUS 
(Two-Fifths Natural Size— /ran; description) 



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Plate 15 




ARA ERYTHRURA 
(One-Half Natural Size— from description) 



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Plate 16 




CONURUS LABATI 

. (Natubal Size -from Labat's description) 



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Plate 17 







\ 



""^^r 



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AMAZONA VIOLACEUS 
(Two-Thirds Natural Size— /row description) 



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Plate IJ 




AMAZONA MARTINICANA 
(Two-Thirds Natural Size -from Labat's description) 



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COLCR 



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Plate 19 




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Plate 20 








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PALAEORNIS WARDI 

{Three-Quarters Natural Size) 



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Plate 21 




HEMIPHAGA SPADICEA 
(Two-Thirds Natural Size) 



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Plate 22 



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ALECTROENAS NITIDISSIMA 
(Natural Size) 



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Plate 23 




PEZOPHAPS SOLITARIA 

(About Oxf.-Third Natural Size— /rom descriptions and drawings) 



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Plate 24a 





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Plate 24b 




1—9. DIDUS CUCULLATUS 



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Plate 24c 







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Plate 25a 




DIDUS SOLITARIUS 
(One-Third Natural Size— /iohj Dubois' description) 



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Plate 25b 




Fig. 1, 2, 3. PEZOPHAPS SOLITARIA 
Fig. 4, 5, 7, 8. DIDUS SOLITARIUS 



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Plate 31 





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LEGUATIA GIGANTEA 

(One-Sixth Natural Size— from description and drawings) 



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Plate 32 




APTERORNIS COERULESCENS 

(One-Half Natural Size -frotn tlcscnptioits) 



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Plate 33 







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NOTORNIS ALBA 

(FivE-NiNETHS Natural Size) 



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Plate 35 



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1. AECHMORHYNCHUS CANCELLATUS 
(Natural Size) 



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(Natural Size) 



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Plate 38 








ALCA IMPENNIS 

(Five-Ekihths Natural Size— /ro»n stuffed specimen) 



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Plate 39 



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CARBO PERSPICILLATUS 
(Seven-Sixteenths Xatural Size) 



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Plate 41 




MEGALAPTERYX HUTTONI 

(One-Qoarter Natural Size— rcstomi drawing from feathers and mummified remains) 



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EXTINCT BIRDS 



Plate 42 




DINORNIS INGENS 
(One-Elevexth Natural Siz^— restoration from skeleton and feathers) 



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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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