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Full text of "Extra census bulletin"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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Given By 
United States Census Office 



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Extra Census Bulletin. 



No. 4. 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



May 23, 1891. 



MINES AND MINING.— MINERAL WATERS. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 
Census Office, 
Washington, D. O, May 2, 1891. 



Sik: 



The following bulletin, presenting the complete report on the production of mineral waters in the United States, 
was prepared by Dr. Albert C. Peale, special agent in charge of this subject, under the supervision of Dr. David T. 
Day, in charge of the Division of Mines' and Mining of the Census Office. The statistics show that the total 
number of gallons of mineral water sold during the calendar year 1889 was 12,780,471, worth at the springs 
$1,748,458. The total herewith given represents the product of 258 springs. Of course, the number of mineral 
springs in the United States from which water is used is greatly in excess of this, but those springs considered 
represent the number from which water was actually sold as a commercial article, and it was to such class of 
springs that the investigation was limited. No previous census of this subject has been made. 

A summary of the production of mineral waters for the year 1889, by geographical divisions, is herewith given : 



GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS. 


Product. 
(Gallons.) 


Value of 
product. 


Wages. 


Capital 
invested. 


Supplies 

and 
materials 
consumed. 


All other 
expenses. 




12,780,471 


SI, 748, 458 


$133,583 


$5,994,683 


$524,864 


$210,304 




4,106,464 
646,239 

6,137,776 
500,000 

1,389,992 


471,575 
198,032 
604,238 
43,356 
431,257 


139,329 
30,227 

104,200 
20,583 

139,244 


2,834,151 
503,363 

1,316,395 
175,715 

1,165,059 


115,419 

54,971 

249,688 

4,965 

99,821 


71 ,041 
36,244 
92,831 1 

1,992 

8,196 ; 













The distribution of mineral springs throughout the country is a matter of such general interest that a map 
showing at a glance their- location has been prepared and forms a part of this bulletin. 

Very respectfully, 

ROBERT P. PORTER. 

Superintendent of Census, 
The Secretary of the Interior. 



PRODUCTION OF MINERAL WATERS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



BY ALBERT C. PEAEE. 



Production. — The total value of the production of mineral waters in the United States for the year 1889 was 
$1,748,458. The total number of gallons sold was 12,780,471, being the production of 258 springs. 

No comparison can be made with any previous census returns, as they do not exist, nor can a comparison be 
made with any state returns of previous years. The following table is the first in which the production has ever 
been given by states and territories. 

In a table on page 5 a comparison is made with the production by geographical divisions from 1883 to 1888, as 
published in " Mineral Resources of the United States." According to this table there was a total increase in 1889 
of 3,201.823 gallons over the production of 1888, valued at $189,156. This, of course, takes no account of the 
estimate made in 1888 of the springs not reporting, as no account has been taken of the springs delinquent for 1889. 
The number of springs from which the water is used commercially has increased from 198 in 1888 to 258 in 1889. 

In the North Atlantic states there is an increase of 1,249,665 gallons. A decrease of 1,043,148 gallons is 
reported from the South Atlantic states, while in the North Central states the increase in production for 18S9 is 
4,135,403 gallons. The South. Central states show an increase of 73,590 gallons, and the Western states and 
territories a decrease of 463,687 gallons. 



PRODUCTION OF MINERAL WATERS FOR 1889, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Number 
of springs 
reporting:. 


Product. 
(Gallons.) 


Value of 
product. 


Capital 
invested. 


Wages. 


Supplies 

and 
materials 
consumed. 


All other 
expenses. 




258 


12,780,471 


81,748,458 


S5,994,0S3 


5-133,583 


5524,864 


5210,304 




3 
14 
8 
3 

3 

lu 
8 
5 
9 

8 
4 
8 

7 

2 
11 

4 
21 

11 
11 

12 
2 

2 
4 
14 
3 

3 

4 
20 
5 


24,380 
110,200 
SOS, 625 
301,600 
4,410 

31,120 

2,207,216 

' 125,162 

12,780 

215,033 

121,350 
888,600 
74,160 
1,011,173 
333,315 

8,870 

289,720 

110,000 

32,700 

1,795,513 

70,644 

251,610 

4,800 

275,700 

47,000 

50,520 
21,500 

213,700 
16,150 

397,395 

113,748 

21,900 

2,292,910 

513,907 


2,430 
10,020 
252,241 
87,400 

2,630 

9,412 
38,697 
9,525 
2,490 
15,394 

14,378 
79,060 
12,057 
03,022 
67,987 

1,174 
23,270 

4,500 
10,225 
239,875 

19,431 
20,696 

1,680 
65,163 

2,975 

10,046 
5,000 
10,354 
11,975 
141,470 

14,943 

5,360 

409,179 

77,793 


17,550 
12,525 
590,062 
261,311 
8,000 

69,260 
39,210 
62,200 
15,000 
148,400 

54,000 
169, 335 
95,403 
94,416 
135, SIX) 

5,000 

152,395 

13,000 

92,525 

1,850,250 

06,950 
75,890 
102,750 
070,300 
11,400 

41,500 
20,200 
66,440 
8,000 
215,450 

33,200 
11,000 
681,500 
104,461 


760 
3,690 
93,991 
25,180 

978 

1,112 
7,037 
3,030 
2,700 
9,218 

7,700 
41,404 

4,758 
16,063 

5,778 

500 
4,923 
1,100 
5,050 
59,232 

0,599 
4,637 
600 
18,147 
1,095 

1,310 
1,400 
6,473 
050 
15,028 

4,921 
1,225 
61,930 
14,044 


325 
1,525 
11,649 
51,990 
1,000 

500 

10,488 

800 

50 

3,850 

600 
23,790 
9,584 
21,758 
29,900 


140 

300 

3,326 

525 












250 
7,632 

170 
1,165 

380 

1,000 
6,473 
9,392 
6,106 
6,690 

50 
1,394 






















Missouri and Nebraska 


1,954 

300 

1,400 

54,065 

1,637 
3,825 




500 
50,112 

3,382 
950 
250 , 

8,050 












13,050 
525 

1,000 

50 

2,465 

275 

41,900 

4,300 
275 

198,821 
30,607 




100 




2,000 

200 

302 

200 

20,295 

995 

700 

70,700 

6,575 





















i Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, New Jersey, and South Dakota 



4 MINERAL WATERS. 

Imports. Prior to 1884 the Treasury Department did not distinguish natural mineral waters from those that 

were artificial ; since 1883 the distinction has been made, but the artificial waters have not been classified according 
to the receptacles in which they have been imported. The importation is shown in the two tables following, with 
a table of exports appended. 



MINERAL WATERS IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED STATES FROM 1867 TO 1883, INCLUSIVE. 




FISCAL YEAKS ENDED JUNE 30 — 


Total 


IN BOTTLES OF 
ONE QUART OK LESS. 


IN BOTTLES IN EX- 
CESS OF ONE QUART. 


NOT IN BOTTLES. 


ALL, 
NOT ARTIFICIAL. 


Quantity. 
(Bottles.) 


Value. 


Quantity. 
(Quarts.) 


Value. 


Quantity. 
(Gallons.) 


Value. 


Quantity. 
(Gallons.) 


Value. 




825,410 
20,594 
26,082 
32,931 
34,919 

68,007 
100,552 

80,496 
102,113 

136, 7SS 
168,808 
351,727 
28-1,509 

305,529 
395,492 
427,115 
448,493 


370,610 
241,702 
344,691 
433,212 
470,947 

892,913 
35,508 
7,238 
4,174 

25,758 
12,965 
8,229 
28,440 

207,554 
150,326 
152,277 
88,497 


$24,913 

18,438 
25,635 
30,680 
34,604 

67,951 

2,326 

691 

471 

1,899 

1,328 

815 

2,352 

19,731 
11,850 
17,010 
7,054 


3,792 
22,819 

9,739 
18,025 

2,320 


8360 
2,052 

802 
1,743 

174 


554 
1,042 


$137 
104 
245 
508 
141 

116 
75 
16 
2 








2,063 
1,336 

039 

355 

95 

5 












394,423 
199,035 
395,950 

447,640 
520,751 
883,674 
798,107 

927,759 
1,225,462 
1,542,905 
1,714,085 


898,151 
79,789 
101,640 

134,889 
167,458 
350,912 
282,153 

285,798 
383,616 
410,105 
441,439 




























22 
















3 


4 














55 


26 



























IMPORTS FOR THE FISCAL YEARS 1884 TO 1888, INCLUSIVE. 
[Calendar years ended December 31 from 1886 to 1888 ; previous years ended June 30.] 



YEARS. 


ARTIFICIAL 
MINERAL WATERS. 


NATURAL 
MINERAL -WATERS. 


Gallons. 


Value. 


Gallons. 


Value. 




29,366 
7,972 
62,464 
13,885 
12,752 


84,591 
2,157 

16,815 
4,851 
4,411 


1,505,298 
1,660,072 
1,618,960 
1,915,511 
1,716,461 


$362,651 
397,875 
354,242 
385,906 
341,695 











EXPORTS OF NATURAL MINERAL WATERS FROM THE UNITED STATES. 



YEARS ENDED JUNE 30- 



FISCAL YEARS ENDED JUNE 30- 



1875.. 
1876.. 
1879.. 



1,529 
1,486 



1881 

1882 

1883 

1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, and 1888.. 



MINERAL WATERS. . 5 

PRODUCTION BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS OF NATURAL MINERAL WATERS SOLD FROM 1883 TO 1888, INCLUSIVE. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS. 



North Atlantic . 
South Atlantic . 
North Central... 
South Central... 
Western 



Estimated . 
Total... 



North Atlantic 
South Atlantic 
North Central. 
South Central.. 
Western 



Estimated . 
Total ... 



North Atlantic 
South Atlantic 
North Central.. 
South Central ., 
Western 



Estimated . 
Total ... 



Springs 

reports 

ing. 



Gallons sold 



2,470,670 
312,090 



1,441,042 
169,812 



5,829,423 
1,700,000 



3,345,760 

464,718 

2,070,533 

1,526,817 

307,500 



7,715,323 
2,500,000 



2,527,310 
908,692 

2,925,288 
540,436 
509,675 



7,411,401 
1,737,000 



$282,270 
64,973 
323,600 
139,973 
52,787 



328,125 
103,191 
420,515 
147,112 
85,200 



1,084,143 
375,000 



192,605 
237,153 
446,211 
74,100 
86,776 



1,036,845 
276,000 



GEOGRAPHICAL PI VISIONS. 



North Atlantic . 
South Atlantic .. 
North Central.... 
South Central... 
Western 



North Atlantic. 
South Atlantic . 
North Central... 
South Central... 
Western 



Estimated . 
Total ... 



North Atlantic . 
South Atlantic . 
North Central... 
South Central... 
Western 



Estimated . 
Total... 



Springs 
report- 
ing. 



Gallons sold 



2,715,050 
720,397 

2,048,914 
822,016 
781,540 



7,087,917 
1,862,400 



2,571,004 
614,041 

1,480,820 
741,080 

1,236,324 



6,643,269 
1,616,340 



2,856,799 
1,689,387 



426,410 
1,853,679 



8,828,648 
750,000 



$177,969 
123,517 
401,861 
58,222 
137,796 



899,365 
384,705 



213,210 
147,149 
208,217 
87,946 

288,737 



945,259 
316,204 



325,839 
71,215 
421,651 



1,559,302 
120,000 



PRODUCTION OF NATURAL MINERAL WATERS SOLD IN 1889. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS. 


Springs 
report- 
ing. 


Gallons sold. 


Value. 




258 


12,780,471 


$1,748,458 




60 
47 
86 
33 
32 


4,106,464 
646,239 

6,137,776 
500,000 

1,389,992 


471,575 
198,032 
604,238 
43,356 
431,257 













4—2 



6 MINERAL WATERS. 

The following list contains the names of the springs, the returns for which are included in the figures given in 
the tables, with the post-office addresses of the proprietors, agents, managers, or persons interested, who have 
furnished the returns incorporated in this report: 

LIST OF PRODUCERS OF NATURAL MINERAL WATERS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

ALABAMA. 

Bailey Springs — Bailey Springs (9 miles northeast of Florence), Lauderdale county. Ellis & Co. 

Bladen Springs — Bladen Springs, Choctaw county. W. A. Turner. 

Healing Springs — Healing Springs, Washington county. H. J. Pettus. 

Jackson White Sulphur Springs — Jackson, Clarke county. L. O. Hicks. 

Matchless Mineral Water — 3 miles east of Greenville, Butler county. W. W. Wilkinson, Greenville. 

ARKANSAS. 

Arkansas Lithia Springs — Hope, Hempstead county. Thos. M. Boyd. 

Fairchild Potash Sulphur Springs — Potash Sulphur, Garland county. E. E. Woodcock. 

Mountain Valley Springs— Mountain Valley, Garland county. G. G. Latta. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Azule Seltzer Springs — San Jose, Santa Clara county. John W. Ryland. 

Bartlett Springs — Bartlett Springs, Lake county. Geo. W. Yount. 

Byron Hot Springs — Byron Hot Springs, Contra Costa county. L. R. Mead. 

Castalian Mineral Water — Inyo county. J. P. Forbes & Co., 1322 Market street, San Francisco. 

Coronado Natural Mineral Water — Coronado, San Diego county. Coronado Water Company. 

El Toro Spring — Marin county. Eggers & Gould, 1308 Mission street. San Francisco. 

Geyser Soda and Litton Seltzer Springs — Sonoma county. E. L. Lowe, jr., 152 New Montgomery street, San Francisco. 

Hot Springs of Elsinore — City of Elsinore, San Diego county. Alex, de Borra, M. D., Elsinore. 

Napa Soda Springs — Napa Soda Springs, Napa county. John P. Jackson. 

Ojai Hot Springs — Ventura county. Albert Blumbei-g, Matilijo. 

Pacific Congress Springs — 11 miles west of San Jose, Santa Clara county. Bliven & Lewis, 161 New Montgomery street, San Francisco. 

Paraiso Springs — Paraiso Springs, Monterey coumVy. J. G. Foster. 

Tolenas Springs — Fairfield, Solano county. William Heath. 

Witter Springs — Lake county. H. L. Denio, Upper Lake post office. 

COLORADO. 

Boulder Springs. Boulder Springs Company. 

Clark Magnetic Mineral Spring — Pueblo, Pueblo county. Silas Clark. 

Fariss Magnetic Well — Pueblo, Pueblo county. J. R. Fariss. 

Idaho Mineral Spring — Idaho Springs, Clear Creek county. Jos. S. Beaman, Central City. 

Little Ute and Iron Duke Springs — Canon City, Fremont county. F. Stockder & Co., box 589, Canon City. 

Manitou, Navajo, and Shoshone Springs — Manitou Springs, El Paso county. D. L. Sterling, the Manitou Mineral Water Company. 

Seltzer Springs — Springdale, Boulder county. C. Edgar Smith. 

Ute and Little Chief Iron Springs — Manitou, El Paso county. W. E. Smiley, Iron Springs Company. 

CONNECTICUT. 

Aspinock Springs — Putnam Heights, Windhain county. S. W. Ames. 
Oxford Chalybeate Spring — Oxford, New Haven county. John Lounsbury. 
Stafford Mineral Spring — Stafford Springs, Tolland county. Julius Converse. 

FLORIDA. 
Cantoment Spring — Near Pensacola, Escambia county. J. C. Petterson. 

GEORGIA. 
Bowden Lithia Springs and Georgia Bromine-Lithia Springs — Lithia Springs, Douglas county. J. E. Howland, Bowden Lithia Spring 
Company. 

Daniel's Springs — 9 miles east of Woodville Depot, Greene county. W. P. McWhorter, Penns' post office. 
Hughes' Springs — Floyd county. John Hughes, Rome. 

IDAHO. 
Idanha Springs — Soda Springs, Bingham county. M. J. Mclntyre, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

ILLINOIS. 
Black Hawk Springs — Rock Island, Rock Island county. Carse & Ohlweiler. 
Diamond Mineral Spring — Grantfork, Madison county. S. Bardell & Son. 

Glen Flora Mineral Spring — Waukegan, Lake county. W. C. Mackey, Glen Flora Mineral Spring Company. 
Hillsboro' Mineral Spring — Hillsboro', Montgomery county. C. B. Rhoads. 

Kirkwood Mineral Spring — Kirkwood, Warren county. E. R. Houlton, Kirkwood Mineral Spring Company. 
Peoria Magnetic Artesian Spring — Peoria, Peoria county. D. L. Bigham. 
Perry Springs — Perry Springs, Pike county. H. A. Owens. 

Red Avon Mineral Spring — Fulton county. Wm. Hittle & Co., box 815, Lincoln, Logan county. 
Sanicula Springs — Ottawa, La Salle county. D. J. Simon & Co. 
Silver Springs — Greenup, Cumberland county. Harlow Park. 



MINERAL WATERS. 



Ash Iron Springs — Warwick county. James Ash, De Gonia post oflice. 

Buffalo Saline "Well — "Washington county. J. W. Underwood, Millport, Washington county. 

Elliot's Mineral Spring — Martin county. E. P. Elliot, Shoals, Martin county. 

Kickapoo Magnetic Springs — Kickapoo, Warren county. J. B. Lebo. 

King Mineral Springs — Muddy Fork, Clark county. L. P. King. 

Lodi Artesian Well — Lodi, Fountain county. Mary F. Safely. 

Magnetic Mineral Spring — Terre Haute, Vigo county. Conaut & Sons. 

West Baden Springs — West Baden, Orange county. West Baden Springs Company. 

IOWA. 

Black Hawk Springs — Salt Creek township, Davis county. Dr. O.' Martin, Eldon, Wapello county. 

Cherokee Magnetic Mineral Spring — Cherokee, Cherokee county. N. T. Burroughs. 

Lake View Medical Spring — Lake View, Sac county. Isaac H. Adams. 

Ottumwa Mineral Springs — Ottumwa, Wapello county. Dr. E. K. Shelton. 

White Sulphur Springs — Scott county. Dutcher & Bro., White Sulphur, Scott county. 

KANSAS. 
Brazing's Artesian Mineral Wells — Manhattan, Eiley connty. William Blazing. 
Boiling Springs — Mound Valley, Labette county. Dr. W. W. McEwen. 

Geuda Mineral Springs — Geuda Springs, Cowley county. The Geuda Springs Town and Water Company. 
Great Spirit Springs — Cawker City, Mitchell county. J. Piper, Great Spirit Springs Company. 
Jewell County Lithium Springs — Montrose, Jewell county. Fred. Abrahams. 
Osage Mission Mineral Well — Osage Mission, Neosho county. C. G. Waite. 

Providence Mineral Wells — Providence, Butler county. A. A. Hyde, Providence Mineral Well Company. 
Topeka Mineral Wells — Topeka, Shawnee county. Philip Pickett, 310 Harrison street, Topeka. 
Wichita Mineral Spring — Wichita, Sedgwick county. Myron A. Fuller. 

KENTUCKY. 
Anita Springs — La Grange, Oldham county. S. T. Berry. 
Bedford Springs — Bedford, Trimble county. W. J. Parker. 
Blue Lick Springs — Blue Lick Springs, Nicholas county. E. C. Hawkins & Co. 

Crab Orchard Springs — Cr.b Orchard, Lincoln county. Simon N. Jones, Crab Orchard Water Company. 
Saint Patrick's Well — Louisville, Jefferson county. A. Slaughter. 

MAINE.- 

Hartford Cold Spring — Oxford county. H. A. Bicknell, 44 Howard street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Cold Bowling Spring — York county. Robert Ridlon, Steep Falls. 

Keystone Spring — East Poland, Androscoggin county. S. M. Pratt. 

Old Point Indian Spring — Somerset county. B. P. J. Weston, Madison, Somerset county. 

Poland Spring — Poland, Androscoggin county. Hiram Kicker & Son. 

Seal Rock Spring — Saco, York county. B. A. Gushing. 

Underwood Springs — Falmonth Forcside, Cumberland county. Chas. S. Deake. 

Windsor Mineral Spring — Androscoggin county. L. F. W. Seifert, Windsor Mineral Spring Company, Lewistown. 

MARYLAND. 

Cecil Spring — Cowentown, Cecil county. Cecil Spring Bottling Company. 

Chattolanee Mineral Spring — Chattolanee, Baltimore county. William L. Stork. 

Flintstone Mineral Springs — Flintstone, Allegany. T. B. Lashley, Flintstone Improvement Company. 

Strontia Mineral Spring — Brooklandville, Baltimore county. J. W. Emery, 419 Cortland street, Baltimore. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Allandale Springs — West Roxbury, Suffolk county. C. G. Fisher, 57 Blomiield street, Boston. 

Belmont Hill Spring — Everett, Middlesex county. Henry Schrow, box 290. 

Belmont Natural Spring — Everett, Middlesex county. G. H. Cotton, 71 Chestnut street, Boston. 

Echo Grove Springs — West Lynn, Essex county. John Raddin. 

Everett Crystal Spring — Everett, Middlesex county. Jos. H. Cannell, 34 School street, Boston. 

Sheep Rock Spring — Towell, Middlesex county. George J. Carney. 

Simpson Spring — Bristol. F. A. Howard, Simpson Spring Company. 

Undine Spring — Brighton, Suffolk county. I. Shaw. 

MICHIGAN. 

Americanus Well — Lansing, Ingham county. William S. Edward, Americanus Company. 

Eastman Springs — Benton Harbor, Berrien county. Harry E. Eastman. 

Magnetic Mineral Springs — Spring Lake, Ottawa county. Calkin Bros. , 441 Rookery building, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mount Clemens Original Mineral Springs — Mouut Clemens, Macomb. North & Johnson. 

Salutaris Mineral Spring — Saint Clair Springs, Saint Clair county. Jas. W. Inches, the Salutaris Company. 

Ypsilanti Mineral Spring — Ypsilanti, Washtenaw county. Clark Cornwell, Ypsilanti Paper Company. 

Zauber Wasser Spring — Hudson, Lenawee county. Geo. Chapman, M. D. 

MINNESOTA. 

Inglewood Springs — Minneapolis, Hennepin county. George B. Bradbury. 



MINERAL WATERS. 

MISSISSIPPI. 
Brown's Wells — Copiah county. S. J. Morehead, Brown's Wells post office. 
Castilian Springs — Near Durant, Holmes county. I). A. Outlaw. 

MISSOURI. 
Artesian White Sulphur Well— Clinton, Henry county. H. P. Faris, Clinton Natural Gas Development Company. 
B. B. Spring — Bowling Green, Pike county. Ward & Fielder. 
Blue Lick Springs — Saline county. Henry Strother, Marshall, Saline county. 
Eldorado Springs — Eldorado Springs, Cedar county. W. P. Cruee. 
Electric Springs — Johnson county. M. Fairchilds Doud, Warrensbnrg. 
Haupt's Mineral Spring — Milan, Sullivan county. B. F. Haupt. 
Lebanon Magnetic Spring — Laclede county. J. C. Fulkerson. 
Paris Springs — Paris Springs, Lawrence county. E. G. Paris. 
Randolph Springs — Randolph Springs, Randolph county. Horton Bros. 
Reed Springs— Clay county. George T. Reed, Reed Springs Town Company. 

Reiger Mineral Springs— Mercer county. E. Glendenning, M. D., Lineville, Wayne county, Iowa. 
Sweet Springs — Sweet Springs, Saline county. S. C. Davis, Sweet Springs Company. 
Young's Medical Well — Corner Twenty-fifth and Vine streets, Kansas City, Jackson county. H. PL. Young. 

NEBRASKA. 
Victoria Mineral Spring — Custer county. Charles R. Mathews, New Helena. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
Londonderry Lithia Spring — Nashua, Rockingham county. E. S. Collins, Londonderry Lithia Spring Company. 
Ponemah Springs — Amherst station, Hillsborough county. P. F. Sheolin & Co., 2 Swan street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

NEW JERSEY. 

Kalium Springs — Collingswood, Camden county. William Jones. 

NEW MEXICO. 
Aztec Springs — Santa Fe,, Santa Fe county. John Ayers. 
Baca Springs — Coyote district, Bernalillo county. Meliton Chaves. 
Ojo Caliente Springs — Ojo Caliente, Taos county. Antonio Joseph. 
Soda Springs — Near Albuquerque, Bernalillo county. A. Harsch. 

NEW YORK. 

Crystal Springs — Barrington, Yates county. Asa D. Baker, Crystal Spring. 
Deep Rock Springs — Oswego city, Oswego county. B. Doolittle. 
Empire Seneca Spring — Dunkirk, Chautauqua county. J. Nelson. 
Geneva Magnetic Mineral Spring — Geneva, Ontario county. C. A. Steele. 
Massena Springs — Massena, Saint Lawrence county. W. R. Stearns, Hatfield. 
Oneita Springs — Utica, Oneida county, Oneida Springs Company, Utica. 
Saratoga Springs, Saratoga county : 

Champion Springs — D. Kennedy, superintendent Champion Springs Company. 

Columbia Springs — William Van Vranken, president Congress Springs Company. 

Congress Springs — William Van Vranken, president Congress Springs Company. 

Empire Springs — O. H. Cromwell. 

Excelsior Union Springs — F. W. Lawrence. 

Hathorn Springs — Hathorn & Co. 

High Rock Springs — William Young. 

Imperial Spring — R. Muchant, Saratoga Imperial Spring Company. 

New Putnam Spring — Francis Remington, 23 Phila street. 

Royal or New Putnam Spring — A. Putnam. 

Patterson Spring — Patterson & Patterson, G5 Philadelphia street. 

Saratoga Carlsbad Spring — W. H. Carragan. 

Saratoga Magnetic and Peerless Springs — D. H. Porter. 

Saratoga Vichy Springs — L. A. James. 

White Sulphur Springs — Sharon Springs, Schoharie county. John H. Gardner & Sons. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

All Healing Spring — Alexander county. I. R. Wilbar, Partee post office. 

Ashley's Bromine and Arsenic Springs — Ashe county. J. M. Barker, Bristol, Tennessee. 

Barium Springs — Barium Springs, Iredell county. J. S. Pope, Barium Springs post office. 

Black Mountain Iron and Alum Springs — Black Mountain, Buncombe county. Moore, Sprague & Echols. 

Lemon Springs — Lemon Springs, Moore county. John W. Scott. 

Lincoln Lithia Springs — Lincolnton, Lincoln county. W. H. Laeey, agent, Philadelphia, or Lincoln Lithia Water Company. 

Min-ne-kah-ta-Springs — Gaston county. John F. W. Thomas, All Healing post office. 

Panacea Springs — Near Littleton, Halifax county. John A. Williams, Oxford, Granville county. 

Park's Alkaline Springs — Near Danville, Virginia, Caswell county. John S. Park, box 554, Danville, Virginia. 

Seven Springs — Seven Springs, Wayne county. W. B. Whitfield. 

Shaw's Healing Springs— Littleton, Halifax county. J. L. Shaw. 



MINERAL WATERS. 



Adams County Mineral Spring — Mineral Springs, Adams county. B. F. Coates, M. I). 

Bellbrook Magnetic Springs — Bellbrook, Greene county. The Bellbrook Magnetic Springs Company. 

Crystal Mineral Spring — Champaign county. George W. Poland, Urbana. 

Devonian Mineral Spring — Lorain county. Gilbert Hogan. 

Electro-Magnetic Springs — Fountain Park, Champaign county. J. Chamberlin. 

Lenape Spring — Delaware, Delaware county. C. E. Hills. 

Magnetic and Saline Spring — Marysville, Union count} 7 . S. N. McCloud. 

Ohio Magnetic Springs — Magnetic Springs, Union count}'. M. F. Langstaff. 

Rex Mineral Water — New Richmond, Clermont county. Frank Smith. 

Ripley Bromc-Lithia Spring — Ripley, Brown county. Dr. W. A. Dixon. 

Sulphur Lick Spring — Franklbrd, Ross county. Moon & Popejoy, Anderson, Ross county. 

OREGON. 

Wagner Soda Spring — Ashland, Jackson county. G. M. Parkinson. 
Wilhoit Spring — Clackamas county. R. S. McLeran. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Allegheny Spring — Warren county. J. A. Cnlbertson & Son, Irvine. 

Bedford Springs — Bedford. Bedford county. Jesse H. Lippincott & Co., Pittsburg. 

Black Barren Mineral Spring — Pleasant Grove, Lancaster county. James Black. 

Corry Artesiau Fountain — Corry, Erie county. Thomas Pine. 

Cresson Springs — Cresson, Cambria county'. William R. Dunham. 

Eureka Mineral Springs— Saegerstown, Crawford county. G. W. Wright, superintendent Eureka Mineral Spring Company. 

Parker Magnetic Mineral Spring — McKean county. N. H. Parker, Gardeau, MeKean county. 

Pavilion Springs — Wernersville, Berks county. Wenrick & Deppen. 

Pulaski Mineral Spring — Lawrence county. James C. Hutton, New Castle. 

Roscommon Springs — Wind Gap, Monroe county. George H. Petty, Roscommon Inn, Wind Gap post office. 

Sizerville Magnetic Mineral Spring — Sizerville, Cameron county. P. H. Shumway. 

Susquehanna Spring and Kingsland Spring — Rush, Susquehanna county. E. S. Butterfield. 

EHODE ISLAND. 

Ochee Mineral and Medical Springs — Johnson, Providence county. H. N. Angell, 22 Peck street, Providence. 
Holly Springs — Woonsocket, Providence county. Stephen Wilcox. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Chick's Springs — Chick's Springs, Greenville county. George Westmoreland. 
Glen Springs — Glen Springs, Spartenburg county. Simpson & Simpson. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 
Dakota Hot Springs — Dakota Hot Springs, Fall River county. John L. Burke. 

TENNESSEE. 

Estill Springs — Estill Springs, Franklin county. M. A. Nelson, Estill Springs post office. 
Idaho Springs — Near Clarksville, Montgomery county. James F. Johnson, Saint Bethlehem. 
Red Boiling Springs — Red Boiling Springs, Macon county. J. E. Faust. 
Rhea Springs — Rhea Springs, Rhea county. T. B. Gorman. 

TEXAS. 

Capp's Well — Longview, Gregg county. M*. F. Capp. 

Dalby Springs — Texarkana, Bowie county. J. W. Farrier. 

Elkhart Mineral Well — Near Elkhart, Anderson county. J. H. Burke, Elkhart Mineral Wells Company. 

Hynson's Iron Mountain Springs — Marshall, Harrison county. Colonel C. E. Hynson. 

Mineral Wells Springs — Mineral Wells, Palo Pinto county. Palo Pinto Medicine Company and others. 

Montvale Springs — Marshall, Harrison county. P. H. Kyes. 

Overall Mineral Well — Franklin, Robertson county. J. K. Overall. 

Page's Well — Georgetown, Williamson county. J. M. Page. 

Richards' Wells — Rockdale, Milam county. George Richards. 

Rosborough Springs — Marshall, Harrison county. W. J. Rosborough. 

Slack's Well — Fayette county. William M. Short, Walder Depot, Gonzales county. 

Texas Sour Springs — Luling, Caldwell county. Roger Bros. 

Tioga Mineral Well — Tioga, Grayson county. Rains Bros. & Street. 

Wooten Wells— Wooten Wells, Robert-on county. R. H. Wade, Wooten Wells Company, Wooten Wells post office. . 

VERMONT. 
Alburgh Sulphur and Lithia Spring— Alburgh Springs, Grand Isle county. G. D. Oilman, 307 Washington street, Boston. 
Brunswick White Sulphur Springs — Brunswick, Essex county. Henry Smith, Coos, New Hampshire. 
Clarendon Springs — Clarendon Springs, Rutland county. George T. Murray. 
4—3 



10 MINERAL WATERS. 

VIRGINIA. 
Bear Lithia Springs— Elkton, Rockingham county. "VV. B. Compton, Bear Lithia Water Company. 
Blue Ridge Springs— Blue Ridge Springs, Botetourt county. Philip F. Brown. 
Buffalo Lithia Springs— Buffalo Lithia Springs, Mecklenburg county. Thomas F. Goode. 
Cove Lithia Water— Wythe ville, Wythe county. C. B. Thomas. 
Farmville Lithia Springs— Farmville, Prince Edward county. John Houston. 
Hot Springs — Hot Springs, Bath county. J. A. August. 

Hunter's Pulaski Alum Springs— Pulaski county. R. M. T. Hunter, Sassin, Pulaski county. 
Jordon White Sulphur Springs— Jordon Springs, Frederick county. E. C. Jordon. 

Massanetta Springs — Massanetta Springs, Rockingham county. C. B. Shaefer, 103 Pennsylvania avenue, Washington, D. C. 
Osceola Springs— Near Pleasant Valley, Rockingham county. Osceola Water Company, Harrisonburg. 
Otterburn Lithia and Magnesia Springs — Amelia Court House, Amelia county. S. S. Baker. 
Piconian Spring — Loudoun county. John Milton, Pseonian Springs Company, Clark's Gap. 
Powhatan Lithia and Alum Spring — Powhatan, Powhatan county. J. E. Gordon, Tobaccoville. 
Rawley Springs — Rawley Springs, Rockingham county. J. P. Houck. 
Roanoke Red Sulphur Springs — Roanoke county. T. J. Chapman, Salem. 

Rockbridge Alum Springs — Alum Springs, Rockbridge county. George L. Payton, Payton, Campbell county. 
Rockingham Springs — MeGaheysville, Rockingham county. G. T. Hopkins. 

Seven Springs — 2 miles northwest of Glade Springs, Washington county. P. C. Landrum, Abingdon. 
Stribling Springs — Stribling Springs, Augusta county. Chichester & Stewart. 

Virginia Arsenic Bromine and Lithia Springs — Near Alleghany Springs, Montgomery county. George G. Junkins, Christiansburg. 
Wallawhatoola Alum Springs — Millborough Springs, Bath county. John A. Lancaster, Richmond. 
Wolf Trap Lithia Springs — Wolf Trap station, Halifax county. Purcell, Ladd & Co., Richmond. 

WASHINGTON. 
Cascade Springs — Skamania county. Thomas Moffett, Cascades. 

Medical Lake — Medical Lake, Spokane county. T. Davidson, Medical Lake post office. 
Yakima Soda Springs — North Yakima, Yakima county. R. Strobach. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 
Capon Springs — Capon Springs, Hampshire county. W. H. Sale. 
Salt Sulphur Springs — Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe county. John W. M. Appleton. 
Triplett Springs — Willow Island, Pleasants county. W. F. Curtis, jr. 
White Sulphur Springs — White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier county. B. F. Eakle. 

WISCONSIN. 
Allouez Magnesia Mineral Spring — Green Bay, Brown county. J. P. Hoeffel, AUouez Mineral Spring Company. 
Ashland Mineral Spring — Ashland, Ashland county. Ashland Mineral Spring Water Company. 
Darlington Mineral Spring — Darlington, Lafayette county. Frank Wunderle. 
Fort Crawford Spring — Prairie du Chien, Crawford county. Kenyon & Schultz. 
Lebens Wasser Spring — Brown county. J. J. Handlen, Green Bay. 
Salvator Mineral Spring — Brown county. J. P. C. Schmidt, Green Bay. 
Shealtiel Springs — Waupaca, Waupaca county. George H. Calkins, M. D. 

Sheboygan Springs — Shebo3 T gan, Sheboygan county. E. R. Richards, president Sheboygan Mineral Water Company. 
Silver Sand Spring — Milwaukee county. John Graf, Milwaukee. 
Vita Mineral Spring — Beaver Dam, Dodge county. Dr. G. E. Swan. 

Nee-Ska-Ra Spring — Milwaukee, Milwaukee county. Nee-Ska-Ra Mineral Spring Company. 
Waukesha Springs, Waukesha county : 

The Alma Spring — W. H. Powers. 

Arcadian Mineral Spring — Fred. Phelps, secretary and treasurer Arcadian Springs Company. 

Bethesda Mineral Springs — E. E. Howe, secretary Bethesda Mineral Water Company. 

Clysmie Springs — John L. Lockwood, 3 Howard street, New York city. 

Henk Mineral Springs — A. C. Henk. 

Horeb Mineral Spring — Thomas Spence. 

Mineral Rock Spring — C. C. Olin. 

Waukesha Hygeia Mineral Spring — M. P. Smith, general manager. 

White Rock Mineral Spring — Charles A. Welch. 

The following springs are consolidated under one name on the map : 

COLORADO. 

Little Chief Spring and Iron Duke Spring, under the name of Canon City Springs. 

Navajo Spring, Shoshone Spring, Ute Spring, and Little Chief Iron Spring, under the name of Manitou Springs. 

Clark Magnetic Mineral Spring and Fariss Magnetic Well, under the name of Pueblo Mineral Springs. 

NEW YORK. 

Champion Springs, Columbian Spring, Congress Spring, Empire Springs, Excelsior Union Springs, Hathorh Springs, High Rock Springs, 
Imperial Springs, New Putnam Springs, Royal Spring, Patterson Spring, Saratoga Carlsbad Spring, Saratoga Magnetic and Peerless Springs, 
and Saratoga Vichy Springs, under the name of Saratoga Springs. 

WISCONSIN. 

The Alma Spring, Arcadian Mineral Spring, Bethesda Mineral Springs, Clysmie Springs, Henk Mineral Spring, Horeb Mineral Spring, 
Mineral Rock Spring, Waukesha Hygeia Mineral Spring, and White Rock Mineral Spring, under the name of Waukesha Mineral Springs. 



MINERAL WATERS. 



11 



Geographical distkibution. — The accompanying map shows the location of those mineral-water springs of the 
United States that are used commercially. It will be observed that the waters put upon the market are more 
numerous from the eastern half of the country. This is not because there are more springs in that section, but 
mainly because the greatest proportion of population is found there, and, consequently, it is more thoroughly 
developed as to the utilization of its resources. 

The following table shows the rank of the various states according to number of springs and production in 
each state : 

BANK OF VARIOUS STATES ACCORDING TO NUMBER AND BRODUCTION OF SBEINGS. 



STATES. 


Rank 
according 
to number 
of springs. 


Hank 

according 
to pro- 
duction. 


Rank 
~„ K ! according 
states. to number 
of springs. 


Rank 
according 
to pro- 
duction. 


STATES. 


Rank 
according 
to number 
of springs. 


Rank 
according 
to pro- 
duction. 


Alabama No. 12 


No. 28 




No. 5 
No. 21 
No. 4 
No. 9 
No. 8 
No. 34 

No. 11 

No. 23 
No. 35 
No. 26 
No. 3 
No. 22 




No. 7 
No. 15 
No. 6 
No. 15 
No. 15 
No. 16 
No. 13 
No. 4 
No. 14 
No. 1 
No. 14 
No. 13 
No. 3 


No. 13 
No. 36 
No. 12 
No. 25 

No. 24 
No. 33 
No. 30 
No. 15 
No. 31 
No. 7 
No. 19 
No. 29 
No. 1 






No. 4 


JNO. _U . j 


Rhode Island 

South Carolina... 








No. 11 
No. 16 
No. 15 
No. 5 l 
No. 16 J 
No. 15 
No. 16 
No. 13 
No. 2 
No. 7 














Idaho No. 16 


No. 16 
No. 2 
No. 17 
No. 32 
No. 14 
No. 18 


New Hampshire.. 






Washington 

West Virginia 


New Mexico 


North Carolina... 


'* 







Inasmuch as mineral waters derive their solid contents from the rocks through which they pass on their way to 
the surface, when they appear as springs, there is an intimate connection between them and the geological structure 
of the country in which they are found, and a comparison of the map on which the springs are plotted with a 
geological map of the same region is very instructive. In regions where the older or metamorphic rocks form, or 
are near, the surface, the waters as a rule contain a smaller proportion of solid ingredients than where they have 
to pass through strata that are more readily affected by their solvent powers, thus giving an explanation of the 
differences between the waters of various sections of the country. The connection of warm and hot springs with 
mountain elevations and fractions and dislocations of the strata and with areas in which eruptive rocks prevail has 
frequently been noted, and it is therefore not surprising to find this group of springs so largely in excess of cold 
springs in the western part of the United States, where large areas covered by flows of basaltic and trachytic rocks 
prevail. 

Classification. — In the first place, all waters are characterized by their temperature, as cold, tepid, warm, 
or hot. They are therefore divisible into two great groups, non-thermal and thermal. 

The term thermal is not used here as applying to springs whose temperature is above the mean annual 
temperature of the place in which they are located, but included under this designation are those springs the waters 
of which have a temperature of 70° Fahrenheit or more. A thermal spring may belong to any one of the classes or 
divisions which are based on the predominating solid constituents. 

The fact that a spring is thermal depends mainly upon its geological position. Warm and hot springs are found 
in regions of volcanic rocks, in connection with faulted or dislocated strata, in areas of mountain corrugation, or 
where borings have been made to great depths below the surface. It has frequently been stated that thermal springs 
are less highly mineralized than others, but facts do not sustain this statement. They are less numerous, but there 
appears to be no reason why they may not duplicate non-thermal springs in every particular except temperature. 
Each group of waters is next divided into four classes, viz, alkaline, alkaline-saline, saline, and acid. 

The term " indifferent " or " chemically indifferent " of many schemes of classification has not been used. The 
question as to whether a water should be called indifferent is one upon which it would be difficult to secure 
unanimous opinion. The spring owner would perhaps draw his line at one place, the physician who prescribes the 
water might draw it at another, and the chemist at still a third place. 

The analysis should therefore be arranged in order according to the proportion of the classifying ingredient, 
beginning with the least highly mineralized water under each division, and it seems preferable that the lines of 
indifference be drawn by those especially interested. Pure water is a production of the chemical laboratory alone. 
No chalybeate waters are placed on a line with alkaline or saline waters. Of course, all iron waters are tonic in 
their effects, but they may differ widely in other properties. When the various analyses of chalybeate springs 
are compared, it is found that those in which iron exists as a carbonate contain also carbonates of the alkalies or 
alkaline earths. Others contain iron sulphates with various other sulphates, or they may be characterized by 



12 MINERAL WATERS. 

chlorides. Others again have free acid with the saline constituents. The chalybeates therefore, it seems, should 
be subdivisions of the alkaline, alkaline-saline, saline, and acid classes, and here they are placed in this scheme. 
The fact that they all contain iron should not relegate them to one class, especially when their effects are widely 
different. The other ingredients ought not to be ignored. 

Almost the same remarks hold good for the sulphur springs that have been made in regard to the chalybeate 
springs. Sulphur springs are those in which free sulphureted hydrogen exists ; that is, they have a gaseous 
constituent. A very little sulphureted hydrogen will go a great way in classifying a spring, but there is no more 
reason to disregard the solid constituents here than in the case of the chalybeates. Even the chalybeates may be 
sulphureted, and in fact any division of the four classes outlined may contain the same gaseous constituent. 

The waters are therefore characterized finally according to the gas tbey contain. They may be non-gaseous, 
carbonated, sulphureted, carbureted, or azotized (that is, containing nitrogen gas). 

It maybe objected that the sulphur springs are separated one from the other; but if necessary the scheme can 
be reversed and the gaseous character indicated first. If this be done, the alkaline, saline, and acid springs must be 
divided up and separated. The plan adopted here is more compact. It seems preferable to keep all the alkaline 
waters, etc., together, particularly as the analyses are not nearly so complete with reference to the gaseous constituents 
as they are in regard to the solid constituents. Many waters lose the gases long before the water is analyzed in the 
laboratory, and therefore no account is taken of them beyond the mention of their existence. 

In nearly all lithia waters the amount of lithia is relatively small, and very frequently consists only of traces, 
so that the springs are classified by some other ingredient. However, the fact that the water contains lithia, even 
if only a trace, will probably be expressed in the name given to the spring. In making these remarks, of course, 
nothing is said as to the efficacy or non-efficacy of even the traces in some of the waters. What is true of the lithia 
waters is true of many others which are supposed to be particularly efficacious in certain diseases. In no scheme 
of classification can an account be taken of all the minor constituents. It is impossible to express all the shades 
of indifference, and in the examination of the analyses with a view to the use of the water a process of exclusion 
or elimination will have to be followed in order to get the water just suited to the peculiar conditions presented. 

Returning now to the scheme outlined, the first class is alkaline. This name has been so long and universally 
used to include those waters that contain the alkaline carbonates that it is retained. Included under it are all waters 
characterized by carbonates, whether of the alkalies, alkaline earths, alkaline metals, or even iron alone. As already 
noted, the carbonate of iron is usually associated with alkaline carbonates. The alkaline waters as thus designated 
are divided primarily into five great divisions, viz, sodic, potassic, calcic, magnesic, and chalybeate, in which the 
carbonates of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron, respectively, predominate. Those springs are also 
separated in which there is a combination, as calcic-chalybeate, sodic-magnesic, etc., or they inay have a combination 
of two or more of the gases, as sulpho-carbonated, etc. 

Some few springs contain a large quantity of free nitrogen gas. These are designated as azotized. In others 
the predominating gas is carbureted hydrogen ; that is, they are carbureted. For those springs characterized by 
free carbonic-acid gas the term carbonated instead of acidulous is used to avoid confusion with acid springs. There 
are carbonated acid sulphated springs, i. e., springs with free sulphuric acid, sulphates, and free carbonic-acid gas, 
and to call these springs acidulous acid springs would be, to say the least, somewhat awkward. 

Nearly one-half of' the alkaline springs are calcic-alkaline ; that is, with calcium carbonate or bicarbonate 
predominating. The calcic-chalybeate springs come next in number. A great many of the well-known springs fall 
under the head of calcic-alkaline, such as the Waukesha springs of Wisconsin, the Poland spring and Auburn 
sprino- of Maine, the Gettysburg spring of Pennsylvania, etc. Under calcic-chalybeate there are some of the Bedford 
springs of Pennsylvania, some of the springs near Crab Orchard and other localities in Kentucky, and the iron 
spring at Richfield Springs, New York. 

The next class includes the alkaline-saline springs, viz, those in which there is a mixture of carbonates with 
sulphates or chlorides. It is separated, therefore, into two divisions, sulphated and muriated, according to the 
predominance of either set of salts, and, secondly, subdivided exactly as were the alkaline springs, according to 
the base, into the sodic, potassic, magnesic, chalybeate, etc. Each one of these subdivisions may also be non- 
gaseous, carbonated, or sulphureted, etc. The most prominent springs under the head of alkaline-saline are the 
Saratoga springs, which are placed under the head of carbonated sodic-muriated alkaline-saline springs, i. e., they 
contain free carbonic-acid gas and have sodium chloride predominating, and contain also alkaline carbonates. 
The Clarendon springs of Vermont are also alkaline-saline, being carbonated calcic-magnesic. Naturally the sodic 
muriated springs are the most numerous in this class. 

The third class, saline springs, is divided exactly as are the alkaline-saline springs. The salines outnumber 
the alkaline-salines in the proportion of three to one, and are nearly one-third more numerous than the alkaline 
springs. Almost all of the springs usually classed under the head of purgative or aperient saline will fall under the 
head of sulphated salines in this scheme. 



MINERAL WATERS. 13 

Thus a sodic-sulphated water and a magnesic-sulphated water would not be mistaken for anything else than 
purgative waters. Among other waters of this division are the well-known Grab Orchard and Harrodsburg springs 
of Kentucky, Anderson spriug of Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania, the Midland well of Michigan, and Alburgh springs 
of Vermont. 

About one-quarter of the sulphated salines are calcic. Possibly in arranging these waters the proportion of 
the other sulphates ought also to be given, as the calcic-sulphate is supposed to be inert medicinally. Sharon 
Springs, New York, have been placed under the head of sulphureted calcic-magnesic sulphated waters, and some of 
the Richfield springs belong there also. Possibly they should be called sulpho-carbonated, although the sulphureted 
hydrogen largely predominates. A large number of the alum springs fall under the chalybeate-sulphated springs. 
Those with free sulphuric acid, however, belong to the next class. 

Of the muriated saline springs nearly 88 per cent are sodic muriated ; that is, with common salt as the 
principal constituent. Of course, all brines fall under this head. 

The fourth and last class is named acid, a class that has been neglected in most schemes of classification. 
Here under the sulphated acid division are placed those waters characterized by the presence of free sulphuric acid 
and sulphates. They include the sour springs found at three localities in Texas, the Oak Orchard acid springs of 
New York, the Blossburg springs of Pennsylvania, the Iowa acid springs, and most of the alum springs of Virginia 
and Kentucky. 

The muriated acid springs are those characterized by the presence of free hydrochloric acid in connection with 
chlorides. 

In the attempt to classify the commercial natural mineral waters of the United States in accordance with the 
scheme outlined, only the springs represented on the list are included. 

SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL MINERAL WATERS. 

GROUP A. — NON-THERMAL. GROUP B. — THERMAL. 

Class I. Alkaline. 

Class II. Alkaline-saUne (J- Sulphated. 

[ 2. Muriated. 

Class III. Saline {£ w^ff' 

I 2. Muriated. 

("1. Sulphated. 

Class IV. Acid i a Muriated. ■ 

[3. Smeeousj^Sed. 

The list of commercial waters following are not noted as belonging to either Group A or Group B, as when 
placed upon the market they are practically non-thermal, whether they are considered as thermal or non-thermal 
at the spring furnishing the water. 

Many of the springs included in the list would be indicated in some systems of classification as " indifferent," 
but, as already said, the line of indifference is one that would be drawn at very different places by different persons, 
according to their points of view. Therefore the total solid contents of the waters are given, and each one interested 
can draw the line. 



14 



MINEEAL WATEES. 



I. ALKALINE SPRINGS. pebga'llon. 

Sodic: 

Pavilion Springs, Pennsylvania 1 . 98 

Medical Lake, Washington 101. 4G 

Carbonated sodic: 

Cony Artesian Fountain, Pennsylvania 20.59 

Bladen Springs, Alabama 48.88 

Geyser Soda Spring, California 57.12 

El Toro Spring, California 187.15 

Litton Seltzer Spring, California 228.69 

Joseph's Ojo Caliente Springs, New Mexico 1,686.34 

Sulphureted sodic: 

Allegheny Sulphur Springs, Pennsylvania 24.20 

Sodic-calcic : . 

Ashley's Bromine and Arsenic Spring, Tennessee 4.82 

Carbonated sodic-calcic: 

Navajo Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado 25.33 

Ute Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado 97.49 

Sodic-chalybeate : 

Cold Bowling Spring, Maine 1.60 

Bailey Springs, Alabama 14.88 

Carbonated sodic-chalybeate : 

Panacea Springs, North Carolina 9.79 

Iron Ute Springs, Manitou, Colorado 210.87 

Calcic-alkaline : 

Undine Spring, Massachusetts 0.27 

Arcadian Mineral Spring, "Waukesha, Wisconsin 0.36 

Mineral Rock Spring, Waukesha, Wisconsin 0.38 

Sheep Rock Spring, Massachusetts 0.81 

Old Point Indian Spring, Maine 2.80 

Paeonian Spring, Virginia 3.57 

Belmont Natural Spring, Massachusetts 3.69 

Poland Spring, Maine 3.75 

All Healing Spring, North Carolina 7.31 

Chattolanee Spring, Maryland 8.29 

Echo Grove Mineral Spring, Massachusetts 8.41 

Ochee Spring, Rhode Island 8.99 

Lincoln Lithia Spring, North Carolina 10 . 65 

Ingle wood Spring, Minnesota 16 . 56 

Horeb Mineral Springs, Waukesha, Wisconsin 20 . 02 

Bellbrook Magnetic Spring, Massachusetts 26.79 

Mountain Valley Spring, Arkansas 21.82 

Lake View Medical Spring, Iowa 32.28 

Clysmic Spring, Waukesha, Wisconsin 35.46 

Hygeia Spring, Waukesha, Wisconsin 36 . 21 

Glen Flora Mineral Spring, Illinois 36.41 

Bethesda Spring, Waukesha, Wisconsin 35 . 71 

White Rock Mineral Spring, Waukesha, Wisconsin 37.06 

Kickapoo Magnetic Springs, Indiana 41 . 91 

Lenape Magnetic Spring, Ohio 55.70 

Electric Magnetic Springs, Ohio 61.33 

Carbonated calcic: 

Hot Springs, Virginia 0.60 

Roscommon Spring, Pennsylvania 1.21 

Sweet Spring, Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania 1 . 62 

Aztec Springs, New Mexico 2.83 

Capon Springs, West Virginia 12.15 

Large Limestone Spring, Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania.... 14.70 

•Manitou Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado 18.20 

AVolf Trap Lithia Springs, Virginia 19.83 

Massanetta Mineral Spring, Virginia 25.76 

Electric Springs, Missouri 41.73 

Bartlett Springs, California 43 . 35 

Crystal Springs, Yates county, New York 12.08 



I. ALKALINE S PRINGS— Continued. pebSIiTon. 

Sulpho-carbonated calcic: 

Roanoke Red Sulphur Springs, Virginia 5.21 

Spring No. 2 (sulphur spring), Stribling Springs, Virginia.. 34.88 

Calcic-magnesic : 

Shealtiel Mineral Springs, Wisconsin 14.65 

Henk Mineral Spring, Waukesha, Wisconsin 14.65 

Nee-Ska-Ra Spring, Wisconsin 29.59 

Lebens Wasser Spring, Wisconsin 31 . 22 

Darlington Mineral Spring, Wisconsin 31.79 

Salvador Mineral Spring, Wisconsin 33 . 03 

Alma Spring, Waukesha, Wisconsin 33.35 

Vita Mineral Spring, Wisconsin 34.06 

Perry Springs, Illinois 38.24 

Ashland Spring, Wisconsin 43.69 

Allouez Magnesia Mineral Spring, Wisconsin 62.38 

Carbonated calcic-magnesic : 

Bear Lithia Springs, Virginia 9.60 

Otterburn Lithia and Magnesic Spring, Virginia 9.86 

Lebanon Magnetic Spring, Missouri 10.72 

Eastman Springs, Michigan 18.04 

Osceola Lithia Spring, Virginia 34.39 

Ohio Magnetic Springs, Ohio 44.90 

Idanha Spring, Idaho 152.14 

Sulpho-carbonated calcic-magnesic : 

Cove Lithia Spring, Virginia 10.61 

Calcic-chalybeate : 

Park's Alkaline Spring, North Carolina 14.93 

Shaw's Healing Springs, North Carolina 8.40 

Carbonated calcic-chalybeate: 

Chalybeate Springs, Stribling Springs, Virginia 20.95 

Reed's Mineral Springs, Missouri 26.38 

Carbonated magnesic : 

Susquehanna Spring, Pennsylvania 9.92 

Farmville Lithia Springs, Virginia 26.39 

Napa Soda Springs, California 68.76 

Wagner Soda Spring, Oregon 163.87 

Magnesic chalybeate: 

Keystone Spring, Maine 3.00 

Windsor Chalybeate Spring, Maine 5.60 

Carbonated chalybeate: 

Main Fountain , Rawley Springs, Virginia 5 . 78 

Cherokee Magnetic Mineral Spring, Iowa 29.93 

Sulpho-carbonated chalybeate : 

Chalybeate Spring, Eureka Mineral Svjrings, Pennsylvania.. 42. 35 

II. ALKALINE-SALINE SPRINGS. 

1. SULPHATED. 

Carbonated sodic: 

Ponemah Springs, New Hampshire 3.03 

Sodic-magnesic : 

Idaho Hot Springs, Colorado 177.69 

Calcic: 

Allandale Spring, Massachusetts 3.30 

Carbonated calcic: 

William's Spring, Paris Chalybeate Springs, Missouri 1.10 

Hartfort Cold Spring, Maine 44.68 

Spring No. 2, Buffalo Lithia Springs, Virginia 98 . 38 

Shoshone Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado 132 . 80 

Little Chief Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado 132 . 80 



MINERAL WATERS. 



15 



II. ALKALINE-SALINE SPRINGS— Continued. °* A ™* 

PER tiAI.I:<>>. 

1. Sulphatkd — Continued. 

Calcic-sodic chalybeate : 

Topeka Mineral Wells, Kansas 147 . 45 

Calcic-rnagnesic : 

Virginia Arsenic Bromine and Lithia Spring, Virginia 18.37 

Victoria Mineral Springs, Nebraska 62.18 

Sulpho-carbonated calcic-magnesic chalybeate : 

Kirkwood Mineral Spring, Illinois 22.28 

Carbonated calcic-chalybeate : 

Buffalo Lithia Spring No. 3, Virginia 1 4 . 47 

2. Mueiated. 
Sodic: 

Underwood Spring, Maine 2.10 

Iron Dnke, Canon City Springs, Colorado 219.54 

Little Ute, Canon City Springs, Colorado 242.95 

Castalian Mineral Water, California 4,422.25 

Carbonated sodic: 

Wilhoit Spring, Oregon 421.97 

Saratoga Springs, New York : 

White Sulphur 115.73 

Magnesie 216.05 

Imperial 269.20 

Vichy 315.18 

New Putnam 361.01 

Columbia 407.30 

Peerless 419.62 

Excelsior .• 514.75 

Patterson 518.18 

High Rock 628.04 

Royal 640.03 

Empire 680.44 

Congress 700.89 

Union 701.17 

Carlsbad 1,149.21 

Champion 1 , 1 95 . 58 

Magnesia Spring, Cresson Springs, Pennsylvania 6.88 

De Profundis Spring, Eureka Mineral Springs, Pennsylvania 23 . 77 

Pacific Congress Spring 335.85 

Lansing Magnetic Well, Michigan 613.77 

Pulaski Mineral Spring, Pennsylvania 2G5.49 

Sulphureted sodic: 

Triplet Natural Mineral Springs, West Virginia 77 . 88 

Sulpho-carbonated sodic: 

Coronado Springs, California ! 26.29 

White Sulphur Spring, Byron Springs, Californ ia 36 . 06 

Sodic-potassic: 

Kalium Springs, New Jersey 5.70 

Sodic-magnesic : 

Aspinock Spring, Connecticut 2.21 

Carbonated sodic-magnesic : 

Azule Mineral Well, California 153.77 

Bedford Magnesie Spring 153.87 

Calcic : 

Holly Spring, Rhode Island 2.51 

Everett Crystal Spring, Massachusetts 13.63 

Calcic-sodic: 

Baca Springs, New Mexico 137.44 

Carbonated calcic-sodic : 

Soda Springs, New Mexico 153.84 



III. SALINE SPRINGS. 

1. SULPIIATED. 

Sodic: 

Black Hawk Springs, Hlinois 

Paraiso Spring, California 

Faris Magnetic Well, Pueblo, Colorado 

Palo Pinto Mineral Wells, Texas 

Haupt's Mineral Spring, Missouri 

Ottumwa Medical Springs, Iowa 

Carbonated-sodic : 

Clarendon Springs, Vermont 

Page's Well, Texas 



Sodic-calcic : 
Magnetic Springs and Well, Michigan . 

Sodic-chalybeate : 
Stafford Mineral Spring, Connecticut.... 

Carbonated sodic-chalybeate : 
Seltzer Mineral Spring, Colorado 

Sulphureted potassic-sodic : 
Albnrgh Springs, Vermont 

Calcic : 

Daniel Mineral Spring, Georgia 

Flintstone Mineral Springs, Maryland. 
Providence Mineral Well, Kansas 



Carbonated calcic: 

Barium Springs, North Carolina 

Manhattan Artesian Mineral Wells, Kansas 

Sulphureted calcic: 

Glen Springs, South Carolina 

Massena Sulphur Springs, New York 

Calcic-sodic: 
Dakota Hot Springs, South Dakota 

Sulpho-carbonated calcic-sodic magnesie: 
Salt Sulphur Springs, West Virginia 

Calcic-magnesic: 

Hughes' Springs, Georgia 

Geneva Magnetic Mineral Springs, New York 

Carbonated calcic-magnesic : 

Magnesia Spring, Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania 

Magnesia Iron Spring, Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania. 

Sulphureted calcic-magnesic: 
Blue Ridge Springs, Virginia 

Sulpho-carbonated calcic-magnesic : 
Greenbrier White Sulphur Springs, Virginia 

Calcic-magnesic chalybeate : 
Hon Spring, Cresson Springs, Pennsylvania 

Sulpho-carbonated magnesie chalybeate: 
Spring No. 1, West Eldorado Springs, Missouri 

Calcic alnmino-magnesic chalybeate: 
Seven Springs, Abingdon, Virginia 

Chalybeate : 
Matchless Mineral Water Well, Alabama 

Carbonated chalybeate-sodie magnesie: 

Spring No. 5, West Eldorado Springs, Missouri 

Spring No. 6, West Eldorado Springs, Missouri 



3.99 

58.80 
62.03 
226.23 
351.39 
356.45 



108.01 
174.00 
246.30 

8.40 
117.94 

97.55 
104.72 



86.42 
152.01 



141.17 
153.30 



16 



MINERAL WATERS. 



III. SALINE SPRINGS— Continued. person. 

1. Sulphated — Continued. 
Carbonated chalybeate-calcic magnesie: 

Spring No. 2, Eldorado Springs, Missouri 24 . 66 

Spring No. 4, Eldorado Springs, Missouri 29.31 

Carbonated chalybeate-magnesic : 

Spring No. 3, Eldorado Springs, Missouri 22.01 

2. Mukiated. 
Sodic: 

Black Hawk Springs, Iowa 34.10 

Cantoment Spring, Florida 42.88 

Prairie du Chien Artesian Well, Wisconsin 137.03 

Saint Patrick's Well, Kentucky 165.38 

Randolph Springs, Missouri 340.12 

Tolenas Springs, California - 360.00 

Spring Lake Magnetic Well, Michigan 628 . 37 

Sheboygan Mineral Spring, Wisconsin 657.88 

Carbonated sodic : 

Diamond Mineral Spring, Colorado 104.90 

Sanicnla Springs, Illinois 170.77 

Oneita Springs, New York 183.77 

Salutaris Springs, Michigan 222.20 

White Sulphur Springs, Iowa 296.49 

Deep Rock Springs, New York 559.18 

GreatSpirit Spriug, Kansas 1,120.76 

Byron Springs: 

Iron Pipe Spring 668.14 

Hot Salt Spring 706.94 

Liver and Kidney Spring 769.05 

Surprise Spring 18,773.73 

Sulphureted sodic: 

Lodi Artesian Well, Indiana 672.45 

Ypsilanti Mineral Well, Michigan 1,205.69 

Mineral Well, Mount Clemens Mineral Springs, Michigan.. 13,654.33 
Sweet Springs, Missouri: 

Sweet Spring 152.27 

Akesion Spring 1,061.94 

Sulpho-carbonated sodic : 

Ripley Bromo Lithia Springs, Ohio 75.17 

Rex Mineral Spring, Ohio 130.09 

Magnetic Mineral Springs, Terre Haute, Indiana 429.44 

Black Sulphur Spring, Byron's Springs, California 461.97 

Lower Blue Lick Springs, Kentucky 632.83 

Iron Spring, Byron's Springs, California 765.64 

Spring No. 2, Blue Lick Springs, Missouri 1,213.72 

Young's Medicinal Wells, Missouri 1,562.01 

Carbonated-azotized sodic : 

West Baden Springs No. 1, Indiana 282.99 



III. SALINE SPRINGS— Continued. pebqISon. 

2. Mukiated — Continued. 

Sodic-ealcic: 
Parker Magnetic Mineral Spring, Pennsylvania 627.59 

Sodic-calcic magnesie: 
Arkansas Lithia Spring, Arkansas 67.79 

Calcic : 
Simpson Springs, Massachusetts 2 . 60 

Sulphureted calcic-sodic : 
Devonian Mineral Spring, Ohio 6,472.21 

Carbonated calcic-chalybeate: 
Maryland Strontia Spring, Maryland 74 . 76 

Sulpho-carbonated potassic : 
Peoria Magnetic Artesian Springs, Illinois 185.00 

IV. ACID SPRINGS. 

1. SULPHATED. 

Alumino-chalybeate : 

Alum Spring, Stribling Springs, Virginia 55.86 

Black Mountains Hon and Alum Spring, North Carolina... 99.65 

Carbonated alumino-chalybeate : 

Rockbridge Alum Springs, Virginia: 

Chalybeate 7.61 

Spring No. 6 17.94 

Spring No. 5 21.53 

Spring No. 4 27.09 

Spring No. 1 43.09 

Spring No. 8 52.73 

Spring No. 9 55.09 

Spring No. 3 61.77 

Spring No. 2 62.35 

Spriug No. 7 116.27 

Walla whatoola Alum Springs, Virginia 119.41 

Alumino-magnesic chalybeate : 
Elkhart Mineral Wells, Texas: 

WellNo. 2 143.81 

Well No. 3 169.28 

Well No. 1 181.51 

Alumino-calcic chalybeate : 
Overall Mineral Wells, Texas: 

Well No. 1 133.76 

Well No. 2 235.01 

Calcic-alumino-magiiesia chalybeate: 
Texas Sour Springs, Texas 443.91 

Calcic-magnesic chalybeate : 
Brown's Wells, Mississippi 266.23 



MINERAL WATERS. 



17 



UNCLASSIFIED WATERS. 



The following list includes all those springs which either did not furnish an analysis or of which the analysis 
was only partial or only qualitative : 



Healing Springs. Alabama. 

Jackson White Sulphur Springs, Alabama. 

Fair-child's Potash Sulphur Springs, Arkansas. 

Hot Springs of Elsinore, California. 

Ojai Hot Springs, California. 

Boulder Spring, Colorado. 

Clark Magnetic Mineral Spring, Colorado. 

Hillsboro' Mineral Spring, Illinois. 

Red Avon Springs, niinois. 

Silver Springs Mineral Well, Illinois. 

Ash Iron Spring, Indiana. 

Buffalo Saline Well, Indiana. 

Elliot's Mineral Springs, Indiana. 

King Mineral Spring, Indiana. 

Boiling Springs, Kansas. 

Geuda Mineral Springs, Kansas. 

Osage Mission Mineral Well, Kansas. 

Wichita Mineral Water Springs, Kansas. 

Anita Springs, Kentucky. 

Bedford Springs, Kentucky. 

Seal Rock Spring, Maine. 

Cecil Spring, Maryland. 

Belmont Hill Spring, Massachusetts. 

Zauber Wasser Well, Hudson, Michigan. 

Artesian White Sulphur Well, Chester, Missouri. 



Eeiger Springs, Missouri. 

Empire Seneca Spring, New York. 

Lemon Springs, North Carolina. 

Seven Springs, North Carolina. 

Adams County Mineral Springs, Ohio. 

Magnetic and Saline Spring, Marysville, Ohio. 

Sulphur Lick Spring, Ohio. 

Sizerville Magnetic Mineral Spring, Pennsylvania. 

Chick's Springs, South Carolina. 

Estill Springs, Tennessee. 

Idaho Springs, Tennessee. 

Dalby Springs, Texas. 

Capp's Mineral Water, Texas. 

Hynson's Iron Mount Springs, Texas. 

Montvale Springs, Texas. 

Richards' Wells, Texas. 

Roseborough Springs, Texas. 

Slack's Wells, Texas. 

Tioga Mineral Well, Texas. 

Brunswick White Sulphur Springs, Vermont. 

Hunter's Pulaski Alum Springs, Virginia. 

Powhatan Lithia and Saline Spring, Virginia. 

Rockingham Springs, Virginia. 

Silver Sand Spring, Wisconsin. 




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MAP 

SHOWING THE LOCATION 

MINKRAL SPRINGS OFTHE UNITED STATES 

THI WATERS OFWHICH ARE L'SED COMMERCIALLY 



...: 



191894 



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