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Full text of "Extra census bulletin"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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Extra Census Bulletin 



No. 5. 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



July 3, 1891. 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS AND TIMBER PRODUCTS. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 

Census Office, 
Washington, D. C, June 6, 1891. 



Sir : 



I respectfully transmit herewith a report on the mill and forest industries of the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota, prepared by Mr. George A. Priest, special agent, under the direction of Mr. Frank R. Williams, 
expert special agent in charge of the collection of statistics relating to all branches of manufactures. 

The great industries which form the subject of this report are considered in all their branches, from the cutting 
of the tree in the forest to the output of the finished product at the mill, each of the diverse interests being treated 
in a comprehensive manner. 

The original plan for the statistical treatment of these important industries contemplated distinct and complete 
reports on six groups of states, arranged with reference to geographical location and leading characteristics of 
products. 

Considering the group of states included in this report, it is found that the aggregate increase of product of the 
manufacturing industry which forms its principal subject is 29.66 per cent in quantity and 75.92 per cent in value 
since 1880 ; that the increase in the number of hands employed is 138.49 per cent, and the increase in total amount 
of wages paid is 141.26 per cent. 

The difference between the increase in quantity of product and the increase of its value is partly explained by 
the fact that the business of finishing and remanufacturing the mill product at the point of production has been 
developed to an unusual degree during the decade, thus increasing the gross value of product and furnishing 
employment to a greatly increased number of hands, receiving a corresponding increase in the aggregate amount of 
wages paid. This development from 1880 to 1890 is as follows for the respective states : 

PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE IN THE DECADE. 



PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE IN— 


Michigan. 


Wisconsin. 


Minnesota. 








84.72 








Value of mill products and remanufactures 


29.92 175.99 159.61 


Aggregate wages pa,d 













CO. P. -10m 



2 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 

The quantity of growing timber owned by the establishments reporting and available for present consumption 
appears to be only sufficient to supply their requirements for about five years. 

It is due to the manufacturers engaged in this industry to acknowledge their promptness in rendering returns 
and the careful attention bestowed upon their preparation, which probably involved a considerable amount of time 
and expense to each establishment. It is hoped that the result will prove such an addition to industrial statistics as to 
be of value and practical use to all interested. 

Very respectfully, 

ROBERT P. PORTER, 

Superintendent of Census. 
The Secretary of the Interior. 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS AND TIMBER PRODUCTS. 



BY GEORGE A. PRIEST. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 

In a report containing comparative statistics of the Tenth and Eleventh Censuses respecting the lumber-mill 
and saw-mill industry in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota the following quotations from Professor 
Sargent's report for the Tenth Census are deemed appropriate : 

Michigan is the greatest lumber-producing state in the Union. The value of its lumber product, with that of Wisconsin and Minnesota, 
exceeds one-third of the total value of all the lumber manufactured in the United States. This enormous development of the lumber business 
in the lake region is due to the excellence of its forests, the natural advantages of the country for manufacturing lumber, and the easy 
communication between these forests and the treeless agricultural region west of the Mississippi river. 

The extinction of the forests of the lake region may be expected to seriously affect the growth of population in the central portion of 
the continent. The country between the Mississippi river and the Rocky mountains, now largely supplied with lumber from Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and Minnesota, must, for building material, soon depend upon the more remote pine forests of the Gulf region or those of the Pacific 
coast. A great development in the now comparatively unimportant lumber-manufacturing interests in these regions may therefore be expected. 

The great northwestern pineries are not 3'et exhausted, and with newly introduced methods, by which logs once supposed inacoessible 
are now profitably brought to the mills, they may be expected to increase the volume of their annual product for a few years longer in response 
to the growing demands of the great agricultural population fast covering the treeless midcontinental plateau. The area of pine forests, 
however, remaining in the great pine-producing states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota is dangerously small in proportion to the 
country's consumption of white-pine lumber, and the entire exhaustion of these forests in a comparatively short time is certain. 

It is because of the peculiar importance and conditions of the industry in the states referred to that they are 
made the subject of a special report. 

The object of the census inquiry regarding lumber mills and saw mills was to procure from manufacturers such 
information as would enable this office to present in the reports of the Eleventh Census the actual condition of the 
industry as conducted in its various branches, showing such condition by totals for states, counties, and the principal 
cities. 

The form of the inquiry adopted was in its general plan in keeping with the form used by this office in the 
collection of statistics of manufactures generally. 

In order to secure for the diverse interests of the great industry embraced in the inquiry a full statistical 
presentation under the general heads of " Capital invested," " Annual expense chai-ges," " Labor and wages," 
" Materials used," and " Manufactured products," an arrangement of questions was required under each head which 
would include the entire series of operations, from the cutting of the tree in the forest to the output at the mill of 
the various finished products. It was essential that the schedule of questions should be in a form which could be 
used with equal facility for a report of the most extensive operations or of the smallest establishment. 

From the individual returns made upon the form adopted the information contained in the following tables 
has been compiled. 

A small percentage of the returns was so incomplete as to be unavailable for tabulation, and this office is now 
in correspondence with the establishments making such returns, with a view to obtaining correct data to be included 
in the final report. 

Each individual report tabulated is in effect a ledger balance sheet, showing totals of capital employed, expenses 
of manufacture, and value of product in classified accounts for each branch of one of the largest and most diversified 
industries of the country, and each report, to be available for tabulation, had to be consistent in all its details. It 



4 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 

should be understood, however, that the statistics published furnish no more reliable data for ascertaining 
manufacturers' profits than a partially constructed ledger balance sheet bears to that exact statement of resoui-ces 
and liabilities which forms the only true basis for obtaining such a result. The inquiry conducted by this office 
inchrded only such data as were necessary to form a comprehensive statistical statement for the industry under 
the heads mentioned. 

In explanation of the scope of the inquiry under the title of " Lumber mills and saw mills," it should be stated 
that the term lumber mills means only those mills which manufacture sawed lumber as the principal product, while 
the term saw mills means all other mills in which logs or bolts form the principal raw material and are 
manufactured into any kind of product other than lumber. Of the latter class this report includes 171 mills 
manufacturing shingles exclusively, 86 mills manufacturing staves and headings exclusively, and 168 mills 
manufacturing miscellaneous products, as follows : Handles, chair stock and turned goods, wooden ware, hoops, ax 
helves, paving blocks, hubs, spokes, implement stock, veneers, cheese boxes, baskets, etc. The number of each class 
located in the respective states will be found in Note 2 to Table 12, page 15. 

All other special industries using logs and bolts for raw material, such as pulp mills, etc., will be treated in 
connection with the principal industry to which they are most closely allied. 

This report includes only those planing mills which are operated by lumber manufacturers in connection with 
lumber mills. All other planing mills, sash, door, and blind factories, box factories, turning works, and similar 
woodworking industries engaged in the remanufacture of lumber and saw mill products, will form the subject of 
future reports. 

The results obtained respecting the principal subjects herein considered are summarized in the following exhibit, 
showing the magnitude of the industry in the states of Michigan, "Wisconsin, and Minnesota during the census year 
1890: 

Value of forest products not manufactured at mill §30,426,194 

Value of mill products 115,699,004 

Value of remamifactures 21,112,618 

Aggregate value of products 167, 237, 816 

The production of this value required $270,152,012 invested capital ; the employment in the forest of 95,25S 
men, 99 women, 10 children, and 32,491 animals ; the labor in the mills of 87,939 men, 646 women, and 653 
children ; the operation of machinery and mechanical appliances valued at $23,559,334 ; the expenditure of steam 
and water power sufficient to lift 3,500,000 tons one foot in one minute; the removal of 1,262,151,180 cubic feet 
of merchantable timber from natural growth ; the investment of $7,890,254 in vessels, railways, and water ways 
specially used and owned by this industry for the transportation of its material and product, and the expenditure of 
$99,688,256 for wages, subsistence, supplies, and miscellaneous expenses. 

A striking illustration of the tendency to concentration in this industry, by carrying the manufacture of the 
crude material to the highest possible point at the place of its original production, is shown by the value of its 
remanufactures, which consumed 16.56 per cent of the quantity of sawed lumber produced. 

The percentage of increase in the value of mill production and remanufactures compared with the value 
reported in 1880 is as follows: Michigan, 29.92 per cent; Wisconsin, 175.99 per cent; Minnesota, 159.61 per cent. 

In some localities in Michigan the supply of all kinds of timber has become practically exhausted and a 
decreased production will be observed, while in other localities, from which the pine has been denuded, other varieties 
of timber are now utilized into a greater variety of products. This fact may also be cited in explanation of the 
increase shown in remanufactures. 

The various statements in this report will show more particularly the sections and towns in which the industry 
has received its greatest development during the decade. 

It appears from the census reports of 1880 that six of the nine cities in the United States showing the highest 
production of sawed lumber at that date were located in the group of states under consideration. In Table 1 and 
the text immediately following the names of these cities and the value of their product is given, together with their 
relative rank in this group in 1880 and 1890, respectively. 

Special agents appointed to collect statistics of manufactures iu cities and towns in which such statistics were 
not collected by enumerators were instructed by this office to report only the operations of mills located within the 
corporate limits of the places for which they were appointed, excepting reports to be made on Special Schedule No. 
5a, Timber products. In the case of manufacturers of timber products whose operations are principally conducted 
in the forest, the establishments were reported according to the location of the operators' residence or principal office. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



The following and all similar tables embrace only those establishments whose works are located within the 
corporate limits of the respective cities or towns : 

Table 1.— RELATIVE RANK AND VALUE OF PRODUCTION OF SIX PRINCIPAL LUMBER-PRODUCING 
CITIES IN MICHIGAN, WISCONSIN, AND MINNESOTA. 



1880. 


CITIES. 


1890. 


cities. Rank in 
1 value 
j of pro- 
duction. 


Value of mill 

products and 

renianufactures. 


Rankin 
value 
of pro- 
duction. 


Value of mill 

products and 

renianufactures. 




614,840,336 






$25,837,239 


Bay City, Mich 1 1 

Minneapolis, Minn 3 




3,702,298 
3,199,250 
2,740,S48 
2,035,606 
1,867,500 
1,294,834 




1 

8 

4 
5 
6 


6,58-4,450 
4,208,689 
4,016,094 
4,006,214 
3,819,150 
3,202,636 


Menominee, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Oshkosh, "Wis 



In the preceding statement for Muskegon, Michigan, the value reported for 1880 does not include the village of 
Lakeside, which has since been embraced within the corporate limits of Muskegon, and is included in the report for 
1890. The product of mills located in Lakeside, as reported in 1880, was $2,452,127, which, added to that reported 
for Muskegon in the same year, aggregates $5,651,377 as the true amount for comparison with 1890. 

In 1890 the value of mill products and renianufactures reported from Saginaw, Michigan, was $3,128,599 ; Winona, 
Minnesota, $2,876,201; Alpena, Michigan, $2,717,282; Marinette, Wisconsin, $2,420,891, and Manistee, Michigan, 
$2,030,570, the last-named city .dropping from fifth place in 1880 to eleventh place in 1890 in relative rank among 
the cities of the Union. 

The production of white-pine lumber was carried to its highest point in 1880 at the mouth of the Saginaw river, 
and that locality still holds its rank in this respect. 

The aggregate value of production reported for Bay City, West Bay City, Saginaw, Essexville, and Zilwaukee, 
constituting the principal productive points on the Saginaw river, was $8,520,943 in 1880 and $9,927,405 in 1890. 
The aggregate quantity of material consumed during the census year 1890 was about six hundred and fifty million 
feet, scaled measure, and the quantity of standing timber now owned by establishments in the places named is 
reported to be about two and one-half billion feet. 

The city of Menominee, at the mouth of the Menominee river, in Michigan, shows the greatest increase of 
production during the decade. In 1880 it ranked six in the nine principal lumber-producing points in the United 
States, and is now found to be the second. 

In his report upon the Menominee river (Reports of the Tenth Census, volume IX, page 554), Mr. H. C. Putnam 
says: 

All the mills upon the river are located at its mouth, in the towns of Marinette and Menominee, * * * and it is considered next to 
impossible to build more mills at that point. The river is here narrow, and the facilities for holding logs, shipping lumber, dockage, etc., are 
quite limited in proportion to the amount of timber left in the region tributary to this stream, and this body of pine may therefore be 
considered to a certain extent in reserve and likely to outlast many larger ones. There is little danger from fire on this river. The pine 
which is left grows upon the hard-wood ridges, interspersed with broad areas of swamp. 

The aggregate value of production reported for Menominee (Michigan) and Marinette (Wisconsin) was $2,536,168 
ia 1880 and $6,629,580 in 1890. The aggregate quantity of material consumed at these points during the census 
year 1890 was about four hundred and fifty million feet, scaled measure, and the quantity of standing timber now 
owned by establishments in the places named is reported to be more than four billion feet, indicating a sufficient 
supply, at the present rate of consumption, for another decade. 

For the purpose of comparison with the census reports of 1870, 1880, and 1890, the totals for each state are 
placed in contrast in a number of tables following. In all comparisons with values reported in 1870 it should be borne 
in mind that the values of that year were expressed in a currency which was at a great discount in gold. The 
average premium on gold during the twelve months (June 1, 1869, to May 31, 1870) which constituted the census 
year was about one-fourth (25.3 per cent). A premium on gold of one-fourth is equal to a discount on currency of 
one-fifth. For purposes of comparison, therefore, the values of 1870 should be reduced in that ratio. 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



The following table gives a comparative statement for the census years 1870, 1880, and 1890, showing totals by 
states of the number of establishments, capital invested, average number of hands employed, wages paid, cost of 
materials used, and value of manufactured products : 

Table 2.— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1870, 1880, AND 1890. 



Wisconsin I 1870 



Minnesota - ' 1870 







AVERAGI 


NUMBER OF HANDS 








Number of 


Capital 
invested. 




EMPLOYED. 




Wages paid 

during 

the year. 

(«) 


Total value 
of all ma- 
terials used. 


Total value 
of mill 


establish- 
ments. 


Males 
above 16 


Females 
above 


Children 
and 


products and 
remaiiu- 
factures. 






years. 


15 years. 


youths. 








1,571 


$26,990,450 


19,252 


63 


743 


86,400,283 


$14,347,661 


$31,946,396 


1,6-19 


39,260,428 


22,732 


143 


1,300 


6,967,905 


32,251,372 


52,449,928 


1,957 


111,302,797 


43,060 


262 


495 


12,813,335 


39,565,601 


68,141,189 


720 


11,448,545 


11,795 


362 


304 


3,755,089 


7,422,866 


15,130,719 


704 


19,824,059 


7,748 


250 


467 


2,257,218 


12,471,473 


17,952,347 


863 


84,586,623 


30,618 


301 


131 


8,813,188 


30,755,875 


49,547,410 


207 


3,311,140 


2,899 


14 


39 


880,028 


2,193,965 


4,299,102 


231 


6,771,145 


2,732 


22 


100 


924,473 


4,529,055 


7,366,038 


320 


27,497,187 


9,887 


13 


27 


2,860,090 


11,972,854 


19,123,023 



a To enable a fair comparison under the heads of ''Labor and wages" and "Materials used," only such items of the returns of 1890 are shown as correspond to 
the reports for the years 1S70 and 1S80, which embraced only the expenditure at the mill under these heads. 

Capital invested. — There does not appear to be such a change in the actual conditions of the industry in 1890 
compared with 1880 as to cause an appreciable change in the ratio of capital employed to the value of goods 
manufactured. A great difference is, however, shown in this respect, as indicated by the following statement : 

Table 3.— AVERAGE CAPITAL INVESTED, AVERAGE VALUE OF PRODUCT, AND RATIO OF 

CAPITAL TO PRODUCT. 



Average capital Average value 
invested per ] of product per 
establishment. establishment. 



Ratio of capital Average capital 
to product ' invested per 
equals the establishment, 

ratio of — (a) 



Average value 
of product per 
establishment. 



Ratio of capital 
to product 
equals the 
ratio of— 



Michigan... 
Wisconsin- 
Minnesota.. 



$31,807 $0,749 to $1.00 

25,500 1.104 to 1.00 

31,479 0.919 to 1.00 



$57,960 
100,230 
86,657 



$38,689 $1,498 to $1.00 

01,649 1.626 to 1.00 

64,987 1.333 to 1.00 



a The average capital stated for 1890 includes only the 



ts reported by establishments which were in operation during the census year. 



The disproportion shown is probably due to the radical change in the form of inquiry used in the Eleventh 
Census respecting capital. This change has resulted in a full showing of the capital employed in all branches of 
the industry, which result, it is believed, was not obtained in previous censuses. 

The form of question used in the census of 1880 was as follows : " Capital (real and personal) invested in the 
business." The scope of the inquiry under the head of " Labor and wages " was restricted to labor employed at the 
mill, while under the head of " Materials used " the cost at the mill of logs or bolts consumed was reported. This form 
of inquiry, when addressed to an establishment owning timbered laud and engaged in cutting standing timber, was 
not sufficiently comprehensive. In some cases the entire capital employed was reported, while in others only the 
capital directly emploj r ed in mill operations was stated. 

The form of inquiry used in the census of 1890 required a distinct statement of capital employed in the 
production of logs and all other forest products, in the manufacture of logs into lumber or other mill products, and 
also in the remanufacture of such mill products into any other form of product. The subdivisions of the inquiry 
propounded respecting capital employed were calculated to develop the full amount of such capital, both owned 
and borrowed, and the results of the inquiry will be found in Table 12. 

The term " capital invested " simply means all those resources or assets of an establishment which are employed 
in and properly pertain to the conducting of its business. 

The aggregate stated is the real amount of investment for which the industry has to earn a return, although 
the proportion of "productive capital," i. e., the amount invested in tools, implements, animals, and plant directly 
used in the process of manufacturing, is shown to be a minor proportion of the whole capital employed. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



The average apportionment of each $100 of capital employed to the principal classes of investment by 
manufacturers of the respective states is as follows : 

Table 4.— AVERAGE APPORTIONMENT TO PRINCIPAL CLASSES OF 
INVESTMENT. 



<I.ASSi:s OF INYKSTMENT. 





Michigan. 


Wisconsin. 


Minnesota. 




$32.00 
13.35 
19.94 
34.71 


837.08 
13.23 
16.52 
33.17 


$21.31 
16.79 
24.67 
37.23 









Timbered land tributary to mill 

Logging 

Mill plant 

Live capital 

The items of rent, interest, and commissions paid, properly shown in Table 12 under the head of " Annual 
expense charges," should be eliminated from the cost of manufacture, in order to ascertain, approximately, the net 
earnings of the industry for the capital invested. 

Labor employed and wages paid. — In previous census reports respecting the lumber-mill and saw-mill industry 
the statistics of labor emploj r ed and wages paid have been confined to a statement of the average number of men, 
women, and children, respective^, employed at the mills and the total amount paid in wages to all during the year. 

The classified occupation and wage system was adopted in the present census in the form of questions calling 
for information as to labor and wages, and reports were obtained of the average number of men, women, and children 
employed in each class during the year and the total wages paid to each class in the various branches of occupation. 
A statement was also obtained showing the various rates per week or month and the average number of men, 
women, and children, respectively, employed at each rate. 

The wage statistics compiled from these reports are stated in Table 12, and leave no margin of uncertainty. 
They are actual, and show absolutely the number of each class of wage laborers and their average earnings, which 
may be relied upon as an accurate presentation from employers' returns. They also include the number of officers 
or firm members actually engaged in productive labor or in supervision of the business at such rates of wages as 
would be paid to employes for similar service ; they show also clerical labor at the mill, each class and its wages for 
the year being separately shown in the table referred to. 

The number of hands reported in Table 2 for the year 1890 will not correspond to the total number reported 
in Table 12, because it is necessary, in order to enable a fair comparison with preceding years, to show for 1S90 only 
those hands who were engaged in mill labor, exclusive of officers or firm members and clerks or salesmen, which 
classes were not included in previous census reports. 

The average annual term of employment for mill employes is found by the reports for 1890 to be 7.11 months 
in Michigan, 6.43 months in Wisconsin, and 5.92 months in Minnesota. No information respecting the term of 
employment has been published in previous census reports. The average annual earnings per hand, after reducing 
to a gold basis the wages paid in 1870, is as follows : 

Table 5.— AVERAGE ANNUAL EARNINGS PER HAND. 



Michigan $255 

Wisconsin 241 

Minnesota 238 



1880. 


18110. 


S28S 


$292 


267 


281 


324 


283 



The average term of mill operation per annum was 5.75 months in Michigan, 5.5 months in Wisconsin, and 4.75 
months in Minnesota. The excess of the average term of employment for mill employes over the average term of 
mill operation is caused by the fact that the establishments having the maximum term of mill operation employ the 
greater number of hands. 



8 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 

The following table gives for the group of states the average number of wage earners employed in mill operation 
and care of mill product, and the actual total wages paid during the census year. Hands employed on piecework 
are not included. 

Table 6.— AVERAGE NUMBER OP HANDS AND ACTUAL WAGES PAID. 





AGGREGATE. 


MALES ABOVE 16 YEARS. 


FEMALES ABOVE 15 YEARS. 


CHILDREN. 




Average 
number. 


Total wages. 


Average 
number. 


Total wages. 


Average 
number. 


Total wages. 


Average 
number. 


Total wages. 




81,834 


$23,615,383 


80,843 


523,469,973 


488 


580,720 


503 


$64,690 








S3, 344 
48,490 


10,643,768 
12,971,615 


33,085 
47,758 


10,610,632 
12,859,341 


161 

327 


23,642 
57,078 


98 
405 


9,494 




55,196 







The following table shows for the group of states the monthly rates of wages paid (including board when 
furnished as part compensation), the average number of hands employed at each rate, exclusive of those employed 
on piecework, and the average term of employment for hands employed at the respective rates of wages : 

Table 7 MONTHLY RATES OF WAGES PAID, AVERAGE NUMBER EMPLOYED, AND AVERAGE TIME EMPLOYED 

AT EACH RATE. 



CLASSES. 


$10 and 
over, but 
under $12. 


$12 and 
over, but 
under $15. 


$15 and 
over, but 
under $18. 


$18 and 
over, but 
under $20. 


$20 and 
over, but 
under $25. 


$25 and 
over, but 
under $30. 


$30 and 
over, but 
under $35. 


$35 and 
over, but 
under $10. 


$40 and 
over, but 
under $50. 


$50 and 
over. 




34 


70 


70 


921 


3,540 


7,223 


13,765 


25,442 


17,594 


13,175 






Males above 16 years, average number em- 
ployed. 

Females above 15 years, average number em- 
ployed. 








580 
29 
312 


3,424 
65 
51 


6,863 

360 


13,765 


25,442 


17,594 


13,175 




34 
36 






34 


70 























AVERAGE TIME EMPLOYED. 



Materials used. — In explanation of the amount shown for 1890 in Table 2 as the cost of materials used in mill 
production and remanufactures, a table showing the items which produce the result obtained for each state is 
herewith given : 

Table 8.— ITEMIZED COST OF MATERIALS IN MILL PRODUCTION AND REMANUFACTURES. 



Value of stumpage 

Cost of logging supplii 
d in woods . 



AVages pal 

Contract labor in woods 

Keep of animals 

Wages expended in transportation of logs to mill.. 
All other expenses of transportation 



Total cost of forest products. . 



Cost at mill of logs and bolts manufactured by milling establishments 
and used as material for mill products. 



Add cost of logs and bolts bought 

Total cost of logs and bolts delivered at mill.. 
Add cost of mill supplies 



Total cost of materials for mill products 
Add cost of materials for remanufactures .... 



Cost of materials entering into mill products and remanufactures.. 



$13,100,043 
556,493 
5,018,931 
1,954,637 
1,007,617 
558,827 
3,220,001 



25,416,579 
5,909,584 



19,506,995 
15,337,957 



34,844,952 
1,189,959 



36,034,911 
3,530,690 



Wisconsin. Minnesota 



$7,526,550 

414,218 

3,265,897 

1,233,936 

744,820 

638,741 

1,549,983 



15,374,145 
2,361,357 



13,012,7SS 
7,949,933 



20,962,721 
673,927 



21,636,648 
9,119,227 



$1,576,918 
62,521 
699,663 
560,874 
206,501 
260,511 
348,455 



3,715,443 
1,347,807 



2,367,636 
4,785.401 



7,153,037 
256,251 



7,409,288 
4,563,566 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



It appears from an examination of the preceding table that the cost of logs and bolts constitutes 96.74 per cent 
of the expenditure for materials entering into mill products. In the following table the percentage of cost of 
materials in each 8100 of product for three successive census years is placed in contrast: 



Table 9.— PERCENTAGE OF COST OF MATERIALS. 



STATES. 


1870. 


1S80. 


1890. 


Minnesota 


44.91 
•19.06 
51.03 


61.49 
69.47 
61.49 


58.06 
62.07 
62.61 



The cost of raw material has steadily advanced during the period embraced by the preceding table. At the 
close of the census year 1880 the market value of the manufactured product was just recovering from the depression 
which it had sustained in common with all manufactures as a result of the panic of 1873, and this fact is suggested 
in explanation of the abnormal proportion of the cost of material to the value of product as reported at that time. 

The classification of products used in 1870 showed only sawed lumber, shingles, and laths specifically. 

The classification used in 1880 embraced the following items specifically : Sawed lumber, laths, shingles, staves, 
headings, and spool and bobbin stock. 

Manufactured products. — The classification adopted for the reports of the Eleventh Census was enlarged 
at the request of operators in certain industries desirous of ascertaining the quantities of special saw r -mill products 
required by such industries for raw material, and embraces all the foregoing in distinct classes, excepting laths, 
which, being usually made from slabs and edgings and not included in the scaled measurement of logs sawed, are 
therefore reported as a by-product under the head of "All other products." The added classes, consisting of 
furniture stock, carriage and wagon stock, agricultural implement stock, and pickets, are reported in the following 
table as sawed lumber, but a specific report for each class will be found in Table 12 : 

Table 10.— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF MILL PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1870, 1880, 

AND 18S0, BY STATES. 



Year. 


Nu ruber 

of 
establish- 
ments. 


Lumber. 

(Feet, board 

measure.) 


Shingles. 
{Number.) 


Staves. 
(Number.) 


Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 


Laths. 
(Number.) 


Value of all 

other 

products. 


Value of 

remanufac- 

tures. 


1S70 


1,571 


2,251,613,000 


658,741,000 


(«) 


(a) 


304,054,000 


$1,332,922 


(6) 


1880 


1,649 


4,172,572,000 


2,534,717,000 


199,S21,000 


21,897,000 


461,805,000 


531,406 


(6) 


1890 


1,914 


4,311,240,000 


2,841,213,000 


247,875,000 


32,085,000 


(a) 


6,024,244 


84,358,206 


1870 


720 


1,098,199,000 


806,S07,000 


(a) 


(a) 


102,663,000 


620,591 


(b) 


1880 


704 


1,542,021,000 


862,922,000 


82,545,000 


7,498,000 


215,132,000 


152,171 


(b) 


1890 


842 


2,S61,517,000 


1,366,022,000 1 


58,187,000 


7,819,000 


(a) 


3,029,103 


11,437,739 


1870 


207 


242,390,000 


127,S13,000 


(a) 


(a) 


49,768,000 


88,861 


(b) 


1880 


234 


563.974-,000 


194,566,000 


7,825,000 


547,000 


88, 088, 000 


21,100 


(b) 


1890 


315 


1,028,665,000 


400,472,000 


6,300,000 


450,000 


(«) 


1,017,890 


5,316,673 



products 

and remanu- 

faetures. 



531,946,396 
52,449,928 
68,141,189 

15,130,719 
17,952,347 
49,547,410 

4,299,162 
7,366,038 
19,123,023 



[ Quantity not reported ; value included in "All other products.' 



b Not separately reported. 



The item of custom sawing is included under the head of "All other products," and is reported more fully 
than in previous years. An analysis of the individual reports shows 349 establishments engaged exclusively in 
custom sawing, as follows : 

Table 11.— RECEIPTS FROM CUSTOM SAWING. 



^,„. m ^^ '■ Establish- 

STATES. 

raents. 


Receipts 

from custom 

sawing. 




$2, 036,317 






1,457,121 
430,847 
198,349 



10 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



To avoid duplication, the products represented by the receipts for custom sawing or similar work are not 
specifically accounted for by quantity or value in the reports of mill establishments wholly or partially engaged in 
such work, because such establishments can not state the cost of materials which are furnished by and manufactured 
for others. The quantity and value of the material and its products is, however, embraced by the inquiry made on 
Special Schedule No. 5a, addressed to all manufacturers of timber products not operating mills. The tabulation of 
reports received on this schedule will be found on pages 49 to 52, inclusive. 

Statement in detail for 1890. — The following table shows the totals for each branch of the industry under the 
heads of " Capital invested." "Annual expense charges," " Labor and wages," " Materials used," and " Manufactured 
products " in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota during the census year 1890 : 



Table 12.— LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 
capital invested. 





AGGREGATE. 


MICHIGAN. 


■WISCONSIN. 


MINNESOTA. 




(3,140 establishments 
reported.) 


(1,957 establishments 
reported.) 


(863 establishments 
reported.) 


(320 establishments 
reported.) 


CLASSIFICATION. 


Establish- 




Establish- 




Establish- 




Establish- 






ments 
reporting 
respective 

items. 


Total 

amount. 


ments 
reporting 
respective 

items. 


Total 
amount. 


ments 
reporting 
respective 

items. 


Total 
amount. 


ments 
reporting 
respective 

items. 


Total 
amount. 


I VESTED fa) 


i 


§223,380,607 




$111,302,797 




$84,586,623 




$27,497,187 














Timbered land : 










Timbered land tributary to mills located in the states named.. 


883 


72,843,377 


516 


35,619,323 


299 


31,363,610 


68 


5,860,444 


Logging equipment : 














5,289,204 

2,567,677 

87,825 


1,038 


2,603,466 


479 


2,020,901 


109 


664,837 






1,237,800 


38 


1,160,677 


4 


169,200 




96 


7 


7,967 


72 


55,820 


17 


24,038 


In river improvements (exclusive of stock in chartered boom 
companies). 


405 


1,466,472 


191 


426,644 


181 


733,731 


33 


306,097 


In vessels used for transportation of lumber or logs, steam 
tugs, etc. 


143 


2,342,664 


95 


1,658,163 


42 


610,001 


6 


74,500 


Forest products on hand, but not delivered at mill May 31, 
1890. 


1,098 ' 


16,290,817 


782 


8,510,513 


258 


5,547,568 


58 


2,232,736 


All other capital invested specifically in logging 


737 


2,621,312 


481 


413,613 


214 


1,062,542 


42 


1,145,157 




30,665,971 


14,858,166 


11,191,240 


4,616,565 














Mill plant: 










Saw-mill plant : 




















2,756 


8,109,946 


1,731 


4,032,547 


790 


2,187,793 


235 


1,889,600 




3,041 


9,511,091 


1,906 


5,215,168 


839 


3,186,853 


296 


1,109,070 




3,140 


21,872,633 


1,957 


12,074,328 


863 


6,948,000 


320 


2,850,305 




39,493,670 


21,322,043 


12,322,646 


5,848,981 


Planing-mill plant: 
















331 


701,527 


99 


150,613 


181 


203,429 


51 


347,485 




390 


801,775 


131 


177,208 


196 


460,546 


63 


164,021 




486 


1 ,686,701 


173 


449,076 
776,897 

99,267 


232 


883,814 


81 



353,811 








3,190,003 
268,218 


1,547,789 
100,234 


865,317 




141 


79 


47 


15 


68,717 








42,951,891 


22,198,207 


13,970,669 


6,783,015 














Live assets : 










Logs and bolts at mill May 31, 1890 


1,795 


13,400,352 


1,114 


5,673,980 


515 


5,922,907 


166 


1,803,465 


Lumber or other products (not planed or finished) on hand 
May 31 , 1890. 


1,954 


31,706,274 


1,210 


15,784,057 


566 


12,251,742 


178 


3,670,475 






3,448,930 
28,369,812 




1,212,878 
15,956,186 




1,504,499 
8,381,956 


91 


731,553 


Cash on hand, bills receivable, accounts receivable, and all 
sundries not elsewhere reported. 


2,042 


1,271 


563 


208 


4,031,670 




76,925,368 


38,627,101 


28,061,104 


10,237,163 















a See Note 1 to Table 12, page 15. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



11 



Table 12.— LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS— Continued. 
ANNUAL EXPENSE CHARGES. 



('I.A>SII-'I< ATION. 



Total . 



AGGREGATE. 

(3,140 establishments 
reported.) 



reporti ng 

respective 

items. 



Rent 

Taxes 

Insurance 

Ordinary repairs of buildings and machinery 

Commissions and other expenses of selling(a) 

Amount paid for interest on cash used in the business 

All other items of annual expense not elsewhere reported.. 



2,622 
1,508 
2,461 



9,450,739 



(1,957 establishments 
reported.) 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



142,659 
1,834,224 
1,440,287 
1,808,S3U 

910,268 
2,043,498 
1,270,964 



81,162 
996,744 
674,029 
973,582 
400,915 
964,311 
568,747 



(863 establishments 
reported.) 



reportin 

respectiv 

items. 



25,803 
681,235 
529,976 
600,590 
306,225 
767,114 
441,472 



(320 establishments 
reported.) 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



35,694 
156,245 
236,282 
234,667 
143,128 
312,073 
260,745 



Labor and wages— SUMMARY FOR ALL BRANCHES. 





MALES ABOVE 
16 YEABS. 


FEMALES ABOVE 
15 YEARS. 


CHILDREN. 






SUBSISTENCE OP 
ANIMALS. 


Amount 


Estimated 
number 


STATES. 


Total 
number. 


Total wages 
paid. 


Total 
number. 


Total 
wages 
paid. 


Total 
number. 


Total 
wages 
paid. 


of hands 
employed. 


of 
wages paid. 


Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 
subsistence. 


tractors 
for logging 


ployed by 
logging con- 
tractors. 




142,613 


$38,069,975 


646 


5126,653 


653 


882,969 


143,912 


338,279,597 


22,029 


$1,958,968 


33,749,447 


18,606 






70,791 
55,537 
16,285 


20,036,825 
13,801,562 
4,231,588 


299 
331 
16 


60,236 
63,735 

2,682 


495 
131 
27 


61,416 
17,784 
3,769 


71,585 
55,999 
16,328 


20,158,477 
13,883,081 
4,238,039 


9,240 
9,936 
2,853 


1,007,647 
744,820 
206,501 


1,954,637 

1,233,936 

560,874 


8,425 
7,133 
3,048 







Labor and wagks-IIANPS EMPLOYED. 



MICHIGAN. 



(1,914 establishments reported.) 


(842 establishments 


■eported.) 


(315 establishments reported.) 


LOGGING OPERATIONS CONDUCTED BY MILLING 
ESTABLISHMENTS. 


Establish- 

ments 

reporting 

respective 

items. 


Average 
number of 

hands 

employed 

during 

year. 


Wages paid. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Average 
number of 

hands 

employed 

during 

year. 


Wages paid. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Average 
number of 

hands 

employed 

during 

year. 


Wages paid. 






33,729 


§7,532,395 




30,607 


$5,138,574 




8,944 


81,521,048 




753 
542 
209 


359 
265 
192 


83 
58 
35 




21 ,674 
3,630 
8,425 


5,018,931 

558,827 

1,954,637 


18,877 
4,597 
7,133 


3,265,897 

638,741 

1,233,936 


3,799 
2,097 
3,048 


699,663 
260,511 
560,874 




Amount paid by milling; establishments to contrac- 
tors for logging; — number of hands estimated. 



Labor and wages— ANIMALS EMPLOYED. 



LOGGING OPERATIONS CONDUCTED BY MILLING 
ESTABLISHMENTS. 




Number. 


Cost of 
subsistence. 




Number. 


Cost of 
subsistence. 




Number. 


Cost of 
subsistence. 




790 


9,240 


SI ,007,647 


396 


9,936 


8744,820 


89 


2,853 


$206,501 





a The value of product reported is the net value at the mill, exclusive of expenses of selling, therefore the cost of this item of expense should not be 
considered as a charge on the cost of manufacture. 



12 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



TABLE IS.— LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS— Continued. 
Labor and wages— LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



EMPLOYES. 



Total . 



MICHIGAN. 

(1,9 U establishments reported.) 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting' 
respective 
items. 



Officers or firm members (a) : 

Males 

Females 

Clerks or salesmen : 

Males above 16 years 

Females above 15 years 

Mill operatives, engineers and other skilled work- 
men, overseers, and foremen or superintendents 
(not general superintendents or managers) : 

Males above 16 years 

Females above 15 years '■ 

Children 

Watchmen, laborers, teamsters, and other un- 
skilled workmen : 

Males above 16 years 

Females above 15 years 

Children 

Piecework (not included in the foregoing; state- 
ment) : 

Males above 16 years 

Females above 15 years 

Children....*. 



Average 
number of 

hands 

employed 

during 

year. 



1,821 



,241,449 
7,480 



4S9.8S4 
10,067 



746,247 
9,682 
6,894 



,117,586 
26,055 
32,702 

445,547 
6,952 
17,744 



"WISCONSIN. 

(842 establishments reported.) 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



Average 
number of 

hands 

employed 

during 

year. 



Wages paid, 



732,804 
9,290 



1,779,554 
10,825 
1,100 



315,619 

2,801 



MINNESOTA. 

(315 establishments reported.] 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



Average 
number of 

hands 

employed 

during 

year. 



170, 7S1 
1,470 



Labor and wages— PLANING MILLS CONNECTED WITH SAW MILLS. 



EMPLOYES. 


MICHIGAN 

(173 establishments 


reported.) 


WISCONSIN 

(232 establishments 


reported.) 


MINNESOTA. 

(81 establishments reported.) 


T tal 




1,193 


SJ22.430 




3,352 


$1,272,271 




628 






7 


13 






Officers or firm members (a) : 


11 


8,179 


18 


20,322 


4 


1,270 






Clerks or salesmen : 


4 


12 


10,325 


22 
4 

183 

8 


79 
7 

1,171 
9 


69,599 
2,790 

531,577 
2,460 








F ales above 15 ears 






Mill operatives, engineers and other skilled work- 
men, overseers, and foremen or superintendents 
(not general superintendents or managers) : 


127 


635 


230,327 


62 


340 






















Watchmen, laborers, teamsters, and other un- 
skilled workmen : 


75 


509 


169,523 


13S 
2 
5 


2,010 
S 
50 


634,406 
1,000 
9,517 


37 


282 


114,917 








i 


26 


4,076 




3 


2 


381 



a Only those officers or firm members are reported who were eng 
which would be paid for similar service if performed by employes. 



of the business or in productive labor. The wages stated are those 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



13 



Table 12.— LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS— Continued. 
MATERIALS USED. 





AGGREGATE. 

(3,071 establishments reported.) 


MICHIGAN. 

(1,914 establishments reported.) 


LOGGING, LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS, AND PLANING MILLS 
AND REMANUFACTURES. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Quantity. 


Value, (a) 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Quantity. 


Value.' (a) 








$75, 762,093 




836,935,143 




1,264 
791 


5, 864, 104, 293 


787 
499 


3,200,762,122 


Logging: (6) 

Quantity and value of standing timber cut during year by milling es- 
tablishments. 

Logging supplies used (exclusive of supplies included in report of 
wages and subsistence). 

Transportation of logs to mill (exclusive of items reported under head 
of " Labor and wages "). 


22,203,511 
1,033,232 
5,118,439 


13,100,043 

556,493 

3,220,001 
















28,355,182 


10,876,537 




2,042 
2,839 


3,981,009,361 


1,331 
1,749 


2,258,500,816 


Lumber mills and saw mills: (c) 


28,073,291 
2,120,137 


15,337,957 
1,189,959 












30,193,428 


16,527,916 




361 
320 


1,340,216,922 


116 

102 


259,134,498 


Planing mills and remanufactures : (c) 
Rough lumber { finished or remanufactured at planing mills connected 
with saw mills). 


17,001,751 
211,732 


3,480,647 
50,043 










17,213,483 


3,530,690 













LOGGING, LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS, AND PLANING MILLS 
AND REMANUFACTURES. 


WISCONSIN. 

(S42 establishments reported.) 


MINNESOTA. 

(315 establishments reported.) 






27,233,838 






11,593,112 




389 
251 


2,103,511,765 


88 
41 


559,830,406 


Logging: (&) 

Quantity and value of standing timber cut during year by milling es- 
tablishments. 

Logging supplies used (exclusive of supplies included fn report of 
wages and subsistence). 

Transportation of logs to mill (exclusive of items reported under head 
of " Labor and wages"). 


7,526,550 

414,218 

1,549,983 


1,576,918 




348,455 












9,490,751 


1,987,894 




510 

787 


1,112,920,122 


201 
303 


609,588,423 


Lumber mills akd saw mills : (c) 


7,949,933 
673,927 


4,785,401 
256,251 












8,623,860 


5,041,652 




185 
165 


713,693,833 


60 
53 


367,388,591 


Planing mills and remanufactures: (c) 
I tough IuihIkt (fini.slu'.d or remanufactured at planing mills connected 
with saw mills). 


8,995,042 
124,185 


4,526,062 
37,504 










9,119,227 


4,503,566 













a Stumpage stated at its estimated value ; all other materials stated at actual cost. 
h Quantities given in feet, scaled measure. 



. feet, board measure. 



14 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



Table 12 LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS— Continued. 

MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS, (a) 



OF PRODUCTS. 



AGGREGATE. 

(3,071 establishments reported.) 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



MICHIGAN. 

(1,914 establishments reported.) 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



Aggregate value of all products (&).. 



8146,130,370 



1,914 



Forest products: 
Saw logs for domestic consumption (feet, scaled ] 

Telegraph poles (numberl 

Fence posts (number) 

Railway ties (number) 

Piling (pieces) 

Hewed timber(feet, board measure) 

Round timber, for export (feet, scaled measure) 

All other products which have not become the material of the i 



Total.. 



Lumber-mill and saw-mill products: 

Sawed lumber (feet, board measure) ■■ 

Bobbin and spool stock (feet, board measure) 

Furniture stock (feet, board measure) 

Carriage and wagon stock (feet, board measure) 

Agricultural implement stock (feet, board measure) 

Pickets or palings (feet, board measure) 

Shingles (number) 

Staves (pieces) 

Headings (sets)..'. 

All other products (including receipts from custom sawing) (c).. 



Total . 



Planing-mill products and remanvfactukks.. 



1,108,827,941 

70,819 

5,626,310 

1,226,469 

33,205 

67,015 

4,099,000 



8,093,917,775 
4,685,660 
32,252,134 
17,503,241 
3,926,337 
49,137,597 
4,667,707,000 
312,361,783 
40,353,993 



225,921 
276,627 

54,250 
1,200 

27,651 
310,719 



9,618,748 



93,729,0S8 

57,164 

419,167 

213,758 

52,714 

231,431 

8,144,122 

1,788,007 

991,716 

10,071,237 



671,833,149 
54,999 
1,505,940 
714,132 
12,305 
27,015 
3,709,000 



5,281,206 
53,624 
127,140 
177,645 
27,500 
600 
24,960 
216,909 



115,699,004 



4,257,000,247 
4,185,660 
20,239,343 
12,715,761 
2,989,547 
13,509,360 
2,841,213,000 
247,874,761 
32,085,238 



49,925,094 

48,164 

276,540 

149,562 

40,685 

70,385 

5,171,035 

1,413,693 

663,581 

6,024,244 



63,782,983 



CLASS OF PRODUCTS. 



WISCONSIN. 

(842 establishments reported.) 



Aggregate value of all products (6) . 



Forest products : 
Saw logs for domestic consumption (feet, scaled i 

Telegraph poles (number) 

Fence posts (number) 

Railway ties (number) 

Piling (pieces) 

Hewed timber (feet, board measure) 

Round timber, for export (feet, scaled measure) 

All other products which have not become the material of the 



1,226,998 
5,189 
509,453 
353,139 
13,938 
40,000 
390,000 



Total.. 



Lumber-mill and saw-mill products: 

Sawed lumber (feet, board measure) 

Bobbin and spool stock (feet, board measure) 

Furniture stock (feet, board measure) 

Carriage and wagon stock (feet, board measure) 

Agricultural implement stock (feet, board measure) 

Pickets or palings (feet, board measure) 

Shingles (number) 

Staves (pieces) 

Headings (sets) 

All other products (including receipts from custom sawing) (c).. 



2,812,564,872 



11,039,772 
4,171,461 
855,632 
32,885,699 
1,366,022,000 
58,187,022 
7,818,755 



Total . 



Planing-mili. products and remanufactures . 



2,153,154 
3,706 
29,454 
52,272 
20,128 
600 
2,691 
99,352 



MINNESOTA. 

(315 establishments reported.) 



31,873,910 



129,976 
52,436 
10,936 
150,818 
2,186,643 
363,714 
312,135 
3,029,103 



38,109,671 



147,767,794 

10,631 

3,610,917 

159,198 

6,962 



1,023,752,656 

500,000 

973,019 

616,016 

81,158 

2,742,538 

460,472,000 

6,300,000 

450,000 



1,213,689 
11,001 
69,327 
46,710 
6,622 



a The table embraces only those forest products of mill establishments engaged in logging which have not become the material of the mill. 
&The value of product is the net value at the miil, exclusive of expenses of selling. The cost of this item is stated under the head of "Annual expense 
charges," and should not be considered as a charge on the cost of manufacture. c See Note 2 to Table 12, page 15. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



L5 



NOTES TO TABLE 12. 
Note 1. — The aggregate amount of invested capital shown in Table 12 includes that reported by establishments not in operation during the 
census year. These idle establishments are distributed as follows in the respective states, and the total amount of their capital should be 
deducted from the aggregate reported for each state if it is desired to ascertain the amount of capital actively employed in the industry : 



STATES. 


Idle 
establish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Total 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 


69 


8761,016 


| 43 

21 

5 


367,711 
192,980 
200,325 



Note 2. — The amount reported as "All other products " in Table 12 includes the following : 



MICHIGAN. 



Number of 
establish- 
ments. 



Establishments engaged exclusively in custom sawing.. 
Establishments engaged partially in custom sawing 



SPECIAL IXDVSTKIES AM) IJV-1T.ODUI.TS. 



Handles, chair stock, and similar turned and shaped goods.. 
Tubs, pails, churns, packages, miscellaneous wooden ware, f 
Hoops 



Paving blocks 

Hubs, spokes, and similar wagon stock, in shape.. 

Agricultural implement stock, in shape 

Miscellaneous 

Estimated value of laths 

Estimated value of other by-products 



Receipts 

from custom 

work. 



1,457,121 
1,642,514 



Value of 
product. 



476,698 
979,450 
337,626 
30,200 
169,284 



6,351 
750,000 
175,000 



WISCONSIN. 



Number of 
establish- 
ments. 



Receipts 

from custom 

work. 



430,847 
392,232 



Value of 
product. 



41,884 
999,738 
28,655 



380,240 
5,700 
74,244 
550,000 
125,563 



MINNESOTA. 



Number of 
establish- 
ments. 



Receipts 

from custom 

work. 



19S.349 
367,816 



Value of 
product. 



7,500 
11,475 



20,000 
20,000 



48,001 
247,000 
97,749 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF REPORTS. 

There is found to be so wide a range in the productive capacity of lumber mills that, in order to obtain results 
of any value, it is necessary to classify the reports of such establishments as follows : Class 1 includes only those 
establishments which reported a consumption of over five million feet of standing timber, logs, or bolts, Class 2 those 
which reported a consumption of over one million and not more than five million feet, and Class 3 those which 
reported a consumption of one million feet or less. 

The term " productive labor " includes only hands employed in such labor in and about the mill as would 
properly constitute a charge on the direct cost of the manufacture. The term " unproductive labor " includes all 
other wage laborers employed in the handling and care of the product at the mill. The term " salaried labor " 
includes all salaried profit sharers and employes not exclusively engaged in the sales department. 

The tendency of all productive industry to centralization for purposes of economy and effectiveness is especially 
noted in the manufacture of lumber. Previous to the year 1870 the product of the lumber mill was usually forwarded 
to distributing centers, there to be manipulated and prepared for sale to the retail dealer. The extension of railway 
facilities and closer competition has caused a corresponding increase of direct distribution from the mill, thus raising 
the expense for handling in the yard at the point of production. The majority of manufacturers included in Class 
1 may be said to be merchants as well, and a very large portion of the labor reported by them is therefore not a charge 
upon the cost of manufacture, but is employed in the mercantile branch of the business, and is part of the expense of 
selling. This fact should be noted in explanation of the excessive proportion of non-productive labor reported by 



L6 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



establishments of the class referred to, as illustrated in the following table respecting labor employed and average 
daily wages paid : 

Table 13.— AVERAGES, BY CLASSIFIED ESTABLISHMENTS, OF LABOR EMPLOYED AND 
WAGES PAID IN LUMBER MILLS. 



STATES AND CLASSES. 


PRODUCTIVE AND SKILLED WAGE 
LABORERS EMPLOYED. 


NON-PRODUCTIVE AND UNSKILLED 
WAGE LABORERS EMPLOYED. 


Number 

of 
hours in 
ordinary 

day 
of labor. 


Number 

per 
establish- 


Rate of 
wages per 

hand 
per day. 


Number of 

days 
employed. 


Number 

per 
establish- 
ment. 


Rate of 
wages per 

hand 
per day. 


Number of 

days 
employed. 


Michigan : 


39.64 


1.51 

1.25 

2.24 
1.56 
1.52 


215.60 
196.00 
112.50 

176.00 
137.72 
89.50 


72.33 
5.40 


SI. 23 
1.14 


221 
186 


1 

)■ 10.09 

1 alO.46 
1" 610.06 




Wisconsin and Minnesota: 


6.54 




60.26 
6.24 


1.49 
1.27 


191 
152 




17.50 
6.76 








1 1 



610.06 for all classes in Minnesota. 



alO.46 for all classes in Wisconsin. 

The following analysis of reports from the several classes of establishments will elucidate the precedir 
statement still further : 

Table 14.— AVERAGES OBTAINED FROM REPORTS OF LUMBER MANUFACTURERS. 







MICHIGAN. 




WISCONSIN AND MINNESOTA. 




Average 


for establishments of — 


Average for establishments of — 


LOGGING AND LUMBER MILLS. 














Class 1. 


Class 2. 


Class 3. 


Class 1. 


Class 2. 


Class 3. 


Logging (conducted by mill establishments) : 














Quantity of standing timber cut (feet, board measure) 


22,476,755 


2,209,808 


434,210 


14,555,687 


2,305,556 


321,818 




$4.49 


S2.ll 


$2.75 


$3.65 


$2.49 


$2.16 


Quantity cut per hand employed (feet, board measure) 


142,663 


109,249 


56,S96 


103,040 


67,590 


45,974 1 


Wages per hand employed in woods 


$279.84 


9201.64 


$139.14 


$181.17 


$168.57 


$100.02 


Average number of weeks employed per hand 


33.13 


33.67 


22.16 


23.61 


25.62 


13.14 






SI. 57 


$1.72 


SO. 81 


$1.90 


$1.64 


Lumber mills : 




















$6.40 


$7.83 


$6.62 


$5.47 


Daily quantity of mill products in feet(board measure)... 


99,011 


12,361 


3,621 


87,817 


10,576 


3,298 


Daily quantity of product per hand employed in direct 


2,498 


816 


554 


2,097 


947 


488 


production (feet, board measure). 


















$10.24 


$10.13 


$11.25 


$9.98 


$10.75 


Cost of productive wage labor per 1,000 feet of product. ... 


85.7 cents. 


$1.90 


$2.39 


$1.02 


$1.69 


$2.63 


Cost of non-productive wage labor per 1,000 feet of 


89.1 cents. 


48.6 cents. 


(6) 


$1.06 


53.8 cents. 


('->) 


product. 














Cost of salaried labor (officers, firm members, and clerks) 


24.6 cents. 


33.7 eents. 


33.2 cents. 


30.6 cents. 


39.1 cents. 


38.5 eents. 


per 1,000 feet of product 














Miscellaneous expenses (exclusive of commissions and 


87.24 


$4.48 


$4.25 


$7.99 


$5.35 


$3.89 


expenses of selling) in $100 of product. 


















$26.57 


$26.86 


$21.21 


$26.19 


$28.08 




$65.52 


$57.19 


$46.60 


$60.46 


$61.15 


$47.40 





a This item includes all mill products. h No non-productive labor reported by establishments of Class 3. 

In connection with the last item of the foregoing table particular attention is called to the fact that the 
reports of many establishments engaged in logging from their own lands show, under the head of " Materials used," 
the market value of standing timber cut, and not its actual cost, so that no reliable computation of actual net profits 
or ratio of profit to capital can be made. It is evident from analyses of reports from the states under consideration 
that the profits of manufacturing establishments of Class 1 are but slight in comparison with the unearned increment 
resulting from judicious investments in standing timber by such establishments. The results, as shown by the 
returns, simply indicate the relative value of product as compared with the combined cost of labor, miscellaneous 
expenses, and supplies consumed, added to the market value of " stuinpage " or standing timber owned. 

It was not considered practicable to obtain the actual cost of standing timber by means of individual returns, 
but full reports were obtained as to the capital invested in timbered lands and standing timber and the estimated 
product of merchantable timber and its value. A summary of these reports will be found in Table 45. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



17 



The returns for establishments of Class 1 show white pine cut almost exclusively, while those of Classes 2 and 3 
show a large consumption of hemlock and hard-wood timber having comparatively low stumpage value. The 
difference in value of stumpage seems, however, to be entirely out of proportion to the difference in value of the 
manufactured product as reported by establishments in the respective classes. The abnormally low average value 
of product shown for establishments of Class 2 in Wisconsin and Minnesota is explained by the fact that the product 
of this class of mills in the state of Wisconsin consists largely of sawed shingles, the value of which is reported to be 
13.75 per cent less than similar product in Michigan. 

Attention is also called to the exhibit of " miscellaneous expense " items entering into the cost of manufacture. 
Such items were not included, and have not been considered in any form in the reports of previous censuses, so 
that any deduction or calculation as to cost of production based upon such reports would be entirely erroneous, 
and can not therefore be used in this respect for comparison with this report, which is intended to embrace all 
the essential elements of the cost of manufacture. 

It should be noted that the value of product as called for by the schedule of questions is the net value at the 
mill, not including commissions or other expenses of selling. The cost of the latter item is stated in Table 12 under 
the head of "Annual expense charges," and should be added to the value of product reported in that table if its gross 
value is desired. 

The following table shows the average division of capital employed by lumber manufacturers operating the 
respective classes of mills : 

Table 15.— AVERAGE DIVISION OF CAPITAL INVESTED. 



IBER MILLS. 



Capital invested in timbered land tributary to mill.. 

Capital reported in items under head of logging 

Capital invested in saw-mill plant 

Capital invested in planing-mill plant 

Capital invested in dry kilns 



Average Average Average 

per per per 

establish- establish- establish- 
ment, ment. ment. 



65,293 
65,763 
31,972 



$5,756 

2,535 $921 

7,246 2,227 



Total 397,014 '■ 16,868 

Live capital 182,492 10,450 



Total capital 579,506 



The following table gives the average annual expenditure for miscellaneous items by lumber manufacturers 
operating the respective classes of mills : 



Table 16.— AVERAGE ANNUAL EXPENDITURE FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS, ETC. 



CLASS 1. CLASS 2. 



II MULi: MILLS 



Average 

per 
establish- 
ment. 



Amount paid for taxes 

Value of taxable property reported.. 



Average Average 

per per 
establish- establish- 
ment, ment. 



Amount paid for interest on cash used in the business 6,881 

Total of capital employed 579,506 

4,060 

i 54,988 



Amount paid for sundry items not elsewhere included.. 



26,010 


4,076 


473 
27,318 


26 
3,727 


427 
5,931 


90 
1,900 


276 


25 



The average amount paid for rent by lumber manufacturers appears to be inconsiderable. 

The amount paid for taxes is shown to average 1.122 per cent of the total value of taxable property owned by 
establishments of Class 1, while for establishments of Class 2 the average drops to 0.985 per cent, and for Class 3 it 
is 1.034 per cent. 



18 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



The amount paid for insurance premiums averages 2.757 per cent of the total value of insurable property 
reported as owned by establishments of Class 1, for establishments of Class 2 the premium amounts to 2.234 per 
cent of the reported value, and for establishments of Class 3 the amount of premium paid is inconsiderable. 

The fire loss to lumber-mill and saw-mill establishments of all classes during the year 1889, as compiled and 
published by the Insurance Chronicle of New York, is placed in comparison in the following table with the total cost 
of insurance reported by such establishments iu the respective states for the census year : 

Table 17.— COMPARISON OF FIRE LOSS WITH COST OF INSURANCE. 



STATES. 


FIRE LOSS TO LUMBER MILLS AND 
SAW MILLS, 1889. (a) 


INSURANCE COST TO LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS, CENSUS 
YEAR 1890. (6) 


Total Total 1 Total 

number of ■■ property insurance 

losses. ! loss. [ loss. 


Number 
of establish- 
ments 
in each state. 


Number 
of establish- 
ments 
reporting in- 
surance. 


Amount 
paid for fire 
insurance 
on mill 
property. 


Amount 

paid for other 

insurance. 


Total cost 
of insurance. 


Total 


68 


$523,500 


8247,200 


3,140 


1,508 


$768,565 


$671,722 


$1,440,287 


31 
3L 
6 


248,500 
241,000 
34,000 


129,200 

109,500 

8,500 


1,957 
863 
320 




342,743 
282,848 
142,974 




Wisconsin 


486 

108 


247,128 
93,308 


529,976 
236,282 



a As reported by the Insurance Chronicle. 



6 As shown by manufacturers' returr 



The insurance loss on various classes of property, a portion of which might be included in the risks covered by 
the amount reported in the preceding table as "paid for other insurance," is stated in the publication referred to as 
follows : 

Table 18.— INSURANCE LOSS ON VARIOUS CLASSES OF PROPERTY. 



CLASSES. 


Michigan 
loss. 


Wisconsin 
loss. 


Minnesota 

insurance 

loss. 




$149,130 


$211,600 


$216,900 






26,300 
12,000 




20,200 










6,000 




17,500 
84,330 
8,000 

1,000 






136,300 
1,000 
74,300 


185,200 
5,500 















The expense of selling is shown to average 1.08 per cent of the total net value of product at the mill for 
establishments of Class 1, for establishments of Class 2 it is 2.10 per cent, and for Class 3 it is inconsiderable. 

The average amount of borrowed capital employed, computed on a basis of 6 per cent as the average annual 
interest charge, is found to be as follows : Class 1, $114,683 ; Class 2, $7,883 ; Class 3, $433. 

The average cost of ordinary repairs to buildings and machinery shows the following percentage on the total 
value of buildings and machinery owned by the respective classes of establishments : Class 1, 7.38 ; Class 2, 7.20 ; 
Class 3, 4.74. 






LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



19 



Table 19.— MICHIGAN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1880 AND 1890, BY COUNTIES, [a) 



Number of 
Tear, establish- Capital, 
merits. 



Lumber. 
(Feet, board 
measure.) 



Total value 



Shingles. 
(Number.) 



Staves. 
(Number.) 



Aggregate 
Value of Value i^^ 1 V" 11 ^ of forest prod- 
all other of remanu- mi , ucts, mill 

faetures- J™^ products, and 
remanufae- 
tures— 1890. 



(Number.) products ls9o ; 



ufactures. 



Allegan 1880 



Alpena 18S0 

1890 



Antrin 



Arenac (6) . 
Baraga (c) .. 
Barry 



Bay . 



1890 
1880 



Branch . 



Calhoun.. 
Cass 



Charlevoix .. 
Cheboygan.. 
Chippewa... 



Clare 1SS0 

1S90 
Clinton 1880 



Crawford.. 
Delta 



Eaton 1880 

1890 

Emmet 1880 

1890 

Genesee 1SS0 

1890 



5140,000 
229,256 
338,235 
247,546 
747,250 
3,435, 63S 
60,400 
570,544 



42,950 
156,467 
4,088,500 
8,429,831 
1S3.300 
402,851 
301,050 
196,354 
83,200 
129,497 



30,500 
901,533 



310,000 
1,383,967 
14,000 
431,004 
70,260 
87,240 
15,200 
546,344 
530,000 
1,727,905 
169,200 
183,558 
159,500 
954,492 
604,400 
170,756 



6,460,000 
7,235,000 
485,160,000 
294,568,000 
52,737,000 
29,858,000 
38,381,000 
11,150,000 



5,500,d00 
4,553,000 
13,001,000 
8,3S4,000 
2,125,000 
59,173,000 
57,000,000 
84,078,000 
12,000,000 
72,102,000 
9,000,000 
31,442,000 
10,1S7,000 
8,424,000 
3,475,000 
24,990,000 
34,550,000 
77,681,000 

16,446,000 
8,950,000 
11,600,000 
39,703,000 
30,825,000 
11,631 ,000 



6,000 

250,000 

61,514,000 

SS, 047, 000 

380,000 

22,726,000 

2,210,000 

350,000 

290,000 

800,000 

4,000,000 

1,558,000 

400,000 

2,586,000 

2,000,000 

22,003,000 

1,500,000 

27,332,000 

100,000 

18,016,000 

21,500,000 
53,366,000 



17,66S,000 
20,568,000 



2,052,000 
1,258,000 



31,588 21,200. 

15,250 

935,518 315,800 



6,815,000 

1,300,000 

2,337,000 

765,000 

850,000 

720,000 

100,000 

2,268,000 



568,000 
306,000 
175,000 
1,275,000 
175,000 
61,000 
200,000 
227,000 



18,540 

700 

96,599 

50,268 



IS. 060 



2,806,000 
13,000,000 
47,749,000 
12,500,000 
11,695,000 
400,000 

2,280,000 



1,000 
2,000 



485,000 
3,000 



15,000 
54,184 

1,600 
29,070 



17,079,000 
23,330,000 
1,258,000 



,650,000 
283,000 



66,000 

3,000,000 

151,000 



11,150 
10,400 



14,400 



473,000 


29,000 


78,427 


62,661 


473,000 


29,000 


168, 25S 


4,400 


947,000 


56,000 


20,959 


39,122 



193,149 



21,957,000 6,686,000 5211,792 

19,568,000 11, 000, 000 1,000 §930 205,939 

61,030,000 15,556,000 1,025,000 1,025,000 762,473 

12,323,000 6,163,000 3,308,000 201,000 26,716 52,950 181,356 

121,650,000 54,250,000 , 1,330,805 

209,277,000 34,567,000 176,678 2,717,2S2 2,819,732 

3,550,000 500,000 35,700 

21,524,000 1,150,000 1,000 290,282 : 1,925 492,524 493,148 



281,011 
948,728 



4,100 
60,950 



140,274 


147,630 






5,438,026 


5,753,724 






379,608 


387,578 






278,998 


287,861 






135,057 


135,681 






73,576 


76,267 






142,539 


163,224 


29,750 ... 




791,723 


824,007 






1,200,727 


1,257,461 


132,700 ... 




970,937 


1,031,378 






480, 54S 


488,327 






106,787 


108,761 






392,906 


393,915 






1,070,441 


1,102,558 


223,403 ... 




145,389 


155,661 






621,027 


673,099 


551,450 ... 





IS'. II) 



19 



207,499 | 15,412,000 47,126,000 



9,956 



262,01)9 



270,842 



a See Table 20 for details of quantities and value of forest products for 1890. 

b The following-named counties have been formed since 18S0, and therefore no reports are shown for that year: Alger county, formed in 1SS5 from Schoolcraft ; 
Arenac county, formed in 1883 from Bay; Gogebic county, formed in 1887 from Ontonagon ; Iron county, formed in 1885 from Marquette and Menominee; Luce 
county, formed in 1887 from Chippewa and Mackinac. No reports for either years were received from counties not mentioned in the table. No returns were 
received in 1880 from Montmorency county. 

c The following-named counties are grouped because there were less than three reports from each of them ; the number of establishments reporting for the 
respective years is noted after each county named below : 

1880: Baraga, 1 ; Gladwin, 1; Keweenaw, 1 ; Manitou, 1; Ogemaw, 1 ; Ontonagon, 1; Roscommon, 1; Schoolcraft, 2. 
1890: Alger, 2; Gogebic, 2; Iron, 2; Luce, 1; Manitou,!; Oscoda, 2 ; Roscommon, 2. 



I'll 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



Table 19.— MICHIGAN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 

PKODTJCTION, ETC.— Continued. 



Grand Traverse . 

Gratiot 

Hillsdale 

Houghton 

Huron 

Ingham 

Ionia 

Iosco 

Isabella. 

Jackson 

Kalamazoo 

Kalkaska -.. 

Kent 

Lake 

Lapeer 

Leelanaw 

Lenawee 

Livingston 

Mackinac 

Macomb 

Manistee 

Marquette 

Mason 

Mecosta 

Menominee 

Midland. 

Missaukee 

Monroe 

Montcalm 



Number of 
establish- Capital, 
ments. 



Lumber. 
(Feet, board 
measure.) 



$591,000 
736,282 
149,400 
428,519 



145,000 
1,040,581 
120,450 
165,107 
203,000 
164,961 
394,120 
168,615 
1,243,300 
5,228,854 
229,350 
644,588 
19,500 
32,198 
67,300 
80,760 
18,000 
458,449 

1,351,335 
2,281,702 

115,200 

1,269,536 

622,100 

103,020 

64,500 

706, 963 

179,414 

189,678 

87,400 

72,610 

495,000 

603,946 

161,860 

214,887 

2,607,500 

11,914,777 

214,000 

872,676 

3,645,500 

5,438,281 

325,000 

593,146 

1,492,000 

8,775,709 

141,800 
559,822 
11,000 
601,050 
193,900 
241,873 
1,500,400 
1,303,149 



Shingles. 
(Number.) 



15,995 
23,125 



1,650 
10,796 



Value of 
Staves. , &e J? ot all other 
(Number.) ' fadings mm 

(Number.) products 



of remanu- 
factures — 



.Total value , 
of mill 



4,000 
2,116 

13,635 
59,741 

12,790 
83,175 



165,600 
23,113 
20,940 
19,392 
84,348 
3,100 



347,726 

461,231 
7,730 
17,824 

120,590 
89,532 
45,188 
85,561 
62,532 

165,821 

96,350 
34,470 



1,866 
631,210 



1,095,000 
21,500,000 

2,475,000 
750,000 



12,000 
,637,000 
149,000 
367,000 



2,092,000 
2,000,000 

3,665,000 
4,805,000 

1,000,000 

100,000 

3,588,000 

3,593,000 



28,000 

470,000 
201,000 

882,000 
479,000 
60,000 
101,000 

164,000 
154,000 



$4,000 
17,034 



2,500 
8,817 



8108,000 


2,000 


1,350 



Aggregate 
of forest prod- 
ucts, mill 
Products products>and 
m reman- remanu f ac _ 
ufactures. , tures _ 1890 . 



473,000 519,000 



53,761 
3,050 
9,915 
14,000 
211,501 
155 



813,661 


8938,383 


230,940 .. 




549,506 


553,862 






125,906 


126,738 






653,287 


741,629 






157,084 


158,434 






164,198 


165,502 






207,637 


214,287 






3,157,977 


3,803,194 



100,000 
1,100,000 



1,360 
20,898 



"10,922 


747,510 


8,665 






33,140 


33,764 


65,624 






71,384 


71,592 











1,250,000 


771,000 


473,000 


29,000 


1,300,000 


5,000 



10,090,000 
675,000 



,930,000 
22,000 
10,000 
1,000 



61,910 
196,100 
243,076 
14,850 
19,742 



1,750 
47,167 

3,200 
33,204 



473,000 
30,750,000 
15,975,000 



2,030,000 
1,510,000 



000 16,842,000 



9,400 
16,250 

22,150 
256,932 



28,525 
39,122 



800,000 30,000 
1,853,000 82,000 



18,700,000 978,000 j 

2,970,000 300,000 

9,200,000 780,000 

2,873,000 53,000 



8,400 
100,785 

1,000 
. 41,698 
65,450 
197,126 



6,726 
2,075 

29,320 
4,170 

32,346 



69,174 
682,567 



147,800 | 
70,588 
163,574 
444,375 j 
314,050 
255,601 

2,722,580 
3,841,024 

259,900 

782,425 

1,987,459 

2,122,207 



24,386 
32,300 
29,561 



543,220 548,383 

1,506,491 [ 

1,424,130 j 1,566,274 

223,830 ! 

1,302,722 1,393,011 

999,130 

86,444 



2,554,729 


1,106,206 


5,876,913 



1,916,163 
5,190,963 

328,535 ! 

514,925 ; 552,111 

12,500 : 

400,271 

280,815 

229,100 ; 
4,046,649 
1,160,014 



400,479 

235,933 

1,215,442 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



21 



Table 19.— MICHIGAN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 

PRODUCTION, ETC.— Continued. 



COUNTIES. 



AumDCTOi i^mner Shingles. Staves. ^"J?"' 

Year, establish- Capital. (Feet, board (Number .) (Number.) ,^ a dl " gs ; 
merits. measure.) (Number.) 



Montmorency (a)... 

Muskegon 

Newaygo 

Oakland 

Oceana 

Ogemaw (6) 

Ontonagon (6) 

Osceola 

Otsego 

Ottawa 

Presque Isle 

Saginaw 

Saint Clair 

Saint Joseph 

Sanilac 

Schoolcraft (6) 

Shiawassee . 

Tuscola 

Van Buren 

Washtenaw 

Wayne 

Wexford 

Other counties (6). 



5,057,090 
10,066,451 
643,600 
1,881,185 
31,000 
109,625 '■ 
524,000 
570,672 



770,000 
329,000 
694,000 
092,000 
770,000 
463,000 
254,000 
251,000 



2,105,136 

370,900 

923,748 

370,000 

144,084 

1,645,700 

1,116,031 

23,900 

166,701 

2,578,900 

9,634,319 

527,900 

573,978 

34,300 

42,407 

58,300 

79,863 



88,800 
96,120 
70,432 
375,636 
236,100 
323,518 
38,700 
157,069 
237,032 
1,367,803 

672,400 
1,903,773 

764,000 
1,237,303 



152,590,000 
405,163,000 
122,895,000 
86,349,000 



2,739,000 1,203,000 



13,200,000 
4,232,000 



61,257,000 
53,510,000 



55,000 
3,415,000 



525,000 
87,000 
50,000 
1,000 



024,000 

760,000 
114,000 
500,000 
365,000 
537,000 
063,000 
700,000 
240,000 
904,000 
526,000 
840,000 
761,000 
242,000 
374,000 
670,000 
538,000 



53, 229, ( 
27,990,1 
114,114,1 
6,000,1 
17,784,1 
141,525,1 
7,723,1 



185,793,1 

102,543,1 

2,810,1 

5,401,1 



6,500,000 1,000 

600,000 750,000 

9,771,000 636,000 



17,675,000 
31,806,000 
20,200,000 
16,136,000 
1,000,000 



1,000 

1,286,000 

1,829,000 

690,000 

592,000 

50,000 

1,000 



Aggregate 
Value of Value io, r ^J"" of forest prod- 
all other ofremanu- ™ . ucts, mill 

mill factures— P™ duct3 products, and 

products. 1890. and reman- remanufac _ 

ufactures. tures _ 1890 . 



Total value „ 



62,910 ; | 7,686,013 

5S5,825 $26,561 6,038,416 

4,350 ! j 1,334,586 

51,784 l 275,300 | 1,838,793 

580 , 59,796 

8,740 8,500 120,160 



5,000 
53,125 



451,784 
514,883 



17,546 
.12,317 



39,616 
435,048 



1,113 
4,027 



5,620,1 
7,710,1 



387,155 

1,123,513 

215,000 

176,503 

2,262,710 

892,457 

8,450 

102,493 

4,758,439 

5,383,189 

583,410 

379,194 

35,842 

47,354 

94,200 

60,452 



740,000 
767,000 
664,000 
608,000 
630,000 
379,000 
906,000 
859,000 
225,000 
825,000 
500,000 
978,000 
600,000 
935,000 



1,308,1 
6,140,i 
10,783,1 
2,000,1 
3,566,1 



3,000,000 
15,031,000 
7,366,000 
5,965,000 



350,000 
1,198,000 
1,221,000 

683,000 



122,925 
1,050 



1,750,1 
3,800,1 

27,310,1 
4,270,1 

48,345,1 



2,265,000 ; 225,000 

300,000 700,000 

20,250,000 11,242,000 



4,100 
58,986 



1,440 
297,831 



9,151) 



30.000 



29,000 58,001 111, 



170,000 1,590,213 
128,380 
102,248 
145,249 
434,467 
509,474 
332,435 

47,134 
111,013 
304,015 

1,166,195 
946,150 

1,025,858 
547,000 

1,177,159 



29,300 
60,900 
19,561 



1,270,373 



[ See note 6, page 19. 



b See note <■, page 19. 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value of those forest products manufactured 
by milling establishments engaged in logging which are not included as materials used in the manufacture of the 
mill products reported in the preceding table. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting the 
operations of this branch of the industry. 

Table 20.— MICHIGAN— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES. 



COUNTIES. 


Saw logs for 

domestic 
consumption. 

(Feet, scaled 
measure.) 


Telegraph 

poles. 
(Number.) 


Fence posts. 
(Number.) 


Railway 
ties. 

(Number.) 


Piling. 

(Number 

of 

pieces.) 


Hewed 

timber. 

(Feet, 

board 

measure.) 


Round 
timber for 
export. 
(Feet, 
sealed 
measure.) 


Value of 
all other 

forest 
products. 


Total value 

of forest 

products 

which have 

not become 

the material 

for the mill 

product. 




120,000 

65,000 

16,500,000 

30,000 

45,000 

10,000 

27,017,000 

1,055,000 

260,000 


2,825 
15 


15,250 

2,775 


17,900 
9,540 








83,510 

40 






808 












102,450 






1,350 
640 

15,450 
3,190 
3,590 

19,150 








15 

30 

505 

25 

35 

5 

15 

45 

67 

1,273 

1,573 

2,401 

140 

85 

25 

1,243 

45 

21,223 

35 

555 

16,980 

155 

20 

1,213 

70 

15 

70 

4,837 

1,333 

15 

5 

3,540 

60 

1,193 

5 

9,713 

65 

15 

1,188 

5 

25,663 

2,431 

110 

4,110 

12,055 

1,233 

5 

1,055 

1,293 

5 

1,808 

90 

35 

3,260 

35 

1,188 

16,363 






525 

225 

400 

6,150 

5,125 

375 

900 

1,318 

1,847 





















7,356 


Bay 


















7,970 






400 


















75,000 

235,000 

4,200,000 

5,030,000 

7,783,000 

2,607,000 

141,000 

35,000 

3,954,000 

90,000 

4,019,000 

225,000 

872,000 

4,491,000 

755,000 

40,000 

12,909,000 

111,000 


20 
39 


5,990 
45,569 
4,869 












11 




9,000 








32,284 
56,734 
60,441 






77 
114 




2,750,000 




1,194 

12,375 

1,675 

400 

21,322 

1,125 

1,272 

950 

2,525 

13,475 

7,625 

500 

797 


988 

2,300 

3,530 

190 

3,229 

15,050 
3,549 
1,190 
3,090 

19,530 
3,200 
1,800 
4,038 
2,180 
2,950 

14,950 
3,366 
3,349 










45 
35 












508 
69 






1,009 
























52,072 














48 
32 
40 




50,000 


8,833 

124,722 

4,356 










25 
20 














61 
16 







88,342 
1,350 
1,304 
6,650 
645,217 

36,588 














875 
1,300 
3,038 

5,897 










136,000 

77,220,000 

5,140,000 

50,000 

30,000 

65,000 

20,159,000 

12,884,000 

10,000 

4,259,000 

130,000 

50,000 

3,874,000 










Iosco 


10 


236 
93 
























125 
6,775 
1,050 
5,522 
















4,540 
3,883 
2,599 
450 
10,589 
8,850 








5,163 
















53 






90,289 












10,797 
1,625 


261 
100 






42,675 
4,586 




65 














10,500 


425,397 
1,525 
1,447 
2,719 
4,250 
1,850 

639,431 
16,297 


117,399 
9,750 
6,179 
1,628 
14,660 
1,660 

140.830 
6,689 






700,000 


89,991 




1,400 
69 

482 

32 

5,516 

61 


15,000 




106,754,000 

8,328,000 

57,221,000 

27,124,000 

86,580,000 

3,949,000 

20,000 

591,000 

5,940,000 

28,000 

16,019,000 

286,000 

365,000 

1,247,000 

55,000 

3,874,000 

7,186,000 






803,861 
66,248 




1,005 


12,000 


10,000 










218,906 
685,950 
37,186 




17,205 
5,020 






















2,125 
33,944 


870 
3,951 








6,833 




30 


77 


















15,897 

1,575 

950 

16,875 
650 
397 

13,422 


19,579 

4,620 
2,290 
9,100 


69 
24 
473 
40 







142,465 


















4,777 


























399 
11,089 


53 
101 






30,091 
66,061 








100,000 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



23 



Table 20.— MICHIGAN— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES— Continued. 



COUNTIES. 



Saw logs for 

domestic Telegraph 
consumption . poles. 

(Feet, scaled (Number.) 

measure. 



, I Railway ™ to £ 
Fence posts, j +• (Number 

(Number.) (Numb ' er0 



Hewed 
timber. 
(Feet, 
board 
measure.) 



Round 
timber for 

export. 

(Feet, 

scaled 
measure.) 



Value of 
all other 

forest 
products. 



Total value 

of forest 

products 

which have 

not become 

the material 

for the mill 

product. 



Otsego ! 136,000 

Ottawa 255,000 

Presque Isle | 2,748,000 

Saginaw '■ 58,570,000 

Saint Clair ; 3,555,000 

Saint Joseph ' 155,000 

Sanilac I 60,000 

Schoolcraft : 45,727,000 

Shiawassee 115,000 

Tuscola ! 497,000 

Van Buren 811,000 

Washtenaw 60,000 

Wayne 320,000 

Wexford 4,849,000 

Other counties (a) 11,697,000 



1,575 
1,400 
47,250 
79,142 



1,920 
3,790 
30,400 
4,258 



1,650 





7,250 


15 


4&5 


35 


5,875 


20 


1,297 




2.091 



2,700 
20,640 
30,427 
1,950 
4,310 
1,400 
4,150 
2,389 



10,000 
80,000 



51,401 
2,483 

29,060 
803,581 

32,675 

1,773 

1,248 

260,567 

11,452 
3,694 
8,714 
944 
7,586 

34,532 

93,214 



a The following-named counties are grouped because there were less than three reports from each of the 
after each county named : Alger, 2; Gogebic, 2; Iron, 2; Luce, 1 ; Manitou,!; Oscoda, 2; Roscommon, 2. 



the number of establishments reporting 



Table 21.— MICHIGAN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1880 AND 1890, BY SECTIONS, (a) 



Saginaw Bay shore 1880 

1890 

Lake Huron shore 1880 

1890 

Lake Michigan shore 1880 

1890 

Upper Peninsula 1880 

1890 

Interior counties north of 1880 
Lansing. lgg0 

Interior counties south of , 1880 
Lansing. lgg0 



: 86,879,182 
23,276,886 
| 2,268,350 

6,434,008 
15,449,375 
34,150,195 

3,844,000 
27,730,112 

9,050,665 
16,251,683 

1,768,856 

3,456,913 



Lumber. 

(Feet, board 

measure.) 



918,595,000 
825,107,000 
242,817,000 
342,461,000 

1,522,557,000 
1,259,508,000 

307,983,000 
877,799,000 
1,010,613,000 
872,155,000 
170,007,000 
134,210,000 



Shingles. 
(Number.) 



Staves. 
(Number.) 



Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 



Value of 
all other 

mill 
products. 



Total valu 
Valv 

remanufac- pro( juets 
tures | an£ j reman - 
1890. j ufactures. 



Aggregate 
of forest 
products, 

mill prod- 
ucts, and 

remanufac- 

tures— 1890. 



1,078,000 
! ,759 ,000 
,116,000 
1,480,000 
',294,000 
i, 711, 000 
), 482, 000 
',136,000 
i, 281, 000 
!, 690, 000 
!, 466, 000 
i, 437, 000 



37,569,1 
54,694,1 
20,200,1 
16,609,1 
15,861,1 
53,209,1 



3,767,1 
3,622,1 



3,564,1 
5,136,1 



39,899,000 4,962,000 
69,349,000 . 5,744,000 ' 



861,366 811,079,721 ] 

1,644,840 ! $834,935 I 14,132,657 ! $15,870,548 

600 2,733,157 

380,726 13,100 4,666,087 4,900,010 

121,327 18,122,131 

1,803,788 386,872 17,9SS,S86 19,672,407 

82,950 3,501,187 

572,112 I 1,206,346 13,279,711 14,655,270 



86,292,1 
51,648,1 



8,914,1 
16,817,1 



239,785 
941,236 
25,378 
681,512 



14,339,750 

1,745,594 14,854,919 15,655,842 

I 2,673,982 

171,359 3,218,899 f 3,296,696 



a See Table 23 for details of quantity and value of forest products in 1890. 

Note. — In the preceding table the term "Saginaw Bay shore" embraces the counties of Arenac, Huron, Tuscola, Bay, and Iosco ; also 
the city of Saginaw and the town of Zilwaukee. 

The term " Lake Huron shore " embraces the counties of Sanilac, Saint Clair, Alcona, Alpena, Presque Isle, and Cheboygan. 

The term "Lake Michigan shore" embraces the counties of Emmet, Charlevoix, Antrim, Grand Traverse, Leelanaw, Benzie, Manistee, 
Mason, Oceana, Muskegon, Ottawa, Allegan, Van Buren, Berrien, and Manitou. 

The counties in the "Upper Peninsula" are Mackinac, Chippewa, Schoolcraft, Delta, Menominee, Marquette, Baraga, Houghton, 
Keweenaw, Ontonagon, Gogebic, Luce, Iron, and Alger. 

The interior counties north of Lansing are Otsego, Montmorency, Kalkaska, Crawford, Oscoda, Wexford, Roscommon, Lake, Clare, 
Newaygo, Isabella, Kent, Ionia, Mecosta, Midland, Montcalm, Gratiot, Clinton, Saginaw (except the city of Saginaw and the town of 
Zilwaukee), Shiawassee, Genesee, Lapeer, Missaukee, Ogemaw, Osceola, and Gladwin. 
The interior counties south of Lansing embrace all counties not named above. 



•-•I 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



It will be seen by the following table, showing for each section of the state its percentage of the total value 
of mill production and remanufactures in the state of Michigan, that the relative rank of the respective sections is 
the same in 1890 that it was in 1880 : 

Table 22.— MICHIGAN— PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL VALUE OF MILL 
PRODUCTION AND REMANUFACTURES. 



Lake Michigan shore 

Interior counties north of Lansing., 

Saginaw Bay shore 

Upper Peninsula 

Lake Huron shore 

Interior counties south of Lansing... 



PER CENT. 


1880. 


1890. 


34.55 


26.40 


. 27.34 


21.80 


21.12 


20.74 


6.68 


19.49 


5.21 


6.85 


5.10 


4.72 



Although no change in relative rank has taken place, some sections show a decrease in their ratio to the whole. 
A marked increase is noted in the Upper Peninsula, which advances 12.81 per cent in its ratio to the entire 
product and shows an increase over its product for 1880 of 279.29 per cent. 

The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value of those forest products manufactured 
by milling establishments engaged in logging which are not included as materials used in the manufacture of the 
mill products reported in Table 21. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting the operations of this 
branch of the industry. 

Table 23.— MICHIGAN— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY SECTIONS. 



Saw logs for 

domestic 
consumption. 

(Feet, scaled 
measure.) 



Telegraph 

poles. 
(Number.) 



Saginaw Bay shore ■ 159,450,000 

Lake Huron shore j 28,013,000 

Lake Michigan shore 200,726,000 

Upper Peninsula 180,777,000 

Interior counties north of Lansing 100,638,000 

Interior counties south of Lansing 2,229,000 



Fence posts. 
(Number.) 



Railway- 
ties. 

(Number.) 



Piling. 
(Number 



18,045 


89,308 


11,915 


1,270 


65,742 


53,959 


260 


83,485 


127,785 


28,720 


1,132,576 


291,500 


6,365 


114,401 


109,264 


339 


20,428 


119,709 



Hewed 

timber. 

(Feet, 

board 

measure.) 



Round 
timber for 
export. 
(Feet, 
scaled 
measure.) 



Value of 
all other 

forest 
products. 



85 i ; 2,750,000 

2,823 I ! 10,000 

5,602 ! 12,000 710,000 

1,380 150,000 

2,046 15,000 89,000 



Total value 

of forest 

products 

which have 

not become 

the material 

for the mill 

product. 



366,510 


$1,737,891 


6,658 


233,923 


81,610 


1,683,521 


24,925 


1,375,529 


35,214 


800,923 


1,992 


77,797 



Table 24, on the following page, shows totals of capital invested and production at the principal productive 
points in the state of Michigan for the census years 1880 and 1890, and embraces all cities and towns for which 
special agents were appointed in 1890 and which contain three or more establishments reporting an aggregate value 
of production of $20,000 or over. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



25 



Table 24.— MICHIGAN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1880 AND 1890, BY PRINCIPAL LUMBER-PRODUCING POINTS, (o) 



estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



prod- 
ucts. 
(6) 



Lumber. 

Capital. | < Feet ; 
board 

measure.) 



Sets of Value of 
Shingles. Staves. headings. a " otller 
(Number.) (Number.) (Number.) ' mi " 



Total 
value of 

mill 
products 

and 



remanu- ufactures — 
factures. 1890. 



Aggregate 
of forest 
products, 

mill 
products, 
and reman- 



Adrian . 



Alpena 

Bay City (c) . 
Big Rapids... 

Cadillac 

Detroit (d).... 
Escanaba (e) . 



Flint.. 



Grand Haven 

Grand Rapids 

Greenville 

Ionia (d) 

Jackson (e) 

Kalamazoo 

Ludington 

Manistee 

Manistique (e) 

Menominee 

Midland (d) 

Muskegon (c) 

North Muskegon (/).. 

Owosso (</) 

Pontiac {ff) 

Saginaw 

West Bay City 



37,500 
4.3, 742 



1,051,000 
2,830,000 



6S3,000 111,500,000 

3,389,128 209,276,000 

3,012,000 ' 283,116,000 

6,708.293 221,717,000 

92,500 4,S27,000 J 

62.S02 5,923,000 

58S.000 69,700,000 

1,381,530 10,9Sl,O0O 



250,000 600,000 

38,000,000 

34,567,000 ' : 

11,187,000 j 12,416,000 
33,S39,000 9,294,000 

10,000,000 

10,851,000 

500,000 ; J 

3,250,000 



987,000 14,411 
387,000 580,905 



S3I5.SU0 



1,174,793 24,759,000 19,250,000 11,240,000 



692,881 
519,000 



395,870 

1., 014,685 
1,902,319 

109,500 ! 
492,900 



31,000,000 43,842 

25,700,000 14,100,000 5,000,000 ; 3,000,000 4,000 

7,105,000 250,000 : I ■ 25,575 

45,200,000 120,000,000 I I j 

29,100,000 5,971,000 398,000 17,989 



812,010 
55,086 
1,230,375 
2,717,282 
3,702,298 
4,006,214 

104,102 
75,064 

699,000 

527,269 



855,649 


2,819,732 


4,300,053 


79,323 



63,819,000 
58, 968, 000 
13,600,000 
18,386,000 



350,000 



120,000 



9,800,000 
750,000 



191,000 
236,975 



21,673 



1,000 



."'I, 



39;500 S50.000 ' 425,000 

10,710 1,740,000 

2,932,700 108,500,000 18,000,000 

5,164,834 141,620,000 82,200,000 7,250,000 

1,917,000 142,000,000 231,681,000 : ; 

5,197,684 ! 132,414,000 279,586,000 : 9,918,000 



3,792 
1,310 



18,000 

485,000 ' 103,040 



5,834,000 68,750,000 4,864,000 

1,155,000 127,000,000 

6,715,454 277,641,000 84,239,000 



148,350 10,933,000 I 20,941,000 
3,916,790 , 492,507,000 26,340,000 
7,410,565 : 315,252,000 | 208,759,000 



1,674,214 87,527,000 142. 75::, (Kill 



37,745 | 2,253,000 



15,850 1,011,000 

975,500 161,668,000 

6,581,548 ISO, 936, 000 

660,000 140,000,000 

980,817 I 47,041,000 



104,963,000 
40,080,000 



1,581 

5,000 

331,982 



6,096,000 
8,305,000 



520,000 
394,000 



32,116 
269,291 



1,200,000 ! 5,048,000 
' 3,013,000 



965,000 

407,000 ! 257,582 



4S8.842 
467,500 
123,671 
825,000 
461,807 
755,476 
1,079,602 
166,250 
209,690 



32,535 
25,560 
1,130,600 
1,880,425 
1,867,500 
2,030,570 



1,065,650 
1,294,834 



5,651,377 
4,016,091 



44,923 



29,455 

2,035,606 

3,128,599 

1,614,259 

822,077 



1,318,650 



29,155 



3,771,705 
822,077 



a See Table 25 for details of quantity and value of forest products in 1S90. 

6 Rank for 1890 is given according to aggregate value of all products, including the value of forest products manufactured by milling establishments, but 
which have not become the material for the mill product. The inquiry of 1S80 did not include this branch of the industry. 

cThe township of Lakeside has been included within the corporate limits of the city of Muskegon since 1880, and the value of its product is therefore 
added to that of Muskegon for 1880 to enable a fair comparison with the statistics for 1890. The effect of this addition is to place Muskegon as the first city in rank 
for capital and value of production in 1880, but the fact should be noted that without this addition it stood second and Bay City occupied first place. 

dBut one establishment reported in 1880. /All the establishments reported for North Muskegon have been organized since 1880. 

e No lumber mills or saw mills reported in 1880. g But two establishments reported in 1880. 

4 



26 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value of those forest products manufactured 
by milling establishments engaged in logging which are not included as materials used in the manufacture of the 
mill products reported in the preceding table. Kb inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting the 
operations of this branch of the industry. 

Table 25.— MICHIGAN— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY PRINCIPAL 
LUMBER-PRODUCING POINTS. 



Adrian 

Alpena 

Bay City 

Big Rapids 

Cadillac 

Flint 

Grand Rapids 

Greenville 

Jackson 

Ludington 

Manistee 

Manistique 

Menominee 

Midland 

Muskegon 

North Muskegon.. 

Owosso 

Saginaw 



Saw logs for 

domestic Telegraph Fence 
consumption. 1 poles. \ posts. 
(Feet, scaled (Number.) (Number.) 

measure.) 



10,000 
16,500,000 
24,012,000 

35,000 
910,000 

80,000 
20,000,000 



20,000 

57,020,000 

43,474,000 

45,682,000 

86,499,000 

55,000 

13,000,000 

125,000 

35,000 

50,495,000 



Railway 

ties. 
(Number.; 



Piling. 
(Number 
of pieces.) 



Value of 



Total value 
of forest 
products 
all other which have 
forest i n ot become 
products. | the material 
for the mill 
product. 



1,090 



400 
395 



102,450 

293,839 

4,259 

3,558 

558 

140,000 

17,500 

416 

430,750 

296,202 

253,000 

572,294 

675 

99,000 

2,000 



Table 26. 



-WISCONSIN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1880 AND 1890, BY COUNTIES, (a) 



Bayfield (I,).. 



Calumet . 



Chippewa.. 
Clark 



Columbia (c).. 



1880 
1890 



Number of 
establish- | Capital, 
ments. 



88,000 
3,776,707 

71,500 
2,686,688 



Lumber. 

(Feet, board 

measure.) 



7,400,000 

202,458,000 

8,919,000 

76,862,000 



1S80 
1890 
1880 
1890 



1880 
1890 



3,927,085 

127,800 
815,384 

27,000 
18,365 
8,500 
21,482 



569,275 
,989,063 
246,100 

649, 02S 



153,418,000 

11,810,000 

39,447,000 

1,750,000 

2,006,000 

850,000 

1,100,000 

7,320,000 

1,285,000 

60,539,000 

81,139,000 

2S, 855, 000 

31,494,000 



Shingles. 
(Number.) 



3,500,000 
28,084,000 

2,420,000 
79,148,000 



Staves. 
(Number.) 



39,711,000 

26,840,000 
26,593,000 

1,284,000 
390,000 

500,000 
74,000 

350,000 
74,000 

8,985,000 
24,939,000 
14,735,000 
13,363,000 



5,000,000 
6,225,000 



Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 



Value of 
all other 

mill 
products. 



Value of 

remanufac- 

tures- 

1890. 



3,000 
90,747 



397,000 
13,000,000 
2,000,000 
3,180,000 



700,000 
382,000 



23,000 
900,000 



5,200 

41,322 

150 

3,000 

1,000 

2,S58 

1,500 

2,898 

500 



Total valu 



Aggregate of 

forest prod- 

"""„ I ucts, mill 
products ' 

, products, nnd 

t- * ~ remanufac- 
ulaclures. .... 

tures — 1890. 



8249,267 
401,860 



484,106 



170,484 



697,218 
104,059 



92,000 

2,593,539 

124,410 

1,449,731 



2,142,944 
216,080 
759,465 
22,859 
26,855 
9,400 
12,719 
94,080 
22,054 
562,556 
1,999,061 
313,700 
599,639 



52,719,734 
1,488,355 



2,144,644 



22,166 



2,002,290 
614,111 



a See Table 27 for details of quantity and value of forest products in 1890. 

6 The following-named counties are grouped because there were less than three reports from each of them; the number of establishments reporting is noted 
after each county for the respective years : 

1S80 : Bayfield, 1 ; Dane, 1 ; Green Lake, 2 ; Iowa, 1 ; Lafayette, 1 ; Langlade, 2 ; Lincoln, 2 ; Price, 2. 
1890: Adams, 1; Dane, 1 ; Green Lake, 1 ; Iowa, 1 ; Kenosha, 1; Ozaukee, 2 ; Racine, 1; Trempealeau, 1 ; Washburn, 2. 
c No reports received. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



27 



Table 26.— WISCONSIN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 

PRODUCTION, ETC.— Continued. 



Number of 
establish- Capital, 
merits. 



Lumber. 

(Feet, board 

measure.) 



Shingles. Staves. 

(Number.) (Number.' 



Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 



Value of 
all other 

mill 
pro duets. 



ToUil value' Aggregate ° f 
™- of To o f^ e forest prod - 

™ -" T ducts hKL 

1890. Tw™* 11 ^manufac- 
tures— 1S90. 



Door.. 



Douglas.. 
Dunn 



Fond du Lac. 



Forest (a).. 



Jackson . 



Jefferson.... 

Juneau 

Kewaunee 



La Crosse.. 



Langlade (&).. 

Lincoln (6) 

Manitowoc ... 



Marathon.. 
Marinette- 



Marquette 

Milwaukee (c).. 
Monroe 



Oneida (a).. 



1880 
1890 
1880 
1S90 



1880 



1880 
1890 



1880 
1890 



1890 



$151,000 


S, 525, 000 


350,472 


15,883,000 


39,200 


2,757,000 


29,755 


2,205,000 


219,000 


19,200,000 


[,037,673 


36,500,000 



4,145,000 
352,000 



5,200,000 
850,000 
300,000 



54,000 

470,160 

430,400 

4,088,283 

2,523,800 

7,323,380 

430,400 

427,073 



5,700,000 
25,450,000 

89,214,000 
101,546,000 
205,028,000 
167,732,000 
42,600,000 
11,952,000 



22,100 
74,925 
26,000 
30,114 
406,650 
2,160,924 
13,500 
10,425 



72,000 

91,975 

1,435,500 

6,512,387 



11,089,000 

1,525,000 

3,668,000 

2,760,000 

485,000 

• 40,945,000 

73,974,000 

1,215,000 

120,000 

56,690,000 

36,335,000 

7,200,000 

4,788,000 

98,737,000 

216,236,000 



278,000 
42,550,000 
74,578,000 

4,250,000 
16,139,000 
37,000,000 
74,924,000 
59,335,000 
90,552,000 

8,350,000 
790,000 



8188,759 

2,159 

296,494 

187,318 



555,000 378,000 



2,750 
72,4S8 
21,250 
77,212 



5,500,000 
150,000 
470,000 



14,590 
3,000 



74,000 
18,200,000 
30,943,000 



50,000 
150,000 



11,000 
20,000 



4,844,533 

69,000 

535,574 

1,274,800 

5,463,045 

4,460,000 

9,351,822 

6,500 

3,750 

12,000 



61,435,000 

179,518,000 

9,185,000 

4,746,000 

137,103,000 

224,830,000 

174,443,000 

276,193,000 

750,000 

164,000 



169,500 
232,337 ' 
1„469,950 
3,298,884 



15,800,000 
14,330,000 
86,378,000 
68,794,000 



23,530,000 
17,704,000 
36,775,000 
6,2SO,000 
42,864,000 
124,076,000 



3,455,000 
3,274,000 
135,702,000 
77,393,000 
25,355,000 
103,948,000 



1,543,552 55,862,000 



1,000,000 

500,000 

77,960,000 

44,902,000 



1,541 
25,994 



25,000 
214,450 



8153,975 

418,544 

37,263 

25,520 

258,700 

837,806 

79,000 

500,571 

802,550 

1,418,685 

2,337, 3S7 

2,584,440 

559,975 

195,189 



4,855 



055.763 
137,971 



6,000 
31,716 



106,510 
502,369 

1,489,178 
3,530,454 
1,678,734 
3,349,414 
6,500 
3,340 



181,340 

183,345 



85:;, 304 



535,996 
1,954,649 
3,023,238 



18,150 
61,191 


61,515 


28,650 
42,671 




42,783 






886,799 


910,147 


14,250 
3,500 




3,500 


811,131 
722,345 




722,807 


132,214 
57,822 




58,046 



84::, 979 



3,708,142 
503,016 



3,592,441 



3,479,209 
3,340 



183,781 

1,109,455 I 

1,573,724 1,594,752 



9,763,000 119,857 | 307,653 1 1,181,846 1,182,046 

a The following-named counties have been formed since 1880, and therefore no reports are shown for that year : Florence county, formed in 1882 from 
Marinette and Oconto ; Forest county, formed in 1885 from Langlade, Lincoln, and Oconto ; Oneida county, formed in 1885 from Lincoln ; Sawyer county, formed 
in 1883 from Ashland and Chippewa ; Washburn county, formed in 1883 from Burnett. No reports for either census year t 
in the table. 

o See note b, page 26. c No reports received. 



l received from counties not mentioned 



28 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



Table 26.— WISCONSIN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 

PRODUCTION, ETC.— Continued. 



Number of 
establish- 
ments. 



Capital. 



Lumber. 
(Feet, board 





Shingles. 
(Number.) 



Staves. 
(Number.) 



Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 



Value of 
all other 

mill 
products. 



Total value' ^S r fS ate ° f 
Value of of miI1 ; forest prod- 

remanufae- p ro<Juc ts ' u< ; ts ' =" U . 
tures- ancl reman . products and 
1890. nfnrf,,™, remanufac- 

tures— 1890. 



ufactures. 



Outagamie 

Ozaukee (o) 

Pepin 

Pierce 

Polk 

Portage 

Price (a) 

Richland 

Saint Croix 

Sauk 

Sawyer (6) 

Shawano .-... 

Sheboygan 

Taylor 

Vernon 

Washington 

Waukesha 

Waupaca 

Waushara 

Winnebago 

Wood 

Other counties (a) 



18S0 
1890 



1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 



1880 
1890 



1880 
1890 



1890 
1880 
1890 



1880 
1890 



1880 
1890 



8222,500 

125,327 



17,250,000 

5,478,000 

970,000 



;, 300, 000 
667,000 



18,500,000 2,150,000 



150,000 300,000 



§3,200 $312,008 

56,544 $5,239 ! 121,741 
' 12,760 



5,500 
24,320 
178,400 
184,508 
134,350 
115,807 
586,040 
1,033,029 



500,000 
2,725,000 

15,OOS,000 
7,026,000 

16,798,000 
9,651,000 

71,505,000 
37,687,000 



30,000 
278,000 

450,000 
1,648,000 

24,370,000 
4,310,000 
27,460,000 
16,092,000 



500,000 . 500,000 



618,000 
1,350,000 



192,000 
90,000 
300,000 
675,000 



1,000 
48,414 



9,810 
29,510 
181,510 
161,756 
219,680 
131,574 
706,875 
535,401 



1,881,728 
79,900 
150,694 
372,566 
1,755,334 
75,364 
99,778 



12,445,000 
5,146,000 

24,050,000 

125,392,000 

6,280,000 

3,042,000 



41,282,000 

150,000 

74,000 

20,746,000 

29,060,000 

100,000 
222,000 



266,159 1,118,848 



250,000 
500,000 

3,900,000 
16,177,000 

6,000,000 
684,000 



250,000 
100,000 
255,000 
1,381,000 
775,000 
92,000 



550 
14,840 

1,950 
21,083 

1,125 
22,241 



94,348 i 


98,513 






1,611,426 ■ 


1,640,911 


106.385 .. 





75,800 

1,112,819 

32,200 

40,014 

132,000 

1,237,505 

45,100 

124,069 

53,900 

55,714 

7,300 

16,156 

190,241 

505,171 

30,000 

28,627 

1,172,500 

4,016,596 

78S.923 

4,125,736 

176,000 

329,344 



37,700,000 
7,135,000 

57,502,000 
2,185,000 
1,195,000 

15,750,000 

24,520,000 
4,631,000 
4,570,000 
5,676,000 
1,818,000 
575,000 



4,720,000 
15,291,000 



525 



182,000 116,352 



22,640,000 
27,697,000 
3,485,000 
1,754,000 
78,925,000 

112,486,000 
67,764,000 

133,710,000 
32,000,000 
18,872,000 



74,000 

26,001,000 

27,428,000 

1,300,000 

671,000 



300,000 
1,030,000 



195,000 
100,000 



55,000 
222,000 
123,074,000 
65,620,000 
21,300,000 
76,370,000 

28,696,000 
5,765,000 



5,000,000 

300,000 

10,980,000 

9,402,000 



300,000 
8S7.000 



27,019 
547,699 

4.500 

119,785 

2,350 

20,946 



322,365 826,998 

! 84,195 

92,297 838,851 

27,067 

41,775 59,954 

217,700 

146,925 499,331 

56,575 

6,200 101,777 

65,801 

3,500 29,315 

' 6,600 

3,372 

! 336,147 

33,459 370,634 

40,355 

400 22,487 

1,224,214 

4,481,067 

805,195 

2,444,629 

j 393,694 

67,906 311,727 



f Sec note b, page 26. 



b See note a, page i 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



29 



The following table shows, for the census year 1S90, the quantity and value of those forest products manufactured 
by milling establishments engaged in logging which are not included as materials used in the manufacture of the 
mill products reported in the preceding table. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting the 
operations of this branch of the industry. 

Table 27.— WISCONSIN— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES. 



Ashland.... 

Barron 

Bayfield 

Brown 

Burnett — 
Calumet.... 
Chippewa . 

Clark 

Crawford... 

Dodge 

Door 

Douglas.... 
Dunn 



Eau Claire 

Fond du Lac.... 

Grant 

Green 

Jackson 

Juneau 

Kewaunee 

La Crosse 

Langlade 

Lincoln 

Manitowoc 

Marathon 

Marinette 

Monroe 

Oconto 

Oneida 

Outagamie 

Pepin 

Pierce 

Polk 

Portage 

Price 

Richland 

Saint Croix 

Sauk 

Shawano 

Sheboj T gan 

Taylor 

Vernon 

Washington 

Waupaca 

Waushara 

Winnebago 

Wood 

Other counties . 



COrNTIKS. 



Saw logs for 

domestic 
consumption. 

(Feet, sealed 
measure.) 



Telegraph 
poles. 



(Number.) 



8,137,000 
7,512,000 



1,623,000 

5,000 

6,000 

12,000 

2,036,000 

4,106,000 



1,222,000 
7,000,000 
77,061,000 
52,339.000 
18,000 



22,000 
■3,633,000 



12,000 
42,178,000 
1,795,000 
S, 322, 000 



7,530,000 

16,501,000 

10,000 

184,000 

50,000 

20,000 

1,512,000 

1,106,000 

300,000 

666,000 

11,000 

7,271,000 

16,000 

21,796,000 

324,000 

16,000 

3,132,000 

18,000 

7,500,000 

3,611,000 

623,000 



Railway 

ties. 
(Number.) 



Piling. 
(Number 
of pieces.) 



Round 
timber for 

export. 
(Feet, scaled 
measure.) 



Value of 
all other 

forest 

products. 

(a) 




24,600 
45,086 



8,474 
82,777 



9,374 
20,487 



726 
3,343 
7,818 
7,600 
12,103 
2,116 
98,492 
1,132 
241,495 



1,178 
15,615 



1,452 

613 

2,053 

1,000 
7,974 
3,300 



1,050 

1,258 

516 

1,771 

4,545 

3,354 

75S 

11,593 

13,005 

1,003 

81,261 

458 



716 

916 

5,229 

3,700 
21,228 

2,774 
19,732 



3,295 

2,287 



13,884 



Total value 

of forest 

products 

which have 

not become 

the material 

for the mill 

product. 



8126,195 

38,621 

1,700 

13,825 

112 

112 

3,229 

14,472 

43,972 

100 

15,498 

35,425 

535,964 



367,886 
16,430 
58,971 
647 
61,990 

129,795 



5,652 

950 

4,165 

29,485 

1,036 

47,234 

112 

163,696 

2,348 



85,400 
33,799 
5,248 



\ Includes hewed timber shown in distinct classification in Table 12. 



30 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



Table 2S.— WISCONSIN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1880 AND 1890, BY SECTIONS, (a) 



SECTIONS. 


Year. 


Number 

of 
establish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Lumber. 

(Feet, board 

measure.) 


Shingles. 
(Number.) 


Staves. 
(Number.) 


Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 


Value of 
all other 

mill 
products. 


Value of 

remanufac- 

tures — 

1890. 


Total value 

of mill 

products 

and reman- 

ufactures. 


Aggregate 
of forest 
products, 
mill prod- 
ucts, and 
remanufac- 
tures— 1890. 


• 


1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 

1880 
1S90 

18S0 
1S90 
1880 
1890 


7 
33 
40 
29 

116 
129 

86 
99 
455 
573 


$172,000 
8,173,952 

126,200 
616,092 

2,380,016 
9,1S2,269 
6,571,250 
14,721,065 
10,574,593 
51,893,245 


18,100,000 

381,326,000 

13,706,000 

8,463,000 

172,374,000 

388,407,000 

316,281,000 

431,200,000 

1,021,560,000 

1,652,124,000 


8,250,000 
83,934,000 
3,455,000 
3,700,000 
95,839,000 
161,329,000 
211,780,000 
256,968,000 
513,598,000 
860,091,000 






83,000 

162,787 

750 

452,312 

7,600 

177,445 

15,249 

333,659 

125,572 

1,902,900 




$222,000 
5,237,054 
159,787 
604,677 
2,045,349 
5,907,036 
3,707,191 
6,699,972 
11,818,020 
31,098,671 






5,133,000 
150,000 


7,000 
300,000 


£920,691 


$5,400,374 


S 


51,334 




Mississippi and Saint Croix 
rivers. 


13,518,000 
20,320,000 
24,725,000 
4,166,000 

44,152,000 
23,570,000 


1,867,000 
2,359,000 

2,850,000 

789,000 

2,4Sl,O0O 

4,663,000 




1,035,132 


6,360,799 




1,192,642 


6,880,742 




8,237,940 


32,661,204 



a See Table 29 for details of quantity and value of forest products in 1890. 

Note. — In the preceding table the tercn "Lake Superior shore" embraces the counties of Douglas, Bayfield, and Ashland. The term 
"Lake Michigan shore " embraces the counties of Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Ozaukee, Milwaukee, Racine, and Kenosha. The term "Mississippi 
and Saint Croix rivers " embraces the counties of Burnett, Polk, Saint Croix, Pierce, Pepin, Buffalo, Trempealeau, La Crosse, Vernon, Crawford, 
and Grant. The term "Green Bay shore " embraces the counties of Marinette, Oconto, Outagamie, Brown, Kewaunee, and Door. 

The interior counties are Washburn, Sawyer, Price, Oneida, Forest, Florence, Langlade, Lincoln, Taylor, Chippewa, Barron, Dunn, Eau 
Claire, Clark, Marathon, Shawano, Waupaca, Portage, Wood, Jackson, Monroe, Juneau, Adams, Marquette, Green, Green Lake, Fond du Lac, 
Washington, Dodge, Columbia, Sauk, Richland, Iowa, Dane, Jefferson, Waukesha, Lafayette, Rock, Walworth, Waushara, Winnebago, and 
Calumet. 

The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value of those forest products manufactured 
by milling establishments engaged in logging which are not included as materials used in the manufacture of the 
mill products reported in the preceding table. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting the 
operations of this branch of the industry. 

Table 29.— WISCONSIN— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY SECTIONS. 



SECTIONS. 



Saw logs for 

domestic 
consumption. 
(Feet, scaled 
) 



Telegraph 

poles. 
(Number.) 



Fence 

posts. 

(Number.) 



Railway 


Piling. 


ties. 


(Number 


(Number.) 


of pieces.) 


11,000 


164 


1,503 


3 


33,747 


1,947 


112,253 


1,743 


194,636 


10,081 



Round 
timber for 
export. 
(Feet, 
scaled 
measure. ) 



Value of 
all other 

forest 

pro duets. 

(a) 



Total value 

of forest 

products 

which have 

not become 

the material 

for the mill 

product. 



Lake Superior shore 

Lake Michigan shore 

Mississippi and Saint Croix ] 

Green Bay shore 

Interior counties 



15,137,000 
18,000 
48,810,000 
19,592,000 
205,069,000 



51,772 
12,932 
7,957 
371,382 
65,410 



13,996 
1,295 
16,828 



971 

453,763 

180,770 

1,562,533 



a Includes hewed timber shown in distinct classification in Table 12. 

The following table shows for each section its percentage for 1880 and 1890 of the total value of mill production 
and remanufactures in the state of Wisconsin, as repor-ted for the respective years : 



Table 30. 



-WISCONSIN— PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL VALUE OF MILL 
PRODUCTION AND REMANUFACTURES. 



SECTIONS. 



PEK CENT. 



1890. 



Lake Superior shore 

Lake Michigan shore 

Mississippi and Saint Cr 

Green Bay shore 

Interior counties 



1.24 
0.S9 



20.65 
65.83 



10.57 
1.22 
11.92 
13.52 
62.77 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



31 



The percentage of gain in the value of mill products and remannfactures as reported for 1890 over the amount 
reported for 18S0 is as follows: 

PEE CENT. 

Lake Superior shore 2 , 259 . 03 

Lake Michigan shore 278.43 

Mississippi and Saint Croix rivers 188.80 

Green Bay shore 80.73 

Interior counties 163.15 

The following table, showing totals of capital invested and production at the principal productive points in the 
state of Wisconsin for the census years 1880 and 1890, includes all cities and towns for which special agents were 
appointed in 1890 and which contain three or more establishments reporting an aggregate value of production of 
$20,000 or over : 

Table 31 .—WISCONSIN— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1880 AND 1890, BY PRINCIPAL LUMBER-PRODUCING POINTS, {a) 





Year. 


Number 

of es- 
tablish- 
ments. 


RANK ACCORD- 
ING TO — 


Capital. 


Lumber. 


Shingles. 
(Number.) 


Staves. 
(Number.) 


Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 


Value of 
all other 

mill 
products. 


Value of 

remanu- 

factures— 

1S90. 


Total value 
of mill 
products 

ufactures. 


Aggregate 
of forest 
products, 

mill 

products, 

and reman- 

ufactures — 

1890. 


CITIES. 


Capital 

in- 
vested. 


Value 
of prod- 
ucts. 
(b) 


(Feet, board 
measure.) 




1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1SS0 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 

1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 




























7 


10 


6 


SI, 790, 900 


131,500,000 


6,500,000 






$4,650 


830,000 


$1,501,705 


$1,514,205 










4 

8 
6 
6 
12 

7 
8 


14 

2 

' 3 

4 
2 

1 
1 


14 
1 

4 
4 


266,480 
1,909,000 
4,699,919 
1,324,700 
6,208,399 
2,950,000 
7,109,128 


8,175,000 
173,578,000 
115,772,000 
S4, 767, 000 
203,986,000 
122,743,000 
191,318,000 


56,278,000 
39,037,000 

58,008, 

34,864,000 
114,076,000 
17,155,000 
67,058,000 






11 ,334 
19,750 
57,477 


107,159 


322,760 
1,976,595 
1,587,953 

880,107 
3,202,636 
1,241,334 
2,420,891 


322,760 














120,000 














133,000- 


7,000 


60,286 


645,263 


3,570,522 






400,000 


139,412 




2,495,616 










6 
4 
4 


13 
8 
4 


12 

7 
8 


589,359 

82,000 

3,667,075 


28,150,000 
53,150,000 
63,249,000 


9,000,000 
28,000,000 
62,122,000 


3,000,000 


400,000 


5,800 


80,750 


450,200 
413,500 
833,315 


450,200 








25,577 


13,000 














15 
6 
6 

22 
14 


5 
5 
7 
3 
6 


3 
5 
9 
3 

1 


3,594,186 
1,150,000 
2,581,580 
1,342,000 
3,114,390 


123,258,000 

09,500,000 

'54,425,000 

66,575,000 
100,384,000 


60,615,000 
28,600,000 
21,278,000 
118,164,000 
59,620,000 






51,051 
2,500 
16,634 
27,019 
51,822 


1,242,900 


2,814,725 
824,000 
1,283,160 
1,052,914 
3,819,150 


2,863,228 














537,159 


1,291,260 












325,000 


2,051,111 


3,904,450 








7 
5 
10 


12 

7 
11 


11 
8 
13 


750,180 

■ 162,000 

851,780 


32,275,000 
24,500,000 
28,426,000 


8,278,000 
6,100,000 
14,068,000 






101,929 


200,494 


681,190 

211,500 
441,851 


















28,003 


71,318 














3 
6 
13 


9 

6 
8 


10 
6 

7 


2,068,300 

406,000 

2,294,433 


73,975,000 
44,000,000 
89,545,000 


16,113,000 
33,000,000 
24,352,000 


5,000,000 




17,000 
24,000 


67,500 


845,500 

489,000 

1,421,559 


845,500 












217,159 















a See Table 32 for a statement of the quantity and value of forest products in 1S90. 

b Rank for 1890 is given according to aggregate value of all products, including the value of forest products manufactured by milling establishments, but 
which have not become the material for the mill product. The inquiry of 1880 did not include this branch of the industry, 
c But two establishments reported in Ashland in 1880, and but one establishment reported in Marshfield in 1880. 
dNo reports in 1SS0 for Eagle River, Merrill, Rhinelander, and Washburn. 



32 



STATISTICS OF MANTJFACTUBES. 



The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value of those forest products manufactured 
by milling establishments engaged in logging which are not included as materials used in the manufacture of the 
mill products reported in the preceding table. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting the 
operations of this branch of the industry. 

Table 32.— WISCONSIN— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY PRINCIPAL LUMBER-PRODUCING POINTS. 



CITIES. 


Saw logs for 

domestic 
consumption. 

(Feet, scaled 
measure.) 


Telegraph 

poles. 
(Number.) 


Fence posts. 
(Number.) 


Railway • Piling. 

ties. 1 (Number 
(Number.) of pieces.) 


Value of 
all other 

forest 
products. 


Total value 

of forest 

products 

which have 

not become 

the material 

for the mill 

product. 




2,500,000 
52,283,000 
42,178,000 

9,495,000 
77,049,000 

7,100,000 










$12,500 
433,406 
367,886 

74,725 
531,708 

48,503 
8,100 
















3,343 


1,771 79 


877 








5 363 






















7,500,000 

100,000 

6,000 




5,000 
















300 






7 















Table 33.— MINNESOTA— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1880 AND 1890, BY COUNTIES, (a) 



COUNTIES. 


Year. 


Number 

of 
establish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Lumber. 
(Feet, board Shingles 
measure.) (Number.) 


Staves. 
(Number.) 


Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 


1 
Value of Value of 
a11 ot ^ r remanufac- 
, ' 1 tures— 1890. 
products. 


Total value 

of mill 

products 

and reman- 

ufactures. 


Aggregate of 
forest prod- 
ucts, mill 

products, and 
remanufac- 
tures-1890. 


Anoka (6) 


1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 


5 


$429,000 


32,372,000 8,097,000 










$431,500 






































6 


69,615 


3,194,000 433,000 






SS30 


$2,159 


35,565 


$41,424 


Beltrami (c) 








4 


51,063 


2,710,000 








1,248 




27,268 


27,268 


Benton (b) 












4 


242,835 


7,800,000 
4,925,000 








150 




127,870 






70^,000 


10,000 




61,875 
72,735 
271,500 
1,816,592 
17,750 
32,665 
68,950 
47,885 




16 85,338 
5 148,000 






73,059 
















1890 
1880 
1S90 
1SS0 
1890 

1880 
1890 

1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 
1880 
1890 


86,798,000 
1,675,000 
2,565,000 
5,620,000 


42,978,000 






10,734 

120 

2,779 


750,815 


1,867,442 


Carv f 


7 
7 
8 
4 


24,375 

34,485 
64,500 
45,700 








278,000 
500,000 






2,159 






1,900,000 


8,000 






1,334 


2,159 
















11 
3 

12 
4 
3 
4 
4 

18 

20 


747,802 

7,000 

34,932 

6,700 

6,114 

158,000 

55,664 

2,445,000 

8,3S5,609 

11,600 


36,920,000 7,357,000 
1,940,000 1 25,000 






17,246 


137,000 


.614,560 
19,500 
48,425 

13,680 

4,754 

105,225 
125,084 

2,762,348 

6,585,936 

29,400 


614,560 












4,150 
80 
998 




48,425 




1,350,000 
335,000 

8,275,000 

8,886,000 
223,581,000 
325,629,000 

2,360,000 












74,000 
4,075,000 
3,074,000 
59,660,000 
175,327,000 
1,000,000 


























5,368 


300 






490,000 
6,300,000 


81,000 






456,399 


1,992,600 












1890 















a See Table 34 for a statement of the quantity and value of forest products in 1890. 

6 The following-named counties are grouped in order that the operations of individual establishments may not be disclosed to the public; the number of 
establishments in each county is here given for 18S0 and 1890, respectively : 

18S0: Becker, 2; Benton, 2; Cass, 1 ; Crow "Wing, 2; Dakota, 2; Dodge, 1; Kanabec, 1; Lake, 1; McLeod, 2; Mille Lacs, 1 ; Nicollet, 1; Polk, 2; Pope, 1 ; 
Ramsey, 1 ; Scott, 1 ; "Wabasha, 2 ; "Wadena, 2 ; Waseca, 2 ; Yellow Medicine, 1. 

1890 : Aitkin, 1 ; Anoka, 2 ; Brown, 1; Cass, 1 ; Dakota, 1; Houston, 1; Itasca, 1; Kanabec, 1; Kittson, 1 ; Nicollet, 1; Norman,!; Sherburne, 2; Wabasha, 
1 ; Waseca, 2. 

c No reports received for 1880. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



33 



Table 33.— MINNESOTA— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 

PRODUCTION, ETC.— Continued. 



COUNTIES. 



Le Sueur.. 



McLeod (6) 

Meeker 

Mille Lacs (ft).. 

Morrison 

Otter Tail 

Pine 

Polk (6) 

Rice 

Saint Louis 

Scott (6) 

Sherburne (6)... 
Sibley 



Sk-arns 



Todd 

Wadena (6) 

Washington 

Winona 

Wright 

Other counties (6) . 



Lumber. 
(Feet, board 
measure.) 



SIS, 905 
10,500 
18,120 
58,900 

109,868 



Shingles. Staves, 

(Number.) (Number.) 



1,900,000 

150,000 

12,263,000 

7,219,000 



12,800 ' 
10,930 



106,000 
2,372,000 
1,581,000 



57,300 
417,120 
157,100 
60,424 
55,500 
986,193 



27,000 

18,625 

65,000 

1,707,820 



7,650 
36,000 



15,500,000 
6,093,000 

26,873,000 
8,390,000 
3,605,000 

11,500,000 

54,900,000 



3,054,000 

' 370,000 

10,350,000 

56,582,000 



562,000 
2,250,000 



11,400 
17,120 
48,850 
234,444 

23,575 

124,655 



46,110 

1,505,000 

2,598,662 

1,003,500 

5,697,174 

45,245 

109,220 

325,850 

1,596,755 



806,000 
65,000 
8,660,000 
39,215,000 
2,685,000 
9,130,000 



4,084,000 
111,500,000 
137,307,000 
43,075,000 
110,226,000 
5,708,000 
4,461,000 
29,470,000 
44,447,000 



10,000 

250,000 

1,050,000 

150,000 



2,500,000 
542,000 
S, 756, 000 
3,570,000 
1,400,000 
1,000,000 
14,500,000 



18,278,000 
185,000 



2,567,000 4,070,000 

8,852,000 j 

1,300,000 
2,106,000 



1,578,000 
43,129,000 
65,130,000 
29,401,000 
79,086,000 



22,255,000 
11,778,000 



Sets of 
headings. 
(Number.) 



1,500 
4,410 



15,000 
91,092 



2,600 
27,474 



Value of 
remanufac- 
tures— 1890. 



SI, 900 



Total value 
of mill 

products 
and reman- 

ufactures. 



$12,340 
20,500 



127,950 
100,653 



25,800 

17,698 



7,000 
20,068 



Aggregate of 
forest prod- 
ucts, mill 
products, and 
remanufae- 
tures— 1890. 



1.275 



70,565 
325,805 
131,905 

66,666 
143,000 
627,950 



43,690 

8,550 

105,200 

916,249 



7,840 
31,000 



9,460 
11,600 
123,200 

495,093 
31,275 

148,496 



1,533,780 
2,232,364 
750,800 
2,876,201 
66,946 
95,083 
369,239 
814,530 



aThe following-named counties have been formed since 1880. 
Norman county, formed in 1881 from Polk. No reports for either 
6 See note 6, page 32. 



d therefore no reports are shown for that year : Hubbard county, formed in 1 
year were received from counties not mentioned in the table. 



8,550 



966,163 
10,090 



2,232,364 


3,435,901 


95,083 



34 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value of those forest products manufactured 
by milling establishments engaged in logging which are not included as materials used in the manufacture of the mill 
products reported in the preceding table. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting the operations 
of this branch of the industry. 

Table 34.— MINNESOTA— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES. 



I Seeker 

Blue Earth 

Carlton 

Carver 

Chisago 

Fillmore 

Hennepin 

Mille Lacs 

Morrison 

Otter Tail 

Saint Louis 

Seott 

Stearns 

Todd 

Wadena 

Winona 

Other counties.. 



Saw logs for I 

domestic Telegraph I Fcnce posts 
consumption. poles. j rKnmhoT . •> 
(Feet, scaled 

measure.) 



784,000 

6,000 

'000,000 



73,221,000 



8,547,000 
4.50,000 
5,000 
500,000 
30,000 
55,205,000 
20,000 



Railway- 
ties. 
(Number.) 



258 
12,000 
11,000 
108,058 
11,000 



Piling. 
(Number 
of pieces.) 



1,000 
5,300 



Value of 
all other 

forest 
products. 



Total value 

of forest 

products 

■which have 

not become 

the material 

for the mill 

product. 



100 

102 

630,837 

7,160 

31,720 

4,911 

49,914 

2,250 

212 

2,950 









The following table, showing totals of capital invested and production at principal productive points in the 
state of Minnesota for the census years 1880 and 1890, includes all cities and towns for which special agents were 
appointed in 1890 and which contain three or more establishments reporting an aggregate value of production of 
$20,000 or over : 

Table 35.— MINNESOTA— COMPARATIVE STATEMENT SHOWING TOTALS OF CAPITAL INVESTED AND VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION FOR THE CENSUS YEARS 1880 AND 1890, BY PRINCIPAL LUMBER-PRODUCING POINTS, (a) 





Year. 


Number 

of 
establish- 
ments. 


RANK ACCORDING 
TO — 


Capital. 


Lumber. 
(Feet, board 
measure.) 


Shingles. 
(Number.) 


Staves. 
(Number.) 


Value of 
all other 

mill 
products. 


Value of 

remanu- 

factures — 

1890. 


Total 
value of 
mill prod- 
ucts and 
remanufac- 
tures. 


Aggregate 

of forest 

products, 

mill 

products, and 

remanufac- 

tures— 1890. 




Capital 

in- 
vested. 


Value of 

products. 

(b) 




1880 


4 
8 
16 
17 


3 
4 

1 
1 


3 

4 
1 
1 


865,000 
1,357,140 

2,405,000 
8,382,304 


10,350,000 
37,407,000 
221,981,000 
325,629,000 










8105,200 
639,689 

2,740,848 
6,584,456 






4,0S0,000 
59,660,000 
175,327,000 




857,800 


8161,706 


8689,503 


Minneapolis : 1880 

1890 

Saint Cloud (e) ; 1880 




6,300,000 


454,919 


1,992,600 


7,215,293 


4 


5 


5 


208,780 
1,170,000 
1,389,162 


.37,625,000 
76,500,000 
80,177,000 


8,778,000 
41,491,000 
41,130,000 




8,659 


2,159 


468,585 
1,119,000 
1,096,424 






1880 

1890 

1 1880 

| 1890 












12,842 


200,000 


1,006,424 














5,697,174 


110,226,000 


79,086,000 




64,234 


1,209,080 


2,876,201 


3,435,901 




1 







a See Table 36 for a statement of the quantity and value of forest products in 1890. 

b Rank for 1890 is given according to aggregate value of all products, including the value of forest products manufactured by milling establishments, but 
which have not become the material for the mill product. The inquiry of 1880 did not include this branch of the industry, 
c But one establishment reported in Saint Cloud in 1880. 
d But two establishments reported in Winona in 1880. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



35 



The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value of those forest products manufactured 
by milling establishments engaged in logging which are not included as materials used in the manufacture of the 
mill products reported in the preceding table. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting the 
operations of this branch of the industry. 

Table 36.— MINNESOTA— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY PRINCIPAL 
LUMBER-PRODUCING POINTS. 



CITIES. 


Saw logs for 

domestic 
consumption 

(Feet, scaled 
measure.) 


Telegraph 

poles. 
(Number.) 


Fence 

posts. 

(Number.) 


Railway 

ties. 
(Number.) 


Piling. 
(Number 
of pieces.) 


Value of 
all other 

forest 
products. 


Total value i 

of forest 

products 

which have 

not become 

the material 

for the mill 

product. 




8,547,000 

73,221,000 

4,000 

55,205,000 










$49,814 


Minn a li 


10,000 


3,600,500 


12,000 


1,000 




630,837 




$7 


100 














559,700 














Miscellaneous data.— In the following tables, numbered 37 to 42, inclusive, miscellaneous data are presented 
respecting characteristics of plant, also certain items of expense which are incidental to the operations of the 
lumber-mill and saw-mill industry, although not usually taken into account as a charge on the cost of manufacture. 

From the statistics respecting characteristics of plant it appears that the various kinds of mills for the 
manufacture of lumber are used in the following percentage of the whole number reported: Gang mills, 8.24 per 
cent; circular mills, 80.71 per cent; muley saws, 3.32 per cent; band mills, 7.73 per cent, the last named being 
of comparatively modern use for the purpose mentioned. 

A comparison of the reports respecting steam power employed in 1890 with the reports for 1880 indicates that 
the average nominal horse power per engine in use in 1890 has increased 25.55 per cent. The average reported for 
this group of states in 1880 was 52.26 horse power per engine, while the average for 1890 is found to be 65.61 horse 
power. The average power used per establishment, as reported by the various classes of mills, will be found in 
Table 39. 

TABLE 37.— SUMMARY OF REPORTS FOR LUMBER MILLS RESPECTING CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANT. 





Number 
of estab- 


Number 


AVERAGE 

NUMBER OF SAWS 

PER GANG. 


Number of 

circular 
saw mills. 


Number of 

muley 
saw mills. 


Number of 

band 
saw mills. 




,. mills, 
reporting. 


Slabbing 
gangs. 


Wide 

gates. 




2,472 


261 






2,557 


105 


245 








1,456 
731 
285 


148 
41 


3 
3 
4 


32 
31 
36 


1,533 
727 
297 


76 
29 


104 
118 
23 









Eeports were received respecting the power employed by 2,141 establishments, and the following summary has 
been compiled from such reports : 

Table 38.— POWER EMPLOYED. 



Number of steam boilers 

Number of steam engines 

Estimated borse power of steam engines 

Number of establishments using water power exclusively 

Number of establishments using combined steam and water power 



Michigan. 


Wiseonsin. 


Minnesota. 


2,507 


1,329 


629 


1,643 


747 


336 


94,628 


55,622 


28,593 


138 


137 


20 


16 


22 


5 



36 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



The average power employed by stave and heading mills is found to be 57 horse power. The average power 
employed by lumber mills and shingle mills of the respective classes is as follows : 

Table 39.— AVERAGE POWER EMPLOYED PER ESTABLISHMENT. 



LUMBER MILLS. 


! Horse 
power. 


SHINGLE MILLS. 


Horse 
power. 


Class 1 


494 


Class 1 

Class 2 

Class 3 


73 
33 

I 23 


Class 3 


,0 



Table 40.— ANNUAL DEPRECIATION OF PLANT. 



STATES. 


Number of 

establishments 

reporting. 


Capital invested 

in buildings 
and machinery. 


Average annual 
allowance for 
depreciation. 


Percentage 

of 
investment. 


Total 

Wisconsin 


! 900 


$12,427,961 


31,107,128 


08.91 


'■ 509 

282 

109 


6,009,247 
4,844,679 
1,574,035 


528,753 
444,342 
134,033 


8.80 
9,17 
8.52 



a Average percentage for the group of states. 

The average percentage obtained from a summary of the reports of 900 establishments, shown in the preceding 
table as 8.91, if applied to the total investment in buildings and machinery as reported by all and stated in Table 
12, would produce an annual expense charge of $3,041,911, equal to a charge of 32.3 cents per 1,000 feet on the 
total mill product. 

Many manufacturers replied that they made no allowance for depreciation of plant, because the plant was 
constantly, kept in its original state of efficiency, and as the cost of repairs was accounted for, it was therefore 
unnecessary to make additional allowance. The total amount reported in Table 12 for repairs to buildings and 
machinery is equivalent to 5.30 per cent of its value. The proposition is submitted that if this plant can be sold for 
the amount of its valuation, then no allowance for depreciation is necessary ; but should there be a depreciation in 
the market value of the plant from its cost after making such repairs, then it is good accounting to make an annual 
allowance therefor. 

Table 41.— EXTENT OF FOREST FIRES AND DAMAGE RESULTING TO STANDING TIMBER OWNED BY MILLING 
ESTABLISHMENTS DURING THE DECADE OF 1880 TO 1890. 



Total 

Michigan 

Wisconsin..... 
Minnesota 



Area of 

timbered land 

owned. 

(Acres.) 



521,767 
576,403 
412,000 



Estimated area 
Estimated of tlmbered 

quantity of ]and 

timber standing burned over 
May 31 1890. from June !_ ls80 
(Feet, board toMay31189a 
measure.) (Acres } 



8,612,028,700 



3,782,528,300 
2,486,020,400 
2,343,480,000 



1 48, ys.s 



69,867 
46,341 

32,780 



Estimated 
quantity of 
timber killed. 
(Feet, board 
measure.) 



Value as green 
timber. 



424,250,000 



229,080,000 
115,845,000 
79,325,000 



Reduction in 

value of 

timber burned 

during 

the decade 

ended 1890. 



£1,023,988 



Quantity of 
standing timber 
cut during year 
ended May 31, 

1890. 
(Feet, scaled 
(measure.) 



641,355 
268,358 
114,275 



651,116,352 
354,514,535 
122,588,000 



The form of the question respecting damage to standing timber by fire was as follows : 

(1) " What area of standing timber owned by you has been burned over since June 1, 1880? " 

(2) " Estimated quantity of timber killed by fire." 

(3) " Keduction in the value of timber by fire." 

A circular letter was sent to each establishment from which a report had been received presenting the reply 
made, calling attention to the period of time embraced in the inquiry, and requesting such amendment to the reply 
as the facts might require upon reconsideration. From the correspondence and revision of original returns which 
resulted the data presented were obtained. The information received is believed to have peculiar value, because it 
is furnished by individual owners whose timbered land is usually well explored and the quantity of timber carefully 
estimated. The results obtained show a much lower rate of loss than has been generally indicated by current 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



37 



forestry statistics. The total number of establishments reporting the ownership of timbered land is 883, of which 
only 166 reported any loss by fire. 

It appears from the reports that greater care has been taken to prevent fires since the timber has become so valuable, 
and that the careless and wasteful methods which once prevailed in lumbering operations have given place to more 
sensible and conservative management. It is now the custom promptly to cut all timber of merchantable size which 
has been killed by fire and manufacture it before it has become damaged by worms, in which case the reduction in 
value from that of green timber does not exceed 50 per cent. The total average reduction of value to growing timber 
from fire, as obtained from the data presented in the preceding table, is found to be 65.89 per cent. From the loss 
for ten years is shown an average annual loss of $102,399 to establishments which cut 1,128,218,887 feet during the 
census year, which is equivalent to an annual charge of 9.08 cents per 1,000 feet of product. The ratio of the area 
of timbered land burned to the whole area owned by the establishments reporting equals the ratio of 1 to 10. 

Table 42.— STATISTICS OF LIVE STOCK IN USE AND ANNUAL COST FOR RENEWAL OF SAME. 







NUMBER 


OF ANIMALS IN USE, 




AVERAGE 


COST OF SUBSISTENCE 
PER HEAD. 


COST OF RENEWAL OF 


LIVE STOCK. 


STATES. 


Number 

of 
reports. 


Total. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Cattle. 


Number 

of 
reports. 


Number of 

animals 

reported in 

use. 


Average 
annual cost 
of renewal of 
live stock. 


Total 


813 


18,523 


12,785 


584 


5,154 








218 


7.S59 


8170,213 












484 
271 
58 


7,026 
8,943 
2,554 


5.S77 
5,392 
1,516 


203 
285 
96 


946 

3,266 

942 


$112 

86 
92 


$119 
104 
SO 


SS2 
68 
56 


119 
SO 
19 


2,913 
3,679 
1,267 


84,536 
65,627 
20,050 


Wisconsin 



Reports were received showing the total amount expended for the subsistence of each kind of animals, and from 
these data the averages stated in the preceding table were obtained, but the data respecting the time for which the 
animals were subsisted are not complete. The term of employment is reported in Table 14 under the head of 
" Logging," and is found to average thirty-three weeks in Michigan, twenty-four weeks in Wisconsin, and twenty- 
two weeks in Minnesota. Upon this basis the average cost per week is found to be $3.74 for horses, $3.99 for 
mules, and $2.60 for cattle. 

The question as to annual allowance for renewal of live stock was intended to ascertain the cost for such 
renewal resulting from the loss of draught animals in service. This expense is shown by the reports of 218 
establishments, employing 7,859 animals, to average $21.66 per head employed. Taking the whole number of animals 
reported in Table 12 and applying the rate per head obtained, the sum of $477,148 is produced, equivalent to an 
expense charge of 4.49 cents per 1,000 feet on the total forest and mill product reported. Aggregating the expense 
items obtained for depreciation of plant, damage to standing timber by fire, and annual cost for renewal of live stock, 
an annual expense charge of 45.84 cents per 1,000 feet is obtained. 

To what extent this constitutes a fair charge upon the cost of manufacture can not be determined by this office, 
but the data elicited may prove of value to those interested. 



38 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



TRANSPORTATION OF LOGS. 

The amount expended for transportation of logs is stated in Table 12 as $5,118,439. This amount represents 
only the expense incurred for this item by mill operators who cut standing timber and transport it to their mills 
for manufacture. Information was obtained, however, which enables the presentation of the following data, compiled 
from the reports of 584 establishments in Michigan, 270 establishments in Wisconsin, and 70 establishments in 
Minnesota, transporting an aggregate of 4,922,205,346 feet per annum : 

Table 43.— TRANSPORTATION OF LOGS. 



MICHIGAN. 

(Total quantity 

reported, 

2,523,901,200 feet.) 



Per 

cent of 

the 
whole. 



Transported by water exclusively j 37.60 

Transported by rail exclusively 12.26 

Transported by teams exclusively 11.22 

Combining the foregoing means of transportation... 38.92 



Average 

cost 
per 1,000 

feet. 



1.95 
1.94 



WISCONSIN. 

(Total quantity 
reported, 

1,802,835,140 feet.) 



MINNESOTA. 

(Total quantity 

reported, 
595,469,000 feet.) 



Per 
cent of 

the 
whole. 



Average 

cost 
per 1,000 

feet. 



JO. 99 
1.13 



12.01 
16.73 



Per 

cent of 

the 
whole. 



72.47 
4.12 
5.71 

17.70 



Average 

cost 
per 1,000 

feet. 



0.45 
1.67 
2.59 



It appears from the reports, showing a combination of several means of transportation, that in Michigan the 
combination of rail and water is required, while in Wisconsin and Minnesota the usual combination is of teams 
and water, thus indicating that the standing timber in Michigan is more remote from streams than in Wisconsin 
and Minnesota. 



STATISTICS OF LOGGING RAILWAYS. 

A special inquiry was made respecting the operations of logging railways, and complete reports were received 
for 43 railways, of which 31 are located in Michigan, 9 in Wisconsin, and 3 in Minnesota. The table following- 
gives the data compiled from the complete reports, and includes only those roads using locomotives. 

Incomplete reports were received for 73 roads in Michigan, 33 roads in Wisconsin, and 3 roads in Minnesota. 

The total capital invested in logging railways by mill establishments located in the respective states has been 
stated in Table 12, and the capital so invested by logging operators will be found in Table 59. 

Table 44.— OPERATIONS OF LOGGING RAILWAYS. 



items. Total. Michigan. 


Wisconsin. 


Minnesota. 




407.5 

76 

1,336 

884,492,700 

$4,794.36 


279 

51 

911 

615,683,652 

$1,283.62 


99.5 

19 

330 

229,262,048 

$5,430.85 


29 

6 

95 

39,547,000 

$7,524.14 








Average value of road and equipment (per mile).... 



From the reports embraced in the preceding table the various road gauges are found to be as follows : 



166.75 miles of 3 feet 

13 miles of 3 feet 10 

9 miles of 4 feet 

7.50 miles of 4 feet 8 



inches gauge, 
inches gauge, 
inches gauge, 
inches gauge. 



211.25 miles of 4 feet 8.50 inches gauge. 
407.50 
It appears that an average of 3.28 cars are employed for each mile of road and that one locomotive is required 
for each 5.36 miles of road. 

The range in cost of transportation per 1,000 feet by logging railway is from 21.75 cents to $3, the average 
being $1.07. 

The average value per mile of road and equipment is shown to be $4,794.36, the average number of hands 
employed per mile of road is 3.66, and the average annual wages per hand employed is $353.91. The average 
annual expense for supplies, repairs, etc., per mile of road operated is $479.72. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



39 



BOOM COMPANIES. 

In connection with the subject of transportation of logs and timber an inquiry was addressed to all companies 
incorporated in the respective states for the special purpose of improving streams and water ways for the 
transportation of such material. 

The following table gives the result of the inquiry : 

Table 45.— INCORPORATED BOOM COMPANIES. 

CAPITAL INVESTED. 



<'LAs-irlc.vnoN. 



Capital stock : 
Amount of capital stock . 

Number of shares 

Amount actually paid in. 



INVESTED.. 



(28 companies reported.) 



Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 



Aggregate actc. 
Plant : 

Timbered land 

All other land 

Buildings 

River improvements 

All other items of investment in plant 

Total 

Live capital : 
Vessels used for transportation of lumber or logs, including 
steam tugs. 

Booms, chains, and supplies 

Tools, implements, and live stock 

All sundries not included in any of the foregoing items 



Total . 



92,761,825 

31 ,703 

2,487,076 



2,000 

708,266 

41,050 

1,367,691 

168, 06S 



72,801 
65,293 
17,951 



MICHIGAN. 

(11 companies reported.) 



Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 



$183,000 

7,020 

333,196 



2,000 
18,991 

8,000 
121,178 
125,377 



275,540 



26,776 
12,000 
13,950 



(11 companies reported.) 



Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 



MINNESOTA. 
(6 companies reported.) 



Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 



81,858,150 

21,176 

1,847,980 



643,275 
18,050 



25,193 
1,500 



120,675 
3,507 



46,000 
15,000 
379,700 
20,000 



460,700 



15,056 
28,100 
2,501 



MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 



Total . 



Amount paid for land damages... 
Amount paid for other damages.. 

Amount paid for taxes 

Amount paid for insurance 



2X3,111 



27,449 
6,950 
19,072 
2,338 
227,305 



9,247 

1,115 

153,553 



21,750 
6,500 
6,387 



1,140 
5,301 



40 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



Table 45.— INCORPORATED BOOM COMPANIES— Continued. 

LABOR AND WAGES. 



EMPLOYES. 


AGGREGATE. 

(28 companies reported.) 


MICHIGAN. 

(11 companies reported.) 


WISCONSIN. 

(11 companies reported.) 


MINNESOTA. 

(6 companies reported.) 


Companies Number 
reporting -. Wages 
respective! hands j paid, 
items. 


Average | 
_ . ' number 
Companies ofhands ; Total 
reporting em . g 
respective , d id 
items. during 
year. I 


Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 


Average 
number 
of hands 

em- 
ployed 
during 
year. 


Total 
wages 
paid. 


Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 


Average 
number 
of hands 

em- 
ployed 
during 
year. 


Total 
wages 
paid. 




641 


5189,400 




225 


$82,120 




346 


$76,900 




70 






3 
4 

3 




5 
5 

2 




River improvements and re- 
pairs : 






43,216 

53,842 

92,342 


16 
45 

164 


16,175 
26,000 

39,945 






21,405 
7,958 

47,537 


7 
41 

22 


5,636 
19,884 

4,860 


Engineers, blacksmiths, and other 
skilled workmen, overseers, and 
foremen or superintendents (not 
general superintendents or man- 
agers). 

Laborers and other unskilled work- 


17 
13 


106 
495 


8' 
8 


20 
309 


Average number of weeks employed-. 


17 


21.41 




4 


21.25 




8 


17.38 




5 


28.00 












ANIMALS EMPLOYED. 




Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 

sub- 
sistence. 




Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 

sub- 
sistence. 




Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 

sub- 
sistence. 




Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 

sub- 
sistence. 






46 


S3, 025 




12 


8311 




32 


$2,624 




2 








2 




1 








2,493 
532 


10 


279 
32 




2,124 
500 


2 




































MATERIALS rsF.ll, EXTENT OF OPERATIONS, AND AVERAGE TOLLS. 





AGGREGATE. MICHIGAN. 

(28 companies reported.) (11 companies reported.) 


WISCONSIN. 

(11 companies reported.) 


MINNESOTA. 

(6 companies reported.) 




Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 


Cost where 
used. 


Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 


Cost where 
used. 


Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 


Cost where 
used. 


Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 


Cost where 
used. 




$17,213 








$3,263 




$13,950 




3 








3 
3 




8,450 
8,763 




8,450 
5,500 








2 


3,263 








EXTENT OF OPERATIONS. 




Amount. 


Amount. 




Amount. 


Amount. 


Value of improvements and repairs made during year 

Quantity of logs, timber, etc., handled and delivered 
during year (feet, scaled measure). 


22 
26 
24 


$133,180 

3,355,935,045 

9.52 


7 $15,482 
11 878,172,281 
9 10.00 


10 
9 
9 


$71,698 

1,512,087,424 

9.25 


5 
6 
6 


$46,000 
965,675,940 






AVERAGE TOLLS. 




Amount. 
(Cents.) 




Amount. 
(Cents.) 




Amount. 
(Cents.) 




Amount. 
(Cents.) 






93.2 




124.8 




85.4 
36.8 

9.2 
39.4 








13 

8 
12 





5 

2 
5 






Average tolls per 1,000 feet charged for " running" logs 
and timber. 

Average tolls per 1,000 feet charged for improvements 

Average tolls per 1,000 feet charged for storage, assort- 
ing, and delivery. 


31.3 

9.0 

52.9 


2 

6 
4 


28.3 

S.O 

88.5 


6 
3 


27.0 
34.1 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



41 



Table 45.— INCORPORATED BOOM COMPANIES— Continued. 

TRANSPORTATION AND CARE OF LOGS. 



AGGREGATE. MICHIGAN. WISCONSIN. MINNESOTA. 

i companies reported.) | (11 companies reported.) ' (11 companies reported.) ' (6 companies reported.' 



Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 



Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 



Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 



Companies 

reporting 

respective 

items. 



Average number of hands employed during the year.. 

Amount paid for wages (including board) 

Average number of weeks employed 

Average number of hours in ordinary day of labor: 

May to November 

November to May 



3,938 

8920,280 

23.06 



8338,950 
17.00 



2,392 

8370,211 

23.00 

10.60 
9.00 



8217,119 
28.00 



11.00 
9.00 



In explanation of the apparent discrepancy between the cost of transportation by water, as stated in Table 43, 
and the average charge for such service by boom companies in the respective states, as reported in the preceding 
table, it should be noted that tbere is a great difference in the extent of the service rendered. The expense of 
transportation reported by mill establishments often includes the cost of towing rafts of logs for long distances. 
In the returns embraced in the preceding table one company simply reports the ownership of a dam containing a 
log slide, for the use of which its charter permits a toll of two cents per 1,000 feet for " improvements." Another 
company reports a charge of seven cents per 1,000 feet for "improvements" and nothing for transportation or 
storage. One company reports a charge of only six cents per 1,000 feet for transportation, which is much below the 
average for such service. The reports cited cause an abnormal reduction in the average tolls. 

The range of tolls for the respective classes of service is as follows : 

Transportation per 1,000 feet 5 cents to 70 cents. 

Improvements per 1,000 feet 2 cents to 50 cents. 

Storage, assorting, and delivery per 1,000 feet :. 5 cents to $1. 

From the information furnished respecting the number of pieces required to equal 1,000 feet (scaled measure), it 
appears that the average log of Michigan, as handled by the companies reporting in that state, measures 100 feet ; 
the average log of Wisconsin measures 108.1 feet ; the average log of Minnesota measures 105 feet. The range is 
from 9 to 12 logs per 1,000 feet in Michigan, from 5.7 to 12.5 logs per 1,000 feet in Wisconsin, and from 5.5 to 14 logs 
per 1,000 feet in Minnesota. 



TIMBERED LAND AND STANDING TIMBER. 

The collection of accurate and comprehensive statistics relating to timbered land is found to be quite difficult. 
The census inquiry under the head of manufactures called for reports as to the area, quantity, and value of merchantable 
standing timber owned by all manufacturing establishments cutting such timber or consuming logs or bolts as raw 
material. For convenience of report and tabulation such establishments were divided into two classes, one of which 
embraced all those operating any kind of mill, and the other was intended to include all other productive industries 
engaged in cutting forest growth but not operating mills. 

The schedules of questions addressed to each of these classes were entitled, respectively, " Special Schedule 
No. 5, Lumber mills and saw mills," and " Special Schedule ISTo. 5a, Timber products." No attempt has been made 
to ascertain the total quantity of merchantable timber standing in any of the states. However desirable the 
information may be, it can be ascertained only approximately and by means of local experts employed as special 
agents for every county. Attempts have been made by several state governments to obtain it, but with 
unsatisfactory results. For this reason the inquiry made by this office has been limited to those lines upon which 
it was believed the most accurate information was accessible. The reports obtained from manufacturers respecting 
standing timber owned by them are believed to have peculiar value, because their timbered land is usually thoroughly 
explored and its product carefully estimated. 

The question as to capital invested in timbered land and standing timber required for its answer a specific report 
of the amount invested in such lands as are not tributary to the mills operated by the establishments in question, 
also the amount invested in timbered land or standing timber which is tributary to such mills. The latter amount 
only is stated in Table 12, as forming a part of the operative capital. 
6 



42 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



The tables following snow the total capital invested in all timbered lands in the United States by establishments 
located in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Of this amount it is found that $8,116,069 is 
invested in lands situated in other states and not reported as operative capital. It appears from the reports that 
the amount of such speculative investment in timbered lands by establishments located in the respective states is 
$4,967,155 for Michigan, $2,639,434 for "Wisconsin, and $509,480 for Minnesota. A statement showing the location 
of the land by states, the area and value of the several varieties of timber, etc., will be found in Tables 52 to 57, 
inclusive. 

It should be understood that the items of capital invested, area of timbered land, and principal varieties of 
timber are statements of fact ; the items of quantity of merchantable standing timber and its value are estimates. 

In the explanatory note appended to the questions it was stated that " the average product per acre of 
merchantable timber should be given from the most reliable estimates, those upon which the owners base their value 
of the property." After tabulating the replies, the total estimated product and its value was obtained by 
computation in this office. To what extent the result approaches the total forest area or the total quantity of 
standino' timber in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota can not be determined, as complete data are 
not available. 

This office has reason to believe that the amounts reported under the head of " Capital invested " are in some 
instances no criterion of the present value of the land, because it has been partly stripped of timber, and the 
investment does not appear to have been credited with the value of such timber. To what extent this affects the 
totals this office has no means of accurately determining, but simply publishes data derived from the reports as 

made. 

The following table, showing the capital invested in timbered land, the area of the same, the estimated 
quantity of merchantable timber thereon, so far as reported to this office, and its estimated value, includes only 
timbered land or standing timber owned by manufacturing establishments operating mills located in the states 
named. A statement respecting the location of the land and the principal varieties of timber thereon will be found 
in Tables 52 to 57, inclusive. The term " merchantable timber " comprises timber which can be manufactured into 
lumber fit for market. 



Table 46. 



-TIMBERED LAND OWNED BY ESTABLISHMENTS OPERATING 
MILLS. 



LOCATION OF ESTABLISH- 
MENTS. 


Number of 
establish- 
ments 
reporting 


Capital 

invested in 

timbered 

land. 


Area 
in acres. 


Estimated total 

product of 
merchantable 
timber. (Feet, 
board measure.) 


Estimated 
value of 
standing 
timber. 




933 


885,381,446 


6,818,941 


43,132,883,209 


5135,612,007 




550 
313 
70 


45,586,478 
34,003,044 
5,791,924 


3,592,511 

2,664,461 

561,969 


25,678,433,269 
14,647,122,940 
2,807,327,000 


72,681,666 
54,009,288 
8,921,053 









The following table includes only timbered land or standing timber owned by those manufacturing 
establishments located in the states named which are engaged in cutting such timber but are not engaged in mill 
operation. A statement respecting the location of the land and the principal varieties of timber thereon will be 
found in Tables 52 to 57, inclusive. 



Table 47.— TIMBERED LAND OWNED BY ESTABLISHMENTS ENGAGED IN 
CUTTING. 



LOCATION OF ESTABLISH- 
MENTS. 


Number of 
establish- 
ments 
reporting. 


Capital 

invested in 

timbered 

land. 


Area 
in acres. 


Estimated total 
product of 
merchantable 
timber. (Feet, 
board measure.) 


Estimated 
value of 
standing 
timber. 




253 


©22,792,991 


2,051,159 


14,283,210,980. 


350,107,358 

12,474,198 
30,724,315 
6,908,845 




88 
129 
36 


8,771,276 
8,260,215 
5,761,500 


602,572 
1,059,707 


4,592,708,500 
7,739,462,480 
1,951,040,000 









LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



43 



The following table embraces reports from lumber manufacturers located at the points named respecting their 
ownership of timbered land in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The great bulk of the material 
used by such manufacturers consists of timber cut in the states referred to and floated to the points named in the 
following list : 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER POINTS. 

McGregor, Iowa. 
Dubuque, Iowa. 
Lyons, Iowa. 
Clinton, Iowa. 
Davenport, Iowa. 
Muscatine, Iowa. 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER POINTS. 

Burlington, Iowa. 
Fort Madison, Iowa. 
Keokuk, Iowa. 
Quiney, Illinois. 
Hannibal, Missouri. 



LAKE PORTS. 



Michigan City, Indiana. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Sandusky, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Tonawanda, New York. 



A statement respecting the location of the land and the principal varieties of timber thereon will be found in 
Tables 52 to 57, inclusive. 

Table 48.— REPORTS FROM LUMBER MANUFACTURERS RESPECTING 
OWNERSHIP OF TIMBERED LAND. 



LOCATION OF : 



Total . 



Michigan... 
Wisconsin- 
Minnesota.. 



Number of Capital 

establish- invested in 

ments timbered 

reporting. land. 



195,000 
3,559,853 



Area 
n acres. 



245,540 



28,000 
203,040 
14,500 



Estimated total 

product of 

merchantable 

timber. (Feet, 

board measure.) 



1,936,140,000 



50,000,000 

1,7S5,040,000 

95,100,000 



Estimated 
value of 
standing 
timber. 



:,4."-..2C0 



280,000 

7,854,360 

300,900 



The following table gives data as to ownership of timbered land by fifty establishments located in the states 
named, but not reported as lumber or saw mill establishments or manufacturers of timber products. They include 
reports from pulp mills, the mining industry, etc. A statement respecting the location of the land and the principal 
varieties of timber thereon will be found in Tables 52 to 57, inclusive. 



Table 49. 



-DATA AS TO OWNERSHIP OF TIMBERED LAND BY FIFTY 

ESTABLISHMENTS. 



LOCATION OF ESTABLISH- 
MENTS. 


Number of 
establish- 
ments 
reporting. 


Capital 

invested in 

timbered 

land. 


Area 


Estimated total 

product of 
merchantable 
timber. (Feet, 
board measure.) 


Estimated 
value of 
standing 
timber. 




50 


H6, 600, 981 


1,754,949 


11,434,658,780 


$28,347,926 




16 

8 
26 


2,017,106 

869,275 

13,714,600 


591,863 
340,916 
822,-170 


5,679,648,780 
1,298,920,000 
4,456,090,000 


10,495,146 
4,065,980 
13,7S6,800 







The following table gives data as to ownership of timbered land by thirteen railway corporations located in 
the states named. A statement respecting the location of the land and the principal varieties of timber thereon will 
be found in Tables 52 to 57, inclusive. 



Table 50.— DATA AS TO OWNERSHIP OF TIMBERED LAND BY 
THIRTEEN RAILWAY CORPORATIONS. 



LOCATION OF PRINCIPAL 
OFFICE. 


Number 

of 

companies 

reporting. 


Area 
in acres. 


Estimated total 

product of 
merchantable 
timber. (Feet, 
board measure.) 


Estimated 
value of 

standing 
timber. 




13 


5,519,910 


37,358,332,750 


824,920,577 




5 
3 
5 


8-47,350 
1,209,121 
3,463,439 


4,632,292,250 
1,553,367,500 
31,172,673,000 


3,059,309 
1,749,490 
20,111,778 









44 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 

The following table summarizes the data respecting timbered land given in the preceding tables : 

Table 51.— RECAPITULATION. 



NUMBER OF TABLE. 



Aggregate 

Table 46— Domestic lumber and saw mill establishments... 

Table 47— Logging establishments not operating mills 

Table 48— Foreign lumber and saw mill establishments (6). 

Table 49 — Miscellaneous reports 

Table 50— Railway corporations 



1,262 a5128,530,271 



85,381,446 
22,792,991 
3,754,853 
16,600,981 



Total area. 
(Acres.) 



16,390,499 



6,818,941 
2,051,159 
245,540 
1,754,949 
5,519,910 



Total product. 
(Feet, board 
measure.) 



108,145,225,719 



43,132,883,209 
14,283,210,980 
1,936,140,000 
11,434,658,780 
37,358,332,750 



8247,423,128 



135,612,007 
50,107,358 
8,435,260 
28,347,926 
24,920,577 



a Capital invested by railway corporations not reported. 

6 Mill establishments located in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, New York, 



The following table gives the total area of timbered land located in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and 
Minnesota embraced in Table 51. The principal varieties of timber, the proportionate area of each variety, the 
average orowth of merchantable timber per acre, and the average value of each variety per 1,000 feet, together with 
the total product and total value of each variety, is given for each state and for the group of states. 

Table 52.— TIMBERED LAND. 





SUMMARY. 


MICHIGAN. 


PRINCIPAL VARIETIES OF TIMBER. 


Area 
in acres. 


Average 
product of 
merchant- 
able timber 
per acre. 
(Feet, 
board 
measure.) 


Estimated 
total product 
of merchant- 
able timber. 
(Feet, board 

measure.) 


Average 

value 
per 1,000 

feet as 
standing 

timber. 


Total value. 


Area 
in acres. 


Average 
product of 
merchant- 
able timber 
per acre. 
(Feet, 
board 
measure.) 


Estimated 
total product 
of merchants 
able timber. 
(Feet, board 

measure.) 


Average 

value 
per 1,000 
feet as 
standing 
timber. 


Total 
value. 




12,469,391 


o5,088 


63,450,260,719 


a$3.43 


8217,625,210 


4,040,343 


a5,975 


24,140,699,199 


o$3.44 


$83,131,280 






Wht ine 


8,342,695 

1,309,420 

345,144 

106,467 

1,021,261 

57,921 

91,539 

1,238 

37,246 

1,156,460 


5,670 
2,785 
4,715 
4,951 
3,272 
5,201 
6,035 
8,397 
2,202 
5,238 


47,304,557,519 

3,646,233,000 

1,627,208,000 

527,080,500 

3,341,248,000 

301,231,000 

552,462,900 

10,395,000 

82,018,000 

0,057,826,800 


4.05 
2.83 
1.02 
1.41 
1.19 
3.13 
1.79 
3.18 
1.54 
1.20 


191,530,0S4 

10,332,929 

1,658,030 

742,510 

3,991,406 

942,177 

989,309 

33,020 

126,465 

7,279,280 


2,547,055 
55,510 
218,486 


6,053 

7,889 
4,745 


15,418,280,499 

437,900,000 

1,036,792,000 

469,250,500 

2,354,755,000 

71,033,500 

497,812,900 

10,395,000 

67,123,000 

3,777,356,800 


4.67 
3.52 
1.05 
1.38 
1.25 
3.59 
1.80 
3.18 
1.18 
0.95 


72,049,723 




1,543,250 




1,091,407 


1 lr 


91,067 


5,153 


647,660 


ft woods 


413,545 
10,025 
81,299 
1,238 
35,199 

586,919 


5,694 
7,086 
6,123 
8,397 
1,907 
6,436 


2,937,248 




255,194 




897,329 




33,020 




78,875 


M' 11 us hard woods 


3,597,574 







PRINCIPAL VARIETIES OF TIMBER. 


WISCONSIN. 


MINNESOTA. 


Total 


5,407,934 


a4,911 


26,560,035,520 


o$3.69 

4.00 
3.49 
0.96 
1.64 
1.07 
2.96 
1.69 


$97,885,891 


3,021,114 


a4,220 


12,749,526,000 


a$2.87 


$36,608,039 






White 


4,021,815 
172,493 
126,658 
14,100 
607,476 
20,195 
9,960 


5,398 
10,092 
4,661 
3,825 
cl,620 
4,756 
5,409 


21,708,869,020 
1,740,831,000 
590,416,000 
53,930,000 
984,253,000 
96,042,500 
53,870,000 


S6, 844, 723 
6,075,773 
566,623 
88,550 
1,051,678 
284,035 
90,920 


1,773,S25 
1,081,417 


5,738 
51,357 


10,177,408,000 
1,467,502,000 


3.21 
1.85 


32,635,638 




2,713,906 






Cedar 


1,300 

240 

27,701 

280 


3,000 
9,333 
4,843 
2,786 


3,900,000 

2,240,000 

134,155,000 

780,000 


1.62 
1.11 
3.00 
1.36 


6,300 


M' Uanc - soft woods 


2,480 




402,948 




1,060 








1,680 
433,557 


5,762 
3,050 


9,680,000 
1,322,144,000 


3.34 
2.16 


32,360 
2,851,229 


367 
135,984 


dl4,210 
7,047 


5,215,000 
.958,326,000 


2.92 
0.87 


15,230 




830,477 







ft General average. 

b This item includes 1,012,800 acres of railway lands, which average but 1,154 feet per acre ; the remaining 68,617 acres average 4,347 feet per i 

cThis item includes 568,628 acres of railway lands, which average but 1,000 feet per acre. 

ft" Includes one report of 160 acres, containing elm and basswood, averaging 30,000 feet per acre. 



LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



45 



The range of value per 1,000 feet for standing timber of each variety, as reported in the preceding table, is as 
follows : 

Table 53.— VALUE OF STUMPAGE. 



TIMBER. 


MICHIGAN. 


"WISCONSIN. 


MINNESOTA. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 




S8.50 
2.00 
5.00 
8.00 
3.50 
7.00 
8.00 


$0.90 
0.20 
0.25 
0.50 
1.00 
1.00 
0.50 


$6.00 
2.00 
4.00 
6.00 


$1.00 
0.50 
0.50 
2.00 


$7.00 


$1.50 






2.00 
5.00 


2.00 
2.50 


Ash 


4.00 


1.50 


3.00 


2.00 






2.00 
3.00 


1.00 
0.80 




2.00 


0.50 


6.00 


0.50 





The description of timbered land and standing timber owned by manufacturing establishments and railway 
corporations located in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, as reported in Tables 46, 47, 49, and 50, 
is continued in the following tables, the states in which the land is located being grouped according to the principal 
varieties of merchantable timber produced in the respective groups. 

The principal varieties of merchantable timber included in the following table are fir and cedar. The entire 
ownership is reported by railwa}' corporations located in the state of Minnesota. 



Table 54.— FIE AND CEDAE. 



STATES. 


Area 

in acres. 


Average 
product of 
merchant- 
able timber 
per acre. 


Estimated total 

product of 
merchantable 
timber. (Feet, 
board measure.) 


Average 
value per 
1,000 feet. 


Estimated 
value of 
standing 
timber. 




1,100,000 


4,545 


5,000,000,000 


&1.00 


95,000,000 






800,000 
300,000 


4,000 
6,000 


3,200,000,000 
1,800,000,000 


1.00 

1.00 


3,200,000 
1,800,000 



The principal varieties of merchantable timber included in the following table are Douglas fir and redwood. 
The percentage of the whole area embraced in the table as owned by establishments located in Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota is as follows : 

PER CENT. 

Michigan 5.80 

Wisconsin 0.10 

Minnesota ". 94.10 

100.00 
Table 55.— DOUGLAS FIR AND REDWOOD. 



STATES. 


Area 
in acres. 


Average 
product of 
merchant- 
able timber 

per acre. 


Estimated total 

product of 
merchantable 
timber. (Feet, 
board measure.) 


Average 
value per 
1,000 feet. 


Estimated 
value of 
standing 
timber. 




1,275,330 


21,509 


27,431,460,000 


SO.. 52 


$14,268,157 




27,360 

23,708 

1,224,262 


44,532 
42,322 
20,592 


1,218,400,000 
1,003,360,000 
25,209,700,000 


0.82 
0.30 
0.51 


1,001,600 

304,190 

12,962,367 




Washington 



46 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



The principal varieties of merchantable timber included in the following table are yellow pine and cypress. 
The percentage of the whole area embraced in the table as owned by establishments located in Michigan and 
Wisconsin is as follows : 

PER CENT. 

Michigan 97.30 

Wisconsin 2 . 70 



100.00 



Table 56.— YELLOW PINE AND CYPRESS. 



Total 1,407,35S 

Virginia ! 21,000 

North Carolina ! 111,418 

Georgia | 14,390 

Florida 67,016 

Alabama 76,651 

Mississippi 531,498 

Louisiana ! 341,083 

Arkansas ! 240,562 

Missouri 3,740 



Average 
product of 
merchant- 
able timber 

per acre. 



7,918 



6,000 
8,560 
4,375 
5,991 
7,228 
7,106 
9,883 
7,782 
6,925 



Estimated total 
product of 
merchantable 
timber. (Feet, 
board measure.) 



11,143, 



i,000 



126,000,000 

953,770,000 

62,950,000 

401,490,000 

554,065,000 

3,776,644,000 

3,370,954,000 

1,871,952,000 

25,900,000 



Average 
value per 
1,000 feet. 



2.00 
0.36 

0.79 
1.10 
0.87 
0.52 
0.74 
1.41 









Estimated 
value of 
standing 
timber. 



,723,361 



252,000 

346,885 

49,475 

439,845 

483,038 

1,951,723 

2,501,049 

2,646,446 

49,900 



The principal varieties of merchantable timber included in the following table are yellow poplar and hard 
woods. The entire ownership is reported by establishments located in the state of Michigan. 

Table 57.— YELLOW POPLAR AND HARD WOODS. 



STATES. 


Area 
in acres. 


Average 
product of 
merchant- 
able timber 

per acre. 


Estimated total 
product of 
merchantable 
timber. (Feet, 
board measure.) 


Average 
value per 
1,000 feet. 


Estimated 
value of 
standing 
timber. 




138,420 


8,090 


1,119,780,000 


SI. 61 


SI, 80G,- 100 




45,500 
12,000 
74,600 
6,000 
320 


6,429 
6,0"0 
9,866 
3,000 
4,000 


292,500,000 
72,000,000 

736,000,000 
18,000,000 
1,280,000 


4.21 
2.00 
0.55 
1.00 
5.00 


1,230,000 

144,000 

408,000 

18,000 

6,400 













The consumption in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota of merchantable standing timber of all varieties by the 
manufacturing industries operating mills, whose reports are presented herewith, is shown in Table 12 to have 
aggregated 9,845,113,654 feet (scaled measure) during the census year, to which should be added the timber cut and 
manufactured by establishments having mills located in other states. From reports embracing the operations at 
such places, it appears that about 750,000,000 feet is manufactured at points on the Mississippi river and 75,000,000 
feet at points on Lake Erie. These quantities, added to the domestic consumption, aggregate 10,670,000,000 feet of 
standing timber consumed annually for raw material. 

It also appears from the reports of the mill establishments referred to that the quantity of standing timber now 
owned by them is only sufficient at this rate of consumption to supply their requirements for four or five years. The 
question as to the total supply of timber remaining other than that reported is therefore of the highest importance. 

From the data supplied in the preceding tables respecting average quantities of the principal varieties per 
acre, it is believed that a close approximate might be made to the total quantity of merchantable timber now 
standing in the group of states forming the subject of this report provided the area of timbered land held by the 
federal and state governments could be obtained. 

Inquiry has been made to ascertain the area of public laud containing merchantable timber held by the federal 






LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS. 



47 



government and by the state governments of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The result of the inquiry 
respecting federal ownership is contained in the following letter : 

Department of the Interior, 
General Land Office, 

Washington, D. C, January 31, 1891. 
Sir : I am in receipt, by your reference for report, of a communication from the Superintendent of Census, dated the 24th instant, 
requesting that a statement be furnished him showing the area in acres of timbered lands now owned by the general government in the states 
of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. 

In reply, I have the honor to state that in the Annual Report of this office for 1890, upon pages 108, 109, and 120, it is shown that in the 
state of Michigan there are 832,707 acres of vacant public land, in the state of Minnesota 6,913,544 acres surveyed and 4,011,520 acres 
unsurveyed, and in the state of Wisconsin 819,320 acres. 

It is believed that the areas containing timber lands are mainly in the northern portion of each state, but it will be impracticable for 
this office to furnish the desired information in detail. 

Very respectfully, 

Lewis A. Geoff, Commissioner. 
The Honorable The Secretary of the Interior. 

The report referred to in the preceding letter indicates the area of unsurveyed land in the state of Minnesota 
to be located as follows : 

ACKES. 

Beltrami county 207,360 

Cook county 138,240 

Itasca county 1,566,720 

Kittson county 506,880 

Lake county 668,160 

Marshall county 69,120 

Polk county 2,560 

Saint Louis county 852,480 

Total 4,011,520 

All the counties named are located in the northern part of the state, and the maps published with volume IX, 
Eeports of tbe Tenth Census, indicate most of the area to be timbered, principally with pine. 

From a report made by Hon. "W. W. Braden, state auditor, it is learned that the total forest area owned by the 
state of Minnesota is estimated to be 13,000,000 acres, of which 8,000,000 acres are heavily timbered, and the 
remaining 5,000,000 acres are sparsely timbered, or have been cut over. The proportionate area of the heavily 
timbered land, containing white and Norway pine, is estimated to be 4,000,000 acres, containing 20,000,000,000 feet 
(board measure), valued as standing timber at §60,000,000. 

The area of public land held by the state of Michigan June 30, 1888, as stated in the official report of the 
commissioner of the state land office, was 584,833 acres, of which 538,685 acres were for sale at that date. This 
office has been unable to ascertain what proportion of this land contains merchantable timber, but its average 
market value is shown to be $1.75 per acre. 

The total area of land held by the state of Wisconsin September 30, 1890, as reported by a special agent of this 
office at Madison, Wisconsin, was 671,633 acres. Most of this land is located in the northern counties, and about 
one-half of it is said to be timbered. 

White pine (P. strobus) constitutes the most valuable timber growth of the northwest, and no considerable 
area of this species exists in the United States outside the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. It is 
therefore of interest to know the annual consumption of this particular variety. 

Annual statistics of the total white-pine lumber product of the northwest from 1873 to 1890, inclusive, have 
been compiled and published in The Northwestern Lumberman of Chicago, and form the only data available in 
this connection. The following table gives the totals for each year, as published in that journal : 

Table 58.— STATEMENT OF THE ANNUAL PRODUCT OF WHITE-PLNE LUMBER IN THE NORTHWEST FROM 1873 TO 

1890, INCLUSIVE. 



WHITE-PINE LUMBER. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


Sawed lumber (feet, board meas- 
ure). 
Shingles (number) 


3,993,780,000 
2,277,434,000 


3,751,300,000 
2,473,217,000 


3,968,553,000 
2,515,838,000 


3,879,046,000 
2,900,531,000 


3,595,333,496 
2,696,857,000 


3,029,472,759 
2,561,491,000 


4,806,943,000 
2,859,113,000 


5,651,295,006 
2,972,912,000 


6,768,856,749 
3,546,007,000 




1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


Sawed lumber (feet, board meas- 
ure). 


7,552,150,744 
4,094,278,000 


7,624,789,786 
3,964,757,000 


7,935,033,054 
4,559,826,000 


7,053,094,555 
4,257,974,000 


7,425,368,443 
4,577,531,000 


7,757,916,784 
4,116,467,000 


8,388,716,460 
4,514,647,000 


8,305,833,277 
4,698,976,000 


8,664,504,715 
4,487,824,000 











48 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 

The following statement places the results contained in the preceding tables in comparison with the estimates of 
the total quantity of merchantable white pine standing in 1880 in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, 
as published in the reports of the Tenth Census. The quantity of lumber and shingles manufactured is obtained by 
computing 5,000 shingles as equal to 1,000 feet (board measure) and aggregating the quantities reported in Table 56. 

FEET. 

Total quantity of pine lumber and shingles manufactured since 1880, as reported to The Northwestern Lumberman.. 86,039,917,567 
Quantity of white pine reported by individual owners as standing May 31, 1890 47,304,557,519 

Total 133,344,475,086 

Deduct estimated total quantity standing in 1880 84,170,000,000 

Partial gain over estimate of 1880 49,174,475,086 

The data for the estimates for 1SS0 were collected and compiled by gentlemen of acknowledged experience with 
the subject, and the preceding statement is submitted as good evidence of the difficulties attending the collection of 
reliable information respecting standing timber. The sources from which the information presented in this report 
was derived have been described. It is evident therefrom that the supply of merchantable white pine is rapidly 
nearing exhaustion. It is shown from the individual returns that the average annual consumption of this variety of 
timber as material for manufacturing industry in the three states under consideration is over ten billion feet (board 
measure), and that manufacturers' holdings of such timber are only sufficient to supply them for about five years at 
the present rate of cutting. The quantity in reserve is believed to be principally that standing on lands owned by 
the federal and state governments. 

This quantity is an unknown factor, but all the data respecting it which this office has been able to collect are 
presented herewith. 



TIMBER PRODUCTS. 



Keference has previously been made to the schedule of inquiry issued by this office, entitled " Special Schedule 
No. 5a, Timber products." The following compilation of reports received on this schedule does not fully represent 
the extent and value of the industry which the inquiry was intended to embrace. The instructions respecting this 
inquiry issued to enumerators and special agents of this office directed that it " should be presented to all operators 
engaged in productive industry in forest growth which does not come within the scope of the schedule for agriculture 
and whose operations are not connected with lumber mills or saw mills." 

Had the instructions been strictly complied with, the data obtained would have enabled a full presentation of 
statistics respecting the forest crop of the country, estimated by Professor Sargent in his report for 1880 to exceed 
$700,000,000 in annual value. Among the important items for which the reports are incomplete may be mentioned 
wood used as fuel and for the manufacture of charcoal, material for wood pulp and for distilled products, uncultivated 
vegetable substances used in the manufacture of medicines, uncultivated nuts, wood used for fencing, and timber cut 
for railway ties. Statistics of the quantity and value of saw logs probably approximate most nearly to correct totals 
of any item in the classification. 

From the published reports of the Paper Manufacturers' Association it appears that the pulp mills located in 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, if operated to their full capacity, would require 115,000 cords of wood annually. 

No reports whatever were obtained from some counties having an extensive forest area. It was impracticable 
to examine and verify the returns obtained by enumerators during the brief period they were in the field, and equally 
so to obtain additional returns by means of correspondence since the conclusion of their work. Blanks will be 
forwarded to all persons engaged in the industry who may request them for the purpose of making a return, and such 
returns will be included in the county totals when revised for the final report. Such correspondence is invited by 
this office, and will receive prompt attention. 

The following table shows the totals for each branch of the industry : 

Table 59.— TIMBER PRODUCTS. 

CAPITAL INVESTED AND ANNUAL EXPENSE CHARGES. 





AGGREGATE. 

(574 establishments 
reported.) 


MICHIGAN. 

(190 establishments 
reported.) 


WISCONSIN. 

(312 establishments 
reported.) 


MINNESOTA. 

(72 establishments 
reported.) 


CAPITAL INVESTED. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Amount. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Amount. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Amount. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Amount. 






846,765,405 




515,369,721 




£20,299,071 




811,096,613 




284 

492 
27 
G 
47 
18 

183 


96 

159 
13 
1 
8 
9 
95 


148 

271 
12 
5 
21 
6 
77 


40 

62 
2 




24,031,374 

1,723,649 
666,309 
22,445 
214,570 
522,292 
999,389 


7,278,216 

383,206 
180,978 
200 
31,135 
492,678 
749,672 


8,371,353 

892,333 
359,831 
22,245 
98,435 
26,114 
101,017 




Plant : 


448,110 
125,500 








18 
3 
11 


85,000 
3,500 












4,148,654 

11,610,258 
6,975,119 


1,837,869 

3,330,189 
2,923,447 


1,499,975 

7,565,260 
2,862,483 


810,810 

714,809 
1,189,189 


Lite assets : 


234 
278 


140 
100 


73 
138 


21 
40 








18,585,377 


6,253,636 


10,427,743 


1,903,998 






12 
131 
44 
78 
18 
51 
100 








3,700,020 


1,567,386 


1,652,749 


479,885 




33 
377 

99 
178 

38 
161 
219 


12 
198 
48 
86 
18 
75 
100 


9 
48 

7 
14 

2 
35 
19 




59,744 
283,983 
73,287 
72,323 
58,473 
303,715 
2,848,495 


2,766 
88,534 
49,544 
16,565 
33,652 
143,337 
1,232,988 


52,177 
153,816 
20,018 
40,845 
22,132 
118,059 
1,245,702 


4,801 










14,913 

2,689 

42,319 

369,805 


Amount paid for commissions and other expenses of selling.. 


Amount paid for all sundries not reported elsewhere (a) 



a The amount reported for " Value of all other products 
of the material. 



page 52, consists pri: 



:ipally of the value of lumber manufactured at custom mills for the owners 

49 



50 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



Table 59.— TIMBER PRODUCTS— Continued. 

LABOR AND WAGES. 





AGGREGATE. 

(574 establishments reported.) 


MICHIGAN. 

(190 establishments 


reported.) 


WISCONSIN. 

(312 establishments reported.) 


MINNESOTA. 

(72 establishments reported.) 


EMPLOYES. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Average 
number 
of hands 

em- 
ployed 
during 
year. 


Wages 
paid. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Average 
number 
of hands 
em- 
ployed 
during 
year. 


Wages 
paid. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Average 
number 
of hands 

ployed 
during 
year. 


Wages 
paid. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Average 
number 
of hands 

em- 
ployed 
during 
year. 


Wages 
paid. 






22,087 


$4,958,378 




6,982 


81,974,838 




9,677 


$1,807,327 




5,428 


SI, 176, 213 




315 
331 
55 
331 

279 
317 

355 
59 
3 


78 
76 
11 
69 
57 
78 

112 
19 
2 


199 
199 
6 
201 
167 
178 

f 184 

40 

I 1 


38 
56 
38 
61 
55 
61 

f 59 




Officers and firm members .... 
Foremen and mechanics 


455 
1,469 

710 
5,515 
3,895 
3,633 

4,936 

92 
4 


270,826 
534,937 
199,272 
1,092.213 
764,691 
755,551 

1 1,129,058 


115 

280 

298 

1,518 

1,008 

910 

1,832 
28 
3 


89,722 
150,643 
107,486 
389,477 
282,060 
262,682 

I 534,516 


243 

824 

55 

2,367 

2,238 

1,614 

1,973 
64 
1 


113,813 
256,708 
5,279 
383,211 
345,130 
285,551 

I 376,847 


97 
365 
357 

1,060 
649 

1,109 

1,131 


67,291 
127,586 
86,507 


nd sav 


319,525 


Sk' Id C nd swam ers 


137,501 




207,318 


Cooks and other employes : 


217,695 








1:::::::::::: 














. 


20,739 


4, 746.54S 


5,992 


1,816,586 


9,379 


1,766,539 
40,788 


5,368 


1,163,423 




67 
3 

I 1 


46 
3 

1 


f W 


3 





Piecework (not included in 
the foregoingstatement): 


1,335 
6 


1 211,830 
J 


977 
7 
6 


1 

j- 158,252 


298 


60 


12,790 








1 




























1,348 


211,830 


990 


158,252 


298 


40,788 


60 


12,790 













ANIMALS IN USE. 



ANIMALS IN USE. 




Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 

sub- 
sistence. 




Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 

sub- 
sistence. 




Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 

sub- 
sistence. 




Number 

of 
animals. 


Cost of 

sub- 
sistence. 






10,462 


$667,444 




1,856 


$187,423 




5,265 


$326,429 




3,341 


$153,592 




370 
13 
244 


91 
3 
46 


218 

7 

146 


61 
3 
52 






6,731 

67 

3,664 


494,649 

6,113 

166,682 


1,595 
18 
243 


168,051 
2,382 
16,990 


3,181 

43 

2,041 


229,306 
3,099 
94,024 


1,955 

6 

1,380 


97,292 




632 




55,668 







TIMBER PRODUCTS. 



51 



Table 59.— TIMBEE PEODUCTS— Continued. 

MATERIALS USED. 





HARD WOODS. 


SOFT WOODS. 


STATES. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Cords. 


Number. 

(Feet, scaled 

measure.) 


Value 

of 

stumpage. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Cords. 


Number. 

(Feet, scaled 

measure.) 


Value. 

of 

stumpage. 




71 


23,252 


109,552,000 


8529,186 


360 


14,379 


1,787,065,000 


$7,041,191 






32 

36 
3 


13,533 

9,254 
465 


97,156,000 
4,746,000 
7,650,000 


484,505 
23,161 
21,520 


84 
229 

47 


12,258 

2,121 


571,949,000 
848,855,000 
366,261,000 


2,560,275 
3,099,923 
1,380,993 












MISCELLANEOUS WOODS. 


ALL OTHER MATERIALS USED. 




STATES. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting: 
respective 
items. 


Cords. 


Number. Value 
(Feet, sealed of 
measure.) stumpage. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Cost, exclusive 

of those 

ineluded as 

wages paid or 

keep of cattle. 


Total cost 

of materials 

used. 




77 


240,462 


33,200,000 


$153,958 


196 


8366,832 


$8,091,167 








16,235,000 
16,965,000 


107,940 
46,018 


72 
75 


124, 8S0 
165,622 


3,277,600 




7 13,225 



























SUMMARY OF MATERIALS USED. 





AGGREGATE. 

(574 establishments 
reported.) 


MICHIGAN. 

(190 establishments 
reported.) 


WISCONSIN. 

(312 establishments 
reported.) 


MINNESOTA. 

(72 establishments 
reported.) 




Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Amount. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting" 
respective 
items. 


Amount. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Amount. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 


Amount. 


ft f timb r f all vai ies (cubic feet} 


473 


236.618,508 


176 


103,777,167 


249 


93,832,758 


48 




gff k, i y 




Total value of stu 


$7, 724, 335 
366,832 


83,152,720 
124,880 


53,169,102 
165,622 


$1,402,513 


f 11 th rials 


196 


72 


75 


49 


76,330 






T t 1 f all materials 


8,091,167 


3,277,600 


3,334,724 

















52 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



Table 59.— TIMBER PRODUCTS— Continued. 

MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS. 



AGGREGATE. 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



MICHIGAN. 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



Total . 



§20,807,446 



Charcoal (bushels) 

Cooperage stock (cords) 

Fence posts (number) 

Fence rails (number) 

Handle stock (cords) 

Hard wood and other logs, for export (feet, scaled 

Hemlock bark (cords) 

Hewed timber (cubic feet) 

Hoop poles and hoops (number) 

Hop poles (number) 

Logs for domestic manufacture (feet, scaled measure) 

Masts and spars (number) 

Oak bark (cords) 

Paving stock (cords) 

Piles (number) 

Pulp stock (cords) 

Railway ties (number) 

Rived and shaved shingles (number) 

Telegraph poles (number) 

Value of all other products (a) 



2,145,233 

8,200 

3,000 

33,115,000 

6,899 

279,040 

6,939,000 

350,000 

1,392,585,874 

12 

7,500 

77,401 

19,996 

1,228 

1,916,434 

4,049,000 

111,380 



Total value of all products 

Amount received for contract labor.. 



089,060 

29,252 

134,675 

229 

250 

276,212 

19,933 

. 45,227 

41,406 

2,200 

13,208,859 

560 

30,000 

183,246 

48,260 

3,974 

409,754 

10,476 

192,846 

3,089,820 



1,102,719 
8,000 



9,815,000 

5,754 

279,040 

5,849,000 



19,016,245 
1,791,201 



58,481 

4,606 

753 

741,163 

1,804,000 
100,280 



WISCONSIN. 



Establish- 
ments 
reporting 
respective 
items. 



MINNESOTA. 



Establish- 
ments 

reporting Quantity. 

respective 
items. 



Total . 



Charcoal (bushels) 

Cooperage stock (cords) 

Fence posts (number) 

Fence rails (number) 

Handle stock (cords) 

Hard wood and other logs, for export (feet, scaled measure).. 

Hemlock bark (cords) 

Hewed timber (cubic feet) 

Hoop poles and hoops (number) 

Hop poles (number) 

Logs for domestic manufacture (feet, scaled measure) 

Masts and spars (number) 

Oak bark (cords) 

Paving stock (cords) 

Piles (number) 

Pulp stock (cords) '. 

Railway ties (number) 

Rived and shaved shingles (number) 

Telegraph poles (number) 

Value of all other products (a) 




Total value of all products 

Amount received for contract labor.. 



464,000 

7,565 

342,514 

200 

3,000 

23,300,000 

1,145 



42,195 
28,717 
16,794 



190,700 
4,273 



1,090,000 

350,000 

687,474,645 



3,875 

2,200 

6,739,475 



900,271 

2,245,000 

11,100 



54 



30,000 
4,009 
11,610 
1,425 
186,982 
4,292 
5,807 
470,210 



18,000 
13,000 



7,742,818 
883,426 



a The amount reported for " Value of all other products " consists principally of the value of lumber manufactured at custom mills for the owners of the 
material. The amount paid for such manufacture is reported on page 49, under the head of "Annual expense charges," and is included in the amount paid for 
all sundries not reported elsewhere. In Table 12, embracing reports of mill establishments, the amount received for such manufacture is accounted for in the 
item of "All other products." 



TIMBER PRODUCTS. 



53 



Duration of labor. — From 193 reports respecting labor employed and wages paid from May to November it 
appears that the average length of the day's labor during that period was 10.61 hours and the average term of 
employment 1 7.31 weeks. 

From 529 reports covering the time from November to May the average length of the day's labor was found to be 
10.14 hours and the average term of employment 17 weeks. 

Damage to standing timber by fire. — In reply to the question respecting damage to standing timber by fire 
reports were received from 41 establishments, which show an average annual loss of $721 resulting from this cause. 

Annual expense for renewal of live stock. — From the reports of 182 establishments owning 5,230 animals 
it is ascertained that the average annual expense for renewal of animals used in this industry amounts to $27.22 per 
head. 

Location of operations. — In those cities and towns in which the statistics of manufactures were collected by 
special agents of this office instructions were issued to report all manufacturers of timber products on Special Schedule 
No. 5a as of the place where their principal office or residence is located, because it was found impracticable in many 
cases to fix the location of their operations. In consequence of this fact the reports in the tables following are not 
to be taken as showing the value of forest products actually manufactured within the boundaries of the respective 
counties. 



TIMBER PRODUCTS IN MICHIGAN. 

The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value, by counties, of timber products 
reported on Special Schedule No. 5a. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting this industry. 



Table 60.— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF TIMBER PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES. 





Number 

of 
establish- 
ments. 


Capital 
invested. 


COOPERAGE 
STOCK. 


FENCE POSTS. 


FENCE RAILS. 


HOOP POLES AND HOOPS. 


HEWED TIMBEK. 




Cords. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Cubic feet. 


Value. 




190 


815,369,721 


318 


S535 


1,102,719 


867,881 


8,000 


S225 


5,849,000 


837,531 


279,040 








Al er 


5 
4 

15 

11 
5 
3 
4 

41 

12 
4 

15 
3 
4 
3 

19 
9 
4 

29 


69,175 

164,500 

2,662,832 

90,408 

31,559 

217,300 

175,587 

259,371 

37,024 

80,254 

2,960,891 

135,200 

83,349 

11,505 

2,558,624 

2,790,971 

940,136 

2,101,035 




























110,000 


7,700 














B '• 














77,940 


5,835 


Delta 






64,153 


3,028 


















2,500,000 


12,500 






Kalk ska 
























475,000 

308,060 

25,000 

2,000 


30,000 

17,043 

3,000 

100 
































M 


















Montcalm 










300,000 


1,650 








































Oceana 






















Ob ola 




































2,469,000 


19,521 












12,706 


508 




























318 


535 


105,800 


6,502 


8,000 


225 


580,000 


3,860 


201,100 


39,392 



a The following-named counties are grouped because there were less than three reports from each of them, the number of establishments reporting- being 
noted after each county : Allegan, 2; Arenac, 2; Barry, 1 ; Berrien, 1 ; Chippewa, 2 ; Clare, 1 ; Emmet, 1 ; Gladwin, 2 ; Ingham, 2; Ionia, 1; Iosco, 1; Kalamazoo, 
1; Kent, 1; Leelanaw, 1; Macomb, 1 ; Marquette,!; Oakland, 1; Saint Clair, 1 ; Shiawassee, 1 ; Tuscola, 1 ; Van Buren, 2; Washtenaw, 2. No returns received 
from counties in this state not mentioned in the table. 



54 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 

Table 60.— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF TIMBER PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES— Continued. 





HARD WOOD AND 
OTHER LOGS, FOR 


HEMLOCK BARK. 


ph.es. 


PAVING STOCK. 


PULP STOCK. 


RAILWAY TIES. 


RIVED 

AND SHAVED 

SHINGLES. 


COUNTIES. 


Feet. 

(Sealed 
measure.) 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 




9,815,000 


$85,512 


5,754 


$15,660 


4,000 


810,650 


58,481 


$114,237 


753 


$2,549 


741,163 


$136,772 


1,804,000 


$6,184 




























10,000 


2.000 






" 






















111,408 21.167 






' 


3,000.000 
570,000 


30,500 
3,552 


















1,725 
51,730 

1,814 


695 

9,303 

272 






f. 










37,356 


9,298 


50 


100 






I b 11 


150 


450 










lkaaka 




































4,400 

1,748 

600 

39 


20,000 

6,962 

4,800 

132 






184,289 
101,100 
5,000 
2,000 
21 174 
5,000 
7,000 


36,658 
18,024 
1,250 
580 
4,581 
1,500 
960 






M n 




750 


209 


636 


1,066 


2,000 


703 


2,449 


240,000 


480 










100,000 


1,000 


250 

3,000 

300 

775 


750 
4,500 
1,200 
2,954 


























N 


















1,500,000 


5,000 




2,500,000 


12,500 






























64,000 














2,200 


7,000 


























6,176 


45,441 






27,548 


4,132 






xford 























.. , , 


3,495,000 


37,210 


1,070 


5,170 


740 


1,650 


8,162 


27,604 






211,375 


35,650 



















MASTS AND SPARS. 


I 

CHARCOAL. '' TELEGRAPH POLES. 


LOGS FOR DOMESTIC 
MANUFACTURE. 


Amount 
received 

for 

contract 

labor. 


Value 
of all other 
products. 


Total 
value of 

all 
products. 


COUNTIES. 


Number. 


Value. 


Bushels. 


Value . 


Number. 


Value. 


Feet. 

(Sealed 
measure.) 


Value. 




12 


3560 


9,473,704 


$646,871 


100,280 


$187,039 


471,140,229 


$4,626,019 


$332,120 


$1,891,808 


$8,207,380 










800,000 


60,000 






5,000,000 

2,600,000 

72,248,549 

403,520 


50,000 

19,500 

633,653 

3,228 




3,790 
40,000 
912,938 
11,919 
12,000 








830 


165 




88,532 

1,694,672 

137,034 

63,222 

62,000 
206,729 
449,940 
176,443 

31,389 
1,137,613 










111,051 






1,294,535 

450,000 

700,000 

1,000,000 

2,171,400 

201,900 

54,000 

7,800 


96,544 
38,000 
42,000 
57,500 
150,868 
17,393 
2,700 
556 


164 


62 








Kalkaska 














Mackinac 






29,032 

6,600 

60,000 

154 


29,669 

5,275 

150,000 

77 


3,769,000 
2,743,462 


32,902 
14,843 












62,750 


167,860 








Montcalm 






4,850,000 

123,765,361 

31,265,000 

3,000,000 


24,400 

1,121,957 

207,845 

15,000 






Musk eon 








6,019 


New-iv" 












O na 






1,200,000 
320,000 
18,000 
238,154 
107,500 
910,415 


66,000 
26,500 

1,800 
14,070 

8,600 
64,340 






45,000 




142,414 
27,204 
























8,400,000 
91,841,927 
25,329,000 
93,924,410 


74,500 

1,168,839 

202,944 

1,036,408 


113,319 


719,269 












1,232,990 

216,544 

1,273,910 














5,000 
13,013 






560 















a See note a, preceding page. 

b The amount reported under the head " Value of all other products" consists principally of the value of lumber manufactured nt custom mills for the 
owners of the material. The amount paid for such manufacture is reported in Table 59, on page 49, under the head of "Annual expense charges," and is included 
in the amount paid for all sundries not reported elsewhere. In Table 12, embracing reports of mill establishments, the amount received for such manufacture 
is accounted for in the item of "All other products." , 



TIMBER PRODUCTS. 55 

Application was made by this office to the surveyors and clerks of the respective counties in each state, requesting 
information as to the area of timbered land and the quantity and variety of merchantable standing timber in each 
county. All the reports received from Michigan are given below. In those counties for which no report is published 
the information requested was not furnished. The term "merchantable timber" means any variety of timber 
growth which is capable of manufacture into lumber fit for market. By the term " forest land " is meant that portion 
of uncultivated area which is principally wooded. 

Alcona. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 203,000 acres, of which 105,000 acres contain merchantable timber in the following 
proportions of quantity for the principal varieties: White pine, 25; Norway pine, 20; hemlock, 50; cedar, 25; oak, 10; ash, 2; elm, 3; maple, 
beech, and birch, 2. 

Alpena. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 280,000 acres, of which 125,000 acres contain merchantable timber, about 
200,000,000 feet of this being -white pine and about 75,000,000 feet Norway pine, the remainder consisting of cedar, hemlock, tamarack, and 
beech. 

Antrim. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 200,000 acres, of which 175,000 acres contain more or less merchantable timber, 
principally maple and hemlock. 

Arenac. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 190,000 acres, of which 75,000 acres contain merchantable timber, principally 
soft woods. 

Baraga. — No estimate furnished respecting area or quantity. The county clerk reports that the county contains thirty-one surveyed 
townships, all covered with a growth of hard and soft wood timber. 

Barry. — No estimate furnished respecting area or quantity. The principal varieties of timber growth are beech, maple, and oak. 

Branch. — This county was once heavily timbered, but the timber is now nearly exhausted. The total area of forest land is estimated to 
be 3,000 acres, of which about 1,200 acres contain merchantable timber, mostly hard wood. 

Calhoun. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 7,200 acres, of which about 1,800 acres contain merchantable oak and hickory, 
mostly second growth. 

Cass. — This county reports 25,000 acres containing merchantable timber, consisting principally of hard woods. 

Charlevoix. — No report as to area of ibrest land or merchantable timber. Less than 10 per cent of the entire forest area has been cleared. 
The merchantable timber consists principally of maple, beech, and birch, with some cedar. 

Clare. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 339,231 acres, of which 17,899 acres contain merchantable white pine. 

Clinton. — This county is estimated to have 46,000 acres containing merchantable timber in the following proportions: 20,000 acres of oak, 
23,000 acres of maple and beech, and 3,000 acres of tamarack. 

Delta. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 67S,122 acres, of which 389,868 acres contain merchantable timber, consisting of 
hemlock, cedar, maple and birch, and pine, the principal varieties being in the order named. The pine is estimated to aggregate 150,000,000 
feet of white and Norway. 

Eaton. — Ninety per cent of the forest area contains merchantable hard-wood timber. Extent of such area not reported. 

Emmet. — Estimated area of forest lmd 189,000 acres. Estimated area of merchantable timber 126,000 acres, containing varieties in the 
following proportions: Hemlock, 5; basswood, 3; cedar, 3; Norway pine, 2; white pine, 1; maple, beech, and birch, 14; elm, 3; ash, 2; oak, 1. 

Genesee. — This county is mostly under cultivation. Of the total area 12. 50 per cent is estimated to be forest, one-fourth of which consists of 
merchantable hard wood, principally oak, maple, and beech. 

Gladwin. — The principal merchantable timber of this county formerly consisted of white pine, which is now mostly removed. A large 
part of the hard-w r ood Ibrest has been devastated by tire since the pine was cut. Present area of forest estimated at 300,000 acres, of which two- 
thirds contain merchantable pine, hemlock, cedar, and hard wood. 

Grand Traverse. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 237,000 acres, of which 175,000 acres contain merchantable timber, 
principally sugar maple, but including beech, elm, hemlock, cedar, and some pine. 

Huron. — The merchantable timber has been nearly all lumbered. The total forest area in "green timber " is estimated to be 41,000 acres, 
of which about 30,000 acres contain merchantable timber, consisting principally of hemlock and cedar, with some hard wood. 

Ingham. — This county has been settled for many years and is mostly under cultivation. The principal part of the timber now standing 
is in small-wood lots, kept by farmers for their own use. It is principally hard wood, and generally of good quality. 

Iron. — Estimated area of forest land 700,000 acres, of which 450,000 acres are estimated to contain merchantable timber, principally a fine 
quality of hard maple, with some pine and considerable cedar, hemlock, and birch. 

Isabella. — The total area of timbered land is estimated to be 231,220 acres, which may be divided with respect to the principal varieties 
of merchantable timber as follows: 2,400 acres containing white pine principally; 120,000 acres containing miscellaneous soft woods; 108,820 
acres containing hard woods, 70 per cent of which is beech and maple. The total estimated quantity of merchantable white pine now standing 
is estimated to be 180,000,000 feet. 

Jackson. — Accurate data unobtainable. An estimate based on two average townships makes the total area containing merchantable timber 
to be 60,000 acres, oak being the principal variety. 

Kalamazoo. — Accurate data unobtainable. Total area of county 576 square miles, of which about 500 square miles were once heavily 
timbered with hard woods. The present area containing merchantable timber is estimated at 40,000 acres. 

Kalkaska. — Estimated area of forest land 125,000 acres, of which about 120,000 acres contain merchantable timber in mixed hard wood, 
maple, elm, beech, and birch, with maple predominating. 

Lapeer. — Accurate data unobtainable. This county has been thoroughly lumbered for pine and white oak. The pine lands have been 
devastated by fire. Small quantity of cedar and miscellaneous hard woods left. 

Leelanaw. — Accurate data unobtainable. About 65 per cent of the total area is in forest, and about 15 per cent contains merchantable 
timber, hard maple being the principal variety. 

Livingston. — Estimated area of forest land 50,000 acres. Estimated area containing merchantable timber 10,000 acres, the principal 
varieties of timber being in about the following proportions: Oak, 40; ash, 2; elm, 2; miscellaneous hard woods, 3; miscellaneous soft woods, 4. 

Luce. — The total area of this county is stated as follows: 200,000 acres in swamp; 200,000 acres in beech, birch, and maple; 190,000 acres 
in miscellaneous varieties, estimated to embrace 400,000,000 feet of white pine; 50,000,000 feet of Norway pine, and a large quantity of hemlock 
and valuable cedar. 



56 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 

Mackinac. — The total area of this county is 690,966 acres, of which 90,000 acres are marsh and swamp containing no merchantable timber. 
As to varieties, the remainder is divided about as follows: 20,000 acres in white pine; 5,000 acres in Norway pine; 90,000 acres in hemlock; 
150,000 acres in cedar; 35,000 acres in mixed soft woods. There is no oak, very little elm and ash, and, say, 100,000 acres in maple, beech, and 
birch. 

Manistee. — The total area of forest is estimated to be 65,000 acres, of which 60,000 acres contain merchantable timber of pine, cedar, 
hemlock, and hard woods. An accurate estimate respecting quantity of timber is unobtainable. 

Midland. — The total area of forest is estimated to be '250,000 acres, of which 150,000 acres are said to contain merchantable timber in about 
equal quantities of hemlock and cedar, with considerable maple, beech, birch, and other hard woods. Of white and Norway pine there are only 
about 25,0011,000 feet remaining. 

Montcalm.— The total area of forest is estimated to be about 24,000 acres, of which 20,000 acres contain merchantable timber. There are 
not over 25,000,000 feet of white pine now standing, and not any Norway pine. The cutting of the pine forests has nearly destroyed all other 
forest growth on the uplands. There are small areas of valuable hard -wood timber held by farmers on their ' ' wood lots, ' ' but most of the timber 
remaining in this county consists of those varieties of soft woods indigenous to swamp lands. 

Montmorency. — The total area of this county is 390,800 acres, and it is estimated that the area of merchantable timber by varieties is as 
follows: 75,000 acres of white and Norway pine; 40,000 acres of hemlock; 10,000 acres of cedar; 15,000 acres of mixed soft woods; 5,000 acresof 
ash; 125,000 acres of maple, beech, and birch; 10,000 acres of mixed hard woods. 

Ontonagon.— The total area of forest is estimated at 639,360 acres, of which 426,240 acres contain merchantable timber, consisting 
principally of white and Norway pine, hemlock, cedar, maple, birch, and poplar. 

Osceola.— The total area of forest land is estimated to be 135,000 acres, of which there is reported to be but little containing merchantable 
timber. The original growth of pine and hemlock has been removed, and the hard wood remaining contains but little which can be classed as 
merchantable. 

Oscoda. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 140,000 acres, of which 92,000 acres contain merchantable timber in the proportions 
of 10 per cent white pine and 90 per cent maple, beech, and birch. 

Otsego. — No accurate data. Estimated area of forest land 230,400 acres, containing hard-wood timber. 

Ottawa. — About 20 per cent of the total county area contains merchantable timber in about the following proportions as to variety: Maple 
and beech, 15 per cent; hemlock, 2 per cent; ash, 1 per cent; elm, 1 per cent; oak, 1 per cent. The pine has all been lumbered. 

Presque Isle.— The total area of forest land is estimated to be 286,200 acres, of which 234,900 acres contain merchantable timber as follows: 

FEET. FEET. FEET. 

White pine 2,000,000 Oak 500,000 Maple, beech, and birch 300,000,000 

Norway pine 1,000,000 Ash 2,100,000 Mixed soft woods 1,000,000 

Hemlock 200,000,000 Elm 3,000,000 Mixed hard woods 100,000,000 

Cedar 250,000,000 

Saint Clair. — Very little if any natural forest remains. There may be 200 acres of land containing merchantable timber of elm, oak, and 
basswood in scattering lots. 

Sanilac:— The total area of forest estimated at 290,000 acres, of which but 25,000 acres are estimated to contain merchantable timber. All 
the pine and hemlock have been lumbered, and the hard-wood timber has been killed to a great extent by forest fires. 

Washtenaw. — No data for a full report. This county is estimated to contain 30,000 acres of forest, of which not exceeding one-third 
contains merchantable timber, which is mostly hard wood. 

Wexford. — The estimated forest area containing merchantable timber is estimated to be 246,800 acres, of which 61,700 acres are principally 
in pine, hemlock, and cedar, and the remainder in hard woods. 



TIMBER PRODUCTS. 



57 



TIMBER PRODUCTS EST WISCONSIN". 

The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value, by counties, of timber products 
reported on Special Schedule No. 5a. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting this industry. 

Table 61.— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF TIMBER PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES. 





Number 

of 
establish- 
ments. 


Capital 
invested. 


COOPERAGE 
STOCK. 


FENCE 


POSTS. 


FENCE RAILS. 


HOP POLES. 


HOOP POLES AND 
HOOPS. 




Cords. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 




312 


§20,299,071 


7,565 


$28,717 


342,514 


816,794 


200 


$4 


350,000 


82,200 


1,090,000 


83,875 








5 
66 
48 
13 
26 
66 
8 
23 
4 
6 
6 
4 

5 
10 

6 

10 


771,950 
13,571,780 
195 
433,700 
376,461 
839,081 
835,432 
1,143,074 
498,425 
203,775 
22,450 
23,600 
12,220 
544,345 
84,380 
938,203 


400 


1,400 
































pp 






















. 






















Lin oln 
















\ 








34 


1,020 


60,964 

258,000 

2,350 


1,908 

13,400 

114 














1 

















131 


297 


200 


i 




























































• tc ■ 




















«ll iw 




10,000 


700 






350,000 


2,200 


75,000 




W b 










Wood 


7,000 ] 26,000 


















11,200 


672 










1,015,000 




1 
















HARD WOOD ASD'OTHER 
LOGS, FOR EXPORT. 


HANDLE 
STOCK. 


HEMLOCK BARK. 


OAK BARK. 


PILES. 


PAVING STOCK. 


PULP STOCK. 


COUNTIES. 


Feet. 

(Scaled 

measure.) 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 




23,300,000 


8190,700 


3 


8250 


1,145 


84,273 


7,500 


830,000 


2,390 


811,610 


920 


84.009 


475 


81,42 






Ba fl Id 






























" 






























D PP 






























E CI ' 






























Linoln 


























475 


1,425 


M rathoii 


18,200,000 


152,900 






1,145 


4,273 






90 
1,500 


110 
4,500 








Marin 










400 


1,800 






Ocont. 


1,000,000 


6,000 










7,500 


30,000 






On d 


















































































S ' tc • 


1,050,000 


12,000 














800 


7,000 










Shawai 














280 


1,400 


































150,000 
2,900,000 


3,300 
16,500 




























3 


250 














240 


809 


























a The following-named counties are grouped because there were less than three reports from each of them ; the number of establishments reporting is noted 
after each county: Ashland, 1; Brown, 2; Calumet, 1; Clark, 1; Douglas, 2; Dunn, 1; Florence, 1; Jackson, 2; Langlade, 1 ; Pierce, 1 ; Sauk, 1 ; Sheboygan, 1 ; 
Waupaca, 1. No returns received from counties in this state not mentioned in the table. 



58 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 

Table 61.— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF TIMBER PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES— Continued. 





RAILWAY TIES. 


HIVED AND 
SHAVED SHINGLES. 


CHABCOAL. 


TELEGRAPH 
POLES. 


LOGS FOR DOMESTIC 
MANUFACTURE. 


Amount 
received 

for 
contract 
labor. 


Value 

of 

all other 

products. 

(«) 


Total 
value of 

all 
products. 


COUNTIES. 


Number. 


"Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Bushels. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Feet. 

(Scaled 

measure.) 


Value. 




900,271 


8186,982 


2,245,000 


$4,292 


464,000 


$42,195 


11,100 


So, 807 


687,474,645 

27,250,000 
317,270,920 


36,739,475 

262,500 
3,628,105 


SSS3,426 


$470,210 


$8,626,244 






















263,900 

4,101,808 

3,792 




















423,564 


50,139 








L,968,000 


3,792 
























20,700,000 

53,246,800 

04,389,925 

20,100,000 

67,750,000 

24,500,000 

11,635,000 

1,723,000 

860,000 

65,000 

1 12,350,000 

5,934,000 

59,700,000 


177,300 
387,422 
556,454 
160,800 
621,950 
173,500 
110,645 

13,784 

7,520 

325 

101,450 

35,920 
501,800 


231,478 
2,400 






63,965 

506,356 

303,000 

6,000 


11,793 

110,814 

58,480 

1,000 
































25,655 

356,306 

1,235 


853,134 












3,600 
4,000 


1,675 
1,600 


4,400 
85,492 
70,000 
1,260 
6,365 




277,000 


500 






748,192 
243,500 
114,905 








Polk 


















3,000 
5,800 






















10,000 
250 


2,800 
45 






















137,000 


7,5 5 


3,200 


2,400 






15,165 
182,042 

71,380 
559,978 








58,467 


22,125 












112,000 
215,000 


6,160 
28,500 








10,700 


2,050 






300 


132 




5,950 




1 





[ The amount reported under the head " Value of all other products" consists principally of the value of lumber manufactured at custom mills for the 
5 of the material. The amount paid for such manufacture is reported in Table 59, on page 49, under the head of li Annual expense charges," and is included 

in the amount paid for all sundries not reported elsewhere. In Table 12, embracing reports of mill establishments, the amount received for such manufacture is 

accounted for in the item of "All other products." 
b See note a, preceding page. 

Application was made by this office to the surveyors and clerks of the respective counties in each state, requesting 
information as to the area of timbered land and the quantity and variety of merchantable standing timber in each 
county. All the reports received from Wisconsin are given below. In those counties for which no report is published 
the information requested was not furnished. The term " merchantable timber " means any variety of timber growth 
which is capable of manufacture into lumber fit for market. By the term "forest land" is meant that portion of 
uncultivated area which is principally wooded. 

Barron. — The area of forest land is estimated to he 225,000 acres, of which 125,000 acres contain merehantahle timher, one-third of which 
is white pine, the remainder being mixed hard and soft woods. 

Brown. — But little merchantable timber of value. The area of forest land is estimated to be 75,000 acres, of which about 10,000 acres 
contain some hard -wood timber of merchantable quality. 

Buffalo. — No pine, hemlock, or cedar. About 50,000 acres are estimated to contain merchantable timber in the following proportions : 
20,000 acres in oak, with a small quantity of hickory, 20,000 acres in ash, elm, and other hard woods, and 10,000 acres in soft woods. 

Burnett. — The area containing merchantable timber is estimated as follows : 96,000 acres containing white pine, 100,000 acres containing 
Norway pine, 60,000 acres containing cedar, 150,000 acres containing miscellaneous soft woods, 60,000 acres containing oak, 40,000 acres 
containing ash, 50,000 acres containing maple and birch, and 14,000 acres containing miscellaneous hard woods. 

Chippewa. — This county is nearly all wooded, and 500,000 acres are estimated to contain merchantable timber of the several varieties of 
hard and soft woods indigenous to this state, the principal variety being white pine. 

Columbia. — There is said to be no considerable area of merchantable timber. There are estimated to be 10,000 acres of wooded land in 
groves or "openings," consisting principally of oak, aspen, and some elm, ash, basswood, hickory, maple, and whitewood. 

Crawford. — The area of forest land is estimated to be 175,000 acres, of which one-fifth contains merchantable timber, the principal variety 
being oak and other hard woods. 

Dane. — No estimate as to area of forest land. The area containing merchantable timber is stated to be very small. Timber is principally 
oak of second growth. 

Door. — The area of forest land is reported to be 23,040 acres, containing maple, beech, and birch. There is practically no merchantable 
timber left. When the pine was removed the fires which ran through the slashings destroyed the remaining timber, which would now be valuable 
if it had been preserved. 

Florence. — The area of forest land is estimated to be 307, S06 acres, of which 287,966 acres are said to contain merchantable timber, consisting 
of white and Norway pine, hemlock, cedar, maple, and birch. 

Fond du Lac. — The area of forest land is estimated to be 65,000 acres, the varieties being distributed as follows: 35,000 acres of second 
growth bur oak, white oak, and black oak ; 20,000 acres of miscellaneous hard and soft woods ; 10,000 acres of .tamarack, and some cedar. 

Forest. — Nearly the entire area of this county is wooded, and contains merchantable timber of the several varieties indigenous to the state, 
the principal varieties being white and Norway pine, with hemlock, cedar, bassw T ood, and miscellaneous hard woods. 

Green. — The estimated area of forest is 20,000 acres, of which about one-fourth contains merchantable timber, the principal varieties being 
oak and other hard woods. It is noted in the report that the growth of timber has increased materially since the introduction of barbed-wire 
fencing. > 



TIMBER PRODUCTS. 59 

Green Lake. — The estimated area of forest is 21,000 acres, containing little or no merchantable timber as defined. There are about 5,000 
acres containing aspen and tamarack, suitable for pulp stock ; 13,000 acres containing oak, suitable for railway ties and posts ; the remaining 
timber is only suitable for firewood. 

Iowa. — The estimated area of forest is 70,000 acres, containing no merchantable timber. 

Jackson. — The estimated area of forest is 100,000 acres, of -which about one-third contains merchantable timber, the most valuable being 
white pine and oak. 

Juneau. — The estimated area of forest land is 34,425 acres, of which it is estimated 20,000 acres contain merchantable timber, consisting of 
pine, basswood, oak, and maple. 

Kenosha. — The estimated area of forest land is 15,900 acres, containing but little merchantable timber. What may be fit for manufacture 
consists principally of oak. 

La Crosse. — No report as to area of forest land. It is estimated that no merchantable timber exists in any considerable quantity. 

Lincoln. — The estimated area of forest is 300,000 acres, of which 250,000 acres contain merchantable timber in the following proportions: 
40 per cent pine, 40 per cent hemlock, and 20 per cent miscellaneous soft and hard woods. 

Manitowoc. — The estimated area of forest is 39,800 acres, of which about ten per cent contains miscellaneous hard woods of merchantable 
quality. 

Marathon. — The estimated area of forest is 99,127 acres, of which it is estimated that 50,000 acres contain white pine of merchantable 
quality. 

Marquette. — The estimated area of forest land is 70,000 acres, of which but very little contains merchantable timber, not exceeding 500 
acres. The principal variety is oak. 

Monroe. — The estimated area of forest is 280,000 acres, of which 70,000 acres are well timbered, the principal varieties being in the following 
proportions: White pine, 20; Norway piue, 10; oak, 40; with miscellaneous hard and soft woods of less value. 

Ozaukee. — The estimated area of forest land is 18,688 acres, of which 10,000 acres contain merchantable timber in about the following 
proportions as to variety: Maple, beech, and birch, 6; ash, 3; oak, 2; mixed hard woods, 3; cedar, 1; mixed soft woods, 3. 

Pepin. — The estimated area of forest land is 52,000 acres, and it is estimated that 10 per cent of the growth is merchantable timber, mostly 
maple, oak, ash, and elm. 

Pi erce . — The estimated area of forest land is 173,700 acres, of which 100,000 acres are estimated to contain merchantable timber of linden, 
sugar maple, rock elm, and oak. 

Polk. — xhe total area of forest land is estimated to be 279,000 acres, of which 152,000 acres contain merchantable timber, the principal 
varieties being distributed as follows: 59,000 acres in white pine and 93,000 acres in miscellaneous hard woods. 

Price. — The total area of timbered land is estimated to be 322,560 acres, of which 138,240 acres are in white pine, 69,120 acres in hemlock, 
and 115,240 acres in miscellaneous hard woods. There is a heavy growth of birch, maple, basswood, and hemlock of good quality, with some 
elm and cedar. 

Eaeine. — The total area of forest land is estimated at 26,500 acres. The principal variety of merchantable timber is oak. 

Richland. — The total area of forest land is estimated at 92,857 acres, of which 43,400- acres contain merchantable timber, consisting 
principally of basswood, elni, oak, and maple. 

p oc k. — it is stated that there is no considerable growth of merchantable timber in this county. The forest growth is only suitable for 
firewood. 

Saint Croix. — Area of forest land is estimated at 78,800 acres, of which 30,000 acres contain merchantable timber. About one-third is 
white pine, the remainder hard wood. 

Sheboygan. — Area of forest land is estimated to be 88,270 acres, but there is practically no merchantable timber left. 

Taylor.— There is estimated to be 600,000 acres of forest land in this county, containing one hundred million feet of merchantable pine and 
two and one-half billion feet of merchantable hemlock now standing. 

Trempealeau. — There is said to be no merchantable timber growth. The forest growth consists of small oak openings, of which the area 
has not been ascertained. 

Vernon.— The total area of forest land is estimated at 209,033 acres, of which 75,000 acres contain merchantable timber in about the 
following proportions: Oak, 70; ash, 5; elm, 10; maple and birch, 10; mixed soft woods, 5. 

Walworth. — The total area of forest land is estimated to be 39,696 acres, of which about 6,000 acres contain oak of merchantable quality. 

Washburn.— The total area of forest land is estimated to be 450,000 acres, of which about 200,000 acres, situated mostly in the eastern 
portion of the county, contain merchantable timber, principally white and Norway pine, the white pine being interspersed with hard woods. 

Waukesha.— The total area of forest land is estimated to be 38,593 acres, of which about 30,000 acres contain a small quantity of 
merchantable hard- wood timber. 

Winnebago.— The total area of forest land is estimated to be 16,452 acres, containing but little merchantable timber. The principal varieties 
are oak, maple, elm, and basswood, which is only fit for fuel at its present stage of growth. 



60 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



TIMBER PRODUCTS IN MINNESOTA. 

The following table shows, for the census year 1890, the quantity and value, by counties, of timber products 
reported on Special Schedule No. 5a. No inquiry had been made in previous censuses respecting this industry. 



Table 62.— QUANTITY AND VALUE OF TIMBER PRODUCTS, BY COUNTIES. 












Number of 
establish- 
ments. 


Capital 
invested. 


FENCE POSTS. 


PAVING STOCK. 


PILES. 


COUNTIES. 


Number. 


Value. 


Cords. 


Value. 


Number of 
pieces. 


Value. 




72 


Sll,096,613 


700,000 


850,000 


18,000 


865,000 


13,000 


826,000 




^- 


. 


53 

^3 

8 

3 


9,332,046 
252,500 
987,767 
337,000 










8,000 
5,000 


16,000 




700,000 


50,000 


18,000 


65,000 


10,000 




















































RAILWAY TIES. 


LOGS FOR DOMESTIC MANUFACTURE. 


Amount 
received for 
contract labor. 


Value of all 

other 

products. 

(b) 


Total value 

of all 

products. 




Number. 


Value. 


Feet. 
(Scaled measure.) 


Value. 




275,000 


886,000 


233,971,000 


81,843,365 


8575,655 


81,327,802 


83,973,822 








275,000 


86,000 


154,917,000 
10,000,000 


1,310,501 
58,500 
217.350 


575,655 


1,238,944 
1,205 
87,653 


3,227,100 




184,705 


S ' t L . 








305,003 








24,600,000 195,000 




195,000 


. . 










62.014 

























a The following-named counties are grouped because there were less than three reports from each of them; the number of establishments reporting is noted 
after each county : Anoka, 2 ; Douglas, 1 ; Le Sueur, 1 ; Washington, 1. No returns received from counties in this state not mentioned in the table. 

6 The amount reported in Table 40 under the head "Value of all other products" consists principally of the value of lumber manufactured at custom mills for 
the owners of the material. The amount paid for such manufacture is reported in Table 59 under the head of " Miscellaneous expenses." It is not included 
elsewhere in the classification of timber products. In the preceding tables, embracing reports of mill establishments, the amount received for such manufacture is 
accounted for in the item of "All other products." 

Application was made by this office to the survejws and clerks of the respective counties in each state, requesting 
information as to the area of timbered land and the quantity and variety of merchantable standing timber in each 
county. All the reports received from Minnesota are given below. In those counties for which no report is published 
the information requested was not furnished. The term " merchantable timber " means any variety of timber growth 
which is capable of manufacture into lumber fit for market. By the term " forest land " is meant that portion of 
uncultivated area which is principally wooded. 

Aitkin. — Estimated area of forest land 1,200,000 acres, of which 700,000 acres are estimated to contain merchantable timber. The 
principal varieties are white and Norway pine and oak. It is stated that the greater portion of the pine has been lumbered. 

Anoka. — No area of forest growth reported. The county auditor states: "We have not much timbered land in this county. The forest 
growth is only suitable for fuel. " 

Becker. — This county is estimated to contain about 425,000 acres of timbered land. The principal varieties are white and Norway pine, 
with some hard wood. 

Big Stone. — Area of forest growth estimated to be 1,200 acres, containing no merchantable timber. 

Brown. — There is reported to be some merchantable hard-wood timber growth along the Minnesota and Cottonwood rivers, but in what 
quantity or area no reliable data are furnished. 

Carlton. — Estimated area of forest land 500,000 acres, of which 200,000 acres are estimated to contain merchantable timber. The principal 
varieties of timber are white and Norway pine and white oak. 

Carver. — Estimated area of forest land 7,000 acres, of which about 15 per cent contains oak, ash, elm, and maple of merchantable quality. 

Chippewa. — Estimated area of forest land 5,000 acres, containing no merchantable timber. 

Chisago. — Estimated area of forest land 189,000 acres, of which 63,000 acres are estimated to contain merchantable maple and miscellaneous 
soft woods, the proportion of maple to soft woods being as 3 to 1. 

Crow Wing. — Estimated area of forest land 500,000 acres, of which one-half contains merchantable timber. The principal varieties are 
white and Norway pine, the latter predominating, as lumbermen have been cutting white pine for the last thirty years. There is an extensive 
growth of merchantable hard woods. 

Dodge. — Estimated area of forest land 10,000 acres, of which one-fifth contains merchantable hard and soft woods, the former predominating. 

Faribault. — This is essentially a prairie county. There is some timber growth around lakes and streams, but no considerable quantity of 
merchantable timber. 

Freeborn. — -Estimated area of forest land 33,000 acres, of which one-third contains merchantable hard-wood timber, two-thirds of which is 
oak. 

Grant. — This is a prairie county, containing but little wooded land and no merchantable timber. 



TIMBER PRODUCTS. 61 

Hennepin. — From 25 to 30 per cent of the total county area is reported as uncultivated and partially wooded, with a small area of 
merchantable hard-wood timber. 

Kanabec. — Area of forest land estimated to be 300,000 acres, of which one-half contains white pine, oak, and other merchantable timber. 
The average annual cut of standing white pine in this county is reported to exceed 60,000,000 feet. 

Kandiyohi. — The area of forest land is estimated to be 10,000 acres, of which one-half is estimated to contain merchantable hard- wood timber. 

Lacquiparle. — Area of forest land estimated to be 1,000 acres, containing no merchantable timber. 

Lake. — No data respecting area of forest land, about one-half the county area being still unsurveyed. It contains an extensive growth of 
merchantable timber, the principal varieties being white and Norway pine and white birch. 

Lyon. — The area of forest land is estimated to be 2,500 acres, containing no merchantable timber. 

McLeod. — The area of forest land is estimated to be 33,280 acres, of which 28,160 acres contain merchantable timber. No data respecting 
principal varieties. 

Martin. — There is but little wooded area and no merchantable timber. 

Meeker. — There is but little wooded area and no merchantable timber. 

Mille Lacs. — Area of forest estimated to be 350,000 acres, of which about 200,000 acres contain merchantable white and Norway pine and 
50,000 acres merchantable hard wood. 

Morrison. — About one-half of the entire area is reported to contain merchantable timber*in about equal parts of pine and hard wood. It 
is estimated that 2,000,000,000 feet of merchantable pine is now standing, and about that quantity has been removed. 

Mower. — There is but little wooded area and no merchantable timber. 

Murray. — There is but little wooded area, perhaps 2,000 acres. A small quantity of oak, ash, and elm is of merchantable growth. 

Nicollet. — The estimated area of forest is 30,000 acres, of which about 14,000 acres contain merchantable hard-wood timber, elm being 
the principal variety, with some oak, maple, and linden. 

Norman. — No data respecting area of timbered land. There is a growth of merchantable hard wood along the Rice and Red rivers, which 
is being manufactured to a limited extent. 

Olmsted. — The estimated wooded area is 39,000 acres, of which a small portion, say 300 acres, contains merchantable hard-wood timber. 

Pine. — The area of forest is estimated to be 900,000 acres, of which about 400,000 acres are well timbered with white and Norway pine 
and 300, 000 acres are principally timbered with hard woods of merchantable quality. 

Pipe Stone. — This is a prairie county, having no natural timber. 

Polk. — Estimated area of forest land 214,700 acres, of which 55,000 acres contain merchantable timber about as folio ws : 2,000 acres of 
white pine, 1,500 acres of Norway pine, 30 acres of miscellaneous soft woods, 11,500 acres of oak, 4,000 acres oi maple and birch, and 6,000 
acres of miscellaneous hard woods. 

Pope. — The area of forest is estimated to be 36,900 acres, of which 23,000 acres contain merchantable, timber, the principal variety being oak. 

Ramsey. — Practically no merchantable timber and but little forest land. The uplands were originally wooded with oak, which has been 
removed. 

Renville. — No data respecting area of forest land. There is no merchantable timber. The area bordering on the Minnesota river has a 
wooded growth suitable for fuel. 

Rock. — It is estimated that about 640 acres skirting Rock river are wooded with cottonwood, ash, and elm, but there is no timber of 
merchantable quality. 

Scott. — The area of forest land is estimated to be 85,000 acres, of which 38,000 acres contain merchantable hard-wood timber. 

Sherburne. — No data respecting forest area. There is a growth of merchantable timber of the varieties of hard wood indigenous to this 
state, but its area is not reported. 

Sibley. — Estimated forest area 50,000 acres, of which 20,000 acres contain merchantable timber, the principal variety being elm. 
Basswood ranks next in quantity and value, with maple, cottonwood, oak, ash, and butternut following in the order stated. 

Stearns. — Estimated area of forest land 400,000 acres, of which about one-fourth contains merchantable timber, hard woods predominating 
in quantity and value. 

Steele. — Estimated area of forest land 46,000 acres, of which about 10,000 acres contain merchantable timber, hard wood predominating. 

Stevens. — There is very little natural growth of timber in this county; what exists is found skirting the lakes. The timber which has 
been planted is principally cottonwood, elder, and willow. This, with the natural timber, will probably amount to 500 acres. No merchantable 
timber. 

Swift. — Estimated area of wooded land 2,000 acres, situated adjacent to the lakes and streams. No merchantable timber. 

Traverse. — This county is almost entirely a treeless prairie. There is a small wooded area adjacent to Lake Traverse. 

Wadena. — Estimated area of forest 150,000 acres, of which about 1,500 acres contain pine, oak, and tamarack. Most of the original growth 
of merchantable timber has been removed, and a great portion of the area has since been burned over and the young timber killed. 

"Washington. — The area of forest land is estimated to be 75,000 acres. Very little merchantable timber. 

"Watonwan. — There are about 450 acres of natural forest adjoining the water courses and about 2,000 acres of planted forest growth. 
There are about 200 acres of oak and black walnut of merchantable size and quality. 

Wilkin. — Estimated area of forest land 2,500 acres, which lies along the Red river. No merchantable timber. 

Winona. — No accurate data respecting forest area. There is no merchantable timber, and but little timber growth of any sort. 

Wright. — Originally nearly all the land area was wooded. The estimated area of forest now standing is about 80,000 acres, of which 
about one-half contains merchantable hard-wood timber. 

Yellow Medicine. — This is a prairie county. There is some forest growth along the river bottoms, but it is only fit for fuel. No data as 
to its area. 



INDEX 

TO 

LUMBER MILLS AND SAW MILLS AND TIMBER PRODUCTS 

IN 

MICHIGAN, WISCONSIN, AND MINNESOTA. 



Lumber mills axd saw mills 3 

Annual product of white-pine lumber iu the northwest from 

1873 to 1890 47 

Boom companies 39 

Average tolls 40 

Capital invested 39 

Extent of operations 40 

Labor and wages 40 

Materials used 40 

Tolls for transportation of logs 41 

Transportation and care of logs 41 

Capital invested 6 

Average apportionment to principal classes of investment 7 

Average of capital invested, value of product, and ratio of 

capital to product for 1880 and 1890 . 6 

Comparative statement of number of establishments, capital 
invested, hands employed, wages paid, and value of 

materials, mill products, and remanufactures 6 

Classification and analysis of reports 15 

Average annual expenditure for miscellaneous items 17 

Average division of capital invested 17 

Average of labor employed and wages paid in lumber mills... 16 

Averages obtained from reports of lumber manufacturers 16 

Comparison of fire loss with cost of insurance 18 

Insurance loss on various classes of property 18 

Comparative statement of white-pine lumber and shingles man- 
ufactured since 1S80 48 

Labor employed and wages paid 7 

Average annual earnings per hand 7 

Average number of hands and actual wages paid 8 

Monthly rates of wages paid, average number employed, and 

average time employed at each rate 8 

Manufactured products 9 

Comparative statement of totals of mill production for 1870, 

1880, and 1890 9 

Receipts from custom sawing 9 

Materials used 8 

Itemized cost in mill production and remanufactures 8 

Per cent of cost of materials 9 

Michigan: 

Comparative statement of capital invested and value of pro- 
duction for 1880 and 1890, by counties 19 

Comparative statement of capital invested and value of pro- 
duction for 1880 and 1890, by principal lumber- 
producing points 25 

Comparative statement of capital invested and value of pro- 
duction for 1880 and 1890, by sections 23 

Percentage of total value of mill production and remanufac- 
tures 24 



PAGE. 

Lumber mills and SAW mills — Continued. 
Michigan — Continued. 

Quantity and value of certain forest products, by counties... 22 
Quantity and value of certain forest products, by principal 

lumber-producing points 26 

Quantity' and value of certain forest products, by sections 24 

State totals for all items, 1890 10 

Minnesota: 

Area of unsurveyed public lands 47 

Comparative statement of capital invested and value of pro- 
duction for 1880 and 1890, by counties . . 32 

Comparative statement of capital invested and value of pro- 
duction for 1880 and 1890, by principal lumber- 
producing points 34 

Quantity and value of certain forest products, by counties 34 

Quantity and value of certain forest products, by principal 

lumber-producing points 35 

State totals for all items, 1S90 10 

Miscellaneous data : 

Annual depreciation of planl 36 

'Average power employed per establishment 36 

Extent of forest fires and damage resulting to standing timber 

for 1880 and 1890 36 

Live stock in use and annual cost of renewal 37 

Power employed 35 

Summary of reports respecting characteristics of plant 35 

Relative rank and value of production of six principal lumber- 
producing cities 5 

Statement in detail for 1S90 10 

Annual expense charges 11 

Capital invested 10 

Labor and wages : 

Animals employed 11 

Hands employed 1 1 

Lumber mills and saw mills 12 

Planing mills connected with saw mills 12 

Summary for all branches 1 1 

Manufactured products 14 

Materials used 13 

Statistics of logging railways 38 

Operations of logging railways 38 

Road gauges 3 ^ 

Summary of certain forest prod ucts and remanufactu res 4 

Timbered land and standing timber 41 

Data as to ownership by fifty establishments 43 

Data as to ownership by thirteen railway companies 43 

Owned by establishments engaged in cutting 42 

Owned by establishments operating mills 42 

Recapitulation 44 

63 



64 



STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 



PAGE. 

Lumber mills and saw mills — Continued. 
Minnesota — Continued. 

Reports from county surveyors: 

Michigan 55 

"Wisconsin 58 

Minnesota 60 

Reports from manufacturers respecting ownership 43 

River points and lake ports to which timber is floated 43 

Timbered land 44 

Principal varieties of timber 44 

Douglas fir and redwood 45 

Fir and cedar 45 

Yellow pine and cypress 46 

Yellow poplar and hard woods 46 

Value of stumpage 45 

Transportation of logs 38 

Wisconsin : 

Comparative statement of capital invested and value of pro- 
duction for 1880 and 1890, by counties 26 

Comparative statement of capital invested and value of pro- 
duction for 1880 and 1890, by principal lumber- 
producing points 31 

Comparative statement of capital invested and value of pro- 
duction for 1880 and 1889, by sections 30 

Percentage of total value of mill production and reinanufac- 

tures 30 

Quantity and value of certain forest products, by counties 29 

Quantity and value of certain forest products, by principal 

lumber-producing points 32 



PAGE. 

Lumber mills and saw mills — Continued. 
Wisconsin — Continued. 

Quantity and value of certain forest products, by sections 30 

State totals for all items, 1890 10 

Timber products 49 

Animals in use 50 

Annual expense charges 49 

Annual expense for renewal of live stock 53 

Capital invested 49 

Damage to standing timber by fire 53 

Duration of labor 53 

Labor and wages 50 

Location of operations 53 

Manufactured products 52 

Materials used 51 

Michigan: 

Area of timbered land and quantity and variety of standing 

timber 55 

Quantity and value, by counties 53 

Minnesota: 

Area of timbered land and quantity and variety of standing 

timber 60 

Quantity and value, by counties 60 

Summary of materials used 51 

Wisconsin : 

Area of timbered land and quantity and variety of standing 

timber 58 

Quantity and value, by counties 57 



191B9S