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Full text of "Extra census bulletin"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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Extra Census Bulletin. 



No. 10. WASHINGTON, D. c. September 30, 1891. 



COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 

Census Office, 
Washington, D. C, September 14, 1891. 
Sir: 

The following bulletin on the production of coal in the United States has been prepared by Mr. John H. Jones, 
special agent, under the direction of Dr. David T. Day, special agent in charge of the Division of Mines and Mining. 
It shows that the coal product of the United States reached a total of 141,229,513 short tons in the census year, and 
was valued at the mines before any exjienses for shipment at $160,226,323. The product included 45,600,487 short 
tons of Pennsylvania and other anthracite, worth $65,879,514, and 95,629,026 short tons of bituminous and lignite, 
valued at 694,346,809. The average value for all salable grades of anthracite was $1.58 per ton at the mines, and 
the average of bituminous coal was 99 cents per short ton at the mines. In 1880 the total product included 
28,649,812 short tons of anthracite and 42,831,758 short tons of bituminous coal. The value of the entire product 
was $95,640,396. The product increased 97.57 per cent during the decade, and the total value 67.53 per cent. The 
total number of persons engaged in the industry was 299,559, who received in the aggregate $109,130,928 as wages. 
In the accompanying maps, one shows the location of the coal fields and the other the production of coal per 
square mile in the United States for the census year 1890, the latter named map giving by gradations of shade the 
number of tons produced per square mile, ranging from 1-10 to over 5,000. 

Very respectfully, 

ROBERT P. PORTER. 

Superintendent of Census. 
The Secretary of the Interior. 



ELEVENTH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES 
ROBERT P PORTER. SUPERINTENDED 



EXTRA BULLETIN No 10. 




ELEVENTH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES 

ROBERT P PORTER, SUPERINTENDENT 



EXTRA BULLETIN No 10. 




COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



J'.Y JOHN jr. .TONES. 



During the census year coal was mined in 31 states and territories, including Alaska and Rhode Island, although 
the product of the latter is not adapted for fuel, and is, therefore, only mined to a limited extent for industrial 
purposes. Pennsylvania, containing the wonderful beds of anthracite as well as extensive deposits of bituminous 
coals, yielded 58 per cent of the entire output of the country. Illinois, with bituminous deposits only, ranks second 
as a coal producer, Ohio, West Virginia, Iowa, and Alabama following in the order named. 

The coal deposits of the United States lying east of the one hundredth meridian are identified in four distinct and 
well-defined basins, viz, the great Appalachian or eastern, including the. anthracite beds in Pennsylvania, the central 
or Illinois, the northern or Michigan, and the fourth or western, all of which belong to the carboniferous measures. 

The anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania are confined to the following counties in the northeastern part of the 
state: Carbon, Columbia, Dauphin, Lackawanna, Luzerne, Northumberland, Schuylkill, Sullivan, and Susquehanna. 
The area of the entire region is about 1,700 square miles. The area underlaid by workable coal beds is only about 
470 square miles. The natural geological and topographical boundaries of this area are formed by the mountains 
and ridges made by the Pocono sandstone, No. X. No workable coal beds have been found stratigraphically below 
the Pottsville conglomerate, No. XII, the Lykens valley, or lowest anthracite beds, being found in the latter 
formation. The greatest length of the region, from the northeastern end of the noi-thern field to the southwestern 
end of the southern field, is about 115 miles, while the greatest width of the belt, containing the first four fields, is 
about 40 miles, between Mauch Chunk aud Shickshinny, near the western end of the northern field. 

The Appalachian bituminous field lies immediately west of the eastern frontier of the Appalachian mountains, 
and extends from New York on the north to Alabama on the south. Its length is a little over 900 miles in a 
northeast and southwest direction, and its width varies from 30 to 180 miles. It covers western Pennsylvania, 
southeastern Ohio, the western part of Maryland, nearly all of West Virginia, the eastern part of Kentucky, a 
portion of eastern Tennessee, the extreme northwestern corner of Georgia, and the northern part of Alabama. All 
of the coals in this field are bituminous, and they are of great variety, both in chemical composition and physical 
structure. Although it is difficult to make any general comparisons, the best and most productive coal beds lie 
probably in the Pittsburg district and in West Virginia. Some of the best coals in the district are mined in basins 
detached from the main body of the field, such as Blossburg and Broad Top basins in Pennsylvania and the 
Cumberland in Maryland. 

What is known as the eastern triassic area is composed principally of the Richmond basin in Virginia and the 
Deep river and Dan river fields in North Carolina. The first coal systematically mined in the United States was 
taken from the Richmond basin. In 1822 about 48,214 tons of coal were produced, which was twelve times the 
total amount of coal shipped during that year from the Pennsylvania anthracite region. The maximum production 
of the field was in 1833, when 142,587 tons of coal were shipped. This was nearly one-third the total amount of 
Pennsylvania anthracite shipped during the same year. Mining in this field has gradually declined during the past 
two or three years, and no extensive mining operations are now carried on. A number of workable beds have been 
found in North Carolina, which have been worked at different times, principally to supply local demands. 

A deposit of graphitic coal, sometimes called anthracite, underlies portions of eastern Rhode Island and the 
counties of Bristol and Plymouth in Massachusetts. The product, however, has been limited. . 

The northern bituminous area is confined exclusively to Michigan, spreading over the central part of that 
state. Many coal beds are found within the area of this field, which has been computed to be 7,000 square miles. 
Mining has been carried on in this district principally for the supply of fuel to the local trade. The numerous 
transportation routes, both by water and rail, to the more distant fields containing better coal has militated against 
the developement of the Michigan coal basin. 

The Central field includes the coal areas of Indiana, Illinois, and western Kentucky. On account of Illinois 
containing the most important part of the field it is frequently called the Illinois field. The portion of the field in 
Illinois is over five times as great as that in Indiana and over nine times as great as that in western Kentucky. 

3 



COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The Western field embraces those coal fields west of the Mississippi river, south of the forty-third parallel and 
east of the Eocky mountains. It is embraced within Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Arkansas, Texas, and the 
Indian territory. The most extensive mining operations iu this field are carried on in Iowa and Missouri. The best 
coal which has so far been mined iu the field is that from Indian territory. The area of this field is greater than 
any other one coal field in the United States. The coals are of great variety, and the region under which they lie 
is a rich agricultural country. The demand for local fuels must necessarily increase from year to year, so that even 
poor coal beds within this region will no doubt be extensively developed to supply local demands. 

In the Eocky mountain region coal beds are found in a number of geological formations. In the fields above 
referred to, with the exception of those in Virginia and North Carolina, the coal beds belong to the carboniferous 
age. The Eocky mountain coal beds have been found in the geological formations from the carboniferous up to and 
including the cretaceous. No detailed information of the entire coal area of the Eocky mountain region, similar 
to that which has been determined by state geological surveys of the coal basins east of the Eocky mountains, is 
available, and no reliable estimates have been made of the areas underlaid by workable coal beds. It has been 
surmised that the total area of the coal fields of this district is between 200,000 and 300,000 square miles, but this 
estimate is little more than a guess. 

The anthracite coals of Colorado and New Mexico are of superior quality and apparently in ample supply for 
the rapidly increasing domestic and industrial demands of this section. There is no doubt that in the near future 
they will constitute a formidable competiter in the western markets to the Pennsylvania anthracites. 

In the Pacific coast region coal has been mined in "Washington, Oregon, and California. The area underlaid by 
workable coal beds has not been definitely determined, although the geological survey of California and the recent 
work of Professor Eaphael Pumpelly and his associates in Washington have given very reliable and detailed 
information in regard to the geology of the coal-bearing rocks. 

The following table shows the number of square miles in each of these basins from the latest and most reliable 
authorities, the quantities of coal mined in each in the calendar year 1889, as reported to the Eleventh Census, 
and returns of the Tenth Census, for comparison : 

AREA AND PRODUCT AT THE ELEVENTH CENSUS OF THE COAL FIELDS COMPARED WITH THE TENTH CENSUS. 





ELEVENTH CENSUS. 


TENTH CENSUS. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


ELEVENTH CENSUS. 


TENTH CENSUS. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Area 

in square 

miles. 


Product. 


Area 

in square Product, 
miles. ; 


Area 

in square 

miles. 


Product. 


Area 

in square 

miles. 


Product. 






141,229,513 




71,481,570 


bituminous— continued. 
Central : 


7,000 
4,000 
37,000 


2,845,057 
1,290,985 
12,104,272 


6,450 
4,000 
36,800 
















2,000 
45,544,970 


500 


6,176 




New England basin (Rhode 500 
Island and Massachusetts). 


Illinois 


580,491 
6,115,377 








48,000 


16,240,314 


47,250 
















Western : 




Colorado and New Mexico 


15 


53,517 




18,000 
26,900 

3,200 
17,000 

9,100 
20,000 

4,500 


4,095,358 
2,557,823 

| 2,222,443 

279,584 
752,832 
128,216 


18,000 

26,887 

f 3,000 

1 17,000 

9,043 

020,000 

4,500 














985 


45,600,487 


970 


28,649,812 


1,461,116 






844,304 
} 771,642 




185 
2,700 


49,411 

222 


180 
2,700 


40.520 
350 


BITUMINOUS. 




Triassie: 










al20,947 


North Carolina 


T 








Total 


2,885 


49,633 


2,880 


40,870 


98,700 


10,036,256 


98,430 


3,212,787 




Eocky mountain : 


Appalachian : 


9,000 
10,000 
550 
2,000 
16,000 
10,000 
5,100 
200 
8,660 


36,174,089 
9,976,787 
2,939,715 

816,375 
6,231,880 
1,108,770 
1,925,689 

225,934 
3,572,983 


9,000 

, 10,000 

550 

185 

16,000 

9,000 

5,100 

200 

8,660 


18,425,163 

6,008,595 

2,228,917 

2,559 

1,829,844 

365,797 

495,131 

154,644 

323,972 




28,907 
363,301 

1,388,947 
236,651 

2,544,144 
486,163 






• 3 






224 










589,595 


V- y ■ 


Utah 






14,748 


w ^ v . . . 








462,747 


° 
























5,048,413 












Pacific coast : 










1,030,578 
64,359 
119,820 












61,510 


62,972,222 


58,695 


29,834,622 
100,800 


145,015 
















43,205 




7,000 


67,431 


6,700 






236,950 


Northern : 












1,214,757 















a Not returned in the Tenth Census reports 



COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The following table shows the production, value, number of persons employed, wages, and capital invested in 
the coal operations of the country in 1889, as compared with the census year ended June 30, 1880 : 

COMPARATIVE COAL STATISTICS, TENTH AND ELEVENTH CENSUSES. 



Total product (short tons) 

Value at mines 

Number of persons employed . 

Total amount wages paid 

Capital invested 



Eleventh 

Census. 

(Calendar 

year 1SS9.) 



141,229,513 
8160,226,323 
299,559 
$109, 130.92S 
8342,757,929 



Tenth Census. 

(Year ended 

June 30, 

1880.) 



a71,481,570 

$95,640,396 

170,867 

855,276,055 

68261,166,970 



69,747,943 
$64,585,927 
128,692 
$53,854,873 
$81,590,959 



97.57 
67.53 
75.32 
97.43 
31.24 



a Including Indian territory, not returned in the Tenth Census reports. 

6 This amount includes estimated value of undeveloped coal lands. In the capital invested, reported 
for the Eleventh Census, only the lands actually under development are considered. 

The total product of coal in the United States during the year 1889, as reported to the Eleventh Census, was 
141,229,513 short tons, valued at $160,226,323 at the mines. This product includes 45,600,487 tons of Pennsylvania 
and other anthracite, valued at $65,879,514, or an average of $1.5S per short ton at the mines, and 95,629,026 short 
tons of bituminous and lignite, valued at $94,346,809, or an average of 99 cents per short ton at the mines. In 
determining the average value of the anthracite at the mines the product of the local mines is included, but no 
account has been taken of the coal consumed for steam and heat about the mines, because this fuel consists generally 
of culm and other unsalable qualities, and is not included in the accounts of operators, having been for the most 
part estimated for the purposes of this report. In establishing the average price received at the mines for 
bituminous and lignite, however, the entire product, including that from the local mines, as well as that used for 
steam and heat about the mines, was considered, as the coal used for mining purposes is of the same quality as 
that sold in the market. The total number of regular establishments reported in operation during the year was 
2,583; the number of local mines and farmers' banks 9,969. The " regular establishments " include all collieries 
equipped for shipping coal regularly by rail or water, together with the more important collieries supplying local 
trade. The returns from " local mines and farmers' banks " were obtained by special agents resident in the 
respective districts, and are therefore complete. 

The total quantity of coal produced at these small mines was 2,889,286 short tons, or 2 per cent of the total 
output. The average number of persons employed in the coal-mining operations of the country during 1889 was 
299,559, which includes superintendents, mechanics, clerical force pertaining to collieries, miners, laborers, drivers, 
and slate pickers. The average number of days in the year when collieries were shipping coal was 193, based upon 
the average of each state, respectively. No attempt has been made to determine an average of days worked or wages 
paid at the small mines, because of the irregular methods prevailing and the entire absence of any records beyond 
the quantities sold and consumed and the customary price received, and this in many cases was approximated. The 
total amount paid in wages during 1889 (except at the local mines) was $112,286,099, including amounts paid for 
"dead" work, such as driving tunnels and gangways, constructing buildings, and other work of a general character 
done by contract, not enumerated in the tables of " labor and wages ", together with the annual or monthly salaries 
of the administrative and clerical force connected with the collieries. 

The grand total of expenditures of every discription, including labor, as above stated, materials of all kinds used 
in mining and preparing the coal, rents, royalties, interest, etc., was $146,536,280. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that this amount includes " dead" work and supplies such as rails, props, mine cars, etc., paid for in 1889, which 
are available for the operations of the future. 

The total invested capital as reported to the Eleventh Census was $342,757,929. This amount includes the 
estimated value in 1889 of the land actually under development (omitting all acreage held in reserve for future 
operations), the estimated value of the buildings (except domiciles and storehouses), fixtures, machinery, animals, 
implements, and supplies on hand ; also the amount of actual working capital necessary for the prosecution of the 
business. 
10—2 



6 COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The following table gives general statistics of the coal mining industry in the United States for the year 1S89 : 
GENERAL STATISTICS OF COAL MINING IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1889, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



STATES AND TKURITOKIES. 



Average 

price 
per ton. 



Total 
number 



employes. 



usi'isiinriiKs. 



Grand total 

of all 

expenditures. 



Capital 
invested. 



Grand total.. 



BITUMINOUS. 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California and Oregon 

Colorado 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian territory 

Iowa 

Kansas and Nebraska 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Carolina and Georgia.. 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wyoming 



Total.. 



ANTHRACITE. 

Pennsylvania 

Colorado, New Mexico, and Rhode Island. 



SI 00, 226, 323 



1,745 
2,949 



3,572,983 

279,584 

184,179 

2,544,144 

12,104,272 

2,845,057 

752,832 

4,095,358 

2,222,443 

2,399,755 

2,939,715 

67,431 

2,557,823 

363,301 

486,463 

226,156 

28,907 

9,976,787 

36,174,089 

1,925, 6S9 

128,216 

236,651 

865,786 

1,030,578 

6,231,880 

1,388,947 



95,629,026 



45,544,970 
55,517 



3,961,491 

395,836 

434,382 

3,843,992 

11,755,203 

2,887,852 

1,323,807 

5,426,509 

3,301,788 

2,374,339 

2,517,474 

115,011 

3,479,057 

880,773 

870,468 

339,382 

41,431 

9,355,400 

27,953,315 

2,338,309 

340,620 

377,456 

804,475 

2,393,238 

5,086,584 

1,748,617 



94,346,309 



65,721,578 
157,936 



1.11 
1.42 
2.36 
1.51 
0.97 
1.02 
1.70 
1.33 
1.49 
0.99 
0.86 
1.71 
1.36 
2.42 
1.79 
1.50 
1.43 
0.94 
0.77 
1.21 
2.66 
1.59 
0.93 
2.32 
0.82 



419 
4,872 
24,323 
6,532 
1,873 
9,384 
6,069 
5,260 
3,741 
265 
6,730 



19,591 
53,712 



565 
1,555 
2,695 
9,952 
2,692 



3,267,857 

252,679 

248,449 

2,724,800 

8,694,347 

2,201,044 

927,267 

3,956,788 

2,320,588 

1,756,363 

1,730,687 

93,594 

2,538,273 

587,538 

604,543 

265,464 

18,460 

6,892,004 

20,738,647 

1,609,310 

256,834 

268,570 

621,266 

1,747,080 

3,888,712 

1,553,947 



3,726.939 

308,711 

364,942 

3,695,298 

10,366,069 

2,581,669 

1,172,821 

4,732,950 

2,730,782 

2,156,548 

2,061,058 

113,714 

2,846,137 

649,674 

776,896 

426,065 

21,740 

8,232,183 

25,977,106 

2,113,292 

324,157 

342,796 

682,408 

2,254,486 

4,841,796 

1,823,956 



69,765,711 



85,324,193 



39,278,355 
86,862 



61,109,958 
102,129 



8342,757,929 



12,535,194 

1,289,751 

526,750 

12,611,849 

17,630,351 

3,435,703 

1,492,000 

6,279,179 

3,488,539 

6,581,380 

18,025,367 

49,650 

3,992,293 

1,153,076 

995,717 

724,500 

66,580- 

14,018,236 

53,322,330 

4,362,711 

307,335 

844,560 

1,055,516 

3,186,441 

10,508,050 

2,239,252 



180,722,319 



161,784,473 
251,137 



COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 7 

The following table gives, by states and territories, the total production of coal in the United States for the year 
1SS9, together with the disposition of the same : 

PRODUCT OF COAL IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1889, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



STATES AXI> TKUKITOR1KS. 



BITUMINOUS. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California and Oregon 

Colorado 

Georgia and North Carolina 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian territory 

Iowa 

Kansas and Nebraska 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wyoming 

Total 

ANTHRACITE. 

Pennsylvania 

Colorado and New Mexico.. 
Rhode Island 

Total 



Total prod- 
uct of coal of 

all grades 
for year 1889. 



i, 572, 983 

279,584 

181,179 

2,544,144 

220,156 

2,104,272 

2,S45,057 

752,832 

4,095,358 

2,222,443 

2,399,755 

2,939,715 

67,431 

2,557,823 

363,301 

486,463 

28,907 

9,976,787 

5,174,089 

1,925,689 

128,216 

236,651 

865,786 

1,030,578 

6,231,880 

1,388,947 



45,544,970 
53,517 
2,000 



Disrosrnox or' 



Loaded 



at r 



ifor 



shipment 

on railroad 

cars and 

boats. 



Sold to 
local trade 
nines. 



2,327,209 

268,518 

173,611 

2, 059.84S 

46,321 

9,884,883 

2,527,112 

699,122 

3,530,373 

1,891,090 

2,111,010 

2,885,336 

53,104 

2,246,845 

314,372 

466,127 

18,610 

8,566,223 

24,059,913 

1,334,424 

120,602 

216,960 

732,881 

956,046 

4,764,900 

1,354,443 

73,609,883 



40,114,901 
49,917 
2,000 



3S,835 

5,020 

3,854 

70,595 

31 

1,699,478 

217,041 

1,173 

420,596 

267,047 

225,234 

37,667 

8,289 

259,587 

10,755 

5,371 

9,792 

1,196,872 

1,432,361 

13,212 

6,348 

15,050 

7,546 

11.036 

448,527 



Used by 
employes. 



21,110 
1,800 



158 

111,224 

20,894 

5,922 

44,139 

34,560 

21,072 

6,550 

821 

16,412 

2,162 

2,582 

505 

50,271 

158,290 

15,889 

204 

2,012 

5,633 

4,538 

44,760 

8,103 



325,591 
1,900 



Used 
for steam 
at mines. 



79,515 
4,246 
6,106 
87,187 
15,001 
395,787 
67,210 
33,997 
100,213 
29,246 
23,981 
10,162 
5,217 
34,979 
5,436 



93,952 
332,937 
23,034 
1,062 
412 
7,516 
19,958 
37,368 
19,071 



3,940,939 
1,350 



Manufac- 
tured into 
coke. 



30S.061 
164,645 



12,. 800 
12,618 



30,576 
6,000 



10,190,5S8 
539,130 

2,217 
112,210 
39,000 
936,325 



Total 
amount re- 
ceived for coal 
soldinl8S9. 



3,961,491 

395,836 

434,382 

3,843,992 

339,382 

11,755,203 

2,887,852 

1,323,807 

5,426,509 

3,301,788 

2,374,339 

2,517,474 

115,011 

3,479,057 

880,773 

870,468 

41,431 

9,355,400 

27,953,315 

2,338,309 

340,620 

377,456 

804,475 

2,393,238 

5,086,584 

1,748,617 



65,721,578 

151,936 

6,000 



1.11 
1.42 
2.36 
1.51 
1.50 
0.97 
1.02 
1.76 
1.33 
1.49 
0.99 
0.86 
1.71 
1.36 
2.42 
1.79 
1.43 
0.94 
0.77 
1.21 
2.66 
1.59 
0.93 
'2.32 
0.82 
1.26 



1.44 
2.84 
3.00 



8 COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The following table shows the labor employed about the mines, both above and below ground, average wages 
paid per day, and the total amount of wages paid in 1889, by states and territories: 



LABOR AND WAGES AT COAL MINES OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1889, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES. 





Total 

employes 

about 

mine. 












ABOVE GROU 


«, 














Total 
average 
number 

em- 
ployed. 


Foremen or oi 


-erseers. 


Mechanics. 




Laborei 


s. 


Boys iinde 


r 16. 




Aver- 
age 

ber em- 
ployed. 


Aver- 
age 

wages 
per 
day. 


Average 
number 
of days 
worked. 


Aver- 
age 

ber em- 
ployed. 


Aver- 
age 

wages 
per 
day. 


Average 
number 
of days 
worked. 


Aver- 
age 

num- 
ber em- 
ployed. 


Aver- 
age 

wages 
per 
day. 


Average 
number 
of days 
worked. 


Aver- 
age 

num- 
ber em- 
ployed. 


Aver- 
age 

wages 
per 

day. 


Average 
number 
of days 
worked. 




296,623 


67,137 


2,285 






8,603 






38,413 






17,836 




















$0.62 

0.70 
1.50 
1.25 
0.45 
0.80 
0.71 
1.00 
0.78 
0.77 
0.75 
0.90 




BITUMINOUS. 


6,864 

677 

413 

4,904 

733 

23,934 

6,448 

1,862 

9,247 

5,956 

5,144 

3,702 

261 

6,631 

848 

1,015 

75 

19,343 

53,132 

4,031 

543 

551 

1,523 

2,657 

9,778 

2,675 


1,018 
116 
76 
807 
329 

2,584 
666 
220 

1,075 
742 
893 
321 
46 
950 
171 
157 
13 

2,058 

4,979 
509 
121 
84 
521 
540 

1,558 
369 


57 
5 
6 
53 
12 
217 
74 
11 
147 
69 
76 
15 
7 
122 
9 
13 

221 
378 
48 
7 
3 
16 
21 
117 
10 


$2.52 
2.69 
5.12 
3.50 
2.29 
2.34 
2.36 
2.55 
2.20 
2.37 
2.44 
3.04 
2.11 
2.09 
5.28 
3.27 
2.29 
2.26 
2.57 
2.46 
2.91 
3.63 
2.01 
3.76 
2.48 
4.42 


276 
248 
296 
278 
264 
262 
255 
291 
228 
190 
270 
266 
199 
228 
251 
208 
115 
244 
250 
249 
283 
246 
245 
293 
270 
203 


123 
21 
20 

161 
34 

625 

160 
63 

202 

160 

152 
65 
11 

107 
38 
26 
3 

334 
1,028 

101 
5 
18 
51 
94 

244 
37 


12.12 
2.22 
2.90 
2.98 
2.15 
2.03 
1.84 
2.50 
2.23 
2.23 
1.81 
2.03 
1.92 
2.11 
3.58 
2.88 
2.67 
1.91 
2.11 
1.86 
2.50 
2.84 
1.77 
3.04 
1.90 
2.97 


231 
208 
236 
229 
210 
266 
256 
170 
253 
200 
242 
264 
213 
246 
252 
231 
88 
235 
237 
244 
260 
238 
269 
255 
246 
269 


797 
79 
48 
571 
277 

1,678 
426 
145 
709 
488 
627 
225 
28 
692 
123 
112 
3 

1,420 

3,366 
393 
109 
59 
407 
396 

1,135 
321 


$1.25 

1.49 
2.04 
2.21 
0.96 
1.52 
1.47 
1.90 
1.57 
1.56 
1.30 
1.59 
1.93 
1.52 
2.50 
2.37 
1.50 
1.51 
1.67 
1.21 
1.52 
2.35 
1.16 
2.29 
1.36 
2.21 


218 
210 
248 
234 
255 
201 
192 
164 
209 
197 
204 
196 
249 
214 
240 
213 
100 
192 
208 
222 
248 
198 
282 
242 
211 
253 


41 
11 

2 
22 

6 
64 

6 

1 
17 
25 
38 
16 


212 




159 




240 




221 




24 




200 




152 




250 




169 




156 




205 




187 








29 
1 
6 


0.80 
2.00 
1.07 


181 




300 




188 








83 
207 
27 


0.77 
0.86 
0.55 


187 




200 




190 








4 

47 
29 
62 

1 


0.97 
0.47 
1.41 
0.76 
1.50 


252 




210 




214 
















172,947 


20,983 


1,721 






3,883 






14,634 






745 
























ANTHRACITE. 


123,676 


46,154 


561 


2.71 


291 


4,720 


1.92 


257 


23,779 


1.29 


198 


17,091 


0.62 









COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 

LABOR AND WAGES AT COAL MINES OF THE UNITED STATES, ETC.— Continued. 



l'.EI.OW GROl'NI*. 



i TERRITORIES. 



Total 
average 
number 



Aver- 
age 



her em- 
ployed 



wagi-s 
per 
day. 



Average 
number 
of days 

worked. 



ber em- 
ployed 



per 
day. 



Average 

number 
of days 

worked. 



ber em- 
ployed, 



Aver- 
age 



Average 
number 
of days 
worked. 



IJoys under 10. 



Total 
amount of 
wages paid 



\v:ij>-c\s 

per 
day. 



Average 
number 

of days 
worked. 



Grand total 

BITU3IINOUS. 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California and Oregon 

Colorado 

Georgia and North Carol 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian territory 

Iowa 

Kansas and Nebraska 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wyoming 

Total 

ANTHRACITE. 

Pennsylvania 



82.73 
2.71 J 
3.17 I 
3.36 I 
1.64 | 
2.38 
2.36 
3.10 
2.46 
2.46 
2.33 
3.04 
2.31 
2.33 
4.32 
3.58 
3.00 
2.32 
2.56 
2.13 
2.65 
3.47 
2.44 
3.97 
2.46 
3.31 



2.58 
2.67 



1,200 


3.25 


6,588 


2.23 


4,447 


1.S9 


3,400 


1.75 


2,689 


2.45 


191 


1.74 


4,780 


2.10 


521 


3.19 


688 


3.08 


55 


2.15 


14,733 


1.95 


40,100 


1.93 


2,538 


1.98 


340 


2.00 


332 


3.21 


712 


1.53 


1,549 


3.26 


6,367 


1.86 



81.33 
2.00 
2.32 
2.65 
0.98 
1.75 
1.70 
2.41 
1.S9 
1.75 
1.56 
1.86 
1.67 
1.81 
2.60 
2.59 



1.85 
1.26 
1.77 
2.51 
1.59 
2.46 
1.47 
2.47 



1.47 
1.18 



0.71 
0.88 
0.77 
0.88 
0.70 
1.06 
0.87 
0.71 
1.50 
1.10 

0.73 
0.7S 
0.71 
0.75 
1.00 
1.14 
1.06 
0.66 
1.32 



8106, 937.05S 



3,157,109 

248,899 

241,249 

2,734,895 

258,016 

8,429,553 

2,144,566 

915,567 

3,800,893 

2,258,485 

1,069,524 

1 ,700,305 

90,124 

2,476,870 

576,773 

584,376 

17,560 

6,730,778 

20,327,805 

1,548,392 

252,470 

258,601 

604,796 

1,696,293 

3,748,721 

1,537,107 

6S, 069, 727 



10 



COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The following table shows the office force employed and the amount expended in coal mining operations during 
the year 1889, by states and territories : 

OFFICE FORCE AND EXPENDITURES AT COAL MINES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1889, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES. 





OFFICE FORCE. 


Grand 
total 
em- 
ployes. 


Grand total 
wages. 


Total of all 
other ex- 
penditures 

for the 
mines or 
works. 


Total value 
of supplies 

and 
materials of 

all kinds 
during 1S89. 


Total 
mining 
expendi- 
tures. 


Amount 
paid for 
contract 

during 
1889. 




STATES AND TERRI- 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Grand 
total of all 
expendi- 
tures. 




dum- 
ber. 


Amount 

of 
wages. 


Num- 
ber. 


Amount 

of 
wages. 


Num- 
ber. 


Amount 

of 
wages. 


Grand total 


2,936 


52,193,870 


2,846 


812,163,775 


90 


$30,095 


299,559 


$109,130,928 

3,267,857 
252,679 
248,449 

2,724,800 
265,464 

8,694,347 

2,201,044 

927,267 

3,956,788 

2,320,588 

1,756,363 

1,730,687 

93,594 

2,538,273 

587,538 

604,543 

18,460 

6,892,604 

20,738,647 

1,609,310 

256,834 

268,570 

621,266 

1,747,080 

3,888,712 

1,553,947 


$15,421,591 


$18,828,590 


$143,381 ,109 


$3,155,171 


$146,536,280 


BITUMINOUS. 


111 
9 
6 

68 

7 

389 
84 
11 
137 
113 
116 
39 
4 
99 
9 
19 
1 
248 
580 
77 
6 
14 
32 
38 
174 
17 


110,748 
3,780 
7,200 
75,022 
7,448 

264,794 
56,478 
11,700 
95,895 
62,103 
86,839 
30,382 
3,470 
61,403 
10,765 
20,892 
900 

161,826 

410,842 
60,918 
4,364 
9,969 
16,470 
50,787 

139,991 
16,840 


110 
9 
6 
65 
6 

374 
77 
11 

130 
99 

111 
39 
4 
97 
9 
19 
1 

240 

566 
74 
6 
12 
27 
37 

173 
17 


110,388 
3,7S0 
7,200 
73,847 
7,165 

260,104 
54,038 
11,700 
93,131 
60,469 
84,639 
30,382 
3,470 
60,964 
10,765 
20,892 
900 

159,072 

404,312 
59,328 
4,364 
9,834 
14,370 
50,487 

139,540 
16,840 


1 


360 


6,975 
686 
419 

4,872 
740 

24,323 

6,532 

1,873 

9,384 

6,069 

5,260 

3,741 

265 

6,730 

857 

1,028 

76 

19,591 

53,712 

4,108 

549 

565 

1,555 

2,695 

9,952 

2,692 


161,046 
16,874 
43,590 

388,657 
6,546 

678,133 
133,724 
172,150 
353,935 
141,044 
117,765 
121,453 

11,035 

107,867 

7,038 

02,593 

380 

712,792 

2,562,851 

219,268 

12,990 
5,417 

13,456 
210,899 
443,394 

37,324 


261,512 
39,158 
56,678 
490,152 
102,655 

966,927 
241,094 
53,404 
357,033 
262,820 
237,321 
203,155 
9,085 
181,218 
52,098 
102,600 
2,900 
568,020 
2,393,386 
271,390 
54,333 
65,911 
46,754 
287,211 
462,591 
224,804 


3,690,415 
308,711 
348,717 

3,603,609 
374,665 

10,339,407 

2,575,862 

1,152,821 

4,667,756 

2,724,452 

2,111,449 

2,055,295 

113,714 

2,827,358 

646,674 

769,736 

21,740 

8,173,416 

25,694,884 

2,099,968 

324,157 

339,898 

681,476 

2,245,190 

4,794,697 

1,816,075 


36,524 


3,726,939 




308,711 


California and Oregon ... 






16,225 
91,689 
51,400 

26,662 
5,807 

20,000 

65,194 
6,330 

45,099 
5,763 


364,942 


3 

1 

15 
7 


1,175 
283 

4,690 
2,440 


3,695,298 


Georgia and North 
Carolina. 


426,065 

10,360,069 
2,581,669 




1,172,821 


7 
14 
5 


2,764 
1,634 
2,200 


4,732,950 


Kansas and Nebraska 


2,730,782 
2,156,548 




2,061,058 








113,714 


2 


439 


18,779 
3,000 
7,160 


2,846,137 




649,674 


N w Mexico 






776,896 


N .n n t t 






21,740 




8 
14 
3 


2,754 
6,530 
1,590 


58,767 
282,222 
13,324 


8,232,183 




25,977,106 




2,113,292 




324,157 




2 
5 

1 

1 


135 

2,100 

300 

451 


2,898 

932 
9,296 
47,099 

7,881 


342,796 




682,408 




2,254,486 
4,841,796 




1,823,956 












2,408 


1,781,826 


2,319 


1,751,981 


89 


29,845 


175,249 


69,765,711 


6,742,221 


7,994,210 


84,502,142 


822,051 


85,324,193 






ANTHRACITE. 


527 
1 


411,024 
1,020 


526 

1 


410,774 
1,020 


1 


250 


124,203 
107 


39,278,355 
86,862 


8,676,320 
3,050 


10,822,363 
12,017 


58,777,038 
101,929 


2,332,920 
200 


61,109,958 




102,129 


and Rhode Island. 










528 


412,014 


527 


411,794 


1 


250 


124,310 


39,365,217 


8,679,370 


10,834,380 


58,878,967 


2,333,120 


61,212,087 







COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



11 



The following table gives the value of mines and improvements and the number of animals employed therein, 
by states and territories : 

VALUE AND POWER AT COAL MINES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1889, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



STATES AND TEII UITOKI I>. 



VALUE OF MINES AND I M I 'KOY EM KNTS. 



In hind owned. 



In land leased. 



In tools, 
implements, 
live stock, 
machinery, 
and sup- 
plies. 



Total value 

of land, 
building's, 
tools, etc. 



Cash capita] 
not re- 
ported in 
the forego- 
ing items. 



Total 
capital. 



Grand total.. 



BITUMINOUS. 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California and Oregon 

Colorado 

Georgia and North Cflroli: 

Indiana 

Indian territory 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Kansas and Nebraska 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana. 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wyoming 

Total 



ANT 



$64,065,329 



$342,757,929 



216,139 
15,969 
4,012 
53,529 
20,7*3 
15,785 



161,468 

24,239 

36,077 

106,622 

48,100 

142 

24,276 

9,110 

10,480 

520 

66,097 

132,811 

78,289 

1,000 

5,910 

13,900 

20,322 

61,531 

13,360 



1,141,021 



9,476,341 
1,041,876 

238,400 
4,757,090 

348,300 
1,213,445 



6,620 
1,095 



161,600 
55,750 



S, 074, 020 

2,178,832 

1,588,974 

2,827,755 

15,707,629 

7,800 

1,732,197 

628,903 

361,543 

51,700 

6,329,766 

21,817,269 

1,303,500 

10,000 

509,926 

290,100 

1,724,000 

3,694,987 

1,252,518 



87,226,871 



47,626,322 
1,600 



9,023 
14,706 
30,272 
14,443 

3,939 
21,478 

2,420 



38,201 
98,025 
55,623 

3,780 

3,790 
2,876 
45,990 



576,050 
73S,643 

1,816,644 
945,749 
285,760 

1,050,240 
176,000 
9,600 
685,772 
125,000 
13,540 

2,697,874 

16,281,741 

1,094,350 

105,000 

103,600 

95,760 

2,806,280 



1,231,228 

77,098 

157,500 

1,236,603 

5S.000 

553,449 

497,509 

3,923,747 

1,210,421 

629,438 

1,364,523 

1,521,655 

7,800 

527,654 

76,033 

293,393 

5,980 

2,270,971 

7,118,900 

1,046,45-1 

68,199 

171,637 

363,270 

326,984 

2,160,249 

403,236 



1,248,159 

77,777 
94,400 

1,183,772 
283,000 
719,463 
131,067 

2,325,547 

1,330,927 
652,416 

1,007,951 
392,193 
12,750 
716,105 
251,640 
242,921 
3,820 

1,730,656 

5,020,101 
638,095 
90,136 
107,397 
273,168 
746,903 

1,255,965 
392,198 



27,301,931 



20,928,527 



56,789,480 
162,000 I 



36,733,648 

29,750 



12,117,328 

1,252,501 

490,300 

12,231,285 

689,300 

3,062,407 

1,367,219 

16,139,958 

5,665,929 

3,156,5SS 

6,250,469 

17,797,477 

37,950 

3,661,728 

1,081,576 

911,397 

61,500 

13,029,267 

50,238,011 

4,142,399 

273,335 

788,960 

1,030,138 

2,893,647 

9.917.4SI 

2,047,952 



170,336,102 



14,110,617 155,260,067 
46,937 240,287 



14,157,554 155,500,351 



417,866 
37,250 
36,450 
380,564 
35,200 
373,296 
124,790 
1,490,393 
613,250 
331,951 
330,911 
227,890 
11,700 
330,565 
71,500 
S4.320 
5,080 
988,969 
3,0S4,319 
220,312 
34,000 
55,600 
25.37S 
292,794 
590,569 
191,300 



12,535,194 

1,289,751 

526,750 

12,611,849 

724,500 

3,435,703 

1,492,009 

17,630,351 

6,279,179 

3,488,539 

6,5S1,380 

18,025,367 

49,650 

3,992,293 

1,153,076 

995,717 

66,580 

14,018,236 

53,322,330 

4,362,711 

307,335 

814,560 

1,055,516 

3,186,441 

10,508,050 

2,239,252 



10.3Sli.217 



180,722,319 



6,524,406 
10,850 



161,781,473 
251,137 



2,127 
5,383 



11' 



COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



DISTRIBUTION. 

The statistics of the distribution of coal in the United States, as shown in the tables following, have been 
collected with great difficulty. Details have been obtained mainly from transportation companies. Owing to the 
diverse methods of keeping station accounts of freights received and delivered, as well as accounts of interchange at 
junction points (many roads making no distinction between anthracite and bituminous coal), the data as to coal 
delivered for consumption at the different points have been in some cases necessarily approximated. Such estimates, 
hoM'ever, have usually been made by some one familiar with the facts applying to his particular district, and are 
accepted as substantially correct. These tables are presented, therefore, not so much as exhibiting absolute accuracy 
as showing, by the best data obtainable, the practical facts upon the subject. 

PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF COAL FOR THE YEAR 1889. 



Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia . 

Florida 

Georgia 

North Carolina 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian territory 



Kansas 

Nebraska 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 



Missouri 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico. 

New York 

North Dakota 

South Dakota , 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Khode Island 

South Carolina. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 7. 

Wyoming 

Total 

Exported to Canada 

Exported to other countries . 
Made into coke at mines 



Population 
1S90. 



,513,017 
59,620 
,128,179 
,208,130 
412,198 
746, 25S 
168,493 
230,392 
391 ,422 
,837,353 
,617,947 
84,385 
,826,351 
,192,404 



1,911,896 

,427,096 
,,05S,910 
.,858,635 
:, 118, 587 

661,086 
,042,390 
1,238,943 
1,093,889 
,301,826 
.,289,600 
1,679,184 

132,159 
45,761 

376,530 
,444,933 

153,593 
1,997,853 

182,719 

328,808 
1,672,316 

313,767 
:, 258, 014 

345,506 
,151,149 
,767,518 
1,235,523 

207,905 

332,422 
,655,980 

349,390 

762,794 

,686,880 

60,705 



PRODUCTION. 



Bituminous. Anthracite 



3,572,983 



279,584 
119,820 
:, 544, 144 



12,104,272 

2,845,057 

752,832 

4,095,358 

■ 2,222,443 



939,715 
67,431 



,557,823 
363,301 



9,970,787 

64,359 

36,174,089 



1,925,689 
128,216 
236,651 

865,786 
1,030,578. 
6,231,S80 



45,544,970 
2,000 



Bituminous, Anthracite. 



41,686 

355,819 

1,301,989 

1,876,291 

935,533 

307,019 

45,050 

19,652 

r 869,727 

(. 191,142 

273,211 

11,004,980 

3,299,354 

104,827 

3,411,044 

f 2,250,357 

I 1,757,662 

2,196,330 

619,294 

318,754 

1,383,857 

3,121,927 

1,635,472 

1,S83,599 

524,318 

3,122,283 

776,266 

99,044 

352,244 

1,49S,200 

164,912 

5,665,432 

420,842 

9,601,216 
97,063 

7,489,113 
505,017 
130,319 

1,561,366 

1,653,847 
403,466 
185,188 

1,070,370 
556,037 
952,388 

2,054,906 
562,403 

80,576,505 

1,319,398 

373,464 

13,561,848 



45,618,663 



1,079 



37,477 
52,060 
964,967 
230,421 
481,088 
12,145 
34,055 
30,078 



1,980,180 
208,550 



235,774 

115,597 

110,892 

4,692 

12,107 

580,232 

622,883 

3,274,133 

558,243 

477,009 

947 

56,245 



334,569 
3,959,195 



48,361 

596,162 

6,000 

16,156,795 

533,498 

47,261 

1,542 

11,979 

5,125 

373,891 

252,457 

4,000 

7,043 

940,502 

90 

44,353,146 

1,226,104 

39,413 



COAL PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



13 



COAL DELIVERED TO FOREIGN AND COASTWISE OCEAN STEAMSHIPS, FOE THEIR OWN FUEL, AT THE PORTS NAMED 
BELOW, INCLUDED IN FIGURES GIVEN IN THE PRECEDING TABLE. 



IMSTRIUt/TIoN I'OR CONSUMPTION. 



New York 

Philadelphia 

Baltimore 

Boston 

Other Atlantic and Gulf ports 
Pacific coast ports 



Bituminous. 


Anthracite. 


1,291,271 
297,609 
227,000 
70,207 
80,000 
93,000 


131,624 




17,119 







AMOUNT OF COAL CONSUMED IN THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE YEAR 1889. 



New York, New York 

Chicago, Illinois 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Brooklyn, New York 

Saint Louis, Missouri 

Boston, Massachusetts 

Baltimore, Maryland 

San Francisco, California 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Buffalo, New York 

New Orleans, Louisiana 

Pittsburg, Pennsylvania 

Washington, District of Columbia.. 

Detroit, Michigan 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Newark, New Jersey 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Jersey City, New Jersey 

Louisville, Kentucky 

Omaha, Nebraska 

Rochester, New York 

Saint Paul, Minnesota 

Kansas City, Missouri 

Providence, Rhode Island 

Denver, Colorado 

Indianapolis, Indiana 

Allegheny, Pennsylvania 

Albany, New York 

Columbus, Ohio 

Syracuse, New York 

Worcester, Massachusetts 

I Toledo, Ohio 

Richmond, Virginia 

New r Haven, Connecticut 

Paterson, New Jersey 

Lowell, Massachusetts 

Nashville, Tennessee 

Scran ton, Pennsylvania 

Fall River, Massachusetts 

Atlanta, Georgia 

Memphis, Tennessee 

Wilmington, Delaware 

Dayton, Ohio 

Troy, New York 

Grand Rapids, Michigan 

Reading, Pennsylvania 

Camden, New Jersey 

Trenton, New Jersey 

Charleston, South Carolina 



Population 
1890. 



,515,301 
,099,850 
,046,964 
806,343 
451,770 
448,477 
434,439 
298,997 
296,908 
261,353 
255,664 
242,039 
238,617 
230,392 
205,876 
204,468 
181,830 
164,738 
163,003 
161,129 
140,452 
133,896 
133,156 
132,716 
132,146 
106,713 
105,436 
105,287 
94,923 
88,150 
88,143 
84,655 
81,434 
81,388 
81,298 
78,347 
77,696 
76,168 
75,215 
74,398 
65,533 
64,495 
61,431 
61,220 
60,956 
60,278 
58,661 
58,313 
57,458 
54,955 



Anthracite. Bituminous. 



0.3,300,000 

1,444,250 

3,188,094 

al, 800, 000 

85,658 

1,242,001 

414,928 

29,800 

30,904 

117,157 

333,653 

12,107 

2,294 

481,088 

114,397 

402,774 

410,918 

94,058 

334,328 

1,981 

1,279 

280,229 

83,675 

59,353 

349,641 

10,118 

11,930 

1,591 

104,012 

4,229 

179,891 

87,322 

63,583 



202,290 
71,150 



122,160 

110,745 

1,269 

45 

158,614 

4,802 

34,177 

34,717 

331,944 

108,838 

148,554 

37,259 



1,853,430 

3,221,008 
919,187 
200,000 

2,125,391 
524,409 
693, 6S5 
375,012 

1,030,948 
924,602 

1,032,791 
435,299 
334,035 
45,050 
478,993 
162,089 
133,158 
172,648 
132,602 
380,326 
244,357 
119,667 
171,367 
306,607 
155,985 
300,841 
277,278 
100,674 
135,031 
258,727 
84,327 
125,555 
123,968 
210,232 
170,359 
24,250 
135,698 
331,300 
9,985 
95,617 
208,554 
172,669 
128,515 
178,314 
102,145 
104,558 
59,902 
67,308 
132,840 
31,589 



a Figures approximate. 

The above figures include all coal used by railroad companies and delivered to steam vessels, for their own fuel, 
at the points named. 



-. Bindery, 
191894