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Full text of "Extra census bulletin"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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http://www.archive.org/details/extracensusbulle11unit 



Extra Census Bulletin. 



No. 11. WASHINGTON, D. C. October 7, 1891. 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 



DEPABTMENT OF THE INTEBIOE, 

Census Office, 
Washington, D. O, October 1, 1891. 
Sir: 

Bulletins Nos. 17, 36, 53, and 84 gave details of sex and color for the public school enrollment of the country by 
counties and of private and parochial schools by states for the census year, as reported to the Census Office up to 
various dates. 

In the present bulletin Mr. James H. Blodgett, expert special agent, furnishes a summary of the enrollment, 
adding returns of private and parochial schools received up to July 1, 1891. Some further changes from delayed 
returns will arise in preparing the final report. 

The accompanying map indicates by shades of color the relative numerical school enrollment in each state and 
territory. 

The tables in this bulletin showing the relation of colored and white enrollment to the respective races for the 
decade in the southern states indicate how rapidly the colored people have utilized the advantages of citizenship. 

The tables showing the great features of school enrollment for 50 years, beginning with the first census in 
which education was separately reported, show the well-maintained educational zeal of the American people. 

The promptness of collection and publication of like facts for the public schools iu any year has not before been 
equaled. The reports of enrollment in some states, through the cordial co-operation of school officers, were obtained 
in manuscript, and were first given to the public through census bulletins. 

Private school enrollment has not been so fully published for 20 years, and the subdivision parochial schools 
appears distinctively for the first time in census results. 

It is hoped to have the reports based on enumerators' returns, including illiteracy, ready at an early date. 

Very respectfully, 

BOBEBT P. POBTEE, 

Superintendent of Census. 

The Secretary of the Interior. 

C. O. P.— 5m 



ELEVENTH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES 

ROBERT P PORTER , SUPERINTENDENT 



EXTRA BULLETIN No 11 










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POPN POPULATION 1890 

S £ SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 1890 

U S POPULATION 62 622 250 

ENROLLED IN SCHOOL 14,219,571 

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MAP 

.. SHOWING THE 

u ' ARENT ENROLLMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

as reportedly schools to July l - . 1 ihiu. 
exclusive or spe, iaJ classes^Dependenis and Indituie 

< "ru|ill>-il l)v 

.iamks H.BLODCETT, Special agent. 






LIUS elE^ I 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 



BY JAMES H. BLODGETT. 



This bulletin contains a summary of the leading results of the inquiries as to school enrollment for the census 
year in hand July 1, 1891, subject to revision. 

The details by counties of sex and color of teachers and pupils in public schools and like details by states for 
private and parochial schools have appeared in previous bulletins. 

While additional returns have swollen the aggregate of the private and parochial school enrollment already 
published, revision has led to casting out some duplicates and to some changes of classification. 

School officers, public and private, have generally responded with great cordiality to inquiries. There are 
private and parochial schools known to exist whose returns, for some cause, have failed to reach the office. 
Correspondence still in progress will somewhat modify the totals for such schools. 

It has occurred that schools, reported in church yearbooks as parochial are reported by those in immediate 
charge as public schools, and so affect the census summary adversely as compared with the ecclesiastical summaries. 
Occasionally the parochial school seems really to have given way to a public school, but the proper explanation 
often appears to be that in a community essentially unanimous in religious faith there has been no objection to 
religious instruction, especially if attendance on the same has been optional and out of legal school hours, so that a 
distinctive parochial organization has not been maintained. Instances of public schools, called by some authorities 
parochial, have been reported from Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, New Mexico, Texas, 
Georgia, and Florida. In various states the same building is often used as a church and a public schoolhouse. 

It seems safe to estimate that at least one-half of the children in the Lutheran parochial schools, besides many 
in Catholic schools, also attend public schools during the year. It is impossible in the present condition of school 
records in the country at large to determine on the one hand the loss by imperfect records or on the other hand the 
undue gain by repeated enrollment. 

Table 1. — This table, which is subject to change through additional reports and closer classification, serves to 
give a general view of the schools of the country. The third column embraces those customarily reported under 
the title of public or common schools, including the high schools. The fourth column includes for the most part 
those in institutions equally public, but not usually summed up with common schools, as, for example, state 
universities and schools for training teachers. 

Texas has an attendance of 65,512 over and under school age (S to 16), included in column 3, not given in the 
sum of public school enrollment already published, but explained in Bulletin No. 53 ; Wisconsin a like attendance 
of 1,381 (school age 5 to 20), included in the third column, but not in the manuscript report of the state 
superintendent, followed in Bulletin ~Ho. 17. 

The public school enrollment given for Oklahoma is that of Greer county in the state report of Texas, the state 
claiming this county. 

Caution to the effect that the figures give apparent enrollment rather than a real enrollment, suggested in 
previous bulletins, is to be emphasized here. 

By the courtesy of other divisions of the Census Office, it can be stated that in addition there are in schools 
for special classes (deaf-mutes, blind, feeble-minded) approximately 12,500 pupils ; in Indian schools, 37,836 ; in 
reformatories (Bulletin No. 72), 14,846. The statistics for pupils in charitable institutions are not yet available. 

Table 2. — An examination of this table shows that the ratio of enrollment in public schools to population in 
1890 as compared with 1880 is apparently slightly less in the northern divisions, larger in the southern divisions, 
and nearly identical in the western division and for the country as a whole. It is evident that this calculation would 
be less favorable to 1890 if about 150,000 in public schools of descriptions apparently not included in 1880 were 
omitted, but the effect of this omission would be small. A comparison of effective attendance for states that record 
the total days' attendance of all pupils at school indicates that a more favorable showing might have been made on 
that basis if it could have been generally secured. Bejection of duplicates tends to diminish aggregates, while 
better preservation of records swells aggregates by lessening the failures to report. 

A census of school enrollment was first taken in 1840. The classification corresponded closely to elementary, 
secondary, and superior, but the " pupils at public charge " of that census wotild correspond to the present public 
schools only in a limited area. For general comparisons the " primary and common schools " of 1840 may be used 
with the "public schools" of the later censuses. The changes of conditions in different censuses make close 
comparisons impracticable. 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 



Table 1.— APPARENT ENROLLMENT IN SCHOOLS FOR THE CENSUS YEAR, REPORTED TO JULY, 1891, EXCLUSIVE OF 
SPECIAL CLASSES, DEPENDENTS, AND INDIANS, BY STATES, GROUPED GEOGRAPHICALLY. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



The United States.. 



North Atlantic division.. 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island (a) . 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania ..... 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia.. 

Virginia 

"West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin (&) 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota (c) . 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division.. 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas (d) 

Oklahoma (e).. 
Arkansas 



Western division.. 



Montana (/).. 
Wyoming ..... 

Colorado 

New Mexico.. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Alaska 

Washington.. 

Oregon 

California 



Aggregate. 



14,219,571 



3,547,402 



151,186 

70,000 

73,959 

439,510 

63,928 

151,429 

1,235,716 

278,622 

1,083,052 

1,937,495 



34,271 
211,937 

45,661 
363,528 
199,423 
367,551 
223,434 
394,205 

97,485 

5,586,129 



897,909 
553,573 
892,197 
479,050 
427,622 
325,147 
538,244 
684,433 
38,096 
71,103 
256,531 
422,224 

2,561,930 



448,767 
505,975 
330,795 
376,083 
153,538 
507,844 
1,782 
237,146 

586,615 



18,483 

7,465 
73,401 
23,233 

8,848 
47,610 

7,980 
15,415 

1,633 
60,076 
68,676 
253,795 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



Total. 



12,728,417 



3,078,829 



140,650 
59,947 
66,720 

373,087 
52,974 

127,303 
1,049,952 

234,964 

973,232 

1,758,384 



31,434 
185,058 

36,906 
343,970 
194,356 
326,895 
203,980 
341,062 

91,723 

5,022,284 



798,093 
509,355 
781,004 
430,605 
354,675 
284,368 
494,957 
623,071 
a5,694 
67,492 
241,440 
401,464 

2,349,614 



Common. 



Additional. 



12,663,692 



3,057,547 



139,679 
59,813 
65,608 

371,492 
52,774 

126,505 
1,042,160 

234,072 

965,444 

1,751,225 



31,434 
184,251 

36,906 
342,269 
193,293 
325,861 
203,461 
342,562 

91,188 

4,998,532 



408,208 
456,242 
306,350 
351,919 
125,159 
477,320 
579 
223,837 

519,306 



16,980 
7,134 

66,173 

18,249 
7,861 

36,730 
7,524 

14,311 
903 

55,705 

63,987 
223,749 



797,439 
507,264 
778,319 
427,032 
351,723 
281,859 
493,267 
020,314 
35,543 
66,150 
240,300 
399,322 

2,341,308 



64,725 



21,282 



971 
134 

1,112 

1,595 
200 
798 

7,792 
892 

7,788 

7,159 



807 



1,701 
1,063 
1,034 

519 
1,500 

535 

23,752 



Private 
schools. 



407,567 
455,732 
302,949 
350,619 
124,370 
476,421 
579 
223,071 

515,080 



16,980 
7,052 

65,490 

18,215 
7,828 

36,372 
7,387 

14,311 
903 

55,432 

63,354 
221,756 



654 
2,091 
2,685 
3,633 
2,952 
2,509 
1,690 
2,757 

151 
1,342 
1,146 
2,142 

8,306 



641 

510 

3,401 

1,300 

789 



766 
4,226 



82 

683 

34 



358 
137 



273 

633 

1,993 



753,972 



195,683 



6,521 
4,134 
4,168 
28,183 
3,959 
8,746 
76,242 
15,831 
47,899 

151,577 



1,126 
12,591 

5,503 
17,318 

3,518 
39,117 
18,796 
49,209 

4,369 

180,258 



Parochial 
schools. 



39,264 

17,911 

29,555 

11,057 

7,904 

7,513 

20,188 

27,740 

599 

1,432 

5,518 

11,577 

175,649 



27,301 
47,342 
23,295 
21,927 
18,040 
25,404 
1,203 
11,137 

50,805 



1,119 

140 
4,735 
4,413 

409 
10,214 

131 
1,104 

730 
3,457 
4,073 
20,220 



737,182 



272,890 



4,015 
5,919 
3,071 

38,240 
6,995 

15,380 
109,522 

27,827 

61,921 

27,534 



1,711 

14,288 

3,252 

2,240 

1,519 

1,539 

658 

934 

1,393 

383,587 



60,552 

26,307 

81,638 

37,328 

65,043 

33,266 

23,099 

33,622 

1,803 

2,179 

9,567 

9,183 

36,667 



13,258 
2,391 
1,150 
2,237 

10,339 
5,120 



2,172 
16,504 



191 
2,493 
571 
518 
666 
325 



914 

616 
9,826 



a An apparent loss from original report by rejecting 1,396 duplicates, explained in Bulletin No. 84. 

b Column 3 includes 1,381 over and under school age, not in manuscript report of state superintendent. 

c Public school enrollment larger than in Bulletin No. 53, by addition of 4,722 city enrollment; explained in Bulletin No. 84. 

d Column 3 includes 65,512 over and under school age, explained in text but not included in table of Bulletin No. 53. 

e The public school enrollment of Oklahoma is that of Greer county. t 

/Increase in public schools of 173 from Bulletin No. 36, explained in Bulletin No. 84. 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 

Table 2.— RELATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT TO POPULATION, 1880-1890, BY STATES, GROUPED 

GEOGRAPHICALLY. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



The United States.. 



North Atlantic division. 



Maine 

New Hampshire.. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division. 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida ' 



North Central division.. 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota. . 
South Dakota.. 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division.. 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Oklahoma (a). 
Arkansas 



Western division.. 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico.. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Alaska (b) 

Washington.. 

Oregon 

California 



population. 



17,401,545 



661,0S6 

376,530 

332,422 

2.23S, 943 

345,506 

746,258 

5,997,853 

1,444,933 

5,258,014 

8,857,920 



168,493 
1,042,390 

230,392 
1,655,980 

762,794 
1,617,947 
1,151,149 
1,837,353 

391,422 

22,362,279 



672,316 
192,404 
826,351 
093,889 
686,880 
301,826 
,911,896 
679,184 
182,719 
32S,808 
,058,910 
,427,096 



10,972,893 



1,858,635 
1,767,518 
1,513,017 
1,289,600 
1,118,587 
2,235,523 
61,834 
1,128,179 

3,027,613 



132,159 
60,705 

412,198 

153,593 
59,620 

207,905 
45,761 
8i,3S5 



349,390 
313,767 
,208,130 



50,155,783 



14,507,407 



648,936 

346,991 

332,286 

1,783,085 

276,531 

622,700 

5,082,871 

1,131,116 

4,282,891 

7,597,197 



PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT. 



PER CENT OF ENROLL- 
MENT TO POPULATION. 



1890. 



3,057,547 



146.60S 
934,943 
177,624 

1,512,565 
618,457 

1,399,750 
995,577 

1,542,180 
269,493 

17,364,111 



3,198,062 

1,978,301 

3,077,871 

1,636,937 

1,315,497 

780,773 

1,624,615 

2,168,3S0 

36,909 

98,268 

452,402 

996,096 

8,919,371 



139,679 
59,813 
65,608 

371,492 
52,774 

126,505 
1,042,160 

234,072 

965,444 

1,751,225 



1890. 



9,951,608 



2,949,904 



31 ,434 
184,251 

36,906 
342,269 
193,293 
325,861 
203,461 
342,562 

91,188 

4,998,532 



1,648,690 
1,542,359 
1,262,505 
1,131,597 
939,946 
1,591,749 



802,525 



1,767,697 



39,159 

20,789 

194,327 

119,565 

40,440 

143,963 

62,266 

32,610 



75,116 
174,768 
864,694 



797,439 
507,264 
778,319 
427,032 
351,723 
281,859 
493,267 
620,314 
35,543 
66,150 
240,300 
399,322 

2,341,308 



150,811 
64,670 
73,237 

316,630 
42,489 

118,589 
1,027,938 

205,240 

950,300 



26,412 
149,981 

26,439 
220,733 
143,796 
256,422 
134,842 
• 237,124 

43,304 

4,089,585 



407,567 
455,732 
302,949 
350,619 
124,370 
476,421 
579 
223,071 

515, 0S0 



10,980 
7,052 

65,490 

18,215 
7,828 

36,372 
7,387 

14,311 
903 

55,432 

63,354 
221,756 



752,442 
512,201 
704,041 
362,459 
299,514 
186.544 
425,665 
486,002 
3,746 
9,972 
100,871 
246,128 

1,374,035 



292,427 
291,500 
187,550 
237,065 
81,012 
176,245 



299,031 



4,667 
2,907 

28,252 
4,755 
4,212 

25,792 
8,918 
5,834 



14,7S0 
37,437 
161,477 



17.57 



21.13 
15.89 
19.74 
16.59 
15.27 
16.95 
17.38 
16.20 
18.36 

19.77 



18.66 
17.68 
16.02 
20.67 
25.34 
20.14 
17.67 
18.64 
23.30 

22.35 



21.71 
23.14 
20.34 
20.39 
20.85 
21.65 
25.80 
23.15 
19.45 
20.12 
22.69 
27.98 

21.34 



21.93 
25.78 
20.02 
27.19 
11.12 
21.31 
10.85 
19.77 

17.01 



12.85 
11.62 
15.89 
11.86 
13.13 
17.49 
16.14 
16.96 



15.87 
20.19 
18.36 



1880. 



19.84 



20.33 



23.24 
18.64 
22.04 
17.76 
15.37 
19.04 
20.22 
18.14 
22.19 

16.31 



IS. 02 
16.04 
14.88 
14.59 
23.25 
18.32 
13.54 
15.38 
16.07 

23.55 



23.53 
25.89 
22.87 
22.14 
22.77 
23.89 
26.20 
22.41 
10.15 
10.15 
22.30 
24.71 

15.41 



17.74 
18.90 
14.86 
20.95 
8.62 
11.07 



13.49 



16.92 



11.92 
13.98 
14.54 
3.98 
10.42 
17.92 
14.32 
17.89 



19.68 
21.42 
18.67 



a School enrollment given is for Greer county ; per cent given is on basis of population of county, 5,338. 
b Return of population not yet received. 



11—2 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 



Table 3. — Bearing in mind the limitations of the case, this table gives the outline of population and school 
enrollment for the past 50 years. Only public common school enrollment was published in 1880. The table 
illustrates how great local changes and errors of record assimilate themselves into a moderate general effect. By 
20-year periods it will be seen that the increase of population (66.26 and 62.41 per cent, respectively) and the 
increase of total school enrollment (97.94 and 97.21 per cent, respectively) were apparently very similar for 
1850-1870, and 1870-1890, the latter liable to slight modification in revision. 

The remarkable development of the free school in the north and west, rounding out its funds by local taxation, 
shows its influence in the high rate of gain in public school enrollment in 1850, subsiding somewhat in the next 
decade, and, partly through the disturbance of social institutions by the civil war, approaching the growth of 
population in 1870. The public school movement of the south and west swells the enrollment for 1880. nearly 
equalized in 1890 to the growth of population. 

Table 3.— POPULATION AND SCHOOL ENROLLMENT AT EACH CENSUS. 

[Fifty years: 1840-1890. Enrollment 1890 subject to revision.] 





Population. 


ENROLLMENT. 


Per cent of 

enrollment to 

population. 


INCREASE PER CENT. 




Population. 


Enrollment. 




All schools. 


Public 




All schools. 


Public schools, 
(o) 


10 years. 


20 years^ 


10 years. 


20 years. 


schools. 




17,069,453 
23,191,876 
31.443,321 
38,558,371 
50,155,783 
62,622,250 


2,025,656 
3,642,694 
5,477,037 
7,210,420 


1,845,264 
3,354,173 
4,955,894 
6,228,060 
9,951,608 
612,728,417 


11.87 
15.71 
17.42 
18.70 














35.87 
35.58 
22.63 
30.08 
24.86 




79.83 
50.36 
31.65 




81.77 








47 75 


1870 


66.26 


97.94 


25.67 




59.79 




14,219,571 


22.71 


62.41 




97.21 


27 90 









o In 1840 "primary and common schools". 



6 Including 64,725 "Additional" column. Table 1. 



In 1840 the negro was an illiterate slave with rare exception. The census of 1890 found him free and at 
school. Percentages can not express the change. 

Tables 4 and 5. — These tables show the apparent relation of white and colored public school enrollment to the 
respective populations and the relative gain each has made for the past decade in the southern states. 

Training in religion is a strong demand among some of the most earnest supporters of the public school system, 
conspicuous among whom are the Hebrews, who maintain special schools in several of the large cities, often requiring 
as a condition of admission regular attendance in the public schools. These schools of the Hebrews, the confirmation 
classes of the Catholics, Lutherans, and others occupying only Saturdays, Sundays, and extra school hours, have 
intentionally been omitted from the general table of school enrollment, and their treatment has been deferred. 

The enrollment in parochial schools has been made a census inquiry for the first time. Including the parochial 
schools, the religious idea is the mainspring of the greater part of private school organization, " parochial " being the 
term used for elementary schools with religion as a prominent motive, supported by local congregations. It is not 
easy to make a close distinction between parochial schools and those of like motive, but supported on a broader 
basis or doing more advanced work, especially as the work of a given school may change from year to year. 

There are 4 communions whose possible parochial schools are for convenience classed among the general 
private schools : (1) the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, popularly called Mormons, whose schools contain 
5,092 pupils, the elementary pupils corresponding closely to the parochial pupils in other cases ; (2) the Orthodox 
Greek Church, whose missionary schools in Alaska have SI pupils ; (3) 63 pupils are in schools reporting themselves 
as German Methodist parochial ; (4) 20 are reported as Unitarian parochial pupils. 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 7 

Table 4.— APPARENT RELATION OF PUBLIC COMMON SCHOOL ENROLLMENT TO POPULATION, WHITE AND COLORED, 

IN THE SOUTHERN STATES : 1890. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



POPULATION. 



Colored. («) 



PUBLIC COMMON SCHOOL 
ENROLLMENT. 



Colored. 



PER CENT OF ENROLL- 
MENT TO POPULATION. 



Total 

South Atlantic division 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia- 
Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

North Central division 
Missouri 

South Central division. 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas (b) 

Arkansas 



15,493,323 



5,567,440 



139,429 
824,149 
154,352 

1,014,680 
729,262 

1,049,191 
458,454 
973,462 
224,461 



2,524,468 



7,401,415 



1,585,526 
1,332,971 
830,796 
539,703 
554,712 
1,741,190 
816,517 



6,944,915 



1,288,229 



3,2S7,395 



1,168,557 



29,022 
218,004 

75,927 
640,867 

33.50S 
567,170 
692,503 
863,716 
166,678 



3,503,389 



272,981 
434,300 
681,431 
747,720 
562,893 
492,837 
311,227 



26,77S 
148,224 

23,574 
220,210 
186,735 
208,844 

90,051 
209,330 

54,811 



1,602,460 



352,955 
354,130 
186,794 
157, 1S8 
74,988 
312,802 
163,603 



5S2,668 



4,656 
36,027 
13,332 
122,059 
6,558 
117,017 
113,410 
133,232 
36,377 



32.S04 



672,757 



54,612 
101 ,602 
116,155 
193,431 
49,382 
98,107 
59,468 



20.99 



19.21 
17.99 
15.27 
21.70 
25.61 
19.91 
19.64 
21.50 
24.42 



23.27 



21.65 



22.26 
26.57 
22.48 
29.12 
13.52 
17.96 
20.04 



18.55 



17.72 



16.04 
16.53 
17.56 
19.05 
19.57 
20.63 
16.38 
15.43 
21.82 



19.20 



20.01 
23.39 
17.05 
25.87 
8.77 
19.91 
19.11 



Table 5.— APPARENT RELATIVE GAIN IN PUBLIC COMMON SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, WHITE AND COLORED, IN THE 

SOUTHERN STATES: 1880-1890. 





ENROLLED IN PUBLIC COMMON SCHOOLS. 


INCREASE. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


White. 


Colored. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




1890. 


1880. 


■ 
1890. 


1880. 


White. 


Colored. 


White. 


Colored. 


Total 


3,358,527 


2,301,804 


1,288,229 


797,286 


1,056,723 


490,943 


45.91 


61.58 








1,168,557 


859,510 


582,668 


379,513 


309,017 


203,125 


35.96 


53.52 








26,778 
148,224 

23,574 
220,210 
186,735 
208,844 

90,051 
209,330 

54,811 

587,510 
1,602,460 


24,178 
123,448 

18,472 
152,455 
139,690 
161,262 

61,832 
150,501 

27,672 

461,956 
9S0,338 


4,656 
36,027 
13,332 
122,059 
6,558 
117,017 
113,410 
133,232 
36,377 

32,801 
672,757 


2,234 
26,533 

7,967 
68,278 

4,106 
95,160 
73,010 
86,623 
15,632 

24,046 
393,697 


2,600 
24,776 

5,102 
67,755 
47,045 
47,582 
28,219 
58,829 
27,139 

125,554 
622,122 


2,422 
9,494 
5,365 
53,781 
2,452 
21,857 
40,400 
46,609 
20,745 

8,758 
279,060 


10.75 
20.07 
27.62 
44.44 
33.68 
29.51 
45.64 
39.09 
98.07 

27.18 
63.46 


108.42 




35.78 




67.34 




78.77 




59.72 




22.97 




55.33 




53.81 




132.71 


North Central division : 


36.42 




70.88 








352,955 
354,130 
186,794 
157,188 
74,988 
312,802 
163,603 


263,507 
230,130 
111,889 
115,463 

46,370 
131,616 

81,363 


54,612 
101,602 
116,155 
193,431 
49,382 
98,107 
59,468 


28,920 
61,370 
75,661 
121,602 
34,642 
44,629 
26,873 


89,448 
124,000 
74,905 
41,725 
28,618 
181,186 
82,240 


25,692 
40,232 
40,494 
71,829 
14,740 
53,478 
32,595 


33.95 
53.88 
66.95 
36.14 
61.72 
137.66 
101.08 


88.84 








53.52 
59.07 




42 55 




119.83 




121.29 



a Omitting Chinese and Indians. 

b Not including 65,512 (54,880 white, 10,632 colored) enrolled over and under school age, the corresponding figures having evidently heen omitted in IS 



8 SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 

Table 6. — The relative strength of the parochial schools of various communions is manifest in this table. The 
same communions in a similar ratio maintain schools of a higher rank, grouped among the general private schools. 

Table 7. — The census of 1840 tabulated enrollment under colleges and universities, academies and grammar 
schools, primary and common schools, corresponding well with the current grouping of superior, secondary, and 
elementary ; that of 1850 tabulated colleges, public schools, and academies and other schools. 

The classification of schools has been attended with great difficulties. The known facts regarding a school in 
one year are not always a safe guide for judging of its work in another year. Institutions that have taken charters 
in anticipation of giving superior instruction, but which are still doing some work of the most elementary sort, can 
not all be treated as pretenders to a greatness which they do not possess. Institutions now leading in the most 
advanced tuition gave very elementary instruction in their youth, and many incipient colleges in due time will 
leave their preparatory work to others. 

The public high school is presumably a secondary school, but as it is only the advanced department of the 
local group of schools its work is sometimes almost wholly elementary, while in a few cases it laps upon the work 
of the superior schools. 

The classification is now unsatisfactory, but circumstances are rapidly adjusting a plain basis of separation. 
Superior education is discriminated fairly well in the original states. 

In New York a system of university examinations tests all superior and secondary tuition in public and private 
schools that claim its benefits. In Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, 
Nebraska, California, and Texas the university has a growing influence in discriminating true secondary instruction 
in schools which feed it. There is a like tendency in other states. 

The study of algebra or of a language additional to the native tongue may generally be taken to indicate the 
beginning of secondary work. In general terms, superior work would include the work of the standard colleges, 
universities, and advanced professional schools, to which the secondary schools may be regarded as tributary. 

Commercial schools, some chartered, some without charters, are given a separate column from their anomalous 
position, which seems likely to undergo an early improvement, partly by the clearer discrimination of the best 
institutions, partly by changes in schools of general education. 

The classification of this table, limited in accuracy by present conditions, can be greatly bettered as records 
improve and terms are more definitely used among school officers. 

A closer analysis showing the professional schools is in progress for the final report. Illiteracy and related 
details are yet to be considered. 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 9 

Table 6.— PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, BY STATES AND COMMUNIONS, IN THE CENSUS YEAR, REPORTED TO JULY 1, 1891. 

[Subject to revision.] 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


1 

Catholic. 


Lutheran. 


Evangelical . 


Protestant 
Episcopal. 


Reformed 
Episcopal. 


Reformed 
Church of 
America. 


German 
Presby- 
terian. 


Holland 
Christian 
Reformed. 


Mennon- 
ite. 


Mora- 
vian or 
United 
Breth- 
ren. 


Dutch 

Re- 
formed. 


The United States 


737,182 


567,555 


141,388 


15,218 


6,964 


241 


2,190 


1,160 


1,311 


610 


204 


341 


North Atlantic division .. 


272,890 


253,462 


13,716 


1,615 


2,555 


61 


484 


586 






108 














4,015 
5,919 
3,071 

38,240 
6,995 

15,380 
109,522 

27,827 

61,921 

27,534 


4,015 

5,879 

3,071 

38,071 

6,965 

14,808 

98,551 

26,176 

55,926 

23,077 
























40 










































93 

30 

514 

8,293 

776 

3,970 

1,271 










76 
































58 

1,446 

259 

792 

2,808 


















955 




148 

30 

306 


79 
333 
98 

148 
























660 


61 

180 






108 
50 




South Atlantic division.. 






















1,711 
14,288 
3,252 
2,240 
1,519 
1,539 
658 
934 
1,393 

383,587 


1.711 

12,964 

3,050 

1,630 

1,354 

308 

410 

380 

1,270 

243,342 
























760 
53 
107 
130 
183 




564 
149 
503 

35 
998 

68 
491 




















































































50 








180 




















63 

85 

359 












38 
122,463 


















13,235 


554 




1,629 


1,311 


610 


46 










Ohio 


60,552 
20,307 
81,638 
37,328 
65,043 
33,266 
23,099 
33,622 
1,803 
2,179 
9,567 


51,790 
17,467 
52,548 
24,007 
36,797 
14,060 
13,365 
22,921 
245 
641 
3,778 
5,723 

32,270 


8,145 

7,713 

24,203 

11,503 

20,394 

18,305 

8,427 

6,756 

1,535 

1,457 

5,193 

2,832 

3,316 


617 
772 

4,135 
636 

1,133 
738 
903 

3,859 
23 




















99 
212 




256 
229 

73 
565 
109 
116 

68 
















71 


202 
1,109 




















130 
8 
85 




24 
















46 








168 
18 




35 






























20 










61 
45 
469 








200 
159 

368 




213 


78 










9.183 














620 




26 


67 






















13,258 


12,777 
2,312 
747 
2,064 
8,890 
3,764 
1,716 

15,404 


188 
79 

124 

123 
1,213 
1,155 

434 

622 


38 


255 


















2,391 
1,150 
2,237 
10,339 
5,120 
2,172 

16,504 




















279 
50 
















Mississippi 


















169 
161 






67 












14 
22 

427 




26 






























51 






























384 
191 

2,493 
571 
51S 
660 
325 
914 
610 

9,826 


350 
191 

2,410 
571 
518 
383 
325 
672 
499 

9,485 






34 






































83 






























































Utah 


12 




271 




































120 

66 

341 




122 






















51 



















































10 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF EDUCATION. 



Table 7. 



-SCHOOL ENROLLMENT AS SUPERIOR, SECONDARY, ELEMENTARY, AND COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS, 

REPORTED TO JULY 1, 1891. 

[Subject to revision.] 





PUBLIC. 


PRIVATE (INCLUDING PAROCHIAL AND COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS). 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Superior. 


Secondary. 


Elementary. 


Total. 


Superior. 


Secondary. 


Elementary. 


Commercial 
schools. 




12,728,417 


45,840 


277,049 


12,405,528 


1,491,154 


99,565 


277,241 


1,034,382 


79,966 








3,078,829 


15,325 


88,954 


2,974,550 


468,573 


36,268 


72,682 


333,413 


26,210 








140,650 
59,947 
66,720 

373,087 
52,974 

127,303 
1,049,952 

234,964 

973,232 

1,758,384 


837 
134 

1,112 

1,436 
200 
420 

6,141 
266 

4,779 

5,213 


15,299 

3,283 

2,432 

25,476 

1,728 

a4,063 

20,729 

64,147 

611,797 

24,350 


124,514 
56,530 
63,176 

346,175 
51,046 

122,820 
1,023,082 

230,551 

956,656 

1,728,821 


10,536 
10,053 
7,239 
66,423 
10,954 
24,126 

185,764 
43,658 

109,820 

179,111 


1,140 
493 
483 

8,018 
684 

1,939 
12,646 

1,839 

9,026 

12,394 


3,057 
2,097 
2,642 
8,273 
1,608 
2,737 

27,573 
6,308 

18,387 

39,256 


5,288 
7,357 
4,006 

46,518 
7,775 

18,603 
136,354 

33,504 

74,00S 

123,292 


1,051 




106 




108 




3,614 




887 




847 




9,191 




2,007 




8,399 




4,169 








31,434 
185,058 

36,906 
343,970 
194,356 
326,895 
203,980 
314,062 

91,723 

5,022,284 




328 

61,374 

1,767 

C9.124 

dl,773 

382 
C7.210 
61,927 

465 

115,402 


31,106 
182,933 

35,059 
333,442 
191,699 
325,963 
196,343 
341,252 

91,024 

4,888,835 


2,837 
26,879 

8,755 
19,558 

5,067 
40,656 
19,454 
50,143 

5,762 

563,845 


82 

3,359 

1,388 

2,043 

360 

2,090 

997 

2,010 

65 

33,815 


482 
4,394 
2,121 
6,067 
1,293 
10,361 
6,084 
7,087 
1,367 

83,023 


2,273 

17,622 

4,243 

11,043 

2,995 

28,205 

12,373 

40 ; 208 

4,330 

408,152 






751 
80 
1,404 
884 
550 
427 
883 
234 

18,047 


1,504 




1,003 




405 




419 












83S 




38,855 








798,093 
509,355 
781,004 
430,665 
354,675 
284,368 
494,957 
623,071 
35,694 
67,492 
241,446 
401,464 

2,349,614 


391 

1,652 

1,536 

3,345 

2,173 

1,792 

1,690 

2,244 

80 

625 

727 

1,792 

4,539 


36,755 

65,152 

17,902 

16,908 

10,634 

3,711 

53,174 

65,097 

d553 

(Z948 

6,400 

8,168 

40,988 


760,947 
502,551 
761,566 
410,412 
341,868 
278,865 
490,093 
615,730 
35,061 
65,919 
234,319 
391,504 

2,304,087 


99,816 

44,218 

111,193 

48,385 

72,947 

40,779 

43,287 

61,362 

2,402 

3,611 

15.0S5 

20,760 

212,316 


11,001 

2,569 

7,787 

1,571 

S80 

1,034 

2,837 

4,076 

31 

154 

416 

859 

14,381 


18,554 
8,814 

11,287 
4,126 
3,365 
3,579 

11,565 

11,774 

405 

1,010 

1,772 

6,772 

61,627 


61,051 
30,370 
86,535 
38,848 
66,736 
34,217 
25,021 
40,164 
1,891 
2,288 
10,529 
10,502 

129,983 


9,210 
2,465 






5,584 




3,840 




1,966 

1,949 
3,864 








4,748 
75 






159 




2,368 
2,627 

6,325 




South Central division 




408,208 
456,242 
306,350 
351,919 
125,159 
477,320 
e579 
223,837 

519,306 


433 
510 
1,671 
641 
228 
899 


2,098 

982 

966 

697 

1,306 

d32,157 


405,677 
454,750 
303,713 
350,581 
123,625 
444,264 
579 
220.89S 

509,235 


40,559 
49,733 
24,445 
24,164 
28,379 
30,524 
1,203 
13,309 

67,309 


4,043 
3,957 
1,433 
1,152 
1,512 
2,117 


10,082 
17,481 
6,456 
7,006 
6,868 
10,126 
53 
3,555 

20,653 


25,402 
27,253 
16,359 
15,626 
19,269 
15,798 
1,150 
9,126 

39,542 


1,032 
1,042 

197 








380 




730 




2,483 






157 
2,716 


2,782 
7,355 


167 
2,707 


461 




4,407 






16,980 - 
7,134 

66,173 

18,249 
7,861 

36,730 
7,524 

14,311 
903 

55,705 

63,987 
223,749 




127 

133 

1,870 

17 


16,853 
6,962 

64,041 

18,215 
7,833 ' 

36,242 
7,088 

14,311 
903 

55,212 

63,032 
218,543 


1,503 

331 
7,228 
4,984 

987 
10,880 

456 
1,104 

730 
4,371 
4,689 
30,046 


17 


449 

134 
2,338 
1,657 

225 

2,180 

79 

259 


552 

197 

4,101 

3,311 

720 

8,340 

377 

845 

730 

1,634 

2,210 

16,525 


485 




39 
262 
17 
28 
70 
73 






198 
16 


591 








42 


tftah 


418 
363 


277 


S3 
























66 

562 

1,599 


427 

393 

3,607 


66 

364 

1,769 


2,247 
2,031 
9,054 


4'>4 




84 




2,698 





a Partly estimated. 

b Partial reports. 

c Reported studying " higher branches " 



d Including those reported studying either algebra or geometry, 
e In Greer county, claimed by Texas. 



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