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Full text of "Extra census bulletin"

c/ 



CJV9.... 



*MA20I . I'^90.A2^ 



Apr. 1^9 

Auq . 13 




94 



Extra Census Bulletin. 



lo. 24. \VASHlNGTON, D. c. October 10, 1892. 



RAILWAY MILEAGE OF THE WORLD IN 1890. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOE, 

Census Office, 
Washington, D. C, September 26, 1892. 
SiE : 

Ten bulletins, Nos. 46, 115, 120, 149, 151, 155, 160, 164, 171, and 172, have already been issued by this office, 
showing the growth of the railway industry in the United States for the years 1880-1889, inclusive, and in this 
extra bulletin, which has been prepared by Mr. Henry C. Adams, special agent, there is presented a survey of the 
railway mileage of the world in the year 1890. The subject is treated of bj^ text and table, and in the more graphic 
form of diagrams. From this material some extremely interesting facts and figures can be drawn, but the whole 
subject has been so thoroughly condensed that it is scarcely possible to further crystallize the svibstance of the 
bulletin for this letter of transmittal. One or two facts, however, are worth the emphasis of repetition. It is 
worth reiteration, for instance, that out of a total railway mileage for the world of 370,281 miles the United States 
have no less than 163,597 miles, or 44.18 per cent of the whole; and that the railway mileage of the United States 
exceeds by 3,942 miles the entire mileage of the old world, Europe's 136,865 miles, Asia's 18,798 miles, and Africa's 
3,992 miles, making an aggregate of but 159,655 miles. It is no less interesting to note the astonishing growth of 
the railway mileage of the United States from the census year of 1830, when there were less than 40 miles of 
railways, up to 1890. In 1840 the figures were 2,755.18 miles, in 1850 they had risen to 8,571.48 miles, in 1860 the 
total had swelled to 28,919.79 miles ; the census of 1870 showed the mileage to be 49,168.33 miles; that of 1880 
placed the figures at 87,724.08 miles ; while the Eleventh Census figures, as has been shown, give the astonishing 
total of 163,597.05 miles. These are but sample figures of the many valuable and interesting data embraced in the 
present bulletin, all of them tending to show the extensive and valuable nature of the census investigation and 
both the distinctive and relative position of this country as a builder of that civilizing agency, the railroad. 

Very respectfully, 

EOBERT P. PORTEE, 

Superintendent of Census. 
The Secret.^ey of the Interior. 

C.O.P.-Sm 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/extracensusbulle24unit 



RAILWAY MILEAGE OF THE WORLD IN 1890. 



BY HENKY C. ADAMS. 



In this bulletin will be found an exhibit of certain facts pertaining to the status of railway mileage in the 
various countries of the world for the census year 1890, and to the development of railwaj^ mileage in the United 
States since 1830. These facts are presented in the form of tables and of diagrams corresponding to the tables. For 
greater explicitness the railwaj^ mileage of the United States has been classified on a basis of 10 territorial groups 
into which the country has been divided. The boundaries of these groups, which are delineated on a map facing 
the text, may be accepted as official so far as the statistics of railwaj^ transportation are concerned, since they have 
been adopted by the Interstate Commerce Commission as well as by the Census Office. 

The classes of facts contained in the several tables are as follows : 

Table 1 presents a summary of the railwaj- mileage of the world, by countries, for 1890, and shows the number 
of square miles of territory and the length of line per 100 square miles of territory; also the nvimber of inhabitants 
and the length of line per 10,000 inhabitants in each country named. The data presented in this table form the 
basis for 3 diagrams, the first of which exhibits the railwaj^- mileage of the world, the second the number of 
miles of railway per 100 square miles of territory, and the third the number of miles of railway per 10,000 
inhabitants. 

Table 2 shows the railway mileage of the United States by territorial groups for each of the censiis years from 
1 830 to 1890, inclusive. It shows also tlie length of line per 100 square miles of ten-itory and per 10,000 inhabitants 
for each group. The data in this table, like those in the previous one, form the basis for 3 diagrams, the first of 
which shows railway mileage, the second railway mileage per 100 square miles of territory, and the third railway 
mileage per 10,000 inhabitants. In all 3 diagrams these facts are given for each census year from 1830 to 1890, 
inclusive, and by territorial groups. 

Table 3 exhibits the railway mileage of the United States, by years, from 1880 to 1890, inclusive, and by 
territorial groups. The data which it contains form the basis for the last diagram. 

It will not be inappropriate to saj^ a word by way of introduction respecting the nature of the influences 
exerted by railways on the character and development of nineteenth century civilization. Their commercial 
importance has always been recognized, but bej'ond commerce, or perhaps better stated, through the medium of 
commei'ce. railways are the source of social and political influences far reaching in their results. A few of these 
results are here siiggested : 

MIGRATIONS ARE NO LONGER DEPENDENT ON WATER TRANSPORTATION. 
Nothing is more distinctive of the character of a country than the fact of migration within its borders and the 
direction which that migration takes. It is no accident that the earliest civilization sprang up in and about the 
estuaries of the sea and that the highest civilization should have found its home in Europe rather than in Asia 
or Africa, the coast line of the European continent, as compared with its area, being i-elatively much greater. The 
course of migrations and consequently the limit of settlements in new countries are laid down by nature and are 
confined to coast lines and to the banks of navigable streams ; but with the development of steam transportation 
the best lands rather than physiographic features determine the course of settlements. This is a tact of great 
importance in the development of the United States, since it shows that without railways immense tracts could not 
have been settled for years to come. 

GREAT INDUSTRIES ARE RENDERED POSSIBLE BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF RAILWAYS. 
The first step in the transition from the old system of handwork to the modern factory system of production 
was the invention of textile machinery which began about 1760; but the possible growth of any particular 
factory was for 80 years, in all countries which did not enjoy a foreign commerce, limited by the narrow circle 
of consumers which a factory could supply ; that is to say, a restricted market necessitated the diffusion of 
manufacturing centers and obstructed concentration of capital in manufacturing. The extension of the market, on 
the other hand, rendered possible by the development of railways, tended to create great manufacturing centers and 
invited a concentration of capital. Thus the full effect of textile inventions, and, indeed, of all inventions previous 



4 RAILWAY ]SIILEAGE OF THE WORLD. 

to ISiO, was not felt until cheapened goods could be distributed by rapid and clieap transportation. Railways are 
thus directly responsible for all those social and industrial problems which conft-ont society on account of 
concentration of capital. 

LAND VALUES HAVE BEEN DISTRIBUTED BY MEANS OF RAILWAYS. 

Without discussing the theorj- of land values it maj' be proper to refer to what every one recognizes on a 
moment's reflection, that a rise in the value of land newly opened to agriculture is partly at the expense of land 
values in older agricultural districts, and that a rise in the value of real estate in growing cities is in manj^ cases 
counterbalanced by a fall in the real estate values of less successful rivals. This diffusion of values is due to the 
development of railways which, so far as commerce is concerned, annihilates distance and overcomes the natural 
barriers to competition which distance imposes. Xo fact could be mentioned showing more vividly the far reaching 
results of railway transportation. It is of special importance to the L'nited States since it explains why agricultural 
depression always makes its appearance in portions of the countrj- under rude cultivation when the margin of 
cultivation is pushed yet farther out by the reclaiming of wild lands. Part of the value of the cultivated land is 
placed to the credit of the newest settlement by this universal leveler, the railway. 

THE JIARCrlN OF SPECULATION IN PRODUCTS IS NARROWED BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF RAILWAYS. 

Could a perfect market be established the margin of speculation in products would be so far narrowed that 
dealers could secure only a legitimate return for their service. The elements composing a jjcrfect market are a 
knowledge of the conditions of production and consumption, facilities for transmitting such knowledge to all parts 
of the country, or of the world, and facilities for transporting rapidly and cheaply the sui-plus of one territory to 
supply the deficiency of another. This third element is supplied by railways, and one might naturally expect 
what, indeed, the statistics of prices clearly indicate, that wholesale prices have come to be more uniform and more 
stead}' since the development of railways. Thus, while the area of speculation may have been expanded, the 
margin of speculation has been contracted in a remarkable degree, a fact which suggests one of the most important 
of the commercial results of the development of steam transportation. 

ilany other social and industrial results might be specificallj- mentioned. The exercise of stable government 
from a single center over a country so large as the United States would not have been possible without modern 
methods of communication : the extreme application of the principal of division of labor, which is a most important 
cause of cheapness in products, would not have been feasible except through the establishment of an extended 
market ; the crystallization of public opinion on any national question is greatly facilitated by the fact of increased 
interdependence resulting from constant intercommunication ; indeed, since the introduction of railways, all the.se 
forces which tend toward the welding of society into an organic unity have exerted an influence more positive and 
apparent than ever before in the historj' of the world. 

Such suggestions as the above, if followed out to their legitimate conclusions, must lead to a more satisfactory 
appreciation of the statistics pi-esented in this bulletin. The truth is that industrially, socially, politically, 
religioush', and philosophically considered the world is different from what it would have been were it not for the 
agency of railways, and this fact must be held in mind in comparing the extent of railway mileage in the various 
countries of the world. 

COMMENTS ON TABLE 1 AND ON THE DIAGRAMS CORRESPONDING TO IT. 

In considering the railway mileage of the world the first fact worthy of notice is that Xorth America and 
Europe show -319.802 miles of line as against a total of 370.281 miles in the entire world. This suggests that the 
latest phase of industrial advancement, as represented by the nineteenth century, is peculiar to peoples of christian 
civilization, a fact which is further emphasized by noticing that railway mileage in Asia. South America, Australia, 
and Africa has, for the most part, been built by settlers from European countries. 

Another fact which stands forth clearlj' in comparing the railway mileage in the various countries of the world 
is that English speaking people are responsible for a larger share of railwaj- mileage than all other peoples combined. 
This is especially emphasized by turning to the diagram which shows the number of miles of line per 10,000 
inhabitants, from which it appears that West Australia, South Australia, Queensland, Canada, Xew Zealand, and 
the United States are the first 6 counti'ies on the list. It is no argument against this assertion to find that Great 
Britain and Ireland have fallen below Germany, Belgium, Denmark, and France, for it must be remembered that 
in addition to railway transportation Great Britain supports an immense coastwise ti-ade in comparison with which 
the coastwise trade of these other countries is insignificant. The fact certainly warrants the assertion that English 
speaking people easily take the lead in that peculiar commercial civilization which rests upon transportation by 
steam and explains why, in a commercial civilization, the English tongue is the one most extensively used. 

A further fact of importance is that out of a total of 370,281 miles of railway in the world l(i3,oil7 lie within 
the United States. This taken in connection with the complicated conditions under which railways in tliis country 



RAILWAY MILEAGE OF THE WORLD. 5 

exist is ample justification of the assertion tliat the railway problem is one of peculiar importance in this country, 
and that other countries are uniting to see what maj^ be its solution here. In comparing this country with other 
countries of the same grade of advancement, however, the great difference in condition must be held in mind. 
The problem in the United States has been to reclaim territory for settlement, while in other countries it has been 
to provide territory already settled with facilities of transportation ; subsidies offered by Congress have been in the 
form of lands which have cost Congress nothing ; in other countries subsidies have occasioned taxation ; in the 
United States railroad building has been under no restraint and according to no policy; in manj^ other countries 
a well formed national policy has held railroad building in check. Tlie problem of how much railway mileage a 
country needs has never been worked out, but is vividly presented by data contained in the first table. 

COMMENTS ON TABLE 2 AND THE DIAGRAMS CORRESPONDING TO IT. 

This table, which gives the growth of mileage in the United States by census years from 18.30 to 1890, inclusive, 
is of especial interest. In 1830 the railway system existed, for the most part, in the minds of inventors. It was 
not at this early. date admitted by engineers that railways could ever become of primary importance. They were 
regarded as advantageous because they provided a means of transportation where canals were not feasible, and it 
was not until 1840 that the idea was fully grasped that railways would ever become more than adjuncts to a canal 
system. 

It is further interesting to notice that between 1830 and 1845 it was the accepted policy of man}' of the states 
to build and manage both railways and canals, and it was not until state governments, on account of the many 
financial disasters which they sustained, had receded from this field of activitj' that the work was handed over to 
corporations. It was about this time that corporations began that wonderful development which has caused them 
to become a most important factor in American life. 

Certain interesting facts present themselves if we observe the periods during which railwaj^ building has been 
most intense in the various groups. In Group I, that is to say, the New England states, railwaj^ building had, as 
earl}' as 1860, reached 3,644 miles, or more than half of its present mileage, and more mileage was built between 
1 840 and 1850 than during any subsequent decade. It would seem that Group II, which includes the states of 
ISTew York and Pennsylvania, would have been subjected to the same influences, but it is observed, by turning to 
the table, that railway mileage iu this group continued to increase with about equal rapidity during each decade 
since 1850. This is doubtless due to the fact that on account of the situation of these states it was found necessary 
for them to pi'ovide not alone for local traffic, as in the case of New England, but for transcontinental traffic seeking 
an outlet to foreign countries. The same necessity explains the abnormallj' large amount of railway line in Group 
III, Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana, which contains the great trunk lines running east from Chicago. This impression 
is strengthened by turning to the diagram which shows the railway mileage per 100 square miles of territory, from 
which it appears that Groups II and III are far in excess of any of the other groups in the United States. 

Groups IV, Y, and IX embrace what are usually called the southern and gulf states, and it is interesting to 
notice that since 1830 there have been two decades of peculiar activity in railwaj' building. The first of these is 
the decade from 1850 to 1860, and the second the decade from 1880 to 1890. The 20 years intervening between 
1860 and 1880 do not show much activity in railway building. This is certainly interesting since it indicates that 
the war arrested a period of development in internal improvements and that that development has been again 
taken up during the last 10 years. 

Groups YI, YII, and YIII cover a territory which seems to be tributary to the cities of Chicago and St. Louis, 
and the figures pertaining to railway building indicate a remai-kable development during the last 30 years, a 
development which has been increasing iu intensity with each succeeding decade. Railway building in Group YI, 
which embraces the territory immediately adjacent to Chicago, is without a parallel. Thus, in 1870, the railwaj' 
mileage in this group amounted to 9,705.42 miles ; in 1890 it amounted to 37,463.44 miles. A glance at the 
diagrams also shows that notwithstanding the fact that this territory is for the most part devoted to agriculture 
the number of miles of line per 100 square miles of territory and the number of miles of line per 10,000 
inhabitants compare very favorably with other groups. 

From the figures contained in Table 2 one may learn what experience thus far indicates as the average amount 
of railway needed by the American people. For the United States as a whole it appears that there are 26.66 miles 
of line for each 10,000 inhabitants, and a glance at the diagrams shows that not- only has the actual mileage 
increased from decade to decade, but that railway mileage has increased much more rapidly than population. 
There seems to be no tendency, so far as evidenced bj' the data here presented, toward an arrest of the continuallj' 
increasing demand made by the American people on railways. As compared with Europe the demand made in 
this country for railway facilities is excessive in the extreme. Thus, as against 26.66 miles of line per 10,000 
inhabitants in the United States, Europe shows but 3.84 miles per 10,000 inhabitants. This is of course largely 
due to the density of population in Europe as compared with the diffusion of population in this country; but that 
the difference is not fully accounted for in this manner is shown by the fact that the United States -supports 5.51 



RAILWAY MILEIAGE OF THE WORLD.- 

miles of liue per 100 square miles of territorjr as against 3.62 miles of Hue per 100 square miles of territory in 
Europe. A comparison of the various countries of Europe itself, however, which may be made by referring to 
Table 1, shows the greatest divergence of conditions. 

COMMENTS ON TABLE 3 AND THE DIAGRAMS CORRESPONDING TO IT. 
A full discussion of the facts of railway building in the United States from 1880 to 1890 would require an 
analysis of the commercial history of the United States during the period named. As the Census Office has collected 
financial and operating statistics of railways from 1880 to 1890, inclusive, that analysis will not be anticipated 
in this bulletin. There are, however, one or two significant facts suggested by the increase in railway mileage in 
the various territorial groups into which the country is divided. Railway building in the New England group 
seems to have been steady and regular throughout the 10 years. In Groups IV and V, which comprise the 
southern states east of the Mississippi river, while railway building has been rapid it is not observed to have 
fluctuated in any very marked degree from year to year. In Groups II and III, which comprise territory through 
which the trunk lines east of Chicago run, the chief addition to railway mileage was in 1882 and 1S83. This, as is 
well known, resulted from the period of speculation and from the building of certain great lines with the ]:)urpose 
of entering into competition with the established trunk lines so as to partake in the profit of through traffic. The 
pi'incipal railway building in Groups VI, VII, and VIII, taken together, occurred in 1887, and was the result in 
large measure of the purpose of certain great lines centering in Chicago to gain control over territory which it was 
known must ultimatelj^ provide a large portion of traffic. With the exception of this speculative building in 1882 
and 1887 the development of railway mileage in the United States during the last 10 years seems to have been 
normal and healthy. It certainly indicates an energy on the part of the American people and a control over 
capital which is characteristic of this country in all lines of activitJ^ With the possible exception of the New 
England group there appears to be no tendency toward an arrest of this phenomenal development. 



RAILWAY MILEAGE OF THE A¥ORLD. 
Table l.^SUMMARY OF RAILWAY MILEAGE OF THE WORLD, BY COUNTRIES, FOR 1890. 



COUNTRIES. 



Europe.. 



Length of line, 
(Miles.) 



Germany 

Austria and Hungary, including Bosnia . 

Great Britain and Ireland 

France 

Russia, including Finland 

Italy 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Portugal 

Denmark 

Norway 

Sweden 

Serv 



25,969 
16.467 
19,939 



8,117 
3,215 
1,887 
1,929 
6,127 
1,280 
1,223 
971 
4,915 



Roumania 

Greece 

Turkey in Europe, Bulga 
Malta, Jersey, and Man.. 



North America.. 



United States 

British America (Canada) 

Newfoundland 

Central America (Guatemala, Salvador, Costa Rit 

Honduras). 
Mexico 



South America.. 



United States of Colombia 

Cuba 

Venezuela 

Republic of Santo Domingo (eastern part of the island of Haiti).. 

Porto Rico 

Brazil 

Argentine Republic 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 

Chile 

Peru 

Bolivia 

Ecuador 

British Guiana 



Square miles of 
territory. 



Length of liiu 

per 100 
square miles 
of territory. 



208,672 
261,206 
121,436 
204,155 
!, 080, 540 
114,372 
11, .387 
13,742 
15,942 
198,404 
34,315 
14,784 
125,604 
173,9.32 
18,760 
49,254 
24,974 
106,034 



172,117 
751,349 



464,397 

45,857 

594,208 

17,417 

3,706 

3,218,1.59 

1,076,708 

97,097 

72,143 

299,536 

405,030 

515,001 

115,646 

85,383 



16.42 
11.06 
0.90 
7.10 
28.23 
13.73 
12.10 
3.09 
3.73 
8.27 
0.77 
2.83 
1.74 
3.21 
1.76 
1.03 
16.00 



0.43 
0,27 
0,32 

0,71 



0.07 
0.41 
0,30 
0,18 
0,4S 
0,15 
0,65 
0,R4 
0,25 
0,02 
0,14 
0,03 



356,526,000 

48,512,000 
42,087,000 
38,584,000 
38,219,000 
96,000,000 
30.947,000 
6,094,000 
4,762,000 
2,934,000 
17,545,000 
4,307,000 
2,172,000 
1,978,000 
4,774,000 
2,096,000 
5,.<i76,000 
2,187,000 
7,641,000 
311,000 



Length of 

line per 

10,000 

inhabitants. 



a62,947,714 

4,390.000 

198,000 

2,900,000 



36,401,000 



5.17 
5.91 
1.95 
2.62 
5.28 
3.96 
6.57 
3,49 
2,97 
5,63 
4.91 
10.30 
1.56 
2,94 
2,01 
1.44 
2.19 



25.90 
30.35 
5.81 
1.93 



4,000,000 

1,522,000 

2,239,000 

610,000 

785,000 

14,602,000 

3,808,000 

330,000 

687,000 

2,715,000 

2,6.30,000 

1,190,000 

1,005,000 

278,000 



0.58 
6.94 
1.97 
1.16 

0,14 
3,96 
13,47 
4,62 
6,84 
7,09 
3,78 
0,89 
1,66 
0,79 



4,105,380 



British India 

Ceylon 

Russia (Transcaspian district) , 

Persia 

Dutch (East India) 

Japan 

China (proper) 

Cochin China and Pondichery . 



Algiers and Tunis 

Cape Colony 

Natal 

South African Republii 



New Zealand 

Victoria 

New South Wales... 

South Australia 

Queensland 

Tasmania 

Western Australia.. 



2,252 
1,757 
2,063 



1,455,066 
21,743 
214,191 
636,205 
50,836 
147,606 
1,553,534 
23,199 



1,09 
0,73 
0,42 



1,57 
0,61 
0,01 
0.22 



104,220 
87,854 
309,070 
903,163 
668,050 
26,364 
975,615 



RECAPITULATION. 



0.84 
0.82 
1 25 
0.04 



255,648,000 
2,863,000 
4.30,000 
8,000,000 
21,998,000 
39,607,000 
381 ,.555,000 
2,017,000 



5,317,000 

1,377,000 

481,000 

610,000 



0,73 
0,19 
0,31 
1.42 
0.05 



662,000 
1,118,000 
1,122,000 
324,000 
407,000 
151,000 
44,000 



0.62 
0.63 
20,70 
0,01 
0,36 
0.23 



0,26 
5.13 

3.62 
12,96 
4,86 
0,82 

29.09 



28.78 
20.47 
20.07 
54.23 
50,69 
24,83 
112,95 





370,281 


25,576,362 


1.45 


1,198,694,714 


3.09 




Europe 


136,865 
182,937 
16,552 
18,798 
3,992 
11,137 


3,777,938 
7,020,606 
7,010,918 
4,105,380 
587,184 
3,074,336 


3,62 
2,61 
0,24 
0,46 
0,68 
0.36 


356,526,000 
82,036,714 
36,401,000 
712,118,000 
7,785,000 
3,828,000 


3.84 
22.30 
4.55 
0.26 
5.13 
29.09 




Asia 

Africa 

Australia 



I Including; Indians not taxed. 



RAILWAY MILEAGE OF THE WORLD. 



Table 3.— RAILWAY MILEAGE IN THE UNITED STATES FOE CENSUS YEARS 1830 TO 1890, INCLUSIVE, ASSIGNED TO 
TERRITORY AND TO POPULATION AND BY TERRITORIAL GROUPS. 





1890 


1880 


1870 


1860 


1850 


1840 


1830 


Total for entire country : 


163,597.05 
86.49 
5.51 
26.66 


87,724.08 
78.42 
2.95 
17.49 


49,168.33 
70.02 
1.66 
12.75 


28,919.79 

237.40 

0.97 

9.20 


8,571.48 

211.10 

0.29 

3.71 


2,755.18 

6,822.56 

0.13 

1.61 


39.80 






Line per 100 square miles of territory 




0.03 






Group I : 


6,877.67 
17.25 
11.15 
14.71 


5,865.81 
35.57 
9.46 
14.63 


4,326.73 
18.73 
6. 98 
12.40 


3,614.24 
40.40 
5.88 
11.63 


2,595.57 

405.62 

4.19 

9.51 


513.34 








J er cent ol increase..... -toi v 


0.75 
2.30 




Line per 10,000 inhabitants ." 





Group II: 

Number of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory.. 
Line per 10,000 inhabitants 



Group III: 

Nunaber of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory.. 
Line per 10,000 inhabitants 



Group IV : 

Number of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory.. 
Line per 10,000 inhabitants 



Group V : 

Number of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory.. 
Line per 10,000 Inhabitants 



Group VI : 

Number of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory. 
Line per 10,000 inhabitants 



Gro\ip VII: 

Numtier of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory .. 
Line per 10,000 inhabitants 



Gi 



oupVlII: 

Number of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory. 
Line per 10,000 inhabitants 



Group IX: 

Numl)er of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory .. 
Line per 10,000 inhabitants 

Group X: 

Number of miles of line 

Per cent of increase 

Line per 100 square miles of territory.. 
Line per 10,000 inhabitants 



18,613.82 
30.67 
17.51 
13.53 



21,718.27 
51.80 
20.93 
26.60 



18,635.09 

117.51 

6.36 

21.52 



219.62 
2.35 
68.65 



9,854.18 

224.04 

2.59 

28.56 



12,160.37 

177.11 

1.61 

52.28 



4,691.42 
55.69 
3.27 
10.36 



22,475.27 

131.57 

5.89 

28,92 



7,600.38 
91.93 
2.14 



178.09 
0.58 
30.51 



66.41 
9.. 38 
10.40 



3,013.33 
13.69 
2.10 
8.75 



7,596.27 
44.49 
2.59 
13.15 



3,9.59.93 

503.40 

1.12 

19.. 33 



1,577.98 

7,105.39 

0.21 

18.28 



5,992.77 

120.12 

5.64 

7.39 



5,934.44 

483.02 

5.72 



2,650.37 

176.53 

1.85 



3,993.64 
1.14 
11.56 



2,722.48 

111.70 

2.56 

4.22 



958.43 
47.32 
0.67 
3.24 



1,123.64 

1,195.26 

0.38 

2.58 



1,286.00 

4,215.44 

1.17 

2.68 



650.58 

6,405.80 

0.45 



10.00 
""6'.'6i 



















22 














46.48 

121.00 

0.01 

0.00 


20 75 








10 


005 
59 




2.79 





KAILWAY MILEAGP: OF THE WORLD. !t 

Table 3.— RAILWAY MILEAGE IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1890 TO 1880, INCLUSIVE, BY TERRITORIAL GROUPS. 



Total for entire c( 
Number of 
Per cent of 



Group 1 ; 

Number of miles of line.. 
Per cent of increase 



Group II : 

Number of miles of line... 
Per cent of increase 



Group III : 

Number of miles of line- 
Per cent of increase 



Group IV : 

Number of miles of line.. 
Per cent of increase 



Group V : 

Number of miles of line 18,635.09 

Per cent of increase 9.76 

Group VI : 

Number of miles of line 37,463.44 

Per cent of increase 3.07 



Group VII : 

Number of miles of line.. 
Per cent of i 



Group VIII : 

Number of miles of line ' 20,355.20 

Per cent of increase 2.75 

Group IX : , 

Number of miles of line 9,854.18 

Per cent of increase 6.67 | 

Group X : 

Number of milesof line 12,160.37 

Per cent of increase I 4.77 



5.36 
11,002.13 



142,637.53 1 130,760.23 125,182.58 : 121,794.22 I 116,851.31 106,869.97 95,435.66 87,724.08 

9.08 4.46 ; 2.78 4.23 9.34 11.98 8.79 

6,462.03 6, .308. 12 6,252.51 6,222.15 6,172.75 6,113.19 5,991.79 5.865.81 

2.44 0.89 0.49 0.80 0.99 2.01 2.15 

17,653.78 ! 17,444.19 17,248.39 17,084.79 16,539.33 15,516.03 11,669.55 14,245.06 

1.20 1.14 0.96 3.30 6.60 5.77 2.98 

20,672.70 20,316.97 19,982.20 19,582.04 19,345.41 16,407.85 15,206.76 14,307.34 

1.75 1.68 2.04 1.22 17.90 7.90 6.29 

7,243.99 6,605.90 6,331.90 6,302.40 5,947.97 5,549.67 5,211.01 4,691.42 

9.66 4.33 0.47 5.96 7.18 6. .50 11.08 

14,350.13' 13.641.86 12,9.54.60 12, 042. ,31 11,075.96 10,098.81 9,011.99 8, .567. 61 

5.19 5.31 7.58 8.72 9.68 12.06 5.19 

33,055.42 31,427.87 29,400.80 23,224.85 28,278.00 26,984.21 21,580.33 22,475.27 

5.18 6.89 0.60 3.35 4.79 9.78 9.37 

7,210.67 5,513.71 4,768.97 4,429.76 3,722.80 3,2.55.27 2,714.19 2,541.90 

30.78 15.62 7.66 18.99 14.36 19.94 6.78 

17,172.68 12,351.24 ' 11,748.32 11,614.73 11,333.53 10,017.98 8,807.31 7,600.38 

.39.04 I 5.13 ' 1.15 2.48 13.13 ' 13.75 15.88 

8,599.71 7,672.65 7,305.99 6,874.77 6,762.81 6,526.75 4,001.11 3,041.04 

12.08 5.02 6.27 1.66 3.62 63.12 31. .57 

10,216.42 9,477.72 9,188.90 8,416.36 7,672.75 6,401.21 5,241.62 4,388.25 

7.79 3.14 9.18 9.69 19.86 22.12 19.45 i 



m