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*HA20I . I^90.A2 



Apr. IB92 
^ Aua. IB94 




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Extra Census Bulletin. 



lo. 41. WASHINGTON, D. c. April 18, 1893. 



STATISTICS OF FARMS, HOMES, AND MORTGAGES. 

OWNERSHIP AND DEBT IN CONNECTICUT. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTEEIOR, 

Census Office, 
Washington, D. C, April 3, 1893. 
Sik: 

The leading results of the investigation of farm and home proprietorship in Connecticut are contained in 
this bulletin. In regard to farms, the conclusion is that 17.68 per cent of the farm families hire and 82.32 per cent 
own the farms cultivated by them; that 31.10 per cent of the farm owning families own subject to incumbrance and 
68.90 per cent own free of incumbrance. Among 100 farm families, 18 hire their farms, 25 own with incumbrance, 
and .57 without incumbrance. On the owned farms of this state there are liens amounting to $8,567,786, which 
is 40.6-1: per cent of their value, and this debt bears interest at the average rate of 6.57 per cent, making the 
average annual interest charge $70 to each family. Each owned and incumbered farm, on the average, is worth 
$3,115, and is subject to a debt of $1,266. 

The cori-esponding facts for homes are that 66.15 per cent of the home families hire and 33.85 per cent own 
their homes ; that of the home owning families 53.93 per cent own free of incumbrance and 46.07 per cent with 
incumbrance. In 100 home families, on the average, 66 hire their homes, 16 own with incumbrance, and 18 
without incumbrance. The debt on owned homes aggregates $36,835,059, or 43.14 per cent of their value, and bears 
interest at the average rate of 5.45 per cent, so that the annual amount of interest to each home averages $92. An 
average debt of $1,694 incumbers each home, which has the average value of $3,926. 

There are 17 cities and towns in the state in the class of those having a population of 8,000 to 100,000, and in 
these cities 71.30 per cent of the home families hire and 28.70 per cent own their homes, and of the home owning 
families 51.41 per cent own with incumbrance and 48.59 per cent own free of incumbrance. In 100 home families, 
on the average, are found 71 that hire their homes, 15 that own with incumbrance, and 14 that own without 
incumbrance. The liens on the owned homes are 43.58 per cent of the value of those subject to lien. Several 
averages show that the rate of interest is 5.38 per cent ; value of each owned and incumbered home, $4,903 ; lien 
on the same, $2,137, and yearly interest charge on each home, $115. 

Real estate purchase and improvements, when not associated with other objects, caused 80.02 per cent of the 
farm families to incur 80.00 per cent of the farm debt and 83.55 per cent of the home families to incur 81.96 per 

cent of the home debt. 

Very respectfully, 

ROBERT P. PORTER, 

SujKrintendent of Census. 

I The Secketary of the Interior. 
C. O. P.-3,500 
I 



STATISTICS OF FARiMS, HOMES, Xm) MORTGAGES. 

OWNERSHIP AND DEBT IN CONNECTICUT. 



liY (JEOKGE K. HOLMES AKD JOHN S. I.OliD. 



Selections from the results of the investigation of farm and home proprietorship and indebtedness in Connecticut 
are presented in this bulletin. Every family in the state is regarded as occupying a farm or a home not a fai-m, 
and as hiring such farm or home, or owning it free of incumbrance, or owning it subject to incumbrance. In the 
class last named account has been taken of the incumbrance, its rate of interest and object, and the value of the 
farm or home. 

Habitation pkoprietoeship. — Among the 165,890 families of the state there are 96,915, or 58.42 per cent of 
the total, which hire their farms or homes and 68,975, or 41.58 per cent, which own them. Of the families 
which own, 28,518, or 41. -35 per cent, have farm or home incumbrance and 40,457, or 58.65 per cent, are free of 
incumbrance. In 100 families, on the average, 58.42 hire their farms or homes, 17.19 own with incumbrance, and 
24.39 own without incumbrance. 

Farm peoprietoeship — There are 26,439 farm families in Connecticut, which are 15.94 per cent of the total 
number of families. Of these 21,765, or 82.32 per cent, own and 4,674, or 17.68 per cent, hire the farms cultivated 
by them, while of the owning families 6,769, or 31.10 per cent, have incumbrance on their farms, and 14,996, or 
68.90 per cent, have no incumbrance. The average 100 farm I'amilies are composed of 17.68 that hire, 25.60 that 
own with incumbrance, and 56.72 that own without incumbrance. 

In 1880 10.22 per cent of the farms were hired, so that there is an apparent relative increase of farm tenancy 
during the decade ; but the sources of the statistics for 1880 and 1890 are not the same, since the figures for 1880 
represent farms and those fen" 1890 farm families, and this maj^ somewhat affect the comparison. 

Home peoprietoeship. — The 139,451 home families are 84.06 per cent of the families of the state, and are 
divided into the several classes as follows : hiring families, 92,241, or 66.15 per cent of the total number of home 
families ; owning families, 47,210, or 33.85 per cent; families owning free of incumbrance, 25,461, or 53.93 per cent 
of the total number owning; families owning subject to incumbrance, 21,749, or 46.07 per cent of the owning 
families. Of 100 home families, on the average, 66.15 hire their homes, 15.69 own with incumbrance, and 18.26 own 
without incumbrance. 

City homes are hired in a greater degree than is found outside of cities. In the 17 cities and towns of the state 
having a population of 8,000 to 100,000 there are 81,253 home families, of which 57,932, or 71.30 per cent, hire and 
23,321, or 28.70 per cent, own their homes. Homes subject to incumbrance are occupied by 11,990 owning families, 
or 51.41 per cent of the total owning families, and 11,331 families, or 48.59 per cent of the owning families, have 
no home incumbrance. In 100 of these city home families, on the average, 71.30 hire their homes, 14.76 own with 
incumbrance, and 13.94 own without incumbrance. 

In Hartford 80.06 per cent of the home families hire their homes, and this is the largest percentage found 
among the 17 cities and towns. Bridgeport comes next, with 75.52 per cent. The smallest percentage is 53.01 for 
Greenwich, and next to this is 59.77 for Norwalk. 

In the state outside of the 17 cities and towns referred to 58.95 per cent of the home families hire and 41.05 
per cent own their homes, 40.85 per cent of the home owning families own with incumbrance and 59.15 per cent 
without incumbrance, while among 100 home families, on the average, 58.95 hire their homes, 16.77 own subject to 
incumbrance, and 24.28 own free of incumbrance. 

Value and incumbeance. — Liens amounting to 145,402,845 incumber the 28,518 owned farms and homes of the 
state tliat are subject to incumbrance, $8,567,786 of which is on 6,769 farms and $36,835,059 on 21,749 homes. The 
value of the incumbered farms and homes is $106,474,796 :■ farms, $21,084,5.59 ; homes, $85,390,237. Ratios of debt 
to value: farms and homes, 42.64 per cent; farms, 40.64 per cent; homes, 43.14 per cent. 

A debt of $25,621,524 incumbers 11,990 owned homes of the 17 cities and towns containing a population of 
8,000 to 100,000, and these incumbered homes are worth $58,787,706, so that the debt is 43.58 per cent of the value. 
The debt incumbering the owned homes in the state outside of the 17 cities and towns is 42.15 per cent of the value 
of the homes subject to the incumbrance. 

41—2 S 



FARMS, HOMES, AND MORTGAGES. 



Average values and incumbeances. — The average owned and incumbered farm of the state is worth $3,115; 
home, §3,926; of each home in the 17 cities and towns, $4,903. 

The average farm incumbrance for tlie state is $1,266 ; home, $1,691 ; liome incumbrance in the 17 cities and 
towns, $2,137. Hartford county has homes of the highest average value, namely, $1,401, and the least average 
value, $2,429, is in Middlesex count}'. In the state outside of the 17 cities and towns the average home value is 
$2,726; incumbrance, $1,149. As before stated, all values are confined to incumbered farms and homes occupied by 
ownei's. 

Interest rates. — The chief rate of interest in this state, in regard to number of mortgages, is 6 per cent. 
This rate is paid on 54.89 per cent of the farm incumbrance by 63.70 per cent of the farm debtor families; on 41.90 
per cent of the home incumbrance by 55.03 per cent of the home debtor families, and in the 17 cities and towns on 
34.55 per cent of the home incumbi-ance by 45.70 per cent of the families occupying owned and incumbered homes. 
These percentages are contained in the following table, and the facts from which they were computed are exhibited 
in Table 3: 

PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES OCCUPYING OWNED AND INCUMBERED FARMS AND HOMES 
AND OF AMOUNT OF INCUMBRANCE THEREON, BY RATES OF INTEREST. 



; OK INTEREST. 



Under 6 per cent 

6 per cent 

7 percent 

8 per cent 

6 to 8 per cent, in 
Over 6 per cent... 
Over 8 per cent... 
Over 10 per cent.. 
Over 12 per cent.. 



For num- 
ber of 
families. 



35.21 
63.70 
0.36 
0.04 
64.72 
1.09 
0.07 
0.05 
0.03 



For 
amount. 



43.73 
54.89 
0.49 
0.07 
56.23 
1.38 
0.04 
0.04 
0.03 



44.09 
55.03 
0.40 
0.08 
55.84 
0.8S 
0.07 



57.31 
41.90 
0.24 
0.10 
42.6.T 
0.79 
0.04 
O.Ol 
0.01 



FOR HOMES IK 

lES OF 8,000 TO 
100,000 PEOl'LB. 




Rates that are less than the principal state rate of 6 per cent are paid by 35.2 L per cent of the farm debtor 
families on 43.73 per cent of the farm debt; by 44.09 per cent of the home debtor families on 57.31 per cent of the 
home debt; in the 17 cities and towns by 53.52 per cent of the home debtor families on 64.73 per cent of the home 
debt. 

In the state, rates higher than 6 per cent are paid by 1.09 per cent of the farm debtor families on 1.38 per cent 
of the farm debt; by 0.88 of 1 per cent of the home debtor families on 0.79 of 1 per cent of the home debt; in the 
17 cities and towns by 0.78 of 1 per cent of the home debtor families on 0.72 of 1 per cent of the home debt. 

The highest rate reported is 20 per cent, which is paid by one home family on a debt of $1,453. 

The legislature of Connecticut has limited the rate of interest as follows in the years named: 1702, 6 per cent; 
1872, no limit; 1873, 7 per cent; 1877, no limit. 

Interest charge and average rates of interest. — The total interest charge for 1 year on the debt 
incumbering the owned farms of the state is $477,009; on the liomes, $2,008,090; total, $2,485,099. 

The average interest charge for 1 year on each farm is $70; home, $92; on each home in the 17 cities and 
towns, $115. 

On farm loans the average rate of interest is 5.57 per cent; on home loans, 5.45 per cent ; on home loans in the 
17 cities and towns, 5.38 per cent. Hence the average annual interest value of each owned and incumbered farm 
in this state is $174; of each home, $214; of each home in the 17 cities and towns, $264. Outside of the 17 cities 
and towns the average annual interest charge on each home is $65; average rate, 5.62 jjer cent; average annual 
interest value, $153. 

Objects op indebtedness. — Investigation of the reasons why farm and home indebtedness was incurred 
discloses the fact that 80.02 per cent of the farm debtor families of the state incurred 80.00 per cent of the farm 
debt for the purpose of buying real estate and making real estate improvements, when these objects were not 
associated with other objects, and that for the same objects, in the case of homes, 83.55 per cent of the home debtor 
families incurred 81.96 per cent of the home debt; in the 17 cities and towns tliat 84.22 per cent of the liome debtor 
families incurred 82.56 per cent of the home debt. 



OWNERSHIP AND DEBT IN CONNECTICUT. 5 

The objects of real estate purcluise and improvements, business, and the purchase of personal property, when 
not complicated with other objects, led 86.82 per cent of the farm debtor families of the state to incur 88.32 per 
cent of the farm debt; 91.42 per cent of the home debtor families to incur 93.87 per cent of the home debt; 92.28 
per cent of the home debtor families in the 17 cities and towns to incur 94.52 per cent of the home debt. 

Farm and family expenses, standing alone, are represented by 5.07 per cent of the farm debtor families of the 
state and 2.73 per cent of the farm debt; family expenses by 4.25 per cent of the home debtor families and 2.09 per 
cent of the home debt ; family expenses in the 17 cities and towns by 3.79 per cent of the home debtor families and 
1.79 per cent of the home debt. 

Table 1.— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES OCCUPYING OWNED AND HIRED AND FREE AND INCUMBERED 

FARMS AND HOMES. 





Aggiegate. 


OWNING. 


Hiring. 


PERCENTAGE OF 

FAMILIES OWNING 

AND HIEING. 


1 

PERCENTAGE OF 
PERCENTAGE OF :; j.^,^^,,^^ „,^^.,^.g 
FAMILIES OWNING ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
FREE AND INCUM- 

EERED OF TOTAL „^^,^.^ ^^^ 

OWNING FAMILIES. 3,^,^^ FAMILIES. 

i' 




Total. 


Free. 


Incum- 
bered. 


1 

1 

Owning.; Hiring. 


Free. 


Incum- 1 _ 
bered. . !"•««■ 


Incum- 
bered. 




165,890 


68,975 


40,457 


28,518 


96,915 


41.58 


58.42 


, 58.65 


41.35 


24.39 








25 439 


51 765 1 M 90R 


6,769 
21,749 

11,990 


4,674 
92,241 


82.32 
33.85 


17.68 
66.15 


! 68.90 
53.93 


31.10 
46.07 


56.72 
18.26 






139,451 47,210 ,j 25,461 




Seventeen cities (for homes) 




81,253 








23,321 


11,331 


57,932 


28.70 71.30 


48.59 


51.41 


13.94 


14.76 




1,421 

7,862 

2,426 

890 




Bridgeport, Fairfield county 

Danbury, Fairfield county 

Greenwich, Fairfield county 


10,411 1 2,549 
3,823 1,397 
1,679 , 789 

11,502 2,293 
1,563 436 
4,585 ' 1,323 
1,510 jl 597 
3 490 ■ 1 064 


1,285 1 1,264 
571 826 
451 338 


24,48 75,52 1 50,41 ! 49.59 ; 12.34 12.14 
36.54 63.46 40.87 59.13 ' 14.93 21.61 
46.99 53.01 57.16 42.84 I 26.86 20.13 


Manchester, Plartford county 


220 ! 216 1,127 
524 : 799 1 3,262 
324 273 913 


27.90 72.10 50.46 49.54 , 14.08 ' 13.82 


Middletown, Middlesex county 


39,54 60.46 1 54.27 45.73 21.46 18.08 


New Haven, New Haven county 

New London, New London county.... 


17,358 4,635 2,321 2,314 12,723 
3,056 1,024 620 404 | 2,032 


26,70 73,30 j 50.08 49.92 |; 13.37 1 13.33 
33.51 66.49 |, 60.55 39.45 j: 20.29 13.22 


Norwich, New London county 


3,682 1 1,196 ; 636 | 560 
3 109 i 1 lOB ii 5fi9 i 537 


2,436 
2,003 
1,245 
4,241 
1,317 


32.93 67.07 53.18 . 46.82 ; 17.51 | 15.42 


Vernon, Tolland county 

Waterbury, New Haven county 


1,827 
5,816 
1,762 


582 
1,575 


292 1 290 
664 1 911 


31.86 
27.08 


68.14 
72.92 
74.74 


50.17 
42.16 
58.43 


49.83 
57.84 
41.57 


15.98 
11.42 


15,88 
15,66 
















58,198 


23,889 




34,309 


41.05 


58.95 


59.15 


40.85 


24.28 








" 





FARMS, HOMES, AND MORTGAGES. 



Taule 2.— value of farms AND HOMES OCCUPIED BY OWNERS AND INCUMBERED 
AND AMOUNT AND PERCENTAGE OF INCUMBRANCE THEREON. 



CIVIL DIVISIONS. 



Number of 
families 
owning 

with incum- 
brance. 



The State 

For farms 

For homes 

Seventeen cities {for homes) 

Ansonia, New Haven county 

Bridgeport, Fairfield county 

Danbury, Fairfield county 

Greenwich, Fairtield county 

Hartford, Hartford county 

Manchester, Hartford county 

Meriden, New Haven county 

Middletown, Middlesex county 

New Britain, Hartford county 

New Haven, New Haven county .... 
New London, New London county. 

Norwalk, Fairfield county 

Norwicli, New London county 

Stamford, Fairfield county 

Vernon, Tolland county 

Waterbury, New Haven county 

Willimantic, Windham county 

Rest of state (for homes) 



6,769 
21,749 



5,474,796 | $15,402,845 



21,084,559 
85,390,237 



8,567,786 
36,835,059 



58,787,706 



1,621,524 



1,350,129 
7,160,730 
3,711,399 
1,307,937 
8,304,216 

690,423 
3,615,962 
1,039,060 
3,288,653 
11,711,745 
1,832,060 
3,230,221 
2,175,527 
2,734,908 

965,109 
4,868,100 

801,527 



588,122 
2,925,836 
1,470,983 

510,134 
3,868,185 

226,010 
1,632,713 

448,711 
1,541,337 
5,347,972 

703,735 
1,323,641 

930,378 
1,218,612 

406,460 
2,127,651 

348,154 



26,602,531 11,213,535 



brance of 
value. 



40.64 
43.14 



43.58 



43.66 
40.86 
39.63 
39.00 
46.58 
32.74 
45.15 
43.18 
46.96 
45.66 
38.41 
40.98 
42.77 
44.56 
42.11 
43.70 
43.44 



42.15 



Table 3.— NUMBER OF FAMILIES OCCUPYING OWNED AND INCUMBERED FARMS AND HOMES AND THE INCUMBRANCE 

THEREON, BY RATES OF INTEREST. 

[Kates of interest represented by mixed numbers are combined into groups ; for instance, rates represented by " 1-2 " per cent include all rates greater than 1 per 

cent and less than 2 per cent.] 





RATES OF INTEREST. 






THE ST.\TE. 






FOE HOMES IN 

CITIES OF 8,000 TO 

100,000 PEOPLE. 




Total. 


For farms. 


For homes. 




Number 

of 
families. 


1 

Incum- 
brance. 


Number 

of 
families. 


brance. 


Number 

of 
families. 


Incum- 
brance. 


Number 

of 
families. 


Incum- 
brance. 






28,518 


$45,402,845 


6,769 


$8,567,786 


21,749 


$36,835,059 


11,990 


$25,621,524 










69 
1 

3 

9 

13 

16 

227 

103 

10,243 

1,287 

16,280 

91 

124 

10 

21 

2 

1 

13 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 


88,551 ! 

1,000 

9,000 

16,935 

13,638 

26,832 

401,893 

319,946 

20,642,617 

3,333,716 

20,135,093 

201,423 

130,310 

18,908 

42,800 

2,700 

300 

8,658 

1,247 

325 

1,500 

1,000 

1,453 


26 
1 
2 
2 
4 


31,776 
1,000 
8,200 
2,800 
3.100 


43 


56,775 


13 


29,621 












1 

7 

9 

11 

134 

66 

8,376 

941 

11,968 

65 

86 

7 

18 
2 
1 
12 


800 

14,135 

10,538 

22,448 

235,881 

261.796 

17,826,231 

2,681,630 

15,432,548 

144,969 

88,670 

8,428 

36,924 

2,700 

300 

8,508 


1 800 






3 
4 
4 


4,835 






3,870 




do ... 


5 i 4.384 


15.600 






93 

37 

1,867 

346 

4,312 

26 

38 

3 

3 


169,012 

58,150 

2,816,386 

652,086 

4,702,545 

56,454 

41,640 

10,480 

5,876 


71 159,587 






44 211,386 




.. do . 


5,720 1 14,239,550 






557 1 1,920,893 






5,479 8,851,046 




do 


30 1 88,447 






42 1 52,113 




. do 


5 : 7,678 




do 


11 29,974 




. do 


1 












10 


do . . 


1 
1 


150 
1,217 


5 1 5,900 










do 


1 


325 


1 1 325 




do 


1 
1 


1,500 
1,000 


1 




do 










1 


1,453 















OWNERSHIP AND DEBT IN CONNECTICUT. 

TABLE 4 -AMOUNT OF ANNUAL INTEREST CHARGE AND AVERAGE VALUE, INCUMBRANCE^ 

™al Interest charge, and annual rate of interest for farms and 

HOMES occupied BY OAVNERS AND INCUMBERED. 



CIVIL DIVISIONS. 



The State *3,734 



For farms ... 
For homes,. 



Seventeen cities (for homes).. 



Ansonia, New Haven county 

Bridgeport, Fairfield county 

Danbury, Fairfield county 

Greenwich, Fairfield county 

Hartford, Hartford county 

Manchester, Hartford county 

Meriden, New Haven county 

Middletown, Middlesex county 

New Britain, Hartford county 

New Haven, New Haven county 

New Ivondon, New London county.. 

Norwalk, Fairfield county 

Norwich, New London county 

Stamford, Fairfield county 

Vernon, Tolland county 

Waterbury, New Haven county 

Willimantic, Windham county 



Average | Average 
value of incum- 
each in- l brance on 
cumbered each 
farm or I farm or 
home. I home. 



4,9 



3,516 
6,665 
4,493 
3,870 
6,938 
3,196 
4,526 
3,806 
4,752 
5,061 
4,535 



3,328 
5,344 



2,137 



Total 
annual 
interest 
charge. 



Average 
1 annual 
1 interest 
I charge 
on each 
I farm or 
■ home. 



477,009 
2,008,090 



1,532 
2,315 
1,781 
1,509 
3,232 
1,046 
2,043 
1,644 
2,232 
2,311 
1,742 
1,655 
1,661 
2,269 
1,402 
2,335 
1,882 



31,217 

155,528 
79,346 
27,861 

208,726 
12,413 
87,249 
24,492 
82,001 

281,366 
38,491 
72,815 
49,495 
65,347 
22,585 
120,905 
18,545 



rate of 
interest. 



5.57 
5.45 



5.31 

5.32 
5.39 
5.46 
5,40 
5.49 
5.34 
5.46 
5.31 
5.26 
5.47 
5.50 
5.32 
5.36 
5.56 



Rest of state (for homes).. 



1,149 



629,708