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Full text of "Extra census bulletin"

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Apr. 1^9 
jq. IB 




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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/extracensusbulle49unit 



Extra Census Bulletin 



No. 49. WASHINGTON, D. C. June 15, 1893. 



STATISTICS OF FARMS, HOMES, AND MORTGAGES. 

OWNERSHIP AND DEBT IN WISCONSIN. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 

Census Office, 
Washington, D. C, June 2, 1893. 
Sir: 

The leading results of the investigation of farm and home proprietorship in Wisconsin are contained in this 
bulletin. In regard to farms, the conclusion is that 13.10 per cent of the farm families hire and 86.90 per cent own 
the farms cultivated by them; that 42.85 per cent of the farm owning families own subject to incumbrance and .57.15 
per cent own free of incumbrance. Among 100 farm families, 13 hire their farms, 37 own with incumbrance, and 
50 without incumbrance. On the owned farms of this state there are liens amounting to $55,304,686, which is 
33.31 per cent of their value, and this debt bears interest at the average rate of 6.64 per cent, making the average 
annual interest charge $66 to each family. Each owned and incumbered farm, on the average, is worth $3,005, and 
is subject to a debt of $1,001. 

The corresponding facts for homes are that 45.45 per cent of the home families hire and 54.55 per cent own 
their homes ; that of the home owning families 70.47 per cent own free of incuinbrance and 29.53 per cent with 
incumbrance. In 100 home families, on the average, 46 hire their homes, 16 own with incumbrance, and 38 without 
incumbrance. The debt on owned homes aggregates $22,786,623, or 32.68 per cent of their value, and bears interest 
at the average rate of 6.70 per cent, so that the annual amount of interest to each home averages $51. An average 
debt of $756 incumbers each home, which has the average value of $2,314. 

There are 16 cities in the state in the class of those having a population of 8,000 to 100,000, and in these cities 
44.80 per cent of the home families liire and 55.20 per cent own their homes ; and of the home owning families 
31.52 per cent own with incumbrance and 68.48 per cent own free of incumbrance. In 100 home families, on the 
average, are found 45 that hire their homes, 17 that own with incumbrance, and 38 that own without incumbrance. 
The liens on the owned homes are 32.33 per cent of the value of those subject to lien. Several averages show that 
the rate of interest is 7.02 per cent; value of each owned and incumbered home, $2,127 ; lien on the same, $688, 
and yearly interest charge on each home, $48. 

In Milwaukee, which is the only city in the state having a population of more thau 100,000, 57.87 per cent of 
the home families hire and 42.13 per cent own their homes ; 45.59 per cent of the home owning families have 
incumbrance on their homes, and 54.41 per cent own and occujjy homes free of incumbrance. Among 100 home 
families, on the average, 58 hire, 19 own with incumbrance, and 23 without incumbrance. Averages for each 
owned and incumbered home : incumbrance, $1,117 ; value, $3,398 ; interest charge for 1 year, $69 ; rate of interest, 
6.18 per cent. Homes are incumbered for 32.86 per cent of their value. 

Real estate purchase and improvements, when not associated with other objects, caused 74.76 per cent of the 
farm families to incur 80.47 per cent of the farm debt and 81.22 per cent of the home families to incur 80.85 per 
cent of the home debt. 

Very respectfully, 

ROBERT P. PORTER, 

I Superintendent of Census. 

The Seceet.\ry of the Interior. 



STATISTICS OF FARMS, HOMES, AND MORTGAGES. 

OWNERSHIP AND DEBT IN WISCONSIN. 



BY i:e(ih<!E k. holmes A.NH JOHN 



Selections from the results of the investigation of farm and home proprietorship and indebtedness in Wisconsin 
are presented in this bulletin. Elvery family in the state is regarded as occupying a farm or a home not on a farm, 
and as hiring such farm or home, or owning it free of incumbrance, or owning it subject to incumbrance. In the 
class last named, and in no other, account has been taken of the incumbrance, its rate of interest and object, and 
the value of the farm or home. 

H.\BiTATioN PKOPRiETOKSHip. — Amoug the 335,456 families of the state there are 104,482, or 31.15 per cent of 
the total, which hire their farms and homes and 230,974, or 68.85 per cent, which own them. Of the families which 
own, 85,376, or 36.96 per cent, have farm or home incumbrance and 145,598, or 63.04 per cent, are free of 
incumbrance. In 100 families, on the average, 31.15 hire their farms or homes, 25.45 own with incumbrance, and 
43.40 own without incumbrance. 

Farm proprietorship. — There are 148,349 farm families in Wisconsin, which are 44.22 per cent of the total 
number of families. Of these 128,913, or 86.90 per cent, own and 19,436, or 13.10 per cent, hire the farms cultivated 
by them, while of the owning families 55,242, or 42.85 per cent, have incumbrances on their farms and 73,671, or 
57.15 per cent, have no incumbrances. The average 100 fai-m families are composed of 13.10 that hire, 37.24 that 
own with incumbrance, and 49.66 that own without incumbrance. 

In 1880, 9.05 per cent of the farms were hired, so that there is an apparent relative increase of farm tenancy 
during the decade ; but the sources of the statistics for 1880 and 1890 are not the same, since the figures for 1880 
represent farms and those for 1890 farm families, and this may somewhat affect the comparison. 

Home proprietorship. — The 187,107 home families are 55.78 per cent of the families of the state, and are 
divided into the several classes as follows : hiring families, 85,046, or 45.45 per cent of the total number of home 
families; owning families, 102,061, or 54.55 per cent; families owning free of incumbrance, 71,927, or 70.47 per 
cent of the total number owning ; families owning subject to incumbrance, 30,134, or 29.53 per cent of the owning 
families. Of 100 home families, on the average. 45.45 hire their homes, 16.11 own with incumbrance, and 38.44 
own without incumbrance. 

City homes are hired in a greater degree than is found outside of cities. In the 16 cities of the state having a 
population of 8,000 to 100,000, there are 43,627 home families, of which 19,547, or 44.80 per cent, hire and 24,080, 
or 55.20 per cent, own their homes. Homes subject to incumbrance are occupied by 7,589 owning families, or 31.52 
per cent of the total owning families, and 16,491 families, or 68.48 per cent of the owning families, have no home 
iucumbrance. In 100 of these city home families, on the average, 44.80 hire their homes, 17.40 own with 
incumbrance, and 37.80 own without incumbrance. In Superior 74.44 per cent of the home families hire their 
homes, and this is the largest percentage found among the 16 cities ; Ashland comes next with 57.41 per cent. The 
smallest percentage is 29.01 for Watertown, and next to this is 36.50 for Oshkosh. 

Milwaukee has a population of 204,468, and this is the onlj' city having a population greater than 100,000. Of 
the 41,436 home families of Milwaukee, 23,977, or 57.87 per cent, hire their homes and 17,459, or 42.13 per cent, 
own their homes. Of the owning families, 9.500, or 54.41 per cent, have no incumbrance on their homes and 7,959, 
or 45.59 per cent, own subject to incumbrance. Among 100 families, on the average, 57.87 hire their homes, 22.92 
own free of iucumbrance, and 19.21 own with incumbrance. The smallest degree of home owning is found in ward 
3. where 23.51 families in 100 own their homes, and the highest is found in ward 14, where the owning fiimilies are 
57.16 in 100. 

In the state outside of the 17 cities referred to 40.69 per cent of the home families hire and 59.31 per cent own 
their homes, 24.10 per cent of the home owning families own with incumbrance and 75.90 per cent without 
incumbrance, while among 100 home families, on the average, 40.69 hire their homes, 14.29 own subject to 
incumbrance, and 45.02 own free of incumbrance. 

Value and incumbrance. — Liens amounting to $78,091,309 incumber the 85,376 owned farms and homes of 
the state that are subject to incumbrance, $55,304,,686 of which is on 55,242 farms and $22,786,623 on 30,134 homes. 
The value of the incumbered farms and homes is 1235,742,557 : farms, §166,012.998 ; homes, $69,729,559. Katios of 
debt to value: farms and homes, 33.13 per cent; farms, 33.31 per cent; homes, 32.68 per cent. 

49— 2 3 



4 FARMS, HOMES, AND MORTGAGES. 

A clel)t of So. 218, 618 incumbers 7,589 owned homes of the 16 cities containing a population of 8,000 to 100,000, 
and these incumbered homes are worth 116,141,612, so that the debt is 32.33 per cent of the value. The 7,959 
owned and incumbered liomes of Milwaukee are worth $27,047,246 and are incumbered with a debt of $8, 887, 001, or 
to the extent of 32.86 per cent of their value. The debt incumbering the owned homes in the state outside of the 
17 cities is 32.71 per cent of the value of the homes subject to the incumbrance. 

Average values and iNCUMBEAJfCES. — The average owned and incumbered farm of the state is worth S3, 005 ; 
home, $2,314; of each home in the 16 cities. $2,127 ; of each home in Milwaukee, $3,398. 

The average farm incumbrance for the state is $1,001 ; home, $756 ; hom6 incumbi-ance in the 16 cities, S688 ; 
in Milwaukee, $1,117. 

Douglas county has homes of the highest average value, namely, $5,279, and the least average value, $713, is 
in Sawyer countJ^ In the state outside of the 17 cities the average home value is $1,820 ; incumbrance, $595. As 
before stated, all values are confined to incumbered farms and homes occupied bj' owners. 

Interest rates. — The chief rate of interest in this state in regard to number of mortgages is 7 per cent. This 
rate is paid on 26.68 per cent of the farm incumbrance by 27.75 per cent of the farm debtor families ; on 30.52 per 
cent of the home incumbrance by 36.05 per cent of the home debtor families ; in the 16 cities on 40.17 per cent of 
the home incumbrance bj' 40.23 per cent of the families occupying owned and incumbered homes; in Milwaukee on 
21.89 per cent of the home debt by 35.95 per cent of the home debtor families. These percentages ai-e contained in 
the following table, and the facts from which they were computed are exhibited in Table 3 : 



PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES OCCUPYING OWNED AND INCUMBERED FARMS AND HOMES AND 
AMOUNT OF INCUMBRANCE THEREON, BY K.A.TES OF INTEREST. 



ATE< OF INTEREST. 



THE STATE. 



of fami- amount. 



Under 6 percent 8.81 

6 per cent 22.09 

7 per cent ' 27.7.5 

8 per cent j 25.53 

6 to 8 per cent, inclusive | 79.92 

Over 6 percent ] 69.10 

Overs percent 

Over 10 percent 

Over 12 per cent 



11.27 
0.07 
0.03 



14.26 
31.19 
26.68 
15.19 
80.78 
54.55 
4.96 
0.03 
O.OL 



3.79 
29.79 
36.05 
18.53 
87.54 
65.42 
8.67 
0.12 
0.05 



5.92 
39.99 
30.52 



51.09 
4.78 
0.06 
0.03 



FOR HOMES IN 

CITIES OF 8,000 

TO 100,000 PEOPLE. 



For 
number 
of fami- 
lies. 



3.86 
23.94 
40.23 
21.27 



O.IG 
0.08 



40.17 
19.68 



6.23 
0.14 



For ' 
number For 
of fami- amount. 

lies. 



3.97 

54.08 
35.95 
0.94 
95.18 
41.95 
0.85 
0.03 
0.01 



63.57 
21.89 



92.09 
29.26 



0.00 
0.00 



Kates that are less than 7 per cent are paid by 33.49 per cent of the farm debtor families on 50.62 per cent of 
the farm debt, by 35.81 per cent of the home debtor families on 50.20 per cent of the liome debt ; in the 16 cities by 
29.61 per cent of the home debtor families on 31.62 per cent of the home debt, and in Milwaukee by 62.01 per cent 
of the home debtor families on 76.24 per cent of the home debt. 

In the state, rates higher than 7 per cent are paid by 38.76 per cent of the farm debtor families on 22.70 per cent 
of the farm debt, by 28.14 per cent of the home debtor families on 19.28 per cent of the liome debt ; in the 16 cities 
by 30.16 per cent of the home debtor families on 28.21 per cent of the home debt, and in Milwaukee by 2.04 per 
cent of the home debtor families on 1.87 per cent of the home debt. 

The highest rate reported is 30 per cent, which is paid by 1 farm family on a debt of $275. 

The legislature of Wisconsin- has limited the rate of interest as follows in the j'ears named : 1839, 12 per 
cent; 1849, no limit; 1851, 12 per cent; 1852, 10 per cent for banks until 1860 and 7 per cent thereafter; 1860, 10 
per cent; 1863, 7 per cent; 1866, 10 per cent; 1876 no limit for building and loan associations. 

Interest charge and average rates of interest. — The total interest charge for 1 j'ear on the debt 
incumbering the owned farms of the state is $3,671,534, on the homes $1,526,974 ; total, $5,198,508. 

The average interest charge for 1 year on each farm is $66 ; home, $51 ; on each home in the 16 cities, $48 ; 
on each home in Milwaukee, $69. 

On farm loans the average rate of interest is 6.64 per cent ; on home loans, 6.70 per cent ; on homo loans in the 
16 cities, 7.02 per cent ; on home loans in Milwaukee, 6.18 per cent. Hence, tiie average annual interest value of 
each owned and incumbered farm in this state is $200 ; of each home, $155 ; of each liome in the 16 cities, $149 ; of 



OWNERSHIP AND DEBT IN WISCONSIN. 5 

each home in Milwaukee, $210. Outside of the 17 cities the average annual interest charge on each home is $42 • 
average rate, 7.04 per cent; average annual interest value, $128. 

Objects of indebtedness. — Investigation of the reasons why farm and home indebtedness was incurred 
discloses the fact that 74.76 per cent of the farm debtor families of the state incurred 80.47 per cent of the farm 
debt for the pupose of buying real estate and making real estate improvements, when these objects were not 
associated with other objects, and that for the same objects, in the case of homes, 81.22 per cent of the home debtor 
families incurred S0.8ri per cent of the home debt; in the 16 cities that 81.85 per cent of the home debtor families 
incurred 79.88 per cent of the home debt, and in Milwaukee that 86.80 per cent of the home debtor families incurred 
84.71 per ceut of the home debt. 

The objects of real estate purchase and improvements, business, and the purchase of personal property when 
not complicated with other objects, led 85.68 per cent of the farm debtor families of the state to incur 88.80 per 
cent of the fiirni debt, 89.77 per cent of the home debtor families to incur 92.32 per cent of the home debt 89.76 per 
cent of the home debtor families in the 16 cities to incur 92.24 per cent of the home debt, and 92.72 per cent of 
the home debtor families in Milwaukee to incur 93.84 per cent of the home debt. 

Farm and family expenses, standing alone, are represented by 4.84 per cent of the farm debtor families of 
the state and 2.17 per cent of the farm debt; family expenses by 5.85 per cent of the home debtor families and 2.69 
per cent of the home debt; family expenses in the 16 cities by 6.35 per cent of the home debtor families and 3.17 
per cent of the home debt, and in Milwaukee by 3.92 per cent of the home debtor fiimilies and 1.92 per cent of the 
home debt. 

Table 1.— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES OCCUPYING OWNED AND HIRED AND FREE AND INCUMBERED 

FARMS AND HOMES. 



For farms... 
For homes . 



Milwaukee, Milv 



Sixteen cities (for liomes) . 



iity (fur homes).. 



Appleton, Outagamie county 

Ashland, Ashland county 

Chippewa Falls, Chippewa county.. 

Eauclaire, Eauclaire county 

Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac county... 

Green Bay, Brown county 

Janesville, Rock county 

Lacrosse, Lacrosse county 

Madison, Dane county 

Marinette; Marinette county ... 

Oshkosh, Winnebago county 

Racine, Racine county 

Sheboygan, Sheboygan county 

Superior, Douglas county 

Watertown, Jefferson county 

Wausau, Marathon county 



148,349 
187,107 



Rest of state (for homes) 102 044 



128,913 
102,061 



1 ,8.'51 
1,668 

879 
1,315 
2,617 
1,406 
1,241 
2,973 
2,407 
1,765 

488 
1,214 
1,149 



73,671 
71,927 



1,267 
1,344 

619 
1.027 
1,642 
1,044 

900 
2,016 
1,.323 
1,038 



55,242 
30,134 



19,436 
85,046 



2,024 
1,629 
1,421 



PERCENTAGE OF 

FAMILIES OWNING 

AND HIEING. 



55.20 



60.80 
42.59 
56.84 
.53.95 
63.06 
53.18 
59.31 
51.73 
51.18 
56.77 
63.50 
54.32 
52.00 
25.56 
70.99 



13.10 
45.45 



44.80 



39.20 
57.41 
43.16 
46.05 
36.94 
46.82 
40.69 
48.27 
48.82 
43.23 
36.50 
45.68 
48.00 
74,44 
29.01 
36.97 



I PERCENTAGE OF 
PERCENTAGE OF , FAMILIES OWN- 
FAMILIES OWNING ■ ING FREE AND 
FREE AND INCCM- INCUMBERED OF 
BERED OF TOTAL TOTAL OWNING 
OWNING FAMILIES. AND HIRING FAM- 
ILIES. 



Incum- 
bered. 



57.15 

70.47 



68.48 



40.69 



63.29 
70.62 
79.43 
68.45 
80.58 
70.42 
78.10 
62.74 
74.25 
72.52 
67.81 
54.96 
58.81 
62.09 
78.17 
73.63 



42.85 
29.53 



31.52 



36.71 
29.38 
20.57 
31.55 
19.42 
29.58 
21.90 
37.26 
25.75 
27.48 
32.19 
45.04 
41.19 
37.91 
21.83 
26.37 



49.66 
38.44 



.90 



24.10 



22.92 
37.80 

38.48 
30.08 
45.15 
36.93 
50.81 
37.45 
46.32 
32.45 
38.00 
41.17 
43.06 
29.86 
30.58 
15.87 
55.60 
46.41 



Incum- 
bered. 



37.24 
16.11 



45.02 



19.21 
17.40 

22.32 
12.51 
11.69 
17.02 
12.25 
15.73 
12.99 
19.27 
13.18 
15.60 
20.44 
24.46 
21.42 
9.69 
15.49 
16.62 



FARMS, HOMES, AND MORTGAGES. 



Table 2.— VALUE OF FARMS AND HOMES OCCUPIED BY OWNERS AND INCUMBERED 
AND AMOUNT AND PERCENTAGE OF INCUMBRANCE THEREON. 



CIVIL DIVISIONS. 


Number 
of families 

with 
incum- 
brance. 


Value. 


Incumbrance. 


Per- 
centage 

of incum- 
brance 

of value. 




85,376 


8235,742,557 


878,091,309 


33.13 




55,242 
30,134 


166,012,998 
69,729,559 


55,304,686 
22,786,623 


33.31 
32.68 




Milwaukee, Milwaukee county (for homes). 


7,959 


27,047,246 


8,887,001 


32.86 


Sixteen cities (for homes) 


7,589 


16,141,612 


5,218,618 


32.33 


Appleton, Outagamie county 


523 I 976,058 


325,734 1 33.37 


Chippewa Falls, Chippewa county 

Eauclaire, Eauclaire county 

Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac county 

Green Bay, Brown county 

Janesville, Rock county 


191 
581 
324 
260 
288 
975 
362 
341 
957 
1,084 
727 


397,253 

974,200 

642,729 

523,392 

760,086 

2,249,167 

1,289,761 

493,514 

1,575,937 

2,376,500 

1,583,580 


114,892 
306,631 
168,52.5 
143,228 
276,480 
698,782 
430,723 
148,569 
544,041 
810,638 
.548,015 
262,264 
165,722 
133,461 


28.92 
31.48 
26.22 
27.37 
36.37 
31.07 
33.40 
30.10 
34.52 
34.11 
34.61 
26.62 
34.15 
34.29 




Marinette, Marinette county 

Oshkosh, Winnebago county 

Racine, Racine county 

Sheboygan, Sheboygan county 






Wausau, Marathon county 


303 


389,196 


Rest of state (for homes) 


14,586 


26,540,701 


8,681,004 


32.71 



J 



OWNERSHIP AND DEBT IN WISCONSIN. 

Table a.— NUMBER OF FAMILIKS OCCUPYING OWNED AND INCUMBERED FARMS AND HOMES AND OF THE 
INCUMBRANCE THEKEON, BY KATES OF INTEREST. 



[Rates of interest rcprcsentcti by mixed i 



Qbers are combined into groups ; for instance, rates represented by " 1-2 " per cent include all rates greater than 1 per 
cent and less than 2 per cent.] 



RATES OP' INTEREST. 



878,091,309 



498,795 

2,100 

26,297 

15,250 

27,872 

106,746 

48,464 

479,351 

177.118 

5,659,916 

2,191,967 

26,361,217 

3,835,698 

21.707,605 

1,757,297 

11,358,019 

5'>3,867 

499,814 

142,931 

2,607,249 

2,619 

3,320 

500 

11,800 

2,200 

2,390 



3,672 
1,400 



THE STATE. 



55,242 555,304,686 



847 
12,203 
1,432 
15,328 
1,081 
14,104 
576 



2,100 

26.297 

15,2U0 

23,857 

83j403 

41,623 

392,228 

164,843 

4,940,033 

1,836,992 

17,251,786 

2,857,377 

14,753,241 

1,409,912 

8,402,973 

4.52,373 

409,003 

118,011 



! 4,601 


1,748,165 


1 4 


2,017 


8 


2,720 


1 


500 


U 


6,450 


2 


1,200 


4 


1,690 


; 1 


900 


3 


450 


2 


1,200 


1 


500 


1 1 


275 



4,015 

23,343 

6,841 

87,123 

12,275 

719,913 

351 ,975 

9,112,431 

978,321 

6,954,364 

317,385 

2,955,046 

101,494 

90,841 

21,920 



5,350 
1,000 



FOR HOMES IN 
I'lTIKS OK 8,000 TO 
100,000 PEOPLE. 



Kiiinber 

of 
families. 



5,606 

1,220 

9,962 

5,221 

135,658 

53.510 

1,191,847 

220,5.37 

2,096,492 

120,051 

1,026,774 

35,438 

32,901 

11,122 

238,434 

150 



2,613 
1,000 



$8,887,001 
71,361 



11,837 



63, ISO 

3,600 

298,812 

188,705 

5,649,637 

488,225 

1,944,904 

33,662 

66,566 

5,200 

2,575 

1,700 



FARMS, HOMES, AND MORTGAGES. 



Table -t AMOUNT OF ANNUAL INTEREST CHARGE AND AVERAGE VALUE, IN- 
CUMBRANCE, ANNUAL INTEREST CHARGE, AND ANNUAL KATE OF INTEREST 
FOR FARMS AND HOMES OCCUPIED BY OWNERS AND INCUMBERED. 







Average 


Average 




Average 








value of 


ineiim- 


Total 


annual 


Average 










annual 










cumbered 


on each 


interest 


charge on 


rate of 






farm or 


farm or 


charge. 


each farm 


interest. 




. 


home. 


home. 




or home. 




The State 


82,761 


$915 


85,198,508 


S6i 


6.66 









For farms 

For homes 

Milwaukee, Milwaukee county (for homes).. 

Sixteen cities {for homes) 

Appleton, 0.utagamie county 

Ashland, Ashland county 

Chippewa Falls, Chippewa county 

Eauclaire, Eauclaire countj* , 

Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac county 

Green Bay, Brown county 

Janesville, Rock county 

Lacrosse, Lacrosse county 

Madison, Dane county 

Marinette, Marinette county 

Oshkosh, Winnebago county 

Racine, Racine county 

Sheboygan, Sheboygan county 

Superior, Douglas county 

AVatertown, Jefferson county 

Wausau, Marathon county 

Rest of state (for homes) 



2,013 
2.639 

2,307 



10.940 
9,563 
19,227 
50,988 



3,563 j 


1,190 


28,275 


1,447 


436 


11,284 


1,617 


568 


36,510 


2,192 


748 


53,603 


2,178 


754 


35,053 


5,326 


1,418 


21,851 


1,831 


625 


10,134 


1.284 


440 
595 


10,324 


1,820 


611,164 



3,005 


1,001 


3,671,534 


66 


6.64 


1 2,314 


756 


1,526,974 


51 


6.70 




69 




1 3,398 


1,117 


549,624 


6.18 


2,127 


688 


366,186 


48 


7.02 


1,870 


624 


22,758 


44 


6.99 


2,017 


646 


12,188 


56 


8.65 


2,048 


592 


9,594 


49 


8.35 



7.79 
6.49 
6.68 
6.95 



6.71 
0.61 
6.40 
8.33 
6.12