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Full text of "Extra census bulletin"

r5" 



ciV9 

Apr. 1^9^- 
Aua. IB94 




"N. 



X 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/extracensusbulle69unit 



Extra Census Bulletin. 



No. 69. AVASHINGTON, D. C. April 25, 1894. 



STATISTICS OF CONJUGAL CONDITION. 

NUMBER OF SINGLE, MARRIED, WIDOWED, AND DIVORCED PERSONS IN THE UNITED 

STATES: 1890. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTEEIOR, 

Census Office, 
Washington, D. C, April 12, lS9i. 

Sir : 

I have the honor to present herewith statistics of the conjugal condition of the people of the United States as 
shown by the census of 1890. This is the first presentation of data regarding conjugal condition as a part of the 
United States census. In the Tenth Census the material for preparing these statistics was obtained by the 
enumerators, but means were not at hand for their compilation. The discussion is necessarily confined to the 
figures of the present census, inasmuch as there are no other figures with which they can be compared. 

These figures, moreover, present simply the status of the population on June 1, 1890. They give only the 
number and per cent of the single, married, widowed, and divorced on that date. They take no account of the 
widowed and divorced who have remarried, and consequently are but a partial presentation of these two classes. 

Of the entire population of the United States in June, 1890, very nearly three-fifths, or .59.29 per cent, were 
single, a little more than one-third, or 35.66 per cent, were married, and not quite one-twentieth, or 4.74 per cent, 
were widowed. The divorced constituted but a small fraction of 1 per cent of the whole number, while those whose 
conjugal condition was unknown constituted even a smaller proportion. In considering the statistics of conjugal 
condition as applied to the whole population, it should be remembered that children as well as adults are included, 
and that for this reason there is a very much larger proportion of single persons among the population than of 
married, widowed, or divorced persons. The number and per cent of each class are shown by the following table : 

CONJUGAL CONDITION. Number, j Per cent. 

The United states I 62,622,250 ^ 100.00 

Single 37,129,561 59.29 

j Married ' 22,331,424 35.66 

1 Widowed 2,970,0.52 4.74 

Divorced 120,996 0.20 

Unknown 70,214 , 0.11 

The table on the following page gives, by states and territories, the number of persons of each se.x classified 
according to their conjugal condition, as reported in June, 1890. 

C. O. p.— 3,500 



2 POPULATION. 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE AGGREGATE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX, BY STATES AND TEREITOEIES : 1890. 



STATES AND TEKRITOKIES. 



Aggre- 
gate. 



The United States 62,622,250 32.067,880 



North Atlantic division 17,401,545 8,677,798 

Maine 661,086 , 332,590 

New Hampshire I 376,530 186,566 

Vermont i 332,422 169,327 

Massachusetts ' 2,238,943 1,087,709 

Rhode Island ' 315,506 168,025 

Connecticut 746,258 369,538 

New York 5,997,853 2,976,893 

New Jersey 1,444,933 720,819 

Pennsylvania 5,258,014 2,666,331 



19,945,576 I 11,205,228 : 815,437 1 49,101 52,538 



5,072,962 3,322,329 I 259,877 I 10,007 | 12,623 



181,365 
99,233 
91,690 
626,862 
97,152 
212,478 
1,723,617 
420,454 
1,620,111 



137,419 1 12,100 1,094 



FEMALES. 



78,658 
70,140 

421,946 
64,852 

144,054 
1,155,661 

278,957 

970,642 



35,513 
5,488 
11,542 
91,009 
20,119 
69,614 



2,316 3,648 



South Atlantic div 



J 
8,857,920 4,418,769 jl 2,1 



1,436,089 ; 94,417 ' 2,910 3,690 



328,496 
189,964 
163,095 

1,151,234 
177,481 
376,720 

3,020,960 
724,114 

2,591,683 



8,723,747 4,683,294 



159,967 
91 ,333 
77,986 
619,690 
96,256 
197,019 
1,600,156 
389,141 
1,451,746 



3,293,929 



137,184 
78,526 
69,956 

421,259 
64,838 

143,263 
1,149,995 

276,345 

952,563 



2,154,615 71,895 



726,481 



29,938 
18,943 
14,438 

107,273 
15,556 
34,889 

265,456 
57,763 

182,225 



1,298 
3,395 



4,439,151 2,657,307 1,448,455 323,050 ' ft;.32 



1,566 
4,207 



Delaware 168,493 85,573 

Maryland 1,042,390 515,691 

District of Columbia 230,392 109,584 

Virginia 1,655,980 824,278 

West Virginia 762,794 390,285 

North Carolina 1,617,947 799,149 

South Carolina 1,151,149 572,337 

Georgia 1,837,353 919,925 

Florida ! 391,422 201,947 



52,028 
322,428 

66,084 
545,753 
253,962 
529,705 
378,798 
603,249 
129,656 



31,159 
178,195 

39,639 
257,559 
127,829 
253,635 
182,524 
298,594 

66,955 



2,306 
14,125 

3,376 
19,895 

7,487 
15,074 
10,637 
16,823 

4,694 



82,920 
526,699 



578,812 
917,428 
189,475 



North Central di' 



22,362,279 1 11,594,910 f 7,157,290 4,114,822 285,802 23,230 , 13,766 , 10,767,369 



Ohio 3, 

Indiana 2, 

Illinois I 3, 

Michigan 2, 

Wisconsin 1, 

Minnesota 1. 

Iowa 1. 

Missouri 2 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska ! 1 

Kansas , 1 



1,855,736 
1,118,347 



826,351 1,97 



1,091,780 
874,951 
695,321 
994,453 

1,385,238 
101,590 
180,250 
572,824 
752,112 



1,109,172 
670,867 

1,221,422 
638,209 
545,698 
451,683 
619,162 
878,806 
67,698 
116,151 
368,994 
469,428 



691,197 
413,733 1 
697,129 
420,700 

304,210 ; 

226,159 
349,345 [ 
467,600 
31,611 
59,647 
190,318 
263,173 



50,209 
29,892 
47,844 
28,482 
22,453 
14,992 
23,387 
34,569 
2,025 1 
3,818 
11,140 
16,991 



2,596 
1,584 



1,816,1 
1,074, ( 
1,854,1 
1,002, 



South Central division 10,972,893 5,593,877 

Kentucky 1,858,635 ; 942,758 

Tennessee 1,767,518 891,585 

-■Vlabama I 1,513,017 757,456 '( 

Mississippi 1,289,600 649,687 \ 

Louisiana 1,118,587 559,350 

Texas 2,235,523 1,172,553 

Oklahoma 61,834 , 34,733 

Arkansas 1,128,179 585,755 



3,654,943 I 1,792,119 130,422 



603,227 313,436 I 23,692 



3,567 
3,000 
3,317 
2,805 
1,639 
1,071 
1,993 
2,231 
129 i 
426 
1,296 
1,756 



6,840 9,553 1 5,379,016 



45,484 
303,348 

66,775 
509,779 
225,733 
602,554 
352,076 
543,369 
108,189 

5,996,437 



179,888 
39,675 
258,116 
127,576 
257,919 
184,968 
302,097 
67,024 



2,032 1,293,946 



577,598 
496,308 
431,069 
365,865 
777,933 
21,598 
381 ,345 



290,440 
244,803 
202,798 
178,220 
362,324 
12,005 



21,198 
15,008 
14,778 
13,372 
26,848 



14,530 



1,260 

1,154 



1,143 
1,195 



1,261 
3,951 



Western division 3,027,613 i 1,782,526!: 1,178,718; 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico- 
Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington- 
Oregon 

California 



132,159 
60,705 
412,198 
153,593 
59.620 
207,905 
45,761 
84,385 
349,390 
313,767 
1,208,130 



39,343 
245,247 
83,055 
.36,571 
110,463 
29,214 
51 ,290 
217,562 
181,840 
700,059 ! 



27,706 
161,033 
50,985 
25,972 
74.266 
19,990 
35,393 
146,851 
118,827 
455,250 



22,772 
10,308 
75,735 
29.343 
9,536 



915,877 
875,933 
755,561 
639,913 
559,237 
1,062,970 
27,101 
542,424 



991,349 
584,186 
1,035,123 
522,867 
461,884 
354,126 
517,787 
739,428 
47,022 
84,778 
278,987 
378,900 

3,174,570 



33,823 


1,802 


8,023 


771 


14,600 


1,120 


63,538 


5,145 


56,262 


4,853 


216,029 


19,222 



44,919 6,114 I 12,906 | 1,245,087 

1,706 253 : 706 44,277 

859 144 326 21,362 

6,044 ', 736 1,699 166,951 

2,479 207 41 70,538 

918 104 41 23,049 

97,442 

16,547 

33,095 

1,267 1 131,828 

1,146 j 131,927 

6,972 I 508,071 



534,740 
515,379 
450,032 
384,334 
327,686 
629,785 
14,888 
317,726 



689,347 
413,523 
694,531 
416,304 
302,859 
223,463 
349,983 
467,892 
31,172 
58,290 
187,579 
263,606 



6,154 
42,583 
13,929 
61,877 
18,389 
56,889 
40,617 
69,125 
13,487 

636,284 



313,880 
291,666 
245,952 
204,194 
179.458 
360,756 
11,244 
187,504 



129,443 
71,252 

119,131 
59,080 
44,685 
27,475 
46,625 
82,989 
2,809 
5,120 
17,995 
29,680 



5,717 

4,711 I 

4,926 

3,493 

2,179 

1,178 

2,880 

3,201 



63,997 
66,869 
58,018 
49,616 
50,270 
69,228 
912 ! 



2,461 I 
2,660 j 
1,419 
1,233 
1,193 
2,568 



672,380 I 490,710 | 



23,341 
11,634 
87,490 
36,431 
12,628 
67,408 
8,924 
18,799 
69,902 
73,129 
272,694 



18,766 
8,777 
69,100 
28,931 
8,764 
33,790 
6,282 
12,987 
56,380 
52,312 
194,621 



9,575 
4,877 
1,595 
5,708 
1,051 
1,191 
4,986 
5,874 
37,666 



217 i 



STATISTICS OF CONJUGAL CONDITION. 3 

Considering brietiy the results regarding the conjugal condition of males and females, respectively, for the 
United States as a whole, it appears that of the 32,067,880 males in the country, 19,945,576, or 62.20 per cent, were 
single; 11,205,228, or 34.94 per cent, were married; 815,437, or 2.54 per cent, were widowed, and 49, 101, or 0.15 per cent, 
were divorced. The total number of females in the country was considerably less than that of the males, being 
30.554,370, of which 17,183,988, or 56.24 per cent, were single. This proportion, it will be noted, is decidedly less 
than that of the males. The number of married females was 11,126,196, being practically the same as that of 
married males, while the proportion was 36.41 per cent, which is greater than that of the males. The number of 
widows was 2,154,615, or 7.05 per cent of the total number of females. As is seen, the proportion of widows was 
nearlj' thi-ee times as great as that of widowers, showing that a greater proportion of widowers remarry than 
of widows. The number of divorced women was 71,895, being 0.24 per cent, or considerably more than the 
proportion of males. This probably indicates that divorced men have remarried to a greater extent than 
divorced women. 

Of the total population in 1890 the males constituted 51.21 per cent and the females 48.79 per cent. Of all the 
single persons the single males constituted 53.72 per cent and the single females 46.28 per cent, whereas of all the 
married persons the married males constituted 50.18 per cent and the married females 49.82 per cent. The 
proportion of widowed females of all the widowed is verj' much more than that of widowed males, or 72.54 per cent 
of widowed females as compared with only 27.46 per cent of widowed males. The divorced females also constitute 
59.42 Y V ceijt of all the divorced persons as against 40.58 per cent of divorced males. By far the greater proportion 
of all the persons whose conjugal condition was unknown are males, or 74.83 per cent males and 25.17 per cent 
females. 

Classification by general nativity and color is in a measure a classification by station in life, and the results 
derived from it throw much light upon the conjugal condition of social classes. The native white of native 
parentage, taken as a whole, form the highest class in the community, as indicated by education, occupation, and 
freedom from criminality and pauperism. The native white of foi-eign parentage occupy a middle position in this 
regard, while the foreign white in the north and the negi-o in the south occupy the lowest position in the scale. The 
ranks of unskilled labor are supplied mainly from these classes. With these broad distinctions in mind the 
diiferences in conjugal condition among these classes are extremely significant, as shown by the following table : 





■WHITE. i 


NATIVE WHITE- 
NATIVE PARENTS. 


NATIVE WHITE— 
FOBEIGN PARENTS. 


FOREIGN A 


VHITE. 


COLORED, (a) 


NEGRO 


CM 




1 

Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


1 
Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 




54,983,890 

32,351,452 

19,918,836 

2,553,749 

104,960 

54,893 


100.00 


34,358,348 


100.00 


11,503,675 1 100.00 


9,121,867 


100.00 


7,638,360 


100.00 


7,470,040 


100.00 










58,84 
36.23 
4.64 
0.19 
0.10 


20,531,731 
12,163,334 
1,553,224 


59.76 
35.40 
4.52 


8,831,287 

2,469,589 

187,345 

12,402 

3,052 


76.77 
21.47 
1.63 
0.11 
0,02 


2,988,434 

5,285,913 

813,180 

18,086 

16,254 


32.76 
57.95 
8.91 
0.20 
0.18 


4,778,112 

2,412,588 

416,303 

16,036 

15,321 


62.55 
31.59 
5.45 
0.21 
0,20 


4,669,513 

2,363,231 

411,888 

15,907 

9,501 


62.51 




31.64 




5.51 




74,472 0.22 
35,587 i 0.10 


0.21 




0.13 



















a Persons of negro descent, Chinese, Japanese, and civilized Indians. 
b Includes all persons of negro descent. 

Classifying the population by color, it appears that of the total number of white 58.84 per cent were single, 36.23 
per cent were married, 4.64 per cent were widowed, and 0.19 per cent divorced. 

The white element comprises three distinct classes, whose conjugal conditions difl'er widely, namely, native 
white of native parentage, native white of foreign parentage, and foreign white. Of the native white of native 
parentage the proportions were as follows: single, 59.76 per cent; married, 35.40 per cent; widowed, 4.52 per cent, and 
divorced, 0.22 per cent, while among the native white of foreign parentage the proportions were: single, 76.77 per 
cent; married, 21.47 per cent; widowed, 1.63 per cent, and divorced, 0.11 per cent. The proportion of single persons 
among the native white of foreign parentage was very much larger than among the native white of native 
parentage, while conversely the proportion of married, widowed, and divorced persons was much smaller. This 
result is due to the fact that a great proportion of white persons of native birth but foreign parentage consisted of 
children whose parents are of foreign birth. 

The foreign white element shows the following proportions: single, 32.76 per cent; married, 57.95 per cent; 
widowed, 8.91 per cent, and divorced, 0.20 per cent. Thus the proportions of single and married were nearly 
reversed in the native and foreign white elements. The reason for the great disproportion between married and 
single of the foreign white element suggests itself at once. It is that our immigrants are principally of mature age 
and consist in large proportion of married persons. 



POPULATION. 



Of the negro element the proportions were as follows: single, 62.51 per cent; married, 31.64 per cent; widowed, 5.51 
per cent, and divorced, 0.21 per cent. Thns it appears that the proportion of the single was much greater among 
the neo-ro element than among the white, the proportion of married correspondingly less, of widowed somewhat 
greater, and of divorced persons practically the same. 

Analyzing the results regarding the conjugal condition of the population subdivided according to sex and 
age groups, many interesting features are developed, as set forth in the following table : 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE AGGREGATE POPULATION, SUBDIVIDED ACCORDING TO SEX AND AGE GROUPS. 





UNDER 15 


YEARS. . 


15 TO 19 YEARS, 


20 TO 24 YEARS. 


25 TO 29 -s 


BARS. 


30 TO 34 -s 


EARS. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




11,290,008 


100.00 


3,248,711 


100.00 


3,104,893 


100.00 


2,698,311 


100.00 


2,425,664 


100.00 








11,289,865 
23 


100.00 


3,230,835 

16,746 

137 

28 

965 

3,308,852 


99.45 
0.52 
(a) 
(a) 
0.03 

100.00 


2,5(»,460 

585,748 
7,610 
1,468 
4,607 

3,091,783 


80.69 
18.87 
0.24 
0.05 
0.15 

100.00 


1,240,797 

1,421,407 

26,601 

4,340 

5,166 

2,529,466 


45.98 
52.68 
0.99 
0.16 
0.19 

100.00 


642,827 

1,728,930 

43,777 

5,832 

4,298 

2,152,966 


26.50 




71.28 




1.80 




1 
119 

10,952,192 


(a) 
(o) 

100.00 


0.24 




0.18 


Females 


100.00 


Single 


10,950,672 

1,411 

17 

12 

80 


99.99 
0.01 
(a) 
(a) 


2,987,949 

313,983 

4,845 

1,101 

974 


90.30 
9.49 
0.15 
0.03 
0.03 


1,601,206 

1,444,712 

36,456 

6,931 

2,418 


51.79 
46.73 
1.18 
0.22 
0.08 


641,988 

1,805,064 

69,965 

10,588 

1,861 


25.38 
71.36 
2.77 
0.42 
0,07 


326,306 

1,717,204 

96,797 

11,161 

1,498 


15.16 
79.76 




4.49 


Divorced 


0.52 
0.07 








35 TO 44 YEARS. 


45 TO 54 - 


fEARS. 


55 TO 64 YEARS. 


65 YEARS AND OVER. 


UNKNOWN. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




3,705,648 


100.00 


2,627,024 


100.00 


1,630,373 


100.00 


1,233,719 


100.00 


103,529 


100.00 






Married 


568,511 

2,997,030 

120,796 

12,837 

6,474 

3,346,031 


15.34 
80.88 
3.26 
0.35 
0.17 

100.00 


239,928 

2,213,901 

157,920 

11,393 

3,882 

2,430,878 


9.13 
84.28 
6.01 
0.43 
0.15 

100.00 


111,144 
1,342,414 

166,686 
7,835 
2,294 

1,499,997 


6.82 
82.34 
10.22 
0.48 
0.14 

100. OO 


69,100 

869,925 

287,583 

4,974 

2,137 

1,183,569 


5.60 
70.51 
23.31 
0.40 
0.18 

lOO.OO 


47,109 
29,104 
4,327 
393 
22,596 

58,636 


45.50 
28.11 
4.18 


Unknown 


0.38 
21.83 




100.00 








330,139 

2,698,266 

296,302 

18,899 

2,425 


9.87 
80.64 
8.86 
0.56 
0.07 


171,454 

1,796,979 

447,370 

13,080 

1,995 


7.05 
73.92 
18.41 
0.54 
0.08 


86,573 

905,627 

499,420 

6,721 

1,656 


5.77 
60.38 
33.29 
0.45 
0.11 


66,758 

418,399 

693,324 

3,091 

1,997 


5.64 
35.35 
58.58 
0.26 
0.17 


20,883 

24,551 

10,119 

311 

2,772 


35.61 




41.87 




17.26 




0.53 


Unknown 


4,73 










a Less t 


lian 1 one-hu 


idredth o 


1 per cent. 













Of the males under 15 years the proportion of married was inappreciable, while of the females under 15 about 1 
in every 10,000 was married. Between the ages from 15 to 19 only 0.52 per cent of the males were married and 
9.49 per cent of the females. Among those of 20 years of age and upward the proportion of the married increased 
with great rapidity with both sexes. Between the ages from 20 to 24 less than one-fifth of the males were found to 
be married, while of the females nearlj' one-half were married. 

Between the ages ftom 25 to 29 over one-half of the males and nearly three-fourths of the females were married. 
Between the ages from 30 to 34 nearly three-fourths of the males and four-fifths of the females were married. Up 
to this point the proportion of married females in each age group was considerably in excess of that of males. 

Between the ages from 35 to 44 the proportions were practically equal, the married comprising about 
four-fifths of the total number for this age group. At this age the proportion of females who were married reached 
a maximum. Above this age the proportion of married women diminished, owing to the increased proportion of 
widows. Between 45 and 54 years of age the married males comprised five-sixths of the whole number. In this 
age group the proportion of males who were married reached a maximum, and from this point diminished, owing to 
tlie increasing proportion of widowers. For this age group the proportion of married females had declined to less 
than three-fourths of all females. 



STATISTICS OF CONJUGAL CONDITION. 5 

Between the ages from 55 to 64 the proportion of married males had diminished to 82.34 por cent and that of 
married females to 60.38 per cent. For the age group representing persons 65 years and upward, seven-tenths of 
the males were found to be married, while the proportion of females was only one-lialf as great, or 35.35 per cent of 
all females of the ages stated. 

The proportion of widows was greater than that of widowers at all ages. It became appreciable between the ages 
from 15 to 19 and increased rapidly. For females 65 j'ears of age and upward the proportion of widows exceeded 
the proportion of married women. The proportion of widowers was less than that of married men for each age 
group considered. 

As previously stated, persons of foreign birth are generally of mature age and in large part married when they 
come to this country, so that the proportion of the married, widowed, and divorced among this class is very much 
greater than among the native population. This disproportion is also due to the very much larger number of 
chikh'en of native birth than of foreign birth which are included necessarily among the single persons, when conjugal 
conditions are considered without regard to age limitations. If the adult population only is considered, therefore, 
that is, persons 20 years of age and over, a very much fairer basis for comparison is obtained. The number and 
percentage of adults who were either single, married, widowed, or divorced are shown in the following table for 
native white persons of native parentage, native white persons of foreign parentage, foreign white persons, and 
persons of negro descent, respectively : 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS 20 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, CLASSIFIED BY 
SEX, GENERAL NATIVITY, AND COLOR. 



Aggregate 33,822,487 



PERSONS 20 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, 



Single 1 8,670,243 

Married 1 21,999,261 

Widowed j 2,965,053 

Divorced j 119.854 

Unknown 68,076 

Native wliite— native parents | 17,858,336 

Single j 4,240,300 

Married ! 11,958,365 

Widowed ' 1,551,081 

Divorced | 73,813 

Unknown | 34,777 



Per 
cent. 



lOO.OO 17,529,161 



25.64 
65.04 
8.77 
0.35 
0.20 



5,424,876 

11,188,459 

815,300 

49,072 

51,454 



4.65 
0.28 
0.29 



9,109,277 100.00 



23.74 
66.96 



0.41 
0.20 



Single I 1,899,347 

Married 2,434,777 

Widowed ' 187,065 

Divorced 12,280 

Unknown j 2,737 

Foreign white 7,869,213 

Single I 1,758,861 

Married : 5,263,351 

Widowed I 812,993 

18,044 
15,964 



41.87 
53.68 
4.12 
0.27 
0.06 



Persons of negro descent.. 



Single 

Married .... 
Widowed .. 
Divorced... 
Unknown .. 

c. c— 



10.33 
0.23 
0.20 




2,599,743 

6.019,287 

432,196 



16,293,326 



3,245,367 

10,810,802 

2,149,753 

70,782 

16,622 

8,749,059 



; white— foreign parents I 4,536,206 I 100.00 I; 2,283,065 



1,114, .564 

1,110,774 

51,376 

4,537 

1,814 

4,322,931 



1,213,128 

2,850,115 

238,314 

9,106 

12,268 

1,697,463 



4.74 
0.33 
0.31 

100.00 



1,640,557 

5,939,078 

1,118,885 

43,642 

6,897 



Per 

cent. 



100. OO 



19.92 
66.35 
13.19 
0.44 
0.10 

100.00 



18.75 
67.88 
12.79 
0.50 
0.08 



48.82 
48.65 
2.25 
0.20 
0.08 

100.00 



424,552 

1,171,671 

91,633 

5,199 

4,408 



28.06 
65.93 
5.51 
0.21 
0.29 

100.00 



2,253,141 100.00 



25.01 
69.02 
5.40 
0.31 
0.26 



784,783 

1,324,003 

135,689 

7,743 

923 



545,733 

2,413,236 

574,679 



1,726,690 



34.83 
58.76 
6.02 
0.35 
0.04 

100.00 



271,224 

1,122,619 

317,893 

10,391 



15.39 
68.05 
16.21 
0.25 
0.10 

100. OO 



15.71 
65.02 
18.41 
0.60 
0.26 



POPULATION. 



From this table it appears that the married among the native white population of native parentage represent 
66.96 per cent of the whole number, or approximately about the same proportion as of married persons among the 
foreign white population (66.89 per cent), and of married persons among the negro population (67 per cent), when 
persons of adult age only are considered. On the same basis, however, a very marked difference is revealed 
regarding the percentage of married persons among the native white population of foreign parentage, there being 
but 53.68 per cent of the whole number married as against two-thirds in the case of each of the other elements of 
the population. Approximately the same conditions regarding males and females of adult age are shown by the 
table, except for the native white of foreign parentage, where the married females constitute 58.76 per cent of all 
the females of that class as against 48.65 per cent of married males. 

The following table shows, by geographical divisions, the proportion of single, married, widowed, and divorced, 
without regard to age, for the aggregate population, the native white of native parentage, the native white of foreign 
parentage, the foreign white, and for persons of negro descent. The classification by sex is not maintained in this 
table, as the distinctive features of conjugal condition regarding sex have been previously analyzed. 



North ' South I North South „ , t 
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central ! ^f,f'f™ 
division, division, division, divisioi 



Aggregate ; Per cent. 

Single 56.07 

Married 38.02 

Widowed 5.67 

Divorced 0. 14 

Unknown I O.IO 



Per cent. I Per cent. . Per cent. \ Per cent. 



Native white - 

Single 

Married .... 
Widowed.. 
Divorced... 
Unknown . 



lative parents : 



Native white — foreign parents 

Single 

Married 

Widowed 

Divorced 

Unknown 



55.43 
38.50 
5.77 



76.80 
21.28 



0,06 
0.03 



Foreign white: 

Single 34.17 

Married 55,94 

Widowed 9.62 

Divorced 0,08 

Unknown 0,19 

Persons of negro descent : 

Single 55,95 

Married 35,84 

Widowed 7,87 

Divorced '• 0,16 

Unknown - 0,18 



62,53 
32,57 



62,67 
33,86 



0,09 
0.06 



68.91 

27.77 
3.19 
0,09 
0.04 



28,31 
58,79 
12,46 
0,13 
0.31 



63,81 
30,95 



0,25 
0.08 



59,82 
35,82 
3.98 
0,29 
0.09 



77.34 
21.23 
1.29 
0.12 
0.02 



0,18 
0,12 



62,95 
32,66 
4.14 
0,13 
0,11 



72.66 
24,44 
2,73 
0,13 
0,01 



30,24 


29,82 


61,21 


67,73 


8,17 


11.86 


0,26 


0.25 


0.12 


0.34 



58.. 33 
34,16 
6,90 
0.47 
0,14 



62,32 
31.65 
5,64 
0,27 
0,12 



61,14 

84,04 
3,97 
0,38 
0,47 



60.90 
34.33 
3,93 
0,44 
0,40 



78.62 
19,54 
1,54 
0,21 
0,06 



42,55 
49,74 
6,92 
0,46 
0,33 



61,83 
30,88 
6.21 
0,76 
0,32 



This table develops manj^ facts regarding conjugal condition. Considering aggregate population, it is seen that 
in the North Atlantic division, which constitutes the principal manufacturing section of the country, a section made 
up largely of urban i^opulation, the single are found in smaller proportion than in any other part of the country and 
the married and widowed in larger proportion. Conversely, the South Atlantic and South Central divisions, which 
are almo.st purely agricultural and rural, contain the largest proportion of single persons and the smallest proportion 
of the married. These results are directly opposed to popular belief. It is assumed that the development of urban 
poi^ulation diminishes the number of the married. The explanation which naturally suggests itself is that the 
larger proportion of marriages in the manufacturing sections of the country is due not only to the fact that the 
native white population married young and in large proportion at all ages, but also to the fact that the foreign white, 
who have settled in large numbers in the North Atlantic division, were either married or of a marriageable age at 
the time of their immigration. If an examination is made of that part of the table which shows the proportion of 
single and married among the native white of native parentage, it is seen for the North Atlantic division that the 
proportion of single is even less than among the aggregate population and the proportion of married and widowed 



STATISTICS OF CONJUGAL CONDITION. 7 

greater. In other words, these figures appear to indicate that in the most densely settled parts of the country, parts 
where the urban element is greatest, the native white of native parentage marry more freelj' than in the rural 
parts of the United States. Considering the conjugal condition of the native white of foreign parentage, the largest 
proportions of married and widowed are found in the South Atlantic and South Central divisions. In the three 
other divisions, where this element is much more numerous, the pi'oportions of the married and widowed differ but 
slightly. The presentation regarding the conjugal condition of the foreign white develops the fact that the largest 
proportion of the married is found in the North Central division and the smallest proportion in the Western 
division. This difference doubtless arises from the character of the immigration to these two sections, that to the 
North Central division consisting largely of Germans and Scandinavians and that to the Westei-n division 
largely of English, Scotch, and Irish. The statement relative to the conjugal condition of persons of negro 
descent shows little difference between the South Atlantic and South Central divisions in the proportion of 
single and married. In the north and west the negro element is too small to render any conclusions of value. 
The following table shows the conjugal condition of the population of the 50 principal cities of the country : 

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE AGGREGATE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX, FOR THE FIFTY PRINCIPAL CITIES : 1890. 



New York, N.Y 

Cliicago, III 

Philadelphift, Pa 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

St, Louis, Mo 

Boston, Mass 

Baltimore. Md 

San Francisco, Cal 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Butralo, N. Y 

New Orleans, La 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Washington, D. C 

Detroit, Mich 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Newark, N. ,1 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Jersey eity, N. J 

Louisville, Ky 

Omaha, Neb 

Kochester, N. Y 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas city, Mo... 

Providence, E. I 

Denver, Colo 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Allegheny, Pa 

Albany, N. Y 

Columbus, Ohio 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass 

Toledo, Ohio 

Richmond, Va 

New Haven, Conn 

Paterson, N. .7 

Lowell, Mass 

Nashville, Tenn 

Scranton, Pa 

Fall River, Mass 

Cambridge, Mass 

Atlanta, Ga 

Memphis, Tenn 

Wilmington, Del 

Dayton, Ohio 

Troy, N. Y 

Grand Rapids, Mich . 

Reading, Pa 

Camden, N, J 

Trenton, N. J 



1,515,301 
1,099,850 
1,016,964 
806,313 
451,770 
448,477 
434,439 
298,997 
296,908 
261,353 
255,664 
242,039 
238,617 
230,392 
205,876 
204,468 
181,830 
164,738 
163,003 
161,129 
140,452 
133,896 
133,156 
132,716 
132,146 
106,713 
105,436 
105,287 
94,923 
88,150 
88,143 
84,655 
81,434 
81,388 
81,298 
78,3(7 
77,696 
76,168 
75,215 
74,398 , 
70,028 
65,533 
64,495 
61,431 
61,220 
60,956 
60,278 
58,661 
58,313 
57,458 



747,579 
568,402 
511,122 
394,123 
228,114 ^ 
217,754 
206,114 
189,800 
145,011 
132.517 
128,881 
113,467 
121,429 
109,584 
101,298 
100,773 
88,980 
87,643 
82,0)6 
78,612 
80,108 i 
64,453 j 
69,561 } 
71,051 I 
63,569 j 
60,744 
52,303 
52,612 
45,589 
45,019 
42,922 j 
42,267 
40,887 
38,261 
40,437 
38,275 
35,453 
36,832 
33,416 
35,742 
34,204 
31,351 : 
32,488 i 
30,814 ' 
30,489 
28,591 
30,091 
29,126 
28,527 
29,116 



= ■ 1 ,T • J Wid- I Di- 
Single. Married. ^^^^_ 1,^^^^^^^ 



454,765 
319,795 
304,006 
234,363 
144,368 
131,218 
123,726 
111,848 
89,480 
79,622 
79,022 
71 ,603 
79,712 
66,084 
60,362 
61,489 
52,276 
55,449 
49,467 
48,676 
53,907 
38,623 
44,227 
43.299 
36,7.02 
39,431 
30,430 
32,766 
27,387 
27,128 
24,884 
24,921 
24,169 
23,994 
23,988 
22,811 
20,887 
22,659 
24,198 
21,947 
20,940 
19,019 
20,045 
18,315 
17,819 
17,355 
16,940 
17,070 
15,726 
16,597 



271,353 
205,254 
189,326 
148,967 
77,030 
78,551 
76,304 
51,244 
51,440 : 
49,443 
46,631 
38,246 
41,904 
39,639 j 
38,372 
36,970 
34,199 
29,943 
30,295 
27,405 
23,633 
24,003 
23,729 
25,574 I 
24,594 
19,457 
20,183 
18,554 
16,400 
16,603 
16,934 
16,066 
15,627 
12,972 
15,200 
14,492 
13,427 
12,897 j 
13,257 j 
12,844 j 
12,241 ; 
11,384 
10,967 
11,689 , 
11,742 
10,215 
12,275 
11,297 
12,027 
11,738 



20,054 
10,752 ' 
16,301 
10,231 
5,846 
6,986 
5,872 
4,097 
3,822 
2,755 
2,839 
3,412 
2,637 
3,376 
2,182 
2,025 
2,345 
1,906 
2,202 
2,250 
1,565 
1,586 
1,309 , 
1,772 
2,053 
1,405 
1,485 
1,195 
1,717 
1,110 
1,010 
1,160 
999 
1,173 
1,015 
898 
1,071 
1,034 



1,085 
2,034 
1,043 



767,722 
531,448 
535,842 
412,220 
223,656 
230,723 
228,325 
129,197 
151 ,897 
128,836 
126,780 
128,572 
114,188 
120,808 
104,578 
103,695 
92,850 
77,095 
80,957 
82,517 
60,344 
69,443 
63,595 
61,665 
68,577 
45,969 
53,133 
52,675 
49,334 
43,131 
45,221 
42,388 
40,547 
43,127 
40,861 
40,072 
42,243 
39,336 
36,799 
38,656 
35,824 
34,182 
32,007 
30,617 
30,731 
32,365 
30,187 
29,-535 
29,786 



Single. 1 Married. 



428,236 
292,515 
293,748 
227,488 
125,289 
128,676 
127,061 
69,067 
84,277 
70,1)63 
71,133 
70,618 
65.858 
66,775 
58,160 
59,912 
50,652 
43,104 
44,576 
45,183 
35,475 
38,824 
36,395 
31,358 
37,105 
23,855 
27,663 
30,290 
27,749 
23,494 
23,978 
22,917 
22,090 
24,603 
21,915 
22,382 
24,519 
20,897 
21,164 
22,726 
20,116 
17,686 
15,944 
16,408 
16,415 
18,618 
15,748 
16,001 
15.096 
14,917 



Wid- Di- Un- 
owed. vorced. known. 



,069 


34, 


,826 


51, 


,282, 


36, 


,183 


20, 


,192 


23, 


,827 


23, 


,465 


11, 


,920 


15, 


,604 


9, 


,066 


9, 


,421 


18, 


,319 


7, 


,675 


13, 


,499 


7, 


,218 


6, 


,039 


7, 


,261 


4, 


,848 


6, 


,599 


9, 


,043 


2, 


,325 


<5, 


,351 


3, 


,360 


4, 


,506 


6, 


,429 


3, 


,121 


4, 


,316 


3. 


,357 


5, 


,012 


3, 


,933 


4, 


,893 


3, 


,573 


2, 


,950 


5, 


,071 


3, 


,535 


3, 


,841 


3, 


,077 


5, 


,1.32 


2, 


,059 


2, 


,304 


3, 


,810 


4, 


,066 


4, 


,665 


2, 


,687 


2, 


,263 


3, 


,301 


1, 


,204 


2, 


,048 


2, 


,122 


2, 



POPULATION. 



These cities, taken collectively, have a population of 11,298,148 and constitute IS per cent of the total 
population. The figures regarding these cities when consolidated represent the conjugal condition of the population 
under thoroughly urban conditions. 

The following table shows, for these cities taken collectively, the number of single, married, widowed, and 
divorced males and females among the aggregate population, together with the percentage which the number of each 
class bears to the total number of males and females, and opposite to these percentages similar proportions for the 
entire countrj-. for purposes of comparison : 



CONDITION AND SEX. 



Popvilation o 
the 50 prin- 
cipal cities. 



Single 

Maided.... 
Widowed . 
Divorced .. 
Unknown. 



3,435,515 

2,034,537 

145,612 



5,662,598 



PropQrtion Proportion 
of each ! of each 
tlie class in the 
50 principal country 
cities. at large. 



100.00 



60.96 
36.10 
2.59 
0.10 
0.25 

100.00 



62.20 
34.94 



0.15 
0.17 



Single 

Married 

Widowed . 
Divorced .. 
Unknown. 



3,129,269 

2,021 ,376 

496,557 

11,118 

4,248 



55.26 
35.70 

8.77 
0.20 
0.07 



7.05 
0.24 
0.06 



Of the total male population in these cities 60.96 per cent were single, 36.10 per cent were married, 2.59 per 
cent were widowed, and 0.10 per cent were divorced. Of the total female population in these cities 55.26 per cent 
were single, being a much smaller proportion than among the males; 35.70 per cent were married, being a slightly 
smaller proportion than of males ; 8.77 per cent were widowed, or more than three times as large a proportion as 
of inale&) while 0.20 per cent were divorced, being twice as large a proportion as of males. 

Comparing these figures with the corresponding proportions of the total population of the country, we find that 
the proportion of single is less, the proportion of married greater for males and less for females, of widowed greater, and 
of divorced less. The differences in the proportion of single, married, and widowed are due to the difference in the 
constitution of the population of the cities and of the country at large as regards native and foreign elements, the 
foreign element both of birth and of parentage being much greater proportionally in the cities than in the country 
at large. 

The difference in the proportion of divorced is not to be explained in this way, but all the evidence appears to 
indicate that the proportion of divorced persons in the cities is less than that in the country at large. 

The foregoing tables and discussion rest upon comparisons of the single, married, widowed, and divorced with 
the total population in each class, and the results are largely dependent upon the character of the population making 
up that class. For instance, among the native white of native parentage there is the normal proportion of children 
and grown people. Among the native white of foreign parentage, however, the proportion of children is vastly in 
excess of the normal and that of grown people is correspondingly below it. Among the foreign white, on the other 
hand, the proportion of children is far below the normal and of grown people above it, while in the case of the negro 
the proportion at the different ages is practically normal. This disproportion in the composition of the population 
in the case of the native white of foreign parentage and the foreign white affects the results, especially regarding 
divorce, very markedly. A fairer measure of the extent to which divorce is prevalent is aftbrded by the following 
table, which gives, by geographical divisions, the proportion of divorced persons with reference to the number of 
married persons: 



1 Native 

Aggregate' „.,,ij^_ 

GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS. popula- native 

"°°- , parents. 


Native 
white- 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Persons 

of 
negro 
descent. 




0.54 


0.61 


0.50 


0.34 


0.67 




0.38 
31 


0.54 0.30 
n 28 3S 


0.15 
0.22 


0.45 
0.38 
1.36 
0.85 




North Central 


0.68 0.82 0.58 0.43 
0.55 0.41 0.53 0.43 


Western 


1.13 


1.29 


1.21 


0.92 


2.45 



STATISTICS OF CONJUGAL CONDITION. 9 

For the I'nited States as a whole, it is seen that divorced persons among the aggregate population represented 
0.54 per cent of the married people, that is, there was one divorced person to 185 married. This proportion , 
however, ranged in different parts of the country from 0.31 per cent in tlie South Atlantic division and 0.3S per 
cent in the North Atlantic division to 1.13 per cent in the AVestern division. The proportion in the North Central 
division was decidedly greater than in the South Central division. 

Turning to the next column, it is seen that divorce was more common among the native white of native 
parentage than among the total population, the proportion to the number of married people being for the United 
States 0.61 per cent. This proportion was least in the South Atlantic division, next in the South Central division, 
and rose to 0.54 per cent in the North Atlantic division; was 0.82 per cent in the North Central division, and 
reached a maximum in the AVestern division, where it was not less than 1.29 per cent. 

The native white of foreign parentage show a smaller proportion of divorced. The proportion for the United States 
was but 0.50 per cent as against 0.61 per cent among the native white of native parentage. In the North Atlantic 
division this proportion was 0.30 per cent, in the North Central division 0.58 per cent, and in the Western division 
1.21 per cent. In the south the number of this element was so small as to render the results of little importance. 

The foreign white show a still smaller proportion of divorced. For the United States this was but 0.34 per 
cent, being but little more than half the proportion of the native white of native parentage. In the North Atlantic 
division this proportion was but 0.15 per cent. It is probable that the smallness of this proportion is due to the 
fact that the foreign element includes many Irish and Canadian Catholics. In the North Central division the 
projiortion was but 0.43 per cent, and in the "Western division 0.92 per cent, which figures are in strong contrast 
with corresponding figures for the native white of native parentage. 

Among the negro population the divorced were found to be more prevalent than among any of the other 
classes. For the whole United States the proportion of divorced among the negro element to the whole number of 
married was 0.67 per cent. In the South Atlantic division it was 0.38 per cent, and in the South Central division 
0.85 per cent. In other sections of the country the negro element is not of sufficient importance numerically to 
render the results of value. 

CAREOLL D. WRIGHT, 

Commissioner of Lahor in charge. 

The Secretary of the Interioh. 



I 



i 



DEC 19