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Full text of "Extra census bulletin"

M *HA201 . 1890 . A 2 

Aug. I Q >9 
Ian. 13 



a- 




V 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/extracensusbulle97unit 



Extra Census Bulletin. 



lo. 97. WASHINGTON, D. C. November 1, 1894, 



STATISTICS OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 

NUMBER OF PERSONS HAVING ONE OR BOTH PARENTS FOREIGN BORN: 1870 TO 1890. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 

Census Office, 
Washington, D. C, October 20, 1894. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith the essential results of the Eleventh Census regarding foreign 
parentage. 

Since 1850 the foreign born population has been classified according to country of birth at each decennial 
census of the United States. Until the census of 1870, however, no effort was made to determine the proportion of 
the total population of foreign parentage, that is, the number of persons, whether themselves of native or foreign 
birth, who had either one or both parents foreign born. As a result of the compilations made in 1870 it was 
ascertained that the whole number of persons of foreign parentage was 10,892,015, and that they constituted 28.25 
per cent of the total population at that census. The whole number of persons in 1870 who were themselves of 
foreign birth was 5,567,229, very nearly all of whom were of foreign parentage, that is, with the exception of a 
very small number whose parents were both native born, the exact number not being stated. 

No information was afforded by the census of 1870, however, as to the extent to which each of the principal 
foreign countries had contributed to that element of the population who were of native birth but who had one or both 
parents foreign born, so that in compiling the census of 1880 an elaborate tabulation, as stated in the Tenth Census 
report, was undertaken in order to ascertain the proportions contributed to the whole element of foreign parentage 
by each of the following nationalities: Ireland, Germany, Great Britain, Scandinavia, British America, and "Other 
countries". This tabulation was completed for 36 states and territories, including the District of Columbia, and the 
ratios derived therefrom, that is, the number of persons having fathers and mothers born in each of the above 
named countries to each 1,000 persons born in the same country, were applied to the whole number of persons of 
each of these nationalities in the United States, in order to determine, approximately at least, the number of 
persons, both native born and foreign born, in the United States in 1880 who had fathers and mothers born as stated, 
and indirectly the whole number of persons of foreign parentage. Whether or not these ratios, derived from 
partial tabulations only, producedsubstantially accurate results for the whole country can not be definite! j' determined, 
except by completing the tabulation for the states not tallied in 1880, which included, besides the territory of Utah, 
some of the largest states in point of population, and which contained the largest proportions of the foreign born 
population, viz, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, and Maine. 

Assuming that the results are approximately correct, it appears that out of a total population in 1880 of 
50,155,783, there were 14,922,744, or 29.75 per cent, who had either one or both parents born in foreign countries. 

In the 36 states and territories for which the tabulations were completed, the whole number having either one 
or both parents foreign born was 5,758,811, or 21.85 per cent of the total population (26,354,124) of the slates and 

C. O. P.— 8m 



2 STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

territories considered. In these states and territories there were 2,673,217 persons of foreign birth, or 40.02 per 
cent only of all the foreign born in the United States in 1880, of which number 13.307 were of native parentage, that 
is, although of foreign birth themselves their parents were both native born. The whole number of persons of 
foreign birth who were of foreign parentage, that is, who had either one or both parents foreign born, in these 36 
states and territories was 2,659,910, leaving 3,098,901 persons who were of native birth but of foreign parentage. 
In the United States as a whole the foreign born persons in 1880 numbered 6,679,913 and the foreign born persons 
of native parentage were estimated to be 33,252. The whole number of foreign born persons of foreign parentage 
in the United States in 1S80, therefore, was, approximately. 6,646,691, while the whole number of native born 
persons of foreign parentage was, approximately, 8,276,053. 

In 1890 the tabulations regarding foreign parentage comprehended for white persons not only Ireland and 
Germany, which were the only countries separately tabulated in 1880, but also each of the countries comprising the 
nationalit}* groups used in 1SS0, as England, Scotland, and Wales instead of Great Britain ; Sweden, Norway, and 
Denmark instead of Scandinavia ; a separation according to French and English extraction for Canada and 
Newfoundland, besides giving iu addition thereto those countries from which more recent contributions of noticeable 
proportions have been received, particularly during the past decade, as Bohemia, Hungary, France, Italy, and Bussia. 
The colored population in 1S90 was only tabulated as regards the number who were either of native or foreign 
parentage. 

Considering first the results arrived at in 1S90 in a general way, it appears that the whole number of persons 
of foreign parentage, without regard to color, was 20,676,046, or 33.02 per cent of the total population, which in 
1890 was 62,622,250. The whole number of white persons of foreign parentage in 1890 was 20,519,643 while the 
colored persons of foreign parentage numbered 156,403. The foreign white in 1890 numbered 9,121,867, of which 
105,899, or 1.16 per cent, were of native parentage, that is, had both parents native born. The whole number of 
foreign white persons of foreign parentage in 1S90 was, therefore. 9,015,968, leaving 11.503,675 native white persons 
of foreign parentage. The number of foreign colored who were of native parentage was not separately tabulated 
iu 1S90. 

The table on the following page gives the total population together with the number and percentage of persons 
of foreign parentage by states and territories for 1870 and 1890 in detail, and for the 36 states and territories in 1S80 
for which foreign parentage figures were compiled. 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 

NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE: 1870 TO 1890. 



AND TERRITORIES. 



Persons of fore 
parentage. 



Total 
population. 



Total 
populatic 



rsona of foreign 
parentage. 



Persons of foreig 
parentage. 



Total 
population. 



The United States.. 



North Atlantic di' 



Maine 

New Hampshir 

Vermont 

Massachusetts.. 
Rhode Island- 
Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. .- 



■South Atlantic division.. 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Colurnbii 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central di 



Indiana.... 
Illinois .... 
Michigan. 



North Dakota.. 
South Dakota.. 
Nebraska 



South Central di 



Kentucky... 
Tennessee... 

Alabama 

Mississippi. 
Louisiana ... 

Texas 

Oklahoma... 
Arkansas..... 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico.. 

Arizona 

Utah 



Idaho 

Washington.. 

Oregon 

California.... 



17,401,515 



661,080 

376,530 

332,422 

2,238,943 

345,506 

746,258 

5,997,853 

1,414,933 

5,258,011 

8,857,920 



8,215,838 



47.21 



14,507,407 



151,158 
121,293 
101,177 

1,259,121 
200,452 
375,488 

3,397,966 
698,182 

1,907,701 

533,380 



22.87 
32.21 
31.43 
56.24 
58.02 
50.32 
56.65 
48.32 
36,28 



168,493 
1,012,390 

230,392 
1,655,980 

762,794 
1,617,917 
1,151,119 
1,837,353 

391,422 



250,379 
46,930 
43,565 
59,650 
11,256 
17,603 
32,684 



18.22 
21.02 
20.37 



0.70 
1.53 
1.78 
10.37 

43.02 



1,145,827 
1,243,009 
981,783 
833,188 
669,311 
144,305 
199,287 
419,860 
382,164 



10,972,S93 



1,858,635 
1,767,518 
1,513,017 
1,289,600 
1,118,587 
2,235,523 
61,834 
1,128,179 

3,027,613 



183,380 
53,358 
37,884 
25,729 
149,215 
338,173 
7,227 
38,072 



33.96 
20.40 
49.06 
54.72 
73.69 
75.42 
43.58 
24.98 
78.98) 
60.61J 
42.48 
26.78 



648,936 

346,991 

332,286 

1,783,085 

276,531 

622,700 

5,082,S71 

1,131,116 

4,282,891 

7,597,197 



12,298,730 



146,608 
934,943 
177,624 

1,512,565 
618,457 

1,399,750 
995,577 

1,542,180 
269,493 

17,364,111 



9.87 
3.02 
2.50 
2.00 
13.31 
15.13 
11.69 
3.37 



(») 
80,068 
95,892 

880,731 

143,299 

276,828 

('■>) 

(!>) 

(6) 

462,974 



23,925 
218,636 
41,673 
36,722 
58,290 
10,712 
21,666 
29,130 
19,220 



3,198,062 


(*) 


1,978,301 


(6) 


3,077,871 


(6) 


1,636,937 


<M 


1,315,497 


951 , 149 


780,773 


558,304 


1,624,615 


(6) 


2,168,380 


553,947 



(6) 
23.07 
28.86 
49.39 
51.82 
44.46 

(b) 

(6) 

(6) 



4,871,960 



626,915 
318,300 
330,551 

1,457,351 
217,353 
537,454 

4,382,759 
906,096 

3,521,951 

5,853,610 



91,651 
44,592 
83,615 
626,211 
95,090 
203,650 
2,225,627 
350,316 
1,151,208 

368,819 



16.32 


125,015 


23.38 


780,894 


25.15 


131,700 


2.43 


1,225,163 


9.4,3 


412,014 


0.77 


1,071,361 


2.18 


705,606 


1.89 


1,181,109 


7.13 


187,748 



12,981,111 



20,361 
181,362 
34,106 
30,794 
46,204 

6,464 
16,449 
23,814 

9,295 

4,694,169 



(») 

(6) 
(6) 

72.30 
71.51 
(6) 
25.55 

c89,652 c66.32 



452,402 
996,096 



8,919,371 



1,648,690 
1,542,359 
1,262,505 
1,131,597 
939,946 
1,591,719 



196,479 
(b) 



676,303 



169,395 
45,170 
30,295 
25,575 
146,000 
231,603 



43.43 
(b) 



2,665,260 
1,680,637 
2,539,891 
1,184,059 
1,054,670 
439,706 
1,194,020 \ 
1,721,295 ■ 

cl4,ISl 

122,993 
361,399 



2.40 
2.26 



1,321,011 

1,258,520 

996,992 



849,815 
341 ,001 
986,035 
488,159 
717,832 
285,516 
416,139 
465,125 

c7,319 

50,017 
87,211 



142,720 
36,326 
21,844 



73,661 
29,317 
162,913 
23,720 
32,821 
137,798 
27,011 
38,488 
156,126 
106,275 
685,306 



2f,,:;25 



39.52 
15.41 
55.05 
66.28 
59.03 
45.61 
41.69 
33.87 
56.72 



39,159 
20,789 
194,327 
119,565 
40.140 
143,963 
62,266 
32,610 
75,116 
174,768 
861,691 



19,106 
10,166 
71,445 
13,433 
22,308 

W 
39,305 
17,325 
28,601 
54,123 

517,013 



48.79 
50.34 



11.23 
55.1 
(&) 

63.: 

53.13 



16 



12 



30.97 



42,491 
11,999 
23,955 
90,923 
500,247 



9.61 



14.62 
14.01 
25.30 
42.97 



16.29 
23.22 
25.90 
2.51 
10.45 
0.60 
2.33 



36.16 



31.88 
20.29 
38.82 
41.23 
68.06 
64.93 
34.85 
27.02 

C51.61 

40.67 
23.93 



18.16 
13.11 



990,510 


487,436 


49.21 


20,595 


10,246 


49.75 


9,118 


5,000 


54.84 


39,864 


10,707 


26.86 


91,874 


8.677 


9.14 


9,658 


6,766 


70.06 



(58.01 

59.11 



Estimated. Foreign parentage i 



i tabulated for only 36 states and territories. 



Dakota territory. 



4 STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

The proportion of persons of foreign parentage to the total population, as shown by the preceding table, has 
steadily increased from 1870 to 1890 in all the states of the North Atlantic division, the largest increases in the 
proportion being in New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. This is also true as regards- 
the states of the North Central division, with the single exception of Missouri. The largest increases in the 
proportion in this division are found in North Dakota, South Dakota, Michigan, Minnesota, Illinois, and Iowa. 

In the South Atlantic division the proportion has increased materially in Florida and but slightly in Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. In all the other states of this division there is a less proportion of 
persons of foreign parentage to the total population in 1890 than in 1870, the largest decreases being in the 
District of Columbia and West Virginia. In the South Central division there has been a perceptible increase in 
the proportion of persons of foreign parentage in 1890 as compared with 1870 in Texas and Arkansas, a very 
slight increase in Alabama and Tennessee, and a decrease in Louisiana, Kentucky, and Mississippi, the loss in 
Louisiana being particularly noticeable. 

In the Western division the proportion of persons of foreign parentage has increased from 1870 to 1890 in 
Colorado, Oregon, Washington, New Mexico, and Montana. In Colorado and Oregon the increase was mainly from 
1870 to 1880, while in the remaining states the increase has been almost wholly since 18S0. There has been a loss 
in the other states and territories in this division, the decrease in the proportion being especially noticeable in 
Idaho, Arizona, and Wyoming. 

Considering the proportion of persons of foreign parentage to total population in the several states and 
territories in 1890, it is seen that the largest proportions were 78.98 per cent in North Dakota and 75.42 per cent 
in Minnesota, or, in other words, more than three-fourths of the entire population of those two states in 1890 were 
of foreign extraction. In Wisconsin the element of foreign extraction constituted very nearly three-fourths of the 
total population, or 73.69 per cent, and in Utah very nearly two-thirds of the population, or 66.28 per cent. In 
South Dakota the persons of foreign parentage constituted a trifle over 60 per cent, while in Nevada, Rhode Island, 
California, New York, Massachusetts, Montana, Arizona, Michigan, and Connecticut they constituted between 50 
and GO per cent of the total population. In Illinois, New Jersey, and Wyoming they constituted very nearly 50 
per cent. North Carolina had the smallest proportion of persons of foreign parentage, or seven-tenths of 1 per cent 
only, and was closely followed by South Carolina with 1.53 per cent and Georgia with 1.78 per cent. In Mississippi, 
Alabama, and Virginia less than 3 per cent of the total population were of foreign parentage, while in Tennessee 
and Arkansas there was a trifle more than 3 per cent. 

In the North Atlantic, North Central, and Western divisions more than two-fifths of the population in 1890 
were of foreign parentage, the percentages being 47.21, 43.02, and 48.67, respectively. The smallest percentages 
in these three divisions were 22.87 in Maine, 20.40 in Indiana, and 15.44 in New Mexico. In the South Atlantic 
division but 6.02 per cent of the population were of foreign parentage, the largest percentages being found in 
Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. In the South Central division oniy 7.59 per cent were of 
foreign parentage, the largest percentages being found in Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma. 

The relative proportions of white and colored persons of native and foreign parentage in the United States in 
1890 are summarized as follows: 



• 

COLOR. 


Total 
population. 


PERSONS OF NATIVE 
PARENTAGE. 


PERSONS OF FOREIGN 
PARENTAGE. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 




62,622,250 


41,916,201 


66.98 


20,676,046 


33.02 




54,983,890 


34,464,247 


62.68 


20,519,643 


37.32 






45,862,023 


34,358,348 j 74.92 


11,503,675 , 25.08 
9,015,968 1 98.84 



















As already stated, the term "foreign parentage" includes all persons, whether themselves of native or foreign 
birth, who had either one or both pai-ents foreign born. The term " native parentage", on the other hand, includes 
all persons, irrespective of birth, who had either both parents native born, one parent native born and one parent 
for whom the birthplace was " unknown", or for whom the birthplace of both parents was " unknown". The chief 
point being to determine the number having one or both parents foreign born, that is, the purely foreign element 
and its proportion to the entire population, all other persons have been considered, for convenience, as being of 
native parentage. 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 5 

For this reason, and because of the small proportion of the whole population for whom the birthplace of both 
parents was "unknown", it was not deemed necessary to present the unknown element separately, Of the whole 
number of native white persons included as of native parentage, less than 3 per cent had both parents " unknown ", 
as shown by the following statement : 



PARENTAGE. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Native white persons of native parentage 


31,358.348 


100.00 


32,915,946 | 95.89 
174,996 0.51 
257,611 j 0.75 













As compared with the whole population (62,622,250), the percentage is of no significance whatever, assuming 
that among the colored of native parentage there were practically none of " unknown " parentage. 

Among the foreign white there has been found a small percentage (1.16) of persons of either native or unknown 
parentage, or 105,899 out of a total of 9,121,867 foreign white persons. Of this number, 67,869, or 64.09 per cent, 
had both parents unknown, while the remaining 38,030, or 35.91 per cent, had either both parents native or one 
parent native and one parent unknown. This last named element, constituting a little more than one-third of the 
whole number of foreign white persons of native parentage, should be really considered as native born and should 
have been returned as "American citizens born abroad". This was not done to any extent by the enumerators, 
although they were specially instructed on this point, as only 8,547 persons were so returned and included 
under the heading of " Native born". The number erroneously reported is comparatively small and has no particular 
bearing on the question of foreign parentage. 

The entire element of foreign parentage in 1890 was, therefore, 20,676,046, or 33.02 per cent of the total 
population, made up of 20,519,643 white persons, or 37.32 per cent of all the white, and 156,403 colored persons, 
or 2.05 per cent of all the colored. The white population of foreign parentage is further subdivided according to 
native white and foreign white, there being 11,503,675 native white persons of foreign parentage and 9,015,968 
foreign white persons of foreign parentage. 

The population of the United States in 1890 subdivided as white and colored and distributed according to 
native and foreign parentage, giving in each case the percentage of the total population, is summarized as follows : 



PARENTAGE. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 






100.00 






Of native parentage 


41,946,204 
20,676,046 

54,983,890 


66.98 
33.02 

87.80 








55.03 
32.77 

12.20 




20,519,643 
7,638,360 




7,481,957 
156,103 


11.95 
0.25 







White persons of foreign parentage in 1890 constituted 32.77 per cent of the total population, while colored 
persons of foreign parentage constituted but 0.25 per cent, the whole element of foreign parentage constituting, 
as before stated, 33.02 per cent. 

The table on the following page shows the number and percentage of persons of foreign parentage among the 
white and colored population of each state and territory in 1890. 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF WHITE AND COLORED POPULATION OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE: 1890. 

WHITE POPULATION. COLORED POPULATION, (a) 



TERRITORIES. 



The United States 54,983, 



Maine 659,263 

New Hampshire 375,840 

Vermont 331,418 

Massachusetts 2,215.373 

Ehode Island 337,859 

Connecticut 733,438 

New York 5,923,952 

New Jersey 1,396,581 

Pennsylvania 5,148,257 



uth Atlantic dr 



5.592.149 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia.. 



West Virginii 
North Carol i i 
South Carolii 

Georgia 

Florida 



140,066 
826,493 
154,695 

1,020,122 
730,077 

1,055,382 
462,008 
978,357 
224,949 



North Central div 



Ohio ?,! 

Indiana i 2, 

Illinois ' 3,' 

Michigan | 2,' 

Wisconsin 1,1 

Minnesota ! 1, 

Iowa 1, 

Missouri ' 2,! 



North Dakota.. 
South Dakota- 
Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central di 



Kentucky 1,590,462 

Tennessee 1,336,637 

Alabama 833,718 

Mississippi 544,851 

Louisiana 558,395 

Texas 

Oklahoma; 

Arkansas./. 



Me 



Persons of foreig 
parentage. 



North Atlantic division 17,121,981 8,196,677 



Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washingto 

Oregon 

California 



150,713 
121,101 
101,337 

1,253,926 
199,969 
374,714 

3,390,550 
696,746 

1,901,621 

521,650 



Persons of foreign 
parentage. 



Number. Per cent 



,360 156,403 



32.22 
31.48 
56.60 
59.19 
51.09 
57.23 
49.89 
37.00 



23,570 
7,617 
12,820 
73,901 
48,352 
109,757 



30,606 
219,470 
46,433 
43,053 
59,571 
10,805 
16,694 
31,320 



9,609,841 



1,245,942 

446,893 

1,875,327 

1,142,753 

1,242,399 

981,130 

832,927 

668,226 

114,115 

198,953 

449,485 

381,691 



21.85 
30.18 
30.02 
4.22 
8.16 
1.02 
3.61 
3.20 
14.98 



34.76 
20.82 
49.76 
55.13 
73.93 
75.70 
43.81 
26.43 
79.13 
60.79 
42.94 



7,416 
1,436 
3,080 



32,717 
562,565 
689,141 
858,996 
166,473 

450,352 



1,364 
6,912 



.73 



111.96 



87,511 
45,668 
57,879 
21,005 
6,407 
5,667 
10,810 
150,726 
596 
1,518 
12,022 
50,543 



36,917 
24,320 



11.51 
3.94 
4.43 
4.46 

25.92 



268,173 
430,681 
679,299 
741,749 
560,192 



1,409 
4,489 



6.S5 



24.41 
27.83 
13.94 
22.04 
6.32 
6.04 
10.01 
2.97 
2.81 

0.36 

0.34 
0.42 
0.66 
0.08 
0.24 
O.OS 
0.13 
0.16 
4.15 



1.41 
0.72 
3.28 

14.63 
9.52 

11.52 
2.41 
0.72 

31.88 

22.00 
3.12 
0.94 



0.12 
0.17 
0.14 
0.19 
0.80 



1,745,935 


334,545 


19.16 


489,588 


3,628 


0.74 


58,826 


7,179 


12.20 


3,008 


48 


1.60 


818,752 


37,426 


4.57 


309,427 


646 


0.21 


2,870,257 


1,370,696 


47.76 


157,356 


102,740 


65.29 


127,271 


70,693 


55.55 


4,888 


2,968 


60.72 


59,275 


28,606 


48.60 


1,430 


511 


35.73 


404,468 


161,302 


39.88 


7,730 


1,611 


20. S4 


112,719 


23,232 


16.28 


10,874 


488 


4.49 


55,580 


31,344 I 


56.39 


4,010 


1,477 


36.56 


205,899 


136,811 


66.45 


2,006 


9S7 


49.20 


39,084 


21,126 


61.73 


6,677 


2,835 


43.21 


82,018 


36,452 


44.4! 


2,367 


2,036 


86.02 


340,513 


151,990 


44.64 


8,877 


4,136 


46.59 


301,758 


96,429 1 


31.96 


12,009 


9,816 


81.99 


1,111,672 


609,511 


54.83 


96,458 


75,795 


78.58 



a Persons of negro descent, Chinese, Japanese, and civilized Indians. 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 



The percentages of persons of foreign parentage among the white population do not differ materially from those 
already shown for the whole population irrespective of color, except for a few states only. This is particularly the 
case in the North Atlantic, North Central, and Western divisions. In the South Atlantic and South Central 
divisions, however, the proportions of white persons of foreign jmrentage are somewhat increased, especially in the 
District of Columbia, Maryland, Florida, Delaware, Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi. 

Among the colored population, which includes persons of negro descent, Chinese, Japanese, and civilized 
Indians, the percentage of persons of foreign parentage was quite large in certain states, although for the United 
States as a whole they constituted only 2.05 per cent of the colored. This is especially true in the Western 
division, with the exception of New Mexico, and in several of the states along the Canadian border. These large 
percentages are principally clue in the Western division to the large number of Chinese, and in the border states to 
the presence of civilized Indians and persons of negro descent who have come from Canada. 

The element of foreign parentage among the white population has been distributed, as already stated, according 
to the principal nationalities of the parents. This was not done for the colored, as colored persons of foreign 
parentage constituted but 2.05 per cent of all the colored, and because, in conformity to the classification of countries 
used for the white element of foreign parentage, the nationality of the parents for fully 95 per cent could not be 
specifically stated, but would be included under the heading of ''Other countries". For these reasons no tabulation 
regarding the colored population was considered necessary beyond a general statement of the number having either 
native or foreign parentage, as already defined. 

Considering the element of foreign parentage among the white population in greater detail, the followino- 
table is obtained : 



PARENTAGE. 


WHITE PERSONS OP 
FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 


NATIVE WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 


FOREIGN WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Percent. 




20,519,643 


100.00 


11,503,675 


100.00 


9,015,968 


100.00 




17,011,781 
2, .124, 693 
1,083,169 


82.90 
11.82 
5.28 


8,085,019 
2,378,729 
1,039,927 


70.28 
20.68 
9.04 


8,926,762 
45,964 # 
43,242' 


99.01 
0.51 
0.48 









Of the total white persons of foreign parentage, 17,011,781, or 82.90 per cent, had both parents foreign born, 
leaving 3,507,862, or 17.10 per cent, with one parent foreign and one parent native. Among the native white those 
having both parents foreign constituted 70.28 per cent, while among the foreign white all but 1 per cent had both 
parents foreign. Of the total white persons with but one parent foreign, 2,424,693, or 11.82 per cent of all white 
persons of foreign parentage, had a foreign father and a native mother, and 1,083,169, or 5.28 per cent of all white 
persons of foreign parentage, had a foreign mother and a native father. 

Of the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage in 1890 who had both parents foreign born, 16,089,513, 
or 78.41 per cent of all the white persons of foreign parentage, had both parents born in the same country, leaving 
only 922,268, or 4.49 per cent of the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage, who were of mixed 
foreign parentage, that is, father born in Ireland and mother born in England, father born in England and mother 
born in Ireland, father born in Germany and mother born in France, and so on. The figures in detail for the native 
white and foreign white are as follows: 



PARENTAGE. 


WHITE PERSONS OF 
FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 


NATIVE WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 


FOREIGN WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




20,519,643 


100.00 


11,503,675 ' 


100.00 

64.07 
6.21 
29.72 


9,015,968 


100.00 




16,089,513 

922,268 

3,507,862 


78.41 
4.49 
17.10 


7,370,749 

714,270 

3,418,656 


8,718,764 
207,998 
89,206 


96.70 
2.31 
0.99 


One parent foreign, one parent native 



As already stated, the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage in 1890 constituted 32.77 per 
cent of the entire population of the United States. The table on the following page shows the number of native 
and foreign white persons of foreign parentage in each state and territory in 1890, together with the percentage of 
the total population in each case. 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

NUMBER OF NATIVE AND FOREIGN WHITE PERSONS OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE AND PERCENTAGE 

OF TOTAL POPULATION: 1890. 




NATIVE "WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 



FOREIGN WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 



The United States. 
North Atlantic di\ 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massach usetts... . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 



South Atlantic div 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Colun 

Virginia 

West Virginia.. . 
North Carolina.. 
South Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Florida 

North Central divi 



Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 
South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



47.10 

22.80 
32.16 
31.39 
56.01 
57.88 
50.21 
56.53 
48.22 
36.22 



18.16 
23.93 

20.15 
2.60 
7.81 
0.67 



33.93 
20.38 
49.01 
54.58 
73.65 
75.37 
43.57 
24.91 
78.87 
60.51 
42.45 
26.75 



4.355,710 

73,865 
50,015 
62,149 
606,410 
94,282 
193,018 
1,837,453 
371,878 
1,066,580 



17,615 
156,421 
28,869 
25,175 
41,011 
7,237 
10,670 
19,683 
15,773 



42.97 5,608,315 



791,735 
302,735 
1,014,804 
613,590 
726,835 
518,151 
513,187 
437,699 
63,347 
109,215 
250,420 
236,597 



Per cent 
of total 
popu- 
lation. 



11.17 
13.28 
18.70 
27.09 
27.29 
25.87 
30.64 



10.45 
15.00 
12.53 
1.52 
5.38 
0.45 
0.93 
1.07 



25.08 

21.56 
13.81 
27.31 
29.31 
43.09 
39.80 
26.84 
16.34 
34.67 
33.22 
23.65 
16.58 



76,848 
71,086 
42,188 
647,486 
105,687 
181,666 
1 ,553,097 
324,868 
838,041 

199,196 

12,991 
93,019 
17,564 
17,878 
18,560 
3,568 
6,024 
11,637 
17,925 



454,207 
144,158 
830,523 
529,163 
515,564 
462,979 
319,740 
230,527 
80,768 
89,738 
199,065 
145,094 



Per cent 
of total 
popu- 



22.07 

11.63 
18.88 
12.69 
28.92 
30.59 
24.31 
25.89 
22.48 
15.94 



2.43 
0.22 
0.52 
0.63 
4.58 

17.89 

12.37 
6.57 
21.70 
25.27 
30.56 
35.57 
16.73 
8.60 
41.20 
27.29 
18.80 
10.17 



South Central di 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



12.94 
14.96 
11.61 



507,319 

124,304 
33,257 
22,693 
16,773 
96,465 

185,586 
4,563 
23,708 



7.38 
2.10 



313,430 

58,741 
19,364 
14,224 

7,547 
48,261 
148,959 

2,616 
13,718 



3.16 

1.10 
0.94 
0,59 



Montana ... 
Wyoming.. 
Colorado ... 
New Mexic 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washingto 

Oregon 

California.. 



45.27 

53.49 
47.45 
39.13 
15.13 
52.57 
65.80 
52.72 
43.20 
43.50 
30.73 
50.45 



709,847 I 23.44 



30,959 
14,520 
79,814 
12,539 
14,027 
85,314 
12,406 
21,154 
68,757 
49,967 
320,390 



23.43 
23.92 
19.36 
8.17 
23.53 
41.03 
27.11 
25.07 
19.68 
15.92 
26.52 



660,849 

39,734 
14,286 
81,488 
10,693 
17,317 
51,497 
11,720 
15,298 
83,233 
46,462 
289,121 



30.06 
23.53 
19.77 
6.96 
29.01 
24.77 
25.61 
18.13 
23.82 
14.81 
23.93 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 9 

In the United States as a whole, the native white persons of foreign parentage in 1890 numbered 11,503,675 
and constituted 18.37 per cent of the total population, while the foreign white persons of foreign parentage numbered 
9,015,968 and constituted 14.40 per cent, the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage being, as before 
stated, 20,519,643, or 32.77 per cent of the total population. 

In the North Atlantic division the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage constituted 47.10 per 
cent of the total population in 1890, the native white persons of foreign parentage constituting 25.03 per cent and 
the foreign white persons of foreign parentage 22.07 per cent. In Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and 
Rhode Island the foreign white persons of foreign parentage constituted a larger percentage of the total population 
than the native white persons of foreign parentage, the largest difference being in New Hampshire, where the 
percentage for the native white persons was 13.28, as against 18.88 for foreign white persons. This excess is caused 
by the fact that, as compared with the other states in this division, these states have received a larger proportion of 
the immigration which came to this country during the last years of the decade from 1880 to 1890, particularly 
the French Canadian element. In all the other states of this division the native white element of foreign parentage 
exceeded the foreign white population of foreign parentage, showing that the effect of the great influx of foreign 
blood into this country iu recent years has not been so marked as in the more easterly states. 

In the North Central division 25.08 per cent of the total population in 1890 consisted of native white persons 
of foreign parentage as compared with 17.89 per cent of foreign white persons of foreign parentage, the entire 
element, both native white and foreign white, of foreign parentage constituting 42.97 per cent of the total population. 
In all the states of this division, with the single exception of North Dakota, the proportion of native white persons 
of foreign parentage to the total population in 1890 was larger than the proportion of foreign white persons of 
foreign parentage. In North Dakota, however, the native white element of foreign extraction constituted 34.67 
per cent of the total population, while the foreign white element of foreign parentage constituted 44.20 per cent. 

In the Western division the white persons of foreign parentage constituted 45.27 per cent of the total population, 
the native white element of foreign parentage constituting 23.44 per cent and the foreign white element of foreign 
parentage 21. S3 per cent. In Montana, Arizona, and Washington the proportions of foreign white persons of foreign 
parentage were considerably more than those of native white persons of foreign parentage, while in Wyoming, 
Colorado, and Oregon the proportions were relatively the same. In the remaining states and territories the reverse 
was true, especially in Utah and Idaho. 

In the states comprising the South Atlantic and South Central divisions, with the single exception of Florida, 
there was an excess in the proportion of native white persons of foreign parentage as compared with foreign 
white persons of foreign parentage. In the South Atlantic division the native white persons of foreign parentage 
in 1S90 constituted 3.64 per cent of the total population and the foreign white persons of foreign parentage 2.25 per 
cent. In the South Central division 4.62 per cent of the total population were native white persons of foreign 
parentage and 2.86 per cent foreign white persons of foreign parentage. 

The presence of native and foreign white persons of foreign extraction in the 124 principal cities of the United 
States, in proportion to the total population, is shown in the table on the following page. 



10 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 



NUMBER OF TOTAL, WHITE, NATIVE WHITE, AND FOREIGN WHITE PERSONS OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE, AND 
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION, FOR CITIES HAVING 25,000 INHABITANTS OR MORE : 1890. 





Total 
population. 


TOTAL PERSONS OF 
FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 


■WHITE PERSONS OF 
FOREIGN PARENTAGE. j' 


NATIVE WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 


FOREIGN WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 


CITIES. 


Number. 


; 

Percent 
of total 
popula- 
tion. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total 
popula- 
tion. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total 
popula- 
tion . 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total 
popula- 
tion. 




1,515,301 

1,099,850 

1,016,964 

806.313 

451,770 

448,477 
434,439 
298.997 
296,908 
261,353 

255.664 
242,039 
238,617 
230.392 
205,876 

204,468 
181,830 
164,738 ; 
163,003 
161,129 

140,452 
133, S96 
133,156 
132,716 
132,146 

106,713 
105,436 
105,287 
91,923 

88,150 

88,143 
81.655 
81,434 
81,388 
81,298 

78,347 
77,696 
76,168 
75,215 
74,398 

70,028 
65.533 
64,495 
61,431 
61,220 

60.956 
60,278 
58,661 
58,313 
57,458 

55.727 
55,154 
51,955 
53.230 
52,324 

50.756 
50.395 
50.093 
48,866 
48,682 

46,385 
46.322 
41,8)3 
41,651 
44.179 

44.126 
44,007 
43.648 
43.189 
42,837 

41.024 
40,733 
40.634 
40,152 
39,385 

38,316 
38,067 
37.806 
37.764 
37,718 


1,219,218 
856,754 
592,342 
572,827 
304,773 

304,769 
181,010 
233.667 
204,776 
195,957 

197,152 
108, S53 
161,319 
46,930 
158,881 

176,583 
121,800 
108,926 
119,297 
69 , ISO 

65,754 
93,128 
100,048 
45,793 
79,821 

48.904 
39,236 
65,239 
59,935 
35,462 

53.195 
52,721 
52,513 
9,337 
47,938 

57,778 
56,330 
9,991 
56.584 
61,537 

46,133 
4,748 
13.137 
21,111 
26,811 

41,658 
38.163 
11,270 
18,591 
29,001 

26,162 
13.862 
7.879 
30,992 
18,309 

24.092 
24,225 
38.015 
29.357 
29,635 

26,992 
31,815 
29,683 
35,670 
22,729 

30.466 
29,452 
35.555 
8,662 
22,579 

21,364 
23.637 
26,141 
21,187 
6,330 

13.432 
8.042 
18.391 
25.417 
23,152 


80.46 
77.90 
56.58 
71.04 
67.46 

67.96 
41.67 
78.15 
68.97 i 
74.98 

77.11 
44.97 
67.61 
20.37 
77.17 

86.36 | 
66.99 
66.12 ! 
73.19 | 
43.12 

46.82 
69.55 
75.14 
34.50 ' 
60.40 

45.83 
37.21 
61.96 1 
63.14 
40.23 

60.35 
62.28 
64.49 
11.47 
58.97 

73.75 
72.50 
13.12 
75.23 
82.71 

65.88 
7.25 
20.37 
31.37 
43.79 

68.34 
63.31 
19.21 

31.88 
50.47 

46.95 
25.13 
11.34 
58.22 
34.99 

47.47 
48.07 
36.02 
60.08 
60.87 

58.19 
68.68 
66.19 
79.88 
51.45 

69.04 
66.93 
81.46 
20.06 
52.71 

52. OH 
58.03 
61.34 
52.77 
16.07 

35.06 
21.13 
48.65 
67.30 
61.38 


1,215,463 
855,523 
590, 5P3 
571,462 
304,312 

302,839 
180,319 
207,477 
204.610 
195,736 

196,785 
106,664 
161,120 
46,433 
158,157 

176,519 
121,621 
108,844 
119,067 
69,384 

65,628 
93,057 
99,925 
45,533 
79,558 

47,821 
39.181 
65,174 
59,819 
35,398 

53,079 
52,635 
52.388 
9,280 
47,787 

57,690 
56,108 
9,924 
56,557 
61.500 

45,659 
4.708 
13.028 
21.010 
26,792 

41,640 
38,019 
11,248 
18,439 
28,927 

25.760 
13,807 
7,725 
30,895 
18,262 

24.054 
22,233 
18,025 
29,311 
28,312 

22.388 
31,766 
29.399 
35,636 
22,673 

30,449 
29,410 
35.530 
8,426 
22,064 

21,321 
23,078 
26,113 
21.169 
6,299 

13,384 
7.913 
18,369 

25,35? 

••:•:, 136 


80.21 
77.79 1 
56.41 
70.87 
67.36 

67.53 
41.51 
69.39 1 
68.92 
74.89 

76.97 

44.07 
67.52 
20.15 
76.82 

86.33 

66.89 
66.07 
73.05 
43.06 

46.73 
69.50 
75.04 
34.31 
60.20 

44.81 
37.16 
61.90 
63.05 
40.16 

60.22 
62.18 
64.33 
11.40 
58.78 

73.63 
72.21 
13.03 
75.19 
82.66 

65.20 
7.18 
20.20 
31.25 
43.76 

68.31 
63.07 
19.17 
31.62 
50.34 

46.23 
25.03 
14.06 
58.04 
34.90 

47.39 
44.12 
35.98 
59.98 
58.22 

48.27 
68.58 
65.56 
79.80 
51.32 

69.00 
66.90 
81.40 
19.51 
51.51 

51.97 
56.66 
64.26 
52.72 
15.99 

34.93 
20. S7 
''.59 
67.23 
61.31 


582.154 
412,164 
324,006 
312,099 
191,354 

147,469 
111,942 
107,102 
133,573 
99,723 

108,551 
73,075 
88,266 
28,869 
78,551 

97,224 
66,383 
48,940 
66,027 
46,053 

32,183 
53,655 
47,541 
25,244 
39,517 

23,694 
24.834 
39,227 
37,703 
23,032 

30,970 
26.422 
30,62S 
5,886 
25,013 

26,824 
21,892 
6,205 
31,091 
24,186 

22,309 
2,900 
7.823 
12,046 
17,274 

24,484 
19.010 
6,536 
10,837 
15.073 

12.296 
7,512 
4.658 
16,574 
11,264 

16.955 
11,573 
10,247 
15,207 
15,263 

9,850 
16.862 
16.485 
15,204 
11,880 

10,422 
17,711 
18,823 
5,113 
9,338 

13,163 
9.039 

15,848 
10,477 
3,959 

7,771 
4.133 
9,370 
14,308 
13,032 


38.42 
37.48 i 
30.95 
38.71 
42,36 

32.88 
25.77 
35.82 
44.99 
38.15 

42.46 
30.19 
36.99 
12.53 
38.15 

47.55 
36.51 
29.71 
40.51 
28.58 

22.92 
40.07 
35.70 
19.02 
29.90 

22.20 
23.55 
37.26 
39.72 
26.13 

35.14 
31.21 
37.61 
7.23 
.30.77 

34.24 
28.17 
8.15 
41 .33 
32.51 

31.86 
4.42 
12.13 
19.61 
28.21 

40.17 
31.54 
11.14 
18.58 
26.23 

22.07 
13.62 
8. 4.8 
31.14 
21.53 

33.40 
22.97 
20.45 
31.12 
31.35 

21.24 
36.40 
36.76 
34.05 
26.89 

23.62 
40.25 
43.12 
11.84 
21.80 

32.09 
22.19 
39.00 
26.0*3 
10^05 

20.28 
10.86 
24.79 
37.89 
34.55 


633,309 
443,359 
266,577 
259,363 
112,958 

155,370 
68,377 

100,375 
71,067 
96,013 

88,234 
33,589 
72,854 
17,564 i 
79,606 

79,295 
55,238 
59,904 
53,040 
23,331 

33,445 
39,402 
52,384 
20,289 
40,011 

24,127 
14,347 
25,947 
22,146 
12,366 

22,109 
26,213 
21,760 
3,394 
22,774 

30,866 
31,216 
3.719 
25,466 
37,314 

23,350 
1,808 
5,205 
8.994 
9,518 

17,156 
19.009 
4,712 
7,602 
13,854 

13.464 
6.295 
3.067 

14,321 
6,998 

7.099 
10,6f0 

7,778 
14.104 
13,079 

12,538 
14,904 
12,914 
20.432 
10,793 

20,027 
11,729 
16,707 
3,313 
12,726 

8,158 
14.039 
10,265 
10,692 
2,340 
\ 
5,613 
3,810 
8.999 
11,081 
10.104 


41.79 




40.31 




25.46 








25.00 




31.65 


t'°Ii " Ml 


15.74 


San Francisco, Cal 

Cincinnati, Ohio 


33.57 
23.93 
36.74 




31.51 


Washington, D. C 


13.88 
30.53 
7.62 
38.67 




38. 78 




30.38 




36.36 


Jersey city, N. -T 


32.54 
14.48 




23.81 




29.43 




39.34 


Kansas city, Mo 


15.29 
30.30 


Colo 


22.01 




13.61 


All ' h nv Pa 


24.64 




23.33 




14.03 




25.08 
30.97 




26.72 




4.17 




28.01 




39.39 

44.04 




4.88 




33.86 
50.15 

33.34 
2.76 




8.07 
14.64 
15.55 




28.14 


Reading. Pa 

Camden, N. J... 


31.53 
8.03 
13.04 
24.11 

24.16 




11.41 




5.58 




26.90 




13.37 
13.99 


Los Angeles, (~- : il 


21.15 
15.53 




28.86 




26.87 

27.03 




32.18 




28.80 
45.75 


Utica, N. Y 

Savannah, Ca 


24.43 

45.38 
26.65 
38.28 
7.67 
29.71 




19,88 




34.47 
25.26 




26.63 
5.94 

14.65 
10.01 




23.80 
29.34 
26.79 



FOREIGN PARENTAGES 



11 



NUMBER OF TOTAL, WHITE, NATIVE WHITE, AND FOREIGN WHITE PERSONS OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE, AND 
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION, FOR CITIES HAVING 25,000 INHABITANTS OR MORE : 1890— Continued. 



San Antonio, Tex. 

Covington, Ky 

Portland, Me 

Taconia, Wash 

Holyoke, Mass 

Fort Wayne, Ind... 
Binghamton, N. Y 

Norfoik, Va 

Wheeling, W. Va.. 
Augusta, Ga 



Youngstown, Ohio.. 

Duluth, Minn 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Lancaster, Pa 

Springfield, Ohio 



Quiney, III 

Mobile, Ala.... 
Topeka, Kan.. 



Elmira, N. Y. 

Salem, Mass 

Long; Island city, N. Y.. 

Altoona, Pa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Terre Haute. Ind . 

Chattanooga, Tenn 



Galveston, Tex 

Waterbury, Conn- 
Chelsea, Mass 

Bay city, Mich 

Pawttuket, R. I 



Akron, Ohl 



Haverhill, Mass. . 
Brockton, Mass.... 
Williamsport, Pa.. 

Davenport, Iowa.. 
Sacramento, Oal... 

Canton, Ohio 

Birmingham, Ala. 
Little Rock, Ark.. 



Total 
populatio 



Auburn, N. Y.... 
Taunton, Mass . 
Allenlown, Pa. 
, Wis.. 



37,673 
37,371 
36,425 
36.U06 
35,637 

35,393 

35,01)5 
34,871 
31,522 
33,300 



31,494 
31.076 
31 ,007 
30,893 
30,801 

30,506 
30,337 
30,311 
30,217 
29,100 

29,084 
28.646 
27,909 
27,839 
27,633. 

27,601 
27,557 
27,412 
27 294 
27,132 



26,189 
26,178 
25,874 

25,858 
25,418 
25,228 

25,090 



18,853 
21,062 
16,472 
19.734 
29,573 

19,581 



IS, 738 
7,213 
8,013 
13,131 
17,564 

24,593 
8,012 
21,340 
10,145 
3,212 

13,967 
20,424 
15,308 
21,212 
18,853 

13,946 
6,903 
11,477 
12,266 
7,732 

19,409 
16,131 
11,318 
3,542 

4,775 

14,284 
14,376 
4,928 
18,477 



Per cent 
of total 
popula- 
tion. 



50.04 
56.36 
45.22 
51.80 



8.24 
54.64 
9.59 

70.47 
75.21 
69.74 
31.15 
34.12 



80.62 
26.51 
70.40 



71.30 
54.85 
76.20 
68.23 

50.53 
25.05 
41.87 
44.94 
28.50 

72.23 
61.13 
43.22 
13.53 
18.45 

55.24 
56.49 
19.53 



18,688 
21,053 
16,366 
19,615 
29,549 

19.562 
12,136 
2,835 
18,851 



18,723 
7,111 
7,970 
13,418 
17,510 

24,575 
8,035 
21,330 
10,137 
3,176 

13,811 
20,397 
.15,118 
21,162 
18,835 

13,930 
6,848 
11,442 
12,245 
7,726 

19,401 
14,252 
11,312 
3,505 
4,730 

14,231 
14,317 
4,927 
18,473 



Per cent 
of total 
popula- 



49.61 
56.34 
44.93 
54.48 



70.43 
75.03 
69.60 
31.08 
34.04 

59.45 
22.88 
25.70 
43.43 
56.85 

80.56 
26.49 
70.37 
33,55 
10.91 

47.49 
71.20 
54,17 
76.02 
68.16 

50.47 
24.85 
41.74 
44.86 
28.48 

72.20 
54.01 
43.19 
13.39 
18.28 

55.04 
56.26 
19.53 
73.63 



NATIVE WHITE 

PERSONS OF FOREIGN 

PARENTAGE. 



Per cent 
of total 
popula- 
tion. 



FOREIGN 
PERSONS OF FOREIGN 
PARENTAGE. 



10,018 
14,433 
8,730 
7,625 
12,561 

12,799 
7,468 
1,735 



7,159 

12,648 
5,027 
4,604 
8,175 
8,465 

13,427 
4,933 

13,677 
6,666 
1,913 

8,126 
10,862 

7,380 
10,564 

9,505 

8,095 
3,881 
5,624 
6,030 
4,896 

11,070 
8,463 
7,112 
1,935 
2,681 

8,646 
7,066 
2,891 
10,198 



26.59 
38.62 
23.97 
21.18 
35.25 



14.85 
26.46 
27.48 



6.57 

27.94 
37.92 
26.44 
37.95 
34.40 



14.08 
20.52 
22.08 
18.05 



33.44 
27.77 
11.46 
40.65 



8,670 
6,620 
7,036 
11,990 
16,988 

6,763 
4,668 
1,100 
6,276 
1,169 

10,515 
15,952 
10,809 
3,670 
3,697 

6,075 
2,084 
3,366 
5,243 
9,015 

11,148 
3,102 
7,653 
3,471 
1,263 

5,685 
9,535 
7,738 
10,598 
9,330 

5,835 
2,967 
5,818 
6,215 
2,830 

8,331 
5,789 
4,200 
1,570 
2,049 

5,585 
7,251 
2,036 
8,275 



Per cent 
of total 
popula- 



47.67 

19.11 
13.34 

3.15 
18.18 

3.51 

31.65 
48.17 
33.74 
11.46 
11.59 

19.29 
6.70 
10.65 
16.97 
29.37 

36.54 
10.23 
25.25 
11.49 
4.34 



31.00 
21.94 
16.04 
6.00 



21.00 
28.49 
8.07 
32.98 



In New York city and in Chicago practically four-fifths of the total population in 1890 were of foreign parentage, 
the exact percentages being 80.46 for New York and 77.90 for Chicago. Of the other cities having a population of 
400,000 or more, the percentages were 56.58 for Philadelphia, 71.04 for Brooklyn, 67.46 for St. Louis, 67.96 for 
Boston, and 41.67 for Baltimore. Of all the cities considered, the largest percentage was found in Milwaukee, Wis., 
where 86.36 per cent of its population in 1890 was of foreign parentage. The next largest percentages were found 
in Holyoke and Fall River, in Massachusetts, where 82.98 per cent and 82.71 per cent, respectively, were of foreign 
parentage. Lawrence, in the same state, had also 79.88 per cent of foreign parentage. Hoboken, in New Jersey, 
had 81.46 per cent of its population of foreign parentage, and Long Island city, in New York, 80.62 per cent, or 
practically the same as for New York city. Other cities which had at least 75 per cent of their population of 
foreign parentage in 1890 were San Francisco, in California, with 78.15 per cent; Detroit and Bay city, in Michigan, 
with 77.17 per cent and 76.20 per cent, respectively; Buffalo, in New York, with 77.11 per cent; Scranton, in 
Pennsylvania, with 75.23 per cent; Duluth and St. Paul, in Minnesota, with 75.21 per cent and 75.14 per cent 
respectively, and Cleveland, in Ohio, with 74.98 per cent. 

Classifying native and foreign white persons of foreign parentage according to the number either having both 
parents born as specified, having one parent so born and one parent native, or who were of mixed foreign parentage, 
the table on the following page is obtained. 



1'2 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 



WHITE PERSONS OF FOREIGN PARENT 



SCEI'lI'IEl) . IH NTKiKS. 



All classes.. 



Ireland 

Germany 

England 

Scotland 

Wales 

Canada (English).. 
Canada (French)... 
Sweden 



Total. 



6,851,; 
1,922,1 



specified. 



Having one 
r both parent born a 
' — ecified and 
ne parent 
native. 



17,011,781 



way. 



Denmark 

Bohemia 

France 

Hungary 

Italy 

Russia 

Other countri 
Of mixed for. 



4,142,199 
5,776,186 
1,330,123 
393,158 
169,832 
503,266 
442,041 
690,401 
550,227 
194,449 
205,365 
177,007 
69,761 
236,008 
248,165 
961,325 
922,268 



| Having one 
Having both: parent born 
'parents born! as specified 
tied, and one par 
mt native. 



8,085,019 



2,924, 
4,072,, 
l,068,i 



2,164,397 
3,006,342 
488,661 
134,243 
75,375 
183,602 
157,104 
217,217 
238,679 
66,196 
90,195 



Having both 
parents bom 
as specified. 



9,015,968 



1,989,066 
2,779,229 
854,135 
263,758 
95,037 
357,117 
288,990 
473,902 
312,480 
128,584 
115,342 
109,743 
56,833 
181,637 
178,696 
623,421 
207,998 



8,926,762 



1,977,802 
2,769,844 
841,462 
258,915 
94,457 
319,664 
284,937 
473,184 
311,548 
128,253 
115,170 
108,435 
56,713 
181,266 
178,363 
618,751 
207,998 



Having one 
parent born 
as specified 
md one par- 
ent native. 



89,206 



11,264 

9,385 

12,673 

4,843 

5^0 

37,453 

4,053 

718 

932 



Taking the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage and classifying them according to the 
nationality of the parents, the following table of percentages is obtained, showing the percentage of the whole 
number of white persons having one or both parents born as specified, and, in addition, the percentage of the whole 
number represented by those having both parents' so born and those having one parent so born and one parent native : 





WHITE PERSONS OF FOREIGN 




PARENTAGE 










Having 


SPECIFIED COUNTRIES. 




Having 
both 


one par- 
ent born 




Total. 


parents 
born 


as speci- 
fied and 






as speci- 
fied. 


one par- 
ent na- 
tive. 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 




100.00 


82.90 


17.10 


Ireland 


23.94 
33.39 


20.18 
28.15 


3.76 
5.24 




England 


9.37 


6.48 


2.S9 




2.64 
1.07 


1.92 
0.83 


0.72 
0.24 








2.50 


,15 


0.35 




3.54 
2.91 
1.04 


3.36 
2.6S 
0.95 


0.18 
0.23 
0.09 




Denmark 




1.05 








1.25 


0.87 


0.38 




















1.21 








5.43 


4.69 


0.74 




4.49 


4.49 









From these two tables it is seen that the white persons in 1890 who had both parents born in Germany 
numbered 5,776,186, or 28.15 per cent of the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage, and those who 
had one parent born in Germany and one parent native 1,075,378, or 5.24 per cent, these two classes 
combined numbering 6,851.564 and constituting 33.39 per cent. The whole number of white persons who had both 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 



13 



parents born in Ireland was 4,142,199, or 20.18 per cent, and those who had one parent so born and one parent 
native 771,039. or 3.76 per cent, making a combined total of 4,913,238, or 23.94 per cent. Taken together, 
white persons of German and Irish parentage, as just defined, constituted in 1890 considerably more than one-half 
of all white persons of foreign parentage. White persons of English parentage numbered 1,922.638, or 9.37 per 
cent of all white persons of foreign parentage, those having both parents born in England numbering 1,330,123 and 
constituting 6.48 per cent, and those having one parent born in England and one parent native, 592 515, or 2.89 
per cent; including those of Scotch and Welsh extraction, the entire element of British parentage constituted 
13.08 per cent. Of the remaining nationalities, white persons of British American parentage, combining those of 
English Canadian and French Canadian extraction, constituted 7.08 per cent, and those of Scandinavian parentage, 
including Denmark, 7.49 per cent. White persons of Bohemian, French, Italian, and Russian parentage 
constituted, in each case, a little more than 1 per cent, while those of Hungarian parentage constituted a little 
more than one-third of 1 per cent. Those having one or both parents born in other countries not specified 
constituted 5.43 per cent, and, as previously stated, those of mixed foreign parentage 4.49 per cent. 

The following table shows the percentages of white persons having both parents born as specified or having one 
parent born as specified and one parent native : 



-spmifif;. ■ <il'STE:ii> 



Having 
both par- 
ents born 
as speci- 
fied. 



Having one 
parent 
born as 
specified 
and one 
parent na- 
tive. 



Ireland 

Germany 

England 

Scotland 

Wales 

Canada (English) 
Canada (French). 
Sweden 



Per cent. 
84.31 
84.30 
69.18 
72.70 
77.01 
53.55 
86.10 
95.04 



Per cent 
15.69 



22.99 
46.45 
13.90 



M'K'IFII- II < .irvTIIII-. 





Having or 


Having 


parent 


both par- 


burn as 


ents bora 


, specific* 


as speci- 


1 and one 


fied. 


1 parent na 




tive. 


Per cent. 


Per cent 



Norway : 92.30 

Denmark 91.28 

Bohemia , 95.29 

France : 69.28 

Hungary 97.51 

Italy 91.93 

Russia... 97.46 

Other countries 86.29 



4.71 
30.72 
2.46 
5.07 
2,51 
13.71 



White persons of English Canadian parentage had in 1890 the smallest percentage of both parents born as 
specified, or a little more than one-half, and were followed by those of English and of French parentage, or a little 
more than two-thirds in each case. 

The whole number of white persons of foreign parentage in 1890 constituted, as has been previously stated, 
32.77 per cent of the total population. The following table shows the proportion of the total population represented 
by each class of persons of foreign extraction, when considered according to the nationality of their parents : 



SPECIFIED COUNTRIES. 


Per cent 
of total 
popula- 
tion. 


! Per cent 
of total 

SPECIFIED COUNTRIES. , 
tion. 




32.77 

7.85 
10. 94 
3.07 
0.86 
0.35 
1.50 
0.82 
1.16 


Denmark 0.34 








France 0,11 






Italy 0.40 

Of mixed foreign parentage... 1.47 











From, this table it is seen that the white persons of German parentage constituted 10.94 per cent of the total 
population in 1890 and those of Irish parentage 7.85 per cent. White persons of English parentage constituted 
3.07 per cent of the entire population, while, if those of Scotch and Welsh parentage are included, those of British 
parentage constituted 4.28 per cent. White persons of British American parentage constituted 2.32 per cent of 
the total population and those of Scandinavian parentage 2.45 per cent. 

The table on the following page shows for each state and territory the number of white persons in 1890 who 
had either both parents born as specified or one parent so born and one parent native, or who were of mixed foreign 
parentage, together with the percentage in each case of all white persons of foreign parentage. 



14 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF WHITE PERSONS OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE 



The United States 



North Atlantic divi- 



Total 
white 
persons 
of foreign 
parent- 
age. 



Num- 
ber. 



England. ' Scotland. 



Num- 
ber. 



20, 519,643 1,913,238 23.91 6,851,564 



8,196,677 3,040,275 1 37.09 |2, 036, 161 I 24.84 



Maine 150,713 

New Hampshire 121,101 

Vermont 104,337 

Massachusetts | 1,253,926 

Rhode Island.. 
Connecticut.... 

New York 

New Jersey.. .. 



199,969 

374,714 

3,390,550 

696,746 

11 ! Pennsylvania ; 1,904,621 



12 i South Atlantic divi- 

sion. 

13 Delaware 

14 Maryland 

15 District of Columbia 

16 Virginia 

17 West Virginia 

18 North Carolina 

19 South Carolina ' 

20 I Georgia 



31,310 
33,232 
29,271 

599,323 
89,744 

186,812 
1,178,364 

242,148 

650,071 

139,469 



20.77 
27.44 
28.05 ! 
47.79 
44.88 
49.85 ! 



Florida. 



30,606 
249,470 
46,433 ; 
43,053 
59,571 
10,805 
16,694 
31,320 
33,698 



54,186 
18,326 
12,557 
17,991 
2,020 
5,169 
10,304 



2,206 
2,800 
1,658 
56,126 
6,403 
54,329 
34.75 1,102,266 
34.75 ! 229,307 
34.13 ' 581,066 



52.11 

21.72 

39.47 | 

29.17 

30.20 

18.70 

30.96 

32.90 



5,591 
143,914 

14,881 
11,928 
24,477 
3,139 
6.3S0 
9,134 
4,479 



North Central di 



8,609,841 1,339,190 



Ohio 1,215,942 

Indiana 446,893 

Illinois j 1,875,327 j 

Michigan .7 1,142,753 \ 

Wisconsin : 1,242,399 



13.94 4,011,217 



Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota.. 
South Dakota.. 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



981,180 



17.30 
14.95 
18.12 
10.98 
9.12 
9.33 



832,927 130,838 j 15.71 



668,226 
114,115 
198,953 
449,485 
381,691 



121,459 18.18 



11.57 

14.23 



35 South Central divi- 820,779 134,872 



Kentucky... 
Tennessee .. 

Alabama 

Mississippi . 
Louisiana.... 



Oklahoma.. 

Arkansas.... 



183,045 
52,621 
36,917 
24,320 
144,726 
334,545 
7,179 
37,426 



44,537 
15,674 
8,590 
6,695 | 
28,254 
23,338 
1,159 
6,625 



21.33 
29.79 



27.53 
19.52 



16.14 

17.70 



672,444 
268,185 
801,574 
316,757 
626,030 
278,063 
320,963 
373,866 
19,829 
45,173 
163,675 
124,658 

325,162 



103,222 
14,677 
10,416 
6,822 
48,247 
124,375 
2,004 
15,399 



44 ! Western div 

45 j Montana... 

46 Wyoming 

47 ! Colorado.. 



rco.. 



New Me 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington.. 

Oregon 

California .... 



28,806 

161,302 j 
23,232 
31,344 

136,811 
24,126 
36,452 

151,990 
96,429 

609,511 



15,874 
5,173 

31,592 
2,613 
2,658 
5,122 
6,465 
4,703 

20,043 

12,143 



22.45 
17.96 
19.59 



3.74 
26.80 
12.90 j 
13.19 I 
12.59 



11,391 
4,311 
33,711 



1.46 
2.31 
1.59 
4.48 
3.20 
14.50 
32.51 
32.91 
30.51 



26,74 || 223,926 i 42.' 



817, 5s:i 



53.97 
60.01 
42.71 
27.72 
50.39 
28.34 
38.53 
55.95 
13.76 
22.70 
36.42 



39.62 



56.39 
27.89 
28.21 
28.05 
33.34 
37.18 
27.92 
41.14 



1,370,696 ; 259,432 18.93 , 255,098 18.61 



16.11 
14.97 
20.90 



153,(116 25.11 



3,195 


13.75 


2,209 


7.05 


4,215 


3.08 


3,344 


13.86 


4,368 


11.98 


31,110 


20.47 


27,266 


28.28 


129,978 


21.32 



14,485 
8,813 
7,630 
120,028 
31 ,979 
38,227 
286,569 
82,254 
227,598 



Num- Per 
ber. cent. 



9.37 540,779 2.61 



9.98 228,047 2.78 



9.61 

7.28 
7.31 
9.57 
15.99 
10.20 
8.45 
11.81 
11.95 

9.58 



18.27 
57.69 
32.05 
27.71 
41.09 
29.05 
38.22 
29.16 
13.29 



41.74 771,119 



4.097 
14,592 

4,870 
6,969 
7,004 
2,214 



13.39 
5.85 
10.49 
16.19 
11.76 
20.49 
8.79 
12.42 
14.48 



4,589 
3,384 
4,113 
39,038 
8,011 
11,016 
76,536 
22,741 
58,589 



1,513 
2,380 



18,511 
2,079 
77,190 



1.26 



Canada 

(English). 



Num- 
ber. 



358,271 



0.31 45,078 

0.07 , 17,213 

1.48 21,171 

0.19 1138,579" 



Canada 
(French). 



726,430 3.54 



4.37 376,526 , 4.59 



29.91 
14.21 
20.29 
11.05 
3.54 



0.12 7,073 
0,25 8,554 \ 2.28 
0.55 I 99,387 ! 2.93 
0.30 5,422 0.78 
15,794 0.83 



19,138 | 3.67 4,115 



821 | 2.68 
6,378 2.56 
1,491 | 3.22 
2,513 5.84 
2,427 4.07 
1,512 13.99 



1,67 
1,34 



5.83 
5.31 
4.00 



8.03 213,022 2.22 



116,814 
32,910 
156,680 
133,667 
64,716 
33,779 
74,014 
49,411 
6,701 
13,361 
39,644 
49,722 

59,365 

11,553 
6,696 
5,874 
2,800 
7,276 

19,506 

966 

4,694 



11.70 
5.21 ' 
3.44 j 
8.89 
7.40 
4.65 
6.72 
8.82 

13.03 



24,872 | 2.00 
8,968 I 2.01 
45,015 2.40 
34,688 I 3.03 
16,361 1.32 
13,732 



22,198 
12,533 



10,617 
14,721 



6.31 


3,137 


12.73 


2.00S 


15.91 


2,878 


11.51 


942 


5.03 


1,621 


5.83 


5,635 


13.46 


375 


12.54 


1,368 



2,153 
8,787 
1,894 
11,798 
3,915 
9,098 
4,480 

1,909 
3,561 
5,866 



3.87 | 
1.12 ! 



37,776 25.06 
47,719 39.40 
31,343 B0. 04 
149,046 11.89 
34,225 17.12 



120,527 1.47 



2,546 
1,418 



24,337 
50,128 



433 



1,01 

0.52 

1.60 

2.08 

0.99 

3.91 jj 

1.04 

2.52 ij 

3.88 



108 



0.01 
0.04 
0.17 
0.09 
0.08 
0.08 
0.16 
61 0.19 
50 ' 0.15 



24,664 ] 

4,227 2.11 
13,378 3.57 
39,768 1.17 

5,739 I 0.82 
27,840 | 1.46 

2,936 0.56 



58 0.81 
344 : 0.92 



1.70 
2.02 
2.50 
17.07 
3.50 
4.73 
4.16 



16,943 11.76 4,826 



6.63 
4.34 
5.24 



388 1.27 
496 0.20 j 
215 ! 0.46 j 
299 0.69 
137 j 0.23 
88 | 0.81 j 
143 0.86 
337 1.07 
833 I 2.47 



1.661 ; 0.91 

1,470 2.79 

705 1.91 

544 2.24 

1,254 i 0.87 

4,133 ' 1.24 

678 9.44 



0.20 


4,875 


0.39 


0.22 


7,910 


1.77 


0.68 


131,966 


7.04 


4.73 


37,941 


3.32 


1.41 


29,993 


2.41 


2.23 


155.089 


15.81 


0.26 


52,171 


6.26 


0.18 


9,537 


1.43 


3.35 


7,974 


5.53 


1.14 


12,233 


6.15 


0.35 


1 47,318 


10.53 


1.19 


31,492 


8.25 



0.09 | 8,175 1.00 



103 0.06 
0.07 
0.12 
0.06 
0.18 
0.07 
0.18 
0.14 



0.26 i 
1.12 



10,818 
6,189 
27,369 
2,298 
2,690 
58,510 
4,235 
9,022 
19,071 
12,967 
71,060 



16.36 62,608 4.57 22 



15.35 
21.48 
16.97 
9.89 
8.58 
42.77 
17.55 
24.75 
12.55 j 
13.45 
11.66 



2,635 
8,614 



728 
9,127 
1,019 
1,871 
7,995 
5,203 
20,981 



2,806 


1.66 


1,335 


1.89 


981 


3.41 


3,857 


2.39 


200 


0.86 


178 


0.57 


5,612 


4.12 


452 


1.87 


2,263 


6.21 


2,995 


1.97 


843 


0.87 


4,060 


0.67 



6,875 9.73 2,827 



1,711 

10,598 



2,413 
1,881 



5.94 
6.57 



2.49 
1.76 I 



4.00 



16,474 10.84 
7,675 I 7.96 
31,527 5.17 



0.47 

0.53 

0.21 

0.13 

97 \ 0.07 

311 1.29 

171 0.47 

2,359 1.55 

655 0.68 

2,011 0.33 



526 



.16 



698 ' 0.48 

4,655 j 1.39 

219 | 3.05 

586 1.57 

66,293 ' 4.84 



8.01 
0.92 
0.87 
7.55 
1.75 
6.40 
8.47 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 

HAVING EITHER ONE OR BOTH PARENTS BORN IN SPECIFIED COUNTRIES: 1890. 



15 



"WHITE PERSONS HAVING EITHER BOTH 


PARENTS BORN AS SPECIFIED OR ONE PARENT EORN 
PARENT NATIVE — continued. 


AS SPECIFIED AND 


ONE 


White persons 
of mixed 




Norway. 


Denmark. 


Bohemia. 


France. 


Hungary. 


Italy. 


Russia. 


Other countries. 


foreign 
parentage. 




Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cfiil. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 




596,131 


2.91 


213,036 


1.04 


215,514 


1.05 


255,488 


1 .25 


71,519 


0.35 


248,601 


1.21 


254,635 


1.24 


1,114,088 


5.43 
3.61 


922,268 


4.49 


1 


17,193 


0.21 


20,675 


0,25 


18,159 


0.22 


78,451 


0.96 


51,948 


0.63 J 


154,701 


1.89 


128,354 


1.57 


295,443 


350,937 


4.28 


2 


433 


0.29 


1,099 


0.73 


9 


0.01 


916 


0.61 


16 


0.01 


373 


0.25 


564 


0.37 


1,008 


0.67 


7.841 


5.20 


3 


355 


0.29 


82 


0.07 


9 


0.01 


436 


0.36 


25 0.02 


387 


0.32 


232 


0.19 


611 


0.51 


4,295 


3.55 


4 


38 


0.04 


79 


0.08 


23 


0.02 


553 


0.53 


33 0.03 


484 


0.46 


211 


0.20 


798 0.77 


4,442 


4.26 


5 


3,082 


0.24 


2,057 


0.16 


964 


0.08 


5,993 


0.48 


352 1 0.03 


11,123 1 0.89 


9,986 


O.SO 


26,715 2.13 


64,470 


5.14 


6 


310 


0.16 


142 ' 0.07 


20 


0.01 


726 0.36 


18 ! 0.01 


3,062 j 1.53 


883 


0.44 


3,638 1.82 


9,235 4.62 


7 


513 


0.15 


2,018 j 0.54 


205 


0.05 


3,496 0.93 


1,202 0.32 


6,503 1.71 


3,831 


1.02 


7,049 1.P8 


12,288 ' 3.28 


8 


9,144 


0.28 


8,182 ! 0.24 


13,615 0.40 


38,922 1.15 


19,108 , 0.56 


85,028 2.51 


83,304 


2.46 


137,834 4.07 


143,554 4.23 


9 


1,530 


0,22 


4,339 0.62 


451 


0.07 


8,266 1.19 


3,948 | 0.57 


16,607 2.38 


6,928 


0.99 


34,591 4.96 


29,662 4.26 


10 


1,458 


0.08 


2,677 0.14 


2,833 


0.15 


19,143 1.00 


27,246 ; 1.43 


31,131 


1.63 


22,415 


1.18 


83,199 4.37 


75,150 3.95 


11 


930 


0.18 


1,010 0.19 


2,748 


0.53 


5,862 


1.12 


1,268 


0.24 


7,025 


1.35 


8,110 


1.56 


29,385 


5.63 


18,801 3. CO 


12 


16 


0.05 


58 0.19 


4 


0.01 


372 


1.22 


139 


0.45 


580 


1.89 


239 


0.78 


740 


2.42 


1,159 3.79 


13 


253 


0.10 


230 0.09 


2,441 


0.98 


1,646 


0.66 


199 


0.08 


2,012 


0.81 


5,808 


2.33 


7,015 


2.81 


6,920 2.77 


14 


82 


0.18 


137 0.29 


9 


0.02 


630 


1.36 


54 


0.12 


792 


1.70 


337 


0.72 


1,242 


2.67 


2,372 


5.11 


15 


139 


0.32 


129 


0.30 


135 j 0.31 


789 


1.83 


488 


1.13 


1,687 


3.92 


596 


1.38 


1,503 


3.49 


1,871 


4.35 


16 


9 


0.02 


50 


0.08 


55 l 0.09 


633 


1.06 


259 


0.44 


688 1.16 


167 


0.28 


1,976 


3.32 


2,079 3.49 


17 


15 


0.14 


45 0.42 


11 I 0.10 


160 


1.48 


3 


0.03 


81 1 0,78 


129 


1.19 


450 


4.16 


472 ] 4.37 


18 


29 


0,17 


71 0.43 


31 1 0.19 


299 


1.79 


19 


0.11 


211 


1.26 


301 


1.80 


747 


4.47 


631 


3.78 


19 


115 


0.37 


111 j 0.35 


52 


0.17 


779 


2.49 


75 j 0.24 


322 


1.03 


369 


1.18 


1,552 


4.95 


1,565 


5.00 


20 


272 


0.81 


179 


0.53 


7 


0.02 


554 


1.64 


32 


0.10 


649 


1.93 


164 


0.49 


14,160 


42.02 


1,732 


5.14 


21 


545,165 


5.67 


112,810 


1.49 


186,972 


1.95 


103,256 


1.07 


10,019 


0.17 


30,997 


0.32 


99,613 


1.04 


510,709 


5.31 


418,686 


4.36 


22 


659 


0.05 


1,487 


0.12 


19,013 


1.53 


21,125 


1.70 


6.319 0.51 


5,454 


0.44 


6,658 


0.53 


50,874 4. OS 


43,605 


3.52 


23 


478 0,11 


1,200 


0.27 


586 


0.13 


10,379 


2.32 


506 : 0.11 


702 


0.16 


950 0.21 


21,083 4.72 


14,083 3.15 


24 


48,091 2.56 


17,090 


0.91 


44,985 


2.40 


20,646 


1.10 


3,401 0.18 


11,142 


0.61 


12,430 0.66 


101,751 5.43 


71,947 3.84 


25 


11,451 1.00 


10,18.0 


0.89 


4,004 j 0.35 


12,058 1.05 


544 0.05 


4,052 0.35 


14,383 1.26 


101,442 8.88 


85,147 7.45 


26 


130,737 '10.52 


23,882 


1.92 


25,727 1 2.07 


5,272 0.42 


494 0.04 


1,421 0.12 


2,771 0.22 


85,683 6.90 


43,233 3.48 


27 


195,764 19.95 


22,182 


2.26 


19,334 1.97 


4,606 0.47 


1,472 0.15 


1,096 0.11 


9,933 1.01 


39,876 4.07 


42,453 4.33 


28 


59,822 7.18 


2.3,240 


3.03 


23,421 ! 2.81 


6,933 


0.83 


310 


0.04 


696 0.08 


1,177 0.14 


36,033 4.33 


33,216 3.99 


29 


948 0.14 


2,470 


0.37 


6,654 0.99 


11,602 


1.73 


738 


0.11 


3,995 0.60 


3,532 0.53 


26,320 3.94 


25,571 3. S3 


30 


47,877 33.22 


4,032 


2.80 


2,276 


1.58 


459 


0.32 


267 


0.18 


27 0.02 


5,138 3.56 


2,302 1.60 


10,274 7.13 


31 


38.897 


19.55 


7,199 


3.62 


5,113 


2.57 


960 


0.48 


447 


0.22 


353 0.18 


18,460 9.28 


7,445 3.74 


9,622 4.84 


32 


6,997 


1.56 


22,267 4.95 


29,922 


6.66 


3,323 


0.74 


548 


0.12 


952 


0.21 


8,056 1.79 


20,326 1 4.52 


19,170 4.27 


33 


3,444 0.90 


5,581 1.46 


5,907 


1.55 


5,893 


1.54 


973 


0.26 


807 


0.21 


16,125 


4.22 


17,574 


4.60 


20,065 


5.26 


34 


3,268 j 0.40 


2,696 


0.33 


6,227 


0.76 


39,034 


4.76 


1,056 


0.13 


20,027 


2.44 


4,111 


0.50 


146,467 


17.84 


35,524 


4.33 


35 


43 1 0.02 


162 


0.09 


89 


0.05 


3,288 


1.80 


67 


0.04 


1,301 


0.71 


548 


0.30 


5,933 


3.24 


5,973 


3.26 


36 


76 1 0.14 


159 


0.30 


22 


0.04 


1,242 


2.36 


316 


0.60 


1,414 


2.69 


655 


1.25 


3,852 


7.32 


2,516 


4.78 


37 


76 0.21 


143 


0.39 


53 


0.14 


1,379 


3,73 


206 


0.56 


490 1.33 


384 


1.01 


2,146 


5.81 


2,417 


6.55 


38 


113 0.16 


184 0.76 


13 


0.05 


1,390 


5.72 


53 


0.22 


824 3.39 


167 0.69 


1,791 


7.36 


1,402 


5.77 


39 


210 0.17 


536 0.37 


26 


0.02 


23,771 


16.42 


75 


0.05 


12,433 8.59 


568 


0.39 


9,804 


6.77 


9,450 


6.53 


40 


2,526 0.75 


1,216 0.36 


5,396 


1.61 


6,560 


1.96 


267 


0.08 


3,166 


0.95 


1,534 


0.46 


119,844 


35.82 


11,461 


3.43 


41 


92 


1.28 


67 [ 0.93 


476 


6.63 


183 


2 55 


37 


0.52 


11 


0.15 


80 


1.12 


309 4.30 


. 452 


6.30 


42 


102 


0.27 


229 0,61 


152 


0.41 


1,221 


3.26 


35 


0.09 


388 


1.04 


175 


0.47 


2,788 


7.45 


1,853 4.95 


43 


29,575 


2.16 


45,845 3.34 


1,408 


0.10 


28,885 


2.11 


1,228 


0.09 


35,851 


2.62 


14,447 


1.05 


132,084 


9.64 


98,320 7.17 


44 


2,662 j 3.77 


1,014 


1.13 


134 


0.19 


830 


1.17 


66 0.09 


788 


1.11 


815 


1.15 


2,528 


3.58 


4,653 6.58 


45 


519 1.80 


1,074 


3.73 


39 


0.14 


267 


0.93 


3 0.01 


298 


1.03 


S84 


3.07 


761 2.64 


1,885 6.54 


46 


1,299 


0.81 


2,515 


1.56 


343 


0.21 


2,591 


1.61 


456 


0.28 


4,802 2.98 


1,673 


1.04 


8,121 ; 5.03 


9,928 6.15 


47 


71 


0.31 


93 


0.40 


13 


0.06 


571 


2.46 


15 


0.06 


433 1.86 


99 


0.43 


10,518 45.40 


1,082 4.66 


48 


93 


0.30 


411 


1.31 


3 


0.01 


444 1.42 


11 


0.04 


245 


0.78 


59 


0.19 


19,256 


61.43 


1,263 4.03 


49 


3,247 


2.37 


19,736 


14.43 


15 


0.01 


452 


0.33 


27 


0.02 


520 


0.38 


312 


0.23 


3,696 


2.70 


13,359 9.77 


50 


92 


0.38 


558 


2.31 


26 


0.11 


375 


1.55 


7 


0.03 


1,386 


5.75 


48 


0.20 


1,622 


6.72 


1,884 


7.81 


51 


1,313 


3.60 


2,665 j 7.31 


15 


0.04 


344 


0.95 


4 


0.01 


547 


1.50 


134 


0.37 


1,437 


3.94 


3,047 


8.36 


52 


11,591 


7.62 


3,919 


2.60 


311 


0.22 


1,902 


1.25 


104 


0.07 


1,640 


1.08 


2,757 


1.81 


5,744 


3.78 


11,047 


7.27 


53 


3,267 


3.39 


1,967 


2.04 


136 


0.14 


1,605 


1.66 


90 


0.09 


719 


0.75 


3,399 


3.52 


6,683 


6.93 


6,576 


6.82 


54 


5,421 


0.89 


11,863 


1.95 


343 


0.06 


19,504 


3.20 


445 


0.07 


24,473 


4.02 


4,267 


0.70 


71,688 


11.76 


43,596 


7.15 


55 



16 t STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

Taking into consideration such states as contained in 1890 a large number of whites of foreign parentage, it 
is seen that for white persons of Irish parentage the largest proportions were found in the North Atlantic 
division, where in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut nearly one-half, and in New York, New Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania a little more than one-third, of all white persons of foreign parentage were of this element. 
Large proportions were also found in nearly all of the remaining states and territories, particularly in Delaware, 
where they constituted more than one-half of all whites of foreign parentage, but in many of them, the whole 
number of white persons of foreign parentage being comparatively small, the proportions are of little moment. 

For white persons of German parentage the largest proportions were found in the states of the North Central 
division, where in Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Missouri more than one-half of the whole number of white 
persons of foreign parentage were of this element. In Maryland and Kentucky they constituted more than 
one-half, and in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania very nearly one-third, of all whites of foreign 
parentage. Large proportions were also found in some of the other states, but in most of them the foreign element, 
being numerically small, the proportions are not of importance. 

It will be noticed that white persons of Irish and German parentage combined constituted more than 
one-half of all whites of foreign parentage in the country, and that in Ohio and Missouri they constituted nearly 
three-fourths, and in New York, New Jerse} r , and Pennsylvania about two-thirds, of the whole number of whites 
of foreign parentage found living in these states. 

White persons of English parentage were found in noticeable proportions throughout the whole country, 
particularly in Utah, where they constituted 42.77 per cent of all white persous of foreign parentage, this 
figure exceeding that for the descendants of any other nationality found in that territory. 

White persons of Scotch parentage were found in small proportions in nearly all of the states and territories, 
the largest being those for North Carolina and Wyoming, where they constituted 13.99 and 9.15 per cent, respectively. 

For white persons of Welsh parentage the proportions were in all cases small, the largest being found in 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, where they constituted 4.05 and 2.58 per cent, respectively. 

White persons of English and French Canadian extraction were found in the largest proportions in the 
states immediately adjoining and adjacent to the Canadian line. The largest proportions for those of English 
Canadian extraction were found in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Michigan, North Dakota, and 
Washington, where they ranged from 10.84 per cent in Washington to 29.91 per cent in Maine. The proportions 
for those of French Canadian extraction were largest in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and 
Rhode Island, where they ranged from 1 1.89 per cent in Massachusetts to 39.40 per cent in New Hampshire. These 
large proportions, particularly for the latter class, are due to the large manufacturing industries in the eastern states 
and their contiguity to that part of Canada inhabited by these people, conditions that have induced large numbers 
of them to emigrate to this country during recent years. 

White persons of Scandinavian parentage were found in quite large proportions in most of the states and 
territories of the North Central and Western divisions. The proportions for the Swedes were largest in Minnesota, 
Nebraska, Washington, Kansas, Colorado, Utah, and Illinois, where they ranged from 7.04 per cent in Illinois to 
15.81 per cent in Minnesota. The proportions for the Norwegians were largest in North Dakota, Minnesota, South 
Dakota, Wisconsin, Washing! i, and Iowa, ranging from 7.18 per cent in Iowa to 33.22 per cent in North Dakota. 
The proportions for the Danes v. ire largest in Utah and Idaho, being 14.43 and 7.31 per cent, respectively. 

Of the remaining countries shown in the table, the largest p: oportion was found for white persons of Bohemian 
parentage in Nebraska, where it was 6.66 per cent ; for white persons of French parentage in Louisiana, where it 
was 16.42 per cent; for white persons of Hungarian parentage in Pennsylvania, where they comprised but 1.43 per 
cent of all white persons of foreign parentage in that state ; for white persons of Italian parentage in Louisiana, 
or 8.59 per cent, with less noticeable proportions in Nevada, California, Colorado, New York, and New Jersey ; and 
for white persons of Russian parentage in South Dakota, where they constituted 9.28 per cent, the next largest 
proportions being found in Kansas, North Dakota, and Oregon. 

The table on the following page shows the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage, distributed 
according to the nationality of the parents, for each of the seven cities that in 1S90 had a population of 400,000 
or more. 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 



17 



; Total 

! white' 

persons of 

foreign 

parent- 



I'F.RSONS HAVINU KITHEK 



[■AKTNT HORN AS SMX'I FIE1> 



1,2115, -163 409,924 33.73 



Chicago 

Philadelphi: 



St. Louis.. 
Boston .... 
Baltimore 



S55.523 
590,583 
571,462 
304,312 
302,839 
180,319 



169,912 
260,727 
202,065 

61,312 
161,674 

38,051 



19.86 
44.15 
35.36 
21.13 
53.39 
21.10 



319,535 
173,010 
209,989 
181,647 
22,103 



6 35.04 : 53,288 4.: 



49,076 5.74 

67,315 11.40 

52,525 9,19 

14,325 4.71 

20,182 6.66 

7,919 4.39 



Canada Canada 

(English). ;; (French). 



Num- Per 
ber. cent. 



14,460 ! 2.45 
14,382 ' 2.52 
3,285 j 1.08 
8,242 2.72 



1,638 0.13 

3,057 0.36 

3,020 0.51 

1,081 0.19 

553 0.18 



8,474 ; 0.70 

22,299 ! 2.61 

2,746 0.46 

6.509 | 1.14 

2,530 0.83 

315 0.10 ' 39,678 J13.10 

206 ! 0.11 j 629 0.35 



922 ; 0.08 
5,127 ' 0.60 
210 0.04 
691 0.12 
395 0.13 
2,133 0.70 



9,297 
60,362 

2,125 
12,630 

1,532 

4,624 
327 



Per 

cent. 



0.36 
2.21 
0.50 
1.53 
0.18 





WHITE PERSONS HAVING EITHER BOTH P. 




BORN 


AS SPECIFIED OR ONE 


PARENT BORN 


AS SPECIFIED 
















ND ONE PARENT NATIVE— continued. 












White per- 






























foreign 


CITIES. 


Norway. 


Denmark. 


Bohemia. 


France. 


Hungary. Italy. 


Russia. 


Other 
countries. 


parentage. 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- Per 
ber. cent. 


rk 


1,880 


0.15 


1,933 


0.16 


12,034 


0.99 


15,592 


1.2S 


15,286 


1.26 


54,964 


4.52 


68,994 


5.68 


69,530 


5.72 


46,480 3.82 






31,302 


3.66 


9.5S9 


1.12 


41,877 


4.89 


4,841 


0.57 


1,641 


0.19 


8,219 


0.96 


11,294 


1.32 


64,284 


7.51 


36,229 4.23 


Philadelphia 


758 


0.13 


958 


0.16 


286 


0.05 


5,417 


0.92 


1,635 


0.28 


10,603 


1.79 


10,136 


1.72 


12,900 


2.18 


24,277 4.11 


Brooklyn 


5,856 


1.02 


2,434 


0.43 


184 


0.03 


4,745 


0.83 


858 


0.15 


12,701 


2.22 


4,745 


0.83 


13,342 


2.33 


26,725 


4.68 




211 


0.07 


512 


0.18 


4,780 


1.57 


4,270 


1.40 


316 


0.11 


2,242 


0.74 


2,221 


0.73 


10,252 


3.37 


10,899 


3.58 




987 


0.33 


501 


0.17 


181 


0.06 


1,506 


0.50 


211 


0.07 


6,636 


2.19 


6,246 


2.06 


6.471 


2.14 


21,113 


6.98 




206 


0.11 


146 


0.08 


2,178 


1.21 


1,100 


0.64 


165 


0.09 


1,327 


0,74 


5,553 


3.08 


4,891 


2.71 


4,344 


2.41 



Of the large number of white persons of foreign parentage living in these cities in 1890, those of Irish and 
German extraction constituted by far the greater proportions. In fact, for these two classes combined, the proportions 
in Baltimore, St. Louis, Philadelphia, Brooklyn, and New York exceeded two thirds, and in Boston and Chicago 
one-half, of the whole number of white persons of foreign parentage in each of these cities. 

For those of Irish extraction the proportions were large in all of these cities. In Boston they constituted more 
than one-half of all whites of foreign parentage, or 53.39 per cent ; in Philadelphia, more than two-fifths, or 44.15 
per cent, and in Brooklyn and New York, a little over one-third, or 35.36 and 33.73 per cent, respectively. The 
smallest proportions for this element were found in St. Louis, Baltimore, and Chicago, in each of which they constituted 
about one-fifth of all whites of foreign parentage. 

The proportions for those of German parentage were also large in all of these cities except Boston, where it was 
but 7.30 per cent. In Baltimore and St. Louis it was more than one-half, or 61.66 and 59.69 per cent, respectively ; 
in Chicago, 37.35 per cent; in Brooklyn, 36.75 per cent; in New York, 35.04 per cent, and in Philadelphia, 29.29 
per cent. 

The largest proportions for those of English parentage were found in Philadelphia and Brooklyn, where 
they constituted about one-tenth of the whole number of whites of foreign parentage. The only proportion for 
the Canadians of English extraction that is of any moment was found in Boston, where it was 13.10 per cent. 
The largest proportions for those of Swedish, Norwegian, and Bohemian extraction were found in Chicago, being 
7.06 per cent for the Swedes, 3.66 per cent for the Norwegians, and 4.89 per cent for the Bohemians. The 
largest proportions for those of Italian and Bussian extraction were found in New York, being, respectively, 4.52 
and 5.68 per cent. 

For white persons of Scotch, "Welsh, French Canadian, French, and Hungarian parentage, the proportions were 
in all cases very small. 

The table on the following page shows, for the United States as a whole, the distribution of the 922,268 
white persons of mixed foreign parentage according to the various combinations of parentage in detail. 

F. P.— 5 



18 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 



( UMIIINATIONS OF PAR 



The United States . 



Ireland and England 

Ireland and Canada (English) 

Germany and other countries 

Ireland and Scotland 

England and Canada (English).. 



England and Scotland 

Ireland and Germany 

Germany and France 

Germany and England 

Canada (English) and Scotland . 



England and Wales 

Sweden and Norway 

Germany and Canada (English).. 

England and other countries 

Germany and Sweden 



Germany and Russia 

Ireland and other countries- 
France and other countries... 

Ireland and France 

Germany and Denmark 



England and France 

Germanv and Scotland 

Sweden and Denmark 

Canada (English) and Canada (French).. 
Norway and Denmark 



Ireland and Wales 

Germany and Bohemia 

Ireland and Canada i French) 

Canada (French) and France 

Canada (English) and other countries.. 



Russia and other countries 

Germanv and Norway 

Wales and Scotland 

England and Sweden 

England and Canada (French).. 



6,495 
5.651 
4.774 
4,598 
4,531 

3,984 
3,953 
3,689 
3,061 
2,993 

Ireland and Sweden 2,956 

Canada (English) and France 2,804 

Scotland and other countries 2,765 

England and Denmark j 2,510 

Germany and Hal; 

2,062 
2,052 
1,938 
1,938 
1,869 



137,282 
90.669 
77,444 
61,564 
59,620 

55,590 
46,131 
43,262 
36,912 
35,256 

23,119 
19,905 
17,952 
12,061 
11 ,936 

11,019 
10,831 
10,758 
9,739 
9,021 



Germany and Hungary 

Bohemia and other countries.. 
Wales and Canada (English) . 

Scotland and France 

Ireland and Italy 



Ireland and Denmark 

Ireland and Norway 

Germany and Canada (French)-. 

Germany and Wales 

Italy and other countries 



Engl a 



and Norway 1,660 

rid Italv 1,519 

Canada (English) and Sweden 1,466 

England and Russia 1,411 

Sweden and other countries 1,326 



Sweden and Russia 

Canada (English) and Norway 

Hungary and other countries 

Canada (French) and other countries . 
Canada (French) and Scotland 



1,200 
1,156 
1,121 



Native Foreign 
white. white. 



714,270 207, 998 



106,816 
61,892 
71,100 
46,292 
35,672 

37,798 
44,609 
39,097 
32,141 
16,848 

16,551 
16,310 
14,828 
9,025 
9,343 

I 8,189 



6,470 
4,513 
5,866 

5,264 
5,197 
3,756 
2,906 



2.682 
3,502 
2,913 
2,789 
1,835 

2.857 
2,146 
1,951 
2,357 
1,835 



1 ,737 
1,273 
1,424 
1,751 

1,712 
1,669 
1,545 
1,605 
1,214 

1,522 
1,059 
1,341 
1,115 
1,111 

983 



6,344 
18,272 
23,948 

17,792 
1,522 
4,165 
4,771 

18,408 

6,568 
3,595 
3,124 
3,036 
2,593 



COMBINATIONS OF I'ARF-NTAGE. 



England and Italy 

Denmark and other countries... 

Sweden and Scotland 

Norway and other countries 

Canada (English) and Denmark 

Norway and Russia 

Sweden and France 

Norway and Scotland 

Wales and other countries 

Denmark and Scotland 

Ireland and Russia 

France and Russia 

Bohemia and Hungary 

Denmark and France 

Hungary and Russia 

Bohemia and France 

Wales and France 

Canada (English) and Italy 

Camilla (French) and Sweden... 
Ireland and Bohemia 

Wales and Sweden 

Canada (French) and Bohemia. 

Hungary and Italy 

England and Bohemia 

Canada (English) and Bohemia 

Scotland and Italv 

Denmark and Russia 

Norway and France 

Wales and Denmark 

England and Hungary 

Norway and Bohemia 

Canada (English) and Russia... 
Canada (English) and Hungary 
Canada { French) and Norway... 
Canada (French) and Italy 

Wales and Norwav 

Bohemia and Russia 

Sweden and Bohemia 

Ireland and Hungary 

Wales and Canada (French) 

Scotland and Russia 

Sweden and Italy 

France and Hungary 

Denmark and Bohemia 

Italy and Russia 

Canada (French) and Denmark. 

Scotland and Bohemia 

Denmark and Italy 

Bohemia and Italy 

Scotland and Hungary 

Wales and Italy 

Norway and Hungary 

Norway and Italy 

Canada (French) and Russia 

Sweden and Hungary 

Wales and Bohemia 

Wales and Hungary 

Wales and Russia 

Canada (French) and Hungary., 
Denmark and Hungary 



Foreign 
white. 



In the above table the combinations of parentage are arranged in the order of their numerical importance, 
and can be easily understood. For instance, in 1890 there were 137,282 white persons who had one parent born in 
Ireland and one parent born in England, of which 106,846 were native white persons and 30,436 foreign white 
persons. The other lines are to be read in the same way. In this table, the term " other countries " is used in its 
limited sense, meaning thereby all other countries not specified, the same as in the general tables showing parentage 
according to certain specified nationalities. 

The number of white persons in 1890 who had either fathers or mothers born in certain specified countries is 
shown, for the United States as a whole, in the table on the following page. 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 



L9 



SPECIFIED COUNTRIES. 


Number of 
white per- 
sons having 
fathers born 
as specified. 


Number of 
white per- 
sons having 
mothers born 
as specified. 


Excess of 
white per- 
sons having 
fathers born 
as specified. 


Excess of 
white per- 
sons having 
mothers born 
as specified. 




19,436,474 


18,094,950 


ol, 357, 967 


16,443 


Ireland 

England 

Canada (English) 


4,826,245 
6,759,890 
1,910,766 
589,185 
222,468 
825,234 
497,650 
741,666 
596,187 
227,826 
215,653 
287,413 
73,931 
254,555 
266,884 
1,140,921 


4,608,833 
6,146,255 
1,687,367 
519,330 
206,400 
841.677 
481,689 
726,634 
587,980 
210,098 
215,085 
229,856 
72,043 
239,342 
256,109 
1,066,252 


217,412 
613,635 
223,399 
69,855 
16,068 

15,961 
15,032 

8,207 

17,728 

568 

• 57,557 

1,888 
15,213 
10,775 
74,669 












16,443 









































a Net excess of white persons having foreign fathers, 1,311,524. 

From this table it appears that, with the exception of Canada (English), there was an excess of white persons 
having fathers born in each specified country over white persons having mothers so born. The excess of white 
persons having English Canadian mothers over those having English Canadian fathers was practically confined to 
the North Atlantic and North Central divisions, largely in Massachusetts, New York, and Michigan. The net 
excess of fathers is 1,341,524, there being 19,436,474 white persons having foreign fathers as compared with 
18,094,950 white persons having foreign mothers. 

On the other hand, white persons having native mothers and foreign fathers exceeded those having native 
fathers and foreign mothers to the number of 1,341,524, which offsets the excess of white persons having foreign 
fathers, as just stated. These figures, although applying directly to the marriage of persons one generation removed, 
indicate, to a certain extent at least, that native women have intermarried more freely with foreign men than native 
men with foreign women. To what extent persons of foreign birth had intermarried with persons native born but 
of the same extraction, as persons of German birth who had married persons born in the United States but of 
German parentage, can not be determined from the data at hand. In general, however, it may be safely stated that 
the relatively freer intermarriage of native born women with foreign born men was principally due to the fact that 
the males in the country were largely in excess, particularly as regards the foreign born, fully three-fifths of all 
the immigrants being males, who were largely of marriageable age, if not already married, upon their arrival. 

This predominance of white persons with native mothers but foreign fathers existed in 1890 in every state and 
territory of the Union. It was greatest in the South Central division, where there were over three and one-half 
times as many white persons with native mothers and foreign fathers as there were white persons with native fathers 
and foreign mothers, and in the South Atlantic division, where there were very nearly three times as many such 
persons. In these two divisions, however, the element of foreign parentage among the whites was not numerically 
large, and it was probably due to this fact that the scattered foreign male element had sought marriage so freely 
with native born women. In the North Central division there were not quite two and one-half times as many 
white persons with native mothers and foreign fathers as there were white persons with native fathers and foreign 
mothers, while in the Western division the white persons having native mothers and foreign fathers were just 
about double the number having native fathers and foreign mothers. The smallest excess was found in the North 
Atlantic division, or about one and nine-tenths more white persons with native mothers and foreign fathers than 
white persons with native fathers and foreign mothers. 

Taking the nationality of the father as the basis, the intermarriage of mothers born in the United States with 
fathers born in each of the various foreign countries can be measured relatively, as shown by the table on the 
following page. 



20 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 




Ireland 

Ger 

England 

Scotland 

Wales 

Canada (English) 
Canada (French) . 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark 

Bohemia 

France 

Hungary 

Italy .... 

Russia 

Other countries.... 



From this table it appears that 10.54 per cent of all the white persons with Irish fathers had mothers born in 
the United States, as compared with 12.33 per cent for those with German fathers, 20.63 per cent for those with 
English fathers, 17.09 per cent for those with Scotch fathers, 15.83 per cent for those with Welsh fathers, 29.46 per 
cent for those with English Canadian fathers, and 21.59 per cent for those, with French fathers. It is at once 
apparent from these percentages that native born women have married most freely with those nationalities which 
were amono- the earliest contributors to our foreign born element, and for this reason it is impossible to determine 
accurately the proportion of these women who are themselves native born but of foreign extraction. 

The percentage of persons with French Canadian fathers and native mothers makes this assumption all the 
more plausible, for the reason that this class is not disposed to marry much, if at all, outside of its own people. 
There were however, in 1890 very nearly 9 per cent of persons reported with French Canadian fathers and native 
mothers, which can be accounted for only on the assumption that the larger share of these native born mothers were 
themselves of French Canadian extraction. This point is further illustrated by the proportions of persons who had 
Scandinavian fathers and native mothers, there having been but 3.27 per cent of persons with Swedish fathers and 
native mothers, 5.10 per cent with Norwegian fathers and native mothers, and 6.10 per cent with Danish fathers 
and native mothers. The comparatively small proportions of persons who had fathers born in Bohemia, Hungary, 
Italy, or Russia and native mothers are also noted, these nationalities having only assumed importance during the 
past decade as a part of our foreign born population. 

The table on the following page gives similar results concerning white persons having mothers born in certain 
specified countries. 



FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 



21 



I 

All classes 18,094,950 

Ireland 4,608,833 

Germany 6,146,255 

England. 1,687,367 

Scotland i 519,330 

Wales 206,400 

Canada (English) 841,677 

Canada (French) : 481,689 

Sweden j 726,634 

Norway 587,980 

Denmark 210,098 

Bohemia j 215,085 

France 229,856 

Hungary ! 72,013 

Italy ; 239,342 

Russia I 256,109 

Other countries 1,066,252 



OKN AS SPECIFIED — 



Fathers born 
specified. 



Fathers born in 

other foreign 

countries. 



4,142, 
5,776, 



Per 
cent. 



922,'_'l'.K 



82.28 
59.79 
91.77 
95.01 
93.58 
92.55 
95.48 
77.01 



204,329 

127,952 

158,897 

79,261 

21,071 

145,018 

12,726 

24,431 

22,254 

10,950 

6,424 

36,423 

1,961 

2,078 

6,614 

61,879 



4.43 

2.08 
9.42 
15.26 
10.21 
17.23 
2.64 
3.36 
3.78 
5.21 
2.99 
15.84 

0.87 
2.58 
5.80 



262,305 
242,117 
198,347 
46,911 
15,497 
193,393 
26,922 
11,802 
15,499 
4,699 
3,296 



1,256 
1,330 
43,048 



3.94 

11.75 
9.03 
7.51 



2.24 

1.53 
7.15 
0.45 
0.52 
0.52 
4,04 



Both of these tables point to certain indications but do not afford definite information, for the reasons stated, 
as to the freedom of intermarriage between foreign born persons and natives of this country. This is also true as 
regards intermarriage between persons of the various specified nationalities. No conclusive results in this respect 
can be derived from the figures showing foreign parentage, as they do not give the origin of the persons 
considered, that is, the stock from which they have sprung. In this connection, however, an attempt has been 
made to determine for the first time the approximate number of persons in this country who were of French 
Canadian extraction, so far as it is possible to obtain such information through the medium of the census enumerators. 
The work of the enumerators was supplemented in this office by a most careful scrutiny of the statements made 
on the schedules regarding all persons of Canadian birth or parentage, for the purpose of affording as accurate 
results as possible concerning the French Canadian element of our population. The table on the following page 
shows the number of persons reported as having been born in Canada and Newfoundland separated according to 
English or French extraction. 



22 STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

NUMBER OF PERSONS BORN IN CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND OF ENGLISH OR FRENCH EXTRACTION: lc 



\-D TERRITORIE 



The United States 

North Atlantic division... 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic division... 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

■ South Carolina. 

Georgia 

Florida 

North Central division 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 




i TERRITORIES. 



North Central division— Con 

Minnesota 

Iowa 



43,580 
17,465 

8,525 
23,045 

9,493 
12,105 
Kansas 11,874 



North Dakota.. 
South Dakota.. 
Nebraska 



English 

extrac- 
tion. 



South Central di 



Kentucky.. . 
Tennessee... 

Alabama 

Mississippi.. 
Louisiana... 

Texas 

Oklahoma... 
Arkansas.... 



Western divisii 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 



New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon ] 6, 

California 26,i 



1,173 
1,020 



32,670 
16,579 

7,966 
20,036 

8,432 
11,267 
10,213 

7,759 



French 
extrac- 
tion. 



3,009 
1,061 



6,827 
1,218 
8,567 
656 
705 
1,184 
1,399 
1,667 

15,805 
6,029 

24,676 



This table shows that of the 980,938 persons in 1890 who were born in Canada and Newfoundland", 678,442, or 
69.16 per cent, were of English extraction and 302,496, or 30.84 per cent, were of French extraction. Of the whole 
number of those of French extraction, 229,354, or 75.82 per cent, were found in the North Atlantic division, 
Massachusetts alone containing 96,286. In certain states of the North Central division also this class was 
numerous, as shown by 30,446 in Michigan, 10,910 in Minnesota, 8,748 in Wisconsin, and 5,944 in Illinois. 

Of the whole number of English extraction, 335,947, or 49.52 per cent, were found in the North Central 
division, of which very nearly one-half were in Michigan alone, and 260,875, or 38.45 per cent, in the North Atlantic 
division. 

The foregoing table applies only to persons born in Canada and Newfoundland of English or French extraction, 
and does not present, therefore, a complete showing of the English and French Canadian elements of our population 
at the time the census was taken in 1S90, inasmuch as it does not comprehend those persons who were born in the 
United States or elsewhere who had either one or both parents of English or French Canadian extraction. The 
table on the following page gives the whole number of each element, classified according to the number having 
both parents of English or French Canadian extraction, or one parent only, the other parent having been born 
.either in the United States or in some foreign country other than Canada or Newfoundland. 






FOREIGN PARENTAGE. 



23 



NUMBER OF WHITE PERSONS HAVING EITHER ONE OR BOTH PARENTS BORN IN CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND OF 

ENGLISH OR FRENCH EXTRACTION : 1890. 



rATES AND TERRITORIES. 



WHITE PERSONS OF ENGLISH 



H PARENT 



Having 

both 
parents 
English 
Cana- 



Having English 
Canadian 
fathers- 



Having English 
Canadian 
mothers — 



Fathers 

the 
United 



"WHITE PERSONS OF FRENCH CANADIAN PARENTAGE. 



Fathers 
born in 
other 
foreign 
conn- 
tries. 



Having 
both 

parents 
French 
Cana- 
dian. 



Having French 
Canadian 

fathers — 



Mothers 
born in 

the 
United 
States. 



Mothers 
born in 

foreign 

tries. 



Having French 
Canadian 
mothers — 



Fathe 
born 



United 

States. 



Fathers 
born in 
other 
foreign 
coun 
tries. 



The United States.. 



North Atlantic di' 



433,182 



216,489 



68,576 



47,933 



3s7,r,s,i 



331,253 



18,120 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic division.. 



49,980 
19,221 
23,519 
166,184 
9,113 
10,301 
125,965 
7,489 
21,410 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



27,899 
10,967 
10,100 
100,651 
4,680 
5,539 
47,806 
2,607 
6,240 

2,874 



3,090 
6,175 

17,489 
1.206 
1,730 

27,671 
1,666 
5,596 
2,282 



71 



8,596 
3,156 
4,896 

20,439 
1,187 
1,285 

23,910 
1,149 
3,958 



3,166 
1,217 
1,449 

17,783 

1,267 

900 

17,150 
1,369 
3.632 



38,556 
48,470 
32,291 
152,891 
34,775 
24,821 
53,310 
890 
1.576 



North Central di- 



234,579 



Ohio 

Indiana | 10,1 

Illinois "..-. I 61,1 

Michigan 243,1 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division.. 



Kentucky.... 
Tennessee... 

Alabama 

Mississippi.. 
Louisiana ... 

Texas 

Oklahoma ... 
Arkansas 



1,561 
5,039 



Western division 101,440 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



8,107 
3,023 
22,075 
107,518 
19,977 
24,459 
11,203 
4,576 
13,079 
6,010 
7,925 
6,597 
4,216 



138,756 41,846 



7,539 
3,677 
14,041 
46,584 
14,556 
13,131 
13,257 
5,788 
2,015 
4,022 



2,186 
624 
5,046 
15,877 
4,100 
4,591 



1,147 
1,850 
1,005 
1,333 
1,438 
1,026 



853 
1,109 
1,149 
9,854 
3.511 
16,511 



106,728 



5,470 
2,310 
10,756 
40,912 
8,920 
8,794 
10,196 
3,530 
1,849 
3,128 
5,224 
5,609 
2,201 



4,007 
2,670 
9,321 



81,085 



4,387 
1,181 
9,296 
32,449 
6,306 
7,547 
5,741 
2,327 
3,855 
1,937 
3,072 
2,987 



137,168 



3,056 
1,176 
14,031 
58,377 
18,863 
23,251 
2,562 
1,464 
5,140 
2,484 



2,557 
1,226 



32,925 
44,853 
23,521 
136,412 
32,235 
22,592 
37,521 
519 
675 

224 



2,600 
1,702 
4,968 
7,595 
1,097 
1,024 
7,626 
139 
402 



1,504 
472 
10,136 
45,799 
14,142 
18,382 
1,257 
531 
4,251 
1,732 
1,132 
3,385 

314 



2,251 
1,164 
2,854 
5,039 
893 
721 



24 STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

From this table it appears that the whole number of the French Canadian element in this country in 1890, so 
far as it could be determined through the medium of the census, was 537,298, while that of the English Canadian 
element (includiug Newfoundland) was 1,163,645. There is an unavoidable duplication in this table of 6,930 white 
persons having both parents born in Canada, one parent being of English extraction and the other parent being of 
French extraction. This duplication is small, however, as compared with the whole number of each element and 
has no bearing upon this discussion. 

Of all the persons of French Canadian parentage, 442,041 had French Canadian fathers and mothers, 55,609 
had French Canadian fathers only, and 39,648 had French Canadian mothers only. Of the whole number of English 
Canadian parentage, 503,266 had English Canadian fathers and mothers. 321,968 had English Canadian fathers only, 
and 338,411 had English Canadian mothers only. 

The French Canadian element is largely confined to the North Atlantic division, 387,580 out of a total of 
537,298, or very nearly three-fourths of their entire number, having been found in the states comprising this division. 
Considerable numbers were also found in the border states of the North Central division, the total for the division 
being 137,168. In the Western division there were 10,963 persons of French Canadian parentage, while in the South 
Central and South Atlantic divisions this element was found in small numbers only. 

The English Canadian element is more evenly divided between the North Atlantic and North Central 
divisions, the larger proportion having been found in the latter division, while in the Western division there were 
over 100,000 persons of this extraction, and in the South Central and South Atlantic divisions about 23,000 persons. 

In the Canadian census taken in 1891 an attempt was made to ascertain the number of French Canadians and 
French Acadians in the several provinces of the Dominion. The following statement relative to this inquiry is 
taken from the official report of that census : 

* * * Each person who was asked the other questions in the census schedules, was also asked if he or she was a French 
Canadian (or Canadian French), or a French Acadian (or Acadian French) and the answers given were noted in these columns by the 
enumerators. 

It has been claimed, however, with much appearance of reason, that the column headed " French Canadians " does not show the number 
of persons of French origin in Canada ; that in the case of Acadians in the Maritime Provinces and the Half-Breeds of Manitoba and the 
Northwest Territories, the question was misunderstood and that in the Province of Ontario owing to various causes, many persons of French 
Canadian origin have not been so enumerated. 

This fact is here noted so that persons, using the results published, may not be misled by supposing that the number of persons of French 
Canadian origin has been ascertained with precision or that the actual increases or decreases are such as a comparison with former census 
returns might seem to show. 

The answers given to the enumerators have been correctly compiled and placed before the public. 

The number of French Canadians returned in the Canadian census is given in Table 3 of their census report, 
and shows that out of a total of 4,833,239 persons, 1,404,974, or 29.07 per cent, were reported as French Canadians. 
In the United States census in 1890 the French Canadian element constituted 31.59 per cent of all the persons of 
Canadian extraction, including English and French. 

It can not be claimed, of course, that the actual number of persons of French Canadian extraction in this 
country in June, 1S90, as opposed to those of English Canadian extraction, was ascertained by the census, but it is 
believed that a careful study of the figures given herein will demonstrate the substantial accuracy of the enumeration 
in this respect. It represents the first attempt in the United States census to present these classes separately, and 
the results can be assumed to be at least fairly approximate. 

Very respectfully, 

CARROLL D. WRIGHT, 

Commissioner of Labor in charge. 

The Secretary of the Interior. 



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